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Full text of "The pines of Mexico"

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Toronto 



LIBRARY 

FACULTY OF FORESTRY 
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM No. 1 



THE PINES OF MEXICO 



BY 



GEORGE RUSSELL SHAW 




Issued March 1909 



J. B. RUITER & CO 



BOSTON. MASS. 













Copyright, 1909, 
By The Arnold Arboretum. 



an 

4-95 



Of this paper 100 copies are printed. 
This copy is numbered ^0 




I DATE 



SEtN BY 
PRESERVATION 
SERVICES j 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction ..... 

Distribution of the Mexican Pines, with map 
Roezl's species, with table 
Conspectus of the Mexican species 
Pinus cembroides Zucc. .... 

P. cembroides var. monophylla Voss 

P. cembroides var. edulis Voss 

P. cembroides var. Parryana Voss . 
Pinus Pinceana Gord. .... 
Pinus Nelsoni Shaw 
Pinus ayacahuite Ehrenb. 

P. ayacahuite var. Veitchii Shaw . 

P. ayacahuite var. brachyptera Shaw 
Pinus flexilis James .... 

P. flexilis var. reflexa Engelm. 
Pinus Lambertiana Dougl. 
Pinus leiophylla Schl. & Cham. 

P. leiophylla var. chihuahuana Shaw 
Pinus Lumholtzii Robins. & Fern. 
Pinus teocote Schl. & Cham. . 

P. teocote var. macrocarpa Shaw . 
Pinus Lawsoni Gord. .... 
Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. 

P. pseudostrobus var. apulcensis Shaw 

P. pseudostrobus var. tenuifolia Shaw 
Pinus Montezumae Lamb. 

P. Montezumae var. Lindleyi Loud. 

P. Montezumae var. rudis Shaw . 

P. Montezumae var. Hartwegii Engelm 
Pinus ponderosa Dougl. 

P. ponderosa var. Jeffreyi Vasey . 

P. ponderosa var. macrophylla Shaw 

P. ponderosa var. arizonica Shaw 
Pinus Pringlei Shaw .... 
Pinus oocarpa Schiede .... 

P. oocarpa var. microphylla Shaw 
Pinus Greggii Engelm. .... 
Pinus patula Schl. & Cham. . 
Pinus contorta Dougl. .... 







PAGE 


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29 
. 29 



THE PINES OF MEXICO 



INTRODUCTION 

For several years Mr. E. W. Nelson, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, in connection 
with his biological explorations in Mexico, has collected specimens of the Pines of that country. 
The very valuable material that he has brought together was gathered from various latitudes 
and altitudes throughout Mexico and in parts of Guatemala and in localities remote from the 
usual lines of travel. His collection, supplemented by that of his associate, Mr. E. A. Gold- 
man and by that of Dr. J. N. Rose of the National Museum at Washington, and his assistants 
was sent to me for identification and has formed the basis of this paper. In order to study the 
trees as they grow naturally I have made four journeys to Mexico in company with Mr. C. G. 
Pringle of the University of Vermont. 

A cursory examination of the specimens of Mexican Pines preserved in herbaria suggests 
a large number of species; the varied altitudes and climates of Mexico point to a like con- 
clusion. Each excursion among the living trees; however, increased my suspicion that the 
numerous forms represent not many species, but several varieties of a few species. It was not 
until this suspicion became conviction that a consistent systematic arrangement of the Mexican 
Pines seemed possible to me. 

Two characters of Pinus may require explanation, i. The conelet, or cone of the first year 
may be subterminal, lateral or pseudo-lateral on the branchlet. When the spring-shoot con- 
sists of one internode only the conelet is necessarily subterminal ; when the spring-shoot con- 
sists of two or more internodes, the conelet may be subterminal or lateral or both. When a 
conelet is subterminal on the spring-shoot and a summer-shoot grows beyond it, the conelet 
becomes pseudo-lateral. A pseudo-lateral conelet is easily recognized as the leaves of the 
summer-shoot never attain normal length [Shaw, Bot. Gas. xliii, 205]. 2. At the end of 
the growing season, buds enclosing staminate flowers are not sufficiently advanced in the Soft 
Pines to be recognized, but in the Hard Pines they are usually easily distinguished by their 
large size. The young male aments may either be concealed in the general outline of the bud, 
in which case they can be found by removing the basal perulae, or they form about the nodes 
of the bud characteristic enlargements which are constant for each species. 

In the bibliography of the species references are mostly confined to descriptions accompanied by illustrations ; 
the exceptions are Parlatore, Endlicher and Hemsley. The last author gives no descriptions but his work 
covers the whole of Mexico. 

Each specimen of the National Museum collections bears the collector's label and on each sheet is stamped 
the Museum number. In referring to a specimen the collector's number is given followed by the Museum 
number in brackets. 



THE PINES OK MEXICO. 



DISTRIBUTION 

The northern and central States of Mexico from a vast, arid, elevated table-land bordered by 
high mountains sloping abruptly to the coasts on the east and west and, on the south, into a 
country broken by mountains and valleys of various altitudes. 

Only the lowlands of the coast and southern States up to altitudes of 1000 metres 
above the sea are tropical. On the slopes and table-lands between looo and 2000 metres the 
climate is subtropical. At 2000 to 3000 metres the climate is temperate with warm days and 
cool nights; this zone includes the general level of the great table-land and the slopes im- 
mediately above it. On the mountains above this table-land the average temperature de- 
creases until, at the highest altitudes, the climate is boreal. 

The vertical range of the Pines in Mexico is approximately between 1200 and 4500 metres 
above sea level. Each zone is represented by charactristic species. P. Pringlei, P. Lawsoni, 
and P. oocarpa are confined to subtropical regions ; P. teocote, P. patula, P. Grcggii, P. Lum- 
holtzii and P. ayacahuite grow in temperate altitudes as well as the Nut- Pines, P. cembroides, 
P. Pinceana and P. Nelsoni which are found on the dry slopes just above the great table-land. 
Of the other Mexican species, P. pseudostrobus and P. leiophylla grow at both subtropical 
and temperate altitudes, while P. Montezumae is met at all levels except the tropical. The typical 
and most luxuriant form of this species is subtropical, while its hardiest form (var. Hartwegii) in- 
habits the highest altitudes where, at the timber line and for some distance below, it is the only 
Pine. 

Northern Mexico has been invaded by a few species properly belonging to a more northern 
flora. P. contorta and P. Lambertiana occur in a single locality of northern California Baja, 
while P. ponderosa and P. flexilis grow as far south as the 23rd or 24th parallel of north 
latitude. 

In Mexico no tropical Pine has yet been found, but in Honduras and eastern Guatemala the so-called Cuban 
Pine P. caribaea Morelet, indigenous also in Florida and the Bahamas, is abundant. The Mediterranean Pine, P. 
halepensis Miller is planted to a limited extent in the public parks of the large cities. P. Pinea L. is also said 
to be cultivated in Mexico but I have not seen it there. 

Mexican Pines have not generally succeeded in cultivation. The species that are exclusively subtropical 
are too tender for southern England or northern Italy, but in the Botanical Garden at Buitenzorg, Java, the 
subtropical form of P. Montezumae has borne perfect fruit for many years. Of the temperate Pines the hardier 
forms of P. Montezumae have been grown under Lindley's names in the gardens about Lake Maggiore in northern 
Italy and in Devonshire and Cornwall in England. P. ayacahuite var. Veitchii seems perfectly hardy at 
Pallanza, Italy, and at Westonbirt, Gloucestershire. P. patula succeeds at Pallanza, at Bicton, Devonshire and 
at Fota, southern Ireland. From Bicton and Fota I have received branches and leaves of P. Teocote but no 
fruit. Considering the amount of seed distributed by Roezl and by Hartweg the results obtained are not 
encouraging except in regions of exceptionally mild climate. 

MAP 

In order to present a clear idea of the territory covered by the collections examined, the cities and towns 
mentioned in the text are approximately located on the map opposite. 

The "Federal District" and the "Valley of Mexico" are limited areas within the State of Mexico; where these 
names occur on the collectors' labels they are changed to "Mexico" in the text. 



,'>"0 




I 


Carriere 

Gordon 

Parlatore 


II 

Roezl 


4> 

>-. 

>-> 
u 
u 
cS 

O 


a 



a 

u 



ID 
1 

I 


III 

Roezl 




E 

'2 

a 
o 


Gordon 
Parlatore 


A 


teocote Sch. & Depp. 1830 


AAA 


1 aculcencis 


1 


F 


F 


42 


monte-allegri 


13 


c c 








2 amecaensis 


2 


F 


F 


43 


Muelleriana 


43 


A A 


B 


patula Sch. & Depp. 1831 


B B B 


3 angulata 


64 


64 


D 


44 


Nesselrodiana 


41 


K D 








4 Antoineana 


4 


N 


- 


45 


nitida 


82 


M D 


C 


leiophylla Scb.& Depp. 1831 


C C C 


5 aztecaensis 


5 


M 


D 


46 


Northumberlandiana 


46 


K D 








6 Besseriana 


79 


A 


A 


47 


ocampii 


47 


G D 


D 


Montezumae Lambert, 1832 


D D D 


7 Bothiana 


7 


K 


D 


48 


Ortgisiana 


68 


H D 








8 Boucheiana 


8 


K 


D 


49 


Papeleuii 


49 


F F 


E 


ayacabuite Ehrenberg,1838 


E E E 


9 bullata 


9 


M 


D 


50 


Paxtonii 


70 


K D 








lO Carrierei 


24 


I 


D 


61 


Planchonii 


24 


D D 


F 


Hartwegii Llndley, 1839 


F F F 


1 1 Cedrus 


1 1 


C 


C 


62 


Popocatepetl ii 


V 


V E 








12 coarctata 


12 


K 


D 


53 


prasina 


53 


B K 


G 


Devoniana Lindley, 183S 


G G D 


13 Comonfortii 


13 


C 


C 


64 


protuberans 


54 


54 K 








14 Decaisneana 


14 


s 


D 


55 


Regeliana 


55 


55 K 


H 


Busselliana Lindley, 1839 


H H D 


15 Decandolleana 


15 


c 


C 


56 


resinosa 


X 


F F 








16 dependens 


15 


c 


C 


57 


Richardiana 


20 


S D 


I 


macrophylla Lindley, 1839 


I 1 D 


17 Doelleriana 


24 


H 


D 


58 


Rinzii 


58 


H D 








18 Don-Pedrii 


V 


V 


E 59 


robusta 


59 


S F 


K 


pseudoatrobus Lindley, 1839 


K K K 


19 elegans 


19 


K 


D 


60 


Rohanii 


60 


H - 








20 Endlicheriana 


20 


D 


F 


61 


rubescens 


61 


H D 


L 


apulcensis Lindley, 1839 


L L - 


2 1 Escandoniana 


21 


B 


K 


62 


rumeliana 


62 


K D 








22 exserta 


54 


54 


D 63 


san-rafaeliana 


63 


K D 


M 


fillfolia Lindley, 1840 


M M M 


23 gracilis 


13 


C 


C 


64 


scoparia 


X 


F F 








24 grandls 


24 


K 


D 


65 


Soulangeana 


65 


K D 


N 


orizabae Gordon, 1846 


N N K 25 Haageana 


24 


K 


D 66 


spinosa 


66 


K D 








26 hamata 


26 


T 


E 67 


Standishii 


67 


F F 


O 


Grenvilleae Gordon, 1847 


O O D 


27 Hendersonii 


41 


M 


D 68 


tenangaensis 


68 


K D 








28 heteromorpha 


28 


54 


K 


69 


Thelemannii 


24 


K D 


P 


Gordonlana Hartweg,1847 


P P D 


29 horizontalis 


29 


H 


D 


70 


Thibaudiana 


70 


G D 








30 Hoseriana 


30 


B 


K j 71 


Troubezkoiana 


71 


H D 


R 


Wincesteriana Gordon, 1847 


R R D 


3 1 huisquilucaensis 


13 


C 


C 72 


tzompoliana 


72 


B K 








32 inflexa 


69 


D 


D 73 


valida 


73 


M D 


S 


Lindleyana Gordon, 1858 


S 8 D 


33 iztacihuatlii 


33 


F 


F 


74 


Van-Geertii 


74 


M D 








34 Jostii 


34 


M 


D 


75 


Van-Houttei 


75 


K D 


T 


Buonapartea Roezl, 1858 


T T E 


35 Ketelerii 


35 


M 


D 


76 


Veitchii 


76 


T E 








36 Lerdoi 


13 


C 


O 


77 


verrucosa 


15 


C C 


V 


Loudoniana Gordon, 1858 


V V E 37 Lowii 


37 


D 


F 78 


Verschaffeltii 


78 


R D 








38 magniflca 


38 


G 


D 79 


Vilmoriniana 


79 


A A 


X 


Boezlli Carriere, 1867 


X - - 


39 michoacaensis 


39 


M 


D 


80 


Wilsonii 


14 


D D 








40 microcarpa 


40 


A 


A 


81 


zacatlanae 


81 


L D 








4 1 monstrosa 


41 


K 


D 


82 


zitacuarii 


82 


G D 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 



ROEZL'S SPECIES 

In the year 1857 there was published in the City of Mexico a "Catalogue de Graines de 
Coniferes Mexicains," by B. Roezl & Cie., in which were described eighty-two new species of 
Pinus. The full significance of this large list is better understood by a study of the localities 
of the species ; they were, with one or two exceptions, collected in the Valley of Mexico and 
on the neighboring mountains, a very limited area containing only a few species, each of which 
had received from earlier investigators one or more names. The obvious mercantile character of 
the Catalogue and the summary treatment the new species received at the hands of Parlatore, 
together with the slight success that has followed the cultivation of these Pines in Europe, 
have led to the neglect of Roezl's specimens and to the loss of many of them, and it is probably 
impossible today to find a complete authentic set. No trace of the collection consulted by 
Gordon (Pinetum, Appx. p. 71, foot note) can be found 

In 1858 Schlechtendal (Linnaea, xxix, 331) translated Roezl's descriptions into Latin, 
making no attempt to decide their validity although expressing his doubts of the existence of 
so many Mexican species (p. 356). Gordon {Pinetum, Appx. 1862) retained a few of 
Roezl's species but reduced most of his names to synonyms. Gordon's determinations, which 
were accepted by Henckel & Hochstetter {Syn. der Nadelh, p. 119, 1865), were embodied 
with slight change in the second edition of his Pinetum (1875). 

Carriere {Trait, des Conif.) 1867 took issue with Gordon and undertook an independent 
study of the new species, resulting in the acceptance of most of them, in the reduction of a few 
to synonyms of others and in the creation of P. Roezlii Carr., to replace P. resinosa Roezl 
(not Aiton). Seneclauze in the same year (Les Coniferes) published all of Roezl's species. 

Finally Parlatore {DC. Prodr. xvi, pt. 2; 1868) reduced the entire list to synonyms of seven 
previously described species, a judgment accepted by Hemsley {Bot. Biol. Cent. Am., iii, 
1883) and in the Index Kewensis, 1895. 

Of the eight authorities cited three only, Carriere, Gordon and Parlatore attempted in- 
dependently to determine the validity of Roezl's Pines. Of these Carriere was poorly equipped 
for such a task, being unable to recognize any of the established species, P. teocote, P. leiophylla, 
P. Montezumae, &c. Gordon's work was marred by his inability to recognize P. pseudostrobus 
which he confused with P. patula, and some forms of P. Montezumae which he referred to 
P. pseudostrobus. Parlatore's determinations, on the other hand, are remarkable for their 
accuracy. His collection at Florence, although not complete, is sufficiently so to test the 
admirable quality of his work. 

It may be safely assumed that there is, in the entire list of Roezl's Catalogue, not a single 
valid species, the six or seven Pines they represent having been described by previous authors 
under sixteen specific names; therefore in order not to encumber the text with many useless 
synonyms, some of which cannot now be verified, Roezl's Pines and their determinations by 
Carriere, Gordon and Parlatore are given in a table on the opposite page. 

TABLE 

Column I. Species of various authors lettered in chronological order. 

Column II and III. Roezl's species numbered in alphabetical order. Opposite each species and under each 
author is the number or letter indicating the determination of that author. 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE MEXICAN SPECIES 

A. Fibro-vascular bundles of the leaves single ; bracts subtending the leaf- fascicles inserted 
on prominent bases not decurrent on the branchlets ; cones symmetrical, opening at ma- 
turity ; seed-wing absent, or present and variable ; walls of the tracheids of the medullary 
rays of the wood not dentate ; cortex of young trees persistently smooth for many years. 
Seed-wing wanting, umb-o of the cone-scales dorsal. 

Sheaths of the leaf-fascicles deciduous. 

Cones of few scales, subsessile, subglobose. i cembroides. 

Cones of several scales, long-pedunculate, cylindrical. 2 Pinceana. 

Sheaths of the leaf-fascicles persistent. 3 Nelsoni. 

Seed-wing persistent on the nut, umbo of the cone-scales terminal, 
sheath of the leaf-fascicles deciduous. 

Stomata of the leaves ventral only, leaves serrate. 4 ayacahuite. 

St omata of the leaves dorsal and ventral. 

Leaves entire, seed-wings rudimentary. 5 flexilis. 

Leaves serrate, seed-wings efficient. 6 Lambertiana. 

B. Fibro-vascular bundles of the leaves constantly or irregularly double; bases of the bracts 
subtending the leaf-fascicles, decurrent on the branchlets ; umbo of the cone-scales dor- 
sal ; walls of the tracheids of the medullary rays of the wood dentate ; seeds winged. 
Sheaths of the leaf-fascicles deciduous. 

Cones persistent, fructification triennial. 7 leiophylla. 

Cones deciduous, fructification biennial. 8 Lumholtzii. 

Sheaths of the leaf-fascicles persistent. 

Cones deciduous, dull or sublustrous. 
Cones 4-8 cm. in length. 

Resin ducts of the leaves mostly medial. 9 teocote. 

Resin ducts of the leaves mostly internal. 10 Lawsoni. 

Cones 6-30 cm. in length, usually much larger than in 9 and 10, 
resin ducts of the leaves medial. 

Cortex of young trees smooth. 1 1 pseudostrobus. 

Cortex of young trees rough. 

Prickle of the cone-scales weak and usually deciduous. 

12 Montezumae. 
Prickle of the cone-scales stout and persistent. 13 ponderosa. 

Cones persistent, serotinous, lustrous. 

Base of seed-wing thickened, cones 5-10 cm. in length. 

Resin ducts of the leaves internal. 14 Pringlei. 

Resin ducts uniting hypoderm and endoderm. 15 oocarpa. 

Resin ducts medial. 

Leaves short, erect ; cortex of young trees per- 
sistent, smooth and gray. 16 Greggii. 
Leaves slender, pendent ; cortex of young trees 

deciduous, scaly and red. 1 7 patula. 

Base of seed-wing not thickened; cones 3-4 cm. in length, 
resin ducts in the leaves medial; leaves in fascicles of 2, 
3-8 cm. long. 18 contorta. 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 



1. PINUS CEMBROIDES Zucc. 



PiNUS cembroides Zuccarini, Abhand. Akad. Wiss. Muench. i. 392 (1832). Endlicher, Syn. 
Conif. 182 (1847). Parlatore, DC. Prodr. xvi, pt. 2, 397(1868). Hemsley, Bot.Biol. Cent. 
Am. iii, 186(1883). Sargent, Gard. & For. iv, 352, fig. 59 (1891); Silva N. Am. xi, 47, t. 

550 ( 1897); Man. Trees N. Am. 10, fig. 10(1905). Britton, N. Am. Trees, 14, fig. 8 (1908). 

PiNU.sLLAVEANASchiede, Zz'rt^,xii, 488 (1838). Forbes, .AW/. Woburn. ^g,t. 17 (1839). 
Antoine, Die Conif: 36, t. 16, fig. 1 (1840). Loudon, Encycl. Trees and Shrubs, 993, fig. 
1858-1860 (1842). 

Pinus osteosperma Engelmann, Wislizenus' Tour Nor. Mex. 89 {Senate Doc. 1848). 

Leaves with deciduous sheaths, in fascicles of 3 or of 1-5, rarely exceeding 4 or 5 cm. in 
length, entire ; stomata dorsal and ventral ; resin ducts external. Conelets on short peduncles, 
subterminal, single or in clusters of 2-5, their scales tumid, transversely keeled, each armed 
with a minute dorsal prickle. Cones not exceeding 5-6 cm. in length, subsessile or on short 
peduncles, symmetrical, globose or short-ovate, opening at maturity, early deciduous; their 
scales few, those at the base and apex sterile, much smaller than the few large central fertile 
scales ; apophyses lustrous, pale ochre or reddish-orange, pyramidal, or protuberant and 
slightly reflexed, the umbo central. Seeds wingless, of a flaxen color when fresh. Branchlets 
slender, pale brown, more or less pruinose, the cortex persistently smooth for several years. 
Buds pale brown or gray-yellow, small, cylindrical, free from gum. 

A low broad round-headed tree with a short trunk, growing on dry slopes and table-lands 
from the 20th degree of north latitude to Colorado and Utah. 

Nelson, 4498, (398613) Miquihuana, Nuevo Leon; 6143 (347369) General Cepeda, Coahuila; 4556 (398619) 
El Salto, Durango ; 6079 (398627) Sierra Madre, Chihuahua Nelson & Goldman, 7457 (565528) La Laguna, 
California Baja. Rose, Painter 6 Rose, 9093 (452573)Sierra de la Mesa, Hidalgo Pringle, 2659, 4018, Carneros, 
Coahuila Palmer, 82, 773, State of Durango Hartman, 367, State of Sonora Brandegee, Laguna, California 
Baja Shaw, San Lorenzo, Nuevo Leon; Sandia, Durango. 

PiNUS CEMBROIDES var. MONOPHYLLA Voss. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Gesell. xvi, 95 (1907). 

Pinus monophylla Torrey, Fremont's Rep. 319, t. 4 (1845). Parlatore, DC. Prodr. xvi, pt. 
2, 378 (1868). Lawson, Pinet. Brit, i, 65, fig. (1884). Sargent, Silva N. Am. xi, 51, t. 

55 1 O897); Man. Trees N. Am. 12, fig. 12 (1905). Britton, N. Am. Trees, 16, fig. 10 
(1908). Sudworth, Forest Trees Pacif. Slope 35, fig. 9 (1908). 

Pinus Fremontiana. Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 183, (1847). 

Leaves mostly single, occasionally in pairs. . 

Northern California Baja ; common beyond the northern boundary in Utah, Arizona, Nevada 
and southern California. 



6 THE PINES OF MEXICO. 

PlNUS cembroides var. EDULI8 Voss, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Gesell. xvi. 95 (1907). 

Pints edulis Engelmann, Wislizenus Tour Nor. Mex. 88 (Senate Doc. 1848J. Parlatore 
DC. Prodr. xvi, pt. 2, 398 (1868). Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Cent. Am. Hi, 186 ( 1883). Sargent, 
Silvi N. Am. xi, 55, t. 552(1897); Man. Trees N. Am. 11, fig. 11 (1905). Masters, 
Jour. Linn. Soc xxxv, 587, fig. 2 ( 1904). Britton, N. Am. Trees, 17, fig. 1 1 ( 1908). 

Leaves stouter than those of the species, usually in fascicles of 2. 

Near the northern boundary, and common in south western United States. 

Goldman, 1246 (565151) San Pedro Martir Mts. California Baja. 

Pixus cembroides var. Parryana Voss, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Gesell. xvi, 95 (1907). 

Pints Parryana Engelmann, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 2, xxxiv, 332 (1862). Parlatore, DC. 
Prolr. xvi. pt. 2, 402, (1868). Masters, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxxv, 586, fig. 1 ( 1904). 

Pinls quadrifolia Sudworth, Bull. No. 14, Div Forestry, U. S. Dept. Agric. 17 (1897); 
For. Trees Picif. Slope, 33, fig. 8 (1908). Sargent, Silva N. Am. xi, 43, t. 549 (1897); 
Man. Trees N. Am. 10, fig. 9 (1905). Britton, N. Am. Trees, 15, fig. 9 (1908). 

Leaves often in fascicles of 4, stout. 

Northern California Baja. and a few localities in California near the Mexican boundary. 

Goldman, 1132 (565042) Hanson Laguna, California Baja. 

The clearly defined characters of P. Pinceana and P. Nelsoni emphasize the close affinity and the uncertain 
characters of the four Nut-Pines P. cembroides, P. edulis, P monophylla and P.Parryana and I find it impossible to 
separate these specifically, their cones being identical and the number of their leaves inconstant. The reduction 
of the four to one species by Voss seems therefore perfectly justified; it was first suggested by Engelmann in his 
Revision of the Genus Pinus. 

According to Masters {Jour. Linn. Soc. xxxv, 586, 588) P. edulis may be distinguished from P. cembroides by 
the absence of dorsal stomata in the leaves of the latter. This character however fails in Mexican specimens, 
dorsal stomata being very common in the leaves of the typical P. cembroides. 

PLATE I. 

Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4. Cones. Fig. 9. Branch with leaves. 

" 5. Leaf-iection of typical form, magn. 30 diam. " 10. Cone-scale and seed. 

" 6. Leaf-section of var. monophylla, magn. 30 diam. " 11. Conelet magnified. 

" 7. Leaf-section of var. edulis, magn. 30 diam. " 12. Deciduous fascicle-sheath, magnified. 

*' 8. Leaf-section of var. Parryana, magn. 30 diam. " 13. Tree at Sandia, Durango. 



PUBI.. ARN. ARB. I. 



PLATE I. 




PINUS CEMBROIDES ZUCC. 



rum. akn. AkB. i. 



II. ATE II 




PINUS PINCEANA GORD. 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 



2. PINUS PINCEANA GORI). 



Pixus Pinceana Gordon, Pinetum, 204 (1858); ed. 2, 280 (1875). Hemsley. Bot. Biol. 
Cent. Am. iii, 189, (1883). Shaw, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, xxxviii, 122, fig. 42 (1905). 

Pinus cembroides Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. i, 236, fig. (not Zuccarini) (1846), 

Pinus latisquama Engelmann, Gard. Chron. ser. 2, xviii, 712, fig. 125 (1882). Watson, 
Proc. Am. Acad, xviii, 158 (1883). 

Leaves with deciduous sheaths, in fascicles of 3, 12-16 cm. long, entire; stomata ventral and 
dorsal; resin ducts external. Conelets subterminal, long-pedunculate, single or in pairs, ochre- 
yellow, their scales tumid, transversely keeled, furnished with a minute dorsal prickle. Cones 
6-9 cm. long exclusive of the long peduncle, pendent, symmetrical, cylindrical or long-ovate, 
opening at maturity, early deciduous; apophyses convex, transversely and prominently keeled, 
ochre-yellow or red-orange, their umbos central. Seeds wingless, their dorsal surface bearing 
a persistent membrane much darker than the pale brownish-yellow ventral surface. Branch- 
lets long, slender, pendent, ashen-gray, their bark persistently smooth for many years. Buds 
pale brown, small, cylindrical, covered with gum. 

A low tree with a short trunk, long, slender, pendent or subpendent branchlets and gray- 
green foliage. Along gulches on the slopes above the great table-land in northeastern Mexico 
between the 19th and 25th degrees of north latitude, associated with P. cembroides. 

Nelson, 6140 (347366) General Cepeda, Coahuila Rose, Painter &> Rose, 9092 (452571-2) Sierra de la 
Mesa, Hidalgo Pringle, 2293, Palmer 1299, Shaw, Carneros, Coahuila. 

Ghiesbreght's specimen, No. 34, in the Herbarium of the Musdum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, was from 
Meztitlan, Hidalgo. Ehrenberg's specimen, from which Gordon described the species, is accredited to Cuernava- 
ca and must have been taken from a cultivated tree as Cuernavaca lies in a subtropical plain where Nut Pines do 
not grow spontaneously. The height of 60 ft. given in Gordon's description, is much greater than recent 
collectors have reported. 

Gordon's P. cembroides has been considered by many authors identical with P. edulis Engelm. But the Volcano 
Orizaba is far removed from the habitat of P. edulis and the cone is clearly that of P. Pinceana. The loss of its 
peduncle, a common accident with specimens of P. Pinceana, led Gordon to believe the cone to be sessile. 
Specimens of normal development are easily distinguished from P. cembroides by the greater length of their 
leaves. 



Fig. 1 

" 2 

" 3 

" 4 

" 5 



Cone of Ghiesbreght 34. 
Cone from Carneros. 
Cone of Nelson 6140. 
Open cone and conelet. 
Conelet, magnified. 



PLATE II. 

Fig. 6. 
" 7- 



Cone scale and seed. 
Branchlets and leaves. 
Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 
Deciduous fascicle-sheath, magnified. 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 



3. PINUS NELSONI SHAW 



PlNUS !Nelsoni Shaw, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, xxxvi, 122, fig. 49 (1904); xxxvii 306, fig. 127 

( 1905-) 

Leaves with persistent sheaths, connate in fascicles of 3/6-9 cm. long, serrate on the two 
dorsal margins; stomata dorsal and ventral ; resin ducts external. Cone" s on long, stout 
curved peduncles, symmetrical, cylindrical, opening at maturity, early deciduous; apophyses 
deep orange-red, elevated in the middle to a sharp transverse ridge culminating in a dark 
indefinite umbo. Seeds wingless, pale ochre-yellow when fresb, with a faint reddish area at 
the apex. Branchlets long, slender, pliant, very tough, their bark persistently smooth and 
gray. Buds covered with resin. 

A low bushy tree not exceeding 8-10 metres in height, with long, slender branches clothing 
the trunk to the ground and sparse gray-green foliage, growing in a limited area on the lower 
slopes of the north-eastern Sierras where it is associated with P. cembroides. 

Nelson 4501 (398615) Miquihuana, Nuevo Leon Pringle, 10016 Shaw, San Lorenzo, Nuevo Leon. 

Seedlings raised in the Arnold Arboretum reproduce invariably the connate leaf-clusters. The ventral surfaces 
of the three leaves, forming each fascicle, are partly grown together and successfully resist the action of alcohol, 
turpentine or alkaline solutions, but are easily forced apart by rolling them between the fingers. A narrow 
portion of each ventral surface is free and contains a single row of stomata. 

The branchlets continue their growth throughout the summer, and the female aments which, at the time of pollina- 
tion were subterminal, had become, by reason of this growth, pseudolateral conelets in November when I saw them. 
The conelets, after pollination, continue to grow and attain, in November, considerable size. This peculiarity 
appears to be normal with this species and cannot be explained by unusual conditions of locality or season, for 
the conelets of P. cembroides, which grows side by side with P. Nelsoni at San Lorenzo, like those of all other 
Pines, had made no growth during the summer. When the cone falls its large curved peduncle remains on the 
tree for some years but the cone itself rapidly disintegrates. 

The nuts are greedily eaten by macaws, and are found exposed for sale in the markets of Victoria, Tamaulipas 
and of Matehuala, San Luis Potosf. 



Fig. 1. Cone scale and seed. 
" 2. Open cone, San Lorenzo. 
" 3. Persistent sheath, magnified. 



PLATE III 

Fig. 



Branch, conelet and leaves. 
Leaf section, magn. 30 diam. 
Closed cone, San Lorenzo. 



PUBL. ARN. ARB. I. 



PLATE III. 







PINUS NELSONI SHAW 



PUB1.. ARN. AR1!. I. 



PLATE IV. 




PINUS AYACAHUITE EHRENB. 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 



4. PINUS AYACAHUITE EHRENB. 

Pinus ayacahuite Ehrenberg, Linnaea, xii, 492 (1838). Loudon, Encycl. Trees & 
Shrubs, 1023, figs. 1920-1 (1842). Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 149 (1847). Parlatore, DC. 
Prodr. xvi, pt. 2, 406 (1868). Masters, Gard. Chron. ser. 2, xviii, 492, fig. 83 (1882). 
Hemsiey, Bot. Biol. Cent. Am. iii, 186 (1883). Lawson, Pinet. Brit, i, 9, fig. (1884). 
Nicholson, The Garden, xxv, 193, fig. (1884). Veitch, Man. Conif. ed. 2,311, fig. (1900). 

Leaves with deciduous sheaths, in fascicles of 5, 10-20 cm. long, serrate ; stomata ventral; 
resin ducts external and varying in number from 2 to 8. Conelets in clusters of 2 or 3, on 
long stout peduncles, cylindrical, their scales thin and closely imbricated. Cones on long 
peduncles, pendent, 20-45 cm. long, straight or curved; apophyses dull, occasionally sublustrous, 
pale yellowish or reddish brown, often conspicuously corrugated, their apices reflexed, recurved 
or revolute in various degrees. Seeds variable in the size of both wing and nut. Branchlets 
pale brown, at first pubescent, becoming ashen -gray and glabrous ; the cortex persistently 
smooth for many years. 

A large tree growing at cool temperate altitudes from Central America to the borders of the 
United States. 

Nelson, 982 (398556) west of Yalalag, O.ixaca ; 2188 (398572) Chilpancingo, Guerrero; 2520 (398575) 
Miahuatlan, Oaxaca; 3186 (398592) San Cristobal, Chiapas; 3650 (398596) Chaucol, Guatemala; 7060 (399401) 
Omilteme, Guerrero Goldman 988 (398797) San Cristobal, Chiapas. 

The leaf-section of P. ayacahuite is variable. The weak hypoderm and few resin ducts of some leaves resemble 
those of P. Strobus L., others with conspicuous thick-walled hypoderm resemble the leaf-sections of P. Lamber- 
tiana Dougl. or of P.flexilis James. According to Engelmann some leaves bear dorsal stomata, but this is probably 
sporadic and unusual. 

Plate IV represents the typical form of the species bearing seeds with long wings. They are all from Guate- 
mala or from the southern Mexican States. The wing-imprint on the different cone-scales indicates considerable 
variation in length even among the southern forms. 



PLATE IV. 



Fig. 1 



Leaves of Nelson 7060. 

" " " 2520. 
" " 3186. 

" " " 2188. 
Leaf-section of Nelson 2520 magn. 30 diam. 

u a u n y g u u u 

" " " " 2188 " " " 

u tt it u 082 " " " 

c i< 1' ?i86 " " " 



Fig. 10. Cone scale of Nelson 982. 

" n. " " " " 7060. 

" 12. " " " " 3186. 

" 13. " " " " 2188. 

" 14. " " " " 2520. 

" 15. " " " " 3650. 

" 16. Seed of Nelson 3650. 

" 17. Cone of Nelson 3650. 



IO THE PINES OF MEXICO. 

PlXUS AYACAIIUITK VAU. VEITCHII N. VAN. 

Pinus Veitchii Roezl, Cat. Grain. Com'/. Mcx. 32 (1857). 

PlNUS B )N.\parte\ Roezl, Gard. Chron. 358 (1858). Gordon, Pinctum. 218 (1858). 

Pint's Loudontaxa Gordon, Pitietum, 230 (1858) 

Differing from the species by the comparatively short and broad seed-wings and larger nuts. 
Mountains of the central states of Mexico. 

The Washington collections contain no specimen of this variety, but there is in the herbarium of the Arnold 
Arboretum a cone from the ridge connecting the Volcanos Popocatepetl and Iztacihuatl, collected by Mr. Pringle ; 
another cone, found on the road between the town of Uruapan and Mt. Tancitaro, was given to me by the late Dr- 
Altamirano. There are also a few cones in the Arnold Arboretum collection from Pallanza, Italy, where this Pine 
is cultivated as P. Veitchii Roezl. Cones grown in the Arboretum at Westonbirt, Gloucestershire, England, sent 
by Dr. Augustine Henry, also have large nuts and broad short wings. In all these specimens the proportion 
of wing to nut is nearly the same as that in the seeds of P. Lambertiana Dougl. The color of the seed-wing is 
of no value for determining the varietal forms of P. ayacuhuite. For the wing of Mr. Pringle's cone is dark and 
opaque, while that of the Westonbirt cones is translucent with dark, opaque striations. The same variation also 
obtains in southern specimens, the wing of Nelson 3186 being dark and opaque, and that of Nelson 3650 being 
translucent and striated with dark lines. 

The two cones shown |on Plate V are very different in outline but are alike in the excessive prolongation 
and revolute form of their apophyses. The Westonbirt cones, on the contrary, bear scales that are somewhat 
reflexed but not revolute and are considerably thicker. The significance of the cone variations of P. ayacahuite 
may however become better understood with the accumulation of more material; at present these variations do not 
appear to be geographical or to be related in any way to variations of the seed or of the leaf. 

P. Bonapartea is evidently, from Gordon's description, the same form as the variety Veitchii. The peculiar 
characters ascribed to it by Gordon (leaves sometimes in fascicles of more than 5) and by Engelmann (leaves 
with numerous resin ducts and thick-walled hypoderm) are by no means confined to Roezl's species. My speci- 
men of the variety brachyptera bears some fascicles of more than 5 leaves, and leaves of any of the forms of P. 
ayacahuite may contain a strongly developed hypoderm and. numerous resin ducts; indeed it is the occurrence of 
these and other characters among southern, middle and northern forms alike that makes the separation of the 
Mexican White Pine into two or more species impossible. 

PLATE V. 

Fig. 1. Cone from Popocatepetl. Fig. 4. Seeds from cone 1. 

" 2. Cone of Dr. Altamirano, 1-3 nat. size. " 5. Sections of leaves, magn. 30 diam. 

" 3. Scale of same, natural size. 



PUBL. ARN. ARK. I. 



PLATE V. 




PINUS AYACAHUITE VAR. VEITCHII SHAW. 



PUBL. ARN. ARB. I. 



PLATE VI. 




PINUS AYACAHUITE VAR. BRACHYPTERA SHAW. 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 



I I 



PlSTUS AYACAHUITE VAR. BRACHYPTERA N. VAR. 

Pinus strobiformis Engelmann, Wislizenus Tour Nor. Mex. 102 {Senate Doc. 1848). 

Differing from the species by its short ineffective seed-wing and large nut. 
Northern States of Mexico. 

Nelson 4555 (398618) El Salto, Durango; 4915 (No Museumji umber) Mt. Mohinora, Chihuahua; 6043 
(398625) Sierra Madre, Chihuahua. Shaw, Sandia, Durango. 

By the courtesy of Dr. Trelease, Wislizenus' specimen from which Engelmann established the species P. strobi- 
formis was sent to the Arnold Arboretum for comparison with the cones of the Nelson collection and with other 
material at hand. Wislizenus' cone is identical with that of Nelson 4915 and with one of my cones from northern 
Durango. At the time when Engelmann wrote the Botanical Appendix to Wislizenus' Tour he was not acquainted 
with Ehrenberg's species; in his Revision of the Genus Pinus (1880) Engelmann abandoned the name strobiformis. 



Reviewing the characters of P. ayacahuite, the number of leaves in the fascicle is almost invariably 5; exceptions 
are very rare and, in my experience, confined to young trees; the difference in the hypoderm and in the number 
of the resin ducts may be found in other species; these differences do not appear to be correlated with other char- 
cters in a manner that can be utilized either for the separation of P. ayacahuite into two or more species or for 
the determination of varietal forms. The same is true of the size and shape of the cones and the degree of 
protuberance or curvature of their scales. 

The remarkable variations in the length of the seed-wing of P. ayacahuite are valuable for determining the 
relative importance of this character. It is evident that the diagnostic value of the seed-wing must depend, not on 
its dimensions, but on its construction. Eliminating the question of length there is no difference between the seed- 
wings of P. ayacahuite, P. Lambertiana and P. ftexilis, therefore P.ftexilis is here associated with the White Pines 
where Engelmann placed it, and the similarity of its cone-scales and its leaf-section to those of P. Lambertiana 
confirms this conclusion. 



Fig. 1, 2. Cones from N. Durango. 
" 3. Scale of cone 1. 
" 4. Seed of cone 2. 



PLATE VI. 

Fig. 5- 
" 6. 



Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 
Leaf-section of Nelson 4555, magn. 30 diam. 
7. Conelet. 



12 THE PINES OK MEXICO. 

5. PINUS FLEXILIS JAMES. 

Pinus fl.kxil.is James, Longs Exped. ii, 34 (1823). Nuttall, N. Am. Sylva, iii, 107, t. 112 
(1849). Parlatore, DC. Prodr, xvi, pt. 2, 403 (1868). Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Cent. Am. iii,. 
187 (1883). Lawson, Pinet. Brit, i, 33, fig. (1884). Sargent, Silva N. Am. xi, 35, t. 546 & 
547 (1897); Man. Trees N. Am. 7, fig. 5 (1905). Britton, N. Am. Trees, 11, fig. 6 (1908)- 
Sudworth, Forest Trees Pad/. Slope, 27, figs. 5, 6 (1908). 

Leaves in fascicles of 5 not exceeding 8 or 9 cm. in length, entire, their stomata dorsal and 
ventral. Cones 10-25 cm. long, their scales straight or reflexed and of varying thickness ; 
seed wings short and ineffective. 

In a limited- area of northern Mexico, and common along the Rocky Mountains as far north 
as southern Alberta. 

Nelson, 6136 (347362) General Cepeda, Coahuila. 

PiXUs flkxilis var. kkflkxa Engelmann, Rothrock Wheelers Rep. vi, 258 (1878). 
Pinus reflexa Engelmann, Bot. Gaz. vii,4 C1882). Mayr, Fremdl. Wald. Eur. 388 (1906). 
Pinus strobikormis Sudworth, Bull. No. \\,Div. Forestry U. S. Dep. Agric. 17 (not En- 
gelmann), (1897). Sargent, Silva N. Am. xi, 33, t. 544 & 545 (1897); Man. Trees N. Am. 
6, fig. 4 (1905). Britton, N. Am. Trees, 11, fig. 5 (1908). 

Pinus ayacahuite var. strobikormis Lemmon, Cone-Bearing Trees Pacif. Slope, 4 (1892). 
Cone scales often thin, reflexed. Leaves entire or serrulate with or without dorsal stomata. 

There are no specimens of this form in the Nelson & Rose collections. Mr. Pringle found it in northern 
Chihuahua in 1887. The variety is intermediate between P. flexilis and P. ayacahuite, but all the cones that I 
have seen resemble those of P. flexilis in size and in general appearance. 



6. PINUS LAMBERTIANA DOUGL. 

Pinus Lambertiana Douglas, Trans. Linn. Soc.xv, 500 (1827). Lambert, Gen. Pin. ed. 
3- 1. 57- t- 34 ( l &3 2 )'< e d- i> iii , text and plate (1837). Loudon, Arb. et Frut. Brit. 2288,. 
fig. 2205 (1838); Encycl. Trees & Shrubs, 1019, fig. 1912 (1842). Forbes, Pinet. Woburn. 
j-j, t. 30 (1839). Antoine, Die Conif. 41, t. 19 (1840). Parlatore, DC. Prodr. xvi, pt. 2, 
406 (1868). Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Cent. Am. iii, 187 (1883). Lawson, Pinet. Brit, i, 47, fig. 
(1884). Brandegee, Zoe, iv, 201 (1894). Sargent, Silva N. Am. xi, 27, t. 542 & 543 
(iSgy);Man. Trees N. Am. 5, fig. 3 (1905). Britton, N. Am. 7rees, 9, fig. 4 (1908). Sud- 
worth, Forest Trees Pacif. Slope, 23, figs. 3, 4 (1908). 

Leaves in fascicles of 5, not exceeding 10 cm. in length, their stomata dorsal and ventral. 
Cones 25-45 cm. long, their scales straight and thick; seeds large, with rather short broad 
wings. 

Western United States from southern Oregon to southern California, occurring in Mexico 
at one station only, where it was first discovered by Mr. Brandegee. 

Goldman, 1219 (565125) San Pedro Martir Mts. California Baja. 



THE PINES OF MEXICO- 1 3 

7. PINUS LEIOPHYLLA SCHL. & CHAM. 

Pinus leiophylla Schlechtendal & Chamisso, Linnaea, vi, 354 (1831); xii, 490 (1838). 
Lambert, Gen. Pin. ed. 3, i, 38, t. 21 (1832); ed. 1, iii, text & pi. Forbes, Pinet. Woburn. 
74, t. 28 (1839). Antoine, Die Conif. 39, t. 18, f. 2 (1840). Loudon, Encycl. Trees & 
Shrubs, ion, fig. 1893 (1842). Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 155(1847). Parlatore, DC. Prodr. 
xvi, pt. 2, 401 (1868). Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Cent. Am. iii, 187 (1883). Shaw, Card. 
Chron., ser. 3, xxxvi, 175, fig. 69 (1904). 

Leaves with deciduous sheaths, in fascicles of 5 or of 3 and 4, from 10-14 cm - ' on g; resin ducts 
medial, occasionally internal, the two fibro-vascular bundles distinct, contiguous or merged in 
one. Conelets subterminal, on long peduncles, single or in clusters of 2-7, subglobose, 
their scales armed with a conspicuous, sometimes stout and persistent prickle, conelets of the 
second year somewhat larger. Cones maturing the third year, not exceeding 7 cm. in length, 
ovate or ovate-conical, subsymmetrical, more or less reflexed, persistent for many years, often 
serotinous, their apophyses thin or somewhat tumid, of a dull yellowish or dark brown color, 
the umbo central showing clearly the limits of the growth of the first two years. Branchlets 
more or less pruinose, the decurrent bases of the bracts deciduous at the end of the first sea- 
son ; the bark at first thin, separating in deciduous scales, red, becoming very coarse and 
rough at an early age. 

A tree of varying size with short gray-green foliage, persistent, often very abundant 
cones, growing at subtropical and warm temperate altitudes in eastern, western and southern 
Mexico. It has not been found south of the State of Oaxaca nor on the north eastern Sierras. 

Nelson, 986 (398559) La Parada, Oaxaca; 1487 (398562) Oaxaca Valley, Oaxaca; 6558 (398628) Mt. Patam- 
ban, Michoacan. Nelson & Goldman (396794-5) Volcan Iztacihuatl. Goldman 5 (303991) Valparaiso, Zaca- 
tecas. Rose, 2990 (301945) West of Bolanos, Jalisco; 3027 (301984) Bolanos to Guadalajara, Jalisco. Rose <5r* 
Hough, 4294 (346239) Las Vigas, Vera Cruz. Rose 6" Hay, 5536 (395298) Ajusco, Mexico; 5968 (395759) 
Contadero, Tlaxcala; 6234 (396143) Volcan Popocatepetl. Rose & Painter, 7153 (450779, 451636) Eslava ; 
Mexico. Rose, Painter 6r> Rose, 8482 (451974) Encarnacion, Mexico. Pringle, 6180, Sierra Ajusco, Mexico; ' 
8182, Las Vigas, Vera Cruz. Shaw, Cuernavaca, Morelos ; Ferraria de Tula, Jalisco ; Nanacamilpa Tlaxcala; 
Contreras, Eslava and Ajusco, Mexico. 

Pinus leiophylla is abundant in the Federal District and grows quite near the City of Mexico, although its 
triennial fructification appears to have' escaped the notice of the earlier collectors. The species is very prolific, 
and branches bearing cones in all stages of their growth are common. 



14 



THE PINES OK MEXICO. 



PlNUS L.EIOPHYLL.A VAR. CHIHUAHUANA M VAR. 

Pinus chihuahuana Engelmann, Wislizenus Tour Nor. Mex. 103 {Senate Doc, 1848). 
Parlatore, DC. Prodr. xvi, pt. 2, 397 (1868). Hemsley Bot. Biol. Cent. Am. iii, 186 (1883). 
Toumey, Gard. & For. viii, 22, fig. 3 (,1895). Sargent, Silva N. Am. xi, 85, t. 566 (1897); 
Man. Trees N. Am. 14, fig. 13 (1905). Britton, N. Am. Trees, 18, fig. 12 (1908). 

Differing from the species by its stouter leaves usually in fascicles of 3 and 4, the leaves of 
the type being almost invariably in fascicles of 5. 

Growing beyond the northern boundary of Mexico, in southern Arizona and New Mexico, 
and extending southward along the north western Sierras to the Territory of Tepic and the 
State of Zacatecas, where it merges into the typical form. 

Nelson, 4558 (398620) El Salto, Durango ; 6013 (398624) Sierra Madre, Chihuahua. Rose, 3587 (302564) 
3588 (302565) Mesquitec, Jalisco; 2123 (301027) Santa Teresa, Tepic; 2377 (301289), 2378 (302735) Sierra 
Madre, Zacatecas; 2405 (301315) San Juan Capistrano, Zacatecas; 2742 (301671-2) Plateado, Zacatecas. 
Palmer, 83, 775, Durango. Shaw, Sandia, Durango. 

The species and the variety are alike except for the stouter and fewer leaves of the latter. Both sprout 
freely along the trunk. When a tree is felled the stump in a few years becomes completely concealed by the 
numerous shoots that grow from it. 

Some cones of this species resemble in size and general appearance those of P. teocote var. macrocarpa, but 
the triennial cone and and early deciduous fascicle sheaths of P. leiophylla form a combination of characters not 
found in any other known species of Pine. Triennial cones occur in two species of Pinus only, P. leiophylla and 
the Mediterranean P. Pinea L. 



PLATE VII. 



Fig. 1 
2 

3 
4 

5 

6 



Leaves of the species. 

Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 

Cone. 

Branch showing triennial fructification. 

Cone-scale of first year, magnified. 

Cone-scale of second year, magnified. 



Fig. 7. 
" 8. 

" 9- 

" 10. 

" 11. 



Cone-scale of third year, magnified. 

Cone. 

Trunk of tree with sprouts. 

Leaves of oar. chihuahuana. 

Leaf-section of same, magn. 30 diam. 



PUBL. ARN. ARB. I. 



PLATE VII. 







8 




PINUS LEIOPHYLLA SCHL. & CHAM. 



PUBL. ARN. ARH. I. 



PLATE VIII. 








**S^fc H. ^>V 



PINUS LUMHOLTZII ROB. & FERN. 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 



15 



8. PINUS LUMHOLTZII ROBINS. & Fern. 

PiXUS Lumhoi/tzii Robinson & Fernald, Proc. Am. Acad, xxx, 122 (1804). Shaw, Sar- 
gent Trees & Shrubs, ii, 55, t. 125 ( 1907). 

Pinus patula Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald, 336 (not Schl. & Cham.), (1852-7). Hemsley, 
Bot. Biol. Cent. Am. iii, 189 (in part), (1883). 

Leaves with deciduous sheaths, in fascicles of 3, 20-30 cm. long, pendent, serrate ; resin ducts 
medial and internal, rarely external, the two fibro-vascular bundles contiguous, often merged 
in one. Conelets subterminal, occasionally also lateral on young trees, long-pedunculate, 
ovate-conical, their lustrous brown scales terminating in a small prickle deciduous from the 
mature cone. Cones usually about 5, rarely 7 cm. long, symmetrical, pendent on slender 
more or less curved peduncles, ovate-conical, opening at maturity, early deciduous, their apo- 
physes tumid at the margins, the general surface flat, of a dull pale brown color, the umbo 
large and conspicuous. Branchlets lustrous chestnut-brown, more or less pruinose, the decur- 
rent bases of the bracts deciduous ; the bark at first thin, separating in deciduous scales, be- 
coming in a few years coarse and thick. Buds of the same lustrous chestnut-brown as the 
branchlets and fascicle-sheaths. 

A broad round-headed tree with slender subpendent branchlets and bright green, absolutely 
pendent leaves, growing on the western and north western Sierras from south western Jalisco 
to the latitude of the City of Chihuahua. 

Hartman, 54i(type), Coloradas, Chihuahua. Nelson, 4112 (398609) Mascota, Jalisco. Rose, 2194 (301104) 
Santa Teresa, Tepic ; 2989 (301944, 302738) west of Bolanos in Tepic ; 3083 (302044) Bolanos to Guadalajara, 
Jalisco; 3586(302563) Mesquitec, Zacatecas. Pringle, 10014, Etzatlan, Jalisco. Shaw, Etzatlan & Tula, Jalisco. 

Specimens of this beautiful weeping Pine were first gathered by Seemann No. 1961, and are in the Herbarium 
of the Royal Gardens at Kew, where they were referred to P. patula, the weeping Pine of eastern Mexico^but P.Lum- 
holtzii, in addition to its deciduous sheath, bears much smaller cones than P. patula. The leaves of P. patula 
droop in a graceful curve, those of P. Lumho/tzii are so absolutely pendent that they seem to spring from the 
underside only of the branchlets. The specimens from which the species received its name were collected by Dr. 
Hartman, who accompanied Lumholtz on his scientific expedition to Mexico. This Pine was first found near 
Tutuaca, directly west of the City of Chihuahua, and is reported by travellers to grow in south-western Jalisco, 
which is probably near the southern limit of its range. 

PLATE VIII. 

.Fig. 1. Cone of Rose 2989. Fig. 4. Branch and pendent leaves, 1-2 nat. size. 

" 2. Branch, conelets and cone. " 5. Tree at Tula. 

" 3. Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 



i6 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 



0. PINUS TEOCOTE Schl. & Cham. 

Pinus teocote Schlechtendal & Chamisso, Linnaea, v, 76 (1830); xii, 487 (1838). Lam- 
bert, Gen. Pin. ed. 3, i, 37, t. 20 (1832). Loudon, Arb. et Frut. Brit, iv, 2266, fig. 2173 
(1838); Encycl. Trees & Shrubs, 991, figs. 1851-4 (1842). Antoine, Die Conif. 35, t. 16, 
fig. 3 (1840). Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 156 (1847). Parlatore, DC. Prodr: xvi, pt. 2, 396 
(1868). Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Cent. Am. iii, 189 (1883). 

Leaves with persistent sheaths, in fascicles of 3, occasionally 4 or 5, 10-20 cm. long, 
serrate, usually stout ; resin ducts medial, sometimes internal ; outer walls of endoderm cells 
thickened ; fibro-vascular bundles two, approximate or contiguous. Conelets subterminal 
rarely lateral, single or in pairs, pedunculate, their scales dull or sublustrous brown, trans- 
versely keeled, armed with a small dorsal prickle. Cones usually not exceeding 6 or 7 cm. in 
length, symmetrical or nearly so, ovate or narrow cylindrical, patulous or reflexed on short 
peduncles, opening at maturity, soon deciduous, their scales numerous, small, tumid at the 
margins, flat or slightly raised, rarely protuberant in the centre, more or less faintly carinate, 
dull or sublustrous brown, the umbo often ashen-gray. Branchlets somewhat pruinose, pale 
brown, the decurrent bases of the bracts deciduous ; bark at first thin, deciduous and red, but 
accumulating in a few years and becoming rough and thick. Buds rather large, cylindrical, 
more or less resinous ; male aments, when present, forming long cylindrical enlargements at 
their base. 

A tree 20-30 m. high, with bright green leaves and compact habit growing at temperate 
altitudes in the southern, central, western and north-eastern Sierras, associated with P. patnla 
aud P. leiophylla. 

Nelson, $ (398546) Salazar, Mexico; 8 (396789) Jesus Maria, San Luis Potosi; 981 (398555) Yalalag, Oaxaca; 
987 (398560) La Parada, Oaxaca; 2187 (398571) Sierra Madre, Chilpancingo, Guerrero; 2536 (398580) Miahua- 
tlan, Oaxaca; 3778 (398601) Pinabete, Chiapas; 3933 (398603) Pinal des Amoles, Queretaro; 4500 (398614) 
Miquihuana, Nuevo Leon. Goldman, 1 (303987) Valparaiso, Zacatecas; 960 (398795) Teopisca, Chiapas; 987 
(398796) San Cristobal, Chiapas. Rose, 2130 (301035) Santa Teresa, Tepic, 2741 (301669-70) Plateado, Zaca- 
tecas. Hose & Hough 4293 (346238) Las Vigas, Vera Cruz. Rose dv Painter, 7216 (450796) Ajusco, Mexico; 
7014 (450583) Salazar, Mexico. Pringle, 1964, Monterey, Nuevo Leon; 6243, San Felipe, Oaxaca; 6800, Ajusco, 
Mexico. Shaw, Honey, Hidalgo; Nanacamilpa, Tlaxcala; Contreras, Mexico. 



Fig. 







PLATE 


IX. 


I 


Cone from Nanacamilpa. 




Fig. 6. 


2 


" " Contadero. 




" 7- 


3 


Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 




" 8. 


4 


Cone from Salazar. 




" 9- 


5 


Seeds. 




" 10. 



Cone of Nelson 4500 
Leaves and conelet. 
Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 
Bud bearing male aments. 
Tree at Las Vigas. 



PUBL. ARN. ARB. I. 



PLATE IX. 




*j*v 



PINUS TEOCOTE SCHL. & CHAM. 



PUB!.. ARN. ARB. I. 



PLATE X. 







<4$Wk 



\ 




6 





V,n, 




PINUS TEOCOTE SCHL. & CHAM. 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 



17 



PlNUS TEOCOTE VAR. MACROCARPA. N. VAR. 

Pinus leiophylla Bentham, PI. Hartw. 58 (in part), (1842). 

Cones considerably larger than those of the typical form ; leaves in fascicles of 3, 4 or 5. 

Nelson, 3218 (398593) San Cristobal, Chiapas. Pringle, 10013, 10018, Eslava, Mexico. Shaw, Nanacamilpa, 
Tlaxcala ; Contreras, Mexico. 

The variety macrocarpa is illustrated by the cone, of Lambert's plate of P. teocote, which, as jstated by Schlech- 
tendal in Linnaea xii, 488, is larger than the typical teocote cone. Most of the specimens labelled Hart- 
weg 441 (Pinus leiophylla, foliis longioribus, Bentham, PL Hartw. 58) belong here as well as a specimen at Kew 
labelled Pinus intermedia Roezl. This variety may easily be confused with some forms of the variable P. Law- 
soni. between which and P. teocote it seems to be intermediate; so far as I know however, this variety does not 
grow in subtropical regions and its leaf anatomy corresponds with that of P. teocote. 



The variations in the length and thickness of the leaf of P. teocote are illustrated by figs. 1 to 4 on Plate X. 
There is also some variation in the length of the cone, and occasionally a cone is found with protuberant apo- 
physes (Plate IX, fig. 2). 

The typical form of the species is usually very easily recognized by its small cone and is like no other Mexican 
Pine. 

"Ocote," from which the name of this species is derived, is apparently used by the Mexicans as the common 
name of all Pitch Pines and of their wood. Small bundles of kindling-wood are offered for sale in the markets of 
Mexican cities under the name "ocote." This kindling-wood is obtained by slashing the standing tree and, after 
allowing time for the resin to accumulate over the wound, by repeating the process at intervals. The chips are 
tied into small bundles and are retailed in the markets for one centavo each. Trees badly disfigured by the ocote 
gatherers are frequently seen. 



PLATE X. 



Fig. 1. Nelson 2187. Cone and leaves. 

" 2. Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 

" 3. Nelson 3778. Cone and leaves. 

" 4. Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 



VAR. MACROCARPA. 

Fig. 5. Pringle 10013. Cone and leaves. 
' 6. Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 
" 7. Leaf-section of Nelson 3218, magn. 30 diam. 



i8 



THE PINES <>!' MEXICO. 



10. PINUS LAWSONI Roezl. 

Pinus Lawsoni Roezl, ex Gordon Pinctum, Appx, 64 (1862). Hemsley, Jiot. Biol. Cent. 

Am. iii, 187 (1883). 
Pinus Altamirani Shaw, Sargent Trees & Shrubs i, 209, t. 99 ( 10P5). 

Leaves with persistent sheaths, in fascicles of 3, often of 4 or 5, not exceeding 24 cm. in 
length, serrate ; resin ducts mostly internal, those in the angles of the leaf often medial ; outer 
walls of endoderm cells not thickened, the 2 fibro-vascular bundles contiguous. Conelets on 
retlexed peduncles, subterminal, rarely also lateral, single or in pairs, their lustrous brown 
scales armed with a small prickle. Cones variable in size, usually 5-6 rarely exceeding 7 cm. 
in length, unsymmetrical, rarely symmetrical, reflexed on a pliant peduncle, ovate or elongate- 
conical, opening at maturity, deciduous, their apophyses usually dull yellowish brown, un- 
equally developed, sometimes protuberant on some of the scales ; umbo large, often salient and 
very conspicuous, its epiderm deciduous. Branchlets covered with a conspicuous white bloom, 
the decurrent bases of the bracts deciduous. Cortex at first thin, deciduous and red, soon 
becoming dark and more persistent. 

A tree 2025 m. high with glaucous-green foliage, growing only at subtropical levels and 
associated with P. Pringlei and P. oocarpa. The geographical range of the species is not yet 
accurately determined, but it is apparently confined to the southern and central western States. 

Nelson, 1760 (398563) Reyes, Oaxaca; 21S1 (39S569) Chilpancingo, Guerrero ; 2537 (3985S1), 2538 
(39S5S2), 2540.(398584) Miahuatlan, Oaxaca. Pose & Hough, 4639 (346620) Las Sedas, Oaxaca. Pringle, 
10017, Uruapan, Michoacan. Shaw, Uruapan, Jesus del Monte & Huingo, Michoacan ; Cuernavaca, Morelos ; 
Las Sedas, Oaxaca. 

Among the Pines, with which it is associated P. Lawsoni is conspicuous by its glaucous foliage. Its de- 
ciduous cone with its pliant peduncle cannot be confused with the persistent cone of P. Pringlei. In herba- 
rium specimens normal cones are easily recognized, but an occasional cone may be found which resembles 
that of P. teocote var. macrocarpa. The scales of the latter are, however, usually smaller and more numerous. 
The resin-ducts of the leaf of P. Lawsoni are. usually internal, while those of P. teocote and its variety are usually 
medial, but this character is not wholly reliable. I have so far found that the endoderm cells of the leaves of 
P. teocote show thickened outer walls, while in those of P. Lawsoni there is no perceptible difference between 
the outer and inner walls of the endoderm. In the localities where I have met them P. teocote and its variety 
macrocarpa grow at higher levels and are never associated with P. Lawsoni. 

There are misleading statements in Gordon's description. The leaves are never entire, nor does the species 
grow on the higher mountains of Mexico. The resemblance of its cone to that of P. sylvestris L. is of a kind 
that diminishes with a better knowledge of the two species. 

PLATE XI. 



Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4. Cones from Huingo. 
" 5. Cone of Nelson 2538. 
" 6. Cone from Uruapan. 
" S. Cone from the Kew Herbarium. 



Fig. S. Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 

" 9. Cone and conelets from Uruapan. 

" 10. Conelet, magnified. 

" 11. Leaf-section from Uruapan, magn. 30 diam. 



PUBL. ARN. ARB. I. 



ffi* W*r 



PLATE XI. 




PINUS LAWSONI ROEZL. 



PUBL. ARN. ARB. I. 



PLATE XII. 




PINU5 PSEUDOSTROBUS LINDL. 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 



19 



11. PINUS PSEUDOSTROBUS LiNDL. 

Pixus pseudostrobus Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxv, Misc. 63 (1839) Loudon, Encycl. Trees 
& Shrubs, 1008, fig. 1888 (1842). Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 156 (1847). Parlatore, DC. 
Prodr. xvi, pt. 2, 401 (1868). Hemsley, Bot. Bin/. Cent. Am. iii. 189 (1883). 

Pinus orizabae Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. i, 237, fig. (1846). Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 
156 (1847). 

Leaves with persistent sheaths, in fascicles of 5, 15-30 cm. long, serrate, usually slender ; 
resin ducts medial, outer walls of the endoderm cells thick, the two fibro-vascular bundles con- 
tiguous. Conelets subterminal, long-pedunculate, single or in clusters of 2 or 3, their scales 
armed with a small, ultimately deciduous prickle. Cones ovate or oblong, variable in size, 7- 
14 cm. in length, subsymmetrical or oblique, opening at maturity, early deciduous, the pe- 
duncle and a few basal scales usually temporarily persistent on the tree, their apophyses flat, 
or protuberant in various degrees. Branchlets slender, usually conspicuously pruinose, the 
decurrent bases of the bracts clearly defined but not persistent, and becoming merged in the 
smooth bark of the young trees. Buds orange-yellow, the male aments forming cylindrical 
enlargements just above their base. 

A large tree with a trunk diameter of nearly 2 meters, of very rapid growth in youth, and 
producing very long straight internodes, slender verticillate branches and drooping leaves. 
Bark smooth at first, becoming very rough in old age. 

Everywhere in Mexico, where subtropical or warmer temperate conditions prevail, and 
ranging as far south as Nicaragua. 

Nelson, 2521 (398576) Miahuatlan, Oaxaca ; 3185 (398591) San Cristobal, Chiapas; 65S8 (399175) Mt. 
Patamban, Michoacan; 6888 (3986633-4) Mt. Tancftaro, Michoacan. Goldman, 20 (324783) Huauchinango, 
Puebla. Pringle, 2109, Guadalajara, Jalisco; 8090, Jalapa, Vera Cruz; 8787, Eslava, Mexico. Shaw, 
Contreras, Mexico ; Tres Marias, Morelos. 



Pin us pseudostrobus var. apulcensis, n var. 

Pinus apulcencis Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxv, Misc. 63 (1839). Loudon, Encycl. Trees & Shrubs 
1014, fig. 1899 (1842). Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 153 (1847). 

Cone differing from that of the species by a greater or less prolongation of the apophyses. 

Growing with the type. 

Nelson, 985 (39855S) La Parada, Oaxaca; 2539 (39S5S3) Miahuatlan, Oaxaca. Pringle, S7SS, Eslava, 
Mexico. 

The variety apulcensis is easily recognized by the peculiar development of the apophyses of the cone, which 
may attain remarkable prominence. It is least prominent in Pringle's specimen from Eslava, where the 
variety passes into the species ; Nelson No. 2539 is an intermediate form, while the cone of his No. 9S5 shows 
this variation in a most marked degree. In the Mexican collection of the Paris Museum there is a beautiful 
cone of this variety from the Cofre de Perote, Vera Cruz, collected by Hahn in 1866, with conspicuous pro- 
tuberances on all the scales. 



PLATE XII. 



Fig. 1. Cone from Tres Marias. 
" 2. Cone from Contreras. 
" 3, 4. Leaf-sections, magn. 30 diam. 

" 5- 



Bud bearing male aments. 



Var. apulcensis. 
Fig. 6. Cone of Pringle 8788. 
" 7. Cone of Nelson 2539. 
" 8. Cone of Nelson 985. 



20 THE FINES OK MEXICO. 



Pi XL'S PSEUDOSTROBUS VAR. TEXUIFOLIA, M VAR. 

Pinus tenuifolia Bentham, PL Hartw. 92 (1842). Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 155 (1847). 

Parlatore, DC. Prodr. xvi, pt. 2, 400 (1868). Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Cent. Am. iii, 189 

(1883). 

Cones ovate or long-ovate, their peduncles persistent on the cones ; hypoderm of the leaves 
remarkably developed, extending from the epiderm to the endoderm and forming partitions 
across the green tissue. 

Abundant in the western and south western states at subtropical altitudes, and extending 
into Central America as far as north western Nicaragua (Seemann in Pirn & Seemann Dottings 
on the Roadside, 55). 

Hartweg, 620, (type) Guatemala. Nelson, 2536 (398579) Miahuatlan, Oaxaca ; 3128 (39S5S9) San 
Cristobal, Chiapas ; 41 18 (39S61 1) La Laguna, Jalisco. Goldman, 997 (39S800) Ixtapa, Chiapas. Rose, 1671 
(300527) Colomas, Sinaloa; 2263 (301 176-7) State of Durango ; 3025 (3019S2) Boloftas to Guadalajara, 
Jalisco. Shaw, Com and Uruapan, Michoacan ; San Felipe, Oaxaca. 

The peculiar hypoderm of the variety tenuifolia is least conspicuous in Hartweg, No. 620, and in Rose, No. 
167 1. The character may be followed through various stages until it reaches its greatest development in Rose, 
3025. At Uruapan, where this form is abundant, trees at the base of the mountains, in all other respects like 
those higher up the slope, bear leaves without the peculiar hypoderm. Nelson, No. 6888, with a tenuifolia 
cone has leaves with the normal section of the species. These exceptions, together with the unreliability of 
the persistent cone-peduncle, make it impossible to find specific characters for Bentham's P. tenuifolia. Its 
habit and bark are identical with those of P. pseudostrobus . 

In all the forms the striking character is the habit of the young tree, with its straight, slender, tapering 
stem of long internodes, its smooth bark, slender branches and drooping leaves. The persistent smooth bark 
of the branches separates this species from those forms of P. Montezumae which bear cones and leaves similar 
to those ot P. pseudostrobus. 

PLATE XIII. 

Fig. 1. Cone of Nelson 312S. Fig. 6. Cone and leaves of Rose 3025. 

" 2. Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. " 7. Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 

" 3. Cone of Nelson 2535. " 8. Leaf-section of Hartweg 620, magn. 30 diam. 

" 4. Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. " 9. Tree at Uruapan. 

" 5, Leaf-section of Rose 1671, magn. 30 diam. 



PUBL. ARN. ARB. I . 



PLATE XIII. 




PINUS PSEUDOSTROBUS VAR. TENUIFOLIA SHAW. 



PUBI-. ARN. ARB. I. 



1'I.ATE XIV. 



o^x_ 




PINUS MONTEZUMAE LAMB. 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 



21 



12. PINUS MONTEZUMAE LAMB. 

Pinus Montezumae Lambert, Gen. Pin. ed. 3, i, 39 t. 22 (1832); ed. 1, iii, text and plate 
( ^37) Schlechtendal, Linnaea, xii, 489 ( 1838). Loudon, Arb. et Frut. Brit. iv. 2272, 
fig. 2185 (1838); Encycl. Trees and Shrubs, 1004, fig. 1884 O842). Antoine, Die Conif. 
38, t. 17, fig. 1 (1840). Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 154 (1847). Parlatore, DC. Prodr. xvi, 
pt. 2, 398 (1868). Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Cent. Am. iii, 188 (1883). 

Pinus Devontana Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxv, Misc. 62 (1839). Loudon, Encycl. Trees & 
Shrubs, 1001, fig. 1878 (1842). 

Pinus Russelliana Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxv, Misc. 63 (1839). Loudon, Encycl. Trees & 
Shrubs, 1003, fig. 1879 (1842). 

Pinus macrophylla Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxv. Misc. 63 (1839). Loudon, Encycl. Trees & 
Shrubs, 1006, fig. 1885 (1842). 

Pinus filifolia Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxvi, Misc. 61 ( 1840). Loudon, Encycl. Trees & Shrubs, 
1008, fig. 1889 (1842), 

Pinus Grenvilleae Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Loud, ii, 77, fig. (1847). Gard. Chron. ser. 
2, xv, 112, fig. 22 ( 1881). 

Pinus Gordoniana Hartweg, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. ii, 79, fig. (1847). 
Pinus Wincesteriana Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. ii, 158, fig. (1847). 

Leaves in fascicles of 3-8, 10-45 cm - l n g> serrate ; resin-ducts medial ; outer walls of the 
endoderm cells thick. Conelets subterminal, single or in clusters of 2-5, pedunculate, dull 
pale brown, deep brown, dull black or blue, their scales armed with usually reflexed prickles. 
Cones 6-25 cm. long, subsessile or pedunculate, symmetrical, subcylindrical or tapering, often 
curved, opening at maturity, deciduous, their peduncles and a few basal scales often tempor- 
arily persistent on the tree after the fall of the cone ; apophyses flat, pyramidal, tumid, or some- 
what protuberant and reflexed, dull yellowish or reddish brown, fuscous brown or nearly black, 
the prickles occasionally persistent. Branchlets somewhat pruinose, the decurrent bases of the 
bracts prominent, persistent, and covered with an early-deciduous epiderm. Buds large, bright 
ochre yellow, the male aments not apparent from the outline of the bud. 

A tree 15-20 metres high, varying in appearance with the length and thickness of its 
leaves, and growing at all levels where Pines are found in Mexico and in the northern 
states of Central America. The northern limit of its distribution is near the boundary between 
the states of Durango and Chihuahua. 

Nelson, 980 (398554) Yalalag, Oaxaca ; 1762 (39S565) Reyes, Oaxaca ; 2522 (39S577) Miahautlan, Oaxaca ; 
3285 (398594) Teneapa, Chiapas; 3680 (398599) Huehuetenango, Guatemala; 3729 (39S602) Volcan Santa 
Maria, Guatemala; 41 17 (398610) La Laguna, Jalisco ; 6573 (398630) Mt. Patamban, Michoacan ; 695S 
(398636) Jorullo, Michoacan. Goldman, 11 (303998) Valparaiso, Zacatecas ; 845 (398791) Comitan, Chi- 
apas; 903 (398793) Juncana, Chiapas; 950 (398794) Teopisca, Chiapas; 1044 (347473) La Razon, Chiapas. 

Rose, 2122 (301024-5-6) Santa Teresa, Tepic ; 2777 (301709) Plateado, Zacatecas; 3005 (301961) Bo- 

lafios, Jalisco. Rose 6- Hay, 5781 (3955 68 ) Mt - Orizaba ; 5403 (395i62)-Tlalpujahua, Michoacan. Pringle, 
10140, Sandia, Durango. Shaw, Uruapan, Michoacan; Cuernavaca, Morelos. 

PLATE XIV. 



Fig. 1. Bud with male aments. 

" 2. Cone from Cuernavaca. 

' 3. Cone of Nelson 2522. 

" 4. Cone of Nelson 6573. 

" 5. Seed from Uruapan. 



Fig. 6. Conelet, magnified. 
" 7. Leaf-section from fascicle of 7 leaves, magn. 

30 diam. 
" 8. Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 



22 



THE PINES OK MEXICO. 



Pixus Montezumae var. Lindleyi Loudon, Encycl. Trees & Shrubs, 1004, fig. 1883 
(1842). 

Pinus Lindlevana Gordon, Pinctum, 229 (1858). 

Cones 10-15 cm. in length, their apophyses flat or somewhat pyramidal; leaves 15-25 cm. 
long, often very slender ; conelets dark brown or nearly black. 

Nelson, 276 (347471, 398549) Mt. Orizaba, Puebla ; i486 (398561) Valley of Oaxaca ; 2180 (398568), 2189 
(39S573) Chilpancingo, Guerrero; 3935 (398604) Pinal des Amoles, Quere'taro; 6599 (398631) Mt. Patam- 
ban, Michoacan ; 6899 (398635) Mt. Tancftaro, Michoacan. Rose 6" Hough, 4292 (346236-7) Las Vigas, 
Vera Cruz. Rose & Painter, 7015 (450584) Salazar, Mexico; 7952 (451572) Toluca, Mexico. Shaw, Toro, 
Mexico ; Tres Marias, Morelos ; Nanacamilpa, Tlaxcala. 

The characteristic cone of this variety is pale brown with a conspicuously dark umbo ; the apophyses are com- 
paratively mall and numerous, often rectangular in outline and very like those of the variety Hartwegii, but 
brown not black. At Toro, on the Ajusco mountains, the two forms grow together with many intermediates, 
and the evidence at this place is conclusive that they are of one species. 

The leaves of var. Lindleyi are often slender and drooping, like those of P. pseudostrobus. Without suffi- 
cient material to determine the character of the bark and in the absence of characteristic cones the two are not 
easily separated. Gordon, in his determinations of the Roezl species, confused this form of P. Montezumae 
with P. pseudostrobus. 







PLATE XV. 


ig. .. 


Cone from Salazar. 


Fig- 5- 


" 2. 


Leaves of Nelson 2180. 


" 6. 


" 3- 


Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 


" 7- 


" 4- 


Cone from Toro. 


" 8. 



Cone of Nelson 6599. 

Leaves of same. 

Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 

Leaf-section of Nelson 6899, magn. 30 diam. 



Pinus Montezumae var. rudis n. var. 

Pinus Montezumae Gordon, Jour. Hort. Soc. Lond. i, 234, fig. (1846). Gard. Chron. ser. 

3, viii, 466, figs. 91-94, 96 (1890); xv, 273, figs. 29-32 (1894); xxv, 146, fig. 53 (1899). 

Pinus rudis Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 151 (1847). 

Pinus Ehrenbergii Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 151 (1847). 

Pinus Hartwegii Parlatore, DC. Prodr. xvi, pt. 2, 400 (in part) (1868). 

Cones 6-10 cm. long, dull, sometimes lustrous brown; leaves 10-15 cm - m length; cone- 
lets blue or blue black. 

Low temperate altitudes intergrading with the varieties Lindleyi and Hai'twegii. 

Nelson, 3939 (398607) Encamacion, Hidalgo; 4504(398617) Miquihuana, Nuevo Leon; 4567 (398621) 
El Salto, Durango; 4916 (398623, 347470) Mt. Mohinora, Chihuahua; 6137 (347363) General Cepeda, Coa- 
huila. Rose, 2193 (301 103) Santa Teresa, Tepic ; 2376 (302734), 2379 (302736) Sierra Madre, Zacatecas; 
3004 (301980), 2727 (302713-4) Bolanos, Jalisco. Rose 6- Hay, 5537 (395299) Ajusco, Mexico. Shaw, 
Eslava, Mexico; Pachuca, Hidalgo. Pringle, 8786,9484, 10012, Ajusco, Mexico. 



PUBL. ARN. ARB. I. 



PLATE XV. 



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PINUS MONTEZUMAE VAR. LINDLEYI LOUD. 



PUBL. ARN. ARB. I. 



PLATE XVI. 




3 





*# 





PINUS MONTEZUMAE VARS. RUDIS SHAW & KARTWEQGII ENGELM. 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 



23 



Pinus Montezumae var. Hartwegii Engelmann, Trdns. St. Louis Acad. Sci. iv, 177, 

181 (1880). 

Pinus Hartwegii Lindley, Bob Reg. xxv, Misc. 62 (1839). Loudon, Encycl. Trees & 

Shrubs, 1000, fig. 1875 (1842). Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 152 (1847). Parlatore, DC. 

Prodr. xvi, pt. 2, 399 (1868). Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Cent. Am. iii, 187 (1883). 

Pinus Donnell-Smithii Masters, Bot. Gas. xvi, 199 (1891). Smith, Bot. Gaz. xix, 13, t. 

2 (1894). 

Cones 6-12 cm. long, dull very dark brown or nearly black ; leaves 7-15 cm. in length, 
often in fascicles of 3 or 4 as well as of 5 ; conelets blue or sooty black. 

Growing at cool temperate altitudes up to the tree limit. 

Nelson, 4 (398547) Salazar, Mexico; 177 (398548) no locality; 983 (398557) Yalalag, Oaxaca; 2534(398578) 
Miahuatlan, Oaxaca: 3653 (,39 8 597) Chaucol, Guatemala; 6563 (398629) Mt. Patamban, Michoacan. Nelson 
<Sn Goldman, 16 (396796) Volcan Iztacihuatl. Rose & Hay, 5780 (395567) Mt. Orizaba; 6076 (395881-2), 
6325 (396144-5) Volcan Popocatepetl. Rose &> Fainter, 7953 (450779), 7971 (451591) Toluca, Mexico. 
Maxon cV Hay, 3688 (473628), 3693 (474793) Volcan de Agua, Guatemala. Pringle, 8789, Ajusco, Mexico. 
Shaw, Toro, Mexico. 

Both the varieties rudis and Hartwegii bear short, rigid, glaucous leaves, blue or blue-black conelets and com- 
paratively small cones. The typical cones of var. rudis are brown in color, those of var. Hartwegii black. Var. 
rudis grows at warmer temperate levels, var. Hartwegii in colder regions and at higher altitudes than any other 
Mexican Pine. Leaves of var. rudis are in fascicles of 5, occasionally more, those of var. Hartwegii are often in 
3's and 4's as well as 5's. The variety Hartwegii appears to be the variety rudis modified by exposure to severer 
conditions. On the other hand the variety rudis may be considered a smaller form of the variety Lindleyi, sepa- 
rated from it by its shorter leaves, smaller cones and blue conelets. The blue color of the conelet, however, is 
superficial, for it disappears after a short immersion in alcohol. 



In Lambert's plate of P. Montezumae the cone is of the common subtropical form. Both cones 
-and leaves often attain greater length than shown on the plate, but dimensions, in this species, are of no diag- 
nostic value. Three cones taken from a single tree at Cuernavaca measure 12, 15 and 20 cm. The 
type passes into the variety Lindleyi through numerous intermediates, which may be found in great numbers 
in the states of Tlaxcala, Puebla and Vera Cruz, directly east of the City of Mexico. 

Trees bearing fascicles of 6, 7 or 8 leaves are quite common, but such excessive numbers are found usually 
on older trees and in favorable years. On young trees fascicles of 3 and 4 leaves may be found, but in all 
cases fascicles of 5 predominate. The epiderm of the bsanchlets falls away sooner or later, but the cushions 
formed by the decurrent bases of the bracts remain, their freshly exposed surfaces being of a buff gray color. 
This character is common to all forms of P. Montezumae and may be seen on several of the specimens of the 
Nelson collection; it also appears on cultivated specimens sent to me from southern England. 



PLATE XVI. 

Fig. 1, 2. Cones of var. rudis. Fig. 6. Cone of var. Hartwegii. 

" 3. Leaf-section of Nelson 4567, magn. 30 diam. " 7. Leaf-section of " magn. 30 diam. 

" 4. " " " " 4916, " " " " 8. Habit of var. rudis. 
" 5. Conelet of Nelson 4916. 



24 THE PINES OF MEXICO. 

18. PINUS PONDEROSA DOUGL. 

Pinus poxderosa Douglas ex Lawson & Son Agric. Man. 354 (1836). Loudon, Arb. 
et Frut. Brit, iv, 2243, fig. 2133 (1838). Encycl. Trees & S/irubs, 981, fig. 1831 
(1842); Forbes. Pinet. Woburn. 44, t. 15 (1839). Antoine, Die Conif. 28, t. 8, fig. 1 
(1840). Sargent, Gard. & For. i. 392, fig. 62 (1888); Silva N. Am. xi, 77, t. 560 and 561 
(1897); Man. Trees N. Am. 15, fig. 15 (1905). Britton.iV. Am. Trees, 24, fig. 18 (1908). 
Sudworth, Forest Trees Pad/. Slope, 42, fig. 13 (1908). 

Pinus brachyptera Engelmann, Wislizemis Tour Nor. Mex. 89 {Senate Doc. 1848). 
Leaves stout, in fascicles of 2-5, their numerous resin ducts medial. Cones 6-19 cm. long, 

early deciduous, the peduncle and a few basal scales usually temporarily persistent on the tree 

after the fall of the cone ; apophyses armed with usually stout and persistent prickles. 

Northern Mexico and from western Texas and the eastern slope of the southern Rocky 

Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. 

Nelson, 4568 (398622) El Salto, Durango; 6055 (398626) Sierra Madre, Chihuahua. Shaw, Sandia, Durango. 

PlNUS PONDEROSA VAR. MACROPHYLLA N. VAR. 

Pinus MACROPHYLI.A Engelmann, Wislizemis 1 Tour Nor. Mex. 103 (Senate Doc. 1848), not 
Lindley. 

Pinus Engelmanni Carriere, Rev. Hort. 227 ( 1854). 

Leaves stout, 30-40 cm. long, in fascicles of 3-5 ; cones large, their apophyses prolonged 
into a more or less reflexed protuberance armed with a stout or Weak prickle. 

Sierras of north western Mexico. 

Goldman, 163 (396790) Guasarachi, Chihuahua; 290 (396792) Alamos, Sonora. Pringle, 1448, Chihuahua. 

Pinus ponderosa var. Jeffreyi Vasey, Rep. Dept. Agric. U. S., 179(1 875). Sargent, 
Silva N. Am. xi, 79, t. 562 and 563 (1897); Man. Trees N Am. 16, fig. 16 (1905). 
Pinus Jeffreyi A. Murray, Oreg. Comm. 2, fig. (1853). Lawson, Pinet. Brit, i, 45, fig. 
(1884). Sudworth, Forest Trees Pacif. Slope, 47, fig. 14 (1908). 

Pinus deflexa Torrey, Emory s Rep. Mex. Bound, ii, pt. 1, 209, t. 56 (1859). A. Murray,. 
Gard. Chron. ser. 2, iv, 295, fig. 65 (1875). 

Cones large, their scales armed with slender or stout reflexed prickles; branchlets pruinose. 
Northern California Baja, and on the Mountains of California. 
Goldman, 1245 (565150) San Pedro Martir Mts., California Baja. 

Pinus ponderosa var. arizonica n. var. 

Pinus arizonica Engelmann, Rothrock Wheelers Rep. vi, 260 (1878). Sargent, Silva N. 

Am. xi, 75 t. 559 (1897); Man. Trees N. Am. 14, fig 14 (1905). Britton, N. Am. Trees,. 

22, fig. 16 (1908). 

Leaves in fascicles of 3-5; cones small; branchlets pruinose. 

On the north eastern and north western Sierras, and mountains of southern Arizona. 

Nelson, 4502 (398616) Miquihuana, Nuevo Leon. 

PLATE XVII. 

Fig. 1 . Cone of P. ponderosa. Fig. 4. Cone of var. arizonica. 

" 2. Cone of var. macrophylla, Goldman 163. " 5. Leaf-section " magn. 30 diam. 

'< 3. " " " " Pringle 1448. " 6. " " var. macrophylla, magn. 30 diam. 



PUBL. ARN. ARK. I. 



PLATE XVII. 




PINUS PONDEROSA DOUGL. 



PUBL. AKN. AKB. I. 



ri.A'iE will. 




PINUS PRINGLEI SHAW. 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 25 



14. PINUS PRIXGLEI Shaw. 

Pinus Pringj^ei Shaw, Sargent Trees & Shrubs, i, 211, t. 100 (1905.) 

Leaves with persistent sheaths, in fascicles of 3, 15-25 cm. long, stout, serrate; resin ducts 
internal ; hypoderm bundles projecting far into and occasionally across the green tissue. Cone- 
lets subterminal, long-pedunculate, single or in pairs, the prickle of the scales very small and 
deciduous. Cones renexed, on short stout rigid peduncles, 5-10 cm. long, conical, pendent 
or patulous, persistent, their apophyses tumid or somewhat pyramidal, lustrous ochre-yel- 
low, those at the base of the cone often prominent and slightly rerlexed ; seed-wing conspicu- 
ously thickened at the base. Branchlets sometimes pruinose ; the decurrent bases of the bracts 
deciduous. Bark for a few years scaly and red. 

A tree of the subtropical zone, with bright green, long, stout leaves, persistent, often abun- 
dant cones and long sinuous branches ; associated with P. oocarpa and/ 5 . Laiusoni. Its geo- 
graphical limits are not now definitely determined. 

Nelson, 2182 (398570) Chilpancingo, Guerrero. Pringle, 10019, Uruapan, Michoacan. Shaw, Uruapan and 
Huingo, Michoacan; Cuernavaca, Morelos. 

Pinus Pringlei flowers in November or in early December, earlier than its associate and near relative P. oocarpa. 
I have seen it at Uruapan, at Huingo on Lake Cuisco, and near Cuernavaca at the base of the northern slope of 
the Ajusco Mountains. In the last station a tree was found bearing several fascicles of two leaves, an exceptional 
number for a Hard Pine exclusively Mexican. From my limited observations it appears that the species 
is quite constant in its long stout leaves, but the cones vary much in size on different trees. 

PLATE XVIII. 

Fig. 1. Cone from Uruapan. Fig. 5. Seeds. 

" 2. Leaves and conelets. " 6, 7. Cones from Uruapan. 

" 3. Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. " 8. Cone of Nelson 2182. 

" 4. Conelet magnified. 



26 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 



15. PLNTJS OOCARPA SCHIEDE. 

PnrUB oocarpa Schiede, Linnaea xii, 491 (1838). Antoine, Die Conif. 38, t. 17, fig. 2 

(1840). Loudon, Encycl. Trees & Shrubs, 1012, fig. 1896 (1842). Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 

152 (1847). Parlatore, DC. Prodr. xvi, pt. 2, 401 (1868). Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Cent. 

Am. iii, 188 (1883). 

Pixus oocarpoides Lindley, ex Loudon Encycl. Trees & Shrubs, 1 1 18 (1842). 

Leaves with persistent sheaths, in fascicles of 3, 4 and 5, 18-28 cm. long, serrate ; resin 
ducts usually combining with the hypoderm bundles and forming partitions across the green 
tissue. Conelets subterminal, long-pedunculate, reflexed or patulous, single or in pairs, their 
scales armed with a very small prickle. Cones pendent or patulous on long, often curved pe- 
duncles, symmetrical or somewhat oblique, 4-8, sometimes 10 cm. long, persistent, their 
apophyses thin and flat or pyramidal, usually delicately but distinctly carinate transversely 
and radially, lustrous, ochre-yellow often tinged with gray or green. Seed-wing much 
thickened at the base. Branchlets usually stout, the decurrent bases of the bracts deciduous, 
their bark for a few years thin, scaly and red. 

A tree 12-15 metres in height, with stout branches, a round compact head and bright green 
leaves in spreading tufts ; growing in Central America and extending through southern and 
western Mexico to the boundary between the states of Sinaloa and Sonora ; confined to the 
subtropical zone and associated with P. Pringlei and P. Lawsoni. 

Nelson, 941 (398551) Comaltepec, Oaxaca; 978-9 (398552-3) Yalalag, Oaxaca; 1761 (398564) Reyes, Oaxaca; 
2152, 2158 (398566-7) Patatlan to Cbilapa, Guerrero ; 2406 (398574) Jaquila to Nepala, Oaxaca; 2558 
(398585-6) San Carlos to San Bartolo, Oaxaca; 2678 (398587-8) Santo Domingo, Oaxaca; 2854 (229353) Efi- 
genia, Oaxaca; 3130 (398590) San Cristobal, Chiapas; 3493 (398595) Comitan, Chiapas. 3673 (398598), 3681 
(398600) Huehuetenango, Guatemala; 4044 (398608) Talpa to Mascota, Jalisco; 4119 (398612) La Laguna, Ja- 
lisco ; 6845 (398632) Los Reyes, Michoacan ; 7039 (399380) Ocotito, Guerrero. Goldman, 19 (324782) Huau- 
chinango, Puebla ; 268(396791) Sierra de Choix, Sinaloa ; 341 (396793) Chacala, Durango ; 798 (398790) 
Canjob, Chiapas; 846 (398792) Comitan, Chiapas; 996 (398798-9) Ixtapa, Chiapas; 1055 (347474) Los Pinos, 
Chiapas. Rose, 2003 (300896) Pedro Paulo to San Blasato, Tepic ; 2195 (301105-6), Santa Teresa, Tepic ; 
3026 (301983), 3068 (302029) Bolaftos to Guadalajara, Jalisco; 2262 (302733), 2264 (301178) Durango; 3736 
(302724) Sierra Madre, Zacatecas; 3737 (302725-6) Sierra Madre, Tepic. Rose S- Painter, 7508 (451115) Gua- 
dalajara, Jalisco. Maxon df Hay, 3370 (473357) Purula, Guatemala; 3428 (473408) Chiquin, Guatemala ; 3375 
(473361) Santa Rosa, Guatemala. Pringle, 2109, 2455, Guadalajara, Jalisco; 10141, Uruapan, Michoacan; 
Shaw, Etzatlan, Jalisco; Cuernavaca, Morelos. 

PLATE XIX. 



Fig. 1. Cone from Uruapan. 

" 2. Habit of P. oocarpa. 

" 3. Conelets from Uruapan. 

" 4. Leaves " ' 



Fig. 5. Cone of Nelon 979. 

" 6. Seeds of P. oocarpa. 

" 7. Section through wing and nut, magnified. 

' 8. Typical leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 



PUBL. ARN. ARB. I. 



PLATE XIX. 




PINUS OOCARPA SCHIEDE. 



PUBL. ARN. AKli. 1 



PLATE XX. 




PINUS OOCARPA SCHIEDE. 



THE PINES OF MEXICO- 



27 



PlNUS OOCARPA VAK. MICROPHYLLA. N. VAR. 

Leaves much shorter and more slender than those of the species, 8-13 cm. long. 
Sinaloa and the Territory of Tepic. 

Rose, 1755 (300624-5) Colomas, Sinaloa; 1997 (300890) Pedro Pau'o to San Rlasato, Tepic. Palmer, 1998, 
Tepic. 

The specimens of this variety that have been collected indicate a limited range on either side of the boundary 
between Sinaloa and Tepic. The cones are distinctly of the oocarpa form, although with thin scales and slender 
peduncles, but the leaves are very much shorter and thinner than those of the species and, were it not for the 
cones, would scarcely be recognized as belonging even to a variety of P. oocarpa. 



Pinus oocarpa can easily be recognized by its characteristic cone and by the peculiar section of its leaf. When 
one of these characters fails the other is usually present. The leaf-section, however, is not invariable and it 
is advisable, in investigating this or related species, to examine a number of leaves. The cone, too, does 
not always conform to the type. There are ovate or long-conical shapes which do not suggest the species. 
A form from Guatemala (Plate XX, fig. 12) collected by Kellermann, was also found by Nelson (No. 
3681). This, according to Nelson, was a single tree in a grove of P. oocarpa at Huehuetenango, Guatemala. This 
form, if it proves to be common, may deserve a varietal name. 

The thickening of the basal portion of the seed-wing is more conspicuous in this species than in others of this 
section. The base above the nut is thick and rigid, the upper portion of the wing is membranous, the 
two parts meet in an oblique line, along which the membranous part is easily broken away. Apparently the re- 
inforced base contributes something toward the security of the grasp of the wing on the nut, for, while collecting 
Pine-seeds in Mexico, it was found that the seed-wings of P. oocarpa and P. Pringlei were more difficult to remove 
than those of other species not provided with this peculiar kind of wing. This character is most conspicuous in 
the group of three California Pines with very large cones, P. Sabiniana Dong. P.Coulteri Don and P. Torreyana>~ 
Parry. At Uruapan the fallen leaves of this and other long-leaved Pines are used in the manufacture of adobe, 
the sun-dried brick of Spanish-American countries. 



PLATE XX. 

Fig. 1. Cone of Nelson 6845. Fig. 7. 

" 2. Cone of Rose 1755 (var. microphylla). " 8. 

" 3. ' Cone from Uruapan. " 9. 

" 4. Leaf -section of Nelson 2158, magn. 30 diam. " 10. 

" 5. Cone of Palmer 1998 {var. microphylla). " n. 

" 6. Leaf-section of Nelson 2406, magn. 30 diam. " 12. 



Cone from Uruapan. 

Leaves of Palmer 1998 (var. microphylla.). 
Leaf-section of same, magn. 30 diam. 
Leaves of Rose 1755 {var. microphylla). 
Leaf-section of same, magn. 30 diam. 
Cone of Kellermann 4521. 



28 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 



10. PIN US GREGGII Engelm. 

Pinus GREGGII Engelmann, ex Parlatore DC. Prodr. xvi, pt. 2, 396 (1868). Engelmann, 

Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci. iv, 17.7 (1880). Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Cent. Am. \\\, 187(1883). 

Shaw. Sargent Trees <2f Shrubs ii, 53. t. 124 (1907). 

Pints patula /8 stricta Bentham ex Endlicher Syn. Com'/. 157 (1847). 

Pints i. villa var. macrocarpa' Masters, Gard. Chron., ser. 3, ix, 438, fig. 92 (1891). 

Leaves with persistent sheaths, in fascicles of 3, 7-10 cm. long, erect, serrate ; resin ducts 
medial : hypoderm of thin-walled, inconspicuous cells. Conelets subterminal, pedunculate, 
single or aggregate, their scales armed with a small, usually deciduous prickle. Cones sub- 
sessile, rerlexed, oblique, conical, 6-12 cm. long, persistent; apophyses tumid, unevenly devel- 
oped, lustrous ochre-yellow. Seed-wing thickened at the base. Branchlets pruinose, the 
decurrent bases of the bracts not prominent and becoming merged in the long-persistent 
smooth gray bark of the young trees. 

A tree 10-15 metres in height, with short erect bright green leaves, smooth gray upper 
trunk and persistent clustered cones, growing on the north eastern Sierras at cool temperate 
altitudes. 

Gregg, 402 (type), Pringle, 10142, S/iaw, all near Saltillo, Coahuila. 

There are no specimens of this species in the Nelson & Rose collections. 

The conelets are subterminal at the time of flowering, after which the shoot elongates and leaves them in a 
pseudo-lateral position at the end of the first season. Occasionally a true lateral conelet occurs, but the character 
is not normal as it is with P. patula. 

Cones just before ripening change from green to a lustrous reddish-brown, not unlike the color of a dry 
cone of P. halepensis, Miller, but quite unlike the purple black color of the cone of P. patula at the same stage of 
development. The erect short sparse foliage and the smooth gray upper trunk of P. Greggii give the tree an 
aspect totally different from that of P. patula, with its slender, long, drooping leaves and red scaly upper trunk. 
The cone, however, is remarkably like that of P. patula and has the same subsessile attachment to the branch, 
the long peduncle of the conelet being overgrown and concealed by the basal scales of the cone in both species. 

From the descriptions of Lambert and later authors it is evident that P. Greggii and P. patula have been long 
confused. The peculiar gray, persistently smooth bark of P. Greggii forms part of their descriptions of P. patula t 
The error must have arisen from Hartweg's specimens from Real del Monte, where P. Greggii might naturally 
have been found before that mining property was deforested. 



PLATE XXI. 



Fig. 1, 2, 3. Cones from Saltillo. 
" 4. Seeds from Saltillo. 
" 5. Branch, leaves and conelets. 



Fig. 6. Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 
" 7. Habit of the tree. 



PUBL. ARN. ARB. I. 



PLATE XXI. 




i^%^- 



PINUS GREGQII ENQELM. 



PUBL. ARN. ARB. I. 



PLATE XXII. 




PINUS PATULA SCHL. & CHAM. 



THE PINES OF MEXICO. 



2 9 



17. PINUS PATULA Schl. & Cham. 

PiNUS patula Schlechtendal & Chamisso, Linnaea vi, 354 (1831); xii, 488 (1838). Lam- 
bert, Gen. Pin. ed. 3, i, 36, t. 19 (1832); ed. 1, iii, text and plate (1837). Loudon, Arb. et 
Frut. Brit, iv, 2266, fig. 2175 (1838) ; Encycl. Trees & Shrubs, 992, fig. 1856 (1842). 
Antoine, Die Conif. 35, t. 16, fig. 2 (1840). Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 157 (1847). P ar " 
latore, DC. Prodr. xvi, pt. 2, 397 (1868). Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Cent. Am. iii. 189 (1883); 
Gard. Chron. ser. 2, xxiii, 108, figs. 19, 20, 22 (1885). Veitch, Man. Conif. ed. 2, 355 
(1900) 

Leaves with persistent sheaths, in fascicles of 3, sometimes 4 or 5, 15-30 cm. long, slender, 
pendent, serrate; resin ducts medial, occasionally internal ; hypoderm weak and inconspicuous. 
Conelets lateral, long-pedunculate, single or in clusters of 2-12, their scales tumid, transversely 
carinate, armed with a delicate deciduous prickle. Cones subsessile, reflexed, oblique, conical, 
6-9 cm. in length, persistent; apophyses tumid, unequally developed, of a glossy dark brown 
color. Seed-wing somewhat thickened at the base. Branchlets multinodal, pruinose, slender, 
the cortex deciduous, scaly and red for many years. 

A tree 12-15 meters in height, with long, slender branches, red upper trunk, persistent clus- 
tered cones and slender drooping leaves. Growing in warm temperate altitudes of central and 
eastern states and associated with P. teocote. 

Nelson, 289 (398550, 347472) Mt. Orizaba; 3936 (398605) Pinal des Amoles, Quer^taro ; 3938 (398606) En 
carnacion, Hidalgo. Goldman, 16 (324779) Huauchinango, Puebla. Rose 6r* Hough, 4291 (346234-5) Las 
Vigas, Vera Cruz. Rose, Painter & Rose, 8481 (451973) Encarnacion, Mexico. Pringle, 7835, Jalapa, Vera 
Cruz; 8785, Honey, Hidalgo. 



PLATE XXII. 



Fig. 1. Leaves and buds. 

" 2. Leaf-section, magn. 30 diam. 

" 3. Clustered conelets. 

" 4. Cone from Honey. 



Fig. 



5- 
6. 

7- 

8. 



Cone from Honey. 

Seeds. 

Branch reduced. 

Open cone. 



18. PINUS CONTORTA DOUGL. 

PiNUS contorta Douglas, ex Loudon Arb. et Frut. Brit, iv, 2292, fig. 22 1 1 (1838); Encycl. 

Trees & Shrubs. 975, fig. 18 1 5 (1842). Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 168 (1847). Parlatore, DC. 

Prodr. xvi, pt. 2, 381 (1868). Sargent, Silva N. Am. xi, 89, t. 567 (1897) ; Man. Trees 

N. Am. 26, fig. 27 (1905). Britton, N. Am. Trees, 27, fig. 20 (1908). Sudworth, Forest 

Trees Pacif Slope, 49, figs. 15, 16 (1908). 

Pinus Murrayana, Oreg. Comm. 2, fig. (1853). 

Leaves in fascicles of 2, 3-8 cm. long. Cone small, 5-6 cm. in length, lustrous ochre-brown, 
oblique, persistent, serotinous. Branchlets multinodal. 

One locality only ; common north of the United States boundary in western North 
America. 

Goldman 1220 (565126) San Pedro Martir Mts., California Baja. 



INDEX. 



Names of admitted species are in roman type, of synonyms in italics. 



PAGE 

Pinus Altamirani Shaw 18 

apulcensis Lindl. 19 

arizonica Engelm. 24 

ayacahuite Ehrenb. 9 

ayacahuite var. brachyptera Shaw 1 1 

ayacahuite var. strobiformis Lemm. 1 2 

ayacahuite var. Veitchii Shaw 10 

brachyptera Engelm. 24 

Bonapartea Roezl. 10 

cembroides Gord. 7 

cembroides Zucc. 5 

cembroides var. edulis Voss 6 
cembroides var. monophylla Voss 5 

cembroides var. Parryana Voss 6 

chihuahuana Engelm. 14 

contorta Dougl. 29 

deflexa Torr. 24 

Devoniana Lindl. 21 

Donnell-Smithii Mast. 23 

edulis Engelm. 6 

Ehrenbergii Endl. 22 

Engelmanni Carr. 24 

filifolia Lindl. 2 1 

flexilis James 12 

flexilis var. reflexa Engelm. 12 

Eremontiana Endl. 5 

Gordoniana Hartw. 2 1 

Greggii Engelm. 28 

Grenvilleae Gord. 2 1 

Hartwegii Lindl. 23 

Hartwegii Pari. 22 

Jeffreyi Murr. 24 

Lambertiana Dougl. 12 

Lawsoni Roezl 18 

latisquama Engelm. 7 

leiophylla Benth. 17 

leiophylla Schl. & Cham. 13 

leiophylla var. chihuahuana Shaw 14 

Lindleyana Gord. 22 

Llaveana Schiede 5 

Loudoniana Gord. 10 



Pinus Lumholtzii Rob. & Fern. 
macrophylla Engelm. 
macrophylla Lindl. 
monophylla Torr. 
Montezumae Gord. 
Montezumae Lamb. 



PAGE 

15 
24 

21 

5 

22 
21 

Montezumae var. Hartwegii Engelm. 23 

Montezumae var. Lindleyi Loud. 22 

Montezumae var. rudis Shaw 22 

Murrayana Or. Comm. 29 

Nelsoni Shaw 8 

oocarpa Schiede 26 

oocarpa var. microphylla Shaw 27 

oocarpoides Lindl. 26 

orizabae Gord. 19 

osteosperma Engelm. 5 

Parryana Engelm. 6 

patula Schl. & Cham. 29 

patula Seem. 15 

patula var. macrocarpa Mast. 28 

patula /3 Stricta Benth. 28 

Pinceana Gord. 7 

ponderosa Dougl. 24 

ponderosa var. arizonica Shaw 24 

ponderosa var. Jeffreyi Vasey 24 

ponderosa var. macrophylla Shaw 24 

Pringlei Shaw 25 

pseudostrobus Lindl. 19 
pseudostrobus var. apulcensis Shaw 19 
pseudostrobus var. tenuifolia Shaw 20 

quadrifolia Sudw. 6 

reflexa Engelm. 12 

rudis Endl. 22 

Russelliana Lindl. 2 1 

strobiformis Engelm. 1 1 

strobiformis Sudw. 12 

tenuifolia Benth. 20 

teocote Schl. & Cham. 16 

teocote var. macrocarpa Shaw 17 

Veitchii Roezl. 10 

Wincesteriana Gord. 21 



LIBRARY 

FACULTY OF FORESTRY 
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



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Shaw, George Russell 
The pines of Mexico 



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