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Full text of "Pioneer history of Orleans county, New York. Containing some account of the civil divisions of western New York, with brief biographical notices of early settlers, and of the hardships and privations they endured, the organization of the towns in the county, together with lists of town and county officers, since the county was organized, with anecdotes and reminiscences, illustrating the character and customs of the people"

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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



PIONEER HISTORY 

OF 

ORLE ANS COUNTY, 

:N^ JE ^W YORK. 

CONTAINING 

SOME ACCOUNT OF THE CIVIL DIVISIONS 
OF WESTERN NEW YORK, 

WITH BRIEF BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES OF EARLY SETTLERS, AND OF 

THE HARDSHIPS AND PRIVATIONS THEY ENDURED, THE 

ORGANIZATION OF THE TOWNS EN THE 

COUNTY, TOGETHER AVITH 

LISTS OF TOWN AND COUNTY OFFICEIIS, 

SINCE THE COUNTY WAS ORGANIZED, 

WITH ANECDOTES AND REMINISCENCES, ILLUSTRATING THE 

CHARACTER AND CUSTOMS OF THE PEOPLE, 

BY 

ARAB THOMAS. 



ALBION, N. Y.: 

H. A. BRUNER, ORLEANS AMERICAN STEAM PRESS PRINT. 
1871. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1871, by 

ARAD THOMAS, 

In tlie Clerk's Office of tlie District Court of the United States, for the 

Northern District of New York. 



V 






^fbicution. 



TO THE 

ORI,EANS COUNTY TIONEER ASSOCIATION, 

BY KEQUEST OF MANY OF WHOSE MEMBERS THIS WORK 

WAS UNDERTAKEN, BY WHOM THE AUTHOR HAS BEEN GREATLY AIDED 

IN TREPARING IT, AND TO WHOM HE FEELS UNDER 

OBLIGATIONS FOR MANY PERSONAL FAA'ORS, 

THIS BOOK IS RESPECTFULLY 

DEDICATED BY THE 

AUTHOR. 



1^ 



1101131 



PREFACE. 

The origin of this "book is briefly this : The Orleans 
County Pioneer Association had collected a volume in 
manuscript of local history of many of its members, 
written by themselves, Vv^hich they desired to have 
published. 

Some difficulty existed in getting out the work by 
the Association, and the author was requested Ty 
many of his friends to get up a book on his own ac- 
count, which should contain the substance of the his- 
tories referred to, and such other matter connected 
with the Pioneer History of Orleans County, as might 
be of general interest to readers. 

The author has used, the records of the Association, 
taking some histories of Pioneers in full, as wTitten 
by themselves ; and extracting and condensing from 
others such parts as he thought of more general inter- 
est, and as his space would allow. 

Many of his facts he has collected from liis own 
knowledge, and from the testimony of early settlers, 
and others acquainted with the matter. 

To those who have so kindly aided him by such in- 
formation as they possessed, he returns his sincerest 
thanks, particularly to Messrs. Asa Sanford, Matthew 
Gregory and Hon. Robert Anderson, for their gener- 
ous contributions of material for this book. 

The character of tliis book being local, many names 
of persons, and events of private history have been in- 
troduced, of little interest perhaps out of the families 
and neighborhood of the parties ; but with these the- 
author has endeavored to collect and preserve the; 



PREFACE. V 

memory of such events of a more public character, 
as marked the progress of settlement of this portion 
of the Holland Purchase, and as may be worthy of 
remembrance. 

For this purpose O'Eeiley's Sketches of Eochester, 
Turner's History of Phelps and Gorham's Purchase, 
and of the Holland Purchase, and French' s Gazetteer 
<j»f New York, have been consulted, and such extracts 
and compilations made as could be found there. 

It has been an object, kept in view, to collect as 
much personal reminiscence as possible, for the grat- 
ification of the older inhabitants of Orleans County, 
for whom the book was more particularly designed. 

Errors in dates, events, names and narratives, no 
doubt may be found in the work. Such errors are 
unavoidable in giving details of statements of aged 
people, often contiicting in their character, and the in- 
telligent reader may sometimes regret that he finds no 
notice here of facts and incidents in the Pioneer His- 
tory of this region of country, which he may deem of 
more importance than much of the matter the book 
contains. 

Some such facts and incidents may not have come 
to the notice of the author, and he has been compell- 
ed to omit much matter of interest, lest his work 
should be too large, beyond the plan proposed. 

Much as apology may seem to be needed, the au- 
thor has little to make, more than to say he is not a 
professional book maker, and has no hope of found- 
ing a literary reputation on this work. He has little 
fear therefore of critics, and will be happy, if by this 
labor he has pleased the old settlers of Orleans County 
and done his part to save from oblivion, good matter 
for history, fast passing away ; for in the beautiful 
language of Whittier— 

" still from the hurryinf? train of life, fly backward far anil fast, 
The mile stones of the fathers,— the laudmarlts of the past." 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER I. 

The Indians of "Western ISTew-York — Their Traditionary History — An- 
cient Fortifications in Shelb}' — Their Friendship for the "White Man 
in the "War of 1812 — Fishing and Hunting. 
CHAPTER II. 

Phelps and Gorliani's Purchase — "When made — Territory Inchided in 
— Consolidated Securities — Their Sale to Robert Morris — Divisions 
of their Purchase — The Triangle. 

CHAPTER III. 

The 100,000 Acre Tract— Boundaries— Dr. Levi Ward— Levi A. Ward 
— Joseph Fellows — Transit Line. 

CHAPTER lY. 

The Holland Purchase — Names of Company — Location of Tract — Sur- 
veys — Ceded by Indians — Counties in New- York One Hundred Years 
Ago — Genesee Country — Genesee County and its Subdivisions — Jo- 
seph Ellicott and brother Benj., Surveyors — Agent of the Company 
— Land Office — Where Located — Practice in Locating Land — Arti- 
cles — Clemency of the Land Company — Deeding Lots for School 
Houses — Land Given to Religious Societies — Anecdote of 3Ir. Busti 
Rev. Andrew Rawson — Route ot Travel to Orleans County — Oak 
Orchard Creek and Johnson's Creek — Why so Named — Kinds of 
Forest Trees — Wild Animals — Salmon and other Fish — Rattlesnakes 
— Raccoons and Hedgehogs — Beaver Dams — Fruits — Effect of Clear- 
ing Land on Chmate — The Tonawanda Swamps. 
CHAPTER V. 

The Log House — Description — How Built— Windows and Door — Walls 
Raised at a Bee — Chimneys — Ovens — Cellars — Double Log House — 
Copied after Indian Wigwam — Fires — Great Back Log — Lights. 

CHAPTER YI. 
Log House Furniture — Beds and Bedding — Fire Place — Hooks and 
Trammel — Bake Pan — Table — Chairs — Pewter Spoons — Blue Edged 
Plates— Black Earthen Tea Pots. 

CHAPTER YII. 
Clearing Land and First Crops — Cutting down the Trees — Black Salts 
— Slashing — Clearing — Fallow — Planting and Sowing — Harvesting 
and Cleaning Up — How Done. 



CONTENTS. Vll 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Hardships and Privations— Want of Breadstuff— Scarcity of Mills — 
Difficulty of getting Grain Ground — Mill on a Stump — Fever and 
Ague— Quinine and Blue Pill— No Post Office— Keeping Cattle- 
Difficulty Keeping Fire — Instance ot Fire Out — Want of Good Water 
— No Highways — Discouragement from Sickness — Social Amuse- 
ments-Hospitality — Early Merchants — Their Stores and Goods — 
Domestic ]yianufactures — Post Offices and Mails. 

CHAPTER IX. 

The Erie Canal— When Begun- Effect- Rise in Price of Every thing- 
Progress of Improvement — Carriages on Springs. 

CHAPTER X. 

Public Highways— The Ridge Road— When Laid Out— Appropriation 

— Oak Orchard Road— Opened by Holland Company — Road from 

Shelby to Oak Orchard in Barrc— Salt Works Roads— State Road 

along Canal— Judge Porter's Account of first Tracing the Ridge 

Road. 

CHAPTER XI. 

Railroads — Medina and Darieu — Medina and Lake Ontario— Roches- 
ter, Lockport and Niagara Falls. 

CHAPTER XII. 
State of Education — School Houses — Description — Gaines Academy — 
Other Academics and Schools. 

CHAPTER XIII. 
State of Religion — Religious Feeling among the People — Ministers and 
Missionaries — Meeting House in Gaines — First in County — Building. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Burying Grounds — Mount Albion Cemetery — Boxwood Cemetery. 

CHAPTER XV. 
Town of Barre — Fii'fet settled along Oak Orchard Road — Laud Given 
by the Holland Company to Congregational Society — Congregational 
Church — Presbyterian Church in Albion — First Tavcrn-^Firsl Store 
— First Lawyer — First Doctor — First Deed of Land to Settler— Deeds 
of Land in Albion — First House in Albion — Death of Mrs. McCallis- 
ter — First Warehouse — First Saw Mill — First Grist Mill — Trade in 
Lumber— First Ball— First Town Meeting— Fourth of July, 1821— 
First Wedding in Albion — Story — Biographies of Earl}' Settlers. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Village of Albion — First Inhabitants — First Business jMen — Strife Avith 
Gaines for Court House — Strateg}' used by Albion men to get Court 
House — First Court House — Second Court House — County Jail — 
First Hotel — First Warehouse — Stone Flouring Mill — Lawyers — Di's. 
Nichoson and White — First Tanyard — First Blacksmiths— Name of 
the Villa";e. 



VIU CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Town of Carltou — Name — Lumber Trade — First ScttlemcRt of White 
Men in County — James Walsworth — Village of Manilla — Names of 
Persons who took Articles of Land in Carlton in 1803, 1804 and 1805 
— Matthew Dunham — Curious Mill to Pound Corn — Dunham's Saw 
Mill and Grist Mill— First in County— First Frame Earn— The Union 
Companj^ — Death of Elijah Brown — First Children Born in Town — 
First Store — Biographies of Early Settlers. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Town of Clarendon — Difficulty in getting Titles from Pultney Estate — 
Eldredge Farwell — Farwell's Mills — First School — First Merchants 
— J. and D. Sturgess — First Postmaster — First Physician — Presbyte- 
rian Church — First Town ^Meeting — Biographies ol Early Settlers. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Town of Gaines — First Settlers — Case of Getting Fire — Noah Burgess 
— Mrs. Burgess — Cutting Logs for a House — First Orchard — First 
School House — Drake's Mill Dam and Saw Mili — Organization of 
McCarty's Militia Company — Their Scout after British and Indians 
— Dr. Jesse Beacli — Orange Butler — First Marriage — First Birth — 
First Newspaper in Orleans County — First Tayern — Store — Grist 
Mdl — First IMerchants — James Mather Dealing in Black Salts, &c. — 
Business at Gaines Basin— Village of Gaines — Gaines Academy — Ef- 
forts to Locate Court House Here — Trade in Other Localities — Biog- 
raphies of Early Settlers. 

CHAPTER XX. 

Town of Kendall — Partitioned between State of Connecticut and Pult- 
ney Estate— First Settler— First IMarriage— First Birth— First Tav- 
ern—First Death— First Store— First School— First Saw Mill— First 
Public Religious Service — First Physician — First Highway from 
Kendall Corners to Ridge — Biographies of Eariy Settlers. 
CHAPTER XXI. 

Town of 3Iurray— Towns Set Off— First Tavern— First Marriage— First 
Birth— First Death— First Store— First Grist Mill— First School- 
First Church — Sandy Creek — McCall & Perry's Mill — Sickness at 
Sandy Creek — Biographies of Early Settlers. 
CHAPTER XXII. 

Village of Holley — Areovcster Hamlin— First Store — Post Office — 
Frisbie & Seymour — Early Merchants — First Sawmill — Lawyer — 
Tavern — Justice of the Peace — Salt Brine — Mammoth Tooth — Salt 
Port — Presbyterian Church — Salt Spring. 
CHAPTER XXIII. 

Village of Hulberton— Josei)h Budd— Canal Basin— First Warehouse 
— First Grocery— First Tavern— I. H. S. Ilulbert— First Named Scio 
— Methodist Society — Abijah Reed and Sons. 



CONTENTS. IX 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

Village of Hindsburgh — Jacob Luttenton — Jacob Hinds and Brotliers 
— First Warehouse — Jabez Allison — First Hotel. 
CHAPTER XXV. 

The Town of Ridgewaj — Formed from Bata^-ia — First Town Meeting 
—Turner & White's Grist Mill— First Saw Mill— Dr. White— Salt 
Works — First School — Biographies of Early Settlers. 
CHAPTER XXVI. 

Village of Medina — Saw Mill by Land Company — Evan's Grist Mill — 
Canal Feeder — Nixon's Brewery — Coan's Store — First Tavern — First 
Merchants — Physician— Attorney — Quarries— Justus Ingersoll — Bap- 
tist Meeting House. 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

Village of Knowlesrille — Wm. Knowles, Founder and First Settler — 
First Clearinii — First Framed House — First Tavern — First Ware- 
house — First Boat Load of Wheat — First Ashery — First School 
House — Post'OfBce — First Religious Society. 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 
Town of Shelby — Jo. Ellicott Locating Land — Ellicott's Mills — Road 
Jrom Oak Orchard Road to Shelby — Salt Works Road — Anecdote 
of Lnther Porter— Col. A. A. Ellicott— Ball in Ellicott's Mill— Abuer 
Hunt — Fiddler Hackett — First Ph,ysician — Post Office — Iron Foun- 
dry — Tannery — Biographies of Early Settlers. 
CHAPTER XXIX. 
Town of Yates — Formerly Northton — George Houseman — Discourage- 
ment to Early Settlement — First Deed — Tappau's Tayern — Liquor 
Sold— First IMarriage- First Death— First Store— First School— Bi- 
ographies of Early Settlers. 

CHAPTER XXX. 
Biographical Notices of Joseph Ellicott and Ebcnezer Mix 



AI^JPENDIX. 

Towns in Orleans Count}' — Their Organization — Villages in Orleans 
County — Table of Elevations — ]\Iembers of Assembly Elected from 
Orleans Coanty since its Organization — County Clerks of Orleans 
County — County Treasurers — County Superintendents of Common 
Schools — First Judges of Orleans County Courts — District Attorneys 
of Orleans County — Sheriffs of Orleans County — Surrogates of Or- 
leans County — First Courts of Record — Supervisors of the Dilferent 
Towns in Orleans County since their Organization — The Orleans 
County Pioneer Association — First Annual Address, Delivered be- 
fore the Orleans County Pioneer Association, Sept. 10, 1859, by Arad 
Thomas. 



INTRODUCTION. 

After tlie discovery of America by Columbus, the 
iirst settlement on tlie Atlantic coast by Europeans 
was made by English and Dutch, on the south, and 
by French on the extreme north. Ascending the great 
river St. Lawrence, the French founded the cities ot 
Quebec and Montreal ; and following the river and 
the lakes westward, they established the settlements 
at Pittsburgh and Detroit, many years before the En- 
glish settled Western New- York. 

The xilgonquins and Hurons inhabited Canada East 
at the coming of the French. With these, from mo- 
tives of policy, they formed an alliance. These Cana- 
dian Indians, and^the Iroquois of Western ISTew York, 
were at war with each other. Tlie French joined tlieir 
Indian allies in this war, and thus incurred the invet- 
erate hostility of the Iroquois. 

Many desperate battles were fought between the 
French and these Indians with various success. The 
Algonquins and Hurons were driven out of their coun- 
try, or destroyed, and the Iroquois came near exter- 
minating the French settlements in Cairada. They 
effectually prevented their locating themselves in ISTew 
York, althongh they claimed this whole territory. A 
few French missionaries only of their peojole were tol- 
erated by the Iroquois within their country, excej)t 
at the mouth of the Niagara River, Avhere the French 
established a trading post in 1678. This was taken 
by the Englisli under Sir William Johnson, in* 1759, 
and retained by them until it was surrendered to the 
United States in 179G. 



INTRODUCTION. ^ 

Inl7->2, a trading house was iDuilt at Oswego, Under 
the direction of the Colonial government of New- York ; 
and in 1727, this was strengthened by a fort. 

The French protested against this encroachment up- 
on the territory they claimed, by the English, and sev- 
eral times sent military expeditions to drive them out. 

These English establishments at Oswego were taken 
by the French in 1756, and destroyed. They were 
rebuilt by the English in 1758, and continued m their 
possession until 1796 ; they were surrendered to the 
United States under Jay's treaty. 

The French kept up communication through Lake 
Ontario, between their western settlements and Que- 
bec but made no other location within the bounds ot 
New-York, being kept back by the power of the In- 
dians. . . T T A 

In 1760, a powerful army of British, Indians, and 
Provincial Americans, was sent into Canada, under 
Gen Amherst. To these forces the French surrender- 
ed Canada and all their western possessions, which 
included their claim to AVestern New York. 

The Iroquois, or Six Nations, having early entered 
into relations of amity and friendship with the English, 
remained true to their engagements after the overthrow 
of the French in America, and so down to the time ot 
the Revolution. 

At the breaking out of the Revolutionary war, (xen. 
Philip Schuyler, in a council with the chiefs of the 
Six Nations, at German Flats, in June, 1770, had ob- 
tained their promise to remain neutral in that war.— 
After the war had been some time in progress, howev- 
er Sir John Johnson, Brant, Col. John Butler and 
other tories of that day, prevailed on the Indians to 
violate their pledge, and take up arms against the 
Americans ; and with the exception of the Tuscaroras 
and Oneidas, they remained the firm friends ot the 
British through that war. 



Xii INTRODUCTIOlSr. 

Under the influence of tlie Johnsons, a large pro- 
portion of the white inhabitants in the Valley of the 
Mohawk were tories ; these uniting with the hostile 
Indians, led by Butler, Brant and others made incur- 
sions, carrying murder and devastation along the fron- 
tier settlements of the Colonies, and retreating with 
their prisoners and plunder to the British strongholds 
at Niagara and Oswego, where they were safe. 

This predatory warfare continued at intervals, from 
1775 to 1779, along the Mohawk and Susquehanna 
rivers more especially. 

In 1779, Gen. Sullivan, with an army of five thou- 
sand men, was sent b}^ Gen. Washington to punish 
the Indians and tories of New- York, for their conduct 
in the war. He encountered them in force in a forti- 
fied camp near Elmira, where they were defeated with 
great loss. The army of Gen. Sullivan pursued the 
enemy to Canandaigua, thence through their villages 
in Livingston County, destroying everything belong- 
ing to the Indians on their route. But few of the In- 
dians were Idlled after the battle at Elmira ; but they 
were thoroughly frightened, wasted and vanquished, 
and never afterwards resumed the occupancy of their 
settlements east of the Genesee river, but on their re- 
turn from flight before Sullivan, they located near 
Geneseo, Gardeau, Mount Morris and other places in 
the western part of the State. The Oneidas not hav- 
ing eno-asred in the war, were not disturbed in theu- 
homes. 

The Indians were terribly beaten and humbled by 
this expedition of Gen. Sullivan, and from that time 
forward remained peaceful toward the whites. 



PIONEER HISTORY OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 

CHAPTER I. 




THE INDIANS OF WESTERN NEW-YORK. 

Their Traditionary History— Ancient Fortification in Shelby— Their 
Friendship for the White Men in the War of 1812— Fishing and 
Hunting. 

"hISTOEY of the Indians, who inhabited 
Western New-York at the coming of the 

white men to reside among them, is compar- 
atively unknown. Their own traditionary accounts 
go hack but little more than a century, but the nu- 
merous relics and " ruins" and the marks of ancient 
fortifications, upon which no doubt human labor and 
skill have been emj^loyed, which are found scattered 
over all this region of country, seem to prove conclu- 
sively that here men have lived for many centuries 
past. 

All these traces of former habitations of men are 
found within the bounds of Orleans County. When 
they were made, and by whom, seems to be as inex- 
plicable to the Indian of the present day as to his 
white brother. The commonly entertained opinion, of 
those who have investigated the subject most, is that 
this country has been inhabited by a people of higher 
civilization and more skilled in the arts than those 
found here and known as the Six Nations, who have 
become long since extinct. 

The most considerable of these " ancient fortifica- 
tions" to be found in Orleans County is thus described 
in Turner' s History : 



14 PIONEER HISTORY 

"About one and one-half miles west of Shelby Cen- 
ter, in Orleans County, is an ancient work. A broad 
ditch encloses in a form nearly circular, about three 
acres of land. The ditch is at this day well defined 
several feet deep. Adjoining the spot on the south is 
a swamp, about a mile in width, b}' two in length. — 
This swamp was once doubtless, if not a lake, an iiii- 
passable morass. Prom the interior of the enclosure 
made by the ditch, there is what appears to have been 
a passage way on the side next to the swamp. No 
other breach occurs in the entire circuit of the eni- 
bankment. There are accumulated, within and near 
this fort, large piles of small stones of a size conveni- 
ent to be thrown by the hand or with a sling. Arrow 
heads of ilint are found in or near the enclosure, in 
great abundance, stones, axes, &:c. Trees of four 
hundred years growth stand upon the embankment, 
and underneath them have b^en found earthen wares, 
pieces of plates or dishes wrought with skill, pi'esent- 
ing ornaments in relief of various patterns. Some 
skeletons almost entire have been exhumed ; many of 
giant size, not less than seven or eight feet in length. 
The skulls are large and well developed in the anteri- 
or lobe, broad between the ears, and flattened in the 
coronal region. 

Haifa mile west of the fort is a sand hill. Here a 
large number of human skeletons have been exhumed, 
in a perfect state. Great numbers appear to have 
been buried in the same grave. Many of the skulls 
appear to have been broken in Avitli clubs or stones." 

The Indians found actually occupying this part of 
the country when white men began to settle here were 
the Senecas, a tribe of the Six Nations. They had no 
village or permanent settlement within Orleans Coun- 
ty ; but they counted this as part of tlieir territory, 
and occupied it as their hunting and fishing grounds, 
and were accustomed to follow these pursuits here. — 



OF ORLEANS COUKTY. 15 

Their places of residence were their villages in Genesee 
and Niagara Counties. These Indians were friendly 
to the whites, and the pioneer settlers of Orleans 
County never feared their hostility. In the war of 
1812, with Great Britain, they took up arms on the 
side of the United States, and made themselves use- 
ful to us in checking the invasions of the hostile In- 
dians from Canada, who acted with the British. 

These Indians had formerly been favorably dispos- 
ed to the British Government, and it w^as a source of 
alarm at the breaking out of the war lest the}^ should 
be found with their ancient allies. Tlieir great chief, 
Red Jacket, counseled them to maintain neutralit}'. 
This neutral state was construed unfavorably by the 
pioneers, and rumors of contemplated Indian atroci- 
ties were circulated from time to time, until the Sene- 
cas had resolved to take up the hatchet with us. 

The rapid settlement of the county b}^ white men 
had the effect to diminish the number of wild game 
animals, vrhicli the Indians had been accustomed to 
hunt ; and fishing in the Oak Orchard and Johnson' s . 
Creeks, with seines and nets, soon exterminated the 
salmon and drove away other kinds of fish that had 
formerly come up these streams from Lake Ontario in 
abundance, until the Indians found their occupation 
worthless and ceased to come here. 

In an early da}^ parties of Indians came over from 
Canada and wintered in Carlton, for the purpose of 
hunting. In the spring they would return to Canada. 
As game became scarce they discontinued their visits. 

Indians in families, or singl3% frequently traveled 
about among the dwellings of the pioneers to beg or 
sell their small wares, or get whisky. They were gen- 
erally harmless, and made no trouble. Their claim 
to the land was long since settled by treaty transfei-- 
ing it to white men, excepting the reservations to 
which they retired. 



CHAPTER II. 




PHELPS AXD GOKHAlt's PUKCHASE. 

When Made — Territory Included in — Consolidated Securities — Their 
Sale to Eobert Morris — Divisions of their Purchase — The Triangle. 



,K.«r HE original charter, granted Iby tlie King of 
'%^^ England to the colony of Massachusetts, in- 
V^P eluded all th^ country between the north and 
south "boundaries of the colony, extending from the 
Atlantic Ocean on the east, to the Pacific Ocean on 
the west. The .western boundary had not then been 
explored, and the extent of the continent was un- 
known. 

New York was afterwards chartered by the same 
authority, covering a portion of territory previously 
granted to Massachusetts. After the close of the 
Revolutionary war, Massachusetts urged her claim. 
The difficulty was finallj^ compromised between Mass- 
achusetts and New York, by commissioners mutual- 
ly agreed upon, Dec. 16, 1786, by giving to New York 
the sovreignty of all the disputed territory lying with- 
in her chartered limits ; and giving the property in 
the soil to Massachusetts, or the right to buy the soil 
from the Indians, who were then in possession. 

All of the State of New York lying west of a line 
running from Sodus Bay through Seneca Lake, to 
the north line of Pennsylvania, estimated to contain 
6,000,000 of acres, was sold subject to the title the 
Indians then liad to it, by Massachusetts, to Phelps 
and Gorham, in the year 1786, for $1,000,000, to be 
paid for in a kind of scrip, or stock, which had been 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 17 

issued by Massachusetts, called "Consolidated Secu- 
rities," wliicli at the time of the sale was worth about 
50 per cent. 

In July, 1788, Phelps and Gorliam made a treaty 
with the Six IN'ations of Indians, by which they pur- 
chased from them a tract estimat(^d at 2,250,000 acres ; 
bounded east by the Pre-emption Line ; which was 
the eastern boundary of their purchase from Massa- 
chusetts, and west by a line from Lake Ontario to 
Pennsylvania, twelve miles west from Genesee Piver. 

From this sale to Phelps and Gorham, and other 
causes, the market price of these "Consolidated Se- 
curities" rose so hio-h that Phelps and Gorham were 
unable to buy them to fulfill their contract with the 
State ; and so were compelled to surrender.to the State 
of Massachusetts, all the lands lying west of the west 
boundary of the tract they had purchased of the In- 
dians, as above stated. To these lands so surrender- 
ed, the Indian title had not then been extinguished. — 
This tract was sold in the year 1791, by tlie State of 
Massachusetts to Robert Morris. About the year 
1793, Robert Morris sold this tract to an association 
of capitalists residing in Holland, excepting and re- 
serving a parcel of land twelve miles wide, to be ta- 
ken off from the east side. This strip was afterwards 
called "the Morris Reserve." a part of it was sold 
by Morris to Bayard, Leroy and McEvers, known as 
The Triangle, containing 87,000 acres, and another 
portion lying west of The Triangle, and containing 
100,000 acres was sold by Morris to Cragieand others 
and by them to Sir William Pultney and the State of 
Connecticut, ever since known as "The 100,000 Acre 
Tract, " or " Connecticut Tract. ' ' 

The tract so purchased by the Holland Company 
contains about three million six liundred thousand 



18 PIONEER HISTORY 

acres, and is distinguislied as ''The Holland Pur- 
cliase." 

THE TRIANGLE TRACT. 

One of the large divisions of the Phelps and Gorham 
Purchase, lying west of the Genesee River, is known 
as "The Triangle." By treat j between Phelps and 
Gorham, and the Indians, after they had granted to 
Ebenezer Allen, a piece of land of 100 acres, on which 
to erect a saw mill, at what is now Rochester, an- 
other tract was granted to Phelps and Gorham, for 
a "Mill Yard." This was called "The Mill Yard 
Tract," and was twelve miles wide east and west, by 
twenty -four miles north and south, from Lake Ontario. 

The agreement ■was, this " Mill Yard" should be 
bounded east by the Genesee River ; south by a line 
running west fi'om about where Avon now stands ; 
and west twelve miles ; thence north to Lake Ontario. 
It was then supposed that the course of the Genesee 
River was about due north, and the west line was at 
first run by Hugh Maxwell, due north from said south 
west corner, accordingly. 

It was afterwards ascertained, that the mouth, of 
the river was more than twelve miles east from the 
termination of this line, on the lake shore. 

The matter was afterwards arranged by a new line 
being run by Mr. Augustus Porter, nearly parallel 
with Genesee River, and twelve miles west of it, for 
the west bounds of the Mill Yard Tract. This left a 
triangular shaped j)iece of land lying between the 
lines so run by Maxwell and Porter, containing about 
87,000 acres, forming the towns of Clarkson, Hamlin, 
Sweden, Bergen and Lero}'. This tract has ever 
since been described and known as " The Triangle." 



CHAPTER III. 




THE 100,000 ACRE TRACT. 

Boundaries— Dr. Levi Ward — Levi A. Ward — Joseph Fellows — Trah- 
sit Line. 

EFORE the west line of the Mill Yard Tract 
had been rectified "by tlie new line run "by Por- 
ter, Mr. Robert Morris sold a tract Ipng next 
west of "the Mill Yard," to contain 100,000 acres, to 
Cragie'and others. This parcel was afterwards sold 
by the pro2:)rietors to Sir William Pnltney, and the 
State of Connecticut, to each, an undivided half. Af- 
terwards, and about the ja^ar 1811, this tract was di- 
vided between the estate of Sir AYilliani Pnltney, and 
the State of Connecticut. 

The 100,000 Acre Tract includes the towns of Ken- 
dall, Murray and Clarendon, in Orleans County; and 
Byron, and a portion of Bergen, Stafford and Leroy, 
in Genesee County ; and is bounded on the north by 
Lake Ontario, and on the south by a part of the Mor- 
ris Reserve, known as the "Cragie Tract;" on the 
east by "The Triangle;" and on the west b}^ "The 
Holland Purchase." " In Jul}', 1810, the State of Con- 
necticut appointed Dr. Levi Ward agent to sell farm 
lots for them, and about 181C, Dr. Waixl and Levi II. 
Clark purchased of Connecticut all the unsold lands ; 
but by agreement sales were continued in the name of 
the State. Dr. Ward and his son Levi A. \Yard, 
have ever since continued to act as ao:ents for the 



20 PIONEER IIISTOllY 

State of Connecticut, wliilo Mr. Joseph Fellows lias^ 
been a like agent for the Pultney estate. 

THE TRANSIT EINE. 

This line which forms the eastern boundary of the 
Holland Purchase, and the western boundary of 
Morris Reserve, begins on tlie north bounds of Penn- 
sylvania, 12 miles west of the west bounds of Phelps 
and Gorliam's Purchase ; thence runs due north, to> 
near the center of the town of Stafford, in Genesee 
County ; thencejwest a fraction over two miles ; thence 
due north, to Lake Ontario. It forms the eastern 
boundary of the towns of Carlton, Gaines, and Barre. 
It is called the Transit Lino, because it was run out 
first by the aid of a Transit insti-ument. The dffset 
of two miles is said to have been made to pnn^ent 
overlapping the Connecticut Tract by the lands of 
the Holland Purchase. The trees were cut through 
on the Transit Line, to tli(^ width of about four rods, 
at an early day, by the Land Company ; tlius afford- 
ing a convenient land mark to tlit^ early settlers in 
locating their lands, and serving as a guide in finding 
their way through the woods. The Transit Line was. 
run by Joseph EUicott, in 1 798. 



CHAPTER lY 




THE IIOLLAKD PTJIICHASE. 

■Names ot Company — Location of Tract — Surveys — Ceded by Indians — 
Counties iu'CSTew-York One Hundred Tears Ago — Genesee Country — 
Genesee County and its Subdivisions — Joseph Ellicott and brother 
Benj., Surveyors — Agent of the Company — Laud Office — Where Lo- 
cated — Practice in Locating Land^ Articles — Clemency of the Land 
Company — Deeding Lots for School Houses — Land Given to Relig- 
ious Societies — Anecdote of Mr. Busti — Rev. Andrew Ravrson — 
Route ot Travel to Orleans County — Oak Orchard Creek and John- 
son's Creek — Why so Named — Kinds of Forest Trees — Wild Ani- 
mals — Salmon and other Fish — Rattlesnakes — Raccoons and Hedge- 
hogs — Beaver Dams — Fruits — Effect of Clearing Land on Chmate — 
The Touawanda Swamp. 



HIS tract included all the land lying iu tlie 
State of ISTew York, and west of tlie Transit 
^^ P Line, excepting tlie Indian Reservations, and 
contains about 3,600,000 acres. It was purchased of 
Robert Morris by an association of Hollanders, in 
1792-93. The names of the original members of this 
association were Wilh(^lm AYilliiik, Jan Willink, 
Nicholas Yan Stophprst, Jacob Yan Stophorst, Nich- 
olas Hubbard, Pieter Yan Eeghen, Cliristian Yan 
Eeghen, Isaac Ten Gate, Hendiick Yollenhoven, 
Christina Coster, widow, Jan Stadnetsld, and Rutger 
Jan Schimmelpennick. 

The surveys of the Holland Purchase were begun 
on the east, at the Transit Line, and continued west 
dividing the whole territory into ranges and town- 
ships ; the range lines running from north to south, 
the townships from east to west. The ranges number 
from the east, and the townships from the south. — 



22 PIONEER HISTORY 

Townships are all sul^divided. into lots, and the towns 
of Carlton and part of Yates, into sections and lots. — • 
The county of Orleans contains the north parts of 
ranges 1, 2, 3 and 4, and the east parts of townships 
14, 15 and 16. It is about 20 miles square, not inclu- 
ding so much as is covered by Lake Ontario, and con- 
tains about 405 square miles. 

About the year 1797, the Indians ceded most of 
their lauds on the Holland Purchase, to the white 
men ; reserving to themselves tracts of the best land 
for their occupation. Most of these reservations have 
been since conveyed by the Indians to white men. — 
J^o reservation was irade of any land now in Orleans 
county. 

One hundred years ago, the then province of New 
York, contained ten cou.nties, viz : New York, "West- 
chester, Dutchess, Orange, Ulster, Albany, Richmond, 
Kings, Queens and Suffolk. 

The county of Albany embraced all the territory 
now included in the State of New York, lying north 
of Ulster, and west of Hudson River. So much of 
said territoiy, as lies west of Schoharie, was taken off 
from Albany, and named Try on, in the year 1772. — 
Tiyon was changed to Montgomery, in 1784. 

All of said territoiy lying west of " the Preemption 
Line,'" mcluding all land sold by Massachusetts to 
Phelps and Gorham, in their first purchase, was ta- 
ken from Montgomery in the year 1789, and named 
Ontario county. Ontario county, at that time, was 
an unbroken wilderness, only as it had been occupied 
by the Indians, west of Genesee River. Some settle- 
ments by white men had been made in the eastern 
part. It was then generally known as '' the Genesee 
country," named from the Genesee River, the most 
considerable stream of water in the country. 

Canandaigua was then the chief town in the county 



OF OELEAXS COUNTY. 23 

and it has ever remained the county seat ot Ontario 
county. 

From Ontario has since "been formed the counties of 
Steuben, Allegany, Cattaraugus, Monroe, Livingston, 
Wayne, Yates, Genesee, Niagara, Erie, Chautauqua 
and Orleans. 

Genesee county was taken from Ontario in 1802. — 
The Genesee River was then its eastern boundary, 
and it included so much of the State of New York, as 
lies west of that river. 

The original county of Genesee has been subdivided 
into Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chairtauqua, Livingston, 
Wyoming, Erie, Niagara and Orleans, leaving a small 
portion around Batavia, which w^as the original coun- 
ty seat, still known as Genesee county. 

Orleans county was set off from Genesee, Nov. 11, 
1824. The town of Shelby was annexed to Orleans 
from Genesee county, April 5, 1825. 

The county of Genesee included, in its original lim- 
its, all of the State of New York, which Robert Mor- 
ris purchased. 

The general land office of the Holland Land Com- 
pany was first located at Philadelphia. 

Mr. Joseph EUicott was engaged as principal sur- 
veyor for the Holland Land Company, in July, 1797. 
Assisted by his brother, Benjamin, and others, he 
commenced surveying the lands embraced in the Hol- 
land Purchase, in 1798, by running and establishing 
the Transit Line, as the eastern boundary. These 
surveys were continued ten or twelve years, until the 
whole tract was divided into townships, ranges, sec- 
tions and lots. 

In 1800, Joseph EUicott was appointed local agent 
of the Holland Land Company, and for more than 
twenty years thereafter, he had almost exclusive con- 
trol of all the local business of the Comi)any, 

The Land Office was first established on the Pur- 



24 PIONEEK HISTOEY 

cliase at Piue Grove, Clarence Hollow, in Erie coun- 
ty ; but upon the org-anization of Genesee county, in 
1802, the office was transferred to Batavia, where it 
remained until the affairs of the Company were final- 
ly closed up in the year 1835. 

The principal Land Office was kc^pt at Batavia, but 
several other offices were established in different parts 
of the Purchase, for the convenience of parties having 
business with the Company. 

It was usual for persons, who desired to locate on 
land of the Holland Land Company, to select the par- 
cel they desired to take, go to the Land Office at Ba- 
tavia, and make a contract with the Company's agent 
there, for the purchase. Yery seldom indeed was 
payment in full made, and a deed taken, in the first 
place. The common jiractice was for the purchaser 
to make a small payment down, and receive from the 
Company a contract in writing, known as an "Arti- 
cle," by which the Compau}^ agreed to sell the parcel 
of land described, the purchaser to pay the price in 
instalments, within from five to ten j^ears, with inter- 
est ; Mdien he was to receive a deed. On receiving his 
"Article," the settler went into full possession of his 
land, cleared it up, and made improvements, making- 
such payments to apply on the purchase monej' as he 
was able. 

These land "Articles '"' were transferred by assign- 
ment, and were conveyed from hand to hand, often 
many times before they were returned to the Com- 
pany. A settler who wished to sell out his interest in 
land did so by assigning his "Article." Or, if he de- 
sired to give security tor a debt, or obtain a credit in 
his business, he would pledge his " Article. ' ' Trades- 
men and speculators of every class were accustomed 
to deal largely in these "Articles," and men who had 
means to lend, often liekt numbers of these contracts, 
transferred to tlwm by absolute sale, or in security 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 25 

for some obligations, to be afterwards redeemed by 
the owner. The Holland Land Company sold their 
wild lands in Orleans county for from §2 to 80 per 
acre, according to the quality and location of the 
land. In the later years of the existence of the Land 
Company, frequently the Company w^ould give a 
deed to the settler, and take his bond and a mortgage 
on the land deeded, for the balance of "purchase 
money." 

The Comj)any generally dealt very leniently with 
its debtors, frequently renewing their "Articles" 
when they had run out without payment ; and some- 
times abating interest accrued and unpaid, or throw- 
ing off a part of the sum originally agreed to be paid, 
when the bargain had proved a hard one for any rea- 
son to the debtor. 

Another measure of relief to the settlers, from their 
obligations to pay for their land, was the Company 
agreeing to receive cattle, and apply their value on 
"Articles" for land, on w^hich payment was in ar- 
rears. For some years before the Company ceased to 
exist, they would send their agents to different points 
on the Purchase, to receive these cattle, and indorse 
their value on the "Articles" of the settlers. The 
cattle were driven to a distant market. Although 
this arrangement was beneficial to the people, it was 
attended wdth considerable loss to the Company. 

It was provided in an early School Act of the State 
that sites for school houses should be secured to the 
school districts by deeds in fee, or by leases from the 
party owning the fee of the land. 

It often occurred, before the year 1828, that there 
was no deeded land in the district, or none where a 
school house was desired to be located. In such ca- 
ses, the Company provided by a general order, that 
they would grant half an acre to such district gratis, 
if the Company owned the land where the school 



26 PIONEER HISTORY 

house should stand, then not under "Article," provi- 
ded, if such site should fall on land held by some per- 
son under contract, the district was then required to 
procure a relinquishment of the right of such person 
in the half acre, to be indorsed on liis " Article." 

Another instance of the generosity of the Holland 
Company, as shown in the conduct of their general 
agents, is recorded of Mr. Busti, who for many years 
was their head agent, residing in Philadelphia. Mr. 
Turner, in his History of the Holland Purchase, in a 
note says — " In the fall of 1820, Mr. Busti was visit- 
ing the Land Office, in Batavia ; the Rev. Mr. R., of 
the Presbyterian sect, called on Mr. Busti, and insist- 
ed on a donation of land for each society of his per- 
suasion, then formed on the Holland Purchase. Mr. 
Busti treated the Rev. gentleman with due courtesy, 
but showed no disposition to grant his request. Mr. 
R., encouraged by Mr. Busti' s politeness, persevered 
in his solicitations day after day, until Mr. Busti' s 
patience was almost exhausted, and what finally 
brought that subject to a crisis was Mr. R's. follow- 
ing Mr. Busti out of the office, when he was going to 
take his tea at Mr. Ellicott's, and making a fresh at- 
tack on him in' the piazza. Mr. Busti was evidently 
vexed, and in reply said : — "Yes, Mr. R., I will give 
a tract of one hundred acres to a religious society in 
every town on the Purchase, and this is Jinisy — 
"But," said Mr. R., "You will give it all to the 
Presbyterians, will you not ; if j'ou do not expressly 
so decide, the sectarians will be claiming it, and loe 
shall receive very little benefit from it. " ' 'Sectarians, 
no!" — was Mr. Busti' s hasty reply, " I abhor secta- 
rians, they ought not to have any of it ; and to 
save contention, I will give it to the first religious sp- 
oiety in every town." On which Mr. Busti hastened 
to his tea, and Mr. R. to his home, (about sixteen 
miles distant) to start runners during the night, or 



OF OELEANS COUNTY. 27 

next morning, to rally the Presbyterians in the sever- 
al towns in his vicinity to aj)ply first, and thereby 
save the land to themselves. 

The Land Office was soon flooded with petitions for 
land from Societies organized according to law, and 
empowered to hold real estate, and those who were 
not ; one of which was presented to Mr. Busti before 
he left, directed to "General Poll Bnsti," on which 
he insisted it conld not be from a religions society, 
for all religions societies read their bibles, and know 
that P-o-1-1 does not spell Pcml. Amidst this chaos 
of applications, it was thonght to be unadvisable to 
be precipitant in granting these donations, the whole 
responsibility now resting on Mr. Ellicott, to comply 
with this vague promise of Mr. Busti ; therefore con- 
veyances of the "Gospel Land," were not executed 
for some space of time, notwithstanding the clamor of 
petitioners for "deeds of our land," during which 
time, the matter was taken into consideration and 
systematised, so far as such an operation could be.— ■ 
Pains were taken to ascertain the merits of each appli- 
cation, and finally a tract, or tracts of land, not ex- 
ceeding one hundi'ed acres in all, was granted, free of 
expense, to one or more religious societies, regularly 
organized according to law, in each town on the Pur- 
chase, where the Company had land undisposed of ; 
which embraced every town tlien organized on the 
Purchase, except Bethany, Genesee county, and 
Shelden, AVyoming countj^ ; the donees always being 
allowed to select out of the unsold farming lands in 
each town. In some towns, it was all given to one 
society ; in others to two or three societies, separate- 
ly ; and in a few towns to four different societies, of 
different sects, twenty-five acres to each. 

In performing this thankless duty, for the land was 
claimed as an absolute right by most of the appli- 
cants, the whole j)roceedings were so managed, un- 



28 PIONEER HISTORY 

der Mr Ellicott's judicious directions, tliat amidst all 
the clamor and contention, which from its nature such 
proceedings must elicit, no complaint of partiality to 
any particular sect, nor of undue weight of influence 
in any individual, was ever charged against the agent 
of the Company, or his associates acting under him." 

It is understood the Rev. Mr. R. referred to was 
Rev. Andrew Rawson, of Barre. Mr. Busti was hy 
profession a Roman Catholic. 

The county of Genesee was formed from Ontario 
County in 1802, and the town of Batavia w^as organi- 
zed at the same time, and then included the entire 
county of Genesee. The town of Ridgeway was form- 
ed from Batavia June 8, 1812, and then emT3raced all 
the territory now included in the towns of Shelby, 
Ridgeway, Yates, Carlton, Gaines and Barre. 

Some of the first settlers of this territory north of 
Tonawanda Swamp* came from Canada, in boats 
across Lake Ontario ; others from New England and 
the east, came by boats along the south shore of the 
lake. Those who came in on foot, or with teams, usu- 
ally crossed the Genesee River at Rochester, and then 
took the Ridge Road west. 

The Ridge in this locality had been used as a high- 
way, ever since the county had been traversed by 
white men ; and it was a favorite trail of the Indians. 
Bridges had not l)een made over the streams, by 
which it was intersected, and it was difficult crossing 
these with teams. Sir William Johnson, going with 
a large body of soldiers to Fort Niagara, went along 
the Lake shore from Genesee River, and encamping 
for th(^ night on the Creek in Carlton, west of Oak 
Orchard, he gave it the name of Johnson's Creek, 
which it has since retained. 

The Oak Orchard Creek was so named from the 
beautiful oak trees, which grew along its banks, as 
seen b}' the first discoverers. 



OF okleajS^s county. 29 

In its natural state Orleans connty was thickly 
covered with trees. On the dry, hard land, the pre- 
vailing varieties of timber were beech, maple, white 
red and black oak, white wood or tulip tree, bass- 
wood, elm, hickory and hemlock. Swamps and low 
wet lands were covered with black ash, tamarack, 
white and yellow cedar, and soft maple ; large syca- 
more, or cotton ball trees, were common on low lands 
and some pine grew along tlie Oak Orchard Creek, 
and in the swamps in Barre ; and a few chestnut 
trees grew along tlie Ridge in Ridgewa}', and in other 
places north of the Ridge. It has been estimated by 
the first settlers, that from seventy-five to one liun- 
dred cords of wood of 128 feet each, stood on each 
acre of land on an average over the county. 

The principal wild animals found here were the 
bear, deer, wolf, raccoon, hedgehog, wood-chuck, 
skunk, fox, black, red, striped and flying squirrel, 
mink and muskrat. Bear and deer were plenty, and 
hunting them furnished food and sport for the pion- 
eers. For some years the wolves were so destructive 
to the sheep and young cattle, it was difficult to keep 
them. The bears would kill the pigs, if they strayed 
into the woods. As the forests were cut down, and 
settlers came in, these large animals were hunted out, 
till not a bear, deer or wolf has been seen wild in Or- 
leans county for several years. 

Fish were plenty in the streams, coming up from 
Lake Ontario in great numbers. 

At the first settlement of the country, white men 
and Indians caught an abundance of salmon here. — ■ 
These fish, in high water would run up the Oak Orch- 
ard and Johnson's Creek, and out into their tributa- 
ries, where they were often takc^n. Salmon were once 
caught in a small stream in the west part of the town 
of Gaines. It is related that at an early day, after a 
high freshet, Mr. John Hood caught a number of sal- 



30 PIONEER HISTORY 

men on the bank of this stream, south of West Gaines, 
where a tree had overturned, leaving a hole through 
which the water had flowed ; and where they were 
left when the water subsided. 

A kind of sucker fish, called red sides, used to run 
up from the lake in plenty. They were taken in 
April and May, in seines, by wagon loads. The sal- 
mon disappeared years ago, and very few red sides 
run now. 

Rattlesnakes were numerous along the banks of 
Oak Orchard Creek and IM^iagara and Genesee Rivers, 
when the country was new. They had several dens, 
to which they retired in winter, and near which they 
were frequently seen in sprmg time. Lemuel Blan- 
don relates that in 1820, he went with a party to fish 
near the mouth of Oak Orchard. They intended to 
stay all night, and built a shelter of boughs on the 
lake shore, on the east side, near where the hotel now 
stands ; and set fire to an old log that lay there. Af- 
ter the fire began to burn, two or three rattlesnakes 
came out from the log, and induced the fishermen to 
fix their camp in another place. 

Enos Stone, an early settler in Rochester, said " The 
principal colony of the rattlesnakes was in the bank 
of the river, below the lower falls, at a place we used 
to call Rattlesnake Point ; and there was also a 
large colony at Allan' s Creek, near the end of the 
Brighton Plank Road, I think the}' grew blind about 
the time of returning to their dens, in August and 
September. I have killed them on their return, with 
films on their eyes. Their oil was held in great esti- 
mation by the early settlers. Zebulon Norton, of 
Norton" s Mills, was a kind of backwoods doctor, and 
he often came to this region for tlie oil and the gall of 
rattlesnakes. The oil was used for stiff* joints and 
bruises ; and the gall for fevers, in the form of a pill 



OF OKLEAKS COUNTY. 31 

made up with chalk.'-* A rattlesnakes den where 
they used to winter, and out of which they would 
crawl in earl}^ spring to sun themselves, was situated 
on the west "bank of Oak Orchard Creek, on the Ship- 
man farm, in Carlton. No snakes hare "been seen 
there for many years. 

Raccoons were plenty. Their fat was used to fry 
cakes, and their flesh was much esteemed for food by 
the inhabitants. 

Hedge hogs were also common. They frequently 
came around the log cabins in the night in search of 
food. Dogs, who were unacquainted with the animal 
sometimes charged upon him so rashly as to get their 
heads flUed with the quills, which it was very difiicult 
to extract, on account of their barbed points. 

There were no natural openings in the woods, or 
prairie grounds in this county, before the settlement 
of the country, adapted to the habits of the quail ; 
and they are supposed to have come in with the emi- 
grants. They soon became plenty, the large M^heat 
fields affording them sustenance. 

Quails, raccoons and hedge hogs are nearly exter- 
minated in Orleans County. A rattlesnake is very 
seldom seen. 

The beavers were all destroyed by the first hunters 
who came here. 

Those who asume to know say skunks and foxes 
are more numerous now than ever before, which if 
true, may be owing to the abundance of field mice 
which they feed on. 

Before the settlement of this county, streams of wa- 
ter on an average were twice as large as they are now; 
and they were more durable, flowing the year round, 
where now they are low, or dry, a part of the year. 

iJarge tracts of low land, now cultivated to grass 
and grain, originally was marsh, too wet even to 

* Phelps & Gorham's Purchase, p. 425. 



32 PIONEER IIISTOEY 

grow trees ; sometimes occasioned by the clams of the 
beaver, which "by flooding the land destroyed the 
timber once growing there. As tlie beavers were 
hunted and destroyed, their dams were opened, or 
wore away, and their ponds in time have become cul- 
tivated fields. Quite a number of tliese beaver dams 
existed in Orleans county. The largest in Barre per- 
haps was at the head of Otter Creek, on lot 15, from 
which a stream flowed north, and near which some 
years ago, E. P. Sill had a saw mill, that did a large 
business. This beaver pond covered a hundred acres 
or more, which after the beaver were gone, but be- 
fore the pond had been eftectually drained, became a 
cranberry marsh ; and old people still recollect going 
there to get cranberries. Near the outlet of this pond 
or marsh, was a favorite camping place of the In- 
dians, who made this a kind of head-quarters in their 
visits here to hunt and fish. As the water subsided 
in these marshes, diflerent kinds of forest trees gradu- 
ally came in. Another beaver dam was erected on 
the head waters of Sandy Creek, on the farm of AVil- 
liam Cole. And another on the farm of Amos Root, 
at the head of a small stream which flows into Tona- 
wanda Swamp. Remains of beaver dams arc seen in 
Ridgeway and other towns. 

When white men began the settlement of this coun- 
ty, the winters were much milder than now. Old set- 
tlers tell us the ground seldom froze in the woods so 
hard a stake could not easily be driven into it at any 
time. Snow did not fall to as great a depth as is 
sometimes seen now. The thick tops of the tall trees 
broke the force of the winds, and the softening influ- 
ence of the great lakes — Erie and Ontario — served to 
prevent the extremes of heat and cold, which liave 
been more prevalent -since the timber lias been cut 
down, and the wet lands dried up. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTV. 33 

Soon iiftt^r clearings began to be made in the forest, 
peach trees ^Yere planted, and grew luxuriantly,, and 
ripened the choicest fruit, in great abundance. The 
j)each crop was never a failure, and apricots and nec- 
tarines were grown successfully. 

The cultivation of aj)ples received early attention, 
and some orchards, now in full health and bearing, 
are almost as old as the first settlement. 

In the woods, the first pioneers found occasionallj'' 
a Avild plum tree, bearing a tough, acrid plum, of a 
red and 3^ellow color ; and a small purple fox grape 
of no value. 

For many }^ears l^efore and after the opening of the 
Erie Canal, wlieat was the great object of cultivation 
among the fiirmers. The quantity of wheat raised 
and exported from Orleans County yearly, between 
1830 and 1840, was immense. Barley did not come 
into cultivation till much later tlian wheat, and no rye 
was sown for many years. 

It was not until after the ravages of the weevil, or 
wheat midge, had begun to interfere seriously with 
wheat growing, that the culture of beans attracted 
any considerable attention. 

THE TOXAWAXJ)A SWA^fP. 

This swamp lies in the counties of (xenesee and Or- 
leans, covering joarts of Byron, Elba, Oakfield, and 
Alabama,, in Genesee County ; and parts of Slielby, 
Barre, and Clarendon, in Orleans County. Originally 
it contained about twenty-five thousand acres, most 
of which was too wet to plow, and Avas covered with 
swamp timber, or was open marsh, covered with flags, 
or swamp grass. Oak Orchard Creek drains this 
swamp. 

About 1820, the State constructed a feeder from the 
Tonawanda Creek in Genesee County, to convey the 



34 ^ PIONEEIi illSTOKY 

water of Toiiawanda Creek into Oak Orchard Creek, 
to supply the Erie Canal with water. 

The outlet for water from the swamp was through a 
ledge of rock, too small naturally to drain it suffi- 
eientl}-, and when the Tonawanda Creek was thus 
brought into it, the level of Avater in the swamp was 
thereby raised, and nothing was then done by the 
State to facilitate the discharge, thus increasing the 
stagnant water. 

In 1828, the Holland Company sold a considerable 
portion of these wet lands to an association, who ex- 
pended about twelve thousand dollars, in enlarging 
the capacity of the outlet, to drain the swamp through 
Oak Orchard Creek. 

The Canal Commissioners then appropriat(^d the 
whole of the Creek for the canal, and further at- 
tempts at drainage were abandoned. 

In April, 1852, an Act was passed appointing Amos 
Root, John Dunning, Henry Monell, and David E. E. 
Mix, Commissioners, to lay out and construct a high- 
way across the Tonawanda Swamp, on the line be- 
tween ranges one and two, of the Holland Purchase. 
A road was made and opened to travel under this Act, 
at a cost of about $2,750. 

As the surrounding country became settled, this 
swamp became an obstacle in passing through it, 
from the great expense required to make and main- 
tain highways. This large tract yielded but little re- 
tiu'ii to the owners, and paid but little tax to the pub- 
lic. No further attempts to drain were made. The 
association sold their lands to difierent individuals, 
and nothing was done to reclaim this tract, until 
April 16, 1855, an Act of the Legislature appointed 
Amos Root, S.M. Burroughs, Ambrose Bowen, Robert 
Hill, John B. King, and Henry Monell, Commission- 
ers to drain the swamp. 

It was provided in this Act, tliat the Commissioners 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 35 

should assess the expenses of their work upon the 
owners of the lands immediately affected by the 
drainage, in proportion to the benefits each would be 
adjudged to receive ; the whole amount of such as- 
sessment not to exceed $20,000. 

The Commissioners entered uj)on their work, and 
made an estimate and assessment of the expense. — 
This gave offense to the parties assessed, who united 
almost unanimously, the next year, in a petition to 
the Legislature to repeal the law, and it was repealed. 

In 1863, an Act was passed appropriating $16,306 ; 
to be expended in improving Oak Orchard Creek, and 
the Canal feeder, on condition that all persons, who 
claimed damages of the State on account of the 
makmg the feeder from Tonawanda Creek, to Oak 
Orchard should release all such claims, before the ex • 
penditure of the money. 



CHAPTER V. 



THE LOG IIOU.se. 




Description — How Bailt— Wiiulo-svs and Door — Walls Raised at a Bee 
— Cliimneys — Ovens — Cellars — Double Log House — Copied after In- 
dian Wisrwam — Fires — Great Back Loo; — Li";lUs. 



HE log lionse; as it was constructed and used 
hy the first settlers of Western New York, as 
"an invstitution," belongs to a generation now 
gone hy. No new log houses are now being built, 
and the few old ones now standing, will soon be de- 
stroyed by the relentless " tooth of time,*' and of those 
who were their builders and occupants, soon not one 
Avill be left to tell their story. 

The most primitive log house, to which we refer. 
was rather a rough looking edifice, usually 12 or 15 
by 15 or 20 feet square. It was made of logs, of al- 
most any kind of timber, nearest at hand, of uniform 
size. These were used with the bark on, by rolling 
one log upon another horizontally, notcliing the cor- 
ners to make tliem lie close together, to tho height 
wanted for tlie outer walls of the house. 

An opt'uing in one side was lelt for a door, and 
commonly another for a window. Poles were* laid 
across tlie walls for a chamber Hooi- to re st on, to be 
reach'.Ml by a moveable ladder. A ridge ])ol<> and 
rafters sui)ported a roof, which was made of oak or 
hemlock splints, or elm bark. 

Bark for roofs was i^eeled in June, in strii)S about 
four feet long, and laid upon the rafteis in courses. 



OF OKLEAiS^S COU:XTY. S7 

licld to the rafter by lieavv poles laid traiisversly, 
and bound on by strips of bark. An openini;' in the 
roof at one end was left for the escape of smoke from 
the tire, which was built ux)on the ground undei- the 
opening. "^Fhe remainder of the ground enclosed was 
covered with a floor of basswood logs, split, or hewed 
to a flat surface. The crevices between tlie logs were 
filled or "cliinked" as they called it, by putting in 
splints in large openings, and plastering vrith clay in- 
side and out. 

When a sash, lighted with glass, could be procured 
that was used for the window. Instead of glass, oil- 
ed paper was sometimes substituted. In an extreme 
case, the door was ihade of splints hewed flat and 
thin ; but ordinarily of sawed boards, hung upon 
wooden hinges, and fastened with a wooden latch, 
which was raised by a string tied to the latch, and 
put through a hole, to lift the latch from the outside. 
Hence, to say of a householder, "his latch string was 
always out," was equivalent to declaring his generous 
spirit in opening his house to whoever applied for 
hospitality. 

The carpenter and joiner work on the house was 
now complete. Masons, x^ainters, glaziers, and all 
other house builders, had nothing to do here. The 
owner was his own architect, and commonly the house 
was put up at a "bee," or gathering of all the settlers 
in the neighborhood, gratis. 

We read that Solomon's Temple rose without the 
sound of a hammer. The temple in that respect has 
no advantage above these early homes of the settlers 
of Orleans County. There was no hammering here, 
for there w^ere no nails to be driven. Sturdy blows 
with the ax did the business, and every thing was 
fastened with wooden pins, or withes. 

If time and means permitted, and the wish of the 
owner was to indulge in the luxury of a cliimney, he 



88 PIOT^EER HISTORY 

was gratified by building one end wall of Ms house 
with stone, laid in clay mortar, from the ground sev- 
eral feet in height, carrying up the remainder of the 
end with logs in the usual way. A high cross beam, 
or mantel, was put in, on this a superstructure of 
sticks laid uj^ in a square, as the walls of the house 
were, tilled in with clay, was carried up above the 
roof and called- "a stick chimney.'"' This chimney, 
and all the wood work exposed to the tire, being well 
plastered with the cliiy mud, rendered the whole tol- 
erably safe from danger of burning, giving little en- 
couragement to insurance companies, whose agents 
never ventured to take risks on such property. 

As wealth increased, and a higher state of civiliza- 
tion and architectural development was introduced in 
the structure of log houses, stone chimneys were built 
from the ground up. About the time when stone 
chimneys were first made, cellars under the log houses 
began to be constructed ; and were found to be ex- 
ceedingly convenient, as a depository safe from frost, 
adding much to tlie storage caj)acity of the house. 

The introduction of brick ovens marks an era that 
may be called modern compared with the primitive 
log house. These ovens were sometimes made at a 
distance from the house, standing on a frame of tlie 
kind called Scotch ovens. 

AVhen the family had become sufficiently affluent 
to afford it, sometimes a chamber floor of boards 
would be laid upon the cross beams over head ; leav- 
ing a hole in the flooring, by which a person from be- 
low could mount into the chamber on a moveable lad- 
der. 

And sometimes a wealthy settler, who felt cribbed, 
and confined too closely in a single room, would build 
an addition to his log house, like the first, and adjoin- 
ing it, with a door between. The owner of sucli a 
- double log house, was looked upon with envy and 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. ^ 39 

admiration by all the neighboring housekeepers, who 
wondered what he could do witli so ninch room ; and 
it would be a remarkable and exceptional case if the 
owner and his family did not put on some airs and 
go to keeping tavern. 

It woukl be several years before the general class 
of log householders got a barn. Straw and fodder 
would be stacked out for the cattle. And, if a shelter 
for cattle or horses was desired, some crotches of trees 
would be set in the ground for posts, poles laid across 
on these, and a pile of straw heaped on, and a shed 
warm and dry was the result. 

The log house was copied from the wigwam of the 
Six Nations of Indians, as to its general form and. 
structure. The bark roof was similar in both cases, 
but the Indians commonly built the walls of their 
Avigwams of bark fastened to upright poles, without 
a floor, their fire on the ground in the center, the 
smoke rising without any chimney, found its way 
tlirough a hole left open in the center of the roof. 

Fires were sometimes made in these log houses of 
the white men, by cutting a log eight or ten feet long, 
from the largest trees that would go through the door 
of the house without splitting. This was run upon 
rollers endwise through the door, and rolled to the 
back of the fire place. A fire was then built in the 
niiddle of the log in front, and fuel would be applied 
to that place, until the fire would consume the center 
of the log ; when the ends would be crowded together 
until the whole was burned. Sometimes such a back 
log would last a week or ten days, even in cold weath- 
er. The light from such a fire was commonly suffi- 
cient to illuminate the single apartment of the house 
at night. If more light was wanted, a dipped tallow 
candle, made by the mistress of the houseliold ; or a 
taper made of a dish of fat, or grease, with a i-ag stuck 
in it for a wick, would answer the purpose. 



CHAPTER VI. 




LOG HOUSE FUKXITUKE. 

Beds and Bedding — Fire Place — Hooks and Trammel — Bake Pan — 
Table— Chairs — Pewter Spoons — Blue Edged Plates — Black Earthen 
Tea Pots. 



LL household furniture used at iirst in the 
log houses of the farmers, at their first begin- 
ning in the vv'oods on the Holland Purchase, 
was about as primitive in its character, as their 
new dAv^ellings. It was such as was adapted to 
the wants and circumstances of its owner, and such 
as he could readily procure. 

For teiuporary use, a few hemlock boughs on the 
lloor, covered with blankets, made a comfortable bed. 
If a better bed and bedstead was wanted, it was made 
by boring holes in the logs at proper height ; putting 
in rods fastened to upright posts ; and upon this bed- 
stead, laying such a bed and bedding, as the taste 
and ability of the party could furnish. To a cross 
pole over the fire place, kettles were suspended by 
wooden or ii-on hooks ; often by an instrument called 
a trammel^ which was a Hat iron bar filled with holes, 
hanging from the pole, on which a kettle suspended 
on a hook, might be raised or lowered at pleasure, by 
moving the hook from one IioIq to another. 

Their nearest approach to an oven was a cast iron 
ll)ake pan, covered with a moveable lid, standing on 
eg s, and lifted by a bail. Dough was placed in this 
vessel, and coals put on and under it, when in use. — 



OF OIILEANS COUNTY. 41 

Another cooking utensil was a fiying 2:)an, witli a 
handle long enough to be held in the hand of the 
cook, while the meat was flying in the pan over the 
lire. Tlie table was at lirst a board, or box covei- 
laid on a barrel ; and man}^ of the first families have 
taken their meals with the keenest relish, for some 
time after moving into a new log house, oif a barrel 
head, or a chest cover. Their chairs were often blocks 
of logs, or benches and stools, of home manufacture. 
It was many years after the first settlement of Orleans 
County, before a stove of an^^ kind was seen here. 

The pewter mugs and x^l^tters, and the wooden 
trenchers that graced the shelves and tables of our 
grand-mothers, among the early settlers of New Eng- 
land, were not commonly seen in the outfit furnished 
the young couple commencing housekeeping among 
the first, on this part of the Holland Purchase. — 
Spoons of tinned iron, or pewter — home made ; and a 
slender stock of necessary crockery, including the 
veritable "blue edged plates," comprised the table 
furniture ; not however forgetting the black earthen 
tea pot, in which the tea beverage for the family was 
duly prepared, whether the ingredient to be steeped 
\vas houglden tea, or sage, or pennyroj^al, or any 
other herb of the fields. These little black steepers, 
holding about a quart, were claimed by their owners 
to make a better article of tea, than mry other materi- 
al ; and were used for every day, some time after 
block tin had become the fashionable article for a tea 
pot, which increasing wealth and pride had introduced. 
To this day, one of these interesting relics of antiquity 
is occasionally seen, with its spout probably broken 
off, adorning the upper back shelf of some kitchen 
pantry, in the great new house, which has succeeded 
the log one, carefully preserved, and annually dusted 
by the loving hands of the venerable dame, who used 



42 PIONEER HISTORY 

it once ; or, of her grand-daughters wlio, inheriting the 
time-honored frugality of th(^ family, in turning every 
thing to profitable account, make even the old teapot 
useful in storing a few garden seeds. 



CHAPTER VII. 



CI;KAKrNG LAND A?^D FIRST CROPS. 

Cutting down the Trees — Black Salts — Slashing— Clearing — Fallow — 
Planting and Sowing — Harvesting — and Cleaning Up — How Done.. 

RLEANS County was originally covered witlr 




^^ a lu^avy growth of trees. Tliese had to be re- 
moved to open the soil to cultivation. This, 
was commonly done by cutting the trees so as to leave 
a stump, two or three feet high. The felled timber 
lay upon th(> ground until it was dry, when tire was 
put in, and the whole field was burned over at once. 
The logs were then cut off at proper length, to be 
hauled together in heaps by oxen, and burned ; and 
the ashes of the heaps collected and leached to make 
black salts and potasli. The land being thus cleared' 
of wood, the first crop was wheat, sown broadcast,. 
and covered with earth by harrowing the ground with 
a triangular harroAv, or drag. 

A field with the trees l^'ing as they fell was called 
a "slashing,'' and sometimes a "clearing," or a "fal- 
low," as the work progressed. 

The wheat was sown in the fall, to be harvested the 
next season ; no spring wheat being raised. Some- 
times corn and potatoes were 2:»lanted among tlu^ logs,, 
the first season, by digging in the seed with a hoe. 

It was several years before the land could be plow- 
ed to much advantage, after the tree's were felh^d, on 
account of the stumps, but as these were cliiefi}^ hard 
wood, they soon rotted out. 

For some j^ears, the first settlers cut their wheat 



44 PlONEEIl HISTORY 

€rop with a sickle ; threshed out the grain with tiails, 
or trod it out with liorses and cattle, and freed it 
from chaif by slioveling in the wind, or fanning with 
a hand fan. The want of barn floors, and other con- 
veniences, made all tliese operations exceedingly la- 
borious and slow, compared with such work now-a- 
days. 

Before barns, with threshing lloors in them, were 
made, some farmers made lloors, or platforms of split 
logs, and laid them on the ground, without uny roof 
over them. Beside these, they stacked their grain 
and threshed it on these floors in fair weather, or trod 
it out with oxen or liorses. 



CHAPTEK VIII. 




lIAKDSlIirS AND PIIIVATIOXS. 

Want of Ercfidstuff— Scarcity of 3IiHs— Difficulty of getting Grain 
Ground — Mill on a Stump — Fever and Ague — Quiuiue and Blue 
Pill — No Post Office — Keeping Cattle — Difficulty Keeping Fire — 
Instance of Fire Out — Want of Good Water — No Highways — Dis- 
couragement from Sickness — Social Amusements — Hospitality — 
Early Merchants — Their Stores and Goods — Domestic 3Ianufac- 
tures — Post Offices and Mails. 



'CARCITY of bread and breadstuff's before the 
war, aiid even dov/n to 1818, is to be miniber- 
ed among tlie hardships and piivations which 
beset the settlers ; and even when they could get a 
bushel of wheat, or corn, the difficulty in reducing: 
the grain to Hour, or meal, was truly formidable. — 
The n(^arest mill was 1 5 to 30 miles away ; there was 
no road leading to it : and probably no horse to draw, 
or ("arry the grist, if a road liad bo^en opened. But 
meal must be had, th'.' undaunted emigrant would 
liitch his oxen to his sled, or wagon, pile on a V)ag for 
himself, and take as many bags for his neighbors, as 
th<^ occasion required, and start for some mill. We 
will leave imagination to des(^ribe his journey. After 
thred' or four days absence, it is announced in the set- 
tlemcMit that Mi-. A. has got back from the mill, and 
nrarvelously soon would (>ach family be eating pud- 
ding, or have a cake. But, what if the family had no 
neighbors ; and no horse or ox, to carry their grist.— 
Still the grist must go at once. Its owner shoulders a 
lialf a bushel, or a Imshel, according to his strength, 
and carries it to the mill, be th(» distance what it may. 



46 riONEEll lIISTOIiY 

threading Ids way by marked trees, through the 
woods. Such Journeys were not liglitly to be thought 
of, and they were honestly performed. 

A sort of domestic mill, in which corn could be re- 
-duced to meal, was made, and used, by some of the 
settlers, by making a hollow in the top of a hardwood 
stump for a mortar ; rigging a heavy pestle on a spring 
pole over the mortar ; and thus pounding the corn 
line enough to be cooked. 

But, if the new comers had bread enough and to 
spare, they all had to pay a penalty to Nature, in the 
acclimating process, which all went through almost 
without exception. Fever and ague attacked the pi- 
•oneer, or his wife, or children, or all of them together, 
whenever an opening was made in the forest ; or the 
^arth was turned up for the first time to the hot rays of 
the summer sun. 

Oh, the amount of quinine and blue pill, consumed 
in those days, by those who could get a doctor to pre- 
scribe in their case ; while those sick ones, who had 
no doctor, because there was none to be had, wore 
their ague out, and let it work itself off the natural 
way ; generally coming out about as well as those 
who doctored, and tried to "break" it, excepting that 
they took more time to do it. 

The first professional doctors who came in were 
most intensely allopathic in their practice ; and dealt 
out quinine and blue pill in most heroic doses to their 
patients ; infinitessimal prescriptions, and homeopath- 
ic practice, had not then been thought of. 

Another privation, if not a hardship, consisted in a 
lack of post oflices, and mail facilities. Coming as 
most of the pioni^ers did from New England, which 
they, and their fathers regarded as a civilizt^d country; 
and where they had always liad post ofiice accommo- 
<lations all they wanti^d, it was rather hard to be shut 
out compleU'ly from the (uik;r world. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 47 

The first settlers in Orleans County got their letters 
from Batavia, or Clarksou. They did not take news- 
papers by mail. 

The first winter was a hard time for the pioneer to 
keep his cattle, on account of the scarcity of fodder. 
It took several years to clear the trees, and get a crop 
of hay grown in their places ; and a year or two was 
required before cornstalks, or straw could be pro- 
duced. If nobody in the neighborhood had fodder to 
sell, the new settler must cut down trees for his cattle 
to browse, or feed upon the boughs, a work of im- 
mense labor, especially in severe cold weather, and 
deep snows ; and a sad time the poor cattle had, com- 
pelled to lie out exposed to all storms, and feeding on 
such diet. 

Especial care had to be taken to keep fire from go- 
ing out in their dwellings, it was so difficult to recov- 
er it again. An instance is given of such a loss in the 
house of widow Gilbert, in Gaines, who returning 
from the funeral of her husband, found the fire was 
out, and no means at hand to kindle it. Fire had to 
be procured from the nearest neighbors, then several 
miles off". The tinder box and powder horn, were the 
usual resort in such cases, but these might be out as 
well as the fire. Friction matches had not then been 
invented. And it was an inconvenience at least, to be 
deprived of soft water, the bark roof of a log cabin be- 
ing a poor contrivance for collecting it, when there 
was no snow to melt. The hard water from the 
ground was prepared for washing clothes by "cleans- 
ing," as they called it, by putting in wood ashes 
■enough to form a weak lye. 

The Holland Company commonly sold their lands 
for a small payiuent down ; and gave a contract, ex- 
tending payments for the balance, from five to ten 
years ; with interest annually after about two years. 

This seemed to })e a good bargain to the settler at 



48 PIONEEK IIISTOm' 

first ; for, altliougli he was poor, ho felt lu^pefiil and 
strong-, and went into the woods to begin -liis clearing, 
sanguine in the belief tliat he could meet his payments 
as they fell due. fr(^m the produce of his land ; be- 
sides paying the necessary expenses of his living, and 
his improv(^ments. But, after a. year or two, a part 
of his famil}^ ar(r^ takeii sick ; doctors and nurses 
must be paid ; stot'k, team, tools, furniture, and pro- 
visions, must be bought. He mr.y hav(^ cleared a few 
acres, l)uilt a. log cabin, and raised some crops, more 
than was needed Ibr lionu^ consumption ; but the sur- 
plus he could not sell. Tlie road to a market was im- 
passible for teams ; and, iC the roads luid been opened, 
if was hard work at best to ])ay for land by raising 
wheat among the stumps, at th<^ price of thirty cents 
a bushel. Is it surprising that under circumstances 
like these, some of the earli<n' settlers of this count}', 
after toiling sevei'al years, and linding thems'.dves 
constantly running behind hand, got discouraged, and 
wanted to sell out, and go awa^y. .\nd many would 
have sold their claims, and left the country, or gone 
any way, Avhether they sold or not, if the Land Com- 
pany had enforced their l(\gal rights on th'eii- Articles 
as they fell due. But the Company were It^nient. — 
They gave off interest due them, and soinetimcs ])rin- 
cipal, in cases of great hardshi]i to the settler. Many 
times, when he went to the Land Office to say lie 
could not make his payments, and must give it up ; 
the agents of the ( 'Ompany linding him industrious and 
frugal, trying to do Uw l^est he could, woukl nnvthini 
with such words of kindness, generous encouragement 
and cheer, that he would go back to liis home with 
fresli courage, to renew his battle with the mnsketos, 
the ague, and tlie Ixvars ; and wait a little long(»r for 
tlie good time coming. But few were al)le to take 
deeds of their lands, and ])ay for them, until after the 
Erie Canal was navigable. Tiiey kept on cl(^aring 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 49 

land, and enlarging their lields ; and between the 
years 1880 and 1836, good crops of wheat were raised, 
and sold at the canal, for about a dollar a bushel. — 
Til en the clouds of gloom began to lift from the face 
of the country. Prosperity had verily come ; no more 
''hardships, privations and sufferings" after that ; and 
more deeds of land were taken from the Holland Com- 
pany, in this county, in those years, than were given 
in all others together. 

Notwithstanding so many and so great discourage- 
ments, surrounded the pioneers, they never yielded to 
the gloom of the present, or suffered their great hope 
in the future to die. They had their joys as well as 
griefs, running along their pathway together. Social 
amusements, conviviality', fun and good feeling, were 
intermingled with their sadder experiences. 
Thej^ visited together, labored for and with each oth- 
er. They exchanged work in chopping, logging, and 
in heavy toil on their lands, where several together 
could work at better advantage than alone. 

They were " given to hospitality." They aided, as- 
sisted, and helped one; another ; with a liberality and 
kindness, that seems remarkable in contrast with the 
selfishness of older society. 

If a family came in, who had not in advance built 
themselves a cal)in for their residence, they had no 
difficulty in finding a sto2:»ping place with almost any 
settler, who had got ar house, until a log house could 
he built. And the best of it was, all the mc^ in the 
neighborhood assembled at a "bee," and built a log 
house gratis, for their new friends, if it was necessaiy. 

If a man fell sick in seed time, or harvest, and could 
not do his work, his neighbors would turn in and sow 
his seed, or gather his crop for him. If a family was 
out of provisions, everybody, who had a stock, shared 
with the needy ones. 

A happy feature of this primitive society was the 



50 PIONEER HISTORY 

entii'e absence of caste, dividing the people into class- 
es, and making social distinctions. Everybody was 
considered just as good, and no better, than every- 
body else. All met and mingled on terms of social 
equality. 

At the dancing parties, quilting frolics, weddings 
and other gatherings of the people for social enjoy- 
ment, everybody in the neighborhood was invited, 
wdi ether tliey wore "store clothes," or common home- 
spun ; and they commonly all attended. 

People generall}^ were acquainted with everbody 
near them. Old people are living, who say for sever- 
al years they knew every family in town ; and used 
to visit with them, going often on foot miles through 
the woods, by marked trees, to meet together. 

As clearing away the forest, and doing the heavy 
work of beginning settlements in the woods, constitu- 
ted the main business of the pioneers ; they thus 
learned to value ability to excel in whatever was use- 
ful in their calling. 

Hence, at theu* loggings, raisings, and other assem- 
"blings for work, or x>lay, friendly trials of strength or 
sMll, found favor. Contests in chopping, lifting, cut- 
ting wheat and other tests of muscle, were common ; 
and seldom did a number of young men meet on a 
festive occasion without forming a ring for wrestling. 

The pioneers, at their first coming here, were gener- 
ally young. They were resolute, intelligent, deter- 
mined and persistent ; for no others would quit the 
comparative ease, safety and comfort of older socie- 
ty, to encounter the certain hardships, perils and dis- 
couragements of frontier settlement in the woods, in 
such a country as this was. The true grit of the emi- 
grant was proved by the fact that he came here ; and 
such men were not to be driven back by hardships, 
want, sickness or misfortune. 

While the hope and resolution of the settler could 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 51 

not protect liim from sickness and calamity, they fill- 
ed liim with fortitude to endure them, gave him a 
keen relish to enjoy whatever in his way might afford 
a pleasure. 

Looking at these pioneers from the standpoint of 
the present day, an observer might well conclude they 
were as happy then, as their descendents are now, on 
the same ground. Many who began here in poverty 
and want and w^orked their way through every diffi- 
culty to wealth and abundance, have often said in 
their old age, their happiest days in life were spent in 
their old log houses, away back among the stumps, 

EARLY JIERCIIANTS — THEIR STORES AND GOODS. 

Soon after the settlement of this county, asheries 
were built; the large quantities of wood ashes, produced 
in burning the log heaps in clearing land, were a 
source from which money could be made easier than 
from crops of grain raised. 

These ashes were leached in rude leaches ; the lye 
obtained was boiled down to a semi-solid state, call- 
ed black salts ; and then sold to Mr. James Mather, 
or some owner of an ashery, who put the salts 
through the ]:>rocesses of making potash, or pearlash, 
a refined kind of potash, the use of which is now super- 
ceded by saleratus. 

These products of ashes brought some money and 
were taken by the merchants in exchange for their 
goods. 

Before the canal was made, merchants' goods were 
brought in by water, by wa}' of Lake Ontario, or on 
wagons, from Albany. 

Kobert Hunter and brothers, of Eagle Harbor, were 
teamsters who traveled to and from Albany with 
large teams of horses to wagons and brought in most 
of the goods used here for several years, before they 
came by the canal. 



52 PIONEER HISTORY 

A wagon load would go a great way in stocking a- 
store tlien. The important and heavy article of whisky 
was made sufficient for home consumption here. 

Merchants did not then as now confine their trade 
to a single line of goods, as hardware, di-ugs, grocer- 
ies, etc., but tfieir stock, in the common language of 
their advertisements, comprised "all the articles usu- 
ally called for at a country store;" and that meant 
(3verythiDg the people wanted to buy at a store. The 
wants of the settlers were few and simple in the line 
of such goods. They confined their purchases to ar- 
ticles of prime necessity, which they could not well 
do without, such as tools to work "with, building ma- 
terials, &c., which did not grow upon their land ; an oc 
casional calico dress, and a few kinds of utensils,, 
sucli as they could not make at home. 

These goods were generally bought on credit, the 
pay being promised to meet the wants of the merchant 
when he went to New York, a, journey he undertook 
about twic(? a year. These debts were not all paid 
when due, and many of them were collected by legal 
process, and many of them were lost to their owners. 
The credit system was a bad one for both parties in 
many cases. People found it very difficult to pay 
their store debts before the canal was made ; for 
though they had a large and good farm, plenty of the 
finest wheat, and possibly a stock of cattle, hogs and 
horses ; they had no money, and could not sell their 
stuii' for money, as they could not get it to a market-. 
Timber was plenty, and sawTuills had been built 
about th(? time the canal became navigable ; and saw- 
ed lumber t\un\ paid ston? debts ; and wheat, pork, 
fiour and produce of all kinds, that could go to mar- 
ket on the (umal, found a ready sale, at fair prices ;. 
and thus means to pay debts could be obtained. 

DOMESTIC MANUFACTURES. 

Most of* the early settlers were New England Yan- 



OF ORLEANS COUIS'TY. 53 

kees, of that class, who. if they wanted a thing they 
had not got, they made it. AVith very few tools, and 
those of the simplest kinds, they made almost ever}- 
thing reqnired, that conld l)e ^^rodueed from the ma- 
terials on hand. . 

The}' brought in a few clothes when they came ; 
when these were worn ont, the}' supplied their wants 
viith. cloth made at home. The women made up the 
common articles of clothing for their families. If the 
man had a new coat, or other garment his v/ife did 
not feel competent to make, the cloth was taken to 
some one properly skilled, to be cut out, and a tailor- 
ess would come to his house, and make it up. These 
itinerant seamstresses, did most of the needlework re- 
quired by the family, and which they could not do 
themselves ; the modern classilication' of needle wo- 
men into milliners, mantau makers, dress makers, <S:c., 
did not then prevail. 

The people got their leather made b}- neighboring 
tanners, and from such stock, a traveling shoemaker 
visited the houses of his customers, and made and 
mended their shoes and boots. The boys and girls, 
and some of the older folks, commonly went barefoot 
in the summer, and often in the winter likcAvise. 

POST OFFICES AND MAILS. 

Mr. Merwin S. Hawley of Buffalo, son of Judge 
Elijah Hawley, who resided in Ridge way in his boy- 
hood, and speaks from his recollection says : 

"In 1815, the only mail to and through Ridgeway, 
was carried on horseback twice a week, between Can- 
andaigua and Lewiston. Oct. 22, 1816, a post office 
was established at Ridgeway Corners, named "■ Oak 
Orcliard," Elijah Hawley, postmaster. 

The mail was ]iow carried in two horse carriages, 
three times a week each way ; stopping over night at 
Huff's tavern in East Gaines. 



64 :piOKEER HISTORY 

Aug. 24, 1817, a post office was established at Oak 
Orchard Creek, on the Ridge, which place was then 
growing to be a smart village, and James Brown was 
appointed postmaster there. 

To make the names of the offices conform to the 
name of the places where they were located, the new 
post office was called " Oak Orchard," and the name 
of the other was changed to "Ridgeway, " Mr. Haw- 
ley holding the office of postmaster there until his 
death. During this year, (1817,) a daily line of mail 
stages, each way, between Rochester and Le wist on, 
on the Ridge Road, was commenced. 

A post office was established at Gaines, July 1, 
1816, Wm. J. Babbitt postmaster. 

The next post office in Orleans County was located 
at Shelby Center, and got its mail from Ridgeway. 

Post offices were located in other parts of the coun- 
ty from time to time, as the wants of increasing popu- 
lation required. 



CHAPTER IX. 




THE EKIE CANAL. 

When Begun — Effect — Rise in Price ot Everything— Progress of Im- 
provement — Carriages on Springs. 

^'^^ 

HE work in digging the Erie Canal was begun 
on the middle section near Utica, on tlie 4tli of 
July, 1817. In 1823, the eastern part of the 
canal was so far completed, that in November boats 
from Kochester reached Albanj^, at the same time 
with boats from Lake Champlain, on the Champlain 
Canal. And in Nov., 1825, a fleet of boats from Buf- 
falo passed the entire length of the Erie Canal, carry- 
ing passengers to the Gi'and Canal Celebration at New 
York. 

To no part of the State of New York has the Erie 
Canal proved of more benefit than to Orleans County. 

Although the soil was fertile and j)roductive, and 
yielded abundant crops to reward tlie toil of the 
farmer, yet its inland location and great difficulty of 
transporting produce to market, rendered it of little 
value at home. Settlers who had located here, in 
many instances, had become discouraged. Others, 
who desired to emigrate to the Genesee country, were 
Itept back by the gloomy accounts they got of life in 
the wilderness, with little prospect of easy communi- 
cation with the old Eastern States to cheer the hope. 

As soon as the Canal became navigable, Holley, 
Albion, Knowlesville and Medina, villages on its 
banks, were built up. Actual settlers took up all 
the unoccupied L^nds, and cleared them up. No 



56 PIONEEK IIISTOIIY 

speculators came here and boiiglit up large tr£icts, 
and left them wild, to rise on tlie market. The lum- 
"ber of the country found. a ready market and iioated 
away. Wheat was worth four tunes as much as the 
price for wdiich it had been previously selling. Pros- 
perity came in on every hand ; the mud dried up, and 
the musketoes, and the ague, and the fever, and the 
bears, left the country. Farmers jiaid for their 
lands, surrendered their articles, and took deeds from 
the Company. Good barns and framed houses, and 
houses of brick, and stone began to be built, as the 
common dwellings of the inhabitants. "The. good 
time coming,'" wdiich the first settlers could not see, 
but waited for, with a faint and dreamy l)ut persistent 
hope, had come indeed. The price of lands rose rap- 
idly, making many wealthy, who happened to locate 
farms in desirable places, from the rise in value of 
their lands. From this time forward, rich men, from 
the Easter Ji States, and older settlements, began to 
€ome in and buy out the farms and improvements of 
those who had begun in the woods and now found 
themselves, like Coopers Leather Stocking, "lost in 
the clearings,"" and wished to move on to the borders 
of civilization, where the hunting and fishing was bet- 
ter and where the ruder institutions, manners and 
customs of frontier life, to which they had become at- 
attached, would bo better enjoyed among congeiiial 
spirits. 

The clearing away of shade trees, thus drying up 
the mud and the substantial bridges over streams 
and leveled and graveled highways, which the num- 
bers and abundant means of the people, now enabled 
them to establish, occasioned a demand for other car- 
riages for the conveyance of these now independent 
farmers and their families. 

Time was when they went to mill and to meeting, 
to the social visit, or the quilting frolic, hax^py on an 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 57 

OX sled. A little progress, and pride and ambition 
substituted horses and lumber wagons as the common 
veliicles of travel, in place of the oxen and sleds. 
A buggy was no more known or used than a balloon 
in those wagon days, and when tlie canal was first 
made navigable, there was not probably a one-horse 
buggy in Orleans County. Indeed several years after 
boats began trips on the <'anal, Messrs. R. S. & L. 
Burrows, then merchants in Albion, brought on six 
or eight one-horse wagons, with wooden springs under 
the seats, manufactured in Connecticut, and put them 
on sale ; and great was the wonder of the people, and 
the comment they made upon the amazing luxury 
and comfort and ease in i-iding in tliese little rattling, 
jolting machines. 



CHAPTER X. 



I'UBLIC niGUWAYS. 

The Ridge Road — When Laid Out — Appropriation — Oak Orchard 
Road — Opened by Holland Company — Road from Shelby to Oak 
Orchard in Barre — Salt Works Roads — State Road along Canal — 
Judge Porter's Account of first Tracing the Ridge Road. 



LTHOUGIH the Ridire Road had been travel- 




^^ ed by the Indians from time immemorial, and 
C after the settlement of the country by white 
men, improvements had been made by cutting out 
trees, and making the crossings at the streams of 
water more passable, yet many large trees still ob- 
structed the carriage way, and bridges were wanted 
in many places. In April, 1814, the Legislature of 
the State appropriated $5,000, and appointed com- 
missioners to apply said sum to the improvements of 
such parts of said road between Rochester and Le^vis- 
ton, as said commissioners should think proper, for 
the public benefit. This appropriation, together "wdth 
some labor by the few inhabitants then living on this 
route, made the Ridge road a tolerably fair wagon 
road. 

The Ridge road, so called, was regularly laid out 
and established by Pliik-tus Swift and Caleb Hopkins, 
under an Act of the Legislature passed Feb. 10, 1815. 
An act i)roviding for a re-sarvey of the Ridge Road, 
from Rochester to Lewiston, was passed March 24, 
1852, John LeValley, Grosvenor Daniels iand William 
J. Babbitt were appointed commissioners to superin- 
tend the work tlirough Orleans County. Darius W. 



■OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 59 

Cole, of Medina, was the Surveyor, and the road was 
re-surveyed and established six rods wide. Although 
the Ridge road had been opened and traveled many 
years, no survey and record of it had been made be- 
fore Swift & Hopkins' survey. 

Mr. Lewis W. Gates, formerly of Gaines, relates 
that about the year 1843, Judge Augustus Porter, 
then of Niagara Falls, gave him the following account 
of the Ridge Road. 

He, Judge Porter, and others, were interested in 
surveying and locating a large tract of land west of 
Genesee River, since known as The Triangle. The 
Indians told them there was a gravelly ridge extend- 
ing from the Genesee to Niagara River. Porter and 
his company emjiloyed a surveyor named Eli Gran- 
ger, to go with a few men and trace a road through 
on this Ridge, from river to river, and they traced the 
Ridge Road through near its present location, in 1798. 

The Oak Orchard Road was the first highway cross- 
ing Orleans County north and south, that was open- 
ed and worked. Supposing, as everybody then did, 
that the trade from this part of the country must go 
by the lake, and that Oak Orchard Harbor would be 
its place of embarkation, the Holland Company and 
the settlers, at an early day ox^ened this road for 
teams, made log causeways through wet places and 
bridged the streams. It w^as a rough road, but teams 
could get through with light loads, as early as before 
the war. 

Andrew A. Ellicott built a mill on the Oak Orchard 
Creek, at Shelby Center, about the year 1813. To ac- 
commodate travel to this mill and jH'omote the sale 
of land, the Holland Company cut out a highway 
leading from the Oak Orchard road near the County 
Poor House, to Shelby Center. This highway follow- 
ed the ridge of highest land, crooking about on places 
where it could bo easiest constructed. It is still used 



60 PIOTs^EEIl IlISTOKY 

as a public liigliway, and is traveled on or near tlie 
line originall}^ i'ollowed. This was the iirst road cut 
out for teams, east and west, south of tlie ridge. As 
the timber whicli grew in this County was generally 
hard wood and decayed soon, few fellen trees, or logs 
lay in the woods to obstruct teams passing anj'where 
in the forest, where standing timber or swamps did 
not prevent ; and the course of travel was directed by 
marked trees, until enough inliabitants had come in 
to lay out and work roads. 

Before the forest vras cleaved from this county, 
much of the land was wet, and in fitting a highway 
for travel, a large amount of log caus(nvay had to be 
laid, in places now dr}^ hard land. AVhere the Oak 
Orchard Road crosses the canal in Albion, and for 
many rods nortli and south of the canal, such a caiise- 
way was laid. Indeed, man}' farms, which in a wild 
state, were not taken by settlers at first, because tlie}' 
were so low and wet, now, on draining the water off, 
and cutting away the trees, are the best farming land 
in the neighborhood. 

The Ridge Road was laid out six rods Vvide, and 
the Oak Orchard Road four rods wide. In selling 
lands bordering on the Ridge Road, or the OakOrcli 
ard Road, the Holland Company bounded the tract 
they sold by the outer lines of the road ; thus giving 
the lands the roads covered to the public. In selling 
lands on all other roads, the}' deeded to the center of 
the highway. When no natural obstruction prevent- 
ed, highways were laid out on the line of lots accord- 
ing to the Company's surve}', and then the owners on 
each side gave eacli tlie half of the road. 

Works were put up by the Holland Company for 
the manufacture of salt, at the salt springs north of 
Medina, as early as 1805, and opened for use by the 
settlers. To facilitate access to these works, the Com- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 61 

pany cut out two roads, about the same time, one 
leading south from the works, to the "Old Buffalo 
Road ;" the other south-easterly, to the Oak Orchard 
Road. These highways were known as the Salt 
Works Road. AVhen the manufacture of salt there 
was discontinued, the Salt Works Road was dicontin- 
Tied. 

Frequentl}', when a new road became a necessity, 
all the settlers would turn out with their teams, and 
cut out the trees, and clear them from the roadway, 
and build such sluiceways as were necessary and so 
make a highway passable, to be worked up w^hen the 
roots had rotted out and the people of the district 
had got able to do so. 

Ab(Mit th(^ year 1824, the people along the Ridge 
Road turned out on the 4th day of July and celebra- 
ted the day, l)y cutting out a highway from the Ridge 
nortli to Waterport which is now the road leading 
from Eagle Harbor to Waterport, 

An Act of the Legislature was passed April 2, 1827, 
appointing John P. Patterson, Almon H. Millerd and 
Otis Turner, commissioners to locate and lay out a 
public highway, four rods wide, leading from Roch- 
ester to Lockport, " on, or near the banks of the Erie 
Canal." A highway was located and laid by said 
commissioners, Jesse P. Haines, of Lockport, being 
the surveyor, pursuant to said Act. For most of the 
way said liighway was laid on tin? south side of the 
Canal. The records of said sui"v-ey and highway 
were tiled in the County Clerk's offices, and in the 
several towns througli which it passed, and the road 
establishetl Oct. 1, 1827. The law required the com- 
missioners of highways in the several towns, to open 
the road to travel ; and it was done b}^ them along 
the most of the line where the public convenience re- 
quired it. Considerable of this road was never open- 



62 PIONEER HISTORY 

ed, and the franchise was suffered to be lost to the 
public by non-user. 

This was known as the State Road. Through the 
village of Albion, it is called State Street. 



CHAPTER XL 



RAILROADS IK ORLEANS COUNTY. 

3IecliDa and Darien — ^ledina and Lake Ontario — Rochester, Lockport 
and Niagara Falls. 




AY 5, 1834, an Act of tlie Legislature was 
passed incorporating the Medina and Darien 
Railroad Company, to construct a Railroad ; 
and the road was built from Medina to Aliron, in Erie 
County, twelve or fourteen miles, and fitted for cars, 
to be drawn by horses. It went into operation about 
1836. After a short trial, it was found to be an un- 
profitable investment, the track was taken up, and 
the road discontinued. 

This was the first Railroad incorporated to be made 
in this county. 

Li 1836, the Medina and Ontario Railroad Company 
was incorporated by the Legislature, to construct a 
Railroad between Medina and Lake Ontario, at the 
mouth of Oak Orchard Creek. ISTothing further was 
ever done towards ojoening tliis road. 

The Rochester, Lockport and Niagara Falls Rail- 
road Co. was organized December 10, 1850. It passes 
through the county near the Erie Canal on the south 
side. This road has since been consolidated in the 
New York Central Railroad, by which name it is 
now knoAvn, its original corporate name being drop- 
ped. 

The construction of this Railroad has proved of im- 
mense benefit to Orleans County. 



CHAPTER XII. 



STATE OP EDUCATION. 

School Houses — Description — Gaines Academy — Other Academics and 
Schools. 




ETTLERS on the Holland Purchase reverenced 
the institutions existing in New England, from 
wliicli the majority of them came, and endeav- 
ored to engraft them npon their social organization in 
tlieir new homes in the woods. Tliey I)elieved the 
safety and permanence of the free govennnent of ihoAr 
country was found in the intelligence of the people ; 
and among tlieir first labors, after providing shelter 
and food for their children, was the building of school 
houses and furnishhig instruction there. Before 
enough families liad located in a neighborhood to 
erect even a log school house and supply it with 
scholars, it was not uncommon for a school to be 
opened in some log cabin, where a family resided. — 
All the children in the neighborliood came in, or were 
brought ux^on the backs of their fathers through the 
pathless forest, when the weather was bad, and at- 
tended these schools. Scliool houses were built, and 
well patronized, before school districts were organized, 
and parents did tlie best they could to give their 
children the elements of a common education, at least. 
Orleans County was not behind any part of the 
countiy in its zeal for schools. Tiie earlier school 
houses were made of logs, much after the same pat- 
tern as the dweih'ng places of th(^ people, such struc- 



OV OKLKATS'S (XH']VTY. 05 

tures as would now he considered extrenK^^ly iincotu- 
fortable, inconvenient and ill adapted to the })nri)08e 
for wliicli tlK\y were nuidr. 

They were badly lighted, badly ventilated, small, 
cold, cheerless and dismal places. Every internal ai - 
rangement was nncomfortabl*^ compared with school 
houses now. But nobody complained. ' 

After a few years this state of things improved. Ai- 
population increased, and wealth began to accumu- 
late, better accommodations were procured. 

The people of the town of Gaines, living along tlieir 
beautiful natural Ridge Road, believed trade and 
business for the county must center there ; and before 
the county buildings were located at Albion, they be- 
gan to devise projects for l)uilding up a village there, 
which should insure to them the full benefit of the lo- 
cation. They had several stores, and mechanic shops. 
They established a printing press, and published the 
first neAvsjiaper in the county, and proposed to found 
an Academy. The locatit)n of the Court House at Al 
bion was to them a sad disappointment, they did not 
despair, however, but established their Academy, 
which was incorporated in the 3'ear 1827, This was 
the first incorporated literary institution in Orleans 
County. A brick building, three stories high, was 
erected by the joint efforts of the school district, and 
the friends of the Academy and f(U' some years it was 
occupied by both schools, Tlie Acadenn^ was well 
patronized, while it was without a rival, but when 
Academies were erected in other towns in the neigh- 
borhood, Gaines Academy began to languish, and fi- 
nally ceased to exist as a school. The building wat? 
fitted up as a dwelling house, and as such still re- 
mains. Academies wer«^ established at Albion in 
1837, at Millville in 1840, at Yates in 1842, at Medina 
in 1849, at Holley in 1850. The Phipps Union Semi- 
nary was established at Albicm abo'it 1888, and in- 



66 PIONEEll illSTOKY 

corporated by the Regents of the University in 1840. 
This Seminary is a boarding and day school for the 
instruction of girls only. Its course of study includes 
all the solid and ornamental branches of education 
usually taught in the best schools for females in this 
country. It is one of the oldest institutions of the 
Idnd in this part of the State, and has sustained a 
high reputation. 



CHAPTER XIII. 




STATE OP RELIGIOX. 

Reli^ous Feeling among the People — Ministers and Missionaries — 
Meeting House in Gaines — First in County — Building. 

ELIGION was not forgotten by the first set- 
tlers of Orleans County, and amid all their 
hardships and difhculties, they never omitted 
attending to the public worship of God. For some 
years they had no church organizations, or settled 
ministers of the gospel, or houses built expressly for 
places of public worship. They had religious meet- 
ings however in their log cabins, sometimes conduct- 
ed by a preacher, sometimes with none. As soon as 
school houses were built, they held their meetings in 
them. Though mau}^ of the settlers were members of 
Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian, or other denomina- 
tions, in the old States, from which they came, here 
they kept up no denominational distinction. If it 
was announced that a religious meeting was to be held 
in some place, everybody for miles around attended 
it, never stopping to inquire to what denomination 
the preacher belonged. Many old people remember 
with deep emotion some of those solemn seasons of 
prayer and praise, enjoyed by them in company with 
all those who loved God and his worship, in their 
neighborhood, in some little log shanty in the woods. 
As the first settlement of the county began on the 
lake shore in Carlton, and gradually extended along 
the Ridge Road, so religious meetings were held first 
in Carlton. 



68 PIONEf:R HISTORY 

About the year 1809, Rev. Mr. Stei^le, a Methodist 
preacher, came over from Canada and visited as a 
missionary tliose settlers, who had come into Carlton, 
and preached to them whenever he could get a con- 
gregation together. He is said to have been tlie iirst 
preacher of any denonunation. He was soon follow- 
ed b}^ Elders Irons, Butcher, and Carpenter, Bax)tists; 
and Puffer, Hall, Gregory, and others, Methodists. 

Before 1820, a Baptist church was formed in Gaines, 
a Congregational churcli in Barre, another in Ridge- 
way, and from that time forward, the people united 
in such church organizations as were agreeable to 
their views of religious truth and duty, instead of 
those conmion meetings of all, which prevailed at an 
earlier day. 

In the year 1824, a company of citizens of Gfaines, 
viz: Oliver Booth, 2d, Elisha Mchols, Elijah D. 
Nichols, James Mather, YanRensselaer Hawkins, 
Elijah Blount, Jonathan Blount, Jr., Zelotes Sheldon, 
John J. Walbridge, Romeyii Ostrander and Asahel 
Lee, united together and built the meeting house now 
standing in the west part of tlie village, '* for the ben- 
ellt of the Congregational and Baptist Societies in the 
town of Gaines, each society to use the same for one- 
half of the time alternately. When not occupied by 
said societies, to be free for public worship for any 
other religious society." The proprietors sold the 
slips in the house, and gave the purchase money, af- 
ter paying for building the house, to aid in ])uilding 
Gaines Academy. 

This was the first church edifice erected in Orleans 
County. For several years it was occupied according 
to the intent of the founders. It has now been trans- 
ferred to a Methodist society. 



CHAPTER XIV. 




BUKYING C4UOUNDS. 

Mount Albion Cemetery — Boxwood Cemetery — Hillside Cemetery. 

URYING places for the dead were established 
ill coiiveiiient localities, in the early settlement 
of Orleans County. One of the oldest of these 
is at the village of Gaines, on the Ridge Road. Mr. 
Oliver Booth, who owned the land, gave half an a(;re, 
on condition that the neighl)oring inhabitants would 
clear off tho trees with which it was covered, which 
they did. 

Tinder tli(^ statute in such Case made, many of these 
rural old burying places have been put under the care 
of Cemetery Associations, duly incorporated under 
the general law. Others have been vested in the 
towns in which they are situated, under an old law, 
which provided that burying grounds, which before 
th<^n had horn used a certain length of time l)y the 
public, should be so vested. 

In the vicinity of the large villages however, more 
extensiv(> grounds have been devoted as burial places. 
The most considera])le of these is "Mount Albiox 
Cemetehy," situate two miles south-east from the vil- 
lage of Albion. This burying place, including about 
twenty-five iicres, was purchased by the village of Al- 
bion, in May. 1848, for $1,000. It was then an un- 
broktm forest. The natural advantages of this Ceme- 
tery, for the ])ur])osc; designed, can scarcely ha equal- 



70 PIONEER HISTORY 

eel b}' aiiY similar grounds in the country. It was 
dedicatecl/Sept. 7, 1843. 

Before Mount Albion was purchased, a burying 
g round was used on the south side of th(^ canal, east 
of the creek, in Albion. The bodies have all been re - 
moved from that ground, and burying there discon- 
tinued. 

From the lirst, and until 1862, Mount Albion Cem- 
etery was under the care of the Trustees of the village. 
By an Act passed March 26, 1862, the control of the 
Cemeteiy was vested in three commissioners, to be ap- 
pomted by the village Trustees. Dr. Lemuel C. Paine, 
Lorenzo Burrows and Henry J. Sickels, were aj^point- 
ed such commissioners, and they have been ever since 
continued in office. Lots in this Cemetery are sold to 
whoever will buy, the purchasers not being confined 
to inhabitants of the village of Albion, and owners of 
lots reside in every town in the county. 

The first persons dying in Medina, were buried 
wdierever their friends could find a place ; but in the 
fall of 1830, Mr. David E. Evans, by his agent Mr. 
Gwynn, gave an acre of land for a burying ground, on 
the east side of Gwynn Street, south from the railroad 
depot, on which the first corpse buried was the wife of 
Edmund Fuller, in 1830. 

These grounds have been used for bui'ials ever since. 
In 1860, Mr. John Parsons interested himself in get- 
ting the fences around these grounds repaired, with 
contributions furnished him for the purpose ; and in 
order suitably to mark the spot, by some fitting mem- 
orial, which at small expense would be likely to stand 
many yi^ars ; he procured and planted, as near as 
might be, in the center of the grounds, a fir tree, un- 
der the center of which, in a glass jar, inclosed in lead, 
he deposited various articles, as mementos of the times 
and people of Medina at present. This tree is now 
growing vigorously. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 71 

"Box^vooD Cemetery" lies a littlo north of Medi- 
na, on the east side of the gravel road leading to the 
Ridge, and contains about six acres, and is owned by 
the village of Medina. Messrs. S. M. Burroughs, 
Geo. Northroi^, Caleb Hill and others, bought this 
ground while a forest, of Mr. Gwynn, for a Cemetery, 
in 1848. They sold it to the village for $600, and 
it was laid out in lots, and formally opened for 
burial purposes, in 1850. David Card was the iirst 
person buried here, in 1849. 

Many bodies of the dead buried in the old ground 
in Medina, have been reniovt^d to Boxwood Cemetery, 
and this is now the principal burying jilace for the 
village and vicinity. 

"Hillside Cemetery" is the name of a burying 
place belonging to "The Holby Cemetery Associa- 
tion," which was organized Dec. 11, 1866. In Jan., 
1867, the association purchased about seven and three- 
fourths acres of land, Ij^ing about half a mile south o" 
the business part of Holley village, and south of the 
corporation limits, at a cost of $1 ,100. A large 
sum has since then been expended by the Association 
in improving these grounds, grading the street, and 
ornamenting and fitting up the premises. 

A large part of this burying place has been laid out 
in lots, carefully numbered, mapped and the map tiled 
in the County Clerk's office. These lots are sold by 
the Trustees and deeded to purchasers. 

August 17, 1867, this Cemetery was formally dedi- 
cated b}" appropriate I'eligious ceremonies. 

The affairs of the Association are managed 1)}' nine 
Trustees, who serv(^ in classes, three years. Trustees 
now in office, (1871,) are John Beny, Sargent Ensign, 
Nelson Hatcli, James Gibson, Samuel Spear, Humph- 
rey Ruggles, Simon Ilarwood, Ely H. Cook and Or- 
ange A. Eddy. John B'.M'iy, President, Orange A. 
Eddy, Secretary. 



72 VIONKKK IirSTOllY 

Shade trees liave beeii set ai'oinid the grounds and 
man}' trees and ornamental shrubs planted. 

The soil is ^vell adai)ted to the purpose designed. — 
The location is pleasant and commodious to the vil- 
lage of Holley and surrounding country and the 
good taste and liberality displayed by the people of 
IloUey and vicinity in founding and fostering tliis 
Cemetery is creditable to their public spirit, refined 
feelings and proper regard for- their best interests. 




CHAPTER XV. 

THE TOWN OF BAllUE. 

First settled along Oak Orchard Koad — Land Givcu by the Holland 
Company to Congregational Societ}' — Congregational Church — Pres- 
byterian Church in Albion — First Tavern — First Store — First Law- 
yer — First Doctor — First Deed of Land to Settler — Deeds of Land in 
Albion — First House in Albion — Death of Mrs. McCallister — First 
Warehouse — First Saw Mill — First Grist Mill — Trade in Lumber — 
First Ball— First Town Meeting— Fourth of July, 1821— First Wed- 
ding in Albion — Story — Biographies of Early Settlers. 



HIS town, so named by Judge John Lee, in 
honor of Barre, Mass., his native town, was 
V^ r set otF from (xaines, by Act of the Legislature, 
March C, 1818. At the time of the first settlement of 
this tow^i, the main road, by which peojjle traveled to 
and from the old States, was the Ridge road. The 
Ridgo was always dry and comfortable for travel 
when the streams, which cross it, could be forded, be- 
fore the bridg(?s were made ; but on leaving the Ridg«? 
north or south, wdien th(^ ground was not frozen, the 
roads were terribly muddy, long tracts of low land 
requiring to be covered with logs laid transversely 
side by side for a carriage track, called " corduroy.'''' 
As this was a work of considerable labor, the settlers 
had to wallow through the mud as best they could, 
imtil they were able to build their highways. 

There were no sawmills, and even if there had been 
mills, upon such roads lumber could not be moved to 
market, and there was no market for lumber south of 
the Ridge, before the canal was dug. 

The Indians liad a trail, or Indian road, from their 



74 PIONEER IIIvSTORY 

settlements in Livingston count}^ on tlie Genesee riv- 
er, to an Indian village in Niagara county ; and an- 
other trail from the mouth of Oak Orchard Creek, to 
intersect the first mentioned trail, which was used \iy 
white men and known as the Oak Orcliard Road, 
passing through Barre, from north to south. On this 
trail or road, the travel to Batavia was conducted. — 
It was not passable for carriages, as the Indians had 
none, and the settlers had to clear the brush and re- 
move the fallen trees, which obstructed, before they 
could get their teams through. This was done by the 
Holland Company at an early day. 

Several families came into Barre before the war of 
1812, but that event nearly suspended emigration 
while it lasted. 

Salt was made on the Oak Orchard Creek north of 
Medina, before the canal was made ; and to accom- 
modate the people and benefit themselves, the Holland 
Company opened a road from the Salt Works, in a 
south-easterly direction, to intersect thc^ Oak Orchard 
Road, about two miles south of Albion. This was 
known as the " Salt Works Road" and was discon- 
tinued many years ago. 

Among the inducements offered b}' th(^ Land Com- 
pany to settlers on their lands, was an off'er of a tract 
of land, to the first religious societ^y that should be 
organized in each town on their Purchase. In pursu- 
ance of this custom, the Holland Company deeded, 
March cS, 1822, to the Trustees of "The First Congre- 
gational Society in the town of Barre," one hundred 
acres of land, lying on the north part of lot nineteen, 
town fifteen, range two ; being part of the farm after- 
wards cleared and owned by ^Izariah Loveland. — 
The deed conveys this land to said "Trustees and 
their successors in office, for the benefit of the said 
Congregational order, and those who preacli the doc- 
trines contain(Ml in the Assembly's Catechism, and no 



OF OFwLEAXS COUNTY. 75 

other." So careful were our fathers in Barre, to pro- 
vide for keeping their religious faith pure, and free 
from heresy, as they regarded it. That religious so- 
ciety was the first organized in Barre, and still exists, 
now located at Barre Center. Its first board of Trus- 
tees was Orange Starr, Cyril Wilson, Ithamar Hib- 
"bardjJohn Bradner, Caleb C.Thurston and Oliver Ben- 
ton. The church connected with this society, was or- 
ganized Dec. o, 1817. 

"The First Presbyterian Society of Albion" was 
incorporated March 20, 1826, and was the second re- 
ligious society incorporated in the town of Barre, and 
the first in the village of Albion. Its first Trustees 
were Harvey Goodrich, Joseph Hart, Ebenezer Rogers, 
William White, Hiram Sickels, and Milton W. Hop- 
kins. Their first house of worsliip, the same now oc- 
cupied by the Episcopalians, was erected in 1830.— 
The whole number of communicants, in this church 
at its organization, was sixteen. Rev.AVm. Johnson, 
their first pastor, commenced his laboi'S here in 1824. 

The first tavern in Barre was kept by Abram Mat- 
tison, in 1815, on the west side of the Oak Orchard 
Road, about two miles south of Albion. The first 

tavern in Albion was kept by Churchill, on the 

soutli corner of ^Main and Canal Streets. The first 
school was taught by Mrs. Silas Benton, in the south 
part of what is now tlie village of Albion. 

The first store, for the sale of dry goods and grocer- 
ies, is believed to have been kept by E. & A. Mix, at 
Porter's Corners. Mr. Abiatliar Mix removed to that 
place, and took an Article for a tract of land, in 1817. 
Being a mason by trade, and having no mason work 
to do, he went into the business of making potash, 
and selling goods, his brother, Ebenezer Mix, of Ba- 
tavia, furnishing a part of the capital. 

About the year 1819, a store was opened by Orris 



76 I'lONEETw IIISTOllY 

H. Gardner, near Benton's Corners, on tlie Oak Orch- 
ard Road. 

The Oak Orchard Road was the tirst piil)lic high- 
way hiid ont in this town. About 1803, the Holland 
Company caused a survey to be made of this road 
from ''The Five Corners," in Gaines, about a mile 
north of Albion, to the forks of the road south of Bar- 
re Center. Tliis survey was due nortli and south, to 
straighten the old trail. The highway was not open- 
ed and worked precisely as laid. 

Many of the earliest locations of land by settlers 
were made along this road, and it was these locations, 
this highway and the Erie Canal, which established 
the village of Albion. 

The first regular lawyer in this town was Theoplii- 
lus Capen, v/ho came here about the time work on 
the Canal was begun, and kept an office for a while 
in Albion. William J. Moody came to Albion to 
practice law, a short time before the county of Orleans 
was organized, he was followed by Alexis AA'ard, 
Henry R. Curtis, A. Hyde Cole, Geo. AV. Fleming 
and several others. 

Dr. Orson Nichoson was the first physiciaiL He 
settled in Barre in 1819. 

The first deed of land lying in the town of Barre, 
from the Holland Land Company, was given to Jacob 
Young, dated June 7, 1813, and (conveyed one hun- 
dred acres of lot thirty-tlir(M^, town fifteen, range one. 
This land is now owned by Stephen N. Whitney, and 
lies about a mile and a half south from Albion, on 
the east side of the Oak Orchard Road. 

William Bradner took a deed from the Company, 
of the land in Albion, on the east side of Main Street, 
from Bailey Street, to the north bounds of Barre, 
December 3, 1819, containing two liundred and sixty- 
six acres. Roswell Burrows took a like d(^ed of on(5 
hundred and sixty-one acn^s, lying on the west side 



OF ORLEANS COl'NTT. 77 

of Main Street, bounded north by the town line of 
Gaines, October 11, 1825. This tract, so deeded to 
Burrows, was taken np by Article from the Company 
by Jesse Bumpns, in August, 1815, and afterwards 
sold by him to Mr. Burrows. The land so deeded to 
AVilliam Bradner, was taken by Article from the Land 
Company, by William McCollister, about the year 
1811. Mr. McCollister made the llrst clearing in the 
village of Albion, where the Court House now stands, 
The first dwelling house erected in Albion was a log 
cabin, built by McCollister, near where Phipps Union 
Seminary now stands. In that he lived, and there his 
wife died, about the year 1812 ; being the first white 
woman who died in the town of Barre. No clergy- 
man was then in town to conduct religious services 
on the occasion and no boards could be obtained to 
make her coffin. Her sorrowing husband, assisted by 
two or three men, split and hewed some rough planks 
from trees, pinned them together with wooden pins, 
to make a box, in which the corpse was placed, and 
buried, this little company, present at this iirst funer- 
al, comprised almost the entire pojndation of the 
town. 

The first warehouse in town was built b}' Nehemiah 
Ingersoll, on the canal, about fifteen rods east of Main 
Street, in Albion. 

The first saw-mill in town was built by Dr. Wm. 
AVliite, on the creek south-east of Albion, about eighty 
rods south of the railroad, in the year 181(5. AVilliam 
Bradner built a small grist-mill on this creek, farther 
down, in 1819. 

For several years after the Erie Canal was first 
opened, a brisk trade in white-wood lumber was car- 
ried on, from timber cut convenient to draw to the ca- 
nal. Good whitewood boards sold on the bank of the 
canal for $5 per thousand feet, and other lumber at 
corresponding prices. Whitewood was a common 



78 PIONEEE HISTORY 

tree in tliis town. The lumber was carried to Albany. 
After buildings began to be constructed by carpenters 
and joiners, the Hoors and finishing were principally 
done with whitewood. 

The first regular luill in Barre was at Mattison's 
tavern, July 4, 1819. To fit the house for the party, 
they took up the split basswood floor and laid down 
boards in the bar-room to dance on. 

The first town meetings, after this town was organ- 
ized, were held at Mattison's tavern, the next after- 
wards at Benton's tavern. 

The 4th of July, 1821, was celebrated by the peo- 
ple of Barre in a grove near where " the round school 
house" was afterwards built, on Lee Street. A com- 
mittee was appointed, who procured the necessary 
gunpowder, liquor and sugar, at Batavia. Provisions 
for the tables were furnished by voluntary contribu- 
tion, and a dinner gotten up which was partaken of 
by everybody in.pic-nic style. Dr. Orson Nichoson 
delivered an oration and the customary patriotic 
toasts were drank, to the sound of discharges of mus- 
ketry, as they had no cannon. In the evening, the 
remains from the tables and the bottles, were taken 
to a neighboring log cabin, and there disposed of by 
all who chose to take part ; and music and dancing, 
and festivity, were kept up till next morning, by a 
company of old and young. This was the first public 
celebration of our National Independence in Barre. 

Among the first settlers in Barre were William Mc- 
CoUister, Lansing Bailey, Joseph Hart, Joseph Stod- 
dard, Elijah Darrow, Reuben Clark and Silas Benton. 

Th(^ first marriage, in what is now the village of Al- 
bion, took place under the following circumstances. 
An action was tried before Robert Anderson, a Justice 
of the Peace, at the village of Gaines, to recover dam- 
ages for a hog that had been killed by the defendant 
wrongfully. The plaintiif recovered a judgment. As 



OF ORLEAXS COUNTY. 79 

soon as the result was declared, the defendant took 
the Justice aside, and asked him to go at once to a 
house mentioned and many him ; giving as his reason 
for haste, that execution would soon be issued against 
him on the judgment, which he was unable to -pay ; 
that he would be taken to Batavia to iail, and, if he 
was a single man, he did not know when he should 
get out, but if he was married he could swear out in 
thirty dn,js. The Justice objected, that it was then 
midnight, the house named was three miles oif, the 
night was dark, and the road was through the woods 
most of the way. He finally agreed to go after get- 
ting supper. In the mean time the would-be bride- 
groom hurried to the house to wake up the family, 
and the bride, and put a light in the window to guide 
the Esquire. The marriage took place according to 
programme. The house stood on the west side of 
Main Street, about a quarter of a mile north of the 
canal. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF EARLY SETTLERS. 

latnsing bailey. 

The following is Lansing Bailey" s history, written 
by himself, for the Pioneer Association : 

' ' I was born in the town of Stephentown, Rensse- 
laer County, New York, Nov. 11, 1787. 

AVlien I was seven years old, my father removed to 
Whitestown, Oneida County, New York. 

In 1800, being then in my twenty-second year, I was 
married to Miss Loda Parmelee, and in Nov. 1811, I 
started, in company with two others, for the Grenesee 
country, on foot, with knapsacks and provisions on 
our backs. 

On the evening of the fifth day, we arrived at Dan- 
iel Pratt's, an old acquaintance and relative, then re- 



80 PIONEER HISTORY 

siding on tlie Ridge Road, in the town of Gaines, a 
little west of Gaines Corners. 

The best locations on the Ridge Road had been ta- 
ken, and also the l)est lots on the Oak Orchard Road, 
for several miles south of the Ridge Road, but they 
were not settled south of the 'Five Corners,' in what 
is now Gaines. 

Myselt and brother, took an Article from the Hol- 
land Land Company, of two hundred and sixty acres, 
lying one mile west of where Albion now stands. — • 
Five da3^s after making our location, we started for 
home by the wa}' of Batavia. We had but little mon- 
ey, consequently we bought but one meal on our out- 
ward and homeward trip, $3.50 being the entire 
amount of our expenses, which consisted in lodging 
and a little of ' the creature' to w^ash down our diy 
meals. 

In February, 1812, putting all on board an ox sled 
covered with cloth, with two yoke of oxen attached, 
after bidding farewell to friends, with wife and child 
aboard, whip in hand, we set out for our. wilderness 
home, my brother driving two cows, and three 3'oung 
cattle. 

After a journey of nine days, we arrived at Daniel 
Pratt's, wdiere w^e unloaded our goods, and I soon 
started to find some wheat, wiiicli I found in Riga, 
and got it ground in Churchville. 

Soon after my return, myself and brother set out 
for our future home. 

There was a track as far as the Five Corners. Thus 
far we took a grind stone, and six pail kettle, with 
some other articles, were tljen about a mile and a half 
from our place, and no track. The snow^ was about 
three feet deep, with a hard crust about two feet from 
the ground, sufficient to bear a man, but not a beast. 

We commenced breaking the crust in the direction 
of our place, and drove the cattle as far as we could 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 81 

break that day, fell some trees for them to browse, 
and one across the path to keep them from returning, 
and we went back to the Five Corners for our lodging. 

In the morning, we took a straw bed and some oth- 
er articles on our backs, and went and found the cat- 
tle all safe. That day we got through just before 
night, foddered our cattle on browse ; fell a dry stub 
and made a good fire from it ; shoveled away the 
snow, made us a bush shanty A\dth some boughs to 
lay our bed on, took supper and went to bed. 

Next morning the snow on our feet and limbs, 
which were a little too long for our shant}', was two 
or three inches deej). However, we had a good nights 
rest. We staid there until some time in April, going 
to the Ridge every Saturday night, and returning ev- 
ery Monday morning, with a weeks' provisions. 

On one occasion we found one of our cows cast. — 
We divided the loaf with her, put a bell on her, and 
if we could not hear the tinkle of the bell in the night 
we got np and looked after her. Thus we carried our 
cattle all safe through the winter. 

AVhen we went to the Five Corners to fetch our ket- 
tle, while the snow crust was hard, on our return, our 
dog barked earnestly at a large hollow tree, that had 
fallen down. On looking into the hollow, we saw 
two eyes, but could not tell what animal it was with- 
in. My brother went after an ax and gun, while I 
watched the hole. After tilling the hollow %^ith sticks, 
we cut several holes in tlie log, to ascertain the char- 
acter of the animal. Soon however she passed one of 
the holes, and we knew it was a bear. We then re- 
moved the sticks, and put in the dog. The bear 
seized the dog, and my brother reached in his hand 
and pulled the dog out badly hurt. The bear pre- 
sented her head at the hole, and I killed h<^r with the 
ax. 

On searching the log, we found a cub, which we 



82 PIONEEK HISTOKY 

took liome with iis. It could not bite, but would try. 

A Mrs. Adams, wlio liad recently lost a babe, took 
it and nursed it, until it got to be quite a bear, and 
rather harsh in its manners. 

As soon as the snow settled, we made us a hovel 
house, such as we could lay up ourselves of logs, 
twelve by fourteen feet square, with split logs for floor 
and roof, the roof projecting over, to aiford a shelter 
to put things under, outside the house. 

AVhen the snow was mostly gone, three of us with 
ax in hand went through on a line as near as we could, 
cutting out the under-brush for a road, coming out a 
little west of where Gaines village now is, on the Ridge 
road, which is now called ' the Gaines Basin road.' 
This we accomplished in less than half a day. 

In a few days we liad the satisfaction of introducing 
Mrs. Bailey, my wife, into our new house and were 
happy to get home. 

Our next work was to clear ji small patch and sow 
some apple seeds, carrying dirt in a tray to cover 
them ; from those seeds originated many of the orch- 
ards in Orleans County. 

In June following we peeled basswood bark for 
our chamber floor and elm bark for a roof to our 
house. 

Harvesting came and we went to Mr. James Math- 
er' s in Gaines, to reap wlieat. He would not give us 
one bushel of wheat per day for our work, as he gave 
his other hands, but would give us seven bushels for 
cutting a certain j>iece, which we did in two days. — 
On my return home at night I found Mrs. Bailey had 
left home, where she had gone I kn<nv not till next 
morning I learned she had been sent for to attend 
Mrs. Daniel Pratt, who was sick and died soon after. 

We cleared fifteen acres the first season. It was a 
task in time of logging to get up our oxen in the 



OF OELEAlSrS COUNTY. 83 

morning, especially on Mondays, as they would have 
Sundays to stray away into the woods. 

On one ocrasion I started after them and found 
their tracks near where Jonathan Whitney now lives, 
on the Oak Orchard road, a mile and a half south of 
Albion. I followed the tracks eastward all day, 
crossing the Transit Line several times. I could tell 
that line by the timber having been cut on it by the 
Holland Company. 

After a hard day' s toil and travel, making a good 
fire I camped by it for the night and had a good 
night's rest. In the morning I heard a dog bark and 
a bell tinkle, I followed in the direction of these 
sounds, carefull}^ noting where I left the cattle tracks 
and came out on the Ridge road, at Huff's tavern, in 
East Gaines and was right glad to get something to 
eat. 

Mr. Rosier was there returning from the dangers of 
the war, driving some cattle and mine had got in 
with them. I renewed my pursuit and found my ox- 
en about two miles south of the marsh, which lies 
south of tlie Ridge, in East Gaines and glad was I to 
get them home again. 

When it was time to sow our wheat, we went with- 
out bread three days rather than leave our work to 
go to mill. I have been to Church ville, Johnson's 
Creek, Rochester and Salmon Creek, for milling, be- 
fore there were mills built nearer. 

In the fall, I built me a good, comfortable log 
house, without a board, nail, or pane of glass in it, 
using bark for roof and chamber floor, split stuff for 
gable ends, lower floor and doors and oiled paper 
for windows, being compelled to exercise strict econ- 
omy and also to be quite independent in building my 
house. I found it however a good shelter and a com- 
foilable home for several years. 

Soon after I moved into my house, my brother left 



84 PIONEER HISTORY 

for the east, leaving me in care of seven head of cattle 
to cany through the winter, with no fodder except a 
few cornstalks. Winter set in early and by the time 
I had killed my winter's supply of venison, the corn- 
stalks were all gone and I found all I could do to 
keep fires ViW^ fodder my cattle, Sundays not except- 
ed. 

Thus I labored, cutting trees for the cattle as best 
I could, until my brother' s return, the latter j)art of 
winter. We should not have attempted to winter our 
cattle, had not persons liere assured us our cattle 
would winter with little or no care. 

In June, 1812, the town of Ridgeway was set off 
from Bataviti, which before then comprised the whole 
present county of Orleans. In April, 1813, the first 
town meeting was held on the Ridge road, west of 
Oak Orchard Creek. At that time, the flats along 
the creek were covered with water from bank to bank. 
In going to the town meeting, we, who lived east, 
crossed the creek as best we could, on rafts of felled 
trees. 

At that election I was chosen one of the assessors 
for the east part of the town. On the day appointed 
for holding the general election, I started for Mr. 
Brown' s, on Johnson s Creek, where we were to open 
the polls. When I came to the Oak Orchard Creek, 
I put off my clothes and went through. On opening 
the polls, the board were challenged by Paul Brown, 
as not being free-holders ; true we were not, but we 
did not regard it. We adjourned at noon to Mr. El- 
licott's, at Barnegat, in what is now the town of 
Shelby and next day to Ridgeway Corners and from 
thence to Gaines Corners, where we closed. 

The above journey was performed b}- the Board of 
Inspectors of the Election on foot. I do not think 
there was a horse in town at that time. 

Thus far all had passed off pleasantly, soon after, 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 85 

however, I was taken sick with the fever and ague, 
which was so severe as to confine me to the house. — 
Dr. Wm. White was called to attend me. He came, 
said he could give me something that would stop it, 
but would not advise me to take it. I replied I would 
take it on my own responsibility. He gave me arse- 
nic. I took it. It stopped the ague, but I did not 
get well for a long time. 

On the 3d of Ma}', 1813, my wife was confined. My 
brother went to Five Corners for assistance, and when 
he returned with one of the neighboring women, they 
found me on one bed, my wife and one babe on an- 
other bed, and another babe on a pillow, on a chair, 
all right and doing well. I thought the woods was a 
fruitful place. 

I made a cradle from a hollow log, long enough to • 
hold one baby in each end, and being round, it need- 
ed no rockers, and served our purpose nicely. 

In July after, I called upon my neighbors, some of 
whom lived several miles from me, to help me put up 
a log barn. Some fifteen came. We found we could 
not get through in season for them to get home that 
day and rather than come again, they finished it, 
though it got to be late before it was done and they 
all staid over night, on beds spread on the floor, pio 
neer fashion. 

About this time, in 1813, one morning while we 
were at breakfast, a man came in from the Eidge and 
said the British had landed from the lake at the mouth 
of Oak Orchard Creek and would probably come up 
to the Ridge, if not repulsed. AVe were well armed. 
My brother took the rifle and started on quick time. 
I could not go as fast as they, but followed on as fast 
as my strength would admit, I soon reached the 
Ridge road and was glad to learn there was no dan- 
ger. The enemy only wanted to steal some of Mr. 
Brown' s cattle, from near the Two Bridges, in Carlton. 



86 PIONEER HISTORY 

After I left home on this military expedition Mr. 
Farr and Mr. Holsenburgh came to chop for me. — 
They left their homes before the news came. We re- 
turned about 4 o'clock afternoon the same day. Mr. 
Darrow came with us to get a pig. With some diffi- 
culty the men chopping could see my cabin from 
where they were at work. My brother, as we came 
near, gave a loud whoop, like an Indian. I stopped 
him. He then blew a blast on a tin horn he had. I 
stopjied him again, saying supper was not ready. I 
then threw my frock over my shoulders and went to 
the pen to catch the pig. Farr and Holsenburgh 
heard the whoop and the horn and saw me going to 
the pen and mistook my frock for the blanket of an 
Indian ; and hearing the pig squeal soon after, they 
concluded the Indians had come and killed my fam- 
ily and were going to linish with a feast from the 
pigs ; and they started for their homes to get their 
guns to fight the Indians. Mr. Farr then lived at the 
Five Corners in Gaines and Mr. Holsenburgh, on the 
place afterwards owned by Ebenezer Rogers, a mile 
south of Albion. 

Mr. Farr hurried home, got his gun and was ready 
for a fight. Mv. Chaffee, on hearing the story, told 
Mr. Farr it could not be true, as there were no Indians 
landed and he saw us when we started for home. 

Holsenburgh w(^nt diiectly to Mr. Harrow' s, before 
any of the party had got ])ack, told what had happen- 
ed at my house, said Mrs. Darrow and Mrs. Hart and 
their families must hide in the woods, as the Indians 
would soon be there and actually got th<'m started. 
The men returned however in time to stop them. 

While tlie above was being performed, we could 
hear no sound from the axes, and knew not the reason 
until near sunset, when Mr. Farr came and explained 
the whole transaction. 

About tlie first of August, my brother was taken 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 87 

with fever and ague. Some one told liim of a remedy. 
He tried it, a violent fever ensued, which lasted but a 
few days, and he died, August 8th. Before my broth- 
er was buried, ni}^ wife was taken sick with the same 
fever and died on the 13th of the same month. They 
were both in succession carried by friends to the 
burying ground in Claines, and interred there. Some 
friends living on the Ridge took my children home 
with them, while I returned to my desolate house to 
spend one of the loneliest nights I ever knew, as there 
was no one to accompanj^ me home. 

I informed my father of wliat had transpired. He 
soon came and took two of my children home with 
him. I hired a Mrs. Adams, a cousin of mine, to take 
care of the other. 

I was now so lonely that as soon as I could secure 
my crops, I left home and went to my father's. 

In the fall before leaving, Mr. Parmelee, a brother- 
in-law came with a wagon to help secure my corn, 
which we had planted among the logs. I did but lit- 
tle work that season, not logging one acre. 

On going into m}^ corntield we found it badly torn 
down. We got a dog, and lantern in hand went at 
night to the field. The dog started off furiously and 
soon treed some animal up a large hemlock. On 
looking up I could at times see eyes shine. We con- 
cluded it was a bear, and each one selecting a small 
tree to climb, in case the bear should come down and 
attack us, I went to try my skill in shooting in the 
darkness. Soon as I tired there was a screeching u]) 
the tree, '{'h*' creature must have gone nearly to tlie 
top of the tr(^e. Directly tliere was a cracking heard 
among the limbs, I scrambled up m^^ ti-ee, and the 
bear came down from hers. 

No sooner liad she struck the ground than the dog 
gnii)plcd in witli lier, but s(K)n cried out piteously. — 
We thought tjie dog was beino; killed. I hastened 



88 PIONEER HISTORY 

down from my tree, called for the light to see to load 
my gun. AVe walked up to the combatants and found 
the dog biting instead of being bitten. Parmelee said 
he did not climb his tree. He had some sport after- 
wards telling how he had saved my life by holding 
the lantern so that I could see and not climb off at 
the top of the tree. 

Before my return to the east, Mr. Caleb C. Thurs- 
ton came to view the country, said he would move in- 
to my house, if I would driv^e my oxen down and help 
liim up, as he did not wish to buy another yoke, and 
would hire me to clear five acres when he bought a 
lot ; to this I consented. 

In the winter of 1814, Mr. Thurston moved on with 
oxen and wagon. While gone to my father's, Lewis- 
ton and Buffalo were burned and Capt. McCarty, 
with a part of the Company to whicli I belonged, 
went as far as Mol3'neaux tavern, where they sur- 
rounded the house, shooting one Indian through the 
window. Finding another helpless on the floor drunkj • 
a Mr. Cass pinned him to tlie floor with his bayonet. 
The British soldiers ran up stairs and were taken 
prisoners. Mr. Molyneaux said he would And rails 
as long as they w^ould And Indians, and they burned 
the bodies of the killed. 

In the summer following, I took my oxen and wag- 
on and seventeen bushels of wheat, with Mrs. Thurs- 
ton on the load, for a visit to Mr. Pratt" s and went to 
mill beyond Clarkson. I returned as far as Mr. 
Pratt's the next night about dark. I asked Mrs. 
Thurston if she would venture througli the woods with 
me. She said she would and if we had to lay out, 
we would do the best we could. 

When Ave left the Ridge and turned into the woods, 
it was so dark I could not see my oxen, although I 
was sitting on the foreboard. We arrived safe home, 
without accident. 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 89 

I think it would be difficult in these daj's to find 
women of sufficient fortitude to endure such hard- 
ships and privations, as did these early pioneer 
women. 

At this time there was no clearing between my 
place and the Ridge road. 

The war with Great Britain was now raging along 
our frontiers, in all its horrors. More settlers were 
then leaving the country than were coming in. There 
were then but five families in what was then called 
Freeman's settlement, west of Eagle Harbor. No 
road had been opened. We had to follow marked 
trees as our guide. 

Mr. Thurston's eldest daughter, then about ten 
years old, went to stay with our friends there a few 
days. She was taken sick and not able to walk 
home. Her father [ind myself went after her and car- 
ried her back to her father' s house, the most of the 
distance on our backs. It was a hard lift for us to get 
her up the bank of Otter Creek. 

The first of September, our militia company was or- 
dered to Buffalo. On the fifth we reached Batavia. — 
Mr. Thurston being infirm, was allowed to return to 
his family in their solitude. I was kept with the 
Company, until the first of October, when I was dis- 
charged and returned home, having received seven 
dollars and fifty cents pay for services and two dol- 
lars for extra labor. 

I lodged the first niglit on my return with the Ton- 
awanda Indians. I have never since turned an Indian 
away, who desired to stay with me over niglit. 

Before I left home to go to Buff'alo, as a soldier, I 
had baited some j)igeons. After we were gone, Mrs. 
Thurston took the net and caught them and in this 
way herself and children were provided with a rich 
repast, although so. far oft' in the wilderness alone. 

In the winter of 1815, with my pack on my back, I 



90 PIO^TEER HII^TOKY 

returned to Wliitestown, and on tlic^ 8th day of Feb- 
ruaiy, was married to Miss Sylvia Pratt, wlio return- 
ed Avitli me to sliare alike the toils and blessings of 
life, where, b}^ the blessing of God, we still remain. 

I have had twelve children ; three died young, I 
had the pleasure of sitting down with all the others at 
my own table, the present summer, (1861) although 
some of them reside eight hundred miles away from 
me. 

At the close of the war, settlers came in rapidly 
and soon I was out of the woods, having it cleared 
and settled all around me. 

In the early settlement of the country, it was diffi- 
cult to raise pigs, as the bears would catch them in 
the summer. Consequently, pork was high priced, 
and scarce. With my riile, I could take what veni- 
son I needed, and therefore fared well for meat. The 
oil of the raccoon was first rate for frying cakes. — 
Thus we fared sumptuousl}'. 

At one time, I had a sow and pigs in the woods. — 
One day I heard the sow squeal. Being nearer to 
them than to the house, I ran, supposing I could save 
lier. As I came near and hallooed, bruin dropped his 
prey and reared up on his hind legs, wlien he saw 
me he ran off, but he had killed the hog. I got my 
rifle and pursued, but saw no more of him. 

In the summer of 181G, I heard a man's voice hal- 
looing in the woods south of my house. I went to see 
what was going on. Saw several men there and in- 
quired what they were about. One of them said 
they were going to make us a canal. I laughed at 
them, and told them they would hardly make water 
run up hill between here and Albany. I added, it 
would be as long as I would ask to live, to be able to 
see such a canal as they talked of in operation. How 
litth^ did I then know of what men could perform, 
aided by intellectual culture and public wealth, hav- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 91 

ing lip to that time spent most of my life in the woods. 
Before this we had to go to Batavia for our merchants 
goods and to tlie Post-office. 

The foregoing comprises what I think of now of my 
pioneer life. 

I cannot look "back npon the past of my life and 
contemplate what the good Lord has in his loving 
kindness done for me, without acknowledging his 
preserving care, and that too when the most of my 
days have been spent in rebellion against him, in not 
obeying his commands and in neglecting to acknowl- 
edge liim under the sore afflictions he has seen tit to 
bring upon me and to sustain me under them ; and 
above all, that in after life, He by his good spirit 
should call after me, until I was brought to see and 
feel his goodness, in the forgiveness of my sins and 
to thank and praise him for all his mercies and to 
ask that I may be accepted by him through the 
merits of his Son, and have the pleasure of meeting 
in his kingdom above, with all the old pioneers, not 
of the Avoods only, but all those that are seeking a 
better and a lieavenly country. 

LANSING BAILEY." 

Dated— Barrc, August 1, 18G1. 

Mr. Lansing Bailey, the author of the foregoing 
sketch, died at his residence in Barre, December 1866, 
aged 79 years. Many years before his death he sold 
out the land he took up from the Holland Company 
and bought the north-east part of lot 10, town 15, 
range 2, of the Holland Purchase, on which he ever 
after resided, and which is now occupied and owned 
by his son, Timothy C. Bailey. 

Lansing Bailey was a man of strong, native good 
sense, who always stood liigli in the estimation of all 
who knew him, highest with those who knew him best. 
He used to say when he left his father's house, his 
father gave him a hoe and three slieep, and he thought 



92 * PIONEER IIISTOKY 

Ms father did as well by liirn as lie was able, as lie 
not only gave him a hoe, bnt taught him to dig, for 
which he always felt grateful. 

Mr, Bailey was always industrious and frugal and 
by a life of economy and prudence, acquired a 
handsome property. He was liberal and public 
spirited in his character, almost always holding some 
public office or trust. He was for many years Super- 
visor of the town of Barre and was relieved from that 
office only after he had peremtorily declined being 
a candidate, against the wishes of a large majority in 
his town. 

GIDEON IIAKI). 

Hon. Gideon Hard was born in Arlington, Vermont, 
A23ril 29, 1797. His grand-mother was sister of Col. 
Seth AVarner, celebrated in the history of the Kevo- 
lutionary war for his services in taking Ticonderoga, 
and in the battle of Bennington. In his youth he 
labored first upon a farm, afterwards with an older 
brother at the trade of house joiner for two years. 

About this time he resolved to obtain a college 
education. Being poor and dependent mainly on his 
own exertions, like many other New Englaiid boys, 
he tauglit school in the winter seasons and studic^d the 
remaindei; of the time, until he succeeded in passing 
through Union College at S(;henectady, where he re- 
ceived his first degree in July, 1822. In the autumn 
of that year he commenced studying law with Hon. 
John L. Wendell, then of Cambridge, Washington 
county, since law reporter of the Supreme Court of 
the State of New York. 

The rules of the Supreme Court at that tinu^ re- 
quired three years of law study previous to admission 
to practice. B}' the aid of his friend and teacher, J.L. 
Wendell, lu? was allowed to take his examination at 
the May Tei-m of the Court 1825, and was then ad- 
mitted attorney in the Supreme Court. 




^cc^^^--^^^ Wa^(^ 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 93 

In March, 1826, lie settled to practice his profession 
in Newport, now Albion, but did not move his wife to 
liis new home until July of the same year. 

He opened his ofRce and began his practice. 

In 1827 he was elected Commissioner of Schools for 
Barre and in the autumn of that year he was ap- 
pointed County Treasurer, an office he held six years. 
In 1832 he was elected a Representative in Congress 
from the district comprising Orleans and Niagara 
counties, and took his seat in Congress in Dec. 1833, 
during the first year of President Jackson's adminis- 
tration, in political classification being ranked as a 
Whig. In 1834 he was re-elected to Congress, and dur- 
ing the long session of 1836 he served on the committee 
on elections. The case ot James Graham, a member 
from North Carolina, whose seat was contested, came 
before that committee, where after a lengthy examin- 
ation a majority of the committee reported in favor of 
the contestant. General Newland. 

Mr. Hard drafted a counter report of the minority 
in favor of Graham, which he presented and advo- 
cated in a personal efi'ort before the House. He was 
sustained by the vote of the House. This result, in a 
body where he was largely in the minority, on a 
question which was decided mainly on party grounds 
and by his political opponents, was highly gratifying 
to his political friends and party and fiattering to his 
ambition. 

On the 4th of March 1837, he left Congress and re- 
turned to Albion to practice his ])rofession. 

In 1841 he was elected Senator in the State Senate 
to represent the eighth district of New York, and was 
the only Whig Senator elected in the State that year. 
The Senate of the State at that time constituted the 
Court for the Correction of Errors, of which Court he 
thus became a member. 

The business of the Court consisted in revicAdns: 



94 PIONEER HISTORY 

the decisions of the Supreme Court and the Court of 
Chancery, which might be brought before them on 
appeal. , Tlie Court held three terms of four weeks 
each annually. 

As the Senate was composed largely of civilians, 
who in the decision of cases which came before them 
while sitting as a court of law, did little more then 
vote upon the final questions, the main labor of the 
Court fell upon the members who were lawyers, in 
investigating the questions of law presented, and 
writing out the opinions that were given. 

Mr. Hard took his share of this labor, thoroughly 
examining the causes in the Court and writing out 
his opinions in support of the conclusions to which 
he arrived, mau}^ of which are published in the Law 
Reports of the State. 

In 1845 he w^as re-elected to the State Senate and 
appointed Chairman of the Committee on Railroads. 

In 1848 his office as Senator having terminated by 
the adoption of the new constitution of the State, 
which abolished the old Senate and Court for Correc- 
tion of Errors, Mr. Hard was appointed a Canal Ap- 
praiser, which office he held two years, and in 18.50 
returned to the practice of his profession until the fall 
of 1856, when he was elected County Judge and Sur- 
rogate of Orleans county, which office he held four 
years. 

The year 1860 he was in ill health and did little 
business. The next three years he spent mainly in 
attendance upon his sick wife. She died, an event 
which broke up his family, and since then he has re- 
sided most of the time with his children engag(^d in 
no business. 

Mr. Hard married Adeline Burrell, of Hoosi(^ Falls 
New York, in August, 1824. 

They had two children, Samuel B. Hard, a lawyer 
and business man residing in the city of New York, 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 95 

and Helen B. who married Geo. II. Potts, and resides 
in New York also. 

Mrs. Hard died at Albion Sept. 15, 1864. 

EBENEZEE ROGERS. 

Dea. Ebenezer Rogers was born in Norwicli Conn., 
October 3, 1769. He married Betsey Lyman of Leba- 
non, Connecticut, who died August 28, 1849. Mr. 
Rogers removed from New England to Onondaga Co., 
N. Y., in 1812, and in March, 1816, settled on the 
farm on which he afterwards resided in the south part 
of the village of Albion. When he came, not more 
than twenty families had settled in Barre and his 
house was a home for many of the young men, who 
came here to select a farm for themselves, or, who, 
having a lot, were clearing it and building a cabin, 
preparatory to occupying with their families. 

Being a professor of religion and deeply impressed 
with the importance of that subject, he was among 
the most earnest of the settlers in introducing the 
stated observance of the forms of public worship 
among them ; and with his near neighbor, Joseph 
Hart and others, he assisted to form the first Congre- 
gational Church and Society in Barre, which finally 
was established at Barre Center, and after Albion 
became a village, he was conspicuous in organizing 
the First Presbyterian Church and Society in Albion, 
which was an oftshoot from the organization first de- 
scribed. Of the latter church, Mr. Rogers was a long 
time deacon, and a ruling elder. 

He was by trade a tanner and shoemaker, but nev- 
er followed that business. 

Of a strong physical constitution, Mr. Rogers lived 
to see his children settled around him in competence, 
enjoying the abundance of the good things of this 
good land, which he and his worthy compeers 
had done so much to reclaim from the wilderness of 



96 PIONEER HISTORY 

nature. Mr. Rogers died January 28, 1865, aged 
ninety-six years, three months and twenty-five days. 

ASA SANFOKD. 

" I was born in the town of Farmington, Hartford 
Co., Conn., June 2, 1797. My parents were members 
of the Presbyterian Church and gave their children a 
strictly religious, as well as a common school educa- 
tion, as was the custom in New England. In Febru- 
ary, 1806, my father removed with his family, then 
consisting of wife, foui- sons and two daughters, to 
Candor, Tioga Co., N. Y., a journe}^ of about three 
hundred miles. 

My father, oldest brother and myself, performed 
this journey, with a pair of oxen and one horse, at- 
tached to a sled, being twelve days on the road. 

A hired man brought my mother and her other 
children in a sleigh. 

That country was then wild, with but few settlers 
scattered along the Susquehanna and Chemung riv- 
ers, with dense forests stretching back thirty miles 
without a human being, inhabited by bears, wolves, 
panthers, deer and smaller animals. 

A road had been opened between Owego and Ithaca, 
on which a few settlers had located. 

In the fall of 1806, 1 went to Ithaca with my father, 
with oxen and wagon, after a load of salt. 

I think Ithaca was then the most loathsome and 
desolate place I had ever seen. It stood on low, 
black soil, surrounded north and west by a quagmire 
swamp. It rained hard, and the black mud was so 
deep, it was with difficulty our oxen could draw two 
barrels of salt home. 

My father and another man, built the first school 
house in the town of Candor, and opened the first 
school there. The school house stood three miles 
from my father's dwelling and I went there to school 



OF OKLKANS COl.NTY. 137 

tlironirli tlie woods, Avitli no (tther slioos tliaii such, as 
my thoTIk'I- madp from w(joh^ii cloth fvoiii day to day. 
In June, 180(5, my t'athei', his liircd man, my broth- 
ers and myself, were lioeing corn, bet ween ten and 
nleyen o'ldocdv in the forenoon, wlien wt- noticed a sin- 
ti;ular appearance in the atmosphere ; the sky looked 
sombre, the l)irds retired to the woods, the hens to 
their r(X)sts, and we went to tlie liouse. The sun w«.» 
all darkened, but a rim around the edge ; tlie 
gloom and chill of evening settled on all the earth 
around. This lasted but a short time, when the sun 
came out frcmi its dark i)all, eyery thing assumed ilss 
wonted actiyit}- and light and the • gieat eclipse' 
])assed off. 

I continued most of the time working with and U)T 
my fathei-, occasionally working for others, till one 
day as I was chopping in the woods, a young man 
came along and said to me. he was not going to live 
longer in that hilly, steille phice : that lie had l>een 
to tlje ' rrenesee' and found a country far preferable 
to that for beauty and farming purposes. 

I heard his stor^' and determined that at some time 
1 would see that famous * (renesee country.' 

In the spring of 1816, 1 liought my time of my 
father, for sloo, I \vas nineteen ytnirs old. 1 hired 
out to work for sl4 jter month and in less than a 
yeiiv earned enough to pay my father for my time, 
and had inone}- left. T continued working where 1 
could make it most profitable, got plenty of work and 
good ])ay, until in the summer of 1810. feeling as if 1 
had work(Ml for others long enough, having tlien ten 
acres of land and several head of cattle, T felt a desire 
to get a good wheat farm for myself. 

T started with two young men, on foot. kna})sack!^ 
on our l)acks, Aug. 27, 1819, to go to tlie Genesee 
country. AVe went through Ithaca, and took tile 
road to Geneva, traveling as fai* as Ovid the first day, 



98 I'lONKKU KISTOKY 

forty miles. Xext day through CTeiieva and Carian- 
daigria, we rejielied AVent Bloomfield. Xext day 
through Liina and Avon, w»^ arrived at Batavia and 
went to the otfice of the Elolhind Company to see 
about land. 

In the office the agent appeared rather sour, little, 
disposed to l)e sociable. We asked him if he had 
Land to sell. He said Jie had. He was asked where 
it [ay and re])1ied 'everywhere, all over, you cannot 
^■0 rimiss." T asked liini if it was wild, or improved 
farms i He answered ' go and look, when you run 
youi' head into a great iiuin-ovement you will know 
it, won't you :" I turned indignantly and walked out 
of the office, saying ' I had a mind to boot that fellow.' 

'."he agent followed us out to close the blinds and 
Iiearing our con versa ticm, said rather pleasantly, 
^ boys keej) a still' u])per lip.' 

U''e stayed that night at the old 'Pioneer tavern.' 
'i'lie landlord tried hard U) convince me that the agent 
was a Xew England gentleman, one that I wouhl be 
pleased to do business witli. 

We were informed of the rapid gj-owth of a new 
town north from Batavia, called Barre, lying between 
tlie Tonawanda Swamp and the Ridge road. Towaids 
this new town we set (nit next morning. 

After examining various ]iarts of Barre and (laines. 
we selected oui- htcatiohs in Barre, and returned to 
the Land office to secure our Articles for our land ; 
but linding we lacked a tew dollars required to i)ay 
tjio lirst payment, the agent kindly otfered to 'book' 
tJie lots to us. until we got the numey. 

We made no farther complaint against th(^ agent, 
wiio -booked' the laiul to ns and we returned to 
m'ake preparations fin- felling the timber on oui- new 
farms. Never before did Ave complain of the rapid 
flight of time, l)ut here, while laboring for ourselves, 
we fhouffht these the shortest days we had ever seen. 



<»F OJILKAXS CorNTY. 91) 

On the 12th of October, J819, liavhiu' ol)taim'(l tlu- 
irioney, we went to the office and took out our Articles 
for our land, went back to our work and after chop- 
ping live or six acres apiece, we returned to our 
friends in Tioga county. 

During the next winter, we fitted out with teams, 
tools, clothing and a quantit_\- of pork, and in March. 
1820, set (mi for our new homes and after a tedious 
Journey of twelve days, through sno\\-, wat^'r and 
mud, we arrived home April 1 st. 

Having no hay for our cattle, we cut 1)r(t\vse totVvd 
them, giving a few ears of corn procured from our 
neighbors, till vei>:etation grew so that ilu^v could livf 
in the woods. 

We hired our board cooked at a. neighbors and 
cleared oft' what we had cho])ped the previous s^^ason 
and ])lanted the land with corn, Tlie season })eing 
propitious, we had good crops of corn, with oats, po- 
tatoes, beans and other vegetaliles and melons in 
abundance. AVe also cleared oft' and sowed several 
acres with wheat. 

In the autumn tlie bears were very troublesome in 
our cornftelds, committing their nightl}' depredations, 
till it became necessary- to put our veto upon tliem ; 
this we did in various ways — by trapping, shootiiig, 
night watching, etc., until we had captured four of 
them and thus saved our cf)rii. 

After securing our cro})s and ])re])aring for winter, 
we sold our teams and returned to our ])ai(MitaI 
liomes. 

During the next seascm we expcricnciHl much incon- 
venience in gt^tting our board dressed for us. The 
woman who did it became (piite tired of doing i]u' 
work for the ' old bachelors,' and T began to real i/e 
tilt; truth of the DiviiKMlecla ration that " it is not good 
for man to l)e alone.' 

After visitinii' among friends in Tioga Coiintv a lew 



KK) vn»\KKi: HisToin 

(lays, 1 hiied out for three iiiontlis. Marcli .1, 1821, I 
was iiKU-ried. About the mkklle of tlio montli, putting 
all o)i hoard a covered wagon, witli two yoke of oxen- 
attached, and in conipau}' witli tht' two young men 
])reviously referred to, we set out again for our neAv 
wilderness lionie, in tlie Genesee country. 

After two weeks hard lal)or, we arrived at our home 
to the great Joy of our Jieighl)ors, especiaUy the 
momen. We moved into a small house with one of 
our neighbors, until we could build us a house, 
which we bidlt in a few weeks after. 

While the earl}' pioneers of a new country are 
necessarily subje(.'t to many liardsliips and privations, 
unknown to settlers of older ccmntries, still there are 
many enjoyments and pleasing reminiscences for 
these pione(^rs. which they never forget. Aristocracy- 
is uidviiown in a new country. The people are all 
friendly and kindly disposed towards ea<'h other. If 
any are sick, they are at once cared for. If a farmer 
was attacked w ith ague, that dread disease, so com- 
mon among the pioneers of this county, before he 
could get his spring crops into the ground, his neigh- 
bo]-s \N ouhl turn out and put them in for him and if 
necessar}', thej' would keep his work along until he 
\\as a1»l<' to do it himself. If tlieie is an}- state of so- 
<'iet.\' wlieri^ men fulfil the Divine injunction 'love thy 
neighbor as thyself,* it is found among tlie pioneers 
of a iw^- cfjuntr}'. 

If any one got lost in the woods, and did not returji 
at night, s(»arch was at <nice made by everybody and 
no sleep was had until the lost one was found. 

.\fter we moved into (Uir new house, I started out- 
to buy me a cow, bought one and we now conmienceds 
liou.s(»k(H^}>ing under circumstances quite favorable, at 
least our neighbors thought so. My wife had a few- 
necessary articles of furniture, so that ww were ab€)iift 
as w«^ll (iffas aiiv of our neighbois. 



OF (>ui.p:an> < or.NTY. lol 

There were no })iaiios or melodeojis in tliosi> (la\ s. 
The little wheel for spinning Hax and the »;reat wheel 
for spinning tow, furnished the nmsic A t«'\v years 
later and we had other house music. 

I plodded on foi- figlit years, adding ti«']d to lield of 
-my cdeared, iiu])rov'ed land and then found myself iin- 
.-able to pay even the interest due on my Article to the 
Land Compam'. 

I raised about ^1\K and witli this went to Batavia 
to see the agent. I determined this time to walk into 
the office with head iij) and meet any insult 1 might 
receive with manly independence. 

I found the agent alone in the oliice, went up to 

Jiim and laid <lown my Article and all the mone\ 1 

.had. saying my Article has ex])ired and here is all 

the money 1 have. I want to renew my contract, 

•as I have no idea of giving up my premises yet. 

Tlie agent walk(^tl up. took my .Article, unfolded it 
and said 'you have not assigned it I see.' Then 
taking up thn money he said pleasantl\ . "walk into 
the other room.' I did so and in less tinu^ than 1 
liave been writing this, my new Article was made out, 
my payment indorsed and I was ready to start for 
home. But on returning to the contractor's room, 
•the agent said to me he had relincpiished all the back 
interest and ^1 "j)er acre of the principal, making an 
entire new sale, with eight yeai-s' pay day. as at tii'st. 
and asked me if 1 was satisfied. My gratitude had 
"by this time become almost unbounded and 1 left 
the office, thanking the old agent for his kindness anil 
thinking after all, beneath a. rough exterior he had a 
genercms heart. 

I mention this incident to show the kind and gener- 
ous treatment extended towards tlie ])oor industrious 
settlers upon the lands of the TJolland ('om])any. - 
Many incidents of a like character might be recorded 
.to the credit of the (\>mpany. 



1(>2 flONEKi: IlISTOKY 

I caiiic lioriK* inspired witli new energy and determi- 
nation to struggle on and overcome everj^ liardship 
and diftienlty in my way. 

We had l)nt little sickness compared witli our 
neighbors, as yet. In the spring of 1828, 1 liad severe 
intlamation of the lungs, and in the spring of 1828, 
T was taken with fever and ague, which held me 
through the seast)n. 

The next spring my wife was sick with fever and 
ague and tlirnsh. which kept her ill till the October 
following. 

Our <,'hildren, then four in number. ha<l their full 
shares of fever and ague. It was painful to see the 
little ones draw u]t to the tire while suffering their 
chill, then see them retire to their beds, tormented 
witli tile raging thiist and fever following the chills, 
while their mother could do little for them, except to 
supply their frequent calls for water. 

In the fall of 1824 or 182.") two men living near Barre 
Center, named ISelah Belden, and Nathan Angel, 
started on Saturday morning to hunt deer west from 
the ('<mter. They parted in the afternoon, each after 
separate game. At night Mr. Belden returned — Mr. 
Angel did not. Next morning Belden, with some of 
his neighbors, went out and spent the day looking for 
Angel. T)ut not finding him, the next morning a gene- 
ral rally of all the men in town was made and the 
woods thoroughly searched and the dead body of Mr. 
Angel tbund, having appai-ently fallen and died from 
exhaustion. The body was carried to Benton's Corn- 
ers, then the centre of the settlement.- a Jury called 
by Ithaniar Hibbard. Ksq., one of the first coro- 
ners and it is believed this was tlie first c<^»roner s in- 
(juest in ()i leans county. As the county was cleared 
i\\) and the low lands drained of their suiface watei- 
the ]>copIe siifien'd less from ague. 

'I'he can.-il being now ojiened. farni<M's found a r(^ady 



OF O K LK A NS CO I N T Y . K ►S 

market and better prices for their jirodiK^e. Home 
manufactures were ])r()te«'ted from foreign compe 
tition and th*- ],)rice of domestic goods greatly 
reduced. It was then tlie farmers began to tlirive 
and soon to pay up for their lands. Tlie price of real 
estate iadvan(^ed and some even predicted the tinte 
M^ould come wlien the }iest farms woidd be worth <jne 
iiundred dollars per acre, hardly cx])ecting to live io 
see their predictions fullilled as they have done. 

The attention of the earl}^ pioneers was called to 
the subject of connnon schools for their <'hildren and 
the next building to go up after a log cabin fo' ;j. 
dwelling was a log school house. 

One of (mr own statesmen while a mem]>er of tiic 
Legislature being asked where he graduated. replie<! : 
* In a log school house u]) hi Oi'leans county.' I have 
<iften carried my eldest son to and from sc1k)o1 oi: tiiy 
back through the deep snoAvs of wintei-. 

More than forty years ago I united with the Meth 
odist Episcopal Church at West BaiTe and in 1843 
withdrew from that church and united with the Wes- 
le3'an Methodists. 

Many ye'drs ago, convinced of the sin of intemjiei- 
ance, I resolved to use no more intoxicating li(]uor as 
a. beverage, a resolution to which 1 liave strictly ad- 
iiered ever since. 

ASA SANFORD " 
.lannary 28111, 1862. 

ANDt.'KW II. (iUEKX. 

Andrew II. Ureen. of By ion. (renesee count}', N. 
Y., writes for the Orleans county Pioneer Association 
i-ecords, his local history as follows : 

"I was born in Jolinstovvn. Montgomery ('o.. N. 
Y., Oct. 16th, 1797. and in June. bSOl). <'ame to (ietie 
see county from Rome. Oneida county, N. Y. 

In 1792, my fatliej- and Judge Tryoii, of New l^eb 
anon, cumr to Irondeijuoil. near Koehestei- and built 



104 riOMKKU HISTullV 

a storeljousc : and iii 1808, my lather caniH to vvliat is 
now Bergen and Sweden and piircliased something of 
a farm and commenci^d on the north honnds of wliat 
i3 now the iVEethodist eami) liTonnd, in Beruen, rnn- 
niug- north to tlin road running rast to Sweden Centre, 
tvvt>nty-tivp h>ts <'ontainiiig three tlioiisand acres at 
tv/onty-two sliiliings iwv aei-e. 

It was a tiard country to settle. Tliere were but 
few iidiabitants and tlie roads were v(^ry had. As 
soon as they l)egan to erect mill-dams theiv was a 
great deal of sickness. 

We Avent to Ilanford's Ijanding. at the mouth of 
(Jenesee liivei-, to trade and sell potash. I found but 
two houses hetvveen oui' hcjuse and (^larkson Corners, 
and l>ut two from there to (lenesee river. For several 
years I was as tamiliar in every family from my 
fatlier s to (feuesee river as I am now with my near 
neighbors. 

The first time I passed througli Kochester was in 
the summer of 1809. The next I remember about it 
was the bad road^ and that T was ver}' much fright- 
ened crossing the (lenesee i-ivej-. 'I'he water was deep 
ajid ran very swift. 1 expected to go down stream 
and over th«' falls. 

\ think tliere was one mill and two oi- three shanties 
to be seen tliei'e then. Thei-e was a small clearing 
\viier<' the Eagle tavej-ji tnrmerly stood, but I liad as 
niMch as 1 could do to get my load througli the mud. 
I little thought then tlmt black ash swaiu]) was ever 
to be the place it now is. Late in the fall of 1809 my 
father sent ]»ie to Sangei-stield Huddle after a load of 
iiiercliandise. East of Caiiandaigua was anew turn- 
[)ike where 1 got stuck in the mud and had to wait 
until the next teamster <'ain»' along t(> lielp me out. 
r wastlien fourteen years old. My father liad tifteen 
workmen and the tirst summer cleared one hundred 
aci'es. 



OF OUI.KANS CO UNIV. lOf) 

In October .liulgt' Findley tVoin (Teiios«>p came nu 
with a company of men to survfy townsliij) nimiber 
fwo of tlie one Imndred thousand, acre tract. They 
also sto})ped with us. making- a family of twenty-six 
men, l)esides having two families in the house. 

The •latch-string" was always out and none, ever 
went away hungry as we had|)lenty of pork and wild 
game to season it. Deer, hears and w(>lves were 
plenty. I never heard of hut one panther-. The sur- 
veyors had thei]- tent neai* where the steam saw mill 
now stands in Clarendou. Their cook cauie in on 
Wednesday night for l)read. One evening he had 
got to where (A)l. Shubael Lewis afterwards lived 
Avhen he heard some one halloo, lie soon found it 
was a. panther on his track. It followed him to the 
clearing. The man was much exhausted when he 
came in. He was an old hunter and said he knew it 
was a panther. The men all came in Saturday after- 
noon. The iSabbath was as well kept in 18()U as in 
bS(j8. We were seldom witlnnit »nangelical ])reacli- 
ing. We had one close communion Ba])tist Kldei-. 
some Methodists and some Presbyterians. All could 
sing the good old tunes and sing them with a will. The 
year ]8(H> was productive and healtliy. In 181(», 
about July 2(>th. we had a frost that killed most of the 
wheat and corn. Tlie fall of 1811 was very sickly. 
Thei'e were se\('ra1 families settled at Sandy Oreek 
village. They were all sick. We made up a load of 
some six or seven and went down to hel}) them. I 
never saw m) ha])]»y a com]^any. We cairied two 
hjads of necessaries and staid two Light^ and when 
some of them got so thev euuld take care of the 
others we h4t for home. 

I used to have many hard and hinesome rides 
through the woods on horseback. One very daik 
night I had been to Dr. Ward's after medicine, ("om- 
ino- h(mie I lost mv road an<l al^o mv liat. Before I 



106 IMONKER If I STORY 

found my hat tlu- wolves l)e<ian to liowl. I took off 
my shoes so that 1 niiglit find the road, and hy the 
time I had mounted ni}" horse to "o on, tlie wolves 
were within ''speaking distance'" and hefore I liad 
gone far they sti'uck my T)arefoot tracks : then they 
made a terrific roaring. 1 thought I was a 'goner' 
sure enough, but 1 presume if the wolves had seen 
me then on the old Avhite horse they would liave })een 
Jis friglitened as I was. 

Our m«?n had all kinds of musical instruments and 
any time wlien the drum was heat the wolves were 
almost sui-e to respt>nd. 

Abc^ut the beginning of wintcM' my fjitlier started 
Trie off with an ox team and load of grain to find 
.ludge Farwell's grist mill. After a tedious day's 
travel 1 came in sight of water pouring over rocks. 
It was no small stream. 1 thought it must be Mag- 
ara Falls. 1 was glad to find I could get my grist 
gi'ound, so 1 chained my oxen to a tree and found a 
comfortable night's lodging among the bags in the 
mill. I got home the the next day witli my grists 
Our folks thought 1 had done well nnd 1 thought so 
too. 

The first winter 1 walked seven miles lo school every 
day and back again. 

A. U. <iREP:K" 
Hvitoi, (rpiii^soo ("<). N. Y'., .luiic 1(1, 1803. 

In a letter written by tiiealxne named A. II. Gre^en 
to the Secretary of the Orleans County Pioneer Asso- 
ciation, dated June 14th. 1866, he says: 'vT w^as 
quite interested the other day. while hunting up the 
old road re<'ords of our town, Byron, in 1809. It was 
then the town of Murray, but now contains eight ot 
niTK^ towns entire. 

I.I MS .loNKS I'KCK. 

Mr. P(^ck furuished his local histoiA' tbr theOrh^ans 



OF OlILEA^Si rOlNTV. 107 

County Pioneer Association Records as follows: 

'' 1 was T3orn Octoher 27tli. 1816, in a very clieajv 
log lionse on Onondaga Hill, in Onondaga Co., N. Y., 
about a mile and a half from the old Court House, 
Up to eleven years of age 1 was engaged prin<'ipalh- 
in endeavoring to get sonietldng to eat. nf>t always 
however with much success, and in going to school 
barefoot both summer and winter. 

I nevei' had anything made of leather to wear on 
my feet until the s])riiig of 1828. 

My amusements consisted in listening to the howl- 
lugs of the wolves and in gymnastic exercises with 
the musketoes. 

In May, 1828, I had a pair of shoes and was sent 
to Pike. Allegany county, to live with my brother 
Luther. I stayed there until May 1833, when I re- 
turned to my parents with whom I lived until 1836, 
when I went to \V3'oming to attend the Middlebury 
Academy. 

In the spring of 1838 1 returned to Pike to read 
law in my brothers office. Tn 1841 he removed to 
^^unda, now in Livingston county and 1 stayed with 
him in his office till 1848. In July of that year 1 
commenced jobbing oji the canals and continued in 
tliat business until the summer of 1861. since which 
time I have done little business of any kind. 1 was 
never married. 

I left the town where ] was born in bsi7 and ar- 
rived in Clarendon, or what is now Clarendon, Orleans 
count3\ Just forty yeai-s ag(» to-day (March 20, 1864.) 
I came to llolley liist in tlie spiing of 180(5 and stayed 
until December. 1 tlit^n returned to Pendleton in 
Niagara county and completed a large J(d) I had on 
tile Erie Canal through tln^ Mountain Ridge and 
went back to Holley in the spring of 18^7. since which 
titne Holley has l)een my residence. 

M\' mother. (lied March 4. 1848. aued 71 \ cars. Mv 



108 PIONKKK HFSTOUY 

father diod .hiiu' '2. I8r>2, aged 82 years. 1 am tli^* 
yonngest of my brothervS. all of vvhoiiiai'e living. 

Tliei-e are, or were, no incidents in my eai'ly liirttor\' 
or tliat of my brothers, not common to all the early 
settlers in This vicinity, except I thought we managed 
to be a littk^ ])oorer than an\' bod\' else. My father 
had th(^ misfortune of liaving two ti'ades, that of a 
farmer and <*arpenter and Joinei-. He worked Iiis 
hands altogether too much and his brains altogether 
too little, and dividing tlie time l)etv/een the two, nec- 
essarily j-esulted in doing neither- well. CJonsequently 
neither ])rospered. This his sons tui-ncd all about in 
182i"), wluMi my broth»»rs ])ecam(' old enough to take 
charge of affairs. Since which tim<* there has been 
an im})rovement. 

LIM'S .ION EH PECK." 
D.ited— HoUey, March 20, l.S()4. 

IIAiaKY 0(»o]HIICU. 

Harve\- (loodrich was born in Herkimer county, ^'. 
v., in Nov. 1791. His father, Zenas (Toodrich, re- 
moved to that place from Berkshii-t\ Mass. When a 
young man Harve}^ Goodrich removed to Auburn, N. 
v., and worked for some time at the business of mak- 
ing hats, and for several years lie officiated as a 
constable. Having been successful in accumulating 
l)roperty. he with his brotlier-in-law. (Tcorge W. 
Standart, took a job of \v(»rk in making the Krie 
canal, and leaving Auburn after his canal work was 
<*om2)leted, he hu'ated permanently at Albion in the 
year 1824. and engaged in selling dry goods and 
groceries in company with (leorg*^ W. Standart. 

After Ihe <leath of Mr. Standail Mr. (xoodrich soon 
quit sellijig di'v goods and for many yeai's carried on 
the business of mannfactuj-ing hats and dealing in 
hats and furs- He was also engHged in buying pro- 
duce. For a number of years he held the office of 
postmaster in Albion. 



Being of an active, energetic temperment and by 
edncation and inclination fitted to take a leading part 
in ])nblic affairH. lie Avas one of the prominent men in 
the comninnit}- wlinre he lived, always conspicuons 
and busy on public occasions, generally holding some 
offt<'ial ])osition. 

In politics he "was a dcm<»crat of the sti-aitest sect. 
faithful and tine to his }»arty. 

But ])eihaps tlie ardent and earnest character of 
the man ap])eared clearest in his zeal in tiie cause of 
religion. 

While a resident in Aubuin and about tlie year 
1817. lie made a })ublic profession of religion and 
united with the First Presbyterian Church in that 
pla<*e, then under the ]»astoral care of Rev. Dr. 
J^nsing. 

One of the first enterprises in which he IxM-aiiie in- 
terested after he canic^ to Albion was in establishing 
a Presbyterian church there. That denomination 
}iad no chu]"cli oiganization in Barre. 

Through the agency of Mr. (loodricli. more especi- 
alh\ aided l)y several other Presbyterians who had 
settled in .Ubion and its vicinity, the services of a 
young preacher from Auburn Theological Seminary, 
Rev. William Johnson, were obtained and the Pres- 
byterian (•'liurch in Al])ion was organized about Feb. 
1i2, 18*24 by Ilev. Andrew Rawson, then laboiing as a 
missionary here, who was distinguished as a vt^teran 
pioneer ministtM- in ( hieans <'ounty. the new church 
consisting at the tirst of Harvey (xoodrich, .Jedediah 
Phelps. Joseph T Tart. Kbenezer Rogers, .lames Smitli 
and Franklin ('(»wdry and their wives, and Artenms 
Thayer. Fay (Hark, Lavinia Bassett and Betsey 
Phelps, sixteen jiiembers in all. 

Jul}' 29, 1824. together with Messrs. Hart and 
Plielps, Mr. Croodrich was elected a nding elder in 
Jhe Presbvteriaii Church, ;m office he continued to 



llO IMONKKK JIISTOKY 

hold unti] liis death. Altliougli never formally chosen 
as a Deacon in the churcli to wliioli he belonged, he 
was always known and called '^Deacon (roodrich"^ 
by every body wIkj spoke to him or of liim. 

It was a remarkable trait in Mr. Goodrich's charac- 
ter, that seldom a case of sickness and death of any 
person in his neighborhood occured but what lie 
attended, administering what he could to aid the suf- 
ferers according to th<>ir needs and usually taking 
<diarge of the funeral ceremonies over the dead. 

Thus for over forty j'eare, he was a leading and 
useful man in the church and society at large, largely 
identitied with the l)usiness and growth of the vil 
lage of Albion, a friend of the poor and needy, 
and well known and respected ]\y the people of the 
<H>unty. 

About two years before liis death he suffered 
a stroke of paralysis, completely disabling him in 
the midst of his most active industry, from which he 
lingered and languished until he died August 4, 1808» 
aged 71 years. 

oi:so\ Niciiosox. 

Dr. Orson Niclioson was born in Galway, Saratoga 
<'ounty, Xew York, Marcdi 2. 1795. He was educated 
ns a physician. In the yeai- 1822 Ik^ removed to the 
village of Albion which was then beginning to he 
S(^ttled. He entered ardently into every undertaking 
-of a public character connected with the organization 
of the county of Orleans and the civil and social in- 
stitutions which such an organizaticm occasioned. 

He was ele(;tt^d the hrst County Clerk of Orleans 
<50unty and b.y a le-election to a second term, held 
that office six years. 

In August 1810, he settled about two miles south 
of Albion. In 1822 he moved to Albion and there, 
for many, years had n large practi('e as a ])hysician. 



,4<»**^ 




Q 



-<i^-^j«- 



>v 



<>K OUJ.EAXS r'orNTY. Ill 

His liealtli failing, lie* w(Mit into buisiness witli Dr. L. 
r. Paine and dealt in drugs, mediciiu's and Ijooks 
until a few years before liis death. 

He was tlie first regular pli\>ieian who settled in 
Barre, he was also the first physician who settled in 
Albion. 

Dr. xSichoson married Luey Morris in the \ ear I82(i. 
The}' had thrt^e ehildren. Adeline E.. Caroline A. 
and Helen .1. .Adeline E. married .lonathan S. Stew- 
art, and Helen J. married ('harles A. Stanttm. She 
died May 12, 18(52. Mrs. Luey Xichoson died Oc- 
tober 8, "1804. Dr. OrsoTi Xichoson died ^Sfay 7, 187(i. 

riMoTllV <•. STUONC. 

r 

Timothy (?. Strong was born in Southampton. 
Mass., March li"), 171)0. At tlie age of sixteen years 
he entered as an apprenti(•^- to learn the art of print- 
ing with. I. J). Huntington, at Middlebury, Vermont. 
He married Aurelia (Toodsell, daughter of Dr. Pen- 
field Goodsell, of Litchfield, (;t., April 14, 1811. He 
commenced business for liimself at ISIiddlebury, by 
publishing a newspaper called the '* Yermcmt Mir- 
ror," also a niagazim' edited by Sannu'l Swift, and ;i 
literary work called the " Philosophical Repository,'" 
edited by Prof, Hall, of Middlebury College. 

In Sept. 1817, he removed to Palmyra, X. Y., 
where he published Ji newspa})er. In the fall of 1821' 
he removed to Ann Arbor, Michigan, and in February 
1825, he remo\vd to New})ort, now Albion, Orleans 
county, N. V., and purchased of Franklin Cowdr} 
a newspaper establishment called ''The Newport Pat- 
riot,'' which was started by Mi*. Cowdry, Feb. 9th. 
1824. Ml-. Strong changed tlie name of this paper to 
'The Orleans Advocate.' In Febuaiy. 1828, in the 
midst of the excitement following the abduction of 
Morgan, Mr. Strong changed it to tli»' 'The Orleans 



112 !M(»NKEH Hisroin 

Advocate, and Anti-Masonic Telegrapli," and soon 
at'td- to 'The AnKn-ican Standard.' Under this name 
it was puhlislied tAvo years l)y Mr. J. Kenipshall, 
when it jiassed batdv into the liands of Mr. Strono; 
wiio rhan,i;ed it to the "Orleans American.' and puT*- 
lislied it till in April 1S44, when he sold his paper 
and i)rintinf;- establishment to J. <t .1. H. Denio, who 
continued the ])aper till 18r)8, when they sold out ^ 
and after passing through seAeral hands it was bought 
in .fanuary. K'^()l. by H. A. Bruner. its present pro- 
]»rietor. 

In XoA'ember. 18:^4, Mi'. Strong aa as elected (younty 
(lerk of Orleans county, an office he continued to hold 
l\y re-election for nine years. 

Mr. Strong made a profession of religion in early 
life and united with the Preslnterian Ohurch. He 
died at Albioji of a cancer August fith, 1844, in the 
lifty-fifth year of his age. leaving a wife and twelve 
children surviving. 

X ATI! AN wiirrxEV. 

Nathan \\'hitne\' was l^orn in (.onway, Massachu- 
setts. January :22d. 1791. II(^ removed to Orleans 
c(mnty. in February, 1814, and settled in what is now 
Barre. 1 \(' was at tlie taking of Fort Erie in Septem- 
ber, 1814. Wlien the town of Barre was organized 
he was elected .Fustice of the Peace, an ofli(.'e he held 
several years and when Orleans county w^as set off 
lie was elected Sup^n'visor of Barre and served in the 
year 1820. Joeing fond of military exercises, he held 
\arious military offices from Lieutenant to Lieutenant- 
Colon*'!. 1^'ing regarded as a capable, lK)nest and 
efficient man b}- his fellow citizens, he was often put 
forward by them to official positions and discharged 
the duties of almost every town office. He removed 
from Barre to Elba. (3}enesee county-, in 1827. and af- 



OF OIJT.KAN^ ('(»nNTV. 113 

terwaidts reitioved to T^'e county, Illinois, wliei>^ hn 
was liviiiji,' in tlK-" fall of l.Sd9. 

AVKKY M. STARKWEATllKU. 

Avery M. Starkweather was born in Preston, Con " 
necticut, October 3d, 179<». He resided a time in Pa! 
»nyra. ^. Y., and came tc* the town of Rarreand took 
an article lor his farm in Aj)ril, 181G, After the Erie 
Canal was opened, for thirteen years he had charp,e 
of the first State rej^airiiiiz: srow T)oat on this section. 
He was Superintendent of Canal Repairs one yeaj. 
His beat extended from HoUey to Lockport and at a 
salar}-^ of s^oOO, without a clerk or any perquisites. 
His instructions required him tf> travel over and per 
sonally inspect Ms section at least once each week in 
the season of navigation, which he did. 

For thirteen year*? he was an assessor of the town < 1 
.Barre, and was Supervisor of the town for the years 
1842 and 1843. He was an active, thorough biisinesH 
man, honest and c(mscientious, much respected as far 
as he was known. He died Oct. 3, 1865. 

AMOS i;oo'r, 

Amos Root was born at Sand Lake, ReJisselaei 
<'ount3', X. Y., July 12tli, 18(13. He was aj)prenticed 
to learn the trad<! of blacksmith and removed to Alie- 
gany county, X. Y., in 1818. After serving his ap 
prenticeshi]) he carried on business as a l^lacksmith 
nearly thirty 3-ears. sin«'e which time he lias l)een a 
farmer. 

Al)Out 183(5. he nnned from Allegany county to 
Michigan, and retiirTn^d to ihe town of Barre in 18;^.8, 
whei'e he has since resided. 

He mairied Rhoda Ann Hennr'tt July 11th, 1S24. 
Being a large and strong ir;an in his youth lie wat* 
noted as a great wood chopper. While residing in 
Allegany county he was engaged with a large compa- 
ny cutting out a n<.>w road. A bet of fifty dollars was 



114 P!0?iKK!l niSTOKY 

made by the coiiipaiiy aw to Jiis power as a cliopper. 
A large wliitc oak tip*' was fell^^d and Mr. Root and 
ills antagonist stood on it to try wliicli could first 
cliop off a l(jg, Root taking the butt. Mr. Hoot won 
the bet. It was a Lot day in Jnly. The man o])- 
jjosed to liim overworked liiniself and died in a week 
afterwards from tlie effects. 

Mr. Israel Root, father of .Vmos, who was a soldier 
of the Revolution, lemovtHl from Allegany to Orleans 
county in 1825, and settled on the farm now owned 
by his S(jn Amos, in Rai-re. He came aci-oss the 
country in a wagon with his fandly, and Amos 
brought the goods on two canoes made of large pine 
Jogs and lashed togethei-. These he launched on the 
Genesee vun^r at (rardeau and paddled down to Roch 
ester and then put them in tin? canal and came to 
Gaines" Basin, then n favoi'ite landing place for emi- 
grants who conie l)y ca,nal to setth' in this vicinity, 
ozr.vs s. ciirRcii. 

Ozias S. Chuicli was l)orn in Windham, Connecti- 
cut, January ;-?lst, 1785. By occupatioii he was a 
farmer, though he labored with his fatliei- at the 
f)lacksnuthiiig business during his minority. Octo- 
hej- 18th. 18(n>. he married Parmelia Palmer, who 
was born in Windhajii, Oct.Hd, 1780. The}^ removed 
to Otsego county. X. Y.. in 1812, where he worked at 
farming until 1817. when he removed to Henrietta, 
M(mro(? Co.. N. Y.. and fi'om thence to the town of 
15[irre in 1884. 

Mr. Church was a (hMuociar in ])olitics and took a 
d(M3]) and active interest in his ])arty. As United 
Wtates Marshal he took the census of Monroe county 
in 1880, and «»f Oi leans county in 1840, He was 
I*ost Master at South Bari-e foi' twenty years. 

Mrs. Churcli died Dec. 7, 18(51, and Mr. Church 
Dec. 10th, 18(>8. They weie ])jirents of John P. 
(Miurch. who died while C(»untv Clei-k of Orleans 





Ui^ 



OF ORLEANS COINTY. 11 

-county, ill December, 1808, and of Hon. Sanford E. 
Chureli, present Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals 
'-of tlie State ( )f New York. ' 

WILLIAIM P.KADXEK. 

William Bradner removed to the town ot (laines 
from Palmyra, N, Y. Soon after he bought of Mr. 
McCollister the article for lot thirty -five, on the East 
side of Main street in Albion, and took a deed from 
the Holland Company for 266 1-2 acres, December 3, 
1819. His brother, Joel Bradner, took a deed from 
the Company for ninety- two acres lying on the south- 
west corner of said lot thirtj'-five. William Bradner 
sold one hundred acres of tlie north-west ])art of his 
tract April 22nd, 1822, to Tngersoll, Smith & Buck- 
ley. 

A. HYDK COLK. 

Hon. AhiK^ron Hyde Cole was born at Lavanna, 
'Cayuga county, N. Y., April 20th, 1798. His pa- 
rents removed to Auburn in 1807, and there he pre- 
pared for college and entered tlie Sophomore class in 
Union College in ISlo. Among liis classmates were 
(xeorge W. Doane, lateBisho}) of New Jersey, Alonzo 
Potter, late 13ishop of Pennsylvania, Dr. Hickok, 
late President of Union Colk^ge, and William H. 
Seward, late (xovernor of New York, Senator, &:c. 
He remained in college two years and then left with- 
out conqJeting his college course, in consequence of 
the death of his mother, and other changes in his 
father's family. 

In the tall of 1817, he entered the law office of 
Judge JoseiJi L. Richardson, then first Judge of 
•Cayuga county, as a student. He was admitted At- 
torney in the Supreme ('ourt in his twenty-first year 
and formed a partnership with Judge Richardson in 
practice. A few months afterwards he dissolved with 
Judge Richardson and entei-ed into partn(>rshi]i to 



1]6 PIONKKli HlftTOKY 

piac'ti(.'e law witli Mr. (ifeorgr W. Fleiniiig, AfU;r 
being at Seneca Falls for Ji time, they removed Ur 
Albion in the spring of 1825. where the}- practiced 
law together till 1832. After dissolving with Mr, 
Fleming, Mr. Cole was for sonu' years in practice of 
law with his In-other. Hon. Dan 11. Cole. 

Ml-. Cole served seventeen years as a Justice of the 
Peace of the town of Barre, and transacted an ira- 
niense anionnt of official bnsiness. 

In No\eniber, 1847, he was elected member of tht» 
Senate of the State of Xew York, where he served one 
term of two years and declined a re-election. After- 
leaving th(^ S(Miate he resnmed his law practice iii 
Albion, bnt a large amount of business (^oming into- 
his hands as executor in the settlement <.»f an estate* 
in (^ayuga county, he «'Jos<^d his law practice in Al- 
bion and devoted his time exclusively to the duties of 
his executorship, and to the management of a large 
farm he owned in the town of Gaines. 

Although a good advocate and a strong and logical 
reas(jner at the bar, Mr. Cole was not so fluent and 
])olished a speaker as his pai'tner Mr. Fleming. In 
their earlier yeai'S of piax^tice tog(^ther. Mr. Cole fui'- 
nif<hed his quota of brains to the tirm. whih^ Mr. Flem-- 
ing furnished the tongue. 

Mr. (^)le was esteenu?d to be a well read and soun<l 
lawyer whose opinions on legal questions were much 
sought ;ind relied on. His ('ounsel and advice were 
s(> much valued among the people that he early Ihj- 
ranie distinguished T)y way of eminence as the 'coun- 
selor* or 'counselor Cole.* by which title or name 
he was always s])okon of and well knoMii. 

Ill temperament he was ardent, impulsive and sen- 
sitive, feeling ([uick and sharj^ly tin; iritations of the 
moment. Bnt nothing like hatred ever had a place iu 
his bosom. 

From the ^tecuiiaiity of his ciiMrMcter he sometime* 



OF oKj.KANs roi;:NJY. 117 

;appearetl /jni^sf/i/eand ruuglitothose who approached 
Mm, but no man had a kinder heart. The sternness or 
^-pjiarent liai'sliness of manner which he possessed. 
wafr; more than l)ahinced in liis case by the 
feeeii regret lie felt when 1h^ knew he had caused 
pain to any and the lieart}' sympath}' and g(^nei'osity 
Jie ever manifested to those in distress. 

Mr. Cole was never married. Coming toOi'leans 
tMjunty when it was first organized, among the tirst 
lawyers who settled here, he was a prondnent man in 
public aifairs and well known to the people of the 
x-ounty. He died Oct. 14, 1859. 

HKN.fAMIX L. nKSSAC. 

**I was born in the town of New Baltiinore. Greene 
t-ounty, N. Y., March 12th, 1807. The death of my 
mother which occurred when I was twelve years of 
,age, threw me upon the family of nn' grand ]>arents 
where I n-mained until I was fourteen 3'ears old, M^' 
fiatlier, who was a blacksmith by trade, and who re- 
sided in the county of Chenango, having mai-ried a 
«<^ond time and closed uj) his business in Chenango, 
started for the State of Ohio with a view of commen- 
<*ing business there as a farmei-. This was in the fall 
•of 1821. When he arrived in the town of (.'larence, 
Erie count}', a snow storm set in and prevented his 
further ])rogress that fall, and having with him some 
tools and a small stock of mm he rented a shop and 
began w(u-k Jis a blacksmith at Ransom's drove, as it 
is now called, at ( -larence Hollow. He soon after 
purchased one Iiundi'ed and sixty acres of land 
.at the ( Treat Rapids on the the Tonawanda Cnvk, 
.«ix miles south of Lockport. 

In the summer of 1822. having obtained a scanty 
•trommon school education, and l)eing large enough U> 
help my father in his shoj) and on his farm, he wrote 
to me ijivinii" a ijlowing account of the country', of Ids 



118 PlO^v'KEK HISTORY 

farm, of tlio line iisli in the creek and tlie fine sport 
in taking them, and d(^siring me to come and liel}> 
]iim. 

I accordingly went to All)any and put my ljaggag(^ 
on board a seven liorse wagon, then about to sail for 
Buffalo, loaded with specie for tlit^ I'nited States"* 
Bank at Erie, Pennsylvania. Thus equipped I 
started tVti' the Holland Purchase in .luly, 1822, iit. 
<'are of Mr. Hockins, the owner of the establishuKUit. 
We t]-aveled slowly, not making over fifteen miles a 
day, sleeping in our wagon nights and watching our 
treasure, (xetting tired of this slow mode of travel- 
ing, when we arrived at Canandaigua I took the stage 
and came on to Clarence, and arrived at my father's 
July 22d, 1822. In a few days I went with my father 
to explon^ his new farm, he car3ing a bag of provis- 
ions and I a compass and chain with (jther articles 
for our journey, ^iy half-brother William, then 
thirteen years old, accompanied us. 

It was here, in .hily, 1822, in what was then called 
' tlu> nortii woods ' that I commenced my pioneer life,- 
and for tlie next thret^ years, and until October, 1825, 
I shared in the hardships, labt)rs and privations of 
the early settlers. During that time I assisted in 
c]io]>l)ing and pai'tly clearing fort}' acres of lieavily 
tiiribered land and erecting a comfortable log build- 
ing. Being ])ossessed of a strong, athletic frame, and 
a good robust constitution, and never having been 
sick a day in my life, 1 i^ndured the hardships and 
labors of the wilderness with che'rfulneFS and 
])leasurt'. and 1 oft«'n look liack to tliose days and 
reckon them among th(^ happiest of my life. And 1 
would not omit to lecord hen^ with grateful heart 
till' kind care of my Heavenly Father in ])reserving 
my life amid the dangers and accidents through 
which T passed in my youthful days. 

Not ])ossessing at my fatliers the advantages for 



OK oIJi.KANS ((trNTV. 119 

mental inipi-oveiiK^iit wliicli I <ipsirpd.I concluded in the 
fall of 182.0 to abandon my pioneer life, return to the 
east, obtain an education and study a j^rofession. 
Accordiiiiily October 2d, l^^n, I left my ax and hand 
spike and wt^nt to Lockpoit, uot on board the canal 
boat 'DeWitt Clinton" and .sailed foi- the east. 
8topj)ing in Albion for the boat to take* on loading I 
took an excursion through that low. muddy, and as 
I thought unsightly young village. 1 little thought 
then that 'Newport,' as it Avas called was destined 
to be my future home. 1 tlieii ])ronounced Xewport 
a. (pieer place (m which to build a town. 

I returned to the boat and passed on tlu'ough Hob 
ley. Brockport. .\ dams' and Spencer's Basins, all 
little straggling hamlets, as I thought them, ar- 
riving in Rochester in the night. Mt^v^ I expected io 
meet a gentleman from Tompkins county by appoint- 
ment, with whom T was intending to travel to visit my 
relatives in this vicinity and tlien ^i.) by boat with 
some relatives to Albany. But the gentleman did 
not couK^ as I expected. My little stock of mon«'y 
was exhausted on Tuesday- night in paying for my 
supper. I was noAv a stranger in a. strange land. I 
knew not what to do or how I shouhl be provided 
for. 1 wandei'ed al)out Rochester until Saturday 
morning, eating nothing except a few apples which I 
picked up in an or«'hard in the town of Brighton. : I 
slept nights on the piaz/a of tlx^ Exchange Hotel, on 
the corner at the intersecti(m of the canal with the 
basin, where the ])a('ket boats used to lay u]). Every 
morning when a lire was made u]) in the old bakery 
at the west end of the atpieduct. 1 went into the front 
room and warmed myself, tantalized by the smell of 
the T)read which was piled u]) on the counter, stearii 
ing hot, and for which 1 was starving. 1 was too 
])roud to beg. and 1 thank (iod Cor it, too hoiK^st to 
steal. 



Tlni8 the week passed until Saturdjiy iiioruiiig when 
I had a j)ressing- invitation to join a circus company 
then performing tliere. I was then young, ac^tive and 
strong, but my good (juaker training, and above all 
the hand of Providence shaping my ways, kept my 
3'^outhful feet from tliat imih. 

On Saturday morning 1 met a man who asked me 
if I would work, and I gladly hired t(j him for a part 
of the day. He led the way to the barn back of 
the *'anal, between Fitzhugh and S(jphia streets, 
where the ground was literally strewn M'ith heav}' 
raiinon. and I worked until the middle of tlie after- 
noon assisting to put them on a scow boat for 
distribution along the canal, to be used in firing a 
grand salute at the meeting of tli<' waters of Lake 
Erie with the Hudson river, November 2d, 1825, a 
day never to be forgotten in Western New York. 1 
r":ceived half a dollar for my work and went to a 
liumble tiivern for supper and had lodging in a bed. 
A better meal or sweeter sleep I never enjoyed. The 
next morning 1 went out on the street and almost the 
tirst man I met was thn friend for wijom 1 was wait- 
ing. 

After writing to my rehitives in Tompkins county 1 
\M for Albany and entei'ed the city with the tleet of 
canal boats in the canal celebration November 2d, 
lH2i), amid the roar of artillery and tlie sound of mar- 
tial musii*. 

Tlie Erie and Champlain canals were now finished. 
Navigation between the ocean and lake was now 
opened, and a new era of unparalleled prosperity had 
conmienced, and the pxiiltant ])e(jple wen- duly cele- 
brating tliH aus])icious event. ' Peace hatli her victo- 
ries.' 

After mingling with the throng that crowded the 
streets a few hours, J started on foot for the home of 
lay childhood, where loved ones I had not seen for 



OF oUJ.EANS <<»rNTV. 121 

more than tlnw vt'iirs weiv daily »'Xj)<M'ti]ig iiif. It 
was night-fall when I ascended the last hill Jind the 
well-known trees were standing like sentinels aronnd 
the old homestead in the fading twilight. My trnant 
feet onee more passed the threshold. The old watch- 
dog knew ni}' stej). With a Unttering heart I looked 
in at the window, and for a moment snrveyed the 
group as thin sat around the <-heerfnl fireside, (rod 
in his goodness had kept them all and the wandering 
idiild had got home. 

I was past eighteen years of age wlien I retnrne<l 
from Western New York. I had seen sf>mething of 
the world and had some exjierience in j)ioneer life. 
My education was not such as the district schools of 
this day afl'ord. My mind had been somewhat in\- 
proved by reading in a desultor}' and aimless man- 
ner. I taught a winter school in my native town, and 
in the spring of 1820 hired out as farm lahorei- at nine 
dollai'S per month in the county of Albany. 

I taught sch(K>l in the same county the winter of 
1826-7, and in the si)ring entered the Ureenville Acad- 
♦^my, in Ureene county, where I remained until the 
coming fall, and by this time I had succeded in pi-e- 
paring myself to enter the sophomore class at I'nion 
College ; my friends however prefered that I should 
tc)llow a mercantilf,^ life, and pnjcured me a situation 
in a wholesale dry goods house in the city of 
New York, whert^ I i-emained until the termination 
of fall business. I then returned to my native town 
intending to go back to ^'ew York the following- 
spring. 

1 taught scho(;l at Marbletown, lister county, N. 
Y., the winter of 1827-S, with great success, foi'ming 
many ])leasant aci^uaintances that have been chei- 
ished through suhse(pient life. 

Early in the spring 1 was attacked with IMeurisy, 
and lay at th<- }>oint of death for a number of days. 



122 I'K (NKKU , H IS rOKY 

On recuvcriiiir the s])niio- had s(» far advaiict'd I did 
not goto New York as I intended. bnT continued my 
sell ool until the spring of 1.S29. when laying down 
i\\eferulr 1 ('(tinnienced business on my own account 
in the village of West Troy. All^any county, heing 
nearly twenty-two years old. 

April 11. 1880, I was married t(» hehorah. daughter 
of Bev. Simeon Dickinson, of East Haddam, Conn. 
She was at that time a teachei- in Mis. U'illard's Fer 
male Seminaiy at Troy. 

I continued my business at WVst Troy, until the 
fall of that yeai-, when I sold out and lemoA'ed with 
my wife t(» the city of Mo])ile. .Vlahama. where she 
opened the Mobile Fcnnale Seminary, under tlie most 
favoral ^\ e a u s})ices. 

I was clerk in th(^ United States Hank in tliat city. 
In the month of Dec, 1881 my wife died suddenly, 
and I was left ;done in a strange city witliout a rela- 
tive nearer than the State of Xew York. 

I transferred the St^minar}' to other hands, resigned 
ni}^ clerkship in the Bank, (dosed up my business 
matters, and in Mandi 1882 i-eturned to my old home. 

T spent that sunmier and the following winter in 
traA'eling for recreation, and in the s])ring of 1888, 
being twenty-six years old. 1 entered upon the stud}* 
of the law with Amasa Mattison Ks(j., then a promis- 
ing lawyei- of C'airo. in the county of (Ireene, where I 
remained until fall, when 1 enter<'d the'oftice of Judge 
TTii'am (rardner of Lixdvport and remained with him 
until A])ril 188'), wheii I came to .Albion \vhe]-e I have 
ever since resided. 

June b8. 188.5, T was married to Candinc- (t., daugh- 
ter of Samuel Baker of ('oeymans, in the county of 
Albany and in August following ]»ur(diased the ]tro])- 
•'rty on whi(di J have since resided. 

T am now (1862) nearly tifty-four years of age, and 
must soon, in all human ])r(d)ability. lay aside the 



OF ORLEANS fOlNTY. 123 

active duties of my ])rofession. and jield ni\^ place to 
those younger and better fitted fortlie resjxmsibilities 
of the station. 

In reviewing- the })atliway of my life 1 l)ehold it 
plentifully strewn with incidents, always overshadow- 
ed hy the watchful care of my Heavenly Father, 
whose unnumhered mercies I am called U})on to record. 

AVhen fourteen years of age I united with the Re- 
formed Dutch Church in Greene county, upon a con- 
fession of my faith, and in 1842 I united with the 
Presbyterian church in All^ion. my wife coming with 
me to the same altar. 

I). L. HESSAC." 
Albion, January S, lHr53. 

IIKNKV ]{. ( TRTIS. 

Hon. llenrA' K. Curtis was born in Hoosic, Rensse- 
laer county New York, in the year 1800. After pass- 
ing his youth at labor on a farm, and in acquiring 
such (.elementary education as his own exei-tions and 
the limited means of his widowed mother could sup- 
ply, he commenced the study of law with Daniel 
Kellogg of Skaneateles, and ju'i'^^it'^^ it aftcn-wards 
with Hon. Hiram Mathei- in P^lbridge, New York. 
• In the fall of 1824 he settled in All)ion. Orleans 
county before he was admitted to the Bar, going into 
partnership with Alexis Ward, who was here before 
him, and who had been admitted to tli<^ Supreme 
Court. 

In 18:^1 he was appointed District Attorney for 
Orleans county, in which office he was continuiKl by 
subsequent appointments, (excepting the year 1882,) 
until June 1847, when he was elected County Judge 
and Surrogate, being the first (^ounty Judge chosen 
under the constitution of 184<>. He was re-eh^cted to 
the same office in Nov. ISoO. and died befoi-e the ex- 
])ii-ation of his second term. 

Befon' he w;is a Judge he liad lield the offices of 



Examine]' and Master in Chancery, and many civil 
offices in town and village. 

He wjis a liard student devoting himself to tlie 
labors of liis profession with untiring- assidnity, never 
engaging in other business speculations. 

For twenty-five years he was a ruling Elder in the 
Presbyterian Church and mm-h of that time a faith- 
ful teacher in the Sunday School in his church. 

As an advocate he was cool, clear and ])ersuasive, 
and the known honesty of his charactej- and the sin- 
cerity of his manner and language, conmionly carried 
conviction in his favor to the courts and Juries he 
addressed. 

As a counselor he vsas a peacemaker, judicious, 
<'autions and sound. Never encouraging litigation 
when it could be avoided. He was a man with few 
enemies and many friends, an honest law\er and good 
man. He died September 20. 1855, 

ZKNAS F. HIRIiAKI). 

" I was born in Scroon, Essex county, New York, 
April 4, 1804. My ancestors were of Scotch descent, 
and were jimong those who tied to this country from 
the oppressions of the old world, to enjoy <-ivil and 
religious liberty in tlie new world. 

M}' father a ftei-wjirds removed from Scroon to Bran- 
don, Vermont, and from Brandon he moved in the 
summer of b'^lO. to what is nr>w Barre, New York. 
.July 1:2. bSl(>, on lot 10, townshi]) 15, range 2, of the 
Holland l*urchase. one mile west ("f Albion where lie 
lived sixteen years. lie then removed to Barre Center 
where h(^ resided until his death, whicli occurred 
February 5, 185:;}. 

I att«mded the first s<'hool taught in Barre. in a log 

richool house, which stood on the west side of Oak 

0)"cliard road, in what is now the village of Albion. 

also attended the first town meetiim- in Barre after 



OF OFil.KANS COl NTV. 125 

tlif town was organized, at tlie hous«- of Al)iahani 
Mattison, al)0ut two miles south of Albion. I also 
attended the great celebration of the o])ening of the 
Erie Canal, Avhen the waters of Lake Erie mingled 
witli those of the Hudson River. I was also jjresent 
when the site for the eounty buildings was .located at 
Albion, whicli was the most exciting time. ]>Hrhaps, 
ever known in this county. 

1 was present when the first Congregational church 
in the town of Barre was formed, at the house of 
Joseph Hart. This church then consisted of the fol- 
lowing named persons, vi/ : Josepli Hart and wife, 
Ebenezer Rogers and wife. Ithamar Hibbard and wife. 
Artemas Tliayer and wife. Artemas Houghton and 
Thankful Thurston. 

I was mairied to Amanda Wrisle^-, in Barre, June 
j;>, 1828. She was T)orn in dill. Mass., Nov. 18. 1809. 

Z. F. ITIRBAKD.' 
Dated — Karre ('fnti-r, Ai)ril ith. 1H(m. 

Jjetter t'nnn AVilliam TanncM-. fornieriy of Orleans 
county, N. Y., written to tlie Pioneer Association : 
•'To the officers and members of the Orleans (■ounty 

Pioneer Association : 

Uentlemen : As fond memurv often shar])ens old 
ears to catch some word of the old lionie ( )f our youth, 
so now at three score years and one I have lieard of 
your society. What you do or what you say, I do 
not know, but I do know if y(.)u are tlie real ])ioneers 
T should be glad indeed to meet with you at your 
annual gathering. 

Tell me. dear sirs, are yon together to sj>eak of the 
days when Albion was a mud hole, and Jesse Bum- 
pus and Dea. Hart and a f*'w others owned tlie whole 
of it ^ And when the old log school Ji<uise half a 
mile north of Albi(m was built, where Francis Tanner 
lirst declared nuirtial law among the little folks ; and 
when Mr. Jakeway so well ada])ted tothebusinei<s by 



126 PloNEElt JirSTORY 

his six feet four iiicliesof ])ody and legs, used to break 
tlie road tlirougli four feet of snow, with tliree yoke of 
oxen, from the Ridge Koad to father Crandall's near 
one Angel's, not (labriel, "but ' Cabin Angel,' as he 
was called by way of distinction. 

And tliere was I)ea. Daniels, and Esq. Babbitt a 
little east, the workings of whose face denoted wis- 
dom as he sat in Judgment to decide weight}^ matters 
between neighl)ors. 

Never shall I forget envying tluit man his high 
office as justice of the peace when I was a small 
boy. 

Then there was John Proctor and his tall and ami- 
able wife and large farm. 

Then again at Gaines Corners, the corpulent land- 
lord Booth, together with Dr. Anderson, with his 
mild and pleasant wa^y- of telling people it wouldn't 
liurt much to pull teeth, and then almost taking their 
heads off with his strong arm. 

Later, tliere was good Jeptha Wood, who first 
taught me that hot and cold iron would not weld 
togetlier. 

But I must not name others lest I have not room to 
say a word to the <jld Pioneers. 

How simple was I in my boyhood days to envy 
the honored Esq. Babbitt, or the rich farmer Proctor 
of those early times. I have since been * Esq.' my- 
self. I liave been rich also ; but neither the honor of 
the one nor the gold of the other, brings happiness 
while here on this mundane sphere. AVhen 
I turn ni}' thoughts to the spot of all others most 
dear to me, Samuel N. Tanners old farm, and the ' city 
of the dead,' Mount Albion, opposite to his once 
earthly habitation, where I once chased the deer, and 
see the monumental slabs t^-ected over heads man}' of 
whom were my friends in youth, I am ready to ex- 
claim — ' Where are the pioneers I (mce knew i' 



<»F OKI. HANS Cur'NTV. 127 

But sirs, some of vou still live and allow me tu 
?<peak of what you have done. Yoii are among the 
greatest men of the nation. You liave leveled the 
sturdy forest, planted fiuitful fields, orchards and 
gard(^ns. l>nilt lailroads and canals, set nj) talking 
wires l)y wliicli we carry our freight and trav*^l 
('liea])ly over tliiec hundred miles a day and converse 
witlj lightning speed with far distant friends. 

I imagine 1 sec I)e AVitt Clinton standing in liis 
beautiful garden in the city of New York, listening, 
as it were', to hear the sound of the axes of Dea. 
Hart. Bumpus. Proctor. Babbitt, and a long list of 
jiames I hav<* no room t(j refer to. And I se(^ him 
turn to give the (,'ommissions to the Chief P^ngineer 
and Surveyor ; and what do I liear liim say ? ' The 
pioneers are theie at work : you can accomplish your 

work now." 

• 

Teach it to Aour rhildreji and grand-children, that 
they ai-e indel>tefl to you for all the vast improve- 
ments made in the great west, as the result of hard 
toil and labor. Labor, wliich always precedes the 
developmeni of everything great and good; labor, 
that (iod ordained, sanctioned and approved; labor 
that is so conducive to health and comfort and that 
brings its sure reward. 1 love lal)or, e^'en in deepest 
old age. T would obey Cod and benefit myself b}" 
laboring when able, seeing it is the only sure road 
leading to individual and national wealth and great- 
ness, as well as to ])ersonal ha])]>iness and com- 
fort. 

Had (Mir statesmen spent money without stint and 
built youi- lailroads and canals, unless ])receded and 
accompani<'<l by the ])ione»M-s, it would have availed 
but little. 

Education is a i)riceh'ssaccpiisition ; give it to the 
voung bv all mt^ans, hut do not foraet to teach them 



128 PIOXKKU HrsTUKT 

the great value uiu\ ])enetit of intelligem and well di- 
I'eeted lalx))-. 

And now. gentlemen. 1 assk youi' patience In deci- 
phering my tremhling writing, and excuse bad spell- 
ing, for 1 see much of it. T have labored too long 
and hard to be able now to write elegantly. 

Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM tanner;^ 

Ka<t Liberty. Allen Co., Iiul, March 13, 1865. 

KOSWKbr. S. BIRKOVVS. 

Roswell S. Burrows wjis born in (iroton, Conn., 
Fel>. 22, 1798. He was fitted for college at BacoB 
Academy, Conn., entered the Sophomores Class in 
Yale College in 1819, and took a dismission in the 
fall of 1820, in consequence of protracted ill health. 
He never returned to college, but in the year 1867, the 
honorary degree of A. M. was <'onferred on him by 
Yale College. • 

He i-eceived some capital b}' devise frr)m his grand- 
fatlu^r with which he purchased a cotton factory in 
Rhode Island, and there carried on business for some 
time for himself. His factory not provhig as profita 
l)le an investment as he expected, he sold out, receiv- 
ing a small payment down and a mortgage for the 
balance, which, through the fraud of another party, 
])roved a total loss. 

Tu Jul}'. 1824. he came to Orleans county and lo- 
cated at Albion, and in Sept. next after, he borrowed 
two thousand dollars of his father, and a like sum of 
his father-in-law. laid it out in a stock of goods, and 
witli this <'apita], increased by a small sum saved 
from the ruin of his factory speculation, coiimienced 
business as a merchant, in a little wooden )>uilding., 
standing very near the site of the First XationalBank 
of Albion. 

Tn November 1824, his younger brother, Lorenzo 
B)urrows. came t<» Albion t<) assist him as his clerk. 



Wf 






h. 




r--^-» <■ 




Y/A//ArK>^ n 



<»K ()UT,KANS (HTNTV. 129 

This {iiTaii,uvii!('iit continued until in 1S2(\ tlif tinn < : 
K. S. & L. HuiTows was fonn«^d. wlucli existed \n 
l)usiness as dry "oods nierelumts. 2:)r()dii('e dealer.--, 
and in ^vai-eli()usin<j; and forwarding on tlieErie Canal 
for ten or eleven years, wlien tliey sold out their entire 
stock of goods. 

When Mr. Burrows settled in Albion the canal w;ts 
made navigable as far west as Lo('kport, and one iri- 
ducement he had to sto]) liere was the ])romise of 
Canal CommissioiK^r, Wni. C. Bouck, that he should 
receive the appointment of Collector of Canal revenue 
an office tli(Mi about to be established at Albion. 

This office of (jolhM'toi- was given to him in 1825, 
and was continu(,'d by re-ajipointment until b'^.32, 
when he Avas succ-eeded T)y C. ^^. McConnell. 

Mr. Burrows built the warehouse now standing iirx"! 
east from Main street on the canal, in 1827. After th<- 
sale of their goods in store, as above stated, Messir.. 
K. 8. & L. Burrows continued their warehouse busi- 
ness and dealt in pr(jduc(- until the general banking 
law went into ojjeration. under which they estaf>- 
lislied the Bank of Albion, which commenced busi- 
ness under tliat law Jidy IHth, 1889. This bank coii- 
tinued in operation about twenty-seven years, an<i 
was finally (dosed under the new policy which sub- 
stituted National Banks. Its first officers were Rc»s- 
w^ell 8. Burrows, President ; Lorenzo Burrow's, Cash- 
ier; and Andrew J. ('hester. Teller. 

Mr. Burrows organized a new bank in Albion. I ><- 
cember 23, bSO*}, called 'The First National Bank of 
Albion.' This was the first National Bank which went 
into opeiation in the State of New^ York west of Sy- 
racuse. Roswell S. Burrows, President ; Alexande: 
Stewart, (^ashier ; and Albert S. AVarner, Tell'-r. 
Mr. E. S. Burrows own(Hl a majorit}' of the capital 
stock of botli these banks, w^as always their Preside] it 
and a T>ire<'tor and the princi])al manager. 



loO FIOXEKU iliSTOKY 

\Mtliiu tln^ last forty years Mr. Ijui-j-ows has been 
Director and Trustee of many corporations and coni- 
{)anies, siicli as railroad companies, telegrapli com- 
p-anies, tlie Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge compa- 
ny, and on<^ mining company. lie has been Trustee 
of sm'eral religious, iKMievolent and literary institu- 
tious. llt^ lias frec[uentiy been proposed by his 
friends as a candidah^ for various civil offices hut ah 
ways declined a nomination. 

Several 3^ears since the extensive and very valuable 
library of Professor Neander, of Germany, was of- 
f'red for sal<^ by reason of the death of its owner. 
Mr. Buri-ows purcliased this librar}' and presented it 
to the E.ochester Theological Seminary, connected with 
MieBaptisr denomination. This library, consisting of 
several thousand \-olumes of rare and valuable books 
collected througli many years by one of the best 
scholars of his time in Eui-ope, is valued nt trom fii"- 
t.vn to twent}'^ thousand dollars. 

In addition to this library, a few jears ago Mr. Bin- 
rows offered to give this Theological Seminary the mu- 
nificent gift of one hundred thousand dollars to add 
to its endowments, with the ])romise of more if pros- 
y-ered in business jis lie hoped to be. The Trustees 
of the Seminar}' proposed to Mr. Burrows if he 
would increase his proposed endowment of that insti- 
t'ltionto uvo hundred andlifty thousand dollars they 
would give it the name of 'The Burrows Theological 
Seminary of .Rochester, N. Y." 

These proposals it is understood have never been 
f*>rmally withdrawn or acted on. 

As a business num Mr. Burrows is cool, shrewd, 
clear-headed ami sagacious ; never disturbed by 
l^anics, or deceived by false ap])earances. l\o lias 
accumulated a great tbrtune b}' indefatigalile indus- 
ti-y, and prudently and safely iuA estinji' his accumu- 
lations. .Mtliouu'h a-'lvaiieed iu years, lie wjis 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 131 

never perluips more hiiay than now, and never found 
Jiis great exj)erience and capital yielding liim a larger 
profit. 

AViLLi A3r h?:nnim an. 

Judge Peiniinian was born in Peterboroiigli, Hills - 
borough County, N. II., .Vugust 5, 1793. After ob- 
taining a good common school and academic educa- 
tion in Ids native State, he emigrated to Ontario Co., 
l^ew York, in Sej)t., 1816, and from thence to Shelby. 
Orleans County, in October, 1820. He took up land 
in that town on which he resided about eight 3'ears ; 
lie then removed to Albion, remaining there more 
than two years, finally settling on a farm in Barre, 
near Eagle Harbor, whca-e he has ever since resided. 

In 1825, Mr. Penniman was appointed a Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas, for Orleans County, then 
lately organized, and was one of the first bench of 
-fudges, which composed that Court, which ofiice he 
lield five years. In 1831, he was elected Justice of 
the Peace of Barre and served in that office until he 
removed to Eagle Harbor, when he resigned. 

In 1846, he represented Orleans County, as a mem- 
ber of the Convention to revise the Constitution of the 
State of ISTew York. 

Judge Penniman was a celebrated school teacher 
for many years after he came to Orleans County, 
having taught school fourteen winters and seven sum- 
mers. He always took a livel}' interest in the subject of 
common schools, was Commissioner of schools and 
town inspector each of the eight years he resided in 
Shelby, and served as town superintendent of schools 
in Barre three years, while that system was the law. 

He was a popular Justice of the Peace, while act- 
ing in tliat capacity. He used to say, he once issued 
108 summons in one day, in all of which Dr. William 
White was jJaintiflT. As a Judge he was firm, up- 



182 rrftN'KKK history 

rifilit jnul iiiii)artial, aiming to sustain tlie right in his 
decisions, and in all his official and social relations hr 
has sustained a character marked for sonnd views of 
men and things, honest, faithfid, sagacious and true ; 
and lunv in his old age and retirement enjoys the re- 
s])ect of all who know him. 

.lESSE .>rASOJS\ 

Jess<' Mason was horn in Cheshire, Mass., July 24;. 
1779. By occupation he was a farmer. He removed 
to Phel])s. Ontario C'ounty N. Y., about the year 
181(1. \\here lie resided six years, then removed to- 
Baire, Orleans IJounty, and settled on lot 17, in town- 
si lip IT), lange 2, now owned by Wm. H. Pendry. 

In tlie year 1837, he sold his property in Barre and'; 
remov(nl to Ohict, wlum^ lie resided until liis death, in- 
Nov., 1804. 

Mr. Mason served one cani])aign in the war of 1812,. 
was one of the last American soldiers to leave Buffa- 
lo wl'.eu it was burned by the British. 

Mr. ^[ason was a man of positive convictions in alii 
matters of his belief!, political, moral or religious.. 
Energetic, enter] )i'ising and liberal in all that pertain 
ed to ])iiblic affairs in his neighborhood, he bore even* 
more than his share in all tlie labors, expense and 
trouble in opening roads, founding schools and. 
churches and organizing society in the new country... 
.Vll such duties and burthens were performed and 
borne by him as labors of love, in which he seemed 
to deligiit. 

Mrs. Hannah Mason, wife of Jesse Mason, daugh- 
ter of llev. John Leland, a Baptist minister, residing 
in Orange c(mnty, Va. was born Dec. 18,1778. Mr.. 
Leland was originally from Mass. AVhile living in 
\irginia he bec'ame the intimate friend of President 
.lelferson, and it is said Mr. JefTerson derived his first 
clear idea of genuine democracy from what lie saw of!" 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 133 

the working of that principle in a church, of whicli Mr. 
Leland was pastor. Miss Leland married Mr. Mason, 
in Cheshire, about the }ear ISOO.nioved witli liini to the 
west, and as long- as lie lived, proved herself a help- 
meet indeed, lull}' sharing and sympathizing with 
liim in all the toils, hardsldps and anxieties througli 
whicli he passed in a long and activt^ life. She died 
January 21, 1807. 

STEPilKN 1!. TIirnSTOX. 

" I was horn in Westmort^land, Oneida Co., X. Y., 
January '■>, 1808, and removed witli nn' father, (Jalel» 
O. Thurston, to Barre to reside, in the spring of 1814. 
My father being a farnu^r, brought me up to la])or in 
that honorable calling. I resided with my father, at- 
tending school occasionally winters, until I was twen- 
ty-two years old, when I bought seventy-six acres of 
land, part of lot 1'.), township 15, range 2, in Ban-e. 
-on which I resided until A])ril, I860, when I i-emoved 
into the village of Albion, where I now reside. 

I was married to Miss Julianna Williams, daughter 
'of Samuel Williams, of Barre, January 11, 1832. — 
She was born in Burlington, Otsego Co., N. Y., A])ril 
.5, 1812. 

S. B. THURSTON." 
Albion, July, 1807. 

HUFUS HALLOCK. 

Rvd'us Ilallock was born in Richmond, Chittenden 
Co., Vt., Nov. 7, 1802. His father was a farmer, and 
young Bufus lalxned on his father's farm summers 
:a,nd attended school winters. 

In February, 181. ">, with his father's family, lie re- 
moved to Murray, Orleans Co., N. Y. In 1823, lie 
removed with his father's family to Louisville, St. 
Lawrence Co., where he resided two years, and then 
•<*ame to Barre, Orh^ans Co., and settled on lot 43, 
township 14, range 2, of the Holland Purchase, whert^ 



T34 PIONEER IIISTOKY 

lie resided till his death in 1870. He was iiianied July 
H, 1826, to Susan Tucker, of Shelby, who was l)orn in 
New Hampshire, May 9, 1804. 

Mrs. Hallock died at her home in Barre, May 18thy, 
1868, a.2;ed 64 years. 

Mr. Halloek by his industry and economy ac- 
cumidated a competence of property. 

In religious belief a Baptist, Mr. Hallock was regard- 
ed as an exemplary christian man, respected by all 
who knew him. Resolute and prompt in his charac- 
ter Jind conduct, he generally met and overcome- 
or removed every obstacle and adversity which he- 
has encountered in his path in life. 

He told a story of his father which illustrates what 
sort of a man his father was, and exhibits a daslr 
and courage which has been ti*ansuiitted to his de- 
sceudants. 

Traveling alone through the woods one da}" after he 
cauie to tliis county, he saw a bear and two cubs- 
asleep unde'r the roots of a fallen tree. Resolving tt>> 
capture a cub, Mr. Hallock stealthily (U'e])t up to the 
spot where they lay and seized a cub l)y its hind legs- 
and backed away dragging his prize and keeping his 
eyes fixed on the mother beai' who followed after hhn 
growling and gnashing her teeth. He kept on in this 
way several rods until lie backed and fell over a fal- 
len tree, when the old b(^ar attracted by the cries of 
the cub left behind returned to that and came {ifter 
him 7i(» more. Mr. Plallock carried the cub hom(=- 
tJimed and raised it. He died .Ian. 16), 1871. 

JONATHAN ( [.ARK. 

'' I was born in Londonderry, Rockingham county^ 
New Hampshire. July 'M, 17iK). My father died 
when 1 was (piite young. 1 lived with my grandfath- 
er. John Clark, until I was fiftetm years of age ; T 
then went to live with mv Uncle, -lohn (^lai'k, .Fr.. in,. 



«'F OKI.EAXS < OITsTY. ^'■'^> 

Saloiii. Massachusetts, Avliero I reniaiucd until I w.-ss 
twcnty-ono ye.'irs of age. 

Marcli,18] 2,1 -went ahcniid tlie scliooiier Talbot.Capt . 
(reorge Burclmiore. lieadt^d foi- tlie East Indies, \x\ii\ 
a uiiscellaneous cargo in the (•a])acitY of a coninu»n 
seaman. 

Xotliing woitliy of note happened To us until we 
readied tlie eipiinoctia] line, wlien the Ca])tain said 
" Old JS'eptnne must come aboard that afternoon and 
the green ones must he shaved and sworn."" T!ie 
oatli which we were reqnired to take in connection 
with the other raw liands, was as folhnvs : 

*M promise to never eat hi'own bread when I caii 
get white ; never to leave the i)ump until I call for a 
spell ; and never to ki-ss the maid when I can kiss 
the mistress."' 

The shaving process consisted, in l)rief, in placing 
the subject on the windlass, brushing liis face with 
tilth and scraping it oft* with an iron lioop, as a sub- 
stitute fo]-a razor, the subject in the meantime^ being 
in great dangei- of having the unsavoiy lather thrust 
into liis mouth while taking the oath. Luckily for 
me I passed the ordeal more happily than my com- 
rades having, in advanc(\circidated a bottle of saijoss 
"■ O be lovful." 

Crossing the lin<^ is a great occasion r<tr Jokes and 
fun in general among sailors. 

In due time, and witlionl liarm. we reached the 
vicinity of the (•a])es. wlien we encountei-ed lieaAy 
weatlie]'. 

We I'an tweiitv-three days iiiidei- close reefed To]>- 
sails, s] lipped a lieavy sea on our starboard quarti-v 
which washed the wliole h'Ugth of the deck and ca?^ 
ried awa\^ oui- bulwarks. Wt? dou1)led the Ca}»e o1 
(rood Hope and reached tiie Isle of France (me hun 
dred and thirtecMi days ont from Sal<^m. We lay the; e 
t\vf> months, dis(diarge({ caru-o. took in balhxst and 



1ii^G I'lOXKKIl HISTOIJY 

sailed for the Iskmd of Siiinalia. Wo were lunmiig 
into Lemonarger wlieii we wciv met l)y an armed boat 
commanded by a man claiming to bt^ king of Ar- 
cheen, who demanded of iis a dnty on the pepper 
we might purchase. We ivgarded him and his crew 
;is savages and pirat^^^, and declining to trade with 
them put to sea again. AVe ran to iSoo-Soo and saw 
a sail approaching. Tliat (^xcit^d our apprehensions 
of danger. 

'I'he Captain inquired if \\h' would light should the 
occasion demand it. Our unanimous response was 
'* we will." 

We wei'e tlK^i stationed wliere we could do the best 
execution in self defence. 

My stati(mwas on the si(U> of the ship with an ax 
to vnt off their hands should they attempt to board 
us. All the men Avere armed with deadly wea])ons, 
and we had a six-pounder ready for any emer- 
gency. 

The strange Aessel sent a boat to us witli a. letter 
v/iitten in English, rt^questing us to trade with the king 
of Archeen, or in case of our refusal he would seize 
US and our vessel. 

The night following being very dark we weighed 
anchor and i)ut to sea, ])idding his suspicious majes- 
ty good-bA^e. 

We th(Mi sailed to an l^iiiglish i)ort, To])anooley, 
'ivjiere we took in a cargo of pep])er antl sailed for 
home. 

We were to touch tin* J^i-a/ils to receive the orders 
of the owners. Here we weiv hailed by what we re- 
garded as a liostile vessel and chasinl and tired at 
astern; and when foi-ced to yield, to our great joy 
we found the strange vessel to be a man-of-war from 
our own Salem, named 'Thedrand Turk." a priva- 
teer sent out to i-e-take our shi}), which the owners 
supposed to be in the hands of the British. 



OF ORLEAXS COI'NTY. 137 

The mutual congratulations between tlie crews of 
the 'Talbot' and 'The Grand Turk* were very 
pleasant to us all. Here we first learned of the war 
between the United States and Great Britain, which 
had then betMi doing its work of desti'uction ten 
months. 

We entered the })ort of Pernambuco, March 18th, 
1813, having been absent Just one year. The cai'go 
was put in Portuguese bottoms and sent to Europe. 
The second mate and myself remained to takt^ care 
of the ship until November, ISlo, when I left for Gib- 
raltar on board tlie Rebecca, with a cargo of hidc^s 
and sugai'. AVe stopped at Gibraltar a few daj's, 
then ran down to Naples and discharged cargo and 
took in a miscellaneous loading and returned liome- 
Avards, landing in New York where I was discharged, 
and started for Salem wliere I arrived January 1st, 
1816. 

I give the names of the places in the East Indies as 
I heard them pronounced. I niay have spelled them 
wrong. I'hus ends my seafaring life. 

July oth, 1816, I left Boston for AVestern New 
York. I traveled through Albany, taking the Great 
Western Turnpike, walking on loot all the way, until 
near Aubui-n when a traveler kindly permitted me to 
ride with him, saying he would take me to where \ 
could find good land. 

We passed through Rochester, and taking the 
Ridge Road came to Sheldon's Corners, now West 
Gaines. We then turned south, Jind traveling about 
a mile reached a school house just as the school was 
out for noon. A little sunny-faced giil ran uj) to us 
and said to the man who had so kindly assisti*d me : 
' Well dad, we are glad you have come for we are 
about half starved out.' 

That man was Gideon Freeman and tli(^ little gii-j 
was Sally Freeman. 



138 IMOXKKR mSTOKV 

I looked ni'ouiid ;i little and finally houglit the 
farm on which I have ever since resided, ])ai't of lot 
fifty, ill towiishi]) fifteen, range two. of tln^ ilolland 
Purcliase, lying in the noi-th-w^^stern part of J5arre. 
then (laines. near the south end of what is now 
known as ' The Long Bridge/ oAer the Ei-ie canal. 
My land cost me five dollai's p(M- acre. T took an ar- 
tich^ for it and was ;i1)1e to pay in full in ahout eight 
years. 

I nndeibrushed li\e aci-es. built n h»g house and 
went hack to Salem. 

I Avas married Xovemlter '2'}\\\. ISJC). to Ahigail 
Simonds. who was hoi-n in Salem. Massachusetts. 
-July 0th. 1700. 

AVhile I was ])reparing to stait on onr journey 
west 1 "was accosted by an ohl sailor friend 
who inquired where I was goings L said 'to the 
Holland Purchase." Said he. 'where can that he^ 
I never heard of that ])lace before.' I told him 'it 
was a fine countr}' in Westei-n N<nv York;" that 'T 
had bought a farm there. huiU a log house and was 
going to live ther(\" Said lie. • I would not give the 
gold! could scrape from a card of gingerbread foi' 
tile entire Holland Puichase." Ihit he did not know 
everything. 

]\h' wife and I left Snleni for oui' new westein home 
with a s})a]i of horses and a wagon. We were twen- 
ty one days on the road. We ai'rived at my ])lace 
and began lioused\ee])ing .laiiuaiy 1st. b'^1 7. without 
a table, a <*hair or a liedstead, all of whi(di :n'ti(des 1 
soon mad«^ in true (lenesee juoiieer style. 

For many years in the settlement 1 was called 
'Sailor Chirk * to distinguish me from another (Mark 
who was. [ am hap})y to say, a very decent man. 

Money being very hard to be got, we mad<' hlcrA 
.VV///.V. which became practically a legal tend»M' or sul> 
stilute for mone\-. 



OF (lKL^:A^■s cointy. 139 

I and my iieighbo]-. Mr. Benjamin Foot, worked 
together in tin- inannfa('tnr»\ hnt aftei' a time lie gold 
to a Mr. Elijali ShaAv. wlio condncted th(- })nsiness 
witli nic until that nt'cessarv callinu- was "played 
«nit.' 

Mr. Sliaw and myself arc the only pcisons living m 
this school district who came in as early as JSIG. 

My wife having been reared in the city knew noth- 
ing of spinning wheels, though she was a good house- 
keeper : Tmt under the influence of her neighbor's 
example, sht^ urged nu^ to raise flax and purchase 
her a Pioneer Pinno, which I did, biinging home 
one of the largest size on my shoulder from a dis- 
tance of seAeral miles : and before long she could 
discourse as melodious music as any in th(^ settle- 
ment. 

In the early i)jitt of my pioneer iife, like others, 1 
had to cut browse for my cow. One evening I went 
out and felled a tn^e. thiid^ing it would certainly fall 
west, but alas for my sagacity, it fell east striking 
our house, bi-eaking down about half the j-oof and 
alarming me greatly for the safety of my family. 
However no one was hurt except by being badly 
fi'igliten(Ml. The i-oof was easily repaii-ed, but a iin<' 
niirroi'. a very c^legant one for a new countiy. wliich 
Miy wife's father, who was a seaman, had biought 
from Hamburgh, in Euro])e. was bioken into frag- 
ments, and could not be repaired. 

During the cold seasons many of the settlers suf- 
fered for the necessaries of life, but hap])ily for me 
and mine we did not suffer. 1 went east with m_v 
team far enough to hnd all t]i<' jaovisions we needed 
and brought home a full su])]>ly for all oui- n(MN>ssi- 
ties. 

The fall of 1S*J4 WMS a sad ])enod to me. My wife 
died OctolHM' ^Oth of this 3'ear. 

T desire lici-c to recoi-d mvsxrateful sense of the kind- 



140 riONEF.TI HISTOKY 

iiess of our neighbors during ]mr sickness. Theii- at- 
tentions were timely, cordial and continued. All 
those kind women then living in the district are dead 
except Mrs. Benj. Foot. 

I married my present wife, Elizaheth Stephens, in 
Gaines, March 20th, 1825. She was horn in iSIiddle- 
town, Rutland comity, Yt., June 20th, 1806. 

We lel't our pioneer log house and moved into our 
present dwelling in 1825. About tliis time the l)oats 
were seen passing along in 'Gov. Clinton's big 
ditch,' the Erie canal, on the north border of my 
farm, c(^nnecting the great commercial and agricultu- 
ral interests of our ctmntry. And I trust that our nat- 
ural and artilicial channels of trade may remain 
open, and the love of freedom among our ])eople con- 
tinue to aid, with the blessing of Uod, to preserve and 
perpetuate our nationality, restore the Union of these 
Statey and the free institutions of our country. 

In 1825 I experienced religion, and about 1829 my 
wife and myself connected ourselves with the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, in wliose communion we still 
remain. 

JONATHAN CLARK." 

Barrc, April 7th, 1804. 

OLIVKi: HEN'l'OX, 

Oliver Benton was born in Ashheld, Mass., Aprd 
10th, 1791. lie came to Barre to reside in 1812. He 
married Elvira Starr, May 15th, 3817. Mr. Benton 
took n\) a large tract of land two miles south of Al- 
bion, on which he resided. 

After the town of Barn^ was organized, and about 
1818 or '19 the tirst postoffice in the town was estab- 
lished and called Barre, and Mr. Benton was ap- 
pointed postmaster, an office he held many }'ears. 

For many yt^ars he was a noted tavern keeper on 
the Oak Orchai-d Iload, and as he had a large and 



OK OKLKANS ( OUNTY. • 141 

oomraodiouslioTisr for the times, town meetings, balls 
and gatlierings of the people we«e held at his honse. 
On the death of AVilliam Lewis, who wns the lirst 
Sheriff, Mr. Benton was elected Sheriff of Orleans co. 
Nov. 182n, and lield the offi<'«^ three years. He died 
Feb. r2th, 1848. 

MosKs s:\rn'ir. 

Moses Sndth was born in Newburg, New York, 
F<'bruary 0th, 1785. Tie married Chloe Dickinson, of 
Phelps, New York, April Jltli, 1811, and moved to 
Barre, Orleans coimty, Nov. l(3th, 1824, and took a 
deed from the Holland (^>mpany of a part of lot two, 
townsliip fifteen, range one. on which lie continued to 
reside until his death May 16th, 1869. He had four- 
teen children, eight of whom survived him. He was 
a carpenter and joiner by trade, T)ut the main occu- 
pation of his life was farming. 

He was of Scotch des(;ent. His grandmother emi- 
grated from Scotland and settled on what is known 
in liistor}' as the Hasbrouck place, in the South part 
of tli(? city of Newburgh, on two hundred and Miy 
acres. On this farm Mr. Moses Smith was born, and 
on this farm stands the celebrated building known as 
'* Wasliington* s Headquarters."' 

AXTITOXY TRIPP. 

Anthony Tripj) was born in Providence, Rhode Is- 
land, In his childhood he removed with his father" s 
family to ('olumT)ia county. N. Y.. where he grew 
up to manhood, was mairied and settled. He after- 
terwards removed to Delaware county. A^hel'e he re- 
sided until he moved to Barre. 

In 1811 he cauie to Barre and took up one hundred 
acres of land about two miles South of Albion. It 
is claimed this wns the first article foi- land issued by 



142 PIOXEKIi JUS TORY 

tlie HullMiid C'onijxuiy in Barre. The wai- ])reakiiig 
«ut next year lie did not settle on liis land. 

In 1817 his eldest son, Sanmel, conimenced clear- 
ing this land and l)uilt a log house there, into 
which Mr. Tripp moved with his family in 1824, and 
where he continued to reside until his dt^ath. 

He married Mar}' Brown. Their children were 
Samuel; Talitlia, who married Sylvester Patterson; 
Stephen R., who married Ruth Mott ; Anthony ; Al- 
rah, who married Jane II. Blakely. She was killed 
January, 180G, by a chimney and battlement from an 
adjoining building falling through the roof of a storc^ 
in Albion, in which she was trading, crushing hei' to 
death. Mary, who married Psaltei- S. Mason. Al- 
ineron, wlio marri(>d Sylvia Burns. 

aj.lp:x I'oin'Eii. 

Allen Porter was born in Fraidvlin county. Mass., 
Ang. 24th, 1795. He married Electa Scott, i)ec. 22d, 
1819. In the fall of ISlo he located for himself a 
tarni in the town of Barre. upon which lie removed 
in March, 1816, and commenced felling the trees, and 
on which he has ever since resided. 

At the time Mr. Porter came in, not more than fif- 
teen families had settled in the i)resent limits (^f 
Barre. 

Previous to this time tlip Holland ('om])any had 
t'ut out the road from the Oak Orchard Koad to Shel- 
by Center, which now passes the County Poor House. 
A few lots had been taken but no dwelling had been 
erected on the road so cut out in Barre and no set- 
tlement had been made in this town south of tlie Pooi- 
House Road and west of the Oak Oichard Road. 

Mr. Porter remembers hauling wheat raiseil (jn Jiis 
farm, to Rochester, and selling it there for thirty-one 
rents a bushel, and paying live dollars pei- barrel for 



OF OILLKA.XS COirNTV. 143 

■salt, st'vt'iitcpii cents jxt })()ini(I for nails, and other 
^•oocLs ill like pro])ortio]i. 

Wliilo Mr. Porter was a \k)\ Jiis fatliei- removed to 
Seneca county, X. Y. Allen being yet in liis niinoii- 
ty was drafted in tlie war of 1812 and sent to the 
frontie]-. He Nolunteered at Bult'alo to go over into 
Canada to reinforce our troops in Fort Erie, and was 
present in the sortie from that Fort in Sept. 1814. Mr. 
Porter has held vjirious offic(^s, civil and military, and 
is a well known and much res])ected citi/en. 

Kl.J/rit IlAK'l'. 

Klizu!" Hart was born in Durham, (Treeiie county, 
^^ Y., May 28d, J8(>:!. His father, I)ea. Joseph Hart, 
removed to Seneca county, X. Y'.. in 1806. and to 
Barre, Orh'ans county, in October, 1812. It was sev- 
eral years after he came to Jiarre. Ix'fore any scliool 
was o2)ened in his father's neighborhood, and he 
never had the lieiietit of mucli instruction in school. 
Wliih- j-esiding with liis father he was employed 
mainly in dealing uji land and in ]al)or on the farm, 
and grew u]) to manhood as other boj^s did in that 
new country, without much knowledge of books oi- 
business, or of the world beyond the community 
where he lived. 

About the year 1827 lie was elected nonstable, an 
office he held two Aears. His business now called 
him to spend much of his time in Albion. He had 
iibout five hundred dollars in mon(\>'. His brother 
AVilliam had a like sum wliieh he ])ut into Elizurs 
hands to use for their Joint beiielit. Kli/ur began to 
buy small promissory notes and to L'lid small sums 
to smdi customers as applied, and sometimes to re- 
lieve debtors in executicms which weic put in his 
liands to collect as constable. 

About this time his father deeded to his sons Wil- 
liam and Kli/ur diic hundred acres of liis farm for 



144 PIONKKH IIISTOHY 

wliicli tlu-y })aitl him live Imiidred dollars. They con- 
tiniied joint owners several years when William gave 
Kliziir tlie fiv«^ hiindi'ed dollars he had ])nt into his 
hands and all th(^ profit he had niad*^ on it for a d<'ed 
of the whole on<' hundred acres to himself. This 
hind lies in th<' village of Alhion : is still owned and 
o(M'iij)ied l>y Wm. Hart, and the ris(^ in its valne has 
made him a wealtliy man. 

As Mr. Hart fonnd his means increase lie began to 
invest in bonds and mortgages, and in articles for 
land issued by tlie Holland Compan}^ He seldom 
lost but generall}' made money in all his trades, and 
(*ontiniied this business for many years. 

In 1852 he was made an assignee, and in a year or 
two after receiver of the property of the Orleans 
I nsui'Miice Company. And on the failure of the old 
Hank of Orleans he was a])2)ointed receiver of that 
institution. 

On February ](»th, 1800, in company with Mr. Jos. 
M. (Cornell lie established 'Th«^ Orleans County 
Bank' at Albion, with a capital of §100,000. Of this 
l^ank he was President as long as it exist<Hl. When 
all State Banks were superseded b}- National Banks, 
he changed his institution and organized ' The Or- 
leans County National Bank ' in its stead Aug. Otli, 
.\Si5r), of which he was President the rcMiiainper of 
of his life. 

Mr. Hart was not a speculator in business, advan- 
cing money in uncertain ventures and taking the 
chances on their success. His investments were the 
n'sults of careful calculations, and usually returned 
tile profit he had computed before hand. 

Alwa3\s attentive to his business, but never dilatory 
or im])ulsive, correct and exemplary in all his habits, 
beginning with comparatively nothing, without tlie 
aid or iiiHiK'nce of wealthy connections, lie becanu^ 
one of the opulent country bankeis in the State, and 



OF OKLKAN.S COFXTY. 145 

at liis deatli was master of a fortune aiiionntin.u' 
to liiindreds of tiioiisands of dollars. 

Ill his will he gave the Presbyterian Cliuich in Al- 
hion, of which he was a member, fifty thousand dol- 
lars to build a house of worship, and an endowment 
of five thousand dollars to the Sunday Scho61 con- 
nected with his church. 

Mr. Hart niarrioxl Miss Loraine Field in Ma}', 1835.' 
She died Feb. lltli, 1847. He married Miss Cornelia 
King, Oct. 16th, 1849. 

His surviving- children are Frances E., who married 
Oliver C. Day, and resides in Adrian. ^-lichigan. 
Jennie K. and E. Kirk ; th(^ last named married Lou- 
isa Sanderson and resides in Albion, is Cashier and 
principal owner of the Oi'leans County I^ational Bank. 

Elizur Hart died August 13th, 1870. 

.1 All VIS :\I. SKINXEIl. 

'-I was l)orn in Providence, Saratoga Co., Is', Y., 
June 3, 1790. I married Mary Delano, Veh. 14, 1822. 
She was born in Providence, Dec. 2o, 1800. 

I labored on a farm, of which my father had a lease-, 
in the summer season, and with my father in the win- 
ter, a part of the time, in his shop, making saddles, 
and harness, lie being a saddler by trade. 

When I became of age, I hired out to work on a 
farm for Earl Stimson, then a large farmer in Gal way, 
iirst eight months, at $11 a month, then a yi.'ar for 
iSllO. My wages for this work, deducting my clotli- 
ing bills, constituted all my capital. 

On the 18th da}' of March, 1822, I started for th*^ 
Holland Purchase, and came alone to Durfee Delano's, 
a little west of Eagle Harbor, in Gaines. 

I bought lifty-hve acres of land of Winsor Painf\ 
for which I agreed to give him i^250 — $100 down, my 
liorse, saddle and bridle, for $80, and $70 worth of 
saddles, to be delivered in a year. 



146 PIONEER HISTORY 

1 worked on my place until the next fall ; Mrs. 
Paine did my washing and cooking and I furnished a 
portion of the provisions. I chopped and cleared and 
sov^ed with wheat, six acres ; raised one acre of spring 
wlieat, one hundred bushels of corn. I returned to 
Saratoga in the fall, made the saddles in the winter, 
to pay for my farm, and in January 1823, moved mj 
wife to our new home in Barre, where we have since 
resided, on lot 33, township 15, range 2. 

Dated, Dec. 1, 1863. JARVIS M. SKINNER." 

NATHANIEL BRALEY. 

\Vas "born in Savoy, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 
Dec. 14, 1796. He has alwaj's followed farming. He 
came to Palmyra in 1801, settled in Gaines, Orleans 
Co.. X. Y., in 1819, married Sarah Wickham in 1821. 
She was born in Chatham, Columbia Co., July lo, 
1799, and removed to Gaines in 1816. 

Mr. Braley removed to Barre, where he now re- 
sides, in 1838. 

LUCIUS STREET. 

"I vv'as borii in AVest Springfield, Massachusetts, 
Dec. 19, 1795. My father gave me a good common 
school education for those times and brought me up 
in his occupation, as a farmer. 

I followed the business of teaching school for sever- 
al Avinters, when I was a young man. 

TJay 5, 1818, my brother Cliapin and myself started 
from my father's house in Hinsdale, Mass., on foot, 
vAth knapsacks on our backs, for the 'Genesee' 
country. 

After going to Batavia and looking over the towns 
of Orangeville and China, we came to Barre and set- 
tied on lot 3, township 14, range 2, of the Holland 
Purchase, about two miles south of Barre Center 
whei-e we still reside, (1864.) 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. ] 47 

We took our a,rticle for our land, May 18, 1818, and 
'immediately began chopping, boarding witli a family 
named Cutlibret. 

I taught a district school, in all, seven winters, and 
singing school two terms. 

One of our neighbors, Henry Edgerton, a strong, 
athletic man, carried a bushel and a half of wheat on 
'his back, to Farwell's mill, in Clarendon, eight miles, 
got it ground and brought it home. 

In the fall of 1820, my brother and myself, having 
partially recovered from fever and ague, from which 
we had suifered, and getting somewhat homesick, 
'Went on foot back to Mass., being quite discouraged 
at the prospect of ever paying for our land, as the 
price of produce was so low. We wanted to sell out. 

Finding no opportunity to sell our articles, we 
•worked out for farmers in Massachusetts the next 
season, at $8 a month, then the common wages, and 
returned to Barre, in the fall of 1821, to sell our im- 
provements, but found no buyers. 

We had agreed to give six dollars an acre for our 
■'land, on ten years' time — the first two years without 
•interest. At this time, wheat was worth in Rochester 
■from thirty-one to thirty-seven cents a bushel. 

While I was teaching school in Springfield, Mass., 
in 1821, I saw Esq. Brewster of Riga, Monroe Co., N. 
'Y., who, with one of his neighbors, had come there 
from Riga, with two large loads of flour, drawn by 
four yoke of oxen. The flour sold for $5 a barrel. — 
They sold their ox(,^n and Genesee sleds, bought a 
span of horses and an old sleigh and returned to Riga. 

In the summer of 1822, I boarded with Mr. Edger- 

.ton, and worked two days of every nine for him, to 

pay my board. That season I cleared, fenced and 

sowed ten acres with wheat, from which next season 

.1 harvested 25o bushels of o:ood wheat. The canal 



148 I'lOTs^EEIl IIISTOKY 

being then navigable west as far as Brockport, 1 
conld sell my wheat there for $1 a bushel. 

My brother and myself divided our land, giving me 
109 acres. I then abandoned the intention of selling, 
and NoA'. 10, 1823, was married to Miss Martha M. 
Buckland, daughter of John A. Buekland, of South 
Barre. 

In those days we were required Iw law to '•irain^ 
as soldiers, two days in each year, viz : on the first 
Monday in June and September, company training, 
and one day for a general muster, which was often 
held at Oak Orchard Creek. ^Ye were often called 
to meet at Oak Orchard and made the journey, 10 
miles, on foot, carrying our gun and equipments and 
paying our own expenses. We would drill until 
near night, then on being dismissed, return home the 
same day, if indeed we Avere able to reach home be- 
fore the next morning. 

In the early times in this countr}^, inspectors of 
Common Schools were allowed no comxjensation for 
their services, the honor of the office being deemed 
sufficient remuneration. After serving the town in 
that office several years gratis, Dr. J. K. Brown and 
I agreed and declared to the electors, that if ap- 
pointed to that office again we would pay our fines of 
$10 and thus relieve ourselves of the service, where- 
upon the town voted to give us seventy-five cents each 
per da}^, for the time we might be on duty. 

Under circumstances like these, not as many were 
seeking the small town offices then as now. 

Bears, wolves, wild cats, deer, raccoons, hedge 
hogs and othcM- w^ild animals, were 2:)lenty here then. 

In the summer of 1818, my brother and I be- 
ing at work chopping on our farm, heard a hog 
squeal, and saw a b(\ar walking off very deliberatel}^ 
carrying tlie hog in his j^aws. We gave chase and as 
we came near, the bear dropped his prey and ran off; 



OF OKLEANS COrNTY. 149 

he liad killed the hog. We then made 'a dead fall,' 
as it was called, in wliich to entrap the bear, which 
was a pen made l)}^ driving stakes into the ground, 
and interweaving them with brusli horizontally, in 
which the hog was placed. Into this pen we expect- 
ed the bear would come and spring a traj), which 
would let a weight fall upon him. It proved a suc- 
cess, for in the morning we found the bear in the pen ; 
he had sprung the trap, and a spike of the dead fall 
through his leg held him fast. 

Religious meetings were early establislied and 
maintained at South Barre and Barre Center. Dea- 
con Orange Starr was among the foremost in these 
meetings. 

Many pleasant reminiscences of pioneer life might 
be mentioned, for though we endured many hard- 
ships and privations, we had plenty of sport mingled 
with them, giving ns a pleasant variety of mirthful 
enjoyment. Major Daniel Bigelow, being a good 
horseman, and having no horse, broke one of his ox- 
en to the saddle, and was accustomed to ride him 
through the settlement. 

Riding out one day, his ox being very thirsty and 
coming near a large puddle of water, started forward 
to the drink on double-quick time, and iDlunging into 
the water, stopped so suddenly as to throw his good- 
natured rider over his head, sprawling into tlie mnd, 
much to the amusement of those looking on. 

I am a descendant, on my mother's side, of the 
seventh generation, from Samuel Chapin, an early pi- 
oneer of Springfield, Mass., who settled there when 
only three families were in the place. At a gathering 
of his descendants at Springfield, on Sept. 17, 1862, 
fifteen hundred such descendants were present. Dr. 
J. Gr. Holland, known as 'Tinioth}' Titcomb,' deliver- 
ed a poem on the occasion, wliich he said he was re- 



150 PIONEER HISTORY 

quested to do because lie had married into the Chapin *. 

family. 

I am also descended in the sixth generation on my 

father's side, from Rev. Nicholas Street, who came - 

from England and was ordained pastor over the tirst 

church in New Haven, in 1659. 

LUCIUS STREET." 
Dated, Barre, Feb. 25, 1804. 

THOMAS W. ALLIS, 

Extracts from the local history of Thomas W. Allis. , 
written by himself for the Pioneer Association. 

''I was born in Gorham, Ontario Co., N. Y., Nov.- 
1, 1798. My father died in the year 1805, and I was 
brought up from that time until I attained my major- 
ity, in the family of an uncle, in Hampshire, Mass. 

In March, 1820, in company with a younger broth- 
er, I moved to Murra}', in Orleans County, to what is 
now the town of Kendall. 

^Ve brought with us four barrels of tlour, one bar- 
rel of pork, one barrel of whisky and a bed. 

"We located three and one-fourth miles north of the ■ 
Ridge road, and on(3 mile east of the Transit Line. 

In going from the Ridge to our place, we -passed- 
Ijut one family and they lived in a log house, in the 
woods, with no plastering between the logs, with only ' 
part of the ground covered by a floor, a bark roof, no 
chimney. 

We liired our })rovisions cooked, and lived with a 
family near by, in a log cabin similar to the one 
above described. 

We bought a contract for one hundred acres of 
land, by the terms of which we agreed to pay 8300 
for the improvements, and $G00 for the soil. 

We kept bachelor's hall there most of the tinu^ for 
four years. 

I soon bought iifty acres more of land, witli six 
acres improvement on it, for Avhicli T agived to pay 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 151 

8450. But few families were then north of the Ridge, 
in tliat section of country, 

I worked at clearing land and raising crops. 
Wheat was worth only three shillings per bushel, de- 
livered in Rochester. 

The first plow in our settlement, I bought in com- 
pany with two neighbors. Vie walked to Gaines 
village, bought one of Wood's patent plows and car- 
ried it on our backs from the Ridge road three ar.d 
one-fourth miles to our home. 

I was married Nov. 18, 1824, to Miss Elizab^ili 
Clements, of Queensbury, Warren Co. N. Y. 

On the 9th of Januar}^, 1826, my house was burned 
with all my furniture and clothing and one yeais" 
provision. Our neighbors turned out and drew logs 
and rolled up part of a house, but a snow storm came 
on and stopped the work before it wa? finished. ]My 
brother and myself afterwards built a log house, com- 
mencing on Thursday at noon, built a stone chimney, 
linished and moved into it the next Saturday'. Siz«^ 
of the house was sixteen b}" thirteen feet. We liv^^d 
in this small house about two years and then I finish- 
ed the house which had been begun by my n(,^ighbors 
soon after the hre. 

I resided in the house last built about fourteen 
years. 

I paid interest on the purchase money, for the fiTut 
liundred acres I bought, to about the amount of th.e 
])rincij)al before I took a deed. 

I afterwards bought fifty-three acres for 8450, for 
which T paid with the avails of one crop of vv'heat. 

In 1887 I bought a timber lot of 48 acres. 

In 1840 I built a frame house, thirty hy sev(>iity 
iWi, which cost me 82,000. 

In March, 1860, I sold my farm in Kendall, pait < t 
which I had held for fort}^ 3'ears, and bouglit a hor.t:<^ 



152 rroxEER iiistoky 

jind fifteen acres of land in Albion, on wliicli I now 
reside. 

THOMAS AV. ALLIS." 
Albion, Jiiniiaiy, iyG3. 

Mr. T. AY. Allis, above referred to, was for many 
3'ears one of the solid men of the town of Kendall, 
li onored and respected by all who knew him. He 
was a Justice of the Peace and held various other 
town offices. Having acquired a competenc}^, b}' 
many years' stead}' toil and economy, he retirecl from 
liard labor on a farm, to a village i-esidence, where he 
is now (1871) spending a quiet old age, in the enjoy- 
ment of the fruits of his labors. 

J0S]':PII nAEKElt, 

Extracts from the local history of Col. Joseph Bar- 
]cer, written by himself. 

" I was born m Tadmorden, Lancashire, England, 
September 21st, 1802, and emigrated with m}^ father's 
family to America in the spring of 181G. I arrived in 
the town of Seneca, Ontario county, in July of that 
year, and resided there until I bought the farm in 
Barre, in N^ovember, 1825, on which I now reside. I 
was married in October, 182^, to Miss Submit Cowles, 
wiio was born in Heath, Franklin county, Massachu- 
setts, by whom I had nine children. My wife died 
February loth, IS.ll. I lived a widower two and a. 
half years, and then married widow Elizabeth Gruern- 
:sey, who was born in Micldleburgh, Schoharrie Co,. 
Xl Y., March IDth, 1810. 

In tlie fall of 1819, I started with another man from 
Seneca, N. Y., to go to Lundy's Lane, in Canada, 
\Ye traveled on foot with knapsacks on our backs. 
Passing through Rochester, then a small town and 
very muddy, we took the Ridge Road, then tliinl}* 
settled. Before Ave arrived at Hartland Corners our 
provisions gave out ; we tried to buy some bread ; 
could get no]i(^ ; then tried l)egging, with no better 



OF OKLEANS COUIS^TY. 153 

success. AVe went on to Buck's tavern in the Eleveii 
Mile Woods. It v/as very dark when we got tliere 
and i-ained very hard. We had not a dry thread in 
our clotlies, and our shoes and stockings were full of 
mud and water. Buck's tavern was a log house A\ith 
a Dutch lire place, and had a good rousing fire. Af- 
ter taking some riwi and supper, we hung our outer 
garments uj) to dry and went to bed. The next morn- 
ing we started earl}^, and after getting through the 
woods, I went into a house and bought six pence 
worth of bread Avhich lasted us through to Lundy's 
Lane. We stayed there three weeks and returned 
home. 

In September, 1828, 1 set out to look me up a farm: 
came b}' way of Batavia, and through the Indian 
Reservation to a place now called Alabama Center. 
and took up sixty acres of land lying about three- 
fourths of a mile north of that place. I chopped the 
trees on about one acre, when finding iialf of my lot 
was swamp I felt sick of it and left for home, where I 
sta3^ed, working out until the fall of 1825, then start- 
ed again and bought the place on which I have ever 
since resided in Barre, lot fifty-four, townshiii fourteen, 
range two. 

I moved to my place in January, 1S2G. There was 
a shanty on my land witli a shingled roof. I got 
ready to begin work about February 1st, and meas- 
ured oft' ten acres of woods for ni}^ next year's work 
to chop, clear, fences and sow with wheat ; all of 
which I did, sowing the last of my wheat in October. 
The reason of my being so late sowing wheat was, 
my wife was taken sick soon after harvest. I could 
get no girl to work and I was obliged to take care of 
my sick wife and do all my work in doors, and out of 
doors. I had to milk, churn, work butter, wash and 
iron clothes, mix and bake bread, and in fact do all 
there was to be done. I worked on my fallow days 



154 I'lOXEER HISTORY 

and nights wlieiiever I could leave my sick wife. At 
last I hired a girl, but she stayed with ns onl}^ four or 
five days, and I then had to do housework again. 
My wile recovered so as to be about, the forepart of 
October. 

I woiked out some tlie next winter to get potatoes to 
eat and to plant and to pay" my doctor' s bill. I bought 
four small pigs in the summer, and beachnuts being 
plenty they grew finely and when killed weighed 
about one hundred and twenty pounds apiece. The 
pork was i-ather soft but tasted good. 

The second winter I cli02:)ped about seven acres. 
The weather was line, but on tlie night of April 13tli, 
the wind blowing a fearful gale while we were snugly 
in bed, took the roof off our shantj^ leaving us in bed, 
but with iieither roof or chamber floor in our house. 
I got up and x^ut out the lire; we put on our clothes 
and. taking our little girl went to Mr. Russells, our 
nearest neighbor, about forty rods, where we stayed 
until, with the help of our kind neighbors, we got up 
the body of another log house. In two or three 
weeks we had our liouse so far made that we moved 
into it and lived in it all summer without a chimney. 
In the fall I built a Dutch lire i)lace and a .y//cZ; chim- 
ney. 

It was about two 3^ears after I moved on my lot be- 
fore the highway was chopped out either wiiy, north 
or south from me. The logs and underluaish were 
cut so that we could drive a team through. I 
was iioor when I came here and I lived according to 
ni}' means. One-fourth pound of tea lasted us over 
seven months. I bought a barrel of pork and half a 
barrel of beef, when I got the tea, and they were all 
gone in about tlie same time together. 

We had i)lent3* of flour and some potatoes. My 
cow was not used to the woods, and sometimes I could 
find her and again I could not, so sometimes we were 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 155 

obliged to eat our bread and potatoes for a meal. I 
thought it rather dry living to work hard on, but we 
lived through it, always hoj^ing for "the better time 
coming.'' 

The next year I fatted three fine hogs and put them 
all down for home use. The third summer I liad over 
20 acres cleared and had got to living prett}^ comforta 
bl}'. In Jul}' of tliis year I Avas elected Second Ser- 
geant in Capt. Gates Infantry Company' rather against 
my wishes. I liowever accejjted. 

In August following I was taken sick with fever 
and ague whicii lasted me three months. I could hire 
no men to work for me for love or nione3\ Almost 
everybody was sick this ^-ear. Tiie neighbors turned 
out however, late in the fall and sowed about six 
acres with wheat for me, and I hired a boy a month 
to husk corn and dig potatoes. About tlie time the 
boy got througli w(irk the ague left me and I was 
pretty well all the next winter. The next spring I 
had three fits of ague, then sores came all over my 
face. I had no more ague shakes for tlie next three 
(jr four years. 

About this time ni}' wife was taken sick with in- 
fiammation in the bowels just at the commencement 
of the wheat harvest. I had fourt(M?n acres to 
harvest and no one to help me. I got a 
physician to attend my wife, and my little girl and 
myself nursed her as well as we could ; and when I 
could l)e spared I went to m}' harvest field and 
worked, whether by day or niglit. Thus I harv(^sted 
ni}' fourteen a<'r(^s and took care. oT my wife. Just 
before I finished cutting my wheat however, I Avas 
again taken vrith "cliills" and began to shake, and 
kept on shaking about an hour, did not stop cradling 
but wlien the fever came on I had to quit and steer 
for the house and had a ]ia]-d time to get there. I 
liad tAvo mort^ fits, when uia' face brolve dut in so]-es 



15G J'lOXEKi; IHSTOKY 

as former!}^ and I had no more fever and ague. ISly 
wife getting no better, I went to find a girl to take 
care of her, feeling I was not able to take proper care 
of myself, much less of lier. I traveled all day, 
found plent}- of girls that wanted to go out to spin, 
but vrould ]iot do housework. I went a second and 
third day with like results, and cami^ home sick 
both in body and mind, and found my ^v\i'Q some bet- 
ter. I finall}' succeeded in getting a woman to help 
until my wife got able to be about. 

I kept chopping and clearing my land as fast as I 
could alone, for I was not able to hire. I changed 
work occasionally vrith my neighbors, and sometimes 
hired a day' s work. My crops were sometimes good, 
sometimes poor ; but I got along and made 
money. 

In July, 18o3, I was elected Captain over the Com- 
pany in which I had served as Sergeant over four 
years, and I was afterwards elected Colonel. This 
military office, as ever}' body knows, was not a mone}' 
making business in tliose days ; but I had got into it 
and determined to carry it through to the best of my 
ability. It cost me much time and mone}', for which 
I received nothing back. I had the honor of com- 
manding as good a regiment as there was in the coun- 
ty, and felt proud of it. I did military duty nineteen 
years ; eleven years as an offictM-, serving as a Cap- 
taiii bi>fore I was naturalized, or a voter in town 
or State. I resigned all militaiy office A])ril 2()th, 
1839. 

I have labored steadily as a farmer, (Mijoying good 
health, except ha^■ing tlu^ ague, as I have stated, and 
liad a^ g'ood degree of ])rosi)ei-ity attend my laboi's. 

JOSEPH BAIlIvER." 
]\Iarch i)tli, 1S6.3. 

EXo-^ niCK. 

Enosllice was ])()in in Conway, Ilampsiiire county, 



OF OULEAXS (tirXTY. 157 

Massacluisetts. in 1790, and came with liis fatlier's 
family in 1804, to Madison county, N. \ . 

In June 1810, witli a pack on his back, lie came to 
Ban-e Orleans county, and located on lot eighteen, in 
township fifteen, van-e two, where he cleared ahout 
tw(^nty acres. He next lived a f.^w years m {Shelby, 
and in 1831 bought a farm near Porter^ s Corners, 
where he has ever since resided. 

Mr Rice began in the world poor, but by persever- 
ino- industry ^and frugality h.^ has acquired a fan- 
amount of property to mak(^ his old age comfort- 
able. 

].rTiii:n i'ohtkk. 
- My father Stpplien Porter, was born in Lebanon, 
Connecticut. Abmit the year 1812 or 'IB he started 
with his wife and live childnm on an ox sled, witn one 
yoke of small oxen to come to ^ York btate. He 
had but few articles of furniture and but ^Go m 
mon(0'. After a Journey of twenty-two days, with 
^extraordinary good luck, he landed in Smyrna, Cne- 
nango countyr N. Y., with cash reduced to >5l8 
Hei-e he hired an old log house in whidi he resided 
one year. Tlun lir hitched his oxen to the old sled, 
and' with his traps and liimily aboard, started for 
Ontario county. After travebng seven days, he ar- 
rived at his place of destination and hired a house 
and twenty-five acres of land. 

In th(^ fall of 1815, he took an article from the Hol- 
land Land CompauA-. of the west hundred acres of 
lot 40. township 14, range 2, in Barre, the same on 
which' I now resid(^ about three-fourths of a mile 
west of Portei-s Corners. In. March following, m 
company with Allen Porter, Samuel Porter and Jo- 
seph Kockwood, he started with provisions for hve 
weeks, to make a beginning on their lands. They es- 
tablished th<>ir d.^pot of provisions at the house of 



158 piONEEii iiLvronY 

Dea. Ebenezer Rogers, in tlif soutli part of what is 
now the village of Albion. 

They took what provisions the}' wanted for a week 
on their backs, with their axes and started through 
the woods to their lands, about five miles away, the 
snow being about knee deep. 

The first thing in order was to select a place to 
build their cabin. The site was fixed on the farm 
now owned by J. AV. Stocking, about twenty rods 
east of where Stocking's house stands. They cut such 
poles as they could carry and built their first cabin 
ten by twelve feet square, covered it with split bass- 
wood troughs, got it tenable, and the colon}' moved 
in and took possession the same day. They cut hem- 
lock boughs and spread them on the ground, covering 
them with blankets, which made a good bed. The 
room not occupied by the bed served for cvdinary and 
dining purposes. After thus preparing their house 
they commenced chopping in earnest, working through 
the week until Saturday afternoon, when they all re- 
turned to Mr. Rogers' to spend the Sabbath and get 
another weeks' j^rovisions. In this way they worked 
until they had chopped about five acres each, when 
they all returned to Ontario Co., to spend the sum- 
mer. 

In January, 1820, my father moved his famil}' to 
his new home in Barre, where he made a comfortal^le 
residence the remainder of his life, and died in the 
fall of 1831, aged 53 years. 

My father paid little more than tlie interest on the 
purchase money for his land, while lie lived. It was 
paid for b}' his sons and has been a home for the 
family ever since. 

In the spring of 181G there was no liouse occupied 
by a family in Bari-e, west of the Oak Orchard Road, 
on the line on which my father located, although sev- 
eral were in process of erection. My mother died on 




^- 






OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 159 

tlie homestead, Aiignst 1857, aged 77 years. I was 
my fatlier's second son, and now own and reside on 
the old premises, to whicli I have made additions hy 
purchase. 

I was born in Ashfield, Mass., in 1805, and came to 
this county with my father, in 1820, being then about 
fifteen 3'ears old. 

I have had abundant experience in pioneer life. I 
have chopped and logged and cleared land. I boiled 
blade salts three or four years, a part of the time 
barefoot, because my father was too poor to furnish 
me shoes, with little other damage than the occasion- 
al loss of a toe nail, or a small wound in the foot from 
sharp stubs. 

I have lived through it all, and by dint of economy 
and industry have advanced from poverty to compe- 
tence. 

I have held various offices in the gift of m}' fellow- 
citizens. I was Suj)ervisor of the town of Barre from 
1857 to 1862, five successive jenvs. 

There was no school in my neighborhood for sever- 
al years after 1820. The first district school house 
built there was erected at Sheldon's Corners. The 
district was afterwards divided and a log school 
house built about a mile north of Ferguson's Cor- 
ners. Again the district was divided and now stands 
as district No. 12, with a good school house. 

I married for my first wife, Lydia Scoot, daughter 
of Capt, Justin Scoot, of Ontario County, Oct. 20, 
1830. She died Dec. 3, 1842. I married for my sec- 
ond wife, Caroline Culver, daughter of Orange Culver 
of South Barre, June 27, 1844, with whom I am still 

living. 

LUTHER PORTER." 
Barre, ]\Iay 27, 18G:J. 

NEIIEMIAII IN(4EltS0LL. 

Nehemiah Ingersoll was born in Stanford, Dutchess 



IGO PIONEER HISTORY 

Co., N. Y., in 178C. In 1816, he removed to Batavia, 
where he remahied a jeav or two, then "bought a farm 
in Elba, five miles north of Batavia, to Avliich he re- 
moved and where he kept a public house several 
years. In April, 1822, in company with James P. 
Smith and Chillian F. Buckley, he bought of William 
Bradner one hundred acres of land in Albion, bound- 
ed north by the town of Gaines ; west by the Oak 
Orchard road ; south by Joel Bradner' s farm, and ex 
tending east one hundred rods from the Oak Orchard 
Road. For this tract the}' paid 84,000. i\Ir. Inger- 
soll soon bought of Smith and Buckley, all their in- 
terest in this land. 

Soon after purchasing this tract iSIr. Ingersoll had 
a large i)art of it surveyed and laid out into village 
lots, believing a town vrould soon grow up. He 
did not immediatel}^ remove to Albion but did com- 
mence improving his property there. 

He and his associates built the large warehouse 
standing on the canal at the foot of Piatt street and 
a framed building for a store on the corner of Main 
and Canal streets, where the Empire block now 
stands. 

Ingersoll & Wells (^Dudley Wells) traded some 
years in this store, and business Avas carried on in 
the warehouse by Ingersoll and Levvis P. Buckle^y. 

In the struggle for the location of the County build- 
ings, Mr. Ingersoll engaged with spirit. In competing 
with the village of Gaines, he offered tlie commission- 
ers appointed to locate the Court House, the grounds 
on which the Court House now stands as a free gift, 
which offer was finally accepted and the location thus 
secured here. 

Early in 1826 he removed to Ablion to reside. He 
was prominent among those engaged in effecting the 
organization of the county of Orleans from the county 
of Genesee, and in establishing all those institutions 



OF OllLEANS COUNTY. 1 Gl 

required and eonseqiient upon beginniiio: a m-w 
county. 

In 1835, having sold or contracted for the sale of mowt 
of his land in Albion, he removed to Detroit and en- 
gaged in large hnsiness there, in which he sustained 
severe loss ; and in 1845 he went to Lee, Oneida county, 
N. Y., at which place he resided until his death. 

Mr. Ingersoll married in his youth Miss Polly Hal- 
sey, daughter of Col. Nathan Halse}\ of Columhia 
county. She died in 1831. 

For a second wife he married Miss Elizabeth C. 
Brown, of Lee who survived him. 

Mr. Ingersoll died February 21, 1868, aged eighty- 
two years. He was naturally of a strong constitn- 
tion and of an active temperament and ap- 
peared twenty 3'ears younger than he was. Although 
the later j^ears of his life \\ore spent awa}' from Albion, 
he was often here and always manifested the deepest 
interest in the prosperity of the village and county of 
Orleans. At his request his remains were Ivi-ought to 
Albion after his decease and deposited besid*:' liis first 
wife in Mount Albion Cemetery. 

His second wife, Mrs. Elizabeth C. Ingersoll, died 
August 17th, 1869. After her marriage, she resided 
several years in Albion and shared with her hus- 
band in a feeling of attachment to the place and peo- 
ple, wdiich proved itself in a generous gift of ten 
thousand dollars, which she made in her will to tin; 
Prostestant Episcopal Church in Albion. Both Mr. 
Ingersoll and his wife were members of that com- 
munion. 

•Il'STUS IN(ii:HSOLL. 

Hon. Justus Ingersoll was born in Stanford, Dutch- 
ess coiinty, IST. Y., in 1794. He learned the trade of 
tanner. 

On the br(>aking out of war with Gi'eat Britain, in 



162 PIONKER HISTORY 

1812, he entered the United States army as ensign in 
the twenty -third regiment of infantry. He served on 
the nortliern frontier in several engagements, and was 
in the celebrated charge on Queenstown Heights. He 
was promoted to the rank of Captain for meritorious 
service. 

In one of the battles in Canada, in which he served 
as Captain of Infantry, he was wounded in the foot. 
Refusing to leave his Company, and being unable to 
walk, he mounted a horse and continued with his 
men. In another engagement he was shot through 
the body, the ball lodging in a rib. He refused to 
lia\'e it removed, as he was informed a portion of 
rib would have to be cut away, which would proba- 
bly- causfi him to stoop ever after in his gait. 

He was a favorite with his company and much es- 
teemed by Gen. Scott under whom he served. 

In 1818 he came to Elba, Genesee county, N. Y., 
and soon after settled at Shelby Center, in Orleans 
(^ounty, where he carried on tanning and shoe-mak- 
ing, and held the office of Justice of the Peace. 

After tlie canal was made navigable, and Medina 
began to be settled as a village, he removed there, 
built a large tannery and transfered his business 
to that place. 

He was appointed Indian Agent and postmaster at 
^ledina, by President Jackson ; he was also Judge 
of Orleans County Courts. 

His tannery being accidental!}' burned and sus- 
taining other misfortunes in business, he removed to 
Detroit with his brother Nehemiah, in 1835, where 
they went into the leather business on a large scale, 
iu which they were not finally successful. 

Mr. Ingersoll was a man of firm and persistent 
charactei', active and enteiprising — esteemed among 
his acqy.aintances for the u])rightness of his conduct 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 163 

sand the courtesy of his manners. He died in 1845. 

LORENZO BURROWS. 

Lorenzo Burrows was born in Groton, Conn., 

:March loth, 1805. In his boyhood he attended the 
Academy at Plainfield, Conn,, and Westerly, Rhode 
Island. In Nov., 1824, he came to Albion, N. Y., to 

riissist his brother, Roswell S. Burrows, as his clerk. 
He continued to act in that capacity until in 1826, 

.after he attained his majority, he went in company 
with his brother in business under the firm name of 
R. S. & L. Burrows. 

He assisted his brother in establishing the Bank of 
Albion in 1839, and after it went into operation he 
was appointed Cashier and devoted himself mainly 
to the business of the bank and to the duties of Re- 

• ceiver of the Farmer's Bank of Orleans, until in No- 
vember, 1848, he was elected a Member of the House 

/ of Representatives in Congress, for the District which 
comprised Niagara and Orleans counties. He was 
re-elected to Congress in Nov., 1850, and served in 
that office, in all, four years. 

Since his election to Congress he has done no busi- 
ness as an officer of this bank. 

He was elected Comptroller of the State of New 
York in Nov. 1855, which office he held one term of 
two yearb\ 

In Feb., 1858, he was chosen a Regent of the Uni- 
versity of the State of New York, an office he has 

■Jield ever since. 

He was County Treasurer of Orleans county in the 
year 1840, and Supervisor of the town of Barre for 
the year 1845. He was Assignee in Bankruptc}' for 
the county of Orleans, under the law of 1841. In 
the year 1862 he was appointed one of the Conmiis- 

•sioners of Mount Albion Cemetery— an office to 

-which no salary or ])ecuniary compensation is 



164 PIONEEK HISTORY 

attached, but wliicli is attended with considerable- 
labor. To this labor he has devoted all the time neces- 
sary, discharging the principal part of the duties 
of tlie Commission, with what success let the beauti- 
ful terraces, trees, paths, walks, avenues, roads, and 
improvements whicli adorn tliis "city of the dead," ~ 
and which remain the creations of his taste and skill, 
bear witness. 

Since leaving Congress Mr. Barrows has employed, 
himself principally in discharging the duties of the 
offices above mentioned in taking care of consider- 
able real estate he owns in connection with his broth- 
Qi\ and in liis own riglit, in, or near Albion, and else- 
wliere ; and in tlie enjoyment of such leisure as an 
ample fortune whicli he has secured in ea-ilier 
life affords, in social intercourse with his family 
and friends. 

(JEOnOE E. MIX. 

'• I was born in (Treenlield, Saratoga county, IST. Y. . 
yiy fathers name was Abiathar Mix. In May, 1817, 
when I was less than one year old, my father re- 
moved with his family to what is now Barre, Orleans 
county, ]N^. Y. There I had my bringing up and have 
(^ver since resided. My Genesee cradle was a sap- 
trcnigh, Genesee school rooms were log houses, log 
barns, and other like accommodations. 

I stayed at home and worked on the farm summers, 
and went to schools wint(U's when I could, until I was 
•nghteen years of age. My father then gave me my 
time, saying he had nothing else he could give me 
then, but that I could make his house my home. 

After that I worked by the day and month summers^ 
and attended school winters — went several terms 'to> 
an Acad(»my. 

At the age of twenty-three I commenced teaching, 
district scliool and tau";ht five winters in succession- 



OF ORLEAXS COUJV^Ti'. 165 

During those five years I traveled considerably in the 
western and southern States, and became quite a rad- 
ical reformer in sentiment. 

I was nominated County Clerk by the Liberty Par- 
ty but was not elected. 

I married Miss Ellen De Bow, of Batavia, N. Y., 
in 1852. 

I have alwa}'s made a living, and got it honestly I 
think, and have laid by a little every year for myself 
-and others I have to care for. I never sued a person 
and never was sued. I never lost a debt of any great 
.amount, for if a person who owed me could not pay 
it, I forgave the debt. 

I made a public profession of religion when I was 
eleven 3'ears old, and several years afterwards united 
with the Free Congregational Church in Gaines and re- 
mained a member of that Church as long as it was in 
being. 

I never held any civil office of profit. My political 
principles were not formerl}' jjopular with the major- 
ity of the people. 

I held military office in the 214th regiment X. Y. 
State militia, from 1837 to 1844, and served as ensign, 
lieutenant and captain. 

I have lived to see slavery abolished in this coun- 
tr}^. The landless can now have land if they will. 
Now let us drive licpior and tobacco from the coun- 
try. 

GEORGE E. MIX." 
Barre, February 1869. 

•'TIIINCJS I CAN r.iniE.MiJKK." 

BY GKOUOE E. MfX. 

'•I can remember the dark and heavy forest that 
-once covered this land, with only now and then a lit- 
tle ' clearing ' that made a little hole to let in the 
.sunsliine ; the large creeks tliat seemed to How and 



166 PIONEER HISTORY 

flood the whole country during a freshet ; the large ' 
swamps and marshes, in almost every valley ; the 
wild deer that roamed the woods almost undisturbed 
hy men ; the bear that plodded his wa}^ through the " 
swamps and the wolf that made night hideous with ' 
his howling, 

I remember when the roads ran crooking aroundi 
on the high grounds, and when roads on the low 
lands were mostly causeways of logs. When almost 
all the houses were made of logs, and almost all the 
chimne^^s were made of sticks and mud, and the fire- • 
places were of Dutch pattern. 

But the sound of the axman was heard at his toil 
through the forest, hurling the old trees headlong. 
The woods and the heavens were lit up with the lurid 
glare of fire by night, and the heavy forest sooiii 
melted away. Those little holes in the old woods, 
soon became enlarged to broad fields of waving" 
grain, that glistened in the sun light. 

The foaming creeks soon became rivulets, or dried 
up. The swamps disappeared and nothing remains 
to show where many of the great marshes of the old 
time were. The deer, bear and wolf have departed. 
The crooked I'oads have been straightened, and the 
log causeways have been buried out of sight. The 
log houses, stick chimneys, and Dutch fireplaces, 
are reckoned among the things that were and are not 
now. 

I can remember when my mother spun Hax on a 
little wheel and carded wool and tow by hand and 
spun them on a great wheel ; when she colored her 
yarn with th(^ bark and leaves (»f trees and had a 
loom, and wove cloth and made it up into ch)thing 
for her family. 

I can remember when my father plowed with a 
wooden plow with an iron share and reaped his grain 
with a sickle and threshed it with a flail ; Avhen he • 



;0F 0KLEAN8 COUNTY. 167 

mowed his grass with a scythe and raked it witli a 
hand rake. I remember when no fruit grew here but 
wild fruit, but we soon liad i)eaches in profusion, 
bushels of them rotting under the trees. 

At the first settlement of this county, fruits, sucli 
as grapes, strawberries, cranberries, blackberries, 
gooseberries, raspberries and mandrakes, were to be 
found growing wild. We had nuts from the trees, 
such as butternuts, chestnuts, beachnuts and wal- 
nuts. 

Pumpkins, squashes and melons, were largelj^ 
raised and of great value to the people. Pumpkins 
were cut in strips and diied on poles in the log 
cabins and kept for use the year round. Maple trees 
furnished, us nearly all our sugar. At our fall par- 
ties and our husking and logging bees we had pump- 
kin pies. At our winter parties we had nuts and 
popped corn and in the summer, berries and 
ci'eam. 

I can remember when the common vehicle for trav- 
eling about was an ox sled with wooden shoes ar.d 
the only wheel carriages were lumber wagons and 
they were few, when the Ridge Road was the main 
thoroughfare by which to reach the old settlements 
and stage coaches were the fastest means of convey- 
ance. 

It was considered an impossibility to make the 
Erie Canal. People said possibly water might be 
made to run up hill, but canal boats, nevei-. 

Some said they would be willing to die. having 
lived long enough when boats in a canal should tif)at 
through their farms ; but afterwards when the^^ saw 
the boats passing by, the}^ wanted to live more than 
ever to see what would be done next. 

Next after the canal came the railroad. I heard 
the cars were running at Batavia and I went out there 
to see the great wonder of the age, and saw them. 



1/58 PIONEEK HISTORY 

We were next told of tlie telegrapli. Knowing ones 
said that was a liumbug, sure. I remember even 
some members of Congress ridiculed Professor Morse 
and liis telegrapli as a delusion. But in sj)ite of rid- 
icule, and doubt, and incredulity, the telegrapli be- 
came a success, and b}^ it the ends of the earth have 
been brought together. These things I have seen and 
remembered wliile living here in Orleans county. 

GEORGE E. MIX." 

MRS. LYDIA MIX. 

•' I v/as born in Brantford, Connecticut, in 1783. At 
the age of eighteen I married Abiathar Mix, and ec- 
moved to Dutchess county, N. Y., where my hus- 
band owned a farm, on which we lived, working it 
chiefly by hired men, my husband being a mason b}' 
trade, labored at that ])usiness in the summer and 
winters he made nails and buttons. 

We resided there until Ma}', 1817, wht-n we sold 
our farm and removed to Bai-re, Orleans Co., and lo- 
cated on lot 'S2, township 14, iMiige 2. Very little 
land was then cleared in that neiglil)oihood, and e^'en 
tliat vras covered with stumps of trees. Mr. Mix had 
been here the yeav before and engaged a man to build 
a log house for him. AVhen we came on we found oui- 
house with walls up and roof on. My husband split 
some bass wood logs and hewed them to plank, with 
which he laid a floor, and we began housekeeping in 
our new house. 

My husband had ten or iifteeu Jiundred dollai'S in 
money, when he moved here. He took an article for 
a large tract of land and went to making potash aud 
selling goods and merchandise, in company with his 
brother, Ebenezer IMix. who was then a clerk in the 
land office of the Holland Company, at Batavia. 

The settlers, building their houses of logs and theii- 
chimneys of sticks ami mud, my husband found noth- 



OF OKLEANS COU^VTY. 169 

ing to do at liis trade, until they began making briclv 
and malving tlieir cliimneys of stone, witli brick ovens. 

He then closed out his mercantile business and 
went to work at his trade and being something of a 
lawyer, he used to do that kind of business consider- 
ably for tlie settlers. 

We had pretty hard times occasionally but managed 
to get along with what we had and raised our seven 
children to be men and women. 

My husband died in 1856. Three of my children 

have died. I shall be 86 years old in a few days, if I 

live. 

LYDIA MIX." 

Barre, February, 1869. 

.roSEPil JIAKT. 

Josepli Hart was born in Berlin, Hartford Co.. 
Conn., in Nov., 1775, and died in Barre, Orleans Co.. 
N. Y., Jul}', 1855. 

Mr. Hart moved to Seneca, Ontario County, N. Y.. 
in the year 1806. In the fall of 1811, he came to Bar- 
re and took an article from the Holland Land Co., of 
lot 34, township 15, range 1, containing 360 acres, the 
principal part of which is still owned by his sons, 
William and Joseph. 

In April, 1812, in company witli Elijah Barrow, 
Frederick Holsenburgh and Silas Benton, then 3'oung 
unmarried men, he returned and built a log house on 
his lot and moved his famil}' into it in October follow- 
ing. 

Elijah Darrow took an article of part of lot 1, town- 
ship 15, range 2, held the land and Avorked on it about 
two years, then sold it to Mr. Hart, who sold it to Eb- 
enezer Rogers, about the year 1816. 

Sikis Benton took an article of part of a lot lying- 
next north of Darrow' s land, which was for many 
years afterwards owned by Samuel Pitch. Benton 
made a clearing on his land, built a log house on it, 



170 PIONEER HISTORY 

in wliicli he lived several years and in which his wife, 
Mrs. Silas Benton, tanght a scliool, probably the tirst 
school in the town of Barre, boarded several men and 
did her house work at the same time, all in one room. 
A log school house was afterwards built on Benton's 
land, to which Mrs. Benton moved her school, whicli 
was said to have been the first school house built in 
town. 

Frederick Holsenburgh took an article of part of 
the lot lying- next north of Benton' s, in the village of 
Albion, on the west side of the Oak Orchard Road. — 
The Depot of the N. Y. Central Railroad stands on 
the Holsenburgh tract. 

Joseph Hart mariied Lucy Kirtland, wlio was born 
in Saybrook, Conn., and who died at Adrian, Mich., 
January, 1868, aged 89 years. 

He was here during the war of 18J2, and was sever- 
al times called out to do militar}^ sei-vice in that war. 
He was a prominent and active man in all matters 
pertaining to the organization of society in the new 
country. He assisted in forming the Presbyterian 
Church, in Albion, in wiiich he was a ruling elder 
Avhile lie lived, and from his office in tliat church he 
Avas alwa3"s known as Dea. Hart. 

He almost always held some towji office, and for 
many of his later 3^eai-s he was overst^er of the poor of 
the town of Barre, a position tlie kindness of his na- 
ture well qualified him to fill. His fortunate location 
near the thrivina- village of Albion, which has been 
(extended over a part of his farm, made him a wealthy 
man. Tlirough a long life, he maintain(ed a high 
charactei' for probity and good judgment, and died 
respected by all wlio knew him. 

ADEN FOSTER 

Was T)orn in Sudbury, Vermont, July 20, 1791 ; 
married Sarah Hall, of Brandon, Vt., Jan. 28, 1817; 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 171 

came to Bane in the winter of 1817 and settled on lot 
80, township 14, range 1, half a mile south of Barre 
Center. He cleared np his farm and resided on it un- 
til his death, Feb. 18, 1838. Mr, Foster was an active 
business man, a leading man among the early settlers. 
He was for several years Capt, of a militia compan}-, 
and for some years a Justice of the Peace. 

ALEXIS WAllD. 

Alexis Ward was born in the town of Addi- 
son, Vermont. May 18, 1802, His parents removed 
to Caj^uga county. New York, when he was quite a 
lad. He studied law with Judge Wilson of Auburn, 
and w^as admitted to tlu^ bar in 1823. In 1824 he re- 
moved to Albion, where he was soon appointed a Jus- 
tice of the Peace. 

On the refinement of J udg(e Foot, who was the iirst 
Judge of Orleans count}^, Mr. Ward was appointed 
First Judge in his place Feb. 10, 1830, an office he 
held by re-appointment until January 27, 1840. 

In 1834-5 he Avas mainly instrumental in procuring 
the charter incorpoiating the Bank of Orleans, which 
was the first bank incorporated in Orleans county, 
and in 1836 was elected its President and held that 
office until his death. 

He was one of the movers in founding the Phipps 
Union Seminary and the Albion Academy, and was 
always liberal in sustaining our public schools. 

It was mainly owing to his exertions that the Roch- 
ester, Lockport and Niagara Falls Railroad was built, 
and if it has ])roved a beneht the thanks for its con- 
struction are chietly due to Judge Ward. 

The Suspension Bridge across Niagara River made 
a part of his original plan in connexion Avitli this rail 
road, and his arguments and exertions were? mainly 
effectual in inducing Am«*ri<'an capitalists to take 
stock in this Bridge. 



172 PIONEER iriSTORY 

He projected the ])laiik roads from the Ridge through 
Albion to Bane Center and took a hirge pecuniary 
interest in them. 

He, with Roswell and Freeman Chxrke, built the 
large stone ilouring mill in Albion. He also built 
several dwelling houses. 

He was a large hearted, public spirited man, always 
ready to do anything he thought might benefit Albion. 

In all his business relations he was just, honorable 
and upright, every man received his due ; his purse 
was alwa} s open to the calls of charity. A man of 
untiring energ}' and perseverance, — to start a project 
was with him a certainty of its comj^tletion. 

In his intercourse with those about him he was 
kind, affable and generous. His reserve might be 
construed by those who did not know him well, as 
haughtiness, but few men wcne i'lvvv from this than 
he. 

As a Christian, he was an exemplary member of 
the Presbyterian Church t)f Albion, with which he 
connected himself in 1881. He always gave greater 
pecuniary contributions to sustain that church and 
its ministers than any other man. He did much by 
liis prayers, counsel, charities and example to sustain 
the cause of religion generally. 

In November, 1854, he Avas elected Member of As- 
sembly for Oileans count}-, but his deatli pi-evented 
his taking his seat in the Legislature. 

He married Miss Laura Goodricli of Aubui'u in 
182G. He died November 28th, 1 854. 

THE LEI'] FA^MII.Y. 

Judge John L(h\ t]i<' ancestor of tJiis family and the 
man alter v%hom the Le*,^ Settlement in Barre was 
named, was born in Barre, Massachusetts, June25tli, 
ITOo. In an early day he emigrated to Madison 
county, New York, where he resided fourteen years, 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 1.73 

find came to Barre, Orleans county in 181G, and took 
np a tract of land. He retu7"ned home, but his sons, 
Charles and Ora, then young men, came on and 
cleared up several acres of their fathers purchase, 
and bnilt a log house into wliich Mr. John Lee and 
his family moA'ed in February, 1817. 

Mr. Lee was an intelligent, energetic man, benevo- 
lent and patriotic in his character, ahvaj^s among the 
first to engage in any work tending to premote the 
good of his neighbors or the prosperitj^ of the country. 
With the hospitality common to all the pioneers, he 
kept open house to all comers and frc^quently half a 
dozen men looking after land or waiting till their log 
houses could be put up, v\^ould be quartered with him 
though his own family was large. 

He was always conspicuous in aiding to lay out 
and open roads, biuld school liouses and induce set- 
tlers to come in and stay. He was appointed a 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Genesee 
county and his opinions and counsel in all matters 
of local interest were much souglit by liis neighbors. 
He died in October 1823. 

His children were Denc(\y, wife of Benj. Clodard, 
who died in Barre in 1831. Submit, wife of Judge 
Eldridge Farwell, who is still living, (..harles, Ora 
and Asa. Sally wife of Andrew Stevens. She taught 
the first school kept in the settlement in a log school* 
house in Avhicli the laniiiy of a Mr. Pierce then re- 
sided, in 1818-19. She died at Knowlesville in 1828. 
Esther wife of Gen. \Vm. C. 'fanner, died in 1835. 
John B. who died in September 1800. Clarissa wife 
of John Proctor, who died in 1832. CyntJiia married 
William Mudgett of Yates, in 1837, sJie is now living 
the widow of John Proctor. Cliarles lias always 
r(»sided on a part of the land originallv talccMi wj) hy 
liis father. He has abva^^s been a prominent man in 



174 FIONEEll HISTORY 

public aflaiis in town and county, and was for a 
number of years a Justice of tlie Peace. 

Ora Lee also has resided on a part of the land so 
taken up hy his father. It is said he cut the first tree 
that was felled between the village of Millville in 
Shelby and the Oak Orchard Road in Barre. Gen, 
John B. Lee removed to Albion about the year 1832, 
and engaged in warehousing and foi'warding on the 
canal. Shortly after this he purchased of the Hol- 
land Company a large number of outstanding con- 
tracts made by the Company with settlers on the sale 
of their lands in the north part of this county. He 
conveyed these lands to the purchasers as they were 
paid for. 

A few years afterwards he engaged in selling dry 
goods in Albion. In a short time he left this and 
devoted himself mainly to buying and selling flour 
and grain, and in manufacturing tloui' during the re- 
mainder of his life. He took delight in military 
affairs, held various offices in the State militia, rising 
graduall}' to the rank of Brigadier-General. 

ABKAIIA^t CANTIlSrE. 

Abraham Cantine w^as born in Marbletown, 
Ulster county. He volunteered as a soldier in the 
United States Army in the war with Great Britain, in 
1812, and served as a Captain in the stirring scenes 
of that war on the Canadian frontier. He was 
wounded in the sortie at the battle of Fort P]rie. 

After the war he was discharged from the army 
and returned to Ulster county, of which he was ap- 
pointed Sherift' by the old Council of Appointment, 
in Feb. 1819. Soon after the expiration of his office 
as Sheriff, he removed to the town of Murray, in Or- 
leans county. He was employed about the year 1829, 
to re-survey that portion of the 100,000 acre tract ly- 
ing mainly in the town of Murray, which belonged to 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 175 

the Pultney estate, part of township number thrtM% a 
labor he carefully and faithfully perfonned. 

He represented the county of Orleans in the State 
Legislature in 1827. He served five years as an As- 
sociate Judg(i of the Court of Common Pleas of Or- 
leans county. He was Collector of Tolls on the Erie 
Canal at Albion in 1835. 

Several years befor his death he removed to Albion 
to reside, and died there .about Aug. 1, 1840, aged 
fifty years. 

Judge Cantine was a clear headed man, of sound 
judgment, well informed and always sustained 
a high reputation for ability wlierever he was known. 
He was a warm personal and political friend of Pres- 
ident VanBuren. 

CAUOLINE }\ ACHILLES, 

Daughter of Mr. Joseph Phipps, was born in Rome, 
^ew York. She was one in a numerous family of 
daughters, wliose earl^' education was superintended 
by lier latlier with more than ordinary care at home, 
though slie had the advantages of the best private 
schools and of the district schools in the vicinity. — 
AVhile slie was quite young her father settled in Bar- 
ye, and at an earl}' age she was permitted to gratify 
the ambition she then manifested and whicli has been 
a ruling passion of her life, to become a teacher, by 
taking a small district school, at a salary of one dol- 
lar per week 'and board around,' as was then cus- 
tomary in such schools. The salary, however, was 
no object to lier, she v.ished to teach a school, not to 
make money. After teaching this school two oi' three 
terms, she attended the Gaines ^Vcademy then in the 
zenith of its prosperity. Having spent some thne 
here she was sent to a ' linishing Ladies School kept 
by Mrs. and Miss Nicholas, in Whitesboro, N. Y. 

On leaving Whitesboro she determined to engage in 



17G PIONEEK HISTORY 

teaching permanently and acceiDted a situation to in- 
struct as assistant, in a classical school which had 
been opened by two ladies in Albion. 

Finally an arrangement was made between tlie two 
principals and their assistant, under which they trans- 
ferred their lease of jn-emises, and all their interests 
in the school to Miss Phipps. 

She now associated with an elder sister and the 
two commenced their labors as teachers on their own 
account, in a building then standing on the site of the 
present Phipps Union Seminary, in April, 1833, 

Acting on a favorite theory with her, that it is bet- 
ter to teach boys and girls in separate schools, she di- 
vided her scholars accordingly, and after a time she 
declined to receive boys as pupils and devoted all 
her energies to her school for young ladies. 

This j)roved a success. So many pupils had come 
in that in Angust of her first year, she had been join- 
ed by another and younger sister as teacher, besides 
a teacher in music and all found themselves fully 
employed. 

She thus became convinced a Female Seminary 
could be supported in Albion and that she was ca- 
pable of superintending it, and encouraged by the 
counsel and inliuence of some of the best citizens of 
the village, she issued a circular to the j)nblic, an- 
nouncing the founding of such an institution of learn- 
ing here. 

After near a ja^ars trial the new Seminary was 
proved to rcKjuire additional buildings, to accommo- 
date the large school. Miss Phipps invited some of 
tlie most wealthy and influential men of Albion, to 
meet and hear her projDOsition to erect a new Semi- 
nary Building, which was in substance, that they 
should loan to her four thousand dollars, with which, 
and funds she could otherwise procure, she would 
erect a building and repay the loan to the subscribers 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 177 

in installments, and thus establish permanently the 
Seminary she proposed. 

Such proceedings were had upon this projjosal that 
a i^aper was circulated, and tlie required sum sub- 
scribed, with a condition added that the avails of this 
loan to be repaid by Miss Phipps, should be used to 
found an Academy for boys in Albion. This plan 
was eventually carried into effect, and the brick edi- 
fice still used as a Seminary, built in the year 183G, 
and Pliipps Union Seminary duly incorj)orated in 
1840. 

Miss Philips was thus instrumental in founding two 
incorporated schools in Albion, which have proved of 
great public benefit. 

Miss Phipps was married to Col. H. L. Achilles, oi 
Rochester, N. Y., in February, 1839, and soon after 
resigning the care of the Seminary to her younger sis- 
ter, she removed to Boston, Mass., where she resided 
the succeeding ten years. During this time this 
younger sister married, when the Seminary was trans- 
ferred to others, less competent to manage its affairs, 
in whose hands it lost the large patronage it liad rp- 
. (Reived, and was well nigh ruined. 

This compelled Mr. and Mrs. Achilles to return to 
Albion, in 1849, and resume charge of the Seminary, 
or lose a large pecuniary interest they had invested 
there. 

The tact and energy of Mrs. Achilles, well sustain- 
ed b}^ her husband, gave new vigor to the institution, 
and soon brought the Seminary back to the higli 
standing it had under her former administration. 

Tired and worn down by the harrassing cares, anx- 
ieties and labor of superintending so large an estab- 
lishment and school, so many 3^ears, in 1866 Mrs. 
Achilles reluctantly consented to transfer her dearly 
cherished Seminary again to strangers. 

After three years' trial by these parties however, it 

12 



17.S PIONKEU HlSiOUV 

was tliouglit best that Mrs. Acliilles should again 
take charge of Pliipps Union Seminary, whicli she 
did, bringing with her to lier duties the skill, experience 
and practical ability- which have given her such emi- 
nent success as a teacher. 

Mrs. Acliilles has devoted the l)est years of her life 
to the cause of female education. She has labored in 
her chosen vocation, with the zeal and enthusiasm of 
genius, and may enjoy her reward in the good she 
knows she has done, and in the success with which 
she sees her work has been crowned. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



THE VILLAGE OF ALBIOK. 

Pirst Inhabitants — First Business Men — Strife witli Gaines for Court 
House — Stratcgj' used by Albion men to get Court House — First 
Court House — Second Court House — County Jail — First Hotel — 
First Warehouse — Stone Flouring 3Iill — Lawyers — Drs. Xichoson 
and "White — First Tanyard— First Blacksmiths— Xame of the Vil- 
lage. 

^^ "^"^^ Orchard Road intersects this village and 
);^^ now forms Main Street, north and sonth, in 
j^iS)^ the center of the 2:)lace. It was this road and 
the Erie Canal that iixed a village here. 

When the canal was commenced Albion was used 
'for farms, but by the time the canal became naviga- 
ble considerable of a town had sprung u]). 

William McCollister cleared the first land on what 
is now in the corporation, where the Court House and 
Female Seminary stand, and built his log house on 
the Seminary lot in 1812. He took up lot thirty-five, 
township fifteen, range one, on the east side of Main 
street, under article from the Holland Company, 
which he sold to William Bradner, who took the deed 
from the company of two hundred and sixtj^-six and 
one-half acres of the north part, his brother Joel 
taking a deed of ninc^j'-two acres on tlie south part, 
on the west side of Main street. 

Jesse Bum^uis took up by article from the compa- 
ny, tlie land from the town line of Gaines on the north, 
to near State street on the south. John Holtzbarger, 
<ii' Holsenburgh, as he was sometimes called, took up 



180 PIONEER HISTORY 

the next land south of Bnmpiis, and Elijah Darrow 
took the next. 

Before the canal was made Mr. AVilliani Bradner 
sold one hundred acres of the north-west part of his 
tract to Nehemiah Ingersoll and others. Mr. Inger- 
soll employed Orange Risden to lay out his land hor- 
dering on the Oak Orchard lload and canal, into vil- 
lage lots, and to make a plat of the same. From this 
Mr. Ingersoll sold lots and opened the streets, he hav ■ 
ing bought out his partners. 

The Bumpus tract, on the west side of Main street, 
at this time was owned by Mr. Roswell Burrows, the 
father of Messrs. R. S. & L. Burrows. He did not 
lay out his land into village lots by any general sur- 
vey and plan, but laid oft* lots and opened streets 
from time to time as the wants of the j)ublic required. 
The land fronting on Main street, througli the village, 
was taken up and mostly occupied by purchasers ■ 
from the original proprietors, about the time the canal 
was made navigable. 

The location of tlie County Seat in Albion, about 
this time, and the bustle and business of erecting 
county buildings, establishing the courts and public of- 
fices and organizing the affairs of a new county, town 
and village, brought in an influx of inhabitants at 
once, representing the difterent callings and emj^loy- 
ments pursued by those who settled in villages along 
the canal. 

The south side of the canal— the north being the 
towing 2>atli — was soon occupied by buildings put 
up for the canal trade, such as warehouses and gro- 
cery stores. Tlie large number of passengers who 
tilled the canal boats, made the grocery stores, from 
which they and the boatmen procured their sui^plies, 
places of lively trade, by night and day. Variety 
stores, each ftlled with goods of every name, class and- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 181 

-•description demanded by the customers, were numer- 
ous, though small. 

Among the first merchants were Goodrich & Stan- 
dart, John Tucker, O. H. Gardner, K. S. & L. Bur- 
rows, Alderman Butts, and Freeman Clarke, of late 
years a prominent banker in Rochester, N. Y. 

When the Commissioners appointed to select the 
site for the Court House came on to fix the spot, their 
choice lay between Gaines and Albion. Gaines had 
the advantage of being the largest village, being on 
the Ridge Road, and being well supplied with me- 
chanics and merchants, and of having many of the 
institutions of old and well organized communities es- 
tablished there. Albion was nearest the geographical 
center of the county, and was intersected by the Erie 
Canal and Oak Orchard Road. The west branch of 
Sandy Creek runs through the east part of the vil- 
lage. Rising in some swamps in the south pari of 
the town, it afforded sufficient water after the melting 
of the snow in spring, and after rains to turn ma- 
chinery a part of the year, but in summer was nearly 
, dry. On this stream two saw mills had been built, 
. one in the village, the other south of it. 

The Commissioners came to consider the claims of 
the rival villages about the ndddle of the dry season, 
Mr. Nehemiah Ingersoll, Philetus Bumpus, Henr}' 
Henderson, and a few other Albion men, determined 
to use a little strategy to help Albion. Knowing 
when the Commissioners would be here the creek 
would be too low to move tlie sawmills, and foresee- 
ing the advantage a good mill stream would give 
them, they patched the two dams and flumes and 
closed the gates to hold all the water some days be- 
fore the Commissioners would arrive ; sent some 
teams to haul logs and lumber about the saw mill 
and mill yard, in the village to mark the ground and 
give the appearance of business there. 



182 PIONEEK HISTORY 

AVhen the Commissioners oame to see Albion., 
having "been generously dined and wined, by its hospi- 
table people, they were taken in a carriage to see the 
place, and in the course of the ride driven along the 
creek and by the sawmill, then in full operation, with 
men and teams at work among the lumber, with a 
good suppl}'' of water from the i^onds thus made for 
the occasion. The Commissioners were impressed 
A^dth the importance of this fine water power and 
gave the county buildings to Albion before the ponds 
ran out. 

Mr. IngersoU donated to the county the grounds 
now occupied by the court house and jail and public 
park. 

The first court house was built in 1827, of bricky 
with the County Clerk's office in the lower story. 
Gilbert Howell, Calvin Smith and Elihu Mather were 
building committee. 

This Court House was pulled down and a new one 
erected in its place in 1857-8, at a cost of $20,000. 
W. V. N. Barlow was the architect, and Lyman Bates,. 
Henry A. King and Charles Baker, building com- 
mittee. 

The present jail was built in 1888, and the clerk's 
office in 1836. 

The first hotel was kept on the south-west corner 

of Main and Canal streets, by Cliurchill. The 

next hotel, called Albion Hotel, was built by Philetus 
Bumpus about twenty rods south of the canal on the 
west side of Main street, and kept several years by 
Bumpus k Howland, succeeded by Hiram Sickles. 
Mr. Bumpus then built the Mansion House, a hotel 
standing on the north side of the canal, on Main St., 
which he kept several years. 

Mr. Philetus Bumpus, and his father, Jesse Bum- 
pus, built the first framed dwelling house in Albion,, 
on the lot on which ]\Ir. L. Burrows now resides. 



OF OKLKAXS ("OrNTY. 183 

Tlie tirst wareliouse was built hy Nelieniiali Inger- 
soU, on the canal about t\^'('iity lods east of Main St. 
The next by Gary & Tilden, on the west side of Main 
street, on the canal. 

The first sawmill in the corporation of Albion was 
built in 1819, by William Biadner. 

Mr. William Bradner built the first grist mill, ihr 
mill stones for which lie cut in person from a rock in 
Palmyra. One of these stones is now us^ed for a 
corner guard stone on the corner of State and Claren- 
don streets. These mills were cheap structures and 
were taken away after a few 3'ears. 

The stone flouring mill on the canal was built b}^ 
Ward & Clarks in 1833. 

The flrst law^3'er in Albion Avas Theophilus Capen. 
He remained here but a sliort time. The next law- 
yers were AVilliam J. Moody, Alexis Ward, Henry R. 
Curtis, Gideon Hard, William W. Ruggles, and 
others came about the time the county was or- 
ganized. 

Dr. Orson Nichoson was the iirst physician. Ht^ 
located two miles south of the village in 1819, and 
removed to Albion about 1822. Dr. William White, 
who had been in practice at Oak Orchard in Ridge- 
way, came here about the time the county was organ- 
ized, and opened a drug store and w^ent into partner- 
ship with Dr. Nichoson in the practice of medicine. 

Dr. Stephen M. Potter was one of the earh' physi- 
cians who settled in Albion. He was born in West- 
port, Mass., removed to Cazenovia, X. Y., and from 
thence to Albion. About the y(^ar 1837 he removed 
to Cazenovia again. He represented JNIadison county 
in the State Legislature in 184G. 

The flrst tanyard was located on the south side 
of the canal on the lot nov/ occupied b}' the gas works, 
by Jacob Ingersoll, about the year 1825. Tanning 



184 PIOXEEIi HISTORY 

was continued here until the gas works were built in 
1858. 

The first blacksmiths were John Moe, Rodney A. 
Torrey, and Phineas Phillips. 

Albion was at first for some years called Newport, 
but on account of trouble with the mails, there being 
another post office in this state by the name of New- 
port, at a meeting of the inhabitants to take meas- 
ures to get the village incorporated, on motion of 
Gideon Hard, the name was changed to Albion in the 
first Act of incorporation passed April 21st, 1828. 
The first company of fireman was organized in 1831. 

John Henderson settled in Albion incept. 1825 and 
established the first shop for making carriages. He 
kept the first livery stable in 1834, and started the 
first horse and cart for public accommodation in 1837. 
He has been an active man, an ingenious mechanic, 
and has built ten or twelve dwelling houses and nu- 
merous shops, barns and other buildings here. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



TOWN OF CiRI.TOX. 

Name — Lumber Trade — First Settlement of White Men in County — 
James Walsworth — Village of Manilla — Names of Persons who took 
Articles of Land in Carlton in 1808, 1804 and 1805 — Matthew Dun- 
ham — Curious ^lill to Pound Corn — Dunham's Saw Mill and Grist 
Mill — First in County— First Frame Barn— The Union Company — 
Death ol Elijah Brown — First Children Born in Town — First Store 
— Biographies of Early Settlers. 

Y^ 

W^ ARLTON was set off from Gaines and Ridge- 
way April 13, 1822, by the name of Oak 
Orcliard. The name was changed to Carlton 
in 1825. 

The region of Land lying north of tlie Ridge Road 
in this vicinity was called the "north woods'' in early 
times. It was heavily timbered land, containing large 
numbers of immense whitewood trees and white and 
red oaks of the largest kind. Some pine grew near 
the Oak Orchard Creek. Hemlock was abundant in 
,som^^ localities, and basswood, elm, beech and some 
maple compiised the principal kinds of trees. 

The settlers in their haste to clear their lands, gen- 
erally burned uj) all of this fine timl)er that they did 
not want for fencing, in tht> first few years of their 
settlement. After sawmills were built, white wood 
was sawed and the boards hauled to the canal for sale, 
and large quantities of oak trees were squared to the 
top and sent down the Lake to Europe for ship timber. 
The prices obtained were barely sufhcient to pa}' the 
-expense of the labor required to move the lumber, 



186 I'lONEEU IIISTOllY 

but the destructive work Avas kept up till most of 
the timber trees of every kind have been cut down 
through this town. 

The first settlement of white luen in Orleans county 
mas made in this town in the year 1803 by William 
and James Walsworth, wlio came from Canada. 
James settled near the mouth of Oak Orchard Creek, 
and William near the mouth of Johnson's Creek. 
James Walsworth was tlie pioneer settler of this- 
county. He came across from Canada in May 1803, 
in an open boat with his family, and built a log cabin 
for his residence, which at that time Avas the only 
house near the shore of Lake Ontario, between Fort 
Niagara and Braddock's Bay. His nearest neighbor 
at first, resided near Lockport, Niagara count3\ Mr. 
Walsworth was very poor then. The only provisions- 
they had when they landed were a few potatoes ; these 
and fish from Oak Orchard Creek, in which there was 
then an abundance, supplied their sustenance, ex- 
cept an occasional barter with boatmen, who. coast- 
ing along the south shore of the lake, would put into 
the mouth of the Oak Orchard for sheltei'. Wals- 
worth hunted and fished mainly for a living, and 
when he collected any store of peltries he took them 
east along the shore of the lake to a market. After 
two or tliree years he removed to what used to be 
called "The LewistonRoad," between Lockport and 
Batavia, where he was afterwards Avell known as a 
tavern keeper. 

The Walsworths and the few other settlers who came 
in and stopped along the Lake Shore in Carlton, com- 
prised all tlie settlers in Orleans county Ix^fore the 
year 1809, with one or two exceptions. 

About the year 1803, Joseph Ellicott concluded 
that eventually a village must grow up at the mouth 
of Oak Orchard Creek. In anticipation of that event 
he made a plat for a town there and call<'d it Manilla., 



OF OKLEAXS COUNTY. 1S7 

a name wliicli is now found on some maps for the 
place more commonly known as Oak Orchard Harbor, 
It was supposed in those days that most of the trade 
to and from the Holland Purchase, would lake the 
lake route, and ISIanilla would be the depot. At that 
time the sand bar, at the mouth of Oak Orchard 
Creek was less then in later years, and the small 
schooners then on the lake could come over it with- 
out difficulty. It was in furtherance of this thought 
that the Holland Company did what they did towarcls 
opening the Oak Orcliard road to travel. The Erie 
Canal, however, effi^ctually stifled this project, and 
turned trade and commerce in another direction. 

John G. Brown took up two and one-half acres of 
land from the Company, on the west side of Oak 
Orchard Creek near the mouth and lield it on specu- 
lation for a time, but nothing was done in the way of 
founding a village. This land was deeded to him by 
the Holland Company Dec. 2, 1806, and was described 
in the deed as lot No. 15, on a plan of the village of 
Manilla. This was the first deed of land in the town 
of Carlton given by the Company. Brown conveyed 
the land to Silas Joy, Nov. 28, 1815. The following 
named persons took Articles of the Holland Company 
for land lying in the present town of Carlton, in the 
years following, viz : 

IN 18 8. 
John Farrin, James DeGraw, Cornelius DeGraw, 
James Walswortli, Elijah Brown, John G. Brown, 
James McKinney, Elijah Hunt, James Dunham, 
David Musleman, Samuel I'tter, Ray Marsh, Henry 
Lovewell, John Parmeter, AVilliam Carter, Martin 
Griffin, Eli Griffith. William Griffith and Stephen 
Hoyt. 

IN 18 4. 

Samuel McKinn.'y, John Jason, Henry Lovewell, 



188 PIOXEER HISTORY 

AVilliam Carter, Job Shipman and Epliraim Waldo. 
IN 1805. 

Paul Brown, .Job Johnson, Epliraim Waldo, David 
Miller, and Thaddeus Moore. 

Matthew Dunham and his sons Matthew, James 
and Charles, came from Berkshire county, Mass., to 
Wayne county. New York, about 1795. They re- 
moved to Carlton in 1804. They were chair makers, 
and began working at their trade soon as they could 
get settled after they came in. 

Henry Lovewell from New Hampshire, and Moses 
Root and his family from Cooperstown, N. Y., came 
to Carlton with Mi\ Dunliam and his family. 

Matthew Dunham, Jr. married Rachel Lovewell, 
daughter of Henry Lovewell, in the year 1814. Mr. 
Dunham died in 1854, but Mrs. Rachel Dunham is 
yet living, 1871, aged about eighty-six years. 

In the summer of 1804, Matthew Dunham and his 
sons built a dam across Johnson' s Creek where the 
dam now stands at Kuckville, and erected a small 
building on it, Avith machinery for turning wood. 
The Dunham family carried on the business of turn- 
ing in a small way in this building several years. 
They did not tind much sale for their goods near 
home, but sold some chairs and wooden bowls to the 
new settlers. The most of their work they took across 
the lake and disposed of in Canada. They continued 
this commerce until the embargo was declared in 
1808, and after that they smuggled their chair stuff 
over to considerable extent on a sail boat which they 
owned. 

It is related by some of the first settlers that in this 
turning shop the Dunhams fixiul an apparatus for 
pounding corn, by making a tub or box in which the 
corn was placed, and a heavy ])estle was made to fall 
at each turn of the water wheel. Into this box they 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 189 

would pnt about a bushel of corn, occasionally stir- 
ring it up to bring it under the pestle, and thus pound 
it until it was reduced to meal. It took considerable 
time to turn a bushel of corn into meal by this pro- 
cess, and aid could be afforded to but few families 
in this way. 

Several families coming in to settle in the neighbor- 
hood, the want of a sawmill and a gristmill was great- 
ly felt. Three or four years after the Dunhams built 
their turning shop, the Holland Land Company of- 
fered to furnish the irons for a sawmill, and the irons 
and a pair of mill stones for a grist mill if they 
would erect such mills on their dam. A saw mill 
and a grist mill were built accordingl}^ 

These were the first saw and grist mills built in 
Carlton. They were small, coarse affairs, but 
the}'' were very useful to those living near them. 
They remained the property of the Dunhams until 
about 1816, the}" Avere purchased by George Kuck, 
and rebuilt on a much larger pattern than the old 
mills. 

Mr. Reuben Hoot owned a small sail boat of a few 
tons burthen which he used to run across the lake. 
On this, pine lumber was brought from Canada before 
sawmills were built here, and it was the principal 
conveyance by which passengers and i)ro2^erty were 
carried across the lake either way for a number of 
years. 

Mr. Moses Root built a framed barn before Dun- 
ham's sawmill was erected, bringing the boards from 
Canada. This is sujitposed to have been the first 
frame barn built in Orleans county. 

Reuben Fuller and John Fuller came from Brad- 
ford county, in Penns3'lvania, and settled near Kuck- 
ville in 1811. 

tup: union company. 

In December, 1810, eight young men in Stock- 



190 PIONEKU IirsTOliY 

bridge, Massachusetts, formed a company, wliicli 
tliey named "The Union Company," and agreed 
each to contribute an equal sliare of stock, and go 
tosether and form a settlement on the Holland Pur- 
chase, where each partner should bu}' for himself a 
farm with his own means, and the company would 
help him clear a certain portion of land and build a 
house and barn. The buildings to be alike on each 
man's farm. 

They limited the conq^any to tw(^ years, during 
which they would all live and work together and 
share the avails of their labor equally. 

Before leaving Stockbridgt^ tlie}- drew irp and 
signed their agreement in writing. 

Thus organized the}^ came to Carlton and took up 
land west of Oak Orchard Creek, each a farm, which 
was worked according to contract. 

Fitch Chamberlain was mariied but left liis wife at 
home until he could get a home for her made ready. 
They brouglit no women with them and kept bache- 
lor' s hall the first year when Giles Slater, Jr. , went back 
to Stockbridge and married a wife and brought her 
to his new home, and soon after his example was 
followed by the i-emaincler of the company. 

The company made judicious selections of land ; 
its affairs were well managed and successful. All of 
the j)artners were fortunat(^ in accumulating proper- 
ty, the sure reward of honest, persevering industry. 
Their families have ever been among the most respec- 
ted and influential in town. 

Fitch Chamberlain was a ph5'sician and practiced 
medicine in the later years of his life. Tlie members 
of the company are all dead except Anthony Miles, 
now aged 84 years, in 1871. 

The Union Coinpany consisted of Minoris Day, 
Fitch Chamberlain, Charles AVebstei-. Anthony Miles, 



OF ORLEANS COUNT V. 191 

■Selali Bardrilee, Moses Barnuiii, Jr., Eussell Smith, 
and Giles Slater, Jr. 

The first death among the settlers was that of 
Elijah Brown. The first birth vras a pair of twins, 
children of James AValsworth, in 180G. At their 
birth no physician or person of her own sex 
was present with the mother. The first marriage was 
that of William Carter and Amy Hunt, in 1804. Pe- 
leg Helms taught the first school in ] 810-11. And 
George Kuck kept the first store in 1816. 

The first public religious services in Carlton were 
held about the year 1810, and were conducted b}' 
Hev. Mr. Steele, a ]\Iethodist preacher who came 
from Canada. 

Elder Simeon Dutcher, of the Baptist denomina- 
tion, settled in Carlton in 1817. He was the only 
preacher residing in town for several years. 

Among the first settlers were Elijah Hunt, Moses 
Root, Henr}' Lovewell. Paul Brown, Elijah Brown, 
Job Shipman, Matthew Dunham. 

Dr. Richard AV. Gates was the first regular phy- 
sician who settled in the j^ractice of his profession in 
Carlton. After a few years he moved to Barre, and 
thence to Yates. He represented Orleans county in 
the State Legislature in 1841, and was Supervisor of 
Carlton in 1820. 



BIOdKAPHIES or EARLY SETTLERS. 

(; KOI Mil: KUCK. 

Rev. George Kuck was born in the city "of London, 
England, December 23, 1791, and educated at King's 
College, London. He came to New York city in 
180G, and lemoved to Toronto, Canada West, in 1807. 
In the war between England and the Pnited States in 
3 812, he served as Lieutenant in the Canada militia. 



192 PIONEER HISTORY 

After the war, and until 1815, lie was clerk in the 
employ of the Canadian Government, at Toronto, 
until October, when he removed to Carlton and pur- 
chased the farm on which he resided ever afterwards, 
now known as Kuckville. 

He erected a frame gristmill on the site of the log: 
mill built by M. Dunham on Johnsoivs Creek. 
In 1816 he opened a store near his residence, at that 
time the only store north of the Ridge in this 23art of 
the country, where he kept a large store of goods 
and carried on a great trade. 

He soon after built a warehouse at the mouth of 
Johnson's Creek. At one time he had a store,, 
gristmill, sawmill, asliery, warehouse and. farm, all 
under his personal supervision and in successful ope- 
ration. His investments were judicious and safe, his 
affairs all managed with economy and skill, which 
resulted in making him a w(:>alth3' man. 

He married Miss Electa Fuller March 25th, 1819. 
In March 1821, he joined the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, in which he was ever after a prominent mem- 
ber. He helped to form the first religious class in his 
church in the town of Carlton, and Avas its leader. 
In 1825 he organized and tanght the first Sunday 
School in the count}^ north of the Eidge. In April, 
1829, he was licensed to exhort, in 1833 he was 
licensed to preach, and in 1837 he was ordained 
Deacon by Bishop Hedding, and in 1849 he was or- 
dained Elder by Bishop Morris, at Albion. 

He was appointed Postmaster at West Carlton, 
since Kuckville, an office he held, in all, about 30 
years. 

He was a man of good education and fine natural 
ability and his life was filled with usefulness. He 
was among the first and foremost in all matters of re- 
form and advancement, active in tlie cause of temper- 
ance, morality and religion, always a leading man in 



OF ollLKANS CiH'NTY. 19^: 

the counsi'ls of the churcl!. lie died Mareii IG, 
1 868, aged 70 years. 

DANIEL (iATES. 

Daniel Gates was born in Kutland count}', \"ermont, 
Mareh lltli, 1786. lie marri^Hl Ann Anderson, Mar<'h 
12th, 1808. 

About November, 1811, lie removed t*) Orleans 
county, and bought an article of part of lot tAventy- 
ninc>, township fifteen, range two, on the south side of 
the Eidge. A former owner liad cleared a small spot 
and built a log house there. On this farm Mr. Gatf^s 
resided several years. He afterwards bought a farm 
in Carlton, where he resided at the time of Iris death, 
January :]1 st, 1858. 

Mrs. Ann Gates died January 1st, 1860. Tliey were 
i)arents of John and XcJiemiah F. Gates, of Carlton, 
Lewis W. Gates, residing in Michigan, and Matthevr 
A. Gates, of Yates. 

Mr. Gates moved his family in with a yoke of oxen 
and wagon. No bridge had been built across Gene- 
see River, and he forded tlie stream at Roiliester, a 
nuin riding a horse hitclied before the oxen, to guide 
them through the river. 

Few settlers along the Ridge Koad came in advance 
of Mr. Gates, or braved the hardships and difRculties 
of j)ioneer life with better courage. They liad very 
lew of the conveniences and comforts of civilized life, 
and sometimes were in want of food. Once about 
the last year of the war a scarcity prevailed among 
the four families then comprising all the inhabitants 
in the vicinity of Mr. Gates. ]5ut one pan full of 
Hour remained among tlumi all, and that they kept 
to feed the children, the older folks expecting to sub- 
stitute boiled green wheat in place of bread. Mr. 
Gates cut a few l)undles of his wheat then in tlie 



194 PIONKKK HISTORY 

milk, and dried it in the sun. They rubbed tlie soft 
grain out of the straw and boiled it. This was eaten 
■with milk and relished very much by the family, and 
it supplied tliem until wlieat ripened and dried fit to 
grind. 

For several years no settler located between Mr, 
Gates' place on the Ridge, and Shelby. Along the 
line of the canal was then a solid forest. Mr, Gates* 
cattle w^ere suffered to range the woods to browse in 
summei". Tliey usualh' returned to the clearing at 
night. Once his oxen, one of which wore a bell, with 
his cow failed to come in at night. Mr. Gates armed 
himself witli a bayonet on the end of a staff to rej^el 
a bear or wolf if he chanced to be attacked, and went 
out to hunt for them, his old English musket being 
too heavy to carry. After several days hunting he 
found his cattle where Knowlesville now stands — at- 
tracted there by some wild grass growing along tlie 
brook. 

ELI.JAFJ HUjN'T. 

Elijali Hunt was born in Pennsylvania. He was a 
soldier in the llevolutionary War, AVliile in the ser- 
vice, being in a scouting party in Pennsylvania, he, 
with his party, was taken ])risoner by the Indians, 
He with the other prisoners was made to run the 
gauntlet from one j^oint to another, fixed for the pur- 
pose. Tile Indians — men, women and children — 
posted themselves on each side of the track to be 
run over by their jjrisoners, and assaulted them as 
they passed with clubs, hatchets, knives, stones, .&c. 
If the prisoners were fortunate enough the}' might 
get through and live, and they might be severely 
wounded, or even killed by the way. Mr. Hunt got 
through witliout serious damage. ^Vfter reaching 
their village on the (renesee River, tlie Indians con- 



OF 0KLEAN8 CO TXT Y. 19o 

■€luded to sacrifice Mr. Hunt after tlieir terrible 
fasliion. He was stripped and painted blacli prepar- 
atory to his suffering ; but before tliey began to tor- 
ture liim, an old squaw, whose son had been killed 
in the fight when Hunt was taken, came forwai'd and 
■claimed her right by Indian custom to adopt him as 
her son, in place of the one that was killed. He was 
released to her and adopted as she proposed, and re- 
.mained with the Indians near the Genesee river, in 
Livingston county, about three 3^ears, when the war 
having ended, he was permitted to return to his 
friends in Pennsylvania. 

He was always treated kindly after his adoption by 
the Indians, especially bj' liis new mother. Mau}- 
years after his settlement in Carlton, the Indians 
found him out and visited him with many demonstra- 
tions of tlieir friendship. 

In the depth of winter, after the cold suinmer of 
1816, fearing he might be in want Avitli his family, on 
account of the loss of crops that 3^ear, two Indians, 
•one of whom claimed to be his brother, being a son 
-of the squaw who adopted Mr. Hunt, came to Carlton 
to visit him and afford relief if he needed it. 

He came to Carlton in the summer of 1804 and 
took up a farm about a mile west of the mouth 
of Johnson s Creek, on the Lake shore. After a year 
or two he went back to Pennsylvania with liis family 
.and remained until October, 1806, when he returned 
and settled permanently on his farm, whei-e he ever 
afterwards resieled. and died in 1830, aged stn-ent}- 
iiine years. 

The long residence of Mr. Hunt among the Indians 
.qualified him to become a pioneer in this new settle- 
ment, and fitted him to endure the piivations and 
^difficulties he had to encounter. 

The daughter of Mr. Hunt, Amy Hunt, mai-i-ied 
William Carter in 1804, which was the first marria"-e 



196 pi<)NJ-:eii iiiSToitY 

in that town, and probably the first marriage m Or- 
k^ans county, 

ItAY MAKSir. 

Ray Marsli was born in Connecticut, About tlie 
year 1800 lie Avent to Canada West and w^as employed 
in teaching school. In 1803 he married Martha Shaw, 
who was born in Nova Scotia. In that year, he left 
Canada at Queenstown, in a sinall boat, and coasted 
along the south shore of Lakt^ Ontario to Oak Or- 
chard Creek, in Carlton, and took an article for land 
lying near the lake in Carlton. 

In 1805, on account of sickness in the neighborhood 
of his home in Carlton, he removed to Cambria, in 
Niagara county, and located on the Ridge, about five 
miles from Lewiston. He was driven away from here 
by the British and Indians when Lewiston was burned 
by them in the war with England, losing almost ev- 
ery thing lie had in the world, except the lives of him- 
self and family. The}^ lied to Ontario county, but 
returned the next year to near Ridgeway Corners and 
stopped there. He had now a large family of chil- 
di'en ; to maintain them he had to sell his interest in 
his farm in Cambria ; and in the cold seasons of 
1810-17 they suffered for necessary food ; and few- 
families suffered more from the prevailing sickness of 
the country, aggravated as it was b}^ their poverty 
and want of means to afford relief. 

Mr. Marsh died about 1852. His A\'idow, now 
(1870) eighty six years old, is living. She had seven 
grand-sons soldiers in the Union army in the war of 
the great rebellion. During the war slie spent a 
large i)Oition of her time knitting stockings for the 
soldiers. Siu^h women are worthy the name of 
'" Revolutionary Motliers,'" and are an honor to the 

American uanu'. 

.lor. siiip.AiAX. 

Job Shipman was b(»rn in Saybrook, Connecticut, . 



OF OKLEA^S COrXTV. 197 

June 2d, 1772. After lie aiTived at iiianliood lie re- 
sided for a time in Greene coant^', N. Y., and at 
length came to ^Vayne eonnty. Avliere lie joined the 
family of Mr. Elijah Brown, and removed hy way of 
Lake Ontario, to the town of Carlton, in the summer 
of 1804. 

While coming np the lake Mr. Elijah Brown died, 
/.and his body was brought to Carlton and buried 
thei'e. His sons were James, John (laidner, Paul. 
Elijah, Jr., and Robert M. 

Mr. Shi2:)man took an article of part of lot twelve, 
section two, range two, of Avhich his son Israel after- 
wards took a deed from the land comjiany, and on 
which h(^ resides. 

He married widow Ann Tomblin in May. 1815. 
Israel Shipman was his onl}^ child. 

Job Shipman died January 12th. 1888. His wife 
died February 8th. 1858. 

The first town meetings in Carlton for two or three 
years were held at his dAvelling, because it was one 
of the best log lionses in toAvn ; had a shingled roof, 
board floor, and stood near the middle of the town ; 
but it was so small that few of the voters assembled 
could get in the house at once. They comj^romised 
the matter by allowing the Inspectors to sit in the 
house wliile the voters haiuh^d in their ballots to them 
through the A\indow from without. 

As it was in cold weather, even the liberal potations 
of whisky in which they indulged would not warm 
the crowd sufRcientl}', so they made a large log heap 
near the house wliicli being set on lire answered the 
purpose. 

LYMAX irLLioi:. 

Lyman Fuller was born in Pennsylvania, August 
IGth, 1808. In Februarv 1811, his^ather. Kein)en 



198 I'lONEER HISTORY 

Fuller, moved with Ms family to near the lake shore- 
in A Vest Carlton. 

In the fall of 1811, Capt. John Puller, a brother of 
Reuben, settled in Carlton. Mr. Reuben Fuller died 
July 4th, 1837. Mr. Lyman Fuller succeeded to the 
possession of his father' s homestead, on which he re. 
sided and where he died March 22d, 1866. He was a 
much respected man among all who knew him. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 




TOWN OF CLARENDON. 

Difliculty in getting Titles from Pultney Estate — Elclrcclgo Farwell — 
Farwell's Mills — First School — First Merchants — J. and D. Sturges 
— First Postmaster — First Physician — Presbyterian Cliurch — First 
Town Electing — Biographies of Early Settlers. 



LAKENDON comprises a i)()rtioii of the (^ne 
liiindred tlionsand acre tract, and ^vas formed 
from Sweden February 23d, 1821. 
Owing in part to .the difficulty of getting a good 
title to the land, which up to about 1811, w^as owned 
for several years b}^ the Stat(^ of Connecticut and iho 
Pultney Estate jointly, s(^ttlers came in slowly at 
first. 

Tlip land was divided between the State of Connec- 
ticut and the Pultney Estate, in 1811 ; but the lots 
wdiicli fell to the Pultney Estate, were not surveyed 
and put in tlie market for sale until about the year 
1821. Settlers were allowed to take posses- 
sion of land and make improvements with the expec- 
tation that when the lands came in market the}' 
would retain what they had so taken and then get a 
title. Some settlers located on these lands under 
these circumstances and cleared them up and built 
houses. AVlien they finally came in market the set- 
tlers was charged 88 or $10 per acre, — a niiudi higher 
piice than he expected when he came in, and a higher 
price than the Holland Company charged for their 
lands of like quality ; but Ik' was compelled to 
pay it or l(\av(^ and lose his labor. 



200 PION r.KIl HISTOKY 

Among thelirst settlors in Clarendon were Eldridge 
Farwell, John Cone. ]>radstreet SpafFord, Elislia 
Huntley, David Clmrcli, and Cliauncey Robinson. 
Eldridge Farwell erected the iirst sawmill on Sandy 
Creek in 1811, and the iirst gristmill at the same plaet; 
in 1818. A village grcnv up in the vicinity of these 
mills which, in honor of Mr. Farwell, was called and 
known as FarwelFs Mills. Situated a little iiortli- 
west of the center of tlie town, it has been the princi- 
pal place of trade and business. 

.Fudge Eldridge Farwell was the pioneer settler. 
The next settler was Aianso]i Dudley, in 1812. 

The first store was kept at Farwell' s Mills bv Fris- 
bie & Pierpont, in 1821. 

The iirst scliool vras taught b}' Mrs. Amanda Bills. 
'i"ie first s(diool house built in Clarendon stood a 
little south of Fai'wc^lTs Mills, or Clarendon, as the 
place is now being called, was built in 1813 of logs, 
and was fourteen by eighteen fe(^t square. 

Frisbie & Pierpont tiaded in the little red store 
building in which after tliey left, David Sturges sold 
goods for many years. 

In addition to his ])usiness as a merchant with Mr. 
Frisbie, William Pierpont kept a tavern, lifter two 
or three years he moved away and Mr. Hiram Frisbie, 
liis partner, succeeded to the store and tavern to 
v,'hich had been added nn ashery, all three of which 
Mr. Frisbi(^ cai-ried on Uso or three yeai-s, and until 
he removed to Holley aboiit the year 1828. 

in 18ir). Jose])h Stui-ges built a distilleiy at Fai'- 
well's Mills, Vvhich lie carried on Avith his brothei- 
David, eight ov t(^n years, when Mr. Frisbie having 
moved away, and Joseph Sturges having died in 
:March, 1828, David Sturges began to sell dry goods 
and groceries how. He was a sharp business man 
and drove a laige trade. He was the next merchant 



OF (IKLKAXS COrNTY. 201 

in town after Pierpont eV Frisl)ie. Ho died in Sei)teni- 
ber, 1848. 

Judge Eldridge Faiv.ell was tlu^ tirst postmaster in 
town, and D]-. Bussj' the first pliysician. 

On the 4th of February, 1823, a Presbyterian 
Church was organized in Clarendon. For several 
years it maintained a feeble existence, nntil in 18B1, it 
imited with the Presbyterian Churcli in Ilolley, and 
became extinct as an organization in Clarendon. 

The first town meeting held in and for the town of 
Clarendon was at the school liouse at FarwelFs Mills, 
April 4th, 1821. 

Eld ridge Farwell was a candidate for Sux)ervisor 
on the Clinton ticket, and AVilliam Lewis on the 
Tompkins ticket. Tlie IMeeting was opened with 
prayei" b}' Elder Stedman. Tlie election of Supervi- 
sor was concluded to be first in order. No chairman 
had been formally appointed, but on suggestion of 
somebody the entire meeting went out of doors in 
front of the school bouse. Some one held his hat and 
half a dozen voters stood by to see that nobod}^ voted 
twice, or cast more than one ballot, and ballots for 
Supervisor were thrown into the hat l)y all the voters 
present. Eldridge Farwell was elected the first Su- 
])ervisor, and .loseph M. Hamilton, Town Clerk. 

Jonas Davis made spinning wheels, and Alanson 
Dudley carried on tanning and shoemaking at Far- 
weirs Mills, at an earlv dav. 



B10(H(APHIES OF EARLY SETTLERS. 

IIOKACK PKCK. 

'• 1 was born in Farmington. llartfoi-d Co., Ct)nn.. 
April ];■), 1802. In the spring of 1817, I hired out to 
drive cattle, shee}) and hogs to Bufialo, and went on 
Avith a drove. The mud was ck'<^]) and 1 had a hard 



202 I'lOXEEK HI8TUKY 

time wading tliroiigli it after my drove. I went tlirougli 
however, and come back to FarwelVs Mills in Clar- 
endon, expecting to meet my father and his family 
there, as they had made arrangements to move when 
I left them. 

On my journey back from Buffalo, all I had to eat 
was six crackers, and I drank one glass of cider. 

I found my fathei- had not come on. I was alone, 
but fourteen years of age, had but four dollars in 
money, my jyay for driving the drove, and had no 
acquaintances there. This was the next spring after 
the cold season. It was difficult for me to find a 
place to stay for the reason no one had an3^thing to 
eat or to spare. I found friends, however, in Mr. and 
Mrs. Leonard Foster. They said I might stay with 
them till my folks came on. After that I fared well. 
They divided their best fare with me, which consisted 
of hoe cake and maple molasses, and we had to be 
sparing of that. 

I stayed with m}' benefactors three weeks, when 
my parents and their family arrived. My father had 
prepared a small log cabin shingled with bark the 
summer before. We moved into it. All the provis- 
ion we had on hand to eat was half a barrel of very 
lean pork. 

My father had no money left, owned no living crea- 
ture except his family. We had no table and only 
two chairs. We had an acre of cleared land on oui' 
lot sown witli wlK^at. These were glooni}^ times to me. 
The first thing was to procure something to eat. I 
paid my four dollars to David Church for two bushels 
of wheat. The next thing was to get somi^ straw to 
sleep on. This we got of our neighbor, Chauncey 
Robinson, for two cents a bundle. 

We had hard fare until the n(?xt harvest. We ate 
bran bread and had not enough of that. After har- 
vest we had enough to eat, and I thought at this time, 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. "^^ 

could I be sure of enough to eat hereafter I should "be 

content. 

The next year my father bought a two-year oJit 

cow, which helped us very unu^h. 

In the winter of 1818-19, my eldest brother, Ln titer 
C Peck, taught a district school near where Holley' 
now stands, for three months, for which he was to 
have thirty bushels of wheat after the next harvest. 

AVhen father received the wheat the price had fal- 
len Father drew the wheat to Rochester, and re- 
ceived after deducting expenses, thirty-one cents per 

bushel. 

In 1820 we bought a yoke of oxen. \N e then cob- 
sidered ourselves well of. Previous to tliis I went to 
school winters. I went one winter to FarwelV s Mills, 
three miles from my fathers. I worked summers 
chopping and logging witli my father, working out 
for others when I could get an opportunity. 

In the winter of 1819-20, I taught school on the 
' fourtli section road lor ten dollars per month. I fol- 
lowed that business for ten winters— had higlier wages 
as I advanced in experience. 

During this time and up to my majority I began \o 
consider myself a man, used to attend parties, would 
yoke the oxen and hitch them to a sled, go after the 
young ladies and wait on them very politely. And 1 
enjoyed it as well and even better than in after tiiiie.s^ 
riding in a fashionable carriage. 

I once thought it quite smart to visit a young lady 
who resided in Le Roy. On one occasion I had been 
to see her. had a very i^leasaiit visit, time passed very 
agreeably, and before I was aware it was getting 
i-atherlate. Sometime T)efore daylight, however, I 
started for honu^ on foot through the woods near three 
miles. When I came to about the middle of tlie 
woods, a wolf appeared in the road befori^ me. I 
halloed right lustily, the w.^lf left the road ratlier 



204 PIONEER HIS TOR V 

leisurel)-, and I passed on rapidly. Soon a liowling 
commenced, which was answered hy other wolves at 
a distance, and before I got through the woods, a 
pack of these animals was on my track, and near to 
me judging hy their cries. They made all sorts of 
noises hut pleasant ones to me. I saved myself from 
them by the energetic use of my locomotive j)owers. 

I came readil}^ to tlie conclusion that this business 
of being out so late nights 'would not pay.' 

I married Miss Amia AVhite January 22, 1829. She 
was born June 19, 1802, and died January- 15, 1834. 
I married Miss Adaline Nichols January 81, 1836. 
She was born Februaiy 6, 1809: 

HORACE PECK." 

Clarendon, ISTI. 

I5EX.JAMIX G. PETTi:;(;lLL. 

"I was born in Lewiston, Lincoln county, in the 
State of Maine. In 1817, I started for the Genesee 
country with my pack on my back and walked to 
Portland, thirty- five miles, where I Avent on board a 
vessel and sailed to Boston. I left Boston on foot 
with my pack on my back for the place of my des- 
tination. My pack was not v^ny heavy, but I had 
in it, among other things, forty silver dollars. After 
a hard journe}" I arrived at Ogden, Monro(^ cqunty, 
on the lirst da}^ of April. I stopped there a while 
with an uncle of mine, was xovy homesick, wished 
myself back in Maine many times. 

I worked out that summit' In' the month, and in 
the fall boufrht some land in what is now Clarendon, 
Orleans county, then a part of Sweden. 

I settled on my land, cleared it up, and in due time 
raised excellent croi)s, and in a few years found my- 
self out of debt and considered nn^self rather ' fore- 
handed.' 

I lal)nivd hai-d in the ('(tiiimciicciiHDt. had consider- 



OF OliLEAXS COUNTY. 205 

able sickness in my fainil_y, but a good Pro\idence 
lias been mindful of me and mine, and in all my law- 
ful undertakings I have been blest, foi- wliicli I feel 
truly grateful. 

BENJA3IIN G. PETTIXGILL." 

Clarendon, 1804. 

lilJADSTKEET SPAFFOiJD, 

Mrs. Harriet S. Merrill, a daughter of Mr. Spafibrd, 
gives the following account of him : 

"My father came from Connecticut about the year 
1811, and purcliased a farm about a mile south of 
Holley, on wliicli he resided until his death in 1828. 
He was twice married — my mother, Mrs. Eunice Dar- 
row, being his second wife. My father had but one 
child by his first wife, a daughter named Hester, who 
in after ^^T-ars became I^Irs. Daniels, and is now Mrs. 
Blonden. 

When tliis sister ^vas four 3^ears old her mother 
died of consumption. At that time ni}^ father s house 
was the only one between Holley and FarwelFs Mills. 
In other directions it was a mile to the nearest neigh- 
bors. During her last illness my father was her prin- 
(;ipal physician and nurse. He used frequently to 
sa}^ to his friends he feared she would die suddenly 
while alone with him. 

It was arrangx^d between my father and his nearest 
neighbors, that if anything more alarming occurred 
in her case, he should blow the horn as a signal for 
tliem to come. 

Not long aftei-, at midnight of a dark v.inter Jiight, 
death knocked at his door ; he took the tin horn and 
blew the warning notes ; but the winds were adverse. 
and nobody heard. Again and again he blew, lon- 
ger and louder, but no one heard or came. His wife 
soon expired. "My father closed her oyoa, ])laced a 
napkin about her head and covered her lifeless form 



20Q I'lOXEKK IIISTOltY 

more closely, fearing it would become rigid before he 
t;oiild obtain assistance to habit it in the winding sheet 
preparatory for the tomb, for snch were tlie habili- 
ments used in those days. 

He dressed his little danghter, placed her in her lit- 
tle chair by the fire, gave her her kitten to play with, 
and told her to sit tliere until he came back. He then 
went a mile to liis nearest neighbors and roused 
fheni to come to his aid, and returned finding his 
little daughter as he liad left lier, alone w4th lier dead 
mother. 

I was one of the first children born in the town of 
Clarendon, being now 46 3'ears of age. 

HARRIET S. MERRILL." 

Clarendon, .Tune 1863. 

Ts'ICHOLAS E. DAKKOW. 

"I was born in the town of Chatham, Columbia 
county, N. Y., April 1st, 1808 ; have been a farmer 
by occupation. My father, John Harrow, came to 
WHieatland, Mom-op county, N. Y., in 1811, and 
worked there two seasons, tlien returned to Columbia 
county, sold his farm and was nearly read}' to move 
his family to tlie Genesee countr}^ when he was taken 
sick and died March 22d, 1813. " 

In June, I8I0, my fjither's faniil}^ removed to the 
farm he liad bought two A-ears previous. My mother, 
then a wddow, married Mr. Bradstreet Spattbrd, w^ho 
had settled in Clarendon, about the year 1811 or '12. 
X grew up among the liardshijis of the new countrj^ , 
and December 30th, 1830, w^as married to Sarah A. 
Sweet, daughter of Noali Sweet, wlio came to Claren- 
clon from Saratoga county, in 1815. My wife was 
bom in Saratoga county in 1812. 

My lather was a blacksmith b}' trade, but owned 
and worked a farm. He w^as one of the leading me- 
chanics who made tlie great chain which was put 



OF OKLEA^•S COUXI'V. 207 

across the Hudson River to jDrevent the Britisli tleet 
from coming nj) in tlie Revolutionary War, links of 
which are now in tlie State Librar}' at Albany. 

I have resided most of the time since 1815, in Clar- 
endon ; and for the last twenty-four years on the same 
farm. I lived a short tiine in Mui'ia}' and a short 
time in Ohio. 

I attended school in the first scliool liouse built in 
Clarendon. It stood a little south of Clai'endon vil- 
lage, and was built in 1813, of logs, and in size was 
about fourteen by eighteen feet square, with slab floor 
and benches. The writing desks were made b}' bor- 
ing holes in the logs in the wall, driving in pins and 
putting boards on these. 

We have ten children, nine of whom are living. 
M}^ second son is now serving in the army of the Po- 
tomac in the war of the great rebellion. 

I should have said in connection witli my father" s 
history, that himself and three of his brothers served 
in the Revolutionary War. 

NICHOLAS E. DAKROW." 
Clarendon, April 18G4. 

ELDRIDCiE FAUWELL. 

Eldridge Farwell was born in A'ermont in 1770. 

Sometime previous to 1811, Mr. Farwell located 
near Clarkson village on the Ridge road, but removed 
in that year to the town of Clarendon, then an un- 
broken wilderness, where he built the first saw mill 
in that town on Sandy Creek. This sav. mill made 
the first boards had in all this regioil. In 1813, he 
built a grist mill on the same stream, which was the 
pioneer gristmill in that town. 

On the organization of Orleans count}', ^Mr. Farwell 
was appointed in 182i5 one of the Judges of tlu^ Court 
of Common Pleas, which office he held five years. 
The village sometimes caHed Farwell' s Mills in the 



208 PioxEEK Hrs'jx>i;Y 

tov/n of Clai'cndoii, was so naiiiod in his lionorlie 
Ixniig the lii'st to settle tliere. 

He married a daughter of Judge JolinLee, of Bavre. 
Judge Farwell died October 15, 1843. 

will!a:\! lewis. 

William Lewis vv'as a Deputy Sheriff of Genesee 
county. He was the first Sheriff of Orleans county. 
He had held the. office of Snpervisor and Justice of 
.tlie Peace in Clarendon. He was a prompt and efTi- 
cient officer, and a worthy man. He died July 23d, 
1824, aged about 43 years. 

.UAirJIN EVAUTS. 

]\[artin Evarts \vas born in lliga, ^lonroe county, 
N. Y., July 21st, 1812. He removed with his father's 
family to Clareiidon in 1817. Until within a few years 
he resided on the farm originally taken up l\y his 
father. Mr. Evarts was Supervisor of (Marendon in 
1863. He married Charlotte Burnham, August 19th, 
1835. She died June 20th, 1862. 

LEMIEI. COOK. 

Lemuel Cook \sas born in ]S"ew Haven county, Ct., 
September 10th, 1763. His father died while Lemuel 
was a child, leaving his widov.' and cliildi-cn in desti- 
tute circumstanci^s. 

In the revolutionary war Iih with his two brothei's 
entered the army, Lemuel enlisting November 1st, 
1779, being then in his 17th year. He was honorably 
discharged June 11 th, 1783. After leaving the army 
his poll tax Vv'as remitted to liim by the Select ]Men of 
his town, on account of Avounds he had received in 
battle while serving in the armies of his countr3^ In 
1792, he settled in Pompey, Onondaga county. In 
1838, he removed to Bergen, Genesee count3^ and from 



OF OllLEANS OOIlNTY. 2U9 

thence to Clarendon, wliere lie died May 2()tli, 18GG. 
of old age, being 102 years, 8 months and 1 days old. 
He was probabh'' the oldest man that has lived in 
Orleans eonnty. He was a revolntionaiyjiensioner. 

ISAAC CADY. 

. Isaac Cady was born in Alstead, New Hampshire. 
July 26, 1793. He married Betsey Pierce, October 
26th, 1816. He came to Clarendon in 1810. on foot, 
from Kingston, \t., and located the land o]i which 
he afti^i'wards settled and lias since resided. 



14 



CHAPTER XIX. 




TOWN OF GAINES. 

First SotUers — Case of Getting Fire — Noah Burgess — Mrs. Burgess — 
Catting Logs for a House — First Orchard — First School House — 
Drake's Mill Dam and Saw Mill— Organization of McCarty's Mil- 
itia Company — Their Scout after British and Indians — Dr. Jesse 
Beach — Orange Butler — First Marriage — First Birth — First News- 
paper in Orleans County — First Tavern — Store — Grist Mill— First 
Merchants — .James Mather Dealing in Black Salts, &.c. — Business at 
Gaines Basin — Village of Gaines^ — Gaines Academy — Efforts to Lo- 
cate Court House Here — Trade in Other Localities — Biographies of 
Early Settlers. 



AINES was formed from Ridgeway, Febnia- 
.^^5^ ry 14th, 1816, and included tlie town of BaiTe, 
^ and the principal part of Carlton, within its 
oiiginai limits. William J. Babbitt was prominent!}' 
active in getting this town organized, and on his sug- 
gestion it was named Gaines, in honor of Gen. E. P. 
Gaines, of the U. S. ^\-rmy. 

A number of families had located along the Ridge 
Road before the war with England in 1812. One of 
tlie first settlers, if not the lirst, within the present 
bounds of the town of Gaines, was a Mr. Gilbert, 
Avho was living about two miles east of Gaines vil- 
lage, iji 1809. He died in or about that year and was 
buried in Murray. A man who accompanied the 
Avidow and li^\r niece liomefrom the funeral, they being 
all the lamily, found their fire had gone out, and they 
had no means to kindle it, until this man, on liis way 
home called and notified Mr. Elijah Downer, and he 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 211 

sent liis son several miles to cany tlieni lire, tliey 
being the nearest neighbors. 

The records of the Holland Land Company show 
that articles for land in the town of Gaines, i)arts of 
township lifteen, range two, were taken in the year 
1809, by the following named persons : Andrew Ja- 
cox, Whitfield Rathbun, William Sibley, Cotton M. 
Leach, JSToali Bnrgess, James Mather, and Henry 
Luce. 

Turner's Histor}^ of the Holland Purchase says: 
"Whitfield Rathbun was the pioneer upon all that 
part of the Ridge Road, in Orleans county, embraced 
in the Holland Purchase.'' 

Noah Burgess came from Canada in a boat with 
his family and effects and landed at the head of «Still- 
water, in Carlton. He located on the south side of 
the Ridge, on the farm now occupied by Hon. Robert 
Anderson and his son Nahum. 

Mr. Burgess was sick and unable to work when he 
first arrived, and the widow Gilbert, above referred to, 
took her oxen and moved the family and effects of 
Mr. Burgess from Stillwater to his jjlace on the Ridge, 
a distance of about four miles. Mrs. Bnrgess, avIio 
was a strong, athletic woman, then chopped down 
trees and cut logs for a log house, and Mrs. Gilbert 
drew them to the spot with her oxen, and the walls 
of the house were rolled up from these logs by men 
who came along to look for land. The house so built 
was occupied for a time b}' Mr. Burgess, and stood 
where the Ridge Road is now laid in front of the 
dwelling house of Nahum Anderson. Mrs. Burgess 
set out a small orchard of apple trees near her house, 
which is supposed to be the first orchard set in 
Gaines. 

Mr. Burgess sold his land to William Bradner, and 
located a mile farther east, where he died some twen- 



212 PIONEER HISTORY 

ty years ago, and Mrs. Burgess, referred to, died in^ 
the summer of 1869. 

Tlie widow Gilbert was a hardy pioneer. The 
next winter after the death of her husband, aided b}'' 
her niece. Amy Scott, she cut down trees to furnish 
browse for a j^oke of oxen and some other cattle 
through the winter. Slie removed to Canandaigua in 
1811. ' 

Rowley, AVilcox, Leach, Adams, Rosier, Sprague, 
and Daniel Pratt were some of the settlers along the 
Ridge in 1810. 

Daniel Gates came in 1811 and bought an article' 
of a farm, about two miles west of the village of 
Gaines, on the south side of the Ridge, since known as 
the Palmer farm. 

A former proprietor had chopped down the trees on 
a small spot and built a cabin of logs, twelve feet 
square, with a single roof. 

The Holland Company agreed with their settlers if 
the}^ would make a clearing and build a log house, 
they might have the land two years Avithout paying 
interest on the purchase monej^. 

■ This cabin was built to save such interest, and ac- 
quired additional notoriety from the fact that in this 
building Orrin Gleason taught the first school in 
Gaines, in the winter of 1813. 

Henry Drake came to Gaines in 1811. In 1812 
he built a dam and sawmill on Otter Creek, a few 
rods north of the Ridge — the first sawmill in this 

tOVv'U. 

When war with Great Britain was declared in 1812,.. 
the settlers in this vicinit}^ apprehending danger from 
their proximity to the frontier, assembled together 
and elected Eleazer McCarty, one of their number. 
Captain, to lead them in their defence if the settle- 
ment was attacked by the enem}'. 

In December 1813, the British burned Lewiston, . 



OF ORLEANS COT':XTY. 213 

rand news was brought to Capt. McCarty by the fleeing 
inhabitants, that British and Indians were coming- 
east on the Ridge. Pie sent a messenger in the night 
to John Proctor, the only man who had a horse in 
the settlement, to carry the news to Murray, and call 
the men together to resist them. The next morning 
the company was en route towards the foe. The next 
night they came in sight of Molyneaux tavern, ten or 
12 miles east of Lewiston, and saw a light in the house. 
Captain McCarty halted his men and advanced him- 
self to reconnoiter. Approaching the place he saw 
British and Indians in the house, their guns standing 
in a corner. He returned to his men and brought them 
■cautiousl}^ forward ; selected a few to follow him into 
the house, and ordered the remainder to surround it 
. and prevent the enemy from escaping. IMcCarty and 
his party rushed in at the door and sprang between 
the men and their guns and ordered them to surren- 
der. 

The British soldiers and tlie Indians had been help- 
ing themselves to liquor in the tavern, and some were 
• drunk and asleep on the floor. The surprise was 
complete. Most of the i)arty surrendered ; a few In- 
dians showed fight with their knives and hatchets and 
tried to recover their guns, and several of them were 
killed in tlie melee. One soldier made a dash to get 
his gun and was killed by McCarty at a blow. The 
remainder surrendered and were put upon tlieir march 
towards Lewiston, near which our army had then ar- 
rived. One prisoner would not walk. The soldiers 
dragged him forward on the ground awhile, and get- 
ting tired of that, Henry Luce, one of McCarty' s men, 
declared with an oath, he would kill him, and was 
preparing for the act, wlien McCarty interfered and 
saved his life. 

McCarty encamped a few miles east of Lewiston. 
While there he went out with a number of his men 



214 PIONEEK IIISTOKY 

and captured a scouting party of British soldiers re- 
turning to Fort Niagara laden with plunder they 
had taken from the neighhoring inhabitants. Mc- 
Carty compelled them to carry the plunder hack to 
its owners, and then sent them prisoners of war to 
Batavia. 

After fifteen or twenty da3"s service, McCarty's 
company was discharged and returned home. Most 
of his men resided in Gaines, and comprised nearly 
all the men in town. 

The first regular practicing physician in Gaines was 
Dr. Jesse Beach. 

The first licensed attorney was Orange Butler, who 
settled here before it was determined whether the 
county seat would be Gaines or Albion. Judge Eli- 
jah Foot and W. W. Ruggies followed soon after. 

The first marriage in Gaines was that of Andrew 
Jacobs to Sally Wing, in the fall of 1810 or '11. 

The first child born in Gaines was Samuel Crippeiiy ■ 
Jr., in 1809. 

The first printing press in Orleans county was lo- 
cated in Gaines, by Seymour Trac}', who published 
the first newspaper there. Tracy was succeeded by 
John Fisk. 

The publication of this paper commenced about 
1824, and continued about four years. 

The first gristmill was built on Otter Creek, about 
the year 1822, by Jonathan Gates. 

The first tavern was kept by AVilliam Sibley iii 
1811. The first store was kept by William Perry in 
1815. 

Among the early merchants were E. «5t. E. D. Nich- 
ols, Y. R, Hawkins, and J. J. Walbridge. 

James Mather, though he never kept a store of 
goods, was an active trader in "black salts," potash, 
and staves, which he purchased from the settlers and 
took to the mouth of Oak Orchard Creek, or Gene- 



OF OllLEAlS^S COUNTY. 215 

see River, and sliipped to Montreal, for wliicii lie paid 
in iron, salt lisli, leather, and some kinds of coarse 
goods most needed, and some money. 

Money to pa}^ taxes, and to meet the pressing wants 
of the pioneers in this vicinity, was for some time 
mainly derived from this source. 

The merchants of Gaines hnilt a warehouse at 
Gaines' Basin, on the canal, sooji after the canal was 
navigable, where the goods for Gaines and other 
towns north were mainly landed from the boats and 
where the produce from the same region vv-as princi- 
pally shipped. 

A brisk business was done here for some }'ears, 
and until the improvement in the highways, and the 
growth and competition of neighboring villages had 
drawn the trade elsewhere, when this warehouse was 
removed. 

About the time the canahwas completed, the vil- 
lage of Gaines was a place of more trade and busi- 
ness than any other in the county. 

E. &. E. D. Mchols, Y. R. Hawkins, Bushnell ^c 
Guernsey, and John J. AValbridge were thriving mer- 
chants, doing a lively business in the dry goo<]s 
trade. 

A full line of mechanics shops was established. 
The only academy, meeting house and printing press 
in Oi'leans county were located here. 

Two hotels were well patronized ; stage coaches 
were plenty on the famous Ridge Road, and every- 
thing considered the good people of Gaines, and most 
of the county in fact, excepting Newport, since 
named Albion, thought the court house would be 
built in Gaines sureh', and they put up the price of 
village lots accordingly^ while the peo])le of New- 
port, or Mu(lx>ort, as Gaines men called it, wh(>n con- 
trasting places as sites for a Gonrt House, offered to 



216 iMONEKK iii>;tohy 

give away lots, and do many other generous acts if 
the Court House was located there. 

But the court house went to Albion, and the stream 
of travel which once went on the Ridge, took to 
the boats on the canal, and the post coaches hauled 
off; villages grew up along the canal and trade 
w^ent there. 

The resolute business men of Gaines tried hard to 
retain their high position, they got their academy and 
their village and a bank (The Farmer's Bank of Or- 
leans) incorporated b}' the Legislature, and lowered 
the price of building lots. But their glory had de- 
parted ; their acadeni}* stoi)ped, village franchises 
were lost by non-user ; their ])ank went to the bad ; 
but tlieir tine fai-ms, choice garden spots, and un- 
rivaled Ridge Road remain good as ever. 



BJOdHAPHIES OF EARLY SETTLEKS. 

KICUA \ID TIIEADWKLI,. 

•' 1 was born in AVeston, Fairheld county, Connect- 
icut, May 15th, 1783. In the winter of 1790, my 
father, iu c(jmpany with a neighbor set out to move 
his family to the Genesee country. He had a covered 
sled drawn by a yoke of oxen and a span of horses. 
I well recollect as w(? weie about to start, our friends 
around us tliought my parents verj^ cruel to take their 
childreji away to tlie Genesee to be murdered by the 
Indians. 

My fatlier and all his children had the measles while 
Oil the Journey. My father ne^er fully r<:'covered and 
died the next August. My mother was then left a 
widow witli seven children, of wlioni I was the (>ldest, 
being th<m thirteen }'ears old. 

When I was about fii'teeu years old I revisited my 
nativ(» town and took along some bear skins and 



OF ORLEANS COUXTY. 217 

other skins, to exhibit as trophies of my skill as a 
;himter. 

I attended school some and worked out the remain- 
der of the time till fall, then returned to my mother 
on foot, and then went to work to help her support 
her family. 

After my father s death, my mother sold her oxen 
for one hundred dollars and took a note in payment. 
The maker of the note failed and mother never re- 
ceived five dollars on the debt. One of her horses 
died, and the other was so ugl}^ she gave him away, 
:and thus lost her team, and the bears killed all her 
hogs. 

When I was eighteen or twenty years old I resolved 
to build a log house for mother on the land my father 
took up. It was usual then to raise such buildings 
at a 'bee,' and that could not be done without 
whisky. 

I went to a distillery in Bloomfield on horseback, 
with two wooden bottles in a bag to get the liquor. 
Following the Indian trail through the woods on ni}' 
way back, I saw a cub climbing a tree and the 
mother bear coming towards me with hair erect and 
about two rods off. I put whip and spur to my 
horse and did not stop to look back until I was out 
of her reach. I had a small fiock of sheep about 
that time. Neglecting to yard them one night, the 
wolves killed nearly all of them. 

A year or two after I first came into the country, a 
man hired me to take a horse to the Genesee River, 
where Rochester now stands. There was but one 
house on that road then. I forded the river with ni}' 
horse. 

I was married January 17th, 1809, to Miss Temper- 
,ance Smith, of Palmj'ra. She died in May follow- 
ing. 

For several years after I came into the county, the 



218 PIOXEER IIISTOllY 

Indians were numerous liere, hundreds of Indians to 
one wliite man. They were veiy friendly. I used to 
go to their wigwams and have sport with tlieni wrest- 
ling and pulling sticl^,- at which I was an expert, fre- 
qentl}" throwing their smartest young men at ' back 
hold,' or what we called 'Indian hug.' 

Bears, wolves and raccoons were plenty, and I 
caught them frequently. 

In March, 1810, I married Frances Bennett, and 
commenced house-keeping again, and went to work 
clearing my land. I think I have chopped and log- 
ged off as much as one hundred and fifty acres in my 
day. 

I have had the fever and ague several times, but 
generally ]ei: it work itself off. I used to work hard all 
day in my fallow, and frequentl}^ worked evenings 
there when it was good weather. 

My wife would often come out when I was at work 
and sometimes helj) me pile brush. 

During the war with England I was several times 
called out to do militar}^ duty. 

I moved into the town of Shelby in 1827, and after 
a few years sold out and moved to Gaines, on the 
farm on wliich I now reside. 

RICHARD TREADWELL." 

Gaines, 1863. 

Mr. Treadvvell died June 9th, 18G6 aged 83 years. 

W A LTER FAI KFIELl) . 

"I was born in Pittsford, Vermont, September 10, 
1788. I married Polly Ilarvrood, in Pittsford, in 1809, 
In August, 1810, I bought the farm I now own, in the 
town of Gaines, of the Land Compan}^, for $2,50 
cents per acre, part of lot five, town fifteen, range 
two, on the Oak Orchard Eoad, about a mile south 
of the Ridge. 

In February, 18T1, I moved my wife from Vennont 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 219 

to Gaines, and in April of that year we moved into a 
log cabin, in wliich James Mather was then keeping 
bachelor's hall, and lived with him. ' In Jnne after- 
wards I put up a log house 18 by 20 feet square and 
covered it with bark, with split basswood logs for a 
floor sufficient to set a bed on, and then we moved in. 
Our nearest neighbors south following the Oak Or- 
chard Road, were south of tlie Tonawanda Swamp. 

In August follow^ing my wife was taken sick. I 
could get no one to help about house, for such help 
was not in the country, and I was compelled to leave 
my work and attend to my wife for six weeks, during 
which time I did not take off my clothes except to 
change them. 

I was poor and had to work out for all I liad. I 
came very near being homesick then, but I stood it 
through. The next winter I chopped two or three 
acres on my land, and in the spring burned the brush 
and planted it witli corn among the logs, but squir- 
rels and birds got the greater j^art of it, so we got but 
little corn that 3'eai-. 

In the spring of 1812, some families located south of 
Avhere Albion now is. Of those families I had stop- 
ping at my house at one time, while the}^ were building 
tlieir cabins, William McCollister, Josepli Hart, Silas 
Benton, Elijah Darrow, Frederick Holsenburgh, 
and John Holsenburgh, and the families of some of 
them. 

The war of 1812 ])ut a stop to the settlement for 
a while. We were troubled some with British desert- 
ers. 

Up to 1813, our provisions were mainly fish, pota- 
toes, and turnips, ^ — that is anumg the poorer class of 
settlers like m3^self. Sometimes we would have hulled 
wheat and hulled corn. Sometimes I went to Parma 
or Rochester to mill, and when I got back my grist 
would not ])ay my expenses. • 



220 PIOXEKK IIISTOIIY 

After the war and the cold seasons, tlie county 
filled uj) with settlers very fast. Roads and improve- 
ments were made, and the land cleared up and culti- 
vated, anddlie conveniences and comforts of life pro- 
cured, thus relieving the wants of the people and 
supplying their needs. 

WALTER FAIRFIELD." 

Gaines, I8G0. 

Mr. Walter Fairfield died January 9tli, 1865. 

JOHN PKOCTOIt. 

"I was was born in the town of Dunstable, Mid- 
dlesex county, Massachusetts, January 22d, 1787. 
In March, 1810, I arrived in Batavia, since changed 
to Gaines, on the Holland Purchase, and purchased 
a lot of land near the Transit Line. I chopped over 
five acres of land and built a log cabin in wiiat was 
then called the 'Nine Mile Woods.' My cabin was 
situated seven miles from any cabin going east, and 
two miles west. There were no iubabitants going 
south nearer than Batavia village. IL^re I kept bache- 
lor' s hall, sleeping in the open air on hemlock boughs 
until I had completed the roof of my cabin, which I 
covered with bark. I had to travel seven miles to 
get bread baked. 

I w^ent to Massachusetts in the sununer and re- 
turned to my cabin in January. In the spring of 
1811, I cleared oft' and planted tlii'ee acres to corn, 
and in the fall sowed five acres to wheat. 

In December I went back to Massachusetts on foot. 
February 11th, 1812, I was married to Miss Polly 
Cummings, of Dunstable, and started on the 12th 
with my wife for my home in the woods, in a sleigh 
drawn by two horses. 

When we arrived at oui' new home, at what has since 
been called Fair Haven, in the town of Gaines, there 
were but three famili<'s in GaiiK\^, viz.: Elijah Dow- 



OF OllLEAXS COUNTY. 221 

ner, Ani}^ Gibert, and Elliott. Tlie nearest 

grist mill was at Black Creek, twenty mik^s distant, 
and on account of bad roads it was as eas}' for us to 
go to Rochester to mill, a distance of thirty miles. 

In the fall of 1812, 1 harvested a good crop of wheat 
and corn. 

In the winter of 1818-14, the British and Indians 
came . over from Canada and massacred several of 
the inhabitants on the frontier, 3,nd many of the set- 
tlers Hed out of the country for safety. The people 
throughout this region were in great consternation. 
The news of th(» approach of the savages spread rap- 
idly. 

AVilliam Burlingame, who resided about four miles 
west of my place on the Ridge, called me out of bed 
and requested me to go immediatel}^ and arouse the 
people east. I immediately mounted my horse, the 
only horse then owned in the vicinitj^, and before next 
day liglit visit(>d all the inhabitants as far east as 
Clarkson. 

The effect of the notice was almost electric, for 
quite a regiment of men in number w^ere on the move 
early the next morning, to check the advance of the 
enemy. We marclied west to a place called Hard- 
scrabble, near Lewiston, and there perfoimed a sort 
of garrison duty for two weeks, when I with some 
others returned, for, having been elected collector of 
of taxes, it became necessary for me to attend to the 
duties of my office. 

Again in September, Avhile the war was in progress 
at and near Fort Erie, in Canada, news came to us 
tliat the British were about to attack the Fort and 
our troops there must be reinforced. In conqoany 
with several others I volunteered to go to their relief. 
On arriving at the Fort, via. Buffalo, we made several 
attacks on the enemy near th(.' Fort, and in the wood? 
opposite Black Rock. 



222 PIOJfEER IIISTOKY 

A sortie was made from the Fort Sej)tember ITtli, 
ill wliicli we routed tlie enemy. In tliese actions sev- 
eral bullets passed tlirougli my clothes, and one 
grazed my finger. 

A man of our company named Howard was killed, 
another named Sheldon was wounded in the shoul- 
der, and Moses Bacon was taken prisoner and carried 
to Halifax. 

In that sortie General Davis, of Le Roy, was 
killed, and Gen. Peter B. Porter was taken prisoner, 
and rescued again the same day. We came home 
after an absence of twenty -four days. 

About Fel)ruary 1st, 1815, I was notified to attend 
the sitting of the court in Batavia as constable. Ow- 
ing to the situation of my faniil}^ I could not be long 
absent from home ; and in oi'der to get released from 
court, it was necessary for me to appear before the 
judge; so taking a rather early start I reached Batavia 
before the court had 0]3ened in the morning. After 
the court liad organized for business I presented my 
excuse and was discharged. 

After that I collected over one hundred dollars 
taxes, made my returns as town collector, on half a 
a sheet of paper, took a deed of one hundred acres of 
land of the Holland Company, and an article for 
another hundred acres and started for home, where I 
arrived in the evening of the same day, liaving 
traveled a distance of not less than forty-four miles. 

In December, 1818, I made arrangements to visit 
my friends in Massachusetts, on horseback. Several 
of my neighbors were in to see me off. As I was 
about to mount my horse a deer came down the creek 
from the south. I ran into the house and got my 
gun and some cartridges I brought from the war, 
loaded my gun as I ran out, and as the deer was 
passing leveled my gun and snapped it, but it missed 
lire. I took up a stone and struck the Hint, and snap- 



OF OliLKANS ('OUNT\. 22o 

ped tlie gun again before the deer got out of range. 
This time it discliarged killing the deer instantly. I 
remained now and helped dress the deer and divided 
it with our neighbors, and then went on my Journey. 
I rode to Vermont, there exchanged my horse and 
saddle for a cutter and another horse, and drove 
to my destination, near Boston. After an ab- 
sence of about sixty days I returned home in time to 
dine oif a piece of the venison I killed just before 
starting, which had been kept by my wife. 

Our associations in our wilderness home undergo- 
ing fatigue and hardships together, sharing alike in 
gratitude for every success, and in sympathy' for 
every adversity, bound the early settlers together as 
a band of brothers. 

For many years our religious worship was held in 
common together, with no denominational distinc- 
tions. 

JOHN PROCTOR." 

Gaines, June IbGo. 

Mr. John Proctor died in 1868. 

SAMUEL HILL. 

" I was born in Barrington, Rockingham county, 
N. IL, November 18th, 1793. I was married Febru- 
ary 28th, 1815, to Miss Olive Knight. 

In the winter of 1823 we moved to Gaiiies, with 
means litth' more than enough to defray the expense of 
the journey, and settled on part of the farm on which 
I now reside. AYe began by building a log house, the 
crevices between tlie logs serving for windows. The 
children would sit on the fire sill in front of where 
was to be a chimney. Thus we lived from May 10th, 
to fall, whcni we made our house comfortable for 
winter. 

M}" father was a pra(;tical farmer, and my first rec- 



224 PIONEEK HISTORY 

ollections of work were of helping clear land. He 
with the help of his ho3^s, of whom I was eldest but 
one, cleared one hundred and fifty acres. 

Begining with little, we have by hard labor, strict 
economy and the blessing of God, succeeded in se- 
curing a comfortable home and a competence of this 
world' s goods. 

SAMUEL HILL." 

Gaines, March 18G4. 

SAMUEL SALSBUKY. 

" I was born in Newport, Herkimer county, N. Y.y 
July 24, 1804. In January, 1817, 1 removed with my 
brother Stephen to the Holland Purchase and settled 
in Ridgeway. The country with few exceptions Avas 
a wilderness. Provisions were scarce and dear, 
wheat worth three dollars a bushel, corn two dollars, 
potatoes one dollar, and other things in proportion. 
Before harvest nearly ever}^ family was destitute of 
bread. Their resort for a substitute was to the grow- 
ing wlieat, which was boiled and eaten with milk ; or 
by adding a little cream and maple sugar together, to 
make a kind of dessert after a meal of potatoes and 
butter, and possibly a little deer, squirrel and raccoon 
meat. 

Our milk was strongly flavored with leeks occas- 
ionally, with which our native ' pastures ' abounded, 
but we used to correct this by eating a fresh leak 
before eating the milk. AVe had plenty of maple 
sugar. 

School houses were scarce, and of churches there 
were none. I attended school in a log house two miles 
from home, south of what is now Lyndonvilh^, and 
this school house was for many years used as a place 
for worship. Here I used to hear Elder Irons and 
Elder Dutcher, Bajitists, and Elders Paddock, 
Boardman, Hall, and Puffer, Methodists. 



OF ORLEANS CorNTY. 'iSf) 

Among my early school tcarliers weiv Gen. AV. C. 
Tanner and Mrs. Mastin. 

C]iop2)ing, clearing and fencing land wa.s the prin- 
cipal business in those days. 

My last feat in chopping was in 1832, when I walked 
three miles morning and evening, and chopped over 
three acres, leaving it fitted for logging in ten and a 
half days. 

In FeTn*narv, 182o, I crossed Niagara river on the 
ice wdiich had Avedged in near tlie niouth of the river. 
It was a warm day, the water was on the ice and 
large openings were frequent. In one place a seam 
of open w'ater three feet across was passed on aboard, 
which served as a bridge. I crossed in safety. 

In the winter of 1826-7, I united with the Methodist 
Episcopal Clmrch. I had never, to this time, heai'd a 
temperance lecture or known anything of temperance- 
societies, but from that time I believed it wicked to 
use intoxicating drinks as a beveragv, and I have 
never used them since. 

I was mai-ried to Miss Eh'<'ta Beal, February 23d, 
1829. 

I was licensed to pi-eached t\u) gospel in July, 1882, 
by the Conference sitting in P<mn Yan. Till then 
I had been a farmer and school teacher. Fron> 
that time till 1844, I labored in that vicinity in tlu 
Methodist Episcopal (Jhurcli. In May. 1843, ] 
withdrew from that church and joined in organizing 
the Wesleyan INIethodist Connexion of America, and 
from then since, I have labor<Hl as a minister in that 
Connexion. 

SAMUEL BAMSBURY." 
Eagle Harbor, .March 1804. 

I'KKKY DAVIS. 

Perry Davis was l)orn in \V<^stpo]t. Massachusetts, 
January 1 st, 1 773. 
15 



226 PIONKKJt UISTOUY 

In 1793, lie niairied Keln'cca Potter. Slie died May 
12th, 182o. 

After his marriage, lie resided about thirteen years 
in Galway, Saratoga county. He tlien resided about 
•eighteen years in Palmyra. N. Y.; and in 1823, re- 
moved to (laines, and took up land near the mouth 
•of Otter Cr'^ek ; and in 1825, removed to the village of 
^raines and Iwuglit tlu^ farm next north of the Ridge, 
And west of the Oak Oiehard Koad. He was an ac- 
tive business man, being engaged at different times 
SIS a merchant, farmer, s(;hool teacher, and manufacv 
turer ; and while residing in (raines, superintending 
at the sam»^ time three farms, a sawmill, a giistmill, 
and a small iron foundry, all in operation. He was 
deacon, and a prominent membei- of the Baptist 
Church in (faines. 

He had eight daughters, viz.: Barbara, who died in 
childhood ; Rowena married William Hayden ; Cyn- 
thia married Daniel Ball : Ciiiderilla married Samuel 
Parker ; Mary manied Richard Workman ; Ann 
married AVilliam AV.Ruggles; Eliza married Elonzo G. 
Hewitt ; and Laura married Di*. Alfred Babcock. In 
1827, he married Sarah Toby, of Stockton, N. Y. 
She died November 4th. 18r)0. Mr. Davis died April 
:Jd, 1841. 

[.KVl ATWKl.r.. 

Levi Atwell was born in Canaan, Columbia count}', 
N. Y. 

He m!irried Mabel Stoddard, and moved from Cay- 
uga county to Gaities in February, 1812, and took an 
article? of ])art of lot fort\'-four. township fifteen, 
range two, and resided on tlie same land until he 
died, February, 1847. 

He t<K'k up his land in A})ril. 1811, and in June 
after he came on. chopp^**! down the trees on a few 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 227 

. acres, and that season put up a log house, into whicli 
he moved his famil}' when they came. 
His brothers-in-law, Gideon Freeman and Joseph 

: Stoddard, came on and took up land at the same 
time. He remained on his land during the war mtli 
England. 

The house into which he moved had no door, or 
window or floor except the earth, and not a board 

. about it. Tlie logs had been merely rolled up for the 
walls, without stopping the crevices between them. 
The roof was covered with "shakes" split from oak 
trees like stave bolts, about three feet long, laid on 
in courses like shingles, without nails, and held on 
by poles laid on transversely, with no chimney, but a 
large hole in the roof left for the smoke, and whicli 

. admitted the light. 

The snow was about three feet deep. A huge fire 

-was kept up in one end of the cabin ; this heated the 
roof and melted the snow, which dripped most un- 

. comf(jrtably upon everything in the house. A blan- 
ket hung at the doorway closed that, and chips 
driven into the crevices between the logs stopped 
them in part till spring, when stones were laid for a 
hearth, and a stick chimney put in. 

Mr. Atwcll had a yoke of oxen and several other 

► cattle that arrived a few days after he brought his 
family. He brought several bushels of ears of corn 
when he moved in, which he dealt out sparingly to 
his stock. They had no other food except the trees 
he cut down for them to browse, until they could get 
their living in the woods in the spring. 

His family consisted of himself, wife and four chil- 
dren, the youngest ab(mt two years old. His chil- 
dren' s names wei-e Ira, Abbey, Roxy, Joseph and 
Martin. 

In the fall of 1812, a man by the name of Crofoot 

■ died in the neighborhood. No boards to inak^' his 



228 PIONEEK HISTORY 

coffin could be found, not in use in tiie settlement. 
W^hen Mr. Atwell moved in his family, he brought 
a board for a side-board, on his sled. This he had put 
up for a shelf in his house for dishes, &c., and this 
shelf, and a board from some other house were taken 
for the coffin, in wliich the corpse was buried. 

SAMl'EL C. LEWIS. 

Samuel C. Lewis was born in Poultney, Vermont, 
June 8th, 1796. At the age of seventeen, he enlisted 
in the United States Army as a soldier in the war of 
1812, and served in a company commanded by Captain 
Miller, who was founder of the sect since known as 
Millerites, or Second Adventists. He was in the bat- 
tle of Plattsburgh, and al French Mills. He served 
in th(? army about two years. 

In February, 1816, in company with his brother 
<Tideon, Roswell and Amos Clift, Elias Clift, and 
their sister Esther Clift, who afterwards married Guy 
('. Merrill, he came in a lumber wagon drawn by two 
yoke of Oxen, from Poultne}^, A^ermont, to Gfaines, 
b(4ng twent}'-live days on the road, arriving in Gaines 
March lOth,"^ 1816. 

Arba Chubb, a brother-in-law of the Lewises, with 
his wife and child, arrived in Gaines the day before 
j\Ir. Lewis and company, and moved into the log 
house l)uilt by Mrs. Burgess, near where Judge An- 
derson now resides. The house had not been occu- 
])ied for some time previous, and was not in good con- 
dition to inhabit ; but it was the best they could get, 
and the three Lewis brothers went there to stay with 
Mr. Chubb. They had cleared away the snow and 
got a good supply of fuel for their fire heaped up 
against the stoned up end of tlie house, which served 
as a cliimney the night after their arrival, as the 
weather was stormy and cold, and the house had. 
large ci-evices open between the logs. 



OF ORLEANS COrNTY. 229 

Mr. Chubb and liis family had a bed in a coiiier of 
the room, while the three young men lay on the flooj- 
with their feet to tlie fire. In tlie night tlie great lire 
thawed out tlie old ehimne}^, and the Avhole pile fell 
forward into the room, luckily, however, without 
crushing any of the persons sleeping there. Next 
morning they piled the stones back in their places, 
and made a chimney that answered their purpose. 

Mr. Lewis and his brother bouglit of Lansing- 
Bailey, an article for one hundred and twenty-live 
acres of land, lying at Gaines Basin, on whicli Mi-. 
Bailey had built a log house, which had not a shingle 
or nail in it, all pieces being fastened with wooden 

pins. 

On this lot they labored clearing land the next 
summer, occupying their house, and getting their 
cooking and washing done in Mr. Bailey's family, on an 
adjoining lot, for which they worked for Mv. Baile}' 
every seventh day that season to pay him. 

Samuel C. Lewis married Anna Frisbie, in March 
1819. She died the next yc^ar. 

January 80tli, 1824, he married Anna AVaiiiei-, of 
Cornwall, Vt. She died April 10th, 1841. 

Mr. Lewis retains and resides on the lot of land on 
which he first settled. 

H(^ has walked and can-ied his knapsack on his 
back, twelve times the whole distance between Gaines 
and Poultney, At. Once he performed the joui-ney 
in October, in six da^'s, walking on an average nearlA' 
fifty miles a day. 

In the year 1819, he had a tax to ))ay and wanted 
a dollar to make the sum recpiired. To raise the 
money, he cut four cords of body mai)le wood and 
drew it a mile and sold it to Oliver Booth for tweiity- 
iive cents a (!ord, and so paid his tax. 
<;iDEON s. LEwrs. 

Gideon S. Li'wis was born in Poultney. \'ei-mont. 



280 FIONEKK UI8T0KY 

September, 1792. He married Betsey Mason, daugh-- 
ter of the late Jesse Mason, of Bane, N. Y., in the • 
fall of 1820. She died in September, 1842. He then 
married Betsey Shelley, of Gaines. He had four chil- 
dren, Lestina, who married Henry Cox ; Homer, who • 
studied medicine, and died some years ago ; Augus- 
tus and Augusta, twins. Augustus is dead. Au- 
gusta married Alonzo Morgan. Gideon S. Lewis died^ 
October 6th, 1865. 

Roswell Lewis, brother of Samuel and Gideon, 
resided in Gaines about three years, then returned to ' 
Vermont. 

NATHAN SHELLED. 

Natlian Shelley was born in Hartford, Washington- 
4'ounty, N. Y., March 17th, 1798. In May, 1812, 
with liis father's family he removed to Gaines. His 
father settled on the Ridge Road, two miles west of 
the village of Gaines. 

War with Great Britain was declared soon after he 
arrived. After the defeat of the Americans at 
(^ueenstown, in October, 1812, many of the inliabi- ■ 
tants on the frontier retired eastward, and Mr. Shelley 
took his family and went with them, but returned in' 
December after. 

Nathan Shelley married Dorcas Tallman, May 21st, 
1820. She was born in W^ashington county, N. Y., 
August 4tli, 179,5. 

In 1821, he took up and settled part of lot forty- 
five, township fifteen, range two, on wliich he has ever 
since resided. 

His iirst log liouse had but one loom, onl}^ four 
lights of glass, and a bedquilt for an outside door, 
whf^n hf^ movod into it to iv^sidc in the tlic wintei/ 
of 1821-2. 



OF OKLKANS COUNTY. 231 

Beginning poor, by a life of steady indi-istry and 
prudence he became a wealtliy fanner. 

THE BULLAHD FAMILY. 

This soniewliat numerous family in Gaines, are de- 
scendants of David Bullard, who was boni in Ded- 
ham, Massachusetts, in 1761. He removed to Ver- 
mont, where he resided until September, 1814, when 
he removed to Gaines, N. Y., bringing with him as 
many of his children as had not gone there before. 
He first settled upon lot twenty-three, a little west of 
the A-illage of Gaines, noith of the Ridge, on a farm 
which had been taken up by his son William. 
After a year or two he removed south of the Ridge, 
upon lot twenty-one — a farm now owned hy his son 
Brigadier, where he resided until his death in June, 
1831. 

He married Elizabeth Hadley. His children were 
William, who married Xellie Lov eland. Polly mar- 
ried William Woolmnn. They settled in 1*811, in 
Gaim^s, on the farm afterwards owned l\y Phineas 
Rowle}^ .ludith married John AVitherell. They set- 
tled north of the Ridge, next east of Oliver Booth. 
Olive married James Baitlett. Betsey married Fred- 
erick Holsenburgh. Nancy married Samuel Scovill. 
Sally married Arba Chubb. David married Elvira 
Murwin. Brigadier married Lovina Parker. Ran- 
som married Lydia Buck. 

William, Judith and Biigadier settled in Gaines in 
February, 1812. William Bullard died in September, 
1861. 

'illK B1M.IN(.S FAMILY. 

Joseph Billings, Sr., the ancestor of this family, 
was born in Somers, C-onnecticut, and settled in Che- 
nango county, N<Mv York, whern he resided until 
his death. 



232 pioNMMU Hrs'i'oKV 

He piircliased of Isaac Bennett a large quantity of 
land in Gaines, which Mr. Bennett had taken by 
article from the Land Company, which he afterwards 
divided among his sons, Joseph, Timothy, and Lau- 
ren. Joseph and Timothy settled on this land in 
1817, and Lauren in 1822. ' 

Joseph Billings married Charlotte Drake. His chil- 
dren, are J, Drake Billings, who married Melinda 
Shaw. Myron married Phebe Bement. Clinton 
mai-ried Esther Murdock. Harlow married Adeline 
King. William H. married Sarah Everett. Clarissa 
married Elijah 11 Lattin. Helen married John 
Lattin. 

Timothy Billings married Betsey Bidwell. His 
children were Newton and Sanford, who died in early 
manhood, and Pomeroy, who died in childhood. 

Lauren Billings mai'i'ied Eoxana C. Rexford. His 
cliildren are, Kai'thalo P., who married Catharine 
Murdock. Pomeroy O., who married Harriet Thomp- 
son. Loverna C. mari'ied Norman A. Beecher. L. 
Dwiglit. Simeon P. mairied Carrie E. (rray. Joseph 
F. nuxrried Josephine Eldridge. 

Joseph, Timothy, and Lauren Billings, occupied 
adjoining farms, which they cleared and improved. 
.Joseph and Lauren were each Justices of the Peace 
in Gaines for a number of years. 

Lauren was a Colonel in the State Militia. Joseph 
was Supei'visor of (Raines from 1887, to 1841, inclu- 
sive. 

Jospph Billings died December 10, 1800. Timothy 
Billings died May lOth, 18:17. 

AlJitA rilLJJl?. 

Arba Chubb was born in Poultne}-, At., Se})tem- 
ber 18th, 179L 

He married Emily Frisbie, October 17, bSlI). Feb- 
ruary 2()tl!, 181(5. the}- started to move to Gaines, N. 



OF ORLEANS (OrNTY. 233 

Y., on a wagon, and arrived tliero after being- twenty 
days on the road. 

He bonglit a farm lying between the Kidge and 
Gaines Basin, and resided there until 1832, when he 
moved to Gaines Basin and bought a warehouse there 
and carried on business as a dealer in produce, and 
sold goods until 1840, when he moved to Gaines vil- 
lage, and from thence to Michigan, in 1856. 

His first wife died in 1820. For a second wife he 
married Sally, daughter of David BuUard, of 
Gaines. 

In 1821, Mr. Chubb was appointed by the Council 
Justice of the Peace. He was after that elected Jus- 
tice by the people of Gaines, and held the office 
thirty-three years, a vacation of one year only occur- 
ring during that time. 

After moving to Michigan he was elected Justice of 
the Peace from time to time, until in the whole he 
served in that office 47 3'ears. No man has held the 
office of Justice of the Peace in Orleans count}" as 
long as Esquire Chubb. He also held eveiy other 
town office but constable, and evevy office in the 
militia, from Corporal to Majoi', inclusive. He was 
for some time ])ostmasier in Gaines, and Member of 
Assembl}' from Orleans county, for the j^ear 1848. 

Esquire Chubl) describes a lawsuit tried bcvfore 
him soon after lie was elected Justice, wiiich occa- 
sioned him great trouble at the timt\ He gave the 
following account of it : 

"Orange Butler was on one side, and a young 
lawyer named Capen, from Albion, on the other. I 
think they planned to give me a sweat. The plaintitf 
put in his declai-ation. Tlie defendant demurred. 
Plaintiff put in a rejoinder. The defendant a surre- 
joinder. Tlie })]aintitt' a ]el)utter. 'IMic defendant a 
surrebutter. 

Al)oiit all tliis special pleading I knew nothing. I 



234 PIONKKK HISTORY 

supposed, liowever, they would ask me to make a 
special decision ; but what the decision should be, I 
knew no more than the biggest fool alive. There I 
sat, the sweat rolling down my face, inwardly cursing 
the day I was appointed Justice, and my folly in 
accepting an office I knew nothing about. 

I think the lawyers saw my trouble, had pity on 
me and helped me out as well as they could, and went 
on and tried the case." 

Esquire Chubb resides at Ionia, Michigan, and is 
now (1871) serving in his old office of Justice of the 
Peace, 

I HE ANDKRSOX FAMIl-Y, 

The ancestors of this family originally emigrated 
from Scotland to Ireland, and thence to Londonderry, 
New Hampshire, at an early day. 

John Anderson, the ancestor of most of the families 
of his name in Gaines, was born in Londonderry, Aug. 
:3L 1757. He was a soldier in the Revolution, fought 
at Bunker Hill, and was at the taking of Ticonderoga 
under Ethan Allen. He married Jane Archibald in 
Londonderry, Feb. 7, 1782, and settled in Ira, Rut- 
land county Vermont, in the same year. He repre- 
sented this town in the State Legislature eight or ten 
years in succession. His children were : Ann, Jane, 
John, Robert, Matthew, Betsey, Thomas A., Marga- 
ret, Nancy, Eli B. and Samuel F., all of whom were 
early settlers in Gaines, exc(»pt Betse}^, who died in 
Malone, N. Y. January 11, 1813. 

John Anderson, senior, moved with his famil}^ to 
Gaines in 1821, and located on lot twenty-nine, town- 
ship fifteen, range two, on the north side of the Ridge 
road, where he died October 22, 1827. He was a man 
of very great physical strength, of good intellect, 
•'nei'getic and persistent in his character. One of his 
lules of action was : Do what duty requires and 



OF OKLKANS COUNTY. 285 

Conscience approves as right, without fear. Indeed 
lie never showed fear of anything. Many instances 
are recollected of his cool and determined courage in 
cases of danger. In several conflicts he had with 
bears, lie performed exploits as hazardous and full of 
daring, as Gen. Putnam' s battle with the wolf. 

One evening wiiile he lived in Ira, dogs treed a bear 
not far from his residence. A number of men were 
present, but they had no gun. Mr, Anderson told 
them to build a Are around the tree and keep the bear 
up it until morning, and then he would go up and 
drive him down. The fire was made. Next morning 
Anderson armed with a club, climbed the tree to the 
bear thirty feet from the ground, and ciept out on the 
limb on which he had retreated. 

Disregarding the growls and bristling of the feroci- 
ous cieature, Mr. Anderson went within reach and 
aimed a blow at its head with his club which the bear 
wai-ded off' and knocked the club to the ground. 
Nothing daunted. Mi-. Andeison descended, got two 
clubs, and again went up the tree to the bear. Taking 
a club in each hand, he made motions to strike with 
liis left hand, and when the bears attention was at- 
tracted to these, he struck him a terrible blow on the 
head with the other club, which knocked the body of 
the beast off the limb, leaving him hanging by his 
fore paws. A blow or two on his claws loosened 
their hold, and the bear was killed by the men be- 
low when he struck the ground. 

Another time while he lived in A'ermont. being m 
the woods, he saw a bear coming towards him. Con- 
cealing himself in bushes on a steep place, he lay in 
ambush, and the bear ])assed him so near that with 
a spring he rushed u]ion him, and armed only with a 
stone, pounded his h«'ad until he killed him. 

Ann Anderson married Daniel Gates of Rutland, 
Vermont, niovnd to Gaiuf^s in 1811, and settled 



236 rroxEp:it iiistohy 

on lot twenty-nine, townyliip tit'teen, I'ange two. After 
a few years he sold this farm and i'emo\'ed to a faiin 
in Carlton, where he died January 81, 1858. Mrs. 
Ann Gates died January 1, 1866. Two of her sons, 
John and N. F. Gates, now reside in Cai'lton, and 
another Matthew A. Gates, resides in Yates. 

Jane ^Inderson married Phineas Rowley, of Rut- 
land, Vermont, moved to Gainers in 1817, and settled 
on lot thirty, township fifteen, range one. Tliey both 
died several years since. Two of their sons, Jolm 
and Andrew J. Rowle}', are yet living in Gaines. 

Margaret Anderson married John Farnham Jan. 22, 
1818. They removed to Gaines, Oct., 1824, and settled 
on lot fortes township iifteen, range two. Jolm Farn- 
ham was born in Poultne^y, Xt., Februar}' 26, 1795, 
and died November 3, 1841. Margaret Farnham died 
in May, 1868. 

Nancy Anderson married fSolomon Kingsley in A'er- 
mont and moved to Orleans county about 1819. They 
removed to Michigan in 1885 and died there. 

John Anderson, Jr., was l)orn in Ira, N'ermont, 
Sept. 12, 1785. He settled in Gaines on lot twenty- 
two, township Iifteen, range two, in b81(>. 

At the hrst town ineeting held in llidgeway, April 
G, 1813, he was elected Overseer of the Poor. He 
was a man of positive chaiacter, a great lover of truth, 
withdrawing his confidence fi-om the nuin who failed 
to keep liis })romis('S. 

A neighbor owed him twelve shillings, whicli he 
promised to pay in a few days. Mi'. Anderson re- 
plied he hoi)ed h(^ would, that it was woi'th a shilling 
to dun a man ain' time. In a few days the neighbor 
met him, spoke of liis del)t and renewtnl his ])r()mise 
to pay. 

As they met 0(M*asionally afterwaids, the debtor 
would dun himself, but i)aid nothing, till one da}' 
iuiving rep('at<'d his acknowledgenu'ut and promise. 



OF OKLKANS COUNTY. 237 

Mr. Anderson took out a sliilling and lianded him, 
saying, " Hero is a sliilHng for you, we are now even. 
I have given you credit on account one sliilling each 
time you have dunned yourself for me and broken 
your promise. Your credits balance your debt and 
one shilling over, Avhicli I have paid you. It is settled, 
don't speak to me about it again.". 

Eli B. Anderson was married in Poultne}', A'ermont, 
removed to Gaines with his father, and resided with 
him until his death, and occupied the same place six 
or eight yeai's after his deatli, when lie removed to 
Michigan. 

Samuel F. Anderson moved to Gaines with his fath- 
er, being then about cigliteen years old. In 1836 he 
married Miss Maliala Phipps of .\.lbion, and removed 
to Cassopolis, Micliigan where he still resides. He 
has represented his county several years in the State 
Legislature and been Judge of County Courts. 

Matthew Anderson moved to Gaines in 1816 and 
took an article of part of lot twenty-seven, township 
fifteen, range two, since known as the "" Hunter Farm'" 
a little north of Eagle Harbor, now owned by C. A. 
Danolds and S. ^V. Knef^land. He cleared some land 
and biult a log house on his farm. He died Septem- 
ber 80, 1816. In 1814 or 1815, h(^ represented the 
town of Ira in the Vermont Legislature. He was 
Captain of a company of militia, which under his 
command volunteered and went to meet the British 
at Plattsburgh in the war of 1812. 

Hon. Robert Anderson was born in the town of 
Ira, Vermont, April 21, 1787. 

In June, 1807, he was elected Lieutenant in the 
militia. In October 1812 he was appointed Justice 
of the Pejice in Rutland. He went with a company 
of volunteers to fight the British at Plattsburgh in 
the war of 1812. 

In November 1812, he came to Gaines and bought 



238 PIONKKK HISTOUV 

an article for 150 acres, part of lot 22, towiisliip fifteen, 
range two, to which he moved his family in 1816, and 
where he lias ever since resided. Two younger brotli- 
ers, Matthew and Dr. Thomas A. Anderson and their 
families came on at the same time from Vermont. 
The Dr. drove a two horse himher wagon, which 
earried the women and cliildren of the party, the 
other two men drove each a team of two yoke of oxen 
drawing a wagon laden with their goods, with a cow 
led behind each team. 

They arrived in Gaines March 2.0th, having been 
twenty- live days on the road. 

On arriving in Gaines, Robert Anderson moved 
into the log house the logs for which were cut by 
Mrs. Noah Burgess in 1809. It was roofed with elm 
bark and had a Hoor of split basswood in most ap- 
proved pioneer style. The next year he built a small 
framed house and lived in that. 

In the summer of 1821, David AVhipple and wife, 
parents of Mrs. Robeit .Vnderson, came to Gaines 
from Vermont to visit their children. The}' rode in a 
one horse wagon with bolsters and box lumber style, 
eovered with cloth over hoops. The seat was a chair 
wide as the box, splint bottomed, the posts standing 
on the steel springs of a wolf trap. This was prob- 
ably the first wheel carriage rigged with steel springs 
that run in Orleans county, and was much admired 
for its novelty ond convenience. 

Mr. Anderson and his wife started with her parents 
on their return to Vermont, to visit triends on the way. 
They went as far as Brighton, where she was taken 
sick and died. The death of his wife and the sick- 
ness prevailing in the country, with which he was 
attacked, so disheartened him he offered his farm for 
sale, and would have sold at almost any price, but 
no purchaser appearing and his health having im- 
proved, he concluded to stay. In August 1822, he 



Of' OK LEANS COUNTY. 239 

married liis second Avife, Miss Roxaua Lamb, of 
Bridgewater, N'ermont, who died March 27, 1837. 

In 1840, he rented Ins farm to his eldest son and 
only surviving child, Nahum Anderson, to whom in a 
few years after he sold it, reserving the riglit to li\e 
in his family during life. 

In 1817, he was elected Lieutenant of a militia 
company in Gaines, and resigned at the end of a year. 
The same year he was appointed a Justice of the 
Peace, which office he held until the winter of 1822. 
In that winter, he was appointed Judge of the Court 
of Conmion Pleas of Genesee county, an office he 
held over two }'ears and resigned. In the spring of 
1818, he was elected Supervisor of the town of Gaines, 
an office to which he was annually elected as long as 
the town of Gaines belonged to Genesee county. 
After Orleans county was organized, he was elected 
the lirst Supervisor from that town, to serve in the 
lirst Board sitting in the new county, in 1826, b}' 
whom he was appointed Chairman, in consequence 
of his experience as a Supervisor. 

In the session of 1822, he served as a member oi* 
the State Legislature, being one of three representa- 
tives sent from the county of Genesee. 

Judge Anderson was never ambitious to hold public 
offices, generally taking office only when it was of- 
fered him without his asking, and resigning the first 
proper opportunity. He was regarded as a man of 
sound judgment, honest and faithful, and shared 
largely in tlie confidence of all who knew him. 

For some 3'ears past he has lived quietly, retired 
from the cares of business, possessing a competence 
of property acquired by his own exertions, happy in 
the societ}' of his many friends, enjoying a pleasant 
home. 

Br. Thomas A. Anderson, son of John Andeison, 
senior, was born in Ira. Yt., Mav 14th, 1792. He 



240 1>I0NEKR HISTORY 

marrif'd Sarali Wliipple of Mai one, X., Y., and moved 
to Gaines, as above stated, in 1816, and located at 
Fair Haven, or Proctor's Corners, in the town of 
Gaines, where he practiced his profession for some 
time in company with Dr. Trnman S. Shaw, who af- 
terwards practiced in Knowlesville, and Yates, and 
died a few 3^ears since in Medina, Orleans connty, 
N. Y. 

Dr. Anderson had practiced medicine several j^ears 
in Rutland, Vermont, before coming to Gaines. He 
was esteemed a skillful physician, and had as much 
business as he could do. He was constitutionally 
feeble, never had good health, and died September 
2d, 1829, leaving one child only, a daughter, now 
wife of S. Dewey Walbridge, of Rochester, N. Y. 
His wife died April 22d, 1829. 

MOSES BACON. 

Moses Bacon was boi-n April 5, 1787, in Burlington, 
Hartford county, Conn. He was a farmer. 

About the year 1809, he came to Gaines and took 
an article from the Holland Land Company of two 
linndred acres of land on the south part of lot tiiirty- 
seven, township fifteen, range one. He worked for 
the Land Company opening the Oak Orchard road 
the summer of that year, to apply towards paying 
for his land, and returned to Connecticut in the fall. 
The next spring he came back and commenced work 
upon his land as a permanent settler. 

In December, 1818, he went in Captain McCarty's 
company to the defence of the frontier, and in his 
chargt^ upon the British and Indians at Molj'neaux 
tavein, in (Jambiia, on that occasion Mr. Bacon was 
present and did good execution. 

In January, 1814, hc^ married Miss Sarah Downer. 
In Septembei- of that year he was called out with the 



OF OULEAXS COUNTY. 241 

lueu Oil tiiiHi IVoutier gem Tall}', to aid in repelling the. 
British and Indians in tlie war witli Great Britain. 
He was in tlie hatth^ of Fort Erie, in which he was 
shot throngh the neck and taken prisoner by the 
British, who carried liini to Halifax, where he suffered 
greatly nnder the cruel trc^atnient of the officers who 
had the American prisoners under their charge. The 
next year lie was discharged, the war having closed, 
and returned liome broken in constitution from the 
hardships of his wound and imprisonment, and with 
a cough contracted in Halifax IVom which he never 
recovered, and for which he di'<'w a i)ension from the 
United States ever aftei-waixls. 

Mr, Bacon sold tlu; east part of his farm to his 
brother Hosea, and th(^ iiorth part to his brother 
Elias, reserving one hundred acres for himself. Upon 
this place he lived until his death, which occurred 
June 28th, 1848. 

SA.MIKL mi>i:L.MAX. 

lSamiu4 Bidelman v/as bo]n in Manlieim, Herkimer 
county, ]N'. Y., June 29tli, 1800. His grandparents 
both came to Americji ivom (T(^rniany, before the 
revolutionary war, and settled on the ]Mohav/k river. 
In that war his grandfather's buildings were burned 
by th(^ Indians, and his family narrowly escaped 
massacre by Hying to the block house fort for pro- 
h^ction. 

His father, Heiiry Bidelman, came to Shelb}' in 
1816, and bought an article i'ov one hundred acres of 
land of John Timmerman. In January, 1817, he 
came to Shelby with a, part of his children, leaving 
his wife and otlier children in Herkimer county until 
he could prepan? a placc^ for tliem. He was eleven 
days on the journey. 

In July, 1817, John (larlock, })rother-in-law of 

IG 



242 PIONEER HISTORY 

Henry Bidelman, brouglit on Mrs. Bidelman and the 
remainder of lier children, and with their other load- 
ing lie brought three bags of flour. This was the 
next year after the cold season, and the neighborhood 
was destitute of flour ; some of the inhabitants had 
not even seen wheat bread for weeks, having lived in 
that time, as far as bread was concerned, on bran 
bread and some sea biscuit — "hard tack," which 
they procured from the Arsenal at Batavia, which 
had been stored there to feed the soldiers in the war 
of 1812. 

It was a custom then when a new family arrived, 
for all the settlers for miles around to come together 
and give them a greeting. Such a surprise i:>arty 
waited on the Bidelmans, and after they had broken 
up and gone home, Mr. Bidelman found he had 
only a part of one bag of his flour left out of the 
three brought on by Gaiiock, as each family of the 
visitors must of course take home a little. Part of 
one bag of flour only for a family of twelve hungry 
persons to live on under the circumstances, looked as 
if the end was near. 

These sea biscuit furnished material for much talk, 
as well as some food for the people. Mr. Joseph 
Snell, who was something of a wag, reported that a 
Mr. Simons, who resided a little south from Mr. Bid- 
elman, got some of the biscuit and ate too freely of 
them ; that they had swelled in his stomach and had 
burst him. He said his attendants tied hankerchiefs 
and straps around him, and did the best they could 
to make him contain himself, but without success ; 
he burst and died, and was to be buried at a time 
specified. Several persons went to attend the funeral 
before they understood the hoax. 

The first year after he came to Shelby, Mr. H. Bid- 
elman took some land of D. Timmerman which lay 
about a mile from his house, to j)lant with corn on 



OF ORLEAIN'S COUNTY. 243 

sliares. In lioeing time, in the long days in June, he 
would get his boys together, Samuel "being then about 
twelve j^ears old, get them a breakfast of bran 
bread and milk and say to them, " now hoys you can 
go and hoe corn, and when j'ou get so tired and hun- 
gry 3'ou can t stand it any longer, come home and we 
will try and get you something to eat again. This 
was the way they fared before uncle Garlock came 
with Hour. 

The cold season of 1816 cut oif the crops, and there 
was but little to be had to eat. Flour was worth 
fifteen dollars a barrel in Rochester, wheat three dol- 
lars a bushel here, and no money to buy it with. 
But crops were good in 1817, and as soon as the 
farmers began to raise wheat, and about 1820 and 
1821, as there was no way to get wheat to market, the 
price fell to twenty -five cents a bushel. Articles of 
wearing apparel were enormously dear. Cotton cloth 
was worth fifty cents a yard. 

In 1818, Mr. II. Bidelman chopped and cleared off 
six acres of land for A. A. EUicott, for which he ob- 
tained flour for his famil}^ for that season. He cleared 
five acres for Elijah Bent, a little South of Medina 
village, for which he received in payment one-third of 
the pork of a hog that weighed three hundred pounds 
in all; that is, about one hundred pounds of pork cost 
twenty dollars, paid for in such hard work. So the}^ 
managed to live along until they could raise something 
of their own to live on. 

About this time 3'oung Samuel, being then twelve 
or thirteen years old, and his brother AVilliam two 
years older, got disgusted with Western New York 
and agreed to run away T)ack to the Mohawk country, 
fearing they would star\ e to death if they remained 
here. They did not go however. 

In the year 1820, May 20th, barefoot, with an old 
straw hat, a pair of tow cloth pantaloons and a 



244 noNEKi: iiistouy 

set'ond liand coat (311, Samuel Bidelman started on foot 
and alone for Eidgeway Corners, to learn tlie trade of 
tanning and currying leather, and slioemaking, of 
Isaac A. Bullard, wlio carrii^d on that business 
there. 

Before that time he had lived in JJutch settlements, 
and could hut imperfectly speak, or understand the 
English language. 

Mr. Bullard' s tanning then amounted to about fifty 
hides a year, but gradually increased to about one 
hundred hides a year while Samuel liv(^d with him. 
When he had been about three and a half years with 
Mr. Bullard, they had some difficulty and Samuel left 
him and went to his father. The difficulty was set- 
tled and Samuel was bound as apprentice to stay 
with Mr. Bullard until he was of age, and he went 
back and remained. 

Bullard was addicted to strong drink, which made 
him rather a hard master to his apprentice. He died 
April 0th, 1827. 

After Mr. Bullard' s death his vdfe carried on the 
business he had left, and Mr. Bidelman worked for her 
l)y th(^ month six months, and then bought out tlie 
tan}'a]"d and dwelling house and carried on the busi- 
ness on his ovv'u account. 

May 17th, 1829, he married Eliza Prussia. She was 
born in La ncastei' county, Pennsylvania, of German 
parentage. 

At E.idgewa}'- Mr. Bidelman taimed about seventy- 
jiv(^ hides a year. He kept two journeymen, made 
jeath"r and carried on slioemaking. Stoga boots 
were v/ortli four dollars a pair, coarse shoes two dol- 
lars. Boots were not so generally worn as now. 
Tanner"' s bark, hemlock, was wortli one dollar and 
iifty cents a cord. 

In the spring of 1885, ]\Ir. Bidelman sold his place 
in Bidgeway, retaining possession until the next Oc- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 24o 

ber, intending to move to Miciiigan. He was now 
worth about fifteen Imndred dollars and was t^renty- 
nine years old. 

He finally bought a tanyard at Gaines village of 
James Mather, and moved there Oct. second, eighteen 
hunctred and thirtj'-five. G aines was then quite a place 
of business. It had in active operation one acadeni}', 
five dry goods stores, three groceries, one steam grist 
mill and furnace, three taverns, two churches, twf) 
tannerys, one cabinet shop, one large wagon factory, 
three law offices, three blacksmith shops, one milline- 
ry shoj"), one ashery, besides harness, shoe, and tailoj- 
shops, &c. 

At Gaines Mr. Bidelman employed four or five 
men in his tannery, and five or six men in liis shoe- 
shop generally. 

In 1838, the Patriot War, as it was called, in Cana- 
da, closed. This part of the countrj^ had been in a 
high state of excitment for two years, the people de- 
siring to furnish aid to the Canadian rebels. Hunter s 
lodges, as they were called, were formed along the 
frontier for this purpose. Such a lodge used to meet 
in the upper room in Mr. Bidelman' s Tannery, which 
was formerl}' occujiied by tlie Free Mason's. Mr. 
Bidelman took great interest in this movement and 
gave an old cast iron bark mill to be cast into can- 
non balls. He gave the last gun he ever owned and 
a pair of boots, to fit out a soldi(4- wlio went to Can- 
ada to join the insurgents. 

A cannon, wljich had belonged to an artillery com- 
pany in Yates, in ^ which Mr. Bidelman had held a 
commission as Lieutenant, was sent to the Patriots. 
General "Winfield S(,'ott passed through on tlie Ilidgc 
Road vrith some United States troops to maintain 
peace on our bordei's, and in a sliort time t-rder was 
ao-ain restored. 



246 PIONEEK IIISTOKY 

The Ridge Road was tlien a great traveled thor- 
oughfare ; six to eight stage coaches passed through 
Gaines each way daily. 

In eighteen hundred and forty- one Mr. Robert Ran- 
ney went in company with i\Ir. Bidelman in business 
as tanners, in Gaines, for a term of live years. They 
put in a large stock and worked it, but the business 
was not profitable for the partners. They had 
difficulty in settling their partnership matters, 
and on the whole, these five years were the most un- 
pleasant and un2:)rosperous in business to Mr. Bidel- 
man of any like time in his life. Since closing with 
Mr. Ranney, he has been connected with his sons in 
business. He was Supervisor of Gaines in the years 
1842, 1845, 1846, 1853, 1854, and 1857. 

DK. .JESSE BEECn A?.^D DK. .JOHN IIENIiY BEECH. 

The following extracts are taken from a memoir by 
Dr. John H. Beech, of Coldwater, Michigan, of him- 
self and his father, Dr. Jesse Beech, who was the pi- 
oneer physician of the town of Gaines : 

"Dr. Jesse Beech was born March 20tli, 1787, at 
Ames, Montgomery county, l^ew York. He studied 
medicine with Dr. Lathrop, of Charleston, and with 
Dr. Slieldon, of Florida, N. Y. In those days medi- 
cal colleges were not accessible to students of ordi- 
nary means. There was a public prejudice against 
dissections, and the students of the two doctors named 
occupied a room in a steeple on a church in Charles- 
ton, where they dissected bodies. One of the class 
would stay in the steeple all day Sundays with their 
cadamrs to keep the hatch fastened down to exclude 
intruding boys. 

Dr. Jesse Beech commenced practice at Esi:)erance, 
N. Y., in the year 1813, and in February of that 
year married Susannah, a dauglitei- of John Brown, 
of that place. 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 247 

In the fall of 1815 lie came to Gaines, wlu^re lie met 
James Mather, with whom he was acquainted, and 
was persuaded to stop there, accepting a theory then 
believed in by settlers in that region, which was this : 
' Batavia must be the Gotliam of the Holland Purchase 
Oak Orchard Harbor must be the commercial port. 
The great commercial highway of the country would 
be from the head of navigation on Oak Orchard Creek 
to Batavia. The country north of the Ridge was too 
ilat and poor to be of any account, and tlie town 
second to Batavia must be on the Ridge where the 
road from Batavia to the lake crossed it. A kind of 
half shire town for Genesee county was then at Oak 
Orchard Creek on the Ridge. Genesee county would 
be divided at Tonawanda Swamp, and the new coun- 
ty seat would be Gaines.' Philetus Bumpus Avas then 
hunting bears where Albion now is, and the future 
greatness of Gaines was not dimmed by prospects of 
Clinton^ s Erie Canal. 

Such was the theoiy. The canal made dough of 
the whole of that cake, and caused the whole country 
about here to change front. 

James Mather, and Oliver Booth, the tavern keep- 
er, were active men in Gaines, Avlien my father came 
in, both being very attentive to new comers, and Esq. 
Arba Chubb came in soon after. He was the best 
wit and story teller of the times, full of talk and re- 
partee, a most social and agreeable man. 

My father bought some land near the ' Corners,' 
and brought my mother there the next spring. She 
found the 'house' onl}^ half floored and not all 
' chinked.' The fii'e waft built against the logs on the 
side which had no floor, over which the roof was 
open for the escape of smoke. 

She was told that the rule of the settlement was 
that new comers must burn out three logs in the 
house walls before they could \)e allowed to build a 



:248 i»ioxEKi: insToiiY 

stone Lack for a ciiimiiej ; and tliey nmst liave liad 
at least three 'sliakes' of a^-U(^ before tliey could be 
admitted to citizenship. 

The records are silent as to when slie hurnedoutlier 
three logs ; but it is said that she soon attained to the 
rank of full citizenship, having her first sliake of 
ague on the fourth day ai'tt>r arriving in town. My 
father must have found tlie people much in need of a 
doctor, for I find on page seventy-one of his day book, 
previous pages being lost, a large amount of busi- 
ness charged for so small a population. The i)rices 
charged would now be deemed quite moderate, to 
wit.: Leonard Frisbie is charged 'To visit and setting- 
leg for self $2.50." Subsequent visits and dressings 
from thirty- seven and a half to seventy-five cents 
each, and so in other cases. 

In 1817, 1818, and 1819, it took him three or four 
days to make a circular visit to his imtients. They 
resided in Murray, east of Sandy Creek, at FarwelF s 
Mills, in Clarendon, in differ(>nt parts of Ridgeway, 
Barre, c\:c. 

On these circuits the Idnd peoplt? treated him to 
their b(^st, whicli was often corn cake and wliisk}^ or 
Evans' root coffee, with sorrel pie for dessert, for the 
doctor and basswood browse for his horse. 

I find a bill rendered in pounds, sliillings and pence 
to my fatlicr hy Geoige Kuck, for general mei'chan- 
dise had at his store in West Carlton, in 1818. Ira 
Webb was at the same time in trade at Oak Orchard 
Creek, on the Ridge, but tlxc 2)i'iacipal mei-cliants wei-e 
located at Gaines. 

In the spring of 181 (), my father had about half 
an acre of corn 'dug in" among the logs near his 
house. "When it was a IV'w inches higli a frost blight- 
ed tlie tops so that ever}' leaf was held in a tight 
dead envelope. ]My mother cut oil' the to])s with lier 
scissors and a fail- cro}) was harvested. 



OF OHLEA.\S C'OUIS^rY. 240 

In order to save the pig from tlie beai'^s itt^pen was 
made close to tlu^ liouse, and a i)iece of rlnnldnt!; 
left out to halloo ' shoo ' through. 

One day mother' 3 attention was attracted l)y Jin 
nnusnal hackling of the pig. Looking througli the 
crevice she saw a large rattlesnake coiled n}) in tlif 
hog-trough, with head erect, buzzing like a nest of 
bees. Fearing to attack the old fellow, she ran to 
the neighbors for help and Avhen she returned the 
snake had gone. 

In 1816 they had a patcli of oats near tlie house 
from which the deer had to be driven frequentl}'. 

Their first child, and only daughter, Elizabeth, was 
born June 22d, 1817. She married Ezbon CI. Fuller, 
and settled at Coldwater, Michigan, where she died in 
1853. Their only son, your humble servant, was born 
September 24th, 1810. I think I must have been one 
of the first draymen in the count}^ as I remembei- 
wdien a very small bo}' seizing the reins and backing 
my father's liorse and cart loaded with merchandise, 
part of which was a demijolin of aquafortis, down a 
cellar gangwa}^ Some smoke and some hurraing 
were among the consequences. 

A few years later a young clerk and mj'self sent a 
hogshead of molasses from a wagon down the same 
gangway at one ' pop.' The ' pop ' carried away 
the lieads of tlie cask and poured the sweet out to 
the rats. 

At the age of fourteen I tried clerking in a dry 
goods store for Fanning ct Orton, in Albion. After 
six months probation I felt no furtlu^r inspiration oi- 
as]Diration in that line and resigned, I presume witli 
the iK^arty consent of my employers, though they liat- 
tered me b}^ expressing their regret, which I tliought 
was proof of their politeness rather than my abilit}-. 
I then attended Gaines Academy until I was eighteen 
years old, when I commenced studying medicine with 



250 PIOISTEEK HISTORY 

Drs. Niclioson & Paine, in An)ion ; afterwards with 
Dr. Pinkney, at Esperance, and gradnating at the 
Albany Medical College in 1841. 

I practiced ni}^ profession from tlie old Jiomestead 
until 1850, then removed to Coldwater, Michigan, 
where I have been engaged in the same business 
since, except during the rebellion, in the greater part 
of which I served in the army as surgeon, first of 
Battery D. First Michigan Artillery; afterwards of 
Tvfenty-Fourth Michigan Volunteers, in the Army of 
the Potomac. The greater ^ymt of the time, besides 
performing my regimental duties, acting as Surgeon- 
in-Chief of the First Brigade, Plrst Division, First 
Army Corps. 

In January, 1842, I married Mary Jane Perry, of 
Clarkson, IST. Y. '- ^- - '- 

We have mentioned the anticipations of the people 
of securing the location of the county buildings at 
Gaines. The brick building standing on the hill south 
of the village, was built by contributions started with 
the intent to donate it to the county for a court house. 
It was originally three stories high, about forty by 
seventy feet on the ground. Tliese anticipations of 
the contributors being blasted, they converted their 
building into an academy. 

At the organization of Orleans county, the village 
of Gaines contained three stores, three asheries, three 
tanneries, two taverns, one chair factory, one carriage 
factory, one cabinet shop, three blacksmith shops, 
one distillery, one cloth-dressing and wool-carding 
establishment, two brick yards, one printing office 
where a nev/spaper was published, one liat factory, 
and one saddle and harness shop. Works requiring 
motive power weie driven by horses. '■ '■' 

The first chapter of royal arch nuisons in tlie county 
No. 82, was |organized at Gaines. Dr. Jesse Beech 
was H. 1^ in 1826. 



OF OIILEANS COUJS^TT. 251 

Previous to 1825, Col. Boardman's Cavalry was a 
marvel in the eyes of us youngsters. Dr. Jesse Beech 
w^as its surgeon. 

I find by an old receipt among my father' s 23apers, 
that Gaines Basin, in the canal, was excavated by a 
subscription fund, subscribed mainly by G-uernsey, 
Bushnell & Co., E. & E. B. Nichols, and James 
Mather. 

Dr. Jesse Beech was a temperance man even to total 
abstinence, enforcing his princii^les by banishing de- 
canters and wine glasses from his sideboard — a pro- 
ceeding rather unusual in those times. 

He was a fine horseman and occasionall}^ ofiiciated 
as marshal on public occasions. He was always ex- 
ceedingly particular in his dress and personal apj)ear- 
ance, and always wore an elaborate ruffle shirt. His 
dress never was allowed to interfere with business re- 
quiring his attention, and sometimes, when ofl" pro- 
fessional duty, he would go into his field where his 
men were clearing land, and though he was small in 
stature, he would show by his agility and energy in 
working with his men that he was a match for their 
stoutest. 

A few of the last years of my father' s life, he kept 
a store of drugs and medicines on sale in connexion 
with his practice as a phj'-sician and surgeon. 

In February or March, 1828, he v/as hurt by a 
vicious horse from which he suffered greatly as long- 
as he lived. He died March 4th, 1829. His widow 
afterwards married Captain Eliliu Mather, and re- 
moved to Coldwater, Michigan, where she died March 
IGth, 18G9. 

.1. 11. BEECH." 
OI.IVEIJ ]U)OTII. V 

Oliver Booth was a Avell-known tavern keeper on 
the Ridffe Road in Gaines. He came here from 



252 PIOXEEU IIISTOIIY 

Wayne couiitj^ in the spring of 1811, and settled on 
tlie farm north of the Ridge and east of the Oak Or- 
chard Road in the village of Gaines. He cleared his 
farm and built a double log house, with a huge chim- 
ney in the middle. Here he kept tavern a number 
of years. 

His house was always full of company. Travelers 
on the Ridge Road stoj^ped liere because it was a 
tavern and there was no other. Here he dispensed a 
vast amount of wliisk}^, — for everybody was thirst}^ in 
those days, — and some victuals to such strangers as 
were not acquainted with the proverbial lilthiness of 
the kitchen. 

Aftei" Gaines had become a village, and laid claims 
to the count}' seat, and peopL^ had come in who 
wanted more style, and wliose stomachs could not 
stand such fare as Booth' s tavern supplied, another 
tavern was opened and Booth sold out and moved 
away. He finally settled in Micliigan where he 
died. 

No description of Booth or his tavern would be 
complete without including Sam. Wooster. Sam's 
father lived in the neighborhood, and he (Sam.) then a 
great lazy boy, strayed uj) to Booth' s tavern, where 
b}' hanging about he occasionally got a taste of 
Booth's whisky in consideration of l)ringing in wood 
for the fire and doing a few other chores, l^or tiiese 
services and the pleasure of his company. Booth gave 
him v.'hat ht^ ate and drank, with a place to sleej) on 
the bar-room lioor. His clotlies did not cost much. 
He never Avore a hat of au}^ sort, seldom had on 
stockings or shoes, x^obody can remember that he 
wore a shirt, and his coats and i)ants Aver(> such as 
came to him, nobody coidd tell how or from Avhence. 
Sam. never washed his face and hands, or combed his 
head, and his general appearance, shirtless and shoe- 
less, with his great black, frowsy luvad 1)ar(.s his i)ants 



OF ORLEANS; COT'NTY. 253 

ragged and torn, and his coat, if lie had an}", minus 
one sleeve, or half the skirt, to one who did know him 
might befit a crazy prisoner just escaped from Bed- 
lam. Yet Sam. was not a fool or crazy. His wit was 
keen and ready, and his jokes timely and sharp. He 
would not work, or do anj^thing which required much 
effort any way. He was a good lisher however, and 
with his old friend Booth, he would sit patiently by 
the hour and angle in the Oak Orchard, or any other 
stream that had lish, perfectly content, if he had an 
occasional nibble at his hook. 

One year while he lived in Gaines, some wag for 
the fun of the thing nominated him for overseer of 
highway's in the Gaines village district, and he was 
elected. He told the people the}' had elected him 
thinking he was too lazy to attend to the business, 
and v.'ould let them satisf}' their assessments by mel"e 
nominal labor on the road; but tlie}^ would hnd them- 
selves much mistaken, and the}' did. Sam. warned 
them to work as th<j law directed. He superintended 
everything vigorously, and every man and team and 
tool on th(^ highway within liis beat had to do its 
whole duty promptly that year at least. 

Although Sam. loved whisky and drank it whenever 
it was given to him, for he never had money to buy 
anything, he never got drunk. He never quarreled 
or stole or did any other mischief. Bad as he looked, 
and lazy and dirt}^ as he was, he was harmless. 
When Mr. Booth sold out and moved to Michigan, 
Sam. went witli him and lived in his family after- 
wards. 

A few months after landlord Booth got his double 
log tavern going, a man rode up to the west front 
door ,eacli half of the house had a front door, and 
asked Mrs. Booth if he could get dinner and feed 
his hors(^ there. She sent her daughter, then ten years 
old, to show the man where he could get feed for his 



254 PIONEER HISTORY 

liorse in the stable, and she went to work getting 
Ms dinner. 

Having taken care of his horse, the stranger came 
and took a seat by the front door of the room where 
Mrs. Booth was getting dinner and commenced talk 
by saying : 

"Well, Mrs. Booth, how do you like the Holland 
Purchase?" 

" O, pretty well,'" she replied, " I think it will be 
a good country when it is cleared np." 

" What place did you come from Mrs. Booth V 
*' We came from down in the Jarseys." 
" Is the country settling about here very fast ?" 
"Yes, quite a good many settlers have come in." 
" How is it about the mouth of Oak Orchard, are 
they settling there much ?" 

, " No they are not, that cussed old Joe Ellicott has 
reserved all the land there and wont sell it." 

Just then Mr. James Mather passed by, and seeing 
the stranger sitting in the door, whom he recognized 
as Mr. Joseph Ellicott, the agent of the Holland Land 
Company, he turned to speak to him. As he came 
up, Ellicott motioned him to be silent, fearing he would 
pronounce his name in hearing of Mrs. Booth and end 
the fun. After a salutation to Mr. Mather, Mr. El- 
licott said to Mrs. Booth : 

" Has old Joe Ellicott then really reserved the land 
round the mouth of the Creek." 

"Yes, the devilish old scamp has reserved one or 
two thousand acres there as a harbor for bears and 
wolves to kill the sheep and hogs of the settlers." 

Ellicott asked " What can induce uncle Joe to re- 
serve that land ?" 

She replied, "Oh, the old scamp thinks he will make 
his Jack out of it. He thinks some day there will be 
a citv there, and he will survey the land into city 



OF OULEAXft COUXTY. 255 

lots and sell them. All, lie is a long-lieaded old 
chap." 

Ellicott walked into the road and talked with Mr. 
Mather a few minutes till being called to liis dinner 
he said to Mather : "Don't tell Mrs. Booth who I 
am until I am out of sight.*' 

After Ellicott was gone, Mr. Mather went over and 
Mrs. Booth asked him who that old fellow was who 
got dinner there ^ 

He replied, "it was Mr. Joseph Ellicott, from Ba- 
tavia." 

"Good," says she, " didn't I give it to him ? Glad 
of it! Glad of it!" 

Mr. Booth was unable to read or write, and he was 
accustomed to keep his tavern accounts in chalk 
marks on the walls. Thus, for an account of six 
pence, he made a mark of a certain length ; for a 
shilling, a mark longer ; two shillings, longer still, 
and so on. He distinguished drinks, dinners, horse 
feed, &'c., by ])eculiar hieroglyphics of his own inven- 
tion. 

Booth, the tavern keeper, must not be confounded 
with Oliver Booth, 2d, better known to the old pio- 
neers as "Esq. Booth," who owned and resided on the 
next farm west, which la}^ on the west side of Oak 
Orchard Road, and north side of the Ridge. Esquire 
Booth was among the very first settlers of Gaines vil- 
lage. He was not related to the tavern keej)er. He 
was born in Granby, Connecticut, in 1779, and set- 
tled in Gaines, in 1810. He removed to Michigan in 
1833 and died tlu^re. 

Esq. Booth was the first Supervisor elected north of 
Tonawanda swamp to represent the town of Ridge- 
way, then the whole of Orleans county, in 1813. He 
served several ■\'ears as a Justice of the Peace, He 



256 TIOXEEPv IIISTOKY 

Avas an odd man in apj)earanc(' and manners, but 
upright nnd lionest. 

JAMES :MATin:u. 

James Mather was born in Marlborough, Yt., July 
23d., 1784. His family are said to be descendants 
from Rev. Increase Mather, President of Harvard 
Universit}', who received the first degree of Doctor of 
Divinity, that was conferred by that college. Mr» 
Mather came to Gaines in the summer or fall of 1810, 
to look out a place for his settlement. There was 
then some travel on the Ridge Road, with a prospect 
of more when tlie country^ was settled. The Holland 
Company had establised their land office at Batavia, 
and it seemed to liim sure that in time a village or 
city would grow up at the mouth of Oak Orchard 
Creek. The Oak Orchard trail was then marked from 
Batavia to the lake, and Mr. Mather shrewdly pre- 
dicting a village would be founded Adhere that trail 
crossed the Rklge, took up some four hundred acres 
of land lying on each side of the Oak Orchard Road 
and south of the Ridge, on whicli he aft(.H-vrards set- 
tled and resided while he lived. 

Before removing to Gaines, Mr, Mather had resided 
for some time in the town of Russia, Herkimer coun- 
ty, where he manufactured potash Avliich he sent to 
the Canada market by way of Ogdeusburg. He was 
in this business when the embargo declaring non- 
intercourse vritli Great Britain v/as proclaimed. He 
continued his trade however, and by the skillful dis- 
tribution of a few dollars among the government offi- 
cials, his ashes were allowed to pass the lines and his 
profits were large. 

In the winter of 1811, he l)roke up his establish- 
ment in Herkimer county and removed to his land in 
Gaines. A younger brother, Rufus Mather, assisted 
b}^ driving a t(\am of two yoke of oxen before a sled 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 257 

which was headed, among otlier things, with three 
potash kettles. There was no bridge ovei* Genesee 
River, at Rocliester, and Knfus attempted to cross on 
the ice near where the canal now is. In the middle 
of the river the ice broke and It^t the loaded sled into 
the water. Riifus succeeded with great difficulty in 
getting out without loss, and followed the Ridge to 
his destination, and stopped at the house of Cotton 
Leach, west of the j^rf sent village of Gaines. Rufus 
remained and labored for James the next summer. 
James Mather had cut down the trees on a small spot 
south of the Ridge, on the Oak Orchard Road, near 
where his son George Mather now I'esides ; but no 
clearing within the bounds of the village on the Ridge 
had then beeii made. 

Rufus Mather sa3's he felled the tirst tree iu the vil- 
lage of Gaines, on the Ridge Road. That tree stood 
on the west side of Oak Orchard Road. A piece of 
land was soon cleared tliere and James Mather built 
his log house on that corner in the spring of 1811, 
He married Fanny Bryant February 15th, 1813. 
She was born in Marlborougli, Vermont, October 28th, 
1788. 

In the winter of 1813, they commenced house keep- 
ing in the log liouse ]Mr. Mather had built on his lot, 
and remained there during the war, Avhen so many 
went away. 

Ml". Mather always ke23t open house, according to 
the custom of the country there, though he never 
I)rofessed to keep tavern; entertaining every one who 
applied to him for accommodation as well as he could, 
and his house was generally full of newly ariiving. 
emigrants who were waiting till their own cabins could 
be built, or of such casual strangers as came 
along. 

Oliver Booth, afterw^ards tlie tavern keeper, stop- 

17 



258 PIONEER HISTORY 

peel with Mr, Mather when he first came in, nntil lie 
got his own honse built and fitted up. 

Soon after Mr. Mather settled in Gaines, he set the 
potash kettles he brought with him and commenced 
buying salts of lye, or "black salts," of the settlers 
as soon as settlers came in and made them. These 
salts he boiled down into potash and took them to 
the mouth of Genesee River, or the mouth of Oak 
Orchard Creek, and sent them to Montreal to a mar- 
ket. He paid for these salts in salt fish, iron, leather, 
coarse hardware, and a few axes, chains, and such 
tools as farmers must have, which he obtained in ex- 
change for his potash, and took care to sell at a fair 
profit, and with these things he paid somt^ money. 
He was in fact almost the onl}^ soui'ce from which 
those who did not bring money with them got any to 
supply their wants. 

Early in the spring of 1811, Mr. Mather finding his 
provisions getting low, went to the Oak Ore-hard 
Creek, at the head of Stillwater, from the lake, with 
two men and a seine and caught three barrels of fish 
in a few hours. These he drew to the Ridge with his 
oxen and took them to Black Creek Mill, a few miles 
south of Rochester, and with these fish and money, he 
bought wheat and pork, got his wheat ground and 
took it home, and so lie was well supplied the first 
year with these proyisions. About the time Orleans 
county was organized, he built a large brick build- 
ing for a tanner}^, in which with his brothers and 
others he carried on tanning a number of years, 
though he never worked at that business himself. He 
dealt considerably in land, at one time owning a 
large farm where Eagle Harbor village and flouring 
mills are now built, and several large farms in other 
places. From the rise of value in these lands, and 
the profits of his speculations, he became wealthy. 
He died August 29th, 1854. 



OF OliLEANS COUNTY. 259 

Mr. Mather had seven children. 

Louisa, who married AVheeler M. Dewey. She 
died many years since. 

Dwight, who died in youth. 

Adeline married Paul H. Stewart. 

Eunice married Daniel F. Walbridge. 

George married Mary Ann Crane. He resides on 
his paternal homestead. 

Ellen married Hon. Noah Davis, of Albion, late a 
Justice of the Supreme Court. 

Mary married Howard Abeel, a merchant of 
Albion. 

ELIHK MATIIEll. 

Elihu Mather was born in Marlborough, \t., July 
26th, 1782. He was a tanner by trade. He came to 
Gaines to reside in 1825, and went into business 
with his brother James in his tannery and working 
his farm. 

In the great antimasonic excitement arising from 
the abduction of William Morgan, Mr. Elihu Mather 
was indicted as an accessory to the crime, and tried 
at Albion and acquitted. The trial occupied ten 
days. Mr. Mather continued to reside in Gaines 
until 1851, when he removed to Coldwater, in Michi- 
gan, where he died Januar}^ 29tli, 1866, 

IIENUY DRAKE. 

Henry Drake was born in ISTew Jersey, April 6th, 
1770. He settled in Gaines in March, 1811. In 1812, 
he built a dam on Otter Creek, a few rods north of 
the Ridge, in Gaines, on which he erected a sawmill, 
which was the first sawmill built within the present 
town of Gaines. 

Mr. Drake learned tlie clothier's trade in his youth, 
but followed farming as his business in life. He 
married Betsey Parks, in New Jersey. She died 



260 PIONEER HISTOKY 

Aiinl 16tli, 1843. Mr. Drake died December 25th, 
1863, at tlie age of almost 94 years. 

SI3IE0N DUTClIEli. 

!>imeon Dutclier was born in Dover, Dutchess Co., 
N. Y., April 21st, 1772. For lifteen years after ar- 
riving at manhood he labored as a millwright, a trade 
he assumed without serving any regular apprentice- 
ship. He then commenced preaching and was or- 
dained an Elder in the Baptist denomination. In the 
year 1817, Elder Dutcher removed with his family to 
(Jarlton, New York, and in 1820 he removed to the 
town of Gaines, where he resided until he died. The 
l)rimar3^ object he had in coming to the Holland Pur- 
cliase was to preach and serve as a missionary among 
tIio peo})le, the Baptists having no church organiza- 
tion in Orleans county. 

The people; were few, poor and scattered, and Elder 
Dutcher never received much pay for his ministerial 
labors, l^it supj)orted his family mostly by M'orking 
a farm. He used to preach in several neighboring 
towns in the log cabins of settlers, or in the school 
houses after such were erected. And for several 
years he officiated at nearly all the marriages and fu- 
nerals in this part of the countrj'. 

The first ft-amed meeting house erected in Orleans 
county was built in the village of Gaines by a stock 
company, who sold the slips to whom they could, 
on th<' condition that the house should bo used by 
different denominations, and it was so used. 

A Baptist church was organized at Gaines in 1816, 
under the pastoral care of Elder Dutcher, to whom 
Ik; preaclK^d until 1827, when the anti-masonic excite- 
ment prevailed in his church. Elder Dutcher, who 
was a Free Mason, was required to renounce Freema- 
sonry. He declined to do so and was excommunica- 
ted, and dismissed from his church. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 201 

In the later years of his life Elder Dutcher professed 
to be a iiniversalist in religions sentiment. He was 
always regarded as a good man and was much be- 
loved by the early settlers. He died January- 22d, 
1860. 

HON. WrLLIA?>[ .T. BABBITT. 

William J. Babbitt was born in Providence, Rhode 
Island, September 1786. He learned the blacksmiths 
trade of his father and worked at that business main- 
ly until he came to reside in Gaines, where he had a 
small shop and occasionally worked at his trade for 
several years. In the year 1812, he took up the farm 
on which he ever afterwards resided, part of lot thirty, 
township lifteen, rang(^ one, and moved his family 
there in 1813. 

For many 3'ears after Mr. Babbitt settled in 
Gaines no professional law}T'r had come into what is 
now Orleans county. The people however would in- 
dulge occasionally in a lawsuit, and Mr. Babbitt be- 
ing a good talker, and a man of more than common 
shrewdness, tl^y frequently employed him to try 
their cases in their Justices' courts. He improved 
under his practice until he became the most noted 
"pettifogger"' north of the Tonawauda Swamp, 
and whichever of the litigants secured the services of 
Esq. Babbitt, was quite sure to win his case. He 
was active in getting the town of Gaines set off from 
Ridgeway in the winter of 1816, and July 1st of the 
same 3^ear, on his application a postofRce was estab- 
lished in Gaines and he was appointed postmaster, 
which office he held liv(> years. This was the first 
postoffice and he was the first postmaster in Gaines. 

In 1831-2 he represented Orleans county in the As- 
sembly of the State. He was appointed a Justice of 
the Peace by the council of appointment in 1815, and 
reapi^ointed from time to time until the elections to 



262 PIONEER HISTOKY 

that office were given to the people under the consti- 
tution, when he was elected by the peo2:)le holding 
the office of Justice of the Peace in Gaines, in all 23 
years. 

He was several times Supervisor of his town, and 
held various other town offices from time to time. 
He took pleasure in serving in official and fiduciary 
positions, and was largely gratified in this particular 
by his fellow citizens. 

He was remarkable for promptness in keeping en- 
gagements. Late in life he was heard to say he was 
never behind set time in being present in any legal 
proceeding to be had before him. He acquired a 
character for uncompromising fidelity in business 
matters, and by a life of industry and economy laid 
up a large i)roperty. 

He died July 20th, 1863. 

He married Eunice Losey, June 27th 1810. She 
died April 4th, 1867. 

GIDEOIS'^ FKEEMAN. 

Gideon Freeman was born in Stillwater, Saratoga 
county, January 11th, 1787. About 1799, he moved 
with his father to Ledyard, Ca3aiga county, and in 
March 1812, he settled northwest of what is called 
Long Bridge, and took up the southwest section of 
land now in the town of Gaines. He was the first 
settler in this locality south of tlie Ridge, and founder 
of wliat was for many years known as "Freeman 
Settlement." 

He cleared up a large farm and carried on a large 
business as a farmer. His son, Chester Freeman, 
now of Barre, relates that in the cold season of 1816, 
liis father planted forty acres to corn, wliich was a 
total failure. He had a large stock of hogs that year 
which lie expected to fatten on his corn, from the loss 
of whi(,*h, having nothing tq f(3ed them, many of them 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 263 

starved to death in tlie next fall and winter. He had 
a large stock of cattle at that time and but little food 
for them. 

Mr. Freeman choj^ped over nearly fifty acres of 
woods to browse his cattle in the winter of 1816-17, 
cutting down all trees suitable for that purpose, and 
losing only about six of his cattle from starvation. 
Mr. Freeman owned a part of the section lying next 
east of his home farm. On that land one year he 
s owed forty acres to wheat, which grew very large. 
At harvest time he measured off one acre of his field 
and cut' and cleaned the wheat on it, getting fifty-five 
bushels of wheat on that acre. 

Mr. Freeman was a liberal, generous man, and la- 
bored hard to induce settlers to come in and to open 
the country to inhabitants. He sustained some large 
losses in his business and became insolvent, finally 
losing all his land. He removed to Ypsilanti, Mich- 
gan, where he died in 1832. 

Mr. Levi Atwell, Joseph Stoddard and Reuben 
Clark were among those who moved into the Freeman 
settlemen soon after it was commenced. 

CHESTER FREEMAN. 

Chester Freeman, son of Gideon Freeman, was 
born in Scij)io, Cayuga county, August 18th, 1807. 
He married Eliza Chidester in 183.1. She died in 
March, 1848, and October 30th, 1849, he married 
Amanda Morris. He has resided on lot thirty-one, 
in township fourteen range two, in Barre, since 
1842. He came into Orleans county with his father 
in 1812. 

DANIEL PRATT. 

Daniel Pratt was born in Westmoreland, Oneida 
county, N. Y., March 25th, 1788. He married Polly 
Bailey, August, 1809, and moved to Gaines and set- 



264 PIONEEK niSTOKY 

tied OR the Ridge in the spring of 1810. His wife, 
Polly, died August 30th, 1812. He married Caroline 
Smith, January 8th, 1815. 

He went east during the war of 1812 and remained 
two years, then returned to Ids farm, on wliicli he 
labored until his death, October 7th, 1845. Mrs. 
Caroline Pratt, died September 18th, 1831. 

The first wheat sold by Mr. Pratt was taken on 
an ox sled by him to Rochester, and sold for twent}"- 
live cents a bushel. 

Mr. Pratt was a man of quiet habits, trusty and 
faithful. He was mucli ]-espected by liis acquaintan- 
ces. 

He was Town Clerk of Gaines for many years and 
held the office of Overseer of tlie Poor a long time. 

DANIEL BROWN. 

Daniel Brown was born in Columbia county, N, Y., 
June 15tli, 1787. He removed with liis father's fami- 
ly to Upper Canada, in the year 1800. He resided in 
Canada during the war 1812. He experienced mucli 
trouble in consequence of liis refusal to bear arms 
in that war against his native country. He was in- 
dicted and tried for treason and acquitted. In Janu- 
ary, 181 G, he remo^'ed to the town of Gaines and set- 
tled one mile north-east from Albion. 

Mr. Brown has established an enviabh? character 
for integrity among his acquaintances, and has been 
honored and respected. 

He was Supervisor of the town of Gaines in 1844, 
and lias held various other town offices. 

He married Maiy Willsea, in Canada, in the year 
1807. 

Mr. Hntwn is still living. 

WriJJAM \V. KrG(iLES. 

Wm. W. Ruggles was born in Hai'dvvick, Massa- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 265 

chusetts, January 1st, 1800. His father, Seth liug- 
gles, removed witli liis family in 1804 to Poultne}-, 
Vermont, wliere \Vm. W. labored on a farm until he 
was eighteen yeaivs old. He then entered the office of 
Judge Williams, at Salem, N. Y., as a student at 
law. Here he studied law eight months in the year, 
teaclilng school winters' He closed his preparatory 
law study with Chief Justice Savage, at Albany. 
Having been admitted to the bar, he came to Albion 
and formed a partnership with Judge Moody, which 
was soon dissolved. 

He removed to Gaines in 1824, and begaJi tlie prac- 
tice of his profession there. 

In the contest between Gaines and Albion for the 
county buildings, he took an active part for his vil- 
lage. 

He aided in founding Gaines Academy and the 
Farmers Bank of Orleans, at Gaines. 

He exerted himself to have the New York Central 
Railroad located along the Ridge, and used his inllu- 
ence in favor of the building of Niagara Suspension 
Bridge, and was a stockholder in that company. 

In his profession as a lawyer he was diligent and 
successful. He held the offices of Master in Chancey, 
Supreme Court Commissioner, Judge of the Court of 
Common l*leas, and Justice of the Peace and various 
other town offices. He was several times the candi- 
date of the Democratic party for the State Legisla- 
ture, but failed of an election as his party was largt'- 
ly in the minority. 

Judge Ruggles had a cultivated nnud, (Miriched by 
studious habits of life. He was particularly fond of 
Astronomy, on which he left some lectures in manu- 
script, written by him. 

In the autumn of 1849 he went to Chicago, intend- 
ing to reside and practice law there, but having taken 
cold while on jiis voyage around th«* lake, he was 



266 I'lONEEK HISTORY 

compelled to return to Gaines siek, and never re- 
covered, dying at Gaines, April 22d, 1850. 

Ho spent a year surveying government land in 
Michigan, when General Cass was Governor, where 
he contracted fever and ague, from which he suffered 
ever afterwards. 

He married Miss .Inn Davis, daughter of Dea. Perry 
Davis, of Gaines, in 1827. She died Aug. 20th, 1846, 
He left three children, William Oakley, now a broker 
in New York ; Henry C, a Civil Engineer in Cincin- 
natti, Ohio ; and Helen, who married Mr. Fred 
Hoott, and resides in Gaines. 

• EAGLE IIARHOK. 

Eagle Harbor, a thriving village on the Erie Canal, 
in the town of Gaines, is said to have been so named 
because n large bird's nest w^as found in a tree grow- 
ing there about the time the canal was surveyed, sup- 
posixl to have been built b}^ an eagle. 

The land on which the village is built was for a 
number of years at first held under articles from the 
Holland Company. 

Harvey Smith took a deed of eighty acres on the 
south-east corner of lot thirty-six, November 1, 1819. 
Stephen N. Chuljb took a deed of fifty-three acres 
next north, Septi^mber 0th, 1884, and Macy Pratt, of 
one hundied and thii'ty-eight acres north of Chubb, 
November 29th, 1819.' 

On the East side, Asahel Fitch took a deed of 
one hundred twenty-live acres, part of lot twenty- 
six, February 20th, 1821. James Mather took a 
deed of two liundred acres next north of Fitch, No- 
vember 27th, 1829 ; and Robert Huntei-, one hun- 
dred and seventy-six acres next north of Mather, 
January 81st, 1828. 

South side; of Canal, fifty acres of lot thirty-five 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 267 

were deeded to Amos S. Samson, December 22d, 
1836. 

Stephen Abbott took njD the land afterwards deeded 
to Harvey Smith, and commenced cutting down tim- 
ber on it in the winter of 1812. This was probably 
the first clearing done in Eagle Harbor. 

Little improvement was made until work was 
begun on the canal. The high embankment over Otter 
Creek was constructed by a man named Richardson. 
He opened a store here to accommodate his workmen, 
which was the first store. 

Hicks and Sherman bought Kichardson s store and 
continued it after him. 

A, Mr. Hicks built the old red warehouse, the first 
in the village, south side of the canal, where Collins' 
warehouse now stands. This was owned and occu- 
pied by A. S. Samson afterwards. 

In 1832, this warehouse was sold to Willis P. Col- 
lins who opened a dry goods store in it and continued 
it about six years, then built a store and warehouse 
on the east side of the street and moved there. 

David Smith built the first sawmill about forty 
rods north of the canal, on Otter Creek. 

James Mather built a sawmill on the south side of 
the canal in 1826. 

N. Pratt, J. Delano and L. Northrop, built the 
lower dam and sawmill in 1825. 

James Leaton bought the Hunter farm, and he in 
company with W, P. Collins, built the north fiouring 
mill in 1837. This mill was burned in t]i<^ fall of 1839, 
and re-built immediately. 

A large fiouring mill on the south side of the canal 
was built by General E. S. Beach, in 1847. This mill 
has since been burned. 

The brick church was built in 1827 by the united 
means of Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists, 



I'lOXEEK IIISTOKY 

and owned lialf by Methodists, and one-foiirtli each 
l)j the otlier denominations. 

Tiie first meeting liouse was taken down and rebuilt 
in 1845, the same parties building and owning the 
new house, as they did the old one. 

Tlie Wesleyan Methodists erected tlieir cliurch ed- 
ifice in 1845-0. 

Eagle Harbor postoflice was established about the 
year 1837, with AV. P. Collins first postmaster. 

The first school house was built in 1822, on tlie 
west side of the street. 

The second school house was built on the lot now 
owned hy the distri(;t, in 1841 ; and the third school 
house in 1846. 

Col. Jonathan Delano was the first carpenter and 
joiner. 

Samuel Robinson was the first slioemaker, and Da- 
vid Sraitli the first tavern keeper. 

Col. Delano and Sam. Robinson the first grocers, 
Mr. Hurd the first blacksmith, and Dr. -lames Brown 
the first physician. 

The growth of Eagle Harbor has been greatly pro- 
moted by the large capital employed there by Gen. 
Beach in erecting mills and manufacturing flour, and 
by the active business energy of Mr. Willis P. Col- 
lins, for many years a resident in the ^•illage, and tlie 
foremost man in ever}' enterprise teiiding to add wealth 
and importance to the place. 



CHAPTER XX. 




TOWN OP" KENDALL. 

Partitioned between State of Connecticut and Pultney Estate — First 
Settler— First ^larriage— First Birth— First Tavern- First Death- 
First Store— First Scliool— First Saw Mill— First Public Pteligious 
Service — First Physician- First Highway Irom Kendall Corners to 
Ridge — Biographies of Early Settlers. 

ENDALL was named in lionor of Amos Ken- 
dall, Postmaster General at the time it was 
formed from ^STurra}^, A2~>ril 7th, 1837. From 
its location, being oft* tlie line of travel, and because 
the land was not snrvejed into lots, and foraially put 
in market to sell to settlers as soon as lands on the 
Holland Purchase, settlements were not made as early 
or as numerous as in towns on the Purchase. The 
State of Connecticut and the Pultney Estate had 
owned these lands under a joint title, and for consid- 
erable time they remained undivided. 

In Jul}^ 181 0, Dr. Levi Ward became agent for the 
State of Connecticut to sell their lands on the 100,000 
acre tract, of which Kendall fonns a part. And in 
1811 a foi-mal partition of land between the State of 
Connecticut and the Pultney Estate was made, and 
Mr. Joseph F(^llows was appointed agent of the Pult- 
ney Estate. 

Land offices were opened by these agents, and set- 
tlers were invited to come in and take lands. But few 
came into Kendall until after the cold season of 181G, 
and for some time after that they had difficulty in ac- 



270 PIOlSrEEK IIISTOEY 

quiring a goo(J title to farms bought of the Pultney 
Estate. 

Samuel Bates, from Vermont, is said to liave been 
the first white man who settled in this town, locating 
on lot 111, in East Kendall, in 1812. He cleared some 
land and sowed wheat, but did not move his family 
in until 1814. 

David Jones, Adin Manlej^, Amos Randall, John 
Earns worth, Zebulon Rice, Benjamin Morse, and 
Nathaniel Brown, settled in 1815. 

Felix Augur, Rev. Stephen Randall, Ansel Bal- 
com, George Balcom, Stephen Bliss, James Weed, 
in 1816. 

Ethan Graham, William Clark and his son Robert 
Clark, came in 1817. 

The first marriage in town was that of James Aiken 
to Esther A. Bates, March 2d, 1817. 

The first birth was that of Bartlett B. Morse, in 
November, 1815. 

The first death was that of a son of Geo. Balcom, 
in 181G. 

Hiram Thompson kept the first store in 1823. The 
first inn was kept by Lyman Spicer in 1823. 

The first sawmill was built by Augur and Boyden, 
in 1819, and Gurdon Balcom taught the first school 
in 1819. 

The first gristmill was built by Ose Webster, on the 
site on Sandy Creek, now occupied by the mills of 
his son Ebenezer K. Webster, forming a nucleus for 
the settlement now known as Webster's Mills. Pre- 
vious to the erection of this gristmill, the people of 
Kendall took their grain to Rochester, or to FarwelF s 
mill in Clarendon, to be ground. 

Farweir s mill was much nearest, but the road to it 
was almost impassable with a load, and the little mill 
had not capacity to do all the work in that part of the 
country. 



OF ORLEA^^S COUNTY. 271 

The first religious service in Kendall was conducted 
"by Elder Stephen Randall, a Methodist preacher. 

The first physician who practiced in town was Dr. 
Theophilus Randall, though T)r. Rowell, of Clarkson. 
was frequently called. 

AYhen Mr. Bates settled in Kendall there was no 
public highway in town. Settlers and others coming 
there usually left the Ridge a little east of Kendall 
and traveled a road which had been opened into what 
is now Hamlin ; thence west to Kendall. The first higli- 
Avay leading south from Kendall to the Ridge, Avas 
located and cut out b}^ the early inhabitants without 
any public authority, from Kendall Mills following- 
up the west side of Sandy Creek to the Ridge road. 
This road is yet traveled a part of the way. 

The first settlers of Kendall were chiefly from Ver- 
mont, bred among the Green Mountains, and the 
change of climate, air, wat(?r, food and occupation 
they experienced in this new and comparatively level 
countr}', was attended with the usual consequences. 
They were almost all sick at times, and although the 
utmost kindness prevailed, and ever}" one did all the}' 
could to help themselves and others to alleviate suf- 
fering, yet so f«^w were well, and in their little rude 
huts furnished only with a most scanty stock of con- 
veniences, short of provisions, and no place near 
where the common necessaries for the sick could be 
obtained, sohie of these people suffered great misery. 
If they sometimes felt discouraged and wished them- 
selves away, when tlKy were sick they could not go, 
and when they got better they would not go, for the}" 
came here to make them homes, and with the stub- 
born resolution of their race they persisted in the 
work they had begun, till their fondest hopes were 
more than realized in the beautiful country theii' toils 
and sacrifices made out of the wilderness. 

The principal settlement in town for several years 



272 PIONEEll HISTORY 

at first, was in the east -pari, near the center. The 
Randalls, Bates, Clarks, Manley, and other lead- 
ing men tliei'e were intelligent, and wanted the lights 
of civilization to sliine into their settlement, if it was 
away in the woods. Accordingly they met together 
about the year 1820, and formed a Public Library 
Association. Among the names or prominent actors 
in this movement were H. W. Bates, Adin Manley, 
Dr. Tlieophilus Randall, Amos Randall, David Jones, 
Calvin Freeman, Orrin Doty, James M. Clark, Benj. 
Morse, Nathaniel Brown, Caleb Clark and Noah 
Priest. 

They raised by contribution among themselves in 
various ways, about seventy-five volumes of books, 
organized themselves into a society, elected their offi- 
cer's, and kept up their organization about ten years. 
Mr. Amos Randall was librarian, and these books 
were well read in tliat neighborhood, and the habit of 
thought and study thus imj^lanted has borne its 
proper fruit in after years, in the numbers of Intelli- 
gent and infiuential men who have grown up there. 

They were too poor to each take a newspaper, and 
tlie nearest post office was at Clarkson. Several men 
united in taking a paper. AVlien it came to the post 
office whoever of the com^Dany happened there first 
took out the paper, and the neighbors would come 
together to hear it read — those who did not contribute 
to pa}^ the expense as well as those Avho did — and the 
paper was then passed to some other family and read 
over and over until it was worn out. 

Salt water was early discovered in Kendall, and 
salt made there to supj)ly the people. 

In 1821, Mr. II. W. Bates and Caleb Clark dug a 
well and planked it up to obtain brine on Mr. Bates' 
faini and there they made about one thousand bush- 
els of salt. They sold their kettles to a Mr. Owen, 
who mad(! salt in them in the southwest part of the 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 273 

town. Salt making in Kendall was dii^continued 
wdien tli(^ Erie canal opened. 

About the year 1825, a company of Norw^egians, 
about lifty-two in number, settled on tlie lake shore, 
in the north-east part of the town. They came from 
Norway together and took up land in a body. They 
were an industrious, ])rudent and worthy })eople held 
in good repute by people in that vicint}'. After a few^ 
years the}- began to move away to Join their country- 
men who had S(4tled in Illiiiois, and but few of that 
colon}^ are still in Kendall. 

They thought it very impoitant that ev(^ry family 
should have land and a home of thrir o^A•n. A neigh- 
bor once asked a little Norwegian boy whose father 
happenixl to be too poor to own land, wdiere liis 
father lived? and was answered, " O, we don't live 
nowhere, we liain't <;-ot no land.'' 



BIOCillAPHIES OF EARLY SEITLEKS. 



ADIX MAXLEY 



"I was born in Taunton, Mass., March 10, 1793. 
1 was brought up among tlie boys of New England, 
never liaving belonged to the ' upper ten.' J roughed 
with the hardy sporting ones, always ivady for ath- 
letic games, and could commonly act well my part. 
AVhen about twenty-four years old I was taken with 
the western fever, and having laid up two or three 
hundred dollars, in time saved while sowing my 'wild 
oats,' I b(Jiight a horse and wagon and started with 
three others for the Genesee country. Not knowing 
or thinking of any trouble ahead, we dashed away. 
One of my ti-aveling companions was Stephen Kan- 
dall, Jr., son of Rev. Stephen Randall, who had 
previously gone west, and tlien resided at Avon. 
18 



274 PIONKEK HISTOltY 

The son now resides in the town of Union, Mom'oe 
county, iind lias got to be an old man and wealthy. 
We arrived in Avon in September, 1815. From thence 
we made our wa}' into Murray', and to what is now 
Kendall, by way of Rochester. At Rochester we 
were glad to get into tlie barn with the horses for a 
night' s lodging, there being about thirty men, and 
liow many horses I cannot tell. Which made most 
noise would be difficult to tell ; one thing I do know, 
the men swore most and drank the most whisk}'. 
Tliat was an awfid company. It seemed as if they 
Avere the liltli ajid otlscouring of the whole country. 
In the morning 1 })roposed to sell my horse for I was 
short of funds and had no farther use for him. A 
gentlemanly appearing man by the name of Gilvreed 
offered to buy him. He said he had good notes 
against a responsible man, but the notes amounted 
to more than tiie ]nice of the horse, and I might give 
my note for the balance, and 'as to the value of the 
notes, I might enquire of gentlemen who knew, at the 
same time referring to some standing by, who said 
they w^ere good and no mistake. So the exchange 
was made in due form and both parties were highly 
gratified. 

But the result was that tlie makei- of the notes was 
not worth a straw, and the man, Gilvreed, was worse. 
This was m}' first financial operation in the west. 
What added to my liumiliation was, I thought I had 
such a vast knowledge of men and things as to be 
proof against being outwitted by anybodj'; and that 
I knew more than 'old folks.'' I wonder if boys 
think so of themselves now-a-days '( 

I then made my way west along the Ridge Road to 
Murray Cornc^rs, now Clarkson, where Dr. Baldwin 
liadlocat^^d and kept a tavern, which at that time was 
a very lucrative T)usiness, as ])eople were flocking 
from the east ra])id]y. 



OF ORLEAIVS COUNTY. 275 

From Muna}' Corners we struck off iiortli-west 
what was then called ' Black North,' a region where 
the probability was, what the miisketoes did not eat 
up, the fever and ague would kill. On we went, 
nothing fearing, until we came to wliat was called 
'Yanty Creek,' where we found three families loca- 
ted, who I believe were the only white inhabitants 
in what is now the town of Kendall. Thej^ were H. 
W. Bates, Amos Randall, and Benjamin Morse and 
their families. I concluded to make a ' pitch ' here. 
I now had to learn the customs and emploj'ments of 
the people among whom I was going to reside, which 
consisted mainly of chopping, rolling logs, raising 
log houses, drinking whisky to keep off the fever 
and ague, hunting deer, bear, raccoons, bees and 
catching fish. 

After working hard at a log raising, and taking- 
cold after it, I was awakened in the night b}' an aw- 
ful 'shaking' and could not tell what it meant, but 
found out sure enough afterward. 

In the spring of 1816, I went to work in good 
earnest to clear a patch of land on which to raise a 
little of the needful, and behold in June there came a 
frost and spoiled all our labor and made our corn- 
fields in the wilderness, instead of ' blossoming like 
the rose,' look as though the fire had run through 
them. 

The next fall I was taken down with the ague 
'proper,' and in attemi)ting to break it up I made it 
worse, until it became aiqful. I theii made up my 
mind to make my way back to Massachusetts. But 
how was I to do it '\ I was so weak I could not walk 
a mile. Finall}^ I found some men going to Vermont. 
and agreed with them to take me along witli them 
and let me ride i)art of the time. If I could remem- 
ber their names I would record tliem witli gratitude 
for their kindness. 



270 pioNEin: iiistoky 

I found my unconquera'ble Avill had a wonderful eftect 
upon my body. I had no more ague on my journey, 
though I had it every day before I set out. I went 
to Massachusetts, and remained till I got well re- 
cruited, and nothing daunted by what I had suffered, 
I determined to return again to the west, and Janua- 
yy 17th, 1817, I was married to Miss Miriam Deming, 
and in February following, with my wife, my brother 
and his wife and one child, Eri Twitchell and wife, 
and Nathaniel Brown, we started with three yoke of 
oxen hitched to a huge covered wagon. The perils of 
that journey were neither few nor small in pass- 
ing over mountains covered with snow and ice, 
sidling roads with yawning gulfs below, and crossing 
streams on ice, and floundering through snow drifts, 
with a constant headwind blowing in our faces for 
twenty -two days together. 

When we arrived in tlie neighborhood of our new 
liome, our neighbors hailed oui- coming with joy, and 
wanted a little Hour just to make a cake. I suppose 
they had gatheired some sticks and had baked their 
last meal. 

We moved into a small log hut with only one room 
the fireplace against the logs at one end, with a stick 
chimney, bark roof and floor. Taking it altogether 
we tliought it a terrible place to live in. 

We liad three yoke of oxen and nothing for them 
to eat, this was the worst of all. We turned them 
into the woods and cut browse for tliem, but the poor 
cattle suffered mucli. 

In the next spring Ave liad to pay one dollar a 
bushel for potatoes, and alike price for oats, and no 
money to buy with at that. AVe got some potatoes to 
plant and the}^ came up twice, once by natural growth 
and once rooted up by the hogs. We set them out 
again, my wife helping me, for she vras a true ' yoke 
fellow.' 



OF OKLEANrt COUNTY. 277 

So we plodded on througli the summer, with wheat 
costing S2.50 a "bushel, pork twenty-five cents a pound. 
Our first child was horn Sept. 24th of this year. It 
was very feehle, and remained so for a long time, its 
mother having the fever and ague every day for nearly 
seven months, and taking care of her child the most of 
the time. At six months old the child weighed onl}' 
four pounds ! Thus we toiled on for three years. 
The third yeav w^e raised wheat and other crops 
enough for our comfort, and had built a framed ad- 
dition to our house. Our prospects now seemed fav- 
orable for going ahead, but in March following, our 
house took fire and was consumed, together with all 
our provisions, and nearly all our household furniture. 
Under the circumstances, this was a sore trial to us. 
We then had three cliildren, and no wdiere to lay oui- 
heads. We had nothing to eat except what came from 
charity. Our neighbors were poor but exceedingly 
good. 

After a while we got another house and toiled on. 
getting together some of this world's goods. We had 
ten children, all of whom lived to grow up to be men 
and w^omen. We have sent nine of them to school at 
once. 

My wife died July 80, 1857, aged 04 years. I have 
never experienced an}' calamity in m}' life tliat afflicted 
me like her death, with such severit}'. 

For several years after I came into this country, I 
spent considerable time going far and near to assist 
in raising log buildings. Sometimes going several 
miles and carrying my dinner in my hand. 

Mr. H. W. Bates and myself were accustomed to 
labor much together, changing works. In the winter 
of 1816, we went a mile into the woods to chop ; there 
by accident a tree fell on him crushing him badly. 
Had lie been alone he would have perished. On an- 
other occasion Mr. Bates and another man witli my- 



278 PIONEER HISTORY 

self, went two miles into the Avoods one day in June,, 
and felled the timber on two acres. I think the like- 
was never done in that neighborhood before or since. 

In the early settlement of the Genesee country, in- 
temperance prevailed to an alarming extent. Almost 
everybody drank whisky free as water when they 
conld get it, and I am surprised so many escaped 
total and eternal ruin. Many years ago I saw the- 
evil and totally abandoned the use of every thing that 
i ntoxicates as a beverage and labored faithfully as I 
could to save others. For my zeal and persistence in 
opposing tlif^ traffic in liquor, I have suffered much 
from rumsellers. At an early day I have seen Justi- 
ces Courts in session with a bottle of whisky on the 
table before them, thus polluting the fountains of 
justice with the vile abomination, and if the 
Honorable Court happened to become too much ah- 
sorbcd with the cj-eature, they would adjourn over to 
cool off. 

I have had a large experience in hunting bears,, 
deer, raccoons and wolves, and camping out in the 
woods in cold and stoi-m, without fire or food, working- 
out in the dead of winter, eating frozen dinners in the 
woods, sharing fully my part in all sorts of hardships 
which fell to the lot of the first settlers here. I have 
endured it all, and lived to a good old age, thankful 
to that good Providence which has cai'i'ied me through 
so far and so safely. 

ADIN MANLEY." 

Albion, F'cbriiary 20tli, 1801. 

Mr. Mauley dicxi in AlT)ion, July 2nth, 1867, aged 
74 years. 

IJOHEIIT CI.AUK. 

"I was born in Lisbon, Connecticut, October 25th,. 
1801. My ancestors came to America from England 
s<>me time in the sixteenth century. My father re- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 279 

moved to Columbus, Chenango county, N. Y. in 1805. 
In 1810 he removed to Utica, and in 1817 he settled 
with his family on what was then called the Triangle 
Tract, n(^ar the county line, and between the towns of 
Kendall and Hamlin, about three miles from Lake 
Ontario. The place was then called Clark's settle- 
ment, because three brothers of the name of Clark 
settled tlieie. My uncles, Caleb and James settled 
there one year before my fatlier, whose name was 
William Clark, came on, which was quite a help to 
us, for they had a little wheat sown, and some corn 
and potatoes planted. 

When my lather arrived there was not a pound ol 
pork or tloui' in the settlement, except what he brought 
with him ; and tlie next day the pork. Hour and whis- 
ky were divided among tlie neighbors. 

One reason for the entire destitution among the set- 
tlers was the anti<'ii)ation of riiy father s arrival, for 
they all knew he would bring a supply for a time, 
and so neglected to ])]<)vide for themselves otherwise. 

The names of tlie families then in the settlement 
Avere Bates, Priest, Randall, Balcom, Ross, Clark 
and two by name of Manle}'. 

The setljers, in anticipation of our coming had 
peeled elm bark in tli(^ montli of June previous, 
enough to form a roof to a liouse, and on our arrival 
they commenc(Hl cutting logs for a liouse, and to clear 
a spot of ground large (Plough to set it on, and in a 
few days it was rais(»d and covered with bark, in true 
pioneer style. 'Plny^ also split l)asswood and hewed 
slabs for a tioor, which covei-ed about two-thirds ot 
llie surface of the room, the remainder being left for 
the fireplace and hearth. 

AVenoAv moved into our neAv house and (Mnnmenced 
our pioneer labors. 

The door of our liouse was a bed blanket, a,nd win- 
dows >vere liardl^' necessarw for our liouse was not 



280 PIONKKK HISTOItV 

'•chinked' and sufficient liglit came in tlirough crevi- 
ces between tlie logs, and a large space was left open 
in the roof for the smoke to pass tlirougli. Onr iire 
place was tlie entii-e end of th(» house, and oui- hearth 
the solid earth. 

My father soon ol^tained some hoards and made a 
door and temporary windows. The next tiling to he 
done was to chink the cracks between the logs. This 
being done, we dug up the soil and wet it and made 
mnd witli which ^^■e plastered the outside over the 
chinks, v.diich made our house quite warm and eom- 
fortable. 

About this time our stock of provisions began to 
get short, and the entii-e settlement was getting hai-d 
up for something to eat ; but as potatoes were about 
lipe we had plenty of them, and as we had a cow we 
lived quite well until we could get wheat ground, 
which at that time was very difficult. Before our 
wheat was hard enough to grind, our mother hulled 
and boiled it and wc ate it with milk, and we thought 
it very good eating. 

This state of things did not last long, for my broth- 
er James had a givat propensity for hunting, my 
father having bought him a gun ; he very .soon su])- 
})litHl us with A'enison which proved a luxury in the 
v/ay of meat. 

At length our wlicat ciop having matu]*^'d, a grist 
for each neighbor was prei)ared, and I stai-ted with an 
ox team and about twelve bushels of wheat, which 
with fodder for the oxeu by the way, was about as 
niucli as the team could draw. I staid at Murray 
Corners, now Clarkson, the first night, and the next 
day, a little before night, I got to the mill at Roches- 
ter, chained the oxen to the wagon and fed them for 
the night. I slei)t that night on the bags in the mill 
until my grist was ground, which was com2)leted 
about daylight. After feeding my team and eating 



OF ORLEANS COUNT^. 281 

my venison, I started for home and got there about 
sundown the third da}^ out. The next morning, I 
guess, all the neighbors had short cake for breakfast. 

I will now give a description of what was called an 
Indian Mill which was used to some extent by the 
early settlers. We selected a solid stump of a tree 
in a suitable ^luce near the house, cut a hole in the 
top with an axe, deep as we could, and then ])uilt a 
fire in the hole burning it, and putting in hot stones 
until it was sufficiently deep for a mortar. We then 
made a pestle of hard wood, took a strip of elm bark 
tied one end to the pestle and the other to the top of 
a limber sapling tree that would l)end directlj^ over 
the mortar, making a spring pole, which completed 
the machine. Put a (piart of corn into this mortar, 
and a man could soon convert it into samp — coarse 
meal — which when well boiled, made xi^vy good eat- 
ing in milk. The Indians used it almost exclusively 
for bread. 

I had never chopped down a tree or cut off a log 
when I lirst came into the forest. The next morning 
after arriving in the woods, I took an ax and went 
to where my'fiither was preparing to build his house, 
and commenced chopping down a ti-ee i^erhaps six 
inches through. I chopped all around the tree till it 
fell. When the tree startcnl to fall, I started to run, 
and if the tree had not lodged on anothei', I know not 
but I should have been killed, for I ran in the same 
direction the tree was falling. I was so scared at this 
my first attempt at falling timber, that I picked uj) 
my ax which I had thrown away in my fright, and 
made tracks for th(,' house, concluding to cho]) no 
more until I had learned liow to do it. 

The first school in the settlement was taught b\' 
Gurdon Balcom, the next by Wesle}' Randall. Tlie 
first minister of the gospel who preached in this set- 
tlement was Elder Randall, a Metliodist and a very 



282 riONEEK mSTOKY 

good mail. Dr. Theopliilns Randall was the first 
])liysician. 

In the fall of 1818 I went to Oneida county, and 
learned the art of distilling wliisk}^, which at tliis 
time was a very popular business. My mother died 
Avhile I was there, which nearly broke uj) our home 
<3ircle, and which was to me particularly, a cause of 
great sorrow. 

I returned home in June following and found my 
father' s family, as I expected, in a very lonely con- 
dition. I went to work with my father and brothers, 
clearing land and securing our crops. When that 
was done, I went back to Verona and worked in a 
distillery another winter. Next spring I returned 
and worked in Whitney's distillery in Rochester, and 
the fall after I went to Toronto, in Canada, and erect- 
ed the first steam distillery ever erected in Canada, 
wliich at that time was one of the curiosities of the 
age. 

I worked thousands of bushc^ls of tlie finest wheat 
I ever saw into whisky. The wheat was bought for 
two and six pence per bushel. 

The next June I returned liome. nn^ father in 
the meantime had married again and moved to 
Le Roy, having let out his farm in Murray. I w^orked 
in Le Roy and Clarendon. I became 21 years old 
October 2r)th, 1822. T took a job clearing land in 
Le Roy, for wdiicli I received $600. My father' s fam- 
ily and mj^self then moved back to Min-ray, and T 
l)aid up the balance for his farm. 

I married Anna Augur, daughter of Felix Augur, 
of Murray, now Kendall, Feb. 18, 1824. Mr. Augur 
had come in from Vermont the yeiiY previous, and 
bought his land of the State of Connecticut for $3.00 
an acre, Dr. Levi Ward was the land agent. Mr. 
Autcur was a soldiei- in tho Rpvolutionary War^ 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 283 

Gen, C. C. Aiignr, now of the United States army, is 
]iis grandson. 

Tlie next spring after I was married, I Ixjught a 
piece of land in Clark's settlement, wliicli had some 
Avork done on it, and went to keeping honse there. 

I chopped over twenty acres with my own hands, 
all but four days help of a man. I tlien sold out my 
chance on this lot, and bought fifty acres in another 
place ; which is a part of ray present farm. It was 
then entirel}^ wild, so that I commenced again in the 
woods. 

I bought it second-lianded, and agreed to pay eight 
dollars per acre. I worked some on my land, work- 
ed out some by the day and b}^ the job ; but as grain 
brought but a small price, I concluded that was a 
pretty liard way to get a living, and built a distiller}^ 
near my farm. At this time settlers had come in in 
mimbers. Grain was raised in plenty, with no cash 
market for it. Money was scarce, and the little we 
had was what we received for ashes. AVe cut and 
burned our timber and made hla/^li ^altn from the 
ashes, which brought cash. I have carried ashes on 
my back to market, until my shoulders were blister- 
ed, to get a little money to buy necessaries for my 
^amil3^ I built my distillery because grain was 
plenty and cheap. I could distill it, take it to mar- 
lc(^t at Ro(^hester and sell it for cash, at a good ^irofit 
to me and to the settler, who sold me his grain, which 
lie could not take to another market and make as 
much from it ;■ and he could raise grain easier than 
lie could make and market black salts. 

I sold my distillery in bS8(), and determined to 
make farming the lousiness of my life after that. 

The year 1828 is well rememben^d and distinguish- 
ed, as being ' the sickly season,' through this country. 
Th(^ sickness began in July, and in August there wen^ 
not well persons enough in town to tak<M'are of the 



284 . PIONEER HISTOIiY 

yick. And in this neigliborliood tliere was but one 
well man, Amnion Augur, and not one well woman, 
that could get out of the house. Many families suf- 
fered much for lack of liel}). My family was all sick. 
One day Dr. Robert Nichoson was the only person 
who entered my house. He calh^d, prepared our 
medicine and left it at the head of our beds, and went 
on to other scenes of sufiering. That was the most 
gloomy day I ever saw. My wife crept from her bed 
to mine, holding up by the door post, to see if I was 
alive, and then got back to lier bed, wliere lay our 
little daughter, equally helpless. AVe all spent a 
dreary niglit. M}^ hired man was down sick at the 
same time. The next day we got hel]). The 3*ears 
1826 and 1827 were also sickly j^ears. I could give 
many cases of suffering in those times, but amid it all 
we had our pleasures, for we \Aere all brethren and 
loved one anotlu^]-. 

ROBERT CLARK." 
Kendall, March, 1S04. 

SAMUKI. HATES 

Was the hrst wliite man wlio settled in what is now 
Kendall. He was born in Haddam, Conn., Aug. 9, 
1760. He was a soldier in the Revolutionary War, 
during the last three and a half years of its continu- 
ance, serving in a New Hampshire regiment. He win- 
tered with Gen. Washington at A'alley Forge, and 
participated in several ini])ortant ])attlcs. He served 
under rien. Sullivan in his memorable expedition 
against the Indians iji Western New York. He had 
a fondness for militar}' life and service ; a trait of 
character transmitted to his d(\scendants, and honor- 
ably exemplilied in his grandson, Lieut, (yol. Willard 
W. Bates, who was killed while leading his regiment, 
the 8tli Heavy Artillery, N. Y. Vols., in a blood}' 
battle before P(>te]-sbu)'g, \'a., in the wai" of the Re- 
bellion. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 285 

From what ^f r. Bates saw while with Gen. Sullivan 
lie early formed a desire to settle in the Genesee coun- 
try, a wish he was afterwards enabled to gratif}^ 

After leaving the army, Mr. Samuel Bates resided 
several years in Randoljih, Vt., removing from thence 
to Burlington, Yt. Leaving his family in Burlington, 
he came to Kendall, and took up lot 111, town 4, of 
the 100,000 acre tract, having the land 'booked' to 
him, as they called it, that is, having the agent of the 
State of Conn, note on his books that he had gone in- 
to possession, with a view of securing his right to the 
land when it slx)uld come in market for sale. Of this 
land, in due time he got a title and it is now ()v>'ned 
by his son, Capt. H. W. Bates. 

The lirst year he was in Kendall, lie cleared sever- 
al acres of land in the summer of 1813, he sowed two 
acres to wheat, built a log cabin, and returned to 
Burlington after his family, and brought them to 
Kendall in June 1814. His eldest son, Capt. H. W. 
Bates, then about twenty-one 3-ears old, accompanied 
him. 

On arriving at his new log house he found hife wheat 
held in full head, looking fine. The crop so raised 
furnishing bread for th<^ family the next year. 

Mr. Bates and his family, coming as they did from 
the Green Mountains of Vermont, suffered severly 
from fever and ague, some of the first years after they 
came to Kendall. They Avere all sick, Mr. Bates himself 
never fully recovering from his acclimating fever. He 
died August 21, 1822. 

AMOS KANDALL. 

Amos Randall was born in Ashburnham, Mass. 
January 3, 1788. He married Fanny Tabor in 1814. 
She was born in Shelburne, Vt., Feb. 11, 1793. 

In 1814, they removed to Avon, and in the spring of 



"iSQ PIONEER IIISTOHY 

1815, settled in Kendall, on the farm now occupied 
hy his son, Hon. Gideon Randall, where he after- 
wards resided, and died Aug. 28, 1830. Mr. Randall 
was a public spirited man, and entered zealously 
into every undertaking for the benefit of his neighbor- 
hood. He acted frequentl}^ as counselor and arbitra- 
tor among the settlers, to aid in arranging business 
matters, in which his neighbors needed such help. 

The first school house was erected on his land where 
the stone school house now stands. 

The first cemetery in town was located on his farm 
and the first burials of the dead were there. 

He was a Supervisor of the town of Murray before 
the count}^ of Oileans was organized, or Murray had 
been divided into the several towns which now include 
its original territor}^ He left six children, viz : 
Charles T., Gideon, who resides on his paternal home- 
stead, Dr. James W. now a practicing physician in 
Albion, Fanny E. wife of O. M. Green, George W. 
and Amos S. 

DAVID JOXES. 

David Jones was born in Pembi'okeshire in ^^^ales, 
July 17, 1792. He removed to America with his 
lather' s ftimily in the year 1801. His father settled 
in New Jersey and his son David i-emained with him 
until he was eighteen years old, then came to Ontario 
county, New York, where he resided four 3'ears, and 
then settled in Kendall in 1815. 

He married Miss Catharine AVhitney February 24, 
1824. Their childnai are Claudius, who married 
Harriet Weed and resides in Illinois ; Thomas, un- 
married ; Almiretta S. J. married C. G. Root ; Seth 
married Sylvia Shelly ; Cynthia Ann married James 
R. Whitney, and David who married Lucy A. Chase 
all of whom reside in Kendall, 

Mr. Jones was j)oor when he settled in Kendall and 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 287 

Doiight liis land on credit. He was a large strong- 
man able and willing to labor. He cleared and im- 
proved a large farm and became a wealthy man. 

Sickness in liis famih' and the want of a market 
for farm prodnce made it very difficult for him to ob- 
tain means to pay for his land improvements for some 
years at first. He said he agreed to pay four hundred 
dollars for his first hundred acres, and it was fifteen 
years before it was all paid. 

He was a man of strong native intellect and of 
sound judgment in matters that come within his ob- 
seiTatiou or experience, but he never had the lu'nefit 
of much instruction in school. 

He died January 2i\ I860. 



CHAPTER XXI. 




r 



TOWN OF MURRAY. 

Towns Set Off— First Tavern— First Marriage — First Birth — First 
Death— First Store— First Grist Mill— First School— First Church 
— Sandy Creek — McCall & Perry's Mill — Sickness at Sandy Creek 
— Biographies of Early Settlers. 

LARGE part of the western portion of Monroe 
?ounty was at lirst incorporated by the Leg- 
islature in March 1802, as Northampton. 
The town of Murray was formed from Northampton in 
June, 1812. It received its name in honor of John 
ALurray, a merchant of tlie city of New York, who 
was a large proprietor. 

Murray, at its formation, included what now com- 
prises the town of Murra}^, Kendall, Clarendon, Union 
or Hamlin, Clarkson and Sweden, 

Sweden, which included Clarendon, was formed 
from Murray in 1813, and Clarkson, which included 
Hamlin, in 1819. 

Kendall was set off in 1837, leaving the town of 
Murray of its present dimensions. 

The lirst inn was kept in 1809, by Epaphras Mat- 
tison. 

Messrs. Wait, Wright, Sisson, Earnsworth, and 
Rockwood, were among the earliest settlers. 

The first marriage was that of Solomon C. Wright 
and Tryjjhena Farnsworth. 

The first birth was that of Betsey Mattison. 

The first store was at Sandy Creek, by Isaac 
Leach, in 1815. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 289 

The first gristmill was lyuilt hy Pcny and Luce 
in 1817. 

The first school was kept l)y Fanny Ferguson, in 
1814. 

The first town meeting in tlie old town of ISInrray, 
before it was divided, was held in the harn of John- 
son Bedell, about foui* miles south of Brockport. 

The first ehurcli formed in this town was the Con- 
gregational hy Rev. John E. Bliss, Jani\ary oth, 
1819. 

The first settlements in what is now included in the 
town of Murray were made on the Ridge at and near 
Sandy Creek. 

Epaphras Mattison first settled here in 1809. In the 
year 1817, some fifteen or tAventy famili(^^ had located 
at Sand}^ Creek, and in thai yi^av Jhmvy McCall and 
Robert Perry built mills on the creek, iht^ir dam 
raising the water so as to overfiow (nghtcen or twenty 
acres then ('overed with heavy trees, whic^li were left 
standing. The water killed the timbtn-, and a terrible 
sickness followed among the inhabitants, about one- 
quarter of whom died in out^ season. 'I'lie well pei- 
sons were not numerous enough to take care of the 
sick and buiy^ the dead, and settlers from other neigh- 
borhoods came there and helped the needy ones. 
The mill dam was taken down and the sickness dis- 
appeared. 

Mr. Andrew 11. Green, of Byron, Generft^^ county, 
relates that several families were settled at Sandy 
Creek, in 1811. In the fall of that year settlers in 
Byron heard that these 2)eo])le at Sandy Crtn^k were 
nearly all sick and in great suffering, and tliey made 
up a company of six or eight and went over to help 
them, carrying a load of necessaries. Mr. Green 
says : " I never saw so helpless a company." Sandy 
Creek was regarded as an unhealthy location for 
19 



S;90 PIONEKK IIISTOJIY 

some years after its iirst settlement, occasioned in 
great part by building mills there in the woods. 

The first settlements in what is now Murray were 
made along the Ridge Road. Mills having been built 
in early times on Sandy Creek, near where that stream 
crosses the Ridge, mechanics and business men loca- 
ted there, and at the time the Erie Canal was first 
navigable here was a livel}" village known as Sandy 
Creek, a name by which it has ever since been dis- 
tinguished. 

The first post oflice in town was established here, 
called Murray. 

Though the 2:)eople sufiered terribly from sickness 
about the time mill dams were first built in the 
Creek here, and while neighboring lands were being 
opened to cultivation, yet Sandy Creek was the prin- 
cipal place of business in the town until Holley and 
Hulberton, on the canal, were settled and gradually 
drew away most of the trade and business to these 
new villages. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF EARLY SETTLERS. 

HAKLEY N. BUSIIXELL. 

Harley N. Bushnell was born in Starksborough, Vt., 
the youngest of thirteen children in his father's fami- 
ly, Feb. i8th, 1796. When he was fifteen years old 
he went to Connecticut to learn the trade of a clothier 
of his brother. He served as an apprentice in that 
business five years, and received thirty days school- 
ing in the time. In February, 1817, he came to Ba- 
tavia, Genesee county, and went to work at his trade. 
In August afterwards his employer ran aAvay, owing- 
Mr. Bushnell one hundred dollars, and the Sheriff" 
came and seized all his employer' s property, turning 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 291 

Buslmell out of business. He finally bought the es- 
tablishment and run it on liis own account, and with 
a partner ; but in the end found it a losing business. 
After a time he gave up his trade and was elected 
constable. In this business he was not successful in 
laying up money, and in the end found himself about 
even with the world. 

He did some business as a justice, and labored 
some at his trade until February, 1823, he removed 
to Holley, north of where the canal now is, Vrdiich was 
then covered with felled timber, not cleared off; 
bought two acres of ground and leased tvv'o acres 
more for a mill pond. He commenced getting out 
timber for a house eighteen by twenty-four feet 
square, hewing and framing it at the stump. There 
was considerable snow on the ground, and on the 
snow crust mornings, he drew all the timber for liis 
house to the spot with a yoj)L' over his shoulder. Af- 
ter getting his famil}' settled in his new house, he 
cleared otf part of his land, and with the help of his 
neighbors atone or two " bees," he built a log dam. 
got out timber and built a sawmill, and began sawing 
about May 1st, 1824. In 1825, in comjDany with 
Samuel Clark he built works for wool carding and 
cloth dressing at Holley. 

In October, 1826, his house burned with all its con- 
tents. In two weeks he had another house up. In 
June, 1828, he bought the interest of his partner in 
the wool carding and cloth dressing works, which he 
carried on alone until 1833, when he sold out and 
bought a farm. After a few years he sold his farm, 
moved to Holley, and ever after did business as an 
insurance agent. 

For many years he was Superintendent of the Pres- 
byterian Sunday School in Hollej'. 

He was one of the founders of the Orleans Count}' 
Pioneer xissociatiou, and many years its President. 



292 PIONKKi: HISTORY 

He was a kind ]ieart<xl, genial man, benevolent and 
])liilanthropit*, earnest and zealous in sHj^port of 
every good cause, and died lamented by all who 
knew him, October 28th, 1868. 

ARETAS PIEKCE. 

Aretas Pierce was born in St. Johnsbury, Vermont 
March 27th, 1799. He came with his father's family 
to settle in Clarendon, where he arrived April 7th, 
1815. Tlie family moved into a house built for a 
school house, until they could build a house for 
themselves. 

They built a house and moved into it April 24tli, 
1815. The first year they lived on provisions they 
brought in with them. Tlie next year being the cold 
season, they bought r^'e at one dollar and twenty -five 
cents a bushel, and pork at twenty-five dollars a bar- 
ivl, in Palmyra. The next j'ear the}^ were out of 
l)read stuif before harvest, and ate green wheat boiled 
in milk as a substitute, and what is strange none of 
tlie family had dyspepsia ! 

He married Matilda Stedman, May 8th, 1823, and 
has always resided on the lot originally taken by his 
father. 

When his fatiier came in it was an unbroken wil- 
derness on the west, from his place to the Oak Or- 
chard Road, eight miles ; north to Sandy Creek, four 
miles: east two miles; south to Farwell's Mills. 
Eldridge Farwell, A. Dudley, John Cone, Wm. Aus- 
tin and Mr. West, had settled in Clarendon, and 
other settlers towards Sandy Creek came in the same 
year witli Mr. Pierce. A few came before them. 

In the years 1 817-18, the inhabitants in this settle- 
ment suffered for want of food. 

Samuel ISIiller worked for Artemas Daggett chop- 
ping wood for one dollar a day and board himself.. 
All he had to eat, most of the time, was com meal 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 29o 

and water; l>ut lie did not complain or tell ol" it 
then. 

Ebeuezer Fox settled a mile and a half east ol" 
Murray depot, and all they had to eat for a number 
of weeks was what they could pick up in the woods. 
The best they could find was the inner bark of the 
beech tree. 

Mrs. Fox had a young babe, and her next oldest 
child was in feeble health, and she had to nurse tliem 
both to keep them from starving. 

Almost all the money the settlers had was obtained 
by leaching ashes and boiling the lye to black salts, 
and taking these to Gaines or Clarkson and selling 
them for about three dollars a liundred pounds. 

After 1818 the country tilled up rapidly with set- 
tlers and more produce began to be raised than was 
wanted for home consumption. The price of wheat 
fell to twenty-five cents a bushel, and onl}' tliirt}-one 
cents after hauling to Rochester, and so remained nn- 
til the Erie Canal was opened. 

Mr. Pierce settled on lands owned 1)}' tht^ l^ultne^' 
estate, and these did not come into market for sale 
until 1821, though settlers were allowed to locate 
themselves with the expectafion of buying their land 
when it came into market. The ])rice of his lot was 
fixed at eight dollars per acre, but having expended 
so much in building and clearing, he was compelled 
to pay the price or suffei' loss by alniiidoning all he 
had done. 

Tlie reason given by the conij)any for not bringing 
their lands into market was, they liad '' so miu-li bus- 
iness on hand they could not attend to it," but the 
settlers thought they were waiting to have the canal 
located before establishing their price. 

iri'nHAIM) IMCK. 

Hubbard Rice was born in Pompey, Onondaga coun- 



294 PION^EER HISTORY 

ty, July 28tli, 1795. He removed with his father to 
the town of Murray, and settled on a lot adjoining 
the Tillage of Holley, in May 1812. His father, Mr. 
William Rice, continued to reside on this place until 
about the year 1830, he went to Ohio to reside with 
his children, and died there. 

Hubbard Rice lived with his father until 1825, then 
he moved to the south part of Clarendon, where he 
remained until he removed to Holley in 1864, where 
he still resides, 1871. 

After Lewiston was burned in the late war with 
England, Mr. Hubbard Rice, then a boy of eighteen 
years, volunteered as a soldier and served a campaign 
on the Niagara Frontier. 

Coming to Holley when a boy, he grew up to man- 
hood there, seeing and sharing in all the toils, dan- 
gers, hardships and privations which the settlers en- 
dured. 

He has been spared to a lipe old age to witness the 
founding, growtli and development of a beautiful vil- 
lage on a spot he has seen when it w^as a native forest 
covered with mighty hemlocks, through which now 
by canal, railroad and telegraph, the commerce and 
intelligence of the world are flowing. 

('II AIT]\UE Y R< )IU XSON . 

Chauncey Robinson was born in Durham, Connect- 
icut, January 5th, 1792. When he was two years 
old he was carried with his father's family to Sauquoit, 
Oneida county, N. Y., where, to use his own words, 
'' I was educated in a district school, and graduated, 
at twelve years of age, between the plow han- 
dles." 

He removed to Clarendon, Orleans county, and set- 
tled about two miles south of Farwell's Mills, July 
1813; cleared a farm and carried it on until May, 1851, 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 295 

he removed to Holley, where lie resided until his 
death, which took place ]\Iay 8th, 1866. 

In the war with England in 1814, he was called out 
Avith the other inhabitants of the frontier generally to 
aid in repelling the British who were then besieging 
Fort Erie. 

He was several months in this service ; was in the 
battle and sortie at Fort Erie, Septembei" 17th, 1814, 
whicli was the last battle of tln^ war fought on this 
frontier. 

A^ery few families had located in Clarendon when 
Mr. Robinson went thci-c. IL* began in the woods, 
built a log house, and all its fixtures, furniture and 
surroundings, wer(^ in tlx' primitive st^de of those 
times. 

He was a man of ardent temperament, a lluent and 
earnest talker in private conversation or public de- 
bate, noted for liis intense hatred of slavery and op- 
pression, and his love of freedom and free govern- 
ment, and for his zeal in the cause of temperance. 
Upon this and kindred topics he frequently wrote ar- 
ticles for the newspapers. 

He was an active man in organizing the town of 
Clarendon, laying out and opening highways, and loca- 
ting school districts, frequently holding public office 
as the gift of his fellow townsmen. He was Supervisor 
of Clarendon four years in succession. He was an 
oi'iginal and free thinker on those subjects of public 
policy which excited his attention, enforcing his doc- 
trines with a y.oii] which some of his opponents thought 
fanatical. 

In his personal habits he was industrious, frugal 
and temperate. When ho was an old man hi^ said : 
"I have never used one pound of tea, coffee, or to- 
bacco, and comparativcl}^ little liquor ; none for the 
last thirty yeai's; not even cide]-. My constant drink 
at liome and abroad is cold water." 



296 PIONKEK IirsTOKY 

Hiram Frisbie was Lorn in (Iranville, N. Y.. Aug., 
1791. lie lirst came to Orleans county with a view of 
taking the job of buikling the embankm(^nt for the 
Ei'ie Canal, at lioUey. Failing in this he went witli 
his brother-in-law, William Pierpont, to Farwell's 
Mills in the town of Clai-endon, and 0})ened a store 
there in 1821. They sold goods and made pot and 
pearl, ashes there. Pier})ont also keeping tavern seve- 
ral years, when Pierpont sold out the whole business 
to Mr. Frisbie, who maiuig^d it ail alone several 
years, until tlit' insolvency of some leading merchants 
in Holley made an o|)ening for his business there, 
he then closed out i?i Clarendon and moved to lioUey 
to reside about the year 1828 or 1829. 

In connexion with Mr. James Seymour of Clarkson, 
he bought: all the unsold land in lIolhT, of a one 
Imndred acre tract, which had been taken up origi- 
nally by Mr. Areo\ester Hamlin. 

xVt Holley he sold goods as a mei'chant, built hous- 
es, sold village lots, bought produce, opened streets, 
and became wealthy from the rise in ]>i'ice of liis 
lands and the profits of his trade. 

He was appointed postmaster soon at'ttM- 1h^ came 
to Holley, an office he held fifteen years. 

Some years ago he was thrown from his carriage 
while driving some high spirited horses, several of his 
bones broken, and was so badly injured as to r^nider 
iiim incapa,ble of active bodily lal)orj as ]>efor('. He 
still resides in Holley, one of the few old men yet re- 
maining who settled here before the canal was made, 
enjoying in ipiiet tiie avails of a long life of busy in- 
dustiy and sagacious investment. 

.lACOI! HINOS. 

.lac(;b Hinds was l.)i)rn in llv town of Arlington, 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 297 

Benniugton county, Yt. He settled in the. town of 
Murray in 1829, and bought a farm wliich liad been 
taken up by article from the State of Connecti(;ut b}^ 
Jared Luttenton. 

The Erie Canal passes through this farm. Boating 
on the canal was then brisk, and no station between 
Albion and Hulberton was established at which boat- 
men could get their supplies. 

Mr. Hinds built a grocer}^ store and began tliat 
business. 

It was a good location from which to ship wheat, 
which began to be produced in considerable quanti- 
ties, and Mr. Hinds built a warehouse in 1830. 
About this time his brothers Joel, Darius, and Frank- 
lin, came on and joined him in business, and being- 
active, energetic business men, a little settlement 
sprang up around them, which was named Hinds- 
burgh. 

Jacob Hinds had been engaged in boating on the 
canal and became acquainted with the canal and its 
boatmen and men engaged in trafic through it; in 1830 
he was appointed Superintendent of Repairs on tht- 
western section, an office he held three years. 

After an interval of ten years, in 1849 he was elec- 
ted one of the State Canal Commissioneis and served 
three yeai-s in that capacit}', 

Sinc(^ retiring frcmi these offices, Mr. Hinds has 
followed farming as his principal occupatioii. 

ATSTIN DAY. 

Austin Hay was born in W^inhall, \'ermont, .Vpril 
lOth, 1789. 

He marri(Hl Polly Chapman, July 23d, 1810. He 
moved to the town of Murrav in the winter of 
1815. 

For some years after he came to Murray lie served 
as a constabl(\ and being a go(jd talker he ])racticed 



298 PIONEER HISTORY 

pettifogging, or acted as counsel in Justice's courts, 
and for a number of years, and until professional 
lawyers came in, he did a large business. 

After tlie Erie Canal was made navigable he en- 
gaged in buying wheat, which he followed some 
years, shipping large quantities chiefly from Holley. 

He was appointed Judge in the Old Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, of Orleans count}', an office lie held five 
years. 

He was elected Sheriff of Orleans county in No- 
vember, 1847, nnd held the office three j^ears. In 
Januar}', 1848, he removed to Albion, where until 
within a few years he lias resided. He was Supervi- 
sor of Barre in 1852. 

Bis wife died October 15th, 1858, which broke up 
his family, and since then he has resided in the fami- 
ly of his son, F. A. Day, in Albion, and lately with 
his daughter, Mi's. Buell, in Holle}', relievfHl from the 
cares and anxieties of business. 

ELT.TAH AV. WOOD. 

Elijah W. AVood was born in Pelham, Mass., 
April 22d, 1782. He removed to the town of Murray 
at an early day, where for many years he served as 
Constable and Justice of the Peace, and during one 
term of five years he was Judge in the Old Court of 
Common Pleas of Orleans count}'. 

He was a shrewd and successful pettifogger in jus- 
tices' courts, where he made u]) in wit and natural 
sagacity any lack hv may have suft'ered in legal at- 
tainments. He died in Murray at the age of eighty 
years. 

KKCOLLECTIOXS OF MRS. SALIA' SMITH. 

"I was born in St. Johnsbury, Vermont, in 1795. 
My father nnnoved with his family, including myself, 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 299 

to Leroy, New York, in 1816. We were twenty-one 
days on the journey. 

I came to Murray in 1817, and taught school in 
district No. 8, in a log house in which a family re- 
sided at the time. My wages was nine shillings a 
week and boarded among my patrons. I taught 
eight months during which time I was happy and 
fared well. 

While I was boarding at the house of David Gould, 
in the winter time, his stock of fodder for his cattle 
gave out and he was obliged to feed them with 
'browse,' and to save them from starving on such 
fare he went to Victor, Ontario County, and bought a 
load of corn for his cattle. His brother-in-law brought 
the corn to Murray on a sleigh with two horses, 
and arrived at Mr. Gould's house late in the evening 
of a cold and stormy night. 

There was no stable nearer than Sand}' Creek, three 
miles, where the horses could be sheltered. Mr. 
Gould's house had but one room, but it was conclud- 
ed to keep the hoi'ses there over night. Mr. Gould 
and wife occupied a bed in a corner of the room, two 
girls and myself liad our bed with its foot at the side 
of Mr. Gould's bed, and the hoi-ses stood in the other 
corner and ate their corn, and thus w(^ all slept that 
night as we could. 

I married Artemas Daggett, February 14th, 1819, 
and commenced house-keeping on the farm where I 
now reside, September, 1870. 

Mr. Daggett died in 1831 and left me with three 
small children and one hundred acres of land, owing 
about nine hundred dollars. In two years I raised 
the money and paid our debts and took a deed of the 
land. 

About this tim«^ I married Isaac Smith, with whom 
I lived in peace and plenty until his death in Au- 
gust, 186G. 



oOO PIONEER HISTORY 

During a great sickness at Sandy Creek, Mr. Brace, 
liis wife, and six children resided there. One of liis 
daughters fell sick and went to the house of a doc- 
tress in town to be treated. Others of the children 
were taken ill. Mr. Brace was notified that his 
daughter under the doctress' care was much worse 
and he went to see her. She died and he was taken 
down sick and could not go home. In the mean 
time a son at home died. Mrs. Brace had taken sole 
care of him in his sickness, and while watching his 
corpse the dead body of Mr. Brace was brought 
home and fatlier and son buried at the same time. 
The other sick ones recovered. 

At this time Mr. Aretas Pierce, Sr., who lived foui* 
miles away, came and found the Brace fanuly misera- 
bly poor, and destitute of all the comforts and most 
( >f the necessaries of life. He went about and got a 
contribution, and next da}' the pressing wants of the 
family were sup})lied b}' the benevolent settlei'S 
around. 

SALLY SMITH." 
Murr,i\-, Se{neinbi;r, 18TU. 

A I, ANSON UAN'Sl lEIJ). 

Alanson ManstieUl was bom in N'tMiuont, Marcli 
t)th, 179::^. 

With an ax which constituted his whole i)ersonal es- 
tate, lie came into tlie town of Murra}' in the yeai- 
1814, and hired out to woi'k, clio})ping until he earned 
enough to take an article of lot number two hundred 
and nineteen, a little north of llindsburgh. He then 
ivturiK-d to A'ermonl to ])ring his father's family to 
settle (m his laiid. They started from Vermont, his 
father and mother and six children, Alanson be- 
ing oldest of the children, — with a p-air of horsep 
and a sleigli, in which was a barrel of pork 
and somt* meal, a few household noods and the fami- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 301 

ly. A milch cow was led behind. The pork and 
meal and milk of the cow supplied most of their pro- 
visions on the road, and helped sustain them after 
arriving in Murray, until they could otherwise be 
supplied. 

They arrived in the winter of 1815, put iqi a log 
house for a dM'elling, and began clearing the timber 
from a piece of land, and the iirst season planted 
the corn from four ears among the logs, from which 
they raised a good crop. 

He married Polly Hart, in Murra}^, October 14th. 
1817. Her father settled near where Murray depot 
now stands, in 1816. 

He united with the Baptist church in Holley, in 
1831. The next year the Gaines and Murray Baptist 
church on the Transit was fonned, and Mr. Mansfield 
united with tliem and was chosen deacon. He was a 
worthy, honored and good man, and died respected 
by all who knew him, September 30th, 1850. 

ABXEK nALCOM. 

Abner Balcom Avas born in Richlield, Otsego Co., 
N. Y., September 15, 1796, and brought up in Hope- 
well, Ontario county. 

He married Ruth Williams, of Hopewell, March, 
1816. She died in March, 1822. 

In the fall of 1822, he married Philotheta Baker. 
She died February 7th, 1865, and for his tliird wife 
he married Mrs. Philena Waring. 

In the fall of 1812, in company with his older 
brother, Horace, and two other men, he chopped over 
twenty -two acres on lot one hundred and ninety-two, 
which Horace had purchased, and on which he set- 
tled in the spiing of 1816, and where he died. This 
was the first clearing in Murray, on this line between 
the Ridge and Clarendon. 

Mr. Abner Balcom first settled in the town of 



302 PIONEER HISTORY 

Ridgeway, on the farm now or lately owned by Gros- 
venor Daniels, to whom he sold it and removed to 
Murray "before the canal was made. 

In compan}^ with Mr. Hiel Brockway he built the 
dam and mills on the west branch of Sandy Creek, 
on lot one hundred and ninety-five, near which he 
has ever since resided. 

These mills, a sawmill and gristmill, are known 
as "Balcom's Mills,'' and in them Mr. Balcom has 
always retained an interest. 

Mr. Balcom has always been much respected 
among- his fellow townsmen. He has held all the 
town offices except clerk. He served as Suj^ervisor 
of Murray in 1847-8. He is an influential and consis- 
tent member of the Transit Baptist church, in which 
he has been deacon. 

. His son, Francis Balcom, was among the volunteers 
who went into the Union Army in the first years of 
the great rebellion, and was killed in battle while 
gallantly lighting to save the country which the in- 
structions of his father and the instincts of his own 
nature had taught him to love. 

KEUBEX BRYANT. 

Reuben Bryant was born at Templeton, Worces- 
ter county, Massachusetts, July IStli, 1792. He 
graduated at Brown University, Rhode Island, about 
the year 1816. 

After some time spent in teaching, he removed to 
Livingston county, N. Y., and studied law in the of- 
fice of the late Judge Smith, in Caledonia. Having 
been admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court, he 
settled to practice his profession in Holley about 
the year 1823, in whicli village he was the pioneer 
lawyer. 

In the fall of 1849 he removed to Albion, and in 
1855 he removed to Buffalo to aid his only son, Wil- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 303 

liam C. Bryant, u lisiiig young law3-er just getting 
into practice in tliat cit}-. 

He was appoint(^cl Master in Chancery by Governor 
Silas Wright, an office he lield when the Conrt of 
Chancery was abolished nndei' tlie Constitution of 
1846. 

He was a thorougli cUissical scholar, and had liis 
mind well stored with Greek and Latin lore, which lie 
delighted to quote in social moments with his friends 
when circumstances made it proper. 

As a la wj^er he had a clear perception of the law 
and the facts, and of their bearing in his cases ; but 
he was too exact, cautious, and diffident of himself 
to be an advocate. All his life he suffered from a 
malady which was a perpetual burden and cross to 
him, and annoyed him in his business. He died in 
Buffalo in January, 1863. 



CHAPTER XXIL 



VIIXAGi: OF nOLI^EY. 




Areovcster Uamlin — First Store — Post Office — Frisbie & Seymour- 
Early Merchants — First Sawmill — Lawyer — Tavern — Justice ot 
the Peace— Salt Brine — ]Mammoth Tooth— Salt Port — Presbyterian 
Church — Salt Spring. 

OLLEY, situate in the town of Murray, is 
a village which owes its existence to the Erie 
Canal. The site of this village was originally 
covered \nth a heavy growtli of hemlock trees. These 
were mostly standing when the canal was surveyed 
through, hut it being apparent a town must grow up 
liere, a vigorous settlement had been begun when 
work on the great embankment was commenced. 

Areovester Hamlin took up one hundred acres of 
land of the State of Connecticut, which included most 
of the present village of Holley, about the the year 
1820, and immediately commenced clearing off the 
timber and laid out a village. 

Col. Ezra Brainard was the contractor who built 
the embankment for the canal over Sandy Creek, and 
while that work was progressing settlers came in and 
began to build up the place. 

Mr. Hamlin erected a store in which he traded. He 
built an ashery and carried on that business ; he also 
built the first warehouse on the canal. 

To help his village, and accommodate the settlers 
who were coming in, he got a j^ost office established 
here of which he was first postmaster. He was an 



OF OliLKANS (orXTV. 805 

enterprising, active business man, but attempted to 
do more business than his means would permit, and 
failed. All his propert}^ was sold out by tlw Slierift" 
about the year 1828 or 1829. 

Ml". John W. Strong opened a store here a little af- 
ter Mr. Hamlin, and Ik? also failed about the time Mr. 
Hamlin did, when Hiram Fi'isbie and James Seymour 
purchased ail the real estate tliat Hamlin liad liot 
sold to other settlers. 

Mr. Frisbie came here in 1828 and opened a store 
and connnenced selling goods, a business in which he 
has more or less been engaged ever since. 

Mr. Frisbie l)ouglit out the interest of Mv. Seymour 
many years ago, and he has sold out the greater pail 
of his tract of land into village lots. 

Among the early merchants, aftei- thos(> named, 
Avere Mower and "Wardwell, and Selby & Xewell. 
Alva Hamlin, Geo. A. Porter, S. Stedman, and E. 
Taylor Yv'ere carpenters and joiners, who settled here 
in an. early day. John Avery and brother were the 
first blacksmiths. Samuel Cone Avas the first shoe- 
maker. Dr. McClough first 2)hysician. 

Harley N. Bushnell l)uilt a sawmill on the creek 
north of the canal, in 1824. 

Reuben Bryant settled as a lawyer in Holley about 
the time the canal was made and was the first lawyer. 
John Onderdonk was the first tailor. 

A man by the name of Samuel Cone built and kept 
a tav(^rn where the Mansion House now stands ; and 
a Mr. Barr built and kept another tavern house, a 
little west of the Mansion House. Both of these 
taverns were l^efore the Canal was navigabl(>. 

Turner was the first Justice of the Peace. 

The Presbyterian and Baptist meeting houses were 
built in 1831. 

Major AVilliam Allis came here as a clerk in the 
store of John AY. Strong. After the closing out of 
20 



;5(.)() PrONEEIt HISTORY 

Mr. Stjong's biusiness Maj. Allis carried on biisiiies.s 
iis a i)rodiK'e dealer and served a term as Sheriff of 
Orleans Connty. 

Salt Avas found in the ra\ine on the bank of the 
<"n'««k south of the canal. A brine spiing was located 
near where the railroad crosses the creek. In its nat- 
ui-al state this was known as a ' deer lick." When 
the Static of Connecticut sold the land on which this 
spring wjis found, in the deed given they reserved all 
mines, niinei-als and salt siu'ings. The State after- 
waids agreed with Mr. John Il(n^d that he should 
• )|)en the sj)ring and test the water and share half the 
avails with the State. Mr. Reed dug out the spring, 
set two kettles near the creek in the ravine and com- 
menced boiling the water for salt. When the water 
was pumped from the well it ap})eared limpid and 
clear, after btdling it became red colored, and if then 
boiled down to salt it remained red colored salt. To 
remed}^ this he boiled the water, then drew it off in 
\;its to setth^ the coloring matter fell to the bottom, 
the clear brine was then returned to the kettles, and 
made whitt? salt. 

Heed commenced boiling in 1814. After a time six- 
teen kettles were set liere to make salt and used un- 
til navigation was opened in the canal, when Onon- 
fhiga salt coidd he furnished here so cheaj) these 
works were abandoned. Indeed, they never afforded 
11 |)rofit to those working them. 

The wood for the fires was cut on the west side of 
tlie creek mainly, and drawn upon the top of the 
bank, of proper length to put under the kettles, and 
thrown down the bank through a spout made of tim- 
ber. A load of wood was sold at the works for a 
bushel of salt, or one dollar. Althougli the Ibrine so 
obtained was comparatively weak, the}' made hun- 
dreds of bushels of salt, which was sold to settlers in 
this vicinity, and carried away in bags. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. >>01 

Some years after the canal was dug, Erastiis Cone 
bored for stronger brine to a depth of nearly one 
hundred feet, near the old spring, but tlie result did 
not warrant his making salt there and none has been 
made since. 

The first school housc^ in the yillage of Holler" was 
made of logs, about the year 1815, and stood not far 
from the present railroad depot. It had no arrange- 
ments for making a fire in it, and was used for a 
school only in the summer, for several years. The 
first teacher in this school was Lydia Thomas, after- 
wards Mrs. Henr}' Hill. 

When laborers were excavating and building the 
canal embankment, a tooth of some huge animal, a 
mammoth, perhaps, was dug np. The tooth was a 
grinder, and weighed two pounds and two ounces. 
No other bones of such a creature have been found, 
and it has been conjectured this tooth must have been 
shed there by the animal to whicli it belonged, when 
it came after salt. It is now in the State collection in 
Albau}'. 

Holley was sometimes called ' Salt Port,' by tlie 
boatmen : but that name was soon dropped for Hol- 
ley, a name given to the village in honor of Myron 
Holley, one of the Canal Commissioners, wlieii tlu' 
canal was dug. 

On the 5th of .lanuary, 1819, a Congregational 
Church was orgjinized at the village of Sandy Creek, 
in Murray, which was distinguished as the ' Congre- 
gational Clmrcli of Sandy Creek.' July 13, 1881, by 
act of the Pr(>sl)ytery of Rochester, this Church was 
united with the Presbyterian Church in Clarendon, 
and removed to Holley, where the new organization 
was thereafter known as the ' Church of INIurray.' 

The village of Holley was incorporated undei" tlu' 
general Act of the Legislature, July 1, 1850. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 




TUE YILLAC4If; OF ntJLBERTOX. 

Joseph Biuld — Canal Basin — First Warehouse — First Grocerj' — First 
Tavern — I. IT. S. Hulbert — First Named Scio — Methodist Society — 
Abijah Reed and Sons. 



HE village of Hulberton is a canal village 
in the town of Murray, Joseph Budd, from 
the county of Rensselaer, x^ew York, settled 
here in May, 1826, and purchased of a former proprietor 
about one hundred acres of land lying on both sides 
of the canal. At lirst Mr. Budd resided in a log 
house standing a little soutli of the Methodist Meeting 
liouse. He afterwards erected a substantial stone 
dwelling in which he resided, now occupied by Mr. 
.Marcus H. Phillips. 

Mr. Budd was a large hearted, generous and public 
spirited man, with sagacity enough to see liere must 
l)e a village if the advantages were properly improved, 
and he set to work accordingly. 

In 1828 he dug a basin in the soutli bank of the 
canal west of the bridge, large enough for canal boats 
to turn about in, and commenced to sell village lots to 
sQcli as he could induce to purchase of him. Settlers 
soon located here. 

In 1880, Dr. Frisbie built a warehouse on the basin 
Budd had dug out. This was the lirst ware- 
house. 

Isaac II. tS. liulburt opened a grocery on the 
tow path east of the bridge in 1830, being the first 
grocery. 



* OF ORLEANS COUNTY. '^09 

Orsamus Squire buiit and occupied a store on the 
lot now used for a liotel, in 1828. This was the first 
store. 

This store was altered over and fitted up for a 
tavern, and tlie first tavern kept here hy Tinioth}- 
Tuttle, in 1832. 

In 1833 Mr. Budd caused his land next to the liigii- 
way and canal to be laid out into village lots by A. 
Cantine, surveyor, and the village has been Iniilt on 
this plan. 

I. H. S. Hulburt was an active business man, wlio 
sold goods, bought farm produce, staves and lumber, 
and drove a brisk trade with the boatmen, and served 
as justice of the peace. 

Finding it inconvenient to 0:0 over to Sandv Creek, 
on the Ridge for all their mail business, he applied 
for a post office here. 

The village was named Scio at an early day by ^Iv. 
George Squire. 

On examining for a name for the new post office, it 
vvas found there was one post office named Scio in 
ISTew York alread}^, and tlie village name of Scio was 
changed to Hulberton, in honor of Mr. Hiilburt, 1)}' 
which name the village and the j)Ost office have ever 
since been called. 

The post office was established in 1835, I. H. S. Hul- 
burt, first postmaster. 

Mr. Joseph Budd was a religious man, and desiring 
to promote the cause of religion and good morals 
among the people in his settlement, he invited Elders 
Wooster and Hemenwa}^ of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, to make this one of their preaching stations, 
and through these instrumentalities, a society and 
church of Methodists was organized. This society 
erected their meeting house in 1835. Its trustees 
.at that time were I. 11. S. llulburt, Saniu(4 Co}M'- 



810 riOiTEKK HISTORY 

land, Hiram Hibbard, Josepli Budd, and George 
Squire. 

Among the prominent business men whose wealth 
and industry aided largely to build up Hulberton, 
were the Reed family, consisting of Abijali Reed 
and his sons Epenetus, Hercules and Jacob, and his 
son-in-law Edward Mulford. 

They were merchants, upright, honorable, and fair, 
who came here from Greene county, N. Y. They en- 
joyed the confidence of the community, and carried 
on a large business while they lived. 

Gilbert Turner was the first blacksmith, and Wm. 
Perrigo was the first shoemaker. 

Among the early settlers in and near Hulberton 
wei-e Remember S. Wheeler, George Squire, and 
Hanford Phillips, who bought the farm on which Mr, 
Budd formerly resided and on which he set out the 
apple orchard, which has since become justly cele- 
brated, now owned by Mr. Phillips. 

Mr. Joseph Budd, wiio is worthy to be called the 
l*ioneer of Hulberton, died in May, 1806. 



CHAPTER XXrV 




VILLAGE OF niNDSBtTRGH. 

Jacob Luttenlon— Jacob Hinds and Brothers — First W:irchons<;— Jab*;>t 
Allison — First Hotel. 

'iXDSBURGH, a little village in the tcnvii <^t 
Murray, is situated on land which was first 
settled by Jacob Luttenton. who built the first 
house here. Mr L. sold out to Jarob Hinds in 1820, 
and Mr. Hinds commenced building up a village. 
]Mr. Hinds built the first warehouse in 181)0, and tlie 
lirst tavern in 1835. 

He, in connexion with his brother .Jo(4, built the 
tirst store for selling dry goods and groceries, in 188;"), 
i)})ened it for trade in 183G. 

In the year 1882, consideralile trade liaving l)<'en 
(established here, and the emigration to Kendall an<i 
other places north generally, making this its point o* 
debarkation from the (^anal, the Hinds Brothers and 
their neighbors in public meeting resolved to call 
tlieir place Hindsburgh, believing a small village 
would be liere located. 

The trade in i)ro(luce })roving good at Hindsburgli, 
Mr. AV. Whitney, of Rochester, built another ware- 
house hei(^ in 1880. 

Hindsbingli has always been a good placr froirj 
which to shi]» the abundant crops of gi-ain, apples, 
and fVirm ])roduce r.'iised in this neighborhood. As 
long as tiavel by passengers went l)y the canal, boats 
stopping h»^re. with tlie help of local trade, mad(j busi- 
ness liveb.-. 



312 riONEEU IIISTOKY 

Several grocery stores have been kept here, a iiimi- 
ber of meclianics maintained, and a large trade in 
dry goods snstained by the Hinds Brothers and 
others. 

The death of Joel and Darius Hinds, the removal 
of their younger brother Franklin to Iowa, and the 
death of Jabez Allison, who was an early settle]- 
here, and who had dealt largely in produce, seemed to 
check the transaction of business, and for some time 
llindsburgli has not increased in trade or popula- 
tion. 

Mr. Allison was for many years a justic' of the 
T)eace, and Supervisor of the tuwn. 



CHAPTEK XXY. 




THE TOWN OF lUDGEWAY. 

Formed from Batavia— First Town Meeting— Turner, White cc Ilooic- 
er's Grist Mill— First Saw Mill— Dr. Wm. Wiiite— Salt Works- 
Seymour Murdock— Eli Moore First Tavern Keeper and Merch- 
ant — School Districts — First Scliool — Universalist Society— First 
Stage — Isaac Bennett — Biographies of Early Settlers. 

IDGEAVA"! was formed from the town of Ba- 
tavia, June 8th, 1812, and included in its 
original limits wdiat now comprises Ridgeway. 
Gaines, Barre, Shelby, Yates and Caiiton. 

In 1830 the west tier of lots in the town of (laines, 
and three lots lying next south of them in Barre, be- 
ing part of the most westc^rn tier of lots in the loth town- 
ship, second range of the Holland Purcliase, were 
added to the east side of Ridgeway, in order to in- 
clude the whoh' villag<> of Knowlesville in one 
town. 

This town ^vas named from the Ridge Road, or 
natural embankment called "The Ridge,"" which runs 
through the county, parallel witli the shore of Lake 
Ontario, and was the first town incor]K)rated in Or- 
leans count}'. 

The first towii meeting in this cuinily was jicld at 
Oak Orchard, in Ridgewa}', April Oth, 181:?. At 
this meeting 01iv(vr Booth, of (laines Coijiers, was 
elected Supervisor. 

A bountj- of live dolhirs on each wolf killed in 
town w^as voted yearly- at several town meetings. 

Judge Otis Tuinei- removed with liis family frou) 



314 nONKEii ULSTOKY 

Palmy m, X. Y., and settled at Oak Orcliard in No- 
\ember, 1811. His brother-in-law, Dr. Wm. ^Vhite, 
came from Palmyra shortly after and settled near 
JNfr. Turner. 

Turner, White & Hooker built a <;rist mill on Oak 
Orchard Creek, between tlie Rid<z;<* and Medina in 
1812. 

The Holland Company built a sawmill on the same 
creek, near M<Klina, in 1805. 

Dr. William White was the first physician who 
settled in Orleans Co. After a few years he removed 
to Albion and built a sawmill there on Sandy Creek, 
a. little south of tlie village. 

As settlers came in Dr. White uave more attentioii 
to the practice of his profession, and did a large l)usi- 
ness. And about the time of the digging and open- 
ing of the canal, he kei)t a small drug store in con^ 
nexion with his other business, practicing nuHlicine in 
pai'tnershi}) with Dr. O. Nichoson. 

When Orleans county was organized lie was ap^ 
pointed the first Surrogate. 

He w;ts afterwai'ds engaged in boating on the canab, 
then carried on a farm in (Jarlton, and about 1842 he 
returned to Albion and lesumed the practice of med- 
icine, adopting the homeopathic system. Not getting 
much practice he removed to HoUey, where he served 
several years as Justice of the j)eac(^ of Murray, and 
died a few years after. 

The Holland Cimipany cut out roads to the brine 
springs north of Medina, and built w^orks for making 
salt. But little salt was made until the works ])assed 
into possession of Isaac Bennett, in 1818. He bored 
about one hundred and lifty feet and obtained brine 
which he boiled into salt, having at on<^ time as many 
as seventy kettles in use, furnishing a large portion 
of all the salt used in this ])ortion of the country. 
At the time of opeuing the canal these salt Avorks 



(»K OKLKANS (OUNTY. 81^) 

were superseded by Onondaga salt, and discontinued. 

Mr. James H. Perry, of Ridgeway, has furnished 
tlie following additional history of this town : 

'' The first permanent settlement in tliis town was 
made by Seymour Murdoch. In tlie spring of 1810, 
he started with his family to remove to western New 
York to settle where he might find a place to suit. 
Arriving at Avon, he left his family there, which con- 
sisted of twelve besides liimself, and with his oldest 
son went to the land office at Batavia. He there learned 
that the llidge Road had been opened, and a few set- 
tlements made on it. 

From Batavia he went to Buffalo, followed down 
tlie river to Lewiston, then went east along the Ridge 
Road, and when about two miles east of the western 
boundary of Orleans county, he came to two men by 
The name of Lampson, eating their dinner l)y a tree 
they had Just cut down. 

Thes(* mp]i had conti-act«'d with the Holland Com- 
pany to bu}' 2)art of lot twenty-fou]', township fif- 
teen, range four, and Mr. Murd(.)ck ]jurchased of 
them their rights to the land they had selected. This 
done he returned to Avon after his family, going by 
way of Batavia, while his son went east on th(^ Ridge 
to find the best I'oute to get through. 

His eldest daughter declared she would go no far- 
ther into the woods and was left at Avon. Taking 
the remainder of the family he stai'ted for Ridgewaj', 
traveling through a dense forest to Clarkson, thence 
west on the Ridgt^ Road, they reached their new- 
home June 1st. 1810. 

A ^Ir. AVilliam Davis lu'gan to build a log house 
on the lot iKwt west of Murdoclvs about this time, 
but did not move his family there till September, 
1810. 

Soon after this two men located at the Salt Works 
one and one-half miles woiithof the Rid^jre on the bank 



aiO PioxEErw iiisT()]iv 

of Oak Oi'L'liard Creek, in n log liou^e erected by the 
Land Compan}'. 

Erza I). Barnes came the same summer and ])oarded 
atMiirdocks while he was building his house two and 
a half miles east, and worldng two days in eacli 
week for Mr. Murdock to jiay for his board. At that 
time there was in the present town of Ridge way live 
horses, two yoke of oxen, and three cows, all the an- 
imals of the kind in town. These wej-e brought in 
by Sej'Uiour Murdock. 

Eli Moore moved to E,idgeway Corners in the S])ring 
of 1811, and built a block house which he opened as a 
tavern th(^ same season, and which still comprises a 
part of the large hotel standing ther(\ 

Tile same season he opened a small store for tlie 
sale of dry goods and groceries, which makes him no 
doubt the pioneer landlord and merchant of Ridge- 
way, if not of Orleans county. 

Sholes and Cheeney were the first blacksmiths, 
Isaac A. Bidlard the first tanner and currier and 
shoemaker. Dr. Wm. White the first physician, Israel 
Douglass the first justice of the i)ea.ce, Cyrus Ilar- 
wood the first lawyer, and Elijah Hawley the lirst 
postmaster. 

In 1814, the town was divided into school disti-icts, 
by William White, Micali Harrington and Gideon 
Freeman, throe Commissioners of Ccjnnnon Schools. 

District Xo. 2 extended on the Ridge from the 
County Line on the west to Oak Orchard Creek on 
the east, a distance of about seven mih's, the bounda- 
ries north and south were unlimited. 

The first school house was built of logs, in 1815, on 
the nortli-west corner of lot number twenty-four, on 
the south side of the Ridge Road. 

The first school in town was l;iughl by Betsey 
Murdock in 1814, in a liarn built l)y lier father, 
Seymour Murdock. This barn is still standing. 



' OF OTJLKAXS COT '^iTY. 817 

A d'cuv^htev oi' William Davis was the first xjersoii 
who died in town. She was buried about a mile west 
of the Corners, in what is probably the oldest bury- 
ing ground in town, and b}^ some said to be the old- 
est in the County. 

The first bii-tli in town was a daughter of John 
MMrdoek. 

The first Universalist Society was organized Dec, 
1-1, 1838. Mrs. Julia A. Perr}^ gave them a site on 
which their ])resent church edifice was erected and 
dedicated in June, 1885. Kev. Charles Hammond 
was the first pastor of that church. 

Mr. Ilildreth, of A'ienna, drove the first public con- 
veyance for carrying passengers, and the mail between 
Ilochester and Lewiston, being a covered wagon 
di-awn ])y two horses. 

When Isaac Bennett connnenced salt boiling at Oak 
Orchard, Israel and Seymour B. Murdock, contract- 
ed to furnish him sixty-five cauldron kettles by a day 
set. They bought the kettles near Utica, sent them 
by lake to the mouth of Oak Orchard Creek, v/here 
they did not arriv(3 until the day before the contract 
expired. They raised teams enough to transport all 
the kettles to the Salt Woi'ks, at one trip in time to 
])erform their contract and get their pay in gold." 



lUOGllAPlUES OF EARLY SETTLERS. 

rsK.vKL I)ou(;la8s. 

Mr. Douglass Avas born in !Xew Milford. Connecti- 
cut, November 20, 1777. He moved to Scottsville, 
Monroe County, N. Y., in 180G. In 1810, he removed 
to the town of Batavia, now Ridgewa}', Orleans Co. 
He was the first Justice of the Peac(^ in Oi-leans Ca 



318 PIONKEK JIISTOKY * 

liaving been appointed previous to 1812, for the town 
of Batavia. 

At the Hist town meeting held in and for the town 
of Ridgeway, after that town was set off Ironi Bata- 
via, at the house of John CI. Brown, at Oak Orchard, 
April 6, 1813, he was elected town Clerk. This was 
the first town officer elected by tlie people residing in 
what is now Orleans County. 

There being no magistrate to preside at town meet- 
ing in the new town of Ridgeway, a Justice by the 
namt^ of Smith was sent from Batavia for that pur- 
pose. The otlier tou n officers were elected afterwards 
at the same meeting. 

Mr. Douglass held the office of Justice of the Peace 
for three terms in Ridgeway ; h(3 also held various 
otlier town offices, and at one time was Justice, Over- 
seer of the Poor and Supervisor. 

He was generally and justly regarded as an 
lionest, fail- minded man, and one of the best 
l)usiness men in the county. He always resided on 
the Ridge Road, near Oak Orchard Creek. Mr. 
Douglass died January 2, 18G4, aged SG years. 

W.M. C TAXNKU. 

" I was l>orn in Clarendon, Rutland Count}', Ver- 
mont, ^Vpril 'iO, 1793. My father gave me a good 
common school education, with a few months study 
at an academy. 

On the first day of May, 1815, 1 ]<'ft home with a 
friend, and sj)ent most of the next summer ex])loring 
tiie western country. We bought land in the toAvn of 
Ridgeway, tlien nearly thi-ee miles away from any set- 
th^ment. T returned to A'ermont to prepare for ])erma- 
nent settlement on my land tiie next spring. 

When the time came to go back, my friend was 
sick and could not go, and my father permitted my 



OF OKLEAIS'S COr/JN'TY. 319 

younger brother Josias, not then twenty-one years of 
age, to accompany me. 

We began our journey February' 14, 1810, with a 
good yoke of oxen and wagon, and in company witli 
another team we went on our wear}' way. 

We bought two barrels of poi'k at ^kaneatehas, 
Avhich completed our outlit. We arrived at our new 
liome March <>, 1810, being twenty-one days on the 
road. I cut tlie first tree that was cut on the farm on 
which I now live, lot seventeen, township fifteen, 
range three. We, my brother and I, kept ' bachelor s 
hall ' on my land two years. 

In October, 1810, my brother went to Verniojit, 
leaving me in the woods alone, out of sight and hear- 
ing of my neighbors. I suffered man}^ hardships that 
winter, ])rincipally for want of pro])er food. I <'ut all 
^he trees I could and fed our oxen on the to})S, for we 
had raised little in that cold season for the sustenance 
of man or beast. I enjoyed my work well, but the 
nights were long and lonesome. 

On leaving home, my mother gave me her bible and 
1 read it through that winter by iiiv light. 

My brother returned in February. The next win- 
ter I left him to 'keep house,' but in comparative 
t'omfort, for we had plent}' of proA-isions. 

I went to Vermont in the fall of 1817, and returned 
in ^larch folh)\ving, bringing with me my younger 
sister for a housekeeper. She still resides near me, 
as the wife of Avery Y. Andrews, is the mother of a 
large family, and in good circumstances. 

My sister and myself left my father's the last day 
of February, in a cutter, and arrived in Ridgeway, 
March 12, 1818. Her bed, l)edding and clothing we 
brought ])acked in a box, which contained all her 
Avorldly effects, with which she commenced life as an 
independent housekeeper. 

She was a tall, slim girl, activt? and clieerful, car- 



'•^20 PIONEER HISTORY 

i-j'iiig sunsliiiio in lier coiinteimnce and manners 
wherever she was. Sh® left a large circle of young 
friends and associates, tlie pleasures of a father's 
liouse and a mother's care, to obscure herself in the 
woods, for tlie benefit of her brothers. She found a 
respectable circle of 3'oung people here, although 
I'ather widelj^ scattered. 

We brought with us at that time a favorite dog, 
concluding our sister would feel greater security in 
her wilderness home, when we were albsent at our 
work : and he fully justified our conclusions, for he 
soon learned to consider himself as her special pro- 
tector in our absence, and nothing could induce him 
to leave her/ when we were awaj^ from home. 

If she Avent for an afternooif s visit through the 
woods to a neighbor's, the dog vras sure to accom- 
])any her, lie down by the door, and be ready to at- 
tend her home. She alwaj^s felt secure in his pres- 
ence. 

As cold weather approached, our season for eve- 
ning parties commenced. Most of the houses in town 
were cheerfully opened for our accommodation, and 
the young folks, with a few couple of 3'oung married 
people, formed a company quite respectable in point 
of numbers. We were quite democratic, there were 
]io exclusions. Mau}^ a time did w^e spend our eve- 
nings dancing on a split plank floor, traveling several 
miles to the place appointed, walking on logs, over 
brooks and^wet grounds, some of the company car- 
rying a torch to light the wa}^ 

We sometimes went four or fiv(^ miles to an evening 
party, on an ox sled, drawn by two yoke of oxen, 
with as many passengers as could ' pile on ;' and as 
far as appearances would prove, all enjoyed both the 
ride and the dance first rate. 

The first regular ball we attended was held at what 
is now' Millvilk', in Shelby, July 4, 1819, and as it 



OF OKLEAXS COUNTY. 321 

was quite a primitive one, and perhaps the first one 
ever lield in this county, it may justify an imperfect 
description. • 

There were no carriages, and but fe^^■ horses in tlie 
(country. The young men would bring their girls be- 
hind them, l)otli riding the same horse. Others 
would be in waiting to take the horse and go after 
their girls, and so on until the company iiad assem- 
bled. The same course was pursued on their return 
home. 

At th(^ time of which I write, we met in the upper 
room of a new building made for a store. The floor 
was good, but the ceiling ovor head was low at the 
sides where the seats were placed, and it caused much 
polite bowing, to prevent our heads from coming in 
contact with the rafters. 

Our table was spread in tlie street in front of the 
store, and it was well supplied with substantial fare. 
We had a fine, social time, formed many j^leasant ac- 
quaintances and friendships, which Avere destined to 
endur(> through life. It is presumed there are few 
persons to whom it do'es not give pleasure, when the 
thought of such gatherings, in which they have par- 
ticipated, recurs to mind. Of more than twenty 
young ladi(^s, who attended that party, but tliree are 
known to be living at this time (1863.) 

As bear stories are sometimes entertaining to pio- 
neers, I will relate one Avith which my sister was 
somewhat connected : 

A respectable young man of the neighborhood 
(tailed to visit her one evening, and continued liis stay 
into the small hours of the night. His way home lay 
for a mile and a half through th<^ woods. He reported 
next day that as he was retui-ning through these 
woods, lit.' treed a bear ; but men who were 
alarmed by his outcries, were so uncharitable as to 
report that the bear treed him. He was never very 
21 



322 PIONEER HISTORY 

communicative on tlie subject, and it was generally 
believed the latter was the fact. 

Our first religious meetings were held in a log 
scliool house, half a mile west of Millvllle. The peo- 
ple would assemble from' quite a distance and the 
house would be well filled. 

Elder Gregory, a Methodist, was our preacher. 
He resided near by, was a good man and practiced 
what he taught. 

A Mr, Fairbanks preached occasionally. He or- 
ganized the first Presbyterian Church in Shelby, at 
that school house, in 1820. 

Judge William Penniman, a popular school teacher 
iu those days, taught a school in that school house 
several terms. 

My sister Anna was a pupil in his school out 
there in the winter of 1820. The old school house 
has long since disappeared. An academy and fine 
church buildings have arisen in Millville in its stead. 
There are, however, associations connected with that 
old school house that will cau^se it to be remembered 
by the old settlers. 

I received a lieutenant' s commission in the militia 
service, dated March 4th, 1817, which I believe to be 
the oldest commission granted to any one now a resi- 
dent of Orleans county. I was promoted in regular 
gradation to other military offices, and was finally 
<?1ected Brigadier General, my commission being da- 
tL'd April 30th, 1826. I was the first officer of that 
rank ever commissioned in this county. I discharged 
its duties as well as I was able for two years, and 
then resigned my commission. 

I appointed the following named gentlemen my 
brigade staff" officers, viz. : William Allis, Brigade 
Inspector ; Samuel B. Ayers, Paymaster ; John Fish, 
Aid-de-Camp; Harmon Goodrich, Quartermaster ; Or- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 323 

son Nichoson, Surgeon ; Alexis Ward, Judge Advo- 
■cate. 

I was married Marcli IStli, 1821, to Esther Lee, 
daughter of Judge John Lee, of Barre. My wife 
died in August, 1835. 

I married for my second wife Julia A. Flagler, 
daughter of Rev. J. S. Flagler, of Genesee county, 
N. Y. 

WILLIAM C. TANNER." 
Ridgeway, Dec. 5th, 1863. 

Gen. Wm. C. Tanner died July 8th, 1869. 

LEVI DAVIS. 

"I was born in Wardsborough, Vermont, in 1793. 
My father was a revolutionary soldier. My father 
;afterwards removed with his family to New Salem, 
Mass., at which place I was married in November, 
1816, to Miss Lorana Hunt. 

In 1814 I served a short time as soldier in the war 
with England. 

Soon after I was married, in company with two 
other families, I moved my wife and a few articles 
of furniture with a yoke of oxen and wagon, to El- 
licott, Chautauqua county, N. Y., a journey it took 
us thirty-five days to perform, during which snow 
fell almost every day. 

After passing Canandaigua, we entered a forest 
with few settlers, and even these residing from three 
to ten miles apart ; and in one case we traveled four- 
teen miles without passing a single house. The road 
most of the way was only marked trees, with tlie un- 
derbrush cut out, and no bridges over the streams ex- 
cept the ice. 

On our wa}' we exchanged our wagons for sleds, 
and how any of us lived through the last perilous day 
of fourteen miles travel through the woods, God only 
knows. 



324 PIONEER HISTORY 

We started as early as possible in the morningj 
overturned one load of goods, and fearing we should all 
perish in the woods, we unhitched our teams from the 
sleds some time in the night, patting our oxen before 
us, the women being supported by holding fast to 
the tails of the oxen, and thus pursuing our way 
through the trackless forest four miles, we arrived ai 
a log house about four o'clock in the morning. The 
liouse had been partially chinked but not plastered. 
Here we tarried the next day and night, during which 
time we went back, shod our sleds and got them out 
of the forest. 

AVe had to pay one dollar each for a joke of oxen 
one night at hay, and one dollar a bushel ^for oats. 
So in about forty days, like the Israelites of old, we 
reached the promised land. 

Tn October, before this time, I had been to Chautau- 
(pia county and contracted for a piece of land there, 
to do which 1 traveled out there from Massachusetts, 
and back again with my knapsack on my back, on 
foot, averaging fifty miles travel per day on the 
Journey. 

The third day after arriving on my land, I pro- 
cured some boards and built a shanty twelve feet 
square, nailing two of the corners to two standing 
trees, making a board roof, with not a tree cut 
down near it. 

The year 1816 was the 'cold season;" corn was 
cut off by frost and it was almost impossible to get 
bread. For three weeks before harvest we had 
nothing to eat but some very small new potatoes, but- 
ter and milk. By changing the order of having these 
dislies, we made quite a variety, lived^ 7iig7i, with 
hopes buoyant, and worked hard. Here we cleared 
up a new farm, raised an orchard from apple seeds 
brought out from Massachusetts, and also raised 
eight children. 



>>.. 



A 







'■^-y^OC(X4 



'^-C^. 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 325 

I went into lumbering business in 1832 ; took my 
lumber to Cincinnati to sell, but the stagnation in 
trade, and scarcity of money, owing to the course 
taken by the Old United States Bank, after its re- 
newed charter was vetoed by President Jackson, 
made it impossible for me to dispose of my lumber 
without great loss, which obliged me to sell my prop- 
erty in Chautauqua county to pay my debts, and I 
found even then I had not enough by $500 to pay up. 
That deficiency I afterwards earned by work at mason 
business and paid up in full. 

I removed to Orleans county in 1833, and worked 
as a mason several years. 

Previous to the opening of the Erie canal, I have 
paid seventy-five cents per 3'ard for sheeting, and 
seventy-five cents per yard for calico for my wife a 
dress. I have also paid fifteen dollars a barrel for 
salt. 

I have laid the corners of over fifty log buildings, 
and have helped raise as many frames. I have spent 
more than six months of my labor gratuitously, in 
opening new public highways, and building cause- 
ways. 

LEVI DAVIS." 

Ridgeway, February, 1863. 

.JERE31IAII BKOWTs'. 

" I was born in Cheshire, Massachusetts, July 7. 
1780. My father, who was an officer in the revolu- 
tionary war, died when I was seven years old. ] 
lived with my eldest brotlier until I was sixteen years 
old, and then ran away from him and worked out 
by the month the next seven years. 

When I was nineteen j^ears old I traveled with my 
knapsack on ni}- back, on foot from Massachusetts to 
Farmington, Ontario county, N. Y., spent a short 
time there, then returned as I came, most of tlie 
<way alone. 



326 PIONEER HISTORY 

Again in 1807, I traveled the same ground over in 
tlie same way. 

In 1809 I was married to Abigail Davis, daughter 
of the Rev. Paul Davis, of New Salem, Massachu- 
setts. 

The winter after I was married I came on horse- 
back to Farmington, to seek a home in the wilder- 
ness of Western New York, and located a piece of 
land for that purpose. I went back to Massachu- 
setts and worked by tlie month to earn the means 
to move my family to my new farm. 

I arrived in Farmington in February, 1811, and 
built me a log house in the woods one mile from 
any inhabitant. I was then the happy possessor of 
a wife and one child, six dollars in money, a dog 
and a gun. I exchanged my gun for a cow, which 
was the best trade I ever made except when I got 
jiiy wife. The next sj^ring I cleared my land, and 
raised over one hundred bushels of corn the same 
season. 

In 1812 the Avar broke out, I Avas called to the 
lines to defend my country. I received notice on 
Friday night, about nine o'clock, to be in Can- 
andaigua on the next Monday morning at ten 
o'clock, to march to Buffalo. I hired a man and 
woman to take care of my sick wife and child du- 
ring my absence, w^hile I responded to the call. I 
Avas then an officer in the militia, and I marched 
on foot with the rest of the officers and men to Buffalo, 
Avhere Ave arrived the second day after the battle. 
Our company Avas the first that arrived and assisted 
in collecting the dead. On receiving an honorable 
discharge I returned home. 

The tivo summers next folloAving, myself and Avife 
Avere sick with the ague and fever, almost con- 
stantly. 

In the Avinter of 1815, the ague having left me, and 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 327 

having regained ray health enough to move, I sold 
ray land and returned to Massachusetts. The next 
spring I carae to Ridgeway, in Orleans count}', and 
"bought nie some land, and in May brought on ray 
family. 

About t]ie first of the next September, myself and 
wife and one child were taken sick, and nntil Decem- 
ber following, we suffered every thing but death. 
Often during that time while myself and wife w^ere 
confined to our beds, our children w^ere crying for 
food, and neither of us had strength sufficient to ena- 
ble us to get to the cupboard tf) help them. 

In the month of June next, Israel Murdock in- 
formed me of several families v/ho were destitute ol 
bread, and asked if I thought it could be had for 
them at Farmington. I told him I thought it could, 
and taking his liorse and wagon, I went there and got 
a load of corn for which I paid one dollar a bushel. 
This, together with some rye, which Israel Murdock 
had then growing, and which the neighbors com- 
menced cutting as soon as it was out of the milk, 
sufficed for all of us to live on until after the hai- 
vest. 

The favorite, because tlie only way to replenish OTir 
meat barrels, vras io hunt raccoons, using their flesh 
in place of pork, and their fat to fiy doughnuts in. 
The next winter (181G) I went to Farniington, and 
bought two tons of pork, paying ten dollars per hun- 
dred for it, and one dollar and fifty cents each for 
barrels, and three dollars per barrel for salt. I 
brought my pork to Ridgeway with my oxen, and 
sold it to tlie inhabitants for from twenty-six to thirty 
dollars per barrel, trusting it out to such as could not 
then pay, and some of those old pork accounts re- 
maining unsettled, I am beginning to consider tlieni 
rather doubtful demands. 

In the spring of 181G, Ave held our first town meet- 



328 PIONEER HISTORY 

ing, and elected our iirst town officers. There not be- 
ing freeholders enongli in town to lill the offices to 
which we had chosen onr candidates, Mr. Joseph El- 
licott sent Andrew Ellicott to onr town to notify the 
town officers elect, to go to Batavia and take deeds of 
tlieir lands and give their mortgages, in order to 
"become legal town officers, and they went and did so. 
I lia\ing beeii cliosen commissioner of highway's went 
with the others. 

In my official capacity I assisted in lading out live 
highways from the Ridge to the lake. AVe would lay 
a road, following the lines between lots to the lake, 
keeping us bus}' all day. At night we would make 
a fire, cut some hemloclv boughs tor a bed, and sleep 
on them before our iiie soundh' till morning. Then 
making our breakfast, we would take another line 
ba<'k to the Ridge, and by tlie time we could get back 
to the settlement it would be afternoon, and when we 
could get something to eat we generally had excellent 
appetites. 

AVe were, however, amply compensated, our })ay be- 
ing two dollars for every twent^'-four hours we spent 
in this kind of labor, to apply on our taxes. AVho 
would not desire to be a rommissioner of liiglnvays 
under such circumstances I 

Since then I have held all the town offices in tlie 
gift of the people except clerk, collector, and consta- 
ble. I was once a candidate for the last named office, 
but to my great grief and moifification T was de- 
feated. 

Our county was viny iinhealtliy until 1828. That 
T think was the last sickly season, and during that 
season ni}'' health was good, and for eight weeks in 
that summer I never undressed myself to go to bed 
at night, being constantly watching with, and taking 
care of tlie sick, eitjier in n\\ own family or among 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 329 

my neiglibors. Since that time this county has }3een 
jis healthy as any other section I ever Ivnew. 

In 1822 I bnilt the first furnace and cast the first 
plough ever made in this State west of Rochester. 

When I first settled in Ridgeway, the town of 
Ridgeway extended from Niagara county eastward to 
the Transit Line, having originallj' been the nortli 
part of Batavia, from which it was taken 

Such is some of ni}^ experience as a j^ioneer of 
Western New York. I have lived to see ' the 
wilderness blossom like the rose/ and to see many 
of ni}^ early companions in the hardships of this new 
county, depart before me to 'that bourne from whence 
no traveler returns.' 

JEREMIAH BROWN.'" 

Ridgeway, July, 18C2. 

Mr. Jeremiah Brown died Nov. 17, 1 868. He Avas 
a man of large frame, strong and vigorous constitu- 
tion, a farmer by occupation, but sometimes varied 
his employment by buying cattle, and driving them 
to Philadelphia to market, and in other speculations 
in trade. 

Albert F. Brown, late jNIayor of Lockport, and Col. 
Edwin F. Brown, late of the Unioii Arnn', are his 
sons. 

.lOSKPK L. PKIMIY. 

Joseph L. Perry was born in Huntington, Conniiect- 
icut, November 30th, 1794. In 1804, his father re- 
moved his family to Aurelius, Cayuga county, N. Y.. 
to a farm near Auburn. 

Joseph L. Perr}^ married Julia Ann Reed, daugh- 
ter of Jesse Reed, of Aurelius, July 15th, 1819, and 
in March, 1820, removed to Ridgewa^', Orleans coun- 
ty, and located half a nnle west of Ridgewa}- Cor- 
ners, on the Ridge Road, on lot twenty-four. 

He Avas town collector and clerk of Ridgeway, 



830 riONEER HISTORY 

and deputy sheriff while this county was part of Gen- 
esee county, also deputy sheriff of Orleans county 
afterwards. 

In 1825 he purchased the store and hotel at Ridge- 
way Corners, and carried on the mercantile business 
for a number of years, theu moved into the liotel and 
kept tavern there many years. He also carried on 
tlie asliery business, and at one time run ten miles of 
the old pioneer line of stages, on the Ridge Road, in 
company with Champion, Bissell and Walbridge. 
He was postmaster a number of years, and mail con- 
tractor between Ridgewa}" and Shelby, several years. 
He was extensively engaged in buying and shipping 
grain on tlie Erie canal, running two boats of his 
own, which lie somt^times commanded in person. He 
Avas a shrewd, sharp, quick witted man, a good judge 
of human nature, always jovial and abounding in 
fun. 

He never lacked for expedients to extricate himself 
from any perplexity, and his sagacity ajid energy al- 
ways carried him safel}^ through, or over, every imped- 
iment which interfered Avith his purposes. He died 
September 17th, 1845, at his residence in tlie town of 
Ridgewaj'. 

CIIARLKS 1>. HURLIXGIIAM. 

'"I was born in Greenlield, Saratoga Co., N. Y., 
February 8th. 1810. being the fifth of my father's 
eleven children. 

Tn 1818 my father removed vntli his family to Per- 
ry, now in \V3^oming county, on what is known as 
'The Cotringer Tract.' The Avestern line of our 
farm avjis the eastern bounds of the Holland Purchase. 
Tlie farm contained one hundred acres, fifteen of 
Avhich had been cleared and a log house and barn 
erected when avc came on. 

In clearing our land Ave Avere ^accustomed to make 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 331 

' black salts ' for sale, as these, with pot and pearlash 
were the principal articles of export that hi-onght 
money into the settlement. 

In common with our neighbors, we sometimes suf- 
fered some hardships for lack of the necessaries of 
life. My father at one time went to the Genesee Flats, 
twelve or fifteen miles distant, and bought corn that 
was nearly spoiled by the Hood of the previous sea- 
son, pajdng one dollar and twenty-five cents a bushel, 
to help us along in the spring. 

I renjember one pleasant incident of our x^ioiic^^r 
history. After getting along as best we could at one 
time, without any bread for several weeks, we, sat 
down to a meal of boiled new unground wheat, and 
maple molasses, all the product of our own farm, the 
most delicious dinner, it seemed to me, I ever ate. 
Ah, that was a dinner a little boy could not easily 
forget, and that was the crisis, the turning j^oint in 
the pinch. 

Not long after this we had grain to sell, wheat at 
the nominal price of thirtj^-one cents, and corn at 
eighteen cents per busliel, with very limited sales at 
those prices. 

Our house stood, as I then thought, in about th(^ 
center of the world, and having joined to it an addi- 
tion of another house of about the like size, we were 
frequently favored v/ith social gatherings of peoph* 
there of all classes during tlie winter evenings. Those 
were occasions never to be forgotten by mc Tht' 
childr<^n and young people vrould amuse themselves 
in harmless phiy and gossip, and the parents enjoy 
themselves in x>lanning and story telling, while a few 
of the venerable^ motlicrs were intent on pre})aring 
the invariable accompaniment f)f every gatliering, a 
good supper. 

Starch, prim, and ui)]^er ten, w^ere unknown there. 
Liberty, equality and frat<^rnity reigned suprinnc^ in 



382 PIOXEEK niSTOKY 

those halcyon days. Ah nie, hut tliose were days of 
'Auld Lang Syne/ the memory of which is exceeding 
pleasant. 

In those times our religious meetings were held in 
a XDi'iAate house about half a mile from ours. Elder 
Luther, a man of more than ordinary ability, was the 
preacher who visited tlie place occasionally. He was 
a little eccentric in his manners and language, but 
c[uite well adapted to the times, and character of his 
congregations. 

As a specimen of pioneer preaching, it is remem- 
bered of Elder Luther, as he was in the midst of a 
sermon, urging some topic, and wishing to adduce 
authority to sustain some point, he stopped a mo- 
ment, then said, 'John, what do you sayf Then 
changing his tone of voice to imitate a fancied reply, 
he repeated what the apostle says on that subject. 
And then he called out, ' Paul, what are your views V 
Giving a repl}^ as before, in like manner thus interro- 
gating other apostles and our Savior, and giving tlieu- 
answers, closing up with — "And now, old Ben. Luther, 
vrhat have you to say to- all this V and then he gave 
his own conclusions, makiug the ])omt deeply impres- 
sive upon his hearers. 

Our chorister was the blacksmith of tlie settlement, 
* Uncle Seava,' as he was called by everybody; a 
white liaired, tall, slim, straight and solemn old gen- 
tleman, lie would rise and give the pitch for New 
Durham, Exhortation, Xorthfield or Majesty, or 
.some such tune in which the whole congregation who 
could sing would join, taking their style from the 
chorister, giving to the vi^ords and the music that pe- 
culiar ' nasal twang ' common in those days, which 
was designed to be especially impressive upon the 
hearers, and it had its intended effect, at least upon 
me, for I have not forgotten those auspicious occa- 
sions I witnessed when I was a little boy. Although 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 333 

some of the young peo^ole seemed to "be amused by 
the queer preaching and nasal singing, and some who 
attended failed to be profited, apparently, by the ser- 
vices, yet those religious meetings were reall}^ the 
' green spots ' in our earl}^ pioneer life, and were 
doubtless of great moral value to the settlement. 

Though district schools were established at an early 
day around us, my earh^ advantages for attending 
school were quite limited. However, at the the age 
of eighteen years, I went before the board of inspec- 
tors for examination, and being found by them of 
sufficient capacity, I was installed into office as a 
school master in a district school, which calling I al- 
ternated witli mercantih* business, until I Avas thirty 
years old. 

I embraced religion while teaching school in Poi*- 
tageville, Wj^oming county, in April 1831, and soon 
after became a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. 

I married Adeline C. Miller, in Xew Berlin, jST. Y., 
in September, 1834. 

In 1840 I was received as a member of tlie (xenesee 
Conference of the M. E. Church, and began preacli- 
ing, in which service I havt^ ever since been (^ngaged^ 
removing to Knowlesville in 1862. 

CHARLES D. BURLINGHAM." 

Knowlesville, April, 1864. 

.TOSIAS TANNER. 

" I was born in Clarendon, A'ermont, August ITth, 
1795. 

I received a fair common school education like 
other farmers' sons in that neighborhood. 

I came to the town of Ridgeway, N. Y., with my 
brother, William C. Tanner, in March, 181G, wliere I 
liave resided ever since. 

I was married November 28th, 1825, to Miss Lucy 
Baldwin. 



334 PIONEER HISTORY 

I have lived on my farm forty-eight years. I have 
had four children. My youngest son, Benj. B. Tanner, 
was a Lieutenant in the 151st Regiment N. Y. Volun- 
teers, and died in the service of his country in the 
war of the rebellion. * 

JOSIAS TANNER." 
Ridgeway, April, 1864. 

LUCIUS BARRETT. 

''I was born in Fabius, N. Y., April 13th, 1807. 
I was son of Amos Barrett. My father removed with 
his family to Ridgeway, N. Y., in March, 1812, and 
settled on the Ridge Road, one mile west of Ridge- 
way Corners. We moved into the house ol Jona- 
than Cobb, and resided with his family until my 
father got his house ready for his family. Mr. Cobb 
was an old neighbor of my father, and had moved 
to Ridgeway the year before we came. 

I well remember the house my father first built 
with the help of the settlers in that vicinity. The 
walls were logs, the floor basswood logs split, and 
hewed, the roof covered with long shingles split from 
black ash, not a door about the premises, nor a board. 
A blanket hung at the entrance served as a door, and 
kept out the cold and wild beasts. The fireplace was 
some stones against the logs at one end of the house, 
and the chimney was a hole through the roof. This 
sheltered us from the rain, but the snow sifted in 
plentifully. 

Farming has been my business. I bought the 
farm on which I have since resided, in 1831. 

I was married to Electa B. Chase, of Clarkson, N. 
Y., April 23d, 1833. 

I have lived to see the various changes through 
which this section of country has passed. I have 
known by experience the pinching pains of poverty, 
and I have enjoyed the comforts of competence. I 



OF 0RLEAN8 COUNTY, 335 

have seen broad fields, smiling witli harvests of plen- 
ty, emerge from the wild forests. I have not only 
seen this but I have realized it. I have lived it, and 
I trust my claim will not be disallowed when I assert 
that, in a humble manner perhaps, I have contribu- 
ted my part to bring about these happ}" results. 

LUCIUS BARRETT." 

Kidgeway, 1864. 

SEYMOUR H. MUKUOCK. 

" I was born in Dutchess county, N. Y., April 8th, 
1796. 

My father, Seymour Murdock, emigrated to Or- 
leans county in 1810, w^hen I vras fourteen years of 
age, and located on a part of the farm now owned 
and occupied b}^ me on the Ridge, in Ridgeway. 

In the transit from Dutchess county, we had a hard 
time, traveling with an ox team, with a family of twelve 
persons. We were a little over a month on the way, 
and reached our place of destination June 1st, 1810, 
and dwelt in our wagons nearly six weeks, and until 
we had time to erect a house in which we could 
reside. 

From the Genesee River to Clarkson Corners was 
one dense wilderness, with onl}^ an occasional com- 
mencement of clearing made by a few settlers. At 
Clarkson was a log tavern at which we stopped. 
From Clarkson to our first stoi)ping place there was 
then, I think, but three houses, and they were cheap- 
ly erected log cabins. 

We were two days in journeying from Clarkson to 
Ridgeway. The roads, if roads they could j^roperl}' 
be called, were almost impassable. 

At^the crossing of Otter Creek, in Gaines, fire had 
consumed the logs, which had been thrown into the 
bank to form a sort of dugway up the ascent from 
the stream, which left an almost perpendicular ascent 



386 PIONEER HISTORY 

for us to rise. To accomplisli tins, we took off our 
oxen and drove them up the old road, and then with 
teams on the hill, and cliains extending from them to 
the tongues of the wagon below, we drew our wagon 
np. In doing this, at one time the draft appeared too 
much for the team, the oxen fell and were drawn back 
by the load, and the horn of one of the oxen catching 
under a I'oot, was torn entirely off". 

The next difficulty we encountered was at a slash- 
ing about two miles east of Oak Orchard Creek, 
where a man by the name of Sibley had cut down 
timber along the track, and just then had set it on 
lire, which rendered our path both difficult and dan- 
gerous, as we were obliged to go through the midst 
of the fire. 

The next difficulty was at Oak Orchard Creek. A 
dugway had been made down the bank only to ac- 
commodate the Yankee wagons, and ours being a 
Pennsylvania wagon, with longer axle, it was serious- 
ly endangered by its liability to be thrown down the 
bank. 

On ascending the bank out of the creek on the west 
side, one of my brothers, then a little fellow, fell off 
the wagon and might liave been left if he had not 
screamed lustily for help. 

On arriving at our journey's end, our first business 
was to eat from the stock of prepared provisions we 
])rouglit with us. The food was laid out in order 
around a large stumj) which stood conveniently by, 
and I well remember the relish with which we all 
])artook of this our first meal, at our new home in the 
Avoods. 

The scenery here, as I now rc^nember it, was truly 
magnificent, one dense forest, composed of large, stur- 
dy oaks, extended as far as the eye could see, east and 
Avest, and on the south side of the Ridge Road. Or 
the north side the forest was more dense, and com- 



OF OllLEAXS COUiSrTY. 337 

posed of a greater variety of timl^er. The nearest 
ojDening east of its, was the one alluded to above, 
where we encountered the fire, two miles east of Oak 
Orchard Creek. The nearest one west was at John- 
son' s Creek, althongh Mr. Dunn had erected the body 
of a log house, but had made no clearing at the place 
on which he has since resided, two miles east from 
Johnson's Creek. 

At Johnson' s Creek, which was about five miles 
west from our then home, there was one log house 
built, and a small clearing. This was our nearest 
jieighbor, as north of us was an unbroken forest ex- 
tending to Lake Ontario, with no mark of human 
liabitation west of Oak Orchard Creek. 

At the head of Stillwater, in Carlton, lived a Avidow 
Brown, and I have heard of residents at the mouth of 
Johnson's Creek, but of this we knew nothing then. 
South of us were no families, so far as we knew, ex- 
cept two families by the name of Coon, who I think 
came in thi^ same season we did, and one family by 
the name of AValsworth, i-esiding near Tonawanda 
Swamp, which was our only stopping place between 
our place and Batavia, on this side the swamp. We 
liad no necessity then for the law we now liave called 
the 'cattle law.' 

The store nearest to us then was at Batavia, thirty 
miles distant. 

Our nearest jjost office was also at Batavia, and 
there also was the nearest church, and so far as 1 
know, that was the nearest place to us wliere religious 
meetings were held. 

There was also the nearest school house known to 
me, unless there was one at what is called Slater's 
Settlement, near Lockport. 

The nearest gristmill was at Niagara Falls, forty 
miles distant. 

The health of our family continued good during the 
22 



838 PIONEER HISTORY 

first 3'ear, and yet the season was so far advanced be- 
fore we could "be ^^I'epared to put in seed, that we 
raised nothing the first year except some potatoes 
and a few turnips. 

I remember a man called at our house that sum- 
mer, and knowing the family he kindly offered to 
make my mother a garden gate, there being then no 
fence around the garden, or within five miles of it. 
The general health of our family, and of those who 
became our neighbors, continued good, with trifling 
exceptions in the form of ague and fevers, &c., until 
after the war of 1812. 

During this war much suffering prevailed, as no 
provisions had been laid by, and the war necessarily 
took the time of many who would have otherwise 
been raising all necessary food, thus ceasing to be 
producers, and yet remaining consumers. This pro- 
duced a great dearth of j)rovisions, and much suffer- 
ing, consequently in some instances whole families 
left the county, some on foot ; in some instances wo- 
men went away carrying their children in their arms, 
in hopes of reaching a land of plenty and safety. 

At the taking of Fort Niagara, I and most of our 
family, and our neighbors of sufficient age and size to 
bear arms, went to the defence of our country. Du- 
ring our absence a band of Tuscarora Indians on a 
retreat passed through our neighborhood and greatly 
frightened our women and children before they could 
be made to understand that these Indians were our 
friends. 

Uj} to this time the settlers were sparse and illy 
prepared to encounter the horrors of war in our 
midst, and were in constant preparation for immedate 
flight. 

The hardships and privations and sufferings of our 
people consequent upon the war, were speedily fol- 
lowed by fearful sickness. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 339 

About this time emigrants coming to this region 
w«re many and frequent, and as the population in- 
creased so the sickness increased. Great and ahnost 
universal suffering among the inhabitants followed. If 
any were so fortunate as to escape sickness themselves, 
their physical abilities were overtaxed with care of 
those who were sick, and still the improvement of the 
county continued ; perfect harmony abounded among 
the people, and contentment, founded on hope, was 
universal. 

On June 1st, 1825, just fifteen years after dining 
off tliat stump above referred to, I was married to 
Miss Eliza Reed, of Cayuga county, IST. Y., and we 
took up our residence within a stones thrown of the 
log hut first erected by m}^ father. I have resided on 
the place ever since, and am happy and contented in 
the realization of the hopes entertained when a boy 
fighting musketoes and felling trees in the tlien wil- 
derness, w^here is now a good flourishing neighbor- 
, hood of inhabitants. 

SEYMOUR B. MURDOCK." 

Ridgeway, June, 1864. 

LYMAN ]iATES. 

Lyman Bates was born in Palmyra, N. Y., Janu- 
ary 16th, 1798. 

In November, 1819, he came to Ridgeway and 
commenced clearing a new farm. 

In January, 1821, he married Miss Abinerva 
Kingman, who was born in Palmyra in June, 1796. 
When not employed in discharging the duties of 
public office, in wdiich much of his life has been spent, 
he has labored on his farm. He has served nine 
years as Supervisor of the town of Ridgeway, been 
several terms justice of the peace, and held othei- 
town offices. He served one term of five years as a 
.Judge of the Old Court of Common Pleas of Orleans 



340 , PIONEER HISTORY 

county. He was a member of Assembly for Orleans 
county in 1828. He was President of the Farmer's 
Bank of Orleans, and lias always been deeply en- 
gaged in business. 

Coming here when everything was new and unset- 
tled, lie identified himself with every movement 
made to develop the resources o± the country, and 
to establish and maintain good order and prosperity.. 
Of a plausible address and sound mind, honorable, 
fair, impartial and honest in all he did, his party, his 
iriends and all who knew him, have ever made him 
the prominent man in his town and neighborhood, 
Aviiose opinions have been sought, whose counsel has 
been followed, and whose influence for good has been 
seen and felt. 

DAVID HOOKER. 

David Hooker was born in Connecticut, July 9th,. 
1771. He married Betsey Saunders in 1795, 

Mr. Hooker settled in Ridgeway, on lot thirty- 
seven, township fifteen, range three, in February, 
1812. 

Soon afterwards in company with Dr. William 
^Vhite and Otis Turner, he was engaged in building 
the mills on Oak Orchard Creek, since known as 
Morris Mills, which are now destroyed. He served 
in the war against Great Britain, and was at the 
taking of Fort Erie. 

His wife died in Mai'cli, 1813. He married his seC' 
ond wife, Polly Pixley, February, 1814. 

He built the framed liouse now occupied by his 
son, Perley H. Hooker, in 1816. 

Besides his son Perley, he left one daughter, wliO' 
still survives him as widow of the late Harvey Fran- 
cis, of Middleport, 'N. Y. David Hooker died Au- 
gust 6th, 1847. 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 341 

OTIS TUKIS^EE. 

Otis Turner removed from AYayne county, and 
settled on the Ridge, east of Ridgeway Corners, in tlie 
year 1811 . He was a farmer l)y occupation, but pos- 
sessing intelligence and aj)titude for business, he was 
frequently employed in public, official stations. With 
his brother-in-law, Dr. White, and David Hooker, he 
built a sawmill on the Oak Orchard Creek, between 
Medina and the Ridge, the second in town. 

He was a Judge of the Old Court of Common 
Pleas of trenesee county, before Orleans was set oft\ 
and he represented Genesee county as one of her 
Members of Assembly in 1823. 

He was for many years a prominent member of the 
Baptist Church at Medina, being one of the few who 
took part in its organization. He died in Rochester, 
N. Y., August 14th, 1865. 

TII0]\[AS ^VKLD. 

Thomas Weld, father of a large family who bear 
his name, was born in Connecticut in 1771. He mar- 
ried Lorana Levins. 

They first settled in Vei-mont, and moved to North 
Ridgeway in 1817. 

Mrs. Weld died in 1820, and Mr. AVeld, November, 
18th, 18o2. 

They had five sons and two daughters. The sons 
were Elisha, Jacob, Andrew, Elias, and Marston. 
They all settled near their father. Elias now lives 
where his fatlier did. They were industrious and 
thrifty farmers. 

SAMUEL CllUKClI, 

Samuel Church was born in Brookfield, Massachu- 
setts, in 1781. He married Ann Daniels. They set- 
tled in North Ridgeway, in 1816. Mrs. Church died 
in 1855. They had four sons. 



342 PIONEER HISTORY 

WILLIAM ]S\ PRESTOT^. 

AVilliani N. Preston was born in Lyme, N. H., in' 
1781. His wife, Sarali Daniels, was born in Pem- 
broke, N. H., in 1785. 

They settled in North Ridgeway, a mile and a half 
north of the Ridge, in 1819. 

His wife died October 3d, 1831. He died Decem- 
ber 29th, 1841. He had three sons, Isaac Samuel, 
and Williston. 

JAMES DANIELS. 

James Daniels was born in Pembroke, N. H., in; 
1783. He settled in North Ridgeway, on the town 
line. A few years since he moved to Michigan. He 
was brother of Grosvenor Daniels. He had four 
sons. 

WILLIAM COCHRANE. 

William Cochrane was born in Pembroke, 'N. H.,. 
in 1781. He married Rlioda Mndgett, of Pembroke. 
They settled in Ridgeway in 1819. They had four 
sons and three daughters. William Cochrane, of 
Waterport, is eldest of the sons. 

V/ILLIAM coiin. 

William Cobb was born in Massachusetts. He 
married Hannah Hemenway. They settled in Ridge- 
way in 1817. They had four sons and one daugh- 
ter. He died on the fEirm where he settled, April Ist, 
1855, aged sixty-six years. 

S K Y MOr H ]Sr I ' Kl )0C K . 

Seymour jNIurdock was born in Dutchess county, 
N. Y., iiil7G4. 

He married Catharine Buck of Amenia. She \vas 
born in 17G8. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 343 

They moved from Greene county to Ridgeway in 
1810, and located on the Ridge Road, about live 
miles east of Johnson's Creek. At that time there 
was no settler between Mr. Murdock's settlement and 
lake Ontario on the aorth ; none south to the swamp 
but Coon and Walsworth in Shelby, and east and 
west on the Ridge it was several miles to any neigl)- 
bors. 

The nearest postofRce, store or church, was at Ba- 
tavia, thirty miles distant. 

The nearest gristmill was at Niagara Falls, forty 
miles distant. 

Mr. Murdock was one of tlie first settlers on the 
Ridge, in Ridge wa}^ 

He had eight sons and four daughters. His sons 
names were Israel, John, Seymour B., Henry, Zimri, 
Jasper, Hiram, and William. 

Israel kept public house some lifteen years on the 
Ridge Road. He was one of the best business men 
in town. He died in 1831. 

John died in Gaines, September 19tli, 1860. Mr. 
Seymour Murdock died April 14tii, 1833. His wife 
died September 7th, 1823. 

OUOSA'EXOll DANIELS. 

Grosvenor Daniels was born in Pembroke, Rocking- 
ham county, N. H., May 3d, 1793. 

He married Sally Palmer, of Vermont, in April, 
1813. She died in July, 18.^4, and he married Florinda 
Hicks, in 1855. 

Leaving his family in Vermont, Mr. Daniels came 
to Ridge way in the spring of 1815 and took an article 
of part of lot forty- seven, townshij) lifteen, range 
three. 

Robert Simj3son came with Mr. Daniels and took 
one hundred acres adjoining his land. At that time 



844 I'lONEKU IIISTOKY 

there was no settlement between Ridgeway Corners 
and Lyndonville, in Yates. 

Simpson and Daniels built for themselves a camj) 
and began cntting the trees on their lands, getting 
their washing done and bread baked at Eli Moore' s, 
on the Ridge. After cutting the trees on five or six 
acres, Mr. Daniels went over to Canada to work a 
few weeks to get money, as lie could get none in 
Ridge way. After a few days he was taken sick with 
fever and ague, of which he did not get cured until 
the next spring. Being unable to work, he returned 
to Vermont, where he arrived in December, 1815. 
The next winter he started to move his family to 
his western home, on an ox sled. He had sixty dol- 
lars in money and thirty dollars worth of leather. 
On arriving at Rome, N.Y., the snow went off and he 
bought a wagon, on which he made the remainder of 
his journey, and on arriving at his log cabin home 
he had spent all his leather and money but six cents, 
and owed six dollars for money he borrowed of a 
friend on th(^ journey. 

The next summer, 1810, was the cold season. He 
had not got his land fitted for crops ; produ(;e through 
the country was cut off by the frost, and Mr. Daniels 
found great difficult}^ in getting food for his family, 
but having recovered from his long sickness of the 
former year, and being strong and resolute, he worked 
with a will and got thiough until lie had raised some- 
thing on his land. 

Being among the first settlers in his neighboiliood, 
he had raised produce and had it to sell to settlers, 
who came in abundantl}' for several years next after, 
and soon found himself in affluence, a condition in 
which he has ever since remained. 

After a few years on the lot Ik? first took up, lie 
bought of Abiier Balcoin the fai-ni he now lives on. 
Having taste and ability foi- military service, he was 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 345 

commissioned Ensign not many years after lie came 
here, and rose hy regular promotions to Brigadier 
General in tlie militia. 

He lias been a prominent man in public aflairs, 
and though he has never sought official distinction in 
civil life, he has been honored with various town 
and local offices . 

LAUKA EAKEK. 

Mrs. Laura Baker was born in Bristol, Vermont. 
March 16th, 1799, and married Samuel Bostwick, 
December 4th, 1816. 

In January, 1817, the}' emigrated from Fairfield, 
V^ermont, in a wagon drawn by a yoke of three year 
old steers, to Shelby, N. Y. 

While at AVhitesboro, on their journey, their 
trunks were broken by thieves and robbed of ever}'- 
tliing valuable. This obliged them to sell part of their 
clothing to pay expenses b}^ the way. They traveled 
in company with another ox team with another famil}' 
of emigrantb', averaging from eight to nineteen miles 
R day. 

They remained the last night on the road, at Gaines. 
The snow fell that night a foot deep. The road was 
so bad and the steers so exhausted by travel and 
hard work, that Mrs. Bostwick was obliged to walk 
the last six miles of the way on foot, as she had done 
half the wa}' from Vermont. 

The house into which they, with the other v>-agon 
load of emigrants, moved, was a nice log building 
with one door, no window or light except what came 
down cliimney or between the logs. It was then 
occupied by another family from Vermont, former 
acquaintances. 

A few weeks later anotlier family of acipiaintances 
came on from A'ermont and moved into the same 
house, where they all resided until other houses could 
be built. 



346 PIONEER HISTORY 

The inmates of this cabin now numbered twenty- 
five persons. Their furniture was two cliairs, a spin- 
ning wheel and a few pieces of iron ware. Their 
table was a chest, their bedsteads were round poles 
bottomed with bark, one un each side of the room, 
the other beds were made on the floor. Holes bored 
in the logs, in which, pins were driven, supj)orted 
shelves against the walls. 

The next spring, while making sap-troughs, Mr. 
Bostwick cut his foot and was disabled from work 
four weeks. Mrs. Bostwick hired a few trees tapjDed, 
gathered the sap herself, boiled it in the house in a 
twelve quart kettle, a six quart pot, and a small tea 
kettle, and made one hundred and sixt}^ pounds of 
sugar. 

When th(? snow went off she made a garden in 
which she set gooseberry, raspberry and blackberry 
roots which she found in the woods. She never 
feared wild animals that roamed in the forest, but she 
used to admit her fear of the Indians who frequently 
came along and remained all night, and she would 
watch and tremble with fear while they slept like 
logs on the floor, with their feet to the fire. 

Having worn out the clothing they brought from 
the east, Mrs. B. bought a loom and made cloth for 
her family and others. She took in weaving of her 
neighbors, and received pay in wheat at six shillings 
a bushel, though the best she could do with it was to 
take it to "R.idgeway Corners and sell it for four shil- 
lings a bushel, paid for in goods at a high price. 

Mr. Samuel Bostwick died many years ago, and in 
the y(\ar 1888 his widow married Mr. Otis Baker, a 
thriving farmer of Shelby. 

In 1853 he disposed of his farm and moved to Me- 
dina, wh(^re they yet resid(\ 

Married at the age of seventeen years, Mrs. Baker 
lias passed a stirring and eventful life in things which 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 847 

"belong to the settlement of a new conntry. Slie lias 
passed through it all in triumph. From pinching 
poverty to the possession of abundance, she has 
traveled every step, and surrounded by kind friends 
and present plenty, she yet remains one of tlie best 
specimens of the noble women who did their part in 
bringing this county out of the woods. 

iSTAIIUM BAKRETT. 

Nahum Barrett was born in Hinsdale, X. H. He 
married Sally Bennett of Westmoreland, N. H., in 
1805. 

In March, 1815, he removed with his family to Ti- 
oga county. His wife died there in 1820. In Janua- 
ry, 1828, he removed to Ridgeway, and died there 
April IStli, following, aged fifty-one years. He had 
nine children, of wliom the eldest is 

LUTHEIl BARRETT. 

Luther Barrett was born in Windham county, Yt., 
in 1806. While living in his father's family in Tioga 
Co., for three years of the time it was live miles from 
Ids father's to any school, and when a school was 
opened nearer, young Luther never had much op- 
portunity to attend it. 

In Ma}^, 1825, he left his father's family and came 
to Ridgeway and labored for his uncle, Amos Bar- 
rett, on his farm. He continued to work out b}" the 
month, until the year 1831 he purchased the farm 
three-fourths of a mile west from Ridgeway Corners, 
on which he has since resided. 

He married Miss Almira Flood, February 18th, 
1835. She was born in Londonderry, A^ermont, Jan- 
uary 2d, 1807. 

They have four children, S3'lvcster F., Elsie A., 
married Henry Tanner ; Medora P., and Lod(Mna A, 



348 PIOIS'EER ]IISTOKY 

Lodema iiiarried xindrew Weld, and I'esides in Pax- 
ton, Illinois. 

Mr. Barrett is a former, wlio by a life of persistent 
industry and prudence, lias accumulated a fair prop- 
erty, and by a life of honesty and integrity lias se- 
cured a fair character. He enjo^^s the confidence of 
his townsmen and represented them as Supervisor of 
Ridgewa}^ in the years 1857-8. 

OIIEISTOPJIEIt W] lALEY. 

Christopher Whaley was born in Montville, Con- 
necticut, June 16tli, 1798. AVith his parents lu) re- 
moved to Yerona, N. Y., in 180;:>. 

He was educated as a physician at the medical in- 
stitution at Fairfield, Herkimer county, and gradua- 
ted as Doctor of Medicine, June 18th, ]819. In Sep- 
tember, 1819, he settled in the practice of his profes- 
sion at Shelby Center. 

In February, 1832, he removed to Medina, where 
he resided until his death, October 20th, 1807. 

Dr. AYhaley married Mary Ann S. Coffin, March 
20tli 1824. iVfter li^r death he married Soph- 
ronia Martin in 1841. After her death he married 
Carrie E. Perry, July IGth, 1863. His ^\ddow and 
three children survived him. 

Dr. Whaley devoted his life zealously to the jirac- 
tice of his profession, in which lie had a large ride 
and eminent success. It is truly said of him "lie 
never refused his services to any one in need of them, 
whether they were rich or poor, and without taking 
into consideration the possibility of losing his fee.'' 

AXDIJKW \VKI,1). 

Andnnv AVeld was born in Heading, A'ermont, Au- 
gust 6th, 1804. lie canu^ to llidgeway in the fall of 
1817, in the family of his father, Thomas Weld. 



OF OKLEAXS COUNTY. 349 

The}' came in a wagon drawn by three yoke of 
oxen, being twenty- seven days on their journey. Mr. 
AVeld settled on lot nine, township fifteen, range 
four. 

Andrew resided with his father until he was twen- 
ty years old, then lal)ored one year for his brother, 
EJislia, on a farm for one hundred dollars. 

In February, 1828, he married Roxy Stockwell. 
She died May 9th, 1839. He married Clarissa Root 
for his second wife. She died December 22d, 1866, 
and for his third ^\Mfe he married Mrs. Susan 
Downs. 

Mr. Weld is a farmer, industrious and frugal who, 
in the honest pursuit of his chosen calling, has laid 
up a competence for his support and comfort while 
he lives. 

WILLIAM JACKSON. 

AVilliam Jackson was born in Duanesburg, N. Y., 
October 21st, 1799. 

He bought an article for one hundred acres of 
land in Kidgeway, j)art of lot twenty-one, township 
fifteen, range four, in September, 1826, After build- 
ing a log house on his lot, he returned to Onondaga 
county after his family and brought them to 
their new home the next February. His 
liouse was without a door or window or floor when 
lie moved into it, but blankets for a few days were 
good substitutes for doors and windows, when he 
made a floor, and doors and lived comfortably. 
Prosperit}^ attended his labor. In a short time he 
bought more land, wliicli he has fitted and cultivated 
into one of the fint^st farms in the county. 

Mr. Jackson married Martha Comstock, January 
20tli 1822. They have had eleven children, seven of 
whom are living. 



350 PIONEER HISTORY 

His father, James Jackson, was born in London, 
England, and emigrated to America in early life. 

ELIJAH IIAWLEY. 

Elijali Hawley was Iborn in Bridgeport, Connecti- 
cut, June 2d, 1792. 

He married Rlioda Spencer in May, 1805. In May, 
1815, lie settled near Ridgeway Corners. 

Mr. Hawley was a practical surveyor, and many lines 
of lands in Ridgeway and Shelby were traced and 
settled by his surveys. 

From memoranda found among Mr. Hawley' s pa- 
pers after his death, made by himself, in 1814 the 
town of Ridgeway, which then comprised the present 
county of Orleans, contained six hundred and eighty- 
one inhabitants, one hundred and thirty electors, and 
but live freeholders worth two hundred and fifty 
dollars each. 

He was appointed justice of the peace by the coun- 
cil in March, 1816, and Judge of Genesee County 
Common Pleas, May 23d, 1818, which office he held 
until his death. 

He Avas Supervisor of Ridgewa}^ in 1818. He was 
appointed postmaster at Ridgeway Corners in 
1816. 

He died April 29th, 1820, leaving his widow and 
six children surviving. Merwin. S. Hawley of Buffa- 
lo is his son. 

-lAMES .(ACKSON". 

James Jackson, eldest son of James Jackson, was 
born in Duanesburg, N. Y., March 29th, 1798. He 
married Maria Marlatte, February 21st, 1819. He 
settled on part of lot twenty, townshi23 fifteen, range 
four, in Ridgeway, in February, 1823, where he has 
since resided. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY, 351 

He lias been a successful farmer, overcoming by 
sturdy industry the obstacles of sickness, hardships 
and the privations of a new country, by which he 
has been beset. 

He has had ten children, ]iine of whom survive. 
His wife died December 13th, 1870. 

JOHN JA-: VALLEY. 

John Le Valley was borii at Paris Hill, N. Y., May 
'31st, 1810. 

His parents removed to Holland, Niagara county, 
when he was nine years old. His father died poor, 
leaving a widow and five minor children, of whom 
John was eldest. 

At the age of eighteen he commenced the battle of 
life on his own account, with a resolute will his only 
capital, and his father s family on his liands to 
provide for. 

He iirst bought seventy rods of land adjoining the 
place on which his father liad resided, and paid for 
it in work at seventy-five ceiits a day and boarded 
himself. On this he built a small house, into which 
he moved his mother and her children. He then 
bought on credit one hundred acres of land. On this 
he cleared and fenced seventy acres, built a house 
and barn, dug wells and made other improvements, 
and at the end of three years sold his farm for three 
thousand six hundred dollars. This he accomplished 
though to begin with he had not a dollar in money, 
no team, or stock or seed ; but he did have good 
health, a strong will, and a noble mother s wise 
counsel and encouragement, to which, he was ready 
to listen and follow, in whose welfare he has always 
felt the most tender solicitude, wlio has always shared 
his house and home, and still survives at the age of 
eight}^ years, enjoying in the family of her son all 



3/52 PIONEER HISTORY 

that filial affection and abundant means can supply 
to make lier old age liappy. 

In 1835 lie purchased the farm he now occupies, 
parts of lots twenty -nine and thirty, township fifteen,- 
range four, in Ridge way, containing one hundred and 
ninety -two acres. 

He has built mills, worked a stone quarry, and 
cultivated his large farm with eminent success and 
become wealthy. 

In 1852 he was appointed one of the Commissioners 
by the Legislature to re-survey the Ridge Road. 

He has held various civil ofiices in the gift of his 
fellow citizens. 

He has been three times married, and is now living 
with his third wife, Seraphine M., daughter of the 
late Joseph Davis, of Ridgeway, to whom he was- 
married January 13th, 1856. 

AMOS BARRETT. 

Amos Barrett was born in Chesterfield, N. H., May 
10th, 1778. 

In 1802 he married Lucy Thayer, and soon after 
settled in Fabius, Onondaga county, N. Y. His wife 
having died, he married Huldali Winegar, December 
20th, ^1807. 

In 1811 he bought fifty acres of land, part of lot 
fifteen, lying one mile west of Ridgeway Corners, on* 
the Ridge Road. 

He started to move his family to their new home' 
with a sleigh and horses and an ox team. One of 
his oxen broke his leg while being shod. He made a 
single yoke for his remaining ox, hitched him in the 
team beside a horse, and thus performed his Journey, 
liis team attracting much notice in passing. The 
yoke is preserved as a valued relic by his cliil- 
dren. 

He crossed Genesee river on the ice, and arrived at 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 853 

his lot in Ridgeway, Mairli 14t]i, 1812, and stopped 
with his neiglibor, Jonathan (Jobb, in liis log hoiiso, 
eighteen by twenty-four feet square, which on this 
occasion contained tw(^nty-six iinnates. 

Mr. Barrett soon built a log house on his lot and 
moved into that. Snow was deep that spring. He 
had no hay ; as a substitute he dug up a few brakes 
on low land near and felled trees, on which his ani- 
mals brows<?d, the pooi" horses hardly surviving on 
such diet. 

In June, 1813, war witli Great Rritain was declared 
and Mr. Barrett went with his neighbors under Capt. 
McCarty, to the defense of the frontier. 

During this war, Mr. Bari-e^t's family remained, 
while many others tied trom the country. 

Beginning in the woods, witli lields to be cleared ot 
timber before they could be made ])roductive, witli 
fever and ague to contend with, and privations of so 
many of the necessaries and comforts of civilized life 
to be born, it Avas sometimes hard for Mr. Barrett to 
meet the wants of his somewhat numerous family 
with the needed supjDlies. Food sometimes ran short, 
and but for the fish in the streams, and game from 
the forest, the}'- might have had more suffering. 

Mr, Barr(4t had a fov/ling piece with which he was 
a dead shot. He never had a rifle ; and a trusty steel 
trap, which did good service on occasion, once de- 
tained a wolf who happened '' to put his foot in it." 
Numerous deer, and occasionally a bear yielded to 
his prowess as a hunt<^r, nnd furnished meat for the 
family. 

Mr. Barrc^tt paid three doUais per acre for the first 
fifty acres of land he bought He had the sagacity to 
foresee that the price of lands would rise as settle- 
ments increased, and he secured to himself titles to a 
number of other parcels of land, and realized the 
rise in value as he had expected. 
23 



3,'54 PIONEER HISTORY 

Mr, Barrett had seven sons and one daughter, all 
of whom he lived to see married and settled around 
liim, with twenty-two grand children to perpetuate 
the family. 

He took pleasure in the last years of his life visi- 
ting the homes of his children. His social qualities 
made him a Avelcome guest always among all his ac- 
quaintances, by whom he w^as familiarly known and 
addressed as " Uncle Amos." 

He was generous and kind to worthy objects of his 
bounty, but the profligate, dishonest and idle, found 
HO favor at his hands. 

He was a pioneer in introducing improved modes 
and implements in agriculture. He was the first in 
his vicinity to use cast iron plows in place of the old 
Dutch plow. A tlireshing machine took the place of 
the flail in his barn at an early day, a rude im- 
])erfect machine, but it was an advance in the right 
direction, and his neighbors were induced to draw 
their grain to his machine, and thus taught its labor 
saving power. 

Mr. Barrett died in 18G0, in the eighty-second year 
of liis age. 

SIDNEY S. BARRETT. 

Sidney iS. Barrett, eldest son of Amos Barrett, was 
lioi-n in Fabius, N. Y., May 8th, 1804. He came to 
Ridgeway with his father' s family in March, 1812, 
and resided in that family until he w^as twenty-four 
years old, then with two younger brothers he bought 
{)art of lot twenty- four, township fifteen, range four, 
In Ridgeway. He worked his land in company with 
these brothers for five or six years, when it was di- 
vided and he took a part to himself, on which he has 
ever since resided. 

He maii-ied Lydia H. Fox, February 23d, 1832, by 



•jM-S^SiVi^isX,. 



A *%^ 



: u^K< 



*af^Vj ¥^ jj^ ^, -^p 







/ 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 355 

wliom he had two sons and two daughters, all of 
whom lived to adult age. 

WILLIAM KNOWLES. 

Mr. Knowles was born in Sandersfield, Berkshire 

. county, Massachusetts, July 19, 1790. His ancestors, 

for several generations, had been residents of Cape 

Cod, and were of the true New England, Puritan 

stock. 

They were God-fearing people, of deep religious sen- 
timent, and strict in their habits. His parents brought 
up their family of nine children according to the no- 
tions prevalent in those days among the descendants 
of the old Puritans. 

The school house and the church were prominent 
institutions in New England civilization, and Mr. 
Knowles had the advantages of both, as they were 
enjoyed seventy years ago. His schooling was re- 
stricted to the district school of that time. 

In December, 1813, Mr. Knowles collected his ef- 
fects together, purchased a span of horses and wagon, 
and a quantity of iron and steel for loading, and 
started to go to the Genesee country, where three of 
his brothers had alread}^ located. 

On his way west he stopped at Schenectady and 
bought eight kegs of oysters to add to his load. He 
arrived safely at the house of his brother in Kiga, 
January 5th, 1814. 

In January, 1815, he came to Ridgeway and stop- 
ped at the house of an old friend, Eleazer Slater. 
He took an article of lot three, township fifteen, range 
three, on which the village of Knowlesville, so named 
in his honor, now stands, on the Erie canal, contain- 
ing 341 acres. 

In March, 1815, he began to cut down the trees 
aipon his land so purchased, to build a house, then 



356 PIONEER HISTORY 

more than a mile from any liouse, or highway or foot 
patli. 

The spot on wliich he cut the lirst tree is where the 
residence of Mr. li. P. Wood now stands. In due 
time his cabin was raised, with sides of logs, roof of 
staves, or shakes, as they were called, fastened to 
their places "by poles bound crosswise, with a floor 
of basswood logs roughly hewed on one side. 

Mr. John Canifee, having a wife and one child and 
no house, moved into the new house of Mr. Knowles 
before it was completed, while the floor was only half 
laid down and a blanket was used for a door, and 
lived in it in that condition for two weeks. 

Mr. Knowles hired two men to work for him, one of 
whom had a wife, who was their housekeeper. Du- 
]'ing the first summer this woman, Mrs. Hill, was • 
taken sick and died. 

At that time there were no roads, no barns, no pas- 
tures, and none of the modern conveniences for living, 
in the settlement. Mr. Knowles had obtained some 
cows which he hired kept twO miles from his house. 
He would work hard in his clearing all day, then go 
two miles to milk his cows and bring the milk home 
in pails through the woods. 

The death of Mrs. Hill was a sad event in the 
wilderness. It rendered the log cabin desolate. 
The men Mr. Knowles had hired soon left him. 

In November, 1815, he went back to Massachu- 
setts, and in January, 1816, was married to Miss 
Mary Baldwin. They came on to the house Mr. 
Knowles had built. Mrs. Knowles soon accustomed 
herself to the inconveniences and difliculties of her 
new situation, went cheerfully to work and became a- 
model housekeeper. The inconveniences of house- 
keeping were not a few. 

Mr. Knowles, on his way home with his wife, had' 
purchased a set of chairs with splint seats. These • 



OF ORLEAN8 COUNTY. 357 

were regarded at first by the neighbors as a great liixii- 
r}^, and frequent comments were made by them nj)oii 
the extravagance, as they regarded it of tlie Knowh^s 
family. But if the}^ did indulge a little in the matter 
of chairs, their other furniture of the liouse at first was 
sufficiently primitive to satisfy the most fastidious 
of their friends, for they had at first no table but a 
board x>^it on the top of a barrel. Their first bed- 
stead was made by boring holes in the logs in the 
side of the liouse, and putting in rods fastened to 
pole bedposts, with side pieces of like material. 

In the cold summer of 1816, frost in June killed 
the corn, rendering the prospect gloomy and sad for 
the new settlers, but the wheat crop proved good in 
quality, though less than an average vield in quan- 
tity. 

In the summer of 1816, the engineers surveying foi- 
the Erie Canal, came along and pitched their tent on 
Mr. Knowles farm, on the spot where Abell & Brace 
jiow have a store, stopping there a week, and finally 
established the line for the canal through the centei- 
4)f his farm. 

The canal was completed to Lockport from tlic 
east in 1824. 

Mr. KuowIgs built one section of the canal a little 
east of Holle}'. 

In 1825 he built the lirst framed house in Knowles- 
ville, on the south side of the canal, in which he kept 
a hotel for several years. Afterwards he built the 
brick house near th(^ canal on the west side of the 
Main street, in which he kept a temperance hotel for 
:several years, until he finally closed the house as a 
tavern. 

Mr. Knowles built the first warehouse) in Knowles- 
,ville, in 1825. 

He bought and shipped the first boat load of wlu^at 
^ever shipped from Orleans county. 



358 PI05TEER HISTORY 

Mr. Knowles was always among tlie first engaged 
in all public enterprises for the benefit of the commu- 
nity in which he lived. 

He helped build the first school liouse in Ills dis- 
trict, which was made of logs. This served also as a 
place of public worship. Here ministers of various 
denominations preached the gospel, and the people 
flocked to hear them without regard to sectarian pre- 
judice or partiality. 

In 1838 Mr. Knowles built his late place of res- 
idence on the beautiful eminence in the west part of 
the village, and north of the canal. 

In 1830 the brick church in Knowlesville was erec- 
ted, Mr. K. furnishing one-half or more of the funds 
for that purpose. 

Mr. and Mrs. Knowles united with the Presbyte- 
rian church in 1820, which was the first religious so- 
ciety organized in Ridgewa}'^. For nearly forty 3'ears 
he has been a ruling elder in that church. 

He never had children of liis own, 3^et he has taken 
into his family and brought up and educated seven 
or eight children of others. To one of these Rev. I. 
O. Fillmore, he gave a liberal education, sending him 
to college and theological schools to fit for the gospel 
ministry, besides granting him a generous allowance 
of means to establish himself with comfort in life, 
in grateful remembrance of which favors, so bounti- 
fully and disinterestedly bestowed by Mr. Knowles 
and his family, Mr. Fillmore acknowledges his obli- 
gation, and devotes himself witli filial duty to 
make the last days of his kind benefactor as happy 
as possible. 

Mr, Knowles has been twice married. His first 
wife died April 2d, 1861. He married Mrs. Mary 
Crippen for his second wife. 

H(; has sold liis large farm and other real estate, re- 
servin^^ only a liouse and lot in KnowlesviHe, where 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 859 

he resides, relieved from the cares and perplexities of 
business, calmly awaiting tlie approach of death, en- 
Joying the full assurance of the good man's hope. 

The foregoing is the substance of a sketch of Mr. 
Knowles, furnished for tlie Orleans County Pioneer 
Association by his adopted son, Eev. 1. O. Fill- 
more. 

AVERY V. ANDREWS. 

'* I was born in Claremont, New Hampshire, .July 
25th, 1798. 

In 1802 my father removed to Waterbury, Vei- 
mont. 

In October, 1817, he started with two yoke of oxen 
and a wagon to move his family to western New York, 
and after traveling thirty days arrived at Gaines, 
then Genesee county, N. Y. I was then eighteen 
years of age. 

In the fall of 1819, I bought an article for fifty acr^s 
of land in Ridgeway, and in 1821, I bought an arti- 
cle for sixty-two acres with a small log house on it. 
All my personal estate then consisted of one yokt^ o* 
steers and a cow. 

I lived in my log house seventeen years, then built 
a dwelling house of stone in which I now reside. 

AVERY V. ANDREWS." 
Uidgeway, June, 18CG. 

NANCY G. MASTEN. 

*'I was born in Warwick, Massachusetts, Septem- 
ber 2()th, 1796. 

I was married to Ephraim G. Masten, at .\lbany, 
N. Y., November 15th, 1815. 

We settled in Bethlehem, Albany county, N. Y. 
In 1819 my husband came to Ridgeway, Orleans Co. , 
and bouglit an article for one hundred and thirty 
acres of land on lot seventeen, townshi]) lifteen, 



360 TK^NKinj HISTORY 

range three, then in a wild state, cleared three acres 
.and sowed it with wheat, and in November, 1819, 
moved upon his land with his family. 

We lived in a log- house until in 1831 w(3 built a 
dwelling of stone on the site of the old log hoiise. 
Mr. Hasten died March 20th, 1840. 

NANCY G. HASTEN." 

Jlid^oway, September, ]80(>. 

lA'SANDEH V. <;koveh. 

''1 Avas l)orn in Deej-tield, Massachusetts, Jan- 
uary, 22d, 1802. 

In the fall of 1807, my fathiM- moved to Phelps, On- 
tario county, I being then in m}' sixth year. Here 
I spent my boyhood working on a farm summers 
and attending district school winters. When I was 
twc^lve years old my father sent me with his hired 
man a mile and a half into the woods to chop cord 
wood, and on my t-welfth birth day I chopped and 
])iled on<^ cord of Avood, and well do I remember of 
biagging of my exploit vvlien I returned home. But 
idrate<iy^ of which we hear occasionally, had some- 
tliing to do with it, for I got the hired man to fall an 
old basswood ti-ee with a dead top for me, and this 
helped materially to make out my ])ile. 

My father being of Green Mountain oiigin, where 
men were born with iron constitutions, reqnired more 
work of me than my constitution could endure, con- 
sequently when I was about nineteen years old, I be- 
came physically unable to labor. 

In 1823 I went to school at an acadeni}' in (leneva, 
and in the fall of that year I obtained a teacher's cer- 
tificate. Thus accoiitered, and with little knowledge 
of the WMjrld, and still less of its lucre, I emerged as 
a pedagogue which occupation I followed with an in- 
crease both of success and wages. 

f^Mnding this business irksome and by no means de- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 361 

sirable for life, I resolved upon a profession. AVlien 
consulting with friends for a choice it was thought 
my piety did not come up to the ministerial standard, 
and I had neither the conlidence nor imjmdence to 
warrant success as a lawyer, therefore the only al- 
ternative was I must be a physician, which I resolved 
to be. 

I studied medicine with Dr. James Carter, of Gene- 
va, and attended medical lectures in the city of New 
York in the winter of 1827-8, and returned in the 
spring to Geneva, with just six cents capital in my 
pocket witli which to start in business. 

In January, 1829, I located for practice in the vil- 
lage of Alloway, in the town of L^^ons. Tliere, with 
a capital all borrowed, except the aforesaid six cents 
which I had not encroached upon, did I start out 
with saddle bags well tilled, full of confidence of 
success. I stuck up my tin and was ready foi- 
business. 

It was in the healthy season of the year, and no- 
body would get sick to accommodate me, or test the 
efficienc}^ of my drugs, or my ability in prescribing 
them. And it was even more than hinted that tlie 
hlues were lurking about me. 

But at length l)y patient industry I eventually ac- 
{[uired a good and lucrative practice as a phj'sician. 
and how well I have acquitted myself in my profes- 
sion, and in such other business as I have been en- 
gaged in, I leave for others to decide. 

I had not |)liysical stamina sufficient to enable me 
to enter tli(^ wilderness and hiy low its primeval for- 
ests, supplant the ferocious bears, and prowling and 
howling wolves, — or to build log houses, and occupy 
them,— therefore I am scarcely entitled to have my 
name enrolled among the real settlej-s and early pio- 
neers of Orleans coimty fifty years ago, my onh' 
claim being that I swung the ax in nn- bovhood davs 



362 pioj^teer history 

in Ontario county, and also that I have cleared some 
land by proxy in Orleans connty. 

October 3d, 1831, I married a daughter of Henry 
Howard, of Alloway, Wayne county, N. Y. I car- 
ried on my professional business in connexion with 
merchandising, until in 1844, Ii-emoved to Alexander, 
Genesee county, and in February, 1845, I moved to 
Knowlesville, on the farm on which I now reside. 
Here I have practiced medicine but little, keeping a 
drug and book store, and superintending my farm. 

My wife died April 8th, 1847, and I married for a 
second wife, Mrs. Eliza Ann Browii, xVugust 12th, 
1858. 

I have failed to get rich, being too timid to make 
any bold and great business strikes, having too great 
a development of the organ of cautiousness to 
secure the avails of any great far-reaching enter- 
prise. 

To sum up the events of my historj^ in short, in my 
boyhood I was a farmer, then a teacher, then a clerk, 
next, a student of medicim^ after that a doctor, then 
a merchant. 

I have run an ashery and a distiller}^ for which lat- 
ter business I trust I am now sufficiently penitent. I 
have kept a drug and book store, and am now living 
quietly on my faim in Knowlesville. 

LYSANDER C. G ROVER." 

Knowlesville, January 21, 18U7. 

KDWIX V. HEALY. 

'' My father moved from Massachusetts to Marcel- 
lus, N. Y. in 1805. 

I was born in Marcellus, Onondaga county, N. Y., 
April 14th, 1812, and was brought up at labor on my 
father's farm until I became a man. 

I taught school four years, then studied med- 
icine, and graduated in my proft^ssion in 1837, 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 363 

and settled to practice in Cortlandville, N. Y. In 
1838 I was married to Miss Maria Thomas, of Skane- 
atelas, and began housekeeping immediately. 

I practiced my profession eighteen j^ears, then from 
failing health was compelled to abandon the practice 
of medicine and removed to Medina, N. Y., in 1856, 
and engaged in the business of selling drugs and 
medicines, which I still follow. 

EDWIN p. HEALY." 

Medina, April, 1867. 

MILO COON. 

Milo Coon was born in DeRuyter, IST. Y., Novem- 
ber 4th, 1799. 

His father, Hezekiah Coon, was a native of Rhode 
Island, He came to Ridge way in 1809, and took an 
article for one hundred acres of land one mile east of 
Ridge way Corners, upon which he moved with his 
liimily September 29tli, 1811. 

When he settled here his neighbors were Ezra D. 
Barnes, Israel Douglass and Seymour Murdock. 

Milo Coon married Edith L. Willets, August 31st, 
1823. 

PETEK IIOAG. 

Peter Hoag was born at Independence, New Jer- 
sey, December 3d, 1794. 

In 1804 he came with his famih^ to Parmington, 
Ontario county, N, Y. From that time until Octo- 
ber, 1815, he labored on a farm, or went to school, or 
kept school. In October, 1815, he took up a lot of 
land in Ridgeway and built a log house on it, into 
which lie moved his family in March, 1816. 

About the year 1838 he disposed of his lot, bought 
part of lot nineteen, township fifteen, range three, on 
whicli he resides with his son Lmvis. 

Mr. Hoag married Hannah Vanduser, March 15th, 
1815. She died August 18th, 1831. 



364 PIONEEll IIISTOKY 

He married Maria Douglass, January nth, 1832. 
Slie died March 20th, 1866. 

His children are Mary, who died in infancy. Zach- 
ariali married INIaria Temple, and resides in Michi- 
gan. James, who married Elizabeth Slade, resides 
in Kendall. Eansom, who married Melvina Porter, 
resides in Medina. Marj', who married Sylvester 
Gillett, resides in Bergen. Lyman died in infancy. 
William L., who married Clara Bigford, resides in 
Wisconsin. Charles Henr}^, who married Minerva 
Powers, resides in Wayne county, N. Y., and Lewis 
H., who married Sarah Hoag, and resides on his pa- 
tei'nal homestead. 

DAA'ID irooD. 

"I was born in the town of Tarbot, Pennsylvania, 
August 2d, 1794. 

In 1797 my parents removed to Seneca, X. Y., town 
of Romulus. We had many hardships and priva- 
tions to endure, the country being new and we so fai' 
from school and religious meetings. Our land was 
heavily timbered and required a great deal of hard 
w^ork to get it in a condition to till. AVo had to go 
ten miles to mill. 

I went to school after I was nine or ten years 
old, what I could, and worked on tli*^ farm sunmiers 
until in September, 1813, I was drafted for a soldier, 
being tlien nineteen years old, and went to Fort 
C-feorge, in Canada, which had been taken In* our for- 
ces in the spring before. 

I was three months in tlu^ iH'i'O? '^^^^ ^''"'^^ then dis- 
charged. 

I continued with TU}' parents until 1816, when I came 
to the town of Ridgeway and worked one summer for 
a brother of mine who had located one mile south of 
Knowlesville. The next spring T bought an article 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 365 

for one Inindred and nineteen acres of land, upon 
which I went to work ch^aring. 

The title to the farm on which my father had re- 
sided and labored for twenty years in Seneca count}^ 
})roved bad and he was compelled to abandon it, 
leaving him almost penniless, and he came to the town 
of Shelby and began again anew. 

I bnilt a honse on my land in Eidgeway, in Octo- 
ber, 1818. 

In May, 1819, I was married to Miss Elizabeth 
Burroughs, daughter of David Burroughs, of Shelby, 
and in June alter, we moved into my house npon my 
farm, on which farm I liave resided now forty-seven 
years. 

I worked ni}-^ farm and my wife took good care of 
things about the house, and so we prospered as well 
as any of oni- neighbors. T built my first barn in 
1820. 

Presbyterian churches were organized at Oak Or- 
<;liard Creek, and at Millville at an early day. In 
the year 1831 a Church edifice was erected b}^ the 
Presbyterians at Knowlesville. 

During these years so long ago, although our labor 
was hard and fatiguing, yet we performed it with 
cheerfulness and in hope. Our neighbors knew no 
broils, families were all peaceful and friendly with 
each other, kind and attentive in sickness, even unto 
death. 

Thus we toiled on irom y(\ar to year, tlie forest gradu- 
ally retiring b(^fore us, and giving place to fruitful 
fields, and gardens, and orchards, yielding a gene- 
rous reward for our labors. 

I built a new house which I finished in 1835, but 
our old log house was like a sacred spot, cherished 
in our memories. 

Since occupying my present residence I have seen 
the present wilderness exchanged for cultivated 



366 PIONEER HISTORY 

land, filled with the habitations of industry. I have 
witnessed the introduction into our county of those 
great works of improvement, the Erie Canal, the 
Railroad, and the Electric Telegraph, and now, in 
the evening ot my days, I am enjoying a competence 
of this world's goods for my comfort, expecting soon 
to pass over the 'river,' where I hope to meet not 
only the pioneers of the woods here, but all who are 
here 'seeking a better country,' 

DAVID HOOD." 
Ridgeway, January, 1865. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 




THE VILLAGE OF MEDINA. 

Saw Mill by Land Company — Evan's Grist Mill — Canal Feeder — Nix- 
on's Brewery — Coan's Store — First Tavern — First Merchants — Phy- 
sician — Attorney — Quarries — Justus IngersoU — Baptist Meeting 
Tlouse. 



HE territoi-}' included in the village of Medi- 
na was mainly covered with forest trees when 
work was begun here on the Erie canal. 

Mr. Joseph Ellicott had, at an earl}'^ day, located a 
large tract of land here of the Holland Land Compa- 
ny, including the rapids in the Oak Orchard Creek, 
but settlement was commenced at Shelby Center, no- 
body at that time expecting a village would grow up 
here. 

Mr. Samuel F. Gear built a sawmill lor the Hol- 
land Company or Mr. Ellicott, on the falls in the Oak 
Orchard Creek, in Medina, about the year 1805, and 
about the same time the Salt Works were established 
at the brine springs, north of the village. This mill 
was a cheaply constructed affair. No roads leading 
to it were made, and before the war of 1812, few set- 
tlers located here. They could not get their logs 
to the mill for the distance and bad roads. The mill 
was not kept in repair and soon tumbled into 
ruins. 

Mr. Ellicott rented out the salt works, but working 
them was impracticable, and not much salt was made 
there until the springs came into possession of Isaac 
Bennett in 1818. 



HG8 PIONEEK HISTOKY 

Mr. Sylvanus Coan opened the first store in 18245- 
before tlie canal was finislied, and some small estab- 
lislmients for selling goods to those working on the 
canal soon followed, but the opening of navigation 
was the signal for commencing the improvement of 
the water power on the Creek and bnilding np tho 
town. 

In May, 1825, David E. Evans laid the foundations 
of his large llouring mill, afterwards owned by Wil- 
liam R. Gwynn, standing on the race near the rail^ 
road. 

This mill was built of stone, John Ryan master 
mason, and finished in 1820. It was finall}' l)urned 
in December, 1859. 

The State of New York built a dam in the creek 
at the time the canal was dug, and made a raceway 
to carry the creek water into the canal, as a feeder'* 
This race proved too low for the purpose and was 
abandoned. 

In 1825 Mr. Evans made an arrangement with the 
State, under which he raised a dam higher up the 
stream, and connected this by a raceway to the 
canal. Evans drew water from this raceway to turn 
his mill, and sold water power to othei-s to be drawn 
from his race. 

Joseph Nixon built a brewery here about the year 
1827. After a few years it was turned into a distille- 
ry, and malt liquors or whisky were made there for 
several years. 

This brewery was burned three times, and the site 
is now occupied by Bignall & Co. as a foundry. 

Uri D. Moore kept the first hotel, on Shelby St., 
in 1824. 

Ashael Wooodruff and brothei- were merchants 
here in 1826. 

John Ryan, mason, settled here in 1827 ; Simeon 
Downs, blacksmith, in 1825 ; Dr. Rumsey, 



OF ORLEJ^XS OOUNIT. 369 

the first regular pliyyiciaii, in 1827. Dv. Lathrop fol- 
lowed soon after, 

Tlie first attorney was Nathan iSaw^er. The first 
carpenter, Samuel F. Gear, The first iron founder 
was Simeon Bathgate. 

The postofhce was established in Medina in 1829, 
and Justus Ingersoll was the first postmaster, 

David Ford and John Parsons were tinsmiths. 
Otis Turner, and Chase andBritt were grocers. Clark 
and Fairman were early merchants. 

The first fire company was organized August 16tlj, 
1832, 

The first bell in a stee})le was raised on tlio Presby 
terian Church in 1836, 

This was the first bell in the village, and the only 
church bell between Albion and Lockport for several 
years. It was rung a number of times every day to 
regulates the hours of labor and rest of the inhabi- 
tants. 

A town clock was afterwards procured and plact^d 
in the steeple of the Methodist Church, to serve in the 
place of so much bell ringing. The clock proving a 
poor machine was soon given up. 

Justus Ingersoll, who had been Ji tanner in Shelby, 
moved to Medina in 1826, and built a large brick 
building for a tannery west of the creek, near th«- 
the canal. 

This was afterwards convertcnl into a fiouring mill, 
and burned December, 1858. 

Mr, Ingersoll was justice of the peace, postmaster,' 
Indian agent and Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas of the county, and an active man in villaire 
affairs. 

The first religious society organized in Mediiia wais 
the Episcopalian. 

**St, John's Church in Medina," filed a ct>rtificat^ 
24 



:>70 I'loxEEU iirsTOKV 

of incorporation in the county clerk's office nnder 
that name November 12tli, 1827. 

Rev. Richard Salmon, missionary-, was then in 
charge. 

Bishoj) Hobart held the first Episcopal service by a 
IMshop in Orleans county, in this church Septem- 
ber 7th, 1828. 

The coi'porate officers of the church for its first 
3ear were Justus IngersoU and Richard Xan Dyke, 
Wardens. 

Christopher Whaley, Elijah Beech, John B. Elli- 
cott, Joseph Nixon, Henry Yerrington, Benjamin W. 
Van Dyke, Jonas S. Billings and Hezekiah R. War- 
ner, Vestrymen. 

Mr. David E. Evans gave the church a piece of 
land on which to erect their church edifice, the foun- 
dations of which were laid in 1831. 

The first religious services were held in this build- 
ing, in the basement, on Christmas Eve, 1832. 
Josluui M. Rogers w^as the minister. 

The house was finished, and consecrated by Bishop 
Onderdonk, September 80th. 183G, where it now 
stands, on Center street. 

The Methodists filed a certificate to incorporate a 
society by name of ''The first Methodist Episcopal 
Society in Medina," October 1st, 1830. 

They filed another certificate altering their name, 
among other things, April 7tli, 1834. 

They commenced building their house of worship 
of stone, in 1833. In raising the roof the timbers 
gave way and eleven men fell in the ruins. No one 
was killed, some bones were broken. 

The basement of this house was finished and iised 
in 1834, but it was several years before the whole 
house was completed. 

This house was taken down and rebuilt in 1850, 
and thoroughh' repaired in 1869. 



OF OKLEAIVS COUNTY. 371 

The Baptists tiled a certiticate to incorporate "The 
First Baptist Church and Society in Medina," ]\rar(!h 
14th, 1831. 

Their first house of worship was a huildin<:i: i)iit np 
for a barn in the rear of tlie hrick hotel, on the south- 
west corner of Center and Shelby streets. This was 
lathed and plastered and seated, and used for reli- 
gious meetings until their tirst meeting house; wjis 
dedicated in the winter of 1832. 

Their new church on the corner of West and Cen- 
ter streets was commenced in the fall of 1870. 

The Presbyterians built the lirst building designed 
for religious worship in Medina, on the north side of 
Cross, near the corner of West street. 

Deacon Theophilus Cook commenced, alone and 
unaided, getting out the timber for tliis house. See- 
ing his zeal showing itself in faith and work.'i, Mr. 
Ephraim Scovill Joined him in the work. Others fol- 
lowed with their labor and contributions, till 
a building about thirty by forty-live feet was 
erected, in which the Presbyterians worshipped from 
about 1830, to February 17th, 1836, when their l\^^^■ 
church edifice was dedicated. 

The first house was then used for school })urposes 
several years, wdien it was sold to the Konian (Jatho- 
lics, who moved it upon the same lot with their 
church, built an addition to it, and it is now thei]- 
school house. 

The Presbyterian Church was organized with se\ - 
enteen members, March 19th, 1829. 

The Presbyterian Society was incorporat<'d August 
27th, 1831, by name of "The Trustees of the first 
Society of the Congregational Church at Medina." 

The first printing press in Medina was set u]) in 
the fall of 1832, and the first newspaper called "Me- 
dina Herald,-' published by D. P. Adams. 

After the Erie canal was located and survived 



372 PIONKLIt HISTORY 

through Medina, aiteiition was called to this place as 
the probable site of a village, and about the year 
1823, Mr. Ebenezer Mix surveyed and laid out the 
village for the proprietors and named it Medina. 

Mr. John B. Ellicott, a relative of Joseph Ellicott, 
was sent here by the proprietors to superintend their 
interests, as local agent. 

Mr. Artemas Allen came to Medina in 1822, and 
was the first mason who settled in the village. He 
had charge as master mason in building the aqueduct 
for the Erie canal on Oak Orchard Creek. 

The stone for this work were mainly obtained from 
the bank of the creek north of the canal. The re- 
maining stone were from Shelby Center, or Claren- 
don, and a few" from LockjDort. 

Mr. Allen built a large brick tannery and dwelling 
house for Justus Ingersoll, and a large stone build- 
ing called the Eagle Hotel, which was burned some 
years ago. 

Mr. Allen claims he first discovered the quany of 
llaging stone at Medina, got out the first flags, and 
laid a number of rods of sidewalk in front of the 
residence of David E. Evans in Batavia. 

The stone from which the water lime used 
on the aqueduct was made were obtained be- 
tween Medina and Shelby Center, burned on log 
heaps, and ground with an upright revolving 
stone. 

Mr. Artemas Allen removed to Coldwater, Michi- 
gan, where he is now living. 

The village of Medina was incorpoitited March 3d^ 
1832. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



THE VILLAGE OF KN0WLE3VILL?:. 

Wra. Knowles, Founder aucl First Settler — First Clcarins- — First 
Framed House — First Tavern — First Warehouse — First Boat Load 
of Wheat — First Ashery — First School House — Post Office — First 
Religious Society. 

-""^ XOWLESYILLE. situate on the eastern 




bounds of the town of Ridgeway, as at pres- 
ent Ibounded, owes its existence to the Erie 
canal. When work was begun on the canal, but 
two or three families had located on the ground now 
covered hy the village. 

Mr. A\'illiani Knowles, the pioneer and founder of 
the village, was the first settler. He took uj) from 
the, Land Company and settled upon lot three, town- 
ship fifteen, range three, in the winter of 1815. 

Sliortiy after Jolm Caniff took up one hundi-ed 
acres of tlie nortli part of lot fift^'-nine, in town- 
ship fifteen, range three, adjoining Mr. Knowles' hind 
and east of it. 

The first tree cut on the site of Knowh-sville stood 
where the residence of R. P. AVood now stands, and 
was felled in Marcli, 181."). There Mr. Knowles built 
the first log cabin, in Avhicli he resided. He hired a 
Mr. Hill to work for him in clearing land, and his 
wife was their house-keeper. In course of that sea- 
son, 181i"), Mrs. Hill died, being the first ])erson wlio 
died in what is now Knowlesville. 

The Erie canal was finished from Lockport to Roch- 
ester a yeJir or two bei'ore it was comph^ted from 



374 TIOXKKli HISTOKY 

Loc.kpoi't to Biiiialo ; l)ut as this long level had to be 
fed mainly by watei- let into it from Genesee River, 
it was impossible to raise the water in the western 
part more than two or three feet deep ; but even then 
some little llat-bf)ttomed boats were run through to 
Rochester regularly to carry passengers and light 
parcels, before the water was let in from lake Erie to 
Jill the canal. 

In 1825 Mr. Knowles built the tirst framed house, 
on the south side of the canal, and west side of Main 
street, yet standing, in which he kept the first tavern, 
for several years. Afterwards he built the first brick 
house erected, near tlie canal, and north from his old 
tavern house, and kept a tavern some time there. 

Mr. Knowles built the first warehouse in 1825, and 
Ml'. Wm. Van Dorn kept the Jirst store in Knowles' 
warehouse. 

Nathan S. AVood opened the second store in 
1825-6. 

In 1827 Mr. Knowles bought twenty thousand ' 
Tnishels of whf^at at Knowlesville. The lii-st boat he 
loaded with this wheat is said to have been the first 
boat load of grain shipped from Orleans county by 
canal. 

Moses Huxley kept the first grocery store on the 
canal in 1825. Philo Dewey kept a grocery here in 
1880. 

The lirst tanner and shoemaker was Andrew 
Ik^tts. 

The first blacksmitli was Daniel Batty. 'I'he first 
carpent<*r and joiner was Andrew Ryan. 

Mr. Knowles built an asheiy in 1816. He manu- 
factured a little potash; afterwards, for about four 
years, he used his works solely for making black 
salts, wliich he sold to .Tann^s Mather and others at 
Gaines. 

Tile lirst school house was built of Iolj-s in 1817. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 370 

and stood a little north of where a brick school house 
was afterwards built, on the west side of the street, 
north of the canal. 

The post office was established here in 1826. It 
became necessary to give the village and x)ostofRce a 
name. The inhabitants met together and i-equested 
Mr. Knowles to give the name, and he called it Port- 
ville. It was afterwards ascertained that there was 
already a postoffice in Xew York named Portville, 
and the name was then changed to Knowlesville. 

The Presbyterian Church was first organized after 
the Coiigregational form, by Rev. Eleazer Fairbanks, 
Avitli eleven members, Aug. 27, 1817. In June, 1820, 
it united with the Presbytery of Rochester, and 
since then has been Presbyterian in its form of Ctov- 
ernment. 

This was the first religious society organized in tlie 
present town of Ridgeway, and as such received the 
deed of the " Gospel Lot,-' so called, of one hundred 
acres given by the Holland Land Company. The 
first fourteen years of its existence its meetings for 
worship were held in the school houses, and some- 
times in the dwellings of its members in this part ol 
the town. 

Their first public- house of worship, now standing 
in Knowlesville, was built of brick, and dedicated 
in 1832. 

The first Baptist meeting house, and the first Metli- 
odist meeting house, which was afterwards burned, 
were erected in 1833. 

The village of Oak Ondiard, on the Ridge Road, 
in Ridgewjiy, was the principal village in town be- 
fore the Erie Cjinal was made. After the canal was 
completed Oak Orchard began to decline, and 
Knowlesville took the trad<\ })opulation and busi- 
ness. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 




run TOWN OF SIIKLBT. 

•lo. Ellicott liocatlng Land — Ellicott's Mills — Road from Oak Orchard 
Ttoad to Shelby — Salt Works Road — Anecdote of Luther Porter — 
Col. A. A. Ellicott— Rail in Ellicott's Mill— Abuer Hunt— Fiddler 
Elackett — First Ph5'sician — Post Office — Iron Foundry — Tannery — 
Biographies of Early Settlers. 



HELBY was set off from Kidgewa}', March 
6tli, 1818, and was named in honor of Gover- 
nor Blielby, of Kentucky. 
In surveying the Holland Purchase for the propri- 
etors, Mr. Joseph Ellicott noticed those tracts of land 
that seemed to possess pc^culiar advantages, and lo- 
cated some of the best for himself. The falls on the 
Oak Orchard Creek attracted his attention as afford- 
ing a good site for mills, and he laid off for himself 
and purchased seven hundred acres of land here in 
a bod}^ including this water power. At an early 
day he located some of his relations here and fur- 
nished means to begin a settlement and improve the 
water power, and in tlie year 1812 lie built a sawmill, 
and in 1813 a gristmill, under the supervision of Ids 
nephew, Col. Andrew A. Ellicott. 

To tacilitate the groAvth of this settlemeut, the Elli- 
cotts, with the aid of the Holland Company, opened 
the first highway from Shelby Cc^ntor east to intersect 
the Oak Orchard lload in Barre, and the Holland 
Company built the Salt Works Road from tlu^ Brine 



OF ORLEAIN^S COUNTY. 377 

Springs. North of Medina, one branch of wliidi led 
sonth-west through Shelby, to the Lewiston Road. 

The mills first built at Shelby Center were small, 
coarse and clumsy aftairs, which, when driven to 
their utmost capacity for work, could not supply all 
the wants of tlie settlers. 

The little grist mill was generally crowded with 
customers at all seasons of the year, some coming 
many miles. And at seasons when the water was 
low it could not do half the grinding required, and 
grists sometimes lay weeks at the mill before they 
were ground. 

Late in the summer one year when the water was 
lowest in the creek, Luther Porter, of Barre, then a 
boy fifteen years of age, was sent there, some ten 
miles, to mill with two bags of grain, on horseback, 
and told by his father to stay till he got his grist. 
^Vrriving at the mill, Luther hitched his horse and 
went in. He saw the mill full of bags, unground, 
and a number of men waiting their turns, and con- 
cluding at the rate things moved it was likely to br 
several days before his tuiii would come, he resolved 
to try a little strateg}'- to get his meal sooner. Sa}'- 
ing nothing to anybody he unloaded his bags on 
some lumber, Jind watching his oportunity when the 
miller had put in a fresh grist and gone out to wait 
upon his customers at a little grocery he carried on 
near by in connexion with his mill, he carried his 
bags into the mill, nobody seeing him, and set them 
back in a i-etired place among tlie most dusty bags in 
the mill, collected some mill dust and sifted it care- 
fully over and about his bags and the place where 
he set them. This done, lie %\'aited the return of tlie 
miller, and going to him asked very innocen,tly if his 
grist was ground ;; '' When did 3'ou bring it here f 
said the miller, ''Oh, a great while ago,"' says Lu- 
ther. 



378 PIONEEK TMSTOKY 

The millor liad forgotten, said lie would look. Lu- 
tlier went and helped thid the bags. The miller see- 
ing the dust, said they had accidentally been over- 
looked, bnt if he would put ont his horse and stop 
at his house he would try and put them through be- 
fore the n(^xt morning. 

Luther staid of cours(\ the work was done, and by 
daylight next inorning he started for home with his 
meal. 

" Col. Andrew A. Ellicott was the jjatroon of Shelby 
A'illage. He is remembered for his many acts of 
kindness to the new settlers, and especially for the in- 
terest he took in the welfare of tli(^ Indians at Tona- 
wanda. He was adopted into their nation, under the 
Indian name of ''Kiawana," which means ''a good 
man.'' He often lieli)ed them to bread in seasons of 
scarcity. 

Col. Ellicott removed from Batavia with his fam- 
ily to reside in Shelby, in 1817. He had been em- 
ployed with his uncle, Joseph Ellicott, in surveying 
the Holland Purchase. 

He built a second grist mill at Shelby Center, or 
Barnegat, as it was then called, about the yenr 1819. 
It was afterwards burned. AVhen this mill was fin- 
ished it t3ontained the largest and best floor for dan- 
cing then in town, and the young people of Shelb}' 
and vicinity used it for the hrst haJl in town. It waF 
several times afterwards used T)y dancing parties, a 
man by name of Ilackett, who resided in Shelby, 
furnishing the music on a violin. 

The young people werc^ A'ery fond of dancing, and 
got up parties to enjoy that amusement frequently 
whenever they could find a floor, and whenever they 
could secure the services of Hackett with his violin. 
If he was not to b(^ had they managed with such 
other music as thev could g(4. and sonu' of the old 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 870 

people yet remember attending parties at an early 
clay in this neighborhood, and dancing riglit merrily 
to the mnsic of a Jewsharj). 

Col. Ellicott died in [September, 1839. 

The first birtli in Shelby was that of Asa Coon, 
son of Alexande]' Coon, senior, Febrnary 14th, 
1811. 

The first death was that of William Bennett, Oc- 
tober 4th, 1812. 

Tlie first tavern was kept by Daniel Timniejinan. 
in 181(5, and tli(^ first storn by Christian Grolf in 
1818. 

The first school was tanght by Cornelins i\shton iu 
thewinter of 1815-1 G. 

In the winter of 1819, in order to get money to pay 
his taxes, Abner Hunt threshed wheat for John Burt, 
lor every tenth bushel. 

The work was done on the fiooi- of a log barn ten by 
eighteen feet and the chaft' was separated 
from tlie wheat with a hand fan made of boards. 
Mr. Hunt cariied his share of the wheat on his baclv 
two miles, and sold it to Micah Harrington for twen- 
ty-five cents a bushel. 

The first regular physician who settled in Slu4by 
was Dr. Cliiistopher Wlialey, who came in 1819. Dr. 
George Norton came soon after. 

The fij'st postofiice in town was at Shelby CentiM-, 
and the first ])Ostmaster was Colonel Andr«*w A. Eh 
licott. 

.John A'an Brocklin built and carried on a small 
iron foundry at Siielby Center, al^out 1821-2 wliich is 
said to be tlio first iron foundiy estal)]ishtMl in tiu' 
county of Orleans. 

Justus Ingersoll built and carried on ;i tannery in 
Shelby about 1821. 



i>80 PIONEER HISTOKY 

BIOGRAPHIES OF EARLY SETTLERS. 

THE GKEGOKY F.V:\tILY. 

Among the old families in Orleans county, none are 
better known or more favorably considered than the 
Gregory family, of Shelby. Of Scotch descent, 
Ralph Gregory removed from Fairlield, Vermont, to 
Shelb}', in 1810, where he followed the occupation of 
a farmer and bi'ought up his six sons to the same 
calling. 

Mr. Gregor\\ the father, died in 1837. His six sons 
still survive and live in or near Shelby, except Philo, 
who moved to Michigan ten years ago. 

Brought u]) in habits of industry and strict econo- 
my, they have each acqui]\Hl a competence of prop- 
erty, and are enjoying a serene and quiet old age, 
honored and respected by all who know them. It is 
rare that so large a family of brothers livt? together 
so long, and the Gregor}' Brothers may be referred 
to for proof that in this good land of ours, perseve- 
rance and energy will achieve success, and health 
and long life made happy will very surely be attained 
by those who liv(^ worthy of such rewards. Ex- 
tracts from the local history of two of the bi'others 
are as follows : 

AMOS <;im:<;;okv. 

•'1 am fourth son of lialph (in^gory. 1 was born 
in Fail-field, Franklin county, AV'rm<uit, April 18th, 
1790. 

In the winter of 1817, my lalluM- widi his family re- 
moved to what is now Shelby, Orleans county, N^ Y. 
On that Jouriuy it fell to my lot to drive tlie team of 
two yoke of Oxen attached to a wooden shod sled. 
We were on the road from February 5th to April 3d, 
niaking some stops, waiting for snow and to recruit. 
The gi-eatest distance trav(?led in any one day was 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 381 

twenty miles, and tliat was on the ice on Lake Cham- 
plain. 

But in the closing np of our journey we were three 
days getting from four or tive miles north of Batavia 
to our stopping place I married Betsey Wyman, 
April 5th, 1818. 

AMOS GREGORY." 

M A1"J" 1 1 VAV G IlEG ORY. 

''I was born in Fairfield, Vermont. April 10, 1802, 
being the yOungest of seven sons. I was a cripple 
in my feet and aiikh^s from birth. I did not walk 
until I was four years old. My crippled condition 
and my extraordinaiy birth, being a ' seventh son,' 
occasioned mv being called while a boy, 'doctor.' 
This title was peculiarly annoying to me. This and 
the drunkenness, profanity and iniidelity which char- 
acterized some of the faculty with whom I was early 
acquainted, i)rejudic*^d my mind strongly against the 
medical profession. I liave lived to find honorable ex- 
ceptions to this character among som<j of the profes- 
sion I have since known. 

My only sister died before she w as quite live years 
old. 

In tlie early part of September, 1815, there were 
severe frosts destroying the crops before they had 
matured. This so discouraged ni}^ two oldest broth- 
ers, who then had families living a few miles distant 
from each other, that they told my father they were 
done with Vermont, and had determined to seek theii- 
fortunes in tlie west. 

At their suggestion, and in order to keep his famil}* 
together, my father, then fifty years old, consented 
to go with them, patriarch like, to seek for himself 
and family 'a better country.' He accordingly took a 
saddle horse and visited the Genesee country, and 
spent some six weeks in vewing the entire region, 



882 PIONEER HISTORY 

when he returned liome bringing in a favorable report 
of the land. 

This was hailed with joy by iis all except my 
mother, who was much attached to her old home. 
Houses and lands, and everything else too cumber- 
some to carr}" were disposed of, so that by the 
first of February, 1816, we were on our way to the 
far famed Genessee. 

Our caravan consisted of two four ox teams, each 
attached to heavy wooden shod sleds, starting on the 
5th, and a two liorse team starting on the 6th. We 
had good teams, but we had a tedious journey. The 
most of the way the sleighing was bad. From White- 
hall to near Auburn, our sleds had to be newly shod 
♦-very other morning, and from Aubui-n west we had 
to mount our sleds on wheels. 

After refreshing ourselves awhile with friends in 
Gorliam, Ontario county, we came on to Batavia and 
there made another stop. It was now about the mid- 
dle of March, and the younger boys went to work, 
while m}^ father and the two eldest of his sons went 
out to look for land. The place where we stopped 
was about four miles north from Batavia, and is now 
called I)awes Corners. 

My father located a farm for himself on Maple 
Ridge, in Shelby, paying one hundred dollars for 
his ' chance ' on one hundred acres, and buying ar- 
ticles of land in the vicinity for hisjsons. 

On the third of April we again started'on our jour- 
ney, and arrived at our new home near the close of 
the third day, a short journey this last, but a very 
wearisome one. I was then about thirteen years 
old. 

When we arrived at our future residence, we had 
no shelter for men or beast. Orange Wells and Sam- 
uel Wyman had located in that neighborhood in the 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 383 

spring j)revious and made small improvements, and 
built log houses. 

Through the hospitality of Mr. Wells, we were 
kindly sheltei-ed for a week, by which time we had 
built a cabin for ourselves. 

Our oxen could very well live on browse, but our 
horses after standing one night tied to a brush 
lieap, looked so sorry that my father took them back 
to Batavia. 

We were all happy when we got into our new 
house, not a costly edihce like those dwellings of 
some of our rich neighbors of the present day, but 
made of rough unhewn logs, notched down together 
at the corners, shingled with rough hemlock boards, 
with Joints broken and battened with slabs round 
side up, the floor made of split basswood logs spotted 
upon the sleepers, and flattened on the top, leaving 
an open sj^ace at one end for the Are place on the 
ground, the end of the floor planks affording a con- 
venient seat for the children around the fire, in the 
absence of Chairs and sofas. 

Our first work was to fell trees around our dwell- 
ing, burn off the brush and logs, and enclose a patch 
of land for a garden and a fruit nursery, my father 
having brought a small bag of apjile seeds from Ver- 
mont. 

We procured ])eacli stones in Ontario (;ounty. 
This was in the spring of 1816. Four families had 
wintered near our location, but on the opening of 
spring neighbors came in frequently, and the forest 
resounded with the sound of the woodman's ax and 
the crash of falling trees. 

Among the names of settlers who had located in 
our neighborhood about the time of which I have 
spoken, I remember Elijah Bent, Alexander Coon, 
Oliver R. Bennett, James Mason, Lec^nard Dresser, 
AndrcAv Stevens, AVilliam Knowles, William C. Tan- 



884 PIOXEKK JIISTOIJY 

iier, Josias Tanner, Elijali Foot, Poter Hoag, Stephen 
Hill, Franklin Bennett, Micali Harrington, Daniel 
Fuller, Daniel 'I'immeiraan. William Dunlap and 
Kliziir Frar_y. 

Tiiere was a will and indomitable courage enter- 
tained on the part of the settlers, but it was exceed- 
ingly difficult for them to obtain money for the com- 
mon necessaries of life. 

Mr. Hiel Brockway bought a lot in this vicinity, 
and sent on Mr. Calvin C. Phelps (now of Barre) to 
chop, (;lear, and sow with wheat ten acres of land. 
He boarded with Mr. Wells. To him Mr. Brockway 
would send barrels of pork, flour, and whisky, the 
last of which was considered in those days about as 
much of a necessary as pork or flour, for him to sell 
to the inhabitants. 

This was a relief to many, and saved the buyers 
much time in looking np their supplies and trans- 
porting them home. 

At one time my father paid Mr. Phelps eleven dol- 
lars for as much pork as he could carry away in a 
peck measure. I don't recollect the number of 
pounds. 

At another time h(^ paid Elijah Bent twenty-five 
cents a pound for pork. 

By the first of June in the year vre came, we had driv- 
en the woods back from the house in one direction 
thirty or forty rods. The brush was burned off and 
the ground planted with corn among the logs. This 
was in 181G, known as ' the cold season,' when snow 
fell in every month in the year but two, with frost 
every month. Consequently we raised but little 
corn, and even that was saved in an unmatured 
condition. We were, however, with much care, able 
to make passable meal from some of it. 

The little wheat sown the fall before yielded boun- 



OK ORLEANS COFNTY. ^]8& 

tifully, l3ut tlit^ suppl}^ not being eqnal to the demand, 
owing to tlie large emigration of people into the 
country, scarcity and high prices pi-evailed hefore 
the next harvest. 

With no small a supply to be obtained, roads so 
new and rough, ])riees high, settlers poor, and their 
best and almost only means of conveyance an ox 
team, it is no wonder much suffering and want pre- 
vailed. 

My father Jiad one liorse, and he assumed the office 
of commissary of subsistence in ])art, for the whole 
settlement, and acted as mill boy for the family- 
He would ride al)Out the countrj^ to find grain, some- 
times getting a grist near Batavia, the next on the 
Ridge Road, between home and Rochester. Not- 
withstanding my fathi^rs faithful efforts, we would 
sometimes come sliort tor food, then our good mother 
would put us on 'half i-ations.' 

At one time our supplies were completely exhauH- 
ted. We had been expecting our fatlier home all day, 
^vitll his bushel grist perhaps, but he did not come 
and we went nearly supperless to bed, expecting he- 
would arrive before morning. 

Morning came but fatliei- did not. ^ye hoped he 
would conu^ soon, and took our axes and went to 
work, but our axes were unusually Iwany. Faint 
and slow wei'e the blows we struck that morning. 
While w<^- boys were trying to chop, mother sifted a 
bag of bran we had and made a cake of the finest, 
which she brought out to us during the forenoon. 
We ate this which stayed us up till noon, when father 
came and brought us plenty to eat, sucli as it waw. 
Variety was not to be had in those times. 

In course of this season most of the lands near my 
fathers were located by a hardy and energetic popu- 
lation, mostly from New England. 

By the fall most of the occupied fai-ms had their 

26 



386 PIONEER HISTORY 

fallows, of from tliree to twenty acres iu extent, ready 
for sowing. This crop, though sowed among roots 
and stumps of trees, produced a j^ield of from thirty 
to fifty bushels per acre. 

This bountiful return, together with a fair corn 
crop, placed us above want and fully satisfied us 
with the countr}^ we had adopted as our home. Pen- 
ding this harvest there was great scarcity of provi- 
sions, but neighbor lent to neighbor ; the half layer 
ot meat and loaf of bread was divided, while for 
weeks many families subsisted on boiled potatoes 
and niiliv, and sucli vegetables as the forest af- 
forded. 

When the earliest patches of wheat were cut and 
threshed, there w^as no mill to grind nearer than 
Rochester. There were mills on the Oak Orchard 
Greek, but the}- were of such construction there was 
not water at that season sufficient to turn them. 
I^eighbors would join together and send a team to 
Rochester to carry grists to mill for them all at 
oncf'. 

In many instances green wheat was boiled whole 
and eaten with milk. I ate of it and thought it good. 
The products of this harvest exceeded the wants of 
the producers for their bread, and as we had no high- 
ways on w^hich we could send our grain to market, 
we w^ere restricted in our sales mainl}" to new comers 
who had not time to raise a crop. A bushel of wheat 
was the price of a day's work of a man, and he was 
considered luck}' who had an opportunity to sell 
wheat foi* mone}', at even a low price. 

On tlie lirst day of July, 1817, wheat Avas worth 
two dollars and fifty cents a bushel in Orleans coun- 
ty, and in the winter next after farmers drew^ their 
wheat to Rochester with ox teams, a journey round 
faking three' davs or more, and sold it for from twen- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 887 

ty-five to tliirty-one cents a bushel in mone}', and \v e 
felt that was "better than to go home hungry. 

In consequence of my lameness my parents did 
not design that I should be a farmer, but Providence 
seemed to order otherwise. M}^ privileges and means 
for obtaining an education were limited, and to tlie 
business of felling tlie forest, clearing land, and reap- 
ing the harvest I became much attached, so that even 
to the jDresent day, the ax and the sickle are in}- fa- 
vorite tools. 

At one time I came near entering as clerk in a drug- 
store, but the proprietor proved to be a worthless 
character, broke down and ran away. No other 
business appearing to offer for me, I accej)ted the 
occupation of a farmer, which. I have followed ever 
since, now residing on the homestead of my father. 

The lirst school taught in our neighborhood was 
by Miss Caroline Fuller, of Batavia, in the summer 
of 1817. The next winter we had a full school taught 
by Mr. J. N. Frost, of Riga. I taught school niyself 
two terms before I was twenty- one years old. When 
I was twenty-one years old I was elected constable, 
which office I held three years in succession. Since 
then I have held a few offices both in tov>n jind 
county, but never depended upon the lees of office 
for my su^^port.- 

I was married April 20th, 1828, to Maiy^ A Potter, 
daughter of Wm. C. Potter, of Shelby. 

My mother died April 4th, 1832, aged 05 years, 
and my father died April 20th, 1837, aged seventy- 
two years. 

My father was a local preacher of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and in connexion with Rev. Jas. 
Carpenter, of the Baptist denomination, he labored 
faithfully to plant and foster the j^rinciples of evan- 
gelical truth in the minds of a people otherwise most- 
ly destitute of religious instruction. 



388 PIONEEK HISTORY 

I have been connected with the temperance organi- 
zations of all sorts that have been established here in 
the last thirty years. 

At the age of eighteen years I was led to embrace 
the Savior of the world as niv Savior, and from that 
time through much unworthiness, I have been en- 
deavoring to hold on my way, trusting that the merits- 
of Christ will avail for my short comings. 

MATTHEW GREGORY." 
Millville, January, 1863. 

DAVID DE-AIAIIA, 

David Demara was born in Albany county, Octo- 
ber 26tli, 1808, and removed with his father's family 
to Shelby, in 1811. His father first located in the 
woods two miles from any house, built a log house 
fourteen bj^ f^ixteen feet, covered it with bark ^ and 
moved into it, without floors, doors, or windows. 
He left the county in 1813, on account of the war, 
and returned in 1815. 

David Demara married Maria Upham, April 12th, 
1837. She was born in Ward, Massachusetts, March 
29th, 1814. 

ABRAM BIDELMAN. 

" I was born March 10th, 1800, in Manheim, Mont- 
gomery county, N. Y. 

In January, 1817, I removed with my father's fam- 
ily to Ridgeway, Orleans county. We built a log 
house and moved into it in the month of March. 
While building our house, and just previous to put- 
ting on the roof, a large tree fell upon the building, 
and cost us much labor to remove it and repair 
damages. 

Cornelius Asliton and John Timmerman had set- 
tled ^\^thin half a mile of my father's location when.' 
we came in. 



* OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 389 

My father's family consisted of my father and 
mother and ten children. When he moved here, he 
was to all intents and jjurposes, poor, I do not 
think, besides a pair of old ordinary horses and a 
cow, my father could boast he was worth other prop- 
erty worth fifty dollars. I worked out to help sup- 
port the family until 1 was twenty-one years of 
•age. 

I married Miss Lucinda Michael in 1824. My 
father, Henry Bidelman, died in 1860, aged eighty - 
two years. 

In March, 1818, snow fell about two feet deep; next 
day it thawed, and a frost following made a haid 
crust on the snow. On this James Woodward and 
myself resolved to have a day hunting deer. We made 
snow shoes from a seasoned board, which enabled us 
to walk on the crust with ease. We were attended b} 
a small dog, and armed each with a common pocket 
knife. We soon started a fine buck from his browse 
in a fallen tree top, the dog gave chase, and after a 
few bounds, in which the deer broke through the crust 
to the ground, lie stood at bay. We rushed upon 
the deer with our knives and cut his throat. AYe 
soon started another deer, which we killed in the 
same manner. So we brought in two deer in about 
an hour. Our. success so animated George Holsen 
burgh, a neighbor, thathe joined us in another hunt. 
In our second hunt we had not gone far into the Avoods 
before we started as large a. buck as I ever saw. The 
dog soon brought him to a bay. Holsenburgh, who 
was a quick, athletic man, rushed up to the head of 
the deer with intent to seize his horns, when he re- 
ceived a blow from the fore foot of the animal which 
laid open his clothing from his chin down, as if cut 
by a knife. The hoof took the skin off upon his 
breast, and left a visible mark down his body. Hol- 
senburgh was terribly alarmed at this change in af- 



890 PIONEEK HISTORY 

fairs. He turned pale, and retired from the contest 
he was so prompt to commence. Woodward and 
myself went to the rescue, and quickly despatched 
the deer as we had done the others. Our friend Hol- 
senburgli liad had sufficient experience of that kind 
of deer hunting to satisfy him, and \ye went in w4th 
our game. Woodward and ra3'self went out again 
the third time and brought in two more deer, making 
five in all killed by us in one day. 

In March, 1822, I helped the contractor Avho had 
taken a section of canal to dig where Medina now 
stands, build a log cabin. We cut our trees for the 
building on the ground now the site of the village. 
We finished our cabin in five and a half days. I 
then engaged to work for tlie contractor half a month 
for six dollars and fifty cents and be boarded. Our 
work was digging for the canal. The first two days 
we had fifteen hands, and the third day about 
fifty. We were allowed a liquor ration. Mr, Eggles- 
ton, the contractor, brought in on an ox cart from 
Rochester, three barrels of vvdiisky among other 
stores to use on his job. Of tliis each man was al- 
lowed one gill a day. 

At this time I Avas unacquainted with the nature of 
whisky, and I with the others, drank my first al- 
lowance. I v/ill not here attempt to de- 
scribe its efi'ects. Suffice it to sa}', it was the first 
and last liquor ration I ever drank. I sold the re- 
mainder of my whisk}^ rations to those who were fa- 
miliar with their use, at three cents each. 

Tn the year 1828 I built for myself a log house 
twenty feet square, into which I moved my family, 
liaving but one room which we used for kitchen and 
parlor, dining room, bedroom, &c. Our furniture 
was such as pioneer farmers in this country usually 
posssessed, viz.: a loom, 'quill wheel and swifts, 
great wheel and little wheel for spinning, necessary 



OF orlea:n's county. 891 

"bedding, seven chairs, n table and a cradle, with a 
few exceedingly plain culinary utensils, v/hich Avere 
indispensible to our comfort. 

For many years my wife manufactured our clotli- 
ing, both woolen and linen, w^ove our own cover- 
lets and blankets, and hundreds of yards for our 
neighbors. 

ABRAM BIDELMAN." 

Shelby, October, 18G6. 

Mr. Abram Bidelraan died June 8th, 1868. 

.T0T]IA]\r MORSE. 

"I w^as born in Providence, Saratoga count}^ N. 
Y., Juno 14th, 1793. 

I was married to Dorcas Ferris, August 15th, 1814. 
I hired a njan to move me to Ridgeway, agreeing to 
pay him forty dollars for it. Our outfit consisted of a 
good tepan of horses and wagon, as there was no 
snow then. My family consisted of my mother, my 
wife and two children. 

After we had been two or three days on the road, 
a 'thaw' came that compelled us to stop a w^ek. 
The earth then became frozen and w^e wTnt to Palmy- 
ra, when one horse gave out. I bought another horse 
for forty-five dollars, paid my watch, a far h.at, and 
a pair of boots, for thirty-tAvo dollars, and gave my 
note for the thirteen <lollars, and with my three horse 
team went on to Rochester, which then consisted only 
of a few log buildings, one of which was a tavern 
where we stopped. On examining here I found our 
only bed had been stolen. I afterwards found it 
pawned at Palmj'ra by the thief and had to pay two 
dollars and a half to get it again. We came by the 
Ridge Road to West Gaines, where Ave found an 
empty shanty and moved into it. I Avent to Batavia 
through Shelby and procured an article of a piece of 
land Avest of Eagle Harbor, and returned in one dav 



393 PIONEKll illSTORY 

as far as Millville. It snowed hard all that day, and 
T think I did a good day's work, traveling so far 
through tile woods on foot. I acknowledge my steps 
were some hurried by seeing tracks of wolves in the 
snow, and seeing some evidences of a bloody encoun- 
ter the}' had had. 

I bought a three year old heifer and x^aid for her 
chopping three acres of timber, and fitting it for log- 
ging, going three miles to the place where I did my 
work. 

In time of liaying and liarvest I walked to Palmyi'a 
and worked there three weeks to hiiy pork and 
wlieat for my family. The next fall I mo\ed into a 
log house I had built, and felt at home. The next 
yeai- 1 had a little trial such as was (•onim.on to pio- 
neer settlers in those days. It was before harvest. 
My cow had lost her bell, and had been gone in the 
woods eight days. We were destitute of provisions, 
except a small piece of bread, some sugar, and some 
vinegar. I went to the nearest place where fiour was 
HOld and could get none. On my I'eturn \v-e gave the 
last nu)rs^'l of bread to our children. I picked some 
potato tops which my wife boiled and we ate, dress- 
ing them with vinegar. Our empty stomachs would 
not retain this diet. We S2)eedily vttmited them up 
and retii'cd supperless to l)ed. Early n^xt morning 
I arose and went to my neighbors a mile away, and 
thev divided their snuill store of Hour with nu'. I 
carried it home and my wife speedily salted some 
water and made some pudding, which we ate with 
maple sugar, and this seemed t(; me to be truly the 
best meal of victuals I ever ate. I felt, even in this 
straight, the words of Solomon to be true: ''Better 
is a dinner of herbs where love is, than a stalled ox 
and contention therewith."' 

Another inctident. Myself and immediate neigh- 
bors were destitute of flour. I had monev wliich I had 



OF OKLEANf? COUNTV. 393 

taken in exchange of land, so a neighbor took me 
with liis team and wagon to Hanford's Landing, at 
the mouth of Genesee river, to purcliase flour. I bought 
six barrels of Hour and one barrel of salt and took 
out my money to pay for it. Mr. Hanford, the man 
of whom I had made my purchase, divided the money 
I handed him into piles of about thirty-six dollars 
in eacli pile, after doing which I was astonished to 
hear him accuse me, in an angry tone, of being a 
dealer in counterfeit mone3^, and to learn. that he had 
condemned about one-half of what I had paid him. 
He ordered a man in his employ to go immediately 
to Kochester and procure Ji precept for my arrest. I 
felt alarmed, and that I was in trouble. I knew not 
what to do, but God, who is ever watchful over those 
who put their trust in Him, was with me. While 
things were growing more threatening, a gentleman 
whom I had never seen but once before came up, and 
after learning the facts, strongly condemned Mr. Han- 
ford\s course. The money was again examined, and 
only about nineteen dollars found bad. Tliis was re- 
placed by (uirrent funds, and we were then allowed 
to return to our homes in peace. 

This supply carried the settlement through until 
harvest, and by tlie blessing of Heaven and our own 
industry and ecoiiomy, we have been saved fr(un 
such destituti(m until the present time. 

I hav(^ seen llie wilderness disappear, and ))eauty 
and civilization spriug up in its place around m>\ 1 
have, in conunon with mankind, diank of the cap of 
affliction, perhaps more deeply- than many others. 
I have been called to mourn over tlie graves of two 
loved companions and four children, from a faTuily of 
fourteen. 

I now reside with my third wife, in West Shelb^', 
and preach every Sunday at the Christian Church in 



394 PIO]^fEER IIISTOKY 

Barre, N. Y,, where I have laboi-ecl in tlie ministry, 
more or less, for fifty years. 

JOTITAM MORSE." 
West Shelby, May. 18G8. 

DAVID BUKKOUGHS. 

DaA'id BurroDghs was born near Trenton, !N"ew Jer- 
sey, and died iii the town of Slielby, Orleans Co., 
N. Y., in 1822, aged 46 years. 

Mr. Burronglis removed to Ovid, Seneca county, 
about the yeRi' 1798, where he resided, working a 
farm and keeping hotel until the year 1818, when he 
removed to Shelby, and settled on a farm about two 
miles south-west from kshelby Center. 

Mr. Burroughs took first rank among his towns- 
men for his capacit}^ and intelligence. He was the 
first Supervisor of Shelby, while it belonged to Gen- 
esee county, and was apjDointed jugtice of the peace 
about the year 1820, an ofiice he held till his death. 
He was a member of the Convention tliat framed the 
Constitution for the State in tlie yeai" 1821. He took 
an ai'ticle of his farm from the Holland Company a 
year or two before lie moved his family to Shelby. 
He had a few acres cleared and a log house built, 
ready for his family when they came in. He left 
two sons, I. K. Burroughs, formerly a merchant and 
business man in Medina, where he now resides, 
and Hon. Silas M. Burroughs, who began life for 
himself as a merchant. He afterwards abandoned 
merchandise for the practice of law. He represented 
the county of Orleans four years in the lower House, 
in the legislature of the State, and was twice elected 
member of Congress, and died before tlu,^ end of his 
second term. He also resided in Medina. 

DAuiLs SOUTH woirni. 
Datiws Soutl) worth was born in l^almyra, N. Y.., 



OF OIlLEAJiS COUNTY. 395 

March IStli, 1800. He worked some at the trade of a 
carpenter while a minor, but since the year 1825, he 
has made that his principal business. 

He married Mercy Mason, daughter of James 
Mason, of Millville, in Shelby, where lie has ever 
since resided. They have four children, Elvira A., 
Albert, Dexter L., and George J. H., all now liv- 
ing. 

NEWMAN CURTIS. 

Newman Curtis was born in Dalton, Massachu- 
setts, September 9th, 1797. 

He married Maria Van Bergen, of Kattskill, N. Y., 
June 9th, 1818. In September, 1824, he settled on a 
farm in Shelby, one mile south of I^.Iillville. Mr. 
Curtis had fourteen children, eight sons and six 
daughters, all of whom lived to become men and wo- 
men, and all of whom received their education at 
Millville Academy. 

In 1854 Mr. Curtis sold his farm in Shelby and re- 
moved to the town of Independence, i]i Iowa, where 
he purchased two hundred and fifty acres for his own 
farm, and located a large quantity of wild land of 
the Government, for his children. Mr, Curtis became 
wealthy from the rise in the value of these lands, 
and the practice of industry and economy. He died 
in the year 1858. His widow and twelve children 
survived him. - 

IIOIIATIO N. iii:w3:s. 

Horatio N. Hewes settled in Shelby in the year 
1825, as a partner in business with L. A. G. B. 
Grant. He was engaged in selling goods, running 
mills, and dealing in produce v>dth Mr. Grant for 
some years, and after that became a large contractor 
to do j)ublic work, and had large jobs of work on 
the Erie canal. He removed to Medina to reside 



396 PIONEEU II18T0UV 

about the year 1854, where he died June 17th, 
1802. 

He was an energetic business man, and was exten- 
sively known in this part of the State. He married 
a danghter of Col. A. A. Ellicott. 

LAxnjrop A. (;. li. gkant. 

Lathrop A. Gf. B. Grant settled in SlieUn' about 
the 3-ear 1824, as a merchant. He married a daugh- 
ter of Col. A. A. Ellicott. 

Mr. Grant gradually extended his business opera- 
tions, and at length became a large dealer in farmer's 
produce. 

About the year 1851 he built the large stone mills 
at Shelby Center, and run them for a time. He was 
an active and inlliiential man in public affairs of his 
town and county, and was the representative of Or- 
leans county in the State legislature in 1820, being 
the first member e'h-cted after the county was organ- 
ized. 

Twelve or ilfteen years ag'O he sold out his property 
in Shelby, and removed to Oswego, N. Y., where he 
has since resided engaged in extensive business. 

AXDUKW A. EJ^LTCOTr. 

Andrew A. Ellicott was l)orn in Lancaster, Penn- 
sylvania. 

He married Sarah A. AVilliams, of Elizabethtown, 
New Jersey. He came to Batavia in May, 18013. 

In July, 1817, he removed to Shelby, Orleans coun- 
ty, where his uncle, Joseph Ellicott, had given him 
eight liundred acres of land, which included the 
water power at Shelley Center. He settled at Shelby 
Center, wheic he built mills, officiated as Justice of 
the peace, and ])ostmast<.'r. Ht^ was the lii'st post- 
master in that town. 

His influence with his Avealthv and numerous fani- 



OK ORLEANS COrXTY. 397 

]y connexions, his own benevolence and disposition 
to aid such as needed help, which he always be- 
stowed liberally when ho had opportunity, en- 
deared him to the pioneers in Shelby, and contribu- 
ted mucli towards inducing' settlements to bo made 
there. 

He died September 7t]i, 1830. His wife died Au- 
gust 26tli, I80O. His daughter Sarah, widow of the 
late Horatio N. Hewes, resides in Medina. 

ALEXANI)l<:ii COON. 

Alexander Coon was the iirst, or among tlie first 
settlers in Shelby. He came from Rensselaer county, 
N. Y., and located about two miles west of Shelby 
Center, in 1810. 

In a statement furnished by Mr. Alexander Coon, 
Jr., for Turner's History of the Holland Purchase, 
he says : 

"My father's family left the Lewiston Road at 
Walsworths, and arriving upon our land, four crotch- 
es were set in the ground, sticks laid across, the whole 
covered with elm bark, making a sleeping place. 
The cooking was done in the open air. A very com- 
fortable log house was then built in five days, with- 
out boards, nails, or shingles. Our cattle were fed 
the first winter on browse, tlie next winter on browse 
and cornstalks. 

Our nearest neighbor south, was Walsworth ; west, 
the nearest was in Hartland ; north, one fiimily on 
the Ridge Road." 

Mr. Alexander Coon, s<niior, loft several sons, and 
the family became among the most respectable in the 
community. 

Alexander Coon, Jr., Mas afterward a prominent 
public man, well and favorably known in the affairs 
of his town and county. For eleven years he rep- 
resented the town of Shelby in the Board of Super- 



398 PIONEER ITISTOEY 

visors of Orleans county, — a longer time than any 
other man ever served as a member of that Board. 
He also held many other town ofRces. He said when 
he was collector of taxes in Shelbj^, he had a tax of 
less than a dollar against a man who, to pay it, 
made black -salts, drew them to Gaines on a liand- 
sled, and sold them for the money. 

.JACOB A. ZIMMERMAISr. 

Jacob A. Zimmerman was born inManheim, N. Y., 
August 23d, 1795. 

In 1817 he came to Shelby with John B. Snell, who 
moved from the same town. 

In the summer of 1817, he married Nancj^ Snell. 
In' the spring of 1819, they commenced keeping 
house in Shelby, on the farm they ever afterwards 
occupied. 

Mr. Zimmerman says : 

" I made a table. We had no chairs. I made 
three stools, two for ourselves and one for company. 
Our window lights Avere white paper ; no window 
glass could be had here then. Our cooking utensils 
were a four quart kettle, and a black earthen teapot. 
I gave a dollar for six cast iron knives and forks and 
six cups and saucers, which completed our eating 
tools. 

Times were ver}- hard. I was eleven months with- 
out a sixj^ence in money ; two months without any 
shoes. When we saw shoes tied .up with bark we 
called them half worn out. I gave live bushels of 
wheat for a pair of poor^ coarse shoes, made of tlank 
leather. 

In 1821 my log house was burned. The neighbors 
lielpil m3 biiill a;i)':i3r liDa^.^, and in two 
weeks after the fire we moved to the new house. In 
November, 1826, I had bought and paid for eighty- 



OF oklp:ans county. 399 

seven acres of land. I afterwards increased my farm 
to one hundred sixteen acres." 

Mr. Zimmerman's children are Morris, married 
Phehe Bent ; Eleanor, unmarried ; Gilbert, married 
Janette Sanderson ; John A., married, Mary Powers; 
Arvilla, married Egbert B. Simonds ; and AndreAv L., 
married Jennie Bartsom. Jacob A. Zimmerman, died 
December Gth, 1864. . 

John Grinnell was born in Edinburgh, Saratoga 
Connt}^, December 4th, 1796. 

His father, Josiali Grinnell, was a native of Rhode 
Island. He settled in Saratoga county and removed 
from there to Oneida county, where he died. 

John Grinnell purchased a farm in Barre, in 1820, 
on which in the fall of that year he built a log 
house into which he moved in April, 1821. He cleared 
Ms farm and resided there till 1854, when he moved 
to Shelby. 

He was three times married. First, to Roxana 
Kirkham; second, to Lucy Babcock ; she died Janu- 
ary 25th, 1846 ; third, to Mrs. Julia Ann Abbott, Oc- 
tober 27th, 1847. 

His children, Oyrene and Daniel, are dead. Paul, 
married Sarah Butler ; Peter, married Eliza Berry ; 
Lyman, married Leonoi-a Rooker ; Andrew J., mar- 
ried Mary Rodman ; J. Wesley, married Alice 
Haines ; Mahala, married William J. Cakhvell ; 
Harley, married Maria Kelsey ; John Jr., married 
Margaret Root ; Ella J., married Frederick Hop- 
kins. 

His brothers, Ezra, Major and Amos, and his sis- 
ters, Betsey, wife of Alanson Tinkham ; Eliza, wife 
of William Tyler ; Chloe, wife of Relly Tinkham, 
and Anna, wife of Weston Wetherby, all settled 



400 PIONEEK HISTORY 

in Orleans county soon aftej- Mr. Jolm Grrinnell. 
came in. 

These families so early settled here, have been 
prosperous in business. Being upright in purpose, 
and honorable in character, they have become 
among the most respected families in the county. 




CHAPTER XXIX. 

THE TOWX OF YATKH. 

Formerly called Northton — George Ilousemau — Discouragement to 
Early Settlement — First Deed — Tappan's Tavern — Liquor Soki— 
First Marriage — First Death — First Store — First Sawmill — Beskr 
Story — Preserved Grcenman — Anecdotes of tirst Justice — Yates 
Center — First Post Ofllce — Peter Saxe — Names of First Settlers 
along Range Line Road — Vilhige of Lyndonville — Biographies ot 
Early Settlors. 



- A.TES Avas formed from Iiid<;-eway, April 17, 
'4 1822, In' the name of Nortldoii. The next 
'^ yeai- the name was chanf^ed to Yates, m 
honor of Governor Yates. 

George lloiiseman, from Adams, JettV'rsou (bounty, 
came into tliis town and settled in 1809. .lolin Eaton 
came in 1810. 

Verv' few settJers came in before <tr during the war 
of 1812. The extnmie difficulty of getting farm pro- 
duce to a market, and th(^ prospect that such a diffi- 
culty would long exist, Irom the locality, disc-ouraged 
emigi'ants from stopi)ing here, and little land As^as 
taken before 1817. 

Persons coming to this county To look for a place 
for their home, generally sought a locality in the vi- 
cinity of neighbors, where roads were opened, and 
where the social enjojanents r»f human lifH could in 
some degree be realized. It reqidi-tKl considerabio 
heroism for a man to go back live or eight mfles from 
any settlement into the thick, heavy forest, and begin 
with the intention tliei-*' to ch-jir for himself a. 
farm. 



I 
402 PIONEEK IIISTOKY 

A few hardy resolute men located in Yates, re- 
gardless of every discouragement, but no considera- 
ble settlement was effected until after the cold season 
of 181G-17, when the country lapldly filled up with 
settlers. 

The first deed of land given by the Holland Land 
Company, in this town, was to Preserved Grreenman, 
June 18th, 1810. Almost the v/hole of this town was 
deeded hy tlie Holland Company between the years 
1831 and 1835. 

The first tavern was kept b}' Samuel Tappan, at 
Yates Center, in the year 1825. The population of 
the town at that time was less than eight hundred, 
yet Judge Tappan, in a biographical sketch of him- 
self, says: 

'-'In the thirtei'U mouths in which 1 kej^t this 
tavern, I retailed fifty-three barrels of spiritous li- 
quors." 

The first marriage in town was that of George 
Houseman, Jr., and Sally Covert, in 1817. The first 
death that of ]Mrs. George Houseman, senior, De- 
cember, 1813. 

The first store was kept by Moore & Hughes, at 
Yates Center, in 1824. 

The first school was taught by Josiah Perry, in 
the year 1819, in the district including Yates Cen- 
ter. 

A sawmill was built on Johnson's Creek, below 
Lyndonville, by Gardner and Irons, about the year 
1819, and a gristmill on the same dam in 1821. 
These mills, at a later day, have been known as Bul- 
lock' s Mills, named from a subsequent owner. The 
mills and dam are now gone. 

Chamberlain & Simpson built the warehouse on 
the Lake shore, north from Yates Center. 

A family by the name of Wilkeson lived in the east 
part of the town in 181 1 or '12. In the summer sea- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 403 

son of tliat year, Miss Eliza Wilkeson saw a young 
cub bear near the house, among some vines they liad 
planted. She was alone in the house, but seizing the 
old-fashioned fire shovel, she went and killed the bear 
with it, 

Mr. Preserved Greenman took up about six hun- 
dred acres of land lying east from Lyndonville, be- 
fore the war of 1812. Mr. Greenman did not occupy 
his land himsell", but settled his sons Daniel and 
Enos there, giving the neighborhood the name of the 
" Greenman Settlement." 

Some years after, Mr. P. Greenman removed from 
Montgomery" county to Yates, to reside. After a 
few years he removed to Genesee county, and died 
there. 

Mr. P. Greenman was noted for being "set in his 
way," and having made up his mind, it was hard to 
turn him. Having sold his farm in Montgomery Co,, 
while preparing to move to Yates, he had a valuable 
ox-cart to dispose of. He named a price for his cart. 
A man offered him a less price and would give no 
more. Greenman declared he would not abf^te a 
cent, and would burn his cart before he would sell 
for less. No better offer was made, and when he 
came away he piled his cart in a heap and burnt 
it. 

A rule he made was, that a pail of water must be 
left standing in his house every night, and the last 
person who retired must see that it was done, under 
the penalty of being horse-whipped by Mr. Green- 
man next morning, in case of neglect. It happened 
once his daughter had a beau who made her a rather 
long evening visit, and she was the last in the family 
to retire for the night, and foi-got the pail of water. 
Her father rose first, as usual, in the morning, and 
finding the waterpail empty, called up his daughter 



404 PIONEJiR lllSTOKY 

and gave her a sound tlirasliing to maintain the rule 
he liad established. 

.Amos Spencer was the first justice of the peace 
within the territory now called Yates. He was ap- 
pointed by the Council in 1819. 

The first school house in town stood three-fourths 
of a mile north of Yates Center, and was built in 
1818. Mr. Josiali Perry kept the first school there 
in 1810. 

YATES CEXTER. 

Yates Center at first seemed to be the point where 
the village would be built. A hotel was opened here 
bj'- Samuel Tappan, and a store by Moore & 
Hughes, the first in town, and several dwelling 
1 louses were built. 

Here the first postoflice was located, Wm. Hughes 
first postmaster. 

When population and trade began to- settle at 
Lyndonville, Yates Center ceased to enlarge, but its 
inhabitants were not discouraged. About this time 
Peter Saxe, from Vermont, a brother of John G. 
Saxe, the poet, located here as a merchant. He may 
be considered the founder of Yates Academy, for 
through his influence and energy it was planned, the 
stock subscribed, and the institution incorporated. 
Mr. Saxe traded here a few years, then i-emoved 
to Troy, N. Y. 

After the canal was made navigable, much of the 
produce of the town of Yates found a market that 
way ; this trade, and the mills at Lyndonville, opera- 
ted in favor of that place, and against the Center. 

The Methodist Chapel at Lyndonville, which was 
the first house of worship built in town, was soon 
followed b}^ the building of the Baptist and Presby- 
terian churches at that place. 

Considerable oak timber grew in Yates. ThiB was 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 40o 

cut down long since, squared for slii]) building, or 
riven into staves, and sent down tlie lake to 
market. 

The folloAving is a list of names of persons who, if 
not first the first, were among the first who settled on 
the road in the center of the town from tlie lake to 
Ridge way, beginning on the lake : 

On the west side of th(3 highway. — Amos Spencer 
settled here on the lake shore in 1818. Next south, 
Simeon Gilbert, in 1818. Next, Baruch H. Gilbert, 
in 1817. Next, Luther St. John. Next, Isaiah Lo3W- 
is, in 1818. Next a man by the name of Wing sold 
to Dr. Elisha Bowen, who resided there many years. 

l^ext, Zenas Conger. Next, Nellis. Next, 

Thomas Stafford. Next. Moses Wheeler. Next, 

Nichols. Next, Rowk-y, Next, 

Samuel and O. Wliipple. Next, — — Beck. 

Next, Collins. Next, Josiah Cam])bell. 

Next, Elisha Sawyer. 

On the east side of the highway, beginning ai the 
lake. First, Robert Simpson. Next, Elisha Gilbert. 
Next Nathan Skt^llinger. Next ZaclKnis Swift. 
Next, Comfort Joy, in 1817. Next Lemuel L. Downs. 
Next, Isaac Hurd took two hundred acres. Next, 
Stephen Austin. Next, Benjamin Drake Next, 
Truman .-Viistin. Next, Jacob Winegar. Next, 
Stephen B. Johnson, in 1817. 

The next two hundred acres were owned by several 
different parties under article, but the deed from the 
Land Company was taken by Sanuu4 Clark, Esq. 

Next, was Peck. Next, Abner Balcom. 

Next, Harvey Clark. Next, Elisha Sawyer. These 
settlements were ("hiefly made b(^tween the j'ears 
1816 and 1819. 

VILLAGE OF LYNDONVILL!',. 

Mr. Stephen ^\^ Mudgett, who had carried on tail- 



406 PIONEER HISTORY 

ning and slioemaking in Ridgeway, purchased fifty 
acres of land, part of lot two, section seven, on the 
east side of the north and south road in Lyndonville, 
and removed there and set up tanning and shoe- 
making. 

Samuel Clark took a deed of two hundred acres 
next north of S. W. Mudgett, on the east side of the 
road. 

About the year 1817, a man by the name of Peck 
took up one hundred acres on the west side where 
\Villiam Mudgett afterwards resided. Samuel and 
Oliver AVhipple took up land next north of 
Peck. 

Soon after the county of Orleans was organized, 
settlers began to gather here. Mechanics and trades- 
men came in and a village began to be formed, Sam- 
uel Tappan, who was postmaster, and kept his office 
at Yates Center, removed it here, much to the dis- 
gust of those living at the Center. 

L. & ]Sr. Martin, from Peacham, Vermont, kej^t the 
first store in 1880. Smith & Babcock soon followed, 
and Royal Chamberlain was an early merchant. C. 
Peabody was first blacksmith. 

Blanchard and Chamberlain built the tavern 
which stands there yet, which was kept by Miner 
Sherwin, in 1830. 

To settle the. postofiice satisfactorily to the people, 
Yates postoffice was transfered to the Center, and 
application ^^ as made to the department for a new 
postoffice, to be called Ijyndon, that being the name 
that had been agreed on at a public meeting of the 
inhabitants, several of whom came from Lyndon, 
Vermont. The ])Ostoffice department established the 
postoffice by name ot Lyndonville, to distinguish it 
from Linden, in Genesee county. 

S. W. Mudgett, Samuel Tappan, Richard Barry 
and otlu'rs, built the first flonring Mills at Lyndon- 



OF ORLEANS OOUISTTT. 407 

ville, in 1836. The Union School house was built in 
1843. 

Royal Chamberlain, from Veraiont, settled here as 
a merchant about the time the village began to be 
established. 

As there was no lawyer by jjrofession in town, Mi, 
Chamberlain being a ready talker and possessed of 
some education'and sufficient self assurance, engaged 
in trying suits] in justice's courts, and continued the 
practice several years, until he became a noted 
* ' j^ettifogger " through several towns around. He 
was a judge of the Court of Common Pleas one term. 
He removed from Yates several years ago, and now 
resides in Lockport.T where he has edited a newH- 
paper. He did considerable to build up a village at 
Lyndonville. 

D]'. Horace Phippany was the tii-st i-egular physi- 
cian who settled in Lyndonville. 

Rev. Jeremiah Irons was the first Baptist minister 
who resided in Yates. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF EARLY SEHLERS. 

IIEUHEN KOOT. 

"I Avas born in Cooperstown, Otsego county, JN. 
Y., December 28t]), 1792. My father n'raoved with 
his family, then consisting of his wife and five sons, 
to Big Sodus Bay, in 180] or '2. In Ajml, 1804, we 
moved by wny of Irondecpioit Bay and lak(^ Ontario, 
to the mouth of .lohnson's Creek, in Carlton, near 
which place my fatlier took an artich' of land from 
the Holland Land Compan\-, and locatfMl on it to 
make him a farm. 

The party that cam(3 consistt.'d of my father's lanii- 
ly and the Dunham familj", of six or sewn persons, 



408 PIO^T:Eli uistohy 

and these constituted tlie whole white i)opulation 
north of the Ridge, between the Niagara and Gene- 
see rivers, except afaniih' by the name of Wals- 
worth, who liad settled at the nioutli of Oak Or- 
chard Cre«:4v. 

Ma" father built a house of such poles as we could 
carry, as we had no team to draw logs, and (covered 
it with elm baik, in which we lived without a iloor 
for one or twoyeai's, then a floor was mad*' of split 
basswood logs. 

After building a shelttT lor the famil}-. tiie next 
thing in order was to get sui)plied with food and 
clothing, the stock we brought with us getting low. 
We cleared a small j^iece of land and planted it with 
corn ; from this we made our bread. Our meat coii- 
sisted of hsh, venison, bear, raccoon and hedgehog. 
We jiouuded our corn for meal two or three years, 
by which time we began to raise wheat, which we 
took to Norton's mill, in Lima, to bi^ ground. It 
was aljout seventy miles by way of Irondequoit Bay 
and the lak«*. 'i'he country was so infested with 
bears and wolves at tliat tim(> we could not kee]) do- 
mestic aninuds. 

In the summer of 1800 or "7, my fathei- got a cow 
from Canada, but tht- following tall she was killed 
by wolves. 

Our (dotliing Avas made from hemp of our own rais- 
ing. We could not raise flax on account of the rust 
that destroyed the tibrc. 

For several years we had no l^oots or shoes for 
want of material to make them. 

My father built the first frame barn in what is now 
Orleans county. The lumber and nails he brought 
from Canada. 

Turner, in his history of the Holland Purchase, is 
in erroi- when he says that " James Mather binlt the 
first franii" bai-ii, and got part of his lumber from 



OF orlt-;axs coujnty. 409 

Dunham's inill."" Our burn was built before Uun- 
liam's sawmill Avas built. The barn was torn down 
by Daniel Gates twenty-two or twenty-three years 
since, who then owned the place, and some of the 
flooring- can now be seen on the premises. Thvy 
were split and hewn from whitewood logs. The nails 
used were all wrought nails. 

In Sej>tember, 181-1, my father and myself being 
the only ones in our family liable to do military- 
duty, were ordered to meet at Batavia, and go 
from there to Buffalo to serve in the United States 
army, in the war then being carried on against Great 
Britain. 

On our arrival at Bufialo, there was a call made 
for volunteers to go to Fort Erie, under General Por- 
ter, to take the British batteries that were then be- 
seiging Fort Erie. My father and myself volunteered 
and went over and assisted in taking the batteries 
and capturing some live hundred prisoners. 'I'his 
was on the 17th of September, 1814. After this w<' 
v>ei(i discharged, rcceiviiig at th<' rate of. ^8 ])pr uiontli 
for our services. 

In 1814, I took an article from the Holland Land 
Comjmny of the land on wliich I now reside, on lot 
one, section tliree, township sixteen, range three. 

In April, 181i), I went to Canada and worked on a 
farm there during the summt-r. The winter following 
I returned and cho})p(3d over twenty-live acres on ni}' 
farm, and in March, 1816, I Avent t<.» 'I'oronto and 
took command of a vessel and sailetl on lake 
Ontario during the season of navigation until ih«' 
year 1820. 

In January ::i8tli, 1810, 1 was married to Miss Eliz- 
abeth Hastings, of I'oronto. We moved upon m_\' 
farm in Yates, in December, 1820, where we still re- 
side. We have raised a family of ten childien, five 
sons and five daughters. My r'kh'st and ywungest 



410 PTONEKK TIISTOKY 

sons are now serving in the armieH of their country 
in the war of the great rebellion. 

REUBEN ROOT." 

Yates, June, 18G4. 

SAMUEL TAPJ»AN. 

Samuel Tappan was horn in Saco, Maine, Novem- 
ber 19, 1781. When nine years old lie went to reside 
with an uncle in Massachusetts. His father was a 
Quaker in religious opinion, a zealous advocate of 
their peculiar principles until his death. On the death 
of his father Samuel was placed with a man in Saco, to 
learn the tailor' s trade. Disliking this business he was 
soon after bound as an apprentice to a shoemaker, 
and commenced his •' servitude,'- as he called it, 
August, 1793. His master belonged to the sect of 
Quakers, hard and exacting, he made, no allow- 
ance for the faults and failings, or the weakness or 
feelings of others. He obliged his apprentice to as- 
sume the dress, and conform to the mode of worship 
of the Quakers, both of which were repugnant to the 
feelings of the ^'oung man. His master had no 
books but the Bible, and a few religious works on 
subjects connected with the Quakers. Samuel was 
inclined to read wliatever came in his way. His incli- 
nations, however, were strictly restrained by his mas- 
ter, by whom all books of poetry and romance were 
absolutely forbidden, and the range of other books 
to which he was admitted, was exceedingly limited. 
After several years sj^ent in this manner, a friendlj' 
Congregational minister kindh' supplied him with 
books, and gavt^ him discreet counsel, which 
rendered his st^rvitud*- more tolerable and happy. 
He had iio lienefit of schooling, never having 
attended school as m scliolai- T)nt thi'ee days in his 
life. 

In 1801. with tlu- la-lp of friends ht- purchased his 



OF ORLEAIS'S COUNTY. 411 

freedom from his apprenticeship, and returned to 
Saco and worked at his trade about two years, 
studying what he could in the mean time to fit him- 
self for a school teacher. 

In 1803 he taught his first school, in which occupa- 
tion he was mainly employed for a number of years, 
occasionally working at his trade, and studying when 
he could without a teacher. 

For several years he supplied the poets corner in a 
village newspaper, and became considerably inter- 
ested in politics, on tlie Republican side, under the 
lead of Mr. Jefferson. 

In 1809 he was appointed deputy sherift' for York 
and Oxford counties, which office he held for two 
years. 

In 1811 he removed to Pittstown, Rensselaer coun- 
ty, N. Y. The ti'oubles between the United States 
and Great Britain thickening at this time, on his ap- 
plication he was appointed an Ensign in the Infantry in 
the United States Army, and assigned to duty in the 
IStli Regiment, and stationed in the recruiting service 
at Hoosic, N. Y. 

After war was declared in 1812, he was transferred 
to the 23d regiment. 

In May, 1813, he was ordered with his company tc 
the Niagara fi-ontier. Fort George, at the mouth of 
Niagar.^ river, on the Canada side, was taken by our 
forces, and Ensign Tappan was sent with fort}^ men 
to plant the American fiag on the fort, which was the 
first time that flag was raised ovei* conquei'ed British 
territory in that war. Ensign Tappan was now ap- 
pointed adjutant. In Sept<:>mber lie was sent with a 
convoy of prisoners to Greenbush, being twentj^-one 
days on the i-oad. He remained in Greenbush the 
next autumn and winter, teaching school in the mean 
time. 



412 PIOXEER IIISTOEY 

111 June, 1S14, he was again ordered to the frou- 
tier and assigned to the command of a company, and 
served at the capture of Fort Erie. lie was engaged' 
in the batth^s of Chix)pt'vva and Lnndy's Lane. In 
this hist battk- his com})an3' lost seventeen out of 
forty-five in killed and wounded. In this battle 
Lieutenant Tappan, at the head of his company, cajD- 
tured Capt. Frazier, of the Eoyal Sc^otts, with twenty 
of his men. The American arm\' afterwards retired 
to Fort Erie, and was besieged tlnnv by the British, 
but they were finally' compelled to raise the siege. 
Afterwards, b\^ the bursting of a shell in our camp 
which had been thrown there by the British, his knee 
was broken, which confined him in hospital a long 
time, and on account of which he received a i)ension 
the remainder of his life. After he became suffi- 
ciently recovered to return to dut}-, lie was retained 
on the peace establishment, war with England being 
ended, but resigned his commission in February, 
1810. He then returned to Pittstown, and there 
taugJit school the next seven years, serving in the 
mean time as inspector and commissioner of schools, 
commissionei' of deeds, auctioneer and coroner. In 
1823 he moved to Ridgeway, moving in October, his 
family consisting of a wife and five children, with all 
his effects on two Dutch Wagons, rt:aching Kidge- 
way, Xoxember 10th. After litting a log cabin for 
his famih' he took a school for tlif winter. In the 
spring hr went to work clearing land, but as he said 
his farming was not a success. "'My tVuit trees 
would fall down and my forest trees would stand up; 
my crops were light but m>- bills wen^ heavy, and 
one year's experience taught me 1 wan not born to 
be a farmer." 

In the spring of 1825 he moved to Yates and opened 
a tav(!rn at Yates Center, keeping the first tavern 
opened in that town. After keeping tavern one 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 413 

year and retailing iifty-tliree barrels of liquor iu that 
time, he sold out his tavern, was elected constable 
and inspectoi- of schools and commissioner of deeds, 
which last named office he held twenty years. He 
was elected Justice of the peace in 1828. In the win- 
ter of 1827 he taught school for the last time, conclu- 
ding his nineteen years service in tliat capacity. Id 
1821J li(^ was appointed postmaster, which office he 
held tliirt(^en jears. In 1832 ho was appointed one of 
the Judges of the Orleans County Court of Common 
Pleas, which office he held five 3'ears. In 1846 he 
was elected town superintendent of common schools. 
The later years of his life were S23ent in quiet at home 
with his liooks, and enjoying the society of family 
and friends. He was constitutionally frail in body, 
but energetic and active in his habits of life. Being 
rc'ady -with his pen, and having considerable expe- 
I'ience in lousiness, he was frequently employed to 
draft deeds, wills and contracts for his neighbors, 
and had some practice in trying suits in justices' 
<'Ourts, as counsel foi- juirties. Of a cheerful and 
lively turn of mind and easj^ lioAv of language, and 
having an inexhaustible fund of anecdotes and sto- 
ries at his command, lu' would make himself exceed- 
ingly interesting in conversation, and give zest and 
enjoyment to society wherever he was. His charac- 
ter as a man is apth' described by his daughter in a 
memoir of him pi-epared b}^ Ijci', from which we ex- 
tract as follows : 

"Judge Tappan maybe d»'scribed as a man of 
more than ordinary intellect, well acquainted with 
the leading events of the dav. Of the strictest inteo-- 
rity in his business relations, noted for punctuality, 
a j)ublic spirited citizen, i-eady to bear his full share 
of responsibility. In his social relations, his keen 
perceptions and ready wit made him an instructive 
companion. Although many excentricities mingled 



414 PIONEER HISTORY 

ill his character, yet those who knew him best over- 
looked these, knowing liis heart was right, though 
his words might sometimes wound.-' 

He was married four times and had nineteen chil- 
dren. 

Many anecdotes miglit be told of him illustrative 
of his difterent traits of character. He posssessed 
ho mechanical ability and often related one of his 
experiments in this department. After he moved to 
Ridgeway and became a farmer he found a well curb 
needed and concluded to make one without assis- 
tance. He ascertained the size required, collected 
the materials together and made it in the house du- 
ring the evenings, being engaged in teaching in the 
day time, but after its completion, when he at- 
tempted to take it through the doorway he found it 
several inches wider than the door. He was a great 
pedestrian, often making excursions on foot, showing 
greater powers of endurance than many younger and 
stronger men. 

In the spring of 1844, when starting on one of his 
eastern journeys, he tells us in his journal that ar- 
riving in Albion and not finding the water let into the 
canal as he expected, he managed to get as far as 
Rochester, and walked most of the distance to Ge- 
neva. After he was seventy years old he walked 
from Medina to Daw's Corners, near Batavia, at one 
time. 

While postmaster, he often left two horses in his 
stable and walked from Yates to Ridgeway with the 
mail bag on his arm. 

He died February 8th, 18G8, aged eighty-six 
years. 

JOHN H. TYLER. 

John H. Tyler was born in Randolph, Orange Co., 
Vermont, November 30th, 1793. He attended the 



OF OKLKAiN'S COUNTY. 415 

academy in Randolpli a short time and removed to 
Massena, N. Y., in 1810. On war with Great Britain 
being declared in 1812, lie volunteered as a soldier 
and served near Ogdensbnrgh six months. In 1817. 
he removed to the Holland Purchase, and March 22d 
took an article for one hundred Sf.'venty-six acres of 
land in Yates, part of lot two, section two, range 
three, on Johnson's Creek, on which he afterwards 
resided and labored as a farmer. He was Supervisor 
of the town of Yates nine years, justice of the peace 
a number of years, and represented the county of 
Orleans in the Assembly of the State in 1830 and '31. 
He was a man of vigorous intellect and good judg- 
ment, and enjoyed the confidence of all who knew 
him. 

He married Selina Gil bert, daughter of Simeon Gil- 
bert, of Yates, in 1819. She died October 7th, 1842. 
He married Saloma Gates, daughter of Daniel Gates, 
of Carlton, in 1843. 

He died in August, 1850. 

IIOUACK O. GOOLJ). 

Horace O. Goold was born in Lyme, New Lon- 
don county, Connecticut, August 12th, 1800. In 
March, 1818, in company with two other men in a 
one horse wagon, he came to Bloomlield, N. Y., after 
a journey of fifteen days. He labored on a faym the 
next summer, taught school the next winter, and in 
the spring of 1810, removed to Carlton, IN". Y., and 
located about two miles west of the head of Still- 
water. 

The first year of his settlement here lie raised 
thirty bushels of corn and as many bushels of pota- 
toes. 

Mr. Goold said: ''During the first season we 
were sometimes rather short of food, especially meat, 
but some of the boys would often Idll some wild an- 



410 PIONEER H1.ST0RY 

imal, and we were not very particular wliat name it 
hore, as liiiuger had driven us ' to esteem nothing un- 
clean, but to receive it with thanksgiving.'" 

Mr. Cxoold married Laurenda Fullei', of Carlton, 
'November ir)th, 1820. 

Several jears before his death, Mr. Goold removed 
to Lyndonville, in Yates, where he died October nth, 
1865. His wife died October 24th, 1865. 

JOSIAll J'EHli\. 

Josiah Ferry was born in Shaftsbury, Vermont, 
Sejitember 6th, 1787. He removed to Yates in April, 
1817, and commenced clearing a farm, and planted 
and raised corn and j)otatoes among the logs and 
sowed some wheat, all the first year. 

Tli(^ people in Yates, in those days, generally went 
to Dunham's gristmill, at Kuckville, in Carlton, to 
get grain ground, and Mr. Perry relates of his carry- 
ing a bushel of wheat on his back a half dozen miles 
to that mill to be ground, going through the woods 
by marked trees, no road being cut out. 

Mr. Peny taught the first school that was kejit in 
town. He held office as justice of the peace a short 
time. He is yet living in Yates. 

ALFRED BULLARD. 

Alfred Bullard was born in Barre, Massachusetts, 
February 10th, 1793. 

He removed with his parents to Shrewsbury, Ver- 
mont, and there received a fair common school edu- 
cation, with the addition of a knowledge of field sur- 
veying. 

In 1817 he came to Batavia, Genesee county, and 
in 1818 he removed to Barre, Orleans county, and he 
finally settled in Yates in 1824, where he has ever 
since resided. 

For many years after coming into this county, his 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 41'^ 

principal enij)loynient consisted in surveying land, 
and lie was known to almost eveiybody in Orleans 
county as " Surve^^or Bullard/ AVhen Ik? was not 
surveying he worked on a farm. He married C}'nthia 
Peck in 1821. She died and he niariied Sally Smith, 
who is dead also. 

Mr. Bullard has not engaged in surveying for a 
number of years on account of lameness, which com- 
pelled him to use one, and sometimes two canes in 
walking. He may be considered the pioneer surve^'or 
located in Orleans county. 

IIKNIIY MC NKAL. 

Henry McNeal was born in Pittstown, Rensselaer 
county, N. Y., in 1702. 

He married Lucy Sternberg in 1814. They moved 
to Yates in 1817. ' 

Mr. McNeal was tlie lirst Ca.])taiu of a. militia, com- 
pany in Yates. 

AMOS Sl'ENCKK. 

Amos Spencer was born in Connecticut in 1787. 
He married Jerusha Murdock, September 10th, 
1811. They moved to Yates and settled on the lake 
shore in 1818. 

After a few years they removed to Hartland, Ni 
agara county, where he was living in 1870. Thi^ lirst 
year he resided in Yat(\s, he cleared the land and sowed 
ten acres with winter wht^at. On this the next year 
he harvested three hundred and thirty bushels ol 
wheat. He drew forty bushels to Ridgeway Corners, 
hired Amos Barrett to cavry it to Rocliester with his 
team, gave him five dollars for drawing and paid hin 
expenses on th(? road. Me sold his wheat for fifty- 
four cents per bushel. They were gone four days, 
and on getting home fouud thay had only five dollars 

27 



418 PIONKEK HISTORY 

of the money receivtxl for their wheat h^Si, all the re- 
mainder having been spent in ])aying nece.ssary ex- 
penses. 

ELISllA SAWYF.K. 

Elisha Hawj'er was born in Keading, Vermont, 
September 30th, 1785. He settled in Yates m 1816. 
He took up four hundred acres of land on the south 
line of the town. After somt' years he removed to 
Lyndonville on a small place. He removed to Pax- 
ton, Illinois, and died tliere l)eceniber 8th, 1808. 

BAKUC'II II. '.;ili;kkt. 

Baruch H. Gilbert was born in the town of North- 
east, Dut<3hess county, IN^ew York, Angust 24th, 
1705. 

His father, Simeon Gilbert, came to Yates in the 
fall of 1816, and took an article of land on the west 
side of the line between ranges three and fonr, about 
?v mile and a half south from lake Ontario, and re- 
turned to his eastern home without making any im- 
provement on his lands, to wliicli he did not return 
irntil the spring of 1818. 

Baruch H. Gilbert settled on the south part of the 
land so taken by his father in the spring of 1817, and 
cleared a farm there on wliich he i-esided about fifty 
years. 

Mr. Gilbert was of fair education, of considerable 
spirit and energy t)f character, and settling in this 
town among the very iirst, he interested himself in 
every movement made to improve the country, intro- 
duce and maintain the institutions of civilized society 
and induce people to settle in Yates. He soon took a 
prominent position in the business of his town and 
neighborhood, and as long as he resided here he 
was one of the leading men in all public affairs. He 
officiated as justice of the peace for thirty years. 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 419 

He miiiTied Miss Fanny Skellenger in 1821. His 
children are Simeon, who married Oliv*- Skellinger, 
and resides in Illinois ; Stephen B., married Ann 
Watkins, resides in California ; Xathan S., married 
Mary E. Lane, resides in Loekport ; and Cord^^lia, 
who is unmarried. 

ELISIIA IJOWEN. 

Dr. Elisha Bowen was born in Reading, Windsor 
connty, Vermont, in the year 1791. 

He received a diploma from Dartmonth College. 
He was lirst married and removed to Palmyj-a, N. Y., 
in 1817, where his wife died. 

In the 3^ear 1820 he removed to tlie town of Yates, 
and settled on a farm between Yates Center and the 
lake. 

He was the first, and for several years the onl>- 
regular physician i-esiding and practicing in the town 
of Yates. 

He married for his second wife Miss Adeline Raw- 
son. After her death he married for his thiid wifV- 
Miss Mary Ann Clark. She died in 18G1. 

Dr. Bowen had twelve children, of whom nine are 
living, viz.: Francis W., married a danghter of Dr. 
Whaley, resides in Sacramento, California ; Samuel 
C, married Kate, daughter of James Jackson, of 
Ridgeway, resides in Medina ; Adeline, unmarried, 
resides in Wisconson; Charles (/., married Julia Hard, 
resides in Detroit ; Edgar .]., nmrried Mar;v Winn, 
resides in Chicago ; Susan, married H. L. Achilles, 
Jr., resides in Rochester ; Cornelia, married Samuel 
Boyd, resides in Appleton, Wisconsin ; Mary, un- 
married resides at Appleton, Wisconsin ; Theodore 
E., married Mary Loomis, resides in Chicago. 

Dr. Bowen was one of thirteen persons who united 
to form the Baptist Church in Yates, in 1822, ot 
which church he continued an active member until 



420 PIOXEER IIISTORY 

his death. He was a strong advocate of temperance,, 
and amono; the lirst who united in the town of Yates- 
to form a society to promote that cause. 

Dr. Bowen was conscientious and correct in all the 
iiahits of his life, and had the confidence and respect 
of all who knew him. In the later years of his life 
he did not jDractice his profession. He died April 6.. 
1863, aged 72 years. • 



CHAPTER XXX. 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES OF JOSEPH ELLICOTT AND 
EBENEZER MIX. 

JOSEPH ELLICOTT. 

Altliougli Mr. Ellicott was never a resident of Or- 
leans county, and consequently not strictly included 
among its pioneers, whose histoiy it is the main ob- 
ject of this work to record, yet, as the agent of the 
Holland Land Company for so many years- no man 
had more to do in organizing and settling this county, 
and in23lanning and bringing into action the means by 
which tlie varied resources of Western New York 
have been developed. 

The ancestors of Mr. Ellicott came from Wales to 
America at an early day, and were among the early 
pioneers of Buck's county, Pennsj'lvania. 

Mr. Joseph Ellicott was thoroughly educated as a 
surveyor, by lessons given him by his elder brother 
Andrew. His first practical lessons were taken while 
assisting his brother in surveying the city of Wash- 
ington, after that place liad been selected for the Na- 
tional Capitol. 

In 1791 he was aj)pointed to run the line between 
Georgia and the Creek Indians. He was then en- 
gaged in surveying the lands of the Holland Company 
lying in the State of Pennsylvania. When this was 
completed he was sent to survey the Company's lands 
in Western New York. 

He spent many years in the woods, in the arduous 
labors of a surveyor, and when he left tlie woods to 



422 ptonp:ek irisTOKY 

engage in the business of local agent of the Company, 
his toil was scarcely lessened. During this time he 
carried on an immense correspondence with the gene- 
ral office, at Philadelphia, in reference to the business 
entrusted to him, and also with the prominent men 
of his time and country in relation to public affairs 
generally, in which he manifested great interest. He 
is es])ecially reuKMubered aside from his connexion 
with the Holland Land Company, for the part he 
took in promoting that great work of internal im- 
provement, the Erie Canal. With the schemes for 
the origin and prosecution of that woi-k, and its pro- 
gress to success, he was conspicuously identified; 
and among the great men Avliose comprehensive 
minds devised that canal, and urged it forward to 
completion, his name will ever rank among the 
first. 

By a lite of activity and enterpiise, he was enabled 
to accumulate a large property without being 
charged with peculation in office, or mal-admin- 
istration of the vast business entrusted to his 
carc^ 

A spirit of discontent had begun to be manifested 
among the settlers on the Holland Purchase, growing- 
out of their enormous indebtedness to the Company 
for their lands which they had been permitted to 
buy on credit, and while the leniency of the agents 
had not enforced payment on their contracts, accu- 
mlating interest liad largely' swelled the original 
debts. 

Worried and worn by the load of labor he had 
sustained, and aware of the discontent which pre- 
vailed, and which he hoped might be allayed if direc- 
ted by other counsels, Mr. E. resigned his agency, and 
thus closed a busy life. From that time he was afflic- 
ted with a uKmomania upon real or imaginaiy diseases 
with which he believed liimself to suffer. He was 



OF ORLEAjSTH OOUNTl'. 423 

taken by liis friends to New York and i:>l'dced in the 
hospital at Belle\ne, Avh^i-e about Angust, 1826, he 
committed suicide 

Joseph Ellicott was never married, but for his nu 
merous family of relativos he made most ample pro- 
vision, some of the choicest lands on the Holland Pur- 
chase being selected and secured by title to tlie Elli 
cotts. 

His remains weri' brouglit to Batavia and interred 
in the village cemetery, a beautiful monument being- 
erected under the superintence of David E. Evans, 
his neph«nv, and successor as local agent of tiie Hol- 
land Comjjany, marks the spot. 

From his intimate accpiaintance as surveyor with 
the^olland Purchas*^ lands in Western New York, 
he was enabled to make some Judicious selections of 
lands for himself. 

In the original survey of Buffalo, he laid 
off for himself one hundred acres, now included in 
the best part of that city. 

In the county of Orleans he bought seven hundred 
acres, including the water power at Shelby Center, 
and afterwards fourteen hundred acres farther down 
the Oak Orchard Creek, whicli included the vil 
hige of ]Vledina, and the b(^st water poAver on that 
creek. 

About the year 1<S24 he made his will, in which he 
devised a hirge part of his great landed estate in 
special gifts to his fa\'orite relatives. The lesidue 
was devised to others of his kindred, nearly one hun- 
dred in number, slinre and share [ilike, with a few 
exceptions. 

His pi-operty at thii time of liis death, even at the 
low j)rice lands then bore, was estimated at six 
hundnKl thousand dollars. From the great advance 
in value at this time, this proy)erty is worth many 
millions of dollars. 



424 PIONEER IIISTOKY 

He was tlie first Judge appointed in and for Gene- 
see county courts. 

EBENEZEIl MIX. 

Ebenezer Mix is a name familiar as liouseliold 
words to the old settlers on the Holland Purchase, 
and no history of tlie jiioneers, or of the early settle- 
ment, could h(' made complete without a reference to 
him. 

Mr. Mix was born at New Haven. Connecticut. He 
died at Cleveland. Ohio, January 12th, 1869, aged 
81 years. 

In his native IS'ew England he learned and worked 
at the trade of a mason. 

He came to Batavia, Genesee county, to seek his 
fortune, in the year 1809. There he worked tirst at 
his trade as a mason. He afterwards taught school ; 
was for a time a student in a law office, and finally 
went into the service of the Holland Land Company 
as a clerk in their office at Batavia, in 1811, where he 
remained twenty-seven years. 

Being a good theoretical and })ractical surveyor, 
and a clear headed and competent business man, in 
a short time lie was made contracting clerk in the 
Batavia office, in which capacity it was his duty 
to make, renew and modify contracts for the sale of 
land, calculate quantities of land, make sub-divisions 
of tracts of land, and act as salesman generally. In 
this way he became intimatel}' connected with every 
transaction of the Company relating to gifts of land 
to churches and school districts, and took part in all 
business matters between the company and the people 
who settled on their lands. ^Vnd few men could be 
found who would have done the Inisiness as well. 
He excelled as a mathematician, was a practical sur- 
veyor and possessed a remarkable meniorj'" of boun- 
daries, localities, dates and distances. Indeed the 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 425 

whole transactions of the Land Compan}', and tlie 
map of their territory seemed to be pictured on his 
mind with singular fidelity, making it a treasury of 
facts, exceedingly convenient for reference in settling 
conflicting questions concerning highway's, bounda- 
ries and original surveys, which arise among the 
people. 

Naturally (jf a somewhat irritable tempera m(:>nt, 
when aroused by the perjilexities of Inisiness, he 
was sometimes rather sour and rough in manner to- 
wards persons by wdiom he was annoyed, but his 
wish and aim was to do right and justice, and how- 
ever austere and crabbed his manner, his conclusions 
and flnal settlement of matters he had in hand was 
kind and benevolent to those with whom he had to 
do. 

Full many a tiiwe has the unfortunate settler who 
had been unable to make the payments on his article, 
and whom sickness and calamity had driven almost 
to despair of ever paying for his land, had reason to 
be grateful for the humanity and generous treatment 
he received from Mr. Mix in extending his payments, 
renewing his article, and abating his interest 
money. 

In the war of 1812 he served for a time as volun- 
teer aid to Gen. P. B. Porter, and was at the sortie 
at Fort Erie. 

For twent}^ years in succession he was the Surro- 
gate of Genesee county. 



ORLEANS COUNTY PIONEER ASSOCIATION. 



This Association was organized June, 18o9. Its 
m<nnbers are persons wlio at an_v time pi-evious to 
January, 1826, were residents of Western New^ York, 
who sign its Constitution. Tlie ol:)jects of the Asso- 
ciation, as contained in its constitution, ai'o to pro- 
mote social intercourse by meeting together statedly, 
in order to preserve and perpetuate the remembrance 
of interesting facts connected Avitli the early history 
of the st^ttlement of Orleans count}' and its vicini- 
ty. Tile annual meetings are lield at the Court 
House, in Albion, on the third Saturday in June. 

It has been an object o^ the Association to collect 
and pi'eserve as much of tli(^ history of the early set- 
tlement of Orleans count}^ as possible. Tiie local 
history of many of the* (\irly jDioneers has been ob- 
tained and written out in books kept for tliat pur- 
pose, and sev>eral photograph albunis have been 
filled with the ])ictures of the men and ANomen wdio 
came here at an early day. 

At these yeai'ly gatherings, and at occasional spe- 
cial meetings held from time to time in various ])laces 
in the county, the old peoph^ ai'e accustomed to meet 
together and recount their adventures while subduing 
the wilderness, and have a good time generally. 

It is intended to obtain as much of such history of 
" 'ye olden time •' as possible, and when the actors 
in these old scenes are no more, and the last of the 
log houses shall exist only in the memoi-y and rec- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 427 

ords of the]" times gone by, tlien these old manuscripts 
and relics, laid up in some public depository, sliall 
remain for the information of posterity of the things 
that were here, memories of the hardships, labors, 
and privations of tlK* pioneers of Orleans county. 



ADDRESS 



DELIVERED BEFORE THE ORLEANS COUNTY PIONEER ASSOCIA- 
TION, SEPT. 10th, 1S59, 
By ARAE> THOMAS. 



Mr. Prcnidenf, and Members of (he Orleans County Pioneer Association : — 

In discliarging the pleasant duty of addressing you 
on the present occasion, I am desirous to devote my 
thoughts to the consideration of topics kindred to the 
sentiments whicli led to the formation of this associ- 
ation. 

This seems no fit time to indulge in abstruse spec- 
ulations, or idle rhetoric. 1 address a pra(;tical com- 
pany, — men who have been trained to meet the stern 
realities of life, and accomplish their destiny with un- 
Hinching labor ; and having achieved a good work, 
well may they enjoy the triumph it affords. Let us 
then contemplate the past, and learn wisdom for the 
future. 

A stranger, who now for the first time should come 
into our county, judging from appearances, would 
be apt to think this an old settlement, where genera- 
tion after generation of men had lived and died, and 
where their accumulated labor had been expended 
upon those works of enlightened civilization which 
cover the land. But we know scarce fifty years 
since the first acre of this territory was ch^ared of its 
native forest, and the men are now living who recol- 
lect when here was nothing but a dark, unbroken 
wilderness. 

Man}^ of the first settlers of this county have 
passed away from among th»' living. Others follow- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 429 

ing in the tide of emigration are now inhabitants of 
some Western States. A few survivors and represen- 
tatives of a generation ra])id]y passing away, remain 
quiet possessors of the soil their liands tirst subjected to 
cultivation, and today they have assembled to talk over 
the trials and iirivations, the hardships and the suf- 
ferings, the varied events of fortune, j)rosperous and 
adverse, which have fallen to their lot since first they 
came into this county. 

The 0(;casion is replet(^ with interest to us all. To 
the aged veterans, it brings up memories of events, 
which in passing thril]<^d their hearts with intensest 
emotion. 

To the more youthful spectator it aflbrds encour- 
agement to labor, in view of these examples of suc- 
cess over every opposition, obtained by resolute and 
continued exertion. And to us all, it shows convin- 
cing proofs that honest and laudable industry will 
reap its rewards in due time. 

Our theme embraces the consideration of subjects 
connected with the early settlement of Orleans county. 
In tracing the history of mankind in their migrations 
since their memorable dispersion on the plains of 
Shinar, we find a variety of causes which have impelled 
men to remove from the places of their nativity. Tlie 
venerable founder of the Jewish nation went down to 
Egypt to save liis family from death by famine, and 
his descendents came out of Egypt to save themselves 
from a terrible bondage. 

The builders of ancient Rome were tlie scattered 
fragments of various nations who assembled there as 
to a coDunon asylum of outcasts from everywhere, 
and raised their walls for mutual protection and sup- 
port ; and by encouraging immigration from broad, and 
the gradual accretion of ^^ower by treaty, and con- 
quest of foreign nations, in time they became the 
mightiest empire on earth, in their turn to be overrun 



430 PIONEEK HISTORY 

by swarms from tlie northern hive, who, deserting their 
inhospitable homes, came down with all their move- 
able possessions, by fire and sword, to drive out the 
inhabitants of the fair provinces of Italy, and give 
themselves a better land. 

The Spaniards who first settled in America, were 
attracted there by their cupidity for gold. And 
the ranks of the settlers in most new countries have 
been swelled by adventurers who had been obliged 
to leave their native land to escape the consequences 
of their crimes. 

A nobler impulse prompted our ancestors in their 
migrations from Europe. 

The discovery of America, the invention of print- 
ing, and the Protestant Reformation had roused the 
minds of the most intelligent nations of the w^orld to a 
more exalted sense of the value of liberty, and a keen 
j)erception of those natural and inalienable rights of 
conscience which form the richest possession of a free 
people. Persecuted for conscience sake in their na- 
tive country, England, they had borne for years the 
cruel oppression which religious intolerance and po- 
litical tyranny forced upon them there, with christian 
endurance, till overcome by suffering too grievous to 
be borne, and hopeless of relief, they solemnly with- 
drew from their national church and from the land 
of their birth, to Holland, where, some years after 
they formed and carried out the resolution to emi- 
grate to America, there, under the protection of the 
King of England, they thought to worship God in 
peace, as they believed" to be right. 

Piety and love of liberty furnished them sufficient 
motives for removal, and armed them,with fortitude 
required to meet the perils and hardships of their 
new home. 

With all proper admiration which we ought to feel 
for the early New England Puritans, the ancestors 



OF OllLEATs'S eOLTN'TY. 431 

of SO many of tliose wlio liear mo, we may admit 
they liad their failings. In the austerity of their 
faith they often forgot the mild spirit of charity 
which pervades the gospel they re^'ered, and in the 
ardor of their zeal tliey made and sought to en- 
force laws of great severit}^ against those professing 
religious belief at variance with the dogmas of their 
stern creed, and punished and persecuted with a 
strange infatuation, those charged with the crime of 
witchcraft. 

But in reviewing this portion of the history of our 
forefathers, we should remember not to Judge them 
by the lights of the present age. Toleration to faith 
and worship, contrary- to the forms declared by the 
civil government for a thousand years, had then not 
been known in Euroix\ and the opinion of good men 
had before then always been, that such religious free- 
dom would destroy the best institutions of society. 
A belief in witchcraft was as old as history itself, 
and was a common superstition of the times. The 
excellent and pious Baxter held the existence of 
witches as certain as the punishment of the wicked, 
and the great and good Sir Matthew Hale, that able 
judge, and profound luminary of the law, believed in 
witchcraft as sincerely as did Cotton Mather. 

The superstitions of the dark ages were then enter- 
tained by the most enlightened and liberal minded men 
everywhere, and it would be requiring too much, to 
expect our forefathers to have freed themselves from 
opinions we may deem absurd, but which up to that 
time, and by all otlier men then, \\ ere held woi'thy of 
acceptation. 

I know we are sometimes charged with using ex- 
travagant eulogium in speaking of the New England 
Puritans of the okhni time. But making due allow- 
ance for their eccentricities of character and conduct, 
resulting from circumstances with which they stood 



432 PIONEER HISTORY 

connected, wo may look in vain to find in the early 
history of any other people, snch noble patriotism, 
fervent piety, sound wisdom, and incorruptible hon^ 
esty as in the case before us. 

They had all been trained in the same school of 
adversity, and possessed in a wonderful degree Iden- 
tit}^ of sentiment, sympathy and character in all their 
conduct and opinions which impressed itself upon all 
their laws, their individual and social arrangements, 
and njion every institution and action which found 
place among them. 

Intiexible and steadfast in their cherished princi- 
ples, they trained their children in the faith and prac* 
tices of their fathers, and the combined influence of 
such faith and works, we may see in their effects 
upon the energy and enterprise, the love of liberty, 
the respect for law and order, good morals, religion, 
learning and true patriotism, which, inspired by such 
examples, has ever distingushed their descendants 
down tlirough the period of more than two hundred 
years. 

We need not sounding eulogy or words of windy 
panegyric to prove the value of New England intelli- 
gence, integrity and power, in moulding and guiding 
the rising destinies of our country. The wisdom of 
her statesmen, the heroism of her soldiers, and the 
spirit and conduct of her people, secured our nation- 
al independence, and established our national federa- 
tion of independent States upon the broad basis of 
constitutional liberty. And even up to now this ele- 
ment has always been prominent, I had almost said 
controlling, in the legislation of most of the States, 
and at Washington. 

A few years since some curious individual ascer' 
tained on enquiry, that thirtj'^-six of the members of 
the two Houses of Congress, then in session, were 
born in the single State of Connecticut. 



OK ORLEANS COT^XTY. 433 

In tljf ]MJi,<i,uag«- of Mr. MMltlius. iiifui coming up 
to take ii]ioii liiniself his plaiv, and the lesponsibili- 
ties ol* life, lincls no cover laid for liini on nature's 
table, and lie goen out to spread a table for himself 
where he de<nnts the prospect most inviting. The rich 
treasures of experince and wisdom, and the abundant 
stores of material good things the ]>ast has garnered 
up, afford him capital with wlii(,'h to work out the 
fultilment of his own and his country's hopt's. 

These magnificent results of the skill and enter- 
prise of the pres<ait day, are only other phases and 
demonstrations of the same spirit which led to the 
first settlement in America, and which has attended 
every step of our progress since, as well exemplified iu 
the resolution of the solitary emigrant who sets Ms 
stake in the wilderness and determines there to dig- 
up for himself a, farm, as in that mightier work of a 
statesman, or a nation, which makes a canal or a 
railroad across a continent, lays a telegraph wire 
across an oct>an, or solv«^s tlie deepest pi'oblem of 
state policy for the world. 

Soon after the revolutionaiy war had ended, the 
Bettlem<?nts in I»few England wei-e extended over the 
the ]irinci]jal part of those States suitable for tillage,, 
and multitudes of their active and adventurous young 
men went out to seek their fortunes among tlie bor- 
derers who were pushing tlie bounds of civilization 
and imi)rovement back into the new territories, skirt 
ing the old Atlantic Staters upoii tlie West. 

A large majority of the fii'st settlers of Orleans 
county wei'e either emigrants from New England, 
or descended from the Puritan stock, who traced their 
origin back to those who, in l)(,'ceniber, 1(520, lauded 
from the May Flower upon Plymouth Rock. It 5s 
admitted that as a class they were ])oor but honest, 
possessing strong mora! convictions, of effective force 
of intellect and will, they determined to plant and 

28 



434 PIONEEi: HISTOKV 

grow up the institutions of religion, order and 
civilization in this wilderness, such as prevailed in 
their New England homes. Such views, habits and 
purposes, characterized the emigrants who tirst set- 
tled AVestern New York. Here was not the hiding 
j)hice of a population of whom it might justly be 
said they had left the homes of their youth as a 
measure of prudent care for tlieii- personal safety, 
cr from a kind regard for the good of the place they 
had left. Neither did they come here to buy choice 
lots and leave them till the toil of others on adjoin- 
ing farms should add value to their purchases. Here 
were few non-resident land holders at an early 
day. 

The Holland Land Company had purchased the 
Western part of the State of New York, bounded on 
the east by a line extending north from Penn- 
sylvania to Lake Ontario, known as the Transit 
Line. 

Before the last war with (xieat Britain, a portion of 
this tract which has been distinguished as the Hol- 
land Purchase, had been surveyed by the Company 
and offered for sale to settlers. The wonderful fertil- 
ity of the Genesee countr>^ liad T»een reported abroad, 
and before the war a few emigrants had begun to 
make their homes among the heavy forests which 
covered this country, some of whom had located 
themselves in what is now Orleans county. 

The possibility of such a work as the Erie Canal 
had not then entered the great mind of Dewitt Clin- 
ton, or been dreamed of 'even by the great men of 
that day. 

The most favorable means in prospect, then far iu 
the future, for communic;iling with the old settle- 
ments at the east, was by wagons on the highwaj^s, 
or boats down the Mohawk or St. Lawrence. But 
the pioneer settlers of the Holland Purchase belonged 



OF ORLEAlS^y COUNTY. 435 

to a bold and fearlesa race, who did not stop to en- 
quire whether the trail of civilization had extended 
to the new country, by which tliey could retreat with 
ease and safety to the homes of their fathers, if life 
in the woods should happen to prove uncongenial to 
their tastes. They expected to overcome the formi- 
dable obstacles before them by their own strong 
arms and stout hearts. They knew that wealth was 
in their farms, not perhaps in the shape of golden 
nuggets, such as hre the imagination of emigrants 
to Pike's Peak, or the other El Dorados of the West, 
but in the golden produce of well tilled fields, which 
honest hard work was sure to raise in abundance 
in time to come, and they meant to have it. 

It is really not as great an undertaking for the em- 
igrant, who at this day goes from tlie Atlantic States 
to settle in Kansas or California, as it was fifty years 
ago to make a settlement in Western New York. 
Railroads and telegraphs have made communication 
easy and rapid between places most distant, and 
modern improvements in the economy and arts of do- 
mestic life are such, that most of the necessaries and 
comforts enjoyed by residents in older towns can 
readily be procured everywhere. 

The farmer who locates on a prairie at the West, ])e- 
gins his work by plowing the primitive sod, and the 
next year he reaps his crop and finds his field as 
clean and mellow as plow land along tlie Connec^ticut 
river, and he can sell his products for almost New 
York prices. But beginning a farm on the Holland 
Purchase, fi"?ty 3^ears ago, was quite a different busi- 
ness. 

Indeed, we who have not learned by experience, 
can hardly imagine the obstacles and difliculties to 
be surmounted by the first settlers of Orleans county. 
Roads from Albany, westward, were bad ; merchants 
and mechanics had not yet arrived. A dense and 



486 PIONEER HISTORY 

hnavy forest of liard, liiige trees covered the land, to 
"be felled and ckared away before the plow of the 
farmer could turn up the genial soil. Pestilential fe- 
vers racked the nerves and prostrated the vigor of 
the' stoutest, as well as the weakest among them. 
The ague, that pest indigenous to all new countries, 
came up from every clearing^ usually in the best 
days of summer, to seize upon the settler, his wife 
and children, some or all of them, and shake out all 
their strength and energy. 

Though the noblest timber trees lor their buildings 
existed in troublesome al)undance. sawmills had not 
then been erected. 

Though their lands produced the finest of wheat 
whenever it could be sown, it cost more than its mar- 
ket pri{;e to take it to the distant grist mills to be 
ground. Sales of farm produce were limited to 
home consum])tion. 

Before the War of 1S12 but i\\\\ settlers had loca- 
ted in Orleans county. 

From Canandaigua to Lewiston, along the llidge 
Road, and from the mouth of Oak Orchard Creek, 
along an Indian Trail to Batavia, the trees had prin- 
cipally been cut wide enough for a highway. A few 
log cabins had been erected, and the sturdy emigrants 
had begun by felling the trees to open little patches 
of cleared land around their dwellings to form the 
nucleus of their farms. 

\^"ar was declared. The regular pursuits of peace- 
ful industry were broken up. The settler was sum- 
moned to become a soldier, and at the call of his 
country, at times almost ev(^ry able-bodied man in 
the settlement was away in the ranks of the army, 
leaving their scattered, unprotected families, to risk 
the chan(.'es of hostile foi'ays of the enemy, often 
threatened from the west along the lake. The cour- 
age and spirit of the women of those days was equal 



OF OKLEANW COUNTY. 437 

to' tile best exampleij to be found in American border 
warfare. Neither the friglitfid rumors of the massa- 
cre of their husbands and brothers in the light, or the 
terrible announcements that the Indians, with mur- 
der and pillage, were sweeping down the Ridge Road 
or coming up the Creek, could drive them to abandon 
the homes thoy had chosen in the woods, or make 
them turn a point from the [performance of ^\hat their 
duty required. 

Perhaps the gloomiest time in the experience of the 
pioneers was during and after the war, before the com- 
mencement of work on the Erie canal. Considerabh- 
wheat w^as annually grown, but beyond what the 
farmer wanted for his own consumption it was of lit- 
tle value, bearing a nominal piicn of aljout twenty- 
five cents a bushel. 

A kind of crude potash, made b\' leaching w ood 
ashes, and known as " black salts," was almost the 
only product which brought money, and became, in 
fact, almost a lawful tender for value in trade, and 
this had to be taken to market foi' miles ui)on ox 
sleds or hand sleds, or on the backs of th«^ makers, 
through woods and swamps, following a line of marked 
trees. After the war, came the memorable cold seasons 
of 1816-17. About these years, a cotem];)orary says, 
" from half to two-thirds of all the people wert» down 
ftick in the summer time.'' 

Without a supply of physicians or mirses, or med- 
icines, or even bread, how were such sick men to se- 
•cure their crops or clear their land, endure storm, 
and w^ant, and trouble and distress, which beset 
them at every turn X Surely nothing but an iron will 
which no impediment could break or bend, an abid- 
ing faith and hope which no disasters or discouragt^ 
ments could overcome or crush out, sustained them 
through these dark days. Like heroes of another time, 
*' through i\w. thick gloom of the present, they beheld 



438, PIONEER iriSTORy 

the brightness of the future," and they struggled 
on. 

It has been playfully said that you may place a 
Yankee in the woods with an ax, an augur and a knife, 
his only tools, and with the trees his only material 
for use, and he will build a palace, if need be, want- 
ing perhaps in the iinish which other tools, and the 
aid of iron trimmings, nails and glass would afford, 
but possessing the substantial requisites of conve- 
nience, and fitness and strength. 

The tirst log houses bnilt in this county, proved al- 
most literally the truth of this remark. They were 
the dwelling places of the best families in the land, 
made by their owners, where the latch string was al- 
ways out at the call of the stranger, and the best of 
their plain and scanty store was always generously 
shared with the weary and destitute, whoever he 
might be. 

The builders and occupants of those rude tene- 
ments were then probably poor, as can well be im- 
agined, sick and sutfering, with none of the luxuries, 
and few even of the necessaries of their fornun- expe- 
rience, but withal contented and hapjDy. 

How often do we hear these persons, now occupy- 
ing their noble mansions, fitted and furnished and 
adorned with all the elegance and profusion which 
the abundant means of their owners, and the taste and 
fashion of the times command, refer to the little, old 
log cabin first built upon their farm, and count their 
residence there the happiest in their lives. These 
buildings belong to the time gone by, and the last of 
the log iiouses will soon have gone down with their 
builders to that destruction which awaits all things 
earthly. 

For some years none new have been erected in this 
county, and but rarely now can the traveler see one 
left standing in dilapidated humility belfind the great 



OF ORLEANH COUNTY. 439 

new house, maintaining to tlie last its character for 
usefulness, as a shelter for the grind stone, the salt 
harrel, the swill tub, the work bench, and all the 
hand tools there carefully treasured up for use on 
the extensive domain of their wealthy owner. 

Among tlie.se primitive settlers, the advent of a nevi 
family to locate among them, was an occasion of 
joy through the town. The acquaintance of the stran- 
gers was promptly nought, a coidial welccmw ex- 
tended, and the more material aid of all the force in 
the neighborhood, kindly volunteered to help the new 
comer roll the logs to begin his clearing, or pile them 
into the walls of his cabin home. Such friendly 
feeling prevailed in all their social aflairs. Relations 
of Jicquaintance and friendship were sustained be- 
tween all the families for miles around, and no dis- 
tinctions of wealth or party, sect or condition were 
known. 

It is true no sucli visionary scheme of community 
of goods, as was attempted by the old Plymouth 
Colony, or by the Fourierites of a later day, with all 
its attendant idleness and discontent obtained amon^ 
them, but a most generous spirit to lend to and help 
the needy was a prominent trait in their character. 
They were not speculators who entered upon the 
lands to secure a title, trusting by a fortunate sale, 
or by the rise in the market price to derive large prof- 
its on their investment. The fevf r for land specula- 
tion had not tlien set in. 

The policy ot the Holland Company was to get 
their lands taken up and occupied as fast as possible. 
With this in view they gave contracts for deeds of 
conveyance on pajment of a small portion of the . 
purchase money, giving the purchaser some years of 
credit in which to pay the r«^sidue. This jK)licy bro't' 
in settlers, and the liberality of the com2)any in ex-. 



440 pi()xi:i;h histouv 

tending contracts \\ij('i>' i^jompt ))a\'ni«Mit could not 
he. made, kept tliem on their lots. 

A portion, however, of thn iirst iiiliabitants of this 
county, like a j)ortion of the iirst inhabitants in every 
new settlement, became cliarnisd with their life of 
vicissitude and hardship, and the varied advantages 
af pioneer settlement, and soon as tlie farms were 
mostly taken uj) and occupied, and the progress of 
cultivation had driven away the game and introduced 
in some degree the order of civilized society, they be- 
came uneasy and discontented, and longed for the 
freedom and excitments of wilder life on the border. 
Tiike Coopers hero. "Leather Stocking," they would 
"•g;et lost among the clearings." and moved to the 
West to Tiegin :igaii) in tlie forests of Miclugan or 
Ohio. 

To those wlio remained and labored tui tiirough 
every affliction and discouragement, using such means 
as their own sagacity and industry' atlbrded them to 
assist tli<:>ir elforts, we aie indebted foi' such succ(^ss- 
ful results as wt* no\A' set-. 

And I iivdy rej^eat, what Init an inteJligeut 
and confiding hope in '' the good time coming" could 
have sustained these men under all discouragements 
they endured i Wliat but that indomital^le spirit of 
the race, which never falters at j)erils oi- hindrances 
in tlie wa}' when a desirable object is to be gained, 
under the wise ordering of a mysteri(jus good Provi- 
dence, nerved them foi* theij- work, and clieered them 
on to its succesfid acconij-iishment '. 

In ardent imagination tlie young emigrant, who 
had selected and contracted for liis farm, looked over 
his fnture abodeand traced the l)oundaries of orchard 
and meadow, and pasture, and ])lain, and saw the 
shadowy cmtlines of his houses and his barns, his 
fences and his fields, looming into being where 
then the iirav old treen stood in solemn gi-andeur. 



<»K OIILKAJVS COUN^TY. 441 

the sturdy aentincls of uatuie for cfntiu'ies knt-piiig 
watch over the primitive wilderness. lie ^aw in 
vision of tliefutui'e his croi)s of waving eorn and his 
granaries bursting out with x^lenty, and Inuiself the 
happy possessor of a home blessed with comforts and 
luxui'ies of life in abundance, and seizing his ax, 
then perhaps his only chattel, he v,ent to work 
with a will, to piove tlie scenes his fanc}-^ had por- 
trayed. 

It is a remarkable fact that the Eiiglisii settlements 
in America were in the main first made at points the 
most inhospitable and uninviting, thus bringing ewry 
part of our country to be settled and improved. The 
Puritans, who came over in the May Flower, intended 
to have gone to Virginia, but through the treachery 
of the captain of their ship, as some assert, tliey 
were landed at Plymouth. 

The first emigrants westward from IS'ew England, 
located in the forests of New York, Michigan and 
Ohio, because they came from a forest country' and 
were not afraid of the woods, and because they could 
not get to the fertile "|.)rairies of the West. There 
were no roads by land, and no communication by water 
to these beautiful territories. They wei-e compelled 
by necessity to clear up and setth- the country as 
they went through it. 

Had the Puritans reached their intended destina- 
tioii in the sunn}- South, and located along those 
noble ri\'ers and fertile plains, tliej" would never have 
removed to the hard, cold, ironbound hills of New 
England. When then would New England have 
been settled i Never by emigrants from the West. 
And had the southern and middle States been first 
settled, and the application of steam to motive ma- 
chinery been made, and the railroad and the telegraph 
and the knowledge of the useful arts we now possess 
been known 200 years ago, Maine, New TTarapshir« 



4A2 PIONEEFi l[ISTr>UY 

and A'^ei'Diont, would "he to-day lik(^ parts of Lower 
Canada, a vast and dreaiy wilderness, and as such to 
remain until tlie more inviting regions of tlie West 
bad all been settled. And had I'ailroads and tele- 
graphs, and steam power, as now used, hoen kn(^wn 
even fifty years ago, I fanc}'^ some of these venerable 
pioneers would he now rejoicing in homes made happy 
up*)n the hanks of the Missouri, or ])erhaps west of 
the Rocky Mountains. 

The interesting details of horder settlement in this 
(country have so often been the theme of I'emark that 
tliey have become trite matters of history. The 
solemn and deepening shade of anticpiity is begin- 
ning to clotlie tlieni with its m}stei'ious interest, and 
as the inimediat'^' actors lea^'c u^<, slowly and silently 
fading away from among the living, their memory is 
cherished as the pride of their kindred, and they come 
to be regarded as thb l)enefactors of their country* 
The Pioneers of (Orleans county are not all (h^ad, 
but the times of their troul,>le have gone by. The Hol- 
land Purcliase is settled, subdued, and nuide the 
(dieerful home of an industrious and thriving popu- 
lation, now in their turn sending out their caravans of 
emigrants, with the fervent spirit of their fathers, 
(tarrying the arts and institutions of our favored 
country to those new States so rapidly growing up in 
the regions of the AVest. All the improvements in 
s(uence and the arts are brought to aid the swift pro- 
gress of our people in spreading themselves over our 
entire national territory. 

If the earliei' march of emigration and settlement, 
frr)m the Atlantic westward has been toilsome and 
slow, and two hundred j-ears scarc(^ brought settlers 
to the great lakes and the slopes of the AUeghanies, 
what shall we say of the advances of the last fifty 
years, and which are now going foi-ward ! 

Since the first tree fell here under the ax of the white 



OF ORLEANS COUKTY. 443 

man, the triumphs of steam power have appeared. — 
By the help of this tremendous agent, a voyage across 
the Atlantic, which took the May Flower months to ac- 
complish, is now made in a week. A trip to Boston, 
which once cost these j^ioneers a month to perform, is 
now the business of a day. Steam drives our mills, 
carries our burdens, plows our fields, warms our 
houses, digs our canals, and furnishes a motive pow- 
er, to effect the mightiest and minutest work attompt- 
ed by the ingenuity of man. 

But steam, though admitted to be strong is voted 
slow, in this fast age, and electricity is sent out to run 
the errands of our ordinary business. 

Excelsior I Higher ! is the motto of our noble Em- 
pire State, and Forward is the cry of encouragement 
with which Young America stimulates its ardor in the 
race for victory. 

My friends, we who are the. juniors of these noble 
men, whose praise we have thus faintly endeavored 
to celebrate, should never forget that we are building 
upon foundations they have laid for us. That \^e in- 
herit the lands their hands have cleared ; that we en- 
joy the liberties they have achieved. 

We shall ever admire their enterprise, patience and 
fortitude. We shall justly feel proud to claim ac- 
quaintance, perhaps i-elationship with such worthy 
predecessors. 

AVe shall teach our children the stor}^ of their la- 
bors and success, as examples to be imitated ; and 
from every memorial they have left us of strenuous 
effort in a good cause, take courage and gain strength 
to help our resolution in the x)erformance of all the 
duties, which have fallen to our lot. And when we 
look about us upon the broad patrimony we have de- 
rived from then), and take an inventory of the abun- 
dant good things they hav<' bequeathed to us, as the 
fruits of their labors, let us not forget our duty of 



444 PIO.N'KKK HISTORY 

gratitude to tlie nicJiioiy of these our Ix'iiefaptors, to 
whom we owe so much, nor fail to improve as we 
oiiglit, the i-ich inlieritaiice we enjoy. 

Venerable Pioneers — You liave not met on the 
present oi-easion to gratify your vanity l>y publishing 
to the world the exploits you have performed, or 
boasting for the wond«^r of others of the marvelous 
adventures you may have achieved ; but, like a com- 
pany of weary travelers, life's toilsome journey al- 
most done, — you are here to spend an evening hour 
in social eonveise, on scenes you have witnessed by 
the way, to bi'ing to mind again the stirring events in 
which you have been called to mingle ; and to soothe 
your spirits by a grateful recollection of that kind 
Providence which has sustained j^ou in all your toils 
and brought you in old age to the abundant enjoy- 
ment and realization of the most ardent hopes of your 
youth. 

You have seen the c(Kintry of ^'our choice a gloomy 
wilderness. You now behold it, b\^ your exertions 
changed to <'ultivated iields, and dottfxi over with 
noble houses, inters]>ersed with thriving villages and 
connected by public highways. 

Where a few years ago you hunted the savage 
bear, your splendid herds and numerous tiocks now 
roam and feed in sjifety. Wliere but lately you was 
com])elled to grope your wa}' from town to town 
through pathless woods, by marked trees, or Indian 
trjiils, the railrt^ad or telegraph atford you means of 
communication, in which time and distance are 
scarcely items in the account of delay. 

The rich pioduce of your fields, instead of rot- 
ting on \-our hands, valueless because no buyer 
could be found, commands at all times tht^ highest 
price in the markets of tli«! world. 

The iiowl of the wolf is exchanged hw the scream 
of the steam whistle, and thou^'h vou liv(^ so far in 



OF OKLEAN^^ COUNTY. 445 

land, t}i«^ gallant wtpam vessel if^ made to lioat "by 
your very doors. 

How astonishing, how stupendons the change! 
We have read of the AN^onderfiil Lamp of Aladdin, 
and stories of Oriental Necromancy, where by the 
superlniraan power of magic, and tht^ agency of 
demons, the loftiest woiks of art. and the noblest 
productions of industry and skill w^ere made to 
appear or vanish at a word, — but the magic which 
wrought the works we ct'lebrate, was the power of in- 
domitable energy, applied with strong hands and 
stubborn perseverence. The mighty improvements 
which excite our admiration are only the happy re- 
sults of your steady, well directed industry overcom- 
ing its early discouragements and trials, — the honor- 
able testimonials of the stfinest coivtlict aTid most 
complete success. 

Fortunate men and w(»iMen I i^ong, long may you 
live, enjoj'ing the rich fruits of 3^our early toils. 
And may you be permitted to witness the return of 
many anniversaries of your present association, hap- 
py in the consciousness that you have accomxjlished 
the objects of your youthful ambition, and leaving, 
when at last you shall be called to your rest, a noble 
history, and a worthy example embalmed in the 
memory of your grateful posteiity. 



AF»PENDIX. 

Towns iu Orleans County — Their Organization — Villages in Orleans 
County — Table of Elevations — Members of Assembly Elected from 
Orleans County since its Organization — County Clerks of Orleans 
County — County Treasurers — County Superintendents of Common 
Schools — First Judges of Orleans County Courts — District Attorneys 
of Orleans County — Sherllfs of Orleans County — Surrogates ot Or- 
leans County — First Courts of Record — Supervisors of the Ditferent 
Towns in Orleans County since their Organization. 





TOWNS IX ORLEANS COUNTY. 


- TOWNS. 


WHEN FOKMEl). 


FROM WHAT TAKKN. 


Batavia, 


March 30 th 


, 1602. 


Batavia is now divided into other 
towns, and not known by that 
name in Orleans county. 


Barre, 


March 6 th, 


1818, 


from Gaines. 


Carlton* 


April 13th, 


1822, 


from Gaines and Ridgeway. 


Clarendon, 


Feb'y 23rd, 


1821, 


from Sweden. 


Gaines, 


Feb'y 14th, 


1816, 


from Ridgeway. 


Sendall, 


April 7th, 


1837, 


from Murray. 


Murray, 


April 8th, 


1803, 


from Northampton. 


Kidgeway, 


June 8th, 


1812, 


from Batavia. 


Shelby, " 


March (5lh, 


1818, 


from Itidgeway. 


Yates.f 


April ITth, 


1822, 


from Ridgeway. 



* The town of Carlton was originally named " Oak Orchard," and was 
changed to " Carlton '* in 1823. 

t The town of Yates was originally named " Northton," and was changed 
to Yates, January 21st, 1823. 

VILLAGES IN' ORLEANS COUNTY. 



NAMES. 

Albion.* 
Gaines.f 
Holley. 
Medina. 



WHEN INCORPORATED. 

April 21st. 1828. Incorporated by special act. 
April 26th, 1832. 

July 1st, 1850. " " general " 

March 2d, 1832. " " special " 



* Albion was originalU' named " Newport," and the name changed to AI- 
l)ion when it was incorporated as a village. 
+ The village of Gaines has ceased to use its corporate franchises. 



OF OKLEAXS COUNTY. 447 

Thk following list ok Elevations is taken fkom O'Reilt's 
« History ok RociiESTKn and Western New Yoijk: 

FEET. 

Lake Erie above level of tide water is 570 

Top of Niagara Falls is below Lake Erie 66 

Bottom of Niagara Falls below Lake Erie 236 

Lake Ontario below Lake Erie, 380 

Canal at Albion below Lake Erie 64 

Erie Canal at Albion above Lake Ontario is 266 

Middle Falls, Genesee River at Rochester, perpendicular pitch, 96 

Canal in Orleans county, level above tide water 509 

MILES. 

Distance from Albion by canal to Albany 293 

From Albion to ButTalo, 59 

From Albion to Rochester 34. 

The descent given to cause a flow of water between locks in the Erie 
Canal does not vary much from oae inch in a mile. 

MILKS. 

Distance from Albion by railroad to Suspension Bridge 44i 

From Albion to liochestc* .30| 



Members ok Assembly p;i,kctei> from Orleans County since 
ITS Organization : 

Lathrop A. G. B. Grant, from Shelby 1S36 

Abraham Cantine, from Murraj' 1837 

Lyman Bates, from Ridgeway 1838 

George W. Flemming. from Barre 1839 

John H. Tyler, from Vat . s, 18S0 

John H. Tyler, from Yates 1831 

William J. Babbitt, from Gaines 1833 

Asahel Byingt(m, from Carlton 1833 

Asa Clark, Jr., from ]\hirray 1834 

Asa Clark. Jr., from Murray 1835 

John Chamberlain, from Barre 1836 

Silas M. Burroughs, from Ridgeway 1837 

Horatio Reed, from Clarendon 1838 

Horatio l{eed, from Clarendon 1839 

John .]. Walbridge, from Gaines 1840 

Richard W. Gates, from Yates 1841 

Sanford E. Church, from Barre.. ' .1843 

Elisha Wright, from Barre .1843 

Sands Cole, from liidgeway 1844 

Gardner Goold, from Carlton . . _ 1845 

Dexter Kingman, from Ridgeway, 1846 

Abner Hubbard, from jMurraj' 1847 

Arba (^hubb, from Gaines 1848 



448 PIONEER IlISTOKY 

Kciib?ii Roblee, from Kendall • 1849 

Silas ]\r. Burroughs, from Ridgeway 1850 

Silas M. Burroughs, from Kidgevvay 1951 

George ]\I. Copelaiul, tVom Clarendon 1853 

Silas M. Burroughs, from Ridgeway 1853 

Jereniiali Freeman, Irom Shelby 1854 

Elisha S. Whalen, from Ridgeway. 1855 

Dan. H. Cole, from Barre 1856 

Almanzor Hutchinson, from Gaines 1857 

Almanzor Hutchinson, from Gaines 1858 

Almanzor Hutchinson, from Gaines .1859 

Abel Stilson, from Barre 1860 

Gideon Randall, from Kendall 1861 

Nicholas E. Darrow, from Clarendon 1862 

John Parks, from Ridgewa}"- 1868 

Edmund L. Pitts, from Ridgeway 1864 

Edmund L. Pitts, from Ridgeway 1865 

Edmund L. Pitts, from Ridgeway 1866 

Edmund L. Pitts, from Ridgeway. 1867 

Edmund L. Pitts, from Ridgeway 1868 

Marvin Harris, from Kendall . 1869 

John Berry, from Murra3' 1870 

John Berry, from Murray 1871 

Note. — Alexis Ward was elected in November, 1854, and died be- 
fore the session began, and E. S. Whalen was elected in his place. 



County Cleuks of Ora.EAKs County f:.o i its 0:;ganization : 

NAMES. WnEN KLECTED OR APPOINTED. 

Orson Niclioson, November, 1825 

Abraham B. Mills ...November, 1831 

Timothy C. Strong November, 1834 

Elijah i)ana -November, 1843 

Harmon Goodrich* March, 1848 

Dan. H. Cole November, 1848 

Willard F. Warren . .November, 1854 

John P. Church November, 1857 

G Jorge A. Porterf Dcc'r 30th, 1858 

James M. Palmer .November, 1859 

Edwin F. Brown November, 1862 

George A. Porter November, 1865 

George D. Church November, 1868 



* Appointed ia place of E. liana, deceased, under Act passed March 20th, 
1848. 
+ Appointed in place of J. P. Church, dcxieased. 



OK OULKAXi? ( Ol'NTV 



440 



County TKKA«riip:i{s oi- Orf.kans Colntv khom us ()it(;AMZ-v- 

Tiox: 

Ist. Appointed l)y th*; J-5oai'd of Supei'visors f(i bold during- th«? 
pleasure of the Board — 

William Ferr}- 183.") Loren/.o Jiurrows 1840 

.lames Mat her 1826 Codington AV. Swan 1841 

Uideon Hard 1827 Joseph 31. Cornell 1843 

Truxtou Burrell 1835 Lemuel C. Paine 1845 

JIugh McCurdy 1837 John II. Denio 1847 

2d. Elecled under tlu' Constitution ot ]S4(i, for ;\ term of three, 
years — 

John II. Denio November, 1848 

Ambrose Wood 1 " 1851 

Joseph M.Cornell • 1857 

Ezra T. Coauu ■ 18G3 

Samuel C. Bowen " 186<» 

Albert S. Warner " 1869 



CouKTY Si rKi:iN'rKNr>T:NTs op Common Schoot.s roK Op.i.ean". 

COUXTY : 

Edwin I{. Reynolds, Jonathan O. Wilsea, John G. Smith, Olive? 
Morehouse, Marcus II. Pliillips, Ahel Stilson, and James H. Mattl- 
son. 



FlKST JfDOKS i)V OiU.KANS ColXTY Coi KTS SJXCK THK OlJOAXIZ; 



TiON OF rnv: Couxty : 

XAMKS. WUK.V AIM'MINIKI 



Elijah Fo<ji, 
Alexis AVard, > 
Henry Angevine 
Benj. L. Bessac, 
James Gilsoii, 



.Vpril 22(1, 1825. 
Feb. 10th, 1830. 
Jan. 27th, 1840. 
Feb'y 7t.h, 1844. 
Jan. 10th, 184(1. 



K1.K(TE1» UNIJEK CONSTITrTIO'J 
OF 1846, COUNTY" JITDGE 
AND SURKOG-4.TE. 

Henry II. Curtis, June, 1847 
Dan II. Cole, app. in place oV 
H.K.Curtis,deceased,Sept.24,'55 
Gideon Hard, Xovercber, 1855 
Arad Thomas, November, 185!) 
Edwm It. Reynolds, Noa-., 186.i 
John (t. Sawyer, Nov'r, 18G7 



District Arroax -Y^ (»i- Oiu.oxs Cot xty i l-om its First Ok 

CANIZATION : 

NAMES. WIIK.V APPOINTED. 



Orange Butler, 1825. 

George AV. Fleniiiiir 1828. 

Henry R. Curtis, 1831. 

George AV^. Fleming. 1832. 

Henry R. ('urt is. 1833. 



29 



WHEN K/.ECTEU U>fDEK CONSTl- 
OF ISl^J. 

Sanlord K. Church, Jime 1847 

Wm. K. ^IcAllJstcr, Nov. 1850 

Benjamin 1,. Bessac, Nov. ISS." 

Henry I). Tucker, Nov. 1856 

John AV. Graves, Nov. 185!) 

John (J. Sawyer, Nov. 1862 
Irving Af. Thompson, Nov. 1865 

Henry A. Childs, Nov. 1868 



400 proxKEU TirsTOitY 

Sheriffs ok Ohi.kans C'olntv since its Okganizatxon. 

NAMES. >\-I[EN APPOIXTED OR ELECTED. 

William Lewis On organizing County. 

Oliver Benton November, 1826 

V/m. AUis " 1829 

Harmon Goodrich " 1833 

Asahol Woodrutt " 1835 

John Eoardmau " 1838 

iJorate B. Perry " 1841 

AramBecbe " 1844 

AustinDay " 1847 

Ilufiis E. Hill •• 1850 

Ferdinand A. Day " 1853 

George W. Bedell " 1856 

Oanly D. Sprague •• 1859 

Kobert P. Bordwell - 1862 

Erastus M. Spaiilding " 1865 

Robert P. Bordwell " 1868 

SLRHOC4ATES OF OkLEANS CoUXTY SINCE ITS OlttiANIZATIOX. 

XA.MES. WHEN APPOINTED OR ELECTED. 

William White April 19,1825 

Alexis W^ard-.-'- April 3,1829 

John Chamberlain March 8, 1833 

Thomas S. Clarlv January 21, 1836 

))anH. Cole January 21,1840 

Thomas S. Clark. January 21, 1844 

Since 1847 the duties of Surrogate have been performed by the 
Countv Judge. ■ 



Sui'KKvisoKs OF Towns, as Elkcted from the Organization of 
Okt.eans County. 

SUPERVISORS OF BARRE. 

I.alhan Whitney 1826 Lansing Bailey 1839 

Lansing Bailey 1827 Alvah Mattison - - .1840 

Lansing Bailey 1828 Alvali Mattison 1841 

Lansing Bailey 1829 Avery M. Starkweather 1842 

Lansing Bailey . _ . 1830 Avery M. Starkweather 1843 

Lansing Bailey 1831 Elisha Wright. 1844 

jjansing Bailey _18:!2 Lorenzo Burrows 1845 

A. Hyde Cole 1833 ^Varren Parker. 1846 

Alvaii Mattison 1834 William Love 1847 

Alvah LMattison 1835 William Love 1848 

liansing Bailey .1836 Anthony Brown 1849 

7 ,an-ing Bailey 1837 Anthony Brown. .1850 

F .nusins' T.ailov 1 H:]>< A uthonv Brown. 1851 



OF ORLEANS COUJS'TY. 451 

Austin Day 1852 Luther Porter 1802 

Henry M. Gibson ISoS John D. Bucldand 1803 

Henry M. Gibson 1854 John D. BucklancL ..\ 1804 

Henry M. Gibson 1855 Norman S. Field 1805 

JohnD. Buckland 1850 Orpheus A. Root 1800 

John D. Buckland 1857 Ori)heus A.Root 1807 

Luther Porter 1858 Orpheus A.Root 1808 

Luther Porter 1859 Charles 11. Mattison 1809 

Luther Porter 1800 Charles H. 3Lattison 1870 

Luther Porter 1801 Charles H. Mattison 1871 

SUPERVISORS OF CARLTON. 

Richard AV. Gates, .1820 Jasper j\I. Grow 184{> 

Minoris Day 1 827 Willard F. Warren 1850 

Minoris Day 1828 Gardner Goold 1851 

John M. Randall 1829 John Dunham 1852 

John M.Randal] 1830 Xelson Shattuck 1853 

Minoris Day 1831 Reuben X. Warren 1854 

Isaac ]\Iason 1832 ]\Iarvin C. Lacey 1855 

Isaac Mason 1833 G:ardner Goold 1850 

Chester Bidwcll .1834 Joseph D. Billinss 1857 

Joshua E. Hall 1835 Joseph D. Billings 1858 

Horace O. Goold 1830 Joseph D. Billings 1859 

Hiram Merrick 1837 Daniel Howe 1800 

Hiram Merrick 1838 Daniel Howe 180 1 

Alfred Bidwell 1839 Joseph D. Billings 1802 

Gardner Goold 1840 John H. Harris 1803 

Gardner Goold 1841 John H. Harris 1804 

Al'tred Bidwell 1842 George L. Baker 1805 

Gardner Goold 1843 George L. Baker 1800 

Asahel Byington, 2d 1844 Dennis Bickford 1807 

Epenetus A. Reed 1845 Dennis Bickford 1808 

Asahel Byington, 2d 1840 Benjamin F. Van Camp 1809 

Alfred Bidwell 1847 Benjamin F. Van Camp 1870 

Dalphon V.Simpson 1848 John Gates 1871 

SUPERVISORS OF CLxVREXDOX. 

Eldridge Farwell 1821 Elizur Warren 1832 

Eldridge Farwell 1822 Elizur Warren 1833 

Jeremiah Glidden 1823 Zardius Touslcy 1834 

Jeremiah Glidden 1824 Horatio Reed... .....1835 

Henry Hill 1825 Horatio Reed 1830 

Hiram Frisbie 1820 Horatio Reed„. 1837 

Chauncey Robir.son 1827 Horatio Reed ...1838 

Chauncey Robinson ...1828 Bcnjiunin G. Pettingill 1839 

Cliauncey Eobinson 182!> John ■\Iillard 1840 

Chauncey Robinson 1830 Jason A. Sheldon 1841 

John Millard 1831 Jason A. Sheldon 1S42 



452 PJONKEi; HISTORY 

Jason A. Sheldon 184.3 Thomsis Turner. 1858 

Benjamin G. PettengilL . 1844 George :M. Copeland 1859 

Benjamin G. PettengilL . 1845 Dau Martin 186a 

Ira B. Keeler 184(i Mortmier D. Milliken 1861 

Ira B. Keeler 1847 Mortimer D. Millken 1862 

Orson Tousley -1848 ]Martin Evarts '. 1863 

(Tcorge M. Copeland 1849 Nicholas E. Darrow - .1864 

George M. Copeland 1850 Nicholas E. Darrow 1865 

Nicholas E. Darrow 1851 Henry C. Martm 1866 

Nicholas E. Darrow 185:> Henry C.Martin 1867 

Daniel F. St. John 185;:} Henry C. Martin 1868 

Nicholas E. Darrow 1854 David N. Pettengill .186!) 

Dan Martin 1855 David N. Pettengill 1870 

Lucius B. Coy 185(5 J)arwin M. Inman. 1871 

Amasa I'atterson 1857 

SUPERVISORS OF GAINES. 

Sarnuel Clark 1816 Daniel Brown 1844 

Samuel Clark 1817 Samuel Bidelman 1845 

Robert Anderson 181 8 Samuel Bidelman 1846 

Robert Anderson 1819 Arba Chubb 1847 

Robert Anderson 1820 Henry Miller 1848 

Robert Anderson 1821 Benj. Chester 1849 

Robert Anderson . 1822 Aram Beebe 1850 

Robert Anderson 182o Aram Beebe 1851 

Robert Anderson 1824 Aram Beebe. 1853 

Robert Anderson ......... 1825 Samuel Bidelman 1853 

Robert Anderson 1826 Samuel Bidelman . .1854 

Daniel Pratt 1837 Gershom R. Cady .1855 

Arba Chubb 1828 Jonas Sawens 1856 

Arba Chubb ...1829 Samuel Bidelman .1857 

Arba Chubb .18^0 Nahum Anderson 1858 

Will. J. Babbitt 1831 Nahum Anderson... 1859 

John J. Walbridge 1832 Nahum Anderson 1860 

Russel Gillett 1833 Almanzor Hutchinson 1861 

Will. J. Babbitt. 1834 Nahum Anderson 1863 

Arba Chubb 1835 Charles T. Richards 1863 

William W. Ruggles .1836 Charles T. Richards 1864 

Joseph Billings 1837 Nahum Anderson 1865 

Joseph Billings 1838 Matthew T. Anderson 1866 

Joseph Billings 1839 Matthew T. Anderson. 1867 

Joseph Billings. 1840 Samuel AY. Smith 1868 

Palmer Cady .1841 Samuel AV. Smith 1869 

r^amucl Bidelman 1842 Elijah B. Lattin 1870 

Wm. W. Ruggles 1843 Elijah B. Lattin. 1871 

SUPERVISORS OF KENDALL. 
Ryan Barber 1840 Ryan Barber 1841= 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 45:3 

Henry Higgins 1842 Philo F. Prosser 1857 

Joseph Mann 184o Philo F. Prosser 1858 

Joseph Mann 1844 Philo F. Prosser 1859 

Levi Hard 1845 Maryin Harris. _ 1860 

Levi Hard 1846 Marvin Harris 1861 

Abram Odell 1847 Pierre A. Simkins 1862 

Abram Odell 184S William K. Townsend 1863 

Wm. R. Bassett 1849 Xathaniel S. Beimett 1864 

Wni. K. Bassett 1850 Nathaniel S. Bennett 1865 

Alanson Whitney. .- 1851 Gideon Randall 1866 

Reuben Roblee 1852 Gideon Randall. .1867 

William R. Bassett 1853 Oscar Munn 1868 

William R. Bassett 1854 Oscar Munn 1869 

Pierre A. Simkins 1855 Oscai Munn 1870 

Philo F. Prosser 1856 Wm. O. Hardenbrook 1871 

SUPERVISORS OF MURRAY. 

Asahel Balcom 1826 Harrison Hatch 1849 

William Allis 1827 Benj. F. Van Dake 1850 

Amos Randall 1828 Jabez Allison 1851 

Hiram Frisbie 1839 Jabez Allison 1852 

Hiram Frisbie 1830 Ezra X. Hill. . 1853 

William James 1831 Danly D. Sprague 1854 

Asa Clark, Jr 1832 Danly U. Sprague 1855 

Asa Clark, Jr - 1833 Benj.' F. Van Dake 1856 

Asa Clark, Jr 1834 Jabez Allison 1857 

Robert Nichoson.. 1835 Jabez Allison 1858 

Robert Nichoson 1836 Jabez Allison 1859 

George Squires 1837 Ezra N. Hill 1860 

George Squires 1838 Jabez Allison 1861 

Joshua Garrison 1839 Linus Jones Peck 1862 

Joshua Garrison 1840 Roland Farnsworth 1863 

Cornelius Thomas 1841 Roland Farnsworth 1864 

Cornelius Thomas 1842 Roland Farnsworth 1865 

John Berry 1843 lioland Farnsworth 1866 

George Squires 1844 Roland Farnsworth 1867 

Abijah Reed 1845 Roland Farnsworth 1868 

Hercules Reed 1846 Roland Farnsworth 1869 

Abner Balcom 1847 Roland Farnsworth 1870 

Abner Balcom 1848 Roland Farnsworth 1871 

SUPERVISORS OF RIDGE WAY FRO.M ORGANIZATION OF 
THE TOWN. 

Oliver Booth 1813 Elijah Hawley 1818 

Samuel Clark 1814 Jeremiah Brown 1819 

Samuel Clark - 1815 Israel Douglass 1820 

Israel Douglass 1816 Israel Douglass... ...1821 

Israel Douglass 1817 Jeremiali Brown 1822 



4r)4 IMOXEEIJ HISTORY 

.Tei-pmiiili Brown 1823 William C. Tanner 1848-' 

.lereniiah Brown 1824 John F. Sawyer 1849 

Lyman Btites 1825 John F. Sawyer 1850 

Lyman Bates 1826 Christopher Whaley 1851 

Lyman Bates 1827 Allen Bacon 1852 

Lyman Bates 1828 Marson Weld .. 1353 

Lyman Bates 1820 Borden H. Mills 1854 

Lyman Bates 1880 John R. Weld 1855 

Lyman Bates 1831 Lyman Bates 1856 

William C. Tanner 1832 Alexander H. Jame>on 1857 

William C. Tanner 1833 Lnther Barrett 1858 

William C. Tanner 1834 Luther Barrett 1859 

Seymour B. Murdock 1835 Dyer B. Abell I860' 

Lyman Bates 1830 Dyer B. Abell 1861 

William V.'Wilson 1837 Hezekiah Bowen, Jr 1862- 

Nathan S. Wood 1838 Henry A. Glidden 1863 

Xathan S. Wood 1839 Henry A. Glidden 1864 

Josias Tanner 1840 Samuel C. Bowen 1865 

Josias Tanner 1841 William W.Potter 1866' 

Job Fish 1842 William W.Potter 1867 

William Y. Wilson 1843 Allea P. Scott 1868 

Dexter Kingman 1844 Allen P. Scott 1869 

Dexter Ivius;mau 1845 Henry A. Glidden 1870' 

Roswcll Starr 1846 Elisha S.Whalen 1871 

Allen Bacon 1847 

SUPERVISORS OF SHELBY. 

Lathrop A. G. B. Grant 1826 Lathrop A. G. B. Grant 1846 

Christopher Whaley 1827 Alexander Coon 1847 

Christopher Whaley .1828 Alexander Coon 1848 

Andrew EUicott 1829 Lathrop A. G. B. Grant 1849 

Joseph Rickey 1830 Lathrop A. G. B. Grant 1850 

Joseph Rlck3y 1831 Jeremiah Freeman 1851 

William Cunningham 1832 Elisha Whalen 1853 

William Cunningham 1833 John M. Culver 1853 

Adam Garter 1834 John :\[. Culver 1854 

Horatio N. Hewes 1835 Alexander Coon 1855 

Adam Garter 1836 Philip Winegar 185(V 

John M. Culver 1837 Philip Winegar 1857 

Alexander Coen 183s Philip Winegar 1858 

Alexander Coon 1839 Philip Winegar 1859 

Alexander Coon 1840 Alexander Coon 1860 

Alexander Coon 1841 John T. Gillett 1861 

Alexander Coon 1842 John T. Gillett 1862 

Alexander Coon 1H43 John T. Gillett 1863 

Alexander Coon 1844 John T. Gillett 1864 

Lathrop A. G. B. Grant 184.-. John T. Gillett 1865- 



OF OKLEAXS COrNTV. 455 

Joseph W. Ross 18GG John P. Gates 18G0 

Joseph W. Ross 1867 David G. Deuel 1870 

Diivid (;. Deuel 1868 Ela C. Bardwel 1 1 8:i 

SUPERVISORS OF YATES. 

Samuel Warner 18'2(! Iteuben Iluugerlbru 18-;) 

Grindal Davis 1827 Asahel Johnson 1850 

John n. Tyler 1 828 Asahel Johnson 1851. 

John H. Tyler 1829 John J. Saw yer 18r;.i 

John H. Tyler 1830 John Gates." 18^3 

John H. Tyler 1831 Charles Lum 1854 

Luther St. John 1832 Charles Lum 1855 

John H Tyler 1833 David :. Iteuion 1850 

John H. Tyler 1834 David :. Ilenion 1857 

John H. Tyler 1835 DanierClark ^ 1858 

John II. Tyler 1830 Chauueey II. Lum '. 1850 

John IL Tyler 1837 Chauncey II. Luu\ 1800 

John L. Lewis 1838 Daniel Clark 18C1 

Asahel Johnson 1839 Tunis H. Coe 1802 

John L. Lewis 1840 Tunis H. Coe 18C.-5 

John L. Lewis 1841 Tunis H. Coe 1804 

Samuel Taylor 1842 George Clark ISCo 

John L. Lewis 1S43 Jonathan A. Johnson 1860 

Daniel Starr 1^44 Jonathan A. Johnson 1867 

John L. Lewis 1845 Jonathan A. Johnson 18CS 

Daniel Starr 1840 Henry Spalding 1809 

Horace Phippany 1847 Henry Spalding 1870 

Horace Phippany 1848 (". Jackson Blood 1871 



COUIITS OF RECORD. 



The Couils Jbr Orleans County before tlie County Scat ^vas located 
at Albion, were held at Bronyon's Hotel, in the town of Claines. The 
record of the opening of the first Circuit Court is as follows : 

" At a Circuit Court held at the House of Selah Bronson, in the 
town of (4aines, in and lor the Count}- of Orleans, on Thursday, the 
13th day of October, 1825, present. His Honor William B. Ivochester, 
Judije 8th Circuit. DAVID STKICKI.AM), 

WILLIAM C4ATES, 
ABEL TRACY, 
MONTGOMERY I'HltClVAL, 
E. RERRIGO, 
Z AUDIT'S TOUSLE Y, 

Constables. 
The followmu- i)er>on« appeared and were sworn as traverse,] urors, 
to M-it: 

Martin Hobart, Oliver Brown, Samuel Norton, Joshua Raymond, 
Kathan Whitnej', Curtis Tomliuson, Zebulon I*ackard, Thomas Annis, 
Zardius Tousley, Dudley AYatson, Seymour B. Murdoch, Ephraini Mas- 
ten, Oliver Booth, 2nd., Daniel Gates, Archibald L. Daniels, Richard 
M'Omber, Timothy Ruggles, Daniel Reed, Ethan Craham, John Hall. 
>'hilo Elmer, -Joseph Davis, John Sherwood. 

Four causes were tried ])y jury, viz.: 3Ioses jiacon \s. (Tcr- 
shom Proctor. Samuel Finch vs. Charles Sayres. Berjamiu Bab- 
cock vs. Curtis Tomliuson and Sophia Ringsbnry. Irene r.each vs. 
Henry Drake. 

The first Court of Common Pleas and (Tcueral Session^, lidd in and 
for Orleans county, was at the House of Selah Bronson, in (iaines, 
June 32d, 1825. Present, Hon. Elijah Foot, First Judge, Eldridge Far- 
well, Wm. J. 3Ioody, Wm. Penniman and Cynis Harwood, Judges. 
The members of the Grand Jury at this Court were Ralph H. Brown. 
VFilliam l.ove, Harve}- Goodrich, Hiram Sickels, Henry Carter, Hiram 
t'risbie, David Sturges, Joseph Hamilton, Levi Preston, John Proctor, 
Robert xVnderson, Zelotes Sheldon, Sdas Benton, Ebenezer M. Pease. 
Ji. A. G. li. Grant, Benjauiin Howe, Elijah Bent, Abraham Cantine 
!;^ri Wood and Oliver Bennett. 

William Lewis. Sheritf. Orange Butler, Dislrict .MtenHv. Orson 
Michoson, Clerk. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Articles of Land, given by Holland Co., 24. 

Animals, "wild, 29. 

Anecdote of John Anderson, 2o6. 

Acadeni)-, First in County, at Gaines, 215, 250, C.l. 

Albion, Village of, 179. 

Anecdote of locating Court House, 181. 

Address before Pioneer Association, by Arad Thomas, 42s. 

Appendix, 440. 

Assembly, Members of, from Orleans County, 447. 

Attorneys, District of Orleans County, 44t». 

Busti, 3Ir., Anecdote of, 2G. 

Beaver and beaver dams, o2. 

Black Salts, .J 1. 

Burying Grounds. Blount Albion Cemetery, (!!). Boxwood Cemetery, 
71. Hillside Cemeterj', 71. 

Barre, Tovvn ot, 73. Land to Religious Societ}-, 74. Condition in deed 
to Congregational Society, 74. First Presbyterian Society, 75. 
Store, Tavern, 75. Survey of Oak Orchard Koad, 76. First 
Lawyer, Doctor, Deed of Land, 7G. Death of Mrs. McCollister, 

77. Warehouse, Sawmill, 77. Priceof Lumber, 77. First Ball, 

78. Fourth of July, 1821, 77. First Marriage in Albion, 7,8. 
First Deed of Land in, 70. 

Bear Stories, 81, 87, 235, 134, 402. 

Burgess, Mrs. X. Cut logs for House, 211. 

Ball at Millville, 320. 

Barn, first in Orleans Count}-, 408. 

British at mouth of Oak Orchard Creek, alarm from. S4. 

Counties in New York 100 years ago, 22. 

Clemency of Holland Co., 25. 

Clearing land, manner of, 43. First crops raised, 44. 

Credit system, 52. 

Canal, Erie, when begun, 55, eflcct of, 50. 

Court House, locating ofj 181. 

Clarendon, town of, l'J9. First town meeting in, 2U1. 

Carlton, town of, 185. First town meeting in, 197. First settlement in 
the County by Walsworth, 180. .Manilla, 180. 31111 for pound- 
ing corn, 18S. Union Company, 189. 



458 IM»KX. 

Carriage seat on springs of wolf trap, 2o8. 

Cemeterys, 69. Mount Albion, CO. Boxwood, 71. Hillsiue, 71. 

Congregational Society in Barre, deed of land to, 74. 

Cradle, Pioneez-, description of, S-). 

County Clerk's list of 448. 

Courts of Record in Orleans County, li rsi, 4.')C>. 

County Treasurers, list of, 449. 

Common Schools, County Superiulendenls oi,449. 

Domestic manufactures, 52. Clothing, how made, .1;',. 

Doctor's bill, specimen of, 248. 

Deer hunting, 389. 

District Attorneys, list of, 449. 

Ellicott, Jo., agent, 23. Anecdote of, 2^)l\. 

Eagle Harbor, village of, 200. 

Erie Canal, when and where first work on, 55. 1 ts benel'ls, 5(5. 

Education, state of, G4. Gaines Aoademj^ 05. 

Fortifications, ancient, 14. 

Fish, 29. 

Friendship among settlers, 49. 

Fire, loss of, anecdote, 210. 

Gospel Lots, 2G. 

Genesee County, 28. 

Gospel Lot in Barre, 74. 

Gauntlet run by E. Hunt, 194. 

Gaines, business in, when County organized, 250. 

(Jaines, town of, 210. 3Irs. Burgess' log house, 211. Capt. 3IcCart3^'s 

Company in war of 1812, 313. First printing press there, 214. 

Booth's tavern, 252. Sam AYooster, 253. ]\Irs. Booth and Jo, 

Ellicott, 254. 
Greenman, Preserved, anecdotes ol", 403. 
Hundred Thousand Acre Tract, 19. 
Holland Purchase, 21. 
Ilackett, violin plaj-er, 378. 
Hedgehogs, 31. 

Hardships of settlers. Domestic mill, 40. Fever ajid Ague, 40. Brows- 
ing cattle, 47. Keeping five, 47. 
Highways, public, 5S. Bidge road, 58. 0!;k Orchard loail, 59. State 

road, 01. Salt Works roads, 00. 
l4ollan(l i>!nid Comjtany, names of, 21. Generosit^-of agent, 101. Do- 
nations to School Districts, 25. Donations of 
land to religious societies, 20. Anecdote of 
Uev. Mr. Bawson and Mr. Busti, 20. 
llolley, village of, 305. Salt found there, 300. Mammoth tooth, ;;!07- 

First school house in, 307. 
Hunters lodges, 245. 
Hidberton, villiiiro of. 30s. 



INDEX. 459 

Hindsbiirgli, village of, oil. 

Indian mill, description of, 278. 

Indians, false alarm, 8G, 338. 

Judges of County Courts, 440. 

July 4, 1821, celebration, Barre, 78. 

Knowlesville, village ot, 373. 

Kendall, tovrn of, 269. Public library, 272. Salt making, 272. Xor- 

Tvegians in, 273. 
Land office ot Holland Company, 24. 
Log house, description of, 3G. 

Furniture of, 40. 
Lawsuit before Esq. Chubb, 233. 
Library in Kendall, 272. 
Luther, Eld. Ben., style of preaching, 332. 
Lyndonville, village of, 4W>. 
Lumber, price of, 77. 
Millyard tract, 18. 
Manufactures, domestic, 52. 
Merchants, early, and their stores, .il. 
Mails and post offices, 53. 
Manilla, 186. 

3Iill to pound corn, 186, 278. 
McCarty, Capt, Company in war of 1812, 212, 88. 
Meeting house, lirst^ framed in County, 260. 
Mammoth tooth found at Holley, 307. 
Medina, village of, 367. Stone quarry, 372. 
Murray, town of, 288. 

Orleans Count}-, first white man settled in, 186. 
Phelps and Gorham's Purchase, 16. 
Pre-emption line, 17. 
Pultney. Sir \Ym., 19. 
Peaches and apples, 33. 
Patriot war, 248. 
Post office, first, 261. 

Porter, Luther, strategy to get his grist, 377. 
Pioneer Association of Orleans County, 426. 
Quails, 31. 

Rawsou, Rev. A., anecdote of, 28. 
Rattlesnakes, 30. 

Ridge Road, when traced out, 59. Surveyed, 58, 6ft. 
Railroads in Orleans County, 63. 
Religion, state; of, 67. First meetings in Carlton, 67. Rev. Mr. Steele, 

68. Baptist Church in Gaines, 68. Building fleeting House 

in Gaines, 68. Specimen preaching, 332. 
Ridge road, 58. "VVhcn laid out, 58. Judge Porters account of, 59. 
Ridgewav, town of, 313. First town election in, 84. 



460 INDEX. 

Railroads, 63. 

Sulliyans Expeditiou, 12. 

School House sites, 25. ' 

Salmon and other fish, oO. 

Schools and school houses, 64. Description ot, 60. Gaines Academy, 

65. Academies at Albion, Yates, Millville, 

Holley and Medina, 65. 
Salt Works roads, 60, 74. 
State Road, 61. 

Sandy Creek, sickness at, 103, 289. 
Salt at Holley, 306, at Medina, 314. 
Sawmill at Medina first, 367. 
Shelby, town ot, ;>76. Deer hunting-, 3811. Dancing in a gristmill, 378. 

How Luther Porter got his grist ,377. 
Supervisors of towns in Orleans county, 450. 
Sherifl's of Orleans county, 450. 
Surrogates of Orleans county, 450. 
Triangle Tract, 18 
Transit Line, 20, 83. 
Trees, kinds of in Orleans county, 21), 
Tonawanda S« amp, 33. 
Threshing grain, manner of, 44. 
Taxes, raising money to pay, by S. C. Lewis, 220. 
Town meeting, first in county, 314. 
" Things I can remember," by G. E. Mix, 165. 
Towns in the county, when organized, 446. 
Treasurers of Orleans county ,449. 
L^niou company in Carlton, 190. 
Villages in county, 446. 
Ward Levi & Levi A., agents, 19. 
Wood, per acre, 29. 
Wrestling, ring for, 50. 
Wagons, one horse, 57. 
Wedding in Albion, story of, 78. 
Yates, town of, 401. 
Yates Center, 404. Academv, 404. 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



NAMES OF PERSONS AXD NUMBERS OF THE PAGES ON WHICH 
THEY OCCUR. 



Achilles, Caroline, P., 1"). 
Allis, Tliomas W., 150. 
Allison, Jabez, 313. 
Anderson Familj', 234. 
Angel, Xatban, 103. 
Allis, Maj. William, 305. 
Allen, Artemas, 372. 
Anderson, Robert, 7N. 
Andrews, Averj' \. 359. 
Alwell, Levi, 236. 
Busli, Paul, '2(1 
Bailey, Lansing, 79. 
Bacon, ^foses, 240. 
Balcora, Abner, 301, 405. 
Barrett, Amos, 334, 353. 
Barrett, Xalium, 347. 
Barrett, Sidney S., 354. 
Baker, Mrs. Laura 345. 
Benton, Oliver 140. 
Beech, Dr. J. II., 346. 
Bessac, Benjairiu L., 117. 
Bidelman, Samufl, 34. 
Booth, Oliver, 00, 351. 
Bowen, Dr. Elisha, 355, 410. 
Brown, James, 54. 
Brown, Jereiuiah, 335. 
Bryant, Kenl)en, 303, 305. 
Burrows, Roswell S., 76. 
Bunipus, Philetus, 183. 
Bullard Family, 331. 
Bumpus, Jesse, 76, 178. 
Budd, Jaseph, 308. 
Burroughs, David, 304. 
Bullard, Alfred, 416. 
Babbitt, William J., 54, 58, 361. 



Barker, Joseph. 153. 
Bates, Samuel, 384. 
Banies, Ezra D., 316. 
Barrett, Lucius 334. 
Barrett, Luther, 347. 
Bates, Lyman, 330. 
Benton, Mrs. Silas, 75, 170. 
Beech, Dr. Jesse, 346. 
Bennett, Isaac, 314. 
Billings Family, 331. 
Bidelman, Abram, 388. 
Booth, Oliver, 3nd., 255. 
Bradner, Wm., 76, 115, 183. 
Brown, John G., 187. 
Brown, Daniel, 264. 
Bradley, Nathaniel, 146. 
Burrows, Lorenzo, 157. 
Burgess, Xoah, 211. 
Butler, Orange, 333. 
Bushncll, Harley N., 390. 
Burlingham, Charles D., 330. 
Burroughs, Silas M. 394. 
Clark, Jonathan, 134. 
Clark, Robert, 378. 
Cantine, Abram, 174. 
Cole, Darius W., 59 
Cook, Lemuel, 308. 
Cobb, William 343. 
Coon, Alexander, 397. 
Capeu, Theophilus, 76. 
Cady, Isaac, 309. 
Cole, A. Hyde, 76, 115. 
Cochrane, AVilliam, 343. 
Coon, Milo, 373. 
Coan Sylvanus, 308. 



402 



INDEX. 



Curtis, Henry R., 120, 70. 
Chubb, Arba, 232. 
Curti.^, XcAvman, 395. 
Chamberlain, Fitch, 100. 
Church, Ozias S. 114. 
Churcli, Samuel, 341. 
Chamberlain, Royal, 407. 
Daniels, Grosvenor, 58, 343. 
Davis, Levi, 323. 
Day, Austin, 297. 
Demara, David, 388. 
Dutcher, Elder Simeon, 200. 
Drake, Henry, 259. 
Daniels, James, 342. 
Davis, Perry, 225. 
Darrow, XiehoMs E., 200. 
Douglass, Israel, 317. 
Dunham, Matthew, 18S. 
EUicott, Andrew A., 59. 370, 390. 
Evans, David E., 70, 378. 
Ellicott, Joseph, 23, 253, 370. 
Evarts, Martin, 208. 
Farwell, Eldridge, 200, 207. 
Fellows, Joseph, 20. 
Freeman, Chester. 263. 
Foster, Aden, 170. 
Fuller, Lyman, 197. 
Farnham, John, 236. 
Fairfield, Walter, 218. 
Freeman, Gideon, 262. 
Frisbie, Hiram, 296. 
Fuller, Edmund, 70. 
Gates, Daniel, 193, 212. 
Green, Andrew H., 103. 
Gresiory Family, 380. 
CJregory Matthew, 381. 
Grinnell, John, 399. 
Goold, Horace O., 415. 
Goodrich, Ilarve}', 108. 
Grant, L. A. G. B., 390. 
Gates, Dr. Richard W., 191. 
Greeuman, Preserved, 403. 
Gregory, Amos, 380. 
Gilbert, Baruch H., 418. 
Gilbert, AVidow, 212, 47. 
G rover. Dr. Tj. C, 860. 



Gwynn, William R., 70, 71. 
Hawley, Hon. Elijah 350, 53. 
Haines, Jesse P., 01. 
Hallock, Rufus, 133. 
Hart, Elizur, 143. 
Henderson, John, 184. 
Hewes, Horatio N., 395. 
Hill, Samuel, 223. 
Hopkins, Caleb, 58. 
Hoag, Peter, 363. 
Hunter, Robert, 51. 
Hulbert, Isaac H. S., 309. 
Hawley, Merwin S., 53. 
Hard, Hon. Gideon, 92. 
Hart, .Joseph, 1G9. 
Hamlin, Areovester, 304. 
Healey, Dr. E. P., 362. 
Hibbard, Zenas F. 124. 
Hinds, Jacob, 296, 311. 
Hooker, David, 340. 
Hood, David, 364. 
Hunt, Elijah, 194. 
Houseman, George, 501. 
Ingersoll, Nehemiah, 77, 159. 
Ingersoll, Justus, 161. 
Jackson, William, 349. 
.Johnson, Rev. AYm., 75. 
.Jackson, .James, 350. 
Jones, David, 286. 
Knowles, William, 355, 372. 
Kuck, Rev. George, 191. 
Lee, Hon. .John, 73. 
Lewis, William, 208. 
Lewis, Gideon, 229. 
Lee Family, 172. 
Lewis, Samuel C, 228. 
LeYalley, Johii, 351. 
Mattison, Abram 75, 78. 
Marsh, Ray, 196. 
3Iathcr, Elihu, 259. 
Manlej', Adiu, 273. 
Masten, Mrs. Nancy, 359. 
Mason, Jesse, 132. 
Mather, James, 256, 200, 214. 
Mather, Rufus, 256. 
jMansfield, Alanson..300. 



IXDKX. 



4C3 



McCurly, Ciiptiihi E., 312. 

Mix, Abiathar, T."!. 

Mix, Ebonezer, 75; 3Ipmoir ot' 42 1. 

Monell, Henry '.'A. 

Moore, Eli, oKi. 

Murdock, Seymour, o42, 315. 

Mudgett, Stephen W. 405. 

McCollister William, 77. 

Mix, Mrs. Lydia, 1C8. 

Mix, George C, 1C4, 165. 

Moody, ^Villiam J., 70. 

Morse, Jotham, o91. 

Murdock, Seymour B., 335. 

Morris, Kobcrt, 17. 

Nichoson, Dr.Orsou, 70,78, 110. 183 

Paine, Dr. L. C, 70. 

Peck, Linus Jones, 100. 

Perry, Joseph L., 329. 

Preston, William X. 342. 

Pettengill, Benjamin G., 204. 

Pierce, Aretas. 292, 

Porter, Allen, 142. 

Potter, Dr. Stephen M., 183. 

Phelp.s ct Gorham, IG. 

Rawsou, Kev. Andrew, 20, 109. 

Parsons, John, 70. 

Peck, Horace, 201. 

Peny, Josiah, 410. 

Pratt, Daniel, 203. 

Penniman, William, 131. 

Porter, Augustus. 59. 

Porter, Luther, 157. 

Proctor, John, 220. 

Eandall, Amos, 2S5. 

Heed Family, 310. 

Kice, Hubbard, 29;;. 

Rogers, Ebenezer, 95. 

Root, Reuben 407. 

Rice, Enos, 150. 

Roor, Amos, 32, 34, 113. 

Robinson, Chauncey, 294. 

Ruggles, William W., 264. 

Salsiiurv, Samuel, 224. 



Sawyer, ElisLa, 418. 

Sturiv weather, A. M., 113. 

Street, Lucius, 140. 

Spencer, Amos, 417. 

Swift, Philetus, 58. 

Smith, Mrs. Sally, 298. 

Stone, Enos 30. 

Strong, John W., 305. 

Sauford, Asa. 90. 

Saxe, Peter, 404. 

Spafford, Brad.street, 205. 

Steele, liev. Mr. 08. 

Shelly, Xathan, 230. 

Smith, ]\Ioses, 141. 

Shipmau, Job, 190. 

Skinner, Jarvis M. 145. 

Strong, Timothy C. 111. 

Southworth, Darius, 394. 

Tanner, Gen. William C.,318. 

Tappan. Hon. Samuel, 410. 

Tripp, Anthon}', 141. 

Thurston, Stephen B. 133. 

Tyler, John IL, memoir of, 414. 

Tanner, Josias. 333. 

Treadwell, Richard, 210. 

Thurston, Caleb C, 88. 

Tanner, William, 125. 

Turner, Otis, 314, 341. 

Van Brockliu, John, 379. 

Ward, Dr. Levi, 19. 

AVard, Hon. Alexis, 171. 

AValsworth, James 186. 

Weld, Andrew, 348. 

Whitney, Xathan, 112. 

Whaley, Dr. Christopher, 348, 379 

Ward.LeviA. 19. 

Walsworth, AVilliam, isc. 

Weld, Thomas, 341. 

White, Dr. William, 77, 314. 75. 

Wood, Elijah W., 298. 

Yates, town of, 401. 

Zimmennan, Jacob A., 398. 



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