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Full text of "Pioneer history of Orleans County, New York : containing some account of the civil divisions of western New York, with brief biographical notices of early settlers, and of the hardships and privations they endured, the organization of the towns in the county, together with lists of town and county officers, since the county was organized, with anecdotes and reminiscences, illustrating the character and customs of the people"







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PJONEER HISTORY 

OF 

ORLEANS COUNTY, 

N JE ^V Y O H K . 

CONTAIKING 

SOME ACCOUNT OF THE CIVIL DIVISIONS 
OF WESTERN NEW YORK, 

WITH BRIEF BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES OP EARLY SETTLERS, AND OF 

THE HARDSHIPS AND PRIVATIONS THEY ENDURED, THE 

ORGANIZATION OF THE TOWNS IN THE 

COUNTY, TOGETHER WITH 

LISTS OF TOWN AND COUNTY OFFICERS, 

SINCE THE COUKTY "WAS ORGANIZED, 

WITH ANECDOTES AND HEMINISCENCES, ILLUSTUATINQ THE 

CHARACTER AND CIIST03IS OF THE PEOPLE» 

BY 

A RAD THOMAS. 



ALBION, N. Y.: 

H. A. BRUNER, ORLEANS AMERICAN STEAM TRESS PRrNT. 
1S71- 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in tlie year 1871, by 

AKAD THOMAS, 

In riic Clerk's Office oftlie District Court ot the United States, for llie 

Northern District of New York. 



A- 



O^T 



I^cbicittlojt. 



TO THE 

ORI,EANS COUNTY PIONEER ASSOCIATION, 

BY REQUEST OF MANY OP WHOSE MEMBERS THIS WORK 

WAS UNDERTAKEN, BY WHOM THE AUTHOR HAS BEEN GREATLY AIDED 

IN rREPARING IT, AND TO WHOM HE FEELS UNDER 

OBLIGATIONS FOR MANY PERSONAL FAVORS, 

THIS BOOK IS RESPECTFULLY 

DEDICATED BY THE 

AUTHOR. 



PEEFACE. 

The origin of this book is briefly this : The Orleans 
County Pioneer Association had collected a volume im 
manuscript of local history of many of its members, 
written by themselves, which they desired to have 
published. 

Some difficulty existed in getting out the work by 
the Association, and the author was requested by 
many of his friends to get up a book on his own ac- 
count, which should contain the substance of the his- 
tories referred to, and such other matter connected 
with the Pioneer History of Orleans County, as might, 
be 'of general interest to readers. 

The author has used the records of the Association, 
taking some histories of Pioneers in full, as written, 
by themselves ; and extracting and condensing, from 
others such parts as he thought of more general inter- 
est, and as Ms space would allow. 

Many of his facts he has collected from his own- 
knowledge, and from the testimony of early settlers, 
and others acquainted with the matter. 

To those who have so kindly aided him by such in- 
formation as they possessed, he returns Ms sincerest 
thanks, particularly to Messrs. Asa Sanford, Matthew 
Gregory and Hon. Robert Anderson, for their gener- 
ous contributions of material for this book. 

The character of this book being local, many names, 
of persons, and events of private Mstory have been in- 
troduced, of little interest perhaps out of the families- 
and neighborhood of the parties ; but with these the- 
author has endeavored to collect and preserve the? 



PREFACE. V 

memory of such events of a more public cliaracter, 
jis marked the progress of settlement of this portion 
of the Holland Purchase, and as may be worthy of 
remembrance. 

For this purpose O'Reiley's Sketches of Rochester, 
Turner's History of Phelps and Gorham's Purchase, 
and of the Holland Purchase, and French' s Gazetteer 
-«i»f New York, have been consulted, and such extracts 
and compilations made as could be found there. 

It has been an object, kept in view, to collect as 
much personal reminiscence as possible, for the grat- 
ification of the older inhabitants of Orleans County, 
for whom the book was more particularly designed. 

Errors in dates, events, names and narratives, no 
■doubt may be found in the work. Such errors are 
unavoidable in giving details of statements of aged 
people, often contlicting in their character, and the in- 
telligent reader may sometimes regret that he finds no 
notice here of facts and incidents in the Pioneer His- 
t^ory of this region of country, vsjhich he may deem of 
more importance than much of the matter the book 
contains. 

Some such facts and incidents may not have come 
to the notice of the author, and he has been compell- 
ed to omit much matter of interest, lest his work 
should be too large, beyond the plan proposed. 

Much as apology may seem to be needed, the au- 
thor has little to make, more than to say he is not a 
professional book maker, and has no hope of found- 
ing a literary reputation on this work. He has little 
fear therefore of critics, and will be happy, if by this 
labor he has pleased the old settlers of Orleans Count}^ 
and done his part to save from oblivion, good matter 
for history, fast passing away ; for in the beautiful 
language of Whittier — 

" still from the hurryin;? train of life, fly baclrvrard far and fast, 
The mile stones of the fathers,— the landmarks of the past." 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

The Indians of Western New-York — Their Traditionary Hi&tory — An- 
cient Fortifications in Shelbj' — Their Friendship for the White !Man 
in the War of 1812 — Fishing and Hunting. 
CHAPTER II. 

Phelps and Gorliam's Purchase — When made — Territory Included in 
— Consolidated Securities — Their Sale to Robert Jlorris — Divisions 
: of their Purchase — The Triangle. 

CHAPTER III. 

The 100,000 Acre Tract— Boundaries— Dr. Levi Ward— Levi A. Ward 
— Joseph Fellows — Transit Line. 

CHAPTER IV. 

The Holland Purchase — Names of Company — Location of Tract — Sur- 
veys — Ceded by Indians — Counties in New- York One Hundred Years 
Ago — Genesee Counlrj^ — Genesee County and its Subdivisions — Jo- 
seph EUicott und brother Benj., Surveyors — Agent of the Company 
— Land Office — Where Located — Practice in Locating Land — Arti- 
cles — Clemency of the Land Company — Deeding Lots for School 
Houses — Land Given to Religious Societies — Anecdote of Mr. Busti 
Rev. Andrew Rawson — Route ot Travel to Orleans County^Oak 
Orchard Creek and Johnson's Creek — Why so Named — Kinds of 
Forest Trees — Wild Animals — Salmon and other Fish — Rattlesnakes 
— Raccoons and Hedgehogs — Beaver Dams — Fruits — Effect of Clear- 
ing Land on Chmate — The Tonawauda Swamps. 
CHAPTER V. 

Tlic Log House — Description — How Built— Windows and Door — Walls 
Raised at a Bee — Chimneys — Ovens — Cellars — Double Log House — 
Copied after Indian Wigwam — Fires — Great Back Log — Lights. 
CHAPTER YI. 

Log House Furniture — Beds and Bedding — Fire Place — Hooks and 
Trammel — Bake Pan — Table — Chairs — Pewter Spoons — Blue Edged 
Plates— Black Earthen Tea- Pots. 

CHAPTER YII. 

Clearing Land and First Crops — Cutting down tlie Trees — Black Salts 
— Slashing — Clearing— Fallow— Planting and Sowing— Harvesting: 
and Cleaning Up — How Done. 



COriTENTfc-'. Vll 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Hardships and Privations — Want of BreadstnfT— Scarcity of 3Iills — 
Difficulty of getting Grain Ground — Mill on a Stump — Fever jtnd 
Ague — Quinine and Blue Pill — No Post Office — Keeping Cattle — 
Difficulty Keeping Fire — Instance ot Fire Out — Want of Good Water 
— No Higlnvays — Discouragement from Sickness — Social Amuse- 
ments — Hospitality — Early Merchants — Their Stores and Goods — 
Domestic Manufactures — Post Offices and Mails. 

CHAPTER IX. 

The Erie Canal — When Begun — Effect — Rise in Price of Everything — 
Progress of Improvement — Carriages on Springs. 

CHAPTER X. 

Public Highways— The Ridge Road — When Laid Out — Appropriation 
— Oak Orchard Road— Opened by Holland Company — Road from 
Shelby to Oak Orchard in Bane— Salt Works Roads— State Road 
along Cimal — Judge Porter's Account of first Tracing the Ridge 

Road. 

CHAPTER XL 

Railroads — Medina and Darien — Medina and Lake Ontario — Roches- 
ter, Lockport and Niagara Falls. 

CHAPTER Xil. 
State of Education — School Houses — Description — Gaines Academy — 
Other Academics and Schools. 

CPIAPTER XIIL 
State of Religion — Religious Feeling among the People — Ministers an<l 
Missionaries — Meeting House in Gaines — First in County — Building. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Burying Grounds — Blount Albion Cemetery — Boxwood Cemetery. 

CHAPTER XV. 
Town of Barre — First settled along Oak Orchard Road — Land Given 
by the Holland Company to Congregational Society — Congregational 
Church — Presbyterian Church in Albion — First Tavern — First Store 
— First Lawyer^^First Doctor — First Deed of Land to Settler— Deeds 
of Land in Albion — First House in Albion — Death of Mrs. McCallis- 
ter— First Warehouse— First Saw Mill— First Grist Mill— Trade in 
Lumber— First Ball— First Town Meeting— Fourth of July, 1821 — 
First Wedding in Albion — Story — Biographies of Early Settlers. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Village 6f Albion — First Inhabitants — First Business Men — Strife willi 
Gaines for Court House — Strategy used by Albion men to get Court 
House — First Court House — Second Court House — County Jail — 
First Hotel — First Warehouse — Stone Flouring Mill — Lawyers — Di',. 
Nichoson and White — First Tanyard — First Blacksmiths — N;ime ot 
the Village. 



VIU CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Town of Carlton — Name — Lumber Trade — First Settlement of White 
Men in County — James Walsworth — Village of Manilla — Names of 
Persons who took Articles of Land in Carlton in 1803, 1804 and 1805 
— Matthew Dunham — Curious Mill to Pound Corn — Dunham's Saw 
Mill and Grist Mill— First in County— First Frame Barn— The Union 
Company — Death o( Elijah Brown — First Children Born in Town — 
First Store — Biographies of Early Settlers. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Town of Clarendon — DilHculty in getting Titles from Pultney Estate — 
Eldredge Farwell — Farwell's Mills — First School— First Merchants 
— J. and D. Sturgess — First Postmaster — First Physician — Presbyte- 
rian Church — First Town Meeting — Biographies of Early Settlers. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Town of Gaines — First Settlers — Case of Getting Fire — Noah Burgess 
— Mrs. Burgess — Cutting Logs for a House — First Orchard — First 
School House — Drake's Mill Dam and Saw Mill — Organization of 
McCarty's Militia Company — Their Scout after British and Indians 
— Dr. Jesse Beach — Orange Butler — First Marriage — First Birth — 
First Newspaper in Orleans County — First Tayern — Store — Grist 
Mill— First Merchants — James Mather Dealing in Black Salts, &c. — 
Business at Gaines Basin— Village of Gaines — Gaines Academy — Ef- 
forts to Locate Court House Here — Trade in Other Localities — Biog- 
raphies of Early Settlers. 

CHAPTER XX. 

Town of Kendall — Partitioned between State of Connecticut and Pult- 
ney Estate— First Settler— First :Marriage— First Birth— First Tav- 
ern—First Death— First Store— First School— First Saw Mill— First 
Public Religious Service — First Physician — First Highway from 
Kendall Corners to Ridge — Biographies of Early Settlers. 
CHAPTER XXI. 

Town of ]Murray — Towns Set Oil"— First Tavern — First Marriage — First 
Birth— First Death— First Store— First Grist Mill— First School- 
First Church — Sandy Creek — McCall & Perry's ]\Iill — Sickness at 
Sandy Creek — Biographies of Early Settlers. 
CHAPTER XXII. 

Village of Holley — Areovester Hamlin — First Store — Post Office — 
Frisbie & Seymour — Early Merchants — First Sawmill — Lawyer — 
Tavern — Justice ot the Peace — Salt Brine — Mammoth Tooth — Salt 
Port — Presbyterian Church — Salt Si)riug. 
CHAPTER XXIIL 

Village of Ilulberton — Joseph Budd — Canal Basin— First Warehouse 
— Fir-st Grocery— First Tavern— I. H. S. Ilulbert — First Named Scio 
— Methodist Society — Abijah Reed and Sons. 



CONTENTS. IX 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

Village of ninclsburgh — Jacob Luttenton — Jacob Hinds and Brothers 
— First Warehouse — Jabez Allison — First Hotel. 
CHAPTER XXV. 

The Town of Ridgeway — Formed from Batavia — First Town Meeting 
—Turner & White's Grist Mill— First Saw Mill— Dr. White— Salt 
Works — First School — Biographies of Early Settlers. 
CHAPTER XXVI. 

Village of Medina — Saw Mill by Land Company — Evan's Grist Mill — 
Canal Feeder — Nixon's Brewery — Coan's Store — First Tarern — First 
Merchants — Physician— Attorney — Quarries— Justus Ingersoll — Bap- 
tist Meeting House. 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

Village of Knowlesyille — Wm. Knowles, Founder and First Settler — 
First Clearing — First Framed House — First Tavern — First Ware- 
house — First Boat Load of Wheat — First Ashery — First School 
House — Post Office — First Religious Society. 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Town of Shelby — Jo. EUicott Locating Land — Ellicott's Mills — Road 
Irom Oak Orchard Road to Shelby — Salt Works Road — Anecdote 
of Luther Porter— Col. A. A. Ellicott— Ball in Ellicott's Mill— Abner 
Hunt — Fiddler Hackett — First Physician — Post Office — Iron Foun- 
dr}^ — Tannery — Biographies of Early Settlers. 
* CHAPTER XXIX. 

Town ot Yates — Formerly Northton — George Houseman — Discourage- 
ment to Early Settlement — First Deed — Tappan's Tavern — Liquor 
Sold— First Marriage— First Death— First Store— First School— Bi- 
ographies ot Early Settlers. 

CHAPTER XXX. 

Biographical Notices of Joseph Ellicott and Ebenezer Mix 



APPENDIX. 

Towns in Orleans County — Their Organization — Villages in Orleans 
County — Table of Elevations — IMembers of Assembly Elected from 
Orleans County since its Organization — County Clerks of Orleans 
County — County Treasurers — County Superintendents of Common 
Schools — First Judges of Orleans County Courts — District Attorneys 
of Orleans County — Sheriffs of Orleans County — Surrogates of Or- 
leans County — First Courts of Record — Supervisors of the Different 
Towns in Orleans County since their Organization — The Orleans 
County Pioneer Associatipn — First Annual Address, Delivered be- 
fore the Orleans County Pioneer Association, Sept. 10, 1859, by Arad 
Thomas. . 



INTRODUCTION. 

After tlio discovery of America by Columbus, the 
first settlement on tlie Atlantic coast by Europeans 
was made by English and Dutch, on the south, and 
by French on the extreme north. Ascending the great 
river St. Lawrence, the French founded the cities ol 
Quebec and IMontreal ; and following the river and 
the lakes westward, they established the settlements 
at Pittsburgh and Dc^troit, many years before the En- 
giisli settled Western New- York. 

The Algonquins and Hurons inhabited Canada East 
at the coming of the French. With these, from mo- 
tives of policy, they formed an alliance. These Cana- 
dian Indians, and^the Iroquois of Western N^ew Yoi'k^ 
were at w^ar with each other. Tlie French joined their 
Indian allies in this war, and thus incurred the invet- 
erate hostility of the Iroquois. 

Many desperate battles were fought between the 
French and these Indians with various success. The 
Algonquins and Hurons were driven out of their coun- 
try, or destroyed, and the Iroquois came near exter- 
minating the French settlements in Canada. They 
effectually prevented their locating themselves in ISlew 
York, although they claimed this whole territory. A 
few French missionaries only of their people were tol- 
erated by the Iroquois within their country, excej)t 
at the mouth of the ISTiagara River, wliere the French 
established a trading post in 1678. This was taken 
by the English under Sir William Johnson, in 1759, 
and retained by them until it was surrendered to the- 
United States in 1706. 



INTKODUCTION, XI 

'In 1722, a trading house was built at Oswego, under 
the direction of the Colonial government of New- York ; 
and in 1727, this was strengthened by a fort. 

The French protested against this encroachment up- 
on the territory they claimed, by the English, and sev- 
eral times sent military expeditions to drive them out. 

These English establishments at Oswego were taken 
b}^ the French in 1756, and destroyed. They were 
rebuilt by the English in 1758, and continued in their 
possession until 179o ; they were surrendered to the 
United States under Jay" s treaty. 

The French kept up communication through Lake 
Ontario, between their western settlements and Que- 
bec, but made no other location within tlie bounds of 
New- York, ])eing kept back by the ])0wer of the In- 
dians. 

In 17C0, a powenul army of British, Indians, and 
Provincial Americans, was sent into Canada, under 
Gen. Amherst. To these forces the French surrender- 
ed Canada and all their western possessions, which 
included their claim to Western Nev/ York. 

The Iroquois, or Six Nations, having early entered 
into relations of amity and friendship with the English, 
remained true to their engagements after the overthrow 
of the French in America, and so down to the time of 
the Revolution. 

At the breaking out of the Revolutionary war. Gen. 
Philip Schuyler, in a council vvdth the chiefs of the 
Six Nations, at German Flats, in June, 1776, had ob- 
tained their promise to remain neutral in that vrar. — 
After the war had been some time in progress, howev- 
er. Sir John Johnson, Brant, Col. John Butler and 
other tories of that day, prevailed on the Indians to 
violate their pledge, and take up arms against the 
Americans ; and with the exception of the Tuscaroras 
and Oneidas, they remained the firm friends of the 
British through that war. 



Xll INTRODUCTION. 

Under tlie influence of the Johnsons, a large pro- 
portion of the white inliabitants in the Valley of the 
Mohawk were tories ; these uniting with the hostile 
Indians, led by Butler, Brant and others made incur- 
sions, carrjdng murder and devastation along the fron- 
tier settlements of the Colonies, and retreating with 
their prisoners and plunder to the British strongholds 
at Niagara and Oswego, where they were safe. 

This predatory warfare continued at intervals, from 
1775 to 1779, along the Mohawk and Susquehanna 
rivers more especially. 

In 1779, Gen. Sullivan, with an army of five thou- 
sand men, was sent hy Gen. Washington to punish 
the Indians and tories of New- York, for their conduct 
in the war. He encountered them in force in a forti- 
fied camp near Elmira, where they were defeated with 
great loss. The army of Gen. Sullivan pursued the 
enemy to Canandaigua, thence through their villages 
in Livingston County, destroying everything belong- 
ing to the Indians on their route. But few of the In- 
dians were killed after the battle at Elmira ; but they 
were thoroughly frightened, wasted and vanquished, 
and never afterwards resumed the occupancy of their 
settlements east of the Genesee river, but on their re- 
turn from flight before Sullivan, they located near 
Geneseo, Gardeau, Mount Morris and other places in 
the western part of the State. The Oneidas not hav- 
ing engaged in the war, were not disturbed in their 
homes. 

The Indians were terribly beaten and humbled by 
this expedition of Gen. Sullivan, and from that time 
forward remained peaceful toward the whites. 



PIONEER HISTORY OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 

CHAPTER I. 




THE INDIANS OP WESTERN NEW-YORK. 

Their Traditionary History— Ancient Fortification in Slielbj'— Their 
Friendship for the White Men in the War of 1812— Fishing and 
Hunting. 

HISTORY of the Indians, who inhabited 
Western New-York at the coining of the 
white men to reside among them, is compar- 
atively unknown. Their own traditionary accounts 
go hack but little more than a century, but the nu- 
merous relics and " ruins" and the marks of ancient 
fortifications, upon which no donbt human labor and 
skill have been employed, which are found scattered 
over all this region of country, seem to prove conclu- 
sively that here men have lived for many centuries 
past. 

All these traces of former habitations of men are 
found within the bounds of Orleans County. When 
they were made, and by whom, seems to be as inex- 
plicable to the Indian of the present day as to his 
white brother. The commonly entertained opinion, of 
those who have investigated the suliject most, is that 
this country has been inhabited by a people of higher 
civilization and more skilled in the arts than those 
found here and known as the Six Nations, who have 
become long since extinct. 

The most considerable of these " ancient fortifica- 
tions" to be found in Orleans County is thus described 
in Turner's History : 



14 PIOXEEli IIISTOKY 

' ' About one and one-lialf miles west of Shelby Cen- 
ter, in Orleans Count}', is an ancient work. A broad 
ditch encloses in a form nearly circular, about three 
acres of land. The ditch is at this day well defined 
several feet deep. Adjoining the spot on the south is 
a swamp, about a mile in width, by two in lengtli. — 
This swamp was once doubtless, if not a lake, an im- 
passable morass. From the interior of the enclosure 
made b}^ the ditch, there is what appears to have been 
a passage way on the side next to the swamp. No 
other breach occurs in tlLe entire circuit of the em- 
bankment. There are accumulated, ^^dthin and near 
this fort, large piles of small stones of a size conveni- 
ent to be thrown by the hand or with a sling. Arrow 
heads of flint are found in or near the enclosure, in 
great' abundance, stones, axes, &c. Trees of four, 
hundred years growth stand upon the embankment, 
and underneath them have been found earthen wares, 
pieces of plates or dishes wrought with skill, present- 
ing ornaments in relief of various patterns. ' Some 
skeletons almost entire have been exhumed ; many of 
giant size, not less than seven or eight feet in length. 
The skulls are large and well developed in the anteri- 
or lobe, broad between the ears, and flattened in the 
coronal region. 

Half a mile west of the fort is a sand hill. Here a 
large number of human skeletons' have been exhumed, 
in a perfect state. Great numbers appear to have 
been buried in the same grave. Man}^ of the skulls 
apjjear to have been broken in with clubs or stones." 

The Indians found actually occupjang this part of 
the country when white men b(\gan to settle here were 
the Senecas, a tribe of the Six Nations. They had no 
village or permanent settlement within Orleans Coun- 
ty ; but th(\y counted tliis as ^lart of their territory, 
and occupied it as their hunting and fishing grounds, 
and were accustomed to follow these pursuits here. — 



OF OKLEAXS COUXTY. 15 

'Their places of residence were their villages in Genesee 
and Niagara Counties. These Indians Avere friendly 
to the whites, and the pioneer settlers of Orleans 
County never feared their hostility. In the war of 
1812, with Great Britain, they took up arms on the 
side of the United States, and made themselves use- 
ful to us in checking the invasions of the hostile In- 
dians from Canada, who acted v/ith the British. 

These Indians had formerly been favorably dispos- 
ed to the British Glovernment, and it was a source of 
alarm at the breaking out of the war lest they should 
be found with their ancient allies. Their great chief, 
Red Jacket, counseled them to maintain neutrality. 
This neutral state was construed unfavorably by tlie 
pioneers, and rumors of contemplated Indian atroci- 
ties were circulated from time to time, until the Sene- 
gas had resolved to take up the hatcliet with us. 

The rapid settlement of the county by white men 
had the effect to diminish the number of wild game 
animals, wiiich the Indians had been accustomed to 
hunt ; and fishing in the Oak Orchard and Johnson' s 
Creeks, with seines and nets, soon exterminated the 
salmon and drove -away other kinds of lisli that had 
formerly come up these streams from Lake Ontario in 
abundance, until the Indians found their occupation 
worthless and ceased to come here. 

In an earl}^ day parties of Indians came over from 
Canada and wintered in Carlton, for the pui'pose of 
hunting. In the spring they would return to Canada, 
As game became scarce they discontinued their visits. 

Indians in families, or singly, frequently traveled 
about among the dwellings of the pioneers to beg or 
sell their small wares, or get whisky. They were gen- 
erallj' harniless, and made no trouble. Their claim 
to the land was long since settled by treaty transfer- 
ing it to white men, excei^ting the reservations to 
which they retired. 



CHAPTER II. 




PHELPS AND GORHAU'S PURCHASE. 

When Made — Territory Included in— Consolidated Securities — Their 
Sale to Robert Morris — Divisions of their Purchase — The Triangle. 

HE original charter, granted by the King of 
England to the colony of Massachusetts, in- 
cluded all the country between the north and 
south boundaries of the colony, extending from the 
Atlantic Ocean on the east, to the Pacific Ocean on 
the west. The western boundary had not then been 
explored, and the extent of the continent was un- 
known. 

New York was afterwards chartered by the same 
authority, covering a portion of territory previously 
granted to Massachusetts. After the close of the 
Revolutionary war, Massachusetts urged her claim. 
The difficulty was finally compromised between Mass- 
achusetts and New York, by commissioners mutual- 
ly agreed upon, Dec, 16, 1786, by giving to New York 
the sovreignty of all the disputed territory lymg with- 
in her chartered limits ; and giving the property in 
the soil to Massachusetts, or the right to buy the soil 
from the Indians, who were then in possession. 

All of the State of New York lying west of a line 
running from Sodus Bay through Seneca Lake, to 
the north line of Pennsylvania, estimated to contain 
6,000,000 of acres, was sold subject to t\ie title the 
Indians then had to it, by Massachusetts, to Phelps 
and Gorham, in the jenr 1786, for $1,000,000, to be 
paid for in a kind of scrip, or stock, which had been 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 17 

issued by Massachusetts, called " Consolidated Secu- 
rities," wliicli at tlie time of tlie sale was worth about 
50 -pev cent. 

In July, 1788, Phelps and Gorliam made a treaty 
with the Six Nations of Indians, by which they pur- 
chased from them a tract estimated at 2,250,000 acres ; 
bounded east by the Pre-emption Line ; which was 
the eastern boundary of their purchase from Massa- 
chusetts, and west by a line from Lake Ontario to 
Pennsylvania, twelve miles west from Genesee River. 

From this sale to Phelps and Gorham, and other 
causes, the market price of these " Consolidated Se- 
curities" rose so high that Phelps and Gorham Avere 
unable to buy them to fulfill their contract with the 
State : and so were colnpelled to surrender to the State 
of Massachusetts, all the lands lying west of the west 
boundary of the tract they had purchased of the In- 
dians, as above stated. To these lands so surrender- 
ed, the Indian title had not then been extinguished. — 
This tract was sold in the year 1791, by the State of 
Massachusetts to Robert Morris. About the year 
1793, Robert Morris sold this tract to an association 
of capitalists residing in Holland, excepting and re- 
serving a j)arcel of land twelve miles wide, to be ta- 
ken- off from the east side. This strip was afterwards 
called "the Morris Reserve," a part of it was sold 
by Morris to Bayard, Leroy and McEvers, known as 
The Triangle, containing 87,000 acres, and another 
portion lying west of The Triangle, and containing 
100,000 acres was sold by Morris to Cragieand others 
and by them to Sir William Pultney and the State of 
Connecticut, ever since known as "The 100,000 Acre 
Tract," or " Connecticut Tract." 

The tract so purchased by the Holland Company 
contains about three million six hundred thousand 



18 PIONEER HISTORY 

acres, and is distinguished as "The Holland Pur- 
chase." 

THE miANGLE TRACT. 

One of the large divisions of the Phelps and Gorham 
Purchase, lying west of the Genesee River, is known 
as "The Triangle." By treaty l^etween Phelps and 
Gorliam, and the Indians, after they had granted to 
Ebenezer Allen, a piece of land of 100 acres, on which 
to erect a saw mill, at what is now Rochester, an- 
other tract was granted to Phelps and Gorham, for 
a "Mill Yard." This was called "The Mill Yard 
Tract," and was twelve miles wide east and west, by 
twenty-four miles north and south, from Lake Ontario. 

The agreement was, this " Mill Yard" should be 
bounded east by the Genesee River ; south by a line 
running west from about where Avon now stands ; 
and west twelve miles ; thence north to Lake Ontario. 
It was then supposed that the course of the Genesee 
River was about due north, and the west line was at 
first run by Hugh Maxwell, due north from said south 
west corner, accordingly. 

It was afterwards ascertained, that the mouth of 
tlio river was more than twelve miles east from the 
termination of this line, on the lake shore. 

The matter was afterwards arranged b}^ a new line 
being run by Mr. Augustus Porter, nearly parallel 
mth Genesee River, and twelve miles west of it, for 
the west "bounds of the Mill Yard Tract. This left a 
triangular shaped piece of land 13'ing between the 
lines so run by Maxwell and Porter, containing about 
87,000 acres, forming the towns of Clarkson, Hamlin, 
Sweden, Bergen and Leroy. This tract has ever 
since been described and known as " The Triangle." 



CHAPTER III. 



THE 100,000 ACKE TRACT. 

Boundaries — Dr. Levi Ward — Levi A. Ward — Joseph Fellows — Tran- 
sit Line. 



^^ EFOEE tlie west line of the Mill Yard Tract 
^^ liad been rectified by the new line mn by Por- 
ter, Mr. Robert Morris sold a tract lying next 
west of "the Mill Yard," to contain 100,000 acres, to 
Cragie and others. This parcel was afterwards sold 
by the proprietors to Sir William Pnltney, and the 
State of Connecticnt, to each, an undivided half. Af- 
terwards, and abont the year 1811, this tract was di- 
vided between the estate of Sir AYilliani Pnltney, and 
the State of Connecticnt. 

The 100,000 Acre Tract includes the towns of Ken- 
dall, Mnrra}^ and Clarendon, in Orleans County; and 
Byron, and. a portion of Bergen, Stafford and Lero}', 
in Genesee County ; and is bounded on the north by 
Lake Ontario, and on the south by a part of the Mor- 
ris Reserve, known as the "Cragie Tract;" on the 
east by "The Triangle;" and on the west by "The 
Holland Purchase." " In July, 1810, the Stat(3'of Con- 
]iecticut appointed Dr. Levi Ward agent to sell farm 
lots for them, and about 1810, Dr. Ward and Levi H. 
(Clark purchased of Connecticut all the unsold lands ; 
but by agreement sales were continued in the name of 
the State. Dr. Ward and his son Levi A. Ward, 
have ever since C(^ntinued to act as afyents for the 



20 ' PIOXEKlt ]IISTORY 

State of Coiiiiecticut, Avhile Mr. Joseph Fellows lias^ 
been a like agent for the Pultney estate. 

TTIK TKANSIT LINE. 

This line which I'orms the eastern houndaiy of the 
Holland Pnrchase, and the western boundary of 
Morris Reserve, begins on the north bounds of Penn- 
sylvania, 12 miles v/est of tlie west Iwunds of Phelps 
and Gorliani's Purchase ; thence rnns due north, to 
near the center of the town of Staiford, in Genesee 
County ; thence west a fraction over two miles ; thence 
due nortli, to Lake Ontario. It forms the eastern 
boundary of the towns of Carlton, Gaines, and Barre. 
It is called the Transit Line, because it was run out 
lirst by the aid of a Transit instrument. The offset 
of two iniles is said to have been made to prevent 
overlapping tlie Connecticut Tract by the lands of 
tlie HoUau'd Purchase. Tli(.> trees were cut through 
on the Transit Line, to the width of about four rods, 
at an earl}' day, by the Land Company ; thus afford- 
ing a convenient land mark to the early settlers in 
locating their lands, and serving as a guide in linding 
their way through the woods. The Transit Line was^ 
run by Joseph Ellicott, in 1798. 



CHAPTER IV. 




THE HOLLAND PUKCIIASE. 

'Names ot Company — Location of Tract^Surveys — Ceded bj' Indians — 
Counties in New-York One Hundred Tears Ago — Genesee Country — 
Genesee County and its Subdivisions — Joseph Ellicott and brother 
Benj., Surveyors — Agent of the Company — Land OfHce — Where Lo- 
cated — Pi-actice in Locating Land — Articles — Clemency of the Laud 
Company — Deeding Lots for School Houses — Land Given to Relig- 
ious Societies — Anecdote of Mr. Busti — Rev. Andrew Raw son — 
Route ot Travel to Orleans County — Oak Orchard Creek and John- 
son's Creek — "Why so Named — Kinds of Forest Trees — AVild Ani- 
mals — Salmon and other Fish — Rattlesnakes — Raccoons and Hedge- 
hogs — Beaver Dams— Fruits — Effect of Clearing Land on Chraatc — 
The Tonawanda Swamp. 



HIS- tract iucluded all tlie land lying in the 
State of New York, and west of the Trjinsit 
Line, excepting the Indian Eeservations, and 
contains about 3,600,000 acres. It was purchased of 
Robert Morris by an association of Hollanders, in 
1792-93. The names of the original members of this 
association were Wilhelm' Willink, Jan AVillink, 
Nicholas Yau Stophorst, Jacob Yau Stophorst, Nich- 
olas Hubbard, Pieter Yan Eeghen, Christian Yau 
Eeghen, Isaac Ten Cate, Hendrick Yollenhoven, 
Chiistina Coster, widow, Jan Stadnetski, and Rutger 
Jan Schimmelpennick. 

The surveys of the Holland l^urcliase were begun 
on the east, at the Transit Line, and continued west 
dividing the whole territory into i-anges and town- 
ships ; the range lines running from north to south, 
the townships from east to west. The ranges number 
from the east, and the townsluDS from the south.— 



22 PIONEER HISTORY 

Towiisliij)S are all subdivided into lots, and the towns 
of Carlton and part of Yates, into sections and lots. — 
The county of Orleans contains the north parts of 
ranges 1, 2, 3 and 4, and the east parts of townships 
14, 15 and IC, It is about 20 miles square, not inclu- 
ding ao much as is covered by Lake Ontario, and con- 
tains about 405 square miles. 

About the year 1797, the Indians ceded most of 
their lands on the Holland Purchase, to the v/hite 
men ; reserving to themselves tracts of the best land 
for their occupation. Most of these reservations have 
been since conveyed by the Indians to white men. — 
No reservation was irade of any land now in Orleans 
county. 

One hundred years ago, the then province of New- 
York, contained ten counties, viz : New York, West- 
chester, Dutchess, Orange, Ulster, Albany, Eichmond, 
Kings, Queens and Suffolk. 

The county of Albany embraced all the territory 
now included in the State of New York, lying north 
of Ulster, and west of Hudson River. So much of 
said territory, as lies west of Schoharie, was taken off 
from Albany, and named Tryon, in the year 1772. — 
■ Tryon was changed to Montgomery, in 1784. 

All of said territory lying west of " the Preeraj)tion 
Line," including all land sold by Massachusetts to 
Phelps and Gorham, in their first purchase, was ta- 
ken from Montgomery in the year 1789, and named 
Ontario county. Ontario county, at that time, was 
an unbroken wilderness, only as it had been occupied 
by the Indians, west of Genesee River. Some settle- 
ments by white men had been made in the eastern 
part. It was then generally known as " the Genesee 
country," named from the Genesee River, the most 
considerable stream of water in the country. 

Canandaigua was then the chief town in the county 



OF OELEA^S COUNTY. 23 

and it has ever remained tlie county seat o± Ontario 
county. 

From Ontario lias since been formed the counties of 
Steulben, Allegany, Cattaraugus, Monroe, Livingston, 
Wayne, Yates, Genesee, Niagara, Erie, Chautauqua 
and Orleans. 

Genesee county was taken from Ontario in 1802. — 
The Genesee River was then its eastern boundary, 
and it included so much of the State of New York, as 
lies west of that river. 

The original county of Genesee has been subdivided 
into Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Livingston, 
Wyoming, Erie, Niagara and Orleans, leaving a small 
portion around Batavia, which was the original coun- 
ty seat, still known as Genesee county. 

Orleans county was set off from Genesee, Nov. 11, 
1824. The town of Shelby was annexed to Orleans 
from Genesee county, April 6, 1825. 

The county of Genesee included, in its original lira- 
its, all of the State of New York, which Robert Mor- 
ris purchased. 

The general land office of the Holland Land Com- 
pany was first located at Philadelphia. 

Mr. Joseph EUicott was engaged as principal sur- 
veyor for the Holland Land Company, in July, 1797. 
Assisted by his brother, Benjamin, and others, he 
commenced survejdng the lands embraced in the Hol- 
land Purchase, in 1798, by running and establishing 
the Transit Line, as the eastern boundary. These 
surveys were continued ten or twelve years, until the 
whole tract was divided into townships, ranges, sec- 
tions and lots. 

In 1800, Joseph EUicott was appointed local agent 
of the Holland Land Company, and for more than 
twenty years thereafter, he had almost exclusive con- 
trol of all the local business of the Company. 

The Laud Office was first established on the Pur- 



24 PIONEER HISTOEY 

chase at Pine Grove, Clarence Hollow, in Erie coun- 
ty ; but upon the oro-auization of Genesee county, in 
1802, the office was transferred to Batavia, where it 
remained until the affairs of the Company were final- 
l}'^ closed up in the year 1835. 

The principal Land Office was kept at Batavia, but 
several other offices were established in different parts 
of the Purchase, for the convenience of parties having 
business with the Company. 

It was usual for persons, who desired to locate on 
land of tlie Holland Land Company, to select the par- 
cel they desired to take, go to the Land Office at Ba- 
tavia, and make a contract with the Company' s agent 
there, for the purchase. Very seldom indeed was 
payment in full made, and a deed taken, in the first 
place. The common practice was for the purchaser 
to make a small payment down, and receive from the 
Company a contract in writing, known as an "Arti- 
cle," by which the Company agreed to sell the parcel 
of land described, the purchaser to pay the price in 
instalments, within from five to ten years, with inter- 
est ; when he was to receive a deed. On receiving his 
"Article," the settler went into full possession of his 
land, cleared it up, and made improvements, ma,king 
such payments to apply on the purchase moue}' as he 
was able. 

These land "Articles" were transferred by assign- 
ment, and Avere conveyed from hand to hand, often 
many times before they were returned to the Com- 
pany. A settler who wished to sell out his interest in 
land did so by assigning his "Article." Or, if he de- 
sired to give security tor a debt, or obtain a credit in 
his business, he would pledge his ' ' xVrticle. ' ' Trades- 
men and speculators of every class were accustomed 
to deal largely in these "Articles," and men who had 
means to lend, often held numbers of these contracts, 
transferred to them by absolute sale, or in security 



OF OELEANS COUNTY. 25 

for some obligations, to be afterwards redeemed by 
tlie owner. The Holland Land Company sold their 
wild lauds in Orleans county for from $2 to 80 per 
acre, according to the quality and location of the 
land. In the later years of the existence of the Land 
Company, frequently the Compan}^ would give a 
deed to the settler, and take his bond and a mortgage 
on the land deeded, for the balance of "purchase 
monej'." 

The Company generally dealt very leniently with 
its debtors, frequently renewmg their "Articles" 
when the}' had run out without payment ; and some- 
times abating interest accrued and unpaid, or throw- 
ing off a pai-t of the sum originally agreed to be paid, 
when the bargain had proved a hard one for any rea- 
son to the debtor. 

Another measure of relief to the settlers, from then- 
obligations to pay for their land, was the Company 
agreeing to receive cattle, and apply their value on 
"Articles" for land, on wdiich j)a,yment was in ar- 
rears. For some years before the Company ceased to 
exist, they would send their agents to different points 
on the Purchase, to receive these cattle, and indorse 
their value on the "Articles" of the settlers. Tlif> 
cattle were driven to a distant market. Although 
this arrangement was beneficial to the people, it was 
attended with considerable loss to the Company. 

It was provided in an early School Act of the State 
that sites for school liouses should be secured to the 
school districts by deeds in fee, or by leases from the 
party owning the fee of the land. 

It often occurred, before the year 1828, that there 
w^as no deeded land in the district, or none wdiere a 
school house was desired to be located. In such ca- 
ses, the Company provided by a general order, that 
they would grant half an acre to such district gratis, 
if the Company owned the land where the school 



26 PIOISTEEK HISTORY 

liouse should stand, then not under "Article," provi- 
ded, if such site should fall on land held by some per- 
son under contract, the district was then required to 
procure a relinquishment of the right of such person 
in the half acre, to be indorsed on his " Article." 

Another instance of the generosity of the Holland 
Company, as shown in the conduct of their general 
agents, is recorded of Mr, Busti, who for many years 
was their head agent, residing in Philadelphia. Mr. 
Turner, in his History of the Holland Purchase, in a 
note says — "In the fall of 1820, Mr. Busti was visit- 
ing the Land Office, in Batavia ; the Rev. Mr. R., of 
the Presbyterian sect, called on Mr. Busti, and insist- 
ed on a donation of land for each society of his per- 
suasion, then formed on the Holland Purchase. Mr. 
Busti treated the Rev. gentleman with due courtesy, 
but showed no disposition to grant his request. Mr. 
R., encouraged by Mr. Busti' s politeness, persevered 
in his solicitations day after day, until Mr. Busti' s 
patience was almost exhausted, and what tinally 
brought that subject to a crisis was Mr. R's. follow- 
ing Mr. Busti out of the office, when he was going to 
take his tea at Mr. Ellicott' s, and making a fresh at- 
tack on him in the piazza. Mr. Busti was evidently 
vexed, and in reply said : — " Yes, Mr. R., I will give 
a tract of one hundred acres to a religious society in 
every town on the Purchase, and this is fmis.''^ — 
"But," said Mr. R., "You will give it all to the 
Presbyterians, will you not ; if you do not expressly 
so decide, the sectarians will be claiming it, and we 
shall receive very little benefit from it. ' ' ' 'Sectarians, 
no!" — was Mr. Busti' s hasty rej)ly, " I abhor secta- 
rians, they ought not to have any of it ; and to 
save contention, I will give it to the first religious so- 
ciety in every town." On which Mr. Busti hastened 
to his tea, and Mr. R. to his home, (about sixteen 
miles distant") to start runners during the night, or 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 27 

next morning, to rally the PreslDyterians in the sever- 
al towns in his vicinity to apply first, and thereby 
save the land to themselves. 

The Land Office was soon flooded vdth petitions for 
land from Societies organized according to law, and 
empowered to hold real estate, and those who were 
not ; one of which was presented to Mr. Busti before 
he left, directed to "General Poll Busti," on which 
he insisted it could not be from a religious society, 
for all religious societies read their bibles, and know 
that P-o-1-1 does not spell Paul. Amidst this chaos 
of applications, it was thought to be unadvisable to 
be precipitant in granting these donations, the whole 
responsibility now resting on Mrl Ellicott, to comply 
with this vague promise of Mr. Busti ; therefore con- 
veyances of the "Gospel Land," were not executed 
for some space of time, notwithstanding the clamor of 
petitioners for "deeds of our land," during which 
time, the matter was taken into consideration and 
systematised, so far as such an operation could be. — 
Pains were taken to ascertain thd merits of each appli- 
cation, and finally a tract, or tracts of land, not ex- 
ceeding one hundred acres in all, was granted, free of 
expense, to one or more religious societies, regularly 
organized according to law, in each town on the Pur- 
chase, where the Company had land undisposed of ; 
Avhich embraced every town then organized on the 
Purchase, except Bethany, Genesee county, and 
Shelden, Wyoming county ; the donees always being 
allowed to select out of the unsold farming lands in 
each town. In some towns, it was all given to one 
society ; in others to two or three societies, separate- 
ly ; and in a few towns to four diff'erent societies, of 
different sects, twenty -five acres to each. 

In performing this thankless duty, for the land was 
claimed as an absolute right by most of the a^^pli- 
cants, the whole proceedings were so managed, un- 



28 PIONEER HISTORY 

der Mr, EUicott's judicious directions, lliat amidst all 
tlie clamor and contention, wliicli from its nature such 
proceedings must elicit, no complaint of partiality to 
any particular sect, nor of undue weight of influence 
in any individual, was ever charged against the agent 
of the Company, or his associates acting under him." 

It is understood tlie Rev. Mr. R. referred to was 
Rev. Andrew . Rawson, of Barre. Mr. Busti was hy 
profession a Roman Catholic. 

The county of Genesee was formed from Ontario 
County in 1802, and the town of Batavia was organi- 
zed at the same time, and then included the entire 
county of Genesee. The town of Ridgeway was form- 
ed from Batavia Jime 8, 1812, and then embraced all 
the territory now included in the towns of Shelby, 
Ridgeway, Yates, Carlton, Gaines and Barre. 

Some of the first settlers of this territory north of 
Tonawanda Swamp came from Canada, in boats 
across Lake Ontario ; others from New England and 
the east, came by boats along the south shore of the 
lake. Those who came in on foot, or with teams, usu- 
ally crossed the Geilesee River at Rochester, and then 
took the Ridge Road west. 

The Ridge in this locality had been used as a high- 
way, ever since the county had been traversed by 
white men ; and it was a favorite trail of the Indians. 
Bridges had not been made over the streams, by 
which it was intersected, and it was difficult crossing 
these with teams. Sir William Johnson, going Avith 
a large body of soldiers to Fort Niagara, went along 
the Lake shore from Genesee River, and encamping 
for the night on the Creek in Carlton, vrest of Oak 
Orchard, he, gave it the name of Johnson's Creek, 
which it has since retained. 

The Oak Orchard Creek was so named from the 
b.eautiful oak trees, which grcAv along its banks, as 
seen by the hrst discoverers. 



OF Or.LEAlS^S COUNTY. 29 

In its natural state Orleans county was tliickly 
covered with trees. On the dry, hard land, the pre- 
vailing varieties of timber were beech, maple, white 
red and black oak, white wood or tulip tree, bass- 
wood, elm, hickory and hemlock. Swamps and low 
wet lands were covered with black ash, tamarack, 
white and ^^ellow cedar, and soft maple ; large syca- 
more, or cotton ball trees, were common on low lands 
and some pine grew along the Oak Orchard Creek, 
and in tlie swam])s in Barre ; and a few chestnut 
trees grew along the Ridge in Ridgeway, and in other 
places nortli of the Ridge. It has been estimated by 
the first settlers, that from seventy -five to one hun- 
dred cords of wood of 128 feet each, stood on each 
acre of land on an average over the county. 

The 23rincipal wild animals found Iiere were the 
bear, deer, wolf, raccoon, hedgehog, wood-cliuck, 
skunk, fox, black, red, striped and flying squin-el, 
mink and muskrat. Bear and deer were plenty, and 
hunting them furnished food and sport for the 2:)ion- 
eers. For some years the wolves were so destructive 
to the slieep and young cattle, it was diflicult to keep 
them. The bears woukl kill the pigs, if they strayed 
into the woods. As the forests were cut down, and 
settlers came in, these large animals were hunted out, 
till not a bear, deer or wolf has been seen wild in Or- 
leans county for several years. 

Fish were plenty in the streams, coming up from 
Lake Ontario in great numbers. 

At the first settlement of the country, white men 
and Indians caught an abundance of salmon here. — 
These fish, in high water would run up the Oak Orch- 
ard and Johnson's Creek, and out into their tributa- 
ries, where they were often taken. Salmon were once 
caught in a small stream in the west part of the town 
of Gaines. It is related that at an early day, after a 
high freshet, Mr. John Hood caught a number of sal- 



30 PIONEER HISTOEY :. 

mon on tlie "bank of this stream, soutli of AYest Gaines, 
where a tree had overturned, leaving a hole through 
which the water had flowed ; and where they were 
left when the water subsided. 

A kind of sucker fish, called red sides, used to run 
up from the lake in plenty. They were taken in 
April and May, in seines, by wagon loads. The sal- 
mon disappeared years ago, and very few red sides 
run now. 

Rattlesnakes were numerous along the banks of 
Oak Orchard Creek and Niagara and Genesee Rivers, 
when the country was new. They had several dens, 
to which they retired in winter, and near which they 
were frequently seen in sprmg time. Lemuel Blan- 
don relates that in 1820, he went with a party to fish 
near the mouth of Oak Orchard. They intended to 
stay all night, and built a shelter of boughs on the 
lake shore, on the east side, near where the hotel now 
stands ; and set fire to an old log tliat lay there. Af- 
ter the fire began to burn, two or three rattlesnakes 
came out from the log, and induced the fishermen to 
, fix their camp in another place. 

Enos Stone, an early settler in Rochester, said " The 
princijDal colony of the rattlesnakes ^was in the bank 
of the river, beloAv the lower falls, at a place we used 
to call Rattlesnake Point ; and there was also a 
large colony at Allan' s Creek, near the end of the 
Brighton Plank Road. I think they grew blind about 
the time of returning to their dens, in August and 
September. I have killed them on their return, with 
films on their eyes. Their oil was held in great esti- 
mation by the early settlers. Zebulon Norton, of 
Norton' s Mills, was a kind of backwoods doctor, and 
he often came to this region for the oil and the gall of 
rattlesnakes. The oil was used for stiff" joints and 
bruises ; and the gall for fevers, in the form of a pill 



OF OELEANS COUNTY. 31 

made up with clialk."* A rattlesnakes den where 
tliey nsed to winter, and out of Avhich they would 
crawl in early spring to sun themselves, was situated 
on the west bank of Oak Orchard Creek, on the Ship- 
man farm, in Carlton. No snakes hare been seen 
there for many years. 

Raccoons were plenty. Their fat was used to fry 
cakes, and their flesh was much esteemed for food by 
the inhabitants. 

Hedge hogs were also common. They frequently 
came around the log cabins in the night in search of 
food. Dogs, who were unacquainted with the animal 
sometimes charged upon him so rashly as to get their 
heads filled with the quills, which it was very difficult 
to extract, on account of their barbed points. 

There were no natural oj)enings in the woods, or 
prairie grounds in this county, before the settlement 
of the country, adapted to the habits of the quail ; 
and they are supposed to have come in with the emi- 
grants. They soon became plenty, the large wheat 
fields afi'ordiug them sustenance. 

Quails, raccoons and hedge hogs are nearly exter- 
minated in Orleans County. A rattlesnake is very 
seldom seen. 

The beavers were all destroyed by the first hunters 
who came here. 

Those who asume to know say skunks and foxes 
are more numerous now than ever before, which if 
true, may be owing to the abundance of field mice 
which they feed on. 

Before the settlement of this county, streams of wa- 
ter on an average were twice as large as they are now; 
and they were more durable, flowing the year round, 
where now they are low, or diy, a part of the year. 

Large tracts of low land, now cultivated to grass 
and grain, originall}^ was marsh, too wet even to 

* Phelps & Gorham's Purchase, p. 425. 



32 PIOXEER HISTORY 

grovr trees ; sometimes occasioned "by the dams of tlie 
beaver, which "by flooding the land destroyed the 
timber once growing there. As the beavers were 
hunted and destroyed, tlieir dams were opened, or 
wore away, and their ponds in time have become cul- 
tivated fields. Qnitii a number of these beaver dams 
existed in Orleans county. The largest in Barre per- 
haps was at the head of Otter Creek, on lot 15, from 
whicii a stream flowed north, and near Avliich some 
years ago, E. P. Sill had a saw mill, that did a large 
business. This beaver pond covered a hundred acres 
or more, which after the beaver were gone, but be- 
fore the pond had been eftectually drained, became a 
cranberry marsh ; and old people still recollect going- 
there to get cranberries. Near the outlet of this pond 
or marsh, was a favorite camj)ing -place of the In- 
dians, wlio made this a kind of head-quarters in their 
visits hcn-e to hunt and tish. As the water subsided 
in these marshes, different kinds of forest trees gradu- 
ally came in. Another beaver dam was erected on 
the h(^ad vraters of Sandy Creek, on the farm of Wil- 
liam Cole. And another on the farm of Amos Root, 
at the head of a small stream which ilows into Tona- 
wanda Swamp. Remains of beaver dams are seen in 
Ridgeway and other towns. 

When white men began the settlement of this coun- 
ty, the Avinters were much milder than noAv. Old set- 
tlers tell us the ground seldom froze in the woods so 
hard a stake could not easily be driven into it at any 
time. Snow did not fall to as great a depth as is 
sometimes seen now. The thick tops of the tall trees 
broke the force of the Avinds, and the softening influ- 
ence of the great lakes — Erie and Ontario — served to 
prevent the extremes of heat and cold, which have 
been more ])revalent since the timber has been cut 
down, and the wet lands dried up. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTT. 33 

Soon after clearings began to be made in the forest, 
peach trees were planted, and grew luxnriantl}-, and 
ripened the choicest frnit, in great abundance. The 
peacli crop was never a failnre, and apricots and nec- 
tarines were grown successfully. 

The cultivation of apples received earl}^ attention, 
and some orchards, now in full health and bearing, 
are almost as old as the first settlement. 

In the woods, the first pioneers found occasionally 
a wild j)bTm tree, bearing a tough, acrid i)lum, of a 
red and yellow color ; and a small purple fox grape 
of no value. 

For many years before and after the opening of the 
Erie Canal, wheat was the great object of cultivation 
among the farmers. The quantity of wheat raised 
and exported from Orleans County yearly, l)etween 
1830 and 1840, was immense. Barley did not come 
into cultivation till much later than wheat, and no rye 
was sown for many years. 

It was not until after the ravages of th*^ weevil, or 
wheat midge, had begun to interfere seriously with 
wheat growing, that th*' culture of beans attracted 
any considerable attention. 

THE 'rOXAWAXDA SWA.MP. 

This swamp lies in the counties of Genesee and Or- 
leans, covering parts of Byron, Elba, Oakfield, and 
Alabama, in Genesee Count}'^ ; and parts of Shelby, 
Barre, and Clarendon, in Orleans County. Originally 
it contained about twenty-five thousand acrc^s, most 
of which was too wet to plow, and was covercrd with 
swamp timber, or was open marsh, covered v/ith fiags, 
or swamp grass. Oak Orchard Creek drains this 
swamp. 

About 1820, the State constructed a feeder Irom the 
Tonawanda Creek in Genesee County, to c<jnvey the 



34 PIONEER HISTORY 

water of Tonawanda Creek into Oak Orchard Creek, 
to supply tlie Erie Canal with water. 

The outlet for water from the swamp was through a 
ledge of rock, too small naturally to drain it suffi- 
ciently, and when the Tonawanda Creek was thus 
l)rought into it,. the level of water in the swamp was 
thereby raised, and nothing was then done by the 
State to facilitate the discharge, thus increasing the 
stagnant water. 

In 1828, the Holland Company sold a considerable 
portion of these wet lands to an association, who ex- 
pended about twelve thousand dollars, in enlarging 
the capacity of the outlet, to drain the swamp througli 
Oak Orchard Creek. 

The Canal Commissioners then appropriated the 
whole of the Creek for the canal, and further at- 
tempts at drainage were abandoned. 

In April, 1852, an Act was passed appointing Amos 
Root, John Dunning, Henry Monell, and David E. E. 
Mix, Conmiissioners, to lay out and construct a high- 
way across the Tonawanda Swamp, on the line be- 
tween ranges one and two, of the Holland Purchase. 
A road was made and opened to travel under this Act, 
at a cost of about $2,750. 

As the surrounding country became settled, this 
swamp became an obstacle in passing through it, 
from the great expense required to make and main- 
tain highways. This large tract yielded but little re- 
turn to the owners, and paid but little tax to the pub- 
lic. 'No further attempts to drain were made. The 
association sold their lands to different individuals, 
and nothing was done to reclaim this tract, until 
April IG, 1855, an Act of the Legislature apj^jointed 
Amos Root, S.M. Burroughs, Ambrose Bo wen, Robert 
tlill, John B. King, and Henry Monell, Commission- 
ers to drain the swamp. 

It was provided in this Act, that the Connnissioners 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 35 

should assess the expenses of tlieir work upon the 
owners of the lands immediately affected by the 
drainage, in proportion to the benefits each would be 
adjudged to receive ; , the whole amount of such as- 
sessment not to exceed $20,000, 

The Commissioners entered upon their work, and 
made an estimate and assessment of the expense. — 
This gave offense to the parties assessed, who united 
almost unanimously, the next year, in a petition to 
the Legislature to repeal the law, and it was repealed. 

In 1863, an Act was passed appropriating $16,306 ; 
to be expended in improving Oak Orchard Creek, and 
the Canal feeder, on condition that all persons, who 
claimed damages of the State on account of the 
making the feeder from Tonawanda Creek, to Oak 
Orchard should release all such claims, before the ex - 
pehditure of the money. 



CHAPTER V. 




THE LOO HOUSE. 

Description — Uow Built— Windows and Door — Walls Raised at a Bee 
— Chimneys — Ovens — Cellars — Double Log House — Copied after In- 
dian Wigwam — Fires — Great Back Log — Liglals. 



HE log house, as it was constructed and used 
by the lirst setth^rs of Western New York, as 
''an institution,'' belongs to a generation now 
gon(^ by. No new log houses are now being built, 
and the few old ones now standing, will soon be de- 
stroyed by the relentless ''tooth of time,- ' and of those 
who were their builders and occupants, soon not one 
will be left to tell their story. 

The most primitive log house, to which we refer, 
was rather a rough looking edifice, usually 12 or 15 
by li) or 20 feet square. It was made of logs, of al- 
most any kind of timber, nearest at hand, of uniform 
size. These were used with the bark on, by rolling- 
one log upon another horizontally, notching the cor- 
ners to make them lie close together, to the height 
wanted for the outer walls of the house. 

An opening in one side was left for a door, and 
commonly another for a window. Poles were laid 
across the walls for a chamber floor to rest on, to be 
reached by a movt^able ladder, A ridge pole and 
rafters sui)i)orted a roof, which was made of oak or 
hemlock sj)lints, or elm bark. 

Bark for roofs was peeled in June, in strips about 
four feet long, and laid upon the rafters in courses. 



OF ORLEAIS^S COUNTY. 87 

held to tlie rafter by lieavy poles laid traiisversly, 
and bound on by strips of bark. An opening in the 
roof at one end was lefl^for the escape of smoke from 
the tire, which was built upon the ground under the 
opening. The remainder of the ground enclosed was 
covered with a floor of basswood logs, split, or hewed 
to a hat surface. The crevices between tlie logs were 
tilled or "chinked" as they called it, by putting in 
splints in large openings, and plastering with clay in- 
side and out. 

When a sash, lighted with glass, could be procured 
that was used for the window. Instead of glass, oil- 
ed paper was sometimes substituted. In an extreme 
case, the door was made of splints hewed flat and 
thin ; but ordinarily of sawed boards, hung upon 
wooden hinges, and fastened with a wooden latch, 
which was raised by a string tied to the latch, and 
put through a hole, to lift the latch from the outside. 
Hence, to say of a householder, "his latch string was 
always out," Was equivalent to declaring his generous 
spirit in opening his house to whoever applied for 
hospitality. 

The cari)enter and joiner work on the house was 
now complete. Masons, painters, glaziers, and all 
other house builders, had nothing to do here. The 
owner was Ms own architect, and commonly the house 
was put up at a "bee," or gathering of all the settlers 
in the neighborhood, gratis. 

We read that Solomon's Temple rose without the 
sound of a hammer. The temple in that respect has 
no advantage above these early homes of the settlers 
of Orleans County. There was no hammering here, 
for there were no nails to be driven. Sturdy blows 
with the ax did the business, and every thing was 
fastened with Avooden pins, or withes. 

If time and means permitted, and the wish of the 
owner was to indulge in the luxury of a chimney, he 



38 PIONEER HISTORY 

was gratified by building one end wall of his house 
with stone, laid in clay mortar, from the ground sev- 
eral feet in height, carrying up the remainder of the 
end with logs in the usual way, A high cross beam, 
or mantel, was put in, on this a superstructure of 
sticks laid up in a square, as the walls of the house 
were, tilled in with clay, was carried uj) above the 
roof and called "a stick chimney." This chimney, 
and all the wood work exposed to the fire, being well 
plastered with the clay mud, rendered the whole tol- 
erably safe from danger of burning, giving little en- 
couragement to insurance companies, whose agents 
never ventured to take risks on such property. 

As wealth increased, and a higher state of civiliza- 
tion and architectural development was introduced in 
the structure of log houses, stone chimneys were built 
from the ground up. About the time when stone 
chimneys were first made, cellars under the log houses 
began to be constructed ; and were found to be ex- 
ceedingly convenient, as a depository safe from frost, 
adding much to the storage capacity of the house. 

The introduction of bri(;k ovens marks an era that 
may be called modern compared with the ^irimitive 
log house. These ovens were sometimes made at a 
distanco from the liouse, standing on a frame of the 
kind called Scotcli- ovens. 

When the family had become sufficiently affluent 
to afford it, sometimes a chamber floor of boards 
would be laid upon the cross beams over head ; leav- 
ing a hole in the flooring, by which a person from be- 
low could mount into the chamber on a moveable lad- 
der. 

And sometimes a wealthy settler, who felt cribbed, 
and confined too closely in a single room, would build 
an addition to his log house, like the first, and adjoin- 
ing it, with a door between. The owner of such a 
double log house, was looked upon with envy and 



OF OELEANS COUNTY. 39 

admiration by all the neighboring housekeepers, who 
wondered what he could do with so much I'oom ; and 
it would be a remarkable and exceptional case if the 
owner and his family did not put on some airs and 
go to keeping tavern. 

It would be several years before the general class 
of log householders got a barn. Straw and fodder 
would be stacked out for the cattle. And, if a shelter 
for cattle or horses was desired, some crotches of trees 
would be set in the ground for posts, poles laid across 
on these, and a pile of straw heaped on, and a shed 
warm and dry was the result. 

Tlie log house was copied from the wigwam of the 
Six Nations of Indians, as to its general form and 
structure. The bark roof was similar in both cases, 
but the Indians commonly built the walls of theii- 
wigwams of bark fastened to upright poles, without 
a floor, their fire on the ground in the center, the 
smoke rising without any chimney, found its way 
tlirough a hole left open in the center of the roof. 

Fires were sometimes made in these log houses of 
the white men, by cutting a log eight or ten feet long, 
from the largest trees that would go through the door 
of the house without splitting. This was run upon 
rollers endwise through the door, and rolled to the 
back of the fire place. A fire was then built in the 
middle of the log in front, and fuel would be applied 
to that place, until the fire would consume the center 
of the log ; when the ends would be crowded together 
until the whole was burned. Sometimes such a back 
log would last a week or ten days, even in cold weath- 
er. The light from such a fire was commonly suffi- 
cient to illuminate the single apartment of the house 
at night. If more light was wanted, a dipped tallow 
candle, made by the mistress of the household ; or a 
taper made of a dish of fat, or grease, with a rag stuck 
in it for a wick, would answer the purpose. 



CHAPTER VI. 



LOG HOUSE KURXITUUK. 

Beds and Bedding — Fire Place — Hooks and Trammel — Bake Pan — 
Table— Chairs— Pcwler Spoojis— Blue Edged Plates— Black Earthen 
Tea Pots. 




lioii.seliold fui'iilture us(.h1 at lirst iu thr 
j^^ log lioitses of tli(> farmers, at tlieir lirst begin- 
"!^^ii niiig ill the v/oods on tlie Holland Purchase, 
was about as primitive in its character, as tlieir 
new dwellings. It was such as was adapted to 
the wants and eirciimstances of its owner, and such 
as he could readily procure. 

For temporary use, a few hemlock boughs on the 
floor, covered with blankets, made a comfortable bed. 
If a better bed and bedstead was wanted, it was made 
by boring holes in the logs at proper height ; putting 
in rods fastened to upright posts ; and upon this bed- 
stead, laying such a bed and bedding, as the taste 
and ability of the party could furnish. To a cross 
pole over the fire place, kettles were suspended by 
wooden or iron hooks ; often by an instrument called 
a trammel., which was a flat iron bar filled with holes, 
hanging from the pole, on which a kettle suspended 
on a hook, might be raised or lowered at pleasure, by 
moving the hook from one hole to another. 

Their nearest approach to an oven was a cast iron 
bake pan, covered with a moveable lid, standing on 
eg s, and lifted by a bail. Dough was placed in this 
vessel, and coals put on and under it, when in use. — 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 41 

Another cooking utensil was a frying pan, witli a 
handle long enough to be held in the hand of the 
cook, while the meat was frying in the pan over the 
fire. The table was at first a board, or box cover 
laid on a barrel ; and many of the first families have 
taken their meals with the keenest relish, for some 
time after moving into a new log house, off a barrel 
head, or a chest cover. Their chairs were often blocks 
of logs, or benches and stools, of home manufacture. 
It was many yeam after the first settlement of Orleans 
County, before a stove of any kind was seen here. 

The pewter mugs and platters, and the wooden 
trenchers that graced the shelves and tables of our 
grand-mothers, among the early settlers of ISTew Eng- 
land, were not commonly seen in the outfit furnished 
the young couple commencing housekeeping among 
the first, on this part of the Holland Purchase. — 
Spoons of tinned iron, or pewter — home made ; and a 
slender stock of necessary crocker}-, including the 
veritable "blue edged phites," comjDrised the table 
furniture ; not however forgetting the black earthen 
tea pot, in which the tea beverage for the family was 
dul3' prepared, whether the ingredient to be steeped 
was hougliteii tea, or sage, or pennyroyal, or au}- 
other herb of the fields. These little black steepers, 
holding about a quart, were claimed b}' their owners 
to make a better article of tea, than any other materi- 
al ; and were used for every day, some time after 
block tin had become the fashionable article for a tea 
pot, which increasing wealth and pride had introduced. 
To this day, one of these interesting relics of antiquity 
is occasionally seen, with its spout probably broken 
off, adorning the upper back shelf of some kitchen 
pantry, in the great new house, which has succeeded 
the log one, carefully preserved, and annually dusted 
by the loving hands of tlie venerable dame, who used 



42 PIONEEE HISTORY 

it once ; or, of her grand-daughters who, inheriting the 
time-honored frugality of the family, in turning every 
thing to profitable account, make even the old teapot 
useful in storing a few garden seeds. 



CHAPTER VII. 




CLEARING LAND AND FIRST CROPS. 

Cutting down the Trees— Black Salts— Slashing— Clearing— Fallow- 
Planting and Sowing — Harvesting — and Cleaning Up — How Done. 

RLEANS County was originally covered with 
jvX ^ licavy growth of trees. These had to be re- 
moved to open the soil to cultivation. This 
was commonly done hy cutting the trees so as to leave 
a stump, two or three feet high. The felled timber 
lay upon the ground until it was dry, when fire was 
put in, and the whole field was burned over at once. 
The logs were then cut off at proper length, to be 
hauled together in heajjs by oxen, and burned ; and 
the ashes of the heaps collected and leached to make 
black salts and potash. The land being thus cleared 
of wood, the first crop was wheat, sown broadcast, 
and covered with earth by harrowing the ground with 
a triangular harrow, or drag. 

A field with the trees lying as they fell was called 
a "slashing," and sometimes a "clearing," or a "fal- 
low," as the work progressed. 

The wheat was sown in the fall, to be harvested the 
next season ; no spring wheat being raised. Some- 
times corn and potatoes were planted among the logs, 
the first season, by digging in the seed with a hoe. 

It was several years before the land could be plow- 
ed to much advantage, after the trees were felled, on 
account of the stumps, but as these were chiefly hard 
wood, they soon rotted out. 

For some years, the first settlers cut their wheat 



44 PIOiS^EEK HISTORY 

crop with a sickle ; tlireslied out the grain with flails, 
or trod it out Vv'itli horses and cattle, and freed it 
from chaff by shovelin^ii; in the wind, or fanning with 
a hand fan. The want of harn floors, and other con- 
venicnices, made all these operations exceedingly la- 
borious and slow, compai-ed with such woi'k now-a- 
days. 

Before barns, with threshing tioors in them, were 
made, some farmers made floors, or platforms of split 
logs, and laid them on the ground, without any roof 
over them. Besidf^ these, the}' stacked their grain 
and threshed it on these floors in fair weather, or trod 
it out with oxen or horses. 



CHAPTER VIII. 




HARDSHIPS AND PKIVATIONS. 

Want of BreadstutT— Scarcity of Mills — Difficulty of getting Grain 
Ground — Mill on a Stump — Fever and Ague — Quinine and Blue 
Pill — No Post Office — Keeping Cattle — Difficulty Keeping Fire — 
Instance of Fire Out — Want of Good Water — No Highways — Dis- 
couragement from Sickness — Social Amusements — Hospitality — 
Early Merchants — Their Stores and Goods — Domestic Manufac- 
tures — Post Offices and Mails. 



CARCI^rY of bretid and breadstiitts b(4br«^ tht> 
war, and even down to 1818, is to bt^ niun}>ev- 
ed among the liardsliips and privations wiiicli 
beset the settlers ; and evcMi when they could get a 
bushel of wheat, or corn, tlie difRcnltj in reducing 
the grain to fi(nir, or meal, was truly formidabl(\ — 
The nearest mill was lo to 30 miles away ; there was 
no road leading to it ; and probably no horse to draw, 
or carry the grist, if a road liad been opened. ]5ut 
meal must be had, the undaunted emigrant woidd 
hitch his oxen to his sled, o'r wagon, pile on a. bag foi' 
himself, and take as many bags for his neighbors, as 
tlie occasion required, and start for some mill. We 
will leave imagination to describe his Journey. After 
three or four days absence, it is announced in the set- 
tlement that Mr. A. has got back from the mill, and 
marvelously soon would each family l)e eating juid- 
ding, or have ac^ike. But, what if the family liad no 
neighbors ; and no horse or ox, to carry their grist. — 
Still the grist must go at once. Its owner shoulders a 
half a bushel, or a bushel, according to his strength, 
and carries it to the mill, be the distance what it may. 



46 PIONEER HISTORY 

threading liis way by marked trees, through the 
woods. Such journeys were not lightly to be thought 
of, and they were honestly performed. 

A sort of domestic mill, in which corn could be re- 
duced to meal, was made, and used, by some of the 
settlers, by making a hollow in the top of a hardwood 
stump for a mortar ; rigging a heavy pestle on a spring 
pole over the mortar ; and thus pounding the corn 
line enough to be cooked. 

But, if the new comers had bread enough and to 
spare, they all had to pay a penalty to Nature, in the 
acclimating process, which all went through almost 
without exception. Fever and ague attacked the pi- 
oneer, or his wife, or children, or all of them together, 
whenever an opening was made in the forest ; or the 
earth was turned up for the first time to the hot rays of 
the summer sun. 

Oh, the amount of quinine and blue pill, consumed 
in those days, by those who could get a doctor to pre- 
scribe in their case ; while those sick ones, who had 
no doctor, because there was none to be had, wore 
their ague out, and let it work itself off the natural 
way ; generally coming out about as well as those 
who doctored, and tried to "break" it, excepting that 
they took more time to do it. 

The first professional doctors who came in were 
most intensely allopathic in their practice ; and dealt 
out quinine and blue pill in most heroic doses to their 
patients ; infinitessimal prescriptions, and homeopath- 
ic practice, had not then been thought of. 

Another privation, if not a hardship, consisted in a 
lack of post offices, and mail facilities. Coming as 
most of the pioneers did from New England, which 
they, and their fathers regarded as a civilized country; 
and where they had always had post office accommor 
dations all they wantcnl, it M'as rather hard to be shut 
out com2)letely from the outer world. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 47 

The first settlers in Orleans County got their letters 
from Batavia, or Clarkson. They did not take news- 
papers by mail. 

The first winter was a hard time for the pioneer to 
keep his cattle, on account of the scarcity of fodder. 
It took several years to clear the trees, and get a crop 
of hay grown in their places ; and a year or two was 
required before cornstalks, or straw could be pro- 
duced. If nobody in the neighborhood had fodder to 
sell, the new settler must cut down trees for his cattle 
to browse, or feed upon the boughs, a work of im- 
mense labor, especially in severe cold weather, and 
deep snows ; and a sad time the poor cattle had, com- 
pelled to lie out exposed to all storms, and feeding on 
such diet. 

Especial care had to be taken to keep fire from go- 
ing out in their dwellings, it was so difficult to recov- 
er it again. An instance is given of such a loss in the 
house of widow Gilbert, in Claines, who returning 
from the funeral of her husband, found the fire was 
out, and no means at hand to kindle it. Fire had to 
be procured from the nearest neighbors, then several 
miles off. The tinder box and powder horn, were the 
usual resort in such cases, but these might be out as 
well as the fire. Friction matches had not then been 
invented. And it was an inconvenience at least, to be 
deprived of soft water, the bark roof of a log cabin be- 
ing a poor contrivance for collecting it, when there 
was no snow to melt. The hard water from the 
ground was prepared for M^ashing clothes by " cleans- 
ing," as they caUed it, b}^ putting in wood ashes 
enough to form a weak lye. 

The Holland Company commonly sold their lands 
for a small pajTiient down ; and gave a contract, ex- 
tending pajmients for the balance, from five to ten 
years ; \^ith interest annually after about two years. 

This seemed to be a good bargain to the settler at 



48 PIOXEEK HISTORY 

first ; for, although he was poor, ho felt hopeful and 
strong, and went into the woods to begin his clearing, 
sanguine in the belief that he could meet his payments 
as they fell due, from the produce of his land ; be- 
sides paying the necessary expenses of his living, and 
his improvements. But, after a year or two, a part 
of his family, are taken sick ; doctors and nurses 
must be paid ; stock, team, tools, furniture, and pro- 
visions, must be bought. He may have cleared a few 
acres, Iniilt a log cabin, and raised some crops, more 
than was needed for home consumption ; but the sur- 
plus he could not sell. The road to a market was im- 
passible for teams ; and, if the roads had been opened, 
it was hard work at best to pay for land by raising 
wheat among the stumps, at the price of thu'ty cents 
n, l)usliel. Is it surprising that under circumstances 
like these, some of the earlier settlers of this county, 
after toiling several years, and finding themselves 
constantly running behind hand, got discouraged, and 
wanted to sell out, and go away. And many would 
have sold their claims, and left the country, or gone 
any way, whether they sold or not, if the Land Com- 
pany had enforced their legal rights on their Articles 
as they fell due. But the Company were lenient. — 
They gave off interest due them, and sometimes prin- 
cipal, in cases of great hardship to the settler. Many 
times, when he went to the Land Office to say he 
could not make his payments, and must give it up ; 
the agents of the Company finding liim industrious and 
frugal, trying to do the best he could, would meet him 
with such words of kindness, generous encouragement 
and chec^r, that he would go back to his home with 
i'resh courage, to renew his batth^ with the musketos, 
the ague, and the bears ; and wait a little longer for 
tli(^ good time coming. But few were able to take 
deeds of their lands, and pay for them, until after the 
Erie Canal was navigable. They kept on clearing 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 49 

land, and enlarging their lields ; and between the 
years 1830 and 1836, good crops of Avlieat were raised, 
and sold at the canal, for about a dollar a bushel. — 
Then the clouds of gloom began to lift from the face 
of the country. Prosperity had verily come ; no more 
''hardships, privations and sufferings'" after that; and 
more deeds of land were taken from the Holland Com- 
pany, in this county, in those years, than were given 
in all others together. 

Notwithstanding so many and so great discourage- 
ments, surrounded the pioneers, they never yielded to 
the gloom of the present, or suffered their great hope 
in the future to die. They had their 'joj^s as well as 
griefs, running along their pathway together. Social 
amusements, conviviality, fun and good feeling, were 
intermingled with their sadder experiences. 

They \isited together, labored for and witli each oth- 
er. They exchanged work in chopping, logging, and 
in heavy toil on their lands, where several together 
could work at better advantage than alone. 

They were "" given to hosj)itality." They aided, as- 
sisted, and helped one another ; with a liberality and 
kindness, that seems remarkable^ in contrast with the 
selfishness of older society. 

If a family came in, who had not in advance built 
themselves a cabin for their residence, they had no 
difficulty in finding a stopping place vnth almost any 
settler, who had got a house, until a log house could 
be built. And the best of it was, all the men in the 
neighborhood assembled at a " bee," and built a log 
house gratis, for their neAv friends, if it was necessary. 

If a man fell sick in seed time, or harvest, and could 
not do his work, his neighbors would turn in and sow 
his seed, or gather his crop for him. If a family was 
out of provisions, everybody, who had a stock, shared 
with the needy ones. 

A happy feature of this primitive society was the 



50 ■ PIONEER IIISTOllY 

entke absence of caste, dividing the people into class- 
es, and maldng social distinctions. Everybody was 
considered just as good, and no better, than every- 
body else. All met and mingled on terms of social 
equality. 

At the dancing parties, quilting frolics, weddings 
and other gatherings of the people for social enjoy- 
ment, everybody in the neighborhood was invited, 
whether they wore "store clothes," or common home- 
S]Dun ; and they commonly all attended. 

People generally were acquainted with everbody 
near them. Old people are living, vvdio say for sever- 
al years they knew every famil}^ in town ; and used 
to visit with them, going often on foot miles through 
the woods, b}' marked trees, to meet together. 

As clearing away the forest, and doing the heavj' 
work of beginning settlements in the woods, constitu- 
ted the main l)usiness of the pioneers ; they thus 
learned to value ability to excel in whatever was use- 
ful in their calling. 

Hence, at their loggings, raisings, and other assem- 
blings for work, or play, friendly trials of strength or 
sldll, found favor. Contests in chopping, lifting, cut- 
ting wheat and other tests of muscle, were common ; 
and seldom did a number of young men meet on a 
festive occasion without forming a ring for -wTestling. 

The pioneers, at their first coming here, were gener- 
ally young. They were resolute, intelligent, deter- 
mined and persistent ; for no others would quit the 
comparative ease, safety and comfort of older socie- 
t}^, to encounter the certain liardshij)?, perils and dis- 
couragements of frontier settlement in the woods, in 
such a countr}^ as this was. The true grit of tlie emi- 
grant was proved by the fact that lie came here ; and 
such men were not to be driven back by hardships, 
want, sickness or misfortune. 

"While the hope and resolution of the settler could 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. ' 51 

not protect liim from sickness and calamity, tliey fill- 
ed liim with fortitude to endure them, gave him a 
keen relish to onjo}' whatever in his way might afford 
a pleasure. 

Looking at these j)ioneers from the standpoint of 
the present da}', an observer might well conclude they 
were as happy then, as their descendents are now, on 
the same ground. Many who began here in poverty 
and want and worked their way through every diffi- 
culty to wealtli and abundance, have often said in 
their old age, their happiest days in life were spent in 
their old log houses, away back among the stumps. 

EAELY MERCHANTS — THEIR STORES AND GOODS. 

Soon after the settlement of this county, asheries 
were built; the large quantities of wood ashes, produced 
in burning the log heaps in clearing land, were a 
source from which money could be made easier than 
from crops of grain raised. 

These ashes were leached in rude leaches ; the Ij^e 
obtained was boiled down to a semi-solid state, call- 
ed black salts ; and then sold to Mr. James Mather, 
or some owner of an ashery, who put the salts 
through the processes of making potash, or pearlash, 
a refined kind of potash, the nse of which is now super- 
ceded by saleratus. 

These products of ashes brought some money and 
were taken by the merchants in exchange for their 
goods. 

Before the canal was made, merchants' goods were 
brought in by water, b}'' ^Yay of Lake Ontario, or on 
wagons, from Albany. 

Robert Hunter and brothers, of Eagle Harbor, were 
teamsters who traveled to and from Albany with 
large teams of horses to wagons and brought in most 
of the goods used here for several years, before they 
came bv the canal. 



52 PIONEER HISTORY 

A wagon load would go a great way in stocking a 
store tlien. Tlie important and heavy article of wliisky 
was made sufficient for home consumption here. 

Merchants did not then as now confine their trade 
to a single line of goods, as hardware, drugs, gi'ocel*- 
ies, &c., but tfieir stock, in the common language of 
their advertisements, comprised "all the articles usu- 
ally called for at a country store ;" and that meant 
everj^thing the people wanted to buy at a store. The 
wants^ of the settlers wT.re few and simple in the line 
of sucli goods. They confined their purchases to ar- 
ticles of prime necessity, which they could not well 
do without, such as tools to work with, building ma- 
terials, &c., which did not grow ujDon their land ; an oc 
casional calico dress, and a feW kinds of utensils, 
such as they could not make at home. 

Tliese goods were generally bought on credit, the 
pay being promised to meet the wants of the merchant 
when he went to New York, a journey he undertook 
about twice a year. These debts were not all paid 
when due, and many of them were collected by legal 
process, and many of them were lost to their owners. 
The credit system was a bad one for both parties in 
many cases. People found it very difficult to pay 
their store debts before the canal was made ; for 
though they had a large and good farm, plenty of the 
finest wheat, and possi])ly a stock of cattle, hogs and 
liors(\s ; they had no money, and could not sell their 
stuff for money, as they could not get it to a market. 
Timber was plenty, and sawmills had been built 
about the time the canal became navigable ; and saw- 
ed lumber then ])aid store debts ; and wheat, pork, 
tiour and produce of all kinds, that could go to mar- 
ket on the canal, found a ready sale, at fair prices ; 
and thus means to pay debts would be obtained. 
domestic; manufactures. 
Most of tlie early settlers were New England Yan- 



OF OIILEANS COUNTY. 63 

kees, of that class, who. if they wanted a thing they 
had not got, they made it. AVith very few tools, and 
those of the simplest kinds, they made almost every 
thing required, that conld he produced from the ma- 
terials on hand. 

They brought in a few clothes when tliey came ; 
when these were worn out, the}^ supplied their wants 
with cloth made at home. The women made up the 
common articles of clothing for their families. If the 
man had a new coat, or other garment his wife did 
not feel competent to make, the cloth was taken to 
some one properly skilled, to be cut out, and a tailor- 
ess would come to his house, and make it up. These 
itinerant seamstresses, did most of the needlework re- 
quired by the family, and which they could not do 
themselves ; the modern classification of needle wo- 
men into milliners, mantau makers, dress makers, &c., 
did not then prevail. 

The people got their leather made by neighboring 
tanners, and from such stock, a traveling shoemaker 
visited the houses of his customers, and made and 
mended their shoes and boots. The boys and girls, 
and some of the older folks, commonly went barefoot 
in the summer, and often in the winter likewise. 

POST OFFICES AK^D MAILS. 

Mr. Merwin S. Hawley of Buffalo, son of Judge 
Elijah Hawley, who resided in Ridgeway in his boy- 
hood, and speaks from his recollection says : 

"In 1815, the only mail to and tlu-ough Ridgeway, 
was carried on horseback twice a week, between Can- 
andaigua and Lewiston. Oct. 22, 1816, a post office 
was established at Ridgeway Corners, named "Oak 
Orchard," Elijah Hawley, postmaster. 

The mail was now carried in two horse carriages, 
three times a week each way ; stopping over night at 
Huff's tavern in East Gaines. 



64 PIOIfEER HISTORY 

Aug. 24, 1817, a post office was established at Oak 
Orchard Creek, on the Ridge, which i:)lace was then 
growing to be a smart village, and James Brown was 
appointed postmaster there. 

To make the names of the offices conform to the 
name of the places where they were located, the new 
post office was called " Oak Orchard," and the name 
of the other was changed to "Eidgeway, " Mr. Haw- 
ley holding the office of postmaster there until his 
death. During this year, (1817,) a daily line of mail 
stages, each way, between Rochester and Lewiston, 
on the Ridge Road, was commenced. 

A post office was established at Gaines, July 1, 
1816, Wm. J. Babbitt postmaster. 

The next post office in Orleans County was located 
at Shelby Center, and got its mail from Ridgeway. 

Post offices were located in other parts of the coun- 
ty from time to time, as tlie wants of increasing po2:)U- 
lation required. 



CHAPTER IX. 



THE KRIE CANAL. 

When Btgun — Effect — Rise in Price ot Everything— Progress of Im- 
provement — Carriages on Springs. 

,lfp HE work in di2:2:inf]^ the Erie Canal Vv-as besain 
'^^1 on the middle section near Utica, on the 4tli of 
"^fP July, 1817. In 1823, the eastern part of the 
canal was so far completed, that in I^ovember l)oats 
from Rochester reached Albanj^, at the same time 
with boats from Lake Champlain, on the Champlain 
Canal. And in Nov., 1825, a fleet of boats from Buf- 
falo passed the entire length of the Erie Canal, carry- 
ing passengers to the Grand Canal Celebration at IN'ew 
York. 

To no part of the State of New York has tlie Erie 
Canal proved of more benefit than to Orleans County. 

Altliough the soil was fertile and productive, and 
yielded abundant crops to reward the toil of the 
farmer, yet its inland location and great difficulty of 
transporting produce to market, rendered it of little 
value at home. Settlers who had located here, in 
many instances, had become discouraged. Others, 
who desired to emigrate to the Genesee country, were 
kept back by the gloomy accounts they got of life in 
the wilderness, with little prospect of easy communi- 
cation with the old Eastern States to cheer the hope. 

As soon as the Canal became navigable, Ilolley, 
Albion, Knowlesville and Medina, villages on its 
banks, were built up. Actual settlers took up all 
the unoccupied lands, and cleared them uj). No 



56 PIONEEll HISTORY 

speculators came hi^re and bouglit np large tracts, 
and left them wild, to rise on the market. The lum- 
ber of the country found a read}^ market and floated 
a\Ya3'. \Vheat was wortli four times as mucli as the 
price for which it had been previously selling. Pros- 
perity came in on every hand ; the mud dried up, and 
the musketoes, and the ague, and the fever, and the 
bears, left the country. Farmers paid for their 
lands, surrendered their articles, and took deeds from 
the Company. Good barns and framed houses, and 
houses of brick, and stone began to be built, as the 
common dwellings of the inhabitants, "The good 
time coming,'" which the first settlers could not see, 
but waited for, with a faint and dreamy but persistent 
hope, had come indeed. The price of lands rose rap- 
idly, making many wealthy, who happened to locate 
farms in desirable places, from the rise in value of 
their lands. From tliis time forward, rich men, from 
tlie Eastern States, and older settlements, began to 
come in and buy out tlie farms and improvements of 
those who had begun in the woods and now found 
themselves, like Cooper's Leather Stocking, "lost in 
the clearings," and wished to move on to the borders 
of civilization, where the hunting and fishing was bet- 
ter and where the ruder institutions, manners and 
Gustoms of frontier life, to which they had become at- 
attaehed, would be better enjoyed among congenial 
spirits. 

The clearing away of shade trees, thus drying up 
the mud and the substantial bridges over streams 
and leveled and graveled highways, which the num- 
bers and abundant means of the people, now enabled 
them to establish, occasioned a demand for other car- 
riages for the conveyance of these now independent 
farmers and their families. 

Time was when they went to mill and to meeting, 
to the social visit, or the quilting frolic, happy on au 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 57 

OX sled. A little progress, and pride and ambition 
substituted horses and lumber wagons as the common 
vehicles of travel, in place of the oxen and sleds. 
A buggy was no more known or used than a balloon 
in those wagon days, and when the canal was first 
made navigable, there was not probably a one-horse 
buggy in Orleans County. Indeed several years after 
boats began trips on the canal, Messrs. R. S. & L. 
Burrows, then merchants in Albion, brought on six 
or eight one-horse wagons, with wooden springs under 
tlie seats, manufactured in Connecticut, and put them 
on sale ; and great was the wonder of the people, and 
the comment they made ujDon the amazing luxury 
and comfort and ease in riding in tliese little rattling, 
jolting machines. 



CHAPTER X. 



PUBLIC HIGHWAYS. 

The Ilid^c lioad — When Laid Out — Appropriation — Ualt Orchard 
Road — Opened by ITolland Company — Road from Shelby to Oak 
Orchard in Barre — Salt Works Roads — State Road along Canal — 
Jud.£2:e Porter's Account of first Tracing the Ridge Road. 



fclr LTHOUGII the Ridge Road had been travel- 
~^^b ("d ^y the Indians from time immeniorial, and 
"!i^Bi4 a,fter the settlement of tlie country by white 
men, improvements had been made by cutting out 
trees, and making the crossings at the streams of 
water more jiassable, yet many large trees still ob- 
structed the carriage way, and bridges were wanted 
in many places. In April, 1814, the Legislature of 
the State appropriated 85,000, and appointed com- 
missioners to apply said sum to the improvements of 
such parts of said road between Rochester and Lewis- 
ton, as said commissioners should think proper, for 
tlie public benefit. This approj^riation, together v.itli 
some labor by the few inhabitants theii living on this 
route, made the Ridge road a tolerably fair wagon 
road. 

The Ridge road, so called, was regularly laid out 
and established by Philetus Swift and Caleb Hopkins, 
under an Act of the Legislature passed Feb. 10, 1815. 
An act providing for a re-survey of the Ridge Road, 
from Rochestc^r to Lewiston, was j^assed March 24, 
18r)2, John LeV alley, Grosvenor Daniels and William 
J. Babbitt were appointed commissioners to superin- 
t(^nd the work through Orleans County. Darius W. 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY, 59 

Cole, of Medina, was tlie Surveyor, and the road was 
re-surveyed and estal^lislied six rods wide. Although 
the Ridge road had been opened and traveled many 
years, no survey and record of it had been made be- 
fore Swift & Hopkins' survey. 

Mr. Lewis AV. Gates, formerly of Gaines, relates 
that about the year 1843, Judge Augustus Porter, 
then of Niagara Falls, gave him the following account 
of the Eidge lload. 

He, Judge Porter, and others, were interested in 
surveying and locating a large ti'act of land west of 
Genesee River, since known as The Triangle. The 
Indians told them there was a gravelly ridge extend- 
ing from the Genesee to Niagara River. Porter and 
his company employed a surveyor named Eli Gran- 
ger, to go with a few men and trace a road through 
on this Ridge, from river to river, and they traced the 
Ridge Road through near its present location, in 1798. 

The Oak Orchard Road was the first highway cross- 
ing Orleans County north and south, that was open- 
ed and w^orked. Supposing, as everybody then did, 
that the trade from this part of the country must go 
by the lake, and that Oak Orchard Harbor would be 
its place of embarkation, the Holland Company and 
the settlers, at an early day opened this road for 
teams, made log causeways through wet places and 
bridged the streams. It was a rough road, but teams 
could get through with light loads, as early as before 
the war. 

Andrew A. Ellicott built a mill on the Oak Orchard 
Creek, at Shelby Center, about the year 1813. To ac- 
commodate travel to this mill and promote the sale 
of land, the Holland Company cut out a highway 
leading from the Oak Orchard road near the County 
Poor House, to Shelby Center. This highway follow- 
ed the ridge of highest land, crooking about on j)laces 
where it could be easiest constructed. It is still used 



60 PIONEER HISTORY 

as a 23ublic highway, and is traveled on or near tlie 
line originally followed. This was the first road cut 
out for teams, east and west, south of the ridge. As 
the timber which grew in this County was generally 
hard wood and decayed soon, lew fallen trees, or logs 
lay in the woods to obstruct teams passing anywhere 
in the forest, where standing timber or swamps did 
not prevent ; and the course of travel was directed by 
marked ti'ees, until enough inhabitants had come in 
to lay out and work roads. 

Before the forest was cleared from this county, 
much of the land was wet, and in fitting a highway 
for travel, a large amount of log causcnvay had to be 
laid, in places now dry hard land. Where the Oak 
Orchard Road crosses the canal in Albion, and for 
many rods north and south of the canal, such a cause- 
way w^as laid. Indeed, many farms, which in a wild 
state, were not taken by settlers at first, because tlie}^ 
were so low and wet, now, on draining the water oft', 
and cutting away the trees, are the best farming land 
in the neighborhood. 

The Ridge Road was laid out six rods wide, and 
the Oak Orchard Road four rods Avide. In selling- 
lands bordering on the Ridge Road, or the OakOrch 
ard Road, the Holland Company bounded the tract 
they sold by the outer lines of tlie road ; thus giving 
the lands the roads covered to the public. In selling 
lands on all other roads, they deeded to the center of 
the highway. When no natural obstruction prevent- 
ed, highways were laid out on the line of lots accord- 
ing to tlie Company's surve}', and then the owners on 
each side gave each the half of the road. 

Works were put up by the Holland Company for 
the manufacture of salt, at the salt springs north of 
Medina, as early as 1805, and opened for use by the 
settlers. To facilitate access to these works, the Com- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 61 

pany cut out two roads, about the same time, one 
leading south from the works, to the " Old Buffalo 
Road ;" the other south-easterly, to the Oak Orchard 
Road. These highways were known as the Salt 
Works Road. When the manufacture of salt there 
was discontinued, the Salt Works Road was dicontin- 
ued. 

Frequently, when a new road became a necessity, 
all the settlers would turn out with their teams, and 
cut out the trees, and clear them from the roadway, 
and build such -sluiceways as were necessary and so 
make a highway passable, to be worked up when the 
roots liad rotted out and the people of the district 
had got able to do so. 

About the year 1824, the peoph^ along the Ridge 
Iload turned out on the 4th day of July and celebra- 
ted the day, by cutting out a highway from the Ridge 
north to Waterport which is now the road leading 
from Eagle Harbor to Waterport. 

An Act of the Legislature was jjassed April 2, 1827, 
appointing John P. Patterson, Almon II. Millerdand 
Otis Turner, commissioners to locate and lay out a 
public highway, four rods wide, leading from Roch- 
ester to Lockport, ' ' on, or near the banks of the Erie 
Canal." A highway was located and laid by said 
commissioners, Jesse P. Haines, of Lockport, being 
th<? surveyor, pursuant to said Act. For most of the 
way said liighway was laid on the south side of the 
Canal. The records of said survey and liighway 
were tiled in the County Clerk's offices, and in the 
several towns through which it passed, and the road 
established Oct. 1, 1827. The law required the com-^ 
missioners of highways in the several towns, to open 
the road to travel ; and it was done by them along 
the most of the line where the public convenience re- 
quired it. Considerable of this road was never open- 



62 PIONEEK HISTORY 

ed, and the francliise was sufifered to be lost to tlie 
public by non-iiser. 

This was known as the State Road. Tlirougli the 
villai^e of Albion, it is called State Street. 



CHAPTER XL 



IJAILROADS IN ORLEANS COUNTY. 

Medina and Darien — Medina and Lake Ontario — Roclieslei-, Loclcport 
and Niagara Fallf?. 




5, 1834, an Act of tlie Legislature was 
p passed incorporating the Medina and Darien 
Railroad Company, to construct a Railroad ; 
and tlie road was built from Medina to Akron, in Erie 
County, twelve or fourteen miles, sind fitted for cars, 
to be drawn hy horses. It went into operation about 
183G. After a short trial, it was found to be an un- 
profitable investment, the track was taken up, and 
the road discontinued. 

This was the first Railroad incorporated to l^e made 
in this county. 

In 1836, the Medina and Ontario Railroad Company 
was incorporated by the Legislature, to construct a 
Railroad between Medina and Lake Ontario, at tlie 
mouth of Oak Orchard Creek. ISTothing further was 
ever done towards opening this road. 

The Rochester, Lockx)ort and IS'iagara Falls Rail- 
road Co. was organized December 10, 1850. It passes 
through the county near the Erie Canal on the south 
side. This road has since been consolidated in the 
ISTew York Central Railroad, b}^ which name it is 
now known, its original corporate name being drop- 
ped. 

The construction of this Railroad has piov^^d of im- 
mense benefit to Orleans County. 



CHAPTER XIT. 




STATE Oy EDUCATION. 

School Houses — Description — Gaines Acadcnij' — Oilier Academies and 
Schools. 



ETTLERS ou the Holland Pnrcliaso reverenced 
the institutions existing in New England, from 
which the majoritj^ of them came, and endeav- 
ored to engraft them upon their social organization in 
their new homes in the woods. They believed tlie 
safety and peniianence of the free government of their 
country was found in the intelligence of the people ; 
and among their first labors, after j^roviding shelter 
and food for their children, was the building of school 
liouses and furnishing instruction tlier(\ Before 
enough families had located in a neighborhood to 
erect even a log school house and supply it with 
scholars, it was not uncommon for a school to be 
opened in some log cabin, where a family resided. — 
All the children in the neighborhood vnme in, or were 
brought upon the backs of their fathers through the 
pathless forest, when the weather Avas bad, and at- 
tended these schools. School houses were built, and 
well patronized, before school districts wen? organized, 
and parents did the best they (;ould to give their 
children the elements of a common education, at least. 
Orleans County was not behind any part of the 
country in its zeal for schools. The earlier school 
houses were made of logs, much after tlu^ same pat- 
tern as the dwelling places of the people, such struc- 



OF OKLKATSS COUNTY. 65 

tiires as would now hv considered extremely uiicom- 
fortable, inconvenient and ill adapted to the pui])0}>e 
lor wliicli they were made. 

They were badly lighted, badly ventilated, small, 
cold, cheerless and dismal i^lact^s. Every internal ar- 
rangement was iincomfortable compared with schocjl 
houses now. But nobody complained. 

After a few years this state of tilings imjn-oved. At' 
population increased, and wealth began to accumu- 
late, better accommodations w(»re procured. 

The peoj)le of the town of Gaines, living along their 
beautiful natural Ridge Road, believed trade and 
business for the county must center there ; and before 
the county buildings were located at Albion, they be- 
gan to devise projects for Jbuilding up a village there, 
which should insure to them tlu^ full benetit of the lo- 
(;ation. They had several stores, and mechanic shops. 
They established a printing press, and published tlie 
tirst newspaper in the (?ounty, and prc^wsed to found 
an Academy. The location of the Court House at A! 
bion was to them a sad disappointment, they did not 
despair, however, but established their ^Vcademy, 
which was incorporated in the j^ear 1827. This was 
the first incorporated lit^'rary institution in Orleans 
County. A brick building, three stories high, was 
erected by the joint efforts of the school distj-ict, and 
the friends of the Academy and for some years it was 
occupied by both schools. The Academy was well 
patronized, while it was without a rival, but when 
Academies were erected in otlun- towns in the neigli- 
borhood, Gaines Academy began to langrnsh, and fi- 
nally ceased to exist as a school. The building was 
fitted up as a dwelling liouse, and as such still re- 
mains. Academies were established at Albion in 
3837, at Millville in 1840, at Yates in 1842, at Medina 
in 1849, at HoUey in 1850. 'llie Phipps Union Semi- 
nary was established at Albion aboit 1838, and i]\- 



68 PIONKEU HISTORY 

corporated by tlie Kcgeiitrt of the Ihiiversitj in 1840. 
This Seminary is a boarding and day school for the 
instr action of girls only. Its course of study includes 
all the solid and ornamental branches of education 
usually taught in the l)est schools for females in this 
<;ountry. It is one of the oldest institutions of the 
itdnd in this 2)art of the State, and has sustained a 
high reputation. 



CHAPTER XIII. 




STATE OP llELIGION. 

Religious Feeling among the People — JMinisters and Missionaries — 

Meeting House in Gaines — First in County — Building. 

^ • 

ELIGION was not forgotten by the first set- 
tlers of Orleans County, and amid all their 
hardships and difRculties, they never ondtted 
attending to the public worship of God. For some 
years the}^ had no church organizations, or settled 
ministers of the gospel, or houses built expressly for 
places of public worship. They had religious meet- 
ings however in their log cabins, sometimes conduct- 
ed by a preacher, sometimes with none. As soon as 
school houses were biiilt, they held their meetings in 
them. Though many of the settlers were members of 
Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian, or other denomina- 
tions, in the old States, from which they came, here 
they kept up no denominational distinction. If it 
was announced that a religious meeting was to be held 
in some place, everybody for miles around attended 
it, never stopj)ing to inquire to what denomination 
the preacher belonged. Many old people remember 
with deep emotion some of those solemn seasons of 
prayer and praise, enjoyed b}' them in company with 
all those who loved God and his worship, in their 
neighborhood, in some little log shanty in the woods. 
As the first settlement of the county began on the 
lake shore in Carlton, and gradually extended along 
the Ridge Road, so religious meetings were held first 
in Carlton. 



68 PIONEEli HISTORY 

About the year 1809, Rev. Mr. Steele, a Methodist 
I)reacher. came over from Canada and visited as a 
missionary those settlers, who had come into Carlton, 
and preached to them whenever he could get a con- 
gregation together. He is said to have been the first 
preaclier of any denomination. He was soon follow- 
ed by Elders Irons, Butcher, and Carpenter, Baptists; 
and Puffer, Hall, Gregory, and others, Methodists. 

Before 1820, a Baptist church was formed in Gaines, 
a Congregational church in Barre, another in Ridge- 
wav'', and from that time forward, tlie people united 
in such church organizations as were agreeable to 
their views of religious truth and duty, instead of 
those common meetings of all, which prevailed at an 
earlier day. 

In the year 1824, a company of citizens of Gaines, 
viz: Oliver Booth, 2d, Elisha Nichols. Elijah D. 
Nichols, James Mather, YanRensselaer Hawkins, 
Eli jail Blount, Jonathan Blount, Jr. , Zelotes Sheldon, 
John J. Walbridge, Romeyn Ostrander and Asahel 
Lee, united together and built the meeting house now 
standing in the west part of the village, ' ' for the ben- 
elit of the Congregational and Baptist Societies in the 
town of Gaines, each society to use the same for one- 
lialf of the time alternatel}'. "When not occupied b}^ 
said societies, to be free for public worship for any 
other religious society." The proprietors sold the 
slips in the house, and gave the purchase money, af- 
ter paying for building the liouse, to aid in building 
Gaines Academy. 

This was the first church edifice erected in Orleans 
County. For several years it was occupied according 
to the intent of the founders. It has now been trans- 
ferred to a Methodist society. 



CHAPTER XIV. 




BURYING GKOUNDS. 

Mount Albion Cemeter}- — Boxwood Cemetery— Hillside Cemetery. 

URYING places for the dead were established 
in convenient localities, in the early settlement 
of Orleans County. One of the oldest of these 
is at the village of Gaines, on the Ridge Road. Mr. 
Oliver Booth, who owned the land, gave half an acre, 
on condition that the neighboring inhabitants would 
clear off the tre(^s with whi(.'h it was covered, which 
they did. 

Under the statute in such case made, many of these 
rural old burying places have been put under the care 
of Cemetery Associations, dul}^ incorporated under 
the general law. Others have been vested in the 
towns in which tlu^y are situated, under an old law, 
which provided that burying grounds, which bt^fore 
then had been used a certain length of time by the 
public, should be so vested. 

In the vicinity of the large villages however, more 
extensive grounds have been devoted as burial places. 
The most considerable of these is "Mount Albion 
Cemeteey," situate two miles south-east from the vil- 
lage of Albion. This burying place, including about 
twenty-live acres, was purchased by the village of Al- 
bion, in May, 1843, for $1,000. It was then an un- 
broken forest. The natural advantages of this Ceme- 
tery, for the purpose designed, can scarcely be equal- 



70 PIONEEE niSTOKY 

ed by any similar gronncls in the country. It was 
dedicated Sept. 7, 1848. 

Before Mount Albion was purcliased, a burying 
ir round was used on the south side of the canal, east 
of the creek, in Albion. The bodies have all been re- 
moved from that ground, and burying there discon- 
tiimed. 

From the iirst, and until 1862, Mount Albion Cem- 
<^tery was under the care of the Trustees of the village. 
By an Act passed March 26, 1862, the control of the 
Cemetery was vested in three commissioners, to be ap- 
pointed by the village Trustees. Dr. Lemuel C. Paine, 
Lorenzo Burrows and Henry J. Sickels, were appoint- 
ed such commissioners, and they have been ever since 
continued in office. Lots in this Cemetery are sold to 
whoever will buy, the purchasers not being conlined 
to inhabitants of the village of Albion, and owners of 
lots reside in every town in the county. 

The first persons dying in Medina , were buried 
wherever their friends could lind a place ; but in the 
fall of 1830, Mr. David E. Evans, by his agent Mr. 
Gwynn, gave an acre of land for a burying ground, on 
the east side of Gwynn Street, south from the railroad 
depot, on which the Iirst corpse buried was the wife of 
Edmund Fuller, in 1830. 

These grounds ha ve been used for burials ever since. 
In 1860, Mr. John Parsons interested himself in get- 
ting the fences around these grounds repaired, with 
(M)ntributions furnished him for the purpose ; and in 
order suitabh^ to mark the spot, by some fitting mt;m- 
orial, which at small expense woidd be likely to stand 
many years ; he procured and planted, as near as 
might be, in the center of the grounds, a fir tree, un- 
der the center of which, in a glass jar, inclosed in lead, 
he deposited various articles, as mementos of the times 
and people of ^ledina at ]) resent. This tree is now 
growing vigorously. 



OF OELEANS COUNTY. 71 

"Boxwood Cemeteky"' lies u little iiortli of Medi- 
na, on the east side of the giavel road leading to the 
Ridge, and contains about six acres, and is owned by 
the village of Medina. Messrs. S. M. Bnrronghs, 
Geo. IN'orthrop, Caleb Hill and others, bonght this 
gronnd while a forest, of Mr. Gwynnv for a Cemete'ry, 
in 1848. They sold it to the vfllage for $600, and 
it was laid out in lots, and formally opened for 
burial jDurposes, in 1850. DaA'id Card was the first 
person buried here, in 1849. 

Many bodies of the dead buried in the old ground 
in Medina, have been removed to Boxwood Cemetery, 
and this is now the principal bur}'ing place for the 
village and vicinity. 

"Hillside Cemetery" is the name of a burying 
place belonging to "The HoUey (cemetery Associa- 
tion," which was organized I)ec. 11, 1800. In Jan . 
1807. the association }uirchased about seven and three- 
fourths acres of land, lying about half a mile south of 
the business part of Holley village, and south of the 
corporation limits, at a cost of si. 100. A large 
sum has since then been expended by the Association 
ill improving these grounds, gi-ading th(^ street, and 
ornamenting and fitting up the premises. 

A large part of tins burying j)lace has been laid out 
in lots, carefully numberecl, mapped and the map filed 
in the County Clerk's office. These lots are sold by 
the Trustees and deeded to purchasers. 

August 17, 1807, this Cemetery Avas formally dedi- 
catt^d by appropriate religious ceremonies. 

The atfairs of the Association are managed hy nine 
Trustees, who serve in classes, tliree years. Trustees 
now in office, (1871,) are John Beny, Sargent Ensign, 
Xelson Hat^h. James Gibson, Samuel Spear, Humph- 
rey Ruggles, Simon Harwood, Ely H. Cook and Or- 
a.nge A. Eddy. John Berry, President, Orange A. 
pAldy, Secretai'v. 



72 riONKKU HISTORY 

Shade trees have been set around the grounds and 
many trees and ornamental shrubs i^hmted. 

The soil is well adapted to the purpose desigiled. — 
The location is ])]easant and commodious to the vil- 
lage of HoUey and surrounding country and the 
good taste and lilierality displayed by the people of 
Holley and vicinity in founding and fostering this 
Cemeter}^ is creditable to tlieii- public spirit, refined 
feelings and proper regard for tluAr best interests. 



CHAPTER XV 




THE TOWN OF BARKK. 

First settled aloug Oak Orchard Road — Laud Given by tlic Holland 
Company to Congregational Society — Congregational Church — Pres- 
byterian Church in Albion — First Tavern — First Store — First Law- 
yer — First Doctor — First Deed of Land to Settler— Deeds of Land in 
Albion — First House in Albion— Death of Mrs. McCallister — First 
Warehouse — First Saw Mill — First Grist Mill — Trade in Lumber — 
First Ball— First Town fleeting— Fourth of July, 1831— First Wed- 
ding in Albion — Story — Biographies of Early Settlers. 



HIS town, so named hy Judge Jolm Lee, in 
honor of Barre, Mass., liis native town, was 
set olf fi'oni Gaines, by Act of the Legishiture, 
Marcli 6, 1818. At the time of the first settlement of 
this town, tlie main road, by whicli people traveled to 
and from the old States, was the Ridge road. The 
Ridge was always dry and comfortable for travel 
when the streams, which cross it, could be forded, be- 
foi'e tlie bridges were made ; but on leaving the Ridge 
north or south, when the ground was not frozen, the 
roads were terribly muddy, long tracts of low land 
requiring to be covered with logs laid transversely 
side by side for a carriage track, called " corduroy.'''' 
As this was a woi'k of considerable labor, the settlers 
had to wallow through the mud as best they could, 
until they were able to build their highways. 

There were no sawmills, and even if there had been 
mills, upon such roads lumber could not be moved to 
market, and there was no market for lumber south of 
the Ridge, before the canal was dug. 

The Indians liad a trail, or Indian road, from tlieir 



74 PIONEEK HISTORY 

settlements in .Livingston connty, on the Genesee riv- 
er, to can Indian village in Niagara county ; and an- 
other trail from the month of Oak Orchard Creek, to 
intersect the first mentioned trail, which was nsed by 
white men and known as the Oak Orchard Road, 
passing throngh Barre, from north to south. On this 
trail or road, the travel to Batavia was conducted. — • 
It was not passable for carriages, as the Indians liad 
none, and the settlers had to clear tlie brush and re- 
move tiic fallen trees, which obstnicted, before they 
could get their teams through. This was done by the 
Holland Company at an early day. 

Several families came into Barre before the war of 
1812, but that event nearly suspended emigration 
while it lasted. 

Salt was made on the Oak Orchard Creek north of 
Medina, before the canal was made ; and to accom- 
modate the people and benefit themselves, the Holland 
Company 02:)en^d a road fi-om the Salt Works, in a 
south-easterly direction, to intersect tli(^ Oak Orchard 
Road, about two miles south of Albion. This was 
known as the " Salt Works Road" and was discon- 
tinued many years ago. 

Among the inducements offered by the Land Com- 
pany to settlers on their lands, was an offer of a tract 
of land, to the first religious society that should be 
organized in each town on their Purchase. In pursu- 
ance of tliis custom, the Holland Company deeded, 
March 8, 1822, to the Trustees of "The First Congre- 
gational Society in the town of Barre,- ' one hundred 
acres of land, lying on the north part of lot ninet(H^n, 
town fifteen, range two ; being part of the farm after- 
Avards cleared and owned by Azariah Loveland. — 
The deed convej's this land to said " Trustees and 
their successors in office, for the benefit of the said 
Congregational ordei-, and thost^ who preach th(^ doc- 
trines c()ntain(Kl in the Assembly's Catechism, and no 



OF (tRLEATsS COUNTY. 75 

other/' So careful were our fathers in.Barre, to pro- 
vide for keeping their religious faitli pure, and free 
from heresy, as they regarded it, Tliat religious so- 
ciety was the first organized in Barre, and still exists, 
now located at Barre Center, Its lirst hoard of Trus- 
tees was Orange Starr, Cyril Wilson, Ithamar Hib- 
bard,John Bradner, Caleb C.Thurston and Oliver Ben- 
ton, The church connected with this society, was or- 
ganized Dec. 5, 1817. 

'"The First Presbyterian Society of Albion"" was 
incorporated March 20, 1826, and was the second re- 
ligious society incorporated in the town of Barre, and 
the lirst in the village of Albion. Its first Trustees 
were Harvey Goodrich, Joseph Hart, Ebenezer Rogers, 
William White, Hiram Sickels, and Milton W. Hop- 
kins. Their lirst house of worship, the same now oc- 
cupied by the Episcopalians, was erected in 1830.— 
The whole number of communicants, in this church 
at its organization, was sixteen. Rev.Wm. Johnson, 
their first pastor, commenced his labors here in 1824. 

The first tavern in Barre was kept by Al)ram Mat- 
tison, in 1815, on the west side of the Oak Orchard 
Koad, about two miles south of Albion, The first 

tavern in Albion was kept by Churchill, on the 

south corner of Main and Canal Streets. The first 
school was taught by Mrs. Silas Benton, in the south 
part of what is now the village of All)i()n, 

The first store, for the sale of dry goods and grocer- 
ies, is believed to have been kept b}^ E, & A. Mix, at 
Porter's Corners, Mr. Abiathar Mix removed to that 
place, and took an Article for a tract of land, in 1817. 
Being a mason by trade, and having no mason Avork 
to do, he went into the business of making j^otash, 
and selling goods, his brother, Ebenezer Mix, of Ba- 
tavia, furnishing a part of the capital. 

About the year 1819, a store was opened by Orris 



70 PIONEER IIISTOKY 

H. Gardner, near Benton's Corners, on the Oak Orch- 
ard Road. 

The Oak Orchard Road was the first jniblic liigh- 
way hiid out in this town. About 1803, the Holland 
Comjiany caused a survey to be made of this road 
from '*Tlie Five Corners,'' in Gaines, about a mile 
north of Albion, to the forks of the road south of Bar- 
re Center. This survey was due north and soutli, to 
straigliten the old trail. The highway was not open- 
ed and worked precisely as laid. 

Many of the earliest locations of land by settlers 
were made along this road, and it was these locations, 
this highway and the Erie Canal, wliich. established 
the village of Albion. 

The first regular lawyer in this town was Theophi- 
lus Capen, who came here about the time work on 
the Canal was begun, and kept an office for a while 
in Albion. William J. Moody came to Albion to 
practice law, a short time before the county of Orleans 
was organized, he was followed by Alexis Ward, 
Henry R. Curtis, A. Plyde Cole. Geo. W. Fleming 
and several others. 

Dr. Orson Nichoson was tlie first physician. Ho 
settled in Barre in 1819. 

The lirst deed of land lying in the town of Barre, 
from the Holland Land Company, was given to Jacob 
Young, dated June 7, 1813, and conveyed one hun- 
dred aci-es of lot thirty -three, town fifteen, rang(^ one. 
This land is now owned by JStepheu N. Whitney, and 
lies about a niiU^ and a half south from Albion, on 
the east sid(^ of the Oak Orchard Road. 

William Bradner took a deed from the Company, 
of the land in Albion, on the east side of Main Street, 
from Bailey Stnn't, to the north bounds of Barre, 
December 3, 1811), containing two hundred and sixty- 
six acres. Roswell BuiTows took a like deed of (me 
liundred and sixty-(;ne acres, lying on the west side 



OF ()RI>EANS COUNTY. , 77 

of Main Street, bounded north by the town line of 
Gaines, October 11, 1825. This tract, so deeded to 
BuiTows, was taken up by Article from the Company 
\)y Jesse Bumpus, in Au^^nst, 1815, and afterwards 
sold by him to Mr. Burrows. The land so deeded to 
AYilliam Bradner, was taken by Article from the Land 
Company, by William McCollister, about the 3=^ear 
1811. Mr. McCollister made the tirst clearing in the 
village of Albion, where the Court House now stands, 
The lirst dwelling house erected in Albion was a log- 
cabin, built by McCollister, near where Phipps Union 
Seminary now stands. In that he lived, and there his 
wife died, about the year 1812 ; being the lirst white 
woman who died in the town of Barre. No cleigy- 
man was then in town to conduct religious services 
on the occasion and ik) boards could be obtained to 
make her coflin. Her sorrowing husband, assisted by 
two or three men, split and hewed some rough planks 
from trees, pinned them togeth(:^r with wooden j^ins, 
to make a box, in which the corpse was placed, and 
buried, this little company, present at this lirst funer- 
al, comprised abnost the entire population of the 
town. 

The lirst warehouse in town was built hy Nehemiali 
Ingersoll, on the canal, about tifteeii rods east of Main 
Street, in Albion. ' 

The lirst saw-mill in town was built by Dr. Wm. 
White, on the creek south-east of Albion, about eighty 
rods south of the railroad, in the year 181 G. William 
Bradner built a small grist-mill on this creek, farther 
down, in 1819. 

For several years after the Erie Canal was lirst 
opened, a brisk trade in white-wood lumber was car- 
ried on, from timber cut convenient to draw to the ca- 
nal. Good wliitewood boards sold on the bank of the 
canal for $5 per thousand feet, and other lumber at 
corresponding prices. Wliitewood was a connnon 



78 pi()np:er iiistohy 

tree in this town. The lumber was carried to Albany. 
After buildings began to be constructed by carpenters 
and joiners, the floors and finishing were princij)ally 
done with whitewood. 

The first regular hall in Barre was at Mattison's 
tavern, July 4, 1819. To fit the house for the party, 
they took up the split basswood floor and laid down 
boards in the bar-room to dance on. 

The first tow^n meetings, after this town was organ- 
ized, were held at Mattison' s tavern, the next after- 
wards at Benton's tavern. 

The 4th of July, 1821, was ceh^brated by the peo- 
ple of Barre in a grove near where " the round school 
house" was afterwards built, on Lee Street. A com- 
mittee was appointed, who procured the necessary 
gunpowder, liquor and sugar, at Batavia. Provisions 
for the tables w^ere furnished by voluntary contribu- 
tion, and a dinner gotten up which was partaken of 
by everybody in pic-nic style. Dr. Orson Nichoson 
delivered an oration and the customary patriotic 
toasts were drank, to the sound of discharges of mus- 
ketry, as they had no cannon. In the evening, the 
remains from the tables and the bottles, were taken 
to a neighboring log cabin, and there disposed of by 
all who chose to take jDart ; and music and dancing, 
and festivity, were kept up till next morning, by a 
company of old and young. This was the first public 
celebration of our National Independence in Barre. 

Among the first settlers in Barre were William Mc- 
CoUister, Lansing Bailey, Joseph Hart, Joseph Stod- 
dard, Elijah Darrow^ Reuben Clark and Silas Benton. 

The first marriage, in what is now the village of Al- 
bion, took place under the following circumstances. 
An action was tried before Ilobc^rt Anderson, a Justice 
of the Peace, at the village of Gaines, to recover dam- 
ages for a hog that had been killed by the defendant 
wrongfully. The j)laintiff recovered a judgment. As 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 79 

soon as tlie result was declared, the defendant took 
the Justice aside, and asked him to go at once to a 
house mentioned and many him ; giving as his reason 
for haste, that execution would soon be issued against 
him on the judgment, wducli he was unable to pay ; 
that he would be taken to Batavia to iail, and, if he 
was a single man, he did not know when he should 
get out, but if he was married he could swear out in 
thirty days. The Justice objected, that it was then 
midnight, the house named w^as three miles off,, the 
night was dark, and the road was through the woods 
most of the way. He finally agreed to go after get- 
ting supper. In the mean time the would-be bride- 
groom hurried to the house to wake up the famil}', 
and the bride, and put a light in the window to guide 
the Esquire. The marriage took place according to 
programme. The house stood on the west side of 
Main Street, about a quarter of a mile north of the 
canal . 



BIOGRAPHIES OF EARLY SETTLERS. 

LANSING EAILEY. 

The following is Lansing Bailey's history, wTitten 
by himself, for the Pioneer Association : 

" I was born in the town of Stephentown, Rensse- 
laer County, New York, Nov. 11, 1787. 

"When I was seven years old, my father removed to 
Whitestowui, Oneida County, New York. 

In 1809, being then in my twenty-second year, I was 
married to Miss Loda Parmelee, and in Nov. 1811, I 
started, in company with two others, for the Genesee 
country, on foot, with knapsacks and provisions on 
our backs. 

On the evening of the fifth day, we arrived at Dan- 
iel Pratt's, an old acquaintance and relative, then re- 



80 PIONEER HISTORY 

siding on the Ridge Road, in the town of Gaines, a 
little west of Gaines Corners. 

The best locations on the Ridge Road had been ta- 
ken, and also the best lots on the Oak Orchard Road, 
for several miles south of the Ridge Road, but they 
were not settled south of the 'Five Corners,' in what 
is now Gaines. 

Myselt and brother, took an Article from the Hol- 
land Land Companj", of two hundred and sixty acres, 
lying one mile west of where Albion now stands. — 
Five da.ys after making our location, we started for 
home by the wziy of Batavia. AVe had but little mon- 
ey, consequently we bought but one meal on our out- 
ward and homeward trip, $3.50 being tlie entire 
amount of our expenses, which consisted in lodging 
and a little of ' the creature' to wash down our dry 
meals. 

In February, 1812, putting all on board an ox sled 
covered with cloth, with two yoke of oxen attached, 
after bidding farewell to friends, with w^ife and child 
aboard, whip in hand, we set out for our wilderness 
home, my brother driving two cows, and three 3'oung 
cattle. 

After a journey of nine days, we arrived at Daniel 
Pratt's, where we unloaded our goods, and I soon 
started to find some wheat, which I found in Riga, 
and got it ground in Churchville. 

Soon after my return, myself and brother set out 
for our future home. 

There was a track as far as the Five Corners. Thus 
far we took a grind stone, and six pail kettle, with 
some other articles, were then about a mile and a half 
from our place, and no track. The snow was about 
three feet deep, with a hard crust about two feet from 
the ground, sufficient to bear a man, but not a beast. 

We commenced breaking the crust in the direction 
of our place, and drove the cattle as far as we could 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 81 

break that da}', iell some trees for them to hrowse, 
and one across the jiath to keep tliem from retarninii", 
and we went back to the Five Corners for our lodging. 

In the morning, we took a straw bed and some oth- 
er articles on our backs, and went and found tlie cat- 
tle all safe. That day we got througli just before 
night, foddered our cattle on browse ; fell a dry stub 
and made a good fire from it ; shoveled away the 
snow, made us a bush shanty with some boughs to 
lay our bed on, took supper and went to bed. 

Next morning the snow on our feet and limbs, 
which were a little too long for our shanty, was two 
or three inches deej). However, we had a good nights 
rest. We staid there until some timt3 in April, going 
to the Ridge every Saturday night, and returning ev- 
ery Monday morning, with a weeks' provisions. 

On one occasion we found one of our cows cast. — 
We divided the loaf with her, put a bell on her, and 
if we could not hear the tinkle of the bell in the night 
we got up and looked after her. Thus we carried our 
cattle all safe througli the winter. 

AYhen we went to the Five Corners to fetch our ket- 
tle, while the snow crust was hard, on our return, our 
dog barked earnestly at a large hollow tree, that had 
fallen down. On looking into the hollow, we saw 
two eyes, but could not tell what animal it was witli- 
in. My brother went after an ax and gun, while I 
watched the hole. After tilling the hollow with sticks, 
we cut several holes in the log, to ascertain the char- 
acter of the animal. Soon however she passed one of 
the holes, and we knew it was a bear. We then re- 
moved the sticks, and put in the dog. The bear 
seized the dog, and my brother reached in his hand 
and pulled the dog out badly hurt. The bear pre- 
sented her head at the hole, and I killed her with the 
ax. 

On searching the log, we found a cub, which we 



82 PIONEER HISTORY 

took home with us. It could not bite, but would try. 

A Mrs. Adams, who had recently lost a babe, took 
it and nursed it, until it got to be quite a bear, and 
rather harsh in its manners. 

As soon as the snow settled, we made us a hovel 
house, such as we could lay up ourselves of logs, 
twelve by fourteen feet square, with split logs for floor 
and roof, the roof projecting over, to afford a shelter 
to put things under, outside the house. 

When the snow was mostly gone, three of us with 
ax in hand went through on a line as near as we could, 
cutting out the under-brush for a road, coming out a 
little west of where Gaines village now is, on the Ridge 
road, which is now called ' the Gaines Basin road.' 
This we accomplished in less than half a day. 

In a few days we had the satisfaction of introducing 
Mrs. Bailey, my wife, into our new house and were 
happy to get home. 

Our next work was to clear a small patch and sow 
some apple seeds, carrying dirt in a tray to cover 
them ; from those seeds originated many of the orch- 
ards in Orleans Count}'. 

In June following we peeled basswood bark for 
our chamber floor and elm bark for a roof to our 
house. 

Harvesting came and we went to Mr. James Math- 
er's in Gaines, to reap wheat. He would not give us 
one bushel of wheat per day for our work, as he gave 
his other hands, but would give us seven bushels for 
cutting a certain piece, which we did in two days. — ■ 
On my return home at night I found Mrs. Bailey had 
left home, where she had gone I knew not till next 
morning I learned she liad been sent for to attend 
Mrs. Daniel Pratt, who was sick and died soon after. 

We cleared fifteen acres the first season. It was a 
task in time of logging to get up our oxen in the 



OF OELEANS COUNTY. 83 

morning, especially on Mondays, as they would have 
Sundays to stray away into the woods. 

On one occasion I started after them and found 
their tracks near where Jonathan Whitney now lives, 
on the Oak Orchard road, a mile and a half south of 
Albion. I followed the tracks eastward all day, 
crossing the Transit Line several times. I could tell 
that line by the timber having been cut on it by the 
Holland Company. 

After a hard day's toil and travel, making a good 
fire I camped by it for tlie night and had a good 
nighf s rest. In the morning I heard a dog bark and 
a bell tinkle, I followed in the direction of these 
sounds, carefully noting where I left the cattle tracks 
and came out on the Ridge road, at HuiF's tavern, in 
East Gaines and was right glad to get something to 
eat. 

Mr. Rosier was there returning from the dangers of 
the war, driving some cattle and mine had got in 
with them. I renewed my pursuit and found my ox- 
en about two miles south of the marsh, which lies 
south of the Ridge, in East Gaines and glad was I to 
get them home again. 

AYhen it was time to sow our wheat, we went with- 
out bread three days rather than leave our work to 
go to mill. I have been to Churchville, Johnson's 
Creek, Rochester and Salmon Creek, for milling, be- 
fore there were mills built nearer. 

In the fall, I built me a good, comfortable log 
house, without a board, nail, or pane of glass in it, 
using bark for roof and chamber floor, split stuff for 
gable ends, lower floor and doors and oiled paper 
for windows, being compelled to exercise strict econ- 
omy and also to be quite independent in building my 
house. I found it however a good shelter and a com- 
fortable home for several years. 

Soon after I moved into my house, my brother left 



84 ]>IUNEEK HISTORY 

for the east, leaving nie in care of seven head of cattle 
to cany through the winter, with no fodder except a 
few cornstalks. AVinter set in early and by the time 
I had killed my winter's supply of Venison, the corn- 
stalks were all gone and I found all I could do to 
keep tires nw^ fodder my cattle, Sundays not except- 
ed. 

Thus I labored, cutting trees for the cattle as best 
I could, until ni}^ brother' s return, the latter part of 
winter. We should not have attempted to winter our 
cattle, had not persons here assured us our cattle 
would winter with little or no care. 

In June, 1812, the town of Ridgeway was set off 
from Batavia, which before then comprised the whole 
present county of Orleans. In April, 181B, the first 
town meeting was held on the Ridge road, west of 
Oak Orchard Creek. At that time, the flats along 
the creek were covered with water from bank to bank. 
In going to the town meeting, we, who lived east, 
crossed tlie creek as best we could, on i-afts of felled 
trees. 

At that election I was chosen one of the assessors 
for the east part of the town. On the day appointed 
for holding the general election, I started for Mr. 
Brown' s, on Johnson' s Creek, where we were to open 
the polls. When I came to the Oak Orchard Creek, 
I put off my clothes and went through. On opening 
the polls, the board were (challenged by Paul Brown, 
as not being free-holders ; true we were not, but we 
did not regard it. We adjourned at noon to Mr. El- 
licott's, at Barnegat, in what is now the town of 
Shelby and next day to Ridgeway Corners and from 
tlience to Gaines Corners, where we closed. 

The above journey was performed by the Board of 
Inspectors of the Election on foot.- I do not think 
there was a horse in town at that time. 

Thus far all liad ])assed off pleasantly, soon alter. 



OF ORLEAIS'S COUNTY. 85 

however, I was taken sick witli the fever and ague, 
which was so severe as to confine me to the house. — • 
Dr. Wm. White was called to attend me. He came, 
said he could give me something that would stop it, 
but would not advise me to take it. I replied I would 
take it on my ow]i responsibility. He gave me arse- 
nic. I took it. It stopped the ague, but I did not 
get well for a long time. 

On the 3d of May, 1813, my wife was confined, M}' 
brother went to Five Corners for assistance, and when 
lie returned with one of the neighboring women, the}" 
found me on one bed, my wife and one babe on an- 
other bed, and another babe on i\ pillow, on a chair, 
all right and doing well. I thought the woods was a 
fruitful place. 

I made a cradle from a hollow log, long enough to 
hold one baby in each end, and being round, it need- 
ed no rockers, and served our purpose nicely. 

In July after, I called upon my neighbors, some of 
whom lived several miles from me, to help me put up 
a log barn. Some fifteen came. We found we could 
not get through in season for them to get home that 
day and rather than come again, they finished it, 
though it got to be late before it was done and they 
all staid over night, on beds spread on the floor, pio- 
neer fashion. 

About this time, in 1813, one morning while we 
were at brealvfast, a man came in from the Ridge and 
said the British had landed from the lake at the mouth 
of Oak Orchard Creek and would probably come up 
to the Ridge, if not repulsed. We were well armed. 
My brother took the rifle and started on quick time. 
I could not go as fast as they, but followed on as fast 
as my strength would admit. I soon reached the 
Ridge road and was glad to learn there was no dan- 
ger. The enemy only wanted to steal some of Mr, 
Brown' s cattle, from near the Two Bridges, in Carlton. 



86 PIONEER HISTORY 

After I left home on this military expedition Mr. 
Farr and Mr. Holsenburgh came to chop for me. — 
They left their homes before the news came. We re- 
turned about 4 o'clock afternoon the same day. Mr. 
Darrow came with us to get a pig. With some diffi- 
culty the men chopping could see my cabin from 
where they were at work. My brother, as we came 
near, gave a loud whoop, like an Indian. I stopped 
him. He then blew a blast on a tin horn he had. I 
stopped him again, saying supper was not ready. I 
then threw my frock over my shoulders and went to 
the pen to catch the pig. Farr and Holsenburgh 
heard the whoop and the horn and saw me going to 
the pen and mistook my frock for the blanket of an 
Indian ; and hearing the pig squeal soon after, they 
concluded the Indians had come and killed my fam- 
ily and were going to finish with a feast from the 
pigs ; and they started for their homes to get their 
guns to fight the Indians. Mr. Farr then lived at the 
Five Corners in Gaines and Mr. Holsenburgh, on the 
place afterwards owned by Ebenezer Rogers, a mile 
south of Albion. 

Mr. Farr hurried home, got his gun and was ready 
for a fight. Mr. Chaffee, on hearing the story, told 
Mr. Farr it could not be true, as there were no Indians 
landed and he saw us when we started for home. 

Holsenburgh went directly to Mr. Darrow' s, before 
any of the party had got back, told what had happen- 
ed at my house, said Mrs. Darrow and Mrs. Hart and 
their families must hide in the woods, as the Indians 
would soon be there and actually got them started. 
Tlie men returned however in time to stop them. 

While the above was being performed, we could 
hear no sound from the axes, and kncnv not the reason 
until near sunset, when Mr. Farr came and explained 
the whole transaction. 

About the first of August, my brother was taken 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 87 

with fever and ague. Some one told him of a remedy. 
He tried it, a violent fever ensued, which lasted but a 
few days, and he died, August 8th. Before my broth- 
er was buried, my wife was taken sick with the same 
fever and died on the 13th of the same month. They 
were both in succession carried by friends to the 
burying ground in Gaines, and interred there. Some 
friends living on the Ridge took my children home 
with them, while I returned to my desolate house to 
spend one of the loneliest nights I ever knew, as there 
was no one to accompany me home. 

I informed my father of what had transj)ired. He 
soon came and took two of my children home with 
him. I hired a Mrs. Adams, a cousin of mine, to take 
care of the other. 

I was now so lonely that as soon as I could secure 
my crops, I left home and went to my father' s. 

In the fall before leaving, Mr. Parmelee, a brother- 
in-law came with a wagon to help secure my corn, 
which we had planted among the logs. I did but lit- 
tle work that season, not logging one acre. 

On going into my cornlield we found it badly torn 
down. We got a dog, and lantern in hand went at 
night to the field. The dog started oflT furiously aufl 
soon treed some animal up a large hemlock. On 
looking u}^ I could at times see eyes shine. We con- 
cluded it was a bear, and eacli one selecting a small 
tree to climb, in case the bear should come down and 
attack us, I went to try my skill in shooting in the 
darkness. Soon as I fired tliere was a screeching up 
the tree. The creature must have gone nearly to the 
top of the tree. Directly there was a cracking heard 
among the limbs, I scrambled up my tree, and the 
bear came down from hers. 

No sooner had she struck the ground than the dog- 
grappled in with her, but soon cried out piteously. — 
We thou£!;ht the dog was beins; killed. I hastened 



88 PIONEER HISTOKY 

down from 1117 tree, called for the liglit to see to load 
my gun. We walked up to the combatants and found 
the dog biting instead of being bitten. Parmelee said 
he did not climb his tree. He had some sport after- 
Avards telling how he had saved my life by holding 
the lantern so that I could see and not climb off at 
the top of the tree. 

Before my return to the east, Mr. Caleb C. Thurs- 
ton came to view the country, said he would move in- 
to my house, if I would drive my oxen down and help 
him up, as he did not wish to buy another yoke, and 
would hire me to clear live acres when he bought a 
lot ; to this I consented. 

In the winter of 1814, Mr. Thurston moved on with 
oxen and w^agon. While gone to my father s, Lewis- 
ton and Buffalo were burned and Capt. McCartj", 
with a part of the Company to which I belonged, 
went as far as Molyneaux tavern, where they sur- 
rounded the house, shooting one Indian through the 
window. Finding another helpless on the floor drunk, 
a Mr. Cass pinned him to the floor with his bayonet. 
The British soldiers ran up stairs and were taken 
prisoners. Mr. Molyneaux said he would find rails 
as long as they would find Indians, and they burned 
the bodies of the killed. 

In the summer following, I took my oxen and wag- 
on and seventeen bushels of wiieat, with Mrs. Thurs- 
ton on the load, for a visit to Mr. Pratt' s and went to 
mill beyond Clarkson. I returned as far as Mr. 
Pratt's the next night about dark. I asked Mrs. 
Thurston if she would venture through the woods with 
me. She said she would and if we had to lay out, 
we would do the best we could. 

When we left the Ridge and turned into the woods, 
it w^as so dark I could not see my oxen, although I 
was sitting on the foreboard. We arrived safe home, 
without accident. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 89 

I think it would be difficult in these days to find 
women of sufiicient fortitude to endure such hard- 
ships and privations, as did these early pioneer 
women. 

At this time there was no clearing between my 
place and the Ridge road. 

The war with Great Britain was now raging along 
our frontiers, in all its horrors. More settlers were 
then leaving the country than were coming in. There 
were then but five families in what was then called 
Freeman's settlement, west of Eagle Harbor. No 
road had been opened. We had to follow marked 
trees as our guide. 

Mr. Thurston's eldest daughter, then about ten 
years old, went to stay with our friends there a few 
days. She was taken sick and not able to walk 
home. Her father and myself went after her and car- 
ried her back to her father's house, the most of the 
distance on our backs. It was a liard lift for us to get 
her up the bank of Otter Creek. 

The first of September, our militia company was or- 
dered to Buftalo. On the fifth we reached Batavia. — 
Mr. Thurston being infirm, was allowed to return to 
his family in their solitude. I was kept with the 
Company, until the first of October, when I was dis- 
charged and returned home, having received seven 
dollars and fifty cents pay for services and two dol- 
lars for extra labor. 

I lodged the first night on my return with the Ton- 
awanda Indians. I have never since turned an Indian 
away, who desired to stay with me over night. 

Before I left home to go to Buffalo, as a soldier, I 
had baited some pigeons. After we were gone, Mrs. 
Thurston took the net and caught them and in this 
way lierself and children were provided with a rich 
repast, although so far off" in the wilderneg!? alone. 

In the winter of 1815, with my pack on my back, I 



90 PIONEER HISTORY 

returned to Wliitestown, and on the 8tli day of Feb- 
ruary, was married to Miss Sylvia Pratt, who return- 
ed with me to share alike the toils and blessings of 
life, where, by the blessing of God, we still remain. 

I have had twelve children ; three died young, I 
had the pleasure of sitting down with all the others at 
my own table, the present summer, (1861) altliougli 
some of them reside eight hundred miles away from 
me. 

At the close of the war, settlers came in rapidly 
and soon I was out of the woods, having it cleared 
and settled all around me. 

"In the early settlement of the country, it was diffi- 
cult to raise pigs, as the bears would catch them in 
the summer. Consequently, pork was high priced, 
and scarce. With my rifle, I could take what veni- 
son I needed, and therefore fared well for meat. The 
oil of the raccoon was first rate for frying cakes. — 
Thus we fared sumptuously. 

At one time, I had a sow and pigs in the woods. — 
One day I heard the sow squeal. Being nearer to 
them than to the house, I ran, supposing I could save 
her. As I came near and hallooed, bruin dropped his 
prey and reared up on his hind legs, when he saw 
me he ran off, but he had killed the hog. I got my 
rifle and pursued, but saw no more of him. 

In the summer of 1816, I heard a man's voice hal- 
looing in the woods south of my house. I went to see 
what was going on, Saw several men there and in- 
quired what they were about. One of tliem said 
they wer(^ gohig to make us a canal. I laughed at 
them, and told them they would hardly make water 
run up liill between here and Albany. I added, it 
would be as long as I would ask to live, to be able to 
see such a canal as they talked of in operation. How 
little did I ilum know of what men could perform, 
aided by intellectual culture and public wealth, liav- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 91 

ing up to that time spent most of my life in the woods. 
Before this we had to go to Batavia for our merchants 
goods and to the Post-office. 

The foregoing comprises what I think of now of my 
pioneer life. 

I cannot look back upon the past of my life and 
contemplate what the good Lord has in his loving 
kindness done for me, without acknowledging his 
preserving care, and that too when the most of my 
days have heen spent in rebellion against him, in not 
obeying his commands and in neglecting to acknowl- 
edge him under the sore afflictions he has seen fit to 
bring upon me and to sustain me under them ; and 
above all, that in after life, He by his good spirit 
should call after me, until I was brought to see and 
feel his goodness, in the forgiveness of my sins and 
to thank and praise him for all his mercies and to 
ask that I may be accepted by him through the 
merits of his Son, and have the pleasure of meeting 
in his kingdom above, with all the old pioneers, not 
of the woods only, but all those that are seeking a 

better and a heavenly country, 

LANSING BAILEY." 

Dated— Barre, August 1, 1861. 

Mr. Lansing Bailey, the author of the foregoing 
sketch, died at his residence in Barre, December 1866, 
aged 79 years. Many years before his death he sold 
out the land he took up from the Holland Company 
and bought the north-east part of lot 10, town 15, 
range 2, of the Holland Purchase, on which he ever 
after resided, and which is now occupied and owned 
by his son, Timothy C. Bailey. 

Lansing Bailey was a man of strong, native good 
sense, who always stood high in the estimation of all 
who knew him, highest with those who knew him best. 
He used to say when he left his father's house, his 
father gave him a hoe and three sheep, and he tliought 



92 PION"EER IIISTOIIY 

liis father did as well by liim as lie was able, as lie 
not only gave liini a lioe, but taught liini to dig, for 
wliieh he always felt grateful. 

Mr. Bailey was always industrious and frugal and 
by a life of economy and prudence, acquired a 
handsome property. He was liberal and public 
spirited in his character, almost always holding some 
public office or trust. He was for many years Super- 
visor of the town of Barre and was relieved from that 
office only after he had peremtorily declined being 
a candidate, against the wishes of a large majority in 
his town. 

GIDEON IIAllD. 

Hon. Gideon Hard was born in Arlington, Vermont, 
April 29, 1797. His grand-mother was sister of Col. 
Setli AVarner, celebrated in the history of the Revo- 
lutionary war for his services in taking Ticonderoga, 
and in the battle of Bennington. In his youth he 
labored first upon a farm, afterwards with an older 
brother at the trade of house joiner for two years. 

About tliis time he resolved to obtain a college 
education. Being poor and dependent mainly on his 
own exertions, like many other New England boys, 
he taught school in the winter seasons and studied the 
remainder of tlie time, until he succeeded in passing 
through Union College at Schenectady, where he re- 
ceived his first degree in July, 1822. In the autumn 
of that year he commenced studying law with Hon. 
John L. Wendell, then of Cambridge, AVashington 
county, since law reporter of the Supreme Court of 
the State of New York. 

The rules of the Supreme Court at that time re- 
quired three years of law study previous to admission 
to practice. By the aid of hisfriimd and teacher, J.L. 
Wendell, he was allowed to take his examination at 
the May Term of the Court 1825, and was tlien ad- 
mitted attorney in tlie Supreme Court. 







{yU^dlH. 'HO^oC 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 93 

In March, 182G, lie settled to practice his profession 
in Ne\\7:)ort, now Alhion, hut did not move his wife to 
his new home until Jul}" of the same year. 

He opened his office and began his practice. 

In 1827 he was elected Commissioner of Schools for 
Barre and in the autumn of that year he was ap- 
pointed County Treasurer, an office he held six years. 
In 1832 he was elected a Representative in Congress 
from the district comprising Orleans and Niagara 
counties, and took his seat in Congress in Dec. 1833, 
during the first year of President Jackson's adminis- 
tration, in political classification being ranked as a 
Whig. In 1834 he was re-elected to Congress, and dur- 
ing the long session of 1836 lie served on the committee 
on elections. The case ot James Graham, a member 
from North Carolina, whose seat was contested, came 
before that committee, where after a lengthy examin- 
ation a majority of the committee reported in favor of 
the contestant, General Newland. 

Mr. Hard drafted a counter report of the minority 
in fa^'or of Graham, which he presented and advo- 
cated in a personal effort before the House. He was 
sustained by the vote of the House. This result, in a 
body where he was largely in the minority, on a 
question which was decided mainh' on party grounds 
and by his political opponents, was highly gratifying 
to his political friends and party and flattering to his 
ambition. 

On the 4th of March 1837, he left Congress and re- 
turned to Albion to practice his profession. 

In 1841 he was elected Senator in the State Senate 
to represent the eighth district of New York, and was 
the only Whig Senator elected in the State that year. 
The Senate of the State at that time constituted the 
Court for the Correction of Errors, of which Court he 
thus became a member. 

The business of the Court consisted in reviewing 



94 PIONEER HISTORY 

the decisions of tlie Supreme Court and the Court of 
Chancery, which might be brought before thfem on 
appeal. The Court held three terms of four weeks 
each annually. 

As the Senate was composed largely of civilians, 
who in the decision of cases which came before them 
while sitting as a court of law, did little more then 
vote upon the final questions, the main labor of the 
Court fell upon the members who were lawyers, in 
investigating the questions of law presented, and 
writing out the opinions that were given. 

Mr. Hard took his share of this labor, thoroughly 
examining the causes in the Court and writing out 
his opinions in support of the conclusions to which 
he arrived, many of which are published in the Law 
Reports of the State. 

In 1845 he was re-elected to the State Senate and 
appointed Chairman of the Committee on Railroads. 

In 1848 his ofBce as Senator having terminated by 
the adoption of the new constitution of the State, 
which abolished the old Senate and Court for Correc- 
tion of Errors, Mr. Hard was appointed a Canal Ap- 
praiser, which office he held two years, and in 1850 
returned to the practice of his profession until the fall 
of 1856, when he was elected County Judge and Sur- 
rogate of Orleans county, which office he held four 
years. 

The year 1860 he was in ill health and did little 
business. The next three years he spent mainly in 
attendance upon his sick wife. She died, an event 
which broke up his family, and since then he has re- 
sided most of the time with his children engaged in 
no business. 

Mr, Hard married Adeline Burrell, of Hoosic Falls 
New York, in August, 1824. 

They had two children, Samuel B, Hard, a lawyer 
and business man residing in the city of New York, 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 95 

and Helen B. who married Geo. H. Potts, and resides 
in New York also. 

Mrs. Hard died at Albion Sept. 15, 1864. 

EBENEZER ROGERS. 

Dea. Ebenezer Rogers was born in Norwich Conn., 
October 3, 1769. He married Betsey Lyman of Leba- 
non, Connecticut, who died August 28, 1849. Mr. 
Rogers removed from New England to Onondaga Co., 
N. Y., in 1812, and in March, 1816, settled on the 
farm on which he afterwards resided in the south part 
of the village of Albion. When he came, not more 
than twenty families had settled in Barre and his 
house was a home for many of the young men, who 
came here to select a farm for themselves, or, who, 
having a lot, were clearing it and building a cabin, 
preparatory to occupying with their families. 

Being a professor of religion and deeply impressed 
with the importance of that subject, lie was among 
the most earnest of the settlers in introducing the 
stated observance of the forms of public worship 
among them ; and with his near neighbor, Joseph 
Hart and others, he assisted to form the first Congre- 
gational Church and Society in Barre, which finally 
was established at Barre Center, and after Albion 
became a village, he was conspicuous in organizing 
the First Presbyterian Church and Society in Albion, 
which was an oftshoot from the organization first de- 
scribed. Of the latter church, Mr. Rogers was a long 
time deacon, and a ruling elder. 

He was by trade a tanner and shoemaker, but nev- 
er followed that business. 

Of a strong physical constitution, Mr. Rogers lived 
to see his children settled around him in competence, 
enjoying the abundance of the good things of this 
good land, which he and his worthy compeers 
had done so much to reclaim from the wilderness of 



96 PIONEER IIISTOKY 

nature. Mr. Rogers died January 28, 1865, aged 
ninety-six years, tliree montlis and twenty -five days. 

ASA sa:nfokd. 

"I was "born in the town of Farmington, Hartford 
Co., Conn., Jnne 2, 1797. My parents were members 
of tlie Presbyterian Church and gave their children a 
strictly religious, as well as a conmion school educa- 
tion, as was the cnstoni in New England. In Febru- 
ary, 1806, my father removed with his family, then 
consisting of wife, four sons and two daughters, to 
Candor, Tioga Co., N. Y., a journey of about three 
hundred miles. 

My father, oldest brother and myself, performed 
this journey, with a pair of oxen and one horse, at- 
tached to a sled, being twelve days on the road. 

A hired man brought my mother and her other 
children in a sleigh. 

That country was then wild, with but few settlers 
scattered along the Susquehanna and Chemung riv- 
ers, with dense forests stretching back thirty miles 
without a human being, inhabited by bears, wolves, 
panthers, deer and smaller animals. 

A road had been opened between Owego and Ithaca, 
on which a few settlers had located. 

In the fall of 1806, I went to Ithaca with my father, 
with oxen and wagon, after a load of salt. 

I think Ithaca was then the most loathsome and 
desolate place I had ever seen. It stood on low, 
black soil, surrounded north and west by a (piagmire 
swamp. It rained hard, and the T)lack mud was so 
deep, it was with difficulty our oxen could draw two 
barrels of salt home. 

My father and another man, l)uilt the first school 
house in the town of Candor, and opened the first 
school there. The school house stood three miles 
from my father's dwelling and I went there to school 



OF OKLKANS ( OrNTV. 07 

tlirongli tliH woods, witli no (»thc'r slioes tluiii such jih 
my niotlier mad*' Iroin wooL^ii cloth ti-om day to day.. 

In June, 1806, niy hither, l)is liired man. my broth- 
ers and myself, were hoeing corn, between ten and 
«'leven o'clock in tlie forenoon, wlien we noticed a sin- 
gular apx)earance in the atmosphere : the sky hwked 
sombre, the birds retired to the woods, tln^ hens t»> 
their roosts, and we went to the house. 'Plic sun wa^^ 
all darkened, but a lim around the edge ; th<?' 
gloom and chill of evening settled on all the earth^ 
around. This lasted but a short thiie. when the sun 
came out from its dark ]iall, everything assumed iis 
wonted activity and light and the -great eclijtse" 
j)assed oft'. 

I continued most of tlie liiue working with and tor 
my father, occasi(^nally woi-king f<>r others, till otio 
da}^ as I was cliop2)ing in the woods, a young man 
came along and said to me, he was not gC)ing to live 
longer in that hilly, sterile place ; that iie liad been 
to the ' Genese(^' and found a country f;i.r ])referab'ie 
to that for beauty and farming purposes. 

I heard his story and determined that at sojne tinie 
I wotild see that famous ' Genesee country/ 

In the spring of 181 0, I bought my time of my 
father, for i^lOO. I was nineteeii j'ears old. I hired, 
out to work for -*14 per month and in levSs thaii a 
year earned enough to pay my fatlier for niy time, 
and had money left. I continued working wliei'e 1 
coidd mak(^ it mostjDrofitable. got phmty of work and 
good pay, until in the sunmier of 1811>, feeling as if 1 
liad worked for otht'rs long enough, Iiaving then ten 
acres of land and several head of cattle, T felt a desire 
to get a good -wheat larm fVir myself. 

I started with two ycmng men, on foot, knapsacks 
on our backs, Aug. 27. 1810, to go to the Genesee 
country. AVe went thiough Ithaca, and took tiie 
road to Geneva, traveling as fai* as Ovid the first day. 



OH IMoN'EKS: HISTORY 

forty miles. Next day through (T('ii('\a and Oaiiaii- 
daigua, we j'eached Wt*st Blooinhehl. Xext da\ 
through Lima, and Avon, we arrived at Batavia aud 
went to the office of tlie Holland C^ompany to ser 
about land. 

tn the ofhre the agent ap})eared rather souj-. little 
disposed to he sociable. We asked him if h(^ had 
land to sell. He said he had. He was asked where 
it lay and replied *' everyAvhere, all over, 3'ou cannot 
go amiss." I asked him if it was wild, or im])roved 
trirms ( He answerinl ' go and look, when you run 
your head into a great improvement you will know 
it, won't you i I turned indignantly and walked out 
of the office, saying ' I had a mind to hoot that fellow.' 

The agent followed us (mt to close the blinds and 
liearing our conversatiim. said ratlier pleasantly. 
^ boys keep a stiff upper lip.' 

We stayed that night at the old 'Pioneer tavern." 
Tile landlord tried hard to convince me that the agent 
was a J^ew England gentleman, one that T would be 
pleased to do business with. 

We were inforuKMl of the rax)id growth of a new 
town north from Batavia, called Barre, lying between 
t!ie Tonawanda Swiimji and the Ridge road. Towards 
tliis new town we set out next morning. 

After examining various parts of Barre and Gaines. 
we selected our locations in Barre, and returned to 
tlie Land oflice to secure our Articles for our land : 
biit linding we lacked a few dollars required to pay 
t!ie first payment, tiie agent kindly offered to ' book" 
the lots to us, until we got tliti money. 

We made no farther complaint against the agent, 
who 'booked' the land to us and we returned to 
niake preparations for felling the timber on our ne\\- 
farms. Never before did we complain of the rapid 
flight of time, but here, while laboring for (mrselves, 
v/e thought these th*^ shortest days we had ever seen. 



OF OIJLEANS rOCNTY. 99 

OiitlM- J2tli of 0('tol)»>r, 'J810, liaving obtained the 
money, we went to the office and took out our Articles 
for our land, went "back to our work and after chop- 
ping live or six acres apiece, we returned to our 
friends in Tioga county. 

During the next winter, we titt(^d out witli teams, 
tools, clothing and a (piantity of })ork, and in jMarch. 
1820, set out for our new Iromt^s and aft<'r a tedious 
Jjonrne}^ of twelve days, through snow, watci- and 
mud, we arriAed home A])ril 1st. 

HaAing n(j hay for our cattle, we cut browse to feed 
them, giving a few ears of corn procured from our 
neighbors, till ve,ii:etation grew so that they could b'vc 
in the woods. 

We hired our board cooked at a neighboi-s and 
<*leared oft' wliat we had chopped the previous season 
and planted the land with corn. The season being- 
pro j)itious, we had good ci'ops of corn, witli oats, })0- 
tatoes, beans and other vegetables and melons in 
abundance. AVe also ch'ared off and sowed sev«'ral 
acres with wheat. 

In the autumn the l)ears were very tr()u])]esome in 
our cornfields, committing their nightly dei)redations, 
till it became necessary to put our veto upon them ; 
this we did in various ways — by trapping, shooting, 
night w^atching, &c., until we had ca})tured foui' of 
them and thus saved our corn. 

After securing our croj)s and preparing for winter, 
we sold oui- teams and returned to our ])arental 
homes. 

During the next season we ex})erienced mu<'li incon- 
venience in getting cmr board dressed for us. 'i'he 
woman who did it became quite tired of doing the 
w^ork for the ' okl bachelors,' and I began to realize 
the trutli of the Divine declai-ation that ' it is not good 
for man to be alone.* 

After visitini»- among triends in Tioga CoiintA' a few 



TOO IMOXEKK IIISTOKV 

flag's, 1 liirvd out for three inoiitlis. March .1, 1821, 1 
wa8 married. About the middle of the month, putting: 
all on board a covered \va,a,"Oii. with two yoke of oxerr 
uttaciicd. and in company with the two young men 
previously referred to, we set out again for our new 
wilderness home, in the rfenesee country. 

After two wpcks hard labor, wt- arrived at <3ur home 
to the great joy of our neighbors, especially tlic 
iroinen. We moA'ed into a. small Ijouse with one of 
oui- neighbors, until we could build us a houso^ 
which we built in a few weeks after. 

While the early pioneers of a new country Jir»^ 
necessai'ih' subi(^ct to mau}^ hardships and privations, 
unknow n to settlers of older countries, still there arcr 
many enjoyments and pleasing reminiscences for 
these ])ioneers, whicli the}' never forget. Aristocracy 
is unknown in a new country. The ]jeople are all 
friendly and kindly disposed towards each other. If 
any aie sick, thej^ are at once cared for. If a farnier 
was attacked with agU(% that dread disease, so com- 
mon auKjng the pioneers of this county, liefore h<; 
could get Ins spring crops into the ground, his neigh- 
bors would turn out and })ut them in for him and if 
necessary, they would keep liis work along until he 
was able to do it himself. If tliere is any state of so- 
ciety wliei-e men fulill the Divine injunction ' love tin' 
neighboi' as thyselfV it is found among the pioneers 
of a new country. 

If any one got lost in the woods, and did not return 
at night, search was at once made by evc^rybod}' and 
no sleej» was had until the lost one was found. 

.Vfter we moved into oui- new house. I started out 
to buy me a cow, bought one and we now commenced 
]iousekee])ing under circumstances quite favorable, at 
]<'ast our neighbors thought so. Mj' wife had a few 
necessary articles of furniture, so that \\q were aT)<>n^^ 
as well (»tf'as any of our neighbors. 



OK oKLKANS COINTV. 10} 

There were no jtiaiios or luelodeoiis in iliosc dtiys. 
The little wheel for spinning liax and th<* great wheel 
for spinning tow, liirnit^ied the jniisie. A f(nv At^Mrs 
later and we had other house music. 

I plodded on for eight ^ears, adding lield to tield of 
my cleared, improved land and then found myself un- 
iible to pay even the interest due on my Article to the 
Land Compau} . 

I raised about ^70. and with tliis went to Batavia 
to see the agent. I determined this time to walk into 
the office with head up and meet any insult 1 might 
receive with uiaidy indej)endence. 

I found the agent alone in th(^ othce, went uj) to 
him and laid down my Article and all the money 1* 
had, sjijing my Article has expired and here is all 
the mone}^ I have. I want to renew my contract, 
as I have no idea of giving u]) my premises yet. 

The agent walked np. took my Article, unfolded it 
;;iud said 'you have not assigned it I see." Then 
taking up the money he said pleasantly, * walk into 
the other room.' 1 did so and in less time than 1 
liave been writing this, my new Article was made out, 
my payment indorsed and 1 was read}' tt) start for 
liome. But on returning to the contractor's room, 
the agent said to me he had relincpiished all the back 
interest and ^1 per acre of the principal, making an 
entire new sale, witli eight N'ears' pay day, as at lirst, 
and asked me if 1 \\as satisfied. My gratitude had 
by this time l)ecome almost unbounded and 1 left 
the office, thanking the old ag<^nt for his kindness and 
thinking aftei- all, beneath a rotigh exterioi- lie had a 
generous heai't. 

I mention this incident to show the kind and g(uier- 
ous treatment extended towards the poor industrious 
settlers upon the lands of the Holland C'ompany. — 
Man}^ incidents of a like character might be recorded 
io the credit of the Company. 



J 02 rroxKKK histohy 

] cainc home inspired with new energy and determi- 
nation to struggle on and ov(^.roome every hardship 
and difficulty in my way. 

Wt' liad but little sickness compared with our 
neigliboi-s. as yet. In the spring of 1828, 1 had severe 
intlamation of the lungs, and in the spring of 1828, 
T was taken with fever and ague, whicli held mf^ 
tlii-ougli tlu^ season. 

The next spring my wife was sick witli fever and 
ague and thrush, wliich kept lier ill till the October 
following. 

Our <'hildren, then four in number, had th(4r full 
shares of fever and ague. It was painful tf> see th«^ 
'little ones draw up to the tire while suffering their 
chill, then see them i-etire to their beds, tormented . 
with the raging thirst and fever following the chills, 
while th'Mr mother could do little for them, except Ut 
supply th(Mr frequent <'alls foi- ^^ater. 

In the fall of 1824 or 1825 two men living near Barr(^ 
( 'enter, named Selah Belden, and Nathan Angel, 
started on Saturday morning to hunt deer west from 
the Oeiiter. They parted in the afternoon, each after 
separate game. At night Mr. Belden returned — Mr. 
Angel did not. Next morning Belden, with some of 
his neiglibors, went out and spent the da_y looking for 
Angel, but not finding him, the next morning a gene- 
ral i-ally of all the men in town was made and the 
woods thoroughly searched and the dead body of Mr, 
Angel found, having apparently fallen and died from 
exhaustion. The body was carried to Benton's Corn- 
ers, then the centre of the s(4tlement, — a. jury called 
by Ithamar Hibbard. Esq.. one of the first coro- 
iKM-s and it is believed this was the first coroner's in- 
(piest in Oi'leans county. As the c(mnty was <'leared 
up and the low lands drained of their surface water 
the peo]»le snffered less from ague. 

The canal being now (»])eiied. farmeis I'ound a read} 



OF OltLKANS roiNTY. 1 (>8 

market and hettei- ]>ri('es for theii- prodiKM*. JIouh 
iimiiufactiu-es werf ])r<)Te<*ted from foreign comiM^ 
titioii ami the price <»r domestic goods greatly 
reduced. It was tlieii tlie farmers l^egan to tlnivr 
and soon to pay n]) for tlieir lands. Tlie price of re;; ! 
estate advanced and some even predicted the xiun 
wonld come wlien the l>est faiiiis Avonh.l be v/orth one 
liiindi'ed dolhirs per aci'e, Jiai'dly expecting to live to 
see tlieir predictions fulfilled as the}' have done. 

The attention of the (\'irly pioneers was called to 
the subject of common schools for thc^ir children and 
the next Iniildini'' to go up after a lou' cabin for a 
dwelling was a log school house. 

One of our own statesmen while a member of the 
Legislature being asked where he gra^lnated. replied : 
' In a log school house up in Orleans county.' I lia.ve 
often carried my eldest son to and from school on n^y 
back through the deep snows of winter. 

More than forty years ago 1 united ^^ith the Meth 
odist Epis(.'0])al Church at A Vest Barre and in \S49, 
withdrew from that church and united with the AVes- 
leyan Methodists. 

Man}' 3'eais ago, convinced of the sin of intemjtei'- 

ajice, I resolved to use no moi'e intoxicating liquor nfi 

a, bevenige. a resolution To wliich 1 iiave stricth' i-<I- 

liered ever sinc(\ 

ASA SANFORD." ' 
.lanuaiy 28th, ISItt. 

axjmm:\\ h. <.kkj:n. 

Andrew 11. (Treen, of Hyi-on, (Tenesfc county, N. 
Y., writes for the Orleans county Pione(>r Association 
records, his local history a^ follows: 

''1 was born in Johnstown. Montgomery ()o., N. 
v., Oct. intli. 171)7. and in .lune, 1809. (Mime to OeTu:- 
see county from Rome. Oneida county, N. Y. 

In 1702, my father and Judge Try on, of New Leb- 
anon, came to ]rondequ(»ii. near Kochester and ludit 



104 FioNKiHiu nisiouY 

n storeliousc : Jind in 1808, my fatlier cjiiiu' to what is 
now Bergen and Swed«^n and ])ure'hased something of 
H farm and commenced on tiic north ])onnd8 of what 
is now the M^tliodist camp ground, in Bergen, rnn- 
ning nortli to tlie road running east to Sweden Centre, 
twenty-five lots contahiiug tliivc tlionsand acres at 
tw(Uity-two sliil lings per arrc. 

It was a hard country to scUlc There \v(-rt' hut 
few inhabitants and the r(»ads were very bad. As 
soon as the^^ began to erect mill-dams there was a 
great deal of sickness. 

We went tc» Hanford"s Landing, at the Jiiouth of 
(tenesee River, t(.) trade and sell potash. I found but 
two houses l)etween <^ui- house and Clarkson Corners, 
and but two from theje to ( (enesee river. For several 
years I was as fannliar in (n-ery fanlil^' from my 
father s to CJ-enesee river as I am now with my near 
tseighliors. 

The first time 1 passed rhrougli K(X'hester was in 
the summer of 18(X>. The ]iext I remember al)Out it 
was the bad roads and tliat 1 was very miudi fright- 
ened crossing the (lenesee river. The wat(M*was deep 
and ran very swift. 1 expected to go down stieam 
and over the falls. 

I think there was one mill and two oi- three slianties 
to. he seM]! tliii're then. There was a small <'learing 
vvIkm-c the Eagle tavern formerh' stood, but I had as 
much as I could do to get ni}' load through the mud. 
f little thought then tlwit black ash swamj* was ever 
to be the place it now is. Late in the fall of 1809 my 
father sent me to Sangei-sfield Huddle alter a load of 
iMerchandise. East of Canaudaigua Avas anew turn- 
pike where 1 got stuck in the mud and had to wait 
until the next teamstei- eame along to help me out. 
i was then foui-teen \ears old. M_\' father had fifteen 
workmen and the lirst sinntner cleared one hundred 
acres. 



OF OIM-EAX-^ COUNTY. 10;') 

111 Dftober .ludg*' FiiuUey from (THiiesee came on 
witJi a company of men to survey townslu]) numl)ei- 
two of tlie one liundi-ed thousand acre tract. Tlie\' 
also stopped witli ns. making a family of twenty-six 
men, besides having twi> families in tlie house. 

The 'latcli-string ' was always out and none ever 
went away hungry as we had plenty of pork and wild 
game to season it. Deer, bears and wohes \^•eJ•(- 
plenty. I never heard of l)ut one panthej-. The su]'- 
veyors had their tent near where the steam saw mill 
now stands in (Clarendon. Their cook came in on 
Wednesday night for bread. One evening he had 
got to whei'e Vol. Shubael Lewis afterwards lived 
when he heai'd some one iialloo. J[e soon found it 
was a pantlu^r on his ti-ack. Jt followed him to the 
clearing. The man was much exhausted when h<> 
came in. He was an old huntej- and said lie knew it 
was a panther. The men all came in Satuj'day aftei-- 
iioon. The Sabbath was as well kept in 18U9 as in 
1868. We were seldom without tnangelical ]»reacli- 
ing. We had one close communion Baptist Elder, 
some Methodists and some Presbyterians. ^\11 could 
sing the good old tunes and sing them with a will. The 
year 1809 was productive and health.v. In 1810. 
about July 20th, we had a frost that killed most of the 
wheat and M'orn. The fall of 1811 was very sickly, 
riiere were seAci-al families settled at Sandy Creek 
village. They were all sick. We made up a load ol" 
some six or seven and went down to help them. I 
never saw so happy a <'om})any. We carried two 
loads of necessaries and staid two rights and when 
some uf them got so they could take <'are of tlie 
others we left for home. 

1 used to ha\e many hard and lonesome rides 
through the woods on liorseba<'k. One very dark 
night T had l)een to J)i-. \Vard's after medicine. Com- 
ing home I lost my road and also my hat. Before I 



106 iM(»\KHi: HISTORY 

found ])]}■ liat tilt' wolves began to liowl. I took oft' 
my shoes so that I might tuid tlie road, and l)y the 
time I liad mounted m^- horse to go on, the wolves 
were wdthin "speaking distance" and before I had 
gone far the^" struck my barefoot tracks ; tlien tliey 
made a terrific^ j-oaring. I thought I was a 'goner' 
sure enougli. but I })resume if the wolves had seen 
me then on the old whit<^ ]iors<^ ^I'^'y '^vt^uld have lieen 
as frightened as I was. 

Our men had all kinds of musical instruuK^nts aiid 
any time when the drum Avas beat the wolves were 
almost sure to respond. 

About the beginning of winter my fatlier Kstarted 
me off with an ox team and load of grain to find 
.Tiulge Farwell's grist mill, Afbrr a tedious day's 
travel T came in siglit of water pouring over rocks. 
It was no small sti'eam. I thought it must l)e l^iag- 
ara Falls. I was glad to find 1 could get my grist 
ground, so I chained my oxen to a tree and found a 
comfortable night's lodging among the bags in the 
mill. I got home the the next day witli niy grist. 
Our folks thought J had done w(4l and 1 thought s(t 

tf)0. •• 

The first winter I walked sev(Mi miles t(» school every 
day and back again. 

A. }1. cntEEN." 
Byron, Genusoe Co. X. V.. .Inix' Ki, IW;! 

In a letter written by the above named A. II, Ureen 
to the Secretary of the Orleans County Pioneer Asso- 
ciation, dated Jujie 14th. 1806. he says : ''I was 
( I uite interested the other day. whih' hunting Tip the 
(Ad road records of oin- town, BAron. in 1809, It was 
then tlu' town of Miinay, but now contains eight or 
nine towns (^itire. 

LINTS .lONKS PKCK. 

Mr. j*eck funiishcd his local histor\- for the Orleans 



OF OKLKAXS COI'NTY. 107 

<'(»uiity Pioneer Association liecords as follows: 

" [ was liorn (Jctolior 27tli, 1810, in a very clieap 
log liouse on Onondaga Hill, in Onondaga Co., N. Y.. 
al3<nit a mile and a Jialf from the old Conrt Honse. 
l/p to eleven years of age 1 was ejigaged principally 
ill endeavoring to get sometliing to eat. not always 
however with miicli snccess, and in going to school 
l)arefoot both summer and A\inter. 

I never had anything made of IcatlK-r to wear oji 
my feet until the spring of ^S^S. 

My amusements ('(insisted in listening to tlie howl- 
ings of the wolves and in gymnastic exert^ses with 
tlie musketoes. 

In May, 1828, 1 had a pair of shoes ;ind was sent 
to Pike, Allegany county, to live with my brother 
Lutlier. I stayed tiu-re until May 1888, when I re- 
turned to my parents with whom 1 lived until 188(1, 
Avhen I went to AVyonn'ng t(» attend the ISfiddh^^ury 
Academy. 

In the spring of 1888 1 returned to Pike to read 
law in my brothers otiice. In 1841' he removed to 
Xunda, now in Livingston county and I stayed with 
liini in Ids office till 1848. In July of that year I 
commenced jobbing on the canals and continued in 
that business until the sunuiier of 1801. since which 
time I have done litth^ business of any kind. T was 
never mairied. 

T left the town where 1 Avas born in 18f7 and ar- 
rived in Olareiidon, or wliatis iiowCHarernhjii, Orleans 
county, just forty years ago t(»-day (Marcii 20, 1864.) 
I came to Holley first in the spring of 1856 and stayed 
until December. T then returned to Pendleton in 
Niagara county ajid completed a large job 1 had on 
the Erie (•anal through the Mountain Ridge and 
Avent back to Holley in thes])7-ingof 1857. since whicjj 
time Holley has been my residence. 

Mv mother died Mairh 4. 1848. au'ed 71 \ eais. Mv 



J(»8 ProN^EKll IIISTOltY 

father (licMl June -J. IS.')2. ii^ed 82 ypars. 1 am tlio 
youngest ol" my bi'otliers, all of wliom are living. 

TliHi-e are, or were. ik> ineidents iiimy eai-ly liiistory 
or that of iii\^ brothers, not <'ommon to all tliet early 
settlers in tliis vicinity, nxeept I thought we managed 
to be a littln })0(>rer than any body t'lse. My lather 
liad the misfortiinf <»f having two trades, that of a 
farmer and carpcnttM- and joinei-. He worked his 
liands altogether too much and his brains altogether 
too little, and dividing the tinK^ betv.t'en the two, nec- 
essarily resulte?d in doing neither well. Consequently 
}ieither prospered. This his sons turned all a])out in 
182;"), when my l)rothers became old enough to take 
, charge of affairs. Since which time th(-]-e lias been 
an imj)rovement. 

LINTS .I()^'KS I'FA'K." 
Dated— Holl.-y, March 20. 1S04. 

IIAUVKY t^tioDincJl. 

Harvey (ioodiich waslxanin Herkimer county, J\. 
Y., in ]X(»v. 1791. His father, Zenas (loodrich, re- 
moved to that place from Bejkshiie. Mass. When a 
young man Harvey Goodrich removed to Auburn, ^. 
Y., and worked for some time at th<^ business of mak- 
ing hats, and for several years he officiated as a 
constable. Having l)een successful in accumidating 
])ropert\. he with his brother-in-law, George W. 
StainUirt. took a Job of work in making the Erie 
canal, and leaving Auburn after his canal w(>rk was 
completed, lie located permanently at Albion in the. 
year 1824. and engaged in selling dry goods and 
groceries in com])any with (lefu-ge W. Standart. 

After the <leatli of Mi-. Standart Mr. (loodrich soon 
quit selling dr\ goods and for many years carried on 
the business of niaiiufactui-ing hats and dealing in 
hats and furs- He was also engaged in buying ])ro- 
duce. For a numbei- of years he held the office of 
postmaster in Albion. 



»»K OIIJ.KANS COU.NT^. 109 

Being of an JU'tive, cneigotic tcDijx'i'uiont and T\v 
education and inclination titt^d to take a leading part 
in pnljlic attairs. lu' was one of tlie prominent men in 
tlie rommnnity vvhen^ Ik- lived, always conspicuons 
and lujsy on 2)ul)li<' occasions, generally' liolding some 
official position. 

In jKjlitics lie was a democrat of tli<* straitest sect, 
faithful and true to his part^". 

But perhaps the ardent and earnest (-haractev of 
tlip man ap])earcd clearest in his zeal in the cause (»f 
religion. 

While a resident in Au})urij and about the year 
KS17. he made a puhlic profession of religion and 
united with the First Presl)yterian (Jliurch in that 
pbK'e. then under tlie pastoral care of Kev. Dr. 
Lansing. 

One of the tirst enterprises in whicli lie becanie in- 
terested after he came to Albion was in establishing 
;i Presbyterian chur<,'li there. That denoudnation 
had no<'hurch organization in Barre. 

Througli the agtMicy of Mr. (xoodrich. more especi- 
ally, aided T)}' several other Presbyterians who had 
.settled in Albion and its vicinity, the services of a 
young pieacher fro7n Auburn Theological Seuiinary. 
Kev. William .lohnson, were obtained and tlie Pres- 
Interian Church in Albi<m was organized about Feb. 
.•22. 1^24 by Rev. Andrew Rawson, then lal)oiing as a 
luissionary liere. win* was distinguished as a veteran 
pioneer nnnister in Oi'leans county, the new church 
<*onsisting at the first of Ilarvey (Toodricli. Jedediah 
Phelj)S, Joseph Hart. Ebenezer Rogers, .lames Smith 
and Franklin (\>wdry and theii- wives, and Artenms 
Thayei', Fay (Uark, Lavinia • Bassett aiui Betsf>^- 
Phelps, sixteen membc^rs in all. 

.luly 29. 1824, together with Messrs. Hart and 
Phelps, Mr. (xoodi-ich was elected a riding elder in 
I he Presbyterian Church, an office he continued to 



110 PfoxKKi; iMS'i<)i:v 

hold until liis death. Althougli never formally clioseii 
as a Deacon in the eliurch to wliioli lie belong-ed, lie 
was always known and called '"Deacon (Toodiich" 
by every body who spoke to liim or of liini. 

It was a remarkable trait in Mr. Goodrich's charac- 
ter, that seldom a case of sickness and deatli of any 
j)erson in his neighborhood occured but what he 
attended, administering what he conld to aid the suf- 
ferers according to their needs and usually taking 
«'hargo of the funeral ceremonies over the dead. 

Thus for over forty yearit?, lie was a leading and 
useful man in the church and society at large, largely 
identified with the l)usiness and growth of the vil 
lage of .Vll-tion. a friend of the poor and needy, 
and well known and respected by the people of the 
county. 

About two \-ears before his death he suffered 
ii stroke of 2)aralysis, comi)letel3'^ disabling him in 
the midst of Ids most active industry, from which he 
lingered and languished until he died August 4, bS(58. 
aged 71 Aears. 

OUSON MCIIOSO^'. 

Dr. Orson JXichoson was born in Galway, Saratoga 
county, Xew York, March '2, 179o. He was educated 
as a physician. In the yeai- 1822 he removed to the 
village of Al))ion which was then ])eginning to b(^ 
settled. He entered ardentl}' into every undertaking 
of a public character connected with the organization 
of the county of Orleans Jind tlie civil and social in- 
stitutions which sucli an organization occasioned. 

He was elected the first County Clerk of Orleans 
county and by are-election to a second term, held 
that office six years. 

In August 1819, he settled about two miles south 
»)f Albion. In 1822 he moved to Albion and there, 
for many, years had ji. large practici^ as a physicnan. 




Q" jQ!^^<0-gQ^.^_J\V *^- 



OF OllLKANS ( OiN'lY. J 11 

His health failing, he wi'iit into business with Dr. L. 
( ■. Paine and dealt in drugs, luedicint's and hooks 
until a few years l)efore his death. 

He was the lirst regular physieian who s*^ttled in 
l>arre, lie was also the lirst pln'sician who settled in 
Albion. 

Dr. Nichoson niairied Luc}' Morris in theyi^ar 18"20. 
They had three children, Adeline E., Caroline A. 
and Helen J. Adeline E. married Jonatlian y. Stew- 
art, and Helen J. married Charles A. Stanton. She 
died May 12, 18(52. Mrs. Lucy Nichoson died Oc- 
tober 8, 1804. Dj-. Orson Nichoson died :May 7, 1870. 

TI^roTliV r. STKOXC. 

Timothy C. Stj-ong was born in Southampton, 
Mass., March b"). 1700. At the age of sixteen years 
lie entered as an apprentice to learn tlie art of })rint- 
Ing with J. D. Huntington, at INIiddlebury, Vermont. 
He married Aurelia (foodsell, daughter of Dr. Pen- 
.Held Goodsell, of Litchfield, Ct., April 14, 1811. He 
c(mimence:^d business for himself at Middlebury, l)y 
])ublishing a newspaper called the *' Vermont Mii*- 
I'or, ' ' al so a magazine edited b}" Samuel Swift, and a 
literary \xovh called tlie '•' Philosophical Kepositor}','' 
^'dited by Prof. Hall, of Middlel)ury College. 

In Sept. 1817, he removed to Palmyra, N. Y,, 
where he })ublished a newspaptn-. In the fall of 1823 
he removed to Ann Arbor, Michigan, and in February 
1825, he removed to Newport, now Albion, Orleans 
county, N. Y., and purchased of Franklin Cowdry 
a news])aper establishment called " The Newport Pat- 
riot," wdiich waH started by Mr. Cowdry, Feb. 9th, 
1824. Mr. Strong changed the name of this ;[)aper t<^ 
• The Orleans Ad\T»cate.' In Fel>uary, 1828, in the 
nddst of the t^xcitement following tli(^ abduction of 
Morgan, ^h: Strong « 'hanged it to the 'The Orleans 



112 PIOXEKK IIIST<»i:V 

Adv()(*at('. uiul .Aiiti-Masoiiic Tn^'i^rajili." Mud soon 
aft«n' to • The Aiiiericaii Standard." I'nder tliis name; 
it was ]iublislu'd two years by Mr. J. Kempshall. 
wlien it passed l)a(^k into tlie hands of Mr, 8tron<; 
wlio clianged it to tlie ' Orleans American,' and pu>)- 
lished it till in April 1844, when he sold his paper 
nnd printiiisi: estahlislinient to J. & .). II. Denio, who 
continned tlie paper till ]8o8, when they sold out ;, 
an<l after passing through seA^eral liands it w^as bought 
in January. 18fil, by H. A. Bruner, its present pro- 
prietor. 

Tn November, 1884, Mr. Strong was elec^ted County 
iJlerk of Orleans county, an offic«' he continued to hold 
by re-election f(^r nine years. 

Mr. Strong made a profession of religion in early 
life and united with the Presbyterian Church. He 
<lied at Albion of a cancer August 6th, 1844, in the 
liftA'-tifth y(»ar of his age, leaving a wifn and twelve 
children surviving. 

NATHAN' WFriTNKV, 

Nathan Whitney was T)orn in Conway, Massachu- 
setts. .January 22d. 1791. He removed to Orleans 
county, in Febrimry, 1814, and settled inwdiat is now 
liarre. He was at the taking of Fort Erie in Septem- 
ber, 1814. When the town of Barre was organized 
he was elected Justice of the Peace, an office he held 
several ypars and when Orhr-ans county was set otf" 
he was tilected SuperAisor of Barrt^ and served in tlu^ 
year 1820. Being fond of military exercises, he held 
various military offi('<^s from Lic^utf^nant to Lieutenant- 
Colonel. Being regarded as a capable, honest and 
t'tficient man \)y his fellow citizens, he was often put 
forward by them to official positions and dis(diarged 
th(^ duties of almost ever}' town office. He removed 
from Barre to Elba, Clenesee county, in 1827, and af- 



OF OKLKAN^ COUNTY. 113 

terwards rprnoved to L^t^ county. Tllinois, wherf Iip 
was living- in the tall of 18(ii>. 

AVKKY ^\. STAKKAV KATHKK. 

Aveiy M. starkweather was born in Preston, (yon- 
necticnt, October Hd. 171>0. He resided a time in Pal 
niyra, N. Y., and came to tlie town ofBarreand took 
an article for his farm in April, 1816. After the Erie 
Canal was opened, foi- thiiteen years lie had charge 
of the tii'st State repaiiing scow boat on this section. 
He was Superintendent of Canal Repairs one year. 
His T)eat extended from Holley to Lockport and a,l a 
salary of ^oOO, without a clerk or any i)er(piisitew. 
His instructions reqnired liim to travel over and p«^r 
sonally inspect his section at least once each week in 
the season of navigation, which he did. 

For thirteen year<? lie wa s an assessor of the town <:1 
Barre. and was Supervisoi- of the town for the years 
1842 and 1848. lie was aii active, thorough business 
man, honest and conscientious, much respected as fjn 
as he was known. He died Oct. 'S. 180o, 

AM OS K<"i(yi', 

Amos Hoot was born at Sand Lake, Rensselaei 
c<mnty. N. Y., July 12th, 1808. He was apprenticed 
to learn the trade of bUKiksmith and removed to Alle 
gany county, X. Y., in 1818. After serving his ap- 
l)renticeship he carried on business as a blacksmith 
nearh'^ thirty yeai-s. since which time he has been a 
farmer. 

About bsHO. lie moved from Allegany county to 
Michigan, and r<.'turned to tlie town of Barre in 1838, 
where lie has since resided. 

He nmrried lihoda Ann Bemiett .July^ 11th, 1824. 
Being a large and strong man in his youth he was 
noted as a great wood chctppi^r. ^Vhile residing in 
Allegany county lie was engaged with a large comjut 
ny cutting out a new road. A bet of fifty dollars was- 



ri4 PIONKKIi IHSTOKV 

made by the company as to Jiis powci- as a ('liu])pei-. 
A large white oak tree was felled and Mr. Root and 
Ins antagonist stood on it to try which could first 
chop off a log, Koot taking the butt. Mr. Root won 
tiie bet. It was a hot day in Jul}'. 'I'he man oj)- 
posed to liim ovei-worked himself and di<>d in a week 
afterwards from the effects. 

Mr, Israel Root, fathej- of .Vmos. Avho was a soldier 
of the RHVolution, removed from .Vllcgany t(» Orleans 
county in 1825, and settled on the farm now owned 
])y his son Amos, in Hairc. He came across tlic 
country in a wagon with his fanuly, and .Vmos 
brought the goods on two cjuu^es made of large pine 
Jogs and lashed together. These he launched on the 
(lenesee river at Gai'deaii and paddled dosvn to Roch 
ester and then })ut them in the canal and came to 
Gaines' Basin, then a favoi-ite landing place for emi- 
grants who come by canal lo settle in this vicinity. 
oziAs ■>. cinHcii. 

Ozias S. Cliurch was boi'u in Windham. Connecti- 
cut, January 81st, 1785. By occu})ation he was a 
fanner, though he labored with his father at the 
blacksmithing business duj-ing his minority. Octo- 
ber 13th, 1801^ lie nuirried Parmelia Palmer, who 
was born in Windham, Oct. 3d, 178(5. They removed 
to Otsego county, N. V.. in 1812, where he worked at 
farming until 1817, when lie removed to Henrietta, 
Monroe Co., N. Y., and from thence to the town of 
I^arre in 1834. 

Mr. Church was a democrat in ])olitics and took a 
deep and activ(^ interest in his ])arty. As Tnited 
States Marshal he took the census of Monroe ccmnty 
in l83(). and of Orleans county in 1840. He was 
!V)st Master at South Baiiv for twenty years. 

Mrs. Church dicnl Dec. 7, 1801, and Mr. Church 
.Dec. lOtii, 1803. ^Fhey were parents of John P. 
Church, who died while County Clerk of Orleans 





./ 



cAMyA-^^ 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 115 

-county, in D<'cember, 1858, and of Hon. Sanfoixl E. 
Church, present Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals 
of the State of New York. 

WILLIAM r.KADNEII. 

William Bi-adner removed to the town ot Gaines 
from Palmyra, N. Y. Soon after he bought of Mi'. 
MeCollister the article for lot thirty-five, on the East 
side of Main street in Albion, and took a deed from 
the Holland Company for 266 1-2 acres, December H, 
1819. His brother, Joel Bradner, took a deed from 
the Company for ninety-two acres lying on the south- 
west corner of said lot thirty -iiv(\ William Bradner 
sold one hundred acres of the north-west pai't of his 
tract April 22nd, 1822, to Tngersoll, Smith & Buck- 
ley. 

A. HYDE COLE. 

Hon. Almeron Hyde Cole was born at Lavanna, 
Cayuga county, N. Y., April 20th, 1798. His pa- 
rents removed to Aubui'ii in 1807, and there he pre- 
pared for college and entered the Sophomore class in 
Union College in 1815. Among his classmates were 
Greorge W. Doane, late Bishop of iS'ew Jersey, Alonzo 
Potter, late Bishop of Pennsylvania, Dr. Hickok, 
late President of Union College, and William H. 
Seward, late Covernor of New York, Senator, <tc. 
He remained in college two years and then left with- 
out completing his college course, in consequence of 
the death of his mother, and other changes in his 
father's family. 

In the fall of 1817, he eiitered the law office of 
Judge Josei)h L. Hichardson, then first Judge of 
Cayuga county, as a student. He was admitted At- 
torney in the Supreme Court in his twenty-lirst }'t^ar 
and formed a partnership with Judge Richardson in 
I^ractice. A few months afterwards he dissolved with 
.Judge Richardson and entered into joartnership to 



116 IMONKKK JU!«TORY 

practice law uitli Mr. George W. Fleming. After 
being at iSeneca Falls for a time, they removed to" 
Albion in the spring of 182.5, where they practiced 
law together till 1832. After dissolving with Mr, 
Fleming, Mr. (Jole was for some years in practice of 
law with his brother, Hon. Ban H. Cole. 

Mr. Cole served seventeen years as ii Justice of thf' 
l*eace of the t(jwn of Barre, and transacted an im- 
mense; amount of official T3usiness. 

In NoA'ember, 1847, he was elected member of tlie 
Senate of the State of New York, where he served one 
fcnu (^f two years and declined a re-election. After 
l('a\ ing the 8«'nate he resumed his law practice in 
Albion, but a large amount t)f })usiness coming into 
liis hands as executor in tlie settlement of an estate 
in ( 'ayuga county, he closed his law practice in Al- 
bi(jn and devoted his time exclusively to the duties of 
his executorship, and to the management of a large 
farm Ik.' owned in the town of (laines. 

Although a good advocate and a strong and logical 
reasoner at the bar.. Mr. Cole was not so tluent and 
j)olished a speaker as his partner Mr. Fleming, In 
their earlier years of practice together. Mr. Cole fur- 
nished his quota of hrains to the lirm, MhileMr. Flem- 
ing f'uj-nished the tongue. 

M r. ( 'ole was esteemed to be a well read and sound 
lawyer whose opinions on legal questions were much 
sf Might and relied on. His counsel and advice were- 
so much valued among the peo]_)h.^ that he early be- 
came distinguished byway of eminence as the 'coun- 
selor' or 'counselor Cole.* by which title or name 
he was always spoken of and well known. 

In tenipeiament he was ardent, imjuilsive and sen- 
sitive, feeling quick and sharply the iritations of the 
moment. l>ut nothing like hatred ever had a place in 
his bosom. 

Froiri the ]teculiarit\- of his character lie sometimes* 



OB" ORLKAN'S (.'OUXJ Y. 117 

-4ipi:)eai'ed brusque and rougli to those who ap})roached 
him, but no man had a kinder liejirt. The sternness or 
apparent harslmess of manner which he possessed, 
was more tlian balanced in Ins case by tlie 
keen regret lie felt when he knew he liad caused 
pain to any and the hearty sympatln- and u<'nei'osity 
he ever manifested to those in distress. 

Mr. Cole was never married. Coming to Orleans 
count}^ when it was tirst organized, among tlu^ first 
lawyers who settled here, he was a prominent nuui in 
publi<^* affairs and well known to the people of th«' 
vounty. He died Oct. 14, 1859. 

BKN.IAMI.N" I.. J{KSSA<:. 

"1 was born in the town of New Baltimore, (Ireene 
.<;ouuty, N. Y., March 12th, 1807. The death of m\ 
mother which occiiried wlien I was twelve ^ears of 
age, tlirew me upon tlie family of m^' grand parents 
where I remained until I was fourteen years old. My 
father, who was a blacksmith by trade, and wlif) re- 
t^ided in the county of (Uienango, having married a 
second time and closed up his business in Chenango, 
started for the ^tate of Ohio with a view of commen- 
.4*ing business there as a farmer. This was in tlie fall 
of 1821. WHien he arrived in the town of Clarence, 
■Erie county, a snow storm set in and prevented his 
^further progress that fall, and having with him some 
tools and a small stock of iron he rented a shop and 
began work as a blacksmitli at Ransom's Grove, as it 
iis now called, at Clarence Hollow. He soon after 
purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land 
;at the Great Rapids on the the Tonawanda ('reek, 
six miles youth of Lockport. 

In the summer of 1822, having obtained a scanty 
•common school education, and being large enough to 
help m}" fathei' in his shoj) and on his farm, he wrote 
lo me giving a glowing account of the countiy, of his 



118 PIONEER HISTORY 

farm, of the tine fish in the creek and the fine sport 
in taking tlieni, and desiring me to come and help 
him, 

I accordingly went to Albany and put my baggage 
on board a seven horse wagon, then about to (iail for 
Buffalo, loaded with specie for the L'nited States^ 
Bank at Erie, Penns3dvania. Thus e([uipped I 
started for the Holland Purchast? in July, 1822, in 
care of Mr. Hockins, the owner of the establishment. 
We traveled slowly, not making over fifteen miles a 
day, sleeping in our wagon nights and watching pur 
treasure, (letting tired of tins slow mode of travel- 
ing, wlien we arrived at Canandaigua I took the stage' 
and came on to Clarence, and arrived at my father's 
.Inly 22d, 1822. In a few days I went with my father 
to explore his new farm, he carying a bag of jirovis- 
ions and I a compass and chain with other articles 
for our journey. !My half-brother William, then 
thirteen years old, accompanied us. 

It was here, in July, 1822, in what was then called 
' the north woods 'that 1 commenced my pioneer life, 
and for thc^ next three years, and until October, 1825, 
I shared in tl\e hardsliips, labors and privations of 
the early settlers. During that time I assisted in 
chopping and partly clearing forty acres of lieavily 
timbered land and erecting a comfortable log build- 
ing. Being poss(^ssed of a strong, atbletii^ frame, and 
a good lobust constitution, and never having been 
sick a day in my life. 1 endured tlie hardshi])s and 
labors of the wiUlerness with cheeifulnei-s and 
pleasure, and T oft<'n hjok back to those days and 
reckon them among tlie happiest of my life. And I 
would not ouiit to record here with grateful heart 
the kind care of my Heavenly Father in })reserving 
my life amid the dangers and accidents through 
which I passed in my youthful days. 

Not ])ossessiiig at my fath(>rs the advantriges f<u- 



OF OKLKANS CorXTY. 119 

mental iiiipTovcineiit wliicli 1 desired. I concluded in tiie 
fall of 1825 to aliandon niv })ionepr life, return to tlie 
east, obtain an education and study a profession. 
Accordintrly October 2d. 1825. 1 left my ax and liancJ 
spike and went to Lo('k})ort. got on board the canal 
boat vDe Witt Clinton' and saihfl foi- the east. 
Stopping in Albion for tlu^ V>oat to take on loading 1 
took an excursion through that hnv. muddy, and as 
I thought unsightly young village. I little thought 
then that "Newport," as it was called was destined 
to be my future home T then pronounced Newjiort 
a queer place on which to build a town. 

1 returned to the boat and ])assed on through Hol- 
lev. Bro(^kport, Adams" and Spencer's Basins, ail 
little straggling hamlets, as 1 thought them, ar- 
riving in Kochester in the night. Here I expected to 
meet a gentleman from Tompkins county by appoint - 
juent, with wliom 1 was int(^nding to travel to visit my 
relatives in this vicinity and then go l)y boat with 
stmie relatives to Albany. But the gentleman did 
not come as I expected. My little stock of money 
was exliausted on Tuesday night in paying for itiy 
supper. I was now a sti-anger in a strange land. . 1 
knew not what to do or how 1 should be provided 
for. T Avandered about Ro(diester until Saturday 
morning, eating nothing except a few a])ples which ! 
picked up in an orchard in the town of Brighton, i 
sle])t nights on tli(^ piazza of the Exchange Hotel, oa 
the corner at the intersection of the canal with the_ 
basin, where the packt^ boats used to lay u]). PiVery 
morning when a lire was made up in the old l)akery 
at the west end Of the a(iueduct. 1 went into tlu^ front 
room and warmed myself, tantalized by the smell < t 
the bread which was piled uj) on the counter, steaiu 
ing hot, and I'or wliich 1 was starving. 1 was t<»o 
])roud to iH'g. and I thank (fod for it, too honest to 
steal. 



'I'hus the week passed until Saturda}' moiiiiiiii when 
I had a presshig invitation to join a ciirus company 
tlien performing tliere. I was tlien young, active and 
strong, but my good quakor training, and ahove all 
tlie hand of Providence shaping my ways, kept my 
youthful feet from tliat i)ath. 

On Saturday morning T met a man wlio asked me 
if I would work, and I gladly hired to him for a part 
c>i the day. Ih^ led tlie wa\" to the ])arii back of 
the canal, between Fitzhugh and Sophia streets, 
where the ground was literally strewn with heav}' 
cannon, and I worked until the middle of the after- 
noon assisting to put tliem on a scow boat for 
distribution along the canal, to be used in liring a 
grand salute at the meeting of the watei's of Lake 
Erie with the Hudson river, November 2d. 1825. a 
day never to l)e forgotten in Western New Yoi'k. T 
received half a dollar foi- my work and went to a 
humble tavern for supper and had lodging in a bed. 
A better meal or sweeter sleep I never enjoyed. The 
next morning I went out on the street and almost the 
first man I met was the fiiend for whom 1 was wait- 
ing. 

After writing to my relatives in Tompkins county T 
i oft for Albany and entered the city with the fleet <>f 
canal boats in the canal celebration November 2d, 
1825, amid llie roar of artillerv and the sound of mar- 
tial music. 

I'he Erie and ('ham])lain canals were now tinished. 
Navigation li»:»tween the ocean and lake was now 
0[)ened, and a new era of unparalleled prosperity had 
conmienced, and tlie exultant people were duly cele- 
brating the auspicious event. 'Peace hath her victo- 
I'ies.' 

After mingling with the thi-ong that crowded the 
Ktreets a few hours, I started (m foot for the home of 
luy childhood, where l<)v<'d ones I had not seen for 



OF OKL>:.\XS OOI'NTY. 1*21 

31101V than three \ eai's were daily «\\:pectiiig me. It 
was niglit-fall when I ascended tlie hist hill and tli«* 
well-known trees were standing like sentinels around 
the old homestead in the fading twilight. My truant 
feet once more passed the threshold. The old watch- 
dog knew my step. ^Vith a tinttering heart I looked 
in at the window, and for a moment surveyed the 
group as they sat around the clieerful fireside. God 
in his goodness liad kept them all aud the wandering 
child had got home. 

I was ])ast eighteen years of age when 1 retujiied 
from Western New Yoi-k. 1 had seen sometliiug of 
the world and had some experi^^nce in pioneer life. 
My education was not such as the disti-ict schools of 
this day afford. My mind had lieen somewhat im- 
proved by reading in a desultory and aimless man- 
ner. I taught a winter school in my natiAe town, ancl, 
in the spring of 182(5 hired out as farm laborer at nine 
dollars per month in the county of Albany. 

I taught school in the same county the winter of 
1826-7, and in the spring entered the (IretMiville Acjid- 
emy, in (Ireene county, wdiere 1 renuiined until tlie 
coming fall, and by this time I had succeded in pre- 
paring myself to enter the sophomore class at Union 
College ; my friends liowever prefered that I should 
follow a mercantile life, and procured me a situation 
in a wholesale dry goods house in the city of 
New York, where 1 remained until the termination 
of fall busint'ss. J then returned to my native town 
intending to go back to New York the following 
spring. 

I taught sch<,)ol at Marbletown, Tlster county, N, 
Y.. the winter of 1827-8, with great success, fornnng 
many ])leasant acquaintances that have been cher- 
ished through subsequent life. 

Early in the s])ring I was attacked with Pleui-isy, 
and lay at the pi^int of death for ;i number of days. 



122 IMUNEEK HISTOlfY 

On ivi'ovt'i'ing the spriiio; liad so far advanced 1 did 
not go to New York as I intended, Init eontinned niy 
sehool until tiio spi-ino- of 1829. wlien laying down 
tlief'ende I (U)nimenced busines^• on my own account 
in the village of West Troy, Albany county, heing 
neaii}^ twenty-two years old. 

April 1], 1880, I was married toDeborali, daughter 
of Rev. Simeon I)ickins(m, of East Haddain, Conn. 
8he was at that time a teachei- in Mrs. Willard's Fe- 
male Seminary at Troy. 

I continued my business at West Troy, until the 
fall of that year, when I sold out and removed with 
my wife to the city of Mol)ile, Alabama, where she 
opened the Mobile Female Seminary, under the most 
favorable a u spices. 

I was (derk in the I'nited States Bank in that <'ity. 
Jn the month of Dec. 1881 my wile died suddenly, 
and I was left alone in a strange city without a rela- 
tive nearer than the State of N(^w York. 

I transferred the Seminary to otliei- hands, resigned 
my clerkship in the Bank, closed uj) my business 
mattei's, and in i\farch 1882 leturned to my old home. 

I spent that summer and the following winter in 
traveling for recreation, and in thes])ring of 1888. 
being twenty-six years old. 1 entered u])on the study 
of the law with Amasa Mattison Ks([., then a }»romis- 
ing lawyer of Caii-o. in the county of (Ireeiie, where 1 
remained until fall, when 1 entered the'oftice of Judge 
Hiram (lardner of Lock]iort and remained with him 
nntil Apiil 188."), when I canii' to Albion where I have 
f3ver since i'(\sided. 

June 18. bS8,'5, 1 was married to Caroline (f., daugh- 
ter of Samuel Baker of ('oeynuins. in the <'ounty of 
Albany and in August following ])urchased the ])rop- 
erty on which I have since resided. 

1 am now (1862) nearly tifty-four years of age, and 
mnst soon, in all human ]U'obal)ility. lay aside the 



OF OKl.EANS rOI XTY. 12H 

active duties of 1113^ ])rofession, and yield my j>la('e to 
those younger and better fitted fortlie responsiT)ilities 
of the station. 

In reviewing tlie pathway of my life I heliold it 
plentifully strewn witli incidents, always oAershadow- 
ed by the watchful care of my Heavenly Father, 
whose unnumhei^d mercies I am called u})on to record. 

When fourteen years of age I unitt.^d with tlie Re- 
fbiTued Dutch CHiurch in Greene county, uj)on a con- 
fession of my faith, and in 1842 I united with the 
Presbyterian church in Albion, my wife coming witli 
me to the same altai-. 

Ji. L. BESSAC." 

Albion, .January 8, 1SG2. 

TFENnV K. (IKTrs. 

Hon. Henry R. Curtis was born in Hoosic, Rensse- 
laer county New York, in thej^ear ISW. After pass- 
ing his youth at labor on a farm, aju) in acquiring 
such elementary education as his own exeitions and 
the limited means of his widowed mother could sup- 
ply, he commenced the stud}^ of law with Haniel 
Kellogg of Skaneateles. and pursued it afterwards 
with Hon. Hiram Mather in Elbridge, New York. 

In the fall of 1824 lie settled in Albion, Orleans 
(•ounty before he was admitted to the Bar, going into 
partnei-ship with Alexis AVard, who was liei-e before 
him. and who liad been admitted tn the Supreme 
Court. 

In 1881 he was ap])ointed District Attorney for 
Orleans county, in which office he was continued by 
subsequent appointments, (excepting the 3'ear 1682,) 
until June 1847, when he was elected County Judge 
and Surrogate, being the iirst ( -ounty Judge chosen 
under the constitution of 1846. He was re-(4e<rted to 
the same office in Nov. 18ri0, and died before tlie ex- 
piration of his second term. 

Before he was a judge he had lield tlie offices of 



124 F»[OJ>rEER HISTORY 

Examiner and Master in (.'lian('er\ . and many eivil 
offices in town and villat^e. 

Ho was a hard student devoting; himself to the 
hibors of liis profession witli untiring assiduity, never 
engaging- in other T)usiness specalations. 

For twenty-five }'ears he was a ruling Elder in the 
I*resbyterian Chureli and much of that time a faith- 
ful teacher in the Hunday School in his church. 

As an advocate he was cool, clear and persuasive, 
and the known honesty of his character and the sin- 
cerity of his manner and language, commonly carried 
<*onviction in his favor to the courts and juries he 
addressed. 

As a c()uns<'lor he Avas a ])eacemakei'. judicious, 
rautious ^ind sound. ]Xever encouraging litigation 
when it could ))e avoided. He was a man with few 
enemies and many friends, an honest lawyer and good 
man. Tie died S^eptember 2(>, bSo."). 

ZEN AS K. IIiniiAllI). 

•' I was l)orn in Scroon, Essex <'ounty, ^'ew York, 
.Vpril 4, 1804. My Jincestoi's were of Scotch descent, 
and wirtre among those wIk^ fie'd to this country from 
the oppressions of the old world, to enjoy civil and 
religious liberty in the new world. 

My father afterwards remo\'ed from Scroon to Bran- 
don, A'ejniont, and from Brandon he moved in the 
summer of 181(5, to what is now Barre, New York, 
July 12, 1810. on lot 10, township 15, range 2. of the 
Holland Purchase, one nule west of Albion where lie 
lived sixteen years. He then removed to Barre ('enter 
where he resided until his death, which oc«'urred 
February 5, ISf^J. 

I attended the fiist school taught in Barre, in a log 

rtchool house, which stood on the west side of Oak 

Orchard road, in what is now the village of Albion. 

al so attended th«' first town meeting in Barre after 



OF ORLEANS < OrNTV. 12') 

tlie town was organized, at the liouse of Al)ra]iani 
Mattison, abtmt two miles south of Albion. I also 
attended the great celebration of the opening of tht' 
Erie ( *anal. when th(^ waters of Lake Ki'ie mingled 
with those of tlie Hudson River. I was also present 
when the site for the county buildings was located at 
Albion, which wa-' tlie most exciting time, perhaps, 
ever known in tliis eounty. 

I was present when the lirst ( •ongregational church 
in the town of Barre was foinied, at the house of 
Joseph Hart. Tliis church then consisted of the fol- 
lowing named persons, viz : Joseph Hail and wife. 
Ebenezer Rogers and wife. Ithamar Hibbard and wife, 
Artemas Tha3a^r and wif»*, Artmias Houuhton and 
Thankful Thurston. 

I was married to Amanda Wrisle^ . in Barre. Junt- 
19. Mt^28. She was l)orn in Gill. :Mass.. ]S'ov. 18. 1809. 

'/.. F. HIKBAIU).- 

Dated— KaiTc ('enter. April 4t]i, 186.}. 

Letter from W^illiam Tanner, formerly' of Orleans 
county, N, Y.. written to the l^ioneei- Association : 
''To the officers and members of tht' Oi'leans County 

Pioneer Association : 

Gentlemen : As fond memoi->- often shajpcns old. 
ears to catch some word of the old home of our youth, 
so n(»w at three score vears and one I have h(^ard of 
your society. AVhat you do or what you say, I do 
not know, but T do know if you are the real pioneers 
I should lie glad indeed to meet with you at your 
annual gatheri ng. 

Tell me, d<'ar sirs, are \ ou togethej- to speak of the 
days \\ hen Albion was a mud hole, and Jesse Bum- 
pus and Dea. Hart and a few others owned the whole 
of it ^ And when the old log school house half a 
mile north of .Vlbion was Imilt, where Francis Tannei- 
tirst declared martial law among the little folks : and 
when Mr. Jakeway so well adapted to the business by 



126 PIONEEU lIISTOFwY 

his six leet four inches of hody and legs, used to break 
the road through four feet of snow, with three yoke of 
oxen, from tlie Ridge Road to father Crandall's near 
one Angel's, not (labriel, hut 'Cabin Angel,' as he 
was called by way of distinction. 

And there was Dea. Daniels, and Esij. Babbitt a 
little east, the workings of whose face denoted wis- 
dom as he sat in judgment to decide weighty matters 
between neighbors. 

Never shall I forget envying that man his high 
office as justice of tlie peace when I was a small 
boy. 

Then there was .John Pi'octor and his tall juid anu*- 
able wife and large farm. 

Then again at Gaines Corners, the corpulent land- 
lord Bootli, together with Dr. Anderson, with his 
mild and pleasant way of telling people it wouldn't 
liurt much to pull teeth, and then almost taking their 
lieads off with his strong arm. 

Later, there was good Jeptlia AVood, who first 
taught mo tliat liot and cold iron would not weld 
togethei'. 

But I must not name others lest I have not room to 
say a word to the old Pioneers. 

How simple was I in my boyhood days to env}' 
the honored Esq. ]5abbitt, or the ricli farmer Proctor 
of those early times. I have since been ' Esq.' my- 
self. I have Tieen rich also ; but neither the honor of 
the one nor tlie gold of the other, l)ring8 happiness 
while liere on this mundane sphere. When 
I turn my thoughts to tlie spot of all others most 
dear to me, Samuel N. Tanners old farm, and the ' city 
of the dead,' Mount Albion, opposite to his once 
earthly habitation, where I once chased the deer, and 
see the monumental slabs erected over heads many of 
whom were my friends in youth, I am ready to ex- 
claim — ' ^Yllere are the pioneers I once knew C 



OF ORLKANS cur'NTY. 127 

But sirs, soiiu! of you still live and allow iiie to 
speak of what yon have (lone. You are aiuoiig the 
U'reatest uieii of the nation. Yon luivt^ leveled the 
sturdy forest, planted fruitful lields. orchards and 
tj^ardens, huilt railroads and canals, set up talking 
wires by which we carry our freight and travel 
(•heaply over three hundred miles a day and converse 
wirh lightning s])t'ed with tar distant friends. 

1 imagine 1 see l)e Witt Clinton standing in his 
beautiful garden in th(^ city of Xew York, listening, 
as it were, to hear the sound of the axes of Dea. 
Ilart. Buni])us. Proctor, Babbitt, and a long list of 
names I have no room to refer to. .\.nd I see him 
tuiii to givr the Commissions to the Cliief Engineer 
anil Surveyor : and what do I heai- him say i " The 
pioneei-s are there at work ; you can a<n'07uplish your 
work now." 

Teach it to your childnm and grand-children, that 
they are indebted to you for all the vast improve- 
ments made in the great west, as the result of hard 
toil and laboj". Labor, which always ])recedes the 
development of everything great and good; labor, 
that (rod ordained, sanctioned and a})proved ; labor 
that is so conducive to liealth and comfort and that 
brings its sure reward. I love labor, even in deepest 
old age. 1 would ol)ey(Tod and benefit myself by 
laboring when able, seeing it is the only sure road 
leading to individual and natioiial wealth and great- 
ness, as well as to ])ersonal haj^piness and com- 
fort. 

Had our statesmen spent money without stint and 
built youi- railroads and canals, unless preceded and 
accompanied by the ])ioneers, it would have availed 
but little. 

Education is a piiceless acquisition ; give it to the 
vouno- b^' ;dl means, but do ]iot i'oiget to teach them 



128 PIONKKK HISTORY 

the <i,ivat value und heiietit <jf intelligent and well di- 
rected lahor, 

And now. f2;entle]npn. I ask your patienee in deci- 
plicrinii; my trem Idling wiiting, and excuse bad spell- 
ing, for I see much of it. I have labored too long 
and liard to be able now to write elegantly. 
Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM TANNER." 
East Liberty, Allen Co., Ind., March Mi, 1805. 

HOSWF.I.l. S. Bl KKOWS. 

Koswell S. Burrows was born in (xroton. Conn.^ 
Feb. 22. 1798. He was fitted for college at Bacon 
.Academy, (Jonn.. entered the Sophomore Class in 
Yale College in 1819, and took a dismission in the 
fall of 182(1. in consequence of protracted ill health. 
He never i-etiirned to college, but in the year 1867, the 
honorar}- degree of A. M. was conferred on him by 
Yale College. 

lie received some capital b\- devise from his grand- 
father with Avhich he purchased a cotton factory in 
Rhode Island, and there carried on business for some 
time for himself. His factory not j)roving as profita- 
ble an investment as he expected, he sold out, receiv- 
ing a small payment down and n mortgage for the 
balance, which, through the fraud of another party, 
]) roved a total loss. 

Ill July, 1824, he came to Orleans county and lo- 
cated at Albion, and in Sept. next after, he borrowed 
two tliousand d(^llars of his father, and a like sum of 
his father-in-law. laid it out in a stock of goods, and 
with This i-ajutal, increased T)y a small sum saved 
from thc' ruin of his factory speculation, commenced 
business as a merchant, in a little wooden building, 
standing veiy near th<' site of the First National Bank 
of Albion. 

In November 1824, his younger brother, Lorenzo 
Burrows, came to Albion to assist him as his clerk. 



im 





///lA.^Olv^ n 



OF OKI. KAN'S <-oi;n'iv. 11'9 

This jiiTjnigeuuMit roTitiiiiind until in 18^2(5 the fiiTn <! 
l^ S. iV L. EiiiTcms w!is foinied. wliicji existed iii 
business as dry li'oods luercliaiits. produce dealer^,, 
and in wait'housing and forwavdinu,- on the Erie Canal 
]'oi' ten or t^lcven years, wJinn th<n' sohl out their entii'i* 
stock of goods. 

When Mr. I^urrows sHttle<l in All)ion the canal w;!>' 
made navi(i,al^l<' as fai' west as Lockjxut, and one iii- 
dncenK^nt he had to stop here was tise promise o1 
Canal Conimissioner. AVm. C. Honck, that he shouk! 
receive tlie appointment of Colh'ctorof (Janal revenue 
an office then ah(mt to be estal)lish(>d at Albion. 

This oihce of (V^llector was .ti■i^('n to iiini in 182.">, 
and was coiitinned by re-appointnu-nt until ]8;-i-2, 
wlien lie was suceeeded by (\ S. >b'(^)nnell. • 

Mr. Hnr]-o\vsl)nilt the wai'ehousc now standinu'JK.xt 
east from ]Slain street on the canal, in 1827. After tiie • 
sale of tlieir goods in store, as abo\-e stated, Messrs. 
H. S. A: L. Buriows continned their Avarelionse bu.si- 
ness and dealt in produce until the general banking 
law went into operation, un<lei' which they estab- 
lish«>d the Bank of Albion, whicli commenced bu«i- 
,uess under that law July Vn\\. 1880. This bank cOii- 
tinued in o])eration about twcmty-seven years, and 
was tinally closed under tlu- new policy which sul»- 
stituted National P)anks. Its hist officers were Hos 
well S. BiuTows, President ; Loren/.o Burrows, Cash- 
ier; and Andrew J. Cliester, Teller. 

Mr. Burrows organized a ntnv bank in Albion, De- 
<*(^mber 28, 18C.:], called 'The First National Bank cf 
Albion.' This was the first National Bank which went 
into opej-ation in the ^tate of Xew York west of Sy- 
racuse. Koswell S. Burrows, President ; Alexander 
Stewai't. Cashier; and Albeit S. Warner, Teller. 
Mr. 11. S. Burrows owned a majority *)f the capital 
stock of both these banks, was always thnir President 
and a Director and tli(^ ]»rin( ipal managei-. 



1*)() riONEEU iriSTOKY 

Within the last lbrt\' }eai's Mr. Burrows lias been 
Dh'ector and Trustee of many corporations and com- 
panies, such as railroad companies, telegra^jh com- 
panies, the Niagara Falls ISuspension Bridge compa- 
ny, and one mining com])any. He has been Trustee 
of several religious, l)ene^'olent and literary institu- 
tions. He has frequently been proposed by his 
friends as a candidate for various civil offices but al- 
waj'S declined a nomination. 

Several years since tlie extensive and very valuable 
library of Professor Neander, of German}-^, was of- 
fered for sale by reason of the death of its owner. 
Mr. Burrows purcliased this library and jjresented it 
to the Rochester Theological Seminary, connected will i 
the Baptist denomination. This librar}', consisting of 
several tliousand volunu^s of lure and valuable books 
collected through man}' ^ears by one of the be.'t 
scholars of his time in Europe, is valued at from fif- 
teen to twenty tliousand dollars. 

In addition to tliis library, a few years ago Mr. Bur- 
rows oftered to give this Theological Seminary the mu- 
nificent gift of one hundretl thousand dollars to add 
to its endowments, with the promise of more if pros- 
pered in business as he hoped to be. The Trustees 
of the Seminary proposed to Mr. Burrows if h«' 
would increase his proposed endowment of that insti- 
tution to two hundred and fifty thousand dollars they 
would give it the name of ' The Burrows Theological 
Seminary of Rochester, N. Y.' 

These pi'oposjils it is understood have never ])e»Mi 
formally witlidrawn Or acted on. 

As a business man Mr. Burrows is cool, shrewd, 
clear-headed and sagacious ; never disturbed by 
|)anics, or deceived by false appearances. He has 
accumulated a great fortune l)y indefatigable indus- 
try, and prudently and safely investing his accumu- 
lations. Although advanced in vears, he was 



OF OKLEANS rOUNTY. 131 

never perhaps more busy than now, and never found 
his great experience and capital yielding him a larger 
profit. 

WILLIAM T'P:NNIMAN. 

Judge Penniman was born in Peterborough, Hills- 
borough County, N. H., August o, 1793. After ob- 
taining a good common school and academic educa- 
tion in his native State, he emigrated to Ontario Co., 
New York, in Sept., 1816, and from thence to Shelby, 
Orleans County, in October, 1820. He took up land 
in that town on which he resided about eight years ; 
he then removed to Albion, remaining there more 
than two years, finally settling on a farm in Barre, 
near Eagle Harbor, where he has ever since resided. 

In 1825, Mr. Penniman was appointed a Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas, for Orleans Count3% then 
lately organized, and was one of the first bench of 
Judges, which composed that Court, which office he 
held five years. In 1831, he was elected Justice of 
the Peace of Barre and served in that office until he 
removed to Eagle Ha^'bor, when he resigned. 

In 1846, he represented Orleans Countj^ as a mem- 
ber of the Convention to revise the Constitution of the 
State of New York. 

Judge Penniman was a celebrated school teacher 
for many years after he came to Orleans County, 
having taught school fourteen winters and seven sum- 
mers. He alwaj^s took a lively interest in the subject of 
common schools, was Commissioner of schools and 
town inspector each of the eight years he resided in 
Shelb}^, and served as town superintendent of schools 
in Barre three years, while that system was the law. 

He was a popular Justice of the Peace, while act- 
ing in that capacity. He used to say, he once issued 
108 summons in one day, in all of which Dr. William 
White was ])laintiff. As a Judge he was firm, up- 



K^J r'K'XKKU HISTORY 

ri<:lit and impartial, aiming to sustain tlio right in his- 
decisions, and in all liis official and social relations he 
li:is sustained a i'haracter marked for sound views of 
men and things, lionest. faitJifnl, sagacious and true ;: 
and now in his old age and r<^tii'ement enjoys the re- 
s])ect of all who know him. 

.IKSSK MA SOX. 

Jesse Mason was T)orji in Cheshire, ]Mass.,. .hily 24,. 
1771>. B}' occupation he was a farmei-. lie removed 
to Phel])s. (Ontario (■ountv X. Y.. al)out the year 
181(K wliere he resided six }'eai"s, then removed to • 
T^arre. Orleans County, and settled on lot 17, in town- 
shi]> h"), range :>. now owned by AA'm. IT. Pendry. 

In the year 1887, he sold his ])io])erty in Barre and 
iemt>ved to Ohio, whejc lie lesided until his death, in 
N(»v., 1804. 

Mr. Mason served one cam])aign in the war of 1812, . 
was one of the last .Vmerican soldiers to leave Buffa- 
lo wlien it was hurried l)y the British. 

Mr. Mason was a man of ])ositive cojivi(>tions in all 
uiatteis of his b(^lief, ])olitical, moral or religious. 
KiKMgetic. entei'prising and liberal in a'l that pertain 
ed to j)ublic affairs in his neighl)orliood. he boi-e even- 
more than his share in all the labors, expense and 
trouble in o])ening roads, founding schools and 
chuichcs and organizing society in the new country.. 
.Ml such duties and bui'thens were perlVjrmed and 
borne by him as labors of hn'c. iu which he seemed 
to <hvligiit. 

Mrs. Hannah ]N[a,sou, wife of .h^sse Mason, daugh- 
ter of Kev. .I<»]in Leland, a ]5a})tist ndnister, residing 
in Orange county, \'a. was born Dec. 18,1778. Mr, 
L<>land was originally from Mass. While living in. 
\'iigiuia he became the intimate friend of President 
.Feiferson, and it is said Mr. .It^fferson derived his first 
<'1t'ar idea of uvTuiine democracy from what he saw of 



OF OUr.EAXS roi'NTY. 138 

tlie Avoi'kiiig of that piiiR-iplc in :i cliurcli, of wliicli Mi-. 
Lelaiid was pastor.. Miss Leland married Mr. Mason, 
in Chesliire, about the year 1800. moved with liini to the 
west, and as h)n<i- as lie lived, proved liei'self a lielj)- 

-ineet indeed, fully sharing and sympathizing with 
liim in all the toils, hardships and anxieties through 
which lie passed in a long and active life. Sjie died 

.January 21, 1807. 

STKPJIKN ]'.. I'FirirS'JOX. 

**I was boiii in Westmorehmd, Oneida Co., JS. Y.. 

.<)anuary ?>, 1808, and removed with my father, Caleb 

-C Thurston, to Barre to reside, in the spring of bS14. 

My father being a farmer, brought me up to laboi- in 

that honorable calling. I resided with my father, at- 

"tending school occasionalh' winters, until I was twen- 

t3"-two 3'ears old, when I bought se^-ent_y-six aci-es of 

land, jiart of lot 10, township lo. range 2, in Barr(\ 

• on which I resided until April, 18(10, wlien I remcned 

/into the A'illage of Albion, where I now reside. 

I was married to Miss .lulianna Williams, daughtei- 

of Samuel Williams, of Barre, January 11, 1882.- 

She was born in Burlington, Otsego Co., N. Y., Ai)ril 

.0, 1812. 

S. B. THURSTON." 
Albion, July, 18G7. 

IM'KIIS UALLorK. 

Rufus Hallock was born in Richmond, Chittenden 
("Co., A^t., Nov. 7, 1802. His father was a fai'iiier, and 
y^oung Rufus labored on liis father's farm siimmei's 
jind attended school winters. 

In February, 181 o, with his father's family, here- 
moved to Murray, Orleans Co., X. Y. In 1828, he 
removed with his father's family to Louisville, St. 
Lawrence Co., where he resided two years, and tlien 
■ came to Barre. Orleans Co., and settled on lot 48, 
\.,townshi]) 14, range 2, of the Holland Purchase, wliere 



134 PIONEER HISTORY 

lie resided till his death in 1870. He was married July 
8, 1826, to Susan Tucker, of Shelby, who was born in 
New Hampsliire, May 9, 1804. 

Mrs. Hallock died at lier home in Barre, May 18th, 
1868, aged 64 years. 

Mr. Hallock by his industry and economy ac- 
cumidated a competence of property. 

In religious belief a Baptist,Mr, Hallock was regard- 
ed as an exemplary christian man, respected by all 
who knew him. Resolute and prompt in liis charac- 
ti^r and conduct, he generally met and overcome 
or removed every obstacle and adversity which he 
has encountered in his path in life. 

He told a story of his father which illustrates what 
sort of a man his fatlier was, and exhibits a dash 
and courage wliich lias be(^n transmitted to his de- 
scendants. 

Traveling alone through the woods one day after he^ 
came to this county, he saw a bear and two cubs 
asleep under the roots of a fallen tree. Resolving to 
caj)ture a cub, Mr. Hallock stealthily cre]3t up to the 
spot wliere they lay and seized a cub by its hind legs, 
and backed away dragging his prize and keeping his 
eyes fixed on the mother bear who followed after hini 
growling and gnashing lier teeth. He kept on in this 
way several rods until lie backed and fell over a fal- 
h'u tree, when the old l)ear attracted by the cries of 
tlie cub left behind returned to that and canu^ after 
him no more. Mr. Hallock carri(xl the cub hoincv 
tamed and raised it. He died Jan. 16, 1871. 

.lONATUAX (LARK. 

'' r v.as born in Londonderry, Rockingham (U)unty, 
New Hampshire. Jnly 8d. 1790. My father died 
when I was quite young. T lived with my grandfath- 
er, John Clark, until I was fifteen years of jige ; I 
tlieii went to live with mv Uncle. John Clark, Jr., in 



OF ORLEANS COrXTY. 135 

Salem, Masyacliusetts. wIkmp I reiiiaiTied until I \va?< 
twenty-one years of age. 

March, 1812, 1 went aboard the schooner Talbot, Capt. 
(fiM^rge Burcliniore. headed for tlie East Indies, witii 
a niiscelhineous cargo in tlie capacity of a common 
seaman. 

Nothing wortliy of note liappened to us nntil we 
rt^ached the (^piinoctial line, when thi^ Captain said 
•• Old Xeptnne ninst com<- aboard that afternoon and 
the green ones mnst be shaved and sworn."' The 
oath which we were recpiired to tak(^ in connection 
with the other raw hands, was as follows : 

"I promise to never eat brown bread wlien I cau 
grt white ; never to leave the pump nntil I call for a, 
s])ell ; and never to ki-ss the maid when I can Ivis^? 
the mistress."* 

The shaving proc<?ss consisted, in brief, in placing 
the subject on the windlass, brushing liis face with 
tilth and scraping it off with an iron Iioop, as a sub- 
stitute for a razor, the subject in the meantime being 
in great danger of liaving the unsavoiy lather thrust 
into his moutli while' taking the oath. Luckily for 
me I passed the ordeal more happily than my com- 
rades having, in advance.circnlated a bottle of sail ojs 
' O be joyful.' 

Crossing the line is a givat occasion foi' jokes and 
fun in gr'iieral among sailors. 

In due time, and witliout haiin, we reached tlie 
vicinity of the capes, when we encountered heavy 
weather. 

We ran twenty-three days under close reefed toji- 
sails, shipped a heavy sea on our starboard quarter 
which washed th(^ whoh- length of the dcndv and car- 
ried away our bulwarks. We doul>led the Cape of 
(food Hope and reached the Isle of France one hun- 
dred and thirteen days out from Salem. We lay there 
two months, discharged cargo, took in ballast anrl 



Cjt) JMOXKKK IIISTOltV 

Skilled for tli<" Island of Sninatja. \V»> \v(»iv ruimiiiu,- 
into Lemonai'iivr wliPii we were met by an armed l)oat 
commanded by a man <'laiming to be king of Ar- 
♦'heen, who demanded of us a duty on the pepper 
ws' might purchase. We regarded him and liis erew 
.IS savages and ])irates, and decliiiing to trade with 
tiiom put to sea again. We ran to Soo-Soo and saw 
1. sail apj)r(>a''liing. Tliat (.'xcited our ap])rehensions 
of danger. 

The Captain inquijecl if we would fight should the 
oreasion demand it. Oui- unanimous res])onse was 
"• we will."' 

We were then stationed w here Wi- could do the best 
evecution in self defence. 

My station was on the side of the shij) with an ax 
t<> cut off tlieii' hands should they attempt to board 
iits. All the men were aiiiu^d with deadly weapons, 
and we liad a six-poundt«i- ready for any emer- 
gency. 

The strange vessel sent a l»oat to us with a letter 
\vritten in English, reipiesting us to truth' with the king 
oti' Archeen, or in case of" our icfusal lit' would sei/e 
us and our vessel. 

I'he night following Ijeing very dark we weighed 
nuchor and ]»ut to sea, bidding his suspicious luajes- 
ly good-b} e. 

We then sailed to an Knglish poj-t, To})aiiooley. 
wjiere we took in a cargo of ])ep]ie]- and sailed foi' 
Iioine. 

We were to touch the l>j-azils to receive the orders 
of the owners. Here wc were' hailed In what we re- 
garded as a hostile vessel and cliase<l and tired at 
rustern : and when fo7-ced to yield, to oui- gi*eat joy 
W'» found tile stiange vessel to be a man-of-war from 
our own Salem, named -Tiiedrand Turk,* a priva- 
t-er sent out lo re4ake uur shi]>. which the owners 
su[»po-;ed to be in the hands nf the IVritish. 



nh oKLEAXS ( OrXTY. ]:>7 

The niiitiial coiigratiilations l)etvveeii tlu' crews oi' 
the • Talbot ' and ' The Grand Turk " were \erv 
pleasant to us all. Here we first learned of the war 
between the I'nited States and Great Britain, which 
had then heejv doini;' its work of destruction ten 
months. 

We entered the port of Pernainl)uco, ]\larclj LStli. 
1813, having been abs<>nt Just one year. The cargo 
was put in Portuguese bottoms and sent to Eurojie. 
The second mate and mj'^self remained to take care 
of the shij) until November, ISlo. when I left for Gib- 
raltar on board tlie Rebecca, with a cargo of hides 
and sugai-. W^e stopped at Gibraltar a f<^w daAS, 
then ra!i down to Xaples and discharged cargo and 
took in a ndscellaneous loading and returned home- 
wards, landing in New York wliere I was discharged, 
and started for Salem where T arrivtnl .January 1st. 
1816. 

I give tlie luinies of the ])laces hi tile East Indies as 
1 heard them pronounced. I may have s]jel]ed them 
wrong. Thus ends my seafaring life. 

July ilth, 1810, I left Boston for Western New 
York. 1 traveled through Albany, taking the Great 
Western Turn})ike, walking on foot all the way, until 
near Auburn when a traveler kindly permitted me t<) 
ride with him, saying he woidd take ine to where 1 
could find good land. 

We passed through Rochester, and taking the 
Kidge Road came to Sheldon's Corners, now West 
Gaines. We tlien turned south, and traveling about 
a mile reached a school house just as the school was 
out for noon. A little sumiy-facred girl ran up to us 
and said to the man who had so kindly assisted me : 
'Well dad, we are gla.d you have come ff»r we are 
about half starved out." 

That man was Gideon Freeman and the little girl 
was Sally Freeman. 



138 PIONEKU lIlSTOliY 

I looked around a little and iiually l)oiiglit the 
farm on which I have ever sinc'e resided, ])art of lot 
fifty, in townshi]) hfteen, ran(i;(^ two, of the Holland 
Purchase, lying in the north-western ])art of Barre. 
then Gaines. Uf^ar the soutli end of what is now 
known as ' The Long Bridge,' over the Erie canal. 
My land cost me five dollars pei- acre T took an ar- 
ticle for it and was able to pay in full in about eight 
years. 

I underbrushed live acres, luiilt a h)g house and 
went back to Salem. 

T was married XovemlxM- 25t]i, 181G, to Abigail 
Sinnrnds. who was born in Salem. Massachusetts, 
July 6th, 170(». 

While I was preparing to start on (Uir journey 
west T was accosted l)y an old sailor friend 
who inquin^d where I was going i 1 said ' to the 
Holland Purchase.* Said he. -wlieiv can that be« 
T never heard of that place before.' 1 told him 'it 
was a tine country in Wi'stern JVew York ;' that 'I 
had bought a farm tliere, built a h>g house and was 
going to live there.' Said he. ' I would not give the, 
gold I could sci-ape from a card of gingerbiead for 
the entire Holland Purchase." But he did not know 
everything. 

My wife and I left Salem for oui' new wcsttMii home 
with a span of horses and a wagon. AVe were twen- 
ty one days on the road. We arrived at my place 
and began house-keeping Jamiary 1st, 1817, without 
a table, a chair or a bedstead, Jill of which articles I 
soon made in true Genesee pioneer style. 

For many \^eai's in the settlement 1 was called 
' Sailor (Mark " to distinguish me from another Clark 
who was, T am happy to say, a very decent man. 

Money being veiy^ hard to be got, we made black 
salfs\ which b(^came})ractically a legal tender or sub 
stitutt' foi' moiiHv. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 139 

I and my neiglibor, Mr. Benjamin Foot, worked 
together in the Tuannfactnrc, bnt after a time lie sold" 
t(^ a. Mr. Elijah Shaw, who condneted the business 
with me nntil that necessary calling was 'played 
out.* 

Mr, Sliaw and myself are the only persons living in 
this school district who came in as early as 1816. 

My wife haAing been reared in the city knew noth- 
ing of spinning wheels, though she was a good house- 
keeper ; but under the influence of her neighbor's 
(example, she urged me to raise flax and purchase 
her a Pioneer Pkvno, which I did, bringing home 
one of the largest size on my shoulder from a dis- 
tance of several miles : and before long she could 
discourse as melodious music as any in the settle- 
ment. 

In the early part of my pioneer life, lik<^ others, I 
had to cut browse for my cow. Due evening I went 
out and felled a tnn^ thinking it Avould certainly fall 
west, l)ut alas for my sagacit3^ it fell east striking 
(mr house, breaking down about half the roof and 
alarming me greatly for the safety of my family. 
However no one was hurt except by being badl}' 
frightened. The roof was easily rejiaired, but a fine 
mirror, a very elegant one for a new country, whicli 
my wife's father, who was a seaman, had brought 
from Hamburgh, in Eiirope, was broken into frag- 
ments, and could not be repaired. 

During the cold seasons manj^ of the settlers suf- 
fered for the nec(^ssaries of life, but happily for me 
and mine we did not suffer. I went east with my 
team far enough to find all the provisions we needed 
and brought home a full supply for all our necessi- 
ties. 

The fall of 1824 was a sad period to me. My wife 
died October 2()th of this year. 

I desire hei-e to record my grateful sense of the kind- 



l-iO IMONEKU IllsroiiV 

ness o\' our nei<!,iiborri (luring lier sickness. Tlieir at- 
tentions wwn* timely, cordial and continued. All 
those kind women then living in the district arc dead 
except Mrs. Benj. Foot. 

I manied my present wife, Elizabeth Stephens, in 
(xaines, Man.'h :^'Ot:h. 1825. She was l)orn in Middle- 
town. Ruthind county, Vt., dune2()th, 180«). 

We left our pioneer log house and moved into our 
|)resent dwelling in 1825. About this time the l)oats 
were seen i)assing along in ^ (tov. Clinton's big 
ditch.' the Erie caiial, on the noith l)order of my 
farm, connecting the great commercial and agricultu- 
ral interests of our country. And I trust that our nat- 
ural an<l artiticial channels of trade may remain 
open, and the love of freedom among our people con- 
tinue to aid. with the blessing of (lod. to pivserve and 
perpetuate our nationality, restort^ the I'nion of these 
States and tlie free institutions of our country. 

In 1825 1 experienced religion, and about 182i) my 
wife and myself comiected ourselves with tlie Metho- 
dist Episcopal (Miurch. in whose cf»mniunion we still 
remain. 

JONATHAN CLAIIK." 

Banv. April Ttli, 18(54. 

oLI\Ki: HKNTOX. 

Olivei- Heiiton was boin in Ashlield. Mass.. A])j-il 
JOth. 17i)l. He came to Barre to reside in 1812. He 
married Elvira Starr, May l.">th, 1817. Mr. Benton 
took u]) a large tract of land two miles south ot Al- 
bion, on which he resided. 

Aftei- the town of Barr»* was organized, and about 
1818 or '19 the lirst postoffice in the town was estab- 
lished and called Barre. and Mr. Benton was ap- 
j)ointed ])wstinaster. an ofiice he held man\' yeai's. 

For man}' years he was a noted tavern keeper on 
the Oak ()ichar<l Koad. and as he had a lai'a-e and 



(>I OKLKAXS COUNTV. 141 

('oniniodious house for tJi<> times, town iii(^etiniz:s, balls 
and t;atheriiisjs of tlie })eop]e were held at his house. 
On the deatli of William Lewis, wlio was tlie tiist 
Sheriff. Mr. Rentoii was elected SluMiH' of Orleans eo. 
Nov. 182."), and held tlie office three yeajs. He died 
Fel). V2th. 1.S4.S. 

MOSKS SMnil. 

Moses Smith was l)o]-n in Newbnr^-. N(n\- Yoi*k. 
Fel)rnaiy nth, 17S.*>. He married Chloe Dickinson, of 
Phelps. New York, April n til. 1811. and moved t<» 
l^ari'e. Orleans connty. Nov. Kith. 1824, and took a 
(hMMl from tlie Holland C^nnpany of a part of lot two, 
townshij) fifteen, ranu'e one. on whi(di he continued to 
reside until his deafii May IHth, ISOl). 11. > had fonr- 
teen children, eight of whom snrvived liini. Tie w^as 
a car])enter and joiner by trade, but the main occn- 
jiation of ]iis life was farminu-. 

He was of Scotch descent. His j^raJidmother emi- 
grated from Scotland and s<'ttled on wliat is known 
in history as the Hasbroiick ])lace. in the South part 
of the city of New])urgli. on two hundred and fifty 
acres. On this farm Mr. Moses Smith was horn, and 
on this farm stands tlie celebrated luiilding known as 
" Washington's Headqnarters." 

AXTiiow ri;iiM\ 

Anthony 'l'ri[»p was born in J^rovideiice, Hliod(^ Is- 
land. In his cliildhftod he removed with his fatlier's 
family to ('(»lnmbia county. N. Y.. where he grew 
np to manhood, was married and settled. He after- 
terwards remo\ed to DehiAvare <'onnty. a\ hei-e h<' re- 
sided nntil he moved to 15a rre. 

In 1811 he came to Harre and took uj) one hnndred 
acres of land jibout two miles Soutli of Albion. It 
is claimed this was t)i«' first article for land issued bv 



142 PIONEER HISTORY 

the Holland Company in Barre. The war breakin<i; 
out next year he did not settle on his land. 

In 1817 his eldest son, Samuel, commenced clear- 
ina: this land and built a log house there, into 
which Mr. Tripp moved with his family in 1824, and 
where he continued to reside until his death. 

He married Mary Brown. Their children were 
Samuel; Talitha, wdio married Sylvester Patterson ; 
Stephen R., who married Ruth Mott ; Anthony ; Al- 
vah, who married Jane H. Blakely. She was killed 
.January, 1866, by a chimney and battlement from an 
adjoining building falling through the roof of a store 
in Albion, in which she was trading, crushing her to 
death. Mary, who married Psalter S. Mason. Al- 
meron, who married Sylvia Burns. 

ALLEX PORTER. 

Allen Porter was born in Franklin county, Mass., 
Aug. 24th, 1795. He married Electa Scott, i)ec. 22d, 
1819. In the fall of 1815 he located for himself a 
farm in the town of Barre, upon which he removed 
in March, 1816, and commenced felling the trees, and 
on which he has ever since resided. 

At the time Mr. Porter came in, not more than fif- 
teen families had settled in the present limits of 
Barre. 

Previous to this time the Holland Compan}' had 
cut out the road from the Oak Orchard Road to Shel- 
by Center, which now passes the County Poor House. 
A few lots had been taken but no dwelling had been 
erected on the road so cut out in Barre and no set- 
tlement had been made in this town south of the Poor 
House Road and west of the Oak Orchard Road. 

Mr. Porter remembers hauling wheat raised on his 
farm, to Ro(;hester, and selling it there for thirty -one 
cents a I)ushel, and paying five dollars j^er barrel for 



OF OllLKANS COfXTV. 143 

salt, seventeen cents ])er pound I'or nails, and other 
goods in like proportion. 

Wliile Mr. Porter was a hoy Jiis fjitlier removed to 
Seneca count}', X. Y. Allien ])eino: yet in his minori- 
ty was drafted in the war of 1812 and sent to the 
frontier. He volunteered at Buffalo to go over into 
Canada to reinforce our troo]>s in Fort Erie, and was 
j)resent in the sortie fvimi that Fort in Se})t. 1814. Mr. 
Porter has held various offices, civil and military, and 
is a well known and much respected citizen. 

KUZVli II A in'. 

Elizur Hart was born in Durham, Grpene county, 
K. Y., May 23d, 1803. His father, Dea. Jose])h Hart, 
removed to ^^eneca count}', JS^. Y.. in 1800. and to 
33arre, Orleans count} % in October, 1812. It was sev- 
eral }'ears after he came to Harre, before, any school 
was opened in his fVithcr's neighborhood, and he 
neve]- had the beiu^ht of mucli instruction in school. 
While residing with his father lie was em])loyed 
mainl}' in clearing up land and in lab(jr on the farm, 
and grew up to manhood as other b<3ys did in that 
new ('(uintry, without much knowledge of books or 
business, or of the world heyond the community 
where he lived. 

About the year 1827 he was elected c(jnstable, an 
office he held two years. His husiness now called 
Mm to spend much of liis time in Albion. He had 
about live hundr<'d dollars in money. His brother 
William had a like sum which he ]>ut into Elizur s 
hands to nse for their joint benefit. Elizui* l)egan to 
buy small promissory notes and to lend small sums 
to such customers as applied, and sometimes to re- 
lieve debtors in executions which were ])ut in his 
liands to collect as constable. 

Abtmt this time his father deeded to hi:- sons AVil- 
liani and Elizui- oiu' hundred acres of nis farm for 



144 I'loNKEK in<«'r(>F:v 

\vlii<"}i tliey paid ]iim live hundred dollars. Tliey con-' 
tinned joint owners several years wlien William gave 
Klizur tlie live linndred dollars lie had init into his 
liands and all the protit he had made on it for a deed 
of the whole one hundred acres to himself. This 
land lies in the village of Alhion : is still owned and 
occnpied by Wni. Hart, and the ris(^ in its value has 
iiiMde hiui a wealthy man. 

As Mr. Hai't found his means inciease lie began to 
invest in bonds and mortgages, and in articles for 
land issued by the. Holland Company. He seldom 
lost but generally 7iiad(^ money in all liis ti-ades, and 
continued this business for many years. 

Tn 18r)'i he Avas made an assignee, and in a year or 
two after i-eceiver of the pro]ierty of the Oileans 
Insurance ('()m])any. ,\nd on the failure of the old 
J'ank of Orleans he was ai)pointed receiver of that 
institution. 

()n February l(»th, IS()U, in company with Mr. Jos. 
M. Cornell he established 'The Orleans Ccmnty 
15ank" at Albion, with a capital of SIOO.UOU. Of this 
r)ank he was President as long as it existed. When 
all State? Banks were superseded by National Banks, 
he changed his institution and organized ' The Or- 
leans County Xational Bank ' in its stead Aug. 9th, 
bSfii"). of which lie was President the riMTiainper of 
of his life. 

Mr. Hartw.'is not Ji specidator in busin<"ss, advan- 
cing moucA' m uncertain ventiyes and taking the 
chances on their success. His investments were the 
results of carefid calculations, and usually returned 
the ])rotit he had <-ompnted before hand. 

Always attentive to Ills business, but never dilatory 
or im])idsive, correct and exemplary in all his habits, 
Vieginning with comparatively notliing, without the, 
aid or intluence of wealth}^ connections, he became 
one of the o]»iileut couuti'v bankers in the State, and 



OF OKLEANS COUXTY. 145 

at Ms deatli was master of a fortune amounting 
to liundreds of thousands of dollars. 

In Ills will lie gave the Presbyterian Church in Al- 
1)ion, of which he was a member, fifty tliousand dol- 
lars to build a house of worship, and an endowment 
of fiA'e thousand dollars to the Sundaj' Srhool con- 
nected with his church. 

Mr. Hart married Miss Loraine Field in IMay, 183."). 
She died Feb. 11th, 1847. He married T^Iiss Cornelia 
King, Oct. ICth, 1849. 

His surviving children are Frances E., -who married 
Oliver C. Day, and resides in Adrian. Michigan. 
Jennie K. and E. Kirk ; tlie last named married Lou- 
isa Sanderson and resides in Albion, is Cashier and 
principal owner of the Orleans County National Bank. 

Elizur Hart died August 13th, 1870. 

.TAIIYIS 31. SKIXXER. 

"I was born in Providence, Saratoga Co., N. Y., 
June 3, 1799. I married Mary Delano. Feb. 14. 1822. 
She was born in Providence, Dec. 2o, 1800. 

I labored on a farm, of which my father had a lea so, 
in the summer season, and with ray father in the win- 
ter, a part of the time, in his shop, making saddh's 
and harness, he being a saddler by trade. 

AVlien I became of age, I hired out to work on a 
farm for Earl Stimson, then a large farmer in Galway, 
first eight months, at §11 a month, then a y(^ar for 
$110. My wages for this work, deducting my clotli- 
ing bills, constituted all my capital. 

On the 18th day of March, 1822, I started for th^ 
Holland Purchase, and came alone to Durfee Delano' s, 
a little west of Eagle Harbor, in Gaines. 

I bought fifty-five acres of land of Winsor Pahi'', 
for which I agreed to give him $250 — $100 down, my 
liorse, saddle and bridle, for $80, and $70 ^vorth of 
saddles, to be delivered in a year. 



146 PIONEEll IIISTOIIY 

I worked on my place until the next fall ; Mrs. 
Paine did my washing and cooking and I fnrnislied a 
portion of the provisions. I chopped and cleared and 
sowed w^ith wheat, six acres ; I'aised one acre of spring- 
wheat, one hundred bushels of corn. I returned to 
Saratoga in the fall, made the saddles in the v^inter, 
to pay for my farm, and in January 1823, moved my 
wife to our new home in Barre, wdiere we have since 
resided, on lot 33, township 15, range 2, 

Dated, Dec. 1, 1863. JARVIS M. SKINNER." 

jS'ATIIATs'IEL BHALEY. 

Was born in Savo}-, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 
Dec. 14, 179C. He has always followed farming. He 
came to Palmyra in 1801, settled in Gaines, Orleans 
Co., 'N. Y., in 1819, married Sarah Wickham in 1821. 
She was born in Chatham, Columbia Co., July 15, 
1799, and removed to Gaines in 1810. 

Mr. Braley removed to Barre, Avhere he now re- 
sides, in 1838. 

LUCIUS STREET. 

"I was born in West Springfield, Massachusetts, 
Dec. 19, 1795. My father gave me a good common 
school education for those times and brought me \^^ 
in his occupation, as a farmer. 

I followed the business of teaching school for sever- 
al winters, when I was a young man. 

May 5, 1818, my brother Chapin and myself started 
from my father's house in Hinsdale, Mass., on foot, 
with knapsacks on our backs, for the 'Genesee' 
country. 

After going to Batavia and looking over the towns 
of Orangeville and China, we came to Barre and set- 
tled on lot 3, township 14, range 2, of the Holland 
Purchase, about two miles south of Barre Center 
where we still reside, (1864.) 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. ] 47 

We took our article for our land, May 18, 181S, and 
immediately began chopping, boarding with a family- 
named Cuthbret. 

I taught a district school, in all, seven winters, and 
singing school two terms. 

One of our neighbors, Henry Edgerton, a strong, 
athletic man, carried a bushel and a half of wheat on 
his back, to Farwell's mill, in Clarendon, eight miles, 
got it ground and brought it home. 

In the fall of 1820, my brother and myself, having 
partially recovered from fever and ague, from which 
we had suffered, and getting somewhat homesick, 
went on foot back to Mass., being quite discouraged 
at the prospect of ever paying for our land, as the 
price of produce was so low. We wanted to sell out. 

Finding no opportunity to sell our articles, we 
worked out for farmers in Massachusetts the next 
season, at $8 a month, then the common wages, and 
returned to Barre, in the fall of 1821, to sell our im- 
provements, but found no buyers. 

We had agreed to give six dollars an acre for our 
land, on ten years' time — the first two 3-ears without 
interest. At this time, wheat was worth in Rochester 
from thirtj^-one to thirty-seven cents a bushel. 

AVhile I was teaching school in Springfield, Mass., 
in 1821, I saw Esq. Brewster of Riga, Monroe Co., N. 
Y., who, with one of his neighbors, had come there 
from Riga, with two large loads of Hour, drawn by 
four yoke of oxen. The Hour sold for ^5 a barrel. — 
They sold their oxen and Genesee sleds, bouglit a 
span of horses and an old sleigh and returned to Riga. 

In the summer of 1822, I boarded with Mr. Edger- 
ton, and worked two days of evi'Ty nine for him, to 
pay my board. That season I cleared, fenced and 
sowed ten acres Avith wheat, from which next season 
I harvested 255 bushels of good wheat. The canal 



148 PIONEER HISTORY 

being then navigable west as far as Brockport, I 
could sell my wheat there for $1 a bnshel. 

My brother and myself divided onr land, giving me - 
1 09 acres. I then abandoned the intention of selling, 
and Nov. 16, 1823, was married to Miss Martha M. 
Buckland, daughter of John A. Buckland, of South 
Barre. 

In those days we were required b^Maw to '■train'' 
as soldiers, two days in each year, viz: on the first 
Monday in June and September, company training, 
and one da}^ for a general muster, which was often 
held at Oak Orchard Creek. We were often called 
to meet at Oak Orchard and made the journe}', 16 
miles, on foot, carrying our gun and equipments and 
paying our own expenses. We would drill until 
near night, then on being dismissed, return home the 
same day, if indeed we were able to reach home be- 
fore the next morning. 

In the early times in this country, inspectors of 
Common Schools were allowed no compensation for 
their services, the honor of the office being deemed 
sufficient remuneration. After serving the town in 
that office several years gratis. Dr. J. K. Brown and 
I agreed and declared to the electors, that if ajo- 
pointed to that office again we would pay our fines of 
'^10 and thus relieve ourselves of the service, where- 
upon the town voted to give us seventy-five cents each 
per day, for the time we might be on duty. 

Under circumstances like these, not as many were 
seeking the small town offices then as now. 

Beai'S, wolves, wild cats, deer, raccoons, hedge 
hogs and other wild animals, were plenty here then. 

In the summer of 1818, my brother and I be- 
ing at Avork chopping on our farm, heard a hog 
squeal, and saw a liear walking off very deliberate!}'' 
carrying the hog in his paws. AVe gave chase and as 
we came near, the bear dropped his prey and ran off;. 



OF OKLEA]\-S COTNTY. 149 

.lie had killed the hog. We then made 'a dead fall,' 
. as it was called, in which to entrap the bear, which 
was a i^en made by driving stakes into the ground, 
. and interweaving them with brush horizontally, in 
which the hog was placed. Into this pen we expect- 
ed the bear would come and spring a trap, which 
would let a weight fall upon him. It proved a suc- 
cess, for in the morning we found the bear in the pen ; 
he had sprung the trap, and a spike of the dead fall 
through his leg held him fast. * 

Religious meetings were early established and 
maintained at South Barre and Barre Center. Dea- 

«con Orange Starr was among the foremost in these 
meetings. 

Many pleasant reminiscences of pioneer life might 
be mentioned, for though we endured man}' hard- 

; ships and privations, we had plenty of sj)ort mingled 
with them, giving us a pleasant variety of mirthful 
enjoyment. Major Daniel Bigelow, being a good 
horseman, and having no horse, broke one of his ox- 
en to the saddle, and was accustomed to ride him 
through the settlement. 

Riding out one day, his ox being very thirst}' and 
coming near a large puddle of water, started forward 
to the drink on double-quick time, and plunging into 
the water, stopped so suddenly as to throw his good- 
natured rider over his head, sprawling into tlie mud, 
much to the amusement of those looking on. 

I am a descendant, on my mother s side, of the 
seventh generation, from Samuel Chapin, an early j^i- 
-oneer of Springfield, Mass., who settled there when 
only three families were in the place. At a gathering 
■of his descendants at SiDringfield, on Sept. 17, 1862, 
fifteen hundred such descendants were present. Dr. 
J. G. Holland, known as 'Timothy Titcomb,' deliver - 
<€d a poem on the occasion, which he said he was re- 



150 PIONEER HISTORY 

quested to do because lie had inarried into tlie Chapin; 

family. 

I am also descended in the sixth generation on my 

father's side, from Rev. Nicholas Street, who came 

from England and was ordained pastor over the-tirst 

church in New Haven, in 1659. 

LUCIUS STREET." 
Dated, Barre, Feb. 25, 1SG4. 

THOMAS W. ALLIS. 

Extracts from tlie local history of Thomas W. AUis,., 
written by himself for the Pioneer Association. 

"I was born in Gorham, Ontario Co., N. Y., Nov. 
1, 1798. My father died in the year 1805, and I was 
brought up from that time until I attained my major- 
ity, in the family of an uncle, in Hampshire, Mass. 

In March, 1820, in company with a younger broth- 
er, I moved to Murraj^, in Orleans County, to what is 
now the town of Kendall. 

We brought with us four barrels of Hour, one bar- 
rel of pork, one barrel of whisky and a bed. 

We located three and one-fourth miles north of the 
Ridge road, and one mile east of the Transit Line. 

In going from the Ridge to our place, we passed 
but one family and they lived in a log house, in the 
woods, with no plastering between the logs, with only 
part of the ground covered by a Hoor, a liark i-oof, no 
chimney. 

AVe hired our provisions cooked, and lived with a 
family near by, in a log cabin similar to th(3 one 
abov(5 described. 

We bought a contract for one hundred acres of 
land, by the terms of which we agreed to pay $300 
for the improvements, and $G00 for the soil. 

We kept ba<'helor" s hall there most of the time for 
four 3^ears. 

I soon bought fifty nci-es moj-t^ of land, with six 
acres improvement on it, for Avhich I agreed to pay 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 151 

$450. But few families were then north of the Ridge, 
in that section of country. 

I worked? at- clearing land and raising crops. 
Wheat was worth only three shillings per bushel, de- 
livered in Rochester. 

Tile first plow in our settlement, I bought in com- 
pany with two neighbors. We walked to Gaines 
village, bought one of Wood's patent plows and car- 
ried it on our backs from the Ridge road three and 
one-fourth miles to our home. 

I Avas married Nov. 18, 1824, to Miss Elizabeth 
Clements, of Queensbury, Warren Co. N. Y. 

On tlie 9th of January, 1820, my house was burned 
with all my furniture and clothing and one years' 
])r()vision. Our neighbors turned out and drew logs 
and rolled up part of a house, but a snow storm came 
on and stopped the work before it was finished. My 
brother and myself afterwards built a log house, com- 
mencing on Thursday at noon, built a stone chimney, 
finished and moved into it the next Saturday. Size 
of the house was sixteen by thirteen feet. We lived 
in this small house about two years and then I finish- 
ed the house which had been begun by my neighbors 
soon after the fire. 

I resided in the house last built about fourteen 
years. 

I paid interest on the purchase mone}^, for the first 
hundred acres I bought, to about the amount of the 
principal before I took a deed. 

I afterwards bought 'fifty-three acres for $450, fen- 
which I paid with the avails of one crop of wheat. ^ 

In 1887 I bought a timber lot of 48 acres. 

In 1840 I built a frame house, thirtj' by sevent}' 
feet, which cost me 82,000. 

In March, 1860, I sold my farm in Kendall, part of 
which I had held for forty 3'ears, and bought a house 



152 PIONKEIl HISTORY 

and lifteeii acres of land in Albion, on wliicli I now 
reside. 

THOMAS ^X. ALLIS." 
Albion, Januaiy, 1863. 

Mr. T. AV. Allis, above reteii'ed to, was for man}- 
years one of the solic? men of the town of Kendall, 
Jionored and respected by all who knew him. He 
was a Jnstice of the Peace and held varions other 
town offices. Having acqnired a competenc}', b}' 
many yenY^" steady toil and economy, he retii'ed from 
hard labor on a farm, to a village residence, where he 
is now (1871) spending a qniet old age, in the enjoy- 
ment of the frnits of his labors. 

JOSEPH BARKEiJ. 

Extracts from the local history of Col. Joseph Bar- 
ker, written by himself. 

" I was born in Tadmorden, Lancashire, England, 
^ei)tember 21st, 1802, and emigrated with my father's 
family to America in the spring of 181(3. I arrived in 
tlie town of Seneca, Ontario county, in July of that 
year, and resided there until I bought the farm in 
Barre, in November, 1825, on which I now reside, I 
was married in October, 1822, to Miss Submit CoAvles, 
who was born in Heath, Franklin county, Massachu- 
setts, by v/hom I had nine children. My wife died 
February 15th, 1851. I lived a widower two and a 
half ^''•ears, and then married widow Elizabeth Cxuern- 
se}', who was born in Middleburgh, Schoharrie Co,. 
K Y., Marcli 19th, 1810. 

In the fall of 1819, I started with another man from 
Seneca, N. Y., to go to Lnndy's Lane, in Canada. 
\Ye traveled on foot with knapsacks on our backs. 
Passing tln-ougli Rochester, then a small town and 
very muddy, v^e took the Ridge Road, then tliinly 
settled. Before we arrived at Hartland Corners our 
pi'ovisions gave out ; we tried to buy some bread ; 
could get none ; then tried begging, with ]io better 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 15B 

success. We went on to Buck's tavern in the Eleven 
Mile AVoods. It was very dark wlien we got there 
and rained very hard. We had not a dry thread in 
our clothes, and our shoes and stockings were full of 
mud and Avater. Buck's tavern was a log house Avith 
a Dutch fire place, and had a good rousing fire. Af- 
ter taking some rum. and supper, we hung our outer 
garments up to dr}" and went to bed. The next morn- 
ing we started earl}', and after getting througli the 
woods, I w^ent into a house and bought six pence 
worth of bread which lasted us through to Lundy's 
Lane. We stayed there three weeks and returned 
home. 

In September, 1823, 1 set out to look me up a farm; 
came by way of Batavia, and through the Indian 
Reservation to a place now called Alabama Center, 
and took up sixty acres of land lying about three- 
fourths of a mile north of that place. I chopj^ed the 
trees on about one acre, when finding lialf of my lot 
was swamp I felt sick of it and left for home, where 1 
stayed, working out until the fall of 1825, then start- 
ed Jigain and bought the place on which I have ever 
since resided in Barre, lot fifty-four, township fourteen, 
range two. 

I moved to my place in January, 182G. There was 
a shant}' on my land with a shingled roof. I got 
ready to begin work about February 1st, and ineas- 
ured ofi" ten acres of woods for my next year's work 
to chop, clear, fence and sow with wheat ; all of 
which I did, sowing the last of my wheat in October. 
Thei reason of ni}- being so late sowing wheat was, 
my wife was taken sick soon after harvest. I could 
get no girl to work and I was obliged to take care of 
my sick wife and do all m}' work in doors, and out of 
doors. I had to milk, churn, work butter, wash and 
iron clotlu^s, mix and bake ])read. and in fact do all 
there was to be done. I worked on mv fallow days 



154 PIONEER HISTORY 

and niglits \ylienever I could leave my sick wife. At 
last I hired a girl, but she stayed with us onl}' four or 
live da3's, and I then had to do housework again. 
My wife recovered so as to be about, the forepart of 
October. 

I worked out some the next winter to get potatoes to 
eat and to plant and to pay my doctor' s bill. I bought 
four small pigs in the summer, and beachnuts being 
plenty they grew finely and when killed wt?ighed 
about one hundred and twenty pounds apiece. The 
pork was i-ather soft but tasted good. 

The second winter I chopped about seven acres. 
The weather was line, but on the night of April 13th, 
the Avind blowing a fearful gale Vvdiile we were snugly 
in bed, took the roof off our shanty leaving us in bed, 
but with neither roof or chamber lioor in our house. 
I got up and put out the fire; we put on our clothes 
and taking our little girl went to Mr. Russell s, our 
nearest neighbor, about forty rods, where we stayed 
until, with the help of our kind neighbors, we got up 
the l)ody of another log house. In two or three 
weeks we had our house so far made that we moved 
into it and lived in it all summer without a chimney. 
In the fall I built a Dutch lire place and a stick chim- 
ney. 

It was about two years after I moved on my lot be- 
fore the highway was chopped out either way, north 
or south Ironi me. The logs and underbrush v,^ere 
cut so that Vt'e could drive a team through. I 
was poor when I came liere and I lived according to 
ray means. One-fourth jiound of tea lasted us over 
seven months. I bought a barrel of pork and half a 
barrel of beef, when I got the tea, and the}^ were all 
li-one in about the same time together. 

We had plent}'' of Hour and some ])otatoes. My 
cow was not used to the woods, and sometimes I could 
find her and again I could not, so sometimes we Avere 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 155 

obliged to eat our bread and potatoes for a meal. I 
thought it rather dry living to work hard on, but we 
lived through it, always hoping for "the better time 
coming." 

The next year I fatted three lin(3 hogs and put them 
all dov/n for home use. The third summer I had over 
20 acres cleared and had got to living pretty comforta 
bly. In Jul}^^ of this year I was elected Second Ser- 
geant in Capt. Gates Infantry Company rather against 
my wishes. I however accepted. 

In August following I was taken sick with fever 
and ague which lasted me three months. I could hire 
no men to work for me for love or money. Almost 
everybody was sick this year. The neighbors turned 
out however, late in the fall and sowed about six 
acres with wheat for me, and I hired a boy a month 
to husk corn and dig potatoes. About tlje time the 
boy got through vrork the ague left me and I was 
prett}^ well all the next winter. The next spring I 
had three lits of ague, then sores came all over my 
face. I had no more ague shakes for the next three 
or four years. 

About this time ni}^ wife was taken sick with in- 
Hammation in the bowels just at the commencement 
of the wheat harvest. I had fourteen acres to 
harvest and no one to help me. I got a 
ph^^sician to attend my wife, and my little girl and 
myself nursed her as well as we could ; and ^vlien I 
could be spared I went to my liarvest lield and 
worked, whether by day or nigiit. Thus I harvested 
my fourteen acres and took care of my wife. Just 
l)efore I finished cutting my wheat however, I was 
again taken with "■chills" and began to shake, and 
kept on shaking about an hour, did not stop cradling 
but when the fever came on I had to quit and steer 
for the house and had a hard time to get there. I 
had tAto more fits, when my face broke out in sores 



loG PIONEEK niSTOIlY 

as formerly and I liad no more fever and ague. M}' 
wife getting no better, I went to iind a girl to take 
care of her, feeling I was not able to take proper care 
of myself, much less of lier. I traveled all day, 
found plenty of girls that wanted to go out to spin, 
but would not do housework. I went a second and 
third day with lik<e results, and came home sick 
both in body and mind, and found my wife souk^ bet- 
ter. I tinally succeeded in getting a woman to help 
until my wife got able to be about. 

T kept chopping and clearing my land as fast as I 
tould alone, for I was not able to hire. I changed 
work occasionall}' with my neiglibors, and sometimes 
hired a day's work. My crops were sometimes good, 
sometimes poor ; but I got along and made 
money. 

In July, 1883, I was elected Captain over the Com- 
pany in whicli I had served as Sergeant over four 
years, and I was afterwards elected Colonel. This 
inilitary office, as every body knows, was not a money 
making business in those days ; but I had got into it 
and determined to carry it through to the best of my 
ability. *It cost me much time and mone}', for which 
I received nothing back. I had the honor of com- 
manding as good a regiment as tliere was in the coun- 
ty, and felt proud of it. I did military duty nineteen 
years ; eleven years as an office]-, sei'ving as a Cap- 
tain before I was natuialized, or a voter in town 
or State. I resigned all military office Aju'il 20th, 
1839. 

I hav«; laboi'ed steadily as a fai-mei-, enjoying good 
health, except having the ague, as I have stated, and 
had a good degree of prosx^eiity attend my laboi's. 

JOSEPH "barker." 

March 'Jlli, 18(53. 

KXoS HICK. 

EnosRice was l)orn in Conway, Hampshire county, 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 157 

Massacliusetts, in 1790, and came with liis father's 
family in 1804, to Madison connty, X. Y. 

In June, 1816, with a pack on his back, lie came to 
Barre, Orleans county, and located on lot eighteen, in 
township fifteen, i-ange two, where he cleared about 
twent}^ acres, lie next lived a few years in Shelby, 
and in 1831 bought a farm near Porter's Corners, 
where he has ever since resided. 

Mr. Rice began in the world poor, but by persever- 
ing industry and frugality he has acquired a fair 
amount of prop(^rty to make his old age comfort- 
able. 

i.iTJiKi: I'oiri'Ei;. 

•• My father, Stephen Porter, was born in Lebanon, 
Connecticut. About the year 1812 or '13 he started 
with his wife and five children on an ox sled, with one 
3^oke of small oxen to come to 'York State.' He 
had but few ai-ticles of furniture and but 865 in 
money. After a journey of twe]ity-two days, with 
extraordinary good luck, he landed in Smyrna, Che- 
nango count}', N. Y., with cash reduct^l to ^18. 
Here he hired an old log house in wliicli he resided 
one year. Then he hitched his oxen to the old sled, 
and with his traps and family aljoard, started for 
Ontario county. After traveling seven da^ys, he ar- 
rived at his place of destination and liired a house 
and tsventy-five acres of land. 

In th(^ fall of 1815, he took an article from th<> Hol- 
land Land Compau}', of the west hundred acres of 
lot 40, township 14, range 2, in Barre, the same on 
which I now reside, about three-fourths of a mile 
w^est of Porter's Corners. In March following, in 
company with Allen Porte]-, Samuel Porter and Jo- 
seph Rockwood, he started with provisions for five 
weeks, to make a beginning on their lands. They es- 
tablished their depot of provisions at the house of 



158 PIOXEER JIISTOr.Y 

Dea. Ebenezer Rogers, in the south part of what is 
nov.^ tlie village of Albion. 

They took what provisions they wanted for a week 
on their backs, with their axes and started throngh 
the woods to their lands, about live miles awa_y, the 
snow being about knee deep. 

The lirst thing in order was to select a place to 
build their cabin. The site was iixed on the farm 
now owned b}'" J. AV. Stocking, about twenty rods 
east of where Stocking s house stands. They cut such 
poles as they could carry and built their first cabin 
ten by twelve feet square, covered it with split bass- 
wood troughs, got it tenable, and the colony moved 
in and took possession the same day. They cut hem- 
lock boughs and spread them on the ground, covering 
them with blankets, which made a good bed. The 
room not occuj)ied by the bed served for culinary and 
dining purposes. . After thus preparnig their house 
they commenced chopping in earnest, working through 
the week until Saturday afternoon, when they all re- 
turned to Mr. Rogers' to S2:)end the Sabbath and get 
another weeks' provisions. In this way they worked 
until they had chopped about five acres each, when 
they all returned to Ontario Co., to spencVthe sum- 
mer. 

In January, 1820, my father moved his family to 
his new home in Barre, where he made a comfortable 
residence the remainder of his life, and died in the 
fall of 1831, aged 53 years. 

My father paid little more than the interest on the 
purchase money for his land, while he lived. It was 
paid for by his sons and has been a home for the 
family ever since. 

In the spring of 181G there was no house occupied 
by a family in Barre, west of the Oak Orchard Eoad, 
on the line on which my father located, although sev- 
eral we]"e in process of erection. My mother died on 





dC^^^/c^o^^ 




e 



OF OIILEAjS'S C01T]VTY. 159 

the homestead, August lSo7, aged 77 years. I vv'as 
my father's second son, and now o^yn and reside on 
tlie old premises, to which I have made additions by 
purcliase. 

I was born in Aslilield, Mass., in 1805, and came to 
this county witii my fatlier, in 1820, being tlien about 
fifteen j'ears okl. 

I liave had abundant experience in pioneer life. I 
have chopped and logged and cleared land. I boiled 
hlack sails three or four years, a part of thi^ time 
barefoot, because ray father was too poor to furnish 
me shoes, with little other damage than the occasion- 
al loss of a toe nail, or a small wound in the foot from 
sharp stubs. 

I have lived through it all. and by dint of eci^noni}' 
and industry have advanced from povert_y to compe- 
tence. 

I have held various offices in the gift of my fellow- 
citizens. I was Supervisor of the town of Barre from 
1857 to 1862, five successive years. 

There was no school in my neighborhood for sever- 
al 3'ears after 1820. The first district school house 
built there was erected at Sheldon's Corners. The 
district was afterwards divided and a log school 
house built about a mile north of Ferguson's Cor- 
ners. Again the district was divided and now stands 
as district iSTo. 12, v/ith a good school house. 

I married for my first wife, Lydia Scoot, daughter 
of Capt. Justin Scoot, of Ontario County, Oct. 20, 
1880. She died Dec. 3, 1842. I married for my sec- 
ond wife, Caroline Culver, daughter of Orange Culver 
of South Barre, June 27, 1844, with whom I am still 
living. 

LUTHER POriTER." 
Ban-c, ]\r:iy 27, 1863. 

Ts^'ElIEMIAII IXtnCI'.SOLL. 

Kehemiali Inirrrsoll was born in Stanford; Dutchess 



160 I'lONEEll IIISTOKY 

Co., N. Y., in 1786. In 1816, lie removed to Batavia, 
wliere he remained a year or two, tlien bonght a farm 
in Elba, five miles north of Batavia, to which he re- 
moved and where he kept a pnblic honse several 
3^ears. In April, 1822, in company with James P. 
8mith and Chillian F. Buckle}^, he bought of William 
Bradner one hundred acres of land in Albion, bound- 
ed north by the town of Gaines ; west by the Oak 
Orchard road ; south by Joel Bradner' s farm, and ex 
tending east one hundred rods from the Oak Orchard 
Road. For this tract they paid 84,000. Mr. Inger- 
soil soon bought of Smith and Buckley, all their in- 
terest in this land. 

Soon after purchasing this tract Mr. Ingersoll had 
a large part of it surveyed and laid out into village 
lots, believing a town would soon grow up. He 
did not immediately remove to Albion but did com- 
mence improving his property there. 

He and his associates built the large warehouse 
standing on the canal at the foot of Piatt street and 
a framed building for a store on the corner of Main 
and Canal streets, wiiere the Empire block now 
stands. 

Ingersoll & Wells (Dudle}^ Wells) traded some 
years in this store, and business was carried on in 
the warehouse by Ingersoll and Lewis P. Buckley. 

In the struggle for the location of the County build- 
ings, Mr. Ingersoll engaged with spirit. In competing 
with the village of Gaines, he offered the commission- 
ers appointed to locate the Court House, the grounds 
on which the Court House now stands as a free gift, 
which offer was finally accepted and the location thus 
secured here. 

Earl}^ in 1826 he removed to Albion to reside. He 
was prominent among those engaged' in effecting the 
organization of the county of Orleans from the county 
of Genesee, and in establishing all those institutions 



OK ORLEANS COnNTY. 1 Gl 

required and eonseqiient upon Tbeginnijio- a new 
county. 

In 1835, liaving sold or contracted for the sale of most 
of his land in Albion, he removed to Detroit and en- 
ii'asred in large business there, in which he sustained 
severe loss ; and in 1845 lie went to Lee, Oneida county, 
X. Y., at which place he resided until his deatli. 

Mr. Ingersoll married in his youth Miss Polly Hal- 
sey, daughter of C'ol. Nathan Halsej', of Columbia 
county. She died in 1881. 

For a second wife he married Miss Elizabeth C. 
Brown, of Lee who survived him. 

Mr. Ingersoll died February 21, 1868, aged eighty- 
two years. Tie was naturally of a strong constitu- 
tion and of an active temperament and ap- 
peared twenty years younger than he was. Although 
the later j^ears of liis life were spent away from Albion, 
he was often here and always manifested the deepest 
interest in the jDrosperity of the village and county of 
Orleans. .\t his request his remains were brought to 
Albion after his decease and deposited beside his tirst 
Avife in Mount Albion Cemetery. 

His second wife, Mrs. I'lizabeth C. Ingersoll, died 
August ITtli, 1869. After her marriage, she resided 
several years in Albion and shared with her hus- 
band in a feeling of attachment to the place and peo- 
ple, which proved itself in a generous gift of ten 
thousand dollars, which she made in her will to tlic 
Prostestant Episcopal Cliui'ch in Albion. Both Mr. 
Ingersoll and his wife were members of tliat com- 
muiiion. 

.JUSTUS INGERSOLL. 

Hon. Justus Ingersoll was born in Stanford, Dutch- 
ess county, N. Y., in 1794. He learned the trade of 
tanner. 

On the breaking out of vv'ar with Gieat Britain, in 



1G2 J>IONEEK HISTORY 

1812, he entered tlie United States army as ensign in 
the twenty-third regiment of infantry. He served on 
the northern frontier in several engagements, and was 
in the celebrated charge on Queenstown Heights. He 
was promoted to the rank of Captain for meritorious 
service. 

In one of the battles in Canada, in which he servod 
as CajDtain of Infantry, he was wounded in the foot. 
Refusing to leave his Company, and being unable to 
walk, he mounted a horse and continued with his 
men. In another engagement he was shot through 
the body, the ball lodging in a rib. He refused to 
liave it removed, as he was informed a portion of 
rib would have to be cut away, which would proba- 
bly cause him to stoop ever after in his gait. 

He was a favorite with his company and much es- 
teemed by Gen. Scott under whom he served. 

In 1818 he came to Elba, Genesee county, N. Y., 
and soon after settled at Shelby Center, in Orleans 
county, where he carried on tanning and shoe-mak- 
ing, and held the office of Justice of the Peace. 

After the canal was made navigable, and Medina 
began to be settled as a village, he removed there, 
built a large tannery and transfered his business 
to that place. 

He was appointed Indian Agent and postmaster at 
]yi;^dina, by President Jackson : he was also Judge 
of Orleans County Courts. 

His tannery being accidentally burned and sus- 
taining other misfortunes in business, he removed to 
Detroit with his brother IS'ehemiah, in 183;"), where 
they went into the leather business on a largt^ scale, 
in which they were not finally successful. 

Mr. Ingersoll was a man of firm and persistent 
character, active and entei'prising — esteemed among 
his acquaintances for the u})rightness of his conduct 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 163 

lELiid. the courtes}' of his manners. He died in 1845. 

LORENZO BURROWS. 

Lorenzo Burrows was born in Groton, Conn., 
March 15th, 1805. In his boyliood he attended the 
Academy at Plainfield, Conn., and Westerly, Rhode 
Island. In Nov., 1824, he came to Albion, ^. Y., to 
^assist his brother, Roswell S. Burrows, as his clerk. 
He continued to act in that capacity until in 1826, 
;after he attained his majorit}', he went in company 
<with his brother in business under the firm name of 
R. S. & L. Burrows. 

He assisted his brother in establishing the Bank of 
Albion in 1839, and after it went into operation he 
'was appointed Cashier and devoted himself mainly 
to the business of the bank and to the duties of Re- 
sceiver of the Farmers Bank of Orleans, until in No- 
vember, 1848, he was elected a Member of the House 
'Of Representatives in Congress, for the District which 
comprised Niagara and Orleans counties. He was 
re-elected to Congress in Nov., 1850, and served in 
that office, in all, four years. 

Since his election to Congress he has done no busi- 
ness as an officer of this bank. 

He was elected Comptroller of the State of New 
York in Nov. 1855, which office he held one term of 
two yearns. 

In Feb., 1858, he was chosen a Regent of the Uni- 
versity of the State of New York, an office he has 
lield ever since. 

He was Count}' Treasurer of Orleans county in the 
year 1840, and Supervisor of the town of Barre for 
the year 1845. He was Assignee in Bankruptc}^ for 
the county of Orleans, under the law of 1841. In 
the year 1862 he was appointed one of the Commis- 
sioners of Mount Albion Cemetery — an ofiice to 
which no salary or pecuniary compensation is 



164 PIONEER HISTORY 

attached, but wliicli is attended with considerable 
labor. To this labor he has devoted all the time neces- ■ 
saiy, discharging the jirincipal part of the duties 
of the Commission, with wliat success let the beauti- 
ful terraces, trees, paths, walks, avenues, roads, and' 
improvements which adorn this "city of the dead," 
and which remain the creations of his taste and skill, 
bear witness. 

Since leaving Congress Mr. Barrows has employed' 
liimself principally in discharging the duties of the 
offices above mentioned in taking care of consider- 
able real estate he owns in connection with his broth- 
er, and in his own right, in, or near Albion, and else- 
where ; and in tlie enjoyment of such leisure as an' 
ample fortune which he has secured in ea.ilier' 
life affords, in social intercourse with his family 
and friends. 

OEOKGE E. MIX. 

'' I was born in Greenfield, Saratoga county, X. Y.- 
j\Iy father's name was Abiathar Mix. In May, 1817,- 
when I was less than one year old, my father re- 
moved with his family to what is now Barre, Orleans 
county, N. Y. There I had my bringing up and have 
ever since resided. JNIy Genesee cradle was a sap- 
trough. Genesee school rooms were log houses, log 
barns, and other like accommodations. 

I stayed at home and worked on the farm summerSy 
and went to schools winters when I could, until I was 
eighteen years of age. jMy father then gave me my 
time, saying he had nothing else he could give ir\e 
then, but that 1 could make his house my home. 

After that I Avorked by the day and month summers,. 
and attended school winters — went several terms tc5»- 
an Academy. 

At the age of twenty-three I commenced teaching: 
district school and taucht five winters in successions.-" 



OF ORLEAIS'S COUNTY. 165 

During those five years I traveled considerably in the 
-western and southern States, and became quite a rad- 
ical reformer in sentiment. 

I was nominated County Clerk by the Liberty Par- 
ty but was not elected. 

I married Miss Ellen De Bow, of Batavia, N. Y.. 
Jn 1852. 

I have alwa}'s made a living, and got it honest!}' I 
think, and have laid by a little every year for myself 
.and others I have to care for. I never sued a person 
and never was sued. I never lost a debt of an}' great 
amount, for if a person who owed me could not pay 
it, I forgave the debt. 

I made a public profession of religion when I was 

• eleven years old, and several years afterwards united 

with the Free Congregational Church in Gaines and re- 

.mained a member of that Church as long as it was in 

being. 

I never held an}' civil office of profit. My political 
principles were not formerly ]>opular with the major- 
ity of the people. 

I held military office in the 214th regiment N. Y. 
.State militia, from 1837 to 1844, and served as ensign, 
lieutenant and captain. 

I have lived to see slavery abolished in this coun- 
try. The landless can now have land if they will. 
Now let us dri^'e liquor and tobacco from the coun- 

try. 

GEORGE E. MIX." 
Barre, February 1869. 

"things I CAN KKMKMBKR." 

BY OEOUC4E E. MIX. 

'"I can remember the dark and heavy forest that 
♦once covered this land, with only now and then a lit- 
tle ' clearing ' that made a little hole to let in the 
tv'sixnsliiiie : the Jaro:e creeks that seemed to flov/ and 



166 PIONEER HISTORY 

flood the whole country during a freshet ; the large- 
swamps and marshes, in almost every valley ; the 
wild deer that roamed the woods almost undisturbed 
hy men ; the bear that plodded his way through the- 
swamps and the wolf that made night hideous with 
his howling. 

I remember when the roads ran crooking around, 
on the high grounds, and when roads on the low 
lands were mostly causeways of logs. AVheii almost 
all the houses were made of logs, and almost all the 
chimneys were made of sticks and mud, and the lire- 
places were of Dutch pattern. 

But the sound of the axman was heard at his toil 
through tlie forest, hurling the old trees headlong. 
The woods and the heavens were lit up with the lurid 
glare of lire by night, and the heavy forest soon 
melted away. Those little holes in the old woods, 
soon became enlarged to broad fields of waving 
grain, that glistened in the sun light. 

The foaming creeks soon became rivulets, or dried 
up. The swamps disappeared and nothing remains 
to show where many of the great marshes of the old 
time were. The deer, bear and wolf have departed. 
The crooked roads have been straightened, and the 
log causeways have been buried oiit of sight. The 
log houses, stick chimneys, and Dutch fireplaces, 
are reckoned among the things that were and are not 
now. 

I can ]"emember when my mother spun flax on a 
little wheel and carded wool and tow by hand and 
spun them on a great wheel ; when she colored her 
yarn with the bark and leaves of trees and had a 
loom, and wove cloth and made it up into clothing 
for her family. 

I can remember when my father plowed with a 
wooden plow witli an iron share and reaped his grain 
witli a sickle and tlireshed it with a fiail ; when he 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 167 

mowed his grass with a sr3'the and raked it with a 
liand rake. I remember when no fruit grew here but 
wild fruit, but we soon liad peaches in profusion, 
bushels of them rotting under the trees. 

At the lirst settlement of this county, fruits, such 
as grapes, strawberries, cranberries, blackberries, 
gooseberries, raspberries and mandrakes, were to be 
found growing wild. We liad nuts from the trees, 
such as butternuts, chestnuts, beachnuts and wal- 
nuts. 

Pumpkins, squashes and melons, were largely 
raised and of great value to the people. Pumpkins 
w(^re cut in strips and dried on poles in the log 
cabins and kept for use the year round. Maple trees 
furnished us neai-l}' all our sugar. At our fall par- 
ties and our husking and logging bees we had pump- 
kin pies. At our Avinter parties we had nuts and 
popped <*orn and in tlie sunimei', berries and 
cream. 

I can i-(^member when the common vehicle for trav- 
eling about was an ox sled with wooden shoes and 
the only wheel carriages were lumber wagons and 
they were few, wlien the Ridge Road was the main 
thoroughfare by which to reach the old settlements 
and stage coaches were llie fastest means of convey- 
ance. 

It was considered an irnj)ossibility to make the 
Erie Canal. People said possibly water might be 
made to run \\\) hill, but canal boats, never. 

Some said tliey would b*' willing to die, having 
lived long enough when boats in a canal should float 
through their farms ; but afterwards wiien they saw 
tlie boats passing by, they Avanted to live more than 
tn-er to see what would be done next. 

Next after the canal came the railroad. I heard 
the cars were running at Batavia and I went out there 
to see tlie great wonder of the age, and saw them. 



168 PIONKKK HISTORY 

We were next told of the telegrapli. Knowing ones 
said that was a hiinibiig, sure. I remember even 
some members of Congress ridiculed Professor Morse 
and his telegraph as a delusion. But in spite of rid- 
icule, and doubt, and incredulity, the telegraph be- 
came a success, and by it the ends of the earth have 
been brought together. Tliese things I have seen and 
remembered while living here in Orleans county. 

georgp: e. mix." - 

31 RS. LYDIA MIX. 

*' I was born in Brantford, Connecticut, in 1788. At 
the age of eighteen I married Abiathar Mix, and re- 
moved to Dutchess county, N. Y., where my hus- 
band owned a farm, on which we lived, working it 
chiefly by hired men, m>- husband being a mason hy 
trade, labored at that business in the summer and 
winters he made nails and buttons. 

We resided there until May, 1817, wht-n we sold 
our farm and removed to Barre, Orleans Co., and lo- 
cated on lot 32, township 14, range 2. Very little 
land was then cleared in that neighborhood, and even 
that was covered with stumps of trees. Mr. Mix had 
been here The year before and engaged a nmn to build 
a log house for him. When we came on we found our 
lionse with walls up and roof on. My husband split 
some basswood logs and hewed them to plank, with 
wliicli he laid a Hoor, and we began housekeeping in 
our new house. 

My husband had ten or fifteen hundred dollars in 
money, when he moved here. He took an article for 
a large tract of land and went to making potash and 
selling goods and merchandise, in compan}^ with his 
brother, Ebenezer Mix, who was then a clerk in the 
land office of tiie Holland Compau}', at Batavia. 

The settlers, building their houses of logs and their 
chimneys of sticks and mud, my husband found noth- 



OF ORLEAIS'S COUNTY. 169 

ing to do at his trade, until the}' began making brick 
and making their cliimneys of stone, with brick ovens. 

He then closed out his mercantile bnsiness and 
went to work at liis trade and being something of a 
lawyer, he used to do that kind of bnsiness consider- 
ably for the settlers. 

We had pretty hard times occasionally bnt managed 
to get along with what we had and raised onr seven 
children to be men and women. 

My husband died in 1856. Three of my children 

have died. I shall be S6 years old in a few days, if I 

live. 

LYDIA MIX." 
Barre, February, 1869. 

JOSEPir HA] IT. 

Joseph Hart was born in Berlin, Hartford Co., 
Conn., in Nov., 1775, and died in Barre, Orleans Co., 
K. Y., July, 1855. 

Mr. Hart moved to Seneca, Ontario Count}', N. V., 
in the year 1806. In the fall of 1811, he came to Bar- 
re and took an article from the Holland Land Co., of 
lot 34, township 15, range 1, containing 360 acres, the 
principal part of which is still owned by his sons. 
William and Joseph. 

In April, 1812, in company with Elijah Darrow. 
Frederick Holsenburgh and Silas Benton, then young 
unmarried men, he returned and built a log house on 
his lot and moved his family into it in October follow- 
ing. 

Elijah Darrow took an article of part of lot 1, town- 
ship 15, range 2, held the land and worked on it about 
two years, then sold it to Mr. Hart, who sold it to Eb- 
enezer Rogers, about the year 1816. 

Silas Benton took an article of jjart of a lot lying- 
next north of Darrow' s land, which was for mam- 
years afterwards owned by Samuel Fitch. Benton 
made a clearing on his land, built a Ioq; house on it. 



170 PIONEER HISTORY 

in wliich lie lived several years and in which his wife, 
Mrs. Silas Benton, tau(:jht a school, probably the first 
school in the town of Barre, boarded several men and 
did her house work at the same time, all in one room. 
A log school house was afterwards built on Benton's 
land, to which Mrs. Benton moved her school, which 
was said to have been the first school house built in 
town. 

Frederick Holsenburgh took an article of part of 
the lot lying next north of Benton' s, in the village of 
Albion, on the west side of the Oak Orchard Road. — 
The Depot of the N. Y. Central Railroad stands on 
the Holsenburgh tract. 

Joseph Hart married Lucy Kirtland, who was born 
in Say brook. Conn., and who died at Adrian, Mich., 
January, 1868, aged 89 years. 

He was here during the war of 1812, and was sever- 
al times called out to do military service in that war. 
He was a prominent and active man in all matters 
pertaining to the organization of society in the new 
country. He assisted in forming the Presb3'terian 
Cliurch, in Albion, in wliich he was a ruling elder 
while he lived, and from his office in that church he 
was always known as I)ea. Hart. 

Ih' almost always held some town office, and for 
many of his later years he was overseer of the poor of 
tlie town of Barre, a position the kindness of his na- 
ture well qualified him to fill. His fortunate location 
near the thriving village of Albion, which has been 
extended over a part of his farm, made him a wealthy 
man. Through a long life, he maintained a high 
character for probity and good judgment, and died 
i-espected by all who knew him. 

ADEN FOSTER 

' Was born in Sudbury, Vermont, July 20, 1791 ; 
married Sarah Hall, of Brandon, Vt., Jan. 28, 1817; 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 171 

came to Bane in the winter of 1817 and settled on lot 
86, township 14, range 1, half a mile south of Barre 
Center, He cleared np his farm and resided on it un- 
til his death, Feb. 18, 1888. Mr. Foster was an active 
business man, a leading man among the early settlers. 
He was for several years Capt. of a militia company, 
and for some years a Justice of the Peace. 

ALKA'IS WAlfD. 

Alexis Ward was born in the town of Addi- 
son, Vermont, May 18, 1802. His j)arents removed 
to Cayuga county. New York, Avhen he was quite a 
lad. He studied law with Judge Wilson of Auburn, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1828. In 1824 he re- 
moved to Albion, where he was soon appointed a Jus- 
tice of the Peace. 

On the retirement of Judge Foot, who was the lirst 
Judge of Orleans count}^, Mr. AVard was ap]iointed 
First Judge in his place Feb. 10, 1880, an office he 
held by re-appointment until January 27, 1840. 

In 1884-5 he was mainly instrumental in procuring 
the charter incorpoiating the Bank of Orleans, which 
was the lirst bank incorporated in Orleans county, 
and in 1886 was <4ected its President and held that 
office until his death. 

He was one of the movers in founding the Phipps 
Union Seminar}' and the Albion Academy, and was 
always liberal in sustaining our j)ublic schools. 

It was mainly owing to his exertions that the Roch- 
ester, Lockj)ort and Niagara Falls Railroad was built, 
and if it has proved a benefit the thanks for its con- 
struction are cliietiy due to Judge Ward. 

The Suspension Bridge across Niagara River made 
a part of his original plan in connexion with this rail 
road, and his arguments and exertions were mainly 
effectual in inducing American capitalists to take 
stock in this Bridge. 



172 PIONEKU IIISTOKY 

He projected the plank roads from the Ridge thiough 
Albion to Barre Center and took a large pecuniar}' 
interest in them. 

He, with lloswell and Freeman Clarke, built the 
large stone flouring mill in All)ion. He also built 
several dwelling houses. 

He was a large hearted, public spirited man, always 
ready to do anything he thought might benefit Albion. 

In all his business relations he was just, honorable 
and upright, every man rec(4vecl his due ; his purse 
was always open to the calls of charity. A man of 
untiring energy and i^erscn-erance, — to start a project 
was with him a certainty of its completion. 

In his intercourse with those about him he was 
kind, affable and generous. His reserve might be 
construed by those who did not know him well, as 
haughtiness, but few men were freer from this tlian 
he. 

As a Christian, he was an exeniplary member of 
the Presbyterian Church of Albion, with which he 
connected himself in 1831. He always gave greater 
pecuniary contributions to sustain that churcli and 
its ministers than any other man. H(^ did nnu'Ii by 
his prayers, counsel, charities and example to sustain 
the cause of religion generally. 

In November, lSo4, h(^ was elected Member of As- 
sembly for Orleans count}', but his death pivvented 
his taking his seat in the Legislature. 

He married Miss Laura Goodrich of Auburn in 
1820. He died November 28th, 18r>4. 

THK LKK FAMri.V. 

Judge John Lee, tlie ancestor of thiti family and the 
man after vnIioui tlie Lee Settlenu'ut in Barre was 
named, was born in Barre, Massaclius(^tts, June2r)th, 
1763. In an early da}' he emigrated to Madison 
county. New York, where he I'esided fourteen years, 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 1.73 

and came to Bane, Orleans county in 181(3, and took 
Tip a tract of land. He returned home, but liis sons, 
Charles and Ora, then young men, came on and 
cleared np several acres of their fathers purchase, 
and built a log house into which Mi". John Lee and 
liis family moved in Februaiy, 1817. 

Mr. Lee was an intelligent, energetic man, benevo- 
lent and patriotic in his character, always among the 
first to engage in any work tending to premote the 
good of his neighbors or the prosperity of the country. 
With the hospitality common to all the pioneers, he 
kept open house to all comers and frequently half a 
dozen men looking after land oi- waiting till their log 
houses could be put up, would be (piartered with him 
though his own family was large. 

He was always conspicuous in aiding to lay out 
and open roads, build school houses and induce set- 
tlers to come in and sta}^ He was a2:)pointed a 
Judge of the Court of C-ommon Pleas of Genesee 
county and his opinions and counsel in all matters 
of local interest were much sought by his neighbors. 
He di(xl in October 1823. 

His children were Dence}^, wife oi" Benj. (lodard, 
who died in Barre in 1831. Submit, wife of Judge 
Eldridge Farwell, who is still living. (Charles, Ora 
and Asa. Sally wife of Andrew Stevens. She taught 
the first school kept in the settlement in a log school 
house in wliicli the family of a Mr. Pierce then re- 
sided, in 1818-19. She died at Knowlesville in 1828. 
Esther wife of Gen. Wm. C. Tanner, died in 1835. 
John B, who died in September 1860. Clarissa wife 
of John Proctor, who died in 1832. Cynthia married 
AVilliam Mudgett of Yates, in 1837, she is now living 
the widow of John Proctor. Charles has always 
r(?sided on a part of the land originally taken up by 
Jiis father. He has always been a prominent man in 



174 PIONEEK HISTORY 

public affairs in town and county, and was for a 
number of years a Justice of the Peace. 

Ora Lee also has resided on a part of the land so 
taken up by his father. It is said lie cut tlie first tree 
that was felled between the village of Millville in 
Shelby and the Oak Orchard Road in Barre. Gen, 
John B. Lee removed to Albion about the year 1832, 
and engaged in warehousing and forwarding on the 
canal. Shortly after this he j)urchased of the Hol- 
land Company a large number of outstanding con- 
tracts made b}' the Company with settlers on the sale 
of their lands in the north part of this county. He 
conveyed these lands to the purchasers as they were 
paid for. 

A few years afterwards he engaged in selling dry 
ffoods in Albion. In a short time he l^ft this and 
devoted himself mainly to buying and selling Hour 
and grain, and in manufacturing flour during the re- 
mainder of his life. He took delight in military 
affairs, held various offices in the State militia, rising 
gradually to the rank of Brigadier-General, 

ABKAJIAM C'ANTINE. 

Abraham Cantine was born in IVIarbletown, 
Ulster county. He volunteered as a soldier in the 
United States Army in the war with Great Britain, in 
1812, and served as a Captain in the stirring scenes 
of that war on the Canadian fi'ontier. He was 
wounded in the sortie at the battle of Fort Erie. 

After the war he was discharged from the army 
and returned to Ulster county, of which he wns ap- 
pointed Sheriff by the old Coun(;il of Appointment, 
in Feb. 1819. Soon afttn- the expiration of his office 
as Sheriff', he removed to the town of Murray, in Or- 
leans county. He was employed about the year 1 829, 
to re-survey that portion of the 100,000 acre tract ly- 
ing mainly in the town of Murray, amJucIi belonged to 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 17r> 

tlie Pultney estate, part of township number tliive, a 
labor he carefully and faithfully performed. 

He represented the eounty of Orleans in the State 
Legislature in 1827. He served five years as an As- 
sociate Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Or- 
leans county. He was Collector of Tolls on the Erie 
Canal at Albion in 1835. 

Several years befor his death he removed to Albion 
to reside, and died there about Aug. 1, 1840, aged 
fifty years. 

Judge Cantine was a clear headed man, of sound 
judgment, well informed and always sustained 
a high reputation for ability wherever he was known. 
He was a warm personal and political friend of Pres- 
ident VanBuren. 

CAROLINE p. ACHILLES, 

Daughter of Mr. Joseph Phipps, was born in Rome, 
New York. She was one in a numerous famil}' of 
daughters, whose early education was superintended 
b}' her father with more than ordinary care at home, 
though she had the advantages of the best private 
schools and of the district schools in the vicinity. — 
While she was quite young her father settled in Bar- 
re, and at an early age she was permitted to gratity 
the ambition she then manifested and which has been 
a ruling passion of her life, to become a teacher, b}' 
taking a small district school, at a salaiy of one dol- 
lar per week 'and board around,' as was then cus- 
tomary in such schools. The salary, however, was 
no object to her, she wished to teach a school, not to 
make money. After teaching this school two or three 
terms, she attended the Gaines Academy then in the 
zenith of its prosperity. Having spent some time 
here she was sent to a ' finishing' Ladies School kept 
by Mrs. and Miss Nicholas, in Whitesboro, N. Y. 
On leaving Whitesboro she determined to engage in 



176 PIONEER HISTORY 

teaching permanently and accepted a situation to in- 
struct as assistant, in a classical school which had 
been opened by two ladies in Albion. 

Finally an arrangement was made between the two 
principals and their assistant, under which they trans- 
ferred their lease of premises, and all their interests 
in the school to Miss Phipps. 

She now associated with an elder sister and the 
two commenced their labors as teachers on their own 
account, in a building then standing on the site of the 
present Phipps Union Seminary, in April, 1833. 

Acting on a favorite theory with her, that it is bet- 
ter to teach boys and girls in separate schools, she di- 
vided her scholars accordingly, and after a time she 
declined to receive boys as pupils and devoted all 
her energies to her school for young ladies. 

This proved a success. So many pupils had come 
in that in August of her first year, she had been join- 
ed by another and younger sister as teacher, besides 
a teacher in music and all found themselves fully 
employed. 

She thus became convinced a Female Seminary 
could be supported in Albion and that she was ca- 
pable of superintending it, and encouraged by the 
counsel and influence of some of the best citizens of 
the village, she issued a circular to the public, an- 
nouncing the founding of such an institution of learn- 
ing here. 

After near a year's trial the new Seminary was 
proved to require additional buildings, to accommo- 
date the large school. Miss Phipps invited some of 
the most wealthy and influential men of Albion, to 
meet and hear her proposition to erect a new Semi- 
nary Building, which was in substance, that they 
should loan to her four thousand dollars, with which, 
and funds she could otlierwise procure, she would 
t.^rect a l)uilding and repay the loan to the subscribers 




llK'''lllll^'^^*'- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 177 

in installments, and thus establish permanently the 
Seminary she proposed. 

Such proceedings were had upon this proposal that 
a paper was circulated, and the required sum sub- 
scribed, with a condition added that the avails of this 
loan to be repaid by Miss Pliipps, should be used to 
found an Academy for boys in Albion. This x^lan 
was eventually carried into effect, and the brick edi- 
fice still used as a Seminary, built in th(^ year 1830, 
and Pliipps Union Seminary duly incor^jorated in 
1840. 

Miss Pliipps was thus instrumental in founding two 
incorporated schools in Albion, which have proved of 
great public benefit. 

Miss Pliipps was married to Col. H. L. Achilles, of 
Rochester, N. Y., in February, 1839, and soon after 
resigning the care of the Seminary to her younger sis- 
ter, she removed to Boston, Mass., where she resided 
the succeeding ten years. During this time this 
younger sister married, when the Seminary was trans- 
ferred to others, less competent to manage its affairs, 
in whose hands it lost the large patronage it had re- 
ceived, and was well nigh ruined. 

This compelled Mr. and Mrs. Achilles to return to 
Albion, in 1849, and resume charge of the Seminary, 
or lose a large pecuniary interest they had invested 
there. 

The tact and energy of Mrs. Achilles, well sustain- 
ed by her husband, gave new vigor to the institution, 
and soon brought the Seminary back to the high 
standing it had under her former administration. 

Tired and worn down by the harrassing cares, anx- 
ieties and labor of superintending so large an estab- 
lishment and school, so many j^ears, in 1866 Mrs. 
Achilles reluctantly consented to transfer her dearly 
cherished Seminary again to strangers. 

After three years' trial by these parties however, it 

12 



178 PIONEKU HISTORY 

was tliouglit best that Mrs. Achilles should again 
take charge of Phipps Union Seminary, which she 
did, bringing with her to her duties the skill, experience 
and practical ability which have given her such emi- 
nent success as a teacher. 

Mrs. Achilles has devoted the best years of her life 
to the cause of female education. Slie has labored in 
her chosen vocation, with the zeal and enthusiasm of 
genius, and may enjo}" her reward in the good she 
knows she has done, and in the success with whi<'h 
she sees her work has been crowned. 



CHAPTER XYL 



THE VILLAGE OF ALBION. 

First Inhabitants — First Business Men — Strife T\itli Gaines for Court 
House — Strategy used by Albion men to get Court House — First 
Court House — Second Court House — County Jail — First Hotel — 
Fir§t Warehouse — Stone Flouring Mill — Lawyers — Drs. Nichoson 
and AVhite — First Tanyard — First Blacksmiths — Name of the Vil- 




AK Orcliard Road intersects this village and 
now forms Main Street, north and south, in 
the center of the place. It was this road and 
the Erie Canal that fixed a village here. 

When the canal was commenced Albion was used 
for farms, but by the time the canal became naviga- 
ble considerable of a town had sprung up. 

William McCollister cleared the first land on what 
is now in the corporation, where the Court House and 
Female Seminary stand, and built his log house on 
the Seminary lot in 1812. He took up lot thirty -five, 
township fifteen, range one, on the east side of Main 
street, under article from the Holland Company, 
which he sold to William Bradner, who took the deed 
from the companj^ of two hundred and sixty -six and 
one-half acres of the north part, his brother Joel 
taking a deed of ninety -two acres on the south part, 
on the west side of Main street. 

Jesse Bumpus took up by article from the compa- 
ny, the land from the town line of Gaines on the north, 
to near State street on the south. John Holtzbarger, 
■or Holsenburgh, as he was sometimes called, took up 



180 PIONEER HISTORY 

the next land south of Bumpus, and Elijah Danow 
took the next. 

Before the canal was made Mr. "William Bradner 
sold one hundred acres of the north-west part of his 
tract to Nehemiah Ingersoll and others. Mr. Inger- 
soU employed Orange Risden to lay out his land bor- 
dering on the Oak Orchard Road and canal, into vil- 
lage lots, and to make a plat of the same. From this 
Mr. Ingersoll sold lots and opened the streets, he hav • 
ing bought out his partners. 

The Bumpus tract, on the west side of Main street, 
at this time was owned by Mr. Roswell Burrows, the 
father of Messrs. R. S. & L. Burrows. He did not 
lay out his land into village lots by any general sur- 
vey and plan, but laid off lots and opened streets 
from time to time as the wants of the public required. 
The land fronting on Main street, through the village, 
was taken up and mostly occupied by purchasers 
from the original proprietors, about the time the canal 
was made navigable. 

The location of the County Seat in Albion, about 
this time, and the bustle and business of erecting 
county buildings, establishing the courts and public of- 
fices and organizing the affairs of a new county, town 
and village, brought in an influx of inhabitants at 
once, representing the different callings and employ- 
ments pursued by those who settled in villages along 
the canal. 

The south side of the canal — the north being the 
towing path — was soon occupied by buildino:s put 
up for the canal trade, such as warehouses and gro- 
cery stores. The large number of passengers who 
filled the canal boats, made the grocery stores, from 
which they and the boatmen procured their supplies, 
places of lively trade, by night and day. Variety 
stores, each filled with goods of every name, class and. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 181 

description demanded by the customers, were numer- 
ous, though small. 

Among the first merchants were Goodrich & Stan- 
.dart, John Tucker, O. H. Gardner, R. S. & L. Bur- 
rows, Alderman Butts, and Freeman Clarke, of late 
years a prominent banker in Rochester, N". Y. 

When the Commissioners appointed to select the 
site for the Court House came on to fix the spot, their 
^ choice lay between Gaines and Albion. Gaines had 
the advantage of being the largest village, being on 
the Ridge Road, and being well supplied with me- 
chanics and merchants, and of having many of the 
institutions of old and well organized communities es- 
tablished there. Albion was nearest the geographical 
center of the county, and was intersected by the Erie 
Canal and Oak Orchard Road. The west branch of 
Sandy Creek runs through the east part of tlie vil- 
lage. Rising in some swamps in the south par!; of 
the town, it afforded sufficient water after the melting 
of the snow in spring, and after rains to turn ma- 
chinery a part of the year, but in summer was nearly 
dry. On this stream two saw mills had been built, 
one in the village, the other south of it. 

The Conmiissioners came to consider the claims of 
the rival villages about the middle of the dry season. 
Mr. Nehemiah Ingersoll, Philetus Bumpus, Henry 
Henderson, and a few other Albion men, determined 
to use a little strategy to help Albion. Knowing 
Avhen the Commissioners would be here the creek 
would be too low to move the sawmills, and foresee- 
ing the advantage a good mill stream would give 
them, they patched the two dams and flumes and 
closed the gates to hold all the water some days be- 
fore the Commissioners would arrive ; sent some 
teams to haul logs and lumber about the saw mill 
and mill yard, in the village to mark the ground and 
give the appearance of business there. 



182 PIONEER HISTORY 

When the Commissioners came to see Albion, 
liaving been generously dined and tolned by its hospi- 
table people, they were taken in a carriage to see the • 
place, and in the course of the ride driven along the 
creek and by the sawmill, then in full operation, with 
men and teams at work among the lumber, with a 
good supply of water from the ponds tlius made for 
the occasion. The Commissioners were impressed 
^vith the importance of this -fine water power and 
gave the county buildings to Albion before the ponds 
ran out. 

Mr. Ingersoll donated to the county the grounds 
now occupied by the court house and jail and public 
park. 

The first court house was built in 1827, of brick, 
with the County Clerk's office in the lower story. 
Gilbert Howell, Calvin Smith and Elihu Mather were 
building committee. 

This Court House was pulled down and a new one 
erected in its place in 1857-8, at a cost of $20,000. 
W. V. N. Barlov/ was the architect, and Lyman Bates, 
Henry A. King and Charles Baker, building com- 
mittee. 

The present jail was built in 1838, and the clerk's 
office in 1836. 

The first hotel was kept on the south-west corner 

of Main and Canal streets, by Cliurchill. The 

next liotel, called Albion Hotel, was built by Philetus 
Bumpus about twenty rods south of the canal on the 
west side of Main street, and kept several years by 
Bumpus & Howland, succeeded by Hiram Sickles. 
Mr. Bumpus then built the Mansion House, a hotel 
standing on the north side of the canal, on Main St.^ 
which he kept several years, 

Mr. Philetus Bumpus, and his father, Jesse Bum- 
pus, built the first framed dwelling liouse in Albion, 
on the lot on whicli Mr. L. Burrows now r«^sides. 



I 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 183 

Tlie lirst wareliouse was "built by Neliemiali Inger- 
soU, on the canal abont twenty rods east of Main St. 
The next b^^Cary & Tilden, on the west side of Main 
street, on the canal. 

The first sawmill in the corporation of Albion was 
built in 1819, by AVilliam Bradner. 

Mr. M'illiani Bradner built the first grist mill, the 
mill stones for which he cut in person from a rock in 
Palmyra. One of .these stones is now used for a 
corner guard stone on the corner of State and Claren- 
don streets. These mills were cheap sti'uctures and 
were taken away after a few years. 

The stone tiouring mill on the canal was built by 
Ward & Clarks in 1833. 

The first lawyer in Albion was Theophilus Capen. 
He remained here but a short time. The next law- 
yers were William J. Moody, Alexis Ward, Henry R. 
Curtis,, Gideon Hard, William W. Ruggles, and 
others came about the time the county was or 
ganized. 

Dr. Orson Nichoson was the first physician. He 
located two miles south of the village in 1819, and 
removed to Albion about 1822. Dr. William White, 
who had been in practice at Oak Orchard in Ridge- 
way, came here about the time the county was organ- 
ized, and opened a drug store and went into partner- 
ship with Dr. Nichoson in the jjractice of medicine. 

Dr. Stephen M. Potter was one of the early physi- 
cians who settled in Albion. He was born in West- 
port, Mass., removed to Cazenovia, K. Y., and from 
thence to Albion. About tlie year 1837 he removed 
to Cazenovia again. He represented Madison county 
in the State Legislature in 1846. 

The first tanyard vras located on the south side 
of the canal on the lot now occupied b}" the gas works, 
by Jacob Ingersoll, about the year 1825. Tanning 



184 PIONEER HISTORY 

was continued here until the gas works were built in 
1858. 

The first blacksmiths were John Moe, Rodney A. 
Torrey, and Phineas Phillips. 

Albion was at first for some years called Newport, 
but on account of trouble with the mails, there being 
another post office in this state by the name of New- 
port, at a meeting of the inhabitants to take meas- 
ures to get the village incorporated, on motion of 
Gideon Hard, the name was changed to Albion in the 
first Act of incorporation passed April 21st, 1828. 
The first company of fireman was organized in 1831. 

John Henderson settled in Albion in Sept. 1825 and 
established the first shop for making carriages. He 
kept the first livery stable in 1834, and started the 
first horse and cart for public accommodation in 1837. 
He has been an active man, an ingenious mechanic, 
and has built ten or twelve dwelling houses and nu- 
merous shops, barns and other buildings here. 



CHAPTER XVII. 




TOWN OF CAULTON. 

Name — Lumber Trade — First Settlement of White Men in County — 
James Walsworth — Village of Manilla — Names of Persons who took 
Articles of Land in Carlton in 1803, 1804 and 1805— Matthew Dun- 
ham — Curious Mill to Pound Corn — Dunham's Saw Mill and Grist 
Mill — First in County — First Frame Barn — The Union Company — 
Death of Elijah Brown — First Children Born in Town — First Store 
— Biographies of Early Settlers, 



ARLTOX was set off from Gaines and Ridge- 
way April 13, 1822, by the name of Oak 
Orchard. The name was changed to Carlton 
in 1825. 

The region of hmcl lying north of the Ridge Road 
in this vicinit^^was called the "north woods" in early 
times. It was heavily timbered land, containing large 
numbers of immense whitewood trees and white and 
red oaks of the largest kind. Some pine grew near 
the Oak Orchard Creek. Hemlock was abundant in 
some localities, and basswood, elm, beech and some 
maple conqDiised the 23rincipal kinds of trees. 

The settlers in their haste to clear their lands, gen- 
erally burned up all of this fine timber that they did 
not want for fencing, in the first few years of their 
settlement. After sawmills were built, white wood 
was sawed and the boards hauled to the canal for sale, 
and large quantities of oak trees were squared to the 
top and sent clown the Lake to Europe for ship timber. 
The prices obtained were barelj' sufficient to pay the 
expense of the labor lequired to move the lumber, 



186 IMOXEER HISTOIIY 

but tlie destructive work was kept up till most of 
the timber trees of every kind have been cut down 
through this town. 

The first settlement of white men in Orleans county 
mas made in this town in the 3'ear 1803 by William 
and James Walsworth, who came from Canada. 
James settled near the mouth of Oak Orchard Creek, 
and William near the mouth of Johnson's Creek. 
James Walsworth was the pioneer settler of this 
county. He came across from Canada in May 1803, 
in an open boat with his famil}^, and built a log cabin 
for his residence, Avhich at that time was the only 
house near the shore of Lake Ontario, between Fort 
Niagara and JBraddock' s Bay. His nearest neighbor 
at first, resided near Lockport, Niagara county. Mr. 
Walsworth was very poor then. The only provisions 
they had when the}^ landed were a fVnv potatoes ; these 
and fish from Oak Orchard Creek, in which there was 
then an abundance, supplied their sustenance, ex- 
cept an occasional barter with boatmen, who, coast- 
ing along the south shore of the lake, would put into 
the mouth of the Oak Orchard for sheltei'. Wals- 
worth hunted and fished mainly for a living, and 
when he collected any store of peltries he took them 
east along the shore of the lake to a market. After 
two or three years he removed to what used to be 
called "The Lewiston Road," between Lockj)ort and 
Batavia, where he was afterwards well known as a 
tavern keeper. 

The Walsworths and the few other settlers who came 
in and stopped along the Lake Shore in Carlton, com- 
jjrised all the settlers in Orleans county before the 
year 1809, with one or two exceptions. 

About the year 1803, Joseph Ellicott concluded 
tliat eventually a village must grow up at the mouth 
of Oak Orchard Creek. In anticipation of that event 
he made a plat for a town there and called it Manilla, 



OF OKLEAXS COUNTY. 187 

a name wliicli is now found on some maps for the 
place more commonly known as Oak Orcliard Harbor, 
It was supposed in those days that most of the trade 
to and from the Holland Purchase, would take the 
lake route, and Manilla would be the depot. At that 
time the sand bar, at the mouth of Oak Orchard 
Creek was less then in later j^ears. and the small 
schooners then on the lake could come over it with- 
out difficult3^ It was in furtherance of this thought 
that the Holland Comjian}^ did Avhat they did towards 
opening the Oak Orchard road to travel. The Erie 
Canal, however, effectually stifled this project, and 
turned trade and commerce in another direction. 

John G. Brown took up two and one-half acres of 
land from the Compan}^ on the west side of Oak 
Orchard Creek near the mouth and lield it on specu- 
lation for a time, but nothing was done in the way of 
founding a village. This land was deeded to him by 
the Holland Company Dec. 2, 1806, and was described 
in the deed as lot No. 15, on a plan of the village of 
Manilla. This was the first deed of land in the town 
of Carlton given by the Company. Brown conveyed 
the land to Silas Joy, Nov. 28, 1815. The following 
named persons took xVrticles of the Holland Company 
for land lying in the present town of Carlton, in the 
3^ears following, viz : 

IN 18 3. 

John Farrin, James DeCraw, Cornelius DeCraw, 
James Walsworth, Elijah Brown, Jolin Ct. Brown, 
James McKinney, Elijah Hunt, James Dunham, 
David Musleman, Samuel lUter, Kay Marsh, Henry 
Lovewell, John Parmeter, William Carter, Martin 
Griffin, Eli Griffitli. William Griffith and Stephen 
Hoyt. 

IX 18 4 . 

Samuel McKinney, Jolm Jason, Henry Lovewell, 



188 PIONEER HISTORY 

William Carter, Job Shipiiiaii and Ephraim Waldo. 
IN 1805. 

Paul Brown, Job Johnson, Ephraim Waldo, David 
JMiller, and Thaddeus Moore. 

Matthew Dunham and his sons Matthew, James 
and Charles, came from Berkshire county, Mass., to 
Wayne county, New York, about 1795. They re- 
moved to Carlton in 1804. They were chair makers, 
and began working at their trade soon as they could 
get settled after they came in. 

Henry Lovewell from New Hampshire, and Moses 
Root and his famil}^ from Cooperstown, N. Y., came 
to Carlton with Mr. Dunliam and his family. 

Matthew Dunham, Jr. married Eachel Lovewell, 
daughter of Henry Lovewell, in the year 1814. Mr. 
Dunham died in 1854, but Mrs. Rachel Dunham is 
yet living, 1871, aged about eighty-six years. 

In the summer of 1804, Matthew Dunham and liis 
sons built a dam across Johnson' s Creek where the 
dam now stands at Kuckville, and erected a small 
building on it, with machinery for turning wood. 
The Dunham family carried on the business of turn- 
ing in a small way in this building several years. 
They did not tind much sale for their goods near 
home, but sold some chairs and wooden bowls to the 
new settlers. The most of their work they took across 
the lake and disposed of in Canada. They continued 
this commerce until the embargo was declared in 
1808, and after that they smuggled their chair stuff 
over to considerable extent on a sail boat which they 
owned. 

---• It is related by some of the first settlers that in this 
turning shop the Dunhams fixed an apparatus for 
pounding corn, by making a tub or box in which the 
corn was placed, and a heavy pestle was made to fall 
at each turn of the water wheel. Into this box they 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 189 

would put about a bushel of corn, occasionally stir- 
ring it up to bring it under the jjestle, and thus pound 
it until it was reduced to meal. It took considerable 
time to turn a bushel of corn into meal by this pro- 
cess, and aid could be afforded to but few families 
in this way. 

Several families coming in to settle in the neighbor- 
hood, the want of a sawmill and a gristmill was great- 
1}^ felt. Three or four years after the Dunhams built 
their turning shop, the Holland Land Company of- 
fered to furnish the irons for a sawmill, and the irons 
and a pair of mill stones for a grist mill if they 
would erect such mills on their dam. A saw mill 
and a grist mill were built accordingly. 

These were the first saw and grist mills built in 
Carlton. They were small, coarse affairs, but 
they were very useful to those living near them. 
They remained the property of the Dunhams until 
about 1816, they were purchased by George Kuck, 
and rebuilt on a much larger pattern than the old 
mills. 

Mr. Reuben Root owned a small sail boat of a few 
tons burthen which he used to run across tlie lake. 
On this, pine lumber was brought from Canada before 
sawmills were built here, and it was the principal 
conveyance by which passengers and property were 
carried across the lake either way for a number of 
years. 

Mr. Moses Root built a framed barn before Dun- 
ham's sawmill was erected, bringing the boards from 
Canada. This is suj)posed to have been the first 
frame barn built iu Orleans county. 

Reuben Fuller and John Fuller came from Brad- 
ford county, in Pennsylvania, and settled near Kuck- 
villeinl811. 

THE UNION COMPANY. 

In December, 1810, eight young men in Stock- 



190 pioNEini nrsToTvY 

bridge, Massacliusetts, formed a company, wliicli 
tliey named "The Union Company," and agreed 
each to contribute an equal share of stock, and go 
togetlier and form a settlement on tlie Holland Pur- 
chase, where each partner should buy for himself a 
farm with his own means, and the company would 
help him clear a certain portion of land and build a 
house and barn. The buildings to be alike on each 
man's farm. 

They limited the company to two years, during 
which they would all live and work together and 
share the avails of their labor equally. 

Before leaving Stockbridge they drew up and 
signed their agreement in writing. 

Thus organized the}' came to Carlton and took up 
land west of Oak Orchard Creek, each a farm, which 
was worked according to contract. 

Fitch Chamberlain was married but lelt liis wife at 
home until he could get a home for her made ready. 
They brought no women with them and kept bache- 
lor' s hall the first jeav when Giles Slater, Jr. , went back 
to Stockbridge and married a wife and brouglit her 
to his new home, and soon after his example was 
followed by the remainder of the company. 

The company made judicious selections of land ; 
its affairs were well managed and successful. All of 
the partners were fortunate in accumulating proper- 
ty, the sure reward of honest, persevering industr}^ 
Their families have ever been among the most respec- 
ted and intluential in town. 

Fitch Chamberlain was a ph3-sit'ian and practiced 
medicine in the later years of his life. The members 
of the company are all dead except Anthony Miles, 
now aged 84 years, in 1871. 

The Union Company consisted of Minoris Day, 
Fitch Chamberlain, Charles Webster, Anthony Miles, 



OF Or.LEANS COl'Ts'TY. 191 

Selali Bai'dslee, Moses Banmiii, Jr., Russell Smith, 
and Giles Slater, Jr. 

The lirst death among the settlers was that of 
Elijah Brown. The lirst birth was a pair of twins, 
children of James Walsworth, in 1806. At their 
"birth no ph3^sician or person of her own sex 
was present with the mother. The lirst marriage was 
that of William Carter and Amy Hunt, in 1804. Pe- 
leg Helms taught the first school in 1810-11. And 
George Kuck kept the iirst store in 1816. 

The first public religious services in Carlton were 
held about the year 1810, and were conducted by 
-Rev. Mr. Steele, a Methodist preacher who came 
from Canada. 

Elder Simeon Dutcher, of the Baptist denomina- 
tion, settled in Carlton in 1817. He was the only 
preacher residing in town for several years. 

Among th(^ iirst settlers were Elijah Hunt, Moses 
Root, Henry Lovevvell. Paul Brown, Elijah Brown, 
Job Shipman, Matthew Dunham. 

Dr. Richard W. Gates was tlie first regular phy- 
sician who settled in tlie practice of his profession in 
Carlton. After a few years Ik^ moved to Barre, and 
thence to Yates. He represented Orleans county in 
the State Legislature in 1S41, and was Supervisor of 
Carlton in 1826. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF EARLY SETTLERS. 

GEOlKiE XrOK. 

Rev. George Kuck was bom in the city of London, 
England, DecembtM' 2'A, 1791, and educated at King's 
College, London. H(^ came to ]N'ew York city in 
1806, and removed to Toronto, Canada West, in 1807. 
In the war between England and the United States in 
1812, he served as Lieutenant in the Canada militia. 



192 PIONEER IIISTOKY 

After the war, and until 1815, lie w;is clerk in the 
employ of the Canadian Government, at Toronto, 
until October, when he removed to Carlton and pur- 
chased the farm on which he resided ever afterwards, 
now known as Kuckville. 

He erected a frame gristmill on the site of the log 
mill built by M. Dunhanj on Johnson's Creek. 
In 1816 he opened a store near his residence, at that 
time the only store north of the Ridge in this part of 
the country, where he kept a large store of goods 
aud carried on a great trade. 

He soon after built a warehouse at the mouth of 
Johnson's Creek. At one time he had a store, 
gristmill, sawmill, ashery, warehouse and farm, all 
under his personal supervision and in successful ope- 
ration. His investments were judicious and safe, his 
affairs all managed with economy and skill, which 
resulted in making him a wealth}^ man. 

He married Miss Electa Fuller March Satli, 1819. 
In March 1821, he joined the Methodist Episcopal 
Church', in which he was ever after a prominent mem- 
ber. He helped to form the first religious class in his 
church in the town of Carlton, and was its leader. 
In 1825 he organized and taaglit the first Sunday 
School in the county north of the Ridge. In April, 
1829, he was licensed to exhort, in 1833 he was 
licensed to preach, and in 1837 he v»'as ordained 
Deacon by Bishop Hedding, and in 1849 he was or- 
dained Elder by Bishop Morris, at Albion. 

He was appointed Postmaster at AVest Carlton, 
since Kuckville, an office he held, in all, about 30 
years. 

He was a man of good education and fine natural 
ability and his life was filled with usefulness. He 
was among the first and foremost in all matters of re- 
form and advancement, active in the cause of temper- 
ance, morality and religion, always a leading man in 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 193 

the counsels of tlie church. He died March IG, 
1868, aoed 76 3'ears. 



DANIEL OATES, 

Daniel Gates was born in Rutland county, Aerniont, 
March 11th, 1786. He niarrif^d Ann Ander.son, Maich 
r2th, 1808. 

About November, 1811, he removed to Orleans 
county, and bought an article of part of lot twenty- 
nine, township tifteen, range two, on the south side of 
the Ridge. A former owner had cleared a small spot 
and built a log house there. On this farm Mr. Gates 
resided several years. He afterwards bought a faini 
in Carlton, where he resided at tlu^ time of his death, 
January 31st, 1858. 

Mrs. Ann Gates died January 1st, 1860. Tlipy wcn^ 
parents of John and Nehemiali F. Gates, of Oarltdn, 
Lewis AV. Gates, residing in Michigan, :iik1 ^rlatthew 
A. Gates, of Yates. 

Mr. Gates moved his family in with a joke of oxc^n 
and wagon. No bridge had been built across Gene- 
see River, and lie forded th(^ stream at Rochester, a. 
man riding a liorse hitched l)efore the oxen, to guide 
them through the river. 

Few settlers along the Ridge Road came in advance 
of Mr. Gates, or braved the hardships and difficulties 
of pioneer life with better courage. Tli»^y had V(^ry 
few of the conveniences and comforts of civilized lite, 
and sometimes were in want of food. Ono^ about 
the last year of the war a s(\arcity prevailed amoiig 
the four families then comprising all tlie inhabitants 
in the vicinity of Mr. Gates. But one pan full of 
Hour remained among tliem all. and that they kept 
to feed the children, tlie older folks expecting to sub- 
stitute boiled green wheat in place of bread. Mr. 
Gates cut a few bundles of his wheat then in tlie 

13 



194 i'iotnkku iirsroitY 

milk, and dried it in the sun. They nibbed tin > soft 
o-rain out of the straw and boiled it. This was eaten 
with milk and relished very much hy the family, and 
it supplied them until wheat ripened and dried lit to 
grind. 

For several yeartj no settler located between Mr. 
(rates' place on the Ridge, and Shelby. Along the 
line of the canal was then a solid forest. Mr. Gates' 
cattle were suffered to range the woods to browse in 
summer. They usuall}' returned to the clearing at 
night. Once his oxen, one of whic.-h wore a bell, with 
his cow failed to come in at niglit. Mr. Gates armed 
himself with a bayonet on the end of a staff to repel 
a bear or v/olf if he chanced to l)e attacked, and went 
out to hunt for them, his old English musket being 
too heavy to carry. After several days liunting he 
found his cattle where Knowles\-i]le nov>' stands — at- 
tracted there by some wild grass ^-rowing akmg the 
brook. 

ELIJAH IIUXT. 

Elijah Hunt was born in Pennsylvania, lie was a 
soldier in the Revolutionar}'- War. While in the ser- 
vice, being in a scouting party in Pennsylvania, he, 
with his party, was taken ])ris()]ier by the Indians. 
He with the other prisoners Avas made to rfni t//c 
gauntlet from one point to another, lixed for the pur- 
pose. The Indians — men. women*' and children- — 
posted themselves on each side of the track to be 
run over by their ^irisoners, and assaulted tliem as 
they passed with clubs, hatchets, knives, stones, &c. 
If the prisoners were fortunate enough tluy might 
get througli and live, and iliQj miglit ])e severely 
wounded, or eA'en killed by the way. Mi-. Hunt got 
through without serious damage. lifter ]'eaching 
their village on the Genesee River, the Indians con- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 195 

chicled to sacrifice Mr. Hunt after their terrible 
fasliioii. He was stripped and painted Llack prepar- 
atory to his suffering ; but "before tliey "began to tor- 
ture him, an okl squaw, whose son had been killed 
in the fight wlien Hunt was taken, came forward and 
claimed her riglit by Indian custom to adopt him as 
her son, in place of the one that Avas kiRed, He was 
released to her and adopted as she proposed, and re- 
, mained with the Indians near the Genesee riA'er, in 
Livingston county, about three j^ears, when the war 
having ended, he was permitted to relurii to his 
friends in Pennsylvania. 

He was always treated kindl}' after his adoption b}' 
the Indians, especially by his new mother. Many 
years after his settlement in Carlton, the Indians 
found him out and visited him with many demonstra- 
tions of their friendship. 

In the depth of winter, after the cold summer of 
1816, fearing he might be in want with his family, on 
account of the loss of crops that year, two Indians, 
one of whom claimed to be his brother, being a son 
of the squaw who adopted Mr. Hunt, came to Carlton 
to visit him a]id afford relief if he needed it. 

He came to Carlton in the summer of 1804 and 
took up a farm about a mile west of the mouth 
of Johnson's Creek, on the Lake shore. After a year 
or two he went back to Pennsylvania with liis faujily 
. and remained until October, 1806, when lie returned 
and settled permanently on his farm, wheiv he ever 
afterwards resided, and died in 1830, aged sevent} - 
nine years. 

The long residence of Mr. Hunt among the Indians 
qualified him to become a pioneer in this new settle- 
ment, and fitted him to endure the piivations and 
, difficulties he had to encounter. 

The daughter of Mr. Hunt, Am}' Hunt, maii-ied 
William Carter in 1804, which was the first marriaue 



196 PIONEER HISTORY 

in that town, and probably tlie first marriage ih Or- 
leans county. 

RAY MARSH. 

Ray Marsh was born in Connecticut. ^Ibout the ■ 
yeiiY 1800 he went to Canada AVest and was employed' 
in teaching school. In 1808 ho married Martha Shaw, 
who was born in Nova Scotia. In that year, he left 
Canada at Queenstown, in a small boat, and coasted 
along the south shore of Lake Ontario to Oak Or- 
chard Creek, in Carlton, and took an article for land- 
lying near the lake in Carlton. 

In 1805, on account of sickness in the neighborhood"' 
of his home in Carlton, he removed to Cambria, in - 
Niagara county, and located on the Ridge, about five 
miles from Lewiston. He was driven away from here 
by the British and Indians when Lewiston was burned 
by them in the war with England, losing almost ev- 
ery thing he had in the w^rld, except the IIa'cs of him- 
self and family. They fled to Ontario county, but 
returned the next year to near Ridgeway Corners and 
stopped there. He had now a large family of chil- 
dren ; to maintain them he had to sell his interest in 
his farm in Cambria ; and in the cold seasons of 
1810-17 they suffered for necessary food ; and few 
families suffered more from the i)revailing sickness of 
the country, aggravated as it was by their poverty 
and want of means to afford relief. 

Mr. Marsh died about 1852. His widow, now 

(1870) eighty six years old, is living. She had seven • 

grand-sons soldiers in the Union army in the war of" 

the great rebellion. During the war she spent a 

large portion of her time knitting stockings for the 

soldiers. Such women are worthy the name of 

" Revolutionary Mothers,'" and ai-e an honor to the 

^Vmerican name. 

.loj; siiiPMAisr. 

Job Shipman was born in Saybrook, Comiecticut,.. 



Ol' ORLEANS COUNTY, 197 

June 2d, 1772. After he amvecl at manhood he re- 
sided for a time in Greene county, N. Y., and at 
length came to Wayne county, where he joined the 
family of Mr. Elijah Brown, and removed "by way of 
Lak(» Ontario, to the town of Carlton, in the summer 
. of 1804. 

While coming uj^ the lake Mr. Elijah Brown died, 
.und his l)ody was brought to Carlton and buried 
there. His sons were James, John Gardner, Paul, 
Elijah, Jr., and Robert M. 

Mr. Shipman took an article of part of lot twelve, 
section two, range two, of which his son Israel after- 
wards took a deed from the land company, and on 
which he resides. 

He married widow Ann Tomblin in May, 1815. 
Israel Shipman was his only child. 

Job Shipman died January 12th, 1833. His wife 
■died Februar}- 8tli. 1858. 

The first town meetings in Carlton for two or three 
years were held at his dwelling, because it was one 
of the best log houses in town ; had a shingled roof, 
board floor, and stood near the middle of the town ; 
but it was so small that few of the voters assembled 
could get in the house at once. They compromised 
the matter by allowing the Insj^ectors to sit in the 
liouse while the voters handed in their ballots to them 
through the window from without. 

As it was in cold weather, even the liberal potations 
of whisky in which they indulged would not warm 
the crowd sufficiently, so they made a large log lieap 
near the house which being set on fire answered the 
purpose. 

LYMAN FULLER. 

Lyman Fuller was born in Pennsylvania, August 
i6th, 1808. In February 1811, his father, Reuben 



198 riONEEK HISTORY 

Fuller, moved with liis famil}^ to near the lake shore 
in West Carlton. 

In the fall of 1811, Capt. John Fuller, a brother of 
Reuben, settled in Carlton. Mr. Reuben Fuller died 
July 4th, 1837. Mr. Lyman Fuller succeeded to the 
possession of his father' s homestead, on which he re. 
sided and where he died Marcli 22d, 1860. He was a 
miudi respected man among all who knew him. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



TOAVN OF CI.AEEKDOX. 

Difficrilty in gouing Titles from Pultncy Estate— Eldreuge Farwell — 
Farwell's Mills— First School- First Mercliauts— J. and D. Sturges 
— First Postmaster— First Pbj'sician — Presbyterian (^luircli — First 
Town JVIecting — Biographies of Early Settlers. 

\WS^ LAKENDON comprises a j^ortion of (lie one 
^^{ linndred tliousaiid acre tract, and was formed 

from Sweden February 23d, 1821. 
Owing in jjart to tlie difficulty of getting a good 
title to the land, which up to about 1811, was owned 
for several years by the State of Connecticut and the 
PuPtuey Estate joint]3^ settlers came in slowly at 
first. 

I'he land was divided between tJie State of Connec- 
ticut and the Pultney Estate, in 1811 ; but the lots 
which fell to the Pultney Estate, were not snrveyed 
and i)ut in the market for sale until abont the 3'ear 
1821. Settlers were allowed to take posses- 
sion of hind and make impi'ovements with the expec- 
tation that when the lands came in market the}' 
Avould retain what they had so takeii and then get a 
title. Some settlers located on these lands nnder 
these circumstances and cleared them up and built 
houses. AV]i('n they finally came in market the set- 
tlers was charged .S8 or .'r^lO per acre, — a much higher 
jirice than he expected when he came in, and a higher 
price than the Holland Company charged for their 
lands of like quality ; l)ut he Avas compelled to 
pay it 01* leave and los<' his labor. 



20(> PIONEKK IIISTOKY 

Among tlie lirst settlers in Clarendon were Eldridge 
Farwel], Jolm Cone. Bradstreet Spafford, Elislia 
Huntley, David Ciiiircli, and Clianncey Robinson. 
Eldridge Farwell ere<^ted the first sawmill on Sandy 
Creek in 1811, and the tirst gristmill at the same place 
in 1813. A village grew np in the vicinity of these 
mills which, in honor of Mr. Farwell, was called and 
known as Farwell' s Mills, Situated a little north- 
west of the center of the town, it has been the i)rinci- 
pal place of trade and business. 

Judge Eldridge Farwell was the pioneer settler. 
The next settler was Alanson Dudley, in 1812. 

The tirst store was kept at Farwell' s Mills by Fris- 
bie & Pierpont, in 1821. 

The ilrst school was ta>ight by Mrs. Amanda Bills. 
The first school house bidlt in Clarendon stood a 
little south of Farwell* s Mills, or Clarendon, as the 
place is now being called, was built in 1813 of logs, 
and was fourteen by eighteen feet square. 

Frisbie & Pierpont traded in the little red store 
building in which after they left, David Stiirges sold 
goods for many years. 

In addition to his business as a merchant with Mr. 
Frisbie, William Pierpont kept a tavern. After two 
or three years he moved away and Mr. Hiram Frisbie, 
his partner, succeeded to the store and tavein to 
which had been added an asliery, all three of which 
Mr. Frisbie carried on two or three years, and until 
he removed to Holley about the year 1828. 

In 18ir>, Joseph Sturges built a distillery at Far- 
well's Mills, wliich he carried on with his brother 
David, eight or ten yeais. when Mi-. Frisbie having 
moved away, and Joseph Sturges having died in 
March, 1828, David Sturges began to sell dry goods 
and grocei'ies here. He was a sharp business man 
and drove a laro-e trade. He was the next mei'chant 



OF OIU.EANS COUNTY. 201 

ill town after Pieri)()]it & Frisbie. He died in Septem- 
ber, 1848. 

Jndge Eldi'idge Fanvell was the first postmaster in 
town, and Dr. Buss}' the first pliysician. 

On the 4th of February, 1823, a Pres])yteriaii 
Churcli was organized in Clarendon. For several 
3'ears it maintained a feeble existence, nntil in 1881, it 
united with tlie Presbyterian Church in Ilollej', and 
became extinct as an organization in Clarendon. 

The first town meeting held in and for the town of 
Clarendon was at the school house at FarAvell's Mills, 
April 4tli, 1821. 

Eldridge Farwell was a candidate for Supervisor 
on the Clinton ticket, and William Lewis on the 
Tompkins ticket. Tlie Meeting was opened wdth 
prayer by Elder Stedman. The election of Supervi- 
sor was concluded to be first in order. No chairman 
had been formally appointed, but on suggestion of 
soinebody the entire meeting went out of doors in 
front of the school house. Some one held his hat and 
half a dozen voters stood by to see that nobody voted 
twice, or cast more than one ballot, and ballots for 
Supervisor were thrown into the hat by all the voters 
present. Eldridge Farwell w^as elected the first Su- 
pervisor, and Joseph M. Plamilton, Town Clerk. 

Jonas Da^is made spinning wheels, and Alanson 
Dudley carried on tanning and shoemaking at Far- 
well' s Mills, at an early day. 



BIOGltAPHIES OF EARLY SETTLERS. 

IIOHACP: PECK. 

" I was bom in Fai-mington. Hartford Co., Conn., 
April 15, 1802. In the spring of 1817, I hired out to 
drive cattle, slieep and liogs to Buffalo, and went on 
^vith a drove. Tlie mud was deep and 1 had a hard 



202 IMONEKlt IIISTOliY 

time wading tlirougli it after my drove. I went tlirongli 
however, a,nd come baek to FarvvelFs Mills in Clar- 
endon, expecting to meet my father and his family 
there, as they had made arrangements to move when 
I left them. 

On my journey hack from BnfFalo, all I had to eat 
was six crackers, and I drank one glass of cider. 

I found my father had not come on. I was alone, 
hut fourteen years of age, had Init four dollars in 
money, my pay for driving the drove, and had no 
acquaintances there. This was the next spring after 
the cold season. It was difficult for me to find a 
place to stay for the reason no one had anything to 
eat or to spare. I found friends, however, in Mr. and 
Mrs. Leonard Foster. They said I might stay with 
them till my folks came on. After that I fared well. 
They divided their best fare with me, wliich consisted 
of hoe cake and maple molasses, and wo had to be 
sj)aring of that. 

I stayed with ni}- benefactois three weeks, when 
my parents and their family arrived. My father had 
prepared a small log cabin shingled v*ith bark the 
summer before. We moved into it. .Vll the provis- 
ion we had on hand to eat was half a liarrel of very 
lean pork. 

My father had no money left, owned no liviiig crea- 
ture except his family. We had no tahle and only 
two chairs. We had an acre of cleared land on our 
lot sown with wheat. These were gloomy times to me. 
The first thing was to procui-e something to eat. I 
paid my four dollars to David Church for two bushels 
of wheat. The next thing was to get some straw ta 
sleep on. This we got of our neighbor, Chauncey 
Robinson, for two cents a bundle. 

AYe had hard fare until the next harvest. ^VQ ate 
bran bread and had not enough of that, .ifter har- 
vest Ave had enough to eat, and I tlioughtat this time. 



OF OKLEANS COTTNTY. 203 

could I be sure of enough to eat hereaftei- 1 should be 
content. 

The next year my father bought a tAvo-3-ear old 
cow, which helped us very much. 

In the winter of 1818-19, my eldest brother, Luther 
C. Peck, taught a district school near where Holley 
now stands, for three months, for which he was to 
have thirty bushels of wheat after the next harvest. 

When father received the wheat the price had fal- 
len. Father drew the wheat to Eocliestei', and I'e- 
ceived after deducting ex2:)enses, thirtA'-one cents per 
bushel. 

In 1820 we bought a yoke of oxen. We tlien con- 
sidered ourselves icell off. Previous to this I went to 
scliool winters. I went one winter to FarwelFs Mills, 
three miles from my fathers. I worked summers 
chopping and logging with my father, working out 
fo]' others when I could get an opportunity. 

In the winter of 1819-20, I taught school on the 
fourth section road lor ii^w dollars per month. I fol- 
lowed that business for ten winters — had higher Avages 
as I advanced in experience. 

During this time and np to my majority I began to 
consider myself a man, used to attend parties, would 
3^oke the oxen and hitch them to a sled, go after the 
young ladies and wait on them very politely. And I 
enjoyed it as well and even better than in alter times 
riding in a fashionable carriage. 

I once thought it quite smart to visit a j^oung lady 
who resided in Le Roy. On one occasion I had been 
to see lier, lifid a veiy pleasant visit, time passed very 
agreeably, and before I was aware it was getting 
rather late. Sometime ' before daylight, however, I 
started for home on foot through the woods n(^ar three 
mik^s. Wlien I came to about the middle of the 
woods, a wolf a[)peared in the road befor(^ me. I 
halloed liglit lustily, the wolf left the road rather 



204 PlUNKEIt TIISTOKY 

leisurely, and I passed on rapidly. Soon a howling 
commenced, wliicli was answered by other wolves at 
a distance, and before I got through the woods, a 
pack of these animals was on m}^ track, and near to 
me judging by theii- cries. Tliey made all sorts of 
noises but pleasant ones to me. I saved myself from 
them by the energetic use of my locomotive powers. 

I came readily to the conclusion that this business 
of being out so late nights ' would not pay.' 

I married Miss Anna White January 22, 1829. She 
was born June 19, 1802, and died January 15, 1834. 
I married Miss Adaline Nichols January 31, 1836. 
Slie was born February G, 1809. 

HORACE PECK." 

Clarendon, 1871. 

r,EX.rAMIX G. PETTING ILL. 

"I was born in Levviston, Lincoln county, in the 
State of Maine. In 1817, I started for tlie Genesee 
country with my i)ack on my back and walked to 
Portland, thirty- live miles, where I went on board a 
vessel and sailed to Boston. I left Boston on foot 
with m}^ pack on my back for the place of my des- 
tination. My pack was not very heavy, but I had 
in it, among other things, forty silver dollars. After 
a hard journey I arrived at Ogdtni, Monroe county^ 
on the first day of Aprd. I stop2:)ed there a while 
with an uncle of mine, was very homesick, wished 
myself back in Maine mau}-^ times. 

I worked out that summer by thi^ month, and in 
the fall bought some land in what is now Clarendon, 
Orleans county, tlien a part of Sweden. 

I settled on my land, cleared it up, and in due time 
raised excellent croi)S, and in a few years found my- 
self out of debt and considered -myself rather ' fore- 
handed.' 

I labored hard in the commencement, had consider- 



OF OKLEAKS COUNTY. 200 

able sickness in my family, bnt a good Providence 
has been mindful of me and mine, and in all my law- 
ful undertakings I have been blest, for whicli I feel 
truly grateful. 

BEMJAMIN G. PETTINGILL." 

Clarendon, 18G4. 

EIJADSTKEET SJ'AFFOitl). 

Mrs. Harriet S. Merrill, a daughter of Mr. Spaftbi'd, 
gives the following account of him : 

"My father came from Connecticut about the year 
1811, and purchased a farm about a mile south of 
Holley, on which he resided until his death in 1828. 
He was twice married — my motlier, Mi's. Eunice Dar- 
row, being his second wife. My father had but one 
child hy his first wife, a daughter named Hester, who 
in after years became Mrs. Daniels, and is now Mrs. 
Blonden. 

When this sister was four years old lier mother 
died of consumption. At that time my father's house 
was the only one between Holley and Farwell's Mills. 
In other directions it was a mile to the nearest neigh- 
bors. During her last illness my father was lier prin- 
cipal pliysician and inirse. He used frequently to 
say to his friends he feared she Avould die suddenly 
wliile alone with him. 

It was arranged between my fatlier and his nearest 
neighbors, that if anj^thing more alarming occurred 
in her case, he should blow the horn as a signal for 
them to come. 

Not long after, at midnight of a dark winter night, 
death knocked at his door ; he took the tin horn and 
blew the warning notes ; but tlie winds were adverse, 
and nobody heard. Again and again lie blew, lon- 
ger and louder, but no one heard or came. His wife 
soon expired. My father closed her eyes, placed a 
napkin about her head and covered her lifeless foim 



206 PIONEER JIISTOKY 

more closely, fearing it would become rigid before lie 
could obtain assistance to habit it in the winding sheet 
preparatory for the tomb, for such were the habili- 
ments used in those days,. 

He dressed his little daughter, placed her in her lit- 
tle chair by the fire, gave her her kitten to pla}^ v/ith, 
and told her to sit there until he came back. He then 
Avent a mile to his nearest neighbors and roused 
them to come to his aid, and returned finding his 
little daughter as he had left her, alone with iier dead 
mother. 

I was one of the first children born in the town of 
Clarendon, being now 40 3'ears of age. 

HARRIET S. 3IERRILL." 
Clarendon, June 1.8G3. 

XICIIOLAS E. PAKIJOW. 

"I was born in the town of Chatham, Columbia 
county, N. Y., April 1st, 1808 ; have been a farmer 
by occupation. My father, John Darrow, came to 
Wheatland, Monroe county, N. Y., in 1811, and 
worked there two seasons, then returned to Columbia 
count}', sold his farm and was nearly ready to move 
liis family to the Genesee country wlien he was taken 
sick and died March 22d, 1813. * 

In June, 1815, my father's family removed to the 
farm he had bought two years previous. My mother, 
then a widow, married Mr. Bradstreet Spafford, who 
had settled in Clarendon, about the year 1811 or '12. 
I grew up among the hardships of the new countrj^ 
and December 30th, 1830, was married to Sarah A. 
Sweet, daughter of Noah Sweet, who came to Claren- 
don from Saratoga county, in 1815. My wife was 
l)orn in Saratoga county in 1812. 

My father was a blacksmith by trade, but owned 
and worked a farm. He was one of the leading me- 
chanics who made the great chain which was put 



OF OKLEAXS COU>'T\ . 207 

across tlie Iludsoii River to prevent tlie Britisli fleet 
from coming up in the Revolntionaiy AVar, links of 
wliicli are now in tlie State Librar}' at Albanj^ 

I have resided most of the time since 1815, in Clar- 
endon ; and for the last twenty-four years on the same 
farm. I lived a short time in Mui'ra}' and a sliort 
time in Ohio. 

I attended school in the flrst school house built in 
Clarendon. It stood a little south of Clarendon vil- 
lage, and v/as built in 1813, of logs, and in size was 
about fourteen by eighteen feet square, with slab floor 
and benches. The writing desks were made l^y bor- 
ing holes in the logs in the wall, driving in pins and 
putting boards on these. 

We have ten children, nine of whom are living. 
My second son is now serving' in the army of the Po- 
tonaac in the war of the great rebellion. 

I should have said in connection with ni}' father's 
history, that himself and three of his bi'otliers served 
in the Ilevolutionary AVar. 

NICHOLAS E. DARROW." 

Clarendon, April 1804. 

ELJ.)R1!)GE FAinVi:LL. 

Eldridge Farwell was born in Vermont in 1770. 

Sometime previous to 1811, Mr. Farwell located 
near Clarkson village on the Ridge road, but removed 
in that j^ear to the town of Clarendon, then an un- 
broken wilderness, where he built the first saw mill 
in that town on Sandy Creek. This savrmill made 
the first boards had in all this region. In 1813, he 
built a grist mill on the same stream, which was the 
pioneer gristmill in that town. 

On the organization of Orleans county, Mr. Farwell 
was appointed in 182o one of the Judges of the Court 
of Common Pleas, which office he held five years. 
The village sometimes called Farwell' s Mills in the 



208 nONEEK IJISTOMY 

town of Clarendon, was so named in Ins lionor lie 
being tlie first to settle there. 

He married a daughter of Jndge John L^'e, of Barre-. 
Judge Farwell died October lo, 1843. 

AVILLIAM JJ:\AIS. 

William Lewis Avas a Deputy Sheriff of Genesee 
county. He was the first Sheritt* of Orleans county^ 
He had held the office of Supervisor and Justice of 
the Peace in Clarendon. He was a prompt and effi- 
cient officer, and a worthy man. He died July SSd, 
1824, aged about 48 years. 

?\rARTiN EVA ins. 

Martin Evarts was born in Riga, Monroe county^ 
X. Y., July 21st, 1812. He removed with his father's 
family to Clarendon in 1817. Until witliiu a few years 
he resided on the farm originally taken up by his 
father. Mr. Evarts was Supervisor (^f Clai*endon ill 
1863. He married Charlotte Burnhaui, .August 19th^ 
1835. She died June 20th, 1862. 

T-KMIEL ( OOK. 

Lemuel Cook was born in New Haven county, Ct.^ 
September lOtli, 1763. His father died while Lemuel 
was a child, leaving his widow and children in desti- 
tute circumstances. 

In the revolutionary war he with his two brothers 
ent(n'ed the arm3^ Lemuel eidisting November 1st, 
1779, being then in his 17th ^^ear. H(^ was honoi*ably 
discharged June 11th, 1783. After leaving tlu^ army 
his poll tax was remitted to him by the Select Men of 
his town, on account of wounds he had received in 
battle while serving in the armies of his country. In 
1792, he settled in Pompey, Onondaga county. In 
1838, he removed to Bergen, Gfenesee con nt3% and from 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 209 

thence to Clarendon, where he died Ma}' 20th, 1866, 
of old age, being 102 years, 8 months and 10 days old. 
He was probably the oldest man that has lived in 
Orleans connty. He was a revolutionary pensioner. 

ISAAC (ADY. 

Isaac Cady was born in Alstead, New Hampshire, 
July 26, 1798. He married Betsey Pierce, October 
26th, 1816. He came to Clarendon in 181^, on foot, 
from Kingston, Vt., and located the land on which 
he afterwards settled and has since resided. 



14 



CHAPTER XIX. 



TOWN OF GAINES. 

First Settlers — Case of Getting Fire — Noah Burgess — Mrs. Burgess — 
Cutting Logs for a House — First Orchard — First School House — 
Drake's Mill Dam and Saw Mill— Organization of McCarty's Mil- 
itia Company — Their Scout after British and Indians — Dr. Jesse 
Beach — Orange Butler — First Marriage — First Birth — First News- 
paper in Orleans County — First Tavern — Store — Grist Mill — First 
]\[erchants — James Mather Dealing in Black Salts, &c.— Business at 
Gaines Basin— Village of Gaines — Gaines Academy — Efforts to Lo- 
cate Court House Here — Trade in Other Localities — Biographies of 
Early Settlers. 

AINES was formed from Ridgewa}', Februa- 
v^^ ry 14th, 1816, and included tlie town of Barre, 
•^^:^ and t]ie principal part of Carlton, within its 
original limits. William J. Babbitt was prominently 
active in getting this town organized, and on his sug- 
gestion it was named Gaines, in honor of Gen. E. P. 
Gaines, of the U. S. Army. 

A number of families had located along the Ridge 
Road before the war with England in 1812. One of 
the lirst settlers, if not the first, within the present 
bounds of the town of Gaines, was a Mr. Gilbert, 
who was living about two miles east of Gaines vil- 
lage, in 1809. He died in or about that year and was 
buried in Murray. A man who accompanied the 
widow and her niece home from the funeral, they being- 
all the family, found their fire had gone out, and they 
had no means to kindle it, until this man, on his way 
borne called and notified Mr. Elijah Downer, and he 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 211 

iSent liis son several miles to carry tlieni fire, they 
being the nearest neighbors. 

The records of the Holland Land Company show 
that articles for land in the town of Gaines, parts of 
township lifteeu, range two, were taken in the year 
1809, by the following named persons : Andrew Ja- 
^ox, Whitfield Rathbun, William Sibley, Cotton M. 
Leach, Noah Burgess, James Mather, and Henry 
Luce. 

Turner s Histor}^ of the Holland Purchase saj^s : 
" Whitfield Rathbun was the pioneer upon all that 
-part of the Ridge Road, in Orleans count3% embraced 
in the Holland Purchase.'' 

Noah Burgess came from Canada in a boat with 
his family and effects and landed at the head of Still- 
•water, in Carlton. He located on the south side of 
tlie Ridge, on the farm now occupied by Hon, Robert 
Anderson and his son Nahum. 

Mr. Burgess was sick and unable to work wlien he 
first arrived, and the widow Gilbert, above referred to, 
•took her oxen and moved the family and effects of 
Mr. Burgess from Stillwater to his place on the Ridge, 
.a distance of about four miles. Mrs. Burgess, wlio 
was a strong, athletic w^oman, then chopped down 
trees and cut logs for a log house, and Mrs. Gilbert 
drew them to the spot with her oxen, and tlie walls 
of the house were rolled up from these logs by men 
who came along to look for land. The house so built 
was occupied for a time by Mr. Burgess, and stood 
where the Ridge Road is now laid in front of the 
dwelling house of Nahum Anderson. Mrs. Burgess 
set out a small orchard of apple trees near her liouse, 
Avhich is supposed to be the first orchard set in 
Gaines. 

Mr. Burgess sold his land to William Bradner, and 
located a mile farther east, where he died some twen- 



212 PIONEER HISTORY 

ty years ago, and Mrs. Burgess, referred to, died in 
the summer of 1869. 

Tlie widow Gilbert was a hardy pioneer. The 
next winter after the death of her husband, aided by 
her niece, Amy Scott, she cut down trees to furnish 
browse for a yoke of oxen and some other cattle 
tlirough the winter. She removed to Canandaigua in 
1811. 

Rowley, Wilcox, Leach, Adams, Rosier, Sprague, 
and Daniel Pratt were some of tlie settlers along the 
Ridge in 1810. 

Daniel Gates came in 1811 and bought an article 
of a farm^ about two miles west of the village of 
Gaines, on the south side of the Ridge, since known as^ 
the Palmer farm. 

A former proprietor had chopped down the trees on 
a small spot and built a cabin of logs, twelve feet 
square, with a single roof. 

The Holland Compan}^ agreed with their settlers if 
they would make a clearing and buikl a log house, 
tlie}' might have the hind two years without paying 
interest on the purchase money. 

This cabin was built to save such interest, and ac- 
<|uired additional notoriety from tlie fact that in this 
building Orrin Gleason taught the first school in 
Gaines, in the winter of 1813. 

Henry Drake came to Gaines in 1811. In 1812 
he built a dam and sawmill on Otter Creek, a few 
rods north of the Ridge — the first sawmill in tliis 
town. 

When war with Great Britain was declared in 1812, 
the settlers in this vicinit}^ apprehending danger from 
their proximity to the frontier, assembled together 
and elected Eleazer McCarty, one of their number, 
Cax)tain, to lead them in their defence if the settle- 
ment was attacked by the enemy. 

In December 1813, the British burned Lewiston,. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 213 

and news wasbronglit to Capt. McCarty by the fleeing- 
inhabitants, that British and Indians were coming- 
east on the Ridge. He sent a messenger in the night 
to John Proctor, the only man who liad a horse in 
tlie settlement, to carry the news to Murray, and call 
the men together to resist them. The next morning 
the company was en route towards the foe. The next 
night they came in sight of Molyneaux tavern, ten or 
12 miles east of Lewiston, and saw a light in the house. 
Captain McCarty halted his men and advanced him- 
self to reconnoiter. Approaching the place he saw 
British and Indians in the house, their guns standing 
in a corner. He' returned to his men and brought them 
cautiousl}^ forward ; selected a few to follow him into 
the house, and ordered the remainder to surround it 
and prevent the enemy from escaping. McCarty and 
his party rushed in at the door and sprang between 
the men and their guns and ordered them to surren- 
der. 

The British soldiers and the Indians had been help- 
ing themselves to liquor in the tavern, and some werc^ 
drunk and asleep on the floor. The surprise was 
complete. Most of the party surrendered ; a few In- 
dians showed flghtwith their knives and hatchets and 
tried to recover their guns, and several of them were 
killed in the melee. One soldier made a dash to get 
his gun and was killed by McCarty at a blow. The 
remainder surrendered and were put upon their march 
towards Lewiston, near which our army had then ar- 
rived. One prisoner would not walk. The soldiers 
dragged him forward on the ground awhile, and get- 
ting tired of that, Henry Luce, one of McCarty' s men, 
declared with an oath, he would kill him, and was 
preparing for the act, when McCarty interfered and 
; saved his life. 

McCarty encamped a few miles east of Lewiston. 
While there he went out with a number of his men 



214 PIONEER IIISTOEY 

and captured a scouting party of British soldiers re- 
turning to Fort Niagara laden with plunder they 
had talven from the neighboring inliabitants. Mc- 
Carty compelled them to carry tlie plunder back to 
its owners, and then sent them prisoners of war to' 
Batavia. 

After fifteen or twenty days service, McCarty's 
compan}^ was discharged and returned home. Most 
of his men resided in Gaines, and comprised nearly 
all the men in town. 

'The first regular practicing physician in Gaines was 
Dr. Jesse Beach, 

The first licensed attorney was Orange Butler, who- 
settled here before it was determined whether the- 
county seat would be Gaines or Albion. Judge Eli- 
jah Foot and W. W. Ruggles followed soon after. 

The first marriage in Gaines was that of Andrew 
Jacobs to Sally Wing, in the fall of 1810 or '11. 

The first child born in Gaines was Samuel Crippen, 
J]-., in 1809. 

The first printing press in Orleans county was lo- 
cated in Gaines, by Seymour Trac}^, who j)ul^lislied' 
the first newspaper there. Tracy was succeeded hy 
Jolm Fisk. 

The publication of this paper commenced about 
1824, and continued about four years. 

Tlie first gristmill was built on Otter Creek, about 
the year 1822, by Jonathan Gates. 

The first tavern was kept by William Sibley in 
1811. The first store was kept by William Peny in 
181.5. 

Among the early merchants were E. &. E. T>. Nich- 
ols, V. R. Hawkins, and J. J. Walbridge. 

James Mather, though he never kept a store of 
goods, was an active trader in "black salts," potash, 
and staves, which he purchased from the settlers and 
took to the mouth of Oak Orchard Creek, or Gene- 



OF OKLEANS OOUNTY. 215 

see River, and sliipY)ed to Montreal, for which lie paid 
in iron, salt iish, leather, and some kinds of coarse 
goods most needed, and some money. 

Mone}^ to paj^ taxes, and to meet the pressing wants 
of the pioneers in this vicinity, was foi- some time 
mainly derived from this source. 

The merchants of Gaines hnilt a warehouse at 
Gaines' Basin, on the canal, .soon after tlie canal was 
navigable, where the goods for Gaines and other 
toAvns north were mainly landed from tiie boats and 
where the producer from the same region was ])rin!;:i- 
pally shipped. 

A brisk business was done here for some years, 
and until the imjDrovement in the highway's, and the 
growth and competition of neighboring villages had 
drawn the trade elsewhere, wiien this warehouse was 
I'emoved. 

About the time the canal was completed, the vil- 
lage of Gaines was a place of more trade and busi- 
ness than an}^ other in the county. 

E. &. E. D. Nichols, V. R. Hawkins. Bushnell & 
Guernsej^, and John J. Walbridge were thriving mer- 
chants, doing a lively business in the dry goods 
trade. 

A full line of mechanics shops was established. 
The only academy, meeting house and })rinting ])ress 
in Orleans county Avere located here. 

Two hotels were well patronized ; stage coaches 
were plenty on the famous Ridge Road, and ever}^- 
tliing considered the good people of Gaines, and most 
of the county in fact, excepting Newport, since 
named Albion, thought the court house would be 
built in Gaines surely, and they put up the price of 
village lots accordingly, while the people of New- 
port, or Mud'port, as Gaines men called it. when con- 
trasting places as sites for a Court House, offered to 



216 PIONEEK HISTORY 

give away lots, and do maiw otlier generous acts if 
the Court House was located there. 

But the court house went to xllbion, and tlie stream 
of travel which once went on the Ridge, took to 
the boats on the canal, and the post coaches hauled 
off; villages grew up along tlie canal and trade 
weiit there. 

The resolute business men of Gaines tried hard to 
retain their high position, they got their academy and 
their village and a bank (The Farmer' s Bank of Or- 
leans) incorporated hy tlie Legislature, and lowered 
the price of building lots. But their glory had de- 
parted ; their academy stopped, village franchises 
were lost by non-user ; their bank went to the bad ; 
but their fine farms, choice garden spots, and un- 
rivaled Ridge Road remain good as ever. 



BICUrllAPHIES OF EARLY SETTLERS. 

niCHAUD TREAD WELL. 

'' 1 was born in Weston, Fairfiekl county, Connect- 
icut, May loth, 1783. In the winter of 1796, my 
father, in company with a neighbor set out to move 
his family to the Genesee countr}'. He had a covered 
sled drawn by a yoke of oxen and a span of horses. 
I well recollect as we were about to start, our friends 
around us thought my parents very cruel to take their 
children away to the Genesee to be murdered by the 
Indians. 

My father and all his children had the measles while 
on the journey. My father never fully recovered and 
died the next August. My mother was then left a 
widow with seven children, of whom I was the eldest, 
being then thirteen years old. 

When I was about fifteen 3-ears old I revisited m^' 
native town and took along some bear skins and 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 217 

other skins, to exhibit as trophies of lU}' skill as a 
hunter. 

I attended school some and worked out the remain- 
der of the time till fall, then returned to my mother 
on foot, and then went to work to help her support 
her family. 

After my father' s death, my mother sold her oxen 
for one hundred dollars and took a note in payment. 
The maker of the note failed and mother never re- 
ceived five dollars on the debt. One of her horses 
died, and the other was so ugly she gave him away, 
and thus lost her team, and the bears killed all her 
hogs. 

When I was eighteen or twenty years old I resolved 
to build a log house for mother on the land my father 
took up. It was usual then to raise such buildings 
at a 'bee,' and that could not be done without 
whisky. 

I went to a distillery in Bloomtield on horseback, 
with two wooden bottles in a bag to get the liquor. 
Following the Indian trail through the woods on ni}' 
way back, I saw a cub climbing a tree' and the 
mother bear coming towards me with hair erect and 
about two rods oif. I put whip and spur to my 
horse and did not stop to look back until I was out 
of her reach. I had a small fiock of sheep about 
that time. Neglecting to yard them one night, the 
wolves killed nearl}- all of them. 

A year or two after I first came into the country, a 
man hired me to take a horse to the Genesee River, 
where Rochester now stands. There was but one 
house on that road then. I forded the river with my 
horse. 

I was married January 17th, 1809, to Miss Temj^er- 
ance Smith, of Palmyra. She died in May follow- 
ing. 

For several years aft(.'r I came into the county-, the 



218 riONEEll HISTORY 

Indians were numerous here, hundreds of Indians to' 
one wliite man. Tliey Avere very friendly. I used to 
go to their wigwams and have sport witli them wrest- 
ling and pulling stick, at which I was an expert, fre- 
qently throwing their smartest young men at ' back 
hold,' or what we called 'Indian hug.' 

Bears, wolves and raccoons were plent}", and I 
caught them frequently. 

In March, 1810, I married Frances Bennett, and 
commenced house-keeping again, and went to work 
clearing my land. I think I have chopped and log- 
ged off as much as one hundred and iifty acres in my 
day. 

I have had the fever and ague sevtM'al times, but 
generally let it work itself off. I used to work hard all 
day in my fallow, and frequentl}^ worked evenings- 
there when it was good weather. 

My wife would often come out when I was at work 
and sometimes help me pile brush. 

During the war with England I Avas scvenil times 
called out to do military duty. 

I moved into the town of Shelb}^- in 1827, and after 
a few years sold out and moved to Gaines, on the- 
farm on which I now I'eside. 

RICHARD TREADWELL." 

Gaines, 18G;5. 

Mr. Treadwell died June 9th, 18G6 aged 88 3'ears. 

W A LTKR FA I R FI K LI) . 

''I was born in Pittsford, Vermont, September 10,. 
1788. I married Polly Harv/ood, in Pittsford, in 1809, 
In August, 1810, I bought the farm I now own, in the 
town of Gaines, of the Land Company, for $2,50 
cents j)er acre, part of lot five, town fiftec^i, range 
two, on the Oak Orchard Iload, about a mile south 
of the Ridge. 

In February, 1811, I moved my wife from Vermont 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 213 

to Gaines, and in April of that year we moved into a 
log cabin, in which James Mather was then keeping 
bachelor's hall, and lived with him. In Jnne alter- 
Avards I put up a log honse 18 by 20 feet sqnare and 
covered it with bark, with split basswood logs for a 
iloor sufficient to set a bed on, and then we moved in. 
Our nearest neighbors south following the Oak Or- 
chard Road, were south of tlie Tonawanda Swamp. 

In August folloAving my wife was taken sick. I 
could get no one to lielp about liouse, for such help 
was not in the country, and I was compelled to leave 
my work and attend to my wife for six weeks, during 
which time I did not take off my clothes exce]3t to 
change them. 

I was poor and had to work out for all I liad. I 
came very near being homesick then, but I stood it 
through. The next winter I chopped two or three 
acres on my land, and in the spring burned the brush 
and planted it with corn among the logs, but squir- 
rels and birds got the greater part of it, so we got but 
little corn that year. 

In the spring of 1812, some families located south of 
where Albion now is. Of those families I had stop- 
ping at my house at one time, while they were building 
their cabins, William INIcCollister, Joseph Hart, Silas 
Benton, Elijah Darrow, Frederick Holsenburgh, 
and Jolin Ilolsenburgli, and the families of some of 
them. 

The war of 1812 put a stop to the settlement for 
a while. AVe w(>re troubled some with British desert- 
ers. 

Up 101818, our 2U"ovisions were mainly fish, pota- 
toes, and turnips,- — that is among the poorer class of 
settlers like myself. Sometimes we Avould have hulled 
wheat and hulled corn. Sometimes I went to Parma 
or Rochester to mill, and when I got back my grist 
would not pay m}^ expenses. 



220 PIONEER HISTORY 

After the war and the cold seasons, tlie county 
filled up with settlers A'ery fast. Roads and improve- 
ments were made, and the land cleared up and culti- 
vated, and the conveniences and comforts of life pro- 
cured, thus relieving the wants of the peojole and 
supplying their needs. 

WALTER FAIRFIELD." 

Gaines, 1863. 

Mr. Walter Fairfield died January 9th, I860. 

JOHN PROCTOR. 

"I was was born in the town of Dunstable, Mid- 
dlesex county, Massachusetts, January 22d, 1787. 
In March, 1810, I arrived in Batavia, since changed 
to Gaines, on the Holland Purchase, and purchased 
a lot of land near the Transit Line. I chopped over 
five acres of land and built a log cabin in what was 
then called the 'Nine Mile Woods.' My cabin was 
situated seven miles from any cabin going east, and 
two miles west. There were no inbabitants going- 
south nearer than Batavia village. Here I kept bache- 
lor' s hall, sleeping in the open air on hemlock boughs 
until I had completed the roof of my cabin, which I 
covered with bark. I had to travel seven miles to 
get bread baked. 

I went to Massacliusetts in the summer and i*e- 
turned to my cabin in January. In the spring of 
1811, I cleared off and planted three acres to corn, 
and in the fall sowed five acres to wheat. 

In December I went back to Massacliusetts on foot. 
February 11th, 1812, I was married to Miss Polly 
Cummings, of Dunstable, and started on the 12th 
with my wife for my home in the woods, in a sleigh 
drawn by two horses. 

When we arrived at our new home, at what has since 
been called Fair Haven, in the town of Gaines, there 
were but three families in Gaines, viz.: Elijah Dow- 



OF ORLEAIS'^S COUNTY. 221 

ner, Amy Gibert, and Elliott. The nearest 

grist mill was at Black Creek, twenty miles distant, 
and on account of bad roads it was as easy for us to 
go to Rochester to mill, a distance of thirty miles. 

In the fall of 1812, 1 harvested a good crop of wheat 
and corn. 

In the winter of 1813-14, the British and Indians 
came over from Canada and massacred several of 
the inhabitants on tlie frontier, and many of the set- 
tlers fled out of the country for safet}^. The people 
throughout this region Avere in great consternation. 
The news of the approach of the savages spread rap- 
idly. 

William Burlingame, who resided about four miles 
west of my place on the Ridge, called me out of bed 
and requested me to go immediately and arouse the 
people east. I immediately mounted my horse, the 
only horse then owned in the vicinity, and before next 
day light visited all the inhabitants as far east as 
Clarkson. 

The effect of the notice was almost electric, for 
quite a regiment of men in number were on the move 
early the next morning, to check tlie advance of the 
enemy. We marched west to a place called Hard- 
scrabble, near Lewiston, and there performed a sort 
of garrison duty for two weeks, when I with some 
others returned, for, having been elected collector of 
of taxes, it became necessary for me to attend to the 
duties of my office. 

Again in September, while the war was in progress 
at and near Fort Erie, in Canada, news came to us 
that the British were about to attack the Fort and 
our troops there must be reinforced. In company 
with several others I volunteered to go to their relief. 
On arriving at the Fort, via. Buifalo, we made several 
attacks on the enemy near the Fort, and in the woods 
opposite Black Rock. 



222 PIOT^EER HISTORY 

A sortie was made from the Fort September 17tli, 
in which we routed the enemy. In these actions sev- 
eral bullets passed through my clothes, and one 
grazed my tinger. 

A man of our company named Howard was killed, 
another named Sheldon was wounded in the- shoul- 
der, and Moses Bacon was taken prisoner and carried 
to Halifax. 

In that sortie General Davis, of Le Roy, was 
killed, and Gen. Peter B. Porter was taken prisoner, 
and rescued again the same day. We came home 
after an absence of twenty-four days. 

About February 1st, 1815, I was notified to attend 
the sitting of the court in Batavia as constable. Ow- 
ing to the situation of my family I could not be long 
absent from home ; and in oi'der to get released from 
court, it was necessary for me to appear before the 
judge; so taking a rather earl}'' start I reached Batavia 
before tlie court had opened in the morning. After 
the court had organized for business I presented my 
excuse and was discharged. 

After that I collected over one hundred dollars 
taxes, made my returns as town collector, on half a 
a sheet of paper, took a deed of one hundred acres of 
land of the Holland Company, and an article for 
another hundred acres and started for home, where I 
arrived in the evening of the same day, having 
traveled a distance of not less than forty-four miles. 

In December, 1818, I made arrangements to visit 
my friends in Massachusetts, on horseback. Several 
of my neighbors were in to see me off. As I was 
about to mount my horse a deer came down the creek 
from tlie south. I ran into the house and got my 
gun and some cartridges I brought from the war, 
loaded my gun as I ran out, and as the deer was 
passing leveled my gun and snapped it, but it missed 
tire. I took up a stone and struck the Hint, and snap- 



OF ORLEANS COUNT\ . 223 

ped tlie gun again before the deer got out of range. 
"This time it discliarged killing tlie deer instantly. I 
remained now and helped dress the deei- and divided 
it with our neighbors, and then went on ni}' journey. 
I rode to Vermont, there exchanged my horse and 
rsaddle for a cutter and another horse, and drove 
to my destination, near Boston. After an ab- 
sence of about sixty days I returned home in time to 
dine off a piece of the venison I killed just before 
starting, which had been Ivept b}^ ni}^ wife. 

Our associations in our *vilderness home undergo- 
ing fatigue and hardships together, sharing alike in 
gratitude for every success, and in S3"mpath3^ for 
every adversity, bound the early settlers together as 
a band of brothers. 

For many years our religious worship was held in 
common togetlier, with no denominational distinc- 
tions. 

JOHN PROCTOR." 

Gaines, June 18Co. 

Mr. John Proctor died in 1868. 

SAJLUEL HILL. 

"■ I was born in Barrington, Rockingham county, 
N. H., November 18th, 1793. I was married Febru- 
ary 28th, 1815, to Miss Olive Knight. 

In the winter of 1823 we moved to Gaines, with 
means little more than enough to defray the expense of 
the journey, and settled on part of the farm on which 
I now reside. We began by building a log house, the 
crevices between the logs serving for windows. The 
children would sit on the fire sill in front of where 
was to be a chimue}'. Thus we lived from May 10th, 
to fall, when we made our house comfortable for 
winter. 

My father was a practical farmer, and my first rec- 



224 PIONEER HISTORY 

ollections of work were of helping clear land. He 
with the help of his boys, of whom I was eldest but 
one, cleared one hundred and fifty acres. 

Begining with little, we have by hard labor, strict 
economy and the blessing of God, succeeded in se- 
curing a comfortable home and a competence of this 
world's goods. 

SAMUEL HILL." 
Gaines, March 18G4. 

SAMUEL SALSBURY. 

" I was born in Newport, Herkimer county, IST. Y., 
July 24, 1804. In January, 1817, 1 removed with my 
brother Stephen to the Holland Purchase and settled 
in Ridgeway. The country with few exceptions w^as 
a wilderness. Provisions were scarce and dear, 
wheat worth three dollars a bushel, corn two dollars, 
potatoes one dollar, and other things in proportion. 
Before harvest nearly every family was destitute of 
bread. Their resort for a substitute was to the grow- 
ing wheat, which was boiled and eaten with milk ; or 
by adding a little cream and maple sugar together, to 
make a kind of dessert after a meal of potatoes and 
butter, and possibly a little deer, squirrel and raccoon 
meat. 

Our milk was strongly flavored with leeks occas- 
ionally, Avith which our native ' pastures ' abounded, 
but we used to correct this by eating a fresh leak 
before eating the milk. AVe had plenty of maple 
sugar. 

School houses were scarce, and of churches there 
were none. I attended school in a log house two miles 
from home, south of what is now Lyndonville, and 
this school house was for many years used as a place 
for worship. Here I used to hear Elder Irons and 
Elder Butcher, Baptists, and Elders Paddock, 
Boardman, Hall, and Puffer, Methodists. 



OF ORLEANS < OTlNTY. 225 

Among 1113^ early scliool t'-at^ljors weiv ('lei!. AV. C 
Tanner and Mrs. Mastin. 

Chopping, clearing and J'encing land was the prin- 
cipal bnsiness in those days. 

My last feat in chopping was in 1832, when I w^alked 
three miles morning and evening, and chopped over 
three acres, leaving it fitted for logging in ten and a 
half days. 

In February, 182."), I crossv'd Nijigara river on tlie 
ice which had wedged in near the month of the river. 
It was n. warm da}^, the vratcr was on tlie ice and 
large openings -were freqnent. In one 2)lace a seam 
of open water three feet across was passed on aboard. 
Avhich served as a bridge. I ci-ossed in safety. 

In the winter of 1826-7, I united with the Methodist 
Episcopal Clinrch. I had never, to this time, heard a 
temperance lecture or known anything of temperance 
societies, but from that tim(^ I believed it wicked to 
Tise intoxicating drinks as a beverage, and I have 
never nsed them since. 

I was married to Miss Electa Eeal, Febiiiary 28d. 
1829. 

I was licensed to preached the gospel in Jidy, 1882, 
by the Conference sitting in P(mn Yan. Till tlien 
I had been a farmer aind school teacher. Froii> 
that time till 1844, I labonxl in tliat vicinit}' in thi 
Methodist Episcopal Church. In May. 184:5, I 
withdrew from that cJiurch and joined in organizing 
the Wesleyan Methodist Connexion of America, and 
from then since. I have labored as a' minister in tb.at 
Connexion. 

SAMUEL SALISBURY." 
Eagle Harbor, Mai-cli 18()4. 

I'ERRY DAVIS. 

Perry Davis was born in W«'stport, Mashtaclmsetts, 
January 1st, 1773. 
15 



'226 piONKKU fiisroKV 

In 1793, he Ji^arried Rebecca Potter. Slie died May 
aSth, 1825. 

After liiw marriage, he resided about thirteen years 
an C-falway, Saratoga county. He tlien lesided about 
.eighteen years in Palmyra, N. Y.; and in J 821}. re- 
OMOved to Gaines, and took up land near the mouth 
'Of Otter Creek ; and in 182r\ removed to the village of 
'Cfaines and bought the farm next noith of the Ridge, 
.and west of the Oak Orchard Road. He was an ac- 
tive busineH»5 man, being engaged at different times 
.as a mnrcliant, farmer, school tea<'her. and manufac- 
iturer ; and wliile residing in (laines, superintending 
,at the same tim»^ three farms, a sawmill, a gi-istmill, 
-and a small ir(»n foundry, all in operation. He was 
<deacon, and a prominent member of* the Ijaptist 
Church in Gaines. 

He had eight daughters, viz.: Barbarn,, who died in 
childhood : Rowena married William Hayden ; Cyn- 
thia married Daniel Ball ; Cindeiilla married Samuel 
Parker : Mary married Richard ^Vol•kman ; Ann 
married William W.Ruggles; Eliza nuirried Elonzo G. 
Hewitt ; and Laura married Dr. Alfied ]3abcock. In 
1827, he maiTifd Sarah Toby, of Storkton, N. Y. 
She di»^d November 4th, 18r»G. Mr. Davis died April 
•od, 1841. 

LV.Xl XTW'VA.L. 

Levi Atwell was born la Canaan. Colum])ia county. 
N. Y. 

He married Mabel Stoddard, and nu)ved from Cny- 
uga county to Gaines in February, 1812, and took an 
article of part of lot fort\ -four, township lifteen, 
range two, and resided on the same bind until he 
died, Februfiry, 1847. 

He took up his laud in April, 181 J, and in June 
after he came on, chopp*'d down the tre«*s on a few 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 227 

: acres, and that season put up a log house, into wliich 
: he moved his family when they came. 

His brothers-in-law, Gideon Freeman and Joseph 

Stoddard, came on and took up land at the same 

time. He remained on his land during the war with 
jEngland, 

The house into which he moved had no door, or 
^ window or floor except the earth, and not a board 
-.about it. The logs had been merel}^ rolled wp for the 

walls, without stopping the crevices between tliem. 

The roof was covered with "shakes" split from oak 

■ trees like stave bolts, about three feet long, laid on 
in courses like shingles, without nails, and held on 

? by poles laid on transversely, with no chimney, but a 
large hole in the roof left for the smoke, and whicli 

• admitted the light. 

The snow was about three feet deep. A huge fire 
\>was kept up in one end of the cabin ; this heated th<^ 
' roof and melted the snow, which dripped most un- 
comfortably upon everything in the house. A blan- 
ket hung at the doorway closed that, and chips 

• driven into the crevices between the logs stopped 
them in part till spring, when stones were laid for a 
hearth, and a stick chimne}' put in. 

, Mr. Atwell had a yoke of oxen and several other 

*cattle that arrived a few days after he brought his 

family. He brought several bushels of ears of corn 

when he moved in, which he dealt out sparingly to 

i iiis stock. They had no other food except the trees 

he cut down for them to browse, until they could get 

■ their living in the woods in the spring. 

His family consisted of himself, wife and four chil- 
. dren, the youngest about two j'ears old. His chil- 
dren's names were Ira, Abbey, Roxy, Joseph and 
. Martin. 

In the fall of 1812. a man by the name of Crofoot 
. died in the neighborhood. No boards to make his 



22S 



T'lONEEll 1II8TOKY 



coffin could be found, not in use in tlio settlement. 
When Mr. Atwell moved in liis family, lie brought 
a board for a side-boaid, on liis sled. This he had put 
up for a shelf in his house for dishes, &c., and this 
shelf, and a board from some other house were taken 
foi- the coffin, in which the corpse was buried. 

SAMTEL C. LEAVI^;. 

Samuel ('. Lewis was born in Poultney, A'ermont^ 
.June 8th, 1796. At the age of seventeen, he enlisted 
in the United States Army as a soldier in the war of 
1812, and served in a company commanded by Captain 
Miller, who was founder of the sect since known as 
Millerites, or Second Adventists. He was in tlie bat- 
tle of Plattsburgh, and at French ]Mills. He served 
in the army about two years. 

In February, 1816, in com])any with lii;^ brother 
(iideon, Roswell and Amos Clift, Elias Clift, and 
Their sister Esthei' Clift, who afterwards married Guy 
('. Merrill, he came in a lumber wagon drawn b}' two 
yoke of Oxen, from Poultney, Vermont, to Claines, 
being twenty -five days on the road, arriving in Gaines 
March 19th, 1816. 

Arba Chubb, a brother-in-law of the Lewises, with 
his wife and child, arrived in Gaines the da}^ before 
Mr. Lewis and conipan3% and moved into the log 
liouse built b}^ Mrs. Burgess, near where Judge An- 
dej-son now resides. The house had not been occu- 
])i(>d for some time previous, and was not in good con- 
dition to inhabit ; but it was the best they could get, 
and the three Lewis brothers went there to stay with 
Mr. Chubb. They had cleared away the snow and 
got a good supply of fuel for their fire heaped up 
against the stoned up end of the house, which served 
as a chimney the night aftei- their arrival, as the 
weather was stormy and cold, and th«^ house had 
lai'ge crevices open between the logs. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 229 

Mr. Chubb and liis family had a bed in a corner of 
the room, while the three young men lay on the floor 
with their feet to the fire. In the night tlie great fij-e 
thawed out the old chimney, and the whole pile fell 
forward into the room, luckily, however, without 
crushing any of the persons sleeping tliere. Next 
morning they piled tlie stones back in their jilaces, 
and made a chimney that answered theii- purpose. 

Ml". Lewis and his brother bought of Lansing 
Baile}^, an article for one hundred and twenty-live 
acres of land, lying at Uaines Basin, on which Mr. 
Bailey ]iad built a log house, which had not a shingle 
or nail in it, all pieces l)eing fastened with wooden 
pins. 

On this lot they labored clearing land the next 
summer, occupying their house, and getting their 
cooking and washing done in Mi-.Bailey's family, on an 
adjoining lot, for which they worked for Mv. Bailey 
every seventh day that season to pay liim. 

Samuel C Lewis married Anna Fj-isbie. in March 
1819. She died the next year. 

January 30th, 1824, he married Anna AVarn<M\ of 
Cornwall, Vt. She died April lUth, 1841. 

Mr. Lewis retains and resides on the lot of land on 
which he flrst settled. 

He has walked and carried his knapsack on his 
back, twelve times the whole distance between Gaines 
iind Poultney, \t. Once he performed the Journey 
in October, in six days, walking on an average nearly- 
fifty miles a da}'. 

In the year 1819, he had a tax to pay and wanted 
a dollar to make tlie sum required. To raise the 
money, he cut four cords of body maple wood and 
drew it a mile and sold it to Oliver Booth for twent}'- 
iive cents a cord, and so paid his tax. 

(ilDKON S. LKWIS. 

Gideon S. Lewis was born in Poultnev. \'ermont. 



230 PIONEKK HISTORY 

September, 1702. He married Betsey Mason, daugh- 
ter of tlie late Jesse Mason, of Barre, N. Y., in the ^ 
fall of 1820. She died in September, 1842. He then » 
married Betsey Shelley, of Gaines. He had four chil- 
dren, Lestina, who married Henry Cox ; Homer, who ■ 
studied medicine, and died some years ago ; Augus- 
tus and Augusta, twins. Augustus is dead. Au- 
gusta married Alonzo Morgan. Gideon S. Lewis died 
October 6th, 1865. 

Roswell Lewis, brotlier of Samuel and Gideon, 
resided in Gaines about three years, then returned to * 
Vermont. 

N ATH A N S1IP:LLE\ . 

Nathan Shelley was born in Hartford, Washington' 
county, N. Y., March 17th, 1798. In May, 1812^- 
with his father's family he removed to Gaines. His^ 
father settled on the Ridge Road, two miles west of 
the village of Gaines. 

VVai- with Great Britain was declared soon after he • 
arrived. After the defeat of the Americans at' 
Queenstown, in October, 1812, many of the inhabi- 
tants on the frontier retired eastward, and Mr. Shelley 
took his family and went with them, but returned in = 
December after. 

Nathan Shelley married Dorcas Tallman, May 21st, 
1820. She was born in Washington connty, N. Y.,- 
August 4th, 1795. 

In 1821, he took up and settled part of lot forty- 
five, township fifteen, range two, on whi(^h he has ever 
since resided. 

His llrst log house liad but one room, onl}' four 
lights of glass, and a bedquilt foi' an outside door,, 
when he moved into it to reside in th(^ the winter ' 
of 1821-2. 



OV ORLEANfS COUNTY. :231 

Beginning poor, by a life of steady iriJw.str}' and 
pnidenfe lie became a wealthy farmer. 

THE BU LL A KD FAMILY. 

This somewhat numerous family in (raior'S, are de- 
scendants of David Billiard, who wa? boni in Ded- 
ham, Massaclmsetts. in 17G1. He removed to Vei- 
mont, where he lesided until September, 1814, when 
he lemoved to Gaines, N. Y., bringing with him as 
many of his children as had not gone' there before. 
He first settled upon lot twenty-three, a. little west oi 
the village of (Taines, north of the Ridge, on a farm* 
wliicli had been taken up b}^ his sou William.. 
Aftei- a 3 ear or two he removed south of the Ridge,, 
upon lot twenty -one — a faim now owned by his Hoxit 
Brigadier, where he resided until his death in June,. 
1881. 

He mariied Elizabeth Hadley. His children were 
AVilliam. wh(» married Nellie Loveland. Polly mar- 
ried ^Villiani Woolman. They settled in 1811, in 
(raines, on the farm afterwards owned by Phineas 
Rowley. Judith married John AVitherell. They set- 
tled north of the Ridge, next east of Oliver Booth. 
Olive marrie<l James Bartlett. Betsey married Fred- 
erick Holsenburgh, Nancy married Samuel Scovill. 
Sally married Arba Chubb. David married Elvira 
Murwin. Brigadier married Lovina Parker. Ran- 
som married Lydia Buck. 

AVilliam. Judith and Bi'igadier settleil In Gaines ins 
February, 1812. William Bullai'd died in Sept<^mbery. 
1861. 

TJIE mLlJN<-S FAMILY. 

Joseph Billings, Sr., the ancestor of this family,. 
was born in Somers, Connecticut, and settled in Che- 
nango county. New York, whei'e he resided nntiJi 
his d^^ath. 



232 HIONMKTI HISTOKV 

lie purclicised of Isaac Bennett a large quantity of 
Jniid in Gaines, wliicii Mr. Bennett liacl taken hy 
article from the Land Company, wliicli lie afterwards 
divided among his sons, Jose})li, Timothy, and Lau- 
ren. Joseph and Timothy settled on this land in 
1817. and Lauren in 1822. " 

' Joseph Billings mai-ried Charlotte Drake. His chil- 
dren, are J. Drake Billings, who married Melinda 
Shaw. Myi'on mai'iiiHl Phebe Bement. Clinton 
married Esther Murdock. Harlow marrii^d Adeline 
King. AVilliam II. nuu-j'ied S.trah Everett. Clarissa 
married Elijah B. Lattin. Helen nuuried Jolin 
Lattin. 

Timothy l^iUings married Betsey Bidwell. His 
children were Newton and Sanford, wlio died in early 
manliood, and Pomeroy, avIio died in childhood. 

Lauren Billings married Roxana C. Rexford. His 
cliildren are, Karthalo R., who married Catharine 
Mui'dock. Pomeroy O., who married Harriet Thomp- 
son. Loverna C. married Noi-man A. Beeclier. L. 
Dwight. Simeon R. mariied Cari-ieE. (Ii-a}-. Josei)h 
F. mai-ried Josephine Eldridge. 

Joseph, Timothy, and Lauren Billings, occupied 
adjoining farms, wliicli they cleared and improved. 
Joseph and Lauren wei-e each Justices of the Peace 
in dailies for a number of yeai-s. 

Jjauren was a Colonel in the State Militia. Joseph 
Avas Supervisor of (rai)ies from 18H7, to 1841, inclu- 
sive. 

Joseph Billings died December 10, 1 8(5(5. Timothy 
Billings di-'d May loth, 1837. 

AltHA cm BiJ. 

Arba Cluibb was born in Poiiltney, \{.. S(>ptem- 
ber 18th, 1701. 

He maiTied Emily Frisbie, October 17. 1813. Feb- 
ruary 20rli, 1816, they started to move to (laines, N. 



4 



OF OKLEAXS COUNTY. 2'>*{ 

Y., on a wagon, and ai'iived there after being twenty 
days on the road. 

He bonght a farm lying between the Ridge and 
Gaines Basin, and resided there nntil 1832, when lie 
moved to Gaines Basin and bonght a warehouse there 
and carried on business as a dealer in produce, and 
sold goods nntil 1840, when he moved to Gaines vil- 
lage, and from thence to Michigan, in 1850. 

His first wife died in 1820. For a second wife he 
married Sally, daughter of David Bullard, of 
Gaines. 

In 1821, Mr. Chubb was appointed hy tlie Council 
Justice of the Peace. He was after that elected .jus- 
tice by the people of Gaines, and held the office 
thirty-tliree j'ears, a vacation of one year only occur- 
ring during that time. 

After uioving to Michigan he was elected rfustice of 
the Pea(*e from time to time, until in the whole he 
served in that office 47 years. No man has held the 
office of Justice of the Peace in Orleans county as 
long as Esquire Cliul)b. He also held eveiy other 
town office but constable, and every office^ in the 
militia, from Coi'poral to Major, inclusiAe. He was 
for some time postmaster in Gaines, and Member of 
Assembly from Orleans county, for the year 1848. 

Esquire Chubb describes a lawsuit tried before 
him soon after he was elected Justice, wnich occa- 
sioned him great trouble at the time. He gave the 
following account of it : 

" Orange Butler was on one side, and a young 
law^-er named Capen, from' Albion, on the other. I 
think they planned to give me a sweat. TIk^ plaintiff 
put in his declaratioi. Tht^ defendant demurred. 
Plaintiff put in a rejoinder. The defendant a surre- 
joinder. The plaintiff a lebutter. The defendant a 
surrebutter. 

About all this special plr-adiug I kn^w nothing. I 



234 



PIONEEK inSTOKY 



supposed, liowever, they would ask me to make a 
special decision ; but what the decision should be, I 
knew no more than tlie biggest fool alive. There I 
sat, the sweat rolling down my face, inwardl}^ cursing 
the day I was appointed .rustice, and my folly in 
.accepting an office I knew nothing about. 

I think the lawyers saw my trouble, had pity on 
me and helped me out as well as they could, and went 
on and tried the case," 

Esquire Chubb resides at Ionia, Michigan, and is 
now (1871) serving in his old office of Justice of the 
Peace. 

THE ANDERSOX EAMIEY. 

The ancestors of this family originally emigrated 
from Scotland to Ireland, and thence to Londonderry, 
New Hampshire, at an early day. 

John Anderson, the ancestor of most of the families 
of his name in Gaines, was born in Londonderry, Aug. 
81, 1757. He was a soldier in the Revolution, fought 
at Bunker Hill, and was at the taking of Ticonderoga 
under Ethan Allen. He married Jane Archibald in 
Londonderry, Feb. 7, 1782, and settled in Ira, Rut- 
land county Vermont, in the same year. He repre- 
sented this town in the State Legislature eight or ten 
years in succession. His children were : Ann, Jane, 
John, Robert, Matthew, Betse^^, Thomas A., Marga- 
let, Nancy, Eli B. and Samuel F., all of whom were 
early settlers in Gaines, except Betsej^, who died in 
Malone, N. Y. January 11, 1813. 

John Anderson, senior, movt^d with his family to 
(xaines in 1821, and located on lot twenty-nine, town- 
ship fifteen, i-ange two, on the jiorth side of the Ridge 
road, where he died Octobei- 22, 1827. He was a man 
of very great physical strength, of good intellect, 
<'nergetic and persist«Mit in his chara<^ter. One of his 
lules of action was : Do what duty requires and 



OF ORLEANS; COUNTY, 2'St 

OonKcience approves as right, witliout fear. Indeed 
he never showed fear of anything. Many instances 
are recollected of his cool and determined courage in 
cases of danger. In several conflicts he had with 
bears, he performed exploits as hazardous and full of 
daring, as Gen. Putnam's battle with tlie wolf. 

One evening while he lived in Ira, dogs treed a bear 
not far from his residence. A number of men were 
present, but they had no gun. Mr. Anderson told 
them to build a fire around the tree and keep the bear 
up it until morning, and then he would go up and 
drive him down. The fire was made. Next morning 
Anderson armed with a club, climbed the tree to the 
bear thirty feet from the ground, and ci-ept out on tlie 
limb on which he had retreated. 

Disregarding the growls and bristling of the feroci- 
ous creature, Mr. Anderson went witliin reach and 
aimed a blow at its head with his clul) wliicli tlie bear 
warded oft' and knocked the club to the ground. 
Nothing daunted, Mr. Anderson descended, got twf: 
clubs, and again went up the tree to the beuT-. Taking 
a club in each hand, he made motions to strike with 
his left liand, and when the bears attention was at- 
tracted to these, he struck him a terrible blow on the 
head with the other club, which knocked the body of 
the beast oflT tlie limb, leaving him hanging by his 
fore paws. A blow or two on his daws loosened 
their hold, and tlie bear was killed by the men be- 
low when he struck the ground. 

Another time while he lived in Vermont, l)eing m 
the woods, he saw a bear coming towards liim. Con- 
cealing himself in bushes on a steep place, lie lay in 
ambush, and the bear passed him so near that with 
a spring he rushed upon him, and armed only with a 
stone, pounded his liead until lie killed him. 

Ann Anderson married Daniel dates of Ruthuid. 
Vermont, moved to Gaines in 1811, and settled 



230 



PIOXKKU HISTOIIY 



Oil lot twenty- nine, township tifteen. range two. After 
a few 3'ears lie sold this farm and removed to a farm 
in Carlton, wliere he died January 81, 1858. Mrs. 
Ann Gates died January 1, 1800. Two of her sons, 
John and N. F. Gates, now reside in Carlton, and 
another Matthew A. Gates, resides in Yates. 

Jane Anderson married Phineas Rowley, of Rut- 
land, Vermont, moved to Gaines in 1817, and settled 
on lot thirt}', townshiji fifteen, lange one. They both 
died several years since. Two of their sons, John 
and Andrew J. Rowley, are 3'et living in Gaines. 

Margaret Anderson married John Farnham Jan. 22, 
1818. They removed to Gaines, Oc t. , 1824, and settled 
on lot forty, townshi]) fifteen, range two. John Farn- 
ham was born in Poultney. Vt., Febrnaiy- 20, 179t), 
and died November :], 1841. Margaret Farnham died 
in May, 1808. 

Nancy Anderson married Solomon Kingsley in Ver- 
mont and moved to Orleans eoiinty about 1810. They 
removed to Michigan in 18'Sr^ and died tlier(\ 

John Anderson, Jr., was born in Ira, Vermont, 
Sept. 12, 1785. He settled in Gaines on lot twent}^- 
two, townshi]) fifteen, range two, in 1810. 

At the first town meeting held in Ridgeway, April 
0, 1818, he was elected Overseer of the Poor. He 
was a man of positive charactei-, a great lover of truth, 
withdrawing his confidence from the man avIio failed 
to ke(^p his promises. 

A neighbor owed liim twelve shillings, which he 
promised to ])ay in a few days. Mr. Anderson re- 
plied he hoped he would, that it was worth a shilling 
to dun a man any time. In a few days the neighbor 
met him, spoke of his debt and nMiewed his promise 
to pay. 

As tiiey iiiet occasionally afterwards, tlie debtor 
would dun himself, hut })aid nothing, till one d<ay 
having rej)eated liis ackiiowh^dgement and promise. 



OK OHLKANS COUNTY. 2IW 

Mr. Anderson took out a sliilling and handed Jiini, 
saying, " Here is a sliilling Ibr yon, we an^ now even, 
I liave given you credit on account one shilling each 
time 3'ou have dunned 3^ourself lor me and broken 
your promise. Your credits balance your debt and 
one shilling over, which I have paid you. It is settled, 
don't speak to me about it again." 

Eli B. Anderson was married in Poultn(^y, Vermont, 
removed to Gaines with his father, and resided with 
him until his death, and occupied the same place six 
or eight years after his death, when he rt^moved to 
Michigan. 

Samuel F. Anderson nuived to Gaines with his fath- 
er, being then about eighteen years old. In 1836 he 
married Miss Mahala Phipps of .Vlbion, and removed 
to Cassopolis, Michigan Avhere he still resides. He 
has represented his county several years in the State 
Legislature and been Judge of County Courts. 

Matthew Anderson moved to Gaines in 1810 and 
took an article of part of lot t\Aenty-seven, township 
fifteen, range two, since known as the '' Hunter Farm" 
a little north of Eagle Harboi-, now owned by C. A. 
Danolds and S. W. Kneeland. He cleared some land 
and built a log house on his farm. He died Septem- 
ber 80, 1816. In 1814 or 181.5, Ik^ represented the 
town of Ira in the Vermont Legislature. He was 
Captain of a company of militia, whicli under his 
conunand volunt(^ered and went to meet the British 
at Plattsburgh in Wm war of 1812. 

Hon. Robert AndiM'Son was born in the town of 
Ira, \'ermont, April 21, 1787. 

In June, 1807, he was elected Lieutenant in the 
militia. In October 1812 he was appointed Justice 
of the Peace in Rutland. He went with a company 
of volunteers to fight the British at Plattsburgh in 
the war of 1812. 

In November 1812, he came to Gaines and bought 



238 PIONKKK UISTOItV 

du article for 150 acres, part of lot 22, township fifteen, 
range two, to which he moved his family in 1816, and 
wliere he has ever since resided. Two younger broth- 
ers, Matthew and Dr. Thomas A. Anderson and their 
families came on at the same time from Vermont. 
The Di'. drove a two horse lumber wagon, whicli 
carried the women and children of the party, the 
other two men drove each a team of two j^oke of oxen 
drawing a wagon laden with their goods, with a cow 
ied behind each team. 

They arrived in Gaines March 2r)tli. having been 
twenty- five days on the road. 

On arriving in Gaines, Robert Anderson moved 
into the log house the logs for which were cut by 
Mrs. Noah Burgess in 1809. It was roofed with elm 
bark and had a floor of split basswood in most ap- 
proved pioneer style. The next year he built a small 
framed house and lived in that. 

In the summer of 1821, David AVhipple and wife, 
parents of Mrs. Robert Anderson, came to Gaines 
from Vermont to visit their children. They rode in a 
©ne horse wagon with bolsters and box lumber style, 
covered with cloth over hoops. The seat was a chair 
wide as the box. splint bottomed, the posts standing 
ft)n the steel springs of a wolf trap. This was prob- 
ably the first wheel carriage rigged with steel springs 
bhat run in Orleans county, and was much admired 
for its novelty ond convenience. 

Mr. Anderson and his wife started with her part-nts 
vDn their return to Vermont, to visit friends on the way. 
They went as far as Brighton, wliere she was taken 
sick and died. The death of his wife and the sick- 
ness prevailing in the country, with which he was 
attacked, so disheartened him he oft'ered his farm for 
sale, and w ould have sold at almost any price, but 
no purchaser appearing and his health having im- 
proved, he concluded to stay. In August 1822, he 



OK OUr.KAXS COUNTV. 239 

nianied his second wife. Miss Roxana Lamb, of 
Bridgewater, A'ernioiit, who died March 27, 1837. 

In 1840, he rented his farm to his eldest son and 
only surviving child, Nahum Anderson, to whom in a 
few years after he sold it, reserving the right to live 
in his family during life. 

In 1817, he was elected Lieutenant of a militia 
company in Claines, and resigned at the end of a year. 
The same year he was appointed a Justice of the 
Peace, which office he held until the winter of 1822. 
In that winter, he was appointed Judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas of Clenesee county, an office he 
held over two years and resigned. In the spring of 
1818, he was elected Supervisor of the town of Gaines, 
an office to whicli he was annually elected as long as 
the town of Claines belonged to Genesee count}'. 
After Orleans county was organized, he was elected 
the first Supervisor from that town, to serve in the 
first Board sitting in the new county, in 182G, b^' 
whom he was ap23ointed Chairman, in consequence 
of his experience as a Supervisor. 

In the session of 1822, he served as a member of 
the State Legislature, being one of three representa- 
tives sent from the county of Genese(\ 

Judge Anderson was never ambitious to hold public 
offices, generally taking office onl}' when it was of- 
fered him without liis asking, and resigning the first 
proper opportunity. He was regarded as a man of 
sound judgment, honest and faithful, and shared 
largely in the confidence of all who knew him. 

For some years jiast he has lived quietly, retired 
from the cares of business, possessing a competence 
of property acquired hy his own exertions, happy in 
the society of his many friends, enjoying a pleasant 
home. 

Dr. Thomas A. Anderson, son of John Anderson, 
senior, wa"^ born in Ira, Yt.. Ma^- 14th, 1702. He 



240 riONEEK HISTORY 

niai'i'ied Saiali Wliipple of Malone, N.,Y., and moved 
to Gaines, as above stated, in 1816, and located at 
Fair Haven, or Proctor's Corners, in the town of 
Gaines, wliere lie practiced liis profession for some 
time in company with Dr. Truman S. Shaw, who af- 
terwards practiced in Knowlesville, and Yates, and 
died a few years since in Medina, Orleans county^ 
X. Y. 

Dr. Anderson had practiced medicine several j^ears 
ill Kutland, A ermont, before coming to Gaines. He 
was esteemed a skillful physician, and had as much 
business as he could do. He was constitutionally 
feeble, never had good health, and died September 
2d, 1829, leaving one child only, a daughter, now 
wife of S. Dewey Walbridge, of Rochester, N. Y, 
His wife died April 22d, 1829.^ 

:\!OSES BACON. 

Moses Bacon was born April o, 1787, in Burlingtony 
Hartford count}', Conn. He was a farmer. 

About th(^ year 1809, he came to Gaines and took, 
an article from the Holland Land Company of two 
luindred acres of land on the south j^art of lot tJiirty- 
seveii, township fifteen, range one. He worked for 
the Land Company opening the Oak Orchard road 
the summer of that year, to apply towards pa3dng 
for his land, and returned to Connecticut in the fall. 
The next spring he came back and commenced work 
upon his land as a permanent settler. 

In December, 1813, he went in Captain McCarty's 
company to the defence of the frontier, and in his 
cliarge upon the British and Indians at Molyneaux 
tavern, in Cambria, on that occasion Mr. Bacon Ava& 
present and did good execution. 

In January, 1814, he married Miss Sarah Downer, 
In Septeml)er of that year he was called out Avith the 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 241 

men on this frontier generall}', to aid in repelling the 
Britisli and Indians in the war with Great Britain. 
He was in tlie battle of Fort Erie, in which he was 
shot through tlie neck and taken prisoner by the 
British, who carried him to Halifax, where he snifered 
greatly nnder the cruel treatment of the officers who 
had the American prisoners under their charge. The 
next 3'ear he was discharged, the war having closed, 
and returned home broken in constitution from the 
hardships of his wound and imprisonment, and witli 
a cough contracted in Halifax from which lie never 
recovered, and for which he di'ew a pension from the 
United States ever afterwards. 

Mr. Bacon sold the east part of his farm to his 
brother Hosea, and tlie nortli part to his brother 
Elias, reserving one hundred jicres for himself. Upon 
this place he lived until his death, which occurred 
June 28th, 1848. 

SAMUEL JUDELMAX. 

tSamiiel Bidelman was born in Manheim, Herkimer 
county, N. Y., June 29th, 180(5. His grandparents 
both came to .Imerica from Germany, before tlie 
revolutionary war, and setthxl on the Mohawk river. 
In that war his grandfather's buildings were burned 
by the Indians, and hii^ family narrowly escaped 
massacre by Hying to tlie 1)1 ock house fort ibr pro- 
tection. 

His father, Henry Bidelman, came to Shelby in 
181G, and bought an article for one hundred acres of 
land of John Timmerman. In January, 1817, he 
came to Shelby with a part of his children, leaving 
his wife and other children in Herkimer count}^ until 
he could prepare a place for them. He was eleven 
days on the journe}^. 

In July, 1817, John Garlock, brother-in-law of 
16 



242 PIONEKll HISTOKY 

lieniy Bideiman, brought on Mrs. Bidelmaii and the 
remainder of her children, and with their other load- 
ing he brought three bags of fionr. This was the 
next year after the cold season, and the neighborhood 
was destitute of flour ; some of the inhabitants had 
not even seen wheat bread for weeks, having lived in 
that time, as far as bread was concerned, on bran 
bread and some sea biscuit — "hard tack," which 
they procured from the Arsenal at Batavia, which 
had been stored there to feed the soldiers in the war 
of 1812. 

It was a custom then when a new family arrived, 
for all the settlers for miles around to come together 
and give them a greeting. Such a surprise party 
waited on the Bidelmans, and after they had broken 
lip and gone home, Mr. Bidelman found he had 
only a part of one bag of his flour left out of the 
three brought on by Gaiiock, as each family of the 
visitors must of course take home a little. Part of 
one bag of flour only for a family of tvrelve hungry 
persons to live on under the circumstanoes, looked as 
if the end was near. 

These sea biscuit furnished material for much talk, 
as well as some food for the people. Mr. Joseph 
Snell, who was something of a wag, repoi-ted that a 
Mr. Simons, w^ho resided a little south from Mr. Bid- 
elman, got some of the biscuit and ate too freel.y of 
them ; that they had swelled in his stomacli and had 
burst him. He said his attendants tied hankerchiefs 
and straps around him, and did the best they could 
to make him contain himself, but without success ; 
he burst and died, and was to be buried at a time 
specified. Several persons went to attend the funeral 
before they understood the hoax. 

The first year after he came to Shelby, Mr. H, Bid- 
elman took some land of D. Timmerman which lay 
about a mile from his house, to plant with coi-n on 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 24o 

shares. In tioeing time, in the long days in June, he 
would get his boys together, Samuel being then about 
twelve years old, get them a breakfast of bran 
bread and milk and sa}- to them, " now boys 3^ou can 
go and hoe corn, and when you get so tired and hun- 
gry you can't stand it any longer, come home and we 
wdll try and get you something to eat again. This 
was the way they fared before uncle Garlock came 
with Hour. 

The cold season of 1816 cut off the cro^^s, and there 
was but little to be had to eat. Flour was worth 
fifteen dollars a barrel in Rochester, wheat three dol- 
lars a bushel here, and no money to buy it with. 
But crops were good in 1817, and as soon as the 
farmers began to raise wheat, and about 1820 and 
1821, as there was no way to get wheat to market, the 
price fell to twenty-live cents a bushel. Articles of 
wearing apparel were enormously dear. Cotton clotli 
was worth fifty cents a 3'ard. 

In 1818, Mr. H. Bidelman cho2:>i3ed and cleared oif 
six acres of laud for A. A. Ellicott, for which he ob- 
tained flour for his family for that season. He cleared 
five acres for Elijah Bent, a little South of Medina 
village, for which }ie received in payment oue-third of 
the pork of a hog that weighed three hundred ]3ounds 
in all ; that is, about one hundred pounds of pork cost 
twenty dollars, paid for in such hard work. So the}' 
managed to live along until tliey could raise sometliing 
of their own to live on. 

About this time young Samuel, being then twelve 
or thirteen years old, and his brother AVilliam two 
years older, got disgusted with Western New York 
and agreed to run away back to the Mohawk country, 
fearing they would starve to death if they remained 
here. They did not go however. 

In the year 1820, May 20th, barefoot, with iin old 
straw hat, a pair of tow cloth pantalooiis and a 



244 PIONEER HISTORY 

second liand coat on, Samnel Bidelman started on foot 
and alone for Ridge way Corners, to learn tlie trade of 
tanning and currying leather, and slioemaking, of 
Isaac A. Bullard, who carried on that business 
there. 

Before that time he had lived in Dutch settlements, 
and could but imperfectly sj^eak, or understand the 
English language. 

Mr. Bullard' s tanning then amounted to about fifty 
hides a 3^ear, but gradually increased to about one 
hundred hides a year while Samuel lived with him. 
AVlien he had been about three and a half years with 
Mr. Bullard, they had some difficulty and Samuel left 
liini and went to his father. The difficulty w^as set- 
tled and Samuel was bound as apprentice to stay 
with Mr. Bullard until he was of age, and he w^ent 
back and remained. 

Bullard was addi('ted to strong drink, which made 
]iiin rather a hard master to his apprentice. He died 
April 9th, 1827. 

After Mr. Bullard' s deatli his wife carried on the 
business he had left, and Mr. Bidelman w^orked for her 
by the month six months, and then bought out the 
tanyard and dw^elling jiouse and carried on the busi- 
ness on his own account. 

May 17th, 1829, he married Eliza Prussia. She was 
born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, of German 
parentage. 

At Ridgeway Mr. Bidelman tanned about seventy- 
five hides a year. He kept two journeymen, made 
leather and carried on slioemaking. Stoga boots 
were worth four dollars a pair, coarse shoes two dol- 
lars. Boots w^ere not so generally worn as now. 
Tanner's bark, hemlock, w^as worth one dollar and 
fifty cents a cord. 

In the spring of 1835, Mr. Bidelman sold his place 
hi Ridgeway, retaining possession until the next Oc- 



OF OllLEAN.S COUNTY. 245 

ber, intending to move to Michigan, He was now 
wortli about fifteen hundred dollars and was twenty - 
nine years old. 

He finally bought a tanyard at Gaines village of 
James Mather, and moved there Oct. second, eighteen 
hundred and thirty -five. Gaines was then quite a place 
of business. It had in active operation one academy, 
five dry goods stores, three groceries, one steam grist 
mill and furnace, three taverns, two churches, two 
tannerys, one cabinet shop, one large wagon factory, 
three law ofiices, three blacksmith sho23s, one milline- 
ry shop, one ashery, besides harness, shoe, and tailor 
shops, &c. 

At Gaines Mr. Bidelman eiTjployed four or five 
men in his tannery, and five or six men in his shoe- 
shop generally. 

In 1838, the Patriot War, as it was called, in Cana- 
da, closed. This part of the country had been in a 
high state of excitment for two years, the people de- 
siring to furnish aid to the Canadian rebels. Hunter' s 
lodges, as they were called, were formed along the 
frontier for this purpose. Such a lodge used to meet 
in the upper room in Mr. Bidelman' s Tannery, which 
was formerly occupied by the Free Mason's. Mr. 
Bidelman took great interest in this movement and 
gave an old cast iron bark mill to be cast into can- 
non balls. He gave the last gun he ever owned and 
a pair of boots, to fit out a soldier who went to Can- 
ada to join the insurgents. 

A cannon, which had belonged to an artiller}^ com- 
pany in Yates, in which Mr. Bidelman had held a 
commission as Lieutenant, was sent to the Patriots. 
General Winfield Scott passed through on tlie Ridge 
Road with some United States troops to maintain 
peace on our borders, and in a sliort time order was 
again restored. 



246 PIOTiEEr. HISTORY 

The Ridge Road was tlien a great traveled tlior- 
oughfare ; six to eight stage coaches passed through 
Gaines each way daily. 

In eighteen hundred and forty -one Mr. Robert Ran- 
ney went in company with Mr. Bidelman in business 
as tanners, in Gaines, for a term of five years. They 
put in a large stock and vv^orked it, but the business 
was not profitable for tlie partners. They had 
diflficulty in settling their partnership matters, 
and on the whole, these five 3'ears were the most un- 
pleasant and unprosperous in business to Mr. Bidel- 
man of au}^ like time in his life. Since closing with 
Mr. Ranne}^, he has been connected with his sons in 
business. He was Supervisor of Gaines in the .years 
1842, 1845, 1846, 1853,^1854, and 1857. 

1)11. .FESSE BEECH A:ND Dll. .FOJIN HENRY EEECH. 

The following extracts are taken from a memoir by 
Dr. John H. Beech, of Coldwater, Michigan, of him- 
self and his father, Dr. Jesse Beech, who was the pi- 
oneer physician of the town of Gaines : 

"Dr. Jesse Beech was born March 20th, 1787, at 
Ames, Montgomery county. New York. He studied 
medicine with Dr. Lathrop, of Charleston, and with 
Dr. Sheldon, of Florida, N. Y. In those days medi- 
cal colleges were not accessible to students of ordi- 
nary means. There was a public prejudice against 
dissections, and the students of the two doctors named 
occupied a room in a steeple on a church in Charles- 
ton, where they dissected bodies. One of the class 
would stay in the steeple all day Sundays with their 
aadamrs to keep the hatch fastened down to exclude 
intruding boys. 

Dr. Jess(^ Beech commenced practice at Esperance, 
X. Y., in the year 1813, and in February of that 
year married Susannah, a daughter of John Brown, 
of that place. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 247 

In the lall of 1815 lie came to Gaines, v/liere lie met 
James Matlier, with whom he was acquainted, and 
was persnaded to stop there, accepting a theory then 
believed in by settlers in that region, which vras this : 
* Batavia must be the Gotltam of tlie Holland Purchase 
Oak Orchard Harbor must be the commercial port. 
The great commercial highway of the country would 
be from the head of navigation on Oak Orchard Creek 
to Batavia. The country north of the Ridge was too 
liat and poor to be of any account, and the town 
second to Batavia must be on the Ridge vrhere the 
road from Batavia to the lake crossed it. A kind of 
half shire town for Genesee county was then at Oak 
Orchard Creek on the Ridge. Genesee county would 
1)6 divided at Tonawanda Swamp, and the new coun- 
ty seat would be Gaines.' Philetus Bumpus was then 
hunting bears where Albion now is, and the future 
greatness of Gaines vras not dimmed by prospects of 
Clinton's Erie Canal. 

Such ^\as the tlieoiy. The canal niadt; dough of 
the whole ot that cake, and caused the whole country 
about here to change front. 

James Mather, and Oliver Booth, the tavern keep- 
er, were active men in Gaines, when my father came 
in, both being very attentive to new comers, and Esq. 
Arba Chubb came in soon after. He was the best 
wit and story teller of the times, full of talk and re- 
partee, a most social and agreeable man. 

My father bought some land near the ' Corners,' 
and brought \i\j mother 'ther<3 the next spring. She 
found the ' house ' only half floored and not all 
' chinked.' The fire was built against the logs on the 
side which had jio floor, over which tlie roof was 
open for the escape of smoke. 

She was told that the rule of the settlement was 
that new comers must burn out three logs in the 
house walls before they could be allowed to build a 



248 PIONEER HISTORY 

stone back for a cliimiiej ; and tliey must have had 
at least three ' shakes ' of ague before they could be 
admitted to citizenship. 

The records are silent as to when she Imrned out her 
three logs ; but it is said that she soon attained to the 
rank of full citizenship, having her first shake of 
ague on the fourtli day after arriving in town. My 
father must have found the people mucli in need of a 
doctor, for I find on page seventy-one of liis day book, 
previous pages being lost, a large amount of busi- 
ness charged for so small a population. The prices 
charged would now be deemed quite moderate, to 
wit.: Leonard Frisbie is charged 'To visit and setting- 
leg for self $2.50.' Subsequent visits and dressings 
from thirty- seven and a half to seventy-five cents 
each, and so in other cases. 

In 1817, 1818, and 1819, it took him three or four 
days to make a circular visit to his jiatients. They 
resided in Murray, east of Sand}^ Creek, at Farwell's 
Mills, in Clarendon, in different parts of Ridge way, 
Barre, &c. 

On these circuits the; kind people treated liim to 
their best, which was often corn cake and whisky, or 
Evans' root coffee, v/ith sorrel pie for dessert, for the 
doctor and basswood browse for his horse. 

I find a bill rendered in pounds, sliillings and pence 
to my father by George Kuck, for general merchan- 
dise had at his store in AVest Carlton, in 1818. Ira 
Webb was at the same time in trade at Oak Orchard 
Creek, on the Ridge, but the principal merchants were 
located at Gaines. 

In the spring of 181(5, my father had about half 
an acre of corn 'dug in' among the logs near his 
liouse. AVlien it was a few inches high a frost blight- 
ed the tops so that every leaf was held in a tight 
dead envelope. My mother cut off the toj^s with her 
scissors and a fail- croj) was harvested. 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 249 

• In order to save tlie pig from tlie bears, its pen was 
made close to tlie house, and a piec(? of chinking 
left out to halloo ' shoo ' through. 

One day mother's attention was attracted by an 
unusual hackling of the pig. Looking through the 
crevice she saw a large rattlesnake coiled up in the 
hog-trough, with head erect, buzzing like a nest of 
bees. Fearing to attack the old fellow, she ran to 
the neighbors for helj) and when she returned the 
snake had gone. 

In 1816 tlie}^ had a patch of oats near the house 
from which the deer had to be driven frequentl}'. 

Their first child, and only daughter, Elizabeth, was 
born June 22d, 1817. She married Ezbon Gr. Fuller, 
a^nd settled at Coldwater, Michigan, where she died in 
1853. Their only son, your humble servant, was born 
September 24th, 1819. I think I must have been one 
of the first draymen in the county, as I remember 
when a very small boy seizing the reins and backing 
my father' s horse and cart loaded with merchandise, 
part of which was a demijohn of aquafortis, down a 
cellar gangway. Some smoke and some hurrying 
were among the consequences. 

A few years later a young clerk and myself sent a 
hogshead of molasses from a wagon down the same 
gangwa}^ at one 'pop.' The 'pop' carried away 
the heads of the cask and poured the sweet out to 
the rats. 

At the age of fourteen I tried clerking in a dr}' 
goods store for Fanning & Orton, in Albion. After 
six months probation I felt no further inspiration or 
aspiration in that line and resigned, I presume witli 
the hearty consent of my employers, though they flat- 
tered me by expressing their regret, which I tliought 
was proof of their politeness rather than my ability. 
I then attended Gaines Academy until I was eighteen 
years old, when I commenced studying medicine with 



250 I'lOXEEK HISTOKY' 

Drs. Nicliosoii & Paine, in Albion ; afterwards vvitli 
Dr. Pinkney, at Esperance, and graduating at tlie 
Albany Medical College in 1841. 

I practiced my profession from the old homestead 
until 1850, then removed to Coldwater, Michigan, 
where I have been engaged in the same business 
since, except during the rebellion, in the greater part 
of which I served in the army as surgeon, first of 
Battery D. First Michigan Artillery; afterwards of 
Twenty-Fourth Michigan Volunteers, in the Army of 
the Potomac. The greater part of the time, besides 
performing my regimental duties, acting as Surgeon- 
in-Chief of the First Brigade, First Division, First 
Army Cor]DS. 

In Jan uarj', 1842, I mai-ried Mary Jane Perry, of 
Clarkson, N. Y. ■- ^ - ■'■■ 

We have mentioned the anticipations of the people 
of securing the location of the county buildings at 
Gfaines. The brick building standing on tlie hill south 
of the village, was built by contributions started with 
the intent to donate it to the county for a court house. 
It was originally tliree stories high, about forty by 
sevent}' feet on the ground. These anticipations of 
the contributors being blasted, they converted their 
Iniilding into an academy. 

At the organization of Oi-leans count}^, the village 
of Gaines contained three stores, three asheries, three 
tanneries, two taverns, oaie chair factory, one carriage 
factory, one cabinet shop, three blacksmith shops, 
one distillery, one cloth-dressing and wool-carding 
establishment, two brick yards, one printing office 
where a newspaper was published, one hat factory, 
and one saddle and harness shop. "Works requiring 
motive power were driven by horses. •• '-• 

The first chapter of royal arch niasoiis in the county 
Xo. 82, was [organized at Gaines. Dr. Jesse Beech 
was II. P. in 1826. 



OF orkea:ns county. 251 

Previous to 1825, Col. Boardman' s Cavalry was a 
marvel in the eyes of ns youngsters. Dr. Jesse Beech 
was its surgeon. 

I find by an old receipt among my father' s papers, 
that Gaines Basin, in the canal, was excavated by a 
subscription fund, subscribed mainly by Guernsey, 
Bushnell & Co., E. & E. D. Nicliols, and James 
Mather. 

Dr. Jesse Beech was a temperance man even to total 
abstinence, enforcing his ]3rinciples by banishing de- 
canters and wine glasses from his sideboard — a pro- 
ceeding rather unusual in those times. 

He was a fine horseman and occasionally officiated 
as marshal on public occasions. He was always ex- 
ceedingly jDarticular in his dress and personal appear- 
ance, and always wore an elaborate ruffle shirt. His 
dress never was allowed to interfere with business re- 
quiring his attention, and sometimes, when olF pro- 
fessional duty, he would go into his field where his 
men were clearing land, and though he was small in 
stature, he would show by his agility and energy in 
working with his men that he was a match for their 
stoutest. 

A few of the last years of my father' s life, he kept 
a store of drugs and medicines on sale in connexion 
with his practice as a physician and surgeon. 

In February or March, 1826, he was hurt by a 
vicious horse from which he suffered greatly as long- 
as he lived. He died March 4th, 1829. His widow 
afterwards married Captain Elihu Mather, and re- 
moved to Coldwater, Michigan, where she died March 
IGth, 1869. 

.1. II. BEECH." 
OLIVEK BOOTH. 

Oliver Booth was a v>-ell-known tavern keeper on 
the Eidge Road in Gaines. He came liere from 



252 PIONEER IIISTOKY 

Wayne (;oiinty in th«3 spring of 1811, and settled on 
the farm north of the Ridge and east of the Oak Or- 
chard Road in the village of Gaines. He cleared his 
farm and hnilt a double log house, with a huge chim- 
ney in the middle. Here he kept tavern a number 
of years. 

His house was always full of company. Travelers 
on the Ridge Road stopped here because it was a 
tavern and there was no other. Here he dispensed a 
vast amount of whisky,— for everybody was thirsty in 
those days, — and some victuals to such strangers as 
were not acquainted with the proverbial lilthiness of 
the kitchen. 

After Gaines had become a village, and laid claims 
to the county seat, and people had come in who 
wanted more style, and whose stomachs could not 
stand such fare as Booth' s tavern supplied, another 
tavern was opened and Booth sold out and moved 
away. He finally settled in Michigan where he 
died. 

No description of Booth or his tavern would be 
complete without including Sam. Wooster. Sam's 
father lived in the neighborhood, and he (Sam.) then a 
great lazy boy, strayed up to Booth's tavern, where 
by hanging about he occasionally got a taste of 
Booth's whisky in consideration of bringing in wood 
for the fire and doing a few other chores. For these 
services and the pleasure of his company. Booth gave 
him what he ate and drank, with a place to sleep on 
the bar-room floor. His clothes did not cost much. 
He never wore a hat of an}" sort, seldom had on 
stockings or shoes. Nobod}^ can remember that he 
wore a shirt, and his coats and pants were such as 
came to him, nobody could tell how or from whence, 
Sam. never washed his face and hands, or combed his 
liead, and his general appearance, shirtless and shoe- 
less, with his great black, frowsy head bare, his pants 



OF OKLEAXS ("OUNTY. 253 

ragged and torn, and his coat, if he had any, minus 
one sleeve, or half the skirt, to one who did know him 
might befit a crazy prisoner just escaped from Bed- 
lam. Yet Sam. was not a fool or crazy. His wit was 
keen and ready, and his jokes timely and sharp. He 
would not work, or do anything which required much 
effort any wa}^. He was a good fisher however, and 
with his old friend Booth, lie would sit patiently by 
the hour and angle in the Oak Orchard, or any other 
stream that had fish, perfect!}^ content, if he had an 
occasional nibble at his hook. 

One year Avliile he lived in Gaines, souk^ wag for 
the fun of the thing nominated him for overseer of 
highways in the Gaines village district, and he was 
elected. He told the peoj^le they had elected him 
thinking he was too lazy to attend to the business, 
and would let them satisf}" their assessments by mere 
nominal labor on the road; but they M^ould find them- 
selves much mistaken, and they did. Sam. warned 
them to work as the law directed. He superintended 
everything vigorously, and every man and team and 
tool on the highway within his beat had to do its 
whole, duty prompt],y that year at least. 

Although Sam. loved whisky and drank it whenever 
it was given to him, for lie never had money to buy 
anything, he never got drunk. He never quarreled 
or stole or did any other mischief. Bad as he looked, 
and lazy and dirty as he was, he was harmless. 
When Mr. Booth sold out and moved to Michigan, 
Sam. went with him and lived in his family after- 
wards. 

A few months after landlord Booth got his double 
log tavern going, a man rode up to the west front 
door , each half of the house had a front door, and 
asked Mrs. Booth if he could get dinner and feed 
his horse there. She sent her daughter, then ten years 
old, to show the man where he could get feed for his 



254 PIONEEPw HISTORY 

liorse in the stable, and she went to work getting 
his dinner. 

Having taken care of his horse, the stranger came 
and took a seat by the front door of the room where 
Mrs. Booth was getting dinner and commenced talk 
by saying : 

"Well, Mrs. Booth, how do you like the Holland 
Purchase?" 

" O, pretty well,'' she replied, "I think it will be 
a good country when it is cleared up." 

" What place did you come from Mrs. Booth ?" 

" We came from down in the Jarseys." 

"Is the country settling about here very fast ?" 

" Yes, quite a good manj^ settlers have come in." 

"How is it about the mouth of Oak Orchard, are 
they settling tliere much ?" 

" ISTo they are not, that cussed old Joe EUicott has 
reserved all the land there and wont sell it." 

Just then Mr, James Mather passed by, and seeing 
the stranger sitting in the door, whom he recognized 
as Mr. Jose]3h Ellicott, the agent of the Holland Land 
Company, he turned to speak to him. As he came 
up, Ellicott motioned him to be silent, fearing he would 
pronounce his name in hearing of Mrs. Booth and end 
the fun. After a salutation to Mr. Mather, Mr. El- 
licott said to Mrs. Booth : 

" Has old Joe Ellicott then really reserved the land 
round the mouth of the Creek." 

"Yes, the devilish old scamp has reserved one or 
two thousand acres there as a harbor for bears and 
wolves to kill the sheep and hogs of the settlers." 

Ellicott asked " What can induce uncle Joe to re- 
serve that land V ' 

She replied, "Oh, the old scamp thinks he will make 
his Jack out of it. He thinks some day there will be 
a citv there, and he will survey the land into city 



OF OULEAXS COUNTY. 255 

lots and sell tlieni. All, he is a loug-lieaded old 
chap." 

Ellicott walked into tlie road and talked with Mr. 
Mather a few minutes till being called to his dinner 
he said to Mather : "Don't tell Mrs. Booth who I 
am until I am out of sight." 

After Ellicott was gone, Mr. Mather went over and 
Mrs. Booth asked him who that old fellow was who 
got dinner there ^ 

He replied, "it was Mr. Josepli Ellicott, from Ba- 
tavia.-' 

"Good," says she, " didn't I give it to liim ^ Glad 
of it! Glad of it!" 

Mr. Booth was unable to read or write, and he was 
accustomed to keep his tavern accounts in chalk 
marks on the walls. Thus, for an account of six 
pence, he made a mark of a certain length ; for a 
shilling, a mark longer ; two shillings, longer still, 
and so on. He distinguished drinks, dinners, horse 
feed, etc., by peculiar hieroglypliics of his own inven- 
tion. 

Booth, the tavern keeper, nriist not be conlbunded 
with Oliver Booth, 2d, better known to the old ])io- 
neersas "Esq. Bootli," who owned and resided on the 
next farm west, which la}^ on the west side of Oak 
Orchard Koad, and north side of the Ridge. Esquire 
Booth was among the very first settlers of Gaines vil- 
lage. He was not related to the tavern keei)er. He 
was born in Granby, Connecticut, in 1779, and set- 
tled in Gaines, in 1810. He removed to IMichigan in 
1833 and died there. 

Esq. Booth was the tirst Supervisor elected north of 
Tonawanda swamp to represent the town of Ridge- 
way, then the whole of Orleans county, in 1813. He 
served several years as a Justice of the Peace. He 



256 PIONEER HISTORY 

was an odd man in appearance and manners, l3ut 
npriglit and honest. 

JAMES MATHER. 

James Mather was Iborn in Marlborough, Yt., July 
23d, 1784. His family are said to be descendants 
from Key. Increase Mather, President of Harvard 
University, who received the first degree of Doctor of 
Divinity, that was conferred by that college. Mr. 
Mather came to Gaines in the summer or fall of 1810, 
to look out a place for his settlement. There was 
then some travel on the Ridge Road, with a prospect 
of more when the country was settled. The Holland 
Company had establised their land office at Batavia, 
and it seemed to him sure that in time a village or 
city would grow up at tlie mouth of Oak Orchard 
Creek. The Oak Orchard trail was then marked from 
Batavia to the lake, and Mr. Mather shrewdly pre- 
dicting a village would be founded w^here that trail 
crossed the Ridge, took uj^ some four hundred acres 
of land lying on each side of the Oak Orchard Road 
and south of the Ridge, on which he afterv,^ards set- 
tled and resided while he lived. 

Before removing to Gaines, Mr. Mather had resided 
for some time in the town of Russia, Herkimer coun- 
ty, where he manufactured potash which he sent to 
the Canada market by way of Ogdensbarg. He was 
hi this business when the embargo declaring non- 
intercourse with Great Britain was proclaimed. He 
continued his trade however, and by the skillful dis- 
tribution of a few dollars among the government offi- 
cials, his ashes were allowed to i)ass the lines and his 
profits were large. 

In the winter of 1811, he broke up his establish- 
ment in Herkimer county and removed to his land in 
Gaines. A younger brother, Rufus Mather, assisted 
by driving a team of two yoke of oxen before a sled 




'4$ '■'^^ 



/ 



^4 /^^^^fc/ 



OF OKLEA^'S OOITNTY. 257 

wliicli was loaded, among other things, with three 
potash kettles. There was no bridge ovei- Genesee 
River, at Rochester, and Riifus attempted to cross on 
the ice near where the canal now is. In the middle 
of the river the ice broke and let the loaded sled into 
the water. Rufiis sncceeded with great difficulty in 
getting out without loss, and followed the Ridge to 
liis destination, and stopped at the house of Cotton 
Leach, west of the j^resent village of Gaines. Rufus 
remained and labored for James the next summer. 
James Mather had cut down the trees on a small spot 
south of the Ridge, on the Oak Orchard Road, near 
wherc^ his son George Mather now resides ; but no 
clearing within the bounds of the village on the Ridge 
had then been made. 

Rufus Mather says he felled the tirst tree in the vil- 
lage of Gaines, on the Ridge Road. That tree stood 
on the west side of Oak Orchard Road. A piece of 
land was soon cleared there and James Mather built 
his log house on that corner in the spring of 1811. 
He married Fanny Br3"ant February 15th, 1813. 
^he was born in Marlborough, Vermont, October 28th, 
1788. 

In thi; winter of 1813, they commenced house keep- 
ing in the log house Mr. Mather had built on his lot, 
and remained there during the war, wdien so many 
went aAvay. 

Mr. Mather always kept open house, iK^cording to 
the custom of the country there, though lie never 
professed to keep tavern; entertaining every one who 
applied to him for accommodation as well as he could, 
and his house was generally full of newly arriving 
emigrants who were waiting till their own cabins could 
be built, or of such casual strangers as came 
along. 

Oliver Booth, afterwards tlie tavern keeper, stop- 

17 



258 PIONEEU IIISTOKY 

ped with Mr. Mather when he first came in, until he 
got his own house built and fitted up. 

Soon after Mr. Mather settled in Gaines, he set thf 
potash kettles lie brought with him and connnenced 
buying salts of lye,. or "black salts,"" of the settlers 
as soon as settlers came in and made them. These 
salts he boiled down into potash and took them to 
the mouth of Genesee River, or the mouth of Oak 
Orchard Creek, and sent them to Montreal to a mar- 
ket. He paid for these salts in salt fish, iron, leather, 
coarse hardware, and a few axes, chains, and such 
tools as farmers must have, whicli he obtained in ex- 
change for his potash, and took care to sell at a fair 
profit, and with these things he paid some nione}'. 
lie was in fact almost the only source from which 
those who did not bring money with them got any to 
supply their wants. 

Early in tlie spring of 1811, Mr. Mather finding his 
provisions getting low, went to the Oak Orchard 
Creek, at the head of Stillwater, from the lake, with 
two meii and a seine and caught three barrels of fish 
in a few hours. These he drew to the Ridge with his 
oxen and took them to Black Creek Mill, a few miles 
south of Rochester, and with these fish and money, he 
bought wheat and pork, got his wheat ground and 
took it home, and so he was well supplied the first 
yeai- with these proyisions. About the time Orleans 
county was organized, he built a large brick build- 
ing for a tannery, in which with his brothers and 
others he carried on tanning a number of years, 
tliougii he never worked at that business himself. He 
dealt considerably in land, at one time owning a 
large farm where Eagle Harbor village and flouring 
mills are now built, and several large farms in other 
places. From the rise of value in these lands, and 
the profits of his speculations, he became wealthy. 
He died August 29th, 1854. 



OF OKLEAlSrS COUNTY. 259 

Mr. Mather had seven children. 

Louisa, who married Wheeler M, Dewey. She 
died many years since. 

Dwiglit, who died in youth. 

Adeline married Paul H. Stewart. 

Eunice married Daniel F. Walbridge. 

George manied Mar}' Ann Crane. He resides on 
his paternal homestead. 

Ellen married Hon. Noah Davis, of Albion, late a 
Justice of the Supreme Court. 

Mary married Howard Abeel, a merchant of 
Albion. 

ELIHU MATIIEIi. 

Elihu Mather was born in Marlborough, \t., July 
26th, 1782. He was a tanner by trade. He came to 
Gaines to reside in 1825, and went into business 
with his brother James in his tannery and working 
his fai-m. 

In the great antimasonic excitement arising from 
the abduction of William Morgan, Mr. Elihu Mather 
was indicted as an accessory to the crime, and tried 
at Albion and acquitted. The trial occupied ten 
days. Mr. Mather continued to reside in Gaines 
until 1851, when he removed to Coldwater, in Michi- 
gan, where he died January 29th, 1866. 

HENRY DRAKE. 

Henry Drake was born in New Jersey, April 6th, 
1770. He settled in Gaines in March, 1811. In 1812. 
he built a dam on Otter Creek, a few rods north of 
the Ridge, in Gaines, on which he erected a sawmill, 
which was the first sawmill built within the present 
town of Gaines. 

Mr. Drake learned the clothier' s trade in his youth, 
but followed farming as his business in life. He 
married Betsey Parks, in New Jersey. She died 



260 PIONEER HISTORY 

April 16tli, 1843. Mr. Drake died December 25th,. 
1863, at the age of almost 94 years. 

SIMEON UUTCIIER. 

Simeon Dutcher was born in Dover, Dutchess Co., 
N. Y., April 21st, 1772. For fifteen j^ears after ar- 
living at manhood he labored as a millwright, a trade 
he assumed without serving any regular apprentice- 
ship, lie then commenced preaching and was or- 
dained an Elder in the Baptist denomination. In the 
year 1817, Elder Dutcher removed with his family to 
Carlton, New York, and in 1820 he removed to the 
town of Gaines, where he resided until he died. The 
})rimar3^ object he had in coming to the Holland Pur- 
chase was to preach and serve as a missionary among 
the people, the Baptists having no church organiza- 
tion in Orleans county. 

The people were few, xxjor and scattered, and Elder 
Dutcher never received much pa}^ for his ministerial 
labors, but supported his family mostly by working 
a farm. He used to preach in several neighboring 
towns in the log cabins of settlers, or in the school 
houses after such were erected. And for several 
years he officiated at nearly all the marriages and fu- 
nerals in this part of the countr}\ 

Th(^ first framed meeting house erected in Orleans 
county was built in the village of Gaines by a stock 
company, who sold the slips to whom they could, 
on the condition that the house should be used by 
different denominations, and it was so used. 

A Baptist church was organized at Gaines in 1816, 
under the pastoral care of Elder Dutcher, to whom 
lie preached until 1827, when the anti-masonic excite- 
ment prevailed in his church. Elder Dutcher, who 
was a Free Mason, was required to renounce Freema- 
sonry. He declined to do so and was excommunica- 
ted, nnd dismissed from his churcli. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 261 

In the later years of his life Elder Butcher professed 
to be a universalist in religious sentiment. He was 
•always regarded as a good man and was much be- 
loved by the early settlers. He died January 22d, 
1860. 

HON. WILLIA.A[ .1. }?ABBITT. 

William J. Babbitt was born in Providence, Rhode 
Island, September 17SG. He learned the blacksmiths 
trade of his father and worked at that business main- 
ly until he came to reside in Graines, where he had a 
small shop and occasionally worked at his trade for 
several years. In the yeav 1812, he took up the farm 
on which he ever afterwards resided, part of lot thirty, 
township lifteen, range one, and moved his family 
there in 1813. 

For man}' 3'ears after Mr. Babbitt settled in 
Gaines no professional law^'er had come into what is 
now Orleans county. The people however would in- 
dulge occasionalh' in a lawsuit, and Mr. Babbitt be- 
ing a good talker, and a man of more than common 
shrewdness, they frequently employed liim to try 
their cases in their justices' courts. He improved 
under his practice until he became tiie most noted 
"pettifogger" north of the Tonawanda Swam}), 
and whichever of the litigants secured the services of 
Esq. Babbitt, was quitc^ sure to win his case. He 
was active in getting the town of Gaines set ofi" from 
Ridge way in the > winter of 1816, and July 1st of the 
same year, on his application a postofRce was estab- 
lished in Gaines and lie Avas aj)pointed postmaster, 
which office he held live years. This was the first 
postoffice and he was the first postmaster in Gaines. 

In 1831-2 he represented Orleans county in the As- 
sembly of the State. He was appointed a Justice of 
the Peace by the council of appointment in 1815, and 
reappointed from time to time until the elections to 



262 PIONEER HISTORY 

that office were given to tlie people under the consti- 
tution, when he was elected by the people holding 
the office of Justice of the Peace in Gaines, in all 23 
years. 

He was several times Supervisor of his town, and 
held various other town offices from time to time. 
He took pleasure in serving in official and fiduciary 
positions, and was largely gratified in this particular 
by his fellow citizens. 

He was remarkable for promptness in keeping en- 
gagements. Late in life he was heard to say he was 
never behind set time in being present in any legal 
proceeding to be had before him. He acquired a 
character for uncompromising fidelity in business 
matters, and by a life of industry and economy laid 
up a large proj^erty. 

He died July 20th, 1863. 

He married Eunice Losey, June 27tli 1810. She 
died April 4t]i, 1867. 

GIDEON FREEMAN. 

Gideon Freeman was born in Stillwater, Saratoga 
county, January 11th, 1787. About 1799, he moved 
with his father to Ledyard, Cayuga county, and in 
March 1812, he settled northwest of what is called 
Long Bridge, and took up the southwest section of 
land now in the town of Gaines. He was the first 
settler in this locality south of the Ridge, and founder 
of what was for many years known as " Freeman 
Settlement.'" 

H(^ cleared up a large farm and carried on a large 
business as a farmer. His son, Chester Freeman, 
now of Barre, relates that in the cold season of 1816, 
his father planted forty acres to corn, which was a 
total failure. He had a large stock of hogs that year 
which he expected to fatten on his corn, from the loss 
of which, having nothing to feed th(^ra, many of them 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 263 

starved to death in the next fall and winter. He had 
a large stock of cattle at that time and but little food 
for them. 

Mr. Freeman chopped over nearly fifty acres of 
woods to browse his cattle in the winter of 1816-17, 
cutting down all trees suitable for that purpose, and 
losing only about six of his cattle from starvation. 
Mr. Freeman owned a part of the section Ij^ing next 
east of his home farm. On that land one year he 
sowed forty acres to wheat, which grew very large. 
At harvest time he measured off one acre of his field 
and cut and cleaned the wheat on it, getting fifty-five 
bushels of wheat on that acre. 

Mr. Freeman was a liberal, generous man, and la- 
bored hard to induce settlers to come in and to open 
the country to inhabitants. He sustained some large 
losses in his business and became insolvent, finally 
losing all his land. He removed to Ypsilanti, Mich- 
gan, where he died in 1832. 

Mr. Levi Atwell, Joseph Stoddard and Reuben 
Clark were among those who moved into the Freeman 
settlemen soon after it was commenced. 

CHESTER FREEMAN. 

Chester Freeman, son of Gideon Freeman, was 
born in Scipio, Cayuga county, August 18th, 1807. 
He married Eliza Chidester in 1835. Slie died in 
March, 1848, and October 30th, 1849, he married 
Amanda Morris. He has resided on lot thirty-one, 
in township fourteen range two, in Barre, since 
1842. He came into Orleans county with his father 
in 1812. 

DANIEL PRATT. 

Daniel Pratt was born in Westmoreland, Oneida 
county, N. Y., March 25th, 1788. He married Polly 
Bailey, August, 1809, and moved to Gaines and set- 



264 PIONKKll HISTORY 

tied on the Ridge in the spring of 1810. His wafe, 
Polly, died August SOtli, 1812. He married Caroline 
Smitli, January 8tli, 1815. 

He went east during tlie war of 1812 and remained 
two years, then i-eturned to his farm, on wliicli he 
labored until his death, October Ttli, 1845. Mrs. 
Caroline Pratt, died September 18th, 1831. 

The first wheat sold by Mr. Pratt was taken on 
an ox sled by him to Poohoster, and sold for twenty- 
live cents a busheJ. 

Mr. Pratt was a man of quiet habits, trusty and 
faitliful. He was niiieli respected by his acquaintan- 
ces. 

He was Town Clerk of Claines for many years and 
held tlie office of Overseer of the Poor a long time. 

DAlSriKL BROWIS'. 

Daniel Brown was born in Columbia county, jN". Y., 
June IStli, 1787. He removed with his father's fami- 
ly to Upper Canada, in the yeiir 1800. He resided in 
Canada during the war 1812. He experienced much 
trouble in consequence of his refusal to bear arms 
in that war against his native country. He was in- 
dicted and tried for treason and acquitted. In Janu- 
ary, 181G, he removed to the town of Gaines and set- 
tled one mile north-east irom Albion. 

Mr. Brown has established an enviable character 
for integrity among his acquaintances, and has been 
honored and respected. 

He was Su]3ervisor of the town of Gaines in 1844, 
and has held various other town offices. 

He married Mary AMllsea, in Canada, in the year 
1807. 

Mr. Brown is still living. 

WILLIAM W. RUGGLES. 

' Wm. W. Ruggles was ])orii in Hardwick, Massa- 



OF ORLEAIVS COUjNTY. 265 

cliusetts, Jaiiuaiy 1st, 1800. His father, Setli Kii^- 
gles, removed with liis family in 1804 to Poultney, 
Vermont, where Wm. W. hibored on a farm until he 
was eighteen years old. He then entered the office of 
Judge Williams, at Salem, ]S'. Y., as a student at 
law. Here ]ni studied law eight months in the year, 
teaching school winters. He closed his preparatory 
law study with Chief Justice Savage, at Albany. 
Having been admitted to the bar, he came to Albion 
and formed a partnership with Judge Moody, which 
was soon dissolved. 

He removed to Gaines in 1824, and began the prac- 
tice of his profession there. 

In the contest between Gaines and Albion for thr 
county buildings, he took an active part for his vil- 
lage. 

He aided in founding Gaines Academy and tli<' 
Farmers Bank of Orleans, at Gaines. 

He exerted himself to liave the JSTew York Central 
Railroad located along the Ridge, and used his influ- 
ence in favor of the building of Niagara Suspension 
Bridge, and was a stockholdei- in that company. 

In liis ju-ofession as a lawyer Ik; was diligent and 
successful. He held tjie offices of Master in Chancey, 
Supreme Court Commissioner, Judge of the Couit of 
Common Pleas, and Justice of the Peace and various 
other town offices. He was se\'eral times the candi- 
date of the Democratic party for the State Legisla- 
ture, but failed of an election as his party was lai'ge- 
ly in the minorit}^ 

Judge Ruggies had a cultivated mind, enriched by 
studious habits of life. He was particularly fond of 
Astronomy, on which he left some lectures in manu- 
script, written b}^ him. 

In the autumn of 1849 he went to Chicago, intend- 
ing to reside and practice law there, but having taken 
cold while on his voyage around tlu* lake, he was 



266 PIOiS^EEK HISTOKY 

compelled to return to Gaines sick, and never re- 
covered, dying at Gaines, April 22d, 1850. 

He spent a year surveying government land in 
Michigan, when General Cass Avas Governor, where 
he contracted fever and ague, from which he suffered 
ever afterwards. 

He married Miss Ann Davis, daughter of Dea. Perry 
Davis, of Gaines, in 1827. She died Aug. 20th, 1846, 
He left three children, AVilliam Oakley, now a broker 
in New York ; Henry C, a Civil Engineer in Cincin- 
natti, Oliio ; and Helen, who married Mr. Fred 
Boott, and resides in Gaines. 

EAGLE TIAKJ50K. 

Eagle Harbor, a thriving vilhige on tiie Erie Canal, 
in the town of Gaines, is said to liave been so named 
because a large bird's nest was found in a tree grow- 
ing there about the time the canal w^as surveyed, sup- 
posed to have been built by an eagle. 

The land on which the village is built was for a 
number of ^ears at first held under articles from the 
Holland Company. 

IIarv(^y Smith took a deed of eighty acres on the 
south-east corner of lot thirty-six, November 1, 1819. 
SteplKHi N. Chubb took a deed (^f fifty-three acres 
next north, September 6tli, 1834, and Macy Pratt, of 
(me hundred and thirty-eight acres noi'th of Cliubb. 
November 29th, 1819. 

On the East side, Asaliel Fitch took a deed of 
one hundred twenty-five acres, part of lot twenty- 
six, February 2()th, 1821. James Mather took a 
deed of two hundred acres next north of Fitch, No- 
vember 27th, 1829 ; Jind Robert Hunter, one hun- 
dred and seventy-six acres next noi-th of Mather, 
January 31st, 1828. 

South side of Canal, fifty aci'es of lot thirty-five 



OF ORLEAlSrS COUNTY. 267 

were deeded to Amos S. Samson, December 22d, 
1836. 

Steplien Abbott took up the land afterwards deeded 
to Harvey Smith, and commenced cutting down tim- 
ber on it in the winter of 1812. This was probably 
the first clearing done in Eagle Harbor. 

Little improvement was made until work was 
begun on the canal . The high embankment over Otter 
Creek was constructed by a man named Richardson. 
He opened a store here to accommodate his workmen, 
which was the first store. 

Hicks and Sherman bouglit Richardson's store and 
continued it after him. 

A Mr. Hicks built the old red warehouse, the first 
in the village, south side of the canal, where Collins' 
warehouse now stands. This w\as owned and occu- 
pied by A. S. Samson afterwards. 

In 1832, this warehouse w^as sold to Willis P. Col- 
lins who opened a dry goods store in it and continued 
it about six years, then built a store and w^arehouse 
on the east side of the street and moved there. 

David Smith built the first sawmill about fort}^ 
rods north of the canal, on Otter Creek. 

James Mather built a sawmill on tlie south side of 
the canal in 1826. 

N. Pratt, J. Delano and L. Northrop, built the 
lower dam and sawmill in 182o. 

James Leaton bought the Hunter farm, and he in 
company with W. P. Collins, built the north fiouring 
mill in 1837. This mill was burned in the fall of 1839, 
and re-built immediately. 

A large flouring mill on the south side of the canal 
was built by General E. S. Beach, in 1847. This mill 
has since been burned. 

The brick church was built in 1827 l>y the united 
means of Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists, 



PIONEER HISTOIIY 

and owned lialf by Methodists, and one-fourth each 
by the other denominations. 

The lirst meetinghouse was taken down and rebuilt 
in 1845, tlie same parties building and owning the 
new house, as they did the old one. 

The Wesleyan Metliodists erected their church ed- 
ifice in 1845-G. 

Eagle Harbor postofFice was established about the 
year 1837, with AV. P. Collins lirst postmaster. 

The lirst school house was built in 1822, on the 
west side of the street. 

The second school house was built on the lot now 
owned by the district, in 1841 ; and the third school 
house in 184G. 

Col. Jonathan Delano was llie iu'st carpentej- and 
joiner. 

Samuel Robinson was the lirst shoemaker, and Da- 
vid Smith the lirst tavern keeper. 

Col. Delano and Sam. Robinsoii the lirst grocers. 
Mr. Hurd the tirst blacksmith, and Dr. James Brown 
the first physician. 

The growth of Eagh^ Harbor has been greatly in-o- 
moted by the large capital employed there b}' Gen, 
Beach iii erecting mills and manufacturing flour, and 
by the active business energ}' of Mr. AVillis P. Col- 
lins, for many years a resident in the village, and the 
foremost man in every enterprise tentling to add wealth 
and importance to the place. 



CHAPTER XX. 




lOWN OF KENDALL. 
Partitioned between State of Connecticut and Pultncy Estate — First 
Settler— First 3Iarriage— First Birth— First Tavern— First Death- 
First Store— First School— First Saw Mill— First Public Religious 
Service— First Physician— First Highway from Kendall Corners to 
Rid/^e— Biograjihies of Early Settlers. 

EN ]^ ALL was named in lionor of Amos Ken- 
dall, Postmaster General at the time it was 
formed from Murray, April 7tli, 1837. From 
its location, Ix^n^- off the line of travel, and because 
the land was not survej'ed into lots, and formally put 
in market to sell to settlers as soon as lands on the 
Holland Purchase, settlements were not made as earh' 
or as numerous as in towns on the Purchase. The 
State of Connecticut and the Pultney Estate had 
owned these lands under a joint title, and for consid* 
erable time they remained undivided. 

In July, 1810, Dr. Levi Ward became agent for the 
State of Connecticut to sell their lands on the 100,000 
acre tract, of which Kendall forms a part. And in 
1811 a formal partition of land between the State of 
Connecticut and the Pultney Estate w^as made, and 
Mr. Josej^h Fellows was appointed agent of the Pult- 
ney Estate. 

Land offices were opened by these agents, and set- 
tlers W' ere invited to come in and take lands. But few 
came into Kendall until after the cold season of 181G, 
and for som«? time after that they had difficulty in ac- 



270 PIONEER HISTORY 

quiring a good title to farms bought of tlie Pultney 
Estate. 

Samuel Bates, from Vermont, is said to have been 
the first white man who settled in this town, locating 
on lot 111, in East Kendall, in 1812. He cleared some 
land and sowed wheat, but did not move his family 
in until 1814. 

David Jones, Adin Manle}^ Amos Randall, John 
Farnsworth, Zebulon Rice, Benjamin Morse, and 
Nathaniel Brown, settled in 1815. 

Felix Augur, Rev. Stephen Randall, Ansel Bal- 
com, George Balcom, Stephen Bliss, James Weed, 
in 181G. 

Ethan Graham, William Clark and his son Robert 
Clark, came in 1817. 

The first marriage in town was that of James Aiken 
to Esther A. Bates, March 2d, 1817. 

The first birth was that of Bartlett B. Morse, in 
November, 1815. 

The first death was that of a son of Geo. Balcom, 
in 181G. 

Hiram Thompson kept the first store in 1823. The 
first inn was kept by Lyman Spicer in 1823. 

The first sawmill was built b}^ Augur and Boyden, 
in 1819, and Gurdon Balcom taught the first school 
in 1819. 

The first gristmill was built by Ose Webster, on the 
site on Sandy Creek, now occupied by the mills of 
his son Ebenezer K. Webster, forming a nucleus for 
the settlement now known as Webster's Mills. Pre- 
vious to the erection of this gristmill, the people of 
Kendall took their grain to Rochester, or to Farwell' s 
mill in Clarendon, to be ground. 

Farweir s mill was much nearest, but the road to it 
was almost impassable with a load, and the little mill 
had not capacity to do all the work in that part of the 
country. 



OF ORLEANS; COUNTY, 271 

The first religious service in Kendall was conducted 
by Elder Stephen Randall, a Methodist preacher. 

The first plij'sician who practiced in town was Dr. 
Theophilus Randall, tliougli Dr, Rowell, of Clarksoii, 
was frequently called. 

When Mr, Bates settled in Kendall there was no 
public higliwa}' in town. Settlers and others coming 
there usually left the Ridge a little east of Kendall 
and traveled a road which had been opened into what 
is novr Hamlin ; thence west to Kendall, The first high- 
way leading south from Kendall to the Ridge, was 
located and cut out by the early inhabitants without 
any public authority, from Kendall Mills following- 
up the west side of Sandy Creek to the Ridge road. 
This road is 3^et traveled a part of the way. 

The first settlers of Kendall were chiefly from Ver- 
mont, bred among the Green Mountains, and the 
change of climate, air, water, food and occupation 
they experienced in this new and comparatively level 
country, was attended with the nsual consequences. 
They were almost all sick at times, and although the 
utmost kindness prevailed, and eveiy one did all they 
could to help themst4ves and others to alleviate suf- 
fering, 3'et so f(nv were well, and in their little rude 
huts furnished only with a most scanty stock of con- 
veniences, short of provisions, and no place near 
where the connnon necessaries for the sick could be 
obtained, some of these peo2jle suffered great misery. 
If they sometimes felt discouraged and wished them- 
selves away, when the}'' were sick they could not go, 
and when they got better they would not go, for they 
came here to make them homes, and with the stub- 
born resolution of their race they persisted in the 
work they had begun, till their fondest hopes were 
more than realized in the beautiful country their toils 
and sacrifices made out of the wilderness. 

The principal settlement in town for several years 



272 PIONEER HISTORY 

at lirst, was in the east part, near tlie center. The 
Randalls, Bates, Clarks, Manley, and other lead- 
ing men there were intelligent, and wanted the lights 
of civilization to shine into their settlement, if it was 
away in the woods. Accordingly they met together 
about the year 1820, and formed a Public Library 
Association. Among the names or j)rominent actors 
in this movement were H. W. Bates, Adin Manley, 
Dr. Theophilus Randall, Amos Randall, David Jones, 
Calvin Freeman, Orrin Doty, James M. Clark, Benj. 
Morse, Nathaniel Brown, Caleb Clark and ISToah 
Priest. 

They rai.'^ed by contribution among themselves in 
various ways, about seventy-five volumes of books, 
organized themselves into a society, elected their offi- 
cers, and kept up their organization about ten years. 
Mr. Amos Randall was librarian, and these books 
were well read in that neighborhood, and the habit of 
thought and study thus implanted has borne its 
proper fruit in after years, in the numbers of intelli- 
gent and influential men who have grown up there. 

Tliey Avere too poor to each take a newspaper, and 
the nearest post office was at Clarkson. Several men 
united in taking a paper. When it came to the post 
<^ffice whoever of the company happened there first 
took out the paper, and the neighbors would come 
together to hear it read — those who did not contribute 
to pay the expense as well as those who did — and the 
paper was then passed to some other family and read 
over and over until it was worn out. 

Salt water was early discovered in Kendall, and 
salt made there to supply the people. 

In 1821, Mr. II. W. Bates and Caleb Clark dug a 
well and planked it up to obtain brine on Mr. Bates' 
farm and there they made about one thousand bush- 
<4s of salt. They sold their kettles to a Mr. Owen, 
who made salt in them in the southwest part of the 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 273 

town. Salt making in Kendall was discontinued 
when the Erie canal opened. 

About the year 1825, a company of Norwegians, 
about fifty- two in number, settled on the lake shore, 
in the north-east x>^i't of the town. They came from 
Norway together and took up land in a body. They 
were an industrious, prudent and worthy people held 
in good repute by people in that vicinty. After a few 
years they began to move away to join their country- 
men who had settled in Illinois, and but few of that 
colony are still in Kendall. 

They thought it very important tliat every family 
should have land and a home of tlieir own. A neigh- 
bor once asked a little Norwegian boy whose father 
happened to be too poor to own land, v/here his 
father lived? and was answered, ''O, we don't live 
nowhere, we hain't got no land."' 



BIOGlUnilES OF EARLY SETTLERS. 

A DIN MANLKY. 

"I was born in Taunton, Mass., March 19, 1798. 
I was brought u^i among the boys of New England, 
never having belonged to the ' upper ten.' I roughed 
with the liardy sporting ones, always ready for ath- 
letic games, and could c<mnnonly act well my part. 
When about twenty-four jears old I was taken with 
the w«^stern fevei', and having laid up two oi- three 
hundred dollars, in time saved wliih^ sowing my ' wild 
oats,' I bought a horse and wagon and started with 
three others for the Genesee country. Not knowing 
or thinking of any trouble ahead, we dashed away. 
One of my traveling companions was Steplien Ran- 
dall, Jr., son of Rev. Stephen Randall, who had 
previously gone west, and then resided at Avon. 
18 



274 PIONKKK HISTORY 

The son now resides in the town* of Union, Monroe 
county, and has got to be an old man and wealthy. 
We arrived in Avon in Septemher, 1815. From thence 
we made f)ur way into Mnrray, and to what is now 
Kendall, hy way of Rochester. At Rochester we 
were glad to get into the barn with the horses for a 
night's lodging, there being about thirty men, and 
how many horses I cannot tell. Which made most 
noise would be difficult to tell ; one thing I do knovr, 
the men swore most and drank the most whisk}'. 
'I'liat was an awful company. It seemed as if they 
were the tilth and oft'scouring of the whole country. 
In tlie morning I proposed to sell my horse for I was 
shoit of funds and had no farther use for him. A 
gentlemanly appearing man by the name of Gilvreed 
offered to bu}^ him. He said he had good notes 
against a responsible man, but the notes amounted 
to more than the price of the horse, and I might give 
my note for the balance, and as to the value of the 
notes, I miglit enqidre of gentlemen who knew, at the 
same time referring to some standing hy, who said 
they were good and no mistake. So the exchange 
was made in due foim and both parties w^ere highly 
gratified. 

But the result was that the maker of the notes was 
nut worth a straw, and the man, Gilvreed, was worse. 
This was my first financial operation in the west. 
What added to my humiliation was, I thought I had 
such a vast knowledge of men and things as to be 
proof against being outwitted by anybody; and that 
I knew moie than 'old folks." I wonder if boys 
think so of themselves now-a-days ^ 

I then made my way west along the Ridge Road to 
Murray Corners, now Clarkson, wdiere Dr. Baldwin 
had located and kept a tavern, which at that time w^as 
a very lucrative business, as people were flocking 
from tlie east rapidly. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 275 

From Miirra}' Corners we struck oft' north-west 
what was then called ' Black North,- a region where 
the probability was, what the musketoes did not eat 
up, the fever and ague would kill. On we went, 
nothing fearing, until we came to what was called 
'Yanty Creek,' where we found three families loca- 
ted, who I believe were the onl}^ white inhabitants 
in what is now the town of Kendall. They were H. 
W. Bates, Amos Randall, and Benjamin Morse and 
their families. I concluded to make a ' pitch " here. 
I now had to learn the customs and employments of 
the people among whom I was going to reside, which 
consisted mainly of chopping, rolling logs, raising- 
log houses, drinking whisky to keep off the fever 
and ague, hunting deer, bear, raccoons, bees and 
catching fish. 

After working hard at a log raising, and taking- 
cold after it, I w^as awakened in the night b}' an aw- 
ful 'shaking' and could not tell what it meant, but 
found out sure enough afterward. 

In the spring- of 1816, I went to work in good 
earnest to clear a patcli of land on which to i-aise a 
little ot the needful, and behold in June there came a 
frost and spoiled all our labor and made our corn- 
fields in the wilderness, instead of ' blossoming- like 
the rose,' look as though the fire had run through 
them. 

The next fall I was taken down with the ague 
'proper,' and in attempting to break it up I made it 
worse, until it became aiuful. I then made up my 
mind to make my way back to Massachusetts. But 
how was I to do it \ I was so weak I could not walk 
a mile. Finally I found some men going to Vermont, 
and agreed with them to take me along with them 
and let me ride part of the time. If I could remem- 
ber their names I would record them witli gratitude 
for their kindness. 



S57G PIONEEIl IlISTOKY 

I found my nnconqnerable will had a wonderful effect 
upon my body. I had no more ague on my journey, 
though I had it every day before I set out. I went 
to Massachusetts, and remained till I got well re- 
cruited, and nothing daunted by what I had suffered, 
I determined to return again to the west, and Janua- 
ry 17th, 1817, I was married to Miss Miriam Deming, 
and in February following, with my wife, my brother 
and his wife and one child, Eri Twitchell and wife, 
and Nathaniel Brown, we started with three yoke of 
oxen hitched to a huge covered wagon. The perils of 
that journey were neither few nor small in pass- 
ing over mountains covered Mdth snow and ice, 
sidling roads with j^awning gulfs below, and crossing 
streams on ice, and floundering through snow drifts, 
with a constant headwind blowing in our faces for 
twenty-two days together. 

When we arrived in the neighborhood of our new 
home, our neighbors hailed our coming with jo}^, and 
wanted a little Hour just to make a cake. I suppose 
they had gathered some sticks and had baked their 
last meal. 

We moved into a small log hut with only one room 
the fireplace against the logs at one end, with a stick 
chimney, bark roof and floor. Taking it altogether 
we thought it a terrible place to live in. 

We had three yoke of oxen and nothing for them 
to eat, this was the worst of all. We turned them 
into the woods and cut browse for them, but the poor 
cattle suffered much. 

In the next spring Ave had to pay one dollar a 
bushel for potatoes, and a like price for oats, and no 
money to buy with at that. We got some potatoes to 
plant and they came up twice, once by natural growth 
and once rooted up by the hogs. We set them out 
again, my wife hel2:)ing me, for she was a true ' yoke 
fgllow.' 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 277 

So we plodded on tliroiigli the summer, with wheat 
costing $2.50 a "bushel, pork twenty-five cents a pound. 
Our first child was born Sept. 24th of this year. It 
was very feeble, and remained so for a long time, its 
mother having the fever and ague every day for nearly 
seven months, and taking care of her child the most of 
the time. At six months old the child w^eighed only 
four pounds ! Thus we toiled on for three years. 
The third year we raised wheat and other crops 
enough for our comfort, and had built a framed ad- 
dition to our house. Our prospects now seemed fav- 
orable for going ahead, but in March following, our 
house took fire and was consumed, together with all 
our provisions, and nearly all our houseliold furniture. 
Under the circumstances, this was a sore trial to us. 
We then liad three cliildren, and no where to lay our 
heads, AVe had nothing to eat except what came from 
charity. Our neighbors were poor but exceedingly 
good. 

After a while we got another house and toiled on, 
getting together some of this world' s goods. We had 
ten children, all of whom lived to grow up to be men 
and women. We have sent nine of them to school at 
once. 

My wife died July 30, 1857, aged 64 years. I have 
never experienced any calamity in my life that afflicted 
me like her death, with such severity. 

For several jx^ars after I came into this country, I 
spent considerable time going far and near to assist 
in raising log buildings. Sometimes going several 
miles and carrjang my dinner in my hand. 

Mr. H. W. Bates and mj^self were accustomed to 
labor much together, changing works. In the winter 
of 1816, we went a mile into the woods to chop ; there 
by accident a tree fell on him crushing him badly. 
Had he been alone he would have perished. On an- 
other occasion Mr. Bates and another man with ni}- 



278 pionp:ek history 

self, went two miles into the woods one day in June, 
and felled the timber on two acres. I think the like 
was never done in that neighborhood before or since. 

In the early settlement of the Genesee country, in- 
temperance prevailed to an alarming extent. Almost 
everybody drank whisky fi-ee as water when they 
(iould get it, and I am surprised so many escaped 
total and eternal ruin. Man}^ years ago I saw the 
evil and totally abandoned the use of every thing that 
intoxicates as a beverage and labored faithfully as I 
could to save others. For my zeal and persistence in 
opposing the traffic in liquor, I have suffered much 
from rumsellers. At an early day I have seen Justi- 
ces Courts in session with a bottle of whisky on the 
table before them, thus polluting the fountains of 
.justice with the vile abomination, and if the 
Honorable Court happened to become too much ab- 
■sorljed with the creature, they would adjourn over to 
cool off. 

I have had a large experience in hunting bears, 
deer, raccoons and wolves, and camping out in the 
woods in cold and storm, without hre or food, working- 
out in the dead of winter, eating frozen dinners in the 
woods, sharing full}^ my part in all sorts of hardships 
which fell to the lot of the first settlers here. I iiave 
endured it all, and lived to a good old age, thankful 
to that good Providence which has carried me through 
so far and so safely. 

ADIN MANLEY." 

Albion, February 2Gth, 1801. 

Mr. Manley died in Albion. July 20th. 1867, aged 
74 y(»ars. 

UOBEKT C'LAKK. 

'• I was born in Lisbon, Connecticiit, October 25th, 
1801. My ancestors came to America. from England 
s(.me time in the sixtei^nth century. My father re- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 279 

moved to Columbus, Chenango county, N. Y. in 1805. 
In 1810 he removed to Utica, and in 1817 he settled 
with his family on what was then called the Triangle 
Tract, near the county line, and between the towns of 
Kendall and Hamlin, about three miles from Lake 
Ontario. The place was then called Clark's settle- 
ment, because three brothei"s of the name of Clark 
settled there. My uncles, Calel) and James settled 
there one year before ni}^ father, whose name was 
AVilliam Clark, came on, wiuch was quite a help to 
us, for they had a little wheat sc^wn, and some corn 
and potatoes planted. 

When my father arrived there was not a pound ol 
pork or flour in the settlement, exc(^pt what lie brouglit 
with him ; and the next day the i)ork, flouj- and wliis- 
k}^ were divided among the neighbors. 

One reason for the entire destitution among the set- 
tlers was the anticipation of my father s arrival, for 
they all knew he would bring a supply for a time, 
and so neglected to provide for themselves otherwise. 

The names of the families tlien in the settlement 
were I^ates, Priest, Randall, Balcom, Eoss, Clark 
and two by name of Manley. 

The settlers, in anticipation of our coming had 
peeled elm bark in the month of June previous, 
enough to form a roof to a house, and on our arrival 
they connnenced cutting logs for a house, and to cleai* 
a spot of ground large enough to set it on, and in' a 
few days it was raised and covered with bark, in true 
jiioneer style. They also split basswood and hewed 
slabs for a floor, which covered about tw^o-thirds ol 
tlie surface of the room, the I'emainder being left for 
the Are place and hearth. 

We now moved into our new house and commenced 
our pioneer labors. 

The door of our house was a bed blanket, and win- 
dows weie hardly necessary, for our house was not 



280 PION^EER HISTORY 

'cliinked' and siifRcient light came in tliroiigh crevi- 
ces between the logs, and a large space was left open 
in the roof for the smoke to pass through. Our fire 
place was the entire end of the house, and our heartli 
the solid earth. 

My father soon obtained some boards and made a 
door and temporary windows. The next thing to be 
done was to chink tlie cracks between the logs. This 
being done, we dug up the soil and wet it and made 
mud with which we plastered the outside o^'er the 
chinks, which made our house quite warm and com- 
fortable. 

About this time our stock of provisions began to 
get short, and the entire settlement was getting hard 
up for something to eat ; but as potatoes were about 
ripe we had plenty of them, and as we had a cow we 
lived quite well until we could get wheat ground, 
which at that time was very difficult. Before oui- 
wheat was hard enough to grind, our mother hulled 
and boiled it and we ate it with milk, and we thought 
it very good eating. 

This state of things did not last long, for my broth- 
er James had a great propensit}^ for hunting, my 
father having bought him a gun ; he very soon suj)- 
plied us with venison which proved a luxury in the 
way of meat. 

At length our wheat crop having matured, a grist 
for each neighbor was ])repared, and I started with an 
ox team and about twelve bushels of wheat, which 
with fodder for the oxen by the way, was about as 
much as the team could draw. I staid at Murray 
Corners, now Clarkson, the first iiiglit, and the next 
day, a little before night, I got to the mill at Roches- 
ter, chained the oxen to the wagon and fed them for 
the night. I slept that night on the bags in the mill 
until my grist was grcnmd, which was completed 
about daylight. After feeding my team and eating 



OF ORLEAKH COUNTY. 281 

my venisou, I started for home and got there about 
sundown the third day out. The next morning, 1 
guess, all the neighbors had short cake for breakfast. 

I will now give a description of what was called an 
Indian Mill which was used to some extent b}^ the 
early settlers. We selected a solid stump of a tree 
in a suitable place near the house, cut a hole in the 
top with an axe, deep as we could, and then built a 
fire in the hole burning it, and putting in hot stones 
until it was sufficiently deep for a mortar. We then 
made a pestle of hard wood, took a strip of elm bark 
tied one end to the pestle and the other to the top of 
a limber sapling tree that would bend directly over 
the mortar, making a spring pole, wdiicli completed 
the machine. Put a quart of corn into this mortar, 
and a man could soon convert it iwio samp — coarse 
meal — which when well boiled, made veiy good eat- 
ing in milk. The Indians -used it almost exclusively 
for bread. 

I had never chopped down a tree or cut off a log- 
when I first came into the forest. The next morning- 
after arriving in the woods, I took an ax and went 
to where my father was preparing to build his house, 
and commenced chopping down a tree perhaps six 
inches through. I chopped all around tlie tree till it 
fell. When the tree started to fall, I started to run, 
and if the tree had not lodged on another, I know not 
but I should have been killed, for I ran in the same 
direction the tree was falling. I was so scared at this 
my first attempt at falling timber, that I picked up 
my ax wdiich I had thrown away in my fright, and 
made tracks for the house, concluding to cliop no 
more until I had learned how to do it. 

The first school in the settlement was taught by 
Gurdon Balcom, the next by Wesley Randall. Tlie 
first minister of the gosjDel who preached in this set- 
tlement was Elder Randall, a Methodist and a very 



282 IMONKKi: HISTORY 

good man. Dr. Theophilus Randall was the first 
pliysician. 

In tlie fall of 1818 I went to Oneida count}', and 
learned the art of distilling whisky, which at this 
time was a very popular business, ^ly mother died 
Avhile I was there, wiiich nearly broke up our home 
(,'ircle, and which was to me particularly, a cause of 
great sorrow. 

I returned home in June following and found my 
father' s family, as I expected, in a very lonely con- 
dition. I went to work with my father and brothers, 
clearing land and securing our crops. When that 
Avas done, I went 1xick to Yerona and worked in a 
distillery another winter. Next spring I returned 
and worked in Whitney' s distillery in Rochester, and 
the fall after I went to Toronto, in Canada, and erect- 
ed the first steam distillery ever erected in Canada, 
which at that tinu^ was one of the curiosities of the 
age. 

T Avorked thousands of bushels of the finest Avheat 
I ever saAv into AAiiisky. The Avheat Avas bought for 
tAvo and six pence per bushel. 

Th(^ next June I returned home, my father in 
the meantime had married again and moved to 
Le Roy, having let out his farm in Murray. I worked 
in Le Roy and Clarendon. I became 21 years old 
October 25tli, 1822. I took a job clearing land in 
Le Roy, for Avhich I received iB6()0. My father s fam- 
ily and myself then moved back to Murray, and I 
paid up the balance for his farm. 

I married Anna Augui-, daughter of Felix Augur, 
of [Murray, now Kendall, Feb. 18, 1824. Mr. Augur 
had come in from y(n-mont the year i)revious, and 
bought his land of the State of Connecticut for S3. 00 
an acre, Br. Levi Ward Avas the land agent. Mr. 
Augur AA'as a soldier in the Revolutionai-}' War, 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 283 

Gen. C. C. Aiignr, now of the United States army, is 
liis grandson. 

The next spring after I was married, I l)Ought a 
piece of land in Clark' s settlement, which had some 
work done on it, and went to keeping house there. 

I chopped over twenty acres with my own liands, 
all bnt four days help of a man. I then sold out my 
chance on this lot, and bought fifty acres in another 
place ; which is a part of my ]3resent farm. It was 
then entirely wild, so that I commenced again in the 
woods. 

I bought it second-handed, and agreed to paj' eight 
dollars per acre. I worked some on my land, work- 
ed out some by the day and by the job ; but as grain 
brought but a small price, I concluded that was a 
pretty hard way to get a living, and built a distillery 
near my farm. At this time settlers had come in in 
numbers. Grain Avas raised in plenty, with no cash 
market for it. Money was scarce, and the little we 
had was what we received for ashes. AVe cut and 
burned our timber and made hla/^-Jc saltf; from the 
ashes, which brought cash. I have carried aslies on 
my back to market, until my slioulders were blister- 
ed, to get a little money to bu}^ necessaries for mj 
family, I built my distillery l>ecause grain w^as 
plenty and cheap. I could distill it, take it to mar- 
ket at Rochester and sell it for cash, at a good profit 
to me and to the settler, who sold me his grain, whicli 
he could not take to another market and make as 
much from it ; and he could i-aise grain easier than 
he could make and market l)lack salts. 

I sold my distillery in 1880, and determined to 
make farming the business of my life aft(n' tliat. 

The year 1828 is well remembered and distinguish- 

-ed, as being ' the sickly season,' through this country. 

The sickness began in July, and in August there were 

not well persons enough in town to take care of the 



284 PIONEER HISTORY 

sick. Aud ill tliis iKugliborliood there was but one 
well man, Ammoii Augur, and not one well woman, 
that could get out of the house. Many families suf- 
fered much for lack of help. My family was all sick. 
One day Dr. Robert Nichoson was the only person 
who entered my house. He called, prepared our 
medicine and left it at the head of our beds, and went 
on to other scenes of suffering. That was the most 
gloomy day I ever saw. My wife crept from her bed 
to mine, holding up by the door post, to see if I was 
alive, and then got back to her bed, where lay our 
little daughter, equally helpless. We all spent a 
dreary night. My hired man was down sick at the 
same time. The next da}^ we got help. The years 
1826 and 1827 were also sicklj^ 3'ears. I could give 
many cases of suffering in those times, but amid it all 
we had our pleasures, for we were all brethren and 

loved one anothei-. 

ROBERT CLARK." 

Kendall, March, 1864. 

SAMUEL BATES 

Was the first white man who settled in what is now 
Kendall. He was born in Haddam, Conn., Aug. 9, 
1760, He was a soldier in the Revolutionary War, 
during the last three and a half years of its continu- 
ance, serving in a New Hampshire regiment. He win- 
tered with Gen. Washingt(jn at A^alley Forge, and 
participated in several important battles. He served 
under Gen. Sullivan in his memorable expedition 
against the Indians in Western New York. He had 
a fondness for military life and service ; a trait of 
character transmitted to his descendants, and honor- 
ably exemi)lified in his grandson, Lieut. Col. Willard 
W. Bates, who was killed while leading his regiment, 
the 8tli Heavy Artillery, N. Y. Vols., in a bloody 
battle before Petersburg, Va., in the war of the Re- 
bellion. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 285 

From what Mr. Bates saw wliile with Gen. Sullivan 
he early formed a desire to settle in the Genesee coun- 
try, a wish he was afterwards enabled to gratify. 

After leaving the army, Mr. Samuel Bates resided 
several years in Randolph, Yt., removing fiom thence 
to Burlington, Yt. Leaving his family in Burlington, 
he came to Kendall, and took up lot 111, town 4, of 
the 100,000 acre tract, having the land 'booked' to 
him, as they called it, that is, having the agent of the 
State of Conn, note on his books that he had gone in- 
to possession, with a view of securing his light to the 
land when it should come in market for sale. Of this 
land, in due time he got a title and it is now ov>^ned 
l)y his son, Capt. H. AY. Bates. 

The first year he was in Kendall, he cleared sever- 
al acres of land in the summer of 1818, he sowed two 
acres to wheat, built a log cabin, and returned to 
Burlington after his family, and brouglit them to 
Kendall in June 1814. His eldest son, Capt. 11. W. 
Bates, then about twenty-one years old, accompanied 
him. 

On arriving at his new log house he found his wheat 
tield in full head, looking fine. The croj) so raised 
furnishing bread for the family the next 3^ear. 

Mr. Bates and his family, coming as they did from 
the Green Mountains of Yermont, suffered severly 
from fever and ague, some of tlie first years after they 
came to Kendall. They were all sick, Mr. Bates himself 
never fully recovering from his acclimating fever. He 
died August 21, 1822. 

AMOS JJANDALL. 

Amos Randall was boin in Ashburnham, Mass. 
January 3, 1788. He married Fanny Tabor in 1814. 
She was born in Shelburne, Yt., Feb. 11, 1793. 
In 1814, they removed to Avon, and in the spring of 



'^SQ riONEEK III8T0KY 

1815, settled in Kendall, on the farm now occupied 
by his son, Hon. Gideon Eandall, where he after- 
wards resided, and died Aiif?. 28, 1830. Mr. Eandall 
Avas a public spirited man, and entered zealously 
into ev«ny undertaking for the benefit of his neighbor- 
hood. He acted frequentlj^ as counselor and arbitra- 
tor among the settlers, to aid in arranging business 
matters, in which his neighbors needed such helj). 

The lirst school house was erected on his land where 
the stone school house now stands. 

The first cemetery in town was located on his farm 
and tlie first burials of the dead were there. 

He was a Supervisor of the town of Murray before 
the county of Orleans was organized, or Murray had 
been divided into the several towns which now include 
its original territory. He left six children, viz: 
Charles T., Gideon, who resides on his paternal home- 
stead, Dr. James W. now a practicing physician in 
Albion, Fanny E. wife of 0. M. Green, George W. 
and Amos S. 

DAvm jois^p:s. 

David Jones was lK)rn in Pembrokeshire in Wales, 
July 17, 1792. He removed to America with his 
father s family in the year 1801. His father settled 
in New Jersey and his son David remained with him 
until he was eighteen years old, then came to Ontario 
county, New York, where he resided four years, and 
then settled in Kendall in 1815. 

He married Miss Catharine Whitney February'' 24, 
1824. Their children are Claudius, who married 
Harriet Weed and resides in Illinois ; Thomas, un- 
married ; Almiretta S. J. married C. G. Root ; Setli 
married Sjdvia Shelly ; Cynthia Ann married James 
R. Whitney, and David who married Lucy A. Chase 
all of whom reside in Kendall. 

Mr. Jones was poor when lie settled in Kendall and 



,.f'is»«-: 




V ^^^-t A^ 'i^' _ i^-?'zeS 



OF OULIOAXS COUNTY. 287 

Donglit liis land on credit. He was a large strong 
man able and willing to labor. He cleared and im- 
proved a large farm and became a wealthy man. 

Sickness in his family and the want of a market 
for farm produce made it very difficnlt for him to ob- 
tain means to pay for his land improvements for some 
years at iirst. He said he agreed to pay fonr hnndred 
dollars for his first hundred acres, and it was fifteen 
3^ears before it was all ])aid. 

He was a man of strong native intellect and of 
sound judgment in matters that come within his ob- 
servation or experience, but he never had the benefit 
of much instruction in school. 

He died .lanuarv 26, 1869. 



CHAPTER XXI. 




TOWN OF MURRAY. 

Towns Set Off— First Tavern— First Marriage — First Birth — First 
Death— First Store— First Grist Mill— First School— First Church 
— Sandy Creek- McCall & Perry's Mill— Sickness at Sandy Creek 
—Biographies of Early Settlers. 

LARGE part of tlic western portion of Monroe 
-<p^ county was at Urst incorjDorated by the Leg- 
li islatnre in March 1802, as Northampton. 
The town of Murray w^as formed from Northampton in 
June, 1812-. It received its name in honor of John 
Murray, a merchant of the city of New York, who 
was a large proprietor. 

Murray, at its formation, included what now com- 
prises the town of Murray, Kendall, Clarendon, Union 
or Hamlin, Clarkson and Sweden. 

Sweden, which included Clarendon, was formed 
from Murray in 1813, and Clarkson, Avhich included 
Hamlin, in 1819. 

Kendall was set off in 1837, leaving the town of 
Murray of its present dimensions. 

The first inn was kept in 1809, by Ejmpliras Mat- 
tison. 

Messrs. AVait, Wright, Sisson, Farnsworth, and 
llockwood, were among the earliest settlers. 

The first marriage was that of Solomon C. Wright 
and Tryphena Farnsworth. 

The first birth was that of Betsey Mattison. 

The first store was at Sandy Creek, by Isaac 
Leach, in 1815. ' 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 289 

The lirst gristmill was built by Peny and Luce 
in 1817. 

The lirst school was kept by Fanny Ferguson, in 
1814. 

The first town meeting in the old town of Mwrray, 
before it was divided, was held in the barn of John- 
son Bedell, about four miles south of Brockport. 

The first church formed in this town was the Con- 
gregational by Rev. John E. Bliss, January oth, 
1819. 

The first settlements in what is now included in the 
town of ^lurra}' were made on the Ridge at and near 
Sandy Creek. 

Epapliras Mattison first settled here in 1809. In the 
year 1817, some fifteen or twenty families had located 
at Sandy Creek, and in that yeav Henry McCall and 
Robert Perry built mills on the creek, their dam 
raising the water so as to overflow eighteen or twenty 
acres then covered with heavy trees, which w«?ri> left 
standing. The water killed the timber, and a terrible, 
sickness followed among the inhabitants, about one- 
quarter of whom died in one season. The well per- 
sons wei'e not numerous enough to take cai-e of the 
sick and bury the dead, and settl(?rs from other neigli- 
borhoods came there and helped the needy ones. 
The mill dam was taken down and the sickness dis- 
appeared. 

Mr. Andrew II. Green, of Byron, "Genesee county, 
relates that several families were settled at Sandy 
Creek, in 1811. In the fall of that year settlers in 
B3^ron heard that these people at Sandy Creek were 
nearly all sick and in great suffering, and they made 
up a company of six or eight and went over to help 
them, carrjang a load of necessaries. Mr. Green 
says : '' I never saw so helpless a company." Sandy 
Creek was regarded as an unhealthy location for 

19 



2;90 PIONEKK HISTORY 

some years after its first settlement, occasioned in 
great part by building mills there in the woods. 

The first settlements in what is now Murray wei-e 
made along the Ridge Road. Mills having been built 
in early limes on Sandy Creek, near where that stream 
crosses the Ridge, mechanics and business men loca- 
ted there, and at the time the Erie Canal was first 
navigable liere Avas a lively village known as Sandy 
Creek, a name by which it has ever since been dis- 
tinguished. 

The first post oflice in town was established here, 
called Murray. 

Though the people suttered terribh^ from sickness 
about the time mill dams were first built in the 
Creek here, and while neighboring lands were being 
opened to cultivation, yet Sand}^ Creek was the prin- 
cipal place of business in the town until Holley and 
Hulberton, on the canal, were settled and gradually 
dreAV away most of the trade and business to these 
new village^■^ 



BIOGRAPHIES OF EARLY SETTLERS. 

HAIJLEY N. BUSIINELL. 

Ilarley N. Bushnell was born in Starksborough, Vt., 
the youngest of thirteen children in his father's fami- 
ly, Feb. 18tli, 1796. When he was fifteen years old 
lie went to Connecticut to learn the trade of a clothier 
of his brother. He served as an apprentice in that 
business five years, and received thirty days school- 
ing in the time. In February, 1817, he came to Ba- 
tavia, Genesee county, and went to work at his trade. 
In August afterwards his employer ran away, owing 
Mr. Bushnell one hundred dollars, and the Sheriff' 
came and seized all his employer s property, turning 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 991 

Bushnell out of business. He finally bought tlie es- 
tablishment and run it on his own account, and with 
ii partner ; but in the end found it a losing business. 
After a time he gave up his trade and was elected 
<:onstable. In this business he Avas not successful in 
laying uj) money, and in the end found himself about 
even with the world. 

He did some business as a Justice, and labored 
some at his trade until February, 182^^, he removed 
to HoUe}', north of where the canal now is, wiiich was 
then covered with felled timber, not cleared otf; 
bought two acres of ground and leased two acres 
more for a mill pond. He commenced getting out 
timber for a house eighteen by twenty-four feet 
square, hewing and framing it at the stump. There 
w^as considerable snow on the ground, and on the 
snow crust mornings, he drew all the timber for his 
house to the spot with a rope over his shoulder. Af- 
ter getting his family settled in his new house, he 
x}leared off jmrt of his land, and with the help of his 
neighbors atone or two '' bees," he built a log dam, 
got out timber and built a sawmill, and began sa wing- 
about May 1st, 1824. In 1825, in company with 
Samuel Clark he built works for wool carding and 
cloth dressing at HoUey. 

In October, 1826, his house burned with all its con- 
tents. In two weeks he had another house up. In 
June, 1828, he bought the interest of his partner in 
the wool carding and cloth dressing works, which he 
carried on alone until 18B8, when he sold out and 
bought a farm. After a few years lie sold his farm, 
moved to Holley, and ever after did business as an 
insurance agent. 

For many years he was Superintendent of the Pres- 
byterian Sunday School in Hollej'. 

He was one of the founders of the Orleans County 
Pioneer Association, and many vears its President. 



292 PIONEER HISTORY 

He was a kind liearted, genial man, benevolent and 
philanthropic, earnest and zealous in support of 
every good cause, and died lamented by all who 
knew him, October 2Sth, 1868. ^ 

AllETAS PIERCE. 

Aretas Pierce was born in St. Johnsbury, Vermont 
March 27th, 1799. He came with his father' s family 
to settle in Clarendon, where he arrived April 7th, 
1815. The family moved into a house built for a 
school house, until the}^ could build a house for 
themselves. 

They built a house and moved into it April 24th, 
1815. The first year they lived on provisions they 
brought in with them. The next year being the cold 
season, they bought rye at one dollar and twenty-five 
cents a bushel, and pork at twenty-five dollars a bar- 
rel, in Palmyra. The next year they were out of 
bread stuff before harvest, and ate green wheat boiled 
in milk as a substitute, and what is strange none of 
the family had dyspepsia ! 

He married Matilda Stedman, May 8th, 1823, and 
has always resided on the lot originally taken by his 
fatlK^r. 

When his father came in it was an unbroken wil- 
derness on the west, from liis place to the Oak Or- 
chard Road, eight miles ; north to Sandy Creek, four 
miles; east two miles; south to Farwell's Mills. 
Eldridge Farwell, A. Dudley, John Cone, Wm. Aus- 
tin and Mr. West, had settled in Clarendon, and 
other settlers towards Sandy Creek came in the same 
year with Mr. Pierce. A few came before them. 

In the years 1817-18, the inhabitants in this settle- 
ment suffered for want of food. 

Samuel Miller worked for Artemas Daggett chop- 
ping wood for one dollar a day and board himself. 
All he had to eat, most of the time, was corn meal 



OF OllLEATs'S COUNTY. 29IJ 

and water ; but lie did not complain or tell of it 
then. 

Ebenezer Fox settled a mile and a half east of 
Murray depot, and all they had to eat for a numbei- 
of weeks was what they could pick \ip in the woods. 
The best they could find was the inner bark of the 
beech tree. 

Mrs. Fox had a young babe, and her next oldest 
child was in feeble health, and she had to nurse them 
both to keep them from starving. 

Almost all the money the settlers had was obtained 
by leaching ashes and boiling the lye to black salts, 
and taking tliese to Gaines or Clarkson and selling 
them for about three dollars a hundred pounds. 

After 1818 tlie country filled up rapidly with set- 
tlers and more produce began to be raised than was 
wanted for home consumption. The price of wheat 
fell to twenty-five cents a bushel, and only thirty-one 
cents after hauling to Rochester, and so remained un- 
til the Erie Canal was opened. 

Mr. Pierce settled on lands owned by the Pultne}- 
estate, and these did not come into market for sale 
until 1821, though settlers were allowed to locate 
themselves with the expectation of buying their land 
when it came into market. The price of his lot was 
fixed at eight dollars per acre, but having expended 
so much in building and clearing, he was coinpelled 
to pay the price or suffer loss by abandoning all he 
had done. 

The reason given by tlie company for not bringing 
their lands into market was, they had " so much bus- 
iness on hand they could not attend to it,'- but the 
settlers .thought they were waiting to have the canal 
located before establishing their price. 

HUBBARD RICE. 

Hubbard Rice was born in Pompey, Onondaga coun- 



294 PIONEEli HlfSTORY 

ty, July 28tli, 1795. He removed with his father to^ 
the town of Murray, and settled on a lot adjoining 
the village of Holley, in May 1812. His father, Mr. 
AA^illiam Rice, continued to reside on this place until 
ahout the year 1830, he went to Ohio to reside with 
his children, and died there. 

Hubbard Rice lived with liis father until 1825, then 
he moved to the south part of Clarendon, where he 
remained until he removed to Holiey in 1864, where 
Jie still resides, 1871. 

After Lewiston was burned in the late war with 
England. Mr. Hubbard Rice, then a boy of eighteen 
years, volunteered as a soldier and served a campaign 
on the Niagara Frontier. 

Coming to Holley when a boy, he grew up to man- 
hood there, seeing and sliaring in all the toils, dan- 
gers, hardships and privations which the settlers en- 
dured. 

Pie has been spared to a ripe (jld age to witness tht» 
Ibunding, growth and development of a beautiful vil- 
lage on a spot he has seen when it was a native forest 
covered witli mighty hemlocks, through which now 
by canal, railroad and telegraph, the commerce and 
intelligence of the world ai'e flowing. 

CIIAUNCKY UniJI NSON. 

Cliaun(*ey Robinson was borji in Durham, Connect- 
icut, January 5th, 1792. When he was two years 
old he was carried with his father's family to Sauquoit, 
Oneida county, N. Y., where, to use his own words, 
'' I was educated in a district school, and graduated, 
at tAvelve yeai's of age, between the plow han- 
dles." 

He removed to Clarendon, Orleans county, and set- 
tl<xl about two miles south of FarwelFs Mills, July 
1818; cleared a farm and carried it on until May, ]851j. 



OF OKLEAN8 OOITNTY. '295 

lie removed to Holley, wliere hn resided until his 
deatli, whicli took place May 8th, 1866. 

In the war with England in ]814, he was called out 
with the other inhabitants of tlie frontier generally to 
aid in re]ielling the Britisli who were then besieging 
Fort Erie. 

He was several months in this service ; was in tlio 
battle and sortie at Fort Erie, Septembe]- J7th. 1814, 
which was the last battle of tlie war fought on this 
frontier. 

Very few lamilies had 1ocat4'd in Clarendon when 
Mr. Eobinson went tlier(\ He b(^gan in the woods, 
built a log house, and all its fixtures, furniture and 
surroundings, w«']'e in tlie priniitiv*' style of those 
times. 

He was a man of ardent tenijx^rament, a lluent and 
(^arnest talker in private conversation or public de- 
bate, noted for his intense hatred of slavery and op- 
pression, and his love of freedom and free govern- 
ment, and for his zeal in the cause of temperance. 
Upon this and kindi-ed topics he freipiently wi-ote at- 
ticles for the newspapers. 

He was :in active man in organizing the town oi 
Clarendon, laying out and opejiing highways, and loca- 
ting school districts, frequently holding public ofli<;e 
as the gift of his fellow townsmen. H*^ was Supervisor 
of Clarendon four years in succession. He was an 
original and free thinker on those subjects of ])ubirJc 
policy which excited his attention, enforcing liis doc- 
trines with a YAKxl vrhich some of liis opponents thought 
fanatical. 

In his peisonal habits hv vvas industrious, frugal 
and temperate. Wlui'n lie was an old man ]i<^ said : 
"I have never used one pound of tea, coffee, or to- 
bacco, and comparatively little liquor ; iione for tlie 
last thirty years; not even cidei'. My constant drink 
at home and abroad is cold water.*' 



296 PIONEKll IIISTOKY 

IiritAM FUISIUE. 

Hiram Frisbie was born iu Granville, N. Y., Aug., 
1791. He first came to Orleans county with a view of 
taking tlie job of building the embankment foj- the 
Erie Canal, at HoUey. Failing in this he went with 
liis brother-in-law, William Pierpont, to Farwell's 
Mills in the town of Clarendon, and opened a store 
there in 1821. They sold goods and made pot and 
pearl ashes there, Pierpont also keeping tavern seve- 
ral years, when Pierpont sold out the whole business 
to Mr. Frisbie, who managed it all alone several 
years, until the insolvency of some leading merchants 
in Holley made an OT)ening for his business there, 
he then closed out in Clarendon and moved to Holley 
to reside about the year 1828 or 1829. 

In connexion with Mr. James Seymour of Clarkson, 
lie bought all the unsold land in Holley, of a one 
hundred acre tract, which had l)e(^n taken up origi- 
nally by Mr. Areovester Hamlin. 

At Holley he sold goods as a merchant, built hous- 
es, sold village lots, bought produce, opened streets, 
and became wealthy from the rise in ])iic(' of his 
lands and the profits of liis trade. 

He was appointed })ostmaster soon after he came 
to Holley, an office he held fifteen years. 

Soma years ago he was thrown from his carriage 
while driving some high spirited horses, several of his 
bones ])roken, and was so badly injured as to rc^nder 
him incapable of active bodily labor, as before He 
still resides in Holley, one of the few old men jet re- 
maining who settled here before the canal was made, 
enjoying in quiet the avails of a long life of busy in- 
dustry and sagacious investment. 

.lAroi; HINDS. 

.Facob Hinds was born in tlie. town of Arlington, 



J 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 297 

Bennington county, Yt. He settled in tlie town of 
Murray in 1829, and "bought a farm wliich liad been 
taken up by article from the State of Connecticut by 
.Tared Luttenton. 

The Erie Canal passes through tliis farm. Boating 
on tlie canal was then brisk, and no station between 
Albion and Hulberton was established at which boat- 
men could get tlieir supplies. 

Mr. Hinds built a grocery store and began that 
business. 

It was a good location from which to ship wheat, 
which began to be produced in considerable quanti- 
ties, and Mr. Hinds built a warehouse in 1830. 
About this time his brothers Joel, Darius, and Frank- 
lin, came on and joined him in business, and being- 
active, energetic business men, a litth^ settlement 
sprang up around them, Avhicli was named Hinds- 
burgh. 

Jacob Hinds had been engaged in boating on the 
canal and became acquainted with the canal and its 
boatmen and men engaged in trafic through it; in 1839 
he was appointed Superintendent of Kepairs on tlie 
western section, an office he lio^ld three years. 

After an interval of ten years, in 1849 he M^as elec- 
ted one of the State Canal Commissioneis and served 
three yeai'S in that capacity. 

Since retiring from these offices, Mr. Hinds has 
followed farming as his principal occupation. 

AUSTIN DAY. 

Austin Day was born in Winhall, A ermont, April 
10th, 1789. 

He married Polly Chapman, July 23d, 1810. He 
moved to the town of Murray in the winter of 
1815. 

For some years after he came to Murray lie served 
as a constable, ajid being a good talker he practiced 



298 I'lONEEK HISTORY 

pettifogging, or acted as counsel in Justice' s courts, 
and for a number of years, and until professional 
lawyers came in, he did a large business. 

After the Erie Canal was made navigable he en- 
gaged in buying wheat, which lie followed some 
years, shipping large quantities chiefly from Holley. 

He was appointed Judge in the Old Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, of Orleans county, an office he held five 
3' ears. 

He was elected Sheriff of Orleans county in No- 
vember, 1847, and held the office three years. In 
January, 1848, he removed to Albion, where until 
Avithin a few years he lias resided. He was Supervi- 
sor of Barre in 1852. 

His wife died October loth, 1858, which broke up 
liis famil}'. and since then he has resided in the fami- 
1}^ of liis son, F. A. Day, in Albion, and lately with 
his daughter, Mrs. Buell, in Holley, relieved from tlie 
caros and anxieties of business. 

KLl.IAH W. WOOD. 

Elijah AV. Wood was born in Pelhani, Mass.. 
.\pril 22d, 1782. lie r^nnoved to the town of Murray 
at an earh^ day, where for many years he served as 
Constable and Justice of the Peace, and during one 
term of live years he was Judge in the Old Court of 
Common Pleas of Orleans county. 

He was a shrewd and successful pettifogger in Jus- 
tices' courts, wliei'e he made up in wit and natural 
sagacit}'' any lack li(3 may have suffered in legal at- 
tainments. H(^ died in Murray at tli<^ age of eighty 
yeai's. 

HH( OI.Li;( TIONS OF ilUS. SALLY SMITH. 

" I was born in St. .lohnsbury, Vermont, in 1795. 
My father removed with his family, including myselfl 



OK ORLEANS COUNTY. 299 

to Leroy, Xew York, in 1816. We were twenty-one 
days on the journe}'. 

I came to Murray in 1817, and taught school in 
district No. 8, in a log house in which a family re- 
sided at the time. M}' wages was nine shillings a 
week and boarded among my patrons. I taught 
eight months duiing which time I was happy and 
fared well. 

While I was boarding at the house of David Gould, 
in the winter time, his stock of fodder for his cattle 
gave out nnd he was obliged to feed them with 
'browse,' and to save them from starving on such 
fare he went to Victor, Ontario County, and bought a 
load of corn for his cattl(\ His brother-in-law brought 
the corn to Murray on a sleigh with two horses, 
and arrived at Mr. Gould's house late in the evening 
of a cold and storn]y night. 

There was no stable nearer than Sandy Creek, three 
miles, where tlie horses could be sheltered. Mr. 
Gould's house had but one room, but it was conclud- 
ed to keep tlie horses there over night. ]\Ir. Gould 
and wife occupied a bed in a corner of the room, two 
girls and myself had our bed with its foot at the side 
of Mr. Gould's bed, and the horses stood in the other 
corner and ate their corn, and thus we all slept that 
night as we could. 

I married Artemas Daggett, February 14th, 1819, 
and commenced lious<?-keeping on the farm where I 
now reside, September, 1870. 

M]-. Daggett died in 1831 and left me with three 
small children and one hundred acres of land, owing 
about nine hundred dollars. In two years I raised 
the money and paid our debts and took a deed of the 
land. 

About this time I married Isaac Smith, with whom 
I lived in jieace and plenty until his death in Au- 
irust. 1866. 



300 PIONEER IIISTOKY 

During a great sickness at Sandy Creek, Mr. Brace, 
his wife, and six chiklren resided tliere. One of his 
daughters fell sick and went to the house of a doc- 
tress in town to be treated. Others of the children 
were taken ill. Mr. Brace was notified that his 
daughter under the doctress' care was much worse 
and he went to see her. She died and he was taken 
down sick and could not go home. In the mean 
time a son at home died. Mrs. Brace had taken sole 
care of him in his sickness, and while watching his 
corpse the dead body of Mr. Brace was brought 
home. and father and son buried at the same time. 
The other sick ones recovered. 

At this time Mr. Aretas Pierce, Sr., who lived four 
miles away, came and found the Brace family misera- 
bly poor, and destitute of all the comforts and most 
of the necessaries of life. He went about and got a 
contribution, and next day the pressing wants of the 
family were supplied by the benevolent S(?ttlers 
around. 

SALLY SMITH." 
Murray, September, 1870. 

AL.VNSON MANSFIELD. 

Alanson Manstlekl was born in Vermont, Marcli 
0th, 1793. 

With an ax whicli constituted his whole personal es- 
tate, he came into tlic town of Murray in the yeai- 
1814, and hired out to work, chopping until he earned 
rnougli to take an article of lot number two hundred 
and nineteen, a little north of Ilindsburgh. He then 
returned to A'ermont to bring his fathers family to 
settle on his land. They started from Vermont, his 
father and motlier and six cliildren, — Alanson be- 
ing oldest of the cliildren, — with a pair of horses 
and a sleigh, in which was a barrel of pork 
and some meal, a few household goods and tlu^ fami- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 301 

ly. A milch cow was led behind. The pork and 
meal and milk of the cow supplied most of their pro- 
visions on the road, and helped sustain them after 
arriving in Murray, until they could otherwise "be 
supplied. 

They arrived in the winter of 1815, put up a log 
house for a dwelling, and began clearing the timber 
from a piece of land, and the lirst season planted 
the corn from four ears among the logs, from which 
they raised a good crop. 

He married Polly Hart, in Murray, October 14th, 
1817. Her father settled near where Murray depot 
now stands, in 1816. 

He united with the Baptist church in Holley, in 
1831. The next year the Graines and Murray Baptist 
church on the Transit was formed, and Mr. Mansfield 
united with them and was chosen deacon. He was a 
worthy, honored and good man, and died respected 
by all who knew him, September 30th, 1850. 

ABNEK EALCOM, 

Abner Balcom was born in Richfield, Otsego Co., 
'N. Y., September 15, 1796, and brought up in Hope- 
Avell, Ontario county. 

He married Euth Williams, of Hopewell, March, 
1816. She died in March, 1822. 

In the fall of 1822, he married Philotheta Baker. 
She died February 7th, 1865, and for his third wife 
he married Mrs. Philena Waring. 

In the fall of 1812, in company with his older 
brother, Horace, and two other men, he chopped over 
twenty-two acres on lot one hundred and ninety-two, 
which Horace had purchased, and on which he set- 
tled in the spring of 1816, and where he died. This 
was the first clearing in Murray, on this line between 
the Ridge and Clarendon. 

Mr. Abner Balcom first settled in the town of 



302 PIONEEK HISTORY 

Ridgeway, on tlie farm now or latel}' owned by Gros- 
venor Daniels, to whom he sold it and removed to 
Murray before the canal was made. 

In company with Mr. Hiel Brockway he built the 
dam and mills on the west branch of Sandy Creek, 
on lot one hundred and ninety-five, n(3ar which he 
has ever since resided. 

These mills, a sawmill and gristmill, are known 
as "Balcom's Mills,'" and in them Mr. Balcom has 
always retained an interest. 

Mr. Balcom has always been much respected 
among his fellow townsmen. He has held all the 
town offices except clerk. He served as Supervisor 
of Murray in 1847-8. He is an influential and consis- 
tent member of the Transit Baptist cliurch, in which 
he has been deacon. 

His son, Francis Balcom, was among the volunteers 
who went into the Union Army in the first years of 
the great rebellion, and was killed in battle while 
gallantly fighting to save the country which the in- 
structions of his father and tlie instincts of his own 
nature had taught him to love. 

KEUHEX BKYAiS'T. 

Reuben Bryant was born at Templeton, Worces- 
ter county, Massachusetts, July loth, 1792. He 
graduated at Brown University, Rhode Island, about 
the year 1815. 

After some time spent in teaching, he removed to 
Livingston county, N". Y., and studied law in the of- 
fice of the late Judge Smith, in Caledonia. Having 
been admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court, he 
settled to practice his profession in Holley about 
the year 1828, in which village lie was the pioneer 
lawyer. 

In the fall of 1849 he removed to Albion, and in 
1855 he removed to Buffalo to aid his only son, Wil- 



OF OKLEAXS COUNTY. 






iiam C. Bryant, a rising- young lawyer just getting 
into practice in that city, 

lie was appointed Master in Cliancery by Governoi- 
Silas Wright, an office he held when the Court of 
Chancery was abolished under the Constitution of 
1846. 

He was a thorough classical- scholar, and had liis 
mind well stored with Greek and Latin loi'e, which lie 
deliglited to quote in social moments witli liis friends 
when circumstances made it proper. 

As a lawyer he had a clear perception of the law' 
and the facts, and of their bearing in his cases ; but 
lie was too exact, cautious, and diffident of liimself 
to be an advocate. All his life he suffered from a 
malady wdiich was a perpetual burden and cross to 
Mm, and annoyed him in Ms business. He ditMi in 
Buffalo in January, 1863. 



1 



CHAPTER XXII. 




VILLAGE OF HOLLEY. I 

Areovcster Hamlin — First Store — Post Office — Frisbie & Seymour— . 

Early Merchants — First Sawmill — Lawyer — Tavern — Justice of | 

the Peace— Salt Brine — Mammoth Tooth— Salt Port — Presbyterian 
Church — Salt Spring. 

OLLEY, situate in the town of Murray, is 
a village which owes its existence to the Erie 
Canal, The site of this village was originally 
covered with a heavy growth of hemlock trees. These 
were mostly standing when the canal was surveyed 
through, "but it being apparent a town must grow up 
here, a vigorous settlement had been begun when 
work on the great embankment was commenced. 

Areovester Hamlin took up one hundred acres of 
land of the State of Connecticut, which included most 
of the present village of Holley, about the the year 
1820, and immediately commenced clearing off the 
timber and laid out a village. 

Col. Ezra Brainard was the contractor who built 
the embankment for the canal over Sandy Creek, and 
while that work was progressing settlers came in and 
began to build up the place. 

Mr. Hamlin erected a store in which he traded. He 
built an ashery and carried on that business ; he also 
built the first warehouse on the canal. 

To help his village, and accommodate the settlers 
who were coming in, he got a post office established 
here of which he was first postmaster. He was an 



(:'iiti'r]>risiim-, jictivt' liusiiicss man, but atteuipted to 
do more l>iiriiiiess than his means would permit, and 
failed. xVll liis property was sold out hy thi\ Slieriff 
about tlie year 1828 or"] 820. 

Mr. John Ar. Strong opened ii store here a. little aJ- 
ter Mr. Ilandin, and he also failed about the time Mr. 
Hamlin did, wlum Hiram Frisbie and James S(\ymour 
])urchased all tlie real estate that Tlanili]^ ];ad not 
sold to othei* s<^ttlej-s. 

Mr. Frisbie came here in 1828 and opened a store 
and comnieneed selling goods, a business in whieli hi^ 
has more or less been engaged (i'ver since. 

Mr. Fjisl)ie bought out the interest of Mr. Seymour 
many years ago, aiid lie has sold out the greater part 
of his tract of land into village lots. 

Among the early merchants, after those named, 
were Mower and AVardwell, and Selby & N<?well. 
Alva Handin, Geo. A. Porter, S. Stedman, and E. 
Taylor vrere carpenters and Joiners, who .settled here 
in an (^arly d.'iy. .Tohn ^V.^•ery and brother were the 
lirst blacksmiths. Sairuiel Cone was the lirst shoe- 
maker. Dr. McClough lirst physician. 

Ilarley N. Bushnell built a sawmill on iis'' creek 
north of the canal, in 1824. 

Reuben Bryant settled as a law3'er in iIoiie;i' about 
the time the canal was made and was the first lawyer, 
John Onderdonk was the lirst tailor. 

A nran by the name of Samuel Cone bnilt and kept, 
a tavern where the Mansion House now stands ; and 
a Mr. Barr built and kept .'mother tavern house, a 
little west of the Mansion House. Both of these 
taverns wert^ l)efore the Canal was navigable. 

Tui'uer was the first Justice of the" Peace. 

The Presbyteriair and Baptist nu^eting houses wen^ 
built in 183l'. 

Major William AUis came her«" as a clerk in the 
store of John W. Strong. After the closing out of 

20 



;j06 



PIONEER HISTORY 



Mr. strong's business Maj. Allis <mrned on business 
its a produce dealer and served a term as Sheriff of 
(Orleans County. 

Salt was found in the ravine on the bank of the 
creek south of tlie canal. A brine spring was located 
near where the railroad crosses the creek. In its nat- 
ural state this was known as a * deer lick.' When 
the State of Connecticut sold the land on which this 
spring was found, in the deed given they reserved all 
mines, . minerals and salt springs. The State after- 
wards agre<Hl with Mr. John Keed that he should 
open the spring and test the watei- and share half the 
avails with the State. Mr. Reed dug out the spring, . 
set two kettles near the creek in the ravine and com- 
menced boiling the water for salt. When the vrater 
was pumped from tlie well it appeared limpid and 
clear, after boiling it became red colored, and if then 
boiled down to salt it remained rc^d colored salt. To 
remedy this he boiled the water, then drew it off in 
vats to settle, the coloring matter fell to the bottom, 
the clear brine was then returned to tlie kettles, and 
made white salt. 

Reed commenced ))oiling in J 814. After a time six- 
teen kettles were set here to make salt and used un- 
til navigation was opened in the canal, when Onon- 
daga salt could b(! furnished here so cheap these 
works were abandoned. Indeed, they never afforded 
a profit to those working them. 

Tlie wood for the tires was cut on the Avest side of 
rhe creek mainly, and drawn upon the top of the 
bank, of proper length to put under the kettles, and 
thrown down the bank tlirough a spout made of tim- 
ber. A load of wood was sold at the works for a 
bushel of salt, or one dollar. Although the brine so 
obtained was comparatively weak, they made hun- 
dreds of bushels of salt, which was sold to settlers in 
this vicinitv. and carried away in bags. 



OF 011LEAN8 COUNTY. liQT 

Some years after the canal was dug, Erastiis Cone 
bored for stronger brine to a depth of neai-ly one 
hundred feet, near the old spring, but the result did 
not warrant his making salt there and none lias l^een 
made since. 

The first school house in the village of Holle_v' was 
made of logs, about the year 1815, and stood not liir 
from the present railroad depot. It had no arrange- 
ments for making a fire in it, and was used for a 
school only in the summer, for several years. The 
first teacher in this scliool was Lydia Thomas, after- 
wards Mrs. Henry Hill. 

When laborers were excavating and building the 
canal embankment, a tooth of sojne huge animal, a 
mammoth, X)fi*liaps, was dug up. The tooth was a. 
grinder, and weighed two pounds and two ounces. 
No other bones of such a creature have been found, 
and it has been conjectured this tootli must have been 
shed there by the animal to which it belonged, when 
it came after salt. It is now in the State collection in 
Albany. 

Holley was sometimes called 'Salt Port," by the 
boatmen ; but that name was soon dropped for Hoi - 
ley, a name given to the village in honor of Myi'on 
Holley, one of the Canal Commissioners, when tlie 
canal was dug. 

On the 5th of Januar}', 1819, a Congregational 
Church was organized at the village of Sandy Creek, 
in Murray, which was distinguished as the ' Congre- 
gational Church of Sandy Creek.' July IB, 1881, In 
act of the Presbytery of Rochester, this Church was 
united with the Presbj^terian Church in Clarendon, 
and removed to Holley, where the new organization 
was thereafter known as the * Church of Murray.' 

The village of Holley was incorporated under the 
general Act of the Legislature, July 1, 1850. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 




THE A'lLLAGE 01-' 1IULI5ERT0N. 

.Joscpli Bucld — Canal Basin — First AYarehouse — First Grocery — First 
Tavern — I. 11. S. Hulbcrt — First Xamed Scio — Methodist Society — 
Abijali Reed and Sons. 



HE Ailla<,;(' of Hullberton is a canal village 
ill t]io town of MulTa3^ Josei^li Budd, from 
the county of llens.selaer, JSTew York, settled 
lieie in i\Iay, 1826, and purchased of a former proprietor 
about one hundred acres of land lying on hotli sides 
of the canal. At first Mr. Budd resided in a log 
house standing a little south of the Methodist Meeting 
house. He afterwai'ds (^-ected a substantial stone 
dwelling in which lie resided, ]iow occupied by Mr. 
Marcus H. Pliillips. 

Mr. Budd was a large hearted, generous and public 
spirited num. witli sagacity enough to see here mu«t 
1)(^ a vilhige if the advantages were properly improved, 
and Jie set to work accordingly. 

In 1828 he dug a basin in tlie south b<ank of the 
canal \\('st of the bridge, large (Miougli for canal boats 
to turn abont in, and couniienc<'dto sell village lots to 
such as he could induce to purcliase of him. Settlers 
soon located here. 

In 18S(», Dr. Frisbie built a warehouse on the basin 
Budd had dug out. This was the first ware- 
house. 

Isaac H. S. Hulburt opened a grocery on the 
tow path east of the bridge in 1830, being the first 
grocery. 



OF OKLEAIsS COUNTY. :>()'.) 

Orsamus Squire built and occupied a stoic on tlic 
lot now used for a liote], in 1828. This was the lirst 
store. 

This store was altered over and littcd u]) foi- a 
tavern, and the first tavern kept here hy Timothy 
Tuttle, in 1S32. 

In 1833 Mr. Budd caused his land next to tlie higli- 
way and canal to be laid out into village lots by -V. 
Cantine, surveyor, and the village has been built on 
this plan. 

I. H. 8. Hulburt was an active business man, wJio 
sold goods, bought farm produce, staves and lumbei-, 
and drove a brisk trade with the boatmen, and sei-ved 
as justice of the peace. 

Finding it inconvenient to go over to Sandy (Jrec^k, 
on the Ridge for all their mail business, he applied 
for a post office here. 

The village was named Scio at an early day by ]\[r. 
George Squire. 

On examining for a name for thn new post ofhce. it 
was found there was one post office named Scio in 
New York alread}^, and tlie village name of Scio was 
changed to Ilulberton, in honor of Mr. Hulburt, hy 
which name the vilhige and th(> post office have evs'r 
since been called. 

The post office was established in ]83i"), I. H. S. Ifnl- 
burt, first postmaster. 

Mr. Joseph Budd was a religious man, and desijing 
to x^romote the cause of religion and good morals 
among the people in his settlement, he invited Elders 
Wooster and Hemenway of the Methodist Episco])al 
Church, to make tliis on(> of their preaching stations, 
and through these instrumentalities, a society and 
€hurcli of Methodists was organized. This society 
erected their meeting house in 1835. Its trustees 
at that time were I. 11. S. Hulburt, Samuel ('opo 



310 PIOT^EER HISTOKY 

land, Hiram Hibbard, Josepli Biidd, and George 
Squire. 

Among the prominent business men whose wealth 
and industry aided largely to build up Hulberton, 
were the Beed family, consisting of Abijah Reed 
and his sons Epenetus, Hercules and Jacob, and his 
son-in-law Edward Mulford. 

They were merchants, upright, honorable, and fair, 
who came here from Greene county, N. Y. They en- 
joyed the confidence of the communit}^, and carried 
on a large business while they lived. 

Gilbert Turner was the first blacksmith, and Wm. 
Perrigo was the first shoemaker. 

Among the earl}^ settlers in and near Hulberton 
were Kemember S. Wheeler, George Squire, and 
Hanford Phillips, who bought the farm on which Mr. 
J^udd formerly resided and on which he set out the 
apple orchard, which has since become justly cele- 
brated, now owned by Mr. Philliiis. 

Mr. Joseph Budd, who is worthy to l^e called the 
l*ioneer of Hulberton, died in May, 1850. 



CHAPTER XXI\' 



VILLAGE OF HINDSBUlKtH. 

.Tacob Luttcnton— Jacob Hinds and Brothers— First AVarciuni.sc— Jabc/, 
Allison — First Hotel. 

I^^INDSBURGH, n little village in the town vi 
^(^W -^'^"'^"'^y' i^ situated on land which was lirst 
settled by Jacob Lutteuton. who built the first 
liouse lier(\ Mr L, sold out to Jacob Hinds in 1829, 
and Mr. Hinds commenced building up a village. 
Mr. Hinds built the first warehouse in 1880, and the 
lirst tavern in 1835, 

He, in coimexion Avith his brotlK^r .iocl, built the 
first stor(3 for selling dry goods and grocHiies, in 1885, 
ojiened it for t]*ade in 1886. 

In the year ] 882, considerable trade luiving been, 
established here, and the emigration to Kendall and 
other })laces north gentnally, making this its point of 
(h^barkation from the canal, the Hinds Brothers and 
their neighboi-s in pulilic meeting resolved to call 
tlieii- ])lace Hindsbui-gh. l^elicving a small village 
would be here located. 

The trade in produce proving good at Hindsburgh, 
Mr. AV. AVhitney. of Kochestei-, Imilt another ware- 
house liei-e in 1880. 

Hindsburgh has always been a good place frons 
which to slnp the abundant crops of grain, aijples, 
and farm produce raised in this neighborhood. As 
long as travel by passengers went by the canal, boats 
stopping hei-e. with the hf^lp of local trade. niad(! l)usi- 
ness livelv. 



:.)12 rioxKKi: insroKv 

Several groc«ry stores luive l)eeii ivi^pt \u'n\ a imiii- 
])er of mechanics maintained, and a large trade in 
dry goods sustained 1\y tlie Hinds Brothers and 
others. 

The death oi Joel and Darius Hinds, the removal 
of tlieir younger brother Franklin to Iowa, and the 
death of Jabez Allison, who was an earl}^ settler 
here, andAvlio had dealt largely in produce, seemed to 
check the transaction of business, and for some time 
Hindsburgh has not increased in trad(M)r ])opula- 
tion. 

Mr. Allison was for many years a justice of tln^ 
Deace. and Supervisor of Vm' town. 



CHAPTER XX A' 




THE TO'\V^* OP KIDrtEWAY. 

Formed from Batuviii— First Town Meeting — Turner, Vv'iilte ct Hook- 
er's Grist Mill— First Saw Mill— Dr. Wm. Wliite— Salt Work^— 
Seymour Murdock— Eli Moore First Tavern Keeper and ]\Ierch- 
ant — School Districts — First School — Universalist Society— Fir-^t 
Stage — Isaac Ecnnett— Eiographics of Early Settlors. 

IDGEWAY wjis fonued froin the town of l>a- 
tavia, Juno 8tli, 1812. and included in its 
original limits wliat now c'oni])rise.s Eidgeway. 
Gaines, Barre, Sliell)}', Yates and Carlton. 

In 18:>() tlie west tier of lots in the town of Caines, 
and tlire(^ lots l.ying next sontii of them in Barre, Ix-- 
ing part of tlie most western tier of lots in the loth town- 
ship, second range of the Holland Purchase, were 
added to the east side of liidgeway. in ordei- loin- 
elude the wliole village of Knowlesvilh' in on(> 
town. 

This town was named from the Ridg(^ lload. oi- 
natural embankment called "The Ridge," which runs 
through the county, 2)araliel witli the shore of Lake 
Ontario, and was the fii-st town incorj^orated in Oi- 
lcans county. 

The lirst town meeting in tltis county was iield at 
Oak Orchard, in Ridgewa}', A})ril (Jth. 181'). At 
this meeting Oliver Booth, oi' (Jaijies Corners, was 
elected Sux^ervisor. 

A bounty of iive dollars on each wolf killed in 
town was voted yearly at several town meetings. 

Judge Otis Tui'iier removed with his familv from 



814 PioNKKK insTom' 

Palmyra, X. Y., and settled at Oak Orchard in No- 
vember, 1811. His brother-in-law, Dr. Wm. White, 
came from Palmyra shortly after and settled 'near 
Mr, Turner. 

Turner, White & Hooker built a grist mill on Oak 
Orchard Creek, between th(^ Ridge and Medina in 
1812. 

The Holland Company built a sawmill on tlie same 
<'reek, near Medina, in 1805. 

Dr. AVilliam White was the tirst physician who 
settled in Orleans Co. After a few years he removed 
to Albion and built a sawmill there on Sandy Creek, 
a. little south of the village. 

As settlers came in Dr. AVhitt/ gave more attention 
to the practice of his profession, and did a large busi- 
ness. And about the time of the digging and open- 
ing of tli(^ canal, he kept a small drug store in con- 
nexion with his other business, practicing medicine in 
partnei'ship with Di*. O. Nichoson. 

When Orleans count}" was oi-ganized he was a])- 
pointed the first Surrogate. 

He was afterwards i^ngaged in boating on the canal: 
then carried on a farm in Cai'lton, and about 1842 he 
i(4ur]ied to Albion and ri^sumed the practice of med- 
icine, adopting the homeopathic system. Not getting 
much practice he removed to Holh^y, where he served 
several years as justice of th(^ ])(^ace of Murray, and 
(Mod a few years after. 

The Holland Company cut out roads to tli(^ brine 
springs north of Medina, and built works for making 
salt. But littl(3 salt was mad(^ until the works passed 
int(> possession of Isaac Bennett, in 1818. He bored 
about one hundred and fifty feet and obtained brine 
which he boiled into salt, having at onetime as many 
as seventy kettles in use, furnishing a large portion 
of all the salt used in this portion of the country. 
At th(^ time of o])ening tlx' canal tlu'sc salt works 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY, 31i) 

Were superseded by Onondaga salt, and discontinued. 

Mr. James H. Perrj, of Ridgeway, lias furnished 
the following additional history of this town : 

" The first permanent settlement in this town was 
made by Seymour Murdock. Tn the spring of 1810, 
he started with his family to remove to western New 
York to settle where he might find a place to suit. 
Arriving at Avon, he left his family there, which con- 
sisted of twelve besides himself, and witli his oldest 
son w^ent to the land office at Batavia. He there learned 
that th(^ Ridge Road had been opened, and a few set- 
tlements made on it. 

From Batavia he went to Buffalo, followed down 
the river to Lewiston, then went east along the Ridge 
Road, and wlu^n about two miles east of the western 
boundary of Orleans county, he came to two men by 
the name of Lampson, eating their dinnei- by a tree 
they had Just cut down. 

These men liad contracted with the Holland Com- 
pany to buy part of lot twenty-four, township fif- 
teen, range four, and Mr. ^Murdock purchased of 
them their rights to the land they had selected. This 
done he returned to Avon after his family, going by 
way of Batavia, while his son went east on the Ridge 
to find the best route to get through. 

His eldest daughter declared she would go no far- 
ther into the woods and was left at Avon. Taking 
the I'emainder of the family he started for Ridgeway, 
traveling through a dense forest to Clarkson, thence, 
west on the Ridge Road. th<^y reached thiMr new 
liome June 1st, 1810. 

A Mr. "William Davis began to build a log house 
on the lot next west of Murdoch's about this time, 
but did not move his family there till September, 
1810. 

Soon after this two men located at the Salt Works 
one and one-half miles soulli of the Ridfre on the bank 



810 j'loNKEii jirsTonv 

of Oak Orchai'd Crcs-'k, hi a lo.i;- lioiise erectt^d hy thf 
Land Company, 

Erza I). Barnes cainetlie same summer and boarded 
at Mnrdoc'ks while he was Iniikling his house two and 
a half miles east, and working two da^ys in each 
Aveek for Mr. Mnrdoidv to pay for his board. ^\t that 
time there was in the present town of Ridgewaj' live 
horses, two joke of oxen, and three cows, all the an- 
imals of the kind in town. These ^ v/ere brought in 
by Sej'moiir Murdoch. 

Eli Moore moved to Kidgewa}^ Corners in the spring 
of 1811, and built a blockhouse which he opened as a 
tavern the same season, and v/liich still comprises a 
})art of the large hotel standing there. 

Tiie same season he opened a small store for the 
sale of dry goods and groceries, which makes him no 
doubt the pioneer landlord and ucrchant of Ridg«'- 
way, if not of Orleans county. 

Slioles and Cheeney wen^ the ilrst blacksmiths, 
Isaac A. Bidlard tlie hrst tanner and currier and 
shoemaker. Dr. Wm. White the first physician, Israel 
Douglass the first justice of the peace, Cyrus Har- 
wood the first lawyer, and Elijah Hawley the first 
T)ostmaster. 

In 1814, the town was divided into school disti'icts. 
by William White, Micah Harrington and (lideon 
Freeman, three Commissioners of Common Schools. 

District No. 2 extended on the Ridge from the 
County Line on the west to Oak Orchard Creek oji 
the east, a distance of about seven miles, tii(> bounda- 
ries noiUi and south were unlimited. 

The first school house Avas built of logs, in 181;"), on 
the nortli-west coi-ner of lot number twenty-foui', on 
the south side of the Ridge Road. 

The first school in town was taught by Betsey 
Murdoch in 1814, in a barn buiit by her fathei', 
Seymour Murdock. This baiii is still standing. 



OF OIJLEA^'S COrNTY. 817 

A daughter of William Davis was the first person 
wlio died in town. She was buried about a mile west 
of the Corners, in what is probably the oldest bury- 
ing ground in town, and l\v som',^ said to be the old- 
est in the County. 

The first birth in town was a dauglitcr of John 
Mi'irdoek. 

The first Universalist Society was organized Dec, 
14, 1833. Mrs. Julia A. Perr}- gave them a site on 
wliich tlieir present chureh edifice was erected and 
dedicated in June, 1835. Kev. Charles Hammond 
was the first pastor of that church. 

Mr. Hildreth, of A'ienna, drove the first public con- 
veyance for carrying passengers, and the mail ])etween 
Rochester and Lewiston, being a covei'ed wagon 
drawn by tvvo horses. 

AVhen Isaac Bennett commenc-ed salt boiling at Oak 
Orchard, Israel and Seymour B. Murdoch, contract- 
ed to furnish him sixty -five cauldron kettles by a da^^ 
set. They bought the kettles near Utica, sent them 
by lake to the mouth of Oak Orchard Creek, where 
they did not aiiive until the day before the contract 
expired. They raised teams enough to transport all 
the kettles to the Salt AVorks, at one trip in time to 
})erform their contract and get their pay in gold.'' 



BIOGJUPHIES OF ExYllLY SETTLKRS. 

[SKAEL DOT'CILASS. 

Mr. Douglass was born in New Milford, Connecti- 
cut, November 20, 1777. He moved to Scott sville, 
Monroe Count}-, N. Y., in J 800. In 1810, he removed 
to the town of Batavia, now Ridgeway, Orleans Co. 
He was the first Justice of the Peace in Orleans Co. 



318 PIONEEK HISTOKV 

having been appointed previous to 1812, for the town 
of Batavia. 

At the lirst town meeting held in and for tlie town 
of Ridgeway, after that town was set oif Irom Bata- 
via, at the house of John G. Brown, at Oak Orchard, 
alpril G, 1813, he was elected town Clerk. This was 
the first town officer elected by the people residing in 
what is now Orleans County. 

There being no magistrate to preside at town meet- 
ing in the new town of Ridgeway, a Justice by the 
name of Smith was sent from Batavia for that pur- 
pose. The otlier town officers were elected afterwards 
at the same meeting. 

Mr. Douglass held the office of Justice of the Peace 
for three terms in Ridgeway ; he also held various 
other town offices, and at one time was Justice, Over- 
seer of the Poor and Supervisor. 

He was generally and justly regarded as an 
lionest, fair minded man, and one of the best 
business men in the eonnt}'. lie alwaj's resided on 
the Ridge Road, near Oak Orchard Creek. Mr. 
Douglass died January 2, 1864, aged 80 years. 

WM. C. TAN^iKn. 

" I was born in Clarendon, Rutland County, \'er- 
rnont, April 80, 1793. My father gav(^ me a good 
common school education, with a few months study 
at an academy. 

On tlie first day of May, 1815, 1 left home with a 
friend, and spent most of the next summer exploring 
the western country. We bought land in the town of 
Ridgeway, then nearly three miles away from any set- 
tlement. I returned to A'ermont to prepare for ])erma- 
nent settlement on my land the next spring. 

When the time came to go back, my friend was 
sick and conld not go, and my father permitted my 



OF ORLEANS OOCNTY. 319 

younger brother Josias, not tlien twenty-one years of 
age, to accompany nie. 

We began our journey February 14, 1816, witli a 
good yoke of oxen and wagon, and in company witli 
another team we went on our weary way. 

AVe ])oug]it two barrels of pork at Skaneatelas, 
which completed our outfit, AVe arrived at our new 
home Marcli (5, 1816, being twenty-one days on the 
road. I cut the first tree that ivas cut on tlie farm on 
which I now live, lot seventeen, township fifteen, 
range three. We, my brother and I, ke])t ' bachelor's 
hair on my land two years. 

In October, 1816, my lu'otht^r went to A'^ermont, 
leaving me in the woods alone, out of sight and Iiear- 
ing of my neighbors. I suffered many hardships thtit 
winter, principally for want of proper fof)d. I cut all 
the trees I could and fed our oxen on the tops, for we 
had raised little in that cold season fortlie sustenance 
of man or beast. I enjoyed ni}- work well, ])ut the 
nights were long and lonesome. 

On leaving home, my mother gave nit' her bible and 
I read it through that winter by fire light. 

My brother returned in February. The next ^\'in- 
ter I left him to 'keep house,' but in comparative 
comfort, for we had plent}^ of provisions. 

I w<?nt to Vermont in the fall of 1817, and returned 
in March following, bringing with me ni}- youngej- 
sister for a housekeeper. She still resides near me, 
as the wif(» of Aver}^ Y. Andrews, is the mother of a 
large family', and in good circumstances. 

My sister and myself left my fathers the last day 
of February, in a cutter, and arrived in Ridgewa^', 
March 12, 1818. Her bed, bedding and clothing we 
brought j)acked in a box, which contained all her 
worldly efft'cts, with which she commenced life as an 
Independent housekeeper. 

She was a tall, slim girl, active and cheerful, car- 



H2{) PlOXEEIl HISTORY 

i'}'ing- suiishiiic in lier coiinteiiaiu'c and manners 
wherever she was. She left a large circle of 3'onng 
friends and associates, the pleasnres of a father's 
liouse and a mother' s care, to obscure herself in the 
woods, for the benefit of her brothers. She found a 
respectable circle of 3'oung people here, altliougli 
rather widely scattered. 

We ])rought with us at that time a favorite dog, 
concluding our sister would feel greater security in 
h(^r wilderness home, when we were absent at our 
work ; and he full}" justified o^ir conclusions,, for he 
soon learned to consider himself as her special pro- 
te(;tor in (jur absence, and nothing could induc<^ him 
to leave her when we were away from home. 

If slie went for an afternoon's visit through the 
woods to a neighbor's, the dog was sure to accom- 
pany her, lie down by the door, and be ready to at- 
tend her home. She always felt secure in his pres- 
ence. 

As cold weather approached, onr season for eve- 
ning parties commenced. Most of the houses in town 
were cheerfully opened for our accommodation, and 
the young folks, with a few cour)le of young married 
people, formed a company quite respectable in point 
of numbers. We were quite democratic, there were 
no exclusions. Man}' a time did we spend our eve- 
nings dancing on a split plank fioor, traveling several 
miles to the 2)lace apj^ointed, walking on logs, over 
brooks and wet grounds, sonKi of the company car- 
lying a torch to light the way. 

We sometimes went four or five mih^s to an tn-ening 
])arty, on an ox sled, drawn by two yoke of oxen, 
with as many passengers as could ' pile on ;' and as 
fjir as appearances would prove, all enjoyed both the 
ride and the dance first rate. 

The first i-egular ball we attended was held at what 
is now Millville, in Shelby, July 4, 1819, and as it 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. ri'21 

was quite a primitive one, and perhaps the first one 
'eVer held in tliis eonnty, ir may /justify an imperfect 
description. 

There were no carriages, and but feAv liorses in tiie 
country, Tlie young men would bring their girls be- 
lund them, both riding the same liorse. Others 
would be in waiting to take the horse and go aftei' 
their girls, and so on until the, c(mipany liad assem- 
bled. The same course was pursued on their return 
liome. 

At the tinu^ of which I write, we met in the upper 
room of a new building made for a store. The floor 
was good, but the ceiling over head was low at the 
sides where the seats were plactMl, and it caused mucli 
polite liowing, to prevent our heads from coming in 
contact witli the rafters. 

Our table was spread in the street in front of the 
store, and it was well supplied with substantial fare. 
We had a fine, social time, formed many pleasant ac- 
quaintances and friendships, which were destined to 
endure through life. It is presumed there are few 
persons to whom it does not give pleasure, when the 
thought of such gatherings, in whicli they have jDar-- 
ticipated, recurs to mind. Of more than twenty- 
young ladies, who attended that party, but three are--. 
known to be living at this time (18G3. ) 

As bear stories are sometiuK^s entertaining to pio- 
neers, I will relate one witli which ni}' sister was . 
someAvhat connected : 

A respectable young man of tlie neighborhood 
called to Aisit her one evening, and continued liis stay 
into the small hours of the night. His way liome lay 
for a mile and a half through the woods. He reported 
next day that as he was returning through these 
woods, he treed a bear; but men who were 
alarmed by his outcries, were so uncharitable as to 
report that the bear treed him. He was never very 
21 



322 PION^EER HISTORY 

communicative on the subject, and it was generally 
believed the latter was the fact. 

Our first religious meetings were held in a log 
scliool house, half a mile west of Millville. The peo- 
ple would assemble from quite a distance and the 
house would be well filled. 

Elder Gregory, a Methodist, was our preacher. 
He resided near by, was a good man and practiced 
what ho taught. 

A Mr. Fairbanks preached occasionally. He or- 
ganized the first Presbyterian Church in Shelby, at 
tiiat school house, in 1820. 

Judge William Penniman, a popular school teacher 
in those days, taught a school in that school house 
several terms. 

My sister Anna was a puj)il in his school out 
tiiere in the winter of 1820. The old school house 
has long since disappeared. An academy and fine 
church buildings have arisen in Millville in its stead. 
There are, liowever, associations connected with that 
old school house that will cause it to be remembered 
by the old settlers. 

1 received a lieutenant' s commission in the militia 
service, dated March 4th, 1817, which I believe to be 
the oldest commission granted to any one now a resi- 
dent of Orleans county. I was promoted in regular 
gradation to other military offices, and was finally 
olected Brigadier General, my commission being da- 
tiui April 3()th, 1826. I was the first officer of that 
jAuk ever commissioned in this county. I discharged 
its duties as well as I was able for two j^ears, and 
tlien resigned my commission. 

T appointed tlie following named gentlemen my 
brigade staff' officers, viz. : William AUis, Brigade 
Inspector ; Samuel B. Ayers, Paymaster ; John Fish, 
Aid-dt-Camp; Harmon Goodrich, Quartermaster ; Or- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 323 

son Niclioson, Surgeon ; Alexis Ward, Judge Advo- 
cate. 

I was married March l.^th, 1821, to Esther Lee, 
daughter of Judge John Lee, of Barre. My wife 
died in August, 1835. 

I married for my second wife Julia A. Flagler, 
.daughter of Rev. J. S. Flagler, of Genesee county, 
K Y. 

WILLIAM C. TANNER." 
Ridgeway, Dec. 5th, 1863. 

Gen. Wm. C. Tanner died July 8th, 1869. 

LEVI DAVIS. 

" I was born in Wardsborough, Vermont, in 1793. 
My father was a revolutionary soldier. My fatlier 
afterwards removed witli his family to New Salem, 
Mass., at which place I was married in November, 
1816, to Miss Lorana Hunt. 

In 1814 I seized a short time as soldier in the war 
with England. 

Soon after I was married, in company with two 
other families, I moved my wife and a few articles 
of furniture with a yoke of oxen and wagon, to El- 
licott, Chautauqua county, N. Y., a journey it took 
us thirty-live days to perform, during which snow 
fell almost every day. 

After passing Canandaigua, we entered a forest 
with few settlers, and even these residing from three 
to ten miles apart ; and in one case we traveled four- 
teen miles without passing a single house. Tlie I'oad 
most of the way was only marked trees, with the un- 
derbrush cut out, and no bridges over the streams ex- 
cept the ice. 

On our way we exchanged our wagons for sleds, 
and how any of us lived through the last perilous day 
of fourteen miles travel through the woods, God only 
knows. 



324 rioNP:KK history 

We started as early as possible in the morning,, 
overturned one load of goods, and fearing we should all 
perish in the woods, we unhitched our teams from the 
sleds some time in the night, patting our oxen before 
us, the women being supported by holding fast to 
the tails of the oxen, and thus pursuing our way 
through the trackless forest four miles, we arrived at 
a log house about four o'clock in the morning. The- 
house had been partially chinked but not plastered. 
Here we tarried the next day and night, during which 
time we went back, shod our sleds and got them out 
of the forest. 

We had to -pay one dollar each for a yoke of oxen 
one night at hay,, and one dollar a bushel for oats. 
So in about forty days, like the Israelites of old, we 
reached the pi'omised land. 

In October, before this time, I had been to Chautau- 
qua county and contracted for a piece of land there, 
to do which I traveled out there from Massachusetts, 
and back again with my knapsack on my back, on 
foot, averaging iifty miles travel per day on the 
/loiirney. 

The third day after arriving on my land, I pro- 
cui-ed some boards and built a shanty twelve feet 
square, nailing two of the corners to two standing 
trees, making a board roof, with not a tree cut 
down near it. 

The year 181G was the 'cold season;" corn was 
cut off by frost and it was almost impossible to get 
bread. For three weeks before harvest we had 
nothing to eat but some very small new potatoes, but- 
t«'r and milk. By changing the order of having these 
dishes, we made quite a vai-iety, lived Jiigh, with 
hopes buoyant, and worked hard. Here we cleared 
up a new farm, raised an orchard from apple seeds- 
bi'O light out from Massachusetts, and also raised 
eight children. 



/ 



"'.^ 



^ 





-^r^^MV'-'^ 



,/^ <^^K>-^^:T^;^ ^9-0-^\. ^^ 



OF ORLEANS COUXTY. 325 

I went into lumbering business in 1832 ; took my 
lumber to Cincinnati to sell, but the stagnation in 
trade, and scarcity of mone}', owing to the course 
taken hy the Old United States Bank, after its re- 
newed charter was vetoed by President Jackson, 
made it impossible for me to disjjose of my lumber 
without great loss, which obliged me to sell my pro]v 
erty in Chautauqua count}^ to pay my debts, and I 
found even then I had not enougli by $500 to pay u]). 
That deficiency I afterwards earned b}^ work at mason 
business and paid up in full. 

I removed to Orleans county in 1833, and worked 
as a mason several years. 

Previous to the opening of tlie Erie canal, I luive 
paid seventy-five cents per yard for sheeting, and 
seventy -five cents per yard for calico for my wife a 
dress. I liave also paid fifteen dollars a bari-el for 
salt. 

I liave laid the corners of over fifty log buildings, 
and hav(^ helj)ed raise as many frames. I have si)ent 
more than six months of my labor gratuitously, in 
opening new public hig]iwa3"s. and building cause- 
ways. 

LEVI DAVIS." 

Ri(.lg(nv;iy, Fobruaiy, 1882. 

JEF.EMIAII P.HOWN. 

" I was born in Cheshire, Massachusetts, July 7, 
1780. My fatlier, who was an officer in the revolu- 
tionary war, died when I was seven years old. I 
lived with my eldest brother until I was sixteen 3'ears 
old, and then ran away from inm and worked out 
by the month the next seven years. 

When I was nineteen years old I traveled with my 

knapsack on my back, on foot Irom Massachusetts to 

Parmington, Ontario county, N. Y., spent a sliort 

time there, then returned as 1 came, most of tii«' 

. way alone. 



H2G PIONEER HISTORY 

Again in 1807, I traveled tlie same ground over In^ 
tli<^ same way. 

In 1809 I was married to Abigail Davis, daughter 
of the Rev. Paul Davis, of New Salem, Massachu- 
setts. 

The winter after I was married I came on horse- 
back to Farmington, to seek a home in the wilder- 
ness of AVestern New York, and located a piece of 
land for that purpose. I went back to Massachu- 
setts and worked by the month to earn the means 
to move my family to my new farm. 

I arrived in Farmington in February, 1811, and 
built me Ji log house in the woods one mile from 
any inhabitant. I was then the happy possessor of 
a wife and one child, six dollars in money, a dog 
and a gun. I exchanged my gun for a cow, which 
was the best ti'ade I ever made except when I got 
uiy wife. The next spring I cleared my land, and 
raised over one hundred busliels of corn the same 
season. 

In 1812 the war broke out. I was called to the 
lines to defend my country. I received notice on 
Friday night, about nine o'clock, to be in Can- 
andaigua on the next Monday morning at ten 
o'clock, to mai'ch to Buifalo. I hired a man and 
woman to take care of my sick wife and child du- 
ring my absence, wliile I responded to the call. I 
was then an officer in the militia, and I marched 
on foot with the rest of the officers and men to Buffalo, 
wlu'ie we arrived the second day after the battle. 
Our company was the first that arrived and assisted 
in collecting the dead. On receiving an honorable 
discharge I returned home. 

Tlie two summers next following, myself and wife 
were sick with the ague and fever, almost con- 
stantly. 

In the winter of 18b"). the ague havimz; left me, and 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 827 

kaving regained my health enough to move, I sold 
my land and returned to Massachusetts. The next 
spring I came to Ridgeway, in Orleans county, and 
bought me some land, and in May brought on my 
family. 

About the first of the next September, m} self and 
wife and one child were taken sick, and until Decem- 
ber following, we suffered every thing but death. 
Often during that time while myself and wife wt^e 
confined to our beds, our children were crying fi t 
food, and neither of us had strength sufficient to ena- 
ble us to get to the cupboard to help them. 

In the month of June next, Israel Murdoch in- 
formed me of several families who were destitute el 
bread, and asked if I thought it could bt? liad for 
them at Farmington. I told him I thought it could, 
and taking his horse and wagon, I went there and g(.t 
a load of corn for which I paid one dollar a bushel. 
This, together witli some rye, which Israel Murdock 
had then growing, and which the nonghbors com- 
menced cutting as soon as it was out of the milk, 
sufficed for all of us to live on until after the har- 
vest. 

The favorite, because tlie only way to replenish our 
meat barrels, was to hunt i-accoons, using their fiesh 
in place of pork, and their fat to fry doughnuts in. 
The next winter (1816) I went to Farmington, and 
bought two tons of pork, paying ten dollars per hun- 
dred for it, and one dollar and fifty cents each for 
barrels, and three dollars per barrel for salt. I 
brought my pork to Ridgeway with my oxen, and 
sold it to the inliabitants for from twenty-six to thirty 
dollars per barrel, trusting it out to such as could not 
then pay, and some of those old pork accounts re- 
maining unsettled, I am beginning to consider them 
rcdlicr clonhifnl demands. 

In tlie spring of 1816, we held our first town nu^et- 



328 PIONJCKll JIISTORY 

iiig, and elected our first town ofiicers. Tliere not be- 
ing fi'(^eliolders eiiongli in town to till tlie office? to 
wliicli we had chosen our candidates, Mr. Joseph El- 
licott sent Andrevv- Ellicott to our town to notify the 
town officers elect, to go to Batavia and take deeds of 
tlieir lands and give their mortgages, in order to 
become legal town officers, and thvy went and did so. 
I having been chosen commissioner of highways went 
with the others. 

In my official ca})acity 1 assisted in laying out five 
iiighways from the llidgeto the lake. We would lay 
a road, following the lines between lots to the lake, 
keeping us busy all da_>'. At night we v;ould make 
a fire, cut some hemlock boughs for a bed, and sleep 
on them before our fije soundly till morning. Then 
making our breakfast, we would take another line 
back to the Eidge, and by the time we could get back 
to the settlement it would be afternoon, and when we 
could get something to eat ^yo generall}^ had excellent 
appetites. 

We w^ere, however, ajn})]3"couipensated, our pay be- 
ing two dollars for every twentj'-four hours we s])ent 
in this kind of labor, to apply on our taxes. Who 
would not desire to be a commissioner of highways 
under such circumstan<'es 1 

Since then I have held all the town offices in the 
gift of the people except clerk, collector, and (nonsta- 
ble. I was once a candidate for the last iiamed office, 
but to my gi-eat grief and mortification I was de- 
feated. 

Our county was vei-y unlicalthy until 1828. That 
I think was the last sickly season, and during that 
season my health was good, and for eight vs'eeks in 
that summer I never undressed myself to go to bed 
at night, being (H)nstantly watcliing with, and taking 
can* of the sick, (^ithei- in m\ own familv or among 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 321) 

my neighbors. Since that time this county has been 
as healthy as any other section I ever knew. 

In 1822 I built the first furnace and cast the lirst 
plougli ever made in this State west of Rochester. 

When I lirst settled in Ridge way, the town of 
Ridgewa}'^ extended from Niagara count}" eastward to 
the Transit Line, having originally been tlie nortli 
part of Batavia, from wdiicli it was talven 

Such is some of my experience as a pioneer of 
Western New York. I have lived to see 'the 
wilderness blossom like the rose,' and to see many 
of my early companions in the hardships of tliis ne\^' 
county, depart before me to 'that bourne from wliencc 
no traveler returns.' 

JEREMIAH BROWN." 
Pudgeway, July, 1862. 

Mr. Jeremiah Brown died Nov. 17, 1863. He was 
a man of large frame, strong and vigorous constitu- 
tion, a farmer by occuj)ation, but sometimes varied 
his employment by buying cattl(\ and driving them 
to Pliiladelphia to market, and in otlu^r speculations 
in trade. 

Albert V. Brown, late Maj'or of Lockport, and Col. 
Edwin F. Brown, late of the Union Army, are liis 
sons. 

.TOSKPII L. PKUUY. 

Josepli L. Perry was born in Huntington. Coninicrt- 
Icut, November 30th, 1794. In 1804, liis tatlier re- 
moved his family to Aurelius, (yayuga coujity, N. Y.. 
to a farm near Auburn. 

Josepli L. Perry married Julia Ann Reed, daugli- 
ter of Jesse Reed, of Aurt^lius, July 15th, 1810, and 
in Marclj, 1820, remo\ ed to Ridgeway, Orleans coun- 
ty, and located half a mile west of Ridgeway Cor- 
ners, on the Ridge Road, on lot twenty-four. 

He was town collector and clerk of Ridgeway, 



830 PIONEER HISTORY 

and deputy sherift' while this county was part of Gen- 
esee county, also deputy sheriff of Orleans county 
afterwards. 

In 1825 he purchased the store and hotel at Ridge- 
way Corners, and carried on the mercantile business 
for a number of years, then moved into the hotel and 
kept tavern there many years. He also carried on 
the ashery business, and at one time run ten miles of 
the old pioneer line of stages, on the Ridge Road, in 
company with Champion, Bissell and Walbridge. 
He was postmaster a number of years, and mail con- 
tractor between Ridgewaj^ and Shelb}^, several years. 
He was extensivel}' engaged in buying and shipping 
grain on the Erie canal, running two boats of his 
own, which he sometimes commanded in person. He 
was a shrewd, sharp, quick witted man, a good judge 
of human nature, always jovial and abounding in 
fun. 

He never lacked for expedients to extricate himself 
from any perplexit}^, and his saga<'ity and energy al- 
ways carried him safely through, or ovei-, every imped- 
iment which interfered with his purposes. He died 
September 17th, 1845, at his residence in the town of 
Ridgeway. 

ClIARLKS I>. miRl.IXGIIAM. 

''I was born in Cxreenfield, Saratoga Co., N. Y., 
February 8th, 1810, being the hfth of my father's 
eleven children. 

In 1818 my fathei- ]'eniov<xl with his faniil}^ to Per- 
ry, now in Wj^oming county, on what is known as 
'The Cotringer Tract.' The western line of our 
farm was the eastern bounds of the Holland Purchase. 
The farm contained one hundred acres, fifteen of 
which had been c^leared and a log house and barn 
erected wlien Ave came on. 

In clcai'iiiir our land we were accustonit'd to make 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 331 

' Mack salts ' for sale, as tliese, with pot and pearlasli 
were the principal articles of export that brought 
money into the settlement. 

In common with our neighbors, we sometimes suf- 
fered some hardships for lack of the necessaries of 
life. My father at one time went to tlie Genesee Flats, 
twelve or fifteen miles distant, and bought corn that 
was nearly spoiled by the iiood of the previous sea- 
son, paying one dollar and twenty-five cents a bushel, 
to help us along in the spring. 

I renjember one pleasant incident of our pioneer 
history. After getting along as best we (;ould at one 
time, without any bread for several weeks, we sat 
down to a meal of boiled new unground wheat, and 
maple molasses, all the product of our own fjirm, the 
most delicious dinner, it seemed to me, I ever ate. 
Ah, that was a dinner a little boy could not easil}'' 
forget, and that was the crisis, the turning i^oint in 
the pinch. 

Not long after this we had grain to sell, wheat at 
the nominal price of thirty-one cents, and corn at 
eighteen cents per bushel, with very limited sales at. 
those prices. 

Our house stood, as I then thought, in about the 
center of the world, and having Joined to it an addi- 
tion of another house of about the like size, we were 
frequently favored with social gatherings of people 
there of all classes during the winter evenings. Those 
were occasions never to be forgotten by me. The 
children and young people would amuse tliemselves 
hi harmless plaj^ and gossip, and the parents enjoy 
themselves in j^lanning and story telling, while a few 
of the venerable mothers wen^ intent on ])reparing 
the invariable accompaniment of eveiy gathering, a 
good supper. 

Starch, prim, and upper ten, wew^ unknown there. 
Liberty, equality and fraternity reigned supreme in 



832 PIONEEi: ]I1ST0KY 

those liak'3'ou da^'s. All me, but those were days of 
'Auhl Lang Syne.' tlie niemoiy- of wliicli is exceeding- 
pleasant. 

In those times our religious meetings were held in 
a private house about half a mile from ours. Elder 
Luther, a man of more than ordinary ability, was the 
]3reacher who visited tiie place occasionall3^ lie was 
a little eccentric in his mannei's and language, but 
quite well adapted to the times, and character of his 
congregations. 

As a specimen of pioneer preaching, it is remem- 
bered of Elder Luther, as he was in the midst of a 
sermon, urging some topic, and wishing to adduce 
authority to sustain some i)oint, he stopped a mo- 
ment, then said, 'John, Avhat do you sayil"" Then 
changing his tone of voice to imitate a fancied reply, 
he repeated what the apostle saj^s on that subject. 
And then he called out, 'Paul, v.iiat are your views i' 
Giving a repl}^ as bt^brc, in lilce manner tlius interro- 
gating other apostles and our Savior, and giving theu- 
answers, closingui^ with — "And now, old Ben. Luther, 
what have you to say to all this V and then he gave 
his own conclusions, making the point deeply impi'es- 
sive upon his hearers. 

Our chorister was the blacksmith of the settlement, 
^ Uncle Sea va,' as he was called by everybody; a 
white haired,. tall, slim, straight and solemn old gen- 
tleman. He would rise and give tlie pitch for New 
Durham, Exhortation, Northtield or Majesty, o]- 
some sucli tune in which the whole congregation who 
could sing would join, taking their style from the 
chorister, giving to the words and the music that pe- 
culiar ' nasal twang ' common in tliose days, which 
was designed to be especially imi)ressive upon the 
hearers, and it had its intended effect, at least upon 
me, for I liave not forgotten those auspicious occa- 
riions I witnessed when I was a littl<^ boy. Although 



OF OllLEANS COUNTY. 333 

some of the young people seemed to be amused by 
tlie queer pieacliiug and nasal singing, and some wlio 
attended failed to be profited, apparently, b}" the ser- 
vices, yet those religious meetings were really the 
'green spots' in our early pioneer life, and were 
doubtless of great moral value to the settlement. 

Though district schools were established at an early 
day around us, my early advantages for attending 
school were quite limited. However, at the the age 
of eighteen years, I went before the board of inspec- 
tors for examination, and being found by them of 
sufficient capacity, I was installed into office as a 
school master in a district school, which calling I al- 
ternated with mercantile business, until I was tliirty 
y(^ars old. 

I embraced religion wiiile teaching school in Poi'- 
tageville, Wyoming county, in April 1831, and soon 
after became a meinber of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. 

I married Adeline C. Miller, in New Berlin. N. Y., 
in September, 1834. 

In 1840 I was received as a member of the Genesee 
Conference of the M. E. Church, and began preacli- 
ing, in which service I have ever since been engaged, 
]"emoving to Knowlesville in 1862. 

CHARLES D. BURLINGIIAM.^' 
Knowlesville, April, 1804. 

JOSIAS TAXNEll. 

" I was born in Clarendon, Vermont, August 17th, 
1795. 

I received a fair common school education like 
other farmers' sons in that neighborhood. 

I came to the town of Ridgeway, N. Y., with my 
brother, William C. Tanner, in March, 1816, where I 
have resided ever since. 

I was married November 28th, 1825, to Miss Lucy 
Baldwin. 



334 PIONEER HISTORY 

I have lived ou my farm forty-eiglit years. I have 
had four children. My youngest son, Benj. B. Tanner, 
was a Lieutenant in the 151st Regiment N, Y. Volun- 
teers, and died in the service of his country in the 
war of the rebellion. 

JOSIAS TANNER." 
Hidgeway, April, 1864. 

LUCIUS BARRETT. 

"I was born in Fabius, N. Y., April IStli, 1807. 
1 was son of Amos Barrett. My father removed with 
liis family to Ridgeway, N. Y., in March, 1812, and 
settled on the Ridge Road, one mile west of Ridge- 
way Corners. We moved into the house ol Jona- 
than Cobb, and resided with liis family until my 
father got his house ready for his family. Mr. Cobb 
was an old neighbor of my father, and had moved 
to Ridgeway the year before we came. 

I well remember the house my father lirst built 
with the help of the settlers in that vicinity. The 
walls were logs, the Hoor basswood logs split, and 
hewed, the roof covered with long shingles split from 
black ash, not a door aboiit the premises, nor a board. 
A blanket hung at the entrance served as a door, and 
kept out the cold and wild beasts. The fireplace was 
.some stones against the logs at one end of the house, 
and the chimney was a hole through the roof. This 
sheltered us from the rain, but the snow sifted in 
plentifully. 

Farming has been my business. I bought the 
farm on which I have since resided, in 1831. 

I was married to Electa B. Chase, of Clarkson, N. 
Y., April 23d, 1833. 

I have lived to see the various changes through 
which this section of country has passed. I have 
known by experience the pinching pains of poverty, 
and I have enjoyed the comforts of competence. I 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 335 

have seen broad fields, smiling with harvests of plen- 
ty, emerge from the wild forests. I have not only 
seen this but I have realized it. I have lived it, and 
I trnst my claim will not be disallowed when I assert 
that, in a humble manner perhaps, I have contribu- 
ted my part to l)ring about these happy results. 

LUCIUS BARllETT." 

Eklgeway, 1864. 

SEYMOUR li. MURDOCK. 

"I was born in Dutchess county, N. Y., April 8th. 
1796. 

My father, Seymour Murdock, emigrated to Or- 
leans county in 1810, when I v/as fourteen years of 
age, and located on a part of the farm now owned 
and occupied by me on the Ridge, in Ridgeway. 

In the transit from Dutc^hess county, we had a hard 
time, traveling with an ox team, with a family of twelve 
persons. We were a little over a month on the wa,y, 
and i-eached our place of destination June 1st, 1810, 
and dwelt in our wagons nearly six weeks, and until 
we had time to erect a house in which we could 
reside. 

From the Genesee River to Clarkson Corners was 
one dense wilderness, with only an occasional com- 
mencement of clearing made by a few settlers. At 
Clarkson was a log tavern at which we stopped. 
From Clarkson to our first stopping place there was 
then, I think, but three houses, and they were cheap- 
ly erected log cabins. 

We were two days in journeying from Clarkson to 
Ridgewa}^ The roads, if roads they could properl}' 
be called, were almost impassable. 

At the crossing of Otter Creek, in Gaines, fire liad 
consumed the logs, which had been thrown into the 
bank to form a sort of dugway up the ascent from 
the stream, which left an almost perpendicular ascent 



886 



PIONEER IIISTOKY 



for US to rise. To accomplish this, we took oif oui' 
oxen and drove them up the old road, and then with 
teams on the hill, and chains extending from them to 
the tongues of the wagon below, we drew our wagon 
up. In doing this, at one time the draft appeared too 
much for the team, the oxen fell and were drawn back 
b}^ the load, and the horn of one of the oxen catching 
under a root, was torn entirely off. 

The next difhculty we encountered was at a slash- 
ing about two miles east of Oak Orchard Creek, 
where a man l^y the name of Sibley had cut down 
timber along the track, and just then had set it on 
lire, which I'endered our path both difficult and dan- 
gerous, as ^ve were obliged to go through the midst 
of the fire. 

The next difficulty was at Oak Orchard Creek. A 
dugway had been made down the bank only to ac- 
commodate the Yankee wagons, and ours being a 
Pennsylvania wagon, with longer axle, it was serious- 
ly endangered by its liability to be thrown down the 
T)ank. 

On ascending the bank out of the creek on the west 
side, one of my brothers, then a little fellow, fell off 
the wagon and might have been left if he had not 
screamed lustily for help. 

On arriving at our journey's end, our first business 
was to eat from the stock of prepared provisions we 
brought with us. The food was laid out in order 
around a large stump which stood conveniently by, 
and I well remember the relish with which we all 
partook of this our iirst meal, at our new home in the 
woods. 

T'ho scenery here, as I now remember it, was truly 
magniticent, one dense forest, composed of large, stur- 
dy oaks, extended as far as the eye could see, east and 
west, and on the south side of the Ridge Road. On 
the north side the forest was more dense, and com- 



OF ORLEA^^S COUNTY. 337 

posed of a greater variety of tiiiibei-. The nearest 
opening east of us, was the one alluded to above, 
where we encountered the fire, two miles east of Oak 
Orchard Creek. The nearest one west was at John- 
son's Creek, although Mr. Dunn had erected the body 
of a log house, but had made no clearing at the place 
on which he has since resided, two miles east from 
Johnson's Creek. 

At Johnson's Creek, which was about live miles 
Avest from our then home, tliere was one log house 
l)uilt, and a small clearing. This was our nearest 
neighbor, as north of us was an unbroken forest ex- 
tending to Lake Ontario, with no mark of human 
habitation west of Oak Orchard Creek. 

At the head of Stillwater, in Carlton, lived a widow 
Brown, and I have heard of residents at the mouth of 
Johnson' s Creek, but of this wt» knew nothing then. 
South of us were no families, so far as we knew, ex- 
cej)t two families by the name of Coon, who I think 
came in thi^ same season we did, and one family by 
the name of Walsworth, residing iiear Tonawanda 
Swamp, which was our only stopj)ing place between 
our place and Batavia, on tliis side the swamp. We 
had no necessity then for the law we now have called 
the 'cattle law.' 

The store nearest to us then was at Batavia, thirty 
miles distant. 

Our nearest post office was also at Batavia, and 
there also was the nearest church, and so far as I 
know, that was the nearest place to us where religious 
meetings were held. 

There was also the nearest school house known to 
me, unless there was one at wdiat is called Slater's 
Settlement, near Lockport. 

The nearest gristmill was at Niagara Falls, forty 
miles distant. 

The health of our family continued good during the 



^38 



PIONEER HISTORY 



first year, and yet the season was so far advanced be- 
fore we could be prepared to put in seed, that we 
i-aised nothing the first year except some potatoes 
and a few turnips. 

I remember a man called at our house that sum- 
mer, and knowing the family he kindly offered to 
make my mother a garden gate, there being then no 
fence around the garden, or within five miles of it. 
The general health of our family, and of those who 
became our neighbors, continued good, with trifling- 
exceptions in the form of ague and fevers, &c., until 
after the war of 1812. 

During this war much suflering prevailed, as no 
j)rovisions had been laid by, and the war necessarily 
took the time of many who would have otherwise 
been raising all necessary food, thus ceasing to be 
producers, and yet remaining consumers. This pro- 
duced a great dearth of provisions, and much suffer- 
ing, consequently in some instances whole families 
left the county, some on foot ; in some instances wo- 
men went away carrying their children in their arms, 
in hopes of reaching a land of plent}^ and safety. 

At the taking of Fort Niagara, I and most of our 
family, and our neighbors of sufficient age and size to 
]»ear arms, went to the defence of our country. Du- 
rin"^' our absence a band of Tuscarora Indians on a 
retreat passed through our neighborhood and greatly 
frightened our women and children before they could 
be made to understand that these Indians were our 
fri(^nds. 

Up to this time the settlers were sparse and illy 
prepared to encounter the horrors of war in our 
midst, and were in constant preparation for immedate 
flight. 

The hardships and privations and sufferings of our 
people consequent upon the war, were speedily fol- 
lowed by fearful sickness. 



OF OELEAKS COUNTY. 339 

About this time emigrants coming to this region 
were many and frequent, and as the population in- 
creased so the sickness increased. Great and almost 
universal suffering among the inhabitants followed. If 
any were so fortunate as to escape sickness themselves, 
their physical abilities were overtaxed with care of 
those who were sick, and still the improvement of the 
county continued ; perfect harmony abounded among 
the people, and contentment, founded on hope, was 
universal. 

On June 1st, 1825, just fifteen years after dining 
off that stump above referred to, I was married to 
Miss Eliza E-eed, of Cayuga county, N. Y., and we 
took up our residence within a stones throw of the 
log hut first erected by my father. I have resided on 
the place ever since, and ain happy and contented in 
the realization of the hopes entertained when a boy 
fighting musketoes and felling trees in the then wil- 
derness, where is now a good flourishing neighbor- 
hood of inhabitants. 

SEYMOUR B. MURDOCK." 

Ridgeway, June, 1864. 

LYMAN 1JATE8. 

Lyman Bates was born in Palmyra, N. Y., Janu- 
ary 16th, 1798. 

In November, 1819, he came to Ridgeway and 
commenced clearing a new farm. 

In January, 1821, he married Miss Abinerva 
Kingman, who was born in Palmyra in June, 179G. 
When not employed in discharging the duties of 
public office, in which much of his life has been spent, 
he has labored on his farm. He has served nine 
years as Supervisor of the town of Ridgeway, been 
several terms justice of the peace, and held other 
town offices. He served one term of five years as a 
Judge of the Old Court of Common Pleas of Orleans 



340 



PIONEER IITSTORY 



count3^ He was a mpinl^er of Assembly for Orleans 
county in 1828. He was President of the Farmer's 
Bank of Orleans, and lias always been deejDly en- 
gaged in business. 

Coming here w]ien everything was new and unset- 
tled, he identified himself with every movement 
made to develop the resources ol the country, and 
to establish and maintain good order and prosperity. 
Of a plausible address and sound mind, honorable, 
fair, impartial and honest in all he did, his party, his 
friends and all who knew him, have ever made liim 
the prominent man in his town and neighborhood, 
whose opinions have been sought, whose counsel has 
been followed, and whose influence for good lias been 
seen and felt. 

DAVID HOOKER. 



David Hooker was born in Connecticut, July 9th, 
1771. He married Betsey Saunders in 1795. 

Mr. Hooker settled in Ridgeway, on lot thirty- 
seven, townshi}) fifteen, range three, in February, 
1812. 

Soon afterwards in company with Dr. William 
AVliite and Otis Turner, he was engaged in building 
the mills on Oak Orchard Creek, since known as 
Morris Mills, which are now destroyed. He served 
in the war against Great Britain, and was at the 
taking of Fort Erie. 

His wife died in March, 1813. He married his sec- 
ond wife, Polly Pixley, February, 1814. 

He built the framed house now occiipied by his 
son, Perley H. Hooker, in 1816. 

Besides his son Perley, he left one daughter, who 
still survives him as widow of the late Harvey Fran- 
cis, of Middleport, N. Y. David Hooker died Au- 
gust 6th, 1847. 



OF ORLEANS COUJS'TY. 341 

OTIS TUltXETt. 

Otis Turner removed from AVayne county, and 
settled on the Ridge, east of Ridgeway Corners, in tlie 
year 1811 . He was a farmer by occupation, but pos- 
sessing intelligence and aptitude for business, lie was 
frequently employed in public, official stations. With 
his brother-in-law, Dr. White, and David Hooker, he 
built a sawmill on the Oak Orchard Creek, between 
Medina and the Ridge, the second in town. 

He was a Judge of the Old Court of Coninlon 
Pleas of Genesee county, before Orleans was set off, 
and he rej)resented Genesee county as one of her 
Members of Assembly in 1823. 

He was for many years a prominent member of the 
Baptist Church at Medina, being one of the few avIio 
took part in its organization. He died in Rochester, 
N. Y., August 14th, I860. 

THOMAS AVKLI). 

Thomas Weld, father of a large family who bear 
his name, was born in Connecticut in 1771. He mai-- 
ried Lorana Levins. 

They first settled in Yei-mont, and moved to Nortli 
Ridgeway in 1817. 

Mrs. Weld died in 1820, and Mr. A Veld, November, 
18th, 1852. 

Tlie}^ had five sons and two daughters. The sons 
were Elisha, Jacob, Andrew, Elias, and Marston. 
They all settled near their father. Elias now lives 
where his father did. The}^ were industrious and 
thrifty fanners. 

SAMUEL CHUKCir. 

Samuel Church was born in Brookfield, Massachu- 
setts, in 1781. He married Ann Daniels. They set- 
tled in North Ridgeway, in 1816. Mrs. Church died 
in 1855. They had four sons. 



342 PIONEER HISTORY 

AVILLIAM N. PRESTON. 

William N. Preston was born in Lyme, N. H., in 
1781. His wife, Sarah Daniels, was born in Pem- 
broke, N. H., in 1785. 

They settled in North Ridgeway, a mile and a half 
north of the Ridge, in 1819. 

His wife died October 3d, 1831. He died Decem- 
ber 29th, 1841. He had three sons, Isaac Samuel, 
and Williston. 

JAMES DANIELS. 

James Daniels was born in Pembroke, N. H., in 
1783. He settled in North Ridge way, on the town 
line. .A few years since he moved to Michigan. He 
was brother of Grosvenor Daniels. He had four 
sons, 

WILLIAM COCHRANE. 

William Cochrane was born in Pembroke, N. H.,. 
in 1781. He married Rhoda Mndgett, of Pembroke. 
They settled in Ridgeway in 1819. They had four 
sons and three daughters. William Cochrane, of 
Waterport, is eldest of the sons. 

WILLIAM COBB. 

^^''illiam Cobb was born in Massachusetts. He- 
jnarried Hannah Hemenway. They settled in Ridge- 
way in 1817. They had four sons and one daugh- 
ter. He died on the farm where he settled, April 1st, 
1855, aged sixty-six years. 

SEYMOUR MURDOCK. 

Seymour Murdock was born in Dutchess county, 
X. Y., in 1764. 

He married Catharine Buck of Amenia. She was. 
born in 1708. 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 343 

They moved from Greene county to Ridgeway in 
1810, and located on the Ridge Road, about five 
miles east of Johnson' s Creek. At that time there 
was no settler between Mr. Murdock's settlement and 
lake Ontario on the aorth ; none south to the swamp 
but Coon and Walsworth in Shelby, and east and 
-west on the Ridge it was several miles to any neigh- 
bors. 

The nearest postoffice, store or church, was at Ba- 
tavia, thirty miles distant. 

The nearest gristmill was at Niagara Falls, forty 
miles distant. 

Mr. Murdock was one of the lirst settlers on the 
Ridge, in Ridgeway. 

He had eight eons and four daughters. His sons 
names were Israel, John, Seymour B., Henry, Zimri, 
Jasper, Hiram, and William. 

Israel kept public house some fifteen years on the 
Ridge Road. He was one of the best business men 
in town. He died in 1831. 

John died in Gaines, September 19th, 1866. Mr. 
Seymour Murdock died April 14th, 1833. His wife 
died September 7th, 1823. 

OllOSVENOli DANIELS. 

Grosvenor Daniels was born in Pembroke, Rocking- 
ham county, N. H., May 3d, 1793. 

He married Sally Palmer, of Vermont, in April, 
1813. She died in July, 1854, and he married Florinda 
Hicks, in 1855. 

Leaving his family in Vermont, ^Ir. Daniels came 
to Ridgeway in the spring of 1815 and took an article 
of part of lot forty-seven, township fifteen, range 
three. 

Robert Simpson came with Mr. Daniels and took 
one hundred acres adjoining his land. At that time 



:)44 PIONEER IIISTOKY 

tliere was no settlement between Ridgeway Corners 
and Lyndonville, in Yates. 

Simpson and Daniels built for themselves a eamp 
and began cutting the trees on their lands, getting 
tlieir washing done and bread baked at Eli Moore' s, 
on the Ridge. After cutting the trees on five or six 
acres, Mr. Daniels went over to Canada to work a 
few weeks to get money, as he could get none in 
Ridgeway. After a few days he was taken sick with 
fever and ague, of which he did not get cured until 
the next spring. Being unable to work, he returned 
to Vermont, where he arrived in December, 1815. 
'Phe next winter he started to move his family to 
his western home, on an ox sled. He had sixty dol- 
lars in mone}' and thirty dollars worth of leather. 
On arriving at Rome, IST.Y., the snow went oft' and he 
bought a wagon, on which he made the remainder of 
his journey, and on arriving at his log cabin home 
lie had spent all his leather and money but six cents, 
and owed six dollars for money he borrowed of a 
friend on the journey. 

The next summei', 1810, was the cold season. He 
liad not got his land fitted for croj^s ; produce through 
tlie country was cut off by the frost, and Mr. Daniels 
found great difficulty in getting ^ood for his family, 
but having recovered from his long sickness of the 
former year, and being strong and resolute, he worked 
with a will and got through until lie had raised some- 
thing on his land. 

Being among the iirst settlers in his neighborhood, 
lie had raised produce and had it to sell to settlers, 
who came in abundantly for several years next after, 
and soon found liimself in affluence, a condition in 
which he has ever since remained. 

After a few years on the lot he first took up, lie 
bought of Abner Balcom the farm he now lives on. 
Havino- taste and ability for militai'v service, he was 



OF OKLEANS COU^S'TY. H45 

commissioned Ensign not many years after lie came 
liere, and rose by regular promotions to Brigadier 
General in the militia. 

He has been a prominent man in public affairs, 
and though he has never sought official distinction in 
civil life, he has been honored with various town 
and local offices. 

LATKA 15AKEII. 

Mrs. Laura Baker was born in Bristol, Vermont. 
March ICtli, 1799, and married Samuel Bostwick. 
December 4th, 1S16. 

In January, 1817, the}' emigrated from Fairfield, 
Vermont, in a wagon drawn by a yoke of three year 
old steers, to Shelby, N. Y. » 

While at AVhitesboro, on their Journey, their 
trunks were broken by thieves and robbed of ever}'- 
thing valuable. This obliged them to sell part of their 
clothing to pay expenses by thewa}'. They traveled 
in company with another ox team with another famih' 
of emigrants, averaging from eiglit to nineteen miles 
a day. 

They remained the last night on tlie road, at Gaines. 
The snow fell that night a foot deep. The road was 
so bad and the steers so exhausted by travel and 
hard work, tliat Mrs. Bostwick was obliged to walk 
the last six miles of the way on foot, as slie liad done 
half the way from Vermont. 

The house into which tlie}^ with the other wagon 
load of emigrants, moved, was a nice log building 
with one door, no window or light except what came 
down chimney or between the logs. It was then 
occupied by another family from Vermont, former 
acquaintances. 

A few weeks later another family of acquaintances 
came on from Vermont and moved into the same 
house, where they all resided until other houses could 
be built. 



V 



346 PIONEER HISTORY 

The inmates of this cabin now numbered twenty- 
live persons. Tlieir furniture was two chairs, a spin- 
ning wheel and a few pieces of iron ware. Their 
table was a chest, their bedsteads were round poles 
bottomed with bark, one on each side of the room, 
the otlier beds were made on the iioor. Holes bored 
in the logs, in whicli pins were driven, supported 
shelves against the walls. 

' The next spring, while making sap-troughs, Mr. 
Bostwick cut his foot and was disabled from work 
four weeks. Mrs. Bostwick hired a few trees tapped, 
gathered the sap herself, boiled it in the house in a 
twelve quart kettle, a six quart pot, and a small tea 
kettle, and made one hundred and sixty pounds of 
sugar. 

When the snow went off she made a garden in 
which she set gooseberry, raspberry and blackberry 
roots whicli she found in the woods. She never 
feared wild animals that roamed in the forest, but she 
used to admit her fear of the Indians who frequently 
came along and remained all night, and she would 
watch and treinble with fear while they slept like 
logs on the floor, with their feet to the fire. 

Having worn out the clothing they brought from 
the east, Mrs. B. bought a loom and made cloth for 
her family and others. She took in weaving of her 
neighbors, and received pay in w^lieat at six shillings 
a bushel, though the best she could do with it was to 
take it to Tlidgeway Corners and sell it for four shil- 
lings a bushel, paid for in goods at a high price. 

Mr. Samuel Bostwick died many }' ears ago, and in 
the 3'ear 1838 his widow married Mr. Otis Baker, a 
thriving farmer of Shelby. 

In 1853 he disposed of his farm and moved to Me- 
dina, where they yet reside. 

Married at the age of seventeen years, Mrs. Baker 
has passed a stirring and eventful life in things whicli 



OF ORLEAKS COUNTY. 347 

belong to the settlement of a new country. She has 
passed throngh it all in triumph. From pinching 
poverty to the possession of abundance, she has 
traveled every step, and surrounded by kind friends 
and present plenty, she yet remains one of the best 
specimens of the noble women who did their part in 
bringing this county out of the woods. 

ISTAHUM BAIUIETT. 

Nahum Barrett was born in Hinsdale, N. II. He 
married Sally Bennett of Westmoreland, N. H., in 
1805. 

In March, 1815, he removed with his family to Ti- 
oga county. His wife died there in 1820. In Janua- 
ry, 1828, he removed to Ridgeway, and died there 
April 13tli, following, aged fift3^-one years. He had 
nine cliildren, of whom the eldest is 

LUTHER BARRETT. 

Luther Barrett was born in Windham county. Yt., 
in 180C. AVhile living in his father's family in Tioga 
Co., for three years of the time it was five miles from 
his father's to any school, and when a school was 
opened nearer, young Luther never had much op- 
portunity to attend it. 

In May, 1825, he left his father's family and came 
to Ridgeway and labored for liis uncle, Amos Bar- 
rett, on his farm. He continued to work out by the 
month, until the year 1831 lie purchased the farm 
three-fourths of a mile west from Ridgeway Corners, 
on which he has since resided. 

He married Miss Almira Flood, February 18th, 
1835. Slie was born in Londonderry, A'ermont, Jan- 
uary 2d, 1807. 

They have four children, Sylvester F., Elsie A., 
married Henry Tanner ; Medora P., and Lodema A. 



348 PIONEER IIISTOKY 

Lodenia married Andrew Weld, and resides in Pax- 
ton, Illinois. 

Mr. Barrett is a lurmer, who by a life of persistent 
industry and prudence, lias accumulated a fair prop- 
erty, and by a life of honesty and integrity has se- 
cured a fair character. He enjoys the confidence of 
his townsmen and represented them as Supervisor of 
Ridgeway in the years 1857-8. 

C II IlISTOPlIEll Wll ALEY. 

Cliristopher AVhaley was born in Montville, 'Con- 
necticut, June IGth, 1798. AVith his parents he re- 
moved to Yerona, IS". Y., in 1803. 

He was educated as a j^h^'sician at the medical in- 
stitution at Fairfield, Herkimer county, and gradua- 
ted as Doctor of Medicine, June 18th, 1819. In Sep- 
tember, 1819, he settled in the practice of his profes- 
sion at Shelb_y Center. 

In February, 1832, he removed to Medina, where 
he resided until his death, October 20th, 1807. 

Dr. AYhaley married Mary Ann S. Coffin, March 
20th 1824. After hei- death h<' married Soph- 
ronia Martin in 1841. After her death he married 
Carrie E. Perry, July 16th, 1863. His widow and 
three children survived him. 

Dr. AA^haley devoted his life zealously to the prac- 
tice of his profession, in whic-h he had a large ride 
and eminent success. It is truly said of him "he 
never refused his services to any one in need of them, 
whether they were rich or poor, and without taking 
into consideration the possibility of losing his fee.'' 

AXDPEW WELD. 

Andrew AYeld was born in Reading, A'^ermont, Au- 
gust Otli, 1804. He came to Ridgeway in the fall of 
1817, in the family of his father, Thomas AA>ld. 



OF 0KLEAN8 COUNTY. 349 

They came in a wagon drawn by three yoke of 
oxen, being twenty- seven days on their journey. Mr. 
Wekl setth^d on lot nine, townsliij) fifteen, range 
four. 

Andrew resided with liis father until he was twen- 
ty years old, then labored one year for his brother, 
Elisha, on a farm for one hundred dollars. 

In February, 1828, he married Koxy Stockwell. 
She died May 9th, 1839. He married Clarissa Root 
for his second wife. She died December 22d, 186G, 
and for his third wife he married Mrs. Susan 
Downs. 

Mr. Weld is a farmer, industrious and frugal who, 
in the honest pursuit of his chosen calling, has laid 
uj) a competence for his support and comfort while 
lie lives. 

WILLIA.At -lACKSON. 

AVilliam Jackson was born in Duanesburg, N. Y., 
October 21st, 1799. 

He bought an article for one hundred acres of 
land in Ridgeway, part of lot twenty-one, township 
fifteen, range four, in September, 1826. After build- 
ing a log house on his lot, he returned to Onondaga 
county after his family and brought them to 
their new home the next February. His 
house \yas without a door or window or Hoor when 
he moved into it, but blankets for a few days were 
good substitutes for doors and windows, when he 
made a floor, and doors and lived comfortably. 
Prosperity attended his labor. In a short time he 
bought more land, which he has fitted and cultivated 
into one of the finest farms in the county. 

Mr. Jackson married Martha Comstock, January 
20th 1822. They have had eleven children, seven of 
whom are living. 



350 PIONEER HISTORY 

His father, James Jackson, was born in London, 
England, and emigrated to America in early life. 

ELIJAH IIAWLEY. 

Elijah Hawley was born in Bridgeport, Connecti- 
cut, June 2d, 1792. 

He married Rhoda Spencer in May, 1805. In May, 
1815, he settled near Ridgeway Corners. 

Mr. Hawle}^ was a practical surveyor, and many lines 
of lands in Ridgeway and Shelby were traced and 
settled by his surveys. 

From memoranda found among Mr. Hawley' s pa- 
pers after his death, made by himself, in 1814 the 
town of Ridgeway, which then comprised the present 
county of Orleans, contained six hundred and eighty- 
one inhabitants, one hundred and thirty electors, and 
but five freeholders worth two hundred and fifty 
dollars each. 

He was appointed justice of the peace by the coun- 
cil in March, 1816, and Judge of Genesee County 
Common Pleas, May 23d, 1818, which ofiice he held 
until his death. 

He was Supervisor of Ridgeway in 1818. He was 
appointed postmaster at Ridgeway Corners in 
1816. 

He died April 29th, 1820, leaving his widow and 
six children surviving. Merwin S. Hawley of Buffa- 
lo is his son. ' 

JAMES JACKSON. 

James Jackson, eldest son of James Jackson, was 
born in Duanesburg, N. Y., March 29th, 1798. He 
married Maria Maiiatte, February 21st, 1819. He 
settled on part of lot twenty, township fifteen, range 
four, in Ridgeway, in February, 1823, where he has ' 
since resided. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 351 

He has been a successful farmer, overcoming by 
sturdy industry the obstacles of sickness, hardships 
and the privations of a ne-^ country, by which he 
has been beset. 

He has had ten cliildren, nine of whom survive. 
His wife died December 13th, 1870. 

JOHN LE VALLEl. 

John LeA^alley was born at Paris Hill, N. Y., May 
31st, 1810. 

His parents removed to Holland, Niagara county, 
when he was nine years old. His father died poor, 
leaving a widow and five minor children, of whom 
John was eldest. 

At the age of eighteen he commenced the battle of 
life on his own account, with a resolute will his only 
capital, and his fatlier's family on his hands to 
provide for. 

He first bought seventy rods of land adjoining the 
place on which his father had resided, and paid for 
it in work at seventy-five cents a day and boarded 
himself. On this he built a small house, into which 
he moved liis mother and her children. He then 
bought on credit one hundred acres of land. On this 
he cleared and fenced seventy acres, built a house 
and barn, dug wells and made other improvements, 
and at, the end of three years sold his farm for three 
thousand siN hundred dollars. This he accomplished 
though to begin with he had not a dollar in money, 
no team, or stock or seed ; but he did have good 
health, a strong will, and a noble mother's wise 
counsel and encouragement, to which he was ready 
to listen and follow, in whose welfare he has alwaj^-s 
felt the most tender solicitude, who has always shared 
his house and home, and still survives at the age of 
eight}^ years, enjoying in the family of her son all 



352 PIONEEK HISTORY 

That filial affection and abundant means can supply 
to make her old age happy. 

In 1835 he purchased the farm he now occupies, 
parts of lots twenty-nine and thirty, township fifteen^ 
range four, in Ridgeway, containing one hundred and 
ninety-two acres. 

He has built mills, worked a stone quarry, and 
cultivated his large farm with eminent success and 
become wealthy. 

In 1852 he was appointed one of the Commissioners 
b}^ the Legislature to re-survey the Ridge Road. 

lie has held various civil offices in the gift of his 
fellow citizens. 

He has been three times married, and is now living 
with his third wife, Seraphine M., daughter of the 
late Joseph Davis, of Ridgeway, to whom he was 
married January 13th, 1856. 

A:^[OS EAliKETT. 

Amos Barrett vras born in Chestei-field, iS". H., May 
lOth, 1778. 

In 1802 he married Lucy Thaj'-er, and soon after 
settled in Fabius, Onondaga county, N. Y. His wife 
having died, he married Huldali Winegar, December 
20th, 1807. 

In 1811 he bought fifty acres of land, part of lot 
fifteen, lying one mile west of Ridgeway Corners, on 
the Ridge Road. 

He started to move his family- to their new home 
with a sleigh and horses and an ox team. One of 
his oxen broke his leg while being shod. He made a 
single yoke for his remaining ox, hitched him in the 
team beside a horse, and thus performed liis journey, 
his team attracting much notice in passing. The 
yoke is preserved as a valued relic by his chil- 
dren. 

He crossed Genesee river on the ice, and arrived at 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 353 

liis lot ill Ridgeway, Marcli 14th, 1812, and stopped 
with his neighbor, Jonathan Cobb, in his log house, 
eighteen by twenty-four feet scpiare, which on this 
occasion contained twenty-six inmates. 

Mr. Barrett soon built a l(|g house on his lot and 
moved into that, ^now was dt'(>p that spring, lie 
liad no hay ; as a substitute h*^ dug up a few brak(^s 
on low land near and felled trees, on which his ani- 
mals browsed, the pooi' horses hardly surviving on 
siTcli, diet. 

In June. 1813. war with (freat Britain was declared 
and Mr. Barrett went with his nc^ighbors under Capt. 
McCarty, to the defense of the Irontiei'. 

During tliis war, Mr. F)nr]'ett"s famih' remained, 
while many others fled from tlie countr}-. 

Beo;innin<>- in the woods, with iields to be cleared of 
timber before they could be made productive, with 
fever and ague to contend Avith, and privations of so 
many of the necessaries and comforts of civilized life 
to be born, it was sometimes hard for Mr. Barrett to 
meet the wants of his somewhat numerous family 
with the needed supplies. Food sometimes ran short, 
and but for the fish in the streams, and game froiri 
the forest, they might liave had more suffering. 

Mr. Barrett had a fowling piece with which he was 
a dead shot. He never had a riile ; and a trusty steel 
trai^, which did good service on occasion, once de- 
tained a wolf who happened "' to put his foot in it." 
Numerous deer, and occasionally a bear yielded to 
his prowess as a hunter, and furnished meat for the 
family. 

Mr. Barrett paid three dollars per acre for the lirst 
fifty acres of land he bought He had the sagacity to 
foresee that the price of lands would rise as settle- 
ments increased, and he secured to himself titles to a 
number of other parcels of land, and realized the 
rise in value as he had expected. 

23 



354 PIONEER HISTORY 

Mr. Barrett had seven sons and one daughter, all 
of whom he lived to see married and settled around 
him, v^ith twenty-two grand children to perpetuate 
"the family. 

He took pleasure in the last years of his life visi- 
ting the homes of his children. His social qualities 
made him a welcome guest always among all liis ac- 
quaintances, by whom he was familiarl}?^ known and 
addressed as " Uncle Amos.*" 

He was generous and kind to worth}^ objects of his 
bounty, but the profligate, dishonest and idle, found 
no favor at his hands. 

He was a pioneer in introducing improved modes 
and implements in agriculture. He was the first in 
his vicinity to use cast iron plows in place of the old 
Dutch plow. A threshing machine took the place of 
the flail in his barn at an early day, a rude im- 
perfect machine, but it was an advance in the right 
direction, and his neighbors were induced to draw 
their grain to his machine, and thus taught its labor 
saving power. 

Mr. Barrett died in 1860, in the eighty-second yeai' 
of his age. 

SIDNKY S. BARRETT. 

Sidney S. Barrett, eldest son of Amos Barrett, was 
born in Fabius, N. Y., May 8tli, 1804. He came to 
Kidgeway with his father s family in March, 1812, 
and resided in that family until he was twenty -four 
years old, then with two j^ounger brothers he bought 
part' of lot twenty- four, township fifteen, range four, 
in Ridge way. He worked his land in comj)any with 
these brothers for five or six years, when it was di- 
vided and he took a part to himself, on which he has 
ever since resided. 

He married Lydia H. Fox, February 23d, 1832, by 






4w '^ V«^-'' 




^ 






OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 355 

whom lie had two sons and two daughters, all of 
whom lived to adult age. 

WILLIAM KXOWLES. 

Mr. Knowles was born in Sandersfield, Berkshire 
•county, Massachusetts, July 19, 1790. His ancestors, 
for several generations, had been residents of Cape 
Cod, and were of the true New England, Puritan 
stock. 

They were God-fearing people, of deep I'eligious sen- 
timent, and strict in their habits. His parents brought 
up their family of nine children according to the no- 
tions prevalent in those days among the descendants 
of the old Puritans. 

The school house and the church were prominent 
institutions in New England civilization, and Mr. 
Knowles had the advantages of both, as they wTre 
enjoyed seventy years ago. His schooling was re- 
stricted to the district school of that time. 

In December, 1813, Mr. Knowles collected his ef- 
fects together, purchased a span of horses and wagon, 
and a quantity of iron and steel for loading, and 
started to go to the Genesee country, where three of 
his brothers had already located. 

On his way west he stopped at Schenectady and 
bought eight kegs of oysters to add to his load. He 
arrived safely at the house of his brother in Riga, 
January 5th, 1814, 

In January, 1815, he came to Ridgeway and stop- 
ped at the house of an old friend, Eleazer Slater. 
He took an article of lot three, township fifteen, range 
three, on which the village of Knowlesville, so named 
in his honor, now stands, on the Erie canal, contain- 
ing 341 acres. 

In March, 1815, he began to cut down the trees 
upon his land so purchased, to build a house, then 



J356 PIONKEK IILSTORY 

more tliaii a mile from iiny house, or liigliway or foot 
patli. 

The spot on whicli lie cut the first tree is where the 
lesideiice of Mr. R. P. Wood now stands. In due 
rime liis cabin was raised, with sides of logs, roof of 
staves, or shakes, as they were called, fastened to- 
their places by poles bound crosswise, with a floor 
of basswood logs roughly hewed on one side. 

Mr. John Canifee, having a wife and one child and 
no house, moved into the new bouse of Mr. Knowles 
before it was completed, while the floor was only half 
laid down and a blanket was used for a door, and 
Jived in it in that condition for two weeks. 

Mr. Knowles hired two men to work for him, one of 
whom had a wife, who was their housekeeper. Du- 
ring the flrst summer this woman, Mrs. Hill, was 
taken sick and died. 

At that time there were no roads, no barns, no pas- 
tures, and none of the modern conveniences for living 
in the settlement. Mr. Knowles had obtained some 
cows which he hired kept two miles from his house. 
He would work hard in his clearing all day, then go 
two miles to milk his cows and bring the milk home 
in pails through the woods. 

The death of Mrs. Hill was a sad event in the 
wilderness. It rendered the log cabin desolate. 
The men Mr. Knowles had hired soon left him. 

In November, 1815, he went back to Massachu- 
setts, and in January, 1816, was married to Miss 
Mary Baldwin. They came on to the house Mr. 
Knowles had built. Mrs. Knowles soon accustomed 
herself to the inconveniences and difiiculties of her 
new situation, went cheerfully to work and became a 
model housekeeper. The inconveniences of house- 
keeping were not a few. 

Mr. Knowles, on his way home with his wife, had 
purchased a set of chairs with splint seats. These ' 



01' ORLEAIS'S COUNTY. 357 

were regarded at first "by the neighbors as a great luxu- 
ry, and frequent comments were made by them upon 
tlie extravagance, as they regarded it of tlie Knowles 
family. But if they did indulge a little in the matter 
of chairs, their other furnitun^ of the house at first was 
sufficiently primitive to satisfy the most fastidious 
of their friends, for they had at first no table but a 
board put on the top of a barrel. Their first bed- 
stead was made by boring holes in the logs in tin- 
side of the house, and putting in rods listened to 
pole bedposts, with side pieces of like material. 

In the cold summer of 1816, frost in June killed 
the corn, rendering the prospect gloomy and sad for 
the new^ settlers, but the wheat crop proved good in 
qualit}^ though less than an average yield in quan- 
tity. 

In the summer of 1816, the engineers surveying foi- 
the Erie Canal, came along and pitched their tent on 
Mr. Knowles farm, on the spot where Abell & Bract' 
now have a store, stopping th^re a week, and finally 
established the line for tlie canal through the center 
of his farm. 

The canal was completed to Lock]X)rt from the 
east in 1824. 

Mr. KnowlQS built one section of the canal a little 
east of Holley. 

In 1825 he built the first framed house in Knowles- 
adlle, on the south side of the canal, in which he kept 
a hotel for several years. Afterwards he built the 
brick house near the canal on the west side of the 
Main street, in which he kept a temperance hotel foi- 
several years, until he finally closed the house as a 
tavern. 

Mr. Knowles built the first warehouse in Knowles- 
ville, in 1825. 

He bought and shipped the first boat load of wheat 
1 ..ever shipped from Orleans ct)unt3'. 



358 PIONEEK HISTORY 

Mr. Knowles was always among the first engaged 
in all public enterprises for the benefit of the commu- 
nity in which he lived. 

He helped build the first school house in his dis- 
trict, which was made of logs. This served also as a 
place of public worship. Here ministers of various 
denominations preached the gospel, and the people 
fiocked to hear them without regard to sectarian pre- 
judice or partialit}^ 

In 1838 Mr. Knowles built his late place of res- 
idence on the beautiful eminence in the west part of 
t]ie village, and north of the canal. 

In 1830 the brick church in Knowlesville was erec- 
ted, Mr. K. furnishing one-half or more of the funds 
for that purpose. 

Mr. and Mrs. Knowles united with the Presbyte- 
rian church in 1820, which was the first religious so- 
ciety organized in Ridgeway. For nearly forty years 
he has been a ruling elder in that church. 

He nevej' had children of his own, yet he has taken 
into his family and brought up and educated seven 
or eight children of others. To one of these Rev. I. 
O. Fillmore, he gave a liberal education, sending him 
to college and theological schools to fit for the gospel 
ministry, besides granting him a generous allowance 
of means to establish himself with comfort in life, 
in grateful remembrance of which favors, so bounti- 
fully and disinterestedly bestowed by Mr. Knowles 
and his familj^, Mr. Fillmore acknowledges his obli- 
gation, and devotes himself with filial duty tO' 
make the last days of his kind benefactor as happy 
as possible. 

Mr. Knowles has been twice married. His first 
wife died April 2d, 1861. He married Mrs. Mary 
Crippen for his second wife. 

He has sold his large farm and other real estate, re- 
serving only a house and lot in Knowlesville, where 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 359 

he resides, relieved from the cares and perplexities of 
business, calmly awaiting the approach of death, en- 
jojing the full assurance of the good man's hope. 

The foregoing is the substance of a sketch of Mr. 
Knowles, furnished for the Orleans County Pioneer 
Association by his adopted son, Rev. I. O. Fill- 
more. 

AYEKY V. ANDPvEWS. 

'' I was born in Claremont, New Hainpshire, July 
25th, 1798. 

In 1802 my father removed to Waterbury, Yei-- 
mont. 

In October, 1817, he started with two 3^oke of oxen 
and a wagon to move his family to western New York, 
and after traveling thirty days arrived at Gaines, 
then Genesee county, N. Y. T was then eighteen 
3^eai's of age. 

In the fall of 1819, I bought an article for fifty acres 
of land in Ridge way. and in 1821, I bought an arti- 
cle for sixty-two acres with a small log house on it. 
All my personal estate tlien consisted of one yoke of 
steers and a cow. 

I lived in my log house seventeen years, then built 
a dwelling house of stone in which I now reside. 

AVERY Y. ANDREWS." 

Ridgeway, June, 18(50. 

XANCY (4. MASTEN. 

''I was born in Warwick, Massachusetts, Septem- 
ber 20th, 1796. 

I was married to Ephraim G. Masten, at Albany, 
N. Y^., November loth, 1815. 

We settled in Bethlehem, Albany county, N. Y. 
In 1819 my husband came to Ridgeway, Orleans Co. , 
and bought an article for one hundred and thirty 
acres of land on lot seventeen, township fifteen, 



360 PIONKEH HISTORY 

range three, then in a wild state, cleared three acres 
and sowed it with wheat, and in November, 1810, 
moved upon his land with his family. 

We lived in a log house until in 1831 we built a 
dwelling of stone on tlie site of the old log house. 
Mr. Hasten died Mai-ch SOtli, 1840. 

NANCY G. MASTEN." 
IJidgeway, September, 1860. 

J.YSANDEll ('. OROVKIJ. 

"I was born in Deeriield, Massachusetts, Jan- 
uary, 22d, 1802. 

In the fall of 1807, my father moved to Phelps, On- 
tario county, I being then in iny sixth year. Here 
I spent my boyhood working on a farm summers 
and attending district school winters. Whi^n I was 
twelve years old my father sent me with his hired 
man a mile and a half into the woods to chop cord 
wood, and on my twelfth birth day I chopped and 
7)iled one cord of wood, and well do I remember of 
bragging of my exploit when I returned home. But 
stratef/y^ of which we hear occasionally, had some- 
thing to do witli it, for I got the hired man to fall an 
old basswood tree with a dead top for me, and this 
helped materially to make out my pile. 

My father being of Given Mountain origin, where 
men were born with iron constitutions, nnpiired more 
work of me than my constitution could endure, con- 
sequently when I was about nineteen years old, I lie- 
came physically unable to labor. 

In 1823 I went to scliool at an academy in Geneva, 
and in the fall of that year I ol)tained a teacher's cer- 
tificate. Thus accouteied, and with little knowledge 
of the world, and still less of its lucre, I emerged as 
a pedagogue which occui)ation I followed with an in- 
crease both of succc^ss and wages. 

Finding this business irksome and by no means de- 



OF ORLEAlSrS COUNTY. 361 

fsirable for life, I resolved upon a profession. Wlieii 
consulting with friends for a clioice it was tliouglit 
m J piety did not come up to the ministerial standard, 
and I had neither tlie confidence nor impudence to 
warrant success as a lawyer, tht^refore the onl>' al- 
ternative was I must be a pliysician, wliicli I resolved 
to be. 

I studied medicine with Dr. James Carter, of Gene- 
va, and attended medical lectures in the city of New 
York in the winter of 1827-8, and returned in the 
spring to Geneva, witli just six cents capital in n\y 
pocket witli which to start in business. 

In January, 1829, I located for practice in the vil- 
lage of Alloway, in the town of Lyons. There, witli 
a capital all borrowed, except the aforesaid six cents 
which I had not encroached upon, did I start out 
with saddle bags well tilled, fidl of conlidence of 
success. I stuck up my tin and was ready foi- 
business. 

It was in the healtli}- season of the j^ear, and no- 
body would get sick to accommodate me, or test the 
efficit^ncy of my drugs, or my ability in prescribing 
them. And it was even more than hinted that the 
l}luei< were lurking about me. 

But at length b}" patient industry I eventually ac- 
quired a good and lucrative practice as a pliysician, 
and how well I have acquitted myself in my profes- 
sion, and in suc^li other business as I have been en- 
gaged in, I leave for others to decide. 

I had not physical stamina sufficient to enable me 
to enter the wilderness and lay low its primeval for- 
ests, supplant the ferocious bears, and prowling and 
howling wolves, — or to build log houses, and occupy 
them, — therefore I am scarcely entitled to have my 
name enrolled among the real settlers and early pio- 
neers of Orleans county fifty years ago, my only 
claim being that I swung the ax in my boyhood days 



862 PIOi^EER IIIriTOKY 

in Ontario county, and also that I have cleared some 
land by proxy in Orleans county. 

October 3d, 1831, I married a daughter of Henry 
Howard, of Allowa}^, Wayne county, N. Y. I car- 
ried on my jDrofessional business in connexion with 
merchandising, until in 1844, Ii-emoved to Alexander, 
Genesee county, and in February, 1845, I moved to 
Knowlesville, on the farm on which I ]iow reside. 
Here I have practiced medicine but little, keeping a 
drug and book store, and superintending my farm. 

My wife died April 8th, 1847, and I married for a 
second wife, Mi's. Eliza Ann Bi'own, August 12th, 
]858. 

I have failed to get rich, beiug too timid to make 
any bold and great business strikes, having too great 
a development of the oi'gan of cautiousness to 
secure the avails of any great far-]-eaching enter- 
prise. 

To sum up the events of my history in short, in my 
boyhood I was a farmer, then a teacher, then a clerk, 
next a student of medicine, after that a doctor, then 
a merchant. 

I have run an ashery and a distillery, for which lat- 
ter business I trust I am now sufficiently jienitent. 1 
have kept a drug and book store, and am now living 
quietly on my farm in Knowlesville. 

LYSANDER C. GROVER." 

Knowlesville, January 21, 1807. 

EDWIN P. IIEALY. 

'' My father moved from Massachusetts to Marcel- 
lus, N. Y. in 1805. 

I was born in Marcellus, Onondaga county, N. Y., 
April 14th, 1812, and was brought up at labor on my 
father's farm until I became a man. 

I taught school foui- years, then studied med- 
icine, and graduated in m}^ profession in 1837, 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 363 

and settled to practice in Cortlandville, N. Y. In 
1838 I was married to Miss Maria Thomas, of Skane- 
atelas, and began housekeeping immediately. 

I practiced my profession eighteen years, then from 
failing health was compelled to abandon the practice 
of medicine and removed to Medina, N. Y., in 1856, 
and engaged in the business of selling drugs and 
medicines, which I still follow. 

EDWIN P. HEALY." 
Medina, April, 1867. 

MILO COON. 

Milo Coon was born in DeRuyter, N. Y., Novem- 
ber 4th, 1799. 

His father, Hezekiah Coon, was a native of Rhode 
Island. He came to Ridgeway in 1809, and took an 
article for one hundred acres of land one mile east of 
Ridgeway Corners, upon which he moved with his 
family September 29th, 1811. 

When he settled here his neighbors were Ezra I). 
Barnes, Israel Douglass and Seymour Murdock. 

Milo Coon married Edith L. Willets, August 31st, 
1823. 

PETEll HO AG. 

Peter Hoag was born at Independence, New Jer- 
sey, December 3d, 1794. 

In 1804 he came with his famil}* to Farmington, 
Ontario county, N. Y. From that time until Octo- 
ber, 1815, he labored on a farm, or went to school, or 
kept school. In October, 1815, he took up a lot of 
land in Ridgeway and built a log house on it, into 
which he moved his family in March, 1816. 

About the year 1838 he disposed of his lot, bought 
part of lot nineteen, township fifteen, i-ange three, on 
which he resides with his son Lewis. 

Mr. Hoag married Hannah Yanduser, March 15th. 
1815. Shedied August 18th, 1831. 



364 pio:n^eek history 

He married Maria Douglass, January nth, 1832. 
She died March 20th, 1866. 

His children are Mar}', who died in infanc}'. Zach- 
ariah marri(>d Maria Temple, and resides in Michi- 
gan. James, who married Elizabeth Slade, resides 
in Kendall. Ransom, who married Melvina Porter, 
resides in Medina. Mar3^ who married Sylvester 
Gillett, I'esides in Bergen. Lyman died in infancy. 
William L., who married Clara Bigford, resides in 
Wisconsin. Charles Henry, who married Minerva 
Powers, resides in AVayne county, N. Y., and Lewis 
H., who married Sarah Hoag, and resides on his pa- 
ternal homestead. 

DAVID HOOD. 

"I was born in th(.' town of Tarbot, Pennsylvania, 
August 2d, 1794. 

In 1797 my parents removed to Seneca, N. Y., town 
of Romulus. We had many hardships and priva- 
tions to endure, the country being new and we so far 
from school and religious meetings. Our land was 
heavily timbered and requii-ed a great deal of hard 
work to get it in a condition to till. We had to go 
ten miles to mill. 

I went to school after I was nine or ten years 
old, what I could, and worked on the farm summers 
until in September, 1813, I was drafted for a soldier, 
being then nineteen years old, and went to Fort 
(jfeorge, in Canada, Avhich had been taken by our for- 
ces in the spring before. 

I was three months in the army, and was then dis- 
charged. 

I continued with my parents until 1 816, when I came 
to the town of Ridgeway and worked one summer for 
a l)rother of mine who liad located one mile south of 
Knowlesville. The next s])ring I bought an article 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 365 

for one hundred and nineteen acres of land, upon 
wliicli I went to work clearing. 

The title to the farm on which my father liad re- 
sided and labored for twenty years in Seneca county 
proved bad and he was compelled to abandon it, 
leaving him almost penniless, and he came to the town 
of Shelby and began again anew. 

I bnilt a house on my land in Ridgeway, in Octo- 
ber, 1818. 

In May, 1810, I was married to Miss Elizabeth 
Burroughs, daughter of David Burroughs, of Shelby, 
and in June alter, we moved into iny house upon my 
farm, on which farm I liave resided now forty-seven 
years. 

I worked my farm and my wife took good care of 
things about the house, and so we prospered as well 
as any of our neighbors. I built my first barn in 
1820. 

Presbyterian churches were organized at Oak Or- 
chard Creek, and at Millville at an early day. In 
the year 1831 a Church edifice was erected by the 
Presbyterians at Knowlesville. 

During these years so long ago, although oui- labor 
was hard and fatiguing, yet we performed it with 
cheerfulness and in hope. Our neighbors knew no 
broils, families were all peaceful and iiiendly with 
each other, kind and attentive in sickness, even unto 
death. 

Thus we toiled on from year to year, the forest gradu- 
ally retiring before us, and giving place to fruitful 
fields, and gardens, and orchards, yielding a gene- 
rous reward for our labors. 

I built a new house which I finished in 1835, but 
our old log house was like a sacred spot, cherished 
in our memories. 

Since occupying my present residence I have seen 
the present wilderness exchanged for cultivated 



366 PIONEER HISTORY 

land, filled with the habitations of industry. I have 
witnessed the introduction into our county of those 
great works of improvement, the Erie Canal, the 
Railroad, and the Electric Telegraph, and now, in 
the evening ot my days, I am enjoying a competence 
of tills world' s goods for my comfort, expecting soon 
to pass over the ' river,' where I hope to meet not 
only the pioneers of the woods here, but all who are 
here ' seeking a better country,' 

DAVID HOOD." 

Ridgeway, January, 1865. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 




TUE VILLAGE OF MEDINA. 

Saw Mill by Land Company — Evan's Grist Mill — Canal Feeder — Nix- 
on's Brewery— Coan's Store— First Tavern— First Merchants— Phy- 
sician — Attorney — Quarries — Justus Ingcrsoll — Baptist Meeting 
House. 



IIP^ territory included in the village of Medi- 
na was mainl}^ covered with forest trees when 
"^^^ work was begun here on the Erie canal. 

Mr. Joseph Ellicott had, at an earh' day, located a 
large tract of land here of the Holland Land Compa- 
ny, including the rapids in the Oak Orchard Creek, 
l)ut settlement was commenced at Shelby Center, no- 
body at that time expecting a village would grow up 
here. 

Mr. Samuel F. Gear built a sawmill for tlie Hol- 
land Company or Mr. Ellicott, on the falls in the Oak 
Orchard Creek, in Medina, about the year 1805, and 
about the same time the Salt Works were established 
at tiip brine springs, north of the village. This mill 
was a cheaply constructed affair. No roads leading 
to it were made, and before the war of 1812, few set- 
tlers located here. They could not get their logs 
to the mill for the distance and bad roads. The mill 
was not kept in repair and soon tumbled into 
ruins. 

Mr. Ellicott rented out the salt works, but working 
them was impracticable, and not much salt was made 
there until the springs came into possession of Isaac 
Bennett in 1818. 



368 pionp:eii history 

Mr. Sylvanus Coan opened the first store in 1824^ 
before tlie canal was linished, and some small estab- 
lishments for selling goods to those Avorking on the 
canal soon followed, but the opening of navigation 
was the signal for commencing the improvement of 
the wat*^' power on the Creek and building up the 
town. 

In May, 1825, David E. E^ans laid the foundations 
of his large Houring mill, afterwards owned by Wil- 
liam E.. Gwynn, standing on the race near the rail- 
road. 

This mill was built of stone, John Ryan master 
mason, and finished in 1826. It was finally burned 
in December, 1859. 

The State of New York built a dam in tlie creek 
at the time the canal was dug, and made a raceway 
to carry tlie creek water into the canal, as a feeder. 
This race proved too low for the j)urpose and was 
abandoned. 

In 1825 Mr. Evans made an arrangement with the 
State, under which he raised a dam higher up the 
stream, and connected this by a raceway to the 
canal. Evans drew water from this raceway to turn 
liis mill, and sold M^ater power to others to be drawn 
fi'om his race. 

Joseph Nixon built a brewery here about the year 
1827. After a few years it was turned into a distille- 
ry, and malt liquors or whisky were made there for 
several years. 

This brewer}' was burned three times, and the site; 
is now occupied by Bignall & Co. as a foundry. 

Uri D. Moore kept the first hotel, on Slielby St., 
in 1824. 

Ashael Wooodruff" and brother were merchants 
here in 1826. 

John Ryan, mason, settled here in 1827 ; Simeon 
Downs, blacksmitl), in 1825 ; Dr. Rumsey, 



OF ORLEANS COUKT^'. 360 

the first regular physician, in 1S27. I)]-. Latlirop foi- 
lowed soou after. 

The first attorney was Nathan Sawyer. Tlie firHt 
carpenter, Samuel F. Gear. The first iron fonndej- 
was Simeon Bathgate. 

The postofRce was established in Medina in J 821), 
'and Justus Ingersoll was the lirst postmaster. 

David Ford and John Parsons were tinsmithts. 
Otis Turnei'.and Chase and Britt were grocers. Clark 
and Fairman were early merchants. 

The first fire company was organized AugUvSt 16th, 
1832. 

The first bell in a steepl<> was raised on the Bresby 
terian Ciiurch in 1836. 

This was the first bell in the village, and the only 
church bell between Albion and Lockport for several 
years. It was rung a number of times every day to 
regulat(? tiie liouis of labor and rest of the inhabi- 
tants. 

A town clock was afterwards procured and placed 
in the steeple of the Methodist Church, to serve in the 
place of so much bell linging. The clock proving a 
poor machine was soon given up. 

Justus Ingersoll, who had been a tanner in Shelby,. 
moved to Medina in 1826, and built a large brick 
building for a tannerj^ west of the creek, near the 
the canal. 

This was afterwards converted into a, fiouring mill, 
and burned December, 18o8. 

Mr. Ingersoll was justice of the peace, postmaster^ 
Indian agent and Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas of the county, and an a<'tivt'! mair in village 
affairs. 

The first religious society organized in Medina wais 
the Episcopalian. 

'•St. John's Church in Medina^" filed a certificate 

24 



:j70 rroxEER iiirfTOKY 

of incorporation in the county clerk's ofRce under 
that name November 12tli, 1827. 

Rev. Uicliarcl Salmon, missionar}', was then in 
charge. 

Bishop Hohart lield the first Episcopal service by a 
Bishop in Orleans county, in this church Septem- 
ber 7th, 1828. 

The corporate officers of the church for its first 
year were Justus Ingersoll and Richard Van Dj^ke, 
Wardens. 

Christopher Wlialey, Elijah Beech, John B. Elli- 
cott, Joseph Nixon, Henry Yerrington, Benjamin W. 
Van Dyke, Jonas S. Billings and Hezekiah R. War- 
ner, Vestrymen. 

Mr. David E. Evans gave the church a piece of 
land on which to erect their churcli edifice, the foun- 
dations of Avhich were laid in 1831. 

The first religious services were held in this build- 
ing, in the basement, on Christmas Eve, 1832. 
Joshua M. Rogers was the minister. 

The house was finished, and consecrated by Bishop 
Onderdonk, September 30th, 1830, where it now 
stands, on Center street. 

The Methodists filed a certificate to incorporate a 
society by name of "The first Methodist Episcopal 
Society in Medina," October 1st, 1830. 

They filed another certificate altering their name, 
among other things, April 7th, 1834. 

They commenced building their house of worshij) 
of stone, in 1833. In raising the roof th(> timbers 
gave way and eleven men fell in the ruins. No one 
was killed, some bones were broken. 

The l)asement of this house was finished and used 
in 1834, but it was several years before the whole 
liouse was completed. * 

This house was taken down and rebuilt in 1850, 
and thoroughly repaired in 18G9. 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 371 

The Baptists filed a, certificate to incor2)orate "The 
First Baptist Churcli and Societ}-^ in Medina," jMarcli 
14th, 1831. 

Their first honse of worsliip was a buikling put iij^ 
for a barn in tlie rear of the brick hotel, on the south- 
west corner of Center and Shelby streets. This was 
lathed and plastered and seated, and used for reli- 
gious meetings until their first meeting house was 
dedicated in the winter of 1832, 

Their new church on the corner of West and C("n- 
ter streets w^as commenced in the fall of 1870. 

The Presbyterians built the first building designed 
for religious worsliip in Medina, on the north side of 
Cross, near the corner of West street. 

Deacon Theophilus Cook commenced, alone and 
unaided, getting out the timber for this house. See- 
ing his zeal showing itself in faith and worl'S, Mr. 
Ephraim Scovill joined him in the work. Others fol- 
lowed with their labor and contributions, till 
a building about thirty by forty-five feet was 
erected, in which the Presbj^terians worshipped from 
about 1830, to February 17th, 1836, when their ne^\' 
church edifice was dedicated. 

The first house was then used for school pur2)ose8 
several years, wiien it w^as sold to the Roman Catho- 
lics, who moved it upon the same lot with theii- 
church, built an addition to it, and it is now their 
school house. 

The Presbyterian Churcli was organized with sev- 
enteen members, March 19th, 1829. 

The Presbyterian Society was incorporated August 
27th, 1831, by name of "The Trustees of the first 
Society of the Congregational Church at Medina." 

The first printing press in Medina was set up in 
the fall of 1832, and the first newspaper called "Me- 
dina Herald," published by D. P. Adams. 

After the Erie canal w^as located and surveyed 



872 PIONEEll HISTORY 

through Medina, attention was called to this place as 
tlie probable site of a village, and about the year 
18213, Mr. Ebenezer Mix survej^ed and laid out the 
village for the proprietors and named it Medina, 

Mr. John 31 Ellicott, a relative of Joseph Ellicott, 
was sent here by tlie proprietors to superintend their 
interests, as local agent. 

Mr. Artemas Allen came to Medina in 1822, and 
was the first mason who settled in the village. He 
liad charge as master mason in building the aqueduct 
for the Erie canal on Oak Orchard Creek. 

The stone for this work were mainly obtained from 
the bank of the creek north of the canal. The re- 
maining stone were from Shelby Center, or Claren- 
don, and a few from Lockport. 

Mr. Allen built a large brick tannery and dwelling 
house for Justus Ingersoll, and a large stone build- 
ing called the Eagle Hotel, which was burned some 
years ago. 

Mr. Allen claims he first discovered the quarry of 
fiaging stone at Medina, got out the first flags, and 
laid a number of rods of sidewalk in front of the 
residence of David E. Evans in Batavia. 

The stone from wdiich the water lime used 
on the aqueduct was made were obtained be- 
tween Medina and Shelby Center, burned on log 
heaps, and ground with an upright revolving 
stone. 

Mr. Artemas Allen removed to Coldwater, Miclii- 
gan, where he is now living. 

The village of Medina was incorporated March 3d, 
1882. 



CHAPTEK XXVU. 




THE VILLAGE OF KNOWLESVILLE. 

Will. Kuowles, Founder and First Settler — First Clearing — First 
Framed House — First Tavern — First Warehouse — First Boat Load 
of Wheat — First Ashery — First School House — Post Office— First 
Religious Society. 

^ NOWLESYILLE, Hituate on the eastern 
bounds of tlio town of Ridgeway, as at pres- 
ent bounded, owes its existence to tlie Erie 
canal. AVlien worlv was begun on tlie canal, but 
two or three liimilies had located on the ground now 
covered by the village. 

Mr. William Knowles, the pioneer and founder of 
the village, was the first settler. He took up from 
the Land Company and settled upon lot three, town- 
ship fifteen, range three, in the winter of 1815. 

Shortly after John Canift' took up one hundred 
acres of the north part of lot fifty -nine, in town- 
ship fifteen, range three, ad.ioining Mv. Knowles' land 
and east of it. 

The first tree cut on the sitf of Kuowlesville stood 
where the residence of R. 1\ Wood now stands, and 
was felled in March, 181."). There Mr. Knowles built 
the first log cabin, in which he resided. He hired a 
Mr. Hill to work for him in clearing land, and his 
wife was their house-keeper. In course of that sea- 
son, 1815, Mrs. Hill died, being the first person who 
died in what is now Kuowlesville. 

The Erie canal was finished from Lockj)ort to Koch- 
•ester a year or two before it was completed from 



S74 T>IOXEEPv HISTORY 

Loekport to Buffalo ; but as tliis long level liad to be 
fed mainly by water let into it from Genesee River, 
it was imiDOssible to raise the water in the western 
part more than two or three feet deep ; but even then 
some little fiat-bottomed boats were run through to 
Rochester regularly to carry passengers and light 
parcels, before the water was let in from lake Erie to 
fill the canal. 

In 1825 Mr. Knowles built the first framed house, 
on the south side of the canal, and west side of Main 
street, _yet standing, in which he kej^t the first tavern 
for several yenrs. Afterwards he built the first brick 
house erected, near tlie canal, and north from his old 
tuvern house, and kept a tavern some time there. 

Mr. Knowles built the first warehouse in 1825, and 
Mr. AVm. Van Dorn kej)t the first store in Knowles* 
warehouse. 

Nathan S. AVood opened the second store in 
1825-6. 

In 1827 Mr. Knowles bought twenty thousand 
bushels of wheat at Knowlesville. The first boat he 
loaded with this wheat is said to have been the first 
boat load of grain shipped from Orleans county by 
canal. 

Moses Huxley kept the first grocery store on the 
canal in 1825. Philo Dewey kept a grocery here in 
1830. 

The first tanner and shoemaker was Andrew 
Betts. 

The first blacksmitli was Daniel Batty. Tlie first 
('ar])enter and joiner was Andrew Ryan. 

Mr. Knowles built an ashery in 181(5. He manu- 
Cactured a little potash; afterwards, for about four 
years, he used lii^ works solely for making black 
salts, which he sold to James Mather and others at 
Gaines. 

The first scliool house was built of lot's in 1817, 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 375 

and stood a little north of where a "brick school house 
was afterwards built, on the west side of the street, 
north of the canal. 

The post office was established here in 1826. It 
became necessary to give the village and postoffice a 
name. The inhabitants met together and requested 
Mr. Knowles to give the name, and he called it Port- 
ville. It was afterwards ascertained that there was 
already a postoffice in N^ew York named Portville, 
and the name was then changed to Knowlesville. 

The Presbyterian Church was first organized after 
the Congregational form, by Rev. Eleazer Fairbanks, 
with eleven members, Aug. 27, 1817. In June, 1820, 
it united v,'itli the Presbytery of Rochester, and 
since then has been Presbyterian in its form of Gov- 
ernment., 

This was the first religious society organized in the 
present town of Ridgeway, and as such received the 
deed of the " Gospel Lot," so called, of one hundred 
acres given by the Holland Land ComjDany. The 
first fourteen years of its existence its meetings for 
worshij) were held in the school houses, and some- 
times in the dwellings of its members in this part of 
the town. 

Their first public house of worship, now standing 
in Knowiesville, was built of brick, and dedicated 
in 1832. 

The first Bajjtist meeting house, and the first Metli- 
odist meeting house, which was afterwards burned, 
were erected in 1833. 

The village of Oak Orchard, on the Ridge Road, 
in Ridgewa}^, was the principal village in town be- 
fore the Erie Canal was made. After the canal was 
completed Oak Orchard began to decline, and 
Knowlesville took the trade, population and busi- 
ness. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 




THE TOWN OF SHELBY. 

Jo. EUicott Locating Land— Ellicott's Mills— Uoad from Oak Orchard 
Road to Shelby — Salt Works Road — Anecdote of Luther Porter- 
Col. A. A. Ellicott— Ball in Ellicott's Mill— Abner Hunt— Fiddler 
Hackett— First Physician — Post Office — Iron Foundry— Tannery- 
Biographies of Early Settlers. 

1^ 

ITELBY was set off from Riclgeway; March 
Gth, 1818, and was named in honor of Gover- 
nor Shelby, of Kentucky. 
In surveying the Ilolhand Purcliase for the jn-opri- 
etors, Mr. Joseph Ellicott noticed those tracts of land 
that seemed to possess peculiar advantages, and lo- 
cated some of the best for himself. The falls on the 
Oak Orchard Creek attracted his attention as aftbrd- 
ing a good site for mills, and he laid off for himself 
and pui'chased seven hundred acres of land here in 
a body, including this water power. At an early 
day he located some of his relations here and fur- 
nished means to begin a settk^ment and improve the 
water power, and in the year 1812 he built a sawmill, 
and in 1813 a gristmill, under the sii])ervision of his 
nephew, Col. Andrew A. Ellicott. 

To facilitate the growth of this settlement, the Elli- 
cotts, with tlu^ .'lid of the Holland Companj^, o^^ened 
the first highway from Shelby Center east to intersect 
the Oak Orchard Road in Barre, and tlie Holland 
Company built the Salt Works Road from tlie Brine 



OF ORLEANS COITNTY. 377 

Springs, North of Medina, on«3 brancli of wliicli led 
south-west through Shelby, to the Lewiston Road. 

.The mills first built at Shelby Center were small, 
coarse and clums}" atfairs, which, when driven to 
their utmost capacity for work, could not sujjply all 
the wants of the settlers. 

The little grist mill was generally crowded with 
customers at all seasons of the year, some coming- 
many miles. ^Vnd at seasons when the water was 
low it could not do half the grinding required, and 
grists sometimes lay w^eeks at the mill before they 
were ground. 

Late in the summer one ^ear when the water was 
lowest in the creek, Luther Porter, of Barre. then a 
boy fifteen years of age, was sent there, some ten 
miles, to mill with two bags of grain, on horseback, 
and told by his father to staj- till lie got his grist. 
Arriving at the mill, Luther hitched his horse and 
went in. He saw the mill full of bags, unground, 
and a number of men waiting their turns, and con- 
cluding at the rate things moved it was likel}' to be 
several days before his turn would come, he resolved 
to try a little strategy to get his meal sooner. Say- 
ing nothing to anj^body he unloaded his bags on 
some lumber, and watching his oportunity when the 
iniller had put in a fresh grist and gone out to wait 
upon his customers at a little grocery he carried on 
near by in connexion with his mill, he carried his 
bags into tlie mill, nobody seeing him, and set them 
back in a retired j^lace among the most dusty bags in 
the mill, collected some mill dust and sifted it care- 
fully over and about his bags and the place where 
he set them. This done, he, waited the return of the 
miller, and going to him asked very innocently if his 
grist was ground 'i " When did you bring i't here V 
said the miller. *•' Oh, a great whilo ago,"' says Lu- 
ther, 



378 Pio:srEE]i history 

The miller had forgotten, said he would looJv. Lu- 
ther went and helped find the hags. The miller see- 
ing the dust, said they had aecidentally heen over* 
looked, but if he would put out his horse and stop 
at his house he would try and put them through be- 
fore the next morning. 

Luther staid of course, the worlv was done, and by 
da3dight next morning he started for home with his 
meal. 

"Col. Andrew A. Ellicott was the patroon of Shelby 
village. He is remembered for his many acts of 
kindness to the new settlers, and especially for tlie in- 
terest he took in the welfare of the Indians at Tona- 
wanda. He was adopted into their nation, under the 
Indian name of "Kiawana,'' which means "a good 
man." TL^ often helped them to bread in seasons of 
scarcity. 

Col. Eliicott removed from Batavia with his fam- 
ily to reside in Shelby, in 1817. He had been em- 
ployed with his uncle, Joseph Ellicott, in surveying 
the Holland Purchase. 

He built a second grist mill at Shelby Center, or 
Barnegat, as it was then called, about the year 1819. 
It was afterwards burned. AVlien this mill was fin- 
ished it contained the largest and best floor for dan- 
cing then in town, and tlie young people of Shelby 
and vicinity used it for the first hall in town. It was 
several times afterwards used by dancing parties, [i 
man by name of Hackett, who resided in Shelby, 
furnishing the music on a violin. 

The young j^eople were very fond of dancing, and 
got up paities to enjoy that amusement frequently 
whenever they could find a floor, and whenever they 
could secure the services of Hackett with his violin. 
If he was not to be had the}?- managed with such 
other music as they could get, and scmie of the old 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 379 

people yet remem'ber attencliiif^ parties at an early 
day in this neighborhood, and dancing right merrilj'- 
to the music of a Jewsharp. 

Col. Ellicott died in September, ]839. 

The first birth in Shelby was that of Asa Coon, 
son of Alexander Coon, senior, February 14th. 
1811. 

The first death was that of William Bennett, Oc- 
tober 4th, 1812. 

The first tavern was kept by Daniel Tinimej-man, 
in 1816, and th(5 first store hy Christian Gi'olf in 
1818. 

The first school was tauglit by Cornelius Ashton in 
the winter of 1815-1(3. 

In the winter of 1819, in order to get money to pay 
his taxes, Abner Hunt threshed wheat for John Burt, 
for every tenth bushel . 

The work was done on the fioor of a log barn ten by 
eighteen feet and the cliaft' was separated 
from the wheat with a hand fan made of boards. 
Mr. Hunt carried his share of the wheat on his back 
two miles, and sold it to Micali Harrington for twen- 
ty-five cents a bushel. 

The first regular physician who settled in Shelby 
was Dr. Christopher Whaley, who came in 1819. Dr. 
George Norton came soon after. 

The first postoffice in town was at Shelby Center, 
and the first postmaster was Colonel Andrew A. El- 
licott. 

John A'^an Brocklin built and carried on a small 
iron foundry at Shelby Center, about 1821-2 which is 
said to be the first iron foundry established in the 
count}^ of Orleans. 

Justus Ingersoll built and carried on a tanner}' In 
Shelby about 1821. 



380 TIONEEIl HISTOKY 

bioCtRaphies of early settlers. 

TJIE GIIEGOKY FAMILY. 

Among the old families in Orleans county, none are 
better knoAvn or more favoral:)!}' considered than the 
(IregorY family, of Shelby. Of Scotch descent, 
llalph (-Jregory removed from Fairfield, Vermont, to 
Shelby, in 1S16, Avhere he followed the occupation of 
a farmer and brought up his six sons to the same 
calling. 

Mr. Gregor3% tlie father, died in 1837. His six sons 
still survive and live in or near Shelby, except Philo, 
who moved to Micliigan ten years ago. 

Brought up in habits of industry and strict econo- 
my, they have each acquired a competence of prop- 
erty, and arc enjoying a serene and quiet old age, 
honored and ix^spected by all who know them. It is 
rare that so larger a family of brotliers live tog(^ther 
so long, and the Gregory Brothers ma}' be referred 
to for proof tliat in this good land of ours, pei'seve- 
rance and energy will achieve success, and health 
and long life made liappy will ver}' surely be attained 
by those who live worthy of such lewards. Ex- 
tracts from the local history of two of the brothers 
are as follows : 

AMOS GKKOOKY. 

•' 1 am fourth sou of R;il}>l) (hvgorv. I was born 
in Fairfiekl,. Franklin couiity, \'i'i]ii(»nt, Apiil 18th, 
1796. 

In the wJnU-r <»(' 1817, my fathei- with his fauiily re- 
moved to what is now Shelby, Orleans county, N. Y. 
On that journe}' it fell to ni}' lot to drive the team of 
{wo yoke of Oxen attached to a wooden shod sled. 
We were on tlie i-oad from February 5th to April 3d, 
making some stops, waiting for snow and to recruit. 
The a-reatest distance traveled in anv one dav was 



OF orl?:ans coui^ty. 381 

twenty miles, and that was on the ice on Lake Cham 
j)lain. 

But in the closing up of our journey we were thr<''' 
days getting from four or five mih^s north of Batavia 
to our stopping place. T married Betsey Wyman, 
April oth, 1818. 

AMOS GREGORY." 

j\[ ATTJ [J:W GREGORY. 

*'l was born in Fairfield, AVrmont, Ajjril 10, 1802, 
being the youngest of seven sons. I was a crij^ph' 
in my feet and ankles Irom birth. I did not walk 
until I was four years old. 'My crippled conditiori 
and my extraordinary^ birth, being a * seventh son." 
occasioned my being called while a boy, 'doctor.' 
This title -was peculiarly annoying to me. This and 
the drunkenness, profanity and inhdelity which char- 
acterized some of the faculty with whom I was earh' 
acquainted, prejudiced my mind strongly against the 
medical profession. I have livt^d to find honorable ex- 
ceptions to this character among some of the profes- 
sion I have since known. 

My only sister died before she was quite five yeare 
old. 

■ In the early part of September, 181o, there were 
severe frosts destroying the crops before they had 
matured. This so discouraged my two oldest broth- 
ers, who then had fainilies living a f«'w miles distant 
from each other, that they told my father they were 
done with Vermont, and liad determined to seek their 
fortunes in the west. 

At their suggestion, and in order to k(iep his family 
together, my father, then fifty years old, consented 
to go with them, patriarch like, to seek for himself 
and family 'a better country.' He accordingly took a 
saddle horse and visited the Genesee country, and 
spent some six weeks in vevdng the entire region. 



382 PIONEER HISTOKY 

when lie returned home bringing in a favorable report 
of the land. 

This was hailed with joy by us all except my 
mother, who was much attached to her old home. 
Houses and lands, and everything else too cumber- 
some to carry were disposed of, so that by the 
lirst of February, 1816, we were on our way to the 
far famed Genessee. 

Our caravan consisted of two four ox teams, each 
attached to heavy wooden shod sleds, starting on the 
nth, and a two horse team starting on the 6th. We 
had good teams, but we had a tedious journey. The 
most of the way the sleighing was bad. From White- 
hall to near Auburn, our sleds had to be newly shod 
every other morning, and from Auburn west we had 
to mount our sleds on wheels. 

After refreshing ourselves awhile with friends in 
(rorham, Ontario county, we came on to Batavia and 
there made another stop. It was now about the mid- 
dle of March, and the younger boys went to work, 
while my father and the two eldest of his sons went 
out to look for land. The place where we stopped 
was about four miles north from Batavia, and is now 
called Dawes Corners. 

My father located a farm for himself on Maple 
Ridge, in Shelby, pajdng one hundred dollars for 
his ' chance ' on one hundred acres, and buying ar- 
ticles of land in the vicinity for his^sons. 

On the third of April we again started^on our jour- 
ney, and arrived at our new home near the close of 
the third day, a short journey this last, but a very 
wearisome one. I was then about thirteen years 
old. 

AYlien we arrived at our future residence, we had 
no shelter for men or beast. Orange Wells and Sam- 
uel Wyman had located in that neighborhood in the 



OF OIILEAN.S COUIS'TY. 383 

spring previous and made small improvements, and 
built log houses. 

Through the hos23itality of Mr. Wells, we vi^ere 
kindly sheltered for a week, hy wlii(;h time we had 
built a cabin for ourselves. 

Our oxen (;ould very well live on browse, but our 
horses after standing one night tied to a brush 
heap, looked so sorry that my father took them ba(5k 
to Batavia. 

We were all happy when w^e got into our new 
house, not a costly edifice like those dwellings of 
some of our rich neighbors of the present day, but 
made of rough unhewn logs, notched down together 
at the corners, shingled with rough hemlock boards, 
with joints broken and battened with slabs round 
side up, the fioor made of sx)lit basswood logs spotted 
upon the sleepers, and llattened on the top, leaving 
an open space at one end for the fire place on the 
ground, the end of the fioor planks affording a con- 
venient seat for the children around the fire, in the 
absence of chairs and sofas. 

Our fii'st work was to fell trees around our dwell- 
ing, burn ofl" the brusli and logs, and enclose a patch 
of land for a garden and a fruit nursery, my father 
having brought a small l)ag of apple seeds from Ver- 
mont. 

We procured peach stones in Ontario county. 
This was in the spring of 1816. Four families had 
wintered near our location, but on the opening of 
spring neighbors came in frequently, and the forest 
resounded with the sound of the woodman's ax and 
the crash of falling trees. 

Among the names of settlers who had located in 
our neighborhood about the time of which I have 
spoken, I remember Elijah Bent, Alexander Coon, 
Oliver 11. Benni^tt, James Mason, Leonard Dresser, 
Andrew Stevens, AVilliam KnowJes, William C. Tan- 



3S4 PIONEER IflSTOliY 

iier, Josias Tanner, Elijah Foot, Peter Hoag, Stephen 
Hill, Franklin Bennett, Micah Harrington, Daniel 
Fuller, Daniel Zimmerman, William Dnnlap and 
Eliziir Frary. 

There was a will and indomitable courage enter- 
tained on the part of the settlers, but it was exceed- 
ingly difficult for them to obtain money for the com- 
mon necessaries of life, 

Mr. Hiel Brockway bought a lot in this vicinity, 
and sent on Mr. Calvin C. Phelps (now of Barre) to 
chop, clear, and sow with wheat ten acres of land. 
He boarded with Mr. Wells. To him Mr. Brockway 
would send barrels of pork. Hour, and whisky, the 
last of which was considered in those days about as 
much of a necessary as pork or Hour, for him to sell 
to the inhabitants. 

This was a relief to many, and saved the buyers 
much time in looking u]) their supplies and trans- 
porting them home. 

At one tinie my father paid Mr. Phelps eleven dol- 
lars for as mrrch pork as he could carry away in a 
peck measure. T don't recollect the number of 
pounds. 

At another time he paid Elijah Bent twenty-five 
cents a pound for pork. 

By the first of June in the year we came, we had driv- 
en the woods back from the house in one direction 
tliirty or forty rods. The brush w\as burned off and 
the ground planted with corn among the logs. This 
was in 1816, known as ' the cold season,' when snow 
fell in ever}^ month in the year but two, with frost 
every month. Consequently we raised but little 
corn, and even that was saved in an unmatured 
condition. We were, however, with much care, able 
to make passable meal from some of it. 

The little wheat sown the fall before yielded boun- 



OF ORLEANS ('()IT]\'TY. 385 

tifully, but the supply not being equal to the demand, 
owing to the large emigration of people into the 
country, scarcity and high prices prevailed before 
the next harvest. 

With so small a supply to be obtained, roads av 
new^ and rough, prices high, settlers poor, and tlieiT 
best and almost only means of conveyance an ox 
team, it is no wonder much suffering and want pn> 
vailed. 

My father had one horse, and he assumed the office 
of commissary of subsistence in part, for the whole 
settlement, and acted as mill boy for the family. 
He would ricle about the countr}^ to lind grain, some- 
times getting a grist near Batavia, the next on the 
Ridge Eoad, between home and Rochester. Not- 
withstanding my father' s i'aithful efforts, we would 
sometimes come short for food, then our good mother 
would put us on 'half rations.' 

At one time our sup]jlies were completely exhaua- 
ted. We had been expecting our father home all day, 
with his bushel grist perliaps, but he did not come 
and we went nearly supperless to bed, expecting he 
w^ould arrive before morning. 

Morning came but father did not. We hoped he 
would c(mie soon, and took our axes and w*ent to 
work, but our axes were unusually lieavy. Faint 
and slow were the blows we struck that morning. 
While w(3 boys were trying to chop, mother sifted a 
bag of bran we had and made a cake of the finest, 
which she brouglit out to us during the forenoon. 
We ate this which stayed us up till noon, when father 
came and brought us plenty to eat, su(;h as it way. 
Variety was not to be had in those times. 

In course of this season most of the lands near my 
fathers were located by a hardy and energ-etic popu- 
lation, mostly from New England. 

By the fall most of the occupied farms had their 

25 



886 PIONEEK HISTORY 

iailow.s, of Ironi three to twenty acres in extent, ready 
for sowing. This crop, though sowed among roots 
H!id stumps of trees, produced a yield of from thirty- 
to fifty l)ushels per acre. 

"I'liis bountiful return, togetlier witli a fair corn 
crop, pla,(*ed us above want and fully satisfied us 
with the country we had adopted as our home. Pen- 
ding this harvest there was great scarcity of provi- 
.'sions, but neighbor lent to neighbor ; the half layer 
of meat and loaf of bread was divided, while for 
weeks numy families subsisted on boiled potatoes 
and milk, and such vegetables as the forest af- 
forded. 

When the earliest patches of wheat were cut and 
threshed, there was no mill to grind nearer than 
Rochester. There were mills on the Oak Orchard 
Creek, but they were of such construction there was 
not water at that season sufficient to turn them. 
Neighbors would join together and send a team to 
Rochester to carry grists to mill for them all at 
once. 

[n many instances green wheat was boiled whole 
And eaten with milk. I ate of it and thought it good. 
The products of this harvest exceeded the wants of 
the producers for their bread, and as we had no high- 
ways on which we could send our grain to market, 
we were restricted in our sales mainly to new comers 
who had not time to raise a crop. A bushel of wheat 
was the price of a day's work of a man, and he was 
considered lucky who had an opportunity to sell 
wheat for money, at even a low price. 

On the first day of July, 1817, wheat was worth 
two dollars and fifty cents a bushel in Orleans coun- 
ty, and in the winter next after farmers drew their 
vvheat to Rochester with ox teams, a journey round 
takinir three days or more, and sold it for from twen- 



OF 0RLEA]S^8 COUNTY. o87 

ty-live to tliirtj-one cents a bushel in money, and we 
felt that was better than to go home hungry. 

In consequence of my lameness my parents did 
not design that I should be a farmer, but Providence 
seemed to order otherwise. My privileges and means 
for obtaining an education were limited, and to tiie 
business of felling the forest, clearing land, and ivap- 
ing the harvest I became much attached, so that even 
to the present day, the ax and the sickle are my fa- 
vorite tools. 

At one time I came near entering as clerk in a drug 
store, but the proprietor 23ro\'ed to be a worthless 
character, broke down and ran away. No other 
business appearing to offer for me, I accepted the 
occupation of a farmer, which I have followed ever 
since, now residing on the homestead of my father. 

The first school taught in our neighborliood was 
by Miss Caroline Fuller, of Batavia, in the summer 
of 1817. The next winter we had a full school taught 
by Mr. J. N. Frost, of Riga. I taught school myself 
two terms before I was twenty- one years old. When 
I was twent3'-one years old I was elected constable, 
which office I held three years in succession. Since 
then I have held a few offices both in town and 
county, but never depended upon the fees of office 
for my support. 

I was married April 20th, 1828, to Mary A Potter, 
daughter of Wm. C. Potter, of Shelby. 

My mother died April 4th, 1832, aged G5 years, 
and my father died April 20th, 1837, aged seventh- 
two years. 

My father was a local preacher of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and in connexion with Rev. Jas, 
Carpenter, of the Baptist denomination, he labored 
faithfully to plant and foster the principles of evan- 
gelical truth in the minds of a people otherwise most- 
ly destitute of religious instruction. 



388 PIONEEK HISTORY 

I have been connected with the temperance organi- 
zations of all sorts that have been established here m 
the last thirty years. 

At the age of eighteen years I was led to embrace 
the Savior of the world as my Savior, and from that 
time through much nnworthiness, I have been en- 
deavoring to hold on my way, trusting that the merits 
of Christ will avail for my short comings. 

MATTHEW GREGORY."- 

Millville, January, 1863. 

DAVID DEMAKA. 

David Demara was born in Albany county, Octo- 
ber 26tli, 1808, and removed with his father's family 
to Shelby, in 1811. His father tirst located in the 
woods two miles from any house, built a log house 
fourteen by sixteen feet, covered it with bark and 
moved into it, without floors, doors, or windows. 
He left the county in 1818, on account of the war, 
and returned in 1815. 

David Demara married Maria Upham, April 12th, 
1887. She was born in Wjird, Massachusetts, March 
29th, 1814. 

ABKAM BIDKLMAN. 

" I was born March 10th, 1800, in Manheim, Mont- 
gomery county, N. Y. 

In January, 1817, I removed with my father's fam- 
ily to Ridgewaj', Orleans county. We built a log 
house and moved into it in the month of March. 
While building our house, and just previous to put- 
ting on the roof, a large tree fell upon the building, 
and cost us much labor to remove it and repair 
damages. 

Cornelius Asliton and John Timmerman had set- 
tled within half a mile of my father's location wheBi 
Tve came in. 



GF ORLEANS COUNIT. H89 

My fathers family consisted of my fatlier and 
mother and ten chiklren. AVhen lie moved here, lie 
was to all intents and purposes, poor, I do not 
think, besides a pair of old ordinar}' lioi'ses and a 
cow, my father could boast he was worth other prop- 
erty worth fifty dollars. I worked out to help sup- 
port the family until I was twenty-one years of 
age. 

I married Miss Lucinda Michael in 1824. My 
father, Henry Bidel man, died in ] 860, aged eighty - 
two years. 

In March, 1818, snow fell about two feet deep; next 
day it thawed, and a frost following made a hard 
crust on the snow. On this James Woodward and 
myself resolved to have a day hunting deer. We made 
snow shoes from a seasoned board, which enabled us 
to walk on the ci'ust with ease. We were attended by 
11 small dog, and armed each with a common pocket 
knife. We soon started a line buck from his browse 
in a fallen tree top, the dog gave chase, and after a 
few bounds, in which the deer broke through the crust 
to the ground, he stood at bay. We rushed upon 
the deer with our knives and cut his throat. We 
soon started another deer, which we killed in the 
same manner. So we brought in two deei' in about 
iin hour. Our success so animated George Hoi sen 
burgh, a neighbor, thathe joined us in another hunt. 
In our second hunt we had not gone far into the woods 
before we started as large a buck as I ever saw. The 
dog soon brought him to a bay. Holsenburgh, who 
was a quick, athletic man, rushed up to the head oi' 
the deer with intent to seize his horns, when he re- 
ceived a blow from the fore foot of the animal which 
laid open his clothing from his chin down, as if cut 
by a knife. The hoof took the skin ofi* upon his 
breast, and left a visible mark down his body. Hol- 
senburgh was terribly alarmed at this change in af- 



890 PIOXEEK TIISTOKY 

fairs. He turned pale, and i-etired from the contest 
he was f^o prompt to commence. Woodward and 
myself went to the rescue, and. quickly despatched 
the deei' as we had done the others. Our friend Hol- 
senhiirgh had had sufficient experience of that kind 
of deer hunting to satisfy him, and we went in with 
our game. Woodward and mj'self went out again 
the third time and brought in two more deer, making 
Hve. in all killed by us in one day. 

In March, 1822, I lielped the contractor who had 
taken a section of canal to dig where Medina now 
stands, build a log cabin. AVe cut our trees for the 
T)uilding on the gj-ound now the site of the village. 
W(^ linished our cabin in five and a half days. I 
then engaged to w^ork for the contractor half a month 
for six dollars and fifty cents and be boarded. Oar 
woi'k was digging for the canal. The first two davs 
we had fifteen hands, and the third day about 
fifty. We were allowed a liquor ration. Mr. Eggles- 
toji, the contractor, brought in on an ox cart from 
Rochester, tliree barrels of whi>sky among other 
stores to use on his job. Of this each man was al- 
lowed one gill a day. 

At this time I was unacquainted with the nature of 
whisky, and I with the others, drank my first al- 
lowance. I will not here attempt to de- 
sci'ibe its effects. Suffice it to say, it was the first 
and last liquor ration I t^ver drank. I sold the re- 
mainder of my whisky rations to those who were fa- 
milia]- witli their use, at three cents each. 

In the yeiiv 1828 I built for myself a log house 
twenty feet square, into which I moved my family, 
having but one room which we used for kitchen and 
parhjr, dining room, bedroom, &c. Our furniture 
was such as pioneer farmers in this country usually 
posssessed, viz.: a loom, quill wheel and swifts, 
great wheel and little wheel for sjjinning, necessary 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 891 

bedding, seven chairs, a table and a cradle, with a 
few exceedingly plain culinary utensil?, wliich wrie 
indispensible to our comfort. 

For many j-ears luy wife manufactured our ch.>th- 
ing, both woolen and linen, wove our own covei- 
lets and blankets, and luindi'eds of yards for our 
neighbors. 

ABKAM BIDELMAN." 
Shelby. October, 186(5. 

Ml'. Abram Bidelman died June 8tl], 1808. 

JOTHAM M01l.<E. 

" I was born in Providence, Sai-atog.'i, county, N. 
Y., June 14th, 1798. 

I was married to Dorcas Ferris, August IHtli, 1814. 
I hired a man to move me toRidgeway, agreeing to 
pay him forty dollars for it. Our outfit consisted of a 
good team of horses and wagon, as there Vv^as no 
snow then. My family consisted of my mother, my 
wife and two children. 

After we had been two or thre(3 days on tlie I'oad, 
a ' thaw ■ came that compelled us to stop a Aveeli. 
The earth tlien became frozen and we went to Palmy- 
ra, when one horse gave out. I bought another horse 
for forty-five dollars, paid mj' watch, a fur hat, and 
a jiair of boots, for thirty -two dollars, and gave my 
note for the thirteen dollars, and with my three horse 
team w^ent on to Pochestei', which then consisted only 
of a few log buildings, one of which was a tavern 
wher<:^ we stopped. On examining here I found ouj 
only bed had been stolen. I after>vards found it 
pawned at Palmyra b}'^ the thief and had to -pay tv/o 
dollars and a half to get it again. We camo by the 
Jlidge Road to AVest Gaines, where we found an 
empty shanty and moved into it. I vrent to Bataviti 
through Sliell)y and procured an article of a i)iece of 
land west of Eao-h? Harbor, and returned in one dav 



393 PIONlOEll HISTORY 

aj5 far as Millville. It snowed hard all that day, and 
T think I did a good day's work, traveling so far 
fchrougli the woc^ds on foot. I acknowledge my steps 
were some hurried by seeing tracks of wolves in the 
snow, and seeing some evidences of a bloody encoun- 
ix'.r they liad had. 

I bought a three year old heifer and paid for her 
chopping three acres of timber, and fitting it for log- 
ging, going three miles to the place where I did my 
work. 

In tirhe of haying and harvest I walked to Palmyra 
and worked thei'e three weeks to buy pork and" 
wheat for my family. The next fall I moved into a 
log house I had built, and felt at home. The next 
year I had a little trial such as was common to pio- 
D'^x^r settlers in those days. It was befoi-e harvest. 
My cow had lost her bell, and had been gone in the 
woods eight days. We were destitute of provisions, 
except a small piece of bread, some sugar, and some 
vinegar. I v^ent to the nearest place where Hour was 
sold and could get none. On my return we gave the 
last morsid of bread to our children. I picked some 
potato tops which my wife boiled and we ate, dress- 
ing them with vinegar. Our emjDty stomachs would 
not retain this dief. We speedily vomited them up 
and retired supperless to bed. Early next morning 
I arose and went to my iieiglibors a mile away, and 
they divided their small stor(^ of Hour with me. I 
carried it home and my wife speedily salted some 
water and made some ])udding, which we ate with 
maple sugar, and this seemed to me to be tridy the 
best meal of victuals I ever ate. I felt, even in this 
straight, the words of Solomon to be true : '" Better 
is a dinner of herbs where love is, than a stalled ox 
and contention therewith." 

Another incident. Myself and immediate neigli- 
l)ors were destitute of Hour. I had money which T had 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 398 

taken in exchange ol' land, so a neiglibor took ine 
with liis team and wagon to Hanford's Landing, at 
the mouth of Genesee river, to purchase iiour. I l)oiight 
six barrels of Hour and one barrel of salt and took 
out my money to pay for it, Mr. Hanford, the man 
of whom I had made ni}' purchase, divided the mone}' 
I handed him into piles of about thirty-six dollars 
in each pile, after doing which I was astonished to 
hear him accuse me, in an angr\' tone, of being a 
deal(?r in counterfeit money, and to learn that he had 
condemned about one-half of what I had paid liim. 
He ordered a man in his employ to go immediateh" 
to Kochester and procure a precept for my arrest. I 
felt alarmed, and that I was in trouble. I knew not 
what to do, but God, who is ever watchful over those 
who j)ut their trust in Him, was with me. \Yliile 
things were growing more threatening, a gentleman 
whom I had never seen but once before came up, and 
after learning the facts, strongly condemned Mr. Han- 
ford' s course. The money was again examined, and 
only about nineteen dollars found bad. This was re- 
placed by current funds, and we were tlieii allowed 
to return to our homes in peace. 

This supply carried the settlement through until 
iiarvest, and by the blessing of Heaven and our own 
industr\' and economy, we have been saved from 
such destitution until the present time, 

I hav(^ seen the wilderness disapj)ear, and h<^aiity 
and civilization spring up in its place around me. 1 
have, in common with mankind, drank of the cu}) of 
affliction, perhaps more deeply than many others. 
I have been called to mouin over the graves of two 
loved companions and four children, from a family of 
fourteen. 

I now reside witli my third wife, in A\'est Shelby, 
and preach every Sunday at tlie Christian Chui'ch in 



394 PIONEER HISTOKY 

Bane, N. Y., wliere I have labored in the ministry, 
Tiiore or less, for fifty years. 

.TOTIIAM MORSE." 

West Shelby, ]\Iay. 1868. 

DAVID BUKK0UGII8. 

David Burroughs was born near Trenton, New Jer- 
sey, and died in tlie town of Shelby, Orleans Co., 
N. Y., in 1822, aged 46 years. 

j\Ir. Buri'oughs removed to Ovid, Seneca county, 
about the yenr 1798, where he i-esided, working a 
farm and keeping hotel until the year 1818, when he 
removed to Shelby, and settled on a farm about two 
miles south-west from Shelby Center. 

Mr. Burroughs took tirst rank among his towns- 
men for his capacity and intelligence. He was the 
first Supervisor of Shelby, while it belonged to Gen- 
esee county, and was appointed justice of the peace 
about the year 1820, an office he held till his death. 
He was a member o! the Convention that framed the 
Constitution for the State in the year 1821. He took 
an ai'ticle of his farm from the Holland Company a 
year or two before he moved his family to Shelby. 
He had a few acres cleared and a log house built, 
]-eady for his family wdien they came in. He left 
two sons, I. K. Burroughs, formerly a merchant and 
business man in Medina, where h(^ now resides, 
and Hon. Silas M. Burroughs, who began life for 
himself as a mc^rchant. He afterwards abandoned 
merchandise for the practice of law. Pie i-epresented 
the county of Orleans four years in the lower House, 
in the h^gislatiire of tlie State, and was twice elected 
member of Congress, aiid died before the end of hi? 
second tmn. He also i-esided in ^Nfedina. 

DA in us SOUTir WORTH. 

Dariws Southwortli was bc»rn in Palmyra, N. Y., 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 895 

Marcli 18th, 1800. He worked some at the trade of a 
carpenter while a minor, but since the 3'(^ar 1825, he 
has made that his principal business. 

He married Mercy Mason, daughter of James 
Mason, of Millville, in Shelby, where he has ever 
since resided. The}^ have four children, Elvira A., 
Albert, Dexter L., and George J. H., all now liv- 
ing. 

NEWMAN CURTIS. 

Newman Curtis was born in Dalton. Massachu- 
setts, September 9th, 1797. 

He married Maria Van Bergen, of Kattskili, K. Y., 
June 9th, 1818. In September, 1824, he settled on a 
farm in Shelby, one mile soiith of Millville. Mr. 
Curtis had fourteen cliildren, eight sons and six 
daughters, all of whom lived to become men and wo- 
men, and all of whom received their education at 
Millville Academy. 

In 1854 Mr. Curtis sold his farm in Shelby and re- 
moved to the town of Independence, in Iowa, wher(> 
he purchased two hundred and fifty acres for his own 
farm, and located a large quantity of wild land of 
the Government, for his children. Mr. Curtis becaine 
wealth}^ from the rise in the value of these lands, 
and the practice of industry and econoni}'. He died 
in the 3^ear 1858. His widow and twelve children 
survived him. 

HORATIO X. II EWES. 

Horatio N. Hewes settled in Shelby in tlie year 
1825, as a partner in business with L. A. G. B. 
Grant. He was engaged in selling goods, running 
mills, and dealing in produce with Mi-. Grant for 
some years, and after that became a large contractor 
to do public V'^^ork, and had large jobs of work on 
the Erie canal. He removed to Medina to reside 



396 PIONEER inSTORY 

aboat tlie year 1854, wliere he died June 17tli, 
1862. 

He was an energetic business man, and was exten- 
sively known in tliis part of the State. He married 
a daughter of C^ol. A. A. Ellicott. 

LATIIROP A. (J. E. GRAXT. 

Lathrop A. G. B. Grant settled in Shelby about 
the year 1824, as a merchant. He married a daugh- 
ter of Col. A. A. Ellicott. 

Mr. Grant gradually extended his business opera- 
tions, and at length became a large dealer in farmer's 
produce. 

About the ^-ear 1851 lie l)uilt tlie large stone mills 
at Shelby Center, and run them for a time. He was 
an active and influential man in j^ublic aftairs of his 
town and county, and was the representative of Or- 
leans county in the State legislature in 1826, being 
the first member (elected after the county was organ- 
izt^d. 

Twelve or fifteen years ago he sold out his property 
in Shelby, and removed to Osw-ego, N. Y., where lie 
has since resided engaged in extensive business. 

ANi:>REA\' A. ELLICOTT. 

Andrew A. Ellicott w.'is boin in Lancaster, Penn- 
sylvania. 

He married Sarah A. Williams, of Elizabetlitown, 
New Jersey. He came to Batavia in May, 1803. 

In July, 1817, lie removed to Slielb}', Orleans coun- 
ty, wliere his uncle, Joseph Ellicott, had given him 
eiglit hundred acres of land, which included the 
watin' power at Shell)}' Center. II(^ settled at Shelby 
Centei', where he built mills, officiated as justice of 
tlie peace, and ])Ostmaster. He was the first post- 
master in that tow^n. 

.His intiu(Mice with his wealthy and numerous fam- 



OF ORLEAXS COUKTY. 897 

ly connexions, his own benevolence and disposition 
to aid such as needed help, which he always be- 
stowed liberally when he had opportunity, en- 
deared him to the pioneers in Shelby, and contribu- 
ted much towards inducing settlements to be made 
there. 

He died September 7th, 18:39. His wife died Au- 
gust 26th, ISoO. His daughter Sarah, widow of the 
late Horatio N. Hewes, resides in Medina. 

ALEXANDER COOX. 

Alexander Coon was the first, or among the first 
settlers in Shelby. He came from Rensselaer county, 
IST. Y,, and located about two miles w^est of Shelby 
Center, in 1810. 

In a statement furnished by Mr, Alexander Coon, 
Jr., for Turner's History of the Holland Purchase, 
he says : 

"My fathers family left tlie Lewiston Road at 
Walsworths, and arriving upon our land, four crotch- 
es were set in the ground, sticks laid across, the whole 
covered with elm bark, making a sleeping place. 
The cooking was done in the open air. A very com- 
fortable log house was then built in five days, with- 
out boards, nails, or shingles. Our cattle were fed 
the first winter on browse, the next winter on browse 
and cornstalks. 

Our nearest neiglibor soutli, was Walsworth ; west, 
the nearest was in Hartland ; north, one ftimily on 
the Ridge Road." 

Mr. Alexander Coon, senioi-, left several sons, and 
the family became among the most respectable in the 
community. 

Alexander Coon, Jr., was afterward a prominent 
public man, well and favorably known in the aflairs 
of his town and county. For eleven years he rep- 
resented the town of Shelby in the Board of Super- 



'■r>9S PIOlSrEEK niSTOKY 

visors of Orleans county, — a longer time than any 
other man ever served as a member of that Board. 
He also held many other town offices. He said when 
he was collector of taxes in Shelby, he had a tax of 
less "than' a dollar against a man who, to pay it, 
made blac7c sails, drew them to Gaines on a hand- 
sled, and sold them for the mone}-. 

.FACOB A. ZIMMERMAN. 

Jacob A. Zimmerman was born inManheim, N. Y., 
August 23d, 1795. 

In 1817 he came to Shelby with John B. Snell, who 
moved from the same town. 

In the summer of 1817, he married Nancy Snell. 
In the spring of 1819, they commenced keeping 
house in Shelby, on the farm they ever afterwards 
occupied. 

Mr. Zimmerman says : 

" I made a table. We had no chairs. I made 
three stools, two for ourselves and one for company. 
Our window lights were white paper ; no window 
glass could be had here then. Our cooking utensils 
were a four quart kettle, and a black earthen teapot. 
I gave a dollar for six cast iron knives and forks and 
six cups and saucers, which completed our eating 
tools. 

Times were very hard. I was eleven months with- 
out a sixpence in money ; two months without any 
shoes. When we saw shoes tied up with bark we 
called them half worn out. I gave five bushels of 
wheat for a pair of poor coarse shoes, made of Hank 
leather. 

In 1821 my log house was burned. The neighbors 
hftlp,>d m^ baild aaother house, and in two 
weeks after the tire we moved to the new house. In 
November, 1 826, I had bought and paid for eighty- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 399 

!>even acres of hind. I afterwards increased my farm 
to one hundred sixteen acres." 

Mr. Zimmerman's chiklren are Morris, married 
Pliehe Bent ; Eleanor, unmarried ; Gilbert, married 
.Tanette Sanderson ; John A., married, Mary Powers; 
Arvilla, mariied Egbert B. Simonds ; and Andrew L., 
married Jennie Bartsom. Jacob A. Zimmerman, died 
December 6th, 1864. 

JOHN GKINNELL. 

John Grinnell was born in Edinburgh, Saratoga 
County, December 4tli, 1796. 

His father, Josiah Grinnell, was a native of Rhode 
Island. He settled in Saratoga county and removed 
from there to Oneida county, where he died. 

John Grinnell purchased a farm in Barre, in 1820, 
on which in the fall of that year he built a log- 
house into which he moved in April, 1821. He cleared 
his farm and resided there till 1854, when he moved 
to Shelby. 

He was three times married. First, to Roxana 
Kirkham; second, to Lucy Babcock ; she died Janu- 
ary 2oth, 1846 ; third, to Mrs. Julia Ann Abbott, Oc- 
tober 27th, 1847. 

His children, Cyrene and Daniel, are dead. Paul, 
married Sarah Butler ; Peter, married Eliza Berry ; 
Lyman, married Leonora Rooker ; Andrew J., mar- 
ried Mary Rodman ; J. Wesley, married Alice 
Haines ; Mahala, married William J. Caldwell ; 
Harley, married Maria K^lsey ; John Jr., married 
Margaret Root ; Ella J., married Frederick Hop- 
kins. 

His brothers, Ezra, Major and Amos, and his sis- 
ters, Betsey, wife of Alanson Tinkham ; Eliza, wife 
of William Tyler ; Chloe, wife of Relly Tinkham, 
and Anna, wife of Weston Wetherby, all settled 



400 riONEEll HISTORY 

in Orleans count}' soon after Mr. John Grinnell 
came in. 

These fomilies so early settled here, have been 
prosperous in business. Being upright in purpose, 
and honorable in character, they have become 
among the most respected families in the county. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 




THE TOWN OP YAT1>. 

Formeriy called Norlbton — George IIousera:m — Discouragement U' 
Early Settlement — First Deed — Tappfin's Tavern— Liquor Sold— 
First Marriage— First Death — First Store- First Sawmill— Bear 
Storj^ — Preserved Greenman — Anecdotes of first Justice — Yates 
Center— First Post Office- Peter Saxe— Xames of First Settlers 
along Range Line Koad— Village of Lyndonyille— Biographies ct 
Early Settlers. 



^ -ATJvS was loriued Uuui iiidgcway, A])!']! 17, 

^xi J 8-22, by the name of Norildon. The next 
yeai- the name Avas chanp;ed to Tafes, \v> 
lionor of Goveruoi" Yates. 

Georg-e Houseman, from Adams, Jeiferson county, 
came into this town and settled in 1800. John Eaton 
came in 1810. 

Very few settlers cam»? in before or during th(^ war 
of 1812. The extreme difficidtA' of ;>iTtting farm pro- 
duce to a market, and the prospect tliat such a difli 
culty would lono; exist, from the locality, discouraged 
emigrants I'rom stopping her»\ and litthi land was 
taken before 1817. 

Persons coming to tlris county lo h)ol\. for a place 
for tlu.'ir home, generally songht a locality in the vi- 
cinity <3f neighbors, when^ roads ^^■ere opontxl, and 
where the social enjoyments of human life coidd in 
some degre<'- be realiz<?d. It requirc^l considerable 
heroism foi- a, man to go back live or eight miles from 
any settlement into the thick, heavy forest, and hagin 
with the intention there to rle^^ir for himself a, 
faim. 

26 



402 PIONEER HISTORY 

A few hardy resolute men located in Yates, re- 
gardless of every discouragement, but no considera- 
ble settlement was effected until after the cold season 
of 1816-17, when the country rapidly filled up with 
settlers. 

The first deed of land given l)y the Holland Land 
Company, in this town, was to Preserved Gfreenman, 
June 18th, 1810. Almost the wiiole of this town was 
deeded by the Holland Company between the 3'ears 
1S31 and 1885. 

The first tavern was kept l)y Samuel Tap pan, at 
rates Center, in the year 1825. The population of 
the town at that time was less than eight hundred, 
yet Judge Tap]:)an, in a biographical sketch of him- 
self, says : 

"'In the thirteen months in which I kept this 
tavern, I retailed fifty -three barrels of spiritous li- 
quors." 

The first marriage in town was that of George 
Houseman, Jr., and Sally Covert, in 1817. The first 
d?atli that of Mrs. George Houseman, senior, De- 
cember, 1813. 

The first store was kept by Moore & Hughes, at 
Yates Center, in 1824. 

Tlie first school was taught by Josiah Perry, in 
tlie year 1819, in the district including Yates Cen- 
ter. 

A sawmill was built on Johnson's Creek, below 
Lyndonville, by Gardner and Irons, about the year 
1819, and a gristmill on the same dam in 1821. 
These mills, at a later day, have been known as Bul- 
lock' s Mills, named from a subsequent owner. The 
mills and dam are now gone. 

Chamberlain & Simpson built the warehouse on 
t->ie Lake sliore, north from Yates Center. 

A family by the name of Wilkeson lived in the east 
part of the town in 1811 or '12. In the summer sea- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 403 

son of that year, Miss Eliza Willveson saw a young- 
cub bear near tlie house, among some vines they had 
planted. She was alone in the house, but seizing the 
old-fashioned fire shovel, she went and killed the bear 
with it. 

Mr. Preserved Greenman took up about six hun- 
dred acres of land lying east from Lyndonville, be- 
fore the war of 1812. Mr. Greenman did not occupy 
his land himself, but settled his sons Daniel and 
Enos there, giving the neighborhood the name of the 
"Greenman Settlement." 

Some years after, Mr. P. Greenman removed from 
Montgomery county to Yates, to reside. After a 
few years he removed to Genesee county, and died 
there. 

Mr. P. Greenman was noted for being "set in his 
way," and having made up his mind, it was hard to 
turn him. Having sold his farm in Montgomery Co,, 
while preparing to move to Yates, he had a valuable 
ox-cart to dispose of. He named a price for his cart. 
A man offered him a less price and would give no 
more. Greenman declared he would not abate a 
cent, and would burn his cart before he would sell 
for less. No better offer was made, and when lie 
came away he piled his cart in a heap Jind burnt 
it. 

A rule he made was, that a jjail of water must be 
left standing in 'his house every night, and the last 
person who retired must see that it was done, under 
the penalty of being horse-whipped by Mr. Green- 
man next morning, in case of neglect. It happened 
once his daughter had a beau who made her a rather 
long evening visit, and she was the last in the family 
to retire for the night, and forgot the pail of water. 
Her father rose first, as usual, in the morning, and 
finding the waterpail empty, called up his daughter 



404 PIONEEU HISTOKr 

and gave her a s(jund tlirasliing to maintain the rule 
lie liad estalblished. 

Amos Spencer was the first justice of the peace 
Avithin the territory now (tailed Yates. II<^ was ap- 
pointed hy the Council in 1819. 

Tlie first school liouse in town stood three-fourths 
of a mile north of Yates Center, and was built in 
1818. ]\rr. Josiah Perry kept th«? first school there 
in 1819. 

YATES CEXTEl!;. 

Yates Center at first seemed to be the point where 
the village would be built. A hotel was opened here 
by Samuel Tappan, and a store by Moore & 
Hughes, the first in town, and several dwelling 
lumses were built. 

Here the first postoffice was located, AVm. Hughes 
lirst postmaster. 

\Vhe]i population and trade began to settle at 
L^V ndonville, Yates Center ceased to enlarge, but its 
inliabitaiits were not discouraged. About this time 
Peter Saxf, horn Yt^rmont, a brother of John G. 
Saxe, tile poet, located here as a merchant. He may 
be considered the founder of Yates Academy, for 
through his influence and energy it was planned, the 
stock subscribed, and the institution incorporated. 
Mr. Saxe traded here a few years, then removed 
to Troy, N. Y. 

After the canal was made navigable, much of the 
j)roduce of the town of Yates found a market that 
way ; this trade, and the mills at Lyndonville, opera- 
ted in favor of that place, and against the Center. 

The Methodist Chapel at Lyndonville, which was 
the first housr of worship built in town, was soon 
followed by the building of the Baptist and Presby- 
tK'rian churches at that place. 

Considerable oak timber grew in Yates. This was 



OF ORLEANS OOL'XTY. 400 

cut down long since, squared for ship building, or 
riven into staves,' and sent down tlie lak<' \o 
market. 

The following is a list of names of persons uho, ii' 
not first the lirst, were among the first who settled on 
the road in thf^ center of the town from the lako to 
Ridgeway, "beginning on the lake : 

On the west side of the higliway. -.Vmos Spencei- 
settled here on the lake sliore in 1818. Xext south, 
Simeon Gilbert, in 1818. IS^ext, Baruch H. Gfilbert, 
in 181.7. ]^s^ext, Luther St. John. Next, Isaiah Lew- 
is, in 1818. IS'ext a man by the name of Wing sold 
to Dr. Elislia Bowen, who resided then- many yeai's. 

l^ext, Zenas Conger. Next, — Kellis. Next, 

Thomas Stafford. Next, Moses AVheeler. Next. 

Nichols. Next, Rowley, Next. 

Samuel and O. AVhipph'. Next, Peck. 

Next, Collins. N«'xt, Josiah Campbell. 

Next, Elisha Sawyer. 

On the east side of the highway, beginning at tii<* 
lake. First, Robert Simpson. Next, Elisha Gilbert. 
Next Nathan Skollinger. Next Zacheus Swift. 
Next, Comfort Joy, in 1817. Next Lemuel L. Downs. 
Next, Isaac Hiird took t\N o hunditnl acrL\<. Next, 
Stephen Austin. Next, Benjamin Drake. Next, 
Truman Austin. Next, Jacob Winegai". Next, 
Stephen B. Johnson, in 1817. 

The next two hundred acres wt'ic owned bv several, 
different pjirties under article, but the deed iTom the 
Land Company was taken ])y Samuel Clark, Esq. 

Next, was Peck. Next. Abner Balconi. 

Next, Harvey Clark. Next, Elisha Sawyer. These 
settlements were chiefly mad(^ between the ^-ears 
1816 and 1819. 

VILLAGE OF LYXJ)0N'V1LLF.. 

Mr. Stephen W. Mudgett, who had carrifKl <:>ri tan- 



400 PIONEER HISTORY 

ning and shoeinaking in Ridgeway, xjurchased fifty 
acres of land, part of lot two, section seven, on the 
east side of the north and south road in Lyndonville, 
and removed thei-e and set np tanning and shoe- 
making. 

Samuel Clark took a deed of two hundred acres 
next north of S. \V. Mudgett, on the east side of the 
road. 

About the year 1817, a man by the name of Peck 
took up one hundred acres on the west side where 
William Mudgett afterwards resided. Samuel and 
Oliver Whipple took up land next north of 
Peck. 

Soon after the county of Orleans was organized, 
settlers began to gather here. Mechanics and trades- 
men came in and a village began to be formed. Sam- 
uel Tappan, who v>-as postmaster, and kept his office 
at Yates Center, removed it here, much to the dis- 
gust of those living at the Center. 

L. & jS^. Martin, from Peacham, A'ermont, kept the 
first store in 1830. Smith & Babcock soon followed, 
and Royal Chamberlain was an early merchant. C, 
Peabody was first blacksmith. 

Blanchard and Chamberlain built the tavern 
which stands there yet, which was kept by Miner 
Slierwin, in 1830. 

To settle the postoffice satisfactorily to the peoj)le, 
Yates postoffice was transfered to the Center, and 
application was made to the department for a new 
]iostofiice, to be called Lj^ndon, that being the name 
that had been agreed on at a public meeting of the 
inhabitants, several of whom came from Lyndon, 
\>rmont. The postofiic(! department established the 
postoffice by name ot Lyndonvilh', to distinguish it 
from Linden, in Genes*^' county. 

S. A\'. Mudgett, Samuel Tappan, Richard Barry 
and others, built the first flouring Mills at Lyndon- 



OF ORLEANS CX)UNTY. 407 

ville, in 1836. The Union School hons<^ v,a,s built in 
1843. 

Royal Chamberlain, from Vermont, settled here as 
a merchant about the time thf village began to be 
established. 

As there was no lawyer by profession in town, Air. 
Chamberlain being a ready talker and possessed of 
some education'and sufficient self assurance, engaged 
in trying suits] in justice's courts, and continued the 
practice several years, until he became a noted 
"pettifogger" through several towns around, lie 
was a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas one term. 
He removed from Yates several years ago, and now 
resides in l^ockport, where he has edited a newH- 
paper. He did Cf)nsiderable to build up n village at 
Lyndonville. 

Dr. Horace Phippany watj the first regular ]:>li3'si- 
cian who settled in Lyndonville. 

Rev. Jeremiah Irons was the first Baptist minister 
who resided in Yates. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF EARLY SEHLERS. 

REUBEN ROOT. 

"1 was born in Coo})er8town, Otsego county, Isl, 
Y., December 2Sth, 1792. My father removed with 
his family, then consisting of his wife and five sonw, 
to Rig Sodus Ba}', in 1801 or '2. In April, 1804, we 
moved by way of Irondequoit Bay and lake Ontario, 
to the mouth of Johnson's Creek, in Carlton, near 
which place my father took an article of land from 
the Holland Land (Company, and located on it to 
make him a farm. 

The party that came consisted of my father's fami- 
ly and the Dunham family, of six or seven persons, 



iOS PrONKEU UISTOEY 

n.nd these constitiitwl . the wliok^ white popnh\tion 
north of tJie Rid,i;'t', between tlie Niagara and (lene- 
see rivers, except a family by tiie name of Wals- 
worth, Avho had settled at the mouth of Oak Or- 
cliard Creek. 

. My Inther huilt a house ol' such poles as we couhl 
carry, as vfe had iio team to draw logs, and covered 
it, with elm bark, iu which we lived withoid a lloor 
for one or two years, rlu n a floor was made ol' split 
basswood logs. 

After Iniilding a shelter lov the fandly, Ihe next 
rtung iu (jrder was to get su])]ilied with food and 
clothing, tht^ stock we hi-oiight with lis getting low, 
We cleai-ed a small piece of land and ])h«nted it with 
corn; from this we mad(^ our bread. Our meat <'on- 
sisted of lish, venison, l)eai-, rnccoon and hedgeliog. 
We ])ounded our coi-n for meal two or three j'ears, 
by wliich tinif we began to raise wheat, which we 
took to Norton's mill, in Liiua. to be ground, it 
was about stnenty miles b\^ wjiy of Irondequoit Bay 
and the lake. The counti-y was so infested with 
be<Trs and wohcs .-it tli.-ii titne ut' could not keep do- 
mestic animals. 

In tlie summer of jyoO or '7, my father got a cow 
trom Canad.'i. but the following fall she was killed 
by wolves. 

Our clothing w;is made from lieni]) <tf our own rais- 
ing. We could not i-aise flax oji accoujit of the riist 
tJKat destroyed the lil)i-e. 

h'^or several acmt-s we had no boots or shoe's for 
want of material to make them. 

My fM.th(^r built the lirst frame barn in what is now 
Orleans county. Tin- bimbei- and nails he lironght 
froni Canada. 

Turner, hi his histor\ o\' ihe Holland Purchase, is 
in error wdien he says that '' .lames Mather built the 
first frame barn, and got part of his Iumber« fi'om 



Oy OKLEANS OOIIXTV. 400 

Dunliam' H mill.*' Oiu- Ijiiiii was built before Dun- 
ham's sawmill was built. Tlie barn was torn down 
by Daniel Gates twenty-two or twenty-three years 
since, who then owned, the place, and some of the 
flooring can now be s^een on the premises. 'Vhey 
were split and hewn from whitf wood logs. Tliennils 
used were all wrought nails. 

In September, 1814, my father and mjself being" 
the only ones in our famil}'^ liable to do military 
duty, were ordered to meet at Jiatavia, and go 
from there to Buffalo to serv(? in the United States 
ami}', in the war then being cariied on against Gi-eat 
Britain. 

On our arrival at liuftalo, tlu'rc was a call mad<' 
for volunteers to go to Fort Erie, undei- Gi^neral Poi- 
ter, to take the British batterit^s that were then be- 
seigiug Fort Erie. My father and myself volunteered 
and went (^ver jind assisted in taking the batteries 
and capturing some five hundred prisoners. This 
was on the 17th of September, 1814. After this we. 
were discharged, ]-ect'iving at the rate of $8 per montli 
for our services. 

In 1814, I took an article from the Holland Land 
Company of the land on which I now reside, on lot 
one, section three, township sixteen, j-ango thrc*'. 

In April, bSlf), I went to Canada and worked on a 
farm there during tlie summer. The winter following 
I returned and choppe<i over twenty-five acres on my 
farm, and in March, T81G, 1 went to Toronto and 
took command of a vessel and sailed on hike 
Ontario during the st\'ison of navigation unlil the 
year 1820. 

In Januar\ 28tii, 1819, I was married to Miss Eliz- 
abeth Hastings, of Toronto. We moved upon my 
farm in Yates, in December, 1820, where we still re- 
side. AVe have raised a family of ten children, five 
sons and five slaughters. Mv eldest and \»ungest 



410 PIONEElt HISTORY 



sons are now serving in the armies of their country 

REUBEN ROOT." 



in the war of tlie great rebellion 



Yales, June, 1864. 

SAMUEL TAPJ'AN. 

Samuel Tappan Avas born in Saco, Maine, Novem- 
ber 19, 1781. When nine years old he went to reside 
with an uncle in Massachusetts. His father was a 
Quaker in religious opinion, a zealous advocate of 
their peculiar principles until his death. On the death 
of his father Samuel was placed with a man in Saco, to 
learn the tailor s trade. Disliking this business he was 
soon after bound as an apprentice to a shoemaker, 
and commenced his " servitude,'' as he called it, 
August, 1793. His master belonged to the sect of 
Quakers, hard and (.exacting, he made no allow- 
ance for the faults and failings, or the weakness or 
feelings of others. He obliged his aj)preutice to as- 
sume the dress, and conform to the mode of worship 
of the Quakers, both oi' vvdiich were repugnant to th(^ 
feelings of the 3^oung man. His master had no 
books but the Bible, and a few religious works on 
subjects connected with the Quakers. Samuel was 
inclined to read whatever came in his wa}'. His incli- 
nations, however, were stj'icth' restrained by his mas- 
ter, by whom all books of poetry and romance were 
absolutely forbidden, and the range of other books 
to which he was admitted, was exceedingly limited. 
Aftei' scAcral years spent in this mannei*, a friendh' 
Congregational minister kindly supplied him with 
books, and gave liim discreet counsel, which 
lendered his s(*rvitude more tolerable and hax)py. 
He had no benefit of schooling, nin'er having 
attended school ris a scholar but thriM' days in his 
life. 

In 1801, with the help of fiieiids lie pinvliased his 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 411 

freedom from his apprenticeship, and returned to 
Saco and worked at his trade about two years, 
studying what he could in the mean time to ht him- 
self for a school teacher. 

In 1803 he taught his first school, in which occupa- 
tion he was mainly employed for a, number of years, 
occasionally working at his trade, and studying when 
he could without a teacher. 

For several years Im supplied the poets corner in a 
village newspaper, and became considerably inter- 
ested in politics, on the Republican side, under the 
lead of Mr. Jefferson. 

In 1809 he was appointed deputy sheriH* tor York 
and Oxford counties, which office he held for two 
years. 

In 1811 he removed to Fittstown, Rensselaer coun- 
ty, IN". Y. The ti-oubles between the United States 
and Great Britain thickening at this time, on his ap- 
plication he was appointed an Ensign in the Infantry in 
the United States Army, and assigned to duty in the 
18th Regiment, and stationed in the i-ecruiting service 
at Hoosic, IN^. Y. 

After war was declared in 1812, he was transferred 
to the 23d regiment. 

In May, 1813, he was ordered with his company to 
the Niagara frontier. Fort George, at the moutli of 
Niagara river, on the Canada side, was taken by our 
forces, and Ensign Tappan was sent with forty men 
to plant the American flag on the fort, which was the 
first time that flag was raised over conquered British 
territory in that war. Ensign Tappan was now ap- 
pointed adjutant. In September he was sent with a 
convoy of prisoners to Greenbush, being twenty-one 
days on the road. H»^ remained in Greenbush the 
next autumn and wint(n-, teaching school in the mean 
time. 



412 PIONEEK IlISTOEY 

111 June, 1814, he was again ordered to tlie fron- 
tier and assigned to the command of a company, and 
nerved at the capture of Fort Erie. He was engaged 
in the "battles of Chippewa and Lundy's Lane. In 
this last battle Jiis company lost seventeen out of 
forty-five in killed and wounded. In, this battle 
Liettti'iiant Tappan. at the head of his company, (,'ap- 
tured Capt. Frazier, of the Royal Scotts, with twenty 
of his men. The American army afterwards retired 
to Fort Erie, aud was besieged there by the British, 
but th(n' were finallj' compelled to raise the siege. 
Afterwards, by the bursting of a shell in our camp 
which had been thrown there by the British, his knee 
was broken, which conlined him in hospital a long 
time, and on account of wliich he received a pension 
the remainder of his lifV\ After he became suffi- 
ciently recovered to return to dut}', he was retained 
on the ])eace establishment, war with England being- 
ended, l)ut resigned his commission in February, 
1810. He then returned to Pittstown. and there 
tauglit school the next seven years, serving in the 
mean time as inspector and commissioner of schools, 
commissioner of deeds, auctioneer and coroner. In 
1823 he moved to Ridge wa}', moving in October, his 
family consisting of a wife and five children, with all 
his eifects on two Dutch A\'agon«, reaching Ridge- 
way, ISTovember 10th. After fitting a log cabin for 
his famil}' he took a school for the Avinter. In the 
spring he went to Avork clearing land, btit as he said 
his farming was not a success. ''My fruit trees 
would fall down and my forest trees would stand up; 
my crops Avere light but my bills were heavy, and 
one years exjierience tauglit me 1 Avas not born to 
be a farmer." 

In the spring of 1825 he moved to Yates and opened 
a tavern at Yates Center, ktn^ping the first tavern 
upeued in that toAvii. After lieeping tavern one 



Oy ORJ-EANS COUNTY. 418 

year and retailing iifty-tliree barrels of liquor in that, 
time, he sold out his tavern, was elected constable 
and inspector of schools and commissioner of deeds, 
which last named officn^ he held twenty years. He 
was elected justice of the peace in 1828. In tlie win- 
ter of 1827 he taught school lor the last time. con(du- 
ding his nineteen yeaj's service in that capacit}'. In 
1829 he wns appointed ])Ostmaster, whicli office he 
held thirttM'u >'ears. In 1832 he was appointed one of 
the Judges of tile Oi-leans County Court of (jonimon 
Pleas, which office he held five years. In 184(5 he 
was elected town superintendent of common schools. 
The latej- ytmv^ of his lite were spent in quiet at home 
with liis books, and enjoying the societ}'' of family 
and tViends. lie was constitutionally frail in body, 
but energetic and active in his liabits of lite. IJeing 
ready with Ids pen, and liaving considerable expe- 
rience in busiiK^ss, he was frequeutl3^ employed to 
draft deeds, wills and contracts for his neighbors, 
and had some practice in trying suits in justices' 
courts, as counsel for ]uirties. Of a cheerful and 
lively turn of mind and eiiny How of language, and 
having an inexhaustible fund of anecdotes and sto- 
ries at his command, he would make himself exceed- 
ingly interesting in conversation, and give zest and 
enjoyment to society wherever he was. His charac- 
ter as a man is aptly described by his daughter in a 
memoir of him prepared by her, Jrom wliich we ex- 
tract as follows: 

"Judge Tappan maybe described as a man of 
moie than oi'dinary intellect, well acquainted with 
the leading events of the day. Of the strictest intef- 
rity in his business relations, noted for punctuality, 
a public spirited citizen, ready to bear his full share 
of responsibility. In his so(^ial relations, his keen 
perceptions and ready wit made him an instructive 
companion. Although many excentricities mingled 



414 PIONEEK HISTORY 

in his character, yet those who knew him "best over- 
looked these, knowing his heart was right, though 
liis words might sometimes wound." 

He was married four times and liad nineteen chil- 
dren. 

Many anecdotes might be told of him illustrative 
of his diflerent traits of character. He posssessed 
no mechanical ability and often related one of his 
experiments in this department. After he moved to 
Eidgeway and became a farmer he found a well curb 
needed and concluded to make one without assis- 
tance. He ascertained the size required, collected 
the materials together and made it in the house du- 
ring the evenings, being engaged in teaching in the 
day time, but after its completion, when he at- 
tempted to take it through the doorway he found it 
several inches wider than the door. He was a great 
pedestrian, often making excursions on foot, showing 
greater powers of endurance than many younger and 
stronger men. 

In the spring of 1844, when starting on one of his 
eastern journeys, he tells us in his journal that ar- 
riving in Albion and not finding the water let into the 
canal as he expected, he managed to get as far as 
Rochester, and walked most of the distance to Ge- 
neva. After he was seventy years old he walked 
from Medina to Daw's Corners, near Batavia, at one 
time. 

While postmaster, he often left two horses in his 
stable and walked from Yates to Ridgeway with the 
mail bag on his arm. 

He died February 8th, 18G8, aged eighty-six 
years. 

JOHN JI. TYLER. 

John H. Tyler was born in Randolph, Orange Co., 
Vermont, November 30th, 1793. He attended the 



OF OKLEAJS.S OOUISTY. 415 

academy in Kandolpli a short time and removed to 
Massena, N. Y., in 1810. On war with Great Britain 
being declared in 1812, lie volunteered as a soldier 
and served near Ogdensburgli six months. In 1817 
he removed to the Holland Purchase, and March 22d 
took an article for one hundred seventy-six acres of 
land in Yates, part of lot two. section two, range 
three, on Johnson's Creek, on which he afterwards 
resided and labored as a farmer. He was Supervisor 
of the town of Yates nine years, justice of the peace 
a numberv of years, and represented the countj^ of 
Orleans in the Assembly of the State in 1830 and '31. 
He was a man of vigorous intellect and good judg- 
ment, and enjoyed the contidence of all who knew 
him. 

He married Selina Gilbert, daughter of Simeon Gil- 
bert, of Yates, in 1819. She died October 7th, 1842. 
He married Saloma Gates, daughter of Daniel Gates, 
of Carlton, in 1843. 

He died in August, 18o0. 

HORACE O. CiOOLD. 

Horace O. Goold was born in Lyme, New Lon- 
don county, Connecticut, August 12th, 1800. In 
March, 1818, in company with two other men in a 
one horse wagon, he camti to Bloomfield, N. Y., after 
a journey of tifteen days. He labored on a farm the 
next summer, taught scho(»l the next winter, and in 
the spring of 1819, I'emoved to Carlton, N. Y., and 
located about two miles west of the head of Still- 
water. 

The lirst }'ear of his settlement here he laised 
thirty bushels of corn and as many bushels of pota- 
toes. 

Mr. Goold said: ''During the first season we 
were sometimes rather short of food, especially meat, 
but some of the boys would often kill some wild an- 



416 PIQNKEK HISTORY 

imal, and ^w were not very particular what name it 
bore, as liunger had driven us ' to esteem nothing un- 
elean, but to receive it with thanksgiving.' " 

Mr. Goold married Lauienda Fuller, of Carlton, 
November lath, J 820. 

Several years before his death, Mr. Goold removed 
to Lyndonville, in Yates, where he died October 5th. 
186/5. His wife died Octol)er 24th, 1865. 

.FOSTAH PERRY. 

Josiah Perry was l)orn in Shaftsbury, Vermont. 
September 6th, 1787. He removed to Yates in April, 
1 817, and commenced clearing a farm, and x)lanted 
and raised corn and potatoes among the logs and 
s(jwed some wheat, all the first year. 

The people in Yates, in those days, generally went 
to Dunham's gristmill, at Kuckville, in Carlton, to 
get grain ground, and Mr. Perry relates of his carry- 
ing a Tjushel of wheat on his back a half dozen miles 
to that mUl to be ground, going through the woodn 
by marked trees, no road being cut out. 

Mr. Perry taught the first school that was kept in 
town. He held office as justice of the peace a short 
time. He is yet living in Yates. 

ALFRED BIJLLARD. 

Alfred Bullard was born in Barre, Massachusetts, 
February 19th, 1793. 

He removed with his parents to Shrewsbury, Ver- 
mont, and there received a fair common school edu- 
(^ation, with the addition of a knowledge of field sur- 
veying. 

In 181 7 he came to Batavia, Genesee county, and 
in 1818 he removed to Barre, Orleans county, and he 
finally settled in Yates in 1824, where lie has ever 
since resided. 

For many years after coming into this county, his 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 417 

principal employment consisted in surveying land, 
and he was known to almost everybody in Orleans 
county as " Surveyor Bullard.' When Tic was not 
surveying he worked on a farm. He married Cynthia 
Peck in 1821. She died and he married Sally Smith, 
who is dead also. 

Mr. Bullard has not engaged in survejdng for a 
number of years on account of lameness, which com- 
pelled him to use one, and sometimes two canes in 
walking. He may be considered the pioneer surveyor 
located in Orleans county. 

HENRY MC NEAL. 

Henry McNeal was born in Pittstowii, Rensselaer 
county, N. Y., in 1792. 

He married Lucy Sternberg in 1814. Tliey moved 
to Yates in] 817. 

Mr. McNeal was the first Captain of a militia com- 
pany in Yates. 

AMOS SPENCEi;, 

Amos Spencer was born in Connecticut in 1787. 
He married Jerusha Murdock, September 10th, 
1811. They moved to Yates and settled on the lake 
shore in 1818. 

After a few years ihey removed to Hartland, Ni- 
agara county, where he was living in 1870. The lirst 
year he resided in Yates, he cleared the land and sowed 
ten acres with winter wheat. On this the next year 
he harvested three hundred and thirty bushels of 
wheat. He drew forty bushels to Ridgeway Corners, 
hired Amos Barrett to carry it to Rochester with his 
team, gave him five dollars for drawing and j^aid his 
expenses on the road. He sold his wheat for fifty- 
four cents per bushel. They were gone four days, 
and on getting home fou»d they had only five dollars 

27 



418 piojs'kp:r history 

of llie money received for their wheat left, all the re- 
mainder having been spent in payinrj; necessary ex- 
penses. 

ELISIIA SAWYER. 

Elislia Sawyer was born in Heading, Vermont, 
September 30th, 1785. He settled in Yates in 1816. 
He took up four hundred acres of land on the south 
line of the town. After some years he removed to 
Lyndonville on a small place. He removed to Pax- 
ton, Illinois, and died there December 8th, 1868. 

BAKIFCH II. GILBERT. 

Baruch H. Gilbert was born in the town of ISTorth- 
east, Dutchess county. New York, August 24th, 
1795. 

His fatlier, Simeon Gilbert, came to Yates in the 
fall of 1816, and took an article of land on the west 
side of the line between ranges three and four, about 
a. mile and a half south from lake Ontario, and re- 
turned to his easterji liome without making any im- 
j)rovement on his lands, to which he did not return 
until the spring of 1818. 

Baruch H. Gilbert settled on the south part of the 
land so taken by his father in the spring of 1817, and 
oleared a ftirai there on which he resided about lifty 
years. 

Mr. Gilbert was of fair education, of considerable 
spirit and energ}" of character, and settling in this 
town among the very first, he interested himself in 
eveiy movement made to improve the country, intro- 
duce and maintain tlie institutions of civilized society 
and induce people to settle in Yates. He soon took a 
prominent position in the business of his town and 
neighborhood, and as long as he resided here he 
was one of the leading men in all public affairs. He 
officiated as justice of the peace for thirty years. 



01' ORLEANS COUNTY. 419 

He Tnartied Miss Fanny Skellenger in 1821. His 
cliildren are Simeon, who married Olive Slvellinger, 
and resides in Illinois ; Stephen B., married Ann 
Watkins, resides in California ; Nathan S., married 
Mary E. Lane, resides in Lockport ; and Cordelia, 
who is unmarried. 

ELISIIA BOWEN. 

Dr. Elislia Bowen was born in Reading, Windsor 
county, Vermont, in the year 1791. 

He received a diploma from Dartmouth College. 
He was iirst married and removed to Palmyra, N. Y., 
in 1817, where his wife died. 

In the year 1820 he removed to the town of Yates, 
and settled on a farm between Yates Center and the 
lake. 

He was the first, and for several years the oirh- 
regular physician residing and practicing in the town 
of Yates. 

He married for his second wife Miss Adeline Raw- 
son. After her death he married for his third wife 
Miss Mary Ann Clark. She died in 1861. 

Dr. Bowen had twelve children, of whom nine are 
living, viz.: Francis W., married a daughter of Dr. 
Whaley, resides in Sacramento, California ; Samuel 
C, married Kate, daughter of James Jackson, of 
Ridgeway, resides in Medina ; Adeline, unmarried, 
resides in Wisconson; Charles C, married Julia Hard, 
resides in Detroit ; Edgar J., married Mary Winii, 
resides in Chicago ; Susan, married H. L. Achilles, 
Jr., resides in Rochester; Cornelia, married Samuel 
Boyd, resides in Appleton, Wisconsin ; Mary, un- 
married resides at Appleton, Wisconsin ; Theodore 
E., married Mary Loomis, resides in Chicago. 

Dr. Bowen was one of thirteen persons who united 
to form the Baptist Church in Yates, in 1822, ol 
which church he continued an active member until 



420 PIONEER IIISTOEY 

his death. He was a strong advocate of temperance, 
and among the first who united in the town of Yates 
to form a society to j)romote that canse. 

Dr. Bowen was conscientious and correct in all the 
liabits of his life, and had the confidence and respect 
of all who knew him. In the later years of his life 
he did not practice his profession. He died April 6^ 
1863, aged 72 years. 



CHAPTER XXX. 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES OF JOSEPH ELLICOTT AND 
EBENEZER MIX. 

JOSEPH ELLICOTT. 

Altliougli Mr. EUicott was never a resident of Or- 
leans county, and consequently not strictly included 
among its jDioneers, whose history it is the main ob- 
ject of this work to record, yet, as the agent of the 
Holland Land Company for so many years- no man 
had more to do in organizing and settling tliis county, 
and in planning and bringing into action the means by 
which the varied resources of Western New York 
have been developed. 

The ancestors of Mr. EUicott came from AVales to 
America at an early day, and were among tlie early 
pioneers of Buck's county, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Joseph EUicott was thoroughly educated as a 
surveyor, by lessons given him by his elder brother 
Andrew. His first practical lessons were taken while 
assisting his brother in surveying the city of Wash- 
ington, after that place had been selected for the Na- 
tional Capitol. 

In 1791 he was appointed to run tlie line between 
Georgia and the Creek Indians. He was then en- 
gaged in surveying the lands of the Holland Company 
lying in the State of Pennsylvania. When this was 
-completed he was sent to survey the Company's lands 
in Western New York. 

He spent many years in tlie woods, in the arduous 
labors of a surveyor, and wlien he left the woods to 



422 PIONEER HISTORY 

engage in the business of local agent of the Company, 
liis toil was scarcely lessened. During this time he 
carried on an immense correspondence with the gene- 
ral office, at Philadelphia, in reference to the business 
entrusted to him, and also with the prominent men 
of Ills time and country in relation to public affairs 
generally, in which he manifested great interest. He 
is especially remembered aside from his connexion 
with the Holland Land Company, for the part he 
took in promoting that great work of internal im- 
provement, the Erie Canal. AYith the schemes for 
the origin and prosecution of that work, and its pro- 
gress to success, he was conspicuously identified; 
and among the great men whose comprehensive 
minds devised that canal, and urged it forward to 
completion, his name will ever rank among the 
first. 

By a life of activity and enterprise, he was enabled 
to accumulate a large property without being 
charged, with peculation in office, or mal-admin- 
istration of the vast business entrusted to his 
care. 

A spirit of discontent had begun to be manifested 
among the settlers on the Holland Purchase, growing 
out of their enormous indebtedness to the Company 
for their lands which they had been permitted to 
buy on credit, and while the leniency of the agents 
had not enforced payment on their contracts, accu- 
mlating interest had Jargelj^ swelled the original 
debts. 

Worried and worn b}' the load of labor he had 
sustained, and aware of the discontent which pre- 
vailed, and which he hoped might be allayed if direc- 
ti'd by other counsels, Mr. E. resigned liis agency, and 
thus closed a busy life. From that time he was afflic- 
ted with a monomania upon real or imaginary diseases- 
with which he believed himself to suflTer. He was 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 4.23 

taken by liis friends to New York and placed in the 
hospital at Bellevue, wliere about August, 1S26, lie 
committed suicide, 

Joseph Ellicott was never married, but for liis nu- 
merous family of relatives he made most ample pro- 
vision, some of the choicest lands on the Holland Pur- 
chase being selected and secured by title to the Elli- 
cotts. 

His remains were brought to Bata\'ia and interrfr-d 
in the village cemetery, a beautiful monument being 
erected under the superintence of David E. Evans, 
his nephew, and successor as local agent of the Hol- 
land Company, marks the spot. 

From his intimate acquaintance as surveyor with 
the Holland Purchase lands in Western New York, 
lie was enabled to make some judicious selections of 
lands for himself. 

In the original survey of Bulfalo, he laid 
off for himself one hundred acres, now included in 
the best part of that city. 

In the county of Orleans he bought seven liundred 
a(;res, including the water power at Shelby Center, 
and afterwards fourteen hundred acres farther down 
the Oak Orchard Creek, which included the viJ- 
hige of Medina, and the best wat^r power on that 
creek. 

About the year 1824 he made his will, in which he 
devised a large part of his great landed instate in 
special gifts *to his favorite relatives. The residue 
was devised to others of his kindred, nearly un«^ hun- 
dred in numbei-. share and share [ilike, with a few 
exceptions. 

His pro]M^rt\- at tlie time of his death, even at the 
low price lands then bore, was estimated at six 
hundred thousand dollars. From the great advance 
in value at this time, this property is wortli many 
millions of (h)llars. 



424 PIONEER HISTORY 

He was the first Judge appointed in and for Gene- 
see county courts. 

EBENEZER MIX. 

Ebenezer Mix is a name familiar as household 
words to the old settlers on the Holland Purchase, 
and no history of the pioneers, or of the early settle- 
ment, could be made complete without a reference to 
him. 

Mr. Mix was "born at New Haven, Connecticut, He 
died at Cleveland, Ohio, January 12th, 1860, aged 
81 years. 

In his native New England he learned and worked 
at the tiade of a mason. 

He came to Batavia, Genesee county, to seek his 
foi'tune, in the year 1809. There he worked first at 
his trade as a mason. He afterwards taught school ; 
was for a time a student in a law office, and finally 
went into the service of the Holland Land Company 
as a clerk in their oflice at Batavia, in 1811, where he 
remained twenty-seven years. 

Being a good theoretical and practical surveyor, 
and a clear headed and competent business man, in 
a short time he was made contracting clerk in the 
Batavia oflice, in which capacity it w^as his duty 
to mak(\ renew and modify contracts for the sale of 
hmd, calculate quantities of land, make sub-divisions 
of tracts of land, and act as salesman generally. In 
this w^ay Ik? became intimately connecte'd with every 
transaction of the ComjDany relating to gifl;s of land 
to churches and school districts, and took part in all 
business matters between the company and the people 
who settled on their lands. And few men could be 
found who would have done the business as well. 
He excelled as a mathematician, was a practical sur- 
veyor and possessed a remarkable memory of boun- 
daries, localities, dates and distances. Indeed the 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 425 

whole transactions of the Land Company, and the 
map of their territory seemed to be pictured on his 
laind with singular fidelity, making it a treasury of 
facts, exceedingly convenient for reference in settling 
conflicting questions concerning highways, bounda- 
ries and original surveys, which arise among the 
people. 

Naturally of a somewhat irritable temperament, 
when aroused by the perplexities of business, he 
was sometimes rather sour and rough in manner to- 
wards persons by whom he was annoyed, but his 
wish and aim was to do right and justice, and how- 
ever austere and crabbed his manner, his conclusions 
and final settlement of matters he had in hand was 
Idnd and benevolent to those with whom he had to 
do. 

Full many a time has the unfortunate settler who 
bad been unable to make the payments on his article, 
and whom sickness and calamity had driven almost 
to despair of ever paying for his land, had reason to 
be grateful for the humanity and generous treatment 
he recf^ived from Mr. Mix in extending his payments, 
renewing his article, and abating his interest 
money. 

In the war of 1812 he served for a time as volun- 
teer aid to Gen. P. B. Porter, and was at the sortie 
at Fort Erie. 

For twenty years in succession he was the Surro- 
gate of Genesee county. 



ORLEANS COUNTY PIONEER ASSOCIATION. 



This Association was organized June, 18o9. Its 
members are persons wlio at any time previous to 
January, 1826, were residents of Western New York, 
who sign its Constitation. The objects of the Asso- 
ciation, as contained in its constitution, are to pro- 
mote social intercourse by meeting together statedly, 
in order to preserve and perpetuate the remembi-ance 
of interesting facts connected Avith the early history 
of the settlement of Orleans county and its vicini- 
ty. The annual meetings are held at the Court 
House, in Albion, on the third Saturday in Jiuw. 

It has been an object of the Association to collect 
and preserve as much of the history of the early set- 
tlement of Orleans county as possib^^ The local 
history of many of the early pioneers has been ob- 
tained and written out in books ki^pt for that pur- 
pose, and several photograph albums have been 
tilled with the pictures of tlit^ men and women who 
came here at an early day. 

At these yearly gathei'ings, and at (iccasional spe- 
cial meetings held from time to time in various places 
in the county, the old people ai'e accustomed to meet 
together and recount their adventures while subduing 
the wilderness, and have a good time generally. 

It is intended to obtain as much of such history of 
" 'ye olden time " as possible, and when the actors 
in these old scenes ar»^ no more, and the last of the 
log houses shall exist only in tin.' memory and rec- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 427 

ords of the' times gone by, then these old manuscripts 
and relics, laid up in some public depository, shall 
remain for the information of posterity of the things 
that were here, memories of the hardships, labors, 
and privations of the pioneers of Orleans county. 



ADDRESS 



DELIVERED BEFORE THE ORLEANS COUNTY PIONEER ASSOCIA- 
TION, SEPT. IOtii, 1859, 
By ARA0 THOMAS. 



Mr. President, and Members of tlie Orleans County Pioneer Association : — 

In discliarging the jDleasant duty of addressing you 
on the present occasion, I am desirous to devote my 
thoughts to the consideration of topics kindred to the 
sentiments wliich led to the formation of this associ- 
ation. 

This seems no fit time to indulge in abstruse spec- 
ulations, or idle rhetoric. I address a practical com- 
pany, — men who have heen trained to meet the stern 
realities of life, and accomplish their destiny with un- 
flinching labor ; and having achieved a good work, 
well may they enjoy the triumph it affords. Let us 
then contemplate the past, and learn wisdom for the 
future. 

A stranger, who now for the first time should come 
into our county, judging from appearances, would 
be apt to think this an old settlement, where genera- 
tion after generation of men had lived and died, and 
where their accumulated labor had been expended 
upon tliose works of enlightened civilization wliich 
cover the land. But we know scarce fifty years 
since the first acre of this territory was cleared of its 
native forest, and the men are now living who recol- 
lect when here was nothing but a dark, unbroken 
wilderness. 

Many of the first settlers of this county have 
passed away from among the living. Others follow- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 429 

ing in the tide of emigration are now inhabitants of 
some Western States. A few survivors and represen- 
tatives of a generation rapidl}^ passing away, remain 
quiet ]30Ssessors of the soil their hands first subjected to 
cultivation, and today they have assembled to talk over 
the trials and privations, the hardships and the suf- 
ferings, the varied events of fortune, prosperous and 
adverse, which have fallen to their lot since first they 
came into this county. 

The occasion is replete with interest to us all. To 
the aged veterans, it brings up memories of events, 
which in passing thrilled their hearts with intensest 
emotion. 

To the more youthful spectator it aSbrds encour- 
agement to labor, in view of these examples of suc- 
cess over every opposition, obtained by resolute and 
continued exertion. And to us all, it shows convin- 
cing proofs that honest and laudable industry will 
reap its rewards in due time. 

Our theme embraces the consideration of subjects 
connected with the early settlement of Orleans county. 
In tracing the history of mankind in their migrations 
since their memorable dispersion on the plains of 
Shinar, we find a variety of causes which have impelled 
men to remove from the places of their nativity. The 
venerable foirnder of the Jewish nation went down to 
Egypt to save his family from death by famine, and 
his descendents came out of Egyjot to save themselves 
from a terrible bondage. 

The builders of ancient Rome were the scattered 
fragments of various nations who assembted there as 
to a common asylum of outcasts from everywhere, 
and raised their walls for mutual protection and sup- 
port; and by encouraging immigration frombroad,and 
the gradual accretion of power by treaty, and con- 
quest of foreign nations, in time they became the 
mightiest empire on earth, in their turn to be overrun 



430 PIONEER HISTORY 

by swarms from tlie northern hive, who, deserting their 
inliospitable homes, came down with all their move- 
able possessions, by fire and sword, to drive out the 
inhabitants of the fair provinces of Italy, and give 
themselves a better land. 

The Spaniards who first settled in America, were 
attracted there by their cupidity for gold. And 
the ranks of the settlers in most new countries have 
been swelled by adventurers who had been obliged 
to leave their native land to escape the consequences 
of their crimes. 

A nobler impulse prompted our ancestors in their 
migrations from Europe. 

The discovery of America, the invention of print- 
ing, and the Protestant Reformation had roused the 
minds of the most intelligent nations of the world to a 
more exalted sense of the value of liberty, and a keen 
perception of those natural and inalienable rights of 
conscience which form the richest possession of a free 
people. Persecuted for conscience sake in their na- 
tive country, England, they had borne for years the 
cruel oppression which religious intolerance and po- 
litical tyranny forced upon them there, with christian 
endurance, till overcome by sufiering too grievous to 
be borne, and hopeless of relief, they solemnly with- 
drew from their national church and from the land 
of their birtli, to Holland, where, some years after 
the}^ formed and carried out the resolution to emi- 
grate to America, there, under the j)rotection of the 
King of England, they thought to Avorship God in 
peace, as they believed to be right. 

Piety and love of liberty furnished them sufficient 
motives for removal, and armed them with fortitude 
required to meet the perils and hardships of their 
new home. 

With all proper admiration which^we ought to feel 
for the early New England Puritans, the__^ancestors 



01<" ORLEANS COUISTY. 431 

of SO many of those who hear me, we may admit 
they had their failings. In the austerity of tlieir 
faith they often forgot the mild spirit of charity 
which pervades the gospel they revered, and in the 
ardor of tlieir zeal they made and sought to en- 
force laws of great severity against those professing 
religious belief at variance with the dogmas of their 
stern creed, and punished and persecuted with a 
strange infatuation, those charged with the crime of 
witchcraft. 

But in reviewing this portion of the history of our 
forefathers, we should remember not to judge them 
by the lights of the present age. Toleration to faith 
and worship, contrary- to the forms declared by the 
civil government for a thousand years, had then not 
been known in Europe, and the opinion of good men 
had before then always been, that such religious free- 
dom would destroy the best institutions of society. 
A belief in witchcraft was as old as history itself, 
and was a common superstition of the times. The 
excellent and pious Baxter held the existence of 
witches as certain as the punishment of the wicked, 
and the great and good Sir Matthew Hale, that able 
judge, and profound luminary of the law, believed in 
witchcraft as sincerely as did Cotton Mather. 

The superstitions of the dark ages were then enter- 
tained by the most enlightened and liberal minded men 
everywhere, and it would be requiring too much, to 
expect our forefathers to have freed themselves from 
opinions we may deem absurd, but which up to that 
time, and by all other men then, were held worthy of 
acceptation. 

I know we are sometimes (;harged with using ex- 
travagant eulogium in speaking of the New England 
Puritans of the olden time. But making due allow- 
ance for their eccentricities of character and conduct, 
resulting from circumstances with which they stood 



432 PIONEER HISTORY 

connected, we may look in vain to find in the early- 
history of any other people, such noble patriotism, 
fervent piety, sonnd Avisdom, and incorruiDtible hon- 
esty as in the case before us. 

They had all been trained in the same school of 
adversity, and possessed in a wonderful degree iden- 
tity of sentiment, sym^Dathy and character in all their 
conduct and opinions which impressed itself upon all 
their laws, their individual and social arrangements, 
and upon every institution and action which found 
place among them. 

Inflexible and steadfast in their cherished princi- 
ples, they trained their children in the faith and prac- 
tices of their fathers, and the combined influence of 
such faith and works, we may see in their effects 
upon the energy and enterprise, the love of liberty, 
the respect for law and order, good morals, religion, 
learning and true jDatriotism, which, inspired by such 
examples, has ever distingushed their descendants 
down through the period of more than two hundred 
years. 

We need not sounding eulogy or words of windy 
panegyric to prove the value of New England intelli- 
gence, integrity and pov/er, in moulding and guiding 
the rising destinies of our country. The wisdom of 
her statesmen, the heroism of her soldiers, and the 
spirit and conduct of her people, secured our nation- 
al independence, and established our national federa- 
tion of independent States upon the broad basis of 
constitutional liberty. And even up to now this ele- 
ment has always been prominent, I had almost said 
controlling, in the legislation of most of the States, 
and at Washington. 

A few years since some curious individual ascer- 
tained on enquiry, that thirtj^-six of the members of 
the two Houses of Congress, then in session, were 
born in the single State of Connecticut. 



OK OKLEAN8 COUNTY. 433 

111 tile langiuige of ^h: Malthiis, raaii coming up 
to take upon liiui self his place, and tlie responsibili- 
ties of life, linds no cover laid foi- liini on nature's 
table, and lu^ goes out to spread a table for himself 
where he deems the prospect most inviting. The rich 
treasures of experince and wisdcmi, and tlie abundant 
stores of material good things the past has garnered 
up, afford him capital with which to work out the 
fulMlnient of his own and his country's hopes. 

These magnificent results of the skill and enter 
prise of tlie present da_y, are only other phases and 
demonstrations of the same spirit which led to the 
first settlement in America, and which has attended 
every step of our progress since, as well exemplified In 
the resolution of the solitary emigrant who sets his 
stake in tlie wilderness and determines there to dig 
up for himself a farm, as in that mightier work of a 
statesman, oi- a nation, which makes a canal or a 
railroad across a continent, lays a telegra})li wire 
across an oc<,-an. or solves tlie df^epest problem of 
state policy for the world. 

Soon after the revolutionaiy war had ended, the 
settlements in New England were extended ovf^- the 
the ]^rincipal part of those States suitable for tillage, 
and multitudes of their active and adventurous young 
men went out to seek their fortunes among the bor- 
derers who were pushing the bounds of civilization 
and improvement back into the new territories, skirt- 
ing the old Atlantic States upou the West. 

A large majority of th(^ first settlers of Orleans 
county were either emigrants from New P^ngland, 
or descended from the Puritan stock, wlio traced their 
origin back to those who, in December, 1620, landed 
from the May Flower upon Pl^auouth Eock. It is 
admitted that as a class they were poor but honest, 
possessing strong moral convictions, of effective force 
of intellect and will, tliey determined to plant and 
28 



434 PIO]S"EER HISTORY 

grow up tliC! institutions of religion, order and 
civilization in this wilderness, sncli as prevailed in 
their New England homes. Such views, habits and 
purposes, characterized the emigrants who first set- 
tled Westi^rn New York. Here was not the hiding- 
place of a. po])ulation of whom it might justlj^ be 
said they had left the homes of their youth as a 
«rieasure < >i' prudent care for their personal safety, 
or from a kind regard for the good of the place they 
!;ad left. Neither did they come here to buy choice 
lots and h^ave them till the toil of others on adjoin- 
ing farms should add value to their p>urchases. Here 
were few non-resident land holders at an early 
(lay. 

The Holland Land Company had purchased the 
Western \ydYt of the State of New York, bounded on 
the east by a line extending north from Penn- 
sylvania to Lake Ontario, known as the Transit 
Line. 

Before the last war with Great Britain, a portion of 
this tract which has been distinguished as the Hol- 
land Pun^hase, had been surveyed by the Company 
and offered for sale to settlers. The wonderful fertil- 
ity of the Genesee countrj^ had been reported abroad, 
and before the war a few emigrants had begun to 
make their homes among the heavy forests which 
covered tliis country, some of whom had located 
themselves in what is now Orleans eounty. 

The possibility of such a work as the Erie Canal 
had not then «mtered the great mind of Dewitt Clin- 
ton, or tx'en dieamed of even by tiitr great men of 
that day. 

Tlu' ni'Kst favorable means in prospect, then far in 

the future, for communicating with the old settle- 

«?»!-nts at the east, was by wagons u the highways, 

01 )>o;its down tlie Mohawk or Si. Lawrence. But 

ill' pi'>:,-'«'r settlers of the Hollatid Purchase Kelonged 



OF ORLEANI? COUNTY. 485 

to a bold :ind fearless race, who did not stop to en- 
quire whether the trail of civilization had extended 
to the new country, by which they could retreat with 
ease and safety to the homes of their fathers, if life 
in the woods should happen to prove uncongenial to 
their tastes. They expected to overcome tiie formi- 
dable Obstacles before them by their own strong 
arms and stout hearts. They knew that wealth was 
in their farms, not perhaps in the shape of golden 
nuggets, such as fire the imagination of emigrants 
to Pike's Peak, or the other El Dorados of the West, 
but in the golden produce of well tilled fields, which 
honest liard work was sure to raise in abundance 
in time to come, and they meant to have it. 

It is really not as great an undertaking for the em- 
igrant, who at this day goes from the Atlantic States 
to settle in Kansas or California, as it was fifty years 
ago to make a settlement in Western New York. 
Railroads and telegraphs have made communication 
easy and rapid between places most distant, and 
modern improvements in the economy and arts of do- 
mestic life are such, that most of the necessaries and 
comforts enjoyed by residents in older towns can 
readily be pi'oeured everywhere. 

The farmer who locates on a prairie at tlie AVest, be- 
gins his work by plowing the primitive sod, and the 
next year he reaps his crop and finds his field as 
clean and mellow as plow land along the Connecticut 
river, and he can sell his products for almost New 
York prices. But beginning a farm on the Holland 
Purchase, fi!ty years ago, was quite a different busi- 
ness. 

Indeed, we who have not learned by experience, 
can hardly imagine the obstacles and difficulties to 
be surmounted by the first settlers of Orleans county. 
Roads from Albany, westward, were bad ; merchants 
and mechanics had not vet arrUed. A dense and 



43C PIONEER HISTORY 

heavy forest of liard, huge trees covered the land, to 
he felled and cleared away before the plow of the 
farmer could turn up^the genial soil. Pestilential fe- 
vers racked the nerves and prostrated the vigor of 
the stoutest, as well as the weakest among them. 
Th« ague, that pest indigenous to all new countries, 
came up from every clearing, usually in the best 
daj^s of summer, to seize upon the settlei', his wife 
and children, some or all of them, and shake out all 
their strength and energy. 

Though the noblest timber trees for their buildings 
existed in troublesome abundance, sawmills had not 
then been erected. 

Though their lands produced the tinest of wheat 
whenever it could be sown, it cost more than its mar- 
ket price to take it to the distant grist mills to be 
ground. Sales of farm produce were limited to 
home consumption. 

Before the AVar of 1812 but few settlers had loca- 
ted in Orleans county. 

From Canandaigua to Lewiston, along the Ridge 
lioad, and from the mouth of Oak Orchard Creek, 
along an Indian Trail to Batavia, the trees had prin- 
cipally been cut wide enough for a highway. A few 
log cabins had been erected, and the sturdy emigrants 
had begun by felling the trees to open little patches 
of cleared land around their dwellings to form the 
nucleus of their farms. 

War was declared. The regular pursuits of peace- 
ful industry were broken up. The settler was sum- 
moned to become a soldier, and at the call of his 
country, at times almost every able-bodied man in 
the settlement was away in the ranks of the army, 
leaving their scattered, unprotected families, to risk 
the chances of hostile forays of the enemy, often 
threatened from the west along the lake. The cour- 
age and spirit of the women of those days was equal 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 437 

to' the best examples to be found in American border 
warfare. Neither the frightful rumors of the massa- 
cre of their husbands and brothers in the fight, or the 
terrible announcements that the Indians, with mur- 
der and y)il]age, were sweeping down the Ridge Road 
or coming up the Creek, could drive them to abandon 
the homes they had chosen in the \voods, or make 
them turn a point from the performance of what tlieir 
duty required. 

Perliaps the gloomiest time in the experience of the 
pioneers was during and after the war, before the com- 
mencement of w^ork on tlie Erie canal. Considerable 
wheat was annually grown, but beyond what the 
farmer wanted for his own consumption it was of lit- 
tle value, bearing a nominal price of about twenty - 
five cents a bushel. 

A kind of crude potash, made by leaching w ood 
ashes, and known as " black salts,'' was almost the 
only product which brought monej^, and became, in 
fact, almost a lawful tender for value in trade, and 
this had to be taken to market for miles upon ox 
sleds or hand sleds, or on the backs of the makers, 
through woods and swamps, following a line of marked 
trees. After the w'ar, came the memorable cold seasons 
•of 181(5-17. About these years, a cotemjiorary says, 
" from half to two-thirds of all the people were down 
sick in the summer time."' 

Without a supply of physicians or nurses, or mpd- 
icines, or even bread, how w^ere such sick men to se- 
cwYH their crops or cleai- their land, endure Btorm, 
and want, and trouble and distress, which beset 
them at every turn X Surely nothing but an iron will 
which no impediment could break or bend, an abid- 
ing faith and hope wdiicli no disasters or discourage- 
ments could overcome or crush out, sustained them 
through these dark days. Like heroes of another time, 
•'' through the thick gloom of the present, they beheld 



438 PIONEER HISTORY 

the briglitiiess of the. future," and they struggled 
on. 

It has been playfully said that you may place a 
Yankee in the woods with an ax, an augur and a knife, 
his onl}^ tools, and with the trees his only material 
for use, and he will build a palace, if need be, want- 
ing perhaps in th^ finish which other tools, and the 
aid of iron trimmings, nails and glass would afford, 
but possessing the substantial requisites of conve- 
nience, and fitness and strength. 

The lirst log houses built in this county, proved al- 
most literally the truth of this remark. They were 
the dwelling places of the best families in the land, 
made by their owners, where the latch string v/as al- 
ways out at the call of the stranger, and the best of 
their plain and scanty store was always generously 
shared with the weary and destitute, whoever he 
might be. 

The builders and occupants of those rude tene- 
ments were then probably poor, as can well be im- 
agin(xl, sick and sufFt:>ring, with none of the luxuries, 
and few even of the necessaries of their former expe- 
rience, but withal contented and hapj^y. 

IIow often do we hear these j)ersons, now occupy- 
ing their noble mansions, fitted and furnished and 
adorned with all the elegance and profusion which 
the abundant means of thoir owners, and the taste and 
fashion of the times command, refer to the little, old 
log cabin first built ux)on their farm, and count their 
residence there the happiest in their lives. These 
buildings belong to the time gone b}^, and the last of 
the log houses will soon have gone down with their 
builders to that destruction which awaits all things 
earthly. 

For some years none new have been erected in this 
county, and but rarely now can the traveler see one 
left standing in dilapidated humility behind the great 



OF 0KLE-AN8 C01T]VTY. 4ri9 

new house, maintaining to the last its character for 
usefulness, as a shelter for the grind stone, the salt 
barrel, the swill tub, the work bench, and all the 
hand tools there carefully treasured up for use om 
the extensive domain of their wealthy owner. 

Among these primitive settlers, the advent of a neiv 
family to locate among them, was an occasion of 
jo3^ through the town. The acquaintance of the stran- 
gers was promptly sought, a cordial welcome ox- 
tended, and the more material aid of all the force in 
the neighborhood, kindly volunteered to help the new 
comer roll the logs to begin his clearing, or pile ther.j 
into the walls of his cabin home. Such friendly 
feeling prevailed in all their social afixiirs. Relations 
of acquaintance and friendship were sustained be- 
tween all the families for miles around, and no dis- 
tinctions of wealth or party, sect or condition were 
known. 

It is true no such visionary scheme of community 
of goods, as was attempted by the old Plymouth 
Colony, or by the Fourierites of a later day, with all 
its attendant idleness and discontent obtained among 
them, but a most generous spirit to lend to and help 
the needy was a jDrominent trait in their character. 
They were not speculators who entered upon the 
lands to secure a title, trusting by a fortunate sale, 
or by the rise in the market price to derive large prof- 
its on their investment. The fever for land specula, 
tion had not then set in. 

The policy of the Holland Company was to get 
their lands taken up and occupied as fast as possible. 
With this in view they gave contracts for deeds of 
conveyance on payment of a small portion of the 
purchase money, giving the purchaser some years of 
credit in which to pay the residue. This policy bro't 
in settlers, and the liberality of the company in ox- 



440 PIONKEK II I STORY 

tending contracts whei'e prompt j)aynif-nt could not 
bn made, kept tliem on tlieir lots. 

A poi'tion, however, of the tirst inhabitants of this 
coTintj, like a portion of the first inhabitants in every 
new settlement, b!*(\ame charmsd with their life of 
vicissitud<! and hardship, and the varied advantages 
of pioneer settlement, and soon as the farms were 
mostly talven np and occupied, and th<- pirogress of 
cultivation liad diiven away the game and introduced 
in some degree the order of civilized society, they be- 
came uneasy and discontented, and longed for the 
freedom and excitments of wilder life on the border, 
l^ike Cooper's hero, ''Leather Stocking," they would 
'-get lost among the clearings,'" and moved to the 
West to T)egin again in the forests of Michigan or 
Ohio. 

To those who remained and labored on through 
every affliction and discouragement, using such means 
as their own sagacity and industry afforded them to 
assist their efforts, we are indebted for such success- 
ful results as we now see. 

And 1 may re})eat, what but an intelligent 
and. confiding hope in " the good time coming" could 
have sustained these men under all discouragements 
they endured '. What but that indomitalile spirit of 
the race, which never falters at perils or hindrances 
in the wa}' when a desirable object is to be gained, 
under the wise ordering of a mysterious good Provi- 
dence, nerved them for their work, and cheered them 
on to its su'ccesful accomplishment '. 

In ardent imagination the young emigrant, who 
had selected and contracted for his farm, looked over 
his future abode and t raced the boundaries of orchard 
and meadow, and pasture, and plain, and saw the 
phadowy outlines of his houses and his barns, his 
fences and his fields, looming into being where 
then the grav old trees stood in solenui grandeur. 



OK OKLEANS COUNTY. 441 

the f?turdy .sentinels of nature for i-eutivrie.s keeping- 
watch over tlie primitive wilderness. H*- saw in 
vision of the future his crops of waving corn and his 
granaries bursting out with plent}*, and himself the 
happy 2^ossessor of a home blessed with conj forts and 
luxuries of life in abundance, and seizing his ax, 
then perhaps his only chattel, he v.ent to woi-k 
with a will, to ])rove the scenes his fancy had })or- 
trayed. 

It is a remarkable fact that the English settlements 
in America were in the main first made at points the 
most inhospitable and uninviting, thus bringing every 
part of our countr}^ to be settled and improved. The 
Puritans, who came over in the May Flower, intended 
to have gone to Virginia, but through the treachery' 
of the cai)tain of their ship, as some assert, the^ 
were landed at Plymouth. 

The first emigrants westward from JN'ew England, 
located in tlie forests of New York, Michigan and 
Ohio, because they (.'ame from a forest countr\^ and 
were not afraid of the woods, and because they could 
not get to the fertile prairies of the West. There 
were no roads by land, and no communication by water 
to these beautiful territories. They were compelled 
by necessit}' to clear up and settle the country as 
they W}:'nt through it. 

Had the Puritans reached their 'intended destina- 
tion in the sunny South, and located along those 
noble rivers and fertile plains, they would never have 
removed to the liard, cold, iionbound hills of New 
England. When then would New England have 
been settled '. Never by emigrants from the West, 
And had the southern and middle iStates been first 
settled, and tlie application of steam to motive ma- 
chinery ]>een nuide, and the railroad and the telegraph 
and the knowledge of the useful arts we now possess 
been known 200 \'ears ago, Maine. New Hampshire 



442 PIONEER 1II8T0RY 

and Vermont, Avoiild he to-day like parts of Lower 
Canada, a vast and dreary wilderness, and as such to 
remain until the more inviting regions of the West 
had all been settled. And had railroads and tele- 
graphs, and steam power, as nov/ used, been known 
even fifty j^ears ago, I fancy some of these venerable 
pioneers would be now rejoicing in homes made happy 
upon the banks of the Missouri, or perliaj)S west of 
tlie Rocky Mountains. 

The interesting details of border settlement in this 
country have so often been the theme of remark that 
they have ]>eeome trite matters of history. The 
solemn and deejoening shade of antiquity is bt^gin- 
ning to clothe them Avith its mysterious interest, and 
as the immediate actors leave us, slowly and silently 
fading away from among the living, their memory ii^ 
cherished as the pride of their kindred, and they come 
to be regarded as the benefactors of their countrj-. 
The Pioneers of Orleans county are not all dead, 
but the times of their trouble have gone by. The Hol- 
land Purchase is st^ttled, subdued, and made the 
(Cheerful home of an industrious and thriving popu- 
lation, now in their turn sending out their caravans of 
emigrants, with the fervent spirit of their fathers,, 
carrying the arts and institutions of our favored 
country to those new States so rapidly growing up in 
the regions of the AVest. All the improvements in 
science and the arts are brought to aid the swift pro- 
gress of our people in spreading th»'mselvps over our 
entire national territory. 

If the earlier march of emigration and settlement, 
from the Atlantic westward has been toilsome and 
slow, and two hundred years scarce brought settlers 
to the great lakes and the slopes of the AUeghanies, 
wiiat shall we say of the advances of tht.^ last fifty 
yeai's, jind which are n(jw going forward ! 

Since the first tree fell here under the ax of the white 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 443 

man, the triumphs of steam jjower have appeared. — 
By the help of this tremendous agent, a voyage across 
the Atlantic, which took the May Flower months to ac- 
complish, is now made in a week. A trip to Boston, 
which once cost these pioneers a month to perform, is 
now the business of a day. Steam drives our mills, 
carries our burdens, plows our fields, warms our 
houses, digs our canals, and furnishes a motive pow- 
er, to effect the mightiest and minutest work attempt 
ed by the ingenuity of man. 

But steam, though admitted to be strong is voted 
slow, in this fast age, and electricity is sent out to run 
the errands of our ordinary business. 

Excelsior ! Higher ! is the motto of our noble Em- 
pire State, and Forward is the cry of encouragement 
with which Young America stimulates its ardor in the 
race for victory. 

My friends, we who are the juniors of these noble 
men, whose praise we have thus faintly endeavored 
to celebrate, should never forget that we are building 
upon foundations they have laid for us. That v»e in- 
herit the lands their hands have cleared ; that we en- 
joy the liberties they have achieved. 

We shall ever admire their enterprise, patience and 
fortitude. We shall justly feel proud to claim ac- 
quaintance, perhaps relationship with such worthy 
predecessors. 

AVe shall teach our children the story of their la- 
bors and success, as examples to be imitated ; and 
from every memorial they have left us of strenuous 
effort in a good cause, take courage and gain strength 
to help our resolution in the performance of all the 
duties, which have fallen to our lot. And when we 
look about us upon the broad patrimony we have de- 
rived from them, and take an inventory of the abun- 
dant good things they have bequeathed to us, as the 
fruits of their labors, let us not forget our duty of 



444 HIONEKK IJISTOKY 

gratitude to tlie iinnnory ol' theses our benefactors, to 
whom we owe so mucli, nor fail to improve as we 
ouglit, the ricli inheritance we enjoy. 

Venerable Pioneer^!— Yon liave not ni(>t on the 
present occasion to gratify your vanity by publishing 
to the world the exploits you liave performed, or 
boasting for the wonder of others of the marvelous 
adventures you may have achieved ; but, like a com- 
pany of weary travelers, life's toilsome journey al- 
most done, — you are here to spend an evening hour 
in social converse, on serenes you have witnessed by 
the way, to bring to mind again the stirring events in 
which }• on have been called to mingle ; and to soothe 
your spirits by a grateful recollection of that kind 
Providence which has sustained you in all your toils 
and brought you in old age to the abundant enjoy- 
ment and realization of the most ardent hopes of your 
v^outh. 

You have seen the country of your choice a gloomy 
wildei-ness. You now beljold it, by your exertions 
changed to cultivated fields, and dotted over with 
noble houses, interspersed with thri\ing villages and 
connec^ted by public highways. 

Where a few years ago you iiunted tlie savage 
bear, your splendid herds and numerous Hocks now 
roam tnid feed in safet\\ AVliere but lately you was 
compelled to grope youi' way from town to town 
through pathless woods, by marked trees, or Indian 
trails, the railroad or trh'graph afford you means of 
communication, in which time and distance are 
scarcely items in the account of delay. 

The rich produce of your fields, instead of rot- 
ting on your hands, valueless because no buyer 
could l)e found, commands at all times the highest 
price in the markets of the w^orld. 

The howl of the wolf is exclianged for the scream 
of the steaui whistle, and though you live so far in- 



OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 445 

land, tlie gallant steam vessel is made to float hy 
your very doors. 

How astonishing, how stupendous the change ! 
We have read of the AVonderful Lamp of Aladdin, 
and storien of Oriental Necromancy, where by the 
superhuman power of magic, and the agency of 
demons, tin- loftiest works of art, and the noblest 
productions of industry and skill were made to 
appear or vauisli at a word,— but the magic which 
wroi'ight tlu.i works we celebrate, was the power of in- 
domitable encu'gy, applied with strong hands and 
stubborn perseverence. Tlie mighty improvements 
which excite our admiration are only the happy re- 
sults of your steady, well directed industry overcom- 
ing its early discouragements and trials, — the honor- 
able testimonials of t1i<- sternest conMict and most 
complete success. 

Fortunate men and women ! Long, long may you 
live, enjoying the rich fruits of your early toils. 
And may you be permitted to witness the return of 
many anniversaries of your present association, hap- 
py in the consciousness that you have accomplished 
the objects of your youthful ambition, and leaving, 
when at last you shall be called to your rest, a nobh* 
history, and n worthy example embalmed in the 
memorj^ of your grateful posterity. 



AF»PENDIX. 

Towns iu Orleans County — Their Organization — Villages in Orleans 
County — Table of Elevations — Members of Assembly Elected from 
Orleans County since its Organization — County Clerks of Orleans 
County — County Treasurers — County Superintendents of Common 
Schools — First Judges of Orleans County Courts — District Attorneys 
of Orleans County — Sheriffs of Orleans County — Surrogates of Or- 
leans County — First Courts of Record — Supervisors of the Different 
Towns in Orleans County since their Organization. 

ORLEANS COUNTY. 



FROM WHAT TAKEN. 

Batavia is now divided into other 
towns, and not known by that 
name in Orleans county. 

from Gaines. 

from Gaines and Ridgeway. 

from Sweden. 

from Ridgeway. 

from Murray. 

from Northampton. 

from Batavia. 

from Itidgeway. 

from Ridgeway. 



* The town of Carlton was originally named " Oak Orchard," and was 
<'hanged to " Carlton " in 1823. 

+ The town of Yates was originally named " Northton," and was changed 
to Yatos, January 2l3t, 1823. 

VILLAGES IN OKLEANS COUNTY. 





TOWNS IN 01 


TOWNS. 


WHEN FORMED. 


Batavia, 


March 30th 


, 1802. 


Barre, 


March 6th, 


1818, 


Carlton,* 


April 13th, 


1822, 


Clarendon, 


Feb'y 23rd, 


1821, 


Gaines, 


Feb'y 14th, 


1816, 


Kendall, 


April 7th, 


1837, 


Murray, 


April 8th, 


180S, 


Ridgeway, 


June 8th, 


1812, 


Shelby, " 


March 6th, 


1818, 


Yates,-}- 


April 17th, 


1822, 



NAMES. 


WHEN INC 


ORPOH 


Albion.* 


April 21st. 


1828. 


Gaines.f 


April 26th, 


1832. 


Holley. 


July 1st, 


i8no. 


Medina. 


March 2d, 


1832. 



Incorporated by special act. 

11 (1 11 i( 

*' " general " 

" " special " 



* Albion ■was originiilly named " Newport," and the namo changed to Al- 
bion when it was incorporated as a village. 
I The village of Gaines has ccascMi to use its corporate franchises. 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 447 

The FOLi-owiNCi list ok Elevations is taken from O'Reily's 
History of Rochester and Western New York : 

KKET. 

Lake Erie above level of tide water is 570 

Top of Niagara Falls is below Lake Erie.. 66 

Bottom of Niagara Falls below Lake Erie 226 

Lake Ontario below Lake Erie, 320 

Canal at Albion below Lake Erie ..64* 

Erie Canal at Albion above Lake Ontario is 266 

Middle Falls, Genesee River at Rochester, perpendicular pitch, 96 

Canal in Orleans county, level above tide water 509 

MILES. 

Distance from Albion by oaual to Albany 293 

From Albion to Buffalo, _ 59 

From Albion to Rochester 34 

The descent given to cause a flow of water between locks in the Erie 
Canal does not vary much from o;ie inch in a mile. 

MILKS. 

Distance from Albion by railroad to Suspension Bridge 44^ 

From Albion to Rochester .30| 



Members of Assemhly elected from Orleans County since 
ITS Organization : 

Lathrop A. G. B. Grant, from Shelby 1S26 

Abraham Cantine, from Murray 1827 

Lyman Bates, from Ridgcway .1828 

George W. Flemming. from Barre 1829 

John II. Tyler, from Yates, 1820 

John II. Tyler, from Yates 1831 

William J. Babbitt, from Gaines. 1832 

Asahel Byington, from Carlton 1833 

Asa Clark, Jr., from Murray 1834 

Asa Clark, Jr., from Murray 1835 

John Ciiamberlain, from Barre 1836 

Silas M. Burrouglis, from Ridgeway 1837 

Horatio Reed, from Clarendon 1838 

Horatio Reed, from Clarendon 1839 

John J. Walbridge, from Gaines 1840 

Ricliard W. Gates, from Yates j 1841 

Sanford E. Church, from Barre _ .1842 

Elisha Wright, from Barre. 1843 

Sands Cole, from Ridgeway 1844 

Gardner Goold, from Carlton 1845 

Dexter Kingman, from Ridgeway, - 1846 

Abner Hubbard, from Murray - Ib-il 

.A.rba ( 'hubb, from Gaines 1S48 



448 PIONEER IirSTORY 

Reuben Roblec, from Kendall 1849 

Silas M. Burroughs, from Ridgeway 1850 

Silas M. Burroughs, from Ridgeway - .1851 

George M. Copeland, from Clarendon .1853 

Silas ]\I. Burroughs, fi'om Ridgeway. 1853 

Jeremiah Freeman, Jrom Shelbj- 1854 

Elisha S. Whalen, from Ridgeway .. .1855 

Dan. H. Cole, from Barre 1856 

Almanzor Hutchinson, from Gaines 1857 

Alinanzor flulchinson, from Gaines — 1858 

Almanzor Hutchinson, from Gaines 1859 

Abel Stilson, from Barre 1860 

Gideon Randall, from Kendall 1861 

Nicholas E. Darrow, from Clarendon .1863 

John Parks, from Ridgeway 1863 

Edmund L. Pitts, from Ridgeway : . .1864 

Edmund L. Pitts, from Ridgeway. 1865 

Edmund L. Pitts, from Ridgeway 186G 

Edmund L. Pitts, from Ridgeway 1867 

Edmund L. Pitts, from Ridgeway 1868 

Marvin Harris, from Kendall. 1869 

John Berry, from Murray .1870 

John Berry, from jMurray 1871 

Note. — Alexis "Ward was elected in November, 1854, and died be- 
fore the session began, and E. S. Whalen was elected in his place. 



COCXTY ClEUKS of OvlI.EiNS COUNTY Fr.OM ITS OaGANIZATIOX : 
NAMES. WHEN ELECTED OR APPOINTED. 

Orson Nichoson, November, 1835 

Abraham B. Mills November, 1831 

Timothy C. Strong.. November, 1834 

Elijah Dana ...November, 1843 

Harmon Goodrich*. March, 1848 

Dan. H. Cole November, 1848 

AVillard F. Warren November, 1854 

John P. Church. .November, 1857 

Gjorge A. Porterf .Dcc'r 30tb, 1858 

James M. Palmer November, 1859 

Edwin F. Brown . - - .November, 1862 

George A. Porter ..November, 1865 

George D. Church November, 1868 



* Appointed In place of E. Dana, deceased, under Act passed March 20th, 
1848. 
t Appointed in place of J. P. Church, deceased. 



<(}• <>};LKAN!f corNTV. 



441 J 



COONTY 'rRK\«i;RERS OF OkI.KA^S COTNTY VIJOM ITS OlKiAMy* 
TION : 

Ist. Appointed hv thf Board oJ" Supervisors to bold duriiiu tlu' 
pleasure of the Board — 

William Perry 183.") Lorenzo ikirrows 1840 

.1 ames Mather 1826 Codington W. Swan 1841 

(Tideonllard 1827 Joseph M. Cornell 184:3 

Truxton Burroll 1835 Lemuel C. Paine 1845 

Hugh McCurdy.. 1887 John H. Denio 1847 

2d. Eleeted undei' tlu- (!onstitntiou ot ]84(j, for u term of tliree 
years — 

John II. Denio Xovemlx-r, 1848 

Ambrose Wood " 1851 

Joseph ]\t. Cornell " 1857 

Kzra T. ( 'oann ■ 180;] 

Samuel V. Bowen . • 1860 

.\lbovl S. Warner " 1861) 



(!01:NTV Si rV.IUNTEXDKNTS OF (^OMMON S( tlOOLS I'Oit (.)!!u:ans 
COTJN'IY : 

Edwin R. Keynolds, Jonathan (). Wilsea, John G. Smith. Olive' 
MorehoU'^e, Marcus IT. Phillips, Abel Stilson, and Jam<s 11. Malli 
son. 



FrKhT JuiMiKS OV OllLKANS Cor:NTY COCKTS SlXtK THK OlKJAM/'.V 



TrON OP TTTK CorXTY: 



Klijah Fool, 
Alexis Wai'd, 
Henrj'' Angevine. 
Benj. L. Bessae, . 
James Gilson, 



WHRX APl'OINTi;!). 

April 22d, 1«25. 
Pel). 10th, IS.-^.O. 
Jan. 27th, 1840. 
Feb'y 7th, 1844. 
Jan. 10th, 184(;. 



Ki/E(TEi> rsnEK oo^■sT^^[TlO^■i 

OF 1846, COUNTr JUDCJE 
AND SURKOGATK. 

Henry 11. Curtis, June, 184V 
Dan II. Cole, app. in place o' 
H.K.Curtis,deeeased,Sept.24,'5,'"; 
<iideon Hard, November, 185.V 
Arad Thomas, November, 185!> 
Edvvni 11. Reynolds, Nov., 180.'> 
John (J. Sawver. Nov'r, 18(;7 



District Attoh.n.vs ok <)iM/.iANs Cointv ki!(i.m 

(MNIZATION : 

.N.43r»'. WIIKN .Verol.NTKI). 



r iiisr Oh 



Orange Butl(;r, 1825. 

<ieorge "W. Fleming- 1828. 

Henry K. Curtis, 1831. 

George W. Fleming, 1832. 

Henry H. Curtis, 1833. 



29 



WHKX Kf.KCTED CNDEU CON.^'i [-. 
i)V IS+ti. 

Sauford E. Church, June 1847 
Wm. K. McAllister, Nov. 1850 
Beujauiin L. Bessae, Nov. 185." 
Henry D. Tucker, Nov. 1850 
John "W. Graves, Nov. 1859 ^ 
John G. Sawyer, Nov. 18(521 
Irving M. Thompson, Nov. 1805 
Henry A. Childs, Nov. 1808 



450 proNKEi: histoky 

SUEIUFF?; OF OkI.EAXS CoUXTV SINCE ITS OeG.VNIZATIOK. 
NAMES. WHEN APPOINTED OR ELECTED. 

William Lewis On organizing County. 

Oliver Benton November, 182(> 

Wm. AUJs - " 1829 

Harmon Goodrich " 1833 

Asahol Woodrnfi " 1835 

John Boardmau " 1838 

Horace B. Perry " 1841 

Aram Beebe " 1844 

AiistinDay " 1847 

llufus E.Hill " 1850 

Ferdinand A. Day " 1853 

George W. Bedell " 1856 

Danly D. Sprague " 1859 

Robert P. Bordwell ■ " 1863 

Erastus M. Spaulding " 1865 

P.obert P. Bordwell " 1868 

SuilKOdATf;'^ OF Oki, KAN'S CoUNTY SINCE ITS ORGANIZATION. 

NAMES. WHEN APPOINTED OR EI,ECTED. 

STidiam While April 19, 1825 

Alexis AVard April 3,1829 

-yJohn Chamberlain March 8, 1833 

Thomas S.Clark January 21, 1836 

DanH. Cole January 21,1840 

Thomas S. Clark, January 21, 1844 

Since 1847 the duties of Surrogate have been performed by the 
Countv Judicc 



tsupekvisors of towns, as elected fhom tife oligan'izatiox of 
Okleans County. 

SUPERVISORS OF BARRE. 

llathan Whitney. . 182G Lansing Bailey 1839 

Lansing Bailey 1827 Alvah Mattison 1840 

Lansing Bailey 1828 Alvah Mattison 1841 

Lansing Bailey 1829 Avery M. Starkweather 1843 

Lansing Bailey - 1830 Avery M. Starkweather 1843 

Lansing Bailey. .1831 Elisha Wright 1844 

Ijsnsiiig Bailey 1832 Lorenzo Burrows 1845 

A. Ilyiie Cole - - . 1833 Warren Parker 1846 

Alvaii Mattison 1834 William Love .1847 

Alvah 3Iattison 1835 William Love 1848 

Lansing Bailey. 1836 Anthony IJrown. .1849 

Lan'-ing Bailey 1S37 Anthony Brown. 1850 

Lansing Bailey 183'^ Antliony Brown. 1851 



or OKLEANS COUNTY. 451 

Austin D;iy 1853 Luther Porter 18G2 

Hemy ]\I. Gibson 1853 John D. Buckland 1863 

Henry 31. Gibson 1854 John 1). Bnckiand 18G4 

Henry M. Gibson l1855 Norman S. Field 18G5 

John D. Buckland 185G Orpheus A. Root 1860 

John D. Buckland 1S57 Orpheus A.Root 1867 

Luther Porter 1858 Orpheus A.Root 1868 

Luther Porter 1859 Charles H. Mattisou 1869 

Luther Porter 1860 Charles H. Mattison 1870 

Luther Porter 1861 Charles H. Mattison 1871 

SUPERVISORS OF CARLTON. 

Richard W. Gales 1826 Jasper 3L Grow 184it 

Minoris Day 1827 Willard F. "NYarren 1850 

Minoris Day 1828 Gardner Goold 1851 

John M. Randall 1829 John Dunham 1852 

John M. Randall 1830 Nelson Shattuck 1853 

Minoris Day 1831 Reuben N. Yv'arreu 1854 

Isaac Mason 1832 Marvin C. Lacey 1855 

Isaac Mason 1833 Gardner Goold 1856 

Chester Bidwell 1834 Joseph D. Billings 1857 

Joshua E. Hall 1835 Joseph D. Billings 1858 

Horace Q. Goold . .1830 Joseph D. Billings 1859 

Hiram ]\rerrick 1837 Daniel Howe 1860 

Hiram I^Ierrick 1838 Daniel Howe. _ _ .^ 1861 

Alfred Bidwell 1839 Joseph D. Billings 1862 

Gardner Goold 1840 John H. Harris 1803 

Gardner Goold 1841 John H. Harris 1864 

Altred Bidwell 1842 George L. Baker 1865 

Gardner Goold 1843 George L. Baker 1866 

Asahel Byington, 2d 1844 Dennis Bickford 1867 

Epenetus A. Reed 1845 Dennis Bickford 1868 

Asahel Byington, 2d 1846 Benjamin F. Van Camp 1869 

Alfred Bidwell 1847 Benjamin F. Van Camp 1870 

Dalphon V. Simpson 1848 Jolin Gates 1871 

SUPERVISORS OF CLARENDON. 

Eldridge Farwell 1821 Elizur Warren 1832 

Eldridge Farwell 1822 Elizur Warren 1833 

Jeremiah Glidden 1823 Zardius Tousley .1834 

Jeremiali Glidden 1824 Iloratio Reed 1835 

Henry Hill . 1825 Horatio Reed ..1836 

Hiram Frisbie 1820 Horatio Reed 1837 

Chauncey Robiusou 1827 Horatio Reed 1838 

Chauncey Robinson 1828 Benjamin G. Peltingill 1639 

Chauncey Eobinson 1829 John Millard 1840 

Chauncey Robinson 1830 Jason A. Sheldon... 1841 

John Millard. 1831 Jason A. Sheldon 1842 



■4.V2 PIONlCKi: HISTORY 

Jasou A. Sheldon 1843 Thomas Turner 1858 

Benjamin G. Pettengill 1844 George M. Copeland ... .1859 

Benjamin G. Pettengill .1845 Dan Martin 1860 

Ira B. Keeler 1840 Mortnner D. Milliken 1861 

Ira B. Keeler 1847 Mortimer D. Millken 1863 

Orson Tousley 1848 Martin Evarts 1863 

George M. Copeland 1849 Nicholas E. Darrow 1864 

George 31. Copeland • 1850 Xicholas E. Darrow 1865 

Nicholas E. Darrow 1851 Henry C. Martm 1866 

Nicholas E. Darrow. . -' 1853 Henry C. Martin 1867 

Daniel F. St. John 185;3 Henry C. Martin. .1868 

Nicholas E. Darrow 1854 David N. Pettengill 1869 

Dan JIartin 1855 David N. Pettengill 1870 

Lucius B. Coy 1856 Darwin M. Inman. .1871 

.Vmasa Patterson 1857 

SUPERVISORS OF GAINES. 

Samuel Clark 1810 Daniel Brown 1844 

Samuel Clark 1817 Samuel Bidelman. 1845 

Robert Anderson 181 8 Samuel Bidelman 1846 

Robert Anderson 1819 Arba Chubb 1847 

Robert Anderson 1820 Henry Miller 1848 

Robert Anderson .^1831 Benj. Chester. 1849 

Robert Anderson 1823 Aram Beebe 1850 

Robert Anderson." ..1823 Aram Beebe 1851 

Robert Anderson 1834 Aram Beebe 1853 

Robert Anderson 1835 Samuel Bidelman. . .' 1853 

Rol)ert Anderson 1830 Samuel Bidelman... ...1854 

Daniel Pratt 1837 Gershom R. Cady 1855 

Arba Chubb 1838 Jonas Sawens 185G 

Arba Chubb 1839 Samuel Bidelman ...1857 

Arba Chubb 1830 Nahum Anderson 1858 

Wm. J. Babbitt-. •.1831 Nahum Anderson 1859 

John J. Walbridge 1833 Nahum Anderson ...1860 

Russel Gillett 1833 Almauzor Hutchinson ..1861 

Wm. J. Babbitl^ 1834 Nahum Anderson 1862 

Arba Chubb 1835 Charles T. Richards 1863 

William ^V. Rnggles. .1836 Charles T. Richards 1864 

Joseph Billings 1837 Nahum Anderson 1865 

Joseph Billings .1838 Matthew T. Anderson 1866 

Joseph Billmgs 1839 Matthew T. Anderson 1867 

Joseph Billings 1840 Samuel W. Smith. 1868 

Palmer Cady. 1841 Samuel AV. Smith. 1869 

Samuel Bidelman 1843 Elijah B. Lattin 1870 

Wm. W. Ruggles 1843 Elijah B. Lattin. 1871 

SUPERVISORS OF KENDALL. 
Ryan Barber 1840 Ryan Barbei; .184t 



OF OKLEANS COUNTY. 45:5 

Henry Higgius 1842 Philo F. Prosser 18o7 

Joseph Maun 1843 Philo F. Prosser 1858 

Joseph Mann 1844 Philo F. Prosser. _ .1859 

Levi Hard 1845 Maryin Harris. 1860 

Levi Hard 1840 ^larviii Harris 1861 

AbramOdcll . 1847 Pierre A. Simkins 1862 

Abram Odell 1848 William K. Townsend 1863 

Wm. R Bassett .1849 Xathaniel S.Bennett 1864 

Wm. K. Bassett 1850 Nathaniel S. Bennett 1805 

Alanson Whitney 1851 Gideon Randall 186(1 

Reuben Roblee 1852 Gideon Randall 1867 

William R. Bassett 1853 Oscar Munn 1868 

William R. Bassett 1854 Oscar Munn 1869 

Pierre A. Simkins 1855 Oscai Munn #...1870 

Philo F. Prosser 1856 Wm. O. Hardenbrook ..1871 

SUPERVISORS OF MURRAY. 

Asahel Balcom 1826 Harrison Hatch. 1849 

William Allis 1827 Benj. F. Van Dake 1850 

Amos Randall 1828 Jabez Allison 1851 

Hiram Frisbie 1829 Jabez Allison 1852 

Hiram Frisbie 1830 Ezra X. Hill 1853 

William James 1831 Danly D. >Spraguo 1854 

Asa Clark, Jr 1832 Danly D. Sprague 1855 

Asa Clark, Jr 1833 Benj. F. Van Dake 1856 

Asa Clark, Jr 1834 Jabez Allison 1857 

Robert ISichoson 1835 Jabez Allison. 185S 

Robert N ichosou 1836 Jabez Allison 1859 

George Squires 1837 Ezra X. Hill 1800 

George Squires 1838 Jabez Allison 186 1 

Joshua Garrison 1839 Linus Jones Peck 1862 

Joshua Garrison 1840 Roland Farnsworth. 1863 

Cornelius Thomas 1841 Roland Farnsworth 1864 

Cornelius Thomas 1842 Roland Farnsworth 1865 

John Berry . 1843 Roland Farnsworth 1866 

George Squires 1844 Roland FarnsAvorth 1867 

Abijah Reed 1845 Roland Farnsworth 1868 

Hercules Reed 1846 Roland Farnsworth 1869 

Abner Balcom 1847 Roland Farnsworth 1870 

Abner Balcom. _. ...1848 Roland Farnsworth 1871 

SUPERVISORS OF RIDGEWAY FRO:\I ORGANIZATION OF 
THE TOWN. 

Oliver Booth ' 1813 Elijah llawley 1818 

Samuel Clark ..1814 Jeremiah Brown 1819 

Samuel Clark 1815 Israel Douglass 1820 

Israel Douglass 1816 Israel Douglass 1821 

Israel Douglass 1817 .Teremiali Brown 1822 



4'^-{ moXEEK IIISTOKY 

Jeremiah Brown 1823 William C. Tanner 1848 

Jeremiali Brown 1824 John F. Sawyer : _ .1849 

Lymau Bates 1825 John F. Sawyer 1850 

Toyman Bates 1826 Christopher Whaley 1851 

Lyman Bates 1827 Allen Bacon 1853 

Lyman Bates 1828 Marson Weld 1853 

Lyman Bates 1829 Borden H. Mills 1854 

Lyman Bates 1830 John R. Weld 1855 

Lyman Bates 1831 Lyman Bates 1856 

William C. Tanner 1832 Alexander IL Jameson 1857 

AVilliam C. Tanner- _. 1833 Luther Barrett 1858 

William C. Tanner. . 1834 Luther Barrett 1859 

Seymour B*. Mardock 1835 Dyer B. Abell 1860 

Lymau'Bates 1836 Dyer B. Abell 1861 

William Y.Wilson 1837 Ilezekiah Bowcn, Jr 1862 

Nathan S. Wood 183S Henry A. Glidden 1863 

Xathan S. Wood 1839 Henry A. Glidden 1864 

Josias Tanner 1840 Samuel C. Bowen 1865 

Josias Tanner 1841 William W. Potter 1866 

Job Fish 1842 William W.Potter 1867 

William V. Wilson 1843 Allea P. Scott 186S 

Dexter Kingman .*. .1844 Allen P. Scott 1869 

Dexter Kinsman 1845 Henry A. Glidden 1870- 

Roswell Starr 1846 Elisha S.Wlialen 1871 

.\llen Bacon 1847 

SUPERVISORS OF SHELBY. 

I.athrop A. G. B. Grant 1826 Lathrop A. G. B. Grant 1846 

Christopher Whaley 1827 Alexander Coon 1847 

Christopher AVhaley 1828 Alexander Coon 1848 

Andrew Ellicott 1829 Lathrop A. G. B. Grant 1849 

Joseph Rickey 1830 Laihrop A. G. B. Grant 1850 

Joseph Rick3y 1831 Jeremiah Freeman 1851 

William Cunningham 1832 Elisha Whalcn 1853 

William Cunningham 1833 John M. Culver 1853 

Adam Garter. . . .^ . . . 1834 John ]\[. Culver 1854 

Horatio X. Hewes 1835 Alexander Coon 1855 

Adam Garter 1836 Philip Winegar 1856 

John M. Culver 1837 Philip Winegar 1857 

Alexander Coen 183S Philip Winegar 1858 

Alexander Co(.n 1839 Philip Winegar 1859 

Alexander Coon 1840 Alexander Coon 1860 

Alexander Coon 1841 John T. Gillett 1861 

Alexander Coon 1842 John T. Gillett 1862 

Alexander Coon 1843 John T. Gillett 1863 

Alexander Coon 1844 John T. Gillett 1864 

La1hroi> A.Cr. B. Grant 1S45 John T. GUloU 1865. 



(»F OTJLEAXS (orXTY. 455 

Joseph \y. Ross 1866 .lohii P. Gates 18C0 

Joseph W. Ro?s 1 867 David G. Deuel 1870 

David G. Deuel 18GS Ela C. Bardwell 18V 1 

SUPERVISORS OF YATES. 

Samuel Warner 1826 Reuben lluugerlbrd 1840 

Grindal Davis 1837 Asahel Johnson 1850 

John H. Tyler 1828 Asahel Johnson 1851 

John H. Tyler 1829 John J. Sawyer 1852 

John IT. Tyler 1830 John Gates 1853 

John II. Tyler 1831 Gharles Lum 1854 

Luther St. John 1832 Charles Lum 185.1 

John H Tyler 1833 David I. llcuion 1856 

John 11. Tyler 1834 David i. lleniou 1857 

John II. Tyler 1835 Daniel Clark 1858 

John II. Tyler 1836 Chauncey II. Lum 1859 

John H. Tyler 1837 Chauncey II. Lvim 18G0 

John L. Lewis 1838 Daniel Clark 18C1 

Asahel Johnson 1839 Tunis II. Coe 1863 

John L. Lewis 1840 Tunis H. Coe 1863 

John L. Lewis 1841 Tunis IL Coe 1864 

Samuel TajJor 1842 George Clark 18G5 

John L. Lewis 1843 Jonathan A. Johnson 18G0 

Daniel Starr 1844 Jonathan A. Johnson 1867 

John L. LeM'is 1845 Jonathan A. Johnson 18C3 

Daniel Starr 1846 Henry Spalding 18G0 

Horace Phlppauy 1847 Henry Spalding 1870 

Horace Phippany 1848 C. Jacksoji Blood 1 871 



COURTS OF RECORD. 



The Courts lor Orleaus C-ounU' before the County Scat \\m located 
■it Albion, were held at Bronson's Hotel, in the town of Gaines. The 
record of the opening of the first Circuit Court is as follows : 

" At a Circuit Court held at the House of Selah Bronson, in the 
town of (^aines, in and for the County of Orleans, on Thursday, the 
13th day ot October. IR'?/), present, His Honor William B. Rochester, 
,kidire 8th Circuit. DAVID STKICKLAND. 

WILLIAM GATES. 
ABEL TRACY, 
MONTGOMERY l*p:Rri \' AT-, 
K. PERRIGO, 
ZAKDirS TOrSLKV. 

Constables. 

Tlie following i>erson'; iippeareil ami were sworn as traverscjurors, 
to wit: 

IVIartin Ilobart, Oliver Brown. Sajuuel Norton, Josiiua l{aymond. 
Nathan AVhitnej-, Curtis Tonilinson, Zebulon Packard, Thomas Annis, 
^iardius Tousley, Dudlej- Watson, Seymour B.Alurdoch.Ephraim Mas- 
ten, Oliver Booth, *^nd., Daniel Gates, Archibald L. Daniels, Richard 
M'Oraber, Timothy Ruggles. Daniel Reed, Ethan Graham, John Hall, 
i'hiio Elmer, Joseph Davis, John Sherwood. 

Your causes Avere tried by jury, \[/..: Moses Bacon ns. Ger- 
shom Proctor. Samuel Finch vs. (Charles Sayres. Benjamin Bab- 
•cock vs. Curtis Tomlinson and Sophia Kingsbury. Irene Leach vs. 
Henry Drake. 

The first Court of Common Pleas and General Sessions, held in and 
for Orleans county, M'as at tlie IIous(i of Selah Bronson, in Gaines. 
,iune 32d, 182."). Present, Hon. Elijah Foot, First Judge, Eldridge Far- 
'vell, Wm. J. 3toody. Wm. l*enniman and Cyrus Harwood, Jiidges. 
The members of the Grand Jury at this Court were Ralph It. Brown. 
William Love, Harvey Goodricli, Hiram Sickels, Henry Carter. Hiram 
Frisbie, Havid Sturges, Josi>ph Hamilton, Levi Preston, John Proctor, 
[iObert Anderson, Zclotes Sheldon, Sdas Benton, Ebenezer 31. Pease. 
L. A. (t. B. (Jrant, Benjamin Howe, Llijah Jient, Abraham Cantine 
iAr'i Wood and Oliver Bennett. 

William Lewis, Sherili; <)raiig<' Butler. District Attorney. Orson 
Michoson, Clerk. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Articles ol' Land, given })y Holland Co., 24. 

Animals, Avild, 39. 

Anecdote of John Anderson, 3o0. 

Academy, First in County, at Gaines, SI."), 250, 65. 

Albion, Village of, 179. 

Anecdote of locating Court House, 181. 

Address before Pioneer Association, by Arad Thomas, 428, 

Appendix, 446. 

Assembly, Members of, from Orleans Count}-, 447. 

Attorneys, District of Orleans County, 449. 

Busti, Mr., Anecdote of, 26. 

Beaver and beaver dams, 32. 

Black Salts, 51. 

Burying Gronnils. ]Mouut Albion Cemetery, 09. Boxwood Cemetery, 
71. Ilillside Cemeterj-, 71. 

Barre, Town of, 7o. Land to Religious Society, 74. Condition in deed 
to Congregational Society, 74. First Presbyterian Soeictj', 75. 
Store, Tavern, 75. Survey of Oak Orchard Road, 70. First 
Lawyer, Doctor, Deed of Land, 76. Death of Mrs. McCollister, 

77. Warehouse, Sawmill, 77. Price of Lumber, 77. First Ball, 

78. Fourth of July, 1821, 77. First Marriage in Albion, 78. 
First Deed of Laud in, 76. 

Bear Stories, 81, 87, 2^5, 134, 402. 

Burgess, Mrs. N. Cut logs for House, 211. • 

Ball at Millville, 320. 

Barn, first in Orleans Count}-, 408. 

British at mouth of Oak Orchard Creek, alarm from, 84. 

Counties in New York 100 years ago, 22. 

Clemency of Holland Co., 25. 

Clearing land, manner of, 43. First crops raised, 44. 

Credit system, 52. 

Canal, Eric, when begun, 55, elYect of, 5(i. 

Court House, locating of, 181. 

Clarendon, town of, 199. First town meeting in, 201. 

Carlton, town of, 185. First town meeting in, 197. First settlement in 
the County by AYalsworth, 186. Manilla, 186. Mill for pound- 
ing corn, lys. Union Company, 189. 



4o8 IX DFX. 

Carriage seal on .spriu^s oC wolf trap, 288. 

Cemeterys, 69. Mount Albion, G9. Boxwood, 71. Hillside, 71. 

Congregational Society in Barre, deed of laud to, 74. 

Cradle, Pioneer, description of, 8o. 

(bounty Clerk's list of 448. 

Courts of Record in Orleans County, first, 4r)(;, 

County Treasurers, list of, 449. 

Common Schools, County Superintendents ol,44!J. 

Domestic manufactures, 52. Clothing, how in.ide, H?,. 

Doctor's bill, specimen of, 248. 

Deer hunting, 889. 

District Attorneys, list of, 449. 

EUicott, Jo., agent, 28. Anecdote of, 2.'>;l. 

Eagle Harbor, village of, 2G0. 

Erie Canal, wlien and where first work on, o5. ] ts benoMts, oO. 

Edtication, state of, (54. Gaines Acndemv, <y~>. 

Fortifications, ancient, 14. 

Fish, 29. 

Friendship among settlors, 49. 

Fire, loss of, anecdote, 210. 

Gospel' Lots, 20. 

Genesee County, 28. 

Gospel Lot in Barre, 74. 

Gauntlet run by E. Hunt, 194. 

Gaines, business in, when County organized, 250. 

<raincs, town of, 210. ilrs. Burgess' log house, 211. Capt. McCarty's 

Company in w'ar of 1812, 218. First printing press vthere, 214. 

Booth's tavern, 2.12. Sam Wooster, 253. Mrs. Booth and Jo- 

Ellicott, 254. 
Greenman, Preserved, anecdotes of, 408. 
Hundred Thousand Acre Tract, 19. 
Holland Purchase, 21. 
Hackett, violin player, 878. 
Hedgehogs, 81. 
Hardships of settlers. Domestic mill, 40. Fever and Ague, 40. Brews- 

ing cattle, 47. Keeping fire, 47. 
Highways, public, 58. liidge road, 58. Ock Orchard road, 59. Stat-e 

road, 61. Salt Works roads, 60. 
Holland Land Company, names of, 21. Generosity of agent, 101. Do- 
nations to School Districts, 25. Donations of 
land to religious societies, 26. Anecdote of 
Rev. Mr. Rawson and ^h: Busti, 20. 
H(jlley, A illage of, 805. Salt found there, 80(^ .Mammoth tooth, iV)7. 

First school hou^e in, 807. 
Hunters lodges, 245. 
Hulbei'ton, village of, 808. 



TNBEX. 459 

. Hindsburgb, village of, ;]11. 

Indian mill, description of, 278. 

Indians, false alarm, 86, 338. 

Judges of County Courts, 449. 

July 4, 1821, celebration, Barro, 78. 

Knowlesville, village ot, 373. 

Kendall, town of, 269. Public library, 272. Salt making, 272. Nor- 
wegians in, 273. 

Land office ot Holland Company, 24. 

Log house, description of, 30. 
Furniture of, 40. 

Lawsuit before Esq. Chubb, 233. 

Library in Kendall, 272. 

Luther, Eld. Ben., style of preaching, 332. 

Lyndonville, village of, 405. 

Lumber, price of, 77. » 

Millyard tract, 18. 

Manufactures, domestic, 52. 

Merchants, early, and their stoi'cs, 51. 

Mails and post offices, 53. 

Manilla, 180. 

Mill to pound corn, 180, 278. 

McCarty, Capt., Company in war of 1812, 212, 88. 

fleeting house, firstTramed in County, 260. 

Mammoth tooth found at Holley, 307. 

Medina, village of, 307. Stone quarr}', 372. 

Murraj', town of, 288. 

Orleans County, first white man settled in, 180. 

Phelps and Gorham's Purchase, 16. 

Pre-emption line, 17. 

Pultney. Sir Win., 19. 

Peaches and apples, 33. 

Patriot war, 248. 

Post office, tirst, 261. 

Porter, Luther, strategy to gel his grist, 377. 

Pioneer Association of Orleans County, 420. 

Quails, 31. 

Rawson, Rev. A., anecdote of, 2s. 

Rattlesnakes, 30. 

Ridge Road, when traced out, 59. Sur\eyed, 58, 00. 

Raih'oads in Orleans Count3% 03. 

Religion, state of, ()7. First meetings in Carlton, 07. Rev. .Mr. Steele, 
08. Baptist Church in Gaines, 08. Building ^Fceting House 
in Gaines, 08. Specimen preaching, 332. 

Ridge road, 58. When laid out, 58. Judge Porters accoimt of, 59. 

Ridgeway, town of, 313. First town election in, 84. 



460 INDEX. 

Railroads, 63. 

Sullivan's Expedition, 12. 

School House site.s, 25. 

Salmon and other fish, 30. 

Schools and school houses, 64. Description of, 65. Gaines Academy, 

65. Academies at Albion, Yates, Millville, 

Holley and Medina, 65. 
Salt Works roads, 60, 74. 
State Eoad, 61. 

Sandy Creek, sickness at, 103, 289. 
Salt at Holley, 306, at Medina, 314. 
Sawmill at JNIedina first, 367. 
Shelby, town ot, 376. Deer hunting, 389. Dancing- in a gristmill, 378. 

How Luther Porter got his grist ,377. 
Supervisors of towns in Orleans count}', 450. 
Sheriffs of Orleans county, 450. 
Surrogates of Orleans county, 450. 
Triangle Tract, 18 
Transit Line, 20, 83. 

Trees, kinds of in Orleans county, 29, • 

Tonawanda Swamp, 33. 
Threshing grain, manner of, 44. 
Taxes, raising money to pay, by S. C. Lewis, 220. 
Town meeting, first in county, 314. 
" Things I can remember," by G. E. Mix, 165. 
Towns in the county, when organized, 446. 
Treasurers of Orleans county ,449. 
L'nion company in Carlton, 190. 
Villages in county, 440. 
Ward Levi & Levi A., agents, 19. 
Wood, per acre, 29. 
Wrestling, ring for, 50. 
Wagons, one horse, 57. 
Wedding in Albion, story of, 78. 
Yates, town of, 401. 
Yates Center, 404. Atvidemv, 401. 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



NAMES OF PERSONS AND NUMBERS OF THE PAGES ON WHICH 
THEY OCCUR. 



Achilles, Caroline, P., 175. 
Allis, Thomas W., 150. 
Allison, Jabez, 312. 
Anderson Family, 334. 
Angel, Nathan, 103. 
Allis, Maj. William, 305. 
Allen, Artemas, 373. 
.Anderson, Robert, 78. 
Andrews, Avery V. 3ot). , 
Atwell, Levi, 220. 
Busli, Paul, 26. 
Bailey, Lansing, 79. 
Bacon, Moses, 240. 
Balcom, Abner, 301, 405. 
Barrett, Amos, 334, 353. 
Barrett, Nahum, 347. 
Barrett, Sidney S., 354. 
Baker, Mrs. Laura 345. 
Benton, Oliver 140. 
Beech, Dr. J. II., 34(3. 
Bessac, Benjaiziu L., 117. 
Bidelman, Samuel, 24. 
Booth, Oliver, 69, 251. 
Bowen, Dr. ElisTia, 355, 411). 
Brown, James, 54. 
Brown, Jeremiah, 335. 
Bryant, Reuben, 303, 305. 
Burrows, Roswell S., ?6./2S" 
Bumpus, Philetus, 182. 
Bullard Family, 331. 
Bumpus, Jesse, 76, 17S. 
Budd, Jaseph, 308. 
Burroughs, David, 394. 
Bullard, Alfred. 416. 
Babbitt, William J., 54, 58, 261. 



Barker, Joseph. 153. 
Bates, Samuel, 384. 
Banies, Ezra D., 31G. 
Barrett, Lucius 334. 
Barrett, Luther, 347. 
Bates, Lyman, 339. 
Benton, Mrs. Silas, 75, 170. 
Beech, Dr. Jesse, 346. 
Bennett, Isaac, 314. 
Billings Family, 331. 
Bidelman, Abram, 388. 
Booth, Oliver, 3nd., 255. 
Bradner, Wm., 76, 115, 183. 
Brown, John G., 187. 
Brown, Daniel, 364. 
Bradley, Nathaniel, 146. 
Burrows, Lorenzo, Wf. / co 
Burgess, Noah, 211. 
Butler, Orange, 333. 
Bushnell, Harley N., 390. 
Burlingham, Charles D., 330. 
Burroughs, Silas M. 394. 
Clark, Jonathan, 134. 
Clark, Robert, 378. 
Cantiiie, Abram, 174. 
Cole, Darius W., 59 
Cook, Lemuel, 308. 
Cobb, William 343. 
Coon, Alexander, 397. 
Capen, Theophilus, 70. 
Cadj', Isaac, 309. 
Cole, A. Hj'de, 70, 115. 
Cochrane, William, 343. 
Coon, Milo, 373. 
Coan Sylvanus, 368. 



462 



TTiDEX. 



Cnrlis, llcniy li., 12-], 7G. 
Chubb, Arba, 232. 
Curtis, Xewman, 395. 
Chamberlain, Fitch, 190. 
Church, Ozias S. 114. 
Church, Samuel, 341. 
Chamberlain, lv03'al, 407. 
Daniels, Grosvenor, 58, 343. 
Davis, Levi, 323. 
Day, Austin, 397. 
Demara, David, 388. 
Dutchcr, Elder Simeon, 260. 
Drake, Ilenr^', 259. 
Daniels, James, 342. 
Davis, Perry, 225. 
Darrow, Xicholas E., 200. 
Douglass, Israel, 317. 
Dunham, Matthew, 188. 
Ellicott, Andrew A., 59. 376, 396. 
Evans, David E., 70, 378. 
Ellicott, Joseph, 23, 253, 370. 
Evarts, Martin, 208. 
Farwell, Eldridge, 200, 207. 
Fellows, Joseph, 20. 
Freeman, Chester. 263. 
Foster, Aden, 170. 
Fuller, Lyman, 197. 
Farnham. John, 236. 
Fairfield, Walter, 218. 
Freeman, Gideon, 202. 
Frisbie, lliram, 296. 
Fuller, Edmund, 70. 
Gates, Daniel, 193, 212. 
Green, Andrew IL, 103. 
Gregory Family, 380. 
Gregory ilatthew, 381. 
Grinnell, John, 399. ~ 
Goold, Horace O., 415. 
Goodrich, Harvey, 108. 
Grant, L. A. G. 13., 396. 
Gates, Dr. Pilchard W., 191. 
Greenman, Preserved, 403. 
Gregory, Amos, 380. 
Gilbert, Baruch H., 418. 
Gilbert, \Yidow, 212, 47. 
Grovcr, Dr. L. C.. 360. 

u . . 



Gwynn, AVilliam R., 70, 71. ^ 
Hawley, Hon. Elijah 350, 53. 
Haines, Jesse P., 01. 
Hallock, Pvufus, 133. 
Hart, Elizur, 143. 
Henderson, John, 184. 
Hewes, Horatio N., 395. 
Hill, Samuel, 223. 
Hopkins, Caleb, 58. 
Hoag, Peter, 363. 
Hunter, Robert, 51. 
Hulbert, Isaac H. S., 309. 
Hawley, Merwin S., 53. 
Hard, Hon. Gideon, 92. 
Hart, Joseph, 169. 
Hamlin, Areovester, 304. 
Healoy, Dr. E. P., 362. 
Hibbard, Zenas F. 124. 
Hinds, Jacob, 296, 311. 
Hooker, David, 340. 
Hood, David, 364. 
Hunt, Elijah, 194. 
Houseman, George, 501. 
Ingersoll, Nehemiah, 77, 159. 
Ingersoll, Justus, l6l. 
Jackson, William, 349. 
Johnson, Rev. Wm., 75. 
Jackson, James, 350. 
Jones, David, 286. 
Knowles, William, 355, 372. 
Kuck, Rev. George, 191. 
Lee, Hon. John, 73. 
Lewis, William, 208. 
Lewis, Gideon, 229. 
Lee Family, 172. 
Lewis, Samuel C, 238. 
LeValky, John, 351. 
Mattison, Abram 75, 78. 
Marsh, Ray, 196. 
Mather, Elihu, 259. 
Mauley, Adin, 273. 
Masten, Mrs. Kancy, 359. 
Mason, Jesse, 132. 
Mather, James, 256, 266, 214. 
Mather, Rufus, 256. 
:\ransfield, Alauson, 300. 



IXDKX. 



463 



McCurly, Captain E., 21:2. 

Mix, Abiatbar, 75. 

Mix, Ebenezer, 1'y, IMfinoir of 424. 

Moncll, Henry :34. 

Moore, Eli, 310. 

Murdock, Seyuioiir, o4v*, '^>\~). 

Mudgctt, Stepben AV. 405. 

McCollister William, 77. 

Mix, Mrs. Lydia, 168. 

Mix, George C, 104, 10."">. 

3Ioody, "William J., 70. 

Morse, Jotbam, oDl. 

Murdock, Seymour 15., :!;'>."). 

Morris, Ilobert, 17. 

Nicbosoii, Dr.Orson, 70, 78, 110, is;j 

Paine, Dr. L. C, 70. 

Peck, Linus Jones, ICO. 

Perry, Josepb L., 320. 

Preston, William X. 342. 

Pettengill, Benjamin G., 204. 

Pierce, Arctas, 202. 

Porter, Allen, 142. 

Potter, Dr. Stepben AI., 183. 

Pbelps cV' Gorbam, 10. 

Rawson, Kev. Andrew, 20, 100. 

Parsons, Jobu, 70. 

Peck, Horace, 201. 

Perry, Josiab, 410. 

Pratt, Daniel, 203. • 

Penniman, William, 131. 

Porter, Augustus, HO. 

Porter, Lutber, 157. 

Proctor, Jobn, 220. 

Pvaudall, Amos, 285. 

Reed Family, 310. 

Rice, Hubbard, 203,. 

Rogers, Ebenezer, 05. 

Rdot, Reuben 407. 

Rice, Enos, 150. 

Roo:, Amos, 32, 34, 1 13. 

Robinson, Cbauncey, 204. 

Kuggle.s, William W., 304. 

Salsburv, Samuel, 224. 



Sawyer, Eli.sba, 418. 

Starkweatber, A. M., 113. 

Street, Lucius, 140. 

Spencer, Amos, 417. 

Swift, Pbiletus, 58. 

Smitb, Mrs, Sally, 208. 

Stone, Enos 30. 

Strong, Jobn W., 305. 

Sanford, Asa, 90. 

Saxe, Peter, 404. 

Spafford, Bradstreet, 2.05. 

Steele, Rev. Mr. 08. 

Sbelly, Natlian, 230. 

Smitb, Moses, 141. 

Sbipman, Job, 100. 

Skinner, Jarvis M. 145. 

Strong, Timotby C. 111. 

Soutbwortb, Darius, 304. 

Tanner, Gen. William C, 318. 

Tappan, Hon. Samuel, 410. 

Tripp, Antbony, 141. 

Tburstcn, Stepben B. 133. 

Tyler, Jobn H., memoir of, 414. 

Tanner, .Tosias, 333. 

Treadwell, Ricbard, 210. 

Tburston, Caleb C.,88. 

Tanner, William, 125. 

Turner, Otis, 314, 341. 

Van Brocklin, Jobn, 370. 

Ward, Dr. Levi, 10. 

Ward, Hon. Alexis, 171. 

Walswortb, James 180. 

Weld, Andrew, 348. 

Wbitney, Katban, 112. 

Wbalcy, Dr. Cbristopber, 348, 379 

Ward, Levi A. 10. 

AValswortb, William, 180. 

Weld, Tbomas, 341. 

Wbite, Dr. William, 77, 314, 75. 

Wood, Elijab W., 208. 

Yates, town of, 401. 

Zimmerman, Jacob A., 308. 




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