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Full text of "Pioneer history of Milwaukee"



NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES 




3 3433 08192285 2 



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MILWAUKEE 



Under the Charter, 



FROM 1854 TO 1860 INCLUSIVE. 



VOLUME IV. 



BY JAMES S. BUCK. 




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MILWAUKEE. 

SW.VIN A TATE, PKINTKKS, 

ism. 



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Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1886, by 

JAMES S. BUCK, 
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



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TO 



EX-MAYOE HORACE CHASE, 



Milwaukee's present oldest pioneer, and first town clerk, 



IS THIS volume most RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 

BY 

THE AUTHOR. 



Down the endless vale of time 
Swiftly speed the fleeting years. 



PREFACE TO VOLUME IV. 



In coming before the public for the fourth time as a historian, the 
author has a deep sense of the imperfections his work contains, but 
as perfection is seldom attained in this world, and particularly in the 
compilation of local histories, he can only say that what errors there 
are (and there are several) are of the head and not of the heart, and 
must be taken as such. The intention has been to do justice to all, 
and show maUce to none. To live in a community for half a century, 
and not make some enemies, is oftener the exception than the rule, 
and to have done this does not show any great degree of moral 
force in the individual who can boast of having accomplished it. 
That the author of these volumes has made enemies he is well aware, 
but is willing to abide the verdict of his fellow-citizens who have been 
his compeers during all these years as to the truthfulness of the poHt- 
ical events recorded therein, or of the biographical and reminiscial* 
sketches, several of which are quite lengthy ; and feels very well 
satisfied that when he shall have joined his brother pioneers in the 
great beyond, that posterity will do him justice. 

All errors that have been discovered in the previous volume (and 
not corrected) will be corrected in this, and all in this that may be 
discovered as the work progresses, will also be corrected. 

Amone the illustrations m this volume will be a cut of the old 
Military Hall on Oneida street, Bilty's Tremont, corner of Huron 



* There were some objections made by certain members of the press to the 
author's use of this word, which appeared in the Preface to Volume III. But as 
it best expresses what he means, and is far more euphonic than the more lengthy 
word reminiscencial, he claims the right to use it in the same connection in this 
Volume. 



6 FKKFACE. 

and Cass, the old Kilbourn mansion, corner Spring and Fourth streets 

and John Rugee's planing mill, southeast corner Oregon and Grove 

streets. 

In closing this Preface, the author wishes to return his heartfelt 

thanks to all who have in any way aided or encouraged him in his 

laborious undertaking. But particularly are they due Horace Chase, 

Enoch Chase, Daniel Wells, Jr., Alex. Mitchell, John H. Tweedy, 

William P. Merrill, John B. Merrill, William S. Trowbridge, Uriel B. 

Smith, Ehsha W. Edgerton, Harrison Ludington, EHsha Starr, John 

P. McGregor and Chauncey Sinionds, of the Pioneer Association ; 

to Nathaniel Merrill for drawings, and to the editors and locals of 

the Milwaukee Sentinel and Evening Wisconsin^ for valuable services 

and courtesies rendered. 

The Author. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Pa^e. 
INTRODUCTION ii 

CHAPTER I. —1854 13 

Opening Address — Members of Legislature — Weather — McLeod Frozen — The 
Business Status — Milwaukee Hydraulic Company Chartered — Bridges — 
Attack on John Rugee — He Replies — Sketch of Jo'in Rugee — Booth vs. 
Shaw — Issuing Bo;ids to Railroads — Searched the Wrong Man — Tlie Glover 
Rescue — The Bielfeld Poem — The Old Helfenstein Warehouse Falls — ■ 
Complaints — The Spring Election — Consequences Resulting to the City from 
this Election — A Free Fight and its Results — A Military Company Formed — 
The Vance Bros., Sketch — A Runaway and Its Results — Milwaukee & Mis- 
sissippi Railroad Report — William E. Goodman, Sketch — Robert C. Spencer, 
Sketch — Street Cleaning — Editor's Comments Thereon — Great Storm — The 
New Lighthouse Located — A Dam Case — Milwaukee's Second Great Fire — 
Rebuilding the Burnt District — A New Hotel Called for — John B. Edwards, 
Sketch — L. B. Rock, Sketch — Brooke & Cannon's Store Robbed — The Cloven 
Foot Appears — Judge H. N. Wells' Famous Cow Case — Improvements — 
Hun & Crosby — Ihe Nazro Building — The Reliance Mill — Commercial 
Statistics — Assessments — Vessel Tonnage. 

CHAPTER II.— 1855 67 

Opening Address — Legislature — Report of Jailor — Fne — The Ground Rebuilt 
Upon — Business Status — Badger Iron Works — Cummings & Goodrich, Sketch 
— Police Court — Municipal — Spring Elections — The Mayor's Proclamation — 
General King's Comments — Mr. Kilbourn's Replies — Result of Election — 
General Rufus King, Sketch — Public Schools — A Know-Nothing on the 
Jury — Uncle Sam's Jurors — Journeymen Carpenter's Meeting — The Hog 
Nuisance — A Call for the Marshal — He Replies — Michael Bodden, Sketch — 
William Grant Fitch, Sketch — Charles Ray, Sketch — John J. Eves — Jabez 
Smith — Sebastopol Not Taken — Mentzel & Scone, Sketch — Eavesdropping — 
Opening Lake Shore Railroad — Street Improvements — A Fatal Mistake — 
Milwaukee Locomotive Works — Seaman & Wing Cabinet— Robert Eliot, 
Sketch — J. M. Holmes, Sketch — C'hurch Going — A Tremendous Shower — 
Mrs. Epps Saves the Sugar — Board of Fire Underwriters Formed — Soon 
Dies — An Excitmg Runaway — A Bit of a Shindy — Police Jottings — Census 
of Milwaukee — Census of County — Bay State Foundry — John S. Harris, 
Sketch--William Goodenough--Williani Walton — The Reliance Works, Sketch 
— Edward P. Allis, Sketch — The Ice Bear — Arthur Bales, Sketch — E. D. Hol- 
ton Struck with a Slungshot — .Appointment of a Night Watch — Marine Dis- 
asters — How Is This for High? — The Sag Nicht Organized — Its Results — 
Herman C. Adams Shot — Organization of the Corn Exchange — Cremation — 
First Snowfall —Death of the General — Uncle Wm. E. Cramer Gets Sarah- 
naded — George Cogswell, Sketch — Ihe Evistons — Bridge Superintendent Ap- 
pointed — A Bad Boy — The Old Light- House Sold — Sam Shoyer Gets Left — 
Improvements — The Messrs. Christian and Gustav Preusser, .Sketch — Mayor 
Cross' New Block — Citv Valuation — Statistics. 



8 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER III.— 1856 124 

Opening Address — Noyes & Flertzheim's New Store, Sketch of — Legislature — 
Weather — The Police First Wore Stars in Sight — The Business Directory — 
Sketches of Ernst Conrad, Louis Salomon, the French Bros., Ogden's Car- 
riage Factory, Warren, Hewitt & Tracy, Goodrich & Terry, Bradford Bros., 
Sinclair & Gunnison, and others — William Brown, of Albany, Dies — Public 
Market —John Johnston, Sketch — Board of Trade Organized — Charter 
Amendments — Railroad Meeting — Fire — The Star Mill, Sketch — Old Jones 
Tried — New Bridge Called For — New Jail Called For — She Wouldn't Stay 
Out — Divisions of the Second, First and Fifth Wards — -Council Proceedings 
— Spring Election — Its Results — Schools — List of Teachers — The Old Mili- 
tary Hall — Opening of Billy's Tremont — Sketch of Bilty — -South Side Gas 
Company Formed — Great Military Parade — Major Nunnemacher Makes a 
Speech — August Phillipp Exhibits His Horsemanship — The Golden Gate 
Saloon — The Old Loomis School House — Owen Goss, Sketch — A. V. H. Car- 
penter, Sketch — Dwight W. Keyes, Sketch — Excursion to Beaver Dam — 
Railroads — The Dean Richmond Goes to Europe — Chas. J. Kershaw, Sketch 
Political — The Democracy Organize — Council Proceedings — Railroad Vote — 
Criminal — Cattle Market — Great Torchlight Procession — Fall Pllection — Mr. 
Hadley Defeated — Bear vs. Bull — Weather — P^uneral of Solomon Juneau — 
Improvements — Vessel Tonnage — Cold. 

CHAPTER IV.— 1857 181 

Opening Address — The Albany Block- — New Year's Calls — The Weather — E. H. 
Brodhead a Bigger Man 'Phan the Pope — .A New Grocery, Sketch — Jeremiah 
Quinn, Sketch — Great Rainstorm — Business Status — Legislative — Ninth 
Ward Organized — River Opened — Mr. Evans Dies — Municipal — Politics 
Red-hot — Officers Elected — Andrew Mitchell, Sketch- — -Public Schools — As- 
sessment — Altering the Grades — April Fool's Day — Its Results — The New 
Postmaster — John A. Becher, Sketch — A Park Proposed — Caleb Wall 
Scores the Common Council — The Messrs. Matthews Brothers, Furniture, 
Sketch — Opening of the Newhall — Its Success and Unal End — Nathan 
Pereles, Sketch — Merrill's Cornet Band— A Sad Accident — The Detroit & 
Mdwaukee Railroad Meeting — Humorous — He Wouldn't Stand It Any 
Longer — Political — A Puff for Mayor Cross — Martin B. Coombs — -Municipal 
Rascality Unearthed--The City in Peril — The Meeting at Albany Ilall — Ihe 
Wisconsin — E. L. H. Gardner's Manifesto — The Wisconsin Defends Him — 
Charles F. Freeman, Sketch — Stephen A. Harrison, Sketch — Daniel L. 
Wells, Sketch — Improvements — Disputed the Count — Weather — Census — 
Vessel List— Egbert Herring Smith Outdone — The Old Forest Home Ceme- 
tery. 

CHAPTER v.— 1858 243 

Opening Address — Legislative — Municipal — Report of Tax Payers' Committee at 
Albany Hall — Tabular Statements — The Effect of the Report — The Fight 
Between the People and the Council — Jackson Hadley, Sketch — -Taxation — 
Milwaukee vs. Detroit — The Harbor Question — Alderman George S. Mal- 
lory's Speech — More Meetings at Albany Hall — Letters from Tax Payers — 
The Spring Campaign — The Fur Flies — William A. Prentiss Nominated for 
Mayor on a People's Ticket — Result of Election — Vilification — Council Pro- 
ceedings — License — A Tidal Wave — High Water — The Cordes Block Falls — 
July 4, and Its Results — The Council Takes a Tilt at the Common Schools — 
Alderman J. A. Phelps, Sketch — J. P. Rundle, Sketch — Opening of the At- 
lantic Cable — The Jail — Judge H. M. Wells Dies— Memorial Sketch — 
Charter Revision — Attempt to Remove the Court House— Rufus P. Jennings 
— Police Court — The Fall Campaign — A Bitter Contest— 'J'he Land Grant 
Steal — Judge Hubbell Buys a New Milch Cow — Chamber of Commerce Or- 



CONTENTS. y 

s^anized — List of Its Presidents to Date — Matthew Keenan Retires from the 
Office of Clerk of Circuit Court — PoHtical — Councillor Jackson Hadley Goes 
for Mayor Prentiss — Mayor Prentiss Replies — Comptroller Hathaway's Esti- 
mate — The Election. November, 1858 — Hotel Wettstein Opened — The Young 
Men's Christian Association vs. The Litei'ary Club — ^The Weather — Early 
Ship Building— Wolf & Davidson, Sketch— S. R. Smith, Sketch— Early She- 
boygan Houses — Improvements. 

CHAPTER VI.— 1859 298 

Opening Address — The Weather — Political Trickery — Reports of the County Offi- 
cials — Legislative — The New Charter, and the Fight on Its Passage — The 
Result — The Mayor's Report — Comments Thereon — A Call for a Mass Meet- 
ing at Albany Hall — The Result — An Attempt to Divide the Third Ward — 
St. Andrew's Society Formally Organized — -Jas. Siddell — Grain in Store — 
Horse Overboard — Swine Ditto — A Cow-Slip — The Spring Campaign — A 
People's Convention — Candidates Nominated — The Democratic Convention — 
The Result — ^Major Fut Wins the Prize — (Comments of the Sentinel Upon E. 
L. H. Gardner's Nomination — New School Opened — School Census — Ought 
to Be in School — And These Ought to Be Whipped — Report — Page vs. Pren- 
tiss—Page Gets Leit— The Plot Thickens— J. T. Perkins Wants More Light 
— J. C. Starkweather Gets a Fall— The M. S. Scott Goes to Europe— The Ger- 
mans in America — July 4th Celebration — The Hog Nuisance — Mr. Pat Mc- 
Ginnis Makes His Maiden Speech — Likewise Did Misther O'Conner — Edi- 
torial Sparring — The Horse Railroad — Sam Piatt Gets a Bible — F"ather John 
Rosebeck on the War- Path — The Arrival of the New Steamers, the Detroit 
and Milwaukee — An Affair of Honor — The Old Blind Singer — How a Mil- 
waukee Carpenter Got a Floor Taken Up — The Eagle Mill, Sketch — The 
Phoenix — The Brewing Interest — The Empire Brewery of Phillip Best & Co. 
— Wm. P. Young's Block Burnt — The Sentinel Gets Spooney — Wouldn't 
Call Him Judge — The Old Market House — An Attempt to Divide the Coun- 
ty — Political — The Republicans Win — J'. Van Vechten Scores the News — 
Winter Coming — Population — Improvements — The First Town Election — 
The Semi-Centennial — Statistical. 

CHAPTER VIL — 1860 366 

Opening Address — Police Report — Legislative — Horse Railroad Project — A Park 
Proposed — The New Municipal Court Room — Judge Foote's (Tourt Abolished 
— Sid Rood's Game Cock — The Pleasant Street Bridge — A Costly Wind — Ice 
Left the River — The Spring Election Brings Out More Political Rascality — 
Gardner & Lynch Arrested — Result of Election — Jasper Vliet's Safe Seized 
by the Sheriff — Base Ball Discovered — Milwaukee's Third Great Fire — At 
which a Mecklenberger Makes a Discovery — Marshal Jehu M. Lewis Tried — 
The Public Schools — Geo. G. Houghton Takes the Helm — Council Proceed- 
ings — S. H. Martin Builds three New School Houses — Railroads — Jacob L. 
Bean as a Prophet — The Third Ward Market House — Belden's Old Home 
Saloon Removed — The Cow Question — Caleb Wall Speaks — 'i"he Horse Rail- 
road Craze — The editor of the Sentinel Threatened with a Licking — Political 
Ruffianism — More Skullduggery — The Herzer Resolutions — The Lockwood 
Resolutions — Their Effect — The Germans Protest — Meeting of the Union 
Republican Club — Municipal F'oUy — Councillor Lockwood Brings the Mal- 
contents to Time — Councillor Noyes Resigns — After which Councillor Rose- 
beck Takes the Floor — His Speech — The Fall Campaign — A Republican 
County Organization Effected — Election — First Snow Fall — Highway Rob- 
bery — Fred. Wardner Garroted — Burning of Nichols & Britt's Mill — Burning 
of Cross Block — Improvements — The Lady Elgin Goes Down — In Memoriam. 



ERRATA. 



On page 24, for " Rocraft," read " Rycraft." 
On page 93, for " Welbb," read " Webb." 
On page 191, for " J. H. Green," read " Greeves." 
On page 241, for " B. Stern," read " B. Stirn." 
On page 398, fifth line from top, for " John Lockwood," read 
" John Plankinton." 



INTRODUCTION. 



The local historian who attempts the laborious task of placing 
upon record the principal events — political, social and financial — con- 
nected with the founding of a new city, and its progress (to use a 
metaphor) from infancy to manhood, will, as stated in the introduc- 
tion to Volume III., not get rich or perhaps win much fame, but will 
if he chance (as was the fortune of the writer) to have been num- 
bered among its early men, often find himself during the progress of 
his work carried back in memory to the starting point, and journey- 
ing o'er life's well marked trail again, during which the scenes he has 
witnessed, both mirthful and pathetic, will pass in rapid review before 
his mental vision with a vividness that is wonderful. 

This journey the author of these volumes has often taken during 
the progress of the work, when the face and form of many who were 
once prominent in our city as politicians and business men, but who 
have long since crossed the Styx, were often seen, some of whom 
were good men and useful citizens, while others sought their own 
aggrandizement alone, wholly regardless of the consequences to 
themselves or to others. To write the history of this latter class truth- 
fully is often an unpleasant task, and if it should be claimed that the 
political characters of any of the men sketched have been too harshly 
dealt with, posterity has only to refer to the public records of their 
lives to be satisfied, not only of the truthfulness of these sketches, but 
that in several instances the party mentioned would have stood a 
second coat of red without overstepping the bounds of truth. 

In closing this introduction to Volume IV., the author feels justified 
in saying, that to be counted as worthy of belonging to that small 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

band, who under the name ot Pioneers have been permitted to live 
to witness the almost marvelous growth of the city they helped to 
found, is an honor few can boast of having enjoyed. And to be, in 
however small a sense, its historian, is a much greater one. That the 
coming anniversary on the 19th of September next (a full text of 
which will be found in the Appendix), when the first half century 
since the township organization (out of which the city had its birth) 
shall have been completerl, may be celebrated in a manner worthy 
of the occasion, is certainly the wish of 

The Author. 

Milwaukee, August i6th, 1885. 



CHAPTER I. 
1854. 

Opening Address — Members of Legislature — Weather — McLeod Frozen — The 
Business Status — Milwaukee Hydraulic Company Chartered — Bridges — 
Attack on John Rugee — He Replies — Sketch of John Rugee — Booth vs. 
Shaw — Issuing Bonds to Railroads — Searched the Wrong Man — The Glover 
Rescue — The Bielfeld Poem — The Old Helfenstein Warehouse Falls — 
Complaints — The Spring Election — Consequences Resulting to the City from 
this Election — A Free Fight and its Results — A Military Company Formed — 
The Vance Bros., Sketch — A Runaway and Its Results — Milwaukee & Mis- 
sissippi Railroad Report — William E. Goodman, Sketch — Robert C. Spencer, 
Sketch — Street Cleaning — Editor's Comments Thereon — Great Storm — The 
New Lighthouse Located — A Dam Case — Milwaukee's Second Great Fire — 
Rebuilding the Burnt District — A New Hotel Called for — John B. Edwards, 
Sketch — L. B. Rock, Sketch — Brooke & Cannon's Store Robbed — The Cloven 
Foot Appears — Judge H. N. Wells' Famous Cow Case — Improvements — 
Hun & Crosby — The Nazro Building — The Reliance Mill — Commercial 
Statistics — Assessments — Vessel Tonnage. 

Fifty years have come and gone — 

At least that's what they say — 
Since the bold Saxon race so grand 
Made their first plant upon the land 

Around Milwaukee Bay.* 

The commencement of 1854 was unmarked, at least in Milwaukee, 
by any unusual demonstration in politics, business, or religion. The 
excitement attending the election the previous November, growing 
out of the liquor question, in connection with the election of Franklin 
Pierce to the Presidency, some account of which appeared in Vol. 3, 
had in a great measure died out, and now that the battle was over, 
the victory won, the new year in reality commenced, and the frost- 
king in full control of the weather, those who were at swords' points 
(politically) during that exciting campaign, were now ready to bury 
the hatchet, shake hands over the bloody chasm, take a smilet to- 
gether, and unite in the usual round of festivities that formed so 



*The first title to the land, upon which now stands the beautiful city of Mil- 
waukee, was obtained at the land sale held at (Jreen Bay, August, 1835. 

t A friendly glass of whisky. 



14 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

large a part of the winter life of the denizens of the Cream City, in 
the "olden time." Which festivities were inaugurated by the Odd 
Fellows with 

A New Year's Ball, 
At Gardner's Hall, 

followed by the firemen and other organizations, civil and miHtary, 
while the poHticians hied them to Madison, some for the purpose 
of aiding in procuring honest legislation, while others, (and by far 
the largest portion,) "The Lobby," for the sole purpose of bulldozing 
tlie members into turning the public grindstone while they sharpened 
their little hatchets with which to cut down the traditional cherry 
tree.* 

x\nd thus the months rolled away until March loth, when " Old 
Sol " agam broke winter's icy fetters, although the river was not 
entirely clear until the 15th, and April loth brought us the first boat 
from below — the brig Globe — upon whose arrival we could truly say 
that spring had come. 

The previous year had, as a whole, been a very prosperous one. 
A large number of buildings — including the original gas works — 
having been erected, at an aggregate cost of $450,000. 

Our population had reached 30,000, and our manufactures 
$2,000,000. Our railroads, also, the Milwaukee & Mississippi, and 
the Milwaukee & La Crosse, were rapidly extending their lines to 
the " Father of Waters," and the outlook for Milwaukee to soon 
rival Chicago was encouraging. True, she, like other western cities, 
had not reached her present prosperous condition without a number 
of drawbacks, as besides the decimation her population had received 

* It is a fact beyond all dispute that during the infancy of our State government 
our legislators were, as a rule, more willing to grant any franchise asked for by 
William B. Ogden, for the benefit of Chicago, than for their own State, until it 
became proverbial that the Legislature of Illinois held its sessions in Madison, 
Mr. Ogden, small blame to him — as the Hibernian would say — always succeed- 
ing in buying up a sufficient number of those "limber-backed, spoils-seeking" 
members every year to accomplish his ends, until the "La Crosse Land Grant" 
steal came to the front, after which he threw up the sponge (as the sporting men 
say) in disgust, and retired from the business, as in place of "fifty dollars per 
capita," which was about the average he had been paying for " Badger skins," 
they had advanced in price to an average of $5,000 for common, $10,000 for prime, 
$25,000 for extra prime, $50,000 for full grown males, and, in one instance, 
S^220,ooo was paid for a silver gray. (See price list in chapter 5.) Oh! pohtics! 
The lust for gold engendered in the hearts of all who once enter fully within thy 
courts surpasseth all other passions, even that for women. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 15 

in 1849, by that fearful scourge the "Asiatic cholera," the wheat crop, 
upon the success of which her prosperity more than any other one 
source depended, had during that (and the two subsequent years) 
been almost a total failure, all of which had been keenly felt. But 
better days were in store for her, as the past three years — ptarticularly 
1853 — had been prosperous ones agriculturally, and now her 
plank as well as her railroads were groaning beneath the burden of 
the rich treasures of wheat and other grains that came pouring in 
from the unrivalled farming region for which she was the only natural 
commercial outlet. Immigration, another source of wealth to a new 
country, had also been quite large, over 25,000 having landed here 
during the season of navigation, one-fifth of whom, at least, had 
settled within her then corporate limits. All of which tended to give 
an impetus to real estate, which advanced rapidly, in proof of which 
was the sale in January, 1854, of the south twenty feet of lot one, 
and the north forty feet of lot two, in block (5), third ward, by Jas. 
B. Martin to Henry J. Nazro, for $18,000, a large sale for those 
days, upon which Mr. Nazro was to erect a fine store the coming 
summer. This building, the present Nos. 319, 321 and 323 East 
Water street, which will be more fully described in its proper place, 
was the wonder of the day when built, and is a good store now. 

The members from Milwaukee city and county, for 1853 and '54, 
elected the previous November, were for the senate, Edward M. 
Hunter and Edward McGarry, and to the house, John Crawford, 
Jackson Hadley, Peter Lavies, Henry Beecroft, Timothy Hagerty, 
Edward O'Neill, John Tobin, William Reinhard, and William E. 
Webster. Speaker of the house, F. W. Horn. 

This legislature convened January 11, 1854, and adjourned 
April 3, 1854. 

Weather. 

The winter of 1853 and '54 was a cold one, particularly the early 
part, a snowfall of twelve inches, the greatest at any one time during 
the last six years, occurring on the 5th of January, while the ice in 
the river (which closed December 19, 1853,) was twelve inches in 
thickness, with the thermometer at twelve degrees below zero. 

The following is the record for nine days in January: The ther- 



16 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

mometer standing at 6 p. m., on the 7th, 12 degrees below zero; 8th, 
10 degrees below zero; 9th; 12 degrees below zero ; loth, 14 degrees 
below zero ; nth, 16 degrees below zero; 12th, 16 degrees below 
zero; 23d, 7 A. M., 20 degrees* below zero; 8 a. m., 19 degrees 
below zero; 9 a. m., 16 degrees below zero. 

This was cold enough to satisfy the most fastidious. The ground 
was frozen to a great depth, and very little work could be done out 
of doors during the month of January and a part of February, except 
to cut ice. 

The business status of the old firms was practically the same as in 
185 1, a few changes only having been made in location or partners. 

Charles C. Dewey, saddlery, 376 East Water street, is now a 
farmer in Wauwatosa. 

Abraham FoUansbee, bakery, 107 Wisconsin street. This was the 
nucleus of the present mammoth bakery of Theodore Riedel, on 
Broadway, an establishment that has made for all of its difterent 
owners a large amount of money. 

Wm. E. Goodman, camphene and gas-fitting, 83 Wisconsin street. 
Mr. Goodman will be sketched further on. 

Timothy W. Goodrich and Eli S. Hunter were in the old red 
warehouse foot of East Water street ; commission. 

Richardson Granget and Thomas C. Cole, meat market, were at 
322 East Water street. 

Jackson Hadley and Joseph W. Haskins, commission, were in the 
checkered warehouse on South Water street. 

These are a few not previously mentioned. 

Mr. Haskins subsequently went to California. He was a bad one. 

The Milwaukee Hydraulic Company Chartered. 

The first step lookmg towards the construction of water-works for 
the city of Milwaukee was by an act of the Legislature of 1854, and 

*A man named Daniel McLeod froze to death during this cold weather, in a 
miserable shanty, standing at that time where Angus Smith's elevator C. (the old 
Sweet elevator) now stands. I remember the circumstance perfectly. There 
was a large amount of suffering that winter among the poor, on account of the 
high price of fuel and the impossibility of obtaining work. 

f Mr. Grange is yet in business and located at 265 South Water. Mr. Cole is a 
resident of Kansas City. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 17 

approved April i, under the above title. The corporators and first 
directors were Charles E. Jenkins, James Ludington, Joseph W. 
Haskins, Wilham P. Young, Duncan C. Reed, Asahel Finch, Jr., 
and James H. Rogers. They were to take their supply of water 
from Lake Michigan. There was also an act, March ii, 1855, 
authorizing the city to issue $100,000 in bonds to aid in their con- 
struction. This last act was to be submitted to the people for ratifi- 
cation. It is needless to say that no works were ever constructed by 
this company. 

Bridges. 

The reader will doubtless remember that a contract had been 
made in 1853 by the Common Council with John Rugee to erect a 
new bridge at the foot of East Water street, and also at Spring street, 
for $11,500 for the two. The one at Spring street to be completed 
by January i, 1854. The severe cold, however, prevented the ful- 
filment of this contract (as to time), and some " croaker," who 
evidently did not understand what he was writing about, had an 
article in the Wisconsin of February 3, complaining of Mr. Rugee 
for not removing the old bridge at Spring street in readiness for the 
new one, and gets the following reply from that gentleman's ver- 
satile pen : 

BRIDGES. 
To the Editor of The Wisconsin : 

In reply to the article in your paper of the 3d, about removing Spring 
street bridge, I would say, first, that the writer ot that article has not 
got mechanical bumps enough to know what has been done ; second, 
that he does not know how many men are required for a structure of 
this kind; third, that he is apt to catch at and publish what others say 
without inquiring into the fac;ts himself. If he had come to me I could 
liave shown him the yard where all the materials are being prepared 
and where as many men are employed as can work to advantage. It 
has been represented by men that I thought worthy of belief that I 
luive been paid a sum of money to leave Spring street Ijridge and go to 
work on the one at Walker's Point. This is too ridiculous to speak 
a))Out, since they have a l^ridge at that place that is passable for teams 
now. Had the man who started that report visited my bridge-yard he 
could have seen men at work on the Spring street bridge for three 
weeks past. When I made the contract with the city I told the Bridge 
Committee that I could not possibly complete the one at Spring street 
in the time specified, but that I was willing to pay the penalty (.?10 per 
day) if they could give me a reasonalile extension, Avhi(;h they agreed 
to do if I would imrry it up as fast as I coiild. This I have done, and I 
(•an assure the Wisconsin that tlie men in my employ are not slaves, 
who can be driven to work in such weather as we had last month. 

And now a word for the public. It is as nmch for my interest as 



18 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

theirs to get the bridge completed. I can get all the lalior I want now 
much cheaper than I can a month hence, and if I could set thirty or 
forty men at work I could save at least $400 by so doing. Spring street 
bridge was not removed for four weeks after I gave notice that I was 
ready. And some of the very men who are now "barking" at me 
wished it kept there until January, 1854, although they knew that my 
contract with the city calls for a new bridge by that time. 

John Eugee, Contractor. 

This was a good reply, although not severe enough upon the 
"blatherskites" who were barking at him. For the article in the 
Wisconsi?i, in answer to which this was written, was a pretty rough 
one, and accused Mr. Rugee of not intending to complete the new 
bridge by January i, 1854, the time set, and of not commencing in 
season to pull down the old one, when, as he says, they would not 
let him. It was so far completed, however, as to be opened for the 
passage of teams March 14, George F. Oakley being the first to 
cross it, which he did with his new 'bus drawn by six horses. It 
was fully completed March 27, when the old float so clumsy, but 
nevertheless so useful in its day, disappeared, at least from Sprmg 
street, forever. 

Upon the commencement to remove the old one, January 6, the 
following appeared in the Senti?iel: 

Spring Street Bridge. — In the spring of 1846 this beautiful structure 
was built by the Common Council. Yesterday its demolition corn- 
menced, to give place to another bridge, which it is to be hoped will 
last more than seven years. It is said that one of the Council shed 
tears in passing yesterday on witnessing its destruction. It is also said 
the Bridge Committee intend saving fragments of the old structure, to 
have canes, tobacco boxes, etc., made from them, as relics of antiquity 
and their tenacity to the old pathway.* 

John Rugee. 

This gentleman, who ranks as one of our prominent and successful 
master builders and architects, was born at Lubec, a free city in 
Germany, January 3, 1827, and fi-om where he emigrated to this 
country when a boy. He settled first at the village of Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y., where he learned his trade (carpenter), and from there came to 
Milwaukee, in 185 1, where he soon came to the front as a mechanic 

*This bridge, erected in 1854, stood thirteen years, when it was replaced by a 
new one, erected by the late Daniel L. Wells, which stood until 1882, when it 
was replaced by the present iron one. The demolition of this last (the Wells 
bridge) was commenced January 24, 1882, the writer crossing it for the last lime 
at 8 A. M. that morning. Sic transit. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 19 

of more than ordinary ability. His first work of any importance 
after his arrival in our city, was the erection of a bridge over the 
Rock River, at Watertovvn, for the Milwaukee & Watertown Rail- 
road Company. He also built the one at Janesville, over the same 
stream, for the Milwaukee & Mississippi Railroad, both of which are 
yet in use, and, as has just been seen, was then (1854) engaged in 
the erection of the one at Spring street, over the Milwaukee River. 
This was the first swing bridge (i. e.) to swing upon a center pier, 
ever erected in the city. It was at this time that he improvised a 
machine to cut off" the few piles* (fenders) formerly driven as a pro- 
tection to the old float bridge, there being at that time no " dredge " 
in the city of sufficient power to pull them. The novelty, as well as 
the simplicity of this invention, attracted no little attention, and its 
operation was watched by the mechanical portion of the community 
with great interest. It was subsequently put to similar use on the 
Chippewa River. Mr. Rugee's inventive genius was something mar- 
velous to the mechanics of that day — there being no obstruction but 
disappeared before his fertile brain as rapidly as does the dew before 
the sun. He also, in connection with Stoddard H. Martin, with 
whom he had become associated as a partner, built the Newhall 
house in 1856-7, since which time he has devoted himself, almost 
exclusively, to the manufacture of building material, drafting plans, 
making specifications for private dwellings, and superintending their 
erection, a large number of which, both in the city and country, 
show the mark of his hand. From this, to him a pleasant employ- 
ment, he has now retired m favor of his son John C. Rugee. and 
engaged in the lumber trade with Emil Durr, under the title of Durr 
& Rugee, in which enterprise let us hope that his success, as well as 
Mr. Durr's, may meet their most sanguine expectations. So much 
for his business record. 

In political faith, Mr. Rugee is a staunch republican, in which 
party he has been one of the pillars for the last twenty years, few in 
Milwaukee having exerted a greater influence than has he. He was 
elected to the legislature in i860, from the Fifth ward (in which he 
has always resided), has also served two terms in the common coun- 



* Four feet under water. 



20 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

cil, the last one being in 1857, where he was both active and efficient, 
and was appointed by the governor to superintend the erection of 
the present court-house, and also a trustee of our county insane 
asylum, from both of which positions he was ejected by the demo- 
crats, who wanted no one to inspect their work who was not in full 
sympathy with their plans. He was also elected sheriff, over John 
lientley, in 1880. Such is a brief sketch of his political record. 

In religious faith he is a liberal, cares nothing for creeds, but judges 
a man by what he does, and not for what he may believe, or profess 
— always a safe rule to follow. In person he is of medium height, 
has a well proportioned and muscular frame, has dark hair and dark 
eyes, and is the very picture of health. He has a strong voice, speaks 
somewhat quick, with a slight German accent — his words coming out 
with a rolling intonation. He is the soul of honor, very conscien- 
tious, and always careful what he says, or what he does. He is also 
a good judge of character, few better in the city. He dishkes noto- 
riety, is very undemonstrative for a politician, which to quite an extent 
he still is, and will make no promise to any one, political or other- 
wise, that he does not intend to keep. He has good executive abilities, 
and can handle a large force of men to good advantage. He has 
become quite wealthy, the result of a close attention to business and 
good management. 

Such is John Rugee, one of Milwaukee's well-known and respected 
representative business men, a useful citizen and one whom the people 
have often deHghted to honor. 

Spicy — Booth vs. Shaw. 

There was quite a large amount of what might properly be called 
a windy correspondence, this year, by and between the Mihvaukee 
Daily News, Daniel Shaw, editor, and the Daily Free Democrat, 
Sherman M. Booth, editor. If these gentlemen were at all friendly, 
they certainly took a curious way to show it. The JVe7vs, of Feb- 
ruary 7, pubHshed what purported to be an invitation from the 
'• cullered" population to Mr. Booth to join them in a pubHc dinner 
at Prof. " Jesse Epps, His Saloon,"* and to which invitation it 

* As our forefathers would have stated it. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 21 

makes Booth accept. The menu was not very elaborate, consisting 
entirely of ram, lamb, mutton and sheep (no horse or dog). Booth 
was in a fearful rage, and so was Epps, who said this was the worst 
insult he had ever received in his life, and that was certainly saying 
a great deal. There was much sport made of the affair, many claim- 
ing that the proposed dinner was fully equal to Mr. Booth's deserts, 
and wickedly hoped he would have a good time. It is needless to 
say that the dinner did not come off.* 

Issuing Bonds to Railroads. 

There was an ordinance passed at the meeting of the common 
council, held February ii, 1854, for the issue of $100,000 in city 
bonds to the Lake Shore (now the Chicago & Northwestern), and 
also one for the issue of $200,000 to the La Crosse & Milwaukee 
Railroads. The first named company gave as security for their 
$100,000; a company bond for $100,000, a first mortgage bond on 
the road for $125,000, the personal bond of the directors and others 
for $150,000, and full paid stock for $100,000 — in all $475,000. 
The La Crosse gave a company bond for $400,000, a mortgage bond 
and notes for $250,000 — in all $650,000. And the city had them all 
to pay in the end. 

Searched the Wrong Man. 

The constable from the country of Ozaukee brought a prisoner 
named Miller to the Milwaukee jail, in March, 1854, that county 
being then destitute of such a luxury, and who (i. e., the constable) 
was so drunk that the jailor, S. S. Conover, went through his pockets, 
thinking, from his fuddled condition, that he was the prisoner. It 
appeared from the prisoner's statement, and the constable's condition 
certainly confirmed it, that he (the constable) would stop at all the 
saloons on the road to wood up, leavmg his prisoner sitting on the 
wagon for fifteen minutes at a time, who, when asked why he did not 
run, repHed : " Veil, it vas vinter, und I pees yust so coot here as 
nudder blace." 



* The writer has failed to find the full text of this " Menu," as the files of the 
Ne'MS, for 1854, have been destroyed by fire. " But it was rich." 



22 milwaukee under the charter. 

The Glover Rescue. 

We come now to an episode in the history of our city that, for the 
time being, caused more excitement and came nearer terminating in 
bloodshed than all the exciting things which had previously occurred 
within it, political or otherwise (not excepting the attack on the 
Methodist church, March 6, 185 1), since its foundations were laid, 
even the news of the attack on Fort Sumter by the rebels, April 12, 
1861, not causing half as much. I mean the arrest of Joshua 
Glover, March 10, 1854, as a " fugitive slave," by virtue of a warrant 
issued by the United States District Court, Judge A. G. Miller, under 
what was known as the " Fugitive Slave Law,"* and his subsequent 
rescue by the people on February 11, which arrest and rescue, as 
well as the subsequent arrest, trial, conviction and confinement of 
Sherman M. Booth in the then government bastile — the present 
custom-house, coupled with the action taken by the slave-holders' 
court at Washington, t in attempting to coerce our state court into 
obeying this infamous law, finally awoke the semi-palsied North 
to their real danger, and led them to resolve that this "sum of all 
villainies " should be driven from the land and America become the 
land of the free and the home of the brave in fact as well as in 
name. 

But I digress. 

The facts connected with this arrest and rescue are substantially 
as follows : Glover, who was claimed as a fugitive slave by one 
Ammi C. Garland, of Missouri, was at that time employed in a mill 
at Racine, where he was arrested by the then United States Deputy 
Marshal, the late Charles C. Cotton, and although he made no 
resistance when arrested, was nevertheless brutally treated by being 

*This infamous law has never had a parallel in any country claiming to be civil- 
ized, and to cur shame be it said that the attempt to convert her people into 
" bloodhounds " was first made in " Free America." No wonder it could not be 
enforced, for the execution of it was so revolting to every sense of justice that 
few men were found in the North who could be induced to make the attempt. 
Its paternity is not certainly known, but Mr. Mason, of Virginia, is credited with 
begetting it. But at all events, let whomsoever it was have all the glory. It was 
attached to the "Omnibus Bill," as is the tail to the kite, and in that way became 
a law. But like the tail of the asp, it contained a terrible sting, fatal to all it 
pierced. God forbid that America should ever be cursed with the like again. 

f The United States Supreme Court as then organized. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 23 

first clubbed by Garland, who accompanied Marshal Cotton, after 
which he was handcufl:ed, thrown into the bottom of the wagon and 
brought to Milwaukee (getting a kick occasionally while on the 
journey from Garland, as a foretaste of what awaited him when once 
more safely back in Missouri), and thrown into jail, where he lay 
wounded and bleeding until morning, when, by order of Samuel S. 
Conover, the under-sherift' (and jailor), his wounds were partially 
dressed, after which he was given into the custody of a special 
deputy sent to the jail for that purpose by order of A. V. R. Able- 
man, the then United States Marshal for the Eastern District, and 
from whose custody (the deputy) he was finally rescued. 

It is an old saying that evil deeds travel fast, and it was not long 
before the knowledge that a fugitive slave was in the jail, who if not 
protected would soon be on his way back to bondage, and steps 
were at once taken by Booth and his co-workers in the cause of 
human Hberty, the late General James H. Paine, Doctor E. B. 
Wolcott, Franklin J. Blair,* and others, to prevent it. 

Their first move was to call upon Marshal Cotton, who denied all 
knowledge of the affair, after which they called upon Judge Miller, 
by whom they were informed that such a warrant had been issued, 
but whether the arrest had been made, or if made the trial would 
come before him, he could not tell. 

Upon receiving this information all the Hon in Booth was aroused, 
and after placarding the streets with small hand-bills stating the facts, 
he mounted his horse and rode through the principal streets, shout- 
ing, " Freemen, to ti;e rescue!" 

The excitement among the anti-slavery portion of the community 
upon hearing this was intense. The bells were rung and a vast 
crowd were quickly gathered at the court-house. A meeting organ- 
ized, with Doctor E. B. Wolcott, chairman, and A. H. Bielfeld, sec- 
retary. Speeches were made, resolutions passed, and a committee 
appointed to wait upon Judge Miller and ascertain if the writ of 
habeas corpus would be obeyed \ and upon being informed that it 

*'rhis affair cost Mr. Blair $2,000 in the way of bail for Booth, and what he had 
to pay in other ways. But he considers it one of the best investments he ever 
made, as the fire started by that arrest was only extinguished by the Emancipation 
Proclamation of President Lincoln, January i, 1863. 



24 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

would not, they at once returned to the jail and made the same 
demand of the sheriff, who informed them that Glover was then out 
of his control and in the direct charge of the United States Mar- 
shal,* whereupon the excitement was increased tenfold, and a large 
crowd at once surrounded the jail awaiting the arrival of the delega- 
tion from Racine, who, they were informed, were on the way, and 
upon whose arrival, at 5 p. m., the fun commenced by an attack 
upon the " old bastile," the doors of which soon flew open before the 
sturdy blows of the indignant sons of liberty, and Glover was free. He 
was no sooner outside than he was taken in charge by John A. Mes- 
senger, who conveyed him to the residence of Hon. Winchell D. 
Bacon, at Waukesha, where his wounds were properly dressed, after 
which he was removed to the residence of Moses Tichenor and 
secreted until the search for him was over and the excitement some- 
what subsided, after which he was taken back to Racine by Chaun- 
cey C. Olin, and from whence shortly after he escaped to Canada, 
where the slaveholder was not permitted to follow him. 

Such, in substance, is the history of this attempt to execute the 
" sum of all villainies," the Fugitive Slave Law, in liberty-loving 
Wisconsin. And as the suits at law growing out of it, with the 
exception of the trial of Thomas Mason, Geo. B. Bingham and John 
Roycroft, who were tried before Judge Hubbell for breaking the 
jail (and acquitted), are more of a national than a local character 
and have already passed into our state history, they will not be 
commented upon here further than to say that the slaveholders' 
party have never won any " laurels " in Wisconsin. 

A. Henry Bielfeld, 

The following is from the pen of Mr. Bielfeld, written on the 
arrest and escape of Glover, and is given here as a memento of 
him : 

No more shall the slavist dare 
To claim Milwaukee. Curse their power. 

This territory, free and fair — 
Tliis Western continent — is ours. 



*The writer will say, although he is not proud of it, that he was the deputy 
then in the jail, to whom Under-sheriff Conover had delivered Glover, and from 
whose custody he was taken. Neither did he attempt to recognize any of the 
mob (as they were styled) who did it. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 25 

The fiends of man have ran their race. 

These bloodhounds, this infernal pack, 
They shall not ride us, by the grace 

Of God, with saddles on our Dacks. 

Mr. Bielfeld was a very prominent man among his countrymen 
for many years. He was, as has been seen, the first city clerk under 
the charter. He was a man of marked peculiarities of character — 
had a sovereign contempt for all shams of every kind. Honest him- 
self, he wished every one else to be. Peace to his memory. He 
died November i6, 1882, and was interred at Forest Home. 

The old Helfenstein warehouse, on Erie street, bursted March 19, 
letting about 8,000 bushels of wheat, together with the horse used 
for hoisting, and which was in the upper loft, out on to the dock. 
The old equine took it quietly, just as though it was a proper thing 
for a warehouse to do. 

Complaints. 

There was great complaint made this year, just previous to the 
spring election, about the fearful condition of East Water street, par- 
ticularly on the want of uniformity in the grade of the sidewalks, 
which varied up and down every twenty feet, same as they do on 
Grand Avenue to-day. Every one erecting a building would set it 
above or below his neighbor, just as the whim took him. A strong 
effort was made to bring them to a common grade, but it was not 
done, and probably will not be for the next twenty years, for the 
reason that the grade in the Third, and all the lower part of the 
Fourth wards, will ultimately have to be raised from two to four feet, 
in order to get proper sewerage. 

The Sentinel^ in commenting upon this matter, stated that no man 
ought to be voted for at the coming election for alderman, in either 
the First or Third wards, who would not promise to act, a7id act at 
once, in this matter, giving the whole board in fact a general scoring 
for not paving East Water street, ending his peroration with the wish 
that some one (he did not want to do it) would take the various can- 
didates for aldermanic honors and walk them up and down the side- 
walks, and then over the street, in order that they might contemplate 
the scene, for if they could, he thought they would make up their 
minds to fix that street or die. 



26 litiLWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

This sort of talk was all well enough for newspaper men, and in 
fact it was their proper province, but if the aldermen had attempted 
to have fixed that street, as called for, or as it ought to have been, 
that same editor would have been among the first to howl about the 
taxes, and blow up the common council for its extravagance.* Those 
old time editors, like those of the present day, were always on the 
" bull " side when it cost them nothing. 

The municipal election in 1854, was a pretty hotly contested one, 
there being a split between the two factions of the democracy. The 
following was the result : 

Mayor — Byron Kilbourn. 
Comptroller — .John B. Edwards. 
Treasurer — Ferdinand Kuehn. 
Attorney — Erastus Foote. 
Police Justice — Clinton Walworth. 
Surveyor — William S. Trowbridge. 
Marshal— John Mitchell. f 

Ward Officers. 

Aldermen. 

First ward — Jackson Hadley, Geo. S. Mallory and Victor Schultee. 

Second ward — -Richardson Houghton, Charles E. Jenkins and Chas. 
Geisburg. 

Third ward — .John Cau^hlin, John Hayden and Jas. Reed. 

Fourth ward — Jas. Ludington, Alonzo L. Kane and Daniel Schultz. 

Fifth ward — Andrew Mitchell, Ed. Wonderly and Jasper Humphrey. 

President of Board — Jackson Hadley. 

City Clerk— Robert Whitehead. 

Commissioners of Surveys — First ward — .Joshua Hathaway. Second 
ward — I. A. Lapham. Third ward — Elisha Eldred. Fourth ward— I. 
E. Goodall. Ji'ifth ward — Martin Delany. 

Assessors — First ward — H. Upmann. Second ward — B. Church. 
Third ward — Richard G. Owens. Fourth ward — J. S. Pardee. Fifth ward 
— Martin Delaney. 

Railroad Commissioners — ^First ward — A.Sawyer. Second ward — H. 
Haertel. Third ward— Daniel Murphy. Fourth ward— S. C. West. 
Fifth ward — Carlton Holland. 



* There is no doubt that the depreciation of real estate on East Water street, 
more particularly below Huron, is largely due and chargeable to the miserable 
condition in which in was kept during those years — to say that it was bad does not 
express it. Its condition was simply abominable. But it had to be endured, and 
we lived through it. The money to pay for improving it, as called for, was not to 
be obtained without too much of a sacrifice, neither could any of the aldermen 
elected be convinced that it was the proper thing for them to do, as those who 
had the most votes would not permit it, and to do it without their consent was 
equivalent to a defeat at the next election, a calamity which the average politician 
always avoids, if possible. 

fMr. Mitchell was elected over Tim O'Brien by 1,378 majority. Tim's pres- 
tige was gone, at least for a time. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 27 

Justices of the Peace— First ward— Albert Smith. Second ward— C. 
F. Bode. Third ward— Wm. Holland. Fourth ward— Haven Powers. 
Fifth ward — Oliver Parsons. 

Constables— First ward— F. Kessler. Second ward— Geo. Fischer. 
Third ward— John H. Ryan. Fourth ward— P. Maloy. Fifth ward— 
Ohas. Meyer. 

City Printers— W. E. Cramer, Daily Wisconsin. Frederick Fratney, 
Daily Volksfreund. 

Council met in Martin's block, 399 East Water screet. 

School Commissioners. 

First ward- -J. Hadley, Rufus King and Thos. Duggan. 

Second ward— Chas. E. Jenkins, Samuel Brown and Benj. Church. 

Third ward — John Cummings, Edward McGarry and Haias Crocker. 

Fourth ward— Priam B. Hill, Geo. E. H. Day and Haven Powers. 

Fifth ward— Andrew Mitchell, Edwin DeWolf and Clark A. Place. 

Chas. E. Jenkins, j^resident.* 

R. Whitehead, secretary. 

Teachers for the Public Schools. 

The following is a list of the teachers to be employed in the public 
schools of our city, during the current year, as agreed upon by the 
board of school commissioners at their meeting on Saturday last : 

First Ward School. 

Principal — A. A. Griffith. Miss Jane Stoddard, Assistant. 

Intermediate Department — Mrs. Lydia Palmer, Principal. Miss Emily 
S. Palmer, Assistant. 

Primary Department — Miss Mary C. Osgood, Principal. Miss S. C. 
Stoddard, Assistant. 

Second Ward. 

Principal — A. S. Darrow. Miss S. C. Church, Assistant. 

Intermediate Department — Miss L. A. Ingraham, Principal. Miss 
Hetty Fairl^anks, Assistant. 

Primary Department — Miss M. E. Stannard, Principal. Miss E. Green- 
leaf, Assistant. 

District No. 2 — Miss E. H. Langdon, Principal. 

Third Ward. 

Principal— F. C. Pomeroy. Miss E. M. Ross, Assistant. 

Intermediate Department — Geo. McWhorter, Principal. Miss Mary 
J. Gilbert, Assistant. 

Primary Department — Miss S. C. Bushman, Principal. Miss Anna E. 
Mitchell, Assistant. 

* The City Directory, for 1854, makes Rufus King, president, and the Sentinel 
makes Chas. E. Jenkins. The name of A. R. R. Butler, also appears in the 
Directory, upon the finance committee in the school board, which I think is not 
correct, as his name does not appear m the " Roster" as having been a member 
of the board for that year. 



28 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Fourth Ward. 

Principal — A. J. Craig. Miss Sarah Wells, Assistant. 
Intermediate Department — Miss Amanda Elmore, Principal. 
Primary Department — Miss Augusta Richmond, Principal. Miss Mary 
Selleck, Assistant. 

Fifth Ward. 

Principal — James Baker. Miss Mary Jane Wells, Assistant. 

Intermediate Department — ^Irs. Henrietta Baker, Principal. Miss 
N. F. Trowbridge, Assistant. 

Primary Department — 3Iiss Laura M. Pratt, Principal. Miss Louisa 
Ballard, Assistant. 

There were six good substantial brick school buildings, the new one 
(the sixth) being in district number two of the Second ward, north- 
west corner of Fourth and Beaubian streets. The amount paid 
teachers was $7,816.03 ; incidentals, $1,578.60. Total expenses for 
the year, $9,394.63. The highest salary paid was $650, and the 
lowest $200. The secretary's report was similar to those already 
given in volume 3, and is therefore omitted. It was signed by Robert 
Whitehead, secretary, and dated April 4, 1854. 

Fire Department. 
The election for officers of the fire department resulted as follows : 

Chief Engineer — John S. Fillmore. 

First Assistant — D. N. Neiman. Second Assistant — J. C. Goodrich. 
Third Assistant — Linus N. Dewey. 

President Board Trustees — S. S. Daggett. Secretary — William Allen. 
Treasurer— Ed. P. AUis. 

Fire Wardens — First Avard: R. C. Jacks and Frank Devlin. Second 
ward : Avery Hill and Nathan Pereles. Third ward : Morris Louis and 
Theodore Bilty. Fourth Avard: Chas. Bierbach and Charles Duval. 
Fifth ward: S. H. Martin and Nathan B. Brooks. 

Number of firemen in the city 523. 

Supervisors. 

This office was filled in the different wards by the senior aldermen, 
ex-officio. The following were from the towns : 

Wauwatosa — Thos. Tobin. Granville — J. F. Brandt. Milwaukee — 
Henry Fowler. Lake — Andrew Douglass. Greenfield — F. F. Ward. 
Oak Creek — A. Koch. Franklin — J. Eiordan. 

Geo. S. Maliory, chairman. A. Bade, clerk. 

County officers elected the previous November were : 

Sheriff — Herman L. Page. 
Fnder Sheriff— Samuel S. Conover. 

Deputy Sheriffs— William Wedemieyer, John Mitchell, August Seifert, 
William Beck. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 29 

District Attorney — A. K. R. Butler. 

Register of Deeds — Chas. J. Kern. 

Connty Treasurer — Garrett M. Fitzgerald. 

County Surveyor — John Gregory. 

Coroner — Timothy O'Brien. 

Superintendents of Poor— Edward Weisner and Chas. James. 

This election was the entering wedge which split the two factions 
of the democratic party in Milwaukee in twain for a time, and bred 
a " ruction " of no small dimensions, during which the republicans 
looked on with the utmost complacency to see this happy family enjoy 
themselves. It resulted, also, in placing a few men in office, who 
were not long in inaugurating a system of expenditures — to call it by 
no harsher name, the magnitude of which will appear further on — 
that came very near bankrupting the city for all time, and which 
calamity was only averted by the readjustment act of 1862. 

This election, as previously stated, was a hotly contested one 
(something like the one just held, September 15, 1885, on the license 
question), and culminated in a free fight between the Irish and Ger- 
man wings of the democratic party in ihe First ward, during which 
stones and bricks were flying in all directions, several were badly 
hurt, and one man, a JVLr. Johnson, who was coming down Oneida 
street, and wholly unaware of the row, was nearly killed by being 
struck in the face with a brick thrown by an Irishman. The battle 
terminated in a victory for the Germans, who finally drove their 
opponents from the field. This man, Johnston, who was the then 
sexton of Plymouth church, got his revenge at the next Christmas, 
in the following manner : 

Just as the services were commencing on that eventful evening, it 
chanced that a full fledged son of the " gem of the sea," filled with 
benzine, " bologna sausage, Limburger cheese," and other luxuries 
usually found in a beer-saloon, and smelling like a tan-yard, 
came reeling into the church and took a seat in one of the pews, 
where he remained for a short time (the whiskey fairly oozing from 
his mouth the while), after which he pulled himself up by placing 
his hands upon the top of the pew in his front, staggered out into 
the aisle, got upon his knees, crossed himself very devoutly, and 
started for the pulpit, thinking, no doubt, in his fuddled condition, 
that he was in a catholic church, as the arrangement of the light 



30 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

around the pulpit were similar to those around the altar in one of 
that denomination. But in this he was quickly undeceived, for no 
sooner had he fairly started, than Johnson, who had been quietly 
watching his movements from the vestibule door, and to whom, " in- 
jun hke," it made no difference whether it was the one who threw 
the brick or not, so long as it was an Irishman, stepped in, took him 
by the collar, walked him out to the front door, and gave him a 
kick, the reverberation of which could be distinctly heard throughout 
the church, and which sent him roUing down the steps (at that time 
some twenty in number), after which he resumed his place at the vesti- 
bule door, a bland smile illuminating his broad face, and looking as 
innocent as a cat just returning from a milk-steahng expedition, 
while, no doubt, poor Pat finished his devotions in the "watch-house.'' 

It was an amusing scene, and often come to mind when passing 
the church even now. Johnson subsequently removed to Kansas. 

The following appeared in the Sentinel oi March ii, 1854: 

NEW MILITARY COMPANY. 

The undersigned, desirous of forming an independent military com- 
pany composed wholly of Americans, would invite such as are willing 
to join such an organization, to meet at the House of Engine Company 
No. 1, Monday evening next at 1\ p. m. 

A. J. Langworthy, L. N. Dewey, 

Avery Hill, M. A. Kellogg, 

A. D. Guy, M. F. Cross, 

Wm. Griffith, Loren Doney, 

David House, C. A. Buttles, 

E. R. Leland, B. Throop, 

Joel Hood, R. C. Jacks, 

J. C. Dowe, L. M. Tracy, 

Herbert Reed, ' M. F. Riggs. 

The cause for this was the feeling of uneasiness among the native- 
born Americans for their personal safety on " election days," growing 
out of the attack made upon them by the German Democrats of the 
Second Ward the previous November (mentioned in vol. Ill, page 
456) \ and as an offset also to the two military companies already 
organized, (viz.:) The Milwaukee City Rifles, Capt. Henry Miller 
(German), and the Milwaukee City Guards (originally the Sarsfield), 
Capt. John Jennings (Irish). The new organization was called the 
" National Guard." The first officers were: Capt., Rufus King; 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 31 

First Lieut., Andrew J. Langworthy; Second Lieut., Joseph La- 
throp; Third Lieut., J. P. Wheeler.* 

The Vance Brothers. 

Among those who came to our city in 1854, with the intention to 
make it their future home, were Frank L., Charles, Wilson and Da- 
vid Vance, from the village of Sackets, Jefferson County, N. Y,; 
and who upon their arrival at once connected themselves with the 
shipping interest, which in connection with insurance (fire and ma- 
rine) they have followed to the present time with a persistency that 
few have equalled ; and none have excelled, until they have become 
a factor of no small dimension among our business men, a truth, that 
whoever meets David or Frank as a competitor, will not be long in 
finding out; and that in crossing swords with them he has met two 
foemen worthy of his steel, over whom to win a victory is something 
to be proud of. In personal characteristics these two brothers are 
very unhke. Frank L. has a nature almost feminine, is slow to 
anger, and has the bump of caution largely developed. He goes at 
his work with a nonchalance truly wonderful, particularly if a trade 
is in progress ; at which time he approaches his point with a touch 
so velvet-like as to be scarcely felt, while at the same time a bland 
smile will so illuminate his otherwise usually mobile countenance, as 
to win your confidence at once. Although naturally aggressive, he 
never shows the first sign of it. And if he was after your *'scalp" 
(to use a metaphor), he would remove it so deftly, that in place of 
giving pain, you would really feel the more comfortable for it. He 
is a gentleman always, and one of the most tender-hearted and char- 
itable to those in want, that the writer knows, and in the exercise 
of which he is no Pharisee, never wanting his right hand to 
know what his left doeth. David on the contrary is of an entirely 



*This company subsequently (under the name of the '* Light Guard'') made 
a famous record, and upon the breaking out of the rebellion, in 1861, furnished 
several of the officers for the first Wisconsin regiments sent to the front. Promi- 
nent among them was Rufus King, who was made a Brigadier General, John C. 
Starkweather, who was also commissioned as Colonel of the First Regiment, and 
Geo. B. Bingham, who was made Captain of Company A. All of whom made 
a splendid record. The breaking out of the war, however, virtually disbanded 
them, as well as their congeners, the German and Irish companies mentioned 
above, many of whom also went to the war, both as officers and privates. The 
first public parade given by this well remembered company was Nov. 23, 1885. 



32 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

dififerent temperament; he is openly aggressive and goes at his work 
with a force not easily resisted, never using one- half the caution that 
Frank L. will. He represents, in nautical language, the " right 
bower" in the firm of Hibbard & Vance, and when he takes the 
ground, the ship rides in safety. His place is on the" quarter deck," 
while Frank L., if left to choose for himself, would elect to be super- 
cargo, and would make a good one. In political faith they are both 
staunch republicans, and have always, David in particular, taken an 
active part in the political issues of the day. They are for freedom 
and good government always. In religious faith they are liberals. 

Such are the Messrs. Frank L. and David Vance. They have 
reached a high plane socially and commercially, and are fairly 
entitled to be ranked among Milwaukee's most successful business 
men and representative citizens. 

Of Charles Vance the writer can say very little, as his acquaint- 
ance with him was too slight. Physically he was a son of Anak. 
He was over six feet in height and one of the most muscular men 
who ever lived here, and with the exception of Charles Freeman, a 
sailor, known in the olden time as the Michigan giant, I have 
never seen his superior in strength. He was one whom no stranger 
would ever be likely to take any liberties with. He, Hke Frank L., 
was gentle in manner, but if once aroused, look out for trouble. 
He died at 348 Florida street, Oct. 10, 1858, and was buried by the 
Odd Fellows, of which organization he was a prominent member. 

Wilson Vance (who never lived here permanently) died at Denver, 
Colorado, where he had gone on account of his health in August, 

1875- 

A Runaway and Its Result. 

A team belonging to P. C. Hale ran away, April 4, and one of the 
horses, after getting separated from his mate, ran up East Water 
street to Wisconsin, and up Wisconsin street until opposite Edward 
W^eisner's store, 86 Wisconsin, where he ran against an old French- 
man named John Nowel, a servant of the late George D. Dous- 
man,* knocking him down an outside stairway into the basement, 

*Mentioned in Vol. i, p. 121. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 33 

after which he plunged down himself, where he remained over an 
hour before he was extricated. That accident was the cause of Ne- 
wel's death a (e\v weeks later.* 

Milwaukee and Mississippi Railroad Report. 

The Milwaukee SentmeHor June, 1854, contains a lengthy as well 
as an elaborate report of this railroad, from the pen of the then 
superintendent, Edward H. Brodhead, a synopsis of which is here 
given as being a part of the city's history. The report commences 
with a description of the founding, growth and progress of the city, 
historical, topographical and commercial, from the settlement of 
Solomon Juneau in 18 18 to date, after which he proceeds to the 
report proper, as follows : 

The Milwaukee and Mississippi _ Railroad now completed and in 
full operation to Madison, ninet}- miles, with a branch to Janesville, is 
the first Wisconsin railroad to make a showing of earnings as claiming 
our attention. Its general direction is westerly from Milwaukee, and its 
terminus is Prairie du Chien, on the Mississippi, 200 miles distant. We 
present below various statistics, sliowing the times of opening the dif- 
ferent sections, as well as the amount of gross and net earnings from 
year to year since the first rail was laid to the present time. 

The road was first opened to Waukesha, twenty miles, February 25, 
1851, from which to December ?A following the 

Gross earnings were $22,111 60 

Expense of operating 7,596 82 

Net earnings $14,514 78 

Meantime, the work of extension was being carried forward and the 
road opened to Eagle, thirty-six miles, January 22, 1852; to Palmyra, 
forty-two miles, August 2. and to Milton, sixty-two miles, December 1, 
.1852. 

The Southern Wisconsin has been extended to run from Milton through 
Janes\'ille to the Mississippi, of which the first eight miles has been 
built by the Milwaukee and Mississippi, and opened to Janesville, 
seventy miles from Milwaukee, January 6, 1853. 

The annual report of this company shows the gross earnings for the 

year ending December .31, 1852, to amount to f75,.340 90 

Expenses 26,658 63 

Net earnings $48,682 27 

The cost of completing and equipping the road from Milwaukee to 
.Janesville, seventy miles, was $1,364,570, an average of $19,494 per mile. 
During 1853 the work was extended from Milton to and beyond Madi- 
son, bi»t no section was opened during this year. The opening of the 
road to Stoughton, eighteen miles, taking place Januarj"^ 2, 1854, so that 

*This old man had been an attache of the Dousman family for nearly half a 
century. I remember him well. George D. took the kindest care of him after 
he was past labor until he died. He was a regular "courier du hois" of the 
olden time. 



34 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

the statement of earnings for 1853 is for the seventy miles only for that 
entire year, with the exception of two days. 

The annual report for January, 1854, shows that the total earnings for 

1853 were i?226,918 48 

Expenses 87,115 48 

Net earnings 8139,803 00 

We doubt if another road in the country can show a larger rate of in- 
crease of receipts or of operations carried forward than this. The ex- 
penses of operating the road last year were equal to 33^ per cent, of the 
gross earnings.* 

The equipment of the road represented on the 31st of December, 
1853, was as follows : Six passenger cars (coaches), two more build- 
ing; two baggage, two building; 171 freight, forty gravel, thirteen 
hand, eleven locomotives, seven of which were built at the Menomi- 
nee works in this city. Of these (the cars) all the passenger and 
baggage, and nearly all the freight, have been built at the company's 
shops at Waukesha.f 

The road was opened to Madison, ninety-six miles from Milwau- 
kee, May 22, 1854. The earnings for the months of January, Feb- 
ruary and March were $70,115.29, against $27,875.44 in the corre- 
sponding months of 1853, which is a sufficient guaranty, says Mr. 
Brodhead to the stockholders, that their stock will pay 10 per cent, 
under all circumstances and in all times. t 

*The annexed, taken from the Sentinel of February, 1853, is inserted here as a 
historic item. It is from the pen of the then station agent, our present well- 
known fellow-citizen and prominent real estate broker, Ed. Barber. Some 
difference between the monthly receipts then and now: 

PRODUCE FROM WHITEWATER. 

Whitewater, February 5, 1853. 
Mr. Editor : — Below you will find a statement of produce, &c., forwarded from 
this depot, by the M. & M. Railroad, during the week ending the 5th inst., the 
freight amounting in the aggregate to $359 27-iooths: 
3,864 bush wheat. 14 bush flax seed. 

200 bush oats. 3, 218 lbs pork. 

49 bush rye. 182 bbls highwines, weight 60,060 lbs., 

17 bbls flour. and sundry other articles 

5 bbls lard, 1,400 lbs. 

Yours, &c., Edward Barber, Freight Agent. 

fThe above statement furnished by Benjamin H. Lennox, the very popular and 
efficient secretary to General Manager Miller, shows some difference between the 
equipment and earnings of this then pioneer road and its present aggregate lines. 
Now the number of locomotives is 654, there are 8 palace cars, 9 dining, 40 
sleepers, 265 passenger cuaches, 191 mail, baggage and express cars, 15,113 box, 
stock and freight, 4,321 flats and 416 cabooses; earnings, $2,000,000 per month. 

;i;But it didn't though, it soon got a "list to port," to use a nautical phrase, and 
ran down to ji cents on the dollar, and ultimately went on the "brokers' reef." 
As Mr. Brodhead once said, it was built onjaith. But then it was not faith with- 
out works. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 35 

The number of passengers carried in 1853, on the 70 miles in op- 
eration, was 75,975. 67,000 tons of freight were also transported. 
Two passenger and two freight trains having been run daily (Sundays 
excepted), during most of the year. The sum of $20,975 was ex- 
pended for a brick round house at Milwaukee,* and a frame freight 
shed.t 

There was also 14 850 rods of fence put up along the line, at a cost 
of $13, 396. And the freight and passenger stations at Fulton, Stough- 
ton and Madison, costing in all $11,726, were all erected this year. 
The machine and car shops at Waukesha, built in 185 1 (See. Vol. 
3, page 332,), have been sold for $i2,ooo.| 

The following is inserted as a matter of history connected with the 
infancy of this road : 

The Cars. 

A freight train came in yesterday afternoon, towards evening, com- 
posed of eight cars. This was the first train of freight cars that had 
arrived since Thursday last, owing as we before noticed to the heavy 
drifts of snow on the track. On Sunday morning, Mr. Oliu started for 
Janesville, with three engines, and on yesterday morning, Mr. Brod- 
head, the Superintendent, accompanied by Mr. Merrill, started with two 
more engines, one of these brought back the eight cars from the Forest 
House. This leaves us without an Eastern mail since Friday, and solely 
depending on the wires for our news. This is the first Railroad and the 
first time the cars (we believe) have been stopped for any length of time 
in Wisconsin. 

P. S. — A train of fifteen freight cars arrived last evening, and an 
Eastern mail is probably here this morning, as it left Janesville at 6 
p. M. yesterday. 

The following statement from the then Secretary, the late Wm. 
Taintor, shows the amount of capital stock subscribed up to December 
31, 1853, to have been 15,422 shares, representmg $1,542,200, and 
on which there remained unpaid at that date, $511,319.24, almost 
30 per cent. I'he election of officers which occurred on the loth of 
January, resulted in the re-election of the old Board. Those who 
voted at thir: election, were : John Catlin, E. B. Wolcott, Adam E. 
Ray, William H. Barstow, J. Cobb, S. C. Hall, Geo. H, Walker, 



*Pulled down in 1882 to make room for the present mammoth in freight house. 

fThis stood where freight No. 4, the present Western Transportation Company's 
shed, now stands. 

JThe first Machine and Car Shops were erected at Waukesha, and were sold to 
John Nazro, who sold it to the late K. N. Kimball, who converted it into an elevator. 
It was a useless piece of property, and finally burned uninsured. 



36 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Hercules L. Dousman, John Goodrich, S. H. Alden, A. Finch, Jr., 
Ehphalet Cramer, Alex. xMitchell, Hans. Crocker and Edward D. 
Holton. The highest number of votes cast by any one, being 
9863, and the lowest, 7197. 

A dividend of 10 per cent., $160,800, payable in stock, was de- 
clared on the loth of January, leaving a surplus in the Treasury of 
$6,260.14, which was deemed by the then stockholders, as highly 
satisfactory. The exact earnings in 1854 were $464,237.73, an in- 
crease of 104 per cent, over the previous year. 

WiiLLAM E. Goodman. 

This gentleman came to Milwaukee from Oconomowoc in 1854, 
and opened a shop for the sale and putting in of gas fixtures in a 
frame building then standing where Martin's Iron Block now does, 
south-east corner of East Water and Wisconsin streets, where he re- 
mained until March 20, i860, when he with others was driven out 
by the great fire which consumed all that row and the corner on 
Broadway. His loss by this fire was set down at $1,000. From 
this location he removed to 1 1 1 Wisconsin street, where he was again 
driven out by fire the same year, after which he removed to 117 
Wisconsin street, where he remained until 1875, when he removed 
to his present quarters, 442 and 444 East Water street, the Pruesser 
Block, where he is to be found to-day. Coming into the city in the 
infancy of gas-fitting gave Mr. Goodman an advantage over those who 
came later, which he was quick to see, and consequently while he 
was at 1 1 7 Wisconsin street, had built a large business, and was for 
a long time without a competitor of any note. His fair and honor- 
able way of deahng won the confidence and friendship of all the 
community who were in need of his wares, and this post he holds 
to-day. 

In person Mr. Goodman is of medium size, has dark hair and 
eyes, and dark complexion with a sHght florid tinge. He has a 
pleasant voice, a pleasing address, gentle manners, has an unusually 
kind disposition, is very confiding (too much so at times), is a true 
friend, and if an enemy, is a very undemonstrative one. In poHtical 
faith he is a republican, and in religious, a liberal. He is strictly 
honest, very conscientious, a good citizen, and as a business man 
stands well in the community. 



milwaukee under the charter. 87 

Robert C. Spencer. 

This gentleman, so well and favorably known in Milwaukee as a 
business educator, was born at Ashtabula, O., June 22, 1829, and is 
the son of Piatt R. Spencer, noted as the author of the Spencerian 
system of penmanship, now so extensively taught in this country, 
particularly in the West, and who assisted in starting many of the 
early business colleges, in the conducting of which the subject of 
this sketch has made such a famous record. Mr. Spencer's first 
move after the completion of his education was as teacher in the 
commercial college at Buffalo, N. Y., in 185 1, shortly after which he 
was associated with Messrs. Bryant and Stratton in estabhshing what 
was known as the international chain of business colleges, which 
these gentlemen opened in some forty principal cities in the United 
States and Canada. This undertaking not proving to be all that its 
projectors anticipated, the association (mainly through the efforts of 
Mr. Spencer) was dissolved, and Messrs. Bryant and Stratton's con- 
trol over the colleges came to an end. A new organization was then 
formed, under the name of the International Business College Asso- 
ciation, of which Mr. Spencer was president one term, and subse- 
quently the Business Educators' Association of America was formed, 
of which he was president one term. 

The Milwaukee Spencerian Business College, a link of the Bryant 
and Stratton chain, was established September, 1863, R. C. Spencer, 
manager, who, seeing that this was a grand opening for a young 
man, concluded to go it alone. This was a phase in the business 
which led to quite a warfare, ending in 1865, in a dissolution with 
Messrs. Bryant and Stratton, who, in order to checkmate their former 
partner and control the business, purchased the Lionel Lincoln Col- 
lege, which they enlarged and fitted up at a great expense,* and the 
battle raged for a short time. But in the end Messrs. Bryant and 
Stratton were forced to strike their flag and surrender to Mr. Spen- 
cer, who at once merged it in the new Spencerian College. The 
capitulation of Professor Larigo soon followed, since which time he 
has held the fort and is destined to for years to come. 

"■This was in the old J. B. Martin block, southwest corner of East Water and 
Wisconsin streets. 



38 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Mr. Spencer has been a very active as well as a very useful man 
in Milwaukee, always first and foremost in every good work. He is 
aggressive, and whoever thinks to drive him from his position with 
tufts of grass alone is not wise. He has an iron will, and in the 
discussion of all questions of the day in which he may become a 
participant wields a ready pen. He is an able writer, and never lets 
up on anything he undertakes that he believes to be right (and he is 
not likely to undertake anything that is not right), until he has ac- 
complished his end, or its accomplishment found to be an impossi- 
bility. He is quick to see, prompt to act when action is required, 
loves justice, and is perfectly fearless in carrying out his views. He 
has served six years on the board of school commissioners, where 
he was very useful, as he has good executive abilities. He has taken 
a great interest in the phonological society for the improved educa- 
tion of deaf mutes, of which he is the president. He has a fine 
physique, a pleasing address, is not nervous and is always self-poised. 
In religious faith he is a liberal, and in politics a Republican. Such 
is Robert C. Spencer, one of Milwaukee's most active and useful 
citizens, and one who has the respect of all who know him. 

The editor of the Sentinel asks questions and gets answered. 

Cleaning the Streets. — In some places the cleaning of the streets 
has commenced. In East Water street it is progressing with alderman- 
like rapidity, and if followed up in like manner the street will be 
cleaned to Walker's Point bridge by this time next year, certainly not 
before. By-the-by, what has l^ecome of the paving committee? Where 
are they, and what are they doing? Is the street to be paved or not? 
Teamsters and farmers from all parts of our state are anxious to have 
this question answered, and are anxious to have the council establish a 
"ferry" across the "straight cut" at the foot of Wisconsin street, 
crossing East Water street, to prevent their teams having to leap it.* 

In answer to his inquiries he was informed (at least he so states on 
the following day) by Alderman Hadley that the contract for paving 
East Water street, from Wisconsin to Division, h;,d just been let, 
which settled that point, after which he (the editor) gives the whole 
board a scoring for not cleaning lower East Water street, winding up 
his screed as follows : 

But what do the aldermen care ? They can go on with the work of 
grading down the hlutf in the Seventh ward (meaning between Wiscon- 

*What this has reference to I cannot tell, unless it was some ditch for gas or 
sewer pipe. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CttARtER. 39 

sin and Huron streets), where no one lives, and tilling up the streets in 
the marsh, where no one will travel for years to come (he was mistaken 
in that), but have no eyes to see, no ears to hear, no noses to smell, and 
no money wherewith to pay for attending to the wants of the most 
populous thoroughfare in the city. What shall be done with them?* 
The worst we can wish them is that they might be compelled to sit one 
day on a dry goods box on the sidewalk between Butfalo and Chicago 
streets, which pastime would, I think, make them go to work and fix 
that street. For with the heaps of manure, hundreds of dogs running 
at large, hogs on the sidewalk, swill carts crowding the ladies into the 
street, our city is certainly a credit to the aldermen, or the aldermen a 
credit to the city. Which is it ? 

The council took all this abuse mildly. They didn't care a . 

Large Glass. 

The first large pane of glass in the city was placed in the old Van 
Cott corner this year. Here is what the Sentinel %dXA about it: 

A Pane. — That large pane of glass, measuring nine feet eight inches 
by six feet, is now placed in Van Ciitt's window permanently. This will 
make it ahead of any window in town for showing goods. There is 
some talk of repairing the clock on the top of the building for the 
accommodation of the public. 

Great Storm. 

There was a terrible storm this year on the 8th of June, which 
caused a large amount of damage to the shipping. Among the vessels 
driven ashore and otherwise damaged were the schooners Andes, 
Barnum, and Empire, the latter being aground between the piers. 
The steamer Lady Elgin lost her smoke stack. East Water street 
was nearly all under water below Detroit street, and taken as a whole 
it might be considered as a very damp time. 

A Crack Store, 

By Messrs. Jackson & Luxton, at what is now 344 East Water 
street. This store was to 1855, what T. A. Chapman's is to 1885, 
or nearly so. They made a great noise at least, and sold a large 
amount of goods. They were short lived, however, and finally sold 
out and left. I remember these gentlemen well. I thuik Mr. Luxton 
was an Englishman, but am not certain. Their sign was an immense 
" Bee Hive," and their advertisements would beat those of any of our 
present merchants. 

* If this question had been propounded to tlie late Col. Amos Sawyer, he would 
probably have suggested the same remedy that he did for the backsliders in the 
churches, to-wit: "Chalk 'em." 



40 milwaukee under the charter. 

Cheap People's Store. 

This was the way the sign read on the store of Adler & New- 
bouer (Solomon Adler and Goodman Newbouer), No. 19 Spring 
street, now 117 Grand Avenue. 

Query. — Which was correct — a cheap people's store, or a people's 
cheap store? Will Messrs. Adler & Newbouer please rise and 
explain. 

[For the Daily Sentinel. 
TEAMS LEFT UNHITCHED. 

Messrs. Editors : 

In the Sentinel of this morning vou say that since Sunday noon you 
have seen four runaways, and thnik no other city in the Union can 
l)oast of so manv runaways as Milwaukee. Do you think there is an- 
other citv in the'Union where so many horses are allowed to stand in 
the streets without being fastened as in Milwaukee? Do you Ijelieve 
there would be one-fourth the number of runaways if the ordinance 
upon that subject should be enforced? Have you ever reported a case 
where a person has been brought before the Police Court for violating 
that portion of the street ordinance requiring horses to be fastened 
when left in the streets? 

If it is not convenient for vou to answer the above questions perhaps 
the City Marshal will. " Cor-us. 

Milwaukee, August 30. 

[Immediately upon receiving the above communication, we looked 
out of our window and counted no less than six violations of the ordi- 
nance referred to in a single block. Our city authorities must see to it 
that this ordinance is rigidly and impartially enforced. 

Editor Sentinel.] 

The Jail Full. 

Forty criminals were confined in the Milwaukee jail in the month 
of September, 1854, while quite a crowd of applicants for a berth 
were waiting their turn, and it was not a very good month for jails 
either. 

Light House. 

The new light house (the present North Point light) was located 
this year, July 22. 

A Dam Case. 

Among the cases tried before Justice Walworth this year (and their 
name was legion), was one, July 28, brought against John Fertig, 
ostensibly for gambling, the real animus of which, however, was on 
account of the erection of a dam, by the defendant Fertig, across a 
gutter in the Second ward, by which the water was made to flow into 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 41 

complainant's cellar. Some thirty witnesses were called, who spoke 
five different languages, requiring the attendance of as many difterent 
interpreters. The trial occupied the better part of two days, during 
which the idiosyncracies of the witnesses, aided by their counsel, the 
late Judge Foote, or "old Phut," as the Irish called him, and John 
L. Doran (who for deviltry and cunning could discount Foote and 
give him fifty points), nearly drove Mr. Walworth crazy. 

The first day the defendant's wife got a continuation on account 
of the absence of her husband, and on the second, asked one on 
account of being sick herself, in proof of which she produced the 
certificate of Doctor Hambitzer, who turned out to be a sausage 
maker — M. D. meaning meat dealer. The verdict was not guilty. 

Some of the reporters present got ofi" the following stanza upon 
this trial : 

There's many a tiresome case, I ween, 

As well as many a sham case; 
But of all the cases I have seen, 

The d dest is a dam case. 

Milwaukee's Second Great Fire. 

The 24th day of August, 1854, was a day long remembered by 
the citizens of the Cream City. It was an extremely hot day, the 
thermometer indicating 93'' in the shade, when at 12 m. the old 
Court House bell pealed forth the startling intelligence, that a disas- 
trous fire was raging ; and which proved before it was fully under 
control, to be the most disastrous fire which had ever occurred in 
the city up to that time. It put the great fire of April, 1845 (m the 
same locality), as far in the shade, when we consider the difterence 
in the value of the property destroyed, as that exceeded the burning 
of a single dweUing. It commenced, or rather it was set, in the 
hay-loft of the livery barn of S. B. and J. Davis, a frame structure, 
then standing on the north-west corner of Broadway and Huron 
street (now 329 Broadway) ; and such was the rapidity with which 
it spread, that in less than two hours the entire square bounded by 
East Water, Broadway, Michigan and Huron Streets, was in ashes. 
The buildings fronting on East Water Street were with one exception, 
all brick, no veneered building having up to that date l:>een erected, 
notwithstanding which they melted before the surging billows of 



42 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

flame, like so many stacks of hay. Taken by numbers the buildings 
destroyed would stand as follows : 

Commencing with the United States Hotel,* the office to which 
then occupied 130 (old numberingf), we came next to 152, then 
vacant; then 134, Williams Lee's old place, occupied at that time by 
C. SchorstJ as a hat and cap store ; then 136, Jacob Steinhart, cloth- 
ing; 138, by Russell H. Benton, boots and shoes; 140, by Peck & 
Baker (Henry P. Peck and Theophilus L. Baker), dry goods; 142, 
by Rood & Goodrich, jewelry ; 144, by Edward M. Hurd, crockery; 
146, Ly Emanuel M. Shoyer, clothing; 148, by Caleb Wall, auction 
and commission; 150, by Irving D. Hull, as a bookstore; 152, by 
John H. Silkman, hats and caps. (These three last-mentioned were 
frames.) We come now to the E. B. Dickerman block, containing 
three stores, in the first of which we find Samuel Shoyer (clothing), 
David G. Power§ (land office), and Philetus W. Yale (merchant 
tailor), below, and in the second s'ory (the old Odd Fellows' hall) by 
the offices of the Merchants' Mutual Insurance Company, the musi- 
cal society, the law office of George E. H. Day, and others; 160 
was occupied by Wm. S. Welles, clothing, 162 by J. P. Barker, hats 
and caps, and 164 biings us to the corner, in the second story of 
which was the office of the Wisconsin Marine and Fire Insurance 
Company (Alex. Mitchel]||), above which, on the third floor, was the 
office of the Daily Evening Wisco?isin, which brings us to Michigan 
street. 

Turning east on Michigan, we come first to the Exchange block, 
a two-story brick, occupied at that time for offices, among whom was 
that of Jas. Mallory, attorney, Geo. W. Mygatt, architect, Doctor 
Jas. Garner** and others, which brings us to the alley, across which 
stood the old Tremont, a two-story frame, see volume 11^ page 242, 
kept at that time by Dixon S. Pollett, which brings us to Main street 

*For description of this hotel, See Vol. II, page 237. 

fThe present numbering is 330, 332 and so on. 

JI think this name is incorrectly given, as no such name appears in any of the 
old directories. 

^Burned at the Newhall, January 10, 1883. 

||This building had a very high basement story, there being some seven or eight 
steps to ascend in order to reach the Imnk entrance. 

** Shot by Mrs. Wilner, March 2, 1876. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 43 

(Broadway), where, upon turning south, we come first to the Tre- 
mont stables, then to the hvery barns of Messrs. Butler & Bowers, of 
J. Weatherby, and of the United States Hotel barns, which brings us 
to the point where the fire started, where, upon turning west, we 
come first to the meat market of Matthew Broome, and of J. Galla- 
gher, then to the grocery and boarding house of Jas. Dixon, which 
brings us to the alley in rear of the United States Hotel, and then to 
East Water street, crossing which we come to the northwest corner 
of East Water and Huron streets, upon the corner of which was a 
small frame building, erected by G. Myrose, at what is now 329, then 
131 and 133, occupied by Lawrence Herscherde and Frederick 
Schendt, as a confectionery at 131. and by Joseph Carey, at 133, as 
a clothing store, next to which, on the north, was the Jae. H. Rogers' 
block, standing at what is now 3^3, 335 and 337,* occupied at that 
time by Messrs. H. Bosworth & Sons, druggists, at 2^^, John D. 
Gardner & Co., dry goods, at 335, and Messrs. Haney & De Bow, 
hardware, at 337, all of which were consumed. The hardware stock 
of Henry J. Nazro, at 341, the dry goods of Sexton Bros. & Co., at 
347, and the leather stock of G. Pfister, at 349, were also more or less 
damaged by water. 

The books of the Wisconsin Fire and Marine (Alex. Mitchell), 
together with those of the State bank (now the Milwaukee National), 
located at that time at what is now 361 East Water street, which 
building it was thought at one time would burn (as well as most of 
the money), were placed upon the tug Tift, in charge 'of John B. 
Merrill, and taken down the river to a place of safety, until the fire 
was subdued. A second alarm was sounded during the night, on 
account of the breaking out of the flames among the debris of Bos- 
worth &. Son's store, which brought the worn out firemen once more 
to the spot, where they were compelled to work several hours before 
it was finally extinguished. 

Among those who by their coolness and good management saved 
their stock from destruction upon this occasion, was our well known 
pioneer crockery dealer, Franklin J Blair, who at that time occupied 
what is now 359 East Water street, whose stock, on account of its 

* The Jas. H. Rogers building, a cut of which was given in vol. II, page 220. 



44 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

frailness, could not be removed, which he did by closing all the doors 
and windows, and fighting it fi-om the inside by keeping the windows 
wet down with water brought from the river in pails, a very laborious 
as well as dangerous task, as had the fire once got inside nothing 
could have saved them from certain death ; such was the intensity of 
the heat as to crack the glass in several of the windows, but it did not 
fall out. 

For the next three days subsequent to this fire, the city papers 
were filled with the suits against those arrested (ninety-one in all) for 
stealing, as well as the complaints of the lookers on, and who, as 
usual, were profuse in their suggestions as to how it should have been 
handled, as well as in their criticisms as to how it was handled, which 
at last drew a sharp reply from that old veteran fireman, Andrew J. 
Langworthy, after which they were silent. 

The number of buildings destroyed at this fire was thirty-six taken 
as numbers, but as separate buildings there would be twenty-five, 
several of them — the Dickerman, James H. Roger's, the Exchange 
block, and perhaps one or two others — having three numbers each. 

This fire revealed one fact, that most merchants are greatly over- 
estimated as to wealth, the largest stock being that of Messrs. Sexton 
Bros. & Co., $80,000 ; Haney & De Bow, $50,000, and Bosworth 
& Sons, $25,000; William S. Wells, $35,000. The balance were 
comparatively sm.all. A flaming advertisement does not by any 
means establish the fact that the advertiser has got one-half he claims 
to have. 

The total loss was estimated at $500,000, a large amount for those 
days. It footed up at $381,900, and the total insurance to $233,101, 
divided in the following agencies : 

Ellis Worthington, $45,550 ; Allen Wheeler, $50,900 ; William J. 
WhaUng, $83,451; Charles J. Cary, $8,800; Leonard Kennedy, 
$37,400; J. C. Boise, $6,000. 

Rebuilding the Burnt District. 

The smoke of this disastrous conflagration had not fully disap- 
peared before contracts were entered into for the erection of new 
and more substantial ones. Eleven were let within eight days, viz.: 
Three by Messrs. Shepardson and Cross and two by Eliphalet Cram- 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 45 

er, upon the United States hotel site ; and adjoining these, on the 
north, were two for Thomas H. Roddis, and one for Mrs. William 
Pierce, all to be fire proof on the outside. There was also one for 
Lester Sexton* and one for Messrs. Bosworth & Sons, upon their old 
sites. 

The architect for these buildings, with the exception of the one 
for Mrs. Pierce, for which James Douglass was both architect and 
builder, was George W. Mygatt. The contracting mason for the 
Cramer, Roddis and Bosworth buildings was Hiram R. Bond. The 
carpenter for Mr. Cramer was Frederick Y. Horning, for Mr. Rod- 
dis, Walter S. Babcock, and for Messrs. Bosworth & Sons, George 
Southwell, t 

The iron columns for Messrs. Cramer and Roddis were furnished 
by Decker & Saville, and for Bosworth & Sons by James Sheriff. 
The total cost of these eight stores was $50,000. 

In addition to this Mr. Silkman and E. M. Shoyer, both rebuilt. 
The mason for both was John Rycraft, and the carpenters Messrs. 
Spaulding and Foote. The architect was G. W. Mygatt. 

A New Hotel. 

There was an attempt made at this time by a few of our business 
men to erect a mammoth hotel. (See annexed.) 

The New Hotel. — The Wisconsin has the following notice of the new 
hotel which we alluded to the other day: 

"We were yesterday shown, at the room of Mr. Mygatt, architect, a 
draft of the pro})osed new hotel, to be located on the corner of East 
Water and Michigan streets. It is to be 60 feet on East Water street, 
254 on Michigan, and 120 on Main — extending from Water to Main 
street, and forming an L — to be built of brick, witli iron caps and sills, 
six stories high, besides the basement, which will reach about five feet 
above the sidewalk. The lower story is intended for stores, banks, &c. 
The State Bank is to occupy the room on the corner of Water and 
Michigan streets. The ])lan is certainly a good one, and neatly exe- 
cuted. It is to be christened the Shepardson House. We learn that 
there is now about $60,000 subscribed towards defraying the expense of 
its erection. It will require a subscription of only $40,000 more." 

This project all fell through for want of money, and there are 
not probably one hundred persons in the city to-day who remember 



*Built by James Ludington, now Nos. 341 and 343 East Water street — the 
Robert Haney store. 

fWent afterwards to California, . 

3 



46 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

anything about it. The leading spirits in this enterprise were John 
Lockwood, James Ludington, Thos. P. Williams, James B. Cross, C. 
Shepardson, and a few others now forgotten. 

Taxation. 

The following is inserted here as an important comparative item of 
the past with the present : 

To the Mayor and Common Council of the City of Milwaukee : 

In compliance with the provision of the charter, I hereby submit the 
following estimate of the expenditures of the city for the fiscal year 
ending April 1, 1855, as well as the amount necessary to be raised" the 
current year, to defray the expenses and pay the interest coming due 
in 1855 on the citv debt, also the amount required for ward purposes: 
For Citv Purposes, $5,500; Bridges, SI, 200; Tending same, S900; 
Printing", $1,200; Stationery, S250; Pohce, 8600; Elections^ S9C0; Salary 
of City Clerk, $1,500; Comptroller, 32,000; Marshal, $800; Attorney, 
S600; Treasurer, 81,500; Assessor, 8000; Survevor and assistants, $1,500. 
Pohce Justice, 8700; Contingent, 8l,500._ Total, 821,250. 

The increase in the fire department is for a new engine house, new 
hose, and to pay salaries of the foremen of the nine companies, 8300 
each, 82,700, in accordance with an ordinance passed April 6, last, and 
to take effect December 31, 1854, which, with the 82,128.27 wanted for 
repairs, form the basis of the 85,500 asked for. The estimate for 
bridges, to become hereafter a general city charge,* has been raised 
from 600 to 1,200, making in all 824,224, which will require a levy of 2 
mills on the taxable property in the city, jjrovided the amount of real 
estate exhibits no increase over last vear. 

The special tax levied for 1854 was, for the First Ward, 811,162.11; 
Second, $8,305.18; Third, 812,560.38; Fourth, 812,113.21 ; Fifth, 810,305.15, 
and for the Racine street extension, 81,450; land taken for new harbor, 
83,914, and for opening streets in Third, Fourth and Fifth Wards, $2,987; 
total, 852,792.03. 

John B. Edwaeds, City Comptroller. 

August 31, 1854. 

Biographical. 

John B. Edwards, who signed this report, was for many years a 
prominent Democratic pohtician and office-holder in Milwaukee. 
He was naturally a smart man and competent to fill any position in 
the official corps of the city. But he could not bear prosperity, and 
whisky got the upper hand with him, as it has with thousands of 
other good men who mix in political life, and he fell. He was a 
generous fellow, full of ambition. He also unfortunately married a 
woman who helped drag him down — a "stately dame," from New 
York — a Mrs. Vrons. She was one of those women whom it is well 



^Up to this time the Cherry, Chestnut and Oneida street bridges had been kept 
in repair by the First and Third Wards respectively. 





-^1^:^—^ 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 47 

to let alone. That was what was the matter with John B. Edwards. 
He started fair, but fell by the wayside. 

Lewis B. Rock. 

This well known and popular railroad official is a native of 
Canada East, having been born at Drummondsville, in that province, 
on the 13th day of August, 1825, where he remained on a farm until 
nineteen years of age, when, like many others who disliked the 
drudgery as well as the monotony of a granger's hfe, he struck out 
for himself, his first "plant" being at Bristol, N. H., 200 miles from 
the paternal roof (the whole of which had been traversed on foot), 
under the late Sherburne S. Merrill, as an employee in a hotel. 
Here he remained for four years, when, wishing to see more of the 
world than could be learned in a " one-horse " country village, he 
went to Lowell, Mass., where he remained one year, when the gold 
fever took him to Cahfornia. This was in 1850. He remained in 
California until i854,when, tiring of the excitement incidental to the life 
of a gold miner, and learning that his old employer at Bristol was in 
Milwaukee, he started for that city, which he reached on the 20th of 
July, 1854, where he was at once given a position as baggageman by 
Mr. Merrill on the Prairie du Chien division of the present Chicago, 
Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad, which he filled for a little over 
one year, when he was appointed conductor first of a mixed, then of 
a regular passenger train, in which capacity he remained until 1866, 
when he was promoted to the position of assistant superintendent, 
and in 1867 to division superintendent of the Northern division (the 
old La Crosse), which position he holds to-day, having reached a 
plane which not one in five hundred of his fellow-craftsmen ever 
reach. 

Mr. Rock belongs to that class of men who always aim to do 
their whole duty, and who never indulge in any such word as can't ; 
but if beaten at one point, always tries it again, and who always 
wins. Starting at the foot of the ladder, he has climbed steadily up 
until the topmost round is in sight, and stands high among his 
brethren who hold similar positions. He, too, possesses to a goodly 
extent the same quahties necessary to make a good railroad man 
as did his late chief, viz., quickness of decision, executive ability and 



48 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

discipline. He also has the push, and when the storms come (as 
they surely will in the life of every railroad superintendent), he goes 
steadily and systematically at work to clear the track, and never fails 
to accomplish it. 

In person Mr. Rock is rather below the medium, has dark hair, 
dark eyes and dark complexion. He is very nervous, very quick 
motioned, speaks short and quick, is always pleasant, and with old 
acquaintances very social; but when talking business always has the 
necessary amount of dignity requisite for the position he occupies, 
and holds a warm place in the hearts of the employees under his 
control. 

He is now suffering from the effects of overwork, from which let 
us hope that he may speedily recover and fill his present position for 
many years to come. 

The following, taken from the Sentinel of the 14th of August, 
1885, is inserted here as an evidence of the esteem in which Mr. 
Rock is held by his old associates : 

Superintendent Book's Birthday. 

The Milwaukee and Hartford friends and employees of Mr. L. B. 
Rock planned a very pleasant surprise for him in honor of his sixtieth 
birthda}', at Hartford yesterday. After taking dinner at the Alton 
house the guests from Milwaukee were joined by many prominent citi- 
zens, and the party took carriages for Pike lake, the pleasant summer 
residence of Mr. Rock. They were greeted with generous hospitality 
by their host. Mayor Sawyer, of Hartford, delivered an address, 
dwelling upon the enterprise and thrift which has characterized Mr. 
Rock's life. He presented him, on behalf of the employees of the 
Northern division and friends, a beautiful two-seated carriage. In re- 
sponse to Mr. Sawyer's address and in behalf of Mr. Rock, United 
States District Attorney A. K. Delaney thanked the donors and gave 
several pleasing reminiscences in Mr. Rock's life. He stated that L. B. 
Rock began his career as a railroad man as baggageman on the Prairie 
du Chien road in 1854. In 1856 he became a passenger conductor, and 
in 1865 assistant superintendent of the Northern division. Two years 
later he was made superintendent, which office be has continued to 
hold with profit to the companj' and honor to himself. His energy and 
sterling integrity have both materially advanced the interests of the 
road and endeared him to his employees and friends. He said Mr. Rock 
would long be remembered as one of that splendid trio — S. S. Merrill, 
H. C. Atkins and L. B. Rock. 

Remarks were made by Dr. Rogers, after which the party spent some 
time in inspecting the premises. At about half-past 2 o'clock a bounti- 
ful lunch was served at the cottage. Soon after the party returned to 
the station, bearing away happy memories of a pleasant day. 

Among those present were Assistant Superintendent C.P.Utley , Master 
Mechanic J. M. Lowry, Master Car-builder E. W. Kittredge, Mr. and 
Mrs. L. M. Sherman, A. K. Delaney, all of Milwaukee; Mr. and Mrs, 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER, 49 

E. Hansen, Markesan. Among those from Hartford were Mayor Saw- 
yer, Dr. Rogers, Mr. and Mrs. P. W. Sanborn, Mr. and Mrs. J. S. San- 
born, Messrs. J. Liver, D. Jackson and W. Le Count. 

Mr. Rock is ably seconded in the management of his division by 
his lieutenant, Charles P. Utiey, who fills the responsible position of 
assistant, and who is in every way qualified to fill it. Mr. Utley has 
a clear head, runs his trains on time, and seldom makes a mistake. 

Brooke & Cannon's Store Robbed. 

The clothing store of Messrs. Brooke & Cannon, 423 East Water 
street, was robbed of all its contents by a man named Wm. H. 
Thompson. The goods were all recovered by Sheriff Page and Mr. 
Beck, at Thompson's house, 461 Milwaukee street, and Thompson 
sent to the penitentiary. This will be referred to again further on. 

The Cloven Foot Appears. 

As the time for the fall election drew nigh, in 1854, the political 
atmosphere became obscured by clouds. The calling of a republican 
county convention at the court-house, October 21, and the nomina- 
tion of a full county ticket, with Daniel 'N. Neiman for sheriff, Lewis 
M. Gates for register of deeds, Robert P. Cady for clerk of court, 
Clark A. Place for county treasurer, William R. Perry, for clerk 
board of supervisors, Jonathan Crounce for county surveyor, and 
Owen Aldrich for coroner, supplemented by the nomination of that 
veteran legislator William A. Prentiss for the Assembly, against Jas. 
B. Cross, the democratic nominee, roused the ire of the leaders of 
the dominant party, and resulted in the publication in the Daily 
Wisconsin, of October 30, of the following singular correspondence, 
which fully showed the desperate straits to which they were compelled 
to resort in order to retain their grip on the city treasury : 

To William A. Prentiss, and James B. Cross * nominees for the Assembly from 
the First ward of the city of Mihvaukee : 

Sirs : As it has been rumored that you belong to the order of " Know 



* It was supposed at the time, and as the reader will see further on, proved to 
be true, that both of the letters containing the interrogatories, as well as the 
answer to the one addressed to Mr. Cross, were written by himself, as the idea 
of his joining the "Know Nothings'' was too utterly awful for anything, and that 
their being addressed to both was done simply to cover his track, but it was too 
bunglingly done to pass unobserved. 



50 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Nothings,"* recently established in this city, we desire to know the 
trutli of the matter, and for that purpose respectfully request your 
respective answers to the following interrogatories: 

1st. Have you, within the last six months, joined or become a mem- 
ber, partially or fully, of the order commonly known as the "Know 
Nothings?" 

2d. Have you, within the last six months, sworn or taken upon your- 
selves the obligation of an oath to never vote for any Roman Catholic, 
or foreign born citizen, or anything in substance to that effect ? 

od. Have you ever sworn or taken an oath, in substance or effect, 
that in case you were elected to any office which empowered you with 
authority to appoint any one to office, that in such case you will not 
appoint any Roman Catholic or foreign born citizen? 

Your respective answers to the above are required, as soon as conve- 
nient. And in order to give satisfaction, you will please subscribe and 
swear to the same, before some officer of this State, legally qualified to 
administer an oath. 

In case of your refusal to comply with the above requisite, we shall 
be constrained to believe you are a member of the said order and shall 
act accordinglv. 

Milwaukee,"^October .30, 1854. 

F. A. LuENiNG. Geo. Bremer. 

H. C. HiEDIE. H. SCHWARTING. 

F. Trencamp. Titus Ferno. 

Gusta^t; Pfeil. Carl Rattinger. 

F. Neikerk. Simon Levy. 
Milwaukee News will })lease copy. 

Mr. Cross Replies. 

To Messrs. Luening, H. C. Heidie, Bremer, Schivurting and others: 

Gentlemen: I perceive in the Wisconsin of last evening, a communi- 
cation addressed by you to William A. Prentiss and myself^ propounding 
certain interrogatories for us to answer, and in reply to which I will 
answer as follows: 

To the first I would say, that I have not within the last six months, or 
at any time previous, joined or become a member, partiallv or fully, of 
an order commonl)' known as " Know Nothings." 

2. I have not within the last six months, or at any time i:)revious 
solemnly sworn, or taken upon myself, an obligation, or oath, to never 
vote for any Roman Catholic or foreign born citizen, or anything in sub- 
stance to that effect. 

3. I have never sworn, or taken an oath, in substance or effect, that 
if elected to any office which empowered me to appoint any one to 
office, that in such case I would not appoint a Roman Catholic, or foreign 
born citizen. 

In conclusion, permit me to state, that I stand now, where I ever 
have stood, ready and willingto grant to every citizen, whether foreign 



*This organization, which sprung up simultaneously all through the North in 
1854, was gotten up expressly for the purpose of protecting the rights of the 
native-born Americans against the encroachments of their foreign born fellow 
citizens, who, led on by the unscrupulous and mercenary leaders of the democratic 
party, who were to the "manor born," and who seeing the handwriting upon the 
wall foretelling the wrath to come, were attempting to keep possession of the 
government by the help of the foreign vote. Their efforts filled the air with music 
for a while. The " Know Nothings" were to them what " Peaceful Nathan" was 
to the Shawnee Indians. It was their " Jibbinenosey." 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 51 

born or native, the same political rights and pri\'ileges that I claim for 
myself. I proscribe no man on account of his religion, or his want of 
religion, or the circumstances of his birth. And I make no distinction 
in men, except in real merit, believing, as I do, that one man is just as 
good as another, if he demean himself as well in all his relations to his 
fellow men, to society, and to his country. 

Jas. B. Cross. 

To Messrs. Luening, Heidie, Bremer, Schwarting and others. 

Milwaukee, October 31, 1854. 

State of Wisconsin, Milwaukee County, ss. 

On this thirty-first day of October, 1854, personally came before me, 
the above named Jas. B. Cross, and made oath to the above statements 
by him subscribed, as true in substance and in fact. 

Clinton Walworth, Police Justice. 

Mr. Prentiss replied as follows : 

To the Electors of the First Ward of Milwaukee : 

The Wisconsin of Monday evening contains a letter addressed to my- 
self and James B. Cross, nominees, purporting to come from Doctor 
Luening and several other respectable gentlemen, asking our views on 
Know-Nothingism, the Catholic religion, etc., the answers to which are 
required to be made under the solemnities of an oath. 

The authorship of the letter has been traced to James B. Cross him- 
self, one of the persons to whom it was addressed, and the signatures 
thereto were all procured through his instrumentality, all of which can 
be shown by the most indubitable proof.* 

Now, I have no objection to be catechised in relation to my views on 
all matters of public interest, if it is done in decent language and for a 
proper purpose. But I shall never submit to the degradation of verify- 
ing my answers under oath for the sake of obtaining votes for any office 
whatever. And any man who will do so is not, in my judgment, fit to 
represent a free people. If my declarations are not to be taken with- 
out an oath in a case like this, they are not fit to be received with one. 
Lest, however, any person may cavil in the matter, I take this occasion 
to state to you what I now am, together with my antecedents, and you 
may give the statement such credit as my past life will authorize: 

First — ^I am an American citizen, born in the good old state of Massa- 
chusetts, and my father was a surgeon and my grandfather a colonel in 
the army of the Revolution, through which they passed without a stain 
of dishonor. 

Second — I have been a resident of this city for the past eighteen 
years, and mv politics have ever been of the liberal Whig kind. 

Third — I have ever been opposed to the Fugitive Slave Law, conceiv- 
ing it to be unjust as well as inconsistent with the rights and safety 
of the American people. 

Fourth — I am now, and from the beginning have been, opposed to 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, and that if repealed it ab- 
solves the North from all obligations to any compromise heretofore 
made. 

Fifth — I have ever been willing to give to persons of foreign birth all 

*That the letter in question, as well as the interrogatories, were writlen by 
Mr. Cro-iS is undoubtedly true, from the fact that it was published in the IViscon- 
sin in the evening and answered in the Sentinel of the following mornuig, show- 
ing most conclusively that both must have been written at the same time and by 
the same person. 



52 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

the rights of an American citizen whenever they comply with the Con- 
stitution and laws. 

I am in favor of toleration of all denominations of religion, holding 
that man is accountable to God only for the views he may entertain 
upon that subject. 

These are my views on the several subjects referred to, and during 
the coming canvass I shall neither beg nor buy votes, nor demean my- 
self by getting up categorical letters, or by doing any other mean thing 
to get them. And if you have not sufficient confidence in my integrity 
or ability to represent you in the legislature, give your votes for some 
one else and I shall be satisfied. 

William A. Prentiss. 

Milwaukee, November 1, 1884. 

Comment upon these two letters is unnecessary. One, the last, is 
a clear, dignified and manly answer, while that of Mr. Cross shows 
the demagogue all through. 

But the matter was not sufifered to rest here, the interrogators 
themselves being called upon to answer a similar series (under oath) 
as to their religious belief, and whether they were or were not mem- 
bers of the order of infidels. This correspondence, of which only 
a small part has been given, closed with the inquiry from some one 
who wanted to know if this James B. Cross, the Democratic nomi- 
nee for the Assembly from the First Ward, was the same person 
who, in 1843, helped arrest a fugitive slave and carry him back to 
bondage.* " I have been so informed," he says, " by an old settler 
who w^as here at the time (and saw it done). Can anybody furnish 
all the particulars, or will Mr. Cross furnish them himself under 
oath?'' 

The toils were beginning to thicken around James, but he did the 
best thing he could do under the circumstances, /. <?., he kept mum. 

Notwithstanding all this farce and political knavery, so perfectly 
apparent to all who would see, such was the strength of the leaders 
as to elect their ticket and Mr. Cross went to Madison, thus giving 
to the country another illustration, and a forcible one, of the injus- 
tice, as well as the folly of universal suffrage, and the end is not yet. 

Judge H. N. Wells's Famous Durham Cow Case. 

Judge Horatio N. Wells, as the reader has already seen in the 
previous volume, was a man who possessed a large vein of humor, 
and could do things when on the bench that, if attempted by any 

*This was Sunday, April 23. See Vol. II., page 171. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 53 

Other person who ever wore the judicial ermine in Milwaukee, would 
have culminated in an impeachment. He was just the man to give 
the following decision : 

[Milwaukee Sentinel, November 7, 1854.] 
Interesting Law Case — Fair Price foe Milk. 

The scenes in some of our Western courts afford frequently al^umlant 
amusement, and often find their way into the public print.' A charac- 
teristic case occurred not long since in a county court in Wisconsin. 
Judge W. was a man of great humor, strong common sense, a little ex- 
citable, and when aroused expressed his opinion or gave a decision as 
he only could do it. He was a man alter his own kind, and cared little 
for form or precedent. 

The case before him was this: 

A suit had been commenced before a justice of the peace, by one 
man against another, "For that the defendant with force and arms, 
&c., without leave of the plaintiff", milked the plaintiff''s cow, and took 
from her a large quantity of milk, to-wit: about four quarts, to the dam- 
age of plaintiff of fifty dollars, &c." Both parties put themselves 
"upon the country." The plaintiff" proved his case, and the defend- 
ant, in mitigation of damages, proved that milk was worth only four 
cents per quart. The case as usual took a whole day and crowded hard 
upon the night, but it was finally submitted, and the jury after retiring 
and deliberating, returned into court with a verdict for the plaintiff of 
ten dollars damages, for which sum, together with costs, the justice 
rendered judgment. The defendant, dissatisfied with the excessive 
damages, took the case up to the county court, where it must be passed 
upon iDy Judge W. The case was called in its order and ably argued by 
learned counsel for two long hours. Judge W. grew uneasy and fidget \', 
and finally interrupted the plaintiff''s counsel by the information that 
he was ready to give his decision. This, of course, closed all further 
argument, and the decision was rendered. 

By the Court: 

This case comes up on certiorari. It is a small case, but I think it in- 
volves a great principle. The plaintiff sued the defendant for a great 
wrong done in milking his cow and carrying off the milk. There is no 
dispute about the facts, but the defendant claims to reverse the judg- 
ment below, on the ground of excessive damages; that it was proved 
that there were about four quarts of milk taken, and that milk was 
worth only four cents a quart. I shan't reverse the judgment in this 
case. If the statute only gave me power I would increase it. But I 
don't think the statute does. I think the legislature was a pack of 
fools to make the restriction, but I can't remedy that. We must make 
the best we can out of the statute, until our legislature passes an act to 
increase its own capacity. The plaintiff saj's this is his only cow and 
that he is a poor man. If he is a poor man, of course he has a great 
many children, and he wants all the milk he can get for his family. I 
look upon it as a great outrage, and no better than stealing to have 
taken this milk. The plea of the defendant that the judgment should 
be_ reversed because the damages are excessive is a humbug. The 
price of common milk, such as we buy for our tea and coffee of these 
milk peddlers, prol)ably isn't worth over four cents a quart. It is as 
blue as a whetstone. But such milk as the defendant probably got in 
this case, right fresh from the cow, and no water near, was worth a good 
deal more, particularly if she was a Durham. 

Court — How was that plaintiff, was she a Durham ? 

Plaintiff— She was, your Honor. 



54 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Court — Just as I expect-ed. Now I want it understood that you can't 
fool me on milk, and if this defendant or any other man expects to get 
good fresh milk, Durham ccjw's milk, out of this court at four cents a 
quart, he's sucked, that's all. The judgment below is affirmed with 
costs. The court will take a recess for ten minutes. 

Improvements. 

Among the street improvements this year was the paving of East 
Water street, below Wisconsin, with cobble stones, and they are on 
the street yet, it being considered that to take them up when the 
street was raised (i. e.), below Huron street, would cost more than 
they were worth, besides they formed a solid bed for the new tilling. 
The same is true of Broadway, a cobble stone pavement underlies 
the present grade some eight feet ^ put down there in 1857. 

Building Improvements. 

An addition was made to the store on southwest corner of East 
Water and Mason streets this year, by Cyrus D. Davis, to be occu- 
pied by Hunn & Crosby (Walter S. Hunn and Frank J. Crosby), 
grocers. See annexed advertisement, given as a specimen of the 
way they did it in those times : 

There is one Grocery Store in town! 

What: only one? 

Don't go off before we get through. We meant to say there is only 
one Grocery Store in town at which we trade when we want to steal — 

When you — ^what ? 

There you go, half-cocked again. When we want to steal a march on 
our neighbors, and get our Groceries a little better than usual, and that 
store is known as Hunn and Crosby's; did you ever hear of Hunn and 
Crosby ? 

Oh, frequently; associated with golden butter, and sugar cured hams, 
and farina crackers. They are public benefactors; and now I think of 
it, its singular they are not nominated respectively for Mayor and Comp- 
troller! 

Ah, there is only one reason, and that is everybody knows the city 
can't offer them any better office than is that old corner store, forninst 
the AValker House, and where they do more for the city in the way of 
distributing such pu1)lic documents as good cheap Groceries, than can 
forty Aldermen. 

By-the-by, it would be an excellent idea to read their advertisement, 
which you will find in this morning's Sentinel. 

The firm of Hunn & Crosby was a very popular one for many 
years. Mr, Crosby finally retired, and is at present in the general 
ticket office of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad. Mr. 
Hunn went into the milling business at Humboldt, which he sup- 
posed would make him a millionaire in a few days, getting his wheat 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 55 

from the city by transporting it up the river, via the canal, in a small 
steam barge, and the old shed warehouse used by him for that pur- 
pose is yet standing (or was two years ago) on the canal a short 
distance above Cherry street bridge. This business, however, proved 
a failure, and Mr. Hunn went to Manistee, Michigan, where he died 
a few years ago. In person Mr. Hunn was tall and slim. He had 
a nose as was a nose, a powerful voice, was always busy, but not one 
of the kind who get rich, or acquire fame. 

The double brick dwelling, Nos. 530 and 532 Milwaukee street, 
was also erected this year. This was the building spoken of in Vol. 
I, page 45, as having been erected upon the site of the old " cabbage 
hollow" house. This was a fine house when built, and in fact it is 
to-day. The master mason was John Rycraft. The master car- 
penters were Simeon and Walter Babcock. 

The Second Presbyterian church, standing upon the northwest 
corner of Milwaukee and Martin streets, was erected this year. 

An additional tenement was added to J. Ry craft's block, south- 
west corner of Milwaukee and Martin streets, yet standing. 

A brick dwelling, now 493 Milwaukee street, was also erected this 
year by John Shadbolt. This dwelling was subsequently the resi- 
dence of Levi H. Kellogg,' who sold it to Mrs. Elisha Eldred, from 
whom It passed to Mrs. Geo. Towle. This house is to-day one of 
the best on the street. There are others more ornate, but no better 
built or more convenient than this.* 

The present brick residence of Doctor McNamara, southeast cor- 
ner of Main and Johnson streets, was also built this year by the late 
Francis Charnley. 

Also the house in Ludwig's garden, head of Milwaukee street. 
This last named house was a great resort for the Germans on Sunday 
for many years. 

Joseph Gary rebuilt his homestead, northwest corner of Oneida 
and Jefferson streets, D. D. Sibley was the architect and contractor. 

The residence of Hon. W. P. Lyxide, northeast corner of Mason 

* This property, with the vacant lot adjoining on the south, was purchased the 
present year (1884) by James Conroy, Milwaukee's well known and popular con- 
fectioner, who has remodeled 493, and erected a handsome block on the adjoining 
lot, which will add much to the beauty of that already beautiful and popular street. 
May his success in this enterprise, as well as in business, be all that he can desire. 



56 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

and Jackson, was rebuilt and enlarged this year, by the Messrs. 
Shadbolt & Spaulding. This property is now owned by Michael 
Engelmann. 

The old Riverious P. Elmore residence, on Jackson street, was also 
rebuilt this year. This property has finally passed into the hands of 
Emil Wieskirk, who has removed it to the lot adjoining on the south 
and rebuilt or remodeled it, and erected a handsome double brick 
upon its former site. This property is now known as No. 586, and 
the new as 588 and 590 Jackson street. 

The present Protestant Orphan Asylum, head of Division street 
(brick), was erected this year by the late David P. Hull.* 

The present residence of Wm. H. Metcalf, northwest corner of 
Van Buren and Division streets, considered at the time as the best 
finished house in the city (and is among the finest to-day), was built 
this year. This house was built by the day. The master builder 
being the late Abel Sperry, one of the finest mechanics who ever 
came to the city, and who often comes to mind in memory's eye. 

The present residence of Judson A. Roundy, Esq., southwest corner 
of Marshall and Biddle streets, was commenced this year by William 
P. Young, who spent about $20,000 on it. He sold it to Carlise D. 
Cook, of the firm of Cook & Sherwin (Rodney Sherwin), railroad 
contractors, who invested $20,000 more upon it, after which it went 
into the hands of Edwin Roddis, who spent about $30,000 more, 
after which it went to a Mr. Wallace, of New York city, on a mort- 
gage, and who sold it to Mr. Roundy for $23,000, and who has 
expended about $20,000 more in completing it. It is an elegant 
house, and one of the most elaborately finished in the West. 

The old Ralph Johnson warehouse (burnt a few years ago) was 
built this year. 



* This building was erected with the avowed purpose of preventing the farther 
extension of a street along the Bluff, as talked of at the time, and stood in a half 
finished condition for several years, after which it was purchased by Mr. Chas. L. 
Rice, the then master mechanic at the North Milwaukee shops, who finished and 
sold it to Wallace H. Pratt, by whom it was occupied for a lew years, when it was 
purchased by the Trustees of the Protestant Orphan Asylum, by whom it is owned 
to-day. Mr. Pratt also fixed the face of the Bluff, in front of it, into a park, by 
"tile draining," and planting it with trees. And it was his success with this 
experiment that gave the key and led to the construction of the present Juneau 
Park. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 67 

Geo. Burnham also built a store on the northwest corner of East 
Water and Buffalo streets, pulled down in 1882 to make room for the 
new block erected by Messrs. GoU & Frank. Mr. Burnham's store 
was 54 by 95 feet. Master carpenter, R. C. Jacks. Mason, Thos. 
Lee. Painter, Jas. Murray. Architect. G. W. Mygatt. 

The old J. N. Bonesteel residence, now the homestead of Hon. 
John H. Van Dyke, on the southeast corner of Marshall and Biddle 
streets, was erected this year at a cost of $8,000. He sold it to the 
late Doctor Lemuel VV. Weeks for $20,000, and he to Mr. Van 
Dyke. This house has been remodeled during the past year. 

The Timothy H. Goodrich residence, southeast corner of Martin 
and Astor streets, was also erected at a cost of $8,000. 

A frame by Charles Alfter on Prospect avenue, exact locality for- 
gotten. 

The Messrs. Mack Bros., also erected the present No. 397 East 
Water street, this year, and in order to show what was considered a 
fine store in those days, I will insert the following sketch of it taken 
from the Se7tttftel, and is from the pen of Rufus King: 

The building is 100 feet deep, 20 feet wide, and 55 feet high; it 
consists of a basement, store and three upper stories. The basement 
is finished with vaults for receiving and storing coal, wood, etc., and 
is lighted with Hyatt's illuminating tiles. It is thoroughly finished for 
wholesaling domestic goods. The first floor is to be occupied as a 
retail dry goods store, and is finished, not only in a beautiful, but 
substantial manner. The ceiling is plastered with stucco work ; the 
shelves painted rosewood, and the counters mahogany, with circu- 
lating silk velvet cushion stools. The entrance door has two show 
windows of French plate glass, of the largest and costHest size. The 
glass of the first story alone costing $800, and patent rolling iron 
shutters, which are rolled up like lattice work by a crank in the wall, 
which makes it very convenient for those having to close or open the 
establishment. They were manufactured by D. D. Badger & Co., of 
New York. The room is lighted with gas burners of a most elegant 
design from the manufactory of Messrs. Archer & Warner of Phila- 
delphia. The upper story is to be used for a carpet and shawl room, 
and the stories above are to be used for wholesaling dry goods. 

The house is heated by one of Walker's hot-air furnaces, which 



58 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

gives a pleasant temperature to all of the rooms, there being no 
change from heat to cold as you pass from one department of trade 
to another. There is a skylight, which gives every room an airy, 
light and pleasant appearance. The skylight is surrounded with 
beautiful iron raihngs made for the purpose, of the manufacture of 
Wilson & Co. The windows are French, with French fastenings. 
The stairs leading from one story to the other are of a high finish, 
with handsome black walnut railings leading from basement to attic. 
The roof is one of Warren's composition, of fire-proof character, 
calculated to hold out against fire or water, and very enduring. 

Mr. Schwartz drew the plan of the building, and since his death 
Mr. Mygatt has superintended the work. Mr. Rheude, a German 
mechanic well skilled in his art, does the carpenter work, Mr. Col- 
lingbourne done the painting, Mr. Ryecraft the mason work, and 
Messrs. Decker & Seville the iron castings. The whole cost of the 
building is $14,000. 

New Warehouse. 

A new warehouse (the present brick veneered one on the northwest 
corner of South Water and Clinton streets) was built this year by 
Daniel Newhall. The contractors were Messrs. Martin & Rugee. 
Cost, $17,000. 

The first wheat was put into it October 10; its capacity was 160,- 
000 bushels. It is now the property of Ed. D. Holton, and used for 
purposes of merchandise only. 

But the best store was the Nazro building, now known as Nos. 
319,321 and 323 East Water street ; Ceorge W. Mygatt, architect. 
The contracting mason was H. R. Bond; the master carpenter was 
Edwin Palmer. The whole cost, including the lots, was $85,000. 
It had a frontage of 60 feet on East Water street, a depth of 120, 
and a height of four stories. The cornice, columns and capitals 
were of the Corinthian order, the sills of windows and doors of cast 
iron ; the second story windows have iron pedestals ; anties and 
capitals, with key stone and circular heads, all of iron. The top of 
the front walls have massive cast iron cornices, with three feet pro- 
jection, supported by ten heavy carved trusses. The windows (the 
frames of which were of iron), all have patent roller shutters. The 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 59 

foundation consisted of i, coo piles, upon which were i lo cords of stone. 
The girders were of iron, resting upon iron pillars. Seven hundred 
thousand brick were used in its construction, 300,000 feet of oak 
and pine lumber; the gross weight of the iron used was 400,000 
pounds, the windows (including skylights) contained 4,000 super- 
ficial feet of glass. Such is a brief sketch of this famous building. 
This store in which so much money has been made (and lost) was 
purchased in 1882 by Frederick Layton for $32,000, less than one- 
half its original cost, who has remodeled it at a cost of $10,000, 
making it nearly as strong as when first built. 

Mill Built. 

The present Reliance mill, on West Water, corner of Fowler, now 
the property of the Messrs. Manegold, was built this year by George 
Burnham. This mill has had a varied history. It was operated by 
Miles & Chapin — Fred. B. Miles and Emery D. Chapin — who lost 
a large amount of money in it. It was subsequently purchased by 
|as. B. Martin, who ran it himself for a number of years, and from 
whose heirs it was purchased by its present owners. It has been 
remodeled. 

Commercial Statistics, 

There was a notable increase in business, both in imports and ex- 
ports, in 1854 over 1853. The number of steamers and sail vessels 
landing here during the season of navigation was 2,680; number of 
passengers landed, 40,030. Our imports were $3,979,296, an in- 
crease of $1,612,296 over 1853, and of vessel arrivals of 1,197, and 
but for the early setting in of winter, in consequence of which a 
large number of coal and iron (railroad) laden vessels were detained 
in the ice, the receipts would have been much larger. The cash 
value of our exports was $5,000,000. 

The comparative increase in the shipments of leading articles, /. e., 

wheat, barley, oats, corn and rye, were, from 1850 to and including 

1854, as follows: 

Bush. 

1850 320,540 

1851 812,245 

1852 1,071,78(3 

1853 ], 691 ,231 



1854 3,230,0 



/ i 



60 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

It will be seen the increase from 185 1 to 1852 was extremely- 
rapid. 

First snow fell November 4. 

River partially closed December 5, and fully December 9, but 
opened again. (See next chapter.) 

The number of vessels owned in Milwaukee in 1854 was 43; ton- 
nage, 6,942. One, the bark Badger State, was of 491 tons; four, 
the D. Ferguson, Helfenstein, Robert Burns and brig Hutchinson, 
were over 300; eight were over 200, sixteen were over 100, and the 
balance under. 

Corrections. 

In Vol. I., pages 20 and 42, it is stated that the ofhce of Albert 
Fowler — a cut of which is given in Vol. III., page 38 — was erected 
in the summer of 1834. It is also mentioned in Vol. II., page 307, 
as having been used for school purposes in 1834 by Doctor James 
Heth. This date has been considered as the correct one until recent 
investigations have placed its erection in May, 1835. It is proper 
to say that the latter date is given by Hon. Horace Chase, and this 
correction is made at his request. 

In Vol. II., page 238, it was stated, when speaking of the old 
United States Hotel, that the J. B. Cross block erected upon its site 
was burned in 1861. This date should be December 31, 1859. 

On page 42, Vol. I., in foot-note, the writer, when speaking of the 
erection of the old Juneau store, northwest corner of East Water 
and Wisconsin streets (now known as No. 401 East Water), omitted 
to state that it was erected in 1835. 

This subject was referred to again in Vol. III., page 333, where 
correct date was given. The contractor for this building was the 
late Deacon Samuel Brown. And as there has always been some 
dispute as to the exact location of Mr. Juneau's log dwelling and 
storehouse for furs and supplies, I will say that during a conversation 
held February 26, 1886, with Mr. Charles James, of Wauwatosa, who 
worked upon this store, he informed the writer that so near was this 
log dwelhng to the store that when erecting his scaffold, in August, 
1835, for the purpose of clapboarding the front, that one end of the 
bracket for supporting the same was nailed to the log dwelling and 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 61 

the other end upon the store, they being not over six or seven feet 
apart. 

This would bring the west side or river front of the log dwelling 
to the center of the present sidewalk upon the west side of East 
Water street, just where Mr. James states that it did come, and the 
north end exactly (or nearly so) on a line with that of the new store. 
The entrance to this dwelling (/. e., the log house) was upon the 
west or river side. The chimney was upon the north end. The 
whole structure was enclosed with pickets, as seen in the cut. 

The location he gives the trading-house or store, about twenty -five 
feet north of the new building, would place it upon the ground now 
occupied by the Matthews Bros, furniture store, at what is now (lot 5, 
block 2, Seventh ward) Nos. 407, 409 and 411 East Water street 
(the old Pixley lot). This statement is confirmed by Mrs. Theresa 
Juneau White and Mrs. Harriet Juneau Fox, who were both born in 
the old log house, and who also state in addition that the log store 
consisted of three apartments, the west end being for the storage of 
blankets, etc., the middle for furs, and the east end for liquors,* and 
that it (the storehouse) projected easterly into what is now East 
Water street, much further (as seen in the diagram) than did the 
dweUing. 

They also state that there was another log house connected with 
Mr. Juneau's estabHshment, viz., the one occupied for several years 
prior to 1833 by Jean Baptiste Le Tendree (Le Clere's old place), 
and which, although mentioned in Vol. III., page 478, its location 
not given, stood upon lot 6, block 2, Seventh ward, and was the 
quarters for the employees, both French and " metis " (half-breeds), 
when not away upon their trips. The ruins of this cabin were re- 
moved in 1835 to make room for the new warehouse. 

This cabin had two entrances, one upon the west end and one 
upon the south or Wisconsin street side. The annexed diagram was 
made at their dictation, and to the correctness of which they both 
certify, except as to the trees (oaks) seen along the banks of the 



*! remember seeing a notice in one of the city papers a few years ago of the 
foundation logs of this pioneer fur store being struck by some woricman wiiile 
engaged in excavating a trench in East Water street for gas or water pipe, I have 
forgotten which. They were in a semi-petrified condition. 



62 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 




river,* (which they think were not there.) to be a correct representa- 
tion of the Httle hamlet as it appeared from 1825 to 1833. 

At the left, upon the bank of the river, is seen the cabin (Le Ten- 
dree's), in front of which is the cabin used as a hennery, then comes 
the dwelling, and to the north of that the log storehouse, while still 
further north is seen the hill where the Kirby house now stands 
Cut No. 2 shows the exact location of the log dwelling as to its 
proximity to the new warehouse, t as given by Charles James. 

As a proof that this cabin was there in 1833, I will say that in a 
conversation held with Mrs. Theresa Juneau White, March 15, 1886, 
she stated to the writer that she recollected standing at the west end 
of this cabin in the early part of the winter of 1833-34 while wit- 
nessing the rescue of Albert Fowler (who had broken through the 
ice while attempting to cross from the west side) by the Indians, from 
drowning. This rescue was effected by one of the Indians crawhng 
out upon the ice until near enough for Mr. Fowler to grasp the han- 
dle of a tomahawk, which was extended to him by the Indian, who 
then commenced backing towards the shore, Mr. F. breaking the 



*Placed there by the artist to form a slight background to the picture, and as a 
relief to the dreariness it would otherwise have, for which the writer (with this 
explanation) has thought best to let them remain. The hills seen in the distance 
are in the present Fourth, Second and Sixth wards. 

fThe new warehouse occupied the same site as the present Ludington store, 
viz., Nos. 401 and 403 East Water, present numbers. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



63 



MASON STREET. 



W 
>■ 

CO 
H 

W 

CO 

H 




wisconsin street. 
Cut No. 2. 



64 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

ice (which was not strong enough to bear the weight of both) as 
they proceeded until they neared the shore, when those standing on 
the bank seized the one upon the ice by the legs and drew them to 
the land. But it was a close call for Mr. Fowler. 

Vol. III., page i8. There is an omission in a foot-note, when 
speaking of the framing of the first Constitution, of the following 
words: After the word that (at the bottom of the page), it should 
read — " was submitted to the people in April. The members from 
Milwaukee were D. A. J. Upham," etc. This was an error of the 
printer. 

Page 45, Vol. III., when speaking of the Washington Guards 
going to Racine to attend the execution of David Bonham, the date 
should have been the i ith December. See Secretary of State's cer- 
tificate, page 46. 

Page S9, Vol. III. When speaking of the election, held Septem- 
ber 6th, the names of those elected to the second Constitutional 
convention should have been given — as they were elected at that 
time. 

On page 268, Vol. III., when speaking of the purchase of Solomon 
Juneau's portrait, the price, $40, should have been $400. This was 
a typographical error. And in place of Robinson as the painter, it 
should have read Samuel M. Brookes. 

Page 347, Vol. III. The paragraph (this was followed by a pro- 
clamation), should have appeared directly underneath the return of 
the special tax bill, on page 348, to which it alone has reference. 

Page 303, Vol. III. Thos. L. Baker should be Theophilus L. 

Page 134, Vol. III. Jas. Magee should be Jas. Magie. 

On page 123, Vol. II. Calvin J. Ripley should have been Frank- 
lin Ripley, Jr. 

Page 331, Vol. III., 7th line from top. For Horace Chase read 
Doctor Enoch Chase. 

Vol. III., page 472. The name of L. G. Loomis was given as E. 
G. This was a typographical error, as it was given in manuscript. as 
L. G., which is correct. 

Page 352, Vol. III. When speaking of the old Lansing Bonnell 
homestead, now the residence of William H. Wolf- — for Milwaukee, 
read Marshall street. Also, of the Nazro building — the one spoken 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 65 

of there was not the present Nos. 321 and 323 East Water street, but 
the store now No. 337 East Water street, which was also built by Mr. 
Nazro. 

Vol. III., page 121. For J. McCoUum read J. B. Zander, for 
justice. 

Vol. I., page 20. When speaking of the first land sale at Green 
Bay, in 1835 (in foot note), the date was given as October. It should 
have been August 31, I think. 

Page 158, Vol. III. Alderman — for H. N. Shumway read C. N. 
Shumway. 

Vol. III., page 343. For assessor — for Chas. Lee read Chas. Lane. 

Vol. III., page 431. For M. Delany read Chas. H. Orton. 

Vol. III., page 230. When speaking of the erection of No. 418 
East Water street, it was stated that it was erected by John Thomps- 
sen. It should be by Henry Wedderhoff. 

Vol. III., page 155. (Financial Exhibit.) For 1884 read 1848. 
This is a typographical error. 

In Vol. III., page 76. When speaking of the late John B. Smith, 
it was stated that he came in 1845. He came first in 1842, went to 
Michigan, and returned for good in 1845. 

Vol. II., page 96. Sketch of Wm. P. Lynde. When speaking 
of his being delegate to Congress, the date 1841, should be 1847. 
This was a misprint. 

Vol. II., page 220. The date of the burning of the Rogers block 
was given as August 17th. It should be August 24, 1854. 

In Vol. II., page 147, it was stated that the first tannery was 
erected on Clybourn street, between Thirteenth and Fourteenth 
streets, in what was then a great ravine, by Daniel Phelps. This has 
been found to be incorrect, and that one had been erected in 1841, 
upon the water power, about four rods north of the present Empire 
mill, by John Trumbull, now a resident of Tabor, Racine county, 
and who informs the writer that he suppHed Mr. Phelps with bark to 
start with in 1842, which I think justly entitles Mr. Trumbull to the 
honor of erecting the first tannery in Milwaukee. He also claims 
to have shipped, in 1844, the first wool ever sent East from Milwaukee. 
The wool was packed in the Holton warehouse on West Water street. 
Mr. Trumbull takes great interest in the early history of Wisconsin, 



66 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

and particularly of Milwaukee, and is one of the landmarks. He is 
a lineal descendant of the Trumbull family, whose sons have figured 
so extensively in the early histoiy of Connecticut. 

Removals. 

The Old Hospital. — The building which formerly stood at the 
southeast corner of Oneida and Jackson streets, and was used for a 
long time as a hospital by the Sisters of Charity, has been removed 
to the Third ward, having been purchased by Mr. M. Page, for a 
tavern. Many a tale could that old building tell of suffering, and 
patient, careful watching by the benevolent Sisters ; the subjects of 
whose care were of every religious faith, and of no faith. As this 
was the only hospital in the city, all who needed care and were 
unable to pay for it, were taken there ; and besides the sick, and 
wounded, and ra\ ing among our citizens generally, who were the 
subjects of the Sisters' care, the sick sailors have always been taken 
to this hospital. The building, in its new location, southwest corner 
Jefferson and Detroit streets,* will witness far different scenes, but 
the Sisters are still engaged in their kindly mission, at the hospital on 
Jefferson street. 

Vol. n., page 137. When speaking of the town election, the 
words " which went into operation this year," are an interpolation, as 
the town was organized September 19, 1835, as has been already 
seen. Vol. I., page 29 (given there erroneously as the 17th). 

* This, as stated on page 42, Vol. III., was the old school building of Low & 
McGregor. It was also there stated that it burned in 1862. This date the author 
has since found to be incorrect. It was burned December 7, 1857. 



CHAPTER II. 

1855- 

Opening Address — Legislature — Report of Jailor — Fire — The Ground Rebuilt 
Upon — Business Status — Badger Iron Works — Cummings & Goodrich, Sketch 
— Police Court — Municipal — Spring Elections — The Mayor's Prociamaiion — 
General King's Comments — Mr. Kilbourn's Replies — Result of Election — 
General Rufus King, Sketch — Public Schools — A Know-Nothing on the 
Jury — Uncle Sam's Jurors — Journeymen Carpenter's Meeting — Tiie Hog 
Nuisance — A Call for the Marshal— He Replies — Michael Bodden, Sketch — 
William Grant Fitch, Sketch — Charles Ray, Sketch — John J. Eves — Jabez 
Smith — Sebastopol Not Taken — Menlzel & Sione, Sketch — Eavesdropping — 
Opening 1 ,ake Shore Railroad — Street Improvements — A Fatal Mistake — 
Milwaukee Locomotive Works — Seaman & Wing Cabinet— Robert Eliot, 
Sketch — J. M. Holmes. Sketch — Church Going — A Tremendous Shower — 
Mrs. Epps Saves the Sugar — Board of Fire Underwriters Formed — Soon 
Dies — An Excitmg Runaway — A Bit of a Shindy — Police Jottings — Census 
of Milwaukee — Census of County — Bay State Foundry — John S. Harris, 
Sketch—William Goodenough— William Walton — The Reliance Works, Sketch 
—Edward P. Allis, Sketch— The Ice Bear— Arthur Bates, Sketch— E. D. Hol- 
ton Struck with a Slungshot — Appointment of a Night Watch — Marine Dis- 
asters — How Is This for High ? — The Sag Nicht Organized — Its Results — 
Herman C. Adams Shot — Organization of the Corn Exchange — Cremation — 
First Snowfall —Death of the General — Uncle Wm. E. Cramer Gets Sarah- 
naded — George Cogswell, .Sketch — The Evistons — Bridge Superintendent Ap- 
pointed — A Bjd Boy — The Old Light- House Sold — Sam Shoyer Gets Left — 
Improvements — The Messrs. Christian and Gustav Preusser, Sketch — Mayor 
Cross' New Block — Citv Valuation — Statistics. 

The winter of 1854-55 was as a whole a very pleasant one, the 
first snowfall occurring on the 4th of November. This, however, all 
disappeared in a few hours. Our beautiful river was first coated 
with ice on the 20th,* lasting, however, only two days, and again on 
the 27th, which also lasted but three days. It formed again Decem- 

*There have been six winters in Wisconsin which might properly be termed 
mild since its settlement, viz., 1835-36, 1839-40, 1844-45, 1854-55, 1857-58, 
and 1877-78, during nearly all of wfiich there was very little snow or ice either in 
the lake or river, and from the present filthy condition of the latter none can be 
expected from this time on, neither do I remember of but one winter, viz., that 
of 1874-75 (see Vol. II., page 227), when the lake has been so nearly frozen over 
as it was the present (1884-85), during which navigation has been practically sus- 
pended ; three of the propellers engaged in the transportation of goods from Mil- 
waukee to Grand Haven and other Michigan ports having just been released from 
a two months' imprisonment in the ice, and one, the Michigan, having gone to 
the bottom. It has been the hardest winter without exception for navigation ever 
known on the lakes. 



68 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

ber 5, two inches in thickness, and on the loth the boys were skating. 
This continued only five days, after which it remained open until the 
19th, when it skimmed over again and closed solid on the 27th, and 
so remamed until January 7, dunng which time it was covered from 
the Oneida street bridge to Huron street with the youth of both 
sexes enjoying the fine skating, the acrobatic feats of some of the 
performers being of the highest order, while those of some not so 
expert were of a lower order (occasionally).* 

The 7th of January, however, put an end to it all by a furious 
rainstorm, lasting twenty-four hours, which sent the ice out into the 
lake. Neither did it form again until the 13th, when the frost-king 
laid his " gelid hand " upon us in earnest for a few days, after which 
it moderated again, and with the exception of now and then a cold 
snap, remained pleasant the entire winter. 

The sleighing, however, that winter was the finest we had enjoyed 
for the twelve previous years. The snow fell on the 23d of January 
eight inches in depth, giving us six weeks of that healthful enjoy- 
ment, which, in connection with the usual round of balls at Gard- 
ner's hall,t where the votaries of Terpsichore kept time to the music 
of Father Hess'| quadrille band during the long winter nights, caused 
the time to pass rapidly away until April 5, when the ice left the 
river, and May 2 brought us the first boat from below, the schooner 
Republic, and spring had come. 

In a business way the previous year had been a prosperous one 
commercially as well as in growth, the fine fall weather permitting of 
out-door work up to and well into December, which gave the own- 
ers of the burnt district a chance to complete the new buildings in 
process of erection in that locafity. 



*There were some very fine " skatists " of both sexes in Milwaukee in those 
days, and much interest was manifested ir; the exercise when the ice was good. 

fNo building has ever been erected in our city since its foundations were laid 
for the purposes of amusement which has been as popular, or where so much en- 
joyment was obtained, as at Gardner's hall. It was a notable place, and the remem- 
brance of it will not fade from the minds of the early Milwaukeeans while life re- 
mains. It was their lecture room, opera house, concert and dance hall combined 
in one. Sic transit. 

I Adam V. Hess, who is still living and whose quadrille band was very popular with 
the dancing portion of our community for many years. Mr. Hess, who has now 
retired from the business, resides at 195 Greenbush street. 



milwaukee under the charter. 69 

Legislative. 

The members from this city and county in 1855, elected the pre- 
vious November, were, to the senate, Jackson Hadley and Edward 
Mc Garry. 

Assembly — James B. Cross, Jasper Vliet, Edward O'Neill, Ira E. 
Goodall, Edwin De Wolf, John Ruan, Peter Lavies, Reuben Chase 
and Frederick Moscowitt. 

This legislature convened January 10 and adjourned April 2, 

1855- 
Charles C. Sholes, of Kenosha, speaker of the house. 

The business of the new year was opened with the usual reports, 
both financial and statistical, from the secretaries of the various cor- 
porations, as well as of the city functionaries, prominent among whom 
was the county jailor, who also presented a report of the business 
done in his department, in which the number of arrests for 1854 are 
put down at 449, showing most conclusively that the business of his 
department had not fallen off materially during the year. Of this 
number, 158 were for violation of the wood ordinances; 14 were for 
obstructing sidewalks (these were merchants), and leaving teams 
unhitched; 44 were for violation of the liquor law; 10 were for 
gambling ; 40 were for nuisance ; 8 for violation of the bridge ordi- 
nance, and 18 for that of weights and measures. Upon which the 
whole amount of fines collected was $344.00, A sorry amount to 
receive for so much trouble. But such is usually the outcome of 
municipal " skullduggery." A cent goes in where ten go out. The 
total cost of these arrests, including the time and pay of the officials 
who participated in them, could not have been less than $5.00 for 
each case, making a total of $2,245.00, while the amount received 
was the munificent sum of 50 cents. Comment is unnecessary upon 
all such municipal stupidity, for if any of these parties arrested were 
guilty of the offense charged, they should have been made to pay 
the actual cost of such arrest. But if innocent, then the party caus- 
ing the arrest should certainly have been made to foot the bill. 

But €71 resume. The status of our business firms, as to location, 
was nearly as in 1853 and '54, very few changes having been made, 
except those caused by the fire of the previous August, which of 
course caused quite a number. There were, however, some new 



70 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

enterprises started, among which was the new boiler manufactory of 
Messrs. Cummings & Goodrich (John Cummings and John C. Good- 
rich), known as the Badger Iron Works, situated on the southeast 
corner of Main (Broadway) and Chicago streets.* 

Biographical. 

John Cummings was born at Hamburg, Erie County, N. Y., July 
22, 1811, and immigrated to Milwaukee m 1846, where he quickly 
came to the front as a first class mechanic (i. e.), a worker in iron, 
and was for many years one of the most prominent in that ancient 
" guild." He is a man of indomitable will, great perseverance, and 
will cling to a project : fler most men would have abandoned it as 
impracticable, there being no such word as can't in his vocabulary. 
He has also been quite prominent as a local politician, and was a 
hard man to buck against in that role, as he is a splendid wire puller 
— has served as alderman, councillor, and school commissioner, from 
the Third ward, in each of which offices he was very efficient — his 
quick perceptions, coupled with his bull-dog pertinacity and good 
practical common sense, enabling him to do much towards keeping 
the wheels of I he city government running smoothly. He was also 
very efficient in helping to unearth the frauds which were being per- 
petrated among those old time democratic pohticians, in the palmy 
days of Taylor, Lynch and Gardner, et al. Mr. Cummings' life finan- 
cially has not been what the world calls a success, but want of energy 
was not the cause. The trouble with him was in always going in 
too deep for his means, and when hard tmies came — which always 
will to a man in that boat — he of course went to the wall. In 
pohtical faith he is a republican. He is a man of large frame, is 
possessed of fine social qualities, great kindness of heart, and is a 
splendid friend. He is now, although well down the western slope 
of life's journey, in charge of the pumping engine at the West Side 
Branch Water Works — a position he is eminently qualified to fill. 

Mr. Goodrich, who left many years ago, and is now a resident of 



* This shop, which was of brick, is yet standing, and used for a boiler shop by 
John W. Eviston, its present owner, and is with the exception of the one run by 
Richard Davis, northeast corner of Barclay and Oregon streets, the largest private 
one in the city. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 71 

Chicago, was of an entirely different temperament from Mr. Cum- 
mings. He was in stature below the medium size, Hthe in form, and 
supple as a cat. He was a genial companion, but not one of the 
kind to bear much chaffing, and whoever attempted that would be 
likely to come to grief. He could lay out more men in a given time 
than any other man of his weight, unless it might perhaps be James 
Crummy, that the writer ever knew in Milwaukee, and to see him 
go through a crowd, when his metal was aroused, made one think of 
a cyclone. Whoever he struck was as sure to go down as he would 
if hit with a maul. I remember John, and often think how handy 
he was with his knuckles. He came to Milwaukee from Buffalo, N. Y. 

Fire. 

There was a tire on Market square, on the third of January, 
that destroyed three frame buildings, standing at what is now 459. 
461 and 463 East Water street, one of which (459) was the same one 
spoken of in Vol. HI., page 244, as being occupied as a saloon by 
August Philip, and known as hell. Neither is it any injustice to the 
living or the dead to say, that a worse place, or one that came nearer 
being a perfect representation of the locality it was named for, could 
not be found in Milwaukee, in those days, than was this saloon. It 
was rightly named. It was the headquarters for those who took such 
an interest in defeating the license law, and who, as has been seen, 
made " Rome howl," literally, from 1849 to 1854. The orgies enacted 
there would have disgraced bedlam. The second, No. 461, was 
occupied by Herman Schwarting, as a grocery and liquor store. 
And 463, by C. F. Rice, as a hat and cap store.* There was more 
fuss made at this fire than there would be to-day at the destruction 
of an entire square. 

These were all replaced the same season with the present brick 
buildings, Nos. 459 and 461 by Philip Best, and 463 by Herman 
Schwarting. The ones burned belonged to Schwarting and Hilgen 
(afterwards at Cedarburg). The ground all belonged to Schwarting, 
who sold to Mr. Best the portion he built upon. These buildings 
are in good condition to-day. 



* I think Mr. Rice did not remain in Milwaukee but a short time, as his name 
does not appear in any of the early directories, or in the one for 1854 and '55. 



72 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER, 

There was also a fire the same winter on the northeast corner of 
Reed and Oregon streets, which cleaned off a lot of old rookeries, 
and gave us the present brick block upon that corner. 

Police Court. 

John Wing, Edwin Townsend, David P. Hull, and Philetus C. Hale, 
all men of renown, were fined for not cleaning sidewalks, and it was 
not much of a day for fines either. All of which goes to show that 
men of renown tried to dodge the law in those days, same as now. 
Their excuse was that they had hired laborers to do the work, but 
those laborers had not performed their duty. They all paid their 
fines like Kttle men, and went their way. 

Municipal. 

As the ides of March drew near, in 1855, the regular democracy 
put on their war paint, held their convention, and made the following 
nominations : 

Democratic Nominations.* 

For Mayor — Jaines B. Cross. 
City Attorney — Erastus Foote. 
Controller — John B. Edwards. 
Marshal — Timothy O'Brien. 
Treasurer — Ferdinand Kuehn. 
Police Justice — Clinton Walworth. 

First Ward. 

Aldermen — Jackson Hadley, two years. Victor Schulte, one year. 

Constable — Frederick Kessler. 

Assessor— Patrick Nichol. 

Railroad Commissioner — Herman Schwarting. 

Second Ward. 

Aldermen — Hermen Haertel, two years. Conrad Meyer, one year. 

Constable — George Fischer. 

Assessor — Joseph Kluppak. 

Railroad Commissioner — Joseph Walter. 

Third Ward. 

Aldermen — John Shortell, two years. Daniel Kennedy, Sen., one vear. 

Constable — John H. Ryan. 

Assessor — A. McCormick. 

Railroad Commissioner — John Keegan. 

* The nomination for ward officers made at this caucus were a httle too much 
for Uncle William £. Cramer (who was at that time slightly innoculated with 
democratic virus) to swallow, and he went back on them. He probably saw the 
handwriting on the wall, and concluded it would be a wise move to join " Gideon's 
Band," while he could. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 73 

Fourth Ward. 

Aldermen — A. H. Johnston, two years. Jesse Scholl, one year. 
Constable — John Slattery. 
Assessor — Patrick Markey. 
Railroad Commissioner — S. C. West. 

Fifth Ward. 

Aldermen — Henry Millman, two years. Charles Johnson, one year. 

Constable — Charles Mayer. 

Assessor — W. W. Yale. 

Railroad Commissioner — Carlton Holland. 

Some one having stated that the Third ward nominees were tinc- 
tured with republicanism, a second caucus was held, which put out 
the followmg ticket : 

Third Ward Meeting. 

Milwaukee, March 31, 1856. 

At a meeting of the tax payers of the Third ward, held at the Engine 
House of No. 6, the following names were brought forward to be sup- 
ported at the election to-morrow, to-wit: 

Aldermen — Michael Dunner, 2 years. Michael Bray, one year. 

Assessor — R. G. Owen. 

Railroad Commissioner — Thomas Eviston. 

Constable — Patrick Fahy. 

Justice of the Peace — William Holland. 

If any names should appear on tickets, purporting to be republican, 
they were not nominated at this meeting. 

Independent Democratic Ticket.* 

For Mayor — James B. Cross. 
Treasurer — Herman Schwarting. 
Comptroller — John B. Edwards. 
City Marshal — Daniel Haffner. 
City Attorney — Wilson Graham. 

First Ward. 

Aldermen — Wm. H. Wright, two years. Henry Smith, one year. 

Assessor — Geo. A. McGarigle. 

Railroad Commissioner — Benjamin Skidmore. 

Constable — George Berkle. 

Third Ward. 

Aldermen — Michael Dunner, two years. Michael Bray, one year. 
Assessor — Richard G. Owens. 
Railroad Commissioner — Jolm Eviston. 
Justice of the Peace — William Holland. 
Constable — Patrick Fahy. 

Fourth Ward. 

Aldermen — Caleb Harrison, two years. Joel Hood, Adam Ernst, one 
year. 
Assessor — Ambrose Ely. 
Justice of the Peace — Norman A. Millard. 
Railroad Commissioner — P. Jacobus. 
Constable — John Myer. 

* There does not appear to have been any nominations upon this ticket in the 
Second or Sixth wards, they being in those days the strongest democratic wards 
in the city. But there appears to have been two sets in the P ifth. 



74 milwaukee under the charter. 

Fifth Ward. 

Aldermen — Jasper Humphrej\ two years. Joseph H. Cordes, one 
year. 
Justice of the Peace — Oliver Parsons. 
Assessor — Francis Conrad. 
Railroad Commissioner — Charles H. Larkin. 
Constable — S. Otto. 

. Alderman — John Eosebeck, two years. W. A. Hawkins, one year. 
Assessor — Edwin DeWolf. 
Justice of the Peace- -Oliver Parsons. 
Constable — August ileyer. 
Railroad Commissioner — W. P. Merrill. 

Seventh Ward. 

Alderman — W. A. Prentiss, two years. H. Hill, Francis J. Jung, one 
year. 
Assessor — J. AV. Dunlop. 
Justice of the Peace — Albert Smith. 
Constable — August Seifert. 
Railroad Commissioner — J. Murray. 

This was followed by a people's convention, held on the second, 
the delegates to which made the following nominations : 

Independent Nominations, 

Mayor — Cicero Comstock. 
Comptroller — John B. Edwards. 
Treasurer — Ferdinand Kuehn. 
Marshal — William Beck. 
Police Justice — Clinton Walworth. 
City Attorney — C. L. Buttrick. 

First Ward. 

Aldermen — For tw^o years, E. B. Wolcott; one year, W B. Hibbard. 

Assessor — James Murray. 

Railroad Commissioner — John Furlong. 

Constable — John Scheffel. 

Third Ward. 

Aldermen — For two vears, James Reed; one year, Patrick O'Don- 
nell. 

Assessor — A. McCormick. 

Railroad Commissioner — James O'Shaughnessy. 

Constable — John Ryan. 

At a subsequent meeting James Reed was nominated alderman for 
two years and George M. Colgate for one year, Hiram Church for asses- 
sor, and J. F. Birchard for railroad commissioner. 

Fifth Ward. 

Aldermen — For two years, Jasper Humphrey; for one year, J. M. 
Jones. 
Assessor — John C. Smith. 
Railroad Commissoner — C. Holland. 
Constable — Charles Meyer. 

A people's ticket is usually a failure, from the fact that all the de- 
feated ones on the regular ticket attach themselves to it, like barna- 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 75 

cles to old timber. They are reformers only in name. All they 
want is the "loaves and fishes." 

One wants to be governor over his state, 
And works every card to get put on the slate. 
He thinks, if defeated, the people have erred, 
And the i-hoice that is made he calls so absurd. 
But so it is ever, for mankind is vain, 
And in this fool's warfare vast numbers are slain. 
But the ranks are soon with others who hold 
That the half of their wisdom can never be told. 

Mr. Corson Declined. — We are glad to learn from a card in last even- 
ing's Wisconsin that Mr. Dighton Corson declines to be a candidate for 
justice of the peace in the Seventh ward. This leaves the present effi- 
cient justice, Albert Snath, Esq. (who is a candidate for re-election) 
without a competitor. 

This declination was a stunner, as Mr. Corson (who had managed 
to get nominated in some way) was one of the most inveterate office- 
seekers the writer remembers among all those "old timers." What 
could have induced it ? 

General Rufus King was put in nomination by the Wisconsin for 
city marshal in quite a lengthy article, descriptive of his peculiar fit- 
ness for the position, to which the General gave the following spicy 
reply : 

One Good Turn Deserves Another. — Our attentive neighbor of the 
Wisconsin uominates us for city marshal, compliments our " military 
strategy," and thinks that we might Ije profitably employed in "the ar- 
rest of the numei-ous porkers which infest our streets." Should the 
people ratify this excellent nomination, we promise to make the editor 
of the Wisconsin our powder-monkey on all " military " excursions and 
pound-keeper for all the " porkers " we may arrest. In that event the 
"bounty on every sow's year," which he thinks the new city treasurer 
would favor, would fall to his share as " the faithful custodian " of the 
city porkers. 

Mr. Cramer was apparently very anxious for the General's pro- 
motion. They were not a very loving couple in those days, and 
always on the watch for a chance to stone each other. 

Closing the Saloons. 

As it was evident from past experience that trouble might arise on 
election day if free liquor abounded, the mayor issued a proclama- 
tion closing them, of which the annexed is a literal copy : 

To all Tavern Keepers, Groceries and Beer Halls : 

You are respectfully reciuested to keep closed against the sale of any 
liquor, wine or bier* on election day until 4 o'clock p. m. 

B. Kilbourn, Mayor. 

P. S. — After 4 o'clock p. m. you can let her go. 

*That is the way it was spelled. 



76 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

This proclamation was commented upon in the Sentinel something 
as follows : 

The P. S. after the close of the mayor's proclamation was a stunner — 
at least for a mavor to make. Not rnuch dignity about that. If it was 
best to close the"saloons at all, why " let her go after 4 p. m.?" The fol- 
lowing will perhaps best illustrate this case : 

We remember an old German, who was remarkably blunt but honest, 
who had a cow and calf for sale, to whom another German applied as a 
purchaser, when the following colloquy took place: 

" Veil, Hans, how much you vant for dis cow?" 

The price given was so extremely low as to cause the would-be pur- 
chaser to imagine something must be wrong, and he asked : 

" Is dot cow got goot calf?" 

" Yah, she gif goot milk. 

"Yell, den, vat for you vant to sell her?" 

" Yell, I vill tole you. Dis cow vill gif goot milk, but yoost so quick 
as she pees done gif dot milk, she up mit her foot and kick him all 
over der bail." 

"Yell, den," says Hans, "I dond puy him. Dis cow no goot. She 
vort noddings. I let her go." 

We caimot but compare the proclamation to the German's cow — first 
gives good milk, and then kicking it all over. The proclamation was 
all right, but the P. S. was not. 

This was repHed to on the 9th as follows : 

General King : 

I find that my little P. S. has greatly disturbed your equanimity, as 
the Sentinel of this morning has half a column of abuse concerning it. 
I am aware of your morl)id passion for fault finding, and am glad that 
you have at length found something in my administration which offers 
some opportunity to work off some of the excess of " gas " with which 
you are hal)itually so much inflated. Had I retired from office without 
giving you such opportunity, I fear there would have been an explosion 
which would have deprived the public of your valuable services in after 
years. ' B. Kilboukn. 

Let her go. 

And the General did. He was not the kind of a man to make 
any reply to such an article as that. 

A call was also made by the " outs " for the present " ins " 
(against whose proceedings, as has been seen, there was no little 
complaint) to show up and give an account of their stewardship, to 
which, as might have been expected, there was no response. They 
were too sharp for that. 

The result of the election held March 6* was as follows : 



*This election was held March 6, in accordance with Section i of Chapter 2 of 
the amendments to the city charter, approved February 20, 1852. Changed back 
to the first Tuesday in April, under the act of the legislature approved February 
21, 1856. .See book containing charter, together with ihe acts of the legislature 
amendatory thereto, published 1857, pages 53 and 200. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 77 

Mayor — James B. Cross. 
Comptroller — John B. Edwards. 
Treasurer — Ferdinand Kuehn. 
Police Justice — Clinton AV'ahvorth. 
Marshal— T. O'Brien. 
City Engineer — William S. Trowbridge. 
City Attorney — Erastus Foote. 

ALDERMEN. 

First Ward — Jackson Hadley, Victor Schulte and George S. Mallory. 
Second Ward — Herman Haertle, Conrad Meyer and Richardson 
Houghton. 
Third Ward — John Shortell,* John Coughlin and Daniel Kennedy. 
Fourt?i AVard — Haven Powers, Jas. Ludington and Caleb Harrison. 
Fifth Ward — Henry Millman, John Rosebeck and Andrew Mitchell. 
J. Hadley, president. 
Robert Whitehead, city clerk. 

Assessors. 

First ward, Patrick Nichol; Second, Jos. Kluppak; Third, Andrew 
McCormick; Fourth, Ambrose Ely; Fifth, Wallace W. Yale. 

Justices. 

First ward, Albert Smith; Second, Chas. F. Bode; Third, Wm. Hol- 
land; Fourth, Haven Powers; Fifth, Oliver Parsons. 

Commissioners op Survey. 

First ward, Peter Martineau; Second, I. A. Lapham; Third, Elisha 
Eldred; Fourth, Ira E. Goodall; Fifth, Martin Delaney. 

Fire Department. 

Chief Engineer — Samuel S. Daggett. 

First assistant, Jno. C. Goodrich; Second, Jos. Sprague; Third, Frank 
H. Greenleaf. 
Fire Commissioner — Daniel Neiraan. 

Fire Wardens. 

First ward, Robert C. Jacks and Nicholas Ludwig; Second, F. Chi- 
chester and Linus N. Dewey; Third, Frank Devlin and Jas. H. Ryan; 
Fourth, Charles Bierbach and Thomas Reed; Fifth, Russell Eddy and 
D. F. Thompson. 

Railroad Commissioners. 

First ward, Herman Schwarting; Second, Joseph Walters; Third, John 
Keegan; Fourth, Alonzo L. Kane; Fifth, Carlton Holland. 

Constables. 

First ward, Frederick Kessler; Second, Geo. Fisher; Third, John 
Ryan; Fourth, Washington G. Haack; Fifth, Chas. Meyer. 

City Printers — English, Daily News; German, Daily Banner. 

Sealer of Weights and Measures — Jesse M. Van Slyck, 

Council rooms in Martin's block. 

*Mr. Shortell was a carpenter and a shopmate of the author's for several sea- 
sons, lie was of medium siz , had dark hair and eyes, was of a very quiet de- 
meanor, and very popular with his count rymen in the Third w^rd. I remember 
him well. I think he died h-ng ago, but am not certain. 



78 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

The assessed valuation of the city in 1855 was $17,699,272, di- 
vided as follows : 

Real and Personal. 

First Ward 86,029,840 

Second Ward 2,659,040 

Third Ward 4,257,900 

Fourth Ward 2,700,420 

Fifth Ward 2, 052,072 

$17,699,272 

The county officers were : 

Sheriff— Herman L. Page. 

Under Sheriff— Samuel S. Conover. , „ . ^ o r ^ irr-i 

Deputies— William Wedemeyer, John Mrtchell, August beifert, Wil- 
liam Beck. ' 
District Attornev— A. R. R. Butler. 
Register of Deeds— Chas. J. Kern. , 
Treasurer— Garrett M. Fitzgerald. ' 
Survevor (in his mind) — John Gregory. 
Coroner— Timothy O'Brien. 
Superintendents of the Poor— Edward Weisner and Chas. James. 

Supervisors. 

The two-year alderrnen were supervisors in their respective wards 

ex-officio. Towns were : 

For Wauwatosa— Thomas Tobin. 
Lake— J. C. Howard. 
Oak Creek— M. Hawes. 
Granville— Thomas Bare. 
Franklin— Thomas J. Rice. 
Greenfield— Peter Lavies, Jr. 
Milwaukee — Thomas Kehliher. 
Jackson Hadley, chairman. 
A. Bade, clerk. 

Board of trade met this year over the Exchange baak of Wm. J. 
Bell & Co., southeast corner of Huron and East Water. The offi- 
cers were: J. G. Inbusch, president; S. B. Grant, secretary; Wm. 
J, Bell, treasurer. Admsission fees, $2. Some difference between 
then and now. 

School Commissioners. 

First Ward— Rufus King, Thomas Duggan and Jackson Hadley. 
Second Ward— Chas. E. Jenkins, Benj. Church and Eno Meyer.* 
Third Ward— John Cummings, Ed. O'Neill and Edward McGarry. 
Fourth Ward— Samuel L. Elmore, Priam B. Hill and Haven Powers. 

*The books in the office of the city clerk show that Eno Meyer was elected to 
fill a vacancy, but do not state whose resignation caused the vacancy. It was 
probably, however, that of Dea. Samuel Brown. 





l.CyZy'^^U^ 




'y^^c/UrZi^4^£c<l 



:> 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 79 

Fifth Ward— Andrew Mitchell, Clark A. Place and Edwin De Wolf* 
Rufus King, president. 
Robert Whitehead, secretary. 

Public Schools. 

There were six good substantial brick school buildings in Milwau- 
kee in 1855, each of which had a primary, intermediate and gram- 
mar department. The highest salary paid was $850, and the low- 
est $300. 

Tlie number of children in the city between the ages of four and 
twenty years on the last day of August, 1855 (the time the census 
was taken) was 9,345 ;t number attending public schools was 2,013; 
attending private schools, 1,995. 

The amount paid for salaries for teachers was $11,259 oil 

Contingent expenses 2,077 97 

§13,:537 50 

The state appropriation was 3'5,541 50 

Balance paid by eitv 6,796 00 

$13,337 50 

Biographical. 

General Rufus King, who for many years occupied so prominent a 
position in Milwaukee as a journalist and educator, and whose name 
appears in the above hst as the president of the board of school 
commissioners for 1855 (and ex-officio superintendent), was born in 
the city of New York on the 26th day of January, 1814. The 
family from which he sprang was an old and influential one. His 
father was President Charles King, of Columbia College, and his 
grandfather, Rufus King, had the honor of being the first senator 
elected from the Empire State upon the formation of the present 
government, and also served as minister to England during VVash- 

*This was the genllenian who served two terms as school superintendent, and 
who spelled gone " gon " and whole "hole." He was a literary gem. He was 
a blatant politician, and his election to that office was the natural result of bring- 
ing the public schools into the cess pool of politics. 

f These were proportioned in the different wards as follows: 

Wards. Males. Females. Total. 

I'^irst 1,436 1,636 3,072 

Second 1,372 1,297 2,669 

Third 688 600 1,288 

Fourth 497 494 991 

Fifth ..,..,.,,. 680 645 1.325 

4.673 4,672 9,345 



80 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

ington's administration. I'he prestige of such an ancestry could not 
fail to have great influence in shaping the future career of the sub- 
ject of this sketch, and as a natural sequence he was honored with 
the appointment to a cadetship at West Point, that then Mecca of 
the sons of the wealthy and influential citizens of the young Re- 
public, and from where he graduated in July, 1833, with high hon- 
ors, ranking No. 4 in his class, and was assigned to duty upon the 
engineer corps of the regular army. 

His first employment in his new vocation was to aid in the con- 
struction of Fortress Monroe under Robert E. Lee, at that time one 
of his country's most valued and trusted sons, but who subse- 
quently betrayed her and became the Confederate leader during the 
great rebeUion. But to return. 

The monotony as well as the indolence incident to army life soon 
became distasteful to one of his ardent temperament. He wanted 
something more stimulating, more exciting — something outside of a 
strict military occupation, and in order to obtain it he resigned, in 
1836, and accepted a position as assistant engineer upon the pre- 
liminary survey then Ijeing made for the New York and Erie rail- 
road, which he held until 1838, when he left and accepted that of 
editor-in-chief upon the Albany Advertiser, and commenced the life 
in which he became so famous in after years. 

He had now found his proper sphere, and at once commenced to 
take an active and prominent part in all the exciting political issues 
of the day. He was also commissioned in 1839 as adjutant general 
of the state, a position his thorough miUtary education rendered him 
eminently well qualified to fiU, and which he held until July i, 1843. 
He remained upon the Advertiser until 1841, when, at the solicita- 
tion of Governor Wifliam H. Seward (between whom and himself 
a strong friendship existed), he severed his connection with that 
paper and became associate editor upon the Albany Evening 'jfour- 
nal, in which position he was the trusted friend and adviser of that 
renowned journalist, Thurlow Weed, its then editor-in-chief, whom 
he greatly aided in carrying out the plans of that grand historic 
statesman, William H. Seward, in his efforts to rescue the Empire 
State from the withering sirocco of Democratic misrule. 

Here he remained until 1845, when, induced by Hberal offers, he 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 81 

came to Milwaukee and assumed the editorial chair upon the Mil- 
waukee Sentitiel, then (as now) the leading Whig organ in the state, 
and where, for the next twelve years, he made that paper a power 
in the cause of liberty and the dissemination of Whig principles. 
He also, during most of this time, held the responsible office of 
school commissioner, and had the honor to be elected the first presi- 
dent of the board (and superintendent ex-officio) upon the organiza- 
tion of the present pubUc school system in 1846, and in 1847 made 
the first report (see Vol. III., page 71 to 76 inclusive), a document 
that shows him to have been just the man to fill that responsible 
office. Neither is it any injustice to his successors to say that no 
one of them has ever filled it with more credit to himself or benefit 
to the schools than did General Rufus King. Rut to return. 

While the editorial department of the Sentinel was being so ably 
conducted by General King, unfortunately the business management 
(to which he gave no attention) was very badly mismanaged, result- 
ing finally in financial embarrassment during the commercial panic 
of 1857 that necessitated a change of ownership to a considerable 
extent. General King remaining, however, as editor-in-chief for a 
season, during which his best energies were devoted to restoring it 
to its former financial standing, but was ultimately compelled to let 
it pass into other hands, who, in its ownership and present success, 
are reaping the fruit of the seed he had sown. 

This disaster was a sad blow, and threw him so to speak off the 
track until March, 1861, when, without any solicitation on his part, 
he received from his friend, Hon. William H. Seward, the then secre- 
tary of state for the United States under Abraham Lincoln (and who 
had always kept him in sight), the appointment of minister to Rome, 
which he accepted, and had placed his baggage on board the vessel 
which was to convey him to that city of the Caesars, when the attack 
was made upon Fort Sumpter, at the breaking out of the rebellion, 
in April, 1861. This changed the programme. The commission to 
Rome was returned, and, resuming the sword, he was at once com- 
missioned as a brigadier-general, his brigade being composed of 
Wisconsin volunteers, including the 19th Indiana, which, under his 
firm hand, were soon brought to that high condition of discipline 
and military efficiency which gave it subsequently its great fame as 



82 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTEk. 

the Iron Brigade, while under the command of General Gibbons, 
General King having been promoted to the command of the division, 
with which he participated in General Pope's campaign of 1862. 
The arduous duties incident to this campaign were of such a nature 
as to greatly impair his splendid constitution, and he asked to be 
relieved, which was granted, and he was assigned to duty upon court 
martials, and in the defenses of Washington. This continued until 
the spring of 1863, when he again took the field in command of a 
division, at Yorktown, where he was actively engaged in watching 
and counteracting the rebel movements in that region, until the fall 
of 1863, when he was again reappointed to the Roman mission, 
where he remained until its aboUtion in 1867; after which he returned 
to his native city, where he died October 13, 1876. 

Such is substantially the record of Rufus King, who while he 
lived had no superior in the editorial or educational corps in Mil- 
waukee, and whose memory will be cherished by her citizens for 
many years to come. 

Personnel. 

In person. General King was of the average height, straight as 
an arrow, walked with a regular mihtary step, was always courteous 
and gentlemanly, while at the same time he maintained the dignity 
suitable to the position which by birth and education he felt himself 
entitled to assume. He had a clear, comprehensive, well balanced 
mind, was quick to see the true inwardness ot the poHtical trickery 
going on in the democratic party, and prompt to expose it. He was 
a born journaHst, wielded a ready pen, and was the acknowledged 
leader of the whig party throughout the State in its struggle for 
supremacy during her early history. His editorials were of the first 
order, always dignified and terse, but when occasion required he 
could be sarcastic or caustic. He was a member of the second con- 
stitutional convention, and aided largely in forming our present State 
constitution, and was for several years one of the regents of the State 
university. He was also a prominent official in the old volunteer fire 
department, and of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, in which 
latter organization he took great pride. General King, Hke most 
men who receive a military education and training, and subsequently 
engage in business pursuits, did not get wealthy. He placed no value 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 83 

upon money, except the gratification its expenditure brought, and 
like Daniel Webster would pay it out without stint. While he was 
keenly perceptive and vigilant as to the wiles of political adversaries^ 
he was guileless, confiding and easily overreached in personal money 
matters, and of course suffered in consequence. There is a fine 
portrait of General King in our city library, where it properly 
belongs. He left one son, Col. Charles King (also a West Point 
graduate), now of this city, and who although still young has already 
made a good record as a soldier and author, and is a worthy son of 
a worthy sire. That he may be as useful a citizen, reach as high a 
plane, and leave as good a record as did his honored father, is cer- 
tainly the wish of all who know him. 

A Know Nothing on the Petit Jury. 

Some allusion was made in Vol. III., to the loose manner in which 
our jury system was conducted, as well as to the class of men usually 
selected, and one or two incidents as to its workings given. But 
here is another case, that certainly should not be lost to posterity : 

A Know Nothing on the Jury. — A curiou.s affair came off" in the 
county court yesterday morning, and the evening previous. A suit in 
trespass was tried by a jury, between Archer C. Flanders and the Mil- 
waukee & Mississippi Railroad Co. The case was given to the jury about 
sundown on Wednesday, and an officer sworn to take charge of the jury ; 
the Court adjourning to yesterday morning, giving instruction to the 
jury that if they agreed upon a verdit-t, to write it <;)ut and seal it up, to 
be given to the Court the next morning. The officer in conducting the 
jury to their room found tliere were but eleven — one of the jurors hav- 
ing left, and could not be found liy the officer. Tlie eleven soon agreed 
upon a verdict— obeyed the instructions of the Court, wrote it out, and 
it was returned to the Court yesterday morning. On enquiry of the 
absentee juror, he said he supposed it was all thr(jugh with— the case 
was ended, and he had gone houie as the rest did. And on further 
enquiry he didn't know what was expected of him as a juror, or any- 
thing relating to the duties of a juror. Tlie ))arties for the suit agreed 
to take the eleven, satisfied that the verdict was as good without the 
twelfth as with it. But ought such men to l)e put upon the jury list by 
the supervisors? The last place for a natural Know Nothing is the jury 
box. Juries should be composed of the most intelligent people in the 
community and not men selected for the ends of a political party. 

I remember this occurrence and the laugh it made in the com- 
munity at the time. The man had been in the country but a few weeks, 
and could not understand a word of English. The sheriff", when 
asked by the court why he placed such men on the jury, rephed 
that he was a good fellow and had nothing to do. He was, how- 



84 MILWAUKEE UNDER TME CHARTER. 

ever, informed by his honor that if such a tiling occurred again that 
the court would find him (the Eherift) something to do in the jail. 

Uncle Sam's Jurors 

This was the heading of an article in the Senthiel during the trial 
of Booth for the Glover rescue, called out by an exhibition of heads 
at the windows of the old United States court-room in Martin's 
block during the Sunday they were out for a verdict. Some one 
who was not posted thought they were the " Know Nothings," who, 
he had been informed, were as thick as blackberries and had a lodge 
in that building — at least he had been told so, but didn't know noth- 
ing about it himself It was finally decided that it was the jury in 
the Booth case, and who were unwilling to pay $i,ooo (the regular 
government price at that time) for a nigger,"* and could not get out 
until they did. Ihey paid it finally, /. e., they gave a verdict for it, 
and were let go. Who wouldn't be a juror? 

The writer was the assistant marshal at the time and in charge of 
that jury. The act which attracted so much attention was the at- 
tempt made by one of them to pull up a bottle of whisky by a 
string, which some kind friend, who had probably been there him- 
self and knew what it was to be dry, had fastened to it. It was a 
failure, however, as the bottle was broken against one of the win- 
dow-sills just as it reached the top and the whisky lost. I think the 
loss of that whisky was the main cause of the verdict. Judge Miller 
was greatly scandalized on account of this occurrrence, as it was 
against the peace and dignity of " Uncle Samuel." 

Shipping Paupers to Milwaukee. 

This game was played on the unsuspecting Milwaukeeans by the 
wicked " She-ka-go-ans " to quite an extent m 1855, which made 
our supervisors more trouble than Greenfield Smith, t as he was 
called, ever did, and he has been their Dionysius. But the game 
was finally stopped by reversing the order of march. 

*They were higher in 1861, but are che.ip now. 

fThe supervisor from Greenfield, James Smith, who was always getting up 
some scheme of his own, to which as a rule the iioard were opposed. He was a 
tall, lank, specimen of the genus homo, as full of fight as a tiornei, and would 
hang on until ihe last gun was fired. He made it lively in the board while he 
was in it. 



milwaukee under the charter. 85 

Philological. 

Some one who has a passion for tracing the philology of names 
has discovered that John Smith in Latin is Johannes Smithius ; in 
Italian, Giovanni Scmithi ; Spanish, Juan Smithas ; Dutch, Hans 
Schmidt; French, Jean Smeets; Greek, Ion Skmiton ; Russian, 
Souloff Skmittowiski ; Pohsh, Ivan Schmittiwcisk; Chinese, Jahan 
Schmmit; Icelandic, Jahne Smithson ; Welsh, Ilhon Schmidd ; 
Mexican, Jonll t'Suiitli.* 

The Hog Nuisance. 

This much talked-of nuisance came to the front this spring in a 
call from some of the citizens upon the Sentinel to inform them how 
to rid themselves of these pests, as the writer of the article called 
them, who, he says, will open any gate in the city, after which the 
result can be imagined. 

This inquiry brought a reply from some one, suggesting that an 
ordinance be passed empowenng any man to take and retain pos- 
session of all the swine found at large, which, he says, will cause 
such an absence of " pig faces " as would satisfy the staunchest 
Israelite in all the land of .Goshen. 

Some of these hogs were dangerous, as the following will show : 

[For the Sentinel. 
Where is the City Marshal? 

Ferocious Hogs About.— This morning my little girl was returning 
from the store with a small quantity of Jiulian meal. She was attacked 
by a savage old sow, and the Ijasket forcibly taken from her, the con- 
tents scattered and lost, and narrowly escaped personal injury. This 
occurred on Main street, corner of Division street. Is there no law to 
reach such dangerous brutes ? 

Where's the marshal ? Kokert FLvrl. 

Milwaukee, April 26. 

This was answered by the marshal, Father Tim O'Brien, thusly : 

That he would be d d if he would interfere or deny the liberty of 

the streets to any hog, not if he knew himself, as that is not his l)usi- 
ness. Neither is there any law against it. 

There isn't, hey ? 

The ordinance on page 92 of the ordinance book reads as follows : 

No swine shall 1)e permitted to run at large in this city under a pen- 
alty of $2 for each and every oflense, to be recovered of the owner. 



^ 



*From the Insurance Rtview^ September, 1884. 



86 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARtER. 

And another on page 1 1 reads as follows : 

He [the marshal] shall see that all the ordinances are enforced, and 
that when any violation thereof shall come to his knowledge he shall 
notify the city attorney and attend to procuring evidence for the prose- 
mtiini of the same. 

Put your specks on, Tim, and read the above. But Tim didn't.* 



Michael Bodden. 

This gentleman, who is one of the most prominent and respected 
of our German fellow citizens, came to Milwaukee from the city of 
Cologne, Prussia, in 1847, and at once commenced to build himself 
a home in the land of his adoption. His first occupation after his 
arrival was as teacher of German in the pubHc schools, but this voca- 
tion he soon abandoned for more exciting scenes. Having an itch- 
ing for political fame, he became quite active as a politician, and 
was elected city treasurer in 1862, which he held two years, and it is 
proper to say that amcng all his countrymen who have held that 
ofifice no one has left it in better shape, or filled it with more credit 
to himself, than did Mr. Bodden. He is a good business man, and 
has the confidence of the people as well as their respect. And 
although, like most of his countrymen, he joined the democratic 
party when first he came, he has subsequently acted with the repub- 
hcans upon several occasions, but he is i''ot a demagogue, and has a 
sovereign contempt for all the poHtical chicanery that forms so large 
a portion of the stock in trade of a politician. He was president of 
the chamber of commerce in 1880 and '81, and is the present city 
tax commissioner, for which office he has special qualifications, as 
besides being a good general scholar he is a fine mathematician — a 
desideratum much needed in that responsible branch of our city 
government. He is also a fine musician, and was the organist of 



*The running at large of hogs or cattle in any city is a great drawback to its 
prosperity, and an evil that should not he tolerated under any circumstances. Go 
where you would in those days you were sure to meet one or more of those filthy 
animals sauntering along the streets and sidewalks. They rooted up all the gar- 
dens, defiled the sidewalks, and filled the whole city with a smell very unlike a 
geranium, and some of them, as has been stated, were really dangerous. But we 
got no abatement of the nuisance until Caleb Wall got into the council, where, 
after a hard fight, he succeeded in inducing that body to consent to pass an ordi- 
nance putting an end to it. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 87 

St. Gall's church (Catholic) for several years. In person, Mr. Bodden 
is of medium height, has dark hair and dark eyes. He has a pleasant 
voice, speaks very deliberately and distinctly, and always says just 
what he means. He is also very conscientious and will knowingly 
do no wrong to any one, is dignified and gentlemanly, always thinks 
before he speaks, and if he can say no good of his neighbor will say 
no wrong, and is always careful of what he says or does. He has 
good executive abilities, far above the average, and though the roll- 
ing years have frosted his head, he is still active and vigorous, the 
natural result of a temperate life. He has fine conversational powers, 
and as a presiding officer has few equals in the city. He is sharp 
and keen, sees into the merits as well as the crooks in all financial 
matters that come under his administration apparently by intuition, 
and has been successful in ferreting out more hidden treasure, upon 
which no tax had been paid since he took charge of the commis- 
sioner's office, than had all his predecessors put together, and made 
the owners thereof come to lime. Such are a few of the personal 
characteristics of Michael Bodden, one of the men in whom the 
citizens of Milwaukee have confidence, and whom they have often 
delighted to honor. 

William Grant Fitch. 

This gentleman, so well known as one of Milwaukee's most suc- 
cessful and popular bankers, was born in the town of Belvidere, New 
Jersey, on the sixth day of August, 1834. His father, Daniel Grant 
Fitch, was an editor and publisher of a paper called the Warren 
y^ournal. From Belvidere, the subject of this sketch, after com- 
pleting his education at the academy of that town, removed, in 1851, 
to Dayton, O., and from there, in 1855, to Milwaukee, where he was 
appointed teller of the then Bank of Milwaukee, chartered the pre- 
vious year (now the National Exchange), which position he occupied 
until 1859, when his pecuhar fitness for ihe banking business coming 
to the notice of the directors, he was elected to the office of cashier, 
which office he has filled to the present time, a period of twenty- 
seven years, and is (to use a Western phrase) one of the landmarks 
in the department of banking in Wisconsin. It can be said of him, 
as of David Ferguson the veteran cashier of .'\lex. Mitchell's famous 



88 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHAktER, 

bank, that his absence would be more noticeable than would chat of 
the veteran president Charles D. Nash (the duties of both Messrs. 
Mitchell and Nash being to a large extent supervisory), so accus- 
tomed are its patrons to dealing with him, and him only. Mr. Fitch 
has always been noted for his conservativeness, and under his wise 
and judicious management the National Exchange Bank* has become 
one of the soundest as well as one of the most popular in the West, 
and is doubtless destined to retain its popularity for years to come. 

Personnel. 

In person Mr. Fitch is of medium height, has a fine physique, few 
men in Milwaukee can boast a finer, and is the very picture of health. 
He has dark hair, and large, dark expressive eyes, in which a flitting 
smile and a look of severity, will often be seen to follow each other 
in rapid succession. He has a large head, face round and full, and 
a mouth indicative of great will power, which he certainly possesses. 
He walks with a regular uniform step, and if in deep thought (as he 
usually IS when on the street) will not look up or notice any one 
whom he may meet, but at the same time, like Mr. Pfister, is per- 
fectly aware of whom he has met. He is not nervous, or very easilv 
excited, and never thrown off" his guard, a quality that is worth gold 
to a banker. To a stranger Mr. Fitch would often prove an enigma, 
and if that stranger was in search of a victim, upon whom he in- 
tended to practice some swindling scheme, or to solicit some particu- 
lar favor, the look he would get would probably prevent him from 
attempting either, although if his oljject was charity, and his cause a 
worthy one, he would never be sent empty away. 

Mr. Fitch is not a man with whom it is easy to cultivate an ac- 
quaintance, as his bump of caution is very large, and to a stranger 
or in a strange place this, coupled with his natural reticence, would 
prevent all attempts at too close an intimacy. Upon all such 
occasions he would be simply polite and nothing more, and, like 
Mr. G. E. Giftbrd, he would learn all he could about those around 
him, while at the same time they would learn very little about him. 
He is a good diplomatist. He has a large circle of acquaintances, 



* The name under which it was reorganized in 1865, as a National bank. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 89 

l)ut the number of those with whom he is intimate, in the full sense 
of the term, is very small. He is eminently well fitted for a banker, 
as he possesses those traits so necessary for a banker to have, viz., 
good judgment, quickness of decision, executive ability, and the 
faculty of reading character. He looks you square in the face when 
talking business, and will have your mea.sure before you know it. 
He seems to know by intuition just how to handle every question 
that comes up, whether for a loan or any other matter, connected 
with banking or finances generally, and if left to follow his own 
judgment will be very sure to win. He \v^s been a director in the 
Northwestern National Insurance company since its organization, 
during all of which time he has been a member of the executive 
committee. He is also a member of the board of trustees of the 
Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance company. He believes in do- 
ing right always, and in business matters wants everything done in a 
business way ; re(}uires all men to do as they agree, and if once de- 
ceived that person will never regain his confidence. He has good 
literary tastes, is fond of books, music and works of art, in the en- 
joyuient of which he spends his leisure hours. In poHtical faith he 
is a Democrat, but has never sought or held office, that thorny path 
having no charms for him. 

Such are some of the personal characteristics of VViUiam (irant 
Fitch, one of Milwaukee's most respected representative men and 
citizens, and who has risen to his present responsible position by 
merit alofte, a position that few have attained so early in life or filled 
when attained with more credit to themselves or satisfaction to the 
community. 

Charles Ray. 

This gendeman, so generally and favorably known as one of Mil- 
waukee's most prominent representative business men, was born in 
Ulster county, state of New York, on the 27th of January, 1835, 
from whence he came to Milwaukee with his parents in 1838, his early 
years after his arrival being spent upon the farm of his father, Adam 
K>. Ray,* a gendeman who figured quite extensively in the early poh- 



*I remember Adam E. Kay perfectly. He was a man who would attraci at- 
tention anywhere, and had he lived in New England in old Puritan times would 
have been one of the "simon pure kind." He generally came to Milwaukee 



90 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

tics of this county, of which the present county of Waukesha then 
formed a part. Mr. Ray, however, like S. S. Merrill, had too high 
aspirations to remain upon a farm, consequently no sooner was he 
of sufficient age than he struck out from the paternal roof and com- 
menced life for himself. This was m 1855. His first employment 
was as a clerk in the old Farmers' and Millers' bank (now the First 
National), of this city, where he remained until 1857, when he was 
elected cashier of the bank of Prairie du Chien, which ofiice he filled for 
nine years, returning lo Milwaukee agaui in 1866 to engage in the 
wheat trade with George M. Dickinson, under the firm name of Ray 
& Dickinson. 

This was of short duration, however, after which a new partner- 
ship was formed with Thomas E. Balding and Austin C. Buell, un- 
der the firm name of Charles Ray & Co. This partnership was con 
tinned until 1882, when the labor incident to the management of 
their vast business began to tell upon his splendid constitution, and 
the firm was dissolved. Having now accumulated a large fortune, 
he built himself a palatial residence on Prospect avenue, to which 
he retired and where he has since resided. This house is among the 
finest in the city. 

In person Mr. Ray is tall and slim, has dark hair and dark eyes ; 
he has a strong voice, speaks quick, with a slight rolling intonation, 
with the accent prolonged upon the last syllable of each word. He 
has a keen perception of men, and is a good judge of character. 
He is also very generous and kind hearted, and will do almost any- 
thing — even to his own disadvantage at times — to obHge a friend or 
help the needy, and is one of the most affable and pleasant men to 
do business with in the city. He is very conscientious, and will 
wrong no one or sufter it to be done if he can prevent it. In 
political faith he is a repubfican, and a good one. He wants no 
Hendricks in his creed — and were he in any high office every 
thing would move hke clock work, where he presided, his business 
qualifications are of the highest order. There would be no stealing 



from his farm at Mukwonago on horseback, the horse being in color a "light bay" 
with a white face and white forelegs. He, Mr. Ray, was as straight as an arrow 
always wore a white stove-pipe hat and a white necktie. He was very method- 
ical in all iie did, spoke slow, walked slow and resembled a preacher more than 
a farmer. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 91 

going on that he would not soon detect. He is one of the stock- 
holders in the N. VV. National Insurance Co., and one of its Board of 
Directors, where by his good judgment, he aids not a little in keeping 
the good ship afloat and in sailing trim. Such are some of the busi- 
ness qualifications as well as personal characteristics of Charles Ray. 
He has climbed steadily up fortune's uncertain ladder by his ovvn 
ability until he has reached the top, socially as well as financially, 
and is one of the men to whom the citizens of Milwaukee are ready 
to concede the post of honor — as one of her self-made representative 
men. 

John J. Eves. 

Mr. Eves who is I beHeve a German by birth, also came to Mil- 
waukee this year, and has been a very useful citizen. He is one of 
the wide awake, go ahead kind, but always looks a project well over 
before he invests any money in it. He is always busy. He was 
for a number of years the master mechanic for the Goodrich Steam- 
boat Line. He has made a good record, and accumulated a hand- 
some competency, which he knows how to enjoy. I wish Milwau- 
kee contained more such men as Mr. Eves. 

Jabez M. Smith. 

Another who should have been mentioned in the previous volume 
as coming in 1852, is Jabez M. Smith, our well known Confectioner 
and Fruiterer at 41 1 Jefferson. Mr. Smith is by birth an English- 
man, and one of the kind who move quietly along in life's journey, 
contented with his lot and never attempting anything sensational or 
exciting. He is a good citizen. 

Sebastopol vs. The Straight Cut. 
The following humorous dialogue explains itself: 

Street Colloquy. 

The following conversation is said to have taken place in the street, 
yesterday, between an American and an Englishman standing by the 
bulletin of the iSeniinel office reading the news and commenting on it: 

A))terican. — "The America's news was the last, wa'nt it?" 

Englishman. — " I believe there's nought since her. 'A was in 'opes 
to 'av 'earn 'o Sebastopol being ta'en afore now." 

Amei-itan. — " I guess you'll have to wait a spell before that thing hap- 
pens. Your folks over there had (jught to let that job out to the Yan- 
kees; they'd done it right uj) in a month." 

Englishman. — (evidently touched on the raw,) Do ye belong 'i this 



92 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

dty? If ye do, ye'd better get yer Alderroen to fetch yon navvies 
over from Ballyclaver to make yon Straight Cut 'o yours — ten on 'em 
wi' barrow 'd wheel out more dirt 'i one day, than yon drudge 'o 
'Awley's 'as in a week! 'A think afore ye 'av news 'o yon Straight Cut 
being finished, Sebastopol 'ell be ta'en. 'Slay be both'jobs 'o one day, 
its not onlikely ; ye can 'av a celebration then." 

The parties seeing a Common Councilman approaching, immediatelj^ 
separated. 

Mentzel & Stone.* — Machinists. 

1 remember this firm, who were very prominent in their line for sev- 
eral years, in fact at one time they were at the head of the profession. 
Mr. Mentzel was a German and a splendid mechanic. He was of 
medium size, very muscular, coupled with great power of endurance. 
He had dark hair and eyes, a nervous temperament and a strong 
will. 

Mr. Stone was an American, and a very large man, too large in 
fact to work, and like most men of his build was of a very (juiet de- 
meanor. He was the executive head of the firm. Mr. Stone hved 
at the northwest corner of Fifth and Fowler streets, in a small white 
house, standing at that time some fifty feet above the present grade 
of Fowler street. This house (now the property of our well known 
fellow citizen, Michael Haisler,) has been lowered and rebuilt. 

I'heir shop was the present Filer & Stowell works, on Clinton street 
at its junction with Virginia. This firm built the enginet (the first 
upright one in the city,) for the mill of Messrs. Nichols & Brett, 
where the Marine Block now stands, northeast corner of South Water 
and Ferry streets. This engine which was a failure (in some respects), 
burnt the mill December 31, 1859. 

Mr. Mentzel is now living at Minneapolis, Minnesota. Mr. Stone 
died many years ago. 

Eavesdropping. 

The Sentinel of May 19th, contains a lengthy article from the pen 
of Peter Yates, in which he complains bitterly of the attendants at 
the County jail for eavesdropping, when he was holding a private 
professional seance " with old Jones of " blessed memory," but he 
got him no renown by the publication of his article, as the boys at 



*Gregor Mentzel and Mathias Stone. 

f'l'hey also built threshing machines. They built 125 during 1854 and 1855. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 93 

the jail had more contempt for him than for old Jones, and followed 
him up until they made him sick. 

Peter Yates was a curious combination, like Huebschmann he 
contained much good material, but badly put together. 

Opening of the Lake Shore, now The Chicago and North- 
western Railway, May 19TH, 1855. 

This road was incorporated in 1851, as the Green Bay, Milwaukee 
and Chicago Railroad, organized in 1852, with a capital stock of 
$3,000,000. The first officers were. President, Thos. P. Williams ; 
Treasurer, Charles H. Wheeler ; Chief Engineer, Chas. K. Alton ; 
Secretary, John Welbb ;* The Secretary at this time was A. G. 
Leland, who in speaking of its construction made the following 
statement : 

THE LAKE SHORE RAILROAD. 

The Green Bay, Milwaukee and Chicago Railroad Company, com- 
menced the construction of the road between the city of Milwaukee 
and the State line between Wisconsin and Dlinois, in August 185:!, 
since which time the work has steadily progressed, and it is the inten- 
tion to open the road for the conveyance of passengers and freight by 
the 1st day of May next. Messrs Bishop & Co., contractors, have 
urged forward the work more rapidly tlian could be expected under 
the unfavorable state of the monetary affairs of the country. The ex- 
treme severity of the winter has prevented the rapid prosecution of 
the work of laying track, otherwise the road would now be open. The 
equipments are 4 locomotives, 8 passenger cars, and 35 freight cars of 
the best finish and most perfect patterns, and it is the design of the 
Company to make it a first class road in every respect, in order to 
accommodate the large amount of passenger business that will inevi- 
tably pass over this line. It is estimated that a population of 200,000 are 
directly and indirectly dependent upon the construction of a road 40 
miles in length. This road connects at the State line with the Chicago 
& Milwaukee Railroad. Messrs. Stone & Witt, the energetic contractors 
of that road, have opened the line to Waukegan and in a few days will 
have the track to the State line. 

A. G. Leland, Secretary. 

The first train to reach Milwaukee from the south, was on Satur- 
day, May 19th, 1855. This was a construction train drawn by the 
locomotive Lake Shore,t having on board M. Alton, the construct- 
ing engineer, and a few others. 



*I am not quite positive about this; but think Mr. Welbb was the first secretary. 
It was built from the State line to Milwaukee, by the Messrs. Bishop & Co., of 
Bridgeport, Conn., and from Chicago to the State line by Messrs. Stone & Witt, 
of Cleveland, Ohio. 

f This locomotive was built at the Menomonee Locomotive Works, southwest 
corner of Keed and Lake Streets, by Messrs Lee & Walton. 

6 



94 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

A full description of the "marriage " of the two divisions as it was 
termed, was printed in the Sentinel oi May 21st, of which a synopsis 
is here given, and reads as follows : 

The "Tug Tift " conveyed the Common Council and a few others 
down the river to the Wilcox Crossing,* near "Bay View," at 7:30 
A. M., where they boarded the construction train drawn by the loco- 
motive "Lake Shore," reached Racine at 9 a. m., Kenosha in 
forty-five minutes from Milwaukee, where they met the train from 
Chicago, consisting of eight new passenger coaches, here they 
were received by the late John V. Ayers (of the Knight of Malta 
faniet). The Vice President of the Illinois Division who conducted 
them to the place where the two particular rails that were to unite 
the two centers of the roads were lying, when Mayor James B. 
Cross, supported by Mayor Boone of Chicago, made the opening 
address, containing usual comphments and promises always constitut- 
ing a large part of the speeches made upon such occasions, to 
which a few words were added by S. M. Booth. This done, Mr. 
Reynolds, one of the sub-contractors, and W. B. Ogden, of Chicago, 
(who acted for Mr. Garrison, President of the Illinois portion,| and 
Chas. K. Watkins, the then President of the Wisconsin portion), with 
the aid of the two mayors, drove the spike that linked the two roads 
together, Mayor Cross doing his part of the work as though he was 
used to it. This done the cry of all aboard sent the Milwaukeans 
to the cars, which landed them safely at the south Government Pier, 
in one hour and twenty minutes. Such is a brief description of the 
opening of this road, then a very important event, as it gave us a 
direct communication with Chicago by rail, and from Chicago to 
the East. It was soon found however, that to have the terminus at 
the Government Pier would not work well, and the work of bringing 



*The first terminus of this road was at the old harbor near where the present 
ore sheds are, the track up through the marsh to Florida Street, having been 
constructed at a later day. 

fjohn V. Ayers, was a man of large frame, very fine looking, full of life and as 
fond of mischief as a ten year old boy He was a prominent member of that 
famous organization, where for several terms he held the official position of Grand 
R. J. A. He was also a prominent loo&ier. I remember John well. He was 
a trump. 

JEach division had its own President until after the meeting and marriage 
described above. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 95 

it Up to Florida street, where the first depot was erected, was soon 
commenced and completed, after which there was no more delay or 
trouble in reaching the cars. 

Street Improvements. 

Among the street improvements this year, was the paving of East 
Water with square blocks (stone), from Oneida to Biddle, grading 
of Ogden, from Jefferson to Racine ; Lyon ditto; Van Buren, from 
Knapp to Pleasant ; Jackson ditto ; Waverly Place, from Division to 
Martin, and Marshall, from Lyon to Pleasant. 

A Fatal Mistake. 

A man named John Simpson, from the town of Lake, came into 
the city June 28th, with a load of wood, for a clerk in the jewelry 
store of Rood & Goodrich, situated at that time on the south-east 
corner of East Water and Huron streets. He went into the store, 
received his money for the wood, and being very thirsty, asked for 
some water and was told to help himself out of the jug (or cooler), 
but in place of doing as directed, he took a drink out of a jug full of 
a preparation for cleaning silver, which killed him in 5 minutes. He 
fell to the floor instantly and expired. I saw him laid out with his 
whip lying across his breast, while his team stood before the door. It 
was a sad sight. 

Milwaukee Locomotive Company. 

This company (successors to Lee & Walton), had only been in 
business two years, when they presented the following report : 

The officers were. President, Charles H. Wheeler; Secretary, 
Lewis L. Lee; Treasurer, Wiliam J. Bell (now in St. Louis). They 
employed 150 men, had real estate and personal property valued at 
$65,000. 

They were, however, short-lived. The place was too young at that 
date to sustain such an institution, and lives only m the memory of 
the old settlers, many of whom lost money there. 

Seaman & Wing — Cabinet. 

Alonzo D. Seaman and John Wing, 172 and 174 East Water (now 
370 and 372). These gentlemen made quite a " furor " in the furni- 
ture business for a few years. They carried a stock of $30,000, and 



96 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

their annual sales exceeded $100,000. They shipped largely to the 
South, which was their principal market. They employed seventy 
men, a large force for those days. Their main manufactury (a part 
of which is yet standing), was on Milwaukee street, between Buffalo 
and Chicago streets. Mr. Wing finally returned to the East, after 
which Mr. Seaman built a large sale room on Huron street, now 
Nos. 115 to 119 inclusive, where he carried on the business for many 
years.* Mr. Seaman was a go-a-head, energetic man, one of the 
kind who want to and will do business, if they lose money all the 
time. He built a fine residence at the North Point, now known as 
No. 576 Terrace avenue. This is now the hom.estead of Caspar M. 
Sanger. Mr. Seaman died September 19, 1868. His, sons however, 
are yet in the busmess and striving hard to keep up the reputation 
of the house their father founded, in which let us hope their suc- 
cess, may be all they could desire. Mr. Seaman was from New 
York City. 

Robert Eliot & Co. 

This famous commision house was founded by Robert EHot, who 
came here from Crown Point, N. Y., in August, 1855, and opened 
a small store, for the receiving and selling of farm produce (or 
general commission), in a frame building standing on Third street 
directly opposite the old La Crosse depot. Here he remained 
until 1857, when, feehng sure that the undertaking would ultimately 
prove a success, a partnership was formed with J. M, Holmes,t 
under the title of EHot & Holmes. The new firm changing their 
place of business, by a removal to the Prairie du Chien (the Milwau- 
kee & Mississippi depot) and platform.J 

*This factory and saleroom, was burned Januarj' 30, 1861. Loss, $75,000, af- 
ter which the present one was erected, which is a "fac simile " of the first one in 
every respect, and stands upon the same site. I remember this fire well. It was 
a very cold night, so cold in fact, that old No. i engine froze up on the way from 
her house (where the custom house now stands), to the fire, a distance of only 
two blocks. — Van Vechten^s Record. 

f Mr. Holmes had previously been connected with Patrick Smythe under the 
title of Smythe & Holmes, in the same business. 

JFor the first few years after the Railroads commenced carrying grain, the 
bulk of it brought to Milwaukee came in bags, and was sold from the platforms 
or open sheds then in use. Those dealing in it then having tlieir headquarters or 
offices in the upper part of the old Prairie du Chien freight house, where the iron 
shed now stands, until the erection of the present elevator C, by Angus Smith, in 
1858, after which the;j' met at his office. The old brick building now standing 
opposite Elevator C, and used by the Railroad Company for telegraphing. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 97 

This continued until 1861, when the need of a place, in which to 
store butter, eggs, grass-seed and small lots of coarse grains, while 
awaiting sale, large quantities of which they were in daily receipt of, 
as well as a place for an office, became apparent, and they removed 
to the new three story brick building, erected by Ed. D. Holton, at 
what is now No. 37 West Water street, where they remained until 
1869, during which they have built up a large trade and were 
known all over the northwest as one of the most successful as well as 
rehable commission houses in the city, when Mr. Holmes sold his in- 
terest to John P. Dibble and Horace Griggs (former clerks). The 
new firm continuing the business until 1875, when Mr. Dibble died, 
since which, to the present it has been continued by the two surviv- 
ing members alone. 

Biographical. 

Robert Eliot, the founder of this pioneer commission house, was 
born at Albany, New York, January 13, 1830, where he remamed 
until sixteen years ot age, when having completed his education, he 
entered the employ of the Messrs. Harmond & Co., at Crown 
Point, to engage in the manufacture of lumber and pig iron, in both 
of which that firm were large dealers. Here he remained until 1849, 
when upon the gold discoveries in California, he with others caught 
the fever, and joined the vast crowd of men and boys who rushed 
for the new El Dorado. Two years however in that exciting oc- 
cupation proved enough for him, and he returned to his old em- 
ployer?, where he remained until he came to our city and made the 
" plant," which has proved such a bonanza to him and his associates. 

Personnel. 

There are few men in any community with as strongly marked 
personal characteristics or who enter into business in this fast age, 
whose success has equaled Mr. Eliot's, or who ever reach the social 
and financial plane occupied by him. He is always cool, collected 
and self-poised, and consequently makes few if any mistakes. 
Neither does he undertake any new scheme without a thorough in- 
vestigation of its merits, as well as its practicabilities. But once he 
undertakes anything, it is pushed for all there in it. He is of the 
average height, of lithe, wiry frame, has a strong, powerful voice, a 



98 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

keen, expressive eye, and one of the best balanced heads owned by 
any man in the city. He sees quick, decides quick, reads character 
like a book. Needs but one interview with a stranger to know all 
about him. In fact he seems to know your very thoughts and is 
seldom deceived. He always acts upon his own judgment, neither 
does that judgment often fail him. His executive abiUties are of the 
first order, as his success in hfe fully proves. He has a retentive 
memory, never forgets anybody or anything. In poUtical faith he 
is a Repubhcan, but not a pohtician, nor will he accept any political 
office, the only offices he has held, being that of President of the 
Board of Trade, to which he was twice elected, 1883-84; and is 
always upon its most important committees. 

He has become very wealthy but that does not make him proud. 
Like Wilham H. Metcalf he enjoys his wealth in a quiet although 
elegant manner, and is the same common-sense individual, as when 
he first came. His habits of life are as regular as the rising and 
setting of the sun, and his attention to business is as close as when 
he first commenced. He greets you with a pleasant good morning, 
and if your visit is upon business, it is at once attended to. He is 
fond of mirth, enjoys a joke and is always in good spirits. Such is 
Robert Ehot, one of Milwaukee's successful and influential business 
men and honored citizens. 

Mr. Holmes is in business on Milwaukee street. He is as regular 
as is Mr. EHot. Mr. Holmes is not as aggressive, neither will he 
take the chances that Mr. Eliot will. He is, however, a good business 
man. He is very cautious as well as conscientious, and never says 
anything to the injury of his neighbor, or takes any undue advantage 
of any one. He is a good friend (if a friend) and if an enemy he 
is a silent one, i.e., he will ignore you entirely. He is a staunch Re- 
pubhcan and keeps well posted upon all the political issues of the 
day. He is a great reader, a deep thinker, a close observer of men, 
and never gets into trouble. 

Church Going. 

In the Whconsiti of the 6th, the editor relates his observations 
while at church on the previous Sunday. He says directly in front 
of him three elderly gentlemen had their eyes closed, a young 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 99 

lady in the rear was humming ' Sontag Polka," in a low tone, and 
two elderly females had their heads together (criticising the sermon 
probably) ; but offers to make affidavit (the editor does), that 
one of them asserted that it takes two pounds of tlour to make it 
light (we don't know what). It is truly singular how many things 
people can turn their attention to if they try. 

This is all right, to find fault with the way people hsten, but what 
was he doing all the time .'' 

Tremendous Shower. 

How Mrs. Epps saved the sugar, see annexed : 

Tremendous Shower — Great Loss of Property. 

This forenoon, our city was visited by a fearful shower of rain. The 
aqueous fluid fell from the clouds like water from a potato strainer for 
the space of five minutes. The shower was so sudden that every one 
was totally unprepared for it. Ladies and gentlemen promenading tlie 
streets had the starch taken out of their summer garments, and all that 
before had looked so lovely, soon had the appearance of a wilted cab- 
bage leaf. J. Epps, Esq., wholesale and retail dealer in pies, cakes, 
maple sugar, fruit, cider vinegar mulled,* &c., corner of Michigan and 
East Water streets, met with a heavy loss, but through the almost su- 
perhuman exertions of his large corps of clerks most of his goods were 
removed, although in a damaged condition. Too much praise cannot 
be awarded to Mrs. Epps, the respected consort of Jesse. During the 
height of the shower she stood braving the element like a rock, shelter- 
ing a large cake of maple sugar (which would otherwise would have 
been destroyed) from the pelting storm, with the skirts of her dress. 
We have not heard whether there was any insurance on the property. 

P. S. — We learn since writing the above, that Jesse Epps was some- 
what fractured upon that spot "where the wool ought to grow," by the 
dangerous bursting of a bottle of "pop." 

The early Milwaukeans will appreciate this scene. It will be re- 
membered that Mrs. Epps was a white woman (she was French), 
while Epps, hke his duplicate, our own "lubly" George Scott (who, 
I beHeve is also the possessor of a white wife), was as black as the 
Devil and twice as ugly looking. 

Insurance. 

There was a local Board of Fire Underwriters formed this year by 
the insurance men. It was however short-lived. The mutual jealous- 
ies of its members soon brought it to grief. Its officers were. Presi- 
dent, J. A. Helfenstein; Vice President, Allen Wheeler; Secretary, 

*Referring to the Booth Dinner previously mentioned. 



100 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

J. S. Boise ; Excecutive Committee, William J. Whaling, P, M. 
Burrows and P. Smith. 

Runaway. — A team of horses from Wauwatosa, driven by the keeper 
of the Wauwatosa House, got frightened by the firing of crackers in the 
streets on the 4th, and ran up East Water street at a furious rate ; 
throwing out the driver near Nazro's new store, leaving the wagon to 
which they were hitched, opposite the State Bank, and finally, when 
nearly opposite the Walker House, bringing up against a lumber wagon 
standing there. One of the runaway team jumped into the wagon, 
rolled over and out again and fell to the ground ; breaking his back and 
hind legs. He was killed to put him out of misery. The acciden- 
tal stoppage of the runaway team was most fortunate, the street above 
being thronged with people. 

This description will answer for the present time, as not a day 
passes without one. 

A Bit of a Shindy. 

There was what our Celtic fellow-citizens would call a " divil 
of a shindy," at the head of Martin street on July 12th, growing out 
of the attempt of the city marshal, assisted by a posse of constables, 
to remove one of the shanties (with a "pig-pen attachment") that 
adorned the bluff in those days. The annexed is a succinct state- 
ment of the proceedings held upon that occasion by the posse with 
the party in " esse :" 

Removing the Shanties on Martin and Lake Streets. — On Saturday, 
the city marshal and a posse of constables proceeded, under the direc- 
tions of the Common Council, to remove some shanties on Martin, at its 
intersection with Lake street. Quite a row took place ; a woman by 
the name of McLaughlin, wife of one of the men owning a shanty, at- 
tacking the marshal first with a knife, then with some other weapon, 
and at last was in the act of striking him with an axe, when constable 
Kessler caught the weapon and saved the marshal's head and probably 
his life, as the woman was frantic with rage. She was secured ancl 
handcuffed, Init soon after released, owing to her situation. In the 
meantime, McLaughlin ran and secured a double-barrelled gun, loaded 
in each barrel, and was coming toward the marshal to fire, threatening 
to kill him. His wife tried to stop him, when he struck her a violent 
blow and sent her a staggering. Officers Neuman, Meyers, Fisher and 
Kessler secured McLaughlin and took him to jail, he fighting all the 
while. After getting him into jail, while Mr. Scarrit and his assistant 
were searching him, although the prisoner was handcuffed, he turned 
upon the assistant jailer and seized him by the neck; he was then over- 
powered, but kept fighting till put in a cell and locked up. The shanty 
was removed without further difficulty. 

Police Jottings. 

A man named George Fleming, a tall, brawny, coarse looking 
"son of a sea cook," was brought up for stealing a watch from the 
late lamented John Miles. A man named John Casper, the main wit- 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 101 

ness against him, was also put upon trial as an accomplice. The 
evidence was clear as to Fleming, who gave Casper to understand, 
that if he (Fleming), went to Waupun, that he (Casper), would not 
live long after he got out, and the expression of his countenance as 
he made this threat, was perfectly fiendish. He was a hard one, in 
fact both were of theworst type of Chicago thugs. Fleming while 
confined in jail awaiting his trial, made an attempt to escape, upon 
which he was brought into the office to be ironed. The moment he 
saw the irons he attempted to knife the turnkey, but was speedily 
brought to time by the jailer, at the muzzle of a revolver. 
Here is another : 

Fight with a Burglar — Officer Wounded. 

Early yesterday morning, an attempt was made to break into a house 
in the Second Ward, near the La Crosse Railroad Depot, and the burglar 
chased away by the watchman. Officer Kessler, who acts in the double 
capacity of constable and watchman, observed a negro prowling around 
the streets and attempted to arrest him near Cordes' store on East 
Water street. As soon as the officer laid his hand on the negro's 
shoulder, telling him that he was his prisoner for attempted burglary, 
the negro struck at him with a dirk; the officer to save himself, caught 
the blade in his left hand, receiving a shocking gash, nearly cutting off 
his fingers. The two struggled for a minute, when officer received a blow 
from some other instrument, and the negro being the heaviest man by 
far, made a break. The officer threatened to shoot him if he run, and 
snapped his pistol at him, The negro ran for Grant's lumber yard, when 
the officer shot again, narrowly missing him. Here he caught the ne- 
gro as he fell, in jumping over some lumber, and dealt him a heavy 
blow with a slung shot; the negro again showed fight, and the officer 
again struck him with the shot, stunning him. At this time the officer 
received assistance and conveyed the negro to jail, it taking four men 
to get him there. 

This is the colored man who fired a pistol at another colored man on 
Kellogg & Strong's Pier some time since, in a quan-el about a negro 
woman. 

This was a plucky officer; few men would have pursued a man 
after being wounded as he was. 

Census of Milwaukee. 

The following data is from the books of the city clerk. The cen- 
sus was taken in August, 1855, and shows the number of each sex in 
the different wards to be as follows: Males. — First Ward, 4,231; 
Second, 4,877; Third, 2,862; Fourth, 1,954; Fifth, 2,082; total, 
16,006. Females. — First Ward, 4,312 ; Second, 4,359 ; Third, 2,257; 
Fourth, 1,649; Fifth, 1,761; total, 14,338. Total in the city, 30,394, 
against 20,061 in 1850; an increase of 50 per cent in five years. 



102 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Of these the nationahty was as follows : Natives. — First Ward, 
3,907; Second, 2,217 ; Third, 1,9^5 ; Fourth, 1,838 ; Fifth, 826 ; 
total, 10,773. Foreign. — First Ward, 4,654 ; Second, 7,019 ; Third, 
3,145; Fourth, 1,786; Fifth, 3,017; total, 19,621. Total of native 
and foreign in the city, 30,394. 

In 1850, the census of the county was for Granville, 1,713; Mil- 
waukee, 1,351 ; Franklin, 1,116 ; Lake, 1,474; Greenfield, 1,995; 0^^ 
Creek, 1,259; Wauwatosa, 2,048; total, 11,016. 

In 1855 there were in Granville 2,745; Milwaukee, 2,667; Frank- 
lin, 1,394; Lake, 2127; Greenfield, 2,219; C)ak Creek, 2,074; 
Wauwatosa, 2,593 ; total, 15,819 ; a gain of nearly 25 per cent. Of 
this number, 6,011 were native born, and 9,808 were foreign, show- 
ing that the foreign-born population exceeded the native by about 
two to one. 

The hmits of the city by the charter are about two miles by three, 
so that the population is quite compact. In 1840 the population in 
this, and what is now Waukesha County, was 5605, and now the two 
counties contain over 70,000. 

Bay State Foundry, 

Built by WiUiam B. Walton and William Goodnow, upon the 
southeast corner of Lake and Barclay streets, upon ground pur- 
chased of Hon. John S. Harris.* 

Biographical. 

John S. Harris, was quite a prominent business man in Milwaukee 
for several years. He speculated largely in real estate as well as in 
wheat, flour and lumber, and as has been seen in Volume III., was 
at one time the President of the Marine Bank. He finally left for 

*This foundry of Walton & Goodnow, was quite successful for a while, but 
finally went to the wall, as did everything else that came under the withering 
touch of the financial ability of William Goodnow, who always did business at 
a loss, and to use a homely expression, was one of the kind who "bit off more 
than he could chaw." Mr. Walton built the house now known as 866 National 
Avenue, and Mr. Goodnow, the one known as 813, the present residence of 
Geo. Burnham, Esq. This is an elegant house, and cost $15,000 when built. 
Mr. Walton, is in Washington, D. C, and Mr. Goodnow, is at Atlanta, Georgia, 
in the insurance business, the last resort of every bursted man. This foundry 
is now the property ol our distinguished and indefatigable fellow citizen, Edward 
P. Allis, who uses it in connection with his vast establishment on Clinton street, 
and who makes it pay. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 103 

the south (Louisiana), and was elected to the United States Senate 
for six years, where he made a good record. He is now the Surveyor 
General of Montana. 

The Reliance Works of Edward P. Allis & Co. 

This gigantic institution, now so widely known throughout the en- 
tire Northwest, was founded, as stated in vol.3, page 70, in 1847, by 
Chas. S. Decker and James Saville, from Dayton, Ohio, and was, up 
to the time of its final collapse, in 1857, the largest estabhshment of 
the kind west of Buftalo, and the only one where a full set of mill 
irons could be obtained. But, as there stated, it fell under the 
withering blast of that financial sirocco and went into the hands of 
Samuel S. Daggett as assignee of the creditors, who operated it until 
i860, when it passed into the hands of Edward P. Allis, John P. 
McGregor and Chas. D. Nash, who at once commenced to build it 
up. The new firm were not long in making the discovery that, if the 
new purchase was to be a success, more capital must be put in, and, 
as Messrs. McGregor and Nash did not have the faith in its future 
success as did Mr. Allis, the business outlook not being very encour- 
aging at that time, they declined to make any further investment, and 
sold their interest to Mr. Allis before the close of 1861, which gave 
him the entire control of the future giant, and who pushed the 
work with such vigor as to bring the amount of business which, when 
under Mr. Daggett's administration, only amounted to the insignifi- 
cant sum of $31,000, up to $103,000, when more room being needed, 
the present location was secured.* The old buildings, upon scows, 
were floated down the river and placed upon the new site, where they 
lormed the nucleus of the present mammoth works. 

This purchase and removal gave Mr. Alhs all the room he wanted^ 
neither was he slow to take advantage of it, and such was his success 
that four years later (1869), when the " Bay State " works of Walton 
& Goodnow, previously spoken of, " came to grief," and were 

*Thi.s purchase consisted of three entire blocks, bounded on the north by 
Florida, south by Pierce, east by Barclay, and west by Clinton Streets. It extends 
HOC feet on Clinton Street, 300 feet on Florida and Pierce, all of which is now 
being utilized by this gigantic establishment, and yet, such has been its growth, 
that they need as much more, and, if the business is continued, will, ultimately, 
have to be removed to a new location in the Cha^e Valley. 



104 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

ofifered for sale, he became the purchaser, using the new purchase for 
a time as an auxiHarv to the main works, after which it was converted 
into an independent institution for the manufacture of the new 
roller mills, then just coming into general use in this country, and of 
which he is the principal manufacturer in the West. He also in 1872 
fitted up a department for the manufacture of water-pipe. This, 
however, not provmg a paying investment, has been abandoned and 
the works converted into the manufacture of milling machinery. 

He is also largely engaged in the manufacture of steam engines, 
both for mining and hydraulic purposes, the enormous pumping 
engines at our own water works, as well as those in use in several 
other cities, having been erected by him.* Such, in brief, is the his- 
tory of the old Reliance Works of Messrs. Decker & Saville since 
they came into the possession of Mr. Allis, on West Water Street, in 
i860, until the present time, then its whole business only amount- 
ing to $31,000 per annum, with a force of 20 men and a pay-roll of 
$13,000, from which it grew to $103,000 and a pay-roll of $32,000 
in 1865; and in 1880 to $1,000,000, a pay-roll of $326,000; and in 
1884 to $2,000,000, when its employees numbered 1,000, with a pay- 
roll of $500,000. It has had a wonderful record, and its work is 
now shipped to all parts of our own country and even to Australia, 
Russia and Japan. 

Biographical. 

Edward P. Allis, whose business record has been given above, is a 
native of Cazenovia, New York, where he was born May 12th, 1824, 
and is a graduate of Union College (Schenectady), of the class of 
1845. It is evident that the excitement of a business life has greater 
charms for him than would the practice of law (for which he was 
educated), as we find him in Milwaukee in 1846, where in connec- 
tion with the late William Allen, he opened a leather store at what is 
now 344 East Water street, (see Vol. II., page 241) and where he con- 
tinued until 1854, (see Vol. III., page 420,) when the copartnership 
was dissolved, after which Mr. Allis in connection with John P. 

*This new enterprise is under the immediate superintendence of Mr. Edwin 
Reynolds, from the Corliss Works, at Providence, Rhode Island, and has proved 
a perfect success, both in its working as well as in paying. 




^^'iy Jiltt C M'Kae.H^ 




^,^ 




MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 105 

McGregor, engaged in the real estate business. (See annexed.) 
They also had, at one time, a private banking or broker's office 
in connection with their real estate business,* which enter- 
prise, however, did not prove a bonanza to either of them. But 
from the day the Reliance Works of Decker & Saville came 
wholly under Mr. AUis's control, his march has been onward and up- 
ward, until he has reached a high plane mechanically, socially and 
financially, and can look back upon a business Hfe of which he may 
well be proud. 

Property ix the Seventh Ward Wanted. — Any person having a place 
in the Seventh Ward to exchange for part cash and part other proi)erty, 
or, if encumbered, to exchange suVjject to the mortgage, for good prop- 
erty, clear, can learn of a good opportunity from us. 

Allis & McGregor. 

Sale op the Wheeler Property. — Twenty acres of land on the road 
to the South Point, and a mile or so from Walker's Point Bridge, known 
as the Wheeler propertv, with the improvements, orchard, etc., was 
soid, on Friday, to E. P. Allis and M. S. Scott, for §12,000. The land 
was bought by Russell Wheeler, in the spring of '49, for $1,000, and 
even at the largely enhanced price now given for it will be a bargain to 
the purchasers. 

Personnel. 

In person, Mr. Alhs is of the average height, has a compact, mus- 
cular frame, capable of great physical endurance. His voice is 
strong, but somewhat low in tone ; speaks very distinctly, and always 
says just what he means. He is very quick motioned, walks quickly, 
his eyes nearly always cast upon the ground, as though in a study — 
which, in fact, when on the street, he mvariably is, but, at the same 
time, is observant of all that is passing around him, and will not fail 
to greet all whom he may chance to meet whom he knows with a nod 
of recognition ; and those he does not will get a sharp, inquisitive 
look as he passes. He has a large head, auburn hair, and a blue 
eye, in which a pleasant expression will always be found if your 
presence is agreeable ; but, if your absence would be preferable, you 
will get a look from those eyes which, though not severe, will indicate 
that fact as plain as though he had spoken it, particularly if your 
visit should chance to be made during business hours. His office is 

*Mi-. Allis, also, at a later date purchased 20 acres in the subdivision of the 
north 6o acres of the southeast quarter of section 51, town of Lake, in company 
with M. S. Scott, known as the Wheeler property (see annexed), which he laid out 
into lots and sold. It laid in the present Twelfth Ward. 



106 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

no play-house, and of the large corps of clerks whom you will pass 
before reaching him no one will be found idle. He knows the value 
of time, and never wastes a moment. He also knows the value of 
every man's services in his establishment, as well as the proper place 
to put him, and never, under any circumstances, retains a cheap or 
inefficient man in his employ. His executive abiUties are of a 
superior order; always relies upon his own judgment; sees quick, 
decides quick ; is a first-class disciphnarian ; consequently, every 
part of the work that he supervises moves along smoothly. 

Mr. Allis> belongs to that class of men to whom Dame Nature has 
been very lavish of her gifts, and whose development has kept pace 
with the growth of his business. To a stranger, he would be an 
enigma, as his usual quiet demeanor, simphcity of manner and reti- 
cence would seem so out of contrast with his mental as well as 
physical ability that the stranger would be slow to believe that in the 
unpretending individual he sees before him he beheld the financial as 
well as business head of that vast establishment known as the 
Reliance Works. Mr. Allis, Hke many others who are at the head of 
the large business enterprises of this country, is a fine scholar, a great 
reader, and keeps well posted not only in the scientific and mechan- 
ical discoveries of the age, but in the poHtical issues as well. In 
pohtical faith he is a Republican, and in full communion with all 
their platform except the currency question, upon which he is a 
Greenbacker, and led the ticket, in 1877, for that little band of bolters, 
for Governor of Wisconsin. But whether his views upon this new prob- 
lem in political finance are correct or not is not the province of the 
writer to decide ; but that he was conscientious in his views no one 
doubts. In religious faith he is a Unitarian, and a leading member 
of that organization. Such are a few of the leading traits of Edward 
P. Allis, a man whose whole aim in hfe is not to make money alone, 
but who also does what he can to lighten the burdens of his fellow- 
men, the majority of whom have not been as successful in securing a 
competence of this world's goods as has he. He has now reached 
the autumn of life, and as he nears the border of that home for the 
weary, beyond the river, he has the happy consciousness of knowing 
that he has not only done his whole duty as a good citizen, but has 
also left a record as a business man that few have equaled, and it can 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 107 

be truthfully said of him, as of John Plankinton, that, in his line, 
Milwaukee does not contain his duplicate. 

The Ice Bear the First Ice Man. 

Perhaps it may not be generally known that Ice-Bear Kroeger,* 
the celebrated weather prophet and almanac maker, was the first to 
go into the ice business in our city, but such is the fact, as the an- 
nexed will show. Some one had complained of the ice being cut 
below the dam. 

ICE ! ICE ! ! 

Messrs. Editors: 1 noticed in the Sentinel of Wednesday an extract 
from an article copied from the News. The writer, who signs himself 
"A Physician," says: "Ice should never be permitted to be cut for 
market except in a deep clear part of the river, and in my opinion 
should be entirely above the city, where it is not liable to be tainted 
with the drainage of streets, stables, &c., from which some of the ice 
which may be seen in the market seems, both from appearance and 
taste, not to be entirely free." 

As I have been engaged in supplying the city with ice for nine years, 
and no person finding any fault with the ice I have furnislied, I wish to 
state that I invarialjly cut my ice in the deepest and clearest part of the 
river, near the mouth of the harbor. I endeavored in vain last winter 
to find ice above the bridges, high up the river, but did not find any 
clean ice there; it was dirty and Ijad, more or less of snow lieing mixed 
with it. Expecting to be able to find ice up the river I rented an ice- 
house in the Second ward, but found I had to cut my ice two miles 
from the house, at the mouth of the river, and had to draw the ice that 
distance. In other cities, where the rivers maintain their depth for 
miles above the buildings and streets, ice may be procured above the 
commercial streets, &c., but not so here. I am willing that my ice 
should at any time be inspected while being cut, or at any other time, 
and I am satisfied that the public would be content to use it as the best 
that can be procured. 

I shall feel obliged if you will give this an insertion. 

Very respectfully, Henry Kroeger. 

Milwaukee, September 5, 1855. 

Biographical — Arthur Bates. 

This well known master mechanic, who has figured so extensively 
in the building up of Milwaukee's fine residences, came from New 
York city to Wisconsin in 1852, and to Milwaukee the same year, 
since which time to the present he has been ranked among our best 
master carpenters, both as a builder and draughtsman. His first 
work was to erect the old Henry A. Nichols dwelling, northwest 
corner of Marshall and Mason streets, now the residence of Cyrus 



*A name given him on account of his once having a saloon with a polar bear 
for a sign. 



108 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Whitcomb, Esq., which, at the time of its erection, was one of the 
finest private residences on the east eide, and is a good house to-day. 
This was in 1855. He was also the master carpenter upon the Jas. 
H. Rogers house, southwest corner of Grand avenue and Fifteenth 
streets, now the palatial residence of Hon. John Plankinton ; the 
residence of the late Joseph Bradford, southeast corner of the same 
streets, now the property of William Taylor ; the former residence 
of Hon. A. R. R. Butler, on Grand avenue, now the property of 
Stephen A. Harrison.* He also built the rotunda of the Plankinton 
house (hotel); a dweUing for Sam. M. Green, 1703 Grand avenue ;t 
the residence of WiUiam Plankinton, southeast corner of Grand ave- 
nue and Sixteenth street; one for Ozro J. Hale, No. 87 Prospect 
avenue; the present beautiful residence of Hon. Charles Ray, No. 
88 Prospect avenue; the residence of Judah M. Lawrence, 46 Pros- 
pect avenue; one for Edward Bradley, No. 255 Prospect avenue, 
and one for O. Pillsbury, No. 196 Prospect avenue. I'hese resi- 
dences, which are among the finest in the city, certainly ought to 
place Mr. Bate in the front rank of Milwaukee's master carpenters. 
In person he is of medium size, has dark hair, dark complexion 
and a strong voice ; speaks very distinctly ; is not much of a talker ; 
sees all that is enacted around him, and is never excited. He is 
now (1884) erecting the new police station, northeast corner of 
Broadway and Oneida, and is yet in his prime for usefulness. He is 
an Englishman by birth, a Republican in politics, a liberal in re- 
ligion, a good citizen, and has made a record of his skill as a me- 
chanic in the palatial residences he has constructed that will live for 
a century to come. 

September. 

E. D. Holton struck with a slungshot, in September. The assault- 
ers were arrested and punished. 

Prof. Jesse Epps got a whaleing at or about the same time. No 
arrests, however. 

These cases brought up the matter of a night poHce (an organiza- 
tion long wanted and often asked for) to the front again, and the 



*2950 Grand avenue. 
tFormerly Spring street. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 109 

papers, particularly the Wisconsifi, had a pretty strong article on the 
subject, which gave the common council a severe castigation for 
their neglect in this matter, which culminated in a call for a meeting 
at the board of trade rooms, which resulted in the appointment of a 
committee, to act in conjunction wich the council, in drafting an 
ordinance for the appointment of a night watch. The ordinance 
l)rovided for a chief of poHce, and not less than two nor more than 
five roundsmen in each ward. This was the nucleus of the present 
police system, giving us William Beck as the first chief 

The first appointments under this ordinance were Frederick Kess- 
ler and John Hardy in the First ward, George Fisher in the Second, 
James Rice* and Lawrence Bryne in the Third, Wm. Garlick in the 
Fourth and Jas. M. Smith in the Fifth. 

Marine Disasters. 

Among the marine disasters in 1855 was the wrecking of the 
steamer Sebastopol, which went ashore about two miles south of the 
present harbor, while attempting to enter the old harbor during a 
terrific gale September 17. She had a large freight for Milwaukee 
as well as quite a number of passengers. 

There were five lost, viz., the second mate, second engineer, pilot, 
cook and a German passenger. The boat became a complete wreck 
in three days. 

Her chains have lately been brought to light by the " sand 
sucker,"t (see annexed, taken from the Milwaukee Sentinel, of Oc- 
tober 31, 1885), and will be preserved by Mr. Norris as a relic of 
her sad fate : 

C. W. Norris is the possessor of two pieces of anchor chains, which 
were fished from Lake Michigan, near the St. Francis seminary, a short 
time ago. It is supposed that the chains belonged to the propeller Se- 
bastopol, which was lost near that spot in September, 1855. 

She was built at Cleveland that summer ; cost, $65,000 ; ran be- 
tween Buffalo and Chicago, and was commanded by Captain Webb.| 

*Losl on the Lady Elgin with all his family. 

f A. boat used for getting sand from the lake for building purposes by a suction 
process. 

JThe Sebastopol was not a staunch boat, being very poorly fastened. As a 
consecjuence she soon broke up and went to pieces. Part of her freight was a 
large consignment of dry goods, including thousands of dollars' worth of India 



110 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

The crew and passengers, about one hundred all told, were, with the 
exception of the five previously named as lost, all rescued by Cap- 
tain Jasper Humphrey, Jas. Stewart, Will Taberner, Charles Warner 
and two sailors, with the government lifeboat, in doing which Cap- 
tain Humphrey came very near being drowned. This was the sec- 
ond sidewheeler lost in our bay that became a total loss — the Boston, 
lost in 1846, being the first. She was owned by John Robinson, of 
Buffalo, was also a new boat, and commanded by Captain Pease. 

" How Is Dose for High ?" 

Last evening we saw {i.e., the editor of the Se/i/iue/ did) a couple 
of young bloods rolling around in the gutter on Spring street, the 
cause thereof being fully explained when one of them who saw who 
was watching them exclaimed, m a thick voice, " Don't you — hie — 
put me — hie — in the pa — hie — pers, you old — hie — fule." He got 
in, however, " allee samee." 

The " Sag Night." 

This was an organization gotten up for political effect — Demo- 
cratic, of course — to offset the " Know-Nothings." The officers 
were : 

President — Francis Huebschmann. 

Vice President — John White. 

Secretary — Daniel Shaw. 

Treasurer — Garrett M. Fitzgerald. 

Marshal — Robert Lynch. 

Inside Sentinel — M. Kluppach. 

Outside Sentinel — Thomas Shaughnessy. 

Sergeant-at-Arms — William Knukle (a very appropriate name). 



shawls and costly fabrics. For days succeeding the disaster the beach was strewn 
with goods, and nearly every vessel in the " creek " had their rigging covered 
with cloths of all kinds, which had been recovered and hung up to dry. Men 
were employed to recover the property, and costly goods were found hidden in 
corn fields, barns and sheds. It was estimated that nearly every resident in the 
neighborhood secured an average of over $ioo worth of goods. In calm weather 
the ribs of the Sebastopol are plainly discernible, even to this day, near the spot 
where she met her fate. A few years since Captain Thompson, who resides on 
Tones' island, recovered her shaft and a lot of hardware from the hulk. 

The propeller Alleghany ran ashore a few days after the loss of the Sebastopol, 
and almost in the same place While working in toward shore a high bank of 
sand was formed, thus enabling the owners to save everything of value aboard the 
boat. She became a total loss, her machinery being placed in the new Alleghany, 
which was built in this city during the following winter. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. Ill 

The organization of this club proved a firebrand in the ranks of 
the Democracy and led to a bitter newspaper warfare, and in order 
to keep the pot a-boiling an article, evidently from the pen of J. A. 
Noonan appeared in the Wisconsi?i of September 1 1 , intended to 
cast a suspicion upon the loyalty of J. R. Sharpstein, then United 
States District Attorney, who he (Noonan) hated as the devil does 
holy water, in which the charge was made that a compact had been 
entered into by that gentleman with Alex. W. Randall, the then 
Democratic member of the legislature from Waukesha, by which 
said Randall was to introduce a bill at Madison to prevent the use 
of our jails by the government for the confinement of fugitive slaves. 
This article was copied into the Sentinel of September 12, which 
also published the following affidavit ui support of the charge, stating 
in extenuation for so doing that he (the editor) had some compunc- 
tions of conscience for steafing the IVisconsm's " thunder," but, un- 
der the circumstances, had concluded, in the classic language of a 
distinguished ex-functionary,* to "let her go." So here it is, /i/era- 
tini et spellalim. It is entitled " Randall's Smoked-Out Afifidavy :" 

State of Westconstant, \ 
Milwaukee County, j ' ' 

I, Jackson Hartshorn, being duly swore, do sware and say that I have 
knew A. W. Randall in Wakeshaw more than twenty years, and that I 
have knew Bill Kramerf and the Pierce ofRceholders in Milwaukee. 

I do further solemnly swore that 1 was at Belden's saloon last winter 
during the recess of tlie legislature, and saw said Randall and one of 
Pierce's officials go into a room by themselves, which I thought looked 
suspicious. I felt that it was my duty to my country to find out what it 
all meant, and so I listened at the kee-hoal and I heard said Randall 
make a bargain with J. R. Rapstien,J the said Pierce officeholder, to 
introduce a bill to prevent our jails lu-.ing used to detain fugitive slaves. 

I do further swore that I believe the said Randall run for the assem- 
bly for the special purpose of introducing said l)ill, in order to get nomi- 
nated on the Republican ticket this fall, and I told Bill Kramer about 
it and told him to keep still, but I guess he didn't hear me (no, I guess 
he didn't). 

I know, too, that all the Pierce oflSceholders in Milwaukee are op- 
posed to the Fugitive Slave law, and that Pierce and Douglass are op- 
posed to it, and that they made said Randall a tool of the national 
adnunistration to introduce said bill. I know, too, that said Randall is 
not relial)le, because the governor tried to get him on the square, and 
said Randall refused to come on the square. 

♦Meaning Kilbourn's proclamation to close the saloons at the April election in 
1854. 
f Meaning William E. Cramer. 
JSharpstein. 



112 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



And I do further swore, that the said Randall ought to get beat, be- 
cause there is no use of looking into things out to Madison, disturbing 
accounts that show a profit on the books Ijut a loss in the treasury, and 
making hard feelings against the officeholders. 

And I know that said Randall is not only lazy, but is dreadful ugly, 
and will try to look into things that don't concern him, and I know that 
his karackter is bad. 'I'lie present state administration can't trust him. 
Swore to and mark made before me, Peter Pierce (cousin of the presi- 
dent). 

his 
W. B. X RouN. 
mark 
September 10, 1855. 
P. S. — Fees for above services paid by Bill Kramer. 

P. P. (c. of President), N. P. 

The annexed is a representation of a Know- Nothing (viewed from a 
Democratic standpoint), also a list of the officers of the club, the 
publication of which made a bad "schmell" in the Democratic 
ranks. 




Officers of the Know-Nothings. 

Some very careless individual belonging 
to that exceedingly select and interesting 
" dark-lantern " association, yclept the 
Weiss-Nichts, has dropped in the streets, 
or somewhere else, the following list of offi- 
cers. It is vouched for by some of the 
" men about town " as being correct : 

President — J. A. Noonan.* 
Vice-President — W. A. Barstow.f 
Secretary — F. Huebschmann.J 
Treasurer — S. P. Coon. 
Ins. Sentinel — W. E. Cramer. 
Sergeant-at-Arms — J. B. Cross. 



* 

t 
+ 
■I- 



I 

i i I 



Great Embodiment of Wisconsin Fusion. 



cMLt JouthAO jack-kDlfo. ud'tiftmbft btingiag oji ilwrt" 1 



These were the real simon-pure "Know- 
Nothings," the ones previously mentioned 
being only shams. 



The " Embodiment " before us is seen whittling a hickory key to un- 
lock the people's treasury, the chief inducement for the Fusion move- 
ment. In rear "Sambo" shows his smiling countenance in words of 
encouragement to " Propel." 

Herman C. Adams Shot by John Fienier, Oct. i6. 

This homicide, which resulted in the death of this unfortunate 
man and the incarceration of the murderer for life, grew out of the 
action of a one-horse bank in which the murderer had deposited 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 113 

$175, and which he could not get. Mr. Adams, however, had 
nothing to do with it. It was the fault of the bankers, Messrs. 
Papendick, etc.* 

Cremation. 

vOctober 24, Gustaff Pfiel attempts to burn the body of his wife, 
after death. Great excitement. 

The wife was a Russian lady of noble birth, and it was at her re- 
(juest that the attempt was made. He was prevented by James H. 
Rogers and a few others. 

Snow. 

The first fall of snow in 1855 was on October 22; one mch in 
depth. It soon disappeared. 

Death of the General. 

The following is inserted here in memorial of one of the oldest 
and best remembered equines that ever pulled a buggy in Milwaukee, 
He was the congener of Dr. E. B. Wolcott's famous hunting horse, 
"Gunpowder," mentioned in Vol. I., page 150. He was m color 
a bay, and, as the article states, a model horse, Mr. Tiffany was 
noted for keeping servants during life. He had a man-servant 
(white) and a female (colored), who were both well advanced in life 
when he came, and both of whom died in the family. 

Death OF THE "General." — The General's dead — not the General 
whom you might have thought it was— he's "alive and kicking " but an 
old horse, who had borne the name of " General " in this city for 
nearly twenty years, has died at last, at the astonishing age of 34 years. 
This horse had been owned by the Messrs. Tiffany, father and son, 
since 1836, we believe, and died last week. He is to be buried between 
two oaks, on the farm of Mr Tiffimy, about three miles from town. 
The old horse was without a blemish, and we remember not more than 
two weeks since a knowing horse jockey in this city, when asked his 
age, offered to bet $1C0 that he was not more than 12; so much for judg- 
ment on the age of horses. 

Editorial Squibs. 

[From the Sentinel.'] 

Uncle William E. Cramer gets " Sarah-Naded " by a brass band, con- 
sisting of a hautboy, a cowboy and a hand-organ,t which so delighted 



*Fienier was tried at the March term, 1856, convicted, and sent to Waupun for 
life. 
■j-The Man About Town. 



114 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

him that he sent a man down to get the name of the author of the com- 
position as well as the name of the " Tchune," and is informed that its 
title is the Old Fox (Folks) at Home, composed by Spivins, when wishing 
to give some substantial token of his appreciation of the composition, 
as well as the artistic manner in which it was rendered (and not having 
any "Bouquet" by him), he hoisted the window of his sanctum and 
dropped a cabbage (just received for subscription) directly upon the 
leader's head, which nearly knocked him senseless. This " proke der 
pall." 

Cogswell & Alexander (George Cogswell and Orlando Alexander), 
real estate, northeast corner of East Water and Wisconsin streets 
George Cogswell was for many years one of the notable men of Mil- 
waukee, in the role of attorney, real estate agent, librarian of the 
Young Men's Association (the present City Library), and president 
of the old Milwaukee Mutual Insurance Company. He was very 
methodical in all his business, singular in his style of dress, always 
wore a ruffle shirt and tight-fitting pants, a-la Doctor Wolcott. He 
was never in a hurry, and seldom got excited. He built the frame 
dwelling known as 217 Wisconsin street, now the office of Messrs. 
Bradley Bros., where he lived many years. He died January 13, 
1871, at the Newhall House, and was buried in Forest Home Cem- 
etery, but will live in memory for many years to come. He was a 
splendid looking man. 

The Evistons. 

Among those who came in 1842 and should have appeared in the 
previous volume, were the Evistons — John W., Sr., John W., Jr.* and 
Thomas and Martin J., from Providence, Rhode Island. The father 
died many years ago. Thomas, who was quite prominent as a fire- 
man under the old volunteer system, and also as a lumber dealer in 
connection with the late Sanford B. Grant, was, with his wife, lost on 
the ill-fated steamer Lady Elgin, September 9, i860. John W., Jr., 
and wife, who were also on board, succeeded in reaching the shore. 
Mr. Eviston often refers to that fearful night and its attendant hor- 
rors as a scene never to be forgotten. He has become quite promi- 
nent in his ward (the Third), and is a very worthy citizen. This 
family were from the North of Ireland. 



*This gentleman was spoken of in Vol. II., page 126, but not the others. 



milwaukee under the charter. 115 

Bridge Superintendent. 

The first one to be appointed to this office was Caleb Harrison, 
November 23, 1855. 

The old Lighthouse, at the head of Wisconsin Street, was sold this 
year, November 24, to Emanuel Shoyer for $360 who pulled it down 
and used the brick in his new store. The nevv one, the present 
North Point light, was used for the first time on the 26th, two days 
later. 

Samuel Shoyer. 

This well-remembered clothier and merchant tailor was noted for 
his sharpness in trade as well as his fine physique. He was a nobby 
boy. He generally wore a blue coat of the " claw-hammer" pat- 
tern, ornamented with the regulation brass buttons, a striped vest, 
drab pants, and in summer white ones, and a white fur hat. He was, 
in fact, the dude of the town. It was not often that any one got the 
better of Samuel, but I remember one occasion when he came to 
grief He was standing, one day, in the door of his store, on East 
Water Street, at what is now No. 390, watching for a chance to beat 
somebody, with a shoddy coat, when a tall, brawny lumberman, 
fresh from the woods, chanced to pass that way, who was no sooner 
seen than Samuel went for and invited him to come in, and he went 
in, and was at once importuned to purchase a pair of pants — $18 
ones — which Samuel assured him would fit him splendidly. The 
fellow submitted quietly, and pulled on the pants (over his old ones), 
after which he picked Samuel up, carried him out on the street, where 
he laid down in the gutter with him, and where he rolled over and 
over until they both resembled a Third Ward porker just out of a 
mud-bath, after which he got up and skipped with the pants, and 
that was the last of him. 

Improvements. 

Among the buildings erected this year* was the stone dwelling 
known at that time as the Newhall mansion, southeast corner of 
Cass and Division streets. t This house is now a portion of the es- 

*Or rather the plans for which were in the office of Mygatt & Schmidtner, 
architects. 

f Brick, by Daniel Newhall. 



116 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



tate of the lale Jas. B. Martin, and is occupied by Mr. F. G. Tibbits, 
who had married Mrs. Martin. This was, at the time of its erection, 
the finest private residence in the city, and is an elegant house to- 
day. It cost $20,000. Another, a brick (now the Sherman House), 
at the North Point, for John Lockwood, Spaulding & Foote, builders, 
costing $20,000. One for Geo. A. Peckham, 559 Marshall street, 
which cost $6,000. This dwelling, which has been thoroughly re- 
built, is now the residence of B. K. Miller. 




The old Kilbourn mansion, northwest corner of Grand avenue and 
Fourth street, the plans for which were drawn in 1854, was com- 
pleted this year. This dweUing, a cut of which is here given — the 
pride of Spring street when erected, and whose owner boasted that a 
better would not be built upon the west side in twenty years — is a 
ruin to-day, and is to be replaced with the annexed, the present year, 
by that indefatigable builder, the Hon. John Plankinton, who is never 
easy unless erecting something to beautify as well as add to the 
wealth of the city, and who in that direction has expended more 
money than any other one man, except, it may be, Alexander 
Mitchell, in it. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



117 




Its successor (see cut), erected at a cost — including the part 
now occupied by the City Library — of $230,000, would be an 
ornament to any city. The master mason upon this building was 
Hiram R. Bond. 

I seldom pass this corner without the face and form of Byron 
Kilbourn coming to my mind, as well as his prophesy about this, 
then famous house. Could he be permitted to revisit the scene of 
his earth-life, he would, no doubt, be astonished at the change around 
his once palatial residence. But eti resume. 

Wm. B. Hibbard built the brick dwelling northwest corner of 
Marshall and Biddle streets, this year. The money to build this 
house and purchase the lots (some $40,000 in all) was made on an 
oat deal of Mr. Hibbard's. This fine dwelling is now the homestead 
of Robert Eliot. 

Preusser's New Building 

Northeast corner of East Water and Mason streets, (a cut 
of which is here given) was occupied this year, March i, and 



118 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



was at its erection the finest business building north of Mason street, 
and is a good store to-day. Upon the north can be seen the old 
fi-anie formerly standing there, removed in 1875 to make room for 
the present block, known as the Milwaukee Mechanics' Mutual In- 
surance Company's building, Nos. 442 and 444 East Water street, in 
the second story of which that wealthy and popular institution has 
its general office. 




Biographical. 

Christian Preusser came to Milwaukee from Idstein, a village in 
the dukedo n of Nassau, Germany, in 1844, and opened a small 
jewelry store in a small frame building belonging to our well-known 
German fellow-citizen, Edward Weisner, on a part of the ground now 
occupied by the Kirby House, and commenced to grow up with the 
place. For the first five years the business went slowly, but patience 
and perseverance finally won the day, as these characteristics always 
will, when coupled with good judgment, and 1855 found him able 
to erect the building mentioned above, into which, after admitting 
his brother Gustav as a partner, he removed, and where the firm are 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 119 

to-day. This house also followed the German rule in conducting its 
business, viz.: the senior member always being recognized as the finan- 
cial head, and under which the firm of Preusser Bros., like those of 
Messrs. Inbusch Bros, and the Messrs. Friend, have risen to promi- 
nence as well as wealth, and rank second to none in their line in the 
West. They are reHable, and make no promises that they do not 
intend to keep nor a contract which they cannot fulfill. Christian 
has also been prominent in insurance circles, having filled the oftice 
of president in that well-known company, the Milwaukee Mechanics' 
from its organization in 1854 to the present time, and it can be truth- 
fully said that a better selection could not have been made, as under 
his conservative administration it has come to be a power and one of 
the most popular institutions of the kind in the West, and controls a 
larger local business (dwellings) than does any of its compeers in the 
city. Mr. Preusser is possessed of great energy, is aggressive to an 
unusual degree, as any one who conies in competition with him will 
not be long in fincing out. He is one of the strongest Germans in 
the city, and, like John Pritzlaft', has the full confidence of his 
countrymen, as a proof of which he has filled the oflice of treasurer 
to the (ierman and English Academy for the past twenty-seven 
years, and has been president of the Natural History Association 
since its organization. He has made a good record, and is entitled 
to be ranked as one of Milwaukee's sohd men. He was born July 
I, 1826. 

Gustav Preusser, although not as prominent in official life, has. 
nevertheless, made a good record. He is dift'erent from Christian, 
in that he is fond of hunting and fishing, in both of which pastimes 
he often indulges. He is also fond of walking, and can often be seen 
in the early morn, traversing the outskirts of the city, on which oc- 
casions he is invariably accompanied by his faithful dogs. He is of 
a quiet demeanor, always gentlemanly, has few intimate friends, dis- 
likes notoriety, and, Hke his brother, is justly entitled to be ranked 
among Milwaukee's most respected German citizens. 

Emery's New Store, 

No. 387 Broadway, was built this year. This building is now the 
property of Hon. E. H. Brodhead. It has had numerous occu- 



120 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



pants, and has passed through two fires and been thoroughly re- 
built, but its original form is unchanged. 

The brick building known as the Mitchell House, No. 142 Sec- 
ond street, was built this year by John Mitchell. 

The present residence of William Young, No. 195 Ninth street 
was also built this year by Jas. B. Cross. This house has been 
thoroughly rebuilt by its present owner. 




Two additional stories were also added to the old American 
House this year by Messrs. P. Kane & Sons, making it the largest 
hotel in the city. It was also thoroughly renovated, after which 
it was run by them until July i, 1856, when it was leased to 
Messrs. Stearns & Stiles (J. D. Stearns and B. F. Stiles) see cut, who 
operated it until July i, 1857, when it again came under the con- 
trol of Alonzo L. Kane, who was its landlord when burned, July 4, 
1861.* 

Mayor Cross also contemplated erecting one upon the site of the 
old United States Hotel. The editor of the Sentinel, in speaking 
of it, gets " spooney." Just hear him : 

Mayor Cross's New Buildings. 

Mayor Cross has just completed all the arrangements for building a 
magnificent block of stores and banking rooms on the corner of East 



*In Vol. III., page 294, is a cut of this well remembered caravansary, as it 
appeared when purchased by the Messrs. P. Kane & Sons, in 1849, and as it re- 
mained until enlarged in 1855, as stated above. It underwent a second metamor- 
phosis, however, in 1859, when, in order to conform to the new grade, the whole 
structure was raised 2% feet and the verandahs all removed, which was its true 
appearance when burned. The statement (in foot note) on page 294, Vol III., 
that the cut there given represented its appearance when burned, is incorrect. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 121 

Water and Huron streets, on the site once occupied by the United 
States Hotel. 

The size of the buildings will be SO feet front on East Water street 
and 120 feet on Huron street, four stories high, exclusive of the base- 
ment, which will be finished off for restaurant njorns, etc. The height 
of the building will l>e H3 feet 6 inches. The front of the building will 
be finished with cut-stone piers, plinths and steps, and handsome iron 
columns, caps and sills, with trusses to the windows; iron balcony, 
railings and massive iron cornice, etc. 

The material will be of Milwaukee pressed brick, with a fire-proof 
roof, and the sidewalk around the l)uilding, or two sides of it, will be 
cut stone, with heavy cut-stone cur])ing. 

The front story of the building will be divided into one store, 24 by 
100 feet; one do., 28 by 100 feet, inside measure; two banking rooms, 
with stone vaults, and one small store on Huron street. The second 
and third stories will be finished oft' for offices, with a clothes closet and 
wood room to each. The fourth story will contain one large hall, with 
ante-rooms. 

On Huron street there will be a continued staircase, 8 feet wide; and 
on East Water street a staircase 5 feet wide, leading to the second story. 

The contracts are let for the building, and amount, in toto, to $31,000, 
and the work is to be all completed by the 1st of January, 1857. The 
mason work is to be done by John P. Harris, of Cincinnati, we believe, 
and the carpenter work by F. A. HoUman, of this city. The lots are 
valued at upwards of §20,000, making the total value of the whole, when 
completed, upwards of $(50,000. In addition to this block, the mayor 
has erected a handsome dwelling on Spring street, and contemplates 
still further building. 

We have not space to give a more extended description of this block, 
to be commenced to-day. Those who wish to see the views of the ex- 
terior, will find them at Mygatt & Schmidtner's architect rooms. They 
are the architects of this and jnost of the handsome buildings that now 
adorn this city. 

When the block of Mayor Cross's, and those blocks now in progress 
of erection on the same ground on Michigan and Main streets by 
Messrs. Mitchell & Ogden, and the remainder of the ground be built 
up, as it soon will be, we doubt whether any city in the world can ex- 
hibit more beautiful structures than the United States block on East 
Water street and the l)uildings on Main street, separated only by an 
alley. They will add largely to the value of the Third Ward, and Main 
street, from Wisconsin to Huron, on its west side, will l)e a handsome 
promenade. We hope that Mayor Cross will be handsomely remuner- 
ated for this liberal outlay, in the way of rents, and live long to enjoy 
the result of his industry, with an abundance to bequeath to his heirs. 

Statistical. 

The following items are taken from the report of the Milwaukee 
board of trade for the year ending December 31, 1855 : 

Number of arrivals were — 

Steamers 1,204 

Sail 1,293 

Total 2,497 

The following comparative statement of the imports and exports 
and manufactures for the two years past speaks for itself, and is a 
splendid showing : 



122 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Imports — 

1854 $11,124,803 

1855 18,649,832 

Exports — 

1854 17,709,531 

1855 17,329,571 

Manufactures — 

1854 ^,633,412 

1855 5,590,712 

In the banking department $9,869,728 was used by the six banks 
then doing business, to- wit : The Farmers' and Millers' (the present 
First National), the Wisconsin Fire and Marine (Alex. Mitchell), the 
Bank of Milwaukee (now the National Exchange), the State Bank 
of Wisconsin (now the Milwaukee National) Bank of Commerce (de- 
funct), People's Bank (defunct), of the amount of capital mentioned 
above. Five million dollars was used by three banks alone. The 
daily business (in products) transacted by the city merchants was 
$50,000, or $15,000,000 per annum. 

These banks have a capital divided as follows : 

State Bank of Wisconsm $400,000 

Farmers' and Millers' 250,000 

Bank of Milwaukee 100,000 

Bank of Commerce 100,000 

Wisconsin Fire and Marine 100,000 

Peoples' 25,000 

Total $975,000 

The Weather — Humorous. 

The weather during December was as unreliable as a ward politi- 
cian. We had on the T5th a little of April, considerable of July, a 
slight touch of January, and are now living in expectation of the 
ides of March, or regular December temperature, putting in an ap- 
pearance every minute. 

" Spivms " (a local of those days) has changed his clothes eight 
times to-day, and is now (4 p. m.) enveloped in an overcoat and fur 
gloves, while the sun is giving out heat in a way that suggests that 
an ice-house would be an agreeable resort. Where is our own 
Kroege' , and why does he not make better weather ? 

River closed November 22, but opened again, and closed solid 
December 23, forming ice twelve inches in thickness above Walker's 
Point bridge, and at the mouth of the river twenty inches. 



milwaukee under the charter. 123 

Vessel List. 

There were belonging to the distict of Milwaukee December 31, 
1855, two barges, eight brigs, eighty-two schooners, two sloops and 
one tug (the Tift) ; total tonnage, 9,000. 

The following, furnished by the present very efficient harboi mas- 
ter, Capt. Jas. M. Trowell, is inserted here as a record of the num- 
ber of vessels of all descriptions in winter quarters in Milwaukee 
harbor on the 1st day of January, 1885 : 

Steamers (excluding the Andy Johnson), grain carriers 15 

Barges for coal and lumber '. 12 

Schooners for coal and lumber 28 

Schooners for lumber 7fi 

Tugs 14 

Total 145 

Steam tonnage 20,364 

Sail tonnage 29,577 

Total custom-house measurement 49,941 

Which is about one-half carpenter's measurement. 



CHAPTER 111. 
1856. 

Opening Address— Noyes & Flertzheim's New Store, Sketch of— Legislature- 
Weather — The Police First Wore Stars in Sight — The Business Directory — 
Sketches of Ernst Conrad, Louis Salomon, the French Bros., Ogden's Car- 
riage Factory, Warren, Hewitt & Tracy, Goodrich & Terry, Bradford Bros., 
Sinclair & Gunnison, and others — William Brown, of Albany, Dies — Public 
Market — John Johnston, Sketch— Board of Trade Organized — Charter 
Amendments — Railroad Meeting — Fire — ^The Star Mill, Sketch — Old Jones 
Tried— New Bridge Called For— New Jail Called For— She Wouldn't Stay 
Out — Divisions of the Second, First and Fifth Wards— Council Proceedings 
— Spring Election — Its Results — Schools — List of Teachers — The Old Mili- 
tary" Hall— Opening of Bilty's Tremont— Sketch of Bilty — South Side Gas 
Company Formed — Great Military Parade — Major Nuimemacher Makes a 
Speech — August Phillipp Exhibits His Horsemanship — The Golden Gate 
Saloon — The Old Looinis School House — Owen Goss, Sketch — A. V. H. Car- 
penter, Sketch — Dwight W. Keyes, Sketch — Excursion to Beaver Dam — 
I-lailroads — The Dean Richmond Goes to Europe — Chas. J. Kershaw, Sketch 
Political — The Democracy Organize — Council Proceedings — Railroad Vote — 

Criminal — Cattle Market — Great Torchhght Procession— Fall Election — 

Mr. Hadley Defeated — Bear vs. Bull— Weather — Funeral of Solomon Juneau 
— Improvements — Vessel Tonnage — Cold. 

The business outlook at the comiiiencement of 1856 was unusually 
bright, the previous year having been a very prosperous one, as the 
tabular statement at its close fully proves. Among the prominent 
events in connection with its inauguration was the opening of the 
new furniture estabHshment of Messrs. Noyes & Flertzheim (William 
A. Noyes and August Flertzheim), at what is now No. 418 East 
Water* street, upon which occasion the Sentinel contained nearly a 
column descriptive not only of the building itself, but of the won- 
derful enterprise of the proprietors, who it claimed had done a grand 
thing for Milwaukee by the opening of this store, and for a season 
they were the Uons of the city, their praise in every one's mouth, 
and a rapid sale predicted for the elegant stock with which their 
store was filled. 



*This establishment was previously at 421 East Water, or at least Mr. Flertz- 
heim was, the firm then being Brugman & Flertzheim (Henry Brugman). 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 125 

The enterprise, however, did not " pan out," as the saying is, as 
expected, as neither of these gentlemen had sufficient capital to run 
such an estabhshment with any hope of success. Mr. Flertzheim, 
who is said to be the inventor of that popular article of office furni- 
ture known as the " roller desk," subsequently went into business on 
River street, where he remained until his death, which occurred 
January 26, 1885. 

Mr. Noyes removed to St. Louis, where 1 think he still resides. 

These gentlemen shook the bush while others who came later 
caught the birds. But then such is life. 

This building, 418 East Water street, present numbering, was 
erected by Henry Wederhoff, the contracting mason was Carl Bier- 
sach,* the carpenters were Edwin Palmer and Geo. B. Bingham, the 
painting was by Duprez, the architect was Geo. W. Mygatt. It is 
now occupied by Charles and Ferdinand Eissfeldt as a wholesale and 
retail crockery store, and is nearly in as good condition as when 
built. 

The members to the legislature from the city and county for 1856 
were: To the senate, Jackson Hadley and Edward O'Neill; and to 
the house, Joshua Stark, August Greulich, Andrew McCormick, John 
Mitchell, William A. Hawkins, John Tobin, Henry Crawford, Peter 
Lavies, Jr., and George Hahn. 

This legislature convened January 9, and took a recess March 31 
to September 3, and adjourned October 14, 1856. 

WilUam Hill, speaker. 

Weather. 

The winter of 1855-6 was a very cold one, particularly from De- 
cember 23, 1855, to February i, 1856, the thermometer ranging very 
low during all that time, and on January 9, the day the police first 
wore stars in sight,t to 26"^ below. 



*Mr. Biersach is yet in business, and has probably been as successful a master 
mason contractor as any German who ever followed the business in Milwaukee, 
and has accumulated a large property. He is a genial, companionable man, and 
has hosts of friends. 

fThe Milwaukee police first wore their stars on the outside in full view, as 
they do at present, January 9, 1856. Previous to that they wore them beneath 
their coats, and only exhibited them when compelled to in order to prevent resist- 
ance when making an arrest. 



126 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

The ice at the mouth of the river was twenty inches in thickness 
on that day, the thickest it had been since 1845. 

The Business Directory. 

The status of our leading business firms had changed somewhat 
during the three previous years, their location in 1856 being sub- 
stantially as follows : 

Goodrich & Terry (Timothy W. Goodrich and Frank H. Terry), 
grocers and commission, were in the old red warehouse at the south- 
east corner of East Water and Erie streets. This firm will be more 
fully spoken of further on. 

Benj. Zellner and Henry Bonns, clothing, were at 94 (now 292) 
East Water street. Both of these gentlemen are yet with us, and 
rank among our best Jewish fellow-citizens. 

Goll & Frank (Julius GoU and August Frank), dry goods, were at 
267 (now 465) East Water street. This firm is yet in business, and 
has been one of the most successful of all the wholesale dry goods 
houses in the city. They are both sharp, keen and shrewd business 
men, and are very wealthy. They do business on business princi- 
ples, viz.. to make money, and although they seldom advertise they 
are well known throughout the Northwest as a reHable house, and 
have held the fort when all of their American competitors have 
succumbed to the inevitable. May their success be all they can 
desire. 

Salomon & Conrad (Louis Salomon and P^rnest Conrad), com- 
mission, were at the northeast corner of Third and West Water 
streets. This firm did a large business. Mr. Conrad, who was a 
small, thin, sickly looking man, returned to Germany, where he re- 
mained a short time, after which he came back to America (New 
Orleans), where he purchased and ran that famous pleasure resort 
known as the Carrollton Garden, and where he died of cholera Sep- 
tember 9, 1878. 

Mr. Conrad left two sons, one of whom, Ernest, is a clerk in the 
Merchants' Bank, where, under the firm hand of Rudolph Nunne- 
macher, he is rapidly fitting himself for a business man. 

The second son, August, is now in the employ of the Messrs. 
Bergenthal, distillers. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 127 

This firm at a later day, 1859-60, were on the northwest corner of 
Third and Prairie streets, in a one-story brick building, pulled down 
a few years later to make room for the new bazar of Espenhain & 
Bartels, and afterwards, upon the withdrawal of Mr. Conrad, the 
firm became Salomon & Post (Heinrich Otto Post). They were on 
the southeast corner of Third and Cedar. Mr. Post subsequently 
returned to the old country, Berlin, Prussia, where, I am informed, 
he still resides. He was a very tall, dark-complexioned man, with 
dark hair and eyes, somewhat smgular in manner, seldom spoke to 
any one except upon business matters. 

Mr. Salomon, after the retirement of Mr. Post, continued in ihe 
business, first on Oneida and lastly on West Water until 1883, during 
which he built up a large trade in country produce. 

He was a large, fleshy man, very pleasant and kind-hearted, well 
liked by every one. He was very genial and companionable, a good 
friend and a good citizen. He died October 13, 1883. I remember 
both these gentlemen well, and have had many dealings with them 
in the long ago. 

Mr. Salomon left a son, Rudolph, who follows the commission 
business, and is a sharp, wide-awake man. He is among the most 
active dealers in coarse grains on the board, and is seldom c:-ught 
on the wrong side of the market. He never goes in beyond his 
depth. He is a fine looking young man, has the same pleasant 
smile and gentlemanly ways as his father, and is a general favorite. 

Benjamin Skidmore, wood turning, was on the northeast corner of 
Oneida and River streets, where the opera house now stands. Mr. 
Skidmore is now a commission merchant. One of his peculiarities 
is a great fondness for flowers, and he is seldom seen without one in 
his button-hole. He is a very quiet man, seldom speaks to any one. 

Jonathan H. Crampton was in the auction business. Mr. C. was 
one of the restless men who never contmue in any one business for 
any great length of time without getting into deep water. He was 
first a merchant, then an auctioneer, then real estate, in all of which 
he failed to find a bonanza ; and lastly in the insurance business, the 
dertiier resort of every bursted man. He died at Milwaukee, March 
24, 1882. 

Mr. Crampton was of medium height, had dark hair and eyes and 



128 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

a swarthy complexion. He was very nervous, had a strong voice, 
spoke sharp and quick, was very industrious, but somehow never got 
where he started to go. I remember him well. 

The Messrs. French Bros. (Orvis and Edgar D.), dry goods, were 
at what is now 340 East Water street. This house did a very large 
business for several years, when the copartnership was dissolved, 
Orvis retiring, after which the business was continued by D. Edgar 
until 1880, since which time he has been out of business. Edgar is 
quite a politician in the Democratic party, but does not want or as- 
pire to nor will he accept of any ofhce. These two brothers were 
from Barre, Vt., where the writer knew them when a boy. Edgar 
has a positive character — has a reason for all he does. He is, how- 
ever, a model citizen and is quite wealthy. Orvis is now a resident 
of Evanston, 111. 

Samuel M. Brooks and Thomas H. Stevenson, portrait and land- 
scape painters, were at the northeast corner of East Water and Wis- 
consin streets. Mr. Brooks, who is one of the most celebrated artists 
in the country, is now a resident of San Francisco, Cal. 

John Esch, wheelwright, now at No. 60 Second street, was at the 
southwest corner of Wells and West Water streets. Mr. Esch is a 
first-class mechanic and is doing a large business. 

He is a German, and one of the representative men of this old 
historic nation, so noted for its eminent men in science, literature 
and music. Mr. Esch is always self-poised, and if he can say no 
good of a man will say no wrong. He is very industrious, and has 
accumulated quite a fortune by honest labor. In person he is of me- 
dium size, very muscular, has a frank, open countenance, upon 
which a smile will always appear when spoken to. He has a strong, 
powerful voice, speaks very deliberately and very distinctly, with a 
prolonged accent upon the last syllable of each word. He is also 
very social with acquaintances, but with strangers he is close- 
mouthed, and if dealing with such will be very cautious. He is a 
good friend, and one whose acquaintance is worth having. 

Chandler & Jennings (Samuel Chandler — now of the firm of Smith 
& Chandler, grocers — and Rufus P. Jennings) were at No. 397 East 
Water street, Martin's block, dry goods. 

John Hardy, cutlery, was at No. 239, now 437, East Water street. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 129 

Mr. H. was from Sheffield, England, and kept a splendid stock of 
fine cutlery. He was a very quiet man — altogether too quiet to suc- 
ceed in this country. Neither could he ever accustom himself to 
the hurry and drive so prevalent with the business men of the Ameri- 
can race. He was tall, had a sallow countenance, was wholly desti- 
tute of nerve, and died from chagrin at his inability to cope with his 
American competitors more than from any disease. 

Henry Kroeger was still in the ice business with Chas. Rattinger 
for a partner. Mr. Kroeger, who was then worth some $40,000 and 
full of energy, is now a mere wreck, running about the city seUing 
his almanac, and is known as the " Weather Prophet." He also is 
running a skating and curling rink, and not worth a dollar. Mr. 
Rattinger, who subsequently rose to the dignity of a justice of the 
peace, and who also occasionally filled the office of pohce judge, /r^ 
tern., finally ran all out, and died several years ago. He was a man 
of some ability, but pohtics were too much for him, and he filled an 
early grave. 

Henry BerHner and JuHus Bruno had a safe manufactory on Front 
street, their office and sale-room being at 421 East Water street. 
This business, however, was soon abandoned, as they could not suc- 
cessfully compete with Eastern houses in this branch of business. 

Ogden & Smith (John Ogden and Philo N. Smith), carriage re- 
pository, were in the old frame row yet standing on the southwest 
corner of Spring and Second streets. 

This was a famous estabHshment, and probably sold more carriages, 
buggies and sleighs (Troy make) during the first ten years of its ex- 
istence than all the rest of the dealers in these articles in the city put 
together. They also manufactured largely after the withdrawal of 
Mr. Smith, which 1 think was in 1859 or i860, the father being the 
senior member until i86g, since which time it has been conducted 
by Geo. Ogden, the father having retired, and now is taking it easy 
in his autumnal years in the quiet enjoyment of the fruits of his labor. 
He can, however, be seen almost daily upon our streets, and is, for a 
man of his years (85), very active, and would not be taken for over 
65. May he reach 100. 

*Mr. Ogden was sketched in Vol. I., page 224. 



130 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

This manufactory is one of the largest ones in the city, and its rep- 
utation has been fully sustained by its present proprietor, who does 
good work, and is fast coming to the front as one of our solid men , 
and who, with his brothers — John, Jr., and Henry (of the firm of 
Atkins, Ogden & Atkms) — are not only an honor to their parents, 
but are an honor to the citv. 

Warren & Tracy (Richardson Warren and Geo. Tracy), afterwards 
Warren, Hevvett* & Tracy, successors to Durand & Lawrence, 117, 
now 315, East Water street. Of this firm, Mr. Tracy is yet with us, 
Mr. Hewitt is in Chicago, and Mr. Warren in Utica, N. Y. Mr. 
Warren was a man of large frame, rough and boisterous in manner, 
and had an unusually florid complexion. Mr. Hewett was a man of 
the medium size, dark complexion and dark hair, and was one of the 
kind who look out for number one. Mr. Tracy is one of the most 
genial and companiable men in the city, and is a general favorite. 
He is often selected to act as assignee in bankrupt cases. His pro- 
verbial honesty, as well as business abihty, make him a very suitable 
person for such emergencies. Aside from that he has no regular 
business-t 

J. B. Maxfield, stoneware, was on West Water street, near Cly- 
bourn. 

Hoffmann's, afterwards Hoffhiann & BilHngs (John C. Hoffmann 
and Chas. F. BiUings), brass foundry, were on 1 amarack street, now 
State, between Third and Fourth. 

Sigsmond & Joseph Wise, at 173, now 373 East Water street, teas. 
This firm was burnt out, and got no insurance (for cause), and, after 
fighting the insurance company for a while, returned to New York 
city, where I think they still reside. 

Samuel Morse, grocer, was on the northeast corner of West Water 

*Alfred E. Hewitt. 

f Three men more dissimilar in every way were never members of the same firm, 
in this city, than were Warren, Hewitt and Tracy; Mr. Warren, as stated, being 
coarse in manner and very rouj^h spoken; Mr. fiewitt was one of the kind who 
get money any way, and was always ready to shave his own or the firm's paper, 
and often did it; while Mr. Tracy was altogether too tender-hearted and non- 
aggressive to stand his own with two such men; and the result was that he is not 
wealthy. He has got the consolation, however, of knowing that he has the respect 
of all who know him, and that is better than gold or government bonds to an 
honest man. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 131 

and Spring streets. Mr. Morse was for many years a very promi- 
nent and successful grocer, but finally went to Nevada, where I think 
he died in 1881. He was a very nervous and excitable man. I re- 
member him well. 

Boyd & Ledyard were at what is now 107 Grand avenue, dry 
goods. They carried a large stock. 

Lewis Blake, millinery, was at 23 Wisconsin street. Mr. Blake 
was, for many years, at the head of the millinery department. He 
was a very worthy man. He died March 2, 1868. His widow is 
still with us, and retains an interest in the business under the title of 
Wm. Swale & Co. 

Frederick Guenther, hats and caps, 302 East Water street. Mr, 
Guenther is still in business. 

Julius Weber, jewelry, 411 East Water street, is yet in business. 

Geo. M. Elmore, crockery, 354 East Water street. He also sold 
gas fixtures and camphene. 

'I'here were no doubt other new comers as well as removals not 
mentioned. 

The firm of Goodrich & Terry, mentioned a few pages back, were 
for many years one of the most prominent in their Une in the city. 
The house was first estabHshed in April, 1850, by Timothy W. Good- 
rich and Rev. Eli S. Hunter (under the title of Goodrich & Hunter), 
as agents for the sale of the Messrs. Belcher's refined sugars,* their 
place of business being at the old red warehouse, yet standing, at 
the southeast corner of East Water and Erie streets. This continued 
until October, 1856, when Mr. Hunter retired, and a new partner- 
ship was formed by Mr. Goodrich with Frank H. Terry, under the 
title of Goodrich & Terry, the new firm adding groceries to their 
stock. 

Here they remained until 1 86 i.t Subsequently they were at 275, 
then 248, then 194-196 (old numbering), and lastly, in 1866, at 308- 
310 East Water street. | Here they remained until 1872, when Mr. 
Terry's health failing, the firm was dissolved, and Mr. Goodrich be- 



*'rhis refinery was at St. Louis, Missouri, and one of the largest in the country. 

fThere is some doubts about this, although every city directory from 185 1 down 
to 1861 locate them at that point. 

;{;Present numbering. 



132 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

came a partner with E. P. Bacon for two years in the produce and 
commission business, and in 1875 he formed a new partnership 
with Gen. Charles S. Hamilton, under the tide of Hamilton & 
Goodrich, for the manufacture of linseed oil, where he is to-day, 
their factory being situated at the northeast corner of Florida and 
Barclay streets. Such is the business record of the old pioneer 
house of Goodrich & Terry. 

Biographical. 

Timothy W. Goodrich was born at Benson, Vermont, August 5, 
1820, came to Chicago in 1832, where and at Naperville he remained 
until April, 1850,* when, as stated above, he came to Milwaukee. 
He belongs to that class of men who do business upon business 
principles, order and system being with him the governing law. 
He never engages in any enterprise without first looking the ground 
well over, and, when that enterprise is once taken in hand, he 
pushes it for all there is in it, and during business hours will be 
found at his ofiice, where, if you have any business with him, it 
will be at once attended to in a quiet manner, and during the trans- 
action of which no time will be given to idle conversation, and after 
your business is accomphshed you are expected to leave. He is, in 
this respect, like Mr. Bossert, of the Pfister & Vogel Leather Com- 
pany. He also has a wonderful memory, that, combined with 
good executive ability, enables him to see at a glance how the work 
is going on at the mill, as well as the exact state of the finances. He 
is not very nervous, nor ever loses control of himself. His morals 
are irreproachable, his integrity unimpeachable, and his word, once 
given, is never violated. Such are a few of Mr. Goodrich's business 
characteristics. In person he is of medium height, stoudy built, 
very quick motion, has Hght auburn hair, blue eyes, in which an un- 
usually soft expression is always seen. His voice is strong, low in 
tone, speaks quick, is a very pleasant companion, and, taken as a 
whole, is physically one of the finest looking men in the city. 

Mr. Terry was of a difterent mould. He was not as aggressive as 



*It is proper to state that previous to his advent in Milw/aukee he was a clerk 
in Chicago for eight years and a partner in the dry goods house of T. B. Carter 
four years. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 133 

Mr. Goodrich, but pulled the same way in all business matters. He 
was also a fine-looking man, tall and slim, with dark hair and eyes. 
His voice was almost feminine in tone. He was a fine scholar, very 
fond of works of art and books on scientific subjects. He was also 
very dignified in his manner, and during his Hfe was ranked as one 
of Milwaukee's best citizens. He died at Nassau, New Providence, 
where he had gone for his health, February 2, 1874. He was a na- 
tive of Hartford, Conn. 

Bradford Bros., wholesale dealers in dry goods, were at 155 and 
157 (now 355 and 357) East Water street, and were one of the lead- 
ing houses in their Hne in the state. Of this well-remembered firm 
James alone survives, the grim reaper having gathered the others 
into the better land. 

They were all remarkably fine looking men, neither is it out of 
place to say that no other New England family* has ever sent five 
worthier or better looking sons to the West, than were John, 
James, Robert C, Ephraim P. and Joseph L. Bradford. 

In conducting their business this firm followed the European cus- 
tom, i. e., the oldest brother being the senior member, that post of 
honor in their case being occupied by John, the Judah of this family, 
and who was a good representative of the old-time Boston merchant, 
always gentlemanly, courteous and dignified, holding his mercantile 
honor as too sacred a thing to be tarnished by any dishonest act, 
and always kept it bright. He was born October 9, 18 15, and died 
May 3, 1879, and was buried at Forest Home, but will live in mem- 
ory until all of his cotemporaries in Milwaukee shall have passed 
away. 

Of Robert Clarke Bradford the writer can only say that he re- 
members him as a fine looking, pleasant gentleman, with dark hair 
and eyes, a frank, open countenance, upon which a pleasant smile 
would appear when spoken to. He possessed fine conversational 
powers, was of large frame and commanding presence. He was 
born April 25, 1819; died March 20, 1852, of erysipelas, and was 
buried at Detroit, Mich. 



*They were all natives of New Boston, N. H., and in direct descent from Gov- 
ernor Bradford who came in the Mayflower. 



134 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

But as a perfect type of manly beauty Joseph L. excelled them 
all. Like Saul, king of Israel, he was in stature a head and shoulder 
above his brethren, being physically a good representative of the late 
General Winfield Scott. He had a remarkably pleasant disposition, 
a pleasing address, fine conversational powers, was fond of society, 
and was a universal favorite with all who knew him. He died June 
28, 1883, and was interred in Forest Home. He left three sons — 
Robert C, now an employee in the estabhshment of John Plankin- 
ton, Esq.; James R., now in the Northwestern National Insurance 
office, and Frank C, all of whom are worthy sons of a worthy 
sire. 

Of Ephraim P. the writer knew very little, as he was seldom 
brought in contact with him. He, hke his brothers, was very un- 
demonstrative, and like them would have nothing to do with politics. 
He died January 13, 1877, and sleeps in the old family lot at New 
Boston. 

Such is a brief sketch of this well-remembered pioneer dry goods 
house, a house that for many years occupied a front rank in their 
line in the amount of business done, and whose proprietors held a 
hi^h position as sterling business men, and who have left a record of 
which their children may well be proud. Their manly forms will be 
seen no more 'upon our streets, but in memory's ever sleepless eye 
the well-remembered faces and forms of John and Joseph L. Brad- 
ford are often seen by the writer as vividly as though present with 
him. 

There were two sisters — Annie, now the wife of John Plankinton, 
and Anstis, now the widow of Waterman Burr, who also resides in 
Milwaukee with her son, Ephraim B. Burr, of Burr & Hyde, com- 
mission merchants, West Water street. This lady is also the mother 
of Mrs. Chas. D. Rogers. 

William Brown, of Albany, Died March 2, 1856. 

Mr. Brown was, as has teen seen in the previous volumes, a very 
prominent business man in Milwaukee for several years. He was a 
large, fine-looking man, always dignified both in manner and con- 
versation, very kind-hearted and charitable. I remember him with 
a great deal of respect. He was designated as trom Albany, in con- 




^ 



/_ 




MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. _ 135 

tradistinction to William Brown, Jr., and William W. (double-headed 
Brown). 

Public Market. 

There was an effort made this year to establish a public market in 
the Fifth ward, for which purpose a meeting was held, January i, at 
the Niagara Hotel, David Merrill, chairman, Carlton Holland, sec- 
retary, resulting in the appointing of Captain George Barber, Cap- 
tain Josiah Sherwood, Martin Delaney, John Rosebeck, William P. 
Merrill, Duncan C. Reed and Captain Jasper Humphrey, to take the 
matter into consideration, who met on the 9th and reported in favor 
of issuing bonds to the amount of $50,000 to purchase a site, and 
fit it up for a pubhc square.* They also recommended to WiUiam 
A. Hawkins, the member-elect from that ward to the legislature, to 
petition that body to pass a bill to stop all work on the straight cut 
(the present harbor,) after which they adjourned. 

John Johnston. 

This gentleman, now so well and so widely known in banking 
circles throughout the entire Northwest as a clear-headed financier, 
as well as a somewhat prominent writer on the subject of PoHti- 
cal Finance, was born in the parish of Auchnagath, Aberdeenshire, 
Scotland, on the 8th day of June, 1836, and from where, after 
completing his education and receiving the degree of A. M., he 
came to America, arriving at Milwaukee, March 10, 1856. His 
first employment after his arrival was as general book-keeper in 
the banking house of his uncle, Hon. Alexander Mitchell, which 
position he filled for ten years, when he was promoted to that of 
assistant cashier, which office he holds to-day, making a continued 
service of twenty-nine years, and, like Mr. Ferguson, has become a 
prominent factor in that celebrated institution. 

Mr. Johnston sprung from a race noted for their hardihood, per- 
sonal courage, great intellectual power, as well as force of character, 
and last, but not least, wonderful financial ability — a race whose citi- 
zens, wherever they are found, whether as soldiers, statesmen, schol- 
ars, poets, authors, agriculturists, or business men, always occupy the 

*The present one on Florida street. 



136 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

front rank, and who as a nation occupy a high plane upon the page 
of history, and have given to the world some of the brightest men it 
has ever seen, consequently it would naturally be expected that with 
such an ancestry, supplemented after his arrival in this country with 
the prestige and the influence that such a man as Alexander Mitchell 
would give him, that he could not fail to succeed, even were he not 
naturally a strong man. But Mr. Johnston possesses within himself 
the elements requisite to ensure success, and could not well have 
been kept in the background, had there been no outside influence 
exerted in his behalf, as he is not only always self-poised, but he is 
aggressive, and will never be satisfied with anything less (to use a 
metaphor) than an inside seat in every enterprise in which he has an 
interest, and has during his residence here probably filled more places 
of trust in the various civic societies of which he is a member (as well 
as official positions of a public nature) than has any other one man 
in the city. He having served for 

Two terms as member of the Board of Aldermen. 

Thrice President of the St. Andrews Society. 

Thrice President of the Milwaukee Curling Club. 

Twice President of the Grand National Curhng Club. 

Twice President of Milwaukee Rifle Club. 

Treasurer and Director of Milwaukee College for many years. 

Treasurer and Director of Milwaukee Cement Co. since its organi- 
zation. 

Treasurer and Director of the Chippewa Valley & Superior Rail- 
way Company. 

Director in the Sailors Home. 

Vice-President of the Humane Society. 

Trustee of Calvary Presbyterian Church. 

Commissioner of Public Schools. 

Trustee of the Public Library. 

Director of the Milwaukee Industrial Exposition. 

Director in the Milwaukee & Wyoming Investment Company. 

Director in the Milwaukee City Railway Company. 

Director in Chamber of Commerce, Vice-President, and is now 
(1886) fiflmg his second term its President. 

This is a pretty good record for so young a man to make, and 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 137 

shows that Mr. Johnston has the confidence of his associates in these 
various civic societies, as well as the ability to fill those offices with 
credit to himself and them. 

Personnel. 

Mr. Johnston is of medium size, has a compact, wiry, as well as 
muscular frame, and is a fine representative of the Scottish race. 
He has a strong voice, speaks short and quick, but with the national 
accent strong, every word coming out with a ringing intonation and 
with great distinctness. He has a very nervous temperament, walks 
quick, is always in a hurry, always busy, and whatever he wants, he 
wants bad and wants it now. He has a positive character, is very 
pronounced in his views, and although ready to Hsten with courtesy 
to the opinions of others, is not easily turned from his position thereby, 
nor from his purpose, by opposition, and will fight hard to carry his 
point. He is a fine scholar, a great reader, remembers all he reads 
ha& the faculty of imparting information to others to a remarkable 
degree, and is always ready to do it. He also loves to investigate 
abstruse theories, and is ever ready to take the stand in that role 
either with voice or pen, and if beaten by his opponent dies game. 
In political faith he is a democrat, has strong political aspirations, 
and is an influential member of that party. In rehgious faith he is a 
Presbyterian, but not as radical in respect to creeds as are some of 
his Scottish brethren of that persuasion, or as was John Knox. He 
is a born banker, and if he lives has a briUiant future before him in 
that honorable calling, as well as the abiHty and ambition to fill it, 
his executive abiUties being of a superior order. He has fine con- 
versational powers, is a good public speaker and, like E. D. Holton, 
always ready to respond when called upon. 

He has got the foundation laid for a large fortune, and is destined 
in the near future to take rank as one of Milwaukee's .solid men, 
financially, as he already has among her literary and cultured socially. 
He is one to whom Dame Nature has been lavish in her gifts, and 
whose development, like that of E. P. Allis, has kept pace with the 
growth of his business, thus rendering him equal to any emergency. 
Such are some of the leading characteristics of John Johnston. 



138 milwaukee under the charter. 

Board of Trade. 

Organized January i6, 1856. 

President — Horatio Hill. 

Vice-President — Sanford B. Grant. 

Treasurer — William J. Bell. 

Secretary — Henry A. Nichols. 

Directors — Byron Kilbourn, A.Whittemore,William P. Young, John 
Plankinton, John Nazro, Lewis J. Higby, Nelson Webster, Edward P. 
Allis, John G. Inbusch, Lester Sexton, Robert H. Strong, Daniel New- 
hall, Edward H. Brodhead, John B. Medberry and Lewis L. Lee. 

Arbitrators — Gideon P. Hewitt, William B. Alvord, WiUiam J. 
Whahng, Levi H. Kellogg, John Bradford, Edwin H. Goodrich and 
Henry Fess, Jr. 

This association, together with the old Corn Exchange, was merged 
in the piesent Chamber of Commerce, in April, 1858. 

Charter Amendments. 

The amendments to the new City Charter, which those who were 
always tinkering that much abused instrument wanted adopted by 
the legislature of 1856, were the extension of the city Hmits on the 
North ; the division of the First ward — making the Seventh ward ; 
the division of Second ward into three ; changing the manner and 
time for the collection of city taxes, making them collectable semi- 
annuallv; the aboHtion of the office of city marshal; fixing the 
mayor's salary at $2,500 (previously non-salaried), and the city attor- 
ney's at $2,000. 

Railroad Meeting. 

There was a large railroad meeting held February 9th, at Young's 
hall, to hear the report of the committee upon the building of the 
Milwaukee & Beloit Railroad, via Rochester and Burlington, then 
one of the pet schemes of the railroad men. This road, which was 
to leave the city via the present Eighth w£:rd, was graded nearly to 
Burlington, much of which grade is yet visible. But the road was 
never built. One of the moving spirits in this enterprise was Horatio 
Hill. William J . Whaling also sunk some money in it. 



milwaukee under the charter. 139 

Destructive Fire February io, 1856. 
See annexed : 

Warehouse Burnt. — About 6 o'clock last evening smoke was discov- 
ered issuing from the elevator of the large brown warehouse on the 
west side of the river, occupied b}^ Messrs. W. B. Alvord and Bell & 
Bean. The alarm of fire was promptly given and the fire department 
quickly responded to the call. The engines were drawn upon the ice 
on the" river and were on hand in season to have checked the fire early 
could they have got at the water. But there were no holes ready cut, 
and ten or fifteen minutes of precious time was lost in chopping through 
ice from two to three feet thick. Meanwhile the flames spread rapidly 
and by the time the engines got to work had possession of the entire 
building. All that the firemen could then do was to prevent the spread 
of the fire to the adjoining lumber yards and vessels, and in that they 
succeeded. 

The warehouse with its contents was pretty much destroyed. The 
building cost originally rbout $9,000; it was owned by Dickinson & Co., 
and insured in the Etna for !|i4,000. There were in the building about 
15,000 bushels of wheat, forty tons of broom corn, fifty barrels of pork, 
and some other rolling freight, belonging to different parties. The in- 
surance on it was as follows: Commercial, Milwaukee, i^o,500; Hartford 
Fire Insurance Company, §4,000; Merchants', Philadelphia, $2,500. 

The pork and some one thousand bushels of wheat were saved. The 
fire is supposed to have originated from friction in the elevator. 

At 8 o'clock this morning the alarm cry was again given, caused by 
the breaking out afresh of the flames, and as we go to press the sharp 
clang of the bells and tlie hoarse shouts of our firemen break upon the 
stillness of the night.* 

This was the warehouse mentioned in Vol. II., page 187, as hav- 
ing been burnt while occupied by William B. Alvord when filled with 
oats, wheat and hams, the wreck of which was left standing until 
1857, when the ground was leased to Captain Jas. Doyle for a lum- 
ber yard, from whom it went lo Robert W. Pierce and Samuel D. 
Luscombe, who used it for the same purpose until 1872, when it 
passed to J. G. Flint, the well known coffee and spice man, who 
erected the present block, and where he has accumulated a large 
fortune. 



*Mr. Alvord removed from here to St. Louis, Mo., where he engaged in the 
insurance business, and where he died in May, 1885. He was a very dignified 
and somewhat aristocratic mannered gentleman, but a very good business man. 
I remember Mr. Alvord well, and he often comes to mind when thinking of the 
olden time. The principal cause of the total destruction of this building was the 
unusual thickness of the ice, which rendered it impossible to obtain water before 
the fire had got beyond the control of the firemen. I was present at this fire and 
well remember the excitement it made on this account. The ice was nine inches 
thick on the 20th, and remained so until the 27th, when it began to be unsafe. 
It was nearly all gone April I, except at the mouth of the river, which it blocked 
until the 5th, and May 2 brought us our first boat from below, the schooner David 
Todd, and navigation was finally opened to Buffalo. 



140 milwaukee under the charter. 

The Star Mills. 

This well known and prosperous manufactory, the largest of its 
kind in the city, was founded by the Flint Bros.,* in 1858, their first 
place of business being opposite the Plankinton House,t from where 
it was removed (in 1863) to the Reese block. No. 130 West Water 
street, and from there (in 1872) to their present location, northeast 
corner of West Water and Clybourn streets, they havings as just 
stated, purchased the ground and erected the present building. 
This has been without exception the most successful institution of 
the kind in the city, and has made for its owners a large amount of 
money, their goods being sent to all parts of the United States. 
They also carry on the manufacture of tobacco m all its various 
forms, in which they do a large business, being the second in size in 
the city. 

There are few men in any city who possess better business abili- 
ties than J. G. Flint, Jr. He does everything at the proper time in 
a business-like manner, and will make money where his competitors 
would lose. One of Mr. FHnt's best points is his self-rehance. He 
never wants or takes advice from any one. Springing from a race 
who were trained to industry, self-reliance and economy, he knows 
the value of time as well as money, and just how to improve the 
one and use the other to the best advantage. 

The writer has watched Mr. Flint very closely from the time he 
came to the city. He is aggressive to an unusual degree, and allows 
no one to get ahead of him. His executive abihties are of the first 
order, and were he a politician in the full sense of the term he would 
have been in congress long ago. He is a splendid disciplinarian, 
and everything moves like clockwork in his business. He, like Mr. 
AUis, knows at a glance the capabilities of every man in his employ, 
as well as the place to put him, holds him responsible for the fulfil- 
ment of his trust, and never discharges an employee except for good 
cause. He has made a splendid record as a business man, and is 
ranked among our solid men. He was born at Windsor, N. H., 
February 16, 1829. 



*Wyman and John G. Flint, now J. G. Flint, Jr. 
+ 24 Spring street, now 124. 



milwaukee under the charter. 141 

Old Jones Tried. 

The trial of Miser Jones, as he was called, together with the boys 
Titball (colored) and Thompson (white) for arson, the two latter- 
named for setting fire to an old building in the rear of 398 East 
Water street, came off at the March term, 1856. I was on the jury- 
in both cases. These two boys were a part of a gang of young 
hoodlums that infested the city in those days. They were a bad lot. 
Jones' crime was setting fire to an old building on the southeast 
corner of East Water and Buffalo streets. 

The annexed, taken from the Evening Wisconsin of April, 1885, is 
given here as a matter of history concerning this trial : 

Trial op Jonks. 

The trial of this case of Miser Jones deserves more than a passing 
notice, as he was the first man arrested for arson,* and there had been 
so many fires that there was no doubt they were the work of incendia- 
ries, that I liave concluded to give the whole of the Jones case. Peter 
Yates had first been employed by Jones as his counsel. When the case 
was called for trial before Judge Hubl)ell, Yates was set aside as counsel 
and Dighton Corson substituted on the 2od day of May, 1855. James 
Kneeland had given bail for Jones in the sum of §3,000. The jury on 
the first trial that did not agree were James S. Buck, Aaron Harriman, 
Peter Lavies, Jr., J. R. Treat, Jacob Donges, Owen Aldrich, Leonard 
Kennedy, Joel Perrigo, 8imon Levy, Charles Neumann, 'Squire Sackett 
and Henry Brown. After the dismissal of the jury, the bail was re- 
duced to §2,000, James Kneeland again going on the bond. 

The case was tried the second time by James A. Mallory, district at- 
torney, for the state, and Dighton Corson for Jones. The second jury 
were George Paddock, Francis Harmeyer, John A. Borger, Seth Crip- 
pen, James Martin, Henry Surges, Lucms D. Marsh, Josiah Knowlton, 
Thomas Gillis, John Boyd, Joseph Williams and E. CI. Hayden. Jones 
was found guilty on the 8th of March, 1856, and on the 15th day of 
March he was sentenced to seven years at Waupun prison. He was 
pardoned out on the 1st day of February, 1858, as per certificate signed 
t)y Edward M. McGraw, state prison commissioner, filecl in the office of 
the clerk of the circuit court. Jones came back to the city and lived in 
an old shanty on State street, between Fifth and Sixth streets, and one 
cold morning he was found dead in the shantv, some time about 1864 
or 1865. 

The correct history of this man's life, could it have been obtained, 
would have read like a romance. If all that was said of him was 
true, he had at one period of his life been a sailor on the " briny 
deep " in a slaver, if not something worse. But whether this was 
true or not, he certainly was not the man one would want to sleep 
with, not if they knew it. His presence always cast a chill over all 

■*This is incorrect. There was a previous trial for arson. See Vol. II., page 
148. 






142 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

who came in contact with him, and his whole demeanor was such as 
to make any one who saw him believe him guilty of some great 
crime. He was a bad man, and his death was not lamented. His 
full name was William Jones. 

The following incident is said to have occurred in Judge Erastus 
Foote's court, to which Jones had been " cited " subsequent to his 
release from Wauj)un : 

A Peisoxer Beinging Up ax Unpleasant Eeminiscence. 

Old Miser Jones, who was sent from this city to state prison some 
years since for arson, and who had considerable property when he was 
taken away, which was carefully taken care of in his absence by law- 
yers and other cormorants, was up in the municipal court yesterday 
mornintr, having ])een arrested for some trivial offence. Judge Erastus 
Foote "^ stood " him up, and told him that since it was his first offence 
before that court he would give him as li<j:ht a fine as possible, which 
was §1, and which added to the costs made it §1.37. 

Old Jones then drew himself up, and elevating his right forefinger 
and shaking it, he said: " Xow, look ahere. Judge, do you know what 
that's for?" The Judge began to grow uneasy, and called a constable 
to silence the prisoner. Old Jones continued, " I say, do you know 
what that's for. Judge? Well, I'll tell j^e. Ye know when I was in 
state prison yer honor wrote me a letter, telling me that the lawyers 
was stealing all my property, and yer honor wanted me to send ye $100 
to take care of it for me. And because I wouldn't do it, now ye fine 
me." 

At this point the Judge became exasperated, and rising up, impera- 
tively ordered a policeman to bear the prisoner away. Such episodes 
are very unpleasant, and old Jones ought to have known better than 
done so. 

New Woodyard. 

A woodyard, the first for retail purposes in the city, was opened 
this year on the corner of Wells and West Water streets by Gardner 
& Ball (Henry L. Gardner and Alvin B. Ball). 

New Bridge Called For. 

There was a call for a new bridge at Huron street in January, 
1856. See annexed : 

Bridge at Huron Street. — A resolution was offered in the common 
council on Thursday evening, and referred to the bridge committee, for 
the construction of "a bridge across the river at the foot of Huron street. 
Another bridge is very much needed to accommodate drays, omni- 
busses, &c., in passing to and from the railroad depots in the Fourth 
ward. We think, however, that it might with advantage be put one 
block further south, to-wit, at the foot of Detroit street. 

This was a project of Jonathan Taylor, who was at that time the 
owner of the southwest corner of West Water and Clybourn streets, 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 143 

where F. F. Adams' tobacco factory now stands. It was built by 
the Messrs. Babcock Bros., who took the contract March i. See 
annexed : 

Huron Street Bridge. — The contract for building the new bridge 
across the river from the foot of Huron .street, Third ward, to the foTjt 
of Clybourn street. Fourth ward, was let yesterday to the Messrs. Bab- 
cock, who will do up the work in good style. The piles will be driven 
and the timber all got out, shaped and fitted before the close of naviga- 
tion, and the bridge put up during the wdnter. It will be a great accom- 
modation to travel and business. 

This bridge lasted until 1867, when it was pulled down to make 
room for the present iron one, built by the Messrs. Fox & Co., of 
Chicago. 

A Nkw Jail Called For. 

There was a pretty severe article in the Sefitinel of March 1 1 this 
year upon the filthy condition of that classic retreat for the weary 
and heavy-laden devotees of the mythical personage known as 
Father Gambrinus, which made it clear to all that a new one would 
be an improvement, or that at least a house of refuge for boys was 
greatly needed. This article was called out by tl^e trial of the two 
boys, Thompson and Titball, previously mentioned. But the super- 
visors were deaf to all entreaties in that direction. Neither was 
there any cliange until Edward O'Neill got the bill through the legis- 
lature in 1857 for the erection of a reform school at Waukesha. 

A Puff for the Bridge Superintendent. 

The Sentinel oi March i, in speaking of those too much abused 
bridges, has the following : 

The City Bridges. — ^Both the Spring street and Walker's Point bridge 
have been undergoing repairs within the past few weeks. The latter is 
finished, and early next week the former will be again fit for ti-avel. 
The wrought iron plate track upon which the bridge formerly traversed 
has been taken up, and a heavy railroad iron track laid down in its 
place. The Spring street bridge, in addition to the above, is having its 
draw widened, and the apron on the west side has been taken away 
and a massive oak beam, eighteen inches square, placed on piles and 
strongh' braced, strengthening the abutment of the bridge, and acting 
as a fender to prevent any damage, except to the vessel, from collisions 
with the river craft. Mr. Harrison, the superintendent of the city 
bridges, is making a strong job of it and a useful one, and in the end an 
economical one fjr the city. A boy could turn the bridges now the im- 
provements are made, and in half the time it formerly took. 

Mr. Harrison was a good mechanic, and made a good superin- 
tendent. I can see him now in memory's eye. He was a very fine- 



144 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

looking man. He died October i, 1871, and was buried in Forest 
Home. 

She Wouldn't Stay Out. 

An illustration of the int^uence that prison discipline has upon 
some criminals was fully shown in the case of Mary Murphy, who 
was pardoned out of Waupun, March 15th, and was in the watch- 
house in Milwaukee on the 17th; she lost no time. Also in the case 
of Thompson, sent up for burglarizing the store of Messrs. Brooke & 
Cannon,* who was pardoned out at the same time on account of ill- 
health (the petition stating that he Avas nearly dead with the con- 
sumption), and who robbed a store in Chicago within eight days. 
His health must have improved very fast. There is altogether too 
little discrimination used in the exercise of the pardoning power by 
the average governor in this country. 

Division of the Second, First and Fifth wards, making the Sixth, 
Seventh and Eighth. 

The first move looking towards a village government over what is 
now the city of Milwaukee, was made December 14th, 1836, and 
carried into effect February 14th, 1837, at which time it was 
divided into two wards, known as the East and ^Vest Wards, each 
of which was presided over by five trustees, while all south of the 
Milwaukee River was known as the South Side, or Walker's Point. 
(See Vol. I., pages 109 to 114, inclusive). This system prevailed 
until the adoption of the Charter, January 5, 1846, at which time the 
East Ward was divided, making the First and Third, and the West 
Ward into the Second and Fourth, while all South of the Milwaukee 
River was embraced in the Fifth, which was the number (although a 
division was often attempted) until 1856, at which time the Second 
was divided, making the Sixth, and the First, making the Seventh, 
under the following legislative enactment : 

The People of the State of Wisconsin, represented in Senate and As- 
sembly, do enact as follows: 

Section 1. All the territory now included in the Second Ward of the 
city of Milwaukee, which lie's south of the center of Vliet street and 
the Madison road in said city, shall hereafter constitute and be the 
Second ward of the city of Milwaukee; and all the territorv now in- 
cluded in the Second ward of the city of Milwaukee, which lies north 

* Mentioned in previous Chapter. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 145 

of the center of Vliet street and the INIadison road in said city, shall 
constitute and be the Sixth Ward of the citvof Milwaukee. 

Section 2. All the territory now included in the First ward of the 
city of Milwaukee, which lies north of the center of Division street in 
said city, shall hereafter constitute and be the First ward of the city of 
^lilwaukee; and all the territory now included in the First ward of the 
city of Milwaukee, which lies south of the center of Division street in 
said city, shall constitute and be the Seventh ward of the city of Mil- 
waukee. 

This bill further provided that there should be one alderman from 
each of these new wards, elected for t\vo years, and two for one year, 
at the Spring election. 

The seventeenth section of chapter two of the act of which this act 
was amendatory (see section 8 of this act), was also amended as 
follows : 

All the city and ward officers now in office shall hold their respective 
offices until their successors shall be elected or appointed under this 
act, and the term of every officer elected under this law shall commence 
on the second Tues'day in Ajiril of the year for which he is elected, and 
shall, unless herein otherwise provided, continue for one year, and 
until his successor is elected and qualiiiecl. 

Approved February 21, 185(5. 

The act dividing the Fifth ward was passed at the second session 
of the legislature which convened September 3d, 1856, and adjourned 
October t4th. This act, which provided that all that portion of the 
Fifth ward lying west of the present First Avenue (formerly called 
Monroe street), and north of Railroad street, should constitute the 
Eighth ward, to go into effect March 31, 1857. This act was ap- 
proved October 11, 1856. 

It contained the same provisions as to the officers as the others. 

Common Council Proceedings. 

Saturday Evening, March 8th, 1856. 

Present— Aldermen Houghton, Haertel, Mallory, Meyer, Mitchell, 
Milman, Rcsebeck, Schutte, Shortell — 9. 

The Mayor presented a communication from the Hon. Daniel 
Wells, Jr.. M. C, relative to Marine Hospital at this city (same as 
presented to the Board of Trade). 

On motion, the Mayor was authorized to sign a memorial to Con- 
gress on behalf of the Common Council. 

Alderman Rosebeck presented the following communication : 



146 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Honorable Mayor and Common Council of the City of Milwaukee: 

We, underBigned citizens, find the firin<r of cannon this evening as a 
violation of the city ordinance, and very disagreeable in cases of sick- 
ness. And we, undersigned citizens, beg of your honorable body not to 
allow firing of cannons on such occasions hereafter. 

Signed, 
N. Brick, Robert Hibbard, 

S. R. Johnson, C. H. Roscher, 

W. B. Johnson, M. D. Ehlmann, 

Jonas Brown, R. P. Houghton, 

Herman St-^rk, G. Houghton. 

Referred to Police Committee. 

Aid. Mallory offered a resolution, fixing the foUoWing places for 
holding election at the ensuing city election : 

First Ward — At the house of P. Theie, corner of Jackson and Ogden 
streets. 
Second Ward — Mansion House. 
Third Ward — Louisiana House, Main street. 
Fourth Ward — Engine House of No. 5. 
Fifth Ward — Niagara House. 
Sixth Ward — Park Saloon, Galena street. 
Seventh Ward — Best's Lager Beer Hall, Market Square. 

Qualifications of Voters. 

1. Citizenshii), or Declaration of Intentions. 

2. One year's residence in the City. 

3. Ten days' residence in the Ward. 

Ballots. 

Two Ballots are required — one containing the name of the person 
voted for, for Alderman for two years — the other containing the names 
of all other candidates voted for, for City and Ward Officers. 

Polls Open from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. 

Adopted. 

Aid. .Mallory called up the question of agreeing with the report of 
the committee on paying the Sentinel for printing. 

Aid. Rosebeck opposed the allowance principally because the 
Sentinel had not treated the Aldermen generally fairly in the matter 
of noticing them. The reports furnished by the Sentinel \\2A never 
been fair; had always been botched to suit their own fancy. 

Aid. Mitchell thought if there were any city printers, the printing 
for the city should be done by them. 

Aid. Mallory explained that the printing was done in 1854. 

The report was adopted as follows : 

Ayes — Houghton, Haertel, Mallory, Meyer, Mitchell, Millman, 
Schutte, Shorten — 8. 

Nays — Rosebeck — i. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 147 

Aid. Mallory presented the resignation of Rufus King as Schoo 
Commissioner of the First ward. Accepted. 
Adjourned. 

Municipal. 

As the time for the spring election drew nigh, those who were 
looking (and their name wa^ legion) for a place on the municipal 
slate began to stir the political Bethesda. The election of six new 
aldermen, as well as other officials for the two new wards, added not 
a little to the commotion, and, as the old Dutchman said, when 
Lpeaking of it, " Dem fellers make blenty droubles mid dere fooHsh- 
ness." And he was right. 

The delegates to the People's convention from the First, Fourth, 
Fifth and Seventh wards met at the court-house on the 19th of 
March, and nominated a ticket, with Daniel Newhall* for mayor, 
while the regular " simon-pure " Democracy met on the 29th, at the 
Fourth ward engine-house, on Second street, that locality being 
selected with reference to its nearness to water, as in case the con- 
testants for office got over-heated in their strife for an inside seat the 
boys could wet them down with less trouble. 

The following were a few of the names suggested by the various 
political Solons of tiiat day as fit subjects for mayorial honors: Jas. 
B. Cross (who won the day), Sanford B. Grant, Edward D. Holton, 
Edward H. Brodhead, Doctor E. B. Wolcott, John J. Inbusch, Jas. 
B. Martin, W. P. Lynde, Lester Sexton and Anson Eldred. 

The election resulted as follows : 

Mayor — James B. Cross. 
Comi)troller— John B. Edwards. 
Treasurer — Herman Schwurting. 
Attorney — Wilson W. Graham. 
Marshal— Charles E. Meyer. 
Police Justice — Clinton Walworth. 
City Engineer — William S. Trowltridge. 
Chief of Police — William Beck, appouited. 

Sealer of Weights and Measures— Jesse M. Van Slyck, appointed. 
Bridge Superintendent — Patrick Markey, appointed. 
AVood Inspector — Ernst Hertzberg. 

City Printers— English, J R. Sharpstein. German, Schoeffler & 
Wendte. 



*Mr. Nevvliall subsequently •lecliiieil and jas. I]. Cm^s was .substituted n his 
place as a comprcaiise candidate. 



148 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

President of Board — J. Hadley. 
City Clerk— Robert Whitehead. 

Aldermen. 

First Ward — Jackson Hadley, CJhristopher Bast and Luke Marnell. 

Second Ward — Jacob A. Hoover, A. Greulich and John C. Dick. 

Third AVurd— T. O'Brien, Jolm Shortell and Michael Delaney. 

Fourth Ward — Alex. H. Johnston, J. Plankinton and Jonathan Tay- 
lor. 

Fifth Ward — Henry Millman, Joseph R. Cordes and Jasper Hum- 
phrey. 

Sixth Ward — Herman Haertel, F. Kuehn and John Kline. 

Seventh Ward — George S. Mallory, Fdward Button and Francis J. 
Jung. 

Council room in Martin's block, southwest corner of East Water 
and Wisconsin streets. 

Commissioners of Survey. 

I. A. Lapham, Sanford B. Grant, Elisha Eldred, Andrew Mitchell and 
Ira E. Goodall.* 

Justices of the Peace. 

First Ward— J. W. Cannon. 
Second Ward — Charles F. Bode. 
Third Ward— WiUiam Holland. 
Fourth Ward— Robert N. Austin. 
Fifth Ward — Oliver Parsons. 
Sixth Ward — Riley M. Messenger. 
Seventh Ward — Albert Smith. 

('onstables. 

First Ward — John Schoffle. 
Second Ward — Charles Neumann. 
Third Ward— John H. Ryan. 
Fourth Ward — Henry M. Beecroft. 
Fifth Ward — August Meyer. 
Sixth Ward — George Fischer. 
Seventh Ward — Gottlieb Luther. 

Railroad Commissioners. 

First Ward— Benjamin Skidmore. 
Second Ward — George Albert. 
Third Ward— Thomas Eviston. 
Fourth Ward — John A. Seger. 
Fifth Ward— Charles H. Larkin. 
Sixth Ward — Adam Portner. 
Seventh Ward — John Jennings. 

Fire Department. 

Chief Engineer — John C. Goodrich. 
First Assistant — John Lowther. 
Second Assistant — Henry Yerkins. 
Third Assistant— Nathan B. Brooks. 
President of Board — Daniel Schultz. 
Vice-President— Duncan C. Reed. 
Secretary — J. Albert Helfenstein. 
Treasurer — John Nazro. 



*The same book gives Otis B. Hopkins in acklition. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 149 

Fire Wardens. 

First Ward— Nick Ludwig, Wm. H. Holland. 
Second Ward — A. J. Langworthv, Hezekiah Moore. 
Third Ward— Frank Devlin, Theodore Bilty. 
Fourth Ward— Priam B. Hill, Chas. W. Bierbach. 
Fifth Wai'd — August Mayer, Emil Schandein. 
Sixth Ward— David House, F. H. Greeideaf. 
Seventh Ward — Robert C. Jacks, Lewis Fuchs. 

The whole number of firemen in the city was six hundred. 

School Commissioners. 

First Ward — Jackson Hadley, Luke Marnell and Silas Chapman. 

Second Ward— I. A. Lapham, Jas. Flvnn and Chas. J. Kern. 

Third Ward— Ed O'Neill, Chas. Lane* and John Horan. 

Fourth Ward — Samuel L. Elmore, Jno. Seger and Jonathan Taylor. 

Fifth Ward— Andrew Mitchell, Edwin De Wolf and Charles H. Lar- 
kin. 

Sixth Ward — Charles E. Jenkins, Benjamin Church and Ferdinand 
Kuehn. 

Seventh Ward — Jas. Johnson, Francis J. Jung and Geo. S. Mallory. 

J. Hadley, president. 

R. Whitehead, secretary. 

Our Public Schools — The Teachers for the Ensuing Year. 

The executive committee of the board of school commissioners 
of the city of Milwaukee respectfully report that they have selected 
the following-named persons as teachers for the public schools of 
this city for the ensuing year, and recommend that the salaries set 
opposite their names be paid to them : 

First Ward. 

George McWhorter, principal $850 

Mason G. Smith (male), first assistant 300 

Miss E. J. Phillips, second assistant 300 

Intermediate. 

Mary C. Osgood, principal $.350 

F. Duggan, assistant 300 

Primary. 

Cath. Kavanagh, principal $350 

Miss Quinn, first assistant 300 

Second Ward. 

H. W. Spalding, principal $850 

Miss Clark, assistant 300 

Intermediate. 

Miss E. Phelps, principal $.350 

Miss Upton, assistant 300 

*The book containing the city charter (and ordinances), published in 1856, 
gives John Mitchell in place of Charles Lane as school commissioner for 1856 in 
the Third ward. This is evidently a mistake, as Mr. Mitchell has always been a 
resident of the Fourth ward, where he was constable in 1849, ^^^ presided at an 
anti-temperance meeting (see Vol. III., pages 62 and 196), while Mr. Lane is 
now and always has been a resident of the Third ward. 



150 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Primary. 

Miss Greenleaf, principal •. ^350. 

Miss Van Dyke, a^^wstant • ^^^ 

District No. 2. 

Miss E. H. Langdon, principal *t'450 

Miss Ries, assistant ^^^ 

Third Ward. 

F. C. Pomerov, principal '^^^ 

M. J. Gilbert; first assistant ^^0 

M. E. Boylan, second assistant ^^^ 

Intermediate. 

C. O. Mahonev, principal ^;^0^ 

C. Gillet, assistant -^^ 

Primary. 

Anne E. Mitchell, principal ^350 

Miss Potter, assistant ^"^ 

Fourth Ward. 

C. K. Martin, principal '^SoO 

Miss Teed, assistant '^^ 

Intermediate. 

Miss Baldwin, principal §350 

Mrs. C. R. Rogers, assistant -'^ 

Primary. 

Miss Le Basque, principal ^f^^ 

Miss Sackett, assistant •-'^^ 

Fifth Ward. 

John Drew, principal §850 

Miss Bradley, assistant ^*J^ 

Intermediate. 

Miss Trowbridge, principal - ^'tfn 

Miss Cook, assistant '^'-"^ 

Primary. 

Mrs. Blodgett, principal §3pO 

Miss Packard, assistant ^^0 

The scliools will open Monday next, April 14. 

Supervisors. 

This office was still filled by the aldermen. 

Wauwatosa— Thomas Tobin. 
Granville— Charles P. Everts. 
Milwaukee— T. Bare. 
Lake— M. L. Burdick. 
Greenfield— J. C. James. 
Oak Creek— P. McQuillen. 
Franklin — J. Conway. 
George S. Mallory, chairman. 
A. Bade, clerk. 

County officers elected the previous November : 

Sheriff— Samuel S. Conover. 

Under Sherift"- Wm. Beck. 

Deputies— Wm. G. Parsons, Robert Wasson and T. O'Brien. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Jas. A. iNIallory. 

Register of Deeds— Chas. J. Kern. 

Deputy Register — J. A. Liebhaber. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 151 

Treasurer — Garrett M. Fitzgerald. 

Deputy Treasurer — Chas. P. Everts. 

Clerk of Supervisors — Albert Bade. 

Deputy Clerk— Chas. F. Kasteu. 

Surveyor — John Gregory. 

Coroner — Wm. Beck. 

Superintendents of the Poor — Henry Fowler and Henry Suppus. 

It would appear from the above that the office of under sheriff, 
chief of poHce and coroner were all vested in one person — William 
Beck. 

Board of Trade.* 

President — William J. Whaling. 

Vice-President — Lester Sexton. 

Secretary — Andrew J. Aikens. 

Treasurer — M. S. Scott. 

Office in Furlong's block, 327 East Water street. 

Corn Exchange,* 

Office foot of West Water street. 
President — L. J. Higby. 
Vice-President — S. T. Hooker. 
Treasurer — Benjamin Nute. 
Secretary — N. J. Aikins. 

The Old Military Hall. 

The annexed cut is a fac-siraile of this pioneer building, the 
first one ever erected in the city for military purposes only. It was 
erected by the Washington Guards, a company composed wholly of 
Germans organized in 1845. Capt., David George ; first Heut., D. 
Upman ; second lieut., F. Hilgen; first sergt., J. A. Liebhaber; sec- 
ond sergt., F. Gesmer. This hall stood upon the south side of 
Oneida street, directly east ot the alley between Main and Market 
streets, and, as has been seen, was often used for municipal gather- 
ings as well as for public meetings of a social nature. The scene 
before us is the presentation of a banner to the guards, Nov. 3, 1845, 
by the German ladies. The presentation speech being made by 
Miss Louisa Dresen, and the acceptance by Capt. George, I was 
present at this presentation. 



'Merged in the present board April, 1858. 



152 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 










This hall, or at least a portion of it, is now standing on North River 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 153 

Street, directly opposite the Gem mill, (where it was taken when re- 
moved,) and used for the manufacture of sash, doors and blinds. 
It has been partly burned since its removal. 




BiLTv's Tremont. 

Opening of the new Tremont, (late the St. Clair House,) Monday, 
April 14, 1856. See annexed. 

This cut represents the hotel as it appeared when opened as the 
Tremont. It was quite a popular house for a while. 

The opening was attended by upwards of three hundred people. 
One gentleman informed us that the supper " vas yust so goot as it 
cauld be." A ball followed the supper, and dancing was kept up till 
morning. The best feeling and good order prevailed throughout the 
night. There was a good time generally and all, as they left, wished 
the landlord a good run of business. 

Burning of the Tremont. 

This hotel was located on the northwest corner of Huron and 
Cass streets. It was a frame structure and occupied by Theodore 
Bilty. It had a front of forty feet and a depth of ninety-two feet, 
was two and one-half stories high, and cost $8000, including the 
furniture. It was at this fire that Henry Middleton, then a 
member of old No. i, remained inside amid the smoke and heat 
until he removed all the furniture. 

It had to a certain extent lost its former prestige, after which it 



154 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

became a resort for roughs and rowdies, and ended its career, as did 
most of its congeners, by fire. It was burned Dec. 8, 1858. 

Biographical. 

Mr. Bilty, its well-remembered landlord, was quite a character in 
his day. He was a German. In person he was tall and straight, 
had a florid complexion, sandy hair and blue eyes. His voice was 
strong in tone, he spoke distinctly often quite emphatically. He was 
not a man, however, that it would be safe to bet much money on, as 
his conscience was very elastic. He left for California shortly after 
this fire, where, I believe, he is yet living. The hotel was not re- 
built. 

I often think of Mr. Bilty and in memory's sleepless eye, can see 
him as he appeared, when at the steamers or cars, while running 
this hotel. There he was wide awake and always managed to get 
his share of the spoil, that was filched from the poor emigrants, in 
the palmy days of the "side-wheelers" who patronized the piers, 
where a tribute of one dollar was rigorously exacted from all who 
were unfortunate enough to land there, for every dray load passed 
over it — a charge more arbitrary, and more keenly felt than any 
other the emigrant was called upon to pay during his journey from 
the Father- Land, until he landed in Milwaukee. 

South Side Gas Company Formed. 

There was a new Gas Company formed this year upon the south 
side. It was organized April 17. The directors were W. A. Hawkins, 
Hiram Merrill, Andrew Mitchell, John Rosebeck, and Jasper Hum- 
phrey. W. A. Hawkins, Pres.; Hiram Merrill. Sec; Andrew 
Mitchell, Treas. 

This institution was short-lived. The works are now known as 
Nos. 263 and 265 Reed street, and are used as a foundry and ma- 
chine shop. 

Great military parade May 27. Henry Nunnemacher makes a 
speech. August Philipp displays his acrobatic qualities. 

Among the appointees upon the gubernatorial staff, in 1856, were 
our well remembered fellow citizens, Henry Nunnemacher as major, 
and August Phiilipp as arsenal-keeper, each of whom at once pro- 
vided themselves with the regulation uniform belonging to their rank. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 155 

Coat of blue, with facings red, 

A chapeau as big as a farmer's shed. 

Breeches of buff, as tight as their skin, 

Boots that came half way to their chin. 

And mounting their steeds they galloped away 

To take a part in the coming affray 

At the head of their gallant division. 

/. e. Nunnemacher did. If the steed upon which Phillipp was 
mounted had any abilities as a war horse, he certainly did not exhibit 
them upon that occasion. He was not of the kind which scenteth 
the battle from afar, or that paweth the earth in his strength. He 
was the worst looking specimen ot horse-flesh that could possibly 
have been found in the state. In fact so weak and low spirited 
did he appear as he stood in the rear of the staff, on Wisconsin 
street, that some of the good little boys who usually manage to be 
present at every military display — one of whom was our well known 
fellow citizen, L. N. Skinner — procured a few sticks of cordwood* 
and stood the ; up against his sides in order to prevent him from 
falling over. This act of charity on the part of young Skinner was 
not observed by Phillipp, owing to his (Phillipp's) high spiritual con- 
dition, although the boys all yelled their appreciation of the act. 

But the Speech. 

This speech, which, no doubt, cost Mr. Nunnemacher a large 
amount of mental labor as well as the expenditure of several quanti- 
ties of midnight kerosene, has (as a whole,) owing to the shortness 
of that gentleman's memory, been lost to the world. But that por- 
tion of it which he was able to give, ran something like this: 

" Shentlemens and fellow soldiers, I danks you all very musch for 
your attendance here to-day, you look first rate; I dinks," here he 
paused and seemed to have lost the thread, but soon commenced 
again with " I dinks"; here he made a longer paus-, but finally 
started again with " I d-i-n-k s," came to a full sto[j, and doffing his 
chapeau, began to scratch his massive caput, as though trying to catch 
on again, while at the same time he began to get very red in the 
face. But not being able to get any further, he wound up with a 
" Veil, py Got, dot ish all." If that was not a nodel speech, then 



* According to school superintendent Edwin De Wolf this should have been 
spelled with an "haich," chordwood. 



156 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

the writer never heard one. It beat Cleveland's famous letter of ac- 
ceptance, and that is saying a good deal. 

This over, the order was given to march to Market Square, which 
was accomplished without accident, except to Phillipp, whose weary 
and heavy-laden steed came to a dead stop when nearly opposite 
the Kirby House. But Phillipp didn't;* he went over the old plug's 
head like a bale of rags dumped off a dray, landmg in the mud, 
where the brigade left him to pick himself up as best he could. 

The Golden Gate Saloon. 

The old "Golden Gate," on the corner of East Water and Michigan 
streets, is nearly ready to leave its present site. In 1S41 the building 
was moved to the corner upon which it now stands, from the West side 
of the river. It was brought over upon the ice. The upper part was 
occupied by Mr. G. F. Austin, as a dwelling, the lower part as a store- 
next the store was occupied by Pierce & Putnam; afterwards by Mr 
Daggett, J. H Goodrich, L. L. Lee, Mr. Gardner; then bv A. B. Van 
Cott, the jeweler; then by Mr. Yale, as a clothing store with the east 
end for a book store, to which the remainder of the stock of the " Irving 
Book Store," after the burning of the United States Block, was removed. 
The site is soon to be covered with an elegant building for the State 
Bank, for wliich the lot was purchased at a cost of $9,000. 

The row of liuildings behind it is also on the move, including the for- 
tune telUng retreat of Professor Epps, the camphene depot of Mr. Good- 
man, a lager beer saloon, and next, the "Union," which is to be dis- 
turbed but for a short time, when it will be reopened on the northeast 
corner of :Main and Michigan streets, and the old landlord, Frank Dev- 
lin, be on hand ready to preserve its good reputation. 

The author remembers this old store, as he helped remove it from 
the West side and fit it up for Mr. Austin, after which, while occupied 
by him, it was known as the "Arcade" (See Vol. II., pages 89, 90). 
The editor is mistaken, however, when he states the Golden Gate 
Saloon stood upon that corner, or that the Arcade was ever used for 
a saloon, or a camphene sales room by Mr. Goodman, that gentle- 
man's store being upon Wisconsin street. The Golden Gate stood 
where the present National Exchange Bank now does, on the corner 
of the alley, or very near there, at what is now 88 Michigan street. 
The corner building (or the old Arcade) was put upon a scow, taken 
to the South side, and placed upon the southeast corner of Clinton 
and Lake streets, where it was used as a saloon for a short time, after 
which it was removed to what is now 323 Lake street and used for a 

* I disremember now just what the old rack-a-bones stopped for. But as 
it was directly in front of a saloon he probably smelt the limburger cheese, and 
mistaking it for Phillipp, concluded it was best to unload. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 157 

dwelling, and where it was burnt some eight years ago. The old 
frame, next north of Friend Bros., 372 East Water street, is yet doing 
duty as a laundry, and known as 126 Clinton street. Where the bal- 
ance of the old frames, standing in this neighborhood in 1856, went 
to, I camiot remember, but I think they are yet in use in the lower 
Third ward. 

There is also one more of the early buildings, the record of which 
is worth preserving, I mean the one-story frame erected in 1844* 
upon the north side of Florida street, about midway between Reed 
and Hanover, by Doctor Hubbell Loomis, for a private school, the 
teacher being Miss Loomis, now Mrs. H. K. Edgerton, of Ocono- 
mowoc. It was also used for a branch of the pubHc schools for a 
short time, when the writer was Commissioner, in 1847 ^"^ '48, 
after which (when that block came to be graded) it was removed to 
the Third ward and placed upon Detroit street, and where, at two 
different localities, it was used for a dwelHng until January, 1885, 
when it was again removed and placed upon the south side of Erie 
street, directly east of and adjoining the old Helfenstein warehouse, 
where it is now doing duty as an office for the stone yard of Messrs. 
Cook & Hyde. The removal in each case having been done by that 
veteran house-mover Owen Goss. 

Biographical. 

Owen Goss is one of the land marks of Milwaukee. He is a 
native of Ireland, and came here at an early day (1846), since which 
time to the present he has been engaged in the removal of buildings, 
(as the demand for better ones increased) from one locality to another, 
and has probably moved several thousand in his tune. Could the 
history of his labors in this direction be written, it would fill a large 
volume. Mr. Goss is as fine a specimen of the Celtic race as there 
is in the city. He is always pleasant and social, never gets into any 
trouble, and never meddles with other people's affairs. May he live 
a thousand years, if he wants to. t 



* I am not quite positive about this date, but think it was in 1844. 
fThe writer was informed by Mr. Goss, July 25th, 1885, that he has moved 
upon an average, in the thirty-nine years he has been in the business, four per 
week, equal to 208 per annum, and to 8,1 12 in all. What a record! 



10 



158 milwaukee under the charter. 

Albert Von Haller Carpenter. 

This gentleman, now so well and so widely known in the railway- 
world as one of the most popular as well as successful chief officials 
in the passenger department of the vast network of railroads travers- 
ing this continent, was born at Middlesex, Vt., Novembei* i, 1822, 
where his boyhood was passed upon a farm. The life of a. farmer, 
however independent it may be, had no charms for him, neither was 
it the wish or intention of his parents that he should follow that vo- 
cation ; and after giving him what was better than gold (an educa- 
tion), they wisely left the selection of a profession to himself. He 
finally settled upon the law as the one best suited to his tastes and 
abilities, and after a due course of study he was admitted to the bar 
and hung out his shingle as a full-fiedged disciple of Blackstone, 
with an invitation for all who had a disposition to "jump the fence " 
or that loved htigation to come to him and find rest. The indolence, 
however, incident to such a life soon became distasteful to hun. His 
nervous temperament, as well as ambition to make a mark in the 
world, could not be content with the daily routine of a law office, 
notwithstanding it was an honorable profession and all that. His 
impulsive nature wanted something more stimulating, more exciting, 
and with that quickness of decision that has characterized all his 
subsequent movements (and which is one of his strongest points), he 
went back on Blackstone and Chitty, and entered upon the fife for 
which Dame Nature, who never makes a mistake, seemed to have 
designed him for, and in which he has reached a high plane. His 
first work in his new vocation was in the role of conductor of a 
freight train on the Vermont Central, January, 1S49, his instructions 
being to take it through to Boston, which he accomplished in due 
time and, as he expressed it, without killing himself or destroying 
the train. This trip was the stepping-stone to all his subsequent 
success, as it showed to his superiors that he had the pluck as well 
as the abihty to make a good railroad man, and he was accordingly 
at once placed upon their pay-roll as a regular employee, where (and 
upon other New England roads) he served in the capacity of freight 
and passenger conductor, clerk and agent at various times until 
1854, when, at Rouse's Point, he took the Western fever and ac- 
cepted a position as superintendent's clerk upon the Southern Michi- 



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MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 159 

gan and Northern Indiana Railroad, with headquarters at La Porte. 
He also while here acted for a short time as ex-officio superintendent 
until vacancy was filled, after which he was transferred to Toledo as 
train dispatcher, which responsible position he soon gave up as too 
laborious, and accepted a position as clerk in the general freight 
office at Adrian, xMich., and from where in March, 1856, he came to 
Milwaukee to enter the service of the then Green Bay, Milwaukee 
& Chicago Railroad (now the Chicago & Northwestern), as superin- 
tendent's clerk, and where he also acted when occasion required as 
paymaster, settHng the accounts of passenger agents ; and later on, 
when a change was made in the proprietorship, as well as in the 
name of that road, he became, in addition to ticket and passenger 
agent, the secretary and treasurer, which continued until the merging 
of the road in 1864 with the Chicago & Milwaukee, he was appointed 
general ticket agent of the consolidated Hne, which continued until 
1865, when, upon the Chicago & Northwestern acquiring ownership 
of that road, he resigned, as he did not wish to live in Chicago, and 
was appointed general passenger agent of the then Milwaukee & St. 
Paul, and upon the extension of that road to Chicago and its change 
of title to the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul he became general 
passenger agent over the whole line, which position, including all its 
acquired as well as subsequently constructed additional branches, he 
holds to-day. 

Such in brief is the record of A. V. H. Carpenter, and of which 
he may well feel proud. It is one that, from the day he took charge 
of that freight train upon the Vermont Central to the present (a 
period of twenty-eight years), has been one uninterrupted success, 
and one that few, even though backed by official patronage, ever 
make. Whatever his hand found to do, he did it with all the energy 
of his impulsive nature, and no matter what position he occupied, 
official or subordinate, he always succeeded in accomplishing all that 
was required or expected of him. 

Like his late chief, S. S. Merrill, he is possessed of large compre- 
hensive powers as well as quickness of decision, is a thorough disci- 
plinarian, and has won his spurs by merit alone. His selection by 
Manager S. S. Merrill to the responsible position he has so long and 



160 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

SO ably filled was a wise one, and where, let us hope, his well-known 
face may be seen for many years to come. 

Personnel. 

In person Mr. Carpenter is of the medium height, and must, when 
in his prime, have possessed great muscular power. He has very 
broad shoulders, a short neck, an unusually large head, and is a splen- 
did representative of a type now nearly extinct, at least in this coun- 
try, but one who occupied the land, more particularly New England, 
half a century ago — men of great physical as well as mental force, 
men who were born to rule, and whom others were born to obey, 
and who were the leaders in civil as well as religious affairs in their 
day and generation. 

He has a fine, intellectual face, a high forehead, large, dark, ex- 
pressive eyes, and when conversing with a stranger will look that 
stranger directly in the face, which he does not always do when con- 
versing with an acquaintance, and although possessed of splendid 
conversational powers, is more of a thinker than a talker. When in 
his ofiice his whole attention is given to business, but when on the 
street, where he walks with a quick, nervous stride, he is apparently 
absorbed in thought, and at such times sees no one, and unless 
spoken to will not look up. He is very sensitive as well as proud- 
spirited, and if slighted (purposely) feels it keenly. He is always 
dignified, and like S. S. Daggett, never permits any undue familiarity 
from any one, as his organ of self-respect is very large. His execu- 
tive abihties are good, he has order largely developed, and always re- 
quires the strictest obedience from all under his command. 

He is a born leader, and had he been a politician he would have 
been a strong man in his party, as his perceptions are quick. He is 
also a fine writer, a logical reasoner, Hkes to discuss abstract theories, 
is a great reader, comprehends all he reads, and when once he com- 
mences to investigate any knotty question he never leaves it until he 
has mastered it or becomes satisfied that it is untenable. He is one 
of the class of men whom it is safe to follow, as he will never deviate 
from the straight path himself or be instrumental in causing others 
to do so. 

He is also a prominent member of the Masonic fraternity, neither 



MILWAUKEE UNlDER THE CHARTER. 161 

is there another member of that powerful organization in the coun- 
try (for his reputation in the Order is national) who is held in more 
esteem or upon whom more honors have been conferred (unless it 
may be Henry L. Palmer) by the fraternity than upon him. 

In pohtical faith he is a Repubhcan, but takes no active part nor 
will he hold office. In rehgious faith he is a liberal, his creed being 
all embraced in the Sermon on the Mount, i. <?., " Do right always, if 
the heavens fall, and unto others as ye would have others do unto 
you." 

Such is A. V. H. Carpenter, a true man and a useful one, and one 
whom to know is an honor. 

DwiGHT W. Keyes. 

This gentleman, so well known as a prominent railroad official, 
was born at Chaphn, Wmdham county. Conn., on the 29th day of 
March, 1830, where his boyhood days were spent, and from where, 
at the early age of sixteen, he left the paternal roof, struck out for 
hnnself and commenced the Hfe nature seemed to have intended him 
for, viz., railroading. His first employment in his chosen vocation 
was upon the Northern New York road, where he remained until 
1852, when he emigrated to the state of Ohio, and was employed 
upon the Hillsboro & Cincinnati and the Cincinnati & Marietta 
Railroads up to 1856, when, wishing to see more of the Great West, 
he came to Wisconsin and took a position in the department of con- 
struction upon the then La Crosse & Milwaukee Railroad, where he 
remained until the breaking out of the rebeUion, in 1861, when he 
threw up his position and was appointed quartermaster in the First 
regiment Wisconsin Volunteers, under Colonel John Starkweather, 
which he held until 1863, when failing health compelled him to re- 
sign and he returned to Milwaukee, and in 1865 resumed his old 
employment under the late Sherburn S. Merrill, in the construction 
of the Winona & St. Peters road, which continued until the consoli- 
dation of the Wisconsin roads under one head and the appointment 
of Mr. Merrill as general manager, when he removed to Kansas, 
where, and in Missouri, he remained until 1873, when he returned to 
Milwaukee and was appointed assistant general freight agent, which 
responsible office he holds to-day. 



162 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Mr. Keyes belongs to that class of men who enter upon whatever 
duties may be assigned them with a determination to succeed, and 
who always do succeed. He is quick to see all the technical points 
jn any matter connected with his department, and consequently 
always goes at his work understandingly. He has good executive 
abilities, and is just the man to nil a position where so many com- 
plicated and perplexing cases arise, requiring quickness of decision 
as well as tact to settle properly, as are of almost daily occurrence 
in the department of transportation connected with a railroad cor- 
poration. He keeps the business entrusted to him well in hand, 
does everything at the proper time in a business way, and requires 
the same punctuaHty and care of all the employees in his depart- 
ment, and has become a factor in the official corps of the gigantic 
corporation known as the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, 
and where let us hope his pleasant face may be seen for years to 

come. 

Personnel. 

In person Mr. Keyes is in height above the average, fully six feet 
or more, with a large, well-proportioned frame, and is the personifi- 
cation of health. His head is large, face round and full, has a keen, 
expressive eye, where a mirthful smile will often be seen lurking. 
He walks with a regular military step, seldom notices any one on the 
street unless an acquaintance, each of whom he will greet. To a 
stranger he would be polite, nothing more. He is one of the most 
dignified appearing men in the city, and would command attention 
where many others, perhaps his superiors in both wealth and posi- 
tion, would not, and is a universal favorite with all who know him. 

In political faith he is a Democrat, and in religion a liberal. He 
is also very conscientious, careful of what he says or does, tries to 
live as near the Golden Rule as he can. 

Like A. V. H. Carpenter, he is fi-om that good old Puritan stock 
who laid the foundation stones of this repubHc, and whose peculiar 
traits of character are visible to-day in the life and deportment o 
every true son of New England. 

The writer has known Mr. Keyes for many years, during which 
he has watched him very closely, and can truthfully say that, 
although he is not without his faults, yet the grand old state which 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 163 

gave him birth, notwithstanding she is the honored mother of many 
eminent men, has never sent a nobler-hearted one to the West than 
Dwight VV. Keyes. 

Excursion to Beaver Dam. 

There was an excursion to Beaver Dam, in Dodge county, July 4, 
1856, upon the opening of the La Crosse Railroad to that then em- 
bryo city, on which occasion the writer got a free ride and a dinner 
at the expense of the road. It was a big day for Beaver Dam.* 

Among the excursionists upon this occasion were one or more of 
the fire and military companies from Milwaukee, several of whose 
members got sHghtly intoxicated upon that harmless be\ erage known 
as lager beer. The boys all had a good time, and finally started on 
their return trip at 10:30 p. m., the mihtary occupying the rear car, 
intending to reach Milwaukee the following day. But alas for hu- 
man expectations, it resulted otherwise with the soldier boys, as when 
the train had proceeded about four miles one of the naughty fire- 
men (who occupied the car in front of the miUtary) pulled the coup- 
hng-pin to the rear car and left the mihtary alone on the prairie, two 
miles from any place,t where they were compelled to remain until 
morning mitout a drop of lager. Too bad, wasn't it? Their ap- 
pearance in Beaver Dam the following morning, to which they re- 
turned, hot, tired, thirsty, mad, and covered with grass burrs, with 
their faces drawn out to an unusual length, indicating that they had 
passed a sleepless night, caused such a shout when it was known 
how it came to be thusly with them as might have been heard at 
Columbus. It was rich. 

They at once broke for the nearest saloon, where all their sorrows 



*This road was chartered in 1852, and work was commenced upon it the same 
year under the lead of Byron Kilhourn, who not being able to control the man- 
agement of the Milwaukee & Mis-,issippi any longer, had, as the reader has seen 
in the closing chapter of Vol. Ill, bolted the track and started the La Crosse. The 
preliminary survey for this road was made by John B. Vliet, who was its first 
chief engineer, and who, with his whole party, came near perishing while running 
the line west of Kilhourn City, by being caught in an unusually severe snow 
storm. Its official corps at this time (1856) was: Pres.. Stoddard Judd; Sec, Levi 
Burnell; Treas., William Dawes; Chief Engineer, Wm. R. Sill; Supt., Byron 
Kilbourn. 

f And four from Beaver Dam. 



164 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

were quickly drowned in the " flowing bowl," after which they again 
boarded the train and finally reached home in safety. 

I have often laughed over this affair. It was no doubt done for 
revenge for some insult the firemen fancied they received from the 
Germans. But it was rough on the poor fellows, as a march of four 
miles on an empty stomach on a hot July morning and no " cost 
haus "* in sight was not a pleasant pastime. They were mad all 
over, and who can blame them. 

The Milwaukee & Watertown. 

This road was first opened to Oconomowoc Dec. i8, 1854. The 
receipts for passengers up to April i, 1855, were $5,578.36, freight 
$11,909.37. This road is now a part of the Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul R. R. 

The Milwaukee & Horicon. 

This road was also chartered in 1852, and organized May 18, 

1853- 
Its first directors were John B. Smith, Daniel H. Richards, 

Jasper Vliet, J. Y. Sweeting, Ezra Wheeler, Jas. Field, D. D. Morri- 
son, J. F. Bassen, E. Beals, David Moulton, Riley N. Messenger, 
Joseph Alvord and G. A. Sacchi. 

President — J. B. Smith. 

Secretary — J. Y. Sweeting. 

Treasurer — W. J. Beale. 

Engineer — Jasper Vliet. 

It used the La Crosse track to Horicon. The objective point of 
this road was Ontonagon, via Menasha, Stevens Point and St. Croix 
Falls, and was expected to reach Horicon October i, 1854; Wau- 
pun, January i, 1855; Berlin, October i, 1855; Stevens Point, Oc- 
tober I, 1856, but it did not. Perhaps not one of all the roads pro- 
jected during the railroad boom of 1853 and 1854 had as hard a 
time as the Milwaukee & Horicon. Built like the others, largely on 
faith, it had a hard road to travel. It did finally reach Berlin in 
1856, where it stopped, and where it remained until 1863, when it 

*Boarding-house. 



Milwaukee under the charter. l65 

Was purchased by and incorporated into the present Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul. 

The building of this road proved the financial ruin of John B. 
Smith, Garrett Vhet and Daniel H. Richards, who had invested their 
all in it, and during the seven years intervening between its construc- 
tion to Berhn and its incorporation into the Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul, it led a vagabond Hfe. That portion of its line from Stev- 
ens Point to the St. Croix has now (December, 1884) just been com- 
pleted by the Wisconsin Central. 

The Dean Richmond Goes to Europe. 

The first shipment from Milwaukee to Liverpool direct was by our 
well known fellow-citizen, Charles J. Kershaw, in the schooner Dean 
Richmond, her cargo consisting of 14,000 bushels club wheat. She left 
Milwaukee July 19, 1856, and deHvered her cargo in Liverpool Sep- 
tember 29. Nine thousand bushels of this wheat was from the ware- 
house of H. & J. F. Hill (the present Keenan mill), and the balance 
from Chicago. She was commanded by Captain Pierce. 

Chas. J. Kershaw, who made this pioneer shipment, is a native of 
Bromley, Eng., where he was born in 1832. He came co America, 
Canada, in 1841, received his education at the Derby Line Academy, 
Derby, Orleans county, Vermont, came west in 1855, and at once 
engaged in the general commission business here and at Chicago, 
not making a permanent residence at either city until 1861, when he 
settled in Milwaukee, where he continued to operate in the cereals 
until 1867, when he formed a partnership with G. D. Norris for the 
prosecution of the commission business, which he continued until 
that gentleman's death in 1869, since which time Mr. Joseph Hill 
has been a member of the firm under the title of C. J. Kershaw 
& Co. 

Mr. Kershaw belongs to that class of men who are all business, 
and who will go into anything, out of which there is a reasonable 
prospect of making any money, and of course will often take fearful 
chances. He dealt largely in lumber, salt and water-lime, in addi- 
tion to his wheat speculations. He was one of the largest as well as 
the luckiest speculators on change for years, and accumulated a 
large property. He is one of the most generous men the writer 



166 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

knows and is a splendid friend. He has a fine physique, is as active 
as a boy, and as full of ambition as when he first commenced. And 
although reverses have come, as they always will to men who specu- 
late, yet he meets them with good grace and goes steadily to work 
to recover the lost ground. 

That his success may be all he can ask is certainly the wish of the 
writer as well as all who know him. In person he is of the medium 
size; has dark hair and eyes; is very quick motioned; has a powerful 
voice and speaks quick, with slight English accent; is extremely ner- 
vous, and if he wants anything, wants it bad, and will not rest until he 
gets it. He is well calculated to make friends and will never be 
without them. Like McGeogh he has "sand" (as the phrase goes) 
and will not be kept in the background. 

Political. 

There was a meeting of the faithful held at the Court House, 
July 20, 1856, the proceedings at which are here given, in order to 
show the style of the Democratic gatherings in the days when it was 
Fremont and freedom or Buchanan and slavery. The meeting was 
called for the purpose of organizing a Democratic club for campaign 
purposes. The attempt however was as complete a failure as was 
that of 1884, in Milwaukee. " No Buchanan in ours" was the war 
cry of the RepubHcans. 

The meeting was called to order by John White. VV. P. Lynde 
was nominated as chairman, who, on assuming the "woolsack" made 
an eloquent eulogy upon Democratic honesty and virtue, after which 
Joshua LaDue was appointed secretary. On motion of Thos. P- 
Williams a committee consisting of two from each ward were ap- 
pointed to draft resolutions, who reported the following : 

Whereas, A convention of the Democratic party have nominated for 
president and vice-president of the United States James Buchanan and 
John C. Breckenridge; and 

Whereas, In the election of these gentlemen are embodied the per- 
petuation of the Union and of our free institutions, bv means of which 
alone we can secure to our country the glories of the past and the hopes 
of the future ; and moreover, 

Whereas, Believing that in the exercise of the high functions, par- 
ticularly of the executive department, require not only care and expe- 
rience as well as an intimate knowledge of our foreign relations, but 
dignity, commanding talents and a knowledge of the constitution; and 

Whereas, We believe these qualities eminently characterize the 
nominees of the Democratic party; therefore be it 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 167 

Resolved, That we will use all fair and honorable means to secure 
their election, and to that end we agree to obey and abide by the fol- 
lowing constitution: 

Article 1. This association shall be known by the name and style of 
the Milwaukee Democratic Club. 

2. The officers of this association shall be a president, vice-presi- 
dent, corresponding secretary, a recording secretary and an executive 
committee of one from each ward. 

_ 3. The duties of the officers shall be the same as in other associa- 
tions. 

4. All persons friendly to James Buchanan can join this club. 

The following were the officers elected : 

President — H. L. Palmer. 

Vice-Presidents — 
First Ward — Jackson Hadley. 
Second Ward— John C. Dick. 
Third Ward— John Shortell. 
Fourth Ward — Jonathan Taylor. 
Fifth Ward — Michael Page. 
Sixth Ward — Herman Haertel. 
Seventh Ward — F. J. Jung. 
Corresponding Secretary — Geo. A. Woodward. 
Recording Secretaries — J. La Due and F. Kuehn. 
Treasurer — W, P. Lynde. 

Executive Committee — 
First Ward — Dighton Corson. 
Second Ward — J. Kluppak. 
Third Ward— J. Horan. 
Fourth Ward — J. B. Edwards. 
Fifth Ward— D. C. Reed. 
Sixth Ward — Chas. E. Jenkins. 
Seventh Ward — Herman L. Page. 
Assistant Treasurer — Clinton Walworth. 

John White then addressed the meeting with his usual force — 
(wind) after which they adjourned. 

Among the speakers who poured the contents of their vials of 
wrath upon the " Shanghai-Know-Nothing- Republican-Abolition " 
party at the meetmg of this club, held August lo, were Joshua La 
Due and the late Erastus Foote, and if, as the Bible Fays, " It is what 
cometh out of the mouth of a man that defileth him," then, accord- 
ing to the newspaper report of their speeches, they were certainly 
fearfully unclean before they relieved themselves of their burden. It 
was awful. 

Criminal. 

Seven young boys were arrested in July for robbing the store of 
Wm. P. Young, which gave the press another opportunity to pitch 
into the supervisors for not providing a suitable place wherein to 



168 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

confine these boys. Hear him as he winds up his article descriptive 
of the horrors of the jail : 

Is this the place, ordered by Justice, to confine awhile the foe to civil 

order and return reformed to civil life ? 
This school of infamy and crime — from where the boy returns more 

fitted for a foe to God and man ? 

And he was right — it was a school of infamy. But the supervisors 
cared for none of these things. 

Forty-seven boys had been caught steahng within the last six 
months who were all thrust into this jail, yet nothing was done by 
the supervisors towards procuring a suitable place wherein to confine 
and reform them. 

Council Proceedings July 27. 

Council removed to their new quarters in Cross' block. 

Common Council Proceedings — Mayor Cross, Presiding. 

A regular meeting of the common council was held on Monday night 
at the new hall in Excelsior block.* 

Accounts, petitions and memorials were referred as usual to the dif- 
ferent committees. 

There was but little business done, as it was understood that there 
was to be an adjourned meeting held in the adjoining room after the 
usual proceedings. 

Alderman Taylor, chairman of the bridge committee, reported pro- 
posals for the construction of Chestnut street bridge, and offered a reso- 
lution that the mayor and city attorney be authorized to enter into a 
contract with Messrs. Luther, Whitney & Co. for the construction of 
said bridge, for tlie sum of $11,500, which was passed with an amend- 
ment that the name of J. G. Broener & Co. be inserted instead of Whit- 
ney & Co., they being the lowest bidders by $600. 

The resignation of the Huron street bridge tender (which caused a 
sensation) was accepted, and a resolution adopted that J. Barnett be 
appointed in his place. 

Various resolutions of less importance were passed, when the council 
unanimously adjourned to the adjoining room, and went into committee 
on the whole to consider the merits of an excellent inauguration supper 
provided by the mayor. 

The Banquet. 

Inauguration of the Common Council Hall. 

The new common council hall in I^xcelsior block was inaugurated on 
Monday night with all the ceremonies usual upon such an occasion. 
The hall is a magnificent one — spacious, and well calculated for the pur- 
pose for which it has been chosen. It is in every way worthy to be oc- 
cupied as the council room of our growing and prosperous city, and we 
doubt whether there can be found in the whole country a more con- 

*Cross' block was christened the Excelsior block on this occasion. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 169 

venient and coimnodii^us suit of rooms for public offices than those now 
occupied by our comiuon council and city officers. 

The common council hall in partit'uTar is admirably adapted for a 
council room; lofty, s])acious and handsomely decorated, it presents a 
striking contrast with the room in which the'city fathers have met for 
years past and delil)crated over the interests and welfare of our citv, 
and the contrast impi-esses one strongly with the idea of the rapid 
growth which our city is making in every relation of a metropolitan 
city. 

After the usual business of the meeting had been disposed of his 
honor the mayor ottered a resolution that the common council and vis- 
itors "adjourn to the adjoining room," which was most unanimouslj' 
adopted. 

In the adjoining room the most interesting part of the evening's busi- 
ness took place — we should judge so at least from the good will with 
which every one present entered into the proceedings. There was a 
long table groaning beneath the weight of a sumptuous feast, prepared 
for the occasion by that prince of caterers, Belden of the "Home," 
and there were in one corner of the room about a dozen neat-looking 
baskets, in which was packed — it is unnecessary to tell what! 

His hont)r the mayor presided over the destinies of the table, with 
all the gracefulness and (lignity that the occasion required. Most am- 
ple justice was done to Belden's excellent collation, and the contents 
of the baskets were not forgotten. Appropriate speeches were made 
by Major Foote, Alderman Hadlev, Hon. Moses M. Strong, Judge Mc- 
Arthur, Hon. N. J. Emmons and others, and the mayor responded 
modestly in a neat little speech to the innumerable compliments which 
were showered upon him. 

All went home at a late hour rejoicing, convinced that Jim Cross was 
a mighty clever fellow! 

They changed their minds, however, before long, as will be seen 
further on. 

Council Proceedings August 4, 1856. 

Committee reported in favor of having an alarm bell hung in engine 
house No. B, similar to the one now in use in No. 4's house; resolution 
passed. 

Committee on railroads reported in favor of surrendering the per- 
sonal iKuids of the directors of the La Crosse Railroad, and also 4,0(X) 
shares full-paid stock of tlie road. A resolution was passed authorizing 
the city treasurer to surrender the bonds and stock referred to in the 
committee's report. 

Section 8 of "An ordinance entitled, an ordinance prescribing fire 
limits, and the construction of the buildings thereon," passed Septem- 
ber 14, 1854, was repealed by ordinance. 

The committee on schools reported in fixvor of awarding the follow- 
ing contracts for the erection, improvement and repairs of the school 
houses, as follows: 

First ward building to Spaulding & Foote, $3,131. 

Sixth ward i)uilding to S. Bryant, .'?;5,300. 

Third ward building to John Horan, $4,450. 

Fifth ward building to J. INIaniuis, S«2,050. 

Fourth ward building to Babi'ock Bros., SGjSSO. 

The committee add: The i)uilding in the Fourth ward had to be re- 
built, an<l is in fact an entire new I)uilding, using the material of the 
old l)uil(ling in the construction of the new one. Contracts awarded. 

A committee of one from each ward to consult with the city engineer 
/or a system of sewerage for the city was aj^pointed. 



170 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Plans submitted for the new school houses for the Seventh and Sec- 
ond wards, to cost from 89,000 to $12,000 each. The jjlans were drawn 
by Boyington & Mix, in Ludington's block. A resolution accepting the 
plans, and authorizing the city clerk and comptroller to advertise for 
proposals to build said school houses in accordance with the plans, was 
accepted and passed. 

Messrs. Mygatt & Schmidtner were appointed superintendents of the 
First, Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth wards, and Messrs. Boyington & 
Mix for the Second and Seventh wards. 

A resolution was passed reconsidering the appointment of Mygatt &. 
Schmidtner as superintendents of the building and repairing of certain 
school houses, and finally passed " at a compensation agreed upon bj^ 
the common council." Mr. Mix's appointment as superintendent of 
the Second and Seventh wards in like manner. 

Council adjourned to Mondaj- next at 7^ p. m. 

The vote to loan aid to the Milwaukee, Green Bay & Lake Supe- 
perior Railroad,* August 4, resulted as follows : 

For. Against. 

First ward 151 1 

Second ward 398 5 

Third ward 104 78 

Fourth ward Ill 14 

Fifth ward 318 9 

Sixth ward 200 

Seventh ward 128 16 

Total 1,410 123 

This was a bad day for the city, but a good railroad day. 

By Torch Light. 
A grand torch-light procession was held by the democracy, Octo- 
ber 25th, at which there was a great outpouring of the unterrified 
(and also of the spirit). It was such an outpouring, says the Wiscon- 
sin of the 26th, as would have done the soul of Capt. Rynders good. 
They came from the East, they came from the West, they came in 
battalions. Such another crowd of torch-light humanity and horse- 
flesh was never congregated together as went thundering through 
Market Square, under the lead of Maj.-Gen. Sanford B. Grant, on 
Saturday evening, October 25th. 

Among the banners or devices carried were " Buchanan and 
Feathers!" (I am unable to perceive what Buchanan wanted with 
feathers, or to what it referred.) On another was "Aber nicht Free- 
mont !" (I think this must have been German.) On another was 
the device of a Hen, with the motto over it " Our B-i-r-d !" On 

*Another swindle. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER, 171 

another was the device of a Shanghai fowl being put through the 
process of ejectment, with the motto " Can't Roost on Our Fence ! " 
Oh, it was a big time, and fully illustrated the insane folly as well as 
injustice of universal suffrage. 

The great strife at this election was upon Congressman from the 
Milwaukee district. Hon. John F. Potter led the repubUcan hosts, 
and Jackson Hadley the democratic. The election, held November 
6th, was a very exciting one, nearly all the large business houses, and 
all the saloons, being closed, their proprietors going to the polls to 
work (an act they had better have performed during the late canvass 
(1884), and which had they done the result might have been dif- 
ferent.) 

A Hitch in the Count — The Walworth County Republicans 

Turn Up a Jack. 

An amusing incident is said to have occurred in connection with 
this election. Mr. Hadley was at first declared elected, whereupon 
he had his house illuminated, and invitee a host of the faithful to 
come in and " wood up," which of course was accepted. But their 
rejoicing was suddenly turned into mourning, as right in the midst 
of it, the news came that the repubhcans of Walworth County had 
"turned up a Jack" (to use a metaphor), and Potter was elected. 
The way some of that crowd blasphemed was fearful. It was a bad 
set back for Mr. Hadley. 

New Wheat. 

The first new wheat received this year was by Smyth & Holmes, 
Irom Kellogg & Cotton, of Oconomowoc, July 27th. 

Cattle Market. 

A cattle market was also estabhshed this year on Fowler street, by 
John Layton and John Plankinton. Twenty-five hundred head o 
cattle were slaughtered. 

Bear vs. Bull. 

The sporting fraternity got up a fight this fall during the State Fair, 
at Cold Spring, between a California bull and an Australian bear. It 
was a brutal affair, and resulted in the bear's getting licked in about 
two minutes. 



172 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

The locomotive works of Messrs. Lee & Walton, mentioned in 
Vol. III., page 190, were burned this year, December i8th. 

TiiK Fire ox Thursday Night. — AYe are very glad to hear from ]Mr. 
L. L. Lee, that liis loss, from the fire on Thursday night, over and above 
his insurance, will not exceed 82,000, or §2,500. The engine escaped 
comparatively uninjured, as did the blacksmith shop and moulding 
room. The chief drawback is in the stoppage of his works in midwin- 
ter, when he cannot immediately rebuild. He proposes, however, to 
get everything to rights and in working order again as soon as possible. 
He was insured $5,000 in the Etna and $3,000 in the Xew York Home. 

Mr. Lee desires to express his warm acknowledgments to the firemen 
and citizens who hurried through the fierce storm to his assistance and 
contributed, by their efforts, to save a considerable amount of property. 

The Weather. 

It would appear by the following that the Sentiiiel man was hard 
to please. Hear his lament : 

Weather. — We desire publicly and formally to bid farewell to all 
romancing about Wisconsin fall and winter weather. We have seen 
such weather as was worth a paragraph of special praise each day. Long 
weeks of bright, warm balmy days, following each other as sure as the 
sun rose — and it was sure to rise — have been of old time. October, 
November, and December, have, in the past decade, given us six or 
eight weeks of such weather as made it a luxury to live in it, and we 
have seen dry and somewhat dusty streets at New Year's. 

Last j^ear was bad enough, but this, 1856, caps the climax. Cold, 
rainy, stormy, almost all the days of the weeks of these months have 
been, and December " came in li'ke a lion," with a furious snow storm, 
followed by cold sending the mercury below zero ; followed again, before 
we had scarcely dug out from the drifts, by a still more severe storm. 
And this not being yet fairly broken into" smooth track, there comes 
yesterday a heavy rain storm ! December seems likely to "go out," if 
not " like a lamb," at least like a water spout. 

Locomotion possessed fearful dangers for pedestrians j^esterday, 
obliged to travel the wet and icy streets, and several that we wot of 
measured their length, hke Ant»us of old, upon the earth, but not like 
him to rise particularly refreshed. " Our sufferings is intolerable." 

Great Storm, December 21. 

Damages by the Storm. — We have heard of the following, among 
other damages, caused by the terrific storm of Tuesday. The distillery 
of Thos. Fitzgerald, on the Lake shore, foot of Wisconsin street, was 
undermined and swept off by the waves. He estimates his loss at $500. 
A small frame tenement adjoining, belonging to a fisherman named 
White, was also carried away. The small warehouse on the outer end 
Kellogg & Strong's pier was washed off, and the pier itself considerably 
damaged. Higby's pier escaped without injury. The South pier was 
somewhat damaged. 

A number of frame buildings about the city were more or less dam- 
aged by the eflects of the driving storm. The streets, in many places, 
were piled six feet deep with snow. The like of it has never been seen 
in our city. 



milwaukee under the charter. 173 

Ice. 
The Wisconsin, of December 15th, has the following: 

The ice in the river was never better than now. It is clear and solid. 
Parties are cutting it at the foot of Michigan street. Ice three feet 
thick is not seen every winter.— Ed. 

No, I think not, and it wasn't that winter either. 

Funeral of Solomon Juneau. 

November 28, 1856. 

The following, relating to the funeral of Hon. Solomon Juneau, 
Milwaukee's first permanent white settler, and first Mayor, are taken 
from the Daily Evening Wisconsin, of November 26th, 1856 : 

Order of Arrangements for the Funeral Procession of the late 

Solomon Juneau. 

The remains of the late Solomon Juneau are expected to be brought 
to this city for interment during the present week. The City Council 
at a special meeting held last evening, requested the Military, Fire De- 
partment, Members of the Bar, Board of Trade, and all the Benevolent 
and Civic Societies of the city, to join in paying the last tribute of respect 
to the Pioneer of Milwaukee. The following is the Order of Arrange- 
ments for the procession. Due notice will be given, through the press, 
of the time of the obsequies: 

Military of the City. 

Fire Department. 

Body of Deceased, 

Mourners. 

Mayor and Ex-3Iayors of Milwaukee. 

(Common Council. 

Pioneers' Society of Wisconsin. 

Officers of the IJ. S. Government. 

Judiciary and Members of the Bar. 

Board of Trade. 

^Members of the Press. 

Benevolent and Civic Societies. 

Citizens generally. 
Major-Gen. S. B. Grant has been requested to act as Chief ]Marsha]. 
The different Companies, Associations, Societies, etc., are requested to 
report to him at the Mayor's Rooms, Martin's Block, on Friday, between 
the hours of 10 and 12 o'clock a. y\. 

J. B. Cross, Mayor. 

FuNERaL Obsequies of the late Solomon Juneau. 

The funeral obsequies of the late Solomon Juneau, will take place on 
Friday next, at 11 o'clock a. m. Ail the military and fire departments 
of the city. United States and State officers, JuHiciary and members of 
the Bar, Board of Trade, the different societies and associations of the 
city and citizens generally, desirous of paying their last tribute of re- 
spect to the dcu-eased, by taking jyart in the ceremonies, will meet on 
Main street, between Oiu'ida and Wisconsin strt'cts, on Friday next, at 
10 o'clock A. .M. precisely, to form in j)rocessionand march to the former 

II 



174 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

residence of the deceased to receive the remains, and from thence to 
St. John's Catliedral, where the services will take place, after which 
the procession will accompany the remains to the place of burial. The 
procession will l^e formed in the following order: 

1st. ]\Iilitary, with right resting on Oneida street. 

2d. Fire Department. 

3d. Remains of deceased. 

4th. Family and relatives of deceased. 

5th. Mavors, ex-Mayors, and Common Council, and City officers. 

6th. Pioneer Society of Wisconsin. 

7th. Officers of U. S. Government and Foreign Consuls. 

8th. State officers. 

9th. Judiciary and Members of the Bar. 

10th. Board of Trade. 

11th. Societies and Associations. 

12th. Citizens generally. 

Military officers and also officers of the different societies and asso- 
ciations are requested to wear the usual badge of mourning. 

The north door of the Cathedral will be opened for the admission of 
ladies only at lOi o'clock a. m. 

S. B. Grant, Chief Marshal. 

Military Notice. 

All the Military Companies of the City, taking part in the funeral 
ceremonies of the late Solomon Juneau, will appear on Main street, 
between Oneida and Wisconsin streets, on Friday next (28th inst.,) at 
10 o'clock A. M., precisely, fully armed and equipped. 

The Captains of the several Companies, after marching their com- 
mands on the ground, will please ref)ort at the office of J. L. Hathaway, 
No. 43 ]\Iason street, when the positions of the different companies in 
the hue will be assigned to them. 

By order of 

S. B. Grant, Chief Marshal. 

J. L. Hathaway, Asst. 
Milwaukee, November 26, 1856. 
All city papers please copj\ 

Fire Department Notice. 

The several companies of the Milwaukee Fire Department will hold 
themselves in readiness to turn out to attend the funeral of the Hon. 
Solomon .Juneau at the appointed time, of which due notice will be 
given; and I hereby extend an invitation to all ex-Chief Engineers of 
the Fire Department to accompany us as such. 

J. C. Goodrich, Chief Engineer. 

This was the largest funeral ever seen in Milwaukee prior to that 
time. As it has been mentioned previously, no further mention w^ill 
be made in connection with it in this Volume. It was a beautifu^ 
November day. It was the proceedings of this day which led to the 
formation of the Pioneer Association of Milwaukee City and County. 

Daniel Neiman Buried. 

Mr. Neiman, as has been seen, was quite prominent here for 
many years, as a fireman, hotel keeper, and other occupations. I 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 175 

remember his funeral well, and the fine appearance the firemen made 
in their old time uniform. 

Funeral of Mr. Neiman. — The remains of the late Daniel N. Neiman, 
were brought back to this city yesterday from Ashtabula, Ohio, where 
he died on Wednesday last, after two day's illness, of inflammation of 
the lungs. His funeral will take place at 10 o'clock this morning, and 
will be attended by the Milwaukee Fire Department, of which Mr. 
Neiman was for several years an active and zealous member and officer. 

I.MPROVEMENTS. 

Among the buildings erected this year, not previously mentioned 
and in process of erection, were the Newhall House, which was 
enclosed and plastered during the winter. Also four churches (viz:) 
The Summerfield (Methodist), the Unitarian on Cass street, the Free 
Congregational on Spring street, and a German Catholic (St. Joseph's) 
in the Sixth ward. Among the dwellings were two by Henry Fales, 
now Nos. 465 and 467 Marshall street, yet in use and among the best 
in the city as to comfort. A frame for Geo. A. Starkweather at what 
is now 573 Cass street. This was a crack house, as the phrase goes, 
when built and is a good house to-day. Mr. Starkweather sold it to 
PhiHp D. Armour and he to Rufus Allen, by whom it is occupied to- 
day. I remember Mr. Starkweather. He was a tall, fine-looking 
man, and was the father of the celebrated Col. John C, of miUtary 
fame. 

The Cordes mansion on Elizabeth street, between Sixth and 
Seventh Avenues, pulled down and rebuilt in 1884. The custom 
house, and two brick stores on Broadway, by J. H. Tweedy and 
Isaac G. Goodrich, now Nos. 383 and 385 Broadway, yet in use, 383 
being known as Marble Hall and owned by Chas. Andrews, and 385 
by Edward H. Brodhead. The Albany Hall will be sketched in the 
next chapter. The present Milwaukee National Bank. The store of 
Friend Bros., No. 370 East Water street. Also No. 376 East Water 
street for Clark Shepardson. One by Mahler and Wendt, Nos. 235 
and 237 East Water street, now the property of Geo. Ziegler. The 
building known as the O. H. Waldo Block,* Nos. 222 to 228 inclusive, 
and one, Nos. 267 and 269 East Water street, by Chas. Quentin, all 

* Mr. Waldo built this block at least ten years too soon, as for some unex- 
plained cause they did not rent for that number of years for enough to pay the 
taxes. They rent better now. 



176 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

of which are yet standing. And Nos. 232 and 234, by the Messrs. 
Inbusch Bros., also yet in use. 

In commenting upon the store of the Messrs. Friend Bros., the 
Sentinel has the following : 

The store is one of the handsomest in the city, and elegantly finished 
inside. The shelving, ornamental and stucco work are of the hand- 
somest patterns, and of the most perfect workmanship. The painting 
is bj' Mr. Collingbourne, and the carpenter work by Mr. Horning. 

The store is entirely fire-proof from without, has an iron front with 
rolling iron shutters to all the windows, fire-proof roof, and iron shut- 
ters to all the rear windows. The iron work in the front is from the 
works of D. D. Badger & Co., New York; the iron work in the rear and 
the locks of the doors, superior to any others in the city, were made by 
a German named Toefle, of the Fifth ward. 

The building is four-stories high, twenty feet fnjnt, 100 feet deep; each 
story is fourteen feet nine inches l^etween joists. The first story is fitted 
up with great taste, axid filled with an extensive assortment of goods for 
gentlemen's clothing, and with an experienced cutter; the two next 
stories above are sale rooms, and are filled with a heavy stock of cloths, 
cassinieres, etc., and ready-made clothing; the upper story is a tailor 
shop, in which a large number of hands are constantly employed. 

The mason work is by Mr. Roberts, and speaks for itself in the hand- 
some exterior of the store. 

Messrs. Friend & Bro. have been long known to the pubiic at Mil- 
waukee and a large portion of the people of the interior of Wisconsin, 
they having had branch stores at ^Madison, and until recently at Water- 
town, while their clothing wagons, always accompanied by one of the 
firm, have kept pace with the progress of settling our State. 

This puff would do very well for the best store on the street to-day. 
But then that is a way the editors had in those days, and they do it 
yet. 

Zachariah Clayton also built what is now Nos. 234 and 236 Wis- 
consin street (frame), and the three-story brick Nos. 238, 240, 242 
and 244 Wisconsin street. This block is yet in a good state of pre- 
servation, but in style is not quite up to the modern grade. But its 
occupants (if they pay their rent) sleep as comfortable and are as 
happy as though their house had a Queen Anne front and a French 
roof, and we venture the assertion that the Clayton block will be a 
good building and need less repairs for the next twenty years than 
will many of those wonderful specimens of architecture to be found 
in our city within the next five. But I digress. 

The Jas. H. Rogers mansion,* southwest corner of Fifteenth and 



*It was the expectation of the writer to have been able to furnish a cut of this 
then famous dwelling, but in this he has been disappointed, and the description 
he has given must suffice. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 177 

Grand avenue, now the palatial residence of Hon, John Plankinton, 
was commenced this year, and when completed (in 1857) was with- 
out exception the most elegant, as well as the most expensive, pri- 
vate residence in Milwaukee, if not in the Northwest, and cost, in- 
cluding the ornamentation of the- grounds, $60,000, a large outlay 
for those days. The two remodelings it has received from its pres- 
ent princely owner has, however, obliterated all trace of its original 
external form, as well as its inside finish, with the exception of one 
room, which still retains its " natal dress." This house is now the 
finest in the city, if not in the state, and has cost over $200,000. 

The architect of this famous house was Albert C. Nash, now a 
resident of Cincinnati. Mr. Nash was a prominent architect in our 
city for many years, during several of which his office was in the old 
chamber of commerce (the Albany). He was a splendid fellow. I 
often think of him. He was a true friend, an honest man, and made 
a sood record while in Milwaukee. 

The master carpenter in the construction of this dwelling was our 
present well known fellow-citizen, Arthur Bate. 

The master mason was the late Francis Charnley. 

The following, in reference to this dwelling and Mr. Nash, is from 
the pen of Rufus King : 

Architectural. 

While the streets are in such a fluid state, and the clouds shedding 
such a copious effusion of rain, it is pleasant to enter the establishment 
of any of our city architects and take a stroll over the city mentally, 
seeing its beauty, prosperity and magnificence. Stamping the mud 
from our boots and closing our dripping uml)rella, we yesterday ascend- 
ed the flight of steps on the corner of East Water and Michigan streets, 
over Mitchell's bank, and entered the room where A. C. Nash and his 
corps of architects are busy in giving visible form and color to the ideal 
mansions which are born in the minds of our wealthy citizens. We 
were agreeably entertained Ijy Mr. Nash, who escorted us from cellar 
to attic of the beautiful residence — that is to be — of Jas. H. Rogers, on 
Spring street hill. Ah! gentle folks, who contemplate dwelling in the 
retirement of your own cottages or palaces — as your tastes or funds may 
determine. We have entered the portals of your dwellings, pried into 
every nook and corner, u]) stairs, down stairs, in the ladies' chamber, 
into the playroom of the children, where they are to romp and be glad 
in their young hearts, into the playing room of the big children, where 
they wish to handle the cue without going to the places of public re- 
sort, still we hope we don't intrude. The garden, the shrubbery, the 
cool, shady vine bowers, we entered, admired and searched them all 
through — the hedges, the gateways, the sweet-scented fine flowers — 
were spread and displayed to our entranced \aew. There, now, that 
will du. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 179 

The annexed cut represents its present appearance. 

To the right, upon the corner of Sixteenth street,* and adjoining 
the above, can be seen the residence of William Plankinton,* where 
that gentleman lives in elegance, the two forming a picture not easily 
duplicated in any city. 

The old A. A. R. Butler dwelling, now the homestead of Stephen 
A. Harrrison, was conimenced this year. 

All work suspended on account of the cold, was the cry of the 

Sentinel of December i, 1856, and it was cold, as the following will 

show : 

Cool Xight. — It was a "leetle" cool last night. The thernionieter 
was down to zero about daylight this morning. The river is frozen uji, 
so that bridges can be dispensed with liy footmen if necessary. We 
have seen two or three men taking a short cut crossing over on the ice 
to-day. Navigation may be considered suspended for the season. 
That it was slightly cool this morning was evident from the way folks 
acte<l. Every]>ody had his face all muffled up, except where his nasal 
proboscis protruded, and that had a tinge of the deepest vermillion. 
Brogans and sled runners creaked over the snow, and a dense frost- 
cloud rolled from the mouths of both men and horses. We didn't envy 
the young folks who were out on a sleigh-ride at all. It was too much 
like eating ice cream on an iceberg. We had just as good a sleigh ride 
as they had, all in the house, too, and by a good warm fire. But winter 
has its charms, and one of them is to get up such a morning as this, 
with your fingers cracking, and find the water in your pitcher frozen 
hard as a rock. Another is to slip up on the sidewalk, and come down 
with a general spread upon the ice and snow. Whicli rendnds us that 
the sidewalks ought to be ashed over. Ash your sidewalks, before you 
become the innocent cause of the death of some valuable citizen. 

But here she goes to the other extreme : 

Excessive Changes. — The weather is mighty uncertain. For five days 
preceding Monday the mercury marked zero every day, but on 
Wednesday we were deluged with rain and mercury above (iO. To-day 
the mercury is going down to winter quarters again. 

River closed this year December 5, at which time the sleighing 
was fine. The ice, however, was all broken up agam by the tug 
Decatur, in order that the fleet outside might be enabled to get in. 

'I"he following data, furnished by the very efficient harbor master, 
Jas. S. Trowell, is given here as a comparative record : 

Office of the Haebok Master of the City of Milwaukee, \ 

Milwaukee, January 2, 188(5. / 
lion. James Buck : 

Sir — Permit me to present to your notice the amount of shipping in 
winter quarters in the port of Milwaukee classed steam and sail, be- 
sides the regular line Ijoats now in commission. We have a total num- 
ber of 144. 



*BuiIt in 1878. 



180 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Grain steamers 19 

Grain schooners 33 

Lnmber steamers 14 

Lumber schooners 50 

Lnmber scows 12 

Steam tugs 12 

Passe nge r steame r s 3 

Government steamer 1 

Total 144 

Arrivals by water for twelve months 4,772 

Departures by water for twelve months 4,799 

Total arrivals and departures 9,571 

Steam tonnage 28,023 

Sail tonnage 28,965 

Total tonnage 55,588 

Dredging done — Cubic Yards. 

Milwaukee river 74,903 

Menominee river 45,080 

Kinnickinnick river 49,630 

Total cubic yards 169,613 

There has been delivered by water in the city during the season of 
navigation 697,052 tons of coal. 

Yours very courteously, etc., 

James S. Teowell, Harbor Master. 



CHAPTER IV. 

1857- 

Opening Address — The Albany Block — New Year's Calls — The Weather — E. H. 
Brodhead a Bigger Man 'Ihan the Pope — A New Grocery, Sketch — Jeremiah 
Quinn, Sketch — Great Rainstorm — Business Status — Legislative — Ninth 
Ward Organized — River Opened — Mr. Evans Dies — Municipal — Politics 
Red-hot — Officers Elected — Andrew Mitchell, Sketch — Publ'C Schools — As- 
sessment — Altering the Grades — April Fool's Day — Its Results — The New 
Postmaster — John A. Becher, Sketch — A Park Proposed — Caleb Wall 
Scores the Common Council — The Messrs. Matthews Brothers, Furniture, 
Sketch — Opening of the Newhall — Its Success and Final End — Nathan 
Pereles, Sketch — Merrill's Cornet Band — A Sad Accident — The Detroit & 
Milwaukee Railroad Meeting — Humorous — He Wouldn't Stand It Any 
Longer — Political — A Puff for Mayor Cross — Martin B. Coombs — Municipal 
Rascality Unearthed --The City in Peril — The Meeting at Albany Hall — The 
Wisconsin — E. L. H. Gardner's Manifesto^ — The Wisconsin Defends Him — 
Charles F. Freeman, Sketch — Stephen A. Harrison, Sketch — Daniel L. 
Wells, Sketch — Improvements — Disputed the Count — Weather — Census — 
Vessel List — Egbert Herring Smith Outdone — The Old Forest Home Ceme- 
tery. 

The commencement of 1857 marked a new era in the growth of 
the Cream City, as, besides the new buildings mentioned as having 
been erected during the two previous years upon the burnt district, 
there were a large number under contract to be completed the com- 
ing summer. The Newhall house, at that time a much-needed im- 
provement, was also under roof and being pushed to completion as 
fast as human hands could force it. The Albany block was also just 
completed, and as this was one of the notable buildings of that day, 
as well as its famous hall a great place of resort for public consulta- 
tions as well as for pleasure during the ten years of its existence as a 
hall, I will insert the following sketch of it taken from the Milwaukee 
Sentinel of January 19, 1857: 

The Albany. 

It is by this name that the elegant and spafious biiildiiif;-, just erected 
by Alexander Miteiiell and Thomas L. 0<i<len, on the southwest cdriier 
of Micliigan and Main streets, is to he desi<;nute<l. As the (-(lilicc is 
one of the architectural oriuiinents of our city, and siii<iiilarly well 
ada])ted to the uses for wlii(;h it is designed, we have thought it deserv- 
ing of a somewhat detailcMl description. 



182 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

The building fronts 120 feet on Michigan and SO on Main street, is four 
stories high and 40 feet from the ground to the cornice. It rests on 
solid stone foundations, and is built of the best Milwaukee brick. The 
walls are of good thickness, the window-sills and caps and the cornices 
are of 1)rick, and the roof is of Vermont slate, so that there is no wood- 
work of any kind on the outside. The basement and cellars on Main 
street are occupied by Titus Fernow as a wholesale and retail liquor, 
wine and cigar store. The other cellars belong to the several stores on 
the first tioor. These stores are five in number, averaging 17 feet front 
by 77 deep, Avith 13 to 15-foot ceilings. The corner one on the alley has 
been rented by John Warner, of Pittsl>urg, dealer in straw goods. The 
rooms on the' corner of Main and Michigan streets are to be occupied 
l)y the "Wisconsin Marine and Fire Insurance Company Bank, as the 
building in which that institution is now located is about to be demol- 
ished to make room for a stately block; and the room adjoining these 
on the west has been taken by Caleb Wall for a city land office. 

The second story is divided' up into fourteen airy, pleasant and well- 
lighted rooms, designed for offices, and averaging 17 by 20 feet, with 12- 
foot ceilings. Every one of these is already occupied, as follows: 

Nos. 1 and 2 — Brown & Ogden. 

No. 3 — Samuel M. Ogden. 

No. 4— Levi Hubbell. 

No. 5 — Cross & Woodward. 

No. (1 — Finch & Lynde. 

No. 7 — Hooker & Weeks. 

No. 8 — Finch & Lvnde. 

No. 9— May & Cottrill. 

No. 10 — Watkins & Dennis. 

The remaining i-ooms are to be occupied by persons connected with 
the bank. A hall, 10 feet wide and 12 high, runs through the story, 
counei-ting above and below by means of two easy and strongly-built 
staircases, six feet in width. 

The two upper stories are occupied by the grand hall and the rooms 
belonging to it. This hall is 110 feet 6 inches long, 60 feet wide and 28 
feet high, with two wide entrances connecting with sejjarate staircases. 
Its dimensions are ample and its ajjpearance magnihcent. At either 
end are three small rooms to be used as dressing rooms, receiving 
rooms, etc. The flooring of the hall rests upon double joists, and the 
bi-ick partitions are carried up to this story. For balls, concerts, lec- 
tures, etc., there is no such apartment in our state, and no more sjia- 
cious or elegant one in the Northwest. It is to be used for the finst 
time on Thursdav evening next, for the annual ball of our Pioneer Fire 
Co. No. 1. 

The building throughout is constructed in the most thorough and 
workmanlike manner, and reflects great credit upon all concerned in 
its planning, erection and adornment. The architect was Mr. Dillen- 
burg, a master of his profession. The contractors were James Allen 
and George Southwell, Jr., whose works do praise them. Harper &, 
Bros, did the painting, and Thos. Johnson furnisheil the copper and 
tiuAvork. 

The total cost of the building complete is not far from $50,000, and the 
lot is now valued at $30,000, though it was purchased by the lucky pro- 
prietors only two years since for §11,000. Upon this large outlay the Al- 
bany will pay a very handsome rent, and may be pointed out as one of 
the model buildings of our citv. 



&' 



The writer has failed to find a profile of this favorite hall so as to 
have been able to furnish a cut of it, which he would have much 
liked to do. 



milwaukee under the charter. 183 

New Year's Calls. 

The Doily Wisconsin of January i, in commenting upon the day, 
said that New Year's calls were in order this year as usual, upon 
which the Sentinel replied by stating that the exercises of the day 
wound up by a street performance, during which innumerable young 
gents were seen in the act of embracing lamp-posts and casting up 
Jonah. 

This was true, as many of them that the writer saw had taken in 
too much cargo of a liquid nature. They drew altogether too much 
whisky forward to steer well, and " yawed " badly. 

The Weather. 

The winter of 1856-57 was a very severe one, particularly the 
months of December and January. There were several weeks of 
uninterrupted sleighing, during which the livery men reaped a rich 
harvest with their fancy turnouts. 

Edward H. Brodhead a Bigger Man Than the Pope. 

The following ludicrous incident is said to have occurred at Mil- 
ton, January 16, 1851. and is too good to be lost. I remember to 
have heard of it at the time, and have no doubt of its truthfulness: 

A Power Above the Pope. 

It will rejoice the hearts of our Know-Nothiug friends to learn that, 
in this state at least, there is a power above the Pope. At least a cir- 
cumstance which we heard of yesterday warrants that belief. Two 
jolly sons of Erin, employed on the Milwaukee & Mississijjjii Railroad 
near Milton, got into a dispute, then to high words, and finally one 
choked the other. Nothing inrtber, however, occurred, and after 
awhile the twain parted. The cliokee, on getting to bed and thinking 
over the events of the day, ])egan to wax angry at the indignity which 
he had sustained. The ujore he thought, the angrier he got; and final- 
ly, after an hour's cogitation, his indignation fairly Ijoiled over. Rising 
in his bed and slapping down his fist, "Be gorra," said he, "I would 
not take that again from Pat." Not quite suited with this, he again ex- 
claimed, after a pause, " Be dad, I'd not take it from the i)raste." Still 
dissatisfied, after another pause, "Be jabers, I'd not take it from the 

Pope of Rome." At last, reaching the climax, "Be J s, I'd not 

take it from ould Brodhead lumself !" with which final defiance his 
wounded spirit was appeased and he sank to sleep. 

A New Grocery. 

Wholesale Grocers. — Milwaukee can boast of having some of the 
largest wholesale grocery estal)lishments in the A\\'st, and among the 
first of these in our city may be mentioned that of Messrs. Sinclair & 
Gunnison, successors to Young & Sinclair. Messrs. Sinclair &, Gunni- 



184 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CMARTER. 

son are now in their new and spacious store, No. 40 East Water street. 
in Inbnscli Brotliers' magnificent brick block, and are prepared to do 
any amount of business in their line. Besides groceries they deal very 
largely in glass, nails, putty, etc. See their card in our advertising col- 
umns."^ Messrs. S. & G. are gentlemanly and upright business men of 
the first stamp, and all those who have "had transactions with them will 
bear testimony to this fact. 

This was Austin Gunnison and William M. Sinclair. They were 
the successors of William P. Young, and remained in business about 
two years and a-half. Mr. Gunnison left Milwaukee in 1864, for 
Cincinnati, where he became connected with the Inland Oil Com- 
pany, the firm being Gunnison, Hamilton & Miller. Mr. Sinclair is 
in Philadelphia, his former home, engaged in the grocery trade. 

Henry W. Gunnison, a former well-known government official 
back in the fifties, is now a resident of Farminglon, N. Y. There 
was another, Mr. Olivet W. Gunnison, well remembered as a specu- 
lator, and who Luilt the block known as 349 and 351 Main street 
(Broadway), who became ins. ne and died at Dayton, Ky., in the 
autumn of 1878. The father died at Milwaukee. 

Jeremiah Quinn. 

This gentleman, so well known as well as so universally popular 
among the people of the " Cream City," was born at Bosnetstown, 
County Limerick, Ireland, on the 20th day of January, 1835, where 
and at the Killarne High School, he received his education. He 
emigrated to the United States in 1852, when seventeen years of age, 
landing at Boston. Here he learned the tool maker's trade, after 
which he came to Wisconsin, reaching Milwaukee in 1857, where the 
next six years were spent in the employ of the now Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul Company Railroad shops, in working at his trade 
when he obtained a position as clerk in the freight department. This 
promotion might properly be called the stepping stone, or the first 
round in the ladder which he was determined to climb. To use a 
Western phrase '' he had struck oil," and a well which has had a 
steady flow to the present, as the fidelity as well as ability with which 
he discharged the work intrusted to him, was not long in coming to 
the knowledge of Manager S. S. Merrill, who at once placed him in 
charge of the freight department, which position he held until 1870, 
when the leaders of the democracy, thinking they saw m him the 




Mij^^i^'^^^^^ 



\ 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 185 

elements which constitute the successful politician, elected him to the 
office of city comptroller, which he held for two years, when he was 
elected tax commissioner (an equally important if not a more respon- 
sible office than comptroller), and which^ on account of his mathe- 
matical abilities, he was specially (qualified to fill. He was not long 
in discovering, however, after being installed in the tax commissioner's 
chair, that he was expected "to bow the knee to Baal," or in other 
words, run the office in the interest of the demagogues who, like 
leeches, are always feeding upon the "carcass political." The 
attempt, however, to put the fetters upon Mr. Quinn, was a complete 
failure ; he was not only too independent, but altogether too honest 
to do anything of the kind, and at once threw up the office, bid 
adieu to political life, and accepted the post of cashier for Hon. John 
Plankinton, which he held until 1879, when he was promoted to the 
more responsible office of private secretary and general business 
manager to that gentleman, which office he holds to-day. Neither 
is it any flattery to say, that few men could be found in the commu- 
nity who could have filled it better, if as well. He is the right man 
in the right place. 

Personnel. 

In person Mr. Quinn is below the medium height, of slight frame, 
and possessed of a constitution like steel, and being of strictly tem- 
perate habits, although past the meridian of life (the point when most 
men begin to show signs of decay), is as vigorous apparently as he was 
at twenty-five. He walks with a quick, elastic step, is nervous, and 
if he wants anything, like Horace Chase, he wants it bad, and wants 
it now. He speaks short and quick, with a slight national accent, 
and at times, when excited, very emphatic. He keeps all business 
matters entrusted to him well in hand, and when talking business 
never lets his countenance give any indication of his thoughts. At 
such times he looks you steadily in the eye, which he does nut always 
do in ordinary conversation, and if your intention was to deceive 
him, you will need plenty of nerve to meet the gaze of that mild blue 
eye that, while talking, is taking your measure very rapidly ; neither 
will you regain his confidence or respect, when once you have lost 
it ; sharpness, in a trade, is no bar to his confidence, but dishonesty 



186 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

is. Mr. Quinn is what is called a self-made man, and has reached 
his present position by merit alone. 

In political faith he is a democrat, but not of the Thos. A. Hen- 
dricks stripe, and stood, during the late rebellion, with that wing of 
the party who were for a vigorous prosecution of the war. Some 
effective speeches were made by him at the early war meetings, at 
one of which he made the following teUing reply to the Ryan 
Address. After criticizing that document in no honied words, he 
closed as follows : " I tell you this war must be fought to victory, by 
any method leading to success, and any method that brings victory 
to our cause is right and just. We are in a struggle for life, and the 
principle of self-preservation is above the Constitution." This was 
the language of a patriot, and had the true ring. 

He is also a staunch friend of our public school system, and had 
he the power every child in this broad land would receive the benefit 
of an education, neither would our streets be filled with the young 
hoodlums, who literally make " Rome howl " with their orgies at 
times, for the want (mauily) of the education that attending these 
schools would confer upon them, but which, on account of the eccle- 
siastical fetters worn by their parents, they are not permitted to enjoy. 
Neither would he permit any interference by any one, lay or clerical, 
that would impair their usefulness, vide the following sentiment given 
when in the school board some twenty years ago, in response to a 
call to speak to a toast, the closing sentence of which was " Our 
Public School System — our country's most distinctively marked pub. 
lie institution, wherein the children of every class stand upon com- 
mon ground and enjoy equal privileges, and out of which America's 
future cosmopolite citizenship will be fraternized and nationalized — 
the republic's future hope and corner-stone. May it survive for- 
ever." That was grand and showed Mr. Quinn to be a patriot 
indeed, and who had the future welfare of his adopted country at 
heart. 

In religious faith he is a Catholic, and an influential as well as a 
liberal one. 

Such is Jeremiah Quinn, an honest man and a valued citizen. 
May his shadow never be less. 



milwaukee under the charter. 187 

Great Rain-Storm. 

There was a tremendous rainstorm on the 6th and yth of February 
that carried off all the snow, as well as taking out nearly all the frost. 
It froze up again, however, on the nth tighter — so the Wisconsin 
man said (and he knows) — than a miser's pocket, which closed the 
river again above Walker's Point bridge, but not below, that part re- 
maining open during the balance of the winter. The cold was very 
severe in March, so much so as to cause the ice in the river above 
Spring street bridge to form a foot in thickness on the loth. But it 
commenced to moderate again on the 20th, and on the 25th the 
river was all clear. But the spring was very backward, owing to the 
unusual quantity of ice in the lake. 

The status of the principal busmess firms was substantially the 
same as in 1856, very few changes having been made. In addition 
to the hotels previously mentioned were the Em.nett House, kept by 
Darby Carney, on East Water, between Chicago and Buffalo streets ; 
the Shamrock, by Tim Savage, 72 Huron street; the Killarney 
House, by Pat O'Reardon; the Shillalah, by Jim Flanagan ; Erin's 
Home, by Michael Finnegan, and several others with less high- 
sounding titles*. The above were all in the Third ward. 

Jas. S. Mitchell was also in the Eastern Hotel, foot of Huron 
street. James O'Brien was in the Travellers' Home (Tim's old 
place. 

Legislature. 

The members from the city and county this year were : To the 
senate, August Greulich and Edward O'Neill; to the assembly, Fred- 
erick K. Bartlett, Moses M. Strong,* Andrew McCormick, Jonathan 
Taylor, Jasper Humphrey, Herman Haertel, Frederick Moscowitz, 
Jas. Reynolds and Jas. D. Reymart. 



■*It is proper to state that the Milwaukee Sentinel, from which this list was 
copied, states that many of these hotels had a grocery in connection therewith, 
and that is the recollection of the writer. In fact, they were mostly groceries 
with a saloon attachment. 

*rhe Blue Book gives this gentleman as a representative from Milwaukee, and 
the city directory for 1857 locates iiim at iVTilwaukee as land commissioner for the 
La Crosse & iVIilwaukee Railroad, residence at the Newhall, which accounts for 
his appearance as a Milwaukee member, although his residence here was only for 
a special purpose. He is now and ahvays has been a resident of Mineral Point. 



188 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

This legislature convened January 14 and adjourned March 9. 
Wyman Spooner, speaker. 

The Ninth Ward Organized. 

The Sixth ward was divided this year by an act entitled, " An act 
to incorporate the city," as follows : 

Section 1. All the territory now included in the Sixth ward of the 
city of Milwaukee which lies east of the center of Seventh street, and 
extending to the northern boundary of said city, shall hereafter consti- 
tute and he the Sixth ward of the city of ^Milwaukee. And all the ter- 
ritory now included in the Sixth ward of said city which lies west of 
the center of Seventh street, as extended to the northern boundary of 
Siud city, shall hereafter constitute and be a new ward, to lie called the 
Ninth ward of the city of Milwaukee. And the said Sixth and Ninth 
wards hereby created shall have all the rifrhts and privileges, and be 
sulyect to the siime regulations, laws and ordinances as the other wards 
in said city, and shall be entitled to elect the sjiuie othcers. 

This act to take eflect and be in force from and after the 31st day of 
^larch, 1857. 

Approved February 20, 1857. 

Ice left the river this year February 28, and May i brought us our 
first boat, the Lady Elgin, from Chicago. 

An Old Setiler Gone. 

Ax Old Landlord Dead. — By reference to our obituary notice this 
morning it will be seen that the funeral of William L. Evans takes 
place at 2 r. m. to-day from the residence of his widow on Michigan 
street. Mr. Evans was formerly the landlord of the old Commercial 
Hotel, on East AVater street. Five years since he left this city for Cali- 
fornia, and on t lie ."nth of last January he was taken ill, and died in 
Tennessee on his return liome. It was his re(niest, a few minutes before 
dying, that his body should be brought to ^lilwaukee for interment. 
Mr. Evans was a Welshman, of good standing when in business here. 
He leaves a widow and children to mourn, with his numerous country- 
men and friends, his death. 

I remember Mr. Evans. He was a splendid representative of the 
old Silures (Welsh) as ever came here, and a good mechanic. He 
was at one time a bench mate of the writer's, when both were in the 
employ of Stoddard H. Martin. He was a very muscular man, 
quick motioned and somewhat impulsive, a good friend ; and if an 
enemy, always an open one. Peace to his memory. 

Taxation. 

The subject of taxation, that ever-present incubus, came to the 
front again this year, and became as usual the hobby-horse for some 
of the leaders to ride into office upon, they representing the " bull " 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 1S9 

and the people the " bear " side of the question, and thus the war 
progressed until there was music by the entire band. But more of 
this hereafter. 

The pipes were laid to run the whole city treasury into the pockets 
of the honest poHticians, and it came very near being accomplished 
before the Repubhcans could apply the brakes. New bonds were 
selling for fifty cents on the dollar to pay interest on old ones past 
due, which soon brought the tax-payers to grief. 

In commenting upon this election Mr. Cramer calls upon the 
tall and lean Yankees who had fought and bled upon the gory field 
of whisky and politics to turn out and vote. This they did, but it 
availed nothing, the result, of course, being a Democratic victory of 
3,400 majority in the county. The people had not get their eyes 
open as yet to the way they were being bled, but, as will be seen 
further on, they discovered it at last. 

The Mayoralty — The People Begin to Wake Up. 

There was a call in the Seniifiel, of Margh 27th, for William A. 
Prentiss to run for Mayor. Politics were red hot. The usual cam- 
paign liar was on hand with a charge of some kind against all the 
candidates who had any following. 

Annexed is the reply of the late Thomas Keogh, who was up for 
alderman, to a charge some poHtical bummer had made, and which 
if not stamped out would in all probability defeat him : 

[For the Sentinel.'] 
A Falsehood Eepxted. 

Messrs. Editor.s: I beg leave to trespass upon your columns to give 
refutation to a base and malicious falsehood, which has been put in cir- 
culation by certain political intriguers, to operate against rny election, 
a.s one year Alderman of the Third ward, which is to the effect that I 
have written a letter to Washington, complaining of Mr. Jolin White, 
Collector of the Port of Milwaukee, for ha\"ing kept in his emploj* a 
German whose principles were anti-democratic. I will merely state 
that I have no knowledge whatever of the manner in which the busi- 
ness of the Custom House has been conducted, nor of the political stand- 
ing or character of any clerk in his employ, and therefore brand its 
author, or autiiors, as wilful and d(diberate liars, and challenge them to 
the proof. As this is one of the most important of the many falsehoods 
put in circulation to bring about my defeat, I take this method of setting 
myself right before the public. It's no use, gentlemen-intriguers, the 
game won't work; the people's eyes are being opened to the despera- 
tion to which you are being driven, and the intrigues to which you 
resort, and will scrutinize more closely the secret of your opposition, 

12 



190 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

and will, in the coming election, consign you to the fate which so richly 
merit. Verj' respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

Thomas Keogh. 
Milwaukee, March 21, 1857. 

Mr. Keogh -was a native of Ireland, and a man of more than ordi- 
nary ability. He was, as has been seen, one of the early school 
teachers. He was honest and conscientious, and scorned to resort 
to the little contemptible tricks that form so large a part of a politi- 
cian's capital, in order to get votes or office. He died Sept. 20th, 
1879, and was buiied in Calvary Cemetery. He was a staunch 
Catholic. 

M. Keogh was the father of our well-known fellow-citizen, Hon. 
Edward Keogh, who has been quite noted as a politician, and who 
has been a leader among his countrymen for many years. Mr. 
Keogh has got a well balanced head on his shoulders, and has made 
a good record both as a public man and a private citizen. 

A democratic caucus was held in the Third ward, at which the 
following aspirants for political honors were put in nomination : 

Alderman for two years — Andrew McCormick. 

Alderman for one year — John Jennings. 

Assessor — Martin Delauey. 

Constable — John Eyan. 

Eailroad Commissioner — Thos. Eviston. 

The delegates from this ward to the city convention were instructed 
to go for S. B. Grant for mayor, and T. O'Brien for marshal. 

There were 1,100 votes polled at this caucus, showing pretty con- 
clusively that every one not only voted early, but as often as thev 
wished. It was a way they had of doing things in that ward in the 
olden time, and they do it yet occasionally. 

Fourth Ward. — In this ward, Jonathan Taylor led the demo- 
cracy, and Jackson Hadley in the First. 

The following were the polling places for holding the election in 

1857: 

First Ward— The dwelling of Peter Theis, corner of Jackson and Og- 
den streets. 
Second Ward — La Crosse Eailroad Depot. 
Third Ward — Louisiana House. 
Fourth Ward — No. 5 Engine House, Second street. 
Fifth Ward — Eochester House, corner Eeed and Florida. 
Sixth Ward — P. Altpeter's House, corner Sherman and Third. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 191 

Seventh Ward — Best's Beer Hall, Market Square. 

Eighth Ward — Molden's Beer Hall, corner Elizabeth and Jones. 

Ninth Ward— At " Widdy Malone's." 

The election, however, resulted as follows : 

Mayor — James B. Cross. 
Comptroller — Ezra L. H. Gardner. 
Treasurer — Herman Schwarting. 
City Attorney — Erastiis Foote. 
Police Justice — Clinton Walworth. 
City Engineer — ^William S. Trowbridge. 
Chief of Pohce — ^William Beck. 
City Clerk— Robert B. Lynch. 
Deputy — Alex. Bolton. 
Marshal — Charles E. Meyer. 

Cit}' Printers — English, Sharpstein & Lathrop. German, P. V. 
Deuster. 
Inspector of Wood and Hay — P. Jacobus. 
Sealer of Weights and Measures — Christian Meyer. 
Bridge Superintendent — Patrick Markey. 

Aldermen. 

First Ward — Jackson Hadley, Christopher Bast and F. Heineman.* 

Second Ward — Alex. Cotzhausen. A. Greulich and John Fuldner. 

Third Ward — A. McCormick, T. O'Brien, and John Jennings. 

Fourth Ward — Jonathan Taylor, Alex. H. Johnston, and John Plank- 
in ton. 

Fifth Ward— F. Conrad, D. C. Reed, and C. Seeman. 

Sixth Ward — Joseph Walters, F. Kuehn and Carl Bussack. 

Seventh Ward — William A. Prentiss, George S. Mallory and James H. 
Greno. 

Eighth Ward — E. G. Hayden, G. G. Loeffler and Geo. Hoehne. 

Ninth Ward — Matthias Human, D. J. Doernick and Frederick Wer- 
gen. 

Council Room in Cross Block, northeast corner East Water and Huron 
streets. 

Commissioners of Survey. 

Herman Haertel, Ira E. Goodall, Sanford B. Grant, 0. B. Hopkins 
Elisha Eldred, Andrew Mitchell and Matthias Human. 

Ward Officers. 

Assessors. 

First Ward — Stephen Hoff. 
Second Ward — T. Handske. 
Third Ward — Martin Delaney. 
Fourth Ward— Ambrose El v. 
Fifth Ward— Hiram Merrill. 
Sixth Ward — Ernst Herzer. 
Seventh Ward — Fred. Wardner. 
Eighth Ward — Joseph Dressier. 
Ninth Ward — Adam Finger. 



*I think this is incorrect, as no such name appears in the directory. There was 
a Joseph Heineman. 



192 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Justices of the Peace. 

First Ward — Geo. A. McGarigle. 
Second AVard — Chas. F. Bode. 
Third Ward— William Holland. 
Fonrth Ward— D. L. Deyo. 
Fifth Ward — Oliver Parsons. 
Sixth Ward — Riley N. Messenger. 
Seventh Ward — Albert Smith. 
Eighth Ward— William A. Tucker. 
Ninth Ward— F. R. Berg. 

Constables. 

First Ward— J. Schoeffle. 
Second Ward — Chas. Neuman. 
Third Ward— John H. Rvan. 
Fourth Ward— Edward Mallon. 
Fifth Ward — Joseph Deuster. 
Sixth Ward — M. Schwibbinger. 
Seventh Ward — H. Guenther. 
Eighth Ward — H. Doerfner. 
Ninth Ward — Christopher Maas. 

Railroad Commissioners. 

First Ward — Peter Theis. 
Second Ward — William H. Jacobs. 
Third Ward— Thos. Eviston. 
Fourth Ward — John Sercomb. 
Fifth Ward— Chas. H. Larkin. 
Sixth Ward — Adam Portner. 
Seventh Ward — Christ. Preusser. 
Eighth Ward— Chas. T. Melms. 
Ninth Ward— E. L. Phelps. 

Police. 

The policemen were twenty-six in number, nearly all the same as the 
previous year. J. B. Rodee and Philander W. Dodge, being station 
keepers, in place of Joseph Sprague and Anson Randall. 

Supervisors. 

First Ward— J. Hadley.* 
Second Ward — Alex. Cotzhausen. 
Third Ward— A. McCormick. 
Fourth Ward — Jonathan Taylor. 
Fifth Ward — Francis Conrad. 
Sixth Ward — Josejjh Walters. 
Seventh Ward — William A. Prentiss. 
Eighth Ward— E. G. Hayden. 
Ninth Ward— M. Human. 

Towns. 

Wauwatosa — Perley J. Shumway. 
Granville — Solomon C. Enos. 
Milwaukee — Chas. Hauf. ' 

Lake — Andrew Douglass. 
Greenfield — Patrick Walsh. 
Oak Creek — N. Howes. 
Franklin — Andrew Sullivan. 
William A. Prentiss, chairman. 
Chas. F. Kasten, clerk. 



C. Bass was subsequently appointed in his place. 



milwaukee under the charter. 193 

School Commissioners. 

First Ward — Silas Chapman, Dennis Culligan and Jackson Hadley, 

Second Ward — Chas. F. Bode, John Noll and Jas. B. Selby, Jr. 

Third Ward— Ed. O'Neill, John Shortelland John Horan. 

Fourth Ward — Jonathan Taylor, Samuel L. Elmore and Jno. A.Seger. 

Fifth Ward — Charles H. Larkin, Duncan C. Reed and Andrew Mit- 
chell. 

Sixth Ward — Ferdinand Kuehn, Benj. Church and Daniel Daggett, 

Seventh Ward — Albert Bade, Geo. S. Mallory and Herman Schwar- 
ting. 

Eighth Ward^ — E. G. Hayden, A. Miller and Geo. Burnham. 

Ninth Ward — Samuel Brown, Peter W. DeVos, and John H. Lippert. 

Andrew Mitchell, 

Whose name appears as school commissioner from the Fifth ward 
for 1857, was a man to whom Dame Nature had been very lavish of 
her gifts, who, could he have received a liberal education, would 
have been a power in the country, and who, as it was, was a man of 
mark wherever he dwelt. He was a native of the old Granite 
State, having been born at Acworth, N. H., on the 15th day of 
August, 1804; removed to Lincoln, Vt., when a boy, and from there 
to Milwaukee in 1850. 

Mr. Mitchell was not a man to shrink from any duty, or who could 
stand quietly by where dishonesty was being practiced without en- 
tering his protest against it, and consequently was soon called to fill 
public trusts, having been appointed to the above office in 1854, and 
which he continued to fill during 1855, 1856 and 1857. Neither is 
it any injustice to his compeers to say that the board has never had 
on its rolls a member (not hberally educated) who exerted a greater 
influence or made a better record than did Andrew Mitchell. His 
natural good common sense and judgment always made him promi- 
nent, which, coupled with his indomitable will, made him a hard 
man to circumvent or defeat. He was a man of large ft-ame, with a 
constitution capable of great endurance, had a strong voice, was 
quick to see, prompt to act, and as fearless and outspoken as any 
one the writer knows. You wanted no lantern with which to find 
him. He was sharp and keen, had his eyes (to use a metaphor) in 
the front of his head, knew how to make money, and how to take 
care of it when made. He also served on the board of aldermen 
from his ward (the Fifth) in 1854 and 1855, where he did good ser- 
vice, and had there been more like him the city would have been 



194 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

saved from much of the scandal of the next few years, on account 
of the poHtical rascaHly perpetrated by some of her officials. He 
has left a good record. He died February 3, 1883. 

Public Schools. 

The following is the list of the pubhc schools for 1857 : 

First Ward. 
Northwest corner of Van Buren and Division streets. 

George McWhorter, principal; Miss S. E. Dewey, first assistant; 
Miss E. Graham, second assistant. 

Intermediate — Miss S. L. Porter, principal; ]Miss J. Duggan, assist- 
ant. 

Primary — Miss C. Kavanagh, principal; Miss M. Quinn, assistant. 

Third Ward. 
JS^ortheast corner of Detroit and Jackson streets. 

Fennimore C. Pomeroy, principal; Mary E. Boylan, first assistant; 
Miss C. Gilbert, second assistant. 

Intermediate— C. C. Mahoney, principal; Miss Gilbert, assistant. 

Primary — Miss Ann E. Mitchell, principal; Miss Josephine Porter, 
first assistant; Miss M. A. Jennett, second assistant. 

Fourth Ward. 

Northwest corner of Eighth and Sycamore. 

Charles K. Martin, principal; Miss E. J. Teale, assistant. 
Intermediate — Miss Baldwin, principal; Miss Isabel Rogers, assistant. 
Primary — Miss Sackett, principal; Miss L. Teed, assistant. 

Fifth Ward. 
Northwest corner of Virginia and Greenbush. 

Jos. E. Bateman,* principal; Miss Sarah II. Drake, assistant. 

Intermediate — Miss A. D. Mitchell, principal; Miss B. Morey, assist- 
ant. 

Primary — Miss C. A. Alvord, principal ; Miss Nancy Packard, assist- 
ant. 

Sixth Ward. 

On Fourth, between Cherry and Galena streets. 

H. W. Spaulding, principal; Miss J. Davis, first assistant; Miss H. 

Clarke, second assistant. 
Intermediate — Miss H. Upham, principal; Miss M. Phelps, assistant 
Primary— Miss E. F. Greenleaf, principal; Miss A. E. Van Dyke, first 

assistant; Miss E. L. Marsli, second assistant. 

Ninth Ward.! 
Miss E. H. Eangdon, principal; Miss Rice, assistant. 

*Mr. Bateman died of consumption soon after at Grand Rapids, Mich. He was 
a fine looking man, and a universal favorite with all who knew him. I remember 
Mr. Bateman well, and often see him in memory's eye. 

fThis house was on Fourth street, northwest corner of Fourth and Beaubien 
streets. 



milwaukee under the charter. 195 

Fire Department. 

Chief Engineer — Daniel Schultz. 
First Assistant — Frank Devlin. 
Second Assistant — Philip Daly. 
Third Assistant— P. McDonough. 

Fire Wardens. < 

First Ward — W. Spence and W. Ludwig. 
Second Ward — H. Mond and 8. D. Luscomb. 
Third Ward— W. H. Holland* and .J. H. Ryan. 
Fourth Ward— M. Phalen and W. G. Haack. 
Fifth Ward— D. C. Reed and D. House. 
Sixth Ward— A. D. Rudd and W. Tompkins. 
Seventh Ward — A. C. .Jacks and L. Fuchs. 
Eighth Ward— Chas. T. Melms and H. Milman. 
Ninth Ward — G. Leu))euheimer and A. C. Meyer. 

The number of practicing physicians was eighty-two, seven of 
whom were homoeopathic. 

The number of attorneys was eighty-one. These attorneys were 
all allopathic — no little pills in their practice. 

Assessments for 1857 foot up $6,441,334, as follows: 

First Ward $575,850 

Second Ward 535,800 

Third Ward 1,-377,804 

Fourth Ward 821,240 

Fifth Ward 819,820 

Sixth Ward 810,890 

Seventh Ward 1,413,505 

Eighth Ward 294,725 

Ninth Ward 292,100 

Total ?6,441,434 

Altering the Grade. 

There was quite an excitement this year among the First ward tax 
payers, on account of Alderman Jackson Hadley's attempting to 
change the grade on Jackson street, solely, as they claimed, to benefit 
his own property. But the work went on all the same. It took some- 
thing more than complaints to prevent him from carrying out any 
plan he undertook. Nothing short of a general uprising of the 
people (which came in 1858) could turn him from his purpose. I 
remember the excitement this change occasioned. It was a deep cut 
in many parts of the street. 

*This gentleman, so well known in Milwaukee from 1856 to 1869 as an insur- 
ance man and an official in the fire department, is now a resident of St. Louis. 
The writer remembers Mr. Holland as a genial, whole-souled and active citizen, and 
had the pleasure of shaking hands with him on the l6th of July, 1885, for the 
first time in fifteen years. 



196 milwaukee under the charter. 

April Fool's Day 

Was celebrated in Milwaukee this year in the usual manner. 
All sorts ot ruses were put in practice to trap the unsophisticated. 
One of the clerks at the Walker House got a letter asking him to be 
on the watch for the trunk of one John B. E-1-e-p-h-a-n-t, who 
was expected up from Chicago. (He found the trunk.) There 
was one affair, however, witnessed by the writer, which proved 
to be anything but a pleasant surprise to the victim. Some young 
hoodlums had filled an old battered stove-pipe hat, that from its 
appearance had been accustomed to carry imaginary ones in its 
original owner's palmy days, with real brick, some of John Burn- 
ham's best, and placed it on the sidewalk, bottom side down of course, 
on South Water street, directly in front of the old Newhall warehouse, 
after which they hid behind some lumber to watch the result. It was 
not long before a phoolosofer, who had just been into one of the 
saloons which adorn that locahty to get his bearings, came saunter- 
mg along apparently engaged in working out a sum in the cube root 
by a mental process, who, seeing the hat, stopped and, after gazing 
upon it for a moment, gave it a kick, intending no doubt to land it 
in Wauwatosa, but it remained in statu quo. The phoolosofer, how- 
ever, went hopping off on one foot (carrying the other in his hand), 
while the good little boys who had planned the game yelled their 
approbation at its success. The unlucky mathematician had solved 
his problem. 

The New Postmaster and the Sentinel's Comments. 

Postmaster of this City. 

The appointment of J. R. Sharpstein, Postmaster, naturally makes a 
sensation here. The Dodge, AVells and Noonan interest staked their 
whole political influence upon the issue, and are woefully beaten. 



S&° It is generally supposed that ex-Postmaster Noonan wdll come 
home as mad as a black rhinoceros, and that witli his horn up he will 
tear a great hole in the Buchanan party in this State. The President 
has absolutely spurned him. Will he submit and kiss the rod ? We 
hope that he is man enough to put his l)ack to the wall and fight his 
oppressors to the last. 

And he did. 

This was a rather severe check to Noonan, et al., as the love they 
bore hnn (Sharpstein) could in no sense be compared to that of 



'^^x.''y^yy^y>'y>»^^:^y,'» 





\^./?Ad^/C^^r7^ 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER, 197 

David and Jonathan. They hated him as the devil does holy water. 
But they had to stand it. 

John A. Becher. 

This gentleman, now so well and so widely known as one of our 
prominent and influential adopted fellow-citizens, is a native of Wei- 
mar, Germany, where he was born November 13th, 1833, and from 
where he migrated to America is 1853, reaching Milwaukee in 1857.* 
Mr. Becher is not one of the kind who, like Mr. Micawber, sit quietly 
down and wait for something to turn up, and consequently was not 
long in establishing himself as a real estate and loan agent, a vocation 
for which he is peculiarly well fitted, his first place of business being 
upon Reed street, between Lake and Florida streets, where, and at 
other locations upon the South Side, he remained until 1861, growing 
in wealth as well as in experience, besides establishing a first class 
reputation for fair and honorable dealing, when, wishing to enlarge 
his field of operations, as well as to obtain a more central location, 
he removed to No. 87 Michigan street, Alex. Mitchell's Bank build- 
ing, where he can be found to-day. 

Mr. Becher, although of a very quiet demeanor, has, like most of 
his countrymen, pohtical aspirations, and was among the first to 
apply for and receive the appointment of agent for the Wisconsin 
State Board of Immigration, upon its organization in 1869, which he 
held until its abolition in 187 1, but was reappointed again upon its 
re-establishment in 1879, and elected its president, and which honor- 
able as well as responsible position he still occupies. 

He was a member of the legislature from the Fifth ward in 1873, 
where he was both active and efficient, and has served as a member 
of the school board from 1873 to 1877, where he made a good 
record. He also, in common with the rest of his countrymen, took 
a part in the defense of the Union during the late rebellion, serving 
as quartermaster of the Thirty-fourth Wisconsin, going in upon its 
organization and serving until mustered out in 1863. 

Personnel. 

In person Mr. Becher is of the medium height, has a wiry, mus- 

* In Vol. II., page 210, it was stated that Mr. Becher came in 1844. This 
was an error, he did not come until 1857. 



198 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

cular frame^ is the picture of health, and belongs to that type of 
men who are born to succeed, and who always do succeed. He is 
aggressive, and can not well be kept in the background. He has a 
fine legal mind, is a great thinker and reader, and possesses the fac- 
ulty of planning and carrying forward to completion large schemes 
for money-making, as his executive abilities are good. He is very 
reticent, that being one of his best points ; has caution largely de- 
veloped, will take no part in any project that has a doubtful look, or 
connect himself with any one whose reputation is under a cloud. 

In political faith he is a Republican, and in religious a liberal. 
His morals are unimpeachable, and although polite to every one, 
has self-respect largely developed, and in his intercourse with others, 
whether acquaintances or strangers, is always dignified, never allow- 
ing any undue familiarity from any one. 

Mr. Becher has accumulated a handsome property, which he is 
using in a judicious manner. 

A Park Proposed. 

An offer was made this year by Horace Chase to sell the city 
twenty acres of his farm, on the south side, for a park, but the prop- 
osition did not meet with the approbation of the then city fathers. 
There was a lengthy discussion in the papers, however, upon it, but 
it ended in smoke.* 

Caleb Wall Scores the Common Council. 
City Land Office. 

Mefisrs. Editors: I do not wish to he considered as one who finds fault 
with Milwaukee, for I love her name ; I owe to her all I am worth, and I 
expect to end my days and be liuried beneath her sod. 

Yet I do not see any good reason why the streets in the Seventh ward 
should be in such an awful condition as tliey now are, and how our 
aldermen, who are men of taste, talent and wealth, can endure it I am 
unable to comprehend. For instance, when you leave Wisconsin street 
and go north on Main street, it is awful. Then up Mason street by the 

*I do not know of, nor do I believe that there is another city of the size of Mil- 
waukee in America whose inhabitants are so perfectly indifferent to parks as are 
ours, while nature has spread out before them localities whose beauty as well as 
fitness for such occupation are conceded by all, and whose large-hearted owners 
have often urged them to take for a mere nominal sum, yet they will not; and 
aside from the Juneau Park, which is in fact a mere flower garden, we have no 
place worthy the name. The German idea of such a place is one vast saloon, 
where they can meet, dance, smoke and drink the "frisky lager;" but the Ameri- 
can portion are too penurious to do even that. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 199 

First Presbyterian church the crossings on the same up to Van Buren 
street are no better; up Oneida or Biddle to Marshall and Astor street 
it is shameful. Complaints through our papers have been made against 
our worthy and enterprising aldermen in the Fifth ward. They are 
doing all they can do, but the Seventh ward aldermen seem to be 
asleep. 

I am sorry to be obliged to make this complaint. Last week I had 
three Virginia gentlemen who came here to, investigate matters, and 
and see what chance there was to invest their money. They represent- 
ed from one to two millions of dollars, and the only complaint they did 
make was the horrible condition of our streets. There will be a laree 
number here in the course of twenty days from the South, for the pur- 
pose of taking a thorough survey of our city. Do, Messrs. Aldermen of 
the Seventh ward (which is considered one of the wealthiest wards in 
our city), have the streets in such a condition that one can drive around 
without breaking his carriage. The other wards are far ahead of us, 
particularly the Fifth ward, for 1 can drive down Clint(^n street to the 
Kiunikinnic bridge, on a beautiful plank and graded street, in tifteen 
minutes from Wisconsin street. Caleb Wall. 

Caleb was right. There was an indifterence about the streets at 
limes on the part of the city fathers that was shameful, but the voice 
and pen of Caleb finally got them started, and once started there 
was a change visible in a kw days for the better. Caleb was a 
trump. 

The Matthews Bros. — Furniture. 

This celebrated furniture house, which from small beginnings has 
grown to its present gigantic proportions, was founded by Eschines 
P. and Alonzo R. Matthews, who came to Milwaukee from New- 
berry, Geauga county, O., landing here on the 9th day of June, 
1857, and at once commenced to make a " plant." Their first place 
of business was in a small frame building, yet standing, and known 
as No. 531 East Water street, where, on the nth of June, two days 
after their arrival, with a cash capital of $200, they took their place 
at the foot of Dame Fortune's ladder, fixed their eyes upon the top, 
and commenced the ascent, and up which they have continued to 
ascend step by step, until they have reached the top and the victory 
won. 

They remained in these humble quarters — doing their manufactur- 
ing themselves — until January, i860, during which, by good man- 
agement as well as economy, they have not only built up quite a 
large trade, but have also made a handsome addition co their capital, 
when feeling assured that they were bound to strike oil (as the 
phrase goes) if they went a little deeper, they removed to the brick 



200 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

building known as No. 495 East Water street, where they remained 
until February, 1863, where, such had been their success, that a sec- 
ond removal seemed almost imperative, and they secured the then 
magnificent building, erected in 1855 by Henry Wederhoff, No. 418 
East Water street (Noyes & Flertzheim's old place), and opened a 
manufactory on River street, where they employed about a dozen 
hands, and began to push matters, /. e.. they now assumed the ag- 
gressive and made it warm for all their competitors. 

Here they remained until 1867, when they were joined by Quincy 
A. Matthews, a younger brother, who went into their employ as a 
salesman, making a three-fold cord not easily broken. 

They had now reached a period in their history where they were 
able to make their power felt, and needing more room for manufac- 
turing purposes, a new factory (the nucleus of the present mammoth 
structure on Fourth street) was erected in 1870, into which all the 
improvements in the art then in use were placed, and the work of 
manufacturing commenced on a large scale, they still occupying the 
store on East Water as a salesroom until March, 1874, when, having 
again outgrown their quarters, they removed to 411 Broadway, Chas. 
Munkwitz's new building, erected expressly for them, on a five- 
years' lease, at a rental of $5,000 per annum, using the Wederhoff 
store as an upholstering and finishing room, for which purpose it was 
connected with 411 Broadway by an elevated bridge over the alley. 
They now had the largest store as well as the most elegant stock of 
furniture to be found in the West, and their fame was in all the land. 

It was at this time that many, with whom no doubt the wish was 
father to the thought, predicted their failure, as their expenses com- 
pared with other estabhshments of a similar nature were enormous, 
but their success while in this store was fully equal to their expecta- 
tions, and they did not fail. Here they remained until the expiration 
of their lease (1879), when feeling satisfied that still greater success 
would crown their efforts by being located upon East Water street, 
they removed to the new five-story building erected by the Philip 
Best Brewing Company, on the old John Pixley lot, Nos. 407 to 411 
inclusive, at which time articles of incorporation were filed, with 
Eschines P. Matthews, prest., Alonzo R. Matthews, sec, Quincy A. 
Matthews, treasurer, Lowell Damon, draughtsman and designer, and 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 201 

Ludwig Koehler, superintendent at the factory. Capital, when in- 
corporated, $100,000. Present capital, $200,000. Number of men 
employed in 1879 was 70. Their factory has had two enlargements, 
the first in 1879, and the second in 1882, the number of men now 
upon the pay roll being 200. 

Such is substantially the history of the founding, as well as the 
growth and present status of the furniture house of the Messrs. 
Matthews Bros. Their success has been something wonderful. 
Neither is there another furniture establishment in our city whose 
proprietors have ever succeeded m reachmg the plane they occupy, 
as to the amount of business done, whose credit has never been 
under a cloud, or who have passed unscathed through all the finan- 
cial cyclones which have swept over the West during the last twenty- 
eight years, and who have always paid a hundred cents on the dollar, 
and paid it when due. 

Their sale-rooms are filled with the most costly and elegant furni- 
ture to be found in the West, nearly all of which is the product of 
their own factory, and much of which is of that unique style, now 
rapidly coming into use again, used by our forefathers a hundred 
years ago, and in the introduction of which they were among the 
first. They have (to use a metaphor) scaled the ramparts before 
which so many of their predecessors have fallen, entered the fort, 
and are doubtless destined to hold it for many years to come. 

Personnel. 

Physically, the Messrs. Matthews Bros, are splendid representatives 
of the Caucasian type, and would be taken for men of mark in any com- 
munity. Eschines P., the head of the firm, is of the medium height, 
stoutly built, very muscular, and when in his prime must have been 
a very powerful man. He has a large head, face oval and full, a 
slightly florid complexion, auburn hair upon which the frosts of time 
are beginning to show their work. He has a clear, mild blue eye, in 
which a mirthful smile is often lurking. He speaks slow but very 
distinctly, is not much of a talker, attends closely to business, the 
details of which he keeps well in hand, has the bump of caution 
largely developed, is never in a hurry, and consequently always in- 
vestigates a proposition thoroughly before deciding to adopt it. 



202 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

In political faith he is a republican, but is not a politician, never 
having run for or held but one office (viz :) that of alderman from the 
Fourth ward, to which he was elected in 1878, and where a few 
months service convinced him that one might as well attempt to 
gather grapes from thorns, or figs from thistles, as to look for the 
peace which passeth all understanding in a Board of Milwaukee 
Aldermen, whereupon he threw up the sponge in despair. Indeed, 
such was the disgust engendered in his breast for anything smelling 
of politics, by his short service in that body, that I very much doubt 
if the lucrative position of ward foreman, with all its emoluments, 
would tempt him to enter the arena of politics again. " No more of 
that for Joseph." But I digress. 

Alonzo R. is of medium height, but slighter build. He also has a 
fine physique, has auburn hair and blue eyes. His voice is strong 
and powerful, speaks quick, but very distinctly, and when in conver- 
sation looks his vis-a-vis squarely in the face, and if after informa- 
tion, or if negotiating a trade, will come directly at the matter with- 
out any beating around the bush, as the saying is — a characteristic 
so universal amongst the mass of the American people. He has a 
fine face, upon which a kindly expression or smile is usually seen, 
particularly when in conversation. He is a splendid friend, and a 
universal favorite with all who know him. He is fond of books, 
works of art and music, and will do no injustice or take any unfair 
advantage of any one, and probably lives as near the golden rule as 
it is possible for any one to do and make money. 

In pohtical faith he is a Republican, but takes no active part in 
the political issues of the day, and will not (although repeatedly 
urged to do so) accept any office, but gives his whole attention to 
his business. He is very domestic and spends his leisure hours in 
his beautiful home. 

Quincy A., the junior member of this firm, is in height below the 
medium, stoutly built, and possessed of a muscular power far above 
the average. He has a large head, broad shoulders, a large face, a 
florid complexion, and is the very picture of heahh. His voice is 
also strong, but somewhat low in tone, and, hke Eschines P., he 
speaks very distinctly. He is hke his brothers, is always courteous 
and gentlemanly, but will brook no insult from any one, and whoever 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 203 

intends oflering him that and escapes will need a clear coast and a 
swift pair of heels, for if he does not possess both he will find him- 
self in chancery before he can count six, as he is not one of the kind 
who, if smitten upon one cheek is very apt to turn the other for a 
similar salutation. He is also a good judge of character, and, like 
Geo. P. Gifford, will, if among strangers, find out all he can about 
them, while they would find out very httle about them. He, like his 
brothers, knows the value of money, as well as how to make it, and 
to keep it when made. 

Such are soa e of the leading characteristics of Eschines P., Alon- 
zo R. and Quincy A. Matthews. They have reached a high plane 
in the community, socially and financially, and with such aids as 
Lowell Damon to design and Ludwig Koehler to execute those de- 
signs they can not fail to wear the belt among their brother crafts- 
men in Milwaukee for many years to come. 

Opening of the Newhall. 

The opening of this celebrated house (the commencement to erect 
which has been previously referred to), Aug. 25, 1857, was a notable 
event in the history of our city. .Several attempts, as the reader is 
aware who has perused the previous volume, had been made, even 
as far back as 1S48, to erect such a building, all of which had come 
to naught. But now, through the liberality and enterprise of that 
old veteran wheat operator, Daniel Newhall, it was accomplished, 
and the fame of it, owing to the pubhcity its construction had re- 
ceived from the press, supplemented by the annexed proceedings of 
the board of trade in answer to the proposition of the Milwaukee 
& Mississippi Railroad, was world-wide. 

Meeting op the Board of Trade. 

A meeting of the board of trade was held yesterday morning for the 
purpose of considering the y>ropo8ition of the Milwaukee & Mississippi 
Railroad in relation to the railroad celebration, which it was proposed 
that we should have about the 15th of August. 

The following letter was read from the president of the Milwaukee & 
Mississippi Railroad: 
To the Members of the Board of Trade of the City of Milwaukee : 

Gentlemen— The Milwaukee & Mississippi Railroad Company submit 
for your consideration the following proposition, to-wit: 

They will bring such gentlcnicn as shall l)e invited from Northern 
Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin to Milwaukee and return them free of 
expense, provided the citizens of Milwaukee will raise the necessary 
means to entertain them while they remain in the city. 



204 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

If this suggestion is carried out, it should take place about the 15th of 
August, at which time I understand the Newhall House will be in readi- 
ness to receive guests. 

Very respectfully, Edward H. Brodhead, President. 

Several members of the board spoke upon the subject, expressing 
their desire that there would be a general railroad celebration held at 
that time, and that necessary preparations be made to have it done in a 
proper manner; also recommending tliat a committee of five be ap- 
pointed to raise suljscriptions and make the necessary arrangements. 

The following gentlemen were appointed: W. B. Hibbard, Jno. Brad- 
ford, J. G. Inbusch, L. W. Weeks, N. J. Emmons. 

Adjourned to Saturday morning. 

And in order that its erection might prove a financial success, two 
of the then best known as well as popular landlords in the West, 
Messrs. Abraham Rice and Michael Kean, had been duly installed 
as lessees. 

Invitations had also been extended to all the prominent citizens in 
the city, as well as the region roundabout (including New Jersey), to 
come and partake of the feast prepared for the occasion. 

The following, copied from the Sefitine/ oi the 21st, shows the in- 
terest taken in this the grandest aftair which up to that time had 
ever occurred in the city's history : 

Opening (Jf the Newhall House. 

The entertainment on the 25th inst., to which we called attention last 
Saturday, promises to be the finest affair of the kind ever given in this 
city. The names of the different committees, with other particulars, 
will be found in another column. 

Every editor in the state, also in Cliicago, and e<litors and others in 
several cities in the West, vSouth and East have complimentary tickets 
sent them ; and those who fail to receive tickets, l)y any accident, are 
requested to consider themselves invited and attend the celebration, 
where they will meet with a cordial welcome. 

The tickets will serve as yjasses on all the railroads and steamboats to 
this city. It will be a splendid festival, and we hope to see every one 
invdted present. 

Below is the list referred to, though how they ever got through the 
programme with so small a committee is a mystery. It is barely 
possible that a few more names might have been obtained from 
Alaska, Australia or the Sandwich Islands had time permitted. But 
here is the list :* 



■*The omission of the writer's name from this committee is owing to the fact of 
his being at Lake Superior that summer. He would probably have helped swell 
the list the i-435th part had he been at home. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 205 

GRAND FESTIVAL 

— ^IN HONOR OF THE — 

OPENING OF THE NEWHALL HOUSE, 
On Thursday Evening, August 25. 



Messrs. Kean & Rice, Proprietors. 



Executive Committee. 

Hon. J. B. Cross, Mayor, J. S. Fillmore, 

Sanford B. Grant, J. C. Starkweather, 

John Nazro, John L. Hathaway. 

Honorary Committee. 



Hon. Henry Dodge, 


Hon. 


E. V. Whiton, 


Hon. J. D. Doty 


f 


Hon. 


0. Cole, 


Hon. N. P. Tallmadge, 


Hon. 


A. D. Smith, 


Hon. Nelson De' 


rt-ey, 


Hon. 


Charles Durkee, 


Hon. Wm. A. Barstow, 


Hon. 


J. R. Doolittle, 


Hon. L. J. Farw 


ell. 


Hon. 


Chas. Billinghurst, 


Hon. Coles Bashford, 


Hon. 


John F. Potter, 


Hon. A.G.Miller, 


Hon. 


C. C. Washburne, 




Hon. Daniel Newhall, 


Esq. 




Committee of Arrangements. 


Cyrus Adams, 


Levi Hubbell, 




J. H. Van Dyke, 


Wm. Allen, 


Dr. F. Huebsct 


imann 


I, G. Vliet, 


J. E. Arnold, 


D. P. Hull, 




A. G. Van Schaick, 


A. H. Atkins, 


J. B. Hall, 




J. Vliet, 


G. F. Austin, 


W. S. Hunn, 




Caleb Wall, 


C. R. Austin, 


E. N. Hurd, 




Edward Vose, 


E. P. Bacon, 


A. L. Hutchinson, 


0. H. Waldo, 


B. Bagnall, 


0. F. Ilsley, 




G. H. Walker, 


E. D. Baker, 


J. G. Inbusch, 




C. R. Alton, 


L. T. Barelav, 


R. C. Jacks, 




C. K. Watkins, 


G. Barry, 


J. B. Jervis, 




C. Walworth, 


F. K. Barlett, 


C. E. Jenkins, 




L. Ward, 


J. K. Bartlett, 


R. D. Jennings. 




B. S. Weil, 


G. L. Beetle, 


Wm. Jewell, 




F. Wardner, 


C. H. Bell, 


J. Johnson, 




W. A. Webber, 


B. J. Belden, 


S. R. Johnson, 




D. Wells, Jr., 


J. Best, 


R. C. Johnson, 




C. K. Wells, 


G. B. Bingham, 


J. M. Jones, 




W. S. Wells, 


H. Burchard, 


L. E. Jones, 




N. Webster, 


N. G. Bishop, 


A. L. Kane, 




L. \V. Weeks, 


F. J. Blair, 


Rufus King, 




T. Wettstein, 


Lewis Blake, 


L. H. Kellogg, 




C. H. Wheeler, 


A. B. Blanchard, 


J. B. Kellogg, 




W. J. Whaling, 


F. Bloodgood, 


G. K. Kimball, 




H. K. White 


H. R. Bond, 


I. A. Laiiham, 




.John White 


J. N. Bonesteel, 


Abner Kirbv, 




S. C. West, 


J. Bonnell, 


J. Kneeland, 




H. Wild, 


F. J. Bosworth, 


M. Kneeland, 




A. Whittemore, 



206 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



G. B. Boyd, 
John Bradford, 

C. T. Bradley, 
J. T. Branch, 
G. Bremer, 

S. J. Bridge, ' 
J. R. Brigham, 
E. H. Brodhead, 
Nathan Brooks, 

D. T. Brown, 
H. S. Brown, 
J. S. Brown, 
S. Bryant, 
W. Bryant, 

J. L. Burnliam, 
W. E. Burlock, 
A. R. R. Butler, 

E. L. Buttrick, 

E. Button, 
R. P. Cadv, 
N. B. Cad well, 
Chas. Cain, 
H. H. Camp, 
AV. S. Candee, 
S. Alexander, 
N. B. Caswell, 
Sam Chandler, 
R. Chandler, 
J. Y. Cheney, 
J. Christie, 

P. W. Clark, 

F. D. Clark, 
A. F. Clarke, 
M. W. Clark, 

G. W. Clavson, 
G. M. Colgate, 

T. Collingbourne, 
C. Comstock, 
W. A. Conway, 
C. D. Cook, 
Z. A. Cotton, 
H. Courtney, 
W. E. Cramer, 
J. H. Crampton, 
H. Crocker, 
N. Cross, 
J. B. Cross, 
Arthur Dadd, 
S. S. Daggett, 
R. Davis, 
C. B. Davis, 
John Davis, 
J. A. Dutcher, 
L. N. Dewey, 
G. D. Dousman, 
J. B. Dousman, 
G. G. Dousman, 
G. Dver, 
E. Eldred, 
M. G. Elmore, 



J. H. Cordes, 
F. Kuehn, 
C. Kupper, 
Andrew La Due, 
F. M. Lane, 

C. H. Larkin, 

F. Layton, 
L. L. Lee, 

G. Lefevre, 
A. G. Leland, 
Allison Lewis, 
T. Littell, 

J. Lockwood, 
J. Ludington, 
H. Ludington, 
R. Lvnch, 
L. S." Mack, 
J. Mahler, 
G. S. Mallory, 
J. L. Marshall, 
H. Martin, 
J. B. Martin, 
S. H. Martin, 

A. C. Mav, 

D. McDonald, 
Wm. P. Lvnde, 
R. McCarter, 

J. L. McVicker, 
M. B. Medberrv, 
S. S. Merrill, 

B. K. Miller, 
A. Mitchell, 

E. T. Mix, 
D. S. More, 
Jas. Murrav, 
G. W. Mvgatt, 

C. D. Nash, 
J. Nazro, 

D. Newhall, 
M. S. Nichols, 
H. Niedecken, 
G. D. Norris, 
T. L. Ogden, 
Rowland Olmstead, 
Edward O'Neill, 
R. G. Owens, 

J. J. Orton, 
H. L. Page, 
Michael Page, 
Byron Paine, 
Edwin Palmer, 
H. L. Palmer, 
C. W. Perkins, 
G. Pfister, 
S. Pettibone. 
J. W. Pixley, 
J. R. Sharpstein, 
J. Plankinton, 
S. K. Piatt, 
R. W. Pierce, 



M. Schoeffler, 

E. Cramer, 

H. Williams, 

John Wing, 

C. H. Williams, 

M. S. Scott, 

Dr. E. B. Wolcott, 

W. H. Wright, 

J. P. Wr.od, 

G. A. Woodward, 

E. Worthington, 

W. P. Young, 

S. M. Booth, 

A. Greulich, 

Wm. Goodnow, 

J. A. Noonan, 

Edw. Miller, 

A. Green, 

H. Mabbett, 

A. J. Langworthy, 

A. Sawver, 

H. H. Harrison, 

O. Bremer, 

T. W. Goodrich, 

E. H. Gridlev, 

J. Wise, 

H. Mann, 

J. E. Patton, 

S. C. Newhall, 

J. F. Burchard, 

H. W. Allen, 

P. J. Bergin, 

A. E. Dibble, 
J. GoU, 

J. Hassett, 
J. L. Pierce, 
S. Adler, 
R. Swaffield, 
W. W. Yale 
C. Harrington, 
C. H. Orton, 
J. Sherwood, 
W. T. Battle, 
L. Lake, 
W. W. Lake, 
J. M. Alcott, 
P. Yale, 
M. Otterbourg, 
L. J. Hobart, 
Jas. A. Swain, 

B. Zellner, 
H. Freeman, 
J. Nichols, 
Alex. Campbell, 
M. Duckert, 

H. A. Foote, 

C. Shepard, 
C. T. Stamm, 
E. Schumacher, 
Jas. Seville, 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



207 



N. J. Emmons, 

D. Ferfiuson, 
H. Fess, Jr., 
A. Finch, Jr., 

G. M. Fitzgerald, 
W. P. Flanders, 
R. Flertzheim, 

E. Foote, 

W. R. Freeman, 

D. E. French, 
H. Friend, 

J. Furlong, 

A. H. Gardiner, 

E. L. H. Gardiner, 
I. E. Goodall, 

E. H. Goodrich. 
J. O. Goodrich, 
W. W. Graham, 
S. B. Grant, 
J. S. FiUmore, 
T. A. Green, 
E. B. Greenleaf, 
W. B. Gregory, 
J. P. Greeves, 
John Cummings, 
J. Hadley, 
H. Haertel, 
P. C Hale, 
C B. Hall, 
S. H. Ham, 
R. Haney, 
J. Hardy, 
W. Harper, 
A. VV. Hart, 
J. A. Hasbrouck, 
J. W. Haskins, 
J. L. Hathaway, 
H. N. Hempsted, 
A. Harriman, 
G. P. Hewitt, 
W. B. Hibbard, 
L. J. Higby, 
A. Hill, 
H. Hill, 
J. Hill, 

W. L. Hinsdale, 
J. H. Hoes, 
W. H. Holland, 
E. D. Holton, 
Joel Hood, 
S. T. Hooker, 
S. A. Hoover, 
O. B. Hopkins, 
R. Houghton, 
D. Howard, 
J. W. Hovt, 



Jas. Porter, 
D. G. Powers, 
John Pritzlaff", 
C. Preusser, 

C. Quentin, 

D. C. Reed, 
L. T. Rice, 

D. H. Richardb, 
J. H. Rogers, 

S. L. Rood, 
W. H. Rodway, 
John Rosebeck, 
A. V. Rudd, 
.John Rugee, 

E. G. Ryan, 
T. J. Salsman, 
E. Sanderson, 
A. P. Smith, 

D. Schultz, 
J. B. Selby, 
.John Sercomb, 

A. D. Seaman, 
L. Sexton, 

J. Shadjjolt, 
J. H. Silkman, 

E. M. Shoyer, 
V. Schulte, 

W. M. Sinclair, 
J. B. Smith, 
G. Southwell, Jr., 
Winfield Smitli, 
S. W. Staats, 
E. Spangenberg, 

D. Stein, 
J. Stark, 

J. D. Starkweather, 
G. E. Starkweather, 

E. Starr, 

H. Stein, Jr., 
Wm. Strickland, 
M. M. Strong, 
R. H. Strong, 
M. Stern, 
J. Taylor, 
J. H.'Tesch, 
J. M. Durand, 
E. Terry, 
J. G. Townsend, 
Geo. Tracv, 

B. Throop, 
T. Turton, 

J. H. Tweedy, 
J. R. Treat, ' 
D. A. J. Upham, 
A. B. Van Cott. 
W. S. Trowbridge, 



J. Ford, 
H. Kempshall, 
A. H. Bacon, 
P. Barker, 
C. Delorme, 
J. H. Warner, 
G. W. Mayhew, 

F. Goes, 

S. L. Elmore, 
J. H. Butler, 

G. F. Oakley, 
E. P. Hotchkiss, 
T. H. Schuyler, 
J. A. Mallory, 
A. Hash rook, 

J. W. Stearns, 
H. W. Gunnison, 
M. Steever, 
J. S. Harris, 
J. Douglass, 
M. E. Shinn, 

A. Eldred, 
W. B. Alvord, 
R. B. Bell, 

J. T^ongworth, 
Byron Kilbourn, 
H. O. Wilson, 
Wm. Butler, 
John B. Medbury, 
S. S. Conover, 
T. O'Brien, 
Wm. Brown, Jr., 
O. Aldrich, 
Clark Shepardson, 

B. Wasson, 
Wm. Beck, 
M. Keenan, 
A. Bade, 

S. B. Burnham, 
G. B. Miner, 
S. Fitch, 
W. A. Prentiss, 
G. W. Walker, 
A. Sweet, 
C A. Place, 
H. E. Goodrich, 
G. W. Peckham, 
Dr. J. E. Garner, 
Dr. Blanchard, 
Dr. McKnight, 
H. E. Dickinson, 
Peter Van Vechten, 
T. Brockway, 
John .Jennings, 
T. H. Eviston, 
A. McCormick. 



This famous hotel, notwithstanding the parade made at its opening, 
proved a very unremunerative piece of property to both owners and 



208 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



landlords, during the twenty-six years of its existence. Mr. Keene soon 
parted with his interest in the lease to our well-known fellow-citizen 
Chas. Andrews, who with Mr. Rice ran it for a short time, when they 
were succeeded by Messrs. Kingsbury & Son. Then it vvas Kings- 
bury and Johnston (Col. Walter S. Johnston), now the popular land- 
lord at the Union Depot. Their successors were Messrs. Bentley & 
Son, who were succeeded by Gofif & Hamlin. Then Chas. An- 
drews again. Then Lansing Bonnell. Then John F. Antisdel, who 
was its landlord when burned. 

Of all this corps, not more than one or two at most ever made 
any money in the house. The Bentleys lost $16,000 in one year. 
And Mr. Antisdel informed the writer, that he sunk $10,000 per 
annum for the nine years he occupied it. It had two narrow escapes 
from fire before its final destruction.* The first on the 14th of Feb- 
ruary, 1863, which burned out nine apartments, and again January g, 
1880, when four apartments were destroyed. 




This hotel (a cut of which is here given) had a frontage of 120 
feet on Michigan street, and 180 feet on Broadway. It was six 
stories in height, (I quote now from the Messrs. Herman and Julius 
Bleyer's book, entitled the " Burning of the Newhall House,") con- 



* See the Messrs. Bleyers' book on the final burning of the Newhall, pages 56 
and 57. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 209 

tained three hundred rooms, and at the time of its construction was 
considered the largest and finest hotel in the West. The cost of the 
building was $155,000, the lot on which it was erected was valued 
at $50,000, and the first lessees furnished it at a cost of $70,000. 
The house, finished and furnished, therefore represented an invest- 
ment of $275,000. The structure was originally surmounted by a 
shapely wooden cupola, but shortly after the Chicago fire this was 
removed in order to reduce the fire risk. In August, 1865, Daniel 
Wells, Jr., S. S. Sherman and C. D. Nash bought the property. In 
1866 the rooms in the upper part of the bank building,* on the cor- 
ner of East Water and Michigan streets, were fitted up for hotel 
purposes, and the two buildings were connected by a covered passage 
of wood, which bridged the alley on a level with the third floor of the 
Newhall House. At the same time, or probably a little later, with a 
view to facilitating escape in case of fire, the fourth, fifth and sixth 
floors of the hotel were connected with the bank building. The pas- 
sage from the fifth floor of the hotel was nearly on a level with the 
bank roof, and consisted of a bridge with a hand-rail on each side. 
A short ladder connected this bridge with the sixth story. In May, 
1869, Messrs. Wells, Sherman and Nash leased the hotel to John 
Plankinton for a term of years, giving him the privilege of closing it 
if he deemed best. The public objected to having the house closed 
and sought a purchaser for the property. Finally S. N. Smallt 
became the owner of the hotel, several prominent citizens advancing 
him $100,000, taking 100 bonds of $1,000 each as security. The 
public-spirited Mr. Plankinton kindly relinquished his lease in the 
interest of the movement, in November, 1873, Mr. Small having 
defaulted in the payment of the interest on the bonds, the bondholders 
arranged with him for the conveyance of the property to them. 
Soon thereafter the Newhall House Stock Company was formed 
and the bondholders became stockholders in the association, C. D. 
Nash being the president and managing officer. In 1874 the Broad- 
way water-main was connected with standpipes on the north and 
south end of the building, extending to the sixth floor. Fire-plugs 



* Present Milwaukee National, 
f Simeon N. Small. 



210 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

and hose were attached to these standpipes on every floor. In 1874 
the elevator was put in. The building was provided with two fire 
escapes, one on the north end of the Broadway ft-ont, and the other 
near the corner on the Michigan street side, the corridors of the hotel 
extending to each. 

Instead of replacing the burned rooms, which had always been 
considered dangerous, an open court was substituted for them, reach- 
ing down to the office floor, where there was a skylight. The court 
was enclosed by brick walls on its east, north and west sides, and by 
an iron sheathed wall on the south. The corridor running east and 
west on the north side of the sixth floor was also provided with a 
door as a means of exit to the roof of the rear part of the building, 
which was only five stories in height. 

Yet, notwithstanding all those precautions, this magnificent hotel, 
the pride of our city when built, was destroyed, as previously stated, 
January 10, 1883, by which, aside from the fearful loss of life, its 
unfortunate owner suffered the following 

Pecuniary Loss. 

The following is a statement of the pecuniary loss by the great 
conflagration : 

Underwriters' value of the hotel, - - . $140,00 
Estimated value of furniture, - - . 26,400 

$166,400 

Insurance on building, ----- $78,500 
" furniture, - - . - 23,000 

102,300 

Actual loss, --------- $64,100 

The ground floor of the building was occupied by Geo. Scheller, 
hotel bar-room ; Manufacturers' Bank; C. F. Hibbard & Co., and 
C. H. Ross, insurance and freight agents; L. A. Wheeler and C. E. 
Grain, insurance agents; W. T. Durand, insurance agent; F. W. 
Montgomery & Go., insurance agents; Merchants' Dispatch Freight 
office ; West & Myers, insurance agents ; Blue Line freight office ; 
and Benj. M. Weil, real estate agent. The basement was occupied 
by the Mutual Union and District Telegraph offices ; Grand Trunk 
freight office; A. H. Baumgartner, painter; A. W. Goetz, barber; 
and Burdick & Armitage, job printers. Of these occupants the last 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 211 

named were the heaviest losers. Their presses and material were 
valued at $10,000, upon which there was an insurance of $8,500. 
The lo.sses of the other occupants were mainly in office furniture and 
books and commercial documents of small intrinsic value. The 
stock of the hotel bar-room, kept by Geo. Scheller, was well insured. 
To these losses by business establishments in the basement and first 
floor of the building should be added the loss suffered by guests and 
servants in the destruction of clothing, jewelry and other personal 
effects. In several instances these losses reached a consideral sum. 
Mr. and Mrs. Wm. E. Cramer lost valuable diamonds and a store- 
room full of choice books and articles of virtu collected during their 
oreign travels. Henry C. Payne, postmaster, lost a valuable library 
and other goods which he had stored in the building. The total 
amount of these personal losses cannot be computed, but it certainly 
reached a large figure. 

The Inquest. 

The inquest on the dead was begun on the 23d of January, in the 
jury-room of the Municipal Court, City Hall, before the following 
jurors: Robert Davies, builder; J. B. Thompson, contractor ; Daniel 
Waite, clergyman; T. J. Franey, railroad employe; J. C. Corrigan, 
merchant ; John O'Connell, contractor. John M. Clarke, District 
Attorney, conducted the examination of witnesses. The inquiry 
continued until the afternoon of February i, when the District Attor- 
ney charged the jury and they retired. The sifting process and 
argument on the testimony educed at the examination occupied the 
attention of the jury, at daily sittings, until February 5th, when a 
verdict containing the following findings was rendered: 

That the Newhall House was set on fire by a person or persons un- 
known; that only one night watchman was employed in the hotel, and 
that he, having other duties to jjerform, was unable to attend to his 
proper duties, which should have received the attention of two or three 
men; that the night watchman and night clerk, obeying previous in- 
tructions of the proprietors, lost valuable time in useless attempts to 
extinguish the fire, and neglected to arouse the inmates, and that wlien 
they did attempt to arouse those intlie hotel the (rorridors were so tilled 
with stifiing suKjke that the employes were obliged to seek their own 
safety; that the proprietors were guilty of culpable negligence in not 
having employed a sufficient nuinljer of wat(;hmeu to guard the house 
against fire and awake the inmates in time to save all the lives possible; 
that, notwithstanding the facts that the Newhall House was easy of 
egress and devoid of intricate passagcss, that it had outside escape "lad- 
ders on the northeast and southeast corners, and a bridge near the 



212 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

southwest corner leading across the alley to the opposite building, an 
inside servants' stairwaj' from the fifth story to the basement, and two 
large open stairways in "the front corridors leading from the office floor 
to the sixth story, "with an open ladder to the roof, the owners of the 
Newhall House, knowing that many fires had taken place at ■ arious 
times in the hotel, are guilty of culpable negligence in not having pro- 
vided more outside escapes in case of fire; that the Fire Department 
did their duty as well as could be expected, but could have done much 
more had the ladder trucks been fully manned and equipped with the 
best extension ladders and the men well drilled to handle them; and 
that the telegraph pole^ and wires caused serious obstruction to the Fire 
Department, by preventing them from using their ladders in a speedy 
and efficient manner at the time they were so much needed. 

The Men who Fought the Fire. 

Chief Engineer — Henry Lippert. 

Assistant Engineer — John T. Black. 

Superintendent Fire Alarm Telegraph — Geo. Glassner. 

Lineman — L. Schroeder. 

Veterinary Surgeon — Dr. John Senti. 

Chemical Engine No. 1 — Foreman, Nich. Theisen; pipemen, H. Fitz- 
laff and A. G. Mass; driver, Fred Noelk. 

Hook and J^adder No. 1 — Foreman, Edward Riemer; truckmen, H. F. 
Staiiss, C. Heyder, L. Gillmeister, John Ryan; driver, F. Schuppner. 

Hook and Ladder No. 2 — Foreman, Michael J. Curtin; truckmen, J. 
Borngesser, A. A. Smith, C. J. Green, G. E. Nodine; driver, C. Schunck. 

Hook and Ladder No. 3 — Foreman, Jacob Kopf; truckmen, F. Gros- 
kopf, S. Brand, W. Mnschgau, J. Stolz; driver, L. Linberger. 

Supply Hose No. 1 — Pipemen, F. Schmidt, F. Thiele, A. Braun; driver, 
J. T. Owens. 

Supply Hose No. 2 — Pipemen, B. Van Haag, H. Weidner, Win. Schnei- 
der; driver, J. Spurney. 

Steam Engine No. 1 — Foreman, H. Meninger; pjpemen, Geo. Wolf, 
W. Henley, M. Galley; engineer, M. Burns; stoker, C. T. Heineman; 
engine driver, J. O'Donnell; hose cart driver, C. Blackwood; watch- 
man, J. Behles. 

Steam Engine No. 2 — Foreman, M. Kuntz; pipemen, H. Bloss, M. 
Besel, W. Fisted; engineer, J. Reiter; stoker, J. Kneisl; engine driver, 
A. Gueiither; hose cart driver, H. Hferter; watchman, J. Miller. 

Steam Engine No. o — Foreman, H. Kasten; pipemen, A. Schmid, J. 
Nork, H. Mangold; engineer. Ph. Meisenheimer; stoker, J. Guten- 
kunst; engine driver, H. Stoll; hose cart driver, C. Hildebrand; watch- 
man, L. Schrara. 

Steam Engine No. 4— Foreman, Patrick Sullivan; pipemen, C. McCor- 
mick, P. Sennott, S. McDowell; engineer. P. W. Spencer; stoker, C. E. 
Derken; engine driver, John Mehan; hose cart driver, P. J. Duffy; 
watchman, S. Simms. 

Steam Engine No. o — Foreman, J. Ihmig; pipemen, H. Lecher, A. 
Kuntz, C. Henck; engineer, C'. Dusold; stoker, X. Schtenbucher; en- 
gine driver, J. Dittman; hose cart driver, Geo. Schwarz; watchman, J. 
Schardt. 

Steam Engine No. 6— Foreman, John McLaughlin; pipemau, J. 
Schroider, J. Weiher, A. J. Stauss; engineer, D.S.Dunn; stoker, T. 
Kelly; engine driver, Jno. Klees; hose cart driver, Thos. Cary; watch- 
man, John Cary. 

Steam Engine No. 7 — Foreman, T. G. Scott; pipemen, P. Webber, F. 
Kleinschmidt, B. Wizinski; engineer, T. Gobel; stoker, F. Simmerling; 
engine driver, J. Dworak; hose cart driver, F. Heuer; watchman, A. 
Hauesler. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



213 



Names of the Lost. 
Taken to the Morgue on the Morning of the .Fire. 



Mrs. L. W. Brown, 
Marv ^IcIMahon, 
Ottilie Waltersdorf, 
Augusta Giese, 
Anna Hager, 



Kate Linehan, 



Mrs. John E. Gilbert, 
.Mary McDade, 
Bessie Brown, 
Bridget O'Connell, 
Walter H. Scott, 
David G. Power. 



Mary Conroy, 
Mary Anderson, 
Maggie Sullivan, 
Julia Fogeity, 
Thos. E. Van Loon. 



Taken to Other Places. 

Mrs. Allen Johnson, Allen Johnson, 
Judson J. Hough. 



Died op their Injuries. 



Julia F. Groesbeck, known as Bleaker, 
Lizzie Anglin, 



Theo. B. Elliot, 
WuL H. Hall. 



Taken from the Ruins and Identified. 



Mary Miller, 



Libbie A. Chellis, 
Annie McMahon, 
Lizzie Kelly, 
Augusta Trapp, 
Maggie Finnegan, 
Martha Schlressner, 
Q. C. Brown, 
Capt. Jas. P. Vose, 
Prof. B. Mason, 
W. E. Fuhuer, 
Walter Gillon, 
Gust. Fredericks, 



David H. Martelle, 
William C. Wiley. 

The Unidentified. 

Nora Flanagan, 
Margaret Owens, 
Jane Dunn, 
Kate Monahan, 
Kate Connors,* 
J. Bradford Kellogg, 
Geo. G. Smith, 
L. K. Smith, 
Geo. Lowry, 
Emil Giesler, 
William Gillon, 
Ernst SchcBnbucher, 



Robert Howie, 



Rosa Burns, 
Mary Owens, 
Ann Casey, 
Amelia Krause, 
Mary Burke, 
Richard Goggin, 
Judge Geo. Reed, 
J. H. Foley, 
Just Haak, 
Fred. Barker, 
Daniel Moynahan, 
C. Kelsey. ' 



The foregoing list contains sixty-four names of unfortunates who 
are known to have lost their lives by the fire. Coroner Kuepper 
took official cognizance of twenty-eight identified bodies and forty- 
three that could not be identified, a total of seventy-one, which leaves 
seven wliose names cannot be recalled. The list of unidentified dead 
was made up from memory by Ben. K. Tice and John H. Antisdel, 
clerks of the ill-fated hotel, and is the only record that can ever be 
made of those who were cremated in the hot ruin. The register of 
the hotel, priceless on an occasion like this, was overlooked during 



* The body of Kate Connors, whose name is marked with an asterisk, was 
identified after the public funeral by her mother, who recognized her daughter's 
gold ring among the valuables held by the Coroner. Miss Connors' remains were 
buried with the unidentified at Calvary Cemetery. 



214 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

the excitement and lost; with it was erased all trace of unfortunates 
who may have been totally incinerated. 

The funeral obsequies for the unfortunate victims of this holocaust 
were held Thursday, January 25th,* at the Exposition Building (for 
the Protestants), and at St. John's Cathedral (for the CathoHcs), at 
both of which places solemn and impressive ceremonies were had. 
This done, the two divisions united on Broadway, and proceeded to 
the cemeteries in the following order : 

First Division. 

Marshal Bean and Staff. 

Light Horse Squadron. 

Bach's Band. 

Lincoln Guards. 

South Side Turner Rifles. 

Grand Army of the Republic. 

Milwaukee Turnvereiii. 

Scandinavian Benevolent Society. 

Druids. 

Delegates from Eintracht Society. 

Carriages Containing Clergy. 

Three Carriages Containing Policemen. 

Hearses. 

Citizens' Committee. 

The Mayor. 

Municipal Organizations. 

Citizens in Carriages. 

Second Division. 

Under command of Assistant Marshal Thomas Shea. 

Clauder's Band. 

Sheridan Guards. 

Kosciusko Guards. 

Knights of St. George. 

Knights of St. Patrick. 

Order of St. Bonaventura. 

St. John's Married Men's Sodality. 

St. Bonafacius Society. 

Ancient Order of Hibernians. 

Hibernian Benevolent Society. 

St. Gall's Young Men's Sodality. 

St. Pius' Society. 

St. Peter's Society. 

Band. 

St. Joseph's Society. 

St. Bernard's Society. 

St. Geoi-ge's Society. 

St. Stanislaus' Society. 

Runkel's Band. 

St. Anthony's Society. 

St. John's Young Men's Sodality. 



* The Messrs. Bleyer gave this as Wednesday, the 24th, and this correction has 
been made at their request. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 215 

Heart of Jesiis Society. 

Carriages Containing Catholic Clergy. 

Hearses. 

Delegation of St. George's Society as pall-bearers. 

Carriages containing citizens and delegations from societies. 

As the cortege moved with measured steps through the lanes 
formed by the living mass on both sides, the silence was unbroken 
save by the melancholy strams of the dirge and the regular lolling of 
the various church bells. The catafalques on which the forty- three 
coffins rested, in full view of the spectators, were the center of inter- 
est all along the route. They were seven in number, and consisted 
of platforms built on sleighs, the whole being covered with black 
cloth, and appropriately trimmed with rosettes and festoons of black. 
On National avenue, near Sixth avenue, the miUtary and civic socie- 
ties formed two lines and came to a halt, facing inward. The cata- 
falques were slowly drawn between the lines, and as they passed the 
escort reverently bowed their heads. The procession dispersed at 
this point and the societies returned to their respective armories and 
halls. The pall-bearers, the clergy and the friends and relatives of 
the dead accompanied the remains to Forest. Home and Calvary 
cemeteries, where the last funeral rites were performed. 

At Forest Home cemetery a simple burial service was held, after 
which the coffins were lowered into the ground. The number of 
each coffin was called off as it was lowered, as follows: i, 4, 6, 7, 8, 
9, 10, II, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 23, 24, 26, 28, 29, 30, 40 and 
44. At Calvary cemetery Archbishop Heiss conducted the cere- 
monies in accordance with the CathoHc faith. The coffins were 
numbered 27, 32, ^6, 37, 45, 22, 48, ^^, 31, 39, 25, 47, 42, 46, 38, 

21, i9> 34> 35 and 41. 

A beautiful monument, upon which the names of all these unfor- 
tunates are chiseled, mark their final resting-place in our own Forest 
Home, where let them sleep until He who made them shall bid them 
rise. 

The site of this unfortunate hotel has been purchased by that 
gigantic corporation, the Northwestern Mutual Life, for $90,000, 
upon which they have erected the magnificent structure here repre- 
sented at a cost of $500,000, which, let us hope, may prove a suc- 
cess. 



a^"^ ^=^zil£:SiS'! 





MM^eAf 



milwaukee under the charter. 217 

Nathan Pereles. 

This gentleman, who for many years occupied so prominent a 
place in the legal fraternity, as well as in financial circles, in Milwau- 
kee, was born at the village of Sabotist, Neutia county, Hungary, on 
the 2d day of April, 1824. It was not his fortune to belong to that 
class who (to use a metaphor) are born with a silver spoon in their 
mouth, as his parents, although occupying the respectable position 
of teachers, were very poor, the only legacy they were able to be- 
stow upon their son being the rudiments of an education and their 
blessmg, with which, at the early age of fifteen, he bade adieu to the 
paternal roof and struck out on life's broad main for himself His 
first employment was as clerk in a wholesale indigo and seed store 
in the city of Prague, attending strictly to business during business 
hours, but spending his evenings and holidays in study, for the pur- 
pose of fitting himself for a higher position. Not a moment of 
those precious hours went unimproved. Indeed, so rapid was his 
progress that five years later (1844) he was promoted to the honora- 
ble as well as responsible position of confidential clerk to his em- 
ployers, the highest round ever reached by the majority of those 
who make book-keeping their objective point. 

This promotion, although a good advance in life, did not satisfy 
him. He longed for something more independent, something over 
which he would be the manager, and to obtain which, after one 
year's service in his new position, he resigned, and bidding a long 
adieu to his native land sought in America the prize for which he 
was aiming. His first act after his arrival in New York city, that 
Mecca of the emigrants, was to engage as a laborer upon a farm on 
Long Island, reserving the privilege of attending school in order to 
acquire a knowledge of EngHsh. He also gave lessons in music and 
French as opportunity offered. 

He remained in that locality until 1847, when, having accumu- 
latee a small capital, he came to Milwaukee and commenced busi- 
ness for himself His first plant was a retail grocery, with which he 
subsequently connected dry goods, at what is now Nos. 11 and 13 
Chestnut street. Here he quickly built up a large trade and made 
money rapidly — so rapidly, in fact, as to enable him (in 1853, see 



21 S MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Vol, III., page 441) to assume the contract of Mr. Schullz* 

upon the then La Crosse Railroad, that gentleman having failed, and 
complete it. It was at this time that the writer first saw him. 

He had now reached a point in his career when he felt himself 
able (financially) to adopt a profession more in accordance witli his 
tastes than was the vending of groceries or dry goods, viz., the loan- 
ing of money in connection with the purchase and sale of real estate, 
and as this required a certain amount of legal knowledge in order to 
make its pursuit a success, he at once commenced the .study of law 
in the office of the late Geo. W. Chapman, and was admitted to the 
bar as a fyll-fledged disciple of Blackstone and Chitty September 11, 
1857. He was now fairly established in a business he Hked, and 
from whence, until the day of his death, his march to wealth and in- 
fluence was extremely rapid. 

His first associates in his new vocation were our well known fel- 
low-citizens R. N. Austin and D. H. Johnson. This partnership 
was, however, dissolved in 1868, Mr. Pereles being desirous of form- 
ing a new one with his two sons, Jas. M. and Thos. J. Pereles, whom 
he had trained to the business. This was accomplished in 1874, un- 
der the tide of Nathan Pereles & Sons, which is its tide to-day, and 
under which it has become one of the soundest private moneyed in- 
stitutions in the city. 

Such in brief is the history of the origin of the house of N. 
Pereles & Sons. 

Personnel. 

In person Mr. Pereles was in height below the medium, very 
stoudy built, and inclined to corpulency. His head, which was un- 
usually large, was thickly covered with dark, crispy hair, inclined to 
stand erect ; he had dark eyes, set wide apart, a large, round face, 
lips slightly intumescent (or pouting), spoke disdnctly, looked you 
directly in the eye when conversing, and belonged to that class of 
men who seem by intuition to know the valne of money, and how to 
use it to the best advantage. He was a good judge of character, 
and did not need to be m the company of any one long before he 

*The writer has been unable at this late day to obtain the first name of this 
gentleman. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER 219 

was in possession of all that person's weak points, and the best way 
to handle him. He was a first-class diplomatist, and if after a trade 
would approach the subject with a touch so velvet-like as to scarcely 
be felt. He was sharp and keen to an unusual degree, and to get 
the better of hmi in a trade was not often done. His bump of cau- 
tion was very large, and had he been a banker would have made a 
very successful one. He was very benevolent, of which the world 
knew little ; and when compelled to resort to the strong arm of the 
law to obtain his just rights, always did so with reluctance. His in- 
dustry was something wonderful ; he was never idle a moment, his 
vigorous constitution, coupled with his strictly temperate life, ena- 
bling him to perform an amount of mental labor that few profes- 
sional men could endure, but which he performed with apparent 
ease. 

In political faith he was a Repubhcan always, and a consistent 
one, and took a deep interest in the various political issues of the 
day. 

Such are a few of the leading characteristics of Nathan Pereles, 
who, it is no injustice to others to say, was entitled to be ranked 
among our best foreign-born citizens; one who, by industry, econo- 
my, and the practice of correct principles, raised himself from pov- 
erty to affluence, from obscurity to prominence, and who has left a 
record for honesty, business integrity and usefulness to which his 
children may point with pride. He died in the prime of his use- 
fulness, from the eftects of a tumor, January 28, 1879, aetat fifty-six, 

Merrill's Cornet Band. 

This was a famous band, and was the first and the last, as far as I 
know composed wholly of Americans. They played splendidly. 
The following were known to have belonged to this band : 

Freebun L. Mayhew, B fiat basso. 

Hiram R. Bond, E flat tenor. 

Jas. Bond, B flat cornet. 

H. D. Webster, snare drum. 

L. J. McCracken (Tangle), E flat tenor. 

Miller, E flat basso. 

Winslow, B flat baritone. 



220 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

John Westlake, B flat cornet. 

Chas. Perch, bass drum. 

Jansen, B flat basso. 

There were also three brothers by the name of Comarck (lost on 
the Lady Elgin) who at one time were members of this band.* 

A sad accident occurred September 7, by which six men were 
drowned through the upsetting of a boat containing forty men 
(workmen) returning from the shipyard on Jones' Island, caused by 
the swell raised by a passing tug. There was much excitement 
about this affair at the time against the captain of the tug. 

Martin B. Coombs. 

This gentleman was a play-actor, and often performed in the thea- 
ter away back in the '50s, his favorite pose being that of Shy lock in 
the Merchant of Venice. He hnally got involved in a difficulty 
with Dighton Corson, on account of being too intimate with the 
wife of that gentleman (at least that was the rumor), and fled to 
Maine, where he attempted and I think committed suicide or " hari- 
kari," as the Japanese have it. 

The following, making inquiries about him, appeared in the Wts- 
cotisin of March, 1885 : 

Inquiry About Martin B. Coombs. 

A letter was to-day received from parties in Carroll county, la., in- 
quiring of the sheriff's department if there lived in Milwaukee an at- 
torney named Martin B. Coombs, who was known to reside here up- 
wards of thirty years ago. Martin B. Coombs was years ago a promi- 
nent Milwaukee lawyer. In 1858 he became involved in a quarrel with 
a brother attorney m relation to the latter's wife, shortly after which 
he left the city. He was next heard of in Bangor, Me., where, on Sep- 
tember 8, 1858, he committed suicide. The object of the letter of in- 
quiry is not known. 

Detroit & Milwaukee Railroad — Humorous. 

There was a meeting of the common council September 8, called 
by some one in the interest of the above road, for the purpose of 
getting the city to issue bonds to aid in its construction. But it 

*This was furnished by Nathaniel Merrill, whose brother was its first leader. 
It was this band which played against Bach"s band on East Water street, in |une, 
1852, for one hour and a quarter, the tune being Yankee Doodle, which collected 
.such a crowd that the police were fmally compelled to stop it. No doubt many 
yet living remember the occurrence. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 221 

proved to be an inauspicious night for that purpose, the boys going 
in for fun. Among the resolutions offered was the following: 

Whereas, The common council of the city of Milwaukee met pursu- 
ant to a call from somebody, for the purpose of helping build a railroad 
to some point to this council unknown ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That this unknown railroad receive no further encourage- 
ment from this honorable body without first covering the palms of the 
hands of each memlier with a 81,000 full-paid certificate of stock and a 
free pass (particularly the pass) for himself, his heirs and assigns for- 
ever. 

Passed unanimously. 

He Would Not Stand It Anv Longer. 

A tailor by the name of Richard Clarey, who worked for the 
Messrs. Shoyer, getting tired of life (or of his wife), made an attempt 
to drown himself, October 25, by jumping into the raging Milwau- 
kee. He was much encouraged thereto by Mrs. Clarey, who, with 
arms a-kimbo, stood by and sicked him on with such encouraging 
remarks as, " Drown, ye dirty baste, if yees want to," and " Oh, I 
only wish he would sink." He was fished up, however, after which 
his amiable spouse led him home by the ear, just as one would a 
Newfoundland dog. It was rich. 

The Sentinel of the 26th, in commenting upon it, had the follow- 
ing : 

A Man Running Away from His Wife and Jumping Into the River 

TO Avoid Her ! 

Yesterday forenoon i-ather a ludicrous affair took place between a 
husband and wife, in the neighborhood of Furlong's block, on Huron 
street, which came near ending fetally. A tailor named Clarey got 
cpiarreling with his better half, or rather his better half got quarreling 
with him, and he ran away and left her — as every man should do when 
his wife begins to scold. But Mrs. Clarey was not to be baffled by this, 
and Ijeing nearly as good a traveler as he, put after him and overtook 
him in the place above mentioned, when she commenced pummeling 
her liege lord in a manner that would have been creditable to an old 
pugilist. He retreated under a heavy pounding towards the bridge, 
but as the draw was open there was no room for him to retreat further 
unless he jumped into the river, and in he jumped ! The water was 
(juite cold, and we think it had the effect of bringing him to a true 
sense of his perilous situation. He worked hard to keep above the sur- 
face of the water, and after getting a pretty tliorough soaking, he was 
fished out by two men who were working at the bridge in a boat. In 
the meantime the vixen wife stood upon th(; abutment quite coolly, 
looking at her husband struggling in the water, and when he kept up 
longer than she expected, she was heard to exclaim, " I wish to the 
Lord he would sink !" He didn't sink, however, for which he may be 
thankful — or the contrary — to the boatmen. 

H 



222 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Among the political moves made this fall was an attempt by a 
few of the old bourbons to place Doctor Huebschmann on the track 
for governor, but their medicine was not strong enough. 

A puff for Mayor Cross also appeared in the papers in October, 
in commendation of his course on the money question (bonds). 
There was a song of a different meter, however, in November, when 
the following expose came : 

Municipal Rascality Unearthed. 

Near the close of 1857, the atmosphere became filled with rumors 
that not only was the city treasury in a very delicate state of health, 
but that the people were also in the toils of as unscrupulous a set of 
scoundrels as ever disgraced any city, and that financially we were 
as near bankruptcy as it was possible to go, and escape that peril. 
A committee (self-appointed in part), some of whom had previously 
succeeded in getting a peep behind the scenes, had made discoveries 
which fully convinced them that something was rotten in Denmark, 
and the result was an examination of the books of the city clerk and 
comptroller, after which there was a call for a mass meeting at Albany 
Hall, on the 17th of November, composed of democrats and repub- 
licans, both native and foreign born, to whom, after the object of the 
meeting had been fully explained by Messrs. Otis H. Waldo, Chas. 
K. Watkins, Doct. Huebschmann, and a few others; Mr. Waldo, on 
the Dart of the committee, made as the result of their discoveries the 
following report : 

The Report. 

The recent developments (referring to several communications 
which had passed between John B. Edwards, the former comptroller, 
and E. L. H. Gardner, tiie present one,*) have disclosed a state of 
things in our city, that has filled the minds of all sober and thinking 
citizens with just alarm and gloomy apprehensions. We are aston- 
ished at the present demand for the payment of a tax in amount 

* i'here had several spicy communications passed between Mr. Edwards and 
Mr. Gardner upon this defalcation, caused by the knowledge that a committee of 
tax payers were on their track, in which each endeavored to prove the other a 
scoundrel, and himself a model of all that is lovely, 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 223 

without precedent in this country, and too enormous to be believed ; 
whether we compare it with that raised in this city under the com- 
paratively economical administration of former years, or consider the 
proportions of the aggregate amount of the same to the number of 
our population, or the nominal percentage of the cash value of the 
property assessed upon which this lax is levied and now ordered to 
be paid, in a season of extreme pecuniary distress ; a tax levied in 
disregard of pledges repeatedly made, and in violation of good faith, 
since it is known to all that the power to raise this percentage (as 
authorized by law) was given in \ iew of the low assessments formerly 
adhered to since the organization of the city government, and that 
was expected to be adhered to still ; a tax levied upon an assessment 
procured, as we think there is good reason to believe, by fraud ; 
an assessment full of gross irregularities, and unjust discriminations, 
in favor of the friends and favorites of the present city government. 

The demand made for this tax is followed by the more startling 
discoveries of an enormous city debt, both bonded and floating, 
amounting,* as we are informed by our city officials, in addition to 
the issue of bonds in aid of the railroads, to the enormous sum of 
thirteen h mdred and eighty thousand dollars ($1,380,000), and to 
which theie has been issued, in addition, the sum of five hundred 
thousand dollars in city bonds within the last twelve or fifteen months, 
and the sale of a large portion thereof at ruinous prices, and the dis- 
bursements of large sums, the proceeds of these bonds, in a manner 
wholly unknown to the charter, by the mayor himself, without, so far 
as we can learn, any entry, check, or record, by the proper officers, 
thus at once destroying all the safeguards which the formalities of law 
have placed around our financial system, and opened a door for the 
most dangerous speculations and abuses. 

Again, we are informed that many of the resolutions and safeguards 
of the original charter, in regard to the contracting of debts, the issue 
of bonds, fixing the amount of taxation, the letting of contracts, the 
ordering of work, and the Umitation of ward expenditures, have all 
been practically annulled, either by the alteration of the laws passed 
from time to time by the legislature, or by the practice of the common 



* ^800,000 of this was floating. 



224 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

council and ward officers, and that special enactments have now been 
procured, by which more than $600,000 of additional bonds can be 
issued, in addition to the railroad debts already contracted, by the 
issue of the $1,380,000, and, aside from this, $800,000 floating debt, 
already mentioned. Of this amount, $11,000,000,* $200,000 can 
be issued for hydraulic purposes, without security, and $100,000 to 
each ward for a public park, making, for the nine wards, $900,000, 
besides an unlimited amount for harbor, schools and school buildings, 
and, as the law is now interpreted, these bonds, when issued, may be 
sold at any sacrifice, and the proceeds, instead of being paid into the 
treasury, may be received and disbursed by any agent whom the 
common council may appoint, without further warrant, entry, or 
record. 

We find, also, a rumor current (and beheved), that several hundred 
thousand dollars of bonds have been delivered to railroad companies, 
without any security as required by law, and other large sums with- 
out any security. 

Again, it is notorious that the current expenses of the city are 
prodigal and extravagant in a high degree, that unnecessary officers 
are employed, and the salaries of others very largely as well as im- 
properly increased, yet we hear of no step looking towards retraction 
or reform. 

In view of these facts, what security can we have, while the present 
management continues, that if the taxes now demanded (or a reason- 
able part thereof) should be paid, that the proceeds thereof would be 
used to pay the habilities already incurred, and not wasted in new 
schemes to perpetuate the present system of mismanagement ? 

We cannot now depict the details of the wrongs already committed; 
only the most thorough investigation can do that, or fix the measure 
of blame to be attached to the city officials for the last four years; 
and only the sovereign power of the State, together with the utmost 
watchfulness on the part of the people, can prevent a recurrence of 
similar frauds in the future. 

Your committee can therefore only recommend the passage of the 
following resolutions, to- wit : 

* Consisting of the $500,000 added to the $600,000, 



MtLWAUlCEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 225 

Hesoived, That the imposition of the tax now ordered to be collected 
is an act of intolerable oppression, and in cruel and reckless disregard 
of the pecuniary distress of the people. 

Resolved, That this tax ought to be reduced if the power exists to 
reduce it, and the terms of payment extended. 

Resolved, That the common council are hereby requested to suspend 
all proceedings to sell property for the non-payment of taxes until the 
legislature shall have had time to offer relief. 

Resolved, That a committee, consisting of one fi'om each ward, be 
and are hereby appointed to investigate the state of the finances of the 
city, particularly the amount and character of the debts — bonded and 
floating — of tiie" whole city and of the several wards, the value and 
character of the securitiesreceivedfroni the several railroads for bonds 
issued to them, the books and transactions of the several financial offi- 
cers of the city, the various issues and sales of city bonds, together 
with the mode of disbursements of the proceeds thereof, and generally 
to examine into the condition and management of the city affairs so far 
as may be necessary to ascertain the real condition of the finances; that 
the committee be authorized to employ one or more accountants (and 
counsel, if they deem it necessary), an<l to report the result of their in- 
vestigations as soon as may be at an adjourned meeting. 

Resolved, That the present and former officers of the city be re- 
quested to furnish any assistance or information in their power in aid of 
the labors of such committee. 

Resolved, That the same committee prepare and report a memorial 
to the legislature, to be signed by the tax-payers of the city, praying the 
legislature to perform the duty enjoined upon it l)y the second article 
of the constitution of the state, to-wit, to restrain the powers of cities 
and villages in taxation (assessments), contracting debts, running cred- 
its, etc., and to prevent abuses in the same; and to this end 

First — To repeal all and every provision of law authorizing the further 
issue or sale of bonds or loaning the credit of the city. 

Second — To limit the power of taxation hereafter for all purposes in 
this city and county to a certain and reasonable sum, to be fixed beyond 
the control of the city council and county board. 

Third — To restore the checks, restrictions of authority and guards 
against the abuses of power contained in the original charter, with sui'h 
other restrictions and guards as experience has shown to be necessary, 
and to provide, as far as may be in their power, for the reduction of 
the present tax and for the extension of the time for the payment 
thereof. 

The following were the committee appointed at this meeting : 

First Ward — Chas. K. Watkins. 
Second Ward — Francis Huebschman. 
Third Ward — Hans Crocker. 
Fourth ward — Nathan Pereles. 
Fifth ward — Andrew Mitchell. 
Sixth ward — Cicero Comstock. 
Seventh ward — John H. Tweedy.* 
Eighth ward— S. B. Davis. 
Ninth ward — Chas. Quentin. 

After which the meeting adjourned to meet again at the call of the 

committee. 



*Mr. Tweedy was the power behind the throne in this investigation, and was 
untiring in his efforts to ferret out the thieves and bring them to justice. 



226 MiLWAtTKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

F. Huebschniann, president. 

The committee reported at Albany hall, January 12, 1858. 

This report brought one in reply from Mr. Gardner, dated Decem- 
ber 12, pubUshed in the Wisconsin of the 14th, in which he does not 
deny the allegations in the report of the committee, but very adroitly 
attempt^ to throw the blame upon his predecessor, Mr. Edwards — 
intimating that when his (Gardner's) official report at the close of 
the fiscal year (April, 1858) appeared all would be lovely, and clos- 
ing with the following words : 

But, Mr. Editor, too much space has already been occupied in open- 
ing this, my first vial. But if called upon again, a still larger space will 
be requireH in opening the second vial, when all things would be re- 
vealed. 

But, alas for his boasting, the opening of the first vial was suffi- 
cient to send him to California a criminal and a fugitive from justice. 
It needed not the second. But I digress. 

This pronunciamento of Mr. Gardner's was commented upon 
somewhat severely in the Sentinel of the 1 5th, and was replied to in 
the Wisconsin of the iSth,* in an article entitled " Excessive Taxa- 
tion," intended to shield Mr. Gardner, and in which Mr. Cramer ac- 
cused the Sentinel of wishing to bring the honesty of the then city 
administration into disrepute, particularly that of Mr. Gardner, who 
he characterizes as not only a competent and careful official, but 
ventures the assertion that when his books came to be examined that 
they would be found all right. 

It was useless, however, for the editor of the Wisconsin or any 
other paper to defend Mr. Gardner ; the whole thing had to come 
out and the whole gang ousted before anything like a sound system 
of finance was again established. But they died hard. 

Charles F. Freeman. 

This gentleman, who has made so honorable a record as a busi- 
ness man and citizen, is a native of Corydon, McKean county. Pa., 
where he was born June 20, 1832, and from where he removed in 

*Mr. Cramer appears to have been grossly ignorant of the true state of affairs, 
or if not so to have had a strong leafiing to the Democratic side, to justify him in 
writing what he did. But he got his eyes opened at last and went in for punish- 
ing the thieves. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 227 

1S43, to Genessee, N. Y., and from there to Milwaukee In 1857, 
where he at once commenced to lay the foundation for a business 
life. His first occupation after his arrival was to act as a foreman 
for Charles H. Larkin, on the old Beloit & Milwaukee Railroad, a 
section of which Mr. L. had contracted to grade. 

This, however, was altogether too monotonous a Hfe for him, and 
he commenced to purchase grain, for which purpose he formed a 
partnership with C. C. Collins, then a prominent dealer in the cereals. 
This, however, did not continue long, as he soon made up his mind 
that he preferred to be alone and " paddle his own canoe," which he 
has done to the present time. He has been quite successful, his 
courteous demeanor and sterling integrity causing him to make 
friends very rapidly, and has built up a large business. 

He subsequently went into the pohtical arena, in which he was 
also successful; was elected alderman from the Fifth ward in 1873. 
He has also served as school commissioner both in the Fifth and 
Eighth wards. He was also appointed from the board of aldermen, 
in connection with D. G. Hooker, mayor, B. K. Miller and Levi H. 
Kellogg, from the council, and Jacob Velten, from the board of pub- 
lic works, on the part of the city, in 1873, to proceed to and ex- 
amine into the system of sewage in use in the cities of St. Louis, 
Rochester, Brooklyn and Chicago, and decide upon the best plans 
for Milwaukee to adopt in view of the success of the plans in use in 
those cities. He was also a representative to the legislature from his 
district in 1870 and again in 1879, where he was both active and 
efficient. He has also served as president of the chamber of com_ 
merce for two years (1882-83), where, by his gentlemanly deport- 
ment as well as judicious management he was very popular, and is 
to-day one of the most active members of that well known organiza- 
tion, where the game of •' heads I win, and tails you lose " is played 
daily by tho£e seeking to get something for nothing. 

This part of the game, however, in playing which so many of the 
members of that body indulge, Mr. Freeman takes no part, all his 
business being done on strictly business principles. 

Personnel. 
In person, Mr. Freeman is stoutly built, and is very muscular. 



^2B MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

He walks with a quick, nervous step, and will pass directly through 
a crowd of men without looking at one of them, and yet can tell you 
every one (that he knows) who were in it. He is usually in a study 
(/. (?.), his mind is fixed entirely upon his business, and he keeps the 
run of the " market " at all times, seldom or never losing the thread, 
and consequently is usually on the winning side. He is affable and 
polite to all, and will gain and hold friends (and does so hold them) 
when others would not. His executive abihties are far above the 
average, consequently he is often placed upon committees where 
good judgment, coolness and tact are required in order to accom- 
pHsh the object in view. In pohtical faith he is a democrat of the 
progressive school, and a leader in his district, but does not care to 
hold office. In religious faith he is a liberal. Such are some of the 
personal characterics of Chas. F. Freeman, an honest man, and a 
good and useful citizen. 

Stephen A. Harrison. 

This gentleman, so well and so widely known as a master builder, 
railroad contractor and public-spirited citizen, is a native of England, 
having been born in that portion of the city of London known as 
" Surry," on the i8th day of September, 1829, and from where he 
emigrated to America in 1853, landing at Milwaukee in the fall of 
1854. The business outlook at that time in the West was not very 
encouraging, or at least not quite up to his expectations, and he 
started upon a tour of discovery, during which he visited Chicago, 
La Crosse, Janesville, and several other places in the State, many of 
which were then being "boomed," just as Mitchell, Anderson, Bis- 
mark, and other points in Dakota, are at the present time. But 
finding all of them inferior to Milwaukee, he returned here again in 
the fall of 1856, and has made it his permanent residence to the 
present time. He remained unemployed until the spring of 1857, 
when he formed a partnership with a Mr. William Clark, and the 
new firm hung out their shingle, under the title of Harrison & Clark. 
Their first work was the erection of the building known as the 
Waldo Block, northeast corner of East Water and Chicago streets. 
Then the Sisters' Hospital, on the North Point. This was followed 
by the enlargement of the Gas Works — including the erection of the 




iK*aiitXiJ/»t,'XJtJSMi» 



Milwaukee under the charter. 



229 



new Holder, loo feet in diameter, quite an undertaking for that day, 
the site being six feet under water, which rendered its construction 
extremely difficult, but which was finally accomplished, and the 
Holder is in good condition to-day. 

The completion of these works made Mr. Harrison's reputation as 
a builder, and feeling himself now fully established and competent to 
undertake anything in the line of mason work, he dissolved with Mr. 
Clark, and for the next twelve years he had under contract and com- 
pleted a larger amount of buildings, public and private, besides con- 
structing railroads and paving streets, than any other one man in the 
State. 

Among the buildings erected by him are the Lester Sexton block, 
southeast corner of Broadway and Michigan streets (now the prop- 
erty of the Friend Bros.) The Northwestern Life Insurance Building, 
northwest corner Broadway and Wisconsin streets, and the National 
Home for disabled soldiers at Wauvvatosa. He also, in connection 
with Henry Buestrin, straightened up Elevator A., the largest work of 
the kind ever undertaken in the West, requiring 2,000 screws to raise 
it. This elevator had settled in the foUowmg manner : 



N. 



It was a wonderful undertaking, and was accomplished without an 
accident of any kind. 

He also moved the present Manne Block, northeast corner of 
South Water and Ferry streets, twenty-four feet to the East, in order 
to widen Ferry street, besides raising numerous other buildings, made 
necessary by the change of grade throughout the city. The incep- 
tion of and construction of the present West Side Horse Railroad, is 
also largely if not wholly due to his foresight and energy. 

He has either alone, or in connection with others, constructed for 



2g0 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad Company, the following 

lines : 

Miles. 

The Brookfield Cut-OflF. W 

The Scliwartzburg Cut-Off' 8 

Eagle and Elkhorn Cut-Ofl 24 

Of the Chicago & Milwaukee Division 24 

Omaha Division 23 

Beloit & Janesville 10 

Minneapolis to St. Paul 10 

Various Dakota Branches 162 

Hastings and Stillwater 22 

Chippewa Valley 110 

Cedar Rapids '^0 

477 

For the Chicago & Northwestern Railway: 

Have built from Volga to Perrie on the Missouri 100 

Toledo & Northwestern Division about 125 

Milwaukee, Madison & Monfort 145 

370 

Wisconsin Central Railway: 

Chippewa Falls to Al)botsford 65 

Schleisingerville to Nenah 65 

To Chippewa Falls 3 

^ 133 

Milwaukee & Northern: 

To Green Bay about 60 

Minneapolis, St. Paul & Manitoba: 

Alexandria to Barnsville 85 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy: 

In Missouri 16 

Total of miles 1141 

An aggregate of nearly 20,000,000 yards of earth, and of 600,000 
yards of rock, with 20,000,000 feet of timber in bridges, etc.; piles, 
probably, 30,000 pieces. And is now, 1885, constructing the new 
Hne from Schleisingerville to Chicago for the Wisconsin Central* 

Political. 

In political faith Mr. Harrison is a Republican, and has been a 
very prominent as well as a very efficient member of that party. 
He was nominated for the legislature from the First and Seventh 
wards in 1863 against J. R. Sharpstein, but owing to the strong 
Democratic vote of the First ward was defeated. He was also a 



* The following are the changes which have occurred in this well-known firm: 
From 1872 to 1879 it was Harrison & Green (Samuel M.Green). From 1S79 to 
1882 it was Well.-, tlarrison & Shute (The late Daniel L. Wells, of this city, and 
William B. Shute, of Chicago). From 1882 to 1884 (November) it was Wells, 
Harrison & Green. And now, 1885, Harrison & Green. Mr. Wells died Novem- 
ber 20, 1884. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 231 

delegate to the convention to nominate Halbert E. Paine for congress 
in 1869. He was elected to the board of councillors from the First 
ward in 1869, and was on the committee for accepting the plans for 
the present Chesbrough system of sewage, as well as the present sys- 
tem of water-works as against the Holly plan.* He was also, as a 
member of the bridge committee, one of the first to suggest the con- 
struction of permanent stone piers as well as abutments for all the 
new bridges, and to substitute iron in place of wood for all bridges 
to be erected in the future, for which extravagance, as the old fossil- 
ized pohticians termed it, he was cursed high and low by them and 
their henchmen. This plan, however, has proved to be by far the 
most economical, as those piers, when once built, will last a thousand 
years. He also conceived the idea of having a public park, at pres- 
ent a great desideratum in Milwaukee, and for that purpose advo- 
cated the purchase of the Hawley estate at $1,000 per acre on long 
time, for which he was also abused by all that portion of our citizens 
whose views in pubhc matters do not extend beyond their nose. It 
was a grand conception, and had it been carried out our city would 
have had a park equal to any in the West. He was also elected to 
the legislature from the First ward in 1869, during which he intro- 
duced a bill for the construction of the so-called Menominee im- 
provement of canals, for which he was also abused. But what 
would the Fourth ward be to-day without those canals ? He also 
represented the Fourth ward in the legislature in 1875-6. 

Such is substantially the business record of Stephen A. Harrison, 
one of the sharpest and most far-seeing business men amongst us, one 
whose plans, had they been carried out, would have placed our city 
far in advance of what she is to-day, but which, by the short-sight- 
edness as well as the jealousy of the solons composing the boards of 
aldermen and counsellors at that tmie, were doomed to the waste- 
basket. 



*This has reference to a committee consisting of Messrs. Harrison and Dr. I. 
A. Lapham, selected to decide upon the difference in cost, predicated upon a chal- 
lenge given by the Holly people, through Mr. Casgrain, in which liie Holly peo- 
ple were badly worsted. In this affair the writer (who was pitted against Mr. 
Casgrain in the newspaper discussion regarding the merits of the tvvo plans) chose 
Mr. Harrison, and Mr. C. chose I. A. Lapham. 



23'2 milwauket under the charter. 

Personnel. 

In person Mr. Harrison is of the medium height, with a lithe but 
a very compactly built frame, and is possessed of a constitution of 
the first order and powers of endurance that are wonderful, as in ad- 
dition to the labor incident to superintending five hundred men (his 
usual force when railroading) he also acted as his own book-keeper, 
the labor of which alone would be considered as sufiicient for one 
man to perform. He has clean-cut features, face slightly oval, au- 
burn hair, a florid complexion, and blue eyes, in which a mirthful 
smile and a look of severity will often follow each other in rapid suc- 
cession. His voice is strong and slightly musical in tone; he speaks 
distinctly, and usually very dehberately ; but when excited, will often 
speak very fast. He has large comprehensive powers, thinks quick 
and decides quick, has splendid executive abilities and perfect confi- 
dence in himself. He is also possessed of a will power which ena- 
bles him to carry out contracts that would appal ordinary men. He 
has the lump of caution largely developed, which, combined with 
his faculty of reading character, renders it very difficult to deceive 
him. He looks squarely at you when conversing, and if after in- 
formation will pump you dry before you know it. He will never 
undertake any work that he is not certain to perform, and the more 
difficult the work the better he likes it, as in that case more credit is 
to be obtained by its execution. He is always courteous — few busi- 
ness men (particularly large contractors) are so much so; is social 
with acquaintances, but reticent with strangers; is a model citizen, 
and as a business man has made a record of which he may well be 
proud, and is to-day, at sixty-five years of age, owing to his temper- 
ate hfe and well balanced head, as competent to build a hundred 
miles of railroad or move a block of stores across the street as when 
he first came to our city. He has become very wealthy, but of this 
he makes no parade, as do many others who, born in poverty, have 
by some lucky turn of fortune's wheel, become suddenly rich. 

Such are some of the prominent characteristics of Stephen A. 
Harrison. Better would it be for Milwaukee had she a majority of 
such men in her councils in place of the almost mental imbeciles 
who to so large an extent too often fill her aldermanic chairs. Men 
who would spend more time and money in devising plans to benefit 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 233 

as well as beautify the city, and less in wrangling over the license 
question and investigating Rosina Georg. 

Daniel L. Wells. 

This gentleman, who for so many years was so prominent as a 
business man and so successful as a railroad contractor, was born at 
Middlebury, Vt., July 21, 1821, and from where he came to Wiscon- 
sin in 1856, in company with Selah ChamberHn. He first located at 
Beaver Dam, where he remained but a short time ; went from there 
to Portage, and from there to Milwaukee in 1858, where he remained 
until his death. 

Mr. Wells belonged to that class of men who go in to make 
money, and who never fail to make it. Possessed of good executive 
ability, coupled with good judgment, backed by a will that stops at 
nothing short of carrying out all he undertakes — supplemented by 
a thorough knowledge of business, particularly that of building rail- 
roads, gave him the inside track (so to speak), consequently he took 
hold of a contract understandingly, and nothing short of an interpo- 
sition of Providence could prevent him winning his case. He was 
not much of a talker, and did not care to converse much, except on 
business, kept his own counsel, never letting any one, except a con- 
fidential clerk, into his plans, a practice that many fail to remember, 
but nevertheless a rule that every business man who employs large 
gangs of laborers should follow if success is to be looked for, as well 
as the enforcement of discipline with almost the same rigidness as 
in an army. This Mr. Wells did do. 

Besides Mr. Chamberlin he was, as has been seen, connected in 
partnership at various times with Messrs. Harrison and Shute, dur- 
ing which the firm constructed the following lines : 

Over four hundred miles in Iowa and Dakota, for the Chicago & 
Northwestern ; an expensive and very difficult piece for the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy, from Bethany to Albany, Mo.; from Abbots- 
ford to Chippewa Falls, for the Wisconsin Central ; from Milwaukee 
to Madison, one hundred miles, for the Chicago & Northwestern ; 
from Madison to Montfort, sixty miles, for the same company ; from 
Janesville to Beloit, for the Milwaukee & St. Paul ; from Hastings to 
Stillwater, for the Milwaukee & St. Paul, 



234 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Upon the death of Mr. Shute, in 1881, Samuel Green became 
associated with Messrs. Wells and Harrison, under the firm title of 
Wells, Harrison & Green. 

As a member of this fiim Mr. Wells witnessed the satisfactory 
completion by himself and partners of seventy miles of railway for 
the Milwaukee & St. Paul, from Reed's Landing to Eau Claire; 
ninety miles, for the same company, from Cedar Rapids to Ottum- 
wa, la.; sixty miles for the Wisconsin Central, from Schleisingerville 
to Neenah ; one hundred miles for the same company, from Chip- 
pewa Falls to St. Paul. The latter extension was completed on the 
day of Mr. Wells' death. 

By the terms of the partnership agreement Mr. Wells' interest in 
the firm ceased at death. 

Besides all this he had, previous to his connection with Harrison 
and Shute, constructed (or helped construct) the following lines : 

The old La Crosse road, from Beaver Dam west to La Crosse ; 
several Minnesota lines ; from Columbus to Portage City, for the same 
company ; the Menominee branch, for the Chicago & Northwest- 
ern ; the Michigan & West Shore, from New Buffalo to Pentwater; 
the Leavenworth, Lawrence & Galveston, through Kansas, and sev- 
eral other portions of southwestern railway. 

Personnel, 

Li person, Mr. Wells was in height rather above the average, had 
a well proportioned physique, dark complexion, dark hair and eyes. 
He had a strong voice, spoke somewhat quick, and very distinctly. 
He was not over nervous, although, at times, he appeared so. He 
looked you squarely in the face when conversing, was very cautious, 
and just lawyer enough to never commit himself to his own disad- 
vantage, and never had any time (or disposition if he had) to attend 
to any one's business but his own. He was a republican in politics, 
and in religious faith an Episcopalian, and financially one of Mil- 
waukee's solid men. He died November 24, 1884. 

Improvements. 

Fifth Ward. 

Some of its Improvements. — No ward in this city has recently exhib- 
ited greater signs of progress and improverneut than this. We took a 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



235 



tour through different parts of it a few daj'^s since, and noted down some 
of the more prominent cliangesthat are taking place there. The citizens 
of that ward seem, as it were, like a town of themselves, but they are 
wide awake with activit.y and business. We liave no hesitation in assert- 
ing our belief that it is destined to be one of the principal business wards 
in the city. As soon as the Detroit & Milwaukee Eailroad is finished, 
so as to form a connection with tliis city, and some of the roads going 
west from this city reach the Mississippi, we know that we shall see 
Milwaukee bound up under the impulse like a new power. Many, if 
not all of these railroads, must, in time, unite and form one large Cen- 
tral Depot, somewhere in what is now the Fifth ward. 

This prophecy as to a Union Depot in the Fifth ward, is not likely 
to be realized, as a magnificent one is now being erected in the Fourth 
ward, which will settle that question for years to come, if not for all 
time. 

The South Side gas works, at what is now 263 and 265 Reed 
street. St. John's Church, northwest corner of Hanover and Pierce 
streets. Trinity (Catholic), southwest corner of Greenbush and Park 
streets. Two stores, yet standing and known as 157 and 159 Reed 
street, by C. T. Stamm. A frame dwelling, No. 866 National Avenue, 
by William Walton, yet standing. The Jonathan L. Burnham home- 
stead, northeast corner Pierce and Fifteenth Avenue, A brick, by 
Jas. Douglass, 465 Grove street, yet standing. One (double) by 
Matt. Smith, 237 and 239 Grove street; this building is yet standing 
but in bad condition. 



^ MARTIN & RIJGEE CONTRACTORS 

& BUILPERSoFBR\OCK.^LEVAroRs.DWELLINCS 

^MANUF^s OFDOORS.BLINOS.SASH Be MOULDINCS. 
.T.eo PLANING, m^?m&SsSmJJ>' SAWij^Q 



iLtiSO PliANING, 
l^pRlGHTS, SAVING 




DONE ON SHORT NOTICE.DESICNS FURNISHED FOR 
BRIDGES * ELEVATORS.ONTHE MOST APPROVED PLAN. 
''ORNER OF OREGON & GROVE 812 512 WARD 

: : lflILWAUKEE.VriS. .V 



Messrs. Martin & Rugee,* also erected a brick planing mill, with 



* Stoddard H. Martin and John Rugee. 



236 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

a sash, door and blind department up Stairs. (See cut.) This factory, 
which made a large amount of money for its owners (at least it did 
for Mr. Rugee), stood upon the southeast corner of Grove and Oregon 
streets, and was pulled down in 1884 by the railroad company, who 
wanted the ground for tracks. 

The Haywood Block, southeast corner of Second and Wells streets, 
was erected this year. 

The present Milwaukee National Bank Building* was erected this 
year. This building had the first iron cornice ever put up in the city. 
This is a first-class building to-day ; it was thoroughly built, and will 
last for years to come. 

A brick building, south of and adjoining the Albany, was com- 
menced this year by Jas. S. Brown ; master mason, Jas. Allen. The 
residence of Hon. Alpha C. May, southeast corner of Marshall and 
Oneida streets, A. C. Nash, architect, and the double brick, south- 
west corner of Biddlc and Astor streets, built by Chas. D. Nash, were 
both commenced this year. A brick store (burnt afterwards) was 
erected on the southeast corner of Clinton and Oregon streets, by 
Jas. Goggin. The block on the southeast corner of Oneida and 
Market streets, by Henry Brydert, mason, Carl Bieisach, carpenter, 
Frederick Tiebel. This is now a tenement block. 

Abraham F. Clarke erected the brick store on the southeast corner 
of East Water and Buffalo streets, this summer, G. Mygatt, architect, 
H. R. Bond, mason, Edwin Palmer, superintendent, Haulman 
& Roberts, carpenters, Bayley & Greenslade, iron work. Cook & 
Bascomb, stone work, John Lowther, painting, tin roof by H. W. 
Goodrich. 

This building is still in use and occupied by the firm of Jewett & 
Root, stoves. 

Mr. Clarke was a prominent merchant in Milwaukee for many 
years. He was a native of Massachusetts, and not of Berlin, as stated 
in the Sentinel of March 3d, 1886. His original homestead was 
ui)on the southwest corner of Juneau Avenue and Astor street, now 
the residence of Hon. E. H. Brodhead. He was a very quiet, un- 
demonstrative man, always attending to business, and universally 

* Formerly the State Bank of Wisconsin. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 237 

respected by all who knew him. He died at Marietta, Ga., March 
2, 1886. Mrs. Clarke is a sister of Mrs. John H. Tweedy. 

The Murray Block, 552 and 554 East Water street, was erected 
this year Mygatt, architect; mason, Sherburne Bryant; carpenters, 
Babcock Bros. A malt house, for V. Blatz, architects, Mygatt & 
Schultz. Adlers' Block, southeast corner of Jackson and Division 
streets. This block is yet in good repair, and a general favorite 
among those who rent. 

The present National Exchange Bank, by Carlise D. Cook. This 
building was at that time the most ornate building in the city, and is 
to-day one of the best. It was well built and, as the Wiscotisin stated 
when sketching it, " a perfect gem." 

Mr. Cook was one of the firm of Cook & Sherwin, who built the 
Milwaukee & Mississippi Railroad from Madison to Prairie du Chien. 
He died a few years later. This block was his monument. 

The Mitchell Building, on the corner of East Water and Michigan 
streets. This was the building spoken of in Vol. H., page 134, as 
having been pulled down in 1879 to make room for the present bank. 
It was a prominent building in its time. The master mason was Jas. 
Allen, the carpenters were Messrs. Martin & Rugee, the painters were 
Cranfield & Armstrong (Edward Cranfield and Robert Armstrong), 
the vaults were by Schumacher & Johnson, and the iron work by 
Hambrick & Wagner. This building had a tin roof. The whole 
cost was $35,000. It was occupied for the first time, January 
22, 1858. 

Grading Down Wisconsin Street. 

Wisconsin Street, East End. — The work of cutting down the east 
end of Wisconsin street to the new grade is nearh' completed, and 
blocks and streets begin to appear on the side where the old Govern- 
ment Lighthouse Keeper's house, and the Gardens, a favorite place of 
public resort in times gone by, once stood. The quantity of earth re- 
moved in cutting down the bluff' has been enormous, but it has all been 
needed in filling lots and raising streets in the Third ward. At the 
corner of Wisconsin and ^Marshall streets is a block of four four-story 
brick dwellings now nearly completed, and nestled down beside them 
is a one-stor.y frame dwelling, which nine years ago stood some forty 
feet higher in the air, but which has l)y successive alterations of the 
grade been lowered to its present place.* 

* This frame is now known as No. 236 Wisconsin street, and the brick as Nos. 
238, 240, 242 and 244. Both are yet in good condition, the frame being still the 
property of the heirs of its builder— the late Zachariah Clayton. 

15 



238 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

The Quentin Block, now Nos. 269 and 271 East Water streets, 
now the property of The Dohmen & Smith Company, druggists, yet 
in good repair, commenced in 1856, was completed this year. 

The Wisconsiti, in commenting upon the growth of our city, in 
May, had the following item, which, although substantially correct, 
is I think a little overdone. But these editors often see through a 
glass darkly : 

The Growth of Our City. 

The numT)er of buildings now in process of erection in this city is 
beyond all precedent. The long continuance of cold weather, the frosts 
having left us but two or three weeks, has of course been a restraint 
upon building operations, and but little progress, comparatively, has 
been made in the more costly brick edifices, but the sound of the^aw 
and hammer has been merry music in every ward since the severe cold 
weather ceased. We have taken pains, within the last week, to ascer- 
tain the numberof buildings which have already been completed during 
the present year, and are now in various stages of progress, and the 
result has surprised ourselves, as it doubtless will most of our readers. 

That result is as follows, by wards: 

No. of Buildings. 

First ward 115 

Second ward 123 

Third ward 108 

Fourth ward 136 

Fifth ward 158 

Sixth ward 251 

Seventh ward 86 

Eighth ward Ill 

Ninth ward 261 

Total 1,349 

Here we are, then, in the last week of May, with six months of good 
building time before us, and thirteen hundred and forty-nine buildings 
already counted for this year. We do not count, in our aggregates for 
the several wards, many buildings for which we know the plans to be 
prepared, and the contracts made. Of course the majority of these 
buildings are wooden tenements, in the newer portions of the city, 
where lots can be purchased at a reasonable price, so that mechanics, 
laborers, and generally men of moderate means, can secure themselves 
a location upon which to erect shelters for their families; but in older 
wards, and in the older portions of those wards, buildings of various 
cost, for dwellings, shops, and stores, are being dotted in upon almost 
every vacant lot. As tiie extensive system of grading progresses, and 
the lots come down to the grade, building materials follow the last of 
the graders' carts, and neat edifices rise to greet the passer-by with their 
fresh and cheerful look. 

We have, in the fact that so much building is going on, besides the 
large amount of money being expended in grading streets, and in im- 
provements upon buildings heretofore erected, one good reason for the 
clemand for, and high rates of money this Spring. The average cost of 
the buildings counted above is very much less than would be shown by 
a count two or three months later, when more of the fine blocks of 
stores, and other more costly buildings are under way, and we are uu- 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 239 

able to make any estimate now which is satisfactory to onrselves; but if 
we should estimate the average cost even as low as $1,000, the aggregate 
expenditure would reach the large sum of 11,849,000, and the, real 
amount is much greater than this. 

Milwaukee is, indeed, rapidly gaining in population, and all that 
makes up a prosperous city. Its growth is substantial from year to j'ear. 
The character of the buildings erected, in their solidity and greater 
attention to exterior appearance, as well as interior linish, shows an 
accumulation of means which can be spared from business, as well as 
the accession of capital from abroad. It is but a reasonable expectation, 
we think, whit'h estimates the population of our goodly city, which was 
30,000 in June, 1855, at not less than 70,000 in ISBO, when the United 
States census will be taken. 

This statement being disputed by the Sentinel man, brought the 
following from the Wisconsin: 

More About Figures. 

Our neighbor of the Seritlnel is as obstinate as an animal and insists 
that he was right about those figures. Whj^, my dear local, we showed 
you your error, and no one would hesitate for a moment to believe the 
number of new buildings was fully 2,000, after two papers asserted the 
fact. Now be generous, neighbor, and Avhen we convince you that you 
are five hundred houses out of the way again, acknowledge it like a 
man, and not keep asserting that you are correct, and everybody else 
wrong. Go over and count the houses again, and if you don't find two 
thousand, draw on us, at sight, for a hat, cap or box of cigars. 

How about the ten feet keel?* 

Weather. 

The weather commenced to put on airs early this year, the first 
ice forming November 20, about the same as the present year (1884) 
but it became warm again in less than ten days. Neither was there 
any more ice worth mentioning until March, when we had regular 
December weather — snow eight inches in depth and ice twelve inches 
in thickness. 

Cold. 

The Sentinel of November 23 has the following in relation to the 
weather : 

It was a night for an Icelander last night. The mercurj' must have 
been down to zero in the course of the night. It was at 10 degrees 
above zero at 9 o'clock this morning. There was a heavy, bitter wind 
all day yesterday and all to-day, which has made the weather excruciat- 
ing for outsiders. The vessels that are still out of port must be having 
a terril)le time, for the winds have been high for two days back, and it 
has been as cold as in mid-winter. This morning the river was frozen 
entirely over, and with a considerable thickness of ice. The tugs, how- 
ever, loth to give up their towing business and go into winter quarters, 

* Referring to a blunder made in a former communication by said local in 
describing a new vessel. 



240 MILWAUKEE UiNTDER THE CHARTER. 

have been plowing up and down the river through the ice, and have 
broken it up several times in the course_ of the day. It soon unites 
again, however, and with another such a night as the last, we fear that 
the ice would get beyond the power of the tugs. We can hardly believe 
that the winter has" already set in, although it smacks strongly of an 
earlv, a long, and a cold winter. 

Much as we may wish to believe otherwise, it is undoubtedly true 
that winter is upon us in earnest, and that the river has frozen over for 
the last time this season. It keeps growing firmer, and the weather 
growing colder. It will be well, therefore, to have those hogsheads 
placed in the river again, as thej^ were last winter, to guard against fire. 
They are an excellent expedient for keeping holes in the ice, so as to be 
ready for fires, and set in the ice at once. 

Then a man should be employed to keep them open all the winter 
long. 

The river opened again, notwithstanding the SeJitinets predictions, 
below Walker's Point bridge on the 25th, and on December 2 the ice 
went out, after which we had two months of as beautiful Indian sum- 
mer weather as was ever witnessed in Wisconsin. There has never 
been a winter like it, as far as the writer knows, since the city was 
settled. True, we have had several which were called open winters, 
but not one of which was as clear of fogs and rainstorms as was that 
of 1857-58. 

The Upman & Murray block was built this year. 

Census for 1857. 

First Ward 4,155 

Second Ward 5,314 

Third Ward 7,414 

Fourth Ward 5,012 

Fifth Ward 4,325 

Sixth Ward 4,105 

Seventh Ward 5,567 

Eighth Ward 2,808 

Ninth Ward 5,304 

Total 44,004 

The number of propellers running between Buffalo and Milwaukee 
in 1857 was as follows: 

American Transportation Co., J. J. Tallmadge, agent 8 

Western Transportation Co., J. J. Tallmadge, agent 10 

New York Central, Dousman & Co., agents 8 

Oswego Line, Dousman & Co., agents 3 

People's Line, Dousman & Co., agents 5 

Northwestern Transportation Co., L. J. Higby, agent 7 

Northern Transportation Co., Barclay & Hale, agents 13 

Total 54 

More than there are to-day. 



milwaukee under the charter. 241 

Egbert Herring Smith Outdone. 

The following affecting poetical stanzas are given here in order to 
show that if Milwaukee could boast of a Smith, Racine was not 
wholly destitute of a poet: 

A Feeling Valentine. 

We have been shown the following valentine, which gives out odors 
of affection hke a poppy in a flower-bed. It is brief, sweet and affect- 
ing, and perfect poetry : 

Whose hart is alwaj's beeting against the bars of its busom 
Whose hart is wretcheder than tung can tel? 

I luv one and I feer I shall loose him. 
Can yu tel who tis, can yu tel ? 

He is gentil an kin and butiful two — 

Oh in the spring ini goin to Calyforney! 
Shal I go aloan or shall I go along with yu 

My fat is in your bans — Your retched 

Aribelly Sofrony. 

The Old First Ward Cemetery. 

The one mentioned in Vol. I., page 8i. as being the first one upon 
the ea^t side, /. e., an American one, and bounded by Racine, Astor, 
Kewaunee and Brady streets, was graded off (or rather the streets 
surrounding it were), thereby exposing a large number of bodies, 
which brought the following from the Sent'mel : 

The Old Burying-Gkound in the First Ward. 

Has there been any stop put yet to the outrageous and heathenish 
ravages made upon the above spot ? A gentleman informs us that a 
few days ago he was up there, where they were digging the streets 
through, and he counted the relics of as many as six or seven coffins 
lying open to the sight. There were also the bones of human beings 
scattered about. Some of the accounts we have heard, about the work- 
men breaking into the cotfins with their pick-axes, and committing 
other similar barbarities, are perfectly sickening. 

Are we civilized or not? The remains of some of the best of our 
earlv settlers are, or were, in that burjdng-ground. One of the earliest 
territorial judges was deposited there. And we, like vandals, are dig- 
ging into tiieir sacred resting-place and committing offenses which are 
too revolting to relate. We trust that the workmen have been stopped 
and that, if it is necessary to have a street through there, the remains 
of the dead will be removed in an orderly and Christian-like manner. 

The writer of that article further states that in passing over the old 
ground a short time previous, his eye fell upon the grave of a most 
estimable lady, whose niece was then (1857) the wife of one of our 



242 MILWAUKEE UNDER IHE CHARTER. 

wealthiest citizens, while near by lay the remains of a young man, 
who, a few years previous, was one of our most prominent business 
men, and whose parents then occupied one of the beautiful brick 
residences in the Seventh ward, and jusc beyond that one was the 
grave of an elderly gentleman, whose children he often saw passing 
along those streets, and all of whom seem perfectly indifferent to this 
wanton desecration of the graves of their friends and kindred. 

I remember this occurrence and have myself seen the ends of two 
coffins exposed on the Racine street side of the block as late as 
1865, if not later. 



CHAPTER V.- 
1858. 

Opening Address — I>egislative — Municipal — Report of Tax-Payers' Committee at 
AU)any Hall — Tabular Statements — The Effect of the Report — -'["he Fight 
Between the People and the Council — Jackson Hadley, Sketch — Taxation — 
Milwaukee vs. Detroit — 1'lie Harbor Question — Alderman George S, Mal- 
lory's Speech — More Meetings at Albany Hall — Letters from Tax-Payers — 
The Spring Campaign — Ti.e h ur Flies — William A. Prentiss Nominated for 
Mayor on a People's Ticket — Result of Election — Vilification — Council Pro- 
ceedings — License — A lidal Wave — High Water — The Cordes Black Falls — 
July 4, and Its Results — The Council Takes a Tilt at the Common Schools — 
Alderman J. A. Phelps, Sketch — J. P. Rundle, Sketch — -Opening of the At- 
lantic Cable — The Jail — Judge H. M. Wells Dies — Memorial Sketch — 
Charter Revision — Attempt to Remove the Court House — Rufus P. Jennings 
— Police Couri — The Fall Campaign — A Bitter Contest — The Land Grant 
Steal — Judge Hubbell Buys a New Milch Cow — Chamber of Commerce Or- 
ganized — List of Its Presidents to Date — Matthew Keenan Retires from the 
Office of Clerk of C'ircuit Court — Political — Councillor Jackson Hadley Goes 
for Mayor Prentiss — Mayor Prentiss Replies — Comptroller Hathaway's Esti- 
mate — The Election November, 1858 — Hotel Wettstein Opened — The Young 
Men's Christian Association vs. The Literary Club — The Weather — Early 
Ship Building — -Wolf & Davidson, Sketch — S. R. Smith, Sketch — Early She- 
boygan Houses — Improvements. 

The winter of 1857-58 was, as the reader has already seen, an un- 
usually mild one, there being, with the exception of the slight freeze 
in November mentioned at the close of the previous chapter, no 
snow or ice throughout December, 1857, January and a part of Feb- 
ruary, 1858, the weather during all this time being almost one per- 
petual Indian summer. 

Balmy and soft as summer's eve 

Were those December days in '57. 

Out from the grand old lake, 

Guarding Wisconsin's eastern side. 

Like molten globe of fire, 

The king of day at morn arose, 

Gilding both land and sea 

In bis l^riglit golden beams. 

As through the shortening day 

He journeyed to his western bourne, 

Where, 'neath a bank of crimson clouds, 

He sank from view, 

While Luna — beauteous queen — 

Througliout the lengthening nights. 

Shed o'er her mother earth 

Her silver rays. 



244 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

There has been no winter like it up to 1877 and 1878, during 
which, as stated in Vol. II., page 227, there was no frost, dandelions 
blooming in January and nearly all the fruit trees budding in Feb- 
ruary, the difference between the two winters being in the amount of 
fogs and dampness mainly, of which (dampness and fogs), owing to 
the almost total absence of frost, we had an unusual amount in 1877 
and 1878, while in 1857 and 1858 the weather was clear, with about 
the usual November frosts, the sun coming up as clear nearly every 
morning during the months mentioned as it does in July. There 
was no ice in sight in the lake, and on the 2 2d of January there were 
four sail vessels in the bay, one of which, the schooner Harriet, of 
Sheboygan, came up the river and landed her cargo, and the first ice 
seen during all that winter (except the freeze-up in November, previ- 
ously mentioned) was on the 31st of January, when it formed one 
inch in thickness. This, however, all disappeared on the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, and two government dredges were working on the new har- 
bor, while the fishermen were setting their nets in the river in which 
to catch suckers. The ice formed again, however, above Walker's 
Point bridge on the 4th thick enough for skatuig, and on the 5th 
some four hundred men and boys were sporting upon it, and on the 
6th the ice men commenced cutting. But the liest and thickest ice 
was not obtained until March, at which time it had obtained a thick- 
ness of twelve inches or more. 

Legislative. 

The members to the legislature from Milwaukee city and county 
in 1858 were: To the senate, August Greulich and Patrick Walsh; 
assembly, Dighton Corson. Alex. Cotzhausen, John Hayden, Duncan 
E. Cameron, Mitchell Steever, Fred. R. Berg, Orlando Ellsworth, 
Joseph Carney and Michael Hanrahan. 

Mr, Hanrahan, who was from the town of Granville I beUeve, 
was the one who, when the house was polled, answered " Here, sor," 
neither could such an answer as " yea " or " nay " ever be got out of 
him. He had been an old-time juryman too long for that. 

This legislature convened January 13 and adjourned May 17. 

F. S. Lovell, speaker. 



Mir.WAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 245 

Municipal. 

There was a meeting of the common council held on the loth of 
January,-* 1858, for the purpose of devising some means to revive 
the city's credit, which, as has been seen in the previous chapter, was 
at a low ebb. Nothing was accomplished, however, owing to the 
want of harmony among the members, except to adopt, after a 
lengthy discussion, the following report of the committee on finance, 
viz., that the sum of $200,000 in Milwaukee city bonds, bearing 7 
per cent., be issued under the act providing for a sinking fund, and 
as an offset for these bonds so issued. 

They further recommend a remission of 2 per cent, of the tax now 
due ($129,000) and an extension of thirty days for the payment of 
the balance thereof, a petition for which had been presented to the 
legislature (then in session), and that these bonds so issued should 
not be sold for less than 75 per cent, of their face value, and that 
when so sold the proceeds thereof to be paid into the city treasury 
and apphed as follows : 

First — To the payment of the interest of the bonded city debt, which 
will fall due on the 1st of February next, to the amount of 811,725. 

Second — To the payment of the sinking fund to be redeemed after the 
1st of February next, amounting to §18,850. 

Third — To the payment of the notes of the city comptroller, now in 
the hands of the Farmers' and Millers' bank, to the amount of S(jO,()00, 
and of the Juneau l«ink, to the amount of $30,000, said notes falling due 
in January and Feljraary, 1858. 

Resolved, That his honor the mayor be and is hereby authorized 
and requested to make and sign a memorial to be presented to the legis- 
lature, and that our representatives be hereby earnestly requested and 
instructed to procure the passage of an act authorizing the common 
council of the city of Milwaukee to remit such portion of the city taxes 
levied for the year 1857 as they may deem necessary, and to refund to 
those parties "or persons who have already paid their taxes the same 
proportion or part as would be remitted by the common council to those 
who have not paid, and also to extend the time for the collection of 
said taxes for thirty days.f 

Ferd. Kuehn, 
J. Hadley, 
A. Greulich, 

A. McCoRMICK, 

Finance Committee. 

*The action of the board at this meeting, in relation to taxation, was no doubt 
intended to soften the blow which they knew (or at least suspected) would fall 
uoon them, or such of them then in the board as had been members of the old 
one, during which nearly all the rascality complained of had been perpetrated. 

f I remember the excitement aljout this tax ; it was an enormous one, and had it 
not been remitted in part it would not have been paid, as the exemption of the 
Newhall House alone would have vitiated it. Four years more under the admin- 
istration of J. B. Cross et al. would have bankrupted the city forever. 



24g milwaukee under the charter. 

The Report at Albany Hall. 

The following is a synopsis of the report made at Albany Hall, 
January 12, 1858, by the committee appointed the previous Novem- 
ber, known as the investigating committee, which report filled nearly 
two pages in the Sentiiiel of the 28th, and is the most complete docu- 
ment of the kind ever presented to the people of Milwaukee. It 
shows up the rascaUties of certain officials named therein in a way 
not very compHmentary to them, to say the least, and when we con- 
sider the youth as well as the poverty of the city at that time, their 
conduct appears all the blacker, and should entitle them to a place 
in the ranks of the worst thieves ihat ever infested New York city, 
in the palmiest days of that illustrious financier and democratic 
leader William M. Tweed. The committee state, among other 
irregularities discovered, that several of the mortgages given by the 
dift'erent railroads to the city, as security for loans, to-wit : three of 
those given by the Milwaukee & Watertown, the Milwaukee & Beloit, 
and the Milwaukee & Superior, have never been placed upon record, 
two of which were found in the office of the city treasurer, and one 
in that of the clerk of the Board of School Commissioners, and that 
two others, to-wit: those on the Milwaukee & Mississippi, and the 
Milwaukee & La Crosse, could not be found at all, nor were they 
accounted for by any city officer. See statement annexed taken 
from their report : 

Tabular Statements of Crrv Taxes, Expenses, Etc. 

Upon examination by the committee, we found the following securi- 
ties were given by the several railroad companies to secure the city 
against loss, in reference to the City Bonds, issued for railroad purposes; 

Milwaukee & Mississippi Railroad Company. 

Two Certificates of Stock at 184,090, and $150,000 

Another Certificate of Stock 325,000 

Bond of Company for 000,000 

Second Mortgage (is not found nor recorded) for 300,000 

Milwaukee, Foxd du Lac & Green Bay Railroad Company. 

One Bond to the City, executed September 1, 1853. and signed 

by J. Kneeland, Pres't, and I. ^^ Mason, Sec'y $400,000 

One Bond to the City, executed September 1, 1853, and signed 
by J. Kneeland, J. A. Hoover, J. H. Rogers. Moses 
ICneeland, E. Townsend, W. P. Flanders, S. H. Alden, 
M. J. Thomas, and M. Finch, Jr 100,000 

One Mortgage to the City, dated September J , 1853, on the first 
section, commencing in the citv, extending 40 miles 
northwesterly \ '.. 200,000 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 247 

Gkeen Bay, Milwa'jkee & Chicago Railroad Company. 
Second Mortgage, properly recorded $200,000 

Milwaukee & La Crosse Railroad Company. 

One Bond to the City, executed February 16th, 1854, and 
signed by Stoddard Judd, Pres't, and L. Burnell, fcec'y 
of said Company..... $400,000 

Second Mortgage on 40 miles, commencing at a point where it 
leaves the line heretofore adopted by the Milwaukee, 
Fond du Lac and Green Bay Railroad, in the County of 
of Wasliington, thence westward to the town ot Beaver 
Dam, in the County of Dodge, subject to a prior Mort- 
gage of §10,000 a mile. 

This Mortgage is recorded in Dodge and Washington 
Counties, and has been sent back by the Recorder, but 
is not found. 

Milwaukee & Watertown Railroad Company. 

A second Mortgage on road from Junction to Watertown $75,000 

One Stock Certificate, No. 189, for 1,000 Shares 100,000 

One Bond to Citv for $150,000, signed bv J. S. Rockwell, Pres't, 

and J. L. Hathaway, Sec'v, December 10th, 185o 150,000 

One Bond of Company to City, 'May 8th, 1854 100,000 

One Bond of Milwaukee & Watertown Railroad Company to 

City, May 22d, 185() 400,000 

One Stock Certificate for 2,000 shares 200,000 

One Mortgage to City, dated March 22d, 1850, on part of the 
road extending from the junction of said road with the 
Milwaukee & Mississippi Railroad, to the village of 
Columbus, in Columbia County, subject to a prior mort- 
gage of $10,000 a mile, approved by J. B. Cross, Mayor, 
but not recorded. 

Milwaukee & Horicon Railroad Company. 

Bond of Company for $332,000 

Personal Bond of J. B. Smith, Garret Vliet, D. H. Richards 

and Jasper Vliet 200,000 

Second Mortgage to Herman Schwarting, City Treasurer, dated 
two months and a-half before he entered the office of 
City Treasurer, not recorded 160,000 

1,660 Shares of Stock 166,000 

Milwaukee & Lake Superior Railroad Company. 

100 First Mortgage Bonds $100,000 

Farmers' Mortgage Bonds 50,000 

Bond of Company 2(i0,000 

Second Mortgage, not recorded 100,000 

Stock Certificate, 1,000 shares 100,000 

Personal Bond of C. R. Alton, H. Haertel, Ed. Button, D. P. 

HiUl, Juhus White and Joshua Hartz 100,000 

Milwaukee & Beloit Railroad Company. 

Personal Bond of Directors, Horatio Hill, William J. Whaling 
and Martin Medberry, of the City of Milwaukee, and of 

several other gentlemen residing in the County $150,000 

100 First Mortgage Bonds 100,000 

Bond of Company 200,000 

Certificate of Stock 1(10,000 

Second Mortgage, not recorded 100,000 



248 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

From the above it Avill be noticed that by the criminal neglect on the 
part of the proper city othcers, several mortgages have been left unre- 
corded. It is proper to state that, at the request of the Committee, the 
City Treasurer has promptly taken measures to have the mortgages 
recorded in the several counties through which the Railroads are 
located. 

They also find the bonded debt, as appears by the books, to be as 

follows : 

Sinking Fund Bonds $187,000 

Harbor 159,000 

School 175,000 

Dredging 50,000 

Bridge 50,000 

Fire Loans 11,850 

" FirstAVard 1,400 

" " Second Ward 500 

Collateral Security Bonds 50,000 

Total amount issued $684,750 

Of these Bonds the following are reported as yet unsold (viz:) 

§50,000 hypothecated to Juneau Bank for loan, 830,000 of which is 
due in Februarv. 810,000 Bridge Bonds in the otHce of Comptroller. 
83,000 in hands of Mavor. $10,000 left by Mavor, and 816,000 left bv 
Comptroller with Wm'. Shell & Co., of New York, for sale, and 82,000 
previoush' pledged bv them, for loan by Bell & Co. In all, 91 Bonds. 
And that the Mayor and Clerk have the power, at any time, to execute 
additional School Bonds to the amount of 840,000. Of these bonds issued 
since August, 1856, the Mavor has received 8440.000. He reports sales 
of 8220,000 at 8161,763.07 net proceeds. He sent 8140,000 to Win. J. Bell 
& Co., who report sales of 8120,000 from March to July, 1S57, at about 
80 per cent., less commission. The other 18 were pledged or transferred 
for sale to Wm. Shell &. Co., in October last, and on the 21st of October 
the Mavor left with the same liouse 76 other bonds for sale, receiving 
an advance of 810,000. 66 of these bonds have been sold for 834,924.27, 
less commissions, and 825,000 of this amount drawn, as he states, by the 
Mayor. 

The report also further states, that the tax levied for 1857, for 
general city purposes, and now in the hands of the city treasurer for 
collection, is $434,735.59, an amount greater than for the five pre- 
vious years put together, and the amount levied for specials was 
$253,762.59, a total of $688,498.28, an amount twice as large as the 
whole State tax for the State of Wisconsin, and larger than the whole 
city tax for the three previous years, that of last year being only 
$122,171.22, showing an increase of 150 per cent, in one year, the 
increase in the State, county and school, for the last five years, aver- 
aging 20 per cent., and the general city 22 per cent., showing the 
increase of this year to be seven times the average of the last five, 
an increase of the percentage in every ward, but the Seventh, from 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTEP. 



249 



^ to 4 and 5 per cent., being in amount five times as large as that 
of Detroit, a city of much greater wealth as well as popoulation, 
showing a state of atK'airs, says the report, for which a parallel cannot 
be found, when wealth and population are taken into account, in any 
city on the globe. 

On a valuation doubled, the total tax is about seven per cent., and 

is divided as follows : 

County, State and School about 2 per cent. 

Ward tux, except in Seventh ward 2 " 

General Citv Expenses f " 

Old Debt and Interest 1| " 

Sinking Fund i " 

Total 7 " 

Tax for current City Expenses... $48,738 79 

Expenses estimated by Comptroller 102,000 00 

In order to pay the salaries of officers, the City borrows from other 
funds, and the Mayor has used trust funds to pay himself and the rest 
of the City Officers. 

Statement of Taxes Levied in the City of Milwaukee foe the 
Years 1852 to 1857, Inclusive. 





1852. 


1853. [ 


1854. 


1855. 


1856. 1 


1857. 


General City purposes.. 
Interest ou Bonds, of... 
First Ward purposes... 


S15,853 71) 

15,681 09 

5,076 01 


S16,654 51 

16,550 84 

6,709 67 


S26.900 00 

20,015 60 

9.705 60 


S2 1,476 78 
28.563 17 
ls',272 50 


123,975 95 

31,967 93 

6.278 52 

13.111 11 

6,150 79 

3,985 72 


S48,738 79 

113,723 85 

11,647 00 

13,863 60 


Second " " 
Sixth " 


2,6i8 33 


3,179 64 


3,101 40 


8,161 84 


12 075 58 
4,679 33 


Ninth " " 










6,056 96 


Third " 

Fourth " " . .. 

Fifth 

Eighth " " 


7,452 47 
2,(144 75 
2,472 55 


6,3o5 92 
5,969 50 
3,645 37 


9,095 05 
6,820 56 
5.014 87 


7,096 .50 
6,.581 50 
6,832 31 


16.666 70 

10,835 10 

9,784 63 


29,449 02 

18,014 27 

17,224 30 

4,598 45 






i 










Sinkiuff Fund 


51,888 90 


59,073 45' 


80.653 08 


98,254 63 


122,756 45 


280,071 16 
.32,492 53 












1 




State Fund 

County Fund 

School Fund 


7,619 91 

22,206 59 

5.442 ^0 


13,538 62 

28.220 66 

5,646 53 


21.367 59 

41,625 18 

5,550 03 


30,185 17' 

45.277 76 

7,516 29 


22,377 .55 

47,951 89 

9,590 38 


24,694 32 
84,480 .57 
12,997 01 






Total 


35.219 30 


47,405 81: 


68,542 80 


83,009 22 


79 919 82, 


122,171 90 


s 


treet Co 


mmissioner's Certificates. 








1852. 


1853-. 1 


1854. 


1855. 1 


1856. 


1857. 


First Ward 


401 60 


2,607 88'' 


11,162 11 


12,440 44 


11,337 51 

15,698 50 

8,992 08| 

10,141 00 


8,412 18 
69,(595 72 


Secoiifi Ward 


.=•,735 07 


4,275 67 


8 305 18 


9,600 20 


16,829 12 


sixth Ward 


8,155 ; 












15,719 71 


Third Ward 

Fourth Ward 


4,2r0 56 
364 38 
686 37 


10.515 30 
14,313 75 
11,282 01 


12,560 38 
12,113 21 
10,300 15 


14,388 26' 

17,971 ,58 

18,953 74 

r 


20.169 57I 
.3.--.,?28 94 
3 1, 797 06 


58, 46 11 
24, 7: '.9 79 


Fifth Wanl 


:-.8.128 71 


Eighth Ward 


13,644 45 


















11,477 9? 


42,994 61 


.54,441 03 


73,354 22 


134,264 66 


253,762 69 


Total 


598,636 18 


S149,473 87 « 


203,646 91 


1254,618 07i326,9l0 93 8688,498 28 



250 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



General City Expenses. 



Salaries. 



Estimated. 





' 1852. 1 


1853. ' 


1854. 1 


1855. I 


1856. 1 


1857. 


Comptroller 

Pitv nprk 


. 32,000 00 
. 1,379 53 
. 600 00 

.. 405 00 
40 00 

.., 1,110 35 


$2,000 00S2,000 00 

1,300 00 2,126 27 

600 00 7i 00 

375 00 1,000 00 

30 on an nn 


82,533 00 
2,533 00 
1,300 00 
1,000 00 


$2,846 00 
4,048 25 
2,183 00 
1,400 00 


$4,000 00 
4,000 00 


Pitv Attorney 


2,800 00 


City Assessor 

Contingents 


2,250 00 


767 52 


1,990 12 


3,001 08 


3,627 58 


4,500 00 






Commissioner of Survey 

Commissioner of Ordinances 


.. 630 00 
.. 100 00 




92 50 


273 00 


190 06 


















Oitv Marshal 


.. 800 00 
.. 668 13 


800 00 
50 L 28 


670 00 
356 00 


1,659 75 
324 73 


425 54 


800 00 




(2,800 00 




i 





"Tlprmtv M'lr'^hfll flTKi Poliof* 














.. 824 77 


""395 o6 


257 93 
243 00 


3,195 10 
578 00 


13,513 12 
440 00 


i7,dno 06 


Marshal for collecting business.. 


1,000 00 


Chief Engineer 




300 on 


300 06 


300 00 


800 00 



Chief of Police 

Inspector of Buildings 

Inspector of Bridges 

Superintendent of Bridge 

Salary for burying nuisances. 



Police. 



1852. 



1853. 



1854. 



1855. 



1856. 



800 00' 
450 00 



25 00 
838,73 
262 36 



1857. 
2,000 00 



800 00 



Condition of the Genera 1, City and Ward Accounts as Exhibited by 

THE Ledger, March 2(3, 1857. 



First Ward- 
Debit, amount expended over tax levied 

Add delinquent tax of 1852 to 1856 inclusive 

Second Ward- 
Debit, amount expended over tax levied 

Add delinquent tax as above 

Third Ward— 
(;redit amount tax levied over amount expended... 11,015 30' 

Deduct delinquent tax, as above I 1,139 99 9,875 31 

Fourth Ward — 
Credit amount tax levied over amount expended...! 737 98 

Deduct delinquent tax, as above ' 2,915 07 

Fifth Ward— ! 

Credit amount tax levied over amount expended... 2,330 11 

Deduct delinquent tax ' 1,829 96 

Sixth Ward- 
Debit, amount expended over tax levied ! 

Add delinquent tax ' 

Seventh Ward — 

Credit, amount tax levied over expenses ' 114 00 

Delinquent tax ' 1,660 28 

General City Fund- 
Debit, amount expended over tax levied 

Delinquent tax 



2,072 13| I 

1,141 57To'ld'bt 8,213 70 

152 84 

1,192 02To'Id'bt 1,344 86 



ToTd'bt 



500,15 



2,177 09 



632 13 

919 25 1,551 38 



19,375 46 



32,703 91 

4,506 7537,210 66 



Old debt, Interest Fund- 
Credit amount tax levied over expenditures '33,569 64 

Delinquent tax i 5 ,426 9228,142 72 



47,043 97 



AlJiount of interest due or paid, not ascertained, 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



251 



General City Printing, Etc. 



1852. I 1853. 



1854. 



1855. 



1856. 



1857. 



Printing l 273 08 454 15 

Bridge repairs 568 22 1,236 67 

Bridge tending i 702 50 5HS 38 

Books and stationery i 315 27| 179 47, 

Contingent expenses 631 40i 727 90 

Rent of conncil room, etc 325 00 362 50; 

General city, rontingeni 

Fire department 

Election expenses 

Furnishing conncil rooms 
city offices 



and 



2,421 41 



3,535 10 
858 50, 



1,113 00 
1.486 66 

746 19 

188 70 
2,249 37' 

325 00 
4,284 62 
5,868 46 

448 24, 



2,175 75 
3,872 94 
1,438 35 

124 70 
3,616 '-'01 

450 00: 
4,940 46' 
6,690 76 

723 27 



Total 13,794 66 14,691 47 



4.262 34 

6,514 47 

1.757 82 

621 35 

2,876 22 

450 00 

3,854 67 

9,968 00 

941 49, 



6,00n 00 

14.000 00 

4,000 00 

1,000 00 

3.400 00 

2,600 00 

12,000 00 

12,000 00 



5,097 02 



'101,547 03 



Statement of Tax Levied for "Street Commissioner's Certificates," 

FOR Several Years, and the Amount of Delinquent 

Tax on Same, in April, 1857. 



First Ward, levied 

Delinquent 

Second Ward, levied.. 

Delinquent 

Third Ward, levied 

Delinquent 

Fourth Ward, levied... 

Delinquent 

Fifth Ward, levied 

Delinquent 

Sixth Ward, levied 

Delinquent 

Seventh Ward, levied. 

Delinquent 



Total levied 

Total delinquent.. 



1852. 



1853. 



401 60 2,607 88 



5,735 07, 4, 

9 79 
4,290 56 10, 

TOO 70 

364 38 14, 



686 3711, 

129 52 2, 



275 67 
408 55 
515 30, 
247 99' 

313 75| 
782 95 
282 01 
253 92 



1854. 



17 50. 



547 55 



11,162 
301 

8,.305 

1,456 
12,560 

3,677 
12,113 

3,.S00 
10,300 

2,360 



1855. 



1856. 



Total I Total 
levied, delinqt' 



12,440 44| 
1,895 75| 
9,600 20 
1.129 35i 
38,14,388 26 
65' 5,312 04! 
2i;i7,971 58i 
94: 3,784 42 
1518,953 74i 
49 5,910 81 



■67 
'2,676 



2,027 64; 
'l,'533 59 



11,637 51! 38,249 54 

7,020 62 

3,992 08' 36,908 20 

E,172 70 

20,169 57 61,924 07 

7,355 97! I 

35,828 94| 80,591 861 

15,484 29' 23,352 60 

31.7i.7 06! 73,019 33' 

19,541 04' 

10,141 00' 10 141 00 

2,924 88 

15,698 50, 15,698 50 

9,514 26| 



9,215 87 
8,176 "74 



30,225 78 
'"5,'737"69 
i4''272'i'6 



11,477 9842.994 61 54,441 03 '3,354 22134,264 66316,532 50 

857 51 4,240 96 14, .541 26 21,623 60 67,013 86 |l08,277 19 



The reading of this report produced a profound sensation in the 
community, and the necessity of having the amendments offered at 
the November meeting (1857) incorporated into the charter at once, 
was apparent to every one having the good of the city at heart. 
Three meetings more were accordingly held, the first March nth, at 
which Messrs. Chas. K. Watkins, S. M. Booth, Gen. Jas. H. Paine, 
Jas. S. Brown, and Hans Crocker advocated their passage, while 
John L. Doran, Ed. McGarry, and Jackson Hadley opposed it This 
meeting was a stormy one, as Mr. Hadley, who foresaw in iheir 
adoption the defeat of all his plans, as well as the curtailment of his 
powers as the head of the Board of Street Commissioners, also 
opposed them bitterly, while the mass of the people, now that they 
saw the pit into which they had fallen, financially, were just as deter- 
mined that they should pass. The result of the fight at this time was 



252 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

an adjournment to the 17th (in order that the amendments might be 
printed), when they had another circus and adjourned to the 20th, 
at which the reformers, as the people's party was called, won the day. 
They came very near bemg beaten, however, as after it was all done 
and the amendments declared adopted, Mr. Hadley played his last 
card, by offering a resolution to postpone the whole matter for twenty 
days, in order, as he said, to give the dear people, whose interests he 
had so much at heart, time to read them. This was a sharp move 
on his part, as it would, if adopted, have postponed the whole matter, 
not only until after the adjournment of the legislature, but until after 
the coining charter election also, which would have given him as well 
as his followers full control of the city offices for another year, by 
which time he would have had the taxpayers where Boss Tweed had 
the New Yorkers. 

So smooth was his tongue, 

And his manner so bland 
As to near beat the taxpayers 

Out of their land. 

But the people saw through the move and at once voted it down, 
after which there went up such a shout from that assemblage as was 
never heard in Albai.y Hall before, such was tlieir joy that the vic- 
tory was won. This done, a committee, consisting of Wm. P. Lynde, 
Jas. Kneeland, Doct. Chas. E. Wonderly,* John H. Tweedy, and 
Doct. Jas. Johnson, were at once appointed to proceed to Madison 
and urge the immediate passage of the proposed amendments, t which 
also was done. But although beaten in a general engagement with 
the people, Mr. Hadley, with the aid of his friends, carried on a 
regular guerilla warfare in the council for the next two years, as will 

* This gentleman was a promininent German doctor, a politician, and, as the 
reader has seen, was one of those who took an aciive part in the investigation in 
1857. His homestead was the present well-known property adjoining the South 
Side Brewery of Ph. Best & Co., where his widow yet resides. This pioperty 
still retains ihe primeval grade. He died February 21, 1859. 

f One of the proposed amendme Us wr.s the change from three aldermen in 
each ward to one alderman and two councillors, and the appointment of a board 
of three, one from the East, one from tiie West, and one from the South Sides, 
who in connection with the comptroller, city attorney, and treasurer, were to con- 
stitute the Board of Reform or Commissioners. 

This was the nucleus of the present Board of Public Works, the first appointees 
upon this Board being Daniel Schidtz for the West, Thos, Keogh for the East, 
and Hirarn Merrill for the South Sides. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 253 

be seen in due time. He had a strong following, particularly among 
the contractors and laboring classes, and with their aid came very 
near winning the day.* 

Biographical. 

Jackson Hadley, who came to our city in 1844, was without ex- 
ception one of the ablest men who ever hved here, and was, from 
the day of his arrival to the day of his death, one of the most active 
as well as influential Democratic politicians in the city; neither 
would he play second to any one. He went in for a front seat al- 
ways, and if ousted from that would never fail to make it exceedingly 
warm for his opponents. He was a first-class diplomatist, suave in 
manner, and could usually do whatever he listed with those with 
whom he was associated politically or otherwise. He was the 
most aggressive man in that direction in the state, Byron Kil- 
bourn — who, in the ability to plan as well as carry out vast 
schemes for public improvement as well as for self-aggrandisement 
he much resembled — not excepted, and left no stone unturned 
that if turned would enable or aid him to accomplish his purpose, 
and in such contests there was no friendship. While he would grant 
a friend any favor of a pecuniary nature, if within his power, freely, 
he would, if pitted against that friend for office, beat him if possible, 
no matter by what means, and think it all fair. In such a contest 
that friend would find, as did the Scottish King, Fitz James, in his 
contest with Roderick Dhu, so poetically described by Sir Walter 
Scott in his " Lady of the Lake :" 

It was no play to hold his own 
With Hadley's arms around him thrown, 
Whose vice-like grip his frame might feel 
Through bars of brass or triple steel. 

This, of course, made him many enemies, for which, Hke Mr. Kil- 



* It is not surprising that Mr. Hadley should oppose the amendments to the 
Charter, particularly the one which placed the street work in the hands of three 
commissioners, as he could then no longer march his army of graders to the 
caucus, or the polls, to carry his own election, or to Albany Hall to break up a 
taxpayers' meeting. There were other officials, also, who might find themselves 
deprived of the little kites (to which they formed the tail), and unable any longer 
to dictate to the democracy, or dragoon their constituents into carrying out their 
games for [ilunder. 

16 



254 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

bourn, he cared very little, never slacking his efforts in the least on 
tliat account. 

Politically he knew no North, no South, no East, no West, and 
cared for no one but himself, 

The writer was well acquainted with Mr. Hadley, and outside of 
politics would never wish for a better friend. He was a power in 
Milwaukee while he lived, socially and politically. 

Mr. Hadley took an active part in the organization and construc- 
tion of the old La Crosse Railroad, being at one time its secretary, 
and as has been seen was much in office. He was a very active 
member of the common council from 1852 to 1858, as well as in the 
school board. He also represented his ward (the First) in the as- 
sembly in 1854, 1865 and 1866, and his district in the senate in 1855 
and 1856, and was re-elected again in 1866 for two years more, but 
did not live to serve out his full term, dying literally in the harness. 
He was a splendid-looking man, not one in a thousand in any coun- 
try possessing as fine a physique as did Jackson Hadley. He was 
finely educated, was a fluent speaker, a ready writer, and a polished 
gentleman. In the portrait gallery at Madison is what purports to 
be a likeness of him, but it is far from doing him justice. He was 
born at Livonia, Livingston county, N. Y., May 22, 18 15, and died 
March 3, 1867. 

Taxation Again. 

The Sentinel of January 14, 1858, contains the following article 
from a tax-payer, which speaks for itself, and -besides showing pretty 
plainly where a part of the evils of our financial system lie, makes a 
comparison of our city with Detroit, after which he gives some good 
advice in reference to what should be done. 

He proceeds to state that Detroit, with a population about equal 
to ours, has never sold a bond for less than 3 per cent, premium, and 
that her taxes do not exceed i ]/{ per cent. He then compares the 
salaries of our city officials with Detroit, showing that ours cost 
$22,000 per annum more than Detroit, and proposes to reduce ours 
to the same. He also proposes to abolish the pohce department 
entirely, as well as the comptroller, sell the furniture in the school 
commissioners' rooms (he was right about that), then attach the 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 255 

property of Alderman Jonathan Taylor to reimburse the city for 
what he had stolen, and in shoit to put the city on the same basis 
financially as a business man would his own private affairs, and he 
would guarantee that our bonds (if we found it necessary to issue 
any) would not be at a discount. 

It was not done, however, and our taxes to-day are double those 
of Detroit, and will continue to be until politics are entirely ignored 
in the selection of men to till our municipal offices. Will it ever be 
done ? 

There was an attempt made to do this, as far as the salaries of the 
city officers were concerned, at the meeting of the council held on 
the 2d of January, by Alderman John Plankinton, who offered a 
resolution to reduce the salaries of the comptroller to $2,500, out of 
which he was to pay his own clerk, city attorney $1,500, chief of 
pohce $ 1,000, J3ridge superintendent $400, and poHcemen from $50 
to $35 per month. Laid over under the rules, and never heard of 
again. 

The harbor question* also came up at this meeting, as per agree- 
ment at which time the joint committee made a report, recommend- 
ing that the city issue $95,000 in bonds as a final settlement of the 
matter. 'I'his proposition, however, after a lengthy discussion, was, 
on motion of Alderman William A. Prentiss, also laid over until the 
next meeting (February 3), when it was expected the outside com- 
n.ittee,t consisting of Messrs. Geo. W. Mygatt, John Rugee, Edward 
P. AUis, John Sercomb and John Fellenz (appointed at a previous 
meeting) — after a bitter opposition from Aldermen Hadley and Mal- 
lory, and strongly advocated by Alderman Wm. A. Prentiss — were 
expected to report. | But instead thereof a motion was made by 
Alderman Alex. Johnston that the present harbor committee and the 

*It was not the intention of the writer to have said anything further upon this 
subject, having given what he considered a sufficient account of it in Vol. II., 
pages 140 and 141; but as ii looms up again as an important factor in the report 
of the investigating committee made January 12, as well as in some oi the coun- 
cil proceedings of 1857 and 1858, he can not very well avoid referring to it again 
in this connection. 

fOr referees, as they were called. 

X'Vhe appointment of this outside committee, or the referees, as they were 
called, became a firebrand among the already over-heated contestants, and no good 
pame of it to either party in interest. 



256 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

city engineer be added. This was supplemented by one from Alder- 
man D. C. Reed, that Messrs. Tweedy, Crocker. Huebschmann and 
Waldo be also added (done solely to break it up), after which the 
whole matter was postponed for one week (February 9), at which 
time the committee offered a lengthy and somewhat one-sided re- 
port, recommending that ninety-five harbor bonds of $1,000 each, 
and a city order for $264.33, be issued to Isaac Hasbrouck in full of 
all claims for the construction of sections i, 2 and 3 of the straight- 
cut harbor. This report was signed by F. Kuehn, George S. Mallory, 
J. Hadley, A. McCormick, committee on finance ; J. Hadley, D. C. 
Reed, George S. Mallory, Ferd. Kuehn, S. Wagner,* A. McCormick, 
G. G. Loefifier, harbor committee. 

Which, after being discussed by Aldermen Hadley, Plankinton and 
Alex. Johnston, was finally laid over for another week, as the referees 
had not joined in the report. » 

Alderman Geo. S. Mallory on the War Path. 
At this meeting of the council, held February 9th, Alderman Geo. 
S. Mallory arose in his place, and, after a few preliminary remarks, 
proceeded to relieve himself of the contempt he entertained for the 
"anti-harbor" portion of che board, as well as the investigating com- 
mittee generally,! and Messrs. Aldermen John Plankinton, August 
GreuUch, the " Jenny Lind Club," and the newspapers particularly, 

thusly : 

I am down on newspapers in general and the " Jenny Lind Club," 
who he claimed were trying to bring the action of the council into 
disrepute for political effect in particular. He was surprised to hear 
the gentleman from the Fourth ward (Plankinton) take up the outside 
cry of fraud, and claim that $25,000 was all that Mr. Hasbrouck was 
entitled to, when a committee of the council had just recommended 
that $95,000 be paid him, particularly as his late colleague and co- 
worker, Jonathan Taylor, had just been indicted, and whose conduct 
had brought all this disgrace upon the council. The gentleman from 

*I think this is a mistake, as there is no such name in the directory or in the 
official reports for that year, aUhough there was an Alderman Wergen from the 
Eighth ward in 1857. 

t Meaning J. H. Tweedy, Otis H. Waldo, Chas. K. Watkins, and others, who 
had been active in unearthing the rascalities of the two previous years. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 257 

the Fourth ward occupied a deHcate position and should keep still. 
His action in this matter looked to him (Mallory) like a man kicking 
himself, and he was ashamed that any gentleman should support such 
a resolution as that offered by the gentleman from the Second ward 
(Alex Cotzhausen).* He (Mallory) was not surprised that that gen- 
tleman had been made a tool of by his colleague (Greulich) to pre- 
sent such a resolution,! as he (Cotzhausen) did not probably know 
when he was kicked. | Mr. Cotzhausen might be an agent of the 
Jenny Lind Club for all that he (Mallory) knew, but if he was expect- 
ing political preferment at the hands of the people, he was getting 
such a load on his shoulders as would break them. He then went 
for the conmiittee. Look at them, he says (meaning the investigating 
committee), their report is so shameful that not one of them dare 
sign it. He (Mallory) was for having some respect shown to the 
council, and thought them perfectly competent to investigate their 
own acts. Hoped the gentleman from the Second ward would stand 
on his resolution, but did not think it would pass. 

Mr. Mallory was severely censured by the mayor, Wm. A. Prentiss, 
for this speech, and for attempting to blacken the character of the 
committee, who he said were men of good standing in the commu- 
nity and among the early settlers of the city, men of good character, 
and that such remarks were very foolish. § 

This report, made January 20th, was pretty severely commented 
upon in the Sentinel of February 8th, by a taxpayer, in which, after 
displaying some legal acumen in defining his points, he proceeds as 
follows : 



* A resolution for a new committee, who were to go over the whole ground 
again, from the letting of the first contract to Abel Hawley to the completion of 
the work by Messrs. Hasbrouck & Conro. 

f Intimating that the resolution was written by Greulich, and offered by Cotz- 
hausen. 

\ The Germans were strongly opposed to paying $95,000, for what such men as 
John Plankinton, William A. Prentiss and others, claimed did not cost over 
$45,000, and which could have been settled for $65,000. And the reason Mr. 
Cotzhausen gave for his action was, that he had been informed that one of the 
committee (Hadley) had an interest in the contract, which from the anxiety he 
manifested to get the $95,000 allowed, strengthened his belief in the assertion. 

\ Alderman John Fuldner, who many yet living must remember, was present 
at this meeting, and when asked by one of the disputants what he proposed to do 
in the matter, answereil that he did not know "sumdings." Me was right. 



258 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

There appears to be much difference of opinion among the different 
members of the council as to the propriety of any further legislation 
or investigation into the harbor contract. They object — {i. e.) the 
present committee — to any plan that would take it out of their juris- 
diction, while the chairman ( Hadley) prefers to take the report of the 
committee* as his guide. Another (Plankintont) pins his faith upon 
the report of the engineer, while Mallory wants to keep the matter 
within the control of the council, for the purpose, I suppose, of 
maintaining its dignity. Does the gentleman think there is any dig- 
nity remainmg in an institution, one of whose members (Jonathan 
Taylor) has lately been indicted, and is now a fugitive from justice, 
while the people are daily looking for a stampede among those re- 
maining. We must have a committee, Mr. Editor, not members of 
the council, or of architects,! but a committee of engineers, with 
Mr. Gunnison, the government superintendent, at its head, and then 
and not until then will the people get at the facts in this matter. 

An injunction was finally put upon this referee business March lo 
by Judge Byron Paine, at the request of Anson Eldred, Hans 
Crocker, Jas. Kneeland, Lester Sexton, Josiah A. Noonan, John H. 
Tweedy, Dr. F. Huebschmann, E. B. Dickerman, Alpha C. May, 
Jno. J. Orton, David Ferguson, Henry C. Heidie and Doctor Lemuel 
W. Weeks, in order to prevent any further action by the officers of 
the council. The attorneys for the city were E. G. Ryan and Nor- 
man J. Emmons, and for Messrs. H. and C., John L. Doran and 
Jas. S. Brown. 

The case was argued March 12 and reported in the Sentinel ot 
the 13th. The injunction was sustained. 

It is sufficient to say in closing that after some twelve years Mtiga- 
tion the city had to pay $484,000 to Messrs. Hasbrouck and Conro, 



* Whatever faults were charged against Jackson Hadley (and there certainly 
were so'iie), in connection with the construction of the present harbor, and the 
settlement with Messrs. Hasbrouck & Conro, justice to him requires me to say, 
that the fact of the city having been compelled to pay, at the end of a long litiga- 
tion, nearly half a million for what they could have settled for less than $100,000, 
in '1858, is not chargeable to him, as he certainly did recommend the acceptance 
of this report as a final adjustment of the matter. 

f Alderman Plankintor. was for giving them S;25,000, and William A. Prentiss 
was in favor of giving $45,000. 

X Meaning Rugee and Mygatt. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 259 

for what could have been settled in 1858 for $75,000 at the outside. 
But such is often the case in this country, where so many different 
interests are at stake and the chances for plunder are so common. 
Milwaukee has suftered beyond comparison, and is now (1885) in 
chains, wholly on account of not putting the right men on guard. 
Will her citizens ever learn wisdom from past experience ? I fear 
not. 

The Fur Flies. 

As the time for the charter election drew near in 1858 the people 
became excited as they never had been before, and among the lead- 
ers of the different parties the excitement was intense. More lies 
were told in one day than the newspapers could contradict in a 
week. Even that virtuous Democrat, Jonathan Taylor, wrote from 
his forced retreat in California a letter intended to blacken the char- 
acter of Cicero Comstock and Robert Whitehead, both of which 
were answered in a way calculated to cause Mr. Taylor to crawl into 
his hole and pull the hole in after him. It put him in the front rank 
as a campaign liar. 

A call was made for Wm. A. Prentiss to run for mayor on a peo- 
ple's ticket by the reformed Democrats.* 

At the people's convention, held March 24, WiUiam A. Prentiss 
was nominated by the following majorities : 

First Ward 201 

Second Ward 288 

Third Ward 108 

Fourth Ward 215 

Fifth Ward 

Sixth Ward 118 

Seventh Ward ;560 

Eighth Ward 122 

Ninth Ward 144 

Cicero Comstock was also nominated for comptroller, Herman 
Schwarting for treasurer, and Geo. Woodward for attorney. 

Third Ward Nominations. 

The regular Democracy of the Third ward, at their caucus on Satur- 

*Singular as it may appear there was a democratic reform meeting (and tliere 
was need of one) held in the Sixth ward, at which, among other suggescions 
made, was one declaring it improper for any alderman to he a school commissioner 
or a member of the legislature, and tliat no officer of the council should serve as 
a juror. But, like other spasmodic elTorts at reform, it all ended in wind. 



260 MILWAUKEE UND£R THE CHARTER. 

day, after electing six Irishmen and one German to represent them in 
the city convention, proceeded to nominate the following ward ticket: 

Alderman for two years^Michael Bray. 

Alderman for one year — Dan Kennedy, 8r. 

Justice of the Peace — Wm. Holland. 

Assessor — John H. Dolan. 

Railroad Commissioner — T. H. Eviston. 

Constable — William Hurle^^ 

All of the nominees, we believe, are sons of the Emerald Isle. The 
News_, as in duty bound, indorses the nominations as excellent ones, and 
enjoins upon ail true Democrats to support them. Hoping we don't in- 
trude, we should like to have the News inform its readers and the public 
if Dan Kennedy was not a member of the common council a year or 
two ago, and what befell him there.* It may help the tax-payers of 
the Third ward to a realizing sense of what is in store for them should 
these nominations be ratified at the polls. 

Couldn't Wipe It Out. 

Among other electioneering documents published just previous to 
this election was one that appeared in the Setitingl of April 3, in- 
tended no doubt to destroy tiie effect of the investigating commit- 
tee's report of January 12, by a reference to that of the one from 
the common council.t But if that was the object, a more complete 
failure could not well have been made, as it did not refute a single 
statement in that document, but, on the contrary, admits the truth of 
each and every allegation there made. It was entitled by the Senti- 
nel " Hadley's Whitewashing Report," which would imply that if 
not written by him, it was written in his interest, as he was then run- 
ning for and was elected to the board of councillors. It is certainly 
a curious document, and had it been written by Emanuel Sweden- 
borg, would have been all right, as it explained nothing, neither did 
it make any point, but after wandering around a while in the land 
of shadows finally came out at the same hole where it went in.| 

*This has reference to a little toot the alderman indulged in one hot summer 
day, during winch he became so boisterous as to necessitate his being locked up, 
and resulted in his expulsion from the board lie was a terror when in that con- 
dition, and when arrested u^ton that occasion raised such a row that it took five 
men to convey him to the jail. He was very large and as strong as three ordinary 
men. I remember that arrest. He died many yeara ago. 

fThe council had, of course, appointed a committee of mvestigation directly 
after the meeting at Albany hall, November 18, 1857, who, of course, found noth- 
ing wrong in the then state of the city finances, and their report was simply 
worthless. Their object was to conceal and not reveal the rottenness of Mayor 
Cross' administration. 

JThis document was supposed to be the work of E. L. H. Gardner, but nothing 
is certainly known about it. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



261 



The election held April 6th resulted as follows : 

Mayor — William A. Prentiss. 
Comptroller — John L. Hathaway. 
Deputy — William L. Hinsdale, appointed. 
City Clerk— Robert B. Lynch. 
Deputy — Alex. Bolton, appointed. 
Treasurer — Herman Schwarting. 
Deputy — Moritz von Baumbach, appointed. 
Attorney — Geo. A. Woodward. 
Clerk— John O'Grady. 

The following is the official vote : 

Recapitulation. 









i 


^ 




01 


i 














01 
• 1— 1 

V 


1 


P 


o 


o 


Oi 

00 




P-i 






Si 




o 


o 


6 


2 


First ward 


405 


292 


383 


313 


541 


156 


335 


318 


51 


Second ward .. 


587 


242 


528 


.391 


334 


567 


123 


321 


474 


Third ward 


585 


498 


634 


448 


860 


192 


881 


131 


70 


Fourth ward .. 


540 


267 


513 


245 


357 


404 


198 


230 


347 


Fifth ward 


437 


336 


291 


410 


650 


307 


241 


464 


68 


Sixth ward.... 


289 


263 


288 


262 


229 


396 


86 


296 


220 


Seventh ward 


755 


245 


722 


271 


698 


282 


903 


203 


80 


Eighth ward .. 


169 


225 


94 


238 


296 


37 


8] 


237 


16 


Ninth ward 


339 


475 


319 


489 


458 


344 


161 


491 


m) 


Total 


4062 


2998 


3772 


3097 


4427 


2895 


2759 


2681 


1257 







Aldermen. 

First ward — Matt. Keogh. 
Second ward — Joseph A. Phelps. 
Third ward— Thos. Carroll. 
Fourth ward — John Plankinton, 
Fifth ward — Geo. G. Dousman. 
Sixth ward — William H. Lindman. 
Seventh ward — Samuel S. Daggett. 
Eighth ward — John C. U. Neiderman. 
Ninth ward — John W. DeVose. 
J. A. Phelps, President. 
R. B. Lynch, Clerk. 

Councillors. 

First ward — Frederick Heineman and Jackson Hadley. 
Second ward — I. A. Lapham and Jobst H. Buening. 
Third ward — J. McGrath and A. McCormick. 
Fourth ward — John H. Tesch and Hiram R. Bond. 
Fifth ward — Henry Kroeger and Francis Conrad. 
Sixth ward — Carl Busach and Joseph Walters. 
Seventh ward — Victor Schulte ancl Otis H. Waldo. 
Eighth ward — Frederick Vogel and Edward H. Hayden. 
Ninth ward — John Leubenheimcr and Mattluas Human. 
J. Hadley, President, 
11. B. I.yiicii, Clerk. 



262 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Board met in Cross' Excelsior Block, northeast corner East Water and 
Huron streets. 

School Commissioners. 

First ward— Silas Chapman, Dennis Cullio:an and Henry Runkle. 
Second ward— Chas. F. Bode, Andrew J. Lan^rworthy and Jas. B. 

Selbv, Jr. 
Third ward— .John Horan, Ed. O'Neill and John Shortell. 
Fourtli ward— Alex. H. Johnston, John A. Seger and Samuel C. West. 
Fifth ward— Edwin DeWolf, Chas. H. Larkin and Duncan C. Reed. 
Sixth ward— Cicero Comstock, Daniel Daggett and Ferdinand Kuehn. 
Seventh wai-d- Albert Bade, Rufus King and Geo. S. Mallory. 
Eighth ward- (aeo. Burnham, Geo. B. Bingham and Chas. P. Melms. 
Ninth ward— Samuel Brown, Dirk J. Doornick* and Henry Hilmantel. 
Geo. S. Mallory, President. 
J. A. Seger, Secretary. , 

Police. 

Chief of Pohce— William Beck. 

Number of Police— Eighteen, (viz:) P. W. Dodge, William H. Garlick, 
Labron Capron, J. B. Rodee, Albert Beck, Thos. Shaughnessy, Tlios. 
Bohan, John McCartv, Peter Smith, William H. Perrigo, Thos. Poulter, 
Jere O'Connor, Fred'. Ke.ssler, Adam Just, Adam Biugenheimer, Panl 
Schuengel, Geo. Gruber and Peter Dusolt. 

Of this number Peter Smith and Jerry O'Connor are yet on the force . 

Commissioners of Survey. 

Herman Haertel, Ira E. Goodall, Sanford B. Grant, F. Schumacher, 
D. W. Keller, Otis B. Hopkins, Ehsha Eldred, Andrew Mitchell, A. C. 
Bergeld and John Ogden. 

Assessors. 

Jas. Johnston, Christian W. Schwartzberg and Stoddard H. ]\Iartin. 

City Enc^ineer. 

City Engineer — Fred. Schumacher. 
F. S. Blodgett, Deputy, appointed. 

Sealer of Weights and Measures— Christian Meyer, appointed. 

Justices op the Peace. 

First ward — Jas. B. Turk. 
Second ward — Chas. F- Bode. 
Third ward — WMlliam Holland. 
Fourth ward— D. L. Deyo. 
Fifth ward— C. C. Meyer. 
Sixth ward — C. Wichelhaus. 
Seventh ward — Albert Smith. 
Eighth ward — William A. Tucker. 
Ninth ward— F. R. Berg. 

Constables. 

First ward — J. SchoefFel. 
Second ward — Chas. Neuman. 
Third ward— M. Purtill. 
Fourth ward — Edward Mallon. 
Fifth ward — F. Holzenger. 
Sixth ward — M. Schwiebinger. 

* Mr. Doornick must have been a hard one. It is suggestive. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 263 



Seventh ward — H. Guenther. 
Eighth ward— N. V. Ulman. 
Nintli ward — Christian Maas. 



Railroad Commissioners. 

First ward — Philip Acker. 
Second ward — F. W. Hundhausen. 
Third ward — Thos. Eviston. 
Fourth ward^Perry Ray Isham. 
Fifth ward— C. T. Stamm. 
Sixth ward — Adam Portner. 
Seventli ward — Christian Preusser. 
Eighth ward— Chas. T, Melms. 
Ninth ward— F. Foertsch. 

Fire Department. 

Chief Engineer — Daniel Schultz. 
First Assistant— O. M. Ilofford. 
Second Assistant — J. H. Butler. 
Third Assistant — John Larkin. 

Fire Wardens. 

John B. Meyer, Chas. May, Wm. Spence, W. H. Holland, L. Buen- 
ning, Morris Louis, Casper Dusolt, T. P. Kelly, Chas. W. Bierbach and 
William Perrigo. 

Districts. 

There were five districts. In case of fire the alarm shall be as follows: 
First, 10 strokes of the bell, preceding the strokes for the number of the 
district. First ward, 1 stroke; Second ward, 2; Third ward, :!; Fourth 
ward, 4; Fifth ward, 5. 

County Officers. 

Sheriff — Herman L. Page. 
Clerk of Court — Matthew Keenan. 
Under Sheritf^William Beck. 

Deputies — Robert Wasson,* Ava B. Page, Henry Hillmantel, John 
Mitchell and John Shortell. 
Register of Deeds — Abert Bade. 
Treasurer — Garrett M. Fitzgerald. f 
Surveyor — John Gregory. 
Coroner — Robert Wasson. 

* It would appear from the record that Mr. Wasson was both deputy sheriff 
and coroner. 

f The election of Mr. Fitzgerald to the office of county treasurer proved a dis- 
astrous affair to ihe county, as he became a defaulter for a large amount, a full 
report of which can be found in the proceedings of the County Board, held April 
1st, 1859, and reported in the Sentinel oi the 22d. Mr. Fitzgerald was a man of 
generous impulse?, and no doubt entered upon the duties of his office with hon- 
esty of purpose, but socomplciely was he in the toils of the unscrupulous leaders 
who at that lime ran the democratic machine, that he fell. I remember Mr. Fitz- 
gerald well, and often think of him as he appeared in his palmv days, and his un- 
fortunate end only furnishes another example of the corrupting influence of 
American politics. 



264 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



Supervisors. 
(The Aldermen of each ward were ex officio Supervisors.) 



Towns. 



Wauwatosa — Thomas Tobin . 
Granville — J. F. Brandt. 
Milwaukee— Chas. G. Everts. 
Lake — Andrew Douglass. . 
Greenfield — Patrick Walsh. 
Oak Creek — N. Howes, Jr. 
Franklin— Michael J. Egan. 
Thos. Tobin, Chairman. 
Chas. F. Caste n. Clerk. 
Henry Gosch, Deputy. 



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In commenting upon this election, which resulted in a clean thing 
for the people's ticket, the Sentinel gives the old Third — then a 
Democratic stronghold — a high compliment for the gallant manner 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 265 

in which they had aided in breaking the chains which the former 
officials bad placed upon the people, ending with the following: 

Shout the glad tidings 
O'er land and o'er sea. 
The peoi)le have triumphed, 
Milwaukee is free.* 

Vilification. 

No sooner had the new board got fairly organized that the Doily 
News, as might have been expected, commenced to abuse the new 
mayor. But it did him no harm, as the people not only knew Mr. 
Prentiss, but they also had some slight knowledge of the character 
of the News, as well as of its then proprietors, consequently its 
power for evil was gone, at least for a season, and its bark, like that 
of a snarhng dog, was all tliat was left of it. Its columns, however, 
continued to be filled with tloe vilect abuse of everything not Demo- 
cratic. It was certainly a vile sheet in those days, neither was there 
anything of a political nature too mean for its then editors to do or 
say. 

Taxation. 

The joint committee of the boards of aldermen and councillors on 
finance, to whom was referred the resolution introduced by Alderman 
Phelps, on the 6th, levying the city taxes for the current year, upon 
examination of the financial condition of the city, particularly as set 
forth by the comptroller in his lute report to the council, recommended 
the adoption of the following as a substitute for that resolution: 

Resolved, That there is hereby levied on the real and personal estate 
within the city of Milwaukee and the several wards thereof the follow- 
ing taxes, at the rate hereinafter specified, for the year 18.58, upon the 
assessed value of said estate as aforesaid, as returned by the assessors 
of said city, revised and corrected as retiuired by law in said year, to- 
wit: 

For the purpose of paying the annual interest on the city debt, and 
for the sinking fund for the extinguishment of the funded debt, a tax 
of seven and seven-eighths mills on each dollar of the assessed valua- 
tion. 

For the payment of the current expenses of the city for said year a 
tax of four mills on each dollar. 

For ward purposes in the several wards to- wit: 

In the First ward a tax of 4 mills. 

In the Second ward a tax of 2J mills. 

In the Third ward a tax of 4 mills. 

In the Fourth ward a tax of 1| mills. 

In the Fifth ward a tax of fii mills. 

In the Sixth ward a tax of 5} mills. 

In the Seventh ward a tax of 2 mills. 



*He was mistaken, the battle was only half won. 



266 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

In the Eighth ward a tax of 4.1 mills. 

And in the Ninth ward a tax of 4 mills on each dollar of assessed val- 
uation as aforesaid. 

Upon which Councillor Waldo gave notice that, under the charter 
no greater sum than $175,000 could be levied for general city pur- 
posas. 

License. 

One of the first things to come before the new board was that all- 
absorbing and ever-present conundrum, the license question — a bone 
of contention then as now. The aldermen fixed it at $50, and the 
council reduced it to $15, which the aldermen would not concur in, 
and it was finally fixed at $25. 

Gas Explosion at Young's Hall, May 24. 

A terrific explosion took place in Young's new building last evening, 
about 7 o'clock, caused either by the ignition of escaped gas or the ex- 
plosion of one of the pipes. Luckily that portion of the building where 
the accident happened was unoccupied, and no lives were lost. The 
explosion seems to have taken place in the center of a partition wall 
near the north end of the third story, tearing the wall to atoms and 
bursting out the floors both above and below. Two doors were blown off 
their hinges, and heavy pieces of timber were shattered to splinters, 
and a general smash made of the windows. The whole building was 
shaken by the explosion, and the report was heard at a distance of 
three blocks off. How the explosion occurred is a mystery to us, and 
it was impossible to ascertain precisely last night, owing to the ruins 
caused by the accident. One of the managers of the gas works thought 
some fire or light must have been communicated to a leaking pipe. The 
matter will probably be investigated and explained. 

This accident was caused by the carpenter breaking one of the 
pipes while making repairs, by which means the escaping gas came 
in contact with a lighted candle. 

A Tidal Wave, April 14. 
See annexed : 

Quite ax Accident. — ^The swell through the straight cut caused con- 
siderable excitement along the docks yesterday. About 12 o'clock it 
came rushing in suddenly and with considerable velocity. The current 
up the Menomonee was verj' strong, and in less thari a minute the 
water had raised a foot or more. Such was the force of the current 
that the rope-ferrv across the Menomonee, in the place of the bridge 
for the present, which was just crossing the stream with nine men 
aboard, was capsized and all thrown into the water. Fortunately they 
all i-lung to the rope and were soon pulled out, with no damage done 
save a cold bath. So quick was it done that those in the water did not 
know what caused it until they saw their hats going up stream with the 
current at the rate of ten miles an hour. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 267 

This tidal wave was more marked on the beach the lake, by 
Messrs. Theodore Bilty and Jas. L. Mitchell, residing at the foot of 
Huron street, who noticed a sudden fall of the water in the lake. The 
water which a few minutes before was within three feet of the floor 
of Kellogg & Strong's warehouse, on the middle pier, commenced 
recedmg rapidly, leaving the ground dry ; but in twenty minutes it 
returned with such power as to force up the floor, a difference of six 
feet m thirty minutes. Was it an earthquake ? 

There was also a tremendous rainfall on the ist and 2d of June, 
which raised the river to a height not witnessed before by the oldest 
inhabitant. Part of Chestnut street bridge was carried away, all the 
cellars along the river were also flooded, the Menomonee marsh was 
a perfect sea, and, taken as a whole, it was one of the worst ever wit- 
nessed since the to^n was settled. 

Among the sad accidents occurring this year was the falling of the 
building known as the Cordes block, a large wholesale grocery house 
standing at what is now Nos. 8;^, 85 and 87 Detroit street, by which 
two men were killed and three badly wounded. Cause, imperfect 
construction. 

Joseph Cordes was for many years a very prominent merchant. 
He built the brick dwelling known as 592, 594 and 596 National 
avenue, where he resided until his death. This was a very fine 
house when erected, and might, as far as the private residences were 
concerned, have very justly been called the pride of the south side. 
It was pulled down in 1883 ind the present elegant block erected in 
its place. The store was also rebuilt, and is now the property of 
Chas. U. Nash. 

The Glorious Fourth. 

This day was celebrated this year with great pomp by the variotis 
fire and military companies, under the lead of General Rufus King 
and Daniel Shultz. 

Among the accidents, a certain number of which always happen 
was the firing of a cannon loaded with beans into a crowd of small 
boys, thereby causing their legs to resemble the worm-eaten columns 
of the old temple at Pozzoli, Italy. Now, beans are a very useful 
article of diet if taken the right way, but to have them fired into you 



268 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

from the mouth of a cannon is certainly not a good way to feed. I 
would not be willing to pay thirty cents a year for board at the 
Plankinton and be fed with beans (even if the wind was all taken 
out) in that manner. 

Municipal and Educational. 

The common council took a tilt at the public schools this year, 
the incentive thereto being a resolution offered by the member from 
the Teutonia (Second) ward, Alderman Jos. A. Phelps (whose con- 
stituents were always on the "bear" side on the school question 
when money was wanted for their maintenance) to close them, and 
which led to quite a newspaper warfare. But, as will be seen further 
on, they were not closed. 

Biographical — Alderman Phelps. 

He was one of the few native-born Americans who was able to 
obtain an office after the Germans (who were very numerous in his 
ward) once got hold of the reins, and, of course, in order to do that 
he was often compelled to do things which, under other circum- 
stances, he would not have done. It was a hard place for an .Ameri- 
can, even if he were a Democrat with Republican proclivities (which 
he had to some extent), to fill. 1 often think of Alderman Phelps 
and the unpleasant work he occasionally had to perform in order to 
keep in the good graces of those old-time German Democrats. 

Joseph P. Rundle 

Came to Milwaukee from Hartford, Conn., in 1858. Mr. Rundle is 
one of our prominent wholesale merchants (plumbers, machinery and 
gas-fitting supplies), the firm being Rundle & Spence (Thos. Spence), 
their store and manufactory being at 89 and 91 West Water street, 
where they do a large business and are known throughout the coun- 
try as reliable business men. 

Mr. Rundle is something of a military character, having served 
three years in the Twentieth Wisconsin during the late unpleasant- 
ness. He is a genial, whole-souled fellow, always smiling and always 
happy. 

Mr. Spence is of a more quiet turn of mind ; but as a Milwaukee 
boy is an honor to the city which gave him birth. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 269 

May they have all the success they deserve. Mr. Rundle was 
born in 1842. 

The Opening of the Atlantic Cable 

Was celebrated with a great noise in Milwaukee, August 17, 1858. 
John S. Fillmore was appointed chief marshal. The following was 
the order of the day : 

Starting from Market Square the procession marched down East 
Water street to Walker's Point bridge, across the bridge to Lake street, 
up Lake to Reed street, up Reed to West Water street, up West Water 
to Chestnut street, across Chestnut street bridge to East Water street, 
down East Water street to Mason street, up Mason street to Main, down 
Main street to Wisconsin street, down Wisconsin to East Water street 
again, and up to Market Square, when the procession was dismissed. 
The procession was arranged in the following order: 

1. Squad of torch-bearers. 

2. Brigadier-General and staff. 

3. Milwaukee City Band. 

4. Artillery company. 

5. Hook and Ladder Cos. No. 1 and 2, bearing torches. 

6. Great Western Band. 

7. Green Yagers. 

8. Company B, Light Guard. 

9. Supply Hose Co. and Liberty Hose Co. 

10. Union Guards. 

11. Merrill's American Cornet Band. 

12. Company A, Milwaukee Light Guard. 
1.'). Engine Co. No. 1, bearing torches. 

14. Milwaukee Light Guard Cadets. 

15. Knall's Band. 

16. Engine Co. No. 2, bearing torches. 

17. Another band. 

18. Black Yagers. 

19. Engine Co. No. 3, bearing torches. 

20. Engine Co. No. 4, bearing torches. 

21. Engine Co. No. 5, bearing torches. 

22. Engine Co. No. 6, bearing torches. 

23. Engine Co. No. 7, bearing torches. 

24. Teams, and citizens generally. 

It was a great day in Milwaukee, as well as marking the com- 
mencement of a new era in the commercial world. 

The Jail Again. 

The want of mterest manifested by the supervisors in the condition 
of the county jail, which as the reader has already seen had become 
a twin brother to the Black Hole of Calcutta, culminated finally early 
in August in a citizens' meeting at Market Square, at which a 
committee, consisting of E. P. Hotchkiss, S. H. Martin, J. A. Mal- 

17 



270 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

lory, E. McGarry and Jas. Kneeland, were appointed, and who 
reported that the jail was anything but a fit place to confine a human 
being in, and recommended as the best means for present and imme- 
diate relief that grated doors be put upon the cells, in place of the 
present doors, and that if more room be required for immediate 
relief of those confined, that a suitable building be obtained for the 
jailor, and that that portion of the jail building now occupied by the 
jailor be fitted up for jail purposes. The above is only recommended 
as a means of temporary relief, your committee believing that the 
only proper measure for permanent relief is the building of a work 
house, or house of refuge, the speedy erection of which the com- 
mittee deem of the utmost importance. And your committee would 
furtlier recommend that after such house of refuge shall have been 
completed, the present jail be remodelled and repaired thoroughly? 
provided it can by that means be made suitable for jail purposes. 
Otherwise, that an entire new jail be erected. Your committee, 
therefore, respectfully submit the following resolutions: 

Resolved. That the civilization and Christianity of the age demand 
that the severitieh of human laws should be tempered with kindness 
and liumanity, in those who are directly or indirectly charged with 
their execution upon the criminal. 

Resolved, That the Milwaukee County Jail having been twice indicted 
as a nuisance by the grand jurors of the county, and having been 
declared by the jailor unfit for any of the purposes for which such insti- 
tutions are intended, has at last, by the large number confined there, 
and the unusual heat of the season, become an instrument of cruelty to 
the prisoners and a disgrace to the people who tolerate it. 

Resolved, That some speedy means of relief for the inmates of the 
Milwaukee Jail, are now imperatively demanded on every consideration 
of decency and humanity. That a committee be appointed and in- 
structed to present the action of this meeting to the Board of Super- 
visors, and request the immediate preparation of additional temporar}' 
accommodations for a portion of the prisoners. 

Resolved, That the estaljlishment of a Workhouse, for the reformation 
as well as punishment of that large class of offenders, sentenced to im- 
Ijrisonment by the Police Court, for drunkenness and disorderly con- 
duct, is one of the most serious wants of the city, and that in the judg- 
ment of this meeting, such an institution, properly managed, would be 
rather a source of income than a burden upon the community. 

Resolved, That the board of supervisors (past and present), are 
mainly responsible for the evils of which we complain, and we respect- 
fully request them to give the subject their immediate attention, and 
devise some measures of relief. 

Resolved, That should this duty be neglected or delayed, and should 
we fail to find relief at the hands of the judiciary, we will appeal from 
the otfice-holders to the people above them, feeling assured that such a 
tril>unal will extend justice both to the guilty and iinfortunate confined 
there. E. P. Hotchkiss, Chairman of Committee. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. '271 

This was sound doctrine, and finally brought the supervisors to a 
sense of their duty. But it would have been better to have shut 
them up in that paradise of bugs and fleas for a while as a punish- 
ment for their sins of omission in this direction. 

Judge Wells Dies. 

The Milwaukee Seniinel of August 20 has the following notice 
of this remarkable man : 

It becomes our painful duty this morning to record the death of one 
of the pioneers of Wisconsin, the Hon. Horatio N. Wells, who expired 
yesterday, in this city, aged fifty-six years. Mr. Wells cau)e to Mil- 
waukee in 1830, and was at the time of his death in the zenith of his 
power. He was early in office, having been elected delegate to congress 
in 1837, and during the last session of the territorial legislature was 
president of the council, where, in company with Jonathan E. Arnold, 
he battled hard against the first constitution. He was also county judge 
and judge of prolate from 1850 to 1855. 

As a lawyer Mr. Wells stood in the front rank, and it could be truly 
said of him that he was a friend to every one but himself. 

He was buried at Forest Home, the pall-bearers being J. E. Ar- 
nold, E. G. Ryan, D. A. J. Upham, J. H. Tweedy, A. D. Smith and 
William A. Prentiss. Of these Messrs. Tweedy and Prentiss alone 
survive. 

Mr. Wells was buried on the lots belonging to the bar, which were 
purchased at that time by a committee consisting of D. A. J. Up- 
ham, J. H. Van Dyke and A. R. R. Butler. 

Charter Revision. 

The following was the notice issued for an election of delegates to 
a charter convention, to be held August 3 : 

ELECTION NOTICE. 
SPECIAL ELECTION. 

N(JT1CE is hereby given that, in accordance with sec-lion ()3 of the 
ameiKhrients of the city charter, "approved Manth 27, 18.58," an 
election will be held in the several wards of the city of Milwaukee on 
Monday, the 2d day of August next, and that polls will l^e opened at 
the following places, to- wit: ^ -, , , ^. , 

First Ward— At the house of Peter Teis, corner of Jackson and Ogden 

streets. „ ,,., , ^ ., , , 

Second Ward— At the La Crosse & Milwaukee Railroad house, corner 
of Chestnut and Fourth streets. 

Third Ward— At tlie Louisiana House. 

Fourtli Ward— At the engine house of Co. No. 5. 

Fifth Ward— At the Rochester House. 

Sixth Ward— At the house of P. Altpeter, corner of Third and Sher- 
man streets. 



272 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Seventh Ward — At Best's beer hall, on Market street. 

Eighth Ward — At John Nolden's, on Elizabeth street. 

Ninth Ward — At the house of Mr. Baker, on Twelfth street, between 
Galena and Walnut streets. 

For the purpose of electing three delegates (being tax-payers of the 
city) from each ward to revise, modify and amend the city charter and 
the amendments thereto. 

J^€^ Polls will be open from JO o'clock a. m. until 4 o'clock p. m. 

Council chamber, Milwaukee, July 24, 1858. 

E. B. Lynch, City Clerk. 

These delegates met (at the common council rooms) on the 17th, 
when the following proceedings were had : 

The City Convention. 

Mr. Jackson Hadley called the convention to order, and moved that 
Mr. S. B. Grant be appointed temporary chairman. 

Mr. Jas. S. Brown moved, as an amendment, that the Hon. A. G. Mil- 
ler be appointed permanent president of the convention. 

The amendment was put and carried. 

Hereupon several members insisted upon a ballot for president. 

Dr. Huebschmann moved that the vote be taken viva voce, which was 
carried. 

The vote stood as follows: 

A. G. Miller 13 

J. B. Cross 9 

Scattering 3 

Judge Miller, having received a majority of all the votes cast, was de- 
clared duly elected permanent president of the convention. 

A struggle next ensued upon the appointment of the committee, some 
of the " progressives" desiring to have a multitude of committees, while 
the old heads favored a single committee. 

Ultimately the views of the latter prevailed, and it was resolved to 
appoint a comndttee of one from each ward, with Judge Miller as chair- 
man, to report a form of c-harter to the convention, and then the con- 
vention adjourned till 10 a. m., February 19. 

The following gentlemen were then appointed by the chair as 
such committee : 

First Ward — Wm. H. Jacobs. 
Second Ward — F. Huebschmann. 
Third Ward— Jas. B. Cross. 
Fourth Ward — Jonathan Tavlor. 
Fifth Ward— Chas. H. Larkin. 
Sixth Ward — Leander Comstock. 
Seventh Ward — A. G. Miller, chairman. 
Eighth Ward — Mitchell Steever. 
Ninth Ward — Samuel Brown. 

There was a warm contest over the appointment of this commit- 
tee of one from each ward. Mr. Hadley, particularly, wanted it 
done by the whole board. 

The resolution of Alderman McGarry, to ignore all that had been 
done at Albany Hall the previous winter, adopt the charter of 1852 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 273 

and adjourn, was then taken up, and after a lengthy and somewhat 
heated discussion rejected, by a vote of 19 to 3, which spiked Mr. 
Hadley's last gun on the charter question. 

Removal of the Court House. 

As the old court house began to show signs of decay, and the 
necessity of a new one became apparent to the supervisors, its loca- 
tion at once became a bone of contention between the east and west 
sides, the west siders claiming that as the east side had the post-office 
that they were justly entitled to the court house, and under the lead 
of Aldermen A. J. Phelps and Huebschmann, carried on the war for 
quite a while, and at one time it looked as though they would suc- 
ceed. But the Seventh ward finally won the day, and the present 
costly structure was erected. But it was a hard fight, and it is not 
by any means certain that it may not go to the west side yet, as the 
present one is no more fire-proof than a barn, and if burnt would 
probably never be rebuilt upon the present site. 

RuFus P. Jennings Drowned. 

This accident cast a deep gloom over the community. Mr. Jen- 
nings was a member of the then well known firm of Chandler & 
Jennings, dry goods. His body was found September 5, but that of 
his companion, J. H. Sullivan, was never found. Mr. Jennings left 
two sons and a widow, now the wife of Dr. Jas. K. Bartlett. 

This accident was the result of an attempt to navigate the lake in 
a shell (canoe) during a storm, in which a good yawl would have 
had hard work to live. 

Police Court. 

The police court was kept busy this month. There were 266 ar- 
rests, 56 more than in August. Disorderly, 115; drunk, 59; grand 
larceny, 10; petty larceny, 12; counterfeit money, 2; assault and 
battery, 18. 

Among other incidents occurring was the following : 

C0MPL.\INTS OF A DISORDERLY QuADRUPED. 

A day or two since Policemen Dodge and Rodee were startled by an 
unusual noise on the street, near tlic station house, (loiiiinj to the out- 
side door thev were not a little aniusi'd to tind a blustering, red-fared 



274 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. . 

individual, attired in leathern breeches, elongated blue coat, with a 
greasy cap covering his cranium, hallowing lustily at a frolicksome cow 
which, with clul) in hand, he had been unsuccessfully attempting to 
force into the station house! The cow did not at all appear to admire 
the appearance of the place, and Long Coat found it utterly impossible 
to get "boss" more than half way across the walk. When the police 
inquired what the trouble was. Long Coat told them, with assumed 
gravity, while the perspiration rolled down his cheeks, " Veil, dis cow, 
he Ijreak mine fence down and come into mine lot, and den he eat all 
mine kraut. Mine neighbor she tell me drive him to dem station house 
and him pe fine." Long Coat was considerably taken aback by being 
very unceremoniously ordered to get his animal off of the sidewalk or 
else " him pe fine." Going away he was heard to give vent to his rage 
in such exclamations as, " Och, dundervetter!" " Der teufell" 

The Fall Campaign. 

As the time for the state convention drew near the political atmos- 
phere was filled with cyclones. A people's ticket was put in the 
field, and war was the word. The places for holding the different 
caucuses were for the First and Seventh wards at the court house, 
for the Second at the Concordia saloon, Third at the Louisiana 
house. Fourth at the Menomonee hotel, Fifth and Eighth at Melms' 
garden, Sixth and Ninth at Altpeter's saloon. 

There was a split in the Democratic ranks which caused the Daily 
News to issue a fearful howl against the bolters, as it styled them. 
The News was like the Irishman who, when asked how he was go- 
ing to vote, rephed : " Agin the government, av coorse." That the 
News always voted against the government would perhaps not be 
strictly true, but that it always voted and used its influence (what lit- 
tle it had) in the interest of the pro-slavery party was true. 

Among the vulgar eflusions of the JSews during this campaign 
was the following, replied to in the Se?ifinel. See annexed : 

Mr. Potter and Mr. Brown. 

"A man named Potter got into a drunken brawl, undertook to steal 
Barksdale's wig, and ended the scene with getting a black eye. The 
professedly anti-slavery Shanghais of " woody Wisconsin " have evinced 
that they are " proud of their rowdy " representative by renominating 
him. But we opine that it will only be an empty compliment. The 
people desire to oe represented by mind, not muscle." 

Mr. Potter needs no defense against such assaults. They only recoil 
upon the party making them. Indeed^ they have already provoked 
retorts from the Free Democrat and Madison Journal, which must forci- 
bly remind the News of the old adage that "those who live in glass 
houses should not throw stones." Beriah, it seems, has also been a 
fighter in his day, and the following article, from the Madison Journal, 
recalls some of the incidents of his pugilistic encounters: 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 275 

Fighting Candidates. 

The News attempts to make capital against Potter in the First District 
by allusion to his prompt intervention in the Keitt-Grow affair, and 
sneers about the " pugilistic candidate." That aflfair won't hurt Potter, 
and Me ad ise the Neica that the less it saj-s on the subject the better for 
Beriah. The latter is also a fighting man. He had two or three fights 
when a citizen of this place, but invariably came off second best. Be- 
riah is more of a fighting man than PotteV^ but, unlike Potter, he gets 
beautifully whaled every time he indulges m the luxury. What Madi- 
sonian don't rememljer the extensive breaches his head made in the 
glass windows of Col. Fairchild's store, under the vigorous propulsion 
of poor Tim Burns' brawny arm ? 

This onslaught upon Hon. John F. Potter brought t^e following 
in the Sentinel of September 2, which had the right rin ,.^'>ilu showed 
the truth as to who took the corruption bonds. 

After commenting upon the principles of the parties it proceeded 
as follows : 

The Two Candidates and the Two Cona^entions. 

But a still more striking contrast between the two conventions will 
appear in referring to the list of members and comparing the names 
with those most prominent in tlie famous report of the Land Grant In- 
vestigating Committee. The Democrats of the Granville and Milwau- 
kee Assembly District, at their caucus to elect a delegate to the con- 
gressional convention, adopted the following excellent resolution: 

Resolved, That in case Mr. Brown (J. S.) cannot be nominated after 
a fair effort, that the delegate from this district be then requested to 
vote for some other candidate, who, like Mr. Brown, has not been im- 
plicated in the attempted forays upon the state treasury and the school 
lands of this state, or been involved in accepting or tendering bribes to 
members of the legislature or other public officers, or have received 
corruption bonds, or deluded the farmers of the state into mortgaging 
their liomesteads to heartless and soulless speculators, or in thrusting 
out a fraudulent currency upon the unsuspecting farmers for the pro- 
ducts of their toil. 

In the light of this resolution let us compare the two candidates and 
the two conventions: 

The Candidates. 

La Crosse bonds received — 

Beriah Brown, ! emocratic $52,000 

John F. Potter, Republican None! 

The Conventions. 

La Crosse bonds received — 

Jackson Hadley, Democratic $220,000 

Byron Kilbourn, Democratic 75,000 

Charles E. Jenkins, Democratic 25,000 

Thomas Falvev, Democratic 20,000 

H. T. Sanders, Democratic o,000 

M. Schoeffler, Democratic 5,0(X) 

Total received by members of the Democratic congres- 
sional convention $;^50,000 

Total received by members of the Republican convention.. None! 



276 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Grand total of La Crosse bonds received by Democratic con- 
vention and candidate 1407,000 

Grand total of La Crosse bonds received by Republican con- 
vention and candidate None! 

We commend the above comparative statement to the electors of the 
Milwaukee and Granville district, who adopted the excellent resolution 
above quoted, as well as to the notice generally of our Democratic con- 
temporaries who have been so severely exercised during the past few- 
months about the " briberj^ and corruption " practiced at the session of 
18o(). Let us see if, after all their outcry, they are going to follow the 
lead of the " corruptionists." The opportunity is an admirable one to 
test their professions, and the people, we fancy, will not fail to improve 
it. 

The News thought it very unfair and mean to arraign Mr. Kil- 
bourn for the La Crosse Bond business, but all right to censure the 
whigs for doing the same thing.* Neither were they in any wise 
sparing of their comments thereon, even going so far as to intimate 
that Alex. Mitchell, or Gen. King, were instrumental in getting Gov. 
Bashford to sell himself for $50,000, and for which intimation it (the 
News) got a severe castigation in the Sentmel of September 9th. The 
News had forgotten the old adage, that those who live in glass houses 
must not throw stones. t 

And although the investigation by the State subsequently was 
opposed by Kilbourn et al., it went on all the same until the whole 
crowd were brought to grief. May the State never be cursed with 
the Hke again. 

The late Judge Hubbell buys a new Milch Cow. 

A man named John Nickel was arrested September 9th for swind- 
ling. The old scoundrel had sold the judge what he claimed was a 
new milch cow, but which proved to be a " mishtake." Mr. Nickel 
stated, when asked for his pedigree, that he was a citizen of Wash- 
ington County, and an honest son of toil. The cow looked all right, 
and as the judge's well was about dry, and this being the only real 
Simon Pure fresh one in the market, of course he bought her, and 
drove her, with her calf, to the Hubbell mansion. He was not long, 
however, in discovering that he had been " tuck in," as the phrase 



* Referring to the 150,000 taken by Gov. Bashford, the only republican who 
ever took a cent. 

t The Legislature of 1S55 ^^'^ '^5^ appears to have been as corrup t a set as 
ever disgraced a State. It they ever had a duplicate, history does not record it. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 277 

goes, as it took four men to milk her and get no milk then, as all 
that part of the animal where the milk ought to be found proved to 
be entirely artificial. It is proper to say that Mr. John Nickel got 
badly nicked for that job. 

Chamber of Commerce. 

A meeting for the organization of a Chamber of Commerce was 
held October 12th, at the office of David P. Hull, to take measures 
to organize under the new charter. 

Corn Exchange. 

This Board held a meeting October i6th and established the fol- 
lowing grades : 

Extra Club, No. 3 Spring. 

No. I Spring do. No. i White Winter. 

No. 2 Spring do. No. 2 White Winter. 

The samples upon which these grades were based were furnished 

by William P. Young. This Board held a meeting on the 21st, L. 

H. Kellogg in the chair, Benjamin Nute, Secretary, and resolved to 

become a part of the present Chamber, which was done on the 2 2d. 

The first officers were : 

Lewis J. Higby, President. 
William J. Whaling, Vice President. 
L. L. Crounse, Secretary. 
Orrin E. Britt, Treasurer. 

Directors. 

John Plankinton, Chairman; Levi H. Kellogg; David Ferguson; 
John J. Tallmadge ; A. L. Hutchinson; John A. Dutcher; A. G. 
Van Schaik, Amos Sawyer, and Lester Sexton. 

Arbitrators. 

Horatio Hill, Angus Smith, Benj. Nute, John Bradford, and L. H. 
Kellogg. 

Standing Committee. 

Wm. B. Hibbard, Robert Eliot, John Bradford, Frank H. Terry, 
S. T. Hooker, Wm. Young, and Edward Sanderson. 



278 milwaukee under the charter. 

Opening of the Chamber of Commerce. 

The formal opening of the present Chamber of Commerce, at 
No. 1 Spring street, November 2 2d, 1858, was a grand affair. The 
opening address was by Hon. E. D. Holton, and although contain- 
ing many errors,* was a masterpiece of its kind. He was followed 
by Doct. L. W. Weeks aiid John B. D. Cogswell t The whole pro- 
ceedings (which were quite lengthy) can be found in Vol. IV., State 
Historical Society's publications, where the curious reader who wishes 
can find them. 

A committee, consisting of L. Sexton, U. Ferguson, and R. P. 
Elmore, were appointed to procure a suitable room, after which they 
adjourned until the 23d, when Carlton Holland was appointed 
inspector, he having received twenty-seven out of thirty-five votes. 

The committee on rooms then reported in favor of leasing old 
No. I Spring street, which was done, and the new Chamber of 
Commerce (the present one) was born. 

Since 1863 it has been a custom, broken but twice, to give the 
president two successive terms and then elect some one else to that 
position. Robert EHot completed his second year April, 1884. The 
following is a lis': of the presidents of the Chamber of Commerce 
and the number of members at the close of each fiscal year since its 
organization : 

Fiscal Year. President. No. Members. 

1858-59 L. J. Higbv 99 

1859-60 John Bradford 122 

1860-61 Horatio Hill 179 

1861-f)2 Daniel Newhall 239 

1862-63 S. T. Hooker 303 

1863-64 J. J. Tallmadge 348 

1864-65 J. J. Tallma.lo-e 353 

1865-()6 Wm. Young.. 332 

1866-67 Wm. Young 389 

1867-68 John Plaukinton 371 

1868-69 Edward Sanderson 365 

* This .--peech, which was one of the best the writer ever heanl Mr. Holton 
make, as stated above, contained many errors^ particularly in ihe statistics given, 
some of which at least were such as Mr. Holton should not have made. Hut it 
was grand, nevertheless. 

t John B. D. Cogswell was a lawyer from (Tape Cod, who came to Milwaukee 
in 1857. He was quite prominent in social circ'es. He also had a desire for 
political glory. Hence his speeeh on this occasion, as he knew nothing about the 
place. He finally, after a somewhat stormy career, returned to his native town, 
where 1 am informed he still resides. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 279 

].S69-70 Angus Smith 392 

1870-71 Angus Smith 341 

1871-72 F. H. West 338 

1872-73 F. H. West 338 

1873-74 0. J. Hale 442 

1874-75 0. J. Hale 430 

187r>-76 N. Vankii-k 560 

1876-77 X. Vankirk .575 

1877-78 Charles Rav 560 

1878-70 Charles Rav 561 

1870-80 M. Bodden: 561 

1880-81 M. Bodden 561 

1881-82 Chas. F. Freeman 561 

1882-83 Chas. F. Freeman 630 

1883-84 Robert Eliot 629 

1884-85 Robert Eliot 628 

The present incumbent is the Hon. John Johnston. 

Retirement of Matthew Keenan from ihe Office of 
Clerk of the Circuit Court, Oct. 19, 1^58. 

At a meeting of the Milwaukee bar, held October 18, 1858, upon 
motion of E. G. Ryan, a committee consisting of Messrs. Ryan, 
Lynde and Gridley were appointed to draft resolutions appreciative 
of the loss the bar would sustain in the retirement of Mr. Keenan, 
and who reported the following: 

Whereas, The present term of office of Matthew Keenan as clerk of 
the circuit and county courts of Milwaukee county is about to expire, 
and his connection with the bench and bar may have ended before an- 
other meeting shall have taken place; therefore, 

Resolved, That we can not let the opportunity pass without testify- 
ing our high appreciation of Mr. Keenan's services as an officer and of 
his character as a gentleman; that we have found him always skilful, 
intelligent, prompt and fiiithful in their discharge, uniformly urbane 
and obliging in his deportment and upright in all his actions. 

Resolved, That if we are to iose Mr. Keenan's services in the clerk's 
office, it will be a loss of no trifling character to the bench and bar of 
this county; that the duties of the office have become like complicated 
machinery, not to be understood in all their details without great expe- 
rience, and that very few men have the patient intelligence and care to 
become as familiar with them as has Mr. Keenan. 

Resolved, That the secretary of the bar l)e re(juested to furnish Mr. 
Keenan with^a copy of these resolutions, and that the prt^sident be re- 
quested to present them to the circuit and county courts at the earliest 
opportunity. 

All of which were unanimously adopted, after which the meeting 
adjourned. 

Political. 
Among the various electioneering dodges in practice at the cam- 



280 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

paign of 1858 was the following offered by Jackson Hadley, at the 
meeting of the common council held October 25, solely for the pur- 
pose of making capital for himself and party. It was entitled by 
the Seniitiel : 

An Electioneering Document. 

Whereas, On or about the 10th day of last May his honor the mayor, 
Wm. A. Prentiss, and the city comptroller were directed, by action of 
the common council, to proceed to New York city and try if any nego- 
tiation could be made with the holders of the past due bonds and inter- 
est coupons of the city, whereby such bonds or coupons could be paid 
and the credit of the city thereby maintained; and 

Whereas, Three hundred dollars in money was taken from the city 
treasurer to defray the expenses of such journey, the receipt for which 
still remains as a cash item on hand in the city treasury, and is in words 
and figures as follows, to-wit: 

" Received of H. Scliwarting, city treasurer, $300 toward expenses of 
Mayor Prentiss and self proceeding to New York, by order of city 
council, the same to be accounted for in items upon our return. 

[Signed] J. L. Hathaway, City Comptroller. 

"Milwaukee, May 10, 1858." 

And whereas. No such account in items or otherwise has ever been 
rendered by Mr. Prentiss or any one else, though more than five 
months have elapsed since the date of such receipt; and 

Whereas, On or about the lltli day of last August his honor the 
mayor, Wm. A. Prentiss, took $100,000 In Milwaukee city bonds, num- 
bered 500 to 599, both numbers inclusive, with him on a journey to 
New York and elsewhere, notwithstanding an ordinance had been in- 
troduced by Councillor Waldo repealing and canceling the authority of 
the Mayor so to do; and 

Whereas, Mr. Prentiss has never made any report or statement to 
the common council of what he did with those bonds; and 

Whereas, On the loth day of last August $8,000 in money, and again 
on the 27th day of the same month $2,19o.74 in money, was taken from 
the city treasury, as is believed, by the direction of Wm. A. Prentiss, 
mayor, the receipt for the $8,000 specifying that the same was to be ac- 
counted for in detail within sixty days from the date thereof, and more 
than sixty days have elapsed and still no account or report has yet been 
made by Mr. Prentiss or any one else; and 

Whereas, Daily inquiries are made by the holders of past due cou- 
pons and bonds, issued by the city for municipal purposes, ot city offi- 
cers and members of the common council why such interest coupons 
and bonds are not paid, when it is understood by such creditors of the 
city that the mayor has caused money to be taken from the treasury, 
and has taken from the city $100^000 in city bonds for tlie purpose of 
making such payments, and no satisfactory answer can be given to such 
inquiries; therefore. 

Resolved, That his honor the mayor, Wm. A. Prentiss, be and is 
hereby respectfully and urgently requested to report in detail, without 
unnecessary delay, to the common council what disposition has been 
made of the $100,000 in Milwaukee city bonds, which he took with him 
East in August last, and M"hat disbursements have been made of the 
$10,193.74, taken from the city treasury on the 13th and 27th days of 
August last; also, what he did with the city bonds which he received 
from the Ocean Bank some time in May last. 

Councillor Waldo moved that the resolution be referred to the 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 281 

finance committee, and in doing so took occasion to say that moder- 
tion and thoughtfulness should be exercised in acting upon this reso- 
lution, and that, although he was in favor of all such inquiries, he 
hoped the board would not act upon it until the finance conunittee 
had an opportunity to examine its details, and therefore he hoped 
the reference which he moved would be made. 

Councillor Hadley said he offered the resolution with the utmost 
respect (!) to the mayor. He believed everything would come out 
right by the statement he asked for, and he only thought that such a 
statement should be made. 

The mayor promptly and emphatically denied ever having re- 
ceived a farthing from the city treasury, and with regard to the re- 
ceipts held by the treasurer his honor stated that at the proper time 
he would give what information he could upon the subject. 

Councillor Waldo's motion to refer the resolution to the finance 
committee was carried, when the board adjourned to Thursday even- 
ing. 

Mr. Prentiss Replies. 

To the People of Milwaukee-- 

I deem it hardly necessary for me to address you in relation to the 
subject matter of this card, and I only do so, at the request of many 
friends, for tlie purpose of putting you on j^our guard in relation to cer- 
tain insinuations that sometliing was wrong, contained in the article of 
the 27th, being aceoiupamed by a single resolution, whicli was intro- 
duced into the board of councillors on Monday by Jackson Hadley, 
who is a candidate for the state senate, calling on me for a report in re- 
lation to an issue of bonds and a sum of money, amounting to about 
110,000, drawn from the treasury by tlie city comptroller, the wh(_ile ob- 
ject of which is for political effect, intending, if possible, to gain votes, 
by alluring you into the belief that something was wrong, or that there 
is danger of a tlefault on the part of myself or of the city eomptroller. 

The facts are that the bonds were issued to me under the authority of 
law, and in accordance with an ordinance of the city council passed for 
the purpose of retiring some portion of the past due indebtedness of 
the city, and which, so far as they have been used, have l)een made ap- 
plicable, dollar for dollar, for such indebtedness, and the balance wdl 
be used for no other purpose and in no other way. 

I now hold evidences of nearly $()0,000 of city indebtedness, wliich 
has been taken up, and when a negotiation (made six weeks ago) shall 
have been consummated (which will probably taUe about thirty days to 
accomplish), a ri^jiort will l)e made to the coninion council wliicli w ill 
show that the city has sufliered very little l)y the arrangement. 

The past due indebtedness of the city to the present time, which lias 
accrued on matured bonds, and the interest on others, ail of wliich 
were issued previous to the (ith day of April last, together with the sum 
of $120,000, borrowed of two of the city ])anks during the summer of 
1857 by the late comptroller, exceeds $200,000, nuuli the largest part of 



282 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

which has been contracted under the lead of the man who is now ask- 
ing your votes to place him in the state senate, and who is the instigator 
of the inquiry referred to. He is also the same man who made oath 
before a legislative committee last winter that he received f 220,000 of 
certain railroad bonds, but could give no account of what he did with 
the proceeds. 

At the time of my assuming the office of mayor the municipal debt, 
exclusive of bonds issued to railroad companies, was nearly $800,000, 
and this is the legacy left to you by the preceding administration. 

I am anxious to have all my official acts scrutinized by honorable 
men, and while in office I shall use my best exertions for the interest 
of the whole city. But with this heavy burthen and an empty treasury 
I have been unable to accomplish but little up to the present time. 

During the year ending March 20 last it appears by the printed re- 
port of E. L. H. Gardner, late city comptroller, that the discount made 
on municipal city bonds sold by my predecessors and others exceeds 
the sum of ?! 22,00". We have made no sacrifice as yet, and do not in- 
tend that any loss of consequence shall be made by any negotiation 
that we mav enter into. William A. Prentiss. 

Milwaukee, October 30, 1858. 

It was brought up again, however, by Mr. HadLy on the 20th of 
November, when he offered the following: 

Resolved, That William A. Prentiss, mayor of the city of Milwau- 
kee, be requested to render to the council on or before the Oth day of 
December next a detailed statement, in writing, if any of the city in- 
debtedness has been canceled since the 1st of May last by the $100,000 
Milwaukee city bonds then issued by the common council and given to 
him, together witii .f;5o,"00 Milwaukee city bonds, then deposited in the 
Ocean Bank of the city of New York, and also ordered to be given to 
him; and also of the 110,193.74 taken from the city treasury and not ac- 
counted for. 

Laid over under the rule. 

This was amended in the board of aldermen by adding the words : 
" Provided that the mayor shall deem it for the best inteiest of the 
city to make such report." Concurred in. 

But it did not bring the report, neither did it come until the mayor 
was ready to give it. 

Amount Wanted. 

The comptroller's report for 1855 shows the amount wanted for 



general city purposes to be : 



First ward ?6,000 

Second ward 3,900 

Third ward 11,000 

Fourth ward 4,300 

Fifth ward 9,500 

Sixth ward 3,900 

Seventh ward 6,000 

Eighth ward 2,950 

Ninth ward 3,300 



')• 



Total $51,450 



milwaukee under the charter. 283 

Election. 

The election for members of legislature in 1858 was held Novem- 
ber 2d. The annexed is a part of the res gestce, as the lawyers call it, 
c»f the proceedings had previous to the election, an 1 go to show that 
the people were in earnest : 

Republican Assembly Caucus for the First and Seventh Wards. 

The court house was quite filled last evening, at the caucus for nomi- 
nating a republican assemblyman for the First and Seventh wards. The 
Hon. Byron Paine was called to the chair, and J. R. Brigham appointed 
secretary- 

On motion of John H. Tweedy, the meeting agreed to adopt the viva 
voce vote in nominating a candidate. S. S. Daggett and Chas. K. Wells 
were appointed tellers, between whom each voter passed, and gave his 
name and his choice for the nomination, which was recorded l>y the 
secretary. Mr. Edwin Palmer having received forty votes was declared 
nominated by the convention. 

Mr. Tweedy then alluded to the fact that no nomination had yet been 
made for State senator against .Tackson Hadley. He alluded in glowing 
language to the outrage that would be perpetrated upon c'ommon 
deceucv if such an openly and notoriously corrupt man should Ije 
allowed to run into the senate, without opposition, from this district. 
The Hon. Wm. A. Prentiss followed in a caustic analysis of the character 
and career of Jackson Hadley, and suggested the name of the Hon. 
Nelson Cross, as a suitable man to run against him. 

Gen. J. H. Paine made a warm speech upon La Crosse Bonds Hadley, 
and proposed the name of Cicero Comstock, as the one to defeat the 
wily demagogue. The suggestion was received with great applause, and 
Cicero Comstock was nominated l)y acclamation. Mr. Comstock being 
present, v.as called out upon the floor, and very handsomely thanked 
the convention for the compliment, and signified his acceptance. 

Committees were then appointed for challengiug at the polls, and for 
election duties, ten in each ward. Much enthusiasm and confidence was 
felt, and expressed by the meeting, in the result of next Tuesday, and 
with a three times three, for the candidates and the cause, the assem- 
blage adjourned to meet at the polls and elect the ticket. 

The election resulted in the defeat of both Hadley and Bade. 

I remember this election, and the excitement it caused among the 
old Bourbons. The Ne70s nearly went wild over it. The Argus was 
right. No party could carry such a load and win, and there was 
wailing on account of it. 

Hotel Wetlstein Opened, Novem her 20. 

Oi'ENiNG OF THE HoTEL Wettstein. — Tlic ucw Hotel Wettstciu, oil 
Market Square, of which Messrs. Wcttst(un t*c Ilocingerare i>n)prictors, 
was formally opened on Saturday, ami a grand ball given in the eve- 
ning in honor of the occasion. A magnificent supper was pai'taken of 
by at least 300 guests about nine o'clock, after which dancing and all 
nianner of merry making took place. The l)uildi]ig is a large and com- 
modious one, and is elegantly fitted up and furnished. Success to the 
gentlemanly landlords. 



284 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

There was some trouble in the Young Men's Christian Association 
this year resulting in a kind of breaking up, which some wag put in 
the following shape in the Sentinel oi November 19th. The names 
alluded to here, as well as the puns upon them, will be duly appre- 
ciated by many of the non-elect as well as by the elect. 

For the Sentinel. 
Obituaey. 

Died, on the evening of Thursday, December 16th, after a lingering 
illness of six weeks, the Literarv Club of the Young Men's Christian 
Association. 

Though watched by a Good " Shepherd," who would have gone to 
the "Towns-end" to serve it, no "Taylor" could prolong its thread of 
life. The " Root" of its disease was too deeply seated, and having no 
"Constitution" to fall back on, nothing could save its " Bacon," and it 
kerflmumixed. Its disease was a very painful one; for three weeks 
previous to its death it never spoke, and finally perished of non ed 
inventus (which may be liberally, not literally, translated, nobody there). 

Requiescat in pace. 
" Facilis decensus Averni." Squix. 

The Answer. 

For the Sentinel. 
The Literary Club op the Y. M. C- A. 

Mr. Editor: Fearing that the " Obituary Notice," which you pub- 
lished on Saturday morning last, may mislead more, as I know it 
already has a few of your readers, I take the liberty of requesting yoa 
to inform the public that it was only the " Literary Club" of the Y. M. 
C. A., and not the Association itself, which "died on the evening of 
Thursday last," and that the last named society is as yet all Wright; 
and having bidden Farewell to the Skel'ton of their illiterate club, and 
employed a Boy'ntown (who was a Savage Young Man, by the way) to 
Cleav'er Root from Branch, they procured a Carter (Johns 'son) to 
Wheel'er for her Hide and Gall Down the Lane, through the Dale, over 
the Bridges, beyond the Park, and out of the Parrish into theCavern(o) 
which stands one Rood and an El'more beyond the Dyke, near Towns- 
'eud ; where the Sexton gave her Fitt burial, with her Head to the West. 
The association has thus cleared itself in all Menzies of any Taint 'or 
suspicion of a disposition to Mix in Literary pursuits at any Price; and 
though nothing could save the Bacon of that unfortunate club a String 
'fellow can, and with Hemp 'shall bind us in the Bonds of brotherly 
Love and keep us Ever'in'ham, while the Moody Freeman who refuses 
to Holt 'on, now that our Chapman heralds the approach of Day, merits 
a Whaling with a Branch of Beech 'er Cherry. 

I write myself an 

Milwaukee, December 20. ASSociate Member. 

The Weather. 

The Sentinel of November 30 had the following upon this subject : 

Autumn takes its leave of us to-day, and winter dates its reign from 

to-morrow. We have no comphments to bestow this year upon our 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 285 

fall weather. Not to mince matters it has been abominable. True, 
September was a fine month, as well as the first four days in October. 
But from that time on it has been rain, snow and slush. Let us hope 
that when the Frost King once takes the helm that he will give us a 
regular old-time winter, Uke i844-'47 and '48, with plenty of good 
sleighing. 

River closed in 1858, November 15. 

The Frost King did get control in a few days and gave the General 
all he wanted. See annexed : 

December 8 — Mercury at 7 o'clock a. m. 8 degrees below zero. 
" 9 " " o " 

"12 " " 2 " above zero. 

"12 " 7 o'clock p. M. 8 " " 

River closed, but opened again on the 13th below Walker's Point 
bridge. The boys were skating above there on the 15th. 

Early Ship Building. 

Ship building in Milwaukee dates from the infancy of its settle- 
ment by the whites, the first vessel, the schooner Solomon Juneau,"^ 
of ninety tons burden, having been built upon the east bank of the 
Milwaukee River, at (or near) the intersection of North Water street 
and Broadway, by Capt. George Barber, in the winter of 1836. 
See Vol. I., Author's Pioneer History, page 86. t She was followed 
by the little steamer Badger in 1837 (ibid, page 116), from which 
time the business was carried on to a greater or less extent by our 
citizens at various points, without the estabhshment of any perma- 
nent yard, prominent among whom was the late David Merrill, 
George D. Dousman, Clark Shepardson, J. A. Helfenstein, Daniel 
Newhall, Robert K. Caswell, Capts. James and William Porter and 



* She was the first two-masted vessel. There was a small sloop (or at least it 
is claimed that there was) called the Wenona, of thirty tons burden, built by 
Capt. Barber for William Brown, Jr., for a lighter, previous to that, but of tlie 
truth of this I have no knowledge. 

t It was there stated, upon what was supposed to be good authority, that this 
pioneer craft was lost on Lake Ontario. This has, however, proved to be incor- 
rect. She was lost at Milwaukee, at or near the foot of Chicago street, in the 
fall of 1846, while in charge of the late Capt. Jas. Doyle, who, in attempting to 
make the harbor, mistook a light in a dwelling on shore for the pier lii;iu, thus 
causing her, after a varied life of ten years, to lay her bones at rest within less 
than a mile of the spot from where she was launched. Sic transit. 

18 



286 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Others, who built in all some fifty vessels prior to 1852,* when the 
nucleus of the present mammoth plant, now known as 

Wolf & Davidson's Ship Yard, 

Was started by Jas. M. Jones upon what is now known as Jones' 
Island,t upon that portion then occupied by the late Caleb Harrison 
with a Marine Railway,^ which Jones also purchased, and near 
which he also erected a sawmill for the purpose of sawing ship 
timber. This was the first mill ever erected in the city for such uses. 
Here Jones did an extensive business in building and repairing ves- 
sels. Among those built by him at this yard, and other points, 
were the Advance, barque Badger State,§ schooners Emily, D. O. 
Dickinson, Milwaukee Belle, Norway, Fred. Hill, Adda, Indus, 
May Queen, Undine, Odin, J. M. Jones, the barques Shanghai, 
Hans Crocker, schooners Driver, BrilHant, and the propeller 
Allegany. 

Upon the advent of this propeller, the first one ever built here, the 
Milwaukee Senfi/ie/ had the following puff: 

The Propeller Alleghany. 

This new propeller, the first ever launched in our waters, is now ly- 
ing in the river, about ready for sea. She was built by Jas. M. Jones, 
Esq., for the American Transportation Company, to replace the old Al- 
leghany, wrecked in our bay last fall. Her dimensions are: 113 feet 
long, 28 feet beam, 12 feet 6 inches depth of hold, measuring about 600 
tons. She was moulded and constructed under the direction of John 
W. Capes, and superintended, on the part of the company, by Captain 
S. Alexander. Captain A. S. Curtiss, of the former Alleo;hany, will 
command her, and she has been fitted out under his immediate super- 
vision. 

* For a complete list of the men who were foremost in investing their capital 
in vessel property, in the infancy of the business, the reader is referred to the 
table in Vol. III., page 485. Also for the names of the master mechanics who 
built them. Of these, Capt. Samuel Farmin is supposed to be living in Oregon, 
or California, Capt. Geo. Barber died at Sioux Falls, Dakota, in 1881, Jas. M. 
Jones is carrying on the business at Detroit, and Alfred Gilson is a resident of 
Oshkosh. 

t So called on account of his establishing a yard there. 

X Caleb Harrison, who was always at something useful in a mechanical way, 
had constructed a marine railway at that point, for the purpose of hauling out 
vessels, no floating dock at that time having been constructed. 

? Built upon the south side of the Menomonee River, where the present St. 
Paul Freight House, No. 6. now stands. She was launched sideways. She was 
built in 1853, for Thos. P. Williams and Chas. H. Wheeler, and is I believe st'll 
afloat. The frame of this vessel was drafted by John B. Merrill m the garret of 
the old John Childs' house, now the residence of Hon. Geo. H. Paul, and known 
as Nos. 321 and 323 Hanover street. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 287 

The joiner work, which will compare with any on the lakes, was ar- 
ranged and put up under the superintendence'of Mr. J. P. VVilson, of 
New York. The ornamental painting and gilding was done by Messrs. 
Lane & Corbusier, of this city, and is a first-rate job throughout, both 
as to taste and finish. We do not think a more neatly painted cabin is 
to be found on our seas. The carving is the handiwork of R. H. White, 
of this city, and is a most creditaV)le sample of his skill. The engine is 
the one formerly in the old Alleghany, but it has l)een thoroughly re- 
fitted, improved and put under the direction of Mr. Lawrence, the re- 
pairs and alterations being made at the works of the Messrs. Lee. The 
coppersmithing and plumbing was done at the shop of Messrs. Read & 
Felthausen. The furniture and decorations came from Bradford Bros, 
and Seaman & Wing. 

In short, the propeller was built, fitted and furnished complete by 
the mechanics and dealers of our own city, and her neat, finished and 
tasteful appearance reflects credit upon all concerned in her construc- 
tion and e(iuipment. The result shows that we have every facility here 
for building and fitting out steamers as well as sail vessels, and we see 
no reason why Milwaukee cannot henceforth successfully compete in 
this business with any city on the lakes Certainly, the Alleghany and 
the Hans Crocker, both launched from Jones' ship-yard this season, 
can safely challenge comparison with anything afloat on our inland 
seas, and are splendid specimens of Milwaukee-built steam and sail 
crafts. 

She was an unfortunate craft at first, as besides the accident at her 
launching,* she got a hole stove in her shortly after and sank. See 
annexed : 

Peopeller Alleghany. 

This unfortunate craft lies on the bottom of the river, heeled over so 
that the starl^oard side is under water, in front of the Chequered ware- 
house dock. Every attempt to raise her so as to get at the leak seems 
to fail. Two of the marine pumps have been tried and failed to clear 
her. Floating docks have been applied without success. The schooner 
Napoleon is now moored alongside, and large timbers passed across to 
the arches of the propeller, so as to get a purchase upon her, but the 
operation did not seem to succeed. It is a pity that such a fine craft 
should be in jeopardy for want of a good dry dock at this port for ves- 
sels of her class. 

She was finally raised, repaired and ran for several years for 
freight and passengers between Chicago and Buffalo, and s now 
(1885) owned atTonawanda, N. Y., and running in the lumber trade 
between that village and East Saginaw, Mich. 

The money lost in the construction of this propeller, coupled with 
the stringency of the money market in 1857, was too much for 

*She was launched stern foremost, but owing to the shallowness of the water, 
as well as the soltness of the ground upon the island, her stern had hardly reached 
the water before her ways spread and she stuck upon the ground, anil where she 
remained over a month before she was released. This accident cost Jones (in- 
cluding demurrage) over $10,000. The general foreman of this yard at that time 
was William H. Wolf, while Theodore Lawrence had charge of the marine rail- 
way, which Jones still used for the repairing of vessels. 



288 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Jones, and he, with many others who were in debt, went into liqui- 
dation, which virtually suspended the work in the yard (except gen- 
eral repairing) until 1858, when the assets passed into the hands of 
Buel B. Jones, who at once removed the plant to the site of the 
present Elevator A, upon the Menomonee river, southeast corner of 
Oregon and Hanover streets, where he built the brigantines Chas. G. 
Breed, Tanner and Hanover, and in the winter of i860 and 1861 the 
barques Constitution and Golden West, Thos. Davidson (who came 
from the island as foreman for B. B. Jones in 1858) having charge 
of the work in the construction of the Constitution, and J. M. Jones 
of the Golden West. 'Ihe success attending the building of these 
vessels resulted in the formation of a copartnership by Lemuel Ells- 
worth and Thos. Davidson with B. B. Jones, under the title of Ells- 
worth, Davidson & Jones, which continued until the spring of 1862, 
when Jones retired and the firm became Ellsworth & Davidson, who 
carried on the business until the spring of 1863, wiien thev bought 
out the yards of Wolf & Lawrence,* at the foot of Biddle street, in 
the present Seventh ward, to which they at once removed their Me- 
nomonee yard, and where they carried on the business on a large 
scale. 

Among the vessels built there was the celebrated barquentine Nel- 
son, one of the finest as well as fastest ever built in Milwaukee. They 
remained here until 1867, when Mr. Wolff repurchased Ellsworth's 
interest, and the firm became Wolf & Davidson, under which tide it 
has remained until the present time. 

The new firm remained at Biddle street until 1868, when, having 
outgrown their quarters, they removed to their present location at 



*William H. Wolf and Theodore Lawrence, mention of whom has previously 
been made as foremen in the original plant upon Jones' Island, had, upon the 
failure of Jones in 1857, formed a copartnership for the conscruciion of fish and 
yawl boats, which they carried on for a year or more in connection with vessel 
work, when, wishing to enlarge their facihties, they built a floating dock, the 
largest at that time upon the lake, which they had located at the foot of Biddle 
street, and where they were doing a large business in general vessel work. 

f Mr. Wolf, upon the sale to Ellsworth & Davidson in 1863, went into the same 
business at Fort Howard, Green Bay, where he built among other craft the side- 
wheel steamer G. L. Dunlap, the propeller Favorite, the schooners Columbia, 
Winnie Wing, Lottie Wolf and the Minnie Slawson, besides doing a large busi- 
ness in lumber, and where he remained until he returned to Milwaukee and re- 
purchased his former interest, as stated in the text. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 289 

the foot of Washington street, thereby restoring the plant to within a 
stone's throw of its birth-place and where, under the good manage- 
ment of its energetic proprietors, it his grown to gigantic propor- 
tions. It now covers nine acres of ground,* upon which, besides 
the buildings incident to and necessary for such a plant, they have 
nine floating docks, besides one stationary dry dock 325 feet in 
length, capable of holding the largest vessels upon the lakes ; they 
also have a branch yard in Chicago, in which are two dry and sev- 
eral floating docks, and where they also do an immense business. 
Their average working force is two hundred. 

Such, in brief, is the history of this mammoth ship yard, which 
from small beginnings has grown to its present status, without a 
break except as to ownership, and whose present proprietors were 
among its first employees. Commencing at the foot of the ladder, 
they have worked- steadily up until they have reached the top — the 
sure result of doing honest work, coupled with good judgment and 
economy. Among the vessels constructed at this yard since the for- 
mation of the present firm are the following : Schooners Resumption, 
Ford River, Penokee, Geo. G. Houghton, Typo, and Lem. Ells- 
worth; barques Angus Smith. Joseph Paige, Marengo, Ahce B. 
Norris, Saveland, Moonlight ; the steamships Minnesota, Business, 
Jim Sheriff; sidewheel steamer Flora ; the steamship Progress ; 
besides small vessels ad infinitum.] And have now, January, 1886, 
on the stocks, a 1,600-ton steam barge, to be completed about Sep- 
tember I. She is intended for the market. Her dimensions will be 
218 feet keel, 37 feet beam, and 23 feet deep. She is to be double- 
decked, iron-strapped, and as strong as wood and iron will make her. 
She is to have a fore-and-aft compound engine, which has not yet 



*In addition to which they have a branch yard for the manufacture of deck 
plank and cabins, and where they also do a general business in planed lumber. 

f The localities where several of these vessels were set np (not previousyl 
given) were as follows: The S. R. Marvin and the Michael Dousman were built 
between the north end of Clinton and the present Kerry street, at what is now 
Nos. 264 and 266 South Water street; the Nucleus a little east of the lilevafor 
known as Angus Smith's A., and the Mary G. Bonesteel at the foot of Detroit 
street; the Nebraska at the foot of Prairie street in the Second ward. Could the 
exact locality where all these early vessels were built be obtained, it would form 
an interesting scrap for some future historian, l^ut it will probably never be 
done. 



290 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

been contracted for, and steel boiler. Her cost will be about 
$100,000. 

Biographical and Personal. 

William H. Wolf, the senior member, as well as the financial head 
of this firm, is a native of Germany, having been born near the vil- 
lage of Mientz, on the River Rhine, on the 7th day of August, 1828, 
from whence he came to America in 1836, and to Milwaukee first in 
1849, on an exploring tour, remaining a short time, after which he 
visited other parts of the country, but finding nothing which suited 
him better, he returned again in 1853 to stay, his first work, as pre- 
viously stated, being at Jones' Island, first as a journeyman and sub- 
sequently as foreman for J. M. Jones. 

In person, Mr. Wolf is of the medium height, compactly built, is 
very muscular, and capable of great physical endurance. He has a 
large head, a large, expressive and somewhat protruding blue eye, 
in which a mischievous smile will often be seen lurking, a florid 
complexion, and in personal characteristics is wholly unlike his part- 
ner. He has a strong, powerful voice, speaks very distinctly, is 
brusque in manner, has a nervous temperament, and is no wise diffi- 
dent in expressing his sentiments upon any matter in which he may 
have an interest, and if opposed will be found on the ' bull " side 
every time and always ready to face the music, and is a hard man to 
beat. He is a keen observer of men, reads character readily, makes 
up his mind what he wants to do and then does it. He has good 
executive ability, is very aggressive, and, hke Jas. Kneeland, always 
acts upon his own judgment, never asking or taking advice from any 
one, and consequently as a rule always wins. He is a very good 
diplomat, seldom taken off his guard, is fond of argument, will often 
have his antagonist badly tangled up before he is aware of it, and as 
a repository of anecdotes (with which he is usually loaded to the 
muzzle) is the Abraham Lincoln of the Cream City, and like him 
always has one ready for every occasion. He is a genial companion, 
has the faculty of making and retaining friends that few who are as 
outspoken as is he can boast. 

In political faith he is a thorough going republican, is an active 
politician, and a very influential man in the party. He has served in 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 291 

the Board of Alderman, where his voice was always heard for the 
cause of right and justice. In rehgious faith he is a liberal, his creed 
consisting in doing what he conceives to be right. In short, the 
golden rule is the guiding star with him. He is a good friend, and 
if an enemy an open one. He is fond of music and works of art, 
loves society, has good conversational powers, and is a general favor- 
ite with all who know him. Such are some of the leading charac- 
teristics of William H. Wolf He has reached a high plane as a 
mechanic, made a good record both as a business man and citizen, 
and is ranked as one of Milwaukee's representative men. 

Mr. Davidson, who has the control of the work in the yard for his 
department, is of an entirely difterent temperament from Mr. Wolf. 
He possesses none of the brusque manner so natural to that gentle- 
man, but, on the contrary, is one of the kind who, to use an expres- 
sion common among railroad men, " goes slow around the curves." 
He first saw the Hght among the heather clad hills of "Auld Scotia," 
having been born at Ayreshire, March 20th, 1828, and possesses to 
a remarkable degree the cautious and methodical ways for which 
that historic race from which he sprung are so renowned. He first 
came to Milwaukee in July, 1855, ^^^ ^^^^ employment after his 
arrival being as journeyman for J. M. Jones, which continued until 
the failure of that gentleman in 1857, and the sale to Buel B. Jones 
in 1858, when, upon the removal of the plant to the Menomonee, he 
was appointed to and accepted the position of foreman, which he 
held until the spring of 1861, when, as already seen, he became a 
member of the new firm of Ellsworth & Davidson, and B. B. Jones, 
since which time to the present (with the changes in partners pre- 
viously mentioned) he has continued in bu. iness the last eighteen 
years, the firm having been Wolf & Davidson. 

In person, Mr. Davidson is in height a Httle above the average, 
weighs about 160 pounds, and belongs to that class of men whose 
muscular development is perfect. He too has a large head, a large 
face, square cut features, has a clear blue eye, which when conversing 
with any one is fixed upon that person with a look that seems to read 
his thoughts. He is not nervous, always cool and collected, is very 
reticent, disfikes change, is fond of his friends, and will cHng to them 
to the last, often to his own disadvantage. 



292 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

He is also very conscientious and believes in doing right, is slow 
to anger, but if once aroused the old Scotch blood comes to the 
front and he will fight to the last for what he conceives to be his 
right. His likes and dislikes are very strong. He is a splendid 
mechanic, understands all the technical points connected with ship- 
building, depends on his own judgment, keeps his own counsel, 
wants every one in his employ to do just as he is told and ask no 
questions, and will take no back talk from any one. 

In political faith he is a Republican, but not a politician. In re- 
hgious faith his motto is the Golden Rule. 

Mr. Davidson, like Mr. Wolf, has reached the autumn of life, and 
like him can look back with just pride upon the record he has made, 
both as a business man and model citizen, and has won the respect 
as well as the confidence of all who know him. 

That his pleasant face and stalwart form, as well as Mr. Wolfs, 
may be seen upon our streets for many years to come is certainly the 
wish of all who know them. 

This firm is noted for the length of time it retains its employees, 
among whom is their confidential clerk, Stephen R. Smith. Mr. 
Smith was born at Troy, N. Y., May 13, 1843, came to Milwaukee 
in 1854, and went into his present office in 1863, since which time 
to the present he has held the keys and is one of the fixtures. He 
is a splendid book-keeper as well as an accountant, and handles a 
pen with a rapidity and skill which makes him an invaluable acquisi- 
tion. Few men in the city have filled a similar position for one 
house for as long a period. 

Besides Mr. Smith's quahfications as a book-keeper he is also a 
fine musician, and has manipulated the keys of the organ in Hano- 
ver street church for the last twenty years, a longer period than any 
other organist in the city. 

Mr. Smith, who is yet comparatively a young man, was also one 
of those who went to the front in the late rebellion as a member of 
the Twenty-fourth Wisconsin, and was wounded at the battle of 
Stone River. He is one of the kind of men who are always ready 
to do their whole duty, and is justly entitled to the position he has 
attained both as a business man and useful citizen. 



milwaukee under the charter. 293 

Biographical. 

David Merrill, whose name appears in connection with this sketch, 
was a very prominent man among the early ship-builders and fur- 
nished the funds, in whole or in part, to construct several vessels, 
particularly the barque Nucleus, the schooner Michael Dousman, 
the S. R. Marvin, and perhaps others. 

He was a wide-awake, energetic man, and very aggressive, and 
generally accompHshed all he undertook, while at the same time he 
was a very kind-hearted man. He disliked all sort of wrong-doing, 
always acted on the square, and wanted no deahngs with any one 
who did not. He was no talker, but more of an actor, and left a 
good name among his brother pioneers. 

He was a native of the old Pine Tree state (Maine), and was the 
father of our well known fellow-citizens, W, P. and J. B. Merrill, of 
this city, and Hiram Merrill, of Janesville. He was born December 
12, T793, and came to Milwaukee February 25, 1837, where he died 
March 12, 1872. He was buried in Forest Home. Peace to his 
memory. 

The Milwaukee Shipyard Company 

(the old Allen McClellan yard) was chartered in 1874, with a work- 
ing capital of $50,000. President, John Fitzgerald ; secretary and 
treasurer, A. M. Joys. The master mechanics are Robert Allen and 
Louis Pahlow. 

This yard is situated on Vogel's Island. Their working force 
when in full blast is one hundred men. They turn out $100,000 
worth of work yearly. Among the vessels built here since the or- 
ganization of the company are the three-masted schooner Myosotis 
and the steamer R. G. Peters. This company has two sets of sec- 
tional docks and a dry-dock capable of lifting a vessel of fifteen 
hundred tons. 

A Correction. 

The statement in the History of Milwaukee, published in 1881 by 
the Western Historical Company, page 439, concerning the advent 
of the old steamer Detroit, in 1837, would imply that she was also 
built here. This is not so. She was an old boat when she came, 
and was purchased for the occasion. 



294 milwaukee under the charter. 

Improvements. 

The Jonathan L. Peirce and John Esh blocks, southwest corner of 
Wells and West Water streets, was erected this year. 

There were also seventy-five buildings, costing $88,000, erected in 
the Fifth ward ; thirty-four, costing $50,000, in the Sixth ward ; fifty, 
costing $358,000, in the Seventh ward, and fifty-four, costing $901,- 
300 in the Fourth ward. 

Some of these were commenced in 1857 but completed in 1858. 
It is not claimed that this list is perfect, but it is as near correct (as 
far as it goes) as can be expected at this late day. The following 
are a few included in this list of which I will make a special men- 
tion : 

First is the addition to the Albany, erected by the late James S. 
Brown. 

Addition to the Albany. 

Among the many substantial and elegant buildings commenced in our 
city last fall and completed during the present winter, that erected by 
James S. Brown, Es(j., on Main street, south of and adjoining the Al- 
bany, and of which it is to be a part, may fairly claim the palm for the 
beauty, novelty and completeness of its interior arrangements. It is a 
three-story brick building, 40 feet front by 120 deep, with a high peaked 
and slate-covered roof. The facade is neat and plain, corresponding 
very nearly with that of the Albany. 

The first, or ground floor, is designed for a first-class restaurant, and 
is provided with every convenience required for such an establishment. 
The second story, which forms one single apartment, is to be occupied 
as a billiard hall, and will be one of the largest, as it certainly is the 
most elegant, halls in the country. It is 118 feet long by 39 wide, and 
of corresponding height; lighted at either end with four long windows, 
and abundantly jjrovided with gas lustres for the evening. 

The walls and ceiling are painted in distemper by Mr. F. A. Lydston, 
late of Springfield, Mass., an artist of great promise, who is about to 
make Milwaukee his home. 

The third story of Mr. Brown's building is divided into a rotunda and 
four side rooms. Two of these, on the front, will be occupied as fainih' 
rooms by Mr. Dickinson. One of those in the rear is intended lor a 
dressing room; the other communicates, by a duml) waiter, with the 
restaurant on the first floor, and will be used as a refreshment room. 
But the peculiar feature of this story, and the gem of the building, is 
the rotunda. This is an oval-shaped apartment, with arched ceiling, of 
artistic design and most graceful proportions. It is 74 feet in length by 
38 wide, and 35 in the clear. The ceiling is dome-like in form, divided 
into panels, and, with the walls, of purest white. At the top is a sky- 
light of ground and tinted glass, corresponding, in shape and propor- 
tions, with the room itself. Around the walls are thirteen niches, 7h 
feet high, 3 feet wide and H in depth, each of which is occupied bv a 
graceful and appropriate plaster cast, copied from models of Grecian 
statuary. These figures are not only good in themselves, but greatly 
enhance the beauty of the apartment. They are the handiwork of 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 295 

Joseph Nicollet, whose residence is on Huron street, between Milwau- 
kee and Main. 

The room is abundantly lighted in the daytime by the skylight of the 
dome, while at night forty-nine gas lustres will eclipse the brilliancy of 
the day. This elegant apartment, certainly the handsomest we know of 
anywhere, is designed either for a supper room in connection with the 
grand ball room of the Albany, or for a picture gallery, or for a concert, 
lecture or ball room, when not over five hundred persons are expected. 
The rotunda communicates bj' two ample passage-ways with the Al- 
bany. 

The whole building is a credit to the enterprising owner and an orna- 
ment to the city. The masonry was done bv James Allen, the carpen- 
ter work by Babcock Brothers, and Mr. Dillenburg was the architect. 
They may all well feel a just pride in this work of their hands and 
monument of their skill. 

This building stood directly south of and adjoining the Albany 
Hall, its site being now occupied by the chamber of commerce. It 
was an attachment in part to the Albany. 

Bonesteel's new store, now No. 381 East Water street, was built 
this year and, according to the Wisconsifi, was the wonder of the 
age. Nearly the whole of the front of the first story, says the edi- 
tor, was of glass, immense plates, 3x2^ feet, costing $400, and it 
contained two hundred feet of solid mahogany counters. But, alas, 
all the primeval glories of that famous store have become a thing of 
the past, and as I stood gazing upon it to-day (October 18, 1884) 
the face and form of John N. Bonesteel came to view in memory's 
eye. Its habits (/. e., the store,) were regular. It opened every 
morning (Sundays excepted) at 7 a. m. and closed at 8 p. m., old 
style, J. N. Bonesteel is at present a resident of the city of Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

The Mabbett & Breed block,* northeast corner of Reed and Lake 
streets, was built this year. It was a wonder when built, but is of 
little account to-day. 

The Byron block, now Nos. 620 to 630 Grand avenue. 

Elevator A (now C), by Jesse Hoyt and Angus Smith; 200 by 70 
feet wide and 98 feet high ; master mechanic, Alex Miller. The 
first cargo shipped from this elevator was by the W. J. Whahng, No- 
vember 26, 1858. 



*Hiram Mabbett and Cfiarles Breed. 



296 milwaukee under the charter. 

Organ Manufactory. 

An organ manufactory was established this year by Chas. E. Le 
Droit and John O'Brien. They erected the first church organ ever 
buih in Milwaukee, the one formerly used in the old First Baptist 
church on Wisconsin street, where Chapman's store now stands. 
Mr. Le Droit was from Montreal. He died many years ago. I 
think Mr. O'Brien is still living. 

Those Early Sheboygan Houses. 
In the Milwaukee Sentinel oi July T3th, 1885, was the following: 
All the Way from Sheboygan. 

An Emigrant to Milwaukee Who Brought his House Along with Him. 

" There are a number of old landmarks in Milwaukee that have queer 
histories," said an old citizen yesterday, "and among the most cele- 
brated of the lot is a house of fair appearance, located on Fifteenth 
street, between Wells and Cedar. The house was built at Sheboygan, 
in this State, in 1836, by Wm. Farnsworth, one of the first settlers of 
the country. He was a fur trader and a great friend of Solomon Ju- 
neau's. In that year Sheboygan showed great promise of being a 
leading trading post, and of eventually becoming a metropolis, but it 
was a failure as a trading post, and as soon as the town showed signs of 
weakness, those who had erected houses took them apart as much as 
possible, placed them on scows and started for other points. Among 
the lot was the Farnsworth residence. It M'as landed at the piers here, 
and hauled in sections to the spot where Alexander Mitchell's green- 
house now stands, at the corner of Grand Avenue and Tenth streets. 
It was again erected and sold to Judge A. D. Smith, who resided there 
from I8-I0 until a few years after, I don't remember how many, when it 
was removed to its present site. The house was occupied until recently 
by Louis Rindskopf and family." 

This statement is incorrect. There were some four buildings re- 
moved from Sheboygan, and one or two from Port Washington, to 
Milwaukee, between 1837 and 1841, one of which was the Wells' 
Block mentioned, and cut given, in Vol. II., page 180, burnt in the 
great fire of 1845. One of the old frames, now standing upon the 
southwest corner of Milwaukee and Michigan streets, was also 
brought from Sheboygan by the late Richard Hackett. But the 
Farnsworth buildings were placed upon Jackson street, at what is 
now Nos. 419 and 421, and pulled down or removed about four 
years since, to make room for the present double brick erected upon 
their site. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 297 

It is true that Judge Smith li\ed in one of these old Farnsworth 
houses on Jackson street for a short time, and I beUeve Alex. Mitchell; 
But the dwelling upon Grand Avenue and Tenth street was erected 
by Judge A. D. Smith in 1850, at a cost of $1,700, see Vol. III., 
page 28, and was the first one ever erected upon that corner, where 
he resided until his death in 1863, after which it was sold to the late 
Alonzo Fowler,* who died there, and his son, William H. Fowler, 
sold it to Alex. Mitchell, who, as there stated, sold it to Louis Rinds- 
kopf for $850, who removed it to its present location. Mr. Farns- 
worth never lived upon the West Side, and never spent a year in 
Milwaukee all put together. 



* This gentleman's name is given in Vol. III., page 282, as Chas. E. It 
should have been Alonzo. 



CHAPTER VI. 
1859. 

Opening Address — The Weather- — Political Trickery — Reports of the County Offi- 
cials — Legislative — The New Charter, and the Fight on Its Passage — The 
Result — The Mayor's Report — Comments Thereon — A Call for a Mass Meet- 
ing at Albany Hall — The Result — An Attempt to Divide the Third Ward — 
St. Andrew's Society Formally Organized — Jas. Siddell — Grain in Store — 
Horse Overboard — Swine Ditto — A Cow-Slip — The Spring Campaign — A 
People's Convention — Candidates Nominated — The Democratic Convention — 
The Result — Major Fut Wins the Prize — Comments of the Sentinel Upon E. 
L. H. Gardner's Nomination — New School Opened — School Census — Ought 
to Be in School — And These Ought to Be Whipped — Report — Page vs. Pren- 
tiss — Page Gets Left — The Plot Thickens — J. T. Perkins Wants More Light 
— J. C. Starkweather Gets a Fall — The M. S. Scott Goes to Europe — The Ger- 
mans in America — July 4th Celebration — The Hog Nuisance — Mr. Pat Mc- 
Ginnis Makes His Maiden Speech — Likewise Did Misther O'Conner — Edi- 
torial Sparring — The Horse Railroad — Sam Piatt Gets a Bible — Father John 
Rosebeck on the War- Path — The Arrival of the New Steamers, the Detroit 
and Milwaukee — An Affair of Honor — The Old Blind Singer — How a Mil- 
waukee Carpenter Got a Floor Taken Up — The Eagle Mill, Sketch — The 
Phoenix — The Brewing Interest — The Empire Brewery of Phillip Best & Co. 
— Wm. P. Young's Block Burnt — The Sentinel Gets Spooney — Wouldn't 
Call Him Judge — The Old Market House — An Attempt to Divide the Coun- 
ty — Political — The Republicans Win — P. Van Vechten Scores the News — 
Winter Coming — Population — Improvements — The First Town Election — 
The Semi-Centennial — Statistical. 

The winter of 1858-9 opened cold. The previous fall, as has 
been seen, was not of the Indian summer character of 1857-8, or 
even of the present one (1884-5). 

True, September and a few of the first days in October were very 
fine, but with the commencement of December the scene changed. 
The thermometer began seeking winter quarters very rapidly, ranging 
as low as S° below on the 8th, which froze the river solid. It opened 
again on the 13th below Walker's Point, but above there it remained 
fi-ozen until the last of the month, when it began to soften up a little, 
and January 2 we find the following 'plaint from General King in 
the Se7iti7iel* which reads as though it had thawed some. And it 
had: 



*The Sentinel czxat. out in an entire new dress January i, 1859. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 299 

The weather still continues drop-sical. For a week we have had 
scarcely enough sunshine to write by. We would this " winter of our 
discontent" could be made "glorious summer" for a day or two by a 
little solar effulgence, if it were only to thaw out the housed fair ones 
and set the hoops rolling once more. As we write, there is every ap- 
pearance of another rain (of terror). If those little mud fairies at the 
crossings could sweep the India ink out of our sky with the same suc- 
cess thej^ display in scattering the mire of our streets, they might reap 
a harvest of pennies, at least from the btj-nighted editors. 

The General refers to the subject again on the 6th, thusly : 

O tempo, O mud! "Terra tirma" is as unstable as an ocean of soft 
soap.* Mother Earth looks like a badly compounded jelly — our streets 
hardly passable. If we were a poet (which we are not), what a beauti- 
ful "thaw-it" might be composed oat of the present state of the 
weather. White stockings dance over the crossings as though they 
were afraid of being ad-mired, and the damp rascals who scrape the 
crossino;s with damp sponges have a very persistent way as they stick 
out their little jialms for the money. 

Whereupon some modern Hiawatha, thinking this did not reach 
the case, tries his hand at it in the following ditty : 

The Weathkr Yesterday. 

When we woke up in the morning 
Janus over all, his banner 
White and pure had just unfolded 
And the summer air that recent 
Made us talk of spring and flowers, 
Was dead and deckecl in white array. 
But we mourned not as the snowHakes 
Shrouded all our vernal wishings, 
Mourned not at the death of sunlight. 
But with prophet ken we uttered 
Huge predictions for the morrow. 
How the cold and gloomy storm wind. 
With its cold and downy burthen, 
Would not with the weight of winter. 
Smother out those promised sleigh rides, 
Would not chill the cheery jingle, 
Jingle of the fleeting cutter, 
With its load of furs and whalebone. 
Then we laughed as fell the snowtlakes, 
Laughed and rubbed our hands together. 
As we watched the tiny crystals 
Building up the path of pleasure. 

FIVE o'clock p. m. 

Now, alas for human wisdom. 
All our hopes and all the snowtlakes, 
Like the promised joys of riches. 
Like the visions of the school-boy. 
All have vanislied into tear-drops. 
Leaving nothing l)ut the sighing. 
Sighing of tiu; watcrv south wind. 



*And the mud did resemble that article as far as its slippery qualities were con- 
cerned . 



300 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

The river soon closed again above Walker's Point bridge, where 
the youth of both sexes (and occasionally some who were not so 
young) could be seen almost every day ghding over the ice. But 
below the bridge it was kept open by the boats. 

The river opened this spring April i, and April 2 brought us our 
first boat from below, the steamer City of Cleveland, after which we 
could truly say that spring had come. 

Politically the past year had been a stormy one. A fearful amount 
of lying, or, to put it m a milder form, prevaricating, had been done 
by the Democratic papers, in order to shield the thieves then under 
suspicion for robbing the public treasury, in which laudable effort 
they had the aid of the leaders, or at least some of them, and who 
were doing all in their power to prevent any further investigation. 
But it availed them not, for the hands of the people were not stayed 
until the whole villainy was exposed and the thieves, or at least some 
of them (the small fry), brought to justice and others driven from 
the country. 

But notwithstanding all this the amount of improvements during 
the past year had been very large, and for those days some of the 
buildings erected were quite expensive. But the financial crash of 
1857, caused by the over-issue of bonds to railroads (all of which 
were eventually paid by the city), and of city bonds for municipal 
purposes, kept the tax-payers in irons, so to speak, for several years. 

The business of the year opened with the reports of the different 
city and county officials, prominent among which was that of the 
jailor, who gave the number of commitments as 687, of which num- 
ber 78 were females; of the whole number, 175 could neither read 
nor write, and 82 of these were under sixteen years of age. As to 
their nationality, 258 were Irish, 18 were Scotch, 105 were Ameri- 
can (natives), 89 were English, 6 were Norwegians, 8 were Cana- 
dians, 2 were Welshmen, i Dane, 3 were Hollanders, 174 were Ger- 
man, 8 were French, 9 were negroes, 6 were Swedes, and 1 Bo- 
hemian ; of this number, 47 went to Waupun. 

Robert Warren, jailor, December 31, 1858. 

Legislative. 

The members of the legislature for 1858-9, elected the previous 
November, were : 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 301 

For the Senate — Cicero Comstock and Patrick Walsh. 

For the Assembly — Edwin Palmer, Chas. J. Kern, Thos. H. Evis- 
ton, Jas. A. Swain, Wm. S. Cross, Jos. Walter, Frederick Moscowitz, 
Jacob Beck and Edward Hasse. 

This session commenced January 12, 1859, and adjourned March 
21, 1859. 

Erastus D. Cantield, Lieutenant-Governor, president of the sen- 
ate. 

William P. Lyon, speaker of the house. 

The New Charter. 

This document, for draughting of which mention has already been 
made of the appointment of a committee, with Judge A. G. Miller as 
chairman, was formally presented to the Council for examination, 
January 3d, upon which Councillor Hadley offered a resolution that 
the communication (as he chose to call it) of Judge Miller be placed 
on file, and the Charter published six times previous to the 15th, in 
the Daily News, Seeboie, Sentinel, Wisconsin, Free Democrat, and 
the Grad-Aus, and that the clerk be instructed to call a special 
election for the last Tuesday in January, for the purpose of its adop- 
tion, and that the Atlas be also added to the above list. 

The mention of the Atlas brought Councillor Andrew McCormick 
to his feet, with a motion to amend by including the Tomahawk and 
Scalpino Knife,* claiming that it was a prominent paper, and came 
out every day with flying colors. t 

To which Councillor O. H. Waldo objected, claimmg that it would 
be very improper to publish it in any but the official papers. 

In this he was sustamed by Councillor Hadley, who stated that 
the paper mentioned was published clandestinely, and had no res- 
ponsible head. 

Councillor Lapham thought that if such was the case it had better 



* A little 7x9 sheet, got up at the Light House (or some out of the way place), 
liut by whom no one but its author knew. It was a spirited httle sheet, and a 
perfect terror to evil-doers and snobs. It was supposed that the real editors 
of that spicy Httle sheet were .Alexander and John Corbitt. Will the last named 
gentleman please rise and explain? 

f A broad grin illuminating the Councillor's classic face as he made the propo- 
sition, lie was a great wag, and always on the watch for a chance to hit some 
one. 

19 



302 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

be included in the list, because if it had no responsible head there 
would be no tail to it, and therefore no bill to pay. 

To which Councillor McCormick replied, that the editor of the 
Tomahawk and Scalping Knife was a prominent gentleman, and that 
he was acquainted with him. 

Upon which Mr. Hadley withdrew his objections. [Laughter.] 

Councillor McCormick then moved the adoption of his amend- 
ment, which was put by the Mayor, WiUiam A. Prentiss, a peculiar 
smile illuminating his countenance as he did so. Lost. 

Councillor Hayden then objected to the adoption of the resolution. 
He believed the publication of the Charter m any other than the official 
papers would be an unnecessary expenditure.* 

Councillor Hadley insisted upon the necessity of having it spread 
broadcast before the people. He thought it contained many excel- 
lent provisions, but upon the whole was inadequate to the wants of 
the city, from the fact that it made no provision whatever for the 
payment of our debts. He wanted, therefore, that every taxpayer 
should have an opportunity of seeing it before voting upon it. 

Councillor Laphani inquired as to what would be the cost of having 
it published as proposed. 

Councillor Hadley said he had been informed that it would be 
about $80 in each EngHsh paper, and about $100 in the German 
papers. 

Councillor Waldo said he had not supposed it could be published 
for that amount, and he would vote for the resolution with the under- 
standing that the cost did not exceed $80 in the English, and $100 
in the German language. 

An amendment to this effect was adopted. 

At the suggestion of Councillor Biersach, the resolution was 
amended by allowing $100 to the Seebote only, thus paying $20 for 
translating, and the other German papers could copv from it, and 
extending the time for publication to the 20th. 

The resolution thus amended was adopted. 

On motion of Councillor Waldo, that portion of the resolution 

* This I believe was true, as the Judge's reason for omitting such provisions 
was, that he did not believe a city should ever create a debt. Pay as you go, was 
his motto. A good and always a safe rule to follow. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 803 

referring to a special election was rescinded, and referred to Council- 
lor Hadley to be drawn up in different form and reported at the next 
meeting. After which the Board adjourned. 

An Unkind Cut. — The New Charter. 

The Senii?iel of January 6th, contained the following upon this 
subject, entitled : 

Repudiation. 

At the meeting of the Board of Councillors, held January 3d, Coun- 
cillor Jackson Hadley characterized the New Charter as a repudiating 
instrument. "The idea," says the editor, " of Mr. Hadley accusing ins 
political friend, Judge Miller, of getting up a repudiating Charter. Mr. 
Hadley might as well accuse the Judge of assumption." 

The vote upon this Charter, taken February i, was 392 for, and 
1,093 against. 

This Charter was not rejected so much for what it contained as for 
what it did not contain. It was considered inadequate, inasmuch as 
It made no provision for paying the city's indebtedness, which made 
it look like repudiation. 

Report of the Mayor. 

The following synopsis of the report made by Hon. Wilham A. 
Prentiss to the Common Council, January 7th, 1859, is inserted here 
as a proper part of the city's financial history, in connection with 
and during the administration of Jas. B. Cross, and is copied from 
the Milwaukee Sentinel oi January 8th, 1859:* 

To the Common Council: 

On the 8th day of May, 1853, an ordinance was passed, authorizing 
an issue of City Bonds, bearing interest at the rate of ten per cent, 
per annum, payable semi-annually, to the amount of one hundred 
thousand dollars, to be used or disposed of only " in the payment of, 
or in exchange for bonds, and the interest thereon, issued by the City, 
and in the payment of debts contracted previous to the 6th day of 
April, A. D. 1858, at not less than par value, as provided bylaw." ,\t 
the same time resolutions were passed, diri'cting the Mayor and Comp- 
troller to proceed to New York, for the purpose of making an arrange- 
ment to retire some portion of the City debt; and in compliance witli 
the resolutions referred t(j, the undersigned, and J. L. Hathaway, Comp- 
troller, soon after left for New York. 

Immediately after our arrival, we proceeded to engage in the duty 



*This is the document so persistently called for by Councillor Hadley at the 
meeting of the Council held October 27th, 1858, mentioned in previous chapter. 



304 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

assigned us; but soou found the credit of the City in such a condition, 
owing to the non-payment of the principal on certain bonds, and the 
interest thereon, then past due, and also the interest on a large amount 
of munitdpal bonds, previously issued, that no arrangement could be 
made for the sale of new bonds which were autliorized to be issued, 
under the amendments ti> the Charter and the ordinance referred to, 
nor could any exchange be made for yjast due City indebtedness. 

The undersigned, and Comptroller, remained in New York nearly two 
weeks, and made all possible exertions tf) dispose of the bonds author- 
ized to be issued, with a view to restore the credit of the City to a healthy 
condition; ])ut all to no piiri)ose. Inquiries were made of us at all places 
as to what amount City bonds had been issued, to aid in tlie construction 
of railroads, and what provision had been made for the payment of the 
interest coupons on the bonds issued to the several companies. 

Our reply was, that no provision had been made, either fr)r the pay- 
ment of the principal or interest on these bonds, the city authorities 
having entirely relied on the securities taken, and the pledges of the 
officers of the several railroad companies, to meet the interest coupons, 
as they fell due, and ultimately the i)rincipal. Finding all further efforts 
useless, the undersigned returned with a view to await the collection of 
the taxes of 1857, wliicli had been extende<l by the Legislature, calcu- 
lating that if the interest and sinking fund taxes were paid in, a suffi- 
cient sum could be realized to pay off the past due municipal indebted- 
ness, and thereby to some extent we should be able to restore the City 
credit. 

After waiting until the 1st of August, and ascertaining from the city 
treasurer that full one-third part of the city taxes were unpaid, and 
deeming it important that a further effort should be made to restore our 
credit in the city of New York and other places East, I caused the 
bonds to be issued, and with the comptroller entered into an arrange- 
ment with certain parties to take up a considerable portion of the past 
due city indebtedness, consisting of matured bonds, the interest due 
thereon, l)ills payal)le, and the interest which had already accrued on 
the municipal bonds, the principal of which was not yet due. In the 
arrangement we agreed to furnish ^20,1)00 out of the sinking fund levied 
for 1857 and the other parties the balance, but owing to the default of 
the tax-payers, only $10,000 could be obtained from the treasury, which 
sum was received by the comptroller and his receipt given therefor. 

For the money thus taken the comptroller will render an account, 
and return interest coupons and other city indebtedness taken up to a 
larger amount.* For the labor and expense of taking up the indebted- 
ness referred to, the undersigned and comptroller agreed to pay a small 
commission, not exceeding 4 per cent., in sinking fund bond's, which 
had been placed in the Ocean Bank, New York, in March last, by my 
predecessor. These sinking fund bonds could not then have been sold 
for tifty cents on the dollar, but were to be received in payment of the 
commissions at par. 

Being unable to obtain the additional $10,000 from the interest and 
sinking funds, we were obliged to close the matter up, and I herewith 
report a statement of the city indebtedness in my hands, which has 
been taken up bj- a sale of a portion of the newissue of bonds, and 
also herewith return the remaining bonds, which I recommend be can- 
celed.* 

I deem it proper for the information of the tax-payers of the city to 
advert to the manner in which a verj- large amount of citv bonds were 
disposed of by the late administration between the 22d of May, 1857, 
and the 10th of January, a. d. 1858, and I herewith subjoin a schedule, 

* This part of the report being wholly tabular has been omitted. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 305 

iiuuked R, taken from the report of E. L. H. Gardner, late city comp- 
troller. 

It will be seen, from an examination of the schedule, that the sum of 
■^122,07:!. IS was discounte<l on the bonds sold during that period to 
maintain the city credit. During the same period a loan was made of 
the Farmers' and Millers' Bank, amounting to $90,000^ and also a loan 
of !!!.■!( ),000 of the Juneau Bank, but from the improvident manner in 
which the public funds had been used during the preceding three 
3'ears, they failed to pa,y the indebtedness due the 31st of March, 1858, 
and the credit of the city was consequently brought into disrepute. 

1857. 

Mav 22.— Discount on 94 bonds sold by J. B. Cross $20,370 31 

Julv —.—Discount on 65 bonds sold by Meyer & Strecken 13,000 00 

July 10.— Discount on 31 bonds sold by Bell & Co (>,200 00 

Aug. 4. — Discount on 25 bonds sold by Bell & Co 4,777 36 

Aug. 14. — Discount on 1 bond sold l)y Bell & Co 103 11 

Aug. 14. — Discount on 25 bonds sold by J. B. Cross 6,871 95 

Aug. 15. — Discount on number not staled nor by whom sold.. 2,505 81 

Oct. 22. — Discount on 5 city bonds sold by Schall & Co 2,341 63 

Nov. 30.— Discount on 92 (-ity bonds sold l)y J. B. Cross 30,988 67 

Dec. 2. — Discount on 66 city bonds sold l)y Schall & Co 31,075 71 

Sept. 2. — Discount on number not stated nor by whom sold... 697 60 

1858. 
Jan. 14. — Discount on 11 city bonds by whom sold not men- 
tioned 3,135 03 

Total amount of discount on the foregoing bonds .1122,073 19 

This exhibit does not show the commissions paid on the sale, and I 
can find no statement thereof in the report of the late comptroller.* 

W. A. Prentiss, Mayor. 
January 7, 1859. 

Several articles commenting upon the condition of the city finances 
appeared in the Sentinel, following the publication of this report, 
prominent among which was the folio .ving, from some one signed X., 
in which the Mayor was very highly complimented for the faithful as 
well as able manner in which he had performed his duties, in clearing 
the city of the bad odor that had clung to her from the unwise, as 
well as illegal, manner in which Mayor Cross had administered the 
city government. The article stating, among other things, that now 
our bonds were eagerly sought after by ea.stern capitalists, while three 
years ago they were being hawked about the streets for forty-five 
cents on the dollar. t 



* Made to Council March i, 1858. 

f It would appear from this, that little as Mr. Prentiss was able to accomplish 
by this trip, it was sufficient to largely restore our city credit, and cause our bonds 
to lie sought after once m(«e, which was true. 



306 milwaukee under the charter. 

They All Defaulted. 

As was prognosticated by many of our citizens when the city was 
so willing to grant subsidies, in the shape of bonds,- to aid in the 
construction of the different hnes of railroads entering the city (upon 
which both principal and interest was to be taken care of by said 
roads), that said loans would in the end prove to be a gift, came to 
pass, as they all defaulted, which led Mayor Prentiss to make a re- 
port to that effect, to-wit, that the Milwaukee & Watertown, the Mil- 
waukee & Horicon, the Milwaukee & Beloit, and the Milwaukee & 
Superior, had all defaulted on interest due December 31, 1857, and 
that the Milwaukee & Mississippi had done likewise upon that due 
January i, 1859, thereby adding an additional burden to the already 
over-tasked tax-payers, and which culminated in the following call in 
the Sentinel of January 15 for a mass-meeting at Milwaukee's " Fan- 
ueil Hall" (the Albany), on the 22d, of which the annexed is a 
copy : 

Call for a Mass Meeting at Albany Hall. 

All persons interested in maintaining the credit and character of Mil- 
waukee, and of the whole state, and who beUeve that something should 
be done efiectually and speedily for that purpose, are invited to meet 
at Albany Hall, on Saturday evening, the 22d inst., at 7 p. m., to con- 
sider such measures as will be called for bv the present emergency. 

E. Townsend, J. H. Rogers, 

G. D. Douseman, John H. Tweedy, 

J. A. Helfenstein, Alex. Mitchell, 

A. C. May, H. Ludington, 

Thomas L. Ogden, John H. Van Dyke, 

L. W. Weeks, James B. Martin, 

J. A. Phelps, D. A. J. Upham, 

W. H. Lindwurm, James Kneeland, 

R. B. Lynch, J. Taylor, 

John Plankinton, A. F.* Clarke, 

J. Magie, J. Hadley, 

P. Kane & Son, Bradford Bros., 

J. B. Cross, Chas. H. Larkin, 

Sexton Bros., J. K. Bartlett, 

Chas. F. Illsley, D. Ferguson, 

John G. Inbusch, Geo. H. Walker, 

James Johnson, A. R. Chapin, 

John Finley, D. McDonald, 

Levi Hubbell, Emil Spangenberg, 

C. D. Nash, A. R. R. Butler, 

E. Cramer, J. P. C. Cottrill, 

G. Pfister, J. R. Brigham, 

Henry Williams, H. Crocker. 

At which Mayor Prentiss presided, and at which the late Judge 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 307 

Levi Hubbell made an eloquent speech upon the rascality that had 
been practiced by the former city officials, and in consequence of 
which our present mayor had been grossly insulted in New York 
city while endeavoring to extricate our city out of the pit into which 
she had been plunged by the misconduct of these same officials. 
He was followed by James H. Rogers and John H. Tweedy, after 
which a committee was appointed, to act in conjunction with the 
committee from the common council, and report at a meeting to be 
held at the same place on the 24th, at which they reported as fol- 
lows :* 

First— That the people of Milwaukee were never in favor of repudia- 
tion. 

Second — That the city issue new bonds, running from twenty to thirty 
years, bearing a less rate of interest, and refuse to issue any more or 
contract any more debts. 

[Milwaukee Sentinel, January 24, 1859.] 

After which they adjourned. 

A partial attempt was made this year to attach that part of the 
Third ward from Wisconsin to Michigan streets to the Seventh, upon 
which somebody got off the following : 

A Sagacious Discovery. 

The Madison correspondent of the iVews has discovered that the ob- 
ject of the bill to take a blo(;k from the Third and attach it to the Sev- 
enth ward is to make the Seventh a Republican ward. The petition for 
this change is headed by A. G. Miller. The idea of our Federal jud»e 
being engaged in a plot to make his own ward Republican is a peculiarly 
" Sioux " invention. 

This would have been a singular move on the part of the Judge 
(with this object in view) but the truth is that the majority of the 
people in that tier of blocks were the movers, as their status among 
the unterrified democracy of the bloody Third was not a pleasant 
one on election days in the olden times; it is somewhat better now. 

The St. Andrews society was formally organized this year, Jan. 18, 
at the Newhall House. President, Arthur McArthur; Secretary, 
Jas. MacAlister; Treasurer, James Murray. 

Back Again. 

We observe that our friend James Siddell, the well-known and popu- 
lar grocery and provision purveyor, is back again in his old l)usuiess, 



*This meeting was the first of a series resulting finally in the readjustment act 
of 1862. 



308 MILWAUKEE UNbER THE CHARTER. 

after rusticutiny a year or so iu the country. Mr. Siddell's new estab- 
lisbment is in the brick building, corner of Second and Wells street, a 
few steps from the Oneida street bridge. He has a verj' neat store, well 
tilled with the choicest goods in the market, and it is enough to induce 
a call, at least, from his old customers, to know that his sojourn in the 
country has not at all changed his proverltially pleasant manners, and 
tiiat he sells grocei'ies just as cheap as of old. 

Mr. Siddell has been quite a prominent grocer in his day, and has 
accumulated a handsome fortune, the bulk of which was made dur- 
ing the civil war. He is a good citizen and has a clean record. He 
has now, however, retired from active business, in favor of his son. 

Police. 

Isaac Jaco))s, a red man of ye forest, tasted of civilization to excess, 
and his primitive constitution couldn't stand it. In a word, the fire- 
water he drankr-iled him considerably, and a policeman took him to the 
Captain's office to settle. Fined $1. 

August and Christian Smith were arrested for behaving in anything 
but an august or Christian manner. The city attorney asked whether 
they plead guilty or not guilty, to the charge of disorderly conduct. 

Christian answered, nichts lerstay. Miss , another member of tlie 

family, then testified in a series of nichts verstays, that it was a family 
jubilee, or free fight, or something else of an entirely domestic nature, 
and our city attorney, with iiis known abhorrence at meddling in the 
private concerns of others, dismissed the case. 

Grain in Stoke March 1st, 1859. 

It has been stated by some of our merchants, that there are over 
half a million bushels of wheat in store in this city. We think it some- 
what exaggerated, and would suggest that they obtain the correct 
figures. However that may be, that our warehouses have a capacity 
for holding large quantities of grain, cannot be doubted. The Sentinel 
of this morning saj's; 

The Badger State warehouse, owned by Dan'l Newhall, on Walker's 
Point, has on the first floor 5,0n0 Ijarrels of flour, while the upper part 
of the building contains no less than 185,000 bushels of grain, the 
greater portion of which is wheat, making a grand total, including flour,, 
of 210,000 bushels of grain. Mr. Newhall has chartered the schooner 
L. J. Farwell to load from his warehouse at " going rates," upon the 
opening of navigation. The Farwell drew up to the dock yesterday, 
and is now taking in the first cargo of the season. 



' t7 



HoRSK Overboard. 

A singular accident occurred March 2, 1859, to one of the horses 
then belonging to the late firm of Butler & Post, foot of Mason 
street (where Benjamin Mock now is) which as it showed the power 
of endurance possessed by that noble but much abused animal, the 
horse, I will relate. This horse took it into his head to have a bath, 
and acting upon the impulse of the moment, slipped his halter, after 
which he slipped out of the stable, and before any one was aware of 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 309 

his absence had sHpped into the river and nearly reached the middle 
of that classic stream without going under the ice ; and for the next 
hour Spring street bridge, as well as the roofs of the adjoining build- 
ings, were packed with an excited crowd, anxious to witness tlie 
result of this Arctic bath. He was finally rescued, when nearly dead, 
by G. W. Haack, P. N. Adams and Mr. Bower, by means of a 
long boat, and was finally brought round all right by means of sev- 
eral hot whiskeys and rubbing. I remember this affair as though it 
were but yesterday. 

There were two more of a similar kind, see annexed, at nearly the 
same time. 

Sudden Fall in Pork. 

Two adventurous porcine individuals (sometimes yclept " grunters") 
foolishly ventured on the ice near Sjjring street bridge, Saturday after- 
noon, and when some distance from the shore they broke through, and 
one of them sunk to rise no more, but the other kept Ijoljljing u]) and 
down for an hour, to the amusement of an excited crowd on the bridge, 
until a courageous individual, by the aid of a plank, succeeded in res- 
cuing it from a watery grave. 

An Early Cow-Slip. 

Yesterday, a cow, supposed by the spectators to belong to somebody, 
fell into the river, and with true animal instinct, made for the Wi'tconsin 
office. After paddling about in the vasty and nasty deep, she was fi- 
nally rescued by several heroic individuals, one of whom, we are 
proiid to say, is an attache of the distributing department of this 
journal. 

This was a cut at uncle Wm. E. Cramer. 
A people's convention called for. See annexed : 
Call for a People's Convention. 

At the request of many of our citizens, both republicans and demo- 
crats, we publish, this morning, a call for a convention of the ]>eop]e, 
without distinction of party (who are opposed to the nominations made 
by the late tax-eaters' convention), to ))e held at the Common Comicil 
Chamber, to-morrow afternoon, at 2 o'clock. The friends of the move- 
ment, and all who are in favor of making independent nominations for 
offices to be filled at the approaching Cliarter election, are urgently 
requested to meet at the places named in the call, in their respective 
wards, this evening, and nondiiate six delegates from each ward to the 
city convention. 

No time is now to be lost, and if those who are opjK)sed to allowing 
the city government to ))ass (piietly into the hands of the hungry poli- 
ticians, who controlled the late convention, will oidy act promptly, they 
will be sustained by the masses of our i)eople, the credit of our city 
maintained, and certain defeat will be the doom of the tax-eater. 

The nominees to this convention, held March 301)1, were for 



310 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Mayor, John G. Inbusch ; Comptroller, Cicero Comstock ; Treasurer, 
C. Cotzhausen ; Attorney, DeVVit C. Davis ; Municipal Judge, Albert 
Smith; Clerk, J. B. Zander.* S. S. Daggett was chairman, and Ed. 
Townsend, secretary. 

The regular democratic convention met the same day at the Court- 
house, where the representatives of the democracy arrayed them- 
selves in picturesque order (in the square), and of course the anxious 
candidates improved this opportunity for laying pipe, in which lauda- 
ble employment they all appeared to be ubiquitous. But in the amount 
of craft displayed in the way of button-holeing the delegates. Major 
Foote (or Phut, as the Irish called him,) appeared to distance all his 
competitors, each delegate receiving a hearty hand shaking, as well 
as a knowing wink, from that anxious patriot. 

The convention was finally called tc order by the late Matt. Keogh 
from the First ward, after which Edwin DeWolf, that very intelligent 
school superintendent, was made chairman, and Geo. A. Wardner 
secretary, after which a motion was made that each delegate vote 
viva voce, whereupon one of the delegates arose, and, after blowing 
his nose (he used no handkerchief), spoke unto the august assembly 
as follows : 

Misther Chairman, and I " mane" tliat they name the man [laugh- 
ter]; concurred in, after which the committee on credentials reported 
and were discharged. 

One of the delegates then stated that in his opinion there was 
altogether too much log-rolling going on to suit him, and made a 
motion that all but the delegates be put outside, (carried), but not 
carried into effect, as no one appeared willing to undertake it. 

The balloting resulted in the nomination of H. L. Page, for mayor; 
Erastus Foote, for municipal judge; Henry Hilmantel, for clerk, and 
E. L. H. Gardner! for comptroller. After which they adjourned. 

This convention, like most of the democratic gatherings in the 
olden time, was a scene of noise and sometimes of a '• ruction.'' 
The great part of the confusion at this one, however, grew out of 
the nomination of Erastus Foote for Police Justice. As his case 

* There was a public call for Mr. Lapham to run for Mayor, and for Mr. Zander 
for Clerk. 

f Ezra L. H. Gardner. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER, 311 

came up for ballot when each delegate was to vote viva voce, and at 
the same time " name the man," the first one called answered Old 
Foote, the next one Fut, and the third, who was pretty well set up, 
and had gone to sleep, answered " Here sor." The next, thinking 
he w:.s in a saloon, and that some one was going to set 'em up, 
answered Beer. It was a rich scene. 

The Sentinel of April 6, in commenting upon the nomination of 
Mr. Gardner, had the following : 

For the Sentinel. 
Who Shall be Comptroller? 

Cicero Comstock was our first Comptroller. He took the office when 
the city credit was at its lowest ebb; when city orders were held at fifty 
cents on the dollar, and when the greatest confusion pervaded the city 
finances. Under his administration order was restored and the city 
credit raised tj its highest point, the city bonds were sold at a premium, 
and the expenses of the city government were only fifty-one thousand 
dollars ! 

Under the administration of Mr. Gardiner the old confusion was 
restored, and became worse ^tonfounded; our city bonds went down to 
fifty cents on the dollar, and the annual tax for 1857, over and above 
special taxes, was over four hundred thousand dollars. No man has 
done more than E. H. L. Gardiner to reduce our city to bankruptc}^' 
and render Milwaukee the subject of contempt everywhere. 

And who are the men who support Gardiner and oppose Comstock ? 
The men of spoils — the men of contracts and jobs — men who, under the 
administration of the late Comptroller, could get Street Commissioners' 
certificates countersigned on contracts four years old — the men who 
procured the certificates for cleaning the sewer in the Third ward — the 
men who could procure Street Commissioners' certificates to be coun- 
tersigned, and issued under contracts which had been annulled, or when 
the work had never been done. 

Fellow-citizens! Under the Charter as it now is, all bids for jobs are 
received and opened by the Comptroller. Would you prefer that deli- 
cate duty, where fraud and stealing is so easy, to be confided to E. L. H. 
Gardiner, or to Cicero Comstock ? 

April 4th, 1859. A Taxpayer. 

He was elected all the same. His medicine was too strong, as 
well as the pipes too well laid, and the people had to suffer for a 
while longer. 

The election resulted as follows : 

Mayor — Herman L. Page. 
Treasurer — Moritz von Baumbach. 
Comptroller — E. L. H. Gardner. 
City Attorney— Henry L. Palmer. 
Police Judge — Erastus Foote.* 
Citv Engineer — Fred. Schumacher. 
Deiputy— F. S. Blodgett. 

* The vote for Police Judge stood, Albert Smith, 1,717. Erastus Foote, 8,264. 
C. Walworth, 2,785. 



312 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

City Clerk— Rol)ert B. Lynch. 

Deputy — Alex. Bolton. 

Clerk of Municipal Court— Henry Hilraantel. 

Citv Assessor — Geo. Cogswell. 

Chief of Police— William Beck. 

Bridge .Superintendent — Alanson Sweet. 

Sealer of Weights and Measures — Christian Meyer. 

Citv Printers— (English) .Tas. Kerr. (German) August Kavell. 

Official Papers— (English) DaiUi Neva. (German) ISeehotc. 

Aldermen. 

First ward — Nicholas O'Neil. 
Second ward — .Joseph A. Plielps. 
Third ward — Edward Smith. 
Fourth Avard — Samuel C West. 
Fifth ward — Geo. G. Dousman. 
Sixth ward — .Joseph Philips. 
Seventh ward — Wm. A. Prentiss. 
Eighth ward — J. C. U. Medermann. 
Ninth ward — .J. H. Lippert. 
S. C- AVest, President. 
R. B. Ijvnch, Secretary. 

COUNCILLOBS. 

First ward — John Lockwood, F. JJeineman. 
Second ward — Henry F. Buening, Louis M. Auer. 
Third ward — Frank McCormick, .John McGrath. 
Fourth ward — Alex. A. Johnston, John H.Tesch. 
Fifth ward— John Rosebeck, Henry Kroeger. 
Sixth ward — Ernst Herzer, Carl Busach. 
Seventh ward — William A. Noyes, Victor Schulte. 
Eighth ward — Edward G. Hayden, Frederick Vogel. 
Ninth ward — S. t[. Rueckertt, J. I^aubenheimer. 
W. A. Noyes, President. 
R. B. Lynch, Clerk. 

Council met in Cross's Excelsior Block. 

Commissioners of Survey. 

Herman Haertel, John Ogden, I. E. Goodall, Otis B. Hopkins, S. B, 
Grant, Elisha Eldred, F. Schuma(;her, Andrew Mitchell, D. W. ICeller. 
A. C. Bergeld.* 



Assessors. 



City Assessor — Geo. Cogswell. 
First ward — Stephen Hotf. 
Second ward — Ja(;ob Gintz. 
Third ward — Edward Hackett. 
Fourth ward — Ambrose Elv. 
Fifth ward— Patrick Malleii. 
Sixth ward — Otto Fieburg. 
Seventh ward — ,Jas. Murray. 
Eighth ward — Daniel Keller. 
Ninth ward— Mathias Human. 



* This name is certainly misspelled, as no such name appears in the columns of 
the City Directory for 1S59. 



milwaukkk l'ndkk the charier. ol3 

Justices of the Peace. 

First ward — Jas. B. Turck. 
Second ward — Chas. F. Bode. 
Third ward — William Holland. 
Fourth ward — D. L. Devo. 
Fifth ward— C. C. Meyer. 
Sixth ward — C. Wiehellians. 
Seventh ward — Albert Smith. 
Eighth ward — William A. Tucker. 
Ninth ward — Abram Vliet. 

Constables. 

First ward— Geo. Berkel. 
Second ward — Chas. Neumau. 
Third ward— Patrick Fahey. 
Fourth ward — William Burnes. 
Fifth ward — F. Holziuiier. 
Sixth ward — Edward Klabatz. 
Seventh ward — Gottfried Luther. 
Eighth ward — Nathan Ulman. 
Ninth ward — .Tolin C Maas. 

Railroad Commissioners. 

First ward — .Tohn Fertig. 
Second ward — Bernhard Berchel. 
'I'bird ward — .John Jennings. 
Fourth ward — Chas. Cunningham. 
Fifth ward — Martin Olson. 
Sixth ward — Peter Schram. 
Seventh ward — F. A. B. Becker. 
Eighth ward — Peter Buckhard. 
Ninth ward — A. C. Cron. 

Fire Department. 

Chief Engineer — Thos. H. Eviston. 
First Assistant — John Larkin. 
Second Assistant — Fred. Heineinan. 
Third Assistant — Jas. O. Byrne. 

Fire Wardens. 

First district — William Spence, .John Jveller. 
Second district — C. Dusolt, Hezekiah .Moore. 
Third district— Jas. O'Brien, Jas. Hav. 
Fourth district— C. W. Bierbach, P. .Jacobus. 
Fifth district— Pat. Mullen, A. Hallert.* 

Trustees Fire Department. 

President— William H. Holland. 
Vice President — Henry Middlelon. 
Treasurer — Ch ristian Preusser. 
Collector — C. Reingaas. 

County Oeekeks. 

Shcrilf^Andri'W J. I>angworthy. 
Register of Deeds— Samuel Wiegil. 



* Evidently misspelled. 



314 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Treasurer — Garret Barry. 
Surveyor — John Grepcory. 
Coroner — Duncan C. Reed. 
Under Sheriff— Wm. W. Brown. 

Deputies— John W. Dunlu]), L. Casper, Benj. F. Smith, F. W. Hund- 
hausen, John C. Crilley. 

Supervisors. 

First ward — Nicholas O'Niel. 
Second ward— Joseph A. Phelps. 
Third ward — Edward Smith. 
Fourth ward — Samuel C West. 
Fifth ward — Geo. G. Dousman. 
Sixth ward — Jas. Philips. 
Seventh ward— Win. A. Prentiss. 
Eighth ward — J. C. T". Kiedermann. 
Ninth ward — John H. Lippert. 
Wauwatosa — Andrew Ehle. 
Granville — John Boyd. 
Milwaukee— Chas. Haupe. 
Lake — Peter Yates. 
Greenfield — Peter Lavies, Jr. 
Oak Creek — Richard Hearty. 
Franklin— M. J. Egan. 
M. J. Egan, Chairman. 
Chas. F. Kasten, Clerk. 

Police were the same as 1858. 

School Commissioners. 

First ward — Dennis Culligan and Nelson Ludington.* 
Second ward — C T. Bond and A. J. Langworthy. 
Third ward— Ed. O'Neill and John Shortell. 
Fourth ward — John A. Seger and H. H. West. 
Fifth ward — Duncan C. Reed and Edwin DeWolf. 
Sixth ward — 

Seventh ward — Albert Bade and Rufus King. 
Eighth ward — Geo. B. Bingham and Geo. Burnham. 
Ninth ward — Samuel Brown and Henry Hilmantel. 

Schools. 
There were nine Public and two High Schools, the latter being in 
the Second and Seventh wards, the Principals of which were : 

First ward — A. Markham. 

Second ward — F. W. Spaulding. 

Second ward High School — E. P. Larkin. 

Third ward — Fenimore C. Pomeroy. 

Fourth ward — D. C Davis. 

Fifth ward— J. E. Bateman. 

Sixth ward — H. W. Spaulding. 

Seventh ward — H. B. Coe. 

Seventh ward High School — J. G. McKindlv-f 

Eighth ward— J. Todd. 

Ninth ward — G. H. Dimmick. 

* There were but two from each ward this year. 

f New School. — The New School building, the present Seventh ward, was 
open the first time for pupils January 13th, 1858. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 315 

List of teachers same as in 1858, nearly. There were also eight 
select and secular schools. 

School Census. 

The number of children between four and twenty years of age, as 
shown by a census taken by J. A. Segar, under the direction of the 
school board, in 1859, was as follows: 

1858. 1859. 

Firstward 1,635 1,705 

Second ward 1,.343 1,29:] 

Third ward 1,639 1,588 

Fourth ward 1,390 1,544 

Fifth ward 1,391 1,588 

Sixth ward 1,397 1,254 

Seventh ward 1,584 1,711 

Eighth ward 927 1,292 

Ninth ward 1,998 2,058 

Total 13,304 14,033 

Showing an increase of 629. 

Of this number 6,940 were attending school — 5,133 in the public 
and 807 in private schools, the difference between the census report 
and the school report being 2,162, /. <? , the census showed that only 
5,133 attended the pubhc schools, whUe the school report shows the 
number to have been 7,299. 

Ought to Go to School. 
Signs of the Times. 

Some of the enterprising tradesmen of the Second ward have taken 
natural but not very pretty means to attract the attention of the world 
to their several establishments. One — we presume he is a baker — re- 
cently finished and displayed the following announcement: 



'PISE AND KAKES. 



)) 



Another, in Third street, between Chestnut and Prairie, has the fol- 
lowing shingle: 

" MENS AND POYS CLOTHING. 

And these ought to be whipped soundly : 

Mud Larks. 

We call the attention of our gallant police to a bevy of dirty fairies, 
otherwise "mud larks," thiit infi'st the stairs and laiulin^s of the .SV»/»- 
jiei building, particularly on rainy days. \Vc liave long furchiiriic bring- 
ing them into i)ul)lic notice, feeling sure that some day or other, when 
sliding down those banisters, one of them would break his or her juve- 
nile neck, and then we would ha- e an item. Having waited long 
enough for so devout a consummation in vain, and these little wretches 



316 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

having of late taken it into tlieir precocious no<ldles to besmear the 
hand railing with tar, whenever the spirit moves them, we now ear- 
nestly, pathetically, vaW upon Mr. Beck to transplant them to some more 
congenial locality. 

Chamber of Commerce. 

No. I Spring street. 

President — John Bradford. 

Vice President — Horatio Hill. 

Treasurer — C)rrin E. Britt. 

Secretary — L. L. Crounse. 

Board of Directors — L. H. Kellogg, Amos Sawyer, A. L. Hutch- 
inson, L. Sexton, J. Plankinton, D. Ferguson, E. Sanderson, J. H. 
Crawford and Chas. H. Wheeler. 

Committee of Reference — L. H. Kellogg, O. E. Britt, Wm. B 
Hibbard, Angus Smith and L. J- Higby. 

Standing Committee — S. T. Hooker, F. Lay ton, E. D. Chapin, 
N. G. Storrs, Wm. Young, Robert Eliot and L. W. Weeks. 

Mayor's Report. 

At the last meeting of the old board, held April 15, Mayor Pren- 
tiss presented the following report : 

Gentlemen of the Common Council : 

The term for which we were intrusted with the duties of legislating 
for and protecting the local interests of the people of this city having 
expired, it becomes my duty to declare this common council dissolved; 
but before pnjceeding to make such declaration I deem it not improper 
briefly to refer to the policy and measures which we have labored to 
establish during the past year. In my inaugural address, delivered on 
the 9th day of April last, I stated that the condition of the treasurj^ 
the heavy burdens imposed upon our tax-payers, and the large amount 
of outstanding demands against the city, required as great a reform in 
our expenditures as would be consistent with a wise economy and the 
urgent wants of public service. 

To tills ol)ject I have devoted my energies throughout the year, and 
although retrenchment has not been carried to the extent t desired, 
yet I have contidence to believe that we have set an example of reduc- 
tion in salaries and other expenditures which, if continued, will enable 
the incoming administration still further to reduce taxation for the 
tiscal year ensuing. 

For the ynirpose of showing to what extent the taxes for general city 
and ward ])urposes have been reduced, I append a statement of the 
amount levied for the years 1857 and 1858, by which it will be seen that 
taxation for 1858, on account of the general city and ward expenses, 
has been lessened the sum of 177,725.78. I also append hereto a state- 
ment of claims audited l.>y the city comptroller and claims not yet 
audited, which shows the current expenses of the year for ordinary 
purposes, amounting to $115,147.60. 

The last-mentioned sum covers tlie general city and ward expenses 
for 1858, and the remainder of the taxes, wlien collected, amounting to 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 317 

about $60,000, can be used in payment of the interest and sinking fund 
debt. 

I should have been glad to have reduced the expenditures still further, 
but circumstances render it impossible. 

Statement of taxes levied for general city and ward purposes in 1857: 

Old debt interest fund |!11?,,723 85 

General city fund 48,7.'iS 79 

Sinking fund 32,492 43 

?194,955 07 
For wai"d purposes 109,134 27 

$304,089 34 
Taxes Levied poe the Year 1858. 

For general city purposes S59,037 96 

For old debt, interest and sinking fund 11(),230 99 

For ward expenses 51,094 71 

1226,363 66 

Less in 1858 than in 1857 $77,725 68 

The expenditures for 1858 have been as follows, as appears by the 
comptroller's book: 

General city fund $5,808 86 

Fire department 9,506 49 

Police department 12,211 64 

Bridge tending 2,152 63 

Bridge repairs 5,59] 46 

School houses 7,591 96 

Contingent 1,176 18 

Printing 3,645 96 

Books and stationerv 790 66 

Salaries 8,955 54 

Property, etc 102 83 

Total $57,534 21 

General Fund. 

First Ward $4,450 88 

Second Ward 2,803 06 

Third Ward 8,673 82 

Fourth Ward 3,911 48 

Fifth Ward, 11,267 70 

Sixth Ward 2,514 01 

Seventh Ward 4,289 89 

Eighth Ward 2,646 03 

Ninth Ward 2,056 52 

Total $42,613 39 

Aggregate of city expenses, as above $57,5.34 21 

Agsregate of ward expenses, as above 42,613 39 

Claims in hands of comptroller, not yet 
audited 15,000 00 

Total $115,147 60 

The above amount does not intlude any portion of the interest or 
sinking fund liabilities for the past year. 

20 



318 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

At the time we entered upon the discharge of our duties the munici- 
jml debt of the city exceeded $750,000, and the liabiUties for aid ren- 
dered in the construction of the several railroads leading into the city 
amounted to 11,614,000. 

This heavy and burdensome debt, connected with the previous loss 
of the city credit, rendered all efforts abortive to pla(;e our beautiful 
city in the condition it should stand l)efore the world, in relation to the 
prompt payment of all its obligations; yet I have hopes that if a pru- 
dent system of economy is entered into, and carried out for the next 
four or five years, we shall be able to overcome all the embarrassments 
connected with our financial matters. 

It has been my wish throughout the year to bring the expenses of 
the city to a more rigid basis of economy than had heretofore been 
practiced; but retrenchment is not so easy or agreea))le a policy to es- 
tablish as expansion, and at the commencement of our duties there 
were peculiar impediments which rendered success difficult. 

Among others was the failure on the part of a considerable ])ortion 
of the property-owners to meet promptly the heavy tax levy for 1857, 
thereby placing it out of our power to pay but a small portion of the 
interest debt of the city. I am conscious, however, that I have done 
everything in my power to bring about a restoration of the city credit, 
and am willing that our constituents should decide whether all has not 
been done that could have l^een under the circumstances. 

I feel under great obligations to you, gentlemen, for the kindness and 
courtesy extended to me throughout the year, and the recollection of 
the friendly relations which have existed between us will remain fresh 
in my memory through life. 

William A. Prentiss. 

This report was commented upon by the incoming mayor, the 
late Herman L. Page, in his inaugural, in which the statement was 
made that in place of the indebtedness of the city having been de- 
creased, it had in reality been increased $56,000, without any pro- 
vision for its payment. 

To this statement ex- Mayor Prentiss answered in the Sentinel of 
the 1 6th, in which he gave Mr. Page the lie square, to which Mr. 
Page repHed on the i8th, endeavoring to substantiate his statement. 
This was answered by Mr. Prentiss in a way that effectually silenced 
Mr. Page, and which answer showed Mr. Prentiss to be not only an 
honest man, but a smart one, and one who was not to be put down 
by any little dirty poHtical game like the one attempted by Mayor 
Page. 

Failing in this attack an attempt was then made by the News to 
show that Mayor Prentiss should have discharged the whole police 
force, and made entirely new appointments, claiming that it was an 
inexcusable blunder on his part in not doing so, adding in closing 
that, as to his administration — 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 319 

To late we lind 

It leaves a real sting behind.* 

The Plot Thickens. 

This attempt not panning out just as they expected, another was 
made by the then comptroller, E. L. H. Gardiner, to blacken the 
reputation of the previous administration, by a failure (on his own 
part) to submit the necessary estmiates ($265,244.62) for the fiscal 
year ending April i, i860, for which he claimed the administration 
of 1858 was responsible. The fallacy of this charge was quickly 
shown by Mr. Prentiss, by the following statement. 

City Taxes. 
[For The Daily Sentinel.} 

Mr. Editor:— The city comptroller, on the 25th of last month, sub- 
mitted his estimate of the amount necessary to be levied for city and 
ward purposes for the fiscal year ending April 1, 1860. 

He states that the total valuation of property assessed in the city, is 
$11,694,809.53, and recommends that the following taxes be levied: 

To pay current expenses of city government 159,935 90 

" Interest on municipal debt 59,9.35 90 

" Ward expenses 44,651 82 

" Part for construction of new school houses 5,000 00 

1169,523 62 

The common council in pursuance of this recommendation, have pro- 
ceeded to levy the above taxes, and in addition a school tax of one mill 
on each dollar of the assessment roll for the purpose of paying the ex- 
penses of the public schools in the city for the fiscal year.' The latter 
tax will amount to $11,694.80, making the total levy for general city, 
ward and schools, $181,218.42 Now I can show that this amount does 
not cover the expenses of the city government for the fiscal year by a 
large sum, as a very considerable amount required by law to be levied, 
has been entirely omitted. 

An ordinance passed in August, 1856, and now in force, requires the 
levy annually, of a sinking fund tax, equal to five per cent, of the citj' 
indebtedness, and the amendments to the city charter passed in 1858, 
also provide that the residue of the general city tax, after paying the 
interest on the city debt and general city expenses, shall be applied to 
sink the public debt. By an act of the legislature, passed in 1859, reor- 
ganizing the board of school commissioners in this city, tlie common 
council are required to levy a tax sufficient to pay the overdrafts of the 
school board in 1858, and also a tax sufficient to pay the annual ex- 
penses of the public schools. The levy for these purposes, witli the 

*Mayor I'age had discharged all the men on the force when he came in, and 
placed them, upon being reappointed, under less i)ay, upon which I'oliceman 
Dodge sued the city and recovered a judgment of :J>200, on the ground that the 
pay of a city official could neither be increased or diminished during his term of 
office. And as he was one who held over, that he could not he disciiarged except 
for cause. This being a lest case, the resuh was that the whole force had to he paid 
the same as formerly, thus scoring another for Mayor Prentiss. 



320 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

exception of the one mill school tax, has been entirely omitted. To 
cover all the requirements of the law, it is absolutely necessary that 
taxes be levied amounting to $265,644.62, as will be seen by the follow- 
ing exhibit: 

Old debt interest (being municipal bonds and bank debt) $59,935 90 

General city expenses 59,935 90 

Overdraft of school board (stated by comptroller) 25,834 00 

School expenses of 1859 (estimated by superin- 
tendent, as stated by comptroller $50,075 00 

Deduct a sum equal to the amount received from 
state and county tax in 1858 22,787 00— 27,286 00 

Special tax towards payment of new school houses 5,000 00 

Sinking fund tax required bv law for sinking 
public debt ." $800,000 00— 40,000 00 

Ward tax for all the wards reported by comptroller 44,651 82 



Amount actually necessary for the fiscal j'ear 1859 $262,643 62 

The comptroller says that the amount of tax necessary for this year 
is $61,840.02 less than the tax of 1858, and seems to be highly elated 
with the reform. Tliat his estimate is a fallacy, and a misrepresenta- 
tion of facts, will be seen at once by the foregoing exhibit. Instead of 
the tax necessary to be levied for 1859 being $61,840.02 less than in 1858, 
it is really necessary to levy $84,426.20 more than is estimated for, as 
will be seen from the foregoing statements. In 1858 the general city 
tax levied for interest, sinking fund and current expenses was $175,000; 
for wards, $51,094, making a total of $226,094, being less than what is 
actually necessary this year, $39,550.62. 

The comptroller imputes bad faith to the common council of 1858, by 
charging that it omitted to levy a school tax sufficient to meet the over 
draft of the school board. No such tax could have been legally levied, 
as the amendments to the charter limited the amount to $175^000, and 
this sum would be entirely absorbed in paying the interest on the city 
debt, current expenses of the year and the sinking fund. 

The comptroller also says that '• the failure to pay the interest on our 
bonded debt has been a source of much embarrassment to the city offi- 
cers in retiring the past due bonds in exchange for a new issue. Now, 
it will be recollected that when the common council came into power, 
in April, 1858, a very small portion of the taxes of the previous year 
had been paid, and the ti-easury was empty. 

The preceding administration (Democratic to the core, with the pres- 
ent comptroller as the financial oflScer) had failed to meet the principal 
and interest on bonds which matured in March, thereby striking a fatal 
blow to the city credit, thus rendering the common council of 1858 pow- 
erless in the matter of meeting any city indebtedness. 

Was the administration of 1858 therefore blamable in these matters, 
and is not this whole scheme of levying a tax of only about two-thirds 
of the actual sum necessary for political effect ? I have no doubt that 
it was gotten up and carried through for that sole purpose, but whether 
our tax-payers will swallow the pill thus sugared ovei-'will be deter- 
mined on Tuesday next. Wm. a. Prentiss. 

November 5, 1859. 

The ability, as well as the honesty, that characterized the admin- 
istration of William A. Prentiss, was a terrible ey&-sore to the democ- 
racy. It was the only republican administration (up to that time) 
the city had ever enjoyed, and the exposures it made of the rascal- 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 321 

ities of the democratic leaders, was a hard thing for them to bear. 
Hence their hostiHty. They were extremely anxious to wipe it out, 
but no matter how much they lied, it could not be wiped out, and 
Mayor Page* et al. were put to shame in every attempt they made 
to smirch Mr. Prentiss or his administration. 

They were a lovely crowd, those leaders of the Democratic party 
in 1859. But their feet all slid in due time, and they passed down 
the political incline to obhvion, where those who are now wasting 
their strength in quarreling over the license question and turning the 
meetings of the common council into a pandemonium are sure to 
follow. Verily, the way of the transgressor is hard, and the wages 
of political sin is political death. 

John T. Perkins wants more light and gets it : 

Office of Merchants & Traders' Insurance Co., 
Phcenix Building, Milwaukee, May 6th, '59. 
Mr. John T. Perkixs: — Sir: You ask my opinion of your new Portable 
Gas Lamp. Well, I have used a good many different kinds of light in 
my day, among which are rush lights, sperm candles, tallow candles, 
lard oil, whale oil, caniphene, benzine, lightning Inigs, pine knots, and 
kerosene, everything in fact, from a skillet of soap grease to the morn- 
ing sun, and I say, without hesitation, after three months' trial, that 
your Gas Lamp is the best and cheapest artificial light I ever used. In 
this world I want notliing better, and I'll have nothing else. But if I 
get a little more light in the next, I shall not object. I cannot think of 
anything more to say in favor of your light; if I could, I would say it. 

Yours truly, etc., 

Sidney L. Rood. 

Milwaukee Light Guard Visit New York. 

Excursion op the Milwaukee Light Guard. — The Milwaukee Light 
Guard, Capt. J. C. Starkweather, leave our city, at noon to-day, on their 

* Herman L. Page, who came to Milwaukee from Nunda, Livingston county, 
N. v., in 1844, was a very able man, but like all renegades, was twice as bitter 
in his hostility to the party from which he had deserted, than are those born in 
the fold. He came to us an abolitionist, but having high political aspirations 
(and seeing no other way in which to gratify them) lie forswore allegiance to that 
party and went over to the democracy, body and soul, where, as has been seen, he 
obtained his reward. But as it happens to £^11 who seek political fame, at the ex- 
pense of their self-respect, so it happened to him. His feet slid in due time, and 
he followed his predecessors down the political incline, to that political oblivion 
(rom whence no politician has ever returned or ever will. He was a man of fine 
presence, good business ability, very qu'ck to see any opening where money was 
to be made, and while in office accumulated a handsome fortune. Socially Mr, 
Page was a good representative of the American gentleman, well educated and 
quaUfied to fill any position to which he might be called with credit to himself and 
the community. He was a splendid presiding officer and a prominent Odd Fel- 
low, very ambitious, and ierril)ly aggressive. He died vvhde on a visit to Ger- 
many, I think in 1874 or 1875, '^"'^ ^^ '^'^ °^" request was buried there, I believe 
at Dresden. 



322 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

trip East. They will be accompanied as far as Detroit, and perhaps 
farther, by a number of our prominent citizens and, as is hoped, by the 
Governor of the State and the Mayor of Milwaukee. We trust that 
every member of the M. L. G., while on this somewhat extended tour, 
will bear in mind, that not only the credit of the company, but the 
reputation of our City and State, is more or less involved in the conduct 
of the corps during "their excursion. Milwaukee "expects every man 
to do his duty." 

The following is Capt. Starkweather's order of march: 

Head Quarters Mil. Light Guard, 
May 30th, 1859. 
Order No. 15. 

First — Company and Staff officers, privates and band, will be at the 
Armory on the 6th of June, at 10:30 o'clock a. m. Company will leave 
for the boat promptly at 11:15 a. m. Dress — Full fatigue, white cross 
and body belts, knapsacks and shakos. Fatigue cap will be attached by 
strap to left button of coat at waist in the rear. Overcoats will be packed 
in and covered by flap of knapsack. Musket covers, with brush broom, 
hair brush and comb and six pair of white gloves, will be carried in 
knapsacks. 

Second — Full dress uniform, with white shoulder knots, will be care- 
fully packed in trunk, together with such citizen's clothing as each man 
may desire to take. 

Third — All baggage will be delivered to the baggage master at Armory 
by i»:05 a. m., on 6th June, and names of persons owning same placed 
upon his check book and numbered. 

Fourth — Assessments and subscriptions for trip will be paid to Trea- 
surer before 1 o'clock p. m. of 4th of June. 

Honorary members will i-eport to the Commanding Officer at Armory 
on morning of 6th June at 10:30 o'clock. 

John C Starkweather, Captain. 

Capt. John C. Starkweather Gets a Fall. 

There was a ludicrous incident occurred on the journey, in which 
our esteemed fellow-citizen, Gen. John C. Starkweather (then the 
Captain of the Milwaukee Light Guards) got a bad fall. John 
was proud of his command, and well he might be, for a finer looking 
or a better drilled company could not be found in the West, and of 
course at every town where they stopped, while en route, would put 
them through their paces. Now it happened that the little village at 
the Falls of Niagara lay in their path, and of course they had a 
parade, and while crossing the foot bridge into Canada, ni order that 
Her Majesty's loyal subjects might examine their uniforms, it occurred 
to John that it might be well to see that the boys kept lime, and for 
that purpose he faced about and commenced " advancing backwards" 
when some obstruction caught his heel, causing him to measure his 
length upon the floor of the bridge with a force that came near part- 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 323 

ing the cables, his " shako" landing some twenty feet ahead of him. 
The boys were greatly amused at the mishap, but John wasn't. 

The M. S. Scott Clears for Europe. 

The schooner M, S. Scott, Nelson Blend, master, cleared for 
Europe direct (Liverpool), via the St. Lawrence, May 31, 1859, with 
a cargo of 170,000 feet of oak, black walnut, ash and maple lumber. 
She was owned by John Thorson and M. Fosdick. 

The Scott left Quebec June 30th, and made the run down the river 
at a rapid rate. She was a splendid sailor. The speed she made 
caused the pilot (a Frenchman) to remark In his patois, " By Gar ! 
how de shoer (schooner) do go troo de water." She made the run 
from Quebec to Liveipool in nineteen daysj thirty nine from Mil- 
waukee to Liverpool. 

The Addie also cleared for Providence, R. I , on the 28th, with a 
similar cargo, from the yard of J. C. Stevens, St. Joseph, Mich. 
This cargo was shipped by Messrs. Rufus Cheney and S. C. Hall, 
of Whitewater. 

There was quite a furor about these shipments at the time, many 
beheving that it was to continue, but as the canals were too small at 
that time to allow the passage of any but a small class of vessels, it 
was not repeated. But the time is not distant when it will become a 
regular channel for a large part of the surplus of the West, and will 
prove a much cheaper route than through New York with its re- 
shipments. 

The Germans in America. 

The writer has often been asked by his German acquaintances 
why he does not say something about them and the effect the advent 
of such a vast horde of the descendants of the old Teutonic races, 
with all their national characteristics as well as social customs, so 
different from those of the Puritans, as well as the more liberal and 
free thinking portion of their descendants, will ultimately have upon 
our civihzation. This, although he does not think that the proper 
time for such an attempt has come, or will before the close of the 
present century, if then, he had concluded to do and had prepared a 
short paper upon that subject. But the Milwaukee Sentinel of Oct. 



324 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

9, 1883, contains an article from the pen of Hon. Horace Rublee, 
that, although not lengthy or by any means covering the whole 
ground, he has concluded to insert here as containing much that is 
right to the point, and undoubtedly superior to anything he could 
have written himself, only saying in addition, that for music Ger- 
many beats the world. 

She has also given to the world some of the brightest men it has 
seen as scientists, and is a land where more intelligence is diffused 
among the masses than in any other European State. It is also a 
land where the laws are made to be obeyed and not disobeyed, as is 
too often done in this country. 

The Germans ix America. 

The two-hundredth anniversarj' of the settlement of Germantowu 
was widely celebrated Sunday. Within the past two hundred years 
some ;5,UO(/,0(lO of Germans have come to this country, and witli their 
direct descendants they form about a fifth of the total population. For 
several years we have received more immigrants from Germany than 
from any other country, and there is every reason to believe the annual 
infiux will increase rather than diminish for some years. 

The German thrives in America. With the habits of frugality devel- 
oped by the conditions of life in Germany, he attains to a comfort and 
to a wealth unknown to his class in bis mother country. He has had an 
influence on American social life, and particularly on the political life 
of the country. He has been able to etfect a modification of American 
customs, while his own have undergone a considerable modification. 
The emigrant who comes with a ridiculously short coat, a china pipe, a 
cap and (jueer old boxes, is likely to V^ecome the progenitor of a lusty 
lot of young Americans. There is much in his appearance, in his cus- 
toms and in his clannishness that inspires criticism. But while he is in 
some respects very diiferent from the ideal of the ultimate American, 
he will have very much to do with shaping the destiny of that person. 
It should be remembered that while there is much about the German 
which is not at all to the taste of the American, there is also much about 
the American that is distasteful to the German. There is absurdity for 
absurdity, prejudice for prejudice, and bad habit for bad Ijal^it. 

The conditions of life are so very different in Germany and the United 
Stated tliat we should expect what actually happens — that the people of 
each nationality should criticise the other, and that the Germans, com- 
ing into a strange land, should exhibit more or less clannishness, and 
should resist in a measure the progress of assimilation; that German 
newspapers should be published, although they retard the progress of 
the immigrants toward Americanization; that there should be German 
societies of all kinds, which are only bodies for the obstruction of the 
assimilative process; that the Germans should act more or less together 
in politics — in short, that they should form a distinct class. But in spite 
of these natural exhibitions of exclusiveness — in spite of the difficulties 
in the way of changing the character of their civilization — the progress 
of assimilation goes on steadily and rapidly. With the strongest dispo- 
position to adhere to the customs of the fatherland, with organizations 
based on nationality, and with an unusual measure of political co-opera- 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 325 

tion, the ways of the German's life are greatly modified and often 
entirely changed by the conditions of American life. 

On the other hand, the native-born citizen, in spite of his dislike of 
German customs and his criticism of German frugality, finds his opin- 
ions and his habits modified Ijy contact with Germans. The mutual 
criticisms have a use in producing happv modifications of character. 
As the German abandons the feather bed for the spring bed, as he 
adopts the modern styles of dress and falls into the business ways of the 
country, he also loses some of that spirit of nationality which is forever 
struggling to raise a wall against New World customs. The American, 
in contact with the German, loses something of the feverish restless- 
ness, the aljsurd extravagance and the narrowness in morals which dis- 
tinguish him among the people of the world. The ultimate American 
will gain much from the German, while retaining that which is best in 
the American character. Out of the combination of Americans whose 
nativity dates back several generations, and of later arrivals from Eu- 
rope, will come a magnificent man. 

Whatever may be his immediate influence on the political and social 
life of the United States, the coming of the German is of incalculable 
benefit to this country. He is daily losing such of his peculiarities as 
are not adapted to the conditions of this country. A law of progression 
is w^orking out a future to whicli the presence of the Germans is highly 
essential, and they should be welcomed as important contributions to 
the grandest work of the ages — the evolution of the highest type of 
man. The true friend of the race and of the Germans will labor to 
remove all the obstructions to the speedy Americanization of the immi- 
grants — will frown especially on the political movements calculated to 
hold the Germans together as a body. 

Celebration of the Glorious Fourth. 

The Fourth of July was celebrated this year with the usual amount 
of speech-making, exploding tire-crackers and accidents. 

The following were those who officiated as committee of arrange- 
ments : John S. Fillmore, S. S. Daggett, Caleb Wall, Christ. Preus- 
ser, Thos. H. Eviston, Ed. O'Neill, Dennis Culligan, John Rosebeck, 
Phillip Best and Alex. Johnston. 

A procession was formed consisting of the fire department, the 
Turners, city and county officers, civic societies, " Old Folks," Sons 
of Malta in carriages, Revolutionary soldiers, tlie dragoons (horse 
marines), butchers (mounted), Major-General John L. Hathaway and 
staff, Brigadier-General Best and staff. 

E. B. Wolcolt, marshal. 

The Sentinel, in commenting upon this celebration, has the follow- 
ing puff: 

The Rink-Tum Spoodle-Wh.vngers. 

During the (lay a very amusing calvacade of " fantasticals " made its 
appearance on the streets. Some of the talent and cliivalrv of the City 
of Bricks, mounted on every conceivaI)le modifitation of iiorse and 



326 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

jackass flesh, and attired in satirical and outrageous wardrobes, de- 
lighted to wind their devious way through town, followed by the multi- 
tude, the latter laboring under the clear conviction that after a due ex- 
hibition of fun the former would triumphantly slide out of town on a 
barrel of soft soap, as per announcement. 

However, the company, like a great many others, failed to perform 
all on their bill, and after a kiln-ing display at the Newhall we lost sight 
of them. 

The same paper had the following allusion to that very annoying 
question : 

The Hoci and Cow Question. 

There is a pleasant little village situated on the shores of Lake Michi- 
gan, not two hundred miles from Chicago, with over fifty thousand in- 
habitants. In this village the most distinguishing feature — setting aside 
its bricks — animate and inanimate, is the taste and cultivation displayed 
in the grounds attached to the residences. Another feature of this 
town is its cows and hogs. The two features taken together (and they 
generally are so found) form an interesting subject for statisticians, and 
measures have been taken to secure the invaluable services of our 
friend Caleb Wall to compile the amount of damage sustained by each 
ward through their very foolish practice of voting the freedom of the 
city to such unworthj' animals. 

And thus the war went on, until finally the people called a mass 
meeting at Albany Hall on the 13th, for the purpose of taking some 
action in reference to this intolerable nuisance. 

The meeting was called to order, when Caleb Wall opened the 
ball in a neat little speech, stating, among other things, that the 
meeting was not called, as some claimed, for the purpose of injuring 
the poor man, upon which Pat McGinnis, from the Third ward, 
backed by a crowd of his brother Celts, took the floor, and spake 
unto the august assembly these fearful words : 

Well, now thin, if yees don't want to oppriss the poor, what the 
divil would yees be alter doing the loikes of this for, be jabers. For 
sure what is a poor man or a widdy to do wid her cow or pig, and she 
not the schmell av a pin to kape them in. Why couldn't vees get a 
shilling's worth av nails and a boord and fix up yees' old gate, and not 
be makin' sich a sphlatter as this? 

He was followed by a gentleman by the name of O'Connor, who, 
sans coat, sans collar, sans shirtsleeves, and for the last six months at 
least had been sans razor, felt called upon to take a hand in aiding 
Mr. McGinnis, which he did in a " nate a little spache," that no 
reporter has ever been able to translate, to the great amusement of 
those present (at least the American portion), and to the great joy 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 327 

of Mr. McGinnis et al. Misther O'Connor was followed by Dr. L. 
W. Weeks, who spoke as follows : 

I can speak feelingly on this subject, for I have been soiled and sub- 
soiled and manured. I have yet to' hear one reasonable excuse for such 
an intolerable nuisance. I have kept hogs and cows, and I know by 
experience that it is more expensive to let them run at large than to 
pen them up. The idea of making an agricultural field of our city on 
which to run hogs, cows and pigs, is too preposterous a proposition to 
be entertained. 

Dr. Weeks then gave a scrap of hog history, eloquently pointing 
to the halcyon days when hogs were not allowed on this side of the 
river, and said : 

If our citizen (Mr. McGinnis) of the Third ward is so poor that 
he must pasture his cows on the city, for God's sake let him go out 
four miles where he can get land enough to raise cows and hogs right. 
Tills is a Ijeautiful city and must be kept beautiful. I have planted trees 
three times before my lot, and if I have got to box them up, I will let 
them go; there are two out of fifteen left. 

The cows come the whole length of my sidewalk — drop, drop, all the 
day; and though I instruct a man to clear the path ofi' every afternoon, 
so that ladies and gentlemen may pass by to the church, the same thing 
occurs the next morning. I say this is not to be endured in a city like 
this. It is self-evident that no man has a right to keep property that 
is an injury and nuisance to his neighbors. And I see but one way if 
we want our streets to correspond with our buildings and taxes, and 
that is to take some decisive action immediately. 

After alluding to the excellent regulation in Massachusetts, and 
pointing out the benefits arising therefrom, he said : 

The common council tax us all we can bear, and some more. Shall 
we be taxed and have no protection from the people who pasture their 
cows and hogs upon us ? 

Mr. Aiken then made a few remarks, narrating how he discovered 
a sow in one of the stores down town, with her head in a firkin of 
butter, of which she ate ten pounds. He then read the foUowmg 
resolutions, drafted, he said, immediately after driving two hogs out 
of his yard : 

Whereas, Our city government has long neglected to take proper and 
efficient action in regard to the 8up])ression of the disgraceful nuisance 
of allowing cattle and hogs to run at large in the streets of the city, it 
becomes necessary for the people, in tbeir primary capacity, to act in 
this matter, and demand of their servants such })ublic action as the 
exigencies require and the popular will demands. Therefore, 

Resolved, That the neatness, beauty and good name of the city, as 
well as the interests and convenience of its citizens, demand that an 
ordinance be at once passed and enforced that shall entirely and for- 



328 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

ever rid the streets of all hogs, cows, and other animals found at large 
therein. 

Resolved, That the daily destruction of trees, shrubbery, gardens 
and yards, by tlie hogs and cows that roam at large over the city, is so 
extensive arid annoying that our city government cannot delay action 
longer without forfeiting all claim to act as the representatives of the 
people and the conservators of the public good. 

Resolved, That no argument can be brought against the action re- 
quested, that cannot be brought in favor of stealing and piracy; for the 
man who will allow his cows and hogs to forage upon nis neighbors' 
trees and shrubs, is worse than the thief who robs our houses of that 
which money will readily replace. 

Resolved, ' That such members of the council as favor the passage of 
a strict ordinance on this subject are requested to press the matter to a 
vote, that we may know who represent the people and who represent 
the hogs. 

Resolved, That when this meeting adjourn, it adjourn subject to the 
call of the chairman in event immediate action is not taken Vjy the com- 
mon council. 

The above were adopted tremendously if not unanimously, not- 
withstanding the fortunate possessors of public cows, Mr. McGinnis 
and friends, united in a very savage yell of " No." 

I was present at this meeting, and remember the fun we had there. 
It was the first regular blast against the cows and hogs, and culmi- 
nated finally in their expulsion from the city. 

Editorial Sparring. 

There was a sensational item sent to the Sentinel concerning an 
accident said to have occurred on the raging Milwaukee, by which 
William E. Cramer came near going to Davy Jones' locker, to which 
the Sentinel made the following reply : 

The gross story sent us by an evil-minded person, that our friend of 
the WxHconsin^ while rowing on the river, came near losing his life, be- 
cause there was a weak spot in the vessel and he put his foot in it, is 
not true. The latter part of the "yarn" is especially incredible — that 
he only saved the lives of the party by putting his head in the hole un- 
til they were pulled ashore, thus stopping the leak. We don't believe 
that would have stopped it. 

It would appear from this that General King had some doubts 
about Mr. Cramer's head holding water. 

The Horse Railroad. 

There was a horse railroad called for in August, this year, upon 
which, as usual, some chronic individual, who evidently was not 
friendly to the enterprise, went for it like a bull at a red flag, and 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 329 

who, if alive to-day, would advocate it as strongly as he opposed it 
then. 

Ground was first broken for this road on the 28th of November, 
1859. See annexed : 

City Railroads. 

Mr. John Myers, the engineer and contrac^tor for our horse railroads, 
will break ground on Monday for the road on the east side of the river. 
Commencing about a hundred feet from Walker's Point bridge, the 
track will be laid up East Water street to Wisconsin, and up Wisconsin 
street past the post-office. It is not yet decided what street the road 
will follow from Wisconsin street north. 

The first trip on the new horse railroad was made from the foot of 
Wisconsin street to Jefterson, up Jefferson to Biddle, up Biddle to 
Van Buren, up Van Buren to Division, up Division to Prospect, up 
Prospect to Albion, May 30, i860, cars (first trip) drawn by four 
horses. The earnings the first day were $38;* earnings Sunday, June 
10, $168.10. 

Sam Platt Gets a Bible. 

Prksentatiox. 

Last evening a very pleasing affair came off at the Newhall. A select 
number of friends assendded in one of the parlors, the occasion l)eing 
the presentation of an elegant BiVjle to S. K. Platt (formerly ticket 
agent of the Milwaukee & Mississippi Railroad), bearing the following 
inscription on one of the clasps: "To Sam Keyes Platt, by Messrs. 
Wm. Taintor, H. (). Wilson, E. H. Brodhead, Fred. West and H. C. 
Taintor." In presenting the book Mr. Taintor made a few pertinent 
and feeling remarks, which were happily responded to by Mr. Platt. 

I remember Mr. Platt very well. He was a genial fellow, loved 
good cheer and all that it implies, and probably needed that Bible. 
He left here long ago, but some of his former boon companions are 
on the " war path " yet. Sam must have enjoyed that Bible 
muchly. 

John Lewis appointed flour inspector, the first one appointed, July 
23 ; fees, 2 cents per barrel. 

John Rosebeck on the War Path. 

A Jolly Councillor. 

Councillor Rosebeck is an ambitious Councillor, and withal a humor- 
ist. Not content is Rosebeck with tiie monotonous line of duty marked 
out in the "order of proceedings" of the honorable body. He boldly 



*The writer was one of the party who rode to Prospect street on this trip. 



330 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

marks out an entirely original path of his own. Instance the following 
from the official report of the last meeting of the Board: 

Councillor Rosebeck offered the following: 

Whereas, The dignity of all men rests on the pillars of honesty, and 
as the press should be looked up to as the maintainers of that principle, 
which has, to a certain extent, as yet been a failure in this city, " espe- 
cially by the Sentinel and its reporters." 

Therefore, This Board is in duty bound to protest against all foul or 
rotten machines, which the Sentinel has always so readily furnished; 
and this Board can't stand any longerthe encroachments of such; there- 
fore be it 

Resolved, That this Board has the fullest right of cleaning, cleansing 
and ordering out, all such as have been guilty of any such offences; and 
in case they do not leave on request shall be waited upon by the police, 
as the honor and dignity of this Board must be preserved. 

On the motion of Councillor McCormick, it was referred to the Com- 
mittee on Taxes and Committee on Licenses. 

As our readers probably never heard of Councillor Rosebeck before 
(and those who read the alcove will scarcely want to hear from him 
again), we will volunteer to throw a little light on the origin of the 
emanation we have quoted. Some weeks ago Councillor Rosebeck vol- 
unteered a heavy speech on a very light subject, and the Sentinel re- 
porter, appreciating as he supposed the humor of the thing, published 
the speech verbatim, which was as follows: 

On the question to refer. Councillor Rosebeck spoke as follows: 

I hope, Mr. President, this ({uestion won't be referred. I don't see 
why we shouldn't take the bull by the horns; we have handled about 
these lords long enough, and it's time they was told to mind their own 
business. Some of the honorable members maybe is afraid, but I ain't. 
I don't think there is nothing to be afraid of; and I hope the resolution 
will be adopted. Motion to refer carried. 

To this undue publicity of the irate Councillor's speech, we owe his 
after-clap of Municipal wrath. The facetious old gentleman spent half 
a day or more in running after the reporter, denounced his own words 
as "an undue persecution," and threatened to stop the publication of 
the paper, by virtue of some peculiar attributes of his own, unless an 
extra edition was got out, retracting the fact. Councillor Rosebeck is 
duly impressed with a salutary sense of the awful dignity of his posi- 
tion. Unfortunately, no one else is. Councillor Rosebeck is peculiarly 
sensitive. Publicity galls him, and the reflection of hisown sentiments 
hurt his feelings. Councillor Rosebeck, as a man, undoubtedly is an 
extra tine fellow, we don't doubt it for a moment, but as a Councillor, 
we apprehend, not only in the eyes of his more intelligent fellow-mem- 
bers, but to the ])ul)lic at large, he will be regarded henceforth and for- 
ever as — to use the words of a popular writer — an " unmitigated ass." 

Uncle John Rosebeck, who is yet alive, was a wind-mill of no 
small dimensions, and kept the pot a-boiling while the boys looked 
on. This speech was a fair sample of his forensic abilities. 

Navigation. 

The new steamers, the Milwaukee and Detroit, arrived August 28, 
upon which there was a great torch-light procession. This wa.s a 
great day for Milwaukee. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 331 

The Milwaukee was under the command of William S. Cross and 
the Detroit of James McBride. 

They were great favorites while they lasted, but had their day, and 
Hke their gallant commanders have passed away, while other boats, 
as well as other men, have taken their places. They were too ex- 
pensive as well as somewhat unfortunate, the Milwaukee going 
ashore November 29 at Grand Haven, getting off again December 
24. They were better fitted for the ocean than the lakes. 

An Affair of Honor. 

Among the amusing scenes occurring in the olden time was an 
affair of honor, growing out of a dispute over bilhards. See an- 
nexed : 

The Card- Writer in Trouble. 

The card-writer Morrison, who was initiated into the mysteries of the 
1001 when he first came here, last evening, we understand, got a glass 
of ale applied to him externally, and the glass which contained the 
contents came in collision with his hat, and projected it violently out 
doors into the street. It occurred at a billiard room, and arose from 
the card-writer audaciously giving the lie to a gentleman he had been 
playing billiards with. Otherwise Morrison was uninjured, and to-day 
he 18 as serene and tranquil as ever. 

Mr. Morrison was of course very indignant when he saw this, and 
answered thusly : 

Mr. Morrison Becomes Indignant and Indites a Card — A Duel on 

THE Carpet. 

Having mentioned yesterday, as an instance of what is occasionally 
going on in the way of pugilism that does not get into the police court, 
the circumstance of the well known card-writer having been roughly 
treated by a gentleman he had been playing billiards with, because he 
gave him the lie, Mr. Morrison writes us to-day that some of our details 
were untrue. The main facts, however, which he does not deny, stand 
out in glaring and terrible proportions, and this being so the details are 
of but little consequence comparatively. We fear the affair is likely to 
become one of national importance, for Mr. Morrison informs us that 
he has been challenged by his antagonist, and he has accepted the 
challenge, and selected pistols at ten paces, and his antagonist can 
name the place and time. Mr. Morrison lias evidently got I)loo(l in 
him, and don't mean to be hoodMinked. We publish his card with 
pleasure : 

"August 18, 1850. 
'^Editor Wisconsin: Sir — I contradict the statement in your paper that 
the card-writer was initiated into the order of ],(i01, and that my hat 
was, as you say, projected into the street the evening alluded to, or 
even knocked ou my head. 



332 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

"I therefore ask you to bring proof to the contrary, or admit that you 
have published what is untrue, and what has been basely concoctecl to 
injure me. Yours, etc., S. H. Morrison." 

J^°"The duel will certainly come oflF if the parties can evade the city 
oflicers. 

As the boys saw fun ahead in this affair, in order that it might not 
fall through, sent Mr. Morrison the following : 

Mr. M. — Dear Sir: The public insult you gave me last evening, even 
after the rough handling I gave you on the spot, is not yet sufficiently 
atoned for. I therefore demand of 5'ou the satisfaction due to a gentle- 
man, and if you are one you will arrange the preliminaries with my 
friend, the bearer. Smith. 

Mr. Morrison's reply : 

My Dear Sir : I consider myself as much of a gentleman as you are, 
and stand ready to give you any satisfaction that you may require as a 
gentleman in a manly way. I choose pistols at ten paces, the time and 
place to be appointed by you. Yours, M. 

Reply of J. S.: 

Your weapons suit me. I therefore select, through my friend, a very 
appropriate distance from the city on the shore of Lake Michigan, at 7 
p. M. this evening. My friend will arrange as to the precise localitv. 
And while upon this subject it seems proper for me to give you a little 
wholesome advice now, as I may possibly never have the o])portunity 
again. Firstly, that Ijy strict attention to your legitimate business of 
card-writing and penmanship you can make a l)etter living and more 
friends than as a billiard expert; and, second, do not confine your stu- 
dies in the English language to the labels on brandy Ixjttles alone, as 
that was the main cause of your using the language for which I have 
called you to account. Yours truly, S. 

The duel was fought upon the lake shore, between Mason and 
Oneida streets. At the hour appointed the parties were placed in 
position, lacing north and south. This was afterwards changed to 
one east and west, as it was considered too dangerous to fire into the 
city, particularly with the ammunition their pistols contained (hom- 
oeopathic pills). Finally, after all was satisfactorily arranged, the 
fatal word was given, when crack went the pistols, and both fell. 
A stream of blood (red ink) at once flowed from the breast of Smith. 
This, however, did not frighten Morrison in the least, nor did he run, 
as he was strongly advised to do. But he was finally persuaded to 
retire and await the effect of Mr. Durand's wound, which enabled 
that gentleman to get oft" the field unobserved, after which the fol- 
lowing appeared in the News : 



milwaukee under the charter. 333 

The Duel on the Lake Shore. 

Cards from Morrison, the Card Writer. 

Morrison, the young man who so nobly defended his honor upon the 
gory duelino; field, Thursday night, requests us to publish the following 
(iards, which are particularly aimed and directed at Brick Pomeroy. 
We must say Brick has got his match in Morrison, and Morrison means 
every word of what he says. Morrison calls Brick a sardine, a dough- 
head' (Morrison spells dough, doe) and other crushing epithets, and says 
D. (the enemy of Morrison) has Iwught tip Brick with a glass of whisky, 
to injure him. Things are working up hot between Brick and Morrison, 
and to set the matter right before the public, w^e publish Morrison's 
statement: 

Milwaukee, Aug. 20, 'oi). 

Editor of News — Sir: I saw in your paper of yesterday, a gross mis- 
statement of facts relative to the duel of last evening. 

It is not true that I said my hand was more used to writing cards, and 
proposed to wait until morning. It is not true that after having fell my 
antagonist, I ran up the lake shore, or any where else. Nor will I 
shrink from my duty under any circumstance or at any time, when 
called upon the field to vindicate my honor. 

Now, sir, I hereby reciuire you to make a public retraction of the 
libels you have given publication to. And it is my opinion that if you 
can find nothing with which to fill up your columns without publishing 
gross falsehoods about a persou who comes amongst you as a citizen 
seeking a livelihood in an honorable way, you had better discontinue 
your publication. 

Morrison. 



Editor of Wisconsin — Sir: The above is a copy of the letter sent to 
the editor of the News, which he refused to publish, because it was not 
signed by a responsible name. I consider my name responsible for 
anything I write, which is more than the editor of the News can say, as 
he denies being present at the encounter between Mr. Durand and my- 
self, which is false, as I can prove by responsil)le men that he was 
present. He also accuses me of running, which is untrue, and I can 
prove beyond doubt, and I will here state to Brick Pomeroy, that unless 
he makes a full retraction of what he has written prejudicial to my 
character, he will have an opportunitv of finding out whether I will run 
or not. I have an idea that Brick's eyes were not straight, or that he 
was not in prr)per shai)e to judge of my shooting when he stated that I 
shot around a Imnk. 

Certainly, he must be green in the use of fire arms, and green gener- 
ally not to know whether a pistol will shoot around or straightforward. 

S. M. IMORKISON. 

Mr. Editor: You will confer a favor by publishing the above letters. 

M. 

This closed the scene, and with the exception of the celebrated 
duel between F. A. Wingfield and Egbert Herring Smith, mentioned 
in Vol. I., page 170, of the author's Pioneer History, is the only one 
ever fought in the city. Both were of the hoiiKjcopathic order — red 
ink and beet juice being the only blood spilt in both cases. 



2 I 



334 milwaukee under the charter. 

The Way He Sang It and the Way It Reads. 

A man goes about the streets of Milwaukee at nights, with a bull's-eye 
lamp stuck in his breast like an overgrown glow-worm, and chants, in a 
snappish manner, popular airs while be grinds. Last evening he drew 
up near the Sentinel office and discoursed the following eloquent and 
touching language : 

Thas man af laf as pas, 
An efen cam as las. 

As pring mas das treem af was hafFy das; 
Af man fas as sas. 
Upon das villach kreen. 

Spatas mit das poor das tra. 

Upon buying a copy of the ballad we managed to make out the fol- 
lowing, which is a literal translation: 



^o> 



The morn of life is past, 
And even's come at last. 

It brings me a dream of a once happy day; 
Of the many forms I've seen, 
Upon the village green. 

Sporting with my poor dog tray. 

Many will no doubt remember the old musician of 1859. 

How A Milwaukee Carpenter Got a Floor Taken up at the 
Blue Warehouse, in October, 1859. 

Tlie annexed sketch gives a full description of this aftair, as well 
as to illustrate the ventriloquistic powers of Mr. Davis, who is yet 
living, as is also the boss of the gang who did the work (Owen Goss), 
who swears a little occasionally, even now, when reminded of it, and 
insists that Mr. Davis ought to pay for that work. But Davis says, 
not a red. 

How TO Take Up a Floor. 

Not many days ago, one of the large warehouses, near Walker's Point 
Bridge, had to be elevated several feet, and the job necessitated the 
taking up of the floor. Our friend Davis, not of omnihi celebrity, but 
of the Camera obscura notability, superintended this portion of the 
work. Davis is a noted ventriloquist, and it occurred to his fertile 
imagination that the gang of Milesians might be imbued with a zeal as 
novel as it would be efficacious, by a little display of his vocal abilities. 
It so happened that there was a lar^e hole in the'floor, already cut, and 
as the crowd of hod-carriers, armed with crow-bars and axes, gathered 
about it and peered down into the dark depths, a voice of stifled anguish 
came up, and palsied them. 

" Och, murdtheration, isn't there anyuv yee's '11 be afther getting me 
out of this hole, before I'm kil't entirely. Och hone; oh Mary, Mary, 
the blissed vargin, have pity on the likes of me!" 

"What's that?" said the crowd of brawny diggers. 

" Be Dom, an there's a man benathe the floor," ejaculated the wises, 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 335 

" Be lively, boys — an ye's wouldn't be shtandin in that way, if ye's wur 
in his fix, shure." 

Two of them l)rought a girder and inserted it beneath the flooring, 
and tore the ])oards up after the manner of a streak of lightning. 

" Can ye's get out now, ye shpalpeen?" 

" Och, ye're not anywhere near me," replied the incarcerated voice, 
in a weaker tone. 

" And where the divil are ye, any way?" 

" Oh for the love of Saint Patherick couldn't vis lower me down a wee 
dhrop o' whisky, before the breath laves me inthirely." 

The effect of this appeal was not lost; the boards flew from the old 
floor like lath, and the sympathizing Irishmen worked as though their 
own lives depended on their exertions, keeping up a continual strain of 
consolation to the miserable wretch, such as, 

"We're afther rachin ye now; be aisy, me boy; or what in bloody 
murther brought ye beneath the floor?" 

Just before the necessary lumber was all removed, the secret leaked 
out in some way, and the shower of choice epithets which fell about the 

gerson of the Cameraman, can be better imagined than printed. But 
'avis declares it was the "quickest taken up" floor he ever had any- 
thing to do with. 

The Eagle Mill. 

Prominent among the various establishments for the manufacture 
of flour, located upon what was formerly known as the " Water 
Power,"* and not previously mentioned, stands the Eagle Mill of 
John B. A. Kern & Son. This mill was originally founded by Col. 
John Andersont and Doct. Erastus B. Wolcott, who, in 1844, erected 
the frame building yet standing at the foot of Poplar street (now 
Spring Avenue), known subsequently as the Bertschy Mill, and 
which went into operation October ist of that year. This pioneer 
institution was known as the Anderson and Wolcott Mill until 1846, 
when it was sold to Jacob Bertschy, formerly of Sheboygan, by 
whom it was christened the Eagle Mill, and who with his son, John 
Bertschy, continued to operate it until 1855, when Jacob Bertschy 
died, and the business was continued by John Bertschy until 1859,! 



* The old Canal, alias "the water power," has, during i883-'85, been filled 
up, and its former bed converted into a street, to be known as Commerce street, 
thereby obliterating every trace of what was once intended as the eastern leiminus 
of the contemplated, but never constructed, Milwaukee & Rock River Canal. 
A project that, from the day of its inception in 1837, to its final decease in 18S5, 
has been a continual source of litigation between its projectors and those who 
were unfortunate enough to own leaseholds under its officials. And its death is 
not lamented. Sic transit. 

f Col. John Anderson constructed both the Canal and the first dam in 1842 
and 1843. I remember him well. He died at Racine the present year, 1885. 
Peace to his memory. 

X I find it stated in the History of Milwaukee, issued by the Western Historical 
and Publishing Company, of Chicago, in 1881, that Mr. Kern (wlio came in 1858) 



336 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



when the subject of this sketch, and Frederick Bertschy, a younger 
son of Jacob (formerly teller in the Second Ward Bank), purchased 
the property of the estate (John retiring), and continued the business 
under the title of Bertschy & Kern. 




f ;«Va»7W.£^ff ^/^ 



The annexed cut is ■A.fac shnile of this pioneer flouring mill, as it 
appears to-day, March i, 1886, except as to the warehouse seen in 
the rear, which was not put on until after the mill passed into the 
possession of Messrs. Bertschy .& Kern. 

l"he new firm commenced with three run of stone, a large mill for 
those days, (there had previously been but two,) their average daily 
out-put being about 200 barrels. This continued until 1861, when 
Fred. Bertschy retired and John became a partner, Fred, erecting a 
new mill on River street, now known as the Gem Mill, where he con- 
tinued to do business until his death, a few years later.* 



was not a partner until 1861. This is incorrect, as he came from Philadelphia, 
where he had previously been in business, for the express purpose of taking .in 
interest, he having, in 1855, married Miss Lena Bertschy, and whose interest, in 
connection with his own, he also represented. 

* Frederick Bertschy was a wide-awake, go-ahead fellow, full of life and ambi- 
tion. I remember him well. He did a large, but not a very profitable business 
in that mill for several years. He never liked to be interested in anything he 
could not control, and always wanted his own way. Hence the dissolution in 1861 . 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



337 



The new partnership (/. <?., with John Bertschy) continued until 
1866, during which the business was pushed to the utmost hniit of the 
old mill, when Mr. Kern, becoming satisfied that there was a bonanza 
concealed in the milling business if properly handled, and wishing 
to paddle his own canoe, dissolved the partnership, and as more 
room was wanted, the present location, foot of Vliet street, was se- 
cured and a building, 40x130, the nucleus of the present structure, 
erected thereon, into which he put seven run of stone, an immense 
mill for those days, and the real work of his life as a miller began. 
He now pushed the business for all there was in it, and commenced 
to make money rapidly. 

Indeed, such was his success, that three additional run were added 
before the close of the first year, and as the business continued to 
mcrease additions were not only made to the mill, but run after run 
of stone were added, until the number reached thirty-five, making it 
one of the largest, if not the largest, mills in the country. 




i^JLoSRrjGMrLLS, 



if ft 

«'HNB.AT<E-i 

it fti 



fit fit W. 



* Son"- " ' , 

II 1 1111 D 



tllJ;ttt|tiU> 

[All & :& d -ft- A -*1 f, .-=i,7'.i J ^-Kt 






si^ 



This continued until the introduction of the roller system in 1878, 
when, notwithstanding all this vast outlay then just completed, the 
whole interior was again remodeled, as well as the mill itselt enlarged 
until, in place of the original plant of 40x130 and two stories in 
height, it has grown to the mammoth proportions of i Sox 135, with 
a height of six full stories (see cut), and has in operation 150 sets of 



338 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

the patent rollers (or crushers), besides eleven of the original thirty- 
five run of stone, employs 125 men, and has a daily capacity of 
1,500 barrels of flour. 

Such, in brief, is the history of the founding, growth and present 
status of the Eagle Mill of John B. A. Kern & Son, the largest pri- 
vate institution of the kind in the city, and one which has a record 
for manufacturing a brand of flour that few other imills in the coun- 
try have ever equalled, and which none have excelled. 

Personnel. 

John Baptiste Adolph Kern, whose business history has ju?t been 
given, is of ihe medium height, stoutly built, and must, when in his 
prime, have possessed wonderful powers of endurance. He is a 
man of great energy and mdustry, and keeps things moving. He 
has a large head, face slightly oval and beardless, a florid complexion, 
auburn hair and blue eyes, and is one of the most even-tempered 
men in the city. His executive abilities are of a superior order, as 
his success fully shows, and, like Plankinton or Newhall, will go long 
or short on wheat, real estate or stocks for almost fabulous amounts 
with a nonchalance that is wonderful, and whether on the winning 
side or not his countenance will always retain the same mobile ex- 
pression. 

He is not much of a talker, dislikes all kinds of sham, as well as 
change, and has men in his employ who have been there from boy- 
hood, and in whom he has implicit confidence. He greets every 
one with a pleasant nod, has an unusually pleasant voice, and carries 
within his breast a heart full of the milk of human kindness. 

He IS very conscientious, careful of what he says as well as what 
he does, loves justice, hates deceit as well as unfair or dishonest deal- 
ing, and if once deceived by any person will have nothing more to 
do with that person. 

In poHtical faith he is an independent, and his reHgion is the 
Golden Rule, to which he adheres in all his dealings as closely as it 
is possible for a business man to do and five. 

The writer has been acquainted with Mr. Kern since he first came 
to our city, during all of which time he has watched him very 
closely, and will venture the assertion that few business men can be 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 339 

found who can show a cleaner record for honesty, probity and busi- 
ness ability than can he. 

He has raised himself, unaided by friends, from poverty to afflu- 
ence, from obscurity to prominence, and is justly entitled to be 
ranked as one of Milwaukee's solid and most respected representa- 
tive business men and useful citizens. 

He was born at Bavaria, Germany, September 29, 1829. 

The Phcenix Mill, of Sanderson & Co. (Edward Sanderson and 
Isaac Van Schaick), is the next in size, it having a capacity of 1,400 
barrels, and, like the Eagle, has been remodeled until scarcely a trace 
of its original shape can be seen. 

This mill was founded by Cicero Comstock in 1848, who put it in 
operation with two run of stone, and of whom it was purchased by 
WiUiam and Edward Sanderson. William died in 1868, since which 
time it has been operated and known as the PhcEnix Mill, of E. San- 
derson & Co., and, like the Eagle, has made a good record as well 
as a large amount of money for its enterprising owners. 

Edward Sanderson, the senior member of this well known miUing 
firm, is a man of wonderful energy and business capacity, and has 
from the day of his landing in Milwaukee to the present time been 
one of the most influential as well as successful millers in the West, 
and is now, although entering upon his autumnal years, as full oi 
energy and ambition as when he first came. He was also one of 
the first to help organize the present board of trade, and has always 
been among its most prominent and successful operators. 

Like Plankinton or McGeoch, he will go long or short for large 
amounts, and is almost invariably found upon the winning side. He 
has a nerve like steel, and a will that stops at nothing short of ac- 
complishing all he undertakes. There is no compromising with him. 
His perception is quick. He is also quick to tlecide, prompt to act 
and, like James Kneeland, always acts upon his own judgment. 

In pohtics he is a Republican, and the acknowledged leader of the 
party in Milwaukee. He is a good wire-puller, a born diplomat, and 
understands the modus operandi of running a campaign perfectly, 
is a hard man to beat, and has doubtless spent more time, as well as 
money, for the benefit of the party than any other one man in the 
county, if not in the state. He has hosts of friends, and outside of 



340 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 




politics, as far as the writer knows, no enemies. He is generous to 
a fault, and has the respect and confidence of his fellow-citizens of 
all classes and creeds, lias made a good record, and is justly entitled 
to rank among Milwaukee's solid men. 

The third in rank of the pioneer mills, located upon the water 
power, )iee old Rock River Canal, was the one originally called 
the Kilbourn Mill, built in 1850. This mill has passed through many 
changes. From Mr. Kilbourn it passed to the late Col. Amos Saw- 
yer, who operated it with fair success until his death, February 16, 
1878, after which it was sold to Edward Sanderson and Edward P. 
Allis, who converted it into a Roller Mill at a cost of $100,000, 
christened it the " Daisy," and who operated it in partnership for a 
short time, when Mr. Allis purchased Mr. Sanderson's interest, placed 
L. H. Hurd* (to whom he had sold a fourth interest) in charge as 



* Lou H. Hurd. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



341 




manager, who built up a large business, and who continued to run it 
until December 8th, 1885, when it, together with its cr)ngener the 
Empire, was burned. 

Thus, one by one, through fire's destructive power. 
Two early landmarks perish in an hour. 

But, nothing discouraged, Messrs. AUis & Hurd purchased the 
New Eia Mill, erected in 1880 by B. Stern, foot of Washington street, 
which they are remodehng and converting into a 1,000 barrel mill, 
and which will doubtless, under the wise management of Mr. Hurd, 
fulfill all the expectations of its owners. 

The cuts here here given represent this pioneer mill as it appeared 
both before and after the fire, adjoining which, on tlie north, can be 
seen a portion of the old Empire Mill. The small frame, seen in the 
foreground, is the ofifice of the Daisy. 

Sanger, Rockwell & Co. 

Among the establishments devoted to the manufacture of building 
material, and which from small beginnings has grown to mammoth 
proportions, is the sash, door and blind factory of Messrs. Sanger, 



342 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Rockwell & Co., northeast corner of Park street and Sixth Avenue. 
This firm is composed of Casper M. Sanger, Henry H. Rockwell, 
and Chas. H. Moss, and commenced business at the present location 
in 1873, with a cash capital of $40,000. Mr. Sanger, who was wholly 
unacquainted with the business, placed Mr. Rockwell (in whose 
capacity he had the utmost confidence) in charge as manager, and 
through whose good management it has grown to its present status. 

This factory was founded in 1858, by the late John Hiles, the 
original plant bemg a small frame building located upon the north- 
west corner of Reed and South Water streets, in which was a planmg 
mill and a basket factory. Here it remained until July 12, 186 1 
when the mill was burned. Shortly after this disaster Mr. Hiles 
formed a partnership with the late Truman H. Judd, and a new one 
was erected upon the same site, where they did business for a short 
time, when the ground bemg wanted for a railroad yard, the buildings 
(or a portion of them) were removed to the southwest corner of West 
Water and Clybourn streets, where they carried on the business, add- 
ing thereto that of manufacturing sash, doors and bhnds. Here they 
made money rapidly until March 19th, 187 1, when the whole plant 
was destroyed by fire. This dissolved the partnership, after which 
Mr. Hiles built the original plant at the corner of Sixth Avenue and 
Park streets, which was first put in operation in 1872, and operated 
by Mr. Hiles until his untimely loss by the sinking of the Ironsides 
September 15th, 1873, after which the plant passed into the posses- 
sion of Messrs. Sanger, Rockwell & Co., as stated above. 

The capacity of this now immense establishment has been increased 
as business increased, until the original plant of 50 by 80 feet, with a 
height of two-stories, has grown to 220 by t8o feet, with a height of 
three-stories, and with a daily capacity of 1,000 doors, or its equiva- 
lent, and a working force of 300 men and boys. 

This is the largest establishment of this kind in the State, and their 
work is sent to all the Western States and Territories, including 
Oregon. This plant has proved a bonanza to its enterprising pro- 
jectors, and they are pushing it for all there in it. Casper M. Sanger, 
the senior partner, is a man of wonderful energy, and has large in- 
terests in several other ventures to which he devotes most of his time 
(viz :) milling and mining, in all of which he is successful as a rule. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 343 

He is also quite a politician, and has been one of the few who have , 
held up the hands of Moses (to use a metaphor) in the struggle 
between the democracy and the republicans for supremacy in Wis- 
consin. He is a staunch republican, and will back his friends with 
substantial aid when required. He is a splendid friend, large hearted 
and generous, a model father and citizen. He is fond of a good 
horse, and is never without one. 

Mr. Rockwell is of a more quiet demeanor, does not love excite- 
ment, but prefers to run their factory, the details of which to the 
merest minutire he carries in his mind. Neither is anything likely to 
go wrong where he presides. His eye takes in at a glance all that is 
being enacted around him, whether it is his own business or not. 
He is, although a republican, not a politician, and wants no office. 
He is no talker, has no time to waste, attends strictly to business, 
decides a matter quickly, seldom changes his mind, or plans, and in 
this firm is the right man in the right place. 

Mr. Moss, the junior partner, attends to carrying out the details of 
the work, both in and out of the factory, and is also the right man 
in the right place and, like his co-workers in this plant, is coining 
wealth very rapidly — the sure result where all the members of a 
firm in any business conduct their aftairs as do the Messrs. Sanger. 
Rockwell & Co. (/. e.), each take a part, for the success of which he 
is held responsible, and then pull together. 

The Brewing Industry. 

But the industry which, as to time, magnitude and amount of 
capital invested, has overshadowed all others, is that of brewing, or 
the manufacture of malted or fermented drinks, more particularly 
that of lager beer, the introduction of which into this country, it is 
claimed, is due to the advent of the Germans. This may perhaps 
be true as to the West, but certainly not as to the East, as our Puri- 
tan fathers, notwithstanding the rigidity with which they enforced 
their peculiar religious tenets upon all who came within their juris- 
diction, were not temperance men, neither were they innocent of the 
manufacture of both malted and distilled liquors, as he who investi- 
gates will not only find that in addition to the early erection of dis- 
tilleries for the manufacture of New England rum, that a malting ap- 



344 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

paratus and brewing kettle also formed an important item in the 
household effects of every respectable New England family in Colo- 
nial times, and that both were supplemented by large importations 
of St. Croix and Barbadoes rum for the use of those stern men who 
laid the foundation of this republic, and although the fires of Deacon 
Giles' distillery,* in the good old borough of Salem, were banked a 
half century ago, yet those of its congener, founded by the Messrs. 
Trull, t are still burning, and under the direction of their successors 
this ancient establishment is still casting its bread upon the waters in 
the shape of Medford rum as in days of yore. But I digress. 

The first brewery in Milwaukee for the manufacture of lager beer 
was erected on the northeast corner of Hanover and Virginia streets, 
by Herman Riedelschcefer, in the spring of 1841. The writer worked 
upon this brewery (see Vol. 2, author's Pioneer History, page 116). 
It was short lived, and as there stated, it soon passed into the hands 
of John Meyers, then to Francis Neukirk, the father-in-law of Chas. 
T. Melms, and thus became the nucleus of the present south side 
brewery of Phillip Best & Co. 

The second was erected in 1842, and as this plant has grown to be 
the largest establishment of the kind in America (if not in the world) 
the writer has concluded to insert a short history of its growth, fur- 
nished by its present enterprismg proprietors, Messrs. Frederick 
Pabst and Emil Schandein, as a proper part of the business history 
of our city. 

As just stated, this now immense establishment was founded in 
1842 by Jacob Best, as.sisted by his sons, Phillip, Jacob Jr., Charles 
and Lorenz. All the woik of the establishment, to the very least 
detail, was done by these five men. The product and .sales of the 
brewery were necessarily small, being hmited .to two or three hun- 
dred barrels per year, and intended only to meet a local deriiand. 

* The writer remembers to have seen a humorous poem upon this famous dis- 
tillery some fifty years ago, when the temperance agitation first commenced in 
New England. The Deacon, although a prominent church official, was at that 
time also one of the largest distillers of New England rum (or Medford rum, as 
it was sometimes called) in the country. 

fThis establishment, founded by Moses Trull (I think that was his first name), 
nearly a hundred years ago, has probably turned out more rum since its birth than 
any other one distillery in New England. In the writer's boyhood days it was 
one of the landmarks in the good city of Boston. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 345 

After various changes the whole business passed into the hands of 
PhilUp Best in i860. The real foundation of the present immense 
business were laid by that gentleman, whose name has become 
famous the world over in connection with the products of the brew- 
ery, and who, in his lifetime, gained a wide reputation as a man of 
great business ability, sterling integrity and indomitable energy 
After four years of hard work and increasing success, Mr. Best ad- 
mitted Captain Fred. Pabst, his son-in-law, to partnership in the 
business. About a year later Mr. Best, crowned with well-deserved 
success, and honored by the confidence of the mercantile and social 
community, retired, and Mr. Emil Schandein, his other son-in-law, 
entered into partnership with Captain Pabst, the firm doing business 
as Phillip Best & Co. By this time the demand for the brewery's 
product had become so great that the facilities had beet, largely in- 
creased, and the annual production had increased from the two or 
three hundred barrels it first jnoduced to nearly eleven thousand bar- 
rels per year. Not only had the local sales grown enormously, but 
a demand had sprung up all over the Northwest, and even in the 
more remote parts of the country the product of the brewery was 
fast coining to be regarded a best in quality as well as Best in name. 
After eight years of energetic work and of prosperity, the form in 
which the business was managed was changed again, and the Phillip 
Best Brewing Company was incorporated under the laws of the com- 
monwealth of Wisconsin. Captain Pabst was chosen president, Mr. 
Schandein was made vice-president, and Charles Best, Jr., son of 
one of the original founders of the business, was elected as secre- 
tary. 

The Recent Era. 

With the incorporation of the company began the more recent era 
of the great business of the establishment. The demand for the 
products of the brewery had already exceeded the supplies made 
possible with the greatly increased facilities of the establishment, and 
in 1869 the well known Melms brewery, of Milwaukee, was pur- 
chased, and its business and facilities consolidated with those of the 
original plant. The newly purchased establishment was designated 
as the South Side brewery, and the original concern was continued as 



346 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER, 



the Empire Brewery. The demand for the bottled beer grew to such 
dimensions that an immense botthng estabhshment was started in 
1875 in connection with the South Side brewery. This branch of the 
business has grown to large proportions, and is conducted as an in- 
tegral part of the brewery work. 

Interesting Figures. 

A large volume would be necessary to give in detail the workings 
of this establishment. In the limited space here afforded an idea of 
the growth and present dimensions of the business may be obtained 
from the presentation of a few figures. The present capacity of the 
brewery is half a million barrels a year-— larger than that of any 
other establishment of the kind, not only on the American continent, 
but the largest of any lager beer brewery in the world. P'or the 
year 1883 the gross sales were 385,056 barrels. To manufacture 
this enormous amount of beer over 770,000 pounds — or over 385 
tons — of hops, and 1,115,168 bushels of malt are required. Fifteen 
thousand tons of coal per year are used, and the brewery requires 
250,000 kegs, barrels, half-barrels, etc. About 500 men are con- 
stantly employed, and sixty teams are in use by the company. 

The company have branch offices, store-houses, ice-houses, etc., 
in various parts of the country, but the buildings in Milwaukee alone 
cover over ten acres of ground, besides the large yards, wharves, etc. 
The immense malt and barley elevators of the company have a 
capacity of about 750,000 bushels. 

The following figures show the sales each year since 1862, and 
convey an idea of the growth of the business : 



Year. Barrels. 

1863 3,677 

1864 4,895 

1865 10,90<S 

1866 13,964 

1867 18,015 

1868 21,695 

1869 23,392 

1870 37,108 

1871 60,668 

1872 90,926 

1873 100,028 

1874 114,162 



Year. Barrels. 

1875 115,649 

1876 120,951 

1877 120,732 

1878 156,040 

1879 213,285 

1880 



r2,47; 

1881 324,269 

1882 371,.302 

1883 385,049 

1884 374,770 

1885 380,830 

1886 (nearly). .400,000 



Such, in brief, is the history of the founding, growth and present 




^/J^ :^..t 



A. 



J 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 34? 

Status of this world-renowned establishment. Of Jacob Best the 
writer can say nothing from personal knowledge, as he does not 
recollect of ever meeting him. 

Phillip Best, whose portrait is here given, the writer remembers to 
have seen many times, but had no personal acquaintance with him. 
But that he was a man of great energy, good executive as well as 
financial abiHty, is very certain. He was also somewhat noted as a 
military man, having held the office of brigadier-general in the First 
Brigade of the Wisconsin state miHtia in 1859 and i860, and was for 
many years one of the leading Germans in Milwaukee. And al- 
though now absent in body, he is present in spirit, as his name still 
heads the house he was so instrumental in founding in the "long 
ago." 

Mr. Best was a native of Germany (Mettenheim), and died there 
at Altenglau, while on a visit, July 16, 1869, and was buried a^ 
Landstuhl. 

Of his successors, Messrs. Frederick Pabst and Emil Schandein, 
it can be truthfully said that two more active or wide-awake business 
men are not to be found in any other firm in our city. They are 
thorough in everything, and always ready to put their shoulder to 
the wheel and do their part in every enterprise, whether of a public 
or private nature. They are ranked among our most influential as 
well as representative business men, and are destined in the near 
future to become, financially, the Rothschilds of the Northwest, as 
they are accumulating wealth rapidly. Their standmg for probity^ 
honesty and fair dealing is unexcelled, and their word once given is 
never broken. They are both splendid friends, and if enemies, open 
ones. 

As a further index of the magnitude of the brewery interest, I will 

insert the following statistics of this one establishment, taken from 

the speech of the Hon. P. V. Deuster, delivered in the Houi-e of 

Representatives at Washington : 

Capital invested ^:^,:W7,82'> Of) 

Number oi" emplovees 64:> 

Wa«es i)ai(l per year $:!S5,52:i 22 

Numljer of horBes in use 207 

Number of wagons in use 112 

Taxes paid in 1881! $:50,24(; 18 

Revenue paid to the United States Government, after de- 
ducting the 7\ per cent, rebate $348,150 50 



348 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Raw material purchased in 1883: 

809,136 bushels of barley, at SO cents per bushel i!i647,:!0.S 80 

800,014 pounds of hops, at 66i cents per pound !!=532,208 81 

2,362,000 pounds of rice, at 3 cents per pound $70,860 00 

The latter all of domestic growth, raised in Carolina and Louisiana. 

Ice used, 48,207 tons, at $1 per ton !W:8,207 00 

The Schlitz Brewery. 

The next in rank, as to wealth and amount of beer manufactured, 
is the Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company, located upon the southeast 
corner of Third and Walnut streets, and, hke that of Phillip Best, is 
the outgrowth of small beginnings. It was founded in 1848 by Au- 
gust Krug, then located oil Chestnut street, between Third and 
Fourth streets, who operated it until 1858, when, upon the tieath of 
Mr. Krug, it passed into the hands of Mr. Schlitz (a former clerk), 
who removed it to its present location and operated it until 1874, 
when it was incorporated, with Joseph SchHtz as president, and upon 
his death, in 1875, it was reorganized with — 

Henry Uihlein, president. 

Alfred Uihlein, superintendent. 

August Uihlein, secretary. 

F. G. Uihlein, manager Chicago branch. 

The output for 1884 was 345,000 barrels. 

The Messrs. Uihlein are among the most prominent as well as suc- 
cessful business men in Milwaukee. They are men who, to use a 
Western phrase, have their eyes in the front of their heads. Few 
men can be found in any community who possess more executive 
ability than does the president of this corporation. He is quick to 
see, prompt to act, and never makes any mistakes, and like his com- 
petitors, Messrs. Pabst and Schandein, does all his business on the 
square, and like them is large-hearted and generous, and is accumu- 
lating wealth rapidly. 

The Blatz Brewery. 

This large and well-known establishment, like its congeners already 
described, is the outgrowth of small beginnings. It was founded in 
1845 by John Brown, and known as the City Brewery, then located 
upon the southwest corner of Main street (Broadway) and Division 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 349 

Street (now Juneau Avenue). Here Mr. Brown carried on the manu- 
facture of lager beer on what would now be considered an infinitesi- 
mal scale until his death in 1851, when the plant came into the 
possession of Mr. Valentine Blatz (a former employee), who at once 
commenced to build it up. The outlook for its future was not very 
encouraging for its young proprietor, as its annual sales were at that 
time only 150 barrels. But Mr. Blatz was full of energy, and the 
little plant soon began to grow, and such has been its growth as to 
make it the third largest in the city, its output for 1884 being 
245,000 barrels. This brewery, Hke those of the Messrs. Best and 
Schlitz, has a bottling establishment. 

Mr. Blatz is a man of few words, but is a hard worker and watches 
over his business very closely. He is of medium size, very mu.scular, 
has a -keen dark eye and, taken as a whole, is a very fine looking 
man. He has a good reputation for honesty, probity and business 
abihty, and that he is possessed of good executive abiHty, his success 
fully proves, and like his brother brewers has become very wealthy. 

Mr. Blatz is a Bavarian, having been born at Mittenburg on the 
Main in 1825. 

The Franz Falk Brewing Company, 

The next in rank, was founded in 1855, by Frederick Goes and 
Franz Falk, Sen. Its present ofiicers are Franz Falk, president; L. 
W. Falk, vice president, and Frank R. Falk, secretary and treasurer. 
Their output for 1884 was 75,000 barrels. 

There are several others just out of the city, prominent among 
which is that of F. Miller, which has about the same capacity as that 
of the Messrs. Falk. 

The amount of capital invested in the manufacture of Beer in 
Milwaukee and vicinity is estimated at $9,000,000. 

W. P. Young's Block Burnt, June 21, 1859. 

This fine building had just been completed. It was the second 
time Mr. Young had been burnt out on this corner, the first being 
February 15th, 1852. (See Vol. III., page 371.) There seemed to 
be a fatality attending all this gentleman's enterjjrises, owing as 
many thought to his stubbornness, and that the burning of these two 
22 



350 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

blocks was not accidental, but the result of ill feeling on the part of 
some of his employees who he had treated unjustly in the way of 
pay. He was a man of strong will. The third block (a vast im- 
provement upon the two burned ones) is yet standing, and known as 
the Miller Block. It has been thoroughly rebuilt, however, as well 
as internally remodeled, and is one of the most desirable pieces of 
property in the city. 

Wouldn't Call him Judge. 

Among the many amusing scenes witnessed in Judge Phut's 
(Foote's) court while it existed, was one in wliich John Doe (an old 
offender), who had been convicted of some crime, was called up for 
sentence, when his counsel, one Mr. Van Deutch, who had knowl- 
edge that said Court had been abolished, told him " to get," as there 
was no such Court, and he got. And in the next case called, the 
Judge told the same attorney not to ask a certain question, and was 
told by said attorney that he should ask what questions he pleased, 
at the same time addressing his honor as Mister Foote, etc. 

Market House Remodeled. 

The old Market House — the present City Hall — was ordered to 
be converted into a Municipal Court Room this year, at an expense 
not to exceed $6,000. It cost double that, however. The ordinance 
authorizing it was passed May i, 1859. 

An attempt (a second one) was also made to divide the County, 
by making the City into a County by itself. Nothing came of it, 
however, except the usual amount c f windy talk. But v. answered 
for a hobby horse for some one to ride into the Legislature upon. 

Political. 

As the time for the fall election drew near, the fur began to fly in 
earnest. The following, taken from the Sentitiel, gives a slight idea 
of the hostility manifested by the Democratic leaders, and the News^ 
to the Republicans, who had commented pretty severely upon the 
administration for permitting Governor Wise, of Virginia, to hang 
John Brown. Here is what the News said about the affair, and the 
SentineVs comments : 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 351 

Not a Bit Scared! 

The Republicans of the rural districts do not seem to be in the least 
alarmed by the truculent threats of George Brass Smith, backed by 
*'Bob Acres" of the News, that the government would hang them all, as 
it was about to hang old John Brown, if they dared to carry out their 
principles. Hear the defiant reply of the Janesville Gazette to this 
menace: 

" Going to Hang the Republicans.— George Brass Smith, of fragrant 
memory, proposes that the government shall hang the Republicans if 
they attempt to carry out their principles. 

" The Milwaukee News says: 

" ' Old Ossawatomie Brown was pointed at as a striking illustration of 
the dangerous tendency of this slavery agitation; and he (Smith) very 
truly said: "Whenever the Republicans undertake to carry out their 
principles the government will hang them as they are about to hang 
Old Brown.'" 

" George B. and all his miserable doughface crew whom he so fitly 
represents had better say their prayers before they commence." 

We think as much. We trust that every Republican of Milwaukee 
will come to the polls to-morrow and carry out his principles by voting 
the straight Republican ticket, as an invitation to George Brass Smith, 
the Ne^vs, and the Government to commence their cotilion. 

And they did. 

A call was made for Ed. D. Holton to run for the assembly. See 
annexed : 

Independent Candidate for the Assembly — Fourth Ward. 

A call, signed by 275 electors of the Fourth ward, has been addressed 
to Mr. Edward D. Holton, inviting him to become an independent can- 
didate for the Assembly in the Fourth ward. Mr. Holton accepts the 
invitation, as may be seen by the correspondence in to-day's paper. 
The names signed to the call give great weight to it; and Mr. Holton, 
as all men know, has every qualification to represent the ward faithfully 
and ably. 

James H. Paine was also nominated in the First and Seventh 
wards. 

A Republican caucus was also held in the Fifth and Eighth wards. 
See annexed : 

At a Republican caucus held at Melms' saloon last evening, on motion 
S. H. Martin was chosen chairman and Wm. Goodnow secretary. On 
motion the following delegates were chosen: H. Toser, Wm. Cook and 
S. H. Martin from the Fifth ward, and R. Neukirk, Wm. Greenslade 
and Wm. P. Merrill from the Eighth ward. The caucus was well at- 
tended and the best feeling prevailed. 

Moved that the proceedings of the meeting be published in the Sen- 
tinel. S. H. Martix, Chairman. 

Wm. Goodnow, Secretary. 

Election held November 8, 



352 milwaukee under the charter. 

Peter Van Vechten Goes for the Milwaukee " News." 

Hear him : 

, Good for Number One! 

The News of Saturday made a savage attack upon Engine Co. No. 1, of 
this cit}% for tolling their bell and setting their flag at half-mast on Black 
Friday, as a mark of sympathy for John Brown. The News called upon 
the mayor to disband the company, or remove the foreman, Peter Van 
Vechten, .Jr., one of the oldest and l)est members of our Milwaukee 
Fire Department. To all of which Peter, good fellow, makes answer as 
follows: 

Mr. Editor : — The News of Saturday morning contains an article headed 
"An Insult to the City," in which it makes a personal attack on myself. 
As to the detriment or credit any article published in that paper would 
have uf)on my personal character, I care not, neither do I care for the 
expression of a paper whose only existence is the city printing; but 
that the matter may be set right before the public. I make this state- 
ment: 

I was informed that the other bells would be tolled, then I said I 
would have the bell belonging to Engine Co. No. 1 tolled also. 

The bell spoken of in the Nevs belongs to the company exclusively; 
the flag the city has not one cent interest in; even the rope which tolled 
the bell belongs to the company, and was paid for l)y the private funds 
of the company; so with all the property inside the house we occupy, 
except the engine, hose-cart and hose. We have even paid for our 
torches. 

If the mayor and common council wish to disband the company be- 
cause I ordered the bell tolled, let them do so. I claim the right to 
direct the action of my companj^ according to the dictates of my con- 
science, regardless of the opinion of the Nevs. I shall continue to do 
so as long as I have command. They cannot intimidate me with threats 
nor tempt me with bribes. Unfortunately for the Neirs my company, 
with one or two excei)tions, think as I do in this matter; there lies the 
difficulty which the News cannot overcome. 

In regard to breaking me of my office, the mayor and common coun- 
cil may do it if they see tit. I shall exercise command (if my company 
just as I see fit as long as I hold the office of foreman. AH that the 
News can say al)Out my ambition will not alter my views or change my 
action. Yours, etc., P. Van Vechten, Jr. 

Of all the public prints in the city in 1859 the Daily News was 
undoubtedly the meanest. It was to the North what the Okolona 
Gazette of to-day is to the South. If it ever told the truth (politi- 
cally) it was wholly by accident. But it furnished just the kind of 
food such men as Albert Bade, John White, Edward McGarry, Jona- 
than Taylor, and a few others of the old-line Democracy, wanted, a 
few fossilized specimens of whom are to be seen upon our streets to- 
day, who have all the symptoms of havmg been palsied, and who, 
pohtically, are petrified samples of the effect of that lying sheet dur- 
ing the editorship of J. R. Sharpstein and Geo. W. Clason. 



milwaukee under the charter. 353 

Winter Coming. 

River closed December 3, upon which General King said winter 
has come ; air is full of needles. Eight degrees below zero on the 
7th. First snow fell on the 17th, six inches in depth, with nice win- 
ter weather. 

It remained cold during the month, not varying much until the 
30th, when the frost king gave us 30° below zero, closing the river 
from the mouth to the dam with ice six inches in thickness. 

Literary. 

The Milwaukee Advertiser, a literary quarto, was started this year 
by Messervey & Culbertson. The Wisconsin editor, in speaking of 
it, says he doubts its success, but that, in the language of Governor 
Randall, it has his prayers. This killed it, of course. 

Population. 

The population of Milwaukee in 1859 was 51,449. In 1857 it 
was 44,524. A gain of 6,925. The only ward which fell behind 
being the Third; the cause claimed for which was the wasting away 
of the beach by the encroachments of the Lake, causmg quite a 
number to migrate. 

City Improvements. 

The following statement of the amount of city improvements is 

from the Sentinel, and furnished to them by that wide-awake citizen, 

now long since gone to his rest, Caleb Wall, who was indefatigable 

in his lifetime in helping make Milwaukee a thing of beauty, as she 

is to-day. 

City Improvements. 

From the tables prepared by Calel) Wall, whicli we have published, 
it will be seen that the cost of the new ])uildings now in progress in tliis 
city is $722,350; or, deducting difference in cost of labor, and $140,0(10 
for public buildings, ?3:),850 in excess of the improvements of last year. 
There are many small buildings not reckoned in and, in all pr()l)al)iiity, 
$100,000 may be set down in addition to tlie above, on tliat accoun't, 
either now contracted, or to be so during the sunmier. 

Second Ward. 

Among the improvements in this ward were three brick dwellings, 
northwest corner Fourth and Poplar streets by Geo. Abert, one on 
Winnebago street, and the present Second Ward Bank building. This 



354 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

was built by a Mr. Wise at a cost of $15,000. The gross amount 
known to have been built in this ward was $60,000. 

Third Ward. 

Seven stores on Main street (Broadway), by John McA. Lindin, 
yet in use, and known as Nos. 185 to 195 inclusive; one No. 269 
Broadway, and the old ruin known as Nos. 197 to 201 Broadway. 
This building has never been a paying investment; it was built 
twenty years ahead of time for that locality. Also three brick stores 
on southwest corner of Broadway and Huron street (now the pro- 
perty of Mrs. Samuel Chandler), and some thirty frames in various 
parts of the ward — in all $100,000. 

Fourth Ward. 

Among the improvements in the Fourth ward were sixteen brick 
stores on West Water street, cost $100,000. Five of these were on 
the southeast corner of West Water and Clybourn streets, by Jona- 
than Taylor (Nos. 100 to 108 West Water). Two, Nos. 35 and 37 
West Water, by E. D. Holton.* Nine, by Hans Reese, Nos. 130 to 
146 West Water, inclusive. And a Jewish Synagogue on Fifth street, 
cost $7,000. Five brick dwellings on Spring street; four on Eighth 
street; two on Clybourn street; one on Sixth street. Seven frame 
buildings on Spring street ; one on Tamarack street ; two on Fourth 
street ; one on Wells street ; one on Seventh street ; one on Eighth 
street ; four on Seventh street ; two on Seventh street ; one on Spring 
street ; one on Clybourn street — costing in all $66,000. 

The Sentinel gets spoony over Hans Reese's block. Hear him : 

West Water Street is looking up. It would be difficult for bricks to 
take a more imposing form than they have assumed in Hans Reese's 
block. Look at it from any point it is grand, and to a person coming 
down Michigan street from Albany Hall at night, when the moon falls 
upon this pile across the river, and its long rows of windows are dupli- 
cated in the water, it bears the appearance of an immense coliseum. 

Five minutes walk from Spring Street Bridge, in either direction on 
West Water street, will bring you to several significant improvements; 
half a score of new buildings have grown up with the past summer, and 
look bright and fresh across the river to the dusky walls on this side. 
And these buildings are all massive and stylish, not mere shells run up 
to order, but gifts from architecture to commerce ; monuments of beauty 
and utility which are making West Water street advance with rapid 

* I think the contractor for this block was a negro. There certainly was one 
worked on it. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 355 

strides. Considerable progress has also been made in the grading, so 
that the street may be said to be rising in a literal as well as a figurative 
sense. 

West Water street may never attain to the picturesque dignity of a 
Broadway, but we will hazard the assertion that it is destined to be the 
business street of Milwaukee at some future time. The heavy street, 
where Gunnybags shall store his investments, and Mr. Firkin feel the 
variations of stock, and where he can take the horse cars at Spring 
street and glide up the hill to his mansion. 

This block, although yet in use, is, when compared with those 
more modern, a ruin, and did it not occupy a prominent point for 
business would be considered worthless and probably converted into 
a depot for rags. It did not net its owner much rent for a number 
of years after the erection, but pays well to-day. It is yet owned by 
Mr. Hans Reese, and is in charge of Edgar J. Tapping, who is a sharp 
business man. 

Seventh Ward. 

Of improvements in this ward, Caleb Wall says : 

We presume it is well known that this ward contains all the finished 
dwelling houses in our city (with a very few exceptions). Its situa- 
tion is dehghtful, being principally along the shore, from which we 
have a fine refreshing breeze. As we ourselves live in the Seventh 
ward, it would not be in good taste to say much about it; but one 
thing we must say, and will say, that there are more hogs and cows at 
large in the Seventh ward, which destroy trees and muck sidewalks, 
than ought to be. I wonder what argument one can make use of, to 
get our esteemed city council and aldermen to make a law to prevent 
hogs and cows runnmg at large. I (Caleb Wall) promise this : If 
they will pass some law, to prevent hogs and cows from making so 
much destruction, that a benefit shall be set up immediately in the 
beautiful Albany Hall, to be expended at our Newhall House, for a 
supper that has not yet been equaled. Now, Mr. Aldermen, what 
say you to that f 

Improvements in the Se\T!;nth Ward. 

Two brick stores on East Water street $:5,000 

One " " " " 'VX»0 

Two " •' " " 10,000 

Two " " Marketstreet c.OOO 

One " " " -,'»<>0 

Two " " " a,(K»0 

One " " Martin street 4,000 



356 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Four three-story dAvellings corner Main and Biddle streets 16,000 

One brick store back of Juneau Bank 

One handsome brick dwelling corner Martin and Cass streets... *10,000 

Two brick stores on Milwaukee street 7,000 

Three tine brick dwellings on Wisconsin street 20,000 

Two brick dwellings on Jefferson street 12,000 

Large brick addition to house corner of Oneida and Van Bureu 

streets 2,000 

Two brick dwellings on Biddle street 6,000 

One " " on Jefferson street .'5,500 

One •' " on Van Buren street 5,000 

One " " " " 2,500 

Three brick dwellings on Milwaukee street 14,000 

One brick dwelling ou Milwaukee street 3,000 

Two brick dwelliugs on Jackson street 8,0(X) 

One small brick dwelling on Main street » 800 

One frame dwelling on Jefferson street 2,500 

Two frame buildings on Division street 2,000 

Total $154,300 

Besides these, the following were erected in the First ward : 

Two frames on Ogden street, three on North Water, one on Lyon, 
one on Jefferson, one on Milwaukee, one on Racine. 

Six brick, the Hadley block, southeast corner Jackson and Lyon, 
nine brick on Jackson northeast corner of Knapp, known as the 
Grant block, two on Marshall street, cost $17,000, one frame $8,000, 
one brick on Knapp, one on Division, one corner of Marshall and 
Knapp, and one on Prospect street by Hans Rees. Total, $80,000. 

Besides these there were the Mayor Page residence. No. 2629 
Grand avenue, now the property of Geo. E. Lyman ; the Keenan 
mansion, Nos. 455 and 457 Jefferson; the old Levi Merrick house, 
No. 420 Jefferson, and the present Sentinel building, and the build- 
ing known as Union Hall (see annexed), were built this year. 

Union Hall — Something New. 

Our old friend and fellow-citizen, William Sivyer, has just completed 
a new and handsome three-story brick block, on Main street, between 
Huron and Detroit streets, Third ward. The lower story is divided 
into two large and handsome stores, with spacious cellars beneath. In 
the second story are dwelling rooms over one store, and a dining-hall, 
or supper room, connected with the hall above, over the other. The 
third story is the Union Hall, forty feet wide by eighty feet deep, with 
convenient side rooms, and all nicely fitted up for concerts, lectures or 
]>alls. The building is a neat and substantial one, and was put up un- 
der the immediate supervision of Mr. Wm. Sivyer himself, who laid 
the first brick and raised the first boy in this good city of Milwaukee. 
That same " boy," by the way, is now a man, doing business on his own 

* By John Harris. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 357 

hook, and offering a first-rate stock of family groceries and " feed for 
all " at the north store in the new block.* 

The block on the northeast corner of Reed and Lake streets was 
also built this year by Hiram Mabbett and Chas. G. Breed. 

Mechanical, Mercantile and Professional. 

There were in Milwaukee in 1859-60: 17 insurance agents, 12 
houses for tiie sale of agricultural instruments, 7 architects, 3 salt 
agencies, 4 steamboat agencies, 7 auctioneers, 38 bakeries, 3 billiard 
table manufactories, 13 billiard saloons, 34 blacksmith shops, 5 blank 
book manufacturers, 4 block and pump manufactories, 62 private 
boardmg-houses, 4 boiler shops, 9 book binderies, 6 book-sellers and 
stationers, ;^8 boot and shoe dealers (wholesale and retail), 52 shoe- 
maker shops, 3 bowHng saloons, 30 brewers, 9 brickmakers and deal- 
ers, 27 master carpenters and mason builders, 32 carpenters only, 20 
cabinet manufacturers, 5 oil-cloth makers, 16 crockery stores, 36 to- 
bacco and snuff stores, 12 civil engineers, 29 wholesale and retail 
clothing stores, 8 carriage manufacturers, 6 coal dealers, 64 commis- 
sion merchants, 20 confectioners, 41 cooper shops, 2 copper-smiths, 
10 dentists, 6 distillers, 17 dressmaking estabhshments, 26 retail drug 
stores, 10 wholesale drug stores, 49 retail dry goods stores, 15 whole- 
sale dry goods store, 9 who kept dye-stufifs, 23 flour and feed stores, 
9 flouring mills, 14 forwarding houses, 12 foundries, 12 fruit stores 
(wholesale and retail), 11 furniture dealers, 5 gas and steam-htting 
shops, 22 gents' furnishing goods stores, 4 gilders, 4 grate, register 
and furnace dealers, 224 retail grocers, 27 wholesale grocers, 20 hair- 
dressing establishments, 17 hardware and cutlery stores, 12 harness 
shops, 17 hat and cap stores, 12 hide and leather stores, 42 hotels 
and taverns, S house-movers, 2 hub and spoke manufacturers, 7 iron 
and steel warehouses, 7 lamp and chandelier stores, 73 lawyers and 
law firms, 11 livery stables, 27 lumber dealers, 12 machine shops 
(iron), 70 meat markets (retail), 27 milliners, 37 house and sign 



*This was an unfortunate block. The alteration of the grade on Broadway soon 
after it was built (by raising it) rendered it almost untenable, and Mr Sivyer sued 
the city, and after an expensive litigation recovered $8,000, or about that. The 
building, however, remained in that condition until 1882, when it was purchased 
by O. U. Bjorkquist, who pulled it down and has erected a handsome block upon 
its site for a boot and shoe store, known as Nos. 300 and 301 Broadway. 



358 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER, 

painting shops, 64 physicians and surgeons, 62 produce dealers, 23 
provision stores (only), 27 real estate brokers, 15 restaurants, 6 safe 
manufacturers, 202 saloons, 60 tailors, 14 tanneries, 29 tin and cop- 
per-smith establishments, 13 trunk manufacturers and dealers, 28 
wagon shops, t8 jewelry stores, 51 wine and liquor stores, 5 wood- 
yards, 9 wooden-ware stores, 6 wool dealers, 2 woolen manufac- 
tories. 

Correction. 

On page 202, Vol. IV., when sketching E. P. Matthews, the 
writer omitted to state, when speaking of the official positions he had 
filled, that he also represented the Fourth ward in the legislature in 
1880 and 1881. 

They Are Passing Away. 

This cut or diagram is a fac simile of the buildings* formerly 
standing upon the southeast corner of Grand avenue and Second 
street, and known (present numbering) as 119, 121, 123, 125, 127, 
129, 131, 133, 135, 137 and 139 Grand avenue, and which, although 
an eye-sore to the community for the last ten years, were as much 
of an improvement when erected, over their predecessors (which 
were small frames) as will be their successors when completed over 
them. 

The history of the erection of these buildings, as well as the occu- 
pation of a portion of them, is substantially as follows : 

The nucleus of the two seen upon the left, and known as Nos. 119 
and 121 Grand avenue, present numbering, and ;^^ and 35 Sprmg 
street, old numbering, were erected in 1847 by John Plankinton,t 
who, in connection with G. W. Evins, had purchased May 11, 1846, 
the north fifty feet of lot 18, block 71, Fourth ward, of J. L. Bean, 
for $800. Evins sold his interest September 2, 1847, to Nelson H. 
Northrop,! of Palmyra, N. Y., for $600, who built the next one. No. 

*Now (May l, 1886) partly demolished. 

f rhese buildings stood directly west of and adjoining the alley, and were the 
first brick ones ever erected upon that part of the block. This alley has now, 
however, (1884) been vacated and occupied by a portion of the hotel. 

JMr. Northrop was the successor of John E. Cameron in the American House 
livery stable. He was a brother-in-law of George F. Oakley, to whom he subse- 
quently sold out, I think in 1853, and returned back to Palmyra. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



359 




360 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

37, now No. 123. These three buildings were partially destroyed by 
fire June 6, 1850, while occupied by the common council in the up- 
per story and by Doctor Malloy in the second. This fire also de- 
stroyed a portion of the cily records. 

These buildings were, however, all quickly repaired, afi;er which 
Nos. 119 and 121 were converted into a livery stable,* /. <?., the old 
American House stable previously mentioned, then standing upon 
the north end of lot 19, directly in the rear, was moved up to and 
connected with them, they forming the carriage-house and office 
part, in which condition they were occupied by Mr. Oakleyt until 
the great fire of July 4, 1861, when they, with the American House, 
were destroyed, after whichi: they were rebuilt, as seen in the dia- 
gram (Nos. 33 and 35, old numbering), by Mr. Plankinton, and No. 
37 by Jonathan Crouch, who had purchased the Northrop interest, 
and which he occupied as an undertaker's store below and as a 
dwelling above until 1864, when he sold out the business (Mr. 
Crouch going directly across the street and opening another store, 
and where he was also burned out at a later period. Mr. Crouch 
died many years ago), to Messrs. Judson & Morse ; John B. Judson, 
who had previously been in the fruit business with Simon Stone, un- 
der the title of Simon Stone & Co., and WilUam Morse, who at once 
removed the stock to No. t,^ (now 119), the Plankinton building 
(the Crouch building being converted into a millinery store), where 
they remained until 1875, when they dissolved, Mr. Morse going to 
Waukesha, and Mr. Judson, who is yet in the business, removing to 
409 Grand avenue, after which these three stores were occupied for 
various purposes until 1884, when they were pulled down by Mr. 
Plankinton, who had also purchased the Crouch interest, and their 
former side, in connection with the alley (vacated) occupied with the 
extension of 1884. 

The erecdon of the Plankinton Hou.se was commenced Ma), 



*The Northrop store being devoted to mercantile purposes. 

fGeorge F. Oakley was a very prominent liveryman in Milwaukee for several 
years, and but for the disgraceful conduct of a harlot who, in an evil hour, he had 
made his wife, would have been (if living) at the head of the column to-day. 
She was a terror, and soon drove him to the wall. He was lost on the Lady El- 
gin, September 9, i860. 

JFor full particulars of this fire see Vol. III., page 225. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



361 




1867, at which time all that portion from 109 to 115 Gr.Hnd avenue 
inclusive, representing a frontage of 115 feet with a Hepth of 200, 
was completed, the master mason being Hiram R. Bond. It re- 
mained in this form externally (although internally it was remodeled 
several times) until 1875, when that portion known as the Arcade, 
designated as Nos. 169 to 177 West Water street, inclusive, repre- 
senting a frontage of 100 feet, was erected, also by Mr. Bond. And 
in 1879 that part known as the Birchard block, representing 85 feet 
on Grand avenue and 100 on West Water, after being remodeled so 
as to conform externally with that part of tiie hotel then completed, 
was also annexed (under a lease), which was its status until 1884, 
when, as has just been seen, the buildings Nos. 119, 121 and 123, 
present numbering (33, 35 and 37 old numbering), were pulled 
down, and their former site, together with the alley,* making an ad- 
ditional Irontage of seventy feet occupied by the hotel extension of 
1884. 

The next, Nos. 125, 127 and 129, present numbLring, were erected 
by Simeon and Walter S. Babcock,t and 131 and 133 by the late 
Lester G. Newbre (all in 1858 or 1859, 1 think) upon ground leased 
from the late EHsha Eldred, who owned tiic 100 feet adjoining No. 



*Previously stated as having been vacated. 

fl am not quite certain about tiiis, but think that these three stores were ail 
erected by the Babcoclc Bros. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 363 

123 on the west, and from whose heirs (Mr. Eldred having, prior to 
his death, come into possession of these buildings by purchase). No. 
133, with the ground (20 feet), passed to Henry Tischafer, and 129 
to Edward H. Pantke, from whom, in 1885, they passed to Mr. 
Plankinton, who also purchased 125, 127 and 131 from the heirs of 
Mr. Eldred. 

Nos. 125, 127, 129 and 131 are yet standing, but will be pulled 
down the coming season. 

This brings us to the corner of Second street, the former site of 
the old Unitarian Church,* which subsequently came into the pos- 
session of Alex. Mitchell, who erected the building seen in the dia- 
gram, viz., Nos. 135, 137 and 139 Grand avenue, as well as its con- 
gener, standing directly in the rear, and known as Nos. 156 and 158 
Second street, and from whoiii, including the buildings, the ground 
also passed to Mr. Plankinton. These five stores, uicluding 133 
Grand avenue (the Tischafer store), have now (1885) all been de- 
mohshed, and their former site occupied by a portion of the new 
block now in process of erection. 

There were also two small frames built by William Furlong, known 
as Nos. 146 and 148 Second street, whose site is also occupied by 
the new building, one of which (148) was the residence of George 
Burnham during the winter of 1844 and 1845. 

The demolition of these old relics of a former age, and the erec- 
tion of their successors, to be known as the Metropolitan, might be 
justly said, when taken in connection with the erection of Alex. 
Mitchell's bank and Chamber of Commerce building (cuts of which 
appeared in Vol. II., pages 135 and 243), the Plankinton library and 
the new insurance building (cuts of which will appear in this vol- 
ume), to have (geologically speaking) inaugurated the dawn of the 
Miocene period of architecture in the Cream City, 

The erection of the MetropoHtan, and its connection when com- 
pleted with the present Plankinton (at what is now 125 Grand ave- 
nue), not only makes the block continuous from West Water to Sec- 
ond street, but it also gives that popular caravansary a frontage of 



■^Mentioned in Vol. II., page 295, where, by a typographical error, it was made 
to stand upon the northwest corner. It should have been on the southeast 
corner. 



9 



364 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 




420 feet on Grand avenue, 200 on West Water, and 140 on Second 
street, all of which, with the exception of the Birchard block, 85 feet 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 365 

(previously mentioned), has been erected by Mr. Plankinton. The 
whole cost of this immense plant, including the ground, has exceeded 
$1,000,000, the Metropolitan alone, the upper stories of which will 
contain sixty-four apartments, to be used for hotel purposes, costing 
$350,000, making this not only the finest hotel in the state, but it 
also stamps its large-hearted owner as one of the most public-spirited 
citizens in Milwaukee, and one who has her best interests at heart. 

That the same success which has attended all his former years 
may continue, and that the day may be far distant when his well 
known face and form shall be seen upon our streets no more, is cer- 
tainly the wish of every citizen of our fair city, for whose develop- 
ment and prosperity he has done so much. 

The annexed cuts represent the different views of this famous ho- 
tel. No. I gives a view from West Water street up to and including 
what was 123 Grand avenue; No. 2 gives an enlarged view from 
West Water street up to the same point, and No. 3 gives a view from 
the West from Second street to West Water, and have been inserted 
here as an heir-loom of what the first half century from the settle- 
ment of Milwaukee by the Anglo-Saxous has produced m the way 
of hotels. 

Another Landmark Going. 

The demolition of the old Kilbourn mansion, northwest corner of 
Fourth street and Grand avenue (a cut of which, as well as of its 
successor, will be found on page 116 of this volume), was com- 
menced this morning (May lo, 1886), and will in a few days have 
disappeared. Thus, one by one, the early landmarks pass away. 



23 



CHAPTER VII. 
i860. 

Opening Address — Police Report — Legislative — Horse Kailroad Project — A Park 
Proposed — '!"he New Municipal Court Room — Judge Foote's (3ourt Abolished 
— Sid Rood's Game Cock — The Pleasant Street Bridge — A Costly Wind — Ice 
Lett the River — The Spring Election Brings (Jut More Political Rascality — 
Gardner & Lynch Arrested — Result of Election — Jasper Vliet's Safe Seized 
by the Sheriff — Base Ball Discovered — Milwaukee's Third Great Fire — At 
which a Mecklenberger Makes a Discovery — Marshal Jehu M. Lewis Tried — 
The Public Schools — Geo. (j. Houghton 'I'akes the Helm — Council Proceed- 
ings — S. H. Martin Builds three New School Houses — Railroads — Jacob L. 
Bean as a Prophet — The Third Ward Market House — Belden's Old Home 
Saloon Removed — The Cow 'j)uestion — Caleb Wall Speaks — The Horse Rail- 
road Craze — The editor of the Sentinel Threatened with a Licking — Political 
Ruffianism — More Skullduggery — The Herzer Resolutions — The Lockwood 
Resolutions — Their Effect — The Germans Protest — ^Meeting of the Union 
Republican Club — Municipal Folly — Councillor Lockwood Brings the Mal- 
contents to Time — Councillor Noyes Resigns — After which Councillor Rose- 
beck Takes the Floor — His Speech — The Fall Campaign — A Republican 
County Organization Effected — Election — First Snow Fall — Highway Rob- 
bery — Fred. Wardner Garroted — Burning of Nichols & Britt's Mill — Burning 
of Cross Block — Improvements — The Lady Elgin Goes Down— In Memoriam. 

The winter of 1859 and '60 was a cold one, particularly the closing 
month in 1S59, during which, as has been seen, the thermometer 
sunk to eight and ten degrees below zero nearly every day, and to 
thirty on the last day, closing the river from the mouth to the dam 
with ice six inches in thickness. Neither was there much abatement 
of the cold during the month of January, the thermometer going 
to thirty-two below on the fifth of that month. 

Cheerless and cold were those 

December days in 1859. 

Veiled was the sun by clouds, 

As tbrotigh the shortening days 

He held his wonted course, from 

East to western bourne. 

Often unseen by human eye. 

While from the frozen North 

Old Boreas sent his gelid breath 

To strip the forests of their wealth of leaves. 

And chill the earth with frost, 

Causing both man and beast 

To flee for shelter from its icy touch. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 367 

And in addition to all this, there was a large percentage of cloudy 
as well as foggy weather, being in that respect like the present one> 
1884 and '85, during a large part of which the ear-sphtting tones of 
that meUifluous instrument, known in the vernacular as the Govern- 
ment Fog-horn,-* have no doubt caused many of our citizens to 

think , if they did not speak it. The writer will admit that he 

has been troubled that way occasionally, during 

" The wee sma' hours 
Ayont the twal." 

Financially, the previous year had been a prosperous one, and, 
except for the dark clouds of secession looming up in our southern 
horizon, we had nothing of which to complain. But the agitation 
attending the discussion of the slavery question, always an element 
of discord between the North and the South since the foundations of 
the government were laid, had now reached its meridian, and was 
soon to involve this nation in a civil war, that for devilishness and 
cruelty has never had a parallel in the history of any government, 
but out from which she was destined to emerge purified as by fire. 
But I digress. 

Police Report. 

The whole number of commitments for 1859 were: Males, 433. 
Females, 87. Total, 520. Under 16 years, 53 ; unable to read and 
write, 131. Nationality — England, 26; Canada, 7; Ireland, 183; 
Scotland, 8 ; France, 8 ; Germany, 157 ; United States, 92 ; Spain, 2 ; 
Nova Scotia, i; Isle of Man, 2 ; Holland, 5; Sweden, 2 ; Wales, 4; 
Norway, 2; Russia, i; Negroes, 13; Bohemians, 4. 

A. J. Langworthy, Sheriff. 

The members of the Legislature, elected November, 1859, were : 

For Senate — Cicero Comstock, Patrick Walsh. 

Assembly — Henry L. Palmer, Louis A. Schmidtner, Edward 



* I do not believe there is another city in America cursed with a F"og-horn, 
that for pure, unadulterated cussedness can beat ours in tone. A full feline 
orchestra on a moonlight night is like the music of the spheres compared to it. 
No other Horn upon the whole chain of Lakes (not excepting the one at Cedar- 
burg) can furnish anotlier such a perfect representation of what might be sup- 
posed to be the " wail of the damned," as can ours. It is no doubt true that as 
a city we are behind the age in many respects, but we own a Kog-horn whose 
dulcet notes (when in good health) cannot be duplicated this side ol " Sheol." It 
is the Boss. 



368 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Keogh, Edward D. Holton, Edward G. Hayden, Matthias Human, 
Patrick Dockery, John Ruan and Andrew Eble.* 

This session commenced January ii, and adjourned April 2, i860. 

Wm. P. Lyon, Speaker. 

Among other enterprises started or contemplated this year was the 
construction of a Horse Railroad from Week's addition in the pre- 
sent Twelfth ward to Murray's addition in the present First ward, by 
that wide-awake citizen, the late Caleb Wall, and on the strength of 
which real estate in both sections mentioned took a big rise, but the 
near certainty of the civil war put a stop to this as well as many 
other new enterprises for a season. It was constructed, however, in 
1877. 

Public Parks Called For. 

Father John Rosebeckt (who does not remember Father John) 
wanted a Park. Hear his " spiel :" 

Municipal Luxgs. 

Councillor Rosebeck is not so bad a man after all. He proposes to 
infuse a little more oxygen into our city — to inflate the corporate town 
with health, wealth and prosperity by means of a series of parks, located 
here, there and everywhere. Whether Councillor Rosebeck, in the 
exuberance of his fancy, intended these parks to be all "Central 
Parks," with landscape gardeners at work on serpentine paths, and 
parterres sprinkled with statuettes, and skating ponds, and a great in 
memoriam of the Councillor and father of the plot himself standing in 
plaster, like the Colossus at Rhodes over the main entrance — we cannot 
saj'. But from what we have seen of the gentlemen's productions, we 
consider him to be a man of rare picturesque ability, and suppose such 
was his intention. Here we have the Resolution, as presented to the 
Board of Councillors at their last meeting. Heralded with a musical 
and not very comprehensible preamble, as the peregrinating vender of 
yeast plays you a strain of "the Star Spangled Banner" before he gives 
you a penny's worth. 

Councillor Rosebeck offered the following: 

Whereas, Health and prosperity adds greatly to the comforts of man, 
and as the city of Milwaukee should be the pride of the State, and the 
citizens in general are, as yet, not sufficiently aware of their own inter- 
est, for reasons so plain to be shown, in the great lack of public parks, 
market squares, etc. Therefore, 

Resolved, The Board of Aldermen concurring, that all the Milwaukee 
members in our present Legislature are hereby requested by the Com- 
mon Council of Milwaukee, to do all in their power in order to bring 
about a special act, as will enable all wards as are yet destitute of such, 
or should apply for the enlargement of the same^ and in that case the 

* Died during the session, and Theodore Harting elected to fill vacancy. 

f Father Rosebeck was what the Germans call a " prick-staine," (i. e.), he was 
solid for what he went in for. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 369 

city shall issue bonds for the amount, and the Comptroller shall be in- 
structed to levy sufficient taxes in such wards, so as to pay the interest 
j^early on the bonds so issued; also, the property so purchased shall be 
mortgaged to the city until the final settlement of the same. 

Councillor Schulte moved to amend so that the bonds should be issued 
by the wards, and not by the city. 

Which was accepted. 

On the motion of Councillors Lockwood and Buening, the resolution 
was amended by inserting, after the word "Wards," the following 
words: " Excepting the First and Second wards." 

And the resolution was adopted. 

It all ended, however, in talk, and although many have subse- 
quently made the attempt, still we have no park to-day worthy of 
the name, but any amount of beer gardens. It is a burning shame 
to Milwaukee that it is so. Why will not our city fathers look to 
this ? 

The New Municipal Court. 

There was a large amount of windy newspaper discussion this year 
in relation to converting the new Market House (the present City 
Hall), mentioned in previous chapters, into a Municipal Court Room. 
The West Siders claimed that inasmuch as they furnished the largest 
share of the criminals to come before it, that they were entitled to it, 
and it ought to be located on their side. It was virtually the old 
Bridge War in a new role. One of the arguments against its being 
converted into a court room was that it did not possess the requisite 
strength, which was answered by architect Mix, as follows : 

The Market House a Safe Building. 

Editors of Sentinel— Gen<^eme?i.- At a meeting held in the Fourth 
ward, at Kilbourn's block, a few evenings since, it was stated by one of 
the speakers upon an avowed experience of twenty years as an archi- 
tect and builder, that the building known as the Market House is a weak 
and shabby affiiir of insulficient strength fur the proposed alterations, 
that the walls were but one foot thick and therefore not strong enough 
for the support of the weight intended to be added to the floors, roof, 
etc. ; also stating that the intention was to remove the Hoor timV)ers of 
the old building, thus weakening and shattering the old walls; that the 
proposed changes were therefore unsafe, and if (carried out would i)ro- 
bably entail on the communitv another edition of the Lawrence I'atas- 
trophe; and, finallv, that the cost of the alterations on the plan pro- 
posed would not be less than $20,000. .... , , 

In reply to the above, and for the truth's sake, I wish to say that the 
Market Ilouse is at present one of the strongest buildings in the citY, 
being substantially built with brick walls from sixteen to twenty-eight 
inches in thickness. , , ., , r 

That the plans of the alteration do not conteinplate the removal ot a 
timber of the present floor, and that the additions U) \m made, viz: the 



370 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

building of a new front and belfry, and the internal division of the 
Vjuilding by partitions to form the various offices, will tend rather to 
strengthen the building than otherwise; and, tinally, the contract for all 
the proposed alterations being let to a responsible party for less than 
$5,000, who has given good and sufhcient bonds to fulfill the same. I am 
at a loss to know how, even with his ripe experience, the gentleman can 
support his figures. 

I should not take the trouble to answer the above objections, did I not 
suppose they arose from ignorance of the facts of the case in the gen- 
tleman making them, and that thej' might have misled some who take 
things from hear-say instead of judging for themselves. Good judgment 
is often as serviceable as expei'ience. 

Respectfully j^ours, 

E. Town SEND Mix, 
Architect and Supt. of City Hall. 

The opponents of this measure finally brought the matter into 
court on a writ of certiorari in March, i860. 

The real trouble with these people (who were mostly contractors) 
was that Mr. Mix did not make it cost enough ($20,000, as they 
claimed it would, in place of $5,000), and out of which they could 
get rich. But the change was, nevertheless, effected, after which it 
was used by the common council and city officers until the erection 
of the new court-house in 187 1, into which they removed. 

The municipal court, however, still continued to hold its sessions 
at the city hall, where all seeking a position in the county chair fac- 
tory (alias house of correction) as involuntary guests can have their 
passports thereto " vized " by Judge Jas. A. Mallory on short notice, 
and as the Hibernian poHceman once said, " Divil a ha'porth will it 
cost them for the journey out." 

The pohce court was removed from the old police station on 
Broadway to its present quarters, in the old city hall, September 3, 
1867. 

Judge Foote's Court. 

The reader who has perused the previous pages cannot have failed 
to notice that great dissatisfaction existed among the people, particu- 
larly the members of the bar, about this court and its disreputable 
judge, and in order to get rid of him the question of the legality of 
its organization was raised, which brought it before the supreme 
court, who gave a decision against it, which threw him out.* 



*Tiaflition has it that the news that his court was abolished came to him while 
holding one of his morning levees, and that, after reading the document (for it 
was official), he sprang to his feet and exclaimed, in his usual elegant style, 
"This court is busted, by G — dl" 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 371 

This decision abolishing it was rendered February 21, i860, after 
which the following appeared in the Sentinel of the 25th : 

Since Judge Foote was ousted b\' tlie supreme court our municipal 
tril)unal has been without a bead. This deficiency should be supplied 
without delay, and we hope that the legislature will at once pass a law 
authorizing the governor to fill the vacancy — temporarily at least. 

Which was done, and the governor appointed Jas. A. Mallory, who 
has retained the office to the present time. 

Mind Over Matter. 

Ex-Chief of Pohce WiUiam Beck relates the following incident as 
occurring in connection with this court. As might have been ex- 
pected, Mr. Foote was highly elated with his position as municipal 
judge, and put on airs accordingly. Now, it happened shortly after 
his assuming the judicial ermine that our well known fellow citizen, 
George W. Featherstonhaugh, was among the spectators at one of 
his usual morning levees, whereupon the judge came down from the 
bench, seized the colonel's hand, led him up, and gave him a seat at 
his side, where the colonel remained a short time, after which he 
arose, and waving an adieu to the judge, left the place, remarking to 
Chief Beck as he went out the door, " Now, was not my being in- 
vited up there a great triumph of mind over matter?" I think it 



was. 



Sid Rood's Game Cock. 



That Cock Won't Fight. 



One of our friends, who shall be nameless here, noted for his bluff 
speech and love of sport, particularly an occasional cock fight, has a 
friend, of the medical profession, also a lover of the same sport, and 
for whom he had been raising, during the past summer, a handsome 
and thoroughbred game cock. The bird, by dint of great care and con- 
siderable expense, had been brought to perfection, and was carefully 
conveyed into town to be sent to the party for whom it had beeii 
raised. 

Our bluff friend being somewhat in a hurry took the bird into a store, 
where he was in the habit of dealing, and re(|uested that the store- 
keeper would permit his porter, a German, to take the bird, which was 
in a bag, up to the Doctor s house;, at the same time naming the Do(;tor. 
The latter part of the conversation it would seem tlu' Dutcliinan did 
not hear, but taking u]) the bag started on his errand. The game cock 
was duly conveyed to the Doc-tor's liouse, but alasl not to the proper 

one, but to the residisnce of a German do(;tor, living at No. street. 

Here the game cock was consigned to the cook, the Doctor thinking, 
doubtless, that some generous patient, in his gratitude for a cure, or a 
light bill, had sent him the fowl as a present. 



372 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Our friend who had raised the bird, not ha\dng heard from the Doc- 
tor to whom he intended it should be taken, inquired of the Doctor 
how he Uked him, when it was discovered that the Dutchman had 
taken the game cock to the wrong ]jlace. A messenger was dispatched 
to the German doctor's house for the game cock, when lol the only sat- 
isfaction obtained was that the rooster had been cooked, the cook re- 
marking that "he was so tough as he could be," adding, " I tink dese 
Yankee shickens no goot for te table; vat you tink?" 

This is thought by some to be the best joke on S d R d that has 

yet been practiced. S d's remarks on Dutchmen, on learning the 

fate of the game cock, were particularly complimentary. 

This has been inserted here as a part of the " res gestae," as the 
lawyers call it, and as showing the ifiside life of the old settlers in 
the days when we all went ''gypsying." The Cid did not "schwear" 
much. Oh, no. He just said a few cuss words. But he did not 
hear the last of that game cock for a long time. 

The Pleasant Street Bridge. 
See annexed : 

Will the voters of the Sixth and First wards tell why it is that the 
city engineer, Mr. Schumacher, and Hon. Jackson Hadley are in favor 
of building a bridge from the Sixth to the First wards, at a cost of at 
least §60,rX)0, and that in the meantime ilr. Hadley is a candidate for 
Councillor of the First ward ? ' A Citizen. 

This bridge was built in part, /. g., the bents or piers were all put 
in place, and the stringers put on ready for the plank, in which con- 
dition it remained for a short time, during which the writer crossed 
on it several times. It was to connect Pleasant street on the East 
Side with Walnut street on the West Side, and was no doubt one of 
Mr. Hadley's pet schemes for improving First ward property, of 
which at that time he owned a large amount. 

It was to have cost $13,000 in place of $60,000. It was subse- 
quently all removed, and there are probably not twenty men Hving 
who remember of its ever having been placed there. 

A Costly Wind. 

Spink & Armstrong's bank windows blown in and the money blown 

out. See annexed : 

The Gale of Saturday — The Advent of March. 

The city was visited on Saturday with a violent southwesterly wind, 
which coinmenced in the morning and continued throughout the daj'^, 
gradually augmenting its force until nightfall. Pedestrians were pretty 
generally blown about like feathers, and those not wearing helmets 
were put to serious annoyances with their head covering. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 373 

March Entereth the Temple of Janus. 

Durinj^ the heighth of the " blow " the two large windows of Messrs. 
Armstrong & Spink's banking-house, on the southeast corner of Huron 
and East Water streets, were blown in, and before any of the precious 
papers, bills and currency could be secured Zephyrus had mingled 
everything in a small whirlwind, and bank-notes and drafts all went 
out and down Huron street in beautiful disorder. The counting-room 
could not have been swept cleaner by a simoon, and clerks and porters, 
with their hair on end, partly with fright and partly with wind, followed 
after in the most frenzied attempts to reclaim the serial money. 

Certain men and boys and loafers, whose destiny led them to stand 
about the corners of Main and Huron streets, instantly imagined some 
good genii had emptied a cornucopia on the wind, and began to gather 
the lO's and 5's with an alacrity they probably never before displayed, 
congratulating themselves with the assurance that "it was an ill wind 
that didn't blow somebody good." However much these individuals 
needed the free gift, it is but simple justice to say that a great portion 
of the money was recovered by Messrs. Armstrong & Spink, and though 
all the currency, amounting to perhaps $700 or fsOO, was swept away, 
they will not lose over 1470 of it. The windows were immediately 
boarded up, and the office protected from further damage. 

I witnessed this occurrence. There was quite an excitement 
about it for a short time, as plenty of good little boys were seen to 
grab the bills by the handful and disappear down the alleys. 

Ice left the river March 5. It was open below Walker's Point, 
however, most of the time after January 15 — kept open by the boats 
running to Grand Haven. 

The first boat from below was the propeller Prairie State, April 13. 

More Political Rascality. 

The exemption of the Newhall House from taxation by the com- 
mon council for 1857 and 1858 proved to have been unwise as well 
as illegal, as it resulted in vitiating the tax for both those years, and 
in order to make capital for the Democratic party during the spring 
canvass, and thereby get into power again, the statement was made 
at one of the political gatherings by two prominent Democrats that 
the city was put in that position by the reform party, meaning the 
administration of Wm. A. Prentiss. 

To which Mr. Prentiss replied that the ordinance authorizing it 
was passed March 22, 1856, by a Democratic council, approved by 
Jas. B. Cross, a Democratic mayor, and the suit to test its illegality 
was brought by Dr. L. W. Weeks, also a prominent Democrat, and 
that he cuuld not consent that they should palm oft" the acts and do- 
ings of a Democratic mayor and council of 1856 upon his shoulders 



374 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

in 1858, without showing up the falsity of it. Which spiked that 
gun.* 

Such was the course pursued by the leaders of the Democratic 
party to screen themselves from the odium of the administration of 
Jas. B. Cross, and to ex Mayor Prentiss were they particularly hos- 
tile. His clear head and unswervmg integrity made him a terror to 
the thieves who were fattening upon the public treasury. 

But justice prevailed in the end, at least so far as Gardner and 
Lynch were concerned, although the principal actors, as usual, es- 
caped. 

Gardner and Lynch Arrested. 

Robert B. Lynch was arrested on the complaint of Herman L. 
Page, March 10, and E. L. H Gardner, on the nth, on complaint 
of John H. Tesch, and indicted in April. See annexed: 

Indictments Against Gardner and Lynch. 

The grand jury on Wednesday presented sundry indictments against 
E. L. H. Gardiner and R. B. Lynch, as follows: Two joint indictments 
for forgery, one joint indictment for embezzlement, and one joint in- 
dictment for conspiracy. One indictment against Lynch alone for em- 
bezzlement, and sixteen against Lynch alone for forgery. One against 
Gardner alone for larceny, one against Gardner alone for embezzle- 
ment, and thirteen against Gardner alone for forger}'. Total, thirty-six 
indictments. 

During the afternoon Councillor Noyes was arrested on the complaint, 
we understand, of Edw. P. Allis, for complicity in the recent frauds, 
and taken before Judge Mallory, where he gave bail in the sum of 
IL'JOO to appear at the next term of court and answer. 

The Case of G.\rdner and Lynch. 

Our ex-city clerk, Robert Lynch, was released from jail yesterday, 
having at last obtained bail. Thomas Keogh and Mr. Miller l)ecame his 
sureties in the sum of $8,000 — Lynch, we are credibly informed, having 
first conveyed property to the full amount of the bail to the above- 
named gentlemen. The affair was the general theme of remark about 
the streets yesterday, eliciting a variety of comment, which in some in- 
stances was not the most complimentary to the gentlemen through 
whose agency Lynch was released. The ex-city comptroller, Gardner, 
less fortunate, still remains in jail. Both are 10 have their trials in the 
fore part of next month. 

Lynch's trial came off August 14. The jury were J. Weatherby, 



*Tbere never was a man in this city whose public record is any cleaner than is 
that of William A. Prentiss, and his name will pass into the history of both city 
and state as one of the best men among all its official corps, while that of some of 
his traducers will sink into oblivion, or if remembered at all will be remembered 
only for their political dishonesty. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 375 

John Bistile, L. Stransky, John Hilkee, Jacob Kern, Joseph Haertel, 
Gottheb Hoffman, Qinton Austin, Stephen Babcock, John B. Mer- 
rill, Henry Wieland and Joseph Deuster, by whom he was found 
guilty. Lynch's attorney was the late Matt Carpenter. The attor- 
neys for the city were the late Judge E. G. Ryan and A. R. R. But- 
ler. Gardner, who had fled to CaUfornia, returned in order to save 
his bondsmen from harm, when, by some political influence, the 
suits against him were discontinued, and poor Lynch had to till the 
gap.* 

Some wag of a poet got off" the following, which is inserted here 
as a part of the case : 

The Devil's Visit to Milwaukee. 

'Tis said that Satan makes his regular jaunts, 
Monthly or yearly, to the various haunts 
Of men, whene'er they wax so moral 
The Devil thinks his kingdom in peril. 

Residents of the fair white city, 
Who chance to read this homely ditty, 

Dry your tears 

And hush your fears, 
Beelzebub hasn't been here for years. 

I haven't really the hardihood 

To boldly assert we are so good — 

So far removed from sinful enjoyment 

As never to give Old Nick employment; 

But simply to say 

In a delicate way, 
He can tind work that will really pay 
Him better; for any way 
He is sure of Milwaukee on judgment day. 

But "apropos" — 

That's French you know — 
Well, really, the meaning I (cannot tell; 
But in this case it relates to well 

A place underground 

Wnere can be found 
A good hot fire all the year round. 

Well, after an absence of several seasons, 
The dc^vil thouglit lie would take a peep 

At this fair city, which for various reasons 
He had left so long in a sort of sleep, 



♦Robert B. Lynch, after a long imprisonment in the County Jail, was finally let 
off on condition that he would enlist m one of the Wisconsin regiments during the 
war of the rebellion (the Twenty-fourth, [ think), which he did. And thus 
Waupun was saved the disgrace of his company. He came off, however, without 
a scratch, and died (I am mformed) a few years later at Washington, D. C. 



376 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 



And for his absence to make amends — 

As an old crony should, 

Or naturally would — 
He went making calls on all his old friends: 

Giving some word of greeting to each, 
Some friendly nod or friendly speech. 

He sighed in the ear of B B n: 

What a misfortune that bonds went down. 

If they hadn't, by ray help you would have made 

A handsome thing from our railroad trade. 

He whispered to S n: What a shame 

That for the use of your valuable name 
A thousand was all you obtained. I declare 
It's enough to make you almost swear. 
And feel inclined in despair to tear 
Handfulls out of your fine head of hair; 
Wlien the fact of the matter is, that you, 
Who did dirty work even I wouldn't do, 
Should, after all, be so poorly paid; 
But we'll make it up below, my blade. 

And so his majesty wandered around, 
Talking to all the old cronies he found — 
A-n-d and C-t-s and C-r-s and others; 

K n and K d, the railroad brothers, 

And many more of his private friends, 

Who will some day come to very bad ends — 

Until chance conducted him up the stair 

Of Cross' block, to the places where 

The cit.y fathers in council agree 

To — I'll tickle you and you tickle me. 

But growing short of wind, they say 

He stopped to rest himself on the way, 

And seeing a certain office near 

He concluded to repose for a time in there. 

And giving (i r some knowing looks. 

Commenced looking over the city's books. 

But as he examined, a terrible frown 
O'erspread his features, and looking around, 
Said he: In my residence under ground 
I have some men who for regular fobbing. 
For systematic and wholesale robbing, 
I would have backed without hesitation 
Against any official in all this nation; 

But here I declare 

And solemnly swear 
By all that a decent devil holds dear 
Here upon these volumes kneeling: 

I swear that for regular up and down stealing 

For going in anyhow, hit or miss. 

We have nothing in h — 1 that is equal to this. 

Then giving the floor an awful stroke 

With his caudal appendage— he vanished in smoke. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 377 



The election held April 3 resulted as follows 



Mayor — William Pitt Lynde. 
Comptroller — Ferdinand Kuehn. 
Treasurer — ^John H. Teseh. 
Attorney — Joshua La Due. 
Engineer — Frederick S. Blodgett. 
Municipal Judge — James S. Mallory. 

City Printers— Starr & Son. Official: English, Daily Neivs; German, 
Seebote. 

Aldermen. 

First Ward— Nicholas O'Neill. 
Second Ward — Francis Huebschmann. 
Third Ward— John J. Crilley. 
Fourth Ward — Edwin Hyde. 
Fifth Ward— Charles H. Orton. 
Sixth Ward — Joseph Phillips. 
Seventh Ward— William A. Prentiss.* 
Eighth Ward— J. C. U. Niederman. 
Ninth Ward — John De Vos. 
F. Huebschmann, president. 

Councillors. 

First Ward — Andrew Argus and John Lockwood. 
Second Ward — August Greulich and Henry F. Buening. 
Third Ward — Timothy O'Brien and Andrew McCormick. 
Fourth Ward — John Plankinton and Alex. H. Johnston. 
Fifth Ward — Patrick Mallon and John Rosebeck. 
Sixth Ward — Jacob Oberman and Ernst Herzer. 
Seventh Ward — Nelson Webster and William A. Noyes. 
Eighth Ward— Fred. Vogel and Win. P. Merrill. 
Ninth Ward — Chas. Schroeder and S. H. Rueckert. 
Nelson Webster, president. 

County Officers. 

Sheriff— A. J. Langworthy. 

Under-Sheriff — William W. Brown. 

Deputies — John W. Dunlop, Laben Capron, Benj. F. Smitli, Fred. W. 
Hundhausen and John J. Cnlley. 

City offices in Cross' block, northeast corner of Huron and East Water 
streets. 



*Cyrus D. Davis was elected, but declined to serve, and a special election was 
held on the i8th. See annexed: 

Seventh Ward Special Election — A Skjnal Triumph. 

The special election for alderman of the Seventh ward cime off yesterday, and 
was most vigorously contested. The Republicans nominated William A. Prentiss 
and the Democrats, John C. Starkweather. Both parties worked ban I, and a very 
heavy vote (999) was polled. The result was as follows: 

Prentiss (Republican) 557 

Starkweather (Democrat) 442 

Majority for Prentiss 1 15 

At the charter election, three weeks ago, the Democrats carried the Seveniii 
ward by 65 majority tor mayor, 13 for alderman and i for councillor. Now the 
tables are handsomely turned. Good for the gallant Seventh! 



378 milwaukee under the charter. 

Supervisors. 

This office was filled in the different wards by the aldermen (ex- 
officio). 

Towns — 
Wauwatosa — Henry Crawford. 
Granville — S. C. Enos. 
Milwaukee — Fred. Moscowitz. 
Lake — Orlando Ellsworth. 
Greenfield — Peter Lavies, Jr. 
Oak Creek — R. Ilaerty. 
Franklin — M. .J. Egan. 
M. J. Egan, chairman. 

Justices of the Peace. 

First Ward — Chas. Rattinger. 
Second Ward — Alex. Cotzhausen. 
Third Ward— R. B. O'Flaherty. 
Fourth Ward— W. B. Bloomfleld. 
Fifth Ward— C. C Meyer. 
Sixth Ward— C. Wi(!helhaus. 
Seventh Ward— E. P. Hotchkiss. 
Eighth Ward— W. A. Tucker. 
Ninth Ward— Abram Vliet. 

Fire Department. 

Chief Engineer — H F. Buening. 
First Assistant — None. 
Second Assistant — Phil. Daily. 
Third Assistant — Thos. Kerr. 

Fire Wardens. 

First District — Wm. Spence, John Koehler. 

Second District — H. Moore, H. Reinel. / 

Third District— Jas. O'Brien, P. Hanley. 

Fourth District — P. Jacol)US, J. Marcus. 

Fifth District — Chas. McDermott, Adam Hupbert. 

Number of engines same as previous year. 

Constables. 

First Ward — Daniel Campbell. 
Second Ward — Adolph Sulzer. 
Third Ward— Vacant. 
Fourth Ward — H. C. Gravinger. 
Fifth Ward— S. Holzinger. 
Sixth Ward — Edward Koebatz. 
Seventh Ward —Gottfried Luther. 
Eighth Ward— Frederick Hett. 
Ninth Ward— J. C. Mass. 

Railroad Commissioners. 

First Ward— Thos. Burke. 
Second Ward — Henry George. 
Third Ward— Wm. H. Holland. 
Fourth Ward — Samuel L. Elmore. 
Fifth Ward — Herman Toser. 
Sixth Ward — Peter Schram. 
Seventh Ward — August Ehlebracht. 
Eighth Ward— M. Ambacher. 
Ninth Ward — M. H. Schwarzenburg. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 379 

Assessors. 

First Ward— John Esch. 
Second Ward — Jacob Gintz. 
Third Ward— Edward Hackett. 
Fonrth Ward— Daniel Schultz. 
Fifth Ward— John C. Smith. 
Sixth Ward— Otto Fiebing. 
Seventh Ward — James Murray. 
Eigth Ward — Joseph Dressier. 
Ninth Ward — Jacob Toennessen. 

School Commissioners. 

First Ward — Alonzo D. Seaman, Nick Ludwig. 
Second Ward — F. A. Urban, Jacob Best. 
Third Ward— John Shortell, Ed. O'Neill. 
Fourth Ward— Jonathan Ford, H. H. West. 
Fifth Ward— Wm. Kendrick, Ed. De Wolf. 
Sixth Ward— Geo. G. Houghton, F. Schloemilch. 
Seventh Ward — J. N. Mason, Rufns King. 
Eighth Ward — Geo. Trentledge, Geo. Burnham. 
Ninth Ward — Chas. Quentin, H. Hilmantel. 
President— Ed. O'Neill. 
Superintendent — Jonathan Ford. 

Chief of Police— Wm. Beck. 

Roundsmen were twenty-three, viz: 

Albert Beck, Casper Borgelt, Theodore Buechner, Michael Duffy, 
William Dever, Peter Dusolt, M.J. Eviston, Geo. Fisher, W. H. Garlick, 
Geo. Gruber, Adam Just, Daniel Kennedy, Jr., Cbas. Kruecke, C. H. 
King, F. Kessler, John McCarty, Jerry O'Connor, J. B. Rhodee, Isaac 
Rhodee, John Regan, Peter Smith, Thos. Shaughnessey and Peter 
Weber. 

It was a close fight. The republicans carried the First, Fourth 
and Eighth wards with a good majority, and lost the Fifth, Sixth and 
Seventh by about a dozen votes each. The Seventh was very hotly 
contested, upwards of 1,200 votes being polled.* 

In commenting upon this election, the Sentinel of the 4th has the 
following : 

In the Third Ward yesterday, the democrats had full sway at the 
polls. We had a brawny individual, whose breath did not smell a bit 
like a(iuafortis, but very much like the bottomless ])it, thrust his fists 

into our face and called us a d d repul)lican, and warn us away. We 

also saw the repuVjIican band wagon stoned, the driver assaulted, and 
compelled to drive hastily away. Liberty of speech and action pre- 
vailed all day in this model ward, and where liberty is, there is their 
home. 

By the following official returns it will be seen tlial there were 
more republicans than democrats : 



* This was the time when a special election was held for Treasurer, as stated 
in Vol. III., when sketching Mr. Tesch. 



380 milwaukee under the charter. 

Mayor. 
Republican. Democratie. 

First Ward— Walker 578 First Ward— Hadlev 372 

Second Ward— Waldo* 374 Second Ward— Lvnde 508 

Third Ward— " 162 Third Ward— '" 859 

Fourth Ward— " 482 Fourth Ward— " 442 

Fifth Ward— " 397 Fifth Ward— " 414 

Sixth Ward— Tesch 417 Sixth Ward— Dousman 2.36 

Seventh Ward— Waldo 563 Seventh Ward— Lynde 621 

Eighth Ward— " 259 Eighth Ward— " 192 

Ninth Ward— Tesch 783 Ninth Ward— Dousman 325 



Total 4,015 Total 3,969 

Actual republican majority, 46. 

This was close work, and showed that republican seed was begin- 
ning to take root in the barren and sandy soil of democracy. 

The salaries for the different city officials were fixed this year as 

follows, on the 15th of April: 

ClerkJ ?2,000 

Comptroller 1,800 

City Attorney 1,600 

Deputy Comptroller 800 

Assistant Deputy 6(>0 

There was an exciting discussion at the meeting held April 28th, 
when Wm. A. Prentiss took his seat and offered a resolution based 
on the decision of the City Attorney, that no member of the Council 
could hold the office of First or Second Assistant Engineer of the 
Fire Department, declaring both those offices, then held by city 
officials, vacant. Which was adopted — 22 to 3 — and thus another 
wedge to split the ring was driven. 

Jasper Vliet's Safe Taken. 

The safe of the Horicon Railroad Company, Jasper Vliet, president, 
was attached April 28th, by Sheriff Herman L. Page, and the sum 
of $20,000 found therein, which was paid over to the creditors.§ 

* Running for Mayor. f Running for City Treasurer. 

X Among the aspirants for City Clerk were ex-Judge Foote and Joseph Lathrop. 
Of the latter the Snitinel had the following puff : 

Clerk of the Common Council. — We hear of quite a number of candidates 
for this responsible office; among them, Judge Foote, Mr. Herzberg, and Col, 
Lathrop of the News. We can safely say, without disparagement to others, that 
Col. Lathrop is admirably quahfied for the post, and would, we are confident, dis- 
charge the duties of the office creditably to himself and acceptably to the public. 

It would appear from this (which was true), that Judge Foote was willing to 
aecept any position, even that of Clerk in the same Court wtiere a short time pre- 
vious he had sat as its Judge. All he cared for was an ofhce. 

g This was after the failure of the road. The creditors were clamoring for their 
pay, and Sheriff' Page, feeling sure that there was money somewhere, concluded 
to try that safe. 



milwaukee under the charter. 381 

Base Ball Discovered 

April 5th, i860, and a club organized. Rufus King, President; 
Alpha C. May, Vice President; C. H. Allen, Secretary; J. W. Led- 
yard, Treasurer. Play grounds on Spring street hill. 

The rules and regulations of this Club occupied one entire column 
in the Sentmel of April 7th, the Constitution alone containing thirty- 
eight sections. No wonder it died of plethora or something. 

The Great Fire of March 20, i860. 

This fire, the third in magnitude with which Milwaukee had up to 
that time been visited, although very destructive, as fires usually are, 
proved in the end to have been a blessing, as it cleared the then best 
business portion of our city of a lot of old frame " rookeries," which 
had outlived their usefulness, and should have migrated to the out- 
skirts or been pulled down long before. 

This fire was first seen at 11:30 a. m.,* in the jet,t or return of the 
cornice, in the old frame standing upon the southeast corner of East 
Water and Wisconsin streets, now No. 400 East Water street, being 
one of the four then owned by the late Elisha Eldred, and where for 
several minutes it burned very slowly, so slowly in fact that several 
who witnessed it remarked that they never saw a fire start that 
appeared so undecided as to whether to proceed or go out as that 
one. When first seen it could have been extinguished with a pail of 
water, or even with snowballs had there been any snow. But the 
firemen were determined that inasmuch as Mr. Eldred would neither 
pull them, down nor rebuild, that they should burn, and they did.| 
They were a long time in getting ready to work, and when they did 
could not seem to find the fire. They sent one stream down the 



* The writer was sealed upon the steps of the old stage office, at what is now 
88 Wisconsin street, conversing with Isaac Selleck, who for so many years acletl 
as agent and clerk for Messrs. Davis and Moore (stage men), when the first flash 
was seen, and where he remained until the fire was well under way, from which 
point he witnessed all the heroic efforts made by the firemen not to put it out, and 
which were certainly Herculean. 

t A term in architecture applied to that point where the cornice upon the sides 
of all the early buildings is returned round the end in order to make a finish. 

I Two of these buildings, Nos. 398 and 400. were built in 1836, and of course 
were at that time not worth pulling down for kindling, but on account of their 
location would rent for a large amount, much more in proportion to their value 
than does their successor, the Iron Block. The others, Nos. 394 and 396, were 
built by Mr. Eldred at a later day. 

24 



382 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

alley in the rear, until the water ran out on Michigan street like a 
spring brook, while at the same time another was sent down the 
chimney of No. 400, in order, I suppose, to keep that frqm getting 
overheated, everywhere, in fact, but on the fire, until it was certain 
that the thing was a bird (as the saying is), after which they went 
to work in earnest (and there was need of it) to stop its further progress. 
As during all this time it had spread faster than a bad reputation, or 
a campaign lie before election, had extended to Uncle Ben Throop's 
hat and cap store on the south, now No. 382, then No. 180 East 
Water street, and east to Broadway, trom where it was rapidly working 
its way south to the Newhall, but by hard work its further progress 
in that direction was checked, as well as upon East Water street. 
Twenty-two buildings in all were consumed at this fire, with the fol- 
lowing amount of losses as near as can be ascertained : 

Jessel, about $6,000, fully insured. 

Eldred, on stock, about $300. 

Caleb Wall, $1,000; insured for $500. 

D. A. J. Upham, $400; insured. 

Morse Brothers, $500 ; insured. 

Goodman, about $1,000 ; insured. 

Sigerson — trifling. 

Mossin & Marr, $25. 

Cinders from this fire were carried several blocks, setting fire in one 
instance to a shawl on a gentleman's shoulders at the corner of Wells 
and West Water streets. See annexed : 

A GEXTLEMAx who was watching the progress of the fire on Tuesday, 
and who afterwards went over Spring street bridge and up West Water 
street, was suddenly stopped in the street by a person who called his 
attention to his shawl, which was burning, (in taking the article off, a 
hole about the size of a small dinner-plate was visible, and still burning, 
caused, doubtless, by a falling cinder. 

Among the buildings destroyed was the old house with the pillars, 
the William M. Gardner Homestead, built in 1836, upon the south- 
west corner of Broadway and Wisconsin streets, which had been 
moved south to the rear of the lot by D. A. J. Upham, who had pur- 
chased the property, where it was doing duty as a trunk shop, and 
occupied by John R. Cocup. 

The annexed list of the names of the sufferers at this fire, copied 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 383 

from Peter Van Vechten's sketch, published in the Wiso?isin, of 
March 20, 1885, is inserted here by permission : 

The southeast corner of Wisconsin and East Water streets, by H. E. 
Sawyer as a union ticket office, and Wni. Schenck, who was at that time 
the agent of the Pittsburg & Fort Wayne Railroad, had his office with 
him. G. A. Jessel had an auction and commission store in the same 
building. Next south on East Water street, 198, was occupied by C. R. 
Mabley as a clothing store; then came J. L. Eldredge's boot and shoe 
store, adjoining which was Edward R. Pantke and Oscar Barker's hat, 
cap and fur store. The stores on the south were occupied by A. C. Muri- 
son, dealer in confectionery; Moses Abraham, clothing; Henry Free- 
man and Charles Bigelow, boots and shoes; West Eliot's Golden Gate 
Saloon; Williarn Mabley, clothing; Joseph Baker, jeweler; William B. 
Morse and Levi Morse, tobacco and cigars. The firms burned out on 
Wisconsin street included Christian Bautz, bootmaker; John Siegerson, 
news depot; Lindeman & Hanson, merchant tailors; John Goodman, 
manufacturer of camphene and burning fluid; P. L. Mossin and John 
Marr, engravers; James Campbell & Sons, boot and shoe dealers; Wil- 
liams & R dney, real estate dealers; Thomas Rodway, saloon; M. C. 
Cook and Ralph Church, fruits; Mrs. J. W. Goings, barber shop and 
hair dressing rooms; Weld & Baldwin, real estate. 

Chief Foley, who at that time was in his sixteenth year, was a 
member of Engine Company No. 6, and participated in the " fun " 
of putting out or trying to put out the fire, related by Mr. Van 
Vechten. In the fall of the same year, i860, the city purchased the 
first steam engine, and a regular paid department was soon after 
organized. 

But en resume : 

There were some discoveries made during the progress of this fire, 
by that class of relic hunters who usually congregate on such occa- 
sions, one of which will not probably be forgotten by the discoverer 
while he fives, unless his memory gets out of order. There was a 
small budding* standing in the rear of Nos. 398 and 400, the vault 
to which, about five feet in width by twelve in length and six in 
depth, was full. This budding had also burned, the ashes from which, 
falling directly upon the vault, had completely hidden it from view. 
This man-trap was soon discovered by one of the small boys (se\ eral 
of whom were flitting around) falling partially into it, whereupon his 
companions (he having scooted), seeing fun ahead for them, quickly 
sprinkled fresh ashes over the fatal spot, upon which they placed a 
penny and awaited the result. It was not long before a tall, lean 



* This was before the clays of modern improvements, falsely so called. 



384 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

specimen of the genus homo, known m the vernacular as a Meck- 
lenburger, with his sawbuck, saw and axe upon his shoulders, came 
sauntering along, hunting for spoil in the shape of old iron and things 
(and he got spoiled), who seeing the penny, which these good little 
boys had so kindly placed there for his especial benefit and which 
they were not at all neghgent about calling his attention to, went for 
it and was quickly immersed in its murky depths clear to his neck. 
He was pulled out and wet down by the firemen, after which he 
made some remarks to the crowd in pure Mecklenberg, said by those 
who understood that melodious tongue, to have had reference to the 
certainty of riches taking to themselves wings and fleeing away 
(occasionally) and the innate cussedness of the small boys.* It was 
awful. 

But en resume. 

Marshal Jehu M. Lewis tried for illegal voting before Judge Mal- 
lory. May 7, and acquitted. Verdict: Didn't know any better. 

The writer was present at this trial, and will never fc^rget it. Mr. 
Lewis was arrayed in a new suit of indigo blue, with brass buttons 
(his head was brass any way), yellow kids hid his immense hands from 
sight, while upon the table lay his old-fashioned white bell-crowned 
tile, and taken altogether he looked like a mixture of horse jockey 
and slave-driver combined. All that was lacking to make the pic- 
ture complete was a pair of Mexican spurs and a whip. 

The case was opened by the late General James H. Paine, who 
offered as evidence the fact of Mr. Lewis being United States mar- 
shal, and that this of itself was sufficient to prove that he must know 
where he was entitled to vote. This brought the late Matt H. Car- 
penter, who was counsel for Jehu, to his feet with the following re- 
joinder: "We admit, your honor, that this man (here he cast a 
pitying look at Jehu) is a United States marshal. No use in arguing 
that point. (Here he cast another pitying glance at his client, and 
continued.) Government can confer office, but it can't confer 
knowledge. And the fact that my cUent is United States marshal is 



* These young hoodlums had succeeded in gelling seven men and boys into 
that pit before the police discovered what they were about. The last victim being 
a young lad in the employ of Messrs. Terry & Cleaver (books and stationery) who 
was on his way to the bindery with some magazines, and who in his anxiety to 
obtain that penny, went in books and all. That closed the show. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 385 

no proof that he knows anything." So said the jury, and acquit- 
ted him. 

It was by far the most amusing trial I ever attended in Milwau- 
kee, and often comes to mind even at this late period. Amusing 
from the fact that Mr. Carpenter despised him as much as General 
Paine did. The marshal died many years ago. 

The Public Schools. 

There was trouble in the school board in i860. The lavish man- 
ner (to call it by no harsher name) in which the school money had 
been expended by the former boards, in fitting up elegant apartments 
for the commissioners and other things, had increased year by year, 
until the expense account had reached $70,000 per annum, or nearly 
that — the item for wood alone amounting to 1,100 cords. The 
threat made by a member of a former board that the office of school 
commissioner should be prostituted to poHtics, the same as any 
other, had borne its legitimate fruit, and the treasury was bankrupt, 
and as the common council, though strongly importuned, would 
grant no supplies, but at the session of the board of councillors, held 
May 15, adopted the following preamble and resolutions: 

Whereas, The population and financial condition of the city of Mil- 
waukee does not warrant the maintenance by the city of two high 
schools, and 

Whereas, The interests of education require that the present system 
of high schools be continued, and 

Whereas, It is understood that the present popular principals of our 
high schools are willing to take upon themselves the burden of continu- 
ing the system at their own risk and expense, therefore. 

Resolved, The board of aldermen concurring, that we recommend 
to the board of school commissioners that tliey close the Seventh and 
Second ward high schools, and make an offer of the free use of the 
rooms and apparatus of both high schools to the present principals of 
said schools, upon the condition that the system, in all its (lepartnients, 
be kept up to its present efficiency, and that whenever the city sliall 
determine to assume the control of said schools, the rooms and appara- 
tus shall be given up after such notice as the council shall prescribe shall 
have been made upon both principals.* 

Resolved, That in case the principals of tlie high schools accept tlie 
free use and occupation of apparatus and rooms now used as high 
schools, they shall make such arrangements as the board of school com- 



*In commenting upon this proposition the Sentinel had the following: '• The 
plan is undoubtedly a good one; it will test the question whether the high schools 
are wanted, and it will put a quietus on the schemes of certain interested parties, 
who have been working most assiduously to close our high schools and at the 
same time establish some kind of a new-fangled central-normal fund high school, 
by which they might keep their disinterested fingers in the pie." 



386 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTEk. 

missioners may direct, by which said principals shall bind themselves 
to return the rooms and ap]>aratus in as good condition as when taken, 
damages by fire and ordinary wear excepted; and that the board of 
school commissioners have the privilege, at any time, of visiting said 
rooms for the purpose of looking after their condition. 

Which was carried out.* 

This action on the part of the council left the board of school 
commissioners no alternative, and at their meeting on the i8th the 
following resolutions were offered by Geo. G. Houghton, the mem- 
ber from the Sixth ward, and adopted : 

Resolved, That the board of school commissioners have takenall 
proper measures for the opening of the public schools at the earliest 
day possible ; and 

Whereas, All proper means were also taken to carry them on in the 
most economical manner, by grading the number of teachers and the 
scholars thereof; and 

Whereas, The common council were duly informed of the action of 
this board, and have neglected to take any measures as will enable this 
board to carry out the plan they had adopted; and 

Whereas, .Section 5 of the city charter says the school board shal 
not contract any debts or incur any expense greater than the amount o 
the 8ch(jol fund, without a pre\dous ordinance or resolution of the corn 
mon council; and 

Whereas, The common council has failed to take any such action as 
would warrant this board in opening the schools on Monday, February 
28, according to law; therefore, 

Eesolved, That this board, though with the greatest reluctance, feel 
compelled to further postpone the opening of the public schools, with- 
out awaiting the further action of the common council. 

This action brought the council to time, and the schools were 
opened May 28, as contemplated by the commissioners. 

The high schools, however, were ran, as contemplated in the reso- 
lution of the council passed May 15, on private account, by Messrs. 
E. P. Larkin and }. G. McKindlev. 

The number of teachers in the public schools in i860 was sixty. 
The highest salary paid was $800, and the lowest $300. Number 
of scholars, 24,922. Total expenses, including incidentals, $32,000. 

The appointment of George G. Houghton to a seat in the school 
board, and his selection by the board as chairman of the executive 
committee, was a wise move. It was then, to use a Western phrase, 

*Students who signified their intention to become members ot the Seventh 
ward high school, on Wednesday morning, and all others who did not, yet intend 
to do so, are requested to meet at the high school room Friday morning, at 9 
o'clock (May 25), to complete arrangements for opening the school on Monday, 
May 28. J. G. McKiNULEV. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 387 

the city "struck oil." The finances of the board were in a bad 
shape. But under his firm hand order soon came out of chaos, and 
the annual expense of running the schools was soon reduced from 
$70,000 to $31,000,* and school orders, which had been selling for 
forty-five cents on the dollar were soon at par, with a surplus of 
$18,000 in the treasury, and we had better schools than ever before. 
One of the first discoveries of crookedness made by the new com- 
missioner was that the city had been shamefully, swindled in the item 
of wood purchased for the schools, which shortage he quickly com- 
pelled the contractors to make good, the amount so recovered be- 
ing, as Mr. Houghton informed the writer, nearly sufficient to sup- 
ply the schools for another year. 

Among the bills presented during his administration, and which 
had been duly certified by the finance committee as correct, was one 
amounting to some $400 (more or less) for printed sHps or blanks, 
but which, upon examination, proved to have been for refreshments 
furnished the commissioners (the former board) at a picnic. 

The following amusing colloquy occurred in connection with this 
bill. The amount, as well as the character of the item for which it 
was drawn (printed slips), looked suspicious, and its payment was 
objected to by Mr. Houghton, who requested that it be laid over, 
which was done. 

After the adjournment of the board Henry Hilmantel, commis- 
sioner from the Ninth ward, supposing, from Mr. Houghton's deter- 
mination to examine it, that the fraud was discovered, remarked to 
that gentleman sotto voce as they were leaving the room : 

" Veil, Mr. Houghton, you schmell dot pill pooty quick oud." 

And to which Mr. Houghton (who, if not convinced before that 
the bill was a steal, was now) replied : 

" Of course I did." 

•' Veil," said Hilmantel, " I tell you some dings. Last year ve has 
a school bicnic up in Vliet's grcve, and der gommissioners vas haf 
some vine und peer und cigars off by demselves. Dis pill was fon 
dat." 

It is needless to say that " dot pill " was never paid out of the 
school fund, at least while Mr. Houghton remained in the board. 



*These figures were furnished by Mr, Houghton. 



388 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

But en resume. 

The following communication was received at the meeting of the 
council held May 28, which explains itself: 

Common Council Proceedings. 

At a meeting of the board of councillors, on Monday evening, among 
others: 

A communication was received from Herman Stewett, stating that 
two years ago he applied for the office of wood inspector in the First 
district, stating the reasons as follows: 

"Being a tailor by trade, and mj^ eyes now too weak to work, I 
thought to make a living by it; and, secondly, as an old citizen and tax- 
payer I claimed the same right as others to hold office. But notwith- 
standing this, some heartless men tendered the office to certain politi- 
cal favorites, and I, a mere tailor, Imt independent citizen and voter, 
laughed at! 

"This year I did not apply for this office, having understood that 
Peter Huegin's contract would expire some time in June, and believ- 
ing that under the proclaimed system of reform and retrenchment, 
public notice would be given by the proper officers; but it seems I was 
mistaken, and that the old system of favoring political friends gently 
and secretly has been re-adopted by some reform councillors, and this 
jear, at the expense of the ward fund, the contract has been awarded 
to Peter Huegin secretly, and for a smaller sum than the other men 
offered. 

" I am more astonished about this transaction as I see that men who 
are hunting up the errors and delinquencies of others, do not hesitate 
to do the same thing exactly, at the same time boasting of their effi- 
ciency and honesty of purpose. 

" But, to cut the thing short, I herel)y offer to pay |350 for said office 
during the current year, $50 more than P. Huegin agreed to pay, bind- 
ing myself to perform the duties of said office honestly." 

Laid on the table. 

Although Mr. Stewett failed to get the appointment upon this oc- 
casion, a more foolish thing than to have granted it has been done 
since, as there certainly was both a tailor and a shoemaker appointed 
to supermtend the construction of a brick sewer not many years 
since. How is that for civil service reform ? 

Also the following in relation to the new school houses : 

Communication from the Comptroller. 

To the Honorable the Mayor and the Common Council : 

In pursuance of a resolution, adopted April .30, I have advertised six 
days to receive proposals for the sale of the school house lot in the Fifth 
ward; I must, however, state that I have received no bids for said pur- 
pose. 

In addition, I beg leave to state that, according to the contract en- 
tered into with S. H. Martin, for the building of three school houses in 
the Fiftli, Eighth and Ninth wards, one-fifth of the aggregate amount 
of the contract price for $35,400 was payable on the 1st of February, 
1860; that the proceeds of the sale of the school house, however, were 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 389 

to be applied on the payment of the first instahiient; in anticipation of 
the sale to be reahzed, a special school tax was levied of 14,805.01, of 
which about $800 remained unpaid. The sale not having been effected, 
there remains a balance still unprovided for of about 5>3,000, on which 
your honorable body will please to take such action as you may deem 
proper.* Respectfully, Ferd. Kuehn, Comptroller. 

Referred to a joint committee on finance and schools. 

Railroads. 

There was a call, May 24th, for the La Crosse, and the present 
Northwestern (then the Chicago & Green Bay Railroad), to unite 
and build a track along the beach in the present Third ward, upon 
the same line where the Northwestern Railroad track is to-day. 

Also a call, on the 29th, for a Central Depot, which contained the 
following passage, viz : 

There is but one way, and there never was but one way, for the 
La Crosse Road to enter the city, the way pointed out by Jacob L. 
Bean,t the then President of the company, and who lost his position 
as President because he would adhere to his opinion in that respect, 
(and for which a preliminary survey was made by his order,) turning 
from the present line in the town of Granville, and passing by an 
easy grade into the valley ot the Menomonee, above the village of 
Wauwatosa, and so down that valley to the very pointj subsequent 
experience has shown to be the natural location for a Union depot. 

That was the line which should have been adopted as the permanent 
line of the company, and would have been but for the individual 
interests involved. These individual interests, however, were served, 
and the road built on the present line. And althaugh Mr. Bean has 
been dead many years, yet time has not only fully demonstrated his 
sagacity in selecting that line as the one best calculated to subserve 
the wants of commerce, both inland and marine, both having finally 
asserted their prerogative in the construction of the present Union 
depot on Reed street. Thus causing Mr. Bean's proi)hecy to come 
true.§ 

*Mr. Martin took these school liouses mucli too low, and the consequence was 
that an additional appropriation of some $6,000 had lo be made in order to enable 
him to complete his contract. 

f Mr. Bean was the first President of the La Crosse Roatl. 

X The present Union Depot on Keed street. 

^ This, as has been seen in the previous chapter, is all clianged now by the 
construction of the New Depot in the Fourth ward. 



390 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

This was sound doctrine. The natural inlet for all the roads 
entering the city from the south and southwest is via the lower 
marsh, and the natural outlet is via the Menomonee Valley, with a 
Union depot extending from Reed to Greenbush streets, over the 
present main track of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad. 
That outlet for the present Northwestern would have cost less, been 
more convenient for both roads, as well as the public, than is their 
present track along the beach. And would have left that beautiful 
spot for a Park. Why was it not done? Echo answers — Why? 

The Third Ward Market. 

There was an effort made again this year to purchase ground for 
a market in this ward, for which purpose a committee had been ap- 
pointed, who made the following report, at an adjourned meeting 
held May 26, of the feasibility of the place had under considera- 
tion : 

The committee to whom was referred the subje(;t of inquiring into 
the propriety of purchasing the one-half block for the use of a market 
scjuare in the Third ward, have had the same under consideration, 
would respectfully report the following to this meeting, the conditions 
of the said half block being as follows: 

The west half of block 25 cannot be bought except for one-half cash; 
also the east half of block 16, on the same terms. The west half of 
block 16, on which there is a three-story brick building, can be bought 
for the sum of $24,000, as provided by the law passed by the legislature. 
The north half of block -to can be Ijought for the sum of 1|19,500, on the 
terms provided by the legislature for the same. 

TnoMAs H. EviSTON, 
Paul Foley, 
Timothy Carney, 
John Eigner, 
Henry Warncke. 

Committee's report accepted, and the following resolution was offered 
by Edward McGarry, and was discussed at length by Messrs. Baker, 
Mctcalf, McGarry, Eviston, Jennings, and others: 

Resolved, That the mayor and common council order an election to 
be held in the Third ward, for the purpose of selecting a suitable half- 
block for a market square, and that the west half of block 16 and the 
north half of block 48 be referred to the voters of said ward to vote for 
the location of said market square, and the half-bloi'k having a majority 
of votes in favor of locating the market square thereon, l)e purchased 
by the proper othcers, as provided by law for said market square and 
building. 

On motion the meeting adjourned. 

John J. Crilly, Chairman. 

Daniel O'Leary, Secretaiy. 

Milwaukee, May 26, 18()0. 

This election was held at the Louisiana House, June 19, and re- 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 391 

suited in the selection of lots 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12, in block 16. A 
bill was passed in the legislature, authorizing the purchase of this 
ground for the purpose of a market, but the ordinance was vetoed 
by Mayor W. P. Lynde, on account of ihe poverty of the city, at 
which the Third warders (who had really elected him) were very in- 
dignant. But it availed nothing, and they have no market to this 
day. 

Belden's old Home saloon, now No. i Spring street, was removed 
this year, July 14, to make room for the present block. It was 
placed upon a scow, carried to the South Side, and placed upon the 
west side of Reed street, near where the Union Depot now stands, 
where it was subsequently burned. Sic transit. 

The Cow Question Again. 

The cow question came to the front again this year in all its in- 
tensity, by an inquiry from some ink-slinger, under the nam de phune 
of " Hard Pan," and who wanted to know whose cows were being 
pastured on the public square (there were six of them), also what 
had become of Caleb Wall. Have the rich fellows down in the 
Third ward •' spiked his guns," or what ? To which Caleb replied 
thusly : 

CiTY Land Office, May 28, 1860. 

Mr. Editor : I made one great omission in my report of the city im- 
provements, and something we have wanted for a long time, and an 
improvement which will be the cause of much rejoicing by all the Sev- 
enth warders, particularly the ladies. 

The improvement is to convert the court-house square into a pasture 
for cows and hogs. It is central, it l>eing equally convenient for the 
Third and Seventh warders. The grass is now in tip-top order, the 
trees are in full leaf, and our cattle will find an abundance of food. Let 
them enter by the northern and pasg out by tlie southern gate. 

The common council will, I presume, at their next session, appoint a 
suitable person, whose duty it shall be to keep a plentiful supply of 
water and salt for the cattle, and also collect the droppings. 

Let it l)e understood that it is a public pasture for cows and hogs, for 
if it is so used it will be one of the preventatives to keep our own trees 
fi'om being destroyed. Calkh Wall. 

This letter did the work, and the cows were driven elsewhere to 
pasture. 

The Horse Rah, road Craze. 

There was a regular furor on the horse railroad question in i860, 
as the annexed will show : 



392 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Still Another Horse Railroad. 

Another horse raih'oad company, comprising some of our most enter- 
prising citizens, has applied tfi the common council for permission to 
construct, equip and operate a horse railroad, to be known as the Har- 
bor, Main Street and Humboldt Horse Kailway. It is proposed to run 
it from the river up Main street, to 3Iartin street, up ^lartin street two 
or three blocks, and thence in a northerly direction to the Humboldt 
bridge. This will accommodate a large portion of the First and Sev- 
enth wards without coming in competition with the River and Lake 
Shore Railway, and if not immediately, will doubtless before long prove 
a profitable investment. We understand that it is the intention of the 
company to have the railway in operation as far as the Humboldt bridge 
as soon as possible, and to extend it to the village of Humboldt next 
season. 

There was also one known as the Cold Spring Railroad. Alex. 
Mitchell, H. Crocker, E. B. Wolcott and O. Alexander, corpora- 
tors. 

Also, one known as tbe West Side Railroad. Samuel Brown, 
Richardson Houghton, Robert W. Pierce, Joseph A. Phelps, Eno 
Meyer, Hans Reese, J. H. Tesch and John H. Silkman were cor- 
porators. See annexed : 

Horse Railroad ox the West Side, 

An application is pending before the common council tor a horse rail- 
road charter on the w"est side of the river. The corporators, Messrs. 
Burnham, S. E. Davis, D. Ferguson, John Davis, James Bonnell, A. D. 
Smith and V. Blatz, are men of means and responsibility. Their pur- 
pose is to build a road from the Chicago Railroad Depot, through Third 
street, to the city limits in the Sixth ward, with branches up Walnut 
street to the Fond du Lac avenue in the Ninth ward and Melms' gar- 
den in the Eighth ward. The project is a good one. It will promote 
the convenience of the public, and no doubt be a paying investment. 
We hope that the council will grant the charter asked "for. 

It is proper to say that none of these roads were built. 
The Sentinel editor was threatened with a licking, and replies as 
follows : 

We are going to be licked. The man who is going to do it is a fine- 
looking fellow, although somewhat unfortunate in his manners. But 
he threatens to lick h — 1 out of any one who differs from him in opinion. 
Now, we would rather be licked than not. There is something grand 
in being made a martyr to truth. We really want to be licked into the 
middle of next week by a fellow who hasn't got strength enough to 
keep his own foul tongue in chancery. Every editor ought to be licked 
twice a day. So come on my boy, and do your duty. 

But he came not. 

Political Ruffianism. 
There was an attempt made, July 12, to break up a Repubhcan 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 393 

meeting by a few Douglas rowdies, in which a lad named Westlake 
came near getting killed with a stone. The ruffian who did this 
was promptly arrested by Chief Beck, and locked up. 

The march of the Wide-Awakes was also interrupted and attacked 
with stones, at the corner of Main and Huron streets. This out- 
rage was, I think, with a few exceptions, entirely disapproved of by 
the leading Democrats. 

But so it has ever been. The average Democratic idea of equal 
rights being to let no one but a Democrat live. At least that was 
the way it looked in i860. But vOld Abe was elected all the same. 

But as a further illustration of the desperate straits the leaders 
were in at this time, on account of the arrest of Messrs. Gardner 
and Lynch, and the shameless means resorted to in order to conceal 
the crimes of these thieves, and if, faihng in that, to prevent their 
punishment, I will insert the following proceedings, had at this same 
session, and which read as follows : 

Whereas, It is apparent that, in the recent payment of larf^e bills of 
costs and attorney's fees at the expense of the city, that to either prose- 
cute or defend is very expensive, while little public benefit is to be de- 
rived therefrom; and 

Whereas, Messrs. Ryan and Butler are now employed by the city, 
at a great expense, to prosecute the late comptroller and clerk, the 
former of whom has left the city (owing to ill-health*), with very little 
prospect of his ever returning; and 

Whereas, It is more desirable to economizef and save from expense 
than to vindictively follow any one for the mere purpose of making a 
pul)lic example of such individuals, and therel>y contract a larger debt 
for the city to pay to the lawyers employed; and 

Whereas, It is extremely doubtful whether Mr. Gardner, the late 
city comptroller, will ever sufficiently recover to enable him to return 
to the city (he had skipped) and stand a trial, his life being at present 
despaired of; therefore, 

Resolved, That in the opinion of the common council it is inexpedi- 
ent and against the interest of the city to proceed any further in the 
prosecution of Robt. B. Lynch, provided that said Lynch will promptly 
pay to the city the full amount of the defalcation or indebtedness (if 
any), or fully secure the same, to be paid within a specified time, as 
thereby the public interests of the city, in its present condition, will be 
better served. 

Resolved, The board of aldermen concurring, that tiie joint finance 
committee be, and they are hereby directed to ascertain, at tlieir earli- 
est convenience, the actual amount of the defalcation (jr indebtedness 
(if anyj) of said R. B. Lynch, and if the sum so ascertained shall be 



*He probably was a little sick. 

f Wasn't that pretty cheeky in them to talk of economizing? 

JThey were very careful not to admit that they knew there was any. 



394 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

promptly paid, or secured to the city to be paid, that then no further 
proceedings shall ])e taken in the matter by the city.* 

This, in view of the circumstances of which the gentleman who 
drew up the above was in no wise ignorant,t was, to say the least, 
pretty cheeky. But such was the hostility of the Democracy to any 
exposure of this fraud, that these resolutions came within one vote 
of being carried (the vote being a strict party one), thus preventing 
the council from compounding a felony, which it was evident many 
of them were not only willing, but anxious to do; and had it passed 
it would not have availed these thieves anything, as the matter was 
already in the courts, and so beyond the reach of the council. U 
was the same spirit vvliii.h prompted the offering of the resolution 
that, at the meeting of the council July 27, made so much trouble 
about the bond of Jno. H. Tesch,| which was continued by Messrs_ 
Greuhch, T. O'Brien and John Rosebeck (who, as the reader has 
seen, was eloquence itself), until brought to time by the following 
resolutions, offered by Councillor John Lockwood, after which they 
made haste to accept Mr. Tesch's bond and cry quits. 

Whereas, The Constitution of the State, in Article XIII., Section 3, 
provides that " No person holding auv office of profit or trust under the 
United States (postmasters excepted), shall be eligible to any office of 
trust, honor or profit in this state;" and the act amending the city 
charter of Milwaukee, approved March 27, 1858, in section 61, provides 
that " If any member of the common council shall, while a member, 
be elected to any other ofiice of said city, such election shall be void;" 
and 

Whereas, At the time of the late charter election John H. Tesch, 
who received a majority of the votes cast for city treasurer, was a mem- 
ber of the common council; and Joshua La Due, who received a ma- 
jority of the votes cast for city attorney, was United States Commis- 
sioner; and 

Whereas, The city attorney has been heretofore requested to give 
his opinion as to the eligibility of said Tesch; and it would be incon- 
sistent for this common council, while scrupulously observing the stat- 
ute, to disregard the constitution. 

Resolved, That the city attorney be respectfully requested to inform 
the common council, in Writing, whether, in his opinion, the office of 

*The member who offered these resolutions was Councillor Ernst Herzer. There 
have been a large number of men elected to office in Milwaukee since 1846, who 
were inefficient in every way. But it is no exaggeration to say that a more un- 
mitigated ass (pohtically) — John Rosebeck not excepted — than Ernst Herzer has 
never held down a chair in the board of aldermen or councillors since the charter 
was adopted. He was a gem. 

fAlthough offered by Councillor Herzer, it was not the work of his brains. 
He could not have drawn it up to have saved his life. 

^Mentioned in Vol. 3, page 308. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 395 

United States Commissioner is an office of trust or protit under the 
United States, within the meaning of Article XIII., Section 3, of the 
Constitution of this State. 

Resolved, That the city attorney be, and he is hereby requested, to 
give his opinion, in writing, as to the meaning of the following quota- 
tion from Article XIII., Section 3, of the State, as follows: "and no 
person being a defaulter to the United States;" and whether a member 
of the common council, who is a defaulter to the United States, can 
legally hold his office as such member; also, whether any ordinance, 
bill, or city order signed by any member laboring under such a disabili- 
ty, would be legal and binding on the city.* 

Referred to the city attorney and joint committee of five, with 
power to engage the additional services of counsel. 

Resolved, That the city comptroller be and is hereby requested to 
furnish a new bond, and present the same to the common council for 
its approval, said bond to have two sureties, who shall each justify in 
the amount of $20,000, said amount being the penalty named in the 
present bond. 

Resolved, That Mr. Kennedy, clerk of the municipal court, be and 
he is hereby requested to furnish a new bond, and present the same to 
the common council for its approval ; said bond to have two sureties, 
who shall justify to the amount of §^10,000, such amount being the pen- 
alty named in the present bond. 

Referred to the city attorney. 

In The Lobby. 

After the council had adjourned, Councillors Rosebeck and Greu- 
lich made a vocal descent upon the harmless representative of the 
Af/as, who was present. Mr. Rosebeck distinctly, and in his usual 
dignified manner, stated that Mr. Otterbourg ouj^ht to be rawhided. 
Mr. Otterbourg did not coincide with him, but Councillor Greulich 
did. These city fathers, however, did not lay violent hands on Mr. 
Otterbourg ; they merely boasted of what they'd do, in their digni- 
fied municipal way. A crowd was attracted about the lobby, and 
the proceedings were almost as interestmg as the official council do- 
ings. 

Reporters will do well to carry revolvers with them when they go 

to the council chamber. 

These shameful proceedings on the part of the council aroused a 
feeling of universal indignation among the people, particularly with 
the German Repubhcans, and resulted in a call for a meeting of the 



*This hit Joshua in a tender spot, as he was at that time United States Com- 
missioner. 



396 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

German Republican Club of the Seventh ward, at the Kossuth 
House, at which B. Donischkee was chairman and J. Dressier, sec- 
retary, when, after scoring Jas. A. Mallory for some unjust decision 
(as they claimed), and calling upon the citizens to petition the legis- 
lature to abolish said court, they turned their guns upon such mem- 
bers of the council as had been notoriously active in the matter of 
Mr. Tesch's bond, upon which matter the following resolutions were 
offered and adopted : 

Resolved, That the board of councillors, bj^ endeavoring to keep 
John H. Tesch out of an office to which be has been twice elected by 
the people, in putting his sureties too high, being actuated thereto by 
revenge (or fear), that, if once installed, he would make some discov- 
eries that would be damaging to the leaders of the Democratic party, 
was a gross outrage upon the people of this city. 

Resolved, That although we are not citizens of the Ninth ward, v,e 
are citizens of Milwaukee, and hereby express our indignation of 
Councillor Ernst Herzer, who, to the advantage of swindlers, but to the 
disadvantage of the city, l)rought into the common council the resolu- 
tion to withdraw the suit of tlie state against the former city clerk, R. 
B. Lynch, and to settle with him. 

Resolved, That we approve the action of the citizens of the Sixth 
ward, who want said Herzer to resign his office as councillor,* as he is 
unworthy the confidence of the people and forgetful of his duty. 

Resolved, That we also perceive in the action of Councillor Greulich 
to allow at pleasure alterations or omissions in the official recordf of 
the common council — an attempt to deceive the community, and to 
keep from the people the true condition of the affairs of our city ad- 
ministration — an attempt which would not be remarkable or out of 
place in a monarchy, and that would perhaps be rewarded with a title, 
but which in a republic is entirely inadmissible and condemnable. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be published in all the English and 
German papers, and that the editor of the Seehote (the official organ) be 
requested to publish the same. J 

Prominent among the speakers at this meeting were Messrs. 
Domschkee, Winkler, Okerburg and John Lockwood. 

B. Domschkee, president. J. M. Dressier, secretary. 

There was also a meeting of the Union Republican Club held on 
the 17th, at which the following resolutions were presented by John 
B. Seaman, and adopted : 

*A resolution to that effect had been passed at a meeting of the citizens of that 
ward. 

fReferring to the meeting on the 20lh, when the resolution to withdraw the 
suits against Gardner and t.ynch was made, and came so near being passed, and 
at which Councillor Greulich did offer a resolution (and which was adopted), in- 
structing the clerk not to include the Herzer resolutions in the published proceed- 
ings. See Mihuaitkee Sentinel, July 25, 1859. 

|But he didn't. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER 397 

Whereas, The committee of in vestigation appointed by Mayor Lynde to 
inquire into and report to the Common Council as to the frauds, stealings 
and corruption of the city management, having closed their labors, 
leaving much ground untouched by their investigations, which in our 
opinion should have received a most thorough examination ; and 

Whereas, One of the members of said committee, at the time their 
report was submitted, stated to the Common Council that the majority 
of that committee have shown a reluctance to investigate and a (desire 
to screen the guilty, as well as exhibited a personal interest in hushing 
it up (except as to the acts of those already exposed), and refused to 
concur in the report; and 

Whereas, We believe that an investigation, extended into the period 
earlier than that recited by this committee, would unravel thieving and 
knavery in city affairs that will be of the utmost importance for the city 
to know. Therefore be it 

Resolved, That the Hon. Mayor of this city be and is hereby requested 
to appoint another committee from the Common Council, if a sufficient 
number can be found in that body who will serve honestly and faith- 
fully. And if such a committee cannot be selected from that body, then 
that he select such a committee from the people, or direct the people 
to select their own committee, with full authority to act in the premises. 
Adopted.* 

Nothing canie of this, however, but wind. The pins were too well 
set up and plans too well laid for anything to be accomplished in this 
way, which caused Councillor Lock wood — who had been vainly 
endeavoring for the last three weeks to bring up a resolution before 
the Board of Councillors in regard to the slackness of the said com- 
mittee, and who had invariably been choked off and otherwise kept 
in the back ground by a motion to adjourn, whenever it came up — 
finally to inform the Council, that unless he was allowed to introduce 
that resolution he would make some accusations at the next meeting 
that would touch some of the members in a tender spot, which the 
Council having failed to do, Mr. Lockwood did, at the meeting held 
September 7th, offer the following preamble and resolutions: 

Whereas, The late investigating committee have been in session for 
the last three or four months, and did at the last meeting of the Board 
of Aldermen make a report of their doings and ask to he discharged 
from further labor, as such committee; and 

Whereas, It is claimed and charged by one of the members of said 
committee, that they had not honestly discharged the duty for wliich 
said committee had been appointed, and that tht^y had been partial by 
not investigating into the doings of certain members who were equally 



* The Council, at their meeting held August 26th, had a gay old time. It was 
a sad commentary on the evils of bringing party politics into municipal affairs. 
The only motion made during the evening was by Alderman McCormick, for an 
appropriation of twenty cents for beer. They spent the people's time in abusing 
each other, and spitting tobacco juice on the carpets. It was true, as Mr. Lock- 
wood said, they needed investigating badly. 



398 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

guilty with those who were uoav under arrest for malfeasance in office, 
and who are now walking the streets with brazen faces; and 

Wliereas, It is true that the said committee have neglected to investi- 
gate into the doings of several of the ward officers that most needed it. 
Therefore be it 

Resolved, That a joint committee of three, consisting of .John Lock- 
wood and Nelson Weh»ster, from the Board of Councillors, and Joseph 
Phillips from the Board of Aldermen, and Charles Qiientin and Andrew 
Mitchell on the part ox citizens and tax-payers, l)e and they are hereby 
appointed such committee, for the purpose of investigating into the 
doings and official actions of the Aldermen and Councillors of the sev- 
eral wards, with power to extend said investigation as far back into 
former years as they may deem necessary; and for that purpose shall 
have power to examine the books, papers and files of the several city 
officers, as said committee shall think necessary, as well as to send for 
persons and papers, and to report their doings to the Common Council 
from time to time.* 

These, however, not proving very eftective, he did at the session 
held October 15, accuse Councillor Wm. A. Noyes of receiving from 
Mr. Flertzheim $107, in connection with a contract for a sewer; 
also of receiving orders from David George, and endorsing his 
(George's) name on the back. 

This led to a bitter fight, in which Mr. Plankinton took sides with 
Lockwood in favor of having these charges investigated, and Messrs. 
O'Brien and Greuhch opposed it — they claiming that the whole 
object of bringing these charges was to make political capital for him 
(Lockwood). t 

It struck sober minded men, however, differently, and that if such 
was the case, that the quickest way to take the wind out of Lock- 
wood's sails would be to appoint the committee. If a rat was in the 
meal get him out, as it was idle to suppose than any new resolutions 
could affect the reputatioa of the democratic party, and a most fool- 
jsh piece of sentimentalism (says the Sentinel) to oppose the appoint- 
ment now out of resjject to its memory. 

The discussion culminated, however, on the 19th, in the resignation 
of Councillor Noyes (the place was getting too warm for him), after 



* The main part of the opposition to the appointment of this committee (says 
the Sentinel) came from Councillor Greulich and Alex. Johnston. Whether ihey 
were afraid it might hit them we cannot tell, but they were bitterly opposed to it. 

fit is needless to say that the resolution to investigate these charges was voted 
down, as was the one to investigate the wood steal, i,ioo cords, which it was 
stated had been purchased for the use of the Public Schools during 1857, a large 
portion of which it was charged had gone to the dwellings of the Commissioners. 
Th^it crowd wanted no investigation — not if they knevi^ it. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 399 

which the resokition calling for a committee was taken from the 
table and, after being amended so as to hurt no one, adopted, when 
Councillor Rosebeck went for Lockwood in a tone of voice that if 
deUvered through a tin horn would have split it from end to end, and 
in order that its beauty may not be lost to posterity, I will give the 
entire speech, verbatim et speilaiim. Here it is : 

The Common Council adjurnments Dodge Mr. Editor of the Sentinel 
in your Isne of Sept. 19 last some sort of an induviduell has missrepre- 
sented some of the Commen Council again, by stating everry thing to 
suit to his own fixncy, but as a Slanderus attack can only come out of an 
evil Heart so it must fly in the wind and disapeare — the Press should be 
the standerd of Truth and gide for Honesty, but it is Sought by some 
man that ware Jentelmens Cloths and are Systematically Trayned in 
gifting up Slanderus atacks, such as will often times Decive I am sure 
that you had no reporter there so it is got up by an outsider and as such 
beings are unworthy of Notice, I will stop from inlarging on the same, 
but as the Taxpayers ar anxious to know the facts in this matter, so it is 
my duty to state them. 

In the first place. I hold that the Commen Council shud never invesi- 
gate there own acts for the reason that it never will be done correctly 
on acount of the Existing Partiality. 

2nd. No man should tr}' to serve Two Masters at once for the reason 
that Members ware Elected for pourpus to atend to there regular Buise- 
ness and that needs all their leisure time. 

3rd. That the Commen Council is mostly made up of Bussenissman, 
and the best of Boockkiepers can not be found amongst them, therefore 
it will take a langer time and cost a greates amount of manney, for 
which the city will have to pay, for these reasons the Common Council 
will never pass Mr. Lockwoods resolutions which are allready woorn 
threadbare, and to much of an old tune that his own Friends wont alow 
to be sang anney Longer. 

4rd. Such apears as if got up for Honor-seeking Popularety, besides 
these lang Preambles Resolutions motions and speches have to be 
Printed at the Tax payers, exspence without saying much about the 
Commen Council to be keept in Session until midnight on acount therof, 
and frequently have to keep Two meetings in order to do the needful! 
Business, which is crouded out on acount of the same, wheras the time 
might be imploid for something more usefull, who has enough Patience 
to iudure all this, better let the admirers of the Jentleman go and Try 
it themselfs. 

oth. The Commen Council is in for a investigating Committee I never 
heard one member to object to it but it shall be the right kind of a Com- 
mittee, such a one that no honest man will ol)ject to it, it shall consist of 
Capable Bookkepers, good honest and impartial man, selected by the 
tax payers, but no Councilors nor Aldermen that perliaps bare an In- 
vestigation on tiieir own acts, wee want fare play and nuist have it, be- 
cause what is Just is honest and what is Honest must be Just, this is 
what your Connnen (Jouncil are resting on, and no false Cohering will 
distract them therefrom, as no noticre will be taken of l)acksli<U'rs tluit 
have no princil)l(', but merely to git uji a cliaracter for tiieinselves at the 
exspence of Innocent men, will I'eopk' understand facts or shall tiie 
Commen Council contimialiy be abused and stabbed at, by such men 
that bide themselves in dark corners. 

—Sentinel of Sept. 22. John Rosebeck. 



400 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

This was a roarer — that is, it was a windy speech. Alas ! alas ! 
Uncle John, what a windbag you are. 

A republican county organization was effected this year (August 
15th) for the first tune. S. S. Daggett, President. E. P. Hotchkiss, 
Secretary. The first officers (or committee) were as follows : 

Towns — 
Granville — Amos Thomas. 
Milwaukee— Chas. E. Haertel. 
Wauwatosa — Abram Ronke. 
Greenfield — Reuben Strong. 
Franklin — Quincy P. Hart. 
Oak Creek — Simons. 
Lake — Orlando Ellsworth. 

Wards- 
First Ward— J. H. Paine. 
Seeond Ward — J. P. Seamans. 
Third Ward — William Brown, .Jr. 
Fourth Ward— Winfield Smith. 
Fifth Ward— F. A. Beecher. 
Sixth Ward— Rudolph Matthews. 
Seventh AVard— S. S. Daggett. 
Eighth Ward — Geo. Trentlage. 
Ninth Ward — Geo. W. Luitink. 

Election November 6th. 

In speaking of the election, the Wisconsin of the 7th, has the fol- 
lowing : 

Unfortunately the democracy have again carried the county, but by 
greatly reduced majorities. The republicans may well congratulate 
themselves that here, on this Gibraltar of demo(Tacy, they have accom- 
plished so much. One more election and the democracy will be wiped 
out of Milwaukee. When we remember that Buchauan got 4,400 in this 
county in 1856, and that now it is reduced to 1800, we can begin to see 
daylight ahead. This regeneration cannot be done in a day. One more 
turn, however, will fetch 'em. [And it did.— Buck.] 

The following was the result in the several Towns and Wards : 

First Ward — Douglass 104 

Second Ward — Douglass 260 

Third Ward — Douglass 377 

Fourth Ward— Lincoln 30 

Fifth Ward— Lincoln 68 

Sixth Ward — Douglass 78 

Seventh Ward — Lincoln 46 

Eighth Ward— Lincoln 67 

Ninth AVard — Douglass 313 

Majority in the city for Douglass, 901, against 3,267 for Buchanan 
in 1856. The towns gave 907 majority for Douglass. 
The following were elected to the Legislature : 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 401 

Senate — Chas. Quentin, Michael J. Egan. 

House — Robert Haney, Geo. Abert, Ed. Keogh, Chas. Caverno, 
John Rugee, Carl Winkler, William Davis, John Hannon and Jas. 
Riordan. 

We were sorry to lose Mr. Lockwood, as he had been one of the 
most efficient members in the Council the city ever had, and would 
have made a splendid record in the Assembly. Jonathan Taylor was 
scooped, and never came up again. 

First snow fell on the 2 2d of Novemlier, at which time the weather 
turned a short corner. 

A Sharp CuANciE. — The weather turned a very " short corner" on 
Friday night. The river was entirely free from ice at sunset, Friday; 
and on Saturday morning the boys were skating on it. The meri-ury, at 
sunrise on Saturday, marked three or four degrees below zero, and kept 
below freezing point all day. 

Wood and Hay Market, 
Established in the Third ward. 

Wood and Hay. — On and after Monday next, the wood and liay 
market for the Third ward will be opened for the sale of those articles. 
It occupies three blocks in extent, and is located on Huron street, be- 
tween Milwaukee and Jefferson streets, also on Milwaukee, Ijetween 
Huron and Detroit, and on Detroit, between Milwaukee and Jefferson 
streets. 

Highway Robbers in Milwaukee. 

There was quite an excitement this year as the cold weather 
approached, in consequence of several persons being attacked on 
their way home (from the Lodge), one of whom was our well-known 
fellow-citizen, Fred. Wardner. See annexed: 

More Ruffianism in tub Seventh Ward. 

On Tuesday night two more cases occurred of assault and attempted 
highway rob1>ery in the Seventh ward. Mr. Fred. Wardner, Deputy 
City Comptroller, while on his way home, about !• o'clock in the cvt'n- 
ing, was attacked on Biddle street, between Main and Milwaukee, by 
three men, knocked down, dragged into an alley, his pockets rifled and 
his person badly bruised. Fortunately, he had but little money about 
him. The thieves, however, took all that he had and the keys of the 
Comptroller's office besides. Mr. W. was severely l)ut not dangerously 
injured. 

An hour or so later, ^Ir. .bihn C. Starkweather's coachman, on his 
way home, was attacked by tlirci- men, donbtU'ss the same three who 
attacked .Mr. Wardner, l)n't escaped by hard rnnning. The alarm being 
given, Capt. Starkweather, Slu'rilf Laiigworthy, and othi'r gentlemen, 
made search tbnjugh the ward for the ruliians, i>ut failed to lind them. 
It behooves our citizens and the police to be on the lookout for the 
rascals. 



402 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Now it SO happened upon this occasion that Fred, was just a trifle 
short of the schedule amount required by the rules of the highway- 
men's club, twenty-five cents being all the " gelt" he had about his 
person, which so enraged these incipient Claude DuVals that one of 
them knocked him down, then made him stand up and be bowled 
over a second time, after which he was informed, in language more 
forcible than elegant, that if they ever caught him out nights again 
without a larger sum than twenty-five cents they would kill him. 
This threat was supplemented by a kick, and an order to get, and he 
got. Fred, thought it was pretty rough to be plundered of ail his 
pelf, if it was only twenty-five cents, and then be kicked right on the 
end of his back because he did not have the schedule amount, and 
never allowed himself to be caught out nights after that with less 
than thirty cents. 

Nichols & Britt's Mill Burned. Loss $50,000. 

The checkered warehouse (the old Doctor Weeks warehouse), 
occupied at this time by Collins & Andree. The Axtel House was 
also badly damaged. The loss to Messrs. Nichols & Britt, above 
insurance, by this fire, was $26,000. 

This was hardly under control before the alarm was sounded for 
the East Side, and which proved to be Cross' block, northeast corner 
East Water and Huron streets, which consumed the entire block, 
together with all the papers relating to the Gardner and Lynch 
case.* 

Mr. Summers at that time occupied apartments in the block, and 
was then lying helpless on his bed with a broken leg, and who, with 
his family, was rescued with great difficulty. The night was intensely 
cold. But the saddest part of all was that six men were buried by 
the falling walls (viz :) Wallace Caswell, Frank Bruce, Chas. McDonald 
fireman, and three others whose names were unknown. This was a 

* This fire (which was no doubt an incendiary one) set for the express purpose 
of preventing any further investigation into the stealings of Messrs. Gardner and 
Lynch, and their confederates (for they certainly had them), started in the Com- 
mon Council room, located in the upper story of this block. It was well planned, 
as all the papers relating thereto were accidentally left out of the safe that night, 
an act of carelessness which never occurred before, the devilishness of which may 
be imagined when it was well known to all the city ofticials that a family occupied 
a portion of this block. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 403 

sad finale to this damnable act of some unhung scoundrel. The 
total loss of the property at this fire was $143,000. 

Improvements in Milwaukee. 

City Land Office, Caleb Wall. "I 

Corner of East Water and Michigan streets, May 16, 1800. j 

The irnprovements in the Third ward are principally on East Water, 
Wisconsin and Main streets, where the late fire was: 
On the old corner, 40 feet on East Water street by 120 feet on 
Wisconsin street, Mr. J. B. Martin will erect immediately a 
magnificent block, four stories high, divided into stores on 
Wisconsin street; banking house on the corner, 40x40 feet; 
second story into lawyers' offices; third story, lawyers' offices; 
fourth story, public hall; basement, two banking ofiices, all to 

be finished in superior style, and will cost $40,000 

Hassett & Chapman are now putting up a magnificent four-story 
brick store, No. 396 East Water, with joins Mr. Martin's on the 
south. It is 30 feet front and 120 feet deep. I am told that, 
when completed, it will be one of the best-arranged stores in 
the Western country. They expect to move into it by Septem- 
ber 1, with an extensive stock of dry goods, adapted princi- 
pall}' to the retail trade of Milwaukee. Their one-price sj'stem 
must and will win them hosts of customers, and their store will 
be so attractive that you cannot pass it without going in. It 

will cost when fully completed about lo,000 

Hunn & Crosby* are finishing a neat two-story brick store inmie- 
diately below Hassett & Chapman's, 20 feet front and 120 feet 
deep. I am sorry to see such small buildings going up on such 
valuable ground, ])ut it answers the purpose for which it was 
intended. The location was a desirable one for Hunn & Cros- 
by, and they have such a building as they are satisfied with, 
therefore it does not belong to me or any one else to find fault; 
if the}' are satisfied, so let us be, and may success go with them 
in their industry and enterprise. Their building, when com- 
pleted, will cost 2,500 

Several buildings have been raised by Mr. Noonan, on Wiscon- 
sin street (southeast corner Wisconsin and Brcjadway), and ar- 
ranged into stores; must have cost 1,500 

Two small stores on Main street 2,000 

Three brick buildings on Michigan street 8,000 

One brick Iniilding on East Water street :),000 

Sundry small improvements 1,500 

Total i?73,500 

Among the Fourth ward improvements were the Chapin block, 
201 and 203 West Water street, cost $16,000. The Burchard block, 

*This building was cccupied Ijy .Messrs. Hunn & Crosby for a short time, after 
which it was converted into a clolliint; store and occupied by the Messrs. Zimmer- 
man Brothers. It was originally ot two stories, to which now (August, 1885) 
two additional stories are being added. It is also to be ornamented with a glass 
front. The removal of the false front (wood), put on by the Messrs. /immcrman 
about four years ago, revealeil the old sign of Hunn & Crosby upon the original 
brick piers, in white letters upon a red ground, put on twenty -five years ago, the 
sight of which was ([uite a surprise to Mr. Crosby, die surviving member of this 
once popular firm. Its present nund)cr is 384 I'.ast Water. 



404 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

northwest corner of Sycamore and West Water streets, $20,000. Two 
by Lay ton and Plankinton, Nos. 3 and 5 Grand Avenue, $10,000, 
and two by Plankinton, 82 and 84 West Water street, $12,000. The 
Silkman block, 222 and 224 West Water street, $10,000. Furlong's 
block, southeast corner of Clybourn and West Water street, $14,000. 

Fifth ward — Van Dyke block, southwest corner of South Water 
and Ferry streets, $10,000. Two on Reed street, northeast corner 
of Reed and Oregon streets, $8,000. All of which are yet standing, 
and several dwellings, amounting in all to $51,000. 

Sixth ward — Amounting to $18,000. 

Seventh ward — Costing $53,000, one of which, Mr. Keenan's, 455 
and 457 Jefferson street, cost $18,000. 

The John L. Davis store, Nos. 386 and 388 East Water street, 
built by Gabriel Shoyer. This was a famous store for several years, 
under the control of Mr. Davis. It is now occupied for the same 
purpose by the Messrs. James & Geo. W, Morgan, who do a large 
business and are ranked next to T. A. Chapman in their line. They 
are from the heather clad hills of Old Scotia, and are first-class men 
in every respect. 

Also the present residence of Mr. Washington Becker, southeast 
corner of Grand Avenue and Thirty-Fourth street, and Hustis home- 
stead, 1,922 Grand Avenue. The first by the late Chas. Gifford, and 
the second by the late M. S. Scott. Making a total of $109,000 — 
$36,000 more than in any other ward. 

Recapitulation. 

First Ward $23,700 

Second Ward 36,100 

Third Ward 72,500 

Fourth Ward 109,500 

Fifth Ward 51,700 

Sixth Ward 18,000 

Seventh Ward 35,700 

Eighth Ward 8,000 

Ninth Ward 10,000 

Total $365,200 

The St. Paul Church (now a part of the Cathedral property), 
corner of Division and Marshall streets, was also built this year. 

The Lady Elgin Goes Down. 
We come now to one of the saddest events that has occurred in 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 405 

the history of our city, and which clothed it in mourning (more par- 
ticularly that portion known as the Third ward) for a long time. I 
mean the sinking of the steamer Lady EIgm, Captain John Wilson, 
by the schooner Augusta, Captain D. M. Marlott, on the 9th of 
September, i860, while on her return from Chicago with a party of 
excursionists, by which 225 of our citizens found a watery grave, 
besides a large number of passengers en route for Lake Superior and 
intermediate ports, many of whose bodies were never recovered. 

Among the mihtary companies on board (who were lost almost to 
a man) were the Union Guards (Irish), Captain Garrett Barry, and 
the Black Yagers (German), Captain Pius Dreher. 

Among the few yet living who were fortunate enough to reach the 
shore were our well known fellow- citizens Timothy O'Brien, Frank 
Boyd and Fred. Snyder, the popular proprietor of that celebrated 
resort for the thirsty known as Marble Hall, who has often related 
his experience upon that eventful night. 

As previously stated, the greatest number of these unfortunates 
were residents of the Third ward, where, in one instance, that of 
Jas. Rice, the whole family perished. It was a sad blow, and one 
from which that ward has not fully recovered to the present. May 
Milwaukee never l^e called upon to witness the like again. 

IN MEMORIAM. 

It may not perhaps be out of place to close this volume with a 
few words in memoriam of those who have passed away since 1880. 
And first of 

Morgan L. Skinner. 

Mr. Skinner came to Milwaukee, June 19, 1841. His first em- 
ployment after his arrival was as a school teacher, and was the first 
one employed under the public school system on the East Side (see 
Vol. II., page 312). He was a born teacher, and threw his whole 
soul into the work. This he followed until, finding the remuneration 
too small for the support of himself and family, he went into busi- 
ness. But the crash of 1857 threw him off the track, after which 
he went to San Diego, Cal., where he invested in real estate, hoping 
to retrieve his misfortunes by the construction of the then embryonic 



406 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Southern Pacific Railroad, at that point, its then contemplated ter- 
minus. 

This hope, however, was not realized, and he returned to Milwau- 
kee. The last letter the writer had from Mr. Skinner, dated Novem- 
ber, i88t, contained the following passage: 

I have this day paid the last deht I owe, and am once more a free 
man. And I did not ^o through the bankrupt court to do it. I can 
look any man in the face. Neither is there a man living who can say 
that he ever lost a cent by me. 

What a record. No showing of the white feather there. He 
had, through commercial disasters, became deeply involved, and 
although the gate of the bankrupt court stood wide open, within 
whose portals he could pay all he owed with a stroke of the pen, he 
would not, but paid every cent. He was a true man and a true 
friend, as the writer can truthfully certify. He has gone to his re- 
ward, but will live in memoiy for years to come. 

Mr. Skinner left two sons, Charles D. and Lewis N., both of whom 
are active and useful citizens. His widow lives at the old homestead 
on Milwaukee street. 

Mr. Skinner was born at Warsaw, Wyoming county, N. Y., Apri 
19, 1821, and died November 30, 1881. 

Lieutenant William Kendrick. 



\ 



William Kendrick, although not a pioneer, was for many years 
one of Milwaukee's well known citizens. He came in 1855. and 
went into the livery business, which continued until 1861, when he 
sold out, and was appointed under-sheriff by Charles H. Larkin, the 
then sheriff, which office he held until 1863, when he was appointed 
firsr lieutenant of police. This he held continuously until his death, 
January 19, 1882, and no man in the city could have filled it better. 
He possessed those peculiar qualities which belong to a good police 
officer. 

The writer's acquaintance with Mr. Kendrick commenced soon 
after his first arrival, and continued without a break until his death. 

He was a shrewd and keen man, one of the kind who go slow, 
but sure, and would always win. He read a man quick, and was 
seldom deceived in his conclusions. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 40? 

The writer could never wish for a better friend than Lieutenant 
Kendrick. He was a safe man to counsel with always. He was 
born at Darien, Genessee county, N. Y., October 8, 1816. He left 
two sons, one of whom, William J., is now in Emporia, Kas„ and 
Charles D., of the firm of Howard & Kendrick (Samuel Howard), 
lawyers, and who is fast building up a reputation for business integ- 
rity and honor which will make him a man of influence in the com- 
munity in the near future, and if he makes as good a record as did 
his father, it will be one of which he may well be proud. 

John Furlong. 

Mr. Furlong came to Milwaukee, May 6, 1836, and from that 
time to the day of his death was identified with and largely inter- 
ested in the growth and prosperity of the city. He secured a large 
amount of real estate that has become very valuable, his practice be- 
ing, like Mr. Eldred's, to always purchase, if he could, but never sell^ 
He was a warm-hearted and true man, conscientious to a degree not 
usually found in busmess men, and would always do right, let the 
consequences to himself be what they would, and, as the writer be- 
lieves, led as pure a life as any man who ever lived here. He was 
always at work at something, never idle, and has, besides his wealth, 
left what Solomon says is better than gold, a good name, as an in- 
heritance for his children. 

Mr. Furlong's death was as he always wished it to be, sudden — in 
a moment, in the twinkhng of an eye, the gate to the great beyond 
was opened by the dark angel, and he was ushered into his rest. 
Neither was he unprepared ; he was always ready for a call. His 
well known form and pleasant face we shall see no more on earth, 
but with his brother pioneers his memory will remain as an oasis in 
this Hfe of toil and trouble, until we, too, shall have a similar call, 
and life's fitful journey with us be o'er. He died December 26, 
1883. 

Priam B. Hii.i, 

Came to Milwaukee in 1842, and at once took a position as a busi- 
ness man. He was one of the few men who always move smoothly 
along and avoid many of the unpleasant episodes that fall to the lot 



408 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

of most men. He was a splendid accountant, was at one time act- 
ing city clerk, and for many years the secretary of the old Milwau- 
kee Mutual Insurance Company. He was a useful man, and lived 
to a good old age. He died at Chicago, June 12, 1883, cetat eighty 
years. He was buried in Forest Home by the Old Settlers' Club, of 
which he was an honored member. 

Mr. Hill led a pure life, and, Hke Mr. Lawrence, did right because 
it was the best way, and not from policy. He was always cheerful 
and full of mirth, was a pleasant companion, a true friend, a sincere 
Christian, a valued citizen, and will Hve in the memory of his brother 
pioneers until the last one of them shall have, like him, laid down 
the burden of lile and entered upon their final rest. 

Hubbard C. Atkins. 

Among the railroad men who have passed away since the writer 
commenced compiling Vol. IV., not previously sketched, was Hub- 
bard C. Atkins, and as no better or more fitting eulogy than the one 
delivered by Rev. Mr. Gordon, at his funeral, could be written, the 
author has concluded to insert a synopsis of it as being more appro- 
priate than anything he could himself have written. 

He was a hving sermon on the text, " Whatsoever thy hand findeth 
to do, do It with thy might." Obstacles tempted him, resistance 
piqued him, and nothing put in his way diverted him from his pur- 
pose. He did a thing because the thing had to be done, and proved 
himself invulnerable where most practical men are weak. Many 
very useful men give way easily to difficulties that are clearly seen, 
and relinquish possible schemes through lack of courage. But Mr. 
Atkins never used the words " It cannot be done." This made him 
so trusted by the thousands who worked for him that they never 
questioned any order he gave. The men on the road beheved in 
him just as they believed in the sun or the rain. They never dreamt 
he could be mistaken. And when he ordered anything to be done, 
no matter how difficult or dangerous, each and every man went at it 
as if it was his own pleasure and the purpose of his choice. He 
wielded great power over those who worked with and under his 
charge. But he combined responsibility with power. When a work 
was intrusted to anybody he carried the full responsibility of the 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 409 

undertaking. Of course he often suffered in this way. But standing 
in this way behind all those he employed, nothing was impossible. 
He always 'stood by his men when he believed them to be in the 
right, even when it took great moral courage to do so. No bloodless 
servant of a bloodless corporation did he appear to those who served 
under him, but a hving, la' oring, sympathizing, trusting and trusted 
friend ; capable of extracting the full legal quota of work from every- 
body, and as much more as he was willing to accept, but sparmg all 
from extortion, oppression, and ill usage, never weanng a false cos- 
tume of authority, nor assuming superiority of manners. All of which 
is the same as saying that while he was loyal to those he served, he 
was loyal to those who served him, never forgetting the sovereign 
nature of justice. 

His promotion from the ranks was rapid. Commencing as brake- 
man in 1854, baggageman in 1855, conductor on Watertown Rail- 
road in 1858. In 1863, assistant superintendent of the division from 
Milwaukee to Portage, when that road became a part of the St. Paul 
system. In 1865, superintendent of the Winona & St. Peter road in 
Minnesota, which now belongs to the Chicago & Northwestern. Two 
years later, in 1867, he became superintendent of the McGregor- 
Weston line in Iowa and Minnesota, which road is now also a branch 
of the Milwaukee & St. Paul system. Superintendent of the Prairie 
du Chien division in 1869. To which was added division after divi- 
sion, as fast as acquired by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, until 
he became assistant general superintendent. 

Such was Hubbard C. Atkins, a man of wonderful energy and 
push, and who never neglected a duty, and who as a successful rail- 
road man has left a record that few have equaled, and will Hve in 
memory as the friend of the working man until tlie last of the St. 
Paul employees sha.ll have laid down his tools and joined him in the 
better land. 

Mr. Atkins died April 13, 1884. 

The following committees had charge of the funeral preparations: 

General Committee — Roswell Miller, J. T. Clark, C. H. Prior, L. 
B. Rock, R. D. Jennings, C. H. Place, J. P. Whaling. 

Committee of Arrangements — J. 'i\ Clark, chairman: Floral 
Offerings— S. J. Collins, R. B. Campbell, J. M. Lowry, C. P. Utley, 



410 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Geo. O. Clinton, W. E. Kittredge, A. F. Merrill. Decorations — B. 
G. Lennox, John Bailey, W. L. Stone, D. L. Bush, A. M. Ingersoll, 
D. W. Keyes, J. T. Crocker, G. B. Clason, W. N. D. Winnie. Music 
and Ceremonies — W. G. CoUins, W. R. Morrison, P. M. Myers. 
Transportation — George H. Heafford, F. R. Hartwell, John M. 
Davis. Marshal — A. V. H. Carpenter. Aids — A. C. Bird, J. H. 
Barber. 

Mrs. Daniel Wells. 

This pioneer lady, whose death occurred June 20th, 1883, came to 
our city in July, 1836, then a young and happy wife, and at once 
took a prominent position in the little community of women, con- 
sisting at that time of Mrs. Samuel Brown, Mrs. Daniel Brown, Mrs. 
John Childs, Mrs. William Sivyer, Mrs. Enoch Chase, Mrs. Horace 
Chase, Mrs. John Ogden, Mrs. Joseph WiUiams, Mrs. Jacob and Jas. 
H. Rogers, Mrs. Hubbell Loomis, Mrs. Joel Wilcox, Mrs. John Fur- 
long, Mrs. U. B. Smith, Mrs. Paul Burdick, Mrs. David Hollister, 
Mrs. Jas. Sanderson and Mrs. Alanson Sweet, which little band in- 
cluded all (or nearly all) the married women then here. A position 
which her own private worth and beauty of character, as well as the 
prominence of Mr. Wells, justly entitled her to occupy, and which 
she held unchallenged until her death. 

Mrs. Wells (who was the daughter of Doct. Bryant, of Anson, Me.) 
belonged to that class of women for which New England has been 
famed, who form the bed-rock, so to speak, upon which society rests, 
and without whose controUing influence and guiding hand, morality 
soon becomes the exception and not the rule in every community. 
She was a woman of great dignity of demeanor, and who would 
always command the respect, not of her own sex merely, but of the 
sterner sex as well, at all times and in all places, and although blest 
with abundant means, unhke many similarly situated, was always 
averse to using it in a way that would give her prominence as its pos- 
sessor. She was of a too retiring disposition for that. Neither was 
there any place so dear to her as home. She abounded in works of 
charity, of which the world was ignorant. She was a person of 
pecuhar modesty of demeanor. Neither could any person be in her 
presence for any length of time without becoming aware that they 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 411 

were in the presence of a lady in the full meaning of the term, and 
one whom it was no easy matter to deceive, as she certainly possessed 
the faculty of reading character readily. And if she was not favor- 
ably impressed at the first interview, the pierson with whom that inter- 
view was held would never gain her confidence. She would always 
be polite, but nothing more. She has gone to the better land, but 
will live in memory for years to come. She was married to Mr. Wells 
November 23, 1831. 

Mrs. Wells left one daughter, Fannie Wells, now the wife of Chas- 
W. Norris. 

Mrs. Sarah Childs. 

Mrs. Sarah Childs, whose death occurred at Harper Hospital, 
Detroit, May 18, 1880, came to Milwaukee with her husband, John 
Childs, July 6th, 1835. She was among the first, Mrs. Samuel Brown, 
Mrs. Doct. Chase, Mrs. Paul Burdick, and one or two more only 
having preceded her. Her first home was in the old log tavern men- 
tioned in Vol. I., page 25.* where they kept the first white man's 
tavern in the place. She was a grand woman. Many a poor wan- 
derer has had his last hours cheered by her gentle voice, and his 
dying pillow smoothed by her magic hand. My first home in Mil- 
waukee was in her house, and no mother could be kinder than was 
she to myself, and the memory of the happy days spent in her family 
are among the cherished legacies of my early Milwaukee life. She 
was a woman of commanding presence, gentle in manner, and a 
perfect lady always. Neither do I ever pass the old house on Han- 
over street, so long her home, without her well remembered face and 
form coming to mind, as it appeared when first I knew her in the 
winter of 1836. Mrs. Childs was the mother of four children, two 
of whom died in infancy. Of those who grew to womanhood, one, 
Sophia, married Capt. Leander Waffle, and Angeline married Cnpt. 
J. M. Jones. l!oth of thein, however, preceded their mot'.ier to the 
better land. Mr. Childs died in 1846. 



* On tlie corner of the .Mley, where Miller's hlojk now staiids, 1 12 Wisconsin 
street. " Le Tendree's" old cabin. 



412 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

AsAHEL Finch, Jr. 

Asahel Finch, Jr., was born at Genoa, Cayuga county, N. Y., 
February 14, 1809. Came first to Michigan, when that now wealthy 
state was a territory, when he soon came to the ft'ont as a leading 
lawyer and legislator, and was a member of that body when the dis- 
pute as to boundary arose between Michigan and Ohio, which re- 
sulted in the former obtaining what is now known as the Upper 
Peninsula, the richest mineral region in America, in exchange for a 
worthless swamp, and which has made her one of the wealthiest 
states in the Union. 

Mr. Finch often spoke of that transaction and the part he had in 
bringing it about, as one of his official acts in which he took great 
pride. 

From Michigan (Adrian) he came to Milwaukee in 1839, and 
commenced to build up a business in which he was successful. Mr. 
Finch was not only prominent as a lawyer, but he was also promi- 
nent as a Christian, and was always foremost in every good work. 
He was diligent in season and out of season, always ready to do his 
part (and more) in building churches and founding schools, and has 
performed more work during the infancy of our city gratuitously, for 
the furtherance of those objects, than any other member of the legal 
fraternity who ever lived here, and his death left a void not easily 
filled. His death occurred April 4, 1883. 

Mrs. Mary Hollister. 

Mrs. Hollister was one of the pioneer women of Wisconsin, hav- 
ing come to Milwaukee June, 1836, where she at once took a promi- 
nent position among her sister pioneers as a willing worker in every 
movement calculated to exert a healthy influence upon the morals 
of the embryo city. 

The financial standing of Mr. HoUister at that time not only 
gave her abundant means for works of charity, but it also gave her 
position and influence in society. 

She was possessed of a strong will, sound judgment, and a clear 
perception of what was right ; neither would she allow any wrong- 
doing to pass unrebuked that came to her knowledge. But, as has 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 413 

been stated in the sketch of Mr. Hollister, in Vol. II., she was finally 
compelled to leave her pleasant home and return to the East, in 
1839. Neither did she visit Milwaukee again until 1869. The 
death of Mr. Hollister, in California, in 1851, left her with a young 
and helpless family to provide for, with no resources but her hands, 
Mr, HoUister's fortune having all been swamped in that land of 
gold. But when the storm came she was equal to the emergency, 
and met it with Spartan fortitude, and has received her reward in 
seeing her children grow up to be useful and honored members of 
society, and who, by their love and kindness, have made her last 
years to pass pleasantly away. 

Her death was unexpected, and like the going out of a fire sud- 
denly, the dark angel opened the door and she passed through to 
the great beyond, from whence no traveller has ever returned, and 
where, let us hope, she has met her husband, and the mystery attend- 
ing his death is to her a mystery no longer. 

She left four children, Mary Ellen, now the wife of John Allsdorff, 
of Newark, O.; David and Joseph, in Kansas, and Junius S., at Mil- 
waukee, where her last years were spent. 

She died at Parsons, Kas., where she had gone on a visit. 

Frederick Wardner. 

Mr. Wardner died at his residence, 520 Jackson street, March 7, 
1886. He was a native of Vermont, and came to Milwaukee 
in November, 1836, when in his twenty-first year. Four years after 
his arrival he associated himself with L. J. Higby in the mercantile 
business, which he subsequently carried on alone for a period of fif- 
teen years, his store being at the northwest corner of East Water and 
Michigan streets. He served one year as city comptroller and two 
years in the council, and was assessor of the Seventh ward for eleven 
years. For many years he was engaged in the real estate business, 
and for a period of nineteen years occupied an office at 415 East 
Water street. 

Mr, Wardner received a slight stroke of paralysis in his right arm 
two years before his death, since which time his health gradually 
failed, the disease finally going to the throat and heart, and caused 
his death. 

26 



414 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Mr. Wardner was married in 1842 to Miss Elsie M. Tiffany, 
daughter of George A. Tiffany, an old settler. His wife and three 
son?, James F., George A. and Edward B., survive him. 

He was buried by the Pioneer x\ssociation, of which he was a 
Worthy member. 

Thus one by one the links arc broken, 

One more spirit passed away 
Through death's dark and dreary portals, 

To the realms of endless dav. 



And now, kind patrons, I will retire from the arena for the pres- 
ent, restmg assured that, notwithstanding the imperfections my work 
contains, yet that at least it has the merit of truthfulness. The task 
has been a laborious one. But if it should be found in the coming 
years to be of any value to posterity, I shall be amply rewarded. 
With this short valedictory, I will lay aside the pen and 

Let some other man " spiel " it awhile — 
. About that M'onderful siege of Barlisle. 



APPENDIX. 



THE ORIGINAL TOWN RECORDS. 

In Vol. I., page 29, of the author's Pioneer History, is a partial 
record of the first election of town officers ever held in the then 
town, now the city of Milwaukee. This was furnished from memory 
by Doctor Enoch Chase, the record book having, in some mysteri- 
ous manner, disappeared. 

This book was placed in the writer's hands January 13, 1885, by 
the present county surveyor, Robert C. Reinertson, in whose office 
it had laid concealed for many years. And as there are some slight 
errors in the record given by Doctor Chase, one of which was giving 
the date as September 17, in place of the 19th, the author has con- 
cluded to reprint that of 1835 i'^ f"^^> ^^ ^"^^^^ ^^ those of April, 1836 
and 1837, of which, on account of the disappearance of this record 
book, no official return could previously be given, in part,* which, 
with those of October 5, 1835 (see Vol. II., page 29), and of Octo- 
ber I, 1836 (see Vol. I., page 72, and Vol. II., page 47), for the 
election of members of the legislative council and delegate to con- 
gress, will comi)lete the chain up to the adoption of the trustee 
system, and the organization of the two sides of the river into the 
East and West wards. t 

This election of April, 1837, was the one spoken of in Vol. 1., 



*The onth of office in 1836 and 1837 heing in all respects similar in form to 
those of 1835, have been omitted, only the names of the officers elect for these 
two years bemg given. 

fThis record will be dejjosited in the State Library at Madison, where, if 
wanted, it can doubtless be found by any future historian. 



416 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

pages 119 and 120, at which a barrel of Hquor was rolled into the 
street, the head knocked in, and the contents drank in a few minutes 
by the thirsty voters. It was a big time. The writer voted at this 
election. But here ai'e the records : 

Milwaukee, M. T., September 7, 1835. 

Met pursuant to an act of the legislative council of the territory of 
Michigan, to organize the township of Milwaukee. 

First — Chose Albert Fowler, moderator. 

Second — James Heath, clerk pro tern. 

Third — Adjourned to Saturday, the 19th of September inst., at 9 
o'clock A. M. 

September 19, 1835. 

Met pursuant to notice. 

Elected George H. Walker, moderator. 
" James Heath, clerk pro tem. 
" B. H. Edgerton, inspector. 

On motion of B. H. Edgertou : 

Resolved, That all actual settlers have the privilege of voting at this 
meeting, and that our proceedings be referred to the legislative council 
for their approval, etc. 

Elected the following township officers: 

Supervisor — George H. Walker. 

Town Clerk — Horace Chase. 

Assessors — James Sanderson, Albert Fowler, Dr. E. Chase. 

Commissioners of Roads — B. W. Finch, Solomon Juneau, Calvin Har- 
mon. 

Commissioners of Schools — Samuel Brown, Peleg Cole, Daniel Bige- 
low. 

Directors of Poor — B. W. Finch, Solomon Juneau. 

Constable and Collector — Sciota Evans. 

Inspectors of Common Schools — Dr. Jas. Heath, Dr. Enoch Chase, 
Dr.Wm. Clark. 

Path Masters — Enoch Darling, Barzilla Douglass, Wm. Smith. 

Fence Viewers — B. W. Finch, Paul Burdick, Geo. H. Walker. 

Pound Master— E. Chase. 

Voted that the ballots be all received in one box at the next election. 

Officers of the meeting — George H. Walker, James Heath, B. H. Edg- 
erton. 

Supervisor V 
George H. Walker, j 

I, George H. Walker, do solemnly and sincerely promise and swear 
that I will in all things, to the best of my knowledge and abilities, 
faithfully and impartially execute and perform the trust reposed in me 
as supervisor of the township of Milwaukee, in the county of Milwau- 
kee, and that I will not pass any account or article thereof without I 
think the said county is not just chargeable; nor will I disallow any ac- 
count or article thereof wherewith I think the said countv is justly 
chargeable. George H. Walker. ' 



'o*- 



Co'JNTY OF Brown, W c 
Territory of Michigan, j ' " 

Personally appeared before me, the undersigned, justice of the peace, 
George H. Walker, and subscribed and sworn to the above oath. 

Albert Fowler, Justice of the Peace. 
Milwaukee, September 21, 1835. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 417 

I, Horace Chase, township clerk, in the township of Milwaukee, in 
the county of Milwaukee, do solemnly and sincerely promise and 
swear that I will faithfully and honestly keep all the books, records, 
writings and papers, by virtue of my said office of township clerk, com- 
mitted, and which shall from time to time be committed, unto me, and 
in all things, to the best of my knowledge and understanding, well and 
faithfully perform the duties of my said office of township clerk, with- 
out favor or partiality. Horace Chase. 



Territory of Michigan, ]. l g 
County of Brown, j ' 



Personally appeared before me, the undersigned, justice of the peace, 
Horace Chase, and subscribed and was sworn to the above oath. 

Albert Fowler, Justice of the Peace. 
Milwaukee. September 21, 1835. 

We do solemnly and sincerely promise and swear that we will in all 
things, to the best of our knowledge and understanding, well and faith- 
fully execute the trust reposed in us as commissioners of highways for 
the township of Milwaukee, in the county of Milwaukee, without favor 
or partiality. ' B. W. Finch, 

Solomon Juneau, 
Calvin Harmon. 



Territory of Michigan, 1 l g 
County of Brown, J 



Personally appeared before me, the undersigned, town clerk, B. W. 
Finch, Solomon Juneau and Calvin Harmon, and subscribed and was 
sworn to the above oath. Horace Chase, Township Clerk. 

Milwaukee, September 21, 1835. 

We do solemnlv swear that we will faithfully and impartially do and 
perform the duties of commissioners of common schools for the town- 
ship of Milwaukee, in the county of Milwaukee, during our continu- 
ance in office. Samuel Brown, 

Peleg Cole, 
Daniel Bigelow. 

County of Brown, II g 
Territory of Michigan, J 

Personally appeared before me, the undersigned, town clerk, Samuel 
Brown Peleg Cole and Daniel Bigelow, anrl subscribed and swore to the 
above oath. Horace Chase, Town Clerk. 

Milwaukee, M. T., September 21, 1835. 

We the undersigned, do solemnly affirm and swear that we, in all 
things, to the b(rst of our knowledge and understanding and abilities, 
weirand faithfullv execute and perform the trust rei)Osed in us as direc- 
tors of the poor of the township of Milwaukee, and county of Milwau- 
Upp Solomon Jinkau, 

^ B. W. Finch. 

County of Brown, J l S 
Territory of Michigan, S 

Personallv appeared before me, the undersigned, town clerk, Solo- 
mon Juneau and B. W. Finch, and subscribed and sworn to tlie al)ove 
Q.^^l^ Horace Ciiask, Town Clerk. 

Milwaukee, M. T., September 21, 1835. 



418 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

We, Enoch Chase and Albert Fowler, do solemnly and sincerely 
promise and swear that we will honestly and impartially assess the sev- 
eral persons and estates within the township of Milwaukee, and county 
of Milwaukee, and that in makinc^ such assessments we will, to the best 
of our knowledge and judgment, observe the directions of the several 
laws of this territory directing and requiring such assessments to be 
made. Enoch Chase, 

Albert Fowler. 

Milwaukee, M. T., September 24, 1835. 

County of Brown, \j o 
Territory of Michigan, j ' ' 

Personally appeared before me, the undersigned, town clerk, Enoch 
Chase and Albert Fowler, and subscribed and swore to the above oath. 

Horace Chase, Town Clerk. 
Milwaukee, M. T., September 24, 1835. 

A crop and slit in the left ear. B. W. Finch. 
September 21, 1835. — ■ 

I, Sciota Evans, do solemnly and sincerely swear that I will, in all 
things, to the best of my knowledge, understanding and ability, well 
and faithfully execute and perform the trust reposed in me as consta- 
ble of the township of Milwaukee, in the county of Milwaukee. 

Sciota Evans. 

Sworn and subscribed before me this 25th day of September, a. d. 
1835. A. Fowler, Justice of the Peace. 

Know all men by these presents that we, Sciota Evans, Barzilla Doug- 
lass and Enoch Chase, shall jointly and severally pay to each and every 
person such sums of money as said Sciota Evans shall become liable to 
pay for or on account of any execution which shall be delivered to 
Sciota Evans for collection. The above oVjligation is such that if the 
said Sciota Evans shall well and faithfully' in all things perform and ex- 
ecute the office of constable of the town and county of Milwaukee dur- 
ing his continuance in said office, without fraud, deceit or oppression, 
then the above obligation to be void, or else remain in full force. 



Sciota Evans, 
Enoch Chase, 
B. Douglass. 



SEAL. 
SEAL. 
SEAL. 



Signed and sealed this 26th day of September, a. d. 1835, at Milwau- 
kee, M. T., in presence of 

Horace Chase, Town Clerk. 

This certifies that Sciota Evans, Enoch Chase and B. Douglass have 
this day given the foregoing security that all demands given said Evans 
to collect shall be forthcoming according to law', and the same is ap- 
proved. Horace Chase, Town Clerk. 

Milwaukee, M. T., 26th September, a. d. 1835. 

A lope on the right ear and a hole in the left. September 26, 1835. 

his 
Joseph X Porthier. 
mark. 
Attest: H. Chase. 

A slope off the under side of the left ear. Clybourn & Chase. 

April 2, 1836. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 419 

Milwaukee, 4th day of April, 1836. 

Pursuant to public notice the meeting was called to order at S. Ju- 
neau's, and on motion of A. Fowler, Alfred Orendoff was appointed 
moderator for the day. A. Orendott declining, Barzilla Douglats was 
nominated and appointed. 

On motion, G. H. Hosmer was appointed assistant clerk. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned to Childs' Tavern. 

On motion of E. Chase, N. J. White was appointed one of the board 
of inspectors. 

All the votes having been received and canvassed, it was ascertained 
that the following persons were elected for township officers: 

Albert Fowler, for register of deeds. 

George C. Dousman, treasurer. 

Enoch G. Darling, for coroner. 

Supervisor — Alanson Sweet. 

Town Clerk— A. O. T. Breed. 

Road Commissioners — Solomon Juneau, Barzilla Douglass, Benoni W. 
Finch. 

School Commissioners — Samuel Brown, Daniel Bigelow, Samuel San- 
born. 

Poor Masters — Solomon Juneau, Benoni W. Finch. 

Assessors — Alexander Stewart, George H. Hosmer, William H. Skin- 
ner, Talbot C Dousman. 

Path Masters — William H. Skinner, William Burdick, William Smith. 

Fence Viewers— Luther Childs, Joel S. Wilcox, Nathaniel Finch, Wil- 
liam Burdick, Morgan L. Burdick. 

Constable and Collector— Sciota Evans. 

Constable — H. H. Brannan. 

Pound blaster — U. B. Smith. 

On motion of George R. Dyer, Horatio Higgins, Wm. Burdick and 
Lorenzo Pixley were elected Hog Constables. 

Horace Chase, Town Clerk. 

MiLWAiKEE, April 30, 1837. 

Pursuant to public notice in the Milwaukee Advertiser, the qualified 
voters in the Township and County of Milwaukee, convened at the 
Court House in said Township, on Monday, the 3d day of April, A. D. 
1837, for the purpose of selecting Township and County Officers for the 
year ensuing, and on motion of G. R. Dyer, John T. Haight was cliosen 
Moderator for the day. 

On motion, it was voted to choose seven Constables, seven Fence 
Viewers, and one Pound blaster for the year ensuing. 

Proclamation was then made, that the i)olls would immediately open 
for the election of Township and County Officers, and at 5 o'clock in the 
afternoon the votes, taken as aforesaid, were duly examined, sorted and 
canvassed by the undersigned, and the nuuiber of votes set to the 
names of the following persons were given for the Officers, affixed to 
their names respectively: 

For Register of Deeds — Votes. 

To Cyrus Hawley 201 

" Albert Fowler 137 

For Coroner — 

To Enoch G. Darling 194 

" Henry M. Hubbard 129 

For Treasurer — 

To Henry Miller 189 

" George D. Dousman ' 142 



420 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

For Supervisor — 

ToWm. Shaw 216 

" Wm. Browu 193 

" A. O. T. Breed 188 

" S. D. Cowles 139 

" S. B. Lander 180 

" C. H. Peak 40 

For Town Clerk — 

To Geo. O. Tiffanv 183 

" Wm. A. Prentiss 153 

For Assessor — 

To Alvin Foster 171 

" John Manderville 182 

" Barzillai Douglas 184 

" ElishaW. Edgerton 183 

" Lucius I. Barber 181 

" Thomas H. Olin 158 

" Pleasant Field 154 

" Samuel Brown 154 

" Jonas Folts 155 

" N. Whalen 154 

For Collector— 

To Andrew J. Vieau 17fi 

" James B. Miller 159 

For Commissioner of Highways — 

To Solomon Juneau 326 

" Byron Kilbourn 183 

" BenoniW. Finch 177 

" Alfred Orendorf 165 

" Enoch Chase 158 

For Director of the Poor — 

To Saml. Hinman 332 

" David S. Hollister 184 

" Wm. P. Proudfit 153 

For Commissioner of Common Schools — 

To Samuel Sanborn 332 

" Jonas Folts 181 

" Isaac H. Alexander 200 

" Samuel Brown 153 

" James H. Rogers 154 

For Inspectors of Common Schools — 

To EU Bates 187 

" L. I.Barber 186 

" Geo. S. West 179 

" Worthy Putnam 178 

• " E.D.Phillips ; 176 

" J. M. Rogers 149 

" Wm. Burdick 137 

" Elihu Higgins 127 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 421 



MILWAUKEE'S SEMI-CENTENNIAL. 

This historic event was celebrated with appropriate ceremonies at 
Schlitz Park, Saturday,* September 19, 1885, that day being the 
fiftieth anniversary of this first election of town officers in 
what is now the city of Milwaukee, the city and county 
officers, the Milwaukee County Pioneer Association and the Old 
Settlers' Club (several members of which first named asso- 
ciations, who were present at and who voted at that first 
election) participating. And as this was an event of no Httle im- 
portance in the history of the Cream City, the author has thought it 
proper to put on record the proceedings had upon that occasion for 
the benefit of those yet unborn, who shall participate in the one 
hundredth anniversary, when that day shall have come, and the lit- 
tle band of pioneers, as well as the present city and county officials, 
who were present in 1885, shall have crossed the Styx, and 

Other hands their lands shall till, 
Other men their places fill, 
And they will be forgotten. 

The propriety of celebrating this event originated with the Pio- 
neers, whose suggestions upon the subject were published in the Mil- 
waukee Daily Sentinel, the Evening Wisconsin and the Milwaukee 
Daily yournal, the first article of any length appearing in the Wis- 
consin of July 29, under the caption of " A Local Celebration," and 
which read as follows : 

A Local Celebration. 

Statements of the pioneers of Milwaukee and public records unite in 
testifvinw that the foundation of this j^rcat city was laid liy the or^jani- 
zation of°the township of jMihvankec upon the 19tli day of September, 
1835. To the very large population which has a(-cuniulatc<i here, many 
of the members of which consider themselves "old settlers," the 
brevitv of the time appears hardly possible. Looking at results the 
wonder grows, and it is probable that, however great in wealth or size 
this city may hereafter become, the i>rogres8 made during the last half 
century will never be duplicated. . 

But few of the fathers of the city of Milwaukee remain upon the 
original field of their labors, and still fewer of the small band survive 



It is a somewhat singular coincidence that this first election in 1835 and the 
fiftieth anniversary in 1885 fell upon the same day of the week, both occurring on 
Saturday. 



422 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

elsewhere. To these men the inhabitants of the present maocnificent 
city owe a debt of at least gratitude and respect, which should be paid 
as far as may be in some public manner. These hardy pioneers would 
no doubt be' glad also to unite with younger men in a telel)raiion of the 
greatness of a city which they commenced, but which all have done so 
much to enlarge and improve. 

The fiftieth anniversary of the tirst election which occurred in Mil- 
waukee will be September 19, 1885. There should be some public re- 
cognition of that date. The " venerable men who have come down to 
us from a former generation " will not be here during many more anni- 
versaries, and the coming September is the most api)ropriate for the 
celebration if one is ever held. The Pioneers' Association and the Old 
Settlers' Club should take the initiative in the matter, but the junior 
men of the city will manifest an actiVe interest. If public exercises 
are held, they will be attended by men so young that at the centennial 
anniversary held September 10, 1935, they would be able to say that 
they attended the first celebration, and saw the men who founded the 
great city of Milwaukee — a city which at that time will have grown to 
an extent which each person can now estimate for liimself. 

This was supplemented by an order from the president of the Pio- 
neer Association, Hon. Harrison Ludington, to the marshal and sec- 
retary to call a meeting of the executive committee, who, in con- 
junction with that of the Old Settlers' Club, met at the office of the 
Northwestern National Insurance Company, in the Mitchell build- 
ing, southeast corner of East Water and Michigan streets, July 31, 
where, after a full discussion, the following resolutions were unani- 
mously adopted : 

Resolved, That the executive committee be requested to call the at- 
tention of the mayor and common council of the city, and the board of 
county supervisors, to the fact that the fiftieth aimiversary of the first 
election held in Milwaukee of town and county officers* will occur on 
the 19th of September next, and to confer with them in regard to the 
celebration of the day under official auspices. 

Resolved, That should it not meet the views of those officers to pro- 
vide for a general and formal celebration, this club will make arrange- 
ments for a proper observance of the day by the cluli. 

Adopted. 

John P. McGregor, chairman. 

Chauncey Simonds, secretary. 

The proceedings of this meeting were published in the Evening 

Wisconsin, same date, with a short reminiscence of several of those 

present, among whom were Alex. Mitchell, Daniel W^ells, Jr., Doctor 

Enoch Chase, ex-Mayor Horace Chase, ex-Governor Harrison Lud- 

*It i.'i perhnps proper to say that this first election was in fact an election for 
county as well as town officers, as several of those elected certainly acted in that 
capacity as far as was necessary. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 423 

ington, ex-Mayor William A. Prentiss, Chauncey Simonds, James S. 
Buck, Edgar C. Jennings, Jno. P. McGregor, Hon. Jno. H. IVeedy. 
William P. Merrill, Morillo A. Boardman, Daniel W. Fowler and 
Uriel B. Smith, all of whom, with the exception of Simonds, Smith, 
Jennings, Boardman and Fowler, have filled official positions in the 
city government. 

This was followed by the introduction of a resolution, by Alder- 
man Horace Chase, at the meeting of the common council held 
August 3, instructing his honor the mayor to confer with the county 
board (who were to meet on the 4th) in relation to celebrating this 
im.portant event. Adopted. 

The county board having convened on the 4th, the following com- 
munication, drawn up by Hon. John P. McGregor, was presented 
and read : 

Milwaukee, August 4, 1885. 
To the Honorable the Board of Supervisors : 

The undersigned, the executive committee of the Milwaukee County 
Pioneer Association, as directed by resohition of said association, beg 
leave to call your attention to the fact that the 19th of September next 
marks the fiftieth annual return of the date on which was held the tirst 
election in Milwaukee of town and county officers, and to suggest for 
your consideration the propriety of a formal and official celebration of 
this anniversary, while vet a few of the persons are living among us 
who took part in this first election. 

We make a similar communication to the common council, in the 
hope that the city and county authorities may unite in providing for a 
due commemoration of a day now noteworthy in our annals.* 

Alex. MrrcuELL, 
Chairman Executive Committee. 

Chauncey Simonds, 
Secretary Executive Committee. 

Supervisor Von Trott moved to receive the above invitation, the 
chair to appoint a committee of five to confer with the members of 
the common council relating to such invitation — which motion pre- 
vailed, whereupon the chair appointed Supervisors Von Trott, 
Schweickhart, Leidel, Watts and Weidner. 

The mayor, after consultation with the committee from the county 
board, ordered a special meeting of the common council, to be held 
August 24, at which the following gentlemen were appointed as a 
committee of arrangements on the part of the city: (iarrett 



*Made, as has been seen, on the 3d. 



424 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Dunck, chairman, H. J. Baumgaertner, Henry S. Dodge, Henry 
Hase and John McCoy. 

An informal meeting of the joint committees was held Wednes- 
day, September 2, at the office of the Northwestern National Insur- 
ance Company, his honor the mayor presiding, at which, however, 
no definite programme having been arranged, a second meeting of 
the executive committee of the Pioneers and Old Settlers' Club was 
held at the same place, September 5, at which Hon. J. H. Tweedy 
was called to the chair and John P. McGregor elected secretary, 
when, on motion of Horace Chase, it was unanimously 

Resolved, That the Pioneer Association and Old Settlers' Club join 
witli the city and county officials in celebrating the day at Schlitz Park, 
on .Saturday, September lit, at 2 p. m. (to which the dtizens are gener- 
ally invited), by having public addresses; the Pioneers and Old Set- 
tlers' Club to select an orator on their part, and the city and county offi- 
cials be requested to select one on their part. 

Adopted. 

Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed by the chair to 
make the necessary arrangements on the part of said clubs. 

Whereupon the chair appointed the following : 

Committee of Arrangements on the part of said Clubs — James S. 
Buck, John P. McGregor, Chauncey Simonds, Daniel Schultz and 
Morillo A. Boardman. 

After which the meeting adjourned. 

The following communication was then addressed to his honor 

the mayor : 

Milwaukee, September G, 1885. 
At a meeting of the executive committees of the ^Milwaukee County 
Pioneer Association and the Old Settlers' Club, held at the office of the 
Northwestern National Insurance Company (Mitchell l)uilding), Sep- 
tember 5, 1885, the following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That the Pioneers and Old Settlers of Milwaukee count}' 
celebrate the 19th day of September, 1885 (it being the fiftieth anni- 
versary of the first election in Milwaukee), by having a public address 
on the afternoon of said day, at Schlitz Park, commencing at 2 o'clock 
p. M., and that the city and county officers and the public- generally be 
invited to participate ; the Pioneer Association and Old Settlers' Club 
select an orator on their part, and the city and county officers select an 
orator on their part. 

Alexander Mitchell, James S. Bcck, 

J. P. McGregor, J. P. McGregor, 

Horace Chase, Chauncey Simonds, 

Daniel Schultz, Daniel Schultz, 

Enoch Chase, M. A. Boardman, 

M. a. Boardman,* 
Executive Committee. Com. of Arrangements on part of Club. 

♦Messrs. Boardman and Buck acting for the Old Settlers, the latter, besides 
being marshal of both, was also a member of the executive committee of that 
club* 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 425 

This action on the part ot said clubs resulted in a call for a sec- 
ond meeting of the joint committees, held at the office of the city 
attorney, September to, where, after an interchange of views, the 
committee adjourned to Wednesday, the i6th,* at which time the 
following programme was adopted :t 

THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL. 

Completed Programme for the Celebration at Schijtz Park, 

Saturday. 

A joint meeting of the special committees of the common council and 
county board, in conjunction with Mayor Wallber and Mr. Buck, the 
representative of the old settlers, was held in the council chamber yes- 
terday afternoon. Supervisors Yon Trott, Watts, Schweickhart and 
Leidel, and Aldermen Baumgaertner and Hase comprised the commit- 
tees. The following programme of the day's exercises was adopted, 
the procession to start from the court-house at 1:30 o'clock on Saturday 
afternoon, in the following order: 

Committee of Arrangements. 
Band-wagon. 
Orators of the Day. 
Pioneers and Old Settlers. 
Mavor and Common Council. 
City Officials. 
Board of Supervisors. 
County Officials. 
The route will be as follows: From tlie court- house south on Jackson 
street, to Wisconsin, west on Wisconsin to Grand avenue, west on Grand 
avenue to Ninth, north on Ninth to Chestnut, west on Chestnut to 
Twelfth, north on Twelfth to Walnut, and east on Walnut to the park. 
Upon arriving at the park the first business will be the photographing 
of the members of the Pioneers' and Old Settlers' organizations, the 
common council and city officials, and the county board and county offi- 
cials, in three separate groups. 

Music will follow, after which an oration will be delivered by Win- 
field Smith on behalf of the Pioneers' and Old Settlers' associations. 

The pnjgramme also includes music, addresses by Herman Sigel, 
Joshua Stark and P. V. Deuster, and remarks from one of the pioneers 
yet to be selected. 

The county board met yesterday and decided to participate in the 
celebration, and to close all the county offices at noon, Saturday. 

The following notice was yesterday Issued to the members of the Mil- 
waukee County Pioneer Association and Old Settlers' (lub: 

The members of the above-named associations arc earnestly rc(|uest- 
ed to unite with the present city and county officials in celebrating the 
fiftieth anniversary of tlie first elcictioii of town officers held in what is 
now the city of Milwaukee, on Saturday, the littli instant, at Schlitz 
Park. 



*This meeting was held at the common council room. 

fit is proper to say that, aliliough the individual members upon the committees 
from both city and county all did noble work in the organizing and carrying out 
of this celebraiion, yet ID the untiring efTorts of lion. Kmil Wallber, the mayor, 
and to August Von Trott, from the county, and Henry [. Haumg.ierlner, from the 
city board, is the credit of making it a succes.s on the |)art of the city and countv 
mainly due. 



426 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Carriages for conveyance of members will leave the court-bouse at 
1 :30 p. M., sharp. Members are requested to be on hand promptly, and 
wear badges. J. S. Buck, 

John P. McGregor, 
Chauncey Simonds, 
Daniel Schultz, 
m. a. boabdman, 
Committee of Arrangements. 

List of city officials in 1885 who were present at and took part in 
the celebration : 

Mayor — Hon. Emil Wallber. 

Comptroller — Ferdinand Kuehn. 

Deputy Comptroller — F. Wildie. 

Treasurer — William May worm. 

Deputy — F. Cook. 

City Attorney — Robert Luscombe. 

Deputy — Peter Rupp. 

Harbor Master — Jas. F. Trowell. 

Tax Commissioner — Michael Bodden. 

Collector of Water Rents — Ferdinand Eissfeldt. 

Board of Public Works — Chief Engineer, Geo. H. Benzenberg; 
Commissioners William P. O'Connor, Chas. P. Foote and Jonas I. 
Frownfelter. 

Chief of Police — Florian J. Ries. 

Chief of Fire Department — James Foley. 

Municipal Court — Judge James A. Mallory ; Clerk, Julius Meis- 
winkel. 

Common Council, 1885-'86. 

First Ward — John A. Hinsey (President of Board), Chas. B. Roberts 
andT. ff. Malone. 

Second Ward — H. J. Steinman, J. F. Schmidt and Tilly Lvnde. 

Third Ward— John Malone, M. J. Delanev and M. J. Dullea. 

Fourth Ward— J. S. Harvey, W. W. Watkins and John McCoy. 

Fifth Ward— A. L. Worden, W. J. Donnelly and J. T. Brett. 

Sixth Ward — O. Altpeter, Theodore Fritz and Henry Smith. 

Seventh Ward — H. S. Dodge, V. P. Atkinson and August Kieckhefer. 

Eighth Ward — Daniel Erdman, Fred. Lange and John McGee. 

Ninth Ward — Wm. Schmidt, Henry Koch and Garret Dunck. 

Tenth Ward — Henry J. Baumgaertner, INIoritz Grassow and W. Rausch- 
enberger. 

Eleventh Ward— H. H. Kroeger, F. C. Graves and Henry Hase. 

Twelfth Ward— Horace Chase, C. W. Milbrath and Theodore Rud- 
zinski. 

Thirteenth Ward — F. Heiden, Frank Ellis and C. D. Richards. 

Geo. W. Forth, City Clerk. 

Geo. R. Mahoney, Deputy. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 427 

County Officers. 

County Judge — J. E. Mann. 

Sheriff — George Paschen. 

Clerk of Circuit Court — C. Paulus. 

District Attorney — W. C. Williams. 

County Treasurer — J. C. Corrigan. 

County Clerk — Geo. P. Traeumer. 

Register of Deeds — J. E. Eldred. 

County Surveyor — Robert C Reinertsen. 

Coroner — Chas. Fricke. 

Inspector House of Correction — Bryon Kelly. 

Superintendent of Schools — C. H. Lewis. 

Superintendent of Poor — Joseph Walter. 

Superintendent of Almshouse and County Farm — G. Verfurth. 

Superintendent of County Hospital— M. E. Connell, M. I). 

Superintendent County Wood Yard — J. M. Gleiszner. 

County Physician, East Side — Julius Kasten, M. D. 

County Physician, West Side— Ludwig Pauly, M. D. 

County Physician, South Side— F. M. Hinz, M. D. 

Engineer and Janitor, Court House — Nic. Schrubb. 

Messenger— Richard Schrubb. 

Supervisors. 

First ward — R. Rossiter. 
Second ward — P. Muenzberg. 
Third ward— T. Murphy. 
Fourth ward — A. Von Trott. 
Fifth ward — C. Helms. 
Sixth ward — H. Herzer. 
Seventh ward — E. A. M. Leidel. 
Eighth ward — Ch. Weidner. 
Ninth ward — J. Dewerth. 
Tenth ward — J. F. Zummach. 
Eleventh ward — P. Schubert. 
Twelfth ward — S. Sytkowski. 
Thirteenth ward — J. Truss. 
Franklin — J. H. Huennekens. 
Granville — Geo. Watts. 
Greenfield— P. Merritty. 
Lake — H. Strothenke. 
Milwaukee — A. Mohr. 
Oak Creek — J. Foley. 
Wauwatosa — Geo. Schweickhart. 
Bay View — Jas. Hodge. 

THE CELKBRATIvON.* 

At 1:30 cj'clock the procession, which was formed in tlie park 
given to the county of Milwaukee by Solomon Juneau as a court- 
house site, proceeded to Schlitz park, where the exercises of the day 
were held. The procession was quite an imposing affair, considering 
that rain was threatening, there being about forty carriages in line. 
The committees, comprising representatives from tlic OM Settlers' 



* From the Milwaitkee Sentinel o\ September 20, 1885. 



428 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

clubs, the common council and county board, were in the lead, fol- 
lowed by Clauder's full military band of twenty-two pieces. The 
other members of the clubs and of the various departments of the 
municipal government, brought up the rear. Arriving at the park 
entrance, the carriages were unloaded, and a procession was formed, 
headed by Clauder's band, playing the " Old Settlers' March." The 
pioneers gathered in a semi-circular group at the foot of the terrace, 
and were protographed by Broich. It was intended to secure pic- 
tures of city and county officers, but rain began to fall as soon as the 
pioneers were disposed of, and the officers escaped.* 

In the Building. 

The pioneers and a large number of people then entered the theater 
building, the lower floor of which was well filled. iVfter music. Mar- 
shal Buck invited the speakers, the committees, the pioneers who 
came in 1835, and Mayor Wallber, to take seats upon the platform. 
The latter acted as master of cerem_onies. The members of the two 
pioneer organizations wore their gold badges. City and county 
officials wore badges of cream-colored satin, appropriately typifying 
the " Cream City." Over the stage was hung a banner, upon which 
was painted the followmg inscription : 

" Number of Votes Cast in 1835, 

— 39 — 

Num})er of Votes Cast at the 

r^ast Presidential Election, 

28,899." 

Without further ceremony. Mayor Wallber advanced and deHvered 
the opening address. He said that on the 19th day of September, 
1835, at dawn, the chief of the Pottawatomies called upon a papoose 
and requested him to go down to yonder village, near the mouth of 
the Milwaukee river, and tell those young men to get ready to vote 
for town officers. He found the villagers awake, and dehvering his 
message to the first man he met, who happened to be Horace Chase, 
was accosted by him in his usual happy style, as follows : " Young 
man, it will be a cold day when we get left. Mind you, we are going 



This is incorrect, as all three groups were taken just as contemplated. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 429 

^o get this town started, and we will raise it to a city of prominence, 
and — mind what I say, young man, — in just fifty years from now we 
shall cross the Kinnickinnic river over an iron bridge. [This mimicry 
by the mayor of Alderman Chase's peculiar style of talking, created 
a roar of laughter.] " We are in a fair way of seeing that prophecy 
fulfilled."* 

An Old-Time Election. 

In those days, continued the mayor, the license question did not 
as yet agitate the public mind. Prohibition was not thought of then. 
The doctrine of " personal liberty" was, however, recognized and 
practiced to its fullest extent. The right to vote was not confined to 
the narrow hmits of a ward or a precinct. No law restricted the 
ballot to plain, white, print paper. Civil-service reform hardly en- 
tered into the campaign. There was little or no squabble for office, 
because there was enough to go around, and no music or express 
wagons to bring voters to the polls. At that election, thirty-nine votes 
were cast. Behold, what a change since that time ! The number of 
votes cast at the presidential election last fall was 28,899. '^^e popu- 
lation in 1835 was about 250; the official census for 1885 shows it 
to be nearly 159,000. Its growth has been a steady, natural, healthy 
one. It is due to advantages of situation, to the development of the 
fertile and prosperous c( untry, with its industries and thrifty people, 
to the ability and integrity of our mercantile community, to our rail- 
road accommodations, and to the persistent spirit of enterprise mani- 
fested in the different departments of industry. Well may the old 
settler point with the greatest pride to the fair Cream City of the 
Lakes. And to-day, commemorating the organization of this town, 
•t is a pleasure to refer to the fact, that a number of those who voted 
at the election fifty years ago are still among us. Some of them are 
on this platform. Long and many be the years before their hour of 
departure comes ! Unrestrained their usefulness, undecayed every 
faculty of mind, in full fruition of the well-earned joys of life, happy 
in the welfare of the city they love so well. 



* This prophecy, which the Mayor so jestingly made Mr. Chase the author of, 
has however, been fulfilled, as an Iron Brid^je spanning that classic stream (com- 
menced in 1885), has now, March l, 1886, just been opened to the pul)lic. 

27 



430 xMILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

WiNFiELD Smith. 

Winfield Smith, who had been chosen to respond in behalf of the 
pioneers, was then introduced. He pleaded lack of sufficient time 
to make sufficient preparation for an address of this character. After 
some general remarks about the changes which have been wrought 
in fifty years, Mr. Smith spoke as follows : 

It is good to stop at times outside the mighty rush of events, which 
exhaust our strained attention — to turn from the things of to-day, 
from the anticipations for the morrow, in all which our thoughts, our 
wishes and our hopes are usually absorbed, and to look back over the 
past. It is good to note where we lately stood, what were then our 
surroundings, in what our interests were then centered, what was then 
the domain of nature, what the works then wrought by man. It is 
meet to review and consider the steps by which we have come to the 
point where we now stand. We should endeavor then to perform 
that difficult task, the forecast of the future by aid of historical expe- 
rience. And we should not fail to do honorable justice to the men 
of times past, even while we commend our own sagacity and our own 
energy. 

Fifty years form but a brief period in the Ufe of a European people, 
who would be incHned to smile at the celebration of an event so 
recent as that which we to-day commemorate. In this new world, 
however, nations grow, the wilderness is populated, civihzation and 
its triumphs stride so swiftly, that the half century becomes an age, 
and men still in the prime of Hfe seem to the young to be sages of 
antiquity. 

The wonder never ceases that so many of us now present can 
recollect the day when this noble city of Milwaukee was not ; when 
there were no houses, no people, no city, no village, not even a name; 
when the maps we studied defined the west line of Lake Michigan as 
unbroken by a single one of those dots which denoted the site of a 
settlement, until perhaps Chicago was marked far to the south of us; 
when Fort Howard or Green Bay, Fort Winnebago, and Prairie du 
Chien alone indicated the abodes of white men in all the land be- 
tween that lake and the Mississippi river ; when three or four thou- 
sand persons represented the white population now exceeding fifteen 
hundred thousand. 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 431 

On this day fifty years ago, then as now the last day of the week, 
the eighty or a hundred persons scattered through the vicinity of the 
residence of the Indian trader Solomon Juneau, held by ballot their 
first election ever seen here. Thirty-nine persons voted and then 
organized a township government. The original record, now in my 
hand, opens thus : 

September 7th, 1835, Milwaukee, U. S. 
Met pursuant to an act of the legislature of the territory of Michi- 
gan, to organize the township of Milwaukee. 
I St. Chose Albert Fowler, moderator. 
2d. James Heath,* clerk pro tern. 
3d. Adjourned to Saturday, the 19th of September inst., at 9 a. m. 

September 19th, 1835. 

Met pursuant to notice. Elected George H. Walker, moderator; 
James Heath, clerk /r^ tern.; B. H. Edgerton, inspector. 

On motion of B. H. Edgerton : 

Resolved, That all actual settlers have the privilege of voting at 
this meeting, and that all our proceedmgs be referred to the legislative 
council for their approval, etc., etc. 

Elected the following township officers. 

Then follow the names: Supervisor, George H.Walker; town 
clerk, Horace Chase, and twenty-two other officers. 

The meeting took place under the laws (it would probably, if the 
stories be true, be too much to claim that it was pursuant to the laws) 
of the territory of Michigan, of which this soil was then a part. The 
record is not very formal, and it was probably much more formal than 
the proceedings. The young men who voted were not fond of legal 
strictness, but this paper proves that among them were men of good 
education, and accuracy in written statement. 

The number of ballots cast for the several candidates does not 
appear, but in the list of those then chosen as township officers are 
the names of George H. Walker, James Sanderson, Albert Fowler, 
Solomon Juneau, Samuel Brown, James Heath, Barzillai Douglas, 



*This is the same person mentioned in Vols. I. and II. as Dr. James lleth. 
Heath is doubtless the correct spelling. 



432 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

Horace Chase and Dr. Enoch Chase — names famiUar to many of our 
citizens, of whom the last two are yet often read by us in the news- 
paper accounts of the doings of the day. Our esteemed friend, Mr. 
Horace Chase, who would probably not wish to be yet called vener- 
able,- is still in the same way of active participation in municipal 
government on which he entered fifty years ago. With all that expe- 
rience, it is not strange that his wisdom seems so great, and that his 
constituents of the Twelfth ward think him indispensable as a member 
of the city council. What great things he has accomplished for his 
ward, they know, and we others of the city pretty well understand. 
We may suppose that one who has seen so much done, may well 
believe that everything can be done. This hopefulness, the result of 
remarkable experiences, the source of their famous energy, is as much 
the characteristic of the pioneers of Milwaukee, as their sturdy inde- 
pendence, integrity and good sense. We rejoice that Messrs. Horace 
and Enoch Chase, honored with the confidence of their fellows in 
1835, still live to enjoy it after fifty years. Fifty years of industry, of 
upright deahng, of bodily and mental activity, have given them a 
right to rest which few can show, and which they seem in no haste 
to claim. 

Following the record of the election is this note : 

"Voted, That the ballots be all received in one box at the next 
election." 

Then the titles and signatures verifying the record : 

Geo. H. Walker, 
James Heath, 
B. H. Edgerton, 
Officers of the meeting. 

The oaths of office are next written and signed. Geo. H, Walker 
as supervisor, and Horace Chase, town clerk, making oath before 
Albert Fowler, justice of the peace; the other officers before the new 
town clerk. 

The affidavit of Mr. Walker is as follows : 

Supervisor \ 
George H. Walker, j 

I, Georse H. Walker, do solemnly and sincerely promise and swear 
that I will in all things, to the best of my knowledge and abilities, 
faithfully and impartially execute and perform the trust reposed in me 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 433 

as supervisor of the township of Milwaukee, in the county of Milwau- 
kee, and thiit I will not pass any account or article thereof without I 
think the said account is not justly chargeable. 

This was signed with the proper signature and sworn to Septem- 
ber 21, 1835. The oath of office of Mr. Chase was taken on the 
same day, as also that of Messrs Finch, Juneau and Harmon, com- 
missioners of highways, and Messrs. Brown, Cole and Bigelow, com- 
missioners of public schools, and Messrs. Juneau and Finch as 
directors of the poor. 

Mr. Chase took his oath of office as assessor September 24, pledg- 
ing himself thereby to assess honestly and impartially the several 
persons and estates within the township of Milwaukee, and to ob- 
serve in such assessment, to the best of his knowledge and judgment, 
the laws of the territory directing such assessments to be made. 

Immediately following the last record, and without any break, 
come these words: " A crop and slit in the left ear. September 21, 
1835. B. W. Finch." Then further oaths of office, and again the 
following : " A crop on the right ear and a hole in the left. Septem- 
ber 26, 1835. Joseph Porthier." Next: "Aslope off the under 
side of the left ear. April 2, 1836. Clybourn & Chase." I under- 
stand that these mysterious expressions relate, not to the election, 
nor to the township organization, nor to any of the citizens who 
may be supposed to have undergone the punishments therein indi- 
cated, but rather to the pigs which were allowed to run at large in 
those times, and which were thus branded by their respective own- 
ers. There being, as I am told, no other blank book in the entire 
county than the one from which I am reading, the marks of cattle 
and swine were deemed important enough to be therein inserted 
among those of the newly-elected officers, and the importance of the 
act so absorbed the attention of the writers that they quite forgot to 
indicate the purpose or character of their entries. 

The next town election, it is well to say, was held on the 4th day 
of April, 1856. 

It is noticeable that the name of the new town is spelled " Milwa- 
kee," the last syllable having two " ee's " and no " i," upon which 
point there was strong discussion thirty-six years ago. The affidavits 
call the county Brown, but speak of the duties as to be performed in 



434 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

" Milwakee " county. The latter county had been set off from 
Brown county September 6, 1834, but had not been organized. 

A pound master (Enoch Chase), path masters and road commis- 
sioners were elected, and at the next spring fence viewers, although 
there were no pound, no roads, no fences in the county. Milwau- 
kee was also spelled Milwalkie and Milwalky. 

In the record of the election of April, 1836, apparently written by 
Horace Chase, the name of the town was spelled Milwaukie, which 
Peter Yates afterwards insisted was the only proper way. 

At this time the spirit of speculation which raged through the 
years 1835 and 1836, and came to so disastrous a fall in 1837, had 
begun to affect seriously the settlers of the new town. There was 
much thought and talk of laying out lots, of buying at advanced 
prices, and of great wealth to be acquired, and very little thought of 
building new houses, except of the cheapest character and under the 
most imperative necessity. 

Mr. Daniel Wells, Jr., writing from Green Bay, under date of Au- 
gust 30, 1836, says : " The land about Milwaukee is the best in the 
territory, and as Milwaukee is the only harbor for some distance 
either way on the lake, it must of necessity become a place of great 
importance. It is now laid out in lots for two miles north and 
south, and one and a half miles east and west, which lots will, I 
think, sell immediately for $100 to $1,000, and much money has 
been made speculating in lots already. I think money can be made 
here in the lumber business if one had capital, and all kinds of lum- 
ber sells rapidly and for high figures." 

Mr. Wells became a resident of Wisconsin in 1836, bringing with 
him letters from Boston and other places in the East, certifying to 
his ability as a surveyor and his integrity and honor as a man. At 
Milwaukee, on the 2d day of August, 1836, he received from Gov- 
ernor Dodge a commission under which he was appointed justice of 
the peace in and for the county of Milwaukee and territory of Wis- 
consin. In the dearth of population and the abundance of offices 
of those days those persons who seemed superior to the majority 
were rapidly selected and honored by places of trust. He served 
two terms in congress from 1853 to 1857. 

In October, 1835, there was held a general election, to which no 



MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 435 

reference is made in the original record from which I read, but it is 
described in the histcry by Mr. Buck, Vol. II., page 29. 

There was no newspaper pubHshed nearer than Green Bay, and 
the settlers of that time were fain to entertain themselves with the 
anecdotes and inventions which from that time to this have been so 
popular among their successors, and have given such fame in par- 
ticular to the fishing and hunting of Wisconsin. 

The Indians were every day seen, and more numerous than the 
whites. While their disposition, owing to the uniformly kind and 
judicious treatment of Mr. Juneau, was friendly, still the few settlers 
were not without their apprehensions that they might at some time 
be overwhelmed with a rush of savages desiring to extirpate the rap- 
idly growing colony. 

All provisions, clothing and other necessaries, except such as 
might be derived from the marshes or woods about there, were 
brought by vessels and an occasional steamer to Milwaukee from 
Detroit or Bufitalo. The bay ser\ed as a place of anchorage while 
the freight was brought ashore in small boats. 

As there were no roads, there were also no bridges, and the river 
was crossed at one or two points by ferries, the first of which was 
set near the mouth of the river, and afterwards one was placed at 
Spring street and another at Chestnut street. It was not until sev- 
eral years afterwards that a bridge was built across the river at Chest- 
nut street, and became the scene of the memorable bridge war, 
brought about by the desire of the East Siders to gain access to the 
West, and the unwillingness of those on the West to permit thus an 
invasion of their sacred soil. 

It is difficult now to reaHze the scene which this place then pre- 
sented. A plat of the town, now the Third and Seventh wards, had 
been prepared shortly before by Juneau and Martin, and recorded 
September 8, 1835, and some streets began to be known, while no 
plat wjs recorded of lots west of the river until October 8. Water 
covered most of the land now the Third ward, in which grew reeds 
and rushes extending from the river to the sandy beach of the lake. 
On the West Side the like marsh covered the area between Fourth 
street and the river, south of Grand avenue to the Menomonee. Of 
the South Side Dr. Lapham writes in 1845 • 



436 MILWAUKEE UNDER THE CHARTER. 

" The city commences about a mile above the mouth of the river, 
at a place called Walker's Point, and extends about a mile and a half 
along the river. Below Walker's Point the river is bordered by im- 
passable marshes." 

But Nunnemacher's mill and Angus Smith's elevator and two great 
railroads, and hundreds of like structures, now repose securely in 
these " impassable marshes." 

Walker's Point, to which he refers, is a name meaningless to our 
younger citizens. But it was a point of high ground running several 
hundred feet through the marsh northeasterly, to the south bank of 
the river near the present East Water street bridge. On it was built 
the dwelling of George H. Walker, the first town supervisor, later 
mayor of the city, and an esteemed citizen, who first owned the 
land. The point, then conspicuous enough, was the only place 
where a house could stand within a quarter of a mile. Many years 
ago it disappeared, as it was lowered, and the marshes on both sides 
were filled. 

Half a dozen houses, scattered along for a mile to the south, con- 
tained all the population of the South Side. The ground was high 
where the point extended back, widening towards the west. The 
forest grew heavy, except where it had been cut away by the settlers, 
and stumps not yet uprooted indicated how recent had been the 
work of the pioneer. No other trace was seen of the hand of civili- 
zation. 

Upon the East Side, the marshes that covered the present Third 
ward, were varied by two islands of dryer land, one near the north 
end of East Water street bridge, and the other covering the corner 
of Jackson and Detroit streets as now laid out, the latter of which 
bore the significant title of Duck Island. The land in the present 
Seventh ward was mostly high, running by a steep descent into the 
marshes of the Third ward, and into the marsh which also lay along 
the river front from south to north. The western line of the bluff 
crossed Wisconsin street at the northeast corner of Broadway, and 
one of my own early recollections of the city is the digging down of 
the bluff, preparatory to the removal from it of the three-story 
wooden hotel