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Copyright. 1882, 

Copy-right, I'^'^l, 

All rights reserved. 


No attempt has been made in these pages to write a 
history of the Connecticut Western Reserve, nor has the 
delicate task been assumed of sketching at length bio- 
graphical notices of leading families or prominent indi- 
viduals who were identified with the early settlement of 
the country. 

But, on the contrary, it has been the principal aim of 
the writer to portray such remarkable incidents in the 
experiences of the original pioneers as he has been able 
to gather from sources which seemed worthy of credence. 
It is believed that these incidents have not only a histori- 
cal value which justifies their preservation, but a degree 
of dramatic interest which will be appreciated as adding 
zest to the stern realities of Western pioneer life. 

Cleveland, Oct. 20, 1882. 




Western Reserve. — Diplomacy of Gov. Winthrop. — Charter 
f roni Charles II. to the Connecticut Colony. — Its Surren- 
der demanded by James II. — Hidden in a Hollow Oak. — 
Reproduced and incorporated in the Constitution of Con- 
necticut ^ 


The Eries. — Ship Griffin. — French and English Trade and 
Strife.— Pontiac at Detroit.— His Stratagem discov- 
ered. —Cannibal Feast. — Major Campbell seized, assas- 
sinated, and his Remains mutilated. — Col. Rogers suc- 
ceeds him ^ 


Col. Bradstreet's Expedition. —Destroys Indian Villages.— 
Protects Detroit. —Is censured. — Retires in Disgust with 
his Troops. — Suffers Shipwreck near the Mouth of Rocky 
Riyer. — Relics found. — Dr. Kirtland . . . .17 


Boyhood of Brady and Girty. — Subsequent Life. —Brady 
captured by the Indians. — Condemned to be burned. — 
Escapes. — Hotly pursued. — Marvellous Leap. — Brady's 
Lake. — Rejoins his Friends 24 



Origin of Moravian Missions. — Early Efforts. — Driven from 
Huron River. — Station at Tinker's Creek. — Compelled 
to leave. — Attempt to stop at Black River. — Ordered to 
depart. — Find Refuge in Canada 81 


Surveyors arrive at Conneaut, July 4, 1796. — Celebrate the 
Day. — Stow's Castle. — Indian Council. — Reply of Gen. 
Moses Cleaveland. — Pipe of Peace. — Mutual Gifts. — 
The Surveys allowed. — First Wheat sown in the Re- 
serve 39 


Gen. Cleaveland with a Detacliment of Sur\^eyors leaves Con- 
neaut. — Discovers a River. — Names it "Chagrin." — 
Arrives at the Mouth of the Cuyahoga River, July 22. — 
Selects the Spot for a City. — His Staff names it Cleave- 
land. —First Settlers. —Pease's Hotel. — First Live- 
stock. — Indian Sports. — The Bear. — Spafford's Map. — 
Price of Lots, — Lorenzo Carter. — James Kingsbury's 
Trip and Experiences. — Commerce. — Indian assassi- 
nated. —Dog-Feast. —Bicknell's Sad Fate ... 46 


Additional Settlers at Cleveland. — First Dry-Goods Store. — 
First White Child born. —First Funeral. —First Wed- 
ding. —First Grist-Mill. —First Missionaiy. —First Dis- 
tillery. — First Public Ball. —Hair Blankets. — First 
School. — Modern School-System 61 


First Election Precinct. —First Postmaster. —Cleveland 
made a Port of Entry. — First Collector of Revenues. — 


Style of Early Courtship. — First Ship built. — Militia 
Drill. — First Court. — Execution of Omic, the Indian. — 
Death of Lorenzo Carter. — Farms and Ten-Acre Lots. — 
First Frame Barn. — Samuel Dodge 71 


Gen. Hull's Surrender. — Alarm at Cleveland. — Stockade 
known as Fort Huntington. — Coffins of Dead Sol- 
diers. — Uncle Abram; his Cornfield, Bucket of Powder, 
and Grave. — Uncle Jabez, the Jolly Man. — Uncle Gaius, 
the Joker. — Young Dudley, the Scapegrace. — Cleve- 
land incorporated. — Its Village Government. — First 
Newspaper. — First Steamboat on Lake Erie . . .85 


Cleveland and Vicinity. — First Panther killea in Euclid. — 
Rattlesnake on the Hearthstone. — James Covert and his 
Career. — The Bear and Churn. — Girls raise a House. — 
Powell no Fool. — Sheepskin Code. — Shakers and Ann 
Lee. — Lorenzo Dow at Cleveland 95 


The Cleveland Bar in 1828. —Riding the Circuit. — Practical 
Jokes. — Wood and Willey in the Legislature and on the 
Bench. — The Election of a Justice of the Peace con- 
tested. — The Result glorified. — Last Gun. — Visit of 
Black Hawk. — Cuyahoga River. — Col. Charles Whit- 
tlesey. — Indian Earthworks 113 


The Buffalo Company's Purchase. — Land-Speculators and 
their Machinations. — The Incorporation of Cleveland as 
a City, and of Brooklyn Village as Ohio City. — The Bat- 
tle of the Bridge. — Adventists. — The Tabernacle. — 
William Miller. — Haystack Anecdote .... 127 



Warren and its First Settlers. — Capt. Quinby and his Log 
Cabin. —The "Old Man of the Woods." —Salt Springs, 
and Price of Salt. —Depredations of Wild Animals.— 
Slaughter of the Snakes. — The First Dry-Goods Store. — 
A Periodical Boat on the Mahoning. — First Fourth-of- 
July Celebration at Warren 137 


The Whiskey Debauch at Salt Springs. — Two Indian Chiefs 
killed by White Men. — Consequent Alarm among the 
Settlers. — Arrest of McMahon for Murder. — His Trial 
and Acquittal. — Indians reconciled. — Burial of their 
Dead. — First Territorial Court held at Warren between 
two Corn-Cribs. — Trials of Daniel Shehy and Lorenzo 
Carter. — First Post-Route. — Simon Perkins, Postmas- 
ter. — Trump of Fame. — Banks and Bankers . . . 147 


Rev. Joseph Badger, Mission and Career. — Exemplary Char- 
acter of First Settlers at Warren. — Ashtabula County. — 
Jefferson, the County Seat. — Its Founder and its Emi- 
nent Men. — Conneaut, originally an Indian Town. — 
Two White Captives made to run the Gauntlet. — Ancient 
Burial-Ground. — " The Chip " and its Record . . .164 


Harpersfield and its First Settlers. — Threatened Famine. — 
Two Heroic Young Men. — One breaks through the Ice. — 
Deacon Hudson. — Church at Austinburgb. — Wonderful 
Revival. — Antics of Converts. — Infallibility of Judge 
Austin. — His Decision as to Church-Membership . . 177 



Woodmen of Geneva. — Morse's Slough. — Bread cast on the 
Waters. — Comic Sequel. — A Hunter attacked by 
Wolves. — Attempt of Two Women to shoot a Bear. — - 
The Deer-Hunter of Conneaut drifted in a Canoe across 
theLake. — His Experiences and Safe Return . , .186 


Chardon. — Burton. — First Settlers. — Their Trials and 
Hardships. — Acting as their own Doctors and Mechan- 
ics.— The Hurricane. —John Miner and his Children. — 
Early Judicial Proceedings in Geauga County. —Judge 
Pease pronounces Sentence on Robert Meeker. — Explora- 
tion of a Mound I97 


Ravenna. —Its Founder, Benjamin Tappan. — His Experi- 
ences. — His Reply when asked for a Church Subscrip- 
tion. — Lewis Day s Arrival at Deerfield. — Want of Sup- 
plies. — First White Child. — Matrimonial Engagement. — 
Messenger sent to Warren for a Justice of the Peace to 
**tie the Knot" 208 


Arrival of the Young Magistrate and his Legal Adviser from 
Warren. —Performance of the Nuptial Ceremonies.— 
Merriment of the Festivities. — Characteristics of the 
Two Calvins.— Horse Trade with the Indians.— 
Trouble which grew out of it. — Mohawk shoots Daniel 
Diver. — Flight of the Indians. —Nicksaw and Mohawk 
overtaken and killed. —Trial of their Associates, and 
Acquittal 216 



Characteristics of Huron County. — Founder of Norwalk. — 
Its First House. — Church Horn. — Two Trappers mur- 
dered by Indians. — The Murderers arrested, tried, and 
sentenced to be hanged. — Break Jail, and escape. — Re- 
arrested and hanged. — Their Rehgious Belief . . . 226 


Harrisville and its Founder. — Explorers from Wooster, and 
their Experiences. — The Cold Winter. — The Ancient 
Pathway of Indian Travel. — Their Hunts, and Methods 
of Transportation. — Differences of Races. — Indian The- 
ology 233 


The Grand Circular Hunt. —Its Wonderful Results. —The 
Name ''Medina" a Vexed Question. — Zenas Hamilton 
its First Settler. — County Court held in a Barn. — Rev. 
Roger Searle. — First Wedding. — Styles of Dress. — 
Low Prices of Farm Produce. — Social Distinctions . . 241 


Lorain County. — Lake-Shore Ridges. — Geology of the North- 
western Lakes. — Heman Ely. — Name of Elyria. — Falls 
of Black River. — Rocks and Caves. — Girls caught bath- 
ing. — Stone Relics and Inscriptions. — River-Valley. — 
Rev. John J. Shipherd, the Founder of Oberlin College . 250 


How Erie and Sandusky derived their Names. — The City 
founded on a Rock. — A Record of the Lost Ages. — Na- 
ture's Idea. — Distressed Family. —How a Lady crossed 
Black River. —Boys captured at a Bee-Tree. — Casta- 
lia. — Discovery of a Cave 259 



Wliy called " Summit." —David Hudson and his Career.— 
Akron, so named by Olcott. — Its First Settlers. — Minor 
Spicer and the Indian Hunter. — Akron Flour-Mills and 
"Brand." — Cuyahoga Falls. — Swapping Horses. — 
Stow and a Party of Surveyors luxuriate on Rattle- 
snakes. — The Twin Brothers and Twinsburgh . . .269 


Early Settlement at Mentor. — Judge Walworth and Gen. 
Paine. — Painesville. —Old Seneca, the Indian Chief. — 
Hon. Samuel Huntington and his Great Expectations. — 
How he was attacked by Wolves. — First House built in 
Lake County. — Bones and Relics. — Pagan Baptism. — 
Little Mountain 28.3 


Little Things. — Joe Smith. — Discovery and Translation of 
the Golden Plates, or Book of Mormon. — Novel written 
by Solomon Spalding. —How Rev. Sidney Rigdon ob- 
tained the Manuscript. —Scheme of Smith and Rigdon. — 
Latter-Day Saints. — Temple at Kirtland. — Removal to 
Nauvoo. — Flight into the Western Wilderness. — Salt 
Lake City. — The Prophet 295 


Ottawa and the Islands. —Battle of Lake Erie. —Burial of 
the Dead at Put-in-Bay. — Ashland a Piece of Patch- 
work. — Daniel Carter its First Settler. — David Burns 
a Grand Juror. — Early Settlement at .leromeville. — 
Capt. Pipe, the Indian Chief. — Fate of his Daughter and 
her Lover 



Mahoning, why so named. — Abounds in Coal, Iron, and Salt 
Springs. — John Young. — Canfield and Youngstown. — 
Enterprising Population. — Murder of Kribs and of two 
other Men. — Terrible Fight with Indian Marauders on 
the Banks of Yellow Creek. 322 


The Happy Valley. — Meeting of Old Friends. — Rev. Wil- 
liam Wick and his Legacy. — How a Contractor carried 
the Mail. — First Wedding at Poland. — Two Sisters 
drowned. — Re-union of Pioneers at Youngstown. — 
Untold Love 330 


The Western Reserve. — Her Pioneer Life and her Modem 
Life. — Comparative Characteristics. — The Eminent Men 
she has produced. — Her Unborn Future . , , .341 



Western Reserve. — Diplomacy of Gov. WrNTHROP. — Charter 
FROM Charles II. to the Connecticut Colony. — Its Sur- 

— Reproduced, and incorporated in the Constitution of 

There are many incidents connected with the 
early settlement of the Connecticut Western Re- 
serve which possess an interest scarcely less seduc- 
tive than the fascinations of romance. In fact, they 
constitute what may be regarded as the romance of 
pioneer life, though founded in truth. 

There is something truly sublime in the valorous 
spirit of the times, which led to the transformation 
of a remote wilderness into a land of beauty, wealth, 
and social refinement. The early pioneers who con- 
tributed so largely to accomplish this result exhib- 
ited, in the midst of embarrassments, a degree of 



courage and perseverance which not only challenges 
our admiration, but is worthy of the heroic age. 

The north-eastern part of Ohio, known as the 
Western Reserve, embraces a territory containing 
nearly three and a half millions of acres. It is so 
called because it was "reserved" as the rightful 
share of the State of Connecticut in the final adjust- 
ment of colonial land-claims made by Congress 
between the States soon after the close of the 
Revolution. It seems somewhat surprising, how- 
ever, that the little State of Connecticut should 
have succeeded in obtaining so large a share of the 
"spoils." But the fact shows that Connecticut, 
even in the days of her youth, was shrewd at a 
bargain, — a peculiar trait of character, which has 
grown with her growth, and strengthened with her 
strength. The truth is, she always did love land 
and liberty, and has always thought she could not 
have too much of either. 

She began life by helping herself, and still con- 
tinues the practice ; yet she abounds in good works, 
but has a policy of her own, and generally acts from 
motives of policy. As an evidence of her benefi- 
cence, she gave at an early day, to such of her 
citizens as had lost their property by fire and sword 
in the Revolution, five hundred thousand acres of 
her Western Reserve lands, since known as tlie 


"fire-lands." This was a generous act, and a practi- 
cal recognition of the golden rule. 

In acquiring title to her Western Reserve lands 
from the English crown in 1662, she resorted to a 
diplomacy not less artful than successful. She was 
then known as the Connecticut Colony, and had 
sympathized with Cromwell in his efforts to establish 
a protectorate on the ruins of the English monarchy. 

In attempting to achieve power, Cromwell had 
sanctioned the execution of Charles I., and sought 
to exterminate Charles II. on the battle-field, 
who adroitly evaded pursuit by springing into the 
branches of an oak, and hiding himself within its 
dense foliage. In a few years afterward the death 
of Cromwell, in connection with the speedy down- 
fall of the protectorate, resulted in restoring Charles 
II. to the throne, who hated the memory of Crom- 
well with a hatred so intense that he ordered his 
dead body to be disinterred, hanged, and buried 
under the gallows. 

The colonists, though fearing their sympathies 
with Cromwell had prejudiced the king against 
them, did not despair of obtaining from his Majesty 
a grant of more land and liberty. They therefore 
proceeded at once to acknowledge their allegiance 
to Charles II. They then prepared the draught of 
such a charter as they desired, and delegated their 


shrewdest diplomatist, Gov. Winthrop, to visit 
England, present it to the king, and request his 
approval and royal signature. 

The governor accepted the mission, proceeded to 
England, obtained an informal interview with the 
king, and, by way of introducing the subject of his 
mission, exhibited a rich finger-ring of massive gold, 
set with a costly diamond, which the king's father, 
Charles I., had bestowed in his lifetime on the father 
of Gov. Winthrop as a mark of honor for valuable 
political services. This unexpected exhibit of the 
ring touched the heart of Charles, and moved him 
to tears, when Gov. Winthrop, availing himself of 
the golden moment, presented the prepared charter, 
and requested the royal approval and signature. 
By its specific terms the charter granted to the 
Connecticut Colony the rights and liberties of self- 
government, and so enlarged her territory as to in- 
clude the New Haven Colony, and extend westward 
from the Narragansett River to the Pacific Ocean. 
His Majesty, after hearing the charter read, asked 
the distance from the Eastern to the Western sea, 
and received an expression of belief from Winthrop 
that the latter could be seen from the Western hill- 
tops that bounded the colony. Accepting this infor- 
mation as satisfactory, his Majesty cheerfully affixed 
to the charter his royal seal and signature. It is 


hardly probable that either the king or Winthrop 
had any just conception of the vast territory in- 
cluded in the grant. However this may have been, 
it is quite certain that the king did not compre- 
hend, the amplitude of his generosity. It was an 
instance in which diplomatic art achieved more than 
it anticipated. 

"The pleasure, doubtless, is as great 
Of being cheated as to cheat." 

At any rate, Gov. Winthrop was highly delighted 
with the success of his mission, and, bearing the 
charter with him, returned with all possible despatch 
to his constituents in America, who received him 
with enthusiastic demonstrations of applause. By 
this liberal charter the Connecticut Colony received 
more land and liberty than she had expected, but 
not more than she was quite willing to accept. On 
admission into the Union as a State, Connecticut 
still claimed the vast sweep of Western territory as 
specified in the colonial charter granted by Charles 
n. ; but a conflict of claims to this territory in- 
duced Congress to interfere, and settle the conflict 
by awarding to Connecticut so much of her claim 
only as is embraced within the limits of what is now 
known as the "Western Reserve." This was ac- 
cepted by Connecticut as a final adjustment. 


When Charles II. was succeeded by James II., the 
new monarch attempted to adopt a restrictive policy 
in reference to the colonists ; and, as a preliminary 
step, appointed Andross to the governorship of 
New England, and directed him not only to assume 
authority over the Connecticut Colony, but to de- 
mand a surrender of her charter, which had been so 
graciously granted by his royal predecessor. 

Gov. Andross, fearing opposition, marched on 
Hartford, where the Colonial Assembly was in ses- 
sion, with a military force of seventy men, and 
demanded, with an imperious air, the surrender of 
the charter, which was promptly produced and laid 
on the table. The moment this was done, the 
Assembly commenced an animated debate on the 
question of its surrender. The discussion con- 
tinued until nightfall, when lights were sent for 
and brought; but, when the lights appeared, the 
charter had disappeared. Its sudden abstraction 
was a mystery, and produced a sensation. Not a 
soul could be found who could explain the matter ; 
and thereupon, amid confusion, the Assembly ad- 

In due time, however, after all danger of losing 
the charter had passed, a man known as Capt. 
Wardsworth, a patriotic colonist, disclosed the fact, 
that, while the Assembly was sitting in darkness 


awaiting the lights, he seized the charter, sprang 
out of the open window, and concealed it in the 
hollow trunk of a sturdy old oak, which stood but 
a little distance from the legislative hall in which 
the Assembly was convened. 

This has ever been regarded as an adroit feat. It 
had the effect to preserve intact what the colonists 
most loved, — the charter of their land and of their 
liberties. In fact, the colonists revered this charter ; 
and, when Connecticut became a State, she adopted 
it as her constitution. 

The hollow oak in which the charter was hidden 
acquired a wonderful fame from this incident, be- 
came a shrine of liberty, and was reverently visited 
by thousands of pilgrims. It stood erect until 
within a few years, unconscious of its own fame 
and the homage it received, when it was rudely 
assailed by a violent storm, and heroically fell in 
battle with the elements. It was indeed a "brave 
old oak," worthy the Puritanic soil in which it grew. 
In years w^hile it was yet standing the writer of 
these pages had the gratification of paying it a 
reverential visit, and of plucking from its branches a 
leaf, which he still preserves as a precious memento 
of its history. 

The oak has come to be regarded as a patriotic 
emblem. In ancient times it was revered as a 


"sacred tree." The Druids believed in its divine 
powers. History has proved that it possesses a 
saving power. It saved the life of Charles II., and 
preserved within its heart the true principles of 
American freedom. It bequeathed to England her 
loyal " hearts of oak," and to America her " tree of 

« Though girt with forests and a mountain chain, 
Whose slopes and glens and secret caverns dark 

Had ever been the red man's wild domain, 
The Pilgrims clung to hope's expiring spark, 
And struggled with their foes, and set the mark 

Of empire there on Ocean's circling strand, 
And, like the chosen few who left the ark, 

Went forth to scatter blessings through the land, 

And rear the < tree of liberty ' with fostering hand." 



The Eries. — Ship GRiFFm. — French and English Trade and 
Strife. — PoNTiAC at Detroit. — His Stratagem discovered. 
— Cannibal Feast. —Major Campbell seized, assassinated, 


The Indians, prior to the organization of Con- 
necticut as a State, had occupied what is now called 
the Western Reserve for unknown centuries, and 
were, in fact, the rightful proprietors of the entire 
Western wilderness. The tribe known as the "Eries " 
was a warlike race, who occupied the south-eastern 
borders of Lake Erie, and from whom the lake takes 
its name. At an early period they attacked the 
" Five Nations " of New York, suffered an indis- 
criminate slaughter, and, as a race, soon afterwards 
became extinct. Their principal record is that of 
the mounds which still exist in considerable numbers 
along the southerly shore-lands of the lake. The 
Eries were succeeded by fragmentary tribes of other 
Indian races. 

It is not certain at what date white men first 
visited this region of country ; but it is known that 
as early as 1679 La Salle, a French adventurer, 


launched on the waters of Lake Erie a vessel of 
sixty tons burden, which he named the " Griffin." 
He built the vessel at a point near Buffalo, and 
coasted along the southerly shore with a view to 
exploration and the fur trade with the aborigines, 
and doubtless intended to continue his voyage to the 
upper lakes. 

As the Griffin, with her sails spread to the 
breeze, approached the lake-coast of the Western 
Reserve, the natives were stricken with astonishment 
at the grotesqueness of the sudden apparition, and 
believed it to be a white-winged demon sent from 
the clouds by the Great Spirit to chastise or devour 
them. As the vision seemed to them partly to walk 
and partly fly on the water, they feared it might do 
the same thing on land, and, becoming greatly 
frightened, fled into the wilderness, and hid them- 
selves in its dark recesses, and thus failed to reap 
the advantages of a friendly commerce. The Grif- 
fin continued on her voyage up the lake, reached 
Green Bay, purchased a cargo of furs, and, while 
returning, was, as is supposed, lost in a storm. La 
Salle, in the mean time, with a select party, pro- 
ceeded to explore the valley of the Mississippi, and, 
after various haps and mishaps, was killed by one 
of his mutinous comrades. But, when the French 
had established trading-posts at different points along 


the lake-coast, the Indians were not long in over- 
coming their native timidity, nor were they slow in 
comprehending the avaricious motives of the white 
traders. The lessons thus learned soon made them 
adepts in practising the " tricks of trade," and often 
an overmatch in the metaphysical subtleties of logic. 

The English soon followed the French in estab- 
lishing commercial intercourse with the Indians 
along the coast-line of the great chain of lakes. 
This manifestation of commercial greed on the part 
of the English, in connection with other movements, 
aroused the suspicions of the Indians, and induced 
them to believe that the white race intended ulti- 
mately to exterminate the red race, and occupy the 
entire country. This state of feeling on the part of 
the Indians contributed largely to produce the out- 
break of hostilities in 1763, known as " the Pontiac 

Pontiac was a bold and daring chief, and possessed 
of great tact and influence. He, in conspiracy with 
other tribes occupying the region west of the Cuya- 
hoga River, attacked several of the English trading- 
posts, and massacred their garrisons. He even 
threatened to exterminate every Englishman who 
had intruded within the limits of his wild domains. 
He was, however, a true friend of the French, 
though an implacable enemy of the English. He 


was as deceitful as he was bold and brave. He 
made an attempt to misguide the commander of the 
English forces when marching on Detroit with a 
view to dislodge the French from the fort. But ' the 
English succeeded in expelling the French, and in 
detailing a small force in command of Major Glad- 
wyn to maintain possession and strengthen the 

Pontiac, whose warriors were encamped in the 
vicinity of Detroit, conceived the idea of retaking 
the fort by stratagem. He contrived to send a mes- 
sage to Major Gladwyn, that he and a select few of 
his warriors desired to hold a council with him at 
the fort on the next day, with a desire to adjust 
difficulties and brighten the " chain of peace." The 
request was cheerfully granted. In the mean time 
Pontiac had selected his favorite braves who were to 
accompany him, and directed them to saw off their 
rifles so as to conceal them under their blankets, and, 
at a given sign during the session of the council, to 
rise and massacre the entire garrison. 

It so happened, that, on the evening previous to 
holding the council, an Indian woman, who had 
been employed by Major Gladwyn to make him. a 
pair of elk-skin moccasons, was admitted into the 
fort to return the moccasons with the remaining part 
of the skin, and receive her pay. The major was so 


well pleased with the moccasons, that, after paying 
for them, he requested the woman to retain the 
remnant of the skin, and make him another pair. It 
was observed that she took the remaining part of 
the skin with apparent reluctance. When she 
reached the gate of the fort which opened on the 
river, she lingered, and seemed unwilling to pro- 
ceed. The guard inquired the reason, but received 
no satisfactory reply. He then reported her to the 
major, who ordered her into his presence, and 
demanded to know why she lingered at the gate. 
She replied that she had been treated kindly, knew 
that he valued the elk-skin, and therefore did not 
wish to take it away with her as she could never 
return it. The commandant thought this a strange 
reason, and demanded an explanation. The Indian 
woman, after being assured of her personal safety, 
disclosed the nefarious plot which Pontiac had 
devised to be carried into execution the next day 
at the council. The woman was then dismissed 
from the fort; but the commandant, though dis- 
crediting the story, deemed it prudent to see that 
the garrison was forewarned and forearmed. 

The next day (May 9, 1763), prompt to the hour 
appointed for holding the council, Pontiac appeared 
at the gate of the fort, accompanied by a band of 
his favorite warriors, and was admitted. They were 


all seated on the ground in a circle, and in presence 
of Commandant Gladwyn. Pontiac seemed sur- 
prised to see the men of the fort with arms in their 
hands, and inquired the cause. He was then assured 
that such was the customary practice at public recep- 
tions. Pontiac, with a manifest look of distrust, then 
commenced the proceedings of the council by an 
impassioned harangue, in which he professed a 
sincere friendship for the English ; but, when he 
arrived at the point at which the ominous sign was 
to be given, he gave his warriors, to their astonish- 
ment, a sign denoting silence, and, when he had con- 
cluded his harangue, sat down with an air of cool 

The commandant then approached the circle of 
Indian warriors, opened the folds of several of their 
blankets, and thus exposed their short rifles as evi- 
dence of their treachery ; when, turning to Pontiac, 
he accused him of insincerity and a murderous 
design, and then ordered him and his warriors to 
depart without the least delay, and be thankful that 
their lives had been spared them. The moment they 
saw the gate of the fort opened, they took to their 
heels, and rushed out with all possible speed, and, 
when at a safe distance, turned and fired on the 
fort, accompanying the act with an unearthly war- 


These savage fiends, while on their way to camp, 
murdered an English woman and her two sons, who 
resided in a cabin on the commons, scalped them, 
and then made soup of a part of the woman, and 
invited a friendly Frenchman to partake of the 
repast with them, and, when the feast was concluded, 
asked him if he knew what he had eaten. He said 
he supposed it a soup made of deer-meat. They 
then told him the truth of the matter, when he 
nearly fainted at the shock the information gave 

Pontiac, encouraged by the aid of a French fac- 
tion, made every effort in his power to destroy the 
English settlements and demolish the fort of Detroit. 
He directed his warriors to shoot blazing arrows into 
the chapel and other buildings, with a view to pro- 
duce a general conflagration, and thus drive out the 
English and destroy the garrison. During the siege 
the Indians attempted to make a breach in the pick- 
ets, when the commandant of the fort, by way of 
stratagem, ordered his men to aid the savages by 
breaking into the pickets on the inside in the same 
direction, but took care to place a cannon loaded 
with grape-shot pointing directly in the line of the 
fiends as they should enter the fort. The breach 
was soon effected. The Indians began to rush in a 
solid body into the fort, yelling and brandishing 


their tomahawks and scalping-knives, when the can- 
non was discharged, cutting a wide furrow through 
their entire line. The slaughter was fearful. The 
survivors, panic-stricken, turned and fled in every 

Directly after this occurrence Major Campbell 
was placed in command of the fort. The siege was 
still continued with various successes and disasters 
on the part of both the English and the Indians. 
Pontiac finally succeeded by strategy in securing 
the person of Campbell, and proposed to spare his 
life and set him free if he would surrender the fort. 
This he peremptorily refused to do, and was soon 
afterwards assassinated by a revengeful Indian. 
The assassin, with a few other Indians who approved 
the act, disembowelled their victim, boiled and ate 
his heart, and then skinned his arms, and made 
pouches of the skin. The treacherous deed, how- 
ever, was condemned by Pontiac, who would have 
slain the assassin had he not effected his escape. 
In the mean time Col. Rogers had assumed the 
command of the fort, and for months, night and day, 
employed every soldier and servant of the garrison 
in guarding the ramparts, and in watching the move- 
ments of the crafty Indians, until re-enforcements, 
long expected, could arrive, and relieve him from the 
imminent danger to which he was exposed. 



Col. Bradstreet's Expedition. — Destroys Indian Villages.— 
Protects Detroit. — Is censured. — Retires in Disgust with 
HIS Troops. — Suffers Shipwreck near the Mouth of Rocky 
River. —Relics found. — Dr. Kirtland. 

The English had been dispossessed of most of 
their military posts in the region of the lakes by 
the allied forces of the French and Indians, prior to 
the arrival of Col. Bradstreet. The fort of Detroit 
was one of the few remaining forts held by the 
English. This fort contained supplies of great 
value, and commanded the entrance to the upper 
lakes. It was therefore important that the English 
should maintain possession, though the attempt at 
this time seemed almost hopeless. 

The English government sent out a re-enforcement, 
consisting of three thousand men, in command of 
Col. Bradstreet, who embarked his troops in open 
boats at Niagara late in the summer of 1764, and, 
on his voyage up the lake, landed a detachment of 
his troops at Saudusky Bay, burned the villages, 
and destroyed the cornfields of the hostile Indians 
in that vicinity and along the valley of the Maumee 


River, and then proceeded with his entire force to 
Detroit. His arrival discouraged the enemy from 
making further attempts to maintain the siege, and 
induced the French and their Indian allies to con- 
clude a treaty of peace on the terms offered them. 
Pontiac felt chagrined, and refused to take any part 
in the negotiation, though earnestly solicited, and 
very soon retired to the valley of the Mississippi 
River, where he was assassinated about the year 
1767 by an Indian belonging to his own tribe, who 
had accepted a bribe from an English trader of a 
barrel of rum. Thus fell Pontiac, a great warrior 
and still greater strategist. 

Not long after the treaty had been concluded, a 
serious disaffection occurred between Col. Bradstreet 
and his superior in command, growing out of a 
severe censure pronounced by the latter on the 
conduct of the former. Col. Bradstreet regarded 
the censure as entirely unjust ; . and, feeling highly 
indignant, he withdrew his troops, some eleven hun- 
dred men, who were then with him in Detroit, and, 
without even waiting to recall his scouts, re-embarked 
with a view to return to Niagara. On his voyage 
down the lake he encountered a violent storm ; and, 
in order to save himself and the lives of his troops, 
he directed his pilot, who was a Frenchman, to steer 
for shore at the first practicable point where they 


could safely land. The pilot, either from ignorance 
or treachery, conducted the flotilla against a rock- 
bound coast near the mouth of Rocky River, and 
not far from Cleveland. The result was the ship- 
wreck of all the boats, with the loss of nearly all 
the troops. 

The survivors, after the storm had subsided, gath- 
ered from the wreck such provisions and arms as 
they could find, and, with such preparations as they 
could make, undertook to accomplish the remaining 
distance (some two hundred miles) to Niagara by 
travelling on foot along the line of the lake-shore 
through an unbroken wilderness. In doing this, 
they suffered untold hardships, while many of them 
died on the way. It is said that the forlorn appear- 
ance of the few who finally reached their destination 
beggars description. 

The precise spot on the lake-shore where the 
shipwreck occurred is not known; but, judging 
from relics which have from time to time been 
found along the beach since the country has been 
settled, it is evident that this unfortunate disaster 
must have happened at a little distance west from 
the junction of Rocky River with the lake. It is 
probable that the pilot intended to enter that river 
with the flotilla intrusted to his guidance, and that 
he, through stress of weather, rather than tl^ough 
ignorance or treachery, failed in the attempt. 


How many lives were lost is not known ; but the 
number must have been very great, as would seem 
from the remaining old grave-pits which are still 
visible at different points on the bank of the lake 
in the vicinity of the disaster. A great many relics 
have been picked up on the sand-beach, which have 
from time to time drifted ashore, or been exposed 
by the action of the waves. In fact, the citizens 
resident in that neighborhood are still finding more 
or less of these relics. They consist of a great 
variety of articles, — such as silver spoons, knives 
and forks, bayonets, sword-blades, gun-barrels, flints, 
stocks, and trimmings, and also French and English 
coins of gold, silver, and copper, some bearing date 
as far back as the year 1714, and some in 1717, 
1749, and 1764. In addition to these, other relics 
have been found, — such as a surgeon's amputating- 
knife, musket-balls, cannon-balls, bolts and rings, 
Indian amulets, an iron tomahawk so constructed 
as to furnish a smoking-pipe as well as a deadly 
weapon, and also fragments of boat-timber. It was 
reported by the survivors that the flotilla was armed 
with six pieces of brass cannon, which, with an iron 
treasure-box containing gold and silver coin, were 
lost in the wreck. It is quite probable that the 
brass cannon and the treasure-box still lie em- 
bedded in the sand-beach, and may yet be discovered. 


It will be a piece of rare good luck for him who is 
so fortunate as to find the treasure-box. 

For what is already known in respect to this ship- 
wreck and the relics which have been found and 
collected, the public is largely indebted to the inde- 
fatigable researches and industry of the distinguished 
naturalist, Dr. Jared P. Kirtland, late of Rockport 
township. He was a man of whom Ohio, and every 
friend of science, may well be proud. He loved 
Nature, and held divine communion with her. From 
her teachings he derived a degree of wisdom which 
few men have ever attained. In the department of 
medical science he excelled as a professional lecturer 
and practitioner ; yet he led a modest and un- 
ostentatious life, never displaying his learning from 
motives of vanity, but rather suppressing it. He 
enjoyed a wide reputation both as a geologist and 
horticulturist, and for this reason was often visited 
by scientific men devoted to these subjects. Sir 
Charles Lyell, the English geologist, paid him a 
visit while travelling in the United States, and 
speaks of him with great respect in his book of 

Sundry amusing anecdotes are afloat respecting 
Dr. Kirtland. He had a way of his own. He 
relished a joke, and could perpetrate a joke. One 
day, while he was at work in his garden of fruits 


and flowers, a stranger, devoted to horticulture and 
finely dressed, drove up in front of his door in a 
carriage, and seeing in the garden an old man clad 
in working clothes, huge straw hat, and shoeless, 
busily disturbing the earth around some choice 
plants, shouted, "Halloo! Does Dr. Kirtland live 

"He does," replied the old man, resting on his 

" Is he at home, then ? " cried the stranger. 

" Yes, sir : he is," replied the workman, wiping the 
sweat from his face meanwhile. 

" Well, please come out here, and hold my horse 
until I can call in and see him," rejoined the caller, 
jumping from his carriage. 

"Certainly," replied the old man, dropping his 
hoe, turning up his pantaloon-legs one more lap, and 
walking briskly out into the muddy street. The 
stranger gave him the reins, and sprang nimbly to 
the front-door of the house. A lady appeared in 
answer to his knock, and asked him to step in. 

"I simply called out to examine the doctor's 
farm," said the visitor, introducing himself. " Can I 
see Dr. Kirtland a moment?" 

" Most assuredly," replied the lady, with a twinkle 
in her eye : " you will find him out yonder in the 
street^ holding a horse,'^ 


The visitor took in the situation at a glance, and, 
hurrying out, joined with Dr. Kirtland in a hearty 
laugh. They viewed the farm. 

The doctor was ever genial and pleasant in his 
social intercourse. He loved his many friends, and 
received them with the kindest cordiality, whether 
of high or low degree. The simplicity of his man- 
ners and his amiable traits of character were truly 
beautiful, and won the hearts of all who made his 
acquaintance. In a word, he lived like a philosopher, 
and died like a philosopher. And now — 

" He walks with God the stellar deep, 
Where tides of light unbounded sweep." 



Boyhood of Beady and Girty. — Subsequent Lube. — Brady 
captured by the indians. — condemned to be burned. — 
Escapes. — Hotly pursued. — Marvellous Leap. — Brady's 
Lake. — Rejoins his Friends. 

Capt. Samuel Brady was one of the most re- 
markable men known to the traditional history of 
Western frontier life. When but a child the death 
of his father and mother deprived him of a home, 
and he was placed in the family of one of his father's 
relatives in the western part of Pennsylvania. The 
family in which he was received had previously 
adopted a young lad as a son, whose name was 
Simon Girty. Brady and Girty were nearly of the 
same age, and as they grew to manhood came to 
regard each other as brothers. They were bred in 
the wilderness, and accustomed to hardships. They 
loved excitement, and were ever ready to engage in 
bold and reckless adventures. 

About the time they became of age, the Indians 
made an unexpected incursion on the small settle- 
ment where they resided, and cruelly massacred 
nearly every family within its limits. But, as it 


happened, both Brady and Girty succeeded in 
making their escape; yet in their flight they took 
different directions, and finally became denizens at 
different localities in the great North-Western wilder- 
ness. In the course of a few months Brady was 
selected and made captain of a brave band of 
civilized traders and adventurers, and Girty the 
chief of several Indian tribes. They adapted them- 
selves to their new relations in life, and, in after 
years, often met in battle as chieftains of their 
respective forces without recognition. The results 
on both sides were often as disastrous as successful. 
Hence both were regarded as invincible chieftains. 
In fact, Brady became the terror of the Indians, 
while Girty became the scourge of the white settle- 

In or about the year 1780 Brady, with a small 
force of twenty men, undertook to steal a march on 
the Indian villages at Sandusky, but was waylaid by 
a party of Indians lying in ambush in the vicinity 
of Kent, in Summit County, near a small lake, now 
known as Brady's Lake, where, after a sharp fight, 
all his force, with the exception of himself and one 
man, were killed. He and his surviving companion- 
in-arms took to their heels, and sought safety in the 
dense forest. But the Indians, knowing Brady, and 
desiring to capture him alive if possible, pursued 


him with their united forces, and soon succeeded in 
making him their prisoner. They disarmed him, 
bound his hands behind his back, and proceeded 
with him to the Indian villages at Sandusky. When 
the party with their prisoner arrived at the villages, 
there was a universal demonstration of joy among 
the Indians. 

Preparations were at once made for his execution 
by " fire and fagot," and all the neighboring tribes 
of that region were invited to attend and participate 
in the cruel festivities of the occasion. In the mean 
time, though unsuspected by Brady, his manly ap- 
pearance had won the sympathies of a young Indian 
maiden, who was the daughter of a distinguished 
chief, and who appealed to her father to spare the cap- 
tive's life. Her appeal was met by a severe rebuke. 

On the day appointed, thousands of plumed war- 
riors, with their women and children, appeared, and 
surrounded the funeral pyre to which the prisoner 
was bound, awaiting the application of the torch. 
At this moment the prisoner recognized in the circle 
of chiefs that surrounded him the companion of his 
boyhood, whom he had loved as a brother, Simon 
Girty, disguised as an Indian chief, and to whom he 
appealed to save his life. But Girty, more of a sav- 
age than his savage associates, turned a deaf ear, 
and with cool indifference refused to listen to the 


appeal, though sufficiently pathetic to have melted 
the heart of a stone. 

The torch was applied. The flames soon rose like 
billows, surging around the victim, when the sympa- 
thizing Indian maiden, in a moment of frenzy, rushed 
towards him with the design to release him, or die in 
the attempt. 

The fire had already weakened the cords with 
which the victim was bound ; and being entirely 
unaware of the maiden's kind intentions, and writh- 
ing in agony, he sundered the bands that bound him, 
sprang forward, seized the maiden, flung her into the 
midst of the consuming flames, and then ran for 
dear life into the adjoining forest. This sudden and 
unexpected feat, in connection with the unearthly 
screams of the maiden, so paralyzed the Indians 
with astonishment, that a considerable time elapsed 
before they could comprehend the matter, or rescue 
the maiden from her perilous condition. This delay 
enabled Brady to penetrate the forest to a consider- 
able distance before the Indians could rally and 
commence pursuit. The Indians, however, soon ral- 
lied, and gave chase on the track of their escaped 
victim, inspired by a merciless spirit of revenge. 
Brady expected pursuit, and, though weakened by 
the tortures he had suffered, sped before his pursuers 
like an antelope. The Indians raised the war-cry, 
and quickened their strides as they ran. 


On the second day of the pursuit, as night ap- 
proached, the Indians came in sight of their victim. 
They attempted to surround him, but in the dark- 
ness of nightfall he eluded them. But soon after- 
wards the full moon arose in such splendor as to 
render it easy to see and be seen at considerable dis- 
tances beneath the shadows of the trees. The 
Indians in the mean time had lost the track of their 
victim, and were delayed in their endeavors to regain 
it until broad daylight the next day. 

Brady had now reached the vicinity of the Cuya- 
hoga River, a distance of nearly one hundred miles, 
after travelling day and night for nearly forty-eight 
hours, when he sat down on the trunk of a fallen 
tree to take a few moments' rest ; but hearing a faint 
sound in the air, and putting his ear close to the 
ground, Indian-like, he at once recognized the near 
approach of his savage pursuers, and in a few 
minutes more saw them coming in full chase directly 
towards him. The moment he sprang to his feet the 
bloodthirsty savages discovered liim, and sounded the 
war-whoop with a terrific yell, and quickened their 
speed with the expectation of capturing him on the 
banks of the Cuyahoga River, which they would 
soon reach. The land descended somewhat in the 
direction of the river. This fact enabled Brady to 
increase the speed of his flight; and when he reached 


the yawning chasm in the rocks through which the 
river flows, though dark, deep, and twenty feet wide, 
he leaped the gulf at a bound, and soon disappeared 
in the distance on the other side. The Indians fol- 
lowed close upon his heels ; but, when they reached 
the fearful gulf and saw that he had leaped it and 
disappeared, they were struck dumb with amazement, 
and came to the conclusion that he was the favorite 
of the Great Spirit, who had given him wings to 
elude their grasp. This belief induced most of the 
Indians to abandon further pursuit, and to return 
to their villages at Sandusky ; while a few of them, 
less credulous, resolved to cross the river, and, if 
possible, recapture the fugitive. 

The few Indians who continued the pursuit, after 
crossing the river, discovered the blood-stained foot- 
prints which the lacerated feet of Brady had left 
behind him, and, following the direction, found that 
he had reached the shore of a small inland lake at 
no great distance from the river. His last footstep 
indicated that he had entered the lake. They trav- 
ersed the entire circuit of the lake, but could dis- 
cover no other evidence of his direction. They then 
concluded that he had undertaken to swim the lake, 
and was drowned in the attempt. Believing this to 
be the fact, they gave up further search as useless, 
and sat down together on the trunk of an aged tree 


which had fallen into the lake, leaving its massive 
upturned roots still clinging to the bank, and beneath 
which Brady had secreted himself. He had craftily 
deceived his pursuers as to his direction by leaving 
his last footprint on the sand-beach at some distance 
away, and swimming thence to his hiding-place. 
Here he overheard the conversation of the Indians 
while they were sitting on the fallen tree directly 
over him, and to his great joy learned that they had 
given up all hope of finding him, and would now 
return to Sandusky. They soon started ; and, when 
they had passed beyond sight and hearing, Brady 
emerged from his hiding-place, and congratulated 
himself on his hair-breadth escape. He soon reached 
a neighboring white settlement, and, after recovering 
from the effects of his exhaustion and severe suffer- 
ings, rejoined his friends on the frontier, who at once 
restored him to the captaincy. His bitter experi- 
ences had increased his hatred of Indians, and led 
him to renew with more zeal than ever his desultory 
warfare with them along the entire line of the West- 
ern frontier. This he lived to do for many years 
with success. The rocky chasm over which he 
leaped, and the lake where he hid himself, will 
doubtless remain for all time as monuments to his 
memory; the one being known as Brady's Leap, 
and the other as Brady's Lake. Such is fame. 



Obigin of Moravian Missions. — Early Efforts. — Driven from 
Huron River. — Station at Tinker's Creek. — Compelled 
TO LEAVE. — Attempt to stop at Black River. — Ordered 
TO DEPART. — Find Refuge in Canada. 

The Moravians were the first Protestant mission- 
aries who penetrated the wilds of the Western Re- 
serve. They derive their name from Moravia, a 
province of Austria, and were originally organized 
as a Christian society, under the name of United 
Brethren, by Count Zinzendorf, who became their 
bishop. Zinzendorf was born a religious enthusiast, 
and, as he grew to manhood, became a man of great 
wealth and influence. When but a child, and so 
soon as he had learned to write, he often addressed 
letters to Jesus Christ, and flung them out of the 
window upon the wings of the wind, believing that 
they would be wafted up to heaven, and be read 
by his Divine Master, and answered by a letter in 

While in the prime of manhood, Zinzendorf, as 
early as 1741, visited North America, accompanied 
by his daughter, who was then but sixteen years of 


age, and, with her assistance, succeeded in establish- 
ing several missions among the Indian tribes, re- 
mained two years, and then returned with his 
daughter to Europe. In his own country his fol- 
lowers soon became numerous, and were generally 
inspired with a missionary spirit, and especially with 
a desire to convert the Indians of the Western 
World to Christianity. 

Among the many of his adherents who engaged 
in this benevolent and philanthropic work were the 
two heroic apostles Zeisberger and Heckewelder. 
They were admirably fitted from education and a 
natural love of adventure to fight the good fight of 
Faith in the Western wilderness. They were not 
less morally brave than enthusiastic, and trusted in 
God, knowing no fear except the fear of God. 
While they took their lives in their hands in their 
intercourse with the Indians, they carried with them 
no ready weapons of defence, except the sword 
of the Spirit. They commenced their missionary 
labors among the Indians about the year 1770, and 
devoted themselves to this benevolent enterprise for 
the period of a half century or more. During the 
Revolutionary war with Great Britain, they were 
subjected at times to untold hardships and immi- 
nent dangers in their association with the various 
Indian tribes, who were, in many instances, hostile 


to each other, being in alliance either with the 
English or with the Americans. The missionaries 
were generally received by the Indians as divine 
messengers sent to them by the Great Spirit; and, in 
consequence of their familiarity with the Indians, 
they soon acquired their language and a controlling 
influence over most of them, and especially their 
chiefs. It was for this reason that Gen. Washington 
often employed one or other of the missionaries to 
assist him in securing treaties and friendly relations 
with the Indians in behalf of the American Govern- 

There were other Moravians engaged with Zeis- 
berger and Heckewelder in promoting the cause of 
Christian missions among the Western Indians. 
They all acted in concert, and thus succeeded in 
dotting the wilderness here and there with mission- 
ary stations ; and in gathering about them, if not in 
converting, a considerable number of their dusky 
disciples, whom they partially fed and clothed, and 
who, for inducements of this kind, if for no other 
reasons, became attached to the missionaries, and 
were ready to follow them through good or evil 

The town of Bethlehem, Penn., was founded by 
a colony of Moravians as early as 1741, and was 
regarded as the headquarters of Indian missions. 


Zinzendorf, in his visit to America, approved the 
selection of this locality, and called the land which 
was purchased "the Nazareth Tract." A mission- 
house, schoolhouse, and workshop were the first 
buildings which this Moravian colony erected. No 
purer, better, or holier Christian men and women 
ever graced the face of the earth than those early 
colonists. Even the neighboring graveyard where 
they now sleep — quaint, moss-grown, and singular as 
its prostrate marble tablets may appear — has an air 
of sanctity thrown about it which still recalls the 
Christian purity and simplicity of other days. 

Not only during the Revolutionary war, but for 
years afterwards, the missionaries were subjected to 
indignities and many perplexing embarrassments. 
Zeisberger and Heckewelder had established several 
promising missions at different points on the rivers 
and lakes of the Western wilderness. Among the 
earlier missions was that established on Huron 
River, Michigan. Here they had gathered into the 
fold some fifty or more converted Indians, but were 
so persecuted by the unconverted war-chiefs in the 
vicinity, that they, in the spring of 1786, were 
compelled with their converts to abandon the sta- 

Tliey procured two small vessels at Detroit, and, 
taking their converts on board, prayerfully com- 


mitted themselves to the tender mercies of Lake 
Erie, with a view to pitch their tents somewhere on 
the banks of the Cuyahoga River, in the Western 
Reserve; but, before they reached the river, they 
were overtaken by a terrific storm, which compelled 
them to return to an island near Sandusky for 
shelter. Here they remained until the storm had 
abated, when one of their vessels was withdrawn by 
the owner. This was to them an unexpected occur- 
rence, and placed them in a dilemma. What next 
to do they hardly knew ; but where there is a will 
there is a way. 

They then placed about half the party on board 
the remaining vessel, including the women, children, 
and luggage. The vessel was so crowded as to 
render the condition of passengers almost unendur- 
able. The remainder of the party were left in the 
woodlands on shore in a nearly destitute condi- 
tion, and with but a small supply of provisions. 
They resolved, however, to follow their brethren, 
wives, and children. In order to effect this, some 
traversed the lake-shore on foot, while others con- 
structed rude canoes and proceeded by water. It 
so happened that the entire company arrived at the 
mouth of the Cuyahoga River on the same day. 

They then, after uniting in a brief religious ser- 
vice, proceeded together in charge of their apostolic 


leaders, Zeisberger and He eke welder, up the river as 
far as Tinker's Creek, where the French had estab- 
lished a trading-post, which they had recently aban- 
doned. Here the missionary pilgrims pitched their 
tents, and named the place Pilgrim's Rest. They 
probably arrived in June. Here they cleared more 
land, ploughed, sowed, and expected to reap. They 
also built for themselves cabins, and a chapel in 
which they held public worship. At their first 
meeting in the chapel they celebrated the Lord's 
Supper. In the fall Heckewelder left the com- 
munity, and returned to Bethlehem. A Moravian 
brother by the name of Edwards supplied the 
vacancy caused by his absence. 

In the course of the ensuing winter it was dis- 
covered by Edwards and Zeisberger that the Indians 
of the vicinity had become hostile, and that their 
chief had threatened to exterminate every individual 
belonging to the mission. This alarming threat in- 
duced the spiritual leaders of the mission to remove 
as soon as practicable with their converts to Black 
River, about twenty miles west from the Cuyahoga. 
This occurred early in the spring of the next year 
after they had located at Pilgrim's Rest, where they 
had ploughed and sowed, expecting to reap, but 
did not reap ; and where they had sought rest, but 
found none. 


They had remained at Black River but three days 
when the Indian chief, who was the potentate of 
that region, ordered them to depart without delay. 
Feeling that they had not where to lay their heads, 
these Christian pilgrims of the forest took their 
departure, and returned to their former location on 
Huron River. Here they found that a change had 
come over their dreams of security. This induced 
them to continue their wanderings into the friendly 
dominions of Canada, where they were received with 
kindness and with true Christian sympathy. 

If we may judge from the efforts which have from 
time to time been made to civilize and Christianize 
the aborigines of our great Western wilderness, it 
would seem that all such efforts have hitherto failed 
to produce favorable results of a permanent charac- 
ter. The truth is, the Indian was born of the forest 
and for the forest. He therefore loves his native 
freedom with an instinctive love, which admits of 
no artificial restraint. He cannot comprehend the 
subtleties of a Christian theology. He believes in 
the protection and guidance of the Great Spirit, 
whose infinite power he sees displayed in the works 
of Nature, and whom he worships at the altars of 
Nature. He regards the Great Spirit as his divine 
Father, who will safely conduct him, when he 
dies, into the happy hunting-grounds, which lie far 


away beyond the golden boundaries of the setting 


" His soul proud science never taught to stray 
Far as the solar walk or milky way ; 
Yet simple nature to his hope has given, 
Behind the cloud-topped hill, an humbler heaven. 



Surveyors arrive at Conneaut, July 4, 1796. — Celebrate 
- THE Day. — Stow's Castle. — Indian Council. — Reply of 
Gen. Moses Cleaveland. — Pipe of Peace. — Mutual Gifts. 
—The Surveys allowed. — First Wheat sown in the Re- 

The wilds of the Western Reserve, and in fact 
the entire Western frontier, had been penetrated at 
different points by French and English traders, and 
other bold adventurers, a good number of years 
previous to the arrival of the surveyors. They 
were a class of men not only fond of adventure, but 
men stimulated by a love of lucre, and therefore 
sought to monopolize the Indian traffic. In doing 
this, they unconsciously prepared the way for the 
ingress of a Christian civilization. 

The State of Connecticut granted, in 1792, the 
" fire-lands " to her Revolutionary sufferers, and sold, 
in 1795, the remainder of her reserve lands, some 
three millions of acres, to a company of lier own 
citizens, known as the Connecticut Land Company, 
for one million and two hundred thousand dollars. 
This company consisted of thirty-six of her most 


wealthy and reliable citizens. The avails arising 
from the sale were placed in the State treasury, and 
made a permanent school-fund, the interest of which 
is annually appropriated to the support of her public 
schools, and is said to be sufficient to sustain them 
without aid from taxation. This disposition of the 
lands has resulted in educational benefits which can- 
not be over-estimated. 

The Connecticut Land Company, soon after their 
purchase, sent to the Western Reserve an organized 
party of surveyors, with a view to allot the lands 
and place them in the market. The party consisted 
of Moses Cleaveland, general agent of the Land 
Company; Augustus Porter, principal surveyor; Seth 
Pease, astronomer and surveyor ; Moses Warren, 
Amos Spafford, John M. Holley, and Richard M. 
Stoddard, assistant surveyors ; Joshua Stow, com- 
missary ; Theodore Shepard, physician ; and Joseph 
Tinker, principal boatman. The surveyors were 
accompanied by thirty-seven employes, and several 
other persons who came as immigrants with a view 
to settlement. There were but two married men 
who brought their wives with them, and these were 
the only women belonging to the party. The entire 
company consisted of fifty persons. They brought 
with them thirteen horses and several head of cattle, 
and came up the lake from Buffalo in open boats, 


and landed on the sand-beach, east side of Conneaut 
Creek, in what is now Ashtabuhi County, July 4, 
1796, and named the spot Port Independence. 

They all arrived in excellent health, moored their 
boats, thanked God for his paternal care, and then 
resolved to celebrate the day. As it happened, the 
day was remarkably pleasant, and the air bracing. 
They proceeded at once to extemporize the necessary 
preparations for the celebration, and appointed Gen. 
Moses Cleaveland president of the day. A rustic 
table was soon constructed, and made to groan with 
the luxuries of the season, consisting of bread, pork 
and beans, with a sufficiency of the "ardent" to 
prevent injury from indiscreet potations of cold 

They partook of the feast with a keen relish ; and, 
when they had relieved the table of its burden, they 
announced the toasts and called for speeches in due 
order. The standing toasts were arranged as follows : 
1st, The President of the United States; 2d, The 
State of New Connecticut ; 3d, The Connecticut 
Land Company ; 4th, May Port Independence, and 
the fifty sons and daughters who have entered it 
this day, be successful and prosperous ! 5th, May 
these sons and daughters multiply in sixteen years 
sixteen times fifty ! 6th, May every person have his 
bowsprit trimmed, and ready to enter every port that 
opens ! 


The punch-bowl consisted of a large bucket filled 
to the brim with " grog," as they called it, adapted 
to the taste, and strong enough to excite not only a 
due degree of hilarity, but to inspire the speeches 
with a felicitous style of eloquence. Of course the 
speeches in response to the standing toasts were 
loudly applauded, and honored at the close with a 
discharge of thirteen volleys of musketry. The 
punchbowl, as may well be supposed, was re- 
plenished several times during the exercises, which 
were continued till after sunset, when the party re- 
tired for the night to their boats in good order and 
in good " spirits," feeling that they had had " glory 
enough for one day." This was unquestionably the 
first Fourth of July celebration which took place 
within the limits of the Western Reserve. 

The next day after the celebration, the party 
united in cutting timber, and in erecting a huge 
elephantine log structure for their own temporary 
accommodation, and named it Stow's Castle, in 
honor of Joshua Stow, who was their commissary. 
It was built of unhewn logs, and covered with a 
thatched roof composed of brush, wild grass, and 
sod. Its style of architecture was entirely unique, 
and its uncouth appearance such as to provoke the 
laughter of the builders and the ridicule of the 


In the course of a few days after the completion 
of the castle, "Moses," as Gen. Cleaveland was 
familiarly called, because he had, like Moses of old, 
led his followers into the wilderness, divided his 
company of surveyors into small parties, and sent 
them to different parts of the Reserve to commence 
their official labors. This movement excited the 
suspicions of the Indians, who at once manifested 
a disposition to interfere, and prevent the execution 
of the work. But, instead of taking hostile steps 
in the first instance, the principal chief, Piqua, de- 
spatched a message to the intruders on his domains, 
and desired to know by what authority they had 
taken possession, and requested them to meet him 
in council, with a view to effect an amicable under- 
standing of the matter. The party at once agreed 
that a formal council should be held the next day 
after the receipt of the message, and appointed the 
hour and place. 

The chief and his attendants, bedecked with paint 
and plumes, appeared at the hour appointed, and, 
seating themselves in a circle beneath the shadow 
of the castle, invited Moses to take a seat in the 
centre. The council then commenced proceedings 
by first smoking gravely the pipe of peace. This 
ceremony was then followed by a speech from Cato, 
the son of the old chief Piqua, who had instructed 


his son as to what he should say. Cato prefaced his 
speech by saying that he thanked the Great Spirit 
for giving the council a pleasant day, and for bring- 
ing the white men into the country of the Indians ; 
and then desired to know what was the object of the 
visit, and what the white men intended to do with 
the Indians, urging that the Great Spirit had given 
them the wilderness for their permanent home, and 
supplied its rivers with fish and its forests with 
game for their support. He then concluded his 
speech with the expression of a desire that peace 
and friendship might be maintained between the 
Indians and their white visitors. 

Gen. Cleaveland, who was in fact, as well as in 
name, the Moses that had led the white adventurers 
into the wilderness, then arose, and replied to the 
young orator, stating that the white men were the 
friends and brothers of the Indians, and that the In- 
dians need have no fears of being disturbed in the 
enjoyment of their just rights, and that both white 
men and Indians should live together in peace and 
in the bonds of friendship, and should endeavor to 
promote the true interests and welfare of both races. 

This kind and conciliatory reply so pleased the 
Indians, that they with one accord presented Moses 
with the " pipe of peace," and with silver trinkets, 
and other gifts of considerable value, all of which 


he accepted in the most gracious manner. He then 
returned all the gifts, accompanied with a keg of 
whiskey and some glass beads for the squaws to 
the Indians, who were not only surprised, but highly 
delighted, with such an act of noble generosity. 
The Indians then consented that the surveys might 
proceed, and declared that they would not interfere 
to prevent the progress of the work. The object of 
the survey was to lay out the entire Reserve into 
townships of five miles square, and the townships 
into one-hundred-acre lots, preparatory to placing 
the lands in market. 

In the fall of 1796 the surveying-party cleared 
off six acres of land on the east side of Conneaut 
Creek, and sowed it with wheat. This was the first 
crop of wheat ever sown and reaped by white men 
in the Western Reserve, — a country which has ever 
since been prolific in its production of " wheat," to 
say nothing of its other productions. 



Gen. Cleaveland, with a Detachment of Subvetors, leaves 
CoNNEAUT. — Discovers a River. — Names it "Chagrin." — 
Arrives at the Mouth of the Cuyahoga River, July 22. — 
Selects the Spot for a City. — His Staff names it Cleave- 
LAND. — First Settlers. — Pease's Hotel. — First Live-Stock. 
—Indian Sports. — The Bear. — Spafford's Map. — Price of 
Lots. — Lorenzo Carter. — Jaivies Kingsbury's Trip and Ex- 
periences. — Commerce. — Ls^dian assassinated. — Dog-Feast. 
— Bicknell's Sad Fate. 

In less than three weeks after landing at Con- 
neaut, a division of the surveying-party, with Gen. 
Cleaveland at its head, embarked in an open boat, 
and coasted westward along the lake-shore, bound 
for the Cuyahoga River ; but finding an intervening 
river not traced on the chart, and supposing it to 
be the Cuyahoga, they entered it, and after con- 
siderable delay discovered their mistake. They felt 
so chagrined about it, that they named the river 
" Chagrin," — a designation which it still retains. 

The party now continued their voyage along the 
coast until they reached the veritable Cuyahoga, 
which they entered on the 22d of July; and, after 
advancing a short distance in its channel, attempted 


to land, but, in their efforts to do so, ran their boat 
into the marshy growth of wild vegetation which 
skirted the easterly bank of the river, and stranded 
her. Here Moses, like his ancient namesake, found 
himself cradled in the bulrushes. This occurred near 
the foot of Union Lane, which was at that time the 
termination of an Indian trail. This second Moses, 
however, was no infant, but was, in fact, equal to any 
emergency. The i3arty soon succeeded in effecting a 
safe landing. They then ascended the precipitous 
bluff which overlooked the valley of the river, and 
were astonished to find a broad and beautiful plain 
of woodland stretching far away to the east, west, and 
south of them, and lying at an elevation of some 
eighty feet above the dark-blue waters of Lake Erie. 
The entire party became enamoured of the scene. 

Moses, with the eye of a prophet, foresaw that a 
great commercial city was here destined to spring 
into existence at no distant day, and accordingly 
directed a survey to be made into town lots of so 
much of the land as was included within the angle 
formed by the lake and easterly side of the river, 
and as far south-easterly as seemed requisite for the 
location of the predicted city. When the survey 
was completed, he felt the importance of selecting 
a suitable name for the new city, but was perplexed 
in coming to a satisfactory decision, and requested 


his associates to favor him with their suggestions. 
They at once baptized the infant city, and gave it 
the name of Cleaveland in honor of their superior 
in authority. Moses was taken by surprise, blushed, 
and gracefully acknowledged the compliment. Tlie 
letter " a " in the first syllable of his name was sub- 
sequently dropped out by a resident editor of the 
town, because he could not include it in the head- 
line of his newspaper for want of sufficient space. 
The public adopted the editor's orthography, which 
has ever since been retained. 

Gen. Moses Cleaveland was no ordinary man. He 
was a native of Canterbury, Conn., and graduated at 
Yale College in 1777. He afterwards studied law, 
and practised his profession with success in his 
native town, and in the course of a few years 
acquired an enviable reputation; was elected a 
member of the State Legislature, and subsequently 
advanced to the position of brigadier-general of the 
militia, which at that day was regarded as a dis- 
tinguished honor. He was a gentleman of polished 
manners and unquestioned integrity, and enjoyed 
the entire confidence of the public. In personal 
appearance he was of medium height, compact and 
swarthy in complexion, — so swarthy that the Indians 
were inclined to regard him as one of their race. 
He was cool, deliberate, and always self-possessed, as 


well as brave and courageous amid threatening dan 
gers, and especially popular with his associates. He 
was a man of few words and of profound thought. 
He foresaw, in the future, what time has verified. 
The city of Cleveland may well refer with pride to 
her inheritance of his name. 

The surveyors, very soon after landing at Cleve- 
land, erected within its original limits a log store- 
house and several log cabins for their own accommo- 
dation and that of a few immigrants, who had 
followed them with the design of settling, or finding 
employment, in the region of the Cuyahoga. One 
of these cabins was called Pease's Hotel, and was 
doubtless occupied as a boarding-house. The most 
of the cabins were located between Union Lane and 
the river, a little north of the present viaduct or 
elevated bridge, where existed at that time a large 
open spring of excellent water. John P. Stiles and 
wife took charge of Pease's Hotel at Cleveland, 
while Elijah Gunn and wife remained at Conneaut 
in charge of Stow's Castle during a part of the first 
winter. The wives of these men were the only 
women who came into the country with the survey- 
ing-party in 1796. 

The entire live-stock which the company brought 
with them consisted of thirteen horses, two yoke of 
oxen, and three or four milch cows, for their own 


use. That division of the party who attempted to 
remain at Conneaut during the first winter suffered 
intensely for the want of a sufficient supply of pro- 
visions ; and many of them must have perished from 
hunger, except for the kindness of the Indians, For 
this reason most of them abandoned Conneaut early 
in December. At that time the natives who occupied 
the lands of the Reserve had become quite numer- 
ous, especially in the vicinity of both Conneaut and 
Cleveland. They took great delight in observing 
their own ancient customs and recreations. 

It had become a common practice with many of 
them, after completing their autumnal hunt, to 
encamp for the winter on the westerly bluff at the 
mouth of the Cuyahoga River in considerable num- 
bers. They seemed to have selected this locality 
with a view to trade with the white men, whom they 
called " Sagamosh," and at the same time to while 
away the winter as they best could by indulging in 
a variety of rude sports. Seneca was one of their 
distinguished chiefs, who, with his tribe, preferred 
to encamp on the easterly side of the river. He was 
not only a true friend of the white man, but a noble 
specimen of true manhood. For the most part both 
the red and white races preserved amicable relations, 
and were much benefited by a reciprocal interchange 
of commodities. Cleveland, at tliis time, was re- 
garded simply as a trading-post. 


While some of the surveyors were encamped at 
Cleveland, they became straitened for meat. Seeing 
a bear swimming across the river from the west to 
the east side, they turned out, and surrounded him 
at the landing ; but the bear reversed his direction 
amid shots and shouts, and escaped. The party, 
however, on their return, captured a huge rattle- 
snake. This they cooked, and ate with a keen relish, 
and thought it a rare delicacy. 

The first map which was made of Cleveland, 
after completing the survey, bears date Oct. 1, 
1796. It was constructed of several sheets of fools- 
cap paper pasted together so as to afford the exten- 
sion of surface required, and is known as Spafford's 
Map. Subsequently other maps were made, one of 
which is designated as Pease's Map. There is but 
little difference between the two, while both are 
regarded as authoritative. On Spafford's Map, Supe- 
rior Street was designated as Broad Street, and 
Miami Street as Deer Street. The latter was so 
named from the circumstance, that, while the survey 
of it was progressing, a deer approached, and gazed 
at the surveyors for some minutes with a seeming 
desire to ascertain what this kind of a strange pro- 
ceeding meant, and then bounded away into the 
depths of the forest. Seneca Street has the honor of 
deriving its name from the good old Indian chief 


Seneca, who befriended the surveyors and early 

Soon after the completion of the surveys, applica- 
tions began to be made for the purchase of lots. 
The prices were fixed by a committee both of city 
lots and adjoining ten-acre lots. The price of a city 
lot was fifty dollars, and that of a ten-acre lot thirty 
dollars. Outside of these came twenty-acre lots at 
forty dollars, and then hundred-acre lots at one hun- 
dred dollars. It was required of purchasers to pay 
twenty per cent of the purchase-money in hand, and 
the balance in three annual instalments with annual 
interest. The purchasers were also required to 
settle on their respective lots within the ensuing 
year, 1797. But few lots, however, were sold on 
these terms during 1796. In the course of the next 
two years a goodly number of immigrants arrived, 
who purchased lots and built cabins at various 
points in the city and in its vicinity. 

The prevalence ot fever and ague at Cleveland 
induced several families to settle on the ridge, or 
elevated lands bordering on what is now known as 
the Woodland Hills Avenue. Among those who 
selected the ridge as a place of residence were James 
Kingsbury, Rodolphus Edwards, and James Hamil- 
ton, while others settled at points more directly east 
and south from Cleveland. Among those who located 


at Cleveland at this early period was Lorenzo Carter. 
He was an eccentric character, an expert hunter, 
and soon acquired almost an unbounded influence 
and control over the Indians, who came to regard 
his word as law, and who well knew if they dis- 
obeyed him that his rifle was sure to enforce obedi- 
ence. He built his cabin on the declivity of the hill, 
a little distance north of the viaduct, and near the 
line of Union Lane. It was a stanch log structure, 
and built with a view to security against attacks 
which might be made by the Indians. 

Mrs. James Kingsbury was the mother of the first 
white child born on the Western Reserve. The 
child was born at Conneaut in December, 1796, 
where the family were domiciled for the winter in 
a rickety log cabin which the surveyors had aban- 
doned early in the fall of that year. Mr. Kingsbury 
returned to his native State of New Hampshire on 
important business, and was so long delayed by sick- 
ness while there that he did not on his return trip 
reach Conneaut until Christmas Eve, when he found 
his wife, who had recently given birth to a child, 
apparently in a dying condition from exhaustion and 
want of proper food. The child had died, and the 
mother had been compelled to bury it. This she did 
as best she could with such aid as her other young 
cliildren could give her, and then betook herself 


to her comfortless bed witli the expectation that she, 
too, must soon die. On the very first night after 
burying her child, while in this helpless and despair- 
ing condition, she heard a footstep, and then a rap 
at her cabin-door. She was startled, but unable to 
rise or answer. She then heard a voice, which she 
recognized as that of her husband. The moment he 
opened the door, she sprang, wild with delight, from 
her bed to meet him, and then fell to the floor from 
exhaustion. This sudden revelation of her pitiful 
and destitute condition nearly unmanned her heroic 
husband. He saw the necessity of effort to restore 
his wife, and made every effort in his power. He 
acted the part of a nurse with success. He baked 
bread, shot wild game, and prepared for her a nour- 
ishing diet. She soon so far recovered as to be able 
to care for herself and her household. His bread- 
stuffs had now become exhausted. He managed to 
procure a bushel of wheat, and drew it to mill on a 
hand-sled, nearly thirty miles, to Erie, Penn., and 
returned on the third day with the flour to Conneaut. 
In the 'spring of 1797 Mr. Kingsbury, with his 
family, removed from Conneaut to Cleveland, where 
he planted and raised a field of corn the same year 
on a patch of land which the Indians had cleared, 
and which embraced within its limits the ground on 
which the City Hall and Catholic cathedral now 


stand. In the fall, after harvesting his com, he 
retired to the ridge, where he purchased a farm, and 
continued to reside during the remainder of his life. 

Cleveland commenced her career in 1796, with 
a population of but four persons. In 1797 her 
population increased to fifteen, and in the course of 
the next three years was reduced to seven persons. 
The unhealthfulness of the locality had induced a 
removal to more elevated lands in the vicinity. But 
few, except the family of Lorenzo Carter, remained. 
Year after year now elapsed with but slight acces- 
sions to the population of Cleveland. Numbers of 
her most enterprising citizens removed to Newburgh, 
where existed an excellent water-power, and where 
the atmosphere, as they believed, was more salubri- 
ous. These advantages induced them to think that 
Newburgh, instead of Cleveland, was destined to 
become the great metropolis of the Reserve. 

The only highways which existed in the country 
at this time were narrow paths, designated by blazed 
trees, and a few old Indian trails. The trails were 
well-beaten paths, which had existed from time 
immemorial, leading from one distant point of the 
country to another. One led from Buffalo, along 
the lake-shore, to Detroit. Another from the Ohio 
River, by way of the " portage "as it was called, to 
the mouth of the Cuyahoga River. They concen- 


trated at Cleveland, where the river was crossed by 
a ferry established by the Indians. In this way the 
principal trading-posts erected by the French and 
English were made accessible, and furnished the 
early pioneers with the facilities of securing an 
important commercial intercourse with those distant 
points of trade. The goods and provisions needed 
were transported on pack-horses. While Cleveland 
was the central point on the lake-shore, Newburgh 
took the lead in respect to population. Hence 
Cleveland acquired the reputation of being a " small 
village six miles from Newburgh." 

David Bryant's distillery, under the hill, was the 
centre of attraction in the youthful days of Cleve- 
land. It was here that the largest sociables were 
held on holidays, Sundays, and nearly every other 
day in the week. It was for a long time the only 
fashionable resort on Sunday; and, though the gospel 
was sometimes preached on that day in the school- 
room of the town, yet the distillery maintained its 
ascendency, and, " with a long pull and a strong 
pull, drew many souls the other way." 

It was here that both white men and Indians 
delighted to assemble, and vie with each other in 
partaking of " fire-water," as the Indians very prop- 
erly designated the product of the distillery. Here 
they played at cards, and also amused themselves 


witli foot-racing, shooting at coppers with bows and 
arrows, and paid their bets in the current coin of 
" fire-water." 

On one of these occasions, the Indian Big Son 
charged Menompsy, the medicine-man, with having 
killed his squaw by administering witchcraft medi- 
cine, and threatened to kill him. Menompsy replied, 
" Me no 'fraid." It was the confident belief among 
the Indians that the medicine-man, who was regarded 
by them as a conjurer, priest, and prophet, could not 
be killed by human instrumentalities. When night 
came Big Son watched his opportunity, and, over- 
taking Menompsy on Union Lane, gave him a 
friendly salutation by offering to shake hands with 
him, and at the same moment drew his knife, and 
stabbed him to the heart. In an instant, bleeding 
profusely, Menompsy fell to the ground, uttering 
a fearful war-whoop. The cry was heard by his 
friends, the Chippewas and Ottawas, who were 
encamped on the west side of the river. They 
rallied, and came to the rescue, seized the dead 
body of Menompsy, and bore it to camp ; and then 
returned to take vengeance on the Senecas, who 
were the friends of Big Son, and who occupied a 
camp on tlie east side of the river. The Senecas, 
being comparatively few in number, became greatly 
alarmed for their safety. At this crisis Major 


Carter, who was regarded as the law of the land, 
intervened, and succeeded in negotiating a compro- 
mise of the affray by a promise that the Senecas 
should forthwith give the Chippewas and Ottawas 
a gallon of whiskey. But it so happened that the 
whiskey could not be procured until it could be 
manufactured. Bryant put his distillery into oper- 
ation at once. In the mean time the expectant 
Chippewas and Ottawas, being disappointed, made 
night hideous with their unearthly war-whoops, and 
threats to exterminate the Senecas. This induced 
Major Carter to attempt a second negotiation, which 
he accomplished by promising two gallons of whis- 
key, instead of one, to be delivered the next morn- 
ing. This restored quiet for the night. The next 
day the friends of Menompsy buried his remains in 
a sitting posture near the foot of Detroit Street, 
and crowned his funeral obsequies with a " glorious 

Both feasts and fights characterize the history of 
Bryant's distillery, and were of frequent occurrence. 
Not long after the assassination of Menompsy, the 
Indians proceeded to get up a votive demonstration, 
known as a " white-dog feast." It was the color of 
the dog which gave the feast, not only distinction, 
but imparted to it a sacred or religious character. 
Among the few white men who were invited was 


Oilman Bryant, a son of the distiller. He states 
that the dog was killed in the presence of the guests, 
the hair singed off, the flesh chopped in pieces, placed 
in a kettle, boiled, flavored, and dished up in the form 
of a soup, and that he was presented with one of 
the fore-paws with the hair still remaining between 
the toes. He received the " choice bit," but declined 
to eat. But, before partaking of the feast, the master 
of ceremonies placed on an elevated table a wooden 
bowl of the soup, hot and smoking, as an offering to 
the god Manitou, and at the same time muttered a 
prayer, asking the god to keep them safe, and give 
them good corn and plenty of it at harvest. The 
feast was then partaken by all the dusky guests with 
a consuming relish which left no fragments to tell 
the unhappy fate of the white dog. Yet every dog 
has his day, it is said ; nor does it follow that this 
great truth is impeached, whether the dog's life 
terminates in a soup or in a sausage. 

A small detachment of surveyors, not long prior 
to the dog feast, were engaged in their work in the 
southern part of the Reserve when an assistant, by 
the name of Minor Bicknell, was taken dangerously 
sick in the midst of the forest far away from medical 
aid or human habitation. The two surveyors, Amzi 
Atwater and Warham Shepard, who were with him, 
contrived to provide for his relief by connecting a 


pair of horses to long poles, one horse in front and 
the other in rear, and attaching a swing-bed to the 
poles by ropes twisted of bark, on which they trans- 
ported the patient sixty miles through the wilder- 
ness, at the rate of ten or twelve miles a day, until 
they reached the Cuyahoga River at the mouth of 
Tinker's Creek, where they expected to find a physi- 
cian ; but, within two hours after their arrival, the 
wretched sufferer expired. They buried him on the 
bank of the river, and returned with saddened 
hearts to their labors. This was one of the many 
sorrows of the " sojourners in the wilderness." 



ADDiTioNAii Settlers at Cleveland. — First Dry-Goods Store. 
— First White Child born. — First Funeral. — First Wed- 
ding.— First Grist-Mill. — First Missionary. — First Dis- 
tillery. — First Public Ball. — Hair Blankets. — First 
School. — Modern School-System. 

In 1797 Edward Paine opened the first dry-goods 
store in Cleveland. Nathan Chapman arrived the 
same year, and brought with him two yoke of oxen 
and four milch cows. Mrs. Job Stiles was the 
mother of the first white child born in Cleveland, 
and was probably the only white woman resident in 
the town at that time, if we may judge from the fact 
that a squaw was emploj^ed to officiate on the occa- 
sion as a midwife. The first death of a citizen which 
occurred was that of David Eldridge. He was 
buried on the corner of Ontario and Prospect 

The funeral of Eldridge was soon followed by a 
wedding, the greatest sensation of the year 1797. 
This wedding occurred on the Fourth of July at 
the log cabin of Lorenzo Carter. It was the first 
marriage in town of a white man to a white woman. 


The young lady was the hired girl living in Carter's 
family, but none the less respected for being a hired 
girl. The gentleman was a Mr. Clement, from 
Canada. Rev. Seth Hart, connected with the busi- 
ness of the Land Company, performed the marriage 

The bride was not attired in silks, satins, and 
diamonds, after the style of modern times, nor did 
the bridegroom wear white kid gloves, swallow- 
tailed coat, and French boots; yet they both con- 
formed to their means, and, like sensible people, 
dressed in their best Sunday clothes, — the bride in 
domestic colored cotton, and the bridegroom in 
homespun sheep's gray. Though not rich in this 
world's goods, they felt that they were rich in what 
is still better. They had hands willing to work, and 
" hearts that beat as one." These they gave. No 
other gifts were expected, nor were any cards 
issued. They simply stood up and "took the 
pledge," and received God's blessing from clerical 
lips. Whether it was the custom then for the 
officiating clergyman to take the lead in saluting the 
bride with a " holy kiss," or whether the happy pair 
were left to interchange for themselves matrimonial 
" smacks " at their earliest convenience, does not 
appear in the history of the times. 
. The interests of Cleveland at this early day were 


more or less identified with the interests of New- 
burgh, especially in regard to mill privileges. The 
citizens of the two villages were in sympathy with 
each other, and did what they could to promote 
their common welfare. They alike felt an urgent 
want of a grist-mill, where they could have their 
breadstuffs ground. This want was soon supplied 
by the enterm-ise of W. W. Williams, who, in 
9 November, 17/9, erected at Newburgh a flouring- 
mill, the first that was put in operation in this 
region of the country. 

The creek on which the mill was built has a 
waterfall of forty or fifty feet. The millstones were 
excavated from the rock-ledge that skirts the stream, 
and, in consequence of being too soft, furnished the 
surrounding population with a sufficiency of " grit " 
to meet any emergency. The water was conducted 
into the mill through the trunk of a hollow tree, and 
fell upon an undershot wheel, whose revolutions 
generated the requisite propelling power. Yet the 
mill, like the mill of the gods, ground but slowly; 
while customers patiently waited their turns, some- 
times for days, when they received their flour un- 
bolted, and returned home to " bolt it " in the natural 

In connection with this method of securing a 
supply of daily bread, the citizens both at Cleveland 


and at Newburgh felt the moral need of obtaining a 
supply of the "bread of life" in a spiritual sense, 
especially those who professed Christianity; and, 
consequently, in answer to their earnest prayers. 
Heaven sent them a missionary from Connecticut, 
Rev. Joseph Badger, who was a true philanthropist 
and a good man. He travelled about among the 
settlers, and preached in private houses. He was 
generally received with kindness, and treated with 
respect. He was probably the first clergyman who 
came to the Reserve with a view to preach the 
gospel. He was soon followed by other missionaries, 
who occupied stations at different points. Their 
main object was to establish churches and schools. 
These civilizing institutions are the first thing which 
a Puritan desires to have, next to his bread and 
butter. In this regard, if in no other, our Puritan 
fathers clearly foresaw the " one thing needful " in 
laying the foundations of a free republic and of a 
true manhood. 

It was as early as 1788 that Arthur St. Clair, 
governor of the territory north-west of the Ohio 
River, extended his jurisdiction over the Western 
Reserve by including it within what was then known 
as Washington County. He afterward, July 10, 
1800, erected the Reserve into a single county by 
itself ; gave it the name of Trumbull in honor of a 


Connecticut governor by that name ; organized it by 
appointing the proper officers, and fixed the county 
seat at Warren. Prior to this, the Western Reserve 
was practically a heathen land, where might gave 
right, and every man was a law unto himself. 

This is sufficiently illustrated in the fact that 
there existed but very little regard for law or reli- 
gion among the rank and file of adventurers who 
first settled at Cleveland and in its vicinity. It was 
this class of men, who, though individually possess- 
ing but little influence, gave tone for a time to 
public sentiment and public morals. The sabbath 
was generally recognized by them as a day set apart 
for social intercourse, or sports of various kinds. It 
was not until the year 1800 that public religious 
exercises were introduced. The Rev. Joseph 
Badger, the missionary, preached the first sermon 
in Cleveland. It was Gilman Bryant, sen., Avho 
established the first distillery. Thus it would seem 
that good and evil are providentially associated in 
new as well <is in old countries, and must, like tares 
among the wheat, grow together until the harvest. 

The first public ball which was gotten up on the 
Reserve came off at Carter's cabin, on the hillside in 
Cleveland, July 4, 1801. It was no easy matter in 
those days of mud-roads, unbridged streams, and 
wearisome distances, for the young men to collect 


the girls for such an occasion. Tradition has 
handed down the fact that Oilman Bryant, jnn., 
gave Miss Doan, who resided some four miles from 
Cleveland, an invitation to accompany him to the 
ball. He was seventeen and she fourteen years of 
age. They were both ambitious to excel, and ac- 
cordingly attired themselves in the best style of the 
times, — he in domestic gingham with a cue dangling 
down his back, and she in printed calico of gay 
colors. He called for her at the appointed hour on 
horseback, without a pillion for her accommodation, 
as none could be obtained. She comprehended at a 
glance the situation, sprang upon a stump, spread 
her apron on the horse, adjusted her skirts, and then 
leaped to her seat with the agility of a squirrel, 
seized the crupper with one hand, and clasped her 
beau around the waist with the other; and thus they 
rode in merry mood to the ball. 

The entire party, when assembled, consisted of 
fifteen or sixteen couples. They occupied the front 
room or parlor of the cabin, which was Hot carpeted, 
but had a substantial puncheon floor. The violinist, 
Mr. Jones, proceeded at once with spasmodic hand 
and listening ear to harmonize the strings of his 
instrument, and then struck up " Hie, Bettie Mar- 
tin," the favorite dancing-tune of that day. The 
dance commenced with unrestrained enthusiasm, and 


with orders to cast off right and left. The style, 
step, and grace of action were inimitable. Fantastic 
toes, clad in brogans, twinkled in the mazy dance. 
The gentlemen were then not so ungallant as to step 
on the long trails of the ladies' dresses, for the 
reason that their dresses did not fall below the 
ankles. Thus the dance was bravely and happily 
executed with the usual interludes of " billing and 
cooing." The dancers often changed their steps 
from double shuffle to cutting not only the pigeon- 
wing, but the wing of almost every other bird known 
to the vocabulary of ornithology. The refreshments, 
which had been provided with a liberal hand, con- 
sisted of plum-cake, and a cordial of raw whiskey 
sweetened with maple-sugar. The dance continued 
until "broad daylight," when the boys went home 
with the girls in the morning. 

Though poor, there was a disposition among the 
people at Cleveland and in its vicinity to be social, 
and to enjoy pioneer life as best they could. Yet 
many suffered for want of sufficient food and cloth- 
ing. A Mrs. Burke, who resided near Cleveland, 
was compelled for want of wool to spin cattle's hair 
and make bed blankets, in order to keep her chil- 
dren warm in winter. In this way she conquered 
circumstances, and lived to enjoy many years of 


Tn the spring of 1802 the first public school was 
opened in Cleveland. Miss Anna Spafford was 
employed as teacher. The school was kept in the 
front-room of Carter's log cabin. Here it was that 
Miss Spafford taught the young idea of about a 
dozen juveniles how "to shoot." Strange, indeed, 
is the contrast between that early day and the pres- 
ent in respect to the public schools of Cleveland. 
The one school of a dozen pupils was good seed 
sown in good ground, which has grown and ripened 
into a system of public schools, extending educa- 
tional facilities to more than fifty thousand youth, 
and providing for them educational palaces in which 
their physical comforts are consulted as well as the 
advantages of their mental culture. 

Though our modern system of common-sehool 
education has become exceedingly expensive, and 
aims in fact to give our youth a liberal and even a 
professional education, yet it is tolerated and en- 
couraged by a patient tax-paying community for no 
other reason, as it would seem, than that furnished 
by the democratic theory that every American is^ 
born a sovereign, and should therefore have a sover- 
eign's education at the public expense. The theory, 
however, is one thing, and the practical result quite 
another. With all the facilities thus furnished, less 
than three per cent of the youth of the State have 


received, or are likely to receive, any thing more 
than a meagre common-school education. The chil- 
di'en of the rich are manifestly much more benefited 
by our modern high-school system than the multitu- 
dinous children of the poor, for the simple reason 
that the poor are " too poor " to allow their children 
sufficient time to accomplish the higher branches of 
study, or to supply them with the requisite books 
and clothing, and at the same time dispense with 
their aid in the daily labors necessary to secure a 
comfortable livelihood. The result is, that, instead 
of the rich being taxed to educate the poor, the com- 
parative poor are taxed to educate the rich, especially 
in our cities and villages. Schools in which the 
higher branches only are taught are certainly not 
common schools, in the sense of the constitution of 
the State, and ought not to be sustained by general 
taxation, unless specially authorized by a popular 
vote in the districts where they are located. Studies 
in high schools should be limited to an advanced 
but practical course of English studies. It was 
never intended by the school law that high schools 
should assume the character of colleges, or come in 
competition with them. 

It is a matter of regret that our common-school 
system in Ohio has drifted away from its constitu- 
tional anchorage into the political management of 


professional educators, who hold conventions, and 
profess to act from generous and praiseworthy mo- 
tives. They suggest, if they do not dictate, much of 
our school legislation. Yet it does not follow that 
schoolmasters are statesmen. The time has evident- 
ly come when the length and breadth of a common- 
school education should be measured and restricted 
to its constitutional limit. While true that it is 
the duty of the State, by general taxation, to give 
every child within her jurisdiction a good common 
English education as the basis of useful citizenship, 
it is equally true, that, when she has done this, her 
duty ceases ; and here she should leave all higher 
courses of education to academies and colleges or 
to individual enterprise. 



First Election Precinct. — First Postmaster. — Cleveland 
MADE A Port of Entry. — First Collector of Revenues.— 
Style of Early Courtships. — First Ship built. — Militia 
Drill —First Court. — Execution of Omic, the Indian.— 
Death of Lorenzo Carter —Farms and Ten-Acre Lots.— 
Flbst Frajvie Barn. — Samuel Dodge. 

The State of Ohio was admitted into the Union 
as a State in 1803, and the first election in what 
was called the precinct of Cleveland was held at 
the house of James Kingsbury on the Ridge. In 
the course of the next year the first post-office was 
established at Cleveland, by which Cleveland was 
connected by postal route with Pittsburgh, Detroit, 
and other towns both East and West. Elisha 
Norton was the first man appointed postmaster. 

In 1805 the harbor at Cleveland was declared by 
law a port of entry, and John Walworth appointed 
collector of the public revenues. In 1806 Norton 
resigned his office of postmaster, and John Walworth 
was appointed to fill the vacancy. He kept the post- 
office in the upper story of a small frame building 
located on the northerly side of Superior Street, 


near the corner of Superior and Water Streets. 
His post-office receipts for the first quarter were 
but two dollars and eighty-three cents. His per- 
centage on that sum did not afford him the means 
of indulging in a very extravagant style of living, 
nor did he prove a defaulter. He was evidently an 
honest man, and lived within his income. 

The style of living in those early times was not 
only simple, but frugal. In social intercourse no 
solicitude was felt in regard to the latest fashions. 
If able to appear clad in neat and cleanly apparel 
of domestic manufacture, it was considered quite 
sufficient, however grand or important might be the 
occasion. This was true of all classes, including 
even the marriageable young men and young ladies 
who desired to make favorable impressions. The 
way in which courtships were then conducted is 
graphically described by J. D. Taylor, who came 
into the country with his father in 1806, and settled 
in the vicinity of Cleveland. At a meeting of pio- 
neers, held in 1860, or near that date, at Rockport, 
he was called out for a speech, and in response 
addressed the audience as follows : — 

" I am happy to meet so many of the pioneers and 
their descendants, of whom I am one, as I see here 
on this occasion. I am reminded of the ' good old 
times,' and of experiences to which none of the 


speakers have alluded: I mean pioneer courtships. 
Topics of this kind are always interesting, especially 
to ladies. Courting, or sparking, in those early days 
was not a flirtation, but an affair of the heart, and 
was conducted in the natural way. The boys and 
girls who were predisposed to matrimony used to 
sit up together on Sunday nights, dressed in their 
Sunday clothes. They occupied usually a corner of 
the only family room of the cabin; while the bed 
of the old folks occupied the opposite corner, with 
blankets suspended around it for curtains. During 
the earlier part of the evening the old and young 
folks engaged in a common chit-chat. About eight 
o'clock the younger children climbed the ladder in 
the corner, and went to bed in their bunks under 
the garret-roof; and in about an hour later father 
and mother retired to bed behind the blanket-cur- 
tains, leaving the 'sparkers' sitting at a respectful 
distance apart, before a capacious wood-fireplace, 
and looking thoughtfully into the cheerful flame, 
or perhaps into the future. The sparkers, however, 
soon broke the silence by stirring up the fire with a 
wooden shovel or poker, first one and then the other ; 
and, every time they resumed their seats, somehow 
the chairs manifested unusual attractions for closer 
contiguity. If chilly, the sparkers would sit closer 
together to keep warm ; if dark, to keep the bears 


off. Then came some whispering, with a 'hearty 
smack ' which broke the cabin stillness, and dis- 
turbed the gentle breathing behind the suspended 
blankets, so as to produce a slight parental hacking 
cough. All this accords, in a good degree, with my 
own experience. 

" When a strapping boy, I fell head over ears in 
love with a girl of the real Plymouth-Rock stamp. 
She lived twenty miles away, and I went to see her 
regularly every fourth Sunday night. I won the 
lass, longed to marry her ; but, as the course of true 
love never did run smooth, her mother objected. I 
appealed to her in the most pathetic language I 
could command : but she could not be melted ; and 
I became sad, and went about sighing like a furnace. 
My father was sent minister extraordinary to the 
court of the old woman to contract an alliance 
offensive and defensive, but with no better luck. I 
managed, however, to keep on courting the girl until 
I loved every thing on her father's farm. At last 
love and perseverance were rewarded, and the wed- 
ding-day was fixed. 

" The country at that time was sickly ; and I often 
detected myself feeling my pulse as the day of days 
drew near, fearing lest the ague-shakes should add 
to the fever which was already consuming me. But 
I got married without accident or further embarrass- 


ment, moved to a log cabin, went to housekeeping, 
and soon discovered that my 'better half was a pat- 
tern of neatness and good housewifery. Election 
soon came. I went to the polls, was asked if I was 
of age, as my juvenile looks belied my age ; but I 
was not allowed to vote. My wife felt bad about it. 
When the next election came round, on the very 
morning of that day she presented me with a little 
counterpart of herself. The news reached the polls 
ahead of me ; and when I presented my vote, though 
not of age, it was received without objection." 

In 1808 Lorenzo Carter built and launched the 
first vessel constructed at Cleveland. The craft was 
named the " Zephyr," thirty tons burden, designed 
for the lake trade, and was employed in transporting 
furs, grindstones, and other commodities, and receiv- 
ing in exchange salt, iron, leather, dry-goods, and 
groceries, with such other supplies as were needed 
by the settlers. 

The first militia training, or drill, which took 
place within the precinct of Cleveland, in obedience 
to State law, came off at Doan's Corners. About 
fifty men, rank and file, appeared in all sorts of cos- 
tumes, and were armed with all sorts of weapons, 
from peeled clubs to rusty old shot-guns. Doan's 
tavern was headquarters. The captain wore a 
cocked-up hat, surmounted with a tall plume manu- 


factured of roosters' tail-feathers. He marclied and 
countermarched his men with drawn sword flashing 
in the sunlight, and uttered his commands with a 
stentorian voice that made the welkin ring, and at 
the same time kept step to the music with pompous 
strides, backward and forward, in front of his bold 
soldier boys. Many of the evolutions which his 
gallant company performed were quite unknown to 
the science of military tactics, as they moved to the 
shrill cry and noisy beat of fife and drum. 

Before dismissing his train-band in due form, the 
captain marched them in solid column to headquar- 
ters, where they were ordered to charge on the 
contents of a whiskey-barrel, which they did with a 
degree of heroism rarely paralleled in the annals of 
warfare. The victory was won at the expense of 
their generous commander, whom they delighted to 
honor, and continued to honor, until an exciting war 
of words began to rage in regard to several grave 
questions of the day, which involved the entire com- 
pany, and induced them, one after another, to lay 
the vexed questions on the table, and themselves 
under it. There was no longer any question raised 
as to who "had the floor." After taking an uncon- 
scious snooze for a few hours, they finally took the 
'' sober second thought," disbanded, and returned to 
their respective homes. 


The county of Cuyahoga was organized in 1809, 
and Cleveland made the county seat. The first 
court of record which convened in the county was 
held in 1810, by Judge Ruggles and his three asso- 
ciates, in a small frame building on the north side 
of Superior Street, which has long since disappeared. 
John Walworth, who was at that time postmaster, 
and collector of the revenue, was appointed clerk of 
the court, and S. S. Baldwin sheriff. The cases set 
down for trial were mostly for violations of the 
criminal law; consisting of indictments for petty 
larceny, for selling whiskey to Indians, and for sell- 
ing foreign goods without license. The entire popu- 
lation of Cleveland at that time was but fifty-seven 
persons, including women and children. The first 
court-house was a wood structure erected in 1812, on 
the northerly side of Superior Street, in the public 
square. The upper story was used as a court-room, 
and the lower story was divided into two rooms: 
the west one was used as a jail, while the east one 
was occupied by the jailer and his family. 

The first execution of a criminal which took place 
on the Reserve was that of Omic, an Indian. This 
occurred at Cleveland, June 26, 1812. Omic had 
been convicted of murdering two white men, Buel 
and Gibbs, trappers, for the purpose of obtaining 
possession of their traps and furs. The brutal deed 


was perpetrated at night when the men were asleep. 
The fact soon became known, when Omic was 
speedily arrested, and confined in the chamber of 
Carter's house, and chained to a rafter. Soon after 
his arrest he was arraigned in court, tried, and con- 
victed. He said to Carter, after conviction, that he 
would let the pale-faces see how bravely an Indian 
could die, and that the sheriff, at the execution, need 
not tie his hands, as he intended to leap from the 
scaffold, and hang himself. 

It was his religious faith that the Great Spirit, 
after his death, would conduct him to the far-off 
country of pleasant hunting-grounds, where he 
would find plenty of game, and live happily forever. 
When the fatal day arrived, Omic attired himself in 
warlike costume, painted his face, and plumed his 
head with eagle's feathers; and, when the wagon 
called for him, leaped into it with agility, sat down 
upon his coffin, and as he rode towards the gallows, 
which had been erected on the public square, em- 
ployed his time in gazing around him with an air of 
stolid pride, and at the same time with evident grati- 
fication that he was the observed of all observers. 
He was attended by a military escort, commanded 
by Capt. Jones, and marching to the music of fife 
and muffled drum. On arriving at the scaffold, 
Sheriff Baldwin, with the aid of Carter, who spoke 


the Indian language, assisted the prisoner to ascend 
the ladder to the scaffold, where he was seated, while 
Rev. Mr. Darrow offered up an appropriate prayer. 

The sheriff then adjusted the rope, and drew down 
the black cap over Omic's eyes, when he manifested 
great terror, broke the cords that bound his hands, 
and seized the side-post of the gallows with an iron 
grasp, which the sheriff could not relax. Carter 
then addressed Omic in Indian, and upbraided him 
for his want of courage, when the matter was com- 
promised by giving him a half-pint of whiskey. No 
sooner had he drank it, and was about to swing, 
when he played the same trick over again, and then 
compromised for another half-pint. The scaffold was 
then cleared j and, the moment he' had swallowed 
the second half-pint, the cord that held the trap-door 
was cut, and the trap fell, launching the poor Indian 
into mid-air, where he swung back and forth like the 
pendulum of a clock. After swinging for a few sec- 
onds, the rope broke ; and he fell to the ground, seem- 
ingly dead or drunk, and which it was difficult to 

At this stage of the drama a violent thunder- 
storm burst overhead, and the rain fell in torrents. 
This induced the spectators to run for shelter, and 
abandon the closing scene. The body, dead or alive, 
was put into the coffin, and buried in haste at the 


foot of the gallows. The next morning the body 
was missing. For a time it was thought by some 
persons that Omic was not dead when buried, but 
had resurrected himself and escaped. But the truth 
was, that, at the instance of a physician of the town, 
the corpse was spirited away, and buried in the chan- 
nel of a water-course flowing from a spring on the 
hillside into the river, where it lay until the flesh 
was entirely denuded from the bones. The skeleton 
was then disinterred, wired, and appropriated to the 
uses of science. It was known to be in the posses- 
sion of Dr. Town of Hudson in 1841. He died in a 
few years afterward. Who now has the skeleton is 
unknown. If it could be obtained, it would be a 
valuable relic, worthy of a place in the hall of the 
Western Reserve Historical Society. 

Lorenzo Carter, who aided the sheriff on this 
memorable occasion, came to Cleveland in 1797, 
and, after residing in Cleveland for some years, 
purchased a farm on the west side of the river, 
directly opposite to Cleveland, where he continued 
to reside until his death, which occurred Feb. 8, 1814. 
He was an original character, — a man " upon whose 
like we ne'er shall look again." 

But the Cleveland of the past is lost in the 
Cleveland of the present. The farms that adjoined 
the original limits of the city have been merged, and 


are now occupied by a dense population. Of course 
these farm-lands of the early times have now become 
worth millions of dollars, though purchased by their 
early occupants at from one to two dollars an acre. 
In 1800, city lots and adjoining lands were a "drug" 
in the market, and could hardly be sold at any price 
for cash. There was comparatively but little or no 
money in the country, and what land-sales were 
made were mostly effected by exchange for labor 
or barter. 

As an instance of this, Samuel Dodge built a 
barn for Samuel Huntington, afterwards governor 
of Ohio, and received in payment twelve city out- 
lots, known as ten-acre lots, or one hundred and 
twenty acres of land, located on the northerly side 
of Euclid Avenue, at a little distance east of Erie 
Street. He received the land at its cash estimate, 
which was probably at the rate of about two dollars 
an acre. He was a carpenter by trade, and the 
barn he built was the first frame building erected 
in Cleveland. It stood on the brow of the hill, 
overlooking the river valley, some ten or twelve 
rods south of Superior Street, and nearly opposite 
the Merchants' National Bank. 

Samuel Dodge was a man of enterprise, and, if not 
the "son of a carpenter," believed in the divinity 
of his vocation. He was born in 1776 at West- 


moreland, N.H. ; and, after receiving a common- 
school education and learning the carpenter's trade, 
emigrated in 1797 to Ohio, and settled permanently 
at Cleveland. It was in 1801 that he built the barn 
for Gov. Huntington. He soon afterward erected 
for himself a log house on the land he received in 
payment for the barn, and, like Jacob, dug a well. 
His house was located on the north side of Euclid 
Avenue, about midway between the present resi- 
dences of his two sons. Gen. H. H. Dodge and 
George C. Dodge. He married the daughter of 
Judge Doan of East Cleveland, and commenced 
housekeeping at once in his log mansion on Euclid 
Avenue, and doubtless enjoyed as much domestic 
felicity, if not more, than is now to be found in 
the magnificent and costly palaces which adorn the 
avenue at the present day. 

The well he dug has a history, and is now the 
only relic which remains to mark the spot where 
stood his modest mansion. The well was walled up 
with small bowlders found in the vicinity, which the 
Indians had brought from a distance, and used at 
an earlier period for fire-backs in their wigwams. 
The waters of the well were remarkable for their 
purity, and, being the first well dug in Cleveland, 
furnished for some years a large share of its popula- 
tion, especially in the summer season, with a cool 
and refreshing beverage. 


This well, covered with a stone slab and a few 
inches of soil, still exists, and, if endowed with 
speech, could relate many experiences hardly less 
singular than romantic in their character. The well 
was equipped with what is called a "well-sweep," — 
a mechanical contrivance for drawing water, which 
is noteworthy for its simplicity. 

It was constructed by setting a large unhewn post 
ten or twelve feet long in the ground, and balancing 
upon its apex a transverse pole twenty or thirty 
feet long, with a stone weight attached to one end, 
and a small hand-pole to the other, with a bucket, or 
hook to receive a pail. This scientific method of 
drawing water, it is believed, originated in New Eng- 
land. In the Western Reserve it was regarded as 
indicating the residence of an immigrant from New 

The well, thus equipped, not only furnished an 
easy method of drawing water, but supplied house- 
wives with the means of keeping butter cool in sum- 
mer. It was also suggestive of a safe hiding-place 
for small valuables, and was actually employed for 
this purpose by Mr. Dodge and his friends at Cleve- 
land in 1812, when it was supposed that the British 
troops and hostile Indians, after the surrender of 
Gen. Hull at Detroit, were on their way to Cleve- 
land, with the intention of destroying the town. 


Samuel Dodge was not only a man of enterprise, 
but a man of intelligence. In other words, he 
resolved to conquer adverse circumstances. He 
came to Ohio with a determination to achieve high 
aims. He took the position of a pioneer in a vast 
wilderness, and in the battle of life won the victory. 
He sought knowledge, and acquired it. His early 
education, though limited, he enlarged by devoting 
his leisure hours to higher attainments. In this way 
he soon acquired a graceful penmanship, a knowl- 
edge of grammar, history, and general literature. 
He was a true patriot, and a stanch Democrat of 
the Jeffersonian school. He advocated the election 
of Gen. Jackson for President, and wrote in his sup- 
port many political articles of a forcible and schol- 
arly character, which were published and widely 
circulated in the columns of the Democratic news- 
papers of the day. In a word, he was one among the 
many worthy and energetic pioneers of the Western 
Reserve whose name should not be forgotten. He 
died, in 1854, at the age of seventy-eight years. 



Gen-. Hull's Surrender. — Alarm at Cleveland. — Stockade 
KNOWN AS Fort Huntington. — Coffins of Dead Soldiers. — 
Uncle Abram : his Cornfield, Bucket of Powder, and 
Grave. — Uncle Jabez, the Jolly Man. — Uncle Gaius, thb 
Joker. — Young Dudley, the Scapegrace. — Cleveland in- 
corporated, — Its Village Government. — First Newspaper. 
— First Steamboat on Lake Erie. 

Gen. Hull, commanding the American forces at 
Detroit, surrendered to the British general Aug. 16, 
1812. This unexpected occurrence caused not only 
a general expression of indignation on the part of 
the Americans, but created universal alarm among 
the settlers on the Western frontier for their safety, 
and especially on the lake-shore. Very soon after 
the surrender had been made, a woman residing on 
the lake-coast west of Cleveland, having seen in the 
distance a fleet approaching, and believing it to be 
tlie English fleet, became panic-stricken, seized her 
two children, and sprang upon a horse, with one 
child before and the other behind her, and rode 
night and day, proclaiming to the settlers along the 
wa}^ in a loud voice that the English witli hordes of 
savages were rapidly approaching, and would soon 


massacre every man, woman, and child, unless they 
fled with all possible despatch to the interior for 

She arrived at Cleveland at daybreak, and rode 
through the streets, repeating her frantic cry of 
alarm, and admonishing every soul to fly for dear 
life into the depths of the forest ; and then led the 
way with increased speed into the dusky woodlands 
in a southerly direction from the town. Everybody 
was thunderstruck with the alarming news, sprang 
from their beds in consternation, and amid the gen- 
eral confusion, with such hasty preparations as they 
could make, fled into the neighboring wilderness, — 
some on horseback, some on ox-sleds, some on foot, 
women and children crying, and men swearing. 
They scattered in every direction as they fled, and 
alarmed the settlers of the interior. Better counsels, 
however, soon prevailed. The fighting-men of the 
town, and of the country round about, rallied, and 
armed themselves with shot-guns, swords, pistols, 
and bludgeons, and took their position in line of 
battle near the mouth of the river, Avith a determina- 
tion to prevent the enemy from landing, and, in case 
they succeeded in landing, to give them a " bloody 
welcome." Soon the fleet hove in sight, and rounded 
majestically into harbor, when it proved to be none 
other than friendly ships laden with Hull's paroled 


troops. The " big scare " instantly collapsed into 
unrestrained laughter ; and the fugitives returned to 
their homes in Cleveland in merry mood, while 
everybody regarded the affair as a huge joke. 

In 1813 Cleveland was designated by the govern- 
ment as a depot of military supplies for her Western 
troops. A stockade was erected at the foot of 
Seneca Street, on the bank of the lake, where a small 
military force was stationed under command of Gen. 
Jessup of the United -States army, which was 
known as Fort Huntington, and in which soldiers 
under arrest or sick were quartered. During the 
occupation of the fort a considerable number of 
soldiers died, and were buried in puncheon coffins on 
the elevated bank overlooking the lake ; and, as the 
high bank became undermined by the action of the 
waves, the coffins slid into the lake, and were driven 
hither and thither by the winds like a fleet of canoes 
without an oarsman, laden with dead men ; while 
some of the coffins still remained thrust half way 
out of the elevated bank, pointing over the waves 
like cannon from port-holes, as if to protect the help- 
less fleet of dead men from attacks or harm. But, 
soon after being thus launched, the frail ghostly fleet 
was dashed in pieces by collision in the midst of the 
merciless billows, and the crews sank to rise no 
more ; yet in going down, — 


" As if in fright, they all uprose, 

Nor spake nor moved their eyes : 
It had been strange, even in a dream, 
To see those dead men rise." 

In 1813 a blacksmith known as Uncle Abram 
resided in Cleveland. He was probably the first 
blacksmith who settled here. His name was Abra- 
ham Hickox. He was an industrious and honest 
man, but somewhat eccentric and tenacious of his 
rights. His shop stood on the southerly side of 
Euclid Avenue, near the public park. His sign was 
spiked over the doorway, and lettered " Uncle 
Abram works here," followed with the print of a 
horseshoe burned into the wood. He was a skilful 
workman, but had a strong will of his own, and was 
generally allowed to have his way. 

He cultivated a corn-patch near his shop, and 
during the season of roast ears became exasperated 
on discovering that the soldiers quartered at Fort 
Huntington were in the hiibit of stealing his corn at 
night, and feasting upon it at the fort. He resolved 
to watch their operations by secreting himself in the 
corn-patch at night, and chastising them with the con- 
tents of his old shot-gun. While thus on the watch, 
in came two soldiers, who began at once to select 
the roast ears, when he fired on the one at work 
nearest him, who fell to the ground, and was seized 


by his comrade and carried to the fort. The next 
morning Uncle Abram inspected the locality where 
the depredator fell, and discovered copious evidences 
of blood, but said nothing about the affair. He 
learned, in a few days afterwards, that a funeral had 
occurred at the fort, and that the deceased was a 
soldier whose death was caused by an accidental 
gun-shot wound. There was no more plundering of 
the corn-patch that season. This fact convinced 
Uncle Abram of the efficacy of gunpowder. 

His own personal experience on the Fourth of 
July, 1814, had the effect to strengthen this convic- 
tion. It so happened, in celebrating the day, that, 
while carrying an open bucket of powder across the 
Public Square to supply the swivel in firing patriotic 
salutes, he dropped from the tobacco-pipe which he 
unwittingly held in his teeth a spark of lire into the 
powder, when he instantly ascended skyward, and, 
when he returned to earth again, was lifted from his 
prostrate position by his friends, who concurred in the 
belief that he was dead. But fifter a little time lie 
revived, with no other serious injury than rent gar- 
ments and a discolored face, so severely scorched on 
one side as to blacken it for life. 

He made it a rule, however, to look on the 
" bright " rather than the " dark " side of things, and 
continued to work at his anvil. 


He was appointed at an early day sexton of the 
town, and supervised the burial of the dead. The 
awkward manner in which the pall-bearers per- 
formed their duties at the grave often incurred his 
displeasure, and sometimes so provoked him as to 
call forth a profane reprimand. He selected an 
eligible spot for his own grave, and placed a stake 
at the head and foot, inscribed with the initials of 
his name, and declared with an oath that no one 
should be buried there but himself. The spot is 
located in the old Erie-Street cemetery, near the 
front-gate, and on the northerly side of the central 
avenue leading into this somewhat ancient city of 
the dead. When he died, he was buried in the 
identical place he had selected. The grave is 
marked with an unostentatious headstone, bearing 
on its face notliing more than a record of his name 
and age. 

There were quite a number of original characters 
besides Uncle Abram among the early denizens of 
Cleveland. There was Uncle Jabez, who manu- 
factured soft soap under the hill. He was a 
comical old bachelor, who loved fun and whiskey, 
and told stories with a comical grimace of the 
face, accompanied with a spasmodic wink of the 
eye, and a flirting snap of the fingers. He was 
always a favorite, because he was always jolly, as 


well as complimentary in his remarks. He seemed 
to live but to enjoy fun and frolic, and deal in 
" soft soap." 

There was also Uncle Gaius, who kept a hotel on 
St. Clair Street. He was an inveterate joker, and 
for this reason was feared by everybody. He 
abounded in coarse wit, and in giving gratuitous 
advice. One evening a travelling divine stopped at 
his hotel, and took lodgings for the night. He 
arrived on horseback, and had ridden in the mud and 
rain all day. He was thoroughly drenched, and his 
boots so saturated with water, that he, after a severe 
trial, found it impossible to disboot himself. Uncle 
Gaius, noticing the discouragement of the divine, 
came to his assistance, and coolly remarked, " I 
would advise you, my reverend friend, to try pulling 
your boots off over your head." Whether the rev- 
erend finally disbooted himself, or retired to bed in 
his boots, does not appear in the tradition of the 

There was also a young scapegrace, known as 
Dudley, who was ostensibly engaged in merchan- 
dising, and who became notorious for his sprees 
and mischievous tricks, such as frightening people 
by playing ghost in an old house said to be 
haunted, and riding on horseback into hotels, and 
treating his horse with a drink of whiskey. But, 


unexpectedly, while thus engaged in sowing his 
" wild oats," he received a summons which re- 
quired liim to give an account of himself in the 
shadowy land. 

It was not until 1814 that Cleveland became in- 
corporated by an act of the Legislature as a village. 
Its corporate government was confided to a presi- 
dent, recorder, and five trustees. The first election 
of officers was held in June, 1815. The entire vote 
cast was but twelve. Alfred Kelley was elected 
president. The valuation of the real estate of the 
village taken at that time for taxation was $21,065. 
The village increased but slowly in wealth and popu- 
lation. The entire vote of the village in 1829 was 
but forty-seven. 

The first newspaper published in Cleveland com- 
menced its career in ^81 8. It was edited, printed, 
and published by Andrew Logan, and was christened 
" The Cleveland Gazette and Commercial Register." 
The magnitude of its title "was somewhat top-heavy 
compared with the dimensions of its sheet, which 
was but a little larger than a nine by ten pane of 
window-glass. It professed to be a hebdomadal, but 
seldom appeared on time. It was conducted with 
considerable ability while it lived. It was a sickly 
infant, however, and soon died for want of the milk 
of human kindness. It was succeeded by "The 


Cleveland Herald," conducted and owned by Ziba 
Willes, who was a practical printer, and possessed of 
an unusual amount of practical good sense. He not 
only edited the paper, but set the type, and printed 
it on a hand-press, with his coat off and his sleeves 
rolled up. He was a true man. " The Herald " 
flourished until 1885, when it was sold, and merged 
in the " Cleveland Plain Dealer." 

The first steamboat which was launched on Lake 
Erie received the name of the " Walk-in-the-Water." 
She was employed in running between Buffalo and 
Detroit, touching at intermediate ports. It was on 
the first day of September, 1818, that she entered 
for the first time the harbor at Cleveland. The 
citizens hailed her approach with delight, and as- 
sembled at the landing to give her a hearty welcome. 
She was regarded with intense interest, and was 
rightly named; for she seemed "like a thing of life " 
that literally walked on the water. Both ller arrival 
and departure were signalized by the discharge of 
thirteen rounds of artillery. The captain acknowl- 
edged the salute by a return of the same number of 
guns, and flinging to the breeze from mast-head the 
glorious banner of American freedom. The excited 
citizens could not restrain their joyful expressions, 
but continued to fire guns, wave hats and handker- 
chiefs, and utter wild hurrahs, until the majestic 


vision disappeared in the hazy distance on her way 
to Detroit, — 

" When, like a wild nymph, far apart, 
She veiled her shadowy form, 
And with a restless, beating heart 
Breasted the impending storm." 



Cleveland and Vicinity. — First Panther killed in Euclid. — 
Rattlesnake on the Hearthstone. — James Covert and his 
Career. — The Bear and Churn. — Girls raise a House. — 
Powell no Fool. — Sheepskin Code. — Shakers and Ann 
Lee. — Lorenzo Dow at Cleveland. 

Cleveland, until selected as the northern ter- 
minus of the Ohio Canal in 1824, had almost de- 
spaired of ever reaching a higher rank than that of 
a rural village. Her discouragement grew out of 
natural causes. Her soil was sandy and compara- 
tively barren, and her atmosphere malarial. These 
objections induced immigrants to prefer the more 
fertile and healthful localities in her immediate 
vicinity. Hence the country soon outgrew the city. 
Yet the country, of which Cleveland is now the 
central gem, was subjected to many discouragements 
and singular experiences, some of which partake not 
only of the marvellous, but have a dramatic interest. 

In 1805 John Ruple of Euclid shot the first 
panther killed in the township. The animal was 
large and ferocious, and had beset Ruple's path, and 
was watching his approach, and evidently anticipat- 


ing a feast. Ruple happened to espy the brute just 
in time to Jive him the contents of his rifle, when 
the enraged recipient sprang at Ruple, and, in at- 
tempting to seize him, was seized by his dog, and, 
after a brief struggle, fell dead from the effect of the 
wound he had received. Whether the dog of his 
master killed the panther was a question which 
seemed to puzzle the dog. Both assumed an air of 
triumph, while the panther maintained a " dead 
silence." But it was Ruple who laid out the brute 
and took his funeral measure, and found that he 
measured nine feet from tip to tip. 

At about the same time, and in the same town- 
ship, a Mrs. Norris had been absent from her cabin 
during the day on a visit; and when she returned 
at evening, and was attempting to rekindle her 
kitchen-fire, she discovered a huge rattlesnake coiled 
in the warm ashes on the hearthstone, with lifted 
head, hissing a note of warning. In an agonizing 
fright she ran to her next neighbor, Mr. Mcllrath, 
and besought him to come to the rescue. He 
instantly seized his ox-goad, "came, saw, and con- 
quered." The venemous reptile had twenty-four 
rattles, indicating that he was as many years old, 
and therefore justly entitled to be called an old 

In 1807 James Covert settled in Mayfield. His 


family consisted of a wife and one child, and his 
worldly goods of an axe, a dog, and three dollars in 
his pocket. The first step he took was to erect a 
small log cabin to shelter his family. His next step 
was to go to Painesville, then a village of but four 
log cabins, where he purchased a peck of salt, cost- 
ing a dollar, brought it home on his shoulder a dis- 
tance of ten miles, and then, with his remaining two 
dollars, bought a couple of pigs. In addition to 
these, he succeeded in purchasing a young cow on 
credit, to supply his family with milk. Thus 
equipped, he commenced the battle of life, cleared 
a farm, ploughed, sowed, and reaped, and ate bread 
which he had earned by the sweat of his brow. 
He also raised a large family of children, reached 
the age of ninety-nine years, and died worth 
sixty thousand dollars. 

In 1808 a Mrs. Judd, of the same township, set 
her churn of cream early one morning in the open 
porch of her cabin, and then returned to her usual 
kitchen-work. When she went to get her churn, she 
found that a bear had quietly entered the porch, 
upset the churn, lapped up its contents, and retired, 
congratulating himself, doubtless, that he had en- 
joyed an excellent breakfast. Mrs. Judd, however, 
did not relish the joke, and resolved on revenge. 
When night came, she placed a bucket of sour milk 


in the porch, and procured a young man armed with 
a rifle to watch the return of bruin for a second 
feast. True to the dictates of his pampered appe- 
tite, the gourmand returned about midnight, entered 
the porch, and had but tasted the tempting banquet 
when he was shot dead on the spot by the watchman. 
He proved a valuable prize, and weighed nearly four 
hundred pounds. His flesh served for food, and his 
skin for bedding. Whatever may have been the 
danger in this instance, there was better luck about 
the house after this occurrence. 

In 1819 Major Hoadley of Olmstead, finding that 
his dilapitated log cabin had become uncomfortable, 
resolved to build a frame house. He had proceeded 
so far as to cut, hew, and frame the timber, when he 
was unexpectedly called from home on important 
business. The winter was approaching ; and his two 
daughters, Maria and Eunice, who were robust and 
resolute girls, and perhaps desirous of creating favor- 
able impressions, proceeded with the erection of the 
new house. They put the timbers, piece by piece, 
into place, raised the building, and had nearly fin- 
ished it, when their father returned, expressed his 
astonishment, and pronounced the work well done. 
With the aid of his daughters the house was soon 
completed; and at Christmas the girls gave what 
is called a house-warming, — a frolic and dance, to 


which the lads and lasses of the neighborhood were 
invited, and which was soon followed by the wedding 
and happy settlement in life of the two fair archi- 
tects. This achievement shows what Ohio girls 
could do in the early times, and that some things 
can be done as well as others. 

Not long after this, Uriah Kilpatrick of Rockport 
erected a grist-mill on a small stream then known as 
Plum Creek. The mill was a small structure, and 
of still smaller capacity, but met the exigency of the 
times, and a:fforded an inviting resort for loungers. 
A half-witted young man by the name of Powell 
often visited the mill, and finally came io be re- 
garded by the miller Kilpatrick as an unwelcome 
intruder. He accordingly, one day, requested Pow- 
ell to leave ; but he declined to go. Kilpatrick then 
thrust him out-doors. This offended Powell, who 
applied at once to Justice Barnum for a warrant and 
the arrest of Kilpatrick. But the justice, regarding 
the matter as frivolous, refused the warrant, and, to 
soothe the ruffled temper of Powell, suggested that 
he should exercise his well-known poetical talents 
by writing a lampoon on the conduct of the miller. 
This idea pleased Powell, who, though foolish, had 
wit. He instantly called for pen, ink, and paper, 
dropped into a revery, and perpetrated the following 
rhymes, hitting right and left ; — 


" Iron beetles are seldom found, 
But basswood justices abound. 
On the banks of Rocky River 
Tall Kilpatrick's nose doth quiver: 
There he sits in his slow mill, 
Which most folks think is standing still." 

Before daylight next morning Powell had posted 
his production on the mill-door out of which he had 
been so unceremoniously thrust. It was allowed to 
remain ; and the patrons of the mill read it with a 
relish, and agreed that the writer was "no fool," 
while they enjoyed many a laugh at the expense of 
the milkr and the justice of the peace. 

Nearly all the early settlers were debtors to East- 
ern creditors when they came to Ohio, and therefore 
sympathized with each other. Hence the early legis- 
lation of the State favored debtors. Money was 
very scarce, and farm-products sold at low prices. 
Six to ten cents a bushel for corn, and twenty-five 
cents a bushel for wheat, were the ruling prices. At 
this rate but few could pay their debts in cash. The 
legislative enactments of the State were at this time 
but few in number, and were comprised in a small 
flexible volume, known as the Sheepskin Code. 
This code authorized a debtor to turn out to his 
creditor on execution any kind of personal property 
he chose ; and his creditor was obliged to accept it 


in payment of his claim at its appraised value, or 
await its sale, though its sale could not be effected. 
While this law favored debtors, it vexed creditors, 
and often prevented the collection of their just 
claims. As an illustration; a Cleveland merchant 
had sold a bill of goods to a farmer, and waited for 
payment till patience ceased to be a virtue ; then 
sued,- recovered judgment, and was compelled to 
receive fence-rails and log sap-troughs turned out by 
the farmer, on execution, at an appraisal tenfold their 
value, or lose his debt. Of course he lost the debt. 

In 1822 a religious community known as Shakers 
was organized in Cuyahoga County, under the super- 
vision of Ralph Russell, a devout man of that faith. 
He was aided in this work by the elders of Union 
Village, Warren County, Ohio. They purchased a 
large tract of wild land in the township of Warrens- 
ville, cleared the central part of it, erected a small 
village of log cabins, and gave it the name of " North 
Union." Here they tilled the soil, grew in numbers, 
erected mills, established factories, a schoolhouse, 
and a church, and for many years flourished, but of 
late have rapidly declined in numbers and in wealth, 
and in fact have become but a remnant of what they 
were in their prosperous days. Yet there are other 
communities of the same faith that still flourish in 
different parts of the United States. 


It must be admitted that the Shakers have become 
a power in the land, and are justly regarded as an 
honest and industrious people. In their mode of 
worship they introduce a shaking, shuffling dance, 
keeping step to the music of a monotonous song or 
chant, and for this reason are generally called 
" Shakers " by outsiders ; yet they prefer to call 
themselves " Believers," because they believe in the 
divinity of Ann Lee, and in living a life of pure 
celibacy. In other respects their creed is sub- 
stantially orthodox. 

Ralph Russell, who led in organizing the commu- 
nity at North Union, was not only sincere in his 
faith, but a man of tact and enterprise. He was 
born at Windsor, Conn., Aug. 3, 1789, and received 
a good common-school education. He loved books, 
and soon acquired a fund of general information. 
Influenced by a desire to " go West," he settled at 
Warrensville in 1812. Accidentally, or rather provi- 
dentially as he thought, he soon came in contact 
with two eminent Shakers of Union Village, who 
convinced him of the truth as it is in Ann Lee. 
He then commenced to indoctrinate his neighbors in 
the principles of the new faith, and soon acquired a 
goodly number of adherents. Thus encouraged, he 
organized a community of Shakers at Warrensville. 
" Ralph," as the brotherhood called him, was a man 


of imposing presence, tall, graceful, and winning in 
his manners, and persuasive in his logic. He was not 
only the founder of the community in Warrensville, 
but its principal leader until 1826, when, owing to 
some disturbing elements of doctrine and rule, he 
withdrew from the community, and settled on a farm 
in Solon, where he died Dec. 23, 1866, at the age of 
seventy-eight years. 

The number of leaders and elders who have from 
time to time succeeded Russell are somewhat numer- 
ous. Though subordinate to higher ecclesiastical 
authorities, this class of officials share a degree of in- 
dependence and power which renders their position 
one of great influence as well as honor. Among 
the number there are several individuals who have 
an interesting record. This is true of James S. 
Prescott, one of the founders of the community at 
North Union, and at this time an elder. Though, 
advanced in age, he is still active and faithful in the 
discharge of his duties. He comes of good blood, 
being akin to the late William H. Prescott, the 
renowned historian. He was born Jan. 26, 1803, at 
Lancaster, Mass. His mother was a pious lady, who 
instructed him at an early age in the lessons of 
Christianity. He received a good academical educa- 
tion, and commenced his career in life as a teacher 
in a missionary school, consisting of some fifty In- 
dian youth, at Oneida, N.Y. 


In 1826 lie came to Cleveland, where he found 
employment as a mason, — a trade he had partially 
learned while in his boyhood. In the course of a 
few months he left Cleveland and engaged in a job 
of mason-work for the Shakers at Warrensville, 
North Union. Here he became interested in their 
religious views, adopted their creed, and united with 
them, and still remains with them. He is a man 
who leads a pure life, and is highly esteemed by the 
brotherhood and by all who know him. He is an in- 
telligent, a modest, and a truly amiable man. He has 
recently written a '' History of North Union," which 
is highly interesting in its details, and which should 
be published in book-form. He was never married ; 
yet he worships his ideal of a woman, and thinks 
her divine. 

Ann Lee was born of humble parentage at Man- 
chester, England, about the year 1736. Her early 
education had been neglected ; yet nature had en- 
dowed her with unusual mental powers and with a 
spirit of religious enthusiasm. She married young, 
was the mother of four children, all of whom died 
in infancy. She deplored her bereavement with a 
grief which was inconsolable. This induced reflec- 
tion as to a remedy for human ills, and led her to 
advocate celibacy, and to become a dreamer in mat- 
ters of religious faith. She commenced preaching 


strange doctrines in the streets of her native town. 
The populace gathered in crowds to hear her, and in 
such numbers as to impede public travel. The civil 
authorities interfered, and committed her to prison. 
While thus imprisoned, she alleged that she saw in 
the night-time a vision of Christ standing before 
her, and that he became one with her in form and in 
spirit. When released from prison she announced 
herself as the " Bride of the Lamb." This provoked 
a popular storm of jeers and ridicule, with attempts 
at personal violence. Her fears induced her, with 
seven of her disciples, to emigrate to America. They 
pitched their tent in the wilderness near Albany, 
N.Y. This occurred about the year 1775. 

Here her name and fame went abroad ; and in the 
course of a few years hundreds of American con- 
verts adopted her faith, and a society was established 
at New Lebanon. She was suspected by politicians 
of being a British spy, and in 1780 was imprisoned 
for some time at Poughkeepsie, but was soon re- 
leased. She announced that she should not die, but 
would at the close of her mission be suddenly trans- 
lated to heaven, like Enoch and Elijah. Her follow- 
ers believed this. Yet she did die at Watervliet, 
near Albany, Sept. 8, 1784. Still her adherents 
earnestly insist that this was not real death, but a 
miraculous transfiguration and ascension. It is cer- 


tain, however, that her doctrines have survived her, 
and seem destined never to die. 

It cannot be doubted that Ann Lee was a remark- 
able personage, — a religious enthusiast, as earnest 
as irrepressible. She taught doctrines which her 
followers have somewhat modified since her death. 
They now hold, that, on going into union, they die 
to the world, and enter upon a millennial life ; and 
that death, when it does come, is but a change of 
form, or transfiguration, and a re-union with purified 
saints in heaven ; and that earth is heaven. They 
say that those who have passed out of sight are still 
in union with them on earth. They also assert that 
the advent of Mother Ann was the second advent 
of Christ in the form of a woman, and that the God- 
head consists of the motherhood as well as father- 
hood of God. In other words, God is dual, — both 
male and female. 

Though sneeringly called Shakers by the outside 
world, it is evident they have become a great moral 
power, as well as numerous. From their original 
number seven, they have increased in this country 
to seven thousand, established eighteen prosperous 
communities, and accumulated a property worth 
from twelve to fifteen millions of dollars. 

In achieving all this they have kept the faith. 
Though childless, they have children, most of whom 


are waifs received from the outside world into the 
bosom of their communities, where they are kindly 
treated, and brought up in the nurture and admoni- 
tion of Ann Lee, and trained to habits of industry 
and a life of moral purity, and are thus saved from 
a career of vice and moral degradation. It cannot 
be a bad religion that is devoted to a work so 
benevolent and humane in its character. But if all 
mankind were to become Shakers, and should prove 
true to their faith, it would not require a prophet to 
predict the speedy and final extinction of the human 

It is said there are more than one thousand differ- 
ent religions in the world, and a priesthood so 
numerous that they cannot be counted. All claim 
to be right, yet all condemn each other as wrong. 
When doctors differ, whether medical or divine, who 
shall decide ? And yet in every age new creeds are 
generated, and new revelations follow revelations. 

There is always a class of men who imagine they 
have received a divine commission to preach. They 
are often as eccentric as irrepressible. Of this class 
was Lorenzo Dow. He gave notice in April, 1827, 
to the citizens of Cleveland, that, on the second day 
of July following, at two o'clock r.M., he would hold 
religious services on the bank of the lake, at the foot 
of Water Street, in the open air. This singular 


notice attracted general attention, and the day was 
awaited with patient curiosity. Everybody had 
heard of Crazy Dow, as he was often called; but 
nobody in this region had ever seen him. Yet it 
was well understood that he always fulfilled his 
appointments. On the day and at the hour specified, 
a large concourse of people from town and country 
assembled at the spot designated, all on tip-toe with 
expectation. A low, umbrella-like butternut-tree 
afforded them a grateful shade. The day was hot 
and sultry, exciting free perspiration and the fre- 
quent use of pocket-handkerchiefs. 

The moment two o'clock arrived, a strange appari- 
tion, with long curling hair and in shirt-sleeves, with 
coat folded on the left arm and staff in the right 
hand, approached the waiting assembly, and deliber- 
ately took a seat on the ground beneath the butter- 
nut-tree. It was Lorenzo Dow. He folded his arms 
across his knees, and rested his head on them, as if 
in deep meditation. The assembly began to whisper 
one to another, " Is that Dow ? " Some said, " Yes ; " 
others, in a half whisper, said, "It is the Devil." 
The devout itinerant overheard this unsavory com- 
pliment, and, lifting his head from his knees, gazed 
upon the motley crowd that surrounded him for a 
few moments in silence, then rose to his feet, and 
said, " Well, here you are, rag, tag, and bobtail ! " 


and, taking a small Testament from his pocket, held 
it up in his hand, and declared in a loud voice, " See 
here I I have a commission from Heaven to cast out 
devils, of which I fear some of you are possessed 
if 1 may judge from the dialect I have just heard 
spoken. And now let me tell you, my friends, who 
the Devil is, and what is his work. He is the father 
of lies, and his realm a lake of fire vastly broader 
and deeper than Lake Erie. He steals the livery of 
heaven, and in disguise steals into the hearts of men, 
and sows tares among the wheat, and awaits the 
harvest when the final separation will take place, 
and when the tares will be cast into the fire that is 
unquenchable." In this vein of thought, and with 
a rhetoric peculiarly his own, he continued his 
harangue for an hour or more, now provoking a 
half-suppressed laugh, and now suffusing the eyes 
of many of his hearers with penitential tears, and 
closed with singing the hymn, — 

" Hark from the tombs a doleful sound." 

He then took his departure, and nobody could tell 
whither he went, or from whence he came. 

Lorenzo Dow was born Oct. 16, 1777, at Coventry, 
Conn. In his youth he dreamed remarkable dreams, 
and became a religious enthusiast at an early age, 
or, rather, an evangelist on his own account. He 


adopted a creed to suit himself, but soon modified it, 
and identified himself with the Methodists. He trav- 
elled as an evangelist throughout England, Ireland, 
and the United States, often preaching twice or 
thrice a day. He made appointments months and 
sometimes years ahead, and often hundreds or thou- 
sands of miles away, and always fulfilled them. He 
was eccentric in all he did. It is said that he married, 
after an hour's courtship, a lady who sympathized 
with him in his evangelical work. He met her for 
the first time at dinner at her father's house. He 
was charmed with her, and she with him, at sight. 
An hour's chit-chat sealed an engagement; and, after 
an absence of three days to fill an appointment to 
preach, he returned, and the "twain became one." 
It proved a happy match. Her baptismal name was 
"Peggy," — a euphonious epithet by which he al- 
ways addressed her. She was as exemplary as pious. 
She travelled and exhorted, and wrote a diary of her 
life-experiences, which is published, and has been 
much read. She died at thirty, and he at fifty-seven 
years of age. 

He was not only an enthusiast, but a man of 
sincere aims, believed what he taught, and felt that 
his was a divine mission. There are many amusing 
anecdotes afloat in regard to him. On one occasion, 
while on his way to church, where he was expected 


to preach, he noticed a farmer by the roadside 
searching for something, and inquired what he had 
lost. The farmer replied that he had lost a new axe, 
and suspected from indications that some one of his 
neighbors had stolen it. " Never mind that," said 
Dow : " come along to church with me, and I will 
find your axe." The farmer obeyed. Dow picked 
up a stone, and put it in his pocket ; and, when they 
had arrived at the church, he seated the farmer at his 
side, commenced services in the usual way, and then 
announced his text, — " Thou shalt not steal, " — 
and, in commenting upon it, denounced the sin of 
theft in an eloquent and forcible manner, and with a 
pathos that was irresistible. In the midst of his 
fervor he thrust his right hand into his pocket, drew 
forth the stone, and looking his audience in the face, 
and swinging the stone in his fist as if to accumulate 
force, said in a loud voice, " I will hit that man in 
the forehead with this stone who stole his neigh- 
bor's axe." At that moment an individual in the 
audience was observed to dodge, as if he saw the 
stone coming. " There is the thief," said Dow, 
pointing at the dodger, and addressing the farmer at 
his side, " who stole your axe." The dodger con- 
fessed, and restored the axe. 

This is but one of the thousand and one anecdotes 
attributed to Dow. He was a man whose moral 


power as a preacher achieved wonders. He labored 
among the masses and for the masses. And, though 
he died suddenly in the midst of his usefulness, — 

« The light he left behmd him then 
Still falls upon the paths of men." 



The Cleveland Bar in 1828.— Riding the Circuit. — Practi- 
cal Jokes. — Wood and "VVilley in the Legislature and on 
THE Bench. — The Election of a Justice of the Peace con- 
tested. —The Result glorified. — Last Gun. — Visit of 
Black Hawk. — Cuyahoga River. — Col. Charles Whittle- 
sey. — Indian Earthworks. 

The members of the legal profession who resided 
at Cleveland in 1828, and who constituted the 
" Cuyahoga bar," were but few in number, yet were 
men of tact and talent, who enjoyed a wide and 
enviable reputation. It was the custom in those 
days for lawyers to " ride the circuit," in order to 
secure a lucrative practice. The circuit consisted of 
several adjoining counties. The principal lawyers 
who resided at Cleveland were Alfred Kelley, Leon- 
ard Case, Samuel Cowles, Reuben Wood, and Jolin 
W. Willey. The last two were juniors of the bar. 
They excelled as popular advocates, and for this 
reason found it for their interest to attend the courts 
in the adjoining counties. They were often accom- 
panied by one or more of their seniors, and, while on 
the circuit, delighted to indulge in mirth and fun, 


and especially in perpetrating practical jokes, which 
were not always of the most refined character, but 
were kindly taken, and usually repaid in the " same 
coin," and often with compound interest. 

On one of these circuit-rides taken late in the 
wintry month of December, Wood and Willey hap- 
pened to be accompanied by Lawyer Cowles, who was 
not only a bachelor of mature years, but a devout 
man, fastidious in his tastes, and scrupulous in his 
observances of the proprieties of life. While on 
their way they stopped for the night at a country 
inn, benumbed with the cold, and very much 
fatigued. The daughter of the landlord, an ancient 
maiden, who had lost one of her eyes, prepared the 
supper, and served at the table. It was noticed that 
she was particularly attentive to the wants of Mr. 
Cowles, and seemed to look at him with a " single 
eye" to ultimate conquest. When the hour for 
retiring to bed had arrived, Mr. Cowles, who com- 
plained of still feeling chilly, requested to have a 
couple of heated bricks placed at the foot of his bed 
to keep his feet warm. In a short time the one-eyed 
maiden informed him that his request had been com- 
plied with, and handed him a lighted candle, and 
pointed the way to his chamber. In the mean time 
Wood and Willey had preceded him, and occupied 
the adjoining chamber, but on their way had con- 


trived to remove the heated bricks and to substitute 
two large wood chips heavily encrusted with snow 
and ice. Cowles soon entered his room, undressed 
himself, and sprang into bed, and, with the expecta- 
tion of feeling the warm bricks, thrust his feet 
squarely against the icy chips, when the agonizing 
sensation compelled him to bound instantly out of 
bed. He struck upon the floor in an erect posture, 
and with a force that resounded throughout the 
house. This sudden and unaccountable noise 
alarmed the household. The one-eyed maiden as- 
cended the chamber stairs in haste, rapped at 
Cowles's door, and desired to know what was the 
matter. " Matter enough ! " exclaimed Cowles in a 
loud and indignant tone of voice. At that moment 
Wood and Willey, who occupied the adjoining 
chamber, were heard to utter a half-suppressed 
laugh, when Cowles at once comprehended the source 
of the mischief, and, restraining a profane oath 
that came to his lips, pronounced his travelling com- 
panions " villains." In the mean time the discon- 
certed maiden retreated down stairs as speedily as 
possible. Wood and Willey, professing to be as 
innocent as lambs, sympathized with Cowles, and 
endeavored to persuade him not to be discouraged 
in prosecuting affairs of the heart, assuring him, at 
the same time, that a " faint heart ne'er won a fair 


lady." The result was, that Cowles would never 
again consent to ride the circuit with Wood and 

While these facetious gentlemen took delight in 
perpetrating jokes on others, they seemed to take 
equal delight in perpetrating jokes on each other. 
While in the midst of a successful law-practice they 
were both elected members of the General Assem- 
bly, — Wood to the Senate, and Willey to the House. 
In going to Columbus to attend the session, they 
travelled on horseback in company with each other, 
and on the way stopped over-night at a hotel in 
Wooster. In the morning, while at the breakfast- 
table, Willey slyly took several silver spoons from 
the table, and slipped them into Wood's outside coat- 
pocket, and took care, after they had mounted their 
horses to depart, to halt for a moment and whisper in 
the ear of the landlord that he had better look out 
that none of his silver spoons were missing, as he 
suspected that his travelling companion was a 
" doubtful character." 

This intelligence startled the landlord, and induced 
him to count his spoons, when he discovered that 
several of them were gone. By this time the trav- 
ellers had disappeared in the distance, and no time 
was to be lost in making an attempt to recover the 
missing spoons. The landlord bestirred himself, 


called to his aid a constable, and pursued the sup- 
posed thief; and, after a fast ride of five miles, over- 
took the travellers, arrested Wood, and charged him 
with having committed the theft. He looked sur- 
prised, and then became indignant. The constable, 
however, required him to submit to a search, when 
the spoons were found in his coat-pocket. Wood, in 
the midst of his bewilderment, glanced an eye at 
Willey's comical expression of face, which at once 
unravelled the mystery. Willey paid the constable's 
fees, and all joined in a roaring laugh. Though 
Wood pretended to enjoy the fun, he thought it 
rather too serious a joke, and meditated revenge. 

When the General Assembly of the following year 
was about to convene, Willey, who had led a bache- 
lor's life, married, and took his bride with him to 
spend the honeymoon at Columbus. The happy 
pair travelled by stage-coach, and on the way 
stopped off for the night at a hotel in Loudenville, 
registering as J. W. Willey and wife. Feeling some- 
what fatigued after a day of rough travelling, they 
retired at an early hour after taking their evening 
repast. Wood arrived on horseback, and stopped for 
the night at the same hotel soon after Willey and 
his bride had retired, and, seeing their names on the 
register as man and wife, called the attention of the 
landlord to the fact, at the same time whispering 


confidentially in his ear that he had known that fel- 
low Willey as a bachelor for many years past, and 
knew that he was a " tricky chap," but did not sup- 
pose he would travel with a strange woman, and 
register as man and wife ; intimating at the same 
time, that, if this fact should become known, it would 
disgrace the hotel as well as the guilty pair. The 
landlord, who was a religionist of the "strictest sect," 
became intensely indignant, rushed up-stairs to 
Willey's chamber, rapped loudly at the door, and 
demanded immediate entrance. Willey awoke, sup- 
posing the house on fire, sprang out of bed, and 
opened the door, when the enraged landlord seized 
him, dragged him into the hall, and ordered him to 
take lodgings in a separate chamber, saying, " I have 
found out who you are, and assure you, sir, you 
cannot be allowed to disgrace my hotel by such 
immoral practices." At this crisis, and before Wil- 
ley had time to demand an explanation from the 
landlord, the long, lean, lank shadow of Wood 
darted into the hall ; and, the moment Willey saw 
the apparition, he comprehended the " true intent 
and meaning " of this untimely disturbance of his 
slumbers. Willey frankly admitted that he had 
been amply repaid for the "trick of the spoons" 
which he had played on Wood. He then explained 
the matter and his acquaintance with Wood to the 


landlord, and requested him to send up a bottle of 
his best " brand " to the gentlemen's parlor, when 
all united in exhausting its contents, and indulged 
in unrestrained merriment until a late hour, when 
Willey was allowed to return unquestioned to the 
bridal chamber. 

Notwithstanding their " quips, cranks, and wanton 
wiles," Wood and Willey ever remained fast friends. 
They were both men of remarkable talent, who 
enjoyed the public confidence, and who were es- 
pecially popular with the masses. As lawyers they 
both achieved a brilliant success. As legislators 
they manifested a high order of statesmanship in 
shaping the policy and legislation of the State. At 
a subsequent period, though at different dates, both 
were crowned with judicial honors. Wood was first 
elected president judge of the common pleas, and 
then a judge of the supreme court. Willey was 
also elected president judge of the common pleas 
in the same circuit at a subsequent period. Wood 
served fourteen years as supreme judge, and by 
seniority became chief justice. Both he and Willey 
distinguished themselves as able jurists. In 1850 
Judge Wood was elected governor of the state 
under the old constitution, and on the adoption of 
the new constitution, in 1852, was re-elected to the 
same office, and in both instances by large majorities. 


In person he was tall, lank, and lean, yet frank and 
winning in his social intercourse. His success as 
the standard-bearer of the Democratic party was a 
grand triumph, and won for him the honorary title, 
" Old Cuyahoga Chief." Both he and Willey have 
left their impress on the public mind, and will long 
be remembered as among the representative men of 
their times. Willey died in 1841, Wood in 1864. 

In 1830 the village of Cleveland held an election 
for justice of the peace. The friends of the candi- 
dates became excited, and made strenuous efforts to 
secure the success of their favorite candidates, one 
of whom was a Democrat, and the other a Whig. 
When the votes were counted, it was declared that 
Gurdon Fitch, the Democrat, was elected by a ma- 
jority of one vote. The opposition contested the 
election. This increased the popular excitement, 
but resulted in a renewed declaration that Fitch was 
elected. The Democrats were not only overjoyed, 
but resolved to celebrate so gratifymg an event. 
On the spur of the moment they convened at head- 
quarters, — a favorite hotel, — on the corner of St. 
Clair and Water Streets. 

Here they despatched the eatables and "drink- 
ables" with a generous liberality, concluding with 
toasts and speeches, and the firing of an old cast- 
iron swivel, located on what was then the common, 


in front of the hotel. The jollification was pro- 
longed until near sunset, when the jubilants dis- 
persed quite as soberly as could be expected. 

A few tatterdemalions, however, remained, and 
resolved to crown the day by firing the last gun. 
Capt. Guptil, the gunner, poured into the old swivel 
the last canister of powder, and loaded it with sand 
and sod to the muzzle, but was afraid to apply the 
match. In the mean time a young simpleton by the 
name of Wheeler volunteered to take the hazard, 
and, seizing a firebrand, ran in the direction of the 
swivel, while his comrades ran in the opposite direc- 
tion ; and, as soon as he reached the gun, applied 
the firebrand, when an explosion loud as the seven 
thunders followed, leaving behind it a dense pillar 
of smoke, curling skyward with inimitable grace. 

His comrades hastened to the spot to ascertain the 
result. There they found poor Wheeler prostrate, 
and completely disembowelled, an arm here and a 
leg there, and nothing left of the swivel except 
the breech. The fragments of the other parts of 
the gun had flown in every direction, falling in the 
streets, and on the buildings in the vicinity. One 
large fragment fell upon the roof of an adjoining 
house, and, penetrating through it and two floors 
beneath it, embedded itself in the ground of the 
cellar. Thus terminated the glorious Democratic 


triumph, accompanied with a sad lesson as well as 
with a " last gun." 

In 1830 the two Indian tribes, the Sacs and Foxes, 
who occupied a valuable tract of territory in Illinois, 
ceded their lands to the government, and by the 
terms of the treaty were required to remove to other 
lands beyond the Mississippi River, but declined to 
leave. The governor of Illinois called out the 
militia, and enforced their expulsion. They made 
an attempt to return, but were repulsed. In March, 
1832, Black Hawk, the chief of the Sacs, though 
past sixty years of age, resolved to resume possession 
of the ceded territory, and, leading a band composed 
of a thousand warriors, invaded Illinois, and com- 
menced a career of plunder and indiscriminate 
slaughter. He was soon met by a superior force of 
militia and United-States troops, who, after several 
severe conflicts, drove the marauders beyond the 
Mississippi, killing a large number, and taking fifty 
prisoners. Among the prisoners taken were Black 
Hawk and several of his subordinate chiefs, who 
were held as hostages. In accordance with their 
wishes, they were taken, in the autumn of 1833, 
under military escort, to Washington, where they 
acknowledged tlieir submission to the government of 
the United States, and were released. 

It is a memorable fact, however, that wliile the 


captives were returning from Washington they 
stopped at Cleveland. Black Hawk remembered the 
place, and referred to the fact that his mother died 
in the valley of the Cuyahoga River, and was buried 
about two miles up the river on a high bluff, which 
he asked permission to visit unattended and alone. 
This he was allowed to do. He procured a skiff, 
seized the oar, and sped rapidly up the river, recog- 
nized the high bluff on which sleeps the dust of his 
mother, — a bluff that projects into the valley from 
the south-east corner of what is now the Riverside 
Cemetery, — ascended it, and there lingered in 
silence for an hour or more, when he returned, and 
placed himself in charge of his custodian. In relat- 
ing the story of his visit to his associates in cap- 
tivity, it was observed by the citizens present that 
his breast heaved with emotion, and that a tear, 
though he was unused to weep, stole adown his 
weather-beaten cheek, — a tear which he endeavored 
to hide by turning his face away from observation. 
The truth is, that Black Hawk, though a savage, was 
a man of heart. There was a touch of nature in 
him which made him akin to the civilized fraternity 
of mankind. The bluff which he visited had be- 
come consecrated ground in the estimation of his 
race, and should be crowned with a monument sig- 
nificant of its Indian history. 


It would seem, if we may judge from relics which 
still remain, that the valley of the Cuyahoga was once 
a favorite region of the aborigines, and probably the 
dividing line between Eastern and Western tribes, 
who were not only hostile to each other, but ever 
active in contending for the mastery. As evidence 
of this, mounds and earthworks still exist along the 
valley of this river, and may be readily traced by 
their dilapidated outlines at different points all the 
way from its termination in the lake to its birthplace 
among the hills. It is no doubt true that its inno- 
cent waters in primitive times have often been crim- 
soned with the blood of barbaric heroes. Though 
unconscious of its past, it seems proud of its present. 
The valley through which it flows has yielded to 
the influences of modern civilization, and now pre- 
sents a scene of enchantment which is as beautiful 
as it is magical. The same is true of nearly all the 
river valleys connected with the southern border of 
Lake Erie. They all furnish unmistakable evidence 
of having been occupied by an unknown aboriginal 
race, who have left behind them a hieroglyphic rec- 
ord, consisting principally of dilapidated mounds 
and earthworks, or forts. These relics, trace them 
where we will, possess similar characteristics. 

No one has made, it is believed, more successful 
or reliable investigations of the aboriginal history of 


the Western Reserve than Col. Charles Whittlesey 
of Cleveland. As an antiquarian, geologist, and 
scientist, he has few equals. In the scientific circles 
of Europe, as well as in this country, he is recognized 
as a man of high attainments, and is often quoted as 
good authority. He is the founder of the Western 
Reserve Historical Society, and the author of an 
"Early History of Cleveland," and of numerous 
essays on scientific subjects. 

On the easterly side of the Cuyahoga River, be- 
tween Broadway and the river, and about three 
miles south from its entrance into the lake, there is 
an elevated point of land projecting between two 
gullies, resembling a peninsula or small promon- 
tory. It is on this elevation that the outlines of an 
ancient fort may still be seen. "The position," 
as Col. Whittlesey remarks, "is a strong one, and 
protected against assaults and the effect of projec- 
tiles, except at long range. On three sides of this 
promontory the land is abrupt and slippery, and 
difficult of ascent even without artificial obstruc- 
tions. Across the ravine, on all sides, the land is on 
a level with the enclosed space. The depth of the 
gully is from fifty to seventy feet. About eighty 
rods to the east, upon the level plain, is a mound ten 
feet high and sixty feet in diameter. At the west 
end of the inner wall is a place for a gateway or 


passage to the interior. The height of the embank- 
ment across the neck is two feet, and the enclosed 
area contains about five acres. Perpetual springs of 
water issue from the sides of the ravine at the sur- 
face of the blue clay, as they do at Cleveland." 

The true history of these interesting earthworks 
must ever remain a mystery. Yet no one can visit 
them without feeling a strong desire to know who 
erected them, and for what purpose. Their appear- 
ance indicates that they were constructed for self- 
defence against enemies. It is evident that in 
primitive as well as in modern times mankind have 
been essentially the same in their nature, — belliger- 
ent. A naturalist of the olden time classifies man as 
a " fighting animal." This classification, though not 
strictly scientific, seems not less appropriate than 
felicitous. Such is man, a puzzle to himself. 



The Buffalo Company's Purchase. — Land-Speculators and 
THEIR Machinations. — The Incorporation of Cleveland as 
A City, and of Brooklyn Village as Ohio City. — The Bat- 
tle of the Bridge.— Adventists. — The Tabernacle. — Wil- 
liam Miller. — Haystack Anecdote. 

The growing commerce of the lakes and of the 
Ohio Canal had now given to Cleveland an assur- 
ance of prosperity. This fact induced the Buffalo 
Company, with a view to a grand speculation, to 
purchase, in 1831, the " Carter Farm," including the 
old river-bed situated on the west side of the river 
at its junction with the lake. The company fore- 
saw, or thought they foresaw, that the commerce of 
Cleveland could be easily transferred to Brooklyn 
by converting the old river-bed into a ship-channel 
so as to connect it with the lake, and thus create 
an independent harbor. This they proceeded at 
once to do, and at the same time laid out streets, 
built docks, warehouses, dwelling-houses, and a mag- 
nificent hotel on the west side. Land-proprietors on 
both sides of the river became jealous of each other, 
and felt assured of becoming millionnaires if the 


question could be settled as to which of the two rival 
villages should in the future become the great commer- 
cial city of the lake. The rival aspirants attempted 
to harmonize, but could only agree to disagree. 

James S. Clarke, who owned lands on the Cleve- 
land side of the river, situated on Prospect, Ontario, 
and Champlain Streets, and also lands extending 
along Columbus Street and south of the bridge and 
river, erected the first bridge across the river, known 
as the Columbus Street bridge, with a view to divert 
public travel from Brooklyn in a more direct route 
to Cleveland. The opening of this new route had 
the desired effect. 

As might be expected, a belligerent spirit was 
aroused between the rival villages, which, like 
Banquo's ghost, would not be put down. Deter- 
mined to acquire a superior name and fame, Cleve- 
land obtained from the Legislature, early in the 
session of 1836, a city charter, and elected John W. 
Willey her first mayor. Her population at that 
time was five thousand. But Brooklyn was not to 
be outdone. She applied for a city charter, and, 
before the session of 1836 closed, succeeded in ob- 
taining a city charter, by which she assumed the 
ponderous name of Ohio City. Josiah Barber was 
elected mayor. Her population did not much ex- 
ceed fifteen hundred. 


The effect of these hasty measures was to advance 
the value of city lots to fabulous prices, and to gen- 
erate a spirit of public improvements, and thus 
increase the burdens of taxation. The fact that both 
cities adjoined each other, and were only separated 
by the central line of the Cuyahoga River, soon led to 
perplexing difficulties, involving questions of muni- 
cipal jurisdiction. The land-speculators continued 
to exercise undue influences in controlling the legis- 
lation of the respective city councils. 

One of the most sagacious and active land-specu- 
lators of Cleveland was James S. Clarke. He built 
and owned the Columbus-street Bridge. He was 
not only an intelligent gentleman, but a shrewd 
tactician. He foresaw that a collision between the 
two corporations, in respect to the rightful jurisdic- 
tion of the bridge, must soon occur, and therefore 
made a donation of it to the city of Cleveland, which 
was accepted. Though the dividing line between 
the two cities was the centre of the river, Cleveland 
claimed to be legally invested with the entire title to 
the bridge. Ohio City claimed exclusive jurisdic- 
tion over the south half of it, and insisted on its 
abatement, because it diverted public travel from 
that city to Cleveland. The citizens of both cities 
became excited. This led, in 1837, to an outbreak. 

The west-siders declared war on the bridge, and 


proceeded with all the pomp and circumstance of 
war to destroy it. The force was armed with axes, 
saws, and crowbars, and marched to the battle-field, 
bearing aloft the Stars and Stripes, and keeping step 
to the music. The east-siders beheld the demonstra- 
tion, and rallied an opposing force, who planted a 
swivel heavily charged with musket-balls on the 
Cleveland side, so directed as to rake the entire line 
of the bridge, with a gunner about to apply the 
match, when the west-siders, who had already de- 
stroyed the draw of the bridge and partially blown 
up two of its abutments, made a furious charge on 
the swivel, and spiked it. The battle then became 
general between the belligerents, who fought with- 
out regard to commands or military tactics, pell- 
mell, with crowbars, axes, clubs, and pistols, while 
blood flowed copiously from many a gash and bruise. 
A good number on both sides would have been 
killed outright, had not the sheriff of the county and 
the city marshal of Cleveland appeared with addi- 
tional forces and taken possession of the bridge. 
They then arrested the ringleaders of the west-side 
rioters, and lodged them in jail. Both parties, how- 
ever, claimed the victory. The courts finally settled 
the bridge question in favor of Cleveland. Yet the 
rivalry and jealousy of the two cities continued to a 
greater or less extent for the next seventeen years, 


when a more genial and friendly spirit prevailed, 
resulting in a matrimonial union of the two cities, 
which was consummated in the love-inspiring month 
of June in the year 1854. Since that the hearts of 
both " have beat as one." 

In consequence of this union of name and of 
interests, Cleveland has become a large and popu- 
lous city. She has extended her borders, and now 
includes within her limits a territory that is ten 
miles long and nearly five miles wide, with a popu- 
lation exceeding two hundred thousand. What her 
future is to be, or what will be the aggregate of her 
population in fifty years more, who can predict? 
Yet we know she has already achieved the enviable 
reputation of being the gem of American cities, — 

" The beautiful city on the lake-shore.'* 

Another event in the annals of Cleveland, hardly 
less surprising than the battle of the bridge, occurred 
on the 12th of April, 1843. This was the notable 
day, as predicted by William Miller, on which the 
second advent of Christ would occur, and the world 
come to an end. 

Some fifty or more of Cleveland's worthy citizens 
had professed a belief in Miller's prediction, and 
regarded him as an inspired prophet. An eloquent 
divine of New England, Rev. Charles Fitch, had 


adopted the same faith. He came to Cleveland in 
1840, and preached his new doctrine with wonderful 
success. He was not only eloquent and persuasive, 
but elegant in his choice of language, as well as in 
his style of delivery. He fascinated the crowded 
assemblies that came to hear him. His disciples 
took the name of "Second Adventists," and in- 
creased rapidly in numbers. He became their 
accepted pastor, and soon gathered them into the 
fold of the " Church of the Second Advent." In 
order to secure his lambs from the " peltings of the 
pitiless storm," he induced them to erect a taberna- 
cle of unique character on Wood Street, in which to 
hold public worship. The structure was of brick, 
built in circular form, like a truncated cone, thirty 
feet in diameter at the base, nearly fifty feet in 
height, and covered with a convex roof of glass 
windows swung on hinges, and ready to be opened 
at any time. It had but two outside doors. These 
fronted on Wood Street. It had no side windows. 
The reason given for this was, that the disciples of 
the new faith desired no other light than that which 
falls straight down from heaven. They regarded 
the interior of the tabernacle as the holy of holies. 
Here they frequently convened by night and day, 
and held devotional services. Their usual routine 
of worship resembled that of the Presbyterians, nor 


did they differ essentially in creed from them, except 
in reference to the second coming of Christ. They 
held, however, that they had been purified by faith, 
and, like Christ, were pure and holy, and would, at 
his second coming, ascend with him bodily, clad in 
robes of spotless white, and dwell with him forever 
in mansions not made with hands. They published 
a newspaper called " The Second Advent of Christ," 
announcing preliminary signs and wonders. 

Steadfast in the faith, they patiently awaited the 
day and the hour of their ascension ; and feeling, as 
the great day approached, that they had no further 
need of this world's goods, many of them entirely 
neglected their usual avocations, gave away their 
property, even refusd to receive money due them 
from their debtors, and devoted themselves to acts 
of self-consecration and to the preparation of their 
ascension-robes. At last the day of prophecy — the 
12th of April, 1843 — arrived, on which was to 
occur — 

" The wreck of matter and the crush of worlds." 

The hour fixed was twelve o'clock, midnight, when 
the last trump was expected to sound, and the 
redeemed to ascend. The faithful occupied the 
forenoon and afternoon of that dread day in wor- 
ship at the tabernacle. At nightfall they continued 


their devotions, clad in spotless robes, and ready to 
ascend. The firmament was begemmed with stars. 
The windows of heaven were thrown open, and so 
were the windows of the tabernacle. The pure, 
celestial light from realms of the blest fell on the 
assemblage. The town clock struck twelve, mid- 
night. It was a solemn moment. All gazed sky- 
ward in silence, as if expecting the descent of an 
angelic guide. But no angel appeared, nor were 
wings given to the expectants, nor was the earth 
rent asunder. But nature still pursued the even 
tenor of her way. After a weary night of vigilance 
came the daybreak of the morrow, when the halluci- 
nation was dissipated, and belief staggered. The 
disappointed assemblage received a benediction from 
clerical lips, and then returned to their respective 
earthly abodes. The Rev. INIr. Fitch, their chosen 
shepherd, in the course of the next year died, and 
his flock was scattered. Yet many of them retained 
their belief in the prophecy of iNIiller, and attributed 
the delay of the second advent to a miscalculation 
of the time. 

Absurd as the faith of the Second Adventists may 
seem, its original promulgator, William jVIiller, was 
a man of remarkable native talent. He was born, in 
1781, in Massachusetts, and received but a common- 
school education. His avocation was that of a far- 


mer. He served in the war of 1812 as a volunteer, 
with the rank of captain, and, after returning to his 
farm, became interested in studying the prophecies 
of Daniel, who predicts the end of all things in " a 
time, times, and an half," specifying one thousand 
two hundred and ninety days, and then one thou- 
sand three hundred and thirty-five days as the time. 
Miller, by his interpretation of prophetic time, an- 
nounced April 12, 1843, as the eventful day, and 
commenced to preach his new doctrine of the second 
advent. A few believed, while the many scoffed; 
yet he labored earnestly, and with apparent sincerity, 
to convince his fellow-men of the fearful disasters 
that awaited them. He made thousands of prose- 
lytes, and died in 1849. His followers, though 
widely scattered, are still estimated at some fifty 
thousand or more. * 

It is evidently much easier to originate than to 
eradicate a religious creed. As a general rule, the 
more of the marvellous there is in a creed, the more 
readily it will be accepted. Man is born with a 
faith in divine power. This faith, however blind or 
enlightened it may be, crops out in his maturer 
years, and controls his moral action. 

It is indeed difficult to say whether human life is 
more of a comedy than a tragedy. It sometimes 
partakes largely of both, if we may judge from the 


following incident: During the palmy days of Mil- 
lerism, a celebrity of that faith preached to a large 
concourse of people in an open meadow, near a hay- 
stack, in Western New York. Every one was eager 
to see and hear. Some, Zaccheus-like, climbed into 
the trees of the grove in which the people had assem- 
bled ; while an old " professional," with a pipe in his 
mouth, and somewhat intoxicated with the "new 
doctrine," strayed to a haystack within sight, and 
managed to clamber to its apex, where he became 
drowsy, fell asleep, and dropped his pipe into the 
hay, which caught fire, and very soon enveloped him 
in flames, when he awoke and was heard to vocifer- 
ate, "In hell, as I expected!" The unfortunate 
believer, however, was promptly rescued from his 
perilous situation by his brethren, when he ex- 
pressed himself as thankful that he had been 
snatched as a " brand from the burning." 



Warren and its First Settlers. — Capt. Quinby and his Loo 
Cabin. — The Old Man of the Woods. — Salt Springs and 
Price of Salt. — Depredations of Wild Animals. — Slaugh- 
ter OF THE Snakes. — The First Dry-Goods Store. — A 
Periodical Boat on the Mahoning. — First Fourth-of-July 
Celebration at Warren. 

When Gov. St. Clair, in the year 1800, erected 
the Western Reserve into a single county and gave 
it the name of Trumbull, he fixed the county seat at 
Warren. The town plat contained at that time a 
territory of but a mile square. It was surveyed into 
town lots, with streets crossing at right angles, by 
Ephraim Quinby, who was the original proprietor. 
He gave the town the name of Warren as a compli- 
ment to Moses Warren, a worthy friend of his, who 
resided at Lime in the State of Connecticut. Quin- 
by was therefore considered the father of the town, 
and was generally spoken of as the captain. He 
was appointed by the governor as one of the county 
judges, yet his acquaintances continued to call him 
"cai)tain" instead of judge. 

The first house, or rather log cabin, which was 


erected at Warren, was built by William Fenton in 
1798 ; and the second by Quinby in 1799, who, an- 
ticipating the needs of the future, constructed his 
cabin on a much larger scale than Fenton, and so 
arranged it as to contain three spacious apartments, — 
a kitchen, dormitory, and jail, — so that all classes of 
people who might happen that way, whether honest 
travellers or rogues, could be accommodated with 
suitable lodgings. At this time the town contained 
but sixteen settlers, one of whom was William 
Tucker, who had served as a spy in sundry expedi- 
tions commanded by the famous Capt. Brady. 

The early settlements in the vicinity of Warren 
commenced for the most part in 1798 ; though a few 
adventurers, it is said, had penetrated this region at 
an earlier period. Among these was an " old man 
of the woods," who was seen but occasionally, and 
who was known by the name of Merryman. He 
was a merry, jolly old chap, whose place of lodge- 
ment in the vast wilderness was unknown ; yet, 
whenever he appeared in the settlements, he always 
seemed the happiest man alive, especially after ex- 
changing his furs for ammunition of two kinds, — 
powder and ball for his gun, and a few gallons of 
whiskey for his " inner man." He came to be 
revered by the settlers as a mysterious person, pos- 
sessed of miraculous powers in the healing art. He 


claimed to be able to cure all manner of diseases by- 
administering a decoction of certain herbs known 
only to himself. He loved solitude, but hated civili- 
zation. He was supposed to be nearly seventy years 
of age, yet refused to give any account of his life. 
He disappeared suddenly from the vicinity of War- 
ren, and whither he went was never known. 

It is quite probable that the Salt-Spring tract, 
located in the township of Weathersfield near the 
Mahoning River, was known to white men as early 
as 1755. This may or may not be true. Augustus 
Porter, one of the surveying-party, alludes to it as 
being an open ground of two or three acres, where 
salt had evidently been manufactured for an indefi- 
nite series of years by the aborigines, and possibly 
by white men. He found the salt-works in a state 
of general dilapidation. Among the evidences of 
their former occupation, he discovered, partly buried 
beneath the soil, several plank vats, iron kettles, and 
other articles, which had been at one time employed 
in salt-making by persons possessed of more skill 
and intelligence than the natives. He also found, 
at the time of his visit, an Indian and squaw engaged 
in boiling the saline waters to the consistency of salt 
in a very slow and primitive way. Tliey sold the 
salt thus made to the white settlers, who were glad 
to obtain it, though obliged to pay for it at the rate 
of sixteen dollars a bushel. 


In connection with their embarrassments at this 
early period, the settlers were constantly annoyed in 
the vicinity of Warren by the depredations of fero- 
cious animals, such as wolves, bears, and wild cats. 
These marauders of the forest would approach the 
cabins of the settlers almost every night, seize and 
devour their poultry, pigs, calves, and even year- 
lings, and sometimes carried off hogs weighing a 
hundred and fifty pounds or more. They often 
attacked the grown horned cattle, surrounded them, 
and fought pitched battles with them, which gen- 
erally resulted in a grand stampede of the cattle to 
parts unknown. This gave the owners a great deal 
of trouble in searching for their oxen and cows, and 
in recovering them. 

In addition to this annoyance from wild beasts, 
the country in certain localities was infested with 
myriads of rattlesnakes and black snakes, many 
of them of huge proportions. In the township of 
Braceville, not far from Warren, an extensive colony 
of these reptiles occupied an elevated range of land 
with ledges of rock cropping out, in which were 
open crevices leading down into spacious caves where 
snakes burrowed in common, and enjoyed a safe and 
amicable lodgement. There was a fine open spring 
of water near the foot of the hill, to which the 
snakes resorted for drink. In fair weather thousands 


of them congregated on the slope of the hill to bask 
in the genial sunlight, especially in the vernal months 
of the year. In fact, they monopolized the territory 
of the hill and its vicinity, and nobody dared venture 
within the circle of their dread domains. 

This state of things induced a gallant company 
of resolute men from Warren in time of peace to 
prepare for war. They armed themselves with 
clubs, spears, pitchforks, and shot-guns, placed them- 
selves under command of Capt. Oviatt, and, selecting 
a warm May morning, quietly yet bravely marched 
to the sunny slope of the hissing territory. In 
ascending the hill the tramp of the invaders alarmed 
the coiled enemy, who lay encamped by thousands 
on. the hillside. Thus startled, they rallied, took 
a fighting attitude by facing their invaders with 
lifted heads, flashing eyes, and darting tongues, 
when Capt. Oviatt, waving his spear and leading 
the van, ordered a simultaneous attack, and bade 
his men strike, — 

** Strike till the last armed foe expires 1 
Strike for your altars and your fires ! '* 

And they did strike, blow after blow, thick and fast, 
until they exterminated a large share of the embat- 
tled host, while the survivors, hissing vengeance, 
retreated to their dens in the rocks, and left their 

142 'pioneers of the western reserve. 

slain still weltering in blood and quivering in 

death, — 

*' And the red field was won," — 

nor did the victors lose a man, or suffer harm. 
Capt. Oviatt surveyed the wide-spread carnage, and 
laughed. His brave men caught the infection, — 

"When loudly rang the proud hurrah." 

They then proceeded to gather the dead, and ex- 
tinguish the lives of the wounded which were so 
disabled that they could not retreat j when they 
found that they had slain four hundred and eighty- 
six, some of them more than five feet long, and as 
large round as a man's ankle. 

Not satisfied with this, one of the men undertook 
to assail the snakes in their den, and, leaping with a 
spear in his hand upon the trunk of a small tree 
that lay postrate across a yawning chasm or fissure 
in the rocks into which the enemy had glided for 
safety, commenced an indiscriminate slaughter of 
the snakes, coiling in their den and maddened into a 
wild frenzy ; when he slipped, and fell from the trunk 
of the tree on which he was standing into the mouth 
of the chasm, but, as luck would have it, caught a 
firm hold on a shrub projecting from the side of the 
chasm before reaching the snakes below, and, while 
screaming in distress, was rescued from his perilous 


situation by his companions, and thus saved from a 
terrible death. The snakes, though diminished, were 
not exterminated until many years afterwards. 

The first merchant who attempted to supply War- 
ren and its vicinity with dry-goods was James E. 
Cadwell. He kept his stock of merchandise on a 
boat or canoe, which he propelled up and down the 
Mahoning River by paddles and a setting-pole, blow- 
ing his horn as he came in sight of the town or 
neared a settlement, and, landing at eligible points, 
invited trade from the settlers. He was liberally 
patronized, and always received with a kindly wel- 
come. He was accustomed to visit Warren every 
two weeks, and always conducted trade on board his 
boaj:, which he readily converted into a mercantile 
shop by extending a rough board across it for a 
counter, on which he displayed his merchandise in 
a way so attractive as to delight the eyes of his cus- 
tomers, and especially the eyes of the ladies, who 
admired the gay colors of his English calicoes. 

The ladies of those days generally dressed in 
homespun and checked aprons. The few who could 
afford to dress in English calicoes were regarded as 
belonging to the aristocracy of the country. The 
marriageable girls, though attractive in homespun, 
aspired to calicoes, but never dreamed of silks and 
satins. The young men, in selecting wives, had the 


sense to see that a beautiful girl and a beautiful 
dress are two very different things. In a word, it 
was not dress, but true hearts and willing hands, that 
characterized the times. 

The first public celebration of the Fourth of July, 
with the exception of the informal observance or that 
day at Conneaut by the surveying-party in 1796, 
came off at Warren in 1800. The early settlers 
from far and near attended. Among the more dis- 
tinguished guests were John Young, Calvin Austin, 
and others from Youngstown, and Gen. Edward 
Paine and Judge Eliphalet Austin from the lake- 
shore, with a goodly number of other prominent 
pioneers from the surrounding country. 

When assembled, it was found that neither a 
musical band nor musical instruments had been 
provided to enliven the occasion. As it happened, 
however, there were two musicians present, the one 
a fifer and the other a drummer. They resolved on 
supplying the desired music. The fifer soon manu- 
factured for himself a fife cut from the stem of an 
elder-bush , while the drummer cut down a hollow 
pepperidge-tree, and from a section of its trunk 
constructed a drum-cylinder, and supplied it with 
heads cut from a fawn-skin, using plough-lines for 
cords to stretch the heads to the proper tension. He 
then carved with a penknife a pair of drum-sticks, 


suspended the extemporized drum to his neck, and, 
falling into line with the fifer, furnished the waiting 
assembly with a satiety of patriotic music by their 
skilful rendition of such pieces as " Yankee Doodle " 
and " Hail, Columbia." 

After the assembly had marched to the grove, 
and heard an extemporaneous oration full of fire 
and patriotism, they proceeded to the rustic dinner- 
table, and partook liberally of the best the country 
afiforded. Then came toasts and patriotic speeches, 
interluded by the firing of an old musket, and 
crowned with " hurrahs " and unmeasured potations 
of whiskey. The exercises, as they progressed, be- 
came more and more exciting and hilarious, and were 
continued with one accord until the whiskey was 
exhausted, when the assembly dispersed in as orderly 
a manner as became the occasion, every man to his 
Jiome, feeling that he had had a good time. 

The whiskey of those days was a pure article, 
used only as a social beverage or tonic, and, unlike 
the poisonous whiskey of modern manufacture, did 
not kill a man at "forty rods," nor induce him to 
elevate his footsteps lest the rising ground should! 
smite him in the face. While "temperance in all 
things " should be regarded as not only a divine 
precept, but as obligatory on all men, yet we know 
that St. Paul approved of a little wine for the 


"stomach's sake." There is no reason to believe, 
however, that any of the early pioneers were habit- 
ual drunkards ; and yet they doubtless concurred in 
opinion with the apostle, and in the absence of wine 
substituted whiskey, which they distilled from grain 
they themselves had raised, and which they regarded 
as but the " staff of life " presented in a liquid form. 
They were acute in their logical deductions. At that 
time the temperance question was unknown. Had 
it been known, they doubtless would have remained 
of the " same opinion still." Yet theirs was a moral 
standard which has by no means been excelled in 
these latter days of social refinement. 



The Whiskey Debauch at Salt Springs. — Two Indian Chiefs 


Settlers. — Arrest of McMahon for Murder. — His Trial 
AND Acquittal. — Indians reconciled. — Burial of their 
Dead. — First Territorial Court held at Warren be- 
tween Two Corn-Cribs. — Trials of Daniel Shehy and 
Lorenzo Carter. — First Post-Route. — Simon Perkins, Post- 
master. — Trump of Fame. — Banks and Bankers. 

It was but a short time after the late celebration 
of the Fourth of July at Warren that an unhappy 
occurrence took place at the Salt Springs between 
the Indians and three white men who were engaged 
in manufacturing salt. A considerable number of 
Indians were encamped near the Springs, several of 
whom had been to Youngstown, and but recently 
returned with a liberal supply of whiskey. Whether 
specially invited or not, a few white men entered 
the Indian camp, and were permitted to unite with 
the Indians in partaking liberally of the whiskey, and 
in having a general jollification. 

While indulging in this drunken frolic, the In- 
dians became quarrelsome, and compelled the white 
men to retreat into the forest for safety. The white 


men, feeling that their lives were in danger, suc- 
ceeded in reaching Warren, where they rallied to 
their assistance eight or ten additional men, and 
returned the next day to the Springs, with a view to 
chastise the Indians for their insolence. They 
found the Indians still in camp at the Springs, sit- 
ting on the ground in idle groups, and taking it 
easy after the previous day's debauch. Joseph 
McMahon, the foreman of the white men who were 
manufacturing salt, boldly entered the circle, and 
accosted the chief in the Indian language. The 
chief, whose name was Tuscarawa George, Sprang to 
his feet, seized his hatchet, and struck at McMahon, 
with the evident design to kill him, but failed in 
the attempt. McMahon, having his rifle in hand, 
then shot the chief, who fell dead on the spot. The 
chief, though possessed of an impulsive tempera- 
ment, was much beloved and venerated by his tribe. 
He was tenacious of his rights, and suspicious of the 
ultimate intentions of the incursive white popula- 
tion, and often boasted that he had slain in his life- 
time, with his own hand, more than a hundred white 

This sudden and inglorious fall of their chief 
threw the Indians into confusion and a wild state 
of excitement, in the midst of which Richard Storer 
from Warren, a friend of McMahon, shot another 


Indian, known as Spotted John, who had assumed 
a threatening attitude, and was standing partially 
hidden behind a tree with his squaw and her two 
pappooses, — one of which was strapped on her back, 
and the other clasped in her arms. The bullet fired 
by Storer, not only killed Spotted John, but sped on, 
and unluckily broke the arm of one pappoose, the 
leg of the other, and wounded his squaw in the neck, 
though not seriously. 

The news of this disastrous and unexpected occur- 
rence created a panic among the inoffensive set- 
tlers at Warren, who felt that the Indians would 
take summary vengeance by massacring the entire 
population of the town. They therefore took the 
precaution to barricade themselves every night for 
two weeks or more in the stanch-built and capa- 
cious log cabin of Capt. Quinby. But no attack, if 
contemplated, was made ; yet the settlers thought it 
advisable to take speedy steps to appease the In- 

They therefore caused McMahon to be arrested, 
and taken to jail at Pittsburgh, where he remained 
for a short time, when he was returned to Youngs- 
town, and put on his trial for the crime of murder. 
The jury was composed of white men , and several 
Indians were present, who were the friends of the 
defunct chief. McMahon pleaded not guilty, and 


claimed that he killed the chief in self-defence. Both 
Indians and white men were examined as witnesses ; 
and, after a full hearing and charge from the judge, 
the prisoner was acquitted by the verdict of the 
jury. The Indians generally concurred in the jus- 
tice of the verdict. 

Storer, who had been arrested for killing Spotted 
John, managed to escape. The Indians said they 
did not care to have Storer tried, for the reason that 
they well knew Spotted John to be a base fellow, 
and did not much lament his death. It is said that 
several other Indians were killed in this quarrel at 
Salt Springs, or subsequent encounters growing out 
of it. How this may be is not satisfactorily known. 
It is evident, however, that the Indians, after the 
trial of McMahon, became reconciled, and that 
peaceable relations between the belligerent parties 
were restored. 

The Indians who remained at camp had in the 
mean time gathered their dead, and with funereal 
wails borne them to a pleasant spot, two or three 
miles down the river, where they buried them be- 
neath mounds or hillocks, composed chiefly of inter- 
woven sticks, grass, and sods. They then drove a 
stake at the head of each grave, and hung upon it a 
new pair of buckskin breeches. In addition to this, 
they placed a considerable quantity of cooked meat 


and other food on the graves. When asked the 
reason for observing these ceremonies, they replied 
that the Great Spirit, after the lapse of thirty days, 
would resurrect their dead friends, and transfer them 
to pleasant hunting-grounds far away in the North, 
where they would enjoy peace, plenty, and happiness 
forever ; and that the breeches were intended for 
them to wear, and the food for them to eat, while on 
their way to the realms of that distant paradise. 

But, notwithstanding their sincere faith, it so hap- 
pened, that, during the ensuing night after the inter- 
ment, a high wind prevailed, and in the morning 
neither breeches nor food could be found. The 
Indians believed that the Great Spirit had inter- 
fered, and that the spirits of their dead friends had 
started on their long journey to the happy land, and 
taken both food and breeches with them. The 
inquisitive white men of the vicinity entertained a 
different belief, especially when one of them related 
the fact that he owned a slut with five half-grown 
greedy pups, which had been absent during the 
night, and returned in the morning evidently gorged 
with an unusual supply of food. He also expressed 
the opinion that it was the spirits of the wind who 
had stolen the breeches. In this solution of the 
mystery all were agreed except the Indians. It 
may be presumed, however, that the old dead chief, 


George, groaned in spirit as he lay in his grave and 
beheld his new pair of buckskin breeches depart on 
the gale into the depths of the sky, and that he 
soliloquized as follows : — 

*' My breeches, O my breeches ! 

I see them straddling through the air, 
Alas ! too late to win them ; 

I see them chase the clouds as if 
The devil still were in them. 

They were my darlings and my pride, 
My hope, my only riches : 

Farewell, farewell, a long farewell, 
My breeches, O my breeches I " 

The first territorial court of general quarter ses- 
sions of the peace, held at Warren, convened on the 
fourth Monday of August in 1800. The session was 
held, for want of a court-house, between two spa- 
cious corn-cribs on the farm of Capt. Quinby. The 
tribunal consisted of several justices of the peace. 
It was doubtless a dignified court. It is presumed 
that the criminals then and there arraigned were 
confined in the cribs ; and that most of them, if not 
all, " acknowledged the corn " without the formality 
of a trial. It has often been said that justice, in 
this free country, is brought to every man's door ; 
but it is a rare instance that brings it to his corn- 


At this first session of the court a large amount 
of county business was transacted, and the requisite 
number of officers appointed. George Tod, after- 
wards judge, was appointed to prosecute the pleas 
of the United States. A committee of seven (con- 
sisting of Amos Spafford, David Hudson, Simon Per- 
kins, John Minor, Aaron Wheeler, Edward Paine, 
and Calvin Austin) was appointed to divide the 
county of Trumbull into civil townships, describe 
their boundaries, and report to the court. Another 
committee was appointed (consisting of Thurhand 
Kirtland, John Kinsman, and Calvin Auitin) to pro- 
vide some place for a temporary jail, until a county 
jail could be built. The committee retired for con- 
sultation, and soon came into court, and reported 
that they had procured the south-west Qorner room 
in Ephraim Quinby's log house for a jail, until a 
more appropriate one could be erected. The report 
was confirmed, and Ephraim Quinby recommended 
to the governor of the territory as a suitable person 
to keep a house of public entertainment. 

The first jury trial which occurred in this court 
took place in 1801, at its May term, in the case of 
the United States v. Daniel Shehy for assault and 
battery, — fined twenty dollars and costs, and put 
under bonds of one hundred dollars to keep the 
peace for a year. Tliis territorial court, in August, 


1802, granted Lorenzo Carter of Cleveland a license 
to keep a tavern, — fee, four dollars; and appointed 
George Tod appraiser of taxable property ; and or- 
dered that the house of James Kingsbury be the 
place in the precinct of Cleveland for holding town 
meetings and elections. 

The territorial court, soon after the adoption of 
the State constitution, was merged in the organiza- 
tion of a system of State courts. The first man 
who was indicted by a grand jury in Trumbull 
County, after the re-organization of the courts, was 
Lorenzo Carter of Cleveland for assault and battery. 
The major, as he was called, was extensively known 
as an upright and prominent citizen. When arrested, 
and taken to Warren for trial, he was not only aston- 
ished, but greatly mortified. He was so much of a 
favorite at home, that his friends had resolved to pro- 
tect him when the sheriff came to make the arrest ; 
and, in order to effect his object, the sheriff was 
obliged to summon a posse comitatus to aid him. 
The offence with which he was charged was consid- 
ered frivolous in its character. It grew out of a dis- 
pute with a neighbor whose dog, as Carter alleged, 
had broken into his spring-house, and lapped the 
contents of a pan of milk, for which Carter had 
simiraarily chastised, the brute. His neighbor, to 
whom the dog belonged, declared the animal inno- 


cent of the offence, and pronounced Carter a liar, who 
returned the compliment by slapping his accuser in 
the face. The neighbor sought revenge by procur- 
ing Carter to be indicted for assault and battery. 

It was supposed by the court and citizens at 
Warren, from what had been heard of Carter as 
a famous hunter and daring frontiersman, that he 
must be a dangerous fellow; but, when he was 
arraigned in court, his kind expression of face and 
respectful manners reversed at once the unfavorable 
impressions which had prevailed in relation to his 
character. When called in court to answer the 
charge alleged against him, he arose, and in a frank 
manner pleaded "guilty." His attorney, George Tod, 
then stated the mitigating circumstances of the case, 
the gross and unjustifiable insult which provoked 
Carter to commit the offence, and the good character 
he possessed among his neighbors as a useful and 
peaceable citizen, and then submitted the matter to 
the judgment of the court. The court, regarding 
the matter as a trifling offence, fined the accused 
six cents, and ordered him to pay the costs. This 
was the first time Carter had been involved in a 
legal proceeding. He returned to Cleveland, and 
was received by his many friends with a frank 
demonstration of their congratulations. The major 
assured his friends that he had learned a lesson 


which cost him a large amount of vexation and but 
little money. His accuser removed in haste from 
Cleveland, and sought a healthier locality. 

Among the first post-routes established in the 
Reserve was the route from Warren to Pittsburgh 
in 1801. Simon Perkins was appointed postmaster 
at Warren. The post-of&ce was kept in a building 
constructed of logs. The through-mail matter was 
carried in a bag, the key to which was designated by 
a wooden label attached to it; while the way-mail 
matter was carried tied up in a handkerchief. The 
post-boy for several years carried the mail-bag on his 
back, and travelled on foot at the rate of twenty 
miles a day ^ nor was such a thing as a railway 
mail-train, travelling at the rate of fifty or sixty 
miles an hour, dreamed of in the pioneer philosophy 
of those days. It would be amusing to see how 
strangely bewildered those early pioneers would be, 
if they could but arise from their dreamless slum- 
bers, and behold with what ease we now by the aid 
of science harness the lightning of the heavens, and 
compel it to carry the news around the globe in less 
than twenty minutes. If they could see this, they 
would doubtless believe that the " age of miracles " 
had not only returned, but that divine power had 
been delegated to man to control the elements of 
nature, if not to assume the divine government. 


There was no newspaper published at Warren 
until 1812. The first that was published assumed 
the sonorous title, " The Trump of Fame," but 
never acquired an enviable fame. It was edited by 
Thomas D. Webb, and printed by David Fleming. 
The office stood on the corner of Main and Liberty 
Streets. The editor, Thomas D. Webb, was a pro- 
fessional law3'er, who devoted most of his time to 
special cases involving land-titles, and in this line of 
practice distinguished himself. But, in attempting to 
blow " The Trump of Fame," he soon discovered that 
he had paid too dearly for his " whistle," and in the 
course of two years sold his interest in the venture. 
His successors changed its title from time to time as 
they passed it . from one to another, each successor 
seeming to regard it as a "hot chestnut," which he 
did not find it pleasant to hold long in his own hand. 
It has now, however, acquired, under its present 
title of " Western Reserve Chronicle," a liberal pat- 
ronage, with stability of character. 

The Western Reserve Bank was established at 
Warren in 1812. It was the first bank located in 
the Reserve. Gen. Simon Perkins was president, 
and Zalmon Fitch cashier. Under their judicious 
and careful management it grew in strength, and 
acquired the perfect confidence of the public. Its 
stockholders were men of wealth, and well known 


as men of integrity and intelligence. The notes of 
the institution were esteemed as good as gold, and 
were everywhere received without hesitation, and, 
in fact, constituted the principal currency of North- 
ern Ohio for many years. It was the only bank 
in Ohio which maintained specie payment dur- 
ing the general suspension about the year 1840. 
When at a later period it finally closed its affairs, 
it paid dollar for dollar to its creditors, and returned 
to its stockholders the entire capital invested, in 
addition to the regular dividends which it annually 

In 1816 the Commercial Bank of Lake Erie was 
established at Cleveland, with Alfred Kelley for 
president, and Leonard Case, Esq., for cashier. It 
had a specie capital of three thousand dollars. This 
was the second bank that went into operation on the 
Reserve. It lived at a dying rate for four years in 
the chilling shadow of the Western Reserve Bank, 
and then expired without the means of paying its 
funeral expenses. Though dead, it would not remain 
dead. After twelve years had elapsed, it was resur- 
rected, and galvanized into life by new parties, who 
availed themselves of its unexpired charter, and 
furnished the requisite capital. Its second life was 
prolonged until 1842, when it honorably paid all its 
debts, and closed its business. 


In 1837 Cleveland possessed more banks than she 
needed, most of which were born of speculation, and 
died martyrs to speculation. In other words, they 
were ruined by speculations in Western lauds, and 
in Western city swamp-lots, which had no existence 
except as traced on, paper or elaborate maps. The 
streets were generally laid out at right angles, and 
of liberal width. Corner lots were regarded as ex- 
ceedingly desirable, and were estimated, bought, and 
sold at fabulous prices. Everybody in the Eastern 
as well as Western States seemed to have caught, as 
if by contagion, the Western land-fever. Eastern 
capitalists invested largely in Western lands, pur- 
chasing directly from the government township after 
township, and to the extent of millions of acres. 
Bankers became involved in these speculations, 
especially in the West. 

The craze grew in intensity, and many banks 
exhausted their entire capital in loans to influential 
land-speculators. Stringency in the money-market 
followed, yet speculation ran wild. Corner lots in 
imaginary cities continued to advance. A single 
fifty-dollar bill, which had been marked, was known 
to have been the identical first payment made in the 
purchase of some dozens of unimproved city lots by 
different individuals in Ohio City within the course 
of a single month. In fact, that one fifty-dollar 


bill became about as well known to the citizen^ as 
the town-pump or church-steeple. 

At this time city lots of the fancy stamp, at 
Toledo, Maumee, and at other points in the Western 
wilds, attracted public attention, and were sought 
with avidity by speculators. It was said that several 
bold operators had made immense fortunes within 
twenty-four hours. This information was communi- 
cated confidentially to the president of one of the 
Cleveland banks, who was known to have caught 
the speculative fever, with an intimation that now 
was his golden opportunity. He believed the infor- 
mation thus received to be true, because it came 
from a reliable friend, and resolved, forewarned and 
forearmed, to reach the scene of action as soon as 

His influence was so great in financial affairs that 
it often overshadowed both cashier and directors. 
He directed a discount of his own note for the 
amount he required, seized the bank-notes signed in 
sheets, stuffed his saddle-bags with them, mounted 
his fleet mare, rode, John Gilpin-like, to Maumee 
City, then little else than a barren town plat in a 
swamp, purchased all the corner lots, clipped off from 
the sheets the notes required to make payment, 
returned home in less than forty-eight hours, con- 
gratulated himself that he had made fifty thousand 


dollars by the operation, and thus verified the trite 
old saying that " money makes the mare go." 

It was not long after this before the land-bubble 
burst, and the bank with it. Yet that famous presi- 
dent subsequently met all claims preferred against 
him by taking the benefit of the bankrupt-act. In 
this way he cancelled all his personal liabilities 
(some two hundred thousand dollars or more), and 
ever afterwards met his discarded creditors with a 
social grasp of the hand, and a patronizing smile, — a 
condescension which they neither admired nor grate- 
fully appreciated. 

But most of the bankers of Cleveland have been 
remarkable for their prudence and financial skill, 
and, in fact, have enjoyed a proverbial reputation for 
integrity and ability. T. P. Handy has been devoted 
to banking for a period of more than fifty years, and 
in all that period, though he has handled millions 
upon millions of money, has never been accused, or 
even suspected, of misappropriating a single dime. 
This is a great fact, a marvel of modern times, of 
which both he and his friends may well be proud. 

Leonard Case, to whom reference has been made 
as the cashier of the first bank organized at Cleve- 
land, was a self-made man. He was born in 1786, 
at Westmoreland, Penn. Soon after his birth his 
parents removed to Warren, O. Here he began life 


in poverty, and owed but little to his parents except 
his birth, and the inheritance of an unsound consti- 
tution. Though born to suffer, he employed himself 
at making baskets, and thus earned sufficient means 
to maintain and educate himself. 

In a few years he was advanced from the humble 
vocation of a basket-maker to the office of county 
clerk, and in the mean time he studied law. He 
subsequently removed to Cleveland, where he com- 
menced his professional career with success, and was 
promoted to several offices of trust and profit. He 
was also elected to the Legislature, and distinguished 
himself as a statesman. In the course of a few years 
he acquired numerous city lots and wild lands while 
they were cheap, and held the greater part of them 
during his life. As the lands grew in value he con- 
tinued to improve them, and make them productive. 
He was as honest as sagacious, and contributed 
largely in promoting the welfare of Cleveland and 
the interests of the State. He was benevolent to the 
poor, but always bestowed his charities in silence. 
He believed in himself, and everybody seemed to be- 
lieve in him. He died a millionnaire in 1864, leaving 
his millions to his two sons, who were his only heirs, 
and who never married. Soon William died; and 
then Leonard, who had become heir to the entire 
paternal fortune. In disposing of this, he gave 


the " Case Block," so called, to the uses of a public 
library, aiid the remainder of his wealth, aggregating 
several millions of dollars, to the founding and en- 
dowment of a public school of applied science, to be 
located in the city of Cleveland. The school has 
already been organized, and seems destined to prove 
an eminent success. 



Rev. Joseph Badger, Mission and Career. — Exemplary Char- 
acter OF First Settlers at Warren. — Ashtabula County. 
— Jefferson the County Seat. — Its Founder and its Emi- 
nent Men. — Conneaut, originally an Indian Town. — Two 
White Captives made to run the Gauntlet. —Ancient 
Burial-Ground. — The "Chip" and its Record. 

The first Christian missionary who came to the 
Western Reserve to preach the gospel, and to whom 
allusion has already been made, was sent from Con- 
necticut. His name was the Rev. Joseph Badger. 
He arrived in the spring of 1800, and entered at 
once upon his benevolent labors. He travelled on 
horseback from one settlement to another, through 
mud, snow, and rain, to fill his appointments. For 
the want of churches, or other public places of 
worship, he held religious services in the log cabins 
of the settlers and in log schoolhouses as opportu- 
nities offered. He was generally received with a 
cordial welcome wherever he went. For some eight 
years or more he resided with his family at Gustavus, 
in Trumbull County. 

His life was one of varied experiences, and, if it 


could be written, would be of deep interest. He was 
born at Windham, Mass., 1757. He was liberally 
educated, and graduated at Yale College in 1785. 
He had previously enlisted and served as a soldier 
in the Revolutionary war. He was ordained in 
1787 as a minister of the gospel, and as pastor took 
charge of a church at Blandford, in his native State, 
where his ministry gave great satisfaction, and where 
he remained for several years. 

He came to the Western Reserve with an earnest 
purpose. He loved his fellow-men, whether civilized 
or uncivilized, and made unwearied efforts in their 
behalf. His labors in the wilds of the Reserve were 
crowned with a wonderful success. He laid the 
broad foundations of a Christian morality which still 
characterizes the population of this entire region of 
the West. The good fruits of his early missionary 
labors soon became apparent. Even those who at 
first scoffed at his efforts soon became his sincere 
friends, and in many instances avowed publicly their 
conversion to the Christian faith. 

In short. Rev. Joseph Badger was the friend of 
everybody, and everybody his friend. He was a 
practical man, plain in his style of living, and genial 
in his social intercourse. In many instances he was 
intrusted with the transaction of the most important 
business affairs, and always succeeded in giving sat- 


isfaction. His fame went abroad. He was often 
consulted in matters of a governmental character, 
pertaining to the Western Reserve, by the heads of 
departments at Washington. 

In 1812 Gov. Meigs appointed him chaplain to the 
army. He was present in that capacity at the siege 
of Fort Meigs in 1813, and remained attached to the 
command of Gen. Harrison during the war. He 
then retired to the field of his former labors as a 
missionary, and for a considerable time took the 
charge of two or more churches, preaching alter- 
nately in each. In 1835 he removed from Trumbull 
County to Wood County, where he lived not only to 
continue his good work for some years, but to see 
the fruits of his wide field of labors ripen into a rich 
harvest. He died in 1846, at the advanced age of 
eighty-nine years. 

" His youth was innocent, his riper age 

Marked with some act of goodness every day ; 
And watched by eyes that loved him, calm and sage, 

Faded his late declining years away. 
Cheerful he gave his being up, and went 
To share the holy rest that waits a life well spent." 

It will be recollected that Trumbull County, as 
organized in 1800, embraced within its limits the 
entire territory of the Western Reserve. Her ex- 
tensive domain since that date has from time to time 


been divided and subdivided into some dozen coun- 
ties or more. She may, therefore, be regarded as 
the mother of a hirge family of promising daughters, 
all of whom are happily settled in life, and of whom 
she may well be proud. They all seem, like herself, 
destined to achieve a brilliant future. They have 
all been bred to habits of honest industry, and have 
already become rich, and are still growing richer in 
the development of their natural resources, and by 
the culture of their mental and moral powers. 

The class of men and women who first settled in 
Warren, and in its adjoining towns, were remarkable 
for their energy of character and general intelli- 
gence. Many of them came into the country bring- 
ing* with them considerable wealth, which they had 
the wisdom to invest in the purchase of large tracts 
of the best lands, and in general improvements. 
At that early day they constituted the " aristocracy " 
of the Western Reserve, and gave tone to public 
sentiment. A score or more names of distinguished 
families, who gave distinction to Warren and towns 
in its vicinity, might be mentioned, if it were not 
invidious to attempt it. Suffice it to say, that their 
names, their generous deeds, and their exemplary 
lives will never be forgotten, but, on the contrary, 
will ever be cherished and remembered by succeed- 
ing generations with gratitude and reverent admira- 


The county of Ashtabula takes its name from its 
river. The name is of Indian origin, and signifies 
"fish-river," because the river abounded in fish. 
This county was organized in 1811, and has now be- 
come wealthy. Its population is both enterprising 
and intelligent. In its politics the county has ever 
been anti-Democratic. Hence Gov. Wood, in a public 
speech, applied to it the dusky epithet, "benighted" 
Ashtabula. Its county seat, however, bears the 
Democratic name of Jefferson. 

The township of Jefferson was originally owned 
by Gideon Granger of Connecticut, who made the 
first improvement in it, as early as 1804, by procuring 
ten or twelve acres of its central land to be cleared 
and sown in wheat. It is on this primitive wheat 
field that the village of Jefferson is located. The 
wheat then raised was excellent, and the town has 
ever since produced . more or less "good wheat" in 
the quality of its men and women. 

Though both the township and village inherit the 
name of the great patriot, who was not only a philoso- 
pher, but the author of the Declaration of American 
Independence, yet it would seem that the shadow of 
his greatness has had but little influence in con- 
trolling the politics of either the townshp or village, 
especially the latter, which has become famous as 
the home of the late Hon. Joshua R. Giddings and 


Hon. Benjamin F. Wade, the political catapults, 
who not only threw stones at glass houses, but 
shared largely in the work of knocking slavery in 
the head. Both were self-made men, and both have 
helped make American history. They were men of 
logic and great moral courage. On one occasion, 
while debating the slavery question in Congress, 
Giddings offended a chivalric Southerner, who hastily 
approached him with a drawn dirk. In the mean 
time Giddings paused, coolly drew a horse-pistol 
from his desk, laid it upon it, and proceeded with his 
speech. The Southerner halted, said nothing, but 
returned to his seat. The House observed the 
occurrence. In concluding his speech, Giddings re- 
marked that his constituents did not send cowards 
to Congress, and, as evidence of the fact, pointed to 
the horse-pistol, which he said was not loaded, and 
had not been since the days of his boyhood. A 
general outburst of laughter followed at the expense 
of the overawed Southerner. 

When the impeachment of President Johnson was 
pending in the Senate, Wade was Speaker, and 
would have become President had the impeachment 
succeeded. Though elated with his prospect, he 
afterwards thanked his stars — instead of Provi- 
dence — that he had made so narrow an escape 
from the dangers of the presidency. 


It happened at one time that Giddmgs and Wade 
and other members of the bar were standing in a 
group on the court-house steps at Jefferson, waiting 
the opening of court, when an old settler, who felt 
aggrieved in regard to taxes, approached them, and 
said, " I have known Jefferson when the wolves were 
very thick, and the lawyers very scarce ; but now it 
is quite the reverse, — no wolves in fur, but plenty 
in sheep's clothing, hey ? " All laughed; and Gid- 
dings and Wade obtained a fat client, or, rather, the 
golden fleece. 

The first white men who came to the Western 
Reserve with a view to reside, settled within the 
present limits of Ashtabula County. They were 
emigrants from the Eastern States, and accompanied 
the surveying-party led by Gen. Cleaveland. They 
landed, in connection with that party, at the mouth 
of Conneaut Creek, on the 4th of July, 1796. The 
name of Conneaut was given to the creek by the 
Indians, and signifies, in their language, " many fish." 

The town of Conneaut is said to be the oldest 
town in Northern Ohio. Its citizens are enterpris- 
ing and intelligent, and do honor to the primitive 
stock from which they are mostly descended. When 
the forefathers of the town first arrived, they found 
its site occupied by twenty or thirty Indian cabins, 
which presented an air of neatness and comfort quite 


remarkable, and which indicated the attainment of a 
considerable degree of civilization. These Indians 
were known as the Massauga tribe. Their chief was 
a man of noble bearing, dignified and sedate, and 
possessed of unusual native talent. He seemed born 
to command. There were but few white men who 
could excel him in debate, or in the application of a 
shrewd and forcible logic. His tribe had occupied 
the site of Conneaut from time immemorial. It 
was a section of country that furnished them with 
an abundant supply of fish and wild game, — a 
lodgement in the vast wilderness to which they had 
become patriotically attached. They were a bold 
and brave tribe, and loved war as well as their 
native forest home. 

This tribe sent a band of their bravest warriors 
to the field of battle in 1791, which resulted in the 
defeat of Gen. St. Clair. On their return they cap- 
tured two young men who were stragglers from St. 
Clair's army, and brought them to Conneaut, where 
they were confined for some time, and finally made 
to run the gauntlet, receiving kicks and blows at 
every step, as is customary on such occasions. The 
Indians then held a council, and determined that 
one of the captives, Fitz Gibbon, should be spared ; 
and that the other, whose name is unknown, should 
be consigned to the flames, and be burned to death. 


They then tied him to a tree, and piled fagots and 
other combustibles about him, and, were proceeding 
to apply the torch, when a young squaw, touched 
with sympathy, if not impelled by a still tenderer 
passion, sprang from the crowd, and implored the 
jhief to spare the life of the victim. Her pathetic 
ftppeal, her wail, and her tears overcame .the heart 
and the resolution of the chief, and thus secured the 
relsace of the young captive from his imminent peril. 
If we could trace the sequel of this affair, it is quite 
probable it terminated in an "affair of the heart," 
and perhaps in a long and happy domestic life spent 
in the wild<^r!iess. 

From evidences which appear in the eastern part 
of the village of C&nneaut, — such as ancient mounds, 
artificial terraces, and elevated squares of level land, 
over which forest tr?es, large and aged, had grown 
prior to the visit of the 3urveying-party in 1796, — it 
would seem that this locality had been occupied by 
a prehistoric race of the human family. Of this 
fact the evidences are quite irresistible, and have 
been accepted by sundry antiquarians as conclusive. 
In excavating some of these mounds in the year 
1800, human bones of gigantic proportions were 
discovered in such a state of preservation as to be 
accurately described and measured. The cavities 
of the skulls were large enough in their dimensions 


to receive the entire head of a man of modern times, 
and could be put on one's head with as much ease as 
a hat or cap. The jaw-bones were sufficiently large 
to admit of being placed so as to match or fit the 
outside of a modern man's face. The other bones, 
so far as discovered, appeared to be of equal propor- 
tions with the skulls and jaw-bones, several of which 
have been preserved as relics in the cabinets of 
antiquarians, where they may still be seen. 

The grounds where these bones were found are 
limited to an area in the form of an oblong square, 
containing about four acres, and bear marks of hav- 
ing been surveyed into lots by lines running north 
and south, resembling in their general aspect a 
modern Christian cemetery. There are many de- 
pressions here and there in the surface of this ancient 
burial-place, which unmistakably indicate graves. 
The number has been estimated from two to three 

In connection with this marvel the early white 
settlers discovered tracts of land in the vicinity, 
which, though covered with a dense forest, exhibited 
traces of having been once occupied by a civilized 
race, who must have disappeared many centuries be- 
fore this extensive region of the great lakes was 
known to history. Who they were and what they 
were can only be conjectured by the landmarks 


which they have left behind them. The gigantic 
dimensions of these bones refute the idea that they 
were descended from any of the European races 
known to the Eastern continent, but indicate that 
there was in the early ages a race of giants on the 
earth, who have long since become extinct, like the 
mastodon, the saurian, and many other huge animals 
belonging to the remote geological periods, whose 
fossil remains are now their only record. 

The fact that a race of gigantic men once existed 
on this continent is verified by the frequent dis- 
coveries of human bones in several of the Western 
States, as well as elsewhere, which are very much 
larger than the skeletons of any race of men known 
to the historic ages of the world. In the remote age 
of the mastodon and saurian, both plant life and 
animal life assumed in many instances huge propor- 
tions, and, in all probability, included in successive 
ages huge men, who, as well as huge plants and ani- 
mals, were doomed to disappear from the face of 
the earth after completing the allotted period of 
their destiny, in order to make room, in accordance 
with the progressive law of nature, for new develop- 
ments, possessing more of the mental and less of the 
physical in their composition and organization. 

In 1829 an overgrown tree of the forest near 
Conneaut was cut down, when it was discovered that 


a chip, which was cut from near the heart of it, bore 
upon its face the gash of an axe, which it had evi- 
dently received at a period when the tree was com- 
paratively but a sapling. In counting the annual 
rings in the trunk of this tree, which were formed 
outside of the chip in the subsequent growth of the 
tree, it was found that the number aggregated three 
hundred and fifty, indicating pretty conclusively 
that three hundred and fifty years had elapsed since 
that chip received the blow of the axe which had 
thus left its mark upon it. If we deduct from the 
year 1829 the number of annual rings which were 
counted, it will give us the year 1479 as the year in 
which the chip received the cut from the ancient axe, 
— a period which extends back to thirteen years 
prior to the discovery of America by Columbus. 

It is generally conceded that there was at some 
remote period a race of aborigines occupying por- 
tions of our Western wilds, who had acquired the 
art of manufacturing edge-tools of copper, and of so 
tempering them that they would cut about as well as 
our modern steel implements. It is therefore quite 
probable that some one of these Conneaut giants, 
when living, struck this tree in its infancy with a 
copper hatchet, inflicting the gash still apparent on 
the chip ; and then stayed his hand, and concluded to 
" spare that tree " for some reason which can never 


be known. Whoever did the deed has certainly left 
behind him an interesting record of his work, which, 
though inscribed on the tablet of a " chip," may 
endure perhaps in antiquarian history when prouder 
memorials sculptured in marble have crumbled into 
dust. It is evident the " chip," if not cut from the 
" old block," was cut by a descendant of the first 
man, Adam, and ought at least to be regarded as 
one of the footprints of the past, to which Long- 
fellow alludes, — 

" Footprints, that perhaps another, 
Sailing o'er life's solemn main, 
A forlorn and shipwrecked brother, 
Seeing, shall take heart again." 



Harpersfield and its First Settlers. — Threatened Famine. 

— Two Heroic Young Men. —One breaks through the Ice. 

— Deacon Hudson. — Church at Austinburgh. — Woi.derful 
Revival. — Antics of Converts. — Infallibility of Judge 
Austin. — His Decision as to Church-Membership. 

A SETTLEMENT was made as early as 1798 at 
Harpersfield, in the county of Ashtabula. The 
adventurers consisted of three families, — those of 
Alexander Harper, William McFarland, and Ezra 
Gregory, — all of whom emigrated from the State of 
New York, and located in the township of Harpers- 
field, which derives its name from its original pro- 
prietor, Alexander Harper. They arrived here in 
June, after suffering many hardships and privations 
on their long journey. The vessel which they had 
chartered to bring their household goods and supply 
of provisions for the ensuing winter was unfortu- 
nately lost in a storm on the lake, with its entire 

The season had so far advanced when they arrived 
at their new home as to preclude the possibility of 
clearing land and growing crops to furnish them 


with supplies for the coming winter. In all, there 
were twenty persons who must be fed, or die of star- 
vation. They erected for themselves log cabins, and 
commenced to clear off the land, which was densely 
covered with a gigantic growth of forest trees. 
With the fish and wild game which they caught, 
they managed to live comfortably until winter, when 
they found that their corn and other provisions were 
nearly exhausted. The snow fell to great depths, 
and the cold became intensely severe. In fact, the 
rivers and smaller streams were so frozen and cov- 
ered with snow as to become invisible; while the 
blazed routes of travel were rendered almost impas- 
sable by snow-drifts and trees that had fallen. Thus 
barricaded in the midst of a vast wilderness, these 
isolated families began to despair when they looked 
upon their surroundings, and appreciated the fact 
that their stock of provisions was already reduced 
to a few remaining quarts of corn. Feeling that 
starvation was literally staring them in the face, 
they resolved to prolong life as long as possible, and 
from day to da}^ parched a part of the corn, allowing 
"to each person but six kernels. In a few days this 
little store of corn became nearly exhausted. It 
was impossible in the midst of the blockade to fish 
or hunt with liope of success. While they still 
trusted in Providence, they foresaw no token of 


relief. The dark cloud of utter despair was fast 
settling down upon them, when two brave young 
men of their number, James and William Harper, 
announced themselves ready and willing to hazard 
their lives in the attempt to secure relief. 

These heroic young men then equipped themselves 
as best they could, penetrated the gloom of the dense 
forest on foot in the direction of Elk Creek, Penn., 
where, after several days of severe struggle, they 
arrived in safety, and succeeded in obtaining two 
sacks of corn, which they carried back to Harpers- 
field on their shoulders, reaching there just in time 
to save the lives of their famishing friends. The joy 
and gratitude which were expressed by the sufferers 
on the timely receipt of this relief may be imagined, 
but cannot be described. 

The supply of corn thus procured was entirely 
inadequate to sustain twenty persons for any consid- 
erable time. Hence these resolute young men re- 
peated their visit to Elk Creek several times during 
the winter for the purpose of procuring additional 
supplies. On one of these trips a young friend 
accompanied them ; and, while returning homeward 
on the ice of the lake-coast, William Harper, with a 
bag of corn on his shoulder, broke through the ice, 
and was precipitated with his bag into the water. 
He saved himself from di'owning by scrambling upon 


a piece of floating ice, while his bag was left to float 
on the water. " What shall we do about the bag ? " 
cried William, as he swam amid the ice fragments. 
" Let it go," replied his brother James. " No," said 
the daring William: "I will recover the bag and 
myself, too, if you and our friend will go ashore, 
and kindle a fire." 

On receiving this assurance,* James and this 
friend, nearly overcome with the cold, were but too 
glad to retire to the woodland on shore and kindle a 
fire. In the mean time William succeeded in recov- 
ering the bag and himself from peril, and safely 
reached the shore, where he expected to find a cheer- 
ful fire awaiting him, by which he could warm his 
chilled limbs, and dry his wet clothing that had 
frozen stiffly upon him ; but, to his surprise, found 
his companions so benumbed with the cold and so 
much inclined to fall asleep, that they had not been 
able to kindle a fire. He instantly seized and shook 
them both into a wakeful mood, struck with flint 
and steel a fire, around whose cheering blaze they 
all gathered and resuscitated themselves. The two 
who were so benumbed with the cold, on coming to 
the fire and getting warm, became suddenly ill. 
William, an adept at almost any thing, prescribed 
for them prompt remedies, which had the desired 
effect, when the party resumed their journey, and in 


the course of a few days arrived at the Harpersfield 
settlement with their bags of corn. It is needless to 
say that they were received by their friends with a 
hearty welcome, and tliat their hazardous adventure 
on the ice became the general topic of interest. The 
story of this heroic adventure has often been re- 
peated as one of the proudest historical events con- 
nected with the early settlement of Harpersfield. It 
proves the fact, that the moral hero often excels in 
courage the military chieftain. 

The whole number of souls known to have settled 
at different points in the Western Reserve at this 
early date was less than one hundred and fifty. In 
this number are included the three families located 
at Harpersfield, ten families at Youngstown, three at 
Cleveland, two at Mentor, three at Burton, and one 
at Hudson. It is quite probable that two or three 
families had settled at Conneaut. 

The town of Hudson derives its name from one of 
its original proprietors, Deacon Hudson, who was 
the first white man that settled there with his 
family, and to whom reference has already been 
made in these pages. As the town grew, he grew 
to be the great man, and was clothed, if not in 
purple and fine linen, with political, judicial, and 
ecclesiastical power, holding the office of postmaster, 
justice of the peace, associate judge of the quarter 


sessions, and deacon of the church. He will long be 
remembered, not only as a man of ability and the 
strictest integrity, but as a Christian of the " strictest 

It is understood that the first church organization 
which took place in the Western Reserve was ef- 
fected by Rev. Joseph Badger, the missionary, at 
Austinburgh, in 1801. It consisted at the time of 
but sixteen persons. It was a church without a 
bishop, but not without a history. The town in 
which it was located took its name from the original 
proprietor, Eliphalet Austin, who emigrated from 
Connecticut and settled here with his family in 1799. 
He was regarded not only as the patriarch of the town, 
but as the main pillar of the church. Though pos- 
sessed of no more than a common-school education, 
he became conspicuous for his shrewdness, tact, and 
good judgment. In consequence of this, he was 
selected by the governor, and appointed one of the 
judges of the county court. He took a deep interest 
in promoting the success of the church, and in ex- 
tending its influence by gathering within its pale as 
many as possible of those whose footsteps had led 
them astray. In order to do this, a scheme of revi- 
val was projected and put into operation. This 
effort to recruit the church soon created an uncon- 
trollable degree of religious excitement, which, like 


a whirlwind, swept over the land far and near until 
it exhausted itself. 

The phenomena which attended this religious 
excitement were generally accepted as miraculous. 
Its subjects consisted of both men and women, who 
were seized, in the first instance, by a variety of 
symptoms resulting in agonies of spirit and contor- 
tions of body, which could not be controlled by the 
will or by imposing physical restraint. Though men 
and women were affected much in the same way, yet 
nearly all the women, when seized by these mysteri- 
ous spasms, sprang to their feet, whirled on their 
toes with extended arms and dishevelled hair until 
exhausted, then fell to the floor, and were seemingly 
lost in a trance ; while the men enacted all sorts of 
strange antics, some of whom were seized with a vio- 
lent jerking of the head, neck, and limbs, and others 
crept and howled like wolves of the forest, or rather 
wolves in sheep's clothing. Some danced like David 
before the ark of the covenant ; while others leaped 
over chairs and benches in rapid flight, thus endeav- 
oring to escape from the evil one, who, as they fan- 
cied, was following them in hot pursuit. Some knelt 
and prayed in a loud voice, as if they thought God 
had turned a deaf ear ; while infidels scoffed, and in- 
dulged in severity of criticism and half-suppressed 


Yet, strange as it may seem, these enthusiastic 
demonstrations were accepted by the multitude as 
evidence of genuine conversion, and as the work of 
the Holy Spirit moving in a " mysterious way." The 
few who did not sympathize with the movement 
were denounced as rebels fighting against God. 
Whatever may have been the estimate made of the 
matter at that time, there are but few who would, in 
this age, accept it as a divine work, though some 
beneficial results may have grown out of it. 

It did have the effect, however, to recruit the 
church by adding to it some thirty or forty new 
members, who had been gathered from Austinburgh 
and the neighboring towns of Morgan and Harpers- 
field. From this time forward this primitive church 
continued to grow in numbers as well as in grace, 
and finally came to be widely known as the " mother 
church" of the Western Reserve. Its influence, 
both in a spiritual and material point of view, was 
felt and acknowledged generally ; and hence member- 
ship was often sought as a stepping-stone, not only to 
respectability, but to wealth and official distinction. 
Of course the church became a power in the land, and 
candidates for admission numerous. When doubts 
arose, whether pertaining to Church or State, they 
were referred to Judge Austin for solution. Nobody 
presumed to question his infallibility. On one occa- 


sion a notorious and degraded shipwreck of a man 
applied to the ecclesiastical authorities for admission 
to fellowship in this church. His profession of faith 
was unequivocal, and apparently sincere ; but in the 
odor of his life there was no " savory smell " of 
frankincense. His case was referred to Judge, 
Austin for decision. He called very soon on the 
judge to ascertain his decision, when the judge, with 
seeming regret, but in a very gracious manner, in- 
formed him that there was no " vacancy " in the 
church at present, and consequently his application 
must be deferred until a more convenient season. 



"Woodmen of Geneva. — Morse's Slough. — Bread cast on the 
Waters. — Comic Sequel. — A Hunter attacked by Wolves. 

— Attempt of Two Women to shoot a Bear. —The Deer- 
Hunter OF Conneaut drifted in a Canoe across the Lake. 

— His Experiences and Safe Return. 

The township of Geneva remained an unbroken 
wilderness until the year 1809. It is located on the 
lake-shore in the county of Ashtabula. The first 
woodmen, who were employed to fell the trees and 
clear off a portion of its territory, commenced their 
labors in the north-east corner of the township, 
through which runs a sluggish creek, still known as 
" Morse's Slough." They gave it this name because 
one of their number, whose name was Morse, while 
attempting to cross the stream in winter with a bag 
of bread strapped to his shoulders, broke through 
the ice, and sank in the mud so deep as to be unable 
to extricate himself. Two or three of his compan- 
ions, who happened to be following in his track at a 
little distance, discovered the mishap, and, hastening 
to his relief, soon rescued him from his perilous situ- 
ation. They were but too glad to rescue him, and 


especially the bread. It was on this bread, and 
the wild game they could shoot, that the party 
depended for their daily allowance of fooa while 
encamped in the lone forest. Morse, when lifted 
from the mire, was not only a pitiful, but a comical, 
figure to behold. He was so chilled and suffocated 
with mud as to require prompt efforts on the part 
of his companions to save him from a distressing 
death. His companions, however, soon detached 
the bag from his shoulders, scraped the mud from 
his person, kindled a fire, placed him before it, 
administered from a pocket-flask a liberal potation 
of whiskey, and thus succeeded in restoring him to 
a comfortable condition of body and a much happier 
frame of mind. 

They then passed around the pocket-flask, and 
began to rally Morse by administering gratuitous 
advice and jocose remarks. " Morse," said one of 
his companions, " I hope you will never attempt to 
cross that creek again when you are strapped., if you 
would avoid being drowned." Morse replied, "I 
supposed I could walk over safely with the staff of 
life to sustain me," pointing to his bag of bread. 
" But you see," said another, " that, in casting your 
bread upon the waters, you found it the same da}^, 
instead of waiting many days." — "Yes," retorted 
Morse ; " but I find that man cannot live by bread 


alone," putting the pocket-flask to his lips, and 
exhausting its remaining contents. 

Her^ these facetious theologians of the solitary 
wilderness closed their colloquy. Morse returned 
to his home in t^ie settlement to repair his dilapi- 
dated condition, and recruit himself; while his com- 
panions proceeded to the scene of their labors in 
the forest. The treacherous creek in which Morse 
was so unceremoniously baptized, with his bag of 
bread, will long continue, doubtless, to be known as 
" Morse's Slough." 

Not long after this accident happened at the creek, 
a young man by the name of Elijah Thompson, while 
hunting game in the forests of Geneva township, 
armed with a rifle, and accompanied by his favorite 
dog, encountered! near nightfall a pack of seven 
hungry wolves. The wolves were evidently in a 
famishing condition, and disposed to satiate their 
ravenous appetites. The dog first saw them as they 
were approaching his master, and attacked them in 
a resolute manner, but was soon sadly bitten, and 
compelled to retreat, when his master fired into the 
pack, wounding several, while the others rushed on 
him in the most threatening manner. He then com- 
menced beating them right and left with his rifle, 
and, after a severe conflict of some minutes, suc- 
ceeded in dispersing his assailants, who retreated, 


howling with broken legs and cracked skulls, leaving 
him alone in his glory, with nothing left as the spoils 
of victory but the shattered remains of his rifle, and 
his faithful dog bleeding and crouching at his feet. 
He congratulated himself, however, on his escape ; 
and clasping his disabled dog under one arm, and 
bearing the remains of his rifle on the other, he 
reached home late in the night, feeling thankful for 
his timely deliverance ; and doubtless the wolves felt 
equally thankful that they had escaped without losing 
their scalps. 

Geneva became famous in early times for both 
heroic men and women. The wives of Morgan and 
Murrain, who occupied the same cabin of a dark 
night during the absence of their husbands from 
home, heard an unusual disturbance among the 
inmates of a pig-sty located near the cabin, and, 
springing out of bed to make an exploration, discov- 
. ered a huge bear helping himself to a young pig in 
an unceremonious way. They first attempted to 
frighten away his bearship by loud screams, and 
hurling firebrands at him, but soon found that this 
mode of warfare made no impression on the inso- 
lence of the merciless and blood-thirsty brute. They 
then resolved to try what virtue there might be in 
the use of fire-arms, and, hastening to the cabin, seized 
an old unloaded musket, which belonged to one of 


their husbands, and which took a heavy charge in 
order to load it, as they had heard their husbands 
say. One of the women poured into the tube a 
quantity of powder, and, adding a bullet, thrust it 
down with the ramrod, primed the gun; and then 
both sallied out into the midnight darkness — one 
with the gun, and the other with a torchlight — to 
shoot the bear, who in the mean time had made 
rapid progress in slaughtering the helpless litter of 
inoffensive pigs. The woman who held the gun, on 
arriving at the pig-sty, levelled the deadly weapon 
at the enemy, and fired. The report was fearful. 
The gun, by its recoil, prostrated the woman instead 
of the bear, who deliberately betook himself to the 
woodlands, keeping step to the music of a pig in 
his mouth, still alive, and squealing in hojDcless 

In the fall of the year 1817 a celebrated deer- 
hunter, by the name of Sweatland, who resided at 
Conneaut, while engaged one bright sunny morning 
in his favorite sport, startled a fine buck from his 
retreat in the woodlands, and pursued him with 
his hounds in such hot haste that his buckship was 
compelled, when he reached the mouth of the creek 
and found himself cornered, to plunge into the lake, 
and swim from the shore with all his agility in order 
to escape from the hounds. 


When Sweatland arrived at the bank of the lake, 
he saw the deer swimming in the distance away from 
shore, and, in the excitement of the moment, threw 
off his hat and coat on the beach, and leaped mto a 
log canoe with but a single paddle, and rowed with 
all his might in pursuit of the fugitive. The wind 
was blowing strongly from the south, favoring the 
speed of both the pursuer and pursued, in a north- 
erly direction across the lake. 

The chase became more and more exciting as the 
canoe gained on the deer: and, when it reached him, 
Sweatland lifted his paddle to strike the heroic 
swimmer on the head; but the canoe, being under 
swift sail, passed the game before he could deal the 
intended blow. His buckship, as the canoe shot 
ahead of him, concluded not to follow in the wake of 
a companionship that had made such a threatening 
demonstration, and suddenly reversed his direction, 
and swam directly back to shore. Sweatland at- 
tempted to change his tactics ; but, in despite of all 
his efforts, the adverse winds drifted his frail bark 
still farther into the broadening expanse of the lake. 
In looking back he saw the crafty old buck reach 
the shore in safety, and disappear in his native forest 
home. He also beheld on the distant bluff, near 
where the buck landed, his own dear home, — a log 
cabin iu which he knew his wife and children were 


anxiously awaiting his return ; and, still gazing, saw 
it fade out of sight in the dim distance. He now 
felt that he was indeed a " child of destiny," aban- 
doned to the mercy of the winds and waves, and 
drifting onward and away from all that was dearest 
to him on earth, — whether to an unknown shore or 
a watery grave, he knew not ; and as he thought of 
his wife and children, whom he could hardly expect 
to see again, a tear suffused his eye. 

Yet Sweatland was a brave man. He compre- 
hended his perilous situation, dashed the tear from 
his eye, headed his canoe in the direction of the 
wind, and indulged in the forlorn hope that he 
might safely cross the lake, and reach the Canada 
shore. Forlorn as his hope seemed, he still had 
faith in himself and in a merciful Providence. In 
the mean time several of his friends, whom he had 
left behind him at the mouth of the creek, and who 
had been watching him in his wild adventure, saw 
that he had disappeared amid the mountain billows 
in the perilous distance, and, becoming alarmed, 
manned a boat, and sailed in search of him ; but, 
after cruising about for several hours in the region 
of the lake where he disappeared from view, the 
darkness of night overtook them, and compelled 
them to return, despairing of ever seeing him again, 
and believing that he had been drowned. 


And still the brave hunter went drifting before 
the wind into the darkness of midnight with increas- 
ing speed, standing erect in his canoe, hatless, and 
with his hair streaming behind him, like a spirit 
walking the troubled deep. He was obliged to take 
a central posture, in order to preserve an equilibrium, 
as he sped on in his craft, which fearfully danced like 
a cork over the crest of the maddened billows. In 
this way, and with intense anxiety, he sped on and 
on for thirty-six hours, when he reached Long Point, 
and landed safely on the Canadian shore. Here he 
found himself alone on a desolate coast, many miles 
away from any human habitation, famishing with 
hunger, and nearly exhausted with fatigue. He felt 
an irresistible inclination to fall asleep. He hauled 
his canoe on shore, adjusted himself in his cradle of 
the deep, and was soon lost in a profound slumber. 
When he awoke, the cravings of hunger reminded 
him of his need of food. He made diligent search 
in the vicinity, but could find nothing edible. The 
sun was now fast declining in the west, when he 
resolved to traverse the beach of the lake in further 
search of food, hoping to find clams or a stranded 
fish ; but it so happened that he found what was still 
better, several boxes of stranded goods, which had 
evidently been swept overboard from some vessel 
caught in a severe storm. On opening one of the 


smaller boxes, he was delighted to discover amid its 
contents a quantity of smoked ham and sea-biscuit, 
— a feast ready spread, of which he partook with a 
zest and a liberality which surprised himself. 

Feeling replenished and re-assured in his faith, he 
now continued his wanderings as night approached, 
with the hope of finding some human habitation 
where he could procure lodging and assistance in 
securing the means of a speedy return to his own 
dear cabin on the other side of the lake. He had 
not travelled far when he discovered a light in the 
distance, and, pursuing its direction, soon reached a 
fisherman's hut, where he was received with a hearty 
welcome and the kmdest treatment. In the course 
of a few da3^s he recovered his usual health and 
spirits, and resolved himself into a committee of one 
to devise the ways and means of returning home. 
In company with liis new friend, the fisherman, he 
secured the stranded boxes of goods which Ke had 
found on the shore, and, on opening them, discov- 
ered, that, though somewhat damaged, they were 
still valuable, and consisted mainly of broadcloths. 
No clew or mark remained by which the true 
owner could be traced. They were, in fact, waifs 
of the deep; and, as he was advised, they legally 
belonged to him by right of discovery. He man- 
aged to have them shipped to Buffalo, together 


with himself, where he sold them, and pocketed 
the proceeds. 

He now felt that his pocket had been as marvel- 
lously replenished as his inner man on a former occa- 
sion. He then clad his outer man in a new suit of 
clothes, assumed the style of a gentleman, as he was, 
stepped on board the Salem packet bound for Con- 
neaut; and, when the packet arrived in sight of 
Sweatland's log-cabin home on the bluff, the com- 
mander, Capt. Ward, ordered a salute of three guns 
to be fired from the deck, which was followed by 
three loud cheers from the crew. The region round- 
about awoke, and re-echoed expressions of congratu- 
lation. The joy was great. The lost hunter was 

No sooner had Sweatland landed than he sought 
his cabin home. When he entered, his wife was 
overcome with astonishment, and believed him an 
apparition, but soon became convinced that he was 
a reality. Both wife and children clung to liis neck 
with expressions of joy and affection, which are inde- 
scribable. A thousand questions were asked and 
answered in the shortest possible time. "Every- 
body as well as myself," said his wife, addressing her 
husband, "thought you had been lost on the lake, 
never more to return. Believing this, I clad myself 
in the habiliments of woe, and at church, no longer 


ago than last Sunday, heard your funeral sermon 
preached." — " What did the preacher say about 
me ? " asked her inquisitive husband. " He gave 
you an excellent character, and assured me that my 
loss was your gain," she replied. " There is no truth 
in the Zoss," rejoined her husband; "but there is truth 
in the gain^ as you see : I have gained an excellent 
character, a new suit of clothes, a replenished pocket, 
and the dear I pursued in my younger days." The 
osculation which followed this last allusion must be 
left to the imagination, and accepted as the closing 
scene of the drama. 



Chardon.- Burton. -First Settlers. -Their Trials and 
Hardships. — Acting as their own Doctors and Mechanics. 
— The Hurricane. — John Miner and his Children. — Early 
Judicial Proceedings in Geauga County. - Judge Pease 
PRONOUNCES Sentence on Robert ]Meeker. - Exploration of 
A Mound. 

The birth of Geauga County occurred in 1805. 
She is the oldest daughter of Trumbull County, and 
is indebted for her name to the Indian language, in 
which the word Geauga signifies " raccoon," — an 
animal which abounded within her domains in primi- 
tive times, when coon-skins, deer-skins, and bear- 
skins constituted the principal articles of traffic. 

Chardon was selected as the county seat. It is a 
pleasant rural town, set upon a hill, and, so far as 
regards health of locality and character of popula- 
tion, is not excelled. The first settlement which 
was made in the county, however, was made at 
Burton in 1798, and consisted of three families, who 
. emigrated from Connecticut. It is difficult to ac- 
count for the fact that these families selected a 
home so far away from any other settlement as the 


locality of Burton then was, unless tempted by its 
swelling hills and the intervening streamlets of 
living water. In the course of the next year or two, 
several other families followed these first adven- 
turers, and settled at the same place. Burton, 
though regarded as the "lone star," soon became the 
centre of attraction in that region of the forest land. 
It was sown with good seed, and has produced a 
goodly number of distinguished men. In fact, there 
is hardly any thing wliich Geauga County cannot 
produce. The Indians said it produced " coons." 
The early pioneers said its high lands produced " tor- 
nadoes." Modern geologists say it produces not only 
manganese, iron ore, limestone, and yellow ochre, 
but has produced elephants. This last fact has been 
proved by the bones of a native elephant, which 
were recently excavated from an ancient marsh at 

Soon after the Western Reserve lands had been 
surveyed and put in market, more or less of the pur- 
chasers commenced to locate towns and cities at such 
points as seemed most desirable^ and in accordance 
with their own prospective interests. Hence small 
settlements were commenced at points widely apart 
from each other, and of course far away from civili- 
zation and the facilities of obtaining the comforts of 
civilized life. There were no roads or guides of 


travel, except blazed trees, and here and there an 
old Indian trail. The number of mechanics who 
had settled in the country were few and far between, 
and still less was the number of physicians and other 
professional men. 

The early settlers, without regard to unforeseen 
casualties, commenced their career in the lone wil- 
derness by clearing off the land and tilling the soil ; 
and, in accomplishing this arduous work, suffered 
not only inconveniences and perplexities of daily 
occurrence, but almost incredible trials and hard- 
ships. Not unfrequently were entire families pros- 
trated with fever and ague, or other diseases incident 
to a new country. In addition to this, it often hap- 
pened that dangerous wounds were accidentally 
inflicted, bones broken, or women subjected to 
maternal perils, to say nothing of the many other 
ills to which the human family is subjected, requiring 
the prompt attendance of a physician or surgeon ; 
yet neither could be readily obtained, for the reason 
that none could be found, except in the older settle- 
ments, and often at great distances. It was equally 
difficult, and for similar reasons, to procure mechan- 
ics to repair farming utensils, or obtain the milling of 
breadstuffs, supplies of dry-goods and groceries, or 
other necessaries. Consequently the early pioneers 
adapted themselves to cii'cumstances, and became 


to a good extent their own doctors, mechanics, and 
manufacturers. For calomel they substituted a de- 
coction of butternut-bark ; for .a tonic, a mixture of 
wild cherries and whiskey ; and for physic, stewed 
elder blossoms or berries. If needful, the men could 
build a house, mend a plough, or make an ox-yoke, 
with no other tools than an axe, auger, hand-saw, 
and jack-knife ; while their helping wives could not 
only brew and bake, but could manufacture cloth 
with a reed loom, cut and make the wearing apparel, 
and care for the many little wants of the rising 
generation. It is, indeed, a' matter of wonder that 
these hardy adventurers accomplished so much as 
they did under so many embarrassing circumstances. 
They were certainly a generation of men and women 
whose pluck, patience, and perseverance have rarely, 
if ever, been equalled. 

The high lands of Geauga were originally clad 
with heavy forests, and subject, as now, to severe 
winds and occasional hurricanes. A pioneer by 
the name of John Miner first located at Burton, 
where his wife died, and left him with a family of 
young children. He then removed to Cliester with 
his children, and occupied a log cabin in the midst 
of the woodlands. This was in 1804. On the first 
night after removing to his new home, there arose a 
violent storm of wind, which swept over the land, 


prostrating the larger trees of the forest in every 
direction about his cabin. He directed his children 
to creep under the floor for safety, and then stepped 
to the door to look at the effects of the gale outside; 
and, while he was in the act of opening the door, 
three large trees fell on the cabin, and killed him 

This disaster occurred early in the evening. The 
darkness and desolation of the hour, together with 
the crash of the falling timber, struck terror into 
the hearts of his helpless children, who had taken 
refuge beneath the cabin-floor. As soon as they 
had sufficiently recovered from the shock, they 
called from their hiding-place for their father, but 
received no response. Fearing to leave their seclu- 
sion amid the darkness and uproar of the night, they 
listened to cfytch the sound of their father's footsteps, 
but in vain, and finally fell asleep. 

In the morning they awoke, and crept out from 
under the floor; when they beheld with astonish- 
ment and overwhelming grief the crushed remains 
of their father beneath the huge trunk of a fallen 
tree. There were three of the children, — the oldest 
a girl. She was less than ten years of age. There 
was no one to help them. The nearest neighbor 
resided some three miles away. The little girl, 
however, appreciated the situation, and, enjoining 


the younger children to remain where they were, 
hastened through the woodland paths to the nearest 
neighbor, and related the dire calamity which had 
befallen her father, and crushed their cabin home. 
The good neighbor proceeded at once to the sorrow- 
ful spot, gathered the remains of the unfortunate 
father, and received the children into his own home, 
where they were kindly cared for until suitable 
homes could be provided for them. The remains 
of their father were returned to Burton, and buried 
with appropriate funeral services. This is but one 
of the many sad catastrophes of pioneer life. 

There are some very interesting facts connected 
with the early judicial proceedings of Geauga 
County. Among them it may be mentioned, that, 
in order to comply with the law in publishing legal 
notices in a newspaper, it became necessary to send 
such notices for publication to Chillicothe, Steuben- 
ville. New Lisbon, or Erie, Penn., as there was at 
that da}^ no newspaper published at a nearer point. 
The principal busniess of the courts of the county 
then consisted in hearing petitions of insolvent debt- 
ors under the act providing for their relief. The 
debts they owed, however, were comparatively small. 
Yet the scarcity of money made it, in those days, 
almost impossible for men of ordinary means to pay 
even, small debts. There were then but few law- 


yers ; and, though their fees were small (usually from 
three to five dollars a suit), yet they were at this 
insignificant rate often paid, it was thought by their 
clients, more than their professional services were 
really worth. The court, in criminal cases, appoint- 
ed at each term some member of the bar to act as 
prosecuting attorney, fixed the amount of the fees 
he should receive, and ordered the same to be paid 
from the county treasury. This appointment was 
much sought by members of the bar. The compen- 
sation allowed by the court varied from five to fif- 
teen dollars, in accordance with the importance and 
character of the case. 

The court records show, that, in 1806, the judges 
of the county court consisted of Calvin Pease as 
president judge, and Aaron Wheeler, John Wal- 
worth, and Jesse Phelps as associate judges. There 
were, in those days, but few civil suits, and still 
fewer criminal prosecutions. Among the early prose- 
cutions was the case of Robert Meeker, who was 
indicted for larceny, and arraigned at the March 
term, 1809, for trial. He heard the indictment read, 
charging him with stealing certain articles of goods 
from the store of William A. Harper to the value of 
one dollar and fifty cents, to which charge he pleaded 
guilty, and put himself on the mercy of the court. 

But Judge Pease, well knowing the character of 


the offender, did not allow his bowels of compassion 
to be much moved in behalf of the veteran thief; 
and, ordering him to stand up, sentenced him " to be 
publicly whipped ten stripes on the naked back, and 
to restore the property stolen from the owner, pay 
him the value thereof, $1.50, and also pay a fine of 
i;3 into the county treasury with costs of prosecu- 
tion, and be committed to prison for twenty-four 
hours, and stand committed until the sentence be 
complied with." 

The sheriff then took charge of the prisoner, and 
conducted him from the presence of the court, when 
the judge, with a comical expression of face, re- 
marked to his associates on the bench in regard to 
the severity of the sentence he had just pronounced, 

that — 

" If Meeker should need any more, 
Let him take it out of the store ! " 

The truth was, Robert Meeker had become a per- 
sistent petty thief, and the judge had determined 
to make a public example of him. But whether 
Meeker, in consequence of the sentence he had 
received, became meek as Moses, or meeker, and 
afterwards led an honest life, does not appear. Yet 
he doubtless became convinced that the way of the 
transgressor is, like Jordan, a " hard road " to travel. 

There are many reminiscences of interest con- 


nected with pioneer life in Geauga, which have been 
lost for want of effort to secure a record of them at 
an earlier period, when they cc^ild have been ob- 
tained from living lips. Yet relics, which belong to 
its prehistoric period, still continue to be discovered. 
So late as 1879 several reliable gentlemen united 
in making an exploration of an ancient tumulus, 
or elongated mound, located on a high bluff over- 
looking the valley of Grand River, in the township 
of Parkman. This aboriginal sepulchre of the dead 
was found by measurement to be sixty feet long, 
eight feet high, and fifteen feet wide at the base. 
It is partially surrounded by deep ravines, and over- 
grown with forest trees. The scenery about it is 
remarkable for its romantic beauty. Near it is a 
salt spring, or " deer-lick," which, in primitive times, 
was apparently the favorite resort of deer, elk, and 
other wild game, as well as the source from which 
the aborigines obtained salt. 

This singular tumulus is supposed to be one of 
the most ancient ever discovered in this region of 
the West. On exploration it was found to be con- 
structed mainly of broken stone and coarse earth. 
The base on which the mound rests consisted of a 
sandstone pavement about six feet wide, extending 
north and south in the line of the mound to its 
entire length ; and along this pavement, and founded 


upon it, appeared a series of contiguous cists, or cells, 
about three and a half feet long by one and a half 
feet wide, and two feet high, all constructed of flat 
stones by setting four edgewise, and covering them 
with a fifth stone. In these receptacles were dis- 
covered the remains of skulls, tee^h, and other 
human bones, together with wolf's claws or toe-nails, 
trinkets, flint chips, arrow-heads, and amulets, or 
ornaments made of stone, elaborately polished, and 
perforated with holes. 

It is presumed, judging from the construction of 
these stone cists, or cells, that the dead were buried 
in a sitting posture, and closely packed within their 
narrow lodgements, with a view to mutual protec- 
tion against the greedy attack of wolves, or perhaps 
with a belief that they could spring to their feet 
with greater facility when called to enter the hap- 
pier hunting-grounds of a future life. It has been 
suggested that the occupants of these narrow and 
cramped receptacles must have been pj^gmies, per- 
haps Asiatic Celts, who preceded the Indian race 
known to history. It is certain they could not have 
been giants ; yet it is equally certain that they were 
a " peculiar people," and somewhat numerous in this 
locality, especially as there are hundreds of similar 
cists, or cells, of stone still remaining in a dilapidated 
condition near the principal tumulus. The quarry 


is close at hand from which the stones were evidently 
taken. Within a radius of two miles from this cen- 
tral sepulchre are many sheltering rocks or natural 
cavities, with fire-marks burnt on their walls, indi- 
cating that they were once occupied as human habi- 
tations. Who and what these people were, however, 
must remain a secret, except so far as the relics 
which they have left behind them reveal their char- 
acter. It is only by comparing the dead past with 
the living present that we can form any just esti- 
mate of either, or comprehend their true relation- 

" Perchance the clods on which we heedless tread 
Have breathed with life, — the ashes of the dead, — 
Ashes which yet shall wake to conscious life, 
And, in the great advancing drama's strife, 
Assume, with new-born joy and purer heart, 
Still higher forms, and play a nobler part I " 



Ravenna. -- Its Founder, Benjamin Tappan. — His Experi- 
ences.— His Reply when asked for a Church Subscrip- 
tion. — Lewis Day's Arrival at Deerfield. — Want of 
Supplies. — First White Child. — Matrimonial Engage- 
ment. — Messenger sent to Warren for a Justice of the 
Peace to "tie the ELnot." 

The county of Portage purloined its territory 
from the domains of Trumbull, and derived its name 
from the fact that it embraces a high region of land, 
intervening between the head-waters of the Cuya- 
hoga and Tuscarawas Rivers, known as the "port- 
age," over which the Indians and early traders 
transported their commodities on horseback. Ra- 
venna, the county seat, is indebted for its classic 
name to Italy; and, when selected as the grand 
centre, consisted of three log cabins, one of which 
was built and occupied by Benjamin Tappan and 
family. His was the first cabin built, and he was 
the first settler in the town. The public business 
of the county was transacted for several years at 
his cabin for want of other accommodations. 

Mr. Tappan arrived, and built his cabin, in 1799. 


At this time there was but one man who had pre- 
ceded him, and settled within the limits of the 
county. His name was Honey, but he and his 
family thought they had had any thing but a 
" sweet time " since their arrival. Mr. Tappan, 
while on his journey to this land of the forest, over- 
took David Hudson with his family, who was west- 
ward bound as well as himself, and who founded 
the town of Hudson in Summit County. They 
became friends at once, and travelled in company, 
mutually assisting each other, and sharing each 
other's burdens. They came by the way of the lake- 
coast, ascended the Cuyahoga River in a boat, and 
landed at the new town called Boston. Here they 
parted, — Hudson to found the town of Hudson, and 
Tappan to found the town of Ravenna. Tappan 
was a young lawyer. He placed his family and 
goods in a tent near Boston, there to remain while 
he with a hired man proceeded to explore the wood- 
lands, and mark out a road to his point of destina- 
tion. This done, he constructed a rude dray-cart 
from saplings, to which he attached a yoke of oxen, 
i15cently driven from Connecticut, which he obtained 
as a favor from Mr. Honey, and by the aid of which 
he undertook to remove his goods and family from 
the tented field near Boston, where he had left them. 
After transporting his first load, consisting of his 


family and a few goods, to his new home, he returned 
for the remainder of his effects, but found the tent 
abandoned, and most of its contents stolen by the 
Indians. Though much vexed at this unfortunate 
occurrence, he 'struck his tent, placed it with his 
few remaining goods on the dray-cart, and started 
on his return to his family at Ravenna. But, while 
on the way, one of the oxen became overheated, and 
fell dead. This mishap left him in a condition 
which seemed almost hopeless in the midst of a 
dense forest, and a hundred miles or more away 
from any town or settlement where he could obtain 
the requisite aid. Here he was with a dead ox at 
his feet, and with his last dollar in his pocket. 

But, being a man of heroic temperament, he re- 
solved to conquer circumstances. He at once de- 
spatched his hired man, with nothing to guide him 
but a pocket compass, to Erie, Penn., a distance of 
nearly one hundred miles from the scene of his mis- 
fortune, to request of Capt. Lyman, the commandant 
of the fort, a loan of money ; while he himself, fol- 
lowing in the lines of townships which had been 
marked by the surveyors, found his way to Youngs- 
town, where he made the acquaintance of Col. James 
Hillman, who sold him an ox on credit, which sup- 
plied the vacancy in his team, and enabled him to 
complete the transportation of his goods to Raven- 


na. In fact, this ox-team, which was the oniy one in 
that region, was indispensable to him and others in 
preparing the way, and in securing the comforts of 
civilized life, in an unbroken wilderness. Except for 
ox-teams, which soon came into general use among 
the first pioneers, they could hardly have sustained 
themselves, or made their efforts a success in sub- 
duing the wild lands which they had selected, and 
intended to occupy as permanent homes. 

The unexpected delays on his way from the East, 
which Mr. Tappan had experienced in reaching his 
destination, prevented his arrival in time to clear 
and cultivate any part of his lands that season ; in 
consequence of which he was left destitute of the 
necessary provisions to sustain himself and family 
during the approaching winter. He was, therefore, 
obliged to trust to hunter's luck for securing his 
meat, and to Providence for his bread. His faith 
in his rifle was quite equal, if not superior, to his 
faith in Providence. He had no difficulty in shoot- 
ing a sufficiency of wild game, but found it very 
difficult to procure his breadstuff's, which he was 
obliged to transport from Western Pennsylvania at 
great cost. 

He and his family remained in camp, and lodged 
in the tent they had brought with them, until the 
ensuing January, when he erected for their better 


accommodation a spacious log cabin. He then gave 
to his hired man, who had accomj)anied him into the 
country, and rendered him faithful service, a hun- 
dred acres of land on condition of becoming a settler. 
The generous gift was accepted. In the course of 
the year 1800, which followed their advent into this 
wild region, several more immigrants arrived and 
settled in the same locality. Thus the infant town 
continued to increase in population from year to 
year under the auspices of its projector, until it 
acquired an enviable reputation as one of the most 
promising towns in the Reserve. 

Benjamin Tappan, the founder of Ravenna, was a 
talented man. Though born of Puritan parentage, 
and educated in Connecticut, he still had an abiding 
faith in himself and in his ability to take care of 
himself. This faith induced him to emigrate, while 
yet but a young man, from the land of steady habits 
to the land of golden promises, in what was then 
called the Far West. He was possessed of an iron 
will, and seldom failed to achieve his loftiest aspira- 
tions. He carved his way in the wilderness, and 
laid the stepping-stones by which he reached a proud 
eminence both as a jurist and statesman. He was 
eccentric in his style of manners, and expressions 
of thought, and famous for his wit, humor, and 
sarcasm. He entertained a much higher regard for 


the interests of State than for the success of the 
Church. There are still many unrecorded anecdotes 
afloat concerning him. 

On one occasion, while a member of the United- 
States Senate, he was visited by a rural clergyman, 
who requested a donation to aid his parish in build- 
ing a church. " Old Ben " heard the request with 
a patient but dignified indifference, and civilly 
declined to contribute. The clerical gentleman at- 
tempted persuasion on the score of duty, urging 
that it was the Lord's cause, and that the Lord 
owned all the wealth the rich possessed, even the 
cattle upon a thousand hills. " Well, then," replied 
old Ben dryly, "if the Lord needs money, why 
don't he sell his cattle, and build his own churches? " 
This adroit application of the clergyman's logic in- 
duced him not only to retire from the presence of 
senatorial dignity, but furnished him with food for 

Early in May, in 1799, Lewis Day and two or three 
other individuals, with their families, emigrants from 
the East, arrived at Deerfield in this county, after a 
long and fatiguing journey. They brought with 
them a horse and wagon, which they employed in 
transporting their children and supplies needed on 
the way. The wagon was the first that had been 
seen in this region. During the summer and fall of 


that year several other emigrants arrived at Deer- 
field. They were all destitute of adequate supplies, 
and, when winter approached, suffered severely from 
want of provisions. They were comj)elled to trans- 
port their breadstuffs on horseback from Western 
Pennsylvania, and, in doing this, experienced long 
delays and grievous hardships. In several instances, 
before supplies arrived, they were reduced almost 
to a state of positive starvation. But still, under 
all their trials, they trusted in Providence, and 
submitted to the severest privations with heroic 
fortitude. In their lives they practically learned 
the lesson, — 

" Know how sublime a thing it is 
To suffer, and be strong.'' 

And yet, however discouraging their prospects might 
seem, from some source or other relief always came 
in the " nick of time," and crowned their fears with 
the sunshine of heartfelt rejoicings. 

It was during this memorable winter of discon- 
tent, in the year 1799, that the first white child was 
born at Deerfield. It was a daughter; its mother 
was Mrs. Day, and the child was hailed as the dawn 
of a "brighter day" in this far-away forest land. 
This happy event was soon followed by another 
equally happy, that of the first wedding. John 


Campbell and Sarah Ely had concluded that their 
hearts were ever destined to "beat as one," and 
therefore resolved to consummate their union in 
lawful wedlock. But here they encountered an im- 
pediment. There was no official residing nearer than 
Warren (a day's journey away) who was authorized 
to solemnize marriages. They determined to over- 
come this difficulty by naming the " happy day," and 
sending to Warren for the proper officer to " tie the 
knot." The messenger reported that he had secured 
the services of Calvin Austin, Esq., — a young man 
who had but recently been elected a justice of the 
peace, — to be present and officiate. This was the 
first time young Austin had been invited to perform 
the wedding ceremony. He felt greatl}^ embarrassed 
as to the form of words to be used on such an occasion. 
He therefore sought advice from a promising young 
lawyer, by the name of Calvin Pease, who was his 
intimate friend, and who agreed to accompany him, 
and give him the proper formula. In view of this 
arrangement with his confidential friend, Austin felt 
quite relieved of his fears, and awaited the coming 
event with a feeling of assurance that he would be 
able to discharge his official duty, on so momentous 
an occasion, with propriety and becoming dignity. 



Arrival of the Young Magistrate and his Legal Advised 
FROM Warren. — Perforiniance of the Nuptial Ceremonies. 
— Merrement of the Festivities. — Characteristics of the 
Two Cal\t:ns. — Horse Trade with the Indians.— Troubles 


Flight of the Indians. —Nicks aw and Mohawk overtaken 
and killed. — Trial of their Associates, and Acquittal. 

The real reason why a special messenger was sent 
from Deerfield to Warren soon became noised abroad. 
It related to an event of general interest, it being 
the first novelty of the kind known in that region. 
The affianced pair had agreed that the following 
Wednesday should be the " happy day ; " because 
custom, or the god " Woden," from whom Wednes- 
day derives its name, had consecrated that day to 
nuptial ceremonies. 

Early in the morning of that auspicious Wednes- 
day the young justice, Calvin Austin, and his young 
legal adviser, Calvin Pease, left Warren on foot, and 
travelled all day through the dense woodlands, over 
hills and valle}'s, guided in their direction by blazed 
trees, and, after a weary trip of some twenty-five 


miles, arrived at Deerfield as the dusk of evening 
began to approach. They were hardly conscious of 
fatigue, as they had beguiled their weary way with 
an interchange of amusing anecdotes in connection 
with the instructions which Pease, who was born a 
wag, had imparted to Austin relative to the -formula 
of words he should employ in solemnizing the mar- 
riage contract. Austin, with implicit confidence in 
his friend, repeated the words of the formula, until 
he felt sure of his ability to discharge his official 
duty on the occasion in strict accordance with legal 

When the trying hour arrived, and the invited 
guests had assembled, and all were ready for the 
nuptial ceremony, the young magistrate, with an 
air of stately dignity, assumed a standing posture ; 
while Pease took a position on his right with a 
roguish twinkle in his eye, and watched the pro- 
ceedings, as the happy couple approached, and were 
directed by Austin to take each other by the right 
hand, who then gravely said to the bridegroom, " Do 
you take this woman whom you hold by the right 
hand to be your lawful wife, and promise to love 
and cherish her in health and in sickness, for better 
or for worse, in prosperity and in adversity, and 
prefer her to all others, until death do you part ? " 
— "I do." Then addressing the bride, he said, " Do 


you take tliis man whom you hold by the right hand 
to be your lawful husband, and promise to love, 
cherish, and obey him, in health and in sickness, for 
better or for worse, in prosperity and in adversity, and 
prefer him to all others, until death do you part ? " 
— "I do." — " In the presence of these ' witnesses, 
and by the authority of the law of the land, I now 
pronounce you man and wife. Whom God has joined 
together, let no man put asunder; and may God 
have mercy on your souls ! Amen." 

The closing words of the ceremony were received 
by the assemblage with a comical expression of 
surprise, yet with evident enjoyment. Pease could 
not restrain himself ; and, as a natural result, convul- 
sions of laughter and applause followed. Austin 
was petrified with astonishment : but, on casting a 
glance at Pease, he perceived at once that he had 
been made the innocent victim of a joke , yet, 
prompted by a forgiving spirit, he gracefully joined 
in the general hilarity of the guests, who thought it 
not only a good joke, but a very sensible and appro- 
priate appendage to the usual formula of the nuptial 
ceremony. This prelude of merriment was crowned 
with a feast of fat things, and followed with music 
and dancing, greatly enlivened by a stimulating 
familiarity with " old rye." The festivities con- 
tinued until a late hour, when the guests took leave 


of the happy pair with many congratulations, and 
a kindly repetition of the last words which were 
employed in the marriage ceremony. 

Austin and Pease were fast friends, and knew 
how to estimate each other. They were willing not 
only to share each other's burdens, but could bear 
each other's jokes with perfect equanimity. They 
each rejoiced in the baptismal name of Calvin, and 
were often spoken of as the two Calvins. As they 
advanced in life, Austin embraced the Calvinistic 
creed, while Pease preferred a creed of his own con- 
struction. Austin became a pillar of the Church, 
a colonel of militia, a member of the Legislature, 
and a man of wealth, and of course a man of in- 
fluence. Pease acquired eminence as a lawyer, and 
was soon elevated to the bench, and finally advanced 
to the chief justiceship of the State. They both 
lived to a good old age, and died, leaving behind 
them an enviable record. 

" Let grief be her own mistress still : 

She loveth her own anguish deep 
More than pleasure. Let her will 

Be done, — to weep, or not to weep. 
I will not say God's ordinance 

Of death is blown in every wind ; 
For that is not a common chance 

That takes away a noble mind." 


In the winter of 1806 several Mohawk Indians 
encamped at Deerfield. One of them, whose name 
was Nicksaw, acting as agent and spokesman for the 
others, was induced by John Diver, a white man and 
notorious horse-jockey, to swap horses. Soon after 
the exchange the Indians chiimed they had been 
deceived by Diver in regard to the soundness of the 
horse, and a serious altercation occurred between 
the parties. Nicksaw endeavored to persuade Diver 
to re-exchange, and thus settle the difficulty, but 
Diver declined. Nicksaw applied to Lewis Day, a 
justice of the peace, to give him redress. The justice 
advised him to see Diver again, and demand a re- 
exchange of horses, or payment for the difference in 
value. Nicksaw replied that he "no speak to 
Diver," and sullenly withdrew. 

This happened on the 20th of January, and on the 
evening of that day a convivial party of sleigh-riders 
convened at Diver's house, and were engaged in a 
merry dance, when Nicksaw, with several other In- 
dians, abruptly entered the room. They were evi- 
dently excited by the influence of whiskey, and 
soon manifested their insolence. Daniel Diver, the 
brother of John, met them in a pleasant way, and 
desired them to remain quiet. Knowing Daniel to 
be a true friend, they complied with his wishes, and 
assumed an air of friendship and reconciliation. 


They then attempted to persuade John, under plausi- 
ble pretences, to visit their camp, which was near at 
hand, but did not succeed. In the mean time the 
Indians discovered that the guns which they had left 
outside the door were missing. They then accused 
Daniel, who had been absent for a few moments, of 
having stolen them, and declared they would not 
leave the house until their guns were restored. The 
war of words became serious. The dance was sus- 
pended; the ladies shrieked, and ran from the 
house into the open air, followed by their gallants 
and the irate Indians. The scene was one of wild 
confusion. The moon shone brightly, and, in con- 
nection with the gleam of the snow, seemed to 
change night into day. Luckily the Indians discov- 
ered their guns near the house, and, seizing them, dis- 
appeared into a neighboring ravine, where they 
rejoined their associates who had accompanied them, 
and who were secreted in the ravine as a reserve 
force in case of need. The dancing-party returned 
into the house, and resumed their festivities, believing 
that they were relieved from the danger of fui'ther 
disturbance. ^ 

It was not the intention of the Indians to molest 
the guests of John Diver, but to secure his person, 
and make him the victim of their revenge. John 
understood this, and adopted a cautious policy ; yet 


the Indians were not to be foiled. By Indian law 
every man of a tribe or race is responsible for a 
crime or offence committed by any one of their num- 
ber. But Daniel Diver, feeling confident of the 
friendship of the Indians, reconnoitered the premises 
adjoining the house, and, the moment he approached 
the brow of the ravine, was met by the entire band, 
led by Mohawk and Nicksaw, who said they had 
found their guns, expressed themselves as satisfied, 
and even condescended to apologize for their im- 
proper conduct towards him and his friends assem- 
bled at the house. Daniel reciprocated their profes- 
sions of renewed friendship, and offered to shake 
hands with Mohawk, who indignantly refused. He 
then turned to go to the house, and had proceeded 
but a few steps, when Mohawk lifted his rifle, and 
shot him through the temples, in a range which 
destroyed the sight of both eyes, and felled him to 
the ground. His brother John, who was in the 
house, hearing the report of the gun, ran to the spot, 
and, lifting Daniel to his feet, asked, " What is the 
matter? " Daniel replied faintly, " I am shot." 

The entire band of Indians then fled, except Mo- 
hawk, Avho remained surveying his victim with an 
air of cool indifference. The n]omcnt Daniel had 
been received into the house, John assailed Mohawk 
with a determination to slay him on the spot ; but 


Mohawk sprang from him with a bound, and, utter- 
ing a fearful yell, fled into the woodlands. John fol- 
lowed, and was rapidly gaining on the savage, when 
the other Indians of the band emerged from their 
hiding-places, and hurried to the rescue of Mohawk, 
who was their favorite though subordinate chieftain. 
John, perceiving his danger of being captured, re- 
turned with all possible speed to the house, where 
he found his brother Daniel still alive, but in a 
very critical condition ; yet he finally recovered his 
health, but never his eyesight. 

This marauding band of Indians, fearing to remain 
in the country, emigrated at once in a north-west 
direction. The murderous attack which had been 
made on Daniel, without the least provocation on 
his part, spread alarm throughout the settlement. 
Within a few hours after the occurrence, twenty-five 
brave and heroic men volunteered to pursue and 
chastise the treacherous savages. They soon discov- 
ered the direction the Indians had taken, and pur- 
sued them with guns and hounds with unrelaxed 
avidity for the first twenty-four hours, when the 
cold became so intense that several of their number 
froze their feet, and were obliged to stop at settle- 
ments on the way ; but their places were readily 
filled by new volunteers, who resided in the settle- 
ments along the route. The cold was not only 


severe, but the snow was deep, which contributed to 
retard their progress. 

On the night of the second day they overtook the 
dusky fugitives encamped near Boston on the west 
side of the Cuyahoga River, and surrounded them. 
In the confusion of the onset, Mohawk and Nicksaw 
escaped from camp, and took to their heels. They 
were hotly pursued by the white men, who com- 
manded them to surrender. This they refused to 
do, and continued their flight. Being close upon 
them, Williams of Hudson levelled his gun, and shot 
Nicksaw, who fell dead in his tracks. In the mean 
time Mohawk redoubled his speed, and succeeded 
in eluding his pursuers for the time being ; yet a 
detachment of the white men had resolved that he 
should pay the penalty of his atrocious crime. They 
traced him to his lurking-place near Detroit, and 
there despatched him without ceremony. 

The remaining Indians, who had surrendered while 
in camp near Boston, were escorted to Warren, 
where they were tried before a magistrate on the 
charge of being implicated in the attempt made to 
murder Daniel and John Diver. They arrived before 
the magistrate in a pitiful condition, in the midst of 
a severe snow-storm, half-clad and shivering with 
the cold, — some with frozen feet, and others with 
frozen ears and fingers, and all of them nearly over- 


come with exhaustion and hunger. They were 
seated in a half-circle on the floor, in presence of 
the magistrate, who sat on the upright section of a 
log for a chair, at a rickety table, with becoming dig- 
nity and solemnity. The prisoners awaited events 
with woful faces, and with an expectation of being 
condemned to be shot, though the magistrate could 
only commit them to jail, to abide the result of a 
final trial in a higher court. An array of witnesses 
was called, some white men and some Indians, who 
were sworn and heard in the case. There were no 
lawyers employed on either side. The magistrate 
questioned the witnesses, and took notes of their 
testimony, not a word of which had been understood 
by the prisoners. In summing up the evidence, the 
magistrate seemed somewhat perplexed, and looked 
very grave ; but after thrusting his fingers through 
his hair, as if to concentrate his thoughts, he recov- 
ered his usual equanimity and clearness of percep- 
tion, and pronounced a verdict of acquittal, which 
was communicated to the Indians by an interpreter. 
The Indians were at first overcome with the unex- 
pected result, but soon rallied, and, with many ex- 
pressions of joy and delight, returned to their old 
camping-ground, where they met their dusky friends, 
and crowned their narrow escape from death with 
a dog-feast and a drunken repose fi'om all fears of a 
public execution. 



Characteristics of Huron County. — Founder of Norwalk. — 
Its First House. — Church Horn. — Two Trappers murdered 
BY Indians. — The Murderers arrested, tried, and sentenced 
TO be hanged. — Break Jail, and escape. — Re-arrested and 
hanged. — Their Religious Belief. 

Huron County was formed in 1809, but. not 
organized until 1815. It originally embraced the 
entire tract known as the "fire-lands," to which 
allusion has already been made. Norwalk was se- 
lected as the county seat, and is now one of the 
pleasantest towns in the State. Its citizens are a 
very enterprising and intelligent class of people. 
Every thing about them gives evidence of their 
Puritanic origin and practical good sense. 

The county takes its name from an Indian tribe 
which the French designated as " Hurons." The 
name is of Indian origin, but its signification is 
unknown ; yet it, doubtless, had allusion to a branch 
of the Wyandot tribe. The territory of the county 
is composed of swelling hills and undulating prairies, 
with a soil of sandy loam. Tliere are several dis- 
tinct ridges of land in this county, which run along 


the southern shore of Lake Erie, varying in width 
from a few rods to a mile or more, and which essen- 
tially correspond, in their curvature, with the line of 
the shore. There is little or no waste land in the 
county. The soil is easily cultivated, and is very 
productive ; while the climate is unusually healthful. 
In a word, it is a paradisiacal region for agricultural- 

The site which Norwalk, the county seat, now 
occupies was originally selected by Hon. Elisha 
"Whittlesey, in connection with two or three other 
prominent gentlemen, in ^he year 1815. It was at 
that time a part of the primitive wilderness, but was 
soon surveyed in allotments ; and the lots appraised, 
and put in market at from sixty to one hundred 
dollars each, according to location. Though sev- 
eral sales were promptly made at the appraisal, the 
first house was not erected until 1817. It was 
constructed of logs, and owned by Piatt Benedict, 
who intended to occupy it with his family; but, 
while he and his family were returning from the 
East with this view, the structure took fire from 
the carelessness of hunters, and was reduced to 

No sooner had Benedict arrived, and discovered 
his misfortune, than he proceeded to construct an- 
other cabin, instead of yielding to discouragement, 


as men of less enterprise might have done. In the 
course of three days he completed a new cabin, 
placed his family in it, and became monarch of all 
he surveyed. Like most of the early pioneers, he 
was a man of pluck, and resolved to conquer diffi- 
culties. His cabin was the nucleus of a town. 
Other families from the East soon arrived, and 
swelled the population to a respectable village. 
This accession induced the erection of a spacious 
log school-house, which for a number of years was 
occupied on Sundays for public worship. The con- 
gregation consisted of all classes, without regard to 
creed or color, and was convened at the "blowing 
of the horn." In the absence of a preacher the 
elders conducted the services. With the increase 
of population came not only additional schools, but 
churches and a court-house. 

There are some memorable events connected with 
the early settlement of Huron County. In 1819 two 
Indians were tried and executed at Norwalk for 
murder. The circumstances were of an aggravating 
character. Two white men, John Wood and George 
Bishop, had been trapping muskrats in the vicinity 
of the "Two Harbors," so called, and had stored 
their furs in a temporary hut, where they lodged at 
night. On a dark and rainy night, while they were 
asleep, three Ottawa Indians — Negosheck, Nego- 


naba, and Negasow — approached the hut stealth- 
ily, with a preconcerted determination to rob the 
trappers of their furs. The two Indians first named 
were well known as reckless villains , but the third 
was a young lad, guiltless of guile, who had taken 
no part in the evil counsel which animated his asso- 
ciates. On entering the hut they found the trappers 
lost in a profound slumber. The young Indian lad 
stood at the open door, and saw his stalworth associ- 
ates select their victims, and deal the fatal blow. 
The murderers then required the young Indian, « 
who had witnessed the brutal scene, to strike the 
dying men several additional blows on the head 
with a club in order to make him a participant in 
the nefarious deed, and prevent him from being 
called as a witness of the crime against them in case 
of detection. They then gathered their booty, and 
took their departure up the valley of the Maumee 
River, avoiding the settlements on the way, and 
endeavoring to leave no visible track or trace behind 

In the course of a few days the bodies of the dead 
men were found by their friends. The circum- 
stances made it evident that the two trappers had 
been killed by the Indians, and plundered of their 
furs and other articles of property. The discovery 
created a general excitement among the white set- 


tiers in that region of the country, who at once 
organized a volunteer company of armed men, and 
despatched them in pursuit of the escaping mur- 
derers. They soon ascertained, from information 
received in a neighboring Indian settlement, the 
direction which the perpetrators of the crime had 
taken ; and, after following in their wake for several 
days and nights, overtook them in the valley of the 
Maumee, and succeeded in arresting them without 
serious difficulty. They found the stolen property 
in their possession, returned with their prisoners, 
and took them before a magistrate for examination, 
when they confessed the crime, and were lodged in 
jail. When brought to trial in the county court, the 
two older Ottawas, who instigated and actually com- 
mitted the murder, were found guilty, and sentenced 
to be hanged on the first Friday of June, being the 
next Friday after the trial. The young Ottawa was 

The county at this date had not provided a jail, 
but used as a substitute a log cabin, in which the 
convicts were placed, and kept in charge of an armed 
guard, awaiting the day appointed for their execu- 
tion. In the mean time the wily convicts took the 
advantage afforded them by a very dark night, and, 
despite the vigilance of the guard, contrived to 
escape. The guard, hearing their departing foot- 


steps, fired on the fugitives, and wounded one of 
them, as was evident the next morning from blood- 
stains which appeared along the track. The dis- 
abled convict, however, continued his flight for sev- 
eral miles, when he became exhausted, and lay down 
to die, urging his companion to quicken his speed, 
and thus save, if possible, his own life. 

In the course of the next day the pursuers over- 
took the wounded Indian, and found him lying on 
the ground, and apparently in a dying condition. 
But his captors soon revived him with stimulants, 
and succeeded in returning him in a comfortable 
condition to the jail whence he had escaped. The 
other Indian was soon afterwards recaptured near 
the Maumee while attempting to cross that stream, 
and brought back in triumph to Norwalk, where the 
two convicts were executed on the same day, in 
accordance with the sentence of the court, amid a 
large concourse of both white men and Indians, who 
had assembled to witness the novel but impressive 

These Indians, like most of their race, regarded 
the white men as usurpers of rights and privileges 
which belonged exclusively to the red men, and 
therefore felt justified for the deeds which they had 
committed, believing the Great Spirit would receive 
them after death into still happier hunting-grounds. 


The culprits believed also that their dogs would 
accompany them, and, seeing their dogs present, 
pointed at them, and then at the sky, as they were 
launched from the platform. Such is the Indian's 

" To be, contents his natural desire : 
He asks no angel's wings, no seraph's fire;. 
But thinks, admitted to that equal sky, 
His faithful dog shall bear him company." 



Harrisville and its Founder. — Explorers from Wooster, and 
THEIR Experiences. — The Cold Winter. — The Ancient 
Pathway of Indian Travel. — Their Hunts, and Methods of 
Transportation. — Differences of Eaces. — Indl&n Theol- 

The territory which comprises the county of 
Medina was, previous to its organization, a part of 
Portage County. It was organized in April, 1818, 
and embraces an undulating region of fertile land, 
which was originally clad with a dense forest of oak, 
maple, beech, hickory, chestnut, and whitewood. 
The soil is an intermixture of clay and sandy loam, 
and is admirably adapted to the production of grass 
and the various kinds of grain. 

The first noteworthy settlement in the county was 
made at Harrisville, Feb. 14, 1811, by Joseph Harris, 
who with his family, consisting of a wife and one 
child, led the way, and commenced the future town 
by the erection of the first cabin. Here he resided 
in solitude for some years, with no white neighbors 
nearer than Wooster, — a distance of seventeen miles. 
There were no roads existing in this region of the 


country at that early day. The first attempt at 
road-making resulted in merely marking out a trail 
by blazing the trees in a line extending northerly 
from Wooster through Harrisville to Lake Erie. 

The party who explored and designated this route 
resided at Wooster, and was composed of George 
Poe, Joseph H. Larwill, and Eoswell M. Mason. 
They travelled on foot, carrying with them their pro- 
visions and other indispensables, including a pocket 
compass. They left Wooster in the morning, encour- 
aged by the benedictions of their fellow-citizens, and 
camped the first night, after a weary day's work, on 
the southerly margin of Big Swamp, ate a cold supper 
with a keen relish, wrapped the drapery of their couch 
about them, and lay down to " pleasant dreams," with 
the windows of heaven wide open, through which the 
sentinel stars looked out and watched over their ex- 
temporized but roofless lodgings. 

But, instead of enjoying pleasant dreams, they 
were entertained all night by the howling of hungry 
wolves, the incessant croaking of the frogs in the 
swamp, and the dismal crushing sound which was 
made by coons engaged in devouring these nocturnal 
serenaders the frogs. At daybreak they heard the 
bells of cattle in a northerly direction, and, following 
the sound, soon discovered the lone cabin of Mr. 
Harris, where they were hospitably received, and re- 


freshed with the best the larder afforded. They 
then proceeded on their way to the falls of Black 
River, where the town of Elyria now is, and thence 
followed the river to its entrance into the lake, where 
they found a solitary settler by the name of Reed. 
He and Harris were the only white men to be found 
on the new route which they had now marked out 
and established between Wooster and Lake Eri-e. It 
was at that time not only a lone route, but, like the 
way over Jordan, a hard road to travel. The present 
generation cannot appreciate the embarrassments to 
which the pioneers of the Reserve were subjected in 
their earnest endeavors to subdue the asperities of the 
wilderness, and provide for themselves and for their 
posterity happy homes, which are now enriched with 
all the privileges and blessings of a refined civilization. 
In June, 1811, the Harris settlement received an 
accession by the arrival of George Burr and family, 
accompanied by his brother, Russell Burr. They 
came from Litchfield, Conn. In the following year, 
when war was declared between Great Britain and 
the United States, the Indians of the upper lake 
regions espoused the cause of Great Britain, and 
threatened to invade the settlements on the southern 
shore of Lake Erie. This induced the families lo- 
cated at Harrisville to remove to Portage County, 
where they expected to find protection and greater 


safety, among settlements supposed to be able from 
their number to defend themselves. But, finding 
that they were not likely to be molested, the Harris- 
ville families returned to their own settlement in the 
month of October of the same year. The ensuing 
winter was a severe one, and was long remembered 
as the " cold winter." The settlers were subjected 
to great distress for want of the necessary provisions. 
The snow fell to the depth of two feet, and remained 
at that depth during the months of January and 
February, with a degree of cold which was uniformly 
intense, so much so, that many domestic and wild 
animals were frozen to death, while others died of 
starvation. It was difficult to obtain water, as 
nearly all the smaller streams were closed and sealed 
up by congelation. There was no relief until the 
month of March, when a general thaw and flood 
ensued, followed by mild weather, and the delights 
of an early spring, which inspired hope, and gave to 
nature a smiling aspect, a song of joy, a scene of 
beauty, — 

''The small birds twitter, 

The lake doth glitter, 
The green field sleeps in the sun; 

The oldest and youngest 

Are at work with the strongest ; 

The cattle are grazing. 

Their heads never raising ; 
There are forty, feeding like one." 


There was an old Indian trail leading from San- 
dusky to the Tuscarawas River, which passed through 
the locality selected by Harris at the time he settled 
in this region. This trail was probably connected 
with the old " portage path," if not identical with it. 
It was a hard-trodden trail, which was much travelled 
by the Indians, who rode on ponies when making 
their periodical hunting excursions from north to 
south. They had been accustomed from time im- 
memorial to hunt and fish at eligible points in the 
country, and at different seasons of the year, wher- 
ever fish artd game abounded. In winter they re- 
sorted in large parties to the Tuscarawas valley, 
and in summer returned to the more inviting re- 
gions of the lakes. They were usually very suc- 
cessful, especially in the Tuscarawas valley, whence 
they often returned with their ponies laden with 
furs, jerked venison, and bear's oil. They travelled 
in single file along their ancient pathway, stretch- 
ing out in a line often two or three miles in length. 
Their ponies were admirably trained for the service 
required of them, and were readily directed in their 
course by the signs and dictation of their riders. 
Neither bridles nor saddles were used. Their ponies 
often carried surprising burdens, consisting not only 
of the spoils of the hunt, but often including camp 
utensils, tents, squaws, pappooses, and other luggage. 


At night they encamped wherever they might hap- 
pen to be, and contrived to make themselves very 
comfortable. Every day brought with it its wild 
pastime, and every night its sound and refreshing 
slumber. They lived to enjoy, since nature had 
provided liberally for all their physical needs. In 
fact they lived in a state of primitive innocence 
until their wild domains were entered by civilized 
men, who brought with them the vices, rather than 
the virtues, of civilized life. In this way the apple 
of discord was sown ; and the children of the wilder- 
ness soon became demoralized, and, though often 
grossly deceived by the white traders, still bore and 
forbore wrongs and insults, to which they quietly 
submitted rather than come to an open outbreak. 
So far as possible they protected themselves against 
fraud by the practice of fraud. The white traders 
were often outwitted by the ingenious deceptions 
of their dusky patrons. The result was, that the 
sharpers on both sides came to the conclusion at 
last that honesty was the best policy, — a policy 
which both professed to adopt, but never, or hardly 
ever, did adopt. The differences between savage 
and civilized life are not, after all, so wide as we 
are apt to imagine. An interchange of missionary 
effort between the races might prove mutually bene- 
ficial, especially since the Federal Government pro- 


fesses to be doing so much, yet achieves so little, in 
promoting the moral and physical welfare of her In- 
dian tribes. The two races are by nature distinct. 
Yet each has its rights, — rights which ought to be 
respected. Whether might ever gives right still re- 
mains a vexed question, yet in practice it usually 
proves true. Though civilization may conquer bar- 
barism, it does not follow that it can either reclaim 
or regenerate it. There is a distinctive difference 
in the constitutional characteristics of the red, white, 
yellow, and black races, which never has been, and 
never can be, overcome or reconciled. They were 
constituted as they are by an imperative law of 
nature. They all reason, and have their reasons. 
They all have their philosophies, and a theology 
of their own. 

An aged chief of one of our Indian tribes recent- 
ly, in conversation with a missionary, said, " You are 
just as you were made ; and as you were made you 
can remain. We are just as we were made, and you 
cannot change us. Why, then, should we quarrel, or 
try to cheat one another? I do not believe that the 
Great Spirit gave one kind of men the right to tell 
another kind of men what they must do." 

The son of this old chief visited Washington not 
long since for the purpose of perfecting the terms 
of a treaty ; and, in discussing the question of mis- 


sionary effort among his people, stated that they " be- 
lieve in the Great Spirit, who sees and hears every 
thing ; and that he never forgets ; that hereafter he 
will give every man a spirit-home according to his 
deserts. If he has been a good man, he will give him 
a good home ; if he has been a bad man, he will have 
a bad home. This I believe, and all my people be- 
lieve the same." 

If this simple faith of the " poor Indian " is not 
orthodox, it certainly does not seem to be grievously 
heterodox. It may be assumed as true that man, 
whether savage or civilized, is endowed by nature 
with the elements of a religious faith of some kind, 
which develops itself, and grows with his growth. 
It is a faith or guiding principle of life, which mani- 
fests itself, not only in the individual, but in the 
family, the tribe, and the nation. Hence creeds are 
as various as the various peoples of the earth. All 
claim to be right, yet all may be wrong. It is not 
what a man professes to believe, but what he does, 
that furnishes the true test of a Christian life. 



The Grand Circular Hunt. — Its "Wonderful Results, — The 
Name "Medina" a Vexed Question. — Zenas Hamilton its 
First Settler. — County Court held in a Barn. — Rev. 
Roger Searle. — First Wedding. — Styles of Dress. — 
Low Prices of Farm Produce. — Social Distinctions. 

After the close of the war of 1812, the several 
settlements m the county of Medma increased m 
population with great rapidity. Amid all the em- 
barrassments and dangers attending the occupation 
of a new country, the white men soon became mas- 
ters of the situation. Though no longer annoyed 
with threatened attacks from hostile Indians, they 
were continually subjected to the depredations of 
wild beasts of the forests, especially bears and sundry 
other carnivorous animals, which were in the habit, 
under cover of night, of seizing and devouring their 
pigs, poultry, calves, and even hogs and young 
cattle. This kind of annoyance was generally felt 
by all the settlers, until it had become unendurable. 

With a view to remedy this prevalent evil the 
inhabitants of Hinckley, in connection with the 
settlers of the adjoining townships, resolved, in the 


winter of 1815, — some say in 1818, — to exterminate 
at a blow the bears, wolves, and other depredating 
animals of the forest, by which they had been so 
grievously annoyed. In order to effect this system- 
atically, they agreed to proceed first with Hinckley 
township by getting up a grand circular hunt, and 
distributing their forces so as to enclose the area of 
the entire township, and then, moving towards a 
common centre, drive the obnoxious denizens of the 
forest within a narrow compass, where they could be 
seen and shot, or otherwise slaughtered. 

The day was appointed, proclamation to all the 
men and boys of that region made; and, when the 
day arrived, a large number of hunters appeared and 
distributed themselves on the outskirts of the town- 
ship, armed with guns, clubs, pitchforks, and other 
deadly weapons, including tin horns ; and, at a given 
signal, commenced their grand march toward a 
common centre, shouting, blowing their horns, and 
beating the bushes with clubs; and as they n eared 
the centre they drove the terror-stricken animals of 
the forest, consisting of hundreds of bears, wolves, 
deer, turkeys, and other game, within a narrow 
circle, when the attack commenced. The scene that 
followed beggars description. The bears growled, 
the wolves howled, the turkeys gobbled, and the 
deer bounded in lofty leaps, hither and thither, to 


find some opening in the human wall or circle by 
which they were surrounded for escape, but all in 
vain. On every side guns were fired, bullets flew, 
bears assailed the dogs, wolves skulked, turkeys 
took, like riches, to their wings and flew away, rab- 
bits died of fright, and foxes hid in their holes ; and 
thus the battle raged until the going down of the sun, 
when it was found that the battle-field was strewn 
with the dead and dying denizens of the forest, who 
had been slain in the unequal contest. The number 
of the slain, consisting mostly of bears, wolves, and 
deer, it is said, amounted, in the aggregate, to seven 

The victors were, of course, delighted with their 
success, gathered the spoils, and encamped on the 
battle-ground for the night, and spent the most of it 
in feasting and merriment. This is but one of the 
many general hunts of the kind which characterized 
these early times. The attendant incidents were 
often not less surprising than comical, and not only 
furnished the participants with topics of unceasing 
interest and of infinite jest, but have been enlarged 
from generation to generation, until they have be- 
come marvels in the traditions of the times. 

When Medina County was organized in 1818, it 
became a vexed question among the settlers, whether 
it should receive the name of Medina (celebrated as 


the burial-place of Mahomet) or Mecca (equally cele- 
brated as his birthplace). A few of the settlers were 
professors of the Christian religion, and for that rea- 
son objected to the adoption of either of those 
names. They said they did not wish to perpetuate, 
in their midst, the memories of the false prophet. 
This led to a spirited discussion, in which the ques- 
tion of bigotry was involved. Fearing that words 
might come to blows, it was finally agreed to adopt 
the name of Medina, and give it to both the county 
and the county seat, as an evidence that all parties 
to the controversy preferred to honor the burial- 
place rather than the birthplace of the great Arab 

The county seat was surveyed into town lots soon 
after the county was organized. Numbers of the 
lots were immediately purchased and occupied by 
actual settlers. A goodly number of families had 
previously settled in different jmrts of the county. 
Zenas Hamilton, an emigrant from Danbury, Conn., 
was the first man who, with his famil}^ located in 
Medina township. This occurred in 1813. His 
nearest neighbor, at that time, resided at a distance 
of nine or ten miles from him. The first county 
court was held in a barn which then stood nearly a 
half mile north of the present court-house. 

In connection with the administration of justice, 


the gospel was preached by Rev. Roger Searle, an 
Episcopalian, who was the first clergyman employed 
at Medina and by whose influence the first church 
edifice was erected. The early settlers, however, 
previous to his employment, had been accustomed to 
assemble and hold lay services on the sabbath at 
private dwellings in rotation. The pioneers of the 
vicinity conveyed their families to church in those 
days in carts, or on sleds, drawn by ox-teams, taking 
with them an axe, a hand-saw, and an auger, to 
repair their vehicles in case of accident, and also a 
gun to shoot wild game that might appear along the 

The celebration of the first wedding at Medina 
occurred in March, 1818. The wedding was gen- 
erally attended by the inhabitants of the town and 
its vicinity, and the festivities prolonged to a late 
hour in the night. It happened that it was a dark 
night ; and, when the guests were ready to disperse, 
they found that it was impossible to trace their way 
home without the aid of lights. They met the 
dilemma by procuring dry bark from trees near by, 
and, binding it in small bundles, lighted one end, and 
thus furnished themselves with the necessary illu- 
mination, and by this means succeeded in returning 
to their respective cabins without serious embarrass- 
ment. They all felt that they had had a delightful 


time, and were amply repaid for the inconveniences 
to which they had been subjected. 

In those primitive days the number of inhabitants 
was few, and widely scattered in reference to loca- 
tion ; yet they regarded themselves as akin to each 
other, and as occupying the same level of social 
equality. They felt a deep interest in each other's 
welfare, and cheerfully contributed, when they could, 
to relieve each other's wants. They borrowed and 
lent, and shared each other's stores until they could 
replenish. For years they were obliged to travel 
twenty miles or more to mill to get their breadstuffs 
ground. Often the roads or trails, especially in win- 
ter, were almost impassable. It often required from 
three to four days to go and return from mill with 
an ox-team. They persevered amid difficulties, how- 
ever formidable, and thus succeeded in illustrating 
the adage that fortune favors the brave. Yet in 
their career they often suffered for the want of the 
necessaries of life, not only for sufficient food, but 
for comfortable clothing. The clothing which they 
brought with them was soon worn out, and the sup- 
ply exhausted. They made the rags of one garment 
serve to patch another, and, when these failed, re- 
sorted to patches cut from deerskin, and, thus clad in 
garments of as many colors as Joseph's coat, attended 
social parties and church, feeling that economy as 


well as charity should begin at home. Often the 
entire suit was made of buckskin ; yet no one had 
the impoliteness to criticise the style of dress in 
which his friends appeared. The people of those 
days were not controlled by the tyranny of fashion. 

In due time, however, when the country had 
become more generally settled and improved, the 
state of society underwent material changes; and 
with abundance of products from the soil came a 
desire to indulge in luxuries, and in styles of dress 
copied from the Eastern fashions. Of course these 
indulgences were soon followed with social distinc- 
sions, rivalries, and jealousies, not to say dissensions. 
People then began to speak of each other as rich or 
poor, as moving in the highest social circles, or as 
belonging to the commonalty. 

Though many had acquired comparative wealth, 
consisting of redundant supplies of wheat, beef, and 
pork, yet they found it extremely difficult to convert 
their products into cash at any price, and were com- 
pelled to exchange their products for such goods as 
they most needed with the local merchants, who 
were better able to transport surplus products to an 
Eastern market. Yet most of the merchants could 
only sell their goods for cash ; and, if they paid cash 
for farm products, it was merely a nominal sum, com- 
pared with their real value. Ten bushels of wheat 


would not sell in cash for enough to pay the cost of 
a pound of tea. Wheat was often sold as low as 
twelve and a half cents a bushel. Other farm 
products were equally cheap. 

A pioneer farmer from Granger came to Medina 
with an ox-cart loaded with corn, a distance of eight 
miles, and was glad to exchange it for three yards of 
cheap satinet to make for himself a pair of panta- 
loons. It was thought the good time had come 
when wheat could be sold for twenty-five cents a 
bushel. It was not until the Erie Canal was opened 
that a market for their surplus products was afforded 
them. From that time forward prosperity followed, 
and the entire country rapidly grew in population 
and in wealth. Log cabins disappeared, and commo- 
dious frame dwellings took their places. Towns 
sprang into existence, with shops, schools, and 
churches. Farm products found a ready cash sale, 
and at renumerative prices. The rising generation 
began to " put on airs," and to make still more criti- 
cal distinctions in regard to social positions. The 
oldest people, the fathers and mothers of the land, 
however, still adhered to their primitive habits, styles 
of dress, and love of social equality. Such is human 

It is very doubtful whether mankind will ever 
reach the stand-point of a common brotherhood. If 


they could do this and treat each other as brothers, 
it would convert the earth into a paradise. But so 
long as human nature continues to be what it now is, 
and ever has been, the prediction of the philanthro- 
pist in regard to this desirable fraternity of the human 
family will still remain but a barren ideal. The 
truth is, cultivate the wheat-field as you will, you 
will still find more or less tares in it at the harvest. 
This seems to be a law of nature. If it were not, it 
would annihilate all distinction between good and 
evil, and remove the necessity for further Christian 
effort in suppressing vice and promoting virtue. It 
is this necessity of moral effort, however, which gives 
to man the graces of a true manhood. Hence evil 
must be done that good may come. Though this 
may seem a strange doctrine, it involves the princi- 
ple on which both moral philosophy and Christianity 
are founded. It is a " divine mystery." 



LoKAiN County. — Lake-Shore Ridges. — Geology of the 
North-Westekn Lakes. — Heman Ely. — Name of Elykia.— 
Falls of Black River. — Rocks and Caves. — Girls caught 
bathing. — Stone Relics and Inscriptions. — River-Valley. 
— Rev. John J. Shipherd, the Founder of Oberlin Col- 

As tlie Western Reserve increased in population, 
the large land-proprietors endeavored to increase the 
value of their lands by securing from the Legislature 
the erection of new counties, and then, by adroit 
management, procuring the county seats to be estab- 
lished on their own lands. In this way the proprie- 
tors continued to realize, not only speculative wealth, 
but an enviable reputation as founders of towns and 

It was by influences of this character that the 
county of Lorain came to be erected in 1822. Its 
territory was taken from the adjoining counties of 
Huron, Cuyahoga, and Medina. It was not organ- 
ized until the ensuing year, 1823. It is indebted for 
its name to the French province, Lorraine. The 
county is bounded on the north by Lake Erie, and 


its soil is generally rich and fertile. That part of it 
extending along the lake-shore presents physical 
peculiarities which are problems awaiting, in the 
minds of inquisitive observers, a satisfactory solu- 
tion. These peculiarities consist of three distinct 
ridges of land, running parallel with the margin of 
the lake and with each other, and at a distance from 
each other of a half mile or more. They mark suc- 
cessive elevations of table-lands or plains, and seem 
to have marked, at different periods, the boundaries 
of the lake. 

The excavations which have been made confirm 
this theory by disclosing the fact that the ridges are 
composed, at great depths, of worn pebbles, shells, 
and occasional trunks of old trees, and other evi- 
dences of the action of water. Whether the waters 
of the lake have receded at distinct periods, or the 
entire coast has been elevated, still remains a ques- 
tion among geologists. At any rate, these ridges are 
the records of a physical power, whose empire can 
neither be restricted nor limited. The geological 
formation of the great chain of our north-western 
lakes involves a mystery which modern science has 
not as yet fully revealed. The chain has many dif- 
ferent links in it, some longer and some shorter, 
some of which are composed partly of iron, copper, 
aad sHver, while others are merely ropes of sand. 


Nature has a method of her own in all she does, 
whether it relates to her work of construction, de- 
struction, or reconstruction. 

The first settler who located in the township of 
Elyria was Heman Ely. He, with his family, emi- 
grated from West Springfield, Mass., in 1817. He 
was the proprietor of the township, and took a deep 
interest in its future. Both he and his wife, after 
mature deliberation, concluded to give the townsliip 
the baptismal name of Elyria. They regarded it 
as their own child, and shared in giving it a name 
composed of parts of their own. His surname being 
Ely, and her Christian name Maria, they united his 
name with the last three letters of her name, — Ely 
and Wa, — and thus composed the name " Elyria." 
When the county seat was established in 1823, it 
received the name of Elyria as a compliment to its 
worthy paternity. 

It was Mr. Ely who laid out the village plat into 
town lots. It was here that he erected his cabin, on 
his arrival in the country, in 1817. He led the way 
into the wilderness, and selected this spot as des- 
tined to become a large town, for the reason that he 
saw in the water-power created by the falls of Black 
River physical inducements for founding a town or 
commercial city. In this he was not mistaken. 
Elyria is fortunate both in its name and in its 


location. Situated as it is on a peninsula formed 
by the two branches of the river, it commands fine 
views of natural scenery, and, from its growth in 
wealth and population, has now become one of the 
most beautiful towns of the Western Reserve. 

Near the junction of the branches of the river 
there are two falls of water, which have a perpen- 
dicular descent of nearly forty feet. The scenery at 
this point is especially grand, wild, and picturesque. 
On the west branch the rocks crop out and project 
at a lofty elevation, and overhang the gulf or valley 
below, some thirty feet or more. Underneath these 
projecting rocks, there is a spacious semicircular 
cavern with a broad entrance. The depth of this 
cavern is about seventy-five feet, with a roof, or ceil- 
ing, of solid rock from five to nine feet in height. 
The floor is also solid rock, and nearly level. From 
appearances the cavern was once the favorite resort 
of the Indians. The interior is not only spacious, 
but cool and refreshing in summer. It is for this 
reason that social parties at that season often visit 
the cavern, where they enjoy a variety of rustic 
festivities, and amuse themselves by listening to a 
return of their own merry voices as they are repeated 
by the invisible spirits hidden away in the cavern's 
mysterious recesses. 

Tradition says, that, in the days of the pioneers, 


a half-dozen damsels, while bathing in the crystal 
waters of the river at a retired spot near the cavern, 
were suddenly surprised by the approach of two 
young men, who were innocently hunting "ducks" 
along the river-valley. The panic-stricken damsels 
heard the intrusive footsteps, and fled with breathless 
speed to the cavern for sl*elter, leaving their robes 
behind them suspended on the branches of the 
accommodating saplings. The young hunters felt 
hardly less embarrassed than the damsels, and took 
counsel together as to what they should do to relieve 
the pressure of circumstances. 

It was soon agreed that they would gather the 
suspended robes from the trees, and deliver them at 
the entrance of the cavern, where the nude proprie- 
tors could readily get them. When they had tied 
the robes in a bundle, there arose a delicate question 
as to which of the two should deliver it, and at the 
same time do it in such a way as not to shock the 
modesty of the fair fugitives a second time. In 
order to effect this, one of them agreed to execute 
the task blindfold : but, stumbhng on the way at 
every step, he partially lifted the blind over one eye 
so that he could discover his direction ; and, when he 
arrived at the cavern, instantly threw his precious 
burden into its entrance, turned on his heel, aud 
gallantly fled, without daring to cast even a glance 


behind liim, though he doubtless concurred with the 
blind poet, IMilton, in thinking that beauty "when 
unadorned is still adorned the most." In a moment 
the coy nymphs of the cave recognized the charac- 
ter of the bundle, seized it, made hasty toilets, and 
with flying steps returned to their respective homes. 
From that day to the present this retired bathing- 
spot in the river has ceased to be regarded with 
favor by the ladies. 

So late as the year 1838 there was discovered in 
this county, on the farm of Alfred Lamb in Brighton 
township, a stone image, or idol, of columnar shape, 
several feet in length, covered with a coat of dense 
moss, and partially buried in the soil, where it had 
evidently lain for many years. From appearance it 
had originally occupied an upright posture. Near it 
was found a hewn stone, eight inches in diameter 
and two inches in thickness. The head, or apex, of 
the columnar stone appeared to have been decorated 
with a pair of horns, which had been broken off. 
On the face of the column, or image, was inscribed in 
letters still legible the following record: ''Louis 
Vagard, La France, 1533." Near this, another stone 
was found, on the face of which was sketched, in a 
rude manner, the distinct outline of a small ship or 
vessel under full sail. 

These relics would seem to indicate that a French 


vessel had been lost on the lake, or had coasted along 
its shore, in 1533, and that its captain, or some one 
of its subordinate officers or crew, had died on board, 
or been drowned. It would seem still more proba- 
ble, however, that a party from the vessel had landed 
at the entrance of Black River, and proceeded inland 
for the purpose of hunting game or making explora- 
tions, and that this Louis Vagard was one of the 
party, who lost his life by accident, or was killed in 
a contest with the Indians. His companions, doubt- 
less, erected the stone monument, and engraved on 
its face his name, with the date of the year in which 
the unfortunate event occurred, as a tribute to his 
memory, and as a landmark by which his kindred 
might at some future time find the resting-place of 
his remains. 

The Black-River valley, extending from Elyria to 
the lake, a distance of about eight miles, was a favor- 
ite region in primitive times ; which was exclusively 
occupied by the aborigines. Here they dwelt in 
great numbers. The river furnished them with am- 
ple supplies of fish, and the hunting-grounds in its 
valley and in its vicinity afforded them an abundance 
of wild game. Here for unknown ages they flour- 
ished, worshipped the Great Spirit, engaged in war- 
fare with hostile tribes, and enjoyed a happy and 
contented life, until civilization encroached upon 


their wild domains, and compelled them to retire 
still farther into the wilderness towards the setting 

" Thus race to race must ever yield, 
And mental power assume the sway. 
Broad as the earth the ample field 
For those who trust in Virtue's shield, 
And Freedom's banner dare display." 

There is a divine power in the progress of Ameri- 
can civilization that marks its line of march with 
schoolhouses, churches, and colleges. This great 
fact is strikingly illustrated in the settlement of 
Lorain County. 

Among the many enthusiastic and enterprising 
men who sought the advancement of the county, and 
the promotion of its moral and social welfare, was 
the Rev. John J. Shipherd. As if influenced by 
divine inspiration, he conceived the idea of estab- 
lishing a collegiate institution for the purpose of 
affording the rising generation a higher order of lit- 
erary and religious education than could be obtained 
in the common district schools. Impelled by this 
"one idea," he mounted his horse on a pleasant 
morning in August, 1832, and rode alone into the 
wilderness in a southerly direction from Elyria, until 
he reached a tract of land beautifully located as a 
desirable site for a college, which he unhesitatingly 


selected. The tract consisted of five hundred acres. 
He at once reported to the friends of his project 
the selection he had made, which was cheerfully 

Soon after this the dark old forest was cleared 
away, and the sunlight of heaven allowed to illu- 
minate the spot. The college edifice was speedily 
erected, and put into successful operation. In 
other words, the one idea was realized. Rev. John 
J. Shipherd will long be remembered as the founder 
of Oberlin, — the cradle of Negro freedom. He was 
the second John who came crying in the wilderness. 
He evidently did not cry in vain. The college is 
indebted for its name to a German theologian, born 
at Strasburg in 1740, — an earnest man, who devoted 
his life to the promulgation of the Protestant faith, 
and especially to benevolent activities based on broad 
philanthropic principles. Such was the origin of a 
college which has already achieved a marvellous 
work by its educational influences. It will doubt- 
less fulfil the measure of its destiny, be it what it 
may. This may be accepted as a truism. 



How Erie and Sandusky derived their Names. — The City 

TURE'S Idea. — Distressed Family. — How a Lady crossed 
Black River. — Boys captured at a Bee-Tree. — Castalia. 
— Discovery of a Cave. 

Few, if any, of the Western Reserve counties 
have a history of more interest than that of Erie. 
Its territory was taken from Huron County, with the 
exception of a small fraction taken from Sandusky, 
which was not originally included in the Reserve. 
The county of Erie was erected in 1838. Its name 
is derived from the name of an Indian tribe, known 
as the Eries. They originally occupied the lands 
along the south-eastern shore of the lake to which 
their tribal name has been given. The word "Erie " 
signifies, in the Indian tongue, "cat," and was 
doubtless applied to the tribe for the reason that 
wild-cats, in primitive times, abounded in this re- 
gion of the country. 

The city of Sandusky, the county seat of Erie, 
is indebted for its name to the bay on which it is 
located. The bay, one of the broadest and finest 


that indents the coast of Lake Erie, derives its 
appellation from an old Indian chief, who dwelt on 
its borders at an early day, and whose name was 
Sowdowsky, but has now degenerated into that of 
Sandusky. This was a favorite spot of the abo- 
rigines, — an earthly paradise in which they de- 
lighted to dwell. The bay furnished them with an 
abundance of fish. The adjacent marshes swarmed 
with ducks, geese, and other wild fowl. The neigh- 
boring forests afforded them ample hunting-grounds, 
from which they supplied themselves with plenty of 
deer, elk, bear, and other favorite game. 

There are many relics and traces of Indian life 
still remaining in and about the city, which remind 
one of the primitive days when the dusky children 
of nature occupied the entire region. At the time 
the white men made their first settlement here, 
about the year 1817, the town was known as Ogontz 
Place, and was so called in honor of an aged Indian 
by that name, who, for many years previous to this 
date, had resided at this locality. He foresaw the 
manifest destiny of his race, and disappeared at the 
advent of civilization. 

When the old chief, Sowdowsky, occupied this 
favored land, he little dreamed that a white race 
from beyond the sea would succeed him, appropriate 
his domains, navigate the waters of the great lake, 


found a city on its border, and give it, with a slight 
orthographical modification, his name — Sandusky — 
in memory of his life and career. In this case, as in 
many others, honors often overtake the dead when 
least expected, if not when least deserved. 

Sandusky is a beautiful city. It was founded, by 
wise men, on a rock. This rock is a broad tablet, 
on which is inscribed a record of the lost ages, when 
plant-life and animal-life differed widely from the 
productions of the present or historic age. The 
record clearly refers to an age or geological period 
when gigantic icebergs ploughed the rocks, exca- 
vated valleys and lake-basins, and sowed huge bowl- 
ders broadcast throughout the continent, nor cared 
who should claim or reap the harvest. It is evident 
that Nature has a way of her own, in which she 
constructs and reconstructs her works. She is con- 
stantly active and progressive, and seems to entertain 
the * -lea that she will ultimately reach perfection. 
In case she should, what then ? 

Among the many sad experiences which occurred 
in the early settlement of Erie County was the fol- 
lowing: An enterprising young man with a family 
had selected for a home a beautiful spot near Huron 
River, and at a point far distant from any white set- 
tlement. Here he erected a log cabin, cleared a few 
acres of land, and let in the genial sunlight to cheer 


the threshold of his new forest home. This he had 
accomplished during the first summer after his 
arrival. In the fall he was taken sick, and died; 
leaving a wife and two young children in a destitute 
condition, and far away from any white friend or 
neighbor. Stricken with sorrow too deep for utter- 
ance, the devoted wife was compelled to perform the 
last sad rites for her departed husband, and to trust 
to such provisions as divine Wisdom might see fit to 
make for her relief. 

After a few weeks had elapsed, it so happened 
that a hunter, passing that way, discovered the lone 
cabin, and rapped at the door for admittance. A 
feeble voice bade him enter. On opening the door, 
he there beheld a pale, emaciated woman, sitting by 
a smouldering fire, holding a sick babe in her arms. 
He addressed her kindly, and expressed his regret at 
finding her in so sad and helpless a condition. She 
could only reply by yielding to tears, which she 
could not restrain ; but, after a few moments, so far 
recovered herself as to point to her oldest child, pros- 
trate with fever on the bed in a corner of the 
gloomy cabin, and then to her babe djdng in her 
arms. And then, after a painful pause, she said, 
" Here I am, left alone with my dying children, in a 
state of destitution. My dear husband, after a lin- 
gering illness, died but a short time ago. I was 


compelled to commit his dust to dust with my own 
hands as best I could. There he lies at rest be- 
neath the little hillock you see near our cabin-door. 
Oh, that I could return to the dear home of my 
childhood with my children, and receive the tender 
cares of my good mother ! " 

Overcome by this scene of distress, the sturdy 
hunter wept, then brushed away his tears, uttered a 
few kind words of sympathy and assurance, and 
then, with flying steps, proceeded to the nearest 
white settlement, which was many miles distant, and, 
after a few days, returned with aid and supplies to 
the lone cabin, and thus relieved the distressed 
inmates, who were kindly and properly cared for by 
the white settlers until restored to health, when they 
were provided with the necessary means of transpor- 
tation, and restored to their friends in Connecticut. 

The pioneers who resided within a circle of ten or 
twelve miles often visited each other in a social way, 
and without ceremony. On one of these social occa- 
sions, the lady of the cabin, having no other cooking 
utensil than an old bake-kettle, proceeded at once 
and cooked for her guests a substantial feast, which 
embraced the luxuries of the season. Her bake- 
kettle was every thing to her, and with it she cooked 
every thing. On this occasion she tried lard in it, 
fried cakes, baked bread, stewed venison, brought 


water from the spring, made tea, and gracefully 
poured the tea from its iron lips at table, laughingly 
remarking that she felt proud of her imported 
" China teapot." 

This was one of the many instances among the 
early pioneers where necessity proved to be the 
mother of invention. As may well be supposed, the 
festivities, after the feast, were continued until a late 
hour. They consisted mainly in singing, dancing, 
blind-man's-buff, and kissing the bride. These exer- 
cises were enjoyed with a rustic relish which is inde- 

The good housewives of the pioneers, though 
often widely domiciled from each other, delighted 
in exchanging social visits, and for this desirable 
purpose were ever ready to encounter difficulties, 
however formidable they might seem. As an illus- 
tration of this, it so happened that the first two 
white families who settled in the region of Vermillion 
selected homes, and built their cabins, on opposite 
sides of the river, and at points nearly three miles 
distant from the river. The two families had acci- 
dentally heard of their relative locations. The lady 
on the west side became exceedingly anxious to visit 
the lady on the east side, and accordingly sent her 
a message that on a certain day she would pay her a 
visit, which meant in those days a visit of all day, 
and not merely a call. 


On the day appointed, the west-side lady, having 
reached the river, found it so swollen by the recent 
rains as to render it unsafe for her to attempt cross- 
ing the stream. In the moment of her despair the 
husband of the east-side lady arrived with his ox- 
team on the opposite bank, ready to receive the 
west-side lady, and convey her to his cabin. He 
saw at once the dilemma ; and, resolving to over- 
come it, detached his oxen from the cart, leaped 
astride one of them, and compelled them to swim to 
the opposite shore. They bore him over in safety. 
He then persuaded the waiting lady to take a seat 
on the back of the other ox, when he gallantly re- 
crossed the "dark river" without accident. She 
then accepted a seat in the ox-cart, and was con- 
veyed some three miles or more to the cabin of her 
polite conductor, where the two housewives of the 
wilderness met for the first time, and doubtless en- 
joyed one of the richest and rarest gossipy visits 
imaginable, though their gossip related to themselves 
and their families. 

There are times, and this was one of them, when 
a woman must relieve her mind, and can only do it 
to a woman, — 

" While the tones ring on, with nought to show 
From whence they come, or whither they go I " 


And yet it is questionable whether the confidential 
talk of the men is not quite as trivial as the gossip 
of the women. The gossipings of both are doubt- 
less equally enjoyable, if not important, and seem to 
grow out of the natural impulses of the distinctive 
character of the sexes. If there were no " myster- 
ies," the world would lose its charms. 

The Indians resident within the present limits of 
Erie County, and in its vicinity, became generally 
hostile, in the war of 1812, to the Americans, from 
inducements offered them by the agents of the Brit- 
ish Government; and consequently they attacked 
and murdered American settlers wherever they 
could find them. In fact, they massacred men, wo- 
men, and children, without mercy and without dis- 
tinction. The more scalps they could obtain, the 
more bounties they received from the British au- 
thorities. Yet, in a few instances, there was mani- 
fested in the savage breast a touch of nature, which 
makes all men akin to each other. 

Two young American lads, one pleasant morning 
in the fall of 1812, left the block-house where they 
were safely lodged, and, being entirely unappre- 
hensive of danger, proceeded a mile or more into 
the forest for the purpose of securing the honey 
from a "bee-tree," which they had previously dis- 
covered. While engaged in cutting the tree down, 


tliey were surprised by two Indians, who killed one 
of the lads, by the name of Seymour, on the spot. 
One of the Indians recognized the other lad, as he 
was about to strike the fatal blow, as a member of 
an American family in which he had been received 
and treated with great kindness, and especially by 
the lad whose life he was about to take. This In- 
dian, yielding to an impulse of nature, stayed his 
hand, and expressed his gratitude for the kind treat- 
ment he had received at the hands of the family, not 
only by sparing the lad's life, but by aiding him in 
gathering the honey, and in carrying it home to his 

Among the many pleasant villages which now 
exist in Erie County, there are none, perhaps, which 
excel in point of beauty the village of Castalia. It 
derives its name from an ancient Grecian fount, 
and is located about five miles from Sandusky, on 
the head-waters of Coal Creek, which originates in a 
broad and beautiful spring, two hundred feet in 
diameter and sixty feet deep, known as the " Cas- 
talian Spring." This spring rises from a level prai- 
rie. Its waters are pure, cold, and clear as a crystal. 
The smallest pebble can be seen in its depths. In 
the sunlight it reflects, like a mirror, the hues of 
surrounding objects. Nature sees her face reflected 
in it, and seems to admire her own bewitching 


charms, damsel-like, with an air of gratified pride. 
It is said that the waters of this spring are composed 
of constituents that petrify every vegetable sub- 
stance which comes in contact with their influence, 
such as grass-stems, twigs, shrubs, mosses, and other 
like productions. 

There is a very interesting cave situated about 
two miles north of Castalia, — a secret workshop of 
Kature, — in which she has displa3^ed many beautiful 
si)ecimens of her artistic work in the shape of stalac- 
tites and stalagmites, glittering like caskets of gems. 
It was a singular incident which led to the discovery 
of this cave. A dog in chase of a rabbit followed its 
track into this cave, and was so long gone in its 
recesses as to alarm his master, who was watching at 
its narrow opening for his return, when, after whis- 
tling and calling loudly for a long time, his faithful 
dog re-appeared, bearing the rabbit in his mouth. 
On further exploration it was ascertained that the 
cave had seven distinct entrances, though of narrow 
dimensions, and that its interior branched into several 
spacious apartments. There are evidences that it 
was known to the aborigines, and was doubtless 
occupied by them as a hiding-place, and perhaps as a 
hall for the worship of the Great Spirit. 



"Why callkd " Sctvimit." — David Hctdson and his Career. — Ak- 

Spicer and the Indian Hunter. — Akron Flour-Mills and 
"Brand." — CuYAHO«A Falls. — Swapping Horses. — Stow 
and a Party of Surveyors luxuriate on Rattlesnakes. — 
The Twin Brothers and Twinsburgh. 

The territory included within the present limits 
of Summit County has an early record of much in- 
terest. Summit is a piece of patchwork, clipped 
from the skirts of Portage, Medina, and Stark Coun- 
ties. This was done by the legislative wisdom of 
the State, March 3, 1846. It was called " Summit," 
because it embraces within its limit the highest land 
known in the State above the line of the Ohio 
Canal. It was originally called the " portage," be- 
cause it referred to the line of elevated lands over 
which passed the old Indian trail, connecting the 
navigable waters of the Cuyahoga River with the 
Tuscarawas. This old trail was the highway over 
which the Indians and early white traders trans- 
ported their luggage and goods on pack-horses, as 
has been heretofore remarked, and was about eight 


miles in length. It was regarded as the ancient 
boundary-line between the Six Nations, occupying 
the territory east of the Cuyahoga, and the several 
tribes located west of that river. 

The first settler in Summit, David Hudson, arrived 
with his family at Hudson in 1800. He had, during 
the previous year, explored the country in company 
with Benjamin Tappan, a young lawyer, who settled 
at Ravenna. Hudson and his fJlmily, with several 
other emigrants from the land of Puritanism, came 
into the country by way of the lake in an open boat, 
and were subjected to many perils and hair-breadth 
escapes. The boat was heavily freighted, and, while 
entering the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, struck a 
sand-bar, and nearly filled with water, when, as luck 
would have it, a mountain wave came rolling shore- 
ward, lifted the boat from the sand-bar, and floated 
her safely into the quiet waters of the river. 

They continued their voyage up the river in a 
rain-storm to a convenient landing-place, where they 
pitched their tents for the night. The rain fell in 
torrents during the night; and when they awoke, 
near daybreak, they found themselves in imminent 
danger of floating down stream in their beds. It 
was only by a prompt effort that they succeeded in 
saving themselves from a watery grave. All were 
truly thankful for an escape which seemed a special 


providence. Hudson remarked that he felt his re- 
sponsibility in attempting to settle his family in the 
wilderness so far away from civilization, but believed 
he had been influenced by the fear of God, which is 
the beginning of wisdom. For some time he and 
his family, with one other individual, constituted 
the entire population of Hudson, numbering thirteen 
persons in all. The population soon increased. 

With a view to secure the moral welfare of the 
town. Deacon Hudson established public worship, 
and took the lead in providing a public school. 
These were the first institutions of the kind estab- 
lished at Hudson. All this has eventuated in giv- 
ing to Hudson its present intelligent population, its 
several churches and public schools, crowned with a 
college known as the Western Reserve College, and 
to which a theological and medical department has 
been attached. It has recently (1881) been de- 
cided that the college shall be removed to Cleveland, 
and assume the name of " Adelbert College." To 
Deacon Hudson belongs the honor not only of found- 
ing the town of Hudson, but of sowing the moral 
grain of mustard-seed which has attained to a gigan- 
tic growth, bearing golden fruit, and diffusing its 
benign influence throughout that entire region. It 
is quite impossible to estimate the grand moral re- 
sults which often flow from small beginnings. The 


good deacon died in 1836, aged seventy-five years. 
Hequiescat in pace, 

Akron, the county seat of Summit, was laid out 
into city lots in 1825, and received its name from 
a Greek word signifying height, or elevation. Its 
site is located on the highest point of land interven- 
ing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. The 
town is indebted for its name to a lawyer of Medina, 
who has long since deceased, and who was a fine 
classical scholar, as well as an able jurist and coun- 
sellor. For many years he practised law with suc- 
cess, but finally contracted habits inconsistent with 
temperance in all things, and descended prematurely 
to the grave, — the wreck of a noble manhood. His 
name was Olcott. 

Gen. Simon Perkins, who was the original propri- 
etor of the town, was asked, in the presence of his 
friend Judge Pease, why he adopted so strange a 
name as Akron for his new town. He replied that 
he wanted a name Judge Pease could not turn into 
a " pun." The waggish judge instantly vociferated, 
"What? Akron! Akron! Oh, you mean Acheron, 
the mythologial name of a river of hell." All 
laughed heartily, except Perkins, who, though in- 
wardly vexed, allowed himself to smile. 

It was in the year 1811 that the first white men 
settled in the vicinity of Akron. They were three 


in number, Paul Wniiams, Amos and Minor Spicer. 
Theirs was the only white settlement at that time 
in that section. The Indians were then numerous 
throughout the surrounding country, and, though 
professing to be friendly, often proved treacherous. 
Well knowing that but little faith could be placed 
in Indian professions, the white settlers adopted 
every precaution possible to avoid surprise, and, 
when they retired at night, accustomed themselves 
to sleep with " one eye open." 

One dark night, during the war of 1812, after 
Minor Spicer and his wife had retired to bed, Mr. 
Spicer was awakened from his slumbers by a loud 
and oft-repeated rap at his cabin-door. He instantly 
sprang to his feet, stepped to the door, and demanded 
who was there, and what was wanting. To this 
demand he received a harsh, guttural reply in the 
Indian language, which he did not comprehend. 
The "outsider" became imperious in demanding 
entrance, when Spicer cautiously opened the door, 
and found himself confronted by a big stalworth In- 
dian, mounted on a pony with two rifles, and the 
two halves of a slain deer slung behind him. Spicer 
asked him what he wanted, and received a reply in 
Indian. Spicer then demanded he should speak in 
English, or he would dismount him. The Indian 
then said, in broken English, that he wished to stop 


for the night at Spicer's cabin, — a request which 
was reluctantly granted. The unwelcome guest dis- 
mounted. The rifles were placed in one corner of 
the cabin, the venison hung up in another, and the 
pony, for want of a barn, was stabled in a vacant 
pig-sty. The Indian, finding himself in comfortable 
quarters, deliberately cut a few steal^s from the veni- 
son, and desired Mrs. Spicer to cook them for him. 
This she cheerfully did, and, seasoning the meat 
with pepper and salt, placed it before him. He 
drew up to the table, and, after tasting the meat, 
rose from his chair, smacking his lips with a scowl 
on his face, laid his tomahawk and scalping-knife in 
the corner beside the rifles, and then prostrated him- 
self on the hearth before the fire, and soon appeared 
to have fallen asleep. Spicer and wife then retired 
for the night to their bedroom, which was on the 
same floor. 

The Indian remained in apparent slumber for 
some time, when he raised himself to a sitting pos- 
ture, and, turning his head, looked steadily over his 
shoulder toward the bedroom, as if to assure him- 
self that all the family were asleep ; then rose to his 
feet, and stepped lightly across the floor to the cor- 
ner where the implements of death had been placed. 
At this moment the feelings of Spicer and wife, who 
had feigned sleep, yet had watched the movements 


of their guest, became intensely excited, especially 
as they saw the Indian halt in his approach to the 
corner, and again look around, evidently with a view 
to ascertain whether he had disturbed the house- 
hold; and, hearing no sound, he then seized his 
scalping-knife, and touched its edge with his finger. 
Spicer, at this juncture, believing that blood must 
flow, noiselessly took his own rifle in hand, which 
stood at his bedside, and levelled it at the Indian, 
ready to fire, when he discovered that the Indian 
had thrust his knife into the venison, and was cut- 
ing from it a large slice, which, when severed, he 
proceeded to lay on the live embers in the fireplace 
to broil. This re-assured Spicer that all is well that 
ends well. He then replaced his rifle carefully at 
his bedside without alarming the Indian, who, after 
broiling and devouring his huge slice of venison, 
re-adjusted himself on the hearth, and there slept 
quietly until morning. 

The truth was, the Indian, though famishing with 
hunger, did not relish the meat which Mrs. Spicer 
had cooked for him, because it tasted of salt and 
peppef ; and therefore he concluded to appease his 
appetite, after the family had retired, by cooking a 
repast to suit his taste, and at the same time avoid 
disturbing the family, or causing Mrs. Spicer to feel 
mortified that her cookery had proved unacceptable. 


The occurrence was certainly a rare instance of the 
delicate consideration of an Indian for the sensibili- 
ties of a white woman, who had cheerfully endeav- 
ored to do him a kindness. 

The Indian expressed his gratitude, on leaving in 
the morning, to the family for their kind hospitali- 
ties, and gave the reason which had led him to their 
cabin at so late an hour at night. He said that he 
and his aged father had been out on a deer-hunt the 
day previous, and had lost themselves at nightfall in 
the depths of the forest. His father was overcome 
with the cold and fatigues of the day, and could 
travel no farther. He then wrapped his father in 
the two blankets shared between them, and placed 
him in a comfortable bed of leaves under the shelter 
of a fallen tree ; and, while thinking how to dispose 
of himself, saw a light in the distance, followed it, 
and thus became a guest at the cabin. He now re- 
mounted his pony, and retraced his steps into the 
dense forest, where he found his father, who had 
just awakened from a sound sleep, much refreshed, 
when they both proceeded on their way, expressing 
their acknowledgments to the Great Spirit, who had 
protected them. 

The first grist-mill built in Summit was erected, 
in 1807, at a point about two miles east of Akron, 
on the Little Cuyahoga River, where the village 


of Micldlebury is now located. The present flour- 
mills of Akron may trace their ancestry to this 
primitive mill. Unlike the mill of the gods, the 
present Akron mills grind fast, and produce the best 
quality of flour known to the market, which when 
converted into bread, almost induces one to believe 
that man can live by bread alone, though contrary 
to Scripture. The Akron " brand '' has a currency 
as unquestioned as gold and silver coin. The truth 
is, Akron believes in '•• good wheat," and repudiates 
" tares." She glories in what she is, and predicts 
for herself a brilliant future, nor entertains the 
shadow of a doubt. If everybody does not believe 
as she does, it is certain that everybody believes 
in " whatsoever comes to pass." 

The beautiful village of Cuyahoga Falls is located 
onithe Cuyahoga River, about four miles north-east 
of Akron. The natural scenery at this point is re- 
markable for its wild and picturesque appearance. 
Within a short distance from the village the river 
falls to the depth of some two hundred feet, while 
the walls of the channel rise to a corresponding per- 
pendicular height. This wild locality, in primitive 
times, was a favorite resort of the aborigines. They 
called the falls " Coppacaw ; " which, in their lan- 
guage, signifies " shedding of tears." These Indians 
were shrewd at a bargain ; and, in trading with a 


white settler who located in that vicinity, succeeded 
in cheating him outrageously in the sale of a worth- 
less pony. The white man, when he discovered the 
cheat, shed tears. This exhibition of womanly 
weakness disgusted the Indians, who would rather 
die than cry, happen what would. The more the 
white man cried, the more the Indians laughed at 
him, calling him Coppacaw, a nickname by which he 
was ever afterward known. 

The township of Stow received its name from 
Joshua Stow, a member of the surveying-party who 
landed at Conneaut on the 4th of July, 1796. In 
traversing the lake-shore he acted as flagman in 
advance of the compass, and often encountered 
rattlesnakes in his path, which he delighted to kill. 
The party, though supplied with plenty of salt 
provisions, desired fresh meat as a change of diet. 
They therefore tried the experiment of dressing and 
cooking certain parts of the rattlesnakes which Stow 
had killed, and found the taste and flavor excellent. 
They partook of the feast with a keen relish, and 
often repeated this luxurious indulgence. This 
fact may be relied on as a truthful " snake-story." 
But now the day of rattlesnakes, like the day of 
miracles, has passed. The only snakes that seem to 
infest modern times are " snakes in the boots." 
These the prohibition party has not, as yet, been iible 
to exterminate. 


It is to be hoped, however, that some irresistible 
influence or potency, like that of St. Patrick of 
good old Ireland, will come to the rescue, and expel 
forever this kind of reptiles from our " happy land." 
Yet the moral evils of the present day are perhaps 
as few as at any former period in the history of our 
country in proportion to its population. Moral evils 
are incident to human nature, and abound to a 
greater or less extent in all countries and in all ages. 
In fact, moral evils are the most formidable enemies 
with which we have to contend in fighting the battle 
of life. Though unable to exterminate them, yet 
we may subordinate them. If any human being can 
conquer them, it is he who can " conquer himself.'* 

Twinsburgh is included within the limits of Sum- 
mit County, and has a history somewhat peculiar, so 
far as relates to its name. It is indebted for its 
name to two of its early settlers, who were twin 
brothers, Moses and Aaron Wilcox, born in 1772, at 
North Killingworth, Conn. Not only in infancy, but 
in early manhood, the one so exactly resembled the 
other, that few, if any, of their most intimate ac- 
quaintances could distinguish them. Even their 
mother often mistook the one for the other, espe- 
cially when dressed alike. She delighted in seeing 
them similarly clad, and enjoyed the blunders her 
friends and neighbors made in their attempts to 


decide which was Moses and which was Aaron. 
They were a puzzle to everybody, and provokingly 
so to school-teachers. The twins understood this, 
and often indulged in mischief, and escaped punish- 
ment because it could not be ascertained which of 
the two was the rogue. 

After they had arrived at manhood, they con- 
tinued to dress in a similar style. It so happened 
that they commenced to pay their addresses, at 
about the same time, to certain young ladies, who 
were sisters, Huldah and Mabel Lord, whom they 
afterwards married. During the days of their court- 
ship, however, they were in the habit of visiting the 
girls on different evenings and at appointed hours. 
It was in this way that their attentions were paid 
and received. While the twins recognized their 
respective favorites at sight, it was often difficult 
for the sisters to recognize their respective beaux. 
This mysticism was not less embarrassing to the 
girls than amusing to the twins. 

On one occasion Moses had engaged to visit his 
favorite on a specified evening, and at a definite 
hour, but was unexpectedly compelled to absent 
himself on urgent business, and, fearing his ladj^-love 
might doubt his sincerity, requested his brother 
Aaron to pay the visit in his stead, taking care, 
however, to instruct him as to the progress he had 


made, and the tenor of conversation he might expect 
and should pursue. Aaron accepted the mission, 
called at the appointed hour, was cordially received, 
and, without exciting the least suspicion of his iden- 
tity, spent the evening in pleasant chit-chat with his 
brother's lady-love, and, on taking his leave, was 
enriched with the reward of a parting kiss. It was 
not until after his marriage that Moses dared dis- 
close to his lady-love this little strategetic ma- 

This is but one of the many comical incidents 
which grew out of the perfect resemblance of Moses 
and Aaron. They lived in the utmost harmony with 
each other, and pursued a similar career as business- 
men. Moses usually led the way, and Aaron fol- 
lowed. Moses was born seven minutes ahead of 
Aaron. They grew to manhood in Connecticut, but 
soon came to regard that State as a field too narrow 
for liberal enterprises in agricultural pursuits. And 
hence they purchased from the State four thousand 
acres of land located in the Western Reserve, and 
within the limits of what is now Twinsburgh. 
TTliey made the purchase in 1812, and removed to 
these lands in 1823. It was by their liberality that 
the first public school was established in the township. 
They gave for this purpose six acres of land near the 
centre of the town, with twenty dollars in money. 


The proper authorities recognized their generosity 
by naming the township Twinsburgh. If scriptural 
names control the formation of character, then Moses 
and Aaron must have been not only good but godly 
men. They had many friends, and but few, if any, 
enemies. Singular as it may seem, they both sick- 
ened and died within a few hours of each other, in 
the month of September, 1827, at the age of fifty-five 
years. In this instance it was Aaron who led the 



Early Settlement at Mentor. — Judge Walworth and Gen. 
Paine. — Painesville. — Old Seneca, the Indian Chief. — 
Hon. Samuel Huntington and his Great Expectations. — 


Lake County. — Bones and Kelics. — Pagan Baptism.— Lit- 
tle Mountain. 

Lake is one of the youthful counties of the Re- 
serve. It is indebted for its territory to the lib- 
erality of Geauga and Cuyahoga. Bordering as it 
does on the lake, it received the baptismal name of 
Lake County. Its birth occurred March 6, 1840. 
Its domains are rich and productive, and admirably 
adapted to the culture of apples, pears, plums, 
grapes, and other fruits, as well as to cereals of 
all kinds. It abounds also in the production of the 
finest animal stock in the broadest sense of the 
word, and is not destitute of mineral wealth in 
the shape of iron ore, especially in Perry and Madi- 
son townships. 

Young as the county is, its territory has an inter- 
esting history. The first white settlement within its 
limits was made at Mentor in 1799. Hon. John 


Walworth, with his family, emigrated from New 
London, Conn., and settled at Painesville in 1800. 
In the course of the next two years other emigrants 
from the land of "steady habits" arrived, among 
whom was Gen. Edward Paine. Some of them, 
however, did not bring steady habits with them. 
But this remark is by no means applicable to such 
men as Judge Walworth and Gen. Paine. 

Soon after the organization of the State govern- 
ment, Walworth was appointed one of the associate 
judges of Trumbull County, which embraced at that 
time the entire Western Reserve. He received, in 
1805, the appointment of collector of customs for 
the Cuyahoga district, and removed to Cleveland, 
where he opened an office and permanently settled. 
Gen. Paine settled at Painesville. He had served as 
an officer in the Revolution with signal ability, was 
a man of wealth, and highly respected by all who 
knew him. The town of Painesville was originally 
surveyed into lots by Henry Champion, and named 
Champion. This appellation, however, was soon 
afterwards changed, and that of Painesville substi- 
tuted, as a compliment due Gen. Paine for his enter- 
prise and distinguished Revolutionary services. 

It is true that Painesville could boast of its dis- 
tinguished citizens in early as well as in later times. 
Among the aborigines who remained at Painesville, 


after the date of its first settlement by white men, 
was an aged Indian chief, known as Seneca, who 
was so named by the whites on account of his mani- 
fest wisdom ,and sagacity. His Indian name was 
Stigwanish. It is said that he possessed the dig- 
nity of a Roman senator, the honesty of Aristides, 
and the philanthropy of William Penn. He would 
not beg, but received gifts with a gracious acknowl- 
edgment. He was always careful to return all such 
favors with donations of greater value. He drank 
wine moderately, but refused to taste whiskey, for 
the reason that he once drank so freely of it as to 
become crazed ; and, while under its maddening in- 
fluence, attempted to strike his squaw with a toma- 
hawk, as she was passing him with her pappoose 
perched on her back, but missed his aim, and split 
the head of the pappoose, whom he dearly loved. 
This sad occurrence proved a lesson which wrought 
his reformation. His honesty gave him credit; He 
never contracted a debt which he did not pay at the 
time agreed. He was an ardent friend of the white 
men, and contributed, in every way he could, to 
promote their welfare, especially during the perilous 
times of 1812. During the later years of his career 
he resided in the vicinity of Cleveland, where he 
was last seen. 

The Indian tribes occupying the wilderness west 


of the Cuyahoga River were hostile to the tribes 
occupying the eastern side, and often made raids on 
the east-side tribes, who avenged these wrongs when- 
ever an opportunity was afforded them. It is quite 
probable that the old 'chief Seneca, who was as brave 
as he was honest, lost his life in a conflict with these 
western tribes. He lived and died a stanch friend 
of the white men. It is for this reason that his 
name was given to one of the oldest streets in 

Hon. Samuel Huntington was one of the early 
settlers at Painesville. He was the adopted son 
of a former Governor of Connecticut by the same 
name. He was bred a lawyer, and in 1802 was 
elected a delegate to the convention that framed the 
first constitution of Ohio. The next year he was 
appointed a judge of the supreme court. In 1808 he 
was elected governor of the State. He had resided 
a short time at Cleveland prior to his settlement 
at Painesville, where he died in 1817. He was 
a gentleman of fine attainments, polished manners, 
and active in promoting the improvements of the 
country and the true interests of its population. 

He erected in 1803, in connection with several 
other gentlemen, the first warehouse known at that 
time in the lake region. It was located at the mouth 
of Grand River. It was then thought by many that 


Painesville was destined to become the great com- 
mercial town of the Western Reserve. It was in 
the warehouse which he had built that the first court 
in Geauga County was held. He also laid out in 
1812 the town of Fairport, on the east bank of Grand 
River, with " great expectations " that it would not 
only advance the interests of Painesville, but might 
in time blend with it. The two towns are now 
connected by railway; and it is quite possible his 
great expectations may yet be realized, though hard- 
ly probable. 

This region of country in those early days was 
grievously infested with wolves. Gov. Huntington, 
while travelling from Grand River to Cleveland on 
one occasion after nightfall, and when near Cleve- 
land, was attacked by a hungry pack of these savage 
denizens of the forest. The attack was made near 
the present railway-station on Euclid Avenue. He 
was on horseback, and attempted to defend himself 
by striking the wolves with his folded umbrella as 
they sprang to seize him by the legs. In doing this, 
his horse took fright, and gallantly bore him away in 
safety from the battle-field to the house of his friend, 
Judge Walworth, who then resided on a farm adjacent 
to the public market in Cleveland. On dismounting, 
he discovered that the flanks of his horse were bleed- 
ing from wounds inflicted by the wolves ; and that the 


legs of his pantaloons had been sadlj torn by their 
teeth, and were in urgent need of a '' stitch in time," 
which was promptly taken. 

The first dwelling or cabin known in Lake County 
was constructed by Charles Parker, one of the sur- 
veyors, in 1796. The first settlement made at Wil- 
loughby occurred in 1803. Tradition says that a 
bloody battle was fought on the ground now occu- 
pied by the town, and near the locality of the old 
medical college, between hostile tribes of Indians 
in which a large number was slain. This is con 
firmed by the fact that a mass of human bones wau 
discovered at a considerable depth in this locality 
some years ago, which from their appearance evi- 
dently belonged to the anatomy of some unknown 
race ; but who they were, and why they fought, are 
questions which can never be answered. The writ- 
ten record of mankind is very brief, compared with 
their unwritten deeds. 

It is known, however, that a few Indians, proba- 
bly descendants of the primitive tribes, still remained 
on the easterly side of the river opposite Willoughby 
as late as 1797, when David Abbott, a lawyer from 
Massachusetts, located at the latter place, where his 
wife soon presented him with a beautiful daughter, 
— a child which the Indians greatly admired, espe- 
cially the old chief Wanbermong. He was highly 


gratified with being allowed to take the infant in 
his arms, caress it, and sometimes carry it to his wig- 
wam, where it was equally admired by the squaws. 
He always returned the infant unharmed to its 
mother in due time, and often decorated it in a fan- 
tastical manner with wild flowers and trinkets. The 
mother was a pious lady, and desired to have her dar- 
ling baptized , but at that time there was no clergy- 
man to be found within the limits of the Western 
Reserve. The question was, What could she do, feel- 
ing as she did that the sacred rite must be performed ? 
The old chief Wanbermong sympathized with the 
mother in her dilemma, and kindly offered, as high 
priest of his tribe, to baptize the child. She con- 
sulted her husband, who advised her to accept the 
proposition. The old chief appeared at the hour ap- 
pointed, clad in his priestly robes, dipped his finger in 
water, touched the brow of the child, and then, ges- 
ticulating in a mysterious manner, lifted his eyes to 
heaven, and reverently announced the name in the 
Indian tongue which he had selected for the child, 
and which signified in that language " Flower of the 
Forest." This complimentary name so pleased the 
parents that they adopted it without hesitation. 
The child grew to womanhood, and was in fact as 
beautiful as the flower from which she derived her 
baptismal name. She married a worthy gentleman 


by the name of Frank D. Parish. They settled at 
Sandusky, and lived to enjoy a long and happy life. 
She was the first white child, born of Christian 
parents, ever known to have been christened by a 
pagan priest on this continent. If the priest and 
the parents were sincere in the administration of this 
sacred rite, as they undoubtedly were, why was it not 
a sufficient compliance with the divine command, and 
therefore orthodox? 

There was found in 1820 by an early pioneer of 
Perry township, in an old Indian burial-ground, a 
club of Nicaragua wood in connection with the 
bones of a man, supposed to have been those of a 
white man. The club was perfectly sound, but the 
bones were much decayed. This fact was thought 
to indicate that the country had, at some unknown 
period far back in the past, been explored, if not 
occupied, by wliite men, who may have been Spanish 
adventurers from South America, or from some 
southern French or English settlement. The finder 
of the club was an early pioneer from Connecticut. 
He gave the relic to his wife as a curiosity worthy of 
preservation. She discovered its coloring properties, 
and utilized it as a dye-wood in her domestic manu- 
facture of red flannel. The club and the bones, 
however, had a history, which, if it could be dis- 
closed, would doubtless prove of abiding interest to 
the antiquarian. 


It is evident that nature sometimes indulges in 
freaks. One of the gems of Lake County is " Little 
Mountain." Nature must have been in a frolic 
when she made it. It is difficult to say just what 
her process was ; but, judging from appearances, she 
first mixed water, clay, and pebbles, into a loaf of 
dough, housewife-like, and baked it in an oven of 
subterranean fires, when its explosive yeast lifted it 
to its present height. It stands in the midst of a 
level country, " alone in its glory," and rises, like a 
sugar-loaf, seven hundred and fifty feet above the 
waters of Lake Erie. It is about one mile in diame- 
ter at the base, and is crowned with a dense forest 
of pines. Its distance from the lake is about five 
miles. It is here and there pierced with yawning 
fissures to great depths. Some of these are open at 
the surface, while others are covered, and thus form 
spacious caverns. Some of these caverns have rock 
floors, and are of sufficient height and width to ad- 
mit of easy exploration. 

The summit of the mountain contains an area of 
some fifty or sixty acres of nearly level land. This 
circular elevation, rising as it does in the midst of a 
plain, suggests the idea of its being a volcanic bub- 
ble, produced while its material was in a molten or 
boiling condition, and cooling in that form before it 
had time to collapse. However this may be, it bears 


the evidence of having been subjected to intense 
heat. Its composition is a coarse sand-rock, seamed 
with layers of white pebbles, which are about the 
size of hickory-nuts, smooth and polished, and which 
indicate that they have been at a former period sub- 
jected to the action of the waves, like those notv 
found along the beach of the lake. Hence it is 
inferred that the entire material, composing the 
mountain, was once a part of the lake-bed, which 
has been lifted by subterranean forces to its present 
position. This might have been done at one up- 
heaval, or by successive applications of volcanic 
force. In the process it is evident that the rocks 
broke of their own weight into fragments of great 
length, and settled away from each other so as to 
leave corresponding edges with deep cavities, or fis- 
sures, between them. Many of these are covered 
over by shelving surface-rocks, and in this way have 
formed dark, winding galleries, extending through- 
out the interior, or heart, of the mountain. 

In primitive times this mountain was a favorite 
resort of the aborigines, — a landmark in the wilder- 
ness, on whose apex they kindled their beacon-fires. 
They also regarded it as the dwelling-place of the 
Great Spirit, whose divine presence rendered it not 
only a secure rallying-point, but a sanctified altar, 
where they could present their offerings, and invoke 


the divine aid and protection of their invisible 

But now the mountain presents a very different 
aspect, though it retains its primitive forest of pines 
and balsamic atmosphere. Beneath the overshadow- 
ing pines, hotels and cottages crown its summit ; and 
hundreds of visitors, during the heated months of 
the year, come to the mountain, as the mountain 
cannot come to them, to enjoy its balmy air, its in- 
viting accommodations, its social recreations, and its 
salutary influences. This summer home in the 
mountain has no equal as a summer resort within 
hundreds of miles. Its natural' scenery is wild, 
beautiful, and romantic. The air is so uniformly 
cool and bracing, that it inspires the invalid with 
newness of life, as well as gives buoyancy of spirit to 
those who are weary and worn with business cares. 
All that this beautiful spot now needs to make it a 
paradise is larger and still more inviting accommo- 
dations. When these are furnished, as they some 
day will be, Little Mountain will take a dignified 
rank among the renowned mountains of the earth. 
And, though it may never be numbered among the 
sacred mountains, yet it will ever furnish tablets of 
stone, on which the finger of God has written the 
evidences of divine power, if not his command- 
ments. It is here one may not only escape from the 


heat and dusty activities of summer, but from him- 
self, — 

"And breathe the mountain air 
Beneath the dreamy pine, 
Where life is free from care, 
And Nature's smile divine." 



Little Things. — Joe Smith. — Discovery and Translation of 
THE Golden Plates, or Book of Mormon. — Novel written by 
Solomon Spalding. — How Rev. Sidney Rigdon obtained the 
Manuscript. — Scheme of Smith and Rigdon. — Latter-Day 
Saints. — Temple at Kirtland. — Removal to Nauvoo.— 
Flight into the "Western Wilderness. — Salt Lake City. — 
The Prophet. 

Lake County is a little county, famous for many 
little things, some of which are really great things in 
a certain sense. For instance, there is the little 
town of Kirtland, snugly ensconced among the hills, 
which has a wide and lasting fame, if not an enviable 
one. It is the veritable "cradle of Mormonism." 
As to the origin of this new religious faith, different 
versions have been given. 

One version is, that it originated with Joe Smith, 
who was afterward aided in his schemes by equally 
unscrupulous men. But little is known of Smith's 
early career in life. It has been ascertained, how- 
ever, that he was born in Vermont, in 1805, of 
humble parentage. His education was sadly neg- 
lected by his parents ; yet as he grew to manhood he 


evinced a degree of native tact and talent which was 
truly remarkable. He had not only an inquisitive 
mind, but a vaulting ambition to acquire public 

He delighted in discussing theological subjects, 
and assumed that he was endowed with the gift of 
prophecy. In proof of this, he practised the divin- 
ing art with considerable success in the rural dis- 
tricts of his own neighborhood, and especially among 
the unsophisticated farmers. He always carried 
with him a mysterious-looking rod, which he called 
a divining-rod, and by the tremulous motion of 
which he could determine just the spot where per- 
sons wishing to dig a well could strike upon an 
ample spring of living water. Many wells were dug 
in accordance with his instructions, and with admi- 
rable success. Yet many were dug with equal suc- 
cess without his divinations. He also carried with 
him a mineral-rod, by whose attractive power he 
claimed to detect the spot where hidden treasures 
had been buried in the earth, and in fact insisted 
that he had in this way discovered several places 
where large amounts of gold and silver had been 
concealed during the Revolution and at subsequent 
periods. He became famous, and travelled through 
the country to a considerable extent, practising his 
mysterious arts and delivering lectures. He held 


public meetings at Palmyra, N. Y., and in other 
towns, at which he explained, in a plausible way, 
the gift of divination which he had employed with 
unprecedented success. He soon found himself sus- 
tained by an extensive circle of believers. 

Finding this to be the fact, he at once assumed 
the character of a prophet, and declared that to him 
had been given a divine commission, authorizing 
him to announce to the world a new revelation for 
the salvation of mankind. In order to give sanction 
to the commission which he had received, he asserted 
that he had been guided by an angel from heaven to 
a secluded nook in the hillside near Palmyra, where 
he was directed to make an excavation to a certain 
depth. This he did ; and the result was, that he dis- 
covered at the depth prescribed a stone box, in 
which was enclosed a deposit of gold plates, en- 
graved with strange characters, hitherto unknown to 
any human tongue or alphabet. The angel declared 
the contents of the plates to be a message sent from 
heaven to the children of men , and assured the 
prophet that he would find with the plates an illu- 
minating stone, by the power of which, when placed 
before his eyes, he would instantly become endowed 
with the gift of tongues, and the ability to translate 
the language of the plates into English. The angel 
then disappeared as mysteriously as he came. Fol- 


lowing the directions he had received, the prophet 
succeeded in translating the graven plates into plain 
English, as he asserted. It is this translation of the 
divine message from heaven which constitutes the 
Golden Bible, or Book of Mormon, or, in other 
words, the Holy Scriptures of the "Latter-Day 

A much more probable version than the foregoing 
has. been given of the origin of this new revelation. 
Some years previous to the marvellous announce- 
ment made by Joe Smith, a liberally educated gen- 
tleman, by the name of Solomon Spalding, a native 
of Connecticut, came to Conneaut, Ohio, and en- 
tered into copartnership with his brother John, who 
was a merchant doing business at that place. They 
subsequently failed as merchants. Solomon's health 
became seriously impaired , and by way of amusing 
himself, while in a failing condition of health, he 
wrote a historical romance or fiction, which was 
purely imaginary, but written in a scriptural style 
of language. He entitled his work, "The Manu- 
script Found." 

In this fiction he assumed that the American 
Indians were descendants of the Jews, or lost tribes, 
of whom he gives a detailed account, including their 
wandering journey from Jerusalem by land and by 
sea until they arrived in America under command 


of Nephi and Lehi. He also describes the career of 
these lost tribes after they arrived in America, their 
quarrels and contentions, their division into two 
nations, known as Nephites and Lemanites, their 
arts and civilization, their religious rites and cere- 
monies, and their subsequent cruel and bloody t\ ars, 
in which great multitudes of them were slain, and 
buried in mounds. It was in this way that he ac- 
counted for the origin of the American Indians. 

It is well known that Solomon, the author of 
"The Manuscript Found," read parts of his work, 
while engaged in writing it, to his brother John, who 
professed to be quite delighted with its originality, 
and with its scriptural style of language, and who 
did not hesitate to advise its publication. This en- 
couraging estimate of the work induced its author, 
in 1816, to visit Pittsburgh with a view to securing 
a publisher. It is supposed that he succeeded in 
making an arrangement for the purpose with the 
printing-firm of Patterson & Lambdin, and that he 
left his manuscript with them. Soon after this 
he visited Amity, Penn., where he was taken sud- 
denly ill, and died. No more was heard of the man- 
uscript for a good number of years. 

In 1824 Sidney Rigdon visited Pittsburgh, and 
remained for some three years as a student of 
theology. In the mean time he made the acquaint- 


ance of Lambdin, of the printing-firm, and became 
his intimate friend. By this means he undoubtedly 
acquired possession of the manuscript. The firm 
became insolvent, and Lambdin soon afterwards 
died. The surviving partner, Patterson, stated that 
he knew nothing definite in relation to this particular 
manuscript, but said that Lambdin, his former part- 
ner, took charge of all manuscripts left with the firm 
for inspection, and that a large mass of such manu- 
scripts still remained unread upon their shelves at 
the time of Lambdin's death. On receiving this 
information, the widow of Spalding caused diligent 
search to be made for the desired manuscript ; but 
it could not be found among the manuscripts re- 
maining upon the shelves. This fact, in connection 
with subsequent developments, renders it quite 
certain that the missing manuscript had passed into 
the hands of Rigdon by some means or other, but in 
what way could not be definitely ascertained. 

In the year 1827 Rigdon left Pittsburgh, and 
commenced his career as a preacher, and soon ac- 
quired a wide reputation as a controversialist. He 
then began to promulgate new theories and strange 
doctrines. He had evidently conceived the idea of 
constructing a new religious creed. Soon after this, 
while preaching at Palmyra, N.Y., and in its 
vicinity, he made the acquaintance of Joe Smith, 


who professed to have the gift of prophecy, and 
found in him a kindred spirit. They became in- 
timate, and soon afterwards projected the scheme by 
Avliich the " Book of Mormon " was announced to 
the world as a divine revelation. But it so hap- 
pened that John Spalding (the brother of Solomon 
Spalding) and Henry Lake had heard Solomon read 
his romance, entitled " The Manuscript Found," at 
different times previous to his death. They have 
both testified that they read the Book of Mormon, 
or Golden Bible, soon after it was published, and 
were surprised to find that it contained but little 
more than a repetition of the story related in " The 
Manuscript Found " of Solomon Spalding, which 
they had heard him read. This fact convinced them 
that Rigdon had in some way come into possession 
of Spalding's work, and had contrived, with the aid 
of Joe Smith, to give it the sanction of a new gospel 
by means of a miraculous discovery, as announced. 
Rigdon was a scholar, and doubtless revised the 
manuscript so as to adapt its story to his purpose. 
Joe Smith performed the " miracle " of translating 
it from the golden plates. The truth of the matter 
is, that Rigdon was a man of learning, an aspirant 
for fame, acute and eloquent ; while Smith was an 
ignoramus, of low cunning, shrewd and plausible, 
and ambitious of being regarded as possessed of 


miraculous powers. Yet both were, in fact, nothing 
more than consummate impostors. 

On the announcement of the»^ew gospel, and its 
publication in book form, the curiosity of the public 
was very generally awakened. The Book of Mormon, 
or Golden Bible as the publication was called, sold 
rapidly, and quite a number of credulous persons 
immediately embraced the new faith. They assumed 
the name of the " Latter-Day Saints," and continued 
to increase in numbers. The leaders constituted the 
hierarchy of Mormonism, and received accessions 
to their number from time to time of such professed 
converts as seemed to possess the requisite " tact 
and talent." Not only their high priests, but their 
twelve apostles and seventy elders, are composed of 
this class of men. Their first church of Latter- 
Day Saints was organized at Manchester, N.Y., 
and consisted mainly of converts residing at that 
place, and in the neighboring town of Palmyra. 
Smith, the prophet, denounced all other denomina- 
tions in bitter terms, and soon aroused the indignation 
of the populace, which was expressed in open acts 
of violence. This state of things induced the entire 
body of " Saints," in 1830, to remove to Kirtland, 
O., a town which the prophet announced as the veri- 
table New Jerusalem. 

Here they purchased a square mile of land, sur- 


veyed it into half-acre lots, stuck the " stake of 
Zion," erected dwellings, and from time to time 
bought adjoining farms, with a view to enlarge their 
consecrated domains; while Smith and Rigdon de- 
voted themselves mainly to the promulgation of 
Mormonism and the doctrine of alliance with " spirit- 
ual wives," — the first step to polygamy. 

The seed thus sown, like the downy seed of the 
thistle, was wafted abroad on the wings of the wind, 
and took root in several other States, especially in 
Missouri. The rapid increase of their disciples soon 
enabled them to build a magnificent temple at 
Kirtland, costing forty thousand dollars. They lo- 
cated it on the hill where they had stuck the stake 
of Zion. In nearly all their schemes Rigdon fur- 
nished the brains, while Smith performed the theo- 
logical juggleries, and announced additional revela- 
tions, aided by Oliver Cowdery, an unscrupulous 
lawyer and zealous convert. 

Among the many impositions which Smith prac- 
tised was the following : he privately trained a pet 
dove to fly through an open window of the temple, 
light upon his shoulder, and pick grains of wheat, 
while he stood in the pulpit. In this way, when 
engaged in public services, he procured a visit 
from the dove at pleasure ; and, when the dove ap- 
peared, he would very gravely and solemnly an- 


nounce to his credulous audience that it was the 
dove of the " Holy Spirit" sent from heaven to com- 
municate to his ear a divine message. 

These Latter-Day Saints not only believed in 
their hierarchy, but in accumulating wealth. They 
opened, at Kirtland, shops and stores, stocked them 
with goods purchased in New York on credit, and 
established a bank, whose notes obtained a wide 
circulation, but, for want of a specie basis, were soon 
discredited. A sudden revulsion took place, fol- 
lowed by a storm of popular indignation. Both 
Smith and Rigdon were complimented with a suit of 
" new clothes," apparently of a tarry and feathery 
texture. This occurred in 1837, and induced a 
removal of the Mormons from Kirtland to Jackson 
County, Missouri. Here they remained but for a 
short period, when the populace compelled them to 
leave the county, which they did, only to locate in 
Clay County in the same State, where they con- 
tinued until 1838, when they were driven out of 
Missouri into Illinois, where they met with a friendly 
reception. Here they founded Nauvoo, — the city 
of beauty ; and here they increased in numbers to 
fifteen thousand or more, and organized a military 
force, known as the Nauvoo Legion, commanded by 
the prophet, who was also mayor of the city, and, 
by virtue of its charter, held the supreme power in 


all that pertained to the civil, military, or ecclesias- 
tical polity of the municipality. Conscious of their 
strength, the Mormons soon became arrogant, and 
proposed to convert the State to Mormonism. Their 
doctrines and practices, however, had the effect to 
disgust rather than convert the citizens of Illinois. 
Popular indignation became intense. The prophet 
and his brother Hiram were accused of crime, ar- 
rested, and lodged in the county jail at Carthage. 
It was soon rumored that the Nauvoo Legion had 
resolved to march on Carthage, and release the pris- 
oners. This excited an outbreak, and induced a 
band of two hundred citizens, or more, to rally at 
Carthage for its defence. Fearing the prisoners 
by some means might be released before the proper 
court should have time to try them, the excited 
crowd surrounded the jail, broke open the prison- 
doors, shot both the prophet and his brother Hiram 
dead in their cells, and threatened a speedy extermi- 
nation of all the saints at Nauvoo. This happened 
June 24, 1844; and, though a disastrous affair for 
Joseph and Hiram, it resulted, as the sequel shoAvs, 
in promoting the advancement of Mormonism, and 
in verifying the fact that the blood of the martyrs 
is the seed of the Church. 

The mantle of the prophet now fell upon the 
shoulders of Brigham Young, much to the disgust of 


Rigdon and other expectants who were veterans in 
the service of Mormonism. Brigham was compara- 
tively but a youth, who had been converted to the 
faith in 1832 ; yet he was as shrewd and foxy as he 
was ambitious of the supremacy. At any rate he 
managed to secure successorship, but soon found 
himself placed in a trying situation. The citizens 
of Illinois had resolved to expel the Mormons from 
the State, and had commenced an irrepressible perse- 
cution. Though the Mormons had become a power 
in the land, they were now convinced that they 
could no longer remain at Nauvoo in safety ; and, 
yielding to the imperative dictation of circum- 
stances, abandoned their favorite city, and sought a 
home in the untrodden wilds of the West, far be- 
yond the boundaries of civilization. Brigham, their 
newly chosen prophet, led them into the wilderness 
in 1846 ; and, after a slow and perilous journey of 
nearly two years' duration, including long delays 
while on their way, they finally reached, in the 
autumn of 1848, the Great Salt Lake Valley in the 
heart of the Rocky Mountains, which Brigham an- 
nounced as the "promised land" reserved for his 

Here they founded a city, and built a temple. 
The valley is truly beautiful. Through its plain 
flows a river, to which they gave the name of Jor- 


dan. Here, in its holy waters, they baptize their 
converts, who have now become numerous, and who 
are gathered by missionary effort from every quarter 
of the civilized world. In 1880 they had increased 
to a hundred and fifty thousand ; some say, to two 
hundred thousand. They organized as a church 
but fifty years previous to this date, and now pre- 
dict that they will ultimately hold the reins of the 
Federal Government, and convert the civilized world 
to th»:ir faith. They have already accumulated im- 
mense wealth. The tithing-system constitutes their 
financial system ; one-tenth of every thing is given 
to the priesthood, — from every tenth egg to every 
tenth haystack. Their annual revenues exceed a 
million of dollars, and are constantly increasing. 

The Mormons seem destined to flourish in defi- 
ance of law and the usages of modern civilization. 
They have a faith, and they keep their faith. If 
their interests should need a modification of their 
creed, their priesthood can at any time obtain a new 
revelation ; and in this way they can adapt them- 
selves to a change of circumstances, and avoid an 
open collision with the Federal Government. 

Mormonism, like Mohammedanism, has its origin 
in imposture, or pious fraud. Yet Mormonism has a 
destiny to accomplish ; and, though it may require 
centuries of time, it will accomplish it. Time sane- 


tifies imposture, and clothes it with a fascinating 
charm. Ignorance accepts it, and builds its hopes of 
immortality upon it. Brigham Young, though dead, 
still lives. He has already been canonized, and in 
all probability will ultimately be deified. Pilgrims 
from every quarter of the globe will come and kneel 
at his shrine, and revere his name. In other words. 
Salt Lake City will become the " Medina " of Amer- 
ica. This may seem a fanciful prediction, but 
stranger things have happened. 

Mormonism is but another version of Mohamme- 
danism. Polygamy is its most obnoxious feature, — 
a feature which a recent act of Congress attempts to 
eradicate. But the truth is, our government needs 
"nerve;" yet no man needs more than one wife. 
One wife is not only enough for any man, but often 
" one " too many, if we may judge from the great 
number of divorces annually granted by the courts 
throughout our " happy Union." 



Ottawa and the Islands. — Battle of Lake Erie. — Burla.l op 
THE Dead at Put-in-B ay. — Ashland a Piece of Patch- 
work. — Daniel Carter its First Settler. — David Burns a 
Grand Juror. — Early Settlement at jERo:ttEViLLE. — Capt. 
Pipe, the Indian Chief. — Fate of his Daughter and her 

Ottawa County was erected in 1840, and is 
composed of territory taken from Sandusky, Erie, 
and Lucas Counties. Its name is of Indian deriva- 
tion, and signifies "trader." It was formerly a 
region productive of furs, and much visited by 
fur-traders. Though but a fractional part of its 
present territory originally belonged to the West- 
ern Reserve, it is entitled to its kindred share of 

But few, if any, permanent settlements were made 
in Ottawa previous to 1830. Up to that time it was 
almost exclusively occupied by the aborigines, who 
were somewhat numerous. In its geographical out- 
line it is essentially a peninsula, which extends into 
the lake a considerable distance. Its chief natural 
productions are timber, limestone, and cranberries. 


In its primitive condition it was but a basin of liquid 
mud, known as the Black Swamp, and resembled the 
great lake-like Dismal Swamp of the South, on whose 
dark waters an Indian lover, it is said, pursued ^in a 
canoe the ghost of his love into its stiU darker 
interior, whence he never returned, and — 

" IVliere oft from the Indian hunter's camp, 

This lover and maid so true 
Are seen, at the hour of midnight damp, 
To cross the lake by a firefly-lamp, 
And paddle their white canoe 1 " 

The enterprising denizens of Ottawa, however, 
have converted the Black Swamp, by an artificial 
system of drainage, into a modern Eden. It is now 
a delightful region of country. The county seat is 
Port Clinton, a commercial town. It has a harbor, 
considerable trade, and is a thriving town. It was 
surveyed into town lots in 1827. The cluster of 
beautiful islands, well known as the gems of Lake 
Erie, are located in its immediate vicinity. The 
civil jurisdiction of the county has been so extended 
as to include several of them. The group known as 
the Put-in-Bay Islands has been assigned to the 
jurisdiction of Erie County. The South Bass is the 
largest of the group. It contains sundry caves of 
an interesting character, which were favorite resorts 
of the Indians in primitive times, and wliich attract, 


in the summer time, many visitors. In fact, these 
islands, generally, have now become popular as a 
region of fashionable resort in the hot months 
of the year, and furnish desirable inducements by 
way of accommodations. In the first place, Na- 
ture has embellished them with her magic fingers, 
and flung over them an air of enchantment, which 
is truly delightful. In the next place, the war 
of 1812 has invested them with an historical 
interest, which awakens in the breast of every 
true American an irrepressible feeling of patriotic 

It was in the vicinity of these islands that the 
celebrated battle of Lake Erie was fought, on the 
10th of September, 1813, between the American 
fleet commanded by the gallant Commodore Perry, 
and the British fleet commanded by Commodore 
Barclay. The disparity between the two forces, the 
preliminary movements of the fleets, and the dash 
and bravery exhibited by Commodore Perry in the 
encounter, constitute such a remarkable series of 
activities as have few, if any, parallels in the history 
of naval warfare. 

The British fleet moved in a line of battle, with 
six ships bearing sixty-four guns, at sunrise, on the 
morning of the eventful 10th, in pursuit of the 
American fleet, and with an air of defiance and con- 


fidence in its own strength. Commodore Perry, 
observing this movement of the enemy, brought his 
little fleet of fifty-four guns only into line with as 
much despatch as possible under the influence of 
adverse winds, and, while struggling to keep his ships 
in line, the winds providentially changed in his 
favor ; and, as he neared the enemy, he ordered his 
union-jack — flaming with the words, " Don't give 
up the ship" — to be hoisted at mast-head on his 
flag-ship " Lawrence," which was instantly done, ac- 
companied with three rousing cheers from his gallant 
crew. In a few moments a fearful fire was opened 
from the guns of the enemy upon the " Lawrence," 
when Perry promptly returned the fire with terrible 

" And now, as maddening volleys rave, 

Though Perry's flag-ship reels, 
*Neath fire and smoke, with hand to save, 

From ship to ship he steals ; 
And now the fate of Britons brave 

With one broadside he seals 1 

" And now the decks are crimsoned o'er, 

Swept by that iron hail, 
And as the last gun boomed to shore 

'Mid shouts and saddening wail. 
Glad news to anxious hearts it bore 

Afar on every gale I 


" Honor to him who fought to break 
The grasp of sceptred pride ; 
The hero, whose brave deeds awake 

Within the heart's glad tide, 
Proud memories, now, with Erie's Lake 
And Perry's name allied 1 " 

The victory won by the heroic Perry carried with 
it glad news to thousands of anxious hearts along 
the entire line of the lake-coast. It was well under- 
stood by the helpless American residents along the 
southern borders of the lake, that the allied British 
and Indian land forces, under command of Gen. 
Proctor, and the Indian chief Tecumseh, numbering 
in all some five thousand men, were waiting at 
Maiden the result of the naval battle, and, in the 
event that the British fleet had triumphed, stood 
ready to proceed at once to ravage and pillage the 
American settlements along the entire lake-border 
from Detroit to Buffalo. 

The unexpected result of the battle, however, 
defeated the enemy's scheme of indiscriminate mas- 
sacre and plunder, and had the effect to restore 
peace and safety to our common country. No 
sooner had the brave Perry received the surrender 
of the British fleet, than he sent his famous despatch 
to the war department at Washington, announcing 
with wonderful brevity, modesty, and sublimity, the 


fact, " We have met the enemy, and they are ours." 
He then proceeded reverently to bury the slain at 
the Island of Put-in-Bay, one of the beautiful group 
that begems the bosom of Lake Erie. 

There is a beautiful park in the business centre 
of Cleveland, which comprises an area of ten acres, 
and is known as " Monumental Park." It takes its 
name from the chaste and elegant marble monument 
which was erected in it by citizens of Cleveland, in 
1860, in commemoration of the battle of Lake Erie. 
The monument is surmounted by a life-size marble 
statue of Commodore Perry, clad in the naval cos- 
tume of his time. This statue so strongly resembles 
the gallant Perry, that it seems to breathe the breath 
of life, and to be inspired with the invincible spirit 
that characterized the hero. 

The inauguration and unveiling of the statue took 
place on the anniversary of the battle, Sept. 10, 
1860, and was attended by a vast concourse of 
people, estimated at one hundred and twenty thou- 
sand, among whom were the State officials of Ohio 
and of Rhode Island, and a goodly number of other 
distinguished personages from almost every State 
in the Union, including several prominent military 
companies and orders of Knights Templar. The 
inaugural address was delivered by George Bancroft, 
the renowned historian. He was followed by Dr. 


Usher Parsons of Rhode Island, who was the prin- 
cipal surgeon on board the American fleet, and who 
gave an interesting account of the battle and its 
incidents. Among the many singular occurrences, 
he stated, that, while he was amputating the limb 
of a wounded sailor stretched on the table before 
him in the cabin of the vessel, there came a cannon- 
ball fired by the enemy, crashing through the cabin, 
which struck the sailor undergoing the surgical 
operation, and killed him instantly. 

The regular exercises of the inauguration closed 
with a mock battle, or sham fight, on Lake Erie in 
front of the city, representing in detail the original 
battle. The same number of sail-vessels were con- 
vened, manned, and placed in battle array, as com- 
posed the British and American fleets. A hundred 
thousand people, at least, assembled on the elevated 
bank of the lake to witness the scene. The British 
fleet was commanded by a surviving sailor of the 
original fleet, and the American fleet by a surviving 
subordinate officer of that fleet. The two fleets 
moved into battle in the same order as the original 
fleets, and " let loose the bull-dogs of war " in the 
same defiant manner, with their respective national 
colors flying at mast-head. As the cannonading 
grew brisk, and the smoke was seen to roll in bil- 
lows on the waters, the crowd of spectators became 


excited, swinging their hats, waving handkerchiefs, 
and vociferating, " Give it to them." In a few min- 
utes more a vision of Commodore Perry was seen 
passing in a small boat from the crippled " Law- 
rence " to the ship " Niagara," which he reached in 
safety, and, which at his command, poured a raking 
broadside into the British flag-ship, "Queen Char- 
lotte," whose commander, representing Capt. Barclay, 
on receiving the destructive shot, at once struck his 
colors, and surrendered. The victory was won, as 
in the original instance, within twenty minutes after 
the battle was commenced. The enthusiastic spec- 
tators gave three tremendous cheers, and retired, 
expressing themselves as delighted with the naval 
display, and repeating to each other the sublime 
words of Commodore Perry, "We have met the 
enemy, and they are ours." 

The festivities of the day were crowned with a 
public dinner and dance in the evening. It was at 
the dance that the susceptible young governor of 
Rhode Island made the acquaintance of the beautiful 
belle of Ohio. He was smitten at first sight. The 
result was a happy marriage, at least in appearance. 
But "all is not gold that glitters." A dark shadow 
soon fell on the sunlight of their dreams, followed 
by a legalized separation of the parties, which seemed 
not less ungracious than it proved inglorious. 


The territory of Ashland County is a piece of 
patchwork, surreptitiously clipped from the whole 
cloth of adjoining counties. The county was organ- 
ized in 1846, and embraces a fraction of land which 
was originally included in the Western Reserve, just 
enough in quantity and quality to give the county a 
tincture of Puritanism and a few dollars annually of 
the Western Reserve School Fund. 

The lands of Ashland are rolling, rich, and pro- 
ductive, especially in wheat. The citizens are an 
intelligent and industrious people, chiefly devoted to 
agriculture. The greater part of the early settlers 
were emigrants from Pennsylvania, and, of course, 
lovers of wealth and accumulation. Their " mint " 
was the soil they tilled, and from whose abundant 
products they coined silver and gold. In this way 
they soon filled their long stockings with the pre- 
cious metals. 

The name of Ashland was given to the county 
and to its present county seat as a compliment to 
Henry Clay, the famous orator and statesman of 
Kentucky, whose homestead bore the same name. 
The county seat was surveyed, and laid out into 
town lots, as early as 1816, and received the name of 
Uniontown, which was subsequently changed to Ash- 
land. The first cabin erected in the county was built 
on the present site of the town of Ashland, in 1811, 


by Daniel Carter, who was an emigrant from Butler 
County, Penn. The locality which he selected soon 
attracted other settlers, and soon became the nucleus 
of a promising town. The first store was opened by 
Joseph Sheets, which, with a half-dozen log cabins 
and a blacksmith's shop, constituted the town. A 
schoolhouse and church were soon added, to say 
nothing of a whiskey-shop, or house of refreshment 
for man and beast. 

These were primitive days, when most of the 
country remained a dense forest, and when highways 
were paved with fathomless mud, and short dis- 
tances became very long to travel. It was during 
this early state of the country that David Burns, 
who resided in this region, was summoned to attend 
court, in what is now Belmont County, as a grand 
juror. This was the first grand jury ever convened 
in Ohio. It was convened as early as 1795. Burns, 
who had been summoned to court, was compelled to 
travel forty miles through an unbroken wilderness, 
and along the line of an old military road, whose 
foundations seemed to have fallen out, giving to the 
traveller more depth than breadth of way. He rode 
on horseback, and occupied three days in accom- 
plishing the journey. He had resided within the 
territory now composing Ashland County some years 
prior to 1795, and was spoken of as an " old settler." 


After the county was organized, it so happened that 
this famous old settler was summoned on the grand 
jury, to attend the first court of common pleas held 
in the county. Though somewhat aged, he seemed 
to possess the vigor of youth, crowned with the 
laurels of a green old age. He may therefore be 
considered as a man, de jure^ of great usefulness and 
wisdom in the criminal administration of justice, and 
was doubtless so regarded by the lawless, who feared 
nothing but justice. 

It is said that the earliest settlement made in 
Ashland County was at Jeromeville, a town which 
took its name from Jerome, a Frenchman, who was 
the first settler. In fact, this was the only settle- 
ment within the present limits of the county during 
the war of 1812. The town at that date consisted 
of some half-dozen families, who protected them- 
selves against the incursions of the Indians by en- 
closing the space they occupied with a formidable 
array of pickets. They expected an attack, and 
would in all probability have been massacred, ex- 
cept for the fact that Jerome, the father of the 
settlement, had married a squaw for a wife, who 
was the daughter of an Indian warrior. There were 
several tribes who were hostile to the white settlers, 
occupying the north-western part of the territory at 
this time, and who had threatened to exterminate 


every white resident to be found within the limits of 
their hunting-grounds. It was from these hostile 
tribes that the Jerome settlement had reason to 
expect a merciless attack. 

The Delaware Indians, a friendly tribe, to which 
the wife of Jerome belonged, and who had been 
located near the settlement he had commenced, took 
their departure soon after the outbreak of the war 
with the Western Indians, and sought homes where 
the facilities for hunting and fishing were more 
ample and reliable at all seasons of the year. In 
their excursions, whether pertaining to war or hunt- 
ing and fishing, they were led by a distinguished old 
chief, known to the whites as Capt. Pipe. He was, 
when young, a renowned warrior, and an implacable 
foe of the white race, but later in life became much 
less vindictive both in temper and spirit. He pos- 
sessed a high degree of self-respect, and entertained 
a sensitive regard for his own honor and that of his 
kindred. He had made for himself and for his war- 
riors a proud record in the battle which resulted 
in the memorable defeat of Gen. St. Clair, and 
boasted that he had slain in the bloody fight so 
many white men with his own hatchet that he 
became tired, and could wield it no longer. 

He did not approve of contracting family alliances 
beneath his own rank and dignity. His daughter, 


who was an only child, was a favorite, and possessed 
a native modesty and beauty truly magical. Her 
charms had fascinated a brave and noble young 
warrior, who belonged to a tribe of less renown than 
her own, and whose love she reciprocated with a sin- 
cerity that could not be doubted. Nothing was 
wanting to consummate the attachment but the con- 
sent of her father. This the brave young warrior 
sought to obtain, but received a positive denial. 
The shock was too much for the young brave. He 
saw that he had "loved and lost," and, sorrowing, 
no longer desired to live. He ate the poisonous 
May-apple, and died. She sank into a deep melan- 
choly, and soon died of a broken heart. They were 
buried, side by side, in the depths of the solitude 
and beneath the watchful shadows of the silent for- 
est, — now the land of a civilized race. 

" Two low green hillocks, two small gray stones, 
Rose over the place that held their bones ; 
But the grassy hillocks are levelled again, 
And the keenest eye might search in vain, 
'Mong briers and ferns, and paths of sheep, 
For the spot where the loving couple sleep." 



Mahoning, why so naivfed. — Abounds in Coal, Iron, and Salt 
Springs. — John Young. — Canfield Aim Youngstown. — En- 
terprising Population. — Murder of Kribs ant> of Two 
other Men. — Terrible Fight with Indian Marauders on 
THE Banks of Yellow Ckeek. 

Mahoning County is a clip from the skirts of 
Trumbull and Columbiana. It was organized in 
1846. Its name is derived from the Indian word 
" Mahonink," signifying " at the lick," or salt 
springs. It has suflQcient Western Reserve territory 
within its limits to give its population a kindred 

The county is rich in mineral wealth, especially 
in coal, iron, and salt. Its citizens are principally 
devoted to mining, manufacturing, and agriculture. 
It is a region of picturesque hills and vales, and has 
many interesting localities which are known to his- 
tory. Its natural resources have been already devel- 
oped to a considerable extent. The music of the mill, 
the forge, the hammer, and the pick, is everywhere 
heard throughout its borders. The products of its 
manufactories have become extensive, and enter 


largely into the commerce of our common country. 
Its mines are inexhaustible. 

Canfield was the original county seat ; but, after a 
severe political contest, the " seat " was transferred 
to Youngstown, which has now become one of the 
most beautiful cities in the interior of the State. 
Many of the residences of its citizens are palatial, 
indicating, what is true, a high degree of social re- 
finement. John Young, who settled here in 1798, 
was the original proprietor of the township. From 
him the city derives its name. The first post-ofiSce 
was established here in 1802. John Young was 
appointed postmaster. He was one of the renowned 
pioneers of the early times, and a man for the times, 
wise, shrewd, and benevolent. He has left behind 
him a noble record. 

Adventurers, as early as 1785, penetrated this 
region, and erected log cabins at Salt Springs for 
the purpose of engaging in the manufacture of salt. 
They were regarded as intruders, and, by order of 
Gen. Harmar, were dispersed in the course of the 
same year. The cabins were subsequently used for 
the storage of goods ; and a man by the name of 
Kribs was sent there to take charge of the goods. 
While in charge he was attacked and cruelly mur- 
dered by the Indians, who claimed the exclusive 
right to the springs. Col. Hillman, who was pass- 


ing soon afterwards through the country, discovered 
the mangled remains of the murdered man lying 
near one of the cabin-doors, partially devoured by 
the wolves. The Indians had stolen the goods. He 
reported the facts; and the friends of the unfortu- 
nate man gathered the fragments of his remains, and 
buried them in the vicinity of the springs. Within 
a short time after this sad occurrence, James Mor- 
row and Samuel Simerson, while on their return 
from Sandusky, were overtaken and killed by the 
Indians at Eagle Creek, west of Cleveland, with the 
evident design on the part of the murderers to ap- 
propriate the guns, ammunition, and other valuables 
belonging to their victims. So hostile had the In- 
dians become at this time that it was dangerous for 
any white man, unless protected by a military guard 
or escort, to traverse the wilderness in any direction. 
The reason of this was, that many of the Indians had 
been shamefully cheated by mercenary traders, and, 
as a natural consequence, felt disposed to retaliate 
whenever an opportunity occurred. The Indians, 
however, while treated kindly and justly, were gen- 
erally peaceful, and very willing to engage in com- 
mercial intercourse with the white men, whom they 
called their " pale-face brothers." 

In the olden time, about the year 1782, a plun- 
dering party of seven Wyandot Indians from the 


region of Fort Pitt, Penn., entered a small white 
settlement located in the interior of Ohio, not 
far distant from the southern limit of Mahoning 
.County, where they found an old man alone in his 
cabin, whom they killed and plundered. They then 
took a hasty departure. As soon as the denizens 
of the settlement learned what had occurred, they 
despatched a party of eight of their best riflemen in 
pursuit, led by the two famous brothers, Adam and 
Andrew Poe. 

The Wyandot chief, who led the marauders, was 
a giant in size and strength, as well as a brave and 
shrewd warrior. After a hot pursuit of one day and 
night, the white men struck upon the trail of the 
Indians, and finally overtook them hid in ambush 
on the banks of a river, probably Yellow Creek, and 
within the limits of Mahoning Count3^ The Indians 
had discovered the approach of their hostile pur- 
suers. In view of this state of things, both parties 
sought an advantage by adopting a system of cau- 
tious movements. 

At this juncture the captain of the white men, 
Andrew Poe, undertook to reconnoitre the outlines 
of the Indian ambuscade, and with this intent crept 
carefully along the margin of the creek, beneath the 
overhanging branches of the trees, when he dis- 
covered an Indian raft lying close ashore, and 


apparently deserted. He cocked his rifle, and ap- 
proached the raft with noiseless step, but had ad- 
vanced but a few paces when he discovered the 
gigantic Wyandot chief, with a small Indian, ap- 
proaching him. The chief was armed with a rifle, 
but was looking in the wrong direction to see Poe, 
who instantly lifted his rifle to his cheek, took aim 
at the chief, and drew trigger, but missed fire. 
The click of the lock was heard by the Indians, 
who at the same moment discovered Poe. In this 
dilemma, and quick as thought, Poe dropped his 
useless rifle, and sprang like a tiger upon the 
gigantic Wyandot, disarmed him, and, at the same 
time grasping the small Indian by the neck, suc- 
ceeded in laying both prostrate on their backs. The 
small Indian extricated himself in the struggle, 
sprang to his feet, ran to the raft, and returned with 
a tomahawk to despatch Poe, who was now in turn 
held fast to the ground in the grasp of the gigantic 
chief. The small Indian lifted his fatal weapon to 
strike Poe on the head, but, in the twinkling of an 
eye, received a violent kick in the abdomen from 
Poe, which felled him to the ground. The chief 
sneered in derision at the small Indian for his 
failure in dealing the deadly blow. In the mean 
time Poe, by a desperate effort, broke from the 
grasp of the chief, seized his gun which lay at a 


little distance from them, and killed the small 
Indian on the spot. 

And now came the " tug of war." The gigantic 
Wyandot and Andrew Poe seized each other with 
renewed grasp, strong as iron ; and, in the struggle 
for the mastery, both rolled down the steep bank 
of the creek topsy-turvy into the water. Here 
they attempted to drown each other by thrusting 
each other's heads under the water. At last Poe 
caught his antagonist by the hair, and held his head 
under the water until he thought him drowned, but, 
on relaxing his grip, discovered that he was mis- 
taken. The old Wyandot lifted his head above the 
wave, and at once renewed the contest. At this 
time each had floated beyond his depth, and both 
were rapidly carried down stream in the rush of the 
current. Aware of this, both relaxed their grasp, 
and swam for the shore. The Indian out-swam Poe, 
and reached the shore considerably in advance, 
caught up one of the guns, and levelled it at Poe as 
he neared the land; while Poe, seeing his danger, 
dived into the depth of the stream to avoid the 
effect of the expected bullet : but luckily it proved 
to be the gun with which Poe had shot the small 
Indian ; and, before the chief could reload, Adam Poe, 
the brother of Andrew, happened to arrive in sight, 
when Andrew cried out to him, " Shoot the 


Indian ! " But Adam's rifle was unloaded, and, of 
course, he could not obey. The contest now lay- 
between Adam and the Indian in seeing which could 
first load his gun and shoot the other. In his haste 
the Indian dropped his ramrod into the brush 
before he had driven down the bullet, and was 
delayed in recovering it. This enabled Adam to 
finish loading his gun first, when he instantly levelled 
it, and shot the Indian, who fell at his feet. He 
then rushed into the river to assist his brother An- 
drew in reaching the shore, but Andrew declined 
his assistance, and directed him to secure the scalp 
of the fallen chief as a trophy, lest he should in his 
agonies roll into the creek, and perhaps escape. At 
this moment another man of the white party arrived 
on the bluff bordering on the creek, and, not know- 
ing what had happened, mistook Andrew swimming 
to shore for an Indian, and shot him in the shoulder. 
This was a serious disaster ; yet Andrew was 
quickly rescued and placed on land, and, though 
crippled by the wound, continued to render valuable 
services in the fight with the five other Indians still 
remaining in ambush. Adam Poe secured the scalp 
of the big chief, who, as was anticipated by Andrew, 
rolled into the stream, and disappeared beneath its 
waters, never to rise again. 

The two brothers, Adam and Andrew Poe, now 


held a brief council of war, and resolved to rejoin 
their companions in arms, who were supposed to be 
at the station assigned them on the bank of tlie 
creek, about a mile distant. The brothers had not 
proceeded far before they heard a brisk exchange of 
shots between their comrades and the remainino* 
five Indians. They examined their rifles, quickened 
their steps, and soon arrived at the scene of action. 
Here they found that four of the five Indians had 
been killed, while the other had fled, and that three 
of their comrades had fallen in the desperate fight. 
Though gratified with the chastisement they had 
inflicted on the Indian marauders, the survi\ino- 
white men gathered their slain comrades, and bore 
them back with saddened hearts to the settlement, 
where their remains received a Christian burial. 

This was one of the severest conflicts between 
Indians and white settlers ever known to occur on 
our Western borders. No braver men ever lived 
than Adam and Andrew Poe, nor braver Indians 
than the Wyandot chief and his four brothers, who 
were of the Indian party. While the white settle- 
ment mourned its loss with unconsolable grief, the 
Wyandot tribe were not less grieved at the loss of 
their giant chief and his four valiant brothers. 



The Happy Valley.— Meeting of Old Friends. — Rev. William 
Wick and his Legacy, — How a Contractor carried the 
Mail. — First Wedding at Poland. — Two Sisters drowned. 
— Re-union of Pioneers at Youngstown. —Untold Love. 

The Mahoning valley has a natural scenery that is 
truly beautiful. Its inhabitants, refined and wealthy 
as they generally are, have literally made it the 
"happy valley." There are many incidents con- 
nected with its early settlement which partake some- 
what of the comic and tragic, as well as of the 
practical, and which will ever possess a dramatic 

In the summer of 1796 Col. James Hillman was 
returning in a canoe down the Mahoning from one of 
his trading expeditions, when he discovered a smoke 
rising on the river-bank near the present locality of 
Youngstown. His desire to learn the cause of it 
induced him to land. On approaching the spot he 
found John Young, the proprietor of the township, 
and a surveyor by the name of Wolcott, with an 
axeman and two chainmen, encamped before a com- 


fortable fire for the night, and ready to commence a 
survey of the Lands the next morning. The meet- 
ing was as pleasant as it was unexpected. Young 
proposed to purchase a quart of whiskey from Hill- 
man, with a view to have a jollification. Hillman 
happened to have several gallons still unsold, which 
remained in his canoe, and which he promptly offered 
to donate to his early friend, or as much of it as he 
desired. But Young replied that it was his com- 
pany, and that he desired to furnish the treat at his 
own expense, and at the same time inquired of Hill- 
man the price at which he sold whiskey to the 
Indians. In reply Hillman disclosed, to some ex- 
tent, the profits of his commercial intercourse with 
the Indians by informing his friend that he had been 
selling whiskey to the natives at a dollar a quart, 
and received deerskins in payment at a dollar a 
piece, and doeskins at fifty cents ; when Young, hav- 
ing no money with him, instantly seized the deer- 
skin which he had spread on the ground for a bed, 
and gave it to Hillman in payment for a quart of 
whiskey. This settled the matter of privilege, and 
the entire party passed the evening in social merri- 
ment until a late hour, enlivened with frequent 
demonstrations of their liquid capacity. Instead of 
a quart, however, Hillman shared the expense of 
the treat by supplying the jug with thrice that 


quantity, which was drained by the party to the 
last drop. The sun was approaching the meridian 
when the convivialists awoke the next morning. 
They felt that they had shared the "dreams of 
sleepy hollow " without taking any definite note of 
the flight of time. They all agreed to keep the 
"secret;" but somehow or other the bird escaped. 
The truth was, that Young, who was a devout man, 
had sold his deerskin, and was therefore unable to 
take up his bed and walk. 

The story of that night's conviviality soon reached 
the ears of his friends throughout the white settle- 
ment, who delighted to speak of the occurrence, and 
indulge in a hearty laugh at Young's expense, both 
in his presence and out of it, whenever attention 
was called to the subject. It was regarded as a joke 
too good to keep ; yet Young and Hillman ever re- 
mained the best of friends, and were honored by all 
who knew them. They were prominent among the 
worthy fathers who laid the foundations, broad and 
deep, of ouj* Western Reserve civilization and pres- 
ent prosperity. 

In the fall of 1800 Rev. William Wick, a native 
of Long Island, N.Y., arrived at Youngstown, and 
preached the best sermon which had been heard in 
that place. He was a liberally educated man, and a 
clergyman of the Presbyterian faith. He came into 


the wilderness with a view to permanent settlement, 
and to preach the gospel. He was soon invited to 
remain at Youngstown, where he preached for a good 
number of years in a log church. He was a devout 
and godly man, and evidently believed it his duty 
to assist in replenishing the earth, if we may judge 
from the fact that he was the father of eight sons 
and five daughters. He lived to preach fifteen hun- 
dred and twenty-two sermons, and to marry fifty-six 
couples, in a country which was comparatively but 
a wilderness. He died in 1815, at the age of forty- 
seven years. But few clergymen, if any, have ever 
achieved as much within so brief a period. It may 
be truly said of him that he was faithful to his trust 
while his "lamp held out to burn." The richest 
legacy which he left behind him was a numerous 
progeny of "Wicks," which still continue to burn 
with a light that cheers not only the happy valley, 
but other regions of our common country. 

There was no post-office at Youngstown until 
1801. A mail-route was then established, connect- 
ing Pittsburgh with Warren, by the way of Canfield 
and Youngstown. Eleazar Gilson contracted to carry 
the mail every two weeks for a term of two years, at 
the rate of three dollars and a half per mile, a dis- 
tance of some fifty miles or more. His son Samuel, 
an athletic young man, performed the service on 


foot, and carried the mail-bag on his back, and also 
many verbal messages in his head from one settler 
to another along the way. Whenever he appeared, 
he was always saluted with a hearty shake of the 
hand, and a multiplicity of inquiries as to who was 
sick, dead, or recently arrived, and what does the 
doctor think, and when was the baby born. As a 
matter of fact, the post-boy carried more news in 
his head than in his mail-bag. The gossip of those 
early times possessed an appetizing flavor, which 
was, doubtless, quite as enjoyable, and probably 
much less mischievous, than the fashionable gossip 
of modern times. 

The first marriage which took place at Poland, 
Trumbull County, was not less singular than uncere- 
monious in its character. It occurred in 1800. 
John Blackburn and Nancy Bryan had agreed to 
blend their fortunes, and become one for better or 
for worse, until "death should them part." The 
bans were duly published by posting three written 
notices on the walls of three log cabins, which com- 
posed the principal part of the town. All due prepa- 
rations were made. The happy day arrived ; and, 
when the guests had assembled, it was discovered 
that neither minister nor other official authorized to 
perform the ceremony could be obtained. What 
should be done became a grave question, wliich was 


soon settled by agreeing that Turhand Kirtland, a 
dignified citizen and cliurchman, should "tie the 
knot." He yielded to the force of circumstances, 
and consented to officiate. A stool, covered with a 
white tablecloth, and a prayer-book lying upon it, 
was brought, and placed before him. As he was 
about to proceed, a guest proposed that the whiskey- 
bottle should first be passed around, which was 
done ; and, while the party were engaged in taking 
a hearty sip of the '^ oh-be-joyful," some one mis- 
chievously inclined, purloined the prayer-book, which 
contained the formula to be used in solemnizing 
marriages. Kirtland, though somewhat disconcerted, 
appreciated the situation, directed the happy pair to 
stand up before him, and take each other by the 
hand, when he asked, ''Are you agreed to become 
man and wife ? " They responded, " Yes." — " Then," 
said he, " I pronounce you henceforth man and wife, 
and bid you go on your way rejoicing." Thus ended 
the ceremony, followed by feasting, dancing, and 
hilarity until the " break o' day " the next morning. 
It was as early as 1799 when John Struthers 
settled at Poland. He came from Connecticut, and 
was promoted soon after his arrival to the shrievalty 
of Trumbull County, and subsequently to other 
responsible positions. He was the father of two 
accomplished daughters, Drusilla and Emma. He 


had educated and trained them in a way that fitted 
them to encounter the stern realities of life, and 
never to despair of success. They were endeared to 
all who knew them, and were as brave and heroic as 
they were amiable and lady-like in demeanor. 

Drusilla, the elder sister, in due time contracted 
an alliance with a worthy young gentleman who re- 
sided in Washington County, Penn. They kept up 
a somewhat brisk correspondence. She received her 
letters at the Poland post-office. Between her fa- 
ther's residence and the post-office flowed the Mahon- 
ing River. In order to obtain her letters she was 
obliged, as there was no bridge, to cross the stream 
in a skiff. This she often did, handling the oars 
with the ease and skill of an experienced sailor. It 
happened in the month of February, 1826, that the 
rains and melting snows had swollen the river to 
such an extent as to render its navigation danger- 
ous. But the expected letter from her lover induced 
her to attempt crossing it in company with her sister 
Emma, who was much stronger than herself, and 
equally skilled in the art of navigation. When they 
arrived at the bank of the river, Emma threw off 
her shawl and bonnet upon the ground, sprang into 
the dancing skiff, followed by her sister, applied her 
hands to the oars, and struck out boldly into the 
angry flood; and, when they had nearly reached 


the landing, an oar-lock broke, and the frail craft 
became unmanageable, and drifted down stream with 
fearful velocity, laden with its precious freight. No 
effort could control it. No help could be called to 
aid or relieve the frightened damsels, who now 
realized the fact that they were rapidly approaching 
the great mill-dam, over which they must take the 
fatal plunge. And, though their outcries were faint- 
ly heard in the distance, no one supposed them to be 
signals of distress. Oh ! who can imagine or describe 
the agonies which they must have felt as they neared 
the fatal spot, and, uttering a wild shriek, were over- 
whelmed in the foaming depths of the merciless 
whirlpool that awaited them at the foot of the dam ? 
Not many hours had elapsed after this tragic 
occurrence when the daughters were missed at home 
by -their parents, whose foreboding fears at once 
awakened the sympathies of the neighborhood, and 
led to a prompt search for the missing sisters. On 
the following day the remains of Drusilla were 
found two miles below the mill-dam, lodged in a 
clump of driftwood ; and, after a continued search 
of six weeks, the body of Emma was discovered, 
several miles still farther down the river, partially 
concealed in a matted accumulation of brushwood 
and sand, at the head of a small island. The obse- 
quies of each were characterized by unusual demon- 


strations of heartfelt grief. They were beloved by 
all who knew them, and were buried side by side in 
the cemetery at Poland. The poet Bryant has truth- 
fully said, — 

" The fiercest agonies have shortest reign ; 
Yet, after dreams of horror, comes again 
The welcome morning, with its rays of peace." 

In the days of the early pioneers, there dwelt in 
the vicinity of Youngstown two very excellent and 
worthy families. The gem of the one was a beauti- 
ful young daughter, whose name was Mary ; and the 
pride of the other was a promising young son, whose 
name was John. The children, being nearly of the 
same age, attended the same district school, and 
often met as playmates, not only at the parental 
hearthstone, but frequently accompanied each other 
in gathering wild flowers, nuts in the woodlands, 
and in visiting sugar-camps, and attending corn- 
huskings and other rural festivities. 

As they grew to maturer years, though still in 
their childhood, they contracted " an untold love " 
for each other, which neither had the moral courage 
to disclose. Their destiny led in different direc- 
tions, and soon transferred them to widely different 
localities, when all further social intercourse be- 
tween them ceased. In their new surroundings each 


formed new acquaintances, resulting in marriage, and 
permanent settlement for life. Fifty years passed, 
and neither of them heard or received any tidings 
from the other. In the mean time each had led 
a happy life, reared sons and daughters, and ac- 
quired a competency of this world's riches. Though 
both had reached the age of threescore years and 
ten, they still felt about as cheery and frolicsome as 
in their younger days, and desired to embrace the 
first opportunity that offered to visit the scenes of 
their childhood. 

When it was announced that a re-union of the 
early pioneers of the Mahoning valley would take 
place, Sept. 10, 1874, at the Opera House in Youngs- 
town, they resolved to attend. Neither was aware 
of the other's intention. The day set was pleasant ; 
and the grand hall was filled to overflowing, at an 
early hour, with an assemblage of gray heads and 
happy faces. As Mary came sauntering down the 
aisle, soon after the chairman had called the house 
to order, with her son at her side, now grown to 
manhood, she met John with a cane in his hand, 
who stared at her, and she at him, both halting, and 
half-doubting their senses for a moment, when John 
exclaimed aloud, "Is that you, Mary ?" — " Yes," 
said she, and then added, " Is that you, John ? " — 
"Yes," he replied, and instantly threw his arm 


around her neck, and imprinted on her lips the kiss 
of a youthful but " untold love." She reciprocated 
the favor with equal ardor and sincerity, while both 
were unconscious of the amused observance of the 
audience. The son beheld with astonishment this 
magnetic demonstration of affection, and vociferated, 
" God bless you, mother, what does all this mean ? " 
— " It means," said she, " that I have met for the first 
time in fifty years a youthful lover, who has never 
declared his love until this moment. A rich smile 
of lovelight gleamed in the eyes and faces of the 
ancient lovers j while the lively chit-chat that passed 
between them evidently afforded a pleasure which 
none but themselves could appreciate, and which 
none other than an angel's pen can describe. 



The "Western Reserve. — Her Pioneer Life and her Modern 
Life. — Comparative Characteristics. — The Eminent Men 
SHE HAS produced. — Her Unborn Future. 

History presents the Western Reserve, as she 
now appears, in two aspects, — her pioneer life and 
her modern life. Her pioneer life will never repeat 
itself, yet it has bequeathed to us many valuable 
lessons of wisdom. These lessons are golden fruits, 
not such as were grown in the garden of the Hes- 
perides, but such as have grown from a wilderness, 
subdued by the patient toils and hardships of brave 
men and resolute women, who were for the most 
part emigrants from New England, where they had 
been educated, in the days of their youth, in the 
precepts of the Bible, and in the Puritanic doctrines 
of the Old Assembly's Catechism. They left the 
land of their birth to improve their condition. What 
little wealth they possessed, consisted mainly in 
pluck and enterprise. They came to conquer a wil- 
derness, and they conquered it. They sought a 
" land of promise," and realized it. 


The secret of their success may be traced to the 
moral principles which characterized their education. 
Hence, they practised economy, and led a frugal life 
commensurate with their limited means. They built 
log cabins in which to dwell, log schoolhouses in 
which to educate their children, and log churches in 
which to worship God. They had faith, not only in 
God, but in themselves. They regarded each other 
as a common brotherhood, and helped each other in 
time of need. They looked ahead, and went ahead. 
Ever mindful of their responsibilities to both God and 
man, they have left to their posterity a rich inherit- 
ance, — rich in lands, and rich in lessons of wisdom. 
But — 

"With all theu* virtues, plain and stern, 
The good old times have sped ; 

And now the wisdom which we learn 
Turns giddy every head ; 

And yet 'tis wrong, I ween, to spurn 
Our old ancestral dead ! 

They earned by toil whate'er they had, 
Since Heaven ordained it so ; 

Nor with the fashions went they mad ; 
Nor cramped they waist or toe ; 

Nor like the lily, pale and sad. 
Looked every belle and beau. 


The girls were taught to spin and weave, 

The boys to hold the plough: 
'Twas then thought wise, and, I believe, 

As wise it might be now, 
K people would their scheming leave, 

And live by sweat of brow." 

The modern life of the Western Reserve is in- 
debted to its pioneer life for its success, and for its 
leading traits of character. Yet this modern life has 
some " peculiar traits " of its own. It has wealth, 
and indulges in luxuries. It resides in palaces, and 
assumes the airs of nobility. It has many social 
virtues, and some social vices. It is proud of its 
many sons and daughters, and they are proud of 
their parentage. It has a high order of intelligence, 
and maintains a high order of popular education. It 
moves in the first circles, and creates the first circles. 
It aims high, and seldom fails to achieve its aim. It 
reveres great men, and rears great men. It is a power 
in Church and State, and makes its influence felt in 
Church and State. It recognizes its past and its pres- 
ent, but has no prophet who can predict its future. 

It is a trait of human character, as commendable, 
perhaps, as it is universal, which induces a reverence 
for the past, especially for its heroic men and noble 
women, and their achievements. This tendency to 
clothe the past with the garb of sanctity, enriches 


the field of human thought, and awakens reminis- 
cences which constitute the "- golden link " that 
binds the hearts and lives of those who have borne 
the heat and burden of the day in the by -gone years, 
when the battle of life was but an unremitting strug- 
gle for the mastery of a wilderness, and its elevation 
to a realm of human happiness and social refine- 
ment. It is these cherished reminiscences, shared 
by the early settlers and surviving pioneers of the 
Western Reserve, which are recognized as the ties of 
a tried friendship and the cement of a common 
brotherhood. Hence it is that they enjoy annual 
festive assemblages, and crown such occasions with 
a " feast of reason and a flow of soul." We, who are 
of them, feel proud of our fraternal relationship. 

" Still pilgrims in a favored land, 

Who long have lingered on the way, 
How blest to meet, and grasp the hand, 
And crown with joy our festive day ! 

And tell of years whose scenes return. 

Like shadows on our pathway cast, 
And catch, from living lips that burn, 

The fleeting memories of the past. 

And while we trace from whence we sprung, 

And early friendships fain renew. 
Still let us dream that we are young, . 

And, though a dream, believe it true. 


Nor days forget when first we heard 
Life's battle-cry, and sought the field ; 

"SVhen lofty aims our bosoms stirred, 

And faith had armed us with her shield. 

*Twas courage, then, with youthful zeal, 
That led us onward, flushed with pride ; 

*Tis years, now ripe, that make us feel 
How swiftly glides life's ebbing tide 1 

Yet while we here prolong our stay, 

We'll keep our pledge of love and truth ; 
And, when we pass the darkened way, 
Ascend, and share immortal youth." 

Philosophers say that every thing moves in a 
circle. This may be doubted ; but the fact that 
every thing "moves" cannot be questioned. The 
pioneer life of the Reserve was born to conquer, and 
it has won the victory. In due time the same may 
be said of her modern life. The one has run its 
career, and left but few survivors; the other has 
but commenced its career, and still looks to the 
future for the achievement of its high aims. The 
one relied on its pluck, muscle, and heroism for its 
success ; the other relies on its brains, its inventions, 
and its material wealth for its triumphs. Both have 
their merits and demerits, their virtues and their 
vices. The early settlers, especially the few sur- 


vivors of the primitive times, still entertain and 
cherish the belief that the olden times, both morally 
and socially, were purer, better, and more enjoyable 
than these modern times. Hence they all unite 
with one accord in the sentiment of the song, — 

" Give me the good old days again ! 
When hearts were true and manners plain; 
When boys were boys till fully grown, 
And baby belles were never known ; 
"WTien doctors' bills were light and few, 
And lawyers had not much to do ; 
When honest toil was well repaid, 
And theft had not become a trade. 

Give me the good old days again ! 
When cider was not called champagne ; 
When round the fire, in wintry weather, 
Dry jokes and nuts were cracked together ; 
When girls their lovers battled for, 
With seeds from juicy apple's core, 
Wliile mam and dad looked on with glee. 
Well pleased their merriment to see. 

Give me the good old days again I 
When only healthy meat was slain ; 
When flour was pure, and milk was sweet, 
And sausages were fit to eat; 
When children early went to bed, 
And ate no sugar on their bread ; 
When lard was not turned into butter, 
And tradesmen only truth could utter. 


Give us the good old days again I 
When women were not proud and vain ; 
When fashion did not sense outrun, 
And tailors had no need to dun ; 
When wealthy parents were not fools, 
And common sense was taught at schools ; 
When hearts were warm, and friends were true, 
And Satan had not much to do." 

It is an amiable frailty that reveres the past, and 
founds its faith on experience. It was the energy of 
pioneer life that produced its beneficent results ; and, 
though its conditions have changed, its influences 
will ever be felt in moulding the character of suc- 
cessive generations. As evidence of this, we need 
only refer to the fruits — the true manhood and 
womanhood — which the Western Reserve has al- 
ready produced. 

In the learned professions she has produced scores 
of eminent lawyers, physicians, and divines, Avho have 
rarely, if ever, been excelled in any other region of 
our common country. No other section of the State, 
or of the United States, it is believed, has ever pro- 
duced as many talented men or refined women in 
proportion to its population, and within so brief a 
period, as the Western Reserve. Since the year 1800, 
up to 1882, her population has increased in round 
numbers from thirteen hundred to five hundred and 


fifty thousand. Her watchword has ever been, and 
still is, " Onward ; " and, though she has already- 
made for herself a noble record, she still aspires to 
enrich it. Her sons are her jewels. It is to them 
that she refers with a just and maternal pride. She 
has not only produced scores of eminent professional 
men, but scores of eminent jurists and statesmen. 

In proof of this, we point to the fact that the 
Western Reserve has, within the brief period of her 
past history, furnished the State, to say nothing of 
minor officials, with sixteen judges of the supreme 
court, — Samuel Huntington, George Tod, Calvin 
Pease, Peter Hitchcock, Ebenezer Lane, Reuben 
Wood, Matthew Birchard, Milton Sutliff, Rufus P. 
Spalding, Rufus P. Ranney, Horace Wilder, Luther 
Day, Walter F. Stone, W. W. Boynton, William H. 
Upson, and Franklin J. Dickman; and also with 
six governors, — Samuel Huntington, Seabury Ford, 
Reuben Wood, David Tod, John Brough, and Jacob 
D. Cox. 

In addition to this, she has furnished the United 
States with four senators, — Stanley Griswold, Benja- 
min F. Wade, James A. Garfield, and Henry B. 
Payne ; and also with two district judges, — Hiram 
V. Willson, David K. Cartter; one circuit judge, — 
Don A. Pardee; two territorial judges of the su- 
preme court, — William Strong, S. B. Axtell; two 


foreign ministers, — David Tod, David K. Cartter;. 
and last, but not least, one President of the United 
States, — James A. Garfield, who, lamented, fell a 
martyr to political faction, — a man who was born 
and bred in the Western Reserve, and whose life 
from boyhood to manhood was an exemplar of the 
purest morality and of the noblest aspirations. 

Though a prophet may have no honor in his own 
country, yet it may be safe for one less than a 
prophet to predict that the Western Reserve still 
has an unborn future in which she is destined to 
excel the highest anticipations of the present genera- 
tion in all that pertains to wealth, population, and 
intelligence. The elements of her power are irre- 
pressible, and only need fuller development. Com- 
paratively she is still in her infancy, though possessed 
of gigantic strength. She has a soil capable of sus- 
taining a population equal in numbers to the number 
of acres constituting her domain, — three and a half 
millions. In view of her schools, churches, and Chris- 
tian civilization, all of the highest order, and still 
progressing, it becomes as impossible, as it is auda- 
cious, for any one, though more than a prophet, to 
assign a limit to her future growth, moral power, and 
material aggrandizement. 

And yet the Western Reserve, though born of 
Puritanism, has already acquired a grasp of thought 


and a liberality of sentiment which give her a char- 
acter peculiarly her own, and one which neither 
disguises nor betrays her parentage. It is this peculi- 
arity of character which has defined her position, and 
laid the foundation of her influence. Though but 
the section of a great State, she knows her place, and 
desires to keep in place, yet will ever struggle to 
achieve still higher and nobler aims. 

While the Old World has achieved much, it is the 
New World that has achieved more, in advancing the 
true interests of mankind. The American continent 
must ever be regarded as the birthplace of human 
freedom, — a land that has a sublime, and as yet an 
unaccomplished, destiny. In other words, the govern- 
ment of the United States is still a government of 
experiment. If there be hope of its stability, it is 
only to be found in the anchorage of a universal 
system of popular education. 

" Oh ! what, when centuries have rolled, 
Will be this mighty Western land ? 

Her sons — will they be brave and bold, 

And still defend her banner's fold ? 
Her holy altars — will they stand ? 

Fear not 1 with holier influence yet 

The years shall come which God ordains, — 

When Freedom's bounds shall not be set, 

Nor man his fellow-man forget 
In blind pursuit of sordid gains." 


"^ Western Life 




" This handsome volume from the pen of one who is ripe in 
scholarly attainments possesses an absorbing interest for all 
who value whatever is of moment in Northern Ohio pioneer 
life. Footprints of Puritanism, and the chapter ' Woman and 
her Sphere,' the general reader will find peculiarly interesting 
and profitable reading." — Magazine of Western History. 

" It is an interesting and attractive volume, and especially valu- 
able to all who desire to preserve the memory and traditions 
of the noble pioneers of the Reserve." — Geauga Republican. 

" There is a charm about the book hardly ever found in mere 
works of history." — Cleveland Leader. 

" This is a book of a class we have altogether too few of, and 
we welcome it to our table because it forms a link binding the 
present with the past — disappearing past. The author writes 
as one who has shared many of the incidents of which he tells 
us. His sketches include a short story of the life and doings 
of Gen. Moses Cleaveland, Major Lorenzo Carter, and Rev. 
Joseph Badger, names familiar in the country where they lived 
as household words. Then Mr. Rice gives us chapters on 
♦ Homes in the Wilderness,' ' Western Reserve Jurists,' ' Foot- 
prints of Puritanism,' • Woman and her Sphere,' * Land of 
Flowers,' 'Career of De Soto,' and the 'First Ship on Lake 
Erie.'" — Mansfield Advocate. 

Sent, postpaid, on receipt of price. 

Boston, 1888. lEE AND SHEPARD, Publishers. 


Illustrated Edition Peice, $1.00. 


"'Select Poems,' recently published by Lee & Shepard, Boston, 
pp. 174, 12mo, are from the pen of Hon. Harvey Rice of Cleveland, O., 
and author of 'Nature and Culture,' published by the same firm in 
1875, and which contained several essays on those subjects worthy of 
the deepest consideration. 

" In the volume now before us, the same love and admiration of all 
things good, noble, patriotic, and beautiful, are to be observed; and we 
wish that some of our magazine- writers would take pattern by the plain, 
almost severe, Saxon verbiage in which the deepest thought and most 
vivid fancy find expression." — JbwrnaZ o/ Commerce, Boston. 

•'A second edition indicates the public estimate of these piquant, 
graceful, and, in many regards, beautiful creations. We still think that 
• Unwritten Music ' rightfully fills the first place. It is simply qs.- 
quisite."— C%m^mn Leader, Boston. 

"Among the best of the long poems are 'The Mystery of Life,* 
'Mount Vernon,' 'Ancestral Portraits,' 'Home of my Youth,' and 
' Freedom.' The short poems are all good, some of them being perfect 
g^ms." — Easterii Argus, Portland, Me. 

" A collection of original poems, all of which are pleasing in struc- 
ture, pure and elevated in sentiment, vigorous and refined in diction, 
and faultless in numbers. The religion is that of the natural man, the 
morality that of works, the sympathy tender, and the wit general. 
The lovers of good poetry will relish the feast."— ^pis. Recorder, Phil. 

" Mr. Rice writes true poetry." — New - York Methodist. 

LEE & SHEPARD, Publisheks. 

Boston, 1888. 


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