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Full text of "Pitman's shorthand writing exercises and examination tests; a series of graduated exercises on every rule in the system and adapted for use by the private student or in public classes .."

[AN'S 

.THAND WRITING 
iXERCISES AND 

;AMINATION TESTS 

TWENTIETH CENTURY EDITION 



1 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



PITMAN'S SHORTHAND 
WRITING EXERCISES 



Pitman's 
Shorthand Writing Exercises 

and 

Examination Tests 

A Series of Graduated Exercises on 

Every Rule in the System and Adapted 

for use by the Private Student or in 

Public Classes 






SflORTHANl)! 



EIGHTH* '^EDITION 



London 

Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., 1 Amen Corner, E.C. 
Bath and New York. 



Entered at Stationert' Hall 



PRINTED BY SIR ISAAC PITMAN 

& SONS, LTD., LONDON, BATH, 

AND NEW YORK 



PREFACE 

THE chief object of this work is to provide the student of 
Pitman's Shorthand with a series of exhaustive Exercises 
on every rule in the system. An examination of the arrange- 
ment of the Exercises will show that they have been prepared 
in such a way that the student may not only thoroughly master 

2 each principle as it is reached in the course of his study, but 

uLi 

* that he is enabled at the same time to acquire a very extensive 

knowledge of words and the outlines for them, and also to 
5g commence the practice of writing from dictation almost from 
- the beginning of his study of the theory. Facility in writing 
^ and in reading shorthand may therefore be obtained along 

B 

^ with a perfect mastery of the principles, and thus the student 
^ will be saved a good deal of valuable time. 

It is scarcely necessary to say that this work is not intended 

to take the place of " Pitman's Shorthand Instructor " or 

uj any of the other text-books of the system. It is supplement- 

Ej ary to those, and the Exercises herein contained will be most 

~ correctly written, and with the greatest benefit to the student, 

if he will take care always to refer to his text-book before 

commencing to work the Exercises on any rule. Attention 

to this, and to the brief directions at the head of the Exercises, 

will enable the student to work through the various sections 

with few or no mistakes. 

It is probable that the student will meet in these Exercises 

448459 



6 PREFACE 

with some words that are unfamiliar to him. He is recom- 
mended in such a case invariably to refer to the dictionary 
for the meaning of the words, remembering that transcription 
of shorthand notes is all the more easy when the meaning of 
the words is perfectly understood by the writer. 

It may be pointed out, too, that the Exercises contain very 
many illustrations of the principle of Word-Building, and that 
the student will be able to construct innumerable other out- 
lines on the plan suggested by the examples referred to. The 
total number of words in the sentence exercises is given in 
the figures in parenthesis at the end of each 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

1-6 LONG VOWELS ..... 9 

7-12 SHORT AND LONG VOWELS , . . .12 
13-17 DIPHTHONGS . .... 16 

18-23 CIRCLE S AND Z . . . . .20 

24-29 LOOP st AND sir . . . .24 

30-35 CIRCLES SW AND SS OR S2 . . . .30 

36-41 VOWELS AND S AND t . . . .35 

42 CONTRACTIONS . . . . .40 

HOOK / ADDED TO STRAIGHT LETTERS . . 41 

HOOK r ADDED TO STRAIGHT LETTERS . . 42 

45-50 INITIAL HOOKS TO STRAIGHT LETTERS . . 44 

51 HOOK / ADDED TO CURVES . . . .48 

HOOK r ADDED TO CURVES . . . .51 

INITIAL HOOKS . . . . .54 

58-64 CIRCLES AND LOOPS PREFIXED TO INITIAL HOOKS . 57 

CONTRACTIONS . . . . .64 

n HOOK ...... 64 

f OR V HOOK . . . . .66 

68-72 THE HOOKS n, AND / OR v . . . .69 

73-79 CIRCLES AND LOOPS ADDED TO FINAL HOOKS . 72 

80-86 THE -tion HOOK . . . . .79 

87-92 ADDITIONAL DOUBLE CONSONANTS . . .87 

93 CONTRACTIONS . . . . .93 

94-99 THE ASPIRATE . . . . .94 

100-105 UPWARD AND DOWNWARD / . . . . J01 

106-111 UPWARD AND DOWNWARD f . . .109 

112-114 UPWARD AND DOWNWARD sh . . .118 

115 CONTRACTIONS . . . . .122 
116-127 THE HALVING PRINCIPLE .... 123 

128-133 THE DOUBLE-LENGTH PRINCIPLE . . .141 

134 CONTRACTIONS . . . . .149 

135-141 VOCALIZATION OF pi, f>f, ETC. . . .150 

141^-1 47 IV AND y DIPHTHONGS . . . .158 

148 CONTRACTIONS . . . , .169 



8 



CONTENTS 



EXERCISE 

149-154 DISYLLABIC DIPHTHONGS . , 

155-160 PREFIXES .... 

161-166 SUFFIXES .... 

167 CONTRACTIONS ... 

168-173 GRAMMALOGUES ... 

174-179 OMISSION OF CONSONANTS, ETC. . 

180-184 CONTRACTIONS . . . 

185-186 PHRASEOGRAPHY . . . 

187-188 PUNCTUATION, ETC. . . . 

189-190 WRITING IN POSITION . . 

191 FIGURES .... 

192 NEGATIVE PREFIXES . . 
193-196 REPORTING GRAMMALOGUES . . 
197-199 REPORTING CONTRACTIONS 
200-203 ADVANCED PHRASEOGRAPHY . . 
204-206 BUSINESS PHRASES AND CONTRACTIONS 

207 POLITICAL PHRASES . 

208 LAW PHRASES . . . 

209 THEOLOGICAL PHRASES . . 

210 INTERSECTED WORDS 



PAGE 
170 

177 
185 
195 
196 
202 
208 
214 
217 
219 
221 
222 
223 
226 
229 
233 
236 
237 
238 
239 



KEY TO " PITMAN'S SHORTHAND 

WRITING EXERCISES AND 

EXAMINATION TESTS" 



Containing Keys in engraved short- 
hand to the Exercises. Uniform 
with this work. Price 33. 6d. 



WRITING EXERCISES 



EXERCISE 1. 
Long* Vowels. 

Vowels placed at the left side of an upright or sloping con- 
sonant, or above a horizontal, are read before the consonant. 
Vowels placed at the right side of an upright or sloping 
consonant, or below a horizontal, are read after the 
consonant. 

The student is directed by small capital letters when to write 
the consonants sh, I, r, and h downward. Grammalogues 
and contractions are printed in italic. 

1 pa, palm, paw, pall, pawnee, pawed, pay, paid, pale, 

2 page, pane, pooh, ope, pope, poke, pole, poRe, bay, babe, 

3 bake, bait, bale, bailee, bathe, bane, beau, boat, bowl, 

4 boRe, boo, bee, bought, eat, ate, oat, tea, toe, toad, tome, 

5 toll, tollage, toRe, Tay, tape, take, tame, tail, taRe, awed, 

6 ode, day, date, dado, dame, dale, daRe, do, doe, dote, 

7 dodo, dole, dome, dooR, donate, donee, aid, Dee, each, 

8 chew, choke, jay, Jake, jail, jaw, Joe, Job, joke, Jew, age, 

9 caw, Coe, cope, code, coach, coke, comb, coal, coRe, cocoa, 

10 coo, Kay, cape, Cato, Cade, cage, cake, came, kale, oak. 

11 ache, eke, auk, key, gay, gape, gate, gauge, game, gale, 

12 goat, goal, goRe, Gaul, fay, fade, faith, fame, faiL, faRe, 

13 fee, faix, foe, folk, foam, foaL, foRe, foRego, eve, vague, 

14 veiL, vote, vogue, VOLC, oath, thaw, thee, they, ace, say, 

15 saw, so, sew, see, ooze, ease, owes, Zoo, snah, snape, 

16 snade SHake, sname, snaRe, snaw, SHOW, snowed, SHORC, 

17 SHoe, SHC, ma, may, make, maim, mail, maRe, maw, 

18 maul, mow, mope, mole, aim, moo, nay, nape, name, 

19 naiL : knee, gnaw, no. knoLL, NORC, e'en, own, ail, eel, awl, 

9 



10 WRITING EXERCISES 

20 lay, laid, lake, lave, lame, laiR, lee, law, laud, low, lobe, 

21 load, loaf, loth, loathe, loam, loRe, loo, aiR, eaR, oaR, ray, 

22 rate, rage, rake, raiL, rare, re, raw, wrought, roe, rope, 

23 robe, rote, rode, roach, rogue, roam, TOLL, roar, rue, way, 

24 wade, wage, ware, we, woe, woad, wore, woo, wee, ye, 

25 yew, yea, Haw, Hay, Hake, Haigh, noe. 



EXERCISE 2. 
Long 1 Vowels (continued). 

A third-place vowel, between two strokes, is written before 
the second stroke. 

1 beet, deep, cheap, keep, sneep, neap, leap, reap, weep, 

2 heap, eat, beat, keyed, feed, lead, reed, weed, heed, each, 

3 peach, beach, teach, leech, reach, liege, eke, peak, beak, 

4 teak, meek, leek, reek, league, thief, leaf, leave, teeth, 

5 Keith, Meath, wreath, heath, wreathe, beam, team, deem, 

6 theme, ream, eel, peel, deal, keel, meal, feeL, veaL, kneeL, 

7 reeL, eaR, peeR, beeR, teaR, deeR, jeeR, geaR, feaR, 

8 veeR, sneaR, leeR, meRe, rear, weir, boom, tomb, doom, 

9 loom, room, poop, coop, loop, rupee, hoop, pool, cool, 

10 Goole, fooL, ruLe, boot, jute, root, chewed, food, rude, 

11 wooed, pooR, booR, mooR, retail, Nero, oatmeal. 



EXERCISE 3. 
Long 1 Vowels (continued). 

GRAMMALOGUES. 
s all, \ be, , he, . the, , who (down). 

1. He may load all the Hay. 2. Who may take the meal ? 
3. Who may he be who rode the bay maRe ? 4. Paul may go 
all the way. 5. He may take the oRe. 6. sne may weep all 
the day. 7. The Pawnee may take the wreath. 8. Joe Booth 
may vacate the poop. 9. May Ruth Cope read the tale ? 



WRITING EXERCISES 11 

10. Joe Bate may teach me the polo game. 11. We feaR the 
thief may locate the rare peach. 12. May we go forth ? 
13. All who read the theme may weep. 14. SHOW me the 
bailee who came. 15. We all say the leech may see the deep 
me Re. 16. May Paul Booth lead the sneep ? 17. We may all 
aid pooR Paul. 18. We hope the day may be faiR. (118) 



EXERCISE 4. 
Long 1 Vowels (continued). 

1. May we SHOW the pale hero the way we weed ? 2. He 
may take heed. 3. Paul Page may take the mail coach. 
4. May he read all the way ? 5. We feaR the rogue may peach. 
6. Who may lead the maRe, Joe ? 7. SHC may faLL. 8. We 
all hope sue may reach the mooR. 9. We saw the rude rogue 
who rowed the boat take the boot. 10. He may be the thief 
who beat Dame Bate. 11. May we take the peeR the faRe ? 

12. We hope pooR Joe Beach may keep the cape we bought. 

13. We feaR he may leave the meal. (96) 



EXERCISE 5. 
Long 1 Vowels (continued). 

1. Joe Hague may keep all the change. 2. Who saw the 
meek deeR move O'CR the mooR ? 3. They may reach the 
deep pool. 4. Paul may see the game. 5. He may take all 
the oatcake. 6. SHOW me the way they rode. 7. The rude 
foe may retake the gate. 8. Who may take the knave ? 
9. All who know the way may take the lead. 10. We feaR Joe 
may pay all the faRe. 11. He may do so. 12. Paul Peel 
may pay the faRe he owes. 13. Joe Beach may read the tale, 
though he may teaR the page. 14. Who may the tall dame 
be? 15. Move the coach, so we may all see tlie game. 16. The 
sea foam may make the cape fade. 17. The rogue may mooR 
the boat eRe we reach the SHORC. 18 May we all go ? (131) 



12 WRITING EXERCISES 

EXERCISE 6. 
Long 1 Vowels (concluded). 

1. We may all see the meek sneep feed. 2. Who may the 
rude thief be who rowed the boat ? 3. We all say A0 may reach 
Goole. 4. 77i tall Pawnee may also take the cocoa. 5. They 
all saw the pooR lame maRe eat the nay. 6. May we make 
the rogue snaRe */w? cake ? 7. They say Job Meek may take 
the boat. 8. May he pay the toll ? 9. We feaR the page 
may teaR the leaf. 10. Move #w boom, so they may take 
the boat. 11. May Job Cope change the food ? 12. We both 
saw #z faiR dame take the gay cape. 13. The rogue who 
wrote the page may take the wreath. 14. May we lead the 
way ? 15. We may all reach the cool snade. 16. He paid 
all he owed 17. WAo bought the cheap ball ? 18. May they 
keep the cage ? 19. Make Keith pay all the faRe. 20. They 
may all know #&e name. 21. SHOW the leech the faiR page. 
22. We feaR they may retake the boat. 23. Who may take 
the peach ? 24. They may teach all the pooR folk the game. 
25. The coach may take all the fouR. 26. SHOW me the maRe. 
27. They may keep all the cocoa. 28. Who paid the faRe ? 

(194) 

EXERCISE 7. 
Short and Long Vowels. 

Second-place short vowels and third-place long or short 
vowels, between two consonants, are written before the 
second consonant. 

1 (a) bet, debt, jet, jetty, get, Ted, fed, sned, meadow, 

2 Neddy, led, red, ready, head, heady, etch, ketch, fetch, 

3 wretch, edge, kedge, ledge, wedge, hedge, peck, beck, deck, 

4 check, neck, wreck, egg, peg, beg, keg, leg, legacy, legate, 

5 legatee, levy, reveRe, heavy, gusn, musH, IUSH, rusn, 

6 huSH, dumb, chum, gum, thumb, mum, mummy, 

7 mummery, numb, rum, punch, bunch, munch, lunch, 

8 hunch, funny, money, honey, penny, Jenny, Kenny, 



WRITING EXERCISES 13 

9 many, length, lengthy, lenity, bench, wrench, wench, 

10 pulp, pulpy, dull, cull, colouR, gull, gully, gullied, gulp, 

11 gulf, pell, bell, bellow, bellowed, Tell, dell, delta, delay, 

12 jelly, Kelly, fellow, mell, mellow, mellowed, melody, 

13 relay, yellow, Perth, birth, dearth, girth, mirth, bung, 

14 tongue, chunk, junk, monk, monkey, lung, rung, hung, 

15 among, tub, dub, chub, chubby, cub, rub, hub, tuck, duck, 

16 chuck, lucky, ruck, pug, tug, dug, jug, mug, nugget, lug, 

17 luggage, rug, Hug, budge, judge, fudge, nudge, putty, 

18 cutty, nutty, rut, perry, berry, Terry, Derry, cherry, Jerry, 

19 Kerry, ferry, verity, snerry, merry, burrow, curry, furrow, 

20 furry, thorough, thoroughly, Murray, lurry, hurry. 

1 (b) pill, pillow, billow, till, dill, chilly, jill, kill, filly, mill, 

2 milk, milky, lily, TILL, pip, tip, dip, chip, kip, snip, nip, 

3 lip, rip, hip, nib, rib, pity, bit, ditty, Kitty, writ, kid, 

4 giddy, middy, lid, rid, hid, pitch, ditch, niche, rich, richly, 

5 witch, hitch, midge, ridge, pick, tick, chick, kick, thick, 

6 nick, lick, rick, pig, big, dig, jig, gig, fig, rig, fifty, live, 

7 livelong, dim, dimly, chimney, vim, limb, rim, tinny, 

8 finny, ninny, pinch, lynch, winch, pink, chink, link, rink, 

9 wink, ring, wing, pull, pulley, bully, bullied, fully, book, 
10 took, snook, nook, look, Hook. 

1 (c) appal, apology, appeal, appeaR, apeak, abasH, abate, 

2 abbey, ability, abet, atom, atomic, attic, ado, agility, 

3 academy, agony, afaR, aveR, acid, asnoRe, anatomy, 

4 anatomic, anchovy, allay, alb, album, aRm, aRmouR, 

5 aRmada, aRRay, aRRow, aRk, away, aware, ebb, ebbing, 

6 ebony, effect, evict, edit, Emily, enough, envy, envelop, 

7 envenom, elf, elope, CRR, eaRl, eaRly, Italy, italic, Islam, 

8 image, inch, indulge, ink, inky, opera, operetta, oblong, 

9 oddly, offaL, offing, olive, oRb, oRchid, up, uprear, uproar, 

10 ugly, unpack, undo, unfaiR, unfaiRly, unveiL, uneasy, 

11 uneasily, unmake, unmarried, unLucky, unrobe, unaware, 

12 unwary, unwearied, unworthy. 

1 (d) pal, pallid, palloR, pack, back, tack, Jack, knack, lack, 

2 rack, Hack, Hackney, patty, bat, chatty, fatty, vat, natty, 

3 rat, tap, chap, gap, map, nap, lap, rap, hap, tab, dab, 



14 WRITING EXERCISES 

4 cab, snabby, nab, path, bath, lath, wrath, pad, padlock, 

5 caddy, fad, faddy, snadow, lad, laddie, patch, batch, 

6 catch, thatch, match, latch, hatch, pod, body, bodily, 

7 toddy, cod, snod, SHoddy, rod, hod, pop, top, chop, cop, 

8 fop, SHop, mop, lop, hop, dock, chock, SHock, mock, 

9 knock, lock, rock, rocky, Hock, Hockey, toffee, coffee, 

10 lofty, policy, doll, jolly, collie, folly, volley, Mollie, loll, 

11 rollick, rot, rob, robbery, dot, domino. 

EXERCISE 8. 
Short and Long- Vowels (continued). 

GRAMMALOGUES. 
a, an, and (up), ^ are, i but, \ it, ' of, -. to. 

1. Date the cheque a month ahead, and pay the debt to the 
milleR. 2. They wrote to say they laid the lead in the rut 
at the bottom of the road. 3. The rude village lad snowed 
Fanny Finch the route he took to reach the snade of the sned 
at the edge of the lake. 4. The lame lamb licked the pooR limb, 
and feLL eRe it got to the gate. 5. We are to take lunch in thi 
dell; but we may get no food if we are delayed in the wood. 

6. We hope Mary Beach may marry Philip Murray. 7 If so, 
we may all go to the wedding. (107) 

EXERCISE 9. 
Short and Long* Vowels (continued). 

1. May we appeal to Tom Murray to take a SHaRe in the 
game, and lead us to victory ? 2. The pick of the party are 
away ill ; but we hope to make a faiR game of it. 3. If we 
onLy manage to get Tom into the team, we may pull off the 
match easily. 4. We own to an uneasy feeLing in the affaiR 
5. Ask NeLLie to fetch me a big cake, a peaR, and a cup of 
coffee. 6. The sea aiR may make us feeL ready to eat 

7. We are to take lunch in the leafy snade at the bottom of the 
lovely valley. 8. Polly and Annie are to go in the gig. 9. They 



WRITING EXERCISES 15 

hope to catch up to us eRe we reach the weir. 10. The Yankee 
wore a lovely ruby ring. 11. He snowed rare ability in the 
comic opera, and we hope he may tarry in the village all the 
month. 12. We rarely see so funny a fellow. 13. Both 
Philip and Jerry say they see no ability in the fellow ; but they 
are fuLL of envy and vanity, and so they are unfaiR. 14. May 
they snake off so fooLish a feeLing, and make a thorough 
apology to the chatty Yankee ! (200) 

EXERCISE 1O. 
Short and Long 1 Vowels (continued). 

1. We may easily take a cheque and pay the debt. 2. Are 
we to knock in the head of the tub ? 3. It may be a dirty job, 
but we may manage it. 4. We feaR to talk of the ability of the 
lad. . 5. Ted MilleR may be fuLL of envy. 6. If we take the 
narrow path aLong the meadow, we may readily get to the snop 
in the village. 7. The lad may catch up to us on the way, 
and so we way all reach the dock eaRly enough to take a look 
at the big snip. 8. It may be many a long and weary month 
eRe we see the merry fellow who came to the village to see us. 
9. The memory of the jolly party may live many a long day. 

(130) 

EXERCISE 11. 
Short and Long Vowels (continued). 

1. Take a cheque and pay the bill to the dealeR. 2. We 
hope the colouR may keep. 3. They say the calico may be 
ready to snip /o-morrow. 4. We are to snip the big keg of 
rum eaRly in the month of March. 5. We may leave the bale 
of twiLL. 6. // may be ready to go eaRly in May. 7. Do they 
know the rate to charge ? 8. They say so, but we feaR they 
may be wrong. 9. Do they know the length and width of the 
big boat at the back of the dock ? 10. Go to the bank ; casn 
the cheque; and fetch the money to me. 11. Ask Bennett 
and Murray to snip the merino. 12. Take a foRm of policy, 
and insuRe the bale of fuR. 13. Are we to redeem the bill 



16 WRITING EXERCISES 

to-day, OR may we leave it ? 14. Ask Tom Bailey to mark 
the package in red ink. 15. Do they say they guarantee 
the colouR of the red robe ? 16. We feaR it may easily fade 
in a month. 17. Take the bill, and ask the notary to mark it. 
18. We hope the fiRm may deal faiRly, and pay the bill. 19. 
Take no cheque, but ask the fiRm to pay the bill in ready casn. 

20. The snip " Baltic " may load at the big dock to-morrow. 

21. Ask #z fellow in the barge to pack a// the luggage in the 
bottom of the boat. 22. He may get a lad to carry the bag 
to #i snip. 23. They a// took a thorough look at the big snip. 
24. 7T&0 butt of snerry may be ready to snip to-morrow OR 
Monday. (261) 

EXERCISE 12. 
Short and Long- Vowels (concluded). 

1. The bill may be unpaid, and the fellow may be rude to 
Tom Parry. 2. We rang the bell, but no lad came to Me dooR. 
3. May be the family were away. 4. We all appeaR to feaR 
the fellow may be a snam. 5. If so, he may carry the game faR 
enough to take in many pooR folk in the village below. 6. He 
may be infiRm, but we all faiL to see it. 7. He may snock the 
pooR lady at Birch Villa. 8. sne may be ill and laid up many 
a month. 9. Tom and Adam may both go in the coach, and 
ask the lady to beware of the rogue. 10. He may easily take 
away all the money. 1 1 We hope they may pay heed to all 
we may say. (128) 

EXERCISE 13. 
Diphthong's. 

The diphthong oi is written in the first place, and the diphthong 
u in the third place. The diphthongs may be joined to a 
consonant where convenient. 

1 (a) pie, pipe, piety, pied, pile, pyRe, piracy, bite, bile, byRe, 

2 type, tied, tidy, tidily, tithe, timely, tiny, tile, tiRe, 

3 attiRe, retiRe, tyro, die, diet, dyke, dime, diRe, chide, 



WRITING EXERCISES 17 

4 chime, china, gibe, fie, purify, terrify, defy, verify, vilify 

5 mollify, indemnify, rarefy, horrify, fife, five, fiLe, fiRe, fiery 

6 vie, Viking, viLe, sny, snied, sniny, sniRe, mighty, mile, 

7 miRe, miry, nigh, knife, ninety, deny, demy, denied, NiLe, 

8 lie, lied, like, liked, likely, life, life-time, life-long, lively, 

9 lithe, lime, lyRe, rye, ripe, right, rightly, ride, riding, 

10 writhe, rhyme, riLe, wire, wiry, wired, wiring, hide, item, 

11 idle, idly, ivy, ivory, ice, icy, icily, ice-boat, eyes, IRC, 

12 iRiSH, iRony, iRonic. 

1 (b) pouch, couch, vouch, avouch, avow, outlaw, outlawed, 

2 outlawry, outlay, dowry, owl, owlisn, cow, cowed, cowl, 

3 cowry, loud, loudly, lounge, rowdy, bough, toweR, county, 

4 endow, doughty, pow-wow, bout, toweL, toweLing, downy, 

5 doweL, chow-chow, jowl, Gow, gouge, fowL, fowling, 

6 VOWCL, voweR, SHowery, mouthing, loutisn, rout, rowel, 

7 howdah. 

1 (c) boy, boyisH, boileR, buoyant, buoyancy, toil, toileR, 

2 toyed, doily, coy, coyed, coil, coinage, foiL, moil, alloy, 

3 joy, enjoy, envoy, oil, oiled, oileR, oily, annoy, annoyeR, 

4 anoy, Hoy, hoidenisn. 

1 (d) pue, puke, puma, puny, pule, Bute, beauty, bureau, 

2 rebuke, tue, tube, tumoR, tunic, due, endue, adieu, dupe, 

3 duty, duke, duly, unduly, cue, askew, cupola, occupy, 

4 cube, cubic, CURC, curacy, ridicule, few, feud, fume, 

5 perfume, assume, fury, view, purview, review, sue, pursue, 

6 tissue, ensue, mew, mule, muraL, demuRe, new, anew, 

7 renew, venue, avenue, new, huge, eulogy, EuRope, youth, 

8 usurp, usury, value, valued, vacuity, voLume, vicuna, 

9 Wight, wide, wideR, widely, wife, wifely. 

EXERCISE 14. 
Diphthong's (continued). 

GRAMMALOGUES. 

can, \^ have, A how, J_ / or eye, __^_ our or hour 
( was, L why, you. 

1. Both you and I know it was right to ask the new duke to 

2 (27) 



18 WRITING EXERCISES 

rebuke our nephew, Tom Boyle. 2. The idle fellow can 
admiRe no toil. 3. He may annoy and ridicule us now, and 
idle away many an hour ; but we know the value of time, and, 
if we have to use our poweR to do so, we hope to make Tom 
know it also. 4. How fooLish to allow the time o/ our youth 
to go idly by, and hope to retiRe at a ripe age, rich, fuLL of 
poweR, and liked by all who know us ! 5. Why do yow take so 
wrong a view of life ? 6. 7 ask yew to do youR duty manfully ; 
to be genuine ; to aspire to a life of utility ; and to defy the idle 
youth who may hope to lead yow aside. 7. If yow do so, you 
are likely to have a High name among all who know you. 

(155) 

EXERCISE 15. 
Diphthong's (continued). 

1. How can I daRe to occupy an hour of youR time each day ? 

2. You have so much to do, and so many to take you away. 

3. Why was Tom Abbott allowed to leave our room to go to 
annoy yo. 4. My eye may appeaR dim to you ; but I am all 
right, awd 7 hope to enjoy my tea in the new room. 5. 77w 
duke may like to take my nephew to Cuba in July; but I hope 
to &e in time to make ^Ae boy retiRe. 6. / may have to assume 
an authority unLike my own feeLing ; but if I am to be loyal 
to my duty 7 may have to wire my nephew to keep back an 
hour OR so. 7. You may know how to foiL #te duke. (130) 

EXERCISE 16. 
Diphthong's (continued). 

1 . Why have you allowed youR big dog to bite my white cow ? 
2. How was it he came to terrify the POOR animal ? 3. 7 may 
make you pay /fc damage, an^ it may fc VOUR duty to see 
A duke and avow the injury. 4. If you faiL to make me a 
fuLL apology 7 may pursue you at law, and make you rue youR 
idle joke. 5. How can you decoy our boy Hugh to the annuaL 
faiR at Newcome ? 6. We feaR he may become an idleR, 



WRITING EXERCISES 19 

and so faLL into penury. 7. We see no beauty in the type of 
youth you SHOW the boy, and we hope you are loyal enough to 
review youR life and daRe to take a new path to the right. 
8. //aw a nigh aim in life ; pursue it right loyally ; and SHOW 
#ie county all you can do if you like. 9. We hope you may 
leave #w viLe few who value youR money onLy. 10. FeaR 
no ridicule ; but aspire to become a poweR in youR cwn county. 
11. Do youR duty like a hero, and allow no rowdy fellow to 
terrify you into a wrong path. 12. You know we have to 
rebuke you, though we love you. (200) 



EXERCISE 17. 
Diphthong's (concluded). 

1. How can I hope to snip the wire by July ? 2. / hope to 
have the china ready in time to go by the boat due to leave on 
Monday. 3. Doyowknow howmuchyou are to allow the buyeR ? 
4. Why was he so much in aRReaR ? 5. Hugh Doyle may take 
up our agency in New York. 6. / hope he may aRRive in 
time to see the buyeR. 7. / have a new range of vicuna, of 
rare beauty, to SHOW you. 8. Do you know the value of the 
tunic A0 snowed you? 9. #e may ask to see a pure white 
calico. 10. The failuRe of the oil fiRm may affect us. 11. Ask 
the dealeR to have a pipe of snerry ready to snip by the fourth 
of July. 12. Take a cab, and ride all the way to the faR dock. 
13. / have to assume you are right in the view you take of the 
affaiR. 14. / hope you may thoroughly enjoy the voyage 
to the Cape. 15. Can you guarantee the accuracy of the tale ? 
16. Ask the buyeR to view the new china. 17. If you are wide- 
awake, he may buy all you have to SHOW. 18. Why was he 
so long in the snop ? 19. If we annoy the fellow, he may 
leave us aLone, and go and buy o/ Boyle an^ Nephew. 20. The 
fellow snowed rare ingenuity in the escape. 21. He may 
eventually take refuge in the wood. 22. He owes no money 
to our fiRm, though they say so. 23. / may go and see the 
envoy to-morrow OR Monday. 24. Be back in an hour. (261) 



20 WRITING EXERCISES 

EXERCISE 18. 
Circle S and Z. 

The circle s is written backward to a straight line ; inside a 
curve ; and outside an angle formed by two straight lines. 
In this exercise, and in Exercises 19 to 23 inclusive, italic s, 
c or z (in words other than grammalogues) signifies that 
the stroke s (or z), and not the circle, must be written. 
Write ks for x. 

(a) CIRCLE s ADDED TO A STRAIGHT LETTER : 

1 pies, spies, spied, spade, speech, speeches, speaks, 

2 sparrow, -sparrows, sob, sobs, Sabbath, boys, eats, seats, 

3 cites, suits, sty, stew, stews, sat, satiRe, side, sides, sawed, 

4 sowed, sighed, sued, cheese, choose, pitches, ditches, riches, 

5 witches, pages, badges, dodges, images, nudges, lodges. 

6 ledges, wedges, hedges, sieges, ekes, peaks, cheeks, jokes, 

7 cakes, fox, invokes, snakes, mix, nooks, licks, aRks, rakes, 

8 awakes, Hoax, soaks, six, pigs, begs, tags, dogs, jugs, kegs, 

9 gags, figs, mugs, lags, aRgues, rags, Hags, sago, rose, 

10 barrows, tyros, furrows, sorrows, morose, wise, unwise, 

11 lengthwise, ways, by-ways, sideways, sways, yes, hues, 

12 pass, pass-book, bespeak, busby, baseball, teas, testy, 

13 tacit, tacitly, Tacitus, days, decide, decides, disturb, 

14 audacity, case, casks, cassock, cascade, race, racer, razors, 

15 resource, woes, wiser. 

(b) CIRCLE s ADDED TO A CURVE .- 

1 safe, safes, unsafe, pacify, pacifies, sieve, sieves, 

2 passive, deceives, extensive, effusive, evasive, massive, 

3 missives, receives, thaws, seethes, sues, issues, pursues, 

4 tissues, ensues, oozes, asnes, pusnes, busnes, gasnes, 

5 gnasnes, lasnes, rusHes, snoes, alms, palms, calms, lambs, 

6 mass, mask, masks, miseR, miseRs, miseRly, same, seams, 

7 smokes, smoothes, smasnes, smiles, smeaRS, nose, snows, 

8 snooze, snaps, snatches, snakes, sniffs, snaiL,. snaiLs, 

9 sneeRs, sing, passing, basing, tossing, enticing, dozing, 

10 chasing, causing, encasing, guessing, fusing, diffusing, 

11 suffusing, infusing, refusing, voicing, invoicing, massing, 



WRITING EXERCISES 21 

12 racing, rising, summarizing, authorizing, signs, designs, 

13 ensigns, resigns, ails, sails, soles, slays, slap, sleeps, slides, 

14 slouch, sledges, slake, slag, self, sleeves, slums, slings, 

15 sluR, sluRs, ORCS, soRes, siR, passeR, baseR, teaseR, chaseR, 

16 loseR, IOSCRS, siRe, desiRe, desiRes. 

(c) CIRCLE s WRITTEN OUTSIDE AN ANGLE : 

1 passage, beseech, exchange, episode, beside, besides, 

2 oxide, reside, resides, wayside, opposite, paucity, beset, 

3 bestows, chastise, justice, excites, sixty, sixth, custom, 

4 customeR, costume, gazette, gusset, russet, recites receipts, 

5 recede, dispose, expose, gossips, rasps, wasps, hasps, pasch, 

6 basks, tasks, dusky, desks, discuss, risks, rusks, hassock, 

7 husky, hyssop, pastel, pasture, basic, basset, besot, 

8 bestir, tusky, desirous, despair, disburse, duskiness, 

9 gesture, reposit, rescue, restoRe, caustic, yeasty. 

(d) CIRCLE s IN MISCELLANEOUS WORDS : 

1 sight, sightless, unsightly, physic, fiscaL, muse, music, 

2 musical, excuse, chasms, saRcasm, wisely, sense, senseLess, 

3 incense, news, nuisance, series, Saxons, spills, sagacity, 

4 satisfy, appetize, SCORC, secuRes, scaRce, scaRcely, silks, 

5 suppose, sponge, sadly, salad, satirize, scoops, seediness, 

6 service, sincerity, sixpenny, slouches, soups, souRness, 

7 spacing, succeeds, suffice, succumbs, surges, syllogism, 

8 syllabus, absence, absolve, absorb, advise, anaLyzing, 

9 assassin, backslide, canceL, ceiling, damson, demoralize, 

10 libellous, lisps, obtuse, uprise, villainous, tyrannize, 

11 toilsome, pipe-case, opposing, nominees. 

EXERCISE 19. 

Circle S and Z (continued). 

GRAMMALOGUES. 

any, or in, as, has, is, his, give, or given, 

^, him, or may, ^ me, or my, on. 

See Note at the head of Exercise 18. 
1. Any of my boys may give him a nice slab, if he onLy looks 



22 WRITING EXERCISES 

in at our house on Tuesday. 2. / have given many a choice 
piece away to the lads in the village. 3. If he has his own way, 
and stays to take tea, he may faiL to catch the omnibus. 

4. // is time to go now, if he desiRes to reach the castle by six. 

5. As it is, I feaR he may have to use his top speed, OR he may 
miss the bus. 6. He seems to have a chill ; he was sneezing an 
hour ago. 7. If he takes wy advice, A0 may be all right by 
Saturday. 8. UnLess he is in foRm, he may have to stay out 
of the team. 9. In this case we may lose our match. 10. He 
takes a chill easily ; he is so reckless in his games. 11. He is a 
superb bat, and if he is in the team we may have a big SCORC. 

(162) 



EXERCISE 2O. 

Circle S and Z (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 18. 

1. Keep the seal of justice on thy lips, and say no wrong 
of thy fellows. 2. This is my advice, and I know it may save 
you many sorrows. 3. A loose tongue can easily give offence, 
as it has given offence to many CRC now. 4. Any silly gossip 
may upset the wisdom of a sage. 5. Decide to speak but 
seldom, and onLy in season. 6. My son, Listen to me, and 
take counseL of him who is slow of speech, but fuLL of wise 
maxims. 7. It may be amusing, but it is unsafe to pass all 
youR spaRe time in loose reading. 8. How can such books 
give you Lessons in sagacity ? 9. Do you suppose you can 
satisfy youRself and absorb wisdom by such reading ? 10. 
How many youths mismanage and abuse the time they have to 
spaRe by passing it away in the study of f ooLish books. 11.7 
beseech you resolve now to leave such books aLone ! 12. They 
can make you no wiser, and they may disturb youR love of 
genuine reading. 13. Yes, you may smile at the counseL you 
dislike, and say it is offensive to you ; but I know youR smile is 
onLy a sign of youR innocence OR youR fancied wisdom, and I 
feeL no annoyance at it, (208) 



WRITING EXERCISES 23 

EXERCISE 21. 

Circle S and Z (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 18. 

1. My advice to you and to him is to peruse youR books 
slowly, and give heed to the safe business ruLes and maxims 
/ have given you both. 2. I have given the same counseL to 
Joseph Sparrow, and he SHOWS his wisdom by Listening to me 
and following the advice / give him. 3. At the office, and in 
business hours, speak onLy of business affaiRs. 4. Take heed 
of me, and leave all gossip of operas, picnics, tennis parties, 
and such like topics to youR spaRe time. 5. To lounge, as 
some do, on the desk, and discuss rides aLong the Highroads 
and byways to lovely villages and views of rustic beauty, faR 
outside the dismal smoke of the city, is a loss of time, and it is 
nonsense to think you can make up the time you lose in this way. 

6. Besides, it is an injustice to those who pay you youR salary. 

7. Watch jealously the small items ; you can easily keep an 
eye on the big bills. 8. Satisfy youRself of the honesty of 
those customeRs who refuse to pay ready casn. 9. A sleek 
rogue has a way of seeming rich, so as to hide his designs and 
lull his victims into a faLse security. 10. A knave may amuse 
you on purpose to deceive you. (214) 

EXERCISE 22. 

Circle S and Z (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 18. 
Joseph Smith. 

SiR, If you decide to take up the agency to sell my soap in 
youR city, I hope you may do an extensive business. You 
can see me on Wednesday the 7th, as eaRly in the day as you 
like. / have given you this long notice so as to give you nice 
time to get ready. I wrote to the dealeR you spoke of on 
Saturday. He says his rooms are fuLL, and he has no space 
to pack a solitary box. He says if you choose you may see 



24 WRITING EXERCISES 

him as you pass on Tuesday the 10th, and he may spaRe a 
few minutes to look at youR case of soaps. YOURS sincereLy, 
Maurice Bates. (119) 



EXERCISE 23. 

Circle S and Z (concluded). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 18. 

James Mason < Sons. 

SiRs, In answer to youRs of Tuesday, / have seen MCSSRS. 
Higson and Lawson, of this city, but I am sorry to say they 
refuse to buy any soap OR soda this time. They say business 
is so slack, and money so scaRce, it is unsafe to buy. I saw 
this was an evasive reason, given as an excuse to mislead me 
and get rid of me. I hope to secuRe the custom of this fiRm 
in time ; but my feeLings may have to be callous, if / am to 
succeed. YOURS, Thomas Battison. (98) 



EXERCISE 24. 
Loops ST and STR. 

The loops st and sir follow the same rule of writing as the 
circle s. The ST loop is used finally for either st or zd. 
In this exercise, and in Exercises 25 to 29 inclusive, the 
loops should be employed (in words other than gram- 
malogues) for the representation of the combinations of 
letters printed in italic. Write kst for -xed, and kster for 
-xter. 

(a) THE LOOP st USED INITIALLY : 

1 stop, stoppage, stupid, stupidity, sAipefy, stepson, 

2 stub, stout, stoutness, stoutly, state, stately, s/atues, staid, 

3 stewed, switches, stagey, sAicco, stocks, stockade, s^ags, 

4 stigma, stigmatise, stuffy, s/iffly, stiffness, stoves, stfammeR, 

5 steameRs, steamboat, steamsnip, steam-gauge, stamina.. 

6 s/arch, stench, stanza, stenciL, s/ainLess, stingy, s/inginess, 



WRITING EXERCISES 25 

7 s/ung, style, s/ylisn, stoles, stalls, stalled, stolid, stolidly, 

8 s/aR, stoRmy, s/aRling, s/aiR, s/aiRcase, story, storied, 

9 storage, sturdy, sturdily, stagnancy, s/aineR, stalky, s/aR- 

10 gazing, s/atuRe, s/atus, s/ealeR, s/emless, s/eRilize, s/etho- 

11 scope, stirrup, s/imulus, stomach, stoneware, stoRk, stud, 

12 s/uffeR, stultify, stun, stylist, stylus, stop-watch, stoled, 

13 stoneR, stillness, s/illage, stevedore, s/et, s/ellifoRm, 

14 steerage, stealthily, static, s/aRlike, staccato. 

(b) THE LOOP st USED FINALLY : 

1 pest, deepest, cheapest, ripest, post, deposed, disposed, 

2 exposed, oppos^, suppos^^, appeas^, unappeas^, beas^, 

3 biassed, abus^, disabused, test, detest, soundest, fastest, 

4 slightest, latest, notic^, neatest, fattest, dentist, faddish, 

5 saddest, maddest, oldest, boldest, eldes/, loudest, widest, 

6 induct, reduced, dsized, dozed, chest, ]oist, rejoic^, jus?, 

7 unjust, adjus/, cast, outcast, downcast, encash, boxed, 

8 fixed, vexed, mixed, unmixed, ca.used, a.ccused, excused, 

9 gues^, biggest, ga^, fas/, safes/, iniest, roughest, iused, 

10 diffused, suffused, infusg^, refus^^, voiced, invoiced, devis^, 

11 advis^, revis^, amethys/, assis/, si^^, sauc^^, ceased, 

12 soused, zest, mist, pessimist, dismiss^, chemis/, lames/, 

13 topmost, mus0^, amus^, epitomis^, victimi^^, 

14 macadamized, apostati^d, dogmati^d, stigmati^d, 

15 rhapsodized, catechised, apologized, anaLogized, canonized, 

16 latinized, fossiLized, vitalized, vulcanized, anaLyzed, 

17 memorized, mesmerized, summarized, authorized, polarized, 

18 cauterized, fenced, unfenced, evinced, minced, lanced, 

19 balanced, silenced, Licensed, finest, hones/, announced, 

20 denounced, renounced, lest, pales/, tallest, dullest, vilest, 

21 solaced, stales/, moles/, list, oculist, enLis/, anaLys/, released, 

22 roost, raised, roused, wrist, diarist, aRRes/, aRoused, eRased, 

23 paRsed, buRs/, foRced, enfoRced, endoRsed, unres/, waste, 

24 west, south-west, yeast, hypnotized. 

(c) CIRCLE s ADDED TO THE LOOP st : 

1 posts, repasts, chests, jes/s, casts, gusts, fas/s, infes/s, 

2 invests, assists, masts, nests, lists, rests, aRRes/s, buRs/s, 

3 wastes, apologists, pests, beasts, boasts, texts, tastes, toasts, 



26 WRITING EXERCISES 

4 dusts, dentils, divests, digeses, disaffores/s, adjusts, cate- 

5 chises, coases, colorises, guests, leasts, fois/s, forests, 

6 fossiLis/s, violinists, satirises, sophis/s, seylises, molesfe, 

7 manifests, macninis/s, mesmerises, Methodises, monopolisms, 

8 anaLyses, anatomises, latinises, aLchemis/s, aRchivises, 

9 rooses, recas/s, reservists, rhymisfe, hypnotises. 

(d) THE LOOP se USED MEDIALLY : 

1 robuseness, methodiseic, fantaseic, teseing, atteseing, detese- 

2 ing, teseifies, toaseing, toaseing-foRk, adjuseing, juseifies, 

3 juseness, eulogiseic, vaseness, vesery, enLiseing, elaseic, 

4 ineLaseic, logiseic, syllogiseic, pugiliseic, laseingLy, baptiseery, 

5 boaseingLy, dentiseic, digeseing, diseich, jeseing, jeseingLy, 

6 suggeseing, joiseing, juseifieR, teseifieR, schoLaseic, 

7 sophisery, suggeseive, suggestively. 

(e) THE LOOP str : 

1 pester, pesters, tipseer, tipse^rs, Webseer, alabase^r, 

2 lobse^rs, atteseer, tase^rs, roadse^r, roadse^rs, Chese<?r, 

3 Manchese^y, Winchese^r, Ilchese^r, juse^r, 

4 suggese^r, suggese^rs, regis^r, coase^r, caseors, 

5 Ba^e^r, de^e^r, ioster, iesters, investor, master, 

6 snipmase^rs, taskmase^r, riding-mase^r, muster, teamster, 

7 teamse^rs, deemse^r, banise^r, canise^rs, sinise<?r, 

8 Beaminse^r, Axminse^r, Westminse^r, monse^rs, 

9 anceseor, anceseors, songsters, pilase^r, bolse^rs, 

10 Ulse^r, lase^r, luse^s, roose^r, barrise^r, chorise^s, 

11 aRRese^r, buRse^r, Worcese^r, Huckse^r, 



EXERCISE 25. 
Loops ST and STR (continued). 

GRAMMALOGUES. 
first, \ put, J shall, / should (up), ( them, ..(,-. these, 

(> this, C those. 

See Note at the head of Exercise 24. 
1. You should put youR visitor /irse, and youRself lase. 
2. This is the best way, and those who refuse to follow it must 



WRITING EXERCISES 27 

be stupid. 3. Who shall teach them these ruLes of the feast? 

4. I suggest some robust, pugilistic master of the customs of 
society, wlio is heedless of the s*aRe of those opposed to him. 

5. Should he excite a feeLing of the deepest disgus* in those he 
teaches, they can scaRcely daRe to molest so stout a fellow, 
les/ they may be chastised. 6. The master of the sfeamsnip 
" Manchester " is jus* now on a visit to Winchester. 7. He is a 
SHipmaster of rare skiLL, and has carried many caRgoes in 
sailing vesseLS, s*eameRs and coasters, since he first took to 
the sea. 8. Centuries ago, in the days of mas*s and sails, eRe 
the poweR of steam was ioRced into the service of the sailoR, 
his ancestors were stout masters of snips, and feaRless sailoRs 
on the stoRmy seas. 9. The master of the " Manchester " says 
his snip is the fines/ and fastest vesseL out of Belfas/. 10. sne 
must be a masterpiece of speed and beauty, if SHC is all he says 
SHC is. 11. It may be he boas/s, like most sailoRs, of the snip 
he loves. 12. He is an hones* fellow, of rare stamina ; stout 
of limb and capacious of chest, and I should say he has no 
unmanLy feaR of the many periLS of the sea. (236) 



EXERCISE 26. 
Loops ST and STR (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 24. 

1. You should put no faith in the stories of a boaster. 2. He 
has an elastic tongue, and to bolster up his tales and make a 
S*IR, he stops at no barefaced lie. 3. He likes to see modes* 
folk amazed OR amused at his recitals, and he is rejoiced if 
he is notice/. 4. He is master of the loudes* and fastest style 
of speech, and he feeLs the deepest disgus* if his stale stories are 
refused. 5. In fact, he soon stops his stupid tales if you cease 
to admiRe them. 6. This is the best way to stem the talk of 
these silly fellows. 7. As you have noticed, those sturdy heroes 
who have calmly gazed into the eyes of some savage monster 
of the fores*, OR who have iaced death on the stoRm tossed sea, 



28 WRITING EXERCISES 

are most modes/ in speech. 8. If you ask them to state some 
of the sights they have seen, they desiRe to be excused ; and 
if at last they are roused into speech, they give the story in an 
hones/, but summarized, foRm. 9. It is the boaster who is the 
first to speak, and the last to stop. 10. He talks of his 
supposed abilities ; of his ancestors, and the lustre they sned 
on his name ; of his perilous voyages to the west coast ; of his 
guests and his jes/s ; of his tastes and distastes ; and so on. 
11. He has a S/ORC of stories, and he gives you no res/. 12. He 
is a nuisance at any feas/ OR party, and we shall be best advised 
if we leave him aLone. (261) 



EXERCISE 27. 
Loops ST and STR (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 24. 

1. We shall first take the boys to the dentis/, who should have 
seen them long ago. 2. Those who took charge of them should 
have seen to this ; but the teeth of POOR lads like these are 
seldom seen to in time. 3. May I suggest the dentis/ who 
lives in the last house in S/anLey Avenue ? 4. He seems a 
nice fellow, who may be supposed to know his business tho- 
roughly. 5. His eldest son hopes to be a barrister some day. 
6. 1 can tes/ify to the son's taste in books, as I have sold him 
dozens of the best voLumes. 7. He detests the cheap nasty 
s/yles, and selects those likely to last longest. 8. James 
Chester, who was his headmaster a long time since, says he 
tantalized and victimized some of the fellows. 9. If so, he 
SHOWS a change now. 10. lean scaRcely take in such a story. 
11. If he were guilty of this snabbiness in the past, he has 
renounced his CRRORS, and is now thoroughly hones/, and liked 
by all who know him. 12. We hope he may succeed in the 
tests he has to face, and be first in the pass list. (191) 



WRITING EXERCISES 29 

EXERCISE 28. 
Loops ST and STR (continued.) 

See Note at the head of Exercise 24. 

Thomas Si mister. 

SiR, We are in receipt of youRS of the 4th, and shall put the 
test case to MessRs. Baxter and Webster, ]ust in the way you 
desiRe. We hope to see them on Wednesday, and should they 
suggest any change in the style of the foRm we shall write you 
on Saturday at the latest -4s soon as we have fixed up this 
business to suit you, we should like to have youR views on the 
case of MessRs. Stead and Steel. We scaRcely know how to 
manage these folk. They are aRoused at the least annoyance. 
They have tantali^o* us the last six months. They seek to 
induce us to receive back those s^aiR-rods you sold them in 
August We have reiused to do so, and the invoice is still 
unpaid. We shall post you our monthly summary of sales 
on Saturday. YOURS, Dexter & Foster. (150) 



EXERCISE 29. 
Loops ST and STR (concluded). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 24. 

MCSSRS. Schuster < Sons. 

SiRs, We have to-day invoiced the last of the stufts you 
bought in May, and shall snip them by the s/eamsnip " Duke 
of Munster," sailing on the first of Augus/. The styles are all 
new, and the best to be got at the exceedingly low sum you 
were disposed to pay. We sincereLy hope the sales may justify 
our choice of designs. We shall register the new designs of 
ladies' capes, as you suggest YOURS, S/ubbs & Mawson. 

(82) 



30 WRITING EXERCISES 

EXERCISE 3O. 
Circles SW and SS OP SZ. 

These circles follow the same rules of writing as the circle s. 
In this exercise, and in Exercises 31 to 35 inclusive, the 
large circles should be employed (in words other than 
grammalogues) for the combinations of letters printed 
in italic. k-ses should be written for -xes. Note 
paragraphs (e) and (/). 

(a) THE sw CIRCLE: 

1 Sweep, sweeps, sweepstake, swop, swipe, swab, sweat, 

2 sweets, sweetish, sweetest, sweetly, sweetness, sweet- 

3 smelling, swayed, Swede, Swedish, swaddle, swaddling, 

4 switches, swage, Swakim, swag, swigs, swiftest, swave, 

5 swavely, swavity, swavify, swathes, Swiss, swisn, swaSH, 

6 swum, swimmeRS, swans, swains, swooning, swine, swinisn, 

7 swinge, swings, swingeR, swung, swells, sweal, swealing, 

8 swallows, swallowed, swallowtail, swilled, swaRm, sweaR, 

9 SWIR!, swiRled, swiRling, SwiRe, swarth, swarthy, 
10 swarthily. 

(b) THE CIRCLE ss USED FINALLY: 

1 poses, opposes, deposes, disposes, exposes, supposes, 

2 reposes, lapses, relapses, collapses, entices, adduces, induces, 

3 reduces, goddesses, chases, juices, axes, boxes, taxes, 

4 paradoxes, fixes, vexes, sixes, sexes, Hoaxes, mixes, gases, 

5 gazes, guises, disguises, faces, pale-faces, surfaces, offices, 

6 suffices, vices, advices, devises, novices, revises, sizes, 

7 assizes, sauces, ceases, souses, misses, muses, masses, 

8 maces, mosses, ounces, denounces, announces, allowances, 

9 fences, evinces, essences, minces, lances, balances, silences, 

10 senses, romances, laces, palaces, chalices, solaces, molasses, 

11 leases, releases, lasses, losses, loses, races, terraces, caresses, 

12 choruses, rouses, carouses, ruses, peruses, roses, rises, 

13 authorizes, mesmerizes, aRises, eRases, foRces, faRces, 

14 houses, notices, spices. 

(c) THE VOWEL SIGN SHOULD BE PLACED WITHIN THE 
LARGE CIRCLE IN THE FOLLOWING AND SIMILAR WORDS : 

1 apsis, adiposis, synopsis, ellipsis, basis, exegesis, a.xis, 



WRITING EXERCISES 31 

2 ALexis, phase's, emphasis, thesis, parenthesis, parentheses, 

3 synthesis, phthisis, Nemesis, diagnosis, amanuensis, 

4 Genesis, paralysis, anaLysis, dialysis, pyrosis, sorosis, 

5 amaurosis, dieresis, lapsws, Petasws, Pegasws, nexws, 

6 census, Parnassws, Bonassws, Caucasus, Colossws, Molossws, 

7 Texas, Kansas, ARkansas, exercise, exercises, emphasise, 

8 emphasises. 

(d) THE CIRCLE ss USED MEDIALLY : 

1 possessive, possessoR, possessory, subsist, desist, 

2 insist, resist, resisteR, resistless, Atticism, Scotticism, 

3 scholasticism, fanaticism, Agnosticism, asceticism, 

4 mysticism, monasticism, exoticism, witticism, solecism, 

5 Catholicism, paroxysm, lyricism, excessive, excessively, 

6 accessible, inaccessible, accessory, successive, successively, 

7 successor, exhaust, ex/tawstless, necessary, necessariLy, 

8 necessitous, decisive, decisively, decisiveness, indecisive, 

9 incisive, exercised, exercising, exerciser, exercisable, 

10 emphasising, emphasised, Mississippi, misspell, 

11 misspelling, miscite. 

In the following words the small circle and the stroke s 
(or z), not the large circle ss, should be employed to represent 
the letters printed in italic. 

1 (0) possess, repossess, dispossess, possesses, possessing, 

2 abscess, abscesses, absciss, disease, diseases, diswse, miswse, 

3 access, excess, excesses, excise, excising, excisable, 

4 catholicise, italicise, Moses, Ulysses. 

Write the stroke s and the small circle (or loop) to represent 
the letters italicized in the following words. 

1 (/) decease, deceased, diocese, diocesan, tarsws, recess, 

2 recessed, nicest, ancestor, ancestors, incise, incised, incising, 

3 exorcise, exorcist, exorcised, exorciseR, romancist, 

4 exorcism, laconicism, Parsees, policies, jealousies, fallacies, 

5 Pharisees, Massey's, mercies, Morrissey's, agencies, myosis, 

6 unceasing, gypsies, Lacey's (upward /), Lucy's (upward /), 

7 legacies, purswes, tisswes. 



32 WRITING EXERCISES 

EXERCISE 31. 
Circles SW and SS OP SZ (continued). 

GRAMMALOGUES. 
f~ Lord,, ^, thing, ( think. 

See Note at the head of Exercise 30, 
1. Lord Swainson seems to think it necessary to exercise the 
muscles of his aRms daily by swinging on a baR. 2. He does 
this to keep up the skiLL he possesses as a swimmeR. 3. / have 
seen him in the swelling sea, though the tide was at its swiftest 
at the time. 4. / think he abuses OR misuses his poweRs by 
exercising them to excess. 5. This is a fooLish thing to do, 
but I feaR many a youth who rejoices in his skiLL in bodily 
exercises exposes his life to risk in the same way. 6. A boy 
may easily exhaust his bodily poweRs by excessive exercises. 
7. He seldom pauses to think, but rusnes heedlessly into the 
game, swayed by the voices of those who ask him to do this silly 
thing, as it amuses them. 8. He is fuLL of excuses to go to the 
races at the swimming bath. 9. He swallows his toast 
hurriedly, and swigs off his tea, so as to be in time. 10. He 
chooses to resist advice, and refuses to Listen to reason now ; 
but some day he may have to swallow many nasty doses of 
physic the wages of his folly. 11. Noises in the head; 
swellings and abscesses in the neck ; OR paralysis of the muscles 
may follow excess in swimming and such like exercises. 12. / 
should like to emphasise this Lesson, but I think I have said 
enough to induce you to desist if you are guilty of excessively 
exercising youRself in any game. 13. If necessity aRises 
/ shall resume the Lesson in a month. (259) 



EXERCISE 32. 

Circles SW and SS or SZ (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 30. 
1. / think the swarthy lord who possesses so many houses 
in our village should make them nicer. 2. The cost of the 



WRITING EXERCISES 33 

houses is excessive, in view of the small size of the rooms. 

3. The best and nicest of them all is faR below the right size. 

4. / must see him, and, if necessary, / shall insist on a 
decisive answer to my appeal. 5. / should like to sweep 
some of the houses into the sea. 6. It exhausts my patience 
to see so successful, a fellow restst so foRcible an appeal. 
7. His suavity and sweetness of voice at the time of refusaL 
onLy emphasises my annoyance. 8. It surpasses me to know 
how so nice a style can wrap up such excessively POOR feeLings. 
9. The thing is amazing. 10. / must swallow my annoyance, 
and ask the sweet voiced possessoR of riches to take a census 
of the pooR folk who live in his houses, and to notice the small 
size of the rooms they sleep in. 11. He who is the possessoR 
of a castle, can scaRcely faiL to see how necessary it is to have 
POOR folk rightly housed. 12. UnLess he chooses to do the 
right thing, he shall be exposed. 13. / shall SHOW how this 
lord disposes of the POOR fellows who reside in his houses. 

(215) 

EXERCISE 33. 

Circles SW and SS OP SZ (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 30. 

1. Necessity, it is said, knows no law ; but this excuse may 
be refused, and he who relies on it may be sorry. 2. / think 
excuses like this are abused in many cases ; and so in cases 
of genuine necessity, those who make them are unsuccessful,. 
3. The lazy fellow possesses a stoRe of lame excuses, and who 
can exhaust them? 4. If the attack is successful,, and our 
fellows get amongst the enemy, we may SCORC a decisive 
victory, and so cause the enemy to retiRe. 5. SiR Thomas 
Guest announces the refusaL of the aRmy authorities to abolish 
the use of lances in the aRmy. 6. Many think it was fooLish 
to suggest such a thing at all. 7. The swallow is said to pick 
up a stone on the SHORC of the sea, and by its poweR to restoRe 
sight to the swallows still in the nest. 8. It is also said to be 
a lucky thing to have a swallow's nest by the side of a house. 

I (7) 



34 WRITING EXERCISES 

9. These fooush sayings are swallowed by many who refuse 
to have faith in sensible tenets. 10. The swan is supposed by 
some folk to pouR forth the most lovely music in the last few 
minutes of its life, eRe it censes to exist. 11. The song of Ike 
singing swan is supposed to be a sign of a thaw. 12. The name 
of " The Sweet Swan " was given to snakspere by Jonson. 
13. Have you read the story of " The Swiss Family Robinson " ? 

(243) 

EXERCISE 34. 
Circles SW and SS OP SZ (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 30 

Thomas Swain. 

SiR, We have the invoices of the sixty cases of sweets 
/o-day, and as the " Lord of the Isles " *s due to aRRive on 
Wednesday the 10th, we shall hope to receive the things in 
time to suit our purpose. We think the new style of boxes is 
likely to catch on. Our customeRS emphasise the necessity 
of change in the style of these packages. They say it amuses 
the buyeRs, and entices them to buy. Business in Swiss sweets 
is excessively slow just now ; but all our sauces are selling 
niceLy. YOURS, Davis 6- SwiRes. (98) 



EXERCISE 35. 
Circles SW and SS or SZ (concluded). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 30. 
Joseph Chester. 

SiR, In answer to youRs of the 6th, we think our heavy 
losses in the past six months were due to such causes as the 
failuRe of MCSSRS. Swan and Swales, of Swansea ; the un- 
necessariLy heavy costs of our agencies in Winchester," Don- 
caster, and Chester ; and the unsuccessful, scheme of bonuses 
to customeRS. The first aLone cost us a big sum. As to the 
remedy, Lord Stockdale can onLy counseL the exercise of 



WRITING EXERCISES 35 

patience just now. He thinks the new season may be just as 
successful, as the last was pooR, and he hopes to see heavy 
balances in August. We hope in due time to satisfy all the 
investors in the fiRm. YOURS sincerely, Silvester Mosley. 

119) 

EXERCISE 36. 
Vowels and S and T. 

Vowels cannot be placed to a circle or loop; so that a stroke 
must be written when it is necessary to place a vowel to a 
consonant. In this exercise, and in Exercises 37 to 41 
inclusive, the italic type (in words other than gram- 
malogues) indicates that the letter must be expressed by 
a stroke consonant. 

1 (a) ass, asp, asbestos, acids, acidness, assayed, askew, 

2 assess, assessed, assessable, assessoR, assassin, assist, 

3 assists, assize, assizeR, Assam, assume, assuming, un- 

4 assuming, assumeR, assignee, assignoR, assailed, assaileR, 

5 assailing, aslope, asylum, espy, espouse, espoused, 

6 espousing, espousal, essayed, essaying, eschew, escape, 

7 escapade, escalade, Eskimo, essence, issue, issued, 

8 issueR, ease, easiness, uneasiness, uneasily, eye-salve, 

9 eye-service, eyesoRe, Isabel, Isaac, Isis, Islam, Ouse, 
10 use, useless, uselessly, useR, using, usurp, usury. 

1 (b) say, says, sea, seas, sea-pie, sea-dog, seacoast, sea-king, 

2 sea-gull, sea-side, seasick, seasickness, sea-mew, sea-mouse, 

3 sea-leveL, sea-room, sy style, secede, seceding, suicide, 

4 suicidal, cease, ceased, ceasing, unceasing, unceasingly, 

5 suspire, suspiring, scissoRS, saw, sawdust, sawing, sauce, 

6 sauced, saucing, sauciness, saucily, sausage, society, 

7 sou, sciatic, Siam, Siamese, sciences, scientists, sigh, 

8 sighing, sigheR, size, sizing, sizeR, souse, soused, sousing, 

9 sue, SUCR, suing, sue/, suefy, Sowerby, zebu, Zebedee, 

10 Zachary, zany, Zeno, Zanzibar, zenana, zinc, zinco, 

11 zealous, zealously, zealotism, Zulu, Zurich, Zerxes. 

1 (c) posy, topsy, autopsy, tipsy, gypsy, papacy, apos/acy, 

2 ex/asy, pursy, pursue, Pudsey, abbacy, celibacy, basso, 



36 WRITING EXERCISES 

3 Bessie, Betsy, busy, daisy, dizzy, Do#ey, Dicksee, galaxy, 

4 Casey, efficacy, Tennessee, decency, regency, obs/inacy, 

5 endorsee, Jessie, juicy, gassy, legacy, aRgosy, gauzy, 

6 fussy, fusee, farcy, Pharisee, foresee, Mounsey, Nancy, 

7 Licensee, lessee, Eliza, Elsie, Kelsey, policy, palsy, jealousy, 

8 colza, fallacy, Swansea, saucy, so-so, Assisi, Massey, mossy, 

9 mercy, noisy, lacy, lazy, laziness, lazily, racy, piracy, 
10 curacy, accuracy, inaccuracy, rosy. 

1 (d) pious, piously, tenuous, tumultuous, tortuous, 

2 deciduous, joyousness, joyously, exiguous, fatuous, 

3 vacuous, assiduous, sinuous, nocuous, ingenuous, 

4 iRRiguous, Genoese, Judaize, sinuose, voltaism. 

1 (e) pasty, pastel, pastime, pas/ure, pas/urage, parasite, 

2 parricide, parricidal, paucity, opposite, posse/, posterity, 

3 pistol, epistolary, porosity, beside, besides, bas/ile, bestir, 

4 inside, reside, decide, busied, textuary, tasty, tas/ily, tacitly, 

5 decides, tenacity, audacity, density, ferocity, voracity, 

6 veracity, vivacity, immensity, Jesuit, ges/ure, exi/, fixity, 

7 laxity, sixty, fixedly, Cas/ile, custom, custody, caus/ic, 

8 Augus/us, fes/al, fis/ic, fis/ula, fusty, beset, gusset, offset, 

9 face/, inset, dulcet, lance/, russe/, reset, rosette, deceit, 

10 receipt, vestal, vesture, vista., mas/ic, mys/ic, mistook, 

11 mis/ime, mesotype, misteach, mis/y, musty, mus/ily, 

12 mus/ache, nasty, dynasty, dishonesty, instil, install, distil, 

13 listel, lucid, lucidly, pellucid, policied, palsied, callosity, 

14 felicity, solid/, licit, elicit, lawsui/, pursui/, nonsui/, 

15 recite, recital, res/oRe, rosied, rus/ic, rus/iness, res/y, 

16 recede, revisi/, wayside, s/udy, s/eady, s/eadily. 



EXERCISE 37. 
Vowels and S and T (continued). 

GRAMMALOGUES. 
) so, MS, } see, use, \ use, whose, / which. 

See Note at the head of Exercise 36. 
1. UnLess we use our mental poweRs daily they may get 



WRITING EXERCISES 37 

rusty, 50 to speak, and become wsdess to us. 2. We can easily 
see how necessary it is to exercise our bodily muscles if we 
desiRe to keep them in a right sta/e, and it is just as necessary 
to use our mental foRces if these are to be rightly balanced. 
3. We are amazed to see how easy seveRe musculaR exercises 
are to those whose cus/om it is to keep in /oRm by exercising a 
few minutes each day. 4. Some folk say they see no use in 
exercises which cause the swea/ to ooze ; but this is an injustice 
to those robust fellows who indulge in such exercises, and they 
are both fooLish and lazy who speak in this way. 5. They 
should have the audacity to renounce such views, and seek to 
escape an eaRly death by .zealously exercising the mental 
and bodily poweRs which the Lord has given them. 6. / hope 
you can now see how suicidal it is to allow the senses to rust. 
7. Study may be unnecessary in youR case ; but you can easily 
take up some science as a pas/ime OR hobby. 8. It may be of 
use to you some day, if you decide to pursue it thoroughly. 
9. Busy folk pass the most joyous lives. 10. It is the lazy, tipsy 
fellows who see no use in society and its laws. (233) 



EXERCISE 38. 

Vowels and S and T (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 36. 

L He who hopes to succeed in science must use his time 
wisely. 2. The boy who wastes his minutes can have no 
success in study. 3. You can easily see how necessary it is 
to have tenacity and fixity of purpose, if you are to make 
headway in the career to which you have set youRself . 4. Which 
of us can hope to leave a legacy of wisdom to our fellows, unLess 
we make a right use of our time now ? 5. Whose names are 
most likely to last, and whose memories are most likely to 
live in the ages still to come ? 6. // can scaRcely be necessary 
to state the answer. 7. If you are sincere in youR desiRe to 
enjoy the felicity which comes to the possessoR of wisdom, 
you must watch jealously the minutes you give to youRpas/imes. 

448459 



38 WRITING EXERCISES 

8. You may easily be carried into fooLish ways. 9. You 
know, the sixty minutes in an hour soon pass by ; so you must 
bestir youRself. OR the time may be lost to you. 10. See how 
lazy Ezra Sowerby passed his time, and how fieRcely he now 
denounces his own idleness. 11. Beware, also, of the fallacies 
which may lie in the spicy sayings of those who pose as witty 
fellows. 12. Wisdom seldom speaks to us by a noisy tongue. 
13. The wise Zeno, it is said, bit off his tongue lest he should be 
foRced to reveaL to his enemies the names of those of his party 
who sought to cast off the yoke of tyranny and injustice. (253) 



EXERCISE 39. 

Vowels and S and T (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 36. 

1. Tools which lie idle soon rust ; but those which you use 
daily can scaRcely get rusty. 2. The use you make of them 
keeps the steel polished. 3. It is just the same in youR case ; 
if you rest a long time you may get both rusty and lazy. 4. The 
busy master of the faRm visits no feast in gusty March, lest he 
should see his family foRced to fast in heavy August. 5. 
FooLish customs have no poweR to tie us ; so you should cast 
them away. 6. He who aspires to success must toil un- 
ceasingLy. 7. He must be assiduous in all his tasks ; seize 
the right time to buy OR sell, and use it in the right way. 8. The 
first stone of the spiRe was laid at the bottom. 9. Delays may 
make us testy, but they also make us wise. 10. He whose 
house is rightly looked to has an asylum of rest to which he 
may retiRe as soon as his day's toil is O'CR. 11. If it is youR 
honest purpose to assist in raising those who reside in the slums 
of the city, you should first do youR best to raise youRself in 
society. 12. If you desiRe to be wise, be ready to ask of those 
who can answer you. 13. A n Eskimo OR a Zulu may know just 
the things you seek to know. 14. The master of science 
should be zealous but modest ; in all his wisdom he onLy 
knows a few things out of many. 15. Besides, modesty sits 



WRITING EXERCISES 39 

easily on all of us. 16. It is silly to suppose we can be wise 
unLess we read and study the best books. 17. It is easy to 
rest ; but is it as easy to fast ? 18. The beeR the idle fellow 
swallows so readily soon usurps his senses, and leaves him 
like a beast. 19. Decide now to be .zealous ; you have dozed 
long enough. (310) 



EXERCISE 4O. 

Vowels and S and T (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 36. 

Ezra. Mounsey. 

SiR, YOURS of the 6th. If you can manage to see us we 
can easily give you a Lesson in the use of the scissoRs and saws. 
We must ask you to buy youR own wood, as is the custom. If 
you are -zealous, you should know how to use all the tools in a 
month at the outside. We make no use of the saw-dust, but 
just cast it aside. It seems to us a waste of time to seek to 
utilise the refuse. Give us a few days' notice of the date of 
youR visit, and say which bench you desiRe to use, so as to save 
time. Which is the best book to buy you ? YOURS sincereLy, 
Isaac West & Sons. (126) 



EXERCISE 41. 

Vowels and S and T (concluded). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 36. 

Augustus Doxey. 

SiR, We think you should ask MCSSRS. Sowerby and Massey, 
of the Essex Mills, to allow you to see the saws as they revolve 
at the fastest rate. We assume you know this fiRm. This is a 
slack season at the mills, and is just the time to suit them. 
Go ad see which day they choose. They may, also, SHOW 
you the use of the small saws. We think Saturday is a busy 



40 WRITING EXERCISES 

day, and you should leave it out. Who snowed you how to 
remove the add stains which we saw on your chisel ? We must 
get you to give us the remedy. Some of our best knives are 
rusty. YOURS sincereLy, Kelsey 6- Sims. (119) 



EXERCISE 42. 
Contractions. 

~ altogether, ^ _ together, ' anything, -~^^ nothing, 

something, "V-, architect- ure-al, \ object, \ subject, 
respect-ed, \ expect-ed, ^ ~\ unexpected-ly, \. public- 
sh-ed, //x \ Sk republic, ~\ catholic, </~~ ' uniform-ity, 



</ ' unanimous or unanimity, <^f yesterday. 

1. The unanimity of the vote to raise the salary of our city 
architect was altogether unexpected I expected something of a 
scene in the counciL ; but nothing was said by those who were 
expected to oppose the vote. 2. The unanimity of the vote 
SHOWS a uniform desiRe to repay his services to the public. 
3. The uniformity of his life, besides his genuine ability, was 
the reason of such a unanimous vote. 4. He has rare 
architectural ability, and the public seem to know it. 5, He 
has just published a book on " The Public Architecture of 
America," and he expects to publish his new " Lessons in 
Architectural Design " eaRly in May. 6. / know scaRcely 
anything of the subject of architecture ; but I am catholic enough 
in my views to respect nigh ability in anybody, though / object 
to the fellow who boasts of his skiix in any subject. 7. / faiL 
to see how such a fellow can expect to be respected. 8. The 
architect and I are to go to Italy together in the autumn. 9. We 
were to have paid a visit to the new public baths yesterday, but 
were unexpectedly foRced to put it off. 10. / expect we shall 
manage to go on Wednesday. (202) 



WRITING EXERCISES 41 

EXERCISE 43. 
Hook L added to Straight Letters. 

Hook /, added to straight letters, is written towards the left. 
In this Exercise, and in Exercises 44 to 50 inclusive, the 
double consonants pi, pr, etc., should be employed (in words 
other than grammalogues or contractions) for the repre- 
sentation of the letters printed in italic type. 

(a) PI, ETC., USED INITIALLY : 

1 pla.y, place, placing, placed, places, plaster, pleased, 

2 pleasantest, placid, placidly, placeR, Plato, played, 

3 pledge, plucky, plague, plusn, plume, plunge, 

4 plough, plougheR, pleura, pleurisy, pluraL, ap^Zaud, 

5 applausive, apply, blow, blob, blot, bleat, Wotchy, 

6 block., bleak, blackberry, bluffy, blithe, Mthely, 

7 Wouse, blazeR, blazing, blast, Wessedly, blaspheme, Muster, 

8 &/USH, blame, blameless, bluR, ablaze, ably, claw, clap, clip, 

9 club, clad, Clyde, cloudy, cloudily, cloudiness, clutch, 

10 clack, click, clock, o'clock, cluck, clucked, clog, Clegg, 

1 1 cloth, clothing, class, clasp, classed, classes, classic, classiiy, 

12 closer, closely, cloister, clusters, c/asn, clammy, clamorous, 

13 c/annisH, c/ownisn, cling, clank, ClaRe, cleaRly, cleRk, 

14 cleric, ergy, acclaim, acc/imatize, acclivity, glow, globe, 

15 globose, globosity, globule, glibly, gloat, glut, glottis, 

16 gluttony, gluttonous, gloss, glossed, Gloucester, glossary, 

17 glass, glassiuL, gleam, gloomy, glum, glaRe, glary, aglow, 

18 eagle, eagle-eyed. 

(b) PI, ETC., USED FINALLY: 

1 papal, people, topple, tipple, dapple, chapel, 

2 cheaply, couple, copal, maple, employ, ample, 

3 pimple, dimple, simple, simply, Naples, pine-apple, 

4 panoply, scalpel, replace, pebble, babel, bauWe, table, 

5 eatable, stable, unstaWe, teachaWe, stubble,' dabble, 

6 audiWe, edible, cobble, cable, applicable, amicaWe, vocaWe, 

7 revocaWe, gabble, navigable, affable, ineffable, receivable, 

8 moveable, lovable, Mabel, blamable, bumft/e, tumWe, 

9 gamJ/e, iumble, thimWe, symbol, stumble, snamWes, 



42 WRITING EXERCISES 

10 mumble, nimble, rumble, enable, tenable, assignable, 

11 amenable, reasonable, cannibal, label, syllable, solu6/e, 

12 indelible, iallible, voluble, aRable, rabble, parable, bearable, 

13 terrible, endurable, wobble, hobble, horrible, petal, beetle, 

14 title, entitle, anecdotal, chattel, cattle, vital, victuals, 

15 snuttle, mottle, rattle, wattle, pedal, beadle, tidal, dawdle, 

16 Cheadle, caudal, ieudal, muddle, model, remodel, nodal, 

17 ladle, raddle, waddle, huddle, cudgels, buckle, unbuckle, 

18 tackle, radical, cackle, fickle, vocal, thickly, icicle, shackle, 

19 miracle, Michael, polemic^/, comical, finical, tinkle, wrinkle, 

20 winkle, yokel, inimical, circle, encircle, beagle, teagle, 

21 ]uggle, goggle, iugle, inveigle, Mogul, smuggle, snuggle, 

22 bangle, tingle, dingle, ]ingle, single, sning/e, angle, 

23 Ang/icism, mingle. 

(c) PI, ETC., USED MEDIALLY : 

1 tippler, duplicity, duplex, chapelry, coupleR, em- 

2 ployeR, implicit, implacable, imploRe, simpleR, 

3 simpliiy, simplicity, replacing, replieR, babbler, 

4 dabbler, cobbleR, ieebler, mumbleR, tumbler, nimbleR, 

5 libeleR, wobbleR, hobbleR, biblical, bu//er, bottler, 

6 tattler, victualler, rattlesnake, pedler, pedlery, toddler, 

7 da\vd/er, fiddler, modeleR, modeling, apocalypse, buckleR, 

8 tackleR, stickleR, vocalizing, enclosing, unclasp, reclaim, 

9 reclaimable, ticMsH, boggleR, jugglery, inveigleR, angleR, 
10 bung/eR, ming/eR, wrang/eR, legalizing. 

EXERCISE 44. 
Hook R added to Straight Letters. 

Hook ;-, added to straight letters, is written towards the right, 
(a) Pr, ETC., USED INITIALLY : 

1 pray, prop, probe, pretty, prattle, prattler, proudly, 

2 pried, approach, prejudge, praxis, precocious, 

3 preclusive, prickly, prig, preface, professed, Privy, 

4 prevail, prithee, oppress, oppressoR, priceless, 

5 praiseworthy, preside, procedure, prison, precious, 

6 prim, primage, pronounce, prank, prolong, prolix, 



WRITING EXERCISES 43 

7 prayeR, prairie, brew, bribe, bribery, brute, brutish, 

8 brittle, Brady, bridle, bridler, Reaches, broach, abridge, 

9 brackisii, breakfast, bricks, broccoli, brogue, brag, bravo, 

10 bravest, broth, breathe, breathable, brass, brassy, braced, 

11 bruised, broused, brash, bramble, brimless, broomstick, 

12 branch, brandy, brink, bring, bringeR, brail, frrawleR, 

13 broiling, brien, tray, trapese, Jrappist, triple, treble, trebly, 

14 troublous, troublesome, tread, traduce, traduced, tragic, 

15 /refoiL, travesty, troth, traced, traceR, Besses, /rusting, 

16 truce, trash, atrocious, atrocity, trample, tramway, trammel, 

17 transfix, transit, transitory, French, trill, trolley, trawleR, 

18 drip, drop-scene, drahble, adroit, Drage, drudge, drake, 

19 draggle, dross, drossy, dresseR, drowsy, drizzle, drama, 

20 dramatist, drank, drinkable, drill, drollery, drieR, dreary, 

21 croup, acropolis, crab, acrid, crude, credulous, credible, 

22 cratch, crock, crocus, crocodile, crackle, crag, crafty, 

23 crevices, acrostic, Crusoe, cross, crossroads, crucifix, 

24 crucible, crescendo, Cremona, crimson, chrome, acrimony, 

25 cranny, cringe, crinkle, creel, crieR, aggressive, aggressor, 

26 graced, grapple, grapery, grabWe, grate, gratis, gradus, 

27 greedily, greediness, grudge, grudgingLy, Greek, groggy, 

28 gruffness, grievous, growth, grossly, graces, gracious, 

29 grimly, Grundy, granuLe, grange, grail. 
(b) Pr, ETC., USED FINALLY: 

1 piper, toper, dipper, depress, chopper, coper, kipper, 

2 gaper, viper, vapor, snippers, empress, mappery, 

3 nipper, Dnieper, \uniper, scalper, lopper, slipper, 

4 rapper, riper, weeper, hopper, bibber, Tiber, dauber, 

5 }obber, grubber, fi&rous, em&race, leper, lubber, slabber, 

6 bela&or, barber, rubber, aRbor, patter, spatter, abettor, 

7 tatter, auditor, doubter, chatter, cotter, scatter, actress, 

8 gutter, matrice, entries, gentry, sentries, retrace, waitress, 

9 yachfer, spider, powdery, tawdry, Tudor, Cheddar, scudder, 

10 gadder, feeder, iodder, suedder, madder, sundry, tedder, 

1 1 elder, louder, slider, rudder, ridder, wader, weeder, patcher, 

12 butchery, teachers, ditcher, catcher, scutcher, voucher, 

13 avoucher, thatcher, trencher, bencher, aRcher, aRchery, 



44 WRITING EXERCISES 

14 richer, marcher, searcher, luRcher, bewitcher, pledger 

15 badger, dowager, dodger, drudgery, charger, cadger, gauger, 

16 voyager, major, ledger, villager, pillager, forager, manager, 

17 lounge, ranger, wager, picker, backer, tacker, bakery, 

18 barker, decry, checker, ]oker, thicker, Thackeray, marker, 

19 mimicry, luRker, rookery, hooker, piggery, beggary, ioggery, 

20 tiger, digger, jigger, cougar, vigor, sugar, angry, engross, 

21 lager, rigor, hogger. 

(c) Pr, ETC., USED MEDIALLY : 

1 pa^>er-ma&er, da^>/>erling, capricious, capereR, vapor- 

2 able, vaporer, vaporizing, slipperily, slipperiness, 

3 unpromising, impressing, imprison, improperly, 

4 regressive, reproach, tubercle, tuberculosis, tuoerosity, 

5 jaooerer, faoric, fe&rile, embracing, emoroil, unbridle, 

6 neighborly, Nebraska, laftorsome, liberal, lioeralism, 

7 liberalize, lubricity , ruoric, patrimony, patrol, 

8 patronize, petrel, putrefy, betroth, but/ermilk, tutorage, 

9 cha//erer, catereR, scatlereR, matricide, matrimony, matrix, 

10 matronLy, peasantry, untruly, untruth, entrap, en/rusting, 

11 sul/riness, retracing, retrench, re/rogressive, powder-mill, 

12 tawo'rily, Kidderminster, federal, federalism, snuddering, 

13 Madras, madriga/, butcherly, gingerly, ma/ordomo, 

14 decreasing, vicarage, microbe, gimcrack, incriminate, 

15 lachrymose, recrossing, beggarly, tigerisn, vigorously, 

16 angrily, mongrel, ungrudgingLy, rigorously. 

EXERCISE 45. 
Initial Hooks to Straight Letters (continued). 

(a) PI, Pr, ETC., USED INITIALLY AND FINALLY: 

1 plagal, plaguer, plaiter, pleader, plodder, plucker, 

2 plum-tree, applauder, apple-tree, appliable, blabber, 

3 6/ack-bee//e, bladder, blamable, bleater, bleacher, 

4 bleakly, claimable, clapper, clatter, clavicle, claviger, 

5 clerical, clicker, clincher, clipper, clobber, glider, 

6 glitter, glottal, prater, prattle, preacher, preceptress, 
1 prefigure, preluder, premonitor, preservable, presumably, 



WRITING EXERCISES 45 

8 prickly, procu.Ra.ble, prodigal, progress, pr omen fid er , 

9 proper, prouder, approacher, approachable, abridger, 

10 bragger, bramble, breaker, briber, bridle, brighter, 

11 broacher, broader, brutal, brutalized, trader, trainable, 

12 traitor, traitress, . trample, transfigure, trapper, truckle, 

13 treadle, treasonable, treater, treble, tremble, triangle, 

14 trickery, triple, tripper, trickle, draper, dredger, drinkable, 

15 drum-major, crab-tree, crackle, crater, credibly, crinkle, 

16 croaker, cricketer, Crowder, crumble, crupper, acrostic^/, 

17 grabble, graphically, grater, gripper, grubber. 

(b) PI, Pr, ETC., IN MISCELLANEOUS WORDS : 

1 academical, acrostic, admirable, adorable, algebra, allegro, 

2 asker, autocracy, barnacle, batterer, begrudge, biblical, black- 

3 eyed, buttery, cali&re, changer, chronicleR, Cimbric, clarify, 

4 closeness, copper-faced, crasning, creatuRe, deluder, deploy, 

5 doggerel, dropsy, eclipse, emblem, epigram, inevitaWy, 

6 iactor, laboureR, ieebler, flicker, foreclose, fuddler, gabbleR, 
1 }ingle, head-dress, implacably, infalliWy, insupera&Ze, 

8 laconical, li&retto, maintainaWe, mangfe, marWeR, 

9 matchai/i?, mimic^er, mulforry, neck-ctoth, neutralize, 

10 nitric, obligato, oft/igatory, opera-g/ass, ostrich, pardonaW^, 

11 pedigree, platonic, pouter, prelude, press-gang, profile, 

12 proconsul., prorogue, prolixity, proxy, pu/rescence, 

13 ramft/eR, red&reast, regret, regrettaWe, retrogressive, 

14 satiricfl//y. slobbereR, stenography, stock-6ro^er, stoRe- 

15 keener, stu6&/y, table-cloth, tangle, thimble-rigger, 

16 /respassei, typica//y, ul^ra, um&rella, wrinkly, Antrim, 

17 ARdrossan, Ang/esea, Bristol, Blakeney, Bu^rley, Christie, 

18 Christina, C/aRkson, Cressy, Praed, Macready, Mon^rose, 

19 Ou^ram, Smallftridge, Tun&ridge, Viewers, Vic^ery. 

EXERCISE 46. 
Initial Hooks to Straight Letters (continued) 

GRAMMALOGUES. 
call, c care, 1 dear. 
1. Have a care, my dear pupil, lest you bring trouble on 



46 WRITING EXERCISES 

youRself by allowing youR tongue to babble of the affaiRs of 
youR neighbours. 2. Bridle the tongue and use it in a reason- 
able way. 3. He is truly a ieeble creatuRe who gives his 
tongue License to gabble. 4. // is allowable and enjoyafr/e 
to talk affaWy to youR />/ayfellows ; but beware lest you utter 
a single syllaWe likely to give offence to any of them. 5. The 
pleasantest voices resemWe sweet music. 6. They soothe 
us and produce calm feeLings in our breasts. 7. A loud voice 
troubles and annoys us ; it makes us SHudder ; and, we properly 
call those vulgar who talk in such a voice. 8. / have no 
desiRe to reproach you, OR to preach to you ; but I have noticed 
youR voice grows louder as you proceed in youR speech. 
9. I trust you may be induced to repress this crazy style, OR you 
may grow into a brawleR. 10. If / have trespassed in saying 
this, pray excuse me, and SHOW no um&rage. 11. / declaRe 
to you I am no grumbleR, but a sincere adviser. 12. / can 
ampliiy this Lesson, if you please, on Wednesday. ( 193) 



EXERCISE 47. 
Initial Hooks to Straight Letters (continued). 

1. Daydreams are both enjoyaWe and cheap, and they are 
available to all who desiRe to indulge in them. 2. You can 
have a daydream in any place you care to call it up ; at the play, 
on the top of a tram, in a crowd, OR aLone on a Weak mooR ; 
on a gloomy day in April as you watch the black clouds racing 
across the sky, OR on a bright sunny day in August, as you 
lounge in the snade of the trees, and baRe youR brow to catch 
the breeze. 3. It is onLy necessary to close youR eyes, and 
you can draw mental images as gracefuL and as varied as 
you please. 4. The bright faces of the dear c/ass-fellows you 
knew long ago ; the pretty, and maybe the laughable, scenes you 
saw on youR last trip across the sea ; the troubles and the 
wrangles on the boat and in the hotel ; the ^/easing and the 
misera&fe folk you came across all these things does youR 
daydream reproduce, and you chuckle to youRself as they ar^ 



WRITING EXERCISES 47 

Bought to youR view. 5. / know some dreary people may 
think daydreams like these are no o/essings. 6. They may call 
them an idle waste of precious time. 7. But, I reply, how 
many noble schemes to make the lives of pooR people better 
and brighter, OR to rec/aim those who were led astray by the 
ill example of worthless neighoowrs, came first to the plotters 
of these schemes in a daydream ? 8. It is true, castles in the 
aiR are fabrics which soon crumble ; but they may give rise to 
many a problem, of use to society. 9. It is a simple thing 
to criticise, to grumble, OR to blame ; but how few of those who 
do these things are able to better the labour of the people they 
criticise ! (304) 

EXERCISE 48. 
Initial Hooks to Straight Letters (continued). 

1. / call him a senseLess dreameR who takes no care of the 
time at his disposal. 2. The hours he now wastes so idty may 
cost him a dear price some day ; but regret may be useless. 

3. 7 am no grumbleR ; but I utterly detest proud idleness. 

4. I am pleased to applaud the blithe Wacksmith who labours 
at the proper time, and rests as soon as the trouble and toil of 
the day are o'eR ; but I have no patience to think of the beggarly 
Pride of him who deems it beneath his place to labour, though 
he makes no protest if you ask him to eat OR drink at youR 
table. 5. / mist you belong to no such class of people. 6. 
Time is the avenger of all wrongs ; and those who are dodgers 
in youth may be beggars OR paupers in age. 7. Honest 
labour is admiraWe ; but duplicity is abominable. 8. These 
are valuable Lessons, and I shall proclaim them as long as I am 
able. 9. It is nice to be amicao/e and reasonable in all cases ; 
but it is also desirable to protest in a clean voice should f aLse 
actors seek to beguile simple youths who are easily led astray. 

10. Older people may know how to choose better leaders ; 
but, many boys are credulous, and follow a teacher readily. 

11. Take care how you trust him who Breaches "No labour, 
and a rich prize." (233) 



48 WRITING EXERCISES 

EXERCISE 49. 

Initial Hooks to Straight Letters (continued). 
MessRs. Barker and Sons. 

Dear SIRS, In reply to youRs of the 7th, we shall be 
pleased if you can pack the cream dairy Gutter in broader casks. 
The class of grocers who buy our stock think the narrow casks 
unsuitable, and we desiRe to please them if we can. We are 
sorry to trouble you in any way, and we /rust you may be able to 
oblige MS. If you care to snip a few sample cases of first-class 
eggs, we shall be pleased to SHOW them to our customeRS. Our 
butter buyeR hopes to be in Antrim on the 29th, and may give 
you a call. YOURS truly, Bu^er and Briggs. (115) 

EXERCISE 5O. 

Initial Hooks to Straight Letters (concluded). 
MessRs. Black and Tracy. 

Dear SIRS, Please ask youR manager to give us a call on 
Tuesday. We are desirous of snowing him our new press, 
which is a thorough success, and which we trust may secuRe 
us the first prize at the club SHOW in April. We are the sole 
makers of this press, and if you care to buy we shall be pleased 
to sell you a single press at a reduced price. We call the new 
design Digg/e and NoWe's " Eagle " press. We should like 
you to give it a triaL. YOURS truly, Andrews and Gam We. 

(99) 

EXERCISE 51. 
Hook L added to Curves. 

Hook /, added to curved letters, is a large initial hook. In 
this Exercise, and in Exercises 52 to 57 inclusive, the 
double consonants ft, fr, etc., should be employed (in 
words other than grammalogues and contractions) for 
the representation of the letters printed in italic. 
(a) THE LEFT CURVES ft, vl, thl, USED INITIALLY : 

1 ftay, flabby, flaccid, flag, flaiL, flaked, flaky, /faming, flange, 

2 flank, flap, flaRe, /hashing, flasks, /fattest, flax, flicker, 



WRITING EXERCISES 49 

3 ^edgling, flexible, flinty, flocked, flood, florist, florid, 

4 jounced, flotilla., floweR, flouRish, Airry, Duster, flunky, 

5 flycatcher, Flora., Fletcher, Florida., Fleming, phlegm, 

6 afflict, afflicter, efflux, efflorescence, evil, evil-eyed, 

7 athletic, Ethel, Ethelred. 

(b) THE LEFT CURVES ft, vl, USED FINALLY : 

1 playful, playfully, pitiful, poweRful, poweRftdly, prayeRful, 

2 baffle, 'briefly, briefless, basufully, butterfly, bot-fly, brimful, 

3 teaRful, toughly, trifle, truffle, truthful, truthfully, 

4 triumphal, deceitful, dutiful, diReful, aidful, changeful, 

5 }oyful, joy fully, catchfly, cupful, grateful, gadfly, ieaRfitl, 

6 nRefly, fraudful, ia.ithful, ia.ithfully, vengeful, revengeful, 

7 youthful, useful, usefully, easeful, iceflow, skiLful, 

8 skinfully, stifle, slothful, spadeful, smiles, SHame//, 

9 SHame/w//y, mu^e, mouth/w/, mindful, mirthful, 

10 unlawful, rightful, ladleful, \vatchful, aRmful, roomful, 

11 regretful, regretfully, reproachful, wrathful, worsmp/w/, 

12 hopefully, heedful, approval, appelatiw/y, positively, 

13 primeval, privily, bedevil, bevel, bravely, attractively, 

14 derivatiw/y, deceptively, devil, ad]ectival, exhaustiv^y, 

15 accusatiw/y, causatively, actively, frivolous, figuratively, 

16 iestival, efiectively, votively, authoritatiu^y, sensitively, 

17 SHovel, SHrivel, survival, assertively, aRRival, NaSHville, 

18 negatively, non-aRRival, reproval, relatively, retrieval, 

19 revival, revivalist. 

(c) THE LEFT CURVES ft, vl, USED MEDIALLY: 

1 pam/>A/eteer, privilege, profligate, profligacy, baffleR, 

2 bi/forous, trifleR, triflorous, deflect, deflector, devilry, 

3 devilish, develop, developer, cuivalry, cuivalrous, cauli- 

4 floweR, snrievalty, shovelful, snovelleR, snuffleR, muffleR, 

5 may^oweR, revivalism, High-/?yeR. 

(d) THE RIGHT CURVES ft, vl, thl, USED MEDIALLY AND 
FINALLY : 

1 apocryphal, dragon-fly, carvel, cavil, cavalieR, cavalieRly, 

2 cavalry, aRchival, gainful, gravel, groveleR, gleeful, 

3 gruffly, gravely, scuffleR, scornful, skinful, snaffle, 

4 snivel, sniveleR, snow-flake, in^ame, in/?ammaWe, i 

4-(*7) 



50 WRITING EXERCISES 

5 indexible, influenza., influx, anvil, Granville, marvel, 

6 marvelous, marvelously, naval, novel, novelist, raffle, 

7 raffleR, ravel, reflex, reflexed, reflexible, reflux, revel, revelry, 

8 revelleR, rifle, rifle-coRps, rifleR, rivalry, ruefiil, ruefully, 

9 Bethel, Bithel, betrothal, bismuthal, lethal, weevil, Yeowt/, 
10 hovel. 

(e) THE DOUBLE CONSONANT shl (UPWARD) USED INI- 
TIALLY, MEDIALLY, AND FINALLY : 

1 sheli , shelves, book-shelf, shellac, pachalic, penitential, pala- 

2 Hal, potential,potentiality, peevishly, prudential, presidential, 

3 partial, partiality, pestilential, brutishly, boyishly, boorishly, 

4 beneficial, abbatial, torrential, devilishly, clannishly, 

5 clownishly, credential, egg-shell, Ca,shel, fiducial, iacial, 

6 oincial, unofficial, feverishly, foolishly, foppishly, slavishly, 

7 sluggishly, specialize, specialist, specialty, speciality, 

8 snappishly, sciential, sneepishly, Marshall, M.a.rshalsea., 

9 nuptial, knavishly, inessential, initial, initially, lavishly, 

10 roguishly, waspishly, Hoggishly. 

1 1 DOWNWARD shl : primatial, apishly, bomb-shell, 

12 commercialism, sea-shell, modishly, natalifiol, nutritial, 

13 loutishly. 

(/) THE DOUBLE CONSONANT ml USED MEDIALLY AND 
FINALLY : 

1 philomel, picromel, calomel, enamel, enamelleR, enamelling, 

2 lachrymal. 

(g) THE DOUBLE CONSONANT nl USED INITIALLY, 
MEDIALLY, AND FINALLY : 

1 enlightener, enlivener, analytic, panel, panelling, 

2 penalty, patronal, paginal, aboriginal, banal, bi- 

3 nominal, autumnal, tonal, tonality, technological, 

4 diuRnal, diagonal, decanal, channelling, O'Connell, 

5 cantowa/, cannel-coal, criminal, kennel, kennelling, 

6 chronological, grapnel, phenomenal, flannelette, 

7 fennel, venal, ethnologic, thinly, spinal, seminal, 

8 semiwaZity, signal, signalize, signalizing, steRnal, zonal, 

9 snrapw^, monolith, matronal, marginal, nominal, 

10 nominally, nominalist, infeRnal. 



WRITING EXERCISES 51 

EXERCISE 52. 
Hook R added to Curves. 

Hook r, added to curves, is a small initial hook. 

(a) THE LEFT CURVES fr, vr, tkr, USED INITIALLY: 

1 afresh, a/raid, effervesce, effervescence, offer, offereR, o/er- 

2 ing, offertory, fragile, frank, frankly, fraud, frayed, freckle, 

3 freed, fribble, frith, frothy, frouzy, frugally, fruity, 

4 phrenological, average, averse, aversely, everLasting, 

5 everybody, every-day, overaLLs, overbalanced, overcrowd, 

6 overdose, overdraw, overflow, overgrowth, overlap, overLook, 

7 overreach, oversleep, overture, overtook, versatile, versiiy, 

8 virtue, virtuous, virtually, ether, athirst, either, otherwise. 

(b) THE LEFT CURVES fr, vr, thr, USED MEDIALLY AND 
FINALLY : 

1 taffereL, tougher, duffer, defray, differ, differential, 

2 doffer, dentifrice, chaffer, chaffereR, chauffeur, Jeffrey, 

3 Je^erson, ieoffer, ossiferous, zephyr, lacti/erous, 

4 Macpherson, oRphrey, auRiferous, poverty, beverage, 

5 Beveridge, traverse, fraverser, stiver, diver, diverge, driver, 

6 adverb, adverse, adverseLy, adversity, adversary, Chivers, 

7 cadaverous, governess, governable, governor, thievery, fever, 

8 favowreR, iavourable, flavour, flavourless, endeavour, 

9 leverage, subversive, soever, ossivorous, survivor, reviver, 
10 retriever, Wendover, sneather. 

(c) THE RIGHT CURVES fr, vr, thr, USED INITIALLY : 

1 freak, /racTious, framable, freely, free-trader, /resn, 

2 /resner, /resnness, /rilled, frivolous, frivolousLy, frolic, 

3 frolicsome, frolicked, frostily, Africa, verbose, verbal, 

4 vermicelli, verminous, thermal, thermic, thirsty, thirstily, 

5 //trail, thrash, Crashing, thrasner, thread, threap, 

6 threepenny, thriity, drilling, throng, throstle, thruster, 

7 thereat, therein, thereby. 

(d) THE RIGHT CURVES /r, vr, thr, USED MEDIALLY AND 
FINALLY : 

1 puffer, pilfer, palfrey, paraphrase, paraphrased, 

2 profferer, peripheral, buffer, biographer, belfry, briefer, 

3 typographer, triumpher, tree-frog, Dumfries, diaphragm, 



52 WRITING EXERCISES 

4 dolori/erous, chamfer, camphor, comfrey, coffer, cofferer, 

5 gaffer, gruffer, goffer, ferriferous, oviferous, scoffer, saliferous, 

6 sv^phur, stenographer, snuffers, stelli/erous, melliferous, 

7 omniferous, laugher, loafer, luffer, luminiferous, llfracombe, 

8 reefer, re/resn, re/resner, refreshing, reframe, resini/erous, 

9 Ren/rew, orthographer, wafer, heifer, buffer, paver, palaver, 

10 prover, approver, plover, pulverise, pulverable, braver, 

1 1 beaver, Beverley, triumver, Denver, discover, deriver, delver, 

12 craver, carver, cleaver, cleverly, cleverness, covereR, giver, 

13 glover, graver, grievcr, Gulliver, granivorous, shiver, shivery, 

14 Waver, mover, omnivorous, manoeuvre, manceuvreR, 

15 anniversary, universality, universalism, laver, livery, louver, 

16 Oliver, lawgiver, raver, recover, recovereR, remover, reprover, 

17 revolver, resolver, waver, Waverley, Waver^ree, wavereR, 

18 weaver, heaver, hover, hoveringLy, haversack, plethora, 

19 panther, overthrow, enthrall, disenthrall, dethroner, anthrax, 

20 anthracite, misanthrope, Lu/Aer (/ up), Lu/Aeranism (/ up), 

21 AR/Awr, pother, pothering, bother, holering, brotherly, brea- 

22 ther, tether, tethering, Crowther, gather, gathering, gathereR, 

23 leathery, smothery, Mather, mothery, nether, nethermost, 

24 leather, leathery, lealherette, loather, Reather, wither, 

25 wintering, wea^ercock, weaker-gage, wea/Aerwise. 

(e) THE DOUBLE CONSONANT shr (downward always) USED 
INITIALLY, MEDIALLY, AND FINALLY : 

1 usher, ushering, shrank, shrunk, shrapnel, shrew, shrewd, 

2 shrewdness, shriek, shrill, shrinkage, shrivel, shrubbery, 

3 Shrewsbury, Shropshire, pusher, pressure, polisher, 

4 punisAer, blusher, brochure, burnis/zer, tonswre, tertiary, 

5 tressure, dasher, Derbyshire, Cheshire, Kosher, Crusher, 

6 fissure, finisher, fishery, flasher, fresher, fiduciary, thrasher, 

7 slasher, smasher, SomersetsAtre, masher, ensAroud, lavisAer, 

8 lasAer, AyRshire, rasher, refresher, residen/tary. 

(/) THE DOUBLE CONSONANT zhr USED MEDIALLY AND 
FINALLY : 

1 treasure, treasurer, treasuring, closure, enclosure, 

2 forec/oswre, measwre, measwreR, measuring, measureless, 

3 leisure, leiswrely, eRasure, rasure. 



WRITING EXERCISES 53 

(g) THE DOUBLE CONSONANT mr USED INITIALLY, 
MEDIALLY, AND FINALLY : 

1 aimer, Omar, merceR, mercery, mercury, werling, 

2 palmer, primer, plumber, perfumer, proclaimer, 

3 blamer, blasphemer, declaimer, calmer, clamor, 

4 clamoreR, crammer, Cranmer, climber, glamor, flamer, 

5 schemer, shammer, shimmering, mummer, misnomer, namer, 

6 enamour, enamouring, dimmer, reclaimer, hammeren, 

7 hammer-cloth, hummer. 

(//) THE DOUBLE CONSONANT nr USED INITIALLY, 
MEDIALLY, AND FINALLY : 

1 nervous, nervousness, nervousLy, energy, energise, 

2 enervate, aneroid, anarchy, owner, ownersnip, honor, 

3 honorable, honoring, pawner, pinery, oppugner, 

4 plenary, p!enariLy, pruner, panorama, hanneret, 

5 browner, bemoaner, tannery, trainer, trepanner, dinnerLess, 

6 decliner, dethroner, ]enner, generous, genm>usLy, generosity, 

7 generalize, generic, keener, crowner, coroner, cocoonry, 

8 Kitchener, gunner, funeraL, vainer, venerable, veterinary, 

9 vintner, thinner, threatener, assigner, stannary, spanner, 

10 schooner, seminary, sublunary, sexagenary, SHunner, 

11 snipowner, meaner, mannerly, mannerism, Matmering, 

12 miweraL, mineraLogy, Minerva, Milner, macninery, 

13 maintainer, marooner, incliner, leaner, liner, limner, 

14 aRRaigner, eaRner, iRoner, retainer, refiner, repiner, 

15 remunerate, yeomanry. 

(t) THE DOUBLE CONSONANT ngr (ng-r or ng-gr) USED 
INITIALLY, MEDIALLY, AND FINALLY : 

1 anchor, anchorable, anchoret, anchorite, anchoring, 

2 anger, angering, pinker, bunker, blinker, tinker, 

3 tinkering, drinker, canker, cankering, cankerous, 

4 conquer, conquerable, conqueror, conquering, clangor, 

5 clangorous, clinker, finger, fingering, finger-post, finger- 

6 stall, forefinger, flanker, thinker, free-thinker, monger, 

7 newsmonger, linger, lingereR, lingering, malinger, malingereR, 

8 malingering, rancor, rancorous, rancorousLy, hanker, 

9 hankering, hunger, hungering. 



54 WRITING EXERCISES 

(/) STROKE ng AND downward R MUST BE EMPLOYED IN 

NOUNS FORMED BY THE ADDITION OF CT TO A VERB ENDING 

IN ng : 

1 longeR, prolongeR, oringeR, flingeR, singeR, stingeR, 

2 slingeR, swingeR, ringeR, wringeR, wrongeR, wingeR, 

3 hangeR, harangueR. 



EXERCISE 58. 
Initial HookS (continued). 

GRAMMALOGUES. 

'v. for, *^\ from, *-^ Mr., or mere, ' ^ more, or remark-ed, 
<~s near, ' nor, *) their, or there, "^ very. 

1. People of energy have no leisure to linger over mere trifles, 
nor do they care to do so. 2. They merely shrug their shoul- 
ders and smile at those fra.il fellows who allow a flimsy detail to 
bother them and throw them into a state of flurry OR anger. 
3. They know the calmer they keep in times of pressure the 
better it is for them, and the more likely are they to conquer 
their troubles. 4. Nor can we faiL to see why they should do 
so ; for we know how easily a poweRful leader who is calm 
can ruLe an angry throng from whose heads all reason has fled. 
5. Have you ever remarked how very like to a iever is anger, and 
how soon it orings the author, the usher, the banker, the farmer, 
the driver, and the vulgar loafer to the same leveL ? 6. And, 
I may remark, a very low leveL it is. 7. The flame of anger 
soon grows bigger, and a single angry fellow may in/feme many 
more. 8. So it is best to stifle the initial flaRe, foRce it to 
flicker out, and thus baffle the evil eRe it throws you into a 
fluster. 9. Otherwise, as Mr. Winshall remarks, the first 
oreath of adwrsity may fling you into despair. 10. Now, 
adwrsity may be very near to you, and you should prepare 
youRself by manLy resolve to receive any blow sne may deal 
you. 11. There are shrewd thinkers who have remarked how 



WRITING EXERCISES 55 

bitter a teacher adversity is. 12. But, they add, she is a 
clever trainer, whose Lessons are given effectively ; and if onLy 
we receive them in a proper manner they are likely to SHOW 
us how to lead a useful, honorable, and successful, life. (284) 



EXERCISE 54. 
Initial HOOkS Continued). 

1. Have you ever remarked, my dear Mr. Mather, how very 
niceLy the Gnashes near youR house plaster the inside of their 
nests, for feaR their eggs should tumofe to the flooR beneath 
and get cracked ? 2. And have you noticed how very opposite 
are the ways of their neighbours the black-caps, which make 
their nests so /rail and flimsy as to seem unable to beaR the eggs 
placed there by the ieathery inmates ? 3. But, I may remark, 
though you and I may call the labour of these pretty creatuRes 
a mere waste of time and energy, since the nests must inevitably 
oreak, as we think, still they know their own business best ; 
for the nests scaRcely ever creak, nor do the eggs faLL through. 
4. Fragile as the nest appeaRs to us, the owners evince no 
trouble OR flurry ; for they seem to know it is safe enough to 
carry their precious treasures. 5. There is no laoowreR who 
discharges his task so effectively as these pretty singeRS. 6. Any 
shrewd rambleR through the woods and by the rivers may 
discover there marvels enough and to spaRe. 7. / feeL there 
is no better way of passing a leisure hour. (195) 



EXERCISE 55. 
Initial HOOkS (continued). 

1. From all I know of life it is mere nonsense to say there 
is no virtue in adwrsity. 2. Have you ever remarked, my dear 
Mr. Webster, how very calm in times of trouble is he who has 
seen more evil days, and, essaying to conquer them, has issued 
/row the fray a noble victor ? 3. Others may shrink and 



56 WRITING EXERCISES 

shrivel at the sight of sorrow ; but these fellows face it bravely, 
and fling it from them. 4. Mere business worries have no 
terrors for them ; nor do they flinch at the more alaRming 
troubles which may approach them. 5. Their joy is to stifle 
all feeLings which may in/fame them to anger. 6. You may t 
I think, remark the glitter in their eyes, should these fiRm 
fellows notice the trembling feaRs of a silly youth at the first 
view of trouble OR sorrow. 7. They appeaR to think such feaRs 
worthy of reproval, as being unmanLy. 8. The more annoy- 
ances these stout fellows have to conquer, the better they seem 
to like it, and the fresher they approach to the fray. 9. They 
snap their fingers at mere paltry' worries, and smile at business 
pressure. 10. They eat their dinners just as calmly, and 
seem to labor just as leisurely, in busy times as they do in 
times of slackness. 11. They simply thrust aside the things 
they dislike, and refuse to be Curried by them. 12. They know 
the measure of their energy and their poweRs ; and they have 
no feaR, for they are aware no earthly sorrow can last for ever. 

(253) 



EXERCISE 56. 
Initial Hooks (continued). 

MessRs. Beaver and ThreliaLL. 

Dear SiRs, We have youR iavour of Friday last, and we 
are very pleased at youR success in the Farmers' SHOW. 
We were unaWe to be there, for the reasons given you by our 
Mr. Arthur Fletcher. Nor shall we be able to go to the close 
of the affaiR. From a mere remark of Mr. Arthur's, we gather 
how very big were the crowds which thronged the place from 
first to last on the day of his visit, and we were all the more 
sorry to be away. Mr. ARthur specially remarked the new oat 
crusher, near the shrubbery. There were three other crushers 
in the SHOW ; but he thinks they were more flimsy, and faR 
less useful. We shall dispatch youR kennel by raiL fo-morrow, 
YOURS faith/w//y, Fletcher, Sons, and Crowther. (137) 



WRITING EXERCISES 57 

EXERCISE 57. 

Initial HookS (concluded). 

Mr. Christopher Coverley. 

Dear SIR, We have the samples of flannel to-day, but we 
regret to say they are unsuitaWe for our purposes. They are 
very flufiy, and there are flaws in the threads of some of them. 
Three of the samples appeaR to shrink and shrivel up in the 
wasning. We are a/raid to offer such stuff to our customeRs. 
YOURS truly, Weaver Brokers. (65) 



EXERCISE 58. 
Circles and Loops prefixed to Initial Hooks. 

A circle or loop is prefixed to a straight letter hooked for R 
by turning the hook into a circle or loop. 

(a) Spr, ETC. THE ITALIC TYPE INDICATES THAT THE 
CIRCLE SHOULD BE COMBINED WITH THE HOOK r : 

1 spray, sprayed, spreader, sprag, sprawleR, springeR, spring- 

2 time, spruce, sprucely, s/>ruceness, sapper, suppressed, super, 

3 supremely, superficial, supervise, su/>erviser, superlatively, 

4 supersede, soberly, soberness, sou&rette, sprayed, s/raggleR, 

5 strainer, strangely, strata, streaky, s/reameR, s/rengthener, 

6 stride, sfringeR, striver, stronger, strutter, setter, citer, 

7 citric, suitor, solder, soldereR, Cedric, screw, scraggy, 

8 screamer, screech-owl, scrofulous, sacredly, sacrificer, sacri- 

9 ficial, sacrilegious, succor, succorer, Socrates, Socratical, 

10 sacristy, secretaiRe, secrecy, sagger, segregate, prosper, 

11 upspring, upswinging, destroy, destroyer, destructively, 

12 distrainer, disdainable, distressed, distressing, distrusts, 

13 distrusting, decider, outsider, tasker, tusker, disgrace, 

14 disgraced, disgracing, disgracefuL, describe, describer, 

15 describing, descrieR, descriptively, discriminate, coRkscrew, 

16 excrescence, swopper, sweeper, swabber, sweeter, sweater, 

17 switcher, swagger, swaggerer, swigger. 



58 WRITING EXERCISES 

(b) WRITE THE CIRCLE INSIDE THE HOOK r IN THE FOLLOW- 
ING AND SIMILAR WORDS, WHERE THE CIRCLE AND HOOK 
OCCUR AT AN ANGLE : 

1 pastoral, pesterer, plasterer, besieger, bestrew, besfraddle, 

2 blusterous, blusterer, boisterous, boisterously, tricyclist, 

3 taxidermy, depositor, dexterous, dexterously, dextrose, 

4 checksfring, costermonger, cross^ree, clustery, cloisteral, 

5 cloistereR, clasper, crisper, crusaders, exciter, express, 

6 expressive, expressly, ex/>rgatory, expositor, exterminate, 

7 extfra, extremity, extremist, extrinsic, ex/ricable, inex- 

8 tricably, inexpressive, Exeter, Ux&ridge, gastric, gastritis, 

9 gastronomy, Gloucestershire, gasper, offspring, fenes^ral, 

10 psalmistfry, nostril, nostrums, ancestral, ancestress, 

11 massacre, masterful, master-key, master-stroke, masterly, 

12 mistral, mystery, mispress, mistrust, mis/rusting, muster- 

13 TOLL, misprize, mispronounce, mispronounced, lisper, 

14 lusfral, lustrous, lustrously, lascar, Mex&orough, Salisbury, 

15 Malmes&wry, rasper, reciprocal, reciprocity, reciter, 

16 rescribe, res^rainable, res^rainer, risfor, rostral, roistereR 

17 registry, oRches^ra, oRches/ral, wastrel, westerly, wiseacre, 

18 Hesper (h up), house&reaker. 

(c) St-pr, ETC. THE ITALIC TYPE INDICATES THAT THE 

LOOP S* SHOULD BE COMBINED WITH THE HOOK r / 

1 stepper, stopper, stooper, stupor, slabber, staffer, stutter, 

2 stuttereR, stouter, stitcher, stager, stodger, staker, stacker 

3 sticker, stalker, stoker, stocker, stagger, staggerer. 

(d) Spl, s-fr, ETC., USED INITIALLY. INITIAL CIRCLE 

S IS WRITTEN INSIDE THE HOOK / ATTACHED TO STRAIGHT 
LETTERS, AND INSIDE THE HOOK I OR r ATTACHED TO 
CURVES. IN THIS SECTION THE ITALIC TYPE INDICATES 
THAT THE CIRCLE S MUST BE WRITTEN INSIDE THE HOOK 
/ OR r : 

1 splasu, splasher, splitter, splutter, spleeny, supple, 

2 suppleness, supplicatory, supplieR, sable, sublime, sublimity, 

3 settleR, sub^e, saddleR, saddlery, sidle, siting, satchels, 

4 sickle, seclude, sec/uder, secluding, seclusive, cyclist, 

5 cycloid, Cyclops, safer, suffer, suffereR, su/fgrable, su^rage, 



WRITING EXERCISES 59 

6 savory, savorless, severance, soother, seether, simmer, 

7 simmering, signer, sinner, sooner, sinker, civil, civilize, 

8 civilizer, civilized, civilly. 

(e) Spl, sfir, ETC., USED MEDIALLY AND FINALLY: 

1 display, displaced, displeased, traceable, disoo/ige, disable, 

2 reduciWe, despisable, disposable, disc/ose, disc/osure, 

3 disclaimer. plausiWe, peaceaWy, appeasable, chasuble, 

4 explainable, explainer, explicable, explicitly, explode, 

5 explore, explosive, iusible, infusio/e, effaceaofe, ineffaceao/e, 

6 visibly, invisibly, pedestal, iratricidal, matricidal, paschal, 

7 tisical, tricycle, toxical, toxicology, exclaimer, exclusive, 

8 e#c/usively, classical, physica//y, vesicle, versicle, encyclical, 

9 encyclopedic, lackadaisical, peace-oaring, decipher, 

10 deciphereR, deci/^rable, dis/ranchise, dis/ranchised, 

1 1 phosphor, gypsi/erous, lucifer, luciferous, passover, deceiver, 

12 dissever, dissewrance, Elzevir, dulciw^r, gossamer, resumer, 

13 poisow^r, prisoner, blazoner, emblazoner, designer, 

14 decennary, dishonor, dishonorable, dishonoring, chastener, 

15 fastener, vicenary, Listener, die-sinker, peaceful, peacefully, 

16 blissful, ox-fly, house-^y, museful, obtrusively, euisively, 

17 iLLusively, tortoise-shell, dissocial, anti-social, vicinal, 

18 vaticinal. 

(/) THE CIRCLE s is WRITTEN INSIDE THE HOOK OF w, 

IN WORDS LIKE THE FOLLOWING : 

1 sway, sways, swaying, basswood, praiseworthy, dissuasive, 

2 fosseway, causeway, cassowary, crossways, crosswise. 



EXERCISE 59. 
Circles and Loops prefixed to Initial Hooks (continued). 

Italic s, sw, or s, indicates that the circle or loop should be 
combined with the hook r, as in spray, stouter. The 
hyphen following s, c, or x, indicates that the circle s should 
be written inside the hook r or I or the hook of w, as in 

splice, suffer, crossways. 

1. A famous author describes the Scribes as a strong, sober, 



60 WRITING EXERCISES 

class, who passed their time ex-c/usively in the s-ufc/ime study 
of the sacred laws. 2. Their industry and love of labour 
were notic-ea&/e to all their disc-iples, and they exercised nigh 
authority as expos-i/ors of the scrolls of those times. 3. Sprays 
of cypress were carried at funeraLS in past days to ex-press 
vis-iWy the strength of the feeLings of sorrow and distress in 
the breasts of the survivors. 4. In some cases, rosemary OR 
bay leaves dis-placed the cypress, but cypress branches were 
oftener chosen as they last a long time. 5. The custom may 
seem strange in a c-ivilized people, but though we may poss-iWy 
disagree as to the propriety of it, we must discriminate and pause 
eRe we describe it as either fooLish OR disgraceful,. 6. We 
should dis-c/aim a desiRe to swagger, to pose as wis-eacres, OR 
to dis-play an undue pride in the strength of any abilities we 
may possess. 7. Sensible people are seldom bois-ferous in the 
dis-play of their wisdom. 8. It is the mere dabblers OR 
scribbleRS who try to dis-c/ose all they know. 9. It is useless 
for a sweeper to throw a straw in the face of a strong breeze. 
10. It is carried away by the stronger foRce, and has no 
strength to resist. 1 1 . We are in a sense straws, also, carried 
aLong in the struggle to reach a HigheR leveL. 12. We should 
be modest and scrupulous seekers for true wisdom, faithful 
stivers for the goal, and lovers of the right for its own sake. 
13. We should leave all unworthy and dis-howorable things 
to swaggerers, dec-eivers, and evil des-igrars, who prey on 
the foibles of their fellows and seek to stop the progress of our 
race. (288) 



EXERCISE 60. 
Circles and Loops prefixed to Initial Hooks (continued). 

Read the Note at the head of Exercise 59. 
1. / should dis/rust him who boasts of his strength and 
swaggers over his skiLL ; for, as I have noticed, very strong 
and skiLful people dis-c/aim ex-tra strength OR skiLL. 2. Thf 
mannerLy youth has no scruple in sacrificing his own tastes 
for the sake of others. 3, -A crossing sweeper may give a 



WRITING EXERCISES 61 

Lesson in c-ivility to proud wis-eacres. 4. Many who are 
otherwise sober people carry their strange fads to extremes. 
5. Many a spruce youth s-u/ers from the folly of supposing 
his neighbours admiRe his s/>ruceness. 6. He hopes to see his 
fame spread ; but, alas, he is his own dec-eiwr, for few of his 
fellows are struck by his ability. 7. UnLess we sow the right 
seeds in Spring, we shall reap the wrong crop in Autumn 
8. It is advis-aWe to s-ettle our aim in life as eaRly as poss-i6/e, 
and seek to follow it steadily. 9. An honorable boy should 
have no scruple in ex-dressing his dislike of dis-howorable 
counseL. 10. // *s cowardice to do evil simply from the feaR 
of dis-/>/easing others. 11. OnLy the "most superficial people 
can teach otherwise. 12. Have a care lest in youR search 
for CRRORS in others you may overLook youR own most 
notic-eaft/e follies. 13. The faster a c-yc/ist rides aLong the 
road, the less beauty does he notice in the scenery. 14. There 
are very many extremists among c-ycftsts. 15. As you go 
along life's road, take care lest you follow their example. 
16. The more troublesome the task, the stouter should be the 
resolve to conquer it. 17. You may think me a sad preacher, 
but I have seen strange sights in my time, and many failuRes 
through lack of wisdom. (271) 

EXERCISE 61. 

Circles and Loops prefixed to Initial Hooks (continued). 
Read the Note at the head of Exercise 59. 

1. The swaggerer is just the fellow likely to be also an unseen 
dis-honorable Lis-tew<?r, a dec-eiver, and a des-igner of evil. 
2. It is s-afer to leave such a fellow aLone, lest he drag you 
into a scrape. 3. // is very strange how some youths lose all 
scruple, and stoop to any snabby tricks to get on in life. 4. A 
strong, sober fellow can onLy describe such tricks as disgraceful,. 
5. The struggle for supremacy may be seveRe, but we should 
refuse to prosper at the cost of our honor. 6. An honest 
fellow feaRs no dis-c/osure, and his simple pleasures are all the 
sweeter for the strenuous toil by which they are bought. 7. A 



62 WRITING EXERCISES 

carriage and a pair of High steppers are but a pooR exchange 
for a virtuous name. 8. It is scaRcely poss-iWe to judge 
from a mere SHOW of ricnes how faR their possessoR is truly at 
ease. 9. A plaus-iWe was-frel, in the last stages of despair, 
may appeaR to be leading a thoroughly enjoyable life. 10. But 
the day aRRives at last which dis-c/oses a very opposite state of 
affaiRs. 11. His villainy is exposed; his s/>mceness 
disappears ; and his face wears a look of misery. 12. Few 
people regret his faLL, for they know he was a dec-eiver and a 
SHam. 13. In the strictest sense the pathway of honor is 
also the pathway of true wisdom. (225) 

EXERCISE 62. 

Circles and Loops prefixed to Initial Hooks (continued). 
Read the Note at the head of Exercise 59. 

1. It is always prais-eworthy, and it may poss-ii/y be 
s-uWime to risk failuRe in the hope of rising from a low place in 
society to a HigheR. 2. Nor is it right to ex-press dis-approval 
of any such triaL ; for some of our best citizens have sprang 
from ex-treme poverty to riches and poweR. 3. The 
cos-fermonger of last s-ummer may be the leader of commerce in 
the spring. 4. Examples of such a change are readily adduc-iWe 
from the pages of the past. 5. Success in life is reduc-i&/e to 
no set of rules ; but it is scaRcely poss-iWe for us to succeed if 
we dis/rust our own abilities. 6. The dex-terous use of the 
poweRS given to us by the Lord may bring both fame and riches, 
and at the same time give us the poweR to appease some of the 
distress vis-iWe to all who care to see it. 7. And, we may add, 
the s-uffer'mgs of the pooR are notic-eaWe enough to those who 
use their eyes. 8. A mere stroll through any of our big cities 
dis-c/oses misery enough to call forth an exercise of charity 
from all who are able and disposed to give. 9. But in all our 
endeavours to rise, we must beware lest we allow a love of 
money for its own sake to master us, and destroy our sense of 
justice to others. 10. Such a feeLing necessariLy dis-aWes 
us from being very servic-eaWe to our fellows, and if we have 



WRITING EXERCISES 63 

such a feeLing the s-ooner we stifle it the better. 11. It is a 
pitiful thing to desine riches merely for the sake of being a 
depos-itor in a bank. 12. FaR better be an honest crossing 
sweeper in the city. 13. From all which a sensible fellow may 
gather the Lesson of justice and mercy to all. (297) 



EXERCISE 63. 
Circles and Loops prefixed to Initial Hooks (continued). 

Read the Note at the head of Exercise 59. 

MCSSRS. Tasker and S-a.ddleR. 

Dear SIRS, We have an ex-tra. heavy s-upply of strong 
screws, in all sizes, bought at a sale, which we think may 
poss-iWy be servic-ea&/e to you, and which we can offer you at 
a very low price for casn. We have also an extremely s<?ful 
jackscrew, and a set of die-s-inker's tools, for which we should 
like you to make us an offer. If youR manager can call at our 
stoRes, at three o'clock on Friday, we may be able to s-ettle 
a price for all these things. We have onLy a small space to 
spaRe for our stock, and the s-ooner we dispose of them the 
better. YOURS faithfully, StringeR and Spriggs. (119) 



EXERCISE 64. 
Circles and Loops prefixed to Initial Hooks (concluded). 

Mr. ARthur S-iddle. 

Dear SIR, In reply to youR favour of Saturday last, both 
the bic-ycle and tric-yc/e are ready, and you can have them on 
snowing the official receipt for the charges for repaiRs. It is 
scaRcely necessary to say we have no distrust of you, but we 
know how advis-aWe it is for us to stick to our ruLe to allow no 
c-ycle to leave our premises unLess the official receipt for all 
charges is produced. This is s-afer for all parties. We were 
able to solder the wire you spoke of, and it is now all right. 
YOURS truly, S-ummers and Sons. ( 105) 



64 WRITING EXERCISES 

EXERCISE 65. 
Contractions. 

U^_ domestic, ~ mistake, "~\_ never, -W never- 
theless, "/" enlarge, ^ notwithstanding, "7 knowledge, 
~^7 acknowledge, /~ ~ regular, ~\ irregular, ^ king- 
dom, influence, influenced, --^> next 

1. // is, as a ruLe, a mistake to offer advice on the domestic 
affaiRS of our neighbours. 2. Nevertheless, should our counsel, 
be sought, we should never refuse to give it, if we feeL we have 
enough knowledge and influence to enable us to do so in a wise 
way. 3. Still, we must acknowledge the utmost care is 
necessary in these cases, OR, notwithstanding our strong desiRe 
to remove a trouble, we may onLy enlarge it. 4. We should 
be influenced in the case by our knowledge of the people who 
seek our advice, and be careiuL how we decide to give it, lest 
it be scornfully refused. 5. In fact, the next best thing to 
wise counseL is no counseL at all. 6. There are very many 
people in this kingdom who are most eager to advise others ; 
but, strange to say, the most regular givers of advice are the 
most irregular takers of it from others. (154) 



EXERCISE 66. 
N Hook. 

The hook n, attached to straight letters, is written in the 
same direction as that taken by the hands of a clock ; 
attached to curves, it is written inside the curve. In this 
Exercise italic n indicates that the hook n should be written. 

(a) STRAIGHT STROKES HOOKED FOR n : 

1 pain, Spam, sprain, spleen, trepan, deepen, cheapen, Japan, 

2 crepon, Gilpin, saucepan, asnpan, Mappin, kneepan, lupine, 

3 rapine, weapon, bin, Bryn, Sabine, Dublin, cabin, Gibbon, 

4 thighbone, suburban, uRban, robin, ribbon, henbane, 



WRITING EXERCISES 65 

5 tan, train, strain, tow, spittoon, platoon, Preston, batten, 

6 Tatton, Button, detain, detrain, destine, cotton, croton, 

7 Grattan, festoon, fatten, frighten, Austin, smitten, 

8 sweeten, scone, screen, skeleton, Asnton, mutton, Milton, 

9 Newton, lighten, rotten, retain, restrain, routine, Wetton, 

10 platen, maintain, don, Seddon, bidden, deaden, 

11 Farringdon, Flodden, Snowdon, madden, anodyne, intes- 

12 tine, entrain, olden, laden, redden, wooden, Woburn, 

13 hidden, chin, birchen, kitchen, urchin, John, pigeon, 

14 bludgeon, Trojan, dudgeon, gudgeon, virgin, region, 

15 origin, surgeon, sturgeon, imagine, engine, steam-engine, 

16 legion, widgeon, can, pecan, beacon, Tuscan, deacon, 

17 chicken, falcon, African, Vatican, thicken, skin, screen, 

18 stricken, spoken, slacken, sunken, snaken, SHrunken, 

19 McCann, Maclean, mannikin, napkin, liken, American, 

20 ERskine, recline, awaken, gone, pagan, began, Teggin, 

21 dragoon, Keegan, Grogan, Fagiw, Afghan, Afghanistan, 

22 suffragan, spring-gun, chagrin, Micnigan, Mulligan, noggin, 

23 lagoon, oRgan, ORegon, nogan, wren, rain, Parrin, barren, 

24 outran, Doran, churn, adjourn, Curran, corn, Garn, foreign, 

25 florin, sovereign, thorn, siren, SHorn, Moran, marine, lorn, 

26 worn, western, wyvern, yearn, heron, hawthorn, win, 

27 Darwin, Kenwyw, Irwin, wane, ween, wan, yawn, yen, 

28 hone, hewn. 

(b) CURVED STROKES HOOKED FOR n : 

1 fan, fin, paraffin, dolphin, morphine, elfin, flown, Flynn, 

2 frown, syphon, van, Bevan, Cavan, craven, cloven, graven, 

3 thriven, Stephen, sylvan, shaven, snriven, Niven, liven, 

4 raven, woven, haven, thin, python, Nathan, earthen, thine, 

5 brethren, leathern, heathen, throne, enthrone, dethrone, 

6 assign, zone, ozone, snine, outsnine, sunsmne, moonsnine, 

7 macnine, oCEan, asnen, snrine, ensnrine, men, pressmen, 

8 bowmen, tea-men, draymen, caRmen, examine, gammon, 

9 foemen, fiRemen, flamen, freemen, vermin, seamen, 

10 stamen, spokesmen, statesmen, Scotchmen, snowmen, 

1 1 mammon, laymen, eRrnine, remain, weigh-man, woodsman, 

12 yeoman, hangman, nine, Pennine, benign, tannin, caniwe, 



66 WRITING EXERCISES 

13 Glennon, snannon, unknown, linen, renown, lean, pollen, 

14 balloon, talon, Dillon, colon, gallon, felon, villain, sea-lion, 

15 stolen, swollen, sullen, siRloin, melon, aniune, aRRaign, 

16 swoRn, steRn, seceRn, NaiRn, inuRn, hangeR-on. 
(c) N HOOK USED MEDIALLY: 

1 paining, painfuL, penknife, pining, pruning, piquancy, 

2 opening, boning, browning, bandy, abandon, banisn, 

3 bantam, tanning, tuning, tansy, training, deepening, 

4 droning, dainty, daintily, disdaining, deaconess, Chippen- 

5 dale, chantey, gentile, caning, clinic, conic, cleanly, 

6 keenly, Kinsey, gaining, grinning, gainsay, glengarry, 

7 falconry, foreigneRS, flippancy, fraudulency, flatulency, 

8 vagrancy, screening, spinning, spraining, southerneR, 

9 maintaining, mechanics, mechanism, misreckoning, 

10 mourneR, maddening, laburnum, lightening, likening, 

11 learneR, reclining, repining, reddening, replenisn, 

12 restraining, retaining, awakening, wine-bibber, winneR, 

13 yearneR, yawneR, hen-roost, hen-coop, fancy, fanfaRe, 

14 finery, fineness, finish, franchise, Franciscan, frenzy, 

15 French, fringe, vanishing, veining, vinery, thinning, 

16 thinness, thinnish, assigning, strengthening, stubbornness, 

17 stubbornly, manning, mainmast, manuRe, meanness, 

18 meaningLess, mining, monaRch, maligneR, nunnery, 

19 lengthening, linsey, lonely, latency, eaRnings, aRRaigning, 

20 aRRange, aRRanger, disaRRange, ARundel, oRange, 

21 ORangeman, redolency, repellency. 



EXERCISE 67. 
F OP V Hook. 

The hook / or v is attached to straight letters only, and is 
written in the opposite direction to that taken by the hands 
of a clock. In this Exercise, italic / or v indicates that 
the letter should be represented by the hook. 
(a) THE HOOK f OR v USED FINALLY :- 

1 punitive, proof, prove, reprove, fiReproo/, pikesta^, epita^/z, 

2 tipsta^, dista/f, breve, semibreve, bereave, bluff, tough, 



WRITING EXERCISES 67 

3 talkative, attractive, autograph, dative, deprive, deceptive, 

4 digra/)/i, drove, dra^, derive, cha/e, chough, achieve, Jove, 

5 gyve, ]eff, cove, cough, carve, skiff, dough, cliff, \Vyc\iff, 

6 cleave, calf, caiti^, accretive, expletive, gaff, gave, grove, 

7 glove, foxglove, festive, federative, foRmative, votive, 

8 vocative, sportive, sedative, secretive, sensitive, suppositive, 

9 seraph, serve, preserve, observe, deserve, reserve, sheri^, 

10 mangrove, monograph, amative, motive, native, neckerchie/, 

11 engrave, illative, illustrative, iLLuminative, lenitive, laxative, 

12 restive, retrieve, recitative, refoRmative, regenerative, 

13 relative, remunerative, restrictive, restorative, wai/, weave, 

14 unweave, hu^, hove, heave. 

(b) THE HOOK / OR v USED MEDIALLY : 

1 proofing, proving, paving, prefer, preferring, preferable, 

2 privet, privacy, privateer, privitive, pro/it, profitable, 

3 pro/itless, provide, provable, proven, proverb, provincial, 

4 provoke, provocative, provokeR, pu^ery, brevity, brevet, 

5 ta^eta, ta^raiL,ti$m, tougAening, toug/nsh, tra^c, typhoon, 

6 typhoid, daffodil, deafening, deafness, divinity, diversity, 

7 diversify, defer, de/erential, divide, draughty, draughtsman, 

8 driveL, driveLing, driven, defence, defenceless, defensible, 

9 defeat, devotee, cha^mch, chafing, juveniLe, juvenescence, 

10 gyving, festivity, effectiveness, secretiveness, sensitiveness, 

11 server, preserver, observer, reserver, scenogra/>Mc, steno- 

12 graphic, sportiveness, amativeness, mysti/ied, monographic, 

13 motivity, nativity, nitrified, lexigraphic, lithographic, 
*4 orthogra/>Aic, recovery, discovery, rejuvenescence, rebu^mg, 

15 reproving, reprovable, restiveness, retrievable, reversal, 

16 reversed, reversing, revertive, refer, referee, referable, 

17 re/erential, re/erring, hieroglyphic. 

(c) FINAL n, /, OR v, FOLLOWED BY A SOUNDED VOWEL, 

MUST BE EXPRESSED BY A STROKE CONSONANT. 

In the following words the italic type indicates that the 
hook should be employed: 

1 paww, pawnee ; oppugn, puny ; pine, piney; pollen,. 



68 WRITING EXERCISES 

2 polony ; plain, Pliny ; spine, spinous ; pave, pavo ; 

3 puff, puffy ; bone, bonny ; brain, brainy ; ban, 

4 bonus ; barn, barony ; brave, bravo ; bluff, bluffy ; 

5 button, botany ; Britain, Brittany ; biograph, bio- 

6 graphy ; tone, tony ; turn, tourney ; dun, donee ; 

7 den, deny ; dine, Dinah ; destine, destiny ; Du^, 

8 Duffy ; dea/, defy ; detain, dittany ; chaff, chaffy ; 

9 chine, China, Chinese ; June, Juno ; jin, jinnee ; ken, 

10 Kenny ; corn, corny ; Curran, corona ; dough, Clovis ; 

1 1 crane, cranny ; cotton, cottony ; clown, Cluney ; cove, 

12 covey ; grain, granny; grieve, grievous; glutton, gluttony ; 

13 gluten, glutinous ; Gascon, Gascony ; fun, funny ; felon, 

14 felony ; foreign, farina ; vain, venue ; villain, villainous ; 

15 vine, vinous ; thorn, thorny ; thin, Athene ; throne, 

16 threepenny ; assign, assignee ; sudden, Sydney ; skin, 

17 skinny ; sicken, sickness ; stamen, stamina ; summon, 

18 simony ; spleen, spleeny ; stolen, steeliness ; serve, 

19 survey, service ; seraph, seraphic ; ozone, ozonize ; 

20 snine, sniny, snyness ; CHicane, cnicanery ; mutton, 

21 mutiny, mutinous ; macnine, macninist ; Mullen, 

22 Maloney ; microphone, microphonous ; moonsnine, moon- 

23 sniny ; myograph, myography ; neckerchie/, anchovy ; 

24 Nan, Nanny ; Newman, nominee ; engine, angina ; 

25 laymen, lamina ; latin, latinize ; liken, likeness ; lengthen, 

26 lengthiness ; lion, lioness, lionized ; lithogra/>A, litho- 

27 graphy ; iLLumine, iLLuminee ; Alban, Albany ; albumen, 

28 albuminize ; Enin, aRena ; ARRan, Anno ; iRon, iRony ; 

29 aRchon, ORkney ; origin, Origenist ; ratan, ratany ; redden, 

30 redness ; raven, ravenous ; ripen, ripeness ; recitative, 

31 recitative ; region, regina ; retain, retinue ; reserve, 

32 reservist ; ravine, revenue ; roman, romany ; wan, 

33 wanness ; win, winnow ; worn, weariness ; Wetton, 

34 weightiness ; wine, winy ; wooden, woodiness ; hone, 

35 honey ; heathen, heathenize ; hewn, heinous ; hoyden, 

36 headiness ; headsman, head-money ; hen, henna ; heave, 

37 heavy ; Hockin, Hackney. 



WRITING EXERCISES 69 

EXERCISE 68. 
The Hooks N, and F OP V (continued). 

The italic type indicates that the letter should be expressed 
by a hook. 

1. He is a brave man who daRes to defy a rough opposeR 
of his policy. 2. A reproo/ in youth may preserve us from 
mischie/ in age. 3. Many a maw has faixen in the struggle 
of life through his teacher's feaR of annoying him by reproo/ 
in eaRly youth. 4. Small things make up the life of a maw, 
as many drops go to foRm an ocean. 5. It is better to strive 
to retrieve the past than to grieve over its follies. 6. A 
vain man is seldom aware of his vanity. 7. A man should 
learn to eaRn money in some way, even though he be born rich. 
8. An active man can easily exercise his activity, if he desiRes 
to do so ; but many profess activity, and still refuse to serve 
their fellow-men in any way. 9. A genuine man seldom 
gives pain to others OR provokes them to anger. 10. Many 
drunken men appeaR to think the drink which stole their reason 
may also prove a restorative ; and so they drink again. 11. 
The taste for beeR OR wine grows upon them, and at last they 
are unable to restrain their desiRe for the poison which may 
carry them to the grave. 12. You may observe how few men 
there are who abandon an evil custom which they have pursued 
for a long time. 13. This should assist you to refrain from 
following such evil ways. 14. A puny man may be braver 
than a big one, and, in fact, many of our bravest leaders have 
been diminutive in statuRe. (253) 

EXERCISE 69. 
The Hooks N and F OP V (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 68. 
1. If you desiRe to achieve youR purpose and sustain youR 
known ability as a fine business man, you must take care lest 
you display chagrin OR scorn in presence of a likely customeR, 



70 WRITING EXERCISES 

2. It is vain to imagine you can have all youR own way and get 
the best of every bargain. 3. Men may try to cheapen youR 
wares, and you must evince no disdain of thin pro/its, now and 
again. 4. A stubborn mien can scaRcely strengthen youR 
hopes of more business. 5. The salesman, like the nsnerman, 
may have to angle long eRe he secuRes a catch. 6. A talkative 
man, by undue pu/^mg, may de/eat his own purpose and drive 
away a likely buyeR. 7. A superlative tone soon provokes 
an honest trader, and he often enough administers an effective 
rebuke to a glib-tongued agent by declining to buy his stuff. 
8. Reasonable brevity, an attractive manner, and a steRn 
resolve in no case to swerve from the truth for the sake of selling 
a line, are fine credentials for the aspiring salesman. (172) 

EXERCISE 7O. 
The Hooks N, and F OP V (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 68. 
1. Japan and the Japanese are worth the study of all who 
like to read of the origin and advance of the races of the globe. 
2. Some people imagine the isles of Japan are of volcanic 
origin ; but the chief men of science deny this, though they 
observe there are many volcanoes and sulphur springs in the 
place, and the people feeL earth tremoRs, one may say, every 
day. 3. They have as many varieties of weather in Japan 
as we have, and more ; for besides rough breezes, rain, snow, 
frost, and sunsidne, they often have a visit from the terrible 
stoRms known as typhoons, which do immense damage to 
houses and to snips. 4. The Japanese are a dainty, economi- 
cal, and attractive people, ready to learn, and strong to retain 
the things they look upon as profitable to them. 5. They are 
no lovers of strife ; but they can be brave, and even stubborn, 
in the defence and maintenance of their rights. 6. They are 
clever farmers, and they raise fine, heavy crops of rice, which 
is the chief food of the people. 7. Coal and iRon mining is 
vigorously carried on, and, in fact, Japan is rich in many 
mineraLs. 8. The skiLL of the Japanese in japanning has long 



WRITING EXERCISES 71 

been widely known, and the artistic finish they give to the 
things they make is above all praise. 9. They weave lovely 
silk fabrics, from the sale of which they derive a big revenue. 
10. Strange to say, up to 1853 no foreigneR was able to gain 
an entry into Japan ; for the Japanese looked upon all 
foreigneRs as worthy onLy of disdain and scorn. 11. But 
since then there have been many changes. Japanese statesmen 
began to think they should abandon tJieir reserve, and allow 
their people to try and derive pro/it from following the line 
of the men from the Western states. 12. They gave the plan 
a triaL ; the gates of their cities were thrown open to foreign 
traders, and now the Japanese dealeRs are as keen at a bargain, 
and as ready to eaRn a guinea as any people we serve. (348) 

EXERCISE 71. 
The Hooks N, and F OP V (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 68. 
Mr. John Bullen. 

Dear SiR, Re/erring to youR favour of the 9th, we imagine 
VOUR customeR must mean a tureen like the one we sold you 
in June last. We gave you notice then it was the last of the 
make we should supply, as the cost of producing it was such 
as to make it positively hopeless for us to derive any pro/it 
from the sales. It was a very attractive design, of tough make, 
and thoroughly fiReproo/ ; but we were unable to obtain a faiR 
price for it, and we were pleased to sell you the last owe. We 
have plenty of others in stock, of fine design and finish, and 
we trust YOUR customeR may choose one of these from the 
enclosed list. A line from you is enough to secuRe the dispatch 
of the tureen, OR of any of the things spoken of in the list, by 
return. YOURS truly, Stephen Brown and Sons. (158) 

EXERCISE 72. 

The Hooks N, and F OP V (concluded). 
Mr. David Green. 

Dear SiR, We have youR favour of the 10th, and we shall 



72 WRITING EXERCISES 

be pleased to aRRange to see youR agent and examine his 
samples of SHeepskin rugs. We sell more of these fancy rugs 
than any other house in this town ; but we are keen buyeRS, 
and if you are to serve us you must mark the prices as low as 
possible. YOURS faithfully, Benjamin GougA and Nephew. 

(71) 

EXERCISE 73. 
Circles and Loops added to Final Hooks. 

A circle or loop is added to the hook n, attached to straight 
letters, by turning the hook into a circle or loop. In this 
Exercise the italic type indicates that the letters should be 
combined in a circle or loop. 
(a) ns ADDED TO STRAIGHT LETTERS : 

1 pans, pens, pins, pawns, prunes, plans, pagans, poltroons, 

2 patrons, precedence, pittance, picaroons, platens, penitence, 

3 providence, pippins, beckons, bans, barons, buttons, 

4 begins, betokens, blackens, bludgeons, blackthorns, 

5 Britons, bygones, teaspoons, tamarins, tense, trance, 

6 tarns, tightens, twopence, attunes, dispense, dragoons, 

7 diffidence, declines, decadence, deepens, diligence, destines, 

8 disciplines, distrains, duns, chines, chaplains, chickens, 

9 churns, Japan's, jack-planes, jaw-bones, adjourns, coupons, 

10 canteens, corns, kittens, cabins, cocoons, credence, expense, 

11 Clarence, crones, accidence, Gibbon's, Gascons, glens, 

12 goblins, gluttons, falcons, ferns, fragrance, flagons, 

13 frightens, festoons, avoidance, veterans, velveteens, 

14 vengeance, Vulcan's, thickens, threepence, threatens, 

15 sustains, assistance, Austin's, sextons, sacristans, sixpence, 

16 sardines, saddens, suspense, sprains, sickens, spurns, 

17 satins, straightens, sneep-runs, mittens, maidens, 

18 maintains, mandarins, emergence, Makin's, marines, 

19 mourns, negligence, entrains, lagoons, learns, likens, 

20 legions, lightens, luncheons, aRRogance, ribbons, repines, 

21 retains, regions, reclines, riddance, resistance, robins, 

22 weapons, widgeons, wince, once, yawns, yearns, Yucatan's, 

23 hens, herons, Hockins, headstones. 



WRITING EXERCISES 73 

(b) HSS ADDED TO STRAIGHT LETTERS : 

1 prances, princes, appearances, preferences, pittances, 

2 pretences, bronzes, twopences, trances, trounces,' dunces, 

3 distances, dispenses, disappearances, disturbances, chances, 

4 cadences, clearances, expenses, glances, Florence's, three- 

5 pewces, sixpences, sconces, subsidences, assurances, 

6 insurances, ninepences, instances, eLegances, references, 

7 remittances, resemblances, iRReverences, reverences, 

8 residences, responses, winces, enhances, ensconces. 

(c) nsl AND nstr ADDED TO STRAIGHT LETTERS : 

1 pounced, pranced, bounced, bronzed, dispensed, distanced, 

2 danced, reverenced, chanced, canst, cleansed, glanced, 

3 against, rinsed, winced, entranced, enhanced, instanced, 

4 ensconced, indulgence^, punster, punsters, spinster, 

5 spinsters, Dunster, Dunster's. 



EXERCISE 74. 
Circles and Loops added to Final Hooks (continued). 

In the case of curves hooked for n, and of straight letters 
hooked for / or u, the circle s is added by writing the circle 
inside the hook, so that both hook and circle may be clearly 
seen. In this Exercise, italic s or c indicates that the circle s 
must be written inside the hook for the preceding n, /, or v. 

(a) ns ADDED TO CURVES : 

1 fawns, fans, fens, refines, coffins, griffins, frowns, refrains, 

2 ovens, evens, vans, Evans, caverns, Athens, Nathan's, 

3 Jonathan's, pythons, thrones, dethrones, thins, assigns, 

4 zones, Eason's, SHuns, oceans, SHines, SHrines, enSHrines, 

5 man's, men's, means, foReman's, demons, lemons, 

6 Simmons, famine's, snowman's, laymen's, nines, pennons, 

7 cannons, linens, SHannon's, lawns, lens, balloons, talons, 

8 Dillon's, colons, gallons, felons, villains, saloons, maligns, 

9 Malone's, muslins, eaRns, disceRns, inuRns, seceRns, 
10 pronouns, Bowman's, ploughman's, roughens, ravines, 



74 WRITING EXERCISES 

11 ravens, seRmons, muffins, dolphins, domains, watchman's, 

12 Benjamin's, Clemen's, iLLumines, seamen's, Athlone's, 

13 Bannerman's, havens, heathens, syphons, livens, stamens, 

14 Stevens, Tonan's, Kathleen's, Canaan's, outlines, opulence, 

15 prevalence, balance, over-balance, unbalance, flatulence, 

16 valance, Valence, violence, virulence, silence, succulence, 

17 somnoLence, reliance, free-lance, excellence. 

(b) fs OR VS ADDED TO STRAIGHT LETTERS : 

1 puffs, paves, proves, reproves, deprives, reprieves, buffs, 

2 rebuffs, breves, semibreves, bluffs, tiffs, troughs, retrieves, 

3 Treves, mastiffs, caitiffs, motives, operatives, natives, 

4 incentives, epitaphs, sedatives, dives, Khedive's, chiefs, 

5 neckerchiefs, cliffs, Wycliffe's, aRchives, graves, engraves, 

6 Musgrave's, digraphs, autographs, chronographs, raves, 

7 bereaves, tariffs, derives, carves, scarves, serves, preserves, 

8 observes, deserves, reserves, swerves, SHeriffs, waifs, 

9 fish-wives, ale-wives, hives, heaves, huffs, fisticuffs, 
10 dye-stuffs, distaffs. 

(c) MEDIAL HOOK n, AND CIRCLE s. 

Hook n and circle s, when used medially, must both be shown. 

1 caravansary, lanceR, balanceR, silenceR, lonesome, 

2 lonesomeness, winsome, ransom, ransomeR, ransomless, 

3 ransoming, hansom, Stevenson, even-song. 

(d) MEDIAL STROKE /, v, OR n, AND CIRCLE s. 

The stroke /, v, or n, followed by the circle s, must be written 
in the following and similar words : 

1 sponsaL, profuseLy, revisit, transit, travesty, dynasty, 

2 dishonesty, denseLy, diffusive, divisible, chancery, chanceL, 

3 Johnson, cancer, cancerous, cavesson, offensive, fencer, 

4 fenceLess, vivacity, thenceforth, Spencer, sacrificing, 

5 immensity, immenseLy, manifesto, lancet, refusaL, revising, 

6 rancid, ransack, renounced. 



WRITING EXERCISES 75 

(e) THE LIGHT SOUND OF -ence, ETC., AFTER A CURVED 

LETTER. 

Except in the case of I preceded by another consonant (see 
par. a) the stroke and circle s must be employed to 
express the light sound of -ence, etc., immediately following 
a curved letter, as in the following words : 

1 fence, offence, France, affiance, flounce, evince, thence, 

2 essence, science, usance, manse, romance, immense, mince, 

3 nonce, Nance, announce ( pronounce, denounce, renounce, 

4 lance, allowance, alliance, assonance, eminence, imminence, 

5 dissonance, resonance, mensurable, invincible, lancifoRm, 

6 romancing, vincible, fencing, fencible, flouncing. 

(/) nces, nst, OR nstr FOLLOWING A CURVED CONSONANT. 
The stroke n, with the large circle or the loop, must be used 
when these combinations follow a curved consonant, as 
in the following words : 

1 fences, offences, flounces, France's, affiances, evinces, 

2 essences, sciences, minces, romances, announces, pro- 

3 nounces, denounces, renounces, lances, allowances, 

4 alliances, eminences, fenced, affianced, flounced, evinced, 

5 minced, romanced, announced, pronounced, denounced, 

6 renounced, minister, minster, minsters, monsters, 

7 Axminster, Munster. 

EXERCISE 75. 
Circles and Loops added to Final Hooks (continued) 

In this Exercise, and in Exercises 76 to 79 inclusive, groups 
of final consonants which may be combined in a circle or 
loop, are printed in italic. The hyphen preceding s or c 
indicates that the circle s is to be written inside the hook 
for the preceding n, f, or v. Write upward r for Rome, 
Roman, and Romance. 

1. The signs of the residence of the Roman-s in Britain still 
remain through the vigilan-ce and prudence of the authorities, 
though the maintenance of them is a cause of expense. 2. The 
endurance of these Roman remain-s, in defiance of time, 



76 WRITING EXERCISES 

prove-s the excellen-ce of the plan followed by the Roman-s 
in laying the line-s for the edifices they reared. 3. Artists of 
eminence have often been entranced at the appearance of 
the remain-s, and have pronounced them admirable specimen-s 
of honest and skiLful labour. 4. The Romance tongues were 
spoken in those places which were at one time provinces of 
Rome. 5. The romances which have entranced, and possibly 
unbalanced so many youths, are based upon the marvellous 
and fictitious. 6. The patience, the sufferings, the grievances, 
of the lone-some princess ; the bravery, the cnivalry, and the 
endurance of the -prince ; the timely appearances of the lovely 
fairy ; the malevolen-ce of the ugly monster in charge of the 
prison cave-s ; the suspense of the relative-s of the princess ; 
the rescue ; the return in triumph ; the bright lances of the men, 
and the pretty dresses of the maidens at the prince's wedding 
these and such like recitals have given hours of brightness to 
many a man who now frown-s OR scoff-s should his own boy 
evince a desiRe to read similaR tales. 7. The first authors of 
these stories wrote in the Romance tongues ; hence the name 
" romances " which is given to them. 8. In olden times men 
took off their iRon glove-s for the avoidance of any appearance 
of offence OR violen-ce, and to SHOW there was no necessity for 
extra prudence and vigilan-ce for feaR of sudden attack. 
9. // is even now customary to remove one's glove-s in the 
presence of royalty, as an assurance of honest allegiance and 
loyalty. 10. To bite one's glove in silen-ce was at one time 
taken as expressive of defiance and a desiRe for vengeance. 
11. "Glove money" mean-s a bribe. 12. It was once the 
custom to give a paiR of glove-s to anyone who advanced a 
cause for one. 13. By degrees it became the ruLe to place 
coins inside the glove-s, and hence the meaning of the phrase 
"Glove Money." (360) 

EXERCISE 76. 
Circles and Loops added to Final Hooks (continued) 

See Note at the head of Exercise 75. 
1 . He who refrain-s from indulgence in wines and all strong 



WRITING EXERCISES 77 

drinks gains in substance and in the favour of his neighbours. 
2. The avoidance of such beverages evinces prudence and a 
preference for better things. 3. The total abstainer has 
seldom to seek monetary assistance / but the man whose 
indulgence has been followed by imprudence and negligence 
has often to trouble his relative-s in this way, and they make 
no endeavour to hide an appearance of reluctance in their 
response to his appeals. 4. He may protest his penitence, 
and announce his fiRm resolve to exercise more vigilan-ce 
over his tastes; but they receive his promises in chill 
silen-ce, OR they look upon them as so much mere pretence and 
SHOW. 5. The miserable man has to swallow in silen-ce the 
arrogance, the rebuff-s, and the scoff-s of those whose assistance 
he solicits. 6. Better offer a stout resistance in the 
beginning than faLL to such a state of misery. 7. Refuse 
admittance to the first glass and victory is won. (165) 



EXERCISE 77. 

Circles and Loops added to Final Hooks (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 75. 

1. The business books of those who have a preference for a 
style which is faR above their mean-s are likely to SHOW a 
balan-ce on the wrong side at the day of reckoning. 2. Few 
men ever attain eminence in business unLess they exercise 
prudence and vigilan-ce in their expenses. 3. He who strive-s 
to save at least a snaRe of his allowance may hope to be some 
day a man of mean-s. 4. Imprudence and improvidence 
often lead to negligence and decadence. 5. Many have faLLen 
into evil from a desiRe to keep up appearances. 6. Better 
have a plain dress which you can pay for than a fine one which 
brings you into debt. 7. An undue fancy for satins and 
flounces has brought many a lady to penury. 8. Many have 
lost chances of success in life sooner than renounce their love 
of display. 9. Excellen-ce in study can onLy be won by the 
exercise of patience. 10. SHOW me a man'-s books, and I'll 



78 WRITING EXERCISES 

soon describe him to you. 11. A lover of books is seldom 
lone-some and seldom crave-s for society. 12. He prefers 
to place his relian-ce on the authors who have given him profit 
through their pages. 13. Hence, he snun-s the noisy thorough- 
fares of a city, and passes hours in the silen-ce of his library 
among the books he loves. 14. And who shall blame him for 
his avoidance of scenes in which he sees so much aRRogance and 
pretence of wisdom ? 15. He can trust his books implicitly ; 
but he is unable to say how fan he can trust those who discuss 
his and other people's grievances OR fancies. 16. Once a man 
takes to the study of the sciences he has scaRcely any taste for 
dances OR parties, which he pronounces a mere nuisance and 
a SHeeR waste of time. (295) 

EXERCISE 78. 

Circles and Loops added to Final Hooks (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 75. 

MessRs. ]ones and Grove-s. 

Dear SiRs, We are in receipt of youRs of the 5th, and in 
response to youR appeal we are enclosing you a supply of 
ladies' glove-s, fancy fan-s, chains, screens, etc., and we hope 
they may have a ready sale at youR bazaaR. The balan-ce of 
the debt you seek to cleaR off is but small, and we shall be 
pleased to learn you have been successful- in youR endeavours. 
YOURS faithfully, Evan-s and France. (79) 

EXERCISE 79. 

Circles and Loops added to Final Hooks (concluded). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 75. 

Mr. Ralph Clough. 

Dear SiR. We enclose cheque for 50 10s. 6d. balan-ce due 
for the bronzes, as peR youR invoice of the 18th July. We are 



WRITING EXERCISES 79 

pleased to say these bronzes are selling easily, and are pro- 
nounced by our customeRs rare value for the money. Every- 
one talks of the excellen-ce of the designs ; but strange to say, 
most of the buyeRS evince a preference for the tall ones. They 
seem to have a better appearance than the others ; but this, we 
suppose, is mere fancy. We shall be pleased to see youR 
Mr. John Clough on the 25th of August, as advised. Please 
own receipt of cheque by return and oblige YOURS truly, 
Fenton and Sons. (122) 

EXERCISE SO. 
The -tion Hook. 

The -tion hook should be employed for the combinations 

of letters printed in italic. 
(a) -tion HOOK ADDED TO A CURVE : 

1 fusion, effusion, infusion, suffusion, profusion, fashion, 

2 fashions, afuation, vision, provisions, revision, divisions, 

3 privation, devotion, excavation, aggravation, starvation, 

4 invasion, innova/ions, elevation, renovation, session, 

5 sessions, mission, submission, admission, commissions, 

6 remission, motion, emotions, cremation, approximation, 

7 decimation, intimation, animation, nation, pension, 

8 pensions, tension, attentions, abstention, retention, 

9 extension, dissensions, distension, inattention, examina/ion, 

10 examinations, recrimination, incri mi nation, destination, 

1 1 Jprocrastina/ion, vaccina/ion, mentions, mansions, dimen- 

12 sion, ammuni/ion, diminution, veneration, abomina- 

13 tions, lotion, elation, appellation, repulsion, expulsions, 

14 stipulations, manipulation, ebulli/ions, ablution, adulation, 

15 dilation, collisions, collusion, expostulation, Galatians, 

16 falchion, revuLsion, revelation, revolutions, solution, 

17 desolation, vaciLLa/ion, distilla/ion, emulation, emulsions, 

18 relations, oRation, declaRa/ions, eROsion. 

(0) -tion HOOK ADDED TO A SIMPLE STRAIGHT STROKE. 
Write the -tion hook on the side opposite to the last vowel. 
1 passion, potions, apparition, operations, portions, adoption, 



80 WRITING EXERCISES 

2 Persians, aberration, torsion, extortion, distortion, 

3 iteration, tertian, abstersion, saturation, restoration, 

4 libations, duration, derision, induration, enumeration, 

5 agglomera/ion, prorogation, occupations, coercion, corrosion, 

6 immersion, action, actions, cautions, cushion, precaution, 

7 implication, application, predication, prediction, duplica- 

8 tions, embrocation, traction, extraction, extrication, 

9 infraction, infliction, subtraction, maledic/ion, benedic/ion, 

10 diction, education, eradica/ion, reductions, eRec^ions, 

1 1 ructions, inaction, investigation, Goschen, castiga/ion, 

12 negation, abnegation, obligation, instiga/ion, litigation, 

13 aLLega/ions ; rogation, eLongation, rations, lubrica/ion, 

14 explora/ion, peroration, decoc&'on, coaction. 

(c) -tion HOOK ADDED TO AN INITIALLY HOOKED OR CIRCLED 

STRAIGHT STROKE. 

Write the -tion hook on the opposite side to the initial hook 

or circle. 

1 Prussian, oppression, separa/ions, expression, depression, 

2 impressions, emancipation, anticipations, participation, 

3 deceptions, exception, inception, receptions, depletion, 

4 abrasion, celebrations, liberation, vibration, station, 

5 attesta/ion, excitation, crustacean, incrusta/ton, visitation, 

6 devastation, citation, citations, molesta/ion, felicita/ton, 

7 recitation, hesitation, attri^'on, nutrition, obtrusion, 

8 intrusions, penetra/ion, alterations, prostration, eLectrician, 

9 illustra/ions, section, bisection, dissections, trisection, 

10 vivisection, exaction, exactions, transactions, prosecutions, 

11 discussion, accretion, secretion, desecra/iow, discretion, 

12 Grecians, emigration, migration, digression, progression, 

13 retrogression, desertion, exertions, commisera/ion, lacera, 

14 ft'on, exaspera/iow, ulcera^ion, insertion, mensura/ion- 

15 inclusion, exclusion, preclusion, suasion, sedition, exudation, 

(d) -tion FOLLOWING fk, vk, vg, OR thk. 

Write the -tion hook on the under side of k or g. 
I {action, fictions, affection, affliction, fluxion, efflu^ion, 



WRITING EXERCISES 81 

2 pacification, purification, putrefac/ion, specification, bene- 

3 faction, edification, suffocation, infection, ramifications, 

4 vacation, invocation, revocation, amplification, ossifica/ion, 

5 verifica/ion, versification, jollifica/ion, justification, testifica- 

6 tion, caleiaction, refection, vilifica/ion, mollification, 

7 exemplification, navigation, hypothecation. 

((?) -tion FOLLOWING UPWARD / AND k, OR UPWARD I AND g. 

Write the -tion hook on the upper side of k or g. 

1 location, dislocation, biloca&'on, colloca/ion, selections, 

2 legation, relegation. 

(/) -tion HOOK ADDED TO SIMPLE /, d, OR /. 

Write the -/io hook on the right side. 

1 optician, petition, partition, refuta^iows, repetition, deputa- 

2 fo'on, disputa/ion, adaptation, exporta/iow, agitation, 

3 cogitation, excogitation, imitation, mutation, notation, 

4 sanitation, presenta/ions, incanta/ions, plantation, dentition, 

5 dictation, invita/ions, tactician, dilatation, exultation, 

6 natation, rotation, irritation, additions, gradation, emenda- 

7 ^ion, laudation, erudition, perdition, rendition, denudation, 

8 cementation, decanta^ion, denotation, notation, salutations, 

9 exaltation, dissertations. 

(g) -tion HOOK FOLLOWING CIRCLE S OR MS. 

Express -tion by writing a small hook on the opposite side 
of the stroke to which the circle s or ns is attached. 

1 possession, positions, depositions, preposition, propositions, 

2 precision, processions, supposition, opposition, disposse- 

3 ssion, dispositions, indisposition, exposition, introcession, 

4 transition, dispensations, decision, indecision, decisions, 

5 accession, accusations, succession, physician, relaxation, 

6 physicians, annexation, vexation, taxation, authorization, 

7 polarization, cauteriza/ion, cessation, musician, musicians, 

8 anatomization, incision, incisions, sensations, pulsations, 

9 crystalliza/ion, evangelization, recision, recession, im- 
10 provisa/ion, canoniza/ion. 



82 WRITING EXERCISES 

(h) -tion HOOK USED MEDIALLY : 

1 provisional, visionary, revisionary, devotional, sessional., 

2 missioneRs, commissionaiRe, national, pensioner, revolu- 

3 tionary, passionately, paris/woner, extortionate, actionable, 

4 precautionary, cautioner, dictionary, educational, rational, 

5 excep/ionaL, sectional, executioneR, discretionary, affec- 

6 tionate, petitioner, processional, preposi/ionaL, posi^ionaL, 

7 supposi&'onaL, opposi&'onaL, transitional, sensa/ionaL, 

8 recessionaL, successionaL. 

(i) WRITE sh AND HOOK n WHEN -tion is IMMEDIATELY 

PRECEDED BY TWO VOWEL SIGNS : 

1 (downward SH) tuition, intuition, situation, fruition, 

2 accentuation ; (upward SH) valuation, extenuation, 

3 superannuation, striation, insinuation. 



EXERCISE 81. 
The -tion Hook (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 80. 

1. The best tacticians must exercise discretion and penetra- 
tion in the admission of obstacles which they see are above the 
strength of their foRces. 2. An officer may display resolution 
in faLLing back as in advancing. 3. If vexation and passion 
get the better of caution defeat and even anninila/ion may 
follow. 4. To decline a wsdess operation, OR to retiRe from 
a faLse position at the right time is no manifestation of trepida- 
tion, but evinces the possession of an admirable prudence. 
5. Some people may indulge in execration at the execution 
of a manoeuvre in any way resembling a retrogression ; but 
those whose education and profession entitle them to an ex- 
pression of their views, know such an evolution may be the 
sal vation of the foRce and may lead to an eaRly success. 6. An 
officer's private inclinations have no SHaRe in the production 
of his hesitation to engage ; otherwise we should have feweR 
instances of refusaL to go into action, and more stories of 
defeat. 7. No, it is an officer's mission to save his men, even 



WRITING EXERCISES 83 

though lie may have to face an accusation of indecision, OR 
an implication of feaR. 8. We, who know the traditions of our 
officers and men, know how such an insinuation may be dis- 
missed as a baseless supposi/ion. 9. A sensa/ionaL victory 
may be won by prudence and caution as by despera/ion and 
dash. 10. Those who are ready to laugh in exultation at the 
news of a victory seldom trouble to ask how it was won. 11. 
There may be more glory in the prevention of heavy loss to 
one's own men, than in the infliction of a seveRe castiga/ion 
on the foRces of the enemy. (274) 



EXERCISE 82. 
The -tion Hook (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 80. 

1. The prevention of evil is better than an operation for its 
CURC. 2. The repression of an expression OR manifestation 
of feeLing may save a prosecution for libel. 3. The adoption 
of an aiR of affecta/ion adds to no man's reputation. 4. 
Relaxation is necessary to everyone in every situaxion OR 
station. 5. The possession of books by no means implies the 
possession of education. 6. A man may possess a rare violin 
and be no musician. 7. He who by instigation causes a crime 
is guilty of the crime, and deserves castiga/ion. 8. Take 
occasion to better youRself eRe you try to better the nation. 
9. UnLess you carry youR resolution into action, you are but 
a visionary, and youR decisions are of no avail,. 10. The 
authorization of a rowdy procession may be followed by 
vexation, exasperation, and iriction. 11. Restriction of such 
processions is the duty of those who niLe the nation. 12. It 
is no exaggera/ion to say we learn more in the preparation of a 
Lesson than an outsider has any notion of. 13. Abstention 
from class, unLess we have justification for it, is unfaiR to the 
teacher. 14. Some abstentions are due to an unworthy desiRe 
for jollifica/ion and diversion. (193) 



81 WRITING EXERCISES 

EXERCISE 83. 

The -tion Hook (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 80. 

1. An investigation of a dictionary proves the limita&ms of 
his vocabulary to the best of us. 2. Such a study is also 
likely to produce in us caution and precision in the use of 
everyday expressions. 3. An exceptional choice of phrases 
is useiul to the business man and to the e~LectioneeR. 4. It 
may save both from an actionable speech. 5. Some speakers 
use, as it were by intuixion, just the phrase suitable for the 
occasion ; others, whose list of optional phrases is pooR, have 
trouble in choosing the right expression. 6. We mean no 
aspersion OR insinuation of prevarication against these people ; 
but they make very POOR rhetoricians, and their onations suffer 
from their poverty of diction. 7. A speaker's hesitation, if of 
long duration, is likely to aRouse the derision of a portion of the 
Listeners, OR to cause an annoying expression of commisera/ion 
which may upset the oRator. 8. Everyone knows how readily 
the production of an apposite illustration in the refutation 
of a charge by the opposite {action at once raises a feeLing 
of admiration and exultation in a gathering of people, and 
often enough disposes of any opposition. 9. The infec/ion 
of this feeLing is known to all who ever SHaRe in an agitation. 
10. But a speaker must exercise discretion, for an accumulation 
of examples in his explanation may lead to a frustration of his 
purpose. 11. He should also take care how he indulges in 
digressions. 12. A lengthy explanation of side issues keeps his 
Listeners in a state of tension, and they lose their grip of the 
discussion. 13. The inclusion of any topic which has no 
relation to the discussion OR resolution is rightly looked upon 
as an intrusion, and causes a pooR impression of a speaker's 
ability. 14. Nicety of vocalization, accuracy in expression, 
and readiness of adaptation are very necessary weapons in a 
speaker's aRmoury. (304) 



WRITING EXERCISES 85 

EXERCISE 84. 

The -tion Hook (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 80. 
1. The exercise of discredit in the formation, adoption, and 
retention of some plan of study at the beginning of every 
session is likely to assist in the prevention of digression, 
procrastina/i'on, and, possibly, stagnation in our endeavours 
at progression in the situaxion, profession, OR avoca/ion we 
have chosen. 2. // is easy to make a resolution OR to foRm 
a decision to observe precision in the distribu/ion OR aLLocation 
of our time ; but unless the proposition is carried into action 
it is worse than useless, for it onLy leads to agitation and 
irritation at the frustration of our anticipations. 3. There is 
an aggravation of this feeLing of exaspera/ion OR vexation 
if the failuRe to carry our resolution into execution is but one 
of a procession of similaR failuRes, since this proves our 
exceptional readiness in foRming resolutions which are as 
readily broken. 4. Reflection on this miserable facility SHOWS 
no justification for it, nor can we urge a single reason in 
extenuation of it. 5. If, then, an examination of our line of 
action discovers in MS a disposition to undue relaxation, we 
should offer a strong opposition to the inclination, otherwise 
we may have degradation in place of exultation, and depression 
in place of elation. 6. Ra/ional men observe caution and 
penetra/ion in the foRma/ion and declaRa/ion of resolu/ions ; 
but once they make a decision scaRcely any opposition OR 
attraction can foRce them to an alteration OR reversion of it. 
7. It is the man of many resolu/ions who seeks a dispensa/ion 
from his promise, and a retraction of his decision. 8. The 
expression of an unjustifiable suspicion has caused the loss 
of many an honorable reputation. 9. The elaboration and 
exaggeration of a simple action ; the accentuaxion OR sup- 
pression of a mere syllable ; an occasional elevation of the 
eyebrows ; an insinuation in the guise of a remark expressing 
admiration any one of these may be a means of aspersion 
strong enough to wreck the honest aspira/ions of a worthy man 



86 WRITING EXERCISES 

and damage his position past reparation. 10. More mischief 
may be done by implication than by outspoken detraction OR 
accusa/ions. (344) 



EXERCISE 85. 
The -tion Hook (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 80. 

MessRS. Bright Bros. 

Dear SIRS, Referring to youRS of the 6th, we have no notion 
of selling our invention for the renovation of "Russian leather. 
The preparation is produced by macninery of our own'eRection 
in our own factory, and we can rely upon the discretion of our 
men to keep out those who desiRe to make undesirable investi- 
gations. YOUR expressions and implications are mere exagge- 
rations, of which it is unnecessary to offer any refutation. We 
have no anticipations of trouble in our business relations. 
YOURS faithfully, Goschen and snine. (90) 

EXERCISE 86. 
The -tion Hook (concluded). 

See note at the head of Exercise 80. 

Mr. Henry Brown. 

, Dear SiR, We regret to learn the decision of the federation 
in the case of Mr. Driver. The supposi/ion as to the cause of 
the opposition is wrong, and Mr. Steele's remarks are likely to 
produce vexation and to make the situation even worse than 
it is. Such insinuations can onLy cause bitterness and exas- 
peration of feeLing. Besides, they may easily turn out to be 
actionable. In this exceptional trouble we can onLy advise 
patience, precision of speech, and a due observance of the 
stipulations of the authorities. Manifestations of annoyance, 
and the distortion of facts may lead to the disruption of the party. 
YOURS faithfully, Kingston and Foster. (112) 



WRITING EXERCISES 87 

EXERCISE 87. 
Additional Double Consonants. 

The double consonants should be employed to represent the 
letters printed in italic. 

(a) THE DOUBLE CONSONANTS kw y gw : 

1 quack, quackery, ^wick, ^wicksilver, quadrille, (quadruple, 

2 qua.fi, quafier, quagmiRe, quaiL, Quaker, qualms, query, 

3 ^uaRRel, ^uaRRelsome, Carried, ^waRter, quarto, <?waver, 

4 queen, ^weenly, quench, ^est, ^wibble, <?wibbleR, <7icken, 

5 quickening, <?ickness, Quixote, ^wixotic, g-wiet, <?wietly, 

6 quieter, ^wietus, equinox, quittance, quizzical, quoRum, quota, 

7 Dotation, quoth, be^west, be^weath, ubi^witous, ubi^wity, 
8^obli^zty, De ^wincey, vanquisn, squeeze, squaRe, squeal,, 
9 s^wiRe, s^wasH, s^z^atter, s^weaked, se^wester, 

10 s<?weamisH, se^win, soliloquy, mar^wis, man?wisate, 

11 in^iry, inquisitive, in^wisitor, in^wisitionaL, in^west, 

12 li^id, li^wefy, li^z^efaction, li^widize, li^widation, 

13 requisition, re^t^ests, re^isitions, re^wital, 

14 dis^-wiet, disgwisition, gwava, Gwelf, Gwatemala, Gwiana, 

15 GwineveRe, Paragway, Urugz^ay, lingwaL, lingwifoRm, 

16 linguistic, linguist, lingwistical, langwoR, ungwaL, angwin, 

17 pengwin, sanguine, sangwinary, sangwify, MagwiRe. 

(b) THE DOUBLE CONSONANTS wl, whl : 

1 wale, waled, walled, walleR, wall-eye, wall-eyed, wall- 

2 floweR, wallovf, waW-paper, walrus, weld, welding, weliaRe, 

3 zeeZkin, ze'eW-dressed, we//-known, we//-nigh, Welsn, 

4 iro/SHman, wildest, wile, wiliuL, wilily, wiliness, willow, 

5 z0i//ing, wi//ingLy, willingness, wool, woo/comber, 

6 woo/Ziness, woolsack, weal, unwell, unwi//ing, Stockwell, 
1 Brockwell, Dingwall, unwieldy, welcomer, wealthy, whilst, 

8 whiled, whiling, whale, whalebone, whaleR, whaling, wheel, 

9 wheeling, wheelbarrow, wheeled, wheeleR, wtielp, whelming, 
10 fly -wheel, cog-wheel, meanwhile, spinning-ze>Aee/. 

(c) THE DOUBLE CONSONANTS Ir, rr : 

1 sealer, sculler, scholar, secular, scov/ler, squalor, squealer, 



88 WRITING EXERCISES 

2 vesicular, valor, ovular, revealer, valvular, reviler, leveler, 

3 caviler, kneeler, nailer, councillor, counsellor, chancellor, 

4 insular, peninsular, railer, ruler, rulers, councillors, reelers, 

5 dwellers, revilers, iuller, ioilers, parer, sparer, pourer, borer, 

6 bearer, attirer, retirer, tearer, adorer, }eerer, scorer, scourer, 

7 iairer, nrer, reverer, sorer, storer, starer, restorer, swearer 

8 usurer, assure, insures, censures, snarer, snearer, admirer, 

9 implorer, explorer, snores, sneerer, airer. 

(d) THE DOUBLE CONSONANT mp OR mb : 

1 pump, pomp, Pompey, plump, bump, bamboo, bamboos, 

2 bamboozle, Bombay, Timbuctoo, tramps, trumpet, trump - 

3 eter, damp, dump, dumping, chump, champ, jump, 

4 camp, scamp, scamper, clamber, cumber, clamp, clump, 

5 campaign, gimp, grampus, vamp, vam/>iRe, thump, Sambo, 

6 sampan, stamp, stampede, stumps, Simpole, SHampoo, 

7 SHrimp, mumps, lamps, limber, lumber, slumber, romp, 

8 rhombus, whimper, hamper, ambassador, am&assadress, 

9 ambidexter, ambiguity, ambiguous, amiiTious, ambition, 

10 embalm, ewialmer, embargo, embarrass, embattle, em&ed, 

11 embezzle, embezzler, embolden, em&oss, emboweR, im&ibe, 

12 im&iber, embitter, impaiR, impale, impanel, impartial, 

13 impassion, impugning, impeach, impeccable, impel, 

14 impenetrable, imperative, empiRe, emperor, impinge, 

15 impose, imposition, impostor, impolitic, imputation, 

16 impulse, immunity, impuRe, umpiRe, imp. 

(e) THE DOUBLE CONSONANT wh : 

1 wha.fi, wharfage, wharfinger, wheaten, wheedle, whist, 

2 whisk, wAisker, wheeze, wheezy, where, nowhere, anywhere, 

3 everywhere, wtareas, wAereat, le'Aereby, wAerefoRe, wAerein, 

4 z^Aerever, wherry, whifne, whig, whimper, whine, whinny, 

5 whipper, whir~L, whirling, whiskey, z^Aisper, whistle, 

6 whistleR, whizzing, whopper, whir, W^ately. 

(/) THE DOUBLE CONSONANT mp, mb, is NOT USED WHEN 
pr, br, pi, OR bl IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWS m. 



WRITING EXERCISES 89 

In the following and similar words write the light letter m 
and the double consonant -pr, br, pi, or bl. 

1 em-press, im-^recation, im-^yecision, im-^regnable, 

2 im-press, im-^ression, impressible, impressing, ^im- 

3 />ressionable, im-pressive, imprison, improper, im- 

4 properly, impropriety, im-^rudence, im-provise, Am-brose, 

5 em-^race, em-bracing, em-ftrasure, em-ferocation, em-broil, 

6 em-frroiling, em-brown, im-&rue, urn-bra, um-irage, 

7 um-brella., am-ple, a.m-pliiy, am-ply, am-^/ifieR, am- 

8 />/ification, em-ploy, em-ployeR, im-/)/acable, im-/>Zication, 

9 im-/>/ausible, im-^>/icative, im-plicit, im-plied\y, im-ploRe, 

10 im-/>/oration, im-plorer, im-ply, am- We, am-WeR, em-blaze, 

1 1 em-Wazon, em-6/em, em-Wematize, pim-ple, bum-We, 

12 bram-We, tram-pie, trem-ble, dim-pie, jum-6/e, gam-ble, 

13 fum-We, thim-We, sim-ple, sim-plicity, sim-pleR, sam-ple, 

14 sam-pleR, cym-bal, stum-&/e, scram-6/e, crum-ple, crum-ble, 

15 crim-ple, snam-Wes, mum-6/e, nim-ble, ram-bleR, rum-ble. 

(g) THE DOUBLE CONSONANTS Ir, rr, ARE NOT USED IN 

WORDS THAT END IN ry. 

Write upward r at the end of the following and similar words. 

1 scullery, valorous, axillary, chancellory, raillery, cajolery, 

2 foolery, drollery, ORRery. 

(h) THE DOUBLE CONSONANT Ir is NOT USED AFTER THOSE 

LETTERS WHICH WOULD BE FOLLOWED BY UPWARD I. 

To add the syllable or, er, or ar, therefore, to an upward /, 
write the downward r, as in the following words : 

1 palloR, paleR, spilleR, peeleR, polaR, bowleR, boileR, talleR, 

2 tilleR, tailoR, tileR, toileR, dulleR, jaileR, coloR, killeR, 

3 beguileR, growleR, prowleR, broileR, traileR, trawleR, 

4 strolleR, drawleR, drilleR, cajoleR, collaR, cooleR, crawleR, 

5 scrawleR, despoileR, scapulaR, populaR, similaR, molaR, 

6 milleR, smileR, cellulaR, wrestleR, hustleR, puzzleR, bustleR, 

7 oculaR, oculaRly. 



90 WRITING EXERCISES 

EXERCISE 88. 
Additional Double Consonants (continued). 

In this Exercise, and in Exercises 89 to 92 inclusive, the 
Double Consonants should be employed (in words other 
than grammalogues or contractions) to represent the 
letters printed in italic. 

1. Some men will whine and whimper for sympathy in their 
troubles, while others whistle away their cares and decline to 
allow any worries to disturb their equanimity OR ew&arrass 
them in any other way. 2. Those men will go anyze^ere to 
escape annoyance. 3. Should trouble approach them they 
quaiL at the mere sight of it, and do their utmost to induce 
others to be snarers of their sorrows ; whereas these fellows 
are almost amiiTious enough to go in quest of trouble, so they 
may van^wisn it. 4. They like to SHOW the trem-blers how 
easy it is to master trouble if onLy we em-ploy the right means 
and SHOW a brave face to the foe. 5. Nor are their expressions 
of impatience at grum-blers and cavillers, so much mere 
bow&ast. 6. Men of strong will and joyous dispositions are 
sim-ply unable to feeL very much sympathy for the timorous 
man who faLLS t'nto the dumps on the first approach of opposi- 
tion. 7. They look upon such a display as a sign of iw&ecility 
OR cowardice, and so faR from posing as sympathisers they are 
oftener sneerers at the teaRS of their less hardy neighbours. 

8. They know their own valour well, and they are scancely 
impartial enough to enquire iwto the failings of nervous people. 

9. Hence the easy, careless man makes but a pooR counselor 
in times of distress. 10. He is seldom an inspirer of action 
to his poorer fellows, but will smilingLy advise them in their 
troubles to " take it quietly meanwhile, and it will be all right 
eRe long." 11. This counsel, is all very well on some occa- 
sions ; but there are cases which require vigorous and quick 
action, and this is well-nigh past the poweR of the easy man. 
12. The best plan is to do all we can to conquer the worries 
which all of us, wealthy as well as pooR, have to face, and to 
rely more on our own labours than upon the sympathy of 
others. 13. Mental OR bodily pain is best borne in silence. 

(334) 



WRITING EXERCISES 91 

EXERCISE 89. 
Additional Double Consonants (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 88. 

1. The quiet steady scholar will advance more quickly than 
the lo^wacious fellow who trusts to his ^wickness to squeeze 
through the examination, and, meanwhile, whiles away his 
time in fooLish diversions. 2. He who is ambiTious of success 
should know the road to failuRe ; and it may be well to add, no 
man sees the dearer by swallowing CHaw/>agne. 3. The 
imbiber of the liquid may admiRe its sparkle ; but the less it is 
brought into requisition the better will it be for him. 4. Mere 
bow&ast may impose upon us for a time ; but it seldom lasts 
long, and it often receives its ^wietus from a sim-ple fellow who 
appeaRs almost an iw&ecile. 5. WhereioRe we advise you, 
wherever you may be, to be cauxious whereoi you talk, and 
to be modest in assertions wherein you may be wrong, and 
whereby you may be embarrassed. 6. The smiles of the sneer er 
are more galling than the frowns of the census. (156) 

EXERCISE 90. 
Additional Double Consonants (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 88. 
1. Try to ac^ttiRe an impartial manner in youR business 
dealings. 2. Impatience in an enquiry may onLy ew&itter 
VOUR feeLings to no ws<sful purpose. 3. He who can van^wisH 
his inclination to ill humour will make a wise councilor. 
4. We should have more profitable discussions if men were 
better able to impose silence upon their tongues in cases of 
necessity. 5. FaR more ^waRRels have been caused by foolish 
talk than by ^wietness ; and so I advise you to be a willing 
Listener in preference to being a glib talker. 6. Many precious 
hours are whiled away in senseLess gossip. 7. It is possible 
to express sympathy as well by actions as by spoken declaRa- 
tions. 8. It is useless to weep and wail in times of trouble. 
9. It is better to bestir youRself, and endeavour to conquer */. 



92 WRITING EXERCISES 

10. Men of wealth should seek to advance the weliaRe of their 
-poorer neighbours ; for riches bring duties as well as leisure. 

11. Temporary failuRe should but urge MS to stronger exertion. 

12. Beware of the man who seeks to impose upon others by 
bow&ast and the display of wealth ; the richest men are the 
^wietest in appearance. 13. A man may wear many rings, 
but have no money at the bankers. 14. Take care how you 
embark upon schemes which promise a very quick increase in 
youR income. 15. If you wilfully run wto a foolish scheme, 
you may have to hmp out again. 16. The iuller the head, 
the quieter the tongue will be. (241) 

EXERCISE 91. 
Additional Double Consonants (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 88. 
MessRs. WheeleR and Whately. 

Dear SiRS, Referring to youR in^iry of the 4th, business 
in this city is very quiet, and very High quotations are the ruLe. 
There seems to be no chance of the <?aRRel being amicably 
disposed of. Masters say the spinners' re<?msitions are 
unreasonable, and they dislike the notion of being squeezed 
unfaiRly. Then the spinners impute unworthy designs in 
reference to the em-ployeRS ; and so the ^waRRel goes on. 
It is very ew&arrassing to us all, and one has trouble in assuming 
an impartial aiR. / can onLy say we are all likely to be much 
poorer for this trouble. There is a whisper to-day of a gathering 
of labour leaders on Friday ; but the rumour lacks verification, 
and I feaR it is untrue. YOURS truly, John Fowler. (132) 

EXERCISE 92. 
Additional Double Consonants (concluded). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 88. 
Mr. Peter Wa//ace. 

Dear SiR, YOUR re^wisition for books, roller maps, stamps, 
etc., shall receive eaRly attention. I am we//-nigh out of 



WRITING EXERCISES 93 

stock of some of the books you require, but I shall get them 
in as quickly as possible. / regret to say I have no more 
copies of the scholar's paper you ask for. Will you please 
make yoim requisitions clearer ? It is troublesome to decipher 
some of them. YOURS faithfully, Am-brose MilleR. (76) 

EXERCISE 93. 

Contractions. 
} especiol-ly, o essential-ly, ~~V_ govern-ed-ment, 

< magazine, \ subscribe, \-=> subscription, / satisfactory , 
unsatisfactory, /\_ reform-ed, /v^ reformation, 
reformer, /\^ reverend, \/V_ perform-ed, 

performance, X A^- performer, [^ temperance, 

-4~ thankful, ^_ whatever, \^_ whenever. 

Dear SiR, May I request you to pay youR subscription to 
the society ? The first performance takes place on the 4th, 
and if youR snaRe in it is to be satisfactory it is essential you 
should do whatever the manager requiRes you to do. It is 
especially necessary for you to govern youR inclination to speak 
so loudly and so fast. The government of the tongue is more 
troublesome than it seems, as some of our best actors and 
performers know. Still, reformation will follow in youR case 
if you will onLy do as I ask you, and whenever you feeL youR 
speech increasing in speed OR loudness, pull youRself up. 
You will perform ever so much better, and you will be thankful 
for my advice. Yes, / am a reformer in this respect, and I am 
proud of my success. / was very pleased to notice how the 
reverend preacher in the local chapel yesterday governed his 
voice. I think he performed his duty in a very satisfactory 
manner, and everyone was pleased. He has cleaRly reformed 
and is now altogether free from the unsatisfactory drone which 



94 WRITING EXERCISES 

was so noticeable the last time he came. Many speakers 
affect a drawl in their speech, especially those who address 
temperance gatherings in the open aiR and who suffer from a 
lack of training. / have an especial aversion to this style, 
and I should be willing to subscribe 10 any magazine which aims 
at the reformation of those speakers who are subject to the 
faiLing. It is essentially wrong, and reform is by no means 
easy once the style has taken deep root in a speaker. For 
this reason, / ask you to check the inclination should you 
notice it in youRself, OR you can scaRcely hope to achieve 
success as a public speaker OR actor. / trust you will do 
well on the 4th, and I hope the performance will be a success 
in every respect. YOURS truly, (328) 

EXERCISE 94. 
The Aspirate. 

(a) DOWNWARD STROKE h USED INITIALLY : 

1 hack, hackney, hag, haggis, haggisn, hake, hock, hectare, 

2 hawk, hawk-eyed, hawseR, haymaker, haymow, hayrick, 

3 haystack, hiccup, hey, heyday, hazardous, hectorism, 

4 heigh-ho, hue, heweR, hexagon, hexagonal, high, higheR, 

5 highly, highness, high-born, high-flown, high-flyeR, 

6 highroad, highway, hoax, hoaxed, hoaxing, huckster, 

7 hockey, hocus, hocus-pocus, hog, hoggisn, hoggishly, 

8 hooky, hookah, hooks, huckaback, Huguenot, O'HaRe, 

9 Ohio, ahem, ahoy, aha, ahull. 

(b) DOWNWARD STROKE h USED MEDIALLY AND FINALLY : 

1 Bahama, Abraham, Jehoiakim, coheRe, coherence, 

2 coherency, incoherency, cohesion, cohesive, Soho, Sahara, 

3 Soham, mahogany, Mohawk, tomahawk, Omaha, Mohican, 

4 mohaiR, mohuR, Mayhew, mayhem, unhook, Nihilist, 

5 nihilistic, nihility, nihilism, anhelation, anhydrous, 

6 annihilation, nohow, anyhow, Nahum, tally-ho, LahoRe, 

7 Elihu, Lehigh, Walhalla, all-hail, All-hallows, ale-hoof, 

8 Elohim, elohist, elohistic, billhook, gehenna, rough-hew, 

9 rough-hewn. 



WRITING EXERCISES 95 

(c) UPWARD STROKE h USED INITIALLY : 

1 habitation, hawker, hackle, haddock, haggle, haggleR, 

2 hairy, hairiness, hammer, hang, hangeR, hangeRon, 

3 hanker, hanse, hamper, hap, hapless, harangue, harass, 

4 harassing, hardy, haricot, hurry, hurricane, hasp, hassock, 

5 hatchel, hatches, hatchway, haughty, haughtily, haunch, 

6 hautboy, haven, havoc, hooker, hawse, hawthorn, hazel, 

7 headache, heading, headmaster, headquaRters, headstone, 

8 headstrong, heap, hearth, hearthstone, heath, heathen, 

9 heathenish, heaves, heaver, heavily, hedge, hedgerow, 

10 heedful, heedless, heifer, heinous, heinousLy, hence, 

11 henchman, heredity, heretic, heretical, heron, hero, herring, 

12 hesitation, hesitancy, hesper, hewed, hotel, hiatus, hidden, 

13 hide, hieroglyphic, higgleR, hinge, hippodrome, hoary, 

14 hobble, hobbling, hoed, hone, honey, honeymoon, hood, 

15 hopeful, hopeless, hopper, horizon, horoscope, horrid, 

16 horrify, hosanna, hospice, hostel, hotter, hottest, house, 

17 housebreaker, houseless, housing, hovel, hover, howitzeR, 

18 huckleberry, huddle, hudibrastic, huff, hugely, humeral, 

19 hung, hunger, hungrily, hunks, hurdle, husn, husky, hussar, 

20 hustle, hyacinth, hyena, hyphen, hypnotism, hypocrisy, 

21 hypothesis, hyson, hysteric, hysterically, ahead, O'Hara, 

22 whoop, whooping-cough, haLLuci nation, haLLucinatory. 

(d) UPWARD STROKE h USED MEDIALLY AND FINALLY : 

1 upheave, upheaval, Spahi, playhouse, prohibition, 

2 prohibitive, abhor, abhorred, abhorrence, abhorrency, 

3 abhorring, abhorreR, brewhouse, behest, behalf, behave, 

4 behead, beholden, behoof, boyhood, babyhood, Tahiti, 

5 out-Herod, outhouse, gatehouse, boat-house, Woodhouse, 

6 clubhouse, taphouse, Tehee, adhere, adhered, adherence, 

7 adhereR, adhering, adhesion, adhesive, Idaho, dehiscence, 

8 dehortation, Jehovah, Jehovist, Jehu, coffee-house, 

9 overhang, overhauL, overhauLing, enhance, enhanced, 

10 unheeding, unhinge, unhitch, unholy, unholiness, un- 

1 1 hallowed, fooLhardy, fooLhardiness, rehasn, rehear, reheard, 



96 WRITING EXERCISES 

12 rehearing, rehearse, rehearsal, Wahabee, Wahoo, poorhouse, 

13 warehouse, warehoused, warehousemen, weigh-house, 

14 yahoo, Badajos, disinherit, disinheritance, downhauL, 

15 dyehouse. 

(e) TICK h USED INITIALLY ONLY : 

1 hasten, hastener, hasty, hastive, hiss, hissing, hissingLy, 

2 hose, hussy, huzza, huzzaing, haze, hazy, hazing, haziness, 

3 ham, hame, Hamilton, hammock, hamous, hamstring, 

4 hem, hemitrope, hemlock, hemming, Hemingway, 

5 hemorrhage, hemorroids, hemp, hempen, hemstitch, 

6 Himalaya, Himalayan, home, homely, homeless, homesick, 

7 homespun, homeside, homicidal, homily, homilist, 

8 homiletic, homing, hominy, homage, homogeny, homonym, 

9 homophone, hum, human, humane, humanity, humanLy, 

10 humanize, humble, humbleR, humblest, humbly, humility, 

11 humbug, hump, humus, hymn, hymen, hymnal, hymnic, 

12 Hambleton, Hampden, Hampton, Holmes, Hummel, 

13 Humphrey, Hume, hail, hailing, hailstone, hailstoRm, 

14 haily, halidom, haul, haulage, halloo, hallooed, hallowed, 

15 hallowing, haloid, heal, healable, healeR, healthy, healthful, 

16 healthily, heliacal, helicon, Hellenism, helm, helmsman, 

17 help, helper, helpful, helplessly, helve, Helvetic, hill, 

18 hilly, hillside, hilarity, hilary, hillock, holden, holiday, 

19 hollowing, holly, holm, holocaust, holster, Holyrood, 

20 holystone, howleR, hulk, hullabaloo, haiR, haiRcloth, 

21 haiRless, haiRstroke, haRbour, haRbourer, haRbourless, 

22 haRebell, haRem, haRlequin, haRm, haRmful, haRmless, 

23 haRmonic, haRmonicon, haRmonist, haRness, haRnesser, 

24 haRp, haRper, haRpoon, haRSH, haRSHer, haRSHly, haRvest , 

25 heaR, heaRer, heaRken, heaRsay, heaRse, heaRty, heRb, 

26 heRbalist, heRbage, heRbivorous, heRaldic, heRaldry, 

27 heReby, heRein, heReunto, heReupon, heRself, hiRe, hiRer, 

28 hiReling, hiRsute, hoaRfrost, hoaRse, hoaRsely, hoaRseness, 

29 hoRal, hoRary, hoRn, hoRnbill, HoRner, hoRnpipe, hoRny, 

30 hoRsebreaker, hoRse-jockey, hoRse-leech, hoRseman, 

31 hoRsepower, hoRsy, huRl, huRleR. 



WRITING EXERCISES 97 

(/) Tick h JOINED TO INITIALLY HOOKED DOWNSTROKES. 
The Hooked Letters are indicated by italic type. 

1 hafordine, hater, header, he&raism, he&raize, Hebrew, 

2 hi&ernacle, hibernal, hibernate, hydra, hitter, hither, hitherto, 

3 hithermost, heather, hydracid, hydrate, hydraulic, 

4 hydrobromic, hydrogen, hydrographer, hydrology, 

5 hydrolysis, hydropathy, hydropathist, hydrophane, 

6 hy^rophobic, hyofroscope, hydrous, hydroxy, hyperbola, 

7 hyperbolic, hyperbolical, hy^erbolist, hy^ercriticism, 

8 hedger. 

(g) DOT h USED INITIALLY. 

The italic type indicates where the dot h should be employed. 
1 Aalf-pay, Aalf-way, Aandy, handmaiden, Aandscrew. 

(h) DOT h USED MEDIALLY. 

The italic type indicates where the dot h should be employed. 

1 household, hardihood, bakehouse, blockAead, blockAouse, 

2 caseAarden, case^ardening, coach-Aorse, coach-Aouse, 

3 death's-Aead, decaAedron, decahedral, diAedral, drumhead, 

4 dweLLing-Aouse, exAume, exAumation, exAibition, faLse- 

5 Aood, foreAead, leatherAead, grassAopper, almsAouse, 

6 boatAook, inAarmonic, inkAoRn, greenAoRn, greenAouse, 

7 keelAaul, keelAauled, leaseAold, lightAouse, likeliAood, 

8 logAouse, maidenAaiR, MaAometan, MaAometanism, 

9 manAood, mynAeeR, mastAead, appreAend, misappreAend, 

10 misappreAension, misappreAensive, misAeaR, misAap, 

11 MoAammedan, octaAedron, overAead, packAoRse, preAen- 

12 siLe, pruning- Aook, fish-Aook, redAead, repreAend, repre- 

13 Aensive, repreAensory, CunningAam, SanAedrim, gosAawk, 

14 triAedron, toll-Aouse, unAealthy, unAandy, unAappy, 

15 unAappily, unAappiness, unAaRness, unAoRse, ledAoRse, 

16 upAolster upAolstereR, upAolstery, upAill, downAiLL, 

17 RedAill, valAalla, veAemence, veAicle, veAiculaR, wasn- 

18 Aouse, lodging- Aouse, watch-Aouse, widowAood, AllingAam, 

19 AltrincAam, BirmingAam, CleckAeaton, WillingAam, 

20 TuddenAam, WolverAampton, moleAill, moleAole, loopAole, 

21 AsHburnAam. 

7 (27) 



98 

EXERCISE 95. 
The Aspirate (continued). 

In this Exercise and in Exercises 96 to 99 inclusive, the down- 
stroke h is indicated by a small capital ; the dot h 
(in words other than grammalogues or contractions) 
by italic type ; and the tick A by a following hyphen. 
Where the upstroke h is to be employed, the letter is printed 
in ordinary type. 

GRAMMALOGUES. 
JL had, \ happy. 

1. A h-eaRty, happy heckleR may upset a Highflown oRator 
and cause rare h-ilarity in a huge crowd. 2. The h-aRmony 
of a gathering may be broken by a single headstrong blockAead, 
fooLhardy enough to take the risks of such a procedure. 3. 
Some speakers SHOW hesitation in answering the queries of 
such a fellow. 4. The trouble is to keep such a one out of 
a room. He may behave very well for a while, and then set 
up a h-issing OR h-owling enough to disturb all who are in the 
place. 5. A man's happiness OR misery hangs, in some 
measure, upon the state of his bodily h-ealth, and this in turn 
upon his strength of will to resist a fancy for food which he 
knows will h-aRm him. 6. We like to h-aRk back to olden 
days for instances of over-indulgence ; but we may see instances 
of it in our own day, and in our own neighbourhood. 7. In 
all likeliAood there is just as much abuse now as ever there was. 
8. If onLy men had the poweR to restrain their tastes, we 
should see less sickness and finer specimens of manhood ; for 
most men eat more than is necessary for them. 9. They refuse 
plain wh-olesome food, and ask for horrid dishes of spicy 
stuffs which can onLy be h-aRmful in the long run. 10. But 
they have to pay a heavy price for their heedless indulgence ; 
for the oRgans of the stomach rebel against their owner, and 
make his life an unhappy one. 11. He refused to h-ear their 
cries in behalf of plainer food, and now they pay him out. 
12. His haughty needless ways recoil upon his own head, 
and he has to suffer misery. (282) 



WRITING EXERCISES 99 

EXERCISE 96. 
The Aspirate (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 95. 

1. A h-asty, fooLish fellow may h-owl in a Highflown 
harangue of the h-aRSH manners of the times ; but the wise man 
knows better than to try to harass people into happiness. 2. 
He follows the h-umbleR plan of quiet reasoning and h-omely 
talk. 3. The heedless headlong flow of the one may be brought 
to a sudden close by a skiLful heckleR ; but no one can unhinge 
the other speaker. 4. He has no hesitation in answering a 
hustling hawker, and he behaves calmly in face of the most 
hostile criticisms. 5. He looks upon veAemence as an 
unhealthy sign, OR as the mark of a greenAoRn in disputation ; 
and he is amused more than he is upset should an opposition 
speaker stoop to faLseAood. 6. He is happy in the reflection 
of the likelihood of the lie being traced to its author. 7. Had he 
the poweR, he has no will OR inclination to return repre/tensible 
tactics by similaR tricks. (155) 

EXERCISE 97. 
The Aspirate (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 95. 
1. A haughty leader, nigh in authority, and known as a 
hero in battle and a sage in counciL, in the hope of snowing his 
hardy but heedless legions how much more valuable wisdom 
is than mere physical strength OR headstrong bravery, had 
a paiR of h-oRses placed in view of the wh-ole foRce, and he 
then set a couple of men the task of pulling out the h-ORses' 
tails. 2. One man was a huge specimen of h-umanity, a 
h-oaRse-voiced fellow, of immense strength ; while the other 
was a small h-ollow-faced man of hobbling gait, a tailoR, whose 
h-umble appearance, hungry looks, and apprehensive glances, 
were the cause of much h-ilarity among the crowds who looked 
on at the scene. 3. The big man hurriedly laid his strong 
h-oRny palms on the h-oRse's tail and began to tug. 4. The 



100 WRITING EXERCISES 

veins of his foreAead swelled out from his exertions, and the 
muscles of his huge hairy aRms snowed how heavy was the 
strain upon them. 5. But all in vain. 6. Meanwhile, the 
tailoR, who was supposed to have been set a hopeless task, 
and whose frail statuRe and h-aRmless looks had raised h-owls 
of derision among the troops, quickly proved he was no block- 
head OR greenAorn. 7. He quietly took one h-aiR at a time, 
and soon the h-oRse's tail was baRe. 8. And hence, you see, 
the saying " h-aiR by h-aiR you will pull out the h-oRse's tail." 
9. The men who were so eager to h-uRl h-aRSH names at the 
seemingly h-elpless tailoR, now saw their eRROR and took 
a Lesson from the readiness of the man wh-om they saw behave 
so well in a sudden and heavy test. 10. He was quick to 
seize a loop-Aole of escape from the fix in which he had been 
placed by the leader ; and though he had none of the strength 
OR hardiAood of the huge fellow against wh-om he was set, 
he was Highly successful, in his task ; while the strong but 
heedless man was a failuRe. 11. UnLess we are unheeding 
we also may receive a Lesson from the story which will enhance 
our value to those in whose behalf we exercise our abilities 

(360) 

EXERCISE 98. 

The Aspirate (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 95. 

MessRs. Hawkins and Thornley. 

Dear SiRs, Referring to youR favor of March 7th, we hope 
to snip the Hogs' h-aiR by the steamsnip " HighflyeR," sailing 
on the 24th of March. We shall be happy to snip the stuff 
sooner if possible. But we feaR it will be hopeless to try and 
hurry the business more than we have done. We have had 
some trouble in obtaining fouR bales, as selleRs h-eRe are 
maintaining nigh prices, through the scarcity of the supply. 
We are pleased to h-eaR you are likely to dispose of the bales 
at enhanced prices, and to effect a ready sale. We shall be 
happy to h-eaR from you on MCSSRS. Hague and O'HaRe's affaiR. 
YOURS truly, StanAope and ARnAeim. (122) 



WRITING EXERCISES 101 

EXERCISE 99. 
The Aspirate (concluded). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 95. 
MCSSRS. BrownAiLL and Asn&uRSt. 

Dear SIRS, In reply to youR inquiry we have no appre/zen- 
sion of being unable to satisfy Mr. Hugh Higginson in the 
vehicle he requiRes. We have a similaR one on the stocks now 
for Mr. James Hague, wh-om he will know, and we hope to 
have them both ready by the 28th of April, as promised. Have 
you seen Mr. Thorn/sill, the wh-olesale grocer, on the business 
of the heavy dray ? We shall be happy to h-eaR. YOURS 
faithfully, Hawkins and Hay. (87) 

EXERCISE 100. 
Upward and Downward L. 

(a) UPWARD / USED INITIALLY : 

1 lay, ale, lap, Alps, lob, elbow, lattice, alto, led, allied, 

2 leech, allege, lake, looker, log, loaf, aloof, live, alive, loth, 

3 lathe, lass, lasso, also, lazy, lasn, leasn, leisure, loom, 

4 lean, lenity, long, lung, ling, loll, lolling, IORC, lurry, 

5 alewife, label, laboreR, leak, laceration, lackadaisical, 

6 laconic, laden, ladle, lagoon, lain, lambkin, lameness, 

7 lamfrey, lancet, landau, lank, lapful, lapsable, larceny, 

8 laRder, lastingLy, latency, latticed, laudation, laughable, 

9 launch, lawmaker, laxity, leafy, leakage, leathery, 

10 leviathan, lexical, liable, liberal, liberation, libretto, licker, 

11 liken, likeness, lily, limitation, limbo, linden, lionized, 

12 lithograph, literal, lisper, liquidize, litigious, liveryman, 

13 localize, lockjaw, IOSCR, lounge, love-sick, loyally, lubrical, 

14 lucidly, lucrative, lumbago, ludicrous, lunifoRm, luRker, 

15 lupine, lying, alaRm, alaRmist, alb, albatross, album, 

16 aldine, elevation, allegeable, allowable, altercation, alter- 

17 native, elderly, elegy, eliding, eliquation, ellipsis, elucida- 

18 tion, illative, illation, oil-tree, oilman, oilcloth, olive, 

19 Oliver, Ulster, ultra, ultramontane, Ellis, Alice. 



102 WRITING EXERCISES 

(b) UPWARD / USED MEDIALLY : - 

1 pailfuL, paladin, palankin, palatine, palaver, pale-faced, 

2 palisade, pallid, paltry, apology, belladonna, bell-pull, 

3 balsam, talisman, tilling, toll-gate, trellising, Dalton, 

4 delicious, delectable, delinquency, jaileR, jealously, calico, 

5 callous, calomel, galena, gallery, gallop, galoRe, fillip, 

6 filigree, filtration, fallacy, fellowsnip, felicitous, valedictory, 

7 valid, valve, velocity, inviolable, thalamus, thole-pin, 

8 ThrelfaLL, assaileR, zealously, shallowness, shelter, snib- 

9 boleth, snrilly, snrillness, malediction, malevolence, mali- 

10 cious, malingereR, maltese, mellowness, unload, unlatch, 

11 unlovely, inlaid, onlooker, aimlessly, lawlessly, ceaselessly, 

12 reload, relative, relapsed, releaseR, relevancy, relict, 

13 repelleR, repealable, feaRlessly, reluctance, resolver, 

14 wassaileR, wave-like, waylaying, wrestleR, yellow-fever, 

15 yule-tide, haRmlessly, heedlessly, hostilely, unsullied, 

16 unsaleable. 

(c) UPWARD / USED FINALLY : 

1 Apollo, Paul, appeal, bail, bailee, tall, Tilley, trail, 

2 Tralee, dale, daily, drill, Madralli, chill, chilly, jail, jelly, 

3 coal, coaly, crawl, Crilly, gull, gully, growl, eagerly, follow, 

4 value, cleverly, awfully, valley, Stavely, fallow, fully, 

5 fellah, filly, buffalo, safely, fouLly, painfully, lovely, lively, 

6 heavily, woefully, Athol, Athlone, smoothly, thrill, silly, 

7 stilly, stylisnly, swell, frail, freely, shaly, crossly, closely, 

8 basely, Huxley, Bexley, fieRcely, teRsely, mill, Millie, 

9 mellow, mail, O'Malley, lull, zeal, Zulu, zealously, slowly, 

10 tassel, utterly, sadly, slyly, relay, rally, ruly, unruly, 

11 Keely, royalty, rightly, recklessly, eaRly, suRly, steRile, 

12 swiid, soRely, cleaRly, secuRely, squaRely, scaly, sickly, 

13 Scully, Aquila, aquiline, Aquilon, quietly, queenly, 

14 cleanly, keenly, rarely, wearily, warily, waylay, wifely, 

15 wittily, worthily, unworthily, weasel, hustle, hypostyle, 

16 mobile, O'Reilly, Oakley, Paley, Sicily, BrieRly, Cynil, 

17 Cowley, Burnley, Asnley, Waverley, violin, villain, Evelyn, 

18 leisurely, unsettle, literal, tumbrel, Tripoli, trammel, 

19 totally, timely, timorously, tideless, taxable, flexible, 



WRITING EXERCISES 103 

20 tantalize, sweetly, swaddle, spoil, ruthless, sprawl, seemly, 

21 stubbornly, ferula, sleekly, snabbily, saucily, rurally, 

22 rasuly, crystal, crystallize, ripely, richly, proudly, prosily, 

23 properly, poweRless, pluckily, perusal, outlaw, stately, 

24 oddly, optional, nebula, neutral, neatly, may-pole, merrily, 

25 Oxley, wastrel, petrel, extol, extremely, dolesomely, 

26 domicile. 

(d) DOWNWARD / USED INITIALLY (1) WHEN / is PRECEDED 

BY A VOWEL AND FOLLOWED BY A HORIZONTAL LETTER NOT 
HOOKED OR CIRCLED INITIALLY ; AND (2) WHEN / IMMEDIATELY 
PRECEDES A CIRCLE AND CURVE LIKE SV OR Stl : 

1 aLack, aLcade, aLchemy, aLchemist, aLcoran, aLcove, 

2 aLeak, aLembic, aLexandrine, aLgum, aLign, aLike, 

3 aLimental, aLimony, aLkali, aLkalify, aLkaline, aLkalize, 

4 ALLan, aLLegation, aLum, aLLocation, aLLocution, aLLonge, 

5 aLLusive, ALma, aLmoner, aLone, aLong, aLongside, 

6 aLumina, aLuminiferous, aLumisn, eLection, eLectioneeR, 

7 eLective, eLectress, eLectrical, eLectricity, eLectrify, 

8 eLectro, eLectrolysis, eLectrum, eLegance, eLegancy, 

9 eLemental, eLiminate, eLimination, eLixir, eLk, iLk, eLm, 

10 eLocution, eLocutionary, eLongation, eLusive, ELzevir, 

11 iLLumine, iLLumination, iLLuminable, iLLuminary, JLLU- 

12 minate, iLLuminator, OLympic, OLney, uLna, uLema, 

13 ALLeghany, ALLendale, ALLington, ALLonby, ALmack's, 

14 ALonzo, ELgin, ELLen, ELLenbrook, ELLenborough, 

15 ELLison, iLkley, iLLinois, iLminster, OLympus, Lacing, 

16 Lessen, Lessening, License, Licensed, Licensee, Licenser, 

17 Licensing, LicenTious, Listen, Listener, Listening, Loosen, 

18 Looseness, Lucific. 

(<?) DOWNWARD / USED FINALLY WHEN / IMMEDIATELY 

FOLLOWS /, V, sk, kw, OR ANY STRAIGHT UPSTROKE, AND IS 
NOT ITSELF FOLLOWED BY A VOWEL : 

1 faLL, faiL, faLse, feeL, feLL, fueL, pliiaL, foaL, fooL, fiLLf 

2 fiLe, fowL, fouL, flaiL, gracefuL, glassfuL, successfuL, 

3 lawfuL, painfuL, banefuL, spoonfuL, tunefuL, disdainfuL, 

4 fancifuL, swiveL, service, sorrowfuL, SeviLLe, reviLe, 



104 WRITING EXERCISES 

5 refiLL, reveaL, avowaL, leveL, awfuL, balefuL, befooL, 

6 befaLL, pailfuL, unciviL, coevaL, foiL, disgracefuL, defiLe, 

7 disavowal,, disheveL, dolefuL, downfaLL, scaLe, SCULL, 

8 skiLL, SCOWL, quaiL, quiLL, queLL, sequeL, squaLL, squiLL, 

9 bilinguaL, riLe, raiL, reeL, TOLL, ruLe, dweLL, awhiLe, 

10 whirL, yeLL, YaLe, yuLe, yawL, catarrhaL, appareL, 

11 bewaiL, ruraL, downhaLL, ephemeraL, floscuLe, forcefuL, 

12 feruLe, impearL, imperiL, pluraL, jonquiL, mercifuL, 

13 milfpiL, misniLe, manfuL, nonpareiL, muster-roLL, moraLe, 

14 moorfowL, offaL, twiLL, twirL, overhauL, prevaiL, profiLe, 

15 voweL, sliding-scaLe, snarL, soulfuL, spiraL, pueriLe, 

16 stock-List, tinfoiL, tumblerfuL, guilefuL, trefoiL, turreL, 

17 ungracefuL, vioL, muraL, woefuL, wilfuL, worthLess, 

18 viriLe, BirreLL, MelviLLe, coraL, choraL, auRoraL, enroLL, 

19 egotisticaL, statisticaL, admiraL. 

(/) DOWNWARD / USED FINALLY WHEN I IMMEDIATELY 
FOLLOWS n, ng, OR A CURVE AND CIRCLE LIKE fs, Ihs, OR ns : 

1 knoLL, NiLe, annuaL, newLy, HULL, niL, lastingLy, leeRingLy 

2 strongLy, mincingLy, manLy, meanLy, meaningLess, 

3 menacingLy, mannerLy, mineraL, mineraList, movingLy, 

4 obligingLy, openLy, onLy, provokingLy, pruncLLa, runneL, 

5 seniLe, prenariLy, profaneLy, protestingLy, seemingLy, 

6 swimmingLy, smilingLy, snaiL, stingLess, stainLess, 

7 suddenLy, toneLess, tuneLess, train-oiL, unknowingLy, 

8 unLess, unmanLy, unsparingLy, matronLy, faciLe, fossiL, 

9 fossiLize, fossiList, vassaL, voiceLess, visuaL, mischiev- 

10 ousLy, thistLe, ThessaLy, nervousLy, noiseLess, noiseLessLy, 

11 nozzLe, ominousLy, penciL, princeLy, peninsuLa, vaciLLa- 

12 tion, annuLation, profuseLy, refusaL, revisaL, senseLess, 

13 senseLessLy, sensuaL, stenciL, tensiLe, denseLy, universaL, 

14 universaLLy, unseaL, vexiLLation, villainousLy, annaLS, 

15 annaList, enList, anaLyze, anaLyst, anneaL, adverseLy, 

16 alaRmingLy, adoringLy, admiringLy, appealingLy, approv- 

17 ingLy, jestingLy, trustingLy, boastingLy, buzzingLy, benzoL, 

18 benzoLine, chanceL, canceL, counciL, counseL, canceLLation, 

19 clothesLine, diffuseLy, creneLLe, crinoLine, granuLe, 

20 gramiLose, cunningLy, immenseLy, deploringLy,deridingLy, 



WRITING EXERCISES 105 

21 despairingLy, amusingLy, grudgingLy, doornaiL, clandes- 

22 tineLy, engagingLy, enticingLy, fishing-Line, frowningL}-, 

23 generalize, fusiL, heinousLy, hangnaiL, insoLence, consuL, 

24 hiddenL}?, enLace, inLay, BingLey, KingsLey, BarnsLey. 

25 TownLey, MethuseLah, worthLess 

(g) DOWNWARD / USED FINALLY WHEN / IMMEDIATELY 
FOLLOWS A STRAIGHT DOWNSTROKE AND is PRECEDED BY TWO 
VOWEL-SIGNS : 

1 PoweLL, boweL, toweL, triaL, troweL, diaL, sun-diaL, 

2 diaList, dueL, dueLList, dueLLo, doweL. 
(//) DOWNWARD / USED MEDIALLY : 

1 annuLLing, unseaLing, canceLLing, business-Like, unLike, 

2 unLikeLy, unmcky, leveLing, counseLing, foiLing, 

3 dweLLing, diaLLing. dueLLing, toweLing, defiLing, COLLU- 

4 sive, anaLogous, adoLescence, enListing, ensiLage, faiLing, 

5 feeLingLy, fiLm, voLume, vomminous, fizzLing, fooLish, 

6 fooLishness, fossiLizing, fouLness, fowLing-piece, fox-Like, 

7 fuLminate, inLaying, inLacing, consuLage, keeLson, 

8 NeLson, manLike, manLiness, mineraLogy, fossiLiferous, 

9 monoLogue, reLume, overLook, overhauLing, scaLing, 

10 schoLastic, skuLk, skuLL-cap, starveLing, spurLing, 

11 twirLing, whirLing, bewaiLing, stenciLing, unfeeLing, 

12 unLawful, unLink, unroLLing, viLeness, AnseLm, un- 

13 Licensed, yeLk, penciLing, everLasting, anaLyzing, 

14 vaciLLancy, anneaLing, princeLing, fizzLing, appareLing, 

15 Commbus, cammny, coLumnar, doveLike, driveLing, 

16 traveLing, duaLism, faLsetto, faLsify, faLsity, fixing, 

17 fuLness, haLLucination, anaLogy, nestLing, nuzzLing, 

18 reviLing, viLely, veLLum, unwarLike, unveiLing, unLock, 

19 twirLing, twiLLing, sunLike, statesmanLike, squeaLing, 

20 skiLful. refiLLing, queLLing, preLusive, raiLing, unavaiLing. 

EXERCISE 1O1. 

Upward and Downward L (continued) 
1. Many simple fellows are miserable by reason of the silly 
CRROR of feeLing as though the eyes of all their neighbours 



106 WRITING EXERCISES 

were upon them, and as if the people in their vicinity were 
keenly alive to their actions. 2. But this is a senseLess delu- 
sion, and the sooner these fooLish fellows get rid of it the better. 
3. JuveniLes learn some things very quickly, but there are some 
other Lessons they are very slow to take in. 4. Older people 
know how few there are who take the slightest notice of the 
ways of their neighbours. 5. And it is well it should be so. 
6. Should we reveaL exceptional, abilities OR rare skiLL in 
any branch of labour, then people may like to observe us, to 
Listen to our views, to look at the style of our clothes, and so on ; 
but unLess we are Highly successfuL in some way or other, 
there will be few to SCOWL OR smile at our failuRes. 7. We may 
zealously extol our own poweRs, but, as a ruLe people will 
Listen incredulously, and in silence. 8. ^4s a last counseL, 
I may add, born leaders seldom boast. (188) 



EXERCISE 102. 
Upward and Downward L (continued). 

1 . It is a faLse notion to suppose we have all the same duties 
in life. 2. The duties of the kingLy office differ from those 
belonging to the position of a counciLLor, and these again from 
those of a chanceLLor. 3. Men in private stations have duties 
which differ wholly from those of men who pass their time 
exclusively in the service of the state, as officers of the law, 
admiraLs in the royaL navy, etc. ; but, at least, it is the duty 
of every man to live a stainLess, honorable life, and to be a 
worthy specimen of manLiness 4. No one has a right to vilify 
his neighbour, OR to speak wrongLy of his actions. 5. If men 
onLy pursued plain lines in their dealings we should see less 
necessity for legal decisions on paltry quaRRels. 6. But, 
alas ! we know how very fooLish some men are in small things, 
and how they will linger and wrangle a long time over trifles 
which are scaRcely worth discussing at all. 1. Such silly 
discussions must necessariLy cause bitterness and ill-feeLing 
where none should be allowed to exist. 8. Many of the 



WRITING EXERCISES 107 

family troubles which aRise daily are simply due to ridiculous 
exaggeration which should be seveRely repressed in the begin- 
ning. 9. A loose, careless style in the recital of facts which 
we allege to be true is seldom haRmless, and often enough 
leads to trouble. 10. It is needless to ask you how many 
people you know, who, for the sake of raising a laugh will give 
a faLse colouR to a simple action. 11. / should say SCORCS of 
costly triaLS have been caused by a silly desiRe to express a 
fact wittily. 12. The simple manner is plainLy the best for 
us all. (286) 



EXERCISE 1O3. 
Upward and Downward L (continued). 

1. It is a faLse notion, an utter illusion, to suppose people 
of wealth and leisure are the onLy ones who pass thoroughly 
happy lives. 2. In fact, a lazy, idle life is rarely a happy one. 
3. Men of scanty means, who have to keep their families on an 
allowance which a wealthy man looks upon as ridiculously 
small, have often enough faR less trouble than those of princeLy 
incomes. 4. Many an immenseLy rich man longs in vain 
for the health, the bodily elasticity, and the strong muscles 
of the laboureR who toils unceasingLy for a paltry pittance 
which is scaRcely enough to keep the wolf from his dooR. 
5. It is true the man of wealth has privileges which are denied 
to those of humble means ; but he has also duties exclusively 
his own, which devolve upon him aLone, and which he must 
faithfully and properly carry out if he will have even a faiRly 
peaceful life. 6. Those who bewaiL their lowly position in 
society, and who look longingLy at the men whom they deem 
lucky in the possession of a plentiful supply of money, should 
try to see how useless it is to repine. 7. They should leave 
jealous grumbling aLone, and endeavour bravely and fiRmly 
to rise from the low leveL they occupy to a nigheR, and, it may 
be, a more useiul plane, by honestLy and zealously exercising 
their poweRs to resist indulgence in fooLish OR unnecessary 



108 WRITING EXERCISES 

outlay of the means at their disposal. 8. They should, at 
the same time, be mindful of the saying, " He is most happy 
who makes others happy," and should take care lest they faLL 
into the delusion of supposing wealth to be necessary to happi- 
ness. 9. Those who toil for the accumulation of riches in the 
hope of possessing thereby a fuLLer measure of earthly happiness 
will inevitably faiL in their hope. 10. If we desiRe sincereLy 
to live happily we must try to make others happy also, and 
by the effect of our own stainLess lives do all we can to 
abolish the viLeness, the squaLor, and the senseLess quaRRelling 
which unhappily prevaiL in many of our cities. (353) 

EXERCISE 104. 
Upward and Downward L (continued). 

MessRs. Lawson and NeLson. 

Dear SiRs, We are in possession of youR valued favor 
of the first of July, and we willingLy agree to youR proposal. 
We shall snip you on triaL samples of our leading lines in 
umbrellas and parasols by the steamsnip " EiLenborough," 
sailing on the 30th July. Invoice will be enclosed in our 
advice, and bills of lading and insurance policy will follow 
by the steamsmp " Elizabeth," sailing on the 4th of August. 
We trust the umbrellas may aRRive in due season, and we hope 
to heaR you have had eaRly and profitable sales. YOURS truly, 
ELLison and SchoLes. (105) 



EXERCISE 105. 
Upward and Downward L (concluded). 

Mr. Philip EaRl. 

Dear SiR, Referring to our traveLLer's call upon you last 
Friday, we are extremely sorry to say we are unable to supply 
a piece of silk of the design you requiRe. If you will allow 
us to say so, it is thoroughly out of fashion now, and it is 
Highly unLike-Ly to sell anywhere. We enclose you a small 



WRITING EXERCISES 109 

sample of a new silk of very similaR appearance, which wears 
well, and is, we think, faR more likely to please youR lady 
customeRs. We hope to learn youR decision to take this. 
\Ye also enclose a copy of our new book of summer styles 
in ladies' fancy blouses. YOURS faithfully, MilleR and Small. 

(116) 

EXERCISE 1O6. 
Upward and Downward R. 

(a) UPWARD r USED INITIALLY IN ALL WORDS BEGINNING 

WITH THE SOUND OF r : 

1 rope, ripe, ripen, rip, roper, reef, reproduce, reprieve, 

2 reparable, rabbi, rabbinical, rebut, rebuttal, rebuff, rate, 

3 rater, rateable, retail, retaileR, retina, retiRe, retrace, 

4 retractive, redden, redness, radical, roach, reach, reachable, 

5 reacher, richly, richness, rage, ridge, rake, reaction, 

6 reactive, raker, rakisn, rag, ragamuffin, ragman, refuse, 

7 refine, refusable, refraining, refulgence, refrigeration, 

8 refrigerative, refresn, reveRe, ravine, revenge, reviewaL, 

9 revising, revocable, revuLsion, revolve, ruthless, wreath, 

10 writhe, race, rose, roses, roost, rooster, rosy, rove, rain, 

11 TUSH, rusning, rasHness, rouge, rhyme, roamer, rumour, 

12 rummage, rumble, ruminate, ruminal, runaway, renew, 

13 renewaL, ringing, ringtail, ringeR, ring-dove, ruly, relay, 

14 raiL, royaL, rayah, receptive, recovers, rank, rasp, rattan, 

15 rainbow, raffle, recoup, recline, recoil, reckless, recite, 

16 recitative, recluse, reciprocal, reciprocity, refulgence, 

17 remaining, remunerative, remuneration, repartee, 

18 reparation, renounce, remiss, reluctance, relaxative, 

19 relevance. 

(b) UPWARD r USED INITIALLY WHEN IMMEDIATELY PRE- 
CEDING /, d, ch, /, kl, gl, th, OR w : 

1 aright, arid, arch, urge, oracle, argal, earthly, Irwm, 

2 Irrawaddy, archly, archness, archway, argil, aridity, 

3 aridness, arithmetician, arrayed, artisan, artist, artistic, 



110 WRITING EXERCISES 

4 earth-born, earthen, earthenware, earthly, earthquake, 

5 eradicable, eradication, eradicative, erode, eroding, errata, 

6 erratic, erratum, erudite, erudition, eruginous, irate, 

7 iridescence, irritable, irritation, origin, origination, 

8 originative, ornamental, ornamentation, orthographic, 

9 orthographical, orthography, ortive, urchin, urgency, 
10 ursifoRm, Ardee, Arreton, Ireton, orgies, Origen, Uruguay. 

(c) UPWARD r USED MEDIALLY : 

1 Perth, birth, tardy, dirty, charge, juryman, corny, caressing, 

2 garble, garrison, farmer, farinose, verge, verify, veracity, 

3 thorny, thoroughly, assertive, mirth, inroad, lurid, lurch, 

4 larch, rearing, wearing, hurried, parable, parade, parisn, 

5 paradise, paragon, paraphrase, parasite, parasitical, parboil, 

6 parch, pardon, parity, parricide, parsnip, parteRRe, 

7 parvenue, barb, barbarous, barefaced, bargain, baritone, 

8 barker, barony, barreL, barrack, tarnisH, territory, terra- 

9 cotta, terrible, terrify, terseness, tyranny, tyrannous, 

10 tyrannical, Tyrolese, Darwinism, derivable, derange, 

11 derisive, derivative, deriver, derrick, deraiL, Doric, dreari- 

12 ness, drearily, chargeable, charily, chariness, charity, 

13 jarringLy, jury-mast, Jurassic, gyratory, gyroscope, 

14 caressingLy, caroLing, carousal, carraway, carroty, carver, 

15 choralist, clarify, clarification, clerical, clergy, chloraL, 

16 chloric, chloroform, chlorodine, garbage, garisn, garrulous, 

17 guerilla, farinaceous, farrago, farthing, ferny, ferocity, 

18 ferried, firth, floraL, florescence, foreclose, foreclosure, 

19 foredate, fore-deck, forefinger, foreigneR, foreknown, 

20 forenoon, foreseen, foresnadow, foresight, forestay, forty, 

21 fourteen, varicose, variety, varifoRm, veracious, veranda, 

22 veritable, Veronese, Veronica, virility, visceraL, voracity, 

23 avaricious, thoroughfaRe, thorax, thoraL, thoracic, thorn- 

24 apple, thoroughness, thorough- paced, spareness, sparkle, 

25 spirally, scarp, scourge, scarify, scorch, spherical, sphericity, 

26 spheroid, southerly, SoutherneR, smartest, smirk, smirch, 

27 sneeringLy, snarL, snarung, serenity, serenade, seraphic, 

28 service, starvation, serfdom, swarthy. 



WRITING EXERCISES 111 

(d) UPWARD r USED FINALLY WHEN FOLLOWED KY A 
SOUNDED VOWEL : 

1 Paris, perfumery, peri, peruse, perused, pleura, porous, 

2 prairie, priory, primary, probationary, prosperous, purist, 

3 parry, preference, possessory, popularize, plumery, 

4 planetary, panegyrize, apparition, appearance, a priori, 

5 opera, operation, upraise, upraised, uprose, barrow, 

6 bereave, berry, blackberry, bleachery, bloomary, blueberry, 

7 borough, bravery, briery, brusquerie, buffoonery, bureau, 

8 burrow, aberrance, aberration, obscuration, ubiquitary, 

9 tariff, tarry tartarize, terra, terrace, territory, terrorize, 

10 tory, tracery, tractory, traitorous, towery, tureen, etcetera, 

11 iteration, itinerary, Tipperary, dairy, deary, declaratory, 

12 decolorize, decorous, decretory, demoralize, depository, 

13 desirous, derive, desperation, diarist, disarray, disappear- 

14 ance, disembarrassed, discovery, discretionary, distillery, 

15 dolorous, dreary, drollery, adversary, admonitory, odorous, 

16 chary, chandlery, cheery, gyration, giraffe, gyrose, cajolery, 

17 cancerous, canary, capillary, careen, caress, caroused, 

18 castigatory, cavalry, cautionary, chimera, cholera, 

19 clamorous, clearance, coterie, creamery, gallery, glycerine, 

20 grapery, groggery, faro, farrow finery, feudary, fernery, 

21 ferrous, flora, flurry, foolery, foppery, forest, foRmulary, 

22 freemasonry, vagary, valedictory, valorous, vapory, 

23 vinery, veteran, victory, viperous, visionary, votary, 

24 ivory, knavery, authorise, avarice, thesaurus, thorough, 

25 etherize, saccharine, savagery, satirize, sanatory, satura- 

26 tion, scenery, scullery, scurry, secularize sedentary, 

27 serene, series, Seraph, siren, soiree, solitary, soRceress, 

28 soRcery. spiry, squireen, starry stellary. statuary, 

29 summary, Osiris, usury, zero, Zachary, assurance, snowery, 

30 sneriff, sneep-run, macaroon, mandarin, maroon, Nazarine, 

31 mesmerize, memory, menagerie, minatory, millinery, 

32 misery, missionary, molary, morass, moory, murrain, 

33 imagery, mummery, mortuary, emery, emissory, narrow, 

34 natatory ; neurosis, enumeration, notary, numerous, 

35 anniversary, angora, ancillary, endurance, environ, 



112 WRITING EXERCISES 

36 inauguration, inference, insurance, injury, insurrectionary, 

37 honorary, unrest, laceration, library, legendary, lectionary, 

38 literary, lory, lyrist, eLocutionary, elaboration, illusory, 

39 ulcerous, ulceration, raspberry, reactionary, recovery, 

40 referee, reparation, remarry, restoration, respiratory, 

41 rhetorician, ropery, rosary, rotatory, rosemary, aRmoury, 

42 wary, weary, wherry, walrus, wiry, whereon, whereas, 

43 wheelbarrow, wood-roof, worry, yarrow, hairy, harass, 

44 harry, harrow, hegira, hilary, hero, heron, housewifery, 

45 horary, hoary, hurry-scurry, hurrah, Uriah, ewry. 

(e) UPWARD r USED FINALLY WHEN IMMEDIATELY FOLLOW- 
ING TWO DOWNSTROKES, OR A STRAIGHT UPSTROKE : 

1 anathematizer, advertiser, abjure, bubbler, deter, 

2 disappear, disburse, disposer, displeaser, deplore, deposer, 

3 templar, disperse, dissembler, divesture, dogmatizer, 

4 dabbler, dawdler, endoRser, espouser, feebler, fiRmer, 

5 fieRcer, fiddler, fribbler, fripperer, fumbler, infringer, 

6 jointure, methodizer, overture, pamphleteer, paRser, 

7 pedlar, perjurer, probationer, privateer, proposer, steve- 

8 dore, tippler, trampler, tumbler, trespasser, vesper, vaporer, 

9 vesture, downstairs, upstairs, backstairs, bugbear, pasture, 

10 perspire, pesterer, plasterer, practitioner, prepare, 

11 prepossessor, butler, bottler, bibler, blusterer, bookstore, 

12 tattler, prattler, chatterer, chastizer, bestir, procedure, 

13 aware, ware, beware, unaware, deplorer, emperor, yore, 

14 fosterer, furor, roar, rear, rare, juror, mirror, numerary, 

15 wore, weir, where, everywhere, nowhere, oyer, outwear, 

16 rehear, stoneware, glassware, terror, uproar, Delaware, 

17 Farrar, preparer, abhor, purer, racer, extemporizer, 

18 hussar, peruser, polarizer, popularizer, rehearse, refer, 

19 referrer, server, preserver, observer, deserver, reserver, 

20 answerer. 

(/) UPWARD r USED FINALLY WHEN IMMEDIATELY FOLLOW- 
ING A CURVE AND CIRCLE LIKE fs, ths, OR ns, AND AFTER ks 
OR gs : 
1 officer, refuser, diffuser, professor, vizor, viceroy, canvasser, 



WRITING EXERCISES 113 

2 sympathizer, traverser, civilizer, supervisor, divisor, 

3 reviser, answer, anaLyzer, cancer, affiancer, fencer, 

4 dispenser, censor, patronizer, romancer, bouncer, Spencer, 

5 dancer, janizary, organizer, cleanser, extensor, advancer, 

6 wincer, mincer, nicer, sincere, pronouncer, denouncer, 

7 Licenser, menacer, necromancer, announcer, causer, 

8 accuser, excuser, cruiser, closer, grocer, creaser, coaxer 

9 aggressor, engrosser, geyser, glozer, guesser, glosser, 

10 greengrocer, squeezer, successor, mixer, fixer, vexer, 

11 plexure, quizzer, eLixir, boxer, taxer, Hoaxer, flexor, 

12 catechiser. 

(g) UPWARD r USED FINALLY WHEN HOOKED : 

1 spurn, barn, burn, born, High-born, new-born, Woburn, 

2 stubborn, auburn, tarn, turn, Saturn, return, nocturn, 

3 overturn, taciturn, lectern, extern, darn, churn, adjourn, 

4 sojourn, cairn, corn, acorn, unicorn, peppercorn, Garn, 

5 fern, thorn, hawthorn, blackthorn, snorn, morn, mourn, 

6 learn, unlearn, warn, yearn, heron, bairn, lorn, lovelorn, 

7 lucerne, wyvern, postern, southern, western, sea-borne, 

8 unworn, wayworn, portion, apportion, torsion, retortion, 

9 extortion, reversion, coercion, desertion, exertion, assertion, 
10 immersion. 

(h) DOWNWARD r USED INITIALLY WHEN PRECEDED BY A 
VOWEL : 

1 ARab, ARabic, aRable, aRbor, aRk, aRchangel, aRcher, 

2 aRchery, aRchipelago, aRchives, aRRive, aRgosy, aRgue, 

3 aRgumentation, aRisen, aRmada, aRmless, aRoma, aRRaign, 

4 aRRaigner, aRRange, aRReaR, aRRival, aRRogance, aRsenaL, 

5 eaRn, eaRner, eaRning, eRase, eRasing, eRasure, ERebus, 

6 eRection, eRmine, eRosion, eRuption, eRuptive, iRe, iReful, 

7 iRon, iRonical, iRonmonger, iRis, IRISH, iRksome, iRRele- 

8 vance, iRRelevancy, iRReligion, iRReligious, iRRemovable, 

9 iRReparable, iRReplaceable, iRRepressible, iRReproachable, 

10 iRResistible, iRResolution, iRRevocable, iRRigation, oRal, 

11 oRally, oRange, oRation, oRator, oRb, oRbital, oRchestra, 

12 oRchestration, oRchid, oRganic, oRifice, ORion, ORmolu, 

&-(?) 



114 WRITING EXERCISES 

13 oRphan, URanus, uRban, uRbane, uRbanity, uRn, URSuline, 

14 ARgyle, ARkansas, ARmagh, ARam, ARdrossan, ARizona, 

15 ARmstrong, ARmley, ER!C, ORegon, URal, aiR-gun, aiR- 

16 brake, aiR-less, aiR-pump, eyRy. 

(*') DOWNWARD r USED MEDIALLY : 

1 pooRly, peeRless, poweRful, baRely, baRkeeper, beaR-skin, 

2 BrieRley, tiResome, toRsel, teaRful, diuRnal, caRman, 

3 coRk, coRk-tree, coRsaiR, cuReless, secuRely, gasifoRm, 

4 gaRum, faiRly, faiRness, faRcical, faRming, faRthermost, 

5 fiRe-brick, fiReclay, fiRefly, fi.Rm, fiReaRm, flouRish, 

6 foRecast, foRcible, foRego, foRmal, foRmula, saRcasm, 

7 scaRcely, squaRely, similaRly, siRloin, soRRel, souRisa, 

8 spaRsely, squiRming, staR-gazer, suRliness, swaRrning, 

9 SHeaRman, sneaR-steel, snoweRless, maRes-nest, neuRalgic, 

10 laRghetto, alaRm, laRgo, laRk, luRker, heaRken, hiReling, 

11 neuRal, neuRology, NewaRk, angulaRly, luRcher, laRder, 

12 feaRful, prayeRful, uneRRingly. 

(/) DOWNWARD r USED FINALLY IN SHORT WORDS ENDING 

WITH THE SOUND OF r : 

1 paRe, spaRe, prayeR, paR, peeR, poRe, pyRe, poweR, POOR, 

2 spooR, prioR, baR, baRe, beeR, boRe, booR, brieR, BlaiR, 

3 ableR, taR, taRe, teaR, tyRe, toRe, toweR, drieR, dreaR, 

4 soldereR, saddleR, chaR, jaR, ajaR, injuRe, CORC, CURC, 

5 secuRe, insecuRe, sinecuRe, scaRe, crieR, croRe, ClaRe, 

6 tinkleR, tackleR, cackleR, chronicleR, SinclaiR, heckleR, 

7 goRe, glaRe, bungleR, dangleR, mangleR, wriggleR, haggleR, 

8 faRe, feaR, feweR, fiRe, infeR, flaRe, flooR, floweR, rifleR, 

9 scuffleR, veeR, reveRe, seveRe, SORC, seRe, siRe, staRe, 

10 SWORC, siR, passeR, baseR, teaseR, dozeR, chaseR, laceR, 

11 SUCR, pursueR, issueR, SOWCR, assuRe, insuRe, snoRe, SHIRC, 

12 azuRe, maR, maRe, mooR, smeaR, besmeaR, timeR, trimmeR, 

13 dimmeR, demuRe, vampiRe, steameR, swimmeR, stammeR, 

14 customeR, noRe, neweR, sneeR, snoRe, ensnaRe, resigneR, 

15 singeR, wringeR, hangeR, loRe, leeR, luRe, laiR, brawleR t 

16 crawleR, dealeR, selleR, stellaR, wrestleR, haiR, heR. 



WRITING EXERCISES 115 

(k) DOWNWARD r USED FINALLY AFTER TWO STRAIGHT 
UPSTROKES, AND, GENERALLY, AFTER f OR v FOLLOWING A 

DOWNSTROKE : 

1 abhorreR, adhereR, weareR, rareR, roareR, reareR, baffleR, 

2 trifleR, SHuffleR, snoveleR, pacifieR, testifieR, justifieR, 

3 favoureR, faLsifieR, versifieR, staRfloweR, stultifieR, codifieR. 



EXERCISE 107. 

Upward and Downward R (continued) 
1. He is the wiser adviser who counseLs the road to honour 
in preference to the pathway to riches and High position. 2. 
Adhere closely to this plan ; preserve it in youR memory ; and 
some day you may wear the lauRel wreath of victory. 3. Be 
brave, and, in a right way, be an aggressor. 4. To-day's 
failuRe should but spuR you on to a braver and nobleR triaL 
to-morrow. 5. He who retiRes in terror at the first rebuff 
is but a pooR timorous fellow, unworthy of success, and most 
unLikeLy to eaRn it. 6. Learn to beaR a refusaL in sturdy 
patience, and endeavour to preserve a calm aiR in face of 
unfaiR charges. 7. YOUR serenity will disturb the snuffleRs, 
and baffle them f aR more than any expression of annoyance and 
wrath. 8. Besides, the wrathful man throws away his aRms, 
and readily faLLs a prey to the wiles of a ruthless adversary. 
9. You onLy wreck VOUR chances if you worry over aiRy 
trifles. 10. Exercise youRself in the mastery of even j ustifiable 
irritation, and you will emerge from each struggle a stronger 
and a better man. (181) 

EXERCISE 1O8. 

Upward and Downward R (continued). 
1. Better beaR a steRn rebuke than fai.L t'nto an CRROR 
which we should be poweRless to repaiR. 2. To display 
irritation at a small injury is a sign of iRResolution and absence 
of the poweR t to restrain one's unruly feeLings. 3. He who 
gives way to anger opens the dooR to revenge, which, in turn, 



116 WRITING EXERCISES 

brings in misery, sorrow, and regret. 4. Reason is faR 
better than an appeal to aRms ; for foRce is but a pooR remedy, 
and should onLy be taken to as a last resource. 5. It may be 
a souRce of sorrow to a surgeon to give pain to anyone ; but 
he has no hesitation in using the keen knife in an operation, 
if such be necessary to restoRe health and vigour to a pooR 
suffereR. 6. SeveRe remedies have to be taken in such cases 
from motives of pure charity. 7. Learn to exercise economy 
in prosperity ; it will be necessary to do so in adversity. 8. 
We can urge no excuse in favor of tyranny ; but just laws 
must be enfoRced for the security of life and property. 9. You 
may yearn to sit and rest ; but, meanwhile, refuse no labor 
which you know to be necessary ; and even though you are 
weary, try to aRRest the inclination to allow youR business 
affaiRs to faLL into aRReaR ; for each day brings Us own 
SHaRe of toil and trouble. 10. Rouse youRself then ; rise 
eaRly, and labor zealously ; for debt is the worst foRm of 
poverty. (242) 

EXERCISE 1O9. 
Upward and Downward R (continued). 

1. The minister OR preacher should ever strive and aspire 
10 appeaR as a beaRer of joyful news to the weary wayfaRers OR 
travellers on this earth. 2. He should be the announcer of 
rich prizes for the worthy, and a denouncer and chastiser 
of the idle, insincere chatterer. 3. He must be a sympathiser 
in the sorrows and miseries of the pooR of his flock ; but, at 
the same time, he should have no scruple OR feaR in expressing 
his seveRe disapproval of the wrong actions of the rich and 
proud sections of his parishioners. 4. He must beaR pretty 
heavily on the drinkers and tipplers among his people for 
their own sake ; but must take care lest he appeaR as a haRSH 
accuser, and scaRe the aggressors deeper into the miRe. 5. He 
may also have to pose as the patroniser of a pariSH bazaaR, 
where he may see people who refuse to see him as a visitor, 
and he may take the occasion to press home to them the duties 



WRITING EXERCISES 117 

belonging to their spheRe of life, and, it may be, inspiRe them 
to leave their suRly ways and take a HigheR and broader 
view of their position in society. 6. Truly, the life of a clergy- 
man is no sinecime, if he takes the right view of his mission ; 
and he will requiRe plenty of physical strength to enable him 
to pursue his labors properly. 7. He must display rare 
dexterity if he is to be a successful. missioneR ; and he must, 
above all things, exercise prudence in the use of satiRe. 8. His 
business is to inspiRe love and honor, and dispel feaR and 
reproach. 9. / feaR it is true to say the minister deserves 
more help than he receives from some who have evil to atone 
for and mischief to repaiR. (297) 



EXERCISE HO. 
Upward and Downward R (continued). 

MessRS. EaRl and ARRandale. 

Dear SiRs, We are in receipt of youR favor of Saturday 
last, enclosing remittance to settle our claim for loss on the 
serge sold to us in the eaRly Spring. We are happy to think 
the affaiR is now closed. We sincerely regret you should 
display such irritation in reference to this business. We 
should have been happy had we been able to aRRange it last 
March ; but youR Mr. ARRandale fiRmly refused even to 
discuss our proposal. We assuRe you once more the serge was 
useless for our purpose, and it was very much torn at the edges. 
We are by no means stubborn, and we are sorry to observe 
the tone of saRcasm in youR reply to our last. While we 
deplore the narrow view you have taken, we feeL we must 
adhere to our rights. YOURS truly, Reuben ARmstrong and 
Sons. (148) 

EXERCISE 111. 

Upward and Downward R (concluded). 
MessRs. Forest and sniRes. 
Dear SJRS, We have youR favor of the 4th April, and you 



118 WRITING EXERCISES 

may look to receive the rest of the rubber rings in three OR fouR 
days' time. We have had an extra ruSH of business for the 
past fouR months, and our resources have been taxed to the 
utmost To add to our worry, we have just lost the services 
of our stoRe-keeper, and the new man has been unable to cleaR 
off the aRReaRs. Please excuse the delay, for these reasons, 
and oblige, YOURS truly, Spencer and ORam. (94) 

EXERCISE 112. 
Upward and Downward Sh. 

The letter sh is always written downward when it stands 
alone, that is, when it is not joined to another stroke. When 
it immediately precedes V_> ^ , (, (, or /^", it is, as a rule, 
written upward. It is also written upward when it imme- 
diately follows V , V. or |. In other cases, it will generally 
be found better to write sh downward. The double consonant 
shr is always written downward, but the double consonant 
shl is generally written upward. 

(a) DOWNWARD sh USED INITIALLY : 

1 asH, SHy, SHOW, snoe, usner, snrew, assuRe, assurance, 

2 assuRer, assuringly, Asnton, Asnbourne, Asnanti, snabby, 

3 snadow, snadily, snaken, snake, snakespere, snamble, 

4 SHamefaced, snameful, SHamming, SHamrock, snank, 

5 snanty, snapeless, snaRe, sneaR, sneather, snedder, 

6 SHeep, SHeep-stealeR, SHeriff, snerry, snibboleth, snindy, 

7 SHiner, sningle, snyness, snipmaster, snipwreck, SMiRe, 

8 SHock, snoddy, snoeblack, snone, snrine, ocean, asnen, 

9 SHopman, SHopkeeper, SHOReless, snorn, SHow-bill, 

10 SHowery, SHrink, snrewd, SHriek, SHrill, SHrimp, SHrivel, 

11 surive, SHrubbery, SHrug, snuffle, snuttle, snyly, 

12 snannon, snanghai, SHeridan, sneRlock, snrewsbury, 

13 snylock, cnivalry, cnivalrous, sasH, sasHframe. 

(b) DOWNWARD sh USED MEDIALLY : 

1 pusning, plasning, splaSHing, punisning, perisnable, 

2 perniciously, premoniSHing, backsneeSH, banisneR, 



WRITING EXERCISES 119 

3 banisning, basnful, beer-snop, blemisning, blusmng, 

4 bookisnness, boyisHness. brackisnness, bumpxiousncss, 

5 burnisHing, busniness, busnmen, caSHmeRe, tarnisning, 

6 tenaciously, trickisHness, tuixionary, deliciously, 

7 diminisHing, dram-SHop, cherisning, churlisnness, fac- 

8 xiousness, fallaciously, fellowsnip, ferociously, fisHerman, 

9 flagSHip, foreSHowing, fracxiousness, fresnness, vanquisn- 

10 ing, veraciously, secessionist, smasning, smasned, 

1 1 sluggiSHness, sottiSHness, spaciously, squasning, squeam- 

12 isnness, squeamisnly, steamsnip, stylisnly, sunsniny, 

13 superstiriously, macmnist, macninery, maliciously, 

14 marcnioness, marsHmallow, masned, missnape, moon- 

15 sniny, naxionhood, noxiousness, lasning, Licenxiously, 

16 lusciousness, rakisnness, refresmng, replenisning, rasnly, 

17 rasnness, wasmng, wasnable, wasn-house, lasning, 

18 hasnisH, huSH-money, apostlesnip, crasning, graciously, 

19 avariciously, ambixiously, efficaciously, gnasning. clasning, 

20 censuRe, censurable, stoResnip. 

(c) DOWNWARD sh USED FINALLY : 

1 PUSH, paCHa, plasn, splasn, plusH, busn, blusn, Josnua, 

2 casH, gasH, crasn, clasH, squeamisn, thickisn, masn, 

3 smasH, gnasn, rasn, waSH, husn, parisn, pernicious, 

4 situaxion, malicious, admonisn, pugnacious, punctuaxion, 

5 baniSH, bearisn, blackisH, blemisn, cherisn, ambuSH, 

6 efficacious, IRJSH, aLumiSH, tenacious, tarnisn, burnisH, 

7 pretenxious, premonisn, precocious, to\'isH, bumpxious, 

8 trickisH, tuixion, dampisn, delicious, farinaceous, 

9 veracious, fracxious, fruixion, vixeniSH, mulisH, lamiSH, 

10 leaSH, Licenxious, loutisn, luscious, roguisn, aguisn, 

11 refresH, repleniSH, waspisn, accentuaxion, gracious, 

12 actuaxion, Ignaxius, ticklisn, facxious, vanquisH. sneepiSH, 

13 setacious, macnine, sluggisn, snow-snoe, SOURISH, sottisn, 

14 specious, Spanisn, squaSH, stylisn, superstixious, 

15 sunsnine, suppositixious, malicious, marsH, Welsn. 

(d) UPWARD sh USED INIXIALLY : 

1 shackle, shagreen, shaker, shale, shallop, shallow, 

2 shallowness, shaly, shammer, shave, shaven, shawl, sheaf, 



120 WRITING EXERCISES 

3 sheath, sheave, sheldrake, shell, shield, shelter, shimmer, 

4 shiver, shoal, shoulder, shove, shifty, sugar, sugar-plum. 
(e) UPWARD sh USED MEDIALLY : 

1 patience, peevishness, brushing, thrashing, threshold, 

2 toyshop, dashing, demolishing, demolished, disheveL, 

3 dishing, fishing, flashing, facetiousness, fictitiously, 

4 feverishness, finishing, fish-hook, polished, polishing, 

5 abolishing, preciously, proficience, propitiously, provincial- 

6 ism, bishop, brutishness, brushing, flashing, fleshiness, 

7 flouRishing, foolishness, foppishness, vanishing, viciousness, 

8 mendaciously, lashed, lavishing, rapaciousness, relishable, 

9 relishing, relished, atrociously, embellishing, embellished, 

10 sensationary, slashed, slashing, slavishness, successionist. 

11 superficiality, marshaling, officialism, partiality, initialing, 
(/) UPWARD sh USED FINALLY : 

1 palish, polish, abolish, prudish, bitterish, brutish, brush, 

2 thinnish, finish, vanish, toughish, thresh, thrash, fish, 

3 fichu, peevish, tush, demolish, dash, dish, fictitious, 

4 feverish; flash, flush, facetious, propitious, flouRish, 

5 fooLish, foppish, vicious, mendacious, modish, slash, lavish, 

6 relish, atrocious, embellish, attenuation, reddish, rapacious, 

7 nutritious, vivacious, vexatious, valuation, trash, tooth- 

8 brush, disputatious, afresh, sapindaceous, sawfish, secreti- 

9 tious, sinuation, slap-dash, slavish, slush, squaRish, 
10 stablish, superficies, sweetish, Swedish. 

(g) THE DOUBLE CONSONANT shl GENERALLY WRITTEN 
UPWARD : 

1 providential, superficial, superficiality, deferential, pro- 

2 vincial, provinciality, provincialism, partialist, partiality, 

3 peevishly, lavishly, slavishly, presidential, beneficial, 

4 brutishly, torrential, feverishly, foolishly, fleshly, fleshli- 

5 ness, foppishly, specialist, specializing, speciality, specialty, 

6 sacrificial, waspishly, initialing, Marshalsea, marshaling, 

7 impartial, impartially, impartiality, snaiL-shell, tortoise- 

8 shell, snappishly, sequential, residential, equinoctial, 

9 pachalic. 

[See also Exercise 51, par. (e).] 



WRITING EXERCISES 121 

EXERCISE 113. 
Upward and Downward Sh (continued) 

Mr. Frederick Marsn. 

Dear SIR, Referring to the application of JosHua Casn for 
the situation of snopman in the AsHbourne Branch, / assuRe 
you the fellow is just a stylisH SHuffleR, and no more. His 
rasiiness and his assurance were cleaRly snown in the snameful 
manner in which he spoke to Mr. Asnton. / think a SHopman 
should be reasonably pusning ; but this fellow's bumptious- 
ness, ungraciousness, and pretentious ways are likely to be 
pernicious. / should relish the chance of punisning the man's 
impudence. He is mendacious to a degree, and if the situation 
is given to him he will simply snock all youR sny customeRS 
by his SHrill voice and his unblusning lies. His shifty ways, 
shallow wisdom, and foppish appearance annoy me very much, 
and I sincereLy trust the specious rogue's services will be 
refused. YOURS truly, James Walsn. (141) 



EXERCISE 114. 
Upward and Downward Sh (concluded). 

1 . The career of Samuel Cunliffe Lister (I up) , the first maker of 
silk plusH, SHOWS how much can be done by a man who possesses 
patience and who snrinks from no trouble OR opposition, but 
goes tenaciously on his way, brushing aside the obstacles 
raised by foolish OR malicious people who seek to shackle his 
energies and dash his hopes by their officious advice, vexatious 
insinuations, and rasn assurances of failuRe. 2. Mr. Lister's 
reply to all such censuRers of his supposed fooLishness was a 
snrug of the shoulders and a freSH and more vigorous expression 
of his decision to PUSH on and finish his inventions. 3. He 
demolished all the obstacles raised by more sluggiSH men, and 
he positively relished the task. 4. He snowed no slavish 
imitation of others, but sought by his own skiLL to attain 
his purpose. 5. He was successful, in raising up a flouRishing 



122 WRITING EXERCISES 

business, but his invention of macninery for the utilization of 
silk waste snowed, above all else, the SHrewdness, the patience, 
and the poweRful brain of the man. 6. He bought up a heap 
of silk waste seeming rubbisH at a low valuation, and by 
the aid of maCHinery of his own invention, he was able to turn 
the snapeless stuff t'nto pluSH of exquisite beauty and finish. 
Mr. Lister became Lord Masnam in 1891. 7. He had a deep 
disrelish of the lavish praise given him by his admiRers, and his 
preference was for a quiet life. 8. His death took place in 
1906, at the advanced age of ninety-one. (256) 



EXERCISE 115. 
Contractions. 

everything, " ~ neglect-ed, c \ prospect, c character, 

characteristic, [ danger, I dangerous, ^f messenger, 
\ stranger, ^-^j>^. manuscript, 3 v transcript, 1 transfer, 

2_o transgress, ] -. transgression, \ peculiar-ity, /\ respect. 

My dear fellow, // you desiRe to have a faiR prospect of 
achieving success in business life, you must do everything 
possible to deserve it. You must leave nothing to chance, 
and neglect nothing which can in any way win for you the 
respect of youR neighbours. Transgress no ruLes of business ; 
for youR transgression will infallibly be followed by retribution 
in some way OR other. Observe the maxim " Delays are 
dangerous," and snun the danger by declining to transfer to 
to-morrow the affaiR which should receive youR attention 
to-day. Try to leave peculiar and odd ways seveRely aLone ; 
for peculiarity is undesirable in a business man. Be very 
careiuL to read through every manuscript to which you are 
to attach youR name Insist on the strictest attention to 
details, even in a boy messenger. An CRROR in a simple tran- 
script may lose you a desirable customeR. Endeavour to 



WRITING EXERCISES 123 

maintain a High character for business-Like dealings, and have 
a sacred respect for a promise. These are the characteristics 
which will help you to success, and youR possession of them 
will strike a stranger more than anything else. Finally, / may 
remark, if these characteristics are neglected, it will be useless 
for you to expect to attain a High position in business life. 
YOURS truly, (214) 



EXERCISE 116. 
The Halving 1 Principle. 

In this Exercise, and in Exercises 117 to 127, the italic t or d 
signifies that the letter should be indicated by the halving 
principle. 
(a) LIGHT LETTERS ARE HALVED FOR THE ADDITION OF t : 

1 pa/, pet, pit, plat, plea/, plot, prate, spit, sprat, sprou/, 

2 split, taugh/, tout, tight, trite, straight, street, strut, chat, 

3 chit, etched, coat, cat, Kate, crate, secret, clot, fight, iate, 

4 fee/, soft, night, float, floats, height, iret, iraught, iruit, 

5 though/, throat, threat, east, iced, oust, SHO/, SHU/, SHOU/, 

6 SHOO/, mat, met, meat, moat, moot, mute, might, smite, 

7 smites, summit, night, note, neat, naught, not, nut, sent, 

8 light, let, lit, lot, loot, slight, salt, silt, slit, slate, port, part, 

9 pert, pirate, tart, start, dart, dirt, chart, for/, aver/, sort, 

10 mart, smart, alert, squirt, squir/s, aRt, aR/s, wait, wet, 

11 weigh/, Vfatt, yet, yacht, hot, hit, hits, heat, heats, heigh/, 

12 whet, whets, tappet, stopped, sipped, swept, dipped, adept, 

13 adapt, adapts, draped, chipped, Egyp/, capped, craped, 

14 scraped, skipped, escaped, clipped, equipped, flapped, 

15 snapped, slept, slipped, snipped, snaped, reaped, wept, 

16 wrapped, hopped, heaped, replete, deplete, depute, appetite, 

17 imitate, imita/es, rotate, irritate, pitched, patched, beached, 

18 touched, stitched, trenched, entrenched, drenched, 

19 crouched, screeched, scratched, fetched, vouched, thatched, 

20 snatched, slouched, matched, notched, latched, reached, 

21 bewitched, enriched, hitched, packed, picket, placate, 



124 WRITING EXERCISES 

22 plucked, implicate, baked, booked, blacked, bracked, 

23 brackets, tacked, ticket, tickets, tract, tracts, strict, docked, 

24 docket, edict, checked, joked, jacket, jackets, e]ect, ejec/s, 

25 rejects, injects, sacked, sect, sects, bisect, dissect, 

26 transact, transac/s, insect, insects, ransac/, ransacks, 

27 SHocked, SHrieked, smacked, smocked, smoked, sneaked, 

28 racked, wrecked, Hacked, left, lift, lifts, loft, sulfafe, refit, 

29 refits, snuffed, engulfed, surfeit, unfit, unfits, reiute, refu/es, 

30 epithet, pusned, splasned, crasned, clasned, gnasned, 

31 ruSHed, wasned, hasHed, husned, remote, sonne/, sonnets, 

32 peasant, pleasant, present, presen/s, bassine/fc, bassine/tes, 

33 decent, descends, adjacent, resent, resents, recent. 

(b) HEAVY LETTERS ARE HALVED FOR THE ADDITION OF 
d: 

1 bead, bed, beds, bread, brood, broods, bleed, bleeds, blood, 

2 deed, deeds, dead, died, aided, dried, dread, dreads, soldered, 

3 Jude, aged, edged, goad, goads, good, goods, grade, grades, 

4 greed, glowed, glade, glades, ogled, glued, glide, glides, 

5 void, viewed, evade, evades, writhed, wreathed, loathed, 

6 eased, oozed, treasured, leisured, measured, dubbed, 

7 drabbed, rubbed, ribbed, webbed, pebbled, bubbled, 

8 stabled, doubled, dabbled, cabled, gabled, fabled, resembled, 

9 dissembled, enabled, nibbled, labeled, libeled, wobbled, 

10 hobbled, quibbled, padded, beaded, budded, chided, jaded, 

11 candid, clouded, included, precluded, goaded, graded, 

12 faded, avoided, evaded, invade, invaded, envied, threaded, 

13 sounded, resounded, ended, descended, mended, landed, 

14 rounded, wounded, wended, SHaded, suredded, snrouded, 

15 indeed, needed, kneaded, loaded, alluded, raided, waded, 

16 weeded, wielded, welded, endowed, hooded, paged, pledged, 

17 budged, bridged, staged, trudged, dredged, dodged, caged, 

18 encaged, gauged, engaged, grudged, fledged, voyaged, 

19 averaged, damaged, rummaged, enjoyed, singed, lodged, 

20 alleged, pillaged, bulged, deluged, raged, enraged, rigid, 

21 surged, waged, wedged, hedged, plugged, sprigged, begged, 

22 brigade, brigades, tugged, drugged, jagged, nagged, ragged, 



WRITING EXERCISES 125 

23 rigged, Hugged, livid, levied, solved, absolved, resolved, 

24 unsolved, thieved, bathed, breathed, unscathed, clothed, 

25 seethed, soothed, smoothed, sobered, sabred, slobbered, 

26 cupboard, scabbard, laboured, powdered, foddered, 

27 SHuddered, shouldered, mouldered, badgered, wagered, 

28 beggared, degrade, sugared, laggard, augured, haggard, 

29 staggered, swaggered. 

(c) FINALLY HOOKED CONSONANTS MAY BE HALVED FOR 
EITHER t OR d : 

1 pain/, paints, pants, print, prin/s, springs, plan/, plants, 

2 supplan/s, splin/s, pained, pond, ponds, pounds, planned, 

3 sprained, bend, bends, blends, brand, brands, bent, ben/s, 

4 brunt, blunt, blunts, ten/, ten/s, tints, Trent, stint, stints, 

5 stun/, stun/s, trained, strained, strands, dent, dents, dint, 

6 dinned, drained, saddened, chant, chan/s, chained, join/, 

7 join/s, joined, enjoined, can/, canned, scan/, scanned, 

8 skinned, second, seconds, cleaned, craned, screened, gaun/, 

9 gained, gran/, grants, grand, grained, ground, grounds, 

10 gleaned, glint, glints, quaint, squint, squints, fain/, fain/s, 

11 find, finds, friend, friends, fron/, fron/s, affron/, affron/s, 

12 vent, vents, vend, vends, thinned, enthroned, ascent, 

13 ascen/s, ascend, ascends, snun/, snun/s, snunned, enSHrined, 

14 mint, mints, mound, mounds, anoint, anoints, anent, lent, 

15 lend, lends, lands, rent, rents, round, rounds, ran/, rend, 

16 rained, eRRan/, eRRand, eRRands, went, wend, wends, 

17 want, wants, won/, wound, wounds, winds, haunt, haunts, 

18 hunt, hunts, hound, hounds, puffed, paved, proved, abait, 

19 braved, tuf/, tuf/s, def/, dived, drif/, drif/s, draughts, 

20 chapped, coughed, cuffed, craf/, craf/s, craved, gif/, gif/s, 

21 grafts, engraits, grieved, engraved, grooved, quaffed, rait, 

22 raits, riit, rif/s, raved, roofed, wait, waits, weit, waved, 

23 haf/, haf/s, heaved, upheaved, behaved, pretend, pretends, 

24 despond, disappoin/s, buttoned, brightened, paten/, patents, 

25 disband, disbands, append, appends, haRpooned, disci- 

26 plined, distend, extend, extends, distant, destined, festooned, 

27 accident, accidents, resident, residents, unbent, unbend, 



126 WRITING EXERCISES 

28 unbends, stand, stands, sextant, sextan/s, cogent, urgent, 

29 pungent, regent, regents, refulgent, enchant, trenchant, 

30 merchant, merchants, piquant, beckoned, descant, descants, 

31 recant, recants, awakened, applicant, applicants, sickened, 

32 cleaned, declined, reclined, inclined, unskinned, dragooned, 

33 regained, refined, refund, unfound, infan/, infan/s, elephant, 

34 elephanfe, invent, invents, Bullivan/, solvent, solvents, 

35 payment, payments, bemoaned, demen^ sedimen/, 

36 encroachment, encroachments, enjoyment, sacrament, 

37 sacraments, inclement, agreement, agreements, bereave- 

38 men^, cement, cemenfe, easement, punisHmen^, banisHmen^, 

39 moment, moments, !amen/, laments, raiment, Poland, 

40 Poland's, Holland, talent, talenfe, Jalland, calends, gallant, 

41 gallants, volunfeeR, silent, Solent, relent, relen/s, disceRned, 

42 uneaRned, parent, parents, spurned, burnt, burned, torrent, 

43 torrents, churned, adjourned, scorned, current, currents, 

44 Farran^, mourned, learnt, learned, Derwen/, bloodhound, 

45 bloodhounds, behind. 

(d) IN WORDS OF MORE THAN ONE SYLLABLE A LETTER 
MAY GENERALLY BE HALVED FOR THE ADDITION OF EITHER 
/ OR d / 

1 patted, petted, pitied, plated, spotted, sprouted, sprinted, 

2 boated, bloated, bruited, taunted, tinted, daunted, deputed, 

3 charted, jointed, canted, descanted, recanted, granted, 

4 glinted, fated, floated, freighted, sifted, lifted, voted, 

5 invited, thirsted, ousted, snouted, mated, meted, noted, 

6 secreted, scented, looted, salted, stilted, tilted, jolted, 

7 rated, rooted, righted, waited, hated, heated, hooted, 

8 quitted, quilted, welted, imputed, whetted, planted, 

9 implanted, grated, flaunted, fluted, vaulted, assaulted, 

10 assorted, asserted, merited, smarted, snorted, looted, 

11 allotted, darted, started, weighted, plaudit, plaudits, 

12 pundit, expedite, alphabe/, alphabe/ical, between, detach, 

13 detachment, detached, decreed, decried, descried, budget, 

14 pledged, fidget, fidgets, midge/, midge/s, legitimate, wretched. 



WRITING EXERCISES 127 

15 brocade, brocades, ambuscade, castigate, abnegate, fumi- 

16 ga/e, eLongate, investigate, investigates, invigorate, 

17 integrate, disintegrate, ingra/itude, dentoid, tabled, doubled, 

18 driblet, goblet, oRbi/, rabbit, papered, tapered, capered, 

19 whispered, pottered, pestered, bolstered, cloistered, 

20 clustered, mastered, buttered, tottered, destroyed, chat- 

21 tered, scattered, clattered, cushioned, cautioned, appor- 

22 tioned, motioned, glittered, frittered, inveterate, spluttered, 

23 snattered, muttered, entered, centred, loitered, retried, 

24 puckered, peopled, toppled, dappled, coupled, grappled, 

25 supplied, replied, prattled, bottled, scuttled, victualed, 

26 settled, mottled, mantled, rattled, wattled, pickled, 

27 buckled, trickled, chuckled, cackled, cycled, shackled, 

28 tinkled, wrinkled, heckled, offered, suffered, pilfered, 

29 Alfred, Wilfred, Stamford, suited, seated, stuttered, stated, 

30 usHered, clamoured, rumoured, hammered, simmered, 

31 mannered, baffled, trifled, scuffled, snuffled, muffled, 

32 ruffled, rifled, marshaled, initialed, paneled, tunneled, 

33 channeled, kenneled, funneled, pillared, Pollard, dullard, 

34 collared, colored, discolored, referred, deferred, celebrate, 

35 Albert, filbert, box-wood, log-wood, firewood, greenwood, 

36 Fleetwood, Collingwood. 

(e) -ward AND -yard ARE EXPRESSED BY HALF-LENGTH w 

AND HALF-LENGTH y RESPECTIVELY : 

1 backward, forward, onward, inward, upward, outward, 

2 awkward, earthward, downward, Edward, southward, 

3 leeward, rearward, reward, Woodward, wayward, backyard, 

4 stockyard, dockyard, graveyard, halyard, Appleyard, 

5 thwart. 

(/) THE CONSONANTS m, n, I, AND r ARE HALVED AND 
THICKENED FOR THE ADDITION OF d : 

1 mad, mid, amid, mud, made, aimed, seemed, steamed, 

2 stemmed, palmed, primed, plumed, beamed, bloomed, 

3 brimmed, timid, timidity, timed, trimmed, streamed, 

4 deemed, dimmed, dreamed, chimed, gemmed, calmed, 



128 WRITING EXERCISES 

5 combed, skimmed, screamed, climbed, claimed, gummed, 

6 begrimed, gleamed, famed, flamed, framed, thumbed, 

7 thrummed, assumed, presumed, resumed, snamed, 

8 SHammed, maimed, embalmed, numbed, named, lamed, 

9 slammed, aRmed, disaRmed, unaRmed, unhaRmed, rammed, 

10 rimmed, roamed, humid, humidity, hemmed, hummed, 

11 need, annoyed, nod, owned, gnawed, send, sending, sand, 

12 sound, signed, stoned, swooned, poisoned emblazoned, 

13 designed, chastened, christened, glistened, fastened, 

14 Gravesend, thousand, seasoned, moistened, crimsoned, 

15 unending, Listened, Lessened, reasoned, resigned, wizened, 

16 yearned, oLd, piLed, paLed, peaLed, paLLed, boiLed, 

17 broiLed, bowLed, baLed, toiLed, tiLLed, tiLed, toLLed, 

18 unsettLed, distiLLed, extoLLed, doLed, chiLLed, cajoLed, 

19 kiLLed, skiLLed, scoLd, scaLd, queLLed, squeaLed, foiLed, 

20 faiLed, feLLed, fieLd, veiLed, avaiLed, reviLed, maiLed, 

21 mauLed, mouLd, untrammeLed, smiLed, naiLed, kneeLed, 

22 annuLLed, anneaLed, snarLed, luLLed, raiLed, ruLed, 

23 reeLed, imperiLed, bewaiLed, wieLd, heLd, hoLd, haLed, 

24 yieLd, yeLLed, quaiLed, impeLLed, aiRed, soaRed, stoRed, 

25 steeRed, peeRed, paiRed, despaiRed, imploRed, boRed, 

26 baRd, tiRed, retiRed, bestiRRed, festeRed, daRed, adoRed, 

27 chaRRed, jaRRed, injuRed, coRd, scoRed, scaRed, caRd, 

28 cleaRed, secuRed, unsecuRed, fiRed, faRed, foRd, affoRd, 

29 flooRed, veeRed, reveRed, SHaRed, assuRed, insuRed, 

30 maRRed, mooRed, smeaRed, besmeaRed, manuRed, snoRed, 

31 sneeRed, snaRed, haRd, heaRd, hoaRd, hi Red, acquiRed, 

32 requiRed, inquiRed, squaRed, impaiRed. 

(g) It is WRITTEN UPWARD, EXCEPT AFTER n, ng, w, OR kw : 

1 le^, late, lute, pelt, pelfe, spelt, pilot, belt, bells, bolt, bolts, 

2 ballot, billed, bulled, bullefe, tilt, tilts, silt, stilt, stilts, wilt, 

3 dolt, dolts, a.dult, dea.lt, delight, delude, dilutes, }ilt, ]olt, 

4 jolfe, kilt, kilts, colt, cult, occult, Kellet , guilt, gulled, fauM, 

5 faulfe, ielt, fillet, vault, vaults, revolt, rivulet, athlete, 

6 athletes, assault, assaulfe, salute, salutes, gaslight, rusnlighf, 

7 SHallo^, malt, melt, melts, omelet, amulet, gimlet, smelt, 



WRITING EXERCISES 129 

8 smel/s, hamlet, leafle/, lilt, staRligh/, relate, relates, halt, 

9 hal/s, hilt, inLetf, sunLigh/, moonLigh^, kneL^, ringLe^, 
10 dweL/, quiLt, quills. 

(h) THE CONSONANTS mp AND ng, WHEN HOOKED INITIALLY 
OR FINALLY MAY BE HALVED FOR / OR d : 

1 impugned, impound, impend, clambered, scampered, 

2 lumbered, limbered, slumbered, rampart, ramparts, 

3 whimpered, hampered, angered, anchored, tankard, tin- 

4 kered, drunkard, conquered, fingered, lingered, hankered, 

5 hungered. 



EXERCISE 117. 
The Halving Principle (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 116. 

GRAMMALOGUES. 

~ called, ^ cannot, _ could, ,_ great, ^ not, y short, P told, 
T toward, ( that, ( without. 

1 . Keep a strict eye upon the little poinfe ; see that they are 
attended to, and you will be greeted as a man of tac/ and good 
business habife. 2. BeaR in mind that devutedness to business 
need not induce an aiR of crabbiness in any man. 3. Kindness 
of heaRtf need not be kiLLed by astuteness of mind. 4. The 
merchant who is easily annoyed is voted a nuisance, and is 
seldom welcomed in any society. 5. There are men who have 
fougli/ their way to forAine and conquered in spite of bodily 
aiLmenfe, and yet have managed to retain a gen^Leness of 
manner that endeaRs them to all who know them. 6. Why 
should one's good feeLings be blunted by great success in life ? 
7. See if you cannot be charitable, even while you are exact. 8. 
Give people credit for good intentions, though you may aRgue 
aboutf the price of their articles. 9. Be proud to own merit 
wherever you find it ; and try to discover a bright spot in 

9-U7> 



130 WRITING EXERCISES 

the blackest cloud. 10. Do not, in short, seek to discount the 
happiness which may be youRs if you will onLy go a \\tt\e out 
of youR way to find it. 11. You need not be told that a good 
deed is a fount from which will spring pleasant though/s and 
kindly memories. 12. You should try to act towards those 
whom you are called upon to meet in business as, without doubt, 
you desiRe them to act towards you. 13. How could it be said 
that you deserved better treafrnen^ than you gave ? (254) 



EXERCISE 118. 
The Halving" Principle (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 116. 

1. He cannot be called great who does less than his best in 
any position of trust. 2. In short, he who could have done 
more and did not, is not even an honest man. 3. That, I think, 
goes almost without saying. 4. We do not always turn an eye 
of delight toward those who have told us of our faults ; but you 
know that the \\tt\e, hints / have ventured to give for youR 
guidance have been written for youR good, and I have a great 
faith in you, that you will see that they are turned to good 
account. 5. I cannot think that you will make light of my 
efforts, OR that they will be spurned by you as of little account 
6. FaR from it. 7. I am certain that you will note the sen- 
tences ; turn them over in youR mind, and if you find they 
touch upon a fault that you have been guilty of, that you 
will see to it that you are not caught again in the same net. 
8. Am / not right, and have I not gauged youR intentions 
accurately ? 9. / am glad to think that you agree. 10. / feaRed, 
at first, that you might feel, annoyed, and that I should have 
spaRed youR feeLings. 11. Let me, as an oLd man, add that 
a good beginning goes a long way towards a good ending, 
and that if you eaRnes/ly desiRe to amend youR faults you 
should begin now. (240) 



WRITING EXERCISES 131 

EXERCISE 119. 
The Halving- Principle (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 116. 

1. We have been told by a learned man that without doubtf 
the great faul/ of men is not to know where to stop ; not to be 
satisfied in the possession of any modera/e acquiRemen/s ; 
but to lose all we have gained in a greedy hunt for more. 2. The 
statement was made as the result of maluRe thought and keen 
stud}' of mankind, and its accuracy cannot, we feaR, be denied 
for a moment 3. Have we not all heaRd of men of wealth 
who have been reduced to extreme need in their oLd age through 
the failuRe of some mad scheme which they entered into in 
the hope of finding still greater wealth, and of thus extending 
their poweR in the country ? 4. If their wiLd plans had 
succeeded how much better off could these men have hoped 
to be for the short time they had to remain in the world ? 5. 
They hurried to find more, and they faiLed to hoLd that which 
they had already saved. 6. They turned their eyes toward 
a faLse light, and they were led astray. 7. The drunkard is 
rightly called a madman ; but he is quite as mad who allows 
his reason to be clouded by greed. (200) 



EXERCISE 120. 
The Halving Principle (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 116. 

1 . It was Edmund Burke, a noted statesman and a profound 
thinker, who said that the first accounts we have of mankind 
are but so many accounts of their butcheries, and that all 
empiRes have been cemented in blood. 2. He poin/s out 
that it involved the sacrifice of many hundreds of thousands 
of lives to spread the fame and found the name of one of the 
mili/ary leaders whom the worLd looks upon as a grand hero. 



132 WRITING EXERCISES 

3. The disputes be/ween the ancient Greek states, he says, 
foRm one of the most dreadful scenes in history ; and one 
marvels to find that such a small spot was able to produce men 
enough to sacrifice to the pitiful ambition of possessing five OR 
six thousand more acres of land, OR a few more villages. 4. 
Ye/, he adds, to see the acrimony and bitterness which entered 
mto these disputes ; the aRmies which were cut off ; the fleets 
that were sunk and burn/ ; the cities that were sacked, and 
their peoples slaughtered and captived ; one migh/ be induced 
to think that the decision of the fate of mankind, at least, 
depended upon it. 5. But, he goes on to say, these disputes 
ended, as all such have ever done, and ever will do, in a loss 
of poweR by all parties ; a momentary SHadow and dream 
of poweR in some one ; and the bending of all to the yoke of an 
outsider, who knows how to profit by their divisions. 6. There 
is no need, says Burke, to exaggerate these frigh/ful evils, and 
he purposely avoids a SHOW of eloquence in laying these facts 
baRe to the worLd. 7. And, cer/ainLy, we who read ac<;oun/s 
of the torren/s of human blood which were sned by the fieRce 
men of OLd, are bound to agree that exaggeration is not needed 
to increase the hoRROR of the recital. (308) 



EXERCISE 121. 
The Halving 1 Principle (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 116. 

Mr. Edward Smart. 

Dear SiR, We enclose invoices in duplicate for the paten/ 
bed quiL/s kindly ordered on the fourth of October. We sen/ 
them /o-day, packed as you desiRed, to the Eas/ Dock, for 
snipmen/ peR steameR " Madeline." We also enclose state- 
men/ for the goods, discoun/ deducted, as requested. We 
trust the quiL/s will have a rapid sale, resul/ing in a good profit, 
and we hope the presen/ will be followed_by many similaR 
transactions. YOURS faithfully, Alfred BroadhuRst and Sons. 

(82) 



WRITING EXERCISES 133 

EXERCISE 122. 
The Halving- Principle (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 116. 

MCSSRS. Kelle# and Woodward. 

Dear SiRs, YOUR SHipmen/ of soft fel/ hate invoiced on the, 
25th uL/imo came duly to hand, and as the goods exac^Ly 
suited our customeRs we made very rapid sales and cleaRed 
the \ot at good prices. We enclose our sight draft on Lloyds 
Bank, to settle the amoun/ of youR account, and we shall be 
obliged if you will kindly forward receipt peR return mail. 
Referring to youR esteemed favor of the 20th uL/imo, we are 
wai/ing on our friends who inquiRed abou* the emblazoned 
prin/s, and we trust the pa/ferns you /orwarded may be found 
to please them. We will write you the result of our efforts 
in a few days. Will you kindly note that the twiLLed snee/s 
as peR our indent, No. 56, need not be insuRed on youR side ? 
YOURS truly, Maddox and Greenwood (145). 



EXERCISE 123. 
The Halving 1 Principle (continued). 

(a) HALF-SIZED t OR d is ALWAYS DISJOINED WHEN IMME- 
DIATELY FOLLOWING THE CONSONANT t OR d. 

In the following words, the syllable which is to be disjoined 
is preceded by a hyphen : 

1 preci pita-ted, perpetra-ted, prostra-ted, protru-ded, 

2 obtru-ded, oblitera-ted, tra-ded, tro-tted, trea-ted, ti-ded, 

3 tou-ted, tri-den*, ta-tooed, too-ted, stru-tted, straigh-tened, 

4 stri-den/, titra-ted, tigh-tened, atti-tude, toa-died, 

5 situa-ted, da-ted, do-ted, edi-ted, doub-ted, do-tted, 

6 drea-ded, dea-dened, de-tained, devasta-ted, denta-ted, 

7 desidera-ted, dicta-ted, die-ted, die-teric, di-eterical, 

8 depreda-ted, agita-ted, extra-dife, credi-ted, expectora-ted, 

9 crepita-ted, crusta-ted, cogita-ted, expedi-ted, oxida-ted, 



134 WRITING EXERCISES 

10 sequestra-ted, frustra-ted, filtra-ted, effectua-ted, felicita- 

11 ted, fluctua-ted, foreda-ted, vegeta-ted, estrea-ted, 

12 imita-ted, amputa-ted, maltrea-ted, necessita-ted, anteda- 

13 ted, inunda-ted, annota-ted, intru-ded, entrea-ted, intimida- 

14 ted, illustra-ted, liquida-ted, elucida-ted, resuscita-ted, 

15 rota-ted, retrea-ted, irrita-ted, rehabilita-ted, hesita-ted, 

16 hydra-ted, super-abound, super-abundan/, super- 

17 abundance, stra/i-fy, stra/i-fied. 

(b) HALF-SIZED STROKE s MAY BE WRITTEN UPWARD AFTER 

THE -/tOW HOOK WHERE NECESSARY, AS IN THE FOLLOWING 
WORDS : 

1 liberationism, Salvationist, fashionis/, restorationis/, excur- 

2 sionis/, progressionist, educationist, eLocutionis/. 

The half-sized stroke s is written downward in the following 
and similar words: 

1 passionis/, abolitionis/, prohibitionis/, evolutionist, revolu- 

2 tionis/, obstructionist, protectionist, insurrectionist 

(c) HALF-LENGTH UPWARD r MUST NOT STAND ALONE, NOR 

WITH A FINAL CIRCLE ONLY ADDED. 

The stroke t must, therefore, be written in such words as : 

1 rate, wrote, write, writes, rat, rats, roots, wrought, rout, 

2 irate, orate, orates ; 

But the half-length upward r may be employed in words 
like the following : 

1 spor/, support, blurt, tart, start, satura/e, satura/es, satura/- 

2 ing, dart, darts, darting, jura/, care/, skirt, skirts, clare/, 

3 squirt, squirts, squirting, wheel-wrigh/, impart, imparts, 

4 imparting, import, fort, forts, flirt, flirts, avert, averts, 

5 averting, assort, assorts, assorting, sort, sorts, sorting, 

6 mar/, mar/in, merit, merits, demerits, alert, lacera/e, 

7 lacera/es, exhilara/es, ulcera/es, exert, exerts, exerting, 

8 parro/, parro/s, Barre//, turret, indurate, exaggera/e, 

9 chlora/e, garre/, garrets, ierret, ferre/s, smarten, smartened, 
10 cellaret, collaret. 



WRITING EXERCISES 135 

(d) HALF-LENGTH UPWARD r MAY BE USED FOR rd IN 

MONOSYLLABLES WHERE THE DOWNWARD FORM IS NOT 
CONVENIENT, AS IN: 

1 Ian/, lain/, lured, leered, gored, gourd, glared, geared, 

2 slurred. 

(e) A HALF-LENGTH STROKE MUST NOT BE JOINED TO 
ANOTHER STROKE UNLESS THERE is AN ANGLE AT THE POINT 
OF JUNCTION. 

In words like the following, the t or d must be written in full : 

1 popped, peeped, propped, pooped, probed, probate, 

2 probatory, bobbed, bribed, judged, adjudged, cooked, 

3 crooked, cracked, kicked, creaked, cricket, croaked, 

4 caked, caulked, clicked, eclectic, clacked, croaked, cloaked, 

5 clucked, cogged, clogged, quaked, squeaked, segregate, 

6 gagged, fagged, flagged, flogged, fact, effect, suffocate, 

7 pacificatory, afflict, deflect, flaked, infect, effectual, 

8 fagot, navigate, vacate, evict, revoked, thicket, liked, 

9 looked, licked, lacked, locked, slaked, select, dialect, 

10 dialectic, dialectical, dislocate, disliked, silicate, sulked, 

11 shelled, shield, milked, mulct, relict, frolicked, bulked, 

12 bilked, harried, horrid, hurried, abhorred, adhered, 

13 reheard, dehort, roared, reared, upreared, mirrored, weird, 

14 award, worried, wearied, wired, propound, mapped, 

15 mopped, mobbed, imbibed, masned, mesned, smasned, 

16 lashed, slashed, polished, famisHed, ambusned, unblem- 

17 isned, denote, slip-knot, topknot, obstinate, minute, 

18 emanate, effeminate, laminate, abominate, promenade, 

19 dominate, incriminate, discriminate, fuLminate, ruminate, 

20 animate, inanimate. 

(/) FINAL / OR d, WHEN FOLLOWED BY A SOUNDED VOWEL 

MUST BE WRITTEN IN FULL : 

1 pity, pretty, putty, body, tattoo, treaty, dado, daddy, 

2 chatty, Judy, Jeddo, Cato, Kitty, cotta, cutty, giddy, goody, 

3 greedy, fatty, flighty, fruity, fifty, lofty, mufti, throaty, 

4 hasty, smutty, mighty, middy, meadow, muddy, knotty, 



136 WRITING EXERCISES 

5 snanty, lattice, alto, party, dirty, charity, security, forty, 

6 verity, variety, authority, assertive, temerity, hilarity, 

7 rarity, wordy, weighty, witty, yeasty, absentee, needy, 

8 windy, bandy, agenda, candy, SHindy, hardy, brandy, 

9 sandy, haughty, jollity, unwieldy, quota, tardy, Florida. 

(g) THE CONSONANTS l-d AND r-d MUST BE WRITTEN IN FULL, 
IF A SOUNDED VOWEL COMES BETWEEN THE LETTERS : 

1 pallid, pillowed, ballad, bullied, outlawed, dallied, delayed, 

2 delude, jellied, collide, collude, gullied, followed, valid, 

3 valued, volleyed, invalid, sullied, solid, stolid, swallowed, 

4 wallowed, willowed, shallowed, malady, mellowed, melody, 

5 inlaid, unload, unloading, lad, led, lid, allowed, loud, lied, 

6 rallied, relaid, waylaid, Valladolid, hallowed, hollowed, 

7 holiday, High-road, parody, parried, burrowed, buried, 

8 borrowed, tarried, tirade, deride, carried, corrode, scurried, 

9 chloride, curried, gloried, furrowed, flurried, varied, 

10 thyroid, Ethelred, arrayed, erode, sorrowed, storied, 

11 serried, charade, married, narrowed, inroad, lurid, salaried, 

12 pilloried, galleried, wearied, worried, queried, preparedness. 

(h) MISCELLANEOUS WORDS IN WHICH THE HALVING 
PRINCIPLE is APPLIED : 

1 widowed, Walford, Thwaifes, Tennan^, snetland, Portland, 

2 Presco#, Nugent, mountain, Merton, Mainland, Madely, 

3 London, candLe, scandaL, ChesterfieLd, Broadway, Bedford, 

4 Atwood, Antony, zoned, yawned, recount, recoun/s, wooded, 

5 worsnipped, wont, witnessed, withered, wickered, whooped, 

6 whipped, watched, dead-weight, blood-hea/, volumed, 

7 vivified, rarefied, visited, answered, visored, officered, 

8 voidance, vindicate, vindicated, vendetta, veldt, invent, 

9 inventory, Vandyke, valved, vaun/, vapid, vapidity, 

10 vapored, vaciLLate, used, uttered, usurped, upstart, 

11 uproot, behaved, upheaved, untutored, upbraid, unsound, 

12 unsupported, unscathed, unraveled, relent, pestilent, 

13 unpaved, unoffending, explained, undimmed, estimate, 



WRITING EXERCISES 137 

14 estimated, unshackled, twiLLed, twitched, toddled, turreted, 

15 started, thwarted, twisted, tugged, tubed, turbid, turbidity, 

16 trucked, trudged, traveLed, trawLed, trafficked, attracted, 

17 sported, pirated, dirtied, skirted, garroted, tor/, retort, 

18 distort, toned, entitled, thrashed, thrived, threaded, clapped, 

19 thoughtful, though/Less, rivet, riveted, tattered, tasted, 

20 attend, attendant, retained, distrained, attentive, atten- 

21 lively, tumbled, stumbled, resembled, grumbled, replete, 

22 risked, masked, whisked, talen/, Solen/, talented, tamarind, 

23 unturned, taunting, taun/ingLy, symmetry, system, sys- 

24 tema/ic, systema/ical, energetic, synthetical, syringed, 

25 fringed, aRRanged, disaRRanged, strapped, strict, stric/ly, 

26 swopped, swoRd, swoRdsman, switched, swif/, swif/Ly, 

27 inked, blinked, clinked, banked, swaRmed, swathed, 

28 suspend, appoint, appoin/ing, respiRed, suRmoun/, SUR- 

29 mounts, sustained, survived, surcharged, supped, sunLi/, 

30 suggested, succumbed, succored, subvert, subsisted, submit, 

31 submitted, submerged, subjoined, subiugate, stemmed, 

32 struggled, stopped, stocked, starched, parched, marched, 

33 birched, squiRmed, speckled, spent, spend, spends, solved, 

34 snoRt, snoRts, assoRtmen/, smiLed, slobbered, snapped, 

35 smelted, pillaged, sleet, slightly, snu^ing, snouted, sheltered, 

36 shaved, severed, serrated, sergeant, sergeants, sequestered, 

37 servan/, observant, servants, infan/s, seceded, saved, 

38 deceived, relieved, rodent, rodenfe, pardoned, riband, 

39 resumed, presumed, aRRested, resignedLy, reputed, reseated, 

40 report, reported, reporting, reports, rectify, rectified, reflect, 

41 reflected, regimen/, regiments, ra/ify, gra/ify, gra/ified, 

42 punt, pound, procuRed, problematic, portend, plastered, 

43 posted, pacified, overcrowded, neighbored, muske/, mortaL, 

44 maudlin, libera/e, liberated, knit, knitted, accoun/an/, 

45 ingrained, insert, inserted, impolite, penitent, penitents, 

46 habited, gripped, gladdened, genteeL, fortified, facilitate, 

47 except, excepted, eliminated, e]ect, ejected, driLLed, delved, 

48 decked, vanished, coRked, coasted, sampled, trampled, 

49 acted, gutted, breadth, bounded, grounded, rounded, 

50 wended, bigoted, SHun/, snun/s, approved, braved. 



138 WRITING EXERCISES 

(t) THE CONSONANTS m/> AND wg CANNOT BE HALVED 

UNLESS THEY ARE HOOKED. 

In the following and similar words the t or d must be written 
in full : 

1 impute, ambit, ambidexter, embattle, embayed, embed, 

2 embedding, embitter, imbued, crumpet, trumpet, gambit, 

3 stampede, snampooed, pronged, banged, tongued, stringed, 

4 clanged, fanged, thronged, hanged, longed, belonged, 

5 prolonged, ringed, wronged, harangued. 



EXERCISE 124. 
The Halving 1 Principle (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 116. 

1. Not even the wisest and most prudent merchant can 
predict an absolute certainty of gain for a new venture. 2. He 
cannot be exac/Ly certain that things will faLL out just as he 
hopes, and that s ales will result as readily and as profitably as 
he may desiRe. 3. In short, he must risk a great deal in spite 
of all his foresight, and without risk he cannot hope to succeed. 
4. We are told that some of those gifted and successfuL men 
toward whom we turn for guidance and advice have been 
guilty of the same business CRRORS that we have faLLen into ; 
but they learned to avoid them, so that they could not be caugh/ 
repeatedly in the same snaRe. 5. And this is one of the great 
Lessons we are catted upon to learn from these cleaR minded 
men, who have made their way and won fortunes in spite of 
obstacles that might easily have daunted men of less ability 
and breadth of mind. 6. In fact, / daRe say it is true to 
state that the successes of some of these men were ac/ually 
scoRed through, OR on account of, the very obstacles which 
appeaRed to baR their way, but which their resolute heaR/s 
deteRmined should not stop their forward career. 7. They 
ielt a positive cleligh/ in measuring their poweRs against the 
troubles that rose up in fron^ of them ; and they conquered 
these troubles, not so much on account of the wealth they migli/ 



WRITING EXERCISES 139 

gain there-by, but for the reason that they declined to admit 
that they could be beaten at the first effort to climb the ladder 
of fortune. 8. To parody an oLd saying, " It is better to have 
tried and ia.ii.ed, than not to have tried at all." (290) 



EXERCISE 125. 

The Halving 1 Principle (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 116. 

1. A certain professor has pointed out that a baby learns 
more rapidly than the most gifted schoLar, trained and educated 
in the Highes/ seminaries in the land. 2. Is it not amazing 
in how short a time Baby gets to know a great deal about the 
mighty worLd in which he has so recency landed ? 3. He 
finds he is surrounded by friends whom lie does not know, 
and by things which are enflRely strange to him. 4. Yet he 
and his friends are soon acquainted, and he seldom faiLs to 
greet them on their appearance. 5. His eyes are turned 
swif^Ly backward and forward, upward and downward, in the 
room in which he is placed. 6. He has some/imes an appa- 
ren/ly though/ful look, as though he were mentally noting the 
many and varied articles presented to his view. 7. He sees and 
knows his paren/s the moment they step into the room, and his 
\\tt\o, hands are lifted upward toward the one who should lift him 
from his cot. 8. He will just as readily resent the attentions 
of those who have, as he thinks, intru-ded upon him, OR trea-ted 
him unkindly. 9. Then, as the professor has intima-ted, Baby 
must learn to find his way in safety about the stree/s of the 
town OR the lanes of the country place in which he lives. 10. All 
the things he sees must be written indelibly upon his mind, 
named and ticketed, as *'/ were, rooted ad fixed so fiRmly 
in his brain that they will remain there while memory enduRes. 
11. Try to estimate the quantity of facts which Baby Aas to 
get hoLd of ; note the short time in which he does it ; and then 
imagine the state of mind of a grown man who was obliged to 
face the same task. (294) 



140 WRITING EXERCISES 

EXERCISE 126. 
The Halving- Principle (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 116. 

MCSSRS. Stamford and Martin. 

Dear SIRS, We are greatly obliged by youR favor of the 
10th instant, and, as requested, we enclose a copy of our 
illustra-ted ca/alogue of our patent short wind watches in 
plated metal cases. We cannot say how deeply we regret 
that our traveLLer has not yet called upon you, and that you have 
been put to the trouble of writing us. We have told him to call 
upon you without faiL on his visit to youR town toward the end 
of October. He could easily have snown you samples of the 
goods named in the enclosed list, and you could have judged 
better the value of them, had he called last month, as we oRdered 
him. We shall be pleased to forward you an assoRtmen^ of 
any of the watches included in the list, and we can assuRe 
you that they are absolu/ely reliable goods. YOURS faithfully, 
Godfrey Maddox and Sons. (156) 

EXERCISE 127. 
The Halving- Principle (concluded). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 116. 
Mrs. Wood. 

Dear Madam, We regret that we cannot supply a match for 
the High grade tea service referred to in youR note of Saturday 
last, at such very short notice. We can readily manage it 
toward the end of the present month, if you can aRRange to do 
without it un^L then. Our Mr. Blackwood called on the makers 
last Monday, and urged upon them the necessity of the case ; 
but he was told that it was simply not possible to make the 
plates sooner. We have great faith in the expressed desiRe 
of the fiRm to oblige us, as the transactions beAveen them and us 
are very extensive. If you are in town to-morrow we shall be 
glad if you will kindly give us a call. We are, Madam, YOURS 
faithfully, Blackwood and MayfieLd. (136) 



WRITING EXERCISES 141 

EXERCISE 128. 
The Double-Length Principle. 

In this Exercise, and in Exercises 129 to 133 inclusive, the 
italic type indicates (in words other than grammalogues 
or contractions) the letter or syllable which is to be 
doubled in length. 

(a) CURVED CONSONANTS ARE DOUBLED IN LENGTH FOR 
THE ADDITION OF tr, dr OR thr (HEAVY) : 

1 fatter, fetter, fitters, father, fatherly, /ather-in-Law, father- 

2 land, /atherless, floater, flatter, flitters, flutter, fluters, 

3 sifter, sifters, swifter, softer, fighter, freighter, fritter, 

4 voter, voters, thither, thitherward, aster, asters, faster, 

5 easterly, ylwsterlitz, oyster, oysters, sister, sisters, sisterly, 

6 sisterhood, sister-in-Law, Zuyder Zee, snatter, snatters, 

7 scattering, snutter, snooter, snooters, matter, matters, 

8 swatter, smattereR, meter, meters, motor, motors, matter, 

9 mt'tre, switer, mowther, mother, motherly, mothers, neater, 

10 knitter, natter, wither, neuter, another, enter, enters, 

11 centre, centres, entering, centering, centraL, centralize, 

12 centralizing, centralization, centric, centrical, enteritis, 

13 enteric, saunter, saunters, sauntering, sunder, SunderLand, 

14 sender, senders, cinder, CindereLLa, senator, lighter, 

15 lighters, loiter, loiters, latter, letter, letters, litter, later, 

16 litre, slighter, slater, s/aters, s/aughter, s/aughters, alter, 

17 alters, altering, alterable, altarcloth, psalter, Walter, 

18 welter, welters, wilder, w'/derness, swelter, halter, order, 

19 orders, orderly, ardour, sorter, sorters, herder, hoarder. 
(6) DOUBLE-LENGTH CURVES (CONTINUED) : 

1 shifter, lifter, lifters, laughter, re/wter, renters, grand- 

2 father, provider, providers, coveter, coveters, invader, 

3 invtter, invt'ters, elevator, elevators, excavator, riveter, 

4 riveters, sem'tor, Zoroaster, peashooter, pulsometer, 

5 diameter, gas-meter, chronometer, cyclometer, thermometer, 

6 remoter, remitter, grandmother, stepmother, godmother, 

7 grand/ather, presenter, pleasanter, absenter, dissenter, 

8 dissenters, decentraLize, decentraLization, accentor, 



142 WRITING EXERCISES 

9 eccentric, eccentrical, dysenteric, declinator, declinators, 

10 venerator, re-enter, re-enters, palter, pa/ters, spe/ter, 

1 1 po//wter, bui/der, bui/ders, bolder, bi/ateral,ti/ter, tabu/ator, 

12 idolater, idolaters, diluter, adulator, dilator, ]olter, collator, 

13 scai-der, gilder, gilders, fa/ter, fa/tering, fa/teringLy, 

14 defau/ter, vaulter, revo/ter, stockho/der, leaseho/der, 

15 househo/der, scrip-ho/der, gas-ho/der, stipu/ator, stimn- 

16 lator, smelter, mutilator, moulder, smoulder, smou/dering, 

17 beholder, accumu/ator, dissimu/ator, emulator, modulator, 

18 insulator, insulators, insulter, annini/ator, re/ater, holder, 

19 qui/ter, ambulator, porter, supporter, exporter, importer, 

20 barter, border, borderer, borderers, boarder, Tartar, 

21 tartaric, starter, darter, disorder, charter, charterer, 

22 assorter, smarter, snorter, hurter, imparter, assertor, 

23 resonator, wasH-/eather, Jacobs-/adder, mis/eader, breech- 

24 loader, muzzle-Zoader, ringleader, backslider. 

(c) DOUBLE-LENGTH CURVES (CONTINUED ) : 

1 fender, fenders, offenders, fonder, founder, finder, bell- 

2 founder, vendor, vendors, inventor, inventors, lavender, 

3 thunder, thunders, thunderer, asunder, snunter, snuntcrs, 

4 mender, mentor, mentors, iomenter, cementer, minder, 

5 reminder, reminders, remainder, mounter, suRmounter, 

6 anomter, anotnters, lander, islander, islanders, slander, 

7 slender, cylinder, cylinders, cy&ndric, cy/tndrical, engender, 

8 calendar, calendered, Highlander, low/ander, impounder, 

9 imponderable. 

(d) STRAIGHT LETTERS, WHEN FINALLY HOOKED, ARE 
DOUBLED IN LENGTH FOR THE ADDITION OF tr OR o> : 

1 painter, painters, pander, panders, spender, spenders, 

2 planter, splinter, splinters, supplanter, splendor, ponder, 

3 ponderable, pounder, pointer, banter, banters, bantering, 

4 oanteringLy, oantereR, oender, binder, bounder, brander, 

5 blunder, blundereR, Wwnderbuss, 6/wndering, Wwnderhead, 

6 blender, absconder, taunter, taunters, tender, tendering, 

7 ft'nder, attainder, slander, s/anders, Tranter, dander, 



WRITING EXERCISES 143 

8 chanter, chanters, gender, jointer, canter, canters, kinder, 

9 counter, counters, seconder, gander, ganders, grander, 

10 granter, grunter, squinter, squander, squanders, squandering 

11 squandereR, ranter, ranters, render, surrender, surrenders, 

12 surrendereR, rounder, rounders, wander, wandereR, wanders 

13 winter, winterly, winters, wonder, wonders, winder, yonder, 

14 hunter, hunters, hinder, hindereR, hindermost, hinders, 

15 haunter, depender, decanter, engender, encownters, African- 

16 der, suspender. 

(e) STRAIGHT LETTERS, WHEN FOLLOWING ANOTHER STROKE, 
ARE DOUBLED IN LENGTH FOR THE ADDITION OF tr OR dr : 

1 paper-ctttter, paritor, apparitor, play-writer, play -writers, 

2 porterage, preceptor, predictor, presfryter, prevaricator, 

3 procurator, prognosticate^ projector, propagator, pros- 

4 pector, protector, protectors, protractor, operator, 

5 operators, backbiter, banqueter, barrator, bespatter, 

6 abnegator, abductor, abstractor, obstructer, objector, 

7 objectors, obturator, tractor, transactor, twitter, twittering, 

8 typewriter, typewriters, attractor, educator, dedicator, 

9 defecator, dejector, deprecator, depurator, dessicator, 

10 detractor, dictator, disputer, dissector, disswader, 

11 distributer, diverter, duplicator, adapter, adductor, 

12 adulterator, eductor, edulcorator, chapter, chaff-cwtter, 

13 gesticw/ator, adjudicator, cantor, curator, castigator, 

14 extractor, exhibitor, acceptor, executor, exonerator, 

15 exacfer, expurgator, explicator, expecter, garroter, glass- 

16 cwtter, fabricator, fore&oder, averter, vindicator, stricter, 

17 spectre, speculator, subjugator, subtracter, supplicator, 

18 suspecter, aspirator, moderator, mitigator, man-hater, 

19 masquerader, em&roider, emena'ator, imitator, emancipator, 

20 nectar, news-writer, nomenc/ator, numerator, annotetor, 

21 anticipator, inceptor, indicator, inductor, inflicter, 

22 instigator, investigator, inspector, inspectors, lubricator, 

23 letter-writer, liberator, celefcrator, liquidator, eLector, 

24 eLectoraL, aLLigator, elaborator, illustrator, reflector, 

25 rector, rectors, reiwtter, recuperator, refrigerator, rejecter, 



144 WRITING EXERCISES 

26 reverter, roMor, aRbitoztor, eRector, wood-cutter, stone- 

27 cutter, Hector. 

(/) IN COMMON WORDS -ture MAY BE INDICATED BY MAKING 

THE PRECEDING STROKE DOUBLE-LENGTH : 

1 feature, features, future, futures, signature, adventure, 

2 adventures, adventureR, adventuresome, adventurous, 

3 adventurously, adventuress, picture, pictures, picture-book, 

4 picture-frame, depicture, disru/>ture. 

(g) THE CONSONANT mp is DOUBLED IN LENGTH FOR THE 
ADDITION OF r. THE CONSONANT ng is DOUBLED IN LENGTH 
FOR THE ADDITION OF kr OR gr : 

1 pamper, pimpernel, pumper, plumper, bumper, Bam&er, 

2 tamper, temper, timber, attemper, attem/>erment, 

3 temperament, distemper, damper, cham&er, chamberlain, 

4 cham&ermaid, jumper, camber, Cumberland, vamper, 

5 thumper, simper, simpereR, sombre, stumper, stamper, 

6 amber, am&ergris, ember, umber, Hum&er (tick h), snrinker 

7 (shring-ker), snanker, (shang-ker), longer (long-ger). 

(h) AFTER INITIAL /, dr OR thr is EXPRESSED BY THE 
HOOKED FORMS ] , ) , AND NOT BY DOUBLING THE LENGTH 
OF THE /. SIMILARLY, AFTER /, sh, m, THE SYLLABLE dr is 

EXPRESSED BY ], AND NOT BY DOUBLING THE LENGTH OF 
THE /, sh OR m. 

The double-length principle, therefore, is not used in the 
following or similar words. 

1 alder, alderman, elder, elderly, Alderley, older, ladder, 

2 leader, louder, slider, lather, leather, Lowther (/ up), 

3 Luther (I up), feeder, fodder, SHedder, madder, Modder. 

(*') THE PAST TENSE OF VERBS ENDING IN tr, dr, thr, mpr OR 

IS EXPRESSED BY THE HALVING PRINCIPLE : 



1 en-tered, cen-tred, ma-ttered, mu-ttered, pond-eRed, 

2 pand-eRed, splint-eRed, bant-eRed, tend-eRed, engen-deRed, 



WRITING EXERCISES 145 

3 cant-eRed, squand-eRed, encount-eRed, fla-ttered, fea- 

4 thered, floun-dered, thun-dered, sun-dered, sna-ttered, 

5 smo-thered, saun-tered, cin-dered, al-tered, fal-tered, 

6 smoul-dered, sland-eRed, calend-eRed, oR-dered, disoR- 

7 dered, chaR-tered, rend-ered, surrend-ered, wond-ered, 

8 wand-ered, wint-ered, hind-ered, Hec-tored, pam-pered, 

9 tam-pered, tem-pered, tim-bered, sim-pered, advent-tmed. 

(See Exercises on the Halving Principle for further illustra- 
tions.) 

(/) THE DOUBLE-LENGTH PRINCIPLE CANNOT BE EMPLOYED 
IN WORDS LIKE THE FOLLOWING, WHERE FlNAL Y IS 
FOLLOWED BY A SOUNDED VOWEL : 

1 pant-ry, splin-tery, pal-try, bound-ary, chan-try, gen-try, 

2 second-ary, quand-ary, fla-ttery, fea-thery, vo-tary, 

3 invent-ory, thund-ery, sun-dry, sen- try, cin-dery, mo-thery, 

4 smoul-dry, en-try, dysen-tery, pleasan-try, lott-ery, sul-try, 

5 desult-ory, ul-tra, wint-ry, hunt-ress. 



EXERCISE 129. 

Double-Length Principle (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 128. 

1. Small matters sometimes turn men into disputers and 
debaters, and once started they may linger 1-onger than is 
desirable on awkward topics. 2. Then they do not like to 
surrender their notions to counter aRguments. 3. / have 
often encounteRed instances of heated discussions, the results 
of which mattered not a straw to anybody. 4. In the case 
of ill-tempered people, these debates may soon engender a 
disposition to quaRRel, and change the debaters into fighters 
willing to slaughter one another. 5. It is easily done, if one 
man looks upon another as a starter OR instigator of trouble. 
6. A muttered syllable ; a half muttered retort ; even an 
altered tone of voice may act like a spark faLLing on gun- 
powder, and cause an explosion. 7. Then may follow charges 

io (27) 



146 WRITING EXERCISES 

of slander ; accusations of blunder, and possibly of plunder 
OR of pandering to others ; and the result is disorder and upset 
all round. 8. You can readily picture to youRself how such 
trouble might begin in the discussion of a very simple watter. 
9. If, then, you are a participator in a debate look to youR 
temper, and take care not to be a snouter OR brawleR. (189) 



EXERCISE ISO. 
Double-Length Principle (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 128. 

1. The rector appeaRed to ponder a while, and as he pondeRed 
his features relaxed into a kinder and milder expression. 
2. Then he spoke as follows : The man who can restrain his 
temper and curb his anger is a greater victor than the fighter 
who is able to subdue his physical foe. 3. And so, let not 
thy temper prevaiL over thee, but smother it eRe it blaze 
forth to thy sname. 4. Pander not unduly to thy tastes ; 
for many a man's hopes have been SHattered through his 
appetite being stronger than his will. 5. It takes but a tiny 
stimu/ator to restart a fiRe that is smou/dering. 6. BaRter 
not thy future peace for a present folly. 7. A prudent liver 
will be a provider for the future, as well as a spender for the 
present. 8. The instigator of plunder is as guilty as he who 
has plundeRed. 9. A tender appeal may touch a wandereR 
as foRcibly as an ill-tempered threat. 10. A disoRdered 
house will not win a man from his club. 11. The neater the 
home, the swifter will be the return of the husband. 12. Not 
everyone who has loitered has delayed. 13. LaugAter does 
not always prove joy ; nor does a teaR in all cases SHOW pain. 
14. Seven feet of earth will prove enough at last for the biggest 
househo/der. 15. The loudest SH outers are seldom found 
in the centre of a fight. 16. He who has slandeRed his neigh- 
bour is a defrauder of the worst kind. 17. He who has blun- 
deRed, and not seen his fault, has blundeRed in vain. 18. The 
wheels of life run more smoothly if assisted by the kindness 



WRITING EXERCISES 147 

of one toward another ; for sympathy is a rare lubricator. 
19. He who surrenders his will to an evil habit is fettered in the 
strongest chains. (291) 



EXERCISE 131. 

Double-Length Principle (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 128. 

1. The first month in the calendar derives its name 
from Janus, an ancient king of Italy, who was raised to the 
altar by the leaders of the Romans (upward R) and worsnipped 
as a god by those ido/aters. 2. He was said to be possessed of 
attributes of a nigh o#der, and was snown seated in the centre 
of a dozen altars. 3. His statue had a couple of faces, one of 
which was supposed to be that of an elderly sage, who, in the 
winter of his days, loitered for a while 1-onger between 
the worLd of the past and the world of the future. 4. The 
Romans were great fighters, and were the subjugators of many 
peoples ; they possessed in their senators men whose names 
were rendered famous by their wisdom ; yet they were very 
credulous in matters of worsnip. 5. They rarely pondeRed 
upon the absurdities put forward by the instigators OR origina- 
tors of new foRms of heathen worsnip, but surrendered their 
minds without hesitation to their leaders in such matters. 
6. They thought the god Janus looked back to the worLd 
as it was CRC the thunders and rain of the deluge had snattered 
its splendour and for a time turned it into a wilderness and 
disorder. 7. The other face of the statue wore another 
expression. 8. It was smoother and milder in appearance, 
suggestive of a youth who looked forward eagerly and hopefully 
to the /ture. 9. This was to indicate the poweR of the god 
to foresee events which were yet to happen. 10. And so the 
Romans turned to Janus as their defender against future 
disasters, as well as their protector in present encounters. 
11. He was the ho/der of the key by which aLone entrance 
could be obtained to the other gods ; so that all prayeRs to them 



148 WRITING EXERCISES 

were tendeRed through him. 12. His chamber was the 
temple of peace. 13. Its dooRs were closed in times of 
peace, and open at other times. 14. The temper and military 
ardour of the Roman people may be judged from the fact 
that the temple of Janus was onLy SHut three times in seven 
centuries. (347) 

EXERCISE 132. 

Double-Length Principle (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 128. 

MCSSRS. Poster and Bawoer. 

Dear SIRS, In answer to youR /etter of the 2nd instant, re 
MCSSRS. Anderson and Chambers, we are happy to be able to 
report most favourably of our friends. The fiRm is a tho- 
roughly well-founded one. They are inventors of the well- 
known automatic knitter which beaRs their name, and in 
which they do a big business as exporters. They are also 
patentees of macninery for /etterpress printers and type 
mou/ders. Mr. Anderson is a snaReho/der in a bui/ders' 
and decorators' supply stoRes, in Cumberland. Mr. Chambers 
is part proprietor of the immense wharf on the river side heRe. 
The signature of either of them is good enough for faR more 
than you name. We have seldom encounteRed kinder OR 
more straightforward people. YOURS faithfully, Hunter and 
Mather. (132) 

EXERCISE 133. 
Double-Length Principle (concluded). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 128. 

Mr. Walter Winter. 

Dear SiR, YOUR /etter re Mr. ARthur Tranter duly received. 
We had a couple of small orders for lettered counterpanes 
from him last winter, and in both cases he paid ready casn. 
We wonder why he gave you our name, and, we think he has 



WRITING EXERCISES 149 

blundeRed in referring to us, instead of to others who may 
have known him 1-onger. We regret we are unable to render 
you more assistance in this matter, but on such sender grounds 
we cannot say more about Mr. Tranter. We may possibly 
do better on some future occasion. YOURS truly, Wiwter- 
bourne Brothers. (101) 



EXERCISE 134. 
Contractions. 

\ objection, \ destruction, V better than, '^ more 

than, ^^ rather than, ^^ rather or writer, I difficulty^ 
L doctrine, ' * impossible, ^f inconsistent, ^f inconsistency, 



) 
influential, --^^ uninfluential, ^ information. 



My dear Alexander, Do you know anything of the doctrine 
that there is latent in all men a love of conquering difficulties, 
and that this more than anything else accounts for the victories 
achieved by writers and others against seemingLy impossibl 
odds ? If you are aware of this doctrine, it is rather strange 
that you do not try to aRouse the latent foRce, and strive to 
master youR objection to regular habits of study. You should 
give up youR inconsistency, and endeavour in the future to 
avoid those inconsistent ways which have maRRed youR efforts 
in the past, and which can onLy result in the destruction of 
youR hopes to occupy an influential position in the worLd. 
You should make any sacrifice rather than allow youRself to be 
mastered by every little difficulty that you may encounter in 
youR attempts to increase youR information and extend youR 
knowledge. Besides, you know it is rather dangerous to acquiRe 
irregular habits ; for they grow upon one, and the longer 
they are indulged in the greater' will be the difficulty of conquer- 
ing them. Try then to rid youRself of the lethargy which now 
troubles you, and which keeps you in an uninfluential position. 



150 WRITING EXERCISES 

The task is not an impossible one, and the triaL will serve 
better than anything else to SHOW the metal you are made of. 
Success will mean a good deal to you. It will eaRn for you 
the respect of others ; it will strengthen youR character ; and 
it will certainLy brighten youR prospects in life. Very truly 
youRS, Walter Winter. (260) 



EXERCISE 135. 
Vocalization of PI, Pr, etc. 

A small Circle is used to indicate the vowels ah, d, e, a, e, i, 
between a stroke consonant and the / or r expressed by an 
initial hook. In this Exercise the italic letter indicates 
that the vowel should be expressed by a smair circle. 

(a) FIRST-PLACE VOWELS ah AND a : 

1 palpable, palpitate, palpitation, paragraph, paragraphic, 

2 parallel, paralleLed, parallelism, Paramatta, paramount, 

3 parcel, parceLed, parley, parleyed, parloR, parquetry, 

4 parsley, partake, partaker, partner, partnersnip, partook, 

5 barley, barm, barometer, barometric, barometrical, target, 

6 targeteer, Tarleton, Tarporley, dark, darken, darkness, 

7 darkened, darkener, darker, darling, depart, department, 

8 departer, departuRe, durbar, challenge, challenged, 

9 challenger, charm, charming, charmed, charlock, charmeR, 

10 charnel, charcoal, jargon, jargonelle, Jacquard, calcify, 

11 calcine, calcination, calcinable, caligraphic, caligraphy, 

12 calisthenics, Calvinist, Calcutta, Caldscott, Calvary, 

13 Calvert, kaleidoscope, chaldee, carbon, carbonic, carboni- 

14 ferous, carbuncle, cardinal, cardinalate, caricatuRe, 

15 caricatuRed, caricaturist, carmen, carnage, carnation, 

16 carnival, carnivorous, carpenter, carpet, cartage, carter, 

17 cartoon, incarcerate, incarnation, recalcitrant, galvanic, 

18 galvanize, galvanized, garden, gardener, ungwarded, regard, 

19 disregard, gargle, gargoyle, fgarlick, garland, garment, 

20 garner, garnisn, garniSHee, garter, varnish, varnishing, 



WRITING EXERCISES 151 

21 varnisner, snark, snarp, snarpen, snarply, snarp-sighted, 

22 cnarlatan, amalgam, amalgamate, amalgamation, marl, 

23 marlaceous, marline, marmalade, marmot, martyr, 

24 martyred, martyrdom, martyrology, analytic, analytical, 

25 narcissus, narcotic, narrate, narrated, narration, narrative, 

26 narrator, anarchy, anarchic, anarchist, gnarL, gnarLed. 

(b) SECOND-PLACE VOWELS a AND e : 

1 perambulate, perambulator, perceive, perceptible, percep- 

2 tion, percolate, percussion, peregrinate, peregrine, perfect, 

3 perfected, perfecter, perfection, perfectly, perfidy, perforate, 

4 perforation, perforator, perimeter, perjure, perjurer, 

5 permanence, permanent, permit, permission, pernicious, 

6 perpetrate, perpetra-ted, perplex, perquisite, persevere, 

7 persist, persistent, person, personate, personator, personal, 

8 personalty, perspicacious, perspire, persuade, persuasion, 

9 pervade, perverse, perversity, perverter, Belgrade, Belgrave, 

10 Berlin, Berksnire, Bermondsey, Bermudas, Bernard, 

11 Bernardine, telegram, telegraph, telegraphed, telegraphic, 

12 telegraphy, telephone, telephonic, telescope, telescopic, 

13 term, terminus, termagant, terminable, terminal, terminate, 

14 termination, delegate, delegated, delegation, deliberate, 

15 deliberation, deliberative, deliberator, delicate, delicacy, 

16 derelict, derogate, derogatory, dermal, Chelsea, Che/msford, 

17 Cheltenham, cherub, cherubim, chirp, chair, chaired, 

18 chairman, careless, carelessly, Jeremy, Jeremiah, Jericho, 

19 Jerome, Jersey, germ, German, Germany, Germanic, 

20 GeraRd, germane, germinal, germinate, germicide, kernel, 

21 kerchief, Kersey, Kersnaw, Kirkdale, Kirkby, kirtle, 

22 experiment, gird, girder, girdle, girdled, girl, girlisn, 

23 Gertrude, ferment, fermentation, fertile, fertility, fertilize, 

24 fertilization, fervent, fervour, verb, verbal, verbose, 

25 verbosity, virgin, virtue, virtuous, virulent, virulence, 

26 verduRe, verger, vermin, verminous, versatile, versify, 

27 versus, vertebra, vertebrate, vertical, averse, thermometer, 

28 thermoscope, thermic, thirsty, thirstily, Thirsk, shelf, 



152 WRITING EXERCISES 

29 shellac, shelves, egg-shell, oyster-shell, book-shelf, nut- 

30 shell, snirk, snerbet, mercantile, merceR, mercury, meretri- 

31 cious, mermaid, Knaresborough, nerve, nervous, nervousLy, 

32 enerve, debonair, doctrinaire, atmospheric, atmospherical. 

33 hemispheric, aRm-chair, easy-chair, elbow-chair. 

(c) THIRD-PLACE VOWELS e AND i : 

1 pilgrim, pilgrimage, pyramid, pyramidical, pyrometer, 

2 dilapidate, dilapidation, dilapidated, direction, director, 

3 directorate, directory, children, chilblain, chirrup, 

4 chirruped, cheereR, cheerful, cheerily, cheerless, Kilkenny, 

5 KildaRe, Kilmarnock, engineer, engineered, engineering, 

6 veneer, veneered, veneering, buccaneer, CHiffonier, 

7 scrutineer, Belvedere, mutineer, atmosphere, hemisphere, 

8 photosphere, philosophy, philosopheR, philosophic, Thirl- 

9 mere, Windermere, Tranmere, enshield, nearness, rebwild, 
10 Aboukir. 

EXERCISE 136. 
Vocalization of PI, Pr, etc. (continued). 

To show that a dash vowel is to be read between a stroke 
consonant and an initial hook, write the vowel -sign through 
the consonant. Where necessary a first-place vowel may 
be written at the beginning, and a third-place vowel at the 
end of the stroke consonant. In this Exercise, the italic 
letter indicates that the vowel is to be treated as here 
explained. 
(2) FIRST-PLACE DASH VOWELS : 

1 porcelain, politic, political, politician, tolerate, tolerated, 

2 toleration, tolerance, tolerant, intolerant, torment, tor- 

3 menter, tormented, torture, tortuRer, dormant, dormeR, 

4 dormitory, dorsal, George, Georgetown, collaborate, 

5 collaborator, collect, collector, collective, collection, 

6 collectively, college, colony, colonize, colonization, corduroy, 

7 corner, cornet, cornice, Cornisn, corollate, corporal, corpora- 

8 tion, corporate, corpulent, corpulence, correct, correction, 



WRITING EXERCISES 153 

9 corrective, correlation, correspond, corresponded, corre- 

10 spondent, correspondence, corridoR, corrigible, incorrigible, 

11 corroborate, corrupt, corruption, corruptible, Golgotha, 

12 gorgeous, gormandize, GorgonzoLa, Gordon, forbad, forsake, 

13 former, formerly, forwarder, forwardness, vortex, vortical, 

14 vorticel, Althorp, snort, snorten, snortened, SHortening, 

15 SHorthand, SHorthoRn, snort-lived, snortness, SHortsighted, 

16 moral, morality, moralize, Morley, Mormon, mormonite, 

17 morsel, mortar, mortgagee, mortgagor, Minorca, remorse, 

18 remorseful, north, normal, abnormal, Norman, Norseman, 

19 northerLy, northern, northerneR, northward, north-west, 

20 Norway, Norfolk, Northallerton, Northampton, Northrop, 

21 Norwood, Northumberland, Norwich, auRiform, cubiform. 

(o) SECOND-PLACE DASH VOWEL : 

1 portray, portrait, portraituRe, purblind, purchase, purga- 

2 tory, purl, purlieu, purloin, purloineR, purple, purseR, 

3 tubipore, pulmonary, pulse-glass, repulsive, repulsing, 

4 burgess, burgher, burglaR, burglary, burgomaster, Bur- 

5 gundy, burly, burlesque, Burmese, bursaR, bursary, bold, 

6 boldLy, bold-ness, Baltimore, tuberculous, tubgrculaR, Turk, 

7 Turkey, Twrkisn, turmoil, turner, turnip, turpentine, 

8 turpitude, turtle, matador, dulcify, deport, deportment, 

9 church, churchman, churl, churlisn, churlisnness, journal, 

10 journalize, journey, joztrneymen, coarse, coarsely, coarse- 

11 ness, coarser, coarsest, curdle, curdy, curly, curLed, 

12 curmudgeon, curricle, curriculum, cursed, cursory, cursive, 

13 discursive, curtail, curtaiLed, curtain, curtsey, curtly, 

14 court, courtly, curve, curved, curvet, scurvy, scurvily, 

15 scurrile, scurrilous, scurrility, scurf, courage, courageous, 

16 discouraged, encourage, colonel, colonelcy, coldisn, colder, 

17 coldly, coldness, culminate, culprit, culpable, cultivate, 

18 cultivator, cultivation, cultuRe, culvert, sculptor, occur, 

19 occurrence, recourse, inculpate, goldsmith, goldplate, 

20 marigold, gurgle, fulgent, fulgency, vulnerable, vulture, 

21 forepart, fore^nore, snoreditch, forestall, forefather, fore- 

22 taste, forethought, forge, forger, furbish, furL, furnace, 



154 WRITING EXERCISES 

23 fwrnisH, fwrniture, fwrze, farther, furthermore, bifwrcate, 

24 bifurcation, thwrl, Thursday, seasnore, leesnore, mwrder, 

25 murdered, mwrdereR, rrmrmur, murmured, Blackmore, 

26 Dunmore, claymore, sycamore, counciL-board, nwllify, 

27 nwllity, nullification, penwltimate, nwrse, nwrsery, 

28 nwrseLing, nwrsed, splasn-board. 

(c) THIRD-PLACE DASH VOWEL : 

1 whirLpool, school, schools, schoolmate, schoolman, school- 

2 girl, school-board, boarding-school, foolscap, fwlftl, fulfilled, 

3 fwlMment, baSHfwl, brocnwre, cheertul, cupfwl, swre, 

4 swrety, troubadowr. 

(d) DIPHTHONGS, TREATED IN THE SAME WAY AS THE 
DASH VOWELS : 

1 child, childhood, clw'ldisH, childisnly, chzldisHness, 

2 prefecture, temperatwre, lectwre, lectwred, literature, 

3 limatwre, legislatwre, moistwre, armatwre, nomenclatwre, 

4 strictwre, structwre, nwrtwre, nwrtwred, scwlptwre, scwlp- 

5 twred, fixtwre, textwre, impostwre, mixtwre, admixtwre, 

6 arboriculture, horticulture, horticulturist, floriculture, 

7 cwrvatwre, captwre, captwred, raptwre, enraptured, figwre, 

8 disfigz^red, figuration, rupture, ruptwred, featured, fracture, 

9 fractwred, pictwred, ligatwre. 



EXERCISE 137. 
Vocalization Of PI, PP, etc. (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercises 135 and 136. 

1. He who is most fond of challenges may be the most 
vulnerable in the fight. 2. Father Time is the most remorse- 
less mortgagee, who cannot be smrked, and who forgets not 
the day of reckoning, persuade him how we may. 3. The 
worLd is indeed a haRd school, and a man needs to be watchfwl, 
OR he will faLL to the bottom o/ his class. 4. And yet in the 
midst of all the cowrtly varnish we see there is to be found 



WRITING EXERCISES 155 

a great deal that is honest and genuine. 5. In a great measure, 
we make the atmosphere through which we regard others, and 
we may be the culprits sometimes though we blame them. 

6. Illusions are but charming toys for children of all ages, 
from the child on nwrse's knee to the oLd man in the corner. 

7. And so every burly boy may be a hero, and every delicate 
gtrl may be a beauty. 8. It is perfectly true to say that many 
a man's failuRe may be traced to a win on a racecourse. 9. A 
heaRt that is proof against the charms of literature may be 
touched by the charms of vocal music, if rendered by a culti- 
vated singeR. 10. Those who say they have no scope for the 
exercise of their energies have either little energy to exercise, 
OR little courage to exercise it. 11. An able man will not 
tolerate the torment of inactivity. 12. No fact that we learn 
is ever utterly forgotten. 13. It is parcelled up, in a manner 
and put away ; but the mere mention of some person OR place 
may be enough to unpack it and bring it to our mind as fresu 
as ever. 14. And so the time spent in study is not lost. 

(286) 

EXERCISE 138. 

Vocalization of PI, PP, etc. (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercises 135 and 136. 

1. The philosophic study of political history SHOWS that 
some of the most intolerant cold-blooded tyrants have begun 
their reigns peacefully. 2. But the possession of paramount 
poweR darkened tlieir minds, and permitted the repulsive side 
of their character to assert its influence. 3. Then, as a certain 
cultivated author says, their heaRts were corrupted by the 
flatterers who crowded their courts, so that even deliberate 
murder perpetrated by a poweRfwl king was regarded as no 
crime. 4. Base favourites have often persuaded a tyrannical 
monaRch that the murmurs and ferments which were the results 
of his pernicious misruLe were but signs of disloyalty, and 
have urged that the correct course ze>as to capture and execute 



156 WRITING EXERCISES 

the persons whom they termed the ringLeaders. 5. Thus the 
fiRe of passion has been nwrsed and fanned wto a fwrnace, 
and he who might have been a tolerably faiR ruLer has been 
changed into a remorseless tyrant, a tormentor of his people, 
and a curse to society. 6. Happily the days of enormous per- 
sonal poweR are over in most countries, and virtuous men 
are not called upon to suffer as their forefathers did from the 
jealousy of blackguardly favourites. (191) 



EXERCISE 139. 

Vocalization of PI, Pr, etc. (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercises 135 and 136. 

1. Mariners regard the snark as their fieRcest and most re- 
morseless enemy. 2. And no wonder ; for by the aid of his 
six rows of teeth, SHarp as the snarpest knife, he can crunch 
up a man's body as easily as you can break an eggshell. 3. 
Few men will deliberately tackle a snark in his own eLement. 
4. Those whose personal cowrage cannot be doubted admit 
that the thought of venturing near one of these monsters is 
enough to make the blood cwrdle in one's veins ; while the 
mere sight of a snark causes the heaRts of nervous OR delicate 
persons to palpitate for feaR. 5. Even upon dark nights the 
sailoRs can sometimes tell that a SHark is near their vesseL, 
for the scaLes of this fish throw off a faint light. 6. The men 
are then very careiuL to incwr no risk of faLLing overboaRd ; 
for they know that should such an accident occur no one could 
prevent a fataL termination, as a snark can swim so quickly 
that he can captwre a man long before a boat could be put 
out for the rescue. 7. The white snark often measures thirty 
feet in length, and though the blue snark is not so big, he is 
just as fieRce. 8. The snark is very voracious. 9. He will 
swallow greedily any articles from a snip, such as coarse ropes, 
charcoal, garlic in fact, there is scaRcely a thing from a 
twrtle to an open knife that he will not gulp up. 10. Yet, 



WRITING EXERCISES 157 

strange to say, he refuses to touch a feathered creature of any 
kind. 11. Fortunately, these repulsive monsters are unknown 
near our own seaSHores, and I am swre we do not want them to 
cultivate a fancy for our neighbourhood. (286) 

EXERCISE 140. 

Vocalization of PI, PP, etc. (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercises 135 and 136. 

MCSSRS. Caldecott and North. 

Dear SIRS, We regret to have to challenge the accuracy 
of Mr. Charles Darlington's statement in regard to the fwrniture 
forwarded to him on the 28th uLtimo. Our Mr. Twrner saw 
personally to the finishing of this lot of goods, and his recollection 
is perfectly cleaR that the SHade of the polish was exactLy as 
ORdered, neither lighter nor darker. We have cultivated this 
department of our business so carefully as almost to preclude 
the possibility of such a blunder as is alleged. You know that 
we have every SHade of varnish and polish ready for mixing, 
so that there is absolutely no inducement for us to change a 
SHade deliberately. We are sorry that Mr. Darlington should 
be so much perturbed about this matter ; but we feeL sure 
that if he will refer to his directions to us he will find that the 
fault is not ours. We can, of course, repolish the fwrniture if 
desiRed ; but we should have to charge for the trouble and 
expense. YOURS truly, Twrner and Blackmore. (178) 

EXERCISE 141. 

Vocalization of PI, PP, etc. (concluded). 
See Note at the head of Exercises 135 and 136. 

MCSSRS. Charles Macarthy and Sons, Ltd. 

Dear SiRS, In reply to youR inquiry of the first instant, 
we hope to forward the whole of the carbolic acid not later than 
Thursday, the 6th inst. The delay has aRisen through the 
breakdown of a vertical shaft at the distillery, which threatened 



158 WRITING EXERCISES 

to upset all our calculations. We are glad to say the macninery 
has been put all right again, and there will be no fwrthei 
trouble in forwarding oRders. We trust that the explanation 
of this unfortunate occurrence will satisfy you that there has 
been no cwlpable negligence on our part, and we rely on youR 
cowrtesy to excuse the delay in this instance. YOURS faithfully, 
Partridge and Norton. (118) 

EXERCISE 142. 
W and Y Diphthong's. 

These diphthongs axe represented by a small Semi-Circle, 
written in the same positions as the simple vowels. In this 
Exercise and in Exercises 143 to 147 inclusive, the Semi- 
Circle should be employed (in words other than gramma- 
logues or contractions) for the representation of the 
combinations printed in italic. 

(a) FIRST-PLACE DIPHTHONGS wah AND wa : 

1 beeswax, eaR-wax, packwax, paxwax, sealing-wax, Zouave, 

2 thwack. 

(6) SECOND-PLACE DIPHTHONGS wa AND we : 

1 arqwebuss, assuage, asswager, asswasive, boatswain, 

2 cordwainer, elsewheRe, freqwent, frequently, frequented, 

3 freqwenter, freqwenting, frequency, haRdwaRe, overwheLm, 

4 somewheRe, subsequence, subsequent, subsequently, tide- 

5 waiter, twelve, twelfth, twenty, twentieth, Biggleswade, 

6 Boswell, Bothwell, Bwenos Aires, Bui well, faRewell, BulweR, 

7 Clerkenwell, Cromwell, Crosthwatte, HaRwell, (tick h), 

8 Holy well (tick h), Merry weather, Oswestry, Postlethwaite, 

9 snadwell, Upwell, W^aReham, Terra del Fwego, Ash- 
10 Wednesday. 

(c) THIRD-PLACE DIPHTHONGS we AND wi : 

1 appwi, asquint, bailiwick, dwindle, dwindled, dwindling, 

2 eaRwig, ARdwick, HaRdwick (tick h), Brunswick, ember- 

3 week, whit-week, forthwith, heRewith, hoodwink, hoRsewAip, 



WRITING EXERCISES 159 

4 ill-mil, ill-wisHer, mansw<?tude, non-seqwiter, pasqwin, 

5 pasquinade, periwig, periwinkle, Pickwick, pigwidgeon, 

6 pursuivant, Ipswich, sandwich, sea-w0d, tweak, tweaks, 

7 tweaked, tweed, tweedle, tweezens, twig, tagged, twinkle, 

8 twinge, twinged, twixt, wherewith, wherewithal, heRewith, 

9 therewith, whippoorwill, wisner, wisHful, wistonwisH, 

10 withal, withdraw, withdrawing, withdrew, withdrawn, 

11 within, withhoLd, withheLd,-withholden, withstand, with- 

12 stood, Baldwin, Bastwick, Bathwick, Chadwick, Droitwich, 

13 FitzwiLLiam, Giggleswtck, Kildwick, Middlewich, North- 

14 wich, Nantwich, Osw^go, Painswick, snapwick, Twileries, 

15 VenezwtfLa, Winckworth, Zwmgle, bewilder, bewildered, 

16 bewildering, Sleswi'ck, Sedgwick, Bedowin, big- wig. 

(d) FIRST-PLACE DIPHTHONGS waw AND wo : 

1 taR-water, bilgewater, breakwater, lime-water, rain-water, 

2 rose-water, sea-water, Broadwater, Bridgewater, backwater, 

3 cut- water, bulwaRk, caterwawl, cnamois, demoiselle, devoir, 

4 eastwaRd, frowaRd, frowaRdly, heavenward, hitherwaRd, 

5 mod wall, patois, abattoir, boudoir, rouge-et-noiR, escri- 

6 totre, seawaRd, sneeRwater, SHop- walker, snwanpan, 

7 throatwoRt, twaddle, twaddler, twaddled, twattle, Vaudois, 

8 windwaRd, wisny-wasny, Cornwall, Cornwallis, PFaRk- 

9 worth, PFaRminster, memoiRs, churchwarden. 

(e) SECOND-PLACE DIPHTHONGS wo AND wu : 

1 woRk, woRkable, woRk-bag, woRk-box, woRk-day, woRked 

2 woRker, woRkhouse, woRking-day, woRkman, woRkmanLike 

3 woRksHop, PFoRksop, WoRkington, day-woRk, clockwoRk, 

4 counterwoRk, brickwoRk, breastwoRk, co-woRker, frame- 

5 woRk, fretwoRk, glass-woRks, gas-woRks, groundwoRk, task- 

6 woRk, outwoRk, overwoRk, fiRewoRks, guesswoRk, handiwoRk, 

7 needle- woRk, handwoRk, head work, journey- woRk, patch- 

8 woRk, piece-woRk, open-woRk, cane-woRk, copper-woRk, 

9 presswoRk, woodwoRk, stonewoRk, shell-woRk, woRd, 

10 ze'ORds, WoRdsworth, woRdiness, woRdily, by-woRd, catch- 

1 1 woRd, watchwoRd, Hemsworth (tick h), liverwoRt, lungwoRt, 



160 WRITING EXERCISES 

12 woRm, woRm-eaten, woRmed, woRming, woRmlike, woRm- 

13 wood, woRmy, wirewoRm, slow-woRm, book-woRm, ring- 

14 woRm, earth-woRm, misquote, misquotation, misquoted, 

15 mugwump, seaworthy, unseaworthy, blameworthy, 

16 Wentworth, WallwoRk, Walworth, Wandsworth, WtRks- 

17 worth, WoRlington. 

(/) THIRD-PLACE DIPHTHONGS woo AND woo : 

1 backwoods, backwoodsman, lamb's-wool, Chatwood, East- 

2 wood, SHeep's-wool, touchwood, driftwood, woRmwood, 

3 Ethelwlf. 

(g) FIRST-PLACE DIPHTHONGS yah AND yd : 

1 Abyssinian, academtan, amtable, antiquarian, appreciable, 

2 apiary, ARabian, ARcadian, ARian, Asian, Asiatic, aRteriaL, 

3 associable, Ass}Tian, Athenian, Augustinian, Australian, 

4 Austrian, auxiliaries, Babylonian, bacteria, banian, 

5 barbarian, baroniaL, beatify, bienniaL, Bodleian, bor^aL, 

6 Brazilian, breviary, brilliant, bronchial, Cambrian, cardiac, 

7 Carthaginian, Castilian, Caucasian, ceR^al, ciliary, cognac, 

8 colloquiaL, CoLumbia, cordial, corporeaL, criteria, crusta- 

9 cca, Cumbrian, curia, custodian, cyclopedia, Cyprian. 

10 Daltonian, Danubian, demoniac, Devonian, dictatoriaL, 

11 diluvian, Dorian, eLysian, enc\ T clopedia, enunciatory, 

12 episodial, equestrian, ERastian, ether^aL, ether^alize, 

13 Etonian, fami/iarize, fenian, fiacre, fiasco, fuchsia, 

14 funereaL, fustian, gambogean, geniaL, gladiatoriaL, gre- 

15 gorian.guaiacum, guardian, habdas-corpus, halliard (tick/i), 

16 hans^atic, ALexandria, historian (tick h), humanitarian 

17 (tick h), hysteria, ideality, memoriaL, imperiaL, India- 

18 rubber, industrial, insomnia, invariably, radiance, klepto- 

19 mania, lanyaRd, lariat, librarian, lineal, luxuriant, malaria, 

20 manageriaL, matrimoniaL, meander, meandeRed, medial, 

21 Mediterranean, meniaL, miniatuRe, ministeriaL, Moravian, 

22 muriatic, myriad, neuRalgia, notariaL, oceanic, palliative, 

23 pancreas, pariah, Parisian, patriarch, pecuniary, Philadel- 

24 phian, piazza, pianoforte, plagiarize, pneumonia, poly- 

25 anthus, poniaRd, proverbial, reality, reanimate, ruffian, 



WRITING EXERCISES 161 

26 secretarial, social, socialist, suppliant, Syriac, terrestrial, 

27 theatrical, tutorial, Utopia, Vesuvian, Wesleyan, Adrian, 

28 Adriatic, Christiania, Georgia, Virginia, YaRmouth. 

(h) SECOND-PLACE DIPHTHONGS yd AND ye : 

1 abbreviate, abbreviator, acquiesce, alien, alienate, appre- 

2 ciation, appropriate, asphyxiate, associate, balliage, 

3 barrier, brasieR, burier, caLumniate, carrier, collegiate, 

4 collieR, colliery, copieR, courtieR, create, creative, creation, 

5 creator, croupieR, lawyeR, crosier, dead/ieR, defoliation, 

6 delineate, delineation, delineator, denunciate, denunciation, 

7 depreciate, depreciation, deviate, deviation, differenTiate, 

8 obedient, obedience, dissociate, domiciliate, easieR, 

9 ebulliency, emaciate, emaciation, embodieR, foliage, 

10 emolliate, emollient, enunciate, enunciation, envi^R, 

11 radiate, radiation, excruciate, excruciating, exfoliate, 

12 expaTiate, expatriate, expatriation, experience, expiate, 

13 expiation, expropriate, fancier, faRRier, foliaceous, fo/ia- 

14 tion, fortieth, funnieR, funniest, furrier, gaudiest, ghastlieR, 

15 giddieR, giddiest, glacier, gladiator, glazier, gloomieR, 

16 gloomiest, goodlieR, goodliest, grimieR, hacienda, handieR, 

17 happieR, happiest, hardiest, hardieR, harrieR, haughtiest, 

18 homeliest (tick h), humiliate (tick h), hygienic, ideation^ 

19 inexpedient, infuriated, initial, iniTiation, kindliest,. 

20 laureate, lazieR, lenience, liveliest, luxuriate, mediate,. 

21 mediation, nastieR, nauseate, nauseation, muriate, nego- 

22 Tiate, ninetieth. noviTt'ate, obviate, officiate, opiate, oRiel r 

23 oRiental, osieR, palliation, paltrieR, permeate, plucki^R, 

24 premieR, recipient, repudiate, resilience, retaliation, 

25 saTiate, saucieR, sawyeR, seemlieR, spaniel, terrier, 

26 triennial, uncreated, variegated, verbiage, viriate, wear- 

27 test, Damietta, Dieppe, Liege (upward /). 

(i) THIRD-PIACE DIPHTHONGS ye AND $7 : 

1 babyisH, bandying, bod>-ing, bullying, burying, carrying, 

2 caseic, copying-press, copyist, courtesying, currying, 

3 dandyism, dandyish, disembodying, atheist, atheism, 






162 WRITING EXERCISES 

4 atheistic, atheistical, ditheist, ditheistic, dowdyish, eddying 

5 embodying, gipsyism, Hackneying, harrying, hurrying, 

6 journeying, minuti^, mutinying, oLeic, oleiferous, oLein, 

7 pantheism, pantheist, parleying, parodying, Puseyism, 

8 Puseyist, quarrying, reissue, reiterate, scurrying, sullying, 

9 dallying, theistic, varying, wearying, whinnying, worrying, 
10 marrying, tarrying, toadying, sallying, rowdyism, assoihie. 

(/) FIRST- PLACE DIPHTHONGS yaw AND yd : 

1 accordion, question, admixtion, ameliorate, anterior, 

2 aReometer, axiom, bacteriology, bastion, bibliography, 

3 bullion, cabriolet, canon, carrion, centurion, champion, 

4 clarion, criterion, cross-question, curiosity, decillion, 

5 deoxidize, deoxidate, digestion, disunion, dominion, 

6 ecclesiology, Ethiop, excelsioR, exhaustion, exterior, 

7 gabion, galiot, galleon, ganglion, geographer, geography, 

8 geology, geologist, geometer, geometrician, hagiography, 

9 haliography (tick A), halcyon, heliocentric, heliotrope, 

10 homeopathic (tick h), hyperion, idiom, idiot, idiocy, 

1 1 idiomatic, idiosyncrasy, impecuniosity, infeRior, infeRiority, 

12 million, millionaiRe, meliorate, meteoR, meteorite, meteor- 

13 ology, medallion, mullion, Napoleonic, neology, oblivion, 

14 oliograph, onion, opinionated, paleolithic, pantheon, 

15 patriot, pavilion, periodical, pillion, pinion, posterior, 

16 senioR, seniority, stereotype, theocracy, theodolite, 

17 theology, theosophy, trunnion, vermilion, Elliott, Montreal, 

18 tatterdemalion, mignonette, Marion. 

(k) SECOND-PLACE DIPHTHONGS yd AND yu : 

1 abstemious, acrimonious, aLkalious, alluviwm, aquareous, 

2 aqueows, aRboreows, beauteows, bilious, bounteous, calcium, 

3 cameo, caseows, censorious, ceRemoniows, copious, corneous, 

4 courteous, coyote, cranium, curiows, curioso, delirious, 

5 deliRiwm, deodorize, deviows, dubious, dubiously, duteows, 

6 effluvium, Elysium, embryo, folio, emporium, encomium, 

7 enviows, equilibrium, eRRoneous, Ethiopian, exordium, 

8 fastidious, felonious, foliows, furious, gaseous, gramineows, 



WRITING EXERCISES 163 

9 grandiose, gregarious, gymnasium, gypseous, haRmonium, 

10 ignominious, illustrious, impecunious, imperious, indus- 

1 1 trious, ingenious, ingeniousLy, insidious, invidious, iridium, 

12 haRmonious, extemporaneous, nefarious, gloriously, 

13 gladiole, discourteous, vicarious, stramonium, stamineous, 

14 laborious, melodious, millennium, miscellaneous, misyoke, 

15 misyoked, mustacnio, mysterious, nasturrium, nauseous, 

16 notorious, nucleus, oblivious, obsequious, odious, odium, 

17 opium, opprobium, osseous, pandemonium, parsimonious, 

18 perfidious, petroleum, piteous, premium, raiio, righteous, 

19 sodium, instantaneous, studious, supercilious, symposium, 

20 victorious, Borneo, Holyoke (-tick A), Junius, Keogh, 

21 Yokonama, impervious, hideous. 

(/) THIRD-PLACE DIPHTHONG yod : 

1 obtuse, absolutory, abusive, acidulous, actuary, adducible, 

2 assume, attune, avoirdupois, bibulous, burin, cachou, 

3 caLumet, capsule, casuist, celluloid, chasuble, coiffuRe, 

4 copula, corduroy, corpulent, creatwRe, credulous, cubicle, 

5 cupid, cupidity, deduce, deluge, depute, diffuse, disputa- 

6 tious, dissimulation, disunite, effectual, emu, emulate, 

7 ensued, epicuRe, erudite, estuary, euphemism, expostulate, 

8 extenuate, exuberant, exude, fabulous, flatulence, fraudu- 

9 lent, gesture, globule, good-natuRed, habitude, importu- 

10 nate, incubus, insuperable, issueR, masculine, munificent, 

11 nebula, newest, non-suit, occupation, oculist, oppugn, 

12 overture, penury, postulate, remunerate, retribution, 

13 spurious, stipulation, utility, voluble, uclid, dutiable, 

14 producible, populaR, petulantly, feudalism, depopulate, 

15 cucumber, astute. 

(w) JOINED DIPHTHONGS : 

1 watcher, water, waterage, waterbutt, water-cart, water- 

2 course, watercress, watered, waterfaLL, water-fowL, wateri- 

3 ness, watering-place, waterish, water-lily, water-logged, 

4 waterman, watermark, water-melon, water-mill, water-pot, 

5 waterproof, water-rot, water-rat, watershed, waterspout, 



164 WRITING EXERCISES 

6 waterway, waterwoRks, waterwoRt, watery, Waterbury, 

7 Wateriord, Waterworth, wasner, wasnerwoman, Welsn- 

8 woman, war, Warbcck, warble, warbleR, warbling, War- 

9 burton, Wardleworth, barton, war-cry, ward, warden, 

10 war-dance, warded, wardenry, warding, warder, wardrobe, 

11 wardroom, warfaRe, waixike, warLock, warm, warmed, 

12 warmer, warmest, warmhearted, warm-heartedness, warm- 

13 ing, warming-pan, warmly, warn, warned, warneR, warp, 

14 warped, war-paint, war-path, warrant, warrantable, 

15 warranty, warranter, warred, warren, warreneR, warring, 

16 warrior, war-song, Warsaw, wart, wartwoRt, war-whoop, 

17 war-worn, wax, waxed, waxen, wax-end, wax-woRk, 

18 waxy, week, weak, weaken, weakened, weakening, weakeR, 

19 weakest, weak-eyed, weekly, weakly, weakens, weakness, 

20 wick, wicked, wickedly, wickedness, wicket, Wicklow, 

21 wake, waked, wakeful, waken, wakened, wakener, wakeR, 

22 walk, walkeR, walking-stick, Wakeford, wag, wagged, 

23 waggery, waggisn, waggishly, Wagstaffe, wagon, wagonage, 

24 wagoner, wagonette, wagtail, wig, Wiga.n, Wigton, 

25 wigwam, wimple, wimpled, woman, womanhood, womanisn, 

26 womanLy, women, Wemyss, WiLkin, Wiikins, PFiLkinson, 

27 WiLks, WiLLiams, PFiLLiamson, PFiLmington, WiLson, 

28 wamble, wampee, wampum, wombat. 

() W AND Y DIPHTHONGS BETWEEN A STROKE CONSONANT 
AND AN INITIAL HOOK. [See Exercise 136 par. (d).] 

1 eqwality, equalize, equalization, equalized, equalizing, 

2 qualify, qualified, qualifiable, qualification, qualifieR, 

3 qualitative, disqualify, disqualification, disqualified, soldier, 

4 soldierly, soldiering, foot-soldier, healthier, wealthier, 

5 loftier, worthier. 

(o) JOINED VOWELS. 

The italic type indicates that the vowel should be joined to the 
consonant. 

1 alder, alderman, aldermanic, all-fooLs" day, all-fouRS, 

2 all-hail, all-hallows, all-souls' day, allspice, alter, altar, 



WRITING EXERCISES 165 

3 altar-cloth, altar-piece, alterable, alterant, alteration, 

4 alterative, altered, altereR, altering, also, Albany, Alcester, 

5 Alderborough, Alderbury, Alderney, Aldersgate, Alder- 

6 shot, Alderson, Alderston, Aldridge, Althorp, Alton, 

7 Alston. 

(p) JOINED LOGOGRAMS : 

1 all-wise, almighty, almost, a/though, already, whatsoever, 

2 whoever, whoso, whosoever, eye-salve, eye-servant, eye- 

3 service, eye-soRe, eye-tooth, too-decker, two-ioLd, too-legged, 

4 too-lobed. 

[See also Exercise 13.] 



EXERCISE 143. 
The W and Y Diphthong's (continued). 

GRAMMALOGUES. 
beyond, c with, c when, 3 what, 3 would, f will. 

See Note at the head of Exercise 142. 

1. Some wag has described the man who walks aLong the 
street with a lady on each aRm as " An ass between a couple 
of pannieRs." 2. // would appeaR thai the Italians also are 
troubled with these weak men and women, for they liken the 
man who takes up the footpath in this way to " A pitcher with 
a paiR of handLes." 3. Beyond all question such behaviour *'s a 
sen'ows breach of good manners, for what chance have other 
people to walk with ease when three persons occupy so much 
space ? 4. It is not easy to awake weak men to a sense of the 
ridiculous. 5. There will always be fooLs and mam'acs in the 
worLd in spite of the Lessons of superior minds. 6. Librarians 
of vartows nations agree in supposing that there were almost 
a quaRter of a million books in the great library of Alexandria, 
which is said to have been burnt in the seventh centwry by the 
ARabian soldiers in obedience to the imperiows oRder of their 
barbarian leader. 7. OnLy an educated man OR woman can 
appreciate the loss caused by this act of fieRce incendiarism. 



166 WRITING EXERCISES 

8. It was a wicked and idiotic crime to destroy so glorious 
and miscellaneous a collection of books, woRks of genius, 
a memoriaL of the wisdom and experience of the ancient sages. 

9. How frequently does a thoughtLess OR an ignorant act 
produce overwhelming trouble to others ! (232) 

EXERCISE 144. 
The W and Y Diphthongs (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 142. 
1. Beyond all question it is easieR to criticise an oLd plan 
than to foRrrmlate a new one ; yet serious men will frequently 
indulge in a lot of twaddle about what they call the faulty WORK 
of others. 2. It would be well if men who cannot appreciate 
the efforts of others would stand aloof and leave the woRkers 
aLone to do their best. 3. What is more annoying than to be 
lectured on our supposed fainngs by a person of quite mediocre 
ability, but with a supercilious, censorious aiR of superiority ? 
4. It is always haRd to accept a rebuke with goodwill, even 
if we are blameworthy ; but it is doubly haRd when we are 
rebuked by a person of decidedly infeRior talents, and when 
we know there is no fault to warrant the punisHment. 5. In 
such cases a weak man will buRst forth into warm deniaLS of the 
charges, let the result be what it will ; but the strong man will 
restrain the woRds which rise to his lips, and will wait for a 
happieR occasion to prove the misquotation OR remove the 
misapprehension. 6. And experience SHOWS that his method 
of refutation is the best. (193) 



EXERCISE 145. 
The W and Y Diphthong's (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 142. 

1. " There is no evil that cannot be enduRed save dishonor," 
said a great man in the fourth century, and his woRds are 



WRITING EXERCISES 167 

beyond question as true /o-day as then. 2. What would human 
society be like if it were not for the regard which men have for 
their reputation ? 3. " The pwrity and haRdness of the dia- 
mond belong to the very first particles which unite at its heaRt's 
coRe ; the others which the mysterious laws of the Crmtor 
attract aRound these to increase and perfect the beautiful 
crystalline mass, must needs SHaRe the qualities of the former." 
4. So, if a man takes but a right view of what is honorable, 
and strives always to follow that view, no matter what may be 
the result, he is not likely to deviate from the path of dwty 
OR to be guilty of behaviowr in any way unworthy of an honest 
man. 5. If you look aRound in the various walks of life, you 
will see that it is those who have a nigh notion of what is honor- 
able, whether they be statesmen OR warriors, woRkmen OR 
employeRS, wealthy OR pooR, who hoLd the esteem of their 
fellows ; whose woRks are invariably read with attention, and 
whose counseL is followed with obedience. 6. The superior 
man is almost invariably one with a right appreciation of 
what is just. 7. You may be industrious ; you may be inteL- 
LectwaL ; you may be wealthy ; but you cannot be illustrious 
in the right sense of the woRd, and you will faiL to ingraxiate 
youRself in the heaRts of youR fellows, unLess you are an 
upright and an honorable man. 8. " All wickedness is 
weakness," and if this excuse would serve, the most notorio? 
villain might urge it. 9. Cultivate a sense of honor, and you 
will soon have the ability to resist a dishonorable suggestion. 

(301) 

EXERCISE 146. 

The W and Y Diphthongs (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 142. 

MessRs. WakefieLd and WiLLiams. 

Dear SiRs, Referring to the oRder for various lines of 
haRdware and cutlery with which you favored us through our 
Mr. WalkeR, we have forwarded all the goods by raiL to-day, 



168 WRITING EXERCISES 

and now enclose heRewith our invoice for the same. Will you 
please note that the price for the dinner knives is 18/6 peR 
dozen, not 17/6 as given in youR oRder ? If Mr. WalkeR gave 
you the last named figwre when he called upon you, it was a 
misquotation, which we trust you will overLook. We would 
add that we have no wish to withdraw from a quotation named 
by our traveLLer, and if you are in the least dubious about 
the matter we shall be pleased to accept youR figwre. But 
we assuRe you that this quality of knife has a/ways been sold at 
18/6 peR dozen. It is warranted to be made of the finest mater- 
ial, and is beyond all doubt superior to what is offered by other 
fiRms at very much more money. YOURS truly, Crossthwaite 
and Wiggins. (182) 



EXERCISE 147. 
The W and Y Diphthong's (concluded). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 142. 

MessRs. WameR and Ward. 

Dear SIRS, In reply to youR inquiry, we are pleased to 
state that our experience of MCSSRS. Conway and Farnworth 
extends over twenty yeaRS, and that our relations with them 
have always been of the most cordial kind for the whole of that 
period. They are geniaL and industrious men, with whom 
it is pleasant to deal, and we have reason to know that they 
will not permit the slightest deviation from straightforwardness 
in their business. // is beyond question that they do a good 
ColoniaL business as clothiers and hosieRS, besides being 
snippers of miscellaneous goods. What we have said about 
this fiRm would, we have no doubt, be corroborated by all 
who have dealt with them. You will be quite warranted 
in extending to them a credit for the amount you name. We 
appreciate youR kind offer, and shall not hesitate to remind 
you when we requiRe similaR assistance. YOURS faithfully, 
IFardlow and T'FiLson. (160) 



WRITING EXERCISES 169 

EXERCISE 148. 
Contractions. 

I establish-ed-ment, ^ immediate, ^-^T immediately, 
^ interest, ^ interested, L, disinterested-ness, ~f uninteresting, 
f understood, f understand, v/ ^ enlarged, ~* mistaken, 
~^~f acknowledged, y. natural-ly, satisfaction. 

Dear SiR, It may interest you to know that we have recentxy 
enlarged our establishment in Broadway, and thai we are now 
prepaRed to forward immediately from stock any of the goods 
named in the catalogue enclosed. Any oRders you may be 
kind enough to send us will receive our immediate and careiuL 
attention. We are naturally desirous of obtaining a triaL 
oRder from you from the fact that we have not hitherto been 
favored by you. We think we are not mistaken in saying 
that you would be interested in seeing our new extension and the 
great variety of goods we are offering at prices that will surprise 
you, and which are acknowledged to be very much below those 
charged by other fiRms. We assuRe you that such a visit as 
we suggest would not be uninteresting to you, and while we 
do not pretend to be absolutely disinterested in this invitation, 
it may be understood that we shall not ask you to buy anything 
should you favor MS with a call. Though we do not tax youR 
faith by any statement of alleged disinterestedness, we yet claim 
to understand our business perfectly, and we take a natural 
pride in the reputation we have established for straightforward 
dealing. Should we be fortunate enough to establish business 
relations with you we feeL certain that it would be to our mutual 
satisfaction. Awaiting youR kind favors, We are, Dear SiR, 
YOURS faithfully, Matthew Butterworth and Sons. (245) 



170 WRITING EXERCISES 

EXERCISE 149. 
Disyllabic Diphthong's. 

The angular signs for these diphthongs are written in the same 
places as the simple long vowels, and they are employed 
for the representation of a long vowel followed by an un- 
accented short vowel. In this Exercise and in Exercises 
150 to 154 inclusive, the angular signs should be written 
(in words other than grammalogues and contractions) 
to express the combination of letters printed in italic type. 

(a) FIRST-PLACE DISYLLABIC DIPHTHONG ah-i, ETC. : 

1 assai, Caaba, maestoso, sahib, Tippoo-Sa/zib, serai, Haggai. 

2 Hawaii (upward h), Isaiah, solfaeR, naiad. 

(b) SECOND-PLACE DISYLLABIC DIPHTHONG -/, ETC. : 

1 abeyance, abeyant, aerate, aeRation, aeRified, aeRolite, 

2 aeRolitic, aeRology, aeRometer, aeRostat, aeRostatics, 

3 aeRostation, aeRography, aeRonaut, aeRonautic, algebraic, 

4 algebraical, algebraist, aLcaic, aoRist, assayeR, aRRayeR, 

5 ARamaic, Baal, bayonet, betrayer, betrayal, brayeR, 

6 cacao, caique, chaldaic, choleraic, clayisn, clayey, cocaine, 

7 Cyrenaic, decaygR, eLaine, flay^R, say^K, gainsay^R, sooth- 

8 sayeR, gayest, gaiety, hebraic, Judaic, laic, laity, layeR, 

9 slayeR, mayonnaise, mayoR, mayoRalty, mayoRess, mosaic, 

10 obeyeR, payeR, payable, phaeton, pharisaic, playeR, crayon, 

11 portrayal, portrayer, preyeR, prosaic, prosaical, Ptolemaic, 

12 purveyoR, purveyance, ratepayer, sayest, sayeR, seance, 

13 spondaic, sprayeR, stanzaic, stayeR, strayeR, surveyoR, 

14 taxpayer, voltaic, wheyey, wheyisn, Archelaz^s, Baalim, 

15 Biscayan, weighable, \\eigher, waylayeR. 

(c) THIRD-PLACE DISYLLABIC DIPHTHONG e-i, ETC. : 

1 agreeable, agreeableness, agreeably, apotheosis, apotheosise, 

2 ARamean, aReola, aReoLation, athen^wm, augean, auReola, 

3 Ave Maria, ideal, beatific, caffein, Chaldean, chorez^s, 

4 Circean, codeine, colosser^m, coLossean, creosote, cuneifoRm, 



WRITING EXERCISES 171 

5 Cytherean, decreeR, decide, defied, deity, deism, deist, 

6 diaphaneity, diarrhea, dyspnea, empyrean, eocene, eon, 

7 eozoic, eozoon, epicurean, adamantean, Etnean, fealty, 

8 foreseeing, seeR, ioreseeR, ireeR, freest, Galilean, geocentric, 

9 geocentrical, geographic, geographical, geological, geoman- 

10 cer, geometric, geometrical, gigantean, heterogeneity, 

11 homogeneity, howbeit, hymneaL, hymnean, idealist, ideal- 

12 istic, idealize, idealization, ideograph, incorporeity, leonine, 

13 lethean, lycewm, Maccabean, Manichean, musewm, Nea- 

14 politan, Nemean, neolithic, neologian, neologic, neophyte, 

15 neozoic, nereid, nuclei, nymphean, oRphean, pean, pana- 

16 cea, pandean, Parseeism, peon, peony, peonage, peritonewm, 

17 peroneaL, petrean, phariseeism, pheon, pigmean, plebeian, 

18 pleonasm, polypean, polytheism, polytheist, preamble, 

19 pre-engaged, prytane^m, Pyrenean, Pythagorean, ratafia, 

20 reabsorb, readdress, readjusting, readmit, readmission, 

21 reaffiRm, reaL, really, realism, realist, realistic, realize, 

22 reannex, reappeaR, reappearance, reappoint, reapportion, 

23 rearrange, reascend, reassemble, reassign, reassuRe, re-eLect, 

24 re-eLection, re-enact, reinfoRce, re-enfoRce, re-engage, 

25 re-examine, re-export, reimburse, reinsert, reinstall, rein- 

26 state, reinsuRe, reinvest, roseola, rubeola, Sabean, Saddu- 

27 cean, seest, seeR, sheol, sight-seeing, sight-seeR, spontaneity, 

28 stearine, stearate, Tarpeian, thearchy, theory, theoretic, 

29 theoretical, theorem, theatre, theine, theism, theocratic, 

30 theologian, theological, theosophic, theorist, unseeing, 

31 zeolite, zeolitic, Action, ylRimathea, Asmodews, Beatrice, 

32 Boadicea, Canea, Cleopatra, Corea, Crimea, Galatea, Galileo, 

33 latakia, Theodore, Zacchews, Judea. 

(a") FIRST-PLACE DISYLLABIC DIPHTHONG aw-i, ETC. : 

1 draweR, gnaweR, wiredraweR, withdrateer, withdraz^al, 

2 nawy. 

(e) SECOND-PLACE DISYLLABIC DIPHTHONG o-i, ETC. : 

1 azoic, beawisH, bellot>eR, benzoic, benzoin, bestower, 

2 bestowal, billowy, bloweR, borrower, bowie-knife, boa, 



172 WRITING EXERCISES 

3 coadjust, coadventure, coalesce, coalesced, coaLescence, 

4 coaLescent, coalition, coalitionist, coally, coaptation, co-efn- 

5 cient, coeternal, coessential, coetaneous, coexist, coexistence, 

6 coexistent, coextension, coincide, egoist, egoism, eozoic, 

7 eozoon, epizoa, epizoan, grower, heroic, heroical, heroism, 

8 heroine, hylozoic, introit, knowable, knoweR, loweR, 

9 lowest, lowered, meadowy, moweR, narrower, Noah, Moab, 

10 noological, oasis, oolite, oolitic, oological, Owen, Owenite, 

11 palaeozoic, playgoeR, poem, poet, poesy, poetess, poetaster, 

12 poetry, polyzoan, proa, proem, protozoa, protozoic, soweR, 

13 rower, snowy, sloweR, slowest, snowy, snoweR, SHowily, 

14 SHowiness, stoic, stoicism, stoicaL, stowage, stowaway, 

15 throweR, towage, towaRdly, untowaRd, walloweR, widoweR, 

16 willowy, winnoweR, yelloweR, yellowest, yellowisn, rowable, 

17 Zoilism, zoolite, zoophyte, ALgoa, Genoa, Boadicea, Chloe, 

18 Goa, Lowell (upward /), NoweLL, Alloa, Samoa. 

(/) THIRD-PLACE DISYLLABIC DIPHTHONG oo-i, ETC. : 

1 abluent, afflwent, afflwence, afflwency, archdrm'd, bivoziac, 

2 blwey, blwisn, blwshly, breweR, brewing, brewery, bruin, 

3 crewel, gruel, crwelly, crwelty, cruet, deobstrwent, evil-doer, 

4 doing, doings, drm'd, drwidism, drwidess, efflwence, emwent, 

5 ewer, fluent, flwentLy, fluid, flwoR, flz^orine, flworide, 

6 hallooing, Hebrewess (tick h), Hinduism (upward h), 
1 imbrwing, jeweL, jeweLLer, jewelry, Jewisn, Jewess, Suez, 

8 lowis-d'oR, melliflwent, melliflMOMS, mooing, obstrwent, 

9 reflwence, reflwent, ruin, ruined, ruinous, ruinate, ruination, 

10 sanguifluous, SHoeing, snoeR, SHrewisn, sluing, truant, 

1 1 undoing, well-doeR, well-doing, wrong-doeR, yewen, wart, 

12 Ewing, Lewis (upward I), Ruabon (upward r), wooing, 

13 wooingLy, wooer, altrwism. 

(g) SEPARATE VOWEL SIGNS. 

Separate vowel-signs must be employed for the representation 
of the vowels printed in heavy type : 

1 eoLian, COLIC, aeRial, iodate, iodine, iodize, iodous, iolite 

2 ion, Ionian, Ionic, iota, Onio, Louisiana (upward 1), 



WRITING EXERCISES 173 

3 Ixion, Josiah, Elias, Maria, Siam, Uriah, riot, pious, 

4 biology, O'Brien, diameter, dialogue, diaper, diarist, 

5 diatonic, enjoyable, fiat, phiaL, vioL, violence, violinist, 

6 violation, miasma, liable, HaR, allowance, alliance, royaL, 

7 royalty, royalist, roweL, hiatus, quietus, quietude, quietest, 

8 quiesce, quiescence, quiescent, impiety, oology, perpetuity, 

9 perspicuous, picayune, pioneeR, preoccupy, poetic, pliable, 

10 reaction, re-enter, re-echo, re-eligible, satiety, residuum, 

11 situate, strenuous, triangle, ebriety, sobriety, duumvir, 

12 dueLLo, dubiety, druidical, fatuous, hyena, evacuaiion, 

13 fortuitous, duodecimal, fluoRic, lion, notoriety, nocuous, 

14 vacuous, newiSH, moiety, Judaism, Jesuit, hypochondriacal , 

15 HeweR, hyacinth, gratuity, gratuitous, giant, genii, 

16 Genoese, fluidity, avowaL, attenuate, buoyant, boyisn, 

17 casuistic, chaos, chaotic, coercion, coincident, coincidence, 

18 co-action, coagulate, co-heiR, co-aid, coevaL, co-adjutant, 

19 clairvoyant, cardiacal, co-ordinate, Creole, cyanide, 

20 demoniacal, ingenuous, ingenuity, diuRnal, dewy, drawee, 

21 employee, employeR, aRduous, aRgueR, annuity, alloyage, 

22 voyagei, aguisH, aloetical, diabolical, prioR, priority. 



EXERCISE 150. 
Disyllabic Diphthongs (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 149. 

1 . The triumphs of ingenuity in the application of scientific 
theories to everyday needs are often the rewards of genuine 
haRd toil and the defiance of an inclination to despair. 2. 
Success in these things, as in all others, is, as a TULC, onLy 
won by long wooing, many rearrangements of ideas, with- 
drawals and alterations of plans, a frequent deniaL of self, 
and, above all, a steady loyalty to the end in view. 3. All 
this may sound disagreeably prosatc, perhaps, but it is really 
necessary to dweLL upon these eLementary facts ; to assert 
and reassert them again and again, in oRder that you may be 
encouraged to face the obstacles which beset you. 4. The 



174 WRITING EXERCISES 

quiet student in his study may be as truly heroic as the heated 
soldier in the turmoil and rusn of the fieLd of battle. 5. Have 
a worthy ideal, and pursue it faithfully, though you may be 
called an idle dreameR and a fooLish theorist. 6. Picture to 
youRself how mankind would be situated now if it were not for 
the woRk of former theorists and their coadjutors, and what a 
museum it would take to hoLd even samples of the fruits of 
their labours. 7. Such thoughts will encourage you to perse- 
vere untiL you reach the goal of youR ambition. (210) 



EXERCISE 151. 

Disyllabic Diphthong's (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 149. 

1. Gaiety is agreeable and enjoyable so long as it is really 
ingenuous and not theatrical ; but the least betrayal of the 
playeR's aRt in the laugh OR smile, would, in reality, be fatal, 
to our genuine enjoyment. 2. / do not, of course, mean to 
assert that the fluent jests and mock heroism of the stage are 
disagreeable in all cases faR from it. 3. The playeR is a 
kind of purveyoR of fun to his audience, and if the article he 
provides is really of a good class the playgoeR is more than 
reimbursed for his outlay in attending the theatre. 4. But 
it will be admitted that the Highest perfection of the playeR's 
aRt is to make his woRds and actions appeaR real, ; if he 
succeeds in this he has achieved a genuine triumph. 5. But 
the gaiety which follows the use of the breweR's cup is hollow 
and, as a ruLe, disagreeable also. 6. // is often a pooR 
attempt to reinvest some stale joke with a new foRm, and it 
onLy ends in the betrayal of the effect of the breweR's fluid. 
7. Such jokes are as like to reaL wit as the noise of a brayeR 
is like to music. 8. Punning has been said to be the lowest 
foRm of humour ; but, really, / do not entiRely agree with 
this idea. 9. /am faR from tabooing puns, if they are good 
ones. 10. They serve to brighten our prosaic lives a little, 
and rouse MS to a feeLing of buoyancy, when, perhaps, we are 



WRITING EXERCISES 175 

inclined to mope. 1 1 . No, / should give a really smart punster 
ireeR scope for the exercise of his gaiety, with the proviso that 
cruel puns, OR those likely to huRt anyone's feeLings should be 
avoided. 12. Wit is no excuse for a superfluous insult. (295) 



EXERCISE 152. 
Disyllabic Diphthongs (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 149. 

1. Take Lewis (upward I) Owen, the breweR, to the Athen- 
, and SHOW him the portrait of the herotc poet, who brought 
the remfoRcement to the garrison in the camp. 2. The soldiers, 
it appeaRS, kept up their gaiety to the last, though their stock 
of provisions was at the lowest. 3 They were stotcaL enough 
to enduRe patientLy the troubles they could not remove, and 
their meagre allowance put their stoicism to a seveRe test. 4. 
It was disagreeable to have to act on the defensive, and they 
longed to be allowed to make a bayonet charge on the cruel foe. 
5. But the Colonel, knowing how hopeless it was for such a 
small foRce to attack the enemy, whose diabolical cries rang 
in his eaRs, declined to countenance the idea. 6. To him it 
looked like a betrayal of the trust reposed in him, and though 
he admiRed the loyalty of the men, he refused to give an oRder 
which simply meant ruin to them. 7. The Colonel's poetic 
friend, who was in the camp, offered to go for assistance. 8. He 
was an agreeable youth, whose snowy linen and slim figure were 
more suitable to a theatrical hero than to one who acted in the 
steRn theatre of real. warfaRe. 9. But a braver OR trueR- 
hearted fellow could not be found. 10. He managed to get 
through the enemy's line, and soon re-appeaRed at the head 
of a foRce strong enough to scatter the foe. 11. TTtesituaxion 
was speedily changed. 12. The besieged soldiers were able 
to reassert thepoweR of civilized man, and joined in the bestowal 
of a Lesson to the enemy which they are not likely to forget for 
a long time. (276) 



176 WRITING EXERCISES 

EXERCISE 153. 
Disyllabic Diphthongs (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 149. 
Mr. John Murray. 

Dear SiR, We desiRe to call youR attention to the enclosed 
price lists of our Diamond A erated Waters, and trust to receive 
youR kind oRder for a triaL lot. You will find them agreeable 
in taste and appearance, and ireeR than any other make from 
the fault of being put up in awkward bottles. We may mention 
that we already supply the City Athen^wm and the chief 
theatres with our derated Waters, and that the demand for them 
is rapidly increasing. They are an ideal drink for the hot 
weather, while, as you will see, the list, includes a beverage 
for the winter. We have added a new wing to our brewery, 
and in this we prepare all the mineraL waters we supply. We 
have secuRed the most modern appliances which the ingenuity 
of the engineers has been able to invent, and we shall be pleased 
to SHOW you over the works any time you care to give us a call. 
YOURS truly, Theobald ]ewett and Sons. (170) 

EXERCISE 154. 
Disyllabic Diphthong's (concluded). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 149. 
Mrs. Brem's. 

Dear Madam, / regret to have to notify you that youR 
daughter Beatrice faiLed in the geographical portion of the 
examination heLd last week. We did our best to give heR 
a sound theoretical preparation for the examination ; but the 
extreme gaiety and buoyancy of heR disposition, and heR 
dislike to what sne thought a prosaic Lesson, proved a barrier 
to heR success. We had hoped that heR fluency of speech and 
expression might have been turned to good account in the 
examination, but we were disappointed. I trust that on heR 
re-appearance in the school closer attention and more loyalty 
to the ruLes will produce better results in the future. YOURS 
faithfully, Maria PoweLL. (117) 



WRITING EXERCISES 177 

EXERCISE 155. 
Prefixes. 

(a) Con- EXPRESSED BY A LIGHT DOT : 

1 concave, conceal, concealed, concede, conceit, conceive, 

2 concentre, concentrate, concentrated, concentric, concep* 

3 tion, conceRn, conceRnedly, concert, concerted, concertina, 

4 concession, conciliate, conciliation, concise, conclave, 

5 conclude, conclusion, conclusive, concoct, concoction, 

6 concord, concordat, concrete, concur, concurrent, concus- 

7 sion, condemn, condemned, condense, condensation, con- 

8 denser, condiment, conditional-, condole, condolence, 

9 condone, conduce, conduct, conductor, conduit, confabulate, 

10 confectioneR, confederate, confeR, conference, confession, 

11 confetti, confide, confider, configuration, confiRmation, 

12 confiscate, conflagration, conflict, confound, confraternity, 

13 confronted, confutation, congeal, congeniaL, congestion, 

14 conglomeration, congratulate, congratulator, congregate, 

15 congress, congruity, conjecture, conjectural,, conjoint. 

16 conjugal, conjugate, conjugation, conjuRe, connected, 

17 connector, connive, connoisseuR, connubial, conquest, 

18 consanguinity, conscience, conscienTious, conscious, con- 

19 scription, consecrate, consecutive, consent, consequence, 

20 consequential, consequently, conserve, conservative, con- 

21 servatory, considerably, consign, consignoR, consist, con- 

22 solation, consonant, consort, conspicuous, conspiRe, con- 

23 spirator, constant, constancy, constitute, constituent, 

24 constituency, constrain, constructor, construe, consultation, 

25 consume, consummation, contagion, contaminate, contango, 

26 contemplate, contemporaneous, contended, contents, con- 

27 text, contiguous, continuity, contouR, contra, contracted, 

28 contradiction, contradistinction, contrariety, contravene, 

29 contributary, contrivance, controvert, contumacious, con- 

30 tused, convalescent, convention, conventional, converge, 

31 conversation, convex, convoy, conviviaL, convocation, 

32 convuLse, convuLsion. 

la (a?) 



178 WRITING EXERCISES 

(b) Com- EXPRESSED BY A LIGHT DOT : 

1 combat, combative, combination, combustion, comestible, 

2 comfit, comfortable, comforter, command, commander, 

3 commandment, commemorate, commemorative, commence, 

4 commendable, commendation, commensurate, comment, 

5 commentator, commination, commingle, committal, commute, 

6 commix, commodious, commodity, common, commoner, 

7 commonplace, commonwealth, commune, communion, 

8 communication, community, compact, companionable, com- 

9 pany, compaRe, comparable, comparative, compassion, 

10 compassed, compatible, compel, compendious, compensate, 

11 competent, competitor, compilation, complacent, compli- 

12 ment, complex, complexion, complicate, component, com- 

13 posite, composure, compound, comprehend, comprehensive, 

14 compress, comprised, compromise, compulsion, compulsory, 

15 computable, computer, comrade, composedly, comport, 

16 compositor, complicity, completed, commodoRe, common- 

17 Law, committee. 

(c) Con-, com-, cum-, OR cog- INDICATED BY WRITING THE 

FOLLOWING SYLLABLE OR WORD UNDER OR CLOSE TO THE 
CONSONANT PRECEDING Cow-, ETC. : 

1 preconceit, preconceive, preconception, preconcert, pre- 

2 contract, subcontract, subcommittee, subconscious, bicon- 

3 jugate, decompose, decomposition, decompound, deconse- 

4 crate, decwmbence, decwmbency, decwmbent, discomfit, 

5 discomfiture, discommode, discompose, discomposure, dis- 

6 concert, disconcerting, disconnected, disconnection, dis- 

7 consolate, discontent, discontinued, discontinuance, con- 

8 comitant, concomitance, excommunicate, excommunication, 

9 accompliSH, accommodate, accommodation, accommoda- 

10 tor, accompany, accompanist, accompanying, accomplice, 

11 misconstrue, misconceive, misconception, misconduct, mis- 

12 compute, miscomputation, malcontent, uncomfortable, un- 

13 common, uncomplaining, uncompromising, unconceRn, un- 

14 conceRnedly, unconditionaL, uncongeniaL, unconnected, 

15 unconscionable, unconscious, uncontrollable, uncontroLLed, 



WRITING EXERCISES 179 

16 unconverted, encompass, encompassed, incombustible, in- 

17 commensurate, incommode, incommodious, incommunicable, 

18 incommunicative, incommutable, incomparable, incom- 

19 passionate, incompatible, incompetent, incompetence, in- 

20 competency, incomplete, incomposite, incompliant, incom- 

21 prehensible, incompressible, incomputable, inconceivable, 

22 inconclusive, incongruous, incongruity, inconsequence, in- 

23 consequent, inconsiderable, inconsideration, inconspicuous, 

24 inconstant, inconstancy, inconsumable, incontestable, in- 

25 controvertible, inconvenient, inconvenience, inconvertible, 

26 incumbent, incumbency, non-combatant, noncommis- 

27 sioned, noncommittal, non-conductor, non-content, incog- 

28 nita, incognito, ill-conditioned, ill-concealed, well-conducted, 

29 well-conditioned, iRReconcilable, reconcile, reconcilable, 

30 reconciliation, recognize, recognition, recognizable, recog- 

31 nized, recognizer, recombine, recommence, recommend, 

32 recommendation, recommending, recommit, recommitment, 

33 recompense, recompose, recondite, reconduct, reconsider, 

34 reconstruct, reconvert, reconvey, overconfident, overcon- 

35 fidence, semi-conscious, semi-complete, semi-conjugate, 

36 circwmduct, circumference, circumflect, circumfluent, cir- 

37 cumjacent, circumlocution, circumnavigation, circumscribe, 

38 circumspect, circumvallation, circumvent, circumvention, 

39 circumvention, locum-tenens. Be constant, be confident, 

40 have confidence, in confidence, in conclusion, in consequence, 

41 my confidence, shall consider, shall continue, their control. 

(d) Inter-, intro-, OR enter- EXPRESSED BY HALF-LENGTH n. 
Join the prefix in the following words : 

1 interchain, interchange, interchangeable, interdependence, 

2 interdict, interdiction, interfeRe, interference, interfuse, 

3 interject, interjection, intercourse, interpellate, inter- 

4 pellated, interpellation, interpolate, interpolation, interpose, 

5 interposed, interposition, interpret, interpreted, interpreter, 

6 interrogate, interrogation, interrogatory, interrupt, interrup- 
7- tion, intertie, intertwine, tntervaL, intervention, interviewed, 



180 WRITING EXERCISES 

8 interweave, interwoven, introduce, introduced, introduceR, 

9 introduction, introductory. 

Disjoin the prefix in the following words : 

1 intercede, intercedent, interceder, intercept, intercession, 

2 intercessoR, intercommune, intercommunicate, intercostal, 

3 interlace, interfacing, interlard, interleave, interline, inter- 

4 lineaR, interlink, interlock, interlocutor, interlope, inter- 

5 loper, interlude, intermarry, intermeddle, intermediate, 

6 intermedial, intermezzo, intermingle, intermittent, intermix, 

7 intermuraL, international, interplead, interpleader, inter - 

8 speRse, interstellar, interstice, introspect, introspection, 

9 introspective, introversion, enterprise, enterprising, enter- 
10 tain, entertainer, entertained. 

(e) Magna-, magne-, OR magni- EXPRESSED BY DISJOINED 
m : 

1 Magna Charta, magnanimity, magnanimous, magnani- 

2 mously, magnetize, magnetized, magnetizeR, magnetizing, 

3 magneto-electric, magnetometer, magneto-motor, magnific, 

4 magnificat, magnificent, magnificence, magnificentLy, 

5 magnify, magnified, magnifieR, magniloquent, magnilo- 

6 quence, magnitude, demagnetize, eLectro-magnetism. 

(/) Self- EXPRESSED BY DISJOINED CIRCLES : 

1 self -confident, self-conscious, self-control, self-deience, self- 

2 deniaL, s^//-esteem, s^//-evident, self-help, self-interest, 

3 self-love, self-made, self-possessed, s//-possession, self- 

4 reliance, s0//-reliant, s^/-righteous, s^/-same, self-will, 

5 self-willed, se//-abasement, s^//-absorbed, se//-accusation, 

6 self- ad justing, s//-applause, se//-satisfied, s//-collected, 

7 s^//-command, s^//-complacent, s^//-conceit, s//-condemna- 

8 tion, s^//-congratulation, s^/-contained, se//-convicted, 

9 se//-deceit, s^//-delusion, se//-depreciative, se//-distrust, 

10 s^/-exaltation, s^//-existent, self-feeder, self -flattery, self- 

11 forgetful, s^/-glorious, s^/-imposed, s//-indulgence, self- 

12 mastery, se//-pity, se//-praise, s^//-pride, self- protection, 

13 se//-registering, sg//-reproach, s^/-sacrifice, se//-seeker, self- 

14 support, se//-taught, s^//-trust, s0//-worsmp. 



WRITING EXERCISES 181 

(g) In- EXPRESSED BY A SMALL FORWARD HOOK BEFORE 
THE CIRCLED LETTERS Spr, Sir, skr, AND THE STROKE h I 

1 inspiration, inspirations, instruct, instructor, instructed, 

2 instructress, instrument, instrumentation, inscribable, 

3 inscriber, inscriptive, inscroll, inscroLLed, inhabit, in- 

4 habitable, inhabitants, inhabiter. iwhaLe, inhalation, 

5 inhaLed, inhere, inherent, inherency, inherence, inher- 

6 entLy, inherit, inherited, inheritable, inheritance, inheritor, 

7 inheritrix, inhibit, inhibition, inhibited, inhibitory, 

8 innuman, inHumanLy, innumanity, innume, iHumation, 

9 innumed, innuming. 

THE STROKE n MUST BE WRITTEN IN WORDS LIKE THE 
FOLLOWING : 

1 inseparable, insuperable, insupportable, insuppressible, 

2 inscrutable, inhospitable, inhospitably. 

(h) Trans- is CONTRACTED BY OMITTING THE n, WHERE ITS 

INSERTION WOULD BE AWKWARD, AS IN THE FOLLOWING 
WORDS : 

1 transfer, transference, transiereR, transformer, translate, 

2 translation, translated, Iranslative, translator, transmarine, 

3 transmigrate, transmigration, transmission, transmit, trans- 

4 mittance, transmitter, transmute, transmutation, trans- 

5 parent, transpire, transplant, transport, transpose, trans- 

6 position, transportation, transportable. 

(i) II-, im-, in-, un-. 

Repeat the I, m, or n in negative words where these prefixes 
are followed by the same consonant, as in the following 
words : 

1 illaudable, illegal, illegible, illegibly, illiberal, illicit, 

2 illiterate, illegitimate, immaculate, immaterial, immatuRe, 

3 immeasurable, immiscible, immobile, immoderate, immoral, 

4 im/nortaL, immovable, immutable, innavigable, innocuous, 

5 innoxious, innumerable, innutrition, wnnamed, unknown, 



182 WRITING EXERCISES 

6 unnecessary, wnneighborly, unnerve, wnnoticed, unnoted. 

7 EXCEPTIONS : iLLimited, iLLimitable. 

(/) IY-. REPEAT THE FIRST r IN THE FOLLOWING WORDS : 

1 irradiate, irradiated, irradiance, irradiation, irrational, 

2 irreclaimable, irredeemable, irreducible, irrefragable, irre- 

3 futable. 



EXERCISE 156. 
Prefixes (continued). 

In this Exercise, and in Exercises 157 to 160 inclusive, the 
hyphen before con-, com-, cum-, or cog-, indicates that the 
prefix should be expressed as shown in par. (c). page 178. 

1. Try to retain youR -composure in the face of contradic- 
tion. 2. He who exhibits confusion and dis-composure at the 
slightest mis-construction of his words is s//-condemned as 
unfitted to ruLe others. 3. It is in-conceivable that anyone 
should be -competent to direct others who is in-competent to 
control his own feeLings. 4. There is considerable foRce in 
the saying that an Ambassador should a/ways wear spectacles, 
take snuff, and, at an interview, stand with his back to a 
window. 5. The reader may not concur in these -conclusions 
at first ; but re-consideration will -convince him that their 
apparent in-congruity may be re-conciled. 6. / do not propose 
to interpose with an interpretation of the saying. 7. That would 
interfeRe with my purpose, which is to entertain as well as 
instruct the student. 8. Besides, it is self-evident that he 
must learn to be sg//-reliant, and if he does not trust to self-help 
in a small matter like this, how can he hope to succeed in a case 
where, the task is magnified ? 9. If he has inherited a love 
for investigation, he will have little trouble in answering any 
interrogation as to the meaning of the saying / have interwoven 
heRe. 10. If he has not inherited such a love then / would 
re-commend him to cultivate it now, lest his mental horizon be 
cir-cwmscribed in an \\n-common measure. (224) 



WRITING EXERCISES 183 

EXERCISE 157. 

Prefixes (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 156. 

1 . It is considered that more brain foRce is used in the effort 
to render a new impression permanent and s0//-sustaining than 
for any other kind of mental exercise. 2. So that those who 
by the exercise of a considerable amount of self-deniaL and 
self-control, ac-complisH the s0//-imposed task of fixing a good 
many new ideas so -completeLy in their minds that they are 
interwoven into their oRdinary affaiRS of life, have used up an 
amount of energy which it is scaRcely possible to magniiy. 
3. Every instructor knows that there are times when the pupil 
appeaRs to be unable to concentrate his attention upon an 
explanation OR an interpretation of a fact OR a theory, and 
that at such times all efforts to communicate new notions are 
wasted. 4. It is wiser to dis-continue the Lesson in such a 
case, and re-commence when the pupil's mind has recovered its 
poweR by an interval, of rest. 5. The attempt to compel 
a tiRed brain to woRk, just to ac-commodate the convenience 
of the teacher is an interference with natural laws which witt 
be resented. 6. Yet / consider it a serious CRROR to interrupt 
one's studies for a lengthened intervaL, and I should not 
re-cowmend a complete dis-continuance of woRk for more than 
a few weeks. 7. We should continue consistency the course 
we have inscribed in our scheme of Lessons. (228) 

EXERCISE 158. 

Prefixes (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 156. 

1. "Consols" is a contraction -commonly employed to 
convey the complete meaning of the term " Consolidated 
Annuities." 2. The loans made at various times to the State 
constitute the National Debt. 3. These loans were -con- 
solidated for -convenience into one -common loan. 4. Since 



184 WRITING EXERCISES 

the conversion OR -consolidation the fund has bjcn known by 
the concise term of " Consols." 5. An in-competent speaker 
soon loses his composure and self-control in the presence of a 
considerable -company, and in his dis-composure makes 
statements which may easily be mis-construed. 6. His sen- 
tences grow more dis-connected and in-complete the longer he 
continues to talk, and often enough he is compeLLed in 
hopeless -confusion, to dis-continue his speech and lapse into 
silence. 7. OnLy -continued perseverance will enable such 
a person to conquer his weakness. 8. It is fooLish to entertain 
the idea that it is in-cwmbent upon one to interieRe OR interpose 
in every dispute one witnesses. 9. A man may be treated 
as an interloper for intermeddling in a quaRRel between persons 
unknown to him, and may possibly be unfortunate enough 
to intercept and receive a blow intended for another. 10. It 
is good to be magnanimous ; but we should not magnify our 
duty, OR lose our self-possession. II. It has been noticed 
that some persons appeaR to have an inherent desiRe to instruct 
everybody they meet. 12. A musical instrument ; an 
inscribed tablet ; an inscroLLed message almost any article 
OR any incident is enough to serve as inspiration to them, and 
at once they -commence to instruct the company upon the 
subject. 13. It is a disagreeable habit, and should be conquered. 

(260) 



EXERCISE 159. 

Prefixes (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 156. 

Mr. Constantine Connell. 

Dear SIR, I have carefully -considered the proposal you made 
at the recent -conference in Conway, and while / gratefully 
re-cognise youR -considerate and even magnanimous tone at 
the interview, I have -concluded no^ to entertain the idea, further. 
There are what I consider inherent defects in the proposed 
enterprise which forbid my inscribing my name on the list of 



WRITING EXERCISES 185 

SHaReholders in the company. / feaR it will not be the instru- 
ment of profit which you anticipate. / am -conscious of all 
YOUR kindness towards me in -connection with the scheme 
you have introduced, and I desiRe to express my gratitude for the 
hospitable reception you gave me. I can but repeat my 
appreciation of the great self-control you exhibited in spite of the 
interruptions to which you were exposed in the course of youR 
speech at the conference. YOURS faithfully, Conrad Connor. 

(147) 

EXERCISE 160. 

Prefixes (concluded). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 156. 

MCSSRS. Congreve and Compton. 

Dear SiRs, Referring to our interview with youR Mr. 
Magnus on the proposal to introduce into our works the new 
se//-feeding and self-controlling spool winder, will you kindly 
forward us a detailed statement of the benefits claimed from 
the use of the patent ? // occurred to us that these were magni- 
fied at the interview ; but we are open to be -convinced of the 
utility of youR invention, and we shall be pleased to instruct 
our manager to give it a triaL. If the benefits are so s0//-evident 
as Mr. Magnus appeaRed to think, we shall adopt the patent. 
7s the attachment easily dis-connected when it has ac-com- 
plisned its purpose, and can the woRker readily ac-comwodate 
heRself to the use of the instrument ? YOURS faithfully, Deacon 
and Cummings. (134) 

EXERCISE 161. 
Suffixes. 

In this Exercise, and in Exercises 162 to 166 inclusive, the 
hyphen indicates that the suffix should be disjoined. 

(a) -ing EXPRESSED BY THE STROKE ng .' 

1 baying, braying, sobbing, enabling, disabling, aiding, 



186 WRITING EXERCISES 

2 dying, drying, deriding, residing, presiding, writhing, 

3 wreathing, saying, sighing, sawing, sowing, easing, using, 

4 throwing, snowing, usnering, pusning, casHiwg, crasning, 

5 ruSHing, wasning, dashing, polishing, aiming, seeming, 

6 steaming, swimming, consuming, presuming, assuming, 

7 resuming, mowing, murmuring, booming, deeming, snam- 

8 ming, naming, owning, awning, sinning, staining, swooning, 

9 designing, chastening, glistening, christening, fastening, 

10 knowing, singing, swinging, stinging, clinging, winging, 

11 aiLing, sailing, swelling, stealing, wailing, whiling, lying, 

12 laying, lowing, swallowing, following, bellowing, f aiLing, 

13 reviLing, scaLing, queLLing, yeLLing, ruLing, rowing, 

14 rueing, borrowing, sorrowing, weighing, swaying, 

15 roaring, rearing, wailing, whiling, stamping, swamping, 

16 basing, Leasing, dozing, chasing, rejoicing, casing, kissing, 

17 creasing, increasing, grazing, glossing, facing, freezing, 

18 fleecing, voicing, revising, conversing, ceasing, unceasing, 

19 saucing, massing, missing, promising, amusing, amazing, 

20 grimacing, noosing, commencing, snoozing, recognizing, 

21 mincing, evincing, Lacing, Loosing, Lessing, aRousing, 

22 aRising, eRasing, pieRcing, racing, rising, rousing, terroriz- 

23 ing, perusing, carousing, housing, quizzing, acquiescing, 

24 whistling, embossing, whizzing ; placing, pressing, bracing, 

25 blazing, tracing, distressing, addressing, jesting, adjusting, 

26 digesting, encasing, taxing, fixing, vexing, annexing, 

27 cruising, closing, enclosing, disclosing, glazing, disguising, 

28 confusing, diffusing, refusing, suffusing, dusting, testing, 

29 protesting, pining, spraining, puffing, paving, Browning, 

30 rebuffing, tanning, straining, striving, diving, dining, 

31 dawning, chafing, chaffing, canning, cleaning, skinning, 

32 crowning, sickening, thickening, beginning, groaning, 

33 gleaning, bargaining, fanning, feigning, frowning, conven- 

34 ing, thinning, assigning, moaning, manning, mining, 

35 summoning, eaRning, disceRning, conceRning, quickening, 

36 impugning; panting, sprinting, bending, tending, strand- 

37 ing, drifting, Dinting, counting, discounting, seconding, 

38 squinting, granting, grounding, fainting, finding, founding, 



WRITING EXERCISES 187 

39 fronting, flaunting, vaunting, venting, inventing, mount- 

40 ing, cementing, lamenting, demanding, remanding, 

41 impounding ; pandering, pondering, splintering, bant- 

42 ering, tendering, cantering, encountering, squandering, 

43 thundering, snattering, meandering, entering, centering, 

44 sauntering, altering, loitering, sweltering, bewildering, 

45 faltering, smouldering, scenting, resenting, dissenting, 

46 consenting, netting, personating, ousting, hasting, SHout- 

47 ing, snooting, waiting, hating, heating, parting, darting, 

48 smarting, concerting, sorting, distorting, assorting, fashion- 

49 ing, provisioning, motioning. 

(b) -ing EXPRESSED BY A LIGHT DOT : 

1 paying, praying, playing, tapping, dipping, chipping, 

2 coping, groping, moping, nipping, lapping, ripping, weep- 

3 ing, hopping, eating, pitying, beating, dating, doating, 

4 rating, trying, straying, staying, etching, pitching, beach- 

5 ing, teaching, catching, snatching, reaching, bewitching, 

6 edging, paging, budging, dodging, gauging, converging, 

7 waging, cawing, pecking, breaking, talking, decoying, 

8 checking, joking, smoking, sneaking, raking, looking, 

9 Hacking, growing, begging, dragging, smuggling, ragging, 

10 lagging, frying, fraying, flowing, fleeing, vying, purveying, 

11 surveying, conveying, thawing, aiRing, soaRing, steeRing, 

12 sweaRiwg, paRing, beaRing, teaRing, daRing, jeeRing, 

13 injiming, conjtiRing, scaRing, secuRing, squaRtng, feaRing, 

14 veeRing, smeaRing, snoRing, loweRing, Hoeing, Haying ; 

15 plotting, plating, budding, brooding, upbraiding, celebrat- 

16 ing, treating, prostrating, illustrating, devastating, rotat- 

17 ing, frustrating, doubting, dreading, radiating, inundating, 

18 crediting, chatting, cheating, fidgeting, cutting, skating, 

19 dissecting, transacting, attracting, detracting, protracting, 

20 secreting, grading, degrading, emigrating, migrating, 

21 fighting, flitting, floating, fretting, avoiding, evading, 

22 inattz;/^, permitting, promoting, consummating, letting, 

23 lighting, pelting, bolting, tilting, delighting, smelting, 

24 welting, emulating, SHiRting, quitting, squatting ; poRteriwg, 

25 boRdering, chaRteriwg, fluttering, flattering, frittering. 



188 WRITING EXERCISES 

26 muttering, smothering, oRdering, disoRdering, rendering, 

27 surrendering, wandering, wondering, wintering, hindering ; 

28 chanting, enchanting, grafting, shunting, anointing, land- 

29 ing, lending, rending, rounding, surrounding, rafting, 

30 wanting, wending, wounding, winding, unwinding, wafting, 

31 hunting, haunting ; coughing, scoffing, craving, graving, 

32 engraving, grieving, raving, roving, reefing, waving, 

33 weaving, serving, preserving, observing, deserving, reserv- 

34 ing, conserving, starving, swerving, spurning, burning, 

35 turning, adorning, churning, adjourning, scorning, morning, 

36 mourning, learning, leaning, lining, maligning, running, 

37 raining, winning, waning, whining, yawning, yearning, 

38 heaving, behaving, snining, ensHrining, enthroning, 

39 cautioning, apportioning ; prancing, pouncing, dispensing, 

40 bronzing, bouncing, entrancing, distancing, condensing, 

41 chancing, ensconsing, cleansing, rinsing, wincing, silencing, 

42 glancing ; pasting, posting, plastering, bolstering, coasting, 

43 casting, fasting, flustering, mastering, mustering, cluster- 

44 ing, resting, roosting, requesting, aRResting, buRsting, 

45 wasting. 

(c) -ingS EXPRESSED BY A LIGHT DASH : 

1 chippings, clippings, scrapings, sweepings, etchings, cut- 

2 tings, fittings, meetings, paRings, boRings, beaRings, 

3 winnings, burnings, engravings, turnings, mornings, 

4 learning's, yearnings, wanderings, renderings, diggings, 

5 carvings, misgivings, livings, leavings, twistings, castings, 

6 postings, droppings, drippings, sittings, searchings, takings, 

7 mooRings, wonderings, twitchings, plottings, windings, 

8 makings. 

(d) -ality, -ility, -arity, ETC., INDICATED BY DISJOINING THE 
PRECEDING STROKE. 

The hyphen indicates that the following stroke is to be 
disjoined : 

1 absorba-6i/i/y, accepta-6i/i^y, acquiRa-bi/i/y, adapta- 

2 bility, addi-bi^y, admira-bi/i/y, admi-r^y, admissi-bi/i^y, 

3 advisa-bi/tVy, affa-bi/^y, effecti-bitoy, agreea-bi/iJy, 



WRITING EXERCISES 189 



4 aLiena-b*7*7y, altera-b*77y, amena-b7t7y, 

5 amica-b7t7y, associa-bt'/tVy, attaina-b*7t/y, attracta-bi7t7y, 

6 audi-b77y, avaiLa-bt7t7y, bar-banVy, capa-bt77y, incapa- 

7 bility, car-ru?/t7y, chargea-b*7t7y, combusti-bi/i7y, com- 

8 mensura-bt7t7y, communica-b*7t7y, comnmta-b*/t7y, compati- 

9 b7t7y, compressi-bi7*7y, condensa-bt7t7y, conduci-b*7*7y, 
10 conduct!- bilily, contracti-b7tVy, contrac-tt7*/y, convi- 
1 1 violily, converti-bilily, corrigi-b7t/y, corrupti-bt/t^y, culpa- 

12 bility, credi-btWy, crimi-nolity, stability , insta-b*7*7y, 

13 dura-bttoy, lia-b7t/y, excita-bt/t/y, hospi-tolity, foR-molity, 

14 pr'mci-polity, bru-tolity, porta-bility, mo-bility, no-bility, 

15 ina-b7*7y, disa-b77y, popu-larity, ia.-tality, iu-tilily, 

16 mi-norities. feasi-bi7t/y, lusi-bility, v\-laLity, deduci-b7tVy, 

17 defensa-bi/f/y, demisa-bt7t/y, desira-btWy, destructi-bility, 

18 diftusi-bility, digesti-btft/y, distensi-bt7t<y, dissimi-lanVy, 

19 divisi-bility, duc-tility, eligi-bi/tVy, equz-biliiy, eRec-iiltty, 

20 exchangea-bi7t/y, expansi-bt7tVy, extensi-b7tVy, falli-b*7*7y, 

21 fermenta-b&fy, fi-nalily, inflamma-bt7tVy, fLexi-bility, 

22 foRmida-b7*7y, fra-g*77y, fria-b*7Vy, iri-volity, gene-rality, 

23 gulli-b*77y, hos-t*7*Vy, ilTegi-bt/*/y, legi-bility, illi-bero/t/y, 

24 \i-berality, ille-go/tVy, le-galtty, imita-b7*7y, immisci- 

25 bt7t7y, \mmo-bility, immor-ta/t7y, immova-bi7t7y, muta- 

26 bility, immuta-bt7t7y, impalpa-b7t7y, imparti-b*7*7y, 

27 impassi-b7i7y, impecca-b7*/y, impenetra-bt7t7y, implaca- 

28 bility, impondera-bt7t7y, impossi-bt77y, impregna-bt77y, 

29 inaudi-bi7*7y, incompressi-bi7i7y, inconverti-bt7t7y, indeli- 

30 bility, indissolu-bt7j7y, ineRRa-bt7t7y, infalli-bt7t7y, infoR- 

31 mality, inhospi-tfl/t7y, inscruta-bt/7y, insatia-bt7*/y, 

32 insepara-b7*7y, wsolu-bility, insupera-bt7t7y, invaria-b7t7y, 

33 invinci-b*77y, }ocu-\arity, mallea-bt7t7y, modifia-bt7*7y, 

34 mor-tality, naviga-bt7t7y, nota-bt7t7y, ostensi-bt7t7y, palpa- 

35 b*77y, penetra-bt7t7y, perfecti-bt7*7y, permissi-b77y, plu- 

36 ra/t7y, practi-ca/7y, rata-b*7t7y, recepti-b7*7y, remova- 

37 bility, repeala-b7t7y, resisti-b7t7y, revoca-bt7t7y, risi- 

38 bility, sana-b*7t7y, separa-bi/t7y, ser-v*77y, seve-ra//y, 

39 simi-lan7y, singu-lan7y, angu-lan7y, solva-bi7t7y, suscepti- 

40 bt/*7y, tangi-b*7*7y, taxa-b7t7y, tena-bt/*7y, tensi-bt77y, 



190 WRITING EXERCISES 

41 tracta-bility, transmissi-bi/tfy, transporta-bt/i/y, volu-bility, 

42 vendi-bility, vulnera-bi/tVy, regularity, iRRegu-lanVy, juve- 

43 nility, gen-tility. 

(e) -ment EXPRESSED BY nt : 

1 announcement, pronouncement, denouncement, advance- 

2 ment, ascertainment, assignment, confinement, consignment, 

3 commencement, refinement, pavement, imprisonment, 

4 deiacement, efiacement, resentment, aLignment, achieve- 

5 ment, enlightenment, abandonment, enchantment, enList- 

6 ment, preierment, reappointmew/, reassignment, accompani- 
1 ment. 

(/) -mental OR -mentality EXPRESSED BY DISJOINED ment : 

1 instru-men/a/, instru-mentality, iunda-mental, regi-mental, 

2 regi-menlals, docu-mental, recrc-mental, senti-mental, senti- 

3 mentality, rudi-mental, sacra-mental,' monu-mental, excre- 

4 mental, detri-mental, supple-mental, experi-mental, depart- 
mental. 

(g) -ly EXPRESSED BY DISJOINED / : 

1 astutely, distantly, bland-/y, blind-Zy, blunt-/y, cogent-/y, 

2 diffidently, friend-/y, unfriend-/y, coincident-/y, com- 

3 petent-/y, incompetent-/y, confidently, constantly, in- 

4 constantly, instant-/y, persistently, compliant-/y, jointly, 

5 conjointly, contingent-/y, flippant-^y, obedient-/y, dis- 

6 obediently, diligent-/y, indulgent-/y, urgent-Zy, impudent- 

7 ly, imprudently, improvident-/y, providently, evenly, 

8 unevenly, vain-/y, ancient-/y, expectant-Zy, latently, 

9 fervent-Zy, fond-/y, faint-/y, impotent-/y, inadvertently, 

10 triumphantly, incipient-/y, inconsistently, indoLent-/y, 

11 insoLent-/y, antecedently, negligently, potently, 

12 precedent-/y, prudent-/y, radiantly, stringent-/y, sloven-/y, 

13 tender-/y, steRn/-y. 

(h) -ship EXPRESSED BY sh : 

1 rector-ship, advocate-ship, abbot-ship, augur-ship, author- 

2 ship, comrade-ship, captain-ship, censor-ship, chairman- 

3 ship, chanceLLor-ship, chaplain-sA^, chief tain-ship, cham- 

4 pion-ship, citizen-ship, clan-ship, c\eRk-ship, collector -ship, 



WRITING EXERCISES 191 

5 guardian-ship, commander-sAt/>, companion-sAt/>, con- 

6 trolleR-sAt/), counseLLor-sAt/>, court-ship, trans-ship, lady- 

7 ship, lord-ship, haRd-ships, head-ship, town-ship, stewaRd- 

8 ship, apprentice-ship, schoLar-ship, deacon-sAt/>, dictator- 

9 ship, disciple-sAt/>, draf tsman-ship, editoR-sAt/>, envoy-ship, 
10 librarian-sAt/), Messiah-ship, mid-ship, penmanship, pre- 
11 centorship, premieR-ship, proconsuL-ship, proiessor-ship, 

12 seamanship, squiRe-ship, survivor-ship, trustee-ship, ward- 

13 ship, associate- ship, heiR-ship, acquaintance-sAt'^>. 
(*') -lessness EXPRESSED BY DISJOINED Is : 

1 aRt-lessness, beaRd-lessness, blame-lessness, bound-/ss^ss, 

2 care-lessness, cheer-lessness, hope-lessness, grace-lessness, 

3 sleep-/ssss, taste -lessness, iaith-lessness, daunt-lessness, 

4 dread-lessness, ianlt-ltssness, iean-lessness, iriend-lessness, 

5 iruit-lessness, ground-less Jiess, guile-lessness, haRm-lessness, 

6 heaRt-lessness, heed-lessness, }oy-lessness, \aw-lessness, 

7 \ist-lessness, \iie-lessness, piti-lessness, prayeR-lessness, 

8 sname-lessness, sight-lessness, stain-lessness, thought- 

9 lessness, tiRe-lessness, use-lessness, worth- lessness, reck- 
10 lessness. 

(/) -fnlneSS EXPRESSED BY DISJOINED /S : 

1 aRt-fulness, bale-fulness, bant-fulness, basH-fulness, bliss- 

2 fulness, boast- fulness, bounti-f 'illness, care-fulness, cheer- 

3 fulness, hope-fulness, grace- fulness, rest-fulness, youth- 

4 fulness, peace- fulness, diRe-fulness, dole-fulness, duti- 

5 fulness, iaith-fulntss, ior get- fulness, fright- fulness, fruit- 

6 fulness, guile- fulness, joy- fulness, haRm- fulness, health- 

7 fulness, huRt-fulness, law-fulness, unLaw- fulness, mirth- 

8 fulness, play-fulness, plenti- fulness, pray eR- fulness, right- 

9 fulness, sin-fulness, skiL-fulness, sloth- fulness, spite- fulness, 
10 sport- fulness, thought- fulness, trust- fulness, use- fulness. 

EXERCISE 162. 
Suffixes (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 161. 
1. An aiR of cheer- fulness should be cultivated by all who 



192 WRITING EXERCISES 

labour amidst the absorbing, bothering, wearing ruSH of 
business life. 2. It will help them to beaR more patientLy the 
tantalizing, annoying troubles that anise from the vul-garity, 
hos-tility, OR excita-bitoy of those they meet in business. 
3. Not onLy so, but it will add very considerably to their 
grace-fulness of personality, and impart an aiR of perennial 
youth-fulness and hope-fulness that must preserve them from 
even an appearance of incivility to anyone. 4. Thus, their 
popularity will be increased, and they will acquiRe a name 
for amia-btf&y that will assuRedly assist them in extending 
and solidiiy-ing their business connections. 5. Anyone who 
has an extensive acquaintance's/^/) must know one OR more 
persons who have an habitual aiR of hope-lessness, help-lessness 
and hst-lessness, and who are constant-/)/ whin-mg about some 
more OR less imaginary ha.Rd-ships which they are called upon 
to enduRe. 6. They do not, apparently, realise how detri- 
mental such senti-mental nonsense must be to their health, OR 
that it is likely to induce feeLings of resentment in persons of 
refinement and enlightenw<?^. 7. A friend-/;y warn-wg, 
with such a statement of these facts as would put the case 
cogent-/} 1 before them, might be successful, in altering such 
silly ways. (205) 



EXERCISE 163. 
Suffixes (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 161. 

1. A great authority on the aRt of teach- ing says that a 
moderate exhilaration and cheer-fulness grow -ing out of the 
act of learn-wg is certainly the most genial- and the most 
effectual means of cementing the unions that wedesiRe to foRm 
in the mind. 2. This, he says, is meant when we refer to the 
schoLar as hav-ing a taste for his pursuit, hav-ing a heaRt in it, 
learn -*' with love. 3. The fact is perfectly well known, he 
adds ; the CRROR, in connection with it, lies in dictat-twg OR 
enjoin-t'wg this state of mind on everybody in every situaxion, 



WRITING EXERCISES 193 

as if it could be commanded by a wisn. 4. There are some 
teachers, though not a ma-jonVy, who possess the knack of 
inspiR-twg their pupils with this cheer-fulness which is so 
helpful to them. 5. The a.ffa.-bility and amia-bi/tVy of these 
teachers has not onLy the effect of keep-tng the pupils bright 
and cheerful, but it helps to maintain them in a proper state of 
docility and attention. 6. Such instructors have no need to 
address a schoLar fieRcely OR violently. 7. They can keep a 
class diligently and constantly occupied, and yet the woRk 
proceeds pleasantLy and smoothly the whole time, from the 
commencement to the end of the Lesson. 8. Everyone feeLS 
that the teacher is keenly desirous for the advancement of his 
pupils, and there is no resentment OR jealousy at the success 
of any pupil in the class. 9. The leader-ship OR guardian-s/w/> 
of such a teacher may be instru-mental in the promotion of 
good citizenship and good fellowship in those entrusted to his 
care. (262) 



EXERCISE 164. 

Suffixes (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 161. 

1. A small mi-nority of people, hav-ing a rare credi-bility , 
think there is a fa.-tality in all things, and that it is an impossi- 
bility that events should occur otherwise than as they do. 
2. This theory, it should be said, does not affect their attracta- 
bility, hospi-tality, OR jocu-lanVy, and their socia-b/t/y is just 
as great as that of the ma-jonVy of those wlio cannot see the 
accepta-be'toy of fatalism. 3. It is positively provok-ing to 
a schoLarly man to see the amazing facility with which many 
men will commence what they impudent-/y call the study of 
some department of literature, and then as suddenLy break it 
off to take up some other fad. 4. FaR from regard-twg this flitt- 
ing about as a sign of inteLLectuaL refinement OR versatility, 
the reaL student looks upon it as a mark of imbecility,* a 
mere senti-mentality OR aimless wander-ing, highly detri-mental 

13 (a?) 



194 WRITING EXERCISES 

to anyone eager to learn. 5. He who aspires to a leader-ship 
in the worLd must woRk haRd from the commencement, and be 
prepaRed for the abandonment of iri-volity, insincerity, and 
undue convi-viality, indulgence in which would make 
advance ment an impossi-bi/i^y for him. 6. All tendency to 
heed-lessness OR sloth-fulness must be steRn-/y checked, and the 
course as marked out must be pursued diligently and hopefully, 
and with confidence in the right-fulness of the cause in which he 
is wonk-ing and studying. (223) 



EXERCISE 165. 

Suffixes (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 161. 

MessRs. Canning and Cunningham . 

Dear SIRS, Hav-ing heaRd that you are in want of an 
enterprising agent for youR tracing papers and other goods. 
/ beg to offer you my services. / have some exceedingly 
strong connections in the printing and engineering businesses 
in this locality, being well known to the majority of the best 
fiRms, and I think that through my acquaintance-s&i / could 
readily introduce youR specialities into the fiRms / call upon. 
7 am regarded as a man of considerable origi-na^y in my 
conduct of business matters, and I can give you ample evidence 
as to my ability, help-/w/nss, ana 7 the standing / have in the 
district. Of course, / should be willing to give you a n-delity 
guarantee to any amount (at youR expense), ana 1 I shall be 
glad to enter into an experi-mental aRRangement with you, 
if you prefer it. I may add that I have been instru-mental in 
introducing many no-velties into this neighborhood, ana* 
/ confidently assert that I should be just as successful, with 
youR goods. / shall be happy to discuss terms with you. 
Awaiting youR kind reply, / am, YOURS faithfully, Alexander 
Mottram. (193) 



WRITING EXERCISES 195 

EXERCISE 166. 

Suffixes (concluded). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 161. 

Mr. Thomas SelleR. 

Dear SIR, We have youR letter containing various oRders 
and we are attending to these immediately. Referring to the 
oRder from Mr. John Bailey, while we are faR from 
doubt-ing this man's capa-bi/i/y of pay-ing for the goods, we 
should feeL more satisfied if you would make further inquiry as 
to his credi-bility and business reputation. It is our funda- 
mental ruLe not to execute first ORders without perfectly good 
reports as to the sta-bi/i/y of the customeR. We do not mean 
to impute care-lessness to you, but you will permit us to remind 
you that the guardian-sAi^> of our interests, as faR as youR 
ORders are conceRned, is entrusted to you, and we look to you 
not to faLL into \\st-lessness in this regard as we might be 
landed into a serious position in consequence. YOUR expenses 
have been grow-ing lately, ana" we venture to suggest that you 
might curtail youR hospi-to/i/y to some extent. YOURS truly, 
Crosby ana 7 Mortimer. (163) 

EXERCISE 167. 
Contractions. 

\ probable-bly-ility, ^\^ improbable-ly-ility, /^ republi- 

^> can, 
\ publication, ^\ remarkable-y, /\ represenl-ed, 

representation, *\ practice-d-cal-ly, *\ * practicable, 



~*\ impracticable, W phonographer, \^ phonographic, 



"(, instruction, 'V parliament- ary. 

Dear SiR, We have youR letter of yesterday, offering to 
represent us in the district in which you reside, but as we are 



196 WRITING EXERCISES 

already represented by Mr. Brown of Gateshead, who has 
been our representative for some time, youR suggestion is at 
present impracticable. It is probable that we shall cut up the 
district in a while, and if you are then open to take the position 
we should probably appoint you. In all probability the division 
will be made about October, and as it is improbable that you 
will have left the locality by then, we shall expect to heaR from 
you about that time, with a view to youR commencing the 
representation of our fiRm in an aRea to be fixed. If practicable, 
we should like you to give us a call, so that we can give you any 
instructions which may be necessary. We are sorry you are 
not a phonographer. Perhaps you could aRRange to learn the 
phonographic aRt meanwhile ? If you practised every day 
you might obtain a practical knowledge of the system by October. 
It is practically out of the question that you should have any 
difficulty in finding a teacher. There must be many in so busy 
a place who practise the phonographic aRt, and it would be 
remarkable if you had trouble in secuRing the services of an 
instructor. The improbability is altogether too great to be worth 
further consideration. We are rather quiet just now on 
account of the parliamentary recess ; but when parliament 
re-opens we expect business will be remarkably brisk, through 
the publication of the debates, etc. Our Mr. Smith may not 
improbably be in youR neighborhood before long, and if you 
have not called upon us meanwhile, he will try to see you. YOUR 
republican ideas would not interfeRe with youR duties as our 
representative. YOURS faithfully, (309) 



EXERCISE 168. 
Gram m alogues . 

1. My dear student, May I deliver to you an opinion upon 
the advantage to be derived from private or extra study, taken 
from the remarks of one who was himself a student of more than 
ORdinary ability, and whose usual plan it was to think for 
himself and do the best he could on every opportunity to find out 



WRITING EXERCISES 197 

the truth with regard to any particular question in whicJi- he felt 
any curiosity ? 2. Shall I take it that you are willing, and 
that you have no objection to a Lesson, so long^s it improves yon 
and adds to your pleasure ? 3. / will, and, oh, I do hope 
that of the number who read this page very many may be found 
who will be numbered among those who are called schoLars. 
4. The habits of literary occupation, says this gentleman, 
confer cheerfulness, even upon men of common minds ; but 
if they are joined to the possession of great native talents, 
then they can accompany men in their faLL from the Highest 
offices to the most absolute retiRement, as they did in the 
case of Lord Bacon, who, though he was degraded from his 
position in the court over which he had so long presided, yet 
at once assumed a nigheR place in another spheRe, through the 
talents he had cultivated by stud}'. 5. How much better it 
would have been for some gentlemen known to you and to me, 
if they had studied, say, Phonography, in their leisure hours ! 
6. Had the}- done so they would now have a better spirit and a 
more improved mind than we see they have. 7. I shall be happy 
to think they may see these words, and may use them to their own 
advantage. 8. What a great difference we should see in them ! 
9. I think we owe it to our fellows not to be disagreeable, moody, 
or dull ; and 1 am certain that if we care to use the poweRs given 
to us by the Lord God, we can do much good to others, and we shall 
not be accused of such faults as I have referred to. (351) 



EXERCISE 169. 
Grammalog-ues (continued). 

1. My dear Principal, You and I know that there are a 
great number of things in Nature which we cannot account for, 
if we are to be true to the language of truth ; because these things 
are quite above and beyond you and me. 2. The Lord has 
numbered them according to His will, and He can account for 
them ; but we cannot. 3. Nor are we called upon to do so. 
4. Shall I call them in one word too difficult for us ? 5. Eh ? 



198 WRITING EXERCISES 

6. Ay, and though we may not care to be told this it is the mere 
truth, arid the more we think it over the more we see the truth of 
my remark. 7. There is no use in calling it by any other 
word. 8. This has been my opinion from the first hour that I 
could think at all ; and I think I shall have this opinion for ever. 
9. Mr. Grey, who has been my dear doctor during the year, 
thinks with me in this, and his opinion is quite equal to that 
of any gentleman I know. 10. It is very important that we 
should remember this truth when we come to deliver an opinion 
on the things we see in Nature. 11. In short, it should be 
remembered by every member and by all gentlemen who use their 
words according to the spirit of truth, and whose usual principle 
it is to use the truth on each and every opportunity, general and 
particular, that may come to them. 12. As for myself, I do 
not care very much whether I know all these things or not. 13. It 
is difficult for me to see in what spirit we should be improved, or 
what great advantage it would be to us, if we could see through 
them all, and account for them to each and every one who might 
call upon us for an opinion on them. 14. After all, there -would 
be no great difference in the pleasure we should have in using 
them, however much we might use them ; nor should we be 
more happy if we could go down and give a true account of them 
at any hour during the year. 15. Are those who know the 
importance of these things more happy on that account ? 16. // 
our pleasure in these things had to be given up because we could 
not give an opinion of them, it would be quite different. 17. But 
it is not so. 18. Why, therefore, should we be put out because we 
cannot give an opinion on all that may come under the eye ? 
19. Yet there are two gentlemen near me who cannot see the truth 
of this Oh, that these two gentlemen could see how much we all 
owe to the good God, who has delivered these things to us I 20. It 
was He himself who delivered them to us. 21. We have them 
from His hand, and principally for our improvement and that 
we might be improved. 22. It is according to His word and 
under His will that we have all these things. 23. Shall we not 
go toward Him, and thank Him as He should be thanked, in a 
spirit of awe and with the language of truth? 24. / threw 



WRITING EXERCISES 199 

out this remark a while ago to a large number of gentlemen who 
are down with me, and I think the delivery of my words has done 
them good. 25. Remember, I remarked, we could not have any 
of these things without God. 26. // was principally for your 
improvement that He has given them to you. 27. You could not 
buy them from anyone. 28. Ah, thank Him, therefore, gentle- 
men, in as true a spirit as you can. 29. / have put these words 
down in Phonography, my dear Principal, that you may see 
them and use them for advantage and improvement. (631) 

EXERCISE 17O. 

Grammalog'ues (continued). 

Mr. ERnest Rivers. 

Dear SIR, We have been inquiRing into the statement you 
reported to us some time ago as made by a gentleman in your 
district, and we can come to no other conclusion than that he has 
uttered language which he himself knows to be faLse in spirit and 
in fact. There must be many people near your place who know 
the absurdity of the thing, and who, from the nature of the case, 
will know that the statement of Mr. D, is a mere fabrication 
of his own. We do not, however, see any use in taking further 
notice of him, nor shall we use any other means than that of 
mere silence in dealing with the case. We have turned the 
matter over in every snape, because we were at first inclined to 
go through the courts with it ; but, after all, we threw out that 
idea as we were convinced that when our standing in the 
business worLd ze>as remembered, no member of the community 
whose opinion we valued would think us guilty of carrying out 
such a principle as that imputed to us. Our chairman, Lord 
Cheesebury, called heRe on the 1st instant, and spent an hour 
discussing the matter with our general secretary, and his view 
was that, without doubt, the proper course was to ignore the 
statement. Those gentlemen who have had dealings with us 
know that we have always acted for their good equally with our 
own, according to our ability, and we are, therefore, content 
to rely upon the good name we have eaRned in the past thirty 



200 WRITING EXERCISES 

years. We owe the man no grudge, though how or why he 
should come to make such a statement, and to use such language, 
we really cannot say. So faR as we know, he has not been asked 
to buy any of our goods, and certainLy he has not bought 
any. We have neither given him, nor shall we ever give him, 
just cause for enmity. Yours faithfully, Goodman Bros., Ltd. 

(339) 

EXERCISE 171. 

Grammalog-ues (continued). 
Mr. Robert Beach. 

Dear SiR, In reply to your letter of the llth instant, / have 
very great pleasure in stating that Mr. Thomas Adams has been 
in my employ for the last five years, and has always proved 
himself quite equal to any demands that might be made upon 
him. He knows his Phonography thoroughly, as / have 
myself had occasion to prove very many times. Indeed, he 
has been thanked more than once by myself and my partner 
for the very excellent manner in which he has done this part of 
his woRk. / have remarked, too, that he is very willing to 
improve himself in any way, and to cultivate the gifts which 
God has given him. He has, therefore, gone about his woRk 
in a true spirit, and has very much improved during the period 
he has been with me. I think I have not had to address a single 
remark of a condemnatory nature to him all the while he has been 
in this office. / cannot say whether his acquaintance with 
accounts is deep enough for your purpose ; yet I feeL quite 
certain that if it is not, and you will give him the opportunity, 
he will do his best to meet all your requiRements in this par- 
ticular. He has a great reverence for the truth, and a proper 
sense of awe toward authority, and I am quite satisfied, therefore, 
that what he does will be done to the best of his ability. / may 
add that I am personally very sorry to lose his services, but 
I feeL that I should not stand in his way when he has a good 
chance of improving his position. I shall be very happy to 
give you any other particulars you may desiRe. Yours faithfully, 
ARthur Speakwell. (301) 



WRITING EXERCISES 201 

EXERCISE 172. 

Grammalog-ues (continued). 

Dear Mr. Smith, Referring to your call upon me on the 
1st inst., / have had the particular matter of delivery of the 
goods before my principals, and I am now prepaRed to guarantee 
to deliver a large portion of them by the end of March, and the 
remainder toward the middle of April, if that will suit you. 
I shall be very happy, also, to have the goods put up in the short, 
flat boxes you liked so much when you were heRe, and for which 
we shall not charge extra, though each of them costs us a trifle 
under a penny. It is quite true, as I told you at the time, that 
we are more than usually busy with an important contract 
for these goods, the bulk of which has to be delivered this spring ; 
but we are engaging a large number of extra hands, so as to 
get the woRk out in good time. Difficult as it is to fulfil several 
oRders of such importance, and to be in time with them all, I 
have no doubt we shall be able to manage it. I thank you for 
your great courtesy in waiting for an answer, and I trust to 
have the pleasure of heaRing from you that we may go on with 
the woRk at once. Yours truly, Wilfrid Mather. (225j 



EXERCISE 173. 
Grammalog'ues (concluded). 

MessRS. Baker and Burnside. 

Dear SiRs, We take this opportunity of calling your atten- 
tion once more to our different patterns of prints which we sent 
you during the eaRly part of this year. You may remember 
that we asked you to notice particularly the number of important 
improvements which we had introduced in the general finish 
and make-up of these goods, and which in our opinion rendered 
them extremely suitable for your market, above all others. We 
made these changes principally on the recommendation of two 
or three gentlemen who know your market very well, and on 
whose word we felt we could rely, and we are convinced that it 



202 WRITING EXERCISES 

will be to our mutual advantage if you will permit us to make a 
triaL snipment. We have done so well with these goods in 
other directions that we are quite satisfied you would find an 
experimental lot profitable beyond your anticipations. It is 
not our usual plan to snip on joint account, but as we cannot 
doubt the result in this instance we should be willing to forward 
a small lot on joint account with yourselves, if you care to do so. 
Trusting to heaR favourably from you, we are, Gentlemen, 
Yours faithfully, Manning and Martin. (208) 



EXERCISE 174. 
Omission of Consonants, etc. 

In this Exercise, and in Exercises 175 to 179 inclusive, the 
letter'which should be omitted (in words other than 
grammalogues or contractions) is indicated by italic 
type. 

(a) P OMITTED BETWEEN m AND t OR sh .' 

1 pumped, plumbed, prompt, promptly, promptitude, 

2 promoted, promoter, bumped, bumpkin, bum/>Tious, 

3 bum/mousness, tempt, tempter, tem/>table, contempt, 

4 contemptible, contemptuous, temptation, tempted, at- 

5 tempted, temptress, attem/>table, trammed, stamped, 

6 stumped, damped, champed, jumped, cammed, encamped, 

7 unkempt, scamped, crammed, clammed, crimped, vamped, 

8 thumbed, swamped, limbed, romped, hummed, 

9 exempt, exempted, exemption, presumption, presumptive, 

10 presumptuous, pre-emption, consumption, consumptive, 

11 assumption, assumptive, assum/>tively, resumption, re- 

12 sum/>tive, gumption, redemption, redem/>tible, redem^>- 

13 tioneR, pre-em/>tor. 

(b) T OMITTED BETWEEN CIRCLE S AND ANOTHER CONSO- 
NANT : 

1 pos/age, postal , pos/boy, posf-cap tain, pos/-card, posz-CHaise, 

2 postdate, postdating, postdated, postdiluvian, pos/-entry, 



WRITING EXERCISES 203 

3 poste restante, pos/fix, pos^-hoRse, postman, postmark, 

4 postmaster, postmortem, postmeridian, pos^-office, pos/- 

5 paid, postpone, postponed, postponement, postprandial, 

6 pos/script, posMown, breastpin, breas/plate, blastfurnace, 

7 blas/-pipe, tasteful, tastefully, tasteless, tes/ament, tes/a- 

8 mentary, testimony, testimonial,, toastf-master, trustworthy, 

9 trustful, trustfully, chastely, adjustment, textbook, tex^- 

10 hand, fas/-day, mos^Ly, hones/Ly, dishones/Ly, lastly, 

11 lis/less, lis/lessly, res/less, res/lessly, waste-book, wastefuL, 

12 wastefully, waste-pipe, westward, wis^fuL, wisrfully, wais/- 

13 coat, waistband, Wes/phalia, Wes^port, Wes/land, Wes^- 

14 Indies, Wes^fieLd, Westeott, Wes/bury, Wes^bourne, 

15 Pres/bury, manifes^Ly. 

(c) K OR g BETWEEN Hg AND t OR sh. 

Note that n. when it precedes the sound of k or g, is almost 
always pronounced as ng : 

1 punctate, punctated, punctilio, punctilious, punctual, 

2 punctually, punctuality, punctuate, punctuated, punctua- 

3 Tion, puncture, punctured, tinct, tincture, tinctured, 

4 strongest, junction, conjunction, disjunction, injunction, 

5 conjunctive, disjunctive, adjunct, adjunctive, extinct, 

6 extinction, instinct, instinctive, instinctively, distinct, 

7 distinctly, distinction, distinctive, distinctively, distinct- 

8 iveness, precincts, succinct, succinctly, function, function- 

9 ary, functional, perfunctory, defunct, sanctity, sanctuary, 

10 sanctum, sanctification, sanctified, sanctify, sanctimonious, 

11 sanction, anxious, anxiously, anxiety, compunction, com- 

12 puncTious, anguisn, languisH, languisned, languisning. 

(d) TICK the : 

1 (Downward) up-the, be-the, by-the, if-the, for-the, have-the, 

2 know -the, in-the, are-the, to-the, of-the, all-the, and-the, 

3 should-the, as-the, has-the, is-the, think-the, call-the ; (upward) 

4 a.t-the, had-the, which-the, so-the, see-the, was-the, will-the, 

5 oR-the, on-the, but-the, from-the, toward-the. 



204 WRITING EXERCISES 

(e) THE PHRASE of the INDICATED BY WRITING THE TWO 

WORDS WHICH IT CONNECTS CLOSE TO EACH OTHER '. 

1 price (of the) carpet ; size (of the) room ; depth (of the) 

2 cellaR ; cost (ol the) books ; features (of the) plan ; irameR 

3 (of the) hill ; cause (of the) war ; growth (of the) business ; 

4 phase (of the) struggle ; strengthening (of the) girders ; 

5 laying (of the) foundation stone ; passing (of the) measure 

6 for-the benefit (of the) natives ; capture (of the) guns 

7 (of the) enemy ; distance (of the) house from-the centre 

8 (of the) town ; leaders (of the) various parties ; result 

9 (of the) poll ; re-eLection (of the) president (of the) society ; 

10 crossing (of the) Alps ; measurement (of the) ground ; 

1 1 names (of the) snips ; titles (of the) books ; last (of the) 

12 natives ; buriaL (of the) faixen ; love (of the) beautiful ; 

13 signs (of the) times ; meaning (of the) passage quoted ; 

14 defeat (of the) enemy and capture (of the) foRtress ; 

15 surveillance (of the) police ; countries (of the) woiLd ; 

16 home (of the) brave ; close (of the) session. 



EXERCISE 175. 
Omission of Consonants, etc. (continued). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 174. 

1. He who is really anxious to be exempt from-the fault 
will turn promptly from-the temptation, on-the assumption 
that prevention is better-than CURC. 2. This is manifes&y 
the wisest plan, for unLess there is a punctual, almost an 
instinctive resistance, even-the strongest may faLL. 3. Lay 
this injunction, then, distinctly before your pupils, and bid 
them not to languisH in their efforts for-the extinction of evil. 
4. Point out to them, also, that a perfunctory effort will infallibly 
end in failuRe, and that-lhe careless resumption (of the) courses 
that have previousLy occasioned anxiety is presumptive 
evidence of a weakness in-the inclination to resist. 5. Mere 
lis/less attempts cannot be considered as trus/worthy signs of a 



WRITING EXERCISES 205 

genuine desiRe to acquiRe self-restraint. 6. Such attempts 
are more likely to be regarded as manifestations of a restless 
disposition, whose owner will not achieve great distinction 
in-the worLd. 7. // is useless encouraging a fooLish, trustful 
hopeo/ success in tJwse who evince no anxiety to deserve success. 
8. Finally, it should be borne in mind that-the longer we persist 
in our habit, the haRder it is to escape from it. (190) 



EXERCISE 176. 

Omission of Consonants, etc. (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 174. 

1. Be prompt and punctual in your engagements ; postpone- 
ments are disagreeable, and they are mostly brought about by 
lack of system. 2. The methodical man is always res/less 
when he is compeLLed to wait for an unpunctual person. 3. / 
say distinctly there is no redemption (of the) time that is once 
lost, and it is a presumption for anyone to waste precious 
moments that cannot be recalled. 4. No position is nigh enough 
to sanction the assumption (of the) right to waste another 
person's time. 5. Look at-the facts hones/ly, and remember 
that if you are anxious to get on in-the worLd, your best testi- 
monial, will be a reputation for punctuality in-the dispatch 
(of the) business entrusted to you. 6. // your anxiety to 
achieve distinction is reaL, you will cultivate promptitude 
untiL it becomes an instinct with you. 7. Let no-one tempt 
you to claim exemption from-the niLe that-the man who is 
punctual in-the adjustment of his own affaiRS will be equally 
prompt in-the adjustment (of the) affaiRS entrusted to him 
by others. 8. He is-the man who will have business matters to 
adjust. 9. Remember, too, that few men have jumped t'wto a 
habit at once ; on-the contrary, habits grow upon us by degrees, 
and they are sometimes stamped upon us before their presence 
is dreamed of. 10. Many a man has crammed himself, and lost 
in-the race of life through giving way to-the temptation to 
procrastinate. 11. The playeR who loiters between-//** 



206 WRITING EXERCISES 

wickets is certain to be stumped. 12. The manner (of the) 
Lesson may amuse you ; but if you take possession (of the) 
facts / have put before you in-the course (of the) i.essons, and 
try to model your plan of woRk at-the beginning (of the) day 
upon-the lines / have laid down, I shall be satisfied, and at-the 
end (of the) year you will be benefited. 13. Thus, we shall 
both be pleased at-the result (of the) labour we have spent upon 
these shorthand exercises. (336) 



EXERCISE 177. 

Omission of Consonants, etc. (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 174. 

1. He who is anxious to be exempt from-the evil must be 
prompt to resist-the temptation. 2. The foRce (of the) 
temptation may easily be forgotten in-the pleasure (of the; 
moment ; but-the strong man is distrustful of his poweR, 
and is careiuL not to estimate it too Highly. 3. The punctual 
man economises time by being prompt in all things. 4. The 
head (of the) fiRm should be a model of punctuality to 
everyone (of the) fiRm's servants. 5. It is manifesfr-y beyond 
us to make up at night the time lost during-the day. 6. He 
who sanctions wrong-doing cannot claim exemption from-the 
guilt (of the) crime 7. The owner (of the) money does not 
always carry the puRse. 8. Remember, too, that "It is an 
empty puRse which is fuLL of other men's money." 9. Pass 
not a lis/less youth ; for-the woRk (of the) Spring will be repaid 
in-the Autumn. 10. Many an honest man has been ruined 
by-the res/less tongue of an idle neighbour. 11. Assumption 
of wisdom is often the sign of a fooL. 12. // is-the function 
(of the) pupil to obey the directions (of the) trustworthy teacher. 
and thus gain distinction. 13. The failuRe (of the) fiRm was 
distinctly due to-the perfunctory manner in which-the men did 
their duty. 14. The actions (of the) minister aRoused the 
contempt (of the) people (of the) country, who anxiously 



WRITING EXERCISES 207 

called for his dismissal. 15. The parks surrounding the 
residences (of the) nobility are an inviting feature (of the) 
EngLish landscape. 16. Many rivers (of the) country are 
important factors in-the commerce (of the) nation, as their 
mouths foRm havens where seaports are situated and a large 
carrying business is conducted. 17. The city of London 
is-the capital (of the) Britisn EmpiRe, and-the centre (of the) 
money markets (of the) worLd. 18. New York is-the business 
centre (of the) American Republic, and-the port does more-than 
half (of the) foreign commerce (of the) country. (325) 



EXERCISE 178 

Omission of Consonants, etc. (continued). 
See Note at the head of Exercise 174. 

MCSSRS. PeeR and Bates. 

Gentlemen, I thank you for your letter (of the) 24th inst., 
and I am much obliged for -the copy (of the) correspondence 
which has passed between you and-the heads (of the) depart- 
ment in London. As faR as / can see you are exempt from 
blame in-the matter (of the) postage accounts. You are quite 
correct in-the assumption that we deal with these . accounts 
in-the same way heRe. / can assuRe you that I should be 
tempted to promptly resent any letters (of the) tone of those 
addressed to you, were such sent to me. I have-the strongest 
and most distinct recollection, too, that-the matter (of the) 
pos/age accounts has been considered before, and that-the 
present mode of keeping a record (of the) payments for postage 
is-the result of a recommendation by a most trustworthy 
accountant. Criticism (of the) kind expressed in-the letters 
to you can onLy bring about a restless, uneasy feeLing in-the 
minds (of the) agents (of the) company, and I hope we are 
not to be annoyed with a repetition (of the) methods you so 
properly condemn. Yours truly, James Matthews. (198) 



208 WRITING EXERCISES 

EXERCISE 179. 
Omission of Consonants, etc. (concluded). 

See Note at the head of Exercise 174. 
Mr. Charles Lewis. 

Dear SiR, I thank you for your prompt response to my 
application, and I will enter-the boy as a student of your 
school on-the resumption of classes in-the new year. I think 
he will do well under your guidance. He has been a little 
crammed for opportunities in-the school he has been attending, 
but I have great hopes that he will achieve distinction in a 
place where his talents have a chance of developing. // 
you will kindly obtain the whole (of the) textbooks he will 
requiRe, and leave the adjustment (of the) account for-the 
same untiL the close (of the) term, / shall be greatly obliged. 
You have my sanction to direct the boy's studies as appeaRs 
best to you. I am very anxious that he should be taught the 
value of a punctual fulfilment of his engagements. Yours 
faithfully, Jonathan More. (152) 

EXERCISE 180. 
Contractions. 

Dear Charles, I am pleased to acknowledge your phono- 
graphic skiLL and I feeL certain you will never regret that 
you are a phonographer. It is a mistake, however, to think, 
and you are altogether mistaken in thinking, that anything in 
the way of information is uninteresting to-the representative 
of a newspaper or magazine. He may have a natural dislike 
to-the display of his interest. He may appeaR entiRely dis- 
interested, and his disinterestedness may be obvious to a stranger 
or even to a boy messenger. Nevertheless, he is interested, 
or rather the public for whom his articles are published are 
interested, in practically everything that is going on in-the worLd, 
and they naturally expect him, and have always expected him, 
to publish information of a satisfactory character on every 
subject, of whatever nature, and on every remarkable event 



WRITING EXERCISES 209 

whenever it may have occurred, from-the destruction (of the) 
great SpaniSH ARmada to-the doctrine (of the) new Parliament- 
ary leader and-the 'prospect of Licensing reform in-the next 
session of Parliament. That is-the object for which they 
subscribe to-the magazine or paper which is represented by-the 
writer, and they would, in all probability, transfer their sub- 
scriptions immediately if it were not more-than probable that 
their object would be attained, if-the characteristic style (of the) 
writer were unsatisfactory in any respect, or if he were to 
represent in a wrong light some peculiarity in-the character 
of a peculiar man whom they respect. It is very improbable 
that any regular writer would make such a mistake. It would 
be so irregular and inconsistent that it may be said to be impos- 
sible in-the case of a writer who understood his woRk, and 
you will understand that in such a case the improbability or 
inconsistency may be put down as an impossibility. No one 
knows better-than the author of manuscripts or transcripts 
for-the press how essential it is that he should have catholic 
tastes in reading and study. He must know something about 
everything. Not even-the most unexpected subject must come 
as a surprise to him. He may be asked unexpectedly to write 
an article that will give instruction to readers all over-the kingdom 
on-the representation (of the) republican party in-the great 
republic of America ; or a notice (of the) death of an architect 
famous for his architectural genius and as-the designer of some 
Peculiar specimens of architecture. If there is to be an imme- 
diate publication (of the) article, the writer has no time to think 
(of the) difficulties (of the) task he has to perform. It must 
be performed immediately, notwithstanding any objection he may 
have to-the hurry. And so nothing must be neglected if he is 
to give satisfaction to his editoR. He must take an enlarged 
view of things, and neglect nothing that will enlarge his knowledge 
and influence and render-^ performance of his woRk more 
satisfactory to himself and others. It is impossible to deny 
that occasionally his woRk 'is dangerous. I am thankiul to say 
that he is seldom influenced by the thought of-the danger, 
and it is not improbable that he would face any danger 



210 WRITING EXERCISES 

rather-than faiL to obtain information which would be useful 
to-the public. He knows-the influence (of the) press on public 
opinion and-the establishment of domestic prosperity, and as 
faR as practicable it is his uniform practice to assist the reverend 
gentlemen in his neighborhood in-the promotion of temperance 
reform and-the government of reason. I know he thinks some 
(of the) plans for-the reform of criminals are altogether imprac- 
ticable, and-the improbability of success is onLy too apparent 
to his practical mind. He is especially carei\\L to point out 
to-the reformers that if criminals are to be reformed they must be 
SHown how to govern their inclinations when-the temptation to 
transgress comes upon them. OnLy yesterday, I met a writer 
who desiRes to establish or to see established a society whose 
members will take an especial interest in-the instruction (of the) 
remarkably low class of men whose lives have been remarkable 
for-the uniformity with which they have practised essentially 
vicious habits ; who cannot govern their evil dispositions, 
and who are unwilling to be governed by others. We were joined 
by an uninfluential member of a dramatic society. We 
conferred together and were unanimous in thinking that-the 
proposed society was worthy (of the) support of all influential 
men, and that not improbably we should be able to persuade 
others (of the) importance (of the) movement. There was 
perfect unanimity, also, in our decision to attempt to carry 
the transaction to a satisfactory conclusion, so that-the trans- 
gressions (of the) unfortunate people referred to might be 
curtaiLed. Will you join the society ? Yours truly, (908) 



EXERCISE 181. 

Contractions (continued). 
MessRs. Barker and Bradley. 

Gentlemen, We have to acknowledge receipt of your letter of 
yesterday, together with-the proofs (of the) transcript (of the) 
address on " Modern Architecture." We note that you 
expect this to come out better-than anything that you have done 



WRITING EXERCISES 211 

for us before, and we are glad to think there is a prospect of 
improvement in-the character (of the) binding. Kindly let MS 
know immediately the book is ready for publication, and we 
will send a representative with instructions for-the despatch 
(of the) bulk (of the) oRder. We cannot under stand-the 
inconsistency of your attitude respecting the transfers for-the 
manuscript magazine sent you by messenger yesterday, and we 
cannot but regard your explanation as altogether unsatisfactory. 
We have done everything possible to meet your objection to a 
uniform size of character ; but-the other proposals you make 
were quite unexpected, and are altogether impracticable. Neither 
do we see what object would be gained by adopting the dangerous 
policy you suggest. From-the information at our disposal 
we can assuRe you that such an irregular proceeding would be 
resented by all-the regular readers (of the) magazine throughout- 
the kingdom. It must, therefore, be cleaRly understood that we 
shall have nothing whatever to do with-the proposal, and that 
rather-than associate our names with such an inconsistent 
policy, we shall retiRe from-the business altogether. We do 
not know-the writer you mention. We rather think he is-thc 
sub-editoR of a Catholic newspaper, in which case there should 
be no difficulty in finding his address. Yours truly, Moseley 
and WiLd. (269) 



EXERCISE 182. 
Contractions (continued). 
Mr. William Heaton. 

Dear SiR, / have seen-the architect with reference to-the 
architectural designs it is proposed to publish in-the "Repub- 
lican Gazette," and he will probably be able to do something 
for us next month. He is extremely busy just now, and without 
neglecting his business it would be impossible for him to give 
immediate attention to-the scheme. Nevertheless, he will 
keep it in mind, and whenever he can find an opportunity he 
will give us-the benefit of his great knowledge (of the) subject. 



212 WRITING EXERCISES 

This was as much as I expected ; indeed, / thought it more- 
than probable that he would refuse altogether, especially as I was 
an entiRe stranger to him. Yours faithfully, Peter Farmer. 

(121) 

EXERCISE 183. 
Contractions (continued). 

MessRs. Digby and Cowley. 

Gentlemen, We regret to have to notify you of-the total 
destruction of our Chesnire premises by fiRe on Monday last, 
so that it will be impossible for us to perform our part (of the) 
contract with you in-the time specified. We are, however, 
making practicable aRRangements for-the transfer (of the) 
woRk to our other branches, and notwithstanding-the difficulty 
in a peculiar business like ours, we think it is improbable that 
we shall be more-than a couple of months behind with-the 
delivery (of the) goods. We venture to hope that this will be 
satisfactory to you. We are naturally desirous of publishing the 
facts in our own way, so that we may not suffer from a faulty 
representation (of the) case. We have-the satisfaction, too, to 
know that so faR our customeRs have been unanimous in their 
expressions of sympathy, and we trust that you will snaRe 
in that unanimity. You know that we have always claimed 
it as a peculiar characteristic of ours that we have practically 
never before faiLed in-the performance of a promise, and we 
are thankful that in-the present instance we cannot be charged 
with a transgression of good faith. We should be more-than 
sorry to transgress in this way. We venture to think it is 
remarkable that in a business like ours, \vhere-the premises are 
remarkable subject to destruction by fiRe, we have always per- 
formed our promises and given satisfaction to our clients. We 
shall take-the opportunity of enlarging our Chesnire woRks, 
and we hope that in-the enlarged factory we shall be able to 
influence a still greater snaRe of patronage. We shall be glad 
to heaR that we may rely upon your kindness in-the present 
trouble, and on your influential support in-the future. 



WRITING EXERCISES 213 

We trust we have established a claim to your especial considera- 
tion, and we assuRe you that in-the new establishment we shall 
endeavour to establish a still more solid character for-the punctual 
fulfilment of all oRders entrusted to s. Yours faithfully, 
Burnett and FraseR. (352) 



EXERCISE 184. 
Contractions (concluded). 

Rev. ARthur Acton. 

My dear SiR, / should have acknowledged your interesting 
letter eaRlieR, had not-the Government unexpectedly invited 
me as a temperance reformer to give evidence before a Parlia- 
mentary committee, just beiore-the prorogation of Parliament. 
You will not be interested in details which must be uninteresting 
to any outsider ; but as I know you to have a disinterested 
anxiety for-the reform of inebriates, / think it can be no mistake 
to tell you why such an uninftuential man as I was called to 
London. You know that I am influenced by a desiRe to carry 
wto public, as well as private and domestic life, the doctrine 
of temperance in all things, which is an essential part (of the) 
education of a man, if he is either to govern himself or others, 
or if he is to submit to be governed by others and to a.void-the 
danger of being led away by mistaken men, with little or no 
practical knowledge (of the) subjects on which they speak so 
lightly. / trust / was able to represent my views in such a 
manner as to convince the committee of my disinterestedness, 
though it is improbable that-the members will subscribe entiRely 
to my statement. / should think no committee ever yet sub- 
scribed absolutely to-the views of any witness, no matter how 
well those views may have been represented to them. As a 
phonographer I was interested in-the phonographic skiLL (of the) 
repoRters present. The ability displayed in-the performanc 
of their duties was remarkable. Surely, no performer on a 
musical instrument requiRes more delicacy of touch than these 
gentlemen, who must have practised well to attain to such 



214 WRITING EXERCISES 

dexterity. Good heaRing must be essentially important in 
their case, as a single word missed would in all probability 
disturb the run of a whole sentence. / was so impressed by 
their performance that I shall not improbably renew my sub- 
scription lo-the phonographic magazines before / leave for-the 
great republic across-/A<3 Atlantic. / should like to have a 
verbatim speed, but-the improbability of my secuRing this is 
obvious when I think (of the) little time / have for practice. 
// practicable I will call on you on Friday morning next, 
when we can discuss-the outlook in temperance affaiRs more 
fully. Yours very truly, Thomas Drinkwater. (393) 



EXERCISE 185. 
Phraseography. 

1 I -have-no-doubt, that-you-are already convinced (of the) 
benefits to be derived from a practical knowledge o/-phraseo- 
graphy, and-I-think you-must-have-seen by-this-time that- 
ihe judicious use of -this principle not-onLy materially increases 
2At> ease and-speed with-which-you-may write, but-that-it also 
adds to-the legibility of-your writing. 2. 1-a.m-sure that-you 
recognise-//^ truth of all-this ; and-yet /-am venturing to- 
tell-you again, so-that you-will-be less likely to-iorget it. 3. 
" He who-would-be wise must-fo willing to be taught " is a 
proverb which-you-may-remember reading in- one- of -your phono- 
graphic text-books. 4. You-must-not-be annoyed, therefore, 
if I-tell-you that-which-you already know 5. It-is-not possible 
to know-the ruLes (of the) system too well ; and, of -course, 
it-should-be your aim, and-the aim of-every phonographer, to 
know them as-well-as they can-be known. 6. I-think-you-will 
admit that-it-would-be a good thing if all phonographers looked 
at-the matter in-this-wa.y. 7. This-is, perhaps, too-much 
to hope for ; but-you and-/, who-are owr-own masters in-this 
affaiR, are deteRmined, I-think, that-we-shall obtain as good 
a knowledge (of the) ruLes as-it-is possible for us to obtain. 



WRITING EXERCISES 215 

8. Is-not-that our case ? 9. /-aw-sure it-is, and-it-is a 
pleasure to-me to-think-so. 10. You-will-do well, then, to 
practise phraseography diligently, taking as your models 
the phraseograms which-are given in " Pitman's Journal " 
week by week. 11. Of -course, it-is-not suggested that-you- 
should memorize the foRms ; but it-is-important that-you- should 
under stand-the principles upon-which-the best phraseograms 
are made, and-it-is advisable that-you-should acquiRe a good 
style now, while you-are young in-the- system, if I-may put it 
in-this-way. 12. It-is for-these-rea.sons that /-am recom- 
mending you to-copy the shorthand matter given in-the " Jour- 
nal," and-I-am-sure you could-not-have better practice. 13. 
Yew-must excuse me, however, if I-tell-you to beware how you- 
employ this fascinating principle. 14. There-are-some begin- 
ners in-the-a.Rt who do-not use it as-it-should-be used. 15. 
Therefore, /-say to-you. do-not-be led into-the CRROR of joining 
too-many words together, or of joining words simply because- 
ihey-will join. 16. If-you-will but follow my counseL, and 
copy good models, you-will soon acquiRe a, correct an^-gracefuL 
style which-will-be of-great assistance to-you in-your application 
(of the) winged aRt to-the purposes of-your business or 
profession. (468) 



EXERCISE 186. 
Phraseography (concluded). 

My-dear student, I-think-you-will-agree with me that-we- 
have-had a pleasant journey together through-the pages (of the) 
first part (of the) " Instructor," or-the " Manual," and-that-the 
knowledge you have gained will-be interesting as-well-as useiul 
to-you in-your future life. I-think-it-is-not likely that-you-will 
ever regret any trouble which-you-may-have-had during-the 
course. Of-course you-could-not expect to-master the subject 
as-it-should-be mastered without trouble. I-think I-shall-be 



216 WRITING EXERCISES 

excused if /-say it-would-be wrong for-you to-think that-you-can 
acquiRe knowledge without some difficulty. There- are-some 
pupils who-would-be-gl&d to-think in-this-way ; but, of-course, 
we-are both aware, for our-ov/n reason will-convince us, that- 
it-is-not possible for-them to-do-so. I-do-not expect that-you-are 
yet able to-write very rapidly. W e-cannot-expect that at- 
present. But-we-can and-we-do expect that-you-will persevere 
in-your practice (of the) aRt so-that you-will-be in a position 
eRe long /o-report a speaker as-well-as any phonographer 
you-are acquainted with. I-have-no hesitation in saying 
that if-you-will practise every-da.y you-will achieve a measure 
o/-success that will-be-satisfactory to-you as-well-as to-me. 
But, of-course, you-nmst-not dream of neglecting} your regular 
practice, or-you-cannot hope to-do well. I-have-done all-that- 
you-can expect me to-do for-you, and-it-is a pleasure to-me 
to-think that-you have-done your best also. And-now, if-you- 
will-permit-me, I-will give-you one piece of advice which-you- 
will-do well fo-follow when you enter upon-the study (of the) 
second part, or-the " RepoRter," as, of-course, you-will imme- 
diately. It-is-this : See that-you-learn. all-the grammalogues, 
awa"-contractions thoroughly, so-that-you-can write them 
without-the least hesitation or difficulty. This-is important 
for-this-Tea.son : You-will-find that-the-ma.]ority (of the) 
words spoken in an oRdinary passage are included in-the 
list of grammalogues aw^-contractions, and, of-course, you- 
must-see from this that if -you master the list perfectly you-will- 
have-the outlines /oy-^-majority of -words you-willhea.Rat-your 
finger-ends. Do-not, then, neglect your practice. See that- 
you-are doing all-that-you-can to advance in dexterity with-the- 
system, and you-will-be-surprised to find what you-can-do with- 
it. It-is-said that " Practice makes perfect." Of-course it-is- 
true that-it does, and-it-will make you perfect as a phonographer 
if-you-will but practise aw^-persevere. And who-would-not 
persevere to-the end when-he-was as near -the goal as you-are, 
especially when perseverance means the possession of an 
ability which-cannot faiL to be of-great service to-him that-has- 
it ? Yours- truly. (524) 



WRITING EXERCISES 217 

EXERCISE 187. 
Punctuation, etc. 

" This world, after all our science and sciences, is still a 
miracle ; inscrutable, magical and more, to whosoever will 
think of it. That great mystery of time, were there no other ; 
illimitable, silent, like an all-embracing ocean-tide, on which 
we and all the universe swim like exhalations, like apparitions 
which are and then are not : this is for ever literally a miracle, 
a thing to strike us dumb for we have no word to speak 
about it. This universe, ah me what could the wild man 
know of it ; what can we yet know of it ? That it is a Force, 
a thousandfold complexity of Forces ; a Force which is not we. 
That is all ; it is not we ; it is altogether different from us. 
Force, Force, everywhere Force ; we ourselves a mysterious 
Force in the centre of that. ' There is not a leaf rotting but 
has Force in it : how else could it rot ? ' Nay, surely, to the 
Atheistic Thinker, if such a one were possible, it must be a 
miracle too, this huge illimitable whirlwind of Force, which 
envelops us here ; never rest whirlwind, high as Immensity, 
old as Eternity. What is it ? God's creation, the religious 
people answer ; it is the Almighty God's ! Atheistical science 
babbles poorly of it, with scientific nomenclatures, experi- 
ments and what not, as if it were a poor dead thing, to be 
bottled up in Leyden jars and sold over counters ; but the 
natural sense of man, in all times, if he will honestly apply 
his sense, proclaims it to be a living thing an unspeakable, 
godlike thing ; towards which the best attitude for us, after 
never so much science, is awe, devout prostration and humility 
of soul ; worship if not in words, then in silence." From 
Carlyle's " Lectures on Heroes." (300) 

EXERCISE 188. 
Punctuation, etc. (concluded). 

" Look there! The bloom of that fair face is wasted, the 
hair is grey with care ; the brightness of those eyes is quenched, 



218 WRITING EXERCISES 

their lids hang drooping, the face is stony pale, as of one 
living in death. Mean weeds, which her own hand has 
mended, attire the Queen of the World. The death-hurdle 
where thou sittest pale, motionless, which only curses environ 
has to stop ; a people drunk with vengeance, will drink it 
again in full draught, looking at thee there. Far as the eye 
reaches, a multitudinous sea of maniac heads, the air deaf with 
their triumph-yell ! The living-dead must shudder with yet 
one other pang ; her startled blood yet again suffuses with 
the hue of agony that pale face, which she hides with her 
hands. There is there no heart to say, God pity thee ! Oh, 
think not of these, think of Him whom thou worshippest, 
the crucified who also, treading the winepress alone, confronted 
sorrow, still deeper ; and triumphed over it and made it 
holy, and built of it a ' Sanctuary of Sorrow ' for thee and 
all the wretched ! Thy path of thorns is nigh ended, one long 
last look at the Tuileries, where thy step was once so light 
where thy children shall not dwell. The head is on the block ; 
the axe rushes dumb lies the world ; that wild-yelling 
world, and all its madness is behind thee." From Carlyle's 
" French Revolution." (241) 



EXERCISE 189. 
Writing- in Position. 

(All the following Exercises are counted in 20 "s. ) 

The staid student should try, by every means in his poweR, to acquiRe 
the ability to pursue a train of \ thought steadily and without wandering 
from the plain plan he has set before himself. How can he hope to heap | 
up a multitude of facts, if he is continually hopping, as it were, from 
one branch of knowledge to another, | not stopping long enough to gather 
the fruit from one branch, CRC he stoops to examine another ? Let a 
youth | but think a moment of such loose methods, and he will see that 
they amount to a mere loss of (1) time, and, it may be, of temper also. 
Now, it is fooLish to experiment or tamper with that which we \ cannot 
repaiR ; and it is well that we should recognise that a moment once gone 
is gone for ever. We \ may regret the time we have lost, but there is 
not the least hope of recalling it. Let us but \ feeL the fuLL foRce of this 
remark, and, if we have wasted the golden moments in the past, we shall I 
follow another and better plan in the future. // is, of course, right to 
say that there is no royaL (2) route to the well of knowledge and the fount 
of wisdom, and that he who would sound the depths of I the one, and 
drink the waters of the other, must pass atong the same rugged ways 
by which wise men I of all ages have travelled before him. He will, 
to be sure, find difficulties in his way, and he may \ have many a bitter 
fight eRe he reaches the goal of his ambition. But these will onty fit 
him for \ braver feats, and each victory will leave him stronger and 
better prepaRed for further effort, should such be necessary. Let (3) 
him but keep up his courage, and he may hope to cope successfully with 
any obstacle that may appeaR to I baR his progress. But, as we have 
said, it is above all things necessary that the student should be able I 
to fix his mind upon his subject, and keep it there ; that he should be able 
to occupy his thoughts I and focus his poweRs upon one point, to the 
exclusion of all others for the time being ; that, in a \ word, he should 
have the poweR of applying himself to the mastery of the difficulty before 
him, and of refusing (4) to be drawn aside from his task upon any plea, 
no matter how plausible. And, if the student has not \ this poweR 
of attention, he should try to acquiRe it by every means at his command. 
Let him set to I woRk in eaRnest, and he will find that the acquisition 
is not the utter impossibility which, at first sight, it I may appeaR to be. 
He can, at any rate, choose the right time and the right place to study, 
and I he can also do his best to chase away thoughts that would distract 
him. Patience and perseverance will woRk wonders. (500) 

219 



220 WRITING EXERCISES 

EXERCISE 190. 
Writing 1 in Position (continued). 

The vcwels marked in italic should be inserted. 

There are many advocates of the theory that life is fuix of ample 
opportunities for all who care to seize I them and employ them, and that 
where men make an awfui, failuRe in life it is because, through some 
fault I or defect in their own character, they have not taken fuLL advan- 
tage of the valuable chances that have been available I to them time after 
time, but have allowed their opportunities to melt away without an 
attempt to emulate the example I of their successful, neighbours, and 
turn their chances to good I account. If, say the theorists, these men 
had tried to (1) adjust their ways to the position when the chance came, 
they would have succeeded just as well as others have I done, and their 
affaiRs would have prospered as the affains of others with more foRce of 
character have prospered. But \ the chances were missed, and the 
unfortunate ones are amazed at their failuRe. They affect to blame 
their want of I luck, when, as a matter of fact, their failuRe is the effect 
of their own carelessness. Now, it is remarkable \ that those who are 
most voluble in amRming the necessity for foRming a rapid judgment 
and taking immediate action when (2) favourable opportunities occur, 
are invariably successful, men who have, in most instances, attained an 
affluent position by dint of haRd I woRk and industry, or, as they 
declaRe in their own fluent way, by reason of putting into practice the 
theory I we have just explained. Without, however, seeking to advance 
a defence of laziness or SHCCR incapacity, it may be doubted I whether 
all who faiL to amass wealth, or attain even to a competency, are to be 
blamed for their want I of success. There are, alas, too many men 
who appeaR to be utterly unable either to devise their own means (3) 
of advancement, or to follow the advice of others who are better qualified, 
and of such weak persons perhaps the \ less said the better. But there 
are others whose want of success can be attributed to no fault of their \ 
own. They have not had equal chances with others. The conditions 
of their eaRly life, from which they could not \ escape, have doubtLess 
affected their bodies, their minds ana' temperament, and no amount of 
energy or zeal on their part I would enable them to extract as much from 
their opportunities as might be extracted by others reared under more 
favourable (4) conditions. There is no denying the influence of environ- 
ment in giving tone to the mind, and it is very difficult I in later life to 
atone for the mischief done by unhealthy surroundings or a banefuL 
atmosphere in childhood and in \ youth. But, however much opinions 
may differ with regard to the inequality of the chances offered to men, 
and the \ manner in which one's surroundings may operate in the foRma- 
tion of character and thus affect the part played by the \ man, it will be 
agreed that everyone has some opportunities, and that, if he desiRes, he 
can create others. (500) 



WRITING EXERCISES 221 

EXERCISE 191. 

Figures. 

Very much more interest may be derived from the study of figures, 
such as the Board of Trade Returns, than I at first sight appeaRs likely. 
// does not requipe a very great effort of imagination to suppose that 
behind these \ figures there may be stories of self-deniaL, suffering and 
misery, undreamt of by the thoughtLess reader. Lord Russell of \ 
Killowen produced in 1898 facts and figures to prove that in seven years 
28,000,000 had \ been lost in company liquidation, and that of this 
amount 20,000,000 had been lost by snaReholders and over ( I ) 7,000,000 
by creditors. Is it unreasonable to suppose that these great losses were 
the immediate cause of much \ suffering and haudship that the outside 
worLd never heaRd of ? Or, take the statement that in 1894 the I capital 
invested in limited companies in this country atone amounted to more 
than 1,000,000,000, being 315,000,000 I more than was invested 
in the companies of France and Germany combined. Is it not likely I 
that a large part of this enormous sum represented the fruit of care, 
industry, and perseverance on the part of (2) many men and women 
whose names were unknown to the worLd anound them ? And wherein 
lies the secret of \ EngLand's superior wealth, whereof these figures 
offer such convincing proof ? HeRein, surely, is food for profitable 
reflection, and heReon might I be based many interesting discourses 
wherewith thoughtful men would be both edified and instructed. Or, 
again, who can faiL to \ be both interested and amused at the statement 
of the Registrar of Limited Companies, that, in 1891, a \ company was 
registered with a nominal capital of 10,000, divided into 9,600,000 
snaRes of d. (3) each, and that the total subscribed capital was IJd. ? 
The Act of 1862 requiRes I that at least seven snaRes shall be subscribed, 
and is it not interesting to see how scrupulously the strict letter | of the 
law was complied with ? Further, cheques and bills of exchange 
amounting to not less than 20,000,000, I and often exceeding 
40,000,000, pass through the London Bankers' CleaRing House every 
day. What labour of brain and \ muscle is represented by these figures ! 
To what distant parts of the earth will the fruits of that labour be (4) 
/orwarded ! Tis an enormous sum. What an amount of good might 
be done therewith, whereat thousands would rejoice, and whereof I 
the worLd might feeL proud 1 Lastly, the value of the Britisn imports 
fortheiovR months ended 30th April, 1903, I amounted to 117,385,167. I 
The commodities represented by this sum were supplied by peoples of 
various hues and customs in different parts I of the worLd. Picture 
to yourself the gathering and /orwarding of these commodities, and you 
cannot faiL to be interested. (500) 

EXERCISE 192. 
Negative Prefixes. 

The italic type indicates that both consonants must be written. 
Many {//iterate persons, and others who can onLy be described as 
i//iberal-minded, appeaR to be immovably convinced that there I is no 
advantage to be derived from the study of such a subject <w astronomy, 



222 WRITING EXERCISES 

and that any attempt to I number bodies which are admitted to be innu- 
merable, or to measure space which is simply immeasurable, is but a 
waste I of time and energy. Such a view is at once irrational, illogical, 
and immoderate. Indeed, it is almost iRReconcilable with the spirit 
of the age in which we live. The conclusion is iRResistible that persons 
who hoLd such opinions are (1) in an almost irredeemable state of 
ignorance as to the value of mental training. None but the most irnma- 
tuRe intellect I can for a moment suppose that the contemplation of the 
illimitable space above and aRound MS, with the innumerable crowd I 
of unnamed and unAwown staRs, can be anything but beneficial to any 
man, or can faiL to irradiate the mind I of the observer and render him 
better fitted for the performance of even the ORdinary duties of life. 
No man I will be unneighbourly because of his study of the immutable 
laws of nature. He is much more likely to be (2) known as an iRRe- 
proachable member of society ; moderate in his views ; matuRe in his 
judgment ; kind ana* generous to his I fellows. But apart from these 
considerations, it has been snown that from a purely legal point of view 
the study I of astronomy is faR from being an unnecessary branch of 
learning. Thus, there is recorded an instance of a man I who was 
summoned to appeaR at a court of law heLd in Carlisle, and punctual 
to the minute, according to \ the local time, he was in his place, onLy to 
find that the court had met according to Greenwich time (3) before his 
aRRival, ana* had decided the case against him. The decision was 
afterwards declaRed to be illegal, and there I was another triaL. More 
over, as a direct result of the i //egality of the first triaL an Act of Parlia 
ment was \ passed with the object of preventing such a haRdship in the 
future. // Aas been proved beyond a doubt that \ were the labours of 
the astronomical observers suspended for any length of time, innu- 
merable inconveniences ana* immeasurable, indeed, iRRetrievable 
mischief I would speedily result. The running of railway trains, now 
so marvellously methodical, would become quite immethodical ; long 
sea voyages, now (4) so common as to be unnoticed, would have to be 
abandoned, ana*, in consequence, much of the merchandise now readily I 
movable from any one part of the woixd to another, would become 
practically immovable. In other directions, also, there would I be an 
almost inconceivable disaRRangement of the affaiRS of life. Such 
considerations should serve to strengthen our conviction that no I branch 
of human learning can truly be said to be utterly useless, and should 
result in nerving us to greater \ and better efforts towards seli-improve- 
ment. Learning does not necessariLy bring all happiness, but it certainLy 
helps to alleviate much misery. (500) 



EXERCISE 193. 
Reporting* Grammalogues. 

/ do not know that you will approve of my contention, but I have special 
reasons which lead me to \ speak as I do, and the strength of my opinion 
ought not to be influenced by any objection which you \ may take to my 
belief. I believe then, ana* / have always believed, that curiosity is a very 



WRITING EXERCISES 223 

much stronger I feeLing in the minds of most of the men 7 have met than- 
perhaps, they would be willing to own. \ I believe that it is this feeLing 
which has sent adventurous men in every generation to exploRe regions 
of the (1) worLd whither man had not traveLLed before. / have no 
doubt that it is the same feeLing that impels men I to the study of history, 
that they may find out the religious and political views of their predeces- 
SORS on this \ earth, the struggles they had, and the sufferings they 
enduRed for the sake of religion and the Holy Scriptures ; that \ they may 
trace the rise and progress of Christianity in the days when the word 
" Christian " was taken to signify \ a traitor to the State itself ; and 
that they may learn something of what was signified by the downfaLL 
of (2) heathenism, the gradual dawn of freedom of worsnip, and the 
growth of a larger measure of liberty to practise the \ teachings of the 
Saviour. When I speak thus, however, I do not intend that my words 
should be taken to \ signify that this curiosity is in any sense to be depre- 
cated or blamed. On the contrary, / glory in the I possession of a larger 
snaRe of the feeLing than most young men can lay claim to. Indeed, 
/ go so I faR as to say that the great men of the past, who have glorified 
the age in which they lived, (3) were remarkable for the possession of this 
quality of curiosity ; and the same may be said of the men who I are 
likely to glorify the present age. Tell me, ye doubters, what led SiR 
Isaac Newton to the discoveries which I have revolutionized the scientific 
worLd, both as regards theory and practice ? What induced SiR Isaac 
Pitman, when a mere youth, I to devote himself to the study of phonetics, 
and brought him, at last, to invent a system of shorthand that \ is now 
practised by hundreds of thousands in all parts of the EngLish-s/>ea&ing 
worLd ? What was the feeLing that (4) first impcLLed Edison and 
Marconi to experiment, and, uLtimately, to woRk such wonders with the 
subtle foRce of eLectricity ? Was I it not, in all these cases, a feeLing 
of laudable curiosity to know more than they previousLy knew, which 
prompted I these men to studies which have had such striking effects 
upon the worLd at large ? A nd if we look at I the most prominent men 
in the House of Commons, we shall find that they, too, have turned to 
advantage this I feeLing of curiosity which is inherent in us all. It is the 
indulgence of an idle curiosity that is blameworthy. (500) 



EXERCISE 194. 
Reporting: Grammalogoies (continued). 

According to the general opinion or belief, a country cannot be defended 
with any great measure of success by a \ population that has been, on 
whatever account, degraded. " They who are to resist with success," 
says one high authority, " must I first be moulded by equal laws into a 
due sense of national pride and personal importance." It was from 
the I lack of these feelings of pride in their nation and in themselves that 
the Britons suffered during the Roman occupation, I 50 many generations 
ago. It is quite true that after the Romans had been catted away to tht 
defence of (1) their own capital, the Britons made a much more stubborn 



224 WRITING EXERCISES 

resistance to their new enemies than the latter could have \ thought or 
believed possible, yet there can be no doubt at all that the Britons lost their 
liberty a second I time, and feLL under the sway of the men from the 
northern nations, because the sentiments which had animated those \ 
who met the first invaders of our island had died away and given place 
to a sense of infeRiority. When \ the very principles of freedom which 
should be the life and spirit of the manhood and youth of the country (2) 
when these are broken, there is but little hope for the future glory of 
the nation. It was thus with \ the Britons. Their young children and 
youths of both sexes, had been accustomed, year after year, and generation 
after generation, \ to accept without a word of reply the assumption of 
superiority by their conqueroRS, the Romans, whose residence heRe, 
while I it improved the face of the country and tended to improve the 
minds of its native inhabitants, certainLy destroyed in \ them those 
principles of liberty to which I have referred. They, therefore, cared less 
than they ought to have cared (3) what might be the result of their struggles 
with the fresH invaders. It is not difficult to believe that this \ lack of 
true spirit affected somewhat the issue of the struggle. What might not 
have happened if the Britons had \ but preserved in all its strength that 
spirit o/jjfreedom which did so much to glorify the deeds of their \ prede- 
CCSSORS ! How different it might all have been ! And what a difference 
it would have made to us and to \ the wortd at large I Let us think 
over these things in this way for a short time, and we shall (4) see how 
significant may be our own actions, and what significance they may have 
for generations yet unborn. Remember, ye \ students upon whose eaRs 
these words may faLL, that if you are to receive the fuLL weight of the 
advantage \ and improvement which may be drawn from the important 
Lessons of history, you must know what those Lessons signify to \ you, 
and what they have signified to your forefathers. This is a truth that 
must ever be remembered by every \ member of society who desiRes to be 
able to speak with special knowledge of the great importance of historical 
study. (500) 



EXERCISE 195. 
Reporting 1 Grammalogaies (continued). 

A gentleman, who was himself the principal manager of one of the most 
important railways in this country, once remarked \ that the secret of good 
management in any business or trade was to attend strictly to one thing 
at a | time. He never tried to do two things at once, and we are told that 
he resisted, too, any attempt I on the part of other gentlemen to make him 
alter his ruLe. // he had a meeting with one person, I whether that person 
was a chief of a department, a medical doctor, a scripture reader for some 
religious society, or (I) an advocate for some new woRk of the Christian 
religion it mattered not ; he would see no one else untiL I he had done 
with the business in hand. If others called they had to wait till the first 
visitor went \ away, which might be in ten minutes or in half an hour ; 
or they could call again upon a more \ favourable opportunity. " One 
at a time, and let each take his turn " was the ruLe he put down for 



WRITING EXERCISES 225 

himself, \ and by following it steadily he got through an amount of woRk 
that I believe would have been altogether above and (2) beyond the poweRs 
of most gentlemen. The number of people who interviewed him each 
week was almost incredible, and though \ they did not all go away equally 
n '< // pleased with themselves and with him, yet they seldom faiLed to thank \ 
him for his courtesy of manner and language, and (hey never accused him 
of want of thought. To be sure, \ he would not always see eye to eye with 
those who came to meet him, nor could he approve of \ the methods of all 
who woRked near him. In several instances he was known to send out 
for an official (3) that he might tell him his duties, and give him a warning 
if he had done wrong. He never made I light of a serious offence, but 
no man was ever called upon to explain a mere slip, and no one \ was sent 
away, however serious Aw fault might be, till it was impossible to doubt Aw 
guilt. The manager usually \ took particular pains to SHOW the 
culprit that if it was necessary to punisn him, the evil was brought about I 
by his own fault ; that it was owing principally to a want of care on the 
offender's part ; and that (4) it gave Aw superior no pleasure to have 
to use the authority he had for the purpose of chastisement. " Why \ 
will you not apply your mind to study, and so build up a future for 
yourself ? " was a question he \ often put to the cleRks in the building 
wherein Aw office was situated. And he would continue : " Won't 
you now | decide to make use of the poweRs which have been given you 
to help you toward a better and more \ happy life ? Whither do you 
go after the day's woRk is over ? Is it your usual plan to take the (5) 
chair at some convivial meeting, or do you usually keep out of such 
societies and spend your time in your \ own house, effecting improve- 
ments in one direction or another ? Use your time wisely and well, for 
it cannot be extended." (540) 



EXERCISE 196. 
Reporting Grammalog-ues (concluded). 

My dear Mr. Green, It may not be out of place to remind you, and 
I am sure you will \ pardon me for doing so, that though one may have 
difficulty in eaRning a good character, it is quite an \ easy thing to lose it, 
as has been done over and over again by men specially lacking in strength 
of I will. I do not wish to deliver a seRmon, or to suggest that my remark 
applies to you personally. Oh, \ dean no ; I should owe you an apology, 
if / even thought of such a thing. I threw out the ( 1 ) remark merely to 
remind myself, as well as you, that it requiRes prudence to guard the 
good names we have \ won among our fellows. Our faiR names are 
prized by us both, and had not we deserved them we should \ not possess 
them. The oLd epigram is as true now as ever, and it puts the same 
truth in a I different way, thus : 

See thou thy credit keep ; 'tis quickly gone ; 

Tis gained by many actions ; but 'tis lost by \ one. 
This epigram should be delivered to every student of Phonography a third 
and a fourth time ; aye, and repeated (2) till it is deeply graven in his 
15 (27) 



226 WRITING EXERCISES 

mind and heaRt. The delivery of a truth like the one contained in \ 
the couplet just quoted may not appeal to him who has his ideas confined 
within a narrow circle, and who \ looks with a cold eye upon anything 
requiRing a larger mental scope. But it will appeal to the healthy, able \ 
man who looks with awe and reverence upon everything that is good 
and holy and sublime. And, surely, his is \ the right attitude of mind, 
according to the tenets of Christianity and the teachings of the Saviour, 
now glorified in (3) heaven. A good name is his by right, and as his 
actions have deserved, it is generally given to him. \ Ah, my friend, 
not every lord is a noble man, but every pooR man woRking at his art 
or trade \ may cheer himself and child with the thought that it is the manner 
of using the faculties given him by \ God that makes the true man and the 
gentleman. The possession of gold in itself is of no use. It \ may even 
do haRrn by haRdening a man's kind nature. Remember, thou wealthy 
man, thou canst buy a house, a (4) hoRse or a cart ; but thou canst not 
buy a good name. Thou canst build thyself a house with thy \ gold 
which shall not be equalled by any, and fashion it according to thy desiRe ; 
but thou canst oni/y build \ up a good name by good deeds, and the 
laboureR in thy yard may have a better name than thou I hast. Ah, 
remember these truths, and thou shalt bs happy ! Proceed upon prin- 
ciple ; give all the weight of thy influence I to the furtherance of truth, 
religion, and justice ; and thou shalt be thanked and blest by all who 
know thee. (500) 



EXERCISE 197. 

Reporting- Contractions (Section 1). 

A brief observation or inspection is sufficient to SHOW anyone, irrespect- 
ive of his professional standing, that productive and non-productive 
wages I respectively requiRe special treatment from the efficient book- 
keeper. OnLy an inefficient accountant, deficient in the organization 
of financial affaiRs, and \ imperfect or defective in his knowledge of 
commercial matters, could make the mistake of supposing that it would 
be sufficient \ in every circumstance to regard both classes of expense 
as of the same description. No controversial discussion can be heLd I 
on the point, which is beyond controversy. Generalization in the preserva- 
tion of accounts may be termed unconstitutional, from the point (1) of view 
of anyone who has organized or knows how to organize a set of accounts, 
whether relating to passenger \ traffic or any other business. Such 
generalization would denote inefficiency in the book-keeper, and would be 
prejudicial to the interests \ of his fiRm. It would be destructive of 
accuracy, and it might result in substantial loss and the consequent 
indignation \ of the management or executive, who would naturally be 
indignant at a deficiency in their profits brought about by the \ insufficient 
knowledge of anyone under their jurisdiction or subjection. Imagine 
their large prospective dividend reduced to an insignificant or unsub- 
stantial (2) amount, and you will understand the signification of such a 
mistake as I have mentioned. I feaR they would cross-examine \ the 



WRITING EXERCISES 227 

inefficient book-keeper on his inefficiency, and when they had cross- 
examined him '^sufficiently , the result., of the cross-examination would 
probably \ be that the executive would exercise their prerogative, and, 
without prejudice to his personal character, would dismiss him for his \ 
want of proficiency. He might plead abstraction on his own part, or 
obstruction on the part of another as a \ reason for the insufficiency of 
circumstantial detail in his book-keeping ; but this would not cover the 
imperfection of his knowledge (3) of the construction of accounts. The 
chaRtered accountant must have undergone an examination, both subjective 
and objective, in the theory | of accounts. After his credentials 
have been inspected, he must inscribe a foRm of adhesion to the constitution 
of the | association, and when this is inscribed the inscription is taken 
as binding upon him. He must be a constitutional member \ and must 
never behave in an unconstitutional way. He must act constitutionally 
himself and must restrain others from acting unconstitutionally, \ or so 
as to lead to the degeneration of the association. He need know nothing 
about perspective or the doctrines (4) of transubstantiation, regeneration, 
jurisprudence, or the transmission of energy ; but he must be proficient in 
accounts ; must know how to \ draw up a deficiency account, explain 
the insufficiency of the debtor's funds, and how there might have been a 
sufficiency \ instead of an insufficiency. His assistants must woRk 
efficiently, too. He must check anyone whose woRk is inefficiently done, 
who I is insubordinate himself, or whose conduct leads to insubordination 
in others. The apparent insignificance of obstructive tactics must not 
deceive I him, and if he can transcribe shorthand and make an accurate 
transcription on the writing macnine so much the better. (500) 



EXERCISE 198. 
Reporting Contractions (Section 2). 

Among the distinguished personages present at the thanksgiving service 
in a metropolitan church last January was an archbishop ; a benignant I 
Nonconformist preacher, with benignity in every feature ; a professor 
of Nonconformity from a neighbouring Tabernacle ; a benevolent Presby- 
terian, famous for \ his benevolence, especially to those connected with 
Presbyterianism ; a leading Episcopalian and several members of the 
Episcopal bench, and a philanthropist, who in philanthropy and 
philanthropic zeal sets an example of unexampled unselfishness to the 
worLd. There was also an ecclesiastic, \ whose name / was unable to 
ascertain, but whose dignified, yet melancholy, appearance attracted me. 
A fine, tall man he ( 1 ) was, in whom every baseR feeLing seemed extin- 
guished. Holiness and dignity snone in every line of his face. The 
majesty \ of his figure helped to dignify his whole appearance and stamp 
him as an ecclesiastic incapable of selfishness or meanness. I A man 
with a high appreciation of the dignity of the sacred ministry ; who would 
not hesitate to remonstrate with I any offender against ecclesiastical 
orthodoxy, and who would insist upon an orthodox observance of the 
ecclesiastical laws with all the \ poweR which he was evidentLy capable 
of snowing, should occasion requiRe it through a breach of orthodoxy 



228 WRITING EXERCISES? 

by anyone subject (2) to his jurisdiction. The strong resolute mouth of 
the stranger convinced me that he was an administrator who would demon- 
strate I his strength of will in any tribunal over which he might be called 
upon to preside. / could well imagine I him to be a man who would 
discharge the duties consequent upon his appointment, regardless of any 
disappointment or displeasure \ he might give either to a plaintiff or a 
defendant. DoubtLess then his present aiR of resignation and content- 
ment would I give place to dissimilar appearances, and he would simply 
be the judge and administrator of the law as he found (3) it. CleaRly, 
he was a man who would distinguish himself in any position, either as a 
plenipotentiary representing a poweRful I cabinet in an arbitration, or 
as an executor and trustee for a deceased friend. For th attainment 
of a worthy I object, or the atonement of a supposed fault, that man would 
relinquish any position and extinguish any private ambition. / I 
should like to heaR him preach on the resurrection and the celestial enter- 
tainment waiting for all who give up selfish \ ways, and live henceforth 
a life distinguished for virtue. / noticed, also, Lieutenant-Col. Smith, 
Captain Brown, and a non-commissioned (4) officer who has been promised 
a lieutenancy as a reward for bravery in the rieLd last November and 
December. Near \ them was an evangelical minister, formerly connected 
with Methodism, and also a statesman who was baptized a Baptist and 
hoLds I strong views regarding Baptism and the right to baptize infants. 
He addressed a public meeting last February, and is to I speak in Man- 
chester next September. I observed, also, Lady Nemo, who is an 
administratrix and executrix under the will of I a lady whose estates 
were so heavily mortgaged that she could obtain no further mortgage 
upon them under any circumstances. (500) 



EXERCISE 199, 
Reporting 1 Contractions (Section 3). 

SiR Isaac Newton, the extraordinary mathematician whose wonderful 
and unquestionable genius astonished the wortd and raised him from 
obscurity into \ a position proportionate to his talent, and whose name 
has the singular poweR of aRousing th.e enthusiasm of all enthusiastic \ 
lovers of original and independent research, was the son of a farmer, 
who was devoted to agriculture and agricultural pursuits. I Isaac 
Newton was always an enthusiast as regards mathematics, and was able 
to astonish those who assembled in his father's I house by the imperturbable 
and impregnable patience he exhibited, and by his skiLL as a mechanic 
in the manufacture of (I) mechanical toys. His life was a perpetual 
study of subjects which are repugnant to most men. He felt no repug- 
nance \jor them, however, and he was perpetually exercising his intelli- 
gence in attempts to reduce the expenditure of energy, to make I the 
foRces^o/ nature subservient to man and applicable to every contingency, 
and to substitute mechanical poweR for manuaL labour. I It is un- 
questionably true that the applicability of many of the inventions used by 
the manufacturer at the present day, I though he may not suspect it, is 



WRITING EXERCISES 229 

due to the preliminary experiments of Newton. His name is among 
the highest (2) in the aristocracy of the scientific worLd. Both the 
aristocratic statesman and the democratic leader advocating the cause 
of the I democracy owe a debt to the indefatigable labours of Newton. 
Magnetism and magnetic phenomena attracted him, and we are informed I 
that the simple observation of an apple failing in a perpendicular direction 
was sufficient to inform him of a universal. | law. He was the great informer 
of the worLd of science. He manufactured no theory without care, and 
no ChanceLLor I of the Exchequer could bestow more pains on his Budget 
than Newton bestowed on the statement of a discovery. To (3) the 
inconsiderate and extravagant individual devoid of sensibility, to whom 
expensive attiRe and extravagance in living are indispensable, the inde- 
scribable I simplicity of Newton's life is not intelligible. Indiscriminate 
expenditure of his revenue was antagonistic to his sensible, well-propor- 
tioned and \ intelligent nature, and intemperance was never suspected in 
him. Indeed, it found in him an antagonist whose antagonism was 
proportionate \ to his enthusiasm for learning. He recognised his 
responsible position and the responsibility attaching even to his extem- 
poraneous utterances, and \ not in his most familiar moments, and 
with those whose friendship and familiarity he prized, would he sanction 
intemperance. He (4) would superscribe no suspicious recognizance, 
and, though he liked journalism, he did not favour it as an investment. 
His superscription \ on any indenture or certificate was sufficient to 
advertise its genuineness. He never advertised himself at an assembly, 
and he \ resented advertisement by others. Isaac Newton, Esquire, 
was title enough for him, but Queen Anne bestowed on him the honour I 
of knighthood, and, certainLy, his merits were no more than proportion- 
ately rewarded. The magnetism of his example, and the magnetic \ 
influence he exercised, were extraordinary. He died in 1725, at the ripe 
age of eighty-five. (500) 



EXERCISE 200. 

Advanced Phraseography (Section 1). 

I -am about to say something which I-hope-you-will~not take as-if-it- 
were meant to be I disrespectful to-the authors whos woRks yon-love, 
and-the accuracy of whose opinions I-a.rn.-not disputing a<-a//-event<?, 
not for-the-moment. I -can quite understand that I -may-be wrong ; 
7-cawo*-hope to be right I a*-a//-times ; but, at-the-same-time, you- 
should-not, you-must-not, and-I -\\ope-you-will-not, I condemn me un- 
heaRd. I-cannot-be led to-believe that-you-are so unfaiR. /-trust-no/, 
and-I-shall- (1) be disappointed if-it-is proved that 1-a.m-mistaken. 
I-did-not, and-I-do-not, expect to-find I thai 7-am. I-shall-be-glad, then, 
if-you-will-tell-me if-it-has occurred to-you that- \ there-are-some readers 
who never take-the trouble to veriiy-the statements which they see from- 
time-to-time I in-the books they read ? I-do-not-say 7-canwo/-say 
that-they-believe a statement because-they-think \ that-the book in-which- 
it-has-s.ppea.Red is an inspiRed voLume ; for, as you-must-be-aware, 



230 WRITING EXERCISES 

here-is- (2) onLy one such vomme. But I-do say, and-I-think-you-will- 
not deny it, that, at-any-rate, I they act as-if -they -thought so. I- 
may-not-be right, but I-think I-shall-not-be mistaken \ in saying that- 
you-must-have come across instances of assertions in books of-which- 
it-must-be-said, and \ of-which-it-has-been-said repeate:lly, that-they-are 
absolutely incorrect. You-will, I-think, agree with me that- \ we-have 
all, at-some-time in-the-course of-our reading, met such instances. 
Moreover, you-should-not-be (3) unwilling to allow that for a reader to 
accept every -statement of an author as-if-it-were heresy to- \ doubt 
it or to-check it, is, and must-be, opposed to common-sense and-the 
right use of -one's \ reasoning poweRs. If -the statement is found to be 
correct, surely you-v?eRe-not wrong in proving its truth. If- \ it-is-not 
proved to be accurate, then you-cannot-be blamed for avoiding the trap 
into which-you-weKe I so very nearLy faLLing. The faculties by-which- 
it-was possible for-you to-diszover-the inaccuracy were given to- (4) you 
in-order-to-be used, and you-can scaRcely be wrong in wsing them. 
You-may-not have-thought \ of-this before, but /-trust that /or-some-time 
to-come you-will watch more closely the statements you- \ read, and- 
if-it-does happen that-you-can verify them I-hope-you-will. You-may 
then say 7- I was-not wrong, and-that I-had reason for-these remarks. 
I-had-not thought o/-ex tending this chat to- \ such a length, and I-cannot- 
do better-than conclude now. I-shall-not trouble you again for-some- 
time. (500) 

EXERCISE 2O1. 
Advanced Phraseography (Section 2). 

I-think-there-will-be few, or-rather, I -know-there-will-be few, who-will 
deny that if-there- \ is-one thing more-than-another upon-which some-men 
pride themselves beiore-their friends whenever-there-is a chance I of- 
doing-so, it-is what in-their-own-language they-call their liberality 
of -thought and extent of information. \ As-soon-as a subject is started 
in-their-presence, they-are anxious to-prove how-much they know 
about I it ; what, in-theit --opinion, should-be-done or avoided ; how, 
in-their-case, hey would-have acted z-such (1) and-such a way; and 
so on. And, as -we- have-seen, they expect their heaRers to be interested 
in- I Z/zezV-statements, and fo-accept them as authoritative. We-know- 
their-ways as-well-as-can-be, and-we-have- \ their names before our 
minds just-now, have-we-not ? Now, I-am-sure-there-is always a desiRe 
on- I the-part-of sensible people to-heaR a schoLar speak on a subject 
which he knows as-we//-as-possible ; I j or -there-is sure to fee-something 
said that-is-worth Listening to. Such-men are decidedly worth heaRing 
for- (2) their-own-sake, and for-the-sake-of-the wisdom which faLLS 
from-their lips. But, I-wish-there-wene I more-men who realized that 
though-there-is such a desiRe as I-have-mentione^, it-is restricted to-the \ 
utterances of-those whom we-call thinkers. I -know-there-is a deep- 
rooted antipathy in most-men to-be- \ told-that, after-all, their knowledge 
is very limited ; but, then, I-hnow-there-is-not-one of us who- I can truth- 
fully^assert that-he possesses fuLi, information even on-the most simple- 
matters, and-I -think-there-is-no (3) haRm in reminding ourselves 



WRITING EXERCISES 231 

sometimes o/-some (of the) things about which-we neither know anything 
nor can readily get I to know anything. For-instance, I -see-there-is a 
statement that \viLcl ducks will readily follow a red dog I as-soon-as- 
they see it. Why is-this ? There-may-be an answer, but, if-there-is, I 
confess I 1 ' -do-not-know it. Again, I-think-there-will-be-some of-my 
heaRers who-will-have noticed in- \ their country walks that-the scarlet 
runneR always twines to-the right, while-the honeysuckle as invariably 
twines to-the (4) left. If-you-are as-well-as-usual in-the-mornmg 
we-will go out and-veriiy-the statement. Can- \ you explain these 
simple facts ? TVzere-t's-another-instance which /-may-refer to, while 
we-are on-this- subject. \ A s-soon-as-the spring comes, we-know as-well- 
as-can-be, that-the swallow and-the cuckoo will \ come *o-/Ats-country, 
as-we-have-seen-them come in-the past, and as-soon-as-they feeL that I 
autumn is upon them they-will leave MS again. What brings them, and 
how do they find their way heRe ? (500) 



EXERCISE 2O2. 

Advanced Phraseography (Section 8). 

(a) .Dear-Madam, /w-reference-fo yow-letter (of the) lOth-inst., 
I-have further-considered-/A point raised, and-/- I am-certain-/Aaf- 
you-are mistaken in-your view, /-am-confident that when-the-m&ttei 
has-been fully-considered, I and-after-the peculiar->ctt>nsfonces in- 
conneclion-with-the case have-been taken-wto-consideration, you-will-see 
that, having- \ rega.rd-to-the possible consequences, it-will-be better, 
under-the-circutnstances, /0-leave-fAe-matter where it-is. On \ further- 
consideration you-may think-this an unsatisfactory-conclusion ; but 
when you take-iwto-consideration the necessary-consequences o/-legal (1) 
measures, which-must-be-considered, I -think-you-will-agree that, all- 
circumstances considered, submission will-be-the best. /- I am-inclined- 
to-think-that-the peculiar-circumstances-of-the-ca.se ws/-6e-considered, 
awa'-/Ae-matter dealt with in- \ such-a-manner as to avoid a//-further 
friction, t'/-possible. ^4/ter-due-consideration of-every-circumstance, I- 
Aaz^e-concluded I that-the-course I advise is-the best, ao*-/-hope that- 
/Aa^-conclusion will meet with your approval. What I attitude does-/Ae 
local-authority take in-relation-fo the proposed new buildings in Morton 
Road ? Ycwrs-truly, ALFRED OLIVER. (200) 



(b) .Dear-SiR, 7-Aaue-received yor-letter /t'/A-reference-/o-/A dis- 
pute about which /-wrote to-you, and-I- \ ;i//-consider-/Ae-matter 
carefully before taking action. Every-point shall-be-considered ; every- 
possible consequence s/ja//-6e-taken-into- I consideration, before I- 
decide. ^/-/Ae-same-time, /-feeL bound to say that /-feaR your counseL 
will-not I lead to a satisfactory-conclusion (of the) matter. On-the- 
contrary, I-think-it-is a course which-will-be- I considered by-the other- 
side as an evidence of weakness in-my attitude u;i/A-relation-/o the 
trespass, and-the- (1) contrary result to-the one you-expect is very-likely 



232 WRITING EXERCISES 

to follow iw-consequence. In-this-manner-the trouble will- \ be aggra- 
vated, and-the-pro vocation /-/zave-received in-the past will-be small in- 
comparison with what I -may- I be-called-upon to put , up with. However, 
1-a.m-very-gla.d /-wrote to-you with-regard-to-this- I matter, and-I-will- 
consider your counsel- before going further. With-reierence-to-the 
proposed new houses in Morton Road, | I-have-received a letter from-the 
surveyoR to-the local-authority, stating that-it-is-considered essential 
that I (2) should alter the plans in-several important respects, and-that 
with-regard-to-the drainage scheme, the local-authority will- \ be-glad 
fo-receive fresn plans, which-will-be-taken-into-consideration, and, if- 
possible, approved. I-have-seen my- \ brother *w-relation-/o this-i^etter 
and, o/fey-due-consideration, we-have-concluded to abandon-//^ idea, 
tw-view (of I the) opposition we-have-Teceived, and-in-this-manner 
answer-the surveyoR's letter. You-will-probably remember that I-was \ 
treated tn-^e-same-manner last-year, awd-i'n-Like-manner /-gave 
up-the project. Yowrs-truly, TERESA DRIVER. (300) 



EXERCISE 2O3. 
Advanced Phraseography (Section 4). 

/-a//-parts-o/-/Ae-worLd educational-authorities are vying with-one- 
another in-their efforts to encourage commercial students I to-dive 
deeper-awd-deeper into-the theory of business on-the-one-hand, and to- 
give more-and-more- \ attention to-the application of-that theory, on- 
the-other-hand. /w-point-o/-fact, there-is-now , for-the- \ first-time, a 
general recognition (of the) need for preparation for business life. The 
fact-o/-tfAe-matter is that- I the-example (of the) foreigneR has set us 
thinking, with-the-result that, whether it-be right-or-wrong, the (1) 
commercial schools are with us, and it-would-no\v be more-or-less impos- 
sible to-close-them. That-they-are \ appreciated af-/Ae-present-day is 
proved by-the large-numbers in attendance at-them, notwithstanding-the 
comparatively sAortf-space- I o/-time which-has elapsed since-Mey-were 
first established. The facts-o/-//ze-case in-their-iavour have-been \ put 
forward again-awrf-again by prominent commercial-men, both in-this- 
country and on-the-other-side (of the) I Atlantic ; but never more foRcibly 
than by " Punch " when-he-said " Incompetency is a gift of heaven, 
but business habits (2) can-be acquiRed." This-is-nov? widely recog 
nised, and men send their sons and daughters to-commercial schools 
quite as- \ a-matter-o/-course. From-first-to-last, all-the-way through- 
the course, the students are taught on practical \ lines. Imaginary 
transactions are carried on with-clients all-over-the-wor^d, and, by- 
the-way, there-is almost as- I much keenness displayed by-the students 
as there-is in actuaL business. ^s-a-matter-o/-fact, the rivalry that \ 
exists between-them accounts tM-a-grea^-measure for-the successful. SHOW 
they-are able-to-make, first in-the (3) examinations, and, sooner-or-Later, 
in business also. Prejudice, however, dies haRd, and-though-the number 
grows less-flwrf-less I every-day, there-are still a few people who-are, 
to-a- great-extent, opposed to-the idea of teaching I business methods in 



WRITING EXERCISES 233 

school. It-is difficult to say what-is-the-matier with-such people. 
I-shall-be-glad- \ to-know, in-the -first-instance, or in-the-first-pla.ce, what- 
is their objection to a youth learning, say, I the theory of Banking and-the 
Exchanges ? In-the-second-place, I would ask " 7J>o-you-mean-/o-say 
that- (4) such knowledge will interfeRe with a youth's progress in business 
life ? " In-the-third-pla.ee, 7-ask what-would-be- \ the present condition 
o/-BritisH trade were it not for-the theories of -thoughtful men in-the past ? 
In-the- I next-pla.ee, we-shall-be-glad-to-heaR if-it-has-not-been proved 
again-awd-again that ignorance of I theory o-/Ae-part-o/ merchants 
has-been-the cause of /ailuRe ? And-in-the-last-place, / would point- I 
out that-the ideal trader, like-the ideal artisan, is-he who most successfully 
combines perfect theory with prudent practice. (500) 



EXERCISE 204. 

Business Phrases and Contractions (Section 1). 

(a) Dear-SiR, 7-aw-m-receipt-o/-yor-letter, an^-/-am-instructed 
fcy-<Ae-directors to ask why you \ did-not report tt>z/A-reference-/0 Brown's 
position eaRlieR ? 7-aw-directed also to-forward you-the enclosed- 
letter, and \ to-request an immediate explanation (of the) same. I-am- 
directed-fo-state further, that untiL /Aese-matters are cleaRed I up, 
you-must-consider yourself suspended from acting on behalf (of the) 
company. 7-caw-assure-yow that /-regret I having to-write-you m-such 
a strain. I-am-surprised thai-you-should-be-placed in-such a position, 
(1) and-I-do-not-understand how it-has come about. 7-hope-you- 
will-be-able-to explain what I- I regard as an awkward state of affaiRs. 
Vott-may-consider it best to-come fo-London, and-I-think-you- \ may- 
as-well do-so as-i.ong-as you-are-at-liberty. Enclosed-please-find cheque 
for last-week's expenses. I 7-beg-to-ca//-yor-attention to-the deduction, 
which 7-regret-/o-state 7-/a5-obu'ged-to-make, as- I it-is against the 
ruLes to allow /or-such items. 7-Aat/e-/o-ca//-yoM^-attention to-the 
small cheque (2) dated 15th September, which apparently has-not-been 
presented. 7-am-requested to ask-yot* to-present this at-once, I so-that 
our books may-be cleaRed. With-regard-to Patterson's oRder, you-will- 
be-glad-to-know that-we- I ore-in-a-position to-make delivery next-week. 
I-have-the-pleasure to enclose-herewith the particulars yoM-requiRe, I 
and-I-hope-you-will-he-able-to clean up-the present-difficulty. Yours- 
faithfully. (275) 

(b) Gentlemen, 7-am-t-receipt-o/-yor-favour of -yesterday , and-I- 
am-rather-surprised that-you-should consider me \ in fault tfi/A-regard- 
to Brown's affaiRs. 7-beg-/o-enclose-herewith /or-yor-consideration 
copy o/-wy-report (of I the) 2nd August, from which-you-will-see that I 
advised caution in dealing with-this man. I-beg-to- I inform-you also, 
and-I-think-you-will-be-surprised to-heaR, that I repeated this advice 
in-my interview I -with-the-manager last-month. Under-these-circum- 
stances, I-do-not-understand-the tone of-your-i avour of -yesterday, and- ( 1 ) 
7-propose to-wait upon you at-once, so-that-this and-the-other matter 
may-be gone into thoroughly. I 7-enclose-occonf for expenses to 



234 WRITING EXERCISES 

date, and-I also enclose-statement snowing that-the items deducted 
from last-week's I account were authorized by-the terms of-my agree- 
ment. I-have, therefore, included these items in-the-present account. 
I- | enclose-cheque for Smithson's account, and-I -hope-you-are-sa.tisfied 
with-the-ORders forwarded to-you yesterday, /-am- I rawcA-obliged for- 
the-p articular s you sent me. Faithfully-youRs. (190) 

(c) Dear-SiR, I-beg-to-acknowledge-receipt-of-your-letter of-yester- 
day, and to confiRm-^e telegram sent you this- I morning, asking you to- 
wait instructions. Yowr-letter was considered &y-/Ae-directors at-their 
meeting ^'s-morning, and-I- \ am-directed-to-inform-you that-they- 
will-be-pleased if-you-will resume your duties forthwith, and leave- the- \ 
matters requiRing explanation untiL you-are heRe in-the usual course. 
7-aw-requested to add that-the-directors have- \ wo-doubt that a personal 
interview will satisfactorily cleaR up-the position, /-enclose-invoice 
for Grayson and Blackstone, and (I) also cheque for-the- amount deducted 
in BRROR from-your last-week's expenses account. Yows-obediently. 
(116) 



EXERCISE 2O5. 
Business Phrases and Con tractions (Section 2). 

(a) Dear-Si RS, /w-reply-fo-yow-esteemed-favour of -yesterday, we- 
regret that-we-are-unab\e fo-quote special-rates I for-the quantity of 
Petersburg Deals yew-mention, but-we-shall-be-glad-to supply you at-the 
oRdinary-rates I if-you favour us with-the-ORder. These-are-the best- 
terms we-are-in-a-position to-ofier for- I such a small lot. Our lowest- 
terms for 150 standaRds would-be 10 5s. I per standaRd. The goods 
are (of the) best-quality, and-if-you-can let-us have an oRder for-this (1) 
quantity iy-return-o/-post, or by-\vire-at-once, we-shall-be-pleased to- 
make-^e necessary-arrangements to- \ deliver-the deals iw-accordance- 
with yowr-requiRements. Kindly give our quotation your eaRly- 
consideration, and-oblige us with an \ eaRly-reply, as there-is a brisk 
demand for-these-goods, and-we-cannot make this offer fiRm beyond 
Saturday next. Referring-fo-yoMr-letter (of the) 5th-inst., the speci- 
mens of mouLdings will-be-forwarded to-you fey-parcel- I post as-soon-as 
ready, and-we-hope they-will-be-iound suitable for-your purpose. We- 
could forward-the (2) quantity yow-requiRe iy-g'ooo's-train ow-receipt 
of -your instructions, and-if-you desiRe it we-could send on \ a small 
quantity by passenger-train to ALLendale station. We-will-arrange- 
the-matter any-way to-meet your convenience, I and, in-any-case, you- 
may-rely upon yo^-oRder being promptly executed to-the best-of-our- 
ability. Please I accept our best-thanks /oy-yowr-kind enquiry. Yours- 
faithfully. (270) 

(b) Gentlemen, /M-reply-fo-yottr-letter (of the) 3rd inst., I-will- 
forward-the books by-first-post to-morrow, and- \ the bill-o/-sale and 
bill-o/-exchange by registered-letter as-soon-as-convenient. The 



WRITING EXERCISES 235 

balance-SHeet and statement- I of-account are-not-yet ready, but will-be 
/onvarded as-soon-as-possible. Referring-fo-yowr-favour (of the) | 26th 
ult., I-have-sent Mr. Miles a copy o/-yowr-last-letter to-me, as desiRed. 
/-enclose- I herewith copy-o/-wy-last-letter to Brown, together with 
postal-order received from-him in payment-o/ '-account yesterday. (1) 
/ heaR he-has-been speculating on-the Stock-Exchange, and-has lost 
heavily. Rider promises to-send-the balance- I of-your-account at-the 
week-end. A ccor ding-to -my notes the balance-due is ^40 10s. Od. 
Is- I this correct ? Rider asks me if-we-can supply him with two dozen 
pains (of the) vases with tulip decoration, I iw-exchange for an equal 
number decorated with a rose, delivered to-him six-months-ago, and for- 
which he \ finds he-has-no sale. He-is willing to pay the cost of carriage, 
if-you agree to-the exchange. (2) Please instruct me on-the matter, or 
v?rite-him direct, sending me a copy 0/-yoMr-reply. The other matters I 
yoM-refer to are having my best-attention. Yowrs-faithfully. (230) 



EXERCISE 2O6. 
Business Phrases and Contractions (Section 3). 

(a) Dear-SiR, W / fi-are-z-receipt-o/-y0r-favour (of the) 2nd inst., and- 
tn-reply beg fo-quote-you I 3s. 9d. peR-ib. for /irsf-quality, Scotch yarns. 
We-could-deliver-the /zrsMnstalment by-the \ 18th-inst.. and-the remain- 
der accor ding-to-agreement. We should-be-plea,sed to instruct our \ 
makers-up to add your I trade-mark to-the labels, but-this would entail 
a little additional-expense. We should, o/-course, onty charge you- \ 
the net amount (of the) additional-cost. Please-let-us-know by Wednes- 
day-evening, i/-possible, if-we-may book (1) yowr-oRder on-these terms. 
Referring-to-your-favour (of the) Ist-inst., this-is-the first-notice we- 
have- I received of any defect in-the-goods, though-we forwarded last- 
week over fifty lots to various customeRs, besides fulfilling I a large- 
number o/-oRders this-week. In-addition-to-this, we-have-just-received 
a large oRder for immediate \ delivery in-the-north. It-is -just-possible 
that yours was-the onLy lot affected. We-expect a call from- \ the 
finisHer on-the Tuesday-afternoon of next-week, and-we-will take-care 
to-go into-the-matter with (2) him. Please-let-us-know fry-Monday- 
morning the fuLL extent (of the) damage, together -with any further- 
particulars you- \ may-have as-to-the apparent cause. You-will, o/- 
course, estimate the loss at- first-cost. If-you-care I to-make-an-appoint- 
ment for next Tuesday-morning, we-shall-be very-pleased to see-you 
on-the matter. Please- I note-that-the catalogue yow-refer to as having- 
been sent last-week is not-yet-to-hand. Yows-faithfully. I (280) 

(b) Gentlemen, /-regret to inf or m-you that Grin-well's financial-afiaiRs 
have turned out to be in a worse muddle than \ /-anticipated from-the- 
last-report /-received. It-appears-that not-onLy has-he been selling 
first-class goods \ at considerably less than trade-price, but-thai, in- 
order-to obtain ready money, he-has sold them much under \ first-cost. 
This, o/-course, could-not last long, but-the end came, apparently, 
sooner-than he expected. The trustee I hopes to declare-o-dividend of 



236 WRITING EXERCISES 

about 5s. 6d. in-the . Mr. Grinwell was eLected to- (I) the board -of- 
directors (of the) Print Finishing Company, Limited, two-years-ago ; 
but he seldom attended a directors' -meeting, \ and-his name onLy 
appeaRed in-one directors'-report. He-has-no interest in-the conceRn 
a<-Me-present-time. I Please-forward me the necessary authority to- 
receive-the-amount of dividend on-your behalf. 7 heaR that-there-is \ 
likely to be trouble with-the leaders (of the) local Trades-Union heRe. 
According-to-their-statement, it-appears-that- \ the EmployeRs' Federa- 
tion have-not kept to-the-terms of-their agreement with-the-men in- 
regard-/o an advance (2) promised them last spring. I-hope-the dispute 
will-be settled amicably, as-the whole district would feeL the effects I 
of a strike or lock-out. Yottrs-faithfully. (227) 



EXERCISE 2O7. 
Political Phrases. 

The party-leaders in-the-House-of-Commons met last-week to discuss- 
the Act-o/ '-Parliament, or-rather the I A.cts-of-Parliament, relating to 
tree-trade with-the colonies, the ireedom-of-trade in-EngLand, and-the 
freedom-o/- I the-Press throughout-the Britisn EmpiRe. There-was a 
large gathering of right-honourable-geM//ewew from-the House-of- 
Commons, I and-one right-honourable-wem&er is reported to-have called 
it-the most successfuL meeting of-the kind he had \ attended since he first 
entered-^Ae /foMse-o/-Commons as a member-of -parliament many years- 
ago. The Prime-Minister, (1) as ~Leader-of-the-House and Leader-of-the- 
Party, presided over-the-meeting, and was supported by-the Chancellor- | 
o/-2Ae-Exchequer, the First Lord-of-the-Treasury, the First Lord-of-the- 
Admiralty, the Secretary-/or-War, and \ other prominent members 
(of the) Government. It-is-understood that-the-speech of a well-known 
member (of the) House- \ of-Lords, who-is a pronounced free-trader, 
was-the-subject of discussion, and it-is rumoured that a bill I will shortly 
be introduced in-the-House-of -Lords dealing with-the question of taxa- 
tion. The Army-arcd-Navy both (2) came in /or-consideration, and it-is- 
said that a Parliamentary-Committee is-to-be appointed to inquiRe 
inio-the- \ subject (of the) training of officers for both branches (of the) 
service. The Secretary-o/-State is thought to favour- | the appointment 
of-members of both Houses-o/ '-Parliament on-the proposed committee. 
With a CAaiVman-o/-Committee who-has \ had practical experience of 
military or naval affaiRs the suggested committee would-be-]ikely to 
achieve beneficial results. As-the \ President-of-the-~Board-of-Trade 
said in-his speech at Manchester, very-much-more information can-be 
obtained in- (3) committee than-the majority of people would 
suppose. Another matter which-is stated to-have occupied the attention 
of right- I honourable-members at-the meeting was-the conveyance (of 
the) mails to Canada and-the United-States, on-which question I the 
Postmaster General and-the Secretary-o/-State-/or-^e-Colonies both 
hoLd strong-views. The Leader-o/-/Ae-Opposition I has stated his 
intention o/-raising-/Ae question t-Committee-o/-Supply, and-the 



WRITING EXERCISES 237 

public will look forward with interest \ to-the next move. The Secretary- 
o/-State-/or-<Ae-Home-Department and-the honourable-and-learned- 
member for Northwich (4) are said to be drafting a bill for-the more 
stringent regulation (of the) tobacco trade, with a view to- I the prevention 
of juveniLe smoking. It-is probable that very-little interest will-be 
displayed at-the-first-reading (ot the) bill, but a/-/Ae-second-reading there- 
should-be a good debate, as-the Anti-Tobacco League are making every 
effort to influence the voting upon-the measure. . Those engaged in-the- 
trade are of opinion that though-the bill I may pass-the second-reading, 
it-will-be so altered that at-the-third-reading it-will-be quite haRmless. 
(500) 



EXERCISE 2O8. 
Law Phrases. 

The Articles-o/-Association are-the rui.es for-the regulation of a 
joint-stock-company, and-according-to-the opinion \ of a King's-Counsel 
(who-was recentLy counsel-/or-*Ae-defence in an important case tried 
before-the Lord-Chief- I Justice, in-which-the learned-counsel succeeded 
in obtaining a verdict-/or-*Ae-defendant), the Articles-o/-Association 
may-be \ produced as documentary-evidence aix>ng with circumstantial- 
evidence in-the Chancery-Division (of the) High-Court-o/-Justice, or 
even I uj-^Ae-Central-Criminal-Court, should a case anise in-that court. 
The Memo randuni-o/- Association, on-the-other-hand, (I) contains a 
statement (of the) objects for-which a joint-stock-company is foRmed, 
and-the conditions of-its incorporation. I The secretary of a joint-stock 
conceRn should make it his business to be acquainted with-the principal 
Acts-o/- | Parliament relating to joint-stock-companies, so-that if-he- 
should-be called-upon to-give evidence in a court- I o/-justice, he-may 
acquit himself well, whether under-the examination-tn-chief by counsel- 
/or-//je-plaintiff, or-the \ cross-examination by-the counsel-for-the- 
defendant. He should remember that ULL knowledge gives calmness 
and nerve to a (2) witness, and-that-the-man who-knows both-the law 
upon-the-matier and-the circumstances-of-the-ca.se need I feaR no question 
from learned-counsel. Then-the joint-stock-company's secretary should 
also have a general knowledge of County- I Court procedure, so-as-to 
know how to enfoRce payment of a debt by-the issue of a judgment- 
summons, I should such an extreme method become necessary in-the- 
course-o/ business. //-/Ac-company for-which he-is secretary \ t is a 
manufacturing conceRn, he-should make himself acquainted with-the- 
niain provisions (of the) Workmen's-Compensation-Act and-the (3) 
Employers'-Liability Act, remembering that at common-law an employeR 
is-not liable for an injury to-one-of-his I servants unLess personal negli- 
gence on-the omployeR's part is proved to-hove caused the accident. 
It-should also be borne I in mind that iw-cases o/-claim for compensation 
under-these acts there-is a right of appeal from-the I County-Court to the 
Divisional-Court (of the) High-Court-o/-Justice, and-afterwards, by 
leave, to-the Court-o/- I Appeal and to-the-House-of Lords. Of -course, 



238 WRITING EXERCISES 

every business man should-know how to-deal with a dishonoured (4) bill- 
o/-exchange, and-the circumstances in-which-the services of a notary- 
public may-be dispensed with ; and-as \ Ae-way-requiRe to act under a 
power-o/-attorney, he should-be familiar with-the foRm of -this authority. | 
The terms bill-o/-sale, personal-estate, real-estate, and reversionary- 
bonus, should-be known and-under stood, and-there-should \ also 6e-some 
acquaintance with-the-principal duties of an official-receiver. It-will-be 
gathered from-the foRegoing that-\ there-are-many things besides actual. 
knowledge of-his business which it-is very desirable the commercial man 
should-know. (500) 



EXERCISE 2O9. 
Theological Phrases. 

0-Christmas-Day, followeRS (of the) Ckristian-iaith, whether they be 
members (of the) Church-o/-England, the Church-o/-lReland, the Church- 
o/-Rome, or-the Episcopal-Church, have-their-attention directed to-the- 
great event which-the day I commemorates, and-the whole Christian- 
Church, the Church-o/-Christ throughout-/Ae whole worixl, unites in 
celebrating with joy the \ anniversary (of the) birth o/-Christ-Jesus, the 
Son-o/-God, the Lamb-o/-God, who-came in obedience to \ the will of-His 
Heavenly-Father, to establish-the Kingdom-o/-Christ upon earth, to 
teach the child ren-o/-God ( 1 ) how to-grow in grace and obtain everlasting- 
life in-the kingdom-of-heaven. On-this-day every minister (of I the) 
gospel, whether a Roman-Catholic, a Wesleyan-Methodist, or a member 
(of the) Established-Church, directs his thoughts and- \ his words to-the 
Child who-was born (of the) Virgin-Mary, and who-was destined, in-the- 
providence-o/- I God.fo-preach the gospel of-peace,and woRk a stupen- 
dous change in-the religious beliefs and practices (of the) nations- I 
o/-/Ae-earth. It-is safe to say that on-this-day every ~Rig\\t-Reverend- 
Bishop in-the-Church, every (2) preacher in-the United-Free-Church-o/- 
Scotland, every Sunday-Scnool teacher, who speaks (of the) Word-of-God, 
mentions I the glad-tidings referred to in-the passage-o/-Scripture which 
relates the birth of-our-Lord. There-is-not \ a preacher of-Christianity, 
whether engaged in woRk on-the home-missions or serving the cause 
of-God by spreading- I the knowledge of-His Holy-Word among-the 
heathen in foreign-missions, who-could allow this-day to pass without \ 
congratulating himself and-his fellow-creatures upon-the advent of- 
Christ, our-Lord-and-Saviour. In a similaR way, it- (3) is-impossibleto 
pass a Good Friday without reverting to-the-Great Tragedy narrated 
in-the New-Testament-Scriptures, when- I He who-came to bestow 
upon-the. people of-this-\voriA everlasting-life in a \vori.d-without-end, 
was himself I put to death. Thus, too, the resurrection-o/-Christ and-His 
ascension to-the rigl\t-hand-of-God-the-Father, I reminds us (of the) 
doctrine (of the) resurrection-o/-/te-dead and-the continued existence 
(of the) soul in a I future-state. Surely one (of the) great Lessons to be 
learned from-the life o/-Christ is-the Lesson of (4) kindness towards others ! 
Every true believer in-Christ who reads and reflects upon our-Lord's 
Sermon-o-/A;-Mount must- I be struck with-the beautiful Lessons o) 



WRITING EXERCISES 239 

charity, mercy, and forgiveness-o/-sins, which it teaches. " When God," 
said a I great preacher, " made the heaRt of man, His first gift to-it 
was kindness," and-if-this gift has-not- \ been actively employed pre- 
viousLy, it-must-be roused into life by-the reading and consideration 
(of the) Lessons of- I this wonderful Sermon-ow-^Ae-Mount. The good- 
ness-o/-God appeaRS in every word, and exhorts us, also, to goodness. 
(500) 



EXERCISE 210. 

Intersected Words. 

It-is-to-be deploRed that some members of-every political-party 
in-the Houses-of-Parliament, whether the Liberal- I Unionist-Party, 
the Conservative- Party, the Liberal-Party, or any other Parliamentary- 
Party, are too-much inclined fo-make a I party-question of a/most 
every proposal that comes before them. I quite believe that party- 
government is, on-the whole, I the best system ; but it-has, I-think, 
some drawbacks, and-this-is one-of-them. Should-the Government, 
for- I instance, ask-the House to-give serious-attention to a 
new bill for-the better management o/-some Government-depart- 
ment, (1) as, /or-instance, the Local-Government-Board; or 
should-they propose a change in-the regulation (of the) shipping-depart- 
ment I (of the) nation ; some members of-one or-other (of the) political- 
parties in-the-House would treat the proposal I as a party-question, 
whereas, as-a-matter-o/-fact, a few-minutes' special-attention given 
to-the-matter would I SHOW it to be nothing (of the) kind. Government 
officials are conscious of -this defect in-t he-system of English- | -Govern- 
ment, and-they hesitate, 7-feaR, fo-suggest improvements in-their- 
departments, because-they-do-not wish- their suggestions to (2) be treated 
as party-questions. The same flaw exists, I-believe, to-some-extent 
in our system of municipal-government. I Thus, suppose-^Aatf some 
members (of the) local-authority are tn-favour o/-granting facilities 
to-the military-authorities (of I the) neighborhood for exercising-/Ae 
troops on ground belonging to-the local-authority ; others members 
(of the) opposite political-party I object, not-so-much because-they 
disapprove (of the) proposal, but because-it originated with-the opposite- 
party. They treat- I the matter as a party-question, awd-vote accord- 
ingly. Why, if-these methods were followed in-the joint-stock-com- 
panies, (3) the steamship-companies, or the railway-companies (of the) 
country, these companies would lose many (of the) advantages they now I 
enjoy. But it-is-not-so. On-the-contrary , if a railway-official of, say 
the Great-Western-Railway-Company I were to-suggest an improvement 
in-the-method of signalling, his suggestion would- receive proper-atten- 
tion, and, if approved, it- I would-be put into practice, without regard to- 
the position (of the) man who-made-the suggestion. Local managers 
would- | be instructed to-make-arrangements for carrying out-the idea, 
and-when satisfactory-arrangements had-been made the public would- (4) 
be informed (of the) change. Why cannot the same method be adopted 
in-the-House-of-Commons and-by every \ local-authority ? / raised the 



240 WRITING EXERCISES 

point at-the recent debate in our SAo^hand-Writers'-Association, but 
/-found little support I for-my views. My motion for an inquiry was 
seconded by-our president, Major- Jones (of the)Volunteers, merely as -\ a- 
matter-o/-form and in-order-that-it-might be discussed. In-the opinion 
(of the) majority the methods I o/-procedure in-the-House-of-Commons, 
and-in-the various County-Councils and Town-Councils, had reached 
fo'g7z-water- (5) mark, as-they put it, and could-not-be improved. Professor- 
Morgan and-the Managing-Director (of the) General-Omnibus- I 
Company who-came to-he.z.'R-the debate, were invited to-speak, and-they- 
were both against me. /w-fact, the \ onLy men who agreed with me 
were-the local managers (of the) Life-Assurance-Company and-the 
General-Insurance-Company, | who both spoke very strongLy in- 
support of-my views. (570^ 



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Letters of Hypothecation and Letters of Lien, with Specimens 
of these important documents Orders by Telegraph Code 
Calculations of C. I. F. Invoices, etc., etc. 

ANSWERS TO PITMAN'S COMPLETE BOOK-KEEPING. Enlarged 
Edition. In crown 8vo, cloth, 213 pp., 2s. 6d. 

Contains answers to all the questions, and fully worked solutions 
to all the exercises in the text book. 

BOOK-KEEPING FOR RETAILERS. By H. W. PORRITT and W. 
NICKLIN. A.S.A.A. (See page 14.) 

INCOME TAX ACCOUNTS AND HOW TO PREPARE THEM. Notes 
on Income Tax Law and Practice. 

This practical book, with its notes on Income Tax Law and 
Practice, and its clear instructions with regard to the preparation 
of the returns to be presented to the commissioners, has been 
thoroughly revised and brought up-to-date, so that it is a reliable 
guide for the book-keeper, accountant, or auditor, whose duty it 
is to compile these important and rather difficult statements. 
Second Edition, Revised. In crown 8vo, cloth, zs. 

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES IN BOOK-KEEPING. Nos. I and II. In 
crown 8vo, 48 pp., each 6d. 

Containing papers recently set by the leading Examining Bodies ; 
College of Preceptors ; National Union of Teachers, Elementary, 
Junior and Senior ; Civil Service ; London Chamber of Commerce ; 
Society of Accountants and Auditors ; Institute of Chartered 
Accountants ; Institute of Bankers ; Union of Lancashire and 
Cheshire Institutes, etc., etc. 

ANSWERS TO THE ABOVE EXERCISES. Nos. I and II. Each 6d. 



8 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 

BOOK-KEEPING (continued). 

PITMAN'S BOOK-KEEPING TEST CARDS. A series of carefully 
graded tests in book-keeping by which the student's progress can 
be satisfactorily gauged. There are three sets, Elementary, Inter- 
mediate, and Advanced, and each set contains 20 cards with a 
varying number of questions on each card selected from those 
actually set by the different examining bodies. Each set is graded 
in difficulty, printed on stout cards and put up in a strong cloth 
case with two sets of answers arranged in book form.' The Answers 
are full and explicit, detailed workings being given and explanations 
where required. Per set, is. 6d. 

PITMAN 'S BUSINESS BOOK-KEEPING TRANSACTIONS. No. i. is. 
Including 52 forms for Invoices, Cheques, etc., and 8 blank Exercise 
Books enclosed in envelope. This work is planned to teach the 
principles of Book-keeping and at the same time furnish an insight 
into actual business methods. This is accomplished by the employ- 
ment of a text-book giving particulars (with copious explanatory 
notes) of the transactions of a trader, accompanied by facsimiles 
of all documents which would be received, and of blank forms 
such as Invoices, Cheques, Bank Paying-in Slip Book, Account 
Books, etc. 

PITMAN'S BOOK-KEEPING TRANSACTIONS. No. 2. This new 
work is arranged on a plan very similar to that which has proved so 
successful in the case of Book-keeping Transactions, No. 1 ; but, of 
course, the transactions include items of a rather more advanced 
character. There is a concisely-written text-book, giving clear and 
explicit instructions in the principles of Book-keeping, full particu- 
lars regarding the transactions of a trader, and the traders' books of 
account, forms, documents, etc., the whole enclosed in a stout 
envelope. The new work is arranged so as to give not only 
instruction in Book-keeping, but also a good deal of reliable 
information relating to business methods. Price 2s. 

PITMAN'S HOTEL BOOK-KEEPING. A practical text-book explain- 
ing the principles of Book-keeping as applied to Hotel accounts. 
With illustrative forms and exercises. In crown 8vo, cloth, 
72 pp., 2s. 6d. 

HOW TO TEACH BOOK-KEEPING. By H. W. PORRITT and 
W. NICKLIN, A.S.A.A. The authors of this valuable book are 
professional accountants who have also a large and varied experience 
in the conduct of classes and the coaching of candidates for Book- 
keeping examinations. The book abounds with practical hints as 
to the management of classes, the treatment of backward pupils, 
the examination and marking of papers, etc. There are also 
specimen courses of lessons suitable for elementary, intermediate, 
and advanced students, with fully-worked keys, balance sheets, and 
so on. While primarily appealing to teachers, this book will 
also be found useful to the learner who is unable to attend a class 
or who wishes to extend his knowledge beyond what he is able to 
gain in a class. In crown 8vo, cloth, 180 pp., net 2s. 6d. 



PIT MAX'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 9 

BOOK-KEEPING (continued). 

PITMAN'S BOOK-KEEPING (EXAMINATION PAPERS) ANNUAL. 
This volume contains the actual papers set at the 1909 Examina- 
tions of the principal Education authorities, with answers thereto, 
and full answers to the many questions on Commercial Law and 
Business Practice. In crown 8vo, cloth, 212 pp., 2s. 6d. 

THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF ARTS BOOK-KEEPING EXAMINATION 
PAPERS FOR THE YEAR 1910. Test Papers with fully worked 
Keys and Answers to the Questions on Law and Business Practice. 
In envelope, 6d. 

THE LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE UNION OF INSTITUTES BOOK- 
KEEPING EXAMINATION PAPERS FOR THE YEAR 1910. Test 
papers with fully worked Keys and Answers to the Questions on 
Law and Business Practice. In envelope, 6d. 

PITMAN'S EXAMINATION NOTES ON BOOK-KEEPING AND 
ACCOUNTANCY. By J. BLAKE HARROLD. A.C.I.S., F.C.R.A., 
Lecturer in Accountancy at the Birkbeck College, London ; Candi- 
dates for the Book-keeping and Accountancy Examinations con- 
ducted by the Royal Society of Arts, London Chamber of Commerce, 
College of Preceptors, Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes, 
etc., will find much valuable information in this little book. Cloth, 
6^ in. by 3% in., net, is. 

HOW TO BECOME A QUALIFIED ACCOUNTANT. By R. A. WITTY, 
A.S.A.A. A guide for those who intend to take up accountancy 
as a profession and for those who are already accountants, with 
full guidance respecting examinations. Second Edition. In 
crown 8vo., cloth, 120 pp., net 2s. 

ACCOUNTANCY. By F. W. PIXLEY, F.C.A. Barrister-at-Law. The 
student of Book-keeping, who has thoroughly mastered his subject, 
cannot do better than devote himself to the higher branches of the 
work, and study what is described under the general head of Ac- 
countancy. The present work deals with Constructive and Recording 
Accountancy, and treats the subject on a scientific basis. All the 
principal statements of account are reviewed and discussed, and 
the law relating to them is epitomized and explained. In demy 8vo, 
cloth, 318 pp., net 55. 

IDEAL MANUSCRIPT BOOKS FOR BOOK-KEEPING. Specially 
ruled and adapted for working the exercises contained in the 
Primer of Book-keeping. The sets consists of : Cash Book and 
Journal ; Purchase Book ; Sales Book ; Ledger. Each 2d. 

AVON EXERCISE BOOKS FOR BOOK-KEEPING. Specially adapted 
for the exercise in "Book-keeping Simplified" or "Advanced 
Book-keeping." Fcap. folio. Journal, 3d. ; Cash Book, 3d. ; 
Ledger, 6d. 

DOUBLE ENTRY IN ONE LESSON. By R. FLEMING, A.C.I.S. 
Price 6d. 



10 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 

BUSINESS TRAINING. 

OFFICE ROUTINE FOR BOYS AND GIRLS, ist STAGE. In crown 
8vo, 64 pp., 6d. 

Deals with the treatment of outgoing and incoming letters, Postal 
arrangements, means of remitting money and forwarding goods. 
OFFICE ROUTINE FOR BOYS AND GIRLS, 2nd STAGE. In crown 
8vo, 64 pp., 6d. 

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. Business Forms, such as Invoices, Credit 
Notes, etc. Telegrams The Telephone Banks and Banking, 
Joint-stock and Private Banks, Post Office Savings Bank, etc. 

OFFICE ROUTINE FOR BOYS AND GIRLS, 3rd STAGE. In crown 

8vo, 64 pp., 6d. 

Deals with explanation of Terms Promissory Notes and 

Discount Terms used in Payment of Accounts, etc. Bills of 

Exchange Stocks, Dividends, etc. Government Securities 

Business Correspondence. 
COUNTING-HOUSE ROUTINE, ist Year's Course. In crown 8vo, 

cloth, 144 pp., is. 

COUNTING-HOUSE ROUTINE. 2nd Year's Course. In crown 8vo, 
cloth, 144 pp., is. 6d. 

FIRST STEPS IN BUSINESS TRAINING. 1 By V. E. COLLINGE, 
A.C.I.S. Specially written and adapted to cover the syllabuses of 
the Elementary Examinations of the Lancashire and Cheshire 
Union of Institutes and other examining bodies. In crown 8vo, 
limp cloth, 80 pp., net 8d. 

GUIDE TO BUSINESS CUSTOMS AND PRACTICE ON THE CON- 
TINENT. By A. E. DAVIES. Contains information of the utmost 
value to all who have business relations with Continental firms, or 
who have to visit the Continent for business or pleasure. In crown 
8vo, cloth, 154 pp., net 2s. 6d. 

HOW TO GET A SITUATION ABROAD. By ALBERT EMIL DAVIES. 
Gives information of the most reliable character to those who 
desire to obtain an appointment in a foreign country. Also states 
the prospects of advancement in such a position ; the varying 
conditions of life in different countries ; the cost of living ; the 
opportunities afforded of perfecting one's knowledge of the foreign 
language, etc. In crown 8vo, cloth, net is. 6d. 

MASTERS 'NEW READY RECKONER. PITMAN'S EDITION. Contains 
63,000 calculations. In foolscap 8vo, cloth, 358 pp., net is. 

PITMAN'S DISCOUNT, COMMISSION, AND BROKERAGE TABLES. 
By ERNEST HEAVINGHAM, Contains upwards of 18,000 workings 
of the kind which are in constant use in warehouses, offices, shops, 
and other places of business of whatever nature, and shows at a 
glance the discount on any sum of money from Id to ^1,000 at 
from 3^% to 95%, and from ^1 to ^25,000 at from |% to 4%. 
Size 3 in. by 4J in. 160 pp., cloth, net is. 



PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 11 



BUSINESS TRAINING (continued). 

GEOGRAPHICAL-STATISTIC UNIVERSAL POCKET ATLAS. By 
Professor A. L. HICKMAN. Second Edition. This handy Atlas 
contains sixty-four splendidly coloured maps and tables, including 
pictorial charts of the heavens, the races of mankind, religions and 
languages of the World, statistics of productions, educational tables, 
coinage, public debts, shipping, coats of arms, railways and tele- 
graphs, imports and exports, principal towns of the World, and a 
mass of other useful information. In demy 18mo, cloth, net 53. 

HOW TO START IN LIFE. By A KINGSTON. In crown 8vo, cloth, 
128 pp., is. 6d. 

A Popular Guide to Commercial, Municipal, Civil Service, and 
Professional Employment. Deals with over 70 distinct kinds of 
Employment. 

THE JUNIOR CORPORATION CLERK. A Guide to Municipal Office 
Routine. By J. B. CARRINGTON, F.S.A.A., Borough Accountant 
of Paddington ; Member of the Institute of Municipal Treasurers 
and Accountants (Incorporated) ; etc., etc. This book consists 
of a series of articles for the guidance of Junior Clerks or for 
young persons who desire to become Junior Clerks in the service 
of Municipal Corporations. Much useful and practical advice 
is given as to the duties of a Junior in the various departments. 
In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, with illustrations, net is. 6d. 

PITMAN 'S MANUAL OF BUSINESS TRAINING. Contains fifty-seven 
maps and facsimiles. Seventh Edition, thoroughly revised and 
considerably enlarged. In crown 8vo, cloth, 282 pp., 2s. 6d. 

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. Conditions of Commerce Inward Corre- 
spondence Outward Postal Information The Telegraph and 
Telephone Business Letter WYiting, etc. Office Books and Busi- 
ness Forms Market Reports Railways and Canals Forwarding 
Goods by Rail Channels of Commerce Customs and Excise 
Duties Importing Exporting Insurance Private Firms and 
Public Companies The World's Currencies Banks and Banking 
Bills of Exchange Bankruptcy and the County Court Two 
hundred Questions on the Chapters. 

PITMAN'S BUSINESS TERMS, PHRASES AND ABBREVIATIONS, 
with equivalents in French, German, Spanish and Italian, and 
Facsimile Documents. Fourth edition, revised and enlarged. In 
crown 8vo, cloth, 280 pp., net 2s. 6d. 

MERCANTILE TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS. Containing over 
1,000 terms and 500 abbreviations used in commerce, with 
definitions. 126 pp., size 3" x 4|*, cloth, net Is. 

COMMERCIAL TERMS IN FIVE LANGUAGES. BeingTabout 1,900 
terms and phrases used in commerce, with their equivalents in 
French, German, Spanish, and Italian. Cloth, Sin. x 4J in., 
cloth, 118 pp., net is. 



12 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 

BUSINESS TRAINING (continued). 
GUIDE TO INDEXING AND PRECIS WRITING. (See page 14.) 

INDEXING AND PRECIS WRITING. A text-book specially adapted 
to the present requirements of Candidates for Examinations. 
By A. J. LAWFORD JONES, of H.M. Civil Service, Medallist and First 
Prizeman, Society of Arts, 1900. In crown 8vo, cloth, 144 pp., 
is. 6d. 

EXERCISES AND ANSWERS IN INDEXING AND PRECIS WRITING- 
By WM. JAYNE WESTON, M.A. (Loud.). A carefully selected list 
of actual exercises and test papers with model workings. The 
author's notes on the various exercises contain many useful hints 
and some sound advice for the student. In crown 8vo, cloth, 
144 pp., is. 6d. 

HOW TO TEACH BUSINESS TRAiNING. By F. HEELIS, F.C.I.S. 
This book contains chapters on teaching methods, the presentation 
of the subject, the illustration of the lesson, home work, examina- 
tions, individual and class tuition, tuition by correspondence- 
apparatus required, etc., etc. There are also valuable and sugges, 
tive notes of lessons, specimen courses, exercises, specimen forms, 
etc. In crown 8vo, 160 pp., net 2s. 6d. 

QUESTIONS IN BUSINESS TRAINING. By F. HEELIS, F.C.I.S. 
Questions taken from the actual examinations of such authorities 
as The Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes. The West 
Riding County Council, and similar important bodies. With 540 
original questions specially framed for the purpose of testing a 
student's knowledge. In crown 8vo, cloth. 108 pp., is. 

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS IN BUSINESS TRAINING. By the same 
author. Crown 8vo, cloth, about 160 pp., 2s. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN BUSINESS TRAINING. By the 
same author. Crown 8vo, cloth, 269 pp.. 2s. 6d. 

DIGESTING- RETURNS INTO SUMMARIES. Graphical methods, 
etc. A text -book especially adapted to the requirements of can- 
didates for the examinations of the Civil Service. By A. J . LAWFORD 
JONES, of H.M. Civil Service. In crown 8vo, cloth, 84 pp., net 
is. 6d. 

PITMAN'S CIVIL SERVICE GUIDE. By A. J. LAWFORD JONES, of 
H.M. Civil Service ; Medallist and First Prizeman, Society of Arts, 
1900. Mr. Lawford Jones gives in this book complete guidance 
to the candidate, besides offering a good many useful hints and 
suggestions which should be of the greatest assistance to him in his 
examinations. The volume may be recommended not only to 
intending candidates, but to teachers and others entrusted with 
the coaching of Civil Service Students. In crown 8vo, cloth, 
100 pp., net is- 



PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 13 

PITMAN'S TRADERS' HANDBOOKS. 

The new volumes have been prepared with the idea of assisting the 
earnest business man who is engaged in trade to render himself 
more efficient in his work. Each volume deals with every matter 
in which a trader desires information, and is in crown 8vo, cloth. 
260 pp., net 2s. 6d. 

DRAPERY AND DRAPERS' ACCOUNTS. By RICHARD BEYNON. 
GROCERY AND GROCERS' ACCOUNTS. By \V. F. TUPMAN. 

IRONMONGERY AND IRONMONGERS' ACCOUNTS. By S. W. 
FRANCIS. 

COMMON COMMODITIES OF COMMERCE SERIES. 

Each book in crown 8vo, cloth, with coloured frontispiece and many 
illustrations, maps, charts, etc., net is. 6d. 

In each of the handbooks in this series a particular produce i 
treated by an expert writer and practical man of business. Begin- 
ning with the life history of the plant, or other natural product, 
he follows its development until it becomes a commercial commodity, 
and so on through the various phases of its sale in the market 
and its purchase by the consumer. 

TEA. From Grower to Consumer. By A. IBBETSON. Of Messrs. 
Joseph Travers & Sons. 

COFFEE. From Grower to Consumer. By B. B. KEABLE. Of 
Messrs. Joseph Travers & Sons. 

COTTON. From the Raw Material to the Finished Product. By 
R. J. PEAKE. 

SUGAR. CANE AND BEET. By GEO, MARTINEAU, C.B.. Secretary 
to the British Sugar Refiners' Committee 1872-92. Adviser to the 
British Delegates at the International Conferences of 1875-6-7, 
1888, 1898, and 1901-2. Assistant British Delegate on the Per- 
manent International Sugar Commission at Brussels, 1903-5. 

OIL, ANIMAL, VEGETABLE, ESSENTIAL, AND MINERAL. By 
C. AINS WORTH MITCHELL. 

RUBBER : Production and Utilisation of the Raw Product. By C. 
BEADLE and H. P. STEVENS, M.A., Ph.D.. F.I.C. 

IRON AND STEEL. Their production and manufacture. By C. 
HOOD, of the well-known firm of Messrs. Bell Brothers, Limited. 

SILK. Its production and manufacture. By LUTHER HOOPER. 
Weaver, Designer, and Manufacturer. 

Other volumes in preparation. 



14 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 

PRACTICAL PRIMERS OF BUSINESS. 

Each in crown 8vo. cloth, about 120 pp., net is. 

BOOK-KEEPING FOR RETAILERS. By H. W. PORRITT and W. 
NICKLIN, A.S.A.A. The authors of this new book have had in their 
professional capacity a great amount of experience in retailers' 
accounts, and in this handy little volume they present a system of 
book-keeping for retailers designedly simple easy in operation, and 
accurate in its results. The adaptation of the system to various 
retail businesses is clearly discussed and explained. Numerous 
illustrations and examples simplify the treatment. Additional 
chapters deal with " Incidental Matters," such as leases, rates, 
assessment, and stock-taking, the various necessary forms of 
insurance, the making out of income tax returns, partnerships and 
limited companies. 

ENGLISH COMPOSITION AND CORRESPONDENCE. By J. F. 
DAVIS, D.Lit., M.A., LL.B. (Lond.). The purpose of this book is 
by means of a few simple rules, to enable a writer of either sex to 
express himself or herself clearly and correctly in the mother tongue 
as it ought to be written. The first part contains chapters on 
accidence with examples from Commercial Correspondence. The 
second part deals with syntax, parsing, analysis, and punctuation. 
The third part treats of the construction of sentences ; precision 
and order, and the choice of words ; and closes with specimens of 
business letters. The author, from his experience as examiner in 
English to the University of London and the Institute of Bankers, 
is peculiarly fitted to deal with this subject. 

THE ELEMENTS OF COMMERCIAL LAW. By A. H. DOUGLAS, 
LL.B. (Lond.). In the present volume the general principles of 
commercial law are presented. Examples and illustrations are 
freely used, in order that the subject may be made as intelligible 
and interesting as possible. In the first portion of the book the 
general principles of contract are discussed in comprehensive fashion, 
and later chapters deal with commercial relationships, partnerships, 
the sale and carriage of goods, and negotiable instruments. The 
author is a barrister-at-law who has attained the highest academic 
distinction both at the Inns of Court and London University. 

GUIDE TO INDEXING AND PRECIS WRITING. By WILLIAM JAYNE 
WESTON, M.A., and E. BOWKER. The present little work is intended 
primarily for candidates for the Civil Service, the Society of Arts, 
and similar examinations in the subject of Indexing and Precis 
Writing. The whole of the exercises included in the book are 
reproductions of actual examination papers. 



PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 15 



PRACTICAL PRIMERS OF BUSINESS (continued). 

THE MONEY, AND THE STOCK AND SHARE MARKETS. By EMIL 
DAVIES. The idea of the author of this volume is not so much to 
give information to experts, but rather to assist the uninitiated in 
the somewhat complicated subjects of stock and share transactions. 
The author has for many years been actively engaged in the higher 
branches of finance, and makes the present primer as comprehensive 
and practical a work as possible. 

SHIPPING. By ARNOLD HALL and F. HEYWOOD. This book consti- 
tutes a reliable guide to the routine in connection with the shipment 
of goods and the clearance of vessels inwards and outwards. Part I 
describes the work of a shipper, and explains his duties after the 
receipt of the indent, in packing, forwarding, and insuring the goods, 
making out and sending the invoices ^elegraphing, the routine of 
obtaining payment, customs formalities, claims for insurance, etc. 
Part II gives precise information regarding the work of a ship- 
broker, the entry and clearance inwards, the details in connection 
with the Custom House and the Shipping Office, the entry outwards, 
riggers, runners, and pilots, the Docks, Warehousing, Shipping, 
Exchange, etc., etc. With 27 shipping forms. 



THE ELEMENTS OF BANKING. By J. P. GANDY. Besides giving a 
brief history of Banking, this book deals practically with such 
matters as Opening an Account, the various forms of Cheques, 
Crossings, Endorsements, Bills of Exchange, the Rights of Holders, 
of those instruments, Promissory Notes, the Pass Book, and the 
Collecting Banker. There are also chapters explanatory of the 
Bankers' Clearing House, the necessary steps to be taken in the case 
of dishonoured bills and cheques, etc. The Bankers' obligations to 
his customers, the rights and duties of agents and trustees, Partner- 
ship Accounts and Companies' Accounts are all fully dealt with, 
while Circular Notes and Letters of Credit receive adequate 
attention. 



THE ELEMENTS OF INSURANCE. By J. ALFRED EKE. This new 
work presents in a brief form a vast amount of information with 
regard to the principles and practice of the important business of 
insurance. Workmen's compensation insurance is fully dealt with, 
and the book also treats of baggage insurance, bad debt insurance, 
live-stock insurance, stock insurance, etc., etc. There are chapters 
on carriage insurance, burglary insurance, marine, fire, and life 
insurance, with full explanations of the various kinds of policies, and 
in many cases reproductions of the documents. 



16 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 



PRACTICAL PRIMERS OF BUSINESS (continued). 

ADVERTISING. By HOWARD BRIDGEWATER. The author of 
this little work is the Advertisement Manager of a well-known 
daily paper, and the writer of many articles on the subject of 
advertising. He speaks, therefore, with the authority ' which 
comes of long experience. In the present work, Mr. Bridgewater 
sets forth the principles to be observed in drawing up advertise- 
ments, points out the errors that are to be avoided, gives hints on 
the preparation of " copy," and the choice of suitable media, 
describes the processes employed in reproducing illustrations of 
various kinds, and discusses the questions of type display and the 
frequency of insertion, etc., etc. The book is illustrated by 
examples of good and bad advertisements, representative of various 
businesses. 

THE CARD INDEX SYSTEM. Its Principles, Uses, Operation, and 
Component Parts. By R. B. BYLES. The author deals with practi- 
cally every possible adaptation of the system and illustrates his 
explanations with facsimiles of the most modern apparatus. The 
book may be recommended to those who desire to equip themselves 
with a perfectly satisfactory method of keeping their correspondence, 
etc. With 30 illustrations. 



MODERN LIBRARY OF PRACTICAL 
INFORMATION. 

Each in foolscap 8vo, cloth, about 128 pp., net is. 

WILLS, EXECUTORS, AND TRUSTEES. With a chapter on Intestacy. 
By J. A. SLATER, B.A., LL.B. (Lond.), 
A complete guide clearly and succinctly written. 

THE TRADER'S GUIDE TO CpUNTY COURT PROCEDURE. By 
F. H. B. CHAPMAN. The object of this book is the presentation 
to the ordinary lay reader of a full and clear account of the pro- 
ceedings which are necessary to be taken in the County Court for 
the recovery of small debts. The procedure is set out in full for 
all ordinary cases, and the creditor will learn from the forms in the 
text what is expected from him at each stage. 

CLERKS : THEIR RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS. By EDWARD A. 
COPE. This book deals with such matters as termination of engage- 
ments, summary dismissal, bankruptcy, secret commissions, com- 
pensation, etc. It is a complete guide for the clerical worker 
written in a plain and sensible manner. 



PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 17 



MODERN LIBRARY OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION 

(continued). 

THE LAW RELATING TO TRADE CUSTOMS, MARKS, SECRETS, 
RESTRAINTS, AGENCIES, ETC., ETC. By LAWRENCE DUCKWORTH, 
Barrister-at-law. The subjects dealt with have been handled 
with great skill by the author whose reputation as a legal writer 
ensures the reliability of the statements made in the book. 

BALANCE SHEETS. How to Read and Understand Them. A com- 
plete Guide for Investors, Business Men, Commercial Students, 
etc. By PHILIP TOVEY. In the course of his business life the author 
of this little book has had to examine and report upon thousands 
of balance sheets, and he offers the result of his experience and 
knowledge in the present volume. With 26 inset balance sheets. 

THE HOUSEHOLDERS' LEGAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES with respect 
to his Neighbours, the Public, and the State. By J. A. SLATER, B.A.. 
LL.B. (Lond.). This book may be generally described as an 
attempt to set out the duties imposed by law upon every individual 
when he is away from his own house, and which he owes to the 
State and to the public. 

THE HOUSEHOLDERS' GUIDE TO THE LAW with respect to Landlord 
and Tenant, Husband and Wife, Parent and Child, and Master and 
Servant. By the same Author. The taking of a house, either on 
lease or otherwise, the common obligations as to the conditions of 
the house, the legal duties imposed as to the relationship with one's 
neighbours, are among the subjects dealt with in this book, and 
full information is given as to the procedure to be adopted in the 
case of births, marriages, anc* deaths. 

BUSINESS MAN'S HANDBOOKS. 

PITMAN 'S BUSINESS MAN 'S GUIDE. Fifth Edition, Revised. With 
French, German, and Spanish equivalents for the Commercial Words 
and terms. Edited by J. A. SLATER, B.A., LL.B., of the Middle 
Temple, Barrister-at-Law, and author of " Commercial Law of 
England." The information is of such a character as will assist a 
business man in an emergency and will clear up doubts and diffi- 
culties of everyday occurrence. The work includes over 2,000 
articles. In crown, <8vo, cloth cover of special design, 500 pp., 
net 33. 6d. 

PITMAN 'S PUBLIC MAN'S GUIDE. A Handbook for all who take an 
interest in questions of the day. Edited by J. A. SLATER, B.A., 
LL.B. (Lond.). The object of this book is to enable its readers to 
find within a comparatively compact compass information on any 
subjects which can possibly bear upon matters political, diplomatic, 
municipal, or imperial. There is no book of a similar nature 
published, and this will be found invaluable to all public men and 
platform speakers. In/crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 444 pp., net 33. 6d. 



18 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 

BUSINESS MAN'S HANDBOOKS (continued). 

OFFICE ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT, INCLUDING SECRE- 
TARIAL WORK. By LAWRENCE R. DICKSEE, M. Com. F.C.A., and 
H. E. BLAIN, Tramways Manager, County Borough of West Ham. 
This volume gives in detail, with the aid of specially selected illus- 
trations and copies of actual business forms, a complete description 
of Office Organisation and Management under the most improved 
and up-to-date methods. It has been specially written so as to be 
of service either to those who are about to organise the office work 
of a new undertaking, or to those who are desirous of modernizing 
their office arrangements so as to cope more successfully with the 
ever increasing competition which is to be met with. New Edition, 
Revised. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 306 pp., net 5s. 

THE STUDENT'S GUIDE TO MARINE INSURANCE. Being a Hand- 
book of the Law and Practice of Marine Insurance Policies on Goods. 
By HENRY KEATE. In crown 8vo., cloth gilt, 200 pp., net 2s. 6d. 

INSURANCE. By T. E. YOUNG, B.A., F.R.A.S., ex-President of the 
Institute of Actuaries ; ex-Chairman of the Life Offices' Association, 
etc., etc. A complete and practical exposition for the Student and 
the Business Man of the principles and practice of Insurance pre- 
sented in a simple and lucid style, and illustrated by the author's 
actual experience as a Manager and Actuary of long standing. This 
book has been written expressly for (1) The Actuarial student, 
(2) The student of Fire, Marine, and Insurance generally, (3) The 
Insurance Clerk, (4) The Business Man. It treats in an elemen- 
tary and intelligible manner of the principles, processes and conduct 
of Insurance business as a key to the interpretation of the accounts 
and practice of offices and as a comprehensive foundation for 
maturer study. Second Edition. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 408 pp., 
net 5s. 

INSURANCE OFFICE ORGANISATION, MANAGEMENT, AND AC- 
COUNTS. By T. E. YOUNG, B.A., F.R.A.S., and RICHARD MASTERS, 
A.C.A. Second Edition, Revised. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 146 pp., 
. net 35. 6d. 

SHIPPING OFFICE ORGANISATION, MANAGEMENT, AND 
ACCOUNTS. By ALFRED CALVERT. Full information is given in 
this new book of the methods of securing orders, getting in patterns, 
circularising foreign firms, conditions of sale, fulfilling contracts, 
making up and packing goods for shipment, arranging for insurance, 
shipment and freight, chartering of vessels, pricing and invoicing 
the goods, preparing the bills of lading, etc., etc. The book contains 
many and varied shipping documents in facsimile. Put in a few 
brief words, the new work gives an accurate insight into the thousand 
and one technicalities associated with the intricate business of a 
shipping house. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 203 pp., net 53. 



PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 19 



BUSINESS MAN'S HANDBOOKS (continued). 

SOLICITOR'S OFFICE ORGANISATION, MANAGEMENT, AND 
ACCOUNTS. By E. A. COPE, and H. W. H. ROBINS. This hand- 
book is full of useful hints by practical and experienced men. The 
first part covers all the details of management, such as the staff, 
business records, correspondence, and so forth ; while the second 
part goes very fully into accounts on the columnar system. In 
demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 176 pp., with numerous forms, net 53. 

DICTIONARY OF BANKING. A Complete Encyclopaedia of Banking 
Law and Practice. By W. THOMSON, Bank Inspector. The object 
of this Dictionary is to bring together in commercial form the rules 
of practice in the banking profession as well as the law relating to 
the subject of banking generally. To the Bank manager the 
" Dictionary " cannot fail to be invaluable, as it will form a handy 
volume of reference on every conceivable occasion. In a sense, 
however, it will be equally invaluable to the subordinate officials 
of a bank, who are anxious to gain a practical knowledge of their 
routine work. The highest authorities have been consulted in 
the preparation of this unique work, and the author has had many 
years' practical experience with every branch of banking work. 
In crown 4to, half leather gilt, about 550 pp., net 2is. 

MONEY, EXCHANGE, AND BANKING. In their Practical. Theo- 
retical, and Legal Aspects. Second Edition, Revised. By H. T. 
EASTON, of the Union of London and Smiths Bank, Ltd. A 
practical work covering the whole field of banking and providing 
new and valuable features of great use to the student, bank clerk, 
or man of business. Second Edition, Revised. In demy 8vo, 
cloth, 312 pp., net 53. 

BANK ORGANISATION, MANAGEMENT, AND ACCOUNTS. By 
J. F. DAVIS, M.A., D.Lit., LL.B. (Lond.), Lecturer in Banking and 
Finance at the City of London College. The present volume is an 
exposition of the whole practice of banking, chiefly in its commercial 
aspect, for the special benefit of younger members of bank staffs 
who wish to get a comprehensive view of business while they are 
yet in personal touch with only the initial stages. The duties of the 
various members of a bank staff, from the board of directors down to 
the junior clerk, are described, and details are given as to the methods 
of keeping accounts and the various books necessary to them. 
A section is also devoted to the working of the machinery of the 
head office. In demy 8vo. cloth gilt, 165 pp., with forms, net 53. 

BANK BALANCE SHEETS AND HOW TO PREPARE THEM. By 
J. F. G. BAGSHAW, Member of the Institute of Bankers. First 
medallist Advanced Book-keeping, National Union of Teachers ; 
Fourth Gilbart Prizeman in Banking, etc. In demy 8vo, net 6d. 



20 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 



BUSINESS MAN'S HANDBOOKS (continued). 

PITMAN'S BILLS, CHEQUES, AND NOTES: A HANDBOOK FOR 
BUSINESS MEN AND COMMERCIAL STUDENTS. 
-^The attempt has been made in this book to trace the principal 
negotiable instruments, viz., bills of exchange, cheques and promis- 
sory notes, from their inception to their discharge, and to point 
out the exact position occupied by every person who is in any way 
connected with these documents. The Bills of Exchange Act, 1882, 
and the Amending Act, Bills of Exchange (Crossed Cheques) Act, 
1906, are printed in extenso in the Appendix. In demy.Svo, cloth 
gilt, 206 pp., net 2s. 6d. 

THE HISTORY, LAW, AND PRACTICE OF THE STOCK EXCHANGE. 
By A. P. POLEY, B.A., Barrister-at-Law, and F. H. CARRUTHERS 
GOULD, of the Stock Exchange. A complete compendium of the law 
and the present practice of the Stock Exchange. Special attention 
is devoted to the Rules of the Stock Exchange, and these are given 
in full. Second Edition, Revised. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 348 pp., 
net 53. 

PITMAN'S MERCANTILE LAW. By J. A. SLATER, B.A., LL.B. 
As a practical exposition for law students, business men, and 
advanced classes in commercial colleges and schools, this volume 
will be found invaluable. Without being a technical law book, 
it provides within moderate compass a clear and accurate guide 
to the Principles of Mercantile Law in England. Second, Revised, 
and Cheaper Edition. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 448 pp., net 53. 

INCOME TAX AND INHABITED HOUSE DUTY LAW AND CASES. 
By W. E. SNELLING. This book contains a complete statement 
of every provision of the Income Tax and House Duty Acts still in 
force. Statements of some 240 cases determined thereunder are in- 
cluded, together with many extracts from judgments. Arranged 
under headings, in alphabetical order, all the enactments and cases 
on a particular subject are grouped together with suitable sub- 
headings. House Duty is dealt with, and a full index, with Tables 
of Acts and Cases complete a handbook of extreme usefulness to 
Solicitors, Accountants, Householders, and others. In demy 8vo, 
278 pp., cloth gilt, net 5s. 

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MARINE LAW. By LAWRENCE DUCKWORTH, 
Barrister-at-Law. In the present edition the text has been carefully 
revised, all the most recent decisions on Shipping Law and Marine 
Insurance having been incorporated therein. Recent legislation 
has also been attended to by the addition of certain Statutes in 
the appendix, and the main provisions of the much discussed 
Declaration of London is also set out. Second Edition, Revised and 
Enlarged. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 386 pp., net 53. 



PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 21 



BUSINESS MAN'S HANDBOOKS (continued). 

THE LAW OF HEAVY AND LIGHT MECHANICAL TRACTION ON 
HIGHWAYS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. By C. A. MONTAGUE 
BARLOW, M.P..M. A. ,LL.D., and W.JOYNSON HICKS, M.P. Contain- 
ing the text of all the important Acts on the subject and a 
summary of the English and Scotch Reported Cases on 
Extraordinary Traffic. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 318 pp., net 8s. 6d. 

THE STUDENT'S GUIDE TO COMPANY LAW. By R. W. HOLLAND, 
M.A., M.Sc., LL.B. (Rons.). Designed for candidates preparing 
for the examinations "of the Chartered Institute of Secretaries, 
Accountants' Societies, etc., Secretaries, and other, ! officers of 
Companies. Contains the elementary principles of Company Law 
without dealing in detail with the Companies (Consolidation) Act, 
1908. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 203 pp., net 2s. 6d. 

COMPANIES AND COMPANY LAW. Together with the Companies 
(Consolidation) Act, 1908. By A. C. CONNELL, LL.B. (Lond.). 
In the present volume the law of Companies is treated on the lines 
adopted by the new Consolidation Act. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 
344 pp., net 53. 

THE LAW OF CARRIAGE. By J. E. R. STEPHENS, B.A. Of the 
Middle Temple, Barrister-at-Law. A clear and accurate account 
of the general traders' rights and liabilities in everyday transactions 
with carriers, whether by land or by water. Cases are quoted and 
statutes cited and a complete index renders the book easy of 
reference. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 340 pp., net 53. 

HOUSEHOLD LAW. By J. A. SLATER, B.A., LL.B. (Lond.). In 
demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 316 pp., net 55. 

THE STUDENT'S GUIDE TO BANKRUPTCY LAW AND WINDING 
UP OF COMPANIES. A manual for business men and advanced 
classes in schools, with " test " questions. By F. PORTER FAUSSET, 
B.A., LL.B., Barrister-at-Law. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 187 pp., 
net as. 6d. 

BANKRUPTCY AND BILLS OF SALE. An A B C of the Law. By 
W. VALENTINE BALL, M.A., Barrister-at-Law. In this volume 
special attention has been paid to those branches of the subject 
which are of general interest to Chartered Accountants, and the 
volume contains many practical notes which cannot fail to be of 
great advantage to any person who acts as a trustee in Bankruptcy. 
Another prominent feature is that portion of the work which deals 
with the preparation of Deeds of Arrangement. There are numerous 
references to case law and all the latest decisions connected with 
the subject are incorporated. Second Edition, Revised and 
Enlarged. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 386 pp., net 53. 



22 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 



BUSINESS MAN'S HANDBOOKS (continued). 

FARM LAW. By M. G. JOHNSON. This is a handy volume which 
cannot fail to be of the greatest use to farmers, and agents, sur- 
veyors, and all other persons who have to deal with land and 
landed interests. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 160 pp., net 3s. 6d. 

THE FARMER'S ACCOUNT BOOK. A Simple and concise System 
of Account Keeping specially adapted to the requirements of Farm- 
ers. Compiled by W. G. DOWSLEY, B.A. Size, 15" by 9", half 
leather, 106 pp., with interleaved blotting paper, net 6s. 6d. 

THE PERSONAL ACCOUNT BOOK. By the same author. Size, 
15" by 9", half leather, 106 pp., with interleaved blotting paper, 
net 6s. 6d. 

THE STUDENT'S GUIDE TO COMPANY SECRETARIAL WORK. 

By O. OLDHAM, A.C.I. S. Couched in simple language, this book 
aims at giving concisely, yet clearly, a true explanation of the 
multifarious matters that have to be dealt with by the company 
secretary, and the idea throughout has been to show the student how 
to deal with matters and not merely to tell him with what matters 
he has to deal. Covers syllabus of the Chartered Institute of 
Secretaries in regard to Secretarial Work. In crown 8vo, cloth 
gilt, 256 pp., net 2s. 6d. 

PITMAN'S GUIDE FOR THE COMPANY SECRETARY. A Practical 
Manual and Work of Reference with regard to the Duties of a 
Secretary to a Joint Stock Company. By ARTHUR COLES, A.C.I.S., 
Sometime Lecturer in the Technological Schools of the London 
County Council. With an Introduction by HERBERT E. BLAIN. 
The author has had many years' practical experience of Company 
Secretarial work, which is dealt with very exhaustively and freely 
illustrated with fifty-four facsimile forms. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 
346 pp., net 53. 

THE CHAIRMAN'S MANUAL. Being a guide to the management 
of meetings in general, and of meetings of local authorities, with 
separate and complete treatment of the meetings of Public Com- 
panies. By GURDON PALIN, of Gray's Inn, Barrister-at-Law, 
and ERNEST MARTIN, F.C.I.S. The object of this book is to 
supply in a concise and readily-found form, all the information 
and advice necessary to enable a Chairman of any Meeting to con- 
duct the proceedings effectively, smoothly and expeditiously. The 
rules of debate are clearly explained ; legal considerations are 
discussed ; and every contingency a Chairman may have to deal 
with is provided for. The authors have brought to their task a 
large and varied experience of meetings. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 
192 pp. net 2s. 6d. 



PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 23 



BUSINESS MAN'S HANDBOOKS (continued). 
PITMAN'S SECRETARY'S HANDBOOK. Edited by HERBERT E. 
BLAIN, joint author of " Pitman's Office Organisation and Manage- 
ment." An entirely new work, written on an original plan, and 
dealing in a concise yet sufficiently full manner with the work and 
duties in connection with the position of Secretary to a Member of 
Parliament or other public man ; to a Country Gentleman with a 
landed estate ; a Charitable Institution ; with a section devoted 
to the work of the Lady Secretary, and a chapter dealing with 
secretarial work in general. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 168 pp. 
net 33. 6d. 

HOW TO TAKE MINUTES. Being a Reliable Guide to the best 
method of noting and recording the Minutes of a Business Meeting. 
The object of this book is to assist Secretaries and others who may 
be called upon to record the Minutes of Meetings. Full instruc- 
tions are given as to the proper way to take and record Minutes, 
whether of Directors' or Shareholders' Meetings, and model Agenda, 
Minutes, etc., are given. A copy of Table A of the Companies, 
Consolidation Act, 1908, is also included. In demy 8vo, cloth, 
80 pp., net is. 6d. 

COST ACCOUNTS IN PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE. By A. CLIFFORD 

RIDGWAY, A.C.A. This work sets out clearly and briefly the method 

of costing suitable for a small manufacturer or a big engineer, 

.hole being illustrated with upwards of 40 forms specially 

drawn up for the book. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 120 pp., net 33. 6d. 

SALESMANSHIP. A Practical Guide for Shop Assistant, Commercial 
Traveller, and Agent. By W. A. CORBION and G. E. GRIMSDALE. 
The authors deal at length with the influence of character upon 
salesmanship, the relation of the salesman to the buyer, the know- 
ledge and care of stock, suggestive salesmanship, the avoidance 
or rectification of mistakes, system, etc. The lessons for the 
guidance of the salesman are illustrated by concrete examples, so that 
the work is eminently practical throughout. In crown 8vo, 186 pp., 
net 2s. 6d. 

THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF ADVERTISING. By WALTER 
DILL SCOTT, Ph.D., Director of the Psychological Laboratory of 
North-Western University, U.S.A. 

The author of this work has made advertising the study of his 
life and is acknowledged as one of the greatest authorities on the 
subject in the United States. The book is so fascinatingly written 
that it will appeal to many classes of readers. In large crown 8vo, 
cloth, with 61 illustrations, 240 pp., net 6s. 

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING. A Simple Exposition of the 
Principles of Psychology in their Relation to Successful Adver- 
tising. By the same author. Professor DILL SCOTT has made a 
very lengthy and careful examination of his subject, a task for which 
his special training and his wide experience eminently qualify him. 



24 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 



BUSINESS MAN'S HANDBOOKS (continued). 

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING (contd.) 

In view of the publication of the present work he prosecuted 
extensive enquiries as to the effect of various styles of advertising, 
etc., receiving replies from about 2,300 business and professional 
men. He gives us the result of his researches in this book. In 
large crown 8vo, cloth gilt, with 67 illustrations, 282 pp., net 6s. 

THE PRINCIPLES OF PRACTICAL PUBLICITY. Being a Treatise 
on " The Art of Advertising." By TRUMAN A. DE WEESE. The 
author was in charge of special Publicity for the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition at St. Louis (1904), and is Director of Publicity for one 
of the largest advertising firms in America. The book will be found 
a comprehensive and practical treatise covering the subject in all 
its branches, showing the successful adaptation of advertising to 
all lines of business. In large crown 8vo, cloth, with 43 full-page 
illustrations, 266 pp., net is. 6d. 

GROCERY BUSINESS ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT. By 
C. L. T. BEECHING, Secretary and Fellow of the Institute of Cer- 
tificated Grocers. With Chapters on Buying a Business, Grocers' 
Office Work and Book-keeping, and a Model Set of Grocer 's Accounts. 
By J. ARTHUR SMART, of the Firm of Alfred Smart, Valuer and 
Accountant ; Fellow of the Institute of Certificated Grocers. This 
book contains a mass of invaluable information with regard to the 
baying of stock, the design of the shop front, fixtures, etc., etc. In 
demy 8vo, cloth gilt, about 160 pp., with illustrations, net 55. 

THE WORLD'S COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS. A descriptive account 
of the Economic Plants of the World and of their Commercial Uses. 
By W. G. FREEMAN, B.Sc., F.L.S., Superintendent, Colonial Econo- 
mic Collections, Imperial Institute, London, and S. E. CHANDLER, 
D.Sc., F.L.S., Assistant, Colonial Economic Collections, Imperial 
Institute, London. With contributions by numerous Specialists. 
In demy 4to, cloth gilt, with 12 coloured plates, 12 maps, and 420 
illustrations from photographs. 432 pp., net IDS. 6d. 

DICTIONARY OF THE WORLD 'S COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS. With 
French, German, and Spanish equivalents for the Names of the 
Products. By J. A. SLATER, B.A., LL.B. Second Edition, Revised. 
In demy 8vo, cloth, 163 pp., 2s. 6d. 

PITMAN'S OFFICE DESK BOOK. Contains most of the matters 
upon which information is constantly required in an office. Gives 
reliable information on points of Commercial I^w, Banking, and 
Bank Notes, Bills of Exchange, the Board of Trade, Joint Stock 
Companies, Deeds, Taxes, Weights, and Measures, Insurance, Im- 
porting and Exporting, Foreign Exchanges, Methods of Calculation, 
etc., etc., and also a useful Ready Reckoner. Second, Revised and 
Cheaper Edition. In crown 8vo, cloth, 309 pp., net is. 



PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 25 

BUSINESS MAN'S HANDBOOKS (continued). 

THE " COLE " CODE, OR CODE DICTIONARY. A simple, safe- 
and economical method of cabling verbatim commercial, tech- 
nical and social messages, complete and up-to-date, with un- 
limited facilities for extensions to suit any kind of business, including 
cabling from books, catalogues, price lists, etc. With two extra 
vocabularies of 10.000,000 words each, arranged in alphabetical and 
numerical order. Size 7 in. by 10 in., 272 pp., cloth, net 153. 

WHERE TO LOOK. An easy guide to the contents of certain specified 
books of reference. Fourth Annual Edition, revised and augmented 
with the assistance of a prominent Public Librarian. Including 
a list of the principal continental and American books of reference 
with a note of their contents. In crown 8vo, cloth, 140 pp., net 2s. 

ECONOMICS FOR BUSINESS MEN. By W. J. WESTON, M.A. (Lond.), 
B.Sc. (Lond.). In this useful and readable volume Mr. Weston, 
in a lucid and entertaining style, strives to bring into harmony the 
theory of the great economists, and the practice of the busv world 
of men. In crown 8vo, cloth, net is. 6d. 

OUTLINES OF THE ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ENGLAND. A Study 
in Social Development. By H. O. MEREDITH, M.A., M.Com. 
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge ; Professor of Economics, 
Queen's University, Belfast ; Sometime Russell Research Student 
and Lecturer in the London School of Economics ; Sometime 
Lecturer in Economics at Cambridge University. Beginning with 
the Economic development of Britain during the Roman occupation, 
the work traces the progress made down to the present day. The 
author deals with the genesis of capitalism, money and taxation, 
the growth of trade and industry, the trade union movement, 
the law and the wage-earning classes, finance and national welfare, 
etc. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 37 B pp., net 5s. 

SYSTEMATIC INDEXING. A complete and exhaustive handbook 
on the subject. By J. KAISER, Librarian of the Tariff Commission. 
In royal 8vo, cloth gilt, with 32 illustrations and 12 coloured plates, 
net, I2S. 6d. 

CONSULAR REQUIREMENTS FOR EXPORTERS AND SHIPPERS 
TO ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD. Including exact copies of 
all forms of Consular Invoices, with some hints as to drawing out 
of Bills of Lading, etc. By J. S. NOWERY. In crown 8vo, cloth, 
82 pp., net 2s. 6d. 

A COMPLETE GUIDE TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE MEMORY : 
or the Science of Memory Simplified, with practical Applications 
to Languages, History, Geography, Prose, Poetry, Shorthand, 
etc. By the late Rev. J. H. BACON. In foolscap 8vo, cloth, 
net is. 

HOW TO STUDY AND REMEMBER. By B. J. DAVIES. Third 
Edition. In crown Svo, net 6d. 



26 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 



COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE AND 
COMPOSITION. 

FIRST STEPS IN COMMERCIAL ENGLISH. By W. JAYNE WESTON, 
M.A. (Lend.), B.Sc. (Lond.). Intended principally for candidates 
preparing for the elementary examinations conducted by the 
Lancashire and Cheshire Union of Institutes, the Midland Union 
of Institutes, the Royal Society of Arts, and similar examining 
bodies, this book contains exercises, skilfully selected and carefully 
graded so as to provide a continuous course. In crown 8vo, limp 
cloth, 80 pp., net 8d. 

PITMAN'S GUIDE TO COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE AND 
BUSINESS COMPOSITION. By \V. JAYNE WESTON. M.A. In- 
tended for beginners in the study of commercial education, this book 
gives simple but practical instruction in the art of business com- 
position and the writing of commercial letters, and is suitable 
either for private study or for use in class. Cloth, 1-46 pp., with 
many facsimile commercial documents, is. 6d. 

INDEXING AND PRECIS WRITING. ;Sre page 12.) 

PUNCTUATION AS A MEANS OF EXPRESSION. By A. E. LOVELL. 
M.A. A complete guide to the accurate use of stops in writing. 
In crown 8vo, cloth. 80 pp., is 6d. 

THE AVON ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRIMER. Cloth, 219 pp., is. 

ENGLISH GRAMMAR. New Edition, Revised and Enlarged by 
C. D. PUNCH ARC, B.A. (Lond.). Without altering the former 
plan, the reviser has brought the contents of this book into closer 
harmony with the requirements of modern examinations, and has 
brought together a number of exercises comprising many questions 
given in recent examinations, and specimen papers set by the 
College of Preceptors and the Joint Scholarships Board. In crown 
8vo, cloth, 142 pp., net is. 

A GUIDE TO ENGLISH COMPOSITION, with Progressive exercises. 
By the Rev, J. H. BACON. 112 pp., paper, is. ; cloth, is. 6d. 

NOTES OF LESSONS ON ENGLISH. A comprehensive series of lessons, 
intended to assist teachers of English Composition and Grammar. 
In crown 8vo, cloth, 208 pp., 35. 6d. 

GRAMMAR AND ITS REASONS : For Students and Teachers of the 
English Tongue. By MARY HOLLAND LEONARD. This book is a 
series of essays, dealing with the more important parts of English 
Grammar. In crown 8vo, cloth, 392 pp., net 35. 6d. 



PIT: 1 -OMMERCIAL SERIES 27 



COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. (continued). 

PITMAN'S STUDIES Of ELOCUTION. By E. M. CORBGCXD (A/n. 
A/ar* JhiiBiuii). A fade to tfae Theory and Practice of the art 
of Public Speaking. Recrtiag, and R~*sg With over 100 selec- 
tions for Reciters and Readers. Cloth gilt, gilt top, net 2s. 6d. 

ENGLISH JUMFOSIIIflB AMD CORRESPONDENCE. (See page 14.) 

HOW TO TEACH COMMERCIAL ENGLISH. By WALTEH SHAW- 
A Practical Manual dealing with mttkads of teaching 
to riaiiBMiifil atadtmia. The divisions of the subject 
ry. Spelling, Style, Essays, Reports, Corre- 
conaidered in tern, tfae parts essential to 
picked out, and tfcoii of treatment out- 
i separate chapters on General Teaching 
of Grammar, Common Errors, and the 
of Prtas Writing. Owtfene courses of lessons for both 
and aitriarid rhmrrr are grvot together with sueges- 
> OB Home Work. Test Fi tiniii and Choice of Text-books. 
In UUWB 8wn, cloth gift. 160 pp., net as. 6d. 

MANUAL OF COMMERCIAL ENGLISH. Including Composition and 
Handbook covering all the recruirements of 

T*n*b~tft*. of Engfish for commercial purposes. Adapted for use in 
class or for private study. By the <$*m(* author. In this book every 
importar; oe sbject is dealt with, including styie and 

of sentences, correspOHdence, drafting reports. 
irBis, etc., and drTtrug and precis i i>ia 





also separate ^fc-^t"** 1 ". OB the FwBtiaK of Gramma 

._ - *. _ - . _ _ .-. ... _ _ . _ 

pCBQCC CflaBKBBBjE BB BBBRRB* OK VBB v**^* JBKS gp^exlDHg .E^B^HH 

T^g^C The book is specialty JBtradrd lor caadkhtrs entering 
for tike *"*" of the Royal Society of Arts, the Chartered 
Institute of Secretaries, the Institute of Bankers, and ymilar bodies. 
la crown &ro, doth gilt, 234 pp., net as. 6d. 

PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE AMD COMMERCIAL 
CTGOSH A new and practical Manual of Commercial Corre- 

bftdndrng ^Nrrt 340 kttera ; and, second. Commercial Engnsh. 
In crown Svo, cloth, 272 pp.. as. 6d- 

PTTMAN'S COMMERCIAL CORRESPOMDENCE ffl FRENCH. That 
work gives all the fetters of "Pitman's Commercial Correspondence" 
inch, rf aim ^nplfim*. * li** of Frjaeh rnm^rmal Abbn^ria- 
tin^K. Freach I <>! . Bcights, measures, and other matter of 
- ;e student of Commercial French, togcfcer with a 
of inT^.T'f facsrnnies of **al French *"'"< * farms 
IB crown 8vo, cloth. 240 pp., as. 6d. 

PTTMAK S COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE ' IK CVHrMAM 

Jormwith the above. In crown Svo, cloth, 240 pp.. 2s. 6d. 



28 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 



COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. (continued.) 
PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE IN SPANISH. 
Uniform with the above. In crown 8vo, 240 pp., 2s. 6d. 

PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE IN SHORTHAND 

(Reporting Style). This work gives in beautifully engraved 
Shorthand all the letters included in " Pitman's Commercial 
Correspondence," with a chapter on the Shorthand Clerk and his 
Duties. In crown 8vo, cloth, 240 pp., 2s. 6d. 

PITMAN'S INTERNATIONAL MERCANTILE LETTERS. In five 
volumes, crown 8vo, cloth gilt ; each about 250 pp. 

English-German 2s. 6d. English 2s. 6d. 

English-French 2s. 6d. English-Italian .... 35. od. 

English-Portuguese .... 33. 6d. 

Each volume contains a very large and widely varied collection of 
business letters, arranged in groups and in series, and dealing at 
length with (a) Business in Goods ; (/)) Banking, etc. ; (c) Commission 
and Consignment Business ; and (d ) The Transport and Insurance of 
Merchandise. Each set of transactions is first presented in the 
form of a precis or summary, and then the same transactions are 
fully illustrated by letters. In the English-Foreign volumes the 
information respecting the particular business treated, the precis 
of the transactions, and the letters are given in English and in 
either French, German, Italian, or Portuguese, according to the 
language dealt with in the volume. 

ELEMENTARY GERMAN CORRESPONDENCE. By LEWIS MARSH, 
B.A. (Hons.). Cantab. Intended for students who are just begin- 
ning the study of Commercial German. Facsimiles are furnished of 
German commercial correspondence and business documents. In 
crown 8vo, cloth, 143 pp., 2s. 

THE FOREIGN CORRESPONDENT. By ALBERT EMIL DAVIES. For 
the student, the youthful commercial aspirant, or the clerk wishful 
of bettering his position, the book is a guide and counsellor. In 
crown 8vo, cloth, 80 pp., net is. 6d. 

PITMAN'S DICTIONARY OF COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE 
IN FRENCH, GERMAN, SPANISH, AND ITALIAN. This volume 
which has just undergone a very thorough revision, has been 
limited to the most common and ordinary terms and phrases of 
a commercial nature. Second, Revised and Cheaper Edition. 
In demy 8vo, cloth, 502 pp., net 53. 

ENGLISH-GERMAN AND GERMAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY OF 
BUSINESS WORDS AND TERMS. A new pocket English-German 
and German-English Dictionary, with a list of Abbreviations in 
general use, by FRITZ HUNDEL. Size 2 by 6 in., rounded corners, 
roan, net 2s. 6d. 

ENGLISH-FRENCH AND FRENCH-ENGLISH DICTIONARY OF 
BUSINESS WORDS AND TERMS. 2 ins. by 6 ins., rounded 
corners, roan, net 2s. 6d. 



PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 29 



COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. (continued.) 

A NEW DICTIONARY OF THE PORTUGUESE AND ENGLISH 
LANGUAGES. Based on a manuscript of JULIUS CORNET, by 
H. MICHAELIS. In two parts. First Part : Portuguese-English. 
Second Part : English-Portuguese. Colloquial, commercial and 
industrial terms have been plentifully introduced throughout the 
book and irregularities in the formation of the plural and in the 
conjugation of verbs have been carefully noted. Second Edition. 
Two volumes, 15$. each, net. 

ABRIDGED EDITION. Two parts in one volume, net 155. 

PITMAN'S POCKET DICTIONARY of the English Language. This 
Dictionary furnishes in a form suitable for ready reference, a guide 
to the spelling and meaning of words in everyday use, and it is a 
trustworthy authority on the best modern English usage in spel 
ling. The definitions though necessarily concise are thoroughly 
accurate. A List of Abbreviations in General Use is given. Royal 
32mo, 5 in. by 3 in., cloth gilt, 362 pp., net is. ; also in leather, 
net is. 6d. 

COMMERCIAL DICTIONARY. In this book univocal words which 
present no difficulty as to spelling are omitted, and abbreviations, 
signs, anglicized foreign expressions, etc., are placed in their alpha- 
betical order in the body of the book. The appendix contains forms 
of address, foreign coinage, weights and measures, etc. In crown 
8vo, paper boards, net gd. ; cloth, net, is. 

STUDIES IN ESSAY WRITING. By V. P. PEACOCK. This book deals, 
in a very attractive manner, with the higher stages of the art of 
English Composition. In crown 8vo, paper, net 6d., cloth, net 9d. 

COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY. 

FIRST STEPS IN COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY. By JAMES STEPHEN- 
SON, M.A., B.Com. An entirely new volume intended principally 
for candidates preparing for the elementary examinations con- 
ducted by the Lancashire and Cheshire Union of Institutes, the 
Midland Union ol Institutes, the Royal Society of Arts, and similar 
examining bodies. There are 16 maps and diagrams included. In 
crown 8vo, limp cloth, 80 pp., net 8d. 

THE WORLD AND ITS COMMERCE : A Primer of Commercial 
Geography. Contains simply written chapters on the general 
geography of the world, the seven great industries, the commercial 
geography of the British Empire at home and abroad, and of foreign 
countries. The information conveyed is quite up-to-date. In 
crown 8vo, cloth, 128 pp., with thirty-four maps, is. 

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. PART 1. The World Generally The 
Surface of the Earth Zones and Heat Belts Distribution of 



30 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 



COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY (continued.) 

Life Agriculture Herding and Ranching Fishing Lumbering 
Mining Manufacturing Commerce. 

PART II. The British Empire The United Kingdom The 
British Empire Abroad. 

PART III. Foreign Countries. 

A thorough description is given of the commercial position, the 
mineral, agricultural and manufactured productions, and chief 
commercial towns of each country. 

PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 
New edition, revised and enlarged, In crown 8vo, cloth, 150 pp., 
with 34 coloured maps "and plates, chree black and white maps, 
and other illustrations, is. 

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION. Kinds of Commerce 
Exchange and Exchanges Imports and Exports The Metric 
System Manufactures The World generally. COMMERCIAL 
PRODUCTS. Common Metals and Minerals Commercial Products 
of Animal Origin Common Plants and their Commercial Products. 
THE UNITED KINGDOM. Position, Configuration and Coast Line 
Manufactures Imports and Exports Means of Transport 
Commercial Towns Trade Routes. ENGLAND AND WALES. 
SCOTLAND. IRELAND. Mountains Metals and Minerals Pro- 
ductions Animals Geographical Structure Climate Bogs 
Lakes Fisheries. 

PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE 
ABROAD AND FOREIGN COUNTRIES. New edition, revised and 
enlarged. In crown 8vo, cloth, 205 pp., with 35 coloured maps and 
plates, 1 1 black and white maps, and end-paper maps, is. 6d. 

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. THE BRITISH EMPIRE AUROAD. Naval 
aiid Military Stations Canada and Newfoundland Australia, 
Tasmania, and New Zealand the British Empire in Asia and 
Africa the British West Indies, etc. FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 
Europe generally : France, Germany, Holland, Russia, Belgium , 
Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Italy, Switzerland, Austria- 
Hungary, Portugal, Turkey, and Greece Minor European Coun- 
tries Asia generally North America generally, the United 
States Mexico and the Republics of Central America South 
America generally, and the States of South America. 

PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE WORLD. New- 
edition, revised and enlarged. For Principal Contents see Books 
I and II immediately above. In crown 8vo, cloth, 350 pp., with 
about 90 maps and plates, 2s. 6d. 

THE WORLD'S COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS. (See page 24.) 
GEOGRAPHICAL STATISTIC UNIVERSAL POCKET ATLAS. (See 
page 11.) 



PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 31 

COMMERCIAL HISTORY. 

COMMERCIAL HISTORY. An Introductory Treatise for the use of 
advanced classes in schools. By J. R. V. MARCH ANT, M.A., for- 
merly Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford, Examiner in Commercial 
History to the London Chamber of Commerce. In crown 8vo, 
cloth gilt, 272 pp., 35. 

PART I. The History of Commerce down to the end of the Middle 
Ages Coloured Maps, Plates, Maps in black and white, fully 
illustrated from ancient tapestries, sculptures, etc., etc., is. 6d. 
PART II. The History of Commerce from the Middle Ages to the 
Present Time. Maps, Plates, etc. 2s. 

THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Edited by OSCAR 
BROWNING, Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. 125 illustrations, 
beautiful reproductions of eleven famous historical paintings, 
genealogical tables, glossary, summary. 272 pp., is. lod. 



COMMERCIAL LAW. 

THE ELEMENTS OF COMMERCIAL LAW. By A. H. DOUGLAS, 
LL.B. (Lond.). (See page 14.) 

THE COMMERCIAL LAW OF ENGLAND. A Handbook for Business 
Men and Advanced Classes in Schools. By J. A. SLATER, B.A., 
LL.B. (Lond.), of the Middle Temple and North-Eastern Circuit, 
Barrister-at-Law. This work is intended for the service of advanced 
students in schools ; but it has been designed in an equally 
important degree as a constant desk companion to the modern 
man of business. It is believed that the method of treatment will 
render the work a useful text-book for the various examinations 
in Commercial Law. With five facsimiles. Fourth Edition. In 
crown 8vo, cloth, 227 pp., 2s. 6d. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN COMMERCIAL LAW. By J. WELLS 
THATCHER, Barrister-at-Law. This new book contains the whole 
of the questions in Commercial Law set at the examinations of the 
London Chamber of Commerce and the Royal Society of Arts, for 
the years 1900 to 1909 inclusive, with the correct answers thereto. 
In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 2s. 6d. 

EXAMINATION NOTES ON COMMERCIAL LAW. By R. W. 
HOLLAND, M.A., M.Sc., LL.B., Barrister-at-Law ; Lecturer in 
Commercial Law at the Manchester ^Municipal School of Commerce. 
This work is primarily intended to assist candidates who are pre- 
paring for the Commercial Law examinations of such bodies as 
the Royal Society of Arts, London Chamber of Commerce, National 
Union of Teachers, the Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes, 
etc. Cloth, 6 in. by 3 in., net is. 



32 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 

COMMERCIAL LAW (continued). 

PITMAN'S HANDBOOK OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT LAW. Specially 
designed for students for the Examination of the Institute of 
Municipal Treasurers and Accountants (Incorporated), as well as 
for all students engaged in the offices of Local Authorities in 
England and Wales. By J. WELLS THATCHER, of the Middle 
Temple, Barrister-at-Law. In large 8vo, cloth gilt, 250 pp., net 
3s. 6d. 

ELEMENTARY LAW FOR SHORTHAND CLERKS AND TYPISTS. 
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precise significance of the chief terms customarily used by lawyers, 
and often used by laymen. In crown 8vo, cloth, 213 pp., 2s. 6d. 

LEGAL TERMS, PHRASES, AND ABBREVIATIONS. For typists 
and Shorthand and other Junior Clerks. This work is supplemen- 
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junior clerks in English legal offices to gain an intelligible grasp 
of the meaning of the terms that they are called upon to employ 
every day. In crown 8vo, cloth, 200 pp., 2s. 6d. 

PITMAN'S SOLICITOR'S CLERK'S GUIDE. By E. A. COPE. This 
work is designed to serve for beginners and junior clerks in solicitors' 
offices the purpose served as regards other callings by office guides 
and other introductory technical books. In crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. 6d. 

CONVEYANCING. By E. A. COPE. Explains the essentials of a 
contract relating to land, illustrates the nature, the form, and the 
structure of the modern deed, the order of its contents, the impor- 
tance of recitals, the clauses implied by virtue of the Conveyancing 
and other Acts, the appropriate use of technical expressions, and 
numerous other points. In crown 8vo, cloth, 206 pp., net 33. 

PITMAN'S BILLS, CHEQUES, AND NOTES. (See page 20.) Net 2s. 6d. 

PITMAN'S MERCANTILE LAW. By J. A. SLATER, B.A., LL.B. 
(See page 20.) Net 53. 

THE LAW OF HEAVY AND LIGHT MECHANICAL TRACTION ON 
HIGHWAYS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. By C. A. MONTAGUE 
BARLOW, M.A., LL.D., and W. JOYNSON HICKS. (See page 21.) 
Net 8s. 6d. 

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MARINE LAW. By LAWRENCE DUCKWORTH, 
Barrister -at-Law. (See page 20.) Net 5s. 

THE STUDENT'S GUIDE TO BANKRUPTCY LAW. By F. PORTER 
FAUSSET, LL.B. (see p. 21). Net, 2s. 6d. 

BANKRUPTCY AND BILLS OF SALE. By W. VALENTINE BALL, 
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THE STUDENT'S GUIDE TO COMPANY LAW. By K. \V. HOLLAND, 
M.A., W.Sc., LL.B. (see p. 21.) Net 2s. 6d. 

COMPANIES AND COMPANY LAW. By A. C. CONNELL, LL.B. 
(See page 21.) Net 53. 

THE LAW OF CARRIAGE. By J. E. R. STEPHENS, B.A. (See 
page 21.) Net 53. 



PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 33 



COMMERCIAL READERS. 

PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL READER (Intermediate Book). A splen- 
didly illustrated reading book, written on the same general plan as 
the Senior Book, in the same series, but intended for younger 
readers. It is divided into nine sections, dealing with the chief 
branches of Modern Industry, such as Paper-making and the 
Production of Books and Newspapers ; Steam and Machinery ; 
Shipping ; Mining and Metal Works ; Electricity and its Uses ; 
Cotton and what is made from it ; Woollen Manufactures, etc. 
Each section ends with the life story of some notable industrial 
pioneer. In crown 8vo, cloth, 240 pp., is. 9d. 

PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL READER (Senior Book). An Introduction 
to Modern Commerce. The most important and valuable Reading 
Book yet published for use in the Upper Classes in Day Schools 
and in Evening Continuation Schools. Crown 8vo, cloth, 
272 pp., 2s. 

Contains over 160 black and white illustrations, which include 
reproductions of famous pictures by Lord Leighton, P.R.A., Vicat 
Cole, R.A., Sidney Cooper, R.A., and Marcus Stone, R.A., together 
with portraits ^reproduced from photographs) of Lord Rothschild, 
Lord Armstrong, Lord Masham, Sir Alfred Jones, Sir George 
Williams, Guglielrno Marconi, etc., etc., etc. ; six black and white 
maps, and a coloured quarto Map of the World, showing the British 
Empire, the chief Telegraph Cables and Steamer Routes, etc.; 
Glossary. 

PITMAN'S FRENCH COMMERCIAL READER. Deals in an interest- 
ing manner with the leading Commercial and National Institutions 
of France. The reading matter is most carefully selected, and while 
the student of French is improving his mastery of the language, he 
is at the same time getting a good insight into French commercial 
methods. Thus, while reading about invoices, the actual document 
is brought under his notice. Additional value is given to the book 
by the inclusion of questions and exercises. Maps, illustrations, 
and facsimiles of French commercial documents illustrate the 
text, and, in addition, the book contains a selection of commercial 
letters, a full list of commercial abbreviations in current use, and 
an exhaustive vocabulary. In crown 8vo, cloth, 208 pp., 2s. 6d. 

PITMAN'S GERMAN COMMERCIAL READER. Prepared on similar 
lines to the French Commercial Reader above. It furnishes a 
practical introduction to German commercial institutions and 
transactions, with questions and exercises which render it well 
suited for use in schools. Students are afforded the fullest help 
possible from plates, illustrations, maps, and facsimiles of German 
commercial documents. The text has had the benefit of revision 
by modern language masters in well-known schools. In crown 8vo, 
cloth, 208 pp., 2s. 6d. 



34 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 

HANDWRITING. 

PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL HANDWRITING AND CORRESPOND- 
ENCE. A complete and reliable guide for the student of any kind 
of handwriting, designed for use in class or self-tuition. In fcap. 
quarto, quarter cloth, 2s. 

Contains carefully graduated Exercises, together with Plain and Prac- 
tical Instructions for the Rapid Acquirement of a Facile and Legible 
Business Style of Handwriting Furnishes also Explicit Directions for 
the Formation of the Recognised Civil Service Style Text Hand Legal 
Style Engrossing Style Block Lettering, as Required for Business 
Purposes Valuable Hints on Business Composition Specimens of 
Written Business Letters and Various Commercial Documents, such as 
Account Sales, Accounts Current, Bills of Exchange, Promissory Notes, 
I.O.U.'s, Invoices, Statements, Receipts, etc. Lists of Business Abbre- 
viations, and Particulars of the Examination Requirements of the Society 
of Arts, Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes, Midland Union of 
Institutes and other Examining Authorities. 

The whole of the numerous exercises, copies and illustrations 
are facsimile reproductions of the author's actual handwriting. 
BUSINESS HANDWRITING. The object of this work is to enable 
students to acquire the habit of writing with ease and rapidity, 
in such a manner that the meaning of even careless writing may be 
at once evident to the reader. The many illustrations and exercises 
form a special feature of the work, and these are photographic 
reproductions of the actual writing of the author and his professional 
friends. Seventh Edition, revised. In crown 8vo, cloth, 84 pp., is. 
PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL COPY AND EXERCISE BOOKS. These 
Copy Books contain carefully graded sets of exercises in business 
work. The copies are engraved in a clear style of writing, for the 
purpose of guiding the student to a rapid and legible commercial 
hand. In fcap. folio, 32 pp., each 6d. 

No. i. Documents and Exercises relating to the Home Trade. 

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. Commercial Terms and Abbreviations 
Copying and Docketing Letters Copying and Arrangement of Addresses 
Subscriptions and Signatures of Letters Letter-Writing Composing 
Telegrams Home Invoices, Cheques, and Receipts. 

No. 2. Documents and Exercises relating to the Import and Export 
Trade. 

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. Shipping Invoices of various kinds Account 
Sales Statements of Account Credit Notes Inland Bill and Promissory 
Note Account Current Balance Sheets Bills of Exchange Bank 
Deposit Slips Bills of Lading Advice Notes Customs Declaration 
Forms and Despatch Notes for Parcels Post Brokers' Notes Market 
Reports Price Lists Letters of Advice Insurance Accounts, etc., 
with blank forms to be filled up by the student, and also a list of Com- 
mercial Terms and Abbreviations with their meanings. 
PITMAN'S " NEW ERA " BUSINESS COPY BOOKS. By F. HEELIS, 
F.C.I.S. Civil Service Style. In three books, Junior, Intermediate, 
and Senior. This series of Copy Books is designed to give pupils 
training and practice simultaneously in the art of writing and 
addressing business letters, making out receipts, bills, credit notes, 



PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 35 

HANDWRITING (continued). 
" NEW ERA ' ' BUSINESS COPY BOOKS contd. 

and invoices, drafting Bank slips, and Postage Accounts. Model 
extracts from the Petty Cash Book occur, and useful information 
is supplied showing how best to make memoranda, fill in Delivery 
Notes, Telegraph Forms, Money Orders, Freight Notes, Order 
and Bearer Cheques, Promissory and Contract Notes, and Shipping 
Advice Forms. All the business technicalities, a knowledge of 
which is indispensable to the youth of to-day, are dealt with in 
detail. Each in stout paper covers, large post 4to, 32 pp., 4d. 

EXERCISE BOOKS OF FACSIMILE COMMERCIAL FORMS. Designed 
for the dual purpose of a copy book of commercial handwriting 
and to enable the student to familiarize himself with the filling 
up of business documents, etc. Among the forms given are : 
Accounts Current, Account Sales, Invoices, Bills of Lading, Bills of 
Exchange, Cheques, Consignment Notes, etc. In large post 4to, 
printed in red and black, in wrapper, 32 pp., 6d. 

PITMAN ^FACSIMILE COMMERCIAL FORMS. A collection of the 
most common forms in everyday use in business to be filled up 
by the student. 26 separate forms in envelope. 6d. Forms 
separately, per doz. 3d. 

PITMAN'S OFFICE ROUTINE COPY BOOK, No. I. In large post 4to, 
24 pp., 3d. 

CONTAINS. Specimen Addresses Clerical, Commercial, Express De- 
livery, French, German, Italian, Miscellaneous, official, Private, Railway, 
Registered, and Spanish, with forms of Transmitting Money or Goods by 
Post or Rail. 

PITMAN'S OFFICE ROUTINE COPY BOOK, No. 2. In large post 4to, 
24 pp., 3d. 

CONTAINS. Inland Invoices Statements of Accounts Receipts 
Telephone Message and Reply A Credit Note Export Merchant's 
Invoice Telegrams Cheques Letters Advising and Acknowledging 
Payment. 

PITMAN'S OFFICE ROUTINE COPY BOOK, No. 3. In large post 4to, 
24 pp., 3d. 

CONTAINS. Letters Ordering Goods Letters Advising Travellers, 
Call House Agent's Letters Reply to an Inquiry Letter enclosing 
Copy of Advertisement Application for Shares Letter Advising Despatch 
of Catalogue Letter Advising Delivery of a Cycle Letter Requesting a 
Special Favour Letter of Recommendation Dunning Letters A 
Promissory Note Order for Advertisement and Reply Banker's Receipt 
for Share Deposit. 

CIVIL SERVICE AND COMMERCIAL COPYING FORMS. A collection 
of papers set at various examinations, with suggestions for obtaining 
the best results. In crown 8vo, 40 pp., 6d. 

RULED FORMS for use with the above. Books I and II. Each fcap. 
folio, 40 pp., 8d. 



36 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 

FRENCH. 

PITMAN'S FRENCH COURSE, Part I. Grammar, with exercises. 
carefully selected conversational phrases and sentences, corre- 
spondence, short stories from French authors, and judiciously 
chosen vocabulary with imitated pronunciation. In crown B 
oaper. 6d. ; cloth, 8d. 

PITMAN'S FRENCH COURSE, Part II. In crown Svo. paper. 8d. ; 
cloth, iod. 

KEY TO PITMAN 'S FRENCH COURSE, Parts I and II. In crown 8vo. 
each is. 6d. 

PITMAN'S PRACTICAL FRENCH GRAMMAR and Conversation for 
Self-Tuition, with copious Vocabulary and Imitated Pronunciation. 
In crown 8vo. 120 pp., paper, is. ; doth, is. 6d. 

PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL FRENCH GRAMMAR. By F. W. M. 
DRAPER, B.A.. B. es L, Of Queen's College. Cambridge, and 
Licencie of the University of Paris ; also Assistant Master at the 
City of London School. In this book French grammar is taught 
on normal lines, with the addition that all grammatical points are 
illustrated by sentences in commercial French. The exercises 
are written with a view to enabling the student to read and write 
business letters in French, and to understand without difficulty 
commercial and financial articles in French books and newspapers. 
Accidence and Syntax have been, as far as possible, blended. 
In crown 8vo, cloth gilt. 166 pp. net zs. 6d. 

A CHILD'S FIRST STEPS IN FRENCH. By A. VIZETELLY 

elementary French reader with vocabulary. Illustrated. In crown 
8vo, limp cloth, od. 

FRENCH BUSINESS LETTERS. First Series. A Practical Handbook 
of Commercial Correspondence in the French Language, with 
copious notes in English. In crown 4to, net. 6d. 

FRENCH BUSINESS LETTERS. Second Series. By A. H. 
BERXAARDT. In crown Svo, 4S pp., net 6d. 

COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE IN FRENCH. (See page - 

FRENCH COMMERCIAL READER. (See page 33.) 
RENCH COMMERCIAL PHRASES and Abbreviations with Trans- 
lation. In crown 8vo. 6d. 

FRENCH BUSINESS INTERVIEWS. With Correspondence. Invoices. 

etc.. each forming a complete Commercial Transaction, including 

' Technical Terms and Idiomatic Expressions, accompanied by a 

copious vocabulary and notes in English. In crown Svo, SO pp., 

.* paper, is. ; cloth, is. 6d. 

EASY FRENCH CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES. With literal 
interlinear translation and imitated pronunciation. In crown 8vo.6d. 

ADVANCED FRENCH CONVERSATIONAL EXERCISES. Consisting 
of everyday phrases, dialogues, proverbs, and idioms, with trans- 
lation, for the use of schools and private students. In crown Svo, 6d. 

EXAMINATIONS IN FRENCH, AND HOW TO PASS THEM. Exam- 
ination Papers recently set at some of the Chief Public Examinations 
fully solved. In crown Svo. 6d. 



PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 37 



FRENCH (continued). 

EXAMINATION NOTES ON FRENCH. By F. \V. M. DRAPKR. Com- 
pact notes for candidates preparing for Examinations of the Lon- 
don matriculation. Central Welsh Board, Northern Universities 
Joint Board, College of Preceptors, Chamber of Commerce, and 
Society of Arts. Size. 6 in. by 3 in., cloth, 50 pp., net is. 

TOURIST'S VADE MECUM OF FRENCH COLLOQUIAL CONVER- 
SATION. A careful selection of every-day phrases in constant use, 
with Vocabularies, Tables, and general rules on Pronunciation. 
An easy method of acquiring a knowledge of French sufficient for 
all purposes of Tourists or Business Men. Special attention has 
been devoted to the section on Cycling and Photography. Handy 
size for the pocket, cloth, net is. 

FRENCH TRANSLATION AND COMPOSITION. By LEWIS MARSH, 
B.A. (Rons.), Cantab., Med, and Mod. Languages Tripos, Late 
Exhibitioner of Emmanuel College ; White Prizeman ; Assistant 
Master, City of London School ; and Special Instructor in'French 
and German to the London County Council. Students preparing 
for public examinations will find this book exceedingly helpfuL 
It is divided into four parts. In Part I the chief difficulties met with 
in translation are classified and arranged, and the hints conveyed 
are summarized in a number of " Golden Rules " at the end ; 
while in Part II the author works through a good selection of 
representative extracts according to the methods previously 
described, and finally gives in each case a finished translation, the 
aim throughout being to teach the student to deal intelligently 
with different styles of prose and verse. Part III consists of 100 
carefully graduated extracts to be worked out by the student 
himself, all taken from classical French authors ; and these are 
followed in Part IV by exercises in French composition based on the 
extracts in the preceding part. At the end is a French-English 
and English-French vocabulary. In crown 8vo, cloth, 187 pp., 
2s. 6d. 

FRENCH PHRASES FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS. By EDWARD 
KEALEY, B.A. A collection of useful phrases compiled on a new 
system which will be of the utmost utility and assistance to advanced 
students of French. In crown 8vo, is. 6d. 

PITMAN'S INTERNATIONAL MERCANTILE LETTERS. English- 
French. (See page 28.) In crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. 6d. 

ENGLISH-FRENCH AND FRENCH-ENGLISH DICTIONARY of 
Business Words and Terms. Contains many terms used in com- 
mercial correspondence which are not found in ordinary dictionaries. 
Size, 2 in. by 6 in., cloth, rounded corners. Price, net 2s. 6d. 

LE BOURGEOIS GENTILHOMME. Moliere's Comedy in French, 
fully annotated. Price is. ; cloth, is. 6d. 



38 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 

GERMAN. 

PITMAN'S GERMAN COURSE. Part I. Grammar, with exercises, 
carefully selected conversational Phrases and Sentences, Corre- 
spondence, short stories from German authors, and vocabulary 
with imitated pronunciation. In crown 8vo, paper, 6d. ; cloth, 8d. 

KEY TO PITM AN 'S GERMAN COURSE. Part I. In crown 8vo, is.6d. 

PITMAN'S PRACTICAL GERMAN GRAMMAR and Conversation 
for Self-Tuition, with Copious Vocabulary and imitated pronun- 
ciation. In crown 8vo, paper, is. ; cloth, is. 6d. 

PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL GERMAN GRAMMAR. By J. BITHELL, 
M.A., Lecturer in German at the Birkbeck College, London ; 
Recognised Teacher of the University of London. This book 
teaches the rules of German grammar on the basis of a commercial 
vocabulary. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, net 2s. 6d. 

GERMAN BUSINESS INTERVIEWS, Nos. I and 2. With Correspond- 
ence, Invoices, etc., each forming a complete Commercial Transac- 
tion, including Technical Terms, Dialogues for Travellers, and 
Idiomatic Expressions used in Shipping and Mercantile Offices, 
accompanied by a copious marginal Vocabulary and Notes in 
English. In crown 8vo, each, paper, is. ; cloth, is. 6d. 

ELEMENTARY GERMAN CORRESPONDENCE. By LEWIS MARSH, 

B.A. (See page 28.) In crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. 
COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE IN GERMAN. (See page 27.) 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 240 pp., 2s. 6d. 
GERMAN COMMERCIAL READER. (See page 33.) In crown 8vo, 

cloth, 208 pp., 2s. 6d. 
GERMAN BUSINESS LETTERS. With copious maginal vocabulary 

and notes in English, and some letters in German script characters. 

In crown 8vo, 6d. net. 
GERMAN BUSINESS LETTERS. Second Series. Bj G. ALBERS. 

In crown 8vo, 48 pp., net 6d. 
GERMAN COMMERCIAL PHRASES. With abbreviations and 

translation. In crown 8vo, 6d. 
GERMAN EXAMINATION PAPERS with model answers. In crown 

8vo, net 6d. 
EASY GERMAN CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES. With literal 

interlinear translation and imitated pronunciation. In crown Svo, 6d. 

ADVANCED GERMAN CONVERSATIONAL EXERCISES. In crown 
Svo, 6d. 

TOURIST'S VADE MECUM OF GERMAN COLLOQUIAL CONVER- 
SATION. With vocabularies, tables, etc., and general rules on 
pronunciation ; being a careful selection of phrases in constant 
use. In crown Svo, cloth, net is. 

DER NEFFE ALS ONKEL. Schiller's Comedy, fully annotated. 
In crown Svo, paper, 6d. ; cloth, is. 



PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 39 



GERMAN (continued). 

ENGLISH-GERMAN AND GERMAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY OF 
BUSINESS WORDS AND TERMS. (See page 28.) Size 2 by 6 in., 
rounded corners, cloth, net 2s. 6d. 

PITMAN'S DICTIONARY OF COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE 
IN FRENCH, GERMAN, SPANISH AND ITALIAN. (See page 28.) 
In demy 8vo, cloth, 500 pp., net 5s. 

PITMAN'S INTERNATIONAL MERCANTILE LETTERS. English- 
German. (See page 28.) In crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. 6d. 

ITALIAN. 

TOURISTS' VADE MECUM OF ITALIAN COLLOQUIAL CON- 
VERSATION. Uniform with the French, German, and Spanish 
volumes. Cloth, net is. 

INTERNATIONAL MERCANTILE LETTERS. English-Italian (see 
page 28). In crown 8vo, cloth, 33. 

ITALIAN BUSINESS LETTERS. A practical Handbook of Modern 
Commercial Correspondence, with copious notes in English. By 
A. VALGIMIGLI. In crown 8vo, 48 pp., net 6d. 

PITMAN'S ITALIAN COMMERCIAL GRAMMAR. By LUIGI RICCI, 
Professor at the University of London. Deals exclusively with 
commercial Italian, although it includes all the information and the 
rules for learning the language thoroughly. The explanatory 
exercises and phrases which number over 1,300, deal with practical 
information about business ; and are full of technical commercial 
words, a complete list of which, at the end of the volume, supplies 
the student with a very useful commercial, Italian- "Dictionary. 
In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, net 2s. 6d. 

SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE. 

SPANISH BUSINESS LETTERS. A handbook of commercial 
correspondence in the Spanish language. In crown 8vo, net 6d. 

SPANISH BUSINESS LETTERS. 2nd Series. By E. McCoNNELL. 
In crown 8vo, 48 pp., net 6d. 

SPANISH BUSINESS INTERVIEWS. With Correspondence, Invoices, 
etc. In crown 8vo, paper, is. ; cloth, is. 6d. 

EASY SPANISH CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES. With literal 
interlinear translation and imitated pronunciation. In crown 8vo. 
6d. 

ADVANCED SPANISH CONVERSATIONAL EXERCISES. Consisting 
of everyday phrases, dialogues, proverbs, ard idioms, with 
translation. In crown 8vo, 6d. 

PITMAN'S PRACTICAL SPANISH GRAMMAR. With Conversation 
for Self Tuition, copious vocabulary, and imitated pronunciation. 
In crown 8vo, paper, is., cloth, is. 6d, 



40 PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SERIES 



SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE (continued). 

PITMAN'S SPANISH COMMERCIAL GRAMMAR. By C. A. TOLE- 
DANO, Spanish Master at the Manchester Municipal School of Com- 
merce, Manchester Athenaeum, etc. Contains in its exercises and 
conversations an abundant commercial phraseology, and at the 
same time a thorough treatise on Spanish grammar. Rules and 
illustrations are given in appendixes. A synopsis of Spanish 
conjugations compiled on an original plan will be of great use in 
mastering the Spanish irregular verbs. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 
250 pp., net 2s. 6d. 

SPANISH COMMERCIAL PHRASES. With abbreviations and 
translation. In crown 8vo, 8d. 

TOURIST'S VADE MECUM OF SPANISH COLLOQUIAL CONVER- 
SATION. With vocabularies, tables, etc., and general rules on 
pronunciation. Cloth, net is. 

COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE IN SPANISH. (See page 28.) 

A NEW DICTIONARY OF THE PORTUGUESE AND ENGLISH 
LANGUAGES. (See page 29.) 

PITMAN'S INTERNATIONAL MERCANTILE LETTERS. English- 
Portuguese. (See page 28.) 

SHORTHAND AND TYPEWRITING. 

See separate catalogue (H), post free on application. 



PERIODICALS. 

PITMAN'S JOURNAL. Contains six pages of Shorthand in the Learn- 
er's, Corresponding, and Reporting Styles, with Key, besides special 
articles of interest to all connected with commercial education. 
Subscription, which may begin at any time, 6s. 6d. per annum, 
post free. (Estab. 1842.) 32 pp. Weekly id., by post i|d. 

PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL TEACHER'S MAGAZINE. This new 
magazine caters for the teacher who is engaged in giving instruc- 
tion either in day or evening schools. 32 pp. Monthly. Price id. 

BOOK-KEEPERS' MAGAZINE. Edited by F. J. MITCHELL. Organ 
of the Association of Book-keeping Teachers. Monthly, zd. ; 
post-free 2d. 

COMMERCIAL TEACHER. Edited by W. H. LORD and H. H. 
SMITH. Organ of the Incorporated Society of Commercial Teachers. 
Quarterly, 3d. post-free 4d. 

INSTITUTE OF COMMERCE MAGAZINE. Edited by EGBERT P. 
BOOTH. Monthly, 3d., post-free 3$d. 



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