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B. 0. BV/ T -* 







Chairman Department of Stenography and Typewriting, 

Bay Ridge High School 

New York 




Copyright, 1915, by 


The essentials for the attainment of high speed in shorthand 
writing may be summed up briefly under the following heads. 
First: A thorough mastery of whatever system of shorthand is 
learned. Second: An unhesitating use of all the word-signs and 
contractional devices employed in that system. Third: A wide and 
ever-increasing vocabulary. Fourth: A familiarity with the best 
<o modes and styles of expression current in our literature. Fifth: 
* The ability to assimilate the thought as the sounds are being re- 
. corded. Sixth: Plenty of practice in recording utterances, varied 
5 in subject matter and speech. And, lastly, the element that makes 
z for success in all fields of endeavor, Perseverance. 
ZJ Presumably the first, the second, and the last of these elements 
receive their proper consideration and attention as the theory of 
w the system is studied. Lack of sufficient material in easily-accessible 
^ and readily-used form which would serve to develop the other ele- 
*1 ments, has been keenly felt by teachers of shorthand in general. 
5 To meet their needs, as well as those of the high-speed aspirant, 
this volume has been compiled with no attempt to grade the selec- 
tions as to difficulty, firmly believing they will serve equally well 
m for the beginner as well as for the advanced writer. As a further 
3 aid to the teacher, the counting arrangement and indication will 
3 prove of inestimable value. 

The articles contained in this work have been culled from the 
columns of the daily newspaper, periodicals, magazines, books and 
other forms of publications and due acknowledgment is given. 

A. M. S. 




Number of 

Words Page 

1 Get a Thorough Mastery of the Principles, by Nathan 

Behrin 452 I 

2 Repetition Versus New Matter, by Charles W. Phillips 176 II 

3 Excelsior the Motto for Shorthand Writers, by Charles 

F. Larkin 293 III 

4 The Shorthand Writer Should Make Careful and Accu- 

rate Outlines, by William Whitford 283 IV 

5 Repetition, by Henry Candlin 426 V 

6 Overcoming Weaknesses, by Walter H. Lee 371 VI 

7 Getting Up Speed, by Frederick J. Rose 586 VII 

8 What Causes Hesitation, by Paul S. Vosburg 881 IX 

9 The Value of Visualizing to the Shorthand Reporter, by 

Thomas Bengough, C.S.R 1305 XI 

10 The Stenographic Expert, by Willard B. Bottome and 

William F. Smart 926 XIV 

11 Words, by John R. Potts 331 XVII 


1 Immigrants 353 1 

2 The "Lion's" Growl 272 2 

3 A New Pure-Food League 276 

4 Controlling the Electric Current 351 

5 Motion of the Eye 200 4 

6 Mechanism of the Bonea 206 5 

7 Wall Sockets 290 5 

8 Getting the Right Perspective 419 6 

9 Early Printing 249 7 

10 Lynch Law 206 

11 The Tampico Incident 371 9 

12 Life or Death for Railroads? 361 10 

13 Military Genius 472 

14 Electromotive Force 369 

15 "Democracy" in a School 396 13 

16 Mr. Bryan's Reply to the Arbitration Offer 354 

17 The United States' Preeminence in Electric Works... 392 15 

18 President Wilson's Address on the Canal Tolls 421 

19 Industrial Unrest 461 17 

20 "Providential" Arrangement of the Alpine Regions... 436 

21 The Initiative and Referendum 412 

22 Invention , 470 21 

23 Socialism: Promise or Menace? 417 22 

24 A Public Defender 479 23 

25 Cutting the Non-Productive Labor Cost 543 

26 " The Last Shot" 537 26 

27 Moral Training in our Public Schools 464 28 

28 Lincoln Dead and a Nation in Grief 555 

29 New Relics of Ancient Indians 558 

30 Jury Trials in the Surrogate's Court 572 

31 Common-Sense 563 

32 The Coal Strike in Colorado 571 35 

33 Electric Generators and Motors 535 

34 A Corrupt Public Sentiment 541 

35 Public Education 608 

36 A Plea for Equal Rights 592 40 

37 Middlemen and Menials 631 

38 Chinese Example in Reform 527 

39 Cost of Living 530 45 

40 Business Its Interests and Relations 640 

41 Women in Constitutional Convention 589 

42 How Naval Guns Are Aimed 633 50 

43 Electric Taxicabs 615 51 

Number of 

Words Page 

44 The Strenuous Life 556 53 

45 The Gridiron or the Nation? 572 54 

46 Tolerance in Religion 645 56 

47 How to Succeed 655 57 

48 - Success 611 59 

49 President Wilson's Appeal for Neutrality 634 60 

50 The Mexican Struggle 612 62 

51 Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address 690 64 

52 Tonics 558 65 

53 New Demands in Education 619 67 

54 The First Mercantile Agency 605 68 

55 The Mind That Thinks in Colors 691 70 

56 Advertising the American Church 667 72 

57 Making Man-o'-Warsmen Out of Landsmen 685 73 

58 The Women's Declaration of Independence 1914 780 75 

59 The Point of Contact 648 77 

60 Fight for Purer Foods 631 79 

61 Mr. Underwood and Our Merchant Marine 632 80 

62 What Is Advertising? 668 82 

63 Free Trade Versus Reciprocity 643 84 

64 Night Tests of Big Guns 702 85 

65 The Navy 637 87 

66 Judge Gary on Business and National Wars 678 89 

67 Organization 738 91 

68 War Draft Upon the World's Capital Supply 729 93 

69 The Socializing Value of Fraternity Life 696 95 

70 Earthquakes 761 96 

71 Public Education 726 

72 Quarantine Defense: A Phase of Preventive Medicine. 747 100 

73 Are We Prepared for the Panama Canal? 728 

74 Censoring Cable Messages During European War.... 737 

75 California and the Alien Land Question 794 106 

76 Railway Rates Decision 810 108 

77 The Teacher's Ideal, by William James 856 110 

78 National and Industrial Peace 854 112 

79 The Ultramicroscope 803 

80 Price Maintenance Encourages Individual Enterprise.. 847 116 

81 Our Need of Perspective 870 118 

82 What Is Feminism? 803 120 

83 American Business Opportunities in Asia 861 122 

84 Environment 985 125 

85 The Revenue Cutter Service , 943 127 

86 Votes for Women 985 129 

87 The Conciliation Court 920 132 

88 Things Not Learned in School 926 134 

89 Count Witte on Socialism 920 136 

90 The Chief Aim of Education. . . 869 139 

91 Profit-Sharing 997 141 

92 The Associated Press 1017 143 

93 Package Car Service and the Retailer 998 146 

94 The War at Our Doors 1085 148 

95 Labor 1165 151 

96 What Is Wrong with the College? 1087 153 

97 President Wilson's Message . . 1200 156 

98 Irving 1094 159 

99 War Proves the Religion of To-Day 1100 161 

100 The Workmen's Compensation Case 1293 164 

101 Federal Control of " Big Business" 1414 167 

102 President Wilson's First Inaugural Address 1685 170 

103 Bringing Up a Boy 266 174 

104 "Breaking" a Child's Will.... 379 175 

105 Skill of Hands, Eyes, Senses 236 176 

106 The Importance of Strong Motives 146 176 

107 The Boy's Judgment of His Parents 322 177 

108 The Importance of Keeping Faith 399 178 

109 New Standard of Purity) 178 179 

110 Sources of Satisfaction. .' 137 179 

111 What Doth Thy God Require of Thee? 898 180 

112 Court Testimony 1153 182 

Some Expert Suggestions 

in Regard to Obtaining 

Speed in Shorthand 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand, and Champion Shorthand 

Writer of the World. 

The seeker after high speed should devote himself to obtaining 10 
a thorough mastery of the principles of his system of 20 shorthand. 
Not until the ability to write shorthand without mental 30 hesitation 
has been acquired, should speed practice begin. 

A student 40 observing the note-taking of an experienced stenog- 
rapher will be struck 50 with admiration at the smoothness of the 
writing and the 60 perfect regularity of the outlines. An excellent 
method of practice 70 for the like facility is in the copying of a 80 
selection sentence by sentence until the whole is memorized, and 90 
then writing it over and over again. 

All notes taken 100 at any speed should strictly be compared with 
the printed 110 matter. It will then be found that many words are 120 
taken for others because of the forms they assume when 130 written 
under pressure. Most of these can be avoided by 140 careful attention 
to the writing. Experience alone will authorize any 150 deviation 
from the text-book forms. 

Phrasing should be indulged in 160 sparingly on unfamiliar matter. 
But on familiar matter the student 170 should always be alert for 
opportunities of saving both time 180 and effort by employing the 
principles of intersection, elimination of 190 consonants, and the 
joining of words of frequent occurrence. 

Nothing 200 less than absolute accuracy should satisfy the student. 
Conflicting outlines 210 should be carefully distinguished. Where 
words may be distinguished either 220 by the insertion of vowels or 
the changing of one 230 of the outlines, the latter should always be 


the method 240 employed; vowels should freely be inserted whenever 
possible. The sense 260 of the matter should be carefully preserved 
by the punctuation 260 of the notes, indicating the full stop and leaving 
spaces 270 in the notes between phrases. 

The best matter for the 280 student beginning practice for speed is 
to be found in 290 the dictation books compiled by the publishers of 
the system. 300 At first, the dictation should be slow to permit the 310 
making of careful outlines. Gradually the speed should be in- 
creased 320 until the student is obliged to exert himself to keep 330 
pace with the reader; and occasionally short bursts of speed 340 
should be attempted as tests of the writer's progress. 

The 360 student ambitious to succeed will endeavor to familiarize 
himself with 360 all matters pertaining to stenography. By reading 
the shorthand magazines, 370 he will keep himself in touch with the 
latest developments 380 in the art. Facility in reading shorthand 
will also be 390 acquired by reading the shorthand plates in these 
magazines. For 400 comparison and suggestion, he will study the 
facsimile notes of 410 practical stenographers. He will neglect no 
opportunity to improve himself 420 in the use of his art. And, 
finally, he will 430 join a shorthand society, where he will come in 
contact 440 with other stenographers who are striving toward the 
same goal 450 as himself. [452. 


The use of repetition, or practising the same education matter 10 
over and over again, and the taking of dictation on 20 new matter 
are not antagonistic methods, but are complementary. 

Repetition, 30 the writing, perhaps thousands of times, of the same 
matter 40 under proper conditions is the greatest factor in producing 
digital 50 skill, smoothness of hand movement, etc. In other words 
it 60 is all important in the development of the technic of 70 shorthand 
speed. On the other hand, constant practice on new 80 matter, well 
selected and diversified matter, produces the mental coordination, 90 
the instant connection of the thing heard with its shorthand 100 
equivalent without which even moderate speed is impossible. 


In short 110 both methods should be followed. If the student is 
weak 120 in his ability to control his fingers, that is, to 130 make his 
shorthand notes accurately and quickly, but can remember 140 in- 
stantly the proper shorthand form, then he should by the 150 stress 
of repetition, if he has great physical ability and 160 is weak in recalling 
the shorthand sign, reverse the process. 170 Both methods should be 
vigorously pursued. [176. 


The surest and quickest way to become a 100% 10 stenographer is 
to be accurate and painstaking from the start. 20 Remember that 
illegible writing, whether shorthand or longhand, is of 30 little use 
to anyone. 

Thoroughness in the individual engenders enthusiasm 40 and a 
relish for his work, while in the aggregate 80 it is one of the essentials 
of a great nation. 60 

The ideal school-room is a beehive where everyone is busy, 70 
happy, and full of enthusiasm. 

Concentrate on the one lesson 80 in hand and never look ahead for 

Make a 90 thorough study of "distinguishing outlines," as literary 
writers do of 100 synonyms. 

Beware of ambiguous contractions and phrases no matter how 110 
tempting they may seem. 

An extensive English and shorthand vocabulary 120 is essential, 
therefore master your shorthand dictionary and a good 130 book on 

"Excelsior" is the motto for shorthand. The 140 student will 
sometimes encounter difficulties in his transcriptions, but should 150 
never accept a fall as a knockout blow. He should 160 profit by it 
and rise stronger after each contact with 170 mother earth, as did 
Antaeus in his fight with the 180 great Hercules. Above all, never 
make the same mistake twice. 190 

Practise punctuality and be seated sharp at the opening hour. 200 



Exercise often in the open air so as to have 210 strong steady nerves, 
good digestion, and a clear alert brain. 220 

From the start, use the best fountain-pen or pencil you 230 can 
obtain, and, preferably, flat-lying notebooks, clearly ruled and 
free 240 from spots. Sit as comfortably and unconstrainedly as 
possible so 250 as to write with a light flowing motion of the 260 arm. 

Even after a situation has been secured review occasionally 270 and 
keep abreast of the improvements in the system. 

Be 280 courteous, keep your nerves and temper always under 
control and 290 you should succeed. [293. 



Presupposing that the shorthand writer has thoroughly mastered the 
basic 10 principles of the system, I should say that since the 20 advent 
of the talking machine, one of the best methods 30 of developing 
speed is to dictate several hundred words of 40 testimony to it at a 
rate which will enable the 50 shorthand writer to make careful and 
accurate outlines. This exercise 60 should be written several times, 
gradually increasing the revolutions of 70 the machine each time. 
It will be found that this 80 method of practice will not only materially 
increase one's speed, 90 but do much toward developing the technic 
of rapid shorthand 100 writing. In the absence of a dictating machine, 
one should 110 utilize the services of a friend, a brother, a sister, 120 
etc. Constant practice, practice, practice, is absolutely essential 
to the 130 development of great manual dexterity. In shorthand, 
haste makes waste 140 ; it is the persistent plodder who achieves suc- 
cess. Furthermore, to 150 acquire as large a command of the language 
as possible, 160 the aspirant for speed should select a variety of 
matter 170 on which to practice, such as extracts from political 
speeches, 180 biographies, lectures on miscellaneous and scientific 
subjects, proceedings of conventions, 190 histories, sermons, addresses, 
essays, editorials, legislative proceedings, arguments of counsel, 200 
charges to juries, etc. In developing speed, the shorthand writer 210 
should refrain from using too many short cuts indiscriminately. 


These 220 should only be used for frequently-recurring words or ex- 
pressions, and 230 then not necessarily standardized. I am and 
always have been 240 opposed to short cuts that violate the funda- 
mental principles of 250 our Pitmanic systems, on the ground that 
they seriously interfere 260 with legibility, are deterrents to the 
achievement of manual deftness, 270 are veritable pitfalls, and cal- 
culated to create endless troubles for 280 the young reporter. [283. 


Speed in writing, combined with legibility, is the chief desidera- 
tum 10 of the shorthand writer. Are these objects best achieved by 20 
the student writing the same matter many times over, or 30 by 
practising writing on many different subjects? 

The first requisite 40 is to get the system into the head. Study 
the 50 theory according to the rules in the text-book until other 60 
words embracing the same rule can be written and the 70 principle 
applied without hesitation. This can be done by mastering 80 each 
principle as it is presented before proceeding with the 90 next, until 
all the rules are thoroughly understood. 

The brain 100 must act before the fingers can guide the pen or 110 
pencil correctly. Unless the principles exemplified by the rules of 120 
the system are so thoroughly familiarized as to be applied 130 in 
writing without conscious mental effort, a high rate of 140 speed can- 
not be acquired. Practising the same outlines many times 150 with- 
out a knowledge of the principles under which they are 160 written is 
working in the dark, it may be conducive 170 to speed on those par- 
ticular words, but will not tend 180 to the ability to write other words 
of the same 190 class. 

After the brain has comprehended the principles, repetition is 200 
necessary to enable the hand to move with ease and 210 facility. Of 
course this may be accomplished gradually with each 220 lesson from 
the beginning, but the plan of the writer 230 is to give particular at- 
tention to the study of the 240 theory and carefully written outlines 
through the lessons in the 250 text-book without any attempt at 
speed, then a review of 260 the sentences and letters from the begin- 
ning, seeing that the 270 first dictation is correctly written, afterwards 


writing the same matter 280 five to ten times, gradually increasing 
the speed, adding other 290 words when necessary to enable the 
student to fully understand 300 the application of the rules as they 
proceed. For such 310 additional work, "Pitman's Writing Exer- 
cises and Examination Tests" is helpful. 320 

To train the head and hand to work in perfect 330 unison, both the 
above methods must be used. Perfection cannot 340 be obtained by 
the use of one without the other. 350 

We would advise students to read all the printed shorthand 360 
they can get; memorize and practise the grammalogues, contractions 
and 370 phrases so that no conscious effort is required to bring 380 them 
to the mind and record them on paper; practise 390 writing on many 
different subjects; read back everything you write 400 ; write strictly 
in accordance with the rules; repeat the same 410 matter until it is 
as easy as A, B, C, 420 and shorthand will be a delight. [426. 



Merely taking dictation does not necessarily mean a gain either 10 
in speed or accuracy; practice should be carried on according 20 to a 
well arranged plan in which home work plays 30 just as important a 
part as class work. The following 40 method will bring good results 
if rigidly adhered to during 50 the entire period of speed practice. 

The student should use 60 two note books, one for taking dictation 
in class, the 70 other for home work. In the latter he should write 80 
every outline discussed by the teacher, as well as principles 90 ex- 
plained and other things new to the student. In addition 100 to this 
and it may mean the difference between success 110 and failure 
he should write every outline which, during the 120 reading back in 
class, he finds has been improperly or 130 poorly written. He should 
be a merciless task-master over himself, 140 putting down every word 
about which he is doubtful, even 150 common word signs such as 
"it" or "was," if they 160 have been poorly executed. 

The hardest thing for the ambitious 170 student to appreciate is 
that he cannot force his speed. 180 In taking dictation he should 


write no faster than will 190 enable him to make neat, symmetrical 
outlines, regardless of whether 200 he is compelled to leave out words, 
phrases or whole 210 sentences. Shorthand is worthless unless it is 
readable; it is 220 better to read correctly and quickly what has been 
written 230 than to make poor outlines and be uncertain about the 240 
whole of the matter which has been dictated. 

In his 250 home work the student should spend at least fifteen 
minutes 260 every day for a month copying the word-signs (gram- 
malogues and 270 contractions); and during the next month should 
review them once 280 a week. Each word noted in the home book 
should 290 be written at least twenty-five times, slowly at first and 300 
gradually increasing the speed during the repetitions. Care should 
be 310 taken not only to make neat notes, but attention should 320 be 
paid to holding the pen properly, keeping the point 330 near the 
paper between words to save time, correct position 340 at the table, etc. 

By practicing as outlined above a 350 definite amount of work can 
be accomplished each day and 360 a systematic method will be secured 
for discovering and overcoming 370 weaknesses. [371. 


How does a child learn to read? Isn't it by 10 first laboriously 
learning the ABC? How does anyone 20 learn anything? Isn't 
it by first laboriously learning the A 30 B C of the thing to be learned? 
Don't overlook 40 that word "laboriously." No learning can be 
acquired by grafting- 50 on processes; it all comes by labor. Short- 
hand is no 60 exception. One of the mysteries of acquiring speed in 
shorthand 70 writing is that speed comes in just about exact ratio 80 
to the labor put upon the study of the A 90 B C of whatever system 
of shorthand writing is learned. 100 

That is the experience which twenty-five years of shorthand 
writing 110 for daily bread has taught and is teaching with ever 120 
increasing power. It is in the first few months of 130 acquiring the 
art of shorthand writing that the pupil lays 140 the foundation, surely 
and irrevocably, for later high speed in 150 execution and speed in 
mental processes. Therefore, paradoxical as it 160 may appear, the 



sagest advice, and the most practical to 170 be given to the shorthand 
student, is to TAKE TIME 180 to lay the foundation well and truly, and 
speed, up 190 to a given degree, will be added naturally, without 
further 200 effort, as a consequence of it. Master the principles; 
master 210 the hand movement so as to form good outlines which 220 
are uniform in size, straight when they should be straight, 230 curved 
when they should be curved, at their proper angle, 240 and, in short, 
legible. Take time to do all that. 250 By taking time you are 
acquiring speed possibilities, sn that 260 when the mind and the hand 
have been trained to 270 correct habits, and when the mind, once 
these habits are 280 established, demands that the hand and the 
brain shall speed 290 up, they will speed up, speed together, and 
work so 300 harmoniously as to be simply astonishing. 

When the principles are 310 thoroughly mastered, when the hand 
is trained to good habits, 320 when the mind has habituated itself to 
instantaneous application of 330 established principles, practice, prac- 
tice, and practice again. Don't for one 340 moment let there be any 
excuse that speed practice requires 350 a specially set stage, a specially 
engaged reader, special paper 360 , pens, ink, and all the paraphernalia 
of artificial stimulus-. They 370 are all very well in their way. But 
accustom the 380 mind to meet the inconveniences of practical work, 
for there 390 will be no favors granted in practical work. There are 400 
plenty of free lecturers, sermonisers, talkers of all kinds, giving 410 
diversity in vocabulary and subject matter. Do your best at 420 
them, and keep at it though you don't get it 430 all. Read over what 
you have been able to get, 440 if possible; if not able to read all of 
it, 450 still keep trying. Speed in shorthand writing is the prize 460 for 
courage. It will come and it must come. Others 470 have done it, 
and you, having established yourself in the 480 principles, having 
become master over your brain and your hand, 490 so that both work 
in unison, will also acquire speed. 500 But, first, last and all the 
time, don't forget that 510 speed is acquired by laboriously making 
haste slowly during the 520 acquisition of the principles and of the 
mastery over your 530 hand and mind. Training for high speed 
begins with Lesson 540 One, when the pupil is geared in low speed. 
It 550 is just as disastrous to start in "high" in shorthand 560 writing 
as it is in driving an automobile it begins 570 in low speed, and you 
get into the high speed 580 because you started in low speed. [686. 




To hesitate, in shorthand writing, is to be lost, that 10 is, to hesi- 
tate to any great extent. In order to 20 write at the rate of 240 
words per minute, one 30 must write 4 words per second. In writing 
at that 40 speed, if unknown word or outline cause hesitation for half 50 
a second, one must write 6 words in the next 60 second; or if the stop 
is the length of a 70 second, 8 words must be written in the second 
following 80 , and so on. What causes hesitation? First, inability 
to accurately 90 hear the words uttered; second, lack of familiarity 
with the 100 words spoken; third, not knowing the outlines for the 
words 110 or not being able to quickly form them in the 120 mind; 
fourth, lack of manual skill; and fifth, unsuitable materials. 130 

To avoid the first cause of hesitation, one must have 140 a good ear, 
and see that the conditions are favorable 150 for distinct hearing. To 
eliminate the second cause, one must 160 be a constant student of 
words the meanings as well 170 as the sounds. He will be con- 
tinually on the alert 180 to enlarge his vocabulary by general reading 
and conversation, and 190 by listening to lectures, sermons, testimony, 
and discourse of as 200 many kinds as possible; and if any particular 
line of 210 business is to be followed, by becoming familiar with the 220 
special words and phrases peculiar to that line. 

Third: Not 230 only will he study words and their meanings, but 
will 240 get thoroughly in mind the best outlines for the words, 250 and he 
should continually form outlines for new words, first 260 before con- 
sulting a shorthand dictionary, in order to cultivate a 270 good 
judgment in selection. A good method of practice for 280 the latter 
purpose is to take a street directory, a 290 city directory of names, a 
list of the names of 300 the United States of the Union and of the 
principal 310 cities, also of the principal countries and cities of the 320 
world, and of the important names of history, and make 330 his own 
outlines for each, correcting or confirming his outline 340 by his 
shorthand dictionary or with an experienced writer. With 350 the 
great wealth of forms in the Pitmanic systems, much 360 tune and 
labor should be spent in acquiring this very 370 necessary judgment 
in the selection of outlines, for upon it 380 depends not only speed, 
but legibility. That part of the 390 text-book which deals with the 


same group of consonants distinguished 400 by difference of outline 
should be worked over and digested 410 until that faculty of the 
mind which has to do 420 with the choice of the proper forms is 
thoroughly trained. 430 

Fourth: Manual skill. There is only one way to gain 440 this by 
writing the outlines over and over again, until 450 the hand is ac- 
customed to form them instantly. This is 460 especially true of the 
forms that are peculiarly difficult for 470 the individual. Certain 
consonants or combinations give one writer trouble, 480 while to 
another they are easy. The student should pick 490 out his weak 
points. All, or nearly all, writers have 500 followed a speaker men- 
tally, and have been able to form 510 the outlines in the mind with 
the greatest rapidity, but 520 in placing them on paper have failed 
because of lack 530 of manual skill. 

Fifth: The materials. The instrument the pen 540 or pencil 
should be adapted to the individual. Whether a 550 pen or pencil is 
better for the individual must be 560 learned by experience. Every 
writer should be able to use 570 a pencil well, though he may do his 
best work 580 with a pen, for there are times when a pen, 590 even a 
fountain, cannot conveniently be used. If pen is 600 used, the paper 
should be suitable, not only for pen, 610 but for the style of pen. 

Phrasing. An article on 620 speed would not be complete without 
reference to phrasing. All 630 writers and authors will no doubt 
agree that some phrasing 640 is an aid to speed, but the point of 
difference 650 will be when to stop. A good phrase helps, a 660 bad 
phrase retards, speed. 

The acquisition of speed depends upon 670 the cultivation of the 
memory; the strengthening of the power 680 of recall; the develop- 
ment of the faculty of judgment in 690 the selection of proper out- 
lines; the obtaining of manual skill 700 ; and the choice of suitable 
materials. There is only one 710 way to reach the desired end: by 
constant practice. The 720 method of practice should be that which 
is found by 730 experiment to be the best adapted to the individual. 
In 740 general, the best results are obtained from short daily practice, 750 
rather than a number of hours one day and skipping 760 a day or more. 
In practice, it is not best 770 always to have a good reader; in fact, 
in the 780 latter part, it is better to have a poor reader 790 perhaps 
one who has a foreign accent or unusual pronunciation, 800 or in- 
distinct utterance for dictators are not always good talkers, 810 and 
in testimony few witnesses are even ordinarily clear speakers. 820 

Everything written should be read, and the weak points noted 830 


and special attention given to them. But the last word 840 in regard 
to speed is practice practice to form outlines 850 correctly and 
rapidly; practice to acquire a retentive memory, instant 860 recall, 
and,'finally, a quick, nice judgment in the selection 870 of the best 
forms for the words and phrases as 880 uttered. [881. 



The mental processes called into play in shorthand reporting 
necessarily 10 involve that the sounds which strike the ear must be 20 
recognized, analyzed, and translated into forms (symbols of sounds) 
which, 30 when recorded on paper, will represent those sounds. 
There are 40 three steps to be taken: 

1. Reception and recognition of 60 sounds by the ear a physical 
process largely automatic and 60 negative. 

2. Translation of the sounds into shorthand forms a 70 positive 
mental process, involving the closest co-ordination of mental 
powers. 80 

3. Recording of the shorthand forms on paper involving every 90 
complicated mental and mechanical process, all of them positive. 

Let 100 us note what is involved in these three distinct steps : 110 


This process has gone on 120 since birth, and at first thought might 
mistakenly be considered 130 automatic and negative, needing no 
practice in order to become 140 perfect, the sounds simply "piercing 
the hollow of the ear" 150 and starting the mental machinery into 
action. But it must 160 be remembered that there are all degrees of 
hearing. There 170 are good, bad, and very bad "listeners." In- 
deed, it is 180 possible by mental effort to inhibit sounds, so that 
words 190 of the most seductive or provoking sort have no effect 200 
on the mind; the hearer, as it were, positively shuts 210 the ear-gate 
and prevents the entrance of the intruder into 220 the private palace 
of personality, so that the sounds fall 230 harmless outside the gate. 


Pre-occupation (that is, turning mental effort 240 into another chan- 
nel) practically works out as inhibition; so also 250 does profound 
slumber. Thus it is literally true that we 260 may "have ears and 
yet hear not." 

It would be 270 well worth while for the ambitious reporter to pay 
attention 280 to this hearing process with a view to its improvement, 290 
both negative and positively. 

(a) The hearing can be made 300 more (electrically) alive and acute 
by attention to peculiarities of 310 tone, to inflections to pronuncia- 
tions, to dialect and brogue, to 320 quirks and turns of speech; also 
by the study of 330 phonetics which every reporter is supposed to 
have mastered in 340 connection with his study of the phonographic 
alphabet; but phonetics 350 should be studiously applied to the 
analysis and combination of 360 sounds in speech, in order to make 
the process of 370 phonetic analysis easy and rapid to attune the 
ear to 380 niceties of sounds, and eventually to enhance the pleasure 
of 390 actual reporting work. 

(b) The power of inhibition should be 400 developed, so that all 
side remarks of jury, counsel, or 410 court officials which, though sotto 
voce to the court, are 420 audible to the reporter, as well as all inter- 
rupting noises 430 such as opening or shutting of doors and windows, 
should 440 be absolutely shut out from the reporter's consciousness. 
This habit 450 of mental concentration operates to the reporter's 
benefit not only 460 negatively by inhibition of irrelevant sounds, 
but positively by sharpening 470 all the mental powers, filling the 
brain-cells with "live" blood, 480 and keeping them (electrically 
speaking) in a "positive" condition, so 490 that they can attack 
and master reporting problems as they 500 present themselves. A 
reporter with a "negative" brain or a 510 "negative" ear is beaten 
from the start! 


This is entirely a mental process, but two-fold, 530 involving the 
analysis of all sounds as sounds, and after 540 that their translation or 
transmutation into forms. Thus we have 550 the two chief elements 
of mental life side by side 560 analysis (or separation) and synthesis 
(or combination). The analyzing of 570 simple sounds (or primary 
units) and their combination into words 580 should begin with birth 
and continue through life, but in 590 actual educational experience 
the average reporter has had no practice 600 in these processes until 
he began the study of shorthand, 610 and usually even then the prac- 



tice was not pursued in 620 any systematic Way that could be of much 
help in 630 actual reporting work. 

Let us examine these processes. The shorthand 640 student was 
taught to think chiefly in terms of single 650 words (secondary units), 
but the reporter has been forced to 660 develop the habit of thinking 
in clauses and sentences. The 670 more attention a reporter has 
given to the principles and 680 practice of phrasing, the easier will be 
the habit of 690 thinking "in the large;" that is, of seizing groups of 700 
words and holding them in the mind until the hand 710 can transfix 
on paper their appropriate symbols. 

This might be 720 called the synthetic plan of reporting; that is, 
grasping by 730 groups (primary phrase units). As language comes 
to us generally 740 in "chunks," why should we not adopt a plan 
of 750 reproducing it in skeleton phrases which merely suggest those 
"chunks" 760 of language, taking the cue from the modern newspaper 
advertising 770 art. 


The writing of 780 the forms which represent the words and phrases 
translated from 790 the sounds heard is the last stage of the three- 
fold 800 process which I have thus roughly described. This recording 
process 810 combines mental and manual work, and both of the 
highest 820 order. 

Let us try to grasp and summarize each process. 830 

The sound-waves strike the tympanum and vibrate along the 
nerves 840 that ramify the brain-cells, and those sounds wake up 
the 850 corresponding words and phrases which have been stored in 
the 860 brain, or, as we say, in the memory; and something 870 happens 
which may be likened to the vision of the 880 prophet Ezekiel in the 
valley of dry bones. Those words 890 and phrases, hearing then- 
names called, suddenly awake, clothe themselves 900 each with his 
appropriate garment, and rush rapidly down the 910 nerve of the 
arm crying for expression. Now, just as 920 the memory has been 
trained, so will it respond to 930 the call of the sound wave; if it be 
a 940 word memory, words only will trip down the line; whereas 950 
if it be a phrase-memory, phrases will rush in clusters 960 and groups 
and troops. 

The hand that records these forms 970 is but the instrument of the 
brain and (speaking roughly) 980 the hand works automatically; yet 
the hand moves only within 990 the limits of its training, hence the 
brain must control 1000 the hand even in its practice. The hand 


cannot of 1010 itself initiate any movement, the brain being the 
motive power. 1020 Yet the hand may be handicapped by poor 
instruments a 1030 poor pen or pencil, rough paper, light-colored or 
greasy ink 1040 so that it cannot do its share of the work in 1050 spite 
of the best efforts of the brain. But granted 1060 proper materials 
with which the hand may work, then the 1070 more mechanical the 
movements of the hand can become the 1080 more satisfactory will 
be the work of the reporter. If 1090 the hand could be trained so as 
to work absolutely 1100 automatically, a great advance could be 
made in speed and 1120 legibility, for the brain using such a perfect 
instrument could 1130 expend its entire time and energy upon the 
more difficult 1140 mental processes involved in analyzing the sounds, 
bringing together their 1150 corresponding forms, and running those 
down the arm-nerve for representation 1160 by the facile hand of 
the ready writer. 

There is 1170 a great field for improvement in the muscular de- 
velopment of 1180 the reporter's hand. Surely there are exercises 
and gymnastics which 1190 might be adopted and practiced each 
morning that would make 1200 pliable the muscles, and ensure quick 
and reliable co-ordination in 1210 reporting. Perhaps no better hand 
gymnastics can be devised than 1220 the exercise involved in the modern 
method of touch typewriting. 1230 

It goes without saying that all the operations above referred 1240 to, 
mental as well as manual, the manual because of 1250 the mental, 
could be immensely improved, refined, developed. If shorthand 1260 
reporters would conscientiously note detailed points in their experi- 
ence in 1270 connection with these processes, an immense mass of 
data could 1280 be accumulated that would be of great value in deter- 
mining 1290 scientifically the basis of ideal shorthand forms and 
methods of 1300 handling them in rapid work. [1305 



Limitations of space require terseness in this article, and call 10 for 
brief facts rather than details. Many years' experience proves 20 
that the quickest way to achieve shorthand power and ability 80 



is to adhere strictly to the following points: First: Thoroughly 40 
understand the system. Second: Copy the exercises in the text- 50 
books and the shorthand magazines until print can be transcribed 60 
into shorthand perfectly at a fair rate of speed. Third: Practice 70 
writing the majority of the words in the English language 80 until 
they can be written with ease. Fourth: Systematic speed 90 prac- 
tice. Fifth: The acquisition of an extensive general knowledge. 

When 100 a speed of fifty or sixty words a minute is 110 achieved by 
copying in shorthand from such matter as newspaper 120 articles, 
commence dictation practice. Pick out slow orators, and practice 130 
on theu 1 speeches, or sermons, thus becoming acquainted with the 140 
practical part of shorthand, early in your career. Endeavor to 150 
write complete sentences. If the speaker is too rapid, leave 160 out 
adjectives and parentheses in order to achieve this 170 end, while 
preserving the author's thought. Always read over your 180 notes. 
Take regular dictation practice at a school, or from 190 a friend, or a 
phonograph. Try repetition practice if your shorthand powers 200 
seem to have arrived at a stand-still; that is, 210 write one passage 
over again, slightly increasing the speed because 220 you have to 
acquire a quickly-moving brain, and a 230 "responsive hand. 

All this time, read plenty of printed shorthand, 240 especially 
straight matter, because the vocabulary is somewhat limited 250 in 
court work. Carry a memorandum book, in which to 260 jot down 
words that conflict, good phrases, and, later on, 270 short-cuts. 

Get the best text-books in the system, 280 and endeavor to carry 
out the advice not of theorists, 290 but of those who have proved 
themselves to be high 300 speed-writers, as well as practical shorthand 
reporters. Besides acquiring 310 a thorough knowledge of the system 
and the ability 320 to write it, you have to gear up your brains to 330 
clearly grasp, and instantly, the speaker's thoughts, and to trans- 
mit 340 them intelligently to paper by a thoroughly-trained hand, 
and 350 fingers. Without these essentials, high-speed is impossible. 
Whilst an 360 effort should be made to write every word as rapidly 370 
as it is uttered, the brain should be educated so 380 in the memory. 
This will enable the shorthand writer to 390 catch up, at pauses. 
Avoid everything that clouds the mind 400 or disturbs the hand. At 
first do not adopt a 410 cramped style of writing. Always write to 
read. If in 420 doubt about writing a half length character, it is 
better 430 to write the double character. Give more attention to 
grammalogs 440 and words in position than to lengthy outlines. It 
is 450 advisable to get too much ink on the paper than 460 too little, 


in the early stages. Become absorbed in the 470 speaker's ideas, 
cultivate imagination in reading shorthand, and transcription will 480 
be easy. 

Study the best American and English writers, and 490 utilize their 
works for your dictation practice. This will enable 500 you to ac- 
quire a good vocabulary, as well as a 510 fair literary style, thus 
enabling you, when necessary, to make 520 good speeches for poor 
speakers. Avoid ingenious phrases and short 530 cuts, until you 
have developed the manual dexterity to write 540 close to one-hundred 
and sixty words a minute on 550 straight matter. Then increase 
your speed by learning the best 560 short cuts, suitable for the par- 
ticular work in which you 570 are engaged. Endeavor to write 
independently of the context and 580 to make yourself an intellectual 
machine, not a mere phonographic 590 automaton, recording words 
of which you fail to grasp meaning. 600 Endeavor also to write 
figures rapidly, in the ordinary Arabic 610 numerals. 

Acquire the power to condense, and never distort a 620 speaker's 
meaning, if you cannot get him verbatim. Rely 630 on yourself, and 
not on someone else to help you 640 out by reading over and correcting 
your transcript, and always 650 strive to make your report a finished 
literary production. After 660 studying carefully the advice of com- 
petent authorities, give your individuality 670 free play as to your 
style of writing, substituting other 680 outlines for those which you 
find difficult to write. Bear 690 in mind throughout your entire 
shorthand career, you will be 700 continually writing the same out- 
lines and phrases hundreds of times, 710 therefore get the best ones 
first, and avoid wasting time 720 unlearning what subsequently 
proves to be worthless. Develop concentration 730 and initiative, 
and grasp every situation you are reporting, because 740 every public 
shorthand assignment is different from all others. 

Expert 750 shorthand writing is the result of gradual growth. Do 
not 760 be deceived by alluring statements about short cuts outside 
the 770 text-books, which are not based on the principles of 780 the 
system. They are useless until you have a well 790 laid foundation, 
and have acquired a good speed on solid 800 matter. The beginner 
has a long road to travel. The acquisition 810 of the theory, and much 
reading practice in shorthand can be 820 done at odd moments, even 
in the street, and in 830 traveling back and forth to the office. 

The interest on 840 a wise expenditure of time and money will be 
enormous. 850 A knowledge of shorthand is one of the most valu- 
able 860 assets of to-day in the administration of the world's affairs. 870 


Steady persistency, and application will place in your hands a 880 
never failing money-making capability, which will always be in 890 
demand; and success in the art will result at first 900 in a fascinating 
and useful hobby, then in a steady salary, 910 and, lastly, with the 
exercise of constant perseverance and application, 920 in independence, 
and a lucrative income. [926. 



Aside from authorship there is perhaps no other calling in 10 which 
a thorough knowledge of the signification of words and their 20 proper 
application are more essential than that of the shorthand reporter 30 
because, in the practice of his art, he deals with 40 words and nothing 
but words and, as there is no 50 royal road to learning, the only 
secret of their mastery is 60 purposeful, conscientious and unremitting 

It may be a startling 70 declaration, but is nevertheless true, that 
words are the foundation 80 of worldly progress and human achieve- 
ment. Their potency is immeasurable, 90 for without words we 
would have no language, without language 100 no communication of 
ideas and without the communication of ideas, 110 the world would 
be a dreary waste and mankind the 120 mockery of creation. Words 
in combination, constitute the vehicle of 130 communication of man 
with his fellow-man. Without them 140 progress, education, enlight- 
enment, culture, achievement are impossible. - It is to 150 words that 
we owe our initial step from savagery to 160 civilization. The un- 
tutored mind is the mind of the savage 170 and the mind of the savage 
is a wordless mind. 180 The existence of words and their use have 
revolutionized mankind. 190 The dumb savage who once stalked 
ruthlessly, pitilessly, and murderously 200 o'er the earth is no more. 
He has succumbed 210 to the mystic power of words. Words are 
the artillery 220 of Fate before which the hosts of wordless races have 230 
gone down to everlasting defeat. In short, the tribes of 240 wordless 
man have vanished; the race is blotted out forever. 280 

Words, as words, notwithstanding their constant use, have un- 



fortunately 260 not received that degree of attention and study which 
their importance 270 demands. Proficiency in their use is not only 
deemed unessential 280 but, rather, a matter of supererogation than 
otherwise and it 290 is a matter of regret that we too frequently use 300 
them with but a hazy, indistinct realization of their true 310 applica- 
tion and with but a meagre appreciation of their force, 820 their 
triumphant power when a judicious choice is exercised in their 330 
selection. [331. 




Influences are continually working upon Congress to treat immi- 
gration as 10 fundamentally an evil, which must, perhaps, be toler- 
ated, but which 20 should be stringently regulated and restricted. 
There are not wanting 30 those who urge even that it be prohibited 
altogether for 40 a term of years. 

As a result of this urgency 50 we have property qualifications, illiter- 
acy tests and other requirements which 80 must be complied with 
before admitting the man of foreign 70 birth who seeks to bring willing 
hands and a stout 80 heart to aid in the development of our country. 

The 90 errors committed in efforts to regulate immigration spring 
usually from 100 an entire misconception of the worth of the immi- 
grant as 110 a factor in our progress. 

The immigrant should be looked 120 upon as so much raw material, 
brought to our shores 130 at his own expense, to be worked over in 
our 140 institutions and made into the finished product an American 
citizen. 160 

It is our part to take him in the rough 160 and deliver him per- 
fected; to put him, or his children, 170 through our schools; to subject 
him to the attrition of 180 our social and industrial system; to teach 
him to obey 190 our laws and to make of him a useful part 200 of our 
economic machinery. 

We do not complain that the 210 raw materials we import for our 
factories must go through 220 the processes of manufacture before 
becoming useful. We should not 230 expect the raw material of citizens 
to be already perfected. 240 

Our nation was founded by immigrants, though we call them 250 
more politely "Pilgrim Fathers" or "first settlers." It has been 260 
maintained and built up by the steady inflow of the 270 eager and 



ambitious 273 of every nation. To change the policy 280 by which this 
great annual contribution of humanity has been 290 made welcome is 

There are, of course, immigrants more 300 desirable than others. 
But the task of discriminating between them 310 is a delicate one. 
And however intelligently it may be 320 performed it still leaves upon 
the United States the even 330 more important duty of providing and 
maintaining in the utmost 340 perfection, the agencies that will trans- 
mute this raw material into 380 the finished product. [363. 


Every government in the world knows that the person and 10 the 
property of a British subject, wherever located, must be 20 adequately 
protected against injury or wrong. 

Failure to accord this 30 protection invariably results injuriously 
to the government through whose neglect 40 or connivance the wrong 
may have been suffered. So inevitable 50 is the punishment meted out 
to those concerned in doing 60 violence to the rights of a British sub- 
ject, in the 70 most remote and inaccessible parts of the world, that 
the 80 subjects or citizens of other foreign countries are, on that 90 
account, treated with a consideration often denied to the citizens 100 of 
weak governments even in their home countries. 

What is 110 the result of this unvarying British policy? The 
immunity of 120 her subjects from injury and wrong in all parts of 130 the 
world. Great Britain's reputation has been so thoroughly estab- 
lished 140 in this regard that it is seldom that she is 150 now called upon 
to demonstrate anew her adherence to the 160 fixed and relentless prin- 
ciples upon which it is based. 

A 170 Briton, wherever he may be, therefore, has a conscious assur- 
ance 180 at all times that a great compelling and irresistible force 190 
stands ever ready to protect his person and his property, 200 or exact 
the uttermost in punishment and in reparation for 210 the violation of 
either. While the same is true, 220 in a measure, of other nations, it 
is equally true 230 of none. Wherefore a British subject is usually 
accorded a 240 fuller exercise of his rights than are the subjects or 260 


citizens of other countries countries more lax in the assertion 260 
of the inviolability of the persons and the property of 270 their citi- 
zens. [272. 


Entering upon its fight against dishonest foods with a systematic 10 
campaign already mapped out, the American Pure Food League, 
which 20 is to be launched next week, promises to become a 30 most 
potent influence for good in a field that certainly 40 at present is not 
overcrowded. The seriousness of purpose 50 of the league is amply 
evidenced by the character of 60 its officers and members of its advis- 
ory board, which include 70 not alone men who have rendered long 
service in state 80 food control work, but men and women from other 
walks 90 of life who have given the pure food question both 100 careful 
study and earnest support. 

The work of the American 110 Pure Food League is to be construc- 
tive, and while 120 a great deal of attention will be devoted to raising 
the 130 standards of our food supplies through federal, state, and 
municipal 140 legislation, the problem will also be attacked along 
much broader 150 lines. The league recognizes the fact that one of 
the 160 most effective ways to fight the food fakers is to 170 spread among 
the public a better knowledge of the food 180 value of different foods, 
and to educate the people up 190 to refusing to purchase that which 
does not come up 200 to the required standard. This will be one of 
the 210 most important features of the league's work, and in view 220 of 
what already has been accomplished along this line by 230 the agents of 
decency it should be fruitful of much 240 practical result. Altogether 
the time is most propitious for the 250 launching of this new undertak- 
ing, and it should win the 260 hearty support of those who believe in 
protecting the rights 270 of the consumer to honest foods. [276. 


Electricity is brought to our homes over the service wires. 10 It is 
distributed to each room over the wiring system. 20 Here the switches 
must be installed for controlling the current, 30 for turning it off and 
on. Suitable lamp sockets, outlet 40 boxes, receptacles, etc., must be 


installed for the lamps, heating 60 and cooking devices and all other 
electrical apparatus to be 60 used. 

The ordinary lamp socket is a very simple device. 70 It is made of 
brass and porcelain. The two lead 80 wires are brought to the terminal 
screws of the socket. 90 The brass lining to this socket is threaded so 
the 100 lamp bulb can be screwed in place. The mere screwing 110 in of 
the lamp completes the circuit. 

The threaded brass 120 base of the lamp is one terminal. These 
correspond to 130 the terminals in the socket. When the lamp is 
screwed 140 in place, the connection is made and the current is 150 
turned on and off by the switch key. This is 160 only one of the many 
varieties of sockets on the 170 market. However much they may vary 
in design, the principle 180 is the same as above. 

There is but one rule 190 for adjusting wall and ceiling sockets. The 
insulation should be 200 kept perfect. Remove only enough of the 
insulating material from 210 the wires to make a good connection at 
the socket 220 terminals. Be sure the insulated wires are brought 
well up 230 into the base of the porcelain socket. 

For desk lamps, 240 heating devices, small motors, etc., screw 
sockets are a nuisance. 250 It is better to install plug receptacles. 
These are usually 260 located in the baseboard near the floor. To make 
the 270 connection the forked plug at one end of the flexible 280 cord is 
merely pushed into the receptacles. The pull socket 290 is another 
familiar type of socket. A short chain provided 300 with a small ball, 
is pulled to turn on and 310 off the light. This type of socket is very 
convenient 320 for ceiling fixtures which are often installed too high 
for 330 a short person to reach the keys to turn on 340 the lights. The 
pull chain can be extended to any 360 length. [361. 


On coming into a room, we think we see the 10 whole side of it at 
once the pictures, the cornice, 20 the chairs but we are deceived: 
being unconscious of the 30 motions of the eye, and that each object is 
rapidly, 40 but successively, presented to it. It is easy to show 80 that if 
the eye were steady, vision would be quickly 80 lost; that all those 
objects which are distinct and brilliant, 70 are so from the motion of 
the eye; that they 80 would disappear if it were otherwise. For 


example, let us 90 fix the eye on one point a thing difficult to 100 do, 
owing to the very disposition to motion in the 110 eye. When we have 
done so, we shall find that 120 the whole scene becomes more and more 
obscure, and finally 130 vanishes. If we change the direction of 
the eye but 140 ever so little, at once the whole scene will be 160 again 
perfect before us. These phenomena are consequent upon the 160 
retina, being subject to exhaustion, by the lights, shades, and 170 
colors of objects continuing to strike upon the same relative 180 
parts, and thus exhausting the nerve; but when the eye 190 shifts 
there is a new exercise of the nerve. 200 [200. 


In the human skeleton there are commonly enumerated 260 bones, 10 
which present every variety of size and figure. But all 20 these varie- 
ties may be reduced to three classes; the long 30 and round, as the 
bones of the upper extremities; the 40 broad and flat, as the bones of 
the skull; or 50 the short and square, as the separate bones that com- 
pose 60 the vertebral column. The long bones are adapted for mo- 
tion, 70 the flat for protection, and the square for motion combined 80 
with strength. Accordingly, the long bones are moulded into 
lengthened 90 cylinders, and form so many levers, exquisitely con- 
structed and combined. 100 In the employment of the flat bones for 
the covering 110 of some of the more tender and delicate organs, as 120 
the brain and spinal cord, the form of these bones 130 adds to their 
strength, as in the vaulted roof of 140 the skull; while in the construc- 
tion of the vertebral column, 150 composed of the short and square 
bones which are so 160 adjusted as to afford a limited range of motion 
with 170 a great degree of strength, so many and such opposite 180 pur- 
poses are effected by means so simple yet so efficient, 190 that no fabric 
constructed by human ingenuity approaches the perfection 200 of this 
admirable piece of mechanism. [206. 


When electric lights were first installed some twenty years ago, 10 
the light was turned on and off by a simple 20 key adjusted in the lamp 
socket. This idea still prevails 30 in many sockets, although the 


mechanism has been improved. Key 40 sockets are all right in every 
way, but they are 50 far from being the most convenient. 

Where key sockets are 60 installed it is necessary to grope around in 
the dark 70 for the lamp before the light can be turned on. 80 To 
obviate this nuisance the wall switch was brought out. 90 

By the aid of small switches it is possible to 100 turn on the lights 
before entering the room. The switch 110 is located beside the door 
and the lamp can be 120 placed on either the ceiling or the side wall, 
or 130 in any desired spot irrespective of the switch which controls 140 it. 

The wall switch is a very simple device designed 150 to make and 
break the circuit. It consists of a 160 loop of wire running up to the 
lamp circuit 170 wherever that may be, and it is operated by a 180 
small key. 

The current must flow through the switch before 190 it can reach the 
lamp. The current at the lamp 200 socket is turned on continuously, so 
that when the key 210 is turned at the switches the connection is made 
and 220 the lamp lights. Another half turn of the key breaks 230 the 
circuit and turns out the lamp. 

These wall switches 240 can be located where most convenient to the 
occupants of 250 the house. Electric lights in the home would not be 260 
nearly as convenient without them. With suitable switches the 
entire 270 house can be lighted from the front hall of any 280 floor at 
any time the rooms are to be illuminated. 290 [290. 


Do you know how great a difference the perspective makes 10 in the 
affairs of life? Take a splendid painting. As 20 you stand looking at it 
from a proper distance the 30 picture unfolds itself most delightfully. 
You see the drawing clearly 40 and you admire the exquisite coloring. 
Everything is distinct comprehensive. 60 You can appreciate the 
artist's work you can participate in 60 his ideals know why the 
picture was painted you understand 70 why it has been found worthy 
to occupy so conspicuous 80 a place in the gallery. 

Step close to the painting, 90 however, and you will be amazed to see 
what a 100 change there is in its effect. Where there was clearness 110 
distinctness something that you could see and admire there 120 is a 


more or less rough mass of paint that 130 conveys comparatively little 
impression. If you look closely you may 140 distinguish some of the 
outlines of the figures that once 150 told their story so plainly. The 
drawing is there the 160 colors, too the ideals are the same but 
there is 170 no mental appeal. The trouble is that in taking the 180 
closer view, you have sacrificed the perspective, and, without per- 
spective, 190 the beauties and graces of the work of art are 200 lost. 

The same rule applies to everything else in life. 210 We often fail to 
appreciate our blessings simply because we 220 are so close to them 
that we cannot see them 230 clearly. When we change our mode of 
employment we usually 240 find the new job full of every sort of inter- 
est, 250 and this sense of satisfaction continues until, having looked 
at 260 the work from every possible angle and dozens of different 270 
positions, we get so close to it that we are 280 unable to see its advan- 
tages any longer. 

At such times 290 it is a very good idea to postpone the leap 300 in the 
dark until we have had time to study 310 the present position more 
carefully. Treat it much as you 320 would the painting in the art 
gallery. Step back from 330 it and get a different perspective. Go 
away from the 340 place where you have been working so assiduously. 
Change the 350 environment, and stay away long enough to give 
yourself an 360 opportunity to realize exactly what the present job 
means. There 370 are positions from which one can never derive satis- 
faction, but 380 don't think that your job is in that class merely 390 
because you are temporarily out of sympathy with the work. 400 Per- 
haps it is nothing more serious than lack of proper 410 perspective, and 
this is something that can be remedied. [419. 


In the infancy of the art its results were comparatively 10 very 
rude. The type used was intended to imitate writing, 20 and par- 
took of the character of gothic and script. In 30 punctuating, they 
employed no marks at first other than the 40 period and colon; an 
oblique stroke was afterwards introduced, and 50 fulfilled the purpose 
of our comma. Pages had neither title 60 nor number. The divisions 
of words and sentences were very 70 imperfect, and the language was 
not divided into paragraphs. Capital 80 letters were not used to com- 


mence a sentence, nor in 90 proper names. No rules seem to have regu- 
lated their orthography, 100 which was entirely without method, and 
their abbreviations were so 110 numerous as to cause the necessity, in 
time, of publishing 120 a book, by the directions in which they could 
be 130 read. But one kind of letter was used throughout. A 140 space 
was left at the beginning of chapters for the 150 illuminator, who wrote 
in various colored ink the initial letter. 160 These were often elabo- 
rately ornamented, and very costly, being embellished 170 with flowers 
and figures, and sometimes variegated with gold and 180 silver. The 
first presses were fashioned after the common wine-press. 190 For a 
short time the paper was printed on but 200 one side, the blank sides 
being pasted together. The only 210 forms of books were the folio and 
quarto. Two or 220 three hundred copies were then considered a large 
edition. Dates 230 were often omitted, and the name of the printer, 
when 240 given, was placed at the end of the book. [249. 


The American system of Lynch Law began in what is 10 now known 
as the Piedmont county of Virginia, which was 20 at the time, the 
western frontier, and having no law 30 of its own, and being seven 
miles from the nearest 40 court of criminal jurisdiction, controversies 
were constantly referred to men 80 of sound judgment and impartiality 
in the district, whose decisions 60 were regarded as final. Prominent 
among these was a man 70 whose awards exhibited so much justice, 
judgment, and impartiality that 80 he was known throughout the 
county as Judge Lynch. In 90 the course of time criminals were 
brought before him, and 100 he awarded such punishment as he con- 
sidered just and proper. 110 There were other persons, in different 
districts, who acted as 120 arbitrators, and who awarded punishments; 
but Judge Lynch was the 130 most conspicuous, and consequently the 
system took his name, and 140 was called Lynch Law. This was a 
compliment to his 150 integrity and high character. But of late years, 
the term 160 has been regarded as a reproach, because violent and 
unprincipled 170 men, such men as Lynch was wont to punish, have 180 
set the laws at defiance, and while inflamed with passion, 190 or mad- 
dened by a thirst for revenge, have usurped the 200 prerogatives of the 
courts of justice. [206. 



It is our belief that a very great majority of 10 the American people 
have full confidence in the justness of 20 mind and sobriety of judg- 
ment of President Wilson. They support 30 him in the measures he 
has taken, not blindly, not 40 thoughtlessly, but because they are con- 
vinced by his statement of 50 the cause of action, because they believe 
him incapable of 60 " dragging the country into war" without justifica- 
tion, a serious 70 and, it seems to us, unfounded charge which has 
been 80 brought against him. 

The Tampico incident was but one of 90 many, and yet that was 
grave. There are persons, many 100 persons, who cannot be made to 
understand that an insult 110 to a flag or reparation for such an insult 
is 120 anything more than a trivial matter easily passed over. No per- 
son 130 who has seriously felt the weight of government responsibilities, 
no 140 person who has pondered the history of nations and their 160 
difficulties, no man who has worn the uniform of either 160 branch of 
the service ever takes that view. Senator Works 170 of California 
would have had us overrule Admiral Mayo and 180 declare adequate 
and satisfactory the reparation offered by the Mexican 190 commander 
at Tampico. That would have utterly destroyed us in 200 the sight of 
all Mexicans. They would at once 210 have felt that they could do 
what they pleased with 220 the "gringoes," who had shown that they 
would stand any 230 amount of insults. We should very soon have had 
to 240 make our choice between knuckling down after further affronts 
or 250 showing a tardy resentment, until some crowning outrage would 
have 260 ended the question forever. European nations, too, would 
have formed 270 the most unfavorable opinion of us and would have 
had 280 to consider the present necessity of looking out for their own 290 
interests in Mexico. Yet there were so many affronts put 300 upon us 
by men under Huerta's authority that taken together 310 they are far 
more serious than the Tampico matter. It 320 is strange that the pres- 
ent critics of the President have 330 failed to notice that for months 
we have steadily maintained 340 our preparation for forcible action, 
and have added to them. 350 Do those who denounce the President's 
action forget that a 360 short time ago some of them were abus- 
ing him for 370 inaction? [371. 



The order of the Interstate Commerce Commission of September 
19, 10 appointing yesterday for a hearing on the application of the 20 
railroads for further consideration of their request for higher rates 30 
limited the inquiry to facts disclosed since last June. Evidently 40 
the theory of the commission was that in its adverse 50 decision of 
August 1st it had covered the conditions existing 60 up to July 1st. 

Much doubt exists on this point, 70 but the facts disclosed since 
last June give the earlier 80 revelations new and startling prominence. 
While loss of business resulting 90 from war in Europe is not a sufficient 
reason for 100 higher rates, the dislocation of the world's finances which 
attends 110 that war is a matter too serious to be ignored. 120 There 
can be no just determination of the rate question 130 that does not rest 
upon a comprehensive survey of the 140 whole ground. 

War in Europe merely accentuates the plight of 150 the railroads, 
which are suffering from too much taxation, too 160 much political agi- 
tation, too much harmful legislation, such as the 170 full-crew laws, 
and from the higher cost of supplies 180 and constantly increasing pay- 
rolls. With income outstripped by outgo, 190 the greatest of American 
industries is in no position to 200 borrow money for betterments or to 
renew old loans, and 210 the whole world finds in the prices of American 
railroad 220 securities proof of the distrust with which investors regard 
the 230 situation. 

The problem, then, goes back to first principles, and, 240 in spite of 
the commission's limitations, embraces everything that it 260 passed 
upon, as we believe mistakenly, in its judgment last 260 summer. War 
is the new thing, but war only brings 270 into clearer light the difficul- 
ties which demagogy in the States 280 and bureaucracy at Washington 
have thus far ignored. Relief was 290 needed before the war. It is 
needed now for the 300 same reasons, made a little more imperative 
by war. 

In 310 a country so extensive as this, the transportation interest 
cannot 320 be starved without weakening every other industry. Its 
property must 330 be kept up. Its credit must be sustained. If 
prices 340 and wages rise, its rates must rise. Public regulation that 350 
is never constructive is certain soon or late to be 360 destructive. [361. 


The chief work of a general is to apply physical 10 force; to remove 
physical obstructions; to avail himself of physical 20 aids and advan- 
tages; to act on matter; to overcome rivers, 30 ramparts, mountains 
and human muscles; and these are not the 40 highest objects of mind, 
nor do they demand intelligence of 50 the highest order; and accord- 
ingly nothing is more common than 60 to find men, eminent in this 
department, who are wanting 70 in the noblest energies of the soul; 
in habits of 80 profound and liberal thinking, in imagination and taste, 
in the 90 capacity of enjoying works of genius, and in large and 100 
original views of human nature and society. The office of 110 a great 
general does not differ widely from that of 120 a great mechanician, 
whose business it is to frame new 130 combinations of physical forces, 
to adapt them to new circumstances, 140 and to remove new obstruc- 
tions. Accordingly great generals, away from 150 the camp, are often 
no greater men than the mechanician 160 taken from his workshop. In 
conversation they are often dull. 170 Deep and refined reasonings they 
cannot comprehend. We know that 180 there are splendid exceptions. 
Such was Caesar, at once the 190 greatest soldier and the most sagacious 
statesman of his age, 200 whilst in eloquence and literature, he left 
behind him almost 210 all, who had devoted themselves exclusively to 
these pursuits. But 220 such cases are rare. The conqueror of Napo- 
leon, the hero 230 of Waterloo, possesses undoubtedly great military 
talents; but we do 240 not understand, that his most partial admirers 
claim for him 250 a place in the highest class of minds. We will 260 not go 
down for illustration to such men as Nelson, 270 a man great on the 
deck, but debased by gross 280 vices, and who never pretended to 
enlargement of intellect. To 290 institute a comparison in point of 
talent and genius between 300 such men and Milton, Bacon and 
Shakespeare, is almost an 310 insult to these illustrious names. Who 
can think of these 320 truly great intelligences; of the range of their 
minds through 330 heaven and earth; of their deep intuition into the 
soul; 340 of their new and glowing combination of thought; of the 350 
energy with which they grasped, and subjected to their main 360 pur- 
pose, the infinite materials of illustration which nature and life 370 
afford who can think of the form of transcendent beauty 380 and 
grandeur which they created, or which were rather emanations 390 
of their own minds; of the calm wisdom and fervid 400 imagination 
which they conjoined; of the voice of power, in 410 which "though 


dead, they still speak," and awaken intellect, sensibility, 420 and 
genius in both hemispheres, who can think of such 430 men, and not 
feel the immense inferiority of the most 440 gifted warrior, whose ele- 
ments of thought are physical forces and 450 physical obstructions, and 
whose employment is the combination of the 460 lowest class of objects 
on which a powerful mind can 470 be employed? [472. 


' Electromotive force is a phrase which is of frequent use 10 in modern 
electrical literature, especially in connection with electric currents. 20 
The electromotive force in a wire through which a current 30 is flowing 
may be compared to the difference of pressures 40 in a long, narrow, 
horizontal pipe, through which water is 50 flowing. As the difference of 
the pressure at the two 60 ends of the pipe forces the water through in 
spite 70 of frictional resistance, so the difference of the potentials at 80 
the two ends of the wire forces the current through 90 in spite of the 
electrical resistance of the wire. This 100 difference of potentials is 
another name for electromotive force. Each 110 cell of a battery is a 
source of electromotive force, 120 and when the cells are connected in 
the usual way 130 (technically called in series) their electromotive 
forces are added together, 140 so that, for example, the electromotive 
force of a battery 150 of ten cells is ten times the electromotive force 
of 160 cell. Electromotive force can also be produced in a 170 wire by 
moving a magnet in its neighborhood, and this 180 electromotive force 
will be exactly proportional to the velocity of 190 the motion. The 
commercial unit of electromotive force is the 200 volt. Its magnitude 
may be inferred from the statement that 210 the electromotive force of 
a single cell is usually more 220 than one volt, and less than 2^ volts. 
Electro-motors 230 are contrivances for making a current produce 
continuous rotary 240 motion, the force producing the motion being 
sufficient to overcome 250 a considerable amount of mechanical resis- 
tance, and so do useful 260 work. Until quite recent years this object 
was effected by 270 the alternate making and unmaking of electro- 
magnets, which attracted 280 pieces of iron provided for the purpose, 
and caused them 290 to move in the directions required for producing 
continuous rotation. 300 In modern electro-motors the action is 
greatly intensified by 310 employing, instead of the above-mentioned 


pieces of iron, electro-magnets 320 whose poles are alternately attracted 
and repelled by those 330 of the fixed electro-magnets. In order to 
produce these 340 alternate attractions and repulsions the currents in 
the fixed magnets 350 are always in the same direction. The revolving 
electro-magnet 360 or group of electro-magnets is called the arma- 
ture. [369. 


Talk on "democracy" is a hackneyed commonplace at school and 10 
college gatherings. There is apparent a general longing for some- 
thing 20 not quite understood, but wrapped in a hazy halo of 30 ideality 
that seems to baffle definition of outline and clarity of 40 view. One 
would fancy it as a genial socialism, wherein all 50 the members lolled 
in supine equality, and we are asked 60 to believe this a desirable state 
of existence. Such a 70 conception of scholastic identity is manifestly 
absurd, for school life 80 is much like other social life. It has its differ- 
ences, 90 its individuals of prominence, and its collections of nobodies; 
its 100 leaders and its led. Nowhere is merit more sure of 110 its reward, 
and energy more promptly repaid. When we speak 120 of the democ- 
racy of Andover, we do not mean the 130 absolute equality of condition 
in its students. Nor do we mean 140 that rich and poor, the sons of 
somebody and the 150 sons of nobody in particular, endure one another 
with a 160 priggish altruism. We mean more than this ; we mean that 170 
here boys find unrestrained liberty to do and to win 180 regardless of 
their family tree or family bank account. We 190 mean that here all 
have equal right, equal opportunity, and 200 equal prompting to 
action, and the same chance to achieve 210 leadership in all the activi- 
ties of academic existence. This is 220 the democracy of opportunity, 
not an organization for the equalizing 230 of restraint. We believe in 
a common membership in the 240 community of intelligence; but this 
does not preclude the ascendancy 250 of intellect or the domination of 
character. What it does eliminate 260 is the subjection or the restraint 
of intelligence and character 270 in their rightful claims to development 
and growth. We mean 280 to maintain a school where potentialities 
are recognized and attainment 290 acknowledged. We are free to 
admit that, like all genuine 300 democracy, ours leads to a real aris- 
tocracy. This is the 310 great asset of Andover life, to arouse ambition, 


to provoke 320 effort, and to evolve men who must be heeded in 330 their 
world. The idler and the idle dreamer must look 340 elsewhere for 
approval and consideration; what we mean by democracy 350 is bound 
up in work, in the opportunity to grapple 360 with the achieving forces 
of intellect and character, and to 370 make oneself a leader if one can; 
for leaders there 380 must be, so long as the academy stands for 
power, 390 for worth, and for practical attainment. [396. 

Extract from Phillips Academy Bulletin, Andover. 


"The government of the United States is deeply sensible of 10 the 
friendliness, the good feeling and the generous concern for 20 the peace 
and welfare of America manifested in the joint 30 note just received 
from Your Excellency tendering the good offices 40 of your government 
to effect, if possible, a settlement of 50 the present difficulties existing 
between the government of the United 60 States and those who now 
claim to represent our sister 70 republic in Mexico. Conscious of the 
purpose with which the 80 proffer is made, this government does not 
feel at liberty 90 to decline it. Its own chief interest is in the 100 peace 
of America, the cordial intercourse of her republics and 110 their people 
and the happiness and prosperity which can spring 120 only out of frank 
mutual understandings and the friendship which 130 is created by a 
common purpose. The generous offer of 140 your governments is 
therefore accepted. 

"This government hopes most earnestly 150 that you may find those 
who speak for the several 160 elements of the Mexican people willing 
and ready to discuss 170 terms of satisfactory, and therefore, perma- 
nent settlement. If you should 180 find them willing, this government 
will be glad to take 190 up with you for discussion in the frankest and 
most 200 conciliatory spirit any proposals that may be authoritatively 
formulated, and 210 will hope that they may prove feasible and pro- 
phetic of 220 a new day of mutual co-operation and confidence in 
America. 230 

"This government feels bound in candor to say that, its 240 diplo- 
matic relations with Mexico being for the present severed, it 280 is not 
possible for it to make sure of an 260 uninterrupted opportunity to 


carry out the plan of intermediation which 270 you propose. It is, of 
course, possible that some act 280 of aggression on the part of those who 
control the 290 military forces of Mexico might oblige the United 
States to 300 act to the upsetting of the hopes of immediate peace, 310 
but this does not justify us in hesitating to accept 320 your generous 
suggestion. We shall hope for the best result 330 within a brief time 
enough to relieve our anxiety lest 340 most ill considered hostile 
demonstrationa should interrupt negotiations and disappoint 350 our 
hopes of peace." [354. 


A gold mining company which was opening up a property 10 at 
Santo Domingo, at a great elevation in the Cordillera 20 of Central 
Peru, wished to install a hydro-electric plant, so 30 it called for bids for 
a three-phase generator, rated at 40 300 horsepower, which could be 
transported to its destination on 50 muleback. The conservative 
British manufacturers of electrical machinery refused to 60 consider 
the contract on the ground that such a thing 70 had never been done 
before, and even the Continental houses 80 held that it was impossible 
to construct a machine of 90 greater capacity than 50 horsepower 
which could be transported as 100 specified. A German firm made a 
very low bid for 110 an installation that could be transported by wagon, 
but as 120 the expense of widening the trail to the mine would 130 have 
amounted to something like forty times the cost of 140 the machinery, 
this could not be entertained. The General Electric 150 Company of 
America, however, put its experts to work and 160 turned out an instal- 
lation that conformed to specifications in every 170 particular. This 
was carried to its place on mules, set 180 up and put in operation, and 
proved to be an 190 unqualified success in every respect from the out- 

The American 200 genius for working out hitherto unsolved mechan- 
ical problems had also 210 to be called upon in designing and building 
the hydro-electric 220 stations of the great copper mines hi Peru, 
where, on 230 account of the great elevation more than 13,000 240 feet 
extreme precautions had to be taken to avoid the disturbance 250 
of atmospheric electricity. The contracts for great hydro-electric 


works in 260 all parts of the world come to the United States 270 as a 
matter of course. Installations such as those of 280 the Tata and Cau- 
very projects in India, and those that 290 require steel trestle work of 
unpredecented magnitude, are given to 300 America by preference as 
the only country that has had 310 the special experience necessary for 
successfully carrying them through. 

One 320 of the greatest elements in the success of American machin- 
ery 330 abroad has been what might be called its superior "utility"; 340 
the fact that it will give a more valuable service 350 for the money 
invested in it. Often it is more 360 expensive than German or Belgian 
machinery; sometimes it has not 370 the "life" of that of England; but 
in practically 380 every instance its labor-saving and work-performing 
qualities make it the 390 best investment. [392. 

The World's Work Magazine. 


Gentlemen of the Congress: I have come to you upon 10 an errand 
which can be very briefly performed, but I 20 beg that you will not 
measure its importance by the 30 number of sentences in which I 
state it. 

No communication 40 1 have addressed to the Congress carried with 
it graver 80 or more far-reaching implications to the interest of the 60 
country, and I come now to speak upon a matter 70 with regard to 
which I am charged in a peculiar 80 degree by the Constitution itself 
with personal responsibility. 

I have 90 come to ask for the repeal of that provision of 100 the Pan- 
ama Canal act of Aug. 24, 1912, which exempts vessels 110 engaged in 
the coastwise trade of the United States 120 from payment of tolls, and 
to urge upon you the 130 justice, the wisdom and the large policy of 
such a 140 repeal with the utmost earnestness of which I am capable. 150 

In my own judgment, very fully considered and maturely 
formed, 160 that exemption constitutes a mistaken economic policy 
from every point 170 of view and is, moreover, in plain contraven- 
tion of the 180 treaty with Great Britain concerning the canal 
concluded on Nov. 190 18, 1901. 

But I have not come to you to urge 200 my personal views. I have 


come to state to you 210 a fact and a situation. Whatever may be our 
own 220 differences of opinion concerning this much debated measure, 
its meaning 230 is not debated outside the United States. Everywhere 
else the 240 language of the treaty is given but one interpretation and 250 
that interpretation precludes the exemption I am asking you to 260 

We consented to the treaty ; its language we accepted, 270 if we did 
not oiiginate it; and we are too 280 big, too powerful, too self-respecting 
a nation to interpret 290 with too strained or refined a reading of words 
of 300 our own promises just because we have power enough to 310 give 
us leave to read them as we please. 

The 320 large thing to do is the only thing we can 330 afford to do, a 
voluntary withdrawal from a position everywhere 340 questioned and 
misunderstood. We ought to reverse our action 350 without raising 
the question whether we were right or wrong, 360 and so once more 
deserve our reputation for generosity and 370 the redemption of every 
obligation without quibble or hesitation. 

PSO as k this of you in support of the foreign policy 390 of the Admin- 
istration. I shall not know how to deal 400 with other matters of even 
greater delicacy and nearer consequence 410 if you do not grant it to 
me in ungrudging 420 measure. [421 


Nine cardinal causes of industrial unrest, most generally agreed 
upon 10 by employers and employees alike, were presented to Congress 
to-day 20 by the Commission on Industrial Relations in its preliminary 
report, 30 as follows: 

"Largely a world-wide movement arising from a laudable 40 desire 
for better living conditions. Advanced by representatives of labor, 80 
Socialists, and employers, and generally endorsed. 

"A protest against low 60 wages, long hours, and improper work- 
ing conditions in many industries. 70 Advanced by practically all 
labor representatives and assented to by 80 many employers. 

"A desire on the part of the workers 90 for a voice in the determina- 
tion of conditions under which 100 they labor, and a revolt against 
arbitrary treatment of individual 110 workers and a suppression of 


organization. This was almost uniformly 120 approved by labor 

"Unemployment and the Insecurity of Employment 130 Generally 
advanced by witnesses from every standpoint. 

"Unjust Distribution of 140 Products of Industry Advanced by 
most labor representatives and 150 agreed to by most employers. 

"Misunderstanding and Prejudice Agreed to 160 by employers and 

"Agitation and Agitators Generally advanced by 170 employers, 
but defended by labor representatives and others as a 180 necessary 
means of education. 

"The rapid rise in prices as 190 compared with wages. 

"The rapidly growing feeling that redress for 200 injuries and 
oppression cannot be secured through existing institutions. 

"In 210 addition," says the report, "it has been stated by many 220 
witnesses that the tremendous immigration of the last quarter cen- 
tury, 230 while not itself a direct cause of unrest, has served 240 to 
accentuate the conditions arising from other causes by creating 260 
an oversupply of labor unfamiliar with American customs, lan- 
guage, 260 and conditions." 

While it presents no conclusions, leaving these for 270 later work, the 
commission, after more than a year's investigation 280 covering all 
phases of industry throughout the country in which 290 more than 500 
witnesses representing all relations of capital and 300 labor were exam- 
ined presents the question : 

"Is there need for 310 changes, improvements and adaptations, or 
must entirely new legal machinery 320 be devised for the control of 

The final report 330 and conclusions of the commission will be sub- 
mitted next August, 340 when its mission is concluded. 

These nine agreed causes were 350 the result of the examination of 
514 witnesses divided in 360 interests as follows: Affiliated with em- 
ployers, 181; affiliated with labor, 370 183; not affiliated with either 
group, 150. The witnesses included 380 seven members of the Indus- 
trial Workers of the World and 390 six representatives of the Socialist 

Proposals for constructive legislation, 400 the report announces, will 
be submitted to Congress covering labor 410 exchanges, industrial edu- 
cation, vocational guidance, and apprenticeship; safety, sanitation, 
health 420 of employees, and administration of laws relating thereto; 
smuggling of 430 Asiatics; mediation, conciliation, and arbitration; 


woman and child labor, minimum 440 wage, hours of labor; agriculture 
and farm labor; social insurance, 450 especially workmen's sickness 
and invalidity insurance; and labor and the 460 law. [461. 



But the longer I stayed among the Alps, and the 10 more closely I 
examined them, the more I was struck 20 by the one broad fact of there 
being a vast 30 Alpine plateau, or mass of elevated land, upon which 
nearly 40 all the highest peaks stood like children set upon a 50 table, 
removed, in most cases, far back from the edge 60 of the plateau, as if 
for fear of their falling. 70 And the result of this arrangement is a kind 
of 80 division of the whole of Switzerland into an upper and 90 lower 
mountain world; the lower mountain consisting of rich valleys, 100 
bordered by steep but easily accessible wooded banks of mountain, 110 
more or less divided by ravines, through which glimpses are 120 caught 
of the higher Alps; the upper world, reached after 130 the first steep 
banks of 3,000 or 4,000 feet in 140 height, have been surmounted, 
consisting of comparatively level but most 150 desolate traces of moor 
and rock, half covered by glacier, 160 and stretching to the feet of the 
true pinnacles of 170 the chain. It can hardly be necessary to point 
out 180 the perfect wisdom and kindness of this arrangement, as a 190 
provision for the safety of the inhabitants of the high 200 mountain 
regions. If the great peaks rose at once from 210 the deepest valleys, 
every stone which was struck from the 220 pinnacles, and every snow- 
wreath which slipped from their ledges, 230 would descend at once upon 
the inhabitable ground, over which 240 no year would pass without 
recording some calamity of earthslip 250 or avalanche. Besides this, 
the masses of snow, cast down 260 at once into the warmer air, would 
all melt rapidly 270 in the spring, causing furious inundations of every 
great river 280 for a month or six weeks. All these calamities are 290 
prevented by the peculiar structure of the Alps which has 300 been 
described. The broken rocks and the sliding snow of 310 the high 
peaks, instead of being dashed at once to 320 the vales, are caught upon 
the desolate shelves or shoulders 330 which everywhere surround the 


central crests. The soft banks 340 which terminate these shelves, 
traversed by no falling fragments, clothe 380 themselves with richest 
wood; while the masses of snow heaped 360 upon the ledge above them, 
in a climate neither so 370 warm as to thaw them quickly in the spring, 
nor 380 so cold as to protect them from all the power 390 of the summer 
sun, either form themselves into glaciers or 400 remain in slowly-wast- 
ing fields even to the close of 410 the year in either case supplying 
constant, abundant and regular streams 420 to the villages and pas- 
tures beneath, and to the rest 430 of Europe noble and navigable rivers. 



I believe in the initiative and referendum, which should 10 be used 
not to destroy representative government, but to correct 20 it when- 
ever it becomes misrepresentative. The power to invoke such 30 direct 
action, both by initiative and by referendum, should be 40 provided in 
such fashion as to prevent its being wantonly 60 or too frequently used. 
I do not believe that it 60 should be the easy or ordinary way of taking 
action. 70 In the great majority of cases it is far better 80 that action on 
legislative matters should be taken by those 90 specially delegated to 
perform the task; in other words, that 100 the work should be done by 
the experts chosen to 110 perform it. But where the men thus delegated 
fail to 120 perform their duty, then it should be in the power 130 of the 
people themselves to perform the duty. In a 140 recent speech Gov. 
McGovern of Wisconsin has described the plan 150 which has been 
adopted. Under this plan the effort to 160 obtain the law is first to be 
made through the 170 legislature, the bill being pushed as far as it will 180 
go; so that the details of the proposed measure may 190 be thrashed 
over in actual legislative debate. This gives opportunity 200 to perfect 
it in form and invites public scrutiny. Then, 210 if the legislature fails 
to enact it, it can be 220 enacted by the people on their own initiative, 
taken at 230 least four months before election. 

Moreover, where possible, the question 240 actually to be voted on 
by the people should be 250 made as simple as possible. In short, I 
believe that 260 the initiative and referendum should be used, not as 
substitutes 270 for representative government but as methods of mak- 


ing such government 280 really representative. Action by the initia- 
tive or referendum ought not 290 to be the normal way of legislation; 
but the 300 power to take it should be provided in the Constitution, 310 
so that if the representatives fail truly to represent the 320 people then 
the people shall have in their hands the 330 facilities to make good the 
failure. And I urge you 340 not to try to put constitutional fetters on 
the legislature, 350 as so many constitution makers have recently done. 
Such action 360 on your part would invite the courts to render nuga- 
tory 370 every legislative act to better social conditions. Give the 
legislature 380 an entirely free hand; and then provide by the initia- 
tive 390 and referendum that the people shall have power to reverse 400 
or supplement the work of the legislature should it ever 410 become 
necessary. [412. 


From a want of knowledge of the state of 10 science, and a due con- 
sideration of the proper time and 20 place, many ingenious minds have 
wasted their energies in fruitless 30 labor, waged with fortune an 
unequal war, and sunk into 40 the grave the victims of disappointed 
hopes. Such men are 50 frequently said to "Live before their time"; 
but it remains 60 to be proved whether, in the aggregate of cases, 
they 70 have done more good or evil, and whether they most 80 deserve 
our admiration or our pity. A premature, and consequently 90 an 
unsuccessful attempt, often so prejudices the public mind against 100 
an invention, that, when the proper time actually arrives for 110 its 
introduction, public sentiment is found arrayed against it, and 120 
difficulties have to be overcome which would not have existed 130 had 
the first essay never been made. 

The man of 140 true genius never lives before his time; he never un- 
dertakes 150 impossibilities, and always embarks in his enterprise at 
the suitable 160 place and period. Though he may catch a glimpse 
of 170 the coming light as it gilds the mountain top, long 180 before it 
has reached the eyes of his contemporaries, and 190 though he may 
hazard a prediction as to the future, 200 he acts with the present. 

There are some partial exceptions to 210 this rule, and among them I 
would mention, with high 220 respect, that of Oliver Evans, than whom 
no man in 230 this country has ever done more to improve the art 240 of 
locomotion. He indeed predicted that steam wagons would be 250 used 


on common roads, and made attempts to reduce his 260 idea to practice. 
The time, however, for the introduction of 270 this invention had not 
yet arrived. But he was more 280 successful in the invention of the 
American high-pressure engine, 290 which was so essential to the 
development of the vast 300 resources of the interior regions of our 
continent. This engine 310 was, at the time of its introduction, admir- 
ably adapted, in 320 its cheapness, simplicity of arrangement, small- 
ness of dimensions, and great 330 power, to the abundance of fuel, the 
extent of transportation, 340 and the primitive state of the arts in our 
country. 350 The low-pressure engine used by Fulton was procured 
from 360 England; and had steam navigation been confined to the 
employment 370 of this complex and ponderous machine, the Missis- 
sippi and its 380 tributaries would have remained for years unnavi- 
gated, except by the 390 canoe of the native or the flat-boat of the 400 

The invention and introduction of this engine required the 410 
application of genius, energy, and courage. The use of high 420 steam 
had been proposed in England, but had been discarded 430 on account 
of the supposed danger attending on its use, 440 and it was reserved 
for this country to demonstrate its 450 practical importance. Without 
precursory labors equivalent to those of Evans, 460 the present railway 
locomotive would not have been in existence. [470. 


If there be any intelligent student of Socialism who honestly 10 
thinks that it is merely an economic theory, or who 20 hopes that the 
Socialist State is likely to be instituted 30 and maintained in conform- 
ity with the traditional principles of religion 40 and morals, he will be 
constrained to accept the following 50 suggestions as entirely reason- 
able from the viewpoint of the Christian 60 and the Theist : 

Let Socialists eliminate from their postulates, principles, 70 and 
propaganda every element which is contrary to the traditional 80 
teachings on morals and religion. This will mean repudiation of 90 the 
theory of economic determinism in so far as the 100 theory implies 
materialism in philosophy, relativity in ethics, and in 110 religion, 


It will mean that they will no longer 120 defend confiscation and 
"love-unions," nor make the working class 130 and the Socialist State 
the supreme standard of morality, nor 140 teach that the principles of 
morality are essentially variable. 

It 150 will mean the rejection of their antagonism toward religion, 
and 160 of their attempts to explain the origin and development of 170 
religion on social and economic grounds. 

It will mean that 180 capitalists whose property is to be taken by 
the Socialist 190 State are to receive full compensation, and that no 
industry 200 which is not a natural monopoly is to be operated 210 by 
the State until experience has proved that the latter 220 is more 
efficient than private enterprise. 

How can Socialists accomplish 230 this task of elimination, expurga- 
tion, and purification? By a method 240 that is elementary in its sim- 
plicity. Let the Socialist party 250 in national convention formally 
repudiate all the printed works which 260 contain teaching advocated 
in the last paragraph; or let it 270 appoint a committee charged with 
the duty of relentlessly expurgating 280 from the approved books and 
pamphlets everything but the economic 290 arguments and proposals; 
condemn beforehand all periodicals, writers, and speakers 300 who 
refuse to conform to the new policy; and let 310 it commit the party to a 
program of "socialization" by 320 a gradual process through the 
method of competition in all 330 competitive industries, and with full 
compensation to all capitalists whose 340 property is taken over by the 
Socialist State. 

Only through 350 formal action of this kind can the Socialist move- 
ment purge itself 360 of responsibility for anti-religious and immoral 
teaching, or become 370 a purely economic organization and agency. 
When this has been 380 done, and the new policy in good faith enforced, 
religious 390 opposition to Socialism will probably cease. Until it has 
been 400 done, no such result can be expected by any intelligent 410 man 
who is honest in his thinking. [417. 


To guard the rights of those accused of crime the 10 coming con- 
stitutional convention will be asked to provide for the 20 appointment 
of a public defender for New York City, if 30 the movement now being 
agitated among the lawyers of Manhattan 40 shows sufficient strength. 


The idea was broached at a recent 50 meeting of the Bar and has found 
so much favor 60 that a committee will probably be asked to act upon 70 
the suggestion. 

The proposal is for the State to provide 80 a person who shall 
defend persons accused in the same 90 manner that the District Attor- 
ney prosecutes those who have committed 100 offences against the 
Commonwealth. It is based on the theory 110 that it is better for a 
thousand guilty men to 120 escape than one innocent man should suffer. 
The idea has 130 been tried with success in Los Angeles, Cal., and in 
Oklahoma. 140 

Where the system is in vogue a high class lawyer 150 is elected, with 
power to employ detectives and investigators to 160 aid in getting at 
the truth of all cases and 170 see that the accused has an equal chance 
with the 180 prosecution. 

While courts now appoint lawyers to defend persons accused 190 of 
crime, such assignments, it is contended, go often to 200 young and 
inexperienced lawyers or to the criminal practitioner who 210 happens 
to be in the court room at the time, 220 and who, as a rule, is not keen 
about accepting 230 such assignments. 

"I believe that the passage of any law," 240 said one attorney yes- 
terday, "which would have a tendency to 250 place all of our citizens 
on equal footing and tend 260 to strengthen and preserve their rights 
and liberties must necessarily 270 appeal to the intelligence and reason 
of the people of 280 the State. I sincerely trust that from among the 
delegates 290 which New York City will send to the constitutional 
convention, 300 there will be found several who will advocate an 
amendment 310 creating the office of public defender." 

The members of the 320 Bar before whom this suggestion was laid 
were much impressed. 330 There are many lawyers who believe that 
under the present 340 system those accused of crime are already too 
carefully protected by 350 various legal presumptions and technicali- 
ties, and they believe that the 360 administration of criminal law in the 
courts is highly unsatisfactory, 370 unnecessarily expensive and unduly 

Despite this condition, it was 380 explained that if by the creation 
of the office of 390 public defender greater power could be placed at the 
disposal 400 of a person accused of crime to establish his innocence, 410 
or to combat the testimony of the people's witnesses, without 420 
delaying, defeating or embarrassing true justice, the administration 
of the 430 criminal law would be facilitated and a much needed 
reform 440 accomplished. 


By the time the delegates to the constitutional convention 450 are 
selected lawyers interested in the idea purpose to see 460 that they 
leave with instructions to do what they can 470 toward the creation of 
the office of public defender. [479. 


Non-productive labor is one of the most fruitful sources of 10 leakage 
in factory work. It is so variable in quantity 20 and so difficult to 
control through the ordinary methods of 30 job records, that it is gen- 
erally not easy to keep it 40 at a minimum. Yet how dangerous a 
leakage can develop 50 through inefficient control of this class of labor 
is well 60 illustrated by the following examples: 

While a London manufacturer employing 70 about 2,000 hands, was 
going back through his financial records 80 one day in an endeavor to 
trace differences in working 90 expenses, he noticed the comparatively 
non-fluctuating character of the figures 100 for non-productive labor. 
The absence of variation was most noticeable, 110 for the firm had just 
passed through a very bad 120 year, during which their production had 
been fully 40 per 130 cent, below normal. A closer investigation re- 
vealed the fact that 140 for years there had been little variation in the 
number 150 of non-productive employees. Additional men taken on 
during a busy 160 season had been retained, and owing to the inefficient 
labor 170 control they had been able to adjust their work in 180 such a 
manner that they always had something to do 190 when the officials 
were in sight. Careful analysis proved that 200 the non-productive 
labor employed was more than double the amount 210 necessary for 
the purposes of the business, and the reduction 220 which subsequently 
took place resulted in a saving of nearly 230 $3,500 a year on that item 

The manager of 240 a printing works stopped two men who were 
pushing a 250 heavy truck of paper, to inquire why the two men 260 were 
necessary. A trial of the work conclusively proved to 270 him that the 
two were necessary and he set to 280 work to discover the reason. 
Improved trucks were tried, but 290 without much success. Finally 
the rough, uneven concrete floor was 300 taken up, and a new floor 


faced with hard wood 310 blocks was laid. Coupled with easier trucks 
this wrought an 320 immediate improvement, and the heavy loads can 
now easily be 330 pushed along by a boy. 

A considerable amount of useless 340 non-productive labor was 
eliminated in a French motor factory by 350 a simple change in the 
internal arrangements. The departments were 360 arranged in con- 
secutive order, with the stores at the side, 370 so that very little hand- 
ling of parts was required. Nevertheless, 380 the little that was re- 
quired was expensive, and methods of 390 reducing it were investi- 
gated. Eventually, the stores room was extended, 400 the projecting 
sections were used exclusively for the transfer of 410 parts in produc- 
tion, from the department on one side to 420 the department on the 
other, and to each was attached 430 an inspection. By this means not 
only was a certain 440 amount of actual factory handling cost elim- 
inated, but the heavy 450 internal handling cost between the inspection 
departments and the sections 460 of the stores reserved for parts in 
course of production 470 was also considerably reduced. In eliminating 
the former, the latter 480 had been unconsciously increased in conse- 
quence; but under the new 490 arrangements both were kept down 
to a minimum. 

The last 500 two instances prove that the non-productive labor cost 
is not 610 always maintained at a high point because of inefficient 
control 520 over the work done and that it is often proportionately 530 
heavy because of internal weaknesses in the factory organization 
or 540 in the equipment. [643. 


(A book review by the author.) 


"The Last Shot" grew out of my experience in many 10 wars. I 
have been under fire without fighting; known the 20 comradeship of 
arms without bearing arms, and the hardships and 30 the humors of the 
march with only an observer's incentive. 40 A singular career, begun 
by chance, was pursued to the 50 ends of the earth in the study of the 
greatest 60 drama which the earth stages. Whether watching a small 
force 70 of white regulars disciplining a primitive people, or the 
complex 80 tactics of huge army against huge army; whether watching 


war 90 in the large or in the small, I have found 100 the same basic 
human qualities in the white heat of 110 conflict, working out the same 
illusions, heroisms, tragedies, and comedies. 120 

Methods of light and of motive power have not changed 130 more 
rapidly in the forty-odd years since the last 140 great European war 
than the soldier's weapons and his work. 150 With all the symbols of 
economic improvement the public is 160 familiar, while usually it 
thinks of the war in the 170 old symbols for want of familiarity with 
the new. My 180 aim is to express not only war fought to-day, sol- 
diers 190 of to-day under the fire of arms of to-day, but 200 also the 
effects of war in the nth degree of 210 modern organization and methods 
on a group of men and 220 women, free in its realism from the wild 
improbabilities of 230 some latter day novelists who have given us 
wars in 240 the air or regaled us with the decimation of armies 250 by 
explosives dropped from dirigibles or their asphyxiation by noxious 260 
gases compounded by the hero of the tale. 

The Russo- 270 Japanese and the Balkan campaigns, particular in 
their nature, gave 280 me useful impressions, but not the scene for my 
purpose. 290 The world must think of those wars comparatively as 
second- 3 rate and only partially illustrative, when its fearful curios- 
ity and 310 more fearful apprehension centre on the possibility of the 
clash 320 of arms between the enormous forces of two first-class 330 
European land-powers, with their supreme training and precision 
in 340 arms. What would such a war mean in reality to 350 the soldiers 
engaged? What the play of human elements? What 360 form the new 
symbols? Therefore have I laid my scene 370 in a small section of a 
European frontier, and the 380 time the present. 

Identify your combatants, some friends insist. Make 390 the 
Italians fight the Austrians, or the French fight the 400 Germans. As a 
spectator of wars, under the spell of 410 the growing cosmopolitanism 
that makes mankind more and more akin, 420 I could not see it in that 
way and be 430 true to my experience. My soldiers exist for my pur- 
pose 440 only as human beings. Race prejudices they have. Race 
prejudice 450 is one of the factors of war. But make the 460 prejudice 
English, Italian, German, Russian or French and there is 470 the 
temptation for reader or author to forget the story of 480 men as men 
and war as war. Even as 490 in the long campaign in Manchuria I 
would see a 500 battle simply as an argument to the death between 
little 510 fellows in short khaki blouses and big fellows in long 520 gray 
coats, so I see the Browns and the Grays 530 in "The Last Shot" take 
the field. [537. 



Is it reasonable to suppose that the rank and file 10 of our teachers 
will realize the importance of this aim 20 in teaching, so long as it has 
no recognition in 30 our public system of instruction? The moral 
element is largely 40 present among educators as an instinct, but it 
ought to 50 be evolved into a clear purpose with definite means of 60 
accomplishment. It is an open secret, in fact, that while 70 our public 
instruction is ostensibly secular, having nothing to do 80 directly with 
morals or religion, there is nothing about which 90 good teachers are 
more thoughtful and anxious than about the 100 means of moral 
influence. Occasionally some one from the outside 110 attacks our 
public schools as without morals and godless, but 120 there is no lack of 
stanch defenders on moral grounds. 130 Theoretically and even prac- 
tically, to a considerable extent, we are 140 all agreed upon the supreme 
value of moral education. But 150 there is striking inconsistency in 
our whole position on the 160 school problem. While the supreme 
value of the moral aim 170 will be generally admitted, it has no open 
recognition in 180 our school course, either as a principal or as a 190 
subordinate aim of instruction. Moral education is not germane to 200 
the avowed purposes of the public school. If it gets 210 in at all, it is 
by the back door. It 220 is incidental, not primary. The importance 
of making the leading 230 aim of education clear and conscious to 
teachers, is great. 240 If their conviction on this point is not clear, 
they 250 will certainly not concentrate their attention and efforts 
upon 260 its realization. Again, in a businesslike education, where 
there 270 are so many important and necessary results to be reached, 280 
it is very easy and common to put forward 290 a subordinate aim, and 
to lift it into undue prominence, even 300 allowing it to swallow up all 
the energies of teacher 310 and pupils. Owing to this diversity of opinion 
among teachers 320 as to the results to be reached, our public schools 330 
exhibit a chaos of conflicting theory and practice, and a 340 numberless 
brood of hobby-riders. 

School instruction can be brought 350 into the direct service of char- 
acter-building. This is the 360 point upon which most teachers are 
sceptical. Not much effort 370 has been made until recently to put the 
best moral 380 materials into the school studies, and that the most 
important 390 (reading, literature, and history), the chapter on relative 


values will show 400 that there is opportunity through all the grades 
for a 410 vivid and direct cultivation of moral ideas and convictions. 
The 420 second great series of studies, the natural sciences, comes in 430 
to support the moral aims, while the personal example and 440 influence 
of the teacher, and the common experiences and incidents 450 of school 
life and conduct, give abundant occasions to apply 460 and enforce 
moral ideas. [464. 

Extract from the chapter on "The Chief Aim of Education," in 
the book entitled, "Elements of General Method." 


In one hour joy lay without a pulse, without a 10 gleam or breath. 
A sorrow came that swept through the 20 land as huge storms sweep 
through the forest and field, 30 rolling thunder along the sky, dishevel- 
ing the flowers, daunting every 40 singer in thicket and forest, and 
pouring blackness and darkness 50 across the land and up the moun- 
tains. Did ever so 60 many hearts, in so brief a time, touch two such 70 
boundless feelings? It was the uttermost of joy; it was 80 the utter- 
most of sorrow noon and midnight, without a space 90 between. 

The blow brought not a sharp pang. It was 100 so terrible that at 
first it stunned sensibility. Citizens were 110 like men awakened at 
midnight by an earthquake and 120 bewildered to find everything that 
they were accustomed to trust 130 wavering and falling. The very 
earth was no longer solid. 140 The first feeling was the least. Men 
waited to get 150 straight to feel. They wandered in the streets as 
if 160 groping after some impending dread, or undeveloped sorrow, or 
someone 170 to tell them what ailed them. They met each other 180 as 
if each would ask the other "Am I awake, 190 or do I dream?" There 
was a piteous helplessness. Strong 200 men bowed down and wept. 
Other and common griefs belonged 210 to someone in chief; this 
belonged to all. It 220 was each and every man's. Every virtuous 
household in the 230 land felt as if its first-born were gone. Men 240 were 
bereaved and walked for days as if a corpse 250 lay unburied in their 
dwellings. There was nothing else to 260 think of. They could speak 
of nothing but that ; and 270 yet of that they could speak only falter- 
ingly. All business 280 was laid aside. Pleasure forgot to smile. The 
city for 290 nearly a week ceased to roar. The great Leviathan lay 300 
down and was still. Even avarice stood still, and greed 310 was 


strangely moved to generous sympathy and universal sorrow. 
Rear 320 to his name monuments, found charitable institutions, and 
write his 330 name above their lintels; but no monument will ever 
equal 340 the universal, spontaneous, and sublime sorrow that in a 
moment 350 swept down lines and parties, and covered up animosities, 
and 360 in an hour brought a divided people into unity of 370 grief and 
indivisible fellowship of anguish. 

Even he who now 380 sleeps has, by this event, been clothed with 
new influence. 390 Dead, he speaks to men who now willingly hear, 
what 400 before they refused to listen to. Now his simple and 410 
weighty words will he-gathered like those of Washington, and 420 your 
children and your children's children shall be taught to 430 ponder the 
simplicity and deep wisdom of utterances which in 440 their time 
passed, in party heat, as idle words. Men 450 will receive a new 
impulse of patriotism for his sake 460 and will guard with zeal the whole 
country which he 470 loved so well. I swear you, on the memory of 480 
this martyr, to hate slavery with an unappeasable hatred. 490 They 
will admire and imitate the firmness of this man, 500 his inflexible con- 
science for the right, and yet his gentleness, 510 as tender as a woman's, 
his moderation of spirit, which 520 not all the heat of party could 
inflame, nor all 530 the jars and disturbances of his country shake out 
of 540 place. I swear you to an emulation of his justice, 550 his modera- 
tion and his mercy. 1555. 


In a report on the Museum-Gates expedition, which investigated 
the 10 culture of the ancient Pueblos of the upper Gila River 20 region 
of New Mexico and Arizona, Dr. Walter Hough of 30 the United States 
National Museum states that among thousands of 40 interesting and 
valuable objects pertaining to the lives of the 50 early inhabitants, 
many dried vegetables, fruits, and other perishable articles 60 were 
found, as well as a desiccated turkey. 

In a 70 cave which formed the rear chamber of a row of 80 ruined 
stone abodes, on the banks of the Tularosa River 90 a tributary of the 
San Francisco River the explorers found much 100 material repre- 
sentative of the domestic life of the ancient dwellers. 110 Upon exca- 
vation this cave room yielded its treasures in sections, 120 as it were, 
different depths offering distinctly marked periods of occupation. 130 


Among the objects of importance was a brush made of 140 grass 
stems bound in a round bundle, similar to those 150 in use by the 
Pueblo Indians of today. In one 160 corner, near a rock mass, some 
small bows and arrows 170 and other offerings were unearthed, indi- 
cating the location of an 180 ancient shrine. 

From the rubbish and debris the remains of 190 several mammals 
and birds were identified; among them, deer, pronghorn, 200 bison, 
woodchuck, mice, rats, muskrats, rabbits, lynx, fox, skunk, bear, 210 a 
hawk, and adult turkey, chicks and eggs, and many 220 feathers of 
other birds, all of which occupied the cave 230 at one time or another, 
or were killed and stored 240 there by the early Indians. From early 
historical reports it 250 has been understood that the Pueblos raised 
turkeys, but the 260 discovery of this desiccated adult and chicks 
proves conclusively that 270 turkeys were kept in captivity probably 
for their feathers, which 280 were used in the manufacture of native 

Ears and 290 scattered grains of corn were found, as well as the 300 
remains and seeds of gourds, squashes, beans, other vegetables, and 310 
fruits and nuts. 

In the Tularosa cave there was pottery 320 of a rude form, while 
from several large open-air pueblos 330 examples of a very fine finish 
and ornamentation were collected. 340 The designs on the bowls 
commonly consist of four elements 350 based on the world quarters, 
the bottom usually being circular 360 and blank. Other designs are of 
combined hatched and solid 370 color, or of a checkered variety. Many 
small collections of 380 pottery were found in caves and springs where 
they had 390 been deposited as offerings. 

In the religion of these early 400 inhabitants the bird had an especial 
significance and is found 410 in nearly all their ceremonies, appearing 
as a solid image 420 in pottery and carving, depicted on surfaces as a 
fetish; 430 but more frequently its plumage is used in one way 440 or 

Interesting finds at Bear Creek Cave were a 450 number of ceremon- 
ial cigarettes, a symbolic form of incense offering 460 made of hollow 
reeds stuffed with aromatic herbs which burned 470 with a pleasing 

In the great sacred cave on 480 Blue River were found bows, arrows, 
painted rods, baskets, miniature 490 pottery, cigarettes, cotton cloth, 
beads, shrines on the floor 500 of the cavern. These were objects 
offered to the supernatural beings 510 and show the extremely compli- 
cated character of the ancient native 520 worship. 


Much of the territory covered by the report has 530 never been 
scientifically explored before, and the maps, field notes, 540 and natural 
history collections will throw much light on the 550 life of the ancient 
peoples of this region. [658. 


The most radical change is the introduction of jury trials 10 in 
the Surrogates' courts. At present the Surrogates' courts have 20 no 
power to dispose of claims against estates where the 30 validity of 
those claims is questioned, unless the persons interested 40 consent 
that the Surrogate may determine them. Under the present 60 law 
the Surrogate has absolutely no power to try such 60 claims. 

In most cases claimants to estates have a constitutional 70 right 
to a trial by jury. Such trials now go 80 to the Supreme Court and 
create further tedious litigation. Under 90 the new law the Surrogate 
is empowered to try those 100 actions himself before a jury in his own 

This 110 means a great saving of time, trouble and expense in 120 a 
great variety of actions. Of course, litigants will still 130 have the 
right to sue executors and administrators and representatives 140 of 
estates in the other courts, but under the new 150 law they will have 
to do so within three months 160 from the time of the rejection of the 
claim by 170 the executor or administrator. In case no such action is 180 
begun, the Surrogate will have complete power to determine the 190 
validity of such claims, with or without a jury, upon 200 the accounting 
of the executor or administrator. 

Another radical change 210 will be the trial of contested wills with 
a jury 220 in the Surrogate's court in cases where a trial by 230 jury is 
reasonably demanded. This will be of great assistance 240 in prevent- 
ing the law's delays. Under the present law a 250 will contest always is 
held before the Surrogate. Where the 260 Surrogate admits the will to 
probate there is, of course, 270 the right to appeal to the Appellate Di- 
vision of the 280 Supreme Court, as in every other case. 

But the old 290 law provides that after a will has been admitted to 300 
probate any heir-at-law or next of kin may 310 begin within two years 
thereafter an entirely new action 320 in the Supreme Court to deter- 
mine before a jury the 330 very issue that has been already decided by 


the Surrogate. 340 If a person under twenty-one years of age wishes 350 
to begin such an action he is allowed to do 360 so at any time within 
two years after attaining his 370 majority. If a prospective contestant 
is of unsound mind, is 380 imprisoned or absent from the State, his 
time to bring 390 such an action is extended until two years after such 400 
disability has been removed. 

In fact, after the decision of 410 the Surrogate upon the probate of 
a will it has 420 been possible to tie up an estate for twenty-three years. 

About 430 seventy-five per cent of the will contests at present 440 are 
absolutely without merit and are brought to embarrass, delay 450 and 
hamper the settlement of estates, because of this second 460 action, 
which the present law allows. These unfounded will contests 470 are 
sometimes brought simply to compel a settlement of the 480 contest. 
The present law in this regard is ridiculous and 490 absurd. It is with- 
out any reason to support it. Under 500 the new law to preserve the 
right of trial by 510 jury in a will contest the jury trial will be 520 held 
before the Surrogate. If the parties do not desire 530 a jury trial the 
Surrogate will try the case without 540 a jury, but whichever way the 
case is tried 550 there will be only one trial. 

It is remarkable that 560 the old law was permitted to stand as long 
as 570 it did. [672. 


It has been assumed by some people in their enthusiasm 10 for new 
ideas to the detriment certainly of the spread 20 of true knowledge 
that common-sense was somehow to be 30 dispensed with. Now we 
shall not find any system that 40 will take the place of common-sense, 
but never before 50 has there been such good and sufficient ground for 
revising 60 our notion of what is common-sense. To conservative 
and 70 timid people, it means merely conformity to tradition. To do 80 
as our grandmothers did, they assume to be common-sense, whereas 90 
it may be only nonsense. There is no better plea 100 for this revision 
than our psychology itself, which puts our 110 whole relation to life in 
a new light. But it 120 should lead us, not to ignore,. but rather to 
substitute a 130 true, for a spurious common-sense. 

If the idealism of 140 the present day has shown a tendency to 
become extreme, 150 it must not be overlooked that it is a reaction 160 
from the most pronounced materialism the world has ever known, 170 


and all reactions from extreme positions are liable themselves to 180 
be extreme. None the less, the present movement represents one 190 
of the most determined efforts in history to think clearly, 200 and a 
noteworthy attempt of a people to free themselves 210 from the bond- 
age of hopeless materialism to which both medicine 220 and theology 
were dooming the race. To realise the force 230 of this movement, 
we have only to consider that the 240 tenets of a hidebound theology 
and of equally hidebound 250 schools of medicine have been modified, 
if ever so 260 slightly, throughout the whole country by its powerful 
influence. While 270 these institutions will themselves admit this, 
no one who has 280 closely observed the medical and theological 
straws for the past 290 twenty years can have any doubt as to which 
way 300 the wind is blowing. It is one of the great 310 reactionary move- 
ments of history and, whereas we of the present 320 cannot estimate 
its proportions for lack of perspective, future historians 330 will so 
regard it. 

One evidence of common-sense, surely, 340 is to keep abreast of the 
times and to go 350 with the current when, upon investigation, that 
current is seen 360 to flow in the direction of the true interests of man- 
kind 370 and to be incident to the spiritual evolution of the 380 race. 
It is another evidence of common-sense to move 390 deliberately and, 
on general philosophic grounds, to avoid extremes. Theory 400 and 
practice must go together in philosophy as elsewhere. We 410 some- 
times perceive the truth in sudden gleams and flashes, but 420 by no 
such sudden movement is it incorporated in our 430 whole mental life, 
but rather by a deliberate and evolutionary 440 process. The propa- 
gation of truth is always checked by those 450 emotional enthusiasts 
who, having become enamored of a new theory, 460 hasten to announce 
it before they are in the least 470 able to put it into practice. Build 
your foundation well 480 and your superstructure will stand; other- 
wise it will surely 490 fall, to the derision of the scoffers. A tree shall 
be 500 judged by its fruits, not by what you have to 510 say about it. 
Therefore be moderate in theory and assiduous 520 in practice. Take 
the middle path. It is the best 530 road for a long journey. We were 
not destined here 540 to live as though we had no bodies but rather, 550 
it may be, to announce in the flesh the triumph 560 of the Spirit. [563. 
Extract from the "Philosophy of Self-Help." 



The typical southern Colorado coal mine is remote from any 10 
town, and the company owns the houses in which the 20 miners live 
and all lands upon which houses might be 30 conveniently built. The 
company owns the store, the school house 40 and the church if there is 
one. It pays the 50 school teacher, the physician and the minister. 
It controls the 60 sale of intoxicants, and regulates or prohibits the 
social evil. 70 It chooses and pays the marshal of the little settle- 
ment, 80 and singly or together the coal companies have controlled 
the 90 nomination and election of county officers, including those 
of the 100 county and district courts. These statements are not 
made as 110 an accusation against the companies, but as a record of 120 
undisputed facts, admitted by company officers and agents, and 
defended 130 by them upon the ground of practical necessity for the 140 
well-being of their employees and for the peaceful operation 150 of 
the industry. 

The company officials always professed their willingness 160 to treat 
with any of their employees who were dissatisfied, 170 but it was 
always a part of their policy to 180 retain no employee who was a 
trouble maker. They profess 190 the policy of the open shop, but 
the man who 200 began to talk unionism soon found himself out of 
work. 210 There being no other employment in the vicinity, discharge 
by 220 the company was equivalent to banishment. The company 
controlled the 230 government of the camp absolutely; in alliance with 
other corporations 240 and with the political machine it controlled the 
government of 250 the county; and for many years previous to 1913 
the 260 state government had been also under control of the corpora- 
tion 270 interests. The individual miner, or any group of miners, had 280 
no opportunity of redress. 

Both sides in the strike controversy 290 have admitted that their 
sole point of irreconcilable difference is 300 the recognition of the 
union, a point which the miners 310 have a lawful right to demand and 
which the companies 320 have a lawful right to refuse. So much has 
been 330 said of lawlessness on both sides that it is well 340 to emphasize 
the point that the unrestricted exercise of the 350 full lawful rights 
of either party would bring success to 360 its cause. The lawful rights 
are conflicting and irreconcilable. Peace 370 now exists only because 
lawful rights are suspended by military 380 force. 

The outbreak of violence that followed the withdrawal of 390 the 


state militia, like that which caused their entrance upon 400 the field, 
was inevitable under the circumstances. Its immediate occasion 410 
was the culmination of bitterness and hatred between the residents 420 
of the Ludlow tent colony of strikers and a small 430 group of militia- 
men who had become notorious for acts of 440 violence, lawlessness 
and injustice toward the unionists. The attack of 450 unionists upon 
the small force of militia remaining in the 460 district was treason 
and rebellion, but the basic cause of 470 this attack was a collapse 
of the state government for 480 which the miners were in nowise 
responsible, and it was 490 provoked by misconduct on the part of a 
few militiamen 500 which is openly denounced by all rightminded 
citizens, but for 510 which no punishment has been inflicted by the 

Since 520 that time the federal soldiers have enforced peace. The 
inevitable 530 result of their withdrawal would be riot, insurrection 
and anarchy. 540 An extraordinary session of the state legislature 
has provided a 550 war fund for the payment of past indebtedness 
and for 560 future contingencies, but it has made no settlement of 
the 570 controversy. [571. 


After any one of these machines has been properly started 10 it 
usually requires little attention while running; in fact, generators 20 or 
motors frequently operate all day without any care whatever. 30 

In the case of a machine that has not been 40 run before or has 
been changed in any way, it 50 is wise to watch it closely at first. It 
is 60 also well to give the bearings of a new machine 70 plenty of oil at 
first, but not enough to run 80 on the armature, commutator, or any 
part that would be 90 injured by it; and to run the belt rather slack 100 
until the bearings and belt are in easy working condition. 110 

If possible, a new machine should be run without load 120 or with a 
light one for an hour or two, 130 or for several hours in case of a large 
machine, 140 and it is bad practice to start a new machine 150 with its 
full load or even a large fraction of 160 it. This is true even if the 
machine has been 170 fully tested by its manufacturer and is in perfect 
condition, 180 because there may be some fault in setting it up 190 or 
some other circumstance that would cause trouble. All machinery 200 


requires some adjustment and care for a certain time to 210 get into 
smooth working order. 

When this condition is reached 220 the only attention required is to 
supply oil when needed, 230 keep the machine clean, and see that it is 
not 240 overloaded. A generator requires that its voltage or current 
should 250 be observed and regulated if it varies. The attendant 
should 260 always be ready and sure to detect the beginning of 270 any 
trouble, such as sparking, heating, noise, abnormally high or 280 low 
speed, etc., before any injury is caused, and to 290 overcome it. Such 
directions should be pretty thoroughly committed to 300 memory in 
order promptly to detect and remedy any trouble 310 when it occurs 
suddenly, as is usually the case. If 320 possible, the machine should 
be shut down instantly when any 330 indication of trouble appears, in 
order to avoid injury and 340 give time for examination. 

Keep all tools or pieces of 350 iron or steel away from the machine 
while running, as 360 they might be drawn in by the magnetism, per- 
haps getting 370 between the armature and pole pieces and ruining 
the machine. 380 For this reason use a zinc, brass, or copper oil 390 can 
instead of one of iron or "tin." 

Particular attention and 400 care should be given to the commutator 
and brushes, to 410 see that the former keeps perfectly smooth and that 
the 420 latter are in proper adjustment. 

Never lift a brush while 430 the machine is delivering current unless 
there are one or 440 more other brushes on the same side to carry the 450 
current, as the spark might make a bad burnt spot 460 on the commu- 
tator, or might burn the hand. 

Touch the 470 bearings and field coils occasionally to see whether or 
not they 480 are hot. To determine whether the armature is running 
hot, 490 place the hand in the current of air thrown out 500 from it by 
centrifugal force. 

Special care should be observed 510 by anyone who runs a generator 
or motor, to 520 avoid overloading it, because this is the cause of 
most 530 of the troubles which occur. [536. 

Cyclopedia of Modern Electricity. 


A corrupt public sentiment produces dishonesty. A public senti- 
ment in 10 which dishonesty is not disgraceful; in which bad men are 20 



respectable, are trusted, are honored, are exalted, is a curse 30 to the 
young. The fever of speculation, the universal derangement 40 of 
business, the growing laxness of morals are, to an 50 alarming extent, 
introducing such a state of things. 

If the 60 shocking stupidity of the public mind to atrocious dis- 
honesties is 70 not aroused; if good men do not bestir themselves to 80 
drag the young from this foul sorcery; if the 00 relaxed bands of hon- 
esty are not tightened, and conscience tutored 100 to a severer moral- 
ity, our night is at hand our 110 midnight not far off. Woe to that 
guilty people who 120 sit down upon broken laws, and wealth saved by 
injustice! 130 Woe to a generation fed by the bread of fraud, 140 whose 
children's inheritance shall be a perpetual memento of their 150 fathers' 
unrighteousness ; to whom dishonesty shall be made pleasant by asso- 
ciation 160 with the revered memories of father, brother and friend. 

But 170 when a whole people, united by a common disregard of 180 
justice, conspire to defraud public creditors, and States vie with 190 
States in an infamous repudiation of just debts, by open 200 or sinister 
methods; and nations exert their sovereignty to protect 210 and dignify 
the knavery of the commonwealth, then the confusion 220 of domestic 
affairs has bred a fiend before whose flight 230 honor fades away, and 
under whose feet the sanctity of 240 truth and the religion of solemn 
compacts are stamped down 250 and ground into the dirt. Need we 
ask the cause 260 of growing dishonesty among the young, the increas- 
ing untrustworthiness of 270 all agents, when States are seen clothed 
with the panoply 280 of dishonesty, and nations put on fraud for their 
garments? 290 

Absconding agents, swindling schemes, and defalcations, occurring 
in such melancholy 300 abundance, have at length ceased to be 
wonders, and rank 310 with the common accidents of fire and flood. 
The budget 320 of each week is incomplete without its mob and run- 
away 330 cashier its duel and defaulter, and as waves which roll 340 to 
the shore are lost in those which follow on, 350 so the villainies of each 
week obliterate the record of 360 the last. 

Men of notorious immorality, whose dishonesty is flagrant, 370 
whose private habits would disgrace the ditch are powerful and 380 
popular. I have seen a man stained with every sin, 390 except those 
which required courage; into whose head I do 400 not think a pure 
thought has entered for fifty years; 410 in whose heart an honorable 
feeling would droop from very 420 loneliness; in evil, he was ripe and 
rotten; hoary and 430 depraved in deed, in word, in his present life 
and 440 in all his past; evil when by himself, and viler 450 among men; 


corrupting to the young; to domestic fidelity, recreant; 460 to common 
honor, a traitor; to honesty, an outlaw; in 470 religion, a hypocrite 
base in all that is worthy of 480 man and accomplished in whatever is 
disgraceful, and purloin ; yet 400 this wretch could go where he would 
enter good men's 500 dwellings and purloin their votes. Men would 
curse him, yet 510 obey him; hate him, and assist him; warn their sons 520 
against him, and lead them to the polls for him. 530 A public senti- 
ment which produces ignominious knaves cannot breed honest 540 men. 



From an address delivered by ex-Gov. Glynn at the installation of 
Dr. Finley as the State's Commissioner of Education 

We honor a man and pay tribute to an idea. 10 Our public schools 
are the idea and Dr. Finley the 20 man. The man illustrates the idea 
and the idea typifies 30 the man. 

Upon that idea the thing we call civilization 40 is based. Upon it 
depend all enlightenment and all progress. 50 Where that idea is 
voiced the world goes forward, where 60 it is obscured the world stands 
still. Were it not 70 for that idea the centuries would be but idle 
moments 80 moving in a little circle; because of it man is 90 master of 
time, climbing heavenward with the years. That idea, 100 that con- 
cept, is education. 

Education is the link which binds 110 the hope of one generation 
to the achievement of the 120 next. It gives to the eager youth of the 
present 130 the fruits of all that men and women have done 140 since the 
morning of the first day. It keeps imperishable 150 the contributions 
of every age to the pleasure and profit 160 of the race. It makes the 
revolutions of yesterday the 170 conventions of to-day. It proclaims 
consideration for humanity, but preaches 180 love for man. It con- 
quers force by persuasion and slays 190 wrong by irony and wit. It 
fetters prejudice with logic and 200 liberates reason with rhetoric. 

To educate to draw forth 210 all the splendid possibilities of a 
human being is the 220 noblest task that any individual or any nation 
can attempt. 230 To educate to place the hard- won truths of van- 
ished 240 years before the questioning and aspiring mind is a respon- 
sibility 250 that rests upon every State and every nation. Barbarism 


cannot 260 compete with civilization, ignorance cannot match strength 
with intelligence. 270 The nations which have acted upon this fact 
have flourished 280 and gone forward; those which have neglected it 
have been compelled 290 to yield and to recede. 

It is not enough that a 300 select and distinguished few should be 
admitted to the benefits 310 of education. Just as no nation can be 
contented where 320 hundreds gorge while millions starve, so no nation 
can be 330 intelligent where the elect are educated and the multitude 
ignorant. 340 Education itself cries out against a monopoly of educa- 
tion; the 350 more we know the more we realize how necessary it is 360 
for others to know. 

Education, which reaches from the 370 highest in the State to the 
lowest, which knows no 380 distinctions of race or class, which is made 
the rightful 390 heritage of every child and becomes the reliance 
of every 400 citizen, is the greatest influence for good that any nation 410 
can possess. Where such education flourishes, there liberty breathes; 
where 420 it grows and spreads, there tolerance and humanity will be 430 
found. No man whose intelligence has been quickened into life is 440 
willingly a slave; no man who does not know the 460 reasons for his 
enfranchisement is really free. Ignorance and tyranny 460 go hand in 
hand; liberty and enlightenment are brothers. 

We 470 of the Republic have cause to congratulate ourselves on the 480 
wisdom and foresight of those who established our common schools. 490 
We have grown great and prosperous because, after this nation 500 put 
its hand to the proposition that all men are 510 politically equal, it 
made the proposition something more than an 520 assertion by provid- 
ing the surest means of preserving that equality. 530 One of the most 
significant facts in the history of our 540 country is that the man 
who wrote the Declaration of 550 Independence was one of the men 
who blazed the way 860 for the country's system of common schools. 
And when 570 Thomas Jefferson proclaimed to the world that Amer- 
ica's men demanded 580 freedom of conscience and of action, he per- 
formed no greater service 590 than when he sought for America's chil- 
dren that freedom of 600 education without which all other freedom is 
insecure. [6 8 


Our churches are multiplying on all sides; our missionary socie- 
ties, 10 Sunday-schools, and prayer meetings, and innumerable chari- 


table and reform 20 organizations are all in operation; but still the 
tide of 30 vice is swelling; and threatens the destruction of everything, 
and 40 the battlements of righteousness are weak against the raging 
element 50 of sin and death. Verily the world waits the coming 60 of 
some new element, some purifying power, some spirit of 70 mercy and 
love. The voice of woman has been silenced 80 in the state, the church, 
and the home, but man 90 cannot fulfill his destiny alone, he cannot 
redeem his race 100 unaided. There are deep and tender cords of 
sympathy and 110 love in the hearts of the down-fallen and oppressed 120 
that woman can touch more skillfully than man. The world 130 has 
never yet seen a truly great and virtuous nation, 140 because in the 
degradation of woman the very fountains of 150 life are poisoned at 
their source. It is vain to 160 look for silver and gold from the mines 
of copper 170 and lead. It is the wise mother that has the 180 wise son. 
So long as your women are slaves you 190 may throw your colleges and 
churches to the winds. You 200 can't have scholars and saints so long 
as your mothers 210 are ground to powder between the upper and 
nether millstones 220 of tyranny and lust. How seldom, now, is a 
father's 230 pride gratified, his fond hopes realized, in the budding 
genius 240 of his son. The wife is degraded, made the mere 250 creature 
of caprice, and the foolish son is heaviness to 260 his heart. Truly are 
the sins of the father visited 270 upon the children to the third and 
fourth generation. God 280 in His wisdom, has so linked the human 
family together, 290 that any violence done at one end of the chain 300 is 
felt throughout its length; and here, too, is the 310 law of restoration 
as in woman all have fallen, so 320 in her elevation shall the race be 
recreated. "Voices" were 330 the visitors and advisers of Joan of Arc. 
Do not 340 "voices" come to us daily from the haunts of poverty, 350 
sorrow, degradation and despair, already too long unheeded? 

Now is 360 the time for the women of this country, if they 370 would 
save our free institutions, to defend the right, to 380 buckle on the 
armor that can best resist the keenest 390 weapons of the enemy con- 
tempt and ridicule. The same religious 400 enthusiasm that nerved 
Joan of Arc to her work nerves 410 us to ours. In every generation God 
calls some men 420 and women for the utterance of the truth, a heroic 430 
action, and our work to-day is the fulfilling of 440 what has long since 
been foretold by the prophet "And 450 it shall come to pass after- 
ward, that I will pour 460 out my spirit upon all flesh, and your sons 
and 470 daughters shall prophesy." We do not expect our path 480 will 
be strewn with the flowers of popular applause, but 490 over the thorns 
of bigotry and prejudice will be our 500 way, and on our banners will 


beat the dark storm 61 -clouds of opposition from those who have 
entrenched themselves behind 520 the stormy bulwarks of custom and 
authority, and who have 530 fortified their position by every means, 
holy and unholy. But 540 we still steadfastly abide the result. Un- 
moved we will bear 550 it aloft. Undauntedly we will unfurl it to the 
gale, 560 for we know that the storm cannot rend from it 570 a shred, 
that the electric flash will but more clearly 580 show to us the glorious 
words inscribed upon it, "Equality 590 of Rights." [592. 


Technically, a middleman is any one who stands between the 10 
producer and the consumer. 

And most of the people 20 who use the expression "middleman" 
regard him as an animated 30 example of lost motion, a specimen of 
economic slack. 

No 40 doubt there are several professions and occupations that could 
be 50 abolished from civilized society with decided advantage. 

Edward Bellamy declared 60 advertising to be an economic waste; 
and he explained that 70 the cost of advertising was always counted 
in and added 80 to the value of the article, and was paid for 90 by the 
ultimate consumer. 

He then made his calculation that 100 by eliminating advertising the 
cost of the article to the 110 consumer would be much reduced. 

To this argument we make 120 no exception; but to the assumption 
that all advertising is 130 economic waste, a demurrer must here be 

Advertising is 140 telling who you are, where you are, and what 
you 150 have to offer the world in the way of service 160 or commodity. 
If nobody knows who you are, or what 170 you have to offer, you do no 
business, and the 180 world is the loser through giving you absent 

Life 190 is too short for the consumer to employ detectives to 200 
ferret out merchants who have the necessities of life to 210 sell. 

People who want to buy things do not catch 220 the seller, chloroform 
him and cram the orders into his 230 pocket. 


Parties who want milk should not seat themselves on 240 a stool in 
the middle of the field, in hope 250 that the cow will back up to them. 

This would 260 be as vain as for a man to step out 270 of his office on 
Broadway and shoot into the air 280 in the hope of firing into a flock 
of ducks 290 that might be flying over. 

Advertising is the proper education 300 of the public as to where the 
thing can be 310 found, and therefore it is a necessity. We are parts 320 
and particles of one another, but a little of the 330 kindly glue of human 
brotherhood is needed in order to 340 fasten us together. 

The policeman who keeps the crossing clear 350 and at the same time 
informs us as to the 360 location of the post-office and the First 
National Bank is, 370 no doubt, in one sense, an economic waste. On 
the 380 other hand, he is an economic necessity. He is a 390 necessary 

He relieves the congestion of traffic, and, granting 400 " the hypothesis 
that he does not misdirect us as to 410 the location of the post-office, 
he speeds us on our 420 way. 

The musician who entertains us, the lecturer who informs 430 us, and 
the lawyer who shows us how to keep 440 out of trouble all are 

We say that food 450 is the primal need. 

Next to this comes love. People 460 who are not properly nourished 
bicker without ceasing; so love 470 flees and stands aloof, naked and 
cold, with finger to 480 his lips. 

Granting that food is a primal need, food 490 then must be cooked 
and served. The very simple service 800 of the cafeterie, where you 
flunky for yourself, and pocket 510 your own fee, is a necessity. Some- 
body must cook and 520 somebody must serve. Otherwise all of us 
would have to 530 do the thing for ourselves, and then all of our 540 
efforts would be taken up in the search for food, 550 and we would be 
reduced to the occupation of the 560 caveman. 

Civilization is a great system of transfers. Each one 570 does the 
thing he can do best and works for 580 the good of all. 

There is just one way for 590 us to abolish the working class, and 
that is to 600 join it. 

So any man who does a needed service 610 for humanity should be 
honored. There are no menial tasks. 620 The necessary is the worthy, 
and the useful is the 630 sacred. [631. 



Dr. Horatio W. Dresser, of Harvard, in "Human Efficiency," 
a 10 book recently published, draws some interesting conclusions : 

"A few years ago 20 word was sent from Pekin that it was the 
intention 30 of the Chinese Empire to stamp out opium, root and 40 
branch. This endeavor to prohibit the use of the drug 50 in a land of 
400,000,000 inhabitants is equivalent, as one 60 writer remarked, to 
the endeavor to stop the use of 70 alcohol in five countries, each with 
a population nearly equal 80 to that of the United States. 

"The significant feature of 90 the plan as thus announced is its 
thoroughness. Without sentimentality, 100 and without attempting 
more at a time than human nature can 110 accomplish, the authorities 
decreed that ten years should be allowed 120 for the change. Hence, 
full allowances were made for the 130 laws of habit and the weaknesses 
of human nature; also 140 for the vested interests and the economic 
principle of supply 150 and demand. 

"The demand is attributed to the morbid craving 160 of the smoker 
for his drug. The supply comes from 170 the cultivation of the poppy 
from which the opium is 180 extracted. Hence the first step is taken 
with the decree that 190 not an acre of new land in China shall be 200 
devoted to the cultivation of the poppy. All the soil 210 under cultiva- 
tion for this poppy crop must be reduced one-^tenth each year, under 
penalty of confiscation. That is to 230 say, at the ten-year limit not 
an acre of 240 poppy-growing soil will be left in China. 

"Meanwhile, through 250 treaties and by other means, the nations 
that deal in 260 opium will be besought to stop the export of opium 270 
altogether within the ten years. The edict also forbids anyone 280 
to begin the use of opium, and all who are 290 addicted to the habit 
must be registered, only those registered 300 being permitted to buy 
the drug. Persons over sixty years 310 of age are not dealt with so 
severely, but all 320 others must decrease the amount twenty per cent 
annually. Teachers, 330 scholars, soldiers and sailors are required to 
abandon the habit 340 in three months. 

"Consider what reforms could be accomplished in 350 the world if all 
people should begin by giving such 360 thorough recognition to the 
enemy to be conquered, to the 370 conditions involved, and the habits 
implied. If in China, with 380 its reverence for authority and custom, 
such changes can be 390 brought about to be followed by other reforms 
no less radical 400 as the newspapers from time to time inform us, 


why 410 could we not expect any sort of reconstruction from the 420 pro- 
gressive peoples of the globe? It is this kind of 430 preparation for 
success that the modern movement in behalf of 440 efficiency calls for. 
"It is now time to dwell on 450 the conditions that make for success 
as the fruition of 460 the whole of life. The luxuriously wealthy may 
still cherish 470 the notion that money can purchase whatever life 
holds of 480 value. Meanwhile it is plain to any number of others 490 
that success is purchasable only in terms of wisdom, conduct, 500 
character. This implies the conviction that life exists for a 510 certain 
purpose, that there are laws which secure success even 520 though exter- 
nal and financial conditions be adverse." [527. 


The people of the east and west have not had 10 the same degree of 
good fortune. The big rise in 20 prices a few years ago was a cause of 
great 30 good fortune to the farmers, but was not equally beneficial 40 
on the whole to other classes of wage earners. The 60 great increase in 
the cost of living was due to 60 the great rise in the cost of foodstuffs, 
raw textiles, 70 and other natural products: so that the prosperity of 
the 80 farmer meant the detriment of wage earners in industrial lines. 90 

These classes of wage earners are now due for a share 100 of good 
fortune. A measurable reduction in the cost of 110 living is due. The 
rise in the cost of living 120 came from the remarkably good credit 
the world enjoyed in 130 the past ten years and the greatly increased 
consumption of 140 nations that were able to borrow more than they 
had 150 ever been able to borrow before. In fact, the world's 160 demand 
got to a point where it greatly exceeded the 170 supply. The situation 
has now been modified. 

Many countries are 180 experiencing great difficulty in satisfying 
their need for capital, and 190 very little new work is being undertaken 
anywhere in the 200 world. This means that for a time, at any rate, 210 
the demand for goods and the consumption of many countries 220 
will be reduced, and there is a probability that the 230 supply of goods 
will be in excess of the demand. 240 The price of commodities will fall 


"How soon this 250 condition of things will become apparent cannot 
be predicted with 260 certainty, as new demands for capital which must 
be satisfied 270 may arise. For example, if the Mexican situation were 
to 280 develop and trouble were to arise between the United States 290 
and Mexico large orders would have to be placed for 300 clothing, muni- 
tions of war, and other things needed by a great 310 army, and a fresh 
stimulus would be given in this 320 country to trade and consumption. 

"But, failing such conditions, 330 the restoration of peace in Europe 
and the economies of 340 young countries which have borrowed so 
heavily in recent years 350 cannot fail to bring reduced consumption. 
And reduced consumption will bring in its 360 train lower prices of 
commodities and reduced cost of living. 370 

"As far as this country is concerned such conditions would 380 not 
be to the disadvantage of the east as much 390 as to the west, as the 
latter has derived greater 400 benefit in proportion than the former 
from the rise of 410 prices in the last ten or fifteen years. 

"Of course 420 the east would in some degree suffer from a reduced 430 
demand for manufactured goods, but on the other hand the 440 
incomes from interest, services, and even from the manufacture of 450 
goods would give the east a greater relative consuming power. 460 
It is, however, highly improbable that prices will fall to 470 anything 
like the level they reached in the nineties. 480 

"As far as can be seen the reaction in the 490 world's trade will be a 
moderate one, and the great 500 accumulation of gold which will prob- 
ably result will soon tend 510 to restore confidence and make for 
expansion in trade and 520 consumption after a relatively short period 
of rest and recuperation. 530 [530. 

BY IRVING T. BUSH (Bush Terminal Founder) 

That business which is not based upon mutual service and 10 
advantage for the welfare of the people is not founded 20 upon the 
rock. I believe that factor to be the 30 vital one of commercial 
relationships. You may call it mutual 40 advantage if you wish, but 
an equal return is needful 50 for the proper maintenance of business 
relations. If the thing 60 gets out of balance it gets out of right, 


and 70 when it gets out of right it is time for 80 it to get out of busi- 
ness altogether or change its 90 methods. We have not seen the 
economic value of that 100 until recently, but we are waking up and 
beginning to 110 see things in their real light. Men have said that 120 
they could not stay in business and live up to 130 a high ethical 
standard, and I suppose they were right 140 then, but things have 
changed, and we are understanding that 150 men cannot stay in busi- 
ness and neglect the high standard. 160 Great enterprises have been 
distrusted by the public because of 170 grave personal abuses on the 
part of the men who 180 ran them. Men have taken advantage of 
conditions or personal 190 aggrandizement, and as a result the com- 
munities have changed the 200 conditions. A corporation is more or 
less a public servant. 210 It is entitled to a just reward, but not to 220 
the proceeds of bribery, corruption, dishonesty and criminal pro- 
cedure. 230 The business that cannot operate on the basis of justice 
has 240 no right to existence; the enterprise that requires special privi- 
lege 250 to enable it to pay dividends had better liquidate itself 260 with- 
out delay before the will of the people pulls it 270 down. 

A commercial enterprise draws its nutriment from the com- 
munity 280 in which it exists. It exists upon the sufferance of 290 the 
community. The community is made up of individuals. Grind 300 
the majority of those individuals unjustly and you spell trouble. 310 
If the individual is in your employ, hurt him and 320 you lose the big 
personal factor of his relationship with 330 you his sympathy. You 
cannot analyze that in cash. It 340 is an invisible force, like gravita- 
tion, but always at work. 350 The second guarantee in our constitution 
is equality, and so 360 we must use each other justly. If I rob a 370 man 
of his just rights how can I tell when 380 the pendulum will swing back 
and he will rob me 390 of mine with a gun, maybe? 

I believe in the 400 ownership of public utilities by the State. 
There are certain 410 service functions that are natural monopolies, 
and some day we 420 will learn how to operate these as communal or 
national 430 enterprises with the maximum of efficiency. Perhaps there 
are certain 440 exemptions this terminal is not necessarily one of 
them and 450 these will ultimately be worked out on the basis of 460 
economic operation. After all, corporations are engaged in perform- 
ing public 470 duties, and this work has been done well or ill 480 accord- 
ing to the spineless mass that could be freely and 490 whole-heartedly 
damned without a comeback. Commercial tyranny was possible 
because 500 of the lack of communal vertebrae, but the situation has 510 
changed. Business methods have been faced about, and we are 520 


headed in the other direction. It is slowly being realized 530 that 
honesty is an asset. When you can show a 540 man that he loses when 
he grabs, it is a 550 vital point. 

I am for public regulation of business. If 560 I, or any other man, 
object to wise public regulation 870 of our affairs we have something to 
conceal, and, if 680 we have, it is palpably a dishonest something. The 
basis 890 of opposition to public regulation is fear, and that brand 600 
of fear is only found behind dishonest doors. The old 610 proverb- 
maker hit a fundamental truth when he said that 620 honesty is the 
best policy, for it produces results. We 630 need more of these results, 
for they make for prosperity. 640 [640. 


Under the constitution of the State of New York there 10 will be 
held, some time in 1915, a constitutional convention. 20 

Every twenty years the people have a chance to tinker 30 with their 
fundamental law. Three delegates from each senatorial district 40 and 
fifteen delegates at large will be chosen for this 50 meeting. There is a 
movement on foot, led by a 60 group of public-minded women, to see 
that some of 70 these delegates be women. The best legal opinion is 
that 80 there is nothing in the constitution or the laws of 90 the state 
to debar women from being members of this 100 convention. It is 
sincerely to be desired that the women 110 shall succeed in their 

In the first place a 120 woman is a person and a citizen, and in an 130 
intelligent democracy ought to have the same rights and privileges 140 
as a man. 

The only reason why she cannot vote 180 and hold office now is that 
the contrary has been 160 the custom for generations; which would be a 
good argument 170 for bees and beavers, but not for brains. Full 
citizenship 180 is not the cry of the exceptional woman, the ambitious, 190 
mannish, professional or idle woman; it is the demand of 200 the typical 
and normal woman. 

The typical woman is the 210 wife, mother, homemaker. Time was 
when she had little to 220 do with public affairs, which consisted mostly 


in fighting. But 230 public life to-day is not fighting. It is house- 
keeping 240 (economics) on a large scale. And that is woman's prov- 
ince. 250 

Her front yard is the state, the nation. Her back 260 yard involves 
the whole problem of city cleaning. Her table 270 and kitchen mean 
national food laws for the whole community. 280 Gas, water, elec- 
tricity, railways, the stock market, the public school, 290 sanitary regu- 
lations, all concern her and her household intimately. In 300 fact, her 
husband, in his office or workshop, is not 310 so vitally affected by these 
matters of communal housekeeping as 320 she is, in whose hands is the 
management of the 330 affairs of daily life. 

The woman is the natural, logical 340 citizen. For this reason she 
ought to sit in the 350 coming constitutional convention. For she 
stands for the human side 360 of things. She is concerned for the 
workers more than 370 for the boss and his profits; for the little chil- 
dren 380 in fields and factories more than for them that gain 390 by their 
labor; for the well-being of the prisoner 400 more than for the prison 
system, its cost and maintenance; 410 for the public health more than 
for public office. 

State 420 paternalism is hardly to be desired. State maternalism is 
needed. 430 There is need of wise, patient, firm mothering for the 440 
city children who have no playgrounds; for the state children 450 who 
have insufficient schooling; for the immigrants pouring daily into 460 
our doors, preyed upon by every variety of vicious scamp. 470 

Why cannot New York, greatest of the states, step out 480 of her 
stupid partisan tangles, and take her place as 490 the leader in the 
national march toward a better order? 500 And in what way could 
she do this better than 510 by placing foremost in her councils the 

The state 520 exists not for business, for better prices, fat farms 
and 530 sky-high buildings; it exists for human beings; it exists 540 
primarily for the children, and it is time the mother 550 of those chil- 
dren be released of the last shackles of 560 a class-cursed past, be set 
free to enjoy the 570 full rights and duties of citizenship, and be wel- 
comed to 580 a seat at the council table of the state. [689. 



When powerful artillery has been installed on board a 10 warship 
it is of the utmost necessity to give to 20 those who are to operate it 
the means of doing 30 so with the greatest efficiency. Among these 
means, the education 40 and training of those who are to serve the 
guns 60 stands in the first place, and immediately afterwards come 
the 60 instruments that make it possible to know the distance of 70 the 
object to be hit. 

It is considered that the 80 vessel or naval force that is the first to 
get 90 the range and the first to send a shell against 100 the enemy will 
have gained an incontestable advantage and will 110 have, in a manner, 
protected itself from attack. 

The instrument 120 now used on most vessels to obtain the distance 
of 130 a point is the telemeter of Barr and Stroud, of 140 English origin. 
This telemeter was invented in 1888. 

Its length, 150 which is precisely determined, serves as the base of a 160 
triangle, of which the point whose distance is to be 170 measured is the 
apex. An optical arrangement, to be described 180 below, serves to 
measure the angle at this apex. A 190 very simple formula then gives 
the distance sought. 

The light- 200 rays, reaching the two extremities of the base, strike 
the reflecting 210 surfaces of two mirrors, placed at the ends of the 220 
telemeter, and are reflected through the lenses to the center 230 of the 
instrument, where two other mirrors placed one above 240 the other, 
receive them and reflect them into the eyepiece. 250 

Each object-lens forms an image of the object seen, 260 and the 
observer sees in his field of vision two 270 images that, according to the 
type of instrument, may appear 280 to touch each other or be slightly 
separated. In the 290 latest model, the two images appear one above 
the other, 300 separated by a fine line. The image seen in the 310 upper 
half of the field is formed, for example, by 320 the telescopic element at 
the left of the instrument, and 330 the lower part of the field by the 
right-hand element. 340 

Suppose that a distant object is seen along the rays 360 indicated by 
full lines on the first diagram and that 360 the two partial images are 
seen in perfect alignment. 

If, 370 now, the object seen approaches the left end of the 380 tel- 
emeter, the ray received by the reflector placed at the 390 right end 
will assume a new direction as represented by 400 the dotted line, and 


the partial images reflected by the 410 two central mirrors will no 
longer appear in exact 420 coincidence, but rather in the relative posi- 
tions represented by the 430 figure at the right below. 

The interval between the two 440 partial images might thus serve 
as the measure of the 450 distance, since, as the object approaches, 
the interval will become 460 greater; but the measurement of this 
interval would be very 470 difficult to effect with sufficient precision, 
and it would be 480 impossible to obtain it even approximately if the 
instrument or 490 the object were in motion. That is why optical or 500 
mechanical devices have been adopted by means of which the 510 
trajectory of one or other light-ray, in the interior of 520 the instru- 
ment, is modified so as to bring the 530 two partial images back into 
coincidence. An ivory scale measures 540 the amount of motion 
necessary to do this, and thus 550 gives the distance sought. 

It is evident that the length 560 of the base employed is an important 
element, on which 570 depends in great part the precision of the tel- 
emeter. On 580 the bridge of a ship the length of the instrument 590 is 
limited. The Navy now uses telemeters about six feet 600 long. 

To reduce the change of error to a minimum, 610 the measurement 
taken by a single telemeter is not accepted 620 as correct. Several 
instruments are used at once and the 630 average is taken. [633. 


After tests extending over four months, during which promising 
results 10 were obtained, a company in Detroit has undertaken to put 20 
out eleven electric taxicabs to replace twelve obsolete gasoline cabs. 30 
Eventually it intends to use electric cabs to replace its 40 entire equip- 
ment of 175 gasoline vehicles. Better and more regular 50 service 'is 
expected. Moreover, it has been shown that they 60 can be operated 
at a saving of about one-third. 70 Following are other items from 
"Automobile Topics" in regard to 80 them: 

"The experiment, which is attracting a deal of attention 90 in elec- 
trical circles, is unique in that it is, so 100 far as is known, the first 
instance in which an 110 operating company has embarked on the con- 
struction of electric vehicles 120 after an extended experience with 
gasoline machines. It was undertaken 130 only after careful delibera- 


tion, and following an investigation of what 140 the regular producers 
of electrics were prepared to do in 150 the way of providing cab equip- 
ment. Leading up to the 160 determination to study the performance 
of the electric car under 170 routine conditions was a long period of 
trials and growing 180 discomfiture with the gasoline company. 

"Among the several considerations arguing 190 in favor of the elec- 
tric were its simple construction, entailing 200 easy replacement of 
parts and therefore long-deferred obsolescence; its 210 smoothness and 
silence of operation; its cleanliness, both in service 220 and in the ga- 
rage; and finally, its probable economy. In 230 one respect the taxicab 
company failed to enlist the indorsement 240 of the electric-vehicle 
manufacturer. While several were ready to 250 supply cabs, none was 
prepared to offer a true taxicab. 260 In every case the specifications 
offered called for a modified 270 pleasure car. 

"In the conviction that a modified pleasure car 280 would not serve 
the purpose, therefore, the taxicab company hired 290 an engineer and 
proceeded to develop a machine of its 300 own that should be a taxicab 
from the ground up. 310 The resulting vehicle is in a sense a gasoline- 
car 320 chassis with an electric-power plant, having flat, semielliptic 
front 330 springs, three-quarter elliptic pressed-steel housing. 

"Considering that the 340 design is the outcome of seven years' 
experience in taxicab 350 operation, it is perhaps significant that the 
driver sits on 360 the right. The steering is by a large wheel, and 370 
two control levers are mounted beneath it on the steering 380 column; 
that on the right for driving, while the other 390 is merely a cut-out and 
reverse switch. The steering is 400 by a large wheel, and two control 
levers are mounted 410 beneath it on the steering column; that on the 
right 420 for driving, while the other is merely a cut-out 430 and reverse 
switch. The motor is mounted under the waist 440 of the chassis and 
drives through a long propeller-shaft 450 equipped with universal 
joints. The battery is divided, one section 460 being under a wide and 
low sloping bonnet in front 470 and the other section under the driver's 
seat.' The body 480 is a roomy, low-hung limousine, with plenty of 
glass, 490 wide doors, and comfortable seats for two or four passen- 
gers. 500 The low, sloping over-hang of the roof in front 510 is a charac- 
teristic of the Detroit taxicab bodies and is 620 designed to afford pro- 
tection for the driver in all weathers. 530 

"The cost for charging current at the three-cent rate, 540 which the 
company is now paying, works out at something 550 under one cent a 
mile. When operating a larger equipment 560 the expectation is that 
current can be obtained at 570 one cent a kilowatt-hour, thereby 


reducing the energy cost proportionately. 680 It is also the expecta- 
tion that charging plugs can be 590 installed at all regular stands, so 
that whenever necessary the 600 batteries can be boosted while the cabs 
are idle and 610 without returning to the garage. [615. 


Gentlemen: In speaking to you, men of the greatest city 10 of the 
West, men of the State which gave to 20 the country Lincoln and 
Grant, men who pre-eminently and 30 distinctly embody all that is 
most American in the American 40 character, I wish to preach not 
the doctrine of ignoble 50 ease but the doctrine of the strenuous life; 
the life 60 of toil and effort; of labor and strife; to preach 70 that 
highest form of success, which comes not to the 80 man who desires 
mere easy peace, but to the man 90 who does not shrink from danger, 
from hardship, or from 100 bitter toil, and who out of these wins the 
splendid 110 ultimate triumph. 

A life of ignoble ease, a life of 120 that peace which springs merely 
from lack either of desire 130 or of power to strive after great things, 
is as 140 little worthy of a nation as of an individual. I ask 150 only 
that what every self-respecting American demands from himself, 
and 160 from his sons, shall be demanded of the American nation 170 
as a whole. You men of Chicago have made this 180 city great; you 
men of Illinois have done your share, 190 and more than your share, in 
making America great; because 200 you neither preach nor practice 
such a doctrine. You work 210 yourselves, and you bring up your sons 
to work. If 220 you are rich, and are worth your salt, you will 230 teach 
your sons that, though they may have leisure, it 240 is not to be spent 
in idleness; for wisely used 250 leisure merely means that those who 
possess it, being free 260 from the necessity of working for their liveli- 
hood, are all 270 the more bound to carry on some kind of non- 280 remu- 
nerative work in science, in letters, in art, in exploration, 290 in his- 
torical research work of the type we most need 300 in this country, 
the successful carrying out of which reflects 310 most upon the nation. 

We do not admire the man 320 of timid peace. We admire the man 
who embodies victorious 330 effort; the man who never wrongs his 
neighbor; who is 340 prompt to help a friend, but who has those virile 350 
qualities necessary to win in the stern strife of actual 360 life. It is 


hard to fail; but it is 370 worse never to have tried to succeed. In this 
life 380 we get nothing save by effort. Freedom from effort in 390 the 
present, merely means that there has been stored-up 400 effort in the 
past. A man can be freed from the 410 necessity of work only by the 
fact that he or 420 his fathers before him have worked to good purpose. 
If 430 the freedom thus purchased is used aright, and the man 440 still 
does actual work, though of a different kind; whether 460 as a writer 
or a general; whether in the field 460 of politics or in the field of explo- 
ration and adventure; 470 he shows that he deserves his good fortune. 
But if 480 he treats this period of freedom from the need of 490 actual 
labor as a period not of preparation but of 500 mere enjoyment, he 
shows that he is simply a cumberer of the earth's surface; and he 
surely unfits himself to hold his 510 own with his fellows if the need 
to do so 520 should again arise. A mere life of ease is not 530 in the end 
a satisfactory life, and above all it 640 is a life which ultimately unfits 
those who follow it 550 for serious work in the world. [556. 

The present season of the year sees an enormous amount 10 of energy 
expended on the football field for the development 20 of a pitifully 
small proportion of the student body of 30 our great universities. In 
this concentration of physical perfection upon 40 a few to the neglect 
of the many, "Puck" sees 50 a great danger a danger which has been 
brought very 60 close to us by the great conflict in Europe. 

It 70 is trite, but nevertheless true, that the United States is 80 
today numerically undermanned. Men, trained, disciplined men, the 
force 90 which must be brought into play by a nation in 100 the conser- 
vation of its resources, the maintenance of its peace, 110 and the protec- 
tion of its borders, are few and far 120 between. 

Were we suddenly called upon to face a crisis, 130 such as Europe 
was called upon to face with but 140 very little warning, it would find 
us woefully unprepared. In 150 the security of pur peace we have 
neglected to build 160 up an organization capable of performing the 
multitudinous services of 170 war, or of any great disaster, either 
political or physical, 180 which may come into a nation's life. The 


thousands of 190 young men in colleges and universities offer a field 
for 200 the development of such a force of trained men in 210 a way that 
would entirely revolutionize our educational, as 220 well as our 
defensive system. 

As our athletics are conducted 230 today, a few picked men have 
trainers, coaches, rubbers and 240 waiters for the purpose of preparing 
them for a conflict 250 with a correspondingly small group of similarly 
trained men from 260 other institutions. The remainder of the student 
body, which makes 270 this training possible, is meanwhile physically 
utterly neglected. 

Yet the 280 average young man entering college is quite as much 
in 290 need of physical development and training as of mental. The 300 
country, too, is in need of disciplined, trained men; and 310 this double 
need can be met for less money than 320 is expended on a single season's 
football team. A system 330 of military drill, under the supervision of 
experts in military 340 discipline and hygiene, with the co-operation of 
the athletic 350 associations of the colleges, and under the auspices of 
the 360 United States government, would prove of estimable value to 
every 370 student in the college, and would furnish to the nation 380 a 
ground-work upon which a magnificent national service could 390 be 
established. A spirit of true patriotism and of 400 unselfish public 
service would be instilled in the students. The 410 nucleus of a trained 
military corps would be established from 420 which officers and men 
could be recruited, with but little 430 additional training, in time of war. 

"Puck" has preached unceasingly 440 and consistently against the 
spirit of militarism because it does 450 not believe in one nation making 
war upon another. But 460 it would be fatuous to overlook the impor- 
tance of 470 having at our country's call a body of physically fit 480 men 
trained to think quickly, act concertedly, and be a 490 military unit. 
There is no more fertile field from which 500 to recruit the kind of men 
that our country needs 510 than from our universities. "Puck" believes 
that the same amount 520 of energy that is now expended upon our 
football teams 530 would bring our university students to a degree of 
military 540 efficiency as a body unsurpassed by the perfect military 
machines 550 of the European nations, and to a degree of physical 560 
development as individuals that would be a model to the 570 civilized 
world. [672. 



Is it true that tolerance is a sign of decaying 10 standards of belief 
and thought? Assuming that tolerance grows out 20 of a sense of 
uncertainty regarding truth, intolerance comes in 30 as the construc- 
tive force. For example, decadent Roman civilization tolerated 40 
every sort of morals, philosophy, religion. The rise of that 50 civiliza- 
tion which succeeded it was heralded by the intolerant persecution 60 
of Christianity, itself an intolerant movement. Thus argues Mr. 
Bell 70 in pointing out the "Danger of Tolerance in Religion." Con- 
structive 80 thinking in regard to marriage and the problems of sex 90 
has become intolerant; in politics, education, literature, "we are 
gradually 100 and hopefully emerging from an age of good-natured 
tolerance 110 into one of contradictory and frankly clashing ideas and 
ideals." 120 But "the very same man who is a healthy bigot 130 on sex- 
relationship, politics, economics, and what not else, imagines 140 that 
in religion he is bound, if he would be 150 in accord with the times, to 
be tolerant of all 160 kinds of religious belief or disbelief." Mr. Bell 
proceeds : 

"Of 170 course, part of this attitude is due to the impression, 180 not 
now so prevalent as it once was, that 190 truth is truth demonstrable 
physically and that religion, which is 200 incapable of such demonstra- 
tion, is a thing in which uncertainty 210 is inevitable. (Of course 
such an assumption is quite unscientific.) 220 The main reason for it, 
however, is the unthinking or 230 superficially thinking assumption that 
mankind has developed religiously from intolerance 240 into tolerance, 
and that tolerance, complete, unquestioned, is the highest 260 point yet 
reached in the development of religion. Students of 260 the history of 
religion know that this is not so. 270 They know that there have 
always been successive waves of 280 tolerance and intolerance in 
religion, as in every other realm 290 of human thought, and that reli- 
gion has evolved out of 300 tolerance into intolerance just as often, and 
as rightly, as 310 the other way about. Most of us, however, know 
nothing 320 of this. The result of this mistake of ours is 330 that the 
return or progression toward constructive intolerance manifested in 340 
every other line of thought to-day is almost entirely 350 absent from 
modern religious thinking." 

Our present efforts to be 360 tolerant are based upon the presupposi- 
tion that there is no 370 such thing as objective religious truth : 

"This is to say 380 that, in the thing which for a human being must 390 


correlate all his other thought and activity namely his theory 400 of 
life, his religion there is no objective reality at 410 all, toward which 
he may approximate. This is to deny 420 that there is anything which 
may rightly be called fundamental 430 truth. It is to exalt peace at 
any price into 440 the throne of ultimate reality. It is to glorify intel- 
lectual 450 cowardice and inefficiency. It is not merely to destroy a 460 
rational basis for morals; it is, in the end, to 470 destroy a rational 
basis for thinking as a whole. 

"To 480 prohibit men from attempting to lift themselves up toward 
the 490 realities of eternity, to compel them to abandon the mighty 600 
gropings which have ever characterized the seers intolerant because 
they 510 were seers and not politicians and to substitute for these 520 
unified 'religion' consisting of platitudes about being good to 530 one's 
grandmother and similar banalities to do this would be 540 dire 
calamity to the generation and to the race." 

Better 550 the bitter intolerance of those who believe too much 
and 560 too strongly than the easy complaisance of those who believe 570 
too little, concludes Mr. Bell. "Better the Inquisition and the 580 
rack than the drugging of those who else might seek 590 for God. Better 
that we live and die slaves to 600 a half-truth or a millionth-truth, than 
that we 610 refuse to look for truth at all. Better even that 620 in reli- 
gion a man should live and die believing with 630 all his soul in a lie, 
than that he should 640 merely exist, believing in nothing." [645. 


The secret of success is this: There is no secret 10 of success. 

Carry your chin in and the crown of 20 your head high. We are 
gods in the chrysalis. Success 30 is the result of mental attitude, and 
the right mental 40 attitude will bring success in everything you 
undertake. In fact, 50 there is no such thing as failure, except to 
those 60 who accept and believe in failure. Failure; there is no 70 such 
word in all the bright lexicon of speech, unless 80 you yourself have 
written it there. 

A great success is 90 made up of an aggregation of little ones. These 
finally 100 form a whole. The man who fills a position of 110 honor and 
trust has first filled many smaller positions of 120 trust. 


The man who has the superintendence of ten thousand 130 men has 
had the charge of many small squads. And 140 before he had charge 
of a small squad he had 160 charge of himself. 

The man who does his work so 160 well that he needs no supervision 
has already succeeded. And 170 the acknowledgment of his success is 
sure to follow in 180 the form of a promotion. 

The world wants its 190 work done, and civilization is simply a 
search for men 200 who can do things. Success is the most natural 
thing 210 in the world. 

The man who does not succeed has 220 placed himself in opposition 
to the laws of the universe. 230 

The world needs you it wants what you produce you 240 can 
serve it, and if you will, it will reward 260 you richly. By doing your 
work you are moving 260 in the line of least resistance it is a form 270 of 
self-protection. You need what others have to give they 280 need 
you. To reciprocate is wisdom. To rebel is folly. 290 

To consume and not produce is a grave mistake, and 300 upon such 
a one Nature will visit her displeasure. The 310 common idea is that 
you must buy it with price. 320 In one sense this is true. To succeed 
you must 330 choose. If you want this you can not have that. 340 
Success demands concentration oneness of aim and desire. 

Choose this 350 day whom you will serve. Paradoxically, it is true 
that 360 you must "sacrifice " some things to gain others. If you 370 are 
a young man and wish to succeed in business, 380 you will have to sacri- 
fice the cigarettes, late hours, the 390 dice, the cards and all the round 
of genteel folly 400 which saps your strength and tends to unfit you 
for 410 your work tomorrow. 

That awkward and uncouth country boy went 420 to work yesterday, 
is concentrating on his tasks he is 430 doing the thing, high or low, 
mental or what-not 440 yes! He is not so very clever, but he tends 460 
to his work. Soon you will be taking orders from 460 him. 

And let me say right here that the habit 470 of continually looking 
out for Number One is absolutely fatal 400 to success. Nature is on her 
guard against such, and 490 if by accident they get into a position of 
power, 600 their lease on the place is short. A great 510 success demands 
a certain abnegation a certain disinterestedness. 

The man 520 who can lose himself in his work is the man 530 who will 
succeed best. Courtesy, kindness and concentration this trinity 840 
forms the sesame that will unlock all doors. 

Good cheer 660 is twin sister to good health. 

Isn't it a part 660 of wisdom not to put an enemy into your mouth 570 


to steal away your brains? Isn't it wise to so 580 fill your working 
hours that the night comes as a 590 blessing and a benediction a time 
for sweet rest and 600 sleep? 

These things mean a preparation for good work. And 610 good work 
means a preparation for higher work. 

Success is 620 easy. We do not ascend the mountain by standing 
in 630 the valley and jumping over it. 

Success is only difficult 640 to the man who is trying to lift himself 
by 660 tugging at his boot-straps. [655. 


No man, no matter how successful, can map out in 10 advance or 
formulate actions that will insure the success of 20 the individual. 
General fundamental principles can be defined and a 30 set of detail 
specifications insuring success may be adhered to, 40 but the injection 
into the situation of some unknown factor 50 may result in failure. 

There is no field that holds 60 out larger apparent rewards than that 
of finance and commerce, 70 and fundamental preparation along broad 
and comprehensive lines is desirable. 80 In an educational way, no 
fundamentals are more necessary than 90 the old-fashioned ones which 
are designated as the three 100 R's. While it is assumed that all young 
men who 110 anticipate devoting their life to any specialty are well 
grounded 120 in these three fundamental requirements, the fact is that 
no 130 part of the education of the young men of to-day 140 has been 
so sadly neglected. College graduates frequently cannot even 150 
compose a terse, well-constructed letter, exhibit in it clear 160 and 
well-defined penmanship, or perform the simple operations of 170 
addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division quickly and 
accurately. I desire 180 to emphasize this lack of fundamental 
knowledge on account of 190 the sad experience I have had with 
numerous young men 200 seeking positions or advancement along 
technical or professional lines, who 210 have apparently been thor- 
oughly and expensively educated in the higher 220 branches or have 
specialized along the lines of their selected 230 professions. 

Granted that the primary foundation had been well laid, 240 and 
that the structure built thereon is properly conceived, planned 250 and 
perfected, still something beyond all this is required to 260 insure 
individual success. No individual can obtain success, particularly 


of 270 a permanent nature, if it is not based on the idea 280 of monop- 
oly, unpopular as that word may be. The 290 average man is in- 
efficient, and it is only occasionally that, 300 due to an extraor- 
dinary combination of circumstances, an individual is 310 able to rise 
above the mass either as a whole 320 or along the line of any specialty. 
To succeed in 330 the highest sense the individual must be able to do 340 
his work better than his fellows, do a kind of 360 work his fellows 
cannot do, or be willing to perform 360 service that others do not 
care to perform. 

In other 370 words, each person attempting to rise above the level 
plain 380 must inject into the situation some kind of ability or 390 
quality of service which is unusual and exceptional. Granted that 400 
a young man is thoroughly and properly educated, that he 410 is honest, 
industrious and capable, he must possess other indefinable 420 and 
exceptional qualities. A thorough grounding in the technique of 430 
his chosen profession or line of business furnishes him only 440 the 
tools with which to work. A talented and efficient 450 man may 
accomplish extraordinary results with imperfect tools. Another 
man 460 may, however, be furnished with the finest and most ex- 
quisite 470 tools, but through a lack of the proper knowledge and 480 
ability to use them efficiently may meet only with failure. 490 

The quality that is most in demand is the ability 500 to deal with 
and control other personalities. In all professions 510 and all lines 
of business a wide acquaintance with individuals 520 and the ability 
to inspire confidence in others are absolutely 530 essential for suc- 
cessful accomplishment. Every additional friendship or acquaint- 
ance that 540 can be made among the class of men who can 550 or may 
utilize special service is extremely helpful, and many 560 a high-class 
efficient man fails through neglect of a 570 proper realization of this 
fact. All men, young and old, 680 make mistakes and meet with 
failures. It is the man 590 who can stand punishment, be knocked 
down and rise again 600 and undergo defeat repeatedly, and who has 
the sense and 610 judgment to learn from his mistakes and errors, 
that will 620 finally succeed. [622. 


My Fellow-Countrymen: 

I suppose that every thoughtful man in 10 America has asked him- 
self during the last troubled weeks what 20 influence the European 
war may exert upon the United States, 30 and I take the liberty of 


addressing a few words 40 to you in order to point out that it is 50 
entirely within our own choice what its effects upon us 60 will be and 
to urge very earnestly upon you the 70 sort of speech and conduct 
which will best safeguard the 80 nation against distress and disaster. 

The effect of the war 90 upon the United States will depend upon 
what American citizens 100 say or do. Every man who really loves 
America will 110 act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, 120 which 
is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to 130 all con- 
cerned. The spirit of the nation in this critical 140 matter will be 
determined largely by what individuals and society 150 and those 
gathered in public meetings do and say, upon 160 what newspapers and 
magazines contain, upon what our ministers utter 170 in their pulpits 
and men proclaim as their opinions on 180 the streets. 

The people of the United States are 190 drawn from many nations, 
and chiefly from the nations 200 now at war. It is natural and inevit- 
able that there 210 should be the utmost variety of sympathy and 
desire among 220 them with regard to the issues and circumstances of 
the 230 conflict. Some will wish one nation, others another, to suc- 
ceed 240 in the momentous struggle. It will be easy to excite 250 passion 
and difficult to allay it. Those responsible for exciting 260 it will as- 
sume a heavy responsibility; responsibility for no less 270 a thing than 
that the people of the United States, 280 whose love of their country and 
whose loyalty to its 290 Government should unite them as Americans 
all, bound in honor 300 and affection to think first of her and her 
interests, 310 may be divided in camps of hostile opinions, hot against 320 
each other, involved in the war itself in impulse and 330 opinion, if not 
in action. Such diversions among us would 340 be fatal to our peace 
of mind and might seriously 350 stand in the way of the proper per- 
formance of our 360 duty as the one great nation at peace, the one 370 
people holding itself ready to play a part of impartial 380 mediation 
and speak the counsels of peace and accommodation, not 390 as a 
partisan, but as a friend. 

I venture, therefore, 400 my fellow-countrymen, to speak a solemn 
word of warning 410 to you against that deepest, most subtle, most 
essential breach 420 of neutrality which may spring out of partisanship, 
out of 430 passionately taking sides. The United States must be 
neutral in 440 fact as well as in name during these days that 450 are to try 
men's souls. We must be impartial in 460 thought as well as in action, 
must put a curb 470 upon our sentiments as well as upon every trans- 
action that 480 might be construed as a preference of one party to 490 
the struggle before another. 


My thought is of America. I 500 am speaking, I feel sure, the 
earnest wish and purpose 510 of every thoughtful American that this 
great country of ours, 620 which is, of course, the first in our thoughts 
and 530 in our hearts, should show herself in this time of 540 peculiar trial 
a nation fit beyond others to exhibit the 550 fine poise of undisturbed 
judgment, the dignity of self-control, 560 the efficiency of dispassionate 
action, a nation that neither sits 570 in judgment upon others nor is 
disturbed in her own 580 counsels and which keeps herself fit and free 
to do 590 what is honest and disinterested and truly serviceable for 
the 600 peace of the world. 

Shall we not resolve to put 610 upon ourselves the restraint which 
will bring to our people 620 the happiness and the great and lasting 
influence for peace 630 we covet for them? [634. 


Not much imagination is required to understand the struggle in 10 
Mexico and to see that it is but another local 20 expression of a world- 
wide collision. 

On one side is 30 democracy, civilianism, idealism; on the other side 
oligarchy, militarism, and 40 immediate practicalities. The spirit 
of progress is wrestling with the 50 spirit of reaction, with reaction, as 
often happens, gaining at 60 least a temporary advantage. It took the 
people of France 70 a hundred years to win their fight, and the people 80 
of England more than two hundred years. The great German 90 
people have not yet entirely thrown off the rule of 100 privilege, while 
Austria and Italy are both afflicted with it. 110 It is not strange that 
a nation like Mexico, with 120 a population consisting chiefly of peons, 
is not able to 130 realize democracy all at once. 

Two things modern society feels 140 it must have. One is liberty, or 
the rights of 150 self-government, and the other is domestic peace and 
order. 160 It is impossible to have both of these blessings at 170 the 
same time when an entrenched minority, determined to rule 180 or to 
ruin, refuses to bow to legalism and to 190 the rule of the majority. 
Special classes in all ages 200 have put, as it were, a pistol to the head 210 
of society, saying in effect: "If you don't yield obedience 220 to us 
prepare to feel the sting of a bullet." 230 The option of liberty and 
disorder, and tyranny and order 240 is offered, and idealism goes down 
before a desire to 280 eat the bread of peace. 


It is a common delusion 260 that mobs and the many are prone to 
disorder. The 270 contrary is nearer the truth. The classes in all 
times 280 and in all countries have valued having their own way 290 
more than they have valued peace. It is the masses 300 that are 
patient, for years consenting to the mocking of 310 liberty and the 
principles of self-government rather than sacrifice 320 order. So it has 
been in Mexico. For twenty-six 330 years the Diaz oligarchy governed 
Mexico with an iron hand, 340 and the people endured its tyranny, for 
there was peace, even though liberty was practically dead. Two 
years and a half ago 350 liberty rearose and after a brief struggle 
expelled not so 360 much Diaz as the men that had captured him in 370 
his old age and were using the government to their 380 enrichment. 
Cientifico the party was called, named so because of 390 the scientific 
methods it employed in lifting public funds. 400 

These exploiters have steadily busied themselves to create trouble. 
They 410 backed Orozco and his guerrillas in the north and Zapata 420 
and his brigands in the south. They have steadily sought 430 to cor- 
rupt the army. They have drawn to their support 440 the aristocratic 
youth of Mexico, prone there as elsewhere, to 450 obey them and feed 
them generosity. 

So the Madero government 460 has been compelled to fight for its 
life since the 470 day it came into existence. It has not done it 480 any 
good to be humane and enlightened. It has not 490 done it any good 
to be conservative in its reform 500 measures. 

It has had against it the implacable hostility of 510 the Diaz Tam- 
many, determined to allow Mexico no rest until 520 they were once 
again in the saddle. It will not 530 be surprising to learn that Madero 
is a fugitive and 540 that Diaz, the nephew, sits in the seat of his 550 
illustrious uncle. 

But this will not be the end. Napoleon's 560 nephew could kill 
thousands of persons on the Paris boulevards, 570 but democracy, 
with its everlasting persistence, returned again to the 580 struggle, 
and he was destroyed. One may confidently predict that 590 what- 
ever the outcome of the next few days Mexico will 600 not long 
remain the prey of the men behind the 610 present revolution. [612. 



Fellow-countrymen : At this second appearing to take the oath of 10 
the presidential office there is less occasion for an extended 20 address 
than there was at the first. Then a statement, 30 somewhat in detail, 
of a course to be pursued, seemed 40 fitting and proper. Now, at the 
expiration of four years, 60 during which public declarations have been 
constantly called forth 60 on every point and phase of the great con- 
test which still 70 absorbs the attention and engrosses the energies of 
the nation, 80 little that is new could be presented. 

The progress of 90 our arms, upon which all else chiefly depends, is 
as 100 well known to the public as to myself; and it 110 is, I trust, reason- 
ably satisfactory and encouraging to all. With 120 high hope for the 
future, no prediction in regard to 130 it is ventured. 

On the occasion corresponding to this four 140 years ago, all thoughts 
were anxiously directed to an impending 160 civil war. All dreaded it 
all sought to avert it. 160 While the inaugural address was being 
delivered from this place 170 devoted altogether to saving the Union 
without war, insurgent agents 180 were in the city seeking to destroy it 
without 190 war seeking to dissolve the Union and divide its effects 
by 200 negotiation. Both parties deprecated war; but one of them 
would 210 make war rather than let the nation survive; and the 220 
other would accept war rather than let it perish. And 230 the war 

One-eighth of the whole population were colored 240 slaves, not dis- 
tributed generally over the Union, but localized 250 in the southern 
part of it. These slaves constituted a 260 peculiar and powerful inter- 
est. All knew that this interest was 270 somehow, the cause of the 
war. To strengthen, perpetuate and 280 extend this interest was the 
object for which the insurgents 290 would rend the Union, even by war; 
while the government 300 claimed no right to do more than restrict the 
territorial 310 enlargement of it. 

Neither party expected for the war the 320 magnitude or the dura- 
tion which it has already attained. Neither 330 anticipated that the 
cause of the conflict might cease with, 340 or even before, the conflict 
itself should cease. Each looked 350 for an easier triumph, and a result 
less fundamental and 360 astounding. 

Both read the same Bible and to the same 370 God; and each invokes 
His aid against the other. It 380 may seem strange that any men 
should dare to ask 390 a just God's assistance in wringing their bread 


from the 400 sweat of other men's faces; but let us judge not, 410 that we 
be not judged. 

The prayers of both could 120 not be answered fully. The Almighty 
has His own purposes. 430 " Woe to the world because of offenses? for 
it must 440 needs be that offenses come; but woe to that man 4 * by 
whom the offense cometh." 

If we shall suppose that 460 American slavery is one of those offenses 
which, in the 470 providence of God, must needs come, but which, 
having continued 480 through His appointed time, he now wills to 
remove, and 490 that He gives to both North and South this terrible 500 
war as the woe due to those by whom the 510 offense came; shall we 
discern therein any departure from those 520 divine attributes which 
the believers in a living God always 530 ascribe to Him? 

Fondly do we hope fervently do we 640 pray that this mighty 
scourge of war may speedily pass 550 away. Yet, if God will that it 
continue until all 560 the wealth piled by the bondman's 250 years of 
unrequited 570 toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood 580 
drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn 590 with the sword, 
as was said 3,000 years ago, so 600 still it must be said, "The judgments 
of the Lord 610 are true and righteous altogether." 

With malice toward none; with 620 charity for all; with firmness in 
the right, as God 630 gives us to see the right, let us strive on 640 to finish 
the work we are in ; to bind up 650 the nation's wounds ; to care for him 
who shall have 660 borne the battle, and for his widow and his orphan 670 
to do all which may achieve and cherish a 680 just and lasting peace 
among ourselves, and with all nations. 690 


There is no class of proprietary medicines which are used 10 to so 
great an extent by those who do not 20 consult a doctor for their 
ailments as the so-called 30 tonics. Many of them are not tonics 
at all, but 40 simply mixtures in which the only substance that has 
any 50 influence upon the body is alcohol. Now alcohol is not 60 a tonic, 
but a narcotic. It stimulates at first and 70 then depresses, and it 
is a habit-forming drug of 80 the most mischievous character. It has 
its uses, however, and 90 is invaluable in certain instances, chiefly 
when it is necessary 100 to produce heat quickly and stimulate a 


flagging heart. To"* take it day after day and week after week in m 
mixtures in which it constitutes 50, 60, or 70 per uo cent, of the entire 
volume is not the way to 1 * relieve disease of any kind, and such mix- 
tures should be 1 * abolished from the category of medicines, for 
medicines in the* proper sense of the term they surely are r. 

What, 176 then, is a tonic? It is a substance which helps 1 ** the 
organs of the body to improve the quality of 1 ** then* work, the heart 
to beat more slowly, vigorously and* 8 * regularly, the lungs to expand 
and contract more forcibly, the 210 digestive apparatus to dispose of 
food more effectively, the brain 36 to think more clearly and per- 
sistently. It may not do*" all these things directly, but if it does 
one of*** them successfully this improvement of function may have a 
very 1 ** favorable and helpful action upon other functions. 

The pure air* of the mountains or the forest is a tonic acting 179 
directly upon the lungs. But it also means an increase*** of oxygen 
in the blood, and hence better blood in 1 ** the digestive organs, heart, 
liver, brain and kidneys. Therefore, pure** 8 air is one of the best 
tonics you can possibly* 1 * take, and fortunately it is one of the 
cheapest. There* 2 * is little excuse for not using it abundantly and 
all*** the time. 

Why do people need tonics? Sometimes because they*** really have 
some kind of disease and sometimes because*** the machinery of the 
body is merely slowing down or*** not doing its normal quality and 
quantity of work. The* 7 * tonic in the first instance will not cure the 
disease"* the disease may be incurable and yet if it is*** of the 
right sort it may make the patient feel 406 better for a while, and per- 
haps better enable him to 41 * do much useful work before he becomes 
helpless or is*** earned off by his ailment. 

In the second instance the 4 ** tonic may be one of the means of 
putting the 44 * patient on his feet again and making him well. 
pose,** for example, a man is recovering from a severe operation*** in 
which he lost a great deal of blood; he 47 * is very weak, has no appe- 
tite, and can't digest very 4 ** much food, although food i- 
principal things*** he requires. If he is . right kind of*** 

tonic it win strengthen the action of the heart, stimulate* 1 * the desire 
for food, help his digestive appaiatus to provide the** proper material 
for digesting the food, and the blood-making*** functions for renewing 
the supply of that indispensable fluid. The*** medicine he has taken 
has not supplied him with either*** food or energy, but it has stimu- 
lated those forces by*** which food is made useful and energ 
vidwi. 563. 



Mr. James P. Munroe, who has a firm grasp on the 10 essentials of 
child-training, closes his book, "New Demands in 50 Education," 
with this summary of the object of our schools: 3 " 

"The best modern education aims, above all things, to help 40 
the child put himself into harmony with eternal law, and 60 it does 
this by training him in the care of 60 his body, in tie development 
and use of his senses, 70 in the control of his intellectual and moral 

"In 80 the light of the new education we teach him not 90 as a pupil, 
but as a human being; we use 100 as the spur of education, not com- 
pulsion, but interest and 110 sympathy; we strive not to mould the 
child from without, 120 but to develop him from within; we spend less 
time 150 in laying out courses of study; we spend more time 140 in creat- 
ing an educative atmosphere. 

"We are perceiving, in short, 150 that education is a process of 
evolution different for each 160 individual pupil, and that the business 
of the school is 170 to direct and to bring to the highest possible point 180 
for every child this individual process of development, 

"We are 190 beginning to agree, I think, upon the following main 
truths 100 in education: (1) That we must educate individuals, not 
masses; (2) that 210 we must educate by sympathy, not by compulsion; 

(3) that we 220 must reckon with and must enlist all the social forces 380 
of which the school is but one that are moulding 240 the child's life; 

(4) that we must strive for 'balance' that 2 * is, for a simultaneous, 
harmonious development of body, mind and 260 soul; (5) that we must 
ever keep in view as the 170 supreme goal of education the child's social 
and moral 1. 

"The corollaries of these main propositions are of course, obvi- 
ous. 190 If wo are to educate individuals, not masses, we must 800 have 
teachers trained to understand and to pra.ct.ise this higher 810 wsyot 
teaching: if we are to take into 520 account all the social forces that 
surround the child we r> r.r.isi educate those forces the family, the 
community, the church 840 to understand and to perform their share 
in education; if 3 * we are to aim for balance in education we must* 80 
reform our curricula, must enlarge the uses of the schoolhi 
must spend three and four and ten times a,* much ss|1 upon our schools 
as we to-day provide. If we-" 90 are to make morality the supreme end 
of education we 400 must ourselves live bettor lives; we must make 


our cities 410 and our towns more decent places in which to rear 420 
a child. 

"Broadly speaking, the conditions essential to a real 430 education 
are: stimulating, healthful, moral surroundings for the child every- 
where 440 and every day; less of politics and meddling; more of 460 the 
true science and art of education in the average 460 school; small 
classes, in which each child may be really 470 educated as an individual 
human being; well-educated teachers in 480 every grade, and a strong 
professional spirit in the whole 490 teaching staff; genuine and unflag- 
ging co-operation on the part of 500 the fathers and the mothers, and 
much more generous support 510 from the public, to whom the public 
schools belong. "To 620 secure these things and build from them 
the new 530 American education is to be the absorbing work of the 540 
twentieth century. 

"It is a stupendous task to perform; but 550 whether it be done or 
whether it be not done 560 means the life or death to these United 

"And 570 hopeless as it may now appear, the task will have 580 been 
accomplished if the end of the twentieth century sees 590 education as 
far ahead of to-day as to-day's 600 best standards are in advance of 
the crude and feeble 610 schooling of the first quarter of the nineteenth 
century." [619. 


Fundamentally credit granting is based on knowledge relating to 
the 10 character, capacity and capital of the customer. Of the va- 
rious 20 sources of obtaining such information, the one best knows 
and 30 most commonly used is the mercantile agency. This may be 40 
defined as a society formed for the purpose of ascertaining 50 the 
credit position of persons engaged in trade and circulating 60 informa- 
tion on this point among its members and subscribers. 

Mercantile 70 agencies are divided into two classes, the general and 
the 80 special. The special limits its field of operation to particular 90 
lines, such as jewelry, textiles, garment manufacturers, etc. Agen- 
cies of 100 this character are, of course, very valuable. On the other 110 
hand, the general agencies cover a vastly larger field and 120 are organ- 
izations of really tremendous magnitude. They are so universally 130 


used and are such potent forces in the credit world, 140 that it seems 
best to devote this article entirely to 150 a discussion of their origin, 
organization and methods of operation. 160 

In preceding articles we have seen how the course of 170 commerce 
has developed from the early days when trading was 180 limited to an 
"exchange of goods for goods" or barter, 190 through the period when 
merchants coming to market to make 200 purchases brought their 
wallets in order to make immediate payments 210 in money, down to 
the time when the growth of 220 business induced merchants to trust 
those with whom they had 230 become personally acquainted, by ship- 
ping goods to them in exchange 240 for a promise to make payment 
at a specified time 250 in the future in other words, on credit terms. 
The 260 introduction of the credit system opened the minds of the 270 
jobbers and manufacturers to the tremendous opportunities for 
business building. 280 At a time when travel was uncertain, communi- 
cation very slow 290 and transportation facilities weak, the dealer who 
was located at 300 points distant from the market and was dependent 
entirely 310 upon his own capital, found his field of activity severely 320 
restricted. The wholesalers in the larger cities, however, realized 
this, 330 and foreseeing the possibilities for increased trading, they 
gradually extended 340 the system of doing business on credit. 

In those days 350 there was very little information accessible to the 
merchant concerning 360 his customer's character, ability and financial 
strength. The traveling salesman 370 had not yet made his appear- 
ance, and the merchant had 380 to depend on his personal knowledge 
and such vague information 390 as he could obtain through mail 
inquiries. It is quite 400 obvious that the extension of credit based 
upon such haphazard 410 data resulted in serious losses. Nevertheless, 
the additional business it 420 stimulated prompted the wholesalers to 
continue granting credit in spite 430 of the hazards involved. 

Thus matters continued until the crisis 440 of 1837, when a panic 
occurred that brought destruction 450 to banks and merchants 
throughout the country. The losses from 460 bad debts were enor- 
mous, and merchants were brought to realize 470 that one of the promi- 
nent contributory causes of the ruinous 480 conditions existing was the 
poor credit system which had made 490 possible overtrading and wild- 
cat speculation. Immediately, therefore, there came a 500 recognition 
of the necessity of closer investigation of credits, 610 and the result 
was the first mercantile agency. 

This was 520 established in 1841, by Louis Tappan, a New York 
merchant. 630 Mr. Tappan had made it a point carefully to compile 640 


for all his large market of customers records covering his 550 entire 
experience with them and showing data acquired by personal 560 
observation and through correspondence. After the panic he began 
to 870 sell this information, and the eagerness of the other merchants 580 
to buy the records encouraged him to found the first 590 business 
institution organized for the exclusive purpose of gathering 600 and 
selling credit information. [605. 


Investigators into the workings of the brain are familiar enough 10 
with the cases of persons who hear in colors. Music 20 and color, for 
instance, are too intimately associated in such 30 minds to make pos- 
sible any hearing of a song without 40 the visualization of a particular 
color. Such a person hears 50 Caruso's voice as violet, Melba's as 
pink, and so on. 60 Such examples are less numerous and less impor- 
tant than are 70 the cases of persons who, whether they hear in colors 80 
or not, always think in colors. These persons, called "color 90 
thinkers, " do not have any sensation of color when voices 100 or notes 
are heard, but they invariably associate some kind 110 of color with 
such things as the day of the 120 week, the hour of the day, the month 
of the 130 year, the vowels, the consonants, and so on. This faculty 140 
is colored thinking, or, to use a technical term coming 150 more and 
more into use, "chromatic conception." A typical color 160 thinker 
will tell you, for instance, that Sunday is yellow, 170 Wednesday 
brown and Friday black; but he may not experience 180 any sensation 
of color on hearing the organ played or 190 a song sung. Certain 
persons are indeed colored hearers as 200 well as colored thinkers, but 
we should distinguish the person 210 who has linked sensations, from 
the person whose thoughts are 220 colored, whose mentation is chro- 

It is difficult to express 230 the character of these colored concep- 
tions or concepts to persons and 240 they are the majority who 
never experience this sort of 250 thing at any time. The colors are not 
present so 260 vividly as to constitute hallucination. Mental colorings 
do not obtrude 270 themselves into our mental life. They are habitual, 
natural, chromatic 280 tincturings of one's concepts and have been so 
long present 290 to one's consciousness that they have long ago become 
part 300 of our mental belongings. They are invariable and definite 


without 310 being disturbing. One colored thinker has thus expressed 
himself: "When 320 1 think at all definitely about the month of Janu- 
ary, 330 the name or word appears to me reddish, whereas April 340 is 
white, May yellow, the vowel I is always black." 350 There is thus an 
inherent definiteness, finality and constancy about 360 each thinker's 
psychochromes that is very striking. But it is 370 not alone letters and 
words that are habitually thought of 380 as colored. Certain colored 
thinkers always associate a particular color 390 with their thoughts 
about a particular person. 

The first point 400 that strikes one regarding the characteristic fea- 
tures of color thinking 410 is the very early age at which these associa- 
tions are 420 fixed. Another characteristic of colored thinking is the un- 
changeableness of 430 the color thought of. Middle-aged people will 
tell you that there has been no 440 alteration in the colors or even in the 
tints and 450 shades of color which for many years they have associ- 
ated 460 with their various concepts. 

A third characteristic of psychochromes is 470 their extreme definite- 
ness in the minds of their possessors. The 480 precise colors attached 
to concepts are by no means vague. 490 A fourth characteristic is the 
complete nonagreement between the various 500 colors attached to the 
same concept in the minds of 510 colored thinkers. Thus different 
persons think of Tuesday in terms 520 of the following colors : brown, 
purple, dark purple, brown, blue, 630 white, black, etc. Unanimity 
seems hopeless, agreement quite impossible. The 540 fifth character- 
istic is their unaccountableness. No colored thinker seems able 550 to 
say how he came by his associations. The sixth 560 characteristic is 
the hereditary or inborn nature of the condition. 570 The extremely 
early age at which colored thinking reveals itself 580 would of itself in- 
dicate that the tendency was either hereditary 590 or congenital. 

What explanation is given of the causes or 600 causal conditions of 
colored thinking? Why may thoughts be colored 610 at all and why 
should particular thoughts be associated with 620 particular colors? 
Why should only a few persons be found 630 to be colored thinkers? 
The answers, if answers they can 640 be called, are extremely disap- 
pointing, for we have no satisfactory 650 explanation of any of these 
matters. The very arbitrariness of 660 the associations defies theoret- 
ical analysis. Genius is something notoriously not 670 conferred by 
training or education. If not inborn, it cannot 680 be acquired. 
Exactly the same may be said of colored 690 thinking. [691. 



In its demand for the acid test for every tradition, 10 the public 
insists that institutions shall be measured by the 20 needs of to-day. 
Things as well as persons, when 30 they die of old age, should be 
buried, not embalmed. 40 That the same demand is made of organ- 
ized religion is 50 a condition to which the churches, especially those 
in the 60 larger cities, are waking up. From this realization, perhaps, 
has 70 sprung up the Men and Religion Forward Movement and the 80 
"Go to Church" publicity campaigns that have spread with extraor- 
dinary 90 rapidity throughout the country. 

Wherever these campaigns have been carried 100 out, the organizers 
first concentrated their energies toward bringing the 110 people to the 
churches on some special predetermined day. With 120 hardly any 
exceptions these campaigns were a tremendous numerical success. 130 
For one day the churches were filled to capacity and 140 in some cases 
overflow meetings were necessary. Then they found 150 themselves 
facing the necessity of keeping it up, for the 160 people, stirred tempo- 
rarily by tremendous enthusiasm, threatened to fall back 170 into the 
former laxity that caused these movements to come 180 into being. 
"If these campaigns will bring the people and 190 the churches closer 
together," they said in effect, "why not 200 make them permanent?" 
And thus in Baltimore, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, 210 Atlanta 
and an increasing number of other cities, as far 220 away even as Hono- 
lulu, permanent church advertising campaigns were organized 230 
and are being actively carried out. 

This is what the 240 Chicago "Evening Post" calls "hitching religion 
to life," and practically 250 the same term is used by William T. Ellis, 
in 260 ' ' The Continent, ' ' a leading Presbyterian organ . Says the latter : 

"With 270 the question of church attendance is bound up the 
whole 280 subject of the relation of religion to life. 

"As publicity 290 is a cure for most public ills, some men thought 300 
it should be used to concentrate attention upon the church. 310 
With the pitiless white light of publicity streaming on the 320 church, 
her problems of ineffective preaching and ineffective organization 
must 330 inevitably be dealt with. Antiquated methods must be 
modernized. Services 340 must by stress of this pressure, from the 
spirit of 350 the times, be adapted to the present needs of the 360 people. 
All these incidental effects increase the urgency of the 370 main con- 
sideration, which is that people should go to church. 380 


"It is literally true that there are tens of thousands 390 of persons in 
every city to whom access can be 400 had by the church only through 
the daily press. Cellular 410 lives these may be, and their seclusion and 
isolation may 420 be deplorable; nevertheless it is a condition which 
the church 430 cannot escape or remake." 

Mr. Ellis thinks that the new 440 note of self-respect and militancy 
on the part of the 450 churches has had a great effect on the attitude 
of 460 the press. 

"The Christian church is rapidly losing the doormat 470 aspect in 
which it has for years appeared at newspaper 480 offices. No longer is 
it the mendicant pleading for petty 490 favors, such as no other element 
in the community asks. 600 What it is the church's business to have 
published it 510 pays for, man-fashion. What it is its rights to 
have 520 published as news, it demands, man-fashion. In a word, 
the 530 Christian church has awakened to the fact that it is 540 the 
biggest enterprise in the community, and so it must 550 not consent 
to be measured in print by puny and 560 petty paragraphs puffing the 

" To speak particularly of the 570 Philadelphia advertising campaign 
although the same effect is reported elsewhere the 580 most notable 
result has been the tremendous increase in news 590 and editorial 
publicity accorded the church. Within the past year 600 this increase 
has been a full 100 per cent, in 610 all the papers. With new alertness, 
intelligence and sympathy the 620 press has essayed the task of report- 
ing adequately the many-sided 630 activities of the church. Able 
reporters have sought out special 640 themes for their pens in the 
realm of church work. 650 The spirit of co-operation between church 
and press is one 660 of the notable characteristics of Philadelphia's 
life to-day." [668. 


The Navy requires men of varied knowledge to operate its 10 ships. 
It requires seamen to steer, man the boats, handle 20 the anchors, and 
clean the ships; clerks, stenographers and bookkeepers 30 to attend to 
its clerical work; nurses to care for 40 the sick on board ship and in the 
hospitals ashore; 50 commissary stewards and cooks; carpenters, 
machinists, plumbers, painters, ship-fitters, 60 coppersmiths, black- 
smiths and boilermakers to keep the ships in repair, 70 and expert 
gun-pointers and gunners' mates to man the 80 guns. 


In order to get experienced men to fill all 90 its requirements, the 
Navy maintains a number of schools, or 100 training stations, where 
each recruit is educated to fill a 110 position in some one of the above- 
named branches before 120 he is put on board a man-o'-war. 

The 130 recruit, now known as an apprentice seaman, on arrival is 140 
placed in charge of a petty officer and taken before 150 a medical officer, 
who examines him, physically, to see whether 160 he has any disquali- 
fying defect not detected by the examining 170 surgeon at the recruit- 
ing station, and to see that his 180 record corresponds with the enlist- 
ment papers. If he passes his 190 rigorous examination, he is given an 
outfit of clothing, for 200 winter and summer, consisting of uniforms, 
shoes, underwear, cap, sweater, 210 overcoat, oil-skins, and rubber 
boots in all amounting 220 to $60 in value. These clothes the 
Government gives him 230 outright as capital with which to start his 
new life. 240 A tailor is provided, free of charge, to make these 250 
clothes fit him with tailor-made exactness. 

Having received his 260 outfit, he is ready for instruction. He is 
given a 270 stencil and marks his new clothes so that there can 280 be no 
mistake. A petty officer teaches him how to 290 fold neatly each 
article of wearing apparel. When he learns 300 the trick of it he will 
discover a strange thing 310 that a well-folded and well-rolled gar- 
ment is as 320 neatly pressed as if it had been done by a 330 tailor with a 
flat-iron. That is his first lesson 340 in keeping his things ship-shape. 
He is taught how 380 to stow his bag, so that every article will be 360 
handy and well cared for. From the start he is 370 taught that neat- 
ness of person and clothing is a requirement 380 that the Navy exacts 
from every man. He is given 390 a hammock and taught how to sling 
it, how to 400 lash it neatly and handily. His hammock is his bed, 410 
and unlashing his hammock is making his bed for the 420 night. It is 
surprising to see how simple the 430 whole process is, once the recruit 
has mastered the trick. 440 

All this takes place in well-heated and well-ventilated 450 barracks. 
The dormitories on the upper floors are fitted with 460 hammock hooks 
just as they are on board ship. When 470 these early lessons are 
learned, the recruit is taught to 480 swim. There is a fine swimming 
pool (with heated water 490 for the cool months), and petty officers are 
detailed to 500 teach each apprentice seaman, by the aid of rope and 510 
tackle, to look out for himself in the water. It 520 doesn't take very 
long to make a good swimmer out 530 of the average healthy boy. In 
other hours of the 540 day his drills and setting-up exercises occur. 

Having been 550 assigned to a battalion, other drills are at once 


begun. 560 The apprentice seaman is continued in the instruction of 
the 570 semaphore (signaling with arms), is given the "wig-wag" 
(signaling 580 with flag) , and is taught the use of lights, or 500 rockets, and 
other night signals. He is given a rifle 600 and taught how to handle it 
and how to fire 610 it; he is taught the manual of arms and target 620 
practice, all under warrant officers and petty officers, and in 630 a 
way that cannot fail to prove attractive. Many of 640 the movements 
of the drills are timed to the music 650 of well-known marches and 
two-steps played by the 660 navy band. There are target ranges 
outdoors and indoors, where 670 the apprentice seamen are taught to 
shoot at a mark with 680 the navy rifle and revolver. [685. 


When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary 10 for 
one-half the people to dissolve the political bondage 20 which has held 
them subject to the other half of 36 the people, and to assume the sep- 
arate and equal station 40 to which the laws of nature and of nature's 
God 50 entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind 60 
requires that they should declare the causes which impel them 70 to 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, 80 that all men and women 
are created equal, that they 90 are endowed by their Creator with 
certain unalienable Rights, that 100 among these are Life, Liberty 
and the pursuit of Happiness. 110 That to secure these rights, Gov- 
ernment should be instituted among 120 both men and women, deriv- 
ing their just powers from the 130 consent of the governed; that when- 
ever any form of government 140 becomes destructive of these ends, it 
is the right of 150 the people women people as well as men people 
to 160 alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying 170 
the foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in 180 
such form as to them shall seem most likely to 190 effect the Safety and 
Happiness of all the People. Prudence, 200 indeed, will dictate that 
Governments long established should not be 210 changed for light and 
transient causes, and accordingly all experience 220 has shown that 
womankind are more disposed to suffer while 230 evils are accustomed. 
But when a long train of abuses 240 and usurpations, pursuing invari- 
ably the same object, evinces a design 250 to keep them under absolute 


subjection, although they are spiritually 260 and mentally ready for 
Freedom, it is their right, it 270 is their duty, to throw off such subjec- 
tion, and to 280 provide new Guards for their future security and the 
security 200 of their children. 

Such has been the patient endurance of 300 the women of this coun- 
try, and such their system of 310 Government. The history of our 
Government is a history of 320 repeated injustices to women (as wives, 
mothers and wage earners) 330 and of repeated usurpations by men, 
many of them with 340 the avowed object of protecting women. But 
the direct result 380 has been the establishment of a Government which 
benefits by 360 the knowledge and experience of only one-half of the 370 
people, and which cannot fully represent the interests and the 380 needs 
of the other half of the people. 

In every 300 stage of these Oppressions we have petitioned for 
Redress in 400 the most humble terms, beginning even before the Consti- 
tution of 410 the United States was adopted. Our repeated Petitions 
have frequently 420 been answered by ridicule and by repeated injus- 
tice. We have 430 appealed to the native fairness and magnanimity of 
men, that 440 they disavow these usurpations which inevitably render 
less dignified, honest 450 and harmonious the relations between men 
and women. Men have 460 too long been deaf to this voice of justice 
and 470 honor, but many are now joining with us in our 480 refusal to 
acquiesce longer in this unwarrantable sovereignty over us 490 and 
over our children. 

We, therefore, the women citizens of 500 the United States of Amer- 
ica, assembled to-day throughout the nation, 510 appealing to the 
Supreme Judge of the World for the 520 rectitude of our intentions, do, 
in the name and by 530 the authority of the organized womanhood of 
America demanding enfranchisement, 540 solemnly publish and declare 
that women ought to be politically 550 free. 

Here and now, in this glorious springtime of the 660 year, under the 
azure skies of hope, in the sunshine 570 of life and enlightenment, we 
dedicate ourselves to the great 580 work we have undertaken and go 
forward to victory, remembering 590 that in unity there is strength, 
and that not even 600 the prejudice of the ages, nor the powers of 
intrenched 610 political privilege can keep in continual disfranchise- 
ment half of the 620 citizens of our country when their rights are 
demanded by 630 the intelligent, patriotic and united womanhood of 
the land. 

Women 640 of America, this is our country; we have the same 650 
devotion to its institutions as that half of the citizenship 660 that is per- 


mitted to govern it. We love the flag, 670 and it means as much to us 
as it does 680 to the men of our nation. Women have made, and 690 
women will make, as many sacrifices for the honor and 700 glory of 
these United States as those of her citizens 710 who have all the rights 
and privileges of the suffrage. 720 Given our full citizenship and 
allowed to share in the 730 Government, we will be as jealous of the 
honor and 740 integrity of our country as we have been in the 750 past, 
when in countless ways we have shown our devotion 760 to the life 
of the nation, to the liberty of 770 its citizens and to the happiness of 
all the people. 780 [780. 


There is a new note in business. A realization of 10 the value in 
spiritual force. We have been so very 20 busy with "practical," "con- 
crete" problems that we did not turn 30 our attention to the more 
subtle but quite as powerful 40 force that was lying ready at hand 
in the brains 50 of our employees. We recognized in a haphazard way 
when 60 we stopped to think, that we liked a cheerful employee 70 near 
us rather than one suggestive of misery. But we 80 failed to realize 
that every one of our customers who 90 came in contact with our 
employees was influenced just as 100 much as ourselves by this 
appearance of misery or cheerfulness. 110 

This question of paying attention to spiritual quality is forced 120 
upon our notice more particularly in proportion as the employee 130 
comes in contact with our patrons. A salesman or saleswoman 140 is 
valuable in proportion as he or she can influence 150 other people. 
This influencing of other people is dependent on 160 many things and 
thereby hangs a tale. 

All human knowledge 170 has progressed in proportion as we gained 
a knowledge of 180 the atom. The human race has bettered itself in 
proportion 190 as it learned to pay attention to little things to 200 get 
certain and positive knowledge about the small details. The 210 
tendency of mankind as an individual or as an organization 220 is to 
drift, to look at things in a broad, 230 general way without specific 
analysis. The moment business men began 240 to examine little 
things more closely, they gained a better 250 knowledge of their 


The last generation put a man 260 to work for a day and whatever 
he produced was 270 his day's work. To-day in the most progressive 
organizations 280 every motion a man makes in performing his task is 290 
subject to scrutiny. The waste motions are eliminated and the 300 
result is a tremendous improvement in his work. The cost 310 system, 
which made such a difference to net profits, was 320 nothing but an 
application of the first principle of the 330 scientist to analyze every- 
thing into the smallest parts and examine 340 each part separately 
before considering the whole. 

America has been 350 the hothouse where mechanical growth has 
been forced to the 360 highest degree in the last decades. Transporta- 
tion, means of communication, 370 machinery for replacing or extend- 
ing the production of human labor, 380 have been developed to the 
utmost, and still are being 390 developed. Business organizations 
have been developed to mammoth size through 400 tremendous general 
operations, and at the present time mere size, 410 mere quantity of 
operation have received so much attention that 420 they rest upon their 
oars, quiescent for the moment. 

But 430 wherever we consider large or small stores, where human 
being 440 meets human being across a counter and the salesman or 460 
saleswoman comes into contact with the man or woman who comes 460 
to purchase, we are confronted with a difficulty. Formerly, if 470 a 
great store wanted to build up a department, it 480 put on help, indis- 
criminately, as it was needed. A girl 490 was hired or a boy was hired 
and told to learn 500 the business by watching other people. Little 
or no instruction, 810 even on the goods, was given them except as 
they 520 chanced on knowledge through their proximity to others of 
larger 530 experience. 

Within the last decade, however, attempts have been made 540 to 
teach the budding salesman or saleswoman the facts about 550 the 
goods which he and she handled that is to 560 say, they are being 
instructed in the material end of 570 their work. Co-incidentally 
with this instruction of salespeople came 580 a new viewpoint toward 
them. For instance, there was a 590 great cry that what business 
needed was more men capable 600 of handling ten thousand dollar 
positions. That might be, but 610 to-day business has switched 
around in line with science, 620 and of necessity, and is paying more 
attention to the 630 atoms, the small but important point of contact. 




Dr. Carl L. Alsberg, who succeeded Dr. Harvey W. Wiley 10 as chief 
of the Bureau of Chemistry, declared that the 20 man who adulterates 
and misbrands foods and drugs deserves all 30 the punishment that 
can be inflicted upon him, and that 40 the work of ferreting him out 
and visiting upon him 50 the penalties of the law will continue un- 
abated. At the 60 same time he realizes that there are other kinds 
of 70 food regulation with which the bureau can concern itself which 80 
will do vastly more for the public health than the 90 mere prohibi- 
tion of misbranding. 

According to Dr. Alsberg, the worst 100 food that can reach the 
consumer is that which carries 110 disease-producing germs and that 
is usually the kind that is 120 handled and eaten raw. Milk, oysters, 
and some of the 130 vegetables are the worst offenders, and are usu- 
ally beyond the 140 power of the Bureau of Chemistry. Food cannot 
be reached 150 by national law under the federal constitution until 
it crosses 160 a state line, and thus gets into interstate commerce. As 170 
a rule, however, the bulk of loose foodstuffs is consumed 180 within 
the states in which it is raised, and it 190 is only the little fringe of 
territory contiguous to state 200 lines that is affected principally by 
national food laws. The 210 remainder must be reached indirectly, 
and the Bureau of Chemistry 220 has chosen two methods of handling 
it. One is cooperation 230 with state health agencies, and the other 
a nation-wide campaign 240 of education. 

Constructive cooperation with all health agencies will take 250 the 
form of an attempt to coordinate all these forces 260 and to induce 
them to work in a harmonious way 270 toward a common end. To 
this end a meeting of 280 all the food and drug officials of the country 
has 290 been called to assemble in Washington in November to frame 300 
a common policy. Then the Bureau of Chemistry, when it 310 finds a 
condition within a state which it cannot reach 320 can advise the food 
and drug official of that state 330 and through them get the remedial 
action desired. Likewise when 340 a state official finds a situation 
which he cannot touch 350 because it involves interstate commerce, he 
will inform the Bureau 360 of Chemistry and it can bring the offenders 
to book. 370 

The Bureau is determined to eradicate and destroy the popular 380 


impression that the label "Guaranteed Under the Pure Food and 390 
Drugs Act " means that the government in no sense is 400 the guarantor 
and that the label is put there by 410 the manufacturer not for the 
purpose of guaranteeing the product 420 to the consumer, but for the 
purpose of protecting the 430 retailer from loss in case the article does 
not come 440 up to representations. All sorts of frauds are resorted 
to 450 under that label, and the confidence it inspires in the 460 buying 
public is not justified. 

The principal weapon with which 470 the bureau is going to fight 
the man who violates 480 the law is prompt and adequate publicity. 
The fines that 490 have been inflicted in the past have constituted no 
serious 500 deterrent, but now the moment action is taken the wheels 810 
of publicity begin to turn. As soon as a seizure 520 is made the news- 
papers of the vicinity in which it 530 occurs are notified, and the 
day final judgment is rendered 540 the news is promptly and fully 
given out. 

The longest 550 step forward in the regulation of the sale of food 560 in 
interstate commerce was the action a few months ago 670 in expanding 
the pure food law to meat and meat 580 products under the action of 
the Pure Food Board. Under 590 former rulings the sale of meat 
was entirely under the 600 meat inspection law. This provided only 
for pure meat at 610 the slaughter house, and left no means of prevent- 
ing deterioration 620 and misbranding consumerward from the pack- 
ing house. [627. 


Mr. Underwood has been sane and practical in matters of 10 legisla- 
tion, and has been perhaps as consistently American in his 20 public 
policies as any statesman in public life to-day. The five 30 per cent 
preferential clause in the Underwood tariff was an 40 expression of his 
desire to make a beginning of an 50 American merchant marine, which 
he always has favored. 

His advocacy 60 of the exemption of American coastwise shipping 
from Panama tolls 70 was another expression of his earnest advocacy 
of this great 80 American policy. Mr. Underwood's view that the 
shipping bill is 90 merely emergency legislation and must be diligently 


perfected in the 100 next Congress is particularly cheering to those who 
see the 110 imperfections of the present bill. In a direct personal 
interview 120 Mr. Underwood said: 

"It is a long lane that has 130 no turning. American shipping inter- 
ests started down hill three-quarters 140 of a century ago. 

"It is indeed a strange happening 150 that the great public senti- 
ment that controls the American nation 160 should wait until an event 
over which we had no 170 control should happen to awaken the Ameri- 
can people to the 180 necessity of carrying their foreign commerce in 
their own ships. 190 Let us hope that the sentiment of to-day in 200 favor 
of rebuilding our merchant marine is not the mere 210 idle promise of 
the hour, but has come to stay, and that future Congresses will 
respond 220 to an enlightened sentiment of our people that will ulti- 
mately 230 write on the statute books permanent legislation that will 
establish 240 carriers of our own. 

"The country should realize that the 250 bill passed by Congress to 
admit foreign ships to American 260 registry is only emergency legisla- 

"Although it may relieve the 270 needs of the hour, in the end it will 
not 280 build up and maintain a permanent American merchant ma- 
rine. Our 290 ships were driven from the seas because our foreign 
rivals 300 discriminated in favor of their ships and we neglected ours. 310 
No matter how many foreign bottoms may take the American 320 flag, 
no matter how many ships we may build in 330 our own shipyards, 
when the war in Europe is over 340 and the world returns to normal 
conditions, if other nations 350 of the world continue to pay their ships 
subsidies when 350 they pass through the Suez and Panama canals, 
if they 370 continue to discriminate in favor of them on their home 380 
railroads, if they continue to furnish capital for building them, 390 
and in many other ways discriminate in their favor, our 400 own ships 
will not be able to compete unless we 410 adopt some methods of our 
own that will give the 420 American ships an equal showing to carry 
the freights of 430 the world. 

"The present emergency shipping bill has become a 440 law. I 
realize with tired men anxious to return home 450 before election day 
that this is not an opportune time 460 to propose or pass permanent 
legislation, but I hope and 470 believe that when Congress assembles 
next winter it will pass 480 well considered legislation looking to the 
permanent establishment of our 490 own merchant marine and its 
maintenance for decades yet to 500 come. 

"It is too early to suggest or propose the 510 method to be adopted. 


There are a number of methods 520 that could be adopted and bring 

"I have favored 530 in the past discriminations in favor of our ship- 
ping and 540 believe that is the safest and most economical and 
surest 550 way to accomplish the result. But I am so anxious 560 to 
build a merchant marine that, if others are not 570 willing to travel on 
my road, I am willing to 580 go with them on any reasonable road that 
will lead 590 us to the desired result, and I have the faith 600 to believe 
that the accomplishment of our purpose is near 610 at hand." [612. 


One of the peculiarities of the art of advertising is 10 the fact that, 
although the subject has been carefully studied 20 and possesses a 
fairly extensive literature, no generally accepted 30 definition has ever 
been framed for it. Practically all students 40 of advertising are agreed 
as to the aims and purposes 50 of advertising, but difficulties seem to 
arise when attempts are 60 made to reduce conceptions to a few words. 
The mere 70 absence of a definition is in itself of little consequence, 80 
but the prevalence of false notions as to the proper function of 90 
an advertisement, due to the absence of a concise, accurate, 100 and 
well-known phrase, is responsible for a great waste 110 of money. 

The definition of the "to advertise" favored by 120 the dictionaries 
is, "To give public notice of; to announce 130 publicly, especially by 
printed notice." Undoubtedly, this was formerly the 140 chief mean- 
ing of the word, but the modern advertising man 150 sees a decided dif- 
ference between a published list of marriage 160 licenses and an appeal 
to buy stoves. The belief that 170 the only purpose of an advertise- 
ment is to convey information 180 is still held by many advertisers as 
the multitude of 190 trade "cards" in trade magazines and newspapers 
prove; but every 200 advertising man knows that the card is a most 
inefficient 210 and wasteful form of publicity. 

"Salesmanship on paper" is perhaps 220 the most popular definition, 
especially among advertising men, but this 230 definition is easily 
eliminated by pointing out that advertising is 240 employed for many 
purposes, such as inducing people to go to 250 church, into which 
nothing that can be called salesmanship enters, 260 and that window 
displays, moving pictures, and other mediums 270 guiltless of paper, 
form highly successful advertisements. 


"The process of 280 creating desire" is another favored definition; 
but the advertisement that 290 acts solely through suggestion without 
creating desire (as many do) 300 can hardly be excluded. This defini- 
tion is furthermore, another 310 illustration of the danger of false con- 
ceptions. Many advertisers believe 320 that success is certain if desire 
for their commodities is 330 created, and spend vast sums to attain 
this end; afterwards 340 they awaken to the fact that the creating of 
desire 350 without supplying the means to satisfy that desire through 
adequate 360 distribution is empty of reward. 

"Advertising is the process of 370 making people do something the 
advertiser wants them to do." 380 This definition excludes merely 
informative announcements and covers those prepared 390 with the 
aim of producing some definite action. It makes 400 no difference 
what the action may be whether to buy 410 certain goods, send for 
certain literature, travel on a certain 420 road, give a salesman a 
respectful and attentive hearing, vote 430 for a certain party, prevent 
the spread of a disease, 440 or permit a public service corporation to 
increase the price 450 of its service (refusal to act being also included 
by 460 the word "action"). Advertising does this and much more. 
The 470 action may take place immediately on comprehending the 
advertisement 480 or years afterward, but an advertisement is only 
successful when it 490 induces a sufficient number of people to act in 
a 500 certain manner, and if it does not, it is a 510 failure and a waste 
of money, regardless of what other 520 good qualities it may possess. 

It is obvious that ideas 530 form the sole weapon for the advertiser, 
other means of 540 producing action, such as bribery, physical force, 
and intimidation, being 550 clearly not advertising. But it makes no 
difference whatever how 560 the advertiser presents his ideas, whether 
by printed words, spoken 570 words, pictures, samples, or displays of 
goods. He is unrestricted^ 80 as to his methods and is free to choose 
any 590 that are available. 

This definition gives us the clew to 600 the proper study of the adver- 
tising man, i. e., the factors 610 that influence human action. It 
opens the way for a 620 comprehension of the true parts played by 
attention, interest, suggestion, 630 desire, decision, association of ideas 
and memory, and the manner 640 in which these factors can be used 
advantageously by the 650 advertiser. And it shows that proper 
distribution is as much 660 an essential to successful advertising as 
the selection of the 670 proper mediums and the preparation of proper 
copy. 1678. 



Would free trade promote free trade? 

Or would carefully-handled, 10 scientific reciprocity accomplish 

The world is confronted with this 20 puzzling economic development : 

Great Britain, after a long era of 30 free trade, is seriously considering 
a return to a limited 40 amount of protection, solely to enable herself 
to introduce reciprocity 50 agreements with the various countries 
forming the Empire. Under absolute 60 free trade that is not possible. 

The United States, simultaneously, 70 is about to take a plunge 
toward free trade without, 80 apparently, giving proper thought to 
this principle of reciprocity. 

Joseph 90 Chamberlain, the veteran leader of the British Unionists, 
was the 100 first to espouse a measure of cooperation within the 
Empire 110 to secure advantages which would not be given open- 
handedly 120 to competitors. Even the enemies of Joe Chamberlain 
have never 130 accused him of being a fool. In his heyday he 140 tow- 
ered above all other political stalwarts in Britain. His proposal 150 
shocked hide-bound free traders and almost disrupted his party. 160 
In the midst of the fight, before he could lead 170 his followers to vic- 
tory, he was stricken down by sickness, 180 and no one has yet arisen 
to carry the movement 190 forward with equal zeal, force and bril- 

The plea of 200 the Chamberlain adherents was, and is, that when 
Britain adopted 210 free trade it was confidently believed other nations 
would reciprocate 220 by following her example. Instead, the arrange- 
ment proved one-sided. 230 

Let us grant that universal free trade would be ideal. 240 But let 
us also look facts squarely in the face. 250 

Once America gives foreigners something for nothing, how can it 260 
hope to exact compensating favors in return? If it throws 270 away its 
commercial sword its tariff its weapon of defense 280 is gone, is it 

Wouldn't diplomatically-handled reciprocity accomplish 290 more 
in securing freer trade? Wouldn't it induce foreigners now 300 sur- 
rounded by protection to grant a more generous measure of 310 free 
trade to American products? Wouldn't it mean that for 320 every step 
we take towards free trade with any nation, 330 that nation must also 
take a step of similar length 340 to meet us? To throw down our own 


barriers without 350 demanding any lowering of foreign barriers would 
be a lop-sided 360 bargain. 

Note this point: We can bargain when we have 370 something to 
bargain with, but we cannot bargain after we 380 have to give. 

European newspapers are chuckling over the prospect 390 of trium- 
phant invasion of American markets. In England, in Germany, 400 in 
France, in Italy, columns upon columns are being printed 410 about 
the great impetus which certain industries will receive once 420 the 
tariff is brushed aside or radically lowe ed. "We are 430 to get some- 
thing for nothing from the United States," is 440 the exultant note of 
the Continental Press. They had not 450 thought Uncle Sam would be 
so magnanimous, so generous, so 460 shortsighted, in other words. 

Has Congress forgotten entirely this part 470 of the Underwood tariff 
bill Section IV., paragraph A: 

That 480 for the purpose of readjusting the present duties on impor- 
tations 490 into the United States and at the same time to 500 encour- 
age the export trade of this country, the President of 510 the United 
States is authorized and empowered to negotiate trade 520 agree- 
ments with foreign nations wherein mutual concessions are made 
looking 530 toward freer trade relations and further reciprocal ex- 
pansion of trade 540 and commerce. 

Provided, however, that said trade agreements, before coming 550 
operative, shall be submitted to the Congress of the United 560 
States for ratification or rejection. 

We cannot first take all 570 the shot out of our own commercial guns 
and then 580 point them at the heads of unfriendly foreign nations 
who 590 refuse to play fair with us. To do so would 600 only subject 
us to derision. If we leave ourselves without 610 ammunition our 
oversea rivals can laugh at us. 

It is 620 not altogether nonsensical, then, is it, to ask whether 
free 630 trade would promote free trade, or whether carefully-handled 
scientific reciprocity 640 would not accomplish more? [644. 


It was the first time that shell tracers, as they 10 are technically 
called, were used, and they proved a success. 20 A tracer is nothing 
else than an edge of fire 30 about the forward end and nose of the 


shot, kept 40 there by the explosion of gases, by which the progress 50 
of the missile through the night can be followed by 60 the naked eye. 
By using these tracers the artillerymen found 70 that the shots go 
"Straight as a die." 

The tests 80 showed how accurate firing can be from mortars, dis- 
tinctly American 90 weapons of destruction, and also demonstrated 
that New York harbor, 100 from the direction of Sandy Hook at least, 
is presumably 110 impregnable. These mortars are far from new, but 
have always 120 been regarded as among the most effective methods of 
defense. 130 They have always been used with remarkable accuracy 
during the 140 day. The marvelous thing about them now is that 
with 150 their range finders and other mechanical appliances they can 
shoot 160 their ponderous charges through the night just as accurately 
as 170 by day, and do not have to reveal their lodgment 180 at all. 

The work of locating a target or an 190 enemy is as simple as sighting 
a rifle at a 200 woodchuck on a sunlit day. With powerful illuminated 
glasses the 210 vessel is sighted. Then the men in the observation 
and 220 signal stations calculate her speed and tell by that and 230 by 
her direction just where she will be at a 240 certain time maybe in one 
minute, two minutes or five 250 minutes- Then with mechanical 
appliances which are just as unerring 260 as the sun and stars they fig- 
ure out where she 270 and a shot from the mortars will meet, allowing 
for 280 the time of the flight of the shot and the 290 time consumed in 
loading, pointing and firing the gun. There 300 is nothing even 
approaching uncertainty about this. Problems in trigonometry 310 
based on the dimensions of triangles and the speed both 320 of shell and 
craft are solved instantly, and presently the 330 huge shot spurts from 
the gun and the shell and 340 the vessel travel toward the meeting 

The targets in 350 these last tests were about four miles away. The 
shots 360 were propelled by charges of eighteen points of powder. 
The 370 same mortars could just as well have fired twice or 380 almost 
three times the distance and with just as much 390 accuracy. Twelve 
shots were fired and as near as could 400 be estimated, ten of the shots 
struck the mark. 

One 410 of the most beautiful spectacles of the tests was the 420 firing 
of two shots simultaneously, or almost so. One spurted 430 from a 
mortar in pit A and another in pit 440 B, just a few yards apart. Both 
rose in precisely 450 the same course and both struck the water together 
and 460 in almost identically the same spot. Both were framed in 470 
flame and were seen by thousands of persons. 


These rims 480 of fire appeared on six of the twelve shots fired 490 
at Sandy Hook and made them look like gigantic sky- 500 rockets as 
they gracefully, and not too swiftly, rose to a 510 height estimated at 
from two to three miles and then, 520 in a beautiful half curve, cleaved 
their way toward their 530 object of destruction, gaining velocity as 
they fell until, still 540 showing red, they smashed the water with the 
same speed 550 as that with which they left the muzzle of the 560 

There are more mortars at other forts, and as 570 they are so placed 
that they cannot be reached except 580 by tha most remarkable of 
accidents they can keep shooting 590 for days at a time and, theoreti- 
cally at least, send 600 to the bottom of the ocean all the ships in 610 the 
world should they dare to come within the range 620 of firing. 

The factor that airships might play is not 630 taken into considera- 
tion, and, in fact, it would require most 640 wonderful work for any 
craft to drop a shell into 650 the pits. War ships, whose guns shoot 
practically horizontally, could 660 not place shot or shell in the pits. 
War ships 670 cannot withstand the recoil of mortars, and thus it 
would 680 seem that the deadly mortars, in the event of war, 690 could 
go on interminably dropping their hail of death on 700 every one and 
everything that came within the range of 710 their firing. [712. 


Courage has always been a characteristic of the American sailor, 10 
but it alone was not responsible for victories achieved by 20 our men- 
of-war over those of enemies no less 30 brave. In the days of the 
sailing ship, the superiority 40 was due in an important degree to the 
greater skill 50 with which the ship was handled by experienced officers 
and 60 its crew of hardy longshoremen. Hull won as much distinc- 
tion 70 in sailing the Constitution as in fighting her. The native 80 
intelligence, the quick eye and the supple limbs of the 90 men born 
and bred in the salt air of the 100 Atlantic Coast easily worked the 
simple guns of that day. 110 

Raw material is not so easily convertible into the experienced 120 
man-o'-war's-man of the twentieth century. The abandonment 
of 130 sails and the substitution of steam and electricity with the 140 
countless improvements accompanying the change have created in 


the war-ship 150 of the new Navy a demand for a mechanic-sailor 160 
that is a man trained in the operation and 170 repair of fighting machin- 
ery, yet impregnated with the salt of 180 the sea. Ability to navigate 
and sail a ship was 190 the first requisite of an officer and seaman of 200 
the Old Navy; to-day they are engineers and mechanics first, and 210 
sailors afterwards. A modern battleship from stem to stern 220 is 
simply a huge fighting machine. It is propelled by 230 machinery ; its 
turrets, themselves machines, are operated by machinery; the 240 
guns are loaded and fired by machinery ; the torpedoes, complicated 250 
engines, are sent on their careers of destruction by machinery; 260 
small boats and anchors are lowered and anchored by machinery, 270 
and water-tight compartments are opened and closed by machin- 
ery. 280 

Steam and electricity are the powers which move this terrible 290 
creature of man's destructive genius; and steam and electrical engi- 
neers 300 are required to guide and supervise its operation. An 
officer's 310 duties, however, are not limited to the practical application 
of 320 these sciences. He must also know how to navigate his 330 
ship and be able to care for the health and 340 general well-being of 
the men under his command. Occasions 350 arise when he must con- 
duct negotiations for the settlement of 360 important diplomatic 
questions, and he frequently represents the government at 370 func- 
tions of international consequence. He rescues the ship-wrecked, 
gives 380 assistance to the national merchant marine, and if called 
on, 390 quells mutinies. He surveys dangerous coasts, makes deep-sea 
soundings 400 for the double purpose of finding a suitable bed for 410 pro- 
jected cables and charting the bottom of the ocean. He determines 420 
for navigators the latitude and longitude of doubtful points. He 430 
should have at least a rudimentary acquaintance with astronomy, 
and 440 know something of chemistry. Because legal questions are 
sometimes 450 raised by or referred to him, and because he serves 460 at 
court-martials and administers punishment, he ought to be 470 familiar 
with the principles of common law. Above all, he 480 must be a man of 
quick decision and of nerve 490 and of sound judgment, for as a com- 
manding officer on 800 a battleship, or a vessel of inferior class, he 510 
should know in battle how to strike and to strike 520 sure; in peace, 
how to determine an important question fitting 530 the honor of the 
nation which is brought to him 540 for immediate settlement. 

These are the attainments of the ideal 550 officer, but it does not 
follow that every member of 560 the commissioned force of the Navy 
possesses them. At the 570 same time, the preliminary education 


given at the Naval Academy 580 and the subsequent training in active 
professional life insure the 590 development of an officer provided he 
can and will improve 600 his opportunities there. It is the proud 
boast of the 610 American Navy that in its existence of more than a 620 
century, in but few instances has a man been found 630 wanting when 
the occasion for him came. [637. 


Not only is the world especially the business world awaking 10 
to the foolishness of wars between nations but to the 20 foolishness as 
well of employing the principles of warfare in 30 business. Judge 
Gary, chairman of the board of directors of 40 the U. S. Steel Corpo- 
ration, believes that those principles are equally 50 abominable in both 
cases. He spoke recently before the American 60 Iron and Steel Insti- 
tute, on the similarity of the results 70 of the European War and com- 
petitive warfare in business. He 80 said: 

"The nation that wins will surely lose, although this 90 would 
seem at first blush a paradox. The enormous 100 cost and the long- 
continued suffering on the part of 110 the survivors will not be fully 
covered by any success 120 or glory or indemnity. Before now every 
participant in the 130 contest must realize that it would have been 
better to 140 have settled, if possible, all the existing differences, real 
or 150 imaginary, on a basis approved by some competent and im- 
partial 160 tribunal. The sums expended and to be expended by the 170 
different nations would have greatly extended their opportunities 
for 180 success and happiness if wisely used for those purposes. Per- 
sonally, 190 I believe in a positive and binding agreement between all 200 
the nations for the final settlement by arbitration of all 210 interna- 
tional disputes by a competent and impartial tribunal, and for 220 
the enforcement of decisions by the nations not personally involved 230 
in the question at issue. Such an agreement could be 240 made, such a 
tribunal would be permanently established and such 280 an enforce- 
ment made practical if the nations were so disposed. 260 I hope the 
time will come, even though not in 270 my time, when wars and rumors 
of wars will cease 280 altogether." 

"All I have said applies forcibly to our business. 290 We who 
are here to-day are engaged in competition; we 300 are naturally selfish. 


We are often inconsiderate and indifferent. In 310 representing the 
interests of those who place us in official 320 position, we feel obligated 
to strive for success, and 330 we go beyond reason or justice. As many 
of you 340 have remarked at previous meetings, it was customary in 
the 350 days gone by to harbor the same feelings and to 360 pursue the 
same line of conduct in the iron and 370 steel trade that have been 
exhibited in the European conflict. 380 Business men struggle for 
revenge, or conquest, or suppression, or 390 other reasons just as bad. 
The graves of concerns destroyed 400 were numerous. This has lately 
been testified to in open 410 court by those who are familiar with the 

"To-day 420 I congratulate you on your success in bringing about 
a 430 new order of things in business. You have become well 440 
acquainted; you have confidence in each other; you believe what 450 
is told you; you recognize the interests of your neighbor; 460 you are 
glad when he prospers and equally sorry when 470 he fails of success. 
You have a better and clearer 480 understanding of business obliga- 
tions. You can faithfully represent your stock- 490 holders, or the 
owners of your properties, and indulge in 500 the keenest competition 
without being oppressive or unfair. 

"And so 610 I trust that in all our deliberations we bear these 820 
principles in mind. Commercial warfare, which means destruction 
and oppression, 530 should be as distasteful as the battles which kill 
and 540 maim the soldiers, for they are the same in pecuniary 550 results. 
They are injurious to all of those who are 560 engaged and they 
seriously distress those who may be dependent 570 upon the concerns 
which are eliminated. Without taking more time 580 to further discuss 
these questions, I suggest that it is 590 to the benefit and interest of all 
of us to 600 have each one of those engaged in competition propor- 
tionately successful 610 with others; and that by all fair, honorable and 
proper 620 means we should encourage these conditions." 

"Communities succeed or fail 630 together. Competitors in trade, 
producer and consumer, employer and employee, the 640 private indi- 
vidual and the public all secure the best 650 results if they work 
together. The success of one on 660 legitimate lines means the benefit 
of all, and the failure 670 of one means loss to all." "Current Opinion." 




America owes her proud place among the nations to the 10 energy, 
sagacity and insight of her business men. Organization in 20 America, 
based on the science of mathematics and the law 30 of supply and 
demand, has given us our wealth. To 40 embarrass and legislate 
against organization, limiting it, checking it, thwarting 50 it, is to cur- 
tail production. 

Supervision is necessary, but limitation, 60 never. 

Most anti-trust laws are born of fallacious reasoning. 70 They are 
unscientific, being based on mistaken assumptions. 

The mobs 80 that tore up the first railroads in England, as well 90 as 
the fine scorn of John Ruskin for the iron 100 horse, were the result of a 
belief that this newly 110 discovered power was going to enslave the 
people. So they 120 wanted less power, not more. 

A few always suffer from 130 an inability to adapt themselves to 
new conditions, but progress 140 is for the many, not for the few. 

The occasional 150 misuse of a good thing is no excuse for making 160 
war on the thing. 

My father tells of a time 170 when he changed cars, seven times 
going from New York 180 to Chicago. The journey took three days 
and three nights. 190 And it would be the same now were it not 200 
for combination and organization. 

Organization is the keynote of success. 210 

In Russia corporations are heavily taxed and looked upon with 220 
grave suspicion. Production by modern methods is limited. 

There is 230 not a single millionaire in Russia, outside of the Czar 240 
and the grand dukes, and they do not count, since 250 their business 
is consumption and waste, and not production. 

There 260 is not a millionaire merchant in Spain, Portugal or Italy. 270 
The genius of organization is lacking in Europe, save for 280 purposes 
of war purposes of destruction. 

Our best talents in 290 America are being used in the lines of creation, 
production, 300 building and distribution. 

That bright spot in history called the 310 "Age of Pericles" was 
simply a lull in the war 320 spirit, when Greece turned her attention 
from war to art 330 and beauty. 

Through the genius of America's business men we 340 will yet make 


the "Age of Pericles" perpetual, and the 350 glory that was Greece will 
manifest itself all over this 360 continent, and finally all over the world. 
Energy, taking the 370 form of human units, combines according to 
certain natural laws. 380 

Economics is as much under the domain of Nature as 390 are the 
tides and movements of the planets. Ignorance of 400 the laws of 
economics is the one thing that destroyed 410 the old civilizations and 
limits ours. 

One hundred and fifty years 420 ago, practically all manufacturing 
was done in the homes in 430 the form of handicrafts. 

The invention of the steam-engine 440 removed factory. By the 
help of the machine one man 450 can now do as much as eighty could 
one hundred 460 fifty years ago. 

We have twenty million workers in America, 470 which are equal to 
the work of one billion six 480 hundred million one hundred years ago. 
Here we find a 490 vast increase in the production of wealth. To use 
this 600 wealth for human good, and not pauperize the workers, is 510 
the problem that confronts us. 

To limit the production of 520 wealth because some one misuses 
wealth would be on a 530 par with limiting health because some one 
had laughed out 540 loud in meeting. Don't be afraid that anyone is 550 
going to take his wealth with him when he dies. 660 Also, don't be 
afraid that he can tie it up 570 so it will not bless and benefit mankind. 
The unfit 580 are always distributing it, and killing themselves in the 
process. 690 

Economics is an evolving science. We will never get to 600 the 
end of it. Ideals attained cease to be ideals, 610 and the distant peaks 
beckon us on and on. Combinations 620 that increase production 
should be encouraged, not forbidden. What this 630 world needs is 
more wealth, not less. 

The evil in 640 the Trust is not in its organization, nor in its 660 
bigness, nor in its success. It is threefold : first, corruption 660 of public 
officials to obtain special privileges denied to competitors; 670 second, 
the consequent oppression of the competitor and the consumer; 680 
third, watering of stock and then extorting excessive profits to 690 
pay dividends on such stock. 

These evils the law must 700 cure without destroying cooperation, 
or discouraging enterprise, or impeding progress. 710 

All intelligent progressives are working to this end. [718. 



When the great European conflict finally ceases what will be 10 the 
effect upon investment resources and the investment market? This 20 
question is being keenly discussed in the financial district and 30 
the more it is debated the more disposition there is 40 to take a cheer- 
ful view. When the terrific shock first 50 fell upon the markets only 
one thought was in people's 60 minds the fearful cost in men and 
money, the enormous 70 capital waste. The first conclusion was that 
the end of 80 the war would be followed by a long period during 90 
which capital would be scarce and credit tight, and that 100 the im- 
mense issues of new government securities necessary to be 110 taken 
up would cause a wholesale displacement of older investments 120 
throughout the world. 

This pessimistic line of reasoning has now 130 been considerably 
modified. As the subject has been more carefully 140 considered, 
various offsets to the destruction wrought by the war 150 have 
assumed a constantly increasing importance. Against the huge 
draft 160 of the European struggle upon the world's capital supply 
must 170 be set three great agencies, present and prospective whereby 
it 180 will be sustained and eventually built up. First there are 190 the 
world-wide economies now being practised. All classes of 200 people 
feel poorer, nearly everybody is spending less. This reduction 210 
in expenses by individuals applies in equal degree but on 220 a much 
larger scale to corporations. If we try to 230 grasp what this wide- 
spread saving means already and what it 240 will mean during the rest 
of the war period and 250 long after hostilities have ceased, it is difficult 
to underrate 260 its magnitude. 

Secondly, with the great contest over, disarmament will 270 begin. 
The huge sums taken each year from trade channels 280 will be enor- 
mously reduced and there will be a vast 290 transfer from unproductive 
to productive labor. How far the saving 300 and recreation of capital 
through reduction of military and naval 310 expenditures will go 
toward balancing the war losses, is a 320 futile inquiry when we do not 
know the duration of 330 the war. But financial experts who have 
gone into the 340 subject are convinced that unless the present struggle 
is prolonged 350 beyond all ordinary calculations it would not take 
more than 360 a few years saving under disarmament to pay for its 370 
entire cost. 

There is a third factor more important, perhaps, 380 than either of 


the other two, which is bound to 390 play a compensating part in the 
markets after the war 400 is over. This is the release of vast sums 
long 410 hoarded through Europe by governments, banks, and indi- 
viduals. For years 420 since 1870, in fact Europe has never ceased 
preparing for 430 war. The growth of armaments has been the more 
open 440 phase of these preparations, but on the financial side, al- 
though 460 more secret, they have been just as persistent and exten- 
sive. 460 

Along with the government withdrawals has been an individual 
accumulation 470 which in the aggregate is very large. It is credibly 480 
stated that French peasants ever since 1870, convinced that an- 
other 490 great clash must come, have kept gold tucked away in 500 
their stockings. Within the last two years that is, since 510 the Bal- 
kan outbreak the fear of a general conflagration has 520 been so keen 
that this hoarding by private capitalists small 530 and large has been 
greatly stimulated. All over Europe it 540 has gone on and has repeat- 
edly been referred to as 550 the most formidable depressing cause in the 
financial markets. 660 

To this impounding of gold supplies by the foreign governments 670 
and by private individuals must be added the excessive accumula- 
tions 580 by the European banks. The banks of France and Ger- 
many, 690 particularly within the last eighteen months, have never 
ceased their 600 efforts to augment their specie holdings. As the 
result their 610 reserves have become something abnormal. What is 
true of the 620 great central institutions at Paris and Berlin is true, 
only 630 in less degree, of other foreign banks. Everywhere reserves 
have 640 been piled up far in excess of the ordinary requirements 680 of 

What then, is going to happen when the 660 conflict is over and the 
world is assured, as it 670 must be, of a permanent peace? The motive 
which for 680 forty years has influenced financial Europe and led to 
an 690 unabated hoarding of gold supplies will have ceased to be. 700 
The prolonged accumulation will give way to a sudden and 710 tre- 
mendous release of these golden stores. And when this happens 720 
it will be just like a new gold discovery. [729. 



Fraternities in colleges, like all things human, were born as 10 
infants; and at first developed the childish foibles of paraded 20 secrecy 
and snobbish exclusiveness. In our more progressive colleges this 30 
childish stage has passed; affected secrecy and studied snobbishness 
have 40 given way to frank publicity and arduous responsibility. 
The grip, 50 the pin, the letters of mysterious meaning, to be sure, 60 
remain as harmless relics, like the baby dresses and little 70 shoes the 
mother keeps fondly in the attic chest long 80 after her boy has grown 
to be a man. 

In 90 colleges that are alert the fraternities have become homes, 
with 100 houses to care for, pay taxes on, and keep in 110 repair; often 
with board and lodging to provide; with ideals 120 of character, 
standards of scholarship and traditions of service to 130 maintain, 
under the critical eyes of their graduate brothers and 140 their under- 
graduate rivals. 

Responsibility and publicity are the two indispensable 150 guard- 
ians of fraternity life. The more they have to do, 160 and the more 
strictly they are held to corporate responsibility 170 for doing it, the 
more beneficial will they be both 180 to their members and to the 
community. In a college 190 where the responsibility and publicity of 
fraternities is well developed 200 discipline appeals to the student not 
as individual merely, which 210 is an appeal too small and feeble, nor 
as a 220 member of the college primarily, which is an appeal too 230 
vague and general, but as a member of the fraternity 240 whose good 
standing his conduct helps or harms. 

The average 250 student will respond ten times as quickly and effec- 
tively to 260 that appeal when sympathetically presented and effec- 
tively backed by the 270 support of graduate and older undergraduate 
brothers as he will 230 to either the smaller individual or the larger 
institutional appeal. 290 To be a discredit or a drawback to his own 300 
group with which he is identified by its election and 310 his choice is 
an offense of which not one student 320 in a hundred is willing to be 

Publicity is 330 as essential as responsibility, and a great stimulus 
to it. 340 A college which seeks to make the most of it 350 gives much 
more publicity to the rank of a fraternity 360 than to that of the indi- 
viduals who compose it. The 370 relative contributions of the frater- 
aities to the athletic, business, literary, 380 musical and dramatic life 


of the college likewise are known 390 and read by the entire student 
body. No student or 400 "delegation," as the group from the same 
class is called, 410 is willing to stand low in the esteem of prominent 420 
graduates of their fraternity. Hence the college officer needs to 430 
know not only the under graduates, but also the influential graduates 440 
who are in each fraternity, and use such knowledge on 450 every avail- 
able occasion, by mail, over the telephone and face 460 to face. 

The necessity of "rushing" or "fishing" new men, 470 where com- 
petition is sufficiently keen, is a great incentive to 480 keeping frater- 
nity standards high. But where all the students are 490 in fraternities, 
or groups very similar to fraternities, a fraternity 600 finds a reputation 
for low scholarship, feeble athletics, demoralized finances 510 or 
"sporty" living a very serious handicap. 

In entering this 520 lifelong alliance, far more indissoluble than 
marriage has come to 630 be, freshmen are becoming increasingly wary 
of fatal defects in 540 a fraternity; and rival fraternities are not slow 
to point 550 out the defects in each other to freshmen they are 560 
seeking to pledge. Accordingly, to get the full benefit of 570 competi- 
tion between fraternities, it becomes the part of wisdom for 580 a col- 
lege which has fraternities at all to have enough 590 of them, or of clubs 
like them, to include all 600 the students in college. 

With a little management, and a 610 sufficient subsidy to start the 
new organization when a new 620 one is needed, it is possible to have 
all the 630 students organized in groups of from twenty to forty-five, 640 
on a plane of equality, in such keen and wholesome 650 rivalry that the 
strength and the weakness, the honor and 660 the shame of every man 
in college is brought home 670 as a help or a hindrance to the social 
group 680 of which he is a member and for whose welfare 690 and 
reputation he intensely cares. [696. 


Earthquakes are produced by fractures and sudden heavings and 
subsidences 10 in the elastic crust of the globe, from the pressure 20 of 
the liquid fire, vapors, and gases in its interior, 30 which there find 
vent, relieve the tension which the strata 40 acquire during their 
slow refrigeration, and restore equilibrium. But whether 50 the initial 
impulse be eruptive, or a sudden pressure upwards, 60 the shock orig- 


inating in that point is propagated through the 70 elastic surface of 
the earth in a series of circular or 80 oval undulations, similar to those 
produced by dropping a stone 90 into a pool and like them they become 
broader and 100 lower as the distance increases, till they gradually 
subside; in 110 this manner the shock travels through the land, becom- 
ing weaker 120 and weaker till it terminates. When the impulse 
begins in 130 the interior of a continent, the elastic wave is propa- 
gated 140 through the solid crust of the earth as well as 150 in sound 
through the air, and is transmitted from the 160 former to the ocean, 
where it is finally spent and 170 lost, or, if very powerful, is continued in 
the opposite 180 land. Almost all the earthquakes, however, have their 
origin in 190 the bed of the ocean, far from land, whence the 200 shocks 
travel in undulations to the surrounding shores. No doubt 210 many 
of small intensity are imperceptible; it is only the 220 violent efforts of 
the internal forces that can overcome the 230 pressure of the ocean's 
bed, and that of the superincumbent 240 water. The internal pressure 
is supposed to find relief most 250 readily in a belt of great breadth that 
surrounds the 260 land at a considerable distance from the coast, and, 
being 270 formed of its debris, the internal temperature is in a 280 per- 
petual state of fluctuation, which would seem to give rise 290 to sudden 
flexures and submarine eruptions. When the original impulse 300 is 
a fracture or eruption of lava in the bed 310 of the deep ocean, two kinds 
of waves or undulations are 320 produced and propagated simultan- 
eously one through the bed of the 330 ocean, which is the true earth- 
quake shock; and coincident with this 340 a wave is formed and propa- 
gated on the surface of 350 the ocean, which rolls to the shore and 
reaches it 360 in time to complete the destruction long after the shock 370 
or wave through the solid ocean-bed has arrived and 380 spent itself on 
land. The height to which the surface 390 of the ground is elevated, or 
the vertical height of 400 the shock-wave, varies from one inch to two 
or 410 three feet. This earth-wave, on passing under deep water, 420 
is imperceptible, but when it comes to soundings it carries 430 with it to 
the land a long flat aqueous wave; 440 on arriving at the beach the 
water drops in 450 arrear from the superior velocity of the shock, so 
that 460 at that moment the sea seems to recede before the 470 great 
ocean-wave arrives. It is the small forced waves 480 that give the 
shock to ships, and not the great 490 wave; when ships are struck in 
very deep water, 800 the center of disturbance is either immediately 
under, or very 510 nearly under, the vessel. Three other series of undu- 
lations are 520 formed simultaneously with the preceding, by which 
the sound of 530 the explosion is conveyed through the earth, the 


ocean, and 540 the air, with different velocities. That through the 
earth travels 550 at the rate of from 7,000 to 10,000 feet in 560 a second 
in hard rock, and somewhat less in looser 570 materials and arrives at 
the coast a short time before, 880 or at the same moment with the 
shock, and produces 590 the hollow sounds that are the harbingers of 
ruin; then 600 follows a continuous succession of sounds, like the rolling 
of 610 distant thunder, formed, first by the wave that is propagated 620 
through the water of the sea, which travels at the 630 rate of 4,700 feet 
in a second; and lastly, by 640 that passing through the air, which only 
takes place when 650 the origin of the earthquake is a submarine explo- 
sion, and 660 travels with a velocity of 1,123 feet in a second. 670 The 
rolling sounds precede the arrival of the great wave 680 on the coasts, 
and are continued after the terrific catastrophe 690 when the eruption 
is extensive. When there is a succession 700 of shocks all the phe- 
nomena are reproduced. During earthquakes, dislocations 710 of 
strata take place, the course of rivers is changed, 720 and in some 
instances they have been permanently dried up, 730 rocks are hurled 
down, masses raised up, and the configuration 740 of the country 
altered; but if there be no fracture 760 at the point of original impulse, 
there will be no 760 noise. [761. 




Education, as we know it, is under obligations to many 10 men and 
many influences, but there is no single factor 20 to which education 
owes a greater debt than it does 30 to religion. The shrine and the 
schoolhouse have never been 40 very far apart at any stage of the 
world's progress. 50 

For those more fortunate in this world's goods, who do 60 not 
need to turn to the State for education, or 70 for those who received 
their training in denominational or charitable 80 schools, the public 
school may not mean the beginning and 90 the end of education. But 
to the millions who have 100 found it the only place where they could 
slake their 110 thirst for knowledge, the "Little Red Schoolhouse" 
is a sacred 120 temple that no man dare profane. 

Within its friendly walls 130 a message of hope and inspiration has 




been brought to 140 the American boy. There he has learned that no 
task 150 is too hard for him to attempt, no height too 160 lofty for him to 
scale. There he has found the 170 universal key that unlocks all the 
mysteries of science and 180 of art, the magic key of study. And 
beyond all 190 the reading, all the writing, all the arithmetic, the Amer- 
ican 200 boy has learned the American's first lesson, the lesson of 210 
equality and equal opportunity. 

There are no favorites in "The 220 Little Red Schoolhouse." The 
son of the banker and the 230 son of the mechanic meet there upon a 
common footing. 240 Each school is a miniature republic where indus- 
try and ability 250 are the only roads to favor and success. Every 
boy 260 who has fought and laughed his way through "The Little 270 
Red Schoolhouse" knows that all class distinctions are artificial and 280 
that merit is the measure of the man. Whatever else 290 they do, the 
schools of America produce real Americans fit 300 for the duties and the 
responsibilities of American citizenship. 

I 310 know whereof I speak when I talk of the public 320 schools. It 
was in one of this State's public schools 330 that I learned to read and 
write. It was in 340 a public school that I discovered the glorious 
world where 350 the greatest men of all ages live and talk the 360 world 
of books; and I would be ingrate and recreant 370 if I let this occasion 
slip without humbly acknowledging some 380 part of the debt I owe the 
free schools of 390 my State. 

I know the public schools, and, because I 400 know them, I refuse 
to be disturbed by those who 410 seek, from time to time, to alarm 
the nation with 420 gloomy forebodings and dire predictions. For 
when they tell us 430 that danger threatens the institutions of the 
Republic, when they 440 warn us that the ship of state is drifting 
into 450 perilous waters, when the cynic grows faint-hearted and the 460 
credulous becomes discouraged, I hear the bells ringing from ten 470 
thousand public schools and my heart grows warm again. 

I 480 see twenty million children marching into the schools that 
dot 490 the hills and valleys from Maine to Mexico. I watch 500 them 
conning their readers and thumbing their histories. I see 510 them 
being molded into American citizens and I know that 620 America can 
make no mistake which American citizens cannot rectify. 530 

It is a great task, Doctor Finley, a noble duty, 640 with which the 
State of New York charges you to-day. 550 You are being placed 
at the head of the 560 schools in the greatest State of the Union. New 
York 570 is giving into your keeping the eager minds of its 580 children ; 
it is intrusting you with the care of its 590 future citizens. 


May all good fortune attend you in your 800 task. May you find on 
every hand the support and 610 encouragement that your solemn duty 
deserves. And may all who 620 serve under you remember that the 
real temple of the 630 State's liberties is not the Capitol, where the 
State's laws 640 are made, not the Courts, where the State's laws are 650 
interpreted and enforced, but rather this beautiful building in 
which 680 we are gathered, from which the truths that underlie all 670 
law and all discipline will be carried to the future 680 citizens who must 
obey and defend those laws. 

Our hopes, 690 our aspirations and our prayers accompany you as 
you enter 700 upon your labors, and, with confidence and pride, we 
salute 710 you, caretaker of our liberties, guardian of our children, 
keeper 720 of the pathway to our stars. [726. 



In a wide sense quarantine may be included in the 10 great field of 
preventive medicine, of which we hear so 20 much these days. It 
seeks to prevent disease by excluding 30 it. Among all preventive 
measures, it is perhaps the oldest 40 as it is certainly the most natural. 

The practice of 50 quarantine in some form runs through the history 
of mankind. 60 Provisions of this character are mentioned in the 
Mosaic law; 70 and in our own time, communities, under the dread of 80 
epidemics, have been known to take the law into their 90 own hands 
and to enforce quarantines of the harshest character. 100 The word 
itself originates from the Italian word, quarantina, or 110 "forty," 
forty days being the period of detention imposed on 120 certain vessels 
by the great maritime republic of Venice in 130 the latter part of the 
Middle Ages. 

Among the quarantine 140 procedures now in use perhaps the most 
important are the 150 restrictions placed around our borders and 
frontiers. This country, in 160 common with most others, considers it 
essential to adopt measures 170 to prevent the introduction within its 
borders of certain communicable 180 diseases, and so there has origi- 
nated our system of quarantine 190 defense against exotic disease. 

Situated as we are this means 200 largely a maritime quarantine, 


since our long coast line is of 210 far more importance in this connec- 
tion, than our northern and 220 southern frontiers. 

This quarantine defense is now considered a function 230 of the 
national government, but this has not always been 240 so. The 
assumption of such powers by the national government, 250 like so 
many other powers and duties under national control, 260 has been 
reached through a slow process of evolution, which 270 is even yet not 
entirely complete. In the early days 280 of this country, quarantine 
powers were lodged with the ports 290 or states that is, they were 
entirely local. Settlements were 300 small and scattered, and means 
of communication were slow. But 310 as growth and development 
took place, people multiplied, business grew, 320 and means of trans- 
portation and communication increased, it was recognized 330 that 
quarantine measures affected not only a particular port or 340 place, 
but involved the interests of all. For disease introduced 350 at one 
port might ultimately become very widespread. 

There were, 360 moreover, other considerations; such, for example, 
as the possibility that 370 one port might seek material or business 
advantages at the 380 cost of others by imposing lax quarantine restric- 
tions, to invite 390 trade. 

These and other considerations provoked discussion and legislation 
of 400 one kind or another, all of which finally culminated in 410 an act 
of Congress (approved February 15, 1893) which created 420 a na- 
tional quarantine establishment and placed all such duties and 430 
powers in the hands of the Public Health Service, then 440 the Marine 
Hospital Service. 

Since this act, some other less 450 important legislation has from 
time to time been enacted, largely 460 for the purpose of modifying or 
supplementing the original act. 470 One amendment relates to vessels 
plying between our own ports 480 and nearby foreign ports on our 
frontiers, and releases them 490 from all quarantine restrictions except 
under unusual conditions. This relieves 500 us of many useless and 
expensive restrictions between our neighbors; 510 and allows the exten- 
sive shipping on our Great Lakes, for 520 example, between American 
and Canadian ports, to go on, under 530 normal conditions, unhindered. 

Thus is exemplified the keynote of quarantine 540 defense a mini- 
mum of restriction with a maximum of safety. 550 The idea is to avoid 
all useless and unreasonable restrictions 560 indeed, to expedite in 
every possible way the great and 870 important business of the mer- 
chant marine, as long as it 580 may be done with safety to our own 


Under 590 the law mentioned above and by authority of the secre- 
tary 600 of the treasury, the surgeon-general of the Public Health 610 
Service appointed a board of officers to draw up regulations 620 for 
carrying into effect the national quarantine law; and under 630 these 
regulations, modified from time to time as required, the 640 law is 
now administered. [644. 



It ia necessary that the South, and, in fact, the 10 entire country, 
should realize without delay certain plain facts about 20 the Panama 

There is real danger that in our 30 rejoicing over its early com- 
pletion and in our excusable pride 40 over the great engineering 
achievement, we shall overlook doing the 50 practical things upon 
which the successful use of the canal 60 depends. 

There is equal danger that we are doing impractical 70 things which 
will seriously handicap its value to us. 

I 80 am not an alarmist, but telling the truth when I 90 say there is 
going to be widespread disappointment throughout the 100 country 
at our slowness in realizing the large, appreciable and 110 immediate 
benefits from the canal. 

A wail of protest will 120 surely go up from the country within a year 
or 130 two after the canal is opened to trade that the 140 harbors of the 
Atlantic and Pacific coasts are not filled 150 with shipping and that the 
manufacturing plants of the country 160 are not overwhelmed with the 
orders which are expected as 170 a result of its construction. 

There is no use denying 180 these possible canal conditions which the 
country may meet. It 190 may not be a popular thing for me to say 200 
this; but I am forced to tell the truth as 210 I see it in order to awaken 
that attitude of 220 the people and that action of our Government 
which can 230 change absolutely this prospective but unfortunate situ- 

In the first 240 place, the canal tolls at $1.25 a net ton are 250 undoubt- 
edly too high. This should be placed at the lowest 260 figure permitted 


by Congress 75 cents a ton. Only by 270 the use of the latter figure 
can we get the 280 greatest use of the canal in the shortest possible 
time 290 after it is opened. One dollar and twenty-five cents a 300 ton 
means speculation as to possibilities and hesitation as to 310 large ship- 
ping preparations for the use of the canal. Seventy-five 320 cents a ton 
would mean that every possible utilization would 330 be made of it 
without delay. 

While it is perfectly 340 just to charge a reasonable toll to pay oper- 
ating expenses, 350 it is inconsistent with our national policy, as shown 
in 360 the operation of our post-offices and public buildings, to 370 charge 
a toll to cover the interest on the investment. 380 If we operated our 
post-office service on the principle 390 of making the postage pay for 
the interest on the 400 billions of dollars invested in post-office build- 
ings, we would 410 be obliged to charge 5 cents for every letter and 420 
triple the present rate for second-class matter. 

In the 430 second place, there is very little organized or individual 
preparation 440 for the Panama Canal among great commercial organ- 
izations and manufacturing 450 interests of the United States. They 
are not studying the 460 markets of the countries reached through the 
canal as are 470 the corresponding interests of Europe. There are a 
score of 480 agents of European chambers of commerce and of Euro- 
pean manufacturing 490 and importing houses studying the markets 
of South America and 500 the Pacific Ocean where there is one from 
the corresponding 510 interests of the United States. 

In the third place, there 520 is altogether too small preparation for 
the canal in the 530 form of the building of vessels to fly the American 540 
flag. A few are being constructed, but even these are 550 paltry in 
number compared to the preparations of the European 560 and Japa- 
nese shipyards and shipping companies. 

In the fourth place, 670 in discussing the development of trade 
through the canal, we 580 are considering it too much from a selfish 
standpoint. We 590 are thinking only of our export trade or of what 600 
we will sell, and not enough of our import trade 610 or what we will buy. 
Exchange of products is the 620 life of commerce. We must consider 
what markets we can 630 provide for the products of the countries 
reached through the 640 canal, as well as what we can sell to them. 650 

Finally, our commercial, civic, literary and educational organi- 
zations and institutions, 660 from chambers of commerce and universi- 
ties down to boys' clubs 670 and preparatory schools, should take up 
the study of the 680 Panama Canal and what it means not only to our 690 
trade, but to our influence among the nations. Only in 700 this way 


can we inaugurate and develop a real Panama 710 Canal movement 
which will enable us to realize large benefits 720 from the canal in the 
shortest possible time. [728. 


Never within the memory of cable operators now living has 10 there 
been anything like the rigid censorship over cables that 20 is now exer- 
cised by all the nations and, of necessity, 30 by the cable companies 
themselves. No cipher or code messages 40 are accepted by the com- 
panies to any of the nations 50 now engaged in war. No " mystery " or 
code messages are 60 accepted to any European countries, for the 
simple reason that 70 at present to reach almost any section of the 
European 80 Continent they would have to go through a British or 90 
French station, and there they would be held up. 

War 100 time is, in the rulings of war generals, no time 110 for secret 
messages. During ordinary times many of the financial, 120 importing, 
exporting and industrial corporations do practically all their cabling 130 
in cipher. This means tens of thousands of dollars saved 140 annually 
to many big houses. 

In peaceful times these "mystery" 150 phrases are not regarded as 
sinister and are accepted. But 160 now the most important message, 
with a vital bearing on 170 the great conflict now raging throughout 
Europe, might be flashed 180 over the cable as a simple business com- 
munication, and so 190 the companies have posted this order in all 
stations : 

"Cables 200 whose meanings are not obvious are liable to suppression 
without 210 notice or recourse." 

Which means that if there is the 220 slightest suspicion in the mind 
of the cable manager, or 230 later, the censor, that a message has a 
double meaning 240 or might bear secret information to a warring na- 
tion, or 250 if it is in any way objectionable in the estimation 260 of the 
cable company or the censors, it is passed 270 along, payment for it 
having been made, and somewhere along 280 the line it is "spiked" and 
never sees the light 290 again. 

The rules are the same everywhere. The censors understand 300 
them and are inflexible. The governments now fighting do not 310 
want anything printed that might inflame adverse public sentiment 


iii 320 their own countries, cause uneasiness among sympathizers in 
friendly and 330 peaceful nations, shed light upon the movements of 
troops or 340 battleships or give the slightest clew to the enemy. 350 

The cable companies are presumed to have a sentimental loyalty 360 
to their countries, but this is not regarded as sufficiently 370 profound 
to keep them from taking business, and so 380 the governments step in 
and merely take full charge of 390 the cables. The companies have no 
redress. In times of 400 war the individual or the business house is the 
abject 410 creature of the government. His private property may be 
seized; 420 his personal actions regulated or restrained; he may be 
thrown 430 into jail and he has no redress except the courts, 440 which 
presumably would defer all action until hostilities were ended. 450 

The censor, who is either an army or an interior 460 department 
official and as heartless from a business point of 470 view and as 
keen-sighted as it is possible to 480 be, looks over the despatches, which 
must be written out, 490 of course, in full, and crosses out anything 
that he 500 thinks would be detrimental to his government if published 
either 510 in America or elsewhere. It is possible they cross out 520 
things which they think might reflect glory upon the countries 530 with 
which they are at war. There is no evidence, 540 however, that they 
have done this. 

The theory that despatches 550 are "colored" is without justifica- 
tion. Governments at war have no 560 hesitancy in suppressing 
cables. They announce their intention to do 570 so. But they never 
interpolate. They never change the meaning. 580 It often happens 
that they eliminate so much from 590 some news despatches that it is 
very difficult for the 600 recipients to interpret the meaning of what is 
left, but 610 there is no wanton misrepresentation, even, it is always 
assumed, 620 when the strife is bitterest, and public sentiment and 
publicity 630 become vital factors in a great struggle. 

No doubt throughout 640 the war there will be criticism of news- 
papers here and 650 abroad by statesmen who see bias or prejudice in 
published 660 reports. But it is a fair assumption that newspapers in 
America 670 are moved by the one desire to publish the news 680 without 
color and without wishing to hurt or help anyone 690 engaged in the 
strife. Whatever false impressions may be created 700 will, it may be 
safely assumed, be due to the 710 action of governments themselves and 
not to the newspapers who 720 print the news as they get it. [727. 



Gov. Johnson's statement says in part: "The suggestion of the 10 
President that the Secretary of State visit California for conferences 20 
on the pending land bills was at once accepted by 30 both houses of 
the Legislature and by the Governor, and 40 we will be glad to welcome 
Mr. Bryan. 

"While the 50 Legislature very properly maintained the right of the 
State to 60 legislate on a matter clearly within its jurisdiction, I am 70 
sure there is no disposition to encroach on the international 80 function 
of the Federal Government, or justly to wound the 90 sensibilities of 
any nation. My protest has been against the 100 discrimination to 
which California has been subjected in the assumption 110 that action 
which has been accepted without demur when taken 120 by other 
States and by the nation, is offensive if 130 even discussed by Cali- 

"I am not predicting the California 140 Legislature will take any 
action on this subject, nor, if 160 it does, forecasting the terms of any 
law which may 160 be enacted. 

"I am merely defending the right of California 170 to consider, and if 
its legislators deem advisable, to enact 180 a law which is clearly within 
both its legal power 190 and its moral right. 

"Much has been said of the 200 dignity of Japan. We would not will- 
ingly affront the dignity 210 of Japan, nor offend its pride. But what 
shall be 220 said of the proposition that a great State, itself an 230 empire 
of possibilities greater than those of most nations, shall 240 be halted 
from the mere consideration of a legislative act, 250 admittedly within 
its jurisdiction, by the protest of a foreign 260 power which has itself 
enacted even more stringent regulations on 270 the subject? What of 
the dignity of California? 

"Admittedly, California 280 has a right to pass an alien land bill. 
No 290 one suggests that such a bill should in terms describe 300 the 
Japanese. It has been suggested that such a law 310 in California shall 
follow the distinctions which are already an 320 unprotested part of the 
law and policy of the United 330 States. 

"The United States has determined who are eligible to 340 citizen- 
ship. The nation has solemnly decreed that certain races, among 360 
whom are the Japanese, are not eligible to citizenship. 

"The 360 line has been drawn not by California, but by the 370 United 
States. Discrimination, if it ever occurred, came and went 380 when 


the nation declared who were and who were not 390 eligible to citizen- 
ship. If California continues the line marked out 400 by the Federal 
Government, the United States and not California 410 should be 
accused of discrimination. 

"The Constitution of California since 420 1879 has said that 'the 
presence of foreigners ineligible to 430 become citizens is declared to be 
dangerous to the well being 440 of the State, and the Legislature shall 
discourage their immigration 450 by all means in its power.' The Alien 
Land Law 460 of the State of Washington provides that 'any alien, 
except 470 such as by the laws of the United States are 480 incapable of 
becoming citizens of the United States, may acquire 490 and hold 
land,' etc. The State of Arizona in 1912 500 enacted that 'no person 
not eligible to become a citizen 510 of the United States shall acquire 
title to any land 520 or real property,' etc. 

"No protest was made against this 530 policy of the laws of the United 
States nor against 540 its adoption into the laws of Washington and 
Arizona. If 560 the Legislature of California were to determine on 
similar action 560 it would be merely following the declaration of our 
constitution, 570 the policy of the United States Government and the 
precedents 580 of at least two states. 

"We protest, while we are 690 merely debating similar laws, against 
having trained upon us not 600 only the verbal batteries of Japan, but 
those of our 610 own country. The position that we occupy at this mo- 
ment 620 is not pleasant to contemplate. Calmly and dispassionately 
we are 630 discussing a law admittedly within our province to enact. 
Objection 640 is made by Japan and forthwith it is demanded that 650 
we cease even discussion, and upon us, if we do 660 not cease calm and 
dispassionate consideration of that which is 670 desired by a great por- 
tion of our people, and which 680 we have the legal and moral right to 
do, is 690 placed the odium of bringing possible financial disaster and 
even 700 worse on our nation. What a position for a great 710 State and 
a great people! 

"This question in all its 720 various forms is an old and familiar one. 
The only 730 new thing about it is the hysteria which it seems 740 to 
arouse when California is the place in which it 750 comes up. 

"My protest has been and is against this 760 discrimination. This 
State will not willingly do anything to which 770 there could be just 
objection, national or international. But it 780 does resist being 
singled out on matters which pass unprotested 790 when they happen 
elsewhere." [794. 



The long-expected decision of the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion on 10 the application of the eastern railroads for an advance in 20 
rates was finally handed down last month. The delay in 30 rendering 
the decision has been held accountable in some quarters 40 for the 
current depression in business, and a favorable decision 50 has been 
hoped for to relieve the low state of 60 mind of business men. But it 
has eventually arrived at 70 a time when its effect is almost negligible. 
The Interstate 80 Commerce Commission asserts that the decision is 
not of the 90 gravity generally ascribed to it. It is certain that it 100 
could not bring about any pronounced change in business condi- 
tions 110 excepting so far as the business troubles are due to 120 loss of 
confidence on the part of business men in 130 the justice of the 
treatment of railroads and other public 140 service companies. If 
present business depression continues, with the consequent 150 lack 
of traffic for the railroads, moderate advances in railroad 160 rates 
could not by any possibility compensate the railroads for 170 their 
lack of tonnage. Consequently the somewhat disappointing char- 
acter of 180 the decision may be expected to have very much less 190 
effect upon the immediate future of business than the prospect 200 of 
abundant crops. The grounds upon which the railroads asked 210 for 
rate increases averaging about 5 per cent, are summarized 220 by the 
Interstate Commerce Commission as follows: 

" (A) That the rate 230 of return in net operating income upon the 
property investment 240 is declining. 

" (B) That the principal cause of this decline is 250 a steady and 
constant increase in operating expenses, due to 260 matters of a con- 
tinuing character, such as wage increases, legislative 270 requirements, 
and the necessity of maintaining a higher standard of 280 track, equip- 
ment, and facilities generally. 

"(C) That the return upon money 290 invested in railway 
facilities since 1903 has been utterly inadequate, 300 and that 
no return at all has been received upon 310 the money so invested 
since 1910. 

" (D) That the effect of 320 these things is so to impair the credit 
of the 330 railroad companies as seriously to check the normal con- 
struction and 340 development of railway facilities which are required 
to meet the 350 public demands." 

In a case such as this one, the 360 part of the Interstate Commerce 


Commission is primarily that of 370 judicial consideration of the 
conflicting interests of the railroads and 380 the public. The attitude 
of the commission is stated as 390 follows: 

"The public owes to the private owners of these 400 properties, when 
well located and managed, the full opportunity to 410 earn a fair return 
on the investment ; and the carriers 420 owe to the public an efficient 
service at reasonable rates. 430 This fundamental doctrine has been 
recognized by the commission in 440 the performance of its duties. 
The proceeding before us may 460 therefore be described as, in some 
sense, a controversy 460 between the consuming public, which pays 
the rates, and the 470 investor, who furnishes the facilities for moving 
the freight; and 480 our duty is to ascertain from the record before 
us 490 what are their respective rights." 

In this statement the phrase 500 "well located and managed" stands 
out as of prime importance. 510 Granting the contention of the rail- 
roads that their expenses have 520 increased in excess of their revenue, 
it is necessary for 530 the commission to determine whether such in- 
crease in expense is 540 due to inefficiencies of management on the part 
of the 550 railroad or to conditions beyond the control of the railroad. 560 
The settlement of the case consequently presupposes to a certain 570 
extent an investigation of the efficiency of the railroads. This 580 
is, of course, a monumental task and has been responsible 590 for the 
long delay in issuing the decision of the 600 commission. The rate 
increases asked for on the railroads were 610 estimated to yield in 
revenue about $50,000,000 annually. The increases 620 granted by 
the commission are variously estimated to yield from 630 nine to 
sixteen millions of dollars per year. The commission 540 believes 
that through economies suggested the railroads can realize an 650 an- 
nual increase of earnings amounting to about $40,000,000. The 
extent 660 to which this amount can be increased is indefinite and 670 
any estimate of the exact amount so realized is little 680 more than 
a guess. The railroads claim that many of 690 these suggested 
economies are matters with which the railroads have 700 been vitally 
concerned for years and in which they cannot 710 be expected to show 
much better results. 

The increases allowed 720 the railways are mainly in Central Traffic 
territory lying between 730 Buffalo and Pittsburgh on the east and 
Chicago and St. Louis 740 on the west, and the Ohio River and Great 
Lakes 750 on the south and north. In this territory the commission 760 
allowed nearly all of the rate increases asked. Both the 770 railroads 
and the commission agree, however, that the existing rates 780 in this 


territory are unsatisfactory because they are unscientific and 790 illog- 
ical, and that a thorough revision of all rates based 800 on scientific 
principles is essential to the prosperity of the 810 railroads. [811. 


You perceive now what your general or abstract duty is 10 as 
teachers. Although you have to generate in your pupils 20 a large 
stock of ideas, any one of which may 30 be inhibitory, yet you must 
also see to it that 40 no habitual hesitancy or paralysis of the will 
ensues, and 50 that the pupil still retains his power of vigorous action. 60 
Psychology can state your problem in these terms, but you 70 see 
how impotent she is to furnish the elements of 80 its practical solution. 
When all is said and done and 90 your best efforts are made, it will 
probably remain true 100 that the result will depend more on a certain 
native 110 tone or temper in the pupil's psychological constitution 
than on 120 anything else. Some persons appear to have a naturally 
poor 130 focalization of the field of consciousness; and in such persons 140 
actions hang slack, and inhibitions seem to exert peculiarly easy 150 

But let us now close in a little more 160 closely on this matter of 
the education of the will. 170 Your task is to build up a character in 
your 180 pupils; and a character, as I have so often said, 190 consists in 
an organized .set of habits of reaction. Now 200 of what do such habits 
of reaction themselves consist? They 210 consist of tendencies to act 
characteristically when certain ideas possess 220 us, and to refrain 
characteristically when possessed by other ideas. 230 

Our volitional habits depend, then, first, on what the stock 240 of 
ideas is which we have; and, second, on the 280 habitual coupling of the 
several ideas with action or inaction 260 respectively. How is it when 
an alternative is presented to 270 you for choice, and you are uncertain 
what you ought to 280 do, you first hesitate, and then you deliberate? 
And in 290 what does your deliberation consist? It consists in trying 
to 300 apperceive the case successively by a number of different 
ideas, 310 which seem to fit in more or less, until at 320 last you hit on 
one which seems to fit it 330 exactly. If that be an idea which is a cus- 
tomary 340 forerunner of action in you, which enters into one of 350 


your maxims of positive behavior, your hesitation ceases, and you 360 
act immediately. If, on the other hand, it be an 370 idea which carries 
inaction as its habitual result, if it 380 ally itself with prohibition, then 
you unhesitatingly refrain. The problem 390 is, you see, to find the 
right idea or conception 400 for the case. This search for the right 
conception may 410 take days or weeks. 

I spoke as if the action 420 were easy when the conception is once 
found. Often it 430 is so, but it may be otherwise; and, when it 440 is 
otherwise we find ourselves at the very center of 450 a moral situation, 
into which I should now like you 460 to look with me a little nearer. 

The proper conception, 470 the true head of classification, may be 
hard to attain; 480 or it may be one with which we have contracted 490 
no settled habits of action. Or, again, the action to 500 which it would 
prompt may be dangerous and difficult; or 510 else inaction may appear 
deadly cold and negative when our 520 impulsive feeling is hot. In 
either of these latter cases 530 it is hard to hold the right idea steadily 
enough 540 before the attention to let it exert its adequate effects. 550 
Whether it be stimulative or inhibitive, it is too reasonable 560 for 
us; and the more instinctive passional propensity then tends 570 to 
extrude it from our consideration. We shy away from 580 the thought 
of it. It twinkles and goes out the 590 moment it appears in the margin 
of our consciousness; and 600 we need a resolute effort of voluntary 
attention to drag 610 it into the focus of the field, and to keep 620 it there 
long enough for its associative and motor effects 630 to be exerted. 
Every one knows only too well how 640 the mind flinches from looking 
at considerations hostile to the 650 reigning mood of feeling. 

Once brought, however, in this way 660 to the center of the field of 
consciousness, and held 670 there, the reasonable idea will exert these 
effects inevitably; for 680 the laws of connection between our conscious- 
ness and our nervous 690 system provide for the action then taking 
place. Our moral 700 effort, properly so called, terminates in our hold- 
ing fast to 710 the appropriate idea. 

If then you are asked, "In what 720 does a moral act consist when 
reduced to its simplest 730 and most elementary form?" you can make 
only one reply. 740 You can say that it consists in the effort of 750 
attention by which we hold so fast to an idea 760 which but for that 
effort of attention would be driven 770 out of the mind by the other 
psychological tendencies that 780 are there. To think, in short, is the 
secret of 790 will, just as it is the secret of memory. 

Thus 800 are your pupils to be saved; first, by the stock 810 of ideas 
with which you furnish them; second, by 820 the amount of voluntary 


attention that they can exert in 830 holding to the right ones, however 
unpalatable; and, third, by 840 the several habits of acting definitely 
on these latter to 860 which they have been successfully trained. [866. 


This body stands for the triumphs of peace both abroad 10 and at 
home. We have passed that stage of national 20 development when 
depreciation of other peoples is felt as a 30 tribute to our own. We 
watch the growth and prosperity 40 of other nations, not with hatred 
or jealousy, but with 50 sincere and friendly good will. I think I can 
say 60 safely that we have shown by our attitude toward Cuba, 70 by 
our attitude toward China, that as regards weaker powers 80 our desire 
is that they may be able to stand 90 alone, and that if they will only 
show themselves willing 100 to deal honestly and fairly with the rest of 
mankind 110 we on our side will do all we can to 120 help, not to hinder 
them. With the great powers of 130 the world we desire no rivalry 
that is not honorable 140 to both parties. We wish them well. We be- 
lieve that 150 the trend of the modern spirit is ever stronger toward 160 
peace, not war; toward friendship, not hostility; as the normal 170 
international attitude. We are glad, indeed, that we are on 180 good 
terms with all the other peoples of mankind, and 190 no effort on our 
part shall be spared to secure 200 a continuance of these relations. And 
remember, gentlemen, that we 210 shall be a potent factor for peace 
largely in proportion 220 to the way in which we make it evident 
that 230 our attitude is due, not to weakness, not to inability 240 to 
defend ourselves, but to a genuine repugnance to wrongdoing, 250 a 
genuine desire for self-respecting friendship with our neighbors. 260 
The voice of the weakling or the craven counts for 270 nothing 
when he clamors for peace; but the voice of 280 the just man armed is 
potent. We need to keep 290 in a condition of preparedness, especially 
as regards our navy, 300 not because we want war; but because we 
desire to 310 stand with those whose plea for peace is listened to 320 with 
respectful attention. 

Important though it is that we should 330 have peace abroad, it is 
even more important that 340 we should have peace at home. You, 
men of the 350 Chamber of Commerce, to whose efforts we owe so 
much 360 of our industrial well being, can, and I believe surely 370 will, 


be influential in helping toward that industrial peace which 380 can 
obtain in society only when, in their various relations, 390 employer and 
employed alike show not merely insistence each upon 400 his own 
rights, but also regard for the right of 410 others, and a full acknowledg- 
ment of the interests of the 420 third party the public. It is no easy 
matter to 430 work out a system or rule of conduct, whether with 440 or 
without the help of the lawgiver, which shall minimize 450 that jarring 
and clashing of interests in the industrial world 460 which causes so 
much individual irritation and suffering at the 470 present day, and 
which at times threatens baleful consequences to 480 large portions of 
the body politic. But the importance of 490 the problem cannot be 
overestimated, and it deserves to receive 500 the careful thought of 
all men such as those whom 610 I am addressing to-night. There 
should be no yielding to 520 wrong; but there should most certainly be 
not only desire 530 to do right, but a willingness each to try to 540 under- 
stand the viewpoint of his fellow, with whom, for weal 550 or for woe, 
his own fortunes are indissolubly bound. 

No 560 patent remedy can be devised for the solution of these 570 
grave problems in the industrial world, but we may rest 580 assured 
that they can be solved at all only if 590 we bring to the solution certain 
old time virtues, and 600 if we strive to keep out of the solution some 610 
of the most familiar and most undesirable of the traits 620 to which 
mankind has owed untold degradation and suffering throughout 630 
the ages. Arrogance, suspicion, brutal envy of the well to do, 640 
brutal indifference toward those who are not well to do, 650 the hard 
refusal to consider the rights of others, the 660 foolish refusal to con- 
sider the limits of beneficent action, the 670 base appeal to the spirit of 
selfish greed, whether it 680 take the form of plunder of the fortunate or 
of 690 oppression of the unfortunate from these and from all kin- 
dred 700 vices this nation must be kept free, if it is 710 to remain in its 
present position in the forefront of 720 the peoples of mankind. On 
the other hand, good will 730 come even out of the present evils, if we 
face 740 them armed with the old homely virtues; if we show 750 that 
we are fearless of soul, cool of head and 760 kindly of heart; if without 
betraying the weakness that cringes 770 before wrongdoing, we yet 
show by deeds and words our 780 knowledge that in such a govern- 
ment as ours each of 790 us must be in very truth his brother's 

The 800 first requisite of a good citizen in this Republic of 810 ours is 
that he shall be able and willing to 820 pull his weight that he shall not 
be a mere 830 passenger, but shall do his share in the work that 840 each 


generation of us finds ready to hand; and, furthermore, 850 that in 
doing his work he shall show not only 860 the capacity for simply self- 
help, but also self-respecting regard for 870 the rights of others. [874. 


Not long since, announcements that a lecture was to be 10 given on 
the use of the ultramicroscope in medicine might 20 have evoked some 
curiosity among the profession, affirms Professor Hartog, 30 as to 
what such an instrument might be. As a 40 matter of fact, declared 
this expert on the subject, there 80 is no such instrument as the ultra- 
microscope, properly speaking. The 60 name is simply a convenient 
term for what is really 70 a microscope. This microscope is equipped 
with an attachment which 80 displays the positions of particles too 
minute to be shown 90 by the formation of an optical image in the 
microscope. 100 The particles referred to are termed, rightly enough, 
ultramicroscopic particles. 110 

There are two reasons why we cannot see very small 120 particles by 
whatever direct optical devices we employ. The first, 130 explains 
Professor Hartog, is the structure of the eye, which 140 can not recog- 
nize separation between images nearer than a certain 150 distance on 
the retina, the sensitive screen of the camera 160 represented by the 
eye. It is for this reason that 170 we use the microscope to enlarge the 
images of near 180 objects, the telescope for distant ones. 

The second difficulty 190 is a physical one. Owing to the character 
of light, 200 every instrument is subject to the same sort of 210 difficulties 
as the eye, and cannot form an image of 220 particles which occupy less 
than a certain space in its 230 field. For microscopic objects this 
minimum dimension is something like 240 one 125,000th of an inch. 
But we know that while 250 under ordinary circumstances we cannot 
see directly by their brightness 260 or opacity such objects as dust- 
motes in a room or 270 telephone wites half a mile away, we are 
enabled to 280 ascertain their presence and position by the light 
reflected or 290 scattered "diffracted" at their surface, if they are 
illumined by 300 the intense light of the sun, or it may 310 be of an arc 

The principle of microscopical illumination 320 by light so oblique 
that none directly entered the eye 330 but showed up transparent 
objects as if self-luminous by the 340 light deflected was a very old 


device; but to 350 display internal structure it was found to be infer- 
ior to 360 directly transmitted light, especially for objects cut very 
thin and 370 dyed to reveal structures by their different absorptions 
of the 380 stain. Hence it was abandoned except for artistic pur- 
poses. Transparent 390 objects, especially living ones, under this 
illumination, seemed to glow 400 by their own silvery light against a 
velvety background with 410 a weird and fairy beauty. 

The abandonment of dark ground 420 illumination was due to the 
unsuitable character of the objects 430 to which it was applied. What 
is of interest for 440 the present purpose is the class of objects to 
which 450 it was applied with good results and the new knowledge 460 
we have gained from its use: 

"Through the ultramicroscope it 470 has been actually seen and 
recorded that the movements of 480 the molecules of a liquid are of 
the extent and 490 speed demanded by the thermo-dynamic theory of 
the nature of 500 fluids. The true bond between dyestuff and fiber, 
a problem 510 of the greatest importance to manufacturer and to 
scientist, 520 was long unsolved; through the ultramicroscope it is 
now being 530 settled. Probably the greatest service that the instru- 
ment has rendered 540 humanity has been to bring into sight such dis- 
ease-germs 550 as are too minute to be otherwise seen or even 560 to be 
arrested by the finest filters of unglazed porcelain, 570 and to bring 
into clear view, alive and unstained, those 580 germs whose transpar- 
ency and minuteness all but elude observation under 590 ordinary 
methods. Those are the germs which give rise to 600 yaws in the 
tropics, and to the world-wide scourge whose 610 suppression is perhaps 
the most urgent problem of our era. 620 

"It is now certain that colloid substances or jellies, such 630 as gum, 
glue, boiled starch, 'solutions' of soap and of 640 rubber, the colloid 
solutions of metals (used in medicine), contain 650 the solid in the form 
of minute solid particles. Coagulation 660 of the colloid is due to the 
clumping together of 670 the ultra-microscopic particles into masses of 
larger size; these again 680 usually cling together into a network, which 
gradually shrinks so 690 as to squeeze out the liquid, as we may see 700 
with clotted blood or curds. And since colloids compose the 710 
greater part of living matter this knowledge is, literally, of 720 vital 
importance to us all." 

As the field of vision 730 is enlarged through the new utilization of 
the lens a 740 delicate question suggests itself with reference to the 
vision of 750 observers. It has been suspected for a long time that 760 
the eccentricities of human vision may explain the different results 770 


obtained by different astronomers in their work upon the so-called 780 
canals of Mars. Is it not possible that the eye 790 which looks through 
a very powerful lens is misled by 800 its own idiosyncrasy? [803. 



The American people are wisely determined to restrict the exis- 
tence 10 and operation of private monopolies. The recent efforts that 
have 20 been made to limit the right of a manufacturer to 30 maintain 
the price at which his article should be sold 40 to the consumer have 
been inspired by a motive that 50 is good the desire for free compe- 
tition but they have 60 been misdirected. If successful, they will 
result in the very 70 thing that they seek to curb monopoly. 

Price-maintenance the 80 trade policy by which an individual 
manufacturer of a trade-marked 90 article insures that article reaching 
all consumers at the same 100 price instead of being part of the trust 
movement is 110 one of the strongest forces of the progressive move- 
ment which 120 favors individual enterprise. 

There is no justification in fixing the 130 retail price of an article 
without individuality. Such articles do 140 not carry the guarantee of 
value that identifies them with 150 the reputation of the man who 
made them. But the 160 independent manufacturer of an article that 
bears his name or 170 trade-mark says in effect: 

"That which I create, in which 180 I embody my experience, to 
which I give my reputation, 190 is my own property. By my own effort 
I have 200 created a product valuable not only to myself, but to 210 the 
consumer, for I have endowed this specific article with 220 qualities 
which the consumer desires and which the consumer may 230 confi- 
dently rely upon receiving when he purchases my article in 240 the 
original package. It is essential that consumers should have 250 con- 
fidence in the fairness of my price as well as 260 in the quality of my 
product. To be able to 270 buy such an article with those qualities is 
quite as 280 much of value to the purchaser as it is of 290 value to the 
maker to find customers for it." 

There 300 is no improper restraint of trade when an independent 


manufacturer 310 in a competitive business settles the price at which 
the 320 article he makes shall be sold to the consumer. There 330 is dan- 
gerous restraint of trade when prices are fixed on 340 a common article 
of trade by a monopoly or combination 350 of manufacturers. 

The independent manufacturer may not arbitrarily establish the 360 
price at which his article is to be sold to 370 the consumer. If he would 
succeed he must adjust it 380 to active and potential competition and 
various other influences that 390 are beyond his control. There is no 
danger of profits 400 being too large as long as the field of competi- 
tion 410 is kept open; as long as the incentive to effort 420 is preserved; 
and the opportunity of individual development is kept 430 untram- 
meled. And in any branch of trade in which such 440 competitive 
conditions exist we may safely allow a manufacturer to 450 maintain 
the price at which his article may be sold 460 to the consumer. 

Competition is encouraged, not suppressed, by permitting 470 each 
of a dozen manufacturers of safety razors or breakfast 480 foods to 
maintain the price at which his article is 490 to be sold to the consumer. 
By permitting price-maintenance 500 each maker is enabled to pur- 
sue his business under conditions 510 deemed by him most favorable 
for the widest distribution of 520 his product at a fair price. He may 
open up 530 a new sphere of merchandising which would have been 
impossible without 540 price protection. The whole world can be 
drawn into the 550 field. Every dealer, every small stationer, every 
small druggist, every 560 small hardware man can be made a purveyor 
of the 570 article, and it becomes available to the public in the 580 short- 
est time and the easiest manner. 

Price cutting of the 590 one-priced, trade-marked article is frequently 
used as a 600 puller-in to tempt customers who may buy other goods 610 
of unfamiliar value at high prices. It tends to eliminate 620 the small 
dealer who is a necessary and convenient factor 630 for the widest 
distribution; and ultimately, by discrediting the sale 640 of the article 
at a fair price, it ruins the 650 market for it. 

Our efforts, therefore, should be directed not 660 to abolishing price- 
maintenance by the individual competitive manufacturer, but 670 to 
abolishing monopoly, the source of real oppression in fixed 680 prices. 
The resolution adopted by the National Federation of Retail 690 
Merchants at its annual convention draws clearly the distinction 
pointed 700 out above. The resolution declared that the fixing of 
retail 710 prices in and of itself is an aid to competition; 720 among other 
reasons, because it prevents the extension of the 730 trust and chain 
stores into fields not now occupied by 740 them. But the resolution 


also expresses the united voice of 750 the retailers against monopoly 
and those combinations to restrain trade 760 against which the Sher- 
man law is specifically directed. 

Manufacturers and 770 retailers are getting this distinction clearly 
in their minds, and 780 it must soon be generally recognized by the 
public. What 790 is needed is clear thinking and effective educational 
work which 800 will make the distinction clear to the whole people. 
Only 810 in this way can there be preserved to the independent 820 
manufacturer his most potent weapon against monopoly the privi- 
lege of 830 making public and making permanent the price at which 
his 840 product may be sold in every State in the Union. [860. 


May I ask if social workers do not need to 10 be forever on their 
guard against taking a distorted view 20 of the condition of society? 
We are given the hospital 30 side of life; we go to perpetual clinics; we 
hear 40 the cries of pain from sufferers; we listen to all 50 the varieties 
of complaint and fault-finding. We owe to 60 our sympathies and our 
humanity the prompt willingness to see 70 all this seamy side; we owe 
it to our sense 80 of justice to listen to every complaint. But w r e 
ought 90 to know that the atmosphere of complaints, of strikes, of 100 
vice commissions, of sweat-shop investigations and so forth, cannot 110 
be borne too continuously, except by the hardiest constitutions. 

Do 120 we not need also "to watch out" against the obvious 130 ten- 
dency of witnesses, whose complaints we bring into publicity, to 140 
make a telling story of oppression, of ugly conditions, of 180 their 
personal hardships or temptations, and so to represent a 160 worse total 
situation than actually exists? To become a complainant 170 is a 
dangerous business for any human being. To listen 180 to complaints, 
however necessary, demands not merely sympathy with the 190 people 
in distress, but ever so much caution and sympathy 200 with the 
absent people, who are often subjected to attack, 210 without the op- 
portunity to set forth other aspects which go 220 to make the truth. 

We know that there is a 230 hard side of life for those who are poor 
and 240 for many new immigrants. Let us surely be ready to 250 do what 


we can to relieve it. But we are 260 apt to forget that this fact charac- 
terizes all life, high 270 or low, and is likely to continue for a long 280 
time. It costs something to live in this world, and 290 to achieve real 
civilization; the inevitable law of this cost 300 runs through every 
stratum of society. It would do good 310 to read a bit of the history of 
what it 320 cost, by way of the hardship, the men and women 330 who 
colonized New England! 

One wonders what would happen if 340 we took as much pains to 
bring all the painful 350 and seamy facts of life to light from the whole 360 
social body, as we take to discover pain and suffering 370 and disease, 
in what we call "the submerged tenth;" if 380 we encourage average 
people, who seem to themselves to have 390 grievances, to publish 
their complaints, or, if we investigated child- 400 life in rural New 

I have in mind a fairly 410 prosperous community, without many 
millionaires, and with little obvious poverty. 420 We could find house 
after house where some one is 430 bearing sickness, sometimes under 
extreme pain and hopelessness. There are 440 families in serious anxi- 
ety about money affairs, often foolish people 450 who waste and spend 
more than they earn, but who 460 are now actual sufferers just the 
same. There are homes 470 where little children are ill-nourished and 
waste away; others where 480 children have been born defective and 
imbecile. There are sons 490 and daughters on whom no expense of 
education has conferred 500 character, who are bringing grief to their 
parents. There are 510 sad cases of the failure of domestic happiness, 
and there 520 are breaking hearts in fine houses, and disappointed faces 
of 530 men and women who ride in automobiles. 

The fact is, 540 money does not cure poverty, except on the surface. 
Men, 550 being men, want contentment, peace of mind, kind friends 
and 560 happiness. 

Is it not easily forgotten that the study of 570 the morbid conditions 
of life at any time, or anywhere, 580 falls far short of knowing life? 
We can no more 590 afford to set it forth by itself, as if it 600 were the 
average view of the life of any 610 considerable class of the population, 
than we can afford to 620 take our chief reading from medical journals, 
or from the 630 quotations of the stock exchange, or from the sporting 
columns 640 of the newspaper. It can only be the duty of 650 a few 
out of the many to be social workers, 660 as it is only the part of a few 
to 670 be nurses. 

Is it not sober truth, that, on the 680 whole, with all allowance for 
the backwardness and the barbarism 690 and the trial of our patience 


at the slowness of 700 reform, the great mass of the people of the 
United 710 States are hopefully on the way up from conditions that 720 
were only lately far more ignorant and servile than those 730 which still 

Do we not also need to call 740 continued attention to the brave, 
patient people in every walk 760 of life, who have somehow acquired 
such a habit of 760 good temper and self-control that they refuse to 
add their 770 complaints to the sorry cries of the suffering, but strug- 
gle 780 to "make the best" of things, whether of pain and 790 sorrow, 
or of straitened income? 

Such people as these, high 800 and low, establish centers of light 
and faith, much needed 810 in our world. Surely, it is out of the 
children 820 trained in the households of such people, and not among 830 
those who live in an atmosphere of bitterness, fault-finding and 840 
obduration, that we look for the most effective help to 850 cure those 
conditions of distress in any class which appeal 860 with growing 
insistence to the sympathies of all humane people. [870. 


It is perhaps as well to note at the outset 10 the current confusion 
as to the relation between woman suffrage 20 and feminism. To fem- 
inists suffrage may, or may not, be 30 one of the many fences which 
must come down as 40 woman pushes upward and onward in individual 
development. Being an 50 anti-suffragist by no means opposes one to 
far-reaching feministic conviction 60 as to the individual development 
of women. Some of the 70 ablest workers for the cause of women that 
I have 80 ever met in this country are anti-suffragists. One of the 90 
men who was working hardest yesterday to secure higher education 100 
for women is working hardest today to keep them away 110 from the 
ballot-box. Dora Marsden, the most professedly individualistic 
woman 120 in England today, the most relentless in her jeers and 130 
jibes at the spiritual subjection of women, is harshly sneering 140 anti- 
suffrage. So is individualistic Emma Goldman in this country. 
On 150 the other hand, being a suffragist by no means implies 160 being 
a feminist. Being a suffragist may mean being only 170 enough of a 
woman to keep up with only that 180 part of the woman question 
which concerns itself only with 190 woman's political enfranchisement. 


One fact that stands out above all 200 vagaries or conviction and all 
quibbles of language, however, is 210 the feministic insistence upon 
the development of the individual. To 220 be sure, this insistence is by 
no means limited to 230 the woman question; it manifests itself in asso- 
ciation with the 240 man question, the question of education, the 
children question. Routineism 250 is falling into general disrepute. In 
art, in philosophy, in 260 business, the twentieth-century demand is 
for the man who "thinks 270 for himself." Even in pedagogy, most 
encumbered of all departments 280 of progress, there is a sleep-heavy 
effort to unwind the 290 red tape that binds the minds of the teachers. 
And, 300 thanks in huge part to Montessori, the very little children 310 
are no longer so universally required to duplicate and reduplicate 320 
a set pattern of childhood, but are allowed to flower 330 up into them- 

As for that question of seeming conflict 340 between feminism, 
woman's cause, and the cause of society and 350 the race, it is entitled 
to the most earnest consideration. 360 But again, it is not exclusively 
a woman question. Ever 370 since human beings began to be human 
beings, their minds 380 and their consciences have been engaged with 
that same question. 390 And though today's crisis is unusually sharp, 
because of 400 woman's active involvement in it, it is not to be 410 for- 
gotten that never before were there so many men stirred 420 to their 
inmost being, frayed and frazzled in their inmost 430 souls, between the 
compulsion toward individualistic expression and their so-named 440 
"social sense." 

It is unfair to accuse the times of 450 any lack of faith and con- 
science on this score. More 460 ardently than ever before both men 
and women cry for 470 the truth. More intelligently than ever before 
they insist upon 480 the best. Less stupidly than ever before they 
reject what 490 does not promise growth; and more indefatigable than 
ever before 500 they seek, in growth, the right answer to that seeming 510 
irreconcilability between individual right and social right. 

Perhaps the most 520 short-sighted of all interferences with life's 
possibilities is consequent upon 530 the assumption that a human 
being's social impulses, his hang- 540 together-with-the-others impulses, 
are not a part of 550 his individuality. It would not matter so much 
if attitude 560 of mind were not so surely reflected in both individual 570 
and social efficiency. But for the individual woman to work 580 under 
the conviction that she is "sacrificed to the others," 590 or that her 
claims as an individual are forcefully subordinated 600 to those of "the 
others," instead of with a clear 610 vision of her own dual involvement 


and elective powers, is 620 for her to restrict her own spirit's freedom 
evolved out 630 of consciousness of powers possessed, sense of self and 
opportunity, 640 and it is only out of spiritual freedom that the 650 whole 
individual evolves, bringing the social along with him. 

So, 660 not to have faith in the benignity of individual develop- 
ment 670 is not to have faith in life itself. And that 680 is why, from the 
viewpoint of many feminists, any detachment 690 of the woman ques- 
tion from the communal question, in order 700 to voice that well-known 
reminder of woman's well-known duty to 710 the well-known human 
race, is not merely meddlesome, but illogical. 720 What is an integral 
part of woman can be trusted 730 to give an account of itself in the self- 
development of 740 woman. Is it not, in fact, continuously giving an 
account 760 of itself, with woman on every hand today, both as 760 
home-mother and as world-mother, showing that she takes her 
racial 770 and social involvement along with herself; that she cannot 
help 780 so taking it, cannot do well by herself without doing 790 well 
by the whole world? 

Is not that a law 800 of her individuality? [803. 



The completion of the Panama Canal has made particularly acces- 
sible 10 to New York two new markets the western coast of 20 South 
America and the Far East. 

Ten years of residence 30 in the Orient have afforded close relations, 
both commercial and 40 personal, and have steadily increased a belief 
in the possibilities' 50 of the Far East, not only as an American 
market, 60 but as one capable of almost unlimited extension. 

The 70 largest and best known of the Eastern countries, and the 80 
one most disposed at this time to look with favor 90 on the advances 
from the merchants and manufacturers of the 100 United States, is 
China. Within the last three years China 110 has become open as 
never before to new ideas, goods 120 and methods. 

In the general overturning that characterized the establishment 130 
of the republic, the whole nation was shaken out of 140 the belief, 


which more than anything else, has stood in 150 the way of its progress 
that China and the Chinese 160 way of doing things stood superior 
to all the world. 170 

One evidence is the increase of newspapers and periodicals of 180 an 
entirely new type. Ten years ago but twelve papers 190 were pub- 
lished in the Chinese language in the whole country. 200 Recently 
this number increased to over one hundred and fifty, 210 and the circu- 
lation, due both to the new spirit and 220 the large railroad extension, 
is in even greater proportion. 

A 230 generation of bright, English-speaking young Chinese are 
now coming 240 to occupy, in large numbers, important and controlling 
positions in 250 banks and business houses, who have received their 
education in 260 schools both mission and secular under American 
teachers, for whom 270 they almost universally entertain the greatest 
respect, and by whom 280 they have been inspired with a truly Amer- 
ican spirit. 

In 290 the new order of things these men are also leaders, 300 and 
their example is far reaching among the older men 310 who have not 
had their advantages. 

The return of a 320 large portion of the Boxer War indemnity and 
the creation 330 in consequence of a permanent fund for sending at 
public 340 expense promising students to the United States for ad- 
vanced courses 350 in our American colleges, are now beginning to 
pour back 360 another stream of highly educated young Chinese, who 
have been 370 similarly influenced by their instructors and are intelli- 
gent and enthusiastic 380 in their belief in America and American 

The extent 390 to which the return of the Boxer war indemnity is 400 
known even among the common people is a continual surprise 410 
the fact being given sometimes by ordinary coolies for the 420 purchase 
of American articles. 

The present time, with supplies from 430 European countries either 
entirely cut off or uncertain and irregular, 440 is especially a moment to 
make practical use of this 450 favorable attitude, and emergency orders 
now being received in the 460 Pacific Coast cities add emphasis. This 
new trade need not 470 be temporary. At any time a substantial basis 
exists for 480 a commerce that shall be both large and permanent. 

But 490 China and the Philippine Islands, where American com- 
merce is continually 500 increasing, are far from providing all the pos- 
sible outlets for 510 American manufacturers. South of China lie two 
great, and under 520 normal conditions, extremely prosperous empires, 


the one under Holland, centering 530 at Batavia, the capital of the 
Dutch East Indies, on 540 the northern side of Java, and the other 
under Great 550 Britain at Singapore, at the extreme point of the 
Malay 560 Peninsula. 

The Dutch Indies, equal in area that portion of 570 the United 
States east of the Mississippi River, while the 580 population of Java 
alone is as great as that of 599 all South America, and Singapore is the 
seventh seaport of 600 the globe, with 70 per cent, of the output tin 610 
of the world obtained within 400 miles of its magnificent 620 harbor. 

The Malay Peninsula has had a development comparable to 630 
some of our Western States. Besides its enormous deposits of 640 tin 
it is the greatest producer of cultivated rubber. 

A 650 main line of railroad, patterned after the American model, 
runs 660 from Singapore to Panang, a distance of 400 miles, with 670 
branches in every direction. This is supplemented by an excellent 680 
system of wagon roads. 

Big business has been established in 690 the Far East by the Stand- 
ard Oil Company, the Singer 700 Sewing Machine Company, and the 
British-American Tobacco Company, but 710 the success of other 
American concerns has been noticeable. 

It 720 is far from my intention, however, to convey the impression 730 
that the United States has more than touched the fringe 740 of the 
business awaiting systematic following up, or that large 750 orders 
will fall into the lap of the concern that 760 sends a few circulars to the 
Far East. 

Even first- 770 class salesmen are not likely to secure remarkable 
orders at 780 their first attempt. Perhaps nowhere does established 
acquaintance and a 790 reputation for fair dealing count for more than 
among these 800 Eastern people, but to gain an entrance to the nearly 810 
500,000,000 whose countries line the shores of the China and 820 Java 
eeas is worth t-he strongest and most persistent effort. [830. 



The term environment, in our present definition of education, 
requires 10 exposition of us. What is the nature of the environment 20 
to which man in the process of his education becomes 30 adjusted? 
This is our new question. A child begins his 40 life in ignorance of 
himself and of his world; he 50 begins where primitive man began. 
Without educational assistance of some 60 kind he must also live his 
life as primitive man 70 did; he must depend upon his own experience 
for the 80 lessons he learns. But since primitive man not only learned 90 
his lessons but also taught them to his children, the 100 experience of 
the human race has been accumulating with the 110 passage o.f the his- 
toric generations. It is this racial experience 120 which constitutes the 
environment into which the latest child is 130 born, and which gives 
him the handicap of the centuries 140 over his primitive forbears. 

In brief, the environment of the 150 pupil is the achievement of the 
race, to which he 160 potentially belongs, in the conquest of nature, in 
the movement 170 of affairs, and in the knowledge of itself. It is 180 
a spiritual environment. The adjustment to this environment, which 
is 190 the race's life, discovers to the pupil his own social 200 capacities; 
he finds his own life in his race's life. 210 This sharing of the race's life 
is education as viewed 220 by sociology. In the language of President 
Butler, who first 230 described education in these terms, "If education 
cannot be identified 240 with mere instruction, what is it? What does 
the term 250 mean? I answer, it must mean a gradual adjustment to 260 
the spiritual possessions of the race." 

There is a special 270 period in the life of each individual dedicated 
by nature 280 to this process of adjustment. The first three years of 290 
a child's life are spent under the influence of the 300 family and in 
getting possession of his body. The educational 310 years, from three 
to twenty-six or more, are the special 320 period of adjustment to his 
spiritual environment. 

The term spiritual, 330 used in describing the environment of man, is 
comprehensive and 340 includes all the relations in which a man as a 350 
conscious being stands to his fellows, to what his fellows 360 have done, 
and to his own personal ideals. It includes 370 man's relation to Na- 
ture as itself the embodiment of ideas. 380 Did not man find Nature 
intelligible and responsive to his 390 efforts to understand it, his rela- 


tion thereto could not be 400 included under the term spiritual. Its 
present inclusion in the 410 spiritual environment to which man stands 
related intends by no 420 means to settle the metaphysical question, 
whether nature ultimately is 430 atoms in motion or an externalized 
form of mental energy, 440 but only implies that no part of the environ- 
ment of 450 man is finally foreign to him. Everywhere man finds 
himself 460 reflected in the universe in which he lives. Its ultimate 470 
confines may be unknown to him, but he will not 480 admit they are 
unknowable. To admit such would be to 490 cripple his ultimate 
efforts at knowledge and comprehension, and would 500 be to readmit 
the reign of mystery in his world, 510 which he has been at such pains 
during ages of 520 ceaseless effort to banish. In borrowing President 
Butler's happy epithet, 530 then, and in describing the environment of 
man as spiritual, 540 there is no unwarranted extension of the legiti- 
mate meaning of 550 the term. It opens complete range to the present 
aspect 560 of the discussion. 

The question arises at once, How does 570 man become adjusted to 
this environment which his race has 580 made and which is himself 
objectified, and which he himself 590 is potentially? It is only by 
reproducing in his own 600 mental history the mental history of the 
race. As biologists 610 tell us that the human embryo in its develop- 
ment to 620 physical maturity passes through the life history of organic 
forms, 630 ontogeny repeating phylogeny, so must educators realize 
that the human 640 mind in its educational development to mental 
maturity passes through 650 the spiritual history of the race. Man, as 
himself a 660 social being by nature, as a real part of an 670 associated 
whole, reproduces in his own mental life the mental 680 life of the race, 
and thereby becomes educated. Mental reproduction 690 is the cause 
of education. The educated mind has been 700 fertilized by the life of 
the world and is fruitful 710 in its conceptions. Education is giving 
birth to mental heirs, 720 and Socrates, the first great teacher of the 
Greeks, well 730 described his vocation as the art of intellectual mid- 
wifery. He 740 assisted the mind in bringing forth its ideas. Often 
the 750 reproduction of the spiritual environment is barren repetition, 
the struggle 760 of the world toward knowledge and art and liberty 
coming 770 out of the mind as it went in, unassimilated, unappre- 
ciated 780 and unused. 

This production from within the mind of its 790 own world, in 
response to the stimulating effects of the 800 world without, is education 
as a process, as an activity. 810 The youth thereby unifies himself 
with his race in the 820 educational period, and becomes actually what 


he always was potentially. 830 What his race has produced, he repro- 
duces, and this universalizes 840 his individual nature and socializes 
his private impulses. Thus for 850 him education is become the 
epitome of civilization. [858. 


Few people are aware that there is a military arm 10 of the United 
States government which performs valiant service on 20 the seas in 
time of war but in time of 30 peace devotes itself principally to the 
relief of those in 40 danger or distress. 

The Revenue Cutter Service is, primarily, a 50 branch of the United 
States navy. In every war in 60 which this country has engaged, the 
gallant little vessels of 70 the Revenue Cutter Service have done their 
share of the 80 fighting. But the object of this article is to describe 90 
some of the little known activities of the Revenue Cutter 100 Service in 
time of peace. 

About the middle of November 110 every year, the President of the 
United States issues a 120 proclamation directing certain cutters to 
patrol the Atlantic coast from 130 Maine to Florida for the express 
purpose of lending assistance 140 to vessels in distress. From Decem- 
ber 1 to March 30, 150 a cordon of ten able, first-class revenue cutters 
cruise 160 constantly along the coast seeking vessels in distress. 

Each cutter 170 is fitted with wireless telegraphy by means of which 
she 180 is kept in touch at all hours of the day 190 and night with steam- 
ships near the coast. At the first 200 alarm she is off for the scene of 
trouble. Exceedingly 210 comfortable it is for the crew and the pas- 
sengers of 220 a sinking ship to know that their call of distress 230 has 
been heard, and that one, two and sometimes three 240 revenue cutters 
are rushing to their aid. The master of 250 many a sailing ship 
aground on Nantucket Shoals has felt 260 a thrill of delight on seeing 
in the distance the 270 smoke of a revenue cutter steaming to his relief. 

It 280 is not generally known, but it is a fact nevertheless, 290 that the 
Life-Saving Service is an off-shoot of 300 the Revenue Cutter Service; 
Indeed, it is today intimately associated 310 with the older branch, 
inasmuch as revenue cutter officers are 320 detailed as inspectors of 


each district, and it is largely 330 due to their indefatigable and pains- 
taking efforts that the efficiency 340 of the life-savers is kept up to the 
mark. 350 

In its varied duties the Revenue Cutter Service does considerable 360 
life saving on its own account. Statistics show that during 370 the past 
decade five hundred and forty-seven human beings were 380 actually 
saved from drowning by officers and men of the 390 service. 

Abandoned ships at sea and those sunk in shoal 400 waters have been 
for years a menace to other vessels 410 navigating the waters of the 
globe. Spasmodic efforts have been 420 made by various governments 
and private organizations to remove these 430 terrors of the deep, but 
the first systematic derelict-destroying 440 began recently with the 
advent of the "Seneca," a vessel 450 built especially for this duty and 
operated as a revenue 460 cutter. In less than one year, twenty-six 
floating or 470 sunken wrecks have been removed, so that at the 480 
present day the entire North Atlantic Ocean from Maine to 490 Florida 
is kept cleared of these obstructions by the " Seneca " 50 and other rev- 
enue cutters which have been especially equipped with 510 high ex- 
plosives for the purpose. 

Nearly all revenue cutters are 520 fitted with powerful fire pumps, 
which, in addition to providing 530 protection from fire for the vessels 
themselves, frequently come into 540 use in assisting the local fire 
department in extinguishing fires 550 along the water front or on 
merchant vessels in the 560 harbors where the cutters are stationed. 
Many thousand dollars worth 570 of property are thus saved annually. 
During the great conflagrations 580 in Baltimore and San Francisco, 
revenue cutters stationed at those 590 ports took an active part. An 
entire section of the 600 city of Baltimore was undoubtedly saved by 
the fire apparatus on 610 the " Windom," and it was the quick action of 
an 620 officer of the Revenue Cutter Service which saved almost the 630 
entire collection of valuable pictures in the famous Hopkins Art 640 
Gallery at San Francisco. 

The revenue cutters act as sea 650 police, and by boarding and 
examining merchant vessels and 660 judiciously imposing fines, aid in 
enforcing navigation laws. Over 2,500 670 vessels were boarded and 
examined last year, 850 of which 680 were seized or reported for viola- 
tion of federal statutes. 

Several 690 times one of the revenue cutters stationed in New Eng- 
land 700 has been detailed to accompany the American fishing fleet 
to 710 Newfoundland for the purpose of lending aid in case of 720 dis- 
tress, and in interpreting their rights to fish in those 730 parts. The 


medical officer of the United States Public Health 740 Service who 
served as surgeon in one of these cruises, 750 has since urged the provi- 
sion of a hospital ship for 760 our deep-sea fishermen, similar to those 
provided on the 770 North Sea. A recent act of Congress provides that 
a 780 revenue cutter may be detailed for that purpose. 

One of 790 the most recent duties given this service is the patrol 800 of 
the ice-fields to locate icebergs and large fields of 810 ice and give warn- 
ings of their approach. The necessity for 820 such a patrol was made 
apparent by the terrible loss 830 of life when the " Titanic" struck an 
iceberg in April, 840 1912. During the seasons of 1913 and 1914, just 850 
closed, two revenue cutters, the " Seneca" and the " Miami," have 860 
maintained a continuous patrol of these ice-fields and have 870 warned 
many vessels in the transatlantic lanes of the danger 880 of approach- 
ing ice. So efficiently has this duty been performed 890 by the revenue 
cutters, that at the request of the 900 commercial nations of the world, 
whose delegates assembled last December 910 at London for an Inter- 
national Conference on Safety at Sea, 920 the revenue cutters will con- 
tinue to perform this ice patrol 930 indefinitely, the expense being 
divided among the great maritime nations 940 of the world. [943. 

From the "Survey" 


In the minds of its advocates the strongest argument for 10 woman 
suffrage, and one that they say never can be 20 satisfactorily set aside, 
is that every woman deprived of the 30 ballot is living under the 
tyranny of " taxation without representation" 40 a condition which 
the founders of this nation found intolerable 50 nearly a century and a 
half ago. 

During the past 60 few years an increasing number of women have 
followed the 70 example of the late Susan B. Anthony and protested 
against paying 80 taxes: and each protest at least, it is said, is 90 pro- 
ductive of increased sentiment for woman suffrage. In New Jersey 100 
a young woman has brought suit against the precinct election 110 
officers because she was not permitted to vote last fall, 120 and she 
proposes to carry the matter to the highest 130 courts because she 
argues that she is a properly qualified 140 citizen and will defend her 
right to vote. 


Says a 150 leader in the suffrage movement in discussing the whole 
question: 160 "The industrial conditions of the present are each year 
forcing 170 an increasing number of women out in the bread-winner's 180 
field. There are over seven million wage-earning women in 190 the 
United States and most of these are suffering from 200 conditions which 
the ballot would right. In thirty-two states 210 women are not the 
legal guardians of their own children. 220 In nearly all of the states 
marriage and property laws 230 are in some way unfair to women. 
Nothing but the 240 law can change this and nothing but the vote 
can 250 elect the lawmakers." 

The fact that where women have had 260 a certain amount of suf- 
frage there is an evident desire 270 to increase her power, is given as 
one of the 280 strongest arguments in favor of full suffrage. In Kansas, 
where 290 women have had municipal suffrage for nearly twenty-five 
years, 300 the mayors of the cities are practically unanimous in their 310 
expressions of appreciation of the service rendered by the women. 320 
One of the great arguments put up against women voting 330 is that the 
polls are such rough places that it 340 is not proper for any woman to go 
there. One 350 Kansas mayor says : 

"Woman suffrage has much to do with 360 the purifying of our poli- 
tics. The clerks upon our election 370 boards are almost always 
women, which may account for the 380 quietness at the polls." 

Another mayor said recently: 

"If we 390 put up good, clean men, the women in our town 400 seem to 
take little interest in our election; but if 410 we put up bad men they 
take an active part 420 and generally elect their own candidate. 
Whether the tough element 430 controls or not depends upon the 

"The enfranchisement of 440 women," said one prominent suffragist, 
"has had a close connection 450 with every philanthropic movement 
during the past century. It was 460 closely associated with the anti- 
slavery movement, and most of 470 the leaders of the temperance cause 
were ardent believers in 480 the justice of equal political rights for 
women. Take great 490 names in our history, and it will be found 
that 500 they believed in the justice of the feminine vote. 

"The 510 American Federation of Labor, as well as most of the 520 
state labor organizations, hope officially indorsed woman suffrage will 
prove 530 one of the means of increasing wages. Because of the 540 
increased cost of li ving, many women are compelled to eke 550 out the 
family income in some way. Women's labor is 560 cheap, but if women 
had the vote they would receive 570 equal pay for equal work. Then 


men's wages would improve 580 because they would not have to compete 
with the cheaper 690 work of women. There would be fewer women 
employed in 600 some industries because the man's earnings would then 
be sufficient 610 to support his family, and his wife might return to 620 
the lauded position of queen of the home, and the 630 duties con- 
nected with the ballot would occupy a smaller amount 640 of time each 
year than she would spend in a 650 week doing the family marketing. 

"The woman who now reigns 660 as home queen, who is not com- 
pelled to go out 670 into the world to add to the family income, has 680 
equal need of the ballot if she would give proper 690 care to her royal 
household. There is danger of disease 700 to her family from impure 
food, polluted water, bad air, 710 sweatshop-made clothing, and many 
other matters which should be 720 regulated by law ; and these laws can 
best be made 730 by women, who understand better than men their 
importance to 740 the welfare of the home. In order to have clean 750 
houses it is necessary to have clean streets, and there 760 will not 
be clean streets in a city if the 770 'head housekeeper' is inefficient. 
Women are better qualified than men 780 to judge of such efficiency. 

"The changed attitude of the 790 churches toward woman suffrage 
has been marked within the past 800 quarter-century. There is a 
more liberal interpretation of the 810 view of St. Paul who recognized 
them as preachers and 820 advised them to keep their heads covered 
when preaching and 830 prophesying. His commendation of Phoebe, 
his frequent references to Priscilla 840 who trained Apollos how to 
preach show his attitude toward 850 the dignified utterances of holy 
women. Christ's commendation of Mary, 860 who had 'chosen the 
better part,' refutes the argument that 870 women should confine their 
attention solely to their homes. It 880 is the women who have made 
the church the power 890 it is today, and thousands of clergymen now 
show their 900 appreciation of the work the women have done by 
urging 910 their political enfranchisement. In the states where the 
suffrage matter 920 has been, or is now, a leading issue the ministers 930 
have felt impelled to speak favorably of it from their 940 pulpits and 
to urge the men to vote in favor 950 of giving the state the womanly 
aid which has been 960 found so useful in the practical work of the 
church." [970. 



The need for what has been aptly termed "a socialized 10 jurispru- 
dence" has led to the formation in recent years of 20 several courts of 
more or less specialized functions. The juvenile 30 court and the 
domestic relations court are instances of this 40 tendency. Another 
example is the Conciliation Court established as a 50 branch of the 
Municipal Court of Cleveland. 

When the Cleveland 60 municipal court act was framed, provision 
was made for the 70 litigant who was unable to secure the services of 
a 80 lawyer. A clerk was to be designated to assist parties 90 in pre- 
paring and filing papers incident to their suit and 100 to advise and 
assist whenever possible in bringing about the 110 settlement of cases 
involving small amounts of money. The chief 120 justice selected for 
this post was a man with legal 130 training, long experience in court 
business, and a temperament suited 140 to the exacting requirements 
of the work. 

It did not 150 take long for the news of this means of assistance 160 to 
become known throughout the city, and hundreds brought in 170 their 
real or fancied grievances. Many were given sound advice 180 which 
resulted in the adjustment of the difference without further 190 inter- 
vention. Often the clerk acted as mediator and succeeded in 200 
bringing about a settlement. When mediation failed he assisted 
in 210 bringing a suit in the regular way. 

During the year 220 1912, 1,200 cases were settled. out of court. No 
record 230 was made of the cases in which advice and assistance 240 were 
given, but no doubt the number was very large. 250 All services of this 
department are free. 

The work thus 260 favorably begun led to the formation of the con- 
ciliation branch 270 of the court. The object was not only to relieve 280 
the court of much inconsequential legislation but to provide a 290 
simple and inexpensive means for the settlement of minor civil 300 
suits, cases which formerly had made up the chief business 310 of the 
"justice shop" and the shyster lawyer. 

The wide 320 powers of the Municipal Court enabled the judges to 
establish 330 this branch without any legislative enactment, merely 
by a rule 340 of the court. 

All claims under $50, all cases of 350 attachment and garnishment 


involving less than $50, and all cases 360 of replevin are entered upon 
the conciliation docket. The defendant 370 is then notified by regis- 
tered mail of the claim and 380 of the day set for the hearing of the 
case. 390 It may be of interest in this connection to note 400 that all 
writs of the Cleveland Municipal Court are served 410 by registered 
mail instead of the old and expensive method 420 of personal service 
by constables. 

One of the regular judges 430 of the court is assigned by the chief 
justice to 440 the conciliation branch. The parties to each 450 suit are 
brought before the judge. Lawyers are not allowed 460 to represent 
the parties and no set procedure is required. 470 The judge, by ques- 
tion and suggestion, seeks to elicit the 480 point at issue. While no 
controversy is permitted to be 490 drawn out at length, each party is 
allowed to state 500 his case in his own way. 

It was remarked by 510 one of the judges that this permission to an 
ordinary 520 litigant to "have his say" has a marked psychological 
effect. 530 He feels that even though the decision may have gone 540 
against him he has not been restricted by rules of 550 the court, the 
meaning and significance of which are not 560 always apparent to him. 

When the essential facts are brought 570 out the judge is required 
"to seek to effect an 580 amicable adjustment of the differences 
between the parties to the 590 suit." As a matter of fact, he usually 
secures their 600 consent to decide on the adjustment himself. When 
his judgment 610 is thus entered, all the power of the state is 620 behind 
the decision. 

The atmosphere of this court is quite 630 different from that of the 
ordinary law tribunal. The facts 640 in the case are not aired to the 
court hangers-^on, for both parties are in close communication with 
the 660 judge. Little is ever offered as evidence except an occasional 670 
memorandum or account book. As infinite a variety of cases 680 comes 
to light as the life of a great city 690 is complex grievances petty in 
the view of the ordinary 700 court, but serious to those concerned. 

The Conciliation Court has 710 been in operation since March, 1913. 
It has disposed of 720 5,884 cases out of 6,184 filed. The fee has 
usually 730 been twenty-five cents, never more than forty-five cents. 740 

The small fee does not, of course, cover the actual 750 cost of the pro- 
ceedings. The theory was held in framing 760 the bill of costs that a 
municipal court ministering to 770 all classes should not attempt to 
meet its expenses by 780 the collection of fees and fines. 

The models used were 790 the conciliation courts of Norway and 
Denmark where such courts 800 have been in operation since the eight- 


eenth century. They were 810 successful from the first and have been 
granted larger powers 820 from generation to generation. Conciliation 
there is compulsory before a 830 suit can be brought in the ordinary 
law courts. Four-fifths 840 of all cases are settled in this way. 

The regular 850 docket of the Municipal Court has been greatly 
relieved by 860 the settlement of so many cases, the pernicious activity 
of 870 the shyster lawyer has been considerably restricted, and sub- 
stantial service 880 has been rendered the people of the city. It must 890 
follow as a logical result that greater respect for law 900 will come 
from this simple application of common sense to 910 legal practice. 



Everybody who can get away is now paying a visit 10 to the seashore 
or the mountains. It is a splendid 20 opportunity for education. If 
these seekers for recreation would do 30 a little reading outside of 
novels, and a little observing 40 beyond the limits of the piazzas, par- 
lors, tennis courts and 60 golf links, they would be surprised and 
delighted by their 60 easy progress in knowledge and general intelli- 

The moment 70 you leave the city behind the wonderful history of 
the earth 80 is spread before your eyes. The sea writes it, 90 and the 
hills and mountains write it, and anybody can 100 read it who tries. It 
is the literature of nature, 110 which deals only with truth. 

I take to-day the 120 story of the mountains, which declare them- 
selves to be, not 130 the rigid masses that they seem, but surging and 
tossing 140 billows of rock, as truly in ceaseless motion as the 160 waves 
of the sea, but presenting a deceptive appearance of 160 rest because 
every second ticked by their clock-of-ages 170 is as long as one of our 

When you 180 go into the mountains take along such a book as 190 
that of the famous Scotch geologist, James Geikie, on the origin, 200 
growth and decay of mountains, and see what a marvelously 210 new 
interest the great hills assume in the light of 220 science. You will feel 
when you stand on the summit 230 ridge of some long range, that your 
feet are borne 240 up by the foaming crest of a geologic breaker, 


whose 250 form, despite its seeming fixedness and solidity, is as evan- 
escent 260 as that of a ripple of water. So might an 270 ultra-microscopic 
being, whose whole term of life was limited 280 to the millionth part of 
a second, sit upon the 290 spinning rim of a locomotive's driving-wheel, 
and philosophically remark 300 to his transitory fellow-creatures: 
"Everything is relative. Even this 310 moveless wheel on which we 
dwell might be found to 320 be in motion if our lives could be extended 
to 330 the vast span of a second of time!" 

Geology is 340 a kinetographic camera whose successive views are 
combined on the screen 350 of the imagination into moving pictures of 
the growing earth. 360 Take Professor Geikie's chapter on the origin 
and architecture of 370 the Alps and turn it into a motion picture. 
It 380 will amaze you! 

The exhibition begins with a film dated 390 millions of years ago. 
The epigraph doesn't tell you how 400 many millions, because the 
management is not informed on that 410 point. The spectator sees a 
vast tract of ancient, rocky, 420 tumbled land, bordered by a broad 
sea, which, he is 430 told, is the ancestral form of the Mediterranean, 
then a 440 veritable ocean in extent. The land is not like any 450 on the 
earth to-day; it is a Paleozoic continent, the 460 forerunner of Europe. 
The film flickers on through countless ages, 470 tremendous storms 
and floods burst and roar over the doomed 480 continent, and the spec- 
tator sees its hills and rocks dissolving 490 and wearing down until 
only the stumps of the higher 500 mountains remain. Then a sinking 
sensation comes over him as 510 the entire face of the earth in front of 
him 520 suddenly settles down as if the interior of the globe 530 had given 
way beneath. In mighty billows the sea rolls 540 in and covers the 
sunken continent. 

A strange darkness now 550 falls over the theater, and there is a 
mystic glimmer 560 in the flickering picture on the screen. The spec- 
tator becomes 570 aware that what he now beholds is occurring in sub- 
marine 580 depths. He sees the bottom of the ocean where vast 590 
deposits of sand and silt grow deeper and deeper, like 600 piling snow- 
drifts, until what was once a continent has been 610 buried under sheets 
of sediment two or three miles thick-! 620 

A blinding flash, and the dancing picture has given place 630 to an 
illuminated epigraphic sentence: "The Cainozoic Era." 

Immediately the 640 film runs OH again, but a startling change has 
occurred 650 in the character of the views. The surface of the 660 globe 
seems to be bending and buckling as if an 670 irresistible pressure had 
been brought to bear upon it, or 680 as if it were being squeezed by an 


almighty hand! 690 The bottom of the sea swells and rises until it 700 
emerges from the water, and then the dazed onlooker sees 710 that 
those immense sheets of sediment that covered the drowned 720 conti- 
nent have been transformed into thick strata of sandstone and 730 
other sedimental rocks. 

The buried continent is rising from its 740 watery tomb, but still 
sheeted with its stony grave-clothes, 750 which it can but partially cast 

The crumpling of the rocks goes on. It is due to the cooling and 
shrinking of the 760 core of the globe. The hardened crust must settle 
down 770 as the core shrinks away from it, but in doing 780 so it has to 
accommodate itself to a smaller area, 790 and so its parts are squeezed 
together and heaped up 800 and thrust one over another, like cakes of 
ice in 810 a spring flood. 

Gradually a kind of order emerges from 820 this chaos of battling 
and bending rocks. The swelling summits 830 of the rocky waves 
become new mountain ranges, and the 840 Alps are born. They stand 
on the site of the 850 ancient Paleozoic continent that was submerged, 
and their peaks and ridges are composed, in part, of the old crystal- 
line rocks 860 of the primeval continent, which burst through their 
covering during 870 the mighty throes of its resurrection. 

This is the barest 880 outline of the history of one range of moun- 
tains. Every 890 range on the globe has a story to tell of 900 equally 
absorbing interest, and if you will learn a little 910 geology and use 
your eyes and intellect you can find 920 a scientific romance in any 
hill. [926. 


The errors and preconceived notions which are at the basis 10 of this 
theory of Karl Marx become evident on a consideration 20 of its 
fundamental proposition that commodities of the same price 30 have 
the same value because they contain the same quantity 40 of average 
abstract human labor socially necessary for their production. 60 

This proposition, in the first place, is entirely indefinite. We 60 have 
side by side, wheat of years of good and 70 of bad harvests, iron from 
rich and poor mines, products 80 of machine and hand weaving, gold 
from rich mines, diamonds 90 from mines which are unique in kind, and 
which are 100 obtained almost free by their lucky seekers. We have 


positive 110 knowledge that all these commodities represent very 
different quantities of 120 human labor, that the wheat of fertile 
countries is produced 130 with less labor than that of countries where 
harvests are 140 bad, that the products of hand weaving cost twice 
as 180 much labor as those produced by machinery, that iron may 160 
have required more or less labor according to the quality 170 of the 
mines and the methods of working them, that 180 gold and diamonds 
may have cost a fiftieth or a 190 hundredth part of the labor expended 
on the commodities with 200 which they are compared. 

The variation of the quantities of 210 human labor embodied in the 
commodities named is well known; 220 but the quantity of labor spent 
in their production we 230 do not know and cannot determine, and 
without knowing this 240 quantity in separate branches of industry 
and in industry as 250 a whole we can say nothing about the average 
socially 260 necessary norm of abstract human labor embodied in com- 
modities, and 270 this average norm remains an entirely unknown and 
indefinable quantity. 280 Just as little can we determine the degree 
and volume 290 of influence of those social and natural conditions 
which directly 300 affect the quantity of necessary human labor in 
different branches 310 of industry and in different countries of the 

Besides, 320 the general proposition that value is crystallized labor 
is inapplicable 330 to certain categories of commodities. Let us take at 
random 340 various commodities, excepting manufactured articles 
precious stones, oranges, pheasants, cattle, lumber, 350 Siberian furs. 
Is it possible to say that in these 360 things human labor is embodied in 
the same sense in 370 which the statement is made about a piece of 
cloth 380 or a bushel of wheat? In a manufactured product of 390 labor 
there is really embodied a given quantity of 400 human labor; it is in 
fact a product of labor 410 without which it would not exist, but let us 
try 420 to apply the same ideas to commodities of a different 430 type, 
such as those named above and absurdity is evident. 

Assuming 440 as proved that abstract human labor determines the 
value of 450 all commodities, Marx in a few words explains, or rather 460 
avoids, the important question of the various kinds and forms 470 of 
labor which serve as a measure of value. The 480 value of commodities, 
says he, represents an expenditure of human 490 labor in the abstract, 
labor is the expenditure of single 500 labor power, which every ordinary 
individual without any particular development 510 possesses in his 
bodily organism. "Simple average labor, it is 520 true, varies in char- 
acter in different countries and at different 530 times, but in a particular 


society skilled labor counts only 540 as simple labor intensified, or 
rather as multiplied simple labor, 550 a given quantity of skilled being 
considered equal to a 560 greater quantity of simple labor." 

In reality, however, no such 570 reduction of skilled and higher forms 
of labor ever takes 580 place, nor can it take place because, in the 
existing 590 money-economy, hired labor is paid for according to the 
varying 600 conditions of the labor market. According to Marx, any- 
way, in 610 the reduction of skilled labor to unskilled it is impossible 620 
to be guided by existing norms of money wages, because 630 the latter 
do not correspond to the inner value of 640 labor; but it is necessary to 
take as a unit 650 the full productivity of a day's work of a single 660 
worker in accordance with the quantity of commodities produced 
by 670 him; that is, it is necessary to find a certain 680 quantity for the 
determination of which there are so far 690 no positive data. 

The quantity itself, if it were found, 700 would not be constant and 
would be subject to frequent 710 changes and fluctuations; a day of 
single labor has a 720 different meaning in a factory production and in 
handicraft or 730 agriculture; is different in rich and poor mines, in 
regions 740 which have good or bad harvests, etc. In the last 750 analy- 
sis the unit of human labor becomes something which cannot 760 be 
grasped, and the proposition that the value of commodities 770 is 
measured by the quantity of simple human labor embodied 780 in 
them really means nothing. 

Such is the theoretical aspect 790 of the proposition which is the 
foundation of Marx's theory. 800 The other aspects of this doctrine 
which represent in some 810 manner the further development of the 
fundamental proposition are intended 820 mainly to prove and 
strengthen the preconceived idea that only 830 physical human labor 
yields surplus value which enriches the capitalist, and 840 that this 
surplus value is the exclusive "natural gift" of 850 living human labor. 

This assertion of Marx is shown to 860 be false by the daily expe- 
rience of those countries which 870 have reached a high stage of indus- 
trial development. Capital strives 880 everywhere to reduce as much 
as possible the number of 890 workingmen in industries on a large scale 
of production by 900 the introduction of improved machinery and 
avoids thus an extensive 910 use of the particular "natural gift" of 
living labor power. [920. 



We may state briefly some of the reasons why the 10 moral aim 
should be put forward as the controlling one 20 in education. 

First: The attainment of virtue, that is, the 30 establishment of 
moral habits, gives us the best quality and 40 achievement in indi- 
vidual character. It is acknowledged that the perfection 60 of the 
individual is a chief essential to the aim 60 of education. No matter 
how much we emphasize scientific knowledge 70 and mental discipline, 
all admit that the attainment of moral 80 excellence is still superior to 
these. As Kant says, "There 90 is but one good thing in the world, 
and that 100 is a good will." The perfection of will, however, is 110 found 
only in its subjection to moral requirements in the 120 individual. It 
will be generally admitted that all physical, intellectual, 130 and aes- 
thetic culture should culminate in this individual moral excellence. 140 

Second : The second chief essential in the education of children 150 is 
that they shall be trained for society and for 160 citizenship. They 
shall be adapted to the social and industrial 170 life of the present. 
This demand is heard with much 180 emphasis and from the highest 
quarters. It seems at the 190 present time that the demand for the 
perfection of the 200 individual is yielding, to a considerable extent, to 
the requirement 210 for socializing or subordinating the individual to 
the needs of 220 society. It is in the social order, however, that the 230 
moral virtues come chiefly into play. The highest statement of 240 the 
social law is found in the golden rule, and 250 it is the application of 
this everywhere that is most 260 needed in social intercourse and in 
human industry. To equip 270 a child properly for social and indus- 
trial life is to 280 put him in possession, through education, of these 
moral or 290 social virtues and sympathies. This can only be done 
by 300 giving him an insight into human relations and sympathy 
for 310 people in all the various conditions of society. This whole 320 
point of view, therefore, is moral in the highest degree. 330 Whether 
we look at education from the standpoint of the 340 individual or of 
society as a whole, moral culture is 350 the preeminent need in both. 

Third: Moral ideas and moral 360 education generally are subject to 
the same laws of growth 370 and development as other kinds of knowl- 
edge and culture. Moral 380 judgments, feelings, and decisions, vague 
and rudimentary at first in 390 children, gradually develop through 


experience and culture to clearness and 400 strength. It requires a 
clear advance in intelligence to perceive 410 moral ideas, and likewise 
to move forward from particular examples 420 to general moral con- 
cepts. In this respect moral enlightenment does 430 not differ from 
other kinds of growth in intelligence. The 440 sympathetic and 
social feelings and the sense of moral obligation 450 also ripen gradu- 
ally with the growth in intelligence. If left 460 to themselves or to 
chance, these moral ideas, sympathies, and 470 habits of judgment are 
easily perverted and the whole moral 480 character wrecked. Indeed 
they require the most careful cultivation and 490 direction by wise 
teachers and parents. 

Fourth: The great central 500 studies of the school course, such as 
reading, literature, and 510 history, are full to overflowing with mate- 
rial of the best 520 quality upon which the moral judgments and sym- 
pathies may be 530 directly cultivated. These forms of biography 
and history and literature 540 which are coming to be most used in the 
schools, 550 are especially fruitful in those personal, concrete forms of 
life 560 which reveal simple moral ideas in a striking form. The 570 chief 
fact to be observed is, that these studies already 580 used in the school, 
are preeminent for their moral worth, 590 but have not been employed 
chiefly to bring out this 600 form of culture and character growth. 

Fifth: The school, however, 610 is not limited in its sphere of oppor- 
tunities to the 620 theoretical treatment of morals, to the mere observa- 
tion of moral 630 ideas in stories, etc. It has abundant opportunity to 
lead 640 over from moral judgments and sympathetic feelings to 
conduct. Every 650 one concedes that it is as much the business of 660 
a teacher to look after the conduct of children as 670 to supervise their 
acquisition of ideas and knowledge. The school 680 itself is a social 
organization, and children cannot live in 690 its close relationships 
without practising the social virtues, or else 700 violating them. There 
is an increasing and emphatic demand that 710 our schools shall be 
converted more and more into social 720 institutions, that by means of 
the extension of social activities 730 in cooking, weaving, industrial 
occupations, and cooperation, this social spirit 740 shall be given freer 
scope. This will fit children better 750 to understand, appreciate, and 
sympathize with the more intimate and 760 complex social and indus- 
trial conditions into which the people are 770 rapidly growing. We 
may even go so far as to 780 say that the strongest and most intelligent 
demand upon the 790 school in late years is for greater socialization of 
its 800 activities, and in the last analysis, what does this mean, 810 other 
than greater intellectual and moral insight, greater sympathy with 820 


our fellow-men, better social conduct, morality? The school there- 
fore is 830 not limited to the theory of morals. 

These considerations bearing 840 upon the value of the moral aim in 
education seem 850 to justify us as teachers in pushing it to the 860 front 
and in concentrating our energies upon its accomplishment. [869. 


Profit-sharing is a device for binding together the employer 10 and 
employee in a given enterprise, and for promoting their 20 mutual 
interest. Undoubtedly it is one of the most important 30 remedies 
proposed for the evils of the present labor situation. 40 

Profit-sharing has been officially defined as an "agreement freely 50 
entered into, by which the employee receives a share, fixed 60 in 
advance, of the profits." The proportion to be distributed 70 must be 
fixed in advance else the amount distributed would 80 be simply a gift. 
It is not philanthropy. It is 90 a business proposition entered into 
by employer and employee to 100 accomplish certain results which may 
or may not be accurately 110 ascertainable. It must be distinguished 
from gain sharing where the 120 amount of the bonus is proportionate 
to the saving in 130 cost of production, irrespective of the net profit 
realized by uo the employer. It must also be distinguished from 
partnership agreements, 150 where a division of profits is partially or 
wholly substituted 160 for wages. It involves no radical change in the 
wage 170 system; it contemplates merely a share of the profits in 180 
addition to wages. It does -not depend, as is so 190 often supposed, 
upon any acknowledged injustice in the present arrangement 200 
of things; it is not, therefore, socialistic in fact, it 210 is paternalistic. 
It is designed to be, and should be, 220 a self-supporting proposition; 
the profit which is shared must 230 be created by the employee through 
greater care and diligence. 240 This is its economic basis. 

The motives of the employer 250 for sharing are almost as varied as 
the plans, and 260 the detail of the plans are as numerous as the 270 
establishments adopting them. Several of the profit-sharing plans 
in 280 existence at the present time originated during the great labor 290 
unrest of 1886 to 1890. The motives which prompted many 300 of 
the employers at that time were the elimination of 310 unions from the 


establishments or the stopping of strikes and 320 other labor diffi- 
culties. I have before me letters from a 330 number of employers 
in which these reasons for establishing the 340 scheme are stated. I 
know of several instances where the 350 schemes were abandoned 
because they did not prevent strikes. In 360 some cases, and large 
ones too, the scheme has been' 70 philanthropic. Fortunately these 
are few. In others an advertising advantage 380 has been calculated, 
the employer believing that people will be 390 led to make purchases 
from those who are supposed to 400 be generous with their workmen. 

Some employers desire to eliminate 410 the floating laborer, increas- 
ing the length of the term of 420 employment. Some desire, by taking 
the employee into partnership, to 430 perpetuate the enterprise. But 
most common, and although not so 440 altruistic as others, more sound 
economically, is the desire on 450 the part of the employer to increase 
his own profits 460 and, at the same time increase the workman's 
compensation, through 470 appealing to certain motives of enterprise 
on the part of 480 the employee leading to increased efficiency and 
decreased costs of 490 doing business. Profit-sharing schemes con- 
ceived and designed to accomplish 500 these results are by far the most 
numerous and are 510 generally more successful than the others. 

Of the numerous methods 520 for sharing profits there are three main 
types. Numerous details 530 modify these schemes considerably, but 
the main features easily classify 540 them. The most common and 
oldest type takes the form 650 of a cash payment at the end of a 
fixed 660 period. The manner of calculating the amount to be dis- 
tribute^ 570 may take numerous forms and the period of distribution 
may 580 vary from a week or two as in the Henry 690 Ford Motor Works 
plan, to a year which is more 600 usual. A second method, most com- 
mon among the thrifty workmen 610 of France, takes some form of 
deferred participation by means 620 of dividends on savings bank 
deposits, or of provident funds 630 and annuities. The third method, 
which has perhaps won most 640 favor in the United States and is 
almost exclusively American, 650 takes the form of payment in shares 
of stock of 660 the company. This is frequently called the Perkins' 
method because 670 George W. Perkins fathered its introduction in the 
United States 680 Steel Corporation and in the International Harvester 
Company. Many of 690 the most prominent concerns in the country 
employ in the 700 aggregate many thousands of employees who are 
eligible or may 710 become eligible to share in the profits of their com- 
pany 720 through the ownership of stock acquired on easy payments 
and 730 yielding, in many cases, extra dividends. 


Has profit-sharing promoted 740 mutuality? Has it been successful, 
on the whole, in this 750 country? Are workmen better off because of 
it? Has the 760 cost of production or the cost of sales been lowered? 770 
The answers to these questions bring to light a wide 780 difference of 
opinion. Many students of profit-sharing condemn it. 790 Many 
employers have abolished it after a trial. Labor unions 800 oppose it, 
believing that the workmen suffer many injustices because 810 of it. 
Then there are those who believe that it 820 is all right for the other 
fellow, but it couldn't 830 be applied to their own business. 

After a very wide 840 survey of the subject, after interviewing many 
employers and many 850 employees who have had direct personal 
experience with it, I 860 have eome to the conclusion, well supported 
by a mass 870 of evidence which I have collected, that profit sharing 
has 880 failed because it has been improperly instituted. Employers 
have expected 890 too much or have been too impatient for results. 
It 900 has not had a fair trial in many instances. In 910 other instances 
right motives have not been appealed to. Its 920 failure has been, 
borrowing the terminology of our president, psychological. 930 

Profit-sharing will not solve our labor problems. It will, 940 when 
properly adopted, prevent them arising. It may, or may 950 not have 
an economic basis. That depends upon the management 960 and the 
plan. It has done much good and we 970 may expect to see it more 
widely employed in the 980 future; with the awakened sense that the 
laborer is entitled 990 to something more than a living wage. [997. 


(As described in part in the North American Review by Frank B. 
Noyes, President of the Associated Press.) 

The Associated Press is an association of something over 850 10 
newspapers, operating under a charter of the State of New York 20 
as a mutual and cooperative organization for the interchange 30 
and collection of news. Under the terms of its charter 40 "the cor- 
poration is not to make a profit nor to 50 make or declare dividends, 
and is not to engage in 60 the business of selling intelligence nor 
traffic in the same." 70 

Its Board of Directors is composed of active newspaper men 80 
chosen at annual meetings by the membership. 


Its members are 90 scattered from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from 
Canada to 100 the Gulf, and represent every possible shade of political 
belief, 110 religious faith, and economic sympathy. It is obvious that 
the 120 Associated Press can have no partisan nor factional bias, no 130 
religious affiliation, no capitalistic nor pro-labor trend. Its function 
is 140 simply to furnish its members with a truthful, clean, comprehen- 
sive, 150 non-partisan report of the news of the world as expeditiously 160 
as is compatible with accuracy and as economically as possible. 170 

The newspapers composing its membership contribute first the 
news of 180 their localities, and second, weekly assessments of money 
aggregating about 190 $3,000,000 per annum, with which an extensive 
system of leased 200 wires is maintained (22,000 miles of wire in the 
daytime 210 and 28,000 at night), bureaus in the principal American 
cities 220 supplementing and collating the news of local newspapers 
and bureaus 230 for the original collection of news throughout the 

While 240 the Associated Press is generally held in good esteem, I 250 
would not be understood as indicating that it has been 260 exempt from 
criticism and attack. If in a campaign all 270 the candidates, or their 
managers or press agents did not 280 accuse the Associated Press of the 
grossest partisanship as against 290 the particular candidacy in which 
they were interested, those bearing 300 the responsibilities of the ser- 
vice would feel convinced that something 310 was radically wrong and 
would look with suspicion on the report 320 themselves. This is but 
human nature. During the last campaign 330 for the Presidential 
nomination every candidate either in person or 340 by proxy expressed 
his conviction that the Associated Press was 350 favorable to some- 
body else. 

With all this, however, goes a 360 fundamental misunderstanding of 
the functions of the Associated Press. The 370 individual correspon- 
dent or reporter for a given newspaper or a 380 small group of news- 
papers having a common bias may be 390 permitted to indulge in 
partisanship or in propaganda. This is 400 absolutely not to be per- 
mitted in the Associated Press. No 410 bias of any sort can be allowed. 
Our function is 420 to supply our members with news, not views; with 
news 430 as it happens not as we may want it to 440 happen. Intensely 
as its management may sympathize with any movement, 450 no 
propaganda in its behalf can be permitted. Very jealously 460 indeed 
does the membership guard against their agency going outside 470 its 
allotted duties and argus-eyed is the censorship of 480 every handler of 
our "copy." It is not, naturally, to 490 be claimed that no mistakes are 


made. They are made 500 and will be made. But in the very nature 
of 510 business, with the heart so worn upon the sleeve, detection 520 
very swiftly follows, and the mistakes are few and far 530 between. 

Another cause of frequent misapprehension is in the general 540 
tendency of newspaper readers to attribute anything seen in print 550 
to the Associated Press. From time to time some voice 560 is raised 
denouncing the Associated Press in the same breath 570 both as a 
monopoly and because it is not a 580 monopoly, and insisting that it 
become a monopoly by admitting 590 to its membership all desiring its 
service. From an ethical 600 standpoint only, then, is there anything 
improper, unsafe or 610 unwise in a group of newspapers, large or small, 
associating 620 themselves together to do a thing that each must other- 
wise 630 do separately and of reserving to themselves the right to 640 
determine to what extent the membership of such a group 650 shall be 

To compel the Associated Press to assume 660 an entity of its own 
and to serve all comers 670 would, in my judgment, bring about a con- 
dition fraught with 680 the gravest dangers to the freedom of the press 
and 600 in turn to the freedom of the people. At present 700 about one- 
third of the daily newspapers of the country 710 are represented by 
membership in the Associated Press. There are 720 a number of con- 
cerns engaged in the collection and sale 730 of general news to non- 
members of the Associated Press. 740 If the Associated Press could 
be held as a common 750 carrier, these news-selling organizations would 
be wiped out and 750 the Associated Press would, if the end sought for 
was 770 accomplished, become a real monopoly and, the incentive for 
cooperation 780 no longer existing, it would naturally drift into a con- 
cern 790 for pecuniary profit, in private ownership and subject to 
private 800 control. 

Because the danger would be so grave it will 810 not come, but for 
another reason also, a very basic 820 reason there can be no monopoly 
in news. The day 830 that it becomes apparent that a monopoly in col- 
lecting and 840 distributing news exists, that day, in some way, by 
some 850 method, individual newspapers or groups of newspapers will 
take up 860 the work of establishing a service for themselves, indepen- 
dent of 870 outside control. The news of the world is open to 880 him who 
will go for it. Any one willing 890 to expend the energy, the time, and 
the money to 900 approach it may dip from the well of truth. The 910 
news service of the Associated Press does not consist of 920 its leased 
wires or its offices. Its soul is in 930 the personal service of human 
men, of men with eyes 940 to see, with ears to hear, with hands to 


write, 950 and with brains to understand, of men who are proud 960 when 
they succeed, humiliated when they fail and resentful when 970 
maligned. And as to-day men labor and die in order 980 that the 
members of the Associated Press may lay before 990 their readers a 
fair picture of the world's happenings, so 1000 always will these and 
other men serve nobly and die 1010 bravely that the world may have 
tidings. [1017. 


In conclusion I wish to direct your attention to a 10 feature worthy 
of careful consideration; one which in my estimation 20 is responsible 
for much of the antagonism toward the railroad. 30 It is in respect to 
the treatment accorded the country 40 merchants by the railroads of 
this country. I mean the 50 merchants at the local stations. I was 
once an agent 60 at such a station; I was once a merchant in 70 such a 
town, so that I know by experience, the 80 limitations of the agent to 
assist the merchant in his 90 struggle to compete with the merchant at 
the competitive point, 100 and I know the helpless condition of the 
merchant who 110 must rely upon such an agent for support. Though 
the 120 agent may be ever so well disposed his complaints and 130 
suggestions must filter through the several departments of the rail- 
roads 140 until they are so thin or so stale when they 150 reach the offi- 
cials who shape the policy of the road 160 as to merit or receive little 
attention. These merchants at 170 local towns are deserving of our 
especial attention and support 180 in their present struggle; not alone 
because they are neglected 190 by the railroads, but at this particular 
time because they 200 will have, from January 1 next, a new difficulty 
confronting 210 them in sustaining their trade; that is, the establish- 
ment of 220 the parcel post, with which I know you are more 230 fami- 
liar than I. 

The Traffic Bureau of the Business Men's 240 League, which I have 
the honor to represent, has given 250 a great deal of attention to this 
railroad feature of 260 the distribution of goods from this market, and 
we have 270 been working upon the proposition that the jobber is 
just 280 as much interested in getting the goods sold by him 290 to his 
customer in the country as the retail merchant 300 in this city is in 


getting the goods to his 310 customer, regardless of his location in St. 
Louis. Therefore, since 320 we have this package car system so per- 
fected that we 330 may intelligently scrutinize the service of all the 
railroads serving 340 St. Louis, we are contending now for the improve- 
ment of 350 the service to the local stations. 

There is no such 360 thing as a local station to a jobber. The mer- 
chant 370 from the smallest local station on any railroad looks just 380 
as good to us in this market as though he 390 came from a highly com- 
petitive railroad town and is entitled 400 to our consideration and the 
consideration of the carriers accordingly. 410 

Through what I consider a mistaken policy of economy and 420 
development of their own properties, the railroads of this country 430 
have given too much attention to competitive business and too 440 
little to local business. The result of this is that 450 under the present 
fabric of rates, intermediate towns often pay 460 the same rates as the 
competitive town beyond, yet shipments 470 leaving here on the same 
day are often from one 480 to three days longer in reaching the interme- 
diate or local 490 town. 

It is gratifying to note, however, that a few 800 progressive manage- 
ments are taking this view of it also, and 510 are inaugurating methods 
beneficial to the local points. It rests 520 largely with us, however, and 
particularly with an association like 530 yours, to exercise our com- 
mercial strength in behalf of our 540 customers by contending forcibly 
for such a system of distribution of 550 our goods that a more equitable 
service shall be given 560 to all points. To this end the routing of 
your 670 competitive business should be predicated on the service 
rendered to 580 local points; or, in plainer language, the lines that 
give 590 especial attention to the systematic and prompt handling of 
your 600 shipments to local points are entitled to more consideration at 
the 610 hands of the shippers in the distribution of their competi- 
tive 620 business. It is unreasonable to expect, of course, such a 630 
revolution in this respect as to have equal service to 640 all points, but 
the tendency should be in that direction 650 much more than it is at 

I may be 660 mistaken, but, after giving the subject serious thought, 
I believe, as 670 a matter of economy to the railroads and the improve- 
ment 680 of the service as suggested, smaller cars should be used 690 in 
this package car trade. Cars so constructed as to 700 carry a maximum 
load of about the present average merchandise 710 loading, which is 
approximately 18,000 pounds per car; cars capable 720 of being carried 
in fast trains, to be switched at 730 local points or small stations with- 


out the loss incidental to 740 the handling of cars of large capacity 
designed especially for 750 carload business, as is the case at present, 
thus releasing 760 these large cars of 60,000 pounds capacity for the 
service 770 for which they are designed. The railroads now have cars 780 
constructed especially for live stock, for lumber, for coal, for 790 coke, 
for cooperage and for perishable freight, but none especially 800 
designed for the highest class freight they handle; namely, these 810 
merchandise or package car shipments. By the use of such 820 cars 
as suggested, much of the delay incidental to rehandling 830 at break 
bulk points would be avoided, the expense 840 of operating local or 
way freight trains greatly reduced, and 850 damage to freight by 
rehandling eliminated to a great extent. 860 The increased efficiency 
of their terminal facilities in the loading 870 and unloading of such 
freight by the use of a 880 smaller and greater number of car units upon 
the same 890 terminal tracks now used for the large cars, is also 900 an 
item, I believe, worthy of careful consideration by the 910 railroads. 

In short, is it not quite reasonable to expect 920 that the railroads 
should so classify their service and furnish 930 such facilities as to 
specialize the less than carload merchandise 940 traffic to the extent 
that all receivers of such freight 950 both at local as well as competitive 
points, may rely 960 upon that service as they do upon the express 
service 970 and eventually relieve the public of the expensive express 
service 980 except for the transportation of valuable articles or such 
as 990 may require the attention of a messenger enroute. [998. 


The world divides its admiration between the persons who destroy 10 
life and those who spend their days in efforts to 20 save it. The soldier 
has been the object of all 30 men's regard. In any city in the world 
whose streets 40 are crowded with monuments to heroes, those erected 
to the 50 memory of fighting men predominate. In any country the 
soldier's 60 uniform is the badge of honor. Century by century our 70 
race has awarded the prizes of life and place and 80 pomp and power 
to the man whose business it is 90 to kill men. 

But the world honors also those who 100 live to save men the 
philanthropists of all the ages. 110 The wealth and learning and influ- 


ence of a great city 120 pay homage to a citizen whose name is synony- 
mous with 130 practical philanthropy and beneficent public service. 
Prophets, apostles, martyrs, the 140 poet laurel-crowned, the man of 
science with calm gaze 150 searching the depths of infinite being and 
the missionary who 160 himself repeats creation's primal word, "Let 
there be light," are 170 enshrined in our hearts as the makers and 
masters of 180 men. 

It is curious. Why should we honor him who 190 kills and him 
who makes alive? Can we not distinguish 200 between them? Are our 
minds built, indeed, in water-tight 210 compartments and our souls, too? 
Are our instincts chaotic? And 220 our emotions, are they founded 
in unreason and do they 230 lead but to folly? 

Human nature is, indeed, compounded of 240 complexities and con- 
tradictions, but for this apparent anomaly a rational 260 basis may be 
found. In the ultimate analysis there is 260 one ideal for the fighter 
and for the philanthropist, for 270 the man whose business it is to kill 
and for 280 him who lives to make alive. The ideal is sacrifice 290 for 
the common good. In the case of the fighting 300 man the ideal is 
often wretchedly obscured; is, at times, 310 totally lost sight of. 
Nevertheless the ideal of the warrior 320 remains as an ideal. 

And the world has agreed to 330 pay honor to the soldier, not because 
he is ready 340 to kill, but because it understands that, with life and 350 
youth and health and joy and wife and home and 360 little ones, and 
all that makes life worth living behind 370 him, to be won and held 
by retreat, with torture, 380 wounds, death in front of him, he will 
scorn liberty 390 and life, choose death and honor. This is the sol- 
dier's 400 ideal. This is the warrior's glory. 

The soldier's honor and 410 the warrior's ideal are not the highest 
and noblest conceivable. 420 The ancient systems of India placed the 
priest above the 430 warrior. And for good reason. The ideal of the 
warrior 440 is to die for men. The ideal of the priest 450 is to live for 
men. And it is a nobler 460 thing to live for men than to die for men. 470 
So those ancient systems thought, and they thought rightly. A 480 
death of self-sacrifice seemed great; a life of self-sacrifice was 490 
greater. This is why John Ruskin, speaking to a body 600 of young 
men in training as officers of the British 610 army, said to them: 

"You fancy, perhaps, that there is 620 a severe sense of duty mixed 
with these peacocky motives? 530 And in the best of you there is. 
But do 640 not think that it is principle. If you cared to 550 do your duty 
to your country in a prosaic and 560 unsentimental way, depend upon 
it, there is now truer duty 570 to be done in raising harvests than in 


burning them; 680 more in building houses than in shelling them; 
more in 890 winning money by your own work, wherewith to help 
men, 600 than in other people's work, taxing for money wherewith to 610 
slay men more duty, finally, in honest and unselfish living 620 than 
in honest and unselfish dying, though that seems to 630 your boy's 
eyes the bravest." 

Let us do honor to 640 the world's noblest warriors those who 
battle with human stupidity. 650 Huxley was as gallant a fighter for life 
and liberty 660 as ever tossed his hat into the ring and followed 670 it 
with a cry of joy. Yet when he contemplates 680 the age-long stu- 
pidity of the race his pessimism is so 690 pessimistic that, like the 
Egyptian darkness, it can be felt. 700 Here it is: 

"I know no study which is so 710 unutterably saddening as that of 
the evolution of humanity, as 720 it is set forth in the annals of 
history. Out 730 of the darkness of prehistoric ages man emerges with 
the 740 marks of his lowly origin strong upon him. He is 750 a brute, 
only more intelligent than the other brutes; a 760 blind prey to 
impulses which, as often as not, lead 770 him to destruction; a victim 
of endless illusions which make 780 his mental existence a terror 
and a burden and fill 790 his physical life with barren toil and battle. 

"He attains 800 a certain degree of physical comfort, and develops 
a more 810 or less workable theory of life in such favorable situations 820 
as the plains of Mesopotamia or of Egypt, and then, 830 for thousands 
and thousands of years, struggles, with varying fortunes, 840 attended 
by infinite wickedness, bloodshed and misery, to maintain himself 850 
at this point against the greed and the ambition of 860 his fellow-men. 

"He makes a point of killing and otherwise 870 persecuting all 
those who first try to get him to 880 move on, and when he has 
moved on a step, 890 foolishly confers post-mortem deification on 
his victims. He exactly repeats 900 the process with all who want to 
move a step 910 yet farther." 

It is simply not true not true in 920 spirit and prophecy. "Against 
stupidity the gods themselves fight powerless," 930 said the wise 
ancients. But they were wrong, or, if 940 they were right, men and 
women have done what the 950 gods could not do. For we are win- 
ning in this 960 war. Everybody may have a share in the victory. 

The 970 fighting is good all along the line. From the president 980 of 
a State university to the kindergarten teacher, from the 990 editor 
with his million readers to the man in the 1000 smoking car who 
knocks a little common sense "into the 1010 stupidest man he ever 
met in his life," we all 1020 have our chance. 


Besides, there is oneself! Does not Carlyle 1030 exhort us: "Arrest 
your knaves and dastards! Arrest yourself! Make 1040 yourself an 
honest man, and there will be one rogue 1050 less in the world!" 

Think what each one of us 1060 can do tq reduce the sum of our 
natural ignorance! 1070 This is the war which is at our doors. [1079. 


My point of view is not that of Labor, nor 10 is it the business 
man's nor the politician's. I have 20 tried as a reporter to keep in 
mind always the 30 common interest of society as a whole and to see 40 
in politics and in business what made for and what 50 against the 
common human good. So now in Labor, I 60 am for those acts and 
tendencies which seem to make 70 for the good of humanity; not of the 
working people only 80 that's the narrow Labor view but of all 
the people. 90 And I am against all that Labor does which seems 100 to 
hurt society; not business (that's the narrow business view), 110 but 
the human community as a whole. 

For example: The 120 reasoning of a part of Labor that efficiency 
would increase 130 the profits of the employer more than the wages 
of 140 the workers, therefore, seems to me to be not 150 only false, but 
fundamentally wrong. It is anti-social. Even if 160 the premises 
were true and the argument sound; and even 170 if skimping did 
reduce profits and came not at all 180 out of the wage-worker and 
consumer; even then it 190 would be wrong, from the social point of 
view. Anything 200 that hindered or set back the development of 
efficiency in 210 the workers would be bad. 

So with the questions of 220 wages, hours, and the other conditions 
of work, and the 230 methods of improving them. Labor wants higher 
wages, as we 240 have seen, primarily, for the same reason that most 
men want 250 more of anything simply to have more, and more, 
and 260 more. Capital opposes this. Capital wants more and more, 
and, 270 so, fearing that, if Labor got more wages, Capital would 280 
get less profits, the employer and employee clash and are 290 forever 
fighting somewhere. A strike is an inconvenience and a 300 disturb- 
ance of the peace. But that isn't the reason we 310 outsiders should 


take the part we do take in the 320 conflict between Capital and Labor. 

The importance of Labor's effort 330 to get higher wages becomes 
obvious. You see that the 340 wage-workers are a very large part of 
society, and 350 that the future of the race depends in a startling 360 
measure upon the men, women, and children that work in 370 the 
mills, mines, and shops. Business is important, too. It 380 is not, as 
business men so commonly think of it, 390 an end in itself. It is a 
means to an 400 end. That end is not profits alone. Business is 410 the 
machinery which produces, prepares for use and distributes the 420 
things society needs to live. And that's why business should 430 be 
kept going industriously, efficiently, at peace. And that's one 440 
reason why strikes and fighting, skimping and inefficiency are bad, 450 
from the social point of view. Because they injure society, 460 which, 
I repeat, is all men and all women and 470 all children. 

And that's why low wages are bad, and 480 long hours, and imperfect 
sanitation, and child labor and all 490 the other evils of industrial 
labor. Not because these evils 500 hurt Labor; not because children 
are so exhausted by early 610 work that they grow up to be drunkards 
and cripples. 520 That's the sentimental view of Labor which corre- 
sponds to the 530 personal view of business. It counts; it counts with 
me; 540 and it should count, of course, with everybody; an unsympa- 
thetic 550 race would not be a great race. It would be 560 deficient in art, 
literature, and music. But the sentimental view 570 is not the view to 
be taken in these articles. 580 I think it is pitiful to see men and 
women 590 work too long for too little. The point of view 600 I take 
as a reporter is simply that such evils 610 are bad because Labor is so 
large a part of 620 society that the sufferings of the workers cannot help 
but 630 injure the race, and their well-being will make for 640 the well- 
being of society. 

Apply this now, to our 650 typical strike, that of the laundry workers 
in New York. 660 Men and women, boys and girls, were underpaid 
and overworked 670 three days of the week, in some steam laundries 
which 680 are unsanitary and at some machines which, it is said, 690 
injure the worker for life. The grown-ups were pale, 700 thin, rather 
weak, and more or less ailing. They were 710 not good stock. And 
there are some 40,000 of them. 720 In the next generation their 
descendants may be 80,000 or 730 100,000. Some of their children 
may be listless, weak good- 740 for-nothings of the kind we say "don't 
deserve any 750 more than they get," which may be charity or even 760 
the jail. The condition of the laundry workers, then, should 770 be 
bettered, for the good of society. But society pays 780 no heed. 


The employers, unorganized and in close 790 competition, couldn't 
raise wages. And, of course, 800 the employees, also in competition 
and not only 810 with one another, but with the people out of 820 work 
in New York, who pressed for jobs the 830 laundry workers were help- 
less until they organized. 

Now 840 the business men who own the laundries objected to the 
unions j 850 unions are organized to use force to compel higher 860 wages, 
and, once organized, the union will 870 abuse its power. All know that. 
And the 880 abuse by Labor of its organized power is an evil. 890 But I 
think we can learn to distinguish between the good and the evil uses 
of unions. However, unless society 900 is ready and able to protect 
the race interest 910 in that part of society which washes and irons 
our 920 clothes, we must see that the organization of the 930 laundry 
worker's union is right, from the social point 940 of view. 

Bad from the business man's point of 950 view, because it will inter- 
fere with his liberty and 960 hurt his business by stopping it to enforce 
demands, 970 the laundry union may seem bad to the laundry work- 
ers 980 also, from their point of view, and for 990 the same reason. 
Most of the laundry workers didn't 1000 belong to the union and don't 
now; and 1010 they opposed the strike; and they would prefer now 1020 
to go back to work. The union leaders have 1030 to send strikers out 
as pickets to persuade the would- 1040 be scabs to sacrifice their imme- 
diate, individual interest to the 1050 welfare of the laundry workers 
as a whole. This 1060 is bad, too; there really should be some 1070 
other way to make the conditions of that part of 1080 the community 
right. But, taking human nature and 1090 the facts as they are, we 
can see that 1100 unless the laundry workers are organized in numbers 
great enough 1110 to control the labor of the laundries as the pro- 
prietors 1120 control the machinery and the trade, the employers 
and 1130 the employees cannot come together and better the conditions 
of 1140 the trade. Therefore the union, the strike, 1150 and the picketing 
of the laundry workers are unnecessary from 1160 the social point of 
view. [1165. 


What is wrong with the college? As I ask myself 10 that question, 
I find my mind traveling back to a 20 certain organization of which I 
was once a member. It 30 was a small group of relatively insignificant 


persons; and yet, 40 as I have listened in the last few years to 50 reiter- 
ated indictments of our present collegiate education, I have found* 
the conviction growing within me that that little organization, in 70 
its trivial way and on its restricted scale, had caught 80 the secret 
which the American college has missed. 

The wind 90 bloweth where it listeth, the body of which I speak 100 
was nothing but a high-school debating-society. It was 110 nothing but 
a debating-society, but it had got hold 120 of a miraculous power, to 
define or even to describe 130 which I shall not try. I can only put 
down 140 a few of its results. It had the knack, somehow 150 or other, of 
taking raw and callow high-school freshmen 160 and sophomores and 
instilling into them, sometimes with a suddenness 170 that was start- 
ling, a literally furious interest in all sorts 180 of questions, political, 
social, and ethical, and an equally furious 190 desire to discuss them 
endlessly. My memory may play me 200 some tricks of exaggeration 
as I look back, but as 210 1 remember it, we boys came to reckon time 
in 220 those days from one Friday night to the next. In 230 their turmoil 
and fervor, the meetings themselves stand out in 240 my mind as a sort 
of vivid contrast, especially in 250 the matter of demands for the floor, 
with certain prayer- 260 meetings I have attended. Social functions, 
even dances, could not 270 compete with them. If there was an 
athletic event on 280 a Friday afternoon, the club did not adjourn 
in the 290 evening to help celebrate the victory. The debate was 
held 300 as usual, merely with added zest and an access of 310 virtue. 
No January blizzard was severe enough seriously to impair 320 the 
attendance. The meetings began on the dot, and ended 330 when it 
was no longer possible to force or bribe 340 the janitor to keep the build- 
ing open. Most of my 350 other high-school experiences, much even of 
my college life, 360 fade into fog and have compared with the vivid 
memories 370 of that society. I have no doubt that, in any 380 absolute 
sense, its meetings were as absurd, its debates as 390 wild and whirling, 
as any that were ever held. The 400 product, then and there, was 
useless; but the spirit back 410 of it all! That was authentic. That 
was, and is, 420 a living thing. I use the word "spirit," but no 430 one 
word will do. It was a something in the 440 air, an atmosphere, a 
tradition, a grip, a pressure, and 450 urgency, an uplift, a quickening 
of the will, an intellectual 460 enthusiasm. What one calls it, is of no 
account. The 470 point is, it is what the American college of to-day 480 
is most in need of. And the question is, how 490 is it to get it? 

Now, the first fact to 500 be grasped with regard to this spirit, is 
that, like 610 everything else that is alive, it can inhabit only a 520 body 


where there is unity. It is no idle chance 530 that the phrase "college 
spirit" has come in our day 540 to have oftentimes an almost exclu- 
sively athletic connotation. The reason 550 is that on the athletic- 
field we have team-work 560 among the players and unity of interest 
on the part 570 of all. The conditions for the emergence of an intel- 
lectual 580 college spirit are the same. Whatever makes for the intel- 
lectual 590 integrity of a college, renders more likely the appearance 
of 600 this spirit. Whatever impairs that integrity, acts as a potent 610 
spell to keep it at a distance. 

A normal boy 620 or girl of college age, introduced into an atmos- 
phere of 630 high intellectual pressure, can no more resist it than a 640 
bit of coal can avoid incandescence in the furnace. He 650 can no more 
resist it than a person can resist 660 the hush that falls over an audience 
in the presence 670 of the eloquence, or the spirit of panic, once under 680 
way, in the burning theater. A tone and tradition of 690 mental 
enthusiasm once firmly established in a college, thereafter the 700 
predominant set of the current will be from the whole 710 to the parts. 
But in the meantime the problem is 720 more complex, and calls for 
more drastic action. 

Spirit should 730 come before discipline. This simple principle we 
sometimes seem to 740 lose sight of in our education, consistently 
putting the cart 750 before the horse. In the days of the Renaissance, 
when 760 people had caught a vision of a new world, they 770 studied 
their Greek with avidity because they believed it was 780 a path into that 
world. We reverse the process. We 790 set our students to grinding 
Greek verbs in order that 800 in an indefinite future they may come 
in contact with 810 the Hellenic spirit, when what they wanted was a 
touch 820 of the Hellenic spirit to transform the Greek grammar into 830 
a book of magic. We set them to cutting up 840 earthworms when what 
they wanted first was to have their 850 thoughts turned toward the 
mystery of physical life. We put 860 them to studying Italian trusting 
that in due time a knowledge 870 of that language may prove an incen- 
tive to read Dante, 880 never perceiving that a craving for Dante might 
be made 890 the strongest incentive for studying Italian. We red-ink 
and blue- 900 ink their compositions, believing, with a touching faith 
that there is 910 some intrinsic beauty in correct spelling and perfect 
punctuation that 920 will appeal to the undergraduate mind; and all 
the while 930 what they needed was a sense, however dim, of the 940 
wonder of literary creation. 

Here is at least a partial 950 program for the regeneration of the 
American college: 


(1) Eject from 960 the student body the intellectually inert. 

(2) Eliminate from the faculty 970 the narrow specialist, who at 
his best belongs to the 980 university, at his worst is a pedant. 

(3) Encourage, among teachers 990 and students, in the classroom, 
and still more out 1000 of it, every influence that tends to unify, to 
socialize, to 1010 humanize knowledge. And let it be remembered for 
I have 1020 not forgotten that little debating-club that one impor- 
tant means 1030 to this end, is simply the creation of a current 1040 
of vital ideas. Let every one talk, then, talk ardently 1050 and end- 
lessly, each about the subject of his special interest, 1060 but all about 
that larger something in which these special 1070 interests inhere, and 
for which, indefinite as the term is, 1080 we have no better name than 
life. [1087. 


The message for which President Wilson broke the custom of 10 112 
years and read in person in Congress is one 20 of the shortest dealing 
with a great Government policy that 30 has ever been delivered in 
Congress. Grover Cleveland's tariff message 40 in 1887 is nearer it in 
length than any similar 50 document in recent times. The Wilson 
message follows: 

"I am 60 very glad to have this opportunity to address the two 70 
houses directly and to verify for myself the impression that 80 the 
President of the United States is a person, not 90 a mere department 
of the Government hailing Congress from some 100 isolated island of 
jealous power, sending messages, not speaking naturally 110 and with 
his own voice, that he is a human 120 being trying to cooperate with 
other human beings in a 130 common service. After this pleasant 
experience I shall feel quite 140 normal in all our dealings with one 

"I have 150 called the Congress together in extraordinary session 
because a duty 160 was laid upon the party now in power at the 170 
recent elections which it ought to perform promptly in order 180 that 
the burden carried by the people under existing law 190 may be light- 
ened as soon as possible and in order, 200 also, that the business 
interests of the country may not 210 be kept too long in suspense as to 
what the 220 fiscal changes are to be to which they will be 230 required 
to adjust themselves. It is clear to the whole 240 country that the 
tariff duties must be altered. 


"They must 250 be changed to meet the radical alteration in the 
conditions 260 of our economic life which the country has witnessed 
within 270 the last generation. While the whole face and method of 280 
our industrial and commercial life were being changed beyond 
recognition 290 the tariff schedules have remained what they were 
before the 300 change began, or have moved in the direction they 
were 310 given when no large circumstance of our industrial develop- 
ment was 320 what it is to-day. 

"Our task is to square them 330 with the actual facts. The sooner 
that is done the 340 sooner we shall escape from suffering from the facts 
and 350 the sooner our men ot business will be free to 360 thrive by the 
law of nature (the nature of free 370 business) instead of by the law of 
legislation and artificial 380 arrangement. 

"We have seen tariff legislation wander very far afield 390 in our 
day very far indeed from the field in which 400 our prosperity might 
have had a normal growth and stimulation. 410 No one who looks the 
facts squarely in the face 420 or knows anything that lies beneath the 
surface of action 430 can fail to perceive the principles upon which 
recent tariff 440 legislation has been based. 

"We long ago passed beyond the 450 modest notion of 'protecting' 
the industries of the country and 460 moved boldly forward to the 
idea that they were entitled 470 to the direct patronage of the Govern- 

"For a long 480 time a time so long that the men now active 490 in 
public policy hardly remember the conditions that preceded it 500 
we have sought in our tariff schedules to give each group 510 of manu- 
facturers or producers what they themselves thought that they 520 
needed in order to maintain a practically exclusive market as 530 
against the rest of the world. 

Consciously or unconsciously, we 640 have built up a set of privileges 
and exemptions from 550 competition behind which it was easy by any, 
even the 560 crudest, forms of combination, to organize monopoly until 
at last 570 nothing is normal, nothing is obliged to stand the tests 580 
of efficiency and economy, in our world of big business, 590 but every- 
thing thrives by concerted arrangement. Only new principles of 800 
action will save us from a final hard crystallization of 610 monopoly and 
a complete loss of the influences that 620 quicken enterprise and keep 
independent energy alive. 

"It is plain 630 what those principles must be. We must abolish 
everything that 640 bears even the semblance of privilege or of any 
kind 650 of artificial advantage, and put our business men and pro- 


ducers 660 under the stimulation of a constant necessity to be effi- 
cient, 670 economical and enterprising masters of competitive suprem- 
acy, better workers and 680 merchants than any in the world. Aside 
from the duties 690 laid upon articles which we do not, and probably 
can 700 not, produce, therefore, and the duties laid upon luxuries and 710 
merely for the sake of the revenues they yield, the 720 object of the 
tariff duties henceforth laid must be effective 730 competition, the 
whetting of American wits by contest with the 740 wits of the rest of 
the world. 

"It would be 750 unwise to move toward this end headlong, with 
reckless haste 760 or with strokes that cut at the very roots of 770 what 
has grown up amongst us by long process and 780 at our own invita- 
tion. It does not alter a thing 790 to upset it and break it and deprive 
it of 800 a chance to change. It destroys it. We must make 810 changes 
in our fiscal laws, in our fiscal system, whose 820 object is development, 
a more free and wholesome development, 830 not revolution or upset 
or confusion. We must build up 840 trade, especially foreign trade. 

"We need the outlet and the 850 enlarged field of energy more than 
we ever did before. 860 We must build up industry as well, and must 
adopt 870 freedom in the place of artificial stimulation only so far 880 
as it will build, not pull down. 

"In dealing with 890 the tariff the method by which this may be 900 
done will be a matter of judgment, exercised item by 910 item. To 
some not accustomed to the excitements and responsibilities 920 of 
greater freedom our methods may in some respects and 930 at some 
points seem heroic, but remedies may be heroic 940 and yet be reme- 
dies. It is our business to make 950 sure that they are genuine remedies. 
Our object is clear. 960 If our motive is above just challenge and only 
an 970 occasional error of judgment is chargeable against us, we shall 980 
be fortunate. 

"We are called upon to render the country 990 a great service in 
more matters than one. Our responsibilities 1000 should be met and 
our methods should be thorough, as 1010 thorough as moderate and well 
considered, based upon the facts 1020 as they are, and not worked out 
as if we 1030 were beginners. 

"We are to deal with the facts of 1040 our own day, with the facts of 
no other, and 1050 to make laws which square with those facts. 

"It is 1060 best, indeed it is necessary, to begin with the tariff. 1070 

"I will urge nothing upon you now at the opening 1080 of your ses- 
sion which can obscure that first object or 1090 divert our energies from 
that clearly defined duty. At a 1100 later time I may take the liberty 


of calling your 1110 attention to reforms which should press close upon 
the heels 1120 of the tariff changes, if not accompany them, of which 1130 
the chief is the reform of our banking and currency 1140 laws; but just 
now I refrain. 

"For the present I 1160 put these matters on one side and think only 
of 1160 this one thing of the changes in our fiscal system 1170 which may 
best serve to open once more the free 1180 channels of prosperity to a 
great people whom we would 1190 serve to the utmost and throughout 
both rank and file." [1200. 


Irving was a child of fortune. His father was in 10 comfortable cir- 
cumstances, and the young man was able to indulge 20 in three pleas- 
ures which cherished his talents: innocent idling among 30 the people 
of New York, especially in the older parts 40 of the town and along the 
water front ; writing and 50 publishing for the sport of it ; and traveling 
in Europe. 60 The delicate state of his health made it necessary, or 70 
advisable, that he should make sea voyages. Since his invalidity 80 
did not assume painful forms nor fetter his work either 90 as man of 
letters or man of affairs, it may 100 be regarded as fortunate, for it won 
him dispensations which 110 his father would not perhaps have 
accorded to a robust 120 young man. Irving's genius was not so 
powerful that it 130 would have hewn works of art out of strife and 140 
poverty. His gentle fancy was nourished by well-being, by 150 leisure 
to indulge his amiable indolence, to sit on the 160 bank and watch life 
stream by, to catch a glimpse 170 of a comic old fact in the crowd or 
the 180 fluttering ribbon on a girl's bonnet. Yet he was not 190 an irre- 
sponsible idler who filled his knapsack from other peoples' 200 larders 
and paid his debt to the heirs of the 210 almoners in priceless books. 
He was a good business man 220 and self-reliant. At the age of twenty- 
six he 230 proved his literary gifts and won flattering applause by his 240 
"Knickerbocker's History of New York;" but he rejected the allur- 
ing 250 career of letters, went into partnership with his brother and 260 
for ten years devoted himself to trade. It was only 270 when the busi- 
ness failed that he published his second volume, 280 "The Sketch 
Book," which was so popular as to warrant, 290 not only from an 
artistic, but from a practical point 300 of view, his committing himself 
to the literary career. 


He 310 had justified his leisure and he continued to earn a 320 right to 
it. When he loafed he invited his soul 330 and not the censure of his 
family. His was a 340 happy and normal life. He wandered through 
the woods communing 350 with pixies and the ghosts of mythical 
Dutchmen; his fancy 360 kept company with tap-room idlers; but he 
was a 370 handsome, fashionable young bachelor, and he lived amid 
the conventional 380 "best society." If the death of his sweetheart 
threw 390 a cloud of melancholy over his life, the shadow of 400 the cloud 
is not upon his work. There is no 410 trace in his writings of the trag- 
edy of actual life. 420 

His portrait is a most satisfying presentment of the kind 430 of man 
who ought to have written his books. It 440 shows a broad brow with 
the hair curled youthfully about 450 the temples; a straight, sensible 
nose; a wide humorous mouth 460 twitching at the corners even in the 
repose of an 470 engraving; eyes clear, observant, not piercing; the 
whole face placid 480 and prosperous; the head held with dignity above 
a 490 full chest. 

The picture of our first man of letters 500 is also a portrait of a 
gentleman, scholar, and diplomat. 510 Irving was minister to Spain and 
discharged his public duties 520 in a creditable manner. He received 
whatever honor academic and 530 political officialdom can bestow 
upon a literary man, and the 540 pride and affection of his countrymen 
followed him for forty 550 years. He was welcomed in Europe, in 
Thackeray's happy phrase, 560 as the "first ambassador whom the New 
World of Letters 570 sent to the Old." 

It may be that the apparent 580 contrast between Irving's interest 
and what we now imagine to 590 have been the most intense interests of 
his contemporaries 600 is due to his temperament and to that side of 610 
it which enabled him to seek the society of 620 the immortals. Perhaps 
a man more soaked with reality could 630 not have come forth from 
the life about him and 640 risen above the threshold of expression. 
There was in his 650 time but a small recognized leisure class, a thin, 
cultivated 660 stratum of people upheld by church, university, family 
tradition 670 and well-founded prosperity. The best brains of the 
people 680 were busy with the problem of getting a livelihood. A 690 
man had to be doing something obviously worth while or 700 lose self- 
respect and the respect of his neighbors. A 710 long-established culture 
that lives at the expense of the 720 multitude (such is the dependence 
of culture in all capitalist 730 societies) may be unjustified from the 
point of view of 740 social equity; but at least such a culture has 
leisure 750 and training to express itself in art. In a young 760 country, 


for the settlement of which the only motive is 770 to find a living for 
one's self by labor or 780 exploitation (and that is the motive for the 
colonizing of 790 America despite the stories of the quest for religious 
liberty 800 and other superstitions of history), every able man works; 
the 810 drone is either the unfit, incapable of producing literature or 820 
anything else, or the exploiter on the alert for commercial 830 advan- 
tage. The worthy individual who wins exemption from the work- 
aday 840 struggle wins it after a youth of toil or business 850 responsi 
bility, and he is then not habituated to aesthetic interests 860 and the 
pursuits of art. 

Irving is not, of course, 870 akin to the spirit of revolt that now seems 
the 880 most significant fact of the age of Wordsworth; he is 890 a con- 
ventional man, with no very profound convictions, no intense 900 
theory of life. His philosophy is that of the amiable, 910 gifted man of 
the world of all times and 920 places: "I have always had an opinion 
that much good 930 might be done by keeping mankind in good humor 
with 940 one another." Such a philosophy does not proceed from a 950 
nature that is torn by everlasting problems, but it is 960 not referable 
to any special period of literary thought; it 970 is as near to Scott as 
to Addison, it is 980 as remote from Swift as from Shelley. 

Is it too 990 much to say that Irving's style, resonant and full of 1000 
color, set a standard for American historians, to which is 1010 owing in 
some measure the rich readability of Prescott and 1020 Parkman? And 
is it presumptuous to suggest that there has 1030 departed a glory from 
historical writing which in these alert 1040 and many-talented days 
might advantageously be recovered by those 1050 historiographers who 
"discourse of affairs orderly as they were done"? 1060 Of the arid and 
cautiously accurate there is no lack, 1070 and there is plenty, too, of the 
over-rhetorical which 1080 results from the efforts of mediocrity to 
sound the stately 1090 charm of his style. [1094. 


Our times are heroic. There never was as much real 10 religion in 
the world as to-day. This war proves it. 20 It is no exaggeration to 
say that in all professedly 30 Christian lands multitudes of good people 
are profoundly discouraged by 40 the vast eruption of war. 


I hold that, while such 60 a temper is natural, it is mistaken. It is 
not 60 the foundations of the Christian religion that have been 
shaken, 70 but those old forms of belief those half -heathen concep- 
tions 80 of God, good in their time, but now quite past 90 all usefulness, 
that are tottering to a final collapse. 100 What Lincoln said in his 
message of December 1, 1862, 110 is even truer to-day than it was then. 

The dogmas 120 of the quiet past are inadequate to the stormy 
present. 130 The occasion is piled high with difficulty, and we must 140 
rise to the occasion. As our case is new, so 150 we must think anew and 
act anew we must disenthrall 160 ourselves, and then we shall save 
our country. 

The world 170 that emerges from this awful caldron of fire and 
blood 180 will be a different world, a far more truly Christian 190 world, 
than the old. 

The greatest man that ever lived 200 not a demi-god or half man, 
but a real 210 man, one of ourselves said: "Salt is good, but if 220 the 
salt has lost its savor wherewith shall it be 230 salted? It is thence- 
forth good for nothing but to be 240 cast out, and to be trodden under 
foot of men. 260 Ye are the salt of the earth." (Matt, v., 13. ) 260 

Jesus was ages ahead of His time. He is ahead 270 of all time. 
He, knowing as none 280 ever knew "what was in man," saw that, 
outlasting all 290 national and tribal bonds, there was a deeper union, 
"that 300 God had made of one blood all nations of men," 310 and that 
with the slow growth of knowledge this final 320 bond would be recog- 
nized and joyfully owned; that, till men 330 accepted it and built their 
civilization on it, all their 340 efforts were as those of builders who 
founded their masonry 350 on the sand; no work so founded could 
stand the 360 tests of time. So He taught. So it has come 370 to 

Orthodox Christianity has ignored, refined away, or denied 380 
His teaching. Orthodox Christianity, whether Greek or Roman or 
Teutonic 390 or Anglican, while claiming to deliver His message to 
men 400 has altered His emphasis, has retained His words, and 
denied 410 His spirit; has, I say, so completely altered His emphasis 420 
that, like the salt that has lost its savor, 430 it has been already cast 
forth by multitudes of thinking 440 men on the refuse of civilization. 
It has proved itself 450 anew only fit to be trodden under foot of men 460 
and into bloody mire they are treading it now. 

Behind 470 the awful turmoil of struggling, strangling millions the 
Kaisers and 480 the Czars, the Chancellors and Generals are calling on 
God 490 to aid them strangle and kill. What sort of a god 500 are they 


calling on? The merely national god, the tribal 510 god, the god that 
favors one man as against another, 520 the god that loves his Jacobs 
and hates his Esaus, 530 a god as unlike the God and Father of all 540 as 
Juggernaut is unlike Jesus. 

Men are beginning to tire 550 of such a god to-day. After this war 
they will 560 loathe him. 

Meanwhile men are confronting their fellow-men in 570 battle as 
they never confronted them before, and after battle's 580 dreadful 
lessons have been learned, will know each other as 590 never before. 
This must be so, for nations are meeting 600 nations. 

This is no war of hired soldiery. Not a 610 war of a few skilled 
at war's trade, trained and 620 paid to risk life and home. Now the 
flower and 630 hope of the manhood of the nations has gone forth 640 to 
fight if need be to die. Our old world 650 has seen many strange sights, 
but never before a sight 660 like this. 

When we were boys we were taught about 670 the heroes of old time. 
They were picked out for 680 us, and we read and reread their story. 
Then the 690 leaders of men were great and brave and did not 700 fear to 
die. To-day tens of thousands of heroes, humble 710 men and unknown, 
are dying to hold prosaic trenches, as 720 valiantly as Leonidas and his 
Spartans died to hold Thermopylae's 730 immortal pass. 

Dying far from home and friends, and giving, 740 as they die, what 
Jesus said was the supreme proof 750 of man's religious nature, giving 
their lives for their friends. 760 

I say the world has never seen anything like this 770 before, and the 
lesson of it all is so unmistakably 780 plain that "he that runneth can 

In the nations 790 of men, in all the nations, unorganized Serbs or 
highly 800 organized Germans, there are unimagined, undreamed-of 
springs of unselfishness 810 and of valor but waiting the call of a 
great 820 emotion. The supreme call of self-sacrifice. Reverently be 
it 830 spoken, the very same call that led Jesus to the cross. 840 

We have had it dinned into our ears by essayists, 850 learned profes- 
sors, and the clergy that our age was given 860 over to materialism, and 
that the modern man's god, whether 870 he carried a dinner pail or 
hired a French cook, 880 was his belly. 

We know better now. It is before 890 all preceding ages an idealistic 

Jesus said, "Man cannot 900 live by bread alone," and because this 
is mysteriously, eternally 910 true, and only because it is true, the 
nations are steadily 920 trooping forth to-day, old men and boys, nobles 


and 930 common born, rich men forsaking their riches, and poor men 940 
braving deeper poverty. And what for? 

Just to give the 950 best they have to the best they know. 

If that 960 is not religion, then Jesus was deluded, and the wise 970 
of all races and of all religions were deluded, too. 980 Self-sacrifice 
may be and sometimes has been misdirected; if 990 so, it will fail 
of its immediate purpose, but it 1000 is the root and source of all 
lasting religion, and 1010 so long as it can control the life of men, 1020 
even in times of crisis, that life cannot fail to 1030 be in its essence relig- 
ious. To-day self-sacrifice is the religion 1040 of the embattled world. 

Civilization has not forgotten the martyrs 1050 of early Christian 
times. They died to emancipate their fellows, 1060 and the men to-day 
dying, locked in each .other's destroying 1070 arms, are not less truly 
martyrs than they, for they, 1080 too, are dying that the old and false 
may pass 1090 forever away, and that new and better days may 
come 1100 to men. [1102. 


A typical case was the decision rendered but a few 10 months ago 
by the Court of Appeals of my own 20 State, the State of New York, 
declaring unconstitutional the workmen's 30 compensation act. In 
their decision the judges admitted the wrong 40 and the suffering 
caused by the practices against which the 60 law was aimed. They 
admitted that other civilized nations had 60 abolished these wrongs 
and practices. But they took the ground 70 that the Constitution of 
the United States, instead of being 80 an instrument to secure jus- 
tice, had been ingeniously devised to 90 prevent justice. They 
insisted that the clause in the Constitution 100 which forbade the 
taking of property without due process of 110 law forbade the effort 
which had been made in the 120 law to distribute among all the partners 
in an enterprise 130 the effects of the injuries to life or limb of 140 a 
wage-earner. In other words, they insisted that the 160 Constitution 
had permanently cursed our people with impotence to right 160 wrong, 
and had perpetuated a cruel iniquity; for cruel iniquity 170 is not too 
harsh a term to use in describing 180 the law which, in the event of 
such an accident, 190 binds the whole burden of crippling disaster on 


the shoulders 200 least able to bear it the shoulders of the crippled 210 
man himself, or of the dead man's helpless wife and 220 children. 
No anarchist orator, raving against the Constitution, ever framed 230 
an indictment of it so severe as these worthy and 240 well-meaning 
judges must be held to have framed if 250 their reasoning be accepted 
as true. But, as a matter 260 of fact, their reasoning was unsound, 
and was as repugnant 270 to every sound defender of the Constitution 
as to every 280 believer in justice and righteousness. 

I call this decision to 290 the attention of those who shake their 
heads at the 300 proposal to trust the people to decide for themselves 
what 310 their own governmental policy shall be in these matters. I 320 
know of no popular vote by any State of the 330 Union more flagrant 
in its defiance of right and justice, 340 more short-sighted in its 
inability to face the changed 350 needs of our civilization, than 
this decision by the highest 360 court of the State of New York. 
Many of the 370 judges of that court I know personally, and for them 380 
I have profound regard. Even for as flagrant a decision 390 as this I 
would not vote for their recall; for 400 I have no doubt the decision 
was rendered in accordance 410 with their ideas of duty. But most 
emphatically I do 420 wish that the people should have the right to 
recall 430 the decision itself, and authoritatively to stamp with disap- 
proval what 440 cannot but seem to the ordinary plain citizen a mon- 
strous 450 misconstruction of the Constitution, a monstrous perversion 
of the Constitution 460 into an instrument for the perpetuation of 
social and industrial 470 wrong and for the oppression of the weak and 
helpless. 480 

I wish I could make you visualize to yourselves what 490 these 
decisions against which I so vehemently protest really represent 500 
of suffering and injustice. I wish I had the power 510 to bring before 
you the man maimed or dead, the 520 woman and children left to strug- 
gle against bitter poverty because 530 the breadwinner has gone. I am 
not thinking of the 540 terminology of the decision, nor of what seem 
to me 550 the hair-splitting and meticulous arguments elaborately 
worked out to 560 justify a great and a terrible miscarriage of justice. 
Moreover, 570 I am not thinking only of the sufferers in any 580 given 
case, but of the tens of thousands of others 590 who suffer because of the 
way this case is decided. 600 In the New York case the railway em- 
ployee who was 610 injured was a man named, I believe, Ives. The 
court 620 admits that by every moral consideration he was entitled to 630 
recover as his due the money that the law intended 640 to give him. 
Yet the court by its decision forces 650 that man to stagger through life 


maimed, and keeps the 660 money that should be his in the treasury of 
the 670 company in whose service, as an incident of his regular 680 em- 
ployment and in the endurance of ordinary risks, he lost 690 the ability 
to earn his own livelihood. There are thousands 700 of Iveses in this 
country; thousands of cases such as 710 this come up every year; and 
while this is true, 720 while the courts deny essential and elementary 
justice to these 730 men and give to them and the people in exchange 740 
for justice, a technical and empty formula, it is idle 750 to ask me not to 
criticise them. As long as 760 injustice is kept thus intrenched 
by any court, I will 770 protest as strongly as in me lies, against such 
action. 780 

Remember, when I am asking the people themselves in the 790 last 
resort to interpret the law which they themselves have 800 made, that 
after all I am only asking that they 810 step in and authoritatively 
reconcile the conflicting decisions of the 820 courts. In all these 
cases the judges and courts have 830 decided every which way, and it 
is foolish to talk 840 of the sanctity of a judge-made law which half 850 
of the judges strongly denounce. If there must be decision 860 by a 
close majority, then let the people step in 870 and let it be their 
majority that decides. According to 880 one of the highest judges then 
and now on the 890 Supreme Court of the nation, we had lived for a 900 
hundred years under a constitution which permitted a national in- 
come 910 tax, until suddenly, by one vote, the Supreme Court reversed 920 
its previous decisions for a century, and said that for 930 a century we 
had been living under a wrong interpretation 940 of the Constitution 
(that is, under a wrong constitution), and 950 therefore, in effect 
established a new constitution which we are 960 now laboriously 
trying to amend so as to get it 970 back to the constitution that for 
a hundred years everybody, 980 including the Supreme Court, thought 
it to be. 

When I 990 was President, we passed a national workmen's com- 
pensation act. Under 1000 it a railway man named Howard, I think, 
was killed 1010 in Tennessee, and his widow sued for damages. Con- 
gress had 1020 done all it could to provide the right, but the 1030 court 
stepped in and decreed that Congress had failed. Three 1040 of the 
judges took the extreme position that there was 1050 no way in which 
Congress could act to secure the 1060 helpless widow and children 
against suffering, and that the man's 1070 blood and the blood of all 
similar men when spilled 1080 should forever cry aloud in vain for 
justice. This seems 1090 a strong statement, but it is far less strong 
than 1100 the actual facts; and I have difficulty in making the 1110 state- 


ment with any degree of moderation. The nine justices of 1120 the 
Supreme Court on this question split into five fragments. 1130 .One 
man, Justice Moody, in his opinion stated the case 1140 in its broadest 
way and demanded justice for Howard on 1150 grounds that would have 
meant that in all similar cases 1160 thereafter justice and not injustice 
should be done. Yet the 1170 court, by a majority of one, decided as 
I do 1180 not for one moment believe the court would now decide, 1190 
and not only perpetuated a lamentable injustice in the case 1200 of the 
man himself but set a standard of injustice 1210 for all similar cases. 
Here again I ask you not 1220 to think of the mere legal formalism, but 
to think 1230 of the great immutable principles of justice, the great 
immutable 1240 principles of right and wrong, and to ponder what it 1250 
means to men dependent for their livelihood, and to the 1260 women 
and children dependent upon these men, when the courts 1270 of the 
land deny them the justice to which they 1280 are entitled. [1282. 

BY E. C. SIMMONS (Simmons Hardware Co.) 

Public attention is now sharply directed toward federal control 
of 10 large corporations, and unquestionably one of the great problems 
confronting 20 the present administration is that of "big business" and 
the 30 control of it. This is not only the problem of 40 the day socially, 
politically and commercially. 

Big business is so 50 mixed up in all sorts of social and political 
obligations 60 that it is an important part and parcel of the 70 life of the 
nation. What we thought was and what 80 appeared to be a new eco- 
nomic development shows that we 90 got a wrong start on it some ten 
or more 100 years ago, and at that time were so overcome with 110 the 
idea it was so fascinating and promised so many 120 benefits from 
consolidations and combinations that we rather lost sight 130 of the 
fundamental vital principle that human nature no matter 140 how 
intelligent or thoroughly educated it may be cannot be 150 trusted 
with power unchecked by responsibility. 

This was the elemental 160 principle of Thomas Jefferson in the foun- 
dation of our Republic, 170 and is therefore not new, but on the con- 
trary, as 180 old as the nation itself. I hold that criticism is 190 good for 


every man, but to have power without any 200 limit is not only bad for 
the man but for 210 every one with whom he comes in contact or has 220 
any business relations. At first it was thought that business 230 brains 
and acumen would be sufficient to avoid monopolistic tendencies; 240 
that foresight would prevent oppression of the weak by the 250 strong; 
that in a country so great as ours no 260 one concern or one combination 
could acquire undue influence and 270 undue power; but we underesti- 
mated the extent to which the 280 human element would be the con- 
trolling factor, and therefore we 290 must in a sense make an 
entirely new start in 300 the treatment of this great problem. 

The two problems, railways 310 and public utilities, appear to be in a 
fair way 320 of solution. Not so, however, with big business. The 
solution 330 of that problem is still an exceedingly vague and indefi- 
nite 340 proposition. 

Of big business there are two kinds. The difference 350 between 
them is vital and essential. One kind has grown 360 naturally, has 
fought its way up by honorable methods, has 370 developed by reason 
of square dealing with its customers, by 380 reason of economies, by 
reason of hard work, by reason 390 of intelligence and deep, clear think- 
ing and planning, enterprise and 400 foresight. That kind of business 
is not much to be 410 feared. 

The other kind of big business I should class 420 as the wrong kind 
and the one that needs regulation. 430 This is the result of an un- 
natural throwing together of 440 a lot of heterogeneous elements, of 
antiquated plants capitalized at 450 high figures, the principal ingre- 
dient of which is water; of 460 unnatural associations, both of men and 
methods, of manufacturing sites, 470 and of an evident disposition on 
the part of the 480 promoters or managers to gain their ends by monopoly 
and 490 competition of a brutal kind rather than upon merit. It 500 is a 
well recognized fact that this kind of big business 510 has done things 
which it would prefer should not be 520 known; it is not willing to have 
them made public; 530 in fact, it cannot afford to do so. It is 540 also 
the kind of big business that has to finally 560 analyze and find itself; 
which means it has to get 560 rid of the water in its stock and to weed 
out 570 all inharmonious elements in its management and in the per- 
sonnel 580 of its employees. It is not the kind of big 590 business that is 
either efficient or that gives good service 600 to the consumer. It 
exists to make money on watered 610 stock, and the whole problem 
appears to be to make 620 money; to do it fairly if it can, but if 630 it 
cannot, to make money anyway. In this respect the 640 two kinds of 
big business differ widely. 


Whatever we do 650 in our attempts at solving the big business 
problem will 660 be done, in the beginning, in a more or less 670 tentative 
manner. We are bound to make mistakes, and perhaps 680 some seri- 
ous ones, because we lack a guide to point 690 out to us the best. All 
sensible men will join 700 in the belief that organization and govern- 
ment should learn from 710 their blunders, and not make the same mis- 
take twice. 

It 720 would be a mistake on my part to make any 730 attempt to 
argue the inconsistency of determining what concerns should 740 be 
subject to federal regulation and which should not. It 750 is my best 
judgment that the thing for us to 760 do is to start out from an arbi- 
trary standpoint, taking 770 the best plan we can devise to start with; 
then 780 we can modify its scope and change its methods as 790 expe- 
rience teaches us what is best. We may find that 800 the control with 
which we start is not sufficiently great 810 and it might be necessary 
to increase it; on the 820 other hand, we might find it so strong or 
great 830 as to be impressive, and then we could reduce the 840 pressure, 
believing, as I do, that most of the corporations 850 of this country, 
little and big, great and small, are 860 conducted honestly and fairly, 
and the more the government looks 870 into them the more satisfied 
it will be that the 880 controlling element will find it necessary to 
direct its energies 890 and activities against only a very small fraction 
of the 900 entire number of corporations doing business in the United 
States. 910 

Federal regulation, in my opinion, is sure to come; at 920 any rate, I 
am sure we are going to give 930 it a trial, and it is only a question of 
when 940 it will come. It would seem likely to come with 950 the present 
administration. A commission established for this purpose must, 960 
right at the outset, have great power in order to 970 accomplish any- 
thing worth while. Divided responsibility is of no value. 980 The 
selection of men for such a commission is perhaps 990 one of the most 
important things that has ever come 1000 before any man or set of men 
in the United 1010 States. The utmost care, the most thorough search- 
ing into their 1020 character, their business ability and their standing in 
the communities 1030 in which they live, their prominence in the eyes 
of 1040 the people and the public, should be gone into most 1050 exhaus- 
tively, because they will be held responsible for what happens, 1060 and 
the people will blame or commend them as the 1070 results are good or 

We must not overlook the 1080 fact that the love of money will 
cause men to 1090 do a great many things that our laws should pre- 


vent 1100 them from doing. This is nothing new it has been 1110 the 
history of man since the days of St. Paul. 1120 It is a most unfortunate 
thing that there sometimes grows 1130 up in a successful man an abso- 
lutely insatiable greed for 1140 the accumulation of money, even when 
it is quite impossible 1150 for him to do anything with all the money 
that 1160 he already has, and when any additional money is of 1170 no 
earthly use to him or anybody else under the 1180 sun. 

My best judgment is that all corporations with an 1190 actual cash 
capital of $10,000,000 or more should be subject 1200 to federal regula- 
tion. I put the limit lower than do 1210 many others, quite a few of 
whom have stated that 1220 $50,000,000 or more than that, should 
come under government control, 1230 but anything less than $50,000,- 
000 actual cash capitalization should not. 1240 I would put it down as 
low as $10,000,000, because 1250 in some lines of business or manufac- 
tures even so comparatively 1260 small a sum as $10,000,000 would be 
enough to absolutely 1270 control the market for the whole United 
States and enable 1280 the producers of a small item to conduct their 
business 1290 so brutally as literally to drive out all competition and 1300 
ruin every competitor. 

Having thus stated my opinion as to 1310 the necessity for federal 
regulation, I now, at the close 1320 of this article, call especial attention 
to the great danger 1330 there is in giving to a commission unlimited 
power power 1340 that would go entirely too far, and instead of 
being 1350 a benefit to business interests, and therefore to the inter- 
ests 1360 of the people at large, would be a distinct and 1370 positive 

I quite agree with Secretary Nagel in the 1380 position he takes that 
no commission regulating large corporations should 1390 be given the 
power to fix prices. Nothing could be 1400 more threatening, more dan- 
gerous, or more injurious to the business 1410 interests of this country. 



There has been a change of government. It began two 10 years ago, 
when the House of Representatives became Democratic by 20 a decis- 
ive majority. It has now been completed. The Senate 30 about to 
assemble will also be Democratic. The offices of 40 president and vice- 
president have been put into the hands 50 of Democrats. What does 


the change mean? That is the 60 question that is uppermost in our 
minds to-day. That is 70 the question I am going to try to answer, 80 
in order, if I may, to interpret the occasion. 

It 90 means much more than the mere success of a party. 100 The 
success of a party means little except when the 110 nation is using that 
party for a large and definite 120 purpose. No one can mistake the 
purpose for which the 130 nation now seeks to use the Democratic 
party. It seeks 140 to use it to interpret a change in its own 150 plans 
and point of view. Some old things with which 160 we had grown 
familiar, and which had begun to creep 170 into the very habit of our 
thought and of our 180 lives, have altered their aspects as we have 
latterly looked 190 critically upon them, with fresh, awakened eyes; 
have dropped their 200 disguises and shown themselves alien and 
sinister. Some new things, 210 as we look frankly upon them, willing to 
comprehend their 220 real character, have come to assume the aspect of 
things^ 30 long believed in and familiar, stuff of our own convictions. 240 
We have been refreshed by a new insight into our 250 own life. 

We see in many things that life is 260 very great. It is incompar- 
ably great in its material aspects, 270 in its body of wealth, in the 
diversity and sweep 280 of its energy, in the industries which have 
been conceived 290 and built up by the genius of individual men and* 00 
the limitless enterprise of groups of men. It is great, 310 also, very 
great, in its moral force. Nowhere else in 320 the world have noble men 
and women exhibited in more 330 striking forms the beauty and the 
energy of sympathy and 340 helpfulness and counsel in their efforts to 
rectify wrong, alleviate 350 suffering, and set the weak in the way 
of strength 360 and hope. We have built up, moreover, a great 
system 370 of government, which has stood through a long age as 380 in 
many respects a model for those who seek to 390 set liberty upon 
foundations that will endure against fortuitous change, 400 against 
storm and accident. Our life contains every great thing, 410 and 
contains it in rich abundance. 

But the evil has 420 come with the good, and much fine gold has 
been 430 corroded. With riches has come inexcusable waste. We have 
squandered 440 a great part of what we might have used, and 450 have 
not stopped to conserve the exceeding bounty of nature, 460 without 
which our genius for enterprise would have been worthless 470 and im- 
potent, scorning to be careful, shamefully prodigal as well 480 as ad- 
mirably efficient. We have been proud of our industrial 490 achieve- 
ments but we have not hitherto stopped thoughtfully enough to 500 
count the human cost, the cost of lives snuffed 510 out, of energies over- 


taxed and broken, the fearful physical and 620 spiritual cost to the men 
and women and rhildren upon 63 " whom the dead weight and Imrden of 
it all has 1 ' 1 " fallen pit ilessly t he years t hrough. The groans and agony 
of 66 " it all had not, yet reached our ears, I he solemn,' 1 ' 10 moving under- 
tone of our life, coming up out of the 570 mines and factories and out 
of every home where the 680 struggle had its intimate and familiar 
seat. With the great 690 government went many deep, secret thing? 
which we too long 000 delayed to look into and scrutinized with candid, 
fearless eyes.' 11 " 'The great government we loved has too often been 
made'" 1 -" use of for private and selfish purposes, and those who 830 used 
it had forgotten the people. 

At last a vision' 11 " has been vouchsafed us of our lift- as a whole. 650 
We see the bad with the good, the debased and fl(io decadent with the 
sound and vital. With this vision we 070 approach new affairs. Our 
duty is to cleanse, to consider, 680 to restore, to correct the evil without 
impairing the good, 890 to purify and humanize every process of our 
common life 700 without weakening or sentimentalizing it. Then- has 
been something crude 1 '" and heartless and unfeeling in our haste to 
succeed and 7 - be great. Our thought has been "Let every man 
look 730 out for himself, let every generation look out for itself," 740 
while we reared giant machinery which made it impossible that 760 any 
but those who stood at the levers of control 700 .should have a chance 
to look out for themselves. We 770 had not forgotten our morals. We 
remembered well enough that 780 we had set up a policy which was 
meant to 790 serve the humblest as well as the most powerful, with 800 
an eye single to the standard of justice and fair 810 play, and remem- 
bered it with pride. But we were very 820 heedless and in a hurry to be 

We have" come now to the sober second thought. The scales 
of 840 heedlessness have fallen from our eyes. We have made up 860 our 
minds to square every process of our national life 860 again with the 
standards we so proudly set up at 870 the beginning and have always 
carried at our hearts. Our 880 work is a work of restoration. 

We have itemized with 890 some degree of particularity the tilings 
that ought to be 900 altered, and here are some of the chief items: 
A 910 tariff which cuts us off from our proper part in '''" t lie commerce of 
the world, violates the just principle of 93 " taxation, and makes the 
government a facile instrument in the 940 hands of private interests; 
a banking and currency system based 960 upon the necessity of the 
government to sell its bonds'" 1 " fifty years ago and perfectly adapted 
to concentrating cash and 970 restricting credits; an industrial system 


which, take it on all 980 its sides, financial as well as administrative, holds 
mpital in 990 leading strings, without renewing or conserving the 
natural resources of 100 the country; a body of agricultural activities 
never yet given 1010 the efficiency of great business undertakings or 
served as it 1020 should be through the instrumentality of science taken 
directly to 1030 the farm, or afforded the facilities of credit best 
suited 1040 to its practical needs; watercourses undeveloped, waste 
places unreclaimed, forests 1050 untended, fast disappearing without 
plan or prospect of renewal, unregarded 1080 waste heaps at every 
mine. We have studied as perhaps 1070 no other nation has the most 
effective means of production, 1080 but we have not studied cost or 
economy as we 1090 should either as organizers of industry, as states- 
men, or as 110 individuals. 

Nor have we studied and perfected the means by 1110 which govern- 
ment may be put at the service of humanity, 1120 in safeguarding the 
health of the nation, the health of 1130 its men and its women and its 
children, as well 1140 as their rights in the struggle for existence. 
This is 1160 no sentimental [duty. The firm basis of government is 
justice, 1160 not pity. These are matters of justice. There can be 1170 
no equality of opportunity, the first essential of justice in 1180 the body 
politic, if men and women and children be 1190 not shielded in their 
lives, their very vitality, from the 1200 consequences of great industrial 
and social processes which they cannot 1210 alter, control, or singly 
cope with. Society must see to 1220 it that it does not itself crush or 
weaken or 1230 damage its own constituent parts. The first duty of 
law 1240 is to keep sound the society it serves. Sanitary laws, 1280 pure 
food laws, and laws determining conditions of labor which 1240 indi- 
viduals are powerless to determine for themselves are intimate parts 1270 
of the very business of justice and legal efficiency. 

These 1280 are some of the things we ought to do, and 1290 not leave 
the others undone, the old-fashioned, never-to uoo -be-neglected, funda- 
mental safeguarding of property and of individual right. 1310 This is 
the high enterprise of the new day; to 1320 lift everything that concerns 
our life as a nation to 1330 the light that shines from the hearthfire of 
every man's 1340 conscience and vision of the right. It is inconceivable 
that 1360 we should do this as partisans; it is inconceivable we 13 ' should 
do it in ignorance of the facts as they 1370 are or in blind haste. We 
shall restore, not destroy. 1380 We shall deal with our economic 
system as it is 1390 and as it may be modified, not as it might 1400 be if 
we had a clean sheet of paper to 1410 write upon; and step by step 
we shall make it 1420 what it should be, in the spirit of those who 1430 


question their own wisdom and seek counsel and knowledge, not 1440 
shallow self-satisfaction or the excitement of excursions whither 
they 1460 cannot tell. Justice, and only justice, shall always be our 1460 

And yet it will be no cool process of 1470 mere science. The nation 
has been deeply stirred, stirred by 1480 a solemn passion, stirred by the 
knowledge of wrong, of 1490 ideals lost, of government too often 
debauched and made an 1500 instrument of evil. The feelings with 
with which we face 1510 this new age of right and opportunity sweep 
across our 1520 heartstrings like some air out of God's own presence, 
where 1530 justice and mercy are reconciled and the judge and the 1640 
brother are one. We know our task to be no 1550 mere task of politics, 
but a task which shall search 1560 us through and through, whether we 
be able to understand 1570 our time and the need of our people, 
whether we 1680 be indeed their spokesman and interpreters, whether 
we have the 1590 pure heart to comprehend and the rectified will to 
choose 1600 our high course of action. 

This is not a day 1610 of triumph; it is a day of dedication. Here 
muster 1640 not the forces of party, but the forces of humanity. 1630 Men's 
hearts wait upon us; men's lives hang in the 1640 balance; men's hopes 
call upon us to say what we 1650 will do. Who shall live up to the 
great trust? 1660 Who dares fail to try? I summon all honest men, 1670 
all patriotic, all forward-looking men, to my side. God 1680 helping me, 
I will not fail them, if they will 1690 but counsel and sustain me. [1695. 


The right bringing-up of a boy needs on the 10 part of the father and 
mother, a constant, sympathetic study 20 of the individual boy's 
physical and mental qualities, and of 30 his temperament or disposi- 
tion. Sons of the same father and 40 mother often exhibit great 
variety and sometimes marked contrasts. 

The 50 inquiry into the boy's nature should reveal on the one 60 hand 
his natural excellence or gifts, and on the other 70 his natural defects. 
It is much more important, however, to 80 find as early as possible the 
gifts than to find 90 the deficiencies; for one gift may be the making 


of 100 him, while he may get along very well through life 110 in spite of 
serious deficiencies. 

Throughout the whole training of 120 a boy, attention should be 
chiefly given to developing and 130 increasing his capacities, innate or 
acquired. In giving direction to 140 his book studies, most of his time 
should be given 150 to studies he enjoys; and the same is true of 160 
physical exercise. 

If a boy is self -willed and masterful 170 highly promising qualities 
it is best to give him employments 180 in which he can develop these 
qualities in a safe, 190 productive way. Then he will not develop them 
in a 200 mischievous way. If, on the other hand, a boy shows 210 feeble- 
ness of will, or a tendency to weak compliance, it 220 is of the utmost 
importance to train him in deciding 230 things for himself; for it is the 
weak-willed boy 240 that is in danger of going astray when, by neces- 
sity, 250 he parts from the parents who have been in the 260 habit of 
deciding everything for him. [266. 

"Breaking" a Child's Will 

The most monstrous of educational dogmas is the insistence on 10 
"breaking" a child's will and then training him to implicit 20 obedi- 
ence. No greater injury can be done a child than 30 this "breaking," 
for the moral end of education in family, 40 school, and life is not 
obedience but self-control. The 50 dogma is a vicious importation into 
family and school 60 of a training which is only fit for military and 70 
ecclesiastical uses. 

It is an ancient but detestable theory in 80 education that no disci- 
pline or training that is enjoyable is 90 useful; and that mental exer- 
cises must be repulsive if they 100 are to be of use in training the power 
of 110 application. Precisely the opposite is the correct principle. 

The power 120 of concentrated attention is acquired far more easily 
and completely 130 in a study or sport which interests the child than 140 
in a study or sport which does not ; and that 150 power once gained can 
be effectively applied in unattractive subjects. 160 Both children and 
adults undergo without injury hardships and fatigues 170 when they are 
enjoying themselves that would exhaust and depress 180 them physi- 
cally if they were not enjoying themselves. 

Boys and 190 girls will dance for five hours with pleasure and with- 
out 200 harmful fatigue, when they would be used up by running 210 and 
hopping without music for the same period along a 220 dull highway. 
This is just as true of enjoyed studies 230 as of sports. In learning to 
write, for example, more time 240 should be given to the letters the 


child can form 250 than to those it can not; for the needed eye 260 and 
hand skill will be more rapidly developed in making 270 the first than 
the second. Writing-masters used to act 280 on the opposite principle; 
if a child could not make 290 g or o well, it should make nothing but 
0's 300 and o's. 

In the training of children, whether boys or 310 girls, the effort 
should always be to train their senses 320 to accurate observation, but 
to do this through play and 330 work which interest the children. 
Those games or sports are 340 always to be preferred which cultivate 
the accurate use of 350 eye, ear and hand, rather than those which rely 
on 360 chance or luck for their interest. At school this training 370 in 
exact observation would be amply given through nature study, 380 
manual training and the laboratory teaching of the sciences. [389. 

Skill of Hands, Eyes, Senses 

Any skill of eye and hand which a boy may 10 acquire will be useful 
to him all his life, even 20 if he follow no mechanical trade. In these 
days of 30 high wages in the building trades it is important for 40 every 
man who must earn his living and wishes to 50 own his house to be able 
himself to do many 60 things instead of hiring other men to do them, 
else 70 he will not be able to keep his house in 80 good repair. 
Some of the most valuable and profitable professions 90 are open 
only to men who possess an unusual combination 100 of sense skills. 
Thus every artist must have great skill 110 of both eye and hand; every 
surgeon should possess a 120 combination of skills with eye, ear and 
hand, and a 130 retentive memory for forms learned through the eye, 
textures learned 140 through the touch, and sounds learned through 
the ear. Many 150 trades need special sense and nerve skill. Thus, a 
motorman, 160 a chauffeur or a locomotive engineer needs a quick eye 170 
and a short-time reaction ; and every machinist should possess similar 180 
faculties. A painter should possess a discriminating eye for shades 190 
of color; and without the same trained sense a blacksmith 200 can not 
temper properly the drills and many other of 210 the implements he 

The early discovery by parents of 220 special sense gifts in their boy, 
if wisely followed up, 230 may assure his success in life. [236. 

The Importance of Strong Motives 

Far the best thing the parents can do for a 10 boy is to develop in 
him a firm character and 20 a group of strong motives which will lead 
him in 30 the great majority of cases to right action. 


How may 40 parents accomplish this best of all services to their 
sons? 50 First, through inheritance from themselves. In the forma- 
tion of character 60 both heredity and environment count largely, but 
heredity most. To 70 be sure, parents are sometimes confounded by 
the appearance among 80 their children of a child whose powers 
greatly exceed those 90 of his parents or of any known ancestor, or, 
on 100 the contrary, fall much below those of any progenitor. 

The 110 direct responsibility of parents is greatest, however, in 
determining the 120 environment of their children; and the chief factors 
in determining 130 that environment, are the moral character and the 
habitual manners 140 and customs of the two parents. [146. 

The Boy's Judgment of His Parents 

Children understand from a very early age the moral qualities 10 of 
their parents, and are strongly influenced thereby. 

They know, 20 for example, whether their mother is just or not in 30 
her dealings with her children. They soon learn whether they 40 can 
depend on what she says, or must make allowances 50 for her inaccuracy 
and exaggerations. They are much more affected 60 by her habitual 
conduct toward them than by her exhortations; 70 by the manner of 
her commands, than by their substance. 80 

A father who never exhorts and seldom commands may neverthe- 
less 90 have a profound influence on his boys all through their 100 lives; 
because his own way of life gives them complete 110 assurance as to the 
conduct in them that he would 120 approve or would condemn. 

A son can only have a 130 kind of animal attachment to a peev- 
ish, self-indulgent, irritable 140 mother; and a son will not have even 
that affectionate 150 feeling toward a luxurious, indolent and selfish 
father. It is 160 the same with the teachers of boys. 

To have a 170 good influence with boys, the teacher must be himself 
high 180 minded, altruistic, and just. He may be an impatient or 190 
passionate man, and yet have a good influence on boys; 200 but he 
must never fail as regards truthfulness, courage, and 210 moral vigor. 

Active-minded boys often form a clear opinion 220 about their par- 
ents' candor from the habits of the parents 230 in answering their fre- 
quent questions. Downright confessions of ignorance on 240 the part 
of parents do no harm whatever. Imaginary answers 250 in imagined 
cases can do but little harm; for at 260 worst they are futile or absurd. 
False, misleading or shifty 270 answers to serious inquiries do infinite 
harm, because they destroy 280 the boy's confidence in the parent. 
An intelligent boy is 290 always indignant when he learns that his 


father or teacher 300 put him off with a fable when he asked for 310 the 
fact, or gave him a rigmarole instead of the 320 simple truth. [322. 

The Importance of Keeping Faith 

Boys often love tenderly a foolish and ignorant parent who 10 has 
been good to them; but insincerity, false pretence, or 20 hypocrisy 
found out by children in their parents or teachers 30 destroys the very 
foundation of respect and confidence. 

Assuming conscientious 40 parents, who wish to do their very best 
for their 50 sons, what are the qualities that they should aim to 60 
develop in each boy? The first is alertness of mind 70 and senses. All 
promising boys show more or less of 80 this quality in their early years. 
They are inquisitive; their 90 minds and senses are wide-awake to see, 
hear and 100 touch. They want to try experiments, they learn by 
experimenting. 110 When they first see a lighted candle they reach to 120 
touch the flame. From morning till night they are active 130 and 
excursive, not dwelling long on the same object or the 140 same subject, 
but keeping all their faculties constantly in play, 150 and getting prac- 
tice in observation. 

The alert boy is often 160 troublesome to parents and teachers, but he 
is the most 170 promising boy, and great pains should be taken to 
direct 180 his inquiring mind and eager senses to wholesome objects, 
like 190 plants, animals, brooks, forests, landscape and the products 
and tools 200 of human industry. 

Parents who are in constant and intimate 210 companionship with 
their children can do them a great service 220 by cultivating in them 
the habit of doing their best 230 in whatever occupation is interesting 
them strongly. 

It is not 240 natural to children to devote continuous attention to 
any subject 250 for a long period. What is important is that, while 260 
they work on any subject, they should work hard with 270 a concen- 
trated attention if it is only for ten minutes 280 at a time. 

Some parents are annoyed when a child 290 gets so absorbed in a 
book, a picture, or a 300 game that it makes no response to a question 
or 310 a command, but they never should be. The child has 320 uncon- 
sciously inhibited all sights and sounds external to its occupation 330 
for the moment; and success in such inhibition is a 340 very favorable 
sign in any child. 

The group of motives 350 toward right action, which wise parents 
will strive to develop 360 in their children, includes hope, love, and loy- 
alty, and most 370 of all the sense of duty motives which all promising 


children 380 feel from an early age, and which, when well trained 390 in 
youth, remain the dominating motives of adult life. [399. 

New Standard of Purity 

The promising boys of the future should be carefully trained 10 to 
another moral and mental quality of utmost value 20 to society, 
namely, purity. This is a demand which civilized 30 society and some 
barbarous communities have long made with regard 40 to women, but 
has been only comparatively lately suggested with 50 regard to men. 

The progress of biological science within the 60 last twenty years has 
made it clear that purity and 70 chivalry in boys and men must be 
made a special 80 object of training in the rising generations, in order 
that 90 civilized man may successfully contend against the physical 
and moral 100 evils which urban life and the factory system have 
developed 110 in the white race. 

Some of these evils are ancient; 120 but the grave menace of their 
existence and growing prevalence 130 has not been appreciated until 
lately. Fortunately, the same progress 140 of biological science which 
has exhibited the evils has provided 150 means of contending against 
them. The only complete remedy, however, 160 will be found in the 
gradual acceptance of new standards 170 of purity and honor in the 
male sex. [178. 

Sources of Satisfaction 

Finally, in the bringing-up of boys, parents and teachers 10 ought to 
dwell on the sources and nature of the 20 real satisfactions of life. They 
should point out that the 30 best things can not be bought with money; 
that the 40 most enjoyable acquisitions are personal skills, mental 
capacities and the 50 domestic joys, none of which is determined or 
greatly affected 60 by the amount of one's material possessions; that 
the possession 70 of wealth or of the power that raw wealth gives, 80 is 
not a sensible object for any boy to set 90 before himself, since it 
proves a curse oftener than a 100 blessing. 

Among the life-occupations which present themselves to his 110 
choice, let every boy make sure that he choose an 120 occupation or 
business the product of which is always useful 130 and never harmful 
to society at large. [137. 



Is it possible that the true religion of the Bible 10 demands nothing 
more of us than is expressed in this 20 text? What about the Jewish 
Law? What about the Ten 30 Commandments? What about church 
attendance? What about our responsibilities to 40 our families, to the 
church, to the poor? What about 50 the study of the Bible to know 
God's will? What 60 about our responsibility for the heathen? What 
about Baptism and 70 the Lord's Supper? 

Indirectly, all the matters covered by these 80 questions, and many 
more, are included incidentally in the provisions 90 of our text. Some- 
times a whole sermon is preached in 100 a few words. No one will dis- 
pute the reasonableness of 110 the Divine requirement as stated in our 
text. Our Creator 120 could not justly or with self-respect ask less of 
His 130 creatures who would enjoy His favor. The interests of all 
demand 140 that these principles should be required of every Divine 
favor 150 to the extent of eternal life. Whoever fails to come 160 up to 
these conditions would thus evidence his un worthiness of 170 life ever- 
lasting. His prolonged existence would merely be a prospering 180 of 
sin and a menace to the happiness and righteousness 190 of others. 

Let us see the scope of this Divine 200 requirement, whose justice we 
have already acknowledged. We note the 210 natural division of our 
text into three parts: (1) Doing justly; 220 (2) Loving mercy; (3) Walk- 
ing humbly. 

The requirement of justice in all 230 our dealings with our fellows 
commends itself to every rational 240 mind. It includes the whole 
Law of God. A brief 250 statement of that Law, which had our Lord's 
approval, reads: 260 "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all 
thy 270 heart, with all thy mind, with all thy being and 280 with all 
thy strength; and thou shalt love thy neighbor 290 as thyself." On 
these two propositions "hang all the Law 300 and the Prophets." 

It is but just that we should 310 recognize our Creator as first; that 
we should glorify the 320 One who gave us our being and all the bless- 
ings 330 coming therewith; that we should be obedient to His right- 
eous 340 requirements that make for our happiness and that of others. 350 
It is also but just that we should recognize the 360 rights of others as we 
would have them recognize our 370 rights. The Golden Rule is the 
barest of justice. Not 380 a hair's breadth less would come within the 


requirements of 390 our text. Do justly. Come, then; let us reason 
together. 400 How many of us do justly in all of life's 410 affairs in our 
relationship to our God and to our 420 neighbor? 

Let each criticize his words and his deeds toward 430 parents, chil- 
dren, brothers, sisters, toward husband, toward wife. In all 440 of our 
relationships of life do we treat those near 440 and dear to us according 
to the standards of justice, 460 according to the Golden Rule? Do we 
do toward them 470 as we would have them do toward us? If not, 480 
after making a beginning with the Lord, striving to render 490 to Him 
our homage and obedience, let us closely scrutinize 500 every word, 
what extent these can be improved upon and 510 made more nearly 
just. The majority of people, we feel 520 sure, will be surprised to 
know how unjust they have 530 been toward those who are of the very 
nearest and 540 dearest of fleshly relationships. 

Follow the matter up and consider 550 the justice or injustice of 
your words and deeds in 560 daily life with your neighbors and asso- 
ciates. Do you invariably 570 speak to them in the same words and 
with the 580 same tone and gesture that you would approve if they 590 
were in your place and you in theirs? In business 600 do you drive a 
closer bargain with them than you 610 would think just for them to 
make with you? Or, 620 on the other hand, do you ask of them higher 630 
prices for the services or materials you furnish them than 540 you would 
consider right if you were the purchaser and 650 they the venders? 
Do you treat all men, women, children 660 and animals as kindly, as 
gently, as you think would 670 be just and right if you were in their 
place 680 and they in yours? Do you speak as kindly of 690 your neigh- 
bors as you would have them speak of you? 700 Or do you hold up 
their imperfections to ridicule as 710 you would not like them to hold 
up yours? 

Do 720 you not begin to see, dear friends, that what God 730 requires of 
us is much beyond what the majority have 740 been rendering? Do 
you tell me that it would be 750 impossible to live folly up to that 
standard? I agree 760 with you. St. Paul agrees, saying, "We cannot 
do the 770 things which we would." The Scriptures again declare, 
" There is 780 none righteous, no, not one. All have sinned and come 790 
short of the glory of God." 

What shall we do? 800 Because we are unable to live up to our 
own 810 conceptions and standards of justice shall we abandon those 
standards? 820 God forbid! To ignore our best ideals of justice 
would 830 be to permit the downward tendencies of our depraved 
natures 840 to carry us further and further from God and the 850 


standards of character which He approves. We can surely be 860 
content to do nothing less than our very best to 870 live up to our own 
ideals and to raise those 880 ideals as nearly as possible to the Divine 
standards. [889. 


Q. Mrs. Jenkins, you have stated to the jury that you do not 
recollect any occasion, when your son was present, that the disap- 
pearance of Ward was spoken of? 

A. No, sir; I do not remember any such time. 

Q. You do not recollect any occasion when he was present that 
that was talked about? 

A. I do not. 

Q. Was your son a frequent visitor at your house? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. And the subject of Ward's disappearance was frequently 
talked over, there, was it not? 

A. No, sir, it was not. 

Q. Do you recollect that it was ever talked over? 

A. Well, I couldn't say that it was; it might have been. 

Q. Never in your presence? 

A. I couldn't say it ever was. 

Q. When was the last time Ward came to your house? 

A. The last time he was there, do you mean? 

Q. Yes; I mean the time he worked there last. 

A. I think that was on Tuesday the third. 

Q. What day was that? 

A. Tuesday. 

Q. Do you recollect the time of day he came there? 

A. He came early in the morning I should think 

Q. About what time in the morning? 

A. I couldn't say just what time; he was there to breakfast. 

Q. You think he got there in time for breakfast? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. I believe you have testified that he remained there until the 
next Saturday night; is that correct? 

A. Yes, sir; that is it. 


Q. And during that whole period of time he was there but one 

A. No, sir; only one Sunday. 

Q. Do you know where Ward came from when he came there? 

A. No, sir, I do not. 

Q. Did you hear him say anything about where he came from? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. And you do not know where he worked for three or four days 
previous to the time you heard him talk about these dates? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. And you have also talked about them yourself? 

A. I think I may have. 

Q. Do you know why Ward came back to your house after going 
away the first time? 

A. Well, I understood that he came back to trim apple trees. 

Q. To continue his job? 

A. No, sir, not to continue his job there because he had finished 
what he came to do before. 

Q. Well, I mean he was to continue to work there? 

A. Yes, I understood so. 

Q. Did you hear him say so? 

A. I don't think I did. 

Q. When he went away you heard him say nothing about coming 

A. No, not that I can remember just now. 

Q. Now, Mrs. Jenkins, can you swear that Ward and Williams 
were not at your place cleaning oats on Wednesday? 

A. I don't think they were. 

Q. Will you swear positively that Ward was not there on 

A. I don't think he was there; not to the best of my recollection. 

Q. Was he there the next Sunday? 

A. No, sir; he was not. 

Q. You will swear positively as to that? 

A. I will. 

Q. Now, as to Saturday did he stay there all night? 

A. No sir; he did not. 

Q. Mrs. Jenkins, will you tell the jury why you are so positive 
that Saturday was on the thirteenth what reason have you 
for fixing the date on about the thirteenth rather than the 


A. I know it was on Saturday because George's wife was at our 
house that afternoon. 

Q. How do you know she was at your house that afternoon and 
that it was Saturday? 

A. I take it from the date of this check that it must have been 
the next day. 

Q. Then the check has been shown to you? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. Then how do you take it from the date of the check? 

A. From others getting the date of the check. Others got the 
date of the check and I had it from them. 

Q. Who did you have it from? 

A. I had it from my husband. 

Q. Then he showed you the check and told you the day it was 

A. He told me when it was dated. 

Q. And you think that was the day the check was dated? 

A. Yes, sir. They drawed in the last load of oats that day. 

Q. Have you any reason for saying that the last load of oats was 
drawn on that day is there any connection between that and the 
date of this check what reason have you for connecting one with 
the other, have you any? 

A. I think I have considerable. 

Q. What has that check to do with the delivery of the last load 
of oats? 

A. My son got the check when he took the last load of oats, and 
the check was dated on Saturday. 

Q. You say you never saw that check? 

A. Yes, sir; I have seen it. 

Q. Was it before or after your son was arrested? 

A. I couldn't tell you when it was, now. 

Q. Do you think he showed it to you when he returned from the 

A. He did not go to the bank on that day. 

Q. Well, when he returned from seeing Jones? 

A. I couldn't tell you. 

Q. Do you recollect the circumstances of their drying any bags 
around the fire? 

A. I don't know as I do. 

Q. Do you recollect what the weather was whether it was 
rainy or snowy? 


A. I do not, no sir. 

Q. Did you go into town to trade about Christmas time with Mr. 
Williams and his wife? 

A. I couldn't say whether I went with Williams' folks or not, but 
I think I did. 

Q. You had a Christmas tree in your neighborhood at that time, 
did you not? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. And it was before you had that tree that you went into town? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. What day was it? 

A. I don't recollect. 

Q. You went in a double team, didn't you? 

A. I should think it likely, but I don't recollect. 

Q. If there were four of you, yourself and your husband and Mr. 
and Mrs. Williams, you couldn't very well go with one horse, could 

A. I presume we had two horses. 

Q. Did you do any trading that day you were in the village? 

A. The day we went there we did very little. 

Q. Do you recollect buying a breast-pin? 

A. Yes, I bought that at the store in the postoffice. 

Q. You were all at the Christmas tree, were you not? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. At whose invitation? 

A. I don't remember; I don't know as anybody invited us. 

Q. But you went? 

A. Yes, sir. [1163. 




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will be specially useful to the self-taught student and also to the pros- 
pective teacher. 

JEsop's Fables. 20c. In the Learner's Style. A valuable reading 
book in words of one syllable. 

Easy Readings. 20c. In the Learner's Style of Shorthand, with Key. 

Reporting Exercises. 20c. Intended as a companion to the "Re- 
porter"; containing exercises on all the rules and contracted words 
in this book. 

Key to the "Reporting Exercises." 40c.; cloth, 60c. In which 
all the Exercises are presented in Shorthand. 

How to Obtain .Speed in Shorthand. 20 pp., 15c. Containing prac- 
tical advice from the leading congressional, court and convention 

The Acquisition of Speed in Phonography. 24 pp., 20c. In ordinary 
type. Containing chapters on the following subjects: The System 
The Importance of Thoroughness and Method of Study Elemen- 
tary Speed Practice Tests of Speed etc. 

The Grammalogues and Contractions of Pitman's Shorthand. Paper 
covers, lOc. Also published in Vest Pocket Size, cloth, lOc. 

How to Practice and Memorize the Grammalogues. 32 pp., 20c. 
An extremely useful book for practice, arranged sectionally in the 
order in which they appear in the Course and the Instructor. After 
the list of grammalogues in each section there is a series of letters 
consisting of grammalogues for dictation. 

Exercises on the Grammalogues and Contractions. 40 pp., Limp 
cloth, 25c. In Shorthand with key. The feature of this useful 
book, which is specially adapted for the revision of the grammalogues 
and contractions, is that the exercises are arranged alphabetically 
a method which will be found of great convenience to the student. 
The book will also be of service in providing suitable matter for 


dictation practice. Complete lists of the grammalogues (arranged 
alphabetically and phonetically) and contractions (arranged alpha- 
betically) are contained at the end of the book. 

The Phonographic Phrase Book. 88 pp., 40c.; cloth, 50c. Con- 
taining about two thousand useful phrases in Phonography, with 
Key and an exercise occupying 43 pages, containing all the phrases 
as they occur in the book. 

Isaac Pitman's Shorthand Dictionary. 336pp., cloth, $1.50. "Library 
Edition," roan, gilt, colored edges, $1.75. Tenth Edition, Revised 
and enlarged, containing the Shorthand Reporting Outlines, beauti- 
fully printed from engraved characters, of over 62,000 words and 
geographical names, with parallel Key in ordinary type. 

Abridged Shorthand Dictionary. 232 pp., cloth, gilt, 75c.; French 
morocco, gilt, size 3 x 4% in., $1.00. Contains over 22,000 words, 
with their shorthand characters. 

Cumulative Speller and Shorthand Vocabulary. Cloth, gilt, 145 pp., 

The Reporter's Assistant. 132 pp., 50c.; cloth, 60c. A Key to the 

Reading of the Reporting Style of Phonography. All the words 
in the dictionary, not exceeding three consonants, were written 
in Shorthand, and from this extensive list of outlines has been drawn 
all words that contain the same outline, and they have been classified 
according to their forms. Of great aid in reading one's notes. 

Technical Reporting. 60 pp., 50c.; cloth, 60c. Comprising Phono- 
graphic Abbreviations for words and phrases commonly met with 
in Reporting Legal, Medical, Scientific, and other Technical Subjects, 
with type key. 

Practical Business Letters in Shorthand. 64 pp., 30c. A series of 
Business Letters, in engraved Isaac Pitman's shorthand, and Key 
containing 76 letters. 

Business Correspondence in Shorthand, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. 40 
pp. each. 25c. each. A series of valuable books containing 
actual correspondence in various branches of business. Each book 
is Keyed in ordinary type and the matter counted for speed practice 
in either shorthand or typewriting. A complete list of contents will 
be sent on request. 

*** This work is also published in the following convenient forms in 
cloth binding. 

volume. Cloth, gilt, 80 pp., 60c. 

Cloth, 80 pp., 60c. 

volume. Cloth, 80 pp., 60c. 

one volume. Special Shorthand Edition vrithout Type Key. Cloth, 
gilt, 88 pp., 75c. 

Pitman's 20th Century Business Dictation Book and Legal Forms. 
272 pp., stiff boards and cloth back. 75c. ; cloth, $1.00. (Eighth edi- 
tion.) Containing an up-to-date collection of genuine letters (in 
ordinary type), classified under fifty lines of business; Legal Forms, 
and a judicious selection of practice matter for general dictation. 
Also chapters on Spelling, Punctuation, Capitalization, etc. All 
progressive Schools, without reference to the system of Shorthand 
taught, should insist upon each student procuring a copy. 

The Student's Practice Book. 241 pp., cloth. Price, 75c. A collec- 
tion of Letters for Acquiring Speed in Shorthand. Designed to be 
used by pupils on the completion of the study of the principles of 
stenography, as presented in Course in Isaac Pitman Shorthand or the 
Shorthand Instructor. It is not intended primarily as a dictation 
book to be used only by the instructor, but rather as a book from 
which definite lessons can be assigned. 

Commercial Correspondence and Commercial English. 272 pp., cloth, 
85c. A practical Manual of Commercial Correspondence, forming 
a key to "Commercial Correspondence in Shorthand." All the 
letters are counted for shorthand and typewriting speed practice, 
and editions are published in Spanish, French and German. 

Instruction in Legal Work. 40 pp., 25c. In ordinary type. For 
Court Stenographers and Law Students. Reprinted from "Pitman's 
Twentieth Century Dictation and Legal Forms." 

How to Become a Law Stenographer. 189 pp., 75c.; cloth, $1.00. 
For Stenographers and Typists. Fifth Edition revised and enlarged. 
A Compendium of Legal Forms containing a complete set of Legal 
Documents accompanied with full explanations and directions for 
arranging the same on the typewriter. This work will be found 
an indispensable companion for every stenographer intending to 
take a position in a law office. 

A large number of legal words and phrases have been added to the 
new edition together with engraved shorthand outlines. 




Taquigrafia Espanola de Isaac Pitman. 119 pp., cloth, gilt, $1.25. 
Adaptaci6n & la Lengua Espanola del Sistema de Fonografia del 
Autor. Para uso de Escuelas de Comercio, Institutos y tambien 
para Estudio Personal. Being an Adaptation of Isaac Pitman's 
Shorthand to the Spanish Language. 

Key to Taquigrafia Espanola. Cloth, gilt, $1.00. With additional 

French Phonography. 40c.; cloth, 50c. Third edition. Revised 
and Enlarged. An adaptation of Phonography to the French 
language. By T. A. REED. 

Stenographic Pitman. Par Spencer Herbert. An adaptation of 
Isaac Pitman's Phonography to the French language. Cloth, $1.25. 

French Shorthand Commercial Correspondence. Cloth, 89 pp., 75c. 
A Series of Business Letters in French Phonography, with type Key. 

German Phonography. Crown 8vo., 64 pp., 50c.; cloth, 60c. An 
adaptation of Phonography to the German language. 

Manuale di Fonografia Italiana. 50c. An adaptation of Phonog- 
raphy to the Italian language. By GIUSEPPE FKANCINI. 

Dutch Phonography. $1.50. An Adaptation of Phonography to 

the Dutch language. By F. DE HAAN. 
Pitman's Phonography adapted to Esperanto. Limp cloth, 50c. 

Manual of Latin Phonography. $1.00. An adaptation of Isaac Pit- 
man's Shorthand to the Latin language. By REV. W. TATLOCK, S.J. 

Japanese Phonography. Complete. $1.00. 


The student, to increase his speed, and to improve his knowledge of 
SHORTHAND. One advantage of studying the Isaac Pitman system 
and one which cannot well be over-estimated is, that the shorthand 
literature in that system is far in excess of ALL other systems combined. 

"We would emphasize still further the wealth of literature the Isaac 
Pitman system has. . . . These publishers are continually issuing new 
works in shorthand, and this in itself should make their system a great 
force in the shorthand world." Business Journal (New York). 

"We wish to repeat what we have said before with reference to the 
literature sent out by Isaac Pitman & Sons, and that is, that the very 
extensive line they furnish is of itself the highest recommendation for 
the system.- No other system furnishes as much." American Pen- 
man (New York). 


A Shorthand Birthday Book of Dickens Quotations. Cloth, gilt, 85c. 
In the Corresponding Style of Pitman's Shorthand. 

Select Readings, No. 1. 48 pp., 20c. An entirely new book of read- 
ings. Partial list of selections: "A Rill from the Town Pump" 
DICKENS); "The Man in Black" (OLIVER GOLDSMITH); "Household 
Superstitions" (JOSEPH ADDISON); "Caught in the Quicksand" 
(VICTOR HUGO), etc. 

Select Readings, No. 2. 48 pp., 20c. Containing "A First Night 
at Sea" (RICHARD H. DANA); "Niagara" (DICKENS); "The Candid 
Man" (BULWER LYTTON), etc. 

Mugby Junction and other Stories. By CHARLES DICKENS. BOc.; 
Cloth, 60c. 

The Chimes. 127 pp., 50c.; cloth, 60c. By CHARLES DICKENS. 
The Battle of Life. 130 pp., 40c.; cloth, BOc. By CHARLES DICKENS. 
The Silver Ship of Mexico. 132 pp., 40c.; cloth, 50c. By J. H. 


The Book of Psalms. 160 pp., 40c.; cloth, 50c. 
Self-Culture. 91 pp., 40c.; cloth, 50c. By PROF. BLACKIE. 

Gulliver's Voyage to Lilliput. 88 pp., 40c.; cloth, 50c. By DEAN 

Tales and Sketches. 96 pp., 40c.; cloth, 60c. By WASHINGTON 
IRVING; with printed Key. 

Robinson Crusoe. 309 pp., 60c.; cloth, 76c. By DANIEL DEFOE. 
Illustrated. This work is extremely well adapted for use as a short- 
hand reader, and, in attractive cloth binding, forms a handsome 
prize volume. 

The Vicar of Wakefield. Illustrated. 280 pp., 60c.; cloth, 60c. 

Scenes from Pickwick. 260 pp., cloth, 85c. By CHARLES DICKENS. 

With_ pen illustrations by CHARLES RICHARDSON. Contains a 

selection of the finest scenes from Dickens's immortal masterpiece. 
Miscellaneous Readings. A new reading book, with Key in ordinary 

type. 36c.; cloth, 50c. 
Selections from American Authors. 112 pp., 40c.; cloth, BOc. With 

Key in ordinary type at the foot of each page. 
The Cricket on the Hearth. 132 pp., BOc.; cloth, 60c. By CHARLES 


Brief Reporting Notes in Shorthand, or Shorthand Dictation Exercises. 
48 pp., 25c. With printed Key, and the matter counted and timed 
for testing of Speed either in Shorthand or Typewriting. 

The Sign of Four. 171 pp., 50c.; cloth, 60c. By A. CONAN DOYLE. 

Tales from Dickens. 147 pp., 50c.; cloth, 60c. Containing "The 
Tugg's at Ramsgate," "The Bloomsbury Christening," "The 
Great Winglebury Duel," and " Mr. Watkins Tottle," from " Sketches 
by Boz." 

Around the World in Eighty Days. 184 pp., 60c.; cloth, 60c. By 

The Haunted Man. 104 pp., 50c.; cloth, gilt, 60c. By CHAHLES 
DICKENS. Twenty-one Original page illustrations. 

Thankful Blossom. 105 pp., 40c.; cloth, 50c. By BRET HARTE. 

A Christmas Carol. Ill pp., 40c.; cloth, 50c. By CHARLES DICKENS. 

t High Speed in Shorthand: How to Attain It. 64 pp., 40c. With 
type Key. 

t Shorthand Examinations: How to Prepare for and How to Pass 
Them. 25c. 

t Won and Lost. By JOHN TAYLOR. 25c. 

t The Phantom Stockman. 32 pp., 20c. By GUY BOOTHBY. 

Gleanings. Nos. 1 and 2. 48 pp., each. Each 20c. Containing 
reproductions of notable essays by T. A. REED and others, on short- 
hand matters, with printed Key. 

The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. 62pp.,20c. By WASHINGTON IRVING; 
with printed Key at the foot of each page. 

Rip Van Winkle. 32 pp., 20c. By WASHINGTON IRVING; with printed 

The Bible in Shorthand. Cloth, beveled boards, red edges, $3.00; 
roan, gilt edges, $3.50; morocco, gilt edges, $4.50. Each style 
has a silk marker and comes boxed. Containing the Old and New 

The New Testament. 368 pp., roan, red edges, $1.50; Turkey morocco, 
gilt edges, $2.00. In an Easy Reporting Style. 

The Book of Common Prayer. 296 pp., roan, red edges, $1.50; Turkey 
morocco, gilt edges, $2.00. In an Easy Reporting Style. 

The Church Services (entire). 93.5 pp., roan, $3.00; morocco, $4.00. 
In an Easy Reporting Style. 

f Commercial Shorthand. 40c. A Reading and Dictation book 
with introduction by E. A. COPE. 


Practical Course in Touch Typewriting. By CHAS. E. SMITH, Author 
of "Cumulative Speller," Eleventh Edition, revised and enlarged, 
50c.; cloth, 75c. A Scientific Method of Mastering the Keyboard 
by the Sense of Touch. The design of this work is to teach touch 
typewriting in such a way that the student will operate by touch 
will have an absolute command of every key on the keyboard, 
and be able to strike any key more readily without looking than 
would be the case with the aid of sight. A separate Chart con- 


taining Keyboard and Diagrams printed in five colors, on a heavy 
double-calendered cardboard, accompanies each copy. Contains 
specimens of actual Business Letters, Legal Forms, Specifications, 
Instructions for the Use of the Tabulator, etc., all printed in actual 
typewriter type. In ordering state whether Single or Double Key- 
board or Oliver Edition is desired. Adopted by the New York, 
Boston and Baltimore Boards of Education. 

"Touch Typewriting can be more easily and quickly acquired by 
going from the outside keys toward the center. It is the natural 
method of learning the keyboard, and prevents the beginner from 
being inaccurate. I recommend Mr. Charles E. Smith's 'Practical 
Course in Touch Typewriting ' as the best Typewriter Text-Book for 
those who wish to become rapid, accurate touch typists." Margaret 
B. Owen, the World's Champion Typist. 

The New Universal System of Touch or Sight Typewriting. By I. W. 
PATTON. Third Edition Revised and Enlarged. 60c. 


Style Book of Business English. 253 pp., 85c. Sixth Edition Revised 
and Enlarged. For Stenographers and Correspondents. This new 
treatise will especially appeal to the teacher of English wherever 
it is seen. Teachers of this subject using this work can feel assured 
of vastly better results than they have ever before secured. It 
will be an inspiration to both teacher and student. Adopted by 
the New York High Schools. 

"It is a real pleasure to me to testify to the merits of your 'Style 
Book of Business English.' I recommend your book for the following 
reasons: It is so comprehensive, thoroughly practical, and, above 
all, it is so plainly composed that a teacher even unfamiliar with the 
subject can conduct a class with it." Prof. F. R. Beygrau, Columbia 
University, New York City. 

Punctuation as a Means of Expression. Its Theory and Practice. 
By A. E. LOVELL, M.A. 50c. This is much more than a mere 
statement of rules. The author has written an interesting and 
helpful manual on the subject, that will greatly impress the intelli- 
gent student and be much appreciated by all who value clearness 
and thoroughness in writing. 

Book of Homonyms. By B. S. BARRETT. Cloth, gilt, 192 pp., 75c. 
What are Homonyms? They are those perplexing words that 
are pronounced alike but spelled differently. There are some five 
or six hundred of these words that the author has collated in alpha- 
betical order with copious exercises for the use of classes or private 
learners. Every student of English has at times been puzzled by 
these words, and the author of this book, rinding that his pupils were 
constantly making mistakes in this class of words, conceived the idea 
of formulating exercises, which, with the definitions, as given, would 
enable the student to discriminate intelligently in the use of these 


Bookkeeping Simplified. By FRED J. NET. Cloth, gilt, 272 pp., $1.00. 
BOOKKEEPING as taught in the class-room is often of little use 
behind the desk, and this is partly due to the fact that so many 
texts are prepared with the sole object of enabling students to pass 
certain examinations. The object of this new work, "Bookkeeping 
Simplified," has been to supply the wants, not only of the examina- 
tion room, but also the office desk, embodying, as it does, all the 
essentials of Bookkeeping. 



t The Methods of Teaching Shorthand. Cloth, gilt, $1.00. By 
Edward J. McNamara, Teacher of Phonography, Adelphi College, 
Brooklyn. A practical work on the teaching of Shorthand and 
should be read and studied by every progressive teacher of short- 
hand, regardless of systems. 

Pitman's Examination Notes on Shorthand. 48 pp., cloth, 60c. In 
this work the reasons for various features in the system are dis- 
cussed, and the clear-cut conciseness of the standard text-book 
rules is in some instances amplified. Shorthand examples of the 
application of the rules are freely introduced. 

A Stereopticon Lecture on Shorthand. 32 pp., 25c. A brief history 
of writing from its invention to the present time, with special reference 
to Shorthand and the System originated by Sir Isaac Pitman. 


Terms of Subscription: Per Year in Advance, 60c. Canadian, 
60c. An American Magazine for Isaac Pitman Writers. Issued 
monthly, except July and August. Each number contains 
twenty-four pages (size t^ by 9J^) and includes eight columns 
of beautifully engraved Phonography, furnishing invaluable 
means for study and practice to students of the art. 



Pitman's Practical Spanish Grammar and Conversation for Self- 
Instruction. 112 pp., 40c. ; cloth, 60c. With copious Vocabulary 
and IMITATED Pronunciations. By the aid of this book the 
student is enabled to rapidly acquire a perfect knowledge of the 
Spanish language. 

Pitman's Commercial Spanish Grammar. 166 pp., cloth, $1.00. 
In this book Spanish grammar is taught on normal lines, and all 
grammatical points are illustrated by sentences in commercial 

Spanish Business Letters. 32 pp., 20c. With Vocabulary and 
copious notes in English. 

Dictionary of Commercial Correspondence in French, German, Spanish, 
and Italian. 500 pp., cloth, $2.00. Containing the most common 
and ordinary terms and phrases of a commercial nature. 

Pitman's Commercial Correspondence in Spanish. 267 pp., cloth, 
gilt, $1.00. The increasing importance of a study of the Spanish 
language has induced the Publishers to issue an edition of their 
successful work, "Commercial Correspondence" (already pub- 
lished in English, French, and German) in that language. 

Manual of Spanish Commercial Correspondence. 360 pp., cloth, 
gilt, $1.35. 



Los Angeles 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 

Form L9 15w-10,'48(B1039)444 




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