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P B C E E D I N a 8 


Cambriligt Antiquarian ^ocirtp. 

14 OCTUBER, 11)02, TO 18 MAY, 1903. 




Nd. XLIV. 



LUNDMN : tL BELL XHD 801*8. 

! 9^4 

i*rL. Seven i^kukiuj^ and h>LCpence, 


JG 21 1933 


tAm^M^^m ^ 





Cambrftrffe Antiquarian ^omtp; 




Tuesday, 14 October 1902. 

Mr Gray, President, in the Chair. 

Mr W. H. FuRNESS, M.D., gave a lecture on the Naga 
Hill Tribes, North- West India, illustrated by lantern 

As this lecture is to be printed in the Proceedings of the Anthropological 
Institute it is unnecessary here to give a detailed notice. 

C. A, S. Comm, Vol. X. 21 

294 J. W. CLABK 

Monday, 3 November 1902. 
Mr Gray, President, in the Chair. 

On the Work done to the Library of Exeter 
Cathedrax in 1412 and 1413. 

By J. W. Clark, M.A. 

Items of work done by masons and carpenters in medieval 
libraries are by no means rare in fabric-rolls and account-books 
generally; and the oflScer who records them occasionally sets 
down also repairs done to the manuscripts under his care. 
But it is rare to find a separate account devoted to the fitting 
up of a library in its widest sense — ^I mean one which starts 
with the work of carpenters and ends with that of binders. 
I think therefore that the document preserved among the 
muniments of Exeter Cathedral, which I have been allowed to 
copy, will be found interesting. It does not, I admit, give us 
much information that is absolutely new, but it is so complete 
in itself, and supplies such a vivid picture of the way in which 
an important medieval library was dealt with, when it was 
. moved into new quarters, and the books were thoroughly 
*. repaired, that I have thought it worth while not merely to 
print the original document, but to translate it for the benefit 
of those readers who are not familiar with medieval Latin. 

Before I proceed further let me thank the Dean and Chapter 
of Exeter Cathedral for their kindness in allowing me fi"ee 
access to their muniments, and for giving me leave not only to 
copy, but to print, this particular document. - I am also much 
beholden to the Rev. W. J. Edmonds, canon of the Cathedral, 
and Chancellor, for valuable assistance most generously given. 

I have shewn in The Care of Books that the establishment 
of a library near the room or building in which Christian com- 
munities held their services, may be traced back to very early 
times*; and I have suggested that such collections of books 
were the parents of the extensive libraries which, in subsequent 
ages, were connected with monasteries and cathedrals. The 
decree of Charlemagne, issued in 781, for the establishment of 
schools under the supervision of capitular and monastic bodies*, 
^ The Care of Books, ed. 2, pp. 51 — 54. ^ Labbe, Concilia, xviii 81. 


may have given an impulse to the acquisition of certain works ; 
but, so far as England is concerned, imperial intervention need 
not be invoked. Her cathedrals, as well as her monasteries, 
were rich in libraries of native growth, the beginnings of which 
date from a remote antiquity*. 

The library of Exeter Cathedral was begun by Leofric, first 
bishop, who died 10 February 1072. He gave to his cathedral 
nearly sixty volumes, twenty-eight of which were in English. 
This remarkable collection, a list of which has been preserved", 
though I am not aware that it has been examined and edited 
as it deserves to be, was no doubt a centre of attraction, for 
when we reach our next landmark, in 1327, we find a large 
and well-selected library. In that year a catalogue was drawn 
up by Richard of Brailey, sub-dean^, which contains about 230 
titles, without taking account of service-books ; and as several 
of the works were in two, or even three, volumes, the number of 
books was of course greatly in excess of the number of titles. 
In this catalogue the books are at first sorted under the names 
of their authors : viz. Augustine (22) ; Gregory (10) ; Jerome 
(10); Ambrose (9); Bede (6); Isidore (9); Fathers (6); 
Anselm (3); then under subjects, as Histories (11); Civil and 
Canon Law (20); The Bible (9); and, lastly, under the names 
of donors, as Books given by Bishop William (11); Gifts of 
various donors (104). 

We do not know where these books were housed, nor to 
what number they had increased by 1412. Probably, as in 
other places, they had by that time become so numerous that 
it was necessary to provide a special room to contain them. 

I will next print the account for completing this, and for 
repairing the books to be placed in it, with my translation ; 
and I will then make a few observations on it. These will be 
extremely brief, as the account virtually explains itself. In 
order to save space, and avoid needless repetition, I have 
summarized the account for wages after the first two weeks. 
The account for them is printed in extenso as a specimen. 

1 The Care of Books j ut supra, pp. 110—124. 2 jif^„^ j^^^gi jj^ .527, 528. 

3 Printed in Lives of the Bishops of Exeter and a History of the Cathedral : 
by Rev. Geo. Oliver, D.D. Bvo, Exeter, 1861, p. 301. 


296 J. W. CLAKK 

The Library Account. 

Compotus Ricardi Skynner clerici operis ecclesie Exonie de omnibus 
receptis et expensis circa librariam eiusdem ecclesie factis anno domini 
millesimo quadringentesimo duodecimo ; et anno Regni Regis Ricardi 
[Henrici] quarti terciodecimo. 

Memorandum. Idem recepit de xviij. li. vj. s. vij d. ob. receptis de 
residencia magistri Johannis Lydeford Archidiaconi Totton et Canonici 
Exonie post mortem eius de terra de Loueneterrai. Et de xvj. li. xvij.« ix.^. 
receptis de senescallo scaccarii per Indenturam. 

Summa totalis recept' xxxv. li. iiij." iiij.*^ ob. 

Inde computat de grosso meremio et paruo erapto xxxix.". iiij.^. Item 
in alio meremio vocato Rosterys^ vij." vj.* Item in Ij tabulis de RegeP 
emptis precio tabule .xiiij.* lix." vj.*^ Item in xiiij tabulis de Regel precio 
tabule .xij.d xiiij.« Item in iiij<>' tabulis de Regol et in tabulis de Wanscote 
emptis de Waltero Hows de Crediton cum cariagio versus Exoniam 
vj." viij.'i Item iiij^'' tabulis de Regel emptis precio tabule xiiij.* iiij." viij.* 

Summa vj. li. xj.» viij.* 

Item in .xlix. tabulis quercinis pro plonchyn* emptis precio tabule 
iij.* ob. xiiij." iij.* ob. Item in v. tabulis quercinis pro formulis^ .v.s. 
Item in ij. libris de glew .xij.* Item in iij.« et di de Bordnayl emptis 

vij.* ij." ob. 

Summa xxij." iiij.* 

Item in potu dato Carpentariis ex precepto senescallorum viij.* 

Summa viij*. 

Summa expensarum vij. li. xiiij." viij.* 

^ I have not been able to identify this place. 

^ I suggest that this word means ''roof- timbers." See Skeat s.v. roost t 
where he compares the Norwegian rostf "roofing", with the Scotch roost, the 
inner roof of a cottage. 

' This word is usually spelt Rigal, and occurs in lists of building-materials 
as Rigalbord. It denotes the timber largely imported from Riga in Russia. 
See The Builder ^ iv. 365, on "Riga and Dutch Wainscot for Building Purposes." 

* Plancher denotes a floor: i.e. the whole structure of joists and boards 
which separates one storey of a house from another ; and I need hardly say 
that planche is the same as the English "plank." Boards for plonchyng or 
planking are those to be used for the floor. 

* The word forma, and its diminutive formtUa, are shewn by Ducange, s.v., 
to mean the whole of a church stall, including the seat and desk; but 
occasionally the same word is used for a part only ; e.g. prosternere &c. super 
formas (the desks) ; and, complicantur formsB (the part of the stall commonly 
called a misericorde). 



The Library Account. 

The account of Richard Skinner, clerk of the works in the church at 
Exeter, of all his receipts and expenses regarding the library of the said 
church, drawn up in the year of our Lord one thousand four hundred and 
twelve, and in the year of the reign of King Richard [Henry] the Fourth 
the thirteenth. [30 Sept. 1411—29 Sept 1412.] 


He acknowledges to have received £18. 6«. 7^d. out of the 
residence-money of M' John Lydeford Archdeacon of 
Totness and Canon of Exeter after his death from the 
land at Loveneter ; and £16. 17«. 9c?. from the steward of 
the chancery by indenture 

Total receipts 




In the next place he brings to account the following sums : 

Large and small timber bought 

Other timber called Rosterys 

51 Regel boards at 14* a board 

14 Regel boards at 12* 

4 Regel boards and wainscot do. bought of Walter Hows of 

Crediton with carriage to Exeter 

4 Regel boards at 14* a board 

49 oak-boards bought for flooring, at 3^* a board 

5 oak-boards for desks and seats 

21b. of glue 

350 board nails at 7* a hundred 

In drink given to the carpenters by the stewards order 
Total expenses : [as above 

... ... 




... ... 



... ... 




... ••• 


Hows of 

... ... 

















der ... 




6 11 8 

1 2 4 








in crastino 

[This is succeeded by the account for wages] 
Hamundo Jakyl Carpentario operanti ibidem circa 

lectrinum in claustro per .v. dies capienti ... ij.» vi.< 
Henrico Attewat' [Attewater] Carpentario operanti 

ibidem per idem tempus capienti ij." j* 

Summa iiij.* vij.^ 



Hamundo Jakel (sic) carpentario operanti ibidem 
per .V. dies capienti 

Henrico Attewater carpentario operanti ibidem 
per idem tempus capientibus 

Noyl Luddere etDauid Alyn sarratariis operantibus 
ibidem per idem tempus capientibus 

ij.« vj.« 


iiij.8 ijd 

Summa viij.^ ix.^ 

V^ week 

Third week. Jakyl 3/0, Attewater ! 
















+ 2 sawyers for 2^ days 

[Jakyl 4 days, Attewater 6 days] 

[as in week i] 

[Jakyl 5 days, Attewater 5 J days] 
[each 2 days only] 

[as in week III] 

[each 3 days only] 

Hie accidebat festum omnium sanctorum 

Sixteenth week. Jakyl 2/6, Attewater 2/1 

Seventeenth do do 

Eighteenth do do [1 sawyer for 6 days added] 

Nineteenth do [5 days each] 

Twentieth do [6 days each] 

Twenty-first Jakyl 2/6, Attewater 2/1 

Twenty-second do do. 

Twenty-third do [one day each] 

8, d. 

4 7 
8 9 

5 6 


6 10 
4 6 
4 7 

4 9i 

1 10 

5 6 

2 9 

Jakyl, 5 days at /6d.; Attewater 4 days at /5d, 4 












Weeks [Account for wages.] 

I. To Hamund Jakyl, carpenter, work- 

ing there at the reading-room 
in the cloister for five days ... 
o-pTHnity ^o Henry Atwater, carpenter, at 
Sutiday. the same work for the same 



2 6 

2 1 

4 7 

II. Jakyl and Atwater, as before 

To Noyl Lndder and David Allen, sawyers, 
at the same work for the same time 

III. Jakyl, six days 

Atwater „ 

IV— VIL 4 weeks at 5/6 

VIII. Jakyl and Atwater each 2/6 

IX. Jakyl and Atwater 

2 sawyers for 2^ days 

X. Jakyl 4 days 

Atwater 5 days 

XL Jakyl 5 days 

Atwater „ 

XII. Jakyl 5 days 

Atwater 5^ days 

XIII. each 2 days 

XIV. [as in week iii] 

XV. each 3 days 

Here fdl All SairU^ Day, 

XVI. XVII. Jakyl and Atwater, 2 weeks at 4/7 

XVIII. The same, with a sawyer for 6 days 

XIX. Jakyl 5 days 

Atwater do. at 3^ a day 

XX— XXII. Jakyl and Atwater, 3 weeks at 4/7 

XXIII. Jakyl 6d, Atwater 3d 

XXIV. Jakyl 6 days 

Atwater 4 „ 

4 7 

4 2 

8 9 


2 6 

5 6 


1 2 


5 6 

1 4 

6 10 


2 6 

4 6 

2 6 

2 1 

4 7 

2 6 

2 3^ 

4 9i 


1 10 

• •• 

5 6 


2 9 

9 2 


6 Oi 

2 6 

1 3 

3 9 

• .. 

13 9 



2 6 

1 8 

4 2 



Twenty-fifth [as in week i] 

Twenty-sixth do 

Twenty-seventh do 

Twenty-eighth do 

Twenty-ninth [ Jakyl 6 days = 3/0, Attewater 6d. =2/1] . . . 
Hie accidebat festum Purificationis beate Marie die dominica 















[as in week iii] 

[Attewater only for 3 days].. 
[Jakyl 5 days, Attewater 6 days]., 

[as in week iii] 


[as in week i] 

[Jakyl only for 6 days] 

[do for 3 days] 

[do for 6 days] 

4 7 

4 7 

4 7 

4 7 

6 1 





1 6 


£9 3 6 

Summa omnium septimanarum ix. li. iij. s. vj. d. 

In expensis factis in ligacione librorum et in aliis vt patet seqaentcr. 


In iiij xj coreis vitulinis emptis precio pellis iiij.^ 


In iiij ij pellibus ouium emptis precio pellis iij.^ 

In xij pellibus rubeis emptis precio pellis vj.^ 

In vj duodenis de velym emptis pro custod' librorum precio 

duodene ij." x.^ 

In ix pellibus pygameni (sic) emptis ad idem 

In duabus duodenis de velym emptis ad idem precio duodene 


In tribus zonis rubiis (sic) de coreo emptis pro claspys ij." iij.'^ ^ 

In glew empto ij." vj.* 

In filis rubiis blodiis et diuer- 
In latyn et wyr empt' pro 

sorum colorum xiiij 

claspys V." ... . 

In coreo equino empto iij.^ ob. In acubus emptis pro libris ' 
suendis ij.* In cordulis emptis iij.** In farena empta 
pro past vj.<* In encausto empto ij.*^ In .j. olla et ij 
patellis emptis factis de terra iij.** In sirpis pro domo 
sua emptis ij.^ In sarcina focalium empta ijA ob. In 
stramine empto pro lecto suo iiij.*^ , 

In Ixvij libris suendis precio operis libri jd. ob. plus in toto 

XXX." uij.** 

XX." vj.* 

xvij." ijd 
xiij.<* ob. 

V." vuj.< 

X." xj.< 

ij." iiij.d 

ix." v.** ob 



XXV— XXVIII. 4 weeks at 4/7 

XXIX. Jakyl 6 days 

Atwater 5 days 

£ 8, d. 


18 4 


2 1 

5 1 

Here fell the festival of the Purification of Blessed Mary on Smiday. 

XXX— XXXIL 3wfeeksat5/6 

XXXIII. Atwater only for 3 days 

XXXIV. Jakyl and Atwater 

XXXV— XXXVL 2 weeks at 5/6 

XXXVII. Jakyl and Atwater 

XXXVIIL Jakyl only for 6 days 

XXXIX. „ „ 3 „ 

XL. „ „ 6 „ 














9 3 6 

Of expenses incurred in binding hooks and in other 7rvatte7's, as is set forth 


91 calfskins at 4<* a skin 

82 sheepskins at 3^ a skin 

12 red skins at 6^ a skin 

6 dozen velym for book-guards at 2* 10*^ a dozen 
9 skins of parchment for the same purpose ... 

2 dozen velym for the same at 2« 10*^ a dozen 

3 red straps of leather for clasps 


Red and blue string, and string of various colours 
Latyn and wire bought for clasps 

1 10 











2 3 

2 6 

1 2 


Horse-skin 3^ 

Needles to stitch books 2 

Short cords 3 

Flour to make paste 6 

Ink 2 

One pot and two saucers of earthenware ... 3 

Rushes for his own house 2 

A bundle of firewood 2^ 

Straw for his own bed 4 

Stitching 67 books at 1^*^ a book, with 13^ in addition 

10 11 




In expensis factis apud Aysberton super libros vt patet per ' 
vnam cedulam. 

In auricalco empto iiij.^ In .j. zona empta' ij.* In vj peUi- 
bus pargameni emptis xvj.^ In velym empto ij." In iij 
pellibus ouium emptis v.** In vj pellibus vitulinis 
emptis precio pellis iiij.^ ij." In filo colorato empto j.^ 
In ij tabulis de Wenscote emptis x.^ In cooperturis 
Iij librorum suendis pro quolibet j. d. iiij." iiij.^ 

In X pellibus vitulinis emptis precio pellis iiij.<^ ob. iij." ix.^ 
In xij pellibus ouium emptis precio pellis ij.<* ij." In 
xiiij. libris suendis pro quolibet libro j.*^ xiiij.*^ In filo 
emptoj.*^ ... 

In ij tabulis de novo emptis ij." iiij.^ In ij tabulis de antiquo 1 
emptis xvj.^ J 

Item domino Willelmo Hayforde pro suo labore et pro re- 1 
wardo operantis circa predictos libros J 

Item Eicardo famulo suo operanti cimi illo circa predictos 


In iiij catenis emptis pro libris pendendis in libraria 

In xl catenis emptis pro libris pendendis in libraria precio 

cathene viij.^ 

Item in ix boltys ferreis factis ponderantibus cv. libras precio 


xj.» vj.*» 





xxxvj." viij.* 

Iiij." iiij.* 

xxvj." viij.<* 

xiij." j.d ob. 

Simima xv.s. v.d. ob. 

Summa expensarum in tabulis meremiis et aliis, vt patet in 

paruo compute vij li. xiiij." viij.* 

Summa septimanaaimi in carpentariis ix li. iij ." vj .<^ 

Summa omnium expensarum xxxv. li. xiij." vij.* ob. ; et sic excedit in 
in ix." iij.d quos recepit xj die Aprilis anno regni regis H. quinti et aeq. 



Expenses incurred at Ashburton about hooks, as appears by a schedule. 


A strap \ 

6 skins of parchment 


3 sheepskins 

6 calfskins at 4^ a skin 

Coloured thread 

2 wainscot boards 

For stitching the covers of 52 books at \^ piece 

10 calfskins at 4^^ 

12 sheepskins at 2^ 

For stitching 14 books at 1^ a piece 

2 boards recently bought 

2 boards bought some time since 


1 4 



4 4 

3 9 

1 2 

2 4 
1 4 

To M' William Hayford for his pains, and in consideration 
of the work he did to the aforesaid books 

To Richard his servant when he worked with him as 

80 chains for hanging books in the library 

40 do. at 8^ a chain 

For making 9 iron bars weighing 1051b. at \Y a poimd 


11 6 


3 8 


1 16 8 

2 13 4 
1 6 8 

13 H 

18 15 5i 

Spent on boards, timber, and other things, as set forth in 

the small account 

Wages of carpenters 

Total of the whole expenses 
Total receipts, as above 

Excess of expenses over receipts 

This sum the accoimtant received 11 April in the year of the reign of 
King Henry V, and so his account balanced. 

7 14 
9 3 


£35 13 
35 4 


£0 9 


304 J. W. CLARK 

The shell of the building had evidently been completed 
before our account begins, for no bricklayers or masons are 
mentioned in it, only carpenters and sawyers. 

The account is divided into three parts. The first is 
occupied with the purchase of timber ; the second with wages ; 
and the third with the repair of books. In the first division it 
is specially mentioned that the oak boards bought are for the 
floor, and for benches and desks — if my interpretation of the 
word formula be accepted. The benches would be for readers, 
while the books, which were chained, lay upon the desks. In 
other words, the library was fitted up on what I have called 
elsewhere the lectern-system ^ 

The library is known to have been over the east cloister — 
subsequently for the most part destroyed ; but the unusual word 
lectern (lectrinum) employed to denote it deserves attention. 
This word usually means a church-desk or lectern ; and in the 
oldest catalogue of the library at Peterhouse, dated 1418, it is 
used to denote a desk for books. Certain MSS are described 
as chained " to the sixth desk (lectrino) on the west side'*." In 
our account the part is clearly used for the whole, and I have 
translated the word "reading-room." 

The work began on the Monday after Trinity Sunday 
(30 May) 1412; and occupied two carpenters, with occasional 
assistance from two sawyers, for forty weeks. It is evident, 
however, that it was interrupted, for we are told incidentally 
that All Saints Day (1 November) fell in the fifteenth week. 
Now the fifteenth week, counting the week beginning with 
Monday 30 May as the first, would be the second week in 
September, instead of the last week in October. The amount 
paid in each week shews that, after the fashion of workmen in 
all ages and all countries, there was no hurry to get the job 
done. After All Saints Day, 1412, work went forward with 
greater regularity, and the 29th week falls correctly with regard 
to the Purification of Our Lady, if the note stating that the 
festival fell on a Sunday means that it was kept on Sunday, 

^ The Care of Books, Chap. iv. 

2 A descriptive catalogue of the MSS. in the library of Peterhouse, By 
M. B. James, Litt.D. Svo. Gamb. 1899, p. 3. 


5 February, 1413. On the assumption that this regularity was 
maintained, the last week would be Easter week, 1413 (Easter 
Day in that year being 23 April). It is, however, hardly likely 
that work would go forward as usual either in that week or in 
Holy Week ; so that in all probability the room was not com- 
pletely finished until some date in May 1413 — that is, nearly a 
year from the beginning. 

Of the two carpenters, Hamund Jakyl, and Henry Atwater, 
the former received sixpence a day, and the latter fivepence. 

The payments recorded in the third division of the account 
deal for the most part with the purchase of the materials 
required for the binding of books, all of which were bought by 
the clerk of the works, down to needles, glue, and flour to make 
paste. The work was done in Exeter, with the exception of 
52 books, which were repaired at Ashburton. Lastly, a 
Mr William Hayford, about whom we are told nothing except 
that he had " done work upon the aforesaid books,'* is paid £6, 
equal I suppose to £72 at least of our money, while Richard 
his servant receives £1. 165. 8d, 

When the room was ready for the books, and the books for 
the room, we find, at the close of the account, a charge for the 
purchase of 120 chains, and 9 iron bars. The total cost of the 
work thus brought to account had reached nearly £36, or £432 
at the present value of money. 

The roll of general expenses for the same year contains a 
further charge for 43 chairs and 3 iron bars to carry them^; and 
in the year following 28 more are bought, so that the total 
reaches 191.* This large quantity probably indicates that 
before the new library was built a number of books were 

This library, or *' place to read in " was, as I have said, in 
the cloister. So much is told us in the accounts which I have 
just analysed. But a catalogue made in 1506, and printed 
by Dr Oliver, enables us to determine its position there with 

1 Experts, necess. (1412—1413). In xliij cathenis emptis de Johanne Hamelyn, 
precio cathene, viij*^. xxxviij". viij<*. Item predicto Johanni pro iij boltis ferreis 
pro cathenis portandis in libraria ponderantibus xxxxj^**. preoio libre j**. ob. 
iiij'. Yj<*. 

306 J. W. CLARK 

tolerable accuracy. The compiler enumerates the contents of 
each desk {descus) beginning with the first desk on the east 
side. He then goes round the room, and enumerates eleven 
desks. Unfortunately he does not tell us at which desk the 
opposite side of the room begins ; but as we learn incidentally 
that there was a door on the west side, I think it probable 
that there were six desks on the east side and five on the 
west side, the sixth bay being occupied by the door, which, we 
may conjecture, was approached from an external stair or 
'vice.' If this view be correct the library occupied the east 
part of the cloister, south of the chapter-house. No data 
whatever are given in this catalogue for even a conjecture as 
to the form of the desks. 

A few words on the after-history of this library will not be 
out of place ; but it is a sad story of alienation and ruin. 

In 1566 the Dean and Chapter ceded to Archbishop Parker 
a manuscript which Leofric had given to his cathedral, a copy 
of the Anglo-Saxon Gospels now in the library of Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge ; and in 1602 they ceded to Sir 
Thomas Bodley 81 latin MSS. Mr Macray records that "they 
nearly all bear more or less sign of having been exposed to 
great damp\" 

In 1656 "the civil incorporation" of Exeter, called 'the 
chamber,' purchased the cloisters from the person who had got 
possession of them after the Dean and Chapter had been turned 
out of the Cathedral, pulled them down, and in the following 
year removed the serge-market into them. The Library, or 
what was left of it, was taken into the Lady Chapel, where it 
remained until 1820. It seems to have been fairly well cared 
for during its sojourn in that inconvenient locality, which was 
prolonged until 1820, when it was transferred to the Chapter 
House. In 1887 a new library was begun on the site where 
the original one is believed to have stood, from the design of 
Mr J. L. Pearson. 

1 Annals of the Bodleian Libravy, ed. ii. p. 28. 

exeter cathedral 307 

On two pieces of furniture in Exeter Cathedral 
formerly used for the protection of boors. 

By J. W. Clark, M.A. 

In the course of a visit to Exeter Cathedral in September 
last I caught sight of the two boxes or desks which I am about 
to describe. As, however, their general appearance will be better 
understood from a figure than a description, I will at once 
place before my readers reproductions of the photographs which 
I was kindly allowed to have taken for my special use, merely 
premising that the objects to which I wish to draw attention 
are placed at the east end of each choir-aisle, quite symmetri- 
cally with reference to each other, on the north and south sides 
respectively of the piers which intervene between the Lady 
Chapel and S. Mary Magdalene's Chapel on the north (fig. 1), 
and the Lady Chapel and S. Gabriers Chapel on the south 
(fig. 2). Moreover, as the figures shew, they are close to the 
screens which separate these chapels from the choir-aisle or 
ambulatory, and have therefore no connection with the Lady 
Chapel. From their position, however, they would always 
have attracted the attention of any person who was walking 
towards that chapel, as they attracted mine. 

The two boxes are so exactly similar that it would be a 
mere waste of time to give a minute description of each. I 
will therefore begin by stating, with reference to both, that the 
material is oak, now black with age. Of the two halves each 
is cut out of a solid block of wood ; in fact the whole box looks 
as though it had once been a beam, which was afterwards sawn 
into two longitudinally. There is no fastening, nor trace of 
any ; nor is there any ornament or molding to give the slightest 
indication of date. 

Each box rests on four stout iron supports, sunk into the 
pier. Of these the two lower are considerably longer than the 
two upper, so that the box is set at an angle. The distance 
from the ground to the top of the upper support is 4 ft. 9 in., a 
convenient height for use when a man is standing in front of it 



Fio. 1. Book-box to hold a book, in soath qoire-aisk, Exeter Cathedral. 



Fia. 2. Box to hold a book, in north quire-aisle, Exeter Cathedral. 

CA.S. Comm. Vol. X. 


310 J. W. CLARK 

(fig. 1), whatever may have been its destination. Each longer 
support is connected with the shorter support on the same side 
by a piece of iron which is turned up behind the box at right 
angles to its former direction, and carries a long hinge, attached 
to the inner side of the lid, or upper half, of the box. 

On the outside each box is 17 in. long, by 9f in. broad, and 
4^ in. thick when closed ; on the inside each half is hollowed 
internally into a tray measuring 13^ in. by 7f in. The depth 
differs slightly in the lid and in the fixed half of the box, 
being 2 J in. in the latter, and 1 J in. in the former ; so that the 
total depth of the space inside is 3| in. 

The box next to S. Gabriel's Chapel has a hole 2 in. square 
cut in the lid (fig. 1). This hole is not cut with clean sides 
right through the wood, but at an eighth of an inch below the 
surface it is rebated, as if it had been intended to support 
something, say a plate of metal. I have heard that these boxes 
are sometimes called money-boxes, probably from the presence 
of this hole ; but this attribution can hardly be correct, in the 
absence of any fastening. On the other hand I feel myself 
wholly unable to suggest any use for the hole in question. 

Let us now turn to the box next to S. Mary Magdalene's 
Chapel (fig. 2). The only difference worth notice is that the 
external angles of the lid are roughly chamfered ; and that the 
hinges, instead of being sunk into the lid, are nailed to the 
inner face, with a groove cut into the sides of the lower half to 
receive them. At the bottom of this lower half is an object 
which reveals, as I think, the original destination of the two 
boxes. It is a piece of wood about an eighth of an inch thick, 
and 4^ in. wide, filling the tray from top to bottom. Along the 
edge of it nearest to the centre of the tray are six grooves, 
each about If in. long by about IJin. wide, and Jin. apart. 
A hole has been bored through the end of each groove, as is 
well shewn in the illustration (fig. 2). That this piece of 
wood — which is securely nailed to the tray — was once the 
left-hand board of a book, is placed beyond doubt by the 
presence, in the third and fourth grooves counting from the 
top, of a piece of the leather thong which, in medieval binding, 
was commonly fastened into the board by a peg or other 


device, whence it was carried along a groove, through a hole at 
the end, and round the back of the volume, into the corre- 
sponding board on the other side^ On some now forgotten 
occasion the book was violently wrenched out of its case, but 
the board which still remains as a mute witness of what then 
took place was so securely fastened down that it eflfectually 
resisted the efforts of the spoiler to renaove it. Whoever he 
was, he was evidently in a hurry, and cut through the leathern 
thongs rather than wait for a few moments until a hammer 
and chisel could be brought to bear upon the stubborn nails. 

In the box on the opposite side of the Cathedral there are 
marks of at least four nails in the bottom, and part of one nail 
is still sunk in the wood. 

It should be noticed that the books which were once fixed 
in these boxes — whatever may have been their original desti- 
nation — must have been far smaller than those which after the 
Reformation were kept in churches for the use of the public. 
It may, however, be" suggested that the comparative smallness 
of their size may account for tlie extraordinary precautions 
taken to preserve them. It is possible, too, that they were 
remarkable for the beauty of their penmanship, or of their 

I think it not improbable that before the invention of 
printing books of general use were frequently placed in 
Cathedrals for the public benefit. At Exeter itself in 1327 
there was a Breviary and a Missal chained in the quire for the 
use of the people (ad deserviendum popido^); and in 1433-34 a 
copy of the Rationale divinorum offidorum of Durand was 
given to the Cathedral, and a chain was bought for it", but 
nothing is said as to the part of the church in which it was 
placed. It further appears from an inventory taken in 1506, 
that at that time there were two sets of books chained in the 
Cathedral. The following seven volumes were "behind the 

1 A medieval book was exhibited, to illustrate the method here described. 

3 Lives of the BUhops of Exeter [etc.]. By Geo. Oliver, D.D. 8vo. Exeter, 
1861, p. 309. 

* Roll ofAccounU, Mich. 12, Hen. VI.— Mich. 13, Hen. VL Exp. necess.... 
In j. cathena empta pro libro vocato Rationale diuinorum cathenando in 
ecclesia cathedrali Exon* dato eidem per B* Bolter^ xvjd, 


312 J. W. CLARK 

treasurer's stall"; namely, a Bible in three volumes, Nicholas 
de Lyra, also in three volumes, and a Concordance; and "behind 
the succentor's stall" a far larger collection, in fact, a small 
library containing the most important text-books in civil and 
canon law. I give a list of them, slightly expanded from the 
Latin original. 

Codex of Justinian. 

Commentary of Cinus, a Bolognese jurist (1270-1336), on the Codex. 

-Digest, in three parts (vetus, inforciatimi, novum). 

Primum volumen (the fii-st volume of the Corpus Juris). 


The Decretals. 

Commentary of Hugutio, bp. of Ferrara, d. 1212, on the Decretals. 

Sext, or sixth book of the Decretals. 

Clementine, with the glosses of all the Commentators : a collection of 
Decretals in continuation of the Sext. 

Summa of Henry of Susa, called Hostiensis, on the Titles of the 

Commentary of Pope Innocent IV on the five books of the Decretals. 

Speculum judiciale of William Durantis^. 

A few instances of the practice elsewhere may be quoted. 
At Canterbury Erasmus observed in the nave of the cathedral 
" some books fixed to the pillars, among which is the Gospel of 
Nicodemus*." In S. George's Chapel, Windsor, is the following 
inscription, arranged in eight lines, incised upon a stone 47^ in. 
long, by 17 in. deep, inserted in the space immediately below 
a niche which doubtless once contained the book, probably a 
breviary, referred to in the text : 

Who leyde this booke here [?] The Reverend Fader in god Richard 
Beauchamp Bisschop | of this Diocyse of Sarysbury and wherfor [?] To 
this entente that Preestis and ministers | of goddis chirche may here have 
the occupacion therof seyyng therin theyr divyne servyse | and for alle 
othir that lystyn to sey therby ther devocion. 

Askyth he any spirituall mede [?] | Yee as moche as oure Lord lyst to 
reward hym for his good entent praying euery man | w5s dvte or de- 
uocion is eased by this booke they woU sey for hym this commime Oryson | 
Domine Jesu Christe : kneling in the presence of this holy Crosse for the 
wyche the Reuerend Fadir | in god aboueseyd bathe grauntid of the 
tresure of the Churche to euery man xl dayys of pardun ' | 

^ These two lists are printed by Oliver, ut mprat p. 359. 

* Peregrinatio religionis ergo, ed. J. G. Nichols. Svo. Lend. 1876, p. 41. 

' I have to thank my friend the Rev. J. N. Dalton, M.A., Canon of WiDdsor, 


)k Richard Beauchamp was made Bishop of Salisbury in 1450, 

m and Dean of Windsor in 1481. The niche bearing the above 

lai; inscription is on the north side of the south choir-aisle at its 

D(i eastern end. There are three similar niches in the chapel : 

lie one opposite to this against the south wall of the same aisle ; 

and two in the north aisle, similarly placed with reference to 
each other. Each is 52 in. broad by 50 in. high, and 18 in. 
deep, and would easily hold a large folio volume laid open, 
while their height above the pavement, 44 in., would be con- 
venient for readers. 

In the Cathedral of Le Mans there is a small niche against 

one of the piers of the south choir-aisle, with an inscription 

recording that one of the canons "gave this breviary for the 

f use of those who have none of their own. Pray God for him\" 

Unfortunately no date is appended. 

Dr M. R. James suggested that perhaps the building of a 
new Library at Exeter had been rendered necessary by the 
accretion of a large number of books given by Bishop John 
Grandison (d. 1369). This bishop was a great collector of 
books: his hand is traceable as correcting or annotating a 
good many of the Exeter MSS. in the Bodleian. In a Lambeth 
MS. (203) and in a copy of Gregory of Tours at Trinity College 
(O. 10. 23) his notes are particularly copious. In the latter, 
especially, he calls attention more than once to the rarity of 
the book and to the faulty Latinity of Gregory. 

It would be well worth while to hunt up, in the Bodleian 
and elsewhere, the books that once belonged to him. 

Exeter has been fortunate in respect of book-collecting 
bishops. The name of Leofric was familiar in this respect. 
Out of the fifty-two books he left to his Cathedral thirteen are 
readily recognizable as now extant, and there are two or three 
others in our libraries which are not named in his catalogue. 

for kindly copying this inscription for me. See also Davis and Tighe, Annah 
of Windsor, i. 424, n. 

^ The words are: ''dedit istad breviarinm pro usa indigencium. Orate 
denm pro eo." I think that the word *^ indigencium " does not signify a poor 
man in the ordinary sense of those words, but as I have translated it in the 
text. I visited Le Mans in September, 1890. 

314 C. J. B. GASKOIN 

The University Wills at Peterborough. 
By C. J. B. Gaskoin. 

The Chancellor's Court of the University of Cambridge 
possessed from an early date the right of proving wills. The 
similar privilege of the Chancellor's Court at Oxford is traced 
to the confirmation of the Chancellor by the diocesan, the 
Bishop of Lincoln, though it was described in 1280 as having 
existed from time immemorial, and after the Papal Bull of 
exemption of 1368 was claimed by the Chancellor as an 
inherent right of his oflSce. Possibly in like manner the 
testamentary jurisdiction of the Cambridge Chancellor was 
originally derived from the Bishop of Ely. Its extent was 
defined in 1714, when Dr Bentley, as Archdeacon of Ely, was 
compelled to recognise, for himself and his successors, the 
undoubted right of the University to the probate of wills 
and granting administrations of goods of 

(i) All persons... declared to be under privilege in the 
'Processus Bernwellensis/ or described or mentioned as 
Scholars' Servants in the Royal Charters of the University, 
especially those granted by Elizabeth, and in the ' Composition 
between the University and the Town' referred to in the 
Charter of 31 Eliz. 

(ii) All Children and Servants of Scholars, or of any 
privileged person as above mentioned, if — at the time of their 
death — of the Family of such Scholar &c. ; all Widows of 
Scholars or privileged persons, if they remain widows; and 
all Children and Servants of such widows being — at their 
death — of the family of such widows ; other rights or privileges 
which might be here omitted being expressly reserved. 

In the middle of the 18th century the practice of proving 
wills in the Chancellor's Court fell into disuse. The last grant 
of probate was made on Feb. 12, 1765. 

In 1828 the Vice-Chancellor — in compliance with a resolu- 
tion of the House of Commons — made a return describing, with 
fair accuracy, the testamentary documents under his care. The 


return is reprinted with others in the Parliamentary Papers for 

The Act 20 and 21 Victoria c. 77 not only abolished the 
testamentary jurisdiction of all existing Courts, substituting 
for them a single Court of Probate in London with a Principal 
Registry and District Registries throughout the kingdom, and 
ordering the deposit in future of all original wills in the 
Principal Registry exclusively, but further required the trans- 
ference of the testamentary records of all existing courts to the 
Registry concerned — Principal or District as the case might be. 

The- University Wills of Cambridge and Oxford were to be 
transferred to the Registries at Peterborough and Oxford 

The Cambridge Registrary, Romilly, received a formal 
demand to surrender his documents on March 6, 1860; in 
letters from the Peterborough Registrar dated March 8 and 15 
he was informed that the registered copies and inventories as 
well as the original wills must go, and remonstrances at head- 
quarters evoked only a sympathetic oflFer of a respite to 
facilitate transcription. On March 20 the arrival of the docu- 
ments at Peterborough was duly acknowledged \ 

The Oxford authorities made a firmer stand. On March 15 
Dr GriflBths, keeper of the Archives, wrote to the Cambridge 
Registrary suggesting joint action by the two Universities to 
secure exemption from the operation of the Act, and heard 
in reply (March 17) that Cambridge had agreed to the transfer, 
and that everything was packed up in readiness for removal. 
On the 24th he wrote again suggesting an Act for permitting 
the Universities to retain their testamentary records on con- 
dition that they should be accessible to the public on the 
same terms as those in the District-Registries, without any 
fee to the Universities or their oflBcials. Two days later he 
enclosed a draft bill drawn by Mr Goldwin Smith, and invited 
the cooperation of the Cambridge representatives in Parliament 

1 They comprised (i) twenty-six bundles of wills, mainly originals, of 
1540-1765; (ii) Administration Bonds in six or seven packages; (iii) a vast 
mass of Inventories ; (iv) a few bundles of miscellaneous documents ; (v) five 
volumes containing registered copies of most wills proved in 1501-1765, and 
certain other matter. 

316 C. J. B. GASKOIN 

with Sir William Heathcote, one of the Members for the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, who was negotiating with the Government. 

And on June 5 Sir William himself enclosed a draft, 
requesting the Registrary to insert such details as would 
make it applicable to both the Universities. Mr Romilly 
apparently complied ; but there all record of the matter ceases. 
The Bill was duly passed as § 2 of 'An Act for removing 
Doubts respecting the Craven Scholarships in the University 
of Oxford, and for enabling the University to retain the custody 
of certain testamentary documents' (23 and 24 Vic. c. 91). 
But it dealt with Oxford alone. The Vice-Chancel lor was 
required by the Act to have the wills &c. calendared as soon 
as might be, and to allow the public to inspect them on the 
terms above mentioned, and on these conditions they were 
permitted to continue in the custody of the University. The 
Cambridge documents remained, and still remain, at Peter- 
borough. The reason is unknown. Perhaps the actual 
surrender was the fatal step ; but the Keeper of the Archives 
at Oxford and the Cambridge Registrary can throw no light 
on the problem. 

Attempts have since been made to obtain leave from the 
Court of Probate to borrow the records from Peterborough for 
purposes of transcription. But hitherto they have proved vain ; 
and it must be admitted that the labour and expense of 
transcribing the wills and administrations of some 1550 persons 
registered in the Chancellor's Court between 1501 and 1765 
(the extreme dates of the documents at Peterborough) would 
be very serious. But if an Act on the lines of the Oxford Act 
could be procured there would seem to be no objection to the 
University's undertaking to issue within a reasonable time a 
Calendar giving genealogical and topographical abstracts of all 
the documents. 

A copy of such a Calendar, placed at Peterborough, would 
be far more valuable to a pedigree hunter or other species of 
antiquarian than the original MSS. themselves, while those 
MSS. would once more be found — securely guarded from fire and 
in their proper home. 


The Place-names of Huntingdonshire. 
By Professor Skeat. 

§ 1. Prefatory remarks. 

In dealing with the place-names of Cambridgeshire, I found 
it convenient to arrange them according to the suflSxes which 
they cotnmonly include, such as -ham, -ton, -worth, and the 
like. Such suflfixes are more than usually numerous in the 
case of Huntingdonshire, notwithstanding the small size of 
the county. Arranged in alphabetical order, they occur as 
follows: — 'herh, -hois, -bourn, -bridge, -brook, -bury, -Chester, 
-cote, -den, -ditch, -don, -ey, -ford, -ground, -grove, -ham, -head, 
-hithe, -hoe, -ing, -land, -ley, -low, -reach, -stead, -stone, -stow, 
-thorn, -thorpe, -ton, -well, -wick, -wold, -wood, -worth. Of these, 
about thirteen do not appear in Cambridgeshire as suffixes, 
viz.: — -berh, -bois, -brook, -bury, -ground, -grove, -head, -hoe, 
-land, -thorn, -thorpe, -wold, -wood ; whilst on the other hand, 
there does not appear to be any Huntingdonshire place-name 
ending in -field, like the Cambridgeshire Haslingfield, Noster- 
field, and Radfield ; nor any in -beach, -hale, -heath, -port, -reth, 
or -wade. 

A few descriptive names appear as complete words, either 
by themselves or preceded by another epithet; and it will be 
convenient to treat these along with the rest. Such names are 
Colne, Hill (as in Round Hill), The Hime, Holme (as in Port 
Holme), Hurst, Mere, Moor, Perry, and Slepe. 

Of many of the names containing suffixes there is but one 
example in each case, as in Warde-bois, Qodman-chester, and 
the like. The commonest suffixes are -ford, -ham, -ley, -ton, 
and -worth] and it is worth while noticing that there are but 
five examples of -ham as against twenty-four examples in 
Cambridgeshire; whilst on the other hand, the number of 
examples of -ton is greater, amounting to at least thirty-six. 
Besides the various descriptive names, we must include some 
saints, with which this county is well provided; viz. St Ives 
and St Neots, as well as those mentioned in Sawtry All Saints, 

318 W. W. SKEAT 

Sawtry St Andrew's, and Sawtry St Judith, though the last of 
these names seems to be incorrect. 

The various suffixes or similar descriptive epithets will now 
be discussed separately.. The names considered are nearly all 
of them old, and most of them are mentioned in Domesday 
Book. I omit modern names of farms and lodges ; and others 
of little general interest. 

Abbreviations, etc. 

Tlie following is a list of the more important sources of old 
names and their significations, with some abbreviations : 
Cat. A.D. — Catalogue of Ancient Deeds (Record Series). 
D.B. — Domesday Book (part relating to Huntingdonshire). 
E.D.D. — English Dialect Dictionary. 
FA. — Feudal Aids (Record Series) ; vol. ii. 
H.R. — Hundred Rolls; Rotuli Hundredorum ; vols, i and ii. 

Those in vol. ii are dated 1279. 
Index to the Rolls and Charters in the British Museum, ed. 

H. J. Ellis and F. B. Bickley (1900). 
I.P.M. — Calendarium Inquisitionum post Mortem sive Es- 

caetarum, ed. J. Caley ; vol. i (Record Series). 
N.E.D.— New English Dictionary (Oxford). 
P.F. — Select Pleas of the Forest; ed. Q. J. Turner, London, 

1901 (Selden Society, vol. xiii). 
P.R.— Pipe Roll, 1189—1190; and Rolls of the Pipe, 1155 

— 8 ; ed. Rev. Joseph Hunter. 
R.B.— Red Book of the Exchequer; ed. W. D. Selby (Rolls 

R.C. — Ramsey Chartulary, ed. W. H. Hart; 3 vols (the 

third vol. has the Index). 
R. Chron. — Ramsey Chronicle, ed. W. D. Macray (Rolls 

I have also, of course, made constant use of Kemble's edition 
of the A.S. charters, entitled Codex Diplomaticus -^vi Saxonici, 
published in six volumes for the Society of Antiquaries in 
1839 — 48 ; Birch's edition of selected charters, entitled Cartu- 
larium Saxonicum, published in three volumes in 1885 — 93 ; 
Thorpe's Diplomatarium Anglicum Mvi Saxonici (1865); 


Earle's Handbook to the Land Charters and other ^ Saxonic 
Documents, Oxford, 1888 ; and Mr Searle's Onomasticon 
Anglo-Saxonicum, Cambridge, 1897, which contains a very full 
collection of Old English names. I have also been favoured 
with Rome useful notes communicated by Mr Norris, of Ciren- 
cester, and formerly of St Ives ; and by Mr S. Inskip Ladds, of 
Huntingdon, who has taken much pains to search authorities, 
and to compile notes relating to the place-names of the county. 

§ 2. The old suffix -berh. 

Weybridge. This name is certainly an altered one, and 
did not originally end in -bridge ; for -which reason it must be 
considered separately. There was once an extensive forest 
there, the name of which is retained in Weybridge Farm, which 
lies to the S. of Alconbury, and E.N.E. of Ellington. It is 
frequently mentioned in P.F., the usual spelling being Wau- 
berge; but we find a still older form Walberg in R.C., and the 
Latinised form Walbergie (genitive) in the Rotuli Chartarum 
in Turri Londinensi, 1827, under the date 1199. It is clear 
that berge is a later variant of berk, which is the A.F. [Anglo- 
French] spelling of 0. Merc, berk, A.S. beorh, a hill ; and the 
hill is well marked on the Ordnance Map, being over a 
hundred feet above sea-level. We have an exact parallel in 
the case of the M.E. scauberk, a scabbard, spelt scavherge in the 
Romance of Partenay (Early Eng. Text Soc). The prefix WaU, 
as in other cases, represents the A.S. Wecda, gen. pi. of Wealh, 
a foreigner, a Briton. Thus the true sense is * Britons' hill ' ; 
of which the modern form gives no hint. The spelling Wa- 
bridge in Pigot's Atlas (1831) is better than the present form 

§ 3. The suffix -bois or -boys. 

This only occurs in Warboys, but is of great interest, as it 
is not of English, but of Norman origin. It represents the 
A.F. bois, a wood, in which the final s was not dropped as in 
modem French, but was fully preserved as a voiceless consonant, 
so that it rhymed with voice and choice. The surname Boyce is 
still common, and answers in sense to the English Wood. We 

320 W. W. SKEAT 

also find it in Theydon Bois, the name of a place iu Essex near 
Epping Forest. Near to Warboys a considerable wood still 
exists, and is called Warboys Woods. 

Warboys. The whole name is Norman, and must have 
been given in the time of William the Conqueror, for it appears 
in Domesday Book, about twenty years after his accession to 
the English throne. It is there spelt in a partially Latinised 
form, appearing as Wardebusc ; the Ramsey Chartulary has the 
spellings Wardebusc, Wardebux, Wardebuscus, Wardebuche, 
and Wardebois ; and the Ramsey Chronicle has WardebiLSC and 
Wardebois. We also find Wardebusc in a pretended charter 
supposed to have been given by king Eadgar on Dec. 28, 
974 (Birch, iii. 635); but the late spellings of all the place- 
names that occur in it are quite suflBcient to condemn it. At 
the same time, such spellings are of some value as being 
archaic, and the same charter will again be quoted below for 
what its spellings are worth. 

Warde-bois is a singular compound, because the former 
syllable (as in ward-robe) has a verbal force. It has been said 
that such compounds never occur in Anglo-Saxon. But they 
were common in Norman ; the Norman minstrel Taillefer had 
a name signifying ' one who cuts iron ' ; and the modern name 
Talboys means 'one who cuts wood.' We have no means of 
determining whether the sense of Warde-bois was *a place 
guarding the wood,' such as a forester's hut, or denoted the 
forester himself; but the idea is sufficiently clear, and we 
know that there were official foresters in the county, which is 
said to have been largely occupied by forests in early times. 

The idea that Wardebois originally denoted the forester 
himself is favoured by Cotgrave's explanation of Oarde de bois 
by *the warden of, or keeper in, a wood or forrest/ The 
English name was woodward; see P.F., p. Ixvii. 

§ 4. The suffix -bourn. 

HoLBORN ; between Elton and Stibbington. Lit. * bourn in 
a hollow ' ; from A.S. hoi, a hollow, or hola, a hole. Cf. Hol- 
brook from Holanbroc in Kemble's index. 


Morborn; to the W. of Yaxley. D.B. Morburne; H.R. 
Morbum (56 Henry III). From A.S. mdVy a raoor; and A.S. 
hum, a small stream. 

§ 5. The suffix -bridge. 

BoTOLPH Bridge. The name of a manor near Orton 
Longueville. Named perhaps from St Botolph, a Norman 
travesty of the A.S. name Botwulf. D.B. Botulvesbrige ; R.B. 

§ 6. The suffix -brook. 

Brook needs no explanation. The A.S. form was broc, as 
given in my Place-names of Cambridgeshire ; to which I refer 
the reader both in the present case and many others. There 
are two examples. 

Qallow Brook. We now only use the plural form gallows ; 
but the Catholicon Anglicum, in 1483, has : * a Galowe, furca,' 
See the N.E.D. (New English Dictionary). 

Hinchingbrook. Hinchingbrook'House is near Huntingdon. 
As Hinxworth (Cambs.) is known to be derived from the A.S. 
Hengestes, gen. case of Hengest, I offer the guess that Hinching- 
brook is from Hengestinga, gen. pi. of Hengesting; the sense 
being * brook of the sons (or family) of Hengest.' 

TiLLBROOK. Near Catworth, and formerly in Beds.; but 
now (says Mr Ladds) in the administrative county of Hunts. 
Spelt Tilebroc in H.R. ii. For A.S. Tilan broc, i.e. Tila's brook. 
Tila would be a pet-name for names beginning with Til-, as 
Til-beorht, Til-brand, &c. Of. Tillington (Sussex). 

Westbrook ; N. of Abbotsley. Spelt Westbroo in Kemble, 
iii. 217 ; but with reference to another stream. 

§ 7. The suffix -bury. 

Bury occurs alone, as well as in composition ; the place so 
called is near Ramsey. Many A.S. names occur in the dative 
case, the prep, cet (at) being understood. The A.S. byrig is the 
dat. case of burh ; so that the form bury represents the dative 
of burh, a borough. (Distinct from A.S. beorh, a hill.) 

322 W. W. SKEAT 

Alconbury. R.C. Alkemundeberia, Alkemondesbury; R.B. 
Alcmundehyry \ D.B. has Acumesberie (corruptly); cf. H.R. 
Acundberi (7 Edw. II); I.P.M. Aucmundebir' (42 Hen. Ill); 
F.A. vol. ii. Alcmondebury (A.D. 1316). It is therefore short for 
Alkmund's-bury. Alkmund is a Norman travesty of the A.S. 
name Ealhmund, Old Mercian Alhmund. St Ealhmund's day 
is March 19. In The British Gazetteer by B. Clarke (London, 
1852) this place is called 'Alconbury or Alkmundbury*; so that 
its origin is well known. 

Eynesbury; near St Neots. D.B. Einulvesberie, This 
shews that the name has been remarkably contracted. Eynes- 
represents the D.B. form Einulves; and this obviously repre- 
sents, in its turn, the gen. case of A.S. ^inulf, as it is spelt in 
a signature to Charter no. 1257 in Birch, Cart. Saxon, iii. 541. 
Further, this JSinulf is a late form oi ^genwulf. The reduction 
of the suffix 'Wvlf to -ulf is extremely common. 

§ 8. The suffix -Chester. 

It is well known that -cheater corresponds to A.S. -ceaster, 
the Wessex adaptation of L. cdstra, a camp. It only occurs 
in one instance. 

GoDMANCHESTER. A History of Godmanchester was written 
by R. Fox in 1831, in which it was assumed, quite wrongly and 
wholly without evidence, that Godman- represents the Godrum 
(so spelt in the A.S. Chronicle) who made peace with king 
iElfred at Wed more. But the spellings Outhmuncestria and 
Oudmuncestre in the Ramsey Chronicle (p. 47) make it quite 
certain that the town was named after one of the numerous 
Guthmunds. The missing d appears in LP.M. (29 Edw. I), 
in the form Ourmundecestre, and even in D.B., which has 
Oodmundcestre, The reduction of th to d, and the substitution 
of for u, are both common characteristics of the Anglo-French 
habits introduced by Norman scribes. 

§ 9. COLNE. 

CoLNE lies to the S. of Somersham, and near Earith. Spelt 
Colne also in D.B. and R.C. There are several other places, 


and two rivers, with the same name. Colchester was formerly 
Colnchester, and appears in Kemble's Charters as Golenceaster ; 
he also has Colen-ea for Colney. Here Coin- seems to represent 
an A.S. Golan, dative or gen. of Cola, a name which occurs 
several times. 

But we find in Birch's Cartularium Saxonicum, vol. i. p. 240, 
a charter (numbered 166) of extremely early date, belonging 
to the former half of the eighth century, in which the river 
Colne, in Gloucestershire, appears in the remarkable form 
Cunufflae, with a genitive case Gunuglan] and if this really 
represents the same name, we may perhaps conclude that the 
name of the river was originally Celtic ; and I am by no means 
prepared to explain it further. It is possible, however, that the 
place-name and the river-name are distinct. 

§ 10. The suffix -cote. 

Caldecote; to the S. of Folksworth. D.B. Caldecote. 
From the O. Mercian formula wt tham caldan cotan, *at the 
cold cot'; see the explanation in PL-names of Cambs., p. 28. 

§ 11. Cross. 

Norman Cross. The name of the northern hundred of 
the four into which the county is divided. D.B. Normanecros. 
We find in the spurious Charter of Eadgar (dated 972), the 
expression — 'quod iacet ad hundred de Normannes Cross' — 
so that the literal sense is * the cross of the Norman.' This is 
quite enough to decide the spuriousness of the charter. See 
Kemble, Cod. Dipl. iii. 94. The D.B. form Normanecros is 
the earliest known certain example of the use of the word cros. 
It was usual to set up crosses at the junction of four roads ; 
and in this instance it may have been set up at the spot where 
a road from Yaxley to Folksworth crosses the Old North Road 
to the N. of Stilton. 

§ 12. The suffix -den. 

From A.S. denu, a vale ; see PL-names of Cambs., p. 47. 

Agden. Spelt Akeden in H.R. vol. ii. (1279); and in 
Rotuli Chartarum in Turri Londinensi (1205). It answers to 

324j w. w. skeat 

A.S. Acden, of which Kemble has two examples. The prefix is 
A.S. CM?, shortened form of ac, an oak, the long a being shortened 
before cd ; of. Ac-ton. The sense is ' oak- valley.' Agden Wood 
lies to the N. of Great Staughton. 

BucKDEN. D.B. has Bugedene; R.C. Bukedene; R. Chron. 
Buccenden. For A.S. Buccan denu, lit. * valley of the he-goat/ 
or 'valley of Bucca.' The A.S. bucca means properly *a he-goat*; 
but it also occurs as a personal name. 

Great Gransden. Little Gransden is in Cambridgeshire. 
D.B. Orantesdene ; but a more correct form is Qrantendene, as 
in the older Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ; and the 
sense is *vale of the Granta.' See the explanation in PL-names 
of Cambs., p. 48. 

§ 13. The suffix -ditch. 

WORNDITCH ; to the N.W. of Kimbolton. For Worm-ditch, 
as shown by the old form Wormedik in H.R. ii. (1279). For 
A.S. WurTYian die, i.e. ' Wurma's dike.' Compare Wurma with 
Wurm-beald, Wurm-beorht, Wurm-gaer, Wurm-here ; and with 
the Norse Orm7% as in Orms-by, Orms-kirk. 

§ 14. The suffix -don. 

The suffix 'don is the unemphatic or unstressed form of the 
E. down, A.S. dun, a hill ; a word ultimately of Celtic origin, 
but borrowed at a very early period. It occurs in two instances. 

Haddon. D.B. has Adone (with loss of H)\ R.C. and R.B. 
Hdddone. We find a fuller form in Kemble, in the compound 
Headdandwne slced, ' valley of Haddon ' ; Cod. Dipl. iii. 25 ; 
where dune is the gen. of dun. Hence the sense is * Headda's 
down'; or, in 0. Mercian spelling, ' Hadda's down.* The A.S. 
Headda, O. Merc. Hadda, is a known personal name. A Hadda 
was abbot of Peterborough ; see Birch, Cart. Saxon, i. 127. 

Huntingdon. D.B. Huntedun, This is one of the rather 
numerous cases in which the syllable -ing- has been corruptly 
substituted for the A.S. gen. suffix -an. The true spelling was 
Huntandun, as in the A.S. Chron., MS. A., an. 921. It means 
'Hunta's down'; where Hunta is probably a personal name, 


though its literal sense is 'hunter/ The suffix -a denotes 
the agent; and huntan is the genitive singular. Henry of 
Huntingdon (ed. Arnold, p. 178) wrongly explains it to mean 
*mons venatorum'; shewing that he was not strong in A.S. 
grammar. At the same time, he was well aware of the fact 
that the name did not contain the syllable -ing. 

One spelling in R.C. is Huntendone ; but in D.B. Huntedun 
(an n being dropped). 

The county was named from the town, and appears in R.C. 
as Huntendunescira. Compare * in comitatu Huntenduue * ; 
Cod. Dipl. iv. 246 ; and D.B. Huntedimscire. 

§ 15. The suffix -ey. 
The -ey represents O. Merc, eg, A.S. ig^ an island. 

Higney. Higney Wood lies to the E. of Sawtry. H.R. 
vol. ii. has Hygeneye, Hyggeneye (1279). The g must have been 
double, or it would not have been preserved. The A.S. form 
would appear to be *Hycgan, gen. case of *Hycga, a form not 
found, but closely related to names beginning with Hyge-, 
such as Hyge-heald and others. If this be right, the original 
sense was 'Hycga's island'; see R. Chron. It has been 
explained (Pl.-names of Cambs., p. 60) that 'island' merely 
refers to a place nearly surrounded by water. It is close to 
Sawtry Fen. 

Horsey Hill ; to the N.E. of Farcet. It is close to the 
old course of the river Nene, and the hill no doubt was once 
nearly or quite surrounded by water. R.B. has the spelling 
Horseye ; answering to an A.S. form hors-lg, i.e. ' horse-island.' 

Ramsey. R.C. Rameseye; but the dative appears as 
Hrames-ege in iElfhelm's Will; Kemble, Cod. Dipl. iv. 300. 
Hence, as already shewn in PL-names of Cambs., p. 63, there 
has been a loss of initial A, and the original sense was ' Raven's 
isle'; where Raven (A.S. hrosm, hrcemn) was probably a 
personal name. No doubt the name was, at a somewhat early 
date, popularly believed to refer to a ram, 

Rowey. To the E. of Warboys, near Pidley Fen. H.R. 
vol. ii. has Rueye and Riteye Mere. Kemble's index has Rugan- 
beorh, Ruwan-beorh, Ruan-beorh, Ruwan cnol, Rugan die, &c. 
C. A, 8, Comm, Vol. X. 23 

326 W. W. SKEAT 

Thus the prefix Ru- represents A.S. Ruan, Ruwan, Rugan, gen. 
of Rua, Ruwa, Ruga, the definite masc. nom. of the adj. ruh, 
rough. No doubt Ruga, ' the rough/ was a personal name. 
The sense is ' Ruga's island.' Chaucer has the spelling row for 
' rough.' 

§ 16. The suffix -ford. 

CoppiNGFORD, or Copmanford ; to the E. of Hamerton ; 
on an insignificant tributary of Alconbury Brook. The former 
name is corrupt ; D.B. has Copemaneforde ; R.C. Copmanforde ; 
F.A. ii. Gopmaneford (a.d. 1285). Gopman appears in Mr Searle's 
list as the name of a moneyer. Gopmaneford represents O. Norse 
kaupmanna, gen. pi. of kaupma^r, a chapman ; followed by 
A.S. /ore?, a ford; so that the sense is 'chapmen's ford.' The 
A.S. word for * chapman ' was ceapman ; but the Norse form 
is still in use at Whitby, and is spelt coupman in the Whitby 

Hartford ; on the Ouse, near Huntingdon. It corresponds 
to AS. Heort-ford (in Kemble); lit. 'hart-ford.' The oldest 
form is Heorutfordy in the record of a council which took place 
at Hertford in 673; Birch, Cart. Saxon, i. 49. Heorut is an 
older form of Heort, 

Hemingford ; situate on the Ouse, near Godmanchester. 
The same prefix occurs in Hemington (Nhants.). D.B. has 
Emingeforde (with loss of jET); R.C. Heimmingeforde, Hcemminge- 
forde, Hemm%ngforde\ R.B. Hemmingeforde, These forms 
answer to A.S. Hemminga ford, or 'ford of the Hemmings.' 
Hemming is a patronymic form, from A.S. Hemmi or Hemmxx, 
both of which occur in the Liber VitaB of Durham. The 
Hemmings were the ' sons of Hemmi.' We also find Heming 
(with one m). 

Offord; near the Ouse. D.B. has Vpeforde, Opeforde\ R.C. 
Oppeforde, Offorde; R. Chron. Oppeforde, Uppeforde, Here 
Oppe- answers to A.S. Oppan-, as in Oppanbroc, 'Oppa's brook'; 
Kemble, Cod. Dipl. iii. 343. The sense is * Oppa's ford.' The 
change to OflFord was probably due to the substitution of the 
well-known name OfFa for the less known Oppa. 



With regard to the names Otford D'Arcy and Oiford Cluny, 
it is merely necessary to observe that the added epithets, as in 
other instances, were of Norman or French origin. The family 
name of D'Arcy is derived from the village of Arcy, not far 
from Auxerre, in the modern French department of Yonne; 
and appears not to have been applied to Offord much before 
the fourteenth century. Before that date, the same place is 
invariably called Oflford Daneys or Danays, as, e.g. in P.F. p. 23. 
Daneys is simply the A.F. (Anglo-French) spelling of the word 
' Danish ' ; but it may have been also used as a family name, 
with the original sense of ' the Dane.' 

Offord Cluny was named from a Cluniac abbey. Cluny, in 
Burgundy, is situate 11 miles to the N.W. of Macon. 

§ 17. The suffix -ground. 

Standground; near Peterborough. The former d is 
excrescent. D.B. Stangrun (with loss of final d) ; R.C. Stan- 
grwnde. From A.S. stdUy stone ; and grund, ground ; so that 
the sense is 'atony soil.' 

§ 18. The suffix -grove. 

Heigh MANGROVE ; in the parish of Bury. This name 
seems to have disappeared. Mr Ladds notes the old spellings 
Hethmangrove (error for Hechmangrove), Heighmangrovey Hec- 
mundegrave ; see R. Chron. The suffix is the mod. E. grove ; 
and the prefix obviously represents the A.S. personal name 
Heahmund ; cf. A.S. Chron. an. 871. 

. § 19. The suffix -ham. 

It occurs in Barham, Bluntisham, GrafiFham, and Somersham. 

Barham. R.B. Bereharriy Berkham. From A.S. beorh-ham, 
'hill-enclosure.' The 'hill' is more than 100 feet above the 
sea-level. See Pl.-names of Cambs., p. 20. 

Bluntisham. D.B. and R.C. Bluntesham, So also in 
Kemble, Cod. Dip), iv. 246. Lit. 'Blunt's enclosure.' The 
name Blunt occurs again in Blunte8lg/^\\xn\!& island*; Kemble, 
Cod. Dipl. iii. 241. It is still in use. 


328 W. W. SKEAT 

Graffham, or Grafham. Spelt Orafham; D.B., RC, RB., 
R Chron. Also Grapham, with ph for / F.A. ii. (1285). Of. 
Graf-ton, in Nhants. The prefix is the A.S. grcef, a trench, 
whence the modern E. grave. The sense is ' trench-enclosure,' 
or enclosure surrounded with a trench. 

SoMERSHAM. D.B. Svmmersham ] RC. Sumeresham, So- 
meresham. Lit. 'summer's enclosure,* or enclosure for the 
summer. The A.S. gen. sumeres is sometimes used adverbially, 
meaning 'in the summer/ 

Wintringham; near St Neots. Mentioned as Wyntringham 
in H.R vol. ii. (1279). The suflSx -ing shews that it is derived 
from a patronymic. The sense is 'enclosure of the sons of 
Winter.' Winter is a somewhat curious personal name, but it 
occurs (according to Mr Searle) as early as in the eighth 
century ; and is still in use as a surname. 

§ 20. The suffix -head. 
The word head is here used in a literal sense in the two 
instances which occur; but we may also take it to apply, 
figuratively, to local circumstances. It is applied, for instance, 
to the upper end of a valley or a rising ground. 

Farcet. a disguised form, standing for fare head ; where 
far is a form long obsolete, answering to A.S. fearr, a bull ; 
so that the lit. sense is 'bull's head.' RC. has the spelling 
Faresheved; and Kemble has the dative form Fearreshefde in 
a charter dated 956; Cod. Dipl. v. 342. The same charter 
mentions Yaxley, which is not far oflF. From A.S. fearres 
heafod, 'bull's head.' The application is somewhat fanciful. 
Cf. Pen-arth, in S. Wales, lit. ' bear s head'; Hartshead (Yks.). 

Swineshead. Swineshead is situate in a small detached 
portion of the county surrounded entirely by Bedfordshire, to 
which it has lately been added ; it is not far from Kimbolton. 
D.B. has Suineshefet; RC. Swinesheved \ answering to A.8. 
swmes Keafod, 'swine's head.' There is another Swineshead 
in Lincolnshire, which possesses a celebrated abbey. 

§ 21. Hill. 
Round Hill, near Sawtry, requires no explanation. 


§ 22. HiRNE. 

The Hirne. The name of a district near Whittlesea 
Mere. R.C. mentions a 'Robert in le Hyme* The A.S. hyme, 
later hirUy means *a corner, a nook, a hiding-place'; and occurs 
in Ouy-hirn, Cambs. See Pl.-names of Cambs., p. 42. 

§ 23. HiTHE. 

Earith. The sense is 'mud-hithe'; as explained in Pl.- 
names of Cambs., p. 34. It is on the very border of the county, 
and the railway-station is in Cambridgeshire. 

§ 24. The suffix -hoe. 

The modern E. hoe, meaning a projecting ridge of land, or 
a spur of a hill, is from the A.S. hoh, a heel ; but is frequently 
confused with the dialectal E. Jiow, a hill, from the O. Norse 
haugr, an eminence. See hoe, sb. (1), in the New Eng. 

Baldwinshoe. H.R. ii. has Baldwinho, Baldwineho, 
Mentioned (according to Mr Ladds) in the Calendar of the 
Patent Rolls; 1338 — 40; spelt Baudeweneho, Baldewynesho. 
The derivation is obvious ; viz. from the genitive case of 
O- Merc. Baldvnne, A.S. Bealdwine. See the Liber Vitse of 
Durham and the A.S. Chronicle. It was situate in or near 

MiDLOE; a parish to the W. of Southoe. On somewhat 
high ground to the N. of the river Kim. There is a Midloe 
Grange, a Midloe Farm, and a Midloe Wood. The old name 
was Midel-ho, as in 'Midelho parous,' I.P.M. (30 Hen. Ill); 
R.C. Midelho, Middelho. Thus the prefix is ' middle ' ; and the 
suffix is -hoe, not -low, 

Southoe, to the S.W. of. Diddington, is near a spur of 
some rising ground which slopes southward, according to the 
ordnance map. The sense is 'south spur' or * southern pro- 
jecting ridge.' Carelessly spelt Suho in R.B. ; but Sutho in 
F.A. ii. (A.D. 1303) and in I.P.M. vol. i. (2 Edw. I). Compare 
Ivinghoe in Bucks., with regard to which the Eng. Dial. Diet. 

330 W. W. SKEAT 

(s.v. How) quotes the following from Notes and Queries, 4 Ser. 
X. 172: — "A range of eminences.... Two spurs of these are 
termed respectively Ivinghoe and Tottemhoe." 

§ 25. Holm. 

The A.S. holm means not only an island in a river, but also 
a peninsula formed by a loop in a river. There is a place 
called Holme, near Denton Fen. 

Port Holm ; a peninsula so formed near Huntingdon ; now 
occupied by a race-course. The A.S. port frequently occurs in 
the sense of ' town.' 

§ 26. Hurst. 

The A.S. hyrst means ' a copse ' or * wood.' 

Old Hurst and Woodhurst are not far apart, to the S. of 
Warboys. It is known that Old Hurst was formerly Wold 
Hurst ; the same change has occurred in Wold Weston ; see 
Weston; p. 347. Of. Wodehurst, Cat. A. Deeds (10 Edw. II); 
Woldhyrst, id. (33 Edw. I). 

§ 27. The suffix -ing. 

This occurs in four examples, viz. Billing, Gidding, Thurning, 
and Yelling. I also here discuss Lymage. 

Billing. This only occurs in Billing Brook, the name of a 
tributary of the Nene; but we find a Great and Little Billing 
in Northamptonshire; and such place-names elsewhere as 
Billingborough, Billingford, Billingham, Billinghurst, Billing- 
ton, &c. It represents a tribal or family name, the Billings or 
sons of Billa, which is a known personal name. 

Gidding ; as in Great Gidding, Little Gidding, and Steeple 
Gidding. Very near the end of iElflsed's Will, dated about 972, 
there is mention of a place called Giddingford. As the g is 
hard, it must have been originally followed by a y, not an i; 
otherwise, it would have become Yidding. Hence Gidding 
denotes a settlement of the Gyddings, or sons of Gydda. The 
personal name Gydda occurs in Gyddan-den ; Kemble, Cod. 
Dipl. V. 289. For Giddingford, see the same, iii. 275. 


Lymage. The old suflSx looks at first like -inge'y but is 

really -in + ge. Lymage Wood lies between Graf ham and 

Kimbolton. The older name was Liminge. It is spelt 

Lirainge and Limminge in H.R. vol. ii. (1279). Even this is a 

contracted form. Another, and perhaps a more original form 

was Limining\ as in P.F., p. 22. Perhaps it is the same name 

as Lyminge in Kent, which is mentioned in very early charters; 

for example, it is spelt Limingas in a charter dated by Birch 

in 697 ; see Birch, Cart. Saxon, i. 142. The same place is spelt 

Limining and Limminge in two endorsements on the charter, 

made at a later date. As the river Limen (or Lymne) is 

mentioned immediately below in the same charter, there can 

be little doubt that Lymin-ge is closely allied to Limen, which 

was an old river-name. Again, in a charter dated 741, we 

likewise have a mention of Limin cea, i.e. * river Limin,' and of 

the place-name Limin-iaeae, in the dative or locative case. 

This difficult word is discussed by Mr Chadwick, Studies in 

Old English, § 5 (Camb. Phil. Trans, vol. iv. pt. 2, p. 147), who 

shows that it is compounded of the river-name Limin and the 

O.E. equivalent (Anglian ge) of the Q. gau, a district. It is not, 

therefore, from a patronymic, but signifies * Limin district/ or 

place through which the Limin flows. This is probably why 

the n-\'g became nj. See the account of Ely in f*l.-names of 

Cambs., p. 51. 

Thurning. There is another Thurning in Norfolk, and a 
Thurnby near Leicester. Spelt Tominge (for Thorning) in D.B. ; 
R.C. has Therninge, Thyrningey Thirninge. The spelling in 
D.B. is not without significance, especially when we note that 
the place is also called Thomynge in I.P.M. vol. i. (8 Edw. II) ; 
for the form depends upon the A.S. \yme, a thorn-bush, derived 
by mutation from J;orn, a thorn. Thurning denotes a settle- 
ment of Thyrnings, so called from some connexion with the 
word thorn. There is a place called Thirne in Norfolk, near 
Repps. A large number of place-names contain the word 
thorn, Kemble also has tSominga-byra, Cod. Dipl. i. 261, with 
reference to a family of Thornings; since ^orninga is in the 
genitive plural. Compare Bythorn (below). 

Yelling. D.B. has Gelling, Ghellinge, Oelinge\ R.C. Qill' 

332 W. W. SKEAT 

inge, Gillingge, It is sometimes confused with Gidding. Kemble 
has Oilling in a late charter ; Cod. Dipl. iv. 145. The reference 
appears to be to a tribe of Gillings ; but I can find no further 
trace of them. In the spurious Charter of Eadgar (a.D. 974), 
Yelling seems to be alluded to in the phrase "Dillington, 
Stocton, et Gillinger, cum omnibus sibi pertinentibus " ; Cod. 
Dipl. iii. 107. The final r in this form is certainly needless ; 
or perhaps it stands for «, so that OiUinges is a plural form. 
The late A.S. r much resembles 8, 

§ 28. The suffix -land (for -lund). 

TosELAND ; not far from St Neots. The Southern hundred 
of Huntingdonshire is called Toseland hundred. In this form 
an I has been lost, as the old spellings prove. R.O. has 
Thouleslonde (for Touleslonde), Touleslound ; the Pipe-Roll has 
Tolesland hdr (1 Rich. I); H.R. Touleslond; I.P.M. Toules- 
land (10 Edw. II). D.B. Toleslvnd (with v=^u). Toles is the 
gen. case of Toll, A man named Toli was sheriff of Norfolk 
and Suffolk, ab. 1053, according to the Ramsey Chronicle ; but 
the reference is probably to the earlier Toli, a Danish jarl, 
who is mentioned in the A.S. Chronicle, an. 921, as having been 
connected with a Danish army that came from Huntingdon, 
and was slain in the same year at Tempsford (Thames ford) in 
Bedfordshire. The river here alluded to is, however, not the 
London river, but the Ouse, which would appear to have been 
called Tcemese by the English. Mr Ladds kindly sends me a 
note which is much to the point, "-^thelwold, bp. of Win- 
chester, bought Bluntisham of Wlnoth [A.S. Wulfnoth] in the 
time of king Edgar (958—975) and of Brihtnoth abbot of Ely 
(970 — 981), and presented it to the abbey of Ely, probably in 
975. After Edgar's death, the sons of Topae claimed the land, 
saying that their great grandfather joined king Edward the elder 
(901 — 925) at the time when Toli, the earl, had obtained the 
province of Huntingdon by force against the king. But the 
wise men and elders of the province, who well remembered the 
time when Toli the earl was slain at a river Thames [i.e. the 
Ouse], pronounced the claim frivolous. Toli being slain in open 
rebellion, his estates would be forfeited to the crown, and this 


fact seems to point to him as the owner of Toseland ; for 
Domesday Book says that (as a hamlet of Paxton) it belonged 
to king Edward, and was then the property, doubtless by gift of 
William I, of the Countess Judith." For original authorities, 
see the A.S. Chronicle, an. 921 ; the Liber Eliensis, ii. 25 ; and 
the charter of Edward printed by Kemble, Cod. Dipl. iv. 244, 
which mentions iEthelwold, Ely, and Bluntisham. 

There is yet one more point to be noted, which is of some 
interest. So far, I have assumed the suffix to be the E. land, 
as it certainly is at the present day. But it is clear that this 
is really a popular substitution for a Norse suffix that was not 
understood. The spellings Touleslound in R.C., Toleslvnd, i.e. 
Toleslund, in D.B., are highly significant, as they cannot possibly 
represent the A.S. land. On the contrary, they obviously 
represent the Norse lund (Icel. lundr, Dan. and Swed. lund), a 
grove ; as to which Vigfusson remarks that it is very common 
in Dan. and Swed. local names (cf. Lund in Sweden) ; and he 
adds that it also occur in local names in Northern England, 
and is a mark of Norse or Danish colonisation. He gives only 
one example, viz. Gilsland (which he does not prove), but the 
remark can be verified. In Streatfield's Lincolnshire and the 
Danes, 1884, p. 80, the author gives three good examples, viz. 
Londonthorpe, formerly Lundarthorp (D.B. Lundertorp, Test, 
de Nev. Lundierthorp), where lundar is the gen. case of O.N. 
lundr ; also Timberland (D.B. Timberlunt), and Snelland (D.B. 
Sneleslunt). He also mentions Lound and Craiselound in the 
Isle of Axholme. In Timberland and Snelland the very same 
substitution has been made as in Toseland. Hence we learn, 
finally, that Toseland was originally * Toli's lund,' the grove or 
forest-land belonging to the Danish earl Toli. 

§ 29. The suffix -ley. 

I have already explained that -ley represents the A.S. leage, 
dat. case of leak, a lea or field. Examples occur in Abbotsley, 
Aversley, Pidley, Raveley, Sapley, Stoneley, Stukeley, Waresley, 
Washingley, Wooley, and Yaxley. 

Abbotsley is a corrupted and disguised form. In 1303, it 
was Abbodesle] F.A. ii. Fuller forms occur in the Ramsey 

334 W. W. SKEAT 

Chartulary, which has Addeboldealeye, Alleboldesleye, Aylholdelle, 
Alboldesle; where Addehold, Alkbold, Aylhold, Albold are all 
various corruptions of ^thelboldy a late Merciau form corre- 
sponding to A.S. JSthelbeald\ see A.S. Chronicle, MS. E. (an. 656). 
The reduction of ^theU to Ayl- is common. Hence the sense 
is 'iEthelbold s lea.* 

AvERSLEY. Aversley Wood lies to the S. of Sawtry. 
There can be little doubt that it is a mere variant of Eversley ; 
for we find from Kemble s index that ^ferwlc was written for 
Eoforwlc even in Anglo-Saxon ; and again, Eversden in Cambs. 
is spelt Auresden (= Avresden) in D.B. ; see PL-names of 
Cambs., p. 47. As in the case of Eversley in Hants., the A.S. 
form is Eofores leak, lit. * Boars lea'; where Eofor was a 
personal name, as in Beowulf, 1. 2486. Even in ancient Rome, 
Aper was known as a cognomen. 

PiDLEY. R.C. has Pidele. Kemble has a place-name 
Pide-iucellay which would answer to a modem form Pid-well. 
The forms suggest, as the prefix, an A.S. *Pidan, gen. of *Pida, 
a name not found elsewhere. But there is a closely related 
strong form Pidd, occurring not only in Piddes mere (Pidd's 
mere) in Kemble (Cod. Dipl. iii. 77), but also in Piddington 
(Nhants.), and in Piddinghoe (Sussex). 

Raveley. Great and Little Raveley lie to the W. of 
Warboys. R.C. has Ravele, Raveley a, Rafflea^ Roejlea, Reflea\ 
R. Chron. Raflea, Reveley, Thorpe has Rceflea and the Latinised 
forms Rceffleya, Rauelega ; Diplomatarium, p. 382 ; and Kemble 
has Raueleia in the spurious Charter of Eadgar; Cod. Dipl. 
iii. 107. From an A.S. Reef an, gen. sing, of Reef a; a personal 
name which may be inferred (as a pet-name) from such names 
as Rcefcytel (or Rauechetel), Rcefmcer (or Rauemerus), Rasfnoth 
(or Rauendd)y Rcefweald, Rcefwine, and Rcefwulf, 

Sapley. Sapley is the name of a Heath and of a farm to 
the E. of Great Stukeley ; it appears to have been an important 
locality in the old time when forest-land occupied much of the 
county. In P.F. we find the spellings Sappele, SappeV, SappelV, 
Sapple, of which the first form is the best. Sappe represents 
an A.S. scjeppan, gen. case of swppe, a spruce fir, used to 


translate Lat. abies. Otherwise preserved in Sapcote, Leic, 
and in the late A.S. Sap-cumb (Sap-combe) in Kemble's Index. 

Stoneley. Stoneley adjoins Kimbolton. Its origin is 
obvious ; from A.S. start, a stone. 

Stukeley. D.B. Stivecle] R.C. Styveclee, Stiveclea; 
R. Chron. Stivecleia, Stucle] Thorpe has Styveclea, Diplomat., 
p. 382. Later spellings are Stivekley, Steucley; I.P.M. (50 
Hen. Ill, 5 Edw. I). All from A.S. Styfecan-leah; where Styfecan 
is the gen. case of the name StyfecUy a weak form allied to the 
strong form Styfic, which appears in Stetchworth (Cambs.); 
as already explained in my former essay, at p. 27. Compare 
Styvicing and Stybba, both in Kemble's index. 

Waresley ; on the S. border of the county. D.B. Wedreslei, 
Wederesle, Wedresleie; RC. Weresle, Werysleye; R. Chron. 
Weresle. Hence Waresley is for Weresley, contracted from the 
Domesday Book form Wedreslei ; and the dropped letter must 
have been, originally, a voiced 5, which the Norman scribe 
would render by d. Compare M.E. wher^ for whether, and the 
E. or, nor^ formerly other, nother. Similarly the Cambs. 
Wetherley appears in D.B. as Wederlai] as already. shewn in 
my former essay, p. 66. The sense is ' Wether's lea ' ; parallel 
to Wethersfield in Essex. 

Washingley. Washingley is the name of a small parish 
united to that of Lutton in Northamptonshire ; and Washingley 
Hall lies to the W. of Stilton. D.B. has Wdsingelei; R.C. 
Wdssinglee, The same prefix occurs in Washington (Sussex), 
spelt WassingatHn in Kemble, Cod. Dipl. v. 312. Thus 
Washing- represents the A.S. Wassmga, gen. pi. of Wassing, 
80 that the sense is *lea of the Wassings.' Wassing is a 
patronymic formed from the personal name Wassa, which 
appears in the old spelling of the place-name Washboum. Of 
course, there is no reference, in any of these names, to the verb 
to wash. The spelling Wassingley, with double s, appears as 
late as 1256 ; In. p. m. (41 Hen. III). 

WooLEY. R.B. has Wolfiega; I.P.M. Wolveley (8 Edw. II); 
I.P.M. Wolveleye (47 Hen. III). The sense is 'wolf-lea'; 
just as we have also Foxley, Horsley, and Cowley, The form 

336 W. W. SKEAT 

Wlfiey in P.F. is quite decisive, as wlf is the A.F. spelling of 
A,S. wvlf. The A.S. form occurs as Wulf-lea ; Kemble, Cod. 
Dipl. V. 173. 

Yaxley. D.B. laclieslei; R.C. lakesle. Kemble has 
Oeakestea, Cod. Dipl. v. 342. The sense is * cuckoo's lea ' ; 
from A.S. geaces, gen. of geac, a cuckoo. This A.S. geac is 
cognate with the Norse gaukr, a cuckoo, whence the well- 
known prov. E. gowk, signifying (1) a cuckoo; (2) a simpleton. 
(The A.S. ea invariably answers to Norse au,) The Y m 
Yaxley results from the A.S.' ge, and the x from the c and s ; 
the development being regular, with a shortening of the 
diphthong before csL The use of / for A.S. ge is Norman. 
Geac, i.e. gowk, may have been a nickname. 

§ 30. The suffix -low. 

A low (A.S. htaw) is a mound or rising ground. I find 
only one example in Hunts. 

Stirtlow. Stirtlow House and Park lie to the S. of Buck- 
den. I do not know the old spelling, but it seems reasonable 
to compare it with A.S. Steortan-leah, in Kemble, Cod. Dipl. v. 
234. If this be right, we may take Steortan to be the gen. 
case of a personal name Steorta, Such a name might have 
meant ' one who holds a ploughtail/ or * a ploughman,' as the 
M.E. stert certainly meant a ploughtail or plough-handle. See 
A.S. steort in Bosworth. But this should have given Startlcyw. 

§ 31. Mere. 

The mod. E. mere, a lake, is well known. The meres have 
now disappeared, but an old map, dated 1831, shews Whittlesea 
Mere, B/amsey Mere, Brick Mere, Trundle Mere, and Ugg Mere, 
near the N.E. border of the county. Whittlesea mere is a 
mistaken form of Whittles mere, as already explained in my 
former essay, p. 56. 

Trundle Mere. This probably refers to its somewhat 
rounded shape, it being represented as being as broad as it 
is long. It must be a late name of French origin, connected 
with the E. Friesic trund, round. See the verb to trundle in 


my Etymological Dictionary. However, the true old name was 
Trendelmare, H.R. ii. ; also called Trendmere (Kemble, Cod. 
Dipl. iv. 12), i.e. 'round mere'; cf. A.S. trendel, a circle, a 
ring; from the same root as the E. Fries, trund. Hence the 
later name is a mere adaptation of the older one. 

Ugg Mere. This singular name is certainly an altered 
form, substituted for Ubb mere. R.C. has Ubbemere, and we 
find the later form Ubrnere piscariay in I.P.M. (28 Edw. I) ; 
also in Kemble, Cod. Dipl. vi. 217. Ubbe- represents the A.S. 
TJbhan, gen. of Ubba, a known personal name. Cf. Ubbemereldd, 
Ubban-leah, and Ubban-tun in Kemble 's Index. 

§ 32. Moor. 

Middle Moor, to the N. of Ramsey, needs no explanation. 
The name middle may refer to the fact that it lies between 
Ramsey Mere and Whittlesea Mere. 

§ 33. Perry. 

Perry lies on the road from Stoughton to Qraffham. 
D.B. Pirn ; R.C. Perye ; from the A.S. pirige, a pear-tree. 

§ 34. Reach. 

Sawtry. D.B. Saltrede ; R.C. Saltreche, Saltrethe, Saltreye, 
Sautreia ; R. Chron. Saltretha. Here Saltreche seems to be the 
original form, which is perhaps confirmed by the occurrence of 
Saltreche in Birch, Cart. Saxon, iii. 643 ; but owing to the stress 
on the former syllable, the latter part of the word became in- 
distinct and was misunderstood. Hence, by the usual confusion 
between c and t in written forms, the scribes turned it into 
Saltrethe ; whence also, by the usual Norman substitution of d 
for th in a medial position, we obtain the D.B. form Saltrede, 
The sense is * salt-reach,' as marking the great distance to 
which the sea penetrated inland in early times. It is now 
some eight miles to the S. of the Nene. See PL-names of 
Cambs., p. 72. This is the best explanation I can give. But it 
is not wholly satisfactory. 

With respect to Sawtry All Saints, Sawtry St Andrew, and 
Sawtry St (?) Judith, Mr Ladds observes : — " These three 

838 W. W. SKEAT 

places are properly Sawtry Moigne, Sawtry Beaumes, and the 
demesne land of Sawtry abbey. 

Sawtry Moigne is probably the seven and a half hides and 
one virgate held (see D.B.) by Ramsey abbey, and enfeoflfed to 
the Moigne family. 

Sawtry Beaumes is the property held by Eustace the sheriflF, 
and from him by Walter (de Beiimes). 

When these two families had died out and were forgotten, 
the villages gradually came to be called by the names of the 
saints to whom the churches were dedicated. I have never 
found them so called before the Reformation. 

Sawtry Judith (as it should be) is not named from a saint, 
btit from the Countess Judith, wife of Earl Waltheof, whose 
land it was. When given to Sawtry Abbey, it became their 
demesne land, and extra-parochial." 

As to Moigne, I find mention of le Moyne in P.F. and in 
H.R. ii. The O.F. moyne, moine meant both a monk and a 
sparrow (said to be from its colour resembling that of a monk's 
robe) ; and is derived from the aca case of L. monachus. Sautre 
Bevmes is mentioned in H.R. i. (1276), and is obviously of 
French origin ; there is a place named les Beawmes very near 
Marseilles. The O.F. heau mes (L. Bellus mansus) meant 'a 
fine country-house.' 

§ 35. Slepe. 

Slepe. Said to be the old name of St Ives. According to 
Mr N orris, one part of St Ives was formerly called The Slepe, 
and another part The Green; and, in fact, "Green End" is 
still marked on the Ordnance map, being at the Western end of 
the town. There is no difiiculty as to the derivation, as it 
phonetically represents the A.S. slc^, a slippery or miry place, 
closely allied to the Icel. sleipr, slippery, whence the Northern 
E. slape, slippery. There is a good example of it in Kemble, 
Cod. Dipl. vi. 112: — *of San ealdan slaepe,' from the old slepe. 
The spelling of the place-name is given as Slepe in Birch, Cart. 
Saxon, iii. 643, and in the Latinised form Slepam in the same, 
638 ; also Slepe in D.B., and in H.R. ii. (1279). 

huntingdonshire 339 

§ 36. The suffix -stead. 

Beechamstead; in the parish of Great Staughton. Formerly 
Bichamsted, as in P.F.; Bychamstede in H.R. i. (1276). The 
prefix JBicAam represents the A.S. Blcan, gen. of Blca, a very 
old personal name. This appears from the curious fact that a 
place named Bwan die in Kemble, Cod. Dipl. v. 332, appears 
as Blcen dich in the same, iii. 415 ; and finally as Bicham dich 
in the same, iv. 210. Lit. ' Bica's stead * or ' place/ 

§ 37. Stone. 

This suflBx occurs in Hirstingstone, the name of the Eastern, 
and in Leightonstone, that of the Western of the four hundreds 
into which the county is divided. Also in Keystone (Keston) 
and Oggerston. 

' Hirstingstone ; also found as Hirsting Stone and Hursting 
Stone. D.B. Hyrstingestan, Herstingestan, Spelt Hurstyngston 
in 1303 ; F.A. vol. ii. The stone probably marked the place of 
the hundred-gemot, or meeting-place of the men of the hundred. 
According to the Laws of Eadgar, the hundred-men were to 
meet continually about every four weeks ; see Thorpe, Ancient 
Laws, i. 259. 

The spellings in Domesday Book, in which y and e are both 
frequently used to represent the A.S. y, point to an A.S. form 
Hyrstinga stdn; for the e after the ng can hardly be interpreted 
otherwise than as representing the final -a of the A.S. genitive 
plural. If this be so, the sense is 'stone of the Hyrstings,' 
though we have no other example of the occurrence of 
Hyrsting. Yet it may very well be understood as meaning 
'men of the hurst' or wood, just as we find Centingas for 'the 
men of Kent'; y being the usual mutated form of u. The suffix 
'ing can be taken in the sense of 'belonging to,' as well as 
in that of * son of/ 

Keystone, or Keston. Spelt Kestone, Kestan in R.C. ; 
but D.B. has Ghetelestan, Ketelestan ; R.B. Ketelestone. Keteles 
represents the gen. case of the Norse name Ketill; and the 
sense is * Ketill's stone.' Cf. Kettlestone, Norf., Kettleburgh, 
Suff., Kettlethorpe, Lines., and Kettlewell, Yks. 

340 W. W. SKEAT 

Leightonstone. Spelt Leoctonestan in the Pipe Roll 
(1 Rich. I); Leyfonestone, F.A. vol. ii. (a.d. 1303). D.B. Lectune- 
8tan, Lectone ; R.C. Leyghtone, Leytone, All from A.S. lecLC-tun, 
leah-tun, leh-twriy a garden, lit. ' leek-enclosure ' ; i.e. a garden 
for herbs. See Leigkton in the New Eng. Dictionary. 

This is the native word which was superseded by the word 
garden, which we borrowed from Old Northern French. No 
wonder that Leigh ton is common as a place-name. 

Oggerston. Of this place, only ruins remain ; the maps 
give * Oggerston Ruins ' or ' Ogerston Ruins ' to the S. W. of 
Morburne. In H.R. vol. ii. we find Og'ston for Ogerston (1279), 
but in vol. i. the spelling is Oggerstan (1276); so that the 
suffix is the unaccented form of A.S. stdn, a stone. Ogger(s) 
answers to an A.S. *Ocgheres, gen. of *Ocghere, a name not 
• otherwise known; but the prefix Ocg- is well authenticated 
(Sweet, O.E. Texts, p. 583), and the suffix -here is common 
enough ; so that the name is quite satisfactory. The name of 
Oht-here, the Norseman who related his adventures to king 
Alfred, is somewhat similar. 

§ 38. Stow. 

Long Stow; on the W. border, to the S.W. of Spaldwick. 
From A.S. stow, ' a place ' or site ; a name of common oc- 

WiSTOW ; to the W. of Warboys. D.B. Wistov (for Wistou) ; 
R.C. Wicstone (misprint for Wicstoue), Wystowe, From A.S. 
wlC'Stov), a dwelling-place; also, an encampment. 

The A.S. wlc, an abode, dwelling-place, village, is not a 
native word, but borrowed from the Latin ulcus, 

§ 39. Thorn. 

Bythorn ; on the W. border. D.B. Bierne (with loss of th)) 
R.C. Bitheme, Bytherne, Bithema, Bierne ; R. Chron. Bitherna. 
Kemble has: "Witton^ Riptonam, Clinton [for Elinton], et 
Bi6emam," in the spurious charter of Eadgar; Cod. Dipl. iii. 
107 ; where the suffix -am is a Latinised accusative. 

It is obvious that thorn has been substituted for the obsolete 


A.S. '}fyme (thyme), a thorn-bush or thorn-tree, because thorn 
still bears the latter sense even in modem English ; as, e.g. 
when Goldsmith speaks of " yonder thorn, that lifts its head on 
high.*' Bythom must mean 'by (or beside) the thorn-bush*; 
A.S. h% \yman. The coalescence of hy and thorn into one 
word is rather curious; but compare Byfleet in Surrey (A.S. 
Blfleot in Kemble), Byford in Herefordshire, Bygrave in Hert- 
fordshire, and Bywell in Northumberland. Kemble has Biggrd- 
fan, dative, Cod. Dipl. iii. 363; which would answer to a modem 
form Bygrove. Here the prefix Big- is the A.S. big, by. See 
By- in the New Eng. Dictionary. 

§ 40. The suffix -thorpe. 

The Al.S. 'porp {thorp\ a village, is cognate with the well- 
known G. dorf and the W. tref. It occurs in Eastthorpe, Sib- 
thorpe, and Upthorpe. 

EIastthorpe. Formerly Estthorp ; Mr Ladds notes that, in 
MS. Lansdowne 921, it is said to have been "formerly an end- 
slip in Abbot's Ripton." The derivation is obvious. 

SiBTHORPE. Better spelt Sibthorp in H.R. ii. (1279). Sift- 
represents the A.S. SibbaUy gen. of the weak masculine SMa. 
The sense is 'Sibba's village.* It is now called Ellington 
Thorpe, and is so marked on the Ordnance map, a mile to the 
S. of Ellington. In P.F. it is Elinton Sibetorp, 

Upthorpe. Half a mile to the S. of Spaldwick, and above 
it. Spelt Upl^orp {Upthorp) in H.R. ii. (1279). The prefix is 
the A.S. wp, up, upwards ; with reference to its higher position. 
Cf. Upwell (Cambs.), and the numerous Uptons. 

§ 41. The suffix -ton. 

This is the unstressed form due to the A.S. twriy 'an en- 
closure'; whence E. tovm. See my former essay, p. 6. The 
names with this suflSx are very numerous, and may be divided 
into two sets : (1) names in which -ing does not precede it ; and 
(2) names ending in -ing-ton. 

In the former list, we have Boughton, Brampton, Broughton, 
Chesterton, Denton, Easton, Everton, Fen Stanton, Fenton, 

C. A, S. Comm, Vol. X. 24 

342 W. W. SKEAT 

Fletton, Glatton, Hail Weston, Hamerton, Hilton, Houghton, 
Kimbolton, Leighton, Orton, Paxton, Ripton, Sibson, Stanton, 
Staughton, Stilton, Upton, Walton, Water Newton, Weston, 
Witton, Woodstone, Wyboston. 

In the latter: Alwalton, Brington (for Brinington), Con- 
nington, Covington, Diddington, Dillington, Ellington, Elton, 
Stibbington, Wennington. 

BouGHTON. An insignificant place, to the E. of Southoe. 
Spelt Bouton in H.R. i (1276). There are at least eight more 
places with the same name. Bough ton in Kent is spelt Boctun 
in a charter of Earl Godwine, dated about 1020 ; see Kemble, 
Cod. Dipl. vi. 178. The prefix is therefore the A.S. bdc, a book, 
charter, deed, conveyance; and the name must have been 
applied to a farm that had been formally conveyed from one 
owner to another. The change from -dct- to -oht-, -ought-, is 
regular ; and occurs again in Broughton (below). 

Brampton; to the S.W. of Huntingdon. D.B. Brantune; 
R.C. Bramptone (temp. Hen. I); R.B. Bramtone, Brantone, 
The dat. Bramtune occurs in the A.S. Chronicle, an. 1121. The 
origin of this name is very doubtful; if Brantun is an older 
spelling, perhaps it represents an A.S. Brandan twn, where 
Branda is a weak form allied to the fairly common name of 
Brand. But this is no better than a guess. 

Broughton ; to the N.E. of Huntingdon ; a common name. 
D.B. Broctvne ; R.C. Broucthone (with th for t), Broctune, The 
A.S. form is Broc-tim ; Kemble, Cod. Dipl. i. 268. The sense 
is * brook-town ' or * brook-enclosure.' The spelling with gh is 
due to the fact that the A.S. c usually passed into h (M.E. gh) 
before a t Other examples occur in Leighton and Boughton 
(above) and Staughton (p. 346). At the same time the M.E. ght 
altered the quality of the preceding vowel. Hence B. Chron. 
has Brouctone, Browton. The brook on which Broughton is 
situate is called Bury Brook, because it also passes by Bury. 

Chesterton. D.B. Cestretune; lit. 'camp-enclosure'; already 
explained as a Cambridgeshire name. 

Denton; near Coldecote. D.B. Dentone; R.B. Dentuna, 
There are many places of this name. The prefix may either 


represent denu, a valley, or the gen. pL Dena^ of the Danes, 
of which the nom. pi. was Dene, The place lies in a deep 
hollow. Denby (Derbyshire) may mean 'Danes' town/ as is 
almost certainly the case with Danby in Yorkshire. There 
is no doubt as to the Den- in Denmark. I may note here that 
this prefix has nothing to do with the Celtic Den- in Denbigh 
(Welsh Dinbych)] in which Din- represents the Welsh dm, 
a hill-fort, from the same Celtic original as the A.S. dun, 
E. dovm. The spelling Dene-tun occurs, with reference to 
Denton in Kent, in a charter of the latter half of the tenth 
century; see Kemble, Cod. Dipl. ii. 380. There are many 
Den tons ; and the sense of the prefix may vary. 

Easton ; to the E. of Long Stow, and N.E. of Kimbolton. 
From A.S. easty east. 

Everton. Everton is in Bedfordshire; but the church, 
according to the ordnance map, is in a detached portion of 
Huntingdonshire, and Everton manor was formerly accounted 
for as being in the hundred of Toseland. D.B. Evretune; 
R.C. JSvertone, The prefix is the A.S. eofor, a boar; as in 
Eversden, Cambs. Cf. Aversley (p. 334). 

Fen Stanton. Lit. 'stone-inclosure in the fen-land.' Cf. 
Long Stanton, Cambs. 

Fenton. a hamlet near Warboys. R.C. Fentone. From 
A.S. /enn, a fen. 

Fletton ; to the S. of Peterborough. Fletton manor was 
in the hundred of Norman Cross. D.B. Fletun. Kemble has : 
'in Huntingdonneschira uillam de Flettonne'; Cod. Dipl. v. 8. 
This is in a late copy of a spurious charter. Elsewhere we 
have Flectune, Cod. Dipl. iv. 247 ; but the spelling cannot be 
trusted, and c is often miswritten for t* Fletton is probably 
right, and the prefix may well be the A.S. fleot, a brook, a 
stream. The word fleet still survives, and is fully illustrated 
in the New English Dictionary and the English Dialect 
Dictionary. It is a common dialect word, and occurs in 
Northfleet, Southfleet, and Fleet-ditch. 

* Besides, ct is scarce in late A.S., which often tarns ct into ht, 


344 W. W. SKEAT 

Glatton ; to the N.N.W. of Sawtry. D.B. Qlatune ; R.C. 
Olattone] R.B. Olattone, Olaptone. The last form shews that 
Glatton stands for Glapton, with the same prefix as in Glap- 
thorne, Nhants. This prefix is further illustrated by the form 
Glceppan-feld, Cod. Dipl. ii. 411. Hence the prefix represents 
Olappan, gen. case of Glappa, a name of the most respectable 
antiquity, as it occurs in an early eighth century MS. ; see 
Sweet, Oldest Eng. Texts, p. 148. 

Hail Weston; see Weston (p. 347). 

Hamerton, or Hammerton. D.B. Hamiertune (with in- 
trusive 6); R.B. and R.C. Hamei^tone, Spelt Hamirton; Cat. 
of Ancient Deeds (26 Edw. I). The same prefix occurs in 
Hamer-dene geat, Kemble, Cod. Dipl. v. 40. The A.S. hamer, 
a hammer, occurs in composition in two plant-names, Jiamer- 
secg, i.e. hammer-sedge, hamer-wyrt, hammer-wort or black 
hellebore. Perhaps Hamer (or Hamera) was a man's name, 
since we find a Hammeringham in Lincolnshire, in which 
Hammering indicates a patronymic form. There is another 
Hammerton in Yorkshire; also a Hammersmith and a Hammer- 
wich. In the last, it is hardly possible that Hammer caa 
represent the gen. of Hama, as has been suggested. 

Hilton ; to the S.E. of Huntingdon, on the very border of 
Carabs. F.A. ii. Hilton, From hill and tovm. 

Houghton ; to the N.W. of St Ives. A common name ; 
there are more than a dozen of them. D.B. Hoctune (with c 
for A.S. guttural A); 'R„G.Hohtune,Houctx)ne,Hoctone\ RChron. 
Hoctune, HouctoUy Howtton. Kemble has Hohtuninga mearc ; 
Cod. Dipl. iii. 189. The prefix is the A.S. hoh, a heel, also a 
hoe or spur of a hill ; see SoUTHOE (p. 329). 

The pronunciation is variable, but as the A.S. 6 usually 
answers to E. oo, the normal pronunciation would seem to be 
Hooton ; but it is usually called Hoton by the inhabitants, the 
preservation of the 5 being due to the guttural, as in hoe above. 
And some call it Howton, with the ow in cow. Houghton Hill 
is over 100 feet above the sea-level. 

KiMBOLTON. D.B. Kenebaltone ; also Chenebaltone (with Gh 
for K); R.C. Kynebautone ; RB. Keneboltone\ I,P,M. Kinebauton 



(56 Hen. III). Thus the prefix represents the A.S. Cynebealdes 
or CyneholdeSy gen. of CyneheaXd or Cynebold, a common 
name; and the sense is *Cynebold's enclosure.' It may con- 
fidently be asserted that Kimbolton does not take its name from 
the river Kim ; but conversely, the river Kim took its name 
from the place, as in other instances ; and notably, in the case 
of the Cam. 

Leighton; to the N. of Spaldwick. Already explained; 
see Leightonstone (p. 340). 

Orton, or Overton ; near Peterborough. Orton Waterville 
is to the W. of Orton Longueville. The surnames are of later 
date, and of obvious origin ; from the A.F. ville, a town. RC. 
notes the name Longemlley Longevilla, D.B. Ouretune ; we find 
also Overtonlongvile, Cat. of Ancient Deeds (19 Edw. IV); Over- 
ton Watervilly Overton Longevill, Feudal Aids, vol. ii. (a.d. 1303). 
Hence Orton is short for Overton. The A.S. form is Ofertun, 
Kemble, Cod. Dipl. ii. 349. Also the o is long, and the prefix 
is the A.S. ofer, a river-bank, as in Over (Cambs.). The river 
is the Nene, above Peterborough. 

Paxton. Great and Little Paxton lie to the N. of St Neots. 
D.B. Pachstone ; R.C. Paxtone. For the prefix, compare Pacce- 
lade ; Kemble, Cod. Dipl. v. 5, in a spurious charter. Better 
evidence is aflforded by the tribal or family name PceccingcLS, in 
Kemble, Cod. Dipl. iii. 347, from which we may infer a personal 
name Pcecc, which is otherwise known as explaining the place- 
name Packington. The genitive Pcecces would then account 
for the modern form. Hence also the spelling Pacston in P.F. 

RiPTON. Abbot's Ripton and King's Ripton are near the 
centre of the county. D.B. Riptune ; R.C. Ripptune, Riptune ; 
R. Chron. Riptone. Compare Rip-ley, of which there are three 
examples in England. The latter answers to the A.S. form 
Rippan-leah ; Kemble, Cod. Dipl. vi. 216. The sense is *Rippa's 
enclosure'; and Rippa is a pet-name; probably for Rip-wine , 
as this is the only recorded example with the prefix Rip-. 

SiBSON. Near Stibbington. D.B. Sibestww ; H.R. Sibeston 

346 W. W. 8KEAT 

(1276). Kemble has Sibbea-tea, Sibbes-weg; and Sibbes is the 
gen. of Sibbi. The meaning is * Sibbi's enclosure.' 

Stanton ; see Fen Stanton (p. 343). 

Staughton. Great Staughton. is near the border of the 
county; and Little Staughton is in Bedfordshire. It is the 
same name as Stoughton (in Leicestershire and Sussex); and 
the latter spelling is nearer to the oiiginal. The A.S. form is 
StoC'tun; Cod. Dipl. iii. 107; the A.S. c becoming M.E. gh 
before the following t ; cf. Houghton, Leighton. The prefix is 
the A.S. stoc or stoc (the vowel-length is uncertain), of which 
the original sense seems to have been "a place fenced in." 
Compare Tavistock, Basingstoke. In Napier's Glosses, we find : 
"oppidum, .i. ciuitas, stocZC/""; and "oppidanis, stocweardvm" ] 
nos. 3993, 6272. The place-name Stockton is probably merely 
a later variant of the same original. 

The D.B. spelling is Tochestone, with che for ke (or rather k, 
for e is intrusive) and T for St It amusingly illustrates the 
Norman s difficulty in pronouncing an English name. Toches = 
Toks, with the a at the wrong end of the syllable. 

Stilton; to the S.W. of Yaxley; once famous for its cheese. 
This is certainly a contracted form. D.B. Sticiltone (with c as 
k) ; R.C. Stiltone, The prefix corresponds to A.S. sticol, which 
means both steep and rough. It is used once as a gloss to the 
Lat. asper, and MLiric (Homilies, ed. Thorpe, i. 162) speaks of 
the way that leads to heaven as being nearu and sticol, i.e. 
narrow and steep. Stilton is on the great old road known as 
the Ermin Street, and lies in a hollow, so as to be entered firom 
either end down a steep incline. Compare the expression ''on 
sticelan pa5," i.e. to the steep "path ; Kemble, Cod. Dipl. iii. 403. 

Upton ; near Alconbury. From the A.S. up, used in com- 
position with the sense of 'upper.' In fact, it lies higher up 
the brook. Compare XJpwell (Cambs.) and Upwood (below). 

Water Newton. On the Nene. The sense is obvious. 

WooDWALTON ; near the Great Northern Railway, to the 
N.W. of Abbot's Bipton. Compounded of Wood and Walton, 
and formerly known as Walton. D.B. Walttme ; B.C. and B.B. 
Waltone; B.C. mentions the * wood of Walton'; i. 86. Another 


Walton is spelt Wealtun in Kemble, Cod. Dipl. iii. 369 ; and 
may mean Weala-tun, *the town of the Britons'; just as 
Walden (Herts.) was certainly Weala-demi; Kemble, vi. 212. 
It might also mean *wall-lown,' from the A,S. weall, 'a wall/ 
borrowed from the Latin uallum. But obvious as this seems, 
I doubt if it is right; and the spelling Waleton (in R.B.) for 
other Waltons is highly significant, as the e represents an 
A.S. a. 

Weston. There are two Westons; Hail Weston, between 
Staughton and St Neots, and Old Weston, formerly Wold 
Weston, near Brington. Both are near the western border of 
the county, and are derived from the A.S. west, west The 
prefix Hail is of uncertain meaning, and might refer to a family 
name. If not, we can only identify it with the Norse heill, 
hale, sound, in good health ; see Hail, obs. adj., in N.E.D., 
which is cognate with, yet distinct from both the Northern 
£. hale, and the Southern whole. Mr Ladds notes that there 
are two distinct medicinal springs within the parish. R.C. has 
Haliwestone once, by error, but Haylwestone four times. Quite 
distinct from the name Hale, as in Lancashire, for which 
see Hale, sb. (2) in the New Eng. Dictionary. In I.P.M. 
(35 Hen. Ill) we find a mention of Woldweaton, and again 
Wolde Westone in F. A. ii. (a.d. 1316). In the same (A.D. 1285) 
we find Weston de Waldis ; so that Old Weston is certainly 
a corruption of Wold Weston, i.e. Weston in the Wold. Of 
H.R. Weston de Wold. 

WiTTON or Wyton; between Huntingdon and St Ives. 
D.B. Witune, This Witton occurs as Witton, but only in late 
or spurious charters ; see Cod. Dipl. iii. 107 ; iv. 145. The 
spelling in D.B. (and even in modern books) with one t suggests 
as the prefix tlie gen. Wlgam, rather than Wittan; both Wlga 
and Witta are known names; see Sweet, Oldest Eng. Texts, 
pp. 514, 631. If so, the sense is * Wiga s town.' But this is 
a guess. 

WooDSTONE. Woodstone manor is mentioned in D.B., spelt 
Wodestun; Woodstone Lodge is about half-way between Yaxley 
and Peterborough. The D.B. spelling shews that the suflBx is 

348 W. W. SKEAT 

'tun; not 'stone/ which would be represented by -start. The 
A.S. wudu, a wood, makes the gen. vmda, but it is of the 
masc. gender, and hence it also acquired the gen. vmdes ; as in 
"anlanges 'ivudes" along the wood; Kemble, Cod. Dipl. iii. 172; 
&c. Hence the A.S. equivalent is Wudes twa. The sense is 
'enclosure of (or by) the wood'; and it was probably of rather 
late formation. The older method was to compound the words, 
as in WudO'tim (for Wvdu-tun) in an early charter (about 
A.D. 840) ; see Sweet, Oldest Eng. Texts, p. 454 (48. 2). Hence 
the modem Wooton, or Wootton, of each of which there are 
a dozen examples. In the same way, we find one example of 
Woodsford (Dorset), but five of Woodford. 

Wyboston. There is a Wyboston farm to the S. of God- 
manchester ; and the name is obviously old. I have no instances 
of older spellings, but Wybos- results so regularly from the form 
Wyboldes, late form of Wigbealdes, the gen. case of the known 
name Wlgheald, that we can hardly be wrong in accepting this. 
Mr Duignan, in his Staffordshire Place-names, notes that 
Bodbaston is spelt Redbaldestone in D.B. ; and what is more to 
the purpose, he shows that Wobaston, 3 miles N. of Wolver- 
hampton, is spelt in 1227 as Wibaldestun, and in 1327 as 
Wyboston, adding (quite correctly) that Wibald is a shorter 
form of Wlgbeald, It only remains to add that WybosUm is 
more correct than Wobaston, as regards the prefix ; i.e. it is a 
form that has been better preserved. 

Names ending in -ington. 

Alw ALTON; near the Nene. An abbreviated form. D.B. 
AlwoUune; but the Pipe Boll has AMwoltun (4 Hen. II). 
Kemble has Alwaltun ; Cod. Dipl. iv. 247 ; but the spelling is 
late. It is clear, from the form in the Pipe Boll, that the 
original form contained the name iEthelwold; but we find a 
still fuller form in Birch's Cartularium, iii. 71, and in Kemble, 
Cod. Dipl. ii. 304, viz. iEthelwoldingtun. The sense is 'the 
enclosure of the sons of iEthelwold.' 

Brington ; to the E. of Bythorn. There is also a Great 
Brington in Northamptonshire, but it is on the more remote 


border of that county. D.B. Breninctune; E.G. Brinintune; 
Briningthone (with th for t), Bringtone, Thus Brington is 
short for Brinington. The A.S. form is Bryningtun ; Cod. Dipl. 
V. 300 : short for Bryninga-tun, or 'enclosure of the Brynings/ 
Bryning is a patronymic form, from the personal name Bryni ; 
see Sweet, Oldest Eng. Texts, p. 568. Compare the name 
Briningham (Norfolk). 

Connington; to the N. of Sawtry St Andrew's. D.B. 
Ccminctune; R.C. Conyngtone, Cuningtone, Cuninctune; R. Chron. 
Cuninctune, The same name as Conington, Cambs. See PL- 
names of Cambs., p. 18. 

Covington; to the N.W. of Kimbolton. D.B. Covintune 
(with n for ng)j^ Covintone, F.A. vol. ii. (a.d. 1285). The prefix 
answers to the A.S. Gujinga, gen. pi. of Gufing, a patronymic 
formed from Cufa ; giving ' enclosure of the sons of Cufa.' See 
CovENEY in PL-names of Cambs., p. 61. 

DiDDiNGTON ; to the N. of St Neots. About three and a 
half miles to the W. of this place there is a place called 
Dillington, where there was a manor which is duly noticed in 
Domesday-Book ; and the two places have been confused both 
by editors and others, so that one name has affected the other. 
The original name of Diddington was certainly Doddington. 
D.B. Dodintone, Dodincton] I.P.M. Dodington and Eynishr* 
[Eynesbury] ; an. 55 Hen. III. For A.S. Doddinga tun, or 
' town of the Doddings/ i.e. of the sons of Dodda, which is a 
common personal name. The Doddington in Cambs. has already 
been similarly explained. 

Dillington. D.B. Dellinctune; R.C. Dilingtone, Dilling' 
tone; R. Chron. Dilington. Also Dylington, F.A. ii. (a.d. 1303). 
For A.S. Dyllinga tun, or 'town of the Dyllings'; see the 
explanation of DuUingham, Cambs. 

Elton (for Ellington). The old forms of Elton and 
Ellington are not always easy to separate; but fortunately these 
places are situate in different hundreds. Elton is in the 
hundred of Norman Cross, on the N.W. border of the county; 
but Ellington is in the hundred of Leightonstone, near Spald- 

350 W. W. SKEAT 

wick, Qrafham, Brampton, and WooUey. As to the etymology 
of Elton, there can be no doubt; it appears in R.C. as Adelyng- 
tona, Athelintone, JSikelingtone, Ailingtona ; R. Chron. Adding" 
tone, Adthelingtone, uEthelingtone ; D.6. Adelintune. These 
spellings obviously represent the A.S. form jEthelinga tim, 
' town of the iEthelings * or princes. The same prefix occurs in 
jEthelinga Ig (Kemble), now Athelney in Somersetshire. The 
reduction of the prefix JEthel- to Ayl- or Ail- is found in other 
instances ; but the loss of the syllable .-ing- is unusual and 
remarkable. It can only be explained by the heavy stress on 
the first syllable, so that Aylington would become, successively, 
Aylinton, AyVton, Elton, with the same loss of the middle 
syllable as is elsewhere common, viz. in Hunst'on for Hiinstanton, 
Cic'ester for Cirencester, Dai'ntry for Ddventry, Lernster for 
Leominster, and the like. 

Ellington. The origin of Ellington is more doubtful ; 
but the most likely explanation is that the original form was 
the same as in the last instance. We find: D.B. Elintune; 
R.C. Ellingtune, Ellingtone, Elintone, But in P.F. we have not 
only Elington, Elyngton (pp. 21, 23), but also Etlyngton, 
Elinton (both on p. 19), and Edelinton (p. 21); all with reference 
to Ellington, as appears from the context. The forms Etlyngton, 
Edelinton, are highly significant, and point to jEthelinga tun as 
the most likely original. Why these names should have been 
developed differently, is not an easy question to answer; but 
the most likely solution is that Ellington was the older place, 
the name of which suffered an earlier corruption, and was 
afterwards less affected by Norman influence. But whatever 
the solution of this puzzle may be, it is diflScult to dispute the 
probability that the names were once identical. That names 
of different dates give different modern forms is well known. 
Acton is an older name than Oakley, and Staughton than 

Stibbington; on the river Nene. D.B. 8tebintune\ R.B. 
Stebintone] I.P.M. Stibynton (32 Edw. I). We find also: 
"Newton cum Sibestone et Stibington" ; F.A. vol. ii. (A.D. 1316). 
For A.S. Stybbinga tun^ or * town of the Stybbings or sons of 


Stybba.' Stybba is only known from the local name Stybban 
mad ; Kemble, Cod. Dipl. vi. 26. 

Wennington. This is a hamlet not far from Ripton Abbot's. 
The name appears as Wenintona (Lat. ablative) in a late Ramsey 
charter; in Kemble, Cod. Dipl. iv. 301. Here Wenin is a late 
and inferior spelling of Wenninga, gen. pi. of Wenning, a 
patronymic noted in Mr Searle's Supplement, at p. 582. This 
patronymic is formed from Wennay found in the local name 
Wennan start ; in Kemble, Cod. Dipl. v. 103. The allied prefix 
Wen- occurs in Wen-heard, Wen-sige, Wen-stan, and other 
compounds. The sense is * the enclosure of the sons of Wenna/ 

§ 42. Weald, Wold. 

Weald. The name of a hamlet on the road from St Neots 
to Eltisley. Spelt Welde in Pigot's map ; the Mid. E. spelling 
would be Weld] from A.S. wealdy a wood. The modern spelling 
weald is pseudo-archaic. Owing to the influence of w on the 
following vowel, or else to a direct development of the O. Merc. 
wald, the usual modern form is wold. This appears in Wold 
Weston, as explained above under Weston. It occurs again 
in Leighton Bromswold or Bromeswold, discussed below. 

Leighton Bromswold. I.e. Leighton super Bromswold, 
as being situate on a wold so called. It may be noted here 
that a "wold" was often entirely destitute of trees, and signified 
the site of an ancient wood in many instances, long after the 
wood had been cleared away. Mr Ladds has sent me the 
following excellent collection of dated examples. 

1249. Lecton in Brunneswold (MS. Harl. 6950). 

1262. Lehton super Brunneswold (ib.). 

1294. Leyctun super Brumeswold (MS. Harl. 6951). 

1296. Leyctun super Brunneswold (ib.). 

1300. Lecton Manor super Brounneswold (ib.). 

1301. Lectun super Bruneswold (ib.). 
1311. Leyghtou super Bruneswold (ib.). 
1311. Leyghton Brounswold (ib.). 

1543. Leighton Bromeswold (MS. Harl. 6953). 
In Harl. MS. 88 (38 Henry III) it is Lechton in Brumes- 

352 W. W. SKEAT 

It is quite clear that the A.S. form was Brunes, gen. case of 
Brun, which is the modern Brown; a name of great antiquity. 
Hence the sense is ' Leighton (garden) on the site of Brown's 
wood/ The development of the name from Lehton to Leighton 
is well seen. The spellings Lecton, Leycton are less correct, and 
due to the usual substitution of the A.F, c for the A.S. h. 

§ 43. The suffix -well. 

Holywell. D.B. Haliewelle\ R.C. Haliwelle. Lit. 'holy 

§ 44. The suffix -wick. 

Hardwick. a hamlet between St Neots and Toseland. 
H.R. ii. Hevdemk (1279); A.S. Heorde-wlc, Kemble, Cod. 
Dipl. iv. 288. From A.S. heorde, gen. of heord, a herd or flock ; 
and WW, a dwelling. See PL-names of Cambs., p. 28. 

Spaldwick. D.B. Spaldvice, Kemble has Spaldwic ; Cod. 
Dipl. iv. 246 ; but this is a late form. He also has Spaldelyng 
in his index, as an alternative form for Spaldyng, There is 
a Spalding-ton in Yorkshire. The suffix -vnck represents A.S. 
mc, a dwelling ; borrowed from the Lat. ulciis, a village. The 
sense is therefore 'the dwelling of Spald/ or of Spalda, or of 
the Spalds. In Birch, Cartul. Anglosaxonicum, i. 414, we 
have a list of territorial names, amongst which is a mention of 
*' Spalda syx hund hyda," i.e. six hundred hides belonging to 
the Spalds. Here Spalda is the gen. pi. of Spald, 

WiNWiCK; near Little Gidding. D.B. Wineuuiche; R.C. 
Winemc, F.A. ii. Winevnk. Kemble has Winetvwan, in a 
Latin charter with late spellings; Cod. Dipl. iv. 254. Also 
Winan-beorh (index), which shews the full form of the prefix. 
For A.S. Winan wic, i.e. *dw^elling of Wina.' The same prefix 
occurs in Wimpole, Cambs. 

§ 45. The suffix -wood. 

Besides Woodwalton, Monk's Wood, and Woodhurst, we 
have -wood as a suffix, viz. in Upwood. 

Upwood ; to the S.W. of Ramsey. D.B. Upehude (with h 
for w)\ R.C. Upwude, Upwoda; Kemble has Upwode, Cod. 


Dipl. iii. 107, but the spelling is late. From the A.S."iep, which 
in composition has the sense of 'upper/ Compare Upwell in 
Cambs., and Upton (p. 346). 

§ 46. The suffix -worth. 

From the A.S. weoHh, a holding or farm. See Pl.-names 
of Cambs., p. 25. 

Buckworth; near Alconbury. D.B. Buchesworde (with 
ch = A, and d for th). Better spelt Bokesworth, Cat. of Ancient 
Deeds (A.D. 1267). Hence the gen, suffix -es has been lost. 
For A.S. Buces weor^, i.e. *Buc*8 farm'; from the A.S. buc,.bucc, 
a buck, also a personal name. Compare the account of 
Boxworth, Cambs. 

Catworth; to the W. of Spaldwick. D.B. Gateuuorde 
(with d for th) ; R.C. Gateworthe, Gatteworthe ; also Gatteworth, 
F.A. vol. ii. (a.d. 1285). The prefix represents O. Merc. Gattan, 
A.S. GeaMan, gen. of O. Merc. Gatta, A.S. GeaMa, a known 
personal name. Kemble has Gattan-ege, Cod. Dipl. iii. 465. 

FoLKSWORTH; near Norman Cross. D.B. Folchesworde 
(with ch = k, and d for th) ; R.C. Folkeswrthe (with w for vw). 
For A.S. Folces weorfi, lit. 'folk's farm,* or 'people's farm.' 
Compare Folkstone (Kent), where the old form Folces stdn 
shews that the sense was ' folk's stone,' not ' folk's town.' 

MoLESWORTH ; to the N.W. of Catworth. D.B. Molesworde 
(with d for th) ; R.C. Mullesworth ; also Mulesvrfth, F.A. vol. ii. 
(a.d. 1285). The prefix is the same as in Moulsey (Surrey); 
A.S. Mutes-eg (in Kemble's index). From A.S. Mules, gen. of 
Mul, a known personal name. The A.S. mul also means a 
mule ; from Lat. multis. This A.S. mul would have produced 
a mod. E. moid or mowl, but is obsolete. The mod. E. mule is 
not derived from the A.S. form, but from the O.F. mul, which 
represented the Lat. ace. milium. 

Needingworth; to the E. of St Ives. R.C. Nidingworthe, 
Niddingworht (with ht for th) ; R. Chron. Nidingewrthe (with 
w for wo)\ also Nidingworth, Cat. Ancient Deeds (15 Edw. II); 
Nedyngworth, ib. (34 Hen. VI). I am unable to explain the 
exact form of this word ; it seems as if the modem ee were a 

354 W. W. SKEAT 

survival of an old I, which was formerly pronounced in the 
same way. Needing is probably, however, a patronymic form. 
Perhaps it is illustrated by Needham (Norfolk). 

Papworth. Papworth St Agnes is partly in Hunts., but 
Papworth St Everard is in Cambs. The sense is 'Pappa's 
farm,' as alrep^dy explained. See PL-names of Cambs., p. 27. 

Tetworth. The vicar of Everton is also vicar of Tetworth, 
though the latter place, according to Bacon's Atlas, is in Cambs., 
to the W. N. W. of Gamlingay. The prefix may represent the 
A.S. Tettan, gen. of the personal name Tetta, See the name 
Tettan-bum in Charter no. 2, 1. 8 of the Crawford Charters, ed. 
Napier and Stevenson, Oxford, 1995 ; p. 3. If so, the sense is 
' Tetta's farm.' This solution is confirmed by some old forms 
of the name noted by Mr Ladds, viz. Tetteturda (Harl. Charter 
83, B. 5; ab. 1150); and TheUeworde (Harl. Charter 83, B. 9; 
12th century). Distinct from Teota (AS. Chron.). 

There still remain the names St Ives and St Neots, both 
from the names of Saints. Both names occur in the genitive 
case. St Ive's day is April 25. Alban Butler gives a short 
account of him under the name Ivia or Ivo. He is said to 
have been a Persian, who died and was buried at St Ives; 
but his body was afterwards translated to Ramsey abbey. 
St Ives in Cornwall is named from the same saint, a church 
having been built there in his honour by a license from Pope 
Alexander V. in the fifteenth century. St Neot's day is 
Oct. 28. The accounts of him are legendary; see Wright's 
Biographia Britannica, vol. i. p. 381, who refers us particularly 
to the Rev. G. C. Gorham's History and Antiquities of 
Eynesbury and St Neots. St Neot was an anchorite, who 
in his latter days retired to Cornwall, where there is a place 
called St Neot, without the s. The account of him in Alban 
Butler is extremely curious, from another point of view. He 
accepts as perfectly true the early foundation of the university 
of Oxford, saying : " To this holy hermit is generally ascribed 
the glorious project of our first and most noble university, in 
which he was king Alfi-ed's first adviser." And he adds in a 
footnote this remarkable comment. "Nothing more sensibly 


betrays the weakness of human nature than the folly of seeking 
a false imaginary glory, especially in those who incontestably 
possess every most illustrious title of true greatness. Some 
weak and lying impostors pretended to raise the reputation 
of the university of Cambridge by forgeries which it is a disgrace 
not to despise and most severely censure." I am afraid that 
the Oxford legend will not stand the test of careful enquiry 
any better than our own. But I accept his definition of 
Cambridge students, which seems worth repeating. They are 
men " who incontestably possess every most illustrious title of 
true greatness." 

I think it is worth while adding a note that, in general, 
the original vowel-sounds are remarkably well preserved in the 
older forms of place-names; and usually, even in the modem 
ones. It is further worth noting, in particular, that Domesday 
Book certainly has two values for the letter e, when repre- 
senting a short vowel. Of course, it properly represents the 
A.S. short e, as in Dentone, the modem Denton; but it also 
denotes the A.S. short y, the mutated form of short u, for 
which the scribe had no proper symbol, the French y being 
significant rather of a short i. Observation of this fact helps 
us in the etymology. Examples appear in D.B. Breninctune, 
Brington, from A.S. Bryriing ; D.B. Dellinctune, Dillington, from 
A.S. Dylling; D.B. Herstingestan, Hirstingstone, from A.S. 
Hyrsting; D.B. Kenebaltone, Kimbolton, from A.S. Cynebald; 
and D.B. Stebintune, Stibbington, from A.S. Styhbing. 

In the appendix to my "Notes on English Etymology," 
I enumerate sixteen cases in which Anglo-Norman scribes 
usually fail to represent the sounds of Anglo-Saxon consonants. 
Many such failures occur in the Domesday spellings of the 
place-names here considered. Examples may perhaps be useful. 
I number the cases as in my "Notes," omitting such numbers 
as are not well exemplified : 

1. Norman scribes drop initial h. Hence we have Adone 
for Haddon, and Emingeforde for Hemingford. 

3. They write t for initial th\ as in Tominge, Thurning. 

5. They write u (or tuu; as in Botvlf for A.S. Botwulf. 

356 W. W. SKEAT 

And, owing to Norman influence, we have dropped our own w 
in the same. Cf. Upehvde, Upwood. 

6. They had no way of clearly denoting the English sound 
of y in you. Hence we find both Oelinge and Ohellinge for 
Yelling; and lacheslei for Yaxley. 

11. They disliked Ik. Hence, in Acumesberie for Alkmund s 
bury, the i has disappeared. 

12. They disliked a final nd. Hence we find Stangrun 
for Stanground. 

13. They disliked the A.S. ng, which was sounded like the 
ng in stronger. Sometimes they substituted n, but in con- 
scientious moments they wrote nc for it. Exx. Stebintune, 
Stibbington ; Dodintone, Doddington ; AdeltrUone, Elton ; 
Coninctune, Connington ; Dodinctone, Doddington ; Breninctune, 
Brinington, now Brington. 

15. Final th became a d for them. The suffix -worth often 
appears as -worde or -orde. 

16. They wrote ce (pronounced as tse) for the Eng. che. 
Hence we find Cestretune, Chesterton; Oodmundcestre, God- 
manchester. On the other hand, we find the D.B. spelling 
cfie to express ke; as in Buchesworde, Buckworth; Folchesworde, 
Folksworth ; Chenebcdtone, Kimbolton. Cf. Pdchstone, Paxton. 

They further declined to use the A.S. symbol for w ; for 
which they substituted not only their own w, but sometimes 
also uu or v. Hence we find Gateuuorde, Catworth ; Spaldvice^ 
Spaldwick ; Wistov, Wistow. And they further sometimes 
wrote V for the vowel u. Very characteristic of French is the 
substitution of a voiceless final consonant for a voiced one. 
Hence Suiiieahefet = Smnesheved, the old form of Swineshead. 
Conversely, the difficult combination of a voiceless k with a 
voiced d in Buckden was avoided by saying Bugeden (with 
hard g). 

The medial e in D.B. often represents the A.S. -a, as in 
Emingeforde for Heminga fordy where -a is the suffix of the 
gen. plural. It also takes the place of the A.S. -an, the sign 
of the gen. singular, as in Cateuuorde for Cattan weorth. 


The names in D.B. are almost always preceded by the 
Latin prep, in, and hence they nearly always appear in the 
dative case, with a final -e. The English dative had to serve 
for an ablative as well. 

Conclusion. When we consider these place-names as a 
whole, we cannot but be struck with the fact that they are, 
almost without exception, intensely English, and very free 
from foreign influence. The sole traces of Roman occupation 
are in the names Chesterton and Godmanchester, to which 
we may add, by way of note, that the name Perry, A.S. pirige, 
i.e. a pear-tree, is a word of Latin origin; from L. piinimi. 
Traces of the Norman Conquest (exclusive of the remarkable 
influence of Norman on spellings and sounds) occur only in 
Warboys and Norman Cross. With the probable exception of 
river-names, which I am unable to elucidate, the sole traces 
of Celtic inhabitants are in the names Weybridge (Walberge), 
the hill of the Welsh or Britons, and Walton, the town of the 
strangers or Welsh men. If, as has been said, the occurrence 
of the suffix -ham is a sign of Friesian occupation, we may 
note, as has already been said, that there are but five examples 
of -ham as against twenty-four examples in Cambridgeshire; 
which shows a startling difference. Even still more remarkable 
is the almost total absence of Scandinavian, which is repre- 
sented only by Toseland, originally Toll's lund or grove, an 
interesting example ; by Keston or Ketill's stone ; possibly by 
Denton, or town of the Danes, who seem to have been, like 
the Welshmen, quite foreign to the county ; and, lastly, by 
Copman-ford, the ford of the Danish traders. The chief stock 
of the early inhabitants was wholly English in regard of speech, 
though certainly with much admixture of Celtic blood. And 
their speech was probably that of the early Mercian Angles 
who first settled in the Eastern part of our islands. Moreover, 
Huntingdonshire is certainly to be included amongst the 
counties which have helped to form the standard literary 
language of the British empire and of the United States of 

C. A, 8, Comm, Vol. X. 25 


In the following Index the reference is to the preceding pages. 

I have taken the opportunity of giving at the same time (within marks of 
parenthesis) the spellings which ocoar in Domesday Book, with references to 
the pages and columns as numbered in the Facsimile of the Part relating 
to Huntingdonshire, as published separately. 

Thus Aioonbury is spelt Acumesberie in the Facsimile, on page ii, col. 1; 
as denoted by 2 a. 

Abbotsley, 838 

Agden, 323 

Alconbury {Acumesberif 2 a), 322 

Alwalton (Alwoltune 5 b), 348 

Aversley, 334 

Baldwinshoe, 329 

Barham, 327 

Beechamstead, 339 

-berh, 319 

Billing, 330 

Bluntisham (Bluntesham 3 a), 327 

-bois, 319 

Botulph Bridge (Botulvesbrige 2a), 321 

Boughton, 342 

-bourn, 320 

Brampton {Brantune 2 a), 342 

-bridge, 321 

Brington {Breninctune 4 b), 348 

Bromswold, Leighton, 351 

-brook, 821 

Broughton (Broctvne 3 b), 342 

Buckden {Bugedene 2 b), 324 

Buckworth {Bvchesworde 6 a), 853 

Bury, 321 

Bythorn {Bieme 4 b), 840 

Galdecote {CaZdecote 7 a), 823 
Gatworth {Cateuuorde 3 a, 6 b), 353 
-Chester, 322 

Chesterton {Cestretune 5 b), 342 
Golne {Colne 3 a), 322 
Gonnington {Coninctvne 8 b), 349 
Goppingford, Gopmanford {Copemane- 

forde 6 a), 326 
-cote, 323 

Govington (Covintvne 6 b), 349 
Gross, Norman, 323 

-den, 328 

Denton {Dentone 2 b), 342 

Diddington {Dodintone 2 b, DodincUm 

9 a), 349 
Dillington (DeUinetvne 4 b), 349 
-ditch, 324 
-don, 324 

Earith, 329 
Easton, 343 
Eastthorpe, 341 



Ellington {Elintvne 4 b), 350 
Elton (Adelintvne 4 a), 349 
Everton (Evretune 9 b), 343 
-ey, 326 
Eynesbury (Einulvesherie 8 b), 322 

Farcet, 328 

Fen Stanton, 343 

Fenton, 343 

Fletton {Fletone 12 a, FUtvn 6 b), 343 

Folksworth (Folcheswarde 6 a), 363 

-ford, 326 

Gallow Brook, 321 

Gidding, 330 

Glatton (Glatvne 5 b), 344 

Godmanchester {Godmundcestre 2 a), 

Graflfham (Grafham 2a), 328 
Gransden, Great {Grantesdene 2 a), 

-ground, 327 
-grove, 327 

Haddon {Ad<me 5 a), 324 

Han Weston, 344 

-ham, 327 

Hamerton {Hambertvne 6 b), 344 

Hardwick, 352 

Hartford, 326 

-head, 328 

Heighmangrove, 327 

Hemingford {Emingeforde 4 a), 326 

Higney, 326 

Hilton, 344 

Hinchingbrook, 321 

Hime, The, 329 

Hirstingstone [Hyrstingestan 1 b, 

Herstingestan lb), 339 
-hithe, 329 
-hoe, 329 
Holbom, 320 
Holme, 330 

Holywell {HalieweUe 3 b), 362 
Horsey, 325 

Houghton (Hoctvne 4 a), 344 
Huntingdon {Huntedun lb), 324 
Hurst, Old, 330 

-ing, 330 
-ington, 348 

Keystone, Keston {Chetelestan 2 a, 

KeUUstan 11a), 339 
Kimbolton {Chenebaltone 6 a, Kene- 

baltone 8 b), 344 

-land, 332 

Leighton, 346 

Leighton Bromswold, 361 

Leightonstone {Lectone 2 b, Leetune- 

Stan 3 a), 340 
-ley, 333 
Long Stow, 340 
-low, 336 
-lund, 332, 333 
Lymage, 331 

Mere, Trundle, 336; Ugg, 337 

Middle Moor, 337 

Midloe, 329 

Molesworth (MoUstoorde 8 b), 363 

Monk's Wood, 362 

Moor, Middle, 337 

Morbom {Morbume 3 a), 321 

Needingworth,* 363 

Norman Cross (Normanecroa 2 a, 2 b), 

Offord {Vpeforde 4b, Opeforde 8a), 326 

Oggerston, 340 

Old Hurst, 330 

Orton, Overton (Ouretune 6b, 7a), 346 

Papworth {Papeuuorde 8 a), 364 
Paxton (Pachstane 9 a), 346 
Perry {Pirie 8 a), 337 
Pidley, 334 
Port Holm, 330 

Bamsey, 326 
Baveley, 334 
-reach, 337 
lUpton {Riptvne 3 b), 
Hound Hill, 328 
Rowey, 326 




St Ives, 854 

St NeotB, 864 

Sapley, 834 

Sawtry {SaUrede 4 a, 7 a), 887 

Sibson [Sibestvne 5 a, 5 b), 845 

Sibthorpe, 841 

Slepe (SUpe 8 b), 338 

Somersham (Svmmersham 8 a), 828 

Southoe, 329 

Spaldwiok (Spaldvice 8 a), 852 

Standground {Stangrun 5 a), 827 

Stanton (Stantone 9 a), 346 ; Fen, 843 

Staughton (Tochettone 2 b), 346 

•stead, 339 

Stibbington (StehinUme 5 a, SUhintune 

5 b), 350 
Stilton (StiGilUyne 2 b, 7 a), 846 
Stirtlow, 836 
•stone, 339 
Stoneley, 885 
•stow, 340 

Stakeley {Stivecle 3 b), 835 
Swineshead (Suineahefet 7 a), 328 

Tetworih, 354 

•thorn, 840 

•thorpe, 341 

Thorning {Tominge 3 a), 331 

TiUbrook, 821 

Tolesland {Toleslvnd 2 b), 332 

•ton, 341 

Trundle Mere, 886 

Ugg Mere, 887 
Upthorpe, 841 

Upton {Opettme 6 a), 846 
Upwood (Vpehude 3b), 852 

Warbois, Warboys {Wardebutc 4 a), 

319, 320 
Waresley (Wedretlei 6b, WederetU 8a, 

Wedresleie 9 a), 335 
Washingley (Watingelei 10a, Wasinge- 

leia 7 a), 835 
Water Newton, 846 
Weald, Wold, 851 
•well, 352 
Wennington, 851 
Westbrook, 321 
Weston {Westune 7 b), 347 
Weybridge, 319 
•wiok, 852 
Wintringham, 328 
Winwick {Wineuuiche 7b), 852 
Wistow {WUtov 3b), 340 
Witton {Witvne 4 a), 347 
Wold, 851 
•wood, 852 
Woodhurst, 830 
Woodstone {Wodestvn 5 a), 347 
Woodwalton (WaXtvne 6 b), 346 
Wooley, 385 
Womditoh, 324 
-worth, 353 
Wyboston, 348 
Wyton, 847 

Yaxley {lacheslei 5 a), 336 
Telling {Ghellinge 4 a, Gelinge 9 a), 

Camb. Ant. 8oc. Vol. x, p. 361. 

PI. xviii. 


PATEN 361 

Monday, 1 December 1902. 

Mr Gray, President, in the Chair. 

The Rev. R. A. Qatty made a communication On Pigmy 
Flint Implements, illustrated by lantern slides and by an 
exhibition of a large number of specimens. 

This communication had been previously made to a meeting of the 
Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, and an abridged 
report of it appeared in Man in February 1902. 

Monday, 9 February 1903. 
Mr Gray, President, in the Chair. 
The Rev. W. O'F. Hughes and Mr J. E. Foster exhibited 

A Pre-Reformation Paten. 

The paten now exhibited belongs to the parish of Farcet 
near Peterborough, and makes a notable addition to the 
number of mediaeval patens now extant in England. It belongs 
to the type D of such objects as settled by Messrs Fallows and 
St John Hope in their description of mediaeval chalices and 
patens (published in Vol. XLii. of the Archceological Journal) 
which range in date from 1450 to 1520, and which contain in 
the centre a head of our Lord in a circle of short rays. As it 
is not hall-marked the date cannot be accurately fixed, but 
Mr Cripps says that it is probably about 1500. 

It has preserved unaltered its primitive form, viz. that of 
a shallow bowl. Most patens are shallow dishes with flat 
bottoms and sloping sides, such as the well-known one at Stow 
Longa, also in Huntingdonshire, the earliest hall-marked piece 
of English Plate. Mr St John Hope considers that this paten 
has retained its original shape and that such pieces as that at 
Stow have been altered since they were made. 

Nothing at present is known of the history of the paten. 
The returns of church plate in Huntingdonshire, preserved at 
the Record Office and made in 1549, are very incomplete and 
do not contain any return from Farcet or Stanground, with 
which it seems to have been united at that time. 



There is a joint return from the two parishes of certain 
articles sold and of the disposition of the money. The second 
item accounts for the proceeds of sale of certain candlesticks, 
old painted cloths and censers, with other old implements, which 
sold for £4. The amount was placed in the poor-man's box 
and stolen therefrom. 

Searches at Lincoln, of which diocese Huntingdonshire 
formed part till a very recent period, and in the parish chest 
might lead to the discovery which would enable us to say when 
the paten came into possession of the parish, and it is hoped 
that searches will be made in both places shortly. 

A Wooden Knife-Handle of the Fourteenth 

By the Rev. A. C. Yorke. 

The little wooden figure, once the handle 
of a 'dagar knyfife,' was dug up in the bed of 
the great moor of Fowlmere in May, 1902. 
Dr M. R James allocates it to the fourteenth 
century : and as the moor was only drained 
in 1848, it must have lain for centuries in 
the chalky ooze. 

It is about four inches long, of boxwood, 
and represents a begging friar, with jug in 
one hand, and wallet over the shoulder. The 
hole where the crossbar of the ' dagar ' passed 
is in evidence ; and as there is no rust it is 
evident that the blade did not fall with it. 

The hood is brought up to the chin so 
like a wimple that a friend suggested the 
figure might represent a poor Clare. But 
a comparison with cotemporary pictures and 
illuminations shows that the artists of that 
day were accustomed to represent the hood 
close up in this manner. 

All antiquaries who have seen it agree 
that it is an unique specimen of its kind. 



A Bone Crucifix. 
By the Rev. A. C. Yorke. 

The Crucifix was found in 1882 in a barn at St Valery de 
Somme, France. The barn had been closed about 100 years ; 
consequently the wood of the Cross was decayed, and has been 
replaced with modern work. 

The figure is of bone, presumably the shank bone of some 
large animal — horse or ox. It is 7^ inches long, and, at the 
hands, 2 inches wide. This narrowness, due to the material, 
gives a drawn and agonised appearance to the figure, which is 
well modelled, though attenuated. There is no clue to its 

Mr W. B. Redfern exhibited (from his Collection) : 

No. 1. An Italian hanging-lamp and suspender of iron, 
closely resembling the crusie of the Scottish Highlands, but 
without the lower, or catch-oil, boat-shaped dish of the ordinary 
crusie, at the same time partaking of the character of the 
Roman lamps of pottery and bronze. 

No. 2. An axe-head of iron, probably fourteenth or 
fifteenth century. From Mildenhall, Suflfolk. 

No. 3. A bronze bell of mediaeval workmanship, con- 
sisting of a bronze Dutch-like figure of a lady in mediaeval 
costume, whose skirt answers the purpose of the bell. The 
clapper has disappeared, but the ring or eye for its suspension 
remains ; the lady's head-dress consists of a close fitting cap or 
bonnet tied with ribbons under the chin, the hair is rolled back 
from the forehead and a double pig-tail escapes from the cap 
and hangs down the back, the bodice is long and is fastened 
down the front by four large bows, at the waist at the back it 
is cut into four points and ornamented by a couple of buttons : 
the left hand rests easily on the skirt of the dress, while the 
right holds a fan of some length and divided into three parts. 
The height of the figure is four inches. It was dug up, many 
years ago, in a field in the parish of Aylsham, Norfolk. 



No, 4. A bronze socket or handle, probably used for a fan 
of feathers. There are two small holes for rivets at the lower 
part for retaining the fan and a ring at the top, by which it 
could be suspended by a chain from the girdle; on the flat 
surface of an oblong square panel is an incised medieval capital 
R The length is 3^ inches: it was found at Fordham in 
Cambridgeshire. There is a very similar one in the Museum 
at Saffron Walden, and in the London Guildhall Museum 
(described as a girdle-end). 

No. 3. 

No. 4. 

No. 5. Three early bone knife-handles, representing the 
figures of a Lady, a King, and a Noble. The Lady, as are the 
other two, is clad in a long, plain robe, her only headgear is her 
flowing hair, she holds to her breast a five-leafed rose; the 
King wears long hair and is crowned, a cloak fastened at the 
throat hangs from his shoulders, in his right hand he holds a 
sceptre, in his left he holds the Orb and Cross. The Noble 
wears a plain coronet, has hair dressed in the same style as the 
previous figures, and clasps to his breast a circular dish or 
trencher which is ornamented round the border with small 
incised leaves. The probable date of these articles is late 
thirteenth or early fourteenth century, and as they appear never 
to have held the tang of a blade they may have formed part of 
the stock-in-trade of a cutler of the period. 

anglesey abbey 365 

On a Charter relating to Anglesey Abbey. 
By J. E. Foster, M.A. ^ 

In his history of Bottisham and the Priory of Anglesey 
published by the Society in 1873, Mr Hailstone refers at p. 260 
to the letters patent granted in 1336 to Elizabeth de Burgh, 
Lady Clare (Foundress of Clare College), authorizing her to 
give to the Prior and Convent of Anglesey certain houses and 
lands at Great and Little Walsingham in Norfolk on condition 
that they found two secular chaplains to celebrate mass every 
day in the chapel of the Blessed Mary the Virgin recently built 
by the said Elizabeth within the priory. 

In an inquisition held on the 9th July 1356 by the 
escheator for the County of Norfolk, the jurors declared that it 
would not damage the King's interests if the prior and convent 
of Anglesey should give the said messuages, &c., to the prior 
and convent of Walsingham, the latter rendering a rent of 
twelve marcs (£8) therefor, and licenses were granted accord- 

Mr Hailstone states that this rent was paid up to the time 
of the dissolution, but I think this was not the case, as when 
the valor ecclesiasticus was made in the reign of Henry VIII 
the rent had been reduced to £3. 135. 4d. 

The document now brought to the notice of the Society 
explains this diminution. 

It is a letter, No. 92 in Vol. 51 of Ancient Correspondence 
now preserved at the Record OflBce, and is an award by the 
Duke of York upon the question submitted to him as arbitrator 
between the Convents of Anglesey and Walsingham as to the 
amount of rent to be paid by the latter for the property 
conveyed to them in 1356, and also as to the amount to be 
paid in settlement of the arrears of the rent. 

Two points arise on the document, viz. who was the Duke 
of York the arbitrator, and what is its date? 

The first question can be immediately answered. 

366 J. E. FOSTER 

The only person who used the title of Duke of York and 
was owner of Ludlow Castle between 1356, when the property 
was sold to the Priory of Walsingham, and 1635 the date of the 
dissolution of the monasteries, was Richard Plantagenet, whose 
claim to the Crown caused the Wars of the Roses, and led his 
son to the throne as Edward IV. 

He became owner of Ludlow through his mother, the 
daughter of Roger Mortimer, Elarl of March. 

The exact date of the document I am unable to fix but a 
probable approximation to it can be made. 

The Duke was born in 1411 and was killed at the battle 
of Wakefield in 1460. He was absent in France from 1434 
till 1437, and from June 1441 till 1445 ; and in Ireland from 
June 1449 till the end of 1450. As he was only 23 when he 
went on his first journey to France it is not probable that he 
would have acted as arbitrator between such important bodies 
previously to that date, and we are therefore limited to the 
periods from 1437 to June 1441, from 1445 to 1449, and from 
1450 to 1460. 

A letter numbered 212 in the first volume of Gairdners 
edition of the Fasten Letters may be referred to in connection 
with this question. It is a letter of thanks from the Duke 
of York to John Paston for the ' benevolence, aide, and tendre 
love ' shewn by him at the instance of the Duke to what the 
Duke describes as *our right trusty and well-beloved in God 
the prior and convent of the house of Our Lady of Walsingham 
of our patronage ' in connection with the sale of certain Manors 
to the Earl of Warwick. The year when this letter was written 
is not inserted, but Mr Gairdner in his headnote states that 
it could hardly have been written in any year except 1454 
or 1455, when the Duke was in power as Protector of the 

The Paston letter is interesting in connection with the 
present one as shewing that the Duke had close relations with 
the Convent at Walsingham. A statement in the Monasticon 
seems to shew that he may have had equally close relations 
with that at Anglesey; for Dugdale states that Edmund 
Mortimer Elarl of March was patron in the time of Henry IV. 


This nobleman was uncle of the Duke, who became entitled to 
the Mortimer Estates on his death without issue in 1424, and 
who may have taken his position as patron of Anglesey. This 
may explain. the acceptance by the Duke of the position of 
arbitrator between the two convents, which would have been a 
fitting arrtogement if he was patron of both. 

The reference to Thomas Gray as Esquire to the Duke may 
also assist in approximating the date. The Grays were closely 
connected with and supporters of the Duke, and a manuscript 
in the Phillips collection, printed by Mr Gairdner as No. 671 
of the Paston Letters,, states that a Thomas Gray was knighted 
on the field by Edward IV after the battle of Tewkesbury in 
1471. But I cannot trace a connection between him and the 
Esquire of the Duke of York, though they may have been the 
same person. 

It is however equally probable that this Thomas Gray was 
really attached to the Bishop of Ely's household. 

In the list of Judges of Assize appointed by the Bishop 
of Ely under his Palatine Jurisdiction appears the name of 
Thomas Gray as appointed in 1454. The list is in the supple- 
ment to Bentham's History of Ely, and it states that the Judge 
was the grandson of Bishop William Gray. His judicial oflfice 
would have made him a proper person to be charged with this 
matter, and he may have been appointed Esquire to the Duke 
ad hoc or the Duke may have called him his Esquire in order 
to give him an official standing in the communications carried 
on in this matter, 

The Christian name of the Bishop of Ely is not mentioned. 
This would have been an assistance, as Thomas Bourchier was 
translated to the Archbishopric of Canterbury and William 
Gray appointed to the Bishopric in 1454. 

The following fact proves that a Thomas Gray was appointed 
to office in the Ely Diocese by Bishop Gray and not by Bishop 
Bourchier. On referring to the Court Rolls of the Manors of 
Elm and Wisbech preserved in the Bishops' Registry at Ely, 
I find that Andrew Ogard Knight was Constable till the ac- 
cession of Bishop Gray in 1454, when Thomas Gray took his 
place. • 

368 J. E. FOSTER 

As the messenger came from the Bishop of Ely it seems 
probable that he was the Thomas Gray above referred to, and 
that the arbitration took place after the appointment of 
William Gray to the Bishopric in September 1464. 

Copy of letter numbered 92 in Volume 51 of Ancient 
Correspondence at the Record Office, 

The due of York 

Right tnifty and welbeloued in god We grete yow hertily wel And 
wol ye wite )>* We haue but || late agoo received Ires from the Reaend 
fadre in god our Righte worfhipful Coufin The Biffhop of Ely || And vnder- 
flande afwel by \>^ fame as by credence to vs declared on his behalfe by our 
Right trufty & || welbeloued fervant Thonfc Gray Squier the amyable 
tretye betwix yow & the prio' & Conuent of our hows || of Walfyngham 
upon fuche variance as depende || not dermined as for the payement 
of )?« annuitee of || viij -H by the faid priC and Conuent of Walfyngham 
and their predeceflburs heretofore given to thexibicion || of a preft to 
Doo Diuin feruice & to pray for vs & our progenitcfe in our howfe of 
Anglefey of J>* || whiche tretye & of yo' towarde difpoficion to the good 
conclufion of the fame we bee right glad Leting || yow wite )>* as for \>e 
detminacion of \>e annuitie of viij -hi & of the arrerages of the fame Whiche 
by yC II agreement are put to our ordonnance & awarde We confidering 
the decays & ruyne of the landes and tenltes || \)^ the paiement of the 
faid annuitee f huld growe of haue ordeigned }>* the fame prio' & Conuent 
of II Walfyngh^ & their fucceffours fhal bynde thann to paye & doo paye 
yerely for e^more at the fefte of || Seint michel tharchangell )>® fome of 
Lxxiij & iiij* to thexibicion of a Chanoigne profeffed & to bee || profeffed 
in J>« faid hows of Anglefey forto miniftre Divin f^uice & to pray in |>« 
fame for vs & for || all our progenit€& And as for the mitigacion of 
tharrerages of J>® faid annuitee behinde for v yeres || as we been credibly 
enfofiaed We haue awarded & ordeigned J>* the faid prio' and Conuent 
of Walfynghln || fhal pave vnto yow betwix this & michelmas next 
comyng the foine of x ti ftling in ful paiement || of the faid arrerages for 
J»« V yeres abouefaid The whiche our awarde we wol J>* ye parfolne on || 
your part w***oute any obflacle Leting yow wite \>^ we Sende vnto yow |)« 
qpnfirmacion by our || faid fquier aftre the copie to vs by him deliured w* 
addicion of vjs viijd according vnto o' awarde || aboue fpecified Geven 
imdre o\ir fignet at our Caftel of Ludlowe j>* xxy day of May 


To our Right trufty and Welbeloued jj in god the prio' & Conuent of 
our hows of Anglefey 


Tuesday, 3 March 1903. 
Mr Gray, President, in the Chair. 

Sibyl Fresco at Cortina d' Ampezzo. 
By F. M. Oornford, M.A. 

The fresco of five Sibyls here drawn from a photograph is 
on the wall of a room now used as a smoking-room at the sign 
of the Stella d' oro in Cortina. It was discovered when altera- 
tions were made some years ago, and the plaster, to receive 
which the surface has been chipped all over, was removed. 
The photograph represents all that is now to be seen. The 
original is about 5 feet high, and the bottom is about 6 feet 
frona the floor of the present room. The grouping of the 
figures in pairs shows that at least one other figure is lost on 
the right. The proprietor of the hotel could give me no infor- 
mation about any older building to which this wall belonged. 

The left-hand figure in each group (1, 3 and 5 from the 
left) is dressed in an orange robe ; the second and fourth figures 
are in crimson and green respectively. The seat on which they 
rest is a pale orange-yellow ; the same colour is used for the 
lions at the feet of the third figure. The background is dark 
olive-green. Each Sibyl holds a scroll. The names of the first, 
second and fifth are painted in white on the background near 
their heads : the names of the other two are at the ends of their 
scrolls. All the figures are crowned : the first (as Mr Edwin 
Wilson pointed out to me) holds a steelyard, the second has a 

I transcribed the inscriptions from the original with the aid 
of a magnifying-glasa I give them below, marking expanded 
contractions by round brackets ( ), conjectural or doubtful 
letters by square brackets [ ]. The five figures are taken in 
order from the left. 

la [b]alue(tt)»l». Presumably the topographical title of 
this Sibyl (cf. no. Ill Sibilia pontuensis). But who is she ? It 
is obvious to connect the steelyard in her band with the name 
* Justice ' on her scroll. 




lb (scroll) ^ntlie(n)da cd..a(m) caHginoga nube ob- 

$;curabtt(ur), to(n)statfa | ..Itba(m) .t... [bf|t(ttt) tttstida(m) 

canliaja(m) t(in)p(eT)iaIe(m) [b]e«t.,et(ut). Prudence shall ob- 
scure (?) . . . with a dark cloud, Constancy shall , Justice 

shaU (put on?) a white imperial (robe?). The stroke over the 
a of iustida is plainly an error ; so is the omission of the stroke 
over the first a in constantia. 

II a sfbflta [njfcaulta q[aae ?] | reatna s[abae ?] | * • a • * • ta 

est The Sibyl Nicaulia who qu£en of Sheba (?) was . . . 

Piper (Myth, u. Symb. der ChrisU. Kunst, I p. 479) cites a 
German Volksbuch entitled ' Zwolf Sibyllen Weissagungen vil 
wunderbarer Zukunft von Anfang bis zu End der Welt besa- 
gende. Der Kiinginn von Saba Kilng Salomeh gethane Pro- 
pheceien. Frankf 1531.' The Queen of Sheba is called 
Nichaula in this book, which contain^ woodcuts of all the 
Sibyls with inscriptions not quoted by Piper. I can find no 
other trace of the name Nichaula. 

For the identification of the Queen of Sheba with 'the 
Sibyl/ Maass (de Sibyllartim indicibus, pp. 14, 16) cites Michael 
Glyca (Bekk. Annal. p. 343) : ^o/Set [= Xafid] €0vo^ AIOiottikov 
TovTcop ifia^tkevaev 17 OavfLaa-rrj eKeivr) lifivXXa* firjTe yap 
vofjLov elSvia fiijre irpoilyTjT&v aKOvaaca Sid tov ^aXo/xwi/09 rov 
T^9 a-o(l>La^ vfiPTfo-e x^PVJ^^'^ ^^^ Georgius Cedrenus I p. 166 
Bekk. : Ka\ ^a^iXia-a-a ^a/Sa, ^ta9 iXeyero 'H/SvWa irap 
"EWTyo-ti/. The identification is probably due to a confusion 
of Saba with Sambetha (or Sabbe, as she is called by Pausanias), 
the Judaean Sibyl ; see Maass, Z. c. The scholiast on Plato, 
Phaedr. 244, says Sambetha, the Chaldaean Sibyl, married one 
of Noah's sons, and prophesied of Babel and Alexander the 
Great. Schreiber (Oracula Sibyllina, Heitz, Strassburg 1903, 
Einleitung, p. 15) mentions Nichaula as the Queen of Sheba's 
name and alludes to a legend of her prophesying to Solomon, 
which is contained in the Saga of tlie Holy Cross. 

Uh (scroll over Nicaulia's head) (Stui Cfltt(m) mctttttt 

palmo [et ?] [aqtt]a(in) pugfllo {(n) tsto | mo(r)iet(ut), 

(et) p(er) boc regCnttm?] I»rl(?) anicb([Iab]it(ttt). He who 
measureth the heaven mth a span and the waters in the hollow 


of his hand,,,. in.,.. that... slfxill die, and throttgh this the 
kingdom of Israel shall be annihilated. 

The first clause can be restored from Is. xl. 12 (Vulg.) Quis 
mensus est pugillo aquas et caelos palmo poTideravit? The loss 
of eight or nine letters after pugillo makes the next words 
unintelligible. The reference to Israel (if this be the word) is 
interesting in Sheba's prophecy. 

III (scroll) J»ti quatttor leottcs unfesimis cjatulfe (tonO 
(ber)U(n)t(ttr) («£&) \ teg(um ?) • elfe(n)t(em ?) a(n)t(m)a(m) (et) 
8aptentt[a or am?] aliorabtt etetne. sibflfa po(n)tue(n)8te. 
Those four lions shall be changed into (?) very vile dogs, but of 
kings (?) .... mind and wisdom .... shall adore for ever. The 
Sibyl of Pontus. 

The inscription refers to the four lions depicted at the 
Sibyl's feet. Mrs W. C. D. Whetham kindly drew my attention 
to the fact that lions at the feet of a figure commonly denote 
death by wild beasts in the arena. She also informs me that 
Saint Thecla was exposed to lions at Antioch, but that the 
lions fell at her feet and would not eat her. Thecla afterwards 
lived in a cave (like the Sibyl) in a mountain near Seleucia, 
healed and preached, and was called by the ignorant a priestess 
of Diana. Some analogous legend, in which the wild beasts 
were changed into dogs to save the martyr, might conceivably 
have been told of some virgin, like Thecla, who was identified, 
owing to cave-dwelling habits, with the typical wise woman of 
the cave. The meaning of the rest of the inscription must be 
left to conjecture. 

IV (scroll) aur(o)ra lucfe rutflat celtt(m) laui)ift(us) {(n). 
tonat mu(n)&[u»] | exuUa(n)s jubtlat g£me(n)« fnfet[nu»J ululat. 
sibtHa a[gttp ?]a. 

This inscription is of a totally diflferent character from the 
rest. It is not a prophecy, but the first verse of a well-known 
paschal hymn ascribed to St Ambrose (Daniel, Thes. Hymn, I. 
83 ; Julian, Diet of HymnoL p. 94). The name of the Sibyl is 
illegible. The compendium used for ro in Aurora is remark- 
able — unless the o is accidentally omitted. 


V a %lhi\ia . • • t I a The Sibyl's name is illegible. 

V b (scroll) BealtD [b ?]e(n)i[t ?] ^[n ?] • • | nube tegeWut)] 
(et) attto[Ta ♦•.]•••• There cometh from on high .... shall he 
covered with a clovd, and dawn .... 

The words de alto venit recall Botticelli's engraving of the 
Phrygian Sibyl inscribed, Veniet de super filiiis etc*, and the 
legend of Santa Maria Ara Coeli. Augustus sent for the 
Tiburtine Sibyl, who said to him, " There shall come from 
heaven a king who shall live for ever." Heaven opened and 
Augustus saw the Virgin and Child standing on an altar. The 
vision happened on the site of the church of S. Maria in 
Capitolio (Piper, Myth, u. Symb. d. Ghr. Kunst, I. p. 482). 

Attention may be drawn to the illustrations of the Sibyls 
by B. Baldini issued by the International Chalcographical 
Society in 1886. 


By Herbert George Fordham. 

The small bronze object now exhibited, having the form of 
a pig somewhat elongated and flattened, but sufficiently clearly 
indicated, and being 2J inches in length, was found, probably 
about 1864 or 1865, in the extensive workings for coprolites in 
the parishes of Guilden Morden and Steeple Morden carried 
on at that time by my father. It has been in his possession, 
or in mine since his death, ever since. I have always under- 
stood that it was found in the subsoil, or at no great depth, 
associated with some other objects, including (at all events) a 
small earthenware bead bearing incised pattern, the whole 
group occurring in what was, no doubt, a grave, and so plaqed 
with regard to remains of human bones as to suggest that the 
various objects were originally hung round the neck of the 
person buried. 

No further information as to the date of the find, its site 
(even approximately), or the particular objects found, is now, 
unfortunately, available. The eye formed by the curled tail 
C. A. 8. Camm. Vol. X. 26 

874 H. G. FORDHAM 

of the pig was perfect at the time it came into my father's 
possession. It has been accidentally broken quite recently. 
The presence of this eye suggests that the pig was used as a 
pendent ornament, but from this point of view it is difficult 
to find any use for the two pins and sockets which replace the 
leg of the animal, and the existence of which would be con- 
sistent with its being mounted or fixed on some other object. 

This latter suggestion is borne out by a "Bronze Plate, 
with figures of Northern Warriors" figured in Green's Short 
History of the English People at p. 84 of the Illustrated 
Edition of 1898 (London, Macmillan, 3 vols., large 8vo.). The 
illustration is taken from Montelius' Civilization of Sweden, 
and shows two figures wearing similar helmets or head-dresses, 
with, in each case, a figure of a pig forming a ridge or crown^ 
These pigs are, so far as can be judged from the engraving, 
extremely like that now exhibited, and they appear as if they 
might be fixed to the helmets by two pins like the one still 
remaining in the Guilden Morden find. It would be interesting, 
and probably go far towards solving the problem of the use 
of the latter, if it could be compared with the original plates 
of which one is figured by Montelius. 

For illustraMon see page 404. 

Monday, 9 March 1903 

Mr Gray, President, in the Chair. 

Dr 0. S. Myers made ft Communication on some early 
Christian paintings at the Great Oasis, illustrated by lantern 

Baron von HCgel and Mr F. C. Burkitt contributed 
observations on the paper by Dr Myers. 

1 The note to this illustration in the Short History (p. xxxv) is : — " Pour 
**of these plates, with figures in relief, were found in 1870 iii a oaim at 
"Bjdmhofda in Oland (Sweden); they furnish a curious illustration of a 
** Swedish warrior's accoutrements in the early Wiking days." 

' These paintings have heen described in W. de Bock's MatSriaiix pour servir 
a VArcMologie de V^gypte Chr€tienne, St Petersburg. 1901. 









Monday, 27 April 1903. 

Mr Gray, President, in the Chair. 

Professor Ridgeway made a communication upon the origin 
of the Socket in North Europe. No report has been received 
of this paper. 

The Chapel of the Hospital of St John, 
DuxFORD (Whittlesford Bridge). 

By C. E. Sayle, M.A. 

I wish to draw attention to a neglected piece of history. 
No connected account, so far as I am aware, has ever been 
printed of this chapel, and my object in printing these notes 
is to form a peg on to which any future information, which 
may be discovered, may be more easily hung. 

Mr W. J. Corbett, in a letter which he has kindly addressed 
to me, doubts if it was fashionable to found hospitals before the 
thirteenth century. But Mr Yorke points out to me that 
Lanfranc founded one at Canterbury in 1080, and that 
St Bartholomew's, in London, was founded in 1102. Be that 
as it may, my earliest reference is to the year 1286, when in 
the Hundred Rolls we get a full account of the then state of 
the Hospital, when it is stated to have existed de anUqao 

Now, who was the founder of this Hospital ? Lysons, on 
what authority he does not say, states that it appears to have 
been founded by Sir William Colville, who gave the patronage 
to the Bishop of Ely. 

As 1 could make nothing of the statement, nor find any 
further facts about the person, I applied to Mr Corbett, who, in 
the letter to which I have already alluded, points out that 
there were no less than /owr Sir William Colvilles to whom the 
remark might apply. The first attested a charter granted by 
the Earl of Lincoln in 1141 when he went to meet King 


376 C. E. SAYLE 

Stephen at Stamford. The second, twenty-five years later, was 
under-tenant of the D'Eyucourts at Somerby and of the Wakes 
at Creaton, while the third appears on the same estate in 1212, 
and the fourth, in 1242, was at Muston near Bel voir. 

The connecting link is an escheat of 1316, which enumerates 
the estates of Edmund de Coleville as follows : 

In Cambridgeshire, Duxford and Weston Colville. 

In Lincolnshire, Auburn and Wytham. 

In Leicestershire, Muston and Normanton. 
Finally Mr Corbett selects William de Colville, the third De 
Bytham, who died in 1230, as the most likely aspirant for the 
honour. He was considerably mixed up with the fighting after 
the signing of Magna Charta. King John appears to have 
attacked his property, seized it, and had him excommunicated 
by the Pope. His name appears in the list of the King's 
special enemies. He was on the side of the French prince 
after John's death. He was besieged in Lincoln in 1217, and 
one of the prisoners taken when the castle surrendered. He 
appears to have been reinstated by Henry III, and was, at any 
rate, in possession of his property in 1230 when he died. 

Another Colville, Sir John Colville, was patron of a free 
chapel at Fulbourn in 1389 (C.A.S. i. 21 1)^ 

The building is, I am told, pure decorated of about 1320, 
so that if founded in 1230 it must have been rebuilt within 
the first hundred years. Hone's Year Book mentions a stone 
said to possess the date of A.D. 1006, which is presumably a 
misreading. Mr Yorke thinks that the original building was 
''Norman, dark and small," so it is evident that he is for a 
much earlier foundation of the building. Hone mentions a 
font which I think has gone, and I hear from him first of a 
cellar. The building up to the present has been used as a 
barn, but I am informed that Mr Binney, of Pampisford Hall, 
the present owner, refuses to allow it to be used as such any 

1 The Rev. A. C. Yorke writes to me: *I find in Close Bolls, 16 Ed. HI 
(1342), that a writ of seisin was authorized for William de Dokesworth, son and 
heir of John de Dokesworth. If these De Dokesworths were Oolvilles, this 
William may have rebuilt the Chapel in memory of his father. The archi- 
tecture accords with the date.' 



longer. Mr Binney draws my attention to the feet that the 
graveyard is clearly defined. A porch on the north side has 
disappeared during the last century. 

The Hospital in the thirteenth century was under a prior, 
and it possessed an estate of about 30 acres of land, some 
meadows in Duxford, a water-mill, a free chapel and a fair. 
It is this fair which is said to date de antiquo tempore. 

My next reference is to the year 1337, when William de 
Craisothin, prebendary of Achethur, in the Cathedral of 
St Canice, Kilkenny, effects an exchange with Hervey de 
Stanton, Master of the Chapel of St John at Whittlesford 
Bridge. This last-named person must not be confused with 
the famous possessor of the name who was the founder of 
Michael House, though I had at first hoped that it was. But 
Harvey de Staunton, the founder of Michael House, died in 
1327, ten years earlier. This one lived on till 1353. 

In 1374 the then Warden of the Chapel, as he was now 
called, effected an exchange with the Warden of the free 
Chapel of TothuU, under the patronage of the Abbot of 

My next entry is under the date of 1401, when we read 
of an indulgence for Whittlesford Bridge Chapel and John 
Lucas, hermit, there. I luckily showed this entry recently to 
Mr Yorke, who points out to me that the reference is to an 

378 a E. SAYLB 

entirely different chapel across the ford, served by a hermit, 
who received a toll for the safe conduct of wayfarers over 
Wideford. His chapelry stood in Hinxton parish, the Vicar 
of which demanded a share, tithe or otherwise, of the toll. 
The dispute was referred to the Bishop, who composed it by 
ordering the hermit to pay yearly £2 to the Vicar, and to assist 
the Vicar at the Altar on Christmas Day; the Vicar to give 
the hermit in return a good Christmas dinner. The Ecclesi- 
astical Commissioners pay every Christmas to the Vicar of 
Hinxton the sum of £2 on this account, and it was paid last 
Christmas. Anyhow the reference does not apply to Duxford. 

From 1453 to 1460 we find Robert Woodlark, the Provost 
of King's, and founder of St Catharine's Hall, as Warden, but 
after him no famous name appears as that of the tenant of 
the office. 

There is a puzzling reference in the time of Queen Mary. 
In 1492 a certain Leonard Cotton was appointed, and in 1524 
one John Rutland ; but in 1553 appears the entry : 

To Leonard Cotton incumbent a pension of £1. 10. 0. 

This, I suppose, was Queen Mary's compensation money. 

In the following year in the entry of Church goods, all 
that the Chapel seems to have possessed was one bell valued 
at 6s. 8d, as I gather from an account of the King's Remem- 
brancer in the Record Office. 

Here the ecclesiastical account closes. But the curtain 
draws up again on James I, who tarrying too late at a horse- 
race at Newmarket, was forced to put up here at the inn (as 
it had now become late), by reason of his being indisposed, 
and came very late in the night to Royston. 

I have very little more to add, except to draw attention 
to the heraldic carving in what is now the parlour of the 
Red Lion. The device completely puzzles me, and in fact 
is what set me working, seven years ago, at an investigation 
of the subject. The arms are a fesse between three cinque- 
foils and in addition there is a badge of an arm, a cubit arm 
appaume (heraldic) with the palm pierced. There is also the 
badge of an arrow and the letter Q. These arms are not the 


arms of the Colvilles. But in a manuscript in the University 
Library (Add. 3427) arms allied to these are to be found. 

I append a list of the incumbents of the Chapel, which 
list has now been compiled for the first time. I ought to add 
that I owe a very great deal of it to the indefatigable zeal of 
my friend Mr J. E. Foster. The drawings have been kindly 
supplied by Mr Maynard, of Saflfron Walden. 


Chapel of St John the Baptist, Whittlesford Bridge. 

[Diigdale vi. 756. Tanner, Not. Mon, Camb. xxx. Lysons, p. 182.] 

(The Red Lion, Whittlesford Bridge.) 

Whittlesford (Domesday : Witelesford, Witelesforde. Literal 
meaning : the Ford of Hwitel) \ 

* At Whittlesford bridge, in the parish of Duxford St. John, are the 
remains of an ancient hospital, the chapel of which is now used as a bam. 
This hospital, which was under the government of a prior, appears to have 
been founded by Sir William Colville, who gave the patronage of it to the 
Bishops of Ely. There were belonging to this hospital an estate of about 
30 acres ^ of arable land, and some meads in Duxford, a water-mill, a free 
chapel, and a fair, which, in the reign of Edward I. 1277-1307, is stated to 
have beeCi kept de antiqtto tempore. The hospital estate is now the 
property of Mrs. Crop.' (1810.)' 

* Now of Wm Long Esq. : The rafters of the inn are fancifully carved, 
and a carved table of great weight is here exhibited*.' 

In 1832 the property belonged to Lord Famborough*. 

' The county possessed no fewer than eleven endowed hospitals, four at 
Cambridge (including that for the lepers at Stourbridge), and others at 
Ely, Leverington, Longstowe, Thorney, Wisbech, and Whittlesford. These 
hospitals were institutions not only for the care of the sick, but also for 
the aged and infirm, thus fulfilling the functions not only of modem 
hospitals, but of almshouses and convalescent homes as well^' 

1 W. W. Skeat, Place Names (Cambridge Antiquarian Society, xxxvi). 

* Bev. E. Conybeare, History of Cambridgeshire, p. 144, says * sixty.* 

* D. and S. Lysons, Metgna Britannia, London, 1810, 4?, Vol. ii, p. 182. 

* History of Cambridgeshire, Peterborough, 1861, 8«, p. 260. 
B MS note in S. Sandars' copy of Lysgns. U. L, C. p, 279. 

Bev. E. Conybeare, op. eit. 

380 C. E. SAYLE 

1240 Ab. Prior de Wttlesford t) 1 virg' trsB feod. W'i de Oolevill, 
et d} sect' et pont^ 

1286 * Prior de Ponte de Wytlisford ten' de Sno Ro^o de Colevile 
in pura & ppetua & lil3ani elam unu mesuag' gtines ij ac*s 
<fe di' <fe una virgata Sre cu una di' ac* pHi nichil eid 
reddend & ten* dcm ten' de dono dni Elyens' Epi in cuj^ 
donacione est p carta dfii Witti de Colevile & id dns Rogus 
ten' de Com' Aubmarlie <fe id Com' ten' de dno Rege. 

Item idem P*or tenet ibide unu molendin* aq*ticu de eod 
dno Rog & at ibid una libam capliam & ten' de eodem 
dno Rogo p dona66m dci Eljens' Epi &> idem dns Rogus 
ten' ut s* & id P*or lit nundinas ibide & de antiq** tempe 
usus est & de ve^i feofafhto. 

Lib'e Ten. 
Agnes Moslard Wilts Wallic^ Humfridus de Stonte- 
neya & Jolls Page tenent de ^dco Piiore in qHuor mesuag' 
una rodam Sre p Iviciu iij s, p annu <fe id P*or ten' de 3dco 
dno Ro^o p donu dni Elyens' Epi «fe id dns Rog de 
Comit' Aubmarlie & id dns Com' ten' de dno Rege'*. 
1337 May 2 Exchange between William de Craisothin prebendary of 
Achethur in the Cathedral of St Canice, Kilkenny and 
Hervey de Stanton, Master of the Chapel of St John 
at Whittlesford Bridge^. 
1353 April 12 Collation of John Michel on death of Hervey de Stanton^. 
1364 June 6 William Wenlock Chaplain^ 

1374 Dec. 5 Exchange of Will, de Wenlock Warden of the Chapel and 
Laurence de Radford, warden of free chapel of Tothull. 
Patrons Bp of Ely and Abbot of Westminster*. 
1376 Aug. 15 Collation of Robert Frevyll cleric^. 

1383 May 27 Nicholas Myls®. 

1387 July 31 Rob. Wade, res" of N. Myls*. 

1400 June 16 John Lownde, death of R. Wade^o. 

1401 Indulgence for Whittlesford brigge chapel, and John Lucas 

hermit there **. 

1 The History.,. of Barnwell Abbey, p. 60 (Bibl. Top. Britannioa v. 1790). 
' Rotuli Hundredorum, London, 1818, F*". Vol. n, p. 582. 
s Patent RoUs, 1884-8, p. 427, § 5. 1387 May 2. 

< Ely Episcopal Registers. » Petition from Papal Registers (R. 8.), p. 508. 
• Bishop ArundelVs Register {Ely Diocesan Remembrancer, 1894, p. 829). 
' lb. 1895, p. 19. 8 lb. 1895, p. 182. 

» lb. 1896, p. 105. w 16. 1897, p. 90. 

" Bishop Fordham's Register. A. Gibbon, Calendar of Documents, p. 401. 


1453 March 22 Robert Woodlarki. 

1460 April 3 Resigned. E. Lockton. 

1466 Oct. 6. Robert Oswetre. 

John Warde. 
1492 July 10* Appointment^ Leon. Cotton. 
1524 John Rutland. 

1553 Pension to Leonard Cotton. 30«.* 

1554 Inventory in the Record Office. Church Goods. Q. R. V^. 
1619 March 19 * There was a horse-race at Newmarket, at which the 

King tarrying too long, in his return from Newmarket 
was forced to put in at an inn at Wichford bridge^ by 
reason of his being indisposed, and came very late in 
the night to Royston®. 

Sir William Colville. 

Mr W. J. Corbett has addressed to me the following note: 

King's College. 

Dec, 11, 1902. 

The Hundred Bolls clearly show that the founders of the hospital 
were the owners of that part of Duzford, which in 1086 had belonged to 
Robert de Todeni, and which had descended with his other estates to the 
De Albini's or D'Aubeny's of Belvoir Castle in Leicestershire. The Colvilles in 
question then must be looked for among the undertenants of the Belvoir 
Barony, and as the major part of that Honour lay in S. Lincolnshire and 
Leicestershire, it is to the records connected with this part of England that 
our attention must be directed. 

As a matter of fact Colvillep are plentiful in this district. The first I have 
come across is (1) Will, de Colville who attests a charter granted by the Earl 
of Lincoln in 1141 when he went to meet King Stephen at Stamford (see 
Bound's Geoffrey de MandevilU^ p. 159). 

Twenty-five years later the Black Book of the Exchequer records the 
existence of another (II) Will, de Colville as undertenant in 1166 (a) of the 
D'Eynoourt's at Somerby near Grantham, and (6) of the Wakes at Creaton a 
few miles west of Bourne (Lib. Rub. 379). 

In 1212, the Testa de Neville (p. 341) shows this latter estate as the 
property of yet a third (lU) William de Coleville, and on the same page the 

1 Founder of Catharine Hall, see D, N, B, 

s Penes Mr G. N. Maynard, Saffron Walden. 

s Bishop Alcock*8 Register (Cole). 

« Cardinal Pole's Pension Book. Q. R. Miscellaneotu Book No. 31. (Infor- 
mation kindly supplied by Mr W. M. Palmer of Linton.) 

B Camden, Britannia^ ed. 1806. The map gives *Widford or Whittlesford'. 

* John Nichols, The Progresses dbc, of King James I., London, 1828, 4<», 
Vol. in, p. 532. Nichols quotes Camden, Annals^ but I cannot discover the 


same man is entered a few lines farther down as holding Bytham and its soke 
(it is spelt Wyham in error, but other entries give Bytham) of the Earl of 
Albermarle. Taming next to the Belvoir fees we again find Will, de Coleyille 
(Testa 843) as undertenant at Auburn, south-west of Lincoln, while the Close 
Bolls of 1230 contain a writ addressed to the Sheriff of Lincoln stating that 
Will, de Coleville de Bytham was dead and ordering that his heir Boger de 
Coleville be put in seisin of his estates. 

The Testa has returns for 1242 as well as 1212, and turning to these we find 
Matilda de Coleville (p. 323) as tenant of Somerby, Walter de Colville of 
Bytham (p. 327), an undertenant of Walter de Colville's at Creaton (p. 827), 
and finally Walter de Coleville as an undertenant of Boger de Coleville at 
Auburn (p. 826). 

The Testa has no Leicestershire returns for 1212 but it shows in 1242 a 
(TV) William de Coleville as undertenant of Walter de Coleville at Muston and 
Normanton near Belvoir. 

The Hundred Bolls of 1282 speak of Duzford as owned by Boger de 
Coleville, a descendant of Will, de Coleville. 

The connecting link is an escheat of 1316 (9 Ed. II) which returns Edmund 
de Colville as then dead and enumerates his estates as follows : — 
In Cambridgeshire Duzford and Weston Colville, 
In Lincolnshire Auburn and Bytham, 
In Leicestershire Muston and Normanton, 
besides other property in Rutland and elsewhere. 

We thus have plenty of material for a pedigree of the Colvilles of Duzford, 
and we see that, though they were not tenants in chief, still they were wealthy 
men, and held lands of several baronies, viz. Belvoir, Albermarle, D'Eyncourt, 
Wake of Bourn, and, at Weston Colville, of Warrenne. 

The question is, which Will, de Coleville are we to select ? I do not think 
it can be the earlier ones, as I doubt whether it was fashionable to found 
Hospitals before the 13th century. The Ely records ought to solve the problem, 
as W. de C. gave the Bishop the patronage. As a guess I should select Will, 
de Colville III, who died 1230, as he seems the most considerable of the 
Williams met with. 

The Colvilles do not seem to have been benefactors of either Bytham or 
Belvoir Priory. I have gleaned a few facts however about William de Coleville 
de Bytham from the Chronica Majora of Matthew Paris, as he took no small 
part in the fighting after the signing of Magna Carta. He was on the side of 
the Barons and supported the French prince Louis, whom they summoned to 
their assistance. John accordingly in 1216 attacked his property and to secure 
Bytham delivered it into the custody of the Earl of Albemarle, together with 
Belvoir, which only surrendered after a siege. 

John also got the Pope to ezcommnnicate him, and his name appears in 
the list of John's special enemies in the Boll quoted by Paris (Bolls Edit, 
vol. n, 644). 

On John's death he still supported the French, and was with the Count of 
Perche when he was besieged at Lincoln in 1217— being in the list of prisoners 
taken when the Castle surrendered. 


For some time after this Bytham seems to have remained in the hands of 
the Earl of Albemarle, but in 1220 he revolted and was besieged by Henry III 
at Bytham. The Castle however surrendered on Feb. d, 1221 ; and according 
to Murray's Guide to Lincolnshire (though Paris says nothing) Henry HI 
reinstated Will, de Colville. Anyhow he was in possession at his death in 1230. 

Postscript. Mr Corbett points out to me that a William 
de Colville gave land at Duxford to Tiltey Abbey. This must 
have been subsequent to 1198 as it is not mentioned in 
Richard's Charter of Confirmation. See Monasticon v. 625. 
It was continued by Henry III in a charter dated 13 March 
1251 (Charter Roll, Rolls Series). 

The Mortuary Koll of the Abbess of 


By C. E. Sayle, M.A. 

This roll was exhibited at a meeting of this- Society in 
1869 by the then President of the Society, who is also our 
oldest living member, Professor Mayor. The roll is now in 
one of the show-cases of St John's College Library ; and the 
property of Lillechurch is also now in the possession of that 
College. It was presented to the College through the good 
offices of Bishop Fisher. Tanner says that the College possesses 
about 200 documents relating to the priory. A short account 
of the literature of these rolls may be of some assistance. 

In 1690 Martene first published his volume on this and 
cognate subjects. It became by 1700 his big book, De Antiquae 
JScclesiae RitihtLs, the second and fuller edition of which was 
printed in 1736. A good deal of evidence is there given 
which calls here for little remark in our owi^ country. In 
1825, in a catalogue of the MSS. in Durham Cathedral Library, 
Canon Raine drew attention to the existence of a mortuary 
roll in that collection. In 1847 J. Q. Nichols, at a meeting of 
the Archaeological Institute at Norwich, read a paper on a 
portion of an obituary roll of an abbot of West Dereham, and 
in 1855 Albert Way, one of our own forgotten worthies, read 
a paper before our own Society on a portion of a mortuary roll 
of John Hotham, Bishop of Ely, which found its way somehow 
to the archives of Canterbury Cathedral. In 1856 Canon 

884 C. E. SAYLE 

Raine published through the Surtees Society the mortuary roll in 
extenso which he had catalogued tweuty-six years before. His 
preface is the best account of mortuary rolls which we have in 
the language. The paper by Nichols is however still worth 
reading. Eleven years later, in 1866, M. Leopold de Lisle 
published a volume of over 500 pages relating to the subject 
of mortuary rolls in France, Rouleaux des MortsK 

These rolls, I should perhaps add, consist of long narrow 
pieces of parchment stitched together. The present one is 
37 ft. 3 in. long, and on the average about 7 in. wide. It 
consists of nineteen membranes, some of which are written on 
both sides. There are 372 entries in all in the document, that 
is, entries of the ecclesiastical houses visited by the roll-bearer 
for the purpose of gaining prayers for the soul of Abbess 

Such rolls are rare. There is not one in the University 
Library, and Dr James (who has kindly been through my 
transcript with me and corrected the grosser errors) assures me 
that, but for two fragments in a binding in the library of Jesus 
College, he does not know of any other in the University. 
Nichols, in 1847, stated there was not a single one in the 
British Museum'. 

In length the present roll takes a position midway. The 
Durham roll contains mention of 639 houses (Raine, p. xvi). 
The Ely roll, fragment only, contains only 27 (Way, p. 127). 

As to date we are more fortunate. Prior Burnaby, who is 
commemorated in the Durham roll, died in 1456 (xiv.), and 
Prior Ebchester in 1464. Bishop Hotham, of Ely, died in 
1337. Prioress Amphelissa is said, in Dugdale's Monasticon 
(IV. 378), to have been flourishing in 1298. Browne Willis says 
that she died in the following year. The first roll mentioned 
by Nichols is that of Matilda, abbess of Caen, in the year 1112, 
with 254 tituli»; and the second of 1122 with 250*. 

The first English mortuary roll is that for Lucy, prioress 
and foundress of the Church of the Holy Cross and St Mary, at 
Headingham, in Essex. This is dated 1190. A facsimile of 

^ I wish to thank the Bev. W. G. Searle for oalling my attention to this 
book. » Arch. Itut, Proc, Norwich, p. 99. 

» 16. p. 102. * 16. p. 100. 


this has been reproduced in the current year (1903) in the first 
part of the publication of the New Palaeographical Society. 
Ours, which Nichols does not mention, must come next, for his 
second roll is that of William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich, 
and founder of Trinity Hall, who died in 1354\ He mentions 
others of 1416, 1453, 1456, and 1464, and 1492 for the abbot 
of Bury St Edmunds^ and also one for the year 1502, a prior 
of Coventry ; and finally, one for Westminster in 1522. They 
were often ornate, as may be seen from the Dereham roll. Ours 
is plain. 

It is of considerable and lasting interest to know what 
those 372 houses wiere which were visited by the roll-bearer 
about the year 1300; how far they can all be identified; and 
further, what relation those 372 houses bear to the 639 houses 
visited in 1456 and 1464. Finally, I wish to emphasize the 
importance of a dated document which contains well over 
300 different and widely varying styles of handwriting. This 
palaeographical side of the question is by no means the least 
interesting one. At some future time it will be the obvious 
duty of some Palaeographical Society or individual student to 
examine the document from this point of view. 

The transcript here printed consists of these 372 names 
arranged in the order of the roll, and now for the first time 
numbered. Following the name of the place is the name of 
the Dedication of the house, which is invariably given. In a 
third column I have given the name of the modern locality; 
and in a fourth column the county. In a fifth column I have 
given the name of the particular religious order to which 
the house belonged — Augustinian, Benedictine, Cistercian, 
Gilbertine, Premonstratensian or Alien. And lastly, by means 
of an asterisk I have indicated whether the name of the house 
occurs in the Durham List. I have added an alphabetical 
index of places, and a table of the places mentioned arranged 
under counties. 

The giant's share of the work, as in the preceding 
communication, has again been generously undertaken by 
Mr J. E. Foster. 

1 Arch, Imt. Proc. Norvnch, p. 103. ^ jj. p. ioq. 











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Abbeydore 372 
Abbotsbury 84 
AbergavenDj 370 
Abingdon 341 
Alcester 162 
Alnwick 293 
Alvingham 251 
Amesbary 78 
Ankerwycke 363 
Appleton 311 
Ashby, Canons 140 
Athelney 109 

Bardney 267 
Barking 14 
Barnstaple 105 
Barnwell (Cambs) 360 
Bath 119 
Battle 189 
Bayham 185 
Beauvais 141 
Bedeford 110 
Bermondsey 26 
Bikenacre 51 
Bildwas 38 
?Birma 83 
Blakeborough 63 
Blida? 319 
Blythborough 223 
Booking 43 
Bodmiu 102 
Bolton 64 
Bordesley 163 
Bourne (Lines) 328 
Boxgrave 194 
Boxley 8 

Bradwell 13 
Bredenstoke 133 
Bredon 66 
Bridlington 274 
Brinkburn 292 
Bristol (Aug) 30 

„ (Carm) 113 

„ (James) 117 
Bromehill 60 
Bromere 204 
Bromfield 36 
Bromham 212 
Bromley 17 
Bruerne 47 
Bruton 207 
Buckenham (Norf) 19 
Buckland 95 
Bullington? 236 
Burton on Trent 346 
Bury St Edmunds 46 
Butley 229 
Byland 283 
Byndon 83 

Caldwell 147 
Cambridge 237 
Campsey 227 
Canons Ashby 140 
Canterbury (St Augustine's) 2 
(St Gregory) 3 
,, (Christchurch) 4 

Careswell 89 
Carlisle 305 
Carrow 218 
Castleacre 209 
Ceme 80 



Ghacombe 139 

Ghalk-Hengh 302 

Chertsey 364 

Gheshant 28 

Chester (Warburg) 121 
„ (John) 122 
„ (Mary) 123 

Chicksand 331 

Chone 369 

Cirencester 136 

Coggeshall 297 

Colchester 44 

Coldingham 294 

Coldstream 304 

Colne 42 

Combe 153 

Combwell 186 

Conishead 128 

Cornwall 98 

Cotham 265 

Coventry 152 

Cresswell 89 

Croyland 244 

Cumbermere 41 

Darley 35 
Daventon 179 
Daventry 152 
Dene? 176 
Dereham, W. 61 
Dodford 164 
Dorchester (Oxon) 352 
Dover 181 
„ 367 
Drax 313 
Dryburgh 300 
Dunelbor 107 
Dunfermline 73 
Dunkswell 86 
Dunmow 53 
Dunstable 332 
Dunster 107 
Dureford 195 
Durham 288 

Eccles 303 
Edenham 327 

Edinburgh 296 
Egglestone 306 
EUesham 268 
Elme 108 
Elstow 148 
Ely 238 
Esseby 140 
Esseholt 124 
Eton {see Nuneaton) 
Evesham 169 
Ewias 178 
Exeter 90 

,, 91 

M 92 
Eye 219 
Eynsham 336 

Farley 120 
Faversham 5 
Felixstowe 230 
Finchale 289 
Folkestone 182 
Ford 103 
Fordham 48 
Fountains 309 
Freston 247 
Frethelstoke 104 
Furness 129 

Gerondon 65 
Gisburne 287 
Glastonbury 115 
Gloucester (St Oswald) 173 

„ (St Peter) 175 

Godstow 337 
Greenfield 249 
Grimsby 264 

Haddington 295 
Hageman 40 
Hales Qwen 33 
HaliweU 18 
Hampole 317 
Hartland 103 
Hastings 188 
Hatfield Regis 54 
Heigham 32 



Hereford 844 
Heringham 192 
Herat? 221 
Hexham 290 

„ (Newminster) 291 
Hexley? 176 
Hickling 218 
Holme 82 
Horsham 216 
Horton 188 
Hulme, St Benets 214 
Humberstone 263 
Huntingdon 240 
Hurley 356 
Hyde 197 

Ipswich 15 
„ 231 
Ivychurch 203 
Ixworth 66 

Jedburgh 304 
Jervaulx 308 

Kale 67 
EarswU 89 
Eeldun 286 
Kelso 801 
Eenilworth 158 
Eeynsham 118 
Kirk 70 
Eirkham 233 
Eirkstall 131 
Eirkstead 254 

Landa 71 
Langdon 180 
Langley 216 
Latton 862 
Launceston 108 
Lavenden 145 
Le Dale 345 

Ledes or Leedes 10, 368 (Eent) 
Lega 62 
» 88 
Leiston 224 
Lenton 824 
Leominster 856 

Lesnes 12 
Lewes 190 
Lilleshall 342 
Llanthony prima 371 

,, secunda 172 

London (St Panl) 75 

„ (Holy Cross and St Helen) 1 

(Clerkenwell) 22 
„ (Shoreditch) 18 
(see ^outhwark) 
{see Westminster) 
Louth (Likeburn) 250 

,, Park 252 
Luffield 142 

Maiden 50 
Mailing 9 
Malmesbury 135 
Maltby 258 
Malvern 168 

Little 137 
Markby 248 
Marton 280 
Meaux 271 
Medmenham 354 
Melrose 299 
Mereval 116 
Merton 865 
Michelney 112 
Middleton 82 
Missenden 857 
Molesby 281 
Monk Bretton 316 
Monks Kirby? 70 
Monmouth 177 
Montacute 114 
Motisfont 77 

Newbottle? 298 
Newboume 228 
Newburgh 282 
Newham 146 
Newhouse 269 
Newport Pagnell 144 
Newsham 266 
Newstead 323 
Northampton 149 



Northampton 151 
Norton 126 

„ Cold 138 
Norwich 217 
Nostell 315 
Nun Appleton 311 
Nuneaton 87 
Nunkeeling 273 

Ormsby 262 
Osney 338 
Owfiton 351 
Oxeney 260 
Oxford 339 

Panteneye 62 
Parco? 345 
Pershore 167 
Peterborough 242 
Pilton 106 
Pinley 161 
Pipewell 34 
Plympton 96 
Pollesworth 69 
Pontefract 314 
?Prati8 193 
? „ 350 

Ramsey 241 
Reading? 276 

Redlingfield 220 
Repton 68 
Revesby 253 
Richmond (Yorks) 307 
Rievaulx 284 
Robertsbridge 187 
Rocester 348 
Roche 318 
Rochester 1 
Romney 29 
Romsey 76 
Ronton 156 . 
Royston? 359 
Rudham 210 
Rufford 322 

St Andrews 72 

Benets Hulme 214 

Cyriac 99 

Germans 98 

Ives 239 

Osyth 234 
?? 236 
Saffron Walden 55 
Salley 132 
Sanford 340 
Sawtrey 7 
Selby 312 
Sele 191 

Sempringham 74 
Shaftesbury 206 
Shelford (Notts). 326 
Sheppey 366 
Sherborne 79 
Shoreditch {see London) 
Shouldbam 6 
Shrewsbury 39 
Sibton 225 
Sixle 261 
Snape 226 
Snelshall 143 
Southampton 200 
Southwark 22 
Southwick 196 
Spalding 245 
Stamford 329 
Stanfeld 259 
Stanlawe 143 
Stanley 134, 346 
Stoke Curcey 31 
Stone 343 
Stoneleigh 157 
Stratford (S. Mary) 16 

,, (S. Leonard) 17 
Studley 155 
„ 335 
Stykeswold 266 
Swaffham Bulbeck 49 
Swine 272 
Swineshead 246 

Taunton 111 
Tavistock 97 
Tewkesbury 171 



Thame 884 

Weedon 141 

Thetford (St George) 67 

Welbeck 321 

„ (Sepulchre) 68 

Wenlock 37 

„ (Mary) 69 

Westacre 208 

Thorney 243 

Westminster (Peter) 23 

Thornholm 270 

,, (Thomas de pratis) 24 

Thornton Curtois 267 

(Trinity) 26 

Thurgaton 326 

Westwood 166 

Tiltey 361 

Wherwell 201 

Tintem 174 

Whitby 286 

Tonbridge 184 

?Wickham 232 

Torre 93 

? n 276 

Totnes 94 

Wigmore 160 

Trentham 349 

Wilton 202 

Tupholm 266 

Winchecombe 170 

Tutbury 347 

Winchester (Mary and Edborga) 198 

Twinham 206 

(Peter, Paul and Swithin) 

Tywardreath 100 


Woburn 279 

VaUe Dei 327 

Wodecherche? 333 

Worcester 166 

Walden 66 

Worksop 320 

Walsingham 211 

Wroxhall 159 

Waltham 27 

Wymondley B58 

Wangford 222 

Warden 330 

York 310 

Wartre 278 

??? 236 

Watton 277 

Bronze Object found near Guilden Morden. 
See page 373. 



(Given in the order of the roll.) 


Newnham 146 

CaldweU 147 

Elston 148 

Wobum 279 

Warden 330 

Chicksand 331 

Dunstable 332 

Reading, St Mary, 276, 353 

Sanford 340 

Abingdon 341 

Hurley 355 

Bradewell 13 

Snailshall 143 

Newport Pagnell 144 

Lavenden 146 

Medmenham 354 

Missenden 357 

Ankerwick 363 

Fordham 48 

Swaffham Bulbeck 49 

Cambridge 237 

Ely 238 

Thorney 243 

Barnwell 360 

Combermere 41 

Chester, S. Werburgh 121 
S. John 122 
S. Mary 123 

Stanmore 125 

Norton 126 

C. A. S, Covim, Vol. X. 


St Germans 98 

St Cyriae 99 

Tyrwardreath 100 

Bodmin 101 

Launceston 102 

Carlisle 305 

Darley 35 

Calke 67 

Bepton 68 

Dale 345 

Ford 85 

Dunkiswell 86 

Lygh 88 

Exeter S. James 90 
S. Nicolas 91 

Cowick 92 

Torre 93 

Totnes 94 

Buckfastleigh 95 

Plympton 96 

Tavistock 97 

Hartland 103 

Frithelstock 104 

Barnstaple 105 

Pilton 106 

Bideford 110 

Sherborne 79 

Ceme 80 

Middleton 81 

HolmeL 82 




Dorset {continued) 
Bindon 83 
Abbotsbury 84 
Shaftesbury 206 


Durham 286 
Finohale 289 
Eggleston 306 

Barking 14 

West Ham 16 

Waltham 27 

Castle Hedingham 32 

Earls Colne 42 

Booking 43 

Colchester S. John 44 
S. Botolf 45 

Maiden 50 

Bikenacre 51 

Bileigh 52 

Dunmow 53 

Hatfield Begis 54 

Saffron Walden 55 

S. Osyth 234 
» 235 

Coggeshall 297 

Tiltey 361 

Latton 362 

Cirencester 136 

Winohcombe 170 

Tewkesbury 171 

Llanthony Secunda 172 

Gloucester S. Oswald 173 
„ S. Peter 175 

Tintem 174 

Flexeley or Dean 176 

Romsey 76 

Motisfont 77 

Sonthwick 196 

Hyde 197 

Winchester SS. Mary and Ed- 
burga 198 

Winchester SS. Peter, Paul, 
Swithin, 199 

Southampton 200 

Wherwell 201 

Hants {continued) 

Wilton 202 

Ivychurch 203 

Bromere 204 

Christchurch 205 

Cresswell 89 

Wigmore 160 

Ewias 178 

Hereford 344 

Leominster 356 

Abbeydore 372 

Cheshunt 28 

Wymondley 358 

Boyston 359 

Sawtrey 7 

St Ives 239 

Huntingdon 240 

Bamsey 241 

Bochester 1 

Canterbury S. Aug. 2 
„ S. Gregory 3 

Ch. Ch. 4 

Faversham 5 

Boxley 8 

Mailing 9 

Leedes 10, 368 

Crokald 11 

Lesnes 12 

New Bomney 29 

Daventon 179 

W. Langdon 180 

Dover 181, 367 

Folkestone 182 

Horton 183 

Tonbridge 184 

Comberwell 186 

Sheppey 366 

? Sutton at Hone 369 

Cockersand 127 

Conishead 128 

Fumess 129, 130 

Ecoles 302 




Gerondon 65 

Bredon on the Hill 66 

Lande 71 

Owston 351 

Sempringham 74 

Bullington 236 

Croyland 244 

Spalding 245 

Swineshead 246 

Freeston 247 

Marksby 248 

Greenfield 249 

Lighbourne 250 

Alvingham 251 

Louth Park 252 

Revesby 253 

Eirkstead 254 

Stykeswold 255 

Tripholme 256 

Bardney 257 

Maltby 258 

Stanfeld 259 

Oxney 260 

Sixle 261 

Ormsby 262 

Humberstone 263 

Grimsby 264 

Gotham 265 

Newesham 266 

Thornton Curtois 267 

Ellesham 268 

Newhonse 269 

Thomholme 270 

Edenham 327 

Bourne 328 

Stamford 329 

Bromley 17 
Shoreditch 18 
London Holy Cross and S. Helen 20 
S. Mary 21 
„ S. Paul 76 
Westminster 23 
Monmouth 177 
Abergavenny 370 

Monmouthshire {continued) 
Llanthony Prima 871 

Shouldham 6 

Old Buckenham 19 

Thetford 57 

„ S. Sepulchre 58 
S. Mary 59 
Bromhill 60 
W. Dereham 61 
Pentney 62 
Blackburgh 63 
Westacre 208 
Gastleacre 209 
Rudham 210 
Walsingham 211 
Bromham 212 
Hickling 213 
S. Benets Hulme 214 
Langley 215 
Horsham 216 
Norwich 217 
Carrow 218 
Horstede 221 
Pipewell 34 
Canons Ashby 140 
Weedon 141 
Luffield 142 

Northampton S. Mary 149 
,, S. James 150 

„ S. Andrew 151 

Peterborough 242 
Newbottle 298 

Hexham S. Andrew 290 

S. Mary 291 
Brinkbum 292 
Alnwick 293 
De Pr6 350 
Worksop 320 
Welbeck 321 
Rufford 322 
Newstead 323 
Lenton 324 
Thurgaton 325 
Shelford 326 





Bruerne 47 

Cold Norton 138 

Shaoombe 139 

Thame 334 

Stodley 335 

Eynsham 336 

Godstow 337 

Osney 338 

Oxford 339 

Dorchester 352 

Bromfield 36 

Wenlock 37 

Bildwas 38 

Shrewsbury 39 

Hanghmond 40 

Lilleshall 342 

Bristol S. Augustine 30 
S. Mary 113 
„ S. James 117 

Stoke 31 

Hales Owen 33 

Dunster 107 

Athelney 109 

Taunton 111 

Michelney 112 

Montacute 114 

Glastonbury 115 

Eeynsham 118 

Bath 119 

Bruton 207 

Ronton 156 

Stone 343 

Burton on Trent 346 

Tutbury 347 

Bocester '348 

Trentham 349 

Ipswich 15 

Bury S. Edmunds 46 

Ixworth 56 

Eye 219 

Bedlingfield 220 

Suffolk (continued) 

Wangford 222 

Bliburgh 223 

Leystone 224 

Sibton 225 

Snape 226 

Campsey 227 

? Newbourne 228 1 

Butley 229 

Felixstowe 230 

Ipswich 231 

Wickham 232 

Southwark 22 

S. Thomas Hospital 24 

? Holy Trinity 25 

Bermondsey 26 

Chertsey 364 

Merton 365, 

Hastings 188 

Bayham 185 

Robertsbridge 187 

Battle 189 

Lewes 190 

Sele 191 

Heringham 192 

Boxgrove 194 

Dureford 195 

Pollesworth 69 

Nuneaton 87 

Mereval 116 

Daventry 152 

Combe 153 

Coventry 154 

Monks Kirby? 70 

Studley 155 

Stoneleigh 157 

Kenilworth 158 

Wroxhall 159 

Pinley 161 

Alcester 162 

Amesbury 78 

Farley 120 

1 Not in Tanner. 



Wilts {continued) 
Bredenstoke 133 
Stanley 134 
Malmesbury 135 


Little Malvern 137 
Bordesley 163 
Dodford 164 
Westwood 165 
Worcester 166 
Pershore 167 
Great Malvern 168 
Evesham 169 

Bolton 64 
Esholt 124 
Eirkstall 131 
Salley 132 
Eirkham 233 
Meaux 271 
Swine 272 
Naukeeling 273 
Bridlington 274 
Wyckham 275 
Walton 277 
Wartre 278 
Mftlton 280 
Molesby 281 
Newburgh 282 
Byland 283 
Rievaulx 284 
Eeldun 285 
Whitby 286 
Gisburne 287 

Yorkshire (continued) 

Kichmond 307 

Jervaulx 308 

Fountains 309 

York S. Mary 310 

Appleton 311 

Selby 312 

Drax 313 

Fontefract 314 

Nostell 315 

Monk Bretton 316 

Hampole 317 

Boche 318 

?Blyth 319 

St Andrews 72 

Dunfermline 73 

Ck>ldingham 294 
, Haddington 295 

Edinburgh 296 

Melrose 299 

Dryburgh 300 

Eelso 301 

Coldstream 303 

Jedburgh 304 
Not identified 

Holy Trinity (Surrey) 25 

Herst 221 

Woodkirk 333 

Birma 83 (qu. Bindon or Wim- 
borne ?) 

Elme 108 

De Pratis 193 

Chone 369 


Monday, May 11, 1903. 

Mr Gray, President, in the Chair. 

The Officers of the Society were elected for the ensuing 

President: Alfred Cort Haddon, Sc.D., F.R.S., Christ's 

Vice-President : John Willis Clark, M.A., F.S. A., Trinity 
College, Registrary. 

Ordinary Members of Council : Cecil Bendall, M.A., 
Gonville and Caius College, Professor of Sanskrit. The Rev. 
David Herbert Somerset Cranage, M.A., F.S.A., King's 
College. James Whitbread Lee Glaisher, Sc.D., F.R.S., 
Trinity College. Arthur Gray, M.A., Jesus College. John 
Venn, ScD., F.R.S., F.S.A., Gonville and Caius College. 

Treasurer: Robert Bowes. 

Secretary: Thomas Dinham Atkinson. 

Auditors: Alderman George Kett. 

James Bennet Peace, M.A., Emmanuel College. 

The Annual Report was read (p. 440) and the Treasurer s 
Statement received (p. 443). 

The President delivered his farewell address : 

Custom has prescribed that the President of your Society should 
deliver an Address when he quits the office which you have committed 
to his keeping. In recent years the practice has been in abeyanca 
It would be regrettable if it were forgotten, and for that reason, 
if for no better, I ask your indulgence in the few remarks which 
I wish to make. 

president's address 411 

What I have to say relates to the domestic concerns of our 
Society — a brief retrospect of jtest performance, a few words about 
its present aims and the position which it has taken in recent years 
in the advancement of archaeological science in the University and 
in the neighbounng district. 

The Society was founded in 1840. The first meeting of the 
Council on Feb. 29 in that year was attended, among others, by the 
Vice-Chancellor, Dr Tatham, Master of St John's, who was our first 
President, by the Rev. H. W. Cookson, afterwards Master of Peter- 
house, the Rev. Professor Corrie, afterwards Master of Jesus, 
Sir Henry Dryden, and the Rev. J. Lodge, University Libmrian. 
The Secretary was Mr J. O. Halliwell, better known afterwards as 
Halliwell-Phillips, the Shakespearian scholar, who was then an 
undergraduate of Jesus College, and to whose suggestion the Society 
owes its origin. The subscription was ten shillings per term, and 
membership was not restricted to the University, though until 1893 
none but membei*s of the University could hold office or serve on the 

The Society was prolific in publication in its earliest years. 
Besides ten numbers of Reports and Communications it produced 
eighteen Publications in the Quarto and Octavo Series between 1840 
and 1853. This energy was not sustained in the years which followed, 
for between 1853 and 1859 the Society issued no Publications, and 
only nine numbers, forming one volume, of Reports. Between 1860 
and 1870 the Publications were seven. Since then the activity of 
the Society, measured by its literary output, has been greatly 
quickened. In the years from 1890 its separate Publications have 
been fifteen, besides occasional and extra issues; and fifteen numbers 
of the Proceedings have been brought out. And an increased and 
increasing vitality has been shown in other directions — in the 
Excursions, first organized in 1881, when Professor Bendall, whose 
accession to the Council of the Society we welcome to-day, was 
Excursion Secretary ; in the excavations recently begun under the 
direction of Professor Hughes, and attended already with valuable 
and unexpected results ; in the Exhibitions organized in connection 
with the Society, notably that of Old Plate in 1895 and that of the 
Murray Collection of Irish Antiquities in 1900. And the Society 
may claim to have bestowed benefits on the public and the University 
by the devotion of large sums to such pui^poses as the preservation 
of the relics of Barnwell Piiory, and to the support of the Museum 


of Archaeology, to the Accessions Fund of which it has given sums 
amounting in the aggregate during the last ten years to not less 
than X537. 

The Society has achieved much in recent yeai-s, but much more 
remains to achieve. It has occupied many new fields, but the 
horizon still recedes before its advance. I mention only a few of 
the tasks which lie immediately before us, and those only in the 
arena of Local Archaeology. Our excavations have only made a 
beginning; the mystery of the Cambridgeshire dykes remains un- 
solved; at this moment a Roman villa at Burwell, of a large and 
evidently well-preserved area, invites our exploration ; and the site 
of the Priory of Swaffham may be turned over as soon as the crops 
are off the ground. Of records contained in the muniment rooms of 
Cambridge and Ely many of the most interesting and historically 
important have as yet found no editor. I need only specify the 
great series of Account Rolls of the Obedientiaries of the monastic 
Church of Ely, the Accounts of the Treasurers of the Town of 
Cambridge, the latter half of the Liher Eliensis and the University 
Wills at present exiled to Peterborough. 

If the Society is to undertake even a portion of the large scheme 
of work which I have outlined with any prospect of completing it 
within a reasonably near future it will require some considerable 
increase of income. It is a fact to be regretted that the increase in 
the numbera of the Society has not kept pace with the recent 
widening of its field of operations. The ordinary members were 197 
in 1880 and had increased only to 246 last year. As the parting 
words which I address to you from the President's chair I should 
like to impress on every member of the Society the desirability of 
attracting to it as many recruits as he or she can. To one class in 
particular I should like to see the doors of the Society more hospitably 
open than they have been hitherto. I mean the undergraduates of 
the University. Antiquaiian interests no longer appeal only to 
the class immortalized in Mr Oldbuck of Monkbarns. Classical 
archaeology has a recognized place in the studies of the University. 
That British archaeology has not yet won such recognition is some 
reproach to Cambiidge and its Historical School. By the more 
general admission of undergraduates to our meetings, excursions, 
and especially to our diggings our Society will do an important 
service in spreading an educated interest in antiquities in local 
societies throughout the kingdom. 


In conclusion I must heartily congratulate the Society on the 
choice which it has made for President in the coming year, and 
must add the wish, in which I am sure that you all share, that he 
may find the duties of President compatible with what I take to be 
not less his duty — that of instructing, interesting, and entertaining 
ns with the admirable exhibitions and communications which from 
the storehouse of his knowledge he has always been so ready to give 
us at recent meetings. 

Professor Hughes and Baron Von Hugel spoke upon the 
proposed New Museum of Archaeology and of Ethnology. 

On two Wheel-desks: the one in the Church 
OF S. Nicholas, Great Yarmouth ; the other 


By J. W. Clark, M.A. 

In the accounts for fitting up the library of the King of 
France in 1367 and 1368, when it was removed from the tie 
de la Cite to the Louvre, the carpenters are paid, among 
other things, for " having taken to pieces all the cases (bancs) 
and two wheels (roes) which were in the King's library in the 
palace, and transported them to the Louvre, with the desks 
{lettrins) to the aforesaid wheels, each made smaller by a foot 
all rounds" 

I shewed in The Care of Books that these " wheels " were 
revolving desks, which could be raised or depressed by means 
of a central screw ; and I illustrated the passage quoted above 
by a miniature executed in Flanders for King Henry the 
Seventh, and now in the British Museum, representing two 
gentlemen in a library, studying at such a deskl The principle, 
once adopted, became exceedingly popular, and desks of a 
similar character, but of different forms and ornament, are 
among the commonest pieces of library-furniture depicted in 

1 The Care of Books, ed. ii, p. 294. 

2 Ibid. p. 295. 

414 J. W. CLARK 

In my present paper I propose to describe another form of 
wheel, also used for library-purposes, which seems to have 
been invented at the beginning of the seventeenth, or end of 
the sixteenth, century. It is described and figured in a work 
by Heinrich Zeising, called Theatrum Machinarum^y the first 
edition of which was published at Leipzig in six parts between 
1614 and 1622. The twelfth plate (fig. 1), which illustrates 
the contrivance and its mechanism, is accompanied by the 
following letterpress : 

Ein kunstlicher Studier-Pult, darauff man auff einmal ein grossen 
Hauifen Biicher kan halten und gebrauchen. 

Die»es ist eine schone uud kunstliche Machina, welche den Studierendeu 
Personen gar nlitzlich ist und wol bekommt, sonderlich aber denen so auff 
einmahl viel Biicher und Authores miissen fiir sich haben, und aber 
Podagrisch oder sonst schwach seyn dass sie nicht viel bin und wieder 
mogen geheu. Denn mit dieser Machina kan der Mann eine grosse Anzahl 
Biicher durchblattem tind umwenden und darff nicht einmal auffstehen 
von seinem Stuel. Zu dem hat es auch diese gute bequemligkeit, dass 
dieses Instrument gar wenig raum bedarff an dem ort da mans hinstellet 
wie ein jeder vernunfstiger Mensch aus der Figur wol kan mercken. Man 
muss ein Rad also zurichten dass wenn man Biicher auff seine bretlein 
legt, und treibt das Rad herumber, so sollen doch die Biicher steift' an 
ihrer Stelle bleiben, keins herabfallen oder die Blatter umkehren, sondem 
stets also bleiben wie sie auff die Radbretter oder tafelein gelegt worden. 
Dieses Rad kan man nun gross oder klein machen wie es einem jeden 
gefellig, oder das losament darinnen es stehen soil erleiden mag. Doch wird 
der Werckmeister so solche zurichtet achtung geben auff die proportion 
aller theil dieser unser kleinen Radlein und anderer Kiinsten so in solcher 
Machina sie gesehn werden. Dann dieselben stiick alle mit mass imd 
proportion gemachet seind ; und darmit ein jeder der diese Machina wil 
lassen zurichten solche desto besser mog verstehen hab ich hineben alle 
Subtiliteten sondarinn seind in der Figur entdeckt zu besser jedermen- 
niglichs gebrauch. 

This passage may be translated as follows: 

An ingenious desk for study, on which a large niunber of books can be 
laid and used at one and the same time. 

^ The book was published by HenniDg Gross the younger in six parts dated 
as follows: Pt. i. 1621 ; Pt. ii. 1614; Pt. iii. 1618; Pt. iv. 1622; Pt. v. 1614; 
Pt. VI. 1614. These parts formed two volumes. The whole was reissued at 
Leipzig in 1673, and 1708. My attention was first diiected to this book in 1894 
by Mr F. G. Teggart, chief cataloguer in the library of the Leland Stanford 
junior University, U.S. A. 












g ^ 











































This is a beautiful and ingenious machine, which is very useful and 
convenient for persons studying, especially for those who must have by 
them many books and authors at once, and are gouty or otherwise infirm, 
so that they cannot easily move backwards or forwards. With this 
machine a man can turn over and consult a large number of books, and 
need not even rise from his chair. It has further this great convenience 
that the instrument requires very little space on the spot where it has 
been put up, as every reasonable man can see by this figure. 

A wheel must be so arranged that when books are laid on the little 
shelves, and the wheel is turned round, the books may remain steady in 
their places, and none may fall down or their leaves be turned over, but 
remain as they were laid on tjie shelves or tablets. 

This wheel can be made large or small according to pleasure, or as the 
space in which it is to stand will allow. The mechanic who puts it 
together must pay attention to the proportion of all parts of our little 
wheels and other contrivances which are required in such a machine, for 
all these pieces are made according to measure and proportion ; and in 
order that everyone who wishes to have these machines made may the 
better imderstand them, I have in this figure shewn all the dehcate 
contrivances, for the better information of everybody. 

Let us now examine the figure. The wheel hangs free 
within a stout wooden frame ; and as the artist has drawn 
a seated figure reading at it, it is easy to calculate that 
the diameter of the wheel was about 5 feet. There were 
eight shelves. The width of the wheel was not greater than 
that of the reader's chair — that is, about 2 feet ; and, as the 
woodwork on which the shelves hang is of considerable thickness, 
but little space is left for the shelf itself. In consequence a 
single volume only is shewn upon each shelf, that is to say, 
only eight volumes could be consulted at once, a number which 
hardly bears out the statement in the description that " with 
this machine a man can turn over and consult a large number 
of books/' 

The drawing further gives a rough sketch of the machinery 
by which the shelves are kept steady when the wheel is set in 
motion — what the text calls " the delicate contrivances." The 
general scheme of a number of cog-wheels is perfectly correct ; 
but they are drawn so roughly that I will say no more upon 
this subject at present. 

A desk constructed on this principle has been preserved for 
many years in the church of S. Nicholas, Great Yarmouth. 

416 i, W. CLARK 

I am sorry to say that nothing is known of its date, or of the 
place whence it came. The figure of it which I am able to 
give (fig. 2) renders a description almost unnecessary. The 
material is oak. The wheel is supported on a stout frame, so 
as to ensure complete steadiness. The diameter of the wheel 
is 3 ft. 9 in. The height, from the ground to the axis of the 
wheel, is 4 ft. ; and the shelves, of which there are six, are 
4 feet long, and 11 J inches broad. They will contain about 
50 volumes at once. 

A second example (fig. 3) is in the Bibliotheque de TArsenal, 
Paris. In detail it differs a good deal from that at Yarmouth, 
but the principle is the same. The stand is highly orna- 
mented, with wreaths of flowers and fruit on the central 
support and on the lateral wings; and the lower of the two 
bara connecting the ends of the stand, together with the edges 
of the shelves, is carved. The wheel is reduced to a cross, 
each arm of which carries one of the four shelves. The height 
is 3 ft. o in. from the ground to the axis (slightly less than at 
Yarmouth) ; each arm of the cross is 3 ft. 2 in. long by 8 in. 
wide ; and each shelf is 3 ft. 9 in. long, by 17 in. wide. 

Nothing is known about the history of this desk except 
that when the library was being arranged after the Revolution, 
the librarian asked for leave to annex "Un grand pulpitre a 
ressort de la Bibliotheque des Capucins." This request was 
made "7 Primaire an VI " = 28 November, 1798. My friend 
M. Henri Martin, the present librarian, decides that the library 
in question belonged to the Capucins de la Rue St Honor^ — 
a convent of vast extent, with a fine library, containing in 1790 
a collection of books numbering from 18,000 to 24,000 volumes^ 

Two other examples are to be met with in Germany: the 
one at Wolfenbuttel, the other at Wernigerode in the Hartz. 
The former, in the library of the Grand Dukes of Brunswick, 
was constructed in the middle of the seventeenth century by 
order of Duke Augustus (1634-1666). It is of wood, and 
closely resembles the Yarmouth example, but the frame is so 
constructed as to leave a very small interval between the wheel 

I Franklin, Anciennes BibliotJieques de Paris ^ ii. 238. 












Oamb. Ant. Soc. Vol. X. 

to face p. 416 (2) 

Fio. 3. Wheel-desk in the Bibliothgque de PArsenal, Paris. 

418 J. W. CLARK 

been used, to accomtnodate the catalogue of their respective 
libraries \ 

I now come to the machinery by which these desks are 
worked ; and I consider myself fortunate in being able to 
exhibit a photograph of the whole system in the Yarmouth 
example (fig. 4)^ In this example there are wheels at one end 
only, but, if I mistake not, in the French example both ends 
are fitted with them. No iron is used : the wheels, the central 
axis, and the axis of each shelf, are all of wood. The central 
axis is concealed in a wooden cylinder (fig. 2) ; and the axis of 
each shelf is attached to the under side of the shelf to which it 
belongs in such a position that the shelf balances exactly. To 
each of these axes a cogwheel is attached (fig. 4) ; and the six 
cogwheels of the outer system are brought into relation with 
the central cogwheel by means of three intermediate cogwheels. 
All the cogwheels are of the same size. 

In the Paris example the system is slightly modified, 
having regard to the peculiar shape, and the presence of four 
shelves only. The desk was not taken to pieces in my presence, 
but the machinery was kindly explained to me by M. Miiller, 
keeper of the printed books in the Arsenal Library, who had 
seen it when it was under repair a few years since. There is, 
of course, a central cogwheel, and a cogwheel attached to the 
axis of each shelf Between these four cogwheels and the 
central cogwheel four others are interposed, making a total of 

^ I have to thank my friend Dr James, Fellow of King's College, for this 
information, and for a photograph of the desk at Wolfenbilttel which was taken 
under his direction expressly for my use. 

3 I have to thank my friend the Bey. the Earl of Chichester, Vicar of Great 
Yarmouth, for kindly allowing me to have the desk opened ; and Messrs Norman, 
cabinet-makers, of Great Yarmouth, for doing the work and obtaining a photo- 
graph of the machinery for my use. 



Library, Cambridge, as built by Bishop 
rotheram, written by william cole, m.a., 
IN 1759. 

Communicated by J. W. Clark, M.A. 

The history of the east side of the Schools Quadrangle has 
been narrated at length in The Architectural History^, and its 
appearance has been preserved for us in Loggan's print, taken 
about 1688 (fig. 1). It will therefore be sufficient to mention 
in this place that by the "east side" I mean the building 
which extended from the tower-staircase on the south, to the 
Divinity School on the north. This was begun in 1470 and 
completed in 1474 or 1475, the ground-floor at the charge of 
the University ; but the gate of entrance and the library which 
occupied the whole of the first floor at that of Thomas Rotheram, 
then Chancellor of the University and Bishop of Lincoln. A 
Grace however, which passed the Senate 13 May, 1475, pro- 
viding special recognition for Rotheram on account of his 
manifold benefactions to the University, says that he 

has completed certain schools and a new library above them, built of 
dressed stone, costly, dignified, and of suitable design, and when it was 
fully provided with all suitable furniture, has enriched it with books 
neither few in number nor cheap in price 2. 

These words, written in the very year that the building was 
finished, ;when we may imagine the University exulting over 
the unexpected completion of its educational buildings, the 
tardy progress of which had extended over more than 70 years, 
are, I think, more likely to be accurate than the account given 
above, which, as explained in the History, rests in the main on 
the authority of Archbishop Parker. 

1 Arch. Hist, iii. 16. 

2 The original words, of which I have given a paraphrase rather than a 
translation, are : scholas novamque superius librarian! polito lapide sumptuosa 
pompa, ac dignis BBdificiis, perfeoerit, eamque omnibus ut decuit rebus exomatam 
non paucis vel vilibus libris opulentam reddidit. Commiss, Docts, i. 414. 



The library was a long, narrow room, about 57 feet long 

i< I and 11 feet broad between walls, lighted by nine windows, each 

' of two lights, in the east and west walls. Nothing is known 

J of its fittings, but, as the distance between each pair of windows 

could not have been more than two feet or two feet and a half, 

it is probable that they may be referred to what I have called 

[ the lectern-system. The room was called at first the Chan- 

j cellors library (libraria domini cancellarii) ; but afterwards 

J J " the private library " or " the new library." Dr Caius, writing 

P in 1574, tells us that the more valuable books were kept in it, 

I and that only a few privileged persons were admitted ^ 

I The description which I am about to lay before you was 

written by Cole in l759^ five years after the building in 

question had been pulled down to make way for the existing 

east room and fa9ade, begun in 1754. I regret that neither 

• Professor Willis nor I discovered it before the history of the 

library was written, for it contains several interesting par- 

■ ticulars which would have rendered our work more complete 

than it is at present. 

While he [Thomas Rotheram] was Bishop of Lincoln and our Chancellor, 
at his own Expence, and that no inconsiderable one, except a small matter 
contributed by the University and King Ric. 3<*, he finished that beautiful 
Gate and 2 Courts on the Sides of it, the one for the Vice- Chancellor, and 
the other for the Commissary of the University, to hold their Courts of 
Justice in: the one of them now used as an Entrance for the Vice- 
Chancellor and Doctors to their Gallery in the Divinity Scheie. 

Over all which Buildings runs a long Gallery, made use of as a Library, 

' and making the East Front of the present Scholes, fronting S* Mary's 

' Tower in the Regent Walk. His Arms to this Day (I copy this Part of my 

' Account from one wrote in my History of Kings College in 1746)^ are on 

the said Portal in Stone ; and in the old Library, as it is called, above, 

built by him, and furnished with 200 volmnes, some of which remain there 

to this Time 1759, are to this Day [viz. 1746] in the Windows his Devise 

in almost every Pane of Glass, being a Buck trippant, in almost every 

Posture and Attitude you can conceive, being Part of his Arms ; together 

[ 1 Arch, Hist, iii. 25. 

» MSS. Cole XIX. MSS. Add. Mas. Brit. 6820, pp. 177—193. My extract 
' begins on p. 185. I have to thank the Bev. H. L. Bennett for my knowledge 
of this deacription. See his Archbishop Rotherham, 8o. Lincoln, 1901, p. 60. 
» Ibid. Vol. XIII = MSS. Add. Mus. Britt $9U, pp. 20, 21. 

C. A, S. Comm. Vol. X. 29 

422 J. W. CLARK 

with the white or york Rose, which shews his AflTection to his great 
Patron King Edward the fourth. There has been some old Writing also 
mixed among them 2 or 3 Times in every Window, in curious Letters, 
whereof some are composed of Serpents, and is Da te Deo\ But in 
September 1748, during my Absence on some Occasion from the University, 
in the Vice-Chancellorship of Dr Paris ^, the Front of these Scholes were 
thought to want Repair, at which Time all the old painted Windows were 
taken down to make Room for Crown Glass, and all those curious Paintings, 
tho* perfect and compleat, were taken away by the Glazier, to the no small 
Reproach of the University in thus defrauding the pious Benefactors and 
Founders amongst us of their just and grateful Memorials. There were 
also many other antient Coats in the open Work at the Tops of each 
Window ; all which were taken away : and tho' I used all means I could 
think of to recover them, yet they were broken, dispersed or mislaid in a 
month after they were removed in such a Manner as I could not find them. 
One large Pane I had of the Gift of the Vice-Chancellor : Part of which 
composes 2 Gothic Windows I made in the Parsonage at Blecheley in 
Buckinghamshire 3, one in the House itself, another in the Hermitage in 
the Garden : besides some which I put into the East Window of that 
Parish Church*. Since which Time the whole of Archbishop Rotheram's 
Building is pulled down, and about the year 1756 an elegant new Structure 
erected upon the same Spot under the Auspices of the Duke of Newcastle, 
the present Chancellor of the University ^ 

I can't help adding, that besides the Ingratitude of taking away painted 
Arms or other Memorials of Benefactors out of Windows, it is very 
injudicious in such Buildings as Churches and other Gothic Edifices ; 
where the Largeness and Number of Windows would occasion too much 
Light, was it not obfuscated and obscured by the grateful Gloom of painted 
Glass: this was remarkably the Case of the old library of Archbp. 
Rotheram, before it was pulled down ; and is as obvious in the magnificent 

1 After the description of Rotheram's arms in vol. xm, which ends at 
** trippant," Cole proceeds as follows ; ** He also opened the Walks on each side 
of this School and libraiy : and this he did between the years 1470 and 1476. 
That he also contributed handsomely towards the rebuilding of Great S. Mary's 
Church in this University is plain from his Arms being carved in Stone on the 
West Front of the fine Tower. The Arms of the See ot Tork are carved also on 
the same Steeple which makes me conclude he contributed to that work while 
Archbishop of that Province." For the motto see Bennett's Rotherhamy p. 60, 

« Fra. Sawyer Parris, B.D., Master of Sidney Sussex College 1746--60. 
Proto-bibliothecarius, 1750. Vice-Chancellor 1747 — 48. 

s Cole was rector of Bletohley from 1753 to 1767. 

« The Rector of Bletohley writes (7 Oct. 1902) that he is << unable to give 
any information respecting the old glass of which you make mention." 

» Arch. Hist, iii. pp. 62—69, 96. 


Chapel of King's College, where, was it not for the beautiful Windows of 
painted Glass, too much Light would be uneasy to the Eye. 

In 1484, I suppose, it was, that he furnished the Library with 
Books ; for on 3 noble Volumes, still there, on the large folio Covers of 
Spe&idum HUtoriale by Vincentius, printed in 1473, is fixed a Peioe of 
Vellum with this Note on each, wrote in the Hand of that Time : Prima 
Pars [or Secunda and Tertia'] Vincentn in Speculo naiurali ex Dono 
reverendissimi in Christo Patris ac Dni Dni Tkomce Dei Gratia Ebor:* 
Archiepij Anno Dni IJjS^, 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

I have nothing to add further relating to this Prelate... except mention- 
ing his Arms, which are thus blasoned on the Tower of S* Mary's Church 
and on the Scheie Doors at Cambridge, viz.: Vert, 3 Roe Bucks trippant 
Argent, attired, Or^. 

This story is repeated, with a few fresh particulars, in a 
description of "Arms and Painted Glass in the Windows of 
my House at Milton, near Cambridge, 1778." 

I remember Dr Paris suffered all the painted Glass in the old library 
of the University to be taken away, and white Glass to be put in the Place 
of it. He gave me one whole light composed of Abp. Rotheram's Device, 
a Buck, in a hundred different Attitudes, with the White Rose of Lancaster 
[York]. I have them in many of my Windows at Milton : but some in 
Blecheley Chancel, and one in Bumham^ Chancel, for a Memorial 3. 

In the same volume*, but in a different description, written 
in 1765, of the fragments of stained glass and other curiosities 
in his house, Cole gives coloured sketches of some of the 
quarries from Rotheram's library, with the following notes : 

13. On a Pane of white Glass, a neat white Rose, seeded Or, with 
leaves and Stalk Or. This I had by Order of Dr Paris, Master of Sidney 
College, when he was Vice-Chancellor, when I begged a whole Window of 
the Old painted Glass in the Old Scholes fronting the Regent Walk, every 
Pane of which was White Roses and Bucks in all the various Postures and 
Attitudes that can be conceived, and were put there by Abp. Rotheram, in 
memory of his Patron Edward 4th of the Houses of York, whose Device 
was the white Rose, together with Part of his own Arms, being 3 Bucks 
trippant....! have still by me unused a great Part of this old Window of 

^ This paragraph occurs at the end of Cole's aocoant of Rotheram, p. 291. 
^ Cole became vicar of Bomham, on the presentation of Eton College, in 

8 MSB. Cole xxxm.=MSS. Add. Mus. Brit. 6834, p. 199. 
* Ibid. p. 356. 


424 J. W. CLARE 

Arclibp. Rotheram, which I keep out of Respect to his Memory, the' so 
little regarded in a Place that owes so much to him. 

14, 16, 16, 17 are Panes of white Glass, already mentioned, representing 
Bucks in various Postures, painted in brown Colour with their short double 
Horns all gilt. 

The noble Stone Door going into the Scholes and fronting the Regent 
Walk, on which were painted Archbp. Rotheram's Arms, with those of all 
the several Colleges in the University, in several Niches and other Parts, 
when it was pulled down about 10 Years ago to make way for the new 
library which now stands in its place, was carried to Madingley, the Seat 
of Sir John Cotton, where I saw it rebuilt, and makes a very handsome 
Gateway near the principal Part of the House, in 1763. 

The glass of which Cole has given this summary description 
was evidently not library-glass; I mean it did not represent 
a series of subjects, or figures, or inscriptions, having reference 
to the books which reposed on the neighbouring shelves. It 
was what may be called commemorative glass, a type not 
uncommon in libraries, where it sometimes took the form of 
portraits, sometimes of coat-armour^ Rotheram seems to 
have commemorated himself and his patron King Edward IV. 
by the quarries in the lights, while the arms of other bene- 
factors adorned the quatrefoils in the heads of the windows. 

Cole's account of the gateway adds an important fact to our 
knowledge of the details of its ornamentation. Loggan's print 
shews 18 blank shields ; three at the back of each of the four 
canopied niches; two flanking each side of the upper part 
of the central panel ; and one under each corbel of the weather- 
molding of the door. It is obviously impossible to determine 
what colleges were represented, or how the eighteen shields 
were filled ; but we now know that at least Rotheram's own 
arms and those of the colleges were tinctured. This mode of 
treatment may have been employed more generally than we 
imagine; and increased study of college account-books will 
probably reveal important particulars. For instance at S. John's 
College also some of the heraldic achievements on the great 
gate were gilt". 

' The Care of Books, ed. ii. p. 238. 
« Arch. HUt, ii. 317, 772. 


P.S. Since writing this paper I have met with another 
fact respecting the use to which Rotheram's Library was put 
in after years. In the deed drawn up in 1574 respecting 
Archbishop Parker's gift of University Street and other matters, 
it is provided that the Master and Fellows of Corpus Christi 
College shall, among other things, 

from tyme to tyme repaire and mayneteyne all such books as the said 
most reverende father hath alreadie given or shall hereafter give to 
the Universitie Librarie there, with elapses and byndinge neoessarie and 
convenient, whiche saide bookes are or be to be placed at the north ende 
of the said Universitie Librarie in certen lockers appointed for the same 
And shall also maynteyne and repaire the chaines of so many of the same 
bookes as be alreadie chained there ^ 

No room in the library at that day had a "north end" 
except that built by Archbishop Rotheram. To it therefore, 
the books given by Archbishop Parker must have been con- 
signed; and it is possibly to these that Dr Caius is alluding 
when he records, in the very same year, that only the more 
valuable books were placed in that room. 

Dr M. R. James remarked that during the process of 
re-leading windows in King's College Chapel a good many 
fragments of glass used to patch the windows by the glaziers 
of the eighteenth century have turned up. Some of these 
bear names of benefactors of colleges and one set in particular 
seems to have come from the windows in the Chapel or 
Hall of Gonville and Caius College. As yet no fragment of 
Rotheram's glass has been detected: but it is quite possible 
that some may be discovered in the course of future restoration. 

Mr F. Jenkinson said that in examining the titles of books 
presented by the Archbishop to the College at Rotherham, the 
list of which is in Dr James* Descriptive Gatalogvs of the MSS 
in the Library of Sidney Sussex College Cambridge, he had 
been curious to enquire which, if any, related to printed books 
rather than to manuscripts. He had found that a considerable 
number were printed books. It is always of interest to note 
how soon printed books arrived in this country from abroad. 

^ ETidowments of the University, ed. 1904, p. 23. 

426 H. D. CATLING 

The Rev. Dr H. P. Stokep referred to the long period 
during which Rotheram's gifts of books extended. That such 
donations commenced sometime before May 1475, when the 
University enrolled his name among its benefactors, is shewn 
by the fact that the book-plate long used by the University 
Libraiy had on it the Rotheram arms impaled with those of 
the see of Rochester^ The prelate had in 1472 been translated 
to Lincoln from the bishopric of Rochester (to which he had 
been consecrated in 1468). Grace Book A contains several 
references to Rotheram*s donations of books to the University. 
Such gifts continued after he had been made Archbishop of 
York (1480); see, for instance, entries under date 1483-4. 
Orace Book B would also show that the Archbishop continued 
his gifts at least as late as the year 1492-3. 

Apostle Spoons. 
By H. D. Catling, B.A. 

All authorities are agreed that apostle spoons were 
initially designed as christening presents, though it is im- 
possible to say exactly how and when the custom originated. 
But certain it is that the practice extended over a period of 
nearly two hundred years, a fact proved by existing specimens, 
the oldest of which bears the hall-mark of 1493, while the 
most modem dates from the year 1665. Opulent sponsors 
seem to have given a complete set; those of more moderate 
circumstances, four spoons, while the poorer sort contented 
themselves with the gift of one, bearing the figure of their own 
patron saint, or of the saint after whom the child was named, 
or to whom the child was dedicated. 

It was, no doubt, with this custom in mind that Shakespeare 
wrote the following passage in King Henry VIII, v. 2 : 

^^King Henry. My lord of Canterbury, 

I have a suit which you must not deny me; 
This is a fair young maid that yet wants baptism, 
You must be godfather, and answer for her. 

^ The Botheram book-plate was only discontinued in the middle of the 
nineteenth century. 


Cranmer, The greatest monarch now alive may glory 
In such an honour; how may I deserve it, 
That am a poor and humble subject to you? 

King Henry. Come, come, my lord, you'd spare your spoons." 

and again in the same play, V. 3 : — 

^^ Porter, On my Christian conscience, this one Christening will beget 
a thousand ; here will be father, godfather, and all together. 
Man, The spoons will be the bigger. Sir." 

Hone, too, in his Everyday Book, i. 179, writes: 'An 
anecdote is related of Shakespeare and Ben Jonson which bears 
upon the usage ; Shakespeare was godfather to one of Jonson's 
children, and after the christening, being in a deep study, 
Jonson cheeringly asked him why he was so melancholy? 
" Ben," said he, " I have been considering a great while what 
should be the fittest gift for me to bestow upon my godchild, 
and I have resolved it at last." "I prithee what?" said Ben. 
"F faith Ben," answered Shakespeare, "I'll give him a dozen 
good latten spoons and thou shalt translate them." 

*The word latten, intended as a play upon Latin, is the name 
for thin iron tinned, of which spoons and similar small articles 
of household use are sometimes made.' 

Ben Jonson himself, in his Bartholomew Fair also mentions 
the custom, and moreover particularises the fashioning of the 
spoons: — "And all this for the hope of a couple of Apostle 
spoons, and a cup to eat caudle in." 

So Middleton, in his Comedy of a Chaste Maid of Cheap- 

" Second Gossip. What has he given her? what is it. Gossip ? 

Third Gossip. A faire high standing cup, two great 'postle spoons, one 
of them gilt." 

Again, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Noble Gentleman we 
find : — 

"I'll be a gossip, Bewford, 
I have an odd Apostle spoon." 

Lastly, and important as showing that the custom was then 

428 H. D. CATLING 

on the decline, we have the following passage in Shipman's 
Gossips, published in 1666 : — 

^* Especially since gossips now 
Eat more at christenings, than bestow. 
Formerly when they used to troul 
Gilt bowls of sack, they gave the bowl, 
Two spoons at least; an use ill kept; 
*Tis well if now our own be left." 

We now pass to a consideration of the spoons themselves. 
Their name is, of course, derived from the figures of the 
Apostles which they bear on the handles, and the emblems are 
in strict accordance with primitive Christian tradition, being 
probably taken from the Byzantine Manual, though it must be 
admitted that this work omits St James the Less, St Jude, 
and St Matthias, their places being taken by St Paul, St Luke, 
and St Mark. In the emblems, as depicted on the spoons, 
there is not much variation to be noted, but the saw is some- 
times given to St Jude as well as to St Simon Zelotes. No 
rule seems to have existed with respect to the position of the 
emblems, since they are found on either side of the figure. , In 
length the spoons vary as much as an inch, the shortest known 
to the writer being 6f ins., the longest 7f ins.; these latter 
being at Christ's College, and presumably of foreign manu- 
facture. In weight, too, a considerable difference is to be found, 
but this is easily explained on the score of age, and according 
as the spoons have been much or little used. In point of 
rarity, the figure of the Saviour (or "Master" as it is always 
designated) takes the foremost place, and was probably only 
included in complete sets, a circumstance which is easily under- 
stood when we consider the object of the spoons. The hat, or 
nimbus, was, it is suggested, aflfixed to save the features of the 
saint from effacement. 

The rarity of the "Master" spoon has just been noted, but 
how much more so is a complete set can best be illustrated by 
the statement that only one^ such is believed to exist, viz. that 

^ Since the above was written another set has made its appearance in a 
London auction room where it realised the remarkable sum of £4900. The 
existence of these spoons was unknown until a few weeks before the sale (vide 


which was sold early in 1901, and is known to collectors as the 
' Swettenham * set, from the Cheshire family to which it for- 
merly belonged. These spoons bear the hall-mark of 1616. 

One other so-called set is in the possession of the Gold- 
smiths' Company, a gift from the late Mr George Lambert, 
F.S.A., but the figures on these spoons are said by a leading 
London expert to have been added at a date subsequent to the 
hall-mark, and are therefore spurious. 

Mention must also be made of the set in the possession of 
Corpus Christi College ; but here again a difficulty presents 
itself; for, while comprising the entire 13 spoons, they are 
not all of the same year ; one, supposed to represent St Paul, 
being 50 years older than the others. These are doubtless the 
13 spoons alluded to in the inscription on Archbishop Parker's 
Standing Salt — **Salinum hoc cum pixide pro pipere in oper- 
culo cum 13 coclearibus deauratis quae hent (habent) Chrum 
(Christum) et aplos (apostolos)," more especially as his will 
names ** one spoon and twelve others." But this distinction 
taken in conjunction with the hall-mark on the one spoon 
(1515-16) suggests the theory that it may represent the sole 
survivor of the set given by Dr Cosyn (Master 1487-1515): — 
"twelve new * Master* and 'Apostles" spoons" — as the term 
"new" would be correctly applied to an article made in the 
year in which he died. Moreover, Archbishop Parker is known 
to have recovered a salt given to the College by Dr Cosyn, and 

Times, 17 July, 1903), in which they were catalogued as being " The property 
of a gentleman in whose family they have descended as heirlooms for many 
generations past." Each is 7^ ins. in length and bears the hall-mark of 1536, 
the total weight of the set being 32 ozs. 19 dwts. They were thus described by 
the auctioneers: **A complete set of 13 Henry the Eighth Silver Apostle 
Spoons, the figures gilt, finely modelled and chased, the inside of the bowls 
bearing the Sacred Monogram in blaok-letter contemporary engraved on hatched 
ground in a circle." 

The appearance of the Sacred Monogram suggests the theory that the set 
was made for presentation to some abbey, as it is evident from the workmanship 
that the engraving was executed before the spoons received the hall-mark. 
Apart from the early date, the massive character and fine preservation of each 
spoon makes the set of the highest importance, and it is also worthy of notice 
that one of the Apostles represented is Judas Iscariot — a most unusual circum- 

430 H. D. CATUNQ 

this fact strongly supports the theory, although no mention is 
anywhere made of the spoon beyond that already given. 

Of the six apostle spoons belonging to Christ's College 
there is little to add beyond the fact that they form a part of 
the Founder's bequest, and that on the division of Lady Mar- 
garet's plate the remainder of the set went to St John's, where 
all trace of them was lost. 

The most noticeable features of the spoons now on exhibi- 
tion^ is the period of time they cover, ranging as they do from 
1561 to 1650 — about half the period during which the custom 
of presenting them prevailed. The figures of the apostles are 
of the usual type, with the exception of the two specimens 
representing St Peter. These are much larger than the ordi- 
nary ones, especially the nimbus, and possibly represent a later 
fashion, though it is impossible to be certain on the point, as 
the date letter is wanting on each. 

Taking them in the order of the hall-marks, we have : — 

(1) StJude. 1561-2. Black letter " D," small. Weight, 
1 oz, 13 dwts. Length, 7f in. The figure of the apostle is very 
heavy, and the weight, together with the fresh appearance of 
the engraving, induce the belief that the apostle is of later 
date than the stem and bowl of the spoon, and possibly belongs 
to the next century. The symbol is of unusual shape. The 
rim of the nimbus is fluted, as is also the pedestal. The 
maker's mark is a trefoil leaf in circle, which approximates 
somewhat to that found on a tazza at Christ's College bearing 
the date letter of 1572-3, and may correspond with a mark of 
this description catalogued by Chaffers as found on apostle 
spoons under the years 1562 and 1664. 

(2) St James the Less. 1575-6. Black letter " S," small. 
Weight, loz. 13 dwts. Length, 6|in. The nimbus and pedestal 
are both plain. The maker's mark is undistinguishable, in 
shaped shield. 

(3) St James the Greater. 1589-0. Roman letter "M," 
capital. Weight, 1 oz. 11 dwts. Length, 7 in. The pedestal 
is plain, and the nimbus of the variety known as " St Esprit," 
with eight rays. The maker's mark is a "W" in "C," or 

1 May 11, 1908. 


crescent, contained in a shaped shield, and resembles that first 
given by Oripps on a seal-headed spoon under date 1585-6, 
and occurring on seal-headed spoons of 1590, 1596, 1602, 1603, 
1609, 1611, and 1612. 

(4) St Matthias. 1594-5. Eoman letter "R," capital. 
Weight, loz. lOdwts. Length, 7 J in. The figure is without 
beard and carries, in addition to an axe, an emblem closely 
resembling that borne by St James the Less — ^presumably a 
cockle-shell. St Esprit nimbus, with eight rays. Plain pedestal. 
The maker's mark is a *' T " in crescent, in i)lain shield, which 
is catalogued by Chaffers under the years 1602 and 1613, though 
Cripps gives a somewhat similar mark under the year 1586-7. 

Here it may be of interest to remark that only 11 speci- 
mens of Elizabethan apostle spoons are catalogued by Cripps 
and Chaffers, but as no two of them bear the same hall-mark 
they may be included simply for the sake of the date letters ; 
but in any case, the circumstance would point to a scarcity of 
spoons of this period. 

(5) St Matthew. 1610-11. Lombardic letter " N," with 
external cusps. Weight, loz. 12dwts. Length, 7^ in. The 
figure carries a bag, and not the wallet illustrated by Cripps, 
and found on this apostle in the Corpus set. St Esprit nimbus, 
with eight rays. Pedestal engraved. The makers mark is a 
billet in a crescent similar to that first given by Cripps on a 
seal-headed spoon of the year 1607-8, and occurring on similar 
spoons of 1609, 1611 and 1612. 

(6) St Philip. 1618-9. Italic letter "A," small. This 
date letter cannot be guaranteed, but it certainly comes within 
the period 1613-1638, and is most probably the one given. 
Weight, 2 oz. 1 dwt. Length, 7 in. Plain nimbus and pedestal. 
The maker's name is practically obliterated, but the remaining 
tracer seem to suggest that given on the preceding spoon. 

(7) St Philip. 1629-^. Italic letter " M," small. Weight, 
loz. 16dwts. Length, 7iin. St Esprit nimbus, with seven 
rays. Pedestal engraved. The maker's mark is apparently 
E. 1. with pellet above and below, in shaped shield. No such 
mark is given by Cripps, but Chaffers chronicles it under the 
year 1640. 

432 H. D. CATLING 

(8) St James the Greater. 1650-1. Court hand "N." 
Weight, 1 oz. 11 dwts. Length, 7 in. Plain nimbus and pedes- 
tal. The maker's mark is 1. 1., in plain shield, similar to that 
given by Cripps under dates 1640-1 and 1642-3, but without 
the pellet below. Chaffers, however, records the mark as exist- 
ing with the pellets variously placed on specimens of 1623, 
1638, 1639, 1640, 1651, 1654, 1663, and 1665, which seems to 
point to a maker (or family) of distinction in the trade. 

This is a fine and rare specimen of the Commonwealth 
period, when the silversmith s art suffered from the distractions 
of the Civil War, and when but little trade was done, to judge 
from the few specimens that have come down to us. Of Com- 
monwealth spoons, indeedj but seven specimens are catalogued ; 
of the years 1651 (4), 1654, 1655, and 1657, which justifies us 
in assuming that this is, perhaps, the earliest apostle spoon of 
the period now extant. 

(9) St Jude. 1638 (?). Weight, 1 oz. 12 dwts. Length, 
7 in. The emblem of the Apostle corresponds with that on the 
spoon of 1561-2. St Esprit nimbus, with nine rays. Pedestal 

This spoon bears the mark of Exeter (a crowned letter X) 
in the bowl, in the place of the usual leopard's head. The 
date can only be surmised, or, at best, approximated, as do 
date letter appears to have been stamped, on pieces made in 
this city previous to the year 1701. The crowned X is the 
earliest mark known, being subsequently changed to a tower of 
three castles. Specimens of Exeter make are comparatively 
common, 11 being catalogued by Chaffers, no less than seven 
of which were formerly in the collection of the late Dr Ashford, 
of Torquay. All have a date pounced on the back of the bowl, 
though many are undoubtedly of earlier manufacture than the 
figures inscribed. The one under notice bears the date 1638, 
together with initials " I. M." which probably denote the name 
of the child to whom the spoon was given. The maker's mark 
is "E" over "A" surrounded by four pellets, and is thrice re- 
peated on the stem, presumably to mark the standard of silver 
employed. This mark also occurs on a spoon in the possession 
of Mr Cripps, which came from Dr Ashford's collection. 


(10) St John. 1640 (?). Weight, 1 oz. 12 dwts. Length, 
7| in. Plain nimbus and pedestal. The date on this spoon is 
pounced on the nimbus, with the initials " W. H." above, and 
"R. C." below. The date letter is obliterated. The maker's 
mark is apparently a six-rayed star, in shaped shield, but is 
very indistinct No such mark occurs in either Cripps or 
Chaffers, but a five-rayed star is given under the year 1596. 

As this is the second spoon exhibited with pounced initials 
it may be as well to mention a specimen which seems to solve 
all doubts as to their meaning: "A. H. Nata Ano Dfii 1578. 
Octob. 10. Inter Hor. 12 et Pri. in Aurora. Susceptore Qual. 
Moyse/' wherein it is certain that the initials denote the name 
of the child, as suggested in the case of the previous spoon. 
When a double set of initials occur it is probable that the 
former denote the child; the latter the sponsor. 

(11) St Peter. Seventeenth century. Date letter oblite- 
rated. Weight, 2 oz. 1 dwt. Length, 7 in. Nimbus plain, but 
very large, with notched edge. Pedestal engraved. Key turned 
outwards. The maker s mark is ** 1. 1." with a pellet between, 
in plain shield, which suggests that the maker was the same 
(or of the same family) as that of the spoon of 1650-1, and 
almost certainly fixes the date of the specimen as about the 
middle of the seventeenth century. 

(12) St Peter. (?) Weight, 2oz. Idwt. Length, 7 J in. 
Date letter and maker's mark obliterated. St Esprit nimbus 
large, with eight rays. Rim notched. Pedestal plain. Key 
turned inwards. Only mark, the leopard's head on the stem — 
a most unusual position. The bowl is modern, with a rat-tail 
pattern, and from the traces of elaborate ornament may prob- 
ably be assigned to the early Qeorgian period. 


18 May, 1903. 
At a Special Meeting, Mr Gray, President, in the Chair. 

Exhibition op Objects found in or near 

By the Rev. J. W. E. Conybeare, M.A. 

These were derived, for the most part, from my own old 
parish, Barrington, and with scarcely a single exception from 
my own Rural Deanery of Barton, comprising the twenty 
parishes lying immediately to the south of Cambridge. 

These objects were all collected between 1873 and 1898, 
and form part of a much larger store of similar, but less inter- 
esting, finds; I may add that at least as many objects, almost 
or quite as good, escaped me, some of which are now in our 
Museum, others in the Library of Trinity College and elsewhere. 

They were nearly all found during the process of coprolite 
digging, which turned over many thousands of acres and un- 
earthed the relics of bygone centuries, ranging from the earliest 
prehistoric developments to the present day. 

First in chronological order is the base of the antler of a 
red deer, found in the gravel terrace which at Barrington lies 
along the western bank of the Cam, some twelve feet above the 
present water level, and is full of the bones of hippopotamus, 
elephant, bison, and other mammals. Associated with these 
are found such fragments as this one, of which the tines and 
the brow antler have been cut or sawn off, or in another case, 
broken ofiF, by humaa agency. They are fairly numerous. I 
myself have got at least a dozen specimens, some from shed 
horns, some broken from the skull. But what purpose they 
served is unknown. In the Glastonbury museum may be seen 
one used as an axe-head, the flint taking the place of the brow 
antler, and the shaft that of the main antler. But none found 


in our neighbourhood show, any signs of having ever been thus 
adapted. Nor have I ever come across any of the missing 
antlers, except, possibly, one solitary brow tine. 

To the same period may be referred a burnt pebble, also 
one of many showing the action of fire, which were presumably 
heated by the River-bed men to boil the water in their skin 
vessels, a device known amongst savages not yet come to the 
possession of fireproof caldrons. 

Passing on to the neolithic period Barrington gives us a 
few flint implements, none calling for any special remark, 
except an axe-head, which is in the same half- finished state as 
that to be seen in the Woodwardian Museum embedded in a 
skull of Bos primigenius. From a tumulus in the neighbour- 
ing parish of Triplow comes a jadite axe ; a fine specimen of 
the weapons which, having their first origin in Central Asia 
(where alone the material is found), spread all over Europe and 
even to North America in prehistoric days. 

The weapons of the bronze age are represented only by one 
arrow-head, which, however, is interesting from the extreme 
rarity of such finds in Northern Europe, though on the Mediter- 
ranean shores they are fairly common. 

There is not much undoubtedly British work. One small 
pot (which contained incinerated fragments of bone when found) 
looks like it ; and one green glass bead exactly corresponds to 
the description (given in Gough's Camden 1789) of the " Druid 
Glass Rings " or " Adder Beads " : 

" They are glass amulets, commonly about half as wide as our finger 
rings, but much thicker, usually of a green colour... curiously waved... with 
furrows on the outside.... Of these the vulgar opinion in Cornwall and 
Wales is that they are produced by snakes joining their heads together and 
hissing, which forms a kind of bubble like a ring.... Whoever found it was 
to prosper in all his undertakings.... It seems very likely that these 
Adder-beads were used as charms... amongst the Druids of Britain upon 
the same occasion as the Snake-eggs amongst the Qaulish Druids^." 

One little bronze swan brooch may, also, perhaps be of 

1 One of these Gallic snake-eggs is desoribed by Pliny, who had seen it, in 
his chapter on the nse of eggs, as a rough round object about the size of an 
apple, used as a druidical amulet. 


British workmanship. An almost e/act replica is in the British 
Museum, labelled as having been found in the Thames when 
the bed of the river was dug for the foundations of the present 
London Bridge. But my own opinion is that it is more pro- 
bably Roman. The spring shows that it is not Anglo-Saxon, 
for those fibulae are never so constructed. 

The district has furnished many examples of British coinage, 
of which the best are in the possession of Sir John Evans. I 
have only a few of quite ordinary type and in poor condition, all 
from Barrington itself. 

Roman coins, on the other hand, I got by the hundred, 
never from hoards, but scattered singly all over the face of 
the land. These too are almost all from Barrington, and of 
little moment, though of interest as completely covering the 
whole Roman occupation. One Jvdcea Capta is worth notice, 
for these coins are not often found in Britain, and two of them 
were found at Barrington; also a Nerva, with its inscription 
Vehiculati(yne ItalicB remissa and its device of horses loosed 
from a chariot; and yet more a Yalentinian III, which came 
from somewhat higher up the river, and which, so far as I know, 
is the latest Roman coin yet found in Britain. 

The coprolite diggers turned up scores of Roman ashpits, 
from which endless fragments of pottery were procured, the 
vessels in some cases being restorable (as in that of the big am- 
phorae to be seen in Trinity College Library). Most were of coarse 
and common character, with a little Samian, (one piece here 
shown bearing the inscription of Cistio TiU, not otherwise 
known), and a solitary bit of highly and most remarkably glazed 
ware. From these ashpits were also obtained two thimbles, 
obviously intended to be worn upon the thumb, and two or 
three horse-shoes. In spite of the distrust expressed last year 
by Professor Hughes, I see no reason whatever to doubt that 
these articles were actually found in the ashpits, nor for dis- 
puting the conclusion arrived at by Qesner that this method of 
shoeing horses was introduced by Vegetius under Yalentinian II. 
The earlier shoes mentioned by Catullus and other classical 
writers seem to have been such coverings for the hoof as are 
worn by horses drawing mowing machines on College lawns. 


But these are nailed on in modern fashion. Millstones of 
grit, puddingstone, and Niedermendig lava from the Rhine 
occur with the Roman remains. 

It is not however in Roman but in Anglo-Saxon remains 
that Barrington and its district have proved most fertile. A 
paper was read before the Society on 15 November 1880 by 
Mr W. K. Foster, describing his systematic excavation of an 
Anglo-Saxon cemetery there (presumably of the sixth century)^ 
For lack of some proper place to put it in this interesting 
collection became dispersed; some of the objects are in our 
Museum, more in the Trinity Library, some were kept by 
Mr Foster, and a few I have : 

(1) Cruciform fibula and one of the two pair of clasps found in the 
same grave, all bronze gilt. 

(2) A pair of clasps, bronze tinned. 

(3) Necklet of beads with bronze ring ends. 

These were all together under the head of a skeleton. 
Hundreds of other beads were found, both in this cemetery and 
throughout the district, but in no other case was it possible 
to associate them. 

By far the greater number of these beads are of amber, 
which, at least in pre-Roman Britain, was the commonest of 
all material for ornament, much more so than in any other 

From the same cemetery come some curious bronze articles, 
which I take to have been connected with a lady's chatelaine. 
At first sight they appear to be keys, but this can scarcely be, 
first from their fragility and secondly because they obviously 
were originally united by an iron pin at the top. They came 
from a woman's grave, along with a spindle-whorl. Every such 
grave contained at least one spindle-whorl, which acted as a 
fly-wheel for the bone or wooden spindle in daily use by every 
respectable woman, (and continued to be so used, as a passage 
by Sir Thomas More tells us, even to the sixteenth century), 
with, occasionally, a bone needle, but very seldom any orna- 
ment whatever. Such vanities were reserved for the men. 

1 This paper will be found in Vol. v., No. ii. of our Reports, together with 
twelve plates of objects found. 

C.A.SiComm. Vol. X. 30 


Almost every man's grave also contained some kind of 
weapon, spear-head, or broadsword, — never any form of axe. 
Such of these as I procured I gave to our museum, along with 
the many bosses of the shields which formed the only trace of 
defensive armour. Some of these bosses still bore traces of the 
wooden bucklers of which they formed the centre. These 
bucklers must have been quite small, for they were carried by 
an iron handle across the boss itself (which thus protected the 
hand), as shown in the figure on the summit of Mount St Michel. 
I have one, and also an exceptionally good specimen of the secure, 
the peculiarly national weapon from which the Saxons derived 
their ns^me and which chroniclers specially connect with the 
acquisition both of their insular aud their continental dominions. 
The Historia Britonwrn tells us that the first fray between the 
men of Hengist and their British hosts was begun by the cry 
'Take your seaxes/ and Florence of Worcester says that the 
(German Saxony derives its name from * the long and victorious 
knives' with which savage invaders from the North exter- 
minated the earlier inhabitants. 

Very few Anglo-Saxon coins have been found in my 
district, the best being the silver penny of Offa now in the 
possession of Sir John Evans, and of which a facsimile may be 
seen in Trinity Library. This was dug up in Barrington 
parish. I have a scostta ; it is a rude copy of Roman mintage, 
the device on the reverse being intended for the Capitoline 
wolf represented on the local coins of Rome. The bronze rings 
used for money in the Anglo-Saxon period are however fairly 
plenteous. Amongst them one heavily gilt specimen is worth 
notice, as it was obviously intended to pass for gold ; the fraud 
having been detected by breaking it. 

Worthy, too, of notice is this bronze bracteate, the only 
specimen found hereabouts of that form of ornament so common 
amongst the Norsemen^ It is a sham curio, stamped with quasi- 
Arabic characters, and was presumably passed off by some 
Constantinopolitan dealer on one of the Varangian guard as a 
genuine Saracen article. Similar sham curios, stamped with 
quasi-hierogljrphics, are frequently to be seen in museums, 
1 See Du Ghaillu, The Viking Age, p. 332. 


and were presumably passed oflF on Greek travellers as ancient 

Passing on to medisBval and later times my most interesting 
finds have been two bullae. One of them, found near the site 
of the ancient chapel of Our Lady of Whitehill, between Bar- 
rington and Haslingfield, bears the name of Pope Martin V, 
The other bulla is the seal of Guerin de Montaigu, Grand 
Master of the Hospitallers in 1232. It bears his name; and 
on the reverse a highly conventional representation of the 
shrine of the Holy Sepulchre. The Order had a house at 
Wendy, the accounts of which for the year 1338 are still extant 
and will be found in my History of Cambridgeshire, 

Two armorial badges are presumably connected with the 
Barons' War. One bears the royal arms, the three lions, the 
other a butterfly ; perhaps the device of the Papillon family. 

Mediaeval coins are, as might be expected, abundant. My 
series includes a few rare specimens; a penny of John, and 
another of Alexander King of Scots. I have also a jetton of 
Mary Queen of Scots, which seems to be unique. It bears on 
one side the arms of Scotland and France impaled, only the 
latter being dimidiated, and on the other the device now borne 
by the Earls of Galloway. The Divine hand pruning a barren 
vine, with the motto ' Virescit vulnere virtus.' Among the 
remaining coins is one of the gun-metal shillings struck by 
James II in 1689. 

Nuremberg and Abbey tekens by the score, and a good 
show of the later local tradesmen's tokens complete my list; 
the result obtained by a single collector in one small area of 
Cambridgeshire, an area which there is no reason whatever to 
suppose specially fruitful from an archaeological point of view. 
It is a measure of that fertility of the whole district insisted 
on by Professor Hughes, and a measure of our need for a new 

Professor Ridoeway spoke upon the rarity of the bronzed arrow-head 
in Northern Europe. 

Professor Hughes spoke upon the geological conditions which had 
determined the occupation of the district through successive ages. 



Baron von Hugel remarked on the jadite stone. 

Professor Ridgeway drew attention to the frequency with which papal 
bulls were found buried in walls. 

Mr H. D. Catling exhibited a mediaeval ring which had been dis- 
covered at Much Hadham in Essex. 


The Council record with regret the deaths of the following 
Members of the Society: The Reverend Charles Lawford Acland, 
M.A, F.S.A., Member of Council; The Rt Hon. The Lord 
Acton, LL.D., F.S.A. ; The Reverend Norman Macleod Ferrers, 
D.D., F.R.S., Master of Gonville and Caius College ; John Lewis 
flfytche, M.A. (Oxon.), F.S.A. ; Edmund John Mortlock. M.A. ; 
The Reverend John William Pieters, B.D. 

The Members of the Society now number 234 and the 
Honorary Members 13. 

During the past session ten meetings have been held, at 
which the average attendance has been 31. 

Eighteen communications have been made, namely: By 
Mr C. P. AUix : On traces of an early settlement at Swaffham 
Prior (read at a meeting on the site). By Mr J. W. Clark : 
(a) On ike work done to the library of Exeter Cathedral in the 
year 1412; with a transcript amd translation of the fabric-roll 
in which the receipts and expenses are recorded, (b) On two 
pieces of furniture in the same Cathedral which were probably 
intended for the protection of books, (c) On some French and 
Belgian libraries, (d) On the wheel desk in the Church of 
St Nicholas, Great Yarmouth. By the Rev. J. W. E. Conybeare : 
Exhibition of objects collected in the neighbourhood of Barrington. 
By Mr F. M. Cornford : On a fresco at Cortina. By Mr H. Q. 
Fordham : Exhibition of a small bronze ornament in the form of 
tt hog found in the neighbourhood of Ouilden Morden. By Mr 
J. K Foster: On a charter relating to Anglesey Priory. By 
Mr C. J. Bi Gaskoin : On the University Wills in the Probate 
Registry at Peterborough. By the Rev. R. A. Gatty : On 


Pigmy Flint Implements, By the Rev. W. OT. Hughes and 
Mr J. E. Foster : Exhibition of a pre-Reformation Paten from 
Farcet, Hunts, By Dr C. S. Myers : On soms early Christian 
paintings at the Great Oasis. By Professor Ridgeway : On the 
Origin of the Socket in North Europe, By Mr C. E. Sayle: 
(a) A Note on the Chapel of St John, Duxford (Whittlesford 
Bridge), (b) On the Mortuary Roll of the Abbess of Lillechurch, 
Kent. By Professor Skeat : On the Place-names of Huntingdon- 
shire, By the Rev. A. C. Yorke : Exhibition of a wooden 
knife-handle of the 14ith century, carved as a Franciscan. 

Two Lectures have been given, namely: By Professor 
W. Gowland, F.S.A.: On Stonehenge. By Dr W. H. Fumess: 
On the Naga Hill Trjjbes, North-east India. 

During the year the following works have been' issued : 

Proceedings No. XLiii. 

Christ Church, Canterbury. I. The Chronicle of John Stone, 
monk of Christ Church 1415-1471. II. List of the Deans, 
Priors, and Monks of Christ Church Monastery. Edited and 
compiled by W. G. Searle, M.A. (Octavo Series, No. xxxiv. 

Cambridge Gild Records. Edited by Mary Bateson with a 
preface by W. Cunningham, D.D. (Octavo Series, No. XXXIX. 

The following works are practically completed, and will, it is 
hoped, be issued shortly : 

The Feet of Fines for Huntingdonshire. Edited by J. C. 
Tingey, M.A. and G. I. Turner. 

The Accounts of the Churchwardens of Saint Mary the Qreat 
Edited by J. E. Foster, M.A. 

The following have also been undertaken : 

Books of the Esquire Bedells. Edited by J. W. Clark, M.A. 

Pictor in Carmine. Edited by M. R. James, Litt.D. 

Miss Mary Bateson has undertaken the task of editing 
Ghrace Book B. It has been decided to issue the work in two 


parts the first of which will be ready in the course of the 
present month. The work of editing Orace Book F is in the 
hands of the Rev. W. G. Searle. The Council have issued an 
appeal for contributions towards a general Editorial Fund to 
meet the heavy expenses involved in the production of the 

Excavations have been continued at Cherry Hinton, and a 
report will be communicated to the Society. 

An excursion was made to Fleam Dyke, Via Devana, and 
Pampisford Ditch on the I7th of July. On the 7th of August 
an excursion was made to Bottisham and Anglesey Abbey. 
Bottisham Church was first visited and the party then pro- 
ceeded to the Hall ; they were conducted over the grounds, 
including the moated site of the old house, and were shewn 
the objects of antiquarian interest by Mr R B. Jenyns. Thence 
they drove to Anglesey Abbey, where they were entertained 
by the Rev. J. G. Clark and Mrs Clark. 

The Council have decided to revive the visits to Colleges 
which were so successful in 1886, 1887, and 1888. On the 
12th of February a visit was paid to Peterhouse under the 
guidance of Mr J. W. Clark, and the party was subsequently 
entertained by the Master. 

On the 19th of March an excursion was made to Swaffham 
Prior, to see the traces of an early settlement discovered by 
Mr AUix. Mr Allix read a paper on the subject, and after- 
wards exhibited the objects which had been found. 

As will be seen by reference to the Treasurer's Statement, 
the Society has this year again been called upon to meet heavy 
demands in connexion with the making and draining of the 
roads at Barnwell on which the ground of the Priory abuts. 
The building and site, generously presented to the Society by 
Mr Sturton, being entirely un remunerative, the whole of this 
charge falls upon the revenue of the Society. 

An exchange of publications has been arranged with the 
Finnish Archaeological Society and with the University of 
Upsala, Sweden. 












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1902. Oct. 20. Professor Sir Robert Stawell Ball, M.A., F.R.S. 
Miss Gertrude Gwendolen Bevan Crewdson. 
James Binney, M.A. 
Herbert Edward Gray, M.A. 
Miss Mary Charlotte Greene. 
Charles Henry Hawes, B.A. 
Ernest Lloyd Jones, M.D. 
Charles Samuel Myers, M.D. 
Miss Emma Smith. 
Mrs Catherine Burning Whetham. 
Rev. Alexander Campbell Yorke, M.A. 
Nov. 10. Arthur Barrett. 

1903. March 30. Herbert Flack Bird. 

William Henry St John Hope, M.A. (Honorary 
May 4. Edward Joseph Dent, M.A., Mus.B. 




A. From Societies, etc. in union for the exchange of publications : 
Great Britain, etc. 

Society of Antiquaries of London : 

Proceedings, VoL xix. Part 1. 
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Scotland : 

Proceedings, Vol. xxxvi. 
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland : 

Journal, Fifth Series, Vol. xn, pp. 113 — end ; Vol. xin, pp. 1—112. 

66th Yearly Session Report, &c. 
Cambrian Archaeological Association : 

Archaeologia Cambrensis (Sixth Series), Vol. n, Parts 2 — 4 ; Vol. iii, 
Parts 1, 2. 

Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland : 
Journal, Nos. 232, 234—236. 

British Archaeological Association : 

Journal, New Series, Vol. viii. Vol. ix, Part 1. 

Society of Architects : 

The Architect's Magazine, Nos. 21—26, 27—32. 
Year Book, 1903. 

Chester, Architectural, &c.. Society of : 
Journal, New Series, Vol. ix. 

Clifton Antiquarian Club : 

Proceedings, Vol. v, Part 2. 


Essex Archaeological Society : 

Transactions, Vol. vin, Part 4; Vol. ix, Part 1. 

Glasgow Archaeological Society : 

Transactions, New Series, Vol. i ; Vol. ii, Parts 1, 2 ; VoL ni, Parts 
1, 2 ; Vol. IV, Parts 1, 2, 3. 

Herts. East Hertfordshire Archaeological Society : 
Transactions, Vol. ii, Part 1. 

Jersey. Soci^t^ Jersiaise: 
Bulletin Annuel, 1903. 
Actes des £tats, &c. 1902. 

"Ancient Petitions of the Chancery and the Exchequer." Publication 
sp^iale, 1902. 

Kent Archaeological Society : 

Archaeologia Cantiana, Vol. xxv. 

Lancashire and Yorkshire Antiquarian Society : 
Transactions. Vols, xvii, xviii. 

London and Middlesex Archaeological Society : 
Transactions, Vol. i. Part 4. 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Society of Antiquaries of : 
Archaeologia Aeliana, Vol. xxiv. Part 2. 
Proceedings, Vol. x, Nos. 19—30. 
Parish Registers of Elsdon, pp. 201—248. 

Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society : 
Original Papers, Vol. xv. No. 1. 

Marriages recorded in the Cathedral Church of Norwich 1697—1754, 

Powys-Land Club : 

Montgomeryshire Collections, Vol. xxxii, Parts 2, 3. 

St Paul's Ecclesiological Society. 
Transactions, Vol. v. Part 2. 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : 

Transactions, 3rd Series, VoL ii, Parts 2, 3; iii, Parts 1, 2. 

Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : 
Proceedings, VoL XLVin. 


Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History : 
Proceedings, Vol. xi, Part 2. 

Surrey Archaeological Society : 

Collections of the Society, Vol. xvii. 

Sussex Archaeological Society : 
Collections, Vol. xlv. 

Yorkshire. Thoresby Society, Leeds : 
Calverley Charters, Vol. vi. Part 2. 
The Coucher Book of Kirkstall Abbey, Vol. viii, Part 2. 

Archaeological Society : 

Journal, Vol. xvii. Parts 1, 2. 

Soci^t^ Arch^ologique du Midi de la France : 

Les ^tablissements Qallo-Romains, &c. Par M. L. Joulin, 1901. 

Soci6t^ Nationale des Antiquaires de France : 
Bulletin. 1902, ii—iv; 1903, i. 
Bulletin et M^moires (M^moires), Vol. Lxi. 
Mettensia, in, 

Constantine (Algeria), Soci^t^ Arch^ologique de : 

Recueil des Notices et M^moires, Ser. 4, VoL iv. (1901). 

Morbihan, Soci^t^ Polymathique du : 
Bulletin, 1901. 

Touraine, Soci^t^ Arch^logique de : 
Bulletin, 1901, iv; 1902, i— iv. 
Table des Bulletins et M^moires 1864 h 1900. 

Altona, the Museum : 

Mitteilungen, 1902. Heft 1, 2. 
Jena. Der Verein fur Thuringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde : 

Thuringische Geschichtsquellen, N. F., v. 

Zeitschrift, N. F., xi. Heft 3; xii. Heft 3, 4; xm. Heft 1, 2. 
Posen, Historische Gesellschaft fur die Provinz : 

Zeitschrift, xvii, 1, 2. 

Historische Monatsblatter, iii, 1 — 12. 


Rome, British and American Archaeological Society of : 
Journal, Vol. iii. Part 4. 

Helsingfors. Soci^t^ Finlandaise d^Arch^ologie : 

Finska Fornminnesfbreningens tidskrift. Vol. xxii. 
Finskt museum. Publ. Vol. ix. 
Suomen Museo. Vol. ix. 

From the Finnische Altertumsgesellschaft : 
Zeitschrift. xxi. 1901. 

Stockholm. Kongl. Vitterhets Historie och Antiqvitets Akademien : 
M&nadflblad, 1897. 
Antiqvarisk tidskrift xvii, 1, 2. 

Upsala, University of : 

Kongl. Humanistiska Vetenskapssamfundet. Skrifter, Vols, iv— vii. 
Arsskrift. 1870, No. 2; 1877, Nos. 1, 4; 1880, No. 6; 1881, No. 1; 

Program, 1900—2. 
Almgren, O. Nordeuropaische Fibelformen. i. Text; ii. Tafeln. 1897. 
Annerstadt, C. Cm BamhallBklaBser ooh lefnadssatt. 8vo. 1896. 
Bjdrkander, A. Visby stads aldsta historia. Svo. 1898. 
Bjorkman. Scandinavian Loan-wordB. i. 8yo. 1900. 
Brate, E. NordiBche Lehnworter. Svo. 1884. 
Bagge. Runeskriften. 4to. 1877. 
Celsius. Bibliothecae UpsaliensiB Historia. Svo. 1745. 
Dahlstedt, A. Rhythm and word-order in Anglo-Saxon. 8vo. Lund. 

Dieterich, U. W. Runen-Worterbuch. 8yo. Stockholm. 1844. 
Falk, J. :^tude sociale sur les Chansons de Geste. 8yo. 1899. 
Forsgr^n, G. Bidrag till svenska gref- och friherreskapens Hist. i. Svo. 

Gotlandska kyrkor. Ser. 1. 4to. 1897. 
Gummerus, J. Synodalstatuter. 8vo. 1902. 
Hall, F. Cistercienserordens historia. 8yo. 1898. 
Hall, F. Vreta Kloster. 4to. 1902. 

Hellsing, G. The Tnrfmoor Stormur in Gestrikland. 8yo. 1896. 
Eallas, 0. Die Wiederholungslieder d. estnischen Volkspoesie. i. Svo. 

Eempff, H. Harmsdl. 8yo. 1867. 


LjuDggren, S. A. De gente patricia Claudiomm nonnuUa. i. 8vo. 1898. 
Logdberg, L. E. AnimadversioneB de actione IIAPANOMON. 8yo. 1898. 
Lonborg, S. Adam of Bremen. 8vo. 1897. 

Mahnstrom, G. G. Bidrag till Sverges medeltidshistoria. 8vo. 1902. 
Nordlander, E. G. A. Die Insohrift des Eonigs Mesa von Moab. 8vo. 

Njblom, C. R. Upsala universitets konstsamlingar, 1898. 8vo. 1902. 
Odelberg, P. Sacra Corinthia, &c. 8vo. 1896. 
Osterberg, E. De Ephetaram Atheniensium origine. 8vo. 1885. 
Otteiin, O. Codex Bureanus. i. 1900. 
Panes, A. C. A 14th Century English Biblical Version. 8vo. Cambridge. 

Piehl, E. Dictionnaire du Papyrus Harris, No. 1. 8vo. 1882. 
Pipping, H. Gotlandska studier. dvo. 1901. 
Psilander, H. Die niederdeutsche Apokalypse. 8vo. 1901. 
Sander, F. Eddastudier. 8vo. 1882. 
Schiott, E. L'amour et les amoureux dans les lais de Marie de France. 

Semander, R. and E. Ejellmark. Eine Torfmooruntersuchung a. d. nord- 

lichen Nerike. 8vo. 1884. 
Staaff, E. De origine gentium patriciamm. 8yo. 1896. 
Totterman, E. A. R. Quadragesimale af Jacobus de Voragine. Akademisk 

inbjudningsskrift. Helsingfors. 8vo. 1901. 
Uppstrom, A. Codices Gotici Ambrosiani. 4to. 1868. 
Wahlund, E. Miracle de Nostre Dame. 8vo. 1875. 
Wahlund et v. Feilitzen et Nordfelt. Les Enfanoes Vivien. 4to. 1895. 
Walberg, E. Le Bestiaire de Philippe de Thaiin. 8yo. 1900. 
Wiklund, E. B. Nar kommo svenskarne till Finland ? 8vo. 1901. 
Wiklund, E. B. I Ealevalafragan. 8yo. 1902. 


Athens. 'H €v *K6r\vou,s ^A-pxautKoyiKt) 'Ercupia : 
'E<l>rifA€p\s ^ApxcuoXoyiKT}, 1902. 
UpaKTiKO. rrjs 'Ercupias, 1901. 

Bruzelles, Soci^t^ d'Arch^ologie de : 

Annales, VoL xvi, Parts 1 — 4. 

Annnaire, Vol. xiv. 
Gand, Soci^t6 d'Histoire et d*Arch6ologie de : 

Bulletin, 1902, 4—9 ; 1903, 1—4. 

Inventaire Arch^ologique de Gand. Fasc. 22, 25—29. 
Li^ga L'Institut Arch^ologique Li^geois : 

Bulletin, Vols, xxx, xxxii. 


American Antiquarian Society : 

Proceedings, Vol. xiv, Title and Index ; xv, Parts 1, 2. 
Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences : 

Proceedings, Vol. viii. 
Johns Hopkins University : 

University Studies in Historical and Political Science, 20th Series, 
Nos. 2—12 and Extra No. 

Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia : 

Proceedings, for 1899—01. 
Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A. : 

Memoirs, Vol. i, Title and Index ; ii, No. 2. 

Pennsylvania, University of (Free Museum of Science and Art) : 

Bulletin, Vol. iii. No. 4, May, 1902. 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. : 

Bureau of Education : Report, Vols, i, ii, 1900—01. 

Bureau of American Ethnology: Bulletin, 26, 27; 19th Annual 

Report of the U.S. National Museum. 1900. 

B. From various Donors : 

♦Bond (F. B.). Devonshire Screens and Rood Lofts. By F. B. B. 

Assisted by A. L. Radford. 1902. 
♦Bowditch (C. F.). Notes on the Report of Teobert Maler in Mem. 

of the Peabody Museum. Vol. ii, ii. 
♦Evans (Sir J.). On some rare or unpublished Roman Coins. 

London, 1902. 
*Hiller (H. M.) and W. H. Fumess. Notes of a trip to the Veddahs 

of Ceylon. 
♦Sheard (M.). Records of the Parish of Batley. 4to. Worksop, 1894. 

From the Editor : 

The Antiquary (Current numbers). 

MrW. M. Fawcett: 

Fenland Notes and Queries. July, 1902. 

Ely Diocesan Remembrancer, Nos. 201—206. 1902. 

Mr J. E. Foster : 

Local Records Committee. Report, 1902 and Appendices, 1902. 

* An asterisk denotes the Author. 


C. Purchased by the Society: 

Hall (Rev. H.). Names of Places in Hertfordshire. Reprint. Ware, 

Antique Works of Art from Benin. Collected by Lt.-Col. Pitt Rivers. 
Pr. printed. 1900. 

Description of Hertfordshire. 

Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire Archaeological Society. Trans- 
actions, Vol. I, Part 1. 

Monumental Brass Society. Portfolio, Vol. ii, Parts 3—7. 1901—3. 
Transactions, Vol. iv, Parts 3—7. 1901—3. 

By Svhscription : 

The Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist 
The East Anglian. 


Thirty-one river-drift implements; from Suffolk. 


Six celts; from Norfolk, Suffolk, and Bucks. 

One axehead, one adze, one pick, five fabricators, six knives, five scrapers, 

five borers; all from Suffolk. 
Twenty-eight arrow-heads and twenty-eight javelin-heads; from Norfolk 

or Suffolk. 
Nine minute implements, "pigmies"; from Suffolk. 


Two Roman fibulae, and one ring fibula; from Suffolk. 

A pin, portion of a seal finger-ring, a button, cloak-fastener, and brooch ; 

from Suffolk. 
Two chapes, and a Hanoverian escutcheon; from Suffolk. 
Two pairs of wool-weights, English eighteenth century ; Cambridge. 
A key; from Suffolk. 


A sword, a hunting-knife, a small stirrup, two kettle-holders, and a fire- 
back; from Suffolk. 

A watch, 1754; from Suffolk. 



The War Ditches, near Cherryhinton, • 

By Professor T. McKenny Hughes, M.A., F.R.S. 

(Several short reports have been presented to the Society during the 
progress of the work, e.g. on Feb. 12, 1894, Feb. 3, 1902 and 
Feb. 17, 1902.) 

Contents : 

History of discovery and development of work .... 

The Site 

The Fosse 

The Objects found in the lowest strata 

The. Objects found in the upper strata: 

Metal; Pottery; Millstones; Bone; Animals; Shells; Fire- 
places; Miscellaneous 

The graves 

The shallow trenches 

The skeletons 

General conclusions 






List of Illustrations. 
















Plan showing progress of work 
Map of district .... 
Section across fosse in First Segment 

do. do. Second do. 

do. do. do. do. 

do. do. Third do. 

Bronze fibula and pin : four views, a, b, c, d 
Fine thin ware of various colours ornamented in slip 
do. do. do. 

do. ornamented by bands of colour painted on 
Coloured ware ornamented with fine incised lines . 
Drinking cup with pinched-in sides 
Black earthenware .... 

do. ornamented with crisscross or zigzag lines 
Neck of vessel .... 
Various handles a, b, c, d, e, f . 
Large earthenware vessel 
Restoration of flat earthenware slab like a griddle on 

its supporting clay pillars 








Cam.Ant.Soc.Ppoc.and Comm.Vol.X. PI.XX. 

AU reduced to one third Natural Size. 

Pottery from War Ditches. 

E .Wilson, Cambridge. 



Cam.Ant.Soc.Proc.and Com m. Vol. X. PI. XXI. 

19 \^^ 33 

0W ki f :?-> 

AH reduced to one third Natural Size. 

Pottery from War Ditches. 



History of Discovery and Development op Work. 

This earthwork was brought to light in the course of some 
excavations made in the spring of 1893 by Messrs Crawley and 
Louis Tebbutt with a view to opening up a quarry on the east side 
of the road above the great Cherry hinton chalk-pit. They kindly 
informed me of the discovery, and offered every facility for carrying 
on the investigations. The first published notice of the discovery 
appeared anonymously in the Cambridgeshire Weekly News of May 5, 
1893. This I afterwards learned was by Mr W. R. Brown, whose 
pencil and pen have preserved the record of so many other interesting 
local facts and objects for us\ In the same year I drew the attention 
of the Society to the discovery. The name War Ditches was given 
on the authority of Mr Brown, who said that he had heard it applied 
to the ancient ditch of which the older inhabitants informed him 
that they recollected traces still in existence near the Reservoir. I 
also learned by enquiry that the name was known by the older 
people, but my information was not of much value as the discovery 
and the name had been a good deal talked about before I began to 
make enquiries as to what the place was called. 

The names Quarry Field and Quarry Hill were probably derived 
from one or more of the now disused chalk-pits which occur along 
either side of the road above the great quarry. The picturesque 
hummocky ground at the foot of the hill is an ancient pit just 
touching the Bur well Rock at the bottom, where a good well marks 
that waterbearing stratum. It is therefore on the same horizon as 
the great pit now worked by Messrs Swan close by. Near the top 
of the hill on the east of the road from the village to the Reservoir, 
in that higher part of the chalk which is geologically distinguished 
as the zone of Rhynchonella Cuvieri, there is another old quarry 
from which I was told material for building the new part of 
Caius College was procured. I presume that what was meant was 
that they burnt lime here and perhaps carted some clunch for 
internal work, but whether this was for the alterations and extension 
carried out in 1853-4 or those of 1868-70^ or for other smaller 
works of reconstruction, I have not been able to ascertain. This pit is 
of considerable interest for our present enquiry, as the ancient earth- 

1 Memi and Gems of Old Cambridge Lore. Leaflets of Local Lore, Cam- 
bridgeshire Campos. 

2 Venn, Caitu College, Vol. m. p. 146. 

C, A, S, Comm. Vol. X. 31 


work known as the War Ditches runs through it for about 100 yards. 
The pit opened by Messrs Crawley and Tebbutt is on the same geo- 
logical horizon. Two other old quarries occur close to the Reservoir 
a little further along the road to the south. At the present time 
there is nowhere any indication of the War Ditches on the surface 
of the ground, and we must consider the possibility that the local 
traditions and names were suggested by what was observed during 
the construction of the Reservoir and the opening of Oaius College 
Chalk-pit A careful examination of the surface soil and of the 
upper layers of the infilling of the ditch makes it apparent that 
there was, at a comparatively recent time, a levelling of the ground 
during which a good deal of broken chalk was strewn about on the 
suiiace. I shall refer to this again in the detailed description of 
the sections. Moreover the ground is now quite level around the 
Reservoir where the chalk must have been excavated to a depth of 
many feet. Also near the Caius Chalk-pit, around which the 
" callow " and useless superficial rubble must at one time have been 
lying in irregular heaps and banks, the ground is now quite even. All 
this looks as if there had been on the completion of the Reservoir a 
great levelling of the ground, after which agricultural operations 
kept filling up any inequalities that were caused by the settling down 
of the unconsolidated debris in the ditch. I learned from Mr William 
Beales, who farmed the land near the Reservoir, that the ditch ran 
through the north side of the Reservoir. I also heard incidentally that 
" Christians' bones " were found when the pipes were being laid along- 
side the farm roadway from the Waterworks to the Reservoir, but as 
the exact spot was not known, the workmen may have crossed some 
of the graves, which as we shall see are not uncommon here, or may 
have found human bones in the great ditch. I think we may be 
satisfied in this case that they must have seen skulls or enough to 
justify them in determining these to be human remains as all the 
ground is full of the bones of domestic animals. 

Thus it is possible that the local traditions and names may be 
traced no further back than the construction of the Reservoir or the 
opening of the Caius College pit. 

It might have seemed curious that no record should have been 
kept of such a remarkable structure as the War Ditches, or of the 
curious relics that must have been found in it, had we not many 
more recent examples of important historical records having been 
accidentally unearthed, but no information given to anybody ac- 



quainted with such matters, except where perhaps an intelligent 
workman had fonnd somebody sufficiently interested, in them to 
repay him for his trouble in carrying the news. 

The fences on that part of the hill are all new and cannot 
therefore by themselves be accepted as indicating the original 
boundaries. It would be worth whiJe for anyone, who had the time 
and opportunity, to hunt up any early documents in which the 
divisions of property are recorded and ancient names mentioned. 
The deeds in the possession of the Waterworks Company, which 
by the kindness of Mr W. W. Gray I have had an opportunity of 
examining, although they furnish much interesting information 
respecting the common land and proprietors at different times, do 
not throw any light upon the War Ditches. 



BBSS Upper Portion only Removed. 
Fia. 1. Plan showing progress of work. 

The human remains were submitted to Prof. Macalister and 
Mr Duckworth, and on Feb. 12, 1894, Professor Macalister and I 
communicated to the Society* the results of our various observations. 
During all this earlier time we were dependent upon the progress of 
excavations which were being carried on for other purposes than 
those of archaeological research, and although by the courtesy of Mr 
Louis Tebbutt every facility was offered and his work often delayed, 
we could not watch the relative position of everything in the way 

1 B. xxxvi. 24. 



which was possible when we were directing the operations entirely 
with a view to obtaining historical evidence. We were therefore 
not always sure of the mode of occurrence of the objects found in 
the first part of the work, namely from the fence (which divides the 
" Caius pit " field from what we will call " Tebbutt's field ") as far as 
the kiln constructed by Messrs Crawley and Tebbutt, — that is, from 
A to B on the plan. (Fig. 1.) 

The roadway into the .quarry passed nearly at right angles through 
the ditch which was soon traversed. The pit moreover did not 
answer the expectations of its owners and was given up, so that for 
eight years no further excavations were carried on either along the 
ditch or to the east over the area included within it. In the spring 
of 1901 it was proposed that the Society should undertake systematic 
excavations on the site, and again by the kindness of Mr Tebbutt 
efficient workmen were secured and the work was commenced in the 
autumn. The arrangements and the superintendence of the work 
were left to me, and I have to acknowledge the co-operation of many 
friends in watching the excavations, and in many cases giving very 
effective assistance in the digging. 

Among those who helped I must especially mention Mr S. C. 
Kaines Smith of Magdalene College, Mr Barker and party from 
Bourn, the Rev. T. D. Gray from Babraham, Mr C. P. Allix of 
Swaffham Prior, and the Rev. A. C. Yorke of Fowlmere, while, with 
the luck that undergraduates always have, to discount a little from 
the effect of youthful vigour and enthusiasm, some of the best 
results were obtained after the work of this Society was finished by 
a party who did the whole of the work themselves under my direction 
in the spring of 1903. The original party consisted of Mr M. S. 
Oockin of Caius, Mr A. A. McO. Mitchell, Mr A. Blackie, Mr J. 
Clague and Mr T. P. Wood of Peterhouse, Mr Schon of Trinity 
and Mr Fletcher of St John's, who were afterwards joined by 
several others. 

A very small part of the site has been explored, as may be seen 
by reference to the plan (Fig. 1), therefore this report cannot be 
considered final. It merely gives as accurate an account as may 
be of what has so far been actually seen, with a statement here 
and there of impressions, and hearsay information, gained during 
the progress of the work, which may help future explorers. 

C0TO^<Hi LL (Tumulus) 
5^«^« to East 

3 Inches to 1 Mile VVoRMwooa 

Fig. 2. Map of District. 


458 professor hughes 

The Site. 

By reference to the Ordnance maps it will be seen at once that this 
is a very important site and one on which some defensive work might 
be expected to occur. A spur of the Gogmagog Hills runs out from 
the plateau on which stands Wandleburj and numerous other ancient 
works, and the high ground suddenly ends here above Oherryhinton 
in a steep slope, at the foot of which strong, never-failing springs feed 
an arm of the Fens. Of course we must restore the slope as indi- 
cated by the existing shape of the ground to the north and south of 
the great quarries. It is certain that the Komans quarried the 
lower part of the chalk in this district, at Reach for example, 
but the extensive excavations that form such a marked feature on 
the hillside near Oherryhinton are of much more recent date. 
Before Roman times we do not know that the chalk was quarried 
at all for building purposes. It was dug out only in the con- 
struction of ramparts or similar works, when it appears to have 
been broken up into small fragments such as could easily be carried 
away in baskets. 

The great earthwork which runs by Worsted Lodge, north-west 
to the end of the Worts' causeway, leaving Wandlebury half a mile 
to the south-west, would if produced nearly touch the Reservoir. 
Whether or not this bank and fosse represent an ancient road or, 
as is most probable, was one of our East Anglian dykes afterwards 
modified somewhat and used as a road, its occurrence increases the 
importance of the earthwork recently discovered on the top of the 
bluff above Oherryhinton. 

A workman informed us that his father had spoken to him of a 
narrow belt upon which the crops indicated a deeper moister soil 
running from the south side of the Reservoir across the fields 
in the direction of the Worsted Lodge earthwork. He added that 
in certain conditions of crops and seasons he had himself frequently 
seen it clearly marked across the hollow, pointing out to us the exact 
line. I have thought it might be useful to show this upon the map 
in case it should some day be possible to enquire whether there was 
any connection between the War Ditches and the Worsted Lodge 

The length of ditch opened by Messrs Orawley and Tebbutt, 
between the north fence of the roadway into the quarry and the new 
lime-kiln, Segment I. of Plan (Fig. 1), was not sufficient to indicate 


the form and extent of the earthwork, but the investigation entered 
upon a new phase when in 1901 it was proposed that the Society 
should undertake systematic excavations in the district and the War 
Ditches were selected as one of the first sites to be explored. 

I decided to open the fosse to the very bottom on the south side 
of the kiln Segment II. and to keep a clear face in front of us as we 
proceeded, so as to be able at any rate to settle some of the difficult 
questions raised in the more hurried excavations previously carried 

For instance, we wanted to find out whether or not the layers 
were continuous above the skeletons and whether from that or other 
evidence we could make out that the bodies had been buried or only 
thrown into the ditch ; whether the infilling of the ditch was due to 
the crumbling down of the sides, the growth of vegetation, and the 
gradual accumulation of soil by wind, rain, and other accidents, or 
"whether the material appeared to have been deliberately thrown in 
with a view to filling it up ; whether the various groups of objects 
which from previous experience we were inclined to assign to 
different ages occurred in distinct layers or were mixed up all 
through. In fact we wanted not only to make a collection of in- 
teresting objects but to learn what episodes of our early history were 
illustrated here. 

We found that the fosse curved steadily round as if to pass under 
the Reservoir, and this worked up the slow memories of some of 
the oldest inhabitants and produced further information more or less 
trustworthy. It also enabled us to estimate the size and position of 
our earthwork on the Assumption that it was circular, like King 
Hill, Wandlebury, and Arbury. This assumption proved to be 
correct, and even with my spud I verified the line of the fosse 
through the Caius Chalk-pit. This point was settled by one more 
deep section, which we call " Kirkpatrick's Pit" because in it the 
Master of Selwyn in one short afternoon's dig collected all the best 
specimens that have been obtained from the east side of the earth- 
work. The diameter of this circle measured from the outside of the 
fosse is 500 feet That of Belsar's Hill is 880' x 750', of Arbury is 
900', Wandlebury 1000', Ring Hill 1700' x 1300', Wallbury Camp 
1970' X 1450'. 



The Fosse. 
First Segment. 

I have called each continuously excavated portion, with un- 
explored ground between, a segment; other subdivisions I have 
referred to by capital letters. On the plan (Fig. 1) I have indicated 
in black the portions entirely cleared out to the bottom, and by 
cross-hatching the portions over which only the upper layers have 
been removed. 

The section first seen in May and June 1893 varied from day to 
day in some small details but in general character and contents there 

■. ''^^u^j iiUj^j_ }^^^4ift ^i^'^A^J-^ u Lj '^' .' ■ ' ' ' ^ ' ^ '^-^*^^ 

Fio. 3. Section across fosse in First Segment. 

was not much difference between one part and another, from the 
north fence of the roadway into the quarry as far as the kiln, i.e. 
in the first segment A to B, which is all that was then opened. The 
section Figure 3 gives the general sequence and the position of the 

The surface soil passed quite evenly over the fosse. The chalk 
was somewhat rubbly on top but soon became solid and hard, though 
strongly jointed. It was of such a character as would be quite easy 
to remove with rude appliances. The fosse was about 15 feet broad 
across the top. The sides curved downwards so as to be nearly 
vertical for the last 4 feet, which indicated that they had been 
long exposed to the action of the weather, the part which was 


covered from time to time by the talus being protected and the part 
above the talus being longest exposed and therefore most cut back. 

The lowest 4 feet consisted of chalk rubble such as might 
have crumbled down from the sides when the fosse was first made 
and the sides of bare chalk were exposed to frost and sun and rain. 
In this division a few bones of ox, sheep, and pig were found but no 
pottery nor worked flints. This part however was not carefully 
examined and the negative evidence is not of much value. At 
about 9 or 10 feet from the surface -there were layers of humus 
and of pieces of chalk so arranged as to indicate that there had 
been a growth of vegetation, a washing down of the sur&ce soil 
alternating with an artificial throwing in of broken chalk chiefly 
from the east side. It looked as if the chalk which had been dug 
out of the fosse had been heaped up on the east side to form a 
vallum and that some of this had every now and then been thrown 
back into the fosse. 

Here and there were scattered fragments or layers of charcoal. 
The explanation of this became more clear in later excavations, 
for the pieces of charcoal became larger as we followed the fosse 
towards the Reservoir, being sometimes 6 inches long and 2^ inches 
in diameter. They were also more distinctly associated with burnt 
earth and stones and more or less carefully constructed fireplaces. 

At a depth of about 8 feet a number of skeletons were 
found lying stretched out in the length of the fosse. Our first 
impression was that they had been laid out at the bottom of the 
ditch and covered by throwing debris over them from above. By 
and by we had reasons for questioning this inference. In the earth 
associated with these skeletons there were many fragments of 
common domestic ware such as I have referred to as a survival of 
Eoman types through post-Roman times. Below the skeletons there 
was no pottery found here, but only a few bones of domestic animals. 

In all this part of the excavation there was no essential difference 
in the character of the fosse or of the materials with which it was 
filled or of the objects found in the deposit. 

Second Segment. 

In the next segment (see section. Fig. 4), which extended from the 
kiln to within 30 feet of the hedge of the farm road which runs along 
the north side of the Reservoir, the general appearance of the section 
was much the same ; but the details varied a good deal and several 



doubts and difficulties which had presented themselves to us ia the 
earlier part of the excavations were cleared up. The form and 
depth of the fosse in the second segment grew slightly shallower as 
we advanced. The various layers were still quite distinct: The 
chalk rubble evenly crumbled from either side filled the bottom ; 
the middle part coi^sisted of alternations of humus and fragments of 
chalk which looked as if they were the material thrown out when 
the fosse was originally made ; and above this came a layer of frag- 
ments of chalk often resting on an old surface soil and apparently 
the result of levelling the ground at some time quite recent compared 
with that of the underlying deposits. Over all came the modem 
surface soil. 


b /: 

Fig. 4. Section across fosse in Second Segment. 

Now we began to find in the lowest deposit, besides the bones 
of domestic animals^ dressed flints and fragments of a coarse rough 
ware made of a clay full of calcined flint chips which showed as 
white angular specks throughout. 

The middle deposits were however the most interesting, as they now 
showed distinct traces of fire, not merely scattered charcoal or even 
layers of charcoal, but pits dug in the layers of earth and chalk at 
the bottom of the half-filled ditch, and evidence of fires having been 
lighted at the bottom of these pits as if in a sunk fireplace. There 
were also great quantities of burnt earth, burnt stones, and sometimes 
large stones built into a kind of oven with the charcoal at the bottom 
and the soot in the interstices. Sometimes the fire appears to have 
been lighted all along the bottom of the fosse for 12 feet or more, a 



custom which we were told by Mr Barker of Bourn, who greatly 
helped us in all this part of the excavation, was still common when 
troops are camping out, as it is easier to keep the fire alight in this 
way and more convenient to make use of it for cooking purposes. 
At any rate here we had come upon the contemporary fires which 
furnished the charcoal which we found in layers or scattered along 
the bottom of the fosse elsewhere. These fires were not all at one 
level but evidence of successive fires one above the other was often 
seen. These point to either continuous or intermittent occupations 
throughout a long period. In one case we found the large stones 
laid out to form a floor. These stones consist of large nodules and 
slabs of light grey mottled tuberous flint, boulders of quartzite, 
such as occur in the drift, and, occasionally, of such exceptional 
fragments sis the broken pieces of a quern of Niedermendig lava. 

Fia. 5. Another section across fosse in Second Segment. 

A little further on the fireplaces were modified by having a 
wall built of single stones, chiefly flint, placed one above the other 
on either side, but in one case not extending as far as the fire in the 
original pit, so that the wall of stones on the inner side rose out of 
the ashes of the older fireplace. The layer or pavement of stones 
which came up to the older fireplace in the former section now 
extended right across the top of the new walled fireplace in a manner 
that would have been impossible when it was in use. Som6 of the 
flat slabs of flint were as much as 10 inches across. The thick 
masses of burnt earth and stones often appeared to be rather of the 
nature of ash-pits into which the sweepings of the fireplaces were 
thrown from time to time, because the earth was uniformly burnt all 


through and had no stones in it. Where the fire had been lighted 
on the earthen floor the soil and included fragments showed less and 
less marks of fire at increasing depths from the fire, and its effect 
did not peneti-ate far downward. 

Skeletons were not so numerous here as they were in the first 
segment, nor did they show that general regularity of deposition 
which appeared to prevail there. But as we did not see them all 
taken out in the earlier excavations we cannot lay too much stress 
on this point, but we certainly did remark that there were missing 
portions there the absence of which we were unable to explain. 
Now however where we were able to carry on operations our own 
way we clearly established the fact that some of the bodies had been 
dismembered before the ligaments had so far perished as to allow 
the separate bones to get scattered. They also occurred somewhat 
nearer the bottom of the fosse in this segment than where first 
found. This may only mean that the fosse had not been filled up to 
the same extent here, and the skeletons may still belong to the same 
time. About the middle of this segment in the part of the section 
marked X (Fig. 4) the bones of a baby were found just below the fire- 
place described above, and one fire deeper down had been lighted imme- 
diately above where a body had been previously thrown in so that the 
upper part of the skull was charred. A little further on the bones 
of a child perhaps 7 or 8 years old were found at about the same 
depth as those of the baby. The skeletons of adults were all much 
deeper down, and the occupation of the fosse by the people who 
lighted the fires and threw in such large quantities of broken pottery 
was later, and must have lasted over a considerable period, as there 
were successive accumulations of humus, burnt earth, charcoal, and 
layers of chalk fragments thrown in, here as everywhere chiefly 
from the inner side of the fosse. 

The quantity of pottery in the top layers increased considerably 
as we followed the fosse round in the direction of the Reservoir. 

In this part of the fosse the fine biscuit ware with slip ornament 
(Figs. 8 to 20), of which a few fragments occurred everywhere in the 
upper layers, became much more common, and in one of our latest 
diggings between C and D in the Second Segment the large earthen 
grain-pan (Fig. 43) was found so close to the original surface that it 
could hardly have escaped deep cultivators. As it was it was found 
broken in pieces, the upper part lying near the lower as if it had 
been caught and torn out by a plough and been reburied to get 



it out of the way. Pieces of at least one other similar vessel were 
also found close by. 

For the last 10 feet of the Second Segment we dug out only 
the upper half of the deposits and verified the continuation of the 
fosse up to the farm road by a trench E which we cut across it close 
under the hedge. See plan, Fig. 1. The rest of this part of the 
fosse from D to E and the part which is under the road is untouched ; 
we also left 10 feet on the south side of the road, as we were 
informed that pipes connected with the waterworks ran alongside 
this hedge. 

Third Segment. 

In this Segment (F to H) we cleared out the fosse to the bottom 
as we had done on the north side of the road, and turned over the 
lowest deposits, which yielded very little, to about half way to the 
Reservoir (F to G) ; beyond that (G to H) we removed only the 
upper deposits, which were of the same general character as in the 
previous parts of the excavation but far more rich both in the 
quantity and quality of the remains found. The fireplaces were 
constructed with bricks in clay-lined cavities with brick supports 
for cooking utensils. There was a large proportion of the fine ware 
with slip ornament, and here the bronze fibula was found. 

Fig. 6. Section across fosse in Third Segment. 

If the fosse was filled up by throwing back the material which 
had been dug out of it and that material had been heaped up to 
form a vallum on the inner side, then it is clear that the deepest part 
would as time went on work out towards the outer margin, and we 
did find that the fireplaces, which appear to have been constructed 
in what was from time to time the lowest part, were nearer the 


outside edge of the fosse. The character of the deposits in this 
segment is shown in Figure 6. 

Our excavation was here stopped by the Reservoir and the only 
knowledge we have at present as to the extension of the fosse in 
that direction is that obtained from the late Mr Wm. Beales, who 
informed us that when the reservoir was being made a ditch similar 
to that which we had been following had been traced right across it 
and that the impression of those who saw it was that it was striking 
for and had something to do with the great Balsham Dyke. We 
cut a trench close to the palings in the east side of the Reservoir and 
found some pottery. 

We now returned to follow it northwards from A where it was 
first touched in the entrance to Tebbutt's Pit. Here there was a 
slight but very suggestive feature running in the direction of 
Cherryhinton. This however proved to have nothing to do with the 
fosse, being entirely superficial and due to agricultural operations. 
The line of the fosse was made out by calculating where it was 
likely to be found from the segments which we had opened. We 
first traced it into the Caius Fit at the point marked L on the 
plan. It then appeared to have run entirely within the area 
excavated for the quarry, but we hit it off at the fiirst trial close to 
the bush marked K on the plan. There was no longer any doubt 
as to its form and position and we completed the evidence by a 
small excavation close to the farm road north-east of the Reservoir 
in what we have named Kirkpatrick's Pit. 

The "War Ditches" are thus proved to be a circular entrenchment 
1666 feet in circumference, constructed upon the flat top of the spur 
of the Gogmagogs above Cherryhinton. There is evidence that the 
whole hill top was occupied by settlements the household refuse from 
which is scattered through the soil all over the ground and occurs 
also in the debris which fills the fosse. 

We must now make a more detailed comparative study of the 
objects found in order to attempt an historical correlation of these 
with other discoveries in the district. 

The objects found in the lowest strata. 

When first a great work such as the War Ditches was constructed 
the bare chalk on either side would crumble down under the influence 
of weather, and the talus so produced would fill the bottom of the 
fosse. A few common instruments such as flint scrapers or strike- 


a-ligbts would occasionally fall in and be lost; a few bones when 
picked might be thrown away into it or carried there by dogs and other 
animals, and a few potsherds on the surface of the ground might 
finally come to rest at the bottom of the ditch. But there would be 
no deliberate shooting of rubbish on a large scale into it as long as 
it was looked upon as a protection against sudden attack. Thus we 
might expect to find in the lower strata but few traces of the domestic 
appliances of the people who made it and were of course interested 
in keeping it deep and steep. 

That agrees exactly with what we find to be the case in the lowest 
division of this fosse (Figs. 4 & 6). There are a few flint chips and 
occasionally a more finished instrument, such as one of those disc- 
oidal flakes evenly dressed along one edge, either with a view to 
make a more efficient scraper or for use as a strike-a-light, or for 
both purposes. 

There were bones, evidently by their condition and mode of 
fracture the remains of cooked food as the limbs were always 
separated at the joints and no gristle or cartilage remained to hold 
them together. Many of the bones were broken as if to get at the 
marrow. They must have been cooked elsewhere for there were in 
this part no signs of fires except some isolated bits of charcoal, nor 
any other traces of organic matter or growth of vegetation except 
where some of the surface soil had crumbled down with the chalk 
rubble. The animals of which bones were found were ox, pig, sheep. 
One would infer from their condition as indicated by their remains 
that they were roughly kept and poorly fed. 

The pottery was all of a coarse kind, fired on the inside and 
on the outside and of a black or red colour with white chips of 
calcined flint all through, but the red colour seemed sometimes to 
have been produced by the fire on which the vessel was used for 
cooking purposes and not in the original manufacture. It was not 
clear whether it was made upon a lathe or not. This kind of ware 
occurs, but is not common, in the overlying deposits. It was not 
uncommon at Horningsea^ and is found down to medisBval times in 
the Cambridge ditches and elsewhere". The texture is therefore not 
a sufficient indication of its age and unfortunately we have not found 
enough to make out the form of any of the vessels. 

On the whole however the probability is that we have here relics 

^ C. A, S.y Vol. X. Horningseay p. 174. 

» C. A, S., '0. Ditches,' Vol. vra. pp. 32, 265. 



of the same age as those found by Mr Allix near West Hill Plantation 
on the hill east of Swaffham Prior, when flint flakes were still used 
for many purposes, but polished celts were no longer made or used to 
any great extent. We have no evidence as to the race to which 
the constructors of the War Ditches belonged unless it was the same 
as that of the skeletons next to be described. 

The objects found in the upper strata. 

The objects found in the upper part of the fosse are of extraordinary 
interest. I know of no other recorded find in which the fades of the 
remains is the same as here. 

Fia. 7. Bronze fibula and pin. 

Metal. Metal was very scarce. A few nails and fragments of 
iron were found, generally in connection with the burnt wood. One 
bronze fibula (see Eig. 7) with an iron pin were found in the Third 
Segment, i.e. the most southerly part of the fosse. This is un- 
fortunately not whole, the piece found is 3 inches long but the 
portion below the bow, which must have measured about IJ inches 
more, is lost, having been apparently cut oflf, while the edge of the 
bow shows a rough fractured surface. The lunette-shaped front of 


the broad upper end and the two strong bands of metal to hold the 
end of the pin are peculiar. 

It is curious in the course of such extensive diggings that if 
we found one we should find only one example of an object so 
common in Roman and Saxon times and that the only one found 
should be of unusual type. 

Not a single coin has been picked up over the whole of the area, 
a remarkable circumstance considering how common they are in the 
district associated with early and late Roman remains. I learned 
from labourers that a great number had been found on a field a short 
distance to the east. 

Pottery. Throughout all the earlier diggings the greater part 
of the pottery was of the common black type which is found with 
Roman remains everywhere, whether we are examining the household 
refuse round a camp or town or villa, or cemetery (PI. xxi. figs. 27 
to 30). I have elsewhere^ shown that although this ware can be 
distinguished from British pottery or Saxon urns or from most of the 
medisBval ware, it occurs in all Roman, Romaiio-English and early 
mediaeval refuse heaps, and is therefore by itself no indication of 
the age of the deposit within those limits. The criss-cross burnished 
ornament and the various wavy incised lines (PL xxi. figs. 31 & 32) 
are common, but here and there we find a less usual ornamentation 
such as concentric semicircles described on a central dot. This 
pattern we found also in the earth covering the grave west of 
Tebbutt's pit and therefore outside the fosse, and fragments similarly 
ornamented occur in the waste heaps of the kilns at Horningsea, 
our one local potter's field* still available for reference. Pieces of 
colanders occurred here and there, and oue fragment of black ware 
had a hole bored through it near the rim after firing, as if to pass a 
cord through. A sort of brush ornament such as might be produced 
with a stick broken so as to give a feather edge, was common hera 
as at Horningsea. And many pieces of vessels occurred on which 
banded ornamentation was produced by a burnisher either on the 
lathe or with a free hand. Various flat handles with unsymmetrical 
flutings (Figs. 34 a, b, c, d, e) and the strong ring-like handle as if 
for a cord (f), illustrate the passage from Roman to Mediaeval patterns. 
The flat-bottomed vessels tell the same tale. 

In the earlier part of the diggings, that is at the northern end of 

^ ArchaoL Joum. Vol. liz. p. 219. 

a Cawb. Ant. Soe. Vol. x. (Oct. 28, 1901), p. 174. 

C. A. 8. Conrn. Vol. X. 32 



the First Segment in Tebbutt's pit (A. to B), there were a few scattered 
bits of an entirely different kind of ware — a fine thin biscuit ware of 
a white or yellow or red colour with patterns put on with a pipette 
(see Pis. XX. & xxi. figs. 8 to 20) or painted on PL xxi. figs. 21 & 
22. These vessels were small cups or pots with a rim and swelling 
sides, or bottles with qt without handles. The patterns were 
sometimes produced by dots arranged in triangular groups quiDcunx 
fashion, or loops or circles with central dots in slip, or all combined. 
From the nipple-like swelling in the centre of some of the dots, e.g. 
PL XXI. fig. 20, and the way in which the colour is often blotted and 
smeared it would appear that the slip was very liquid when put 
on. We found more and more of this highly ornamented pottery 

Fia. 34. Varioas handles. 

as we followed the fosse to the south, and in the Third Segment 
from G to H it formed a large proportion of all the pottery found. 
Elsewhere in this distiict it is exceedingly rare. A few fragments 
of similar ware were found at a depth of 42 feet below the Royal 
Exchange in London, and Miln* describes and figures portions of a 
vase of similar ware found by him in the mounds of the Bosseno in 

There were also some pieces of coloured ware with fine lines put 
on with a pointed instrument when the clay was soft (PL xxi. figs. 
23 & 24). The drinking cup of thin ware with pinched sides and 

^ James Miln, Excavations at Canute {Brittany)^ Edinb. 1877, pp. 22, 67, 
PL I. A, PI. IV. 


brown metallic lustre on the surface (PI. xxi. figs. 25 & 26) was 
here very rare. 

Later on in the present year 1903 I organized the digging party 
of undergraduates mentioned above p. 456. We met with great 
success and very largely increased the collection of pottery, bones^ &c. 
which had been found when the fosse was first discovered and during 
the later excavations carried on by the Society. The most notable 
addition was the large earthen vessel (Fig. 35) which was found lying 
on its side very near what was the surface before the last levelling 
of the ground described above p. 454. Indeed the upper half appeared 
to have been broken off and laid close by at right angles to its 
former position. It rested upon a mass of puddled clay in which it 
may have been originally set to prevent damp from getting in or 

Fig. 35. Large earthenware vessel. 

liquid from getting out. It has been admirably restored by Mr 
Cowles of our Museum of Archaeology, so that the form and size 
can be observed. It stands 2 feet 3| inches in height and measures 
7 feet 4 inches round the body of the vessel and 1 foot 8 inches 
across the rim which is 3 inches broad and well recurved so as to 
give a good hold, thus adapting it for being lowered into or lifted out 
of the ground. It was marked by groups of parallel scorings such 
as might have been made by a toothed instrument used to reduce 
the thickness by scraping the surface, now in one direction now in 
another, all over both the outside and the inside of the vessel. 
There were fragments of at least two other similar vessels close by, 
and the exact counterpart of all of these was common among the 



fragments abundantly strewn about in the waste heaps of the 
potter's field at Horningsea. 

Scattered fragments of Samian ware occurred throughout, but 
very rarely, and larger pieces of an inferior kind of Samian were 
found which shows on the fractured surface an irregularity of 
colouring and a dragged structure in the material very unlike the 
clean and uniform red paste of the best Samian, which more resembles 

Samian was not made in Britain but was imported by the 
Romans. These fragments therefore show that the deposit is later 
than the commencement of the Roman occupation. Its scarcity 
cannot be explained by the poverty of the people who then lived 
here seeing that they had an abundance of the highly decorated slip 
ware described above, but must mean that Samian was no longer in 
the market. This is quite consistent with the view that at the 
period of the later occupation of the fosse the Roman troops had 
been withdrawn and commercial relations with southern Europe had 
practically ceased. 

A spindle whorl fashioned in earthenware was found in the 
upper strata in the Third Segment. 

Millstones. Among the various instruments and appliances 
in common use at all times there are perhaps none more important 
for the archseologist than querns or handmills. The oblong slab of 
grit or basic igneous rock found in the Oyttiau'r Gweddelod in North 
Wales, with the rubbing stone flattened on one side, has its exact 
counterpart in the blocks of lava of which I have seen four side by 
side in the dwelling of a Pueblo-Indian. In both cases they are 
made of rocks which can be procured near by. The Roman circular 
handmill survived till the present generation in the pot quern of 
Ireland or the breuan melin of a few generations ago in Wales. 

The stone required for grinding should either have included 
fragments of harder material which will stand out and give a rough 
surface as the softer matrix is worn away or it must be a stone with 
cavities of which new ones continue to be exposed as the surface id 
worn down. 

The millstone grit, puddingstone and granite are common 
examples of the first kind and vesicular lava of the second. Now 
these rocks cannot be obtained everywhere, and therefore their use 
for millstones -at any time or place gives a hint as to trade routes or 
lines of migration. 


Millstone grit is found in places far north and west of our 
district, but in East Anglia occurs only in the drift. Granite 
also and rocks of a granitic character are not found near. Boulders 
of either may occur in the drift. I have a large quern from Ireland 
made out of a granite boulder in quite recent times. 

Puddingstone is not found in the north and west but is a 
Tertiary rock found in Hertfordshire and the north of France. 
Vesicular lavas occur nowhere near our district, but have been 
carried since Roman times and are still largely exported from 
Niedermendig near Andernach on the Rhine. 

At various places along the fosse we came upon broken querns of 
puddingstone and of lava which indicate a southern origin while every 
here and there we found flattened pieces of quartzite or grit which 
might be procured from the drift of the neighbourhood. The best 
preserved fragments of a lava quern were found in our latest ex- 
cavation near the large earthenware vessels described above p. 471, 
Fig. 35. 

Bone. There were very few objects in bone. No combs or 
whorls, or any highly finished instrument. There were a few rough 
bone skewers such as are found in all rubbish heaps from British to 
Mediaeval times \ Two pieces of limb bone appear to have been 
worked into a sort of shuttle or stump for winding thread on or 
perhaps for netting. Net making is not improbable as the bones of 
a large pike were found in one of the small trenches. 

Animals. The bones of domestic animals were chiefly the 
remains of food. Those of ox were the most common, and these 
were shown by the teeth and unanchylosed sutures to be mostly 
those of young animals. The remains of horse occurred in exactly 
the same circumstances and condition and indicated that the horse 
too was used for food. Sheep appear to have been more common 
than goats but it has not yet been clearly made out when sheep were 
first introduced into this country. The pig also was common. We 
found no traces of poultry, nor of wild animals, except those of 
burrowing animals such as fox, rabbit, mice, which may have got in 
at any subsequent period. Bones of dog occurred here and there. 
Wolves must have existed in the neighbourhood, but we saw no 
remains that we could definitely refer to them*. In the shallow 

1 ArehcBol. Joum, Vol. Lvin. p. 201, PI. i. 

2 Camh, AnU Soc. Proceedings, Ap. 28, 1902, p. 245. 


trench at the N.E. corner of the Caius Fit the jaws of a pike were 
found, but this was altogether outside the fosse. 

Shells. A few single shells of oyster were turned out here and 
there which might have been carried there from some early deposit, 
but no layers of oyster shells occurred such as are always found 
round Roman stations with both right and left valves and all the 
usual evidence that they were opened and eaten on the spot. 

The shells of Helix aspersa and ff. nemoralis which are both 
commonly used as food in the south of Europe seem to have got in 
among the loose fragments to feed on the organic matter or hibernate, 
and did not occur as if they had been thrown out with the other 
kitchen refuse. 

The Fireplaces. In describing the sections seen at successive 
stages in our work I have had to notice the occurrence of charcoal, 
layers of ash and traces of fireplaces roughly constructed by digging 
holes and building up walls of stone. The more finished structures 
which we found in the last segment call for more detailed descrip- 
tion. We first came upon a large quantity of whole and broken 
bricks, some apparently only sun-dried, some partially burnt, many 
of them were remarkable for their green colour. In form they 
varied from rectangular blocks 11 x 5 J x 1| inches to roughly squared 
pyi-amids 10" in height on a base 5"x5" with a top 3"x3". The 
brick-shaped ones were found scattered through the deposit down to 
a depth of 6 or 7 feet. They occurred also quite irregularly in the 
clay packing of the fireplaces ; not laid to form a floor or built into 
the sides, but as if rammed in with the clay. Some of them were 
perforated with holes f" across. These seemed as if intended to let 
heat pass through rather than to let water pass away. Some of the 
tapering bricks were flat instead of square. 

Circular lumps of clay about 7 inches in diameter and 1^ to 2 
inches thick, round on one side and slightly hollowed out on the 
other, occurred throughout the upper layers in this segment. There 
were also discs of baked clay about half an inch thick, and, as well as 
we could infer from the fragments of the irregular outside margin, 
some 10 or 12 inches in diameter. These seem to have been made 
up with grass to hold the clay together when wet, that is previous 
to being fired. Many fragments of a similar kind were found at 

1 Proc. Camb, Ant. Soc, Vol x. PI. xi. Fig. 8. 



Sometimes we found a large lump of clay up to 8 inches in 
diameter black on the inside and burnt red and yellow on the out- 
side to a depth of from 1^ to 2 inches. 

Everything pointed to some connection between all these clay 
objects and the fires ; and in the two or three instances in which we 
came upon the remains of the broken-down fireplaces we found them 
in such association as to indicate that they had been used there. 

In the best preserved fireplace four of the pyramidal blocks were 
found apparently almost in their original relative position (Fig. 36, 
p. 475). Two were standing, the other two thrown inward. On 
top of one of the standing ones, and close by each of the others, was 
one of the bun-shaped lumps of baked clay, and broken up in the 
debris were the remains of a large black cooking-pot covered, as was 
much of the interior of the fireplace, with soot. Fragments of one 

Fig. 36. Brandreth and griddle, 

or more of the large flat earthen discs also were found in the debris. 
When we examine the various objects found in that ancient 
fireplace we can see a reason for the use of many of them, but others 
are hard to explain. The sunken hearth would keep together the 
hot embers when the flame had died down, and the addition of a 
little fresh fuel now and then would keep up the fire. It would 
not however do to put the cooking-pot upon the fire, for fear that, 
as the smouldering wood got consumed and sunk the vessel might 
topple over. Therefore bricks were placed in the fire-pit and the 
fire lighted between and all round them, as on a larger scale had 
been done in the Roman hypocaust. A large flat plank or girdle or 
griddle of earthenware (not as nowadays of iron) was when required 
placed on the top of these four clay pedestals, which therefore 


corresponded to the brandreth of recent times, and cakes were baked 
on it or perhaps various stews were cooked in earthen vessels placed 
on it or on the pedestals. If it should be desired to cook more 
slowly, to* leave the pots to simmer, or merely to keep the food 
warm, the griddle could be raised higher above the fire by placing 
one of the clay cushions on each pedestal. 

It did occur to us that some of the delicate ware was made here 
and that the lumps of clay were the material brought from a 
distance to be worked up, and that the fireplaces were the kilns 
in which the vessels were fired. But this is a very improbable 
explanation, because the other evidence of cooking is so clear in the 
large soot-covered pot left broken in the fireplace and the remains 
of food lying about. The lumps of clay also are invariably dried 
and generally burnt. Lumps of baked clay similar to our bun- 
shaped capstones and pieces of thin flat earthen discs like our 
griddles are found commonly at Horningsea in association with 
other rubbish from the potters' dwelling houses rather than with 
the wasters and debris from the kilns. 

What an immense help it would be if the relics of this interesting 
locality, where we find remains of interesting and exceptional objects 
where they were used, could be exhibited alongside of the collections 
from Horningsea, where we find the remains of similar objects where 
they were made. 

A piece of hard chalk had a tapering perforation on each side 
such as would be made by boring into it with a roughly pointed 
instrument. The holes were about half an inch across and half an 
inch deep. They were not exactly opposite, but reminded one of the 
mode of drilling a hole for the haft of perforated stone implements, 
which often show that the workers in stone found it diflBcult to hit 
off and continue to bore from exactly opposite points on either 
surface of the stone, or maybe as the hole had to be considerably 
enlarged afterwards they did not think it necessary to obtain great 
accuracy at first. 

There has been much evidence accumulated of late years to show 
that toys and imitations were manufactured by such primes val races; 
perhaps the implements in soft stone and our perforated chalk were 
intended to teach children the methods by which the real instruments 
were manufactured. 

There were several pieces of earthenware with a hole about 
^ inch across bored into the bottom, the object of which is a matter 


o£ conjecture. It may be that in the absence of a spout this was a 
method of dealing out small quantities of water. I have seen in 
Mr Ransom's collection at Hitchin large earthen vessels of late 
mediaeval date about the size and form of a magnum with the bottom 
perforated like the rose of a watering-pot. 

The Graves. 

So far I have not seen any grave in the fosse. I do not 
cousider that the two infants at 4 feet from the surface or the 
skeletons at about 8 or 9 feet were buried in graves. But there 
were a good many graves found both inside and outside the earthwork. 
There was one skeleton found lying north and south on the west of 
the road above the great quarry. It was placed in a shallow grave 
sunk some 8 inches or so into the chalk and covered with 8 or 
9 inches of soil. The skull was crushed and the bones much 
decomposed. I am not aware that any objects which would fix 
the date were found with it. The grave discovered by Messrs 
Crawley and Tebbutt also lay north and south about 20 yards east 
of the road but outside the earthwork. It was six feet long and 
three feet deep, one foot of which was in solid chalk. With 
this skeleton there were found, but in what manner associated I 
do not know, fragments of a number of basins about six inches in 
diameter and three and a half inches in height, in a lead-coloured 
ware, light and porous inside but outside darker grey burnished, and 
apparently baked in a not very hot smother kiln. 

The best preserved specimen was ornamented on the outside 
with sets of dots and half rings, which look as if they had been 
described with a pair of compasses on the dot as a centre and a 
radius of about half an inch. 

Another grave was found close to the east entrance to the kiln, 
but this seems to have been disturbed. 

Another occurred within the fosse on the east of the new quarry 
(Tebbutt's Pit). It was sunk some 10 inches into the chalk which 
was covered by about 18 inches of soil. It lay north-west and 
south-east. I found a considerable quantity of Roman pottery 
in the adjacent soil but I do not know that anything occurred 
distinctly associated with the body. 

Another skeleton was found close to the north edge of Oaius Pit. 
It lay north and south but nothing was found associated with it. 


The skull was removed to the Archaeological Museum and the rest 
of the bones left in the grave. 

Very little of the surface soil beyond the ditch or the quarry has 
been recently removed so that the number of skeletons is large in 
proportion to the area exposed, and their distribution suggests that 
there may be a considerable cemetery spread over the top of the hill. 

The SHALLOW Trenches. 

It is clear, from the great quantity of household rubbish, of 
potsherds, and other traces of every-day life, that this area was 
long occupied and therefore we might expect to find remains of 
dwellings, but our excavations have been confined almost entirely 
to the line of the fosse. Here and there, however, previous to the 
determination of the position of the circular entrenchment some 
small tentative excavations were made along the north and north- 
east side of the Caius Pit, and here we found shallow ditches sunk 
to a depth of 3 feet 8 inches below the existing surface, 10 inches 
being in the chalk. One ran nearly parallel to the north side 
of the pit; another was traced for some distance at the north-east 
comer where a ditch running west was cut off at its east end by 
another ditch running north-east and south-west. We always came 
upon bones of domestic animals and fragments of pottery of Roman 
type in connection with them. In one we found the jaw of a pike. 
There were several such ditches cut across during the earlier exca- 
vations along the sides of the road to Mr Tebbutt's chalk-pit and 
near the kiln. See X, Fig. 3. 

These are like the ditches found round the several dwellings in 
all the rude agricultural settlements of this district from the bronze 
age to that of the Romanized Britons and Teutons, who frequently 
seem to have followed their ancient habits of life long after they had 
adopted all the domestic appliances of the Romans. 

The Skeletons. 

We have three distinct groups of skeletons to deal with. 

1. The skeletons found low down in the fosse below the layers 
with the traces of late Roman or Romano- English occupation. 

2. The skeletons in tlie shallow graves all over the area within 
and without the fosse. 


3. The skeletons of young children in the upper part of the 

When it was announced by Professor Macalister and Mr Duck- 
worth that the skeletons found just on top of the lower layers in the 
fosse were Anglian, we had already seen enough to assure us that 
the deposit full of pottery which we assigned to Roman type distinctly 
overlay the stratum in which the skeletons occurred, and we started 
a working hypothesis that these skeletons though of post>Roman 
date were covered with earth which was already full of Romano- 
English refuse and the contents of Roman or Romano-English 
graves, before it was carried to fill the fosse, and with this working 
hypothesis in our minds we prosecuted the later work. But the 
distribution of the overlying deposits and mode of occurrence of the 
successive fires associated with them entirely convinced us that this 
theory would not hold — and so we have now to fall back on the far 
more interesting hypothesis that these Anglians are pre-Roman 
Teutonic settlers, whether more Scandinavian or more German must 
be left for further enquiry. It is known from ancient history that 
there were many tribes in Britain when the Romans arrived, that 
they differed in physical character and origin, and that some of them 
were of Teutonic race. Suspicions have been raised by the remains 
found at Hauxton and elsewhere that this district was occupied by 
some of them, but this is the first time as far as I know that we have 
anything amounting to a proof of pre-Roman Teutonic settlements 
in East Anglia. 

The only doubt that remains arises from the peculiar character of 
the overlying Romano-English remains, to which we are at present 
unable to assign an exact date. 

To return to the character and mode of occurrence of the skeletons 
found at the lower level No. 1. They may be seen in the Museum 
of Human Anatomy and a full description of them by Mr Duckworth 
is given in the Society's Proceedings^, Dr Macalister and Mr Duck- 
worth agree that they are of Anglian type. They occurred in 
considerable numbers in the earlier part of the excavations, that 
is in the noi-th half of Tebbutt's pit. But it w^s difficult to make 
out their exact mode of occurrence there. In the southern part of 
the same field the remains were taken out by our own workmen, as 
I have said, under more constant supervision, and it was quite clearly 
proved that the parts of the body were separated before the ligaments 

1 Op, cit. R. zxxvi. 24. 


had altogether perished ; that the bodies were not buried iu graves 
dug to receive them ; that generally if not always the material lying 
on the adjoining ground was thrown over them ; and that the fosse 
was after that periodically if not continuously occupied. 

The next group of skeletons occurred in graves all over the area. 
These were shallow excavations dug some 8 inches to a foot into the 
chalk and covered by surface soil which varied from one to three 
feet in depth. The bodies were not oriented but carefully laid out 
at full length in the grave. There were almost always fragments of 
Roman or Romano- English pottery in or near the graves but no 
relics of any kind so associated with the interment as to furnish 
a clue to its age. They probably belonged to the Settlement of 
Romanized British of which we found traces in the shallow trenches 
here and there over the top of the hill, and the character of the 
skulls is not inconsistent with this view. 

The third group of skeletons belonged to quite young children, 
and occurred in the fosse at a much higher level than that at which 
the skeletons of the first group were found. They were clearly 
disposed of during the period of the occupation of the fosse, as the 
fireplaces occurred above and below them. They were placed without 
much care in shallow depressions and covered over with the soil and 
chalk debris. 

Qeneral Conclusions. 

It would appear therefore that we had a deep circular fosse 
excavated in the chalk by a pre-Roman people who had little 
pottery, and that of a coarse quality and no great variety; who 
had hardly any other domestic appliances and left only a few flint 
scrapers and flakes, bones of domestic animals and perhaps some 
results of the chase. The material thrown out of the fosse was 
heaped up on the inside to form a vallum. The crumble from the 
sides of the neglected ditch filled the bottom to a depth of four feet 
more or less. 

Then followed an episode during which bodies of young and old 
of both sexes were thrown into the fosse and not suflBiciently covered 
to prevent the bodies from being dragged about and disintegrated, 
the head and legs being sometimes separated from the trunk. No 
relics indicate the age, race or condition of these people, and whether 
we have traces of a massacre or of a time when the residents used the 
neglected fosse to throw their dead into, we have no evidence. The 


skeletons are pronounced to be of Anglian type, which may well be 
explained by referring them to the pre-Roman Teutonic invaders of 

After this the fosse was gradually filled up by the accumulation 
of vegetable mould, by debris purposely thrown in and accidentally 
crumbling down the sides, by the refuse of people who occupied the 
fosse from time to time, constructed fireplaces in it, cooked food, and 
left a great quantity of pottery and kitchen remains in successive 
layers, which there is reason to believe it took a long time to 

When we try to assign any date to this part of the history of the 
earthwork we find that almost every group of objects is in some 
respect exceptional. The one fibula is of a type that cannot be 
identified with anything found elsewhere in our district. The 
fragments of Samian do not point to use of that foreign ware by 
people who lived here but look as if samples had sunk into the soil 
or been brought from some Roman station where it may have been 
common. ,So also the single oyster-shells which turned up here and 
there must have had some accidental origin. The thin biscuit ware 
with red and yellow ornament in slip which is abundant here is 
hardly known elsewhere except in the Gallo- Roman mounds of the 
Bosseno and in London, in both which localities it is rare and of 
doubtful age. The coarse pottery is identical with that made at 
Homingsea, where we have reason to believe the work was carried 
on down to Romano-English times. The last occupation of the War 
Ditches seems therefore to be later than the distinctively Roman 
period, but earlier than anything we can refer to the Saxon or the 
Dane, that is to say we should refer it to the Romanized natives 
who were in this district largely of Teutonic origin. 

482 E. H. MINNS 

Documents relating to the Dissolution of the 
Monastery of Thornton Curtis in the 
COUNTY OF Lincoln left by the Rev. Charles 
Parkyn to Pembroke College, Cambridge, 


H. Minns. 

[Presented 25 May, 1898.] 

Deed of Surrender made out in the name of Willelmus 
Hobson prior et presidens capituli monasterij beate Marie de 
Thorneton courteis ordinis diui Augustini in comitatu Lincoln 
nunc per obitum vltimi Abbatis ibidem vacantia et eiusdem 
loci conventus. It follows the usual formula but was written 
specially as there is no change of hand or ink where e.g. name 
and county are filled in. It is dated in their chapterhouse 
Dec. 12, 31 Hen. VIII. 

The convent seal with secretum is annexed. The main seal 
represents rudely Our Lady and the Infant with inscr. SIGILLVM: 
SCE m[arie de thorneJton. The secretum is a late gem with 
a nude figure of a warrior (?) within a border with + SECRETVM. 

The names of the following monks are written in the left- 
hand margin. 

Per me Wy&n hobson p'orem. Per me Johannem yorke. Per me thoma 
appylltO. Per me Wittm Shawe. Per me Jofeem store alias Lunber'. 
Per me Eobartt' Williamson. Per me Edmunda Sothybe. Per me 
Thoma Epworth. Per me Johem Barcar. Per me Johem bacar. 
Per me Rob«t« pasm'. Per me nicolatt pynnynge. Per me Robarttfl 
Hewett. Per me Wyllm lyn. Per me tbomam Jenson. Per me 
Stephana tOson. Per me Edwarda houdsa. Per me xpofera smyth. 
Per me Jacoba Hewytt. Per me Thorn thomton alia cook. Per me 


RobHa Renelay. Per me Edwarda Edna. Per me Johem hilton. Per 
me Roberta cocks. Per me Jollem Butler. Per me WySm Rowthe. 
Per me Jacobum Booge. Per me Jobem fryston. 

This list agrees with those assigned pensions except in order 
and spelling. 

The signatures of Hobson and Williamson agree with those 
on the inventory. 

Letters Patent under privy seal of Henry VIII. made out to 
" Philip Parys and escuyers John Tregonwel and John 

Hewes doctors of the Lawe and to our welbiloved seruants 
Johii ffreemaii and John Wiseman to visit the Monasteries of 
Thorneton Crowland Spaldyng in o' countie of Lincoln." 

They are dated at Westminster Nov. 6th, 31 Hen. VIII. and 
signed by 

Thomas Crumwell. 

A fragment of the privy seal remains attached. 

The Inventory written in a paper book 12 in. x 8 J in. 
containing three sheets and a half or seven folios, numbered 
j ij iij iiij v v (sic) vij. Folio v bis is put in with a guard. 
Pages V bis b, vij a and vij b are blank except that vij b is en- 
dorsed " An inventory of Thorneton Abbey." 

It is all written in one hand except 

a. The superscription (ja) Thorneton Curtees. 

b. The account of the lead on p. v 6ts a. 

which is in a more elaborate legal hand. 

On this page the note as to the no. of pages and the last 
Item in the column are in the general hand. 

c. The signatures of the " gardeins." 

With the Inventory is folded an imperfect sheet in bad 
condition endorsed : 

Pencyons out of Thornton 
Abbey at y^ dissolution. 


for thortonn. 

It is written in the general hand of the Inventory on the 
first two pages of the sheet. 

484 E. H. MINNS 

Inventory of the goods of the monastery of Thornton 
Curtis, Lincolnshire, transcribed from the copy made by the 
Rev. Charles Parkin and compared with the original in the 
possession of Pembroke College, Cambridge. 

Thys Inventory made the xiij**^ day of decemhre in the xixi»*^ yere (j) 
of the reigne of our souereigne lorde kinge henry the viij* 

Curte™***" conteynythe all the goodes, jewels, plate, vestmentes, stuflPe 
of houshold, grayne, brewinge vessels, neat, Shepe, leade 
belles and other thinges belonging to the late monastery of thometon 
cnrteis in the Countie of lincoln, left by the kinges Commissioners 
the day and yere above wreten in the handes and custody of Sir 
William Hobson and Sir Robert Williamson gardeins of the said 
house of thometon, savely to be kept to the kinges maiesties vse, 
wherof parcell was yeven by the said Commissioners to the forsaid 
gardeins as hereafter amonge other thinges is declared.- 

In ike Vestrie. 

In primis viij chalices with patentes of siluer weinge unc' ... clvij 

Item ij litle altar basons of silver weinge unc' xvj 

Item a texte closed with siluer not weid 

Item a litle avitte for frankencense a peir of censors and ij cruett" weinge 

unc' Ixvij 

Item ij litle altar basons gilt weinge vnc' xvij 

Item ij cruetts with couers gilt weing vnc* xiiij 

Item a mitre sett with stones and perles, with ij hanging labels and ij 

belles of siluer not weid 

Item a bagle staffe plated with siluer apon woode with the hedde parcel 

gilt not weid 

Item a maser with bandes and crosebandes and the knappe of siluer 

not weid 
Item a crose of siluer with a staffe plated not weid 

Item a crosse of siluer gilted without a staffe plated not weid 

Item a crosclothe of grene sarcenet and another of blewe ( j b) 

Item an alter front of velvet with starres of gold 
Item ij linen alter clothes apon the altar 
Item a cope of blewe tissewe with vines of gold 
Item a sute of white tissewe with ij copes sutable 
Item a sute of grene tissewe with ij copes sutable 
Item a sute of rede tissewe with ij copes sutable 
Item a cope of rede tissewe perled with gold 
Item iij sengle copes of old coiu»e yelowe silk 
Item a sute of white rede and grene damask with ij copes 
Item iiij copes of rede sateS imbrodered with floor de luces 
Item ij copes of old blake caffa 


Item a cope of rede damask nedle werk with gold 

Item a cope of rede velvet imbrodered with Jessey 

Item iiij copes of rede velvet with angels and flowers 

Item ij coijes of crymson velvet with Egles 

Item ij copes of course rede bawdkyn 

Item an old cope of rede turky sateyn 

Item a cope of blewe sarcenet 

Item a sute of grene bawdkyn with iij copes 

Item iij copes of blewe sateyn of briges 

Item a cope of rede and grene velvet with rosemary branches 

Item a cope of red silk with traffle 

Item an old cope of silk with Imagery 

Item a sute of grene damask powdered with gold with one cope sutable 

Item a sute of grene velvet imbrodered with flowers with one cope sutable 

Item a cope of grene sateyn of briges with flowers 

Item a cope of blewe veluet with flowerdeluce 

Item a sute of blewe veluet with borders of red veluet and iij copes sutable 

Item a sute of black veluet with flowers with one cope 

Item a sute of white bawdkyn damask powdred with gold in thoffers 

with one cope sutable 
Item a cope of white fustian with roses (ij) 

Item iij copes of old white bawdkyn 
Item a cope of white chamlet with flowers 
Item ij copes of white sateyn of briges with scripture 
Item viij copes of white dammaske with offers of rede veluet 
Item iij copes of white bawdkyn damaske with gold 
Item a sute of rede bawdkyn with gold without a cope 
Item a sute of cruel bawdkyn without a cope 
Item a sute of purple sateyn with flowers without a cope 
Item an old sute of white bawdkyn without a cope 
Item a sute of old yelowe veluet without a cope 
Item a sute of old rede veluet without a cope with a chesable of rede 

Item a sute of red sateyn without a cope 
Item a sute of old rede damask without a cope 
Item a sute of old rede bawdkyn without a cope 
Item an old pall of grene bawdkyn 
Item a sute of sateyn of briges without a cope 
Item a chesable of white veluet with Egles 
Item a pilowe of blewe veluet and a crosclothe of sarcenet 
Item ij grete chestes, one longe settle, an almery 
Item a rowndellto put copes in, ij long chestes and a plumpe of leade 
Item iij almeries in the churche to put copes in 
Item the hole churche and chapels fumyshed with seates chestes and 

almeries without defacinge any parte of the same 

C. A, S, Comm. Vol.. X, 33 

486 E. H. MINNS 

In the Quier. 

Item the quier hanged with Arres with garters tunnes and bushes of 

thome all aboute 
Item ij peir of organes good and badde 
Item iiij litle candlestickes of tynne with a standerd of the same and iiij 

woodden stoles for rectom« 
Item ij litle branches of Iren 
Item a cradle of Iren about the founders tombe 

In I%U8 chapell aboue the rode. 

Item a vestment of blewe wolstede with silke and gold 

In our lady chapell. 

Item ij alter frontes of stayned clothe, ij alterclothes of lynen and a 

frontlet of rede wolsted old 
Item ij sengle vestmentes, one of white bustian and thother of white 

Item a corporase with a case of rede taffeta 
Item ij peir of organes good and badde 

In thdbbates chapell ther. 

Item an alter front of stayned clothe with lily pottes 
Item ij alterclothes of lyneii and a frontlet of saten of briges yelowe 
and rede 

In saint John Baptist chapell. 

Item an alterfronte of steyned clothe, ij alterclothes of lynen, a frontlet 

of old blewe veluet 
Item ij vestmentes one of dornipe and thother of bustian 

In saynt Wllm chapell. 

Item ij altarfrontes of white steyned clothe 

Item ij alterclothes one of diaj)er and thother playne with ij old frontletts, 

iiij small old pilowes ij sengle vestmentes one of red bawdkyn and 

thother of white bustian 

In saynt Jamys chapell. 

Item ij old peynted altar frontes, and one lynen altar clothe, iij small 
pilowes and an old vestment of grene bawdkyn 

In Saynt laurence chapell. 
Item an old peinted alterfronte, one linen alterclothe ij sengle vestmentes 
one of white bustian and thother of blewe wolstede and iij old pilowes 


In saint Mihels Ghapell. 

Item ij alterfrontes of steyned clothe a frontlet of old rede wolsted, ij 
sengle vestmentes one off Dornipe and thother of white fustian 

In saynt Katherins ChapeU, 

Item a front of lynen Cawlewise, one playne lynen clothe, ij plajne 
towels ij sengle vestmentes, one of yelowe wolsted and thother of 
white bustian 

In the neoste chapell ther. 

Item an aulterfronte, of white steyned clothe ij alterclothes of lynen, an 
old frontlett, ij sengle vestementes of fustian and thother of bawdkyn 

Item ij other vestmentes one of rede bawdkyn with awannes and thother 
of white bustian with garters, a corporase, an alterclothe of diaper 
a vestment of rede bawdekyn with offers of Diuerse armes 

In saynt peters chapell. 

Item an alterfronte of steyned clothe a frontlet of bustian white and rede 
Item a sengle vestment of white bustian straked 
Item a vestment of white saten of briges 

In Saint Nicolas chapell. 

Item iij sengle vestmentes one of dornipe another of wolsted the thirde of 


Item ij frontes with ij frontletes of white and rede bustian 


Item a bason and Ewer gilt weinge vnc* ... xlviij 

Item a bason and Ewer parcell gilt weinge vnc* ... Ixxxvj 

Plate gilt Item a standinge cuppe with a couer gilt with a 
and parcell ... ^ ^, *7 . ° .... 

gilt. mihel apon the toppe wemge vnc' xliij 

Item a standinge cupe with a couer gilt with 

scripture soli deo honor et gloria vnc' xlvj 

Item ij saltes with one couer gilte weinge vnc' Ixij 

Item ij saltes with a couer parcell gilte vnc* xlv 

Item ij flatt boUes without couers gilt vnc' xxxv 

Item iij boUes with one couer white weinge vnc* Ixxxxiij 

Item ij goblets with one couer gilt weinge vnc' liiij 

Item a drinkinge pott with a couer gilt weing xij 

Item ij drinkinge pottes without couer white vnc' xiiij di 

Item fyve gilt spones with swannes vnc' v di 

Item xiiij spones white weinge vnc' xxj 


488 E. H. MINKS 

In thahbates chamber. 

Item A trussing bede, a fetherbede, a matres a bolster, ij couerletes, 
a presse cupbord of Joyners werk, a cownter, ij fonnes, 
a chayer a chest the tester and curteyns of grene saye the 
chambre hanged with rede and yelowe saye 

In thinner chambre ther. 

Item a trussingbede, a fetherbede, a matres a bolster a couerlet a 
cownter a chayer a chest the tester and curteyns of rede and yelow 
say, the chambre hanged with tapessery 

In the Cheffe chambre. 

Item a bedde of doune, a bolster ij fustians a coueringe of sateu of 
briges, the tester and curteyns of straked chamlet, ij quishins of 
grene saten of briges, one of black and red chamlet, a cownter with 
a carpet, ij chayers ij aundiems the chambre hanged with rede and 
blacke saye 

In the back chambre ther. 


Item ij fetherbedes ij couerings ij bolsters a tester of steyned clothe, a 
longe settle, the chambre hanged with steyned clothe 

In the bell chambre. 

Item the chambre hanged with white peynted clothes j fetherbede one 
bolster ij coueringes of Arres ij fustians, a tester of the salutation of 
our lady with curteyns of white fustian a chayer, a table a bedstede 
an aundiem a bason and Ewer 

In the iij bedde chambre. 

Item iij bedstedes iij fetherbedes iij bolsters iij coueringes of Arres iij 
curteyns of blewe buckram and ij chestes bownd with Iren 

In the boron chambre on highe. 
Item iiij fetherbeds iiij couerletes and iiij old bolsters 

In the white chamber ther. 
Item fyve fetherbedes v bolsters and fyve coueringes old and wome 

In the lowe hostrie. 
Item ij old fetherbedes ij coueringes and a bolster 


In the nexte chamber ther. 

Item ij old fetherbedes ij matres ij couerletes ij bolsters and ij bedstedes 
The hole somme of couerletes within the above specified chambrs is in 

nombre xx 

The hole nombre of pilowes ther xxvj 

Item peir of shetes is in nombre xvj 

In the great hall. 


Item iiij loiige tables iij benches, one settle iiij formes a ijortall of 
weinscott, a lavatory of leade, the hall hanged with Arres 

In the Parlure, 

Item a longe table ij cownters iij benches a chaier iij formes, ij joyned 
stoles, a rownde table ij carpettes and a branche of brasse 

In the pantrie and bvUrie. 

Item ij gret arckes ij chestes, an almerye a table ij formes and fyve 

Cannes for drink 
Item ij table clothes of diaper, iiij plaine clothes too towels of diaper 

and one playne towell vj diaper napkins, vj playne and 

fyve Candlestickes 

In the larder house. 
Item a brasse panne, an axe, ij powdring tubbes and a chopping borde 

In the ketcheh. 
Item ij boyling leades of brasse, vi brase pottes ij pannes of boleyne metall 
viij spittes a chaffer ij gredierns, a peir of duble cobberdes a clener ij 
brandiems, a^brassen morter, a peir of tonges a skewer, a cesterne 
of leade with other trashe 

Item a garnyshe and a halfe of pewter vessell with ij gret 
Pewter ther. , 


In the ffrater. 

Item vij longe tables with benches, iij formes an old cownter a cupbord, 
vi platers vij dishes, x potengers viij sawcers vj litle canstickes of 
tyne ij saltes of tynne a bell ij playn table clothes and vj towels 

In the cloyster. 
Item a lavatory of tynne, a frater bell, and certayn old seates ther 

490 £. H. MINNS 

In the New hall. 

Item a longe table with a benche, a forme, iij rowndc setles, a shorte table 
a peir of tonges, a fierforke, a portall and a coudiate of tynue 

In the parlure ther. 

Item ij longe tables apon two frames of weinscott, ij benches backed with 
joyners werke, a cownter iij forms a cupborde a portall Item 

pewter.*^ *** ^j plfl-^^rs vj dishes vij potengers v sawcers a salt a bason 
and ewer of pewter, ij chaffers, ij table clothes iiij towels 
ij napkyns Item the parliu*e hanged with stayned clothe 

In the hrewehouse. 

Item one gret vessell of copper and an other of brasse ij mashinge fattes, a 
keler, an old mashe fatt a troughe x kelers of leade, iiij yele fattes 
iij gret boUes ij ^toi)ettes and certeyne pece of leade 

In the bakehouse. 

Item a monldinge borde, ij knedinge troughes, a brake a kemmell, a 
Bcaldinge leade, iij boltinge arckes and ij sifting arckes 

In the Covent Geller, 

Item xxx" hogshedes with iiij gutters of leade, ij troughes leaded and a 

III the gaiinet 

Item in Rie by estimacion quarters v 

Item mastlyn by estimacion quarters v 

Item wheate by estimacion quarters xx'' 

In the maltehoitsse. 

Item malte by estimacion quarters xx^* 

Item a cesterne of leade ther 

In the hUlhouase, 

Item malte apon the kyll by estimacion quarters viij 

Item beanes by estimacion quarter j 

Item in the same howse malte by estimacion quarters ... xl^ 

In the Barne. 

Item wheate in the mowe quarters xl" 

Item barly by estimacion quarters xl^ 

Item pease by estimacion quarters xvj 

Item hey by estimacion loodes xl^^ 



Catall about the hoiisse. 

Item iij kyne, iiij sowes, v hogges, xij yeringes and xx*^iij fatt oxen and 
one fatt cowe 

Item more hey by estimacion loodes xxx" 

Item pease in the cowhouse gerthe quarters x 

To the Cellerers office. 
Item ij draught oxen, too draught horses 
Item a shode carte with iiij horses and ther apparels 
Item ij plowes with x horses and ther apparels 
Item lyme by estimacion quarters Ixxx 


Item vij belles in the steple gret and small 

Burntham ferme. 

Item xxj horses good and badde, vj kyne, vj steres ij oxen, xxvi hogges, 
one thousande shepe or theraboute and ij hundrethe quarters barlie 

Item a fether bedde, a coueringe with ij couerlettes iiij matres, iiij peir of 
shetes a cupbord ij chestes ij tables, ij formes, iij bolsters ij pilowes 
ij brasse pottes, a ketle, a panne, a spitt and ij Iren cobberdes 

Of whiche gooddes plate, stuffe of household and other the premisses these 
parcels folowing were assigned by the said Commissioners to the 
forsaid gardeins for ther owne vse 

lu primis a litle bason and ewer gilte 

Item a standinge cuppe with a couer gilte 

Item ij saltes with one couer parcell gilt 

Item ij drinking pottes without couers white 

Item fyve gilt spones with swannes 

Item all the stuffe in thabbates chambre and the Inner chamber of the same 

Item all the stuff in the ij belle chamber in the lowe hostrie 

Item the gret maser before specified 


Item on the Rouffe of the malte gamard there in (v*) 

leade by estimacion xviij ftbther 

Item on the Rooffe of the barne by estimacion x ffother 

Item on the Whete gamard in ffothers by estimacion ... x et d 

Item on the brewhowse in ffothers xl 

Item on the Rooffe on the body of the churche in ffothers ... xliij 

Item on the Steple in ffothers by estimacion v 

Item on the Crosse yles of the churche in ffothers xxxij 

Item on the quyre Rooffe with ij yles there in ffothers ... xliy 

492 fi. H. MINNS 

Item on the Chapter Rooffe in ftbthers iij 

^ ^, ^ Item on the newe halle Rooffe in ftbthers ... xviij 

Continetur , ^, -n m i • • • 

istudinvSuriQ Item on the Cloyster Rooffe by estimacion ... xxviij 

in^quinq^^pa-^^ l^^ ^^ ^^^ ffrayter Rooffe in ffothers by estimacion xx ff 

tibx ct ista Item on our lady Chappell Rooffe in ffothers ... xij 

semi pagina. j^^^ ^^ Thomali bekett Chappell Rooffe in ffothers x 

Item on the pynnacles of the churche and in dyuers other places abowte 

the churche in ffothers v 

Item on the ffermary Rooffe in ftbthers xiij 

Item on the Abbottes chamber Rooffe in ffothers viij 

Item on the Dorter Rooffe in ffothers xxxvj 

Item on the halle Rooffe in ffoothers x 

Item on the newe Parler Rooffe in ftbthers vj 

Item on the Kechyn Rooffe and other places abowte the Kechen in 

ffothers xij 

Item lefte in the custody of the said gardeins all the indent' of the said 

Sum of the Leade 
Per me Wyftm hobson 
Per me Robarttum Willyamson 


Pensions assigned k comi]ssioners to the gardeins and [ 

...] late monastery off thometon in the [countie of lincojn 

Curteis!**^" to be paid vnto them during ther [ly ve]s at ij termes of the 

yere that is to say at the feast of thanunciacion of our lady 

and sainte Michael tharchangell by euen portions with proviso that 

in case any of the said late chanons shalbe taken at thestabhshemeiit 

the coUeage ther to be of the company therof then his j)ortion here 

after lymited to cease and be void from that tyme forwarde and he so 

taken to stand to thordinace of the said colleage in all thinges 


In primis to Wm Hobson late priour and now one of the gardeins 

ther # 

Item to Robert Williamson one of the gardeyus ther ... si" 

Item to John Yorke v"vj'»viij'^ 

Item to thomas appleton iiif 

Item to Willm Shawe iiif 

Item to John Store iiij" 

Item to Edmonde Sothebie v^vjMiij'' 

Item to John Barker iiij'" 

Item to John Baker iiif 

Item to Robert Pasmer iiij" 

Item to thomas Jhensou iiij" xiij' iiij'' 



Item to Nicolas pynnjrng ... 
Item to Stephen thomson ... 
Item to Xpofer Smythe 
Item to James Hewet 
Item to John Coke student 
Item to Robert Ryneley student 
Item to Robert Coke 

Item to John Butler 

Item to Jamys bogge 

Item to Willm lyme 


xiijth day of [decem]bre A**, rr. h, 
Item to Willm Rowthe 
Item to John ffreston 
Item to Thomas Epsorthe ... 
Item to Edwarde Hudson ... 

Item to John Hilton 

Item to Edward Edname- ... 
Item to Robert Hewett 





late chanons of thometon 
out of the said late monastery 
s as herafter ensuithe the 
viij* xxxj' 



Item to the same Robert Hewett for seruing the cure at twaite with the 
parsonage of welton v", And for the reparacions to be kepte bankes 
to be defended and other charges to be borne ther in the discharging 
of the kinges highnes iiij", All thes to be taken of the fermer ther, 
accordinge to thindentures made betwene the late Abbat and covent 
of thometon of thonne party, and Mr Richard Crumwell esquier of 
thother partie 

Names of Monks on deeds of surrender : 

John Abbat. 
John Walpooll. Prior. 
John Alnewyke. 
Wm Dastre. 

Wm Bristowe. Chaunter. 
Rt Burn& 
Rt Kyrkton. 
Wm Thornton. 

Christopher lyncolln. 
'Edward Bardeney. 
Rt London. 
Wm Clyff. 
Wm Hertford. 
Richard Glynton. 
John Holdebyche. 
Roger Byrde. 
Wm Ramsey. 




John Morton. 
Rd Notyngham. 
John Pomfrett. 
John RyalL 
John Peterburgh. 
Ambrose Caster. 
Rt Couentre. 
Rd Grantam. 
Humfrey Naturus. 
Henry Sutton. 
Christopher Croyland. 
Rd Depong. 
Gryffin Qlocester. 
John Overton. 
Rt Netlam. 
Thomas Keter3mg*. 
Wm Excyter. 
Wm Wysebyche. 
John Lesyngham. 
Geoffrey Lynne. 
John Croyland. 

St Neota. 
John Raundes. Prior. 
Dom. Rye. Starton. 
Richardus Carnake. 
Roberte Hatley. 
Wm Barford. 
Wm London. 
John Wyesman. 
Robert Necolas. 

Gervase Mercham. Prior. 
Thomas Claybroke. 
Richard Kent. 
George Edwards. 
Edmund Gren. 
John Nyx. 
Peter Whippe? 
John Stalworth. 
Rychard Bowstred. 
Augustine Curteys. 
Robert Fomer. 
Nycholas Claybroka 
John Persewall. 


John Lancaster. 
Wylyam Stafford. 
John Lodyngton. 
Thomas Trewman. 
William Howghtun. 
William Alderwas. 
William Leti. 
Hugh Halsted. 
Robert LydnttL 
Thomas Borow. 
Radulphus OsttL 

Thonvton Curtis. 

William Hobson. Prior. 

John Yorke. 

Thomas Appylton. 

Wm Shawe. 

John Store alias Lanbert. 

Robartt Williamson. 

Ildmund Sothybe. 

Thomas Epworth. 

John Barcar. 

John Bacar. 

Rt Pasmer. 

Nicolas Pynnynge. 

Rt Hewytt 

Wm Lyn. 

Thos. Jonson. 

Stephen Tomson. 

Edward Houdsun. 

Christopher Smyth. 

James Hewytt. 

John Thornton alias Cook. 

Rt Renelay. 

Edward Ednam. 

John Hilton. 

Rt Cockes. 

John Butler. 

Wylliam Rowthe. 

James Booge. 

John Fryston. 



John Westis Abbat. 
Wm Pynchbeke Prior. 
Antony Overton. 
Rio. Whatlad. 
Ric. Slefurth? 
Ric. Coventre. 
John London. 
John Boston. 
Rt Uflftirth. 
John Ramsey. 
Wm ToflPb. 
Wm Gedney? 
Thomas Stoke. 
Nicholas Holbych. 


Thornton^ Crowland and Spalding. 

Philip Parys, Esq., John Tregonwel, 

John Hewes, LLDD. 
John Freeman, John Wiseman. 
Launde. Leicester. 
Phelipe Parris, Esq., John Tregonell, 

John Hewis, LLD. 
John Beamond, Gfeorge Gififorde, 

Robert Burgoyn, Briane Caye. 
Peterborough, Northants. 
Phelipp Parris, Esq., Sir Willm Parr, 

John Tregonwell and John Hewes, 

George Gifforde, Robert Burgoyn. 

Wm Bardena. 
Thos. Croylande. 
John Halyntene? 
Wm Bucknell. 
John UfFord. 
John Roderam. 
Thos. Grantham. 
Rt Stamford. 
Peter Freston. 
Wm Bougham? 
Thom. Cotnam. 
Wm Chesterton. 
Rt Portyngter? 
Wm Dentmi. 

Newenham and Dumtahle, Beds. 
Phillipp Parrys, John Gostwike, 

John Tregonell, John Hewes, LLD. 
William Candiahe and firancis Job- 

Ely and Thorney. Cambs. 
Phelip Paris, Esq. 
John Tregonwell, John Hewes, LLD. 
Thomas Megges, William Lee, 

Thomas Mildemaye. 
Ramsey and St Neots. Hunts. 
Phelipe Parris, Esq. 
John Tregonell, John Hewes, LLD. 
Thomas Myldemay, Thomas Miggis. 
Willm Lee. 


EoMAN Vessels found at Hauxton Mill. 

At the Annual General Meeting held on the 23rd of May, 
1900, Mr Henry Hurrell exhibited several Roman Vessels 
found near Hauxton Mill between 1870 and 1874. Illustrations 
of four of these are here given (Pis. xxii, xxiii). 

The vessels were found rather near the surface, some four 
or five hundred yards above the mill, between the mill stream 
and the rivulet which carries off the water when the mill is 
not working. 

Plate XXII : n delicate glass bottle nine inches high, quite 

Plate XXIII : three bronze jugs, measuring respectively, 
A, six incites, B, ten inches, and C, six inches in height. The 
handles of these have been broken off. 

Besides those illustrated here, several other objects, including 
glass and pottery, were found. All are now preserved at 
Madingley Hall. 

Camb. Ant. Soc. Vol. x, p. 496, PI. xxii. 



















Carving at Duxford (p. 378). 


Vol. X. PI. xii. read Figs. 1 — 2 Jesus Lane, Cambridge. 

„ 3 — 6 Late Celtic pottery after Evans. 
„ 7 Roman urn. Chesterford. 

p. 256, 1. 8, for Fig. 1 read Fig. 2. 

end of 6th par. after toe read (Figs. 3 and 4) with a clip on the side 

in paragraph 9 after sometimes read the ends of the shoe were joined by 

a plate (Fig. 5) or. 
in par. 9 for Fig. 2 is from Stuntney read Fig. 6 is from Stubtney. 
PI. xvii. p. 256 at bottom of plate for Ancient Horseshoes read 

1. Old ox-shoe from Boroughbridge, near Tebay, Westmorland. Given 

to Rev. Canon Weston by Mr Day. 

2. Shoe said to have been found with Saxon remains at Haslingfield. 
3 and 4. Shoes found at Brigsteer in Westmorland. 

5. Found at Beetham Green in Westmorland, probably pathological. 

6. Found on Stuntney Island near Ely, probably pathological, 
p. 257, 1. 10. for Fig. 3 read Fig. 1. 

ib. 1. 24. far Fig. 4 read Fig. 7. 

Carving at Duxford (p. 378). 




Alfred Cort H addon, Sc.D., F.R.S., Christ's College. 


William Ridgeway, M.A., Gonville and Caius College, Disney 

John Willis Clark, M.A., F.S.A., Trinity College, Registrary. 


The Rev. William George Sbarle, M.A., Queens' College. 

Stanley Mordaukt Leathes, M.A., Trinity College. 

William John Corbett, M.A., King's College. 

William Milner Fawcett, M.A., Jesus College. 

Montague Rhodes James, Litt.D., King's College. 

John Ebenezer IToster, M.A., Trinity College. 

Francis John Henry Jenkinson, M.A., Trinity College. 

Cecil Bendall, M.A., Gonville and Caius College, Professor of 

The Rev. David Herbert Somerset Cranage, M.A., F.S.A., 

King's College. 
James Whitbread Lee Glaisher, Sc.D., F.R.S., Trinity College. 
Arthur Gray, M.A., Jesus College. 

John Venn, Sc.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., Gonville and Caius College. 
Charles Edward Sayle, M.A., St John's College. 

Robert Bowes. , 

Thomas Dinham Atkinson. 

Editor op Proceedings. 

Charles Edward Sayle, M.A., 9, Brookside. 

Alderman George Kett. 
James Bennett Peace, M.A., Emmanuel College, 


Carving at Duxford (p. 378). 


Allix (C. P.), St Mary's Church, 

Swaffham Prior, 274 
America. See Washington, 260 
Anglesey Abbey, 285 

Charter, 365 

Annual Report, 1899, 66 ; 1900, 84 ; 

1901, 163; 1902, 263; 1903, 440 
Arbury Camp, 277 
Astbury (J.), Potter, 64 
Atkmson (T. D.), Seals of Cambridge 

Town, 123 • 
Axe-head (Iron), 363 

Baldrey (F.), Objects from Transvaal, 

Barrington, Objects found, 434 
Bartlow Hills, 83 
Bell (Bronze), 363 
Book-desks at Cesena, 50; Florence, 

48, 50 
Books, 425 

Borgovicus (B. C. Bosanquet), 9 
Bosanquet (B. C), Excavations at 

Borgovicus, 9 
Bottisham, 285 
Boxworth, Earthworks, 237 
Brass (Sepulchral), Exhibit, 10 

St Henry of Finland, 215 

Ballock-Hall (W. H.), Icknield Way, 

Balls (Papal), 440 

Cambridge Town Seals, 123 

Market-place, Excavations, 261 

Cambridge Neighbourhood, Ditches, 10 

Dog (Prehistoric), 245 

Cambridge University Wills at Peter- 
borough, 314 

Library, East Boom, 419 

Cambridge (Jesus College), Potter's 
Field near, 194 

(St John's College), Mortuary 

Boll, 383 

Cambridgeshire Place-Names, 117 

Cart, Evolution of, 244 

Catling (H. D.), Apostle Spoons, 426 

Mediaeval Ring, 440 

Cesena, Book-desks at, 50 
Cherryhinton War-Ditches (First Re- 
port), 234 

Excursions (1901-2), 277 

(Final Report), 452 

Chesterford, 10 
Chesterford, Kiln at, 178—9 
Chesterton, Romanized Britons, 240 
Chittlehampton, St Urith, 230 
Clark (J. G.), Denarius of Plotina, 9 

Anglesea Abbey, 286 

Clark (J. W.), Vatican Library of 
Sixtus IV, 11, 82 

Library of Merton College, 

Oxford, 82 

Exeter Cathedral, Library, 294- 

306; Furniture, 307 

Wheel-Desks, 413 

Cole's description of Cam- 
bridge University Library (East 
Room), 419 



Cloth, Indian, 241 

Coins, Denarius of Plotina, 9; Om- 
durman, 10 

Boman (Arbury), 280 

Scotch jetton, 439 

Cole (W.), Cambridge University Li- 
brary, 419 
Colvile (Sir W.), 381 
Conybeare (J. W. E.), Barrington, 

Coptic Monasteries of Egypt, 210 
Corbett (W. J.), Letter on Sir W. 

Colvile, 381 
Corner (William), Bemains at Mitla, 

Oaxaca, Mexico, 62 
Comford (F. M.), Sibyl Fresco, 369 
Cortina, Sibyl Fresco, 369 
Council (C. A. S.), 1899-1900, 97; 

1900-1, 98; 1901-2, 168; 1902-3, 

292; 1903-4, 497 
County History Beport (1901), 156; 

(Final), 269 
Cross (Pre-Christian) from N. Ireland, 

Crucifix (Bone), 363 

Delft Pharmaceutical Ware, 202 

Denarius of Plotina, 9 

Dickie (A.), Exhibit, 9 

Dog, Prehistoric etc., near Cam- 
bridge, 245 

Duxford (Hospital of St John), 375, 
497, 499 

Dwellings, Underground (British 
Isles), 118 

Egypt, Coptic Monasteries, 210 

(Great Oasis), Paintings, 374 

Essex, Bartlow Hills, 83 

Eton College, MS. at, 106 

Excursions (1898), 68 

Excursions, Sawston Hall (1901), 

273 ; Swaffham Prior (1901), 273 ; 

Cherryhinton (1901-2), 277 
Excursions to Arbury Camp and 

Histon, 277; Fleam Dyke etc., 285 
Excursions, Bottisham and Anglesey 

Abbey (1902), 286 

Exeter Cathedral Library, 294—306 ; 
Furniture, 307 

Fan-holder, 364 

Farcet, Pre-Beformation Paten, 361 

Finland, St Henry of, 215 

Fleam Dyke Excursion (1902), 285 

Flint Implements (Libyan Desert), 244 

(Pigmy), 361 

Florence, Book-desks at, 48, 50 
Fordham (H. G.), Bomano-British 

Settlement at Odsey, 169 
Bronze Object from Guilden 

Morden, 373, 404 
Foster (J. E.), Objects found in the 

Transvaal, 86 

Pre-Beformation Paten, 118, 361 

Anglesey Abbey Charter, 365 

Freeman (S. J.), Local Ware, 10 

Exhibition of pottery (Cam- 
bridge), 263 

Potter's Mould, 364 

Fresco at Cortina, 369 
Fulbourn, Bemains at, 177 
Fumess (W. H.), Naga Hill Tribes, 

Gardens (Sieveking), 11 

Gaselee (S.), Emendation of text, 232 

Gaskoin (C. J. B.), WiUs at Peter- 
borough, 314 

Gatty (B. A.), Pigmy Flint Imple- 
ments, 361 

Gibson, Mrs, On two Hebrew Docu- 
ments, 1 

Glaisher (J. W. L.), Astbury the 
Potter, and Voyez the Modeller, 64 

Exhibit of English Pottery 1500- 

1750, 116 

Dated Nottingham Stone Ware 

and Sgraffiato Ware, 199 

Glass (Stained), 425 

Gowland (W.), Stonehenge Excava- 
tions, 264 

Gray (A.), County History Beport, 

President's Address, 410 

Greece, Marathon, 83 



Guilden Morden, Bronze object, 373, 

Haddon (A. C), Pottery making etc. 
in New Guinea, 83 

Stone Implements from Rho- 
desia and Sarawak, 152 

Evolution of the Cart, 244 

Pre-Christian Cross from N. 

Ireland, 259 

Stages and Rejects of Stone 

Implements, 260 

Harding (W. A.), Delft Pharmaceutical 
Ware, 202 

Histon, 263 

Hauxton Mill, Roman objects found, 

86, 496 
Hebrew Documents (Mrs Gibson), 1 
Henry (St) of Finland, 216 
Histon, Notes on (Harding), 263 

Excursion (1902), 277 

Homingsea, Potter's Field, 174 
Horseshoes, Ancient (Hughes), 249 
Hose (C), Stone Implements at 

Sarawak, 152 
Housesteads (R. C. Bosanquet), 9 
Hiigel (A. yon), Flint Implements in 

the Libyan Desert, 244 

Remarks on Jadite, 440 

Hughes (T. McK.), Ditches near Cam- 
bridge, 10; Chesterford, 10; Local 
Ware, 10 

Soros of Marathon, and Bartlow 

Hills, 83 

Potter's Field at Homingsea 

etc., 174 

Roman Potter's Field near Jesus 

College, 194; Box of Weights, 197 
Kaffir Pillow, 199 

War Ditches near Cherryhinton 

(First Report), 234 

Earthworks at Boxworth and 

* Knapwell, 237 

Romanized Britons near Ches- 
terton, 240 

Modifications of an Indian Cloth, 

Remains of the Dog, 245 

Hughes (T. McE.), Ancient Horse- 
shoes, 249 

Turf-parer from Westmoreland, 


Excavations in Cambridge Mar- 
ket-place, 261 

Arbury Camp, 277 

Fleam Dyke, 285 

War Ditches, Cherryhinton 

(Final Report), 452 

Hughes (W. O'F.), Pre-Reformation 

Paten, 361 
Huntingdonshire Place-Names, 317 
Hurrell (H.), Roman objects found 

at Hauxton, 86, 496 

Icknield Way (Bullock-Hall), 69 
India (N. W.), Naga Hill Tribes, 293 
Indian Cloth, 241 

Ireland (North), Pre-Christian Cross, 

Jackson (E. McD. H.), Pre-Reforma- 
tion Paten, 118 

Jackson (T. G.), Plans of New Mu- 
seum, 86 

Jadite, 440 

James (M. R.), MSS. at Lambeth, 
82 ; Paintings at Worcester Priory, 

Sculptures at Malmesbury, 136; 

at Lincoln, 148 

Sepulchral Brass of St Henry 

of Finland, 215 

Legend of St Stephen, 222, 264 

St Urith of Chittlehampton, 230 

St Stephen, 264 

Remarks on Stained Glass, 425 

Jenkinson (F.), Remarks on Rother- 

am's books, 425 
Justinian I, Medal, 129 

Kaffir Pillow, 199 
Knapwell, Earthworks, 237 
Knife-handles, 362, 364 

Lambeth MSS., 82 
Lamp (Italian), 363 



Lewig (Mrs), Coptic Monasteries of 

Egypt, 210 
Library, Presents received (1900), 87 

Presents (1901), 160 

Additions (1902), 286; (1903), 

Libraries, Vatican of Sixtus IV, 82 ; 

Oxford, Merton College, 82; Bo- 

theram Library, 419 
Libyan Desert, Flint Implements, 244 
LiUechuroh Mortuary Boll, 383 
Lincoln Cathedral, Sculptures, 148 
Lowestoft Pottery, 364 

MacBitchie (D.), Underground Dwell- 
ings in the British Isles, 118 

Madingley Hall, Vessels at, 496 

Malmesbury Abbey, Sculpture, 136 

Marathon, 83 

Medal, Justinian I, 129 

Members elected (1901-2), 271 ; (1902- 
3), 444 

Metal-work (W. B. Bedfern), 169 

Mexico, Bemains in, 62 

Milton, Village, Bomanized Britons 
at, 240 

Minns (E. H.), Thornton Curtis, 82, 482 

Mitla, Bemains at, 62 

Moidores, Testing of, 197 

Mortuary Boll (Lillechurch), 383 

Museum of Archaeology (New), Site 
allotted, 68 

— ^- Plans, 86 

Myers (C. S.)t Christian Paintings in 
Egypt, 374 

Naga Hill Tribes, 293 
New Guinea, 83 
Nottingham Stone Ware, 199 

Oaxaca, Bemains at, 62 

Odsey, Bomano-British Settlement, 

Omdurman Coins, 10 
Oxford, Merton College Library, 82 

Palestine Exploration Fund, 262 
Pampisford Ditch, 286 

Paper, Composition of, 6 

Paris, Biblioth^que de T Arsenal, 

Wheel-desk, 413 
Parson Drove, Paten, 118 
Paten, Pre-Beformation, 118, 361 
Peterborough, Wills at, 314 
Pigmy Flint Implements, 361 
Place-Names (Cambridgeshire), 117 

(Huntingdonshire), 317 

Plate, see Paten, Spoons 
Plotina, Denarius of, 9 

Porcelain, Lowestoft Potter's Mould, 

Potter's Field (Homingsea), 174 

(Jesus College), 194 

Pottery (English), Exhibit, 116 
(Nottingham), 199 

(Sgraffiato), 199 

Delft Pharmaceutical, 202 

pottery making (New Guinea), 83 
Pre-Christian Cross, 269 
Purchases (1902-3), 451 

Bedfern (W. B.), Bemarks on Tinder- 
box, 123 

Metal-work, 159 

Italian Hanging-lamp, 363 

Axe-head, 363 

Bronze Bell, 363 

Bronze Socket, 364 

Knife-handle, 364 

Beports, see Annual Beport, County 

History Beport 
Bhodesia, Stone Implements, 162 
Bidgeway (W.), The Socket in N. 

Europe, 375 

Bemarks on Papal Bulls, 440 

Bing (Mediaeval), 440 
Boman-British Settlement (Odsey), 169 
near Chesterton, 240 

Boman Potter's Field (Jesus College), 

Boman Boads (Icknield Way), 69 
Boman Vessels (Hauxton Mill), 496 
Bome, Vatican Library of Sixtus IV, 

Botheram (Abp), Cambridge Uni- 
versity Library, 419 



Sarawak, Stone Implements, 152 Swafifham Prior ExcurRion and Paper, 

Sawston Hall Excursion, 273 273 
Sayle (C. E.), Tinder-box attributed 

to Shakespeare, 119 , Thornton Curtis, Dissolution, 482 

Report on County History, 159 Tinder-box (Shakespeare), 119 

Hospital of St John, Duxford, Transvaal, Objects from, 86 

376, 497, 499 Turf-parer from Westmoreland, 258 

Mortuary Roll of Lillechurch, 

383 Underground Dwellings (British Isles), 

Sculpture, Malmesbury Abbey, 136 118 

Lincoln Cathedral, 148 Urith, St, of Chittlehampton, 230 

Seals, Cambridge Town, 123 

Searle (W. G.)» Coins of Omdurman, Via Devana, 285 


Monumental Brasses, 10 
Medal of Justinian I, 129 

Sgraffiato Ware, 199 

Shakespeare (W.), Tinder-box, at- 
tributed, 119 

Sibyl Fresco (Cortina), 369 

Sieveking (A. Forbes), Gardens, 11 

Skeat (W. W.), Cambridgeshire Place- 
Names, 117 

Place-Names of Huntingdon- 
shire, 317 

Socket in N. Europe, 375 

Spoons (Apostle), 426 

Stephen, St, Legend of, 222, 264 

Stokes (H. P.), Remarks on Tinder- 
box, 123 

Remarks on Rotheram's gifts, 


Stone Implements from Rhodesia and 
Sarawak, 152 

Washington, Stages and rejects, 


Stonehenge Excavations (Gowland), 

Voyez, Modeller, 64 

War-Ditches at Cherryhinton (First 
Report), 234 

Excursions (1901-2), 277 

(Full Report), 452 

Ward, MarshaU, On Paper, 6 
Washington, U.S.A., Piny Branch, 

Stone Implements, 260 
Westmoreland, Turf-parer, 258 
Wheel-desks, 413 
Whittlesford Bridge Hospital, 375, 

497, 499 

Excursion (1901), 273 

Wills (University) at Peterborough, 

Wilson (Major-Gen. Sir Charles), 

Palestine Exploration Fund, 262 
Worcester Priory, Paintings at, 99 

Yarmouth (Great), St Nicholas, Wheel- 
desk, 413 

Yorke (A. C), Wooden Knife-handle, 

Bone Crucifix, 363 





Camijritrjje Antiquarian ^otietp. 




Vol. X. 


Vol. IV. 









(No. XLI.) 


Two Hebrew Documents of the 11th and 12th Centuries. By Mrs Gibson 1 

On the Structure of Paper. By Professor Marshall Ward ... 6 

Lecture by B. 0. Bosanquet, M. A.. 9 

A Denarius of the Empress Plotina. By the Bey. J. G. Clabk ... 9 

Exhibition of coins and rubbings. By the Rev. W. G. Searle, M.A. . 10 

Communication by Professor Hughes 10 

Lecture by Mr A. Forbes Sibveking, F.S.A 11 

The Vatican Library of Sixtus IV. By J. W. Clark, M.A., Registrary of 

the University. (With Plates i—iv. ) 11 

Buins and Remains at Mitla, Mexico. By Mr William Corner . . 62 
Astbury the Potter, and Voyez the Modeller. By J. W. L. Glaisher, 

D.Sc, President 64 

Annual Report for 1898—9 66 

The Icknield Way. By Mr W. H. Bullock-Hall 69 

Lecture by J. W. Clabk, M.A., Registrary of the University ... 82 

Paper by Dr James 82 

Lecture by Dr A. C. Haddon 83 

The Soros at Marathon and Bartlow Hills. By Professor Hughes . 83 

Annual Report for 1899—1900 84 

Exhibition of objects by Colonel Hurbell, M.A., J. E. Fosteb, M.A., 

and Mr Baldbey 86 

List of Presents 87 

Summary of Accounts 1898, 1899 96 

List of Officers and Council 1899—1900 and 1900—1901 ... 97 


(No. XLII.) 


Two Series of Paintings formerly at Worcester Priory. By Dr James . 99 

Exhibition of English Pottery. By Dr Glaisher 116 

Cambridgeshire Place Names. By Professor Skeat .... 117 

Underground Dwellings in the British Isles. By Mr David MacBitchib 118 
Paten from Parson Drove. By J. E. Foster, M.A., and Mr E. M. H. 

Jackson 118 

Tinder-box attributed to Shakespeare. By C. E. Sayle, M.A. . . 119 
The Seals of the Commonalty and of the Mayor of Cambridge. By 

Mr T. D. Atkinson 123 

A Medal of Justinian I. By the Bev. W. G. Searle, M.A. . . 129 
The Sculptures on the South Portal of the Abbey Church at Malmesbury. 

By Dr James 136 

Sculptures at Lincoln Cathedral By Dr James .... . 148 

Stone Implements from Sarawak. By Dr Hose and Dr Haddon . . 152 

Annual General Meeting 153 

Annual Beport of the Council for 1900—1901 154 

County History Beport, 1900—1901 156 

List of Presents 160 

Summary of Accounts, 1900 167 

List of Officers and Council, 1901—1902 168 

Plates V— VIIL 



(No. XLIII.) 


A supposed Bomano-British settlement at Odsey. By Mr H. G. Fordham 169 

The Potter's field at Horningsea. Part I. By Professor Hughes . 174 

A Boman Potter's field near Jesus College. By Professor Hughes 194 

A box of weights and scales for testing moidores. By Professor Hughes 197 

A Kaffir pillow with a handle. By Professor Hughes .... 199 

Nottingham Stone- ware and Sgraffiato ware. By Dr J. W. L. Glaibheb . 199 

Delft Pharmaceutical ware. By Mr W. A. Harding .... 202 

Visit to Coptic Monasteries of Egypt. By Mrs Lewis .... 210 

The Sepulchral Brass of St Henry of Finland. By Dr M. B. James . 216 
A Legend of St Stephen. By Dr M. R. James ... 222 and 264 

St Urith of Chittlehampton. By Dr M. R. James 230 

The War-ditches near Cherryhinton. By Professor Hughes . . . 234 
Earthworks at Boxworth and Enapwell. By Professor Hughes . . 237 
Village of Bomanized-Britons between Chesterton and Milton. By Pro- 
fessor Hughes 240 

Modifications of design on an Indian Cloth. By Professor Hughes . 241 
The Explorations of Dr M. A. Stein in Chinese Turkestan. By Mr E. J. 

Rapson 242 

Flint Implement Collecting in Libyan Desert. By Baron A. von HtroEL . 244 

The Evolution of the Cart. By Dr A. C. Haddon 244 

The Remains of the Dog near Cambridge. By Professor Hughes . 245 

On ancient Horse-shoes. By Professor Hughes 249 

A Turf.parer from Westmoreland. By Professor Hughes . . . 258 

A pre-Christian cross from North Ireland. By Dr A. C. Haddon . 259 
Stages and rejects in Stone implements, at Piny Branch, Washington. 

By Dr A. C. Haddon . .260 

Recent excavations in the Market-Place, Cambridge. By Prof. Hughes . 261 

Annual General Meeting 263 

Annual Report of the Council for 1901—1902 265 

County History Committee 269 

New Members elected 271 

Summary of Accounts, 1901 272 

Excursions 273 

Additions to the Library 286 

List of Officers and Council, 1902—1903 292 


(No. XLIV.) 


Naga Hill Tribes, N.W. India. By W. H. Furnebs, M.D. . . .293 

Exeter Cathedral Library, 1412—1413. By J. W. Claek ... 294 

„ ,, Two pieces of furniture. By J. W. Olabk . 307 

University Wills at Peterborough. By C. J. B. Gaskoin .... 314 

Place-names of Huntingdonshire. By Bev. Prof. W. W. Skbat . .317 
Pigmy Flint Implements. By Rev. R. A. Gatty . ... . .361 

Pre-Reformation Paten. By Rev. W. 0*F. Hughes and J. E. Foster . 361 
Wooden Knife-handle (Saec. xiv). By Rev. A. C. Yorkb . . .362 

Bone Crucifix. By Rev. A. C. Yorke 363 

Metal Exhibits. By W. B. Redfern 363 

Charter relating to Anglesey Abbey. By J. E. Foster .... 365 
Sibyl Fresco at Cortina d' Ampezzo. By F. M. Cornpord . . . 369 
Bronze Object from Guilden Morden. By H. G. Fordham . . 373, 404 
Christian Paintings at the Great Oasis. By C. S. Myers, M.D. . . 374 
Origin of the Socket in N. Europe. By Prof. W. Ridgbway . . 375 

Hospital of St John, Duxford (Whittlesford Bridge). By C. E. Sayle . 375 
Mortuary Roll of the Abbess of Lilleohurch. By 0. E. Sayle . . 383 

Annual General Meeting 410 

Two Wheel-Desks. By J. W. Clark 413 

W. Cole's description of the University Library (Rotheram's East Room). 

By J. W. Clark 419 

Apostle Spoons. By H. D. Catling 426 

Objects found at Barrington. By Rev. J. W. E. Contbeare . . 434 

Annual Report 440 

New Members elected, 1902—1903 444 

Additions to the Library 445 

War-Ditches near Cherryhinton. By Prof. T. McK. Hughes . . 452 

Dissolution of Thornton Curtis. By E. H. Minns 482 

Roman Objects from Hauxton Mill. By Col. H. Hurrell . . . 496 

Errata 497 

List of Officers and Council, 1903—1904 498 



Vatican Palace (Building of Nicholas V), Ground plan .... 18 

English Bookcase and Seat (Saec. xv) 47 

Book-desks and Seats, Biblioteca Laurentiana, Florence .... 48 

„ „ ,, (Elevation) 60 

„ „ Biblioteca, Gesena (Elevation) .... 50 

Plate L Vatican Library (Sixtus IV), Ground plan .... 98 

„ n. Gesena Library, General View 98 

„ m. Vatican Library (Sixtus IV), Settles 98 

„ IV. „ „ Interior 98 

Gambridge First Gommon Seal (1423) 124, 125 

„ Mayor's Seal (1362) 127 

(1471) 127 

Plate V. Pre-Beformation Paten, Parson Drove 168 

„ VI. Tinder-box 168 

„ Vn. Gambridge First Gommon Seal 168 

„ Vm. Gambridge Seals 168 

Odsey, Bomano-British Settlement 170, 171 

Fulboum, Bailway Gutting 177 

Ghesterford Kihi 178, 179 

Horningsea, Excavations (Map) 187 

„ Mound (Section) 190 

Plate IX. Horningsea, Objects 190 

Plates X, XL Horningsea, Pottery 192 

Plate Xn. Gambridge (Jesus Lane), Pottexy etc 194 

Kaffir Pillow 199 

Nottingham Stone-ware . '. 200 

Plate Xm. Delft Pharmaceutical ware 208 



Plates XIV— XVI. St Henry of Finland (Sepulchral Brass) . . 216, 220 

Boxworth (Map) 239 

Plate XVII. Anoient Horse-shoes 256 

Exeter Cathedral, Book-box 308, 309 

Knife-handle (Saeo. xiy) 362 

Plate XVm. Pre-reformation Paten (Faroet) 361 

Bronze Bell and Fan-handle (?) 364 

Sibyl Fresco at Cortina 370 

Plate XIX. Duxford, Hospital of St John (Interior) > . .375 

Duxford, Windows at 377 

Bronze Object, Gnilden Morden 404 

Wheel-desk (1614—1622) 414 

„ St Nicholas, Great Yarmouth 416 

„ BibliothSque de T Arsenal, Paris 416 

St Nicholas, Great Yarmouth (End) 417 

Cambridge University, Schools Quadrangle (Loggan) .... 420 
Plates KX, XXI. Cherryhinton War-Ditches, Pottery .... 452 

Cherryhinton War-Ditches, Plan 455 

„ (Map of district) 457 

„ First Segment (Section) .... 460 

„ Second Segment (Section) . 462, 463 

„ Third Segment (Section) .... 465 

„ Bronze Fibula 468 

Handles 470 

Large Pot 471 

„ Fireplace 475 

Plates XXII^ XXITT. Boman Objects from Hauxton .496 

Carvings at Duxford 497, 499 

^ The window at the east end was covered up at the time of taking this 


















Acland, Rev. C. L. 
Allix, C. P. 
Atkinson, T. D. 
Babington, Prof. C. C. 
Babington, Dr Churchill 
Bacon, Dr G. Mackenzie 
Banks, Rev. S. 
Barton, Rev. John 
Bateson, Miss M. 
Beloe, E. M. 
Bennet, Rev. E. K. 
Bennett, Rev. Norman 
Birch, Dr Samuel 
Blomfield, Sir A. W! 
Bowes, Robert 
Bradshaw, Henry 
Brocklebank, Rev. T. 
Browne, Right Rev. G. F. 
Budge, E. A. W. 
Bullock-Hall, W. H. 
Carter, James 
Catling, H. D. 
Chapman, Archdeacon F. R. 
Clark, Prof. E. C. 
Clark, Rev. J. G. 
Clark, J. W. 
Clay, Rev. W. K. 
Conybeare, Rev. J. W. E. 
Cooper, C. H. 
Comer, W. 

Comford, F. M. 

Corrie, Rev. G. E. 

Cowell, Prof. E. B. 

Cowle, Dean Morgan 

Cunningham, Rev. Dr William 

Darwin, Prof. G. H. 

Dryden, Sir Henry 

Duckworth, W. H. L. 

Duff, E. Gordon 

Duffield, A. J. 

Dutton, H. 

Faulder, W. W. 

Fawcett, W. M. 

Fordham, H. G. 

Foster, J. E. 

Foster, W. K. 

Franks, Sir A. W. 

Furness, W. H., M.D. 

Qaskoin, C. J. B. 

Gatty, R. A. 

Gibson, Mrs 

Glaisher, Dr J. W. L. 

Goodman, Neville 

Goodwin, Rev. C. W. 

Goodwin, J. 

Gray, Arthur 

Griffith, A. F. 

Griffith, Rev. W. 

de Gruchy, W. 

Haddon, Dr A. C. 



Hailstone, Edward, J\inr. 
Halliwell [-Phillips], J. O. 
Harding, W. A. 
Hardwick, Archn. Charles 
Henslow, Prof. J. S. 
Hope, W. H. St John 
Howard, Rev. F. G. 
von HUgel, Baron A. 
Hughes, Prof. T. McK. 
Hughes, W. O'F. 
Humphry, A. P. 
Hurrell, Col. H. 
Jackson, B. Daydon 
Jackson, E. McD. C. 
James, Dr M. R. 
Jenkinson, F. J. H. 
Jukes-Brown, A. J. 
Kempson, Rev. F. C. 
King, C. W. 
Leathes, S. M. 
Lewis, Rev. S. S. 
Luard, Rev. Dr H. R. 
Lunn, Rev. J. R. 
Macalister, Prof. A. 
Macalister, R. A. S. 
Magmisson, E. 
Manning, C. R. 
Marshall, William 
Mayor, Prof. J. E. B. 
Mead, Dr G. B. 
Minns, E. H. 
Mullinger, J. Bass 
Myers, C. S., M.D. 
Naylor, T. Hacke 
Paley, F. A. 
Palmer, Prof. E. H. 
Palmer, W. M. 
Pell, 0. C. 

Pigott, Rev. W. G. F. 
Rapson, E. J. 
Raven, Rev. Dr J. J. 
Reade, R. C. 
Redfern, W. B. 
Ridgeway, Prof. W. 
Rigg, Rev. John 
Robertson, J. D. 
Rule, Martin 
Rye, Walter 
Sandars, Samuel 
Sayle, C. E. 
Scott, R. F. 
Searle, Rev. W. G. 
Shimeald, Rev. W. H. 
Skeat, Dr W. W. 
Smith, G. C. Moore 
Smith, Rev. J. J. 
Stephens, Prof. George 
Stokes, Rev. Dr H. P. 
Tingey, J. C. 
Tinner, I. G. 
Venables, Canon E. 
Venn, Dr John 
Ventris, Rev. E. 
Walker, Dr Bryan 
Ward, Prof. M. 
Watkins, Rev. J. 
Way, Albert 

White, Rev. C. H. Evelyn 
White, William 
White-Cooper, G. O. 
Williams, Rev. George 
Willis, Prof. R. 
Wood, Rev. E. Q. de S. 
Woodham, Dr H. A. 
Wright, W. Aldis 
Yorke, Rev. A. C. 



Volume I. 

I. A Catalogue op the original Library of St Catharine's 
Hall, 1475. Ed. by Professor G. E. Corrie, B.D. pp. viii + 11. 
1840. 1«. ed, 

II. Abbrbviata Cronica, 1377 — 1469. Ed. by J. J. Smith, 
M.A. pp. yi\i + 22 + I fcLcsimile plate, 1840. 28. 6d, 

III. An account op the Consecration of Abp. Parker. Ed. 
by J. Goodwin, B.D. pp. viii + 9 — 27 + 1 facsimile plate. 1841. 
3«. 6cZ. 

IV. An application of Heraldry to the illustration of 
University and Collegiate Antiquities. By H. A. Woodham, 
A.B. Part I. pp. 1 — 73 + 1 coloured plate a'nd illustrations in the 
text. 1841. Out of print. 

V. An application op Heraldry, etc. By H. A. Woodham, 
M.A. Part II. pp. 75—93 + 3 plates (1 coloured). 1842. is. Qd. 

VI. A Catalogue op the MSS. and scarce books in the 
Library op St John's College. By M. Cowie, M. A. Part I. pp. 
vii+l_86. 1842. Outo/pi-int. 

VII. A description of the Sextry Barn at Ely, lately 
demolished. By Professor R. Willis, M.A. pp. 8+4 plates. 1843. 

VIII. A Catalogue of the MSS. and scarce books in the 
Library op St John's College. By M. Cowie, M.A. Part II. 
pp. 87—162. 1843. Out of print. 

IX. Architectural Nomenclature of the Middle Ages. By 
Professor R. Willis, M.A. pp. 86 + 3 plates. 1844. Out of print. 


X. Roman and Roman-British Remains at and near Shef- 
FORD. By Sir Henry Dryden, Bart., M.A. 

And a Catalogue of Coins from the same place. By C. W. King, 
M.A. pp. 24 + 4 plates (3 coloured), 1845. 6«. M, 

XI. Specimens of College Plate. By J. J. Smith, M.A 
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XII. Roman-British Remains. On the materials of two 


Henslow, M.A. pp. ^-¥2 plates, 1846. ^s. 

Volume II. 


MSS. 286 AND 197 in the Parker Library. By J. Goodwin, B.D. 
pp. 42 + 11 plates {some coloured). 1847. 20*. 

XIV. Miscellaneous Communications, Part I : 

I. On palimpsest sepulchral brasses. By A. W. Franks, pp. 

1 — 6 + 1 folding plate. 

II. On two British Shields found in the Isle of Ely. By 

C. W. Goodwin, M.A. pp. 7 — 13 + 4 plates. 

III. A Catalogue of the Books bequeathed to C. C. College 

by Tho. Markaunt in 1439. Ed. by J. O. Halliwell. 
pp. 15—20. 

IV. The genealogical history of the Freville Family. By 

A. W. Franks, pp. 21—29 + 3 /?Zaies + Pedigree. 1848. 

XV. An historical Inquiry touching St Catharine of 
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C. Hard wick, M.A. pp. 48 + 2 jt?/a«es* 1849. 12*. 

* [I. From the Menologium Basilianum. 
II. Coloured figure of St Catharine traced from the wall of St Martin's 
Church, Leicester.] 



I. The Anglo-Saxon Legends of St Andrew and St Vero- 
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II. Fragment of a Gr^co-Egyptian work upon Magic. 
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III. Ancient Cambridgeshire. By C. C. Babington, M.A. 
1853. pp. yui + 78 + 4: plates* and a map. 3s. Qd. (See No. XX 

for 2nd edition.) 

* [Boman Stations at Cambridge, Grantchester and Bury, and Boman 
Villa at Comberton.] 

IV. A History op Waterbeach. By W. K. Clay, B.D. 
pp. X + 148 + 3 plates. 1859. 5s. 

V. The Diary op Edward Rud; to which are added 
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VI. A History of Landbeach. By W. K. Clay, B.D. pp. 

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VII. A History op Horningsey. By W. K. Clay, B.D. 

pp. XV + 60. 1865. 2s. 6d. 

VIII. The Correspondence of Richard Porson, M.A., 
formerly Regius Professor of Greek Ed. by H. R. Luard, 
M.A. pp. xiii+ 143. 1867. 4s. 6d. 

IX. The History of Queens' College. Pai-t I. 1446 — ^^1560. 
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X. Historical and Architectural Notes on Great St 
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Together with the Annals of the Church. By Canon E. 
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XI. A History of Milton. By the late W. K. Clay, B.D. 
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XII. The Coins, Tokens, and Medals of the Town, County 
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XIII. The History op Queens' College. Part II. 1560 — 
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XIV. The History and Antiquities op the Parish op 


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XV. An annotated List of Books printed on Vellum to be 


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XVI. A Supplement to the History of the Parish of 


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*^* Nos. XIV and XVI, with a title-page to the whole work, 
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XVII. Josselin's Historiola Collegii Corporis Christi et 
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"i^^. w\ + ^^ and folding plan of rooms, 1880. 2*. 

XVIII. The Bells of Cambridgeshire. By J. J. Raven, 
D.D. pp. 192 + folding plate and ilhistrations in the text, 1881. 
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XIX. A Supplement to the ^ Bells of Cambridgeshire,' 
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*^* Nos. XVIII and XIX, with a title-page to the whole work, 
form a volume. 1881 — 82. Out of print, 

XX. Ancient Cambridgeshire. By C. C. Babington, M.A., 
F.R.S., F.S.A. Second edition much enlarged, pp. viii + 106 + 
illustrations in the text am.d a map, 1883. 5s. 

XXI. Memoir of the Rev. Caleb Parnham, B.D., St John's 
College. By J. R. Lunn, B.D. Second edition, much enlarged, 
pp. 50. 1884. 2s, 

XXII. Suggestions addressed to King Henry VIII. for a 
Coinage for Ireland and the other islands belonging to 
England. By Nicholas Tyery. Edited by G. O. White-Cooper, 
M.A., M.B., and F. J. H. Jenkinson, M.A. pp. 51 + Illustrations 
on India pa/per (in text). 1886. Out of print. 

XXIII. The Diary of Alderman S. Newton (1662—1717). 
Edited by J. E. Poster, M.A. pp. xvi + 144. 1890. bs, 

XXIV. Mr Essex's Journal of a Tour through part of 
Flanders and France made in August 1773. Edited by W. M. 
Fawcett, M. a., F.S.A. pp. xxxvi + 77 + with portrait^ silhouette 
front, ^ and illustrations in tlie text. 1888. ds. 


XXV. The Register op Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials 
IN St Michael's Parish, Cambridge. Edited by J. Venn, Sc.D. 
pp. vii + 213. 1891. 5s. 

XXVI. A Short Calendar op the Feet op Fines for 
Cambridgeshire. By Walter Rye, F.S.A. pp. vii+ 196. 1891. 


XXVII. Ingulp and the Historia Croylandensis. By 
W. G. Searle, M.A. pp. viii + 216*+ I /olding plate. 1894. Is. 6d. 

XX VIII. On the Abbey op St Edmund at Bury. By 
M. R. James, Litt.D. pp. viii + 220 + folding plan. 1895. Is. 6d 

XXIX. Biographical Notes on the Librarians op Trinity 
College on Sir Edward Stanhope's Foundation. By Robert 
Sinker, D.D. pp. xii + 86. 1897. 3«. Qd. 

XXX. An Index to the Reports and Abstracts op Pro- 
ceedings; including Subjects and Authors op Communications 
AND Publications, 1840— 1897. pp. xvi + 80. 1898. ds. 6d. 

XXXI. The Priory op Saint Radegund, Cambridge. By 
Arthur Gray, M.A. pp. viii+ 197 +plan and illustrations in the 
text. 1898. 5*. 

XXXII. The Sources of Archbishop Parker's Collection 
OP MSS. at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, with a reprint 
OP the Catalogue op Thomas Markaunt's Library. By M. R. 
Jambs, Litt.D. pp. 84. 1899. 5s. 

XXXIII. The Manuscripts in the Library at Lambeth 
Palace. By M. R. James, littD. pp. 64. 1900. 3*. 6d. 

XXXIV. Liber de obitibus et aliis memorabilibus istius 
CENOBii [Christ Church, Canterbury] autore Joh. Stone [1415 — 
1472]. Preserved in Corpus Christi College Library. Edited by 
the Rev. W. G. Searle, M.A. In the Press 

XXXV. Accounts op the Churchwardens op Saint Mary 
the Great. Edited by J. E. Foster, M.A. In the Press. 

XXXV I. Cambridgeshire Place-names. By the Rev. W. W. 
Skbat, LittD. pp. 80. 1901. 3s. 6d. 

XXXVII. A Calendar op the Feet op Fines for Hunting- 
donshire. By J. C, Tingey, M.A., and G. I. Turner, B.A. In the 

XXXVIII. The Verses formerly inscribed on the Twelve 
Windows in the Choir of Canterbury Cathedral. Edited by 
M. R. James, Litt.D. pp. 42. 1901. 2s. 

XXXIX. Cambridge Gild Records. Edited by Mary Bate- 
son, with a preface by the Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D. pp. 176. 
1903. Is. 6d 



Communications, Vol. I. 1859. 

Report XI. May 26, 1851. Communications, No. I. pp. 
1—36. 1851. U. 

Report XII. May 17, 1852. Communications, No. II. pp. 
37 — 50 + plate, Roman Vessel found at Foxton. 1852. Is, 

Report XIII. May 2, 1853. Communications, No. III. pp. 
51 — 80 + plate, Elizabethan shoe and clog found in Corpus Christi 
College. 1853. Is, 

Report XIV. May 22, 1854. Communications, No. IV. pp. 
81—124. 1854. Is. 

Report XV. May 14, 1855. Communications, No. V. pp. 
125 — 176 + 3 Illustrations', Episcopal Figure from Mortuary Roll of 
John de Hotham, Vases from Bincombe, Dorset (2). 1855. \s, 6d, 

Report XVI. May 5, 1856. Communications, No. VI. pp. 
177—240. 1856. Is. 6d. 

Report XVII. May 18, 1857. Communications, No. VII. 
pp. 241—286. 1857. Is, 6d. 

Report XVIII. May 17, 1858. Communications, No. VIII. 
pp. 287 — M2 -opiate, Arms, Millington and Woodlarke. 1858. 
Is, 6d, 

Report XIX. May 23, 1859. Communications, No. IX. pp. 
343—374. Is, 6d, 

Communications, Vol. II. 1864. 

Report XX. May 14, 1860. Communications, No. X. pp. 
1 _66 f ^>/a«e, Fibula3 found at Barrington. 1860. 2s. 

Repoi-t XXI. May 13, 1861. Communications, No. XI. pp. 
67—146. 1861. 2s. 

Report XXII. May 12, 1862. Communications, No. XII. 
pp. 147_218. 1862. 2s, 

Report XXIII. May 11, 1863. Communications, No. XIII. 
pp. 219—294. 1863. 2s, 

Report XXIV. May 9, 1864. Communications, No. XIV. 
pp. 295 — 370 + 4 plates: St John's Hospital, Piscina (2), Ground 
Plan. 1864. 2s, 


Communications, Vol. III. 1879. 

Report XXV. May 9, 1865. Commuuications, No. XV (mis- 
printed XIV). pp. 1—60. 1865. 28. 

Report XXVI. May U, 1866. Communications, No. XVI 
(misprinted XV). pp. 61— 118. 1866. 26-.. 

Report XXXIII. May 19, 1873. With Abstract of Proceed- 
ings (including Annual Reports XXVII— XXXII). 1866—1873. 
Communications, No. XVII. pp. 119 — 294 + S plates : 1. Hand- 
writing of Dr John Edwards. 2. Facsimile, "Image of Pity." 
3 — 6. Fulbourn Church (4 folding). 7 — 8. Bronze Statuette found 
at Earith. 1878. Ss. 

Report XXXVI. May 15, 1876, with Abstract of Proceedings 
(including Annual Reports XXXIV, XXXV). 1873—1876. Com- 
munications, No. XVIII. pp. 295 — 414 + 2 plates. Terra Cotta 
Statuettes found at Tanagra. 1879. Ss, 

Communications, Vol. IV. 1881. 

Report XXXVII. May 28, 1877. Communications, No. XIX. 
pp. 3 — 82 (no pp. 83 — 84) + 5 plates: 1. Fresco discovered in 
Chesterton Church. 2. Prehistoric Peruvian Stone Implements. 
3. Early Runic Calendar. 4, 5. Etruscan Bronzes. 1878. 3*. 

Report XXXVIII. May 27, 1878. Communications, No. XX. 
pp. 85 — 186 + 8 plates : 1 — 3. Irish Basilica, &c. 4. Flint Imple- 
ments from Helwan near Cairo. 5. Map of part of the Nile. 
6. Norwegian Clog Calendar. 7, 8. Flint Implements from the 
Barnwell River- Gravel and Chesterton Gravel-pits. 1878. Out of 

Report XXXIX. May 26, 1879. Communications, No. XXI. 
pp. 187 — 312 + 6 plates: 1. Leaden Vessel in Trinity College Li- 
brary. 2. Powder Flask in the Collection of W. B. Redfebn, Esq. 
3. Mace borne by Senior Esquire Bedell. 4. Inscriptions on the 
Bells of King's College. 5. Arms of de Tlsle and of Arundel, 
Bishops of Ely (in colour). 6. Tracery on South Wall of Landbeach 
Church. 1881. 4». 

Report XL. May 24, 1880. Communications, No. XXII. 
pp. 313—432-^8 plates: 1. Carved Oak Tally Board in the Collec- 
tion of W. B. Redpern, Esq. 2. Roman Potters' Kilns found at 
Ashdon and at Colchester. 3, 4. Trinity Church, Cambridge. 
5. Stone Figure of a Mitred Abbot discovered in Trinity Church, 
1878. 6. Inscribed Vase found at Guilden Morden. 7. Plan shew- 
ing position of St John Baptist's Church, Cambridge. 8. Swords in 
the possession of Mr W. W. Faulden. 1881. Out ofpi'int. 


Communications, Vol. V. 1886. 

Report XLI. May 30, 1881. Communications, No. XXIII 
pp. 1 — 56 + 12 plates: 1 — 12. Anglo-Saxon Antiquities from Bar- 
rington. 1883. 12«. 

Report XLII. May 22, 1882. Communications, No. XXIV. 
pp. 57 — 184 + 10 plates : 1 — 6. Palseolithic Implements from South 
Africa. 7—10. Minster Church, Aachen. 1884. 8s. 6c?. 

Report XLIII. May 7, 1883. Communications, No. XXV. 
pp. 185—272 + 7 plates: Etruscan Mirrors, &c. 1884. 7s, 6d. 

Report XLIV. May 26, 1884. Communications, No. XXVI. 
pp. 273—378. 1886. 68. 

Communications, Vol. VI. 1891. 

Report XLV. May 18, 1885. pp. i — 1. Communications, No. 
XXVII. pp. 1 — 176 + plates 1, 2, Inscriptions, Wilne, Ma^m, 
Jarrow, &c. 1887. 7*. Qd, 

Report XL VI. May 24, 1886. li — Ixxxvi. Communications, 
No. XXVIII. pp. 177— 312 opiates 3, 4, Eadmer's Historia No- 
vorum. 1888. 5s. 

Report XLVII. May 24, 1887. pp. Ixxxvii— cxxvi. Com- 
munications, No. XXIX. pp. 313—346. 1890. 3s. 

Report XLVIII. May 21, 1888. pp. cxxvii — clii. Communi- 
cations, No. XXX. pp. 347 — 404 + 2 pla^tes : Four Gnostic Gems, 
Ancient Earthworks between Tyne and SolwAjy + Plates : 1 — 18 
Four Runic Calendars. 19. Fire-place in Master's Lodge, Christ's 
College. [No plate 20. J 21. Tympanum, Pampisford Church. 1891. 
7s. Qd. 

Proceedings, Vol. VII (New Series I). 1893. 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, October 29, 
1888, to May 27, 1889. With Communications made to the Society, 
No. XXXI. pp. 1^84 + plates : 1, 2. Linton Church. 3. Jsel- 
linge Stone, Iceland. 4 — 6. Antiquities at Hauxton. 7. Choir 
Stalls, Brampton. 8 — 12. Illustrations of the Bible. 13. Blue 
Glazed Oenochoe. 1891. 7s. Qd. 

Proceedings, October 28, 1889, to May 19, 1890, with Communi- 
cations, No. XXXII. pp. 85—184+ plates: 14—25. House of 
Veysey Family in Cambridge. 26—29. Great Fen Road. 30—33. 
Alabaster Retables from Milton and Whittlesford. 1891. Ss. 6d. 

Proceedings, October 20, 1890, to May 27, 1891. With Com- 
munications, No. XXXIII. pp. 186—324:+ plates: 34, Bird's- 
eye View of Clare, 1714. 35, Cambridgeshire Ditches and Tacitus. 
36—38 (in text), Horham Hall. 39—41 (39 and 40 in text), Barn- 
well Priory. 42, (in text) Proposed Bridge St John's, 1698. 1892. 
78. 6rf. 


Proceedings, Vol. VIII (N. S. II). 1895. 

Proceedings, 26 October, 1891, to 25 May, 1892. With Com- 
munications, No. XXXIV. pp. 1 — 84 + plates : 1. Library at 
Cessna (and 13 illustrations in the text of Chained Books and 
Cases). 2 — 11. Pottery, Bones, &c., Cambridge Boundary Ditches. 
1893. 10s. 

Proceedings, 31 October, 1892, to 17 May, 1893. With Com- 
munications, No. XXXV. pp. 85 — 252 and 2 folding tables, Eton 
and Winchester + Plate 12 (and 1 illustration in text) Bucket, 
Ancient Well at Mountsorrel. 32 illustrations in text. Armorial 
Ensigns of University and Colleges. 2 in text ; facsimiles of 2 pages 
in Psalter. Figure 1 Plan shewing probable extent of Castle, 
2—4 in text. 5. Plan of Castle, 1785. 6 and 7 in text. Plan, 
Boman House at SwaflTham, in text. 4 illustrations (in text). 
Hall of Michael House. 1894. 7«. 6c?. 

Proceedings, 23 October, 1893, to 16 May, 1894. With Com- 
munications, No. XXXVI. pp. 253— 410+jo^ate5. 13, 14. Objects 
found in Ancient Ditches. 15 — 18. Arms of Englishmen at Padua. 
19, 20. Library at Zutphen, and many illustrations in the text. 
1895. Is. 6d 

Proceedinqs, Vol. IX (N. S. III). 

Proceedings, 22 October, 1894, to 29 May, 1895. With Com- 
munications. No. XXXVII. pp.1 — \^i+ plates I 1 — 3 (and 5 in 
text), Lincoln Cathedral Library. 4—7, The Padders' Way. 1896. 
Is, U. 

G. L. Acland, on Norse Remains in North Britain. T. D. Atkinson, on 
a Chalice and Paten from Westley Waterless ; on a Bridge over the King's 
Ditch. E. M. Beloe, on the Padders' Way. R. Bowes, on a copy of 
Linacre's Galen 1621 in Trinity Library, Dublin. J. W. Clark, on Ancient 
Libraries : Lincoln, Westminster, St Paul's. Arthur Gray, on the Water- 
course called Cambridge in relation to the Cam and Castle. T. McE. Hughes, 
Pottery from Great Chesterford. M. R. James, Fifteenth Century Glass 
in King's Chapel; on Wall Painting in Willingham Church. R. A. S. 
Macalister, Antiquities from Bandyleg Walk; on Eilleen Cormiac, Eildare. 
J. B. Pearson, on the Cambridgeshire Subsidies. J. Watkins, on the 
History of Willingham Church. 

Proceedings, 21 October, 1895, to 27 May, 1896. With Com- 
munications, No. XXXVIII. pp. 165—296. 1897. 5s. 

C. L. Adand, on the Earliest Volume of Registers of All Saints' 
Church. T. D. Atkinson, on the Chapel of Gonville and Caius College; on 
the Manor House of Overhall in the Parish of Cavendish. W. M. Fawcett, 
on Parliamentary Elections in Cambridge sixty years ago. T. McK. 
Hughes, on the Earth-works between the Tyne and the Solway. M. R. 
James, on Paintings formerly in the Choir at Peterborough; Legends of 
St Anne and St Anastasia; on a Window recently releaded in King's 
Chapel. F. C. Kempson, on Skulls recently found behind Addenbrooke's 
Hospital. J. Bass Mullinger, on the Relations of Francis Bacon with the 
University. W. M. Palmer, on Cambridgeshire Assize Rolls. C. H. Evelyn 
White, on Dowsing's Iconoclastic visitation of Cambridgeshire, 1643-4. 



Vuu X (Nnw 8RftiK8, YoL. TV,) No. 4. 

Kflga HJll Tribes, K.W. Into, By W. H. riTMSEsa, M J 
BxGtur CaUteflrftl Libmry, 1412-1413* By J. W, Oi*abk 

Two pieces of ftimlture* By J, W. OiuiRH ^ 
UnJfcralty Wills nt Pcterboroa«1i, By C. .T. B. iUsmm . ^ ^ - 
Place tiamc'8 of HunttngaooBliire. By Be¥, Prof. W. W. -Hr^r^t 
Pignjy Fli«t Implements, By Rev. B» A* 0ATlt 
pre^BcfonniiUoij Pftton By Bev. W. OT. HmuwE wid J. E I'ostcp . 
Woodem Eiiiff-li^iifJle (Saec. uv). Bj B*^'- a r. Yuhue 
Ham Crucifix, By Bev* A. C. TTobkk 
l^al Exhihhn^ By W. B. BKi^fF^K 
CMn^t fuiallng to Anglesey Abbey. By J. E. Fobtku 
Sibvl Fi^t^dy ul Cc»rtiiin d* Ampea^o, By F. U, Co^ismm 
Bronise Object from Qitflden Moraea. By H* G. FoRiiru« - ^Td 

Chnatittfi Piiintla^s fk% the Grt^t Oabis, By C, 8* Mvana* M.D, 
Origm of tht- Sook^t in N. Europe. By Prof. W. Bit*t»i'rWA; 
Hoepjtiil of Ht John. DtiJtford (WhrtirlBsford Bndg(^), By C, E. Sj^^i^ , 
Mortuary Boll ef the Abtieas ol' LOleolnireb. By <^ K S^.le 
4niiual General Meeting . . - ► 
Two Wljed'Dpaks. By J. W. Cumi - 

W. Cok^B dr. r, of the tJnhersiiy Library (Rothemm'a Kaat Boom}. 
By J ..••'- 

ApoBlle SpooDH. By H. D. Oatliwci .... 

[)biecta found at Barmigttm. By Bev. .T. W. E. C-v^'MHAi.r 
niiaJ lieport ► . * - 

New Mombera elected, 1902— H>0;J 

;iTi!^ to fcho Library , . 

liua ntsEJ- Chtiirylimtfju, By l^rof* T. MuK. Htjcjjii* 

niiwolution ul' Thi^rnton Ctirlin* By E. H. Minks , 

llonitm Objeottt iWm Hacitun >rin. By 4Jol, H. llrrui.Ma 

fiiruttt , , . - - * 

List i»f OltitivrB and Council, I'JOa— IU(H . 





41 U