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Full text of "The place names of Fife and Kinross"

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THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 



THE 



PLACE NAMES 



OF 



FIFE AND KINROSS 



BY 



W. J. N. LIDDALL 

M.A. EDIN., B.A. LOND. , ADVOCATE 



EDINBURGH 

WILLIAM GREEN & SONS 

1896 



TO 

M. J. G. MACKAY, M.A., LL.D., Advocate, 

SHERIFF OF FIFE AND KINROSS, 

AN ACCOMPLISHED WORKER IN THE FIELD 
OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH. 



INTRODUCTION 

The following work has two objects in view. The first is 
to enable the general reader to acquire a knowledge of 
the significance of the names of places around him — names 
he is daily using. A greater interest is popularly taken 
in this subject than is apt to be supposed, and excellent 
proof of this is afforded by the existence of the strange 
corruptions which place names are wont to assume by 
reason of the effort on the part of people to give some 
meaning to words otherwise unintelligible to them. The 
other object of the book is to place the results of the 
writer's research at the disposal of students of the same 
subject, or of those sciences, such as history, to which it 
may be auxiliary. 

The indisputable conclusion to which an analysis of 
Fife — and Kinross for this purpose may be considered a 
part of Fife — place names conducts is, that the nomen- 
clature of the county may be described as purely of 
Goidelic origin, that is to say, as belonging to the 
Irish branch of the Celtic dialects, and as perfectly 
free from Brythonic admixture. There are a few 
names of Teutonic origin, but these are, so to 
speak, accidental to the topography of Fife. To put 
it briefly, in the interpretation of the place names of 
Fife the district may be treated as if it belonged to 
ancient Ireland. While this is true, there are two 
advantages which the student of Irish place names 



viii THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

possesses over the student of those of Fife : (i) In many- 
parts of Ireland the names are still spoken by people 
using the original Celtic dialect, and (2) Even where this 
is not so, they are still preserved in literary and accurate 
form. For these reasons it is almost always possible with 
regard to Irish names to determine with certainty whether, 
for example, Kil- stands for the Celtic coille = a wood, or 
for a loan-word representing the Latin cella in the sense 
of a church. In Fife, on the other hand, the solution of 
such a case depends entirely on probability. But Fife has 
at least one counterbalancing advantage. There the 
Celtic dialect ceased to be spoken, and the names in con- 
sequence were stereotyped, at a period when the language 
existed in a much purer form and one less weakened by 
phonetic decay. The following is a simple illustration of 
what is meant. The Fife name Beath (or Beith as it is 
written in Ayrshire) is the ancient Gaelic word beith = birch 
tree. In modern Gaelic the final " th " of beith is quiescent, 
and hence in the English spelling of Irish names the term 
appears as -bay {e.g. in Ballybay). So again the Fife 
river name Leven, from leamhan = an elm, appears in 
Ireland in English form as Laune, a name which would 
have been difficult to trace to its origin had not its literary 
form been preserved in Irish. 

The vowel changes, moreover, indicative of Celtic in- 
flexion, are often preserved with remarkable fidelity in the 
earlier spellings of Fife names. 1 Thus in Ardrois (now 
written Ardros), rois is an approximation to the correct 
genitive of ros. The phonetic spelling of the form appears 
in Portrush. So again in Burnturk, -turk represents 
tuirc, the genitive of tore ; and in Drumnagoil, goil re- 

1 In reference to the Gaelic entries in the Book of Deir, Mr. Whitley 
Stokes says : "The declensional forms are scanty, but sufficient to show that 
the Highlanders declined their noun in the eleventh centuiy as fully as the 
Irish." — Goidelica, p. 113. 



INTRODUCTION ix 

presents the genitive of gall. Although there is no con- 
venient name in English for this process of forming 
inflexions, it is illustrated by such formations as feet 
from foot. 

A considerable proportion of Fife place names is thus 
capable of interpretation at sight, but a large number, 
comprising often names of the greatest interest, are to be 
solved only by patient searching for the earliest recorded 
forms, and by a careful comparative study of names 
similarly constructed existing elsewhere. The work is no 
doubt laborious, but the results are always interesting and 
often important. Take, for instance, the name Blebo ; 
it is traced through Blabo, Blathbolg, till it is identified 
in origin, if not in locality, with the Blatum Bolgion of 
the Antonine Itinerary ; and as this Blatum Bolgion is 
supposed to have been in Dumfriesshire, the inference 
arises that the cycles of Celtic legend repeated themselves 
in various and widely-separated localities. Or, take the 
Latin-looking word Ledlation. How easily it is read 
when it is found (and it is only once that it is found) 
written Ladglaschun. So, also, how hopeless is the ex- 
planation of Lizziewells till it is found written Latishoill ; 
or the name Demons, unless the older spelling Demungis, 
and the parallel name Le Dymmyns in Cornwall, are 
noticed. Again, Rires would be hopeless of solution unless 
the old spelling Rerays, the parallel names Rywrayis, 
Bulwrayis in Renfrewshire, the Icelandic word nacpnareitr, 
and the term still used in Fife to indicate a cattle-court, 
were all studied comparatively. Nor would it be readily 
guessed that the name Chemises consisted of two old 
French words signifying the chief manor-house of an 
estate. Other strange disguises are Cotton, Bungs, Goat- 
milk, and Nakedfield. Thus the work calls for an accurate 
knowledge of the rules which have been ascertained by the 
science of Comparative Philology to apply with inflexible 



x THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

certainty to the processes of phonetic degeneration. And 
it is not merely the comparatively mechanical process of 
decay due to the unconscious effort for ease of pronuncia- 
tion that has to be considered, but also the subtle mental 
tendency to rationalise, by which I mean to twist a name 
of unintelligible meaning into a known word. And so 
definitely may this comparative study be carried out, that 
the ancient form of a place name may be reconstructed 
just as accurately as the zoologist will rebuild the skeleton 
of some extinct animal from the information supplied by 
a single bone. 

Many are the results obtainable from the study of place 
names. Thus, for example, taking the names contained 
in this book, we find the early appearance of the country 
clearly set forth. 

There existed a great number of peat bogs — especially 
in the eastern parts — which agricultural improvement has 
now removed. The land was generally wet and undrained, 
and morasses and marshy lochs were so abundant, that 
when a specially dry piece of land existed, its ex- 
ceptional character is found to merit notice in its name 
(e.g. Strathtyrum). Forests and innumerable woods 
covered the country, as Fothreve, Fothros, and the many 
" Kils " attest. These woods consisted of oak, elm, sloe, 
yew, ash, birch, alder, and thorn. Bridges are not men- 
tioned, but fords are. Tillage we find to have prevailed 
to a very limited extent merely, as the only words in 
reference are Lochornie, the barley loch, and Craigen 
Gaw, the winnowing rock. Yet there were rich bits of 
fine pasture as the Fods, Foothies, and Inches indicate. 
The Fife farmer of those days was pastoral, owning abun- 
dance of cattle, sheep, goats, and swine, and occasionally 
horses, but the modern agriculturist, with his artificial 
manures and his patent reaping and binding machines> 
had no prototype among the ancient Fife folk. 



INTRODUCTION xi 

Among workmen, the skilled artificer, the smith, the 
shepherd, the tanner, the fuller, and the shoemaker, were 
known ; while the fisher, the hunter, and the athlete who 
could make a record throw, were duly recognised. 

The list of animals comprehends the roe deer, the hind, 

the fox, the wild cat, the boar, the badger, and the rabbit. 

The eagle had his ridge and the hawk his crag, and the 

duck, goose, grouse, pigeon, and blackbird all give name to 

places ; while Thomanean and Kilnynane were respectively 

the knoll and the wood where the little songsters poured 

forth their lays. Turning to social organisation, the many 

names containing baile show that in Fife the townland 

system was as well developed as in Ireland, while the 

name Blawhidder, or town of the cottar club, proves the 

early existence of co-operation. The commonty was a 

well-established institution. The necessity for, and the 

means of defence are illustrated by the innumerable 

Duns and Cars and Raths, yet a Saxon, a Welshman, 

and a stranger were allowed to have settlements, and a 

fort of robbers and at least two towns of thieves had to be 

endured. Spears, arrows, and swords are referred to. 

The name " Knokmadyr," or " hill of the mead cup," is the 

only evidence of drinking customs. As illustrative of 

superstitions, we meet with a Fairy Glen and an old Druid 

or Magician's Ridge, and both a fort and a wood took 

name from charmed serpents. Names containing various 

words for pillar -stones exist in great plenty over the 

whole district, and the giving of these names tends to make 

the inference probable that these stones were erected by a 

race who occupied the country before the Celts. Not the 

least interesting of these names is the obsolete one 

" Mawcloych," which must have referred to the still 

" Standing Stones " of Orwell. The name has gone, but 

the stones remain. 

One of the most noteworthy results of an examination 



xii THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

of Fife place names is the fact that therein are preserved 
so many of the personal names common to the cycles of 
Celtic legend and poetry. Thus Conchobhar or Connor 
appears in Balgonar ; Marcan, or, in its Welsh form, 
Meirchion, in Markinch and Pitconmark ; Nechtan, or its 
Welsh form, Neithon, in Naughton and in Bannaty ; the 
sons of Calaten in Kirkcaldy ; an element of Cymbeline in 
Beley ; Breasel in Donibristle and Carspersell, Cairbre 
in Carberry, and so forth. Arthurian localities are re- 
presented by Craigarter, Clocharthaw, Benarty Hill, and 
the Maidens' Castle. 

The last matter to which I shall draw attention is the 
comparative rarity of names of Celtic origin indicating the 
existence of the Christian religion. Eaghiis = a church, 
occurs a few times, and the name of priest (sagart = 
sacerdos) and of clergy once or twice. All the Fife 
names beginning in Kil-, with the exception of Kilminning, 
are derived from coille, a wood, and not from the Latin 
cella, a church. The Brythonic term for a church occurs 
thrice, namely, in Lindores, Landifferone, and Lumphin- 
ans, and shows the existence of Welsh missionary effort. 
The ecclesiastical terms Dysart and Skryne are found. 
Nor must the special words Bantuscall and Pettuscall, 
signifying respectively the town and the portion of the 
Gospel, be omitted from notice. The saints' names to be 
found are those of Columba, Kenneth, Ethernan, Brotus, 
Finan, Nidan, Monan, Drostan, Malie, Martin, and Muirn. 

With these general remarks by way of illustration the 
book is now left to the reader, in the hope that the results 
which it embodies may be interesting and useful. 



ABBREVIATIONS 
FOR AUTHORITIES REFERRED TO 

(A) Chartulary of St. Andrews. 

(B) Bleau's Atlas. 

(D) Chartulary of Dunfermline. 
(K) Skene's Chronicles of the Picts a?id the Scots. 
(MS) Manuscripts in Advocate's Library. 
(R) Robertson's Index of Missing Charters. 
(S) Register of the Great Seal. 
(T) Thomson's Retours. 
(W) Skene's Ancie?it Books of Wales. 

I. indicates a wholly or partly parallel Irish name. 

The writer is under deep obligation to Sheriff Mackay for valuable sugges- 
tions generously afforded to him during the preparation of the book, and to 
Mr. W. Cuninghame Steele, M.A., LL.B., advocate, for kind assistance in 
revision. 



PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 



Abbotshall. A hall or residence of the Abbot (in this 

case of Dunfermline). 
Abden (of Kinghorn). Lands belonging to an Abbacy 

(of Dunfermline). Abdaine is a Celtic formation 

meaning " Abbey Lands." 
Abdie. Ebedyn. Lands belonging to an Abbacy (of 

Lindores). 
Aberdolloche, Aberdolo. Aber + dubh + loch = mouth of 

the dark loch, the river being named from the loch 

from which it issued. 
Aberdour. Aber + dobhar = mouth of the water. 
Abernethy. Apurnethige. Aber + Nechtan = mouth of 

the river bearing the same name as King Nechtan. 

See Naughton. 
Abusuie (" alias Glasslie"). This appears to have been 

the name of lands near Kirkcaldy, and I think the 

name is derived from Abbacy (of Dunfermline). 
Adthangy. Ath + teanga = ford of the tongue (of land). 
Airbow Point. Ard + bogha = height of the bend. See 

Cambo. 
Airdit. ArdatJi. Ard + ath = height of the ford. 
Airdrie. Ard + reidh = high plain. 
Aithernie. Named after St. Ethernan. 
Aldendeich. Allt + each = burn of the horses. 
Aldie. Allt = burn. 
Almerie cruick. " Pratum cleemosiniauratus." Cruick 

is a piece of land enclosed in the winding of a river. 

B 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

" Almerie " indicates that it was devoted to charitable 

purposes. 
Aly (a small stream). Cp. the old Irish river name Ealla 

or Alio. 
Annacroich. Altnacroich. Allt + croich = burn of the 

gallows. This place is in Kinross, but Auldincroich 

is an obsolete name in the east of Fife. 
Anstruther. Athernynstruther. Atherne Strut her (MS). 

The name Uther Uchter Struther also occurs (MS). 

There seem to have been several " Struthers " derived 

from sruthair, meaning a place abounding in streams. 

The first part of the word may be Teutonic andar, 

meaning the other or second. 
Ardros. Ardrois. Ard + ros = height of the promontory. 

The spelling Ardrois shows the preservation of the 

umlaut of the genitive, as still appears phonetically 

in Portrush. 
Ardynnie, Ardeny. Cp. Mons Arduenna of Caesar, now 

the Ardennes. Ard = high. 
Arindinag-e. Cp. Arnage in Aberdeen. 
Arity Den. Arraty, Arachty. Cp. Inverarity in Forfar ; 

also the Irish name Arrachtain, yielding the family 

name O'h-Arrachtain, Englished Harrington. 
Arlary. Ardlory, Mawardlary (S), Macherderrly. Ard 

+ larach = height of the foundation or of the ruin. 

Maw is mach = field. See Mawcloich, etc. "Larach" 

is philologically identical with the English word " floor." 
Arlasehe, Anderlasche. 

Arlick Hill. Ard + leac = height of the stone. 
Arncroach. Ard + cruach = height of the stack {i.e. hill 

like a stack). Cp. Bencruachan ; I. Croaghan. 
Arndean. Ard + dion = height of the place of protection. 
Arngask. Arringrosk. Ard + crask = height of the pass. 

Drumcreesk is a name in this district in (B). 
Arnot. Ard + cnoc = high hill. The high ground near 

Arnot Tower is still termed the Knock of Arnot. 
Arnydie. See Nydie. 
Ashes. Cp. Foodieash. 
Auchendownie. Achadh + dunan = field of the little fort. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 3 

Auchentrail. Achadh + rail = oak field. 

Auchintelketye. (R.) Achadh + a derivative of sealg = 
field of the hunter. 

Auehmuir. Admore, Alhmore. Ath + mor = great ford. 

Auchmuty. Admulty. Ath + molt (pi. muilt) = ford 
of wethers. I. Annamult. 

Auchtenny. JLuchtevenny. Achadh + taobh + eanagh = 
field by the side of the marsh. 

Auchterderran, Uachdar + daire = height of the oak- 
wood. 

Auehtermairnie. Ucktirmerny. Uachdar + magh -f- airne 
= height of the field of sloes. 

Auchtermonzie. Auchtermunzie (now Monzie). Uachdar 
+ muing = height of the sedges. 

Auehtermuehty. Uachdar + muc = boars' height. 

Auehtertool. Auchtertuil Uachdar + tuil = height of 
the river Tiel. Invertiel is at the mouth of this 
river, and the form Invirtule occurs. Tiel is derived 
from tuil = torrent. Cp. the Irish river name Deel. 

Backevan. This old name appears to be an earlier 
form of Buckhaven (g.v.) 

Baincraig". Baile + carraig = house of the rock. 

Balado. BallatJw. Baile + ath + eo = town of the ford 
of the yew. In Blaeu's Atlas it is given Balgadow. 
If this were a true form the name would mean town 
of thieves. But Blaeu's maps cannot be depended 
on when there is no MS corroboration. 

Balass. Baile + eas = town of the waterfall. 

Balbarton. Balbretane. Baile + breatun = town of the 
Britons, i.e. the Welsh. Cp. Dumbarton, Dunbretanc, 
and Balbrethan in Ayr. The fact that " r " is a semi- 
vowel explains the variations Balbarton and Bal- 
bretane. The same change is shown in Scots " gyrs " 
for grass, or in Gr. /cdpros for /cpdro*;, while in Sansk. 
it is formulated into a stiff grammatical rule. 

Balbeadie. Baile + beith = town of birch trees. 

Balbeig"g-y. Baile + beagan = town of the small man. 

Balbeildie. 



4 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Balbeuchlie. Baile + buigleagh = town of bogland. 

Balbie. Baile + beinn = town on the hill. 

Balbirnie. Balebrenin, Balbrenny = town of Brennan. 

Cp. a similar ancient French name Brennacum, which 

is now Berny-Riviere. 
Balbougie. Baile -+- buige = town of dampness. 
Balbuthie. Baile + bothan = town of the huts. 
Balcanquhal.. Balcancoll. Baile + ceann -f coille = town 

at the head of the wood. 
Balearres. Balkeros, Balcarrowis. An English pi. 

Baile + carrach = rough town. Balcirrowy, a name in 

(S), seems to be a variant of this name. 
Balcaskie = town of [M'JCaskie. Cp. Kilcaskan, a parish 

in Ireland. 
Balchristie. BalecJiristin = Christian's town, a Danish 

name. 
Balclavie (near Elie). Baile + claidheamh = town of the 

sword. See Bucklyvie. 
Balclerache. Baile + cleireach = town of the clergy. I. 

Balclery. 
Balclune. Baile + cluain = meadow town. 
Balcomie. Balcolmy. Baile + colum = town of the doves. 
Balconzie. Balquhinzie. Consideration of this name 

along with the name Gartwhinzean points to a personal 

name Congan. The vowel change is exactly illus- 
trated by the Irish name Drumquin = Drum + con. 

An original " g " after " n " is very generally written "z." 
Balcormo. Baile + Cormac = Cormac's town. 
Balcurvie. Balcruvie. Baile + craobh = town of trees. 
Balcuty-(myre). Baile + ciad = town of the wood. Cp. 

Ballecuthe in Ross and the Cornish name Balcoath ; 

and for explanation, see Coates. 
Baldastard. Balstardert (MS). Baile + sturr + ard = 

town of the point of the height. 
Baldinnie. Baldinye. Baile + daingean = town of the 

fortress. 
Baldutho. Baile + Duthac = Duthac's town. 
Balekerin, Balcherin. Baile + Ciaran = town of Ciaran, 

literally little dark man. See Blinkeerie. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 5 

Balfarg". Balquharig. Baile + carrach = rocky town. 

The corruption of " ch " to "f" is common both in 

Gaelic and in English. 
Balfour. Baile + fuar = cold town. 
Balgallyn. Baile + gallan = town of the pillar stones. 

I identify it with the present Boglilie. See Rumgally. 

Cp. I. Drumgallan. 
Balgarvie. Baile -f garbh = rough town. 
Balgeddie. Balgadie, Baile + gaduiche = town of thieves. 

Cp. Pitgeddie ; I. Balgaddy. 
Balgonar. Bagonawar, Balgonvare, Balgonquhare. Baile 

Conchobar = the town of Conchobar ; Latinised Con- 

quovarus. Conchobar is the original form of Connor ; 

so Balgonar = Connor's town. 
Balgonie. Balgownie. Baile + gamhainn = town of stirks 

or year old cattle. Gamhainn must literally mean one 

winter old (derived from "gamh," for which see Balgove). 
Balgothrie. Baile + gaothrach = windy town. 
Balgove. Baile + gamh = town of the wintry storm. 

Gamh is the etymological equivalent of Lat. hiems, 

Gr. xetfxcov, Sansk. hima, as in Himalayas. 
Balgownie. See Balgonie, another place-name in Fife of 

the same origin. 
Balgreigie. Baile + graigheach = town abounding in herds. 
Balgrummo. Baile + gruamach = the gloomy town. 
Balhelvie = town of [M'jKelvie. 
Balhouffle. This is identical with the old name Balulphy. 

Baile + Ulfa = town of Ulfa, a son of Cruithne (K). 
Balhousie. Balwolsy. In such collocations " w " stands 

for original " ch." Colzie is still a name near Auch- 

termuchty, and doubtless of the same origin as the 

latter part of Balhousie. 
Balhueca. Baile + Acca = town of Acca. Acca was 

bishop of Hexham, but was driven from his see in 

the year 732. Skene's view is that he then founded 

St. Andrews, and that this was the historical basis of 

the legendary foundation by St. Regulus. See Proc. 

Scot. Ant. Soc, vol. iv. p. 315. 
Balkaithly. Town of Cathlach, one of the many names 



6 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

in Celtic derived from cath = battle, or in Gaulish 

catu, e.g. Caturiges. 
Balleave. Ballaif. Cp. the Irish name Balief, which is 

Baile + aodh = Hugh's town. The corruption of " dh " 

and " gh " into "f" occurs in Celtic place-names, and 

the pronunciation of the English word " laugh " 

illustrates the same phonetic change. 
Ballenkirk. Baile + cearc = grouse town. I. Coolkirky. 

Ceavc is literally hen, and stands for cearc fhraoich = 

heather hen. 
Ballibevo (MS). Described as in the parish of Leslie 

(not to be confounded with Blebo). In (T) it is 

given Ballilevo or Ballilero. 
Ballinbreich. Baile + breac = town of the trout. 
Ballindard. Baile + dart = town of the heifer. 
Ballindean. Baile + dion = town of the place of shelter. 
Ballinderran. See Bandirran. 
Ballingall. Baile + gall = the strangers' town. 
Ballingry. Ballingarie. Baile + garadh = town of the 

garden. The beautiful situation of the lands on the 

south-eastern slope of Benarty Hill are aptly described 

by the Celtic name. The local pronunciation is 

Bingry, for which see note on Banbeath. I. Ballingary. 
Ballintagart. Baile + sagart = priests' town. Sagart is 

a loan-word from Lat. sacerdos. 
Ballone. Balloun. Baile + uan = town of lambs. 
Balmadethin. 

Balmain. Baile + meadhon = middletown. I. Kilmaine. 
Balmakein. Balmalkyn. Maelcon's town. 
Balmblae. Baile + blath = town of flowers. I. Ballyblagh. 
Balmeadowside. Balmaddyside. Baile + madadh = town 

of dogs. 
Balmerino. Baile + Merinach = Merinach's town ; Merin- 

ach was the name of a companion of St. Regulus of 

St. Andrews. 
Balmonth. Baile + monadh = town of the mound. 
Balmule. Balnamule. Baile + maol = town on the bare 

rock. Balmolan is a name in (A), but it is uncertain 

if identical with Balmule. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 7 

Balmullo. Baile + mullach = town on the summit. 
Balmungo. Baile + muingeach = town of sedges. Cp 

Pitmunzies. 
Balmuto. Balmutach, Balmulto. Baile + molt (pi. mult, 

= town of wethers. The Teutonic equivalent occurs 

also in Fife, viz. Weddersbie. " Molt " is the origin 

of the English word " mutton," through O. F. moton, 

Low Lat. multo. 
Balnacarron. Baile + carran = town of the rocky land. 

I. Carran. 
Balneil = Neil's town. 

Balnethil. Baile + coille = town of the wood. 
Baloyngy = town of Oingus or Angus. 
Balquhomry. Baile + comar = town of the confluence of 

two streams. 
Balram. Balrahame. Baile + rathan = town of the little 

fort. I. Balrath. 
Balreavie. Baile + riabhach = gray or brindled town. 
Balrymonth. Baile + righ + monadh = town of the king's 

hill. A similar name in the same district is Kilry- 

month, the old name of St. Andrews. 
Balsillie. Baile + saileach = town of willows. I. Currasilla. 
Balsusny. Balsasny. Baile + Sassonach = the Saxons' 

town. 
Baltilly. Baltulie. Baile + tulach = town on the hill. 
Balvaird. Baile + bard = bard's town. I. Ballyward. 
Balwearie. Baile + maer = town of the meters or stewards. 

Cp. Mairs' land ; also Balleweir, with variant Balmoir, 

in Balquidder. I. Tinwear, I. O. M. Ballavoar. 
Balyeoman. I take this to be a rare instance in Scotland 

of the Irish form of a family name formed by O'. 

Thus O'Mochain, which would be Anglicised O'Mohan, 

with baile prefixed, would give Balyeoman ; and it 

should be noted the name Mochain occurs in Kinross 

in the name Portmoak. 
Banbeath. Baile + beath = town of the birch trees. Ban- 

at the beginning of names is a contraction of baile 

and an, the Celtic article. 
Banchory. Bcannchor = peaked hill. I. Banagher, Bangor. 



8 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Bancliro. Baile + cleireach = priest's town. 

Bandene = Ballindene. 

Bandirran. Ballinderran. Baile + daire = town of the 
oakwood. I. Ballinderry. 

Bandon. Baile + dun = town of the fort. 

Bandrum. Balendrum. Baile + drum = town on the 
ridge. 

Bangad. Baile + gad = town of the withes. 

Bangour. Baile + gobhar = town of the goats. 

Bannafield. Bannockfield. Banog = little lea field. I. 
Banoge. 

Bannaty. BannacJitin, Balnechtan. Baile + Nechtan = 
Nechtan's town. 

Bantuscall. Baile + ant-soisgeul = town of the Gospel. 
Cp. Pettintoskell. 

Barns. Bearnas = a gap in mountains. I. Barnes, 
Barnismore. 

Barnslie. Bearnas + Hath = gray hill pass. 

Barrington. An English settlement. 

Baspard Hill. 

Bassaguard. Bes aiker. 

Beath. Beith = birch tree. 

Begg. Beag = little. The noun which was qualified has 
disappeared, the adjective alone remaining. 

Beley. I identify this with old Fife name Ballebelin (A). 
Beli is the name of a Celtic deity, whence the com- 
pound Cunobelinos yielding the Shakespearian 
Cymbeline. See Belliston. 

Belliston. Perhaps a partial translation of Ballebelin 
(see under Beley). So, according to Bannister's Cornish 
Place Names, Blisland, formerly Bliston, is derived 
from Beli. 

Benarty. Cabennartye (A). If this form, given in the 
Chartulary of St. Andrews, is correct, the explanation 
may be the same as for Caesar's Mons Gebenna, 
Cevennes ; Welsh cefn, a ridge. The second part may 
indicate an Arthurian locality, so that the name would 
mean Arthur's Ridge, or one of the many Arthur's 
Seats. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 9 

Bennochy. Beannaichte = blessed lands ; beannaichte is 
a loan-word from Lat. benedictus. 

Beverkae. I do not know if this name is old in Fife, 
but it is evidently from beaver. Cp. English Beverley, 
Bevercoates, etc. 

Bickarton. An English settlement. 

Biekramside. 

Bighty. A contraction of some name of which the first 
part is baile, just as Balhouffie came to be called 
Bowfie, and Balbie, Bawbie. 

Binn, The. Beinn = the peak. " Beinn " in Fife gener- 
ally indicates a pointed summit. 

Bishophill. Like Bishopshire, in which it lies, this name 
originates from the owner being the Archbishop of 
St. Andrews. 

Bishopshire. " Shire " in this name was equivalent to 
barony. There was a very considerable number of 
these in Fife, as Lochoreshire, etc. Sheriff Mackay, 
in his History of Fife, suggests the probability of 
these " shires " originating from ancient Celtic divisions. 
Bishopshire is thus the barony of the Archbishop of 
St. Andrews, and comprised the following lands : — 
Kinnesswood, Powmill, Balgeddie, Kilmagadwood, 
Kinneston, Balnethil, Portmoak, and Brackly. It is 
noteworthy that the whole parish of Portmoak, in 
which Bishopshire lies, was the property of the Church. 

Bladdershaw. The shaw or wood of Bladar. See 
Pitbladdo, Pitbladar. 

Blair. Blar = open plain. 

Blairathort. Blair forth, and so still pronounced. Blair 
+ coirthe = open space of the standing stones. For 
full explanation see under Milnathort. 

Blaireousnie, Blaireurschenye. Blair + corr + shangan 
= field of the round hill of the anthills. This 
place is to be identified with the lands afterwards 
known as Blair ; East Blair being now known, how- 
ever, as Benarty. 

Blairinbathie. Blairinbothie. Blar + bothan = field of 
the huts. 



io THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Blairngone. Blar 4- con = field of the dogs. 

Blalowan. Baile + leamhna = town of elms. 

Blarnekery. Blar + caorach = open field of the sheep. 
(A) contains the forms Blaregerog, Blarkeroch, but it 
is not clear if it is the same place as Blarnekery. 

Blawhidder. Bogwiddy. Baile + coiteir = town of the 
cottars. This is approximately the explanation ; the 
full meaning involves the French word coterie, which 
Littre points out is derived from cot, and signified a 
company formed by a number of peasants to hold 
lands in servile tenure under a lord. Blawhidder (or 
Balquidder, as it is in Perth) means the town of a 
coterie or such a peasant club. So also Balquiderock 
in Stirling. 

Blebo. Blabo, Blabolg, Bladebo/g, Blathbolg. This name 
is undoubtedly identical in origin with the Blatum 
Bulgium in the Antonine Itinerary, although the 
latter is supposed to have been situated in Dumfries- 
shire. For notes on the latter part of the name see 
Dunbog. 

Blether Burn. 

Blindwells. A well supposed to cure blindness. 

Blinkbonny. Baile + bainne = milk town. 

Blinkeerie. Probably identical with Balekerin (q.v) 

Boarhills. Byrhillis. Buar = cowshed. 

Bogearn. Baile + earn = town of the cairns. 

Bogie. Bolgyne. These were the lands granted by 
Macbeth to the Culdees (see A). The word occurs 
in Dunbog (Dtmbolg), and in Blebo (Blathbolg). In 
Gaelic " bolg " means a sack, but the probability is 
that the name is prae-Celtic, and that the Celts con- 
fused it with their own similar word. I. Dunbolg. 

Boglile. Balglelie. See Balgallyn. 

Bonerbo. The last part of this name is identical with 
Airbow Point. Bun + ard + bogha = end of the height 
of the bend. 

Bonhard. Bun + ard = bottom of the height, or it may 
be baile + ard = town on the height. 

Boreland. Bordland. Board + land, i.e. mensal land. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS n 

Borland. Same as preceding 

Bow of Fife = the bend of Fife. 

Bowhouse = Cattlehouse. Cp. Flockhouse — 

" Bot and he tak' a flok or two, 
A bow of ky." — Bannatyne Poems. 

Bowpray. Fr. beau + pre = fine meadow. 

Brackly. Bracolie. Breac + aille = speckled cliffs. 

Brandy Burn. Bran Dubh, an Irish king's name, mean- 
ing black raven. 

Branxton = town where branks were kept. 

Braughty. Bruach, a bank or border, as in Tignabruaich. 

Breadless. Bur dies, Bredles. Broad leys = broad meadows. 

BregO, BragO. Breugach = lying, deceitful ; a common 
name in Ireland due either to the treachery of bog 
land or to the swiftness of a mountain torrent in flood. 

Broadshade. Broad shede, i.e. a land division. The 
word in this sense is from Scandinavian usage. 

Brockly. Brochloch = place of badgers. 

Brotus. Named after St Protasius or Protus. 

Bruckley. Bruchlag = a wretched hut. 

Bruntfield Bray. This and the following names contain- 
ing Brunt- indicate where the lands were set on fire 
for improvement. The Celtic loisgte in names indicates 
the same practice. 

Brunton ; Brunthill ; Bruntshiels. For each of these 
see Bruntfield. 

Buchadlach. Baile -f Cathlach = Cathlach's town. Bal- 
kaithly is of the same origin. 

Buckhaven. The very strong Teutonic appearance of 
this name is to be regarded with suspicion. It appears 
to attach itself to the old form Backevan, and is a 
compound of baile and a personal name ; perhaps is 
town of [M'JEwan. Note similar corruptions of baile 
in Bucklyvie, Bogvvhiddy, Buchadlach, etc. 

Bucklyvie. Balclevies, Balclaweyis. Baile + claidhcamh 
= town of the sword. 

Bullions. Bullenncs. An English pi. Bullann = a well 
in a rock. I. Bullaun. 



12 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Bung's (of Cassingray). " Bungs " is an English plural of 
the next word " Bunzion." 

Bunzion. Beinnin, dim. of beann = little peak. I. Binnion, 
Bignion, Slieve Bingian in the Mourne range. 

BurgTyn, Burkelin, Borkelin. Barr + Ceallach = Kelly's 
summit. This is the origin of the name Barclay. 

Burleigh. Barr + liath = gray summit. 

Burntisland. See Bruntfield. 

Burnturk. Bearna + tore = pass of the wild boar. I. 
Kanturk ; -turk shows the inflexion tuirc, genitive of 
tore. 

Burowin. Barr + abhainn = summit of the river. The 
form Burvane, however, occurs also. 

Bussis. A plural form. Probably same name as Bow- 
house, i.e. cattlehouse, locally pronounced Boose. 

Butter Road. This is a drove road over the Ochils. 

Butterwell. The popular explanation is probably the 
best — a well so cool that it was excellent in butter- 
making. 

Butts of Seotlandwell. Butt is ground set apart for 
archery. 

Byresloan. See Boarhills. 

Caberswallis. The wells of Caber, a personal name which 

appears in such names as Caberston in Peebles. 
Cadham. Caldhame. Cold Home. 
Caiplie. A form Capa appears in Gaelic signifying a 

head or point of land, and is cognate with Caput. 

From this an adjectived form Capleach is derived, 

whence the above name Caiplie, or as it appears in 

Ross-shire, Caplich. See Cuplawhills. 
Caiplochie. Capa + lochan = head of land by the little loch. 
Caimavain. Cairn + beinn = cairn on the hill. 
Cairncubie. Cam + Colban = Colban's cairn. 
Cairnselure. Cam + cluaran = cairn of the thistles. The 

" s " is a corruption. 
Cairnypairt. Cam + barr = cairn of the summit. 
Calais. This, like many Fife names, is an English plural 

of a Celtic name, arising from the fact that lands have 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 13 

been subdivided, e.g. into the sunny and the shady 
halves. Cala = marshy meadow. 

Callange. Callinche. I consider this a corruption similar 
to that in Markinch, Dalginch, and that the original 
form was Callan, identical with Callain, now Callan, the 
name of several rivers in Ireland, one of which in 
Kilkenny gives name to the town of Callan. 

Cambo. Ceann + bogha = head of the bend, most de- 
scriptive of the situation of Cambo. Cambo, in 
Roscommon, in Irish Ceann Bugha, shows the same 
change of " n " to "m " before the labial " b." 

Camease. Cam + casan = winding path. 

Cameron. Cambcrone. Cam + beam = crooked gap or 
pass. Cp. Cambusbarron in Stirling. 

Camilla. Said to be named after a Countess of Moray. 

Campse. Cam = crooked. 

Candy. Ceann + dubh = dark head. 

Cantsdam. Cant is an old Scottish surname, probably 
identical with the adjective cant, meaning lively. 
The great philosopher Kant is said to have been of 
Scottish descent. 

Canzerquhy. (MS). 

Capledrae. Capall + traigh = horses' strand. These lands 
are situated by the Lochty Burn which formed small 
lochs all now drained. 

Cappochs. An English plural. Ceapach = a plot for 
tillage. I. Cappog. 

Capshard. Capa + ard = high head of land. The " s " is 
a corruption. 

Carberry. Same name as the Irish Carberry, derived 
from Cairbre, a son of King Niall of the Nine Hostages. 
It is an instance of the usual Celtic practice of naming 
lands after a personal name, the reverse process to that 
of feudal times when personal names were taken from 
lands. 

Cardenden. Cardenenie. Cathair + dion = fort of shelter. 

Cardsknolls. This name is strong evidence of the 
English word Knoll being of Celtic origin, a derivative of 
cnoc (knock). So Cardsknolls would mean the fort on 



14 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

the little hill. The insertion of "ds" is a manifest 

corruption resulting from an attempt to make the word 

bear an English meaning. 
Carhurly. Carlehurlie. 
Carmore. Cathair + mor = great fort. 
Carnbee. Carnbeyn. Cam + binnein = cairn of the peak. 
Carnbo. Cam + bo = cairn of the cows. 
Carneil. Neil's cairn. 
Carngour. Cam + gobhar = goats' cairn. 
Carnock. Carnach = abounding in cairns. 
Carphin. Carewyne (R). Cathair + fionn = the white fort. 
Carpow. Carpully. Kaerfuill. Cathair + poll = fort of 

the pool. Cp. Welsh Carphilly. 
Carriston. Carrelston, KarinJialstan, a name of Scandi- 



navian origin. 



Carsegour. Caskygour. Casan + gobhar = goat's path, 
I think " k " is wrong in this name as in Caskieberran. 

Carskerdo. Cathair + ciar + dubh = dark gray fort. 

Carslogie. Claslogie. Clais + lug = trench of the hollow. 

Carspersell. Cathair + Breasail = fort of Breasal, for 
which see under Donibristle, the latter part of which 
occasionally is written — birsell. The familiar varia- 
tion illustrated in birsell or brisel is due to the letter 
" r " being a semi-vowel. 

Cartmore. Cathair + mor = great fort. 

Carvenom. Cathair + beannan = fort of the little hill. 

Carwhingle. Cahir + ceann + geal = fort of the white 
head. Chingil was the name of a fishing on the Tay. 

Carwhinny. Cam + coinnein = cairn of the rabbits. Cp. 
an old name Carvvynninhill in Ayr. 

Cash. Cas = foot. 

Caskieberran. Cassabarrean. Casan + beam = path of 
the pass. The letter " k " is inorganic, see Carsegour. 

Cassendilly. Cassindoly. Casan + duille = leafy, shady 
path. I. Knockadilly. 

Cassindonald. Casan + Domhnall = Donald's path. 

Cassingray. Casan + reidh = pass of the plain. 

Cast. Cp. Gastdovenald in MS, which however seems to 
be the present Cassindonald. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 15 

Catherie. Cp. the Irish name Tomcatry (Tuaim 
Cathraigh) now obsolete, but existing in the time of 
James I. 

Catochill. Kyntochill (S). This is the Cindocellum of 
the geographer of Ravenna, and means the head or 
end of the Ochils. 

Caverns. This name is of the same origin as the Border 
names Cavers, Caverton, Cavens, and Caberton. See 
Caberswallis. 

Cavilston. Gabhail in Gaelic, literally " taking," indicates 
the ancient Celtic custom of dividing land among a 
family or a tribe, and the term was probably retained 
later where the runrig system was observed. So 
the English local custom (chiefly in Kent) of gavel 
kind is of Celtic origin, as it stands for gabhail cine 
== taking by the family, i.e. equal division among the 
sons. 

Cecnyflett. 

Ceres. Sireis. Norse syr + reit = enclosure for swine. 
For full explanation see Rires. 

Chamberfield. The chawmer or chamberlain's field. 

Chancefield. See next. 

Chance Inn. Change House is an old Sc. term for an ale- 
house ; probably a place where horses were changed. 

Channel. See Shanwell, Shambelton, and the Channel of 
Pittendricch. 

Channel, The (of Pittendrcich). Sean + baile = old town. 
See preceding entry. 

Chapel. A chapel dedicated to a saint whose name has 
now disappeared. 

Charleton. 

Chemises. A modern English plural of old Sc. chemis, 
O. F. chymois, chef mcz, Lat. caput and mansio = 
chief mansion house. So in (S) there is " Uchtirmerny 
(Auchtermairnie) cum le chymmis. The chemise or 
principal messuage sould not be devidit " (Balfour's 
Practicks). "The mychty grctt Enee, wythin his narrow 
chymmis leidis he " (Douglas, sEneis). 

Chesters. 



1 6 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Chewton. Town of the choughs. 

" Chonnane " = " salinagium (Scotice)." The authority 

for this name and its explanation is (A) ; " Scotice," 

of course, means in the Gaelic language. 
Clarmonet. Clar + monadh = plain by the hill. The 

" monadh " must have been the name of a specific 

district near St. Andrews, as there occur also Balry- 

month and Kilrymonth. The name is identical with 

Fr. Clermont. 
Clasehedeugly. Clais + dubh + gleann = trench of the 

dark glen. Deuglie and Glendeuglie also occur, 

situated at Glenfarg. 
Classlochie. Clais + lacha = trench or ditch of the 

ducks. 
ClattO. Cladach = stony beach or river bank. 
Claydales. An English plural. Cladh + dal = dyke or 

rampart of the cornland. 
Claysike. Cladh + saighead = rampart of the arrows. 
Cleish. Clais = a hollow or trench, a name very descriptive 

of the locality. 
Clentrie. Clyntray. Claen + traigh = sloping shore. 
Clephanton. The town of the Clephans. Clephane is 

an old Fife family name. The local pronunciation is 

Clepan, cp. Clepington near Dundee. 
Cloeharthaw. The stone of Arthur (cloch = stone), an 

Arthurian locality. See Pittarthie and Craigarter. 
Cloehrat (bridge). Clach + rath = stone of the fort. The 

place is close to the ruins of Inchgall Castle. 
Clockmydron. In the Black Book of Carmarthen there 

occurs the name Mabon son of Mydron. Mabon is 

supposed to give name to Lochmaben, and there is a 

stone there known as Clochmaben ; in the same way 

Clochmydron may be the stone of Mydron. It 

should be noted, however, that the place name Dron 

occurs in the same district. 
Clubstone. Cp. Clubscross near Peterhead. It may 

indicate spots where social meetings took place. 
Clune. Cluain = meadow. 
Clunievar. Cluain + fear = meadow of the men. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 17 

Clunvan. Cluain + ban = white meadow. 

Cluny. Cluain = meadow. 

Clushford. Clais + fuar = cold trench. 

Clushgreen. Clais + grian = sunny hollow. 

Cnocenlein. Cnoc + lin = flax hill. 

Coalpitden. Coille + poite + dion = wood of the hollow 
of the place of shelter. Cp. Coilpotburne near 
Falkland where there are no coalpits. 

Coates. In all the Brythonic dialects the ordinary word 
for a wood is a form which appears in Welsh coit 
(Mod. W. coed), Corn, cuit, Bret. coat. The existence 
of this word in Irish is shown by a word in an early 
MS, ciadcholum, the gloss being palumbes, i.e. wood- 
pigeons. The name Coates contains the same word, 
I think, especially when the names Coitt, Coitmure, 
Balcuty mire, and Kinneswood are considered. The 
word occurs in the rare Latin word bu-cetum, a 
pasture for cattle ; the etymological equivalent in 
English is heath. 

Cockairnie. Culcarny. Cul + probably Gairney, a stream 
flowing into Lochleven. If so, the meaning is the 
back of Gairney. There is another Cockairnie near 
Aberdour. Coolcarney in Ireland, Cuil Cearnadha as 
written in Irish, is derived from a personal name. 

Cockamy. Cuil -f- caime = corner of the winding place. 

Cogfauld. 

Coilpot (burne), near Falkland. Coille + poite = wood of 
the hollow. 

Coitmure = great wood. See Coates. 

Coldon. Cul + dun = back of the fort. 

Coldrain. Collendraine^ Condrai/ic. Cul + draighean = 
back of the thorns. 

Collairnie. Cullernie. Cul -f airne = back of the sloes. 
I. Killarney. 

Collessie. Cul + Iios = back of the garden ground. The 
neighbouring name of Pitlcssie indicates that the 
second component is -lessic, not -essie. 

Colliston. Collinstoun = Collins' toun. 

Colluthie. Culluthie. 

c 



1 8 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Collydean. 

Collyford. 

Colzie. Coilltean, plural of coille = wood. See Bal- 
houssie. 

Comerton. Cummers' town. 

Comrie. Comar = confluence. 

Conaty. Identical with Irish Connaught. Casconity is 
also an old Fife name. 

Conland. Condillan, Condolane. This is the Irish name 
Dillon with the common Celtic prefix in personal 
names Con. Cp. the Welsh Cynddylan, and see 
Contle. 

Contle. Quint all. This is identical with the personal 
name familiar in Irish literature, Condla or Condle, 
which is the same as Condollios, a name found in a 
Roman inscription at Saalburg. Cp. also Conland. 

Cormodle (a hill in the Ochil range). Cormoddil, 
Carmodle. There is a Carmodil in the Isle of Man. 
The latter part is probably a personal name, and may 
be Motla, king of the Deises of Munster, mentioned 
in the Annals of Ulster (K). 

Cornceres. This name does not appear early. It seems 
to consist of the English word corn and ceres, indi- 
cating a place where corn was specially grown or 
stored, just as Corntown occurs in Scotland. See 
Ceres. 

Corrinzion. Corr + iongan = round top of the peaked 
hill. See Ingan. 

Corston, i.e. Crosstoun. 

Cothegellie. Coit + gile = wood of brightness. See 
Coates. 

Cotton, The (e.g. of Dura). Coitchionn = commonty. I. 
Cutteen, Ardcotten, Ballycotton. 

Coul. Cuil = corner. 

Coultra. Cultrach. Cul + traigh = back of the shore. 

Countryhills. Probably a corruption of the same word 
as appears in Contlaw in Aberdeen. 

Couston. 

Cowbakie. The first part of this name is cul = back. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 19 

Reading the latter part of the name along with the 
name Kembak I take it to be the same as the Irish 
place name Bac in Mayo ; it was divided into two 
parts which, a native in 1838 informed O'Donovan, 
were called Cul-Bhac and Beal-Bhac. The former of 
these is then the same as Cowbakie. Bac means a 
bend, and Cowbackie is the back of the bend. 

Craigancroon. Carraig + crun = rock of the hollow. 

Craigarter. Carraig + Arthur, the rock of Arthur, an 
Arthurian locality. 

Craigduckie. Carraig + seabhac = hawks' craig. I. 
Craigatuke. 

Craigenealt. Carraig + gealt = rock of the lunatics. I. 
Tobernagalt. 

Craigeneat. Carraig + cat = rock of the wild cats. 

Craigenerow. Carraig + cro = rock of the sheep-fold. 

Craigen Gaw. Carraig + catha = rock of the chaff. 
Winnowing would be done on the top of a hill. I. 
Cavanacaw. 

Craiggaveral. 

Craiginwar. Carraig + fear = rock of the men. I. 
Carrignavar. 

Craiglour. Carraig + lobhar = rock of the lepers. 

Craigmiglo. Carraig + meigeallaich = rock of the bleating 
of goats. Near the site of Craigmiglo occurs the name 
Knaggour, i.e. goats' hill. See Strathmiglo. 

Craignegreen. Carraig + grian = sunny rock. 

Craigow. Carraig + eo = rock of the yew tree. 

Craigrothie. The latter part of the name, Rothie, is the 
same word as appears in Rothes, Rothiemurchus, 
Rothiemay; it probably represents ruadhag, a young 
roe. 

Craigsanquhar. Carraig + sean + cathair = rock of the 
old fort. 

Craigsimmie. 

Crail. Karel, Karale. Probably identical with the Irish 
name Cairill and the family name O'Carroll. See Elie. 

Crainbrigis. 

Crambeth. Crom + beth = crooked birch tree. 



20 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Crannoch. Crannach = abounding in trees, or it may 

mean a wooden house. I. Crannog. 
Crawness. For Crawnest, Crow Nest. 
Creich. Crioch = boundary, or district. 
Croekmuirhall. The first part of this name is cnoc 

(knock) = hill, and it represents the modern Gaelic 

pronunciation, " en " being pronounced " cr." 
Croftgary. 
Crosshill. Probably so called from a cross being placed 

on it ; the chapel of Inchgall was near. 
Crownarland. Land of the crownar or coroner, an office 

now not known in Scotland. For the form cp. 

Shakespeare " crowner's inquest." 
Cruivie. Craobh = tree. 
CufFabout. Cp. Tailabout. 
Culbyne. From the personal name Colban. See Rescobie, 

Cairncubie. 
Cullalo. Cullelouch, Culzclauche. "Z" in the last form stands 

for " g," so that the name is cul -f dha + loch = back of 

the two lochs. Dha is the separated form of da and 

is pronounced approximately ga. 
Culross. Culenross, Culrois. This may represent the 

name of a King Culan who was killed in the Lothians 

and buried " by the brink of the waves." The mean- 
ing would be thus Culan's promontory. 
Cultbuy (now Bouton, in Kinross). Coillte + buidhe = 

yellow woods. 
Cults. English plural of coillte, itself the plural of coille 

= wood. 
Cummerknowe. Comer originally meant a godmother, 

then an associate or gossip (" gossip " itself having the 

same history), and then a female generally, as " What's 

a' the steer, kimmer ? " 
Cummerland. See Cummerknowe. 
Cummer Law. See Cummerknowe. 
Cunnoquhie. Cunoquhay. Perhaps identical with the 

obsolete forms Canzerquhy, Cansequhy, Kingsoquliye. 
Cunyngairland (yulgo " Brint-Eland "). Coinicer = rabbit 

warren. I. Cunnigare. See Nickery. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 21 

Cupar. Cul + barr = back of the top. 

Cuplahills. Capa + law = the point of the law. The word 
law is Celtic as well as Teutonic. Cp. Couplaw in 
Lanark, Capelaw in the Pentlands, and Coplawhill in 
Glasgow. 

Cuthilmuir. Cuttle or cuthil is a Scottish word meaning 
to carry corn from a low damp situation to higher and 
drier ground, and secondarily the spot to which it was 
carried. 

Cuttlehill. See preceding. 

Cutty Hillock. Cuttie is a Scottish term for a hare. 

Dalachy. DalcJw, DelcJio, Dachie (the last form repre- 
senting the present local pronunciation). Deal- 
gach = thorny. 

Dalgairn. Dal + earn = field of cairns. 

Dales. See Dolyland. 

Dalgetie. Dalgathie. Dal + gath = field of spears. 

Dalgineh. Dalgins. This name exhibits the same 
corruption as appears in Markinch and in the spelling 
Callinch for Callenge. It is derived from the personal 
name Delga, from which Dundalk is named, this being 
Dun-Dealgan, i.e. the fort of Delga, a Firbolg chief. 

Dalquhamie. Dal + caime — field by the windings. Cp. 
Cockamie 

Dargns. Dearg = red. 

Darnwe. This seems to be the same place as is indicated 
by the obsolete names Derno, Darnoch, Dornoche. 
Doirneag = pebbly. 

Dattie Mill. Inschdattie Milne. From the plural of 
dabhoch, a land measure. See Findatie. 

Demons. Dcmungis. This is a corruption of demesne, 
the lands occupied by the lord of the manor himself. 
Cp. Dymyns and Le Demmyns in Cornwall. 

Demperston. The town of the dempster. 

Dennimonkshill. 

Denork. Dunorc. This name associates itself with the 
Fife names Orkie and Orrock, and the obsolete Ork- 
venay (R). The latter part of the name is most prob- 



22 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

ably a Scandinavian name which also gave name to 
the Orkney islands, so that the usual etymology of 
Orkney from Celtic ore (porcus), meaning a whale 
(lit. pig), would be erroneous. 

Deug^lie. Duglyn. Dubh + gleann = dark glen. 

Devilla. Dubh + illann = black island. 

Devilly Burn. See Devilla. 

Devon. Dubh + abhainn = dark river. One of the two 
rivers of this name is still called the Black Devon. It 
should be noted that while this district was anciently 
inhabited by a tribe named Dumnonii, Devonshire 
in England was occupied by a tribe of a similar name, 
Damnonii. The old spelling of Devon in the name of 
the village Crook of Devon is Dovan. 

Dillyeary. 

Dochrie Hill. 

Dollais. See Dolyland. 

Dolls Park. See Dolyland. 

Dolyland or Doleland, The, of Cleish. This name is 
now obsolete, but the same word appears in the Fife 
names, Dales, Doll's Park, and Dollais. Dale or Dole 
indicated portions of fields marked off by landmarks, 
no doubt for arable purposes. There is a Doll's Park 
on the estate of Kirkness, and the local tradition is that 
it was land set apart for the poor {doled out to them). 

Donibristle. Donybirsell. Dun + Breasal = the fort of 
Breasal, an Irish personal name, whence the family 
name O'Breasal and the title in the Irish peerage, 
Clanbrassil. Bresel or brisil is one of the Breton 
words in the Charters of the Abbey of Beauport, and 
is explained as meaning war. Cp. Carspersell. 

Dothan. Dovan. Dubhachan = black land. I. Dooghan. 

Douranside. Douran is for Dobharan a diminutive of 
dobhar, water. The word appears more fully in the 
Scottish river name Doveran (" bh " is the Gaelic 
equivalent of " v "), and it appears in a more contracted 
form in Bundoran in Ireland, and in Craigendoran in 
Dumbarton. Douran represents the original form 
better than Doran. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 23 

Dovolay. The latter part of this obsolete name contains 
the same element as the Fife names Travalay, Banaley, 
also obsolete. Banaley occurs in Midlothian in the 
form of Bonally. Cp. the name Dovellie in Inverness. 

Drinkbetween. This may be a corruption of an old Fife 
name (MS) Duncbrenan, e.g. Brenan's fort. 

Dron. Drun. Dronn (a derivative form from drum) = 
back. 

Drumcarro. DrumcaracJuii. Drum + carrach = rough 
ridge. 

Drumehaldy. Drum + coillte = ridge of the woods. 

Drumcooper. Drum + cul + barr. See Cupar. 

Drumdreill. Drumdaill, Drumdoill, Drumdile. " R " in 
the second part of the word is wrongly inserted from 
sympathy with the " r " in drum. Drum + dall = blind- 
man's ridge. 

Drumeldrie. Drummelerie. Drum + iolaire = eagles' 
ridge. 

Drumfin. Drum + fin = white ridge. 

Drumgarland. Drumgarlet. Drum + gearr + leathad = 
short ridge of the hill side. 

Drumlochethornoche, Drumlochdurnoch, Drumlochirnoch. 
This name is now obsolete, but it appears to be the 
origin of the name Lochran, in the same locality. 
Drum + loch -f doirneag = ridge of the pebbly loch. 

Drumly. Drum + Hath = gray ridge. 

Drummain. Dromainn = little ridge. I. Drummans. 
In later times the name is Englished Drummond. 

Drummaird. Drum + airde = ridge of the height. 

Drummochy. Drumoquhy. Drum + achadh = ridge of 
the field. 

Drumnag'Oil. Drum + gall = ridge of the strangers — 
-nagoil is the genitive of gall preceded by the def. 
article. It is one of the many illustrations of the 
accurate reproduction in the earlier English spellings 
of the modification of vowels indicating the Celtic 
inflexions. The formation of the goil from gall is 
illustrated in English by such plural forms as mice 
from mouse. 



24 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Drumnod. Drum + foid = ridge of the grassy surface. 

Drumraik. Drumrawdk. Cp. Kilraike. 

Drumranet. Drum + roinn = ridge of the divisions or 
portions. 

Drumrichnak. Drumrechmak. 

Drumshandry. This is the name of a field on an old 
plan of Kirkness. Drum + sean + drui = ridge of the 
old Druid. I. Loughnashandree. 

Drumtenant. 

Drumtrissil. 

Drumtuthil. Drum + Tuathal = the ridge of Tuathal. 
Tuathal is the origin of the name O'Toole or Toole. 

Drunzie. Drungan = meeting of a tribe. I. Drung ; 
" z " for " g " frequently occurs, and is due to a mis- 
reading of old styles, e.g. Inzievar, formerly Ingefair. 
" Drungan " is cognate with English " throng." 

Duchrone. Dochteroun. Dabhach + tioram = dry davock. 

Duloch. Dubh + loch = black loch. 

Dullomuir. Dubh + loch = black loch. 

Dumbarnie. Dun + bearna = fort of the pass. 

Dumbarro. Dimberauch. The latter part of this name 
is an adjective form from barr, summit, so that the 
name means fort on the summit. 

Dumghercloihe. Dun + gearr + clach = fort of the short 
rock. 

Dummiefarline. This is on a summit of the Cleish hills, 
1022 ft. high, where there are the remains of a fort. 
The name is evidently the fort of [Mac] Farlane. See 
Dunfermline. 

Dunbog". Dunbolg. See Bogie. I. Dunbolg. 

Duncrievie. Dun + craobh = fort of the trees. 

Dunduff. Dun + dubh = black fort. 

Dunearn. Dunarne. The latter part of this name is 
identical with the Scottish river named Earn and the 
Irish Erne, all pointing back to the name of Ireland, so 
that Dunearn is really the fort of Erin. 

Dunfermline. The fort of [Mac] Farlane. See Dum- 
miefarline. 

Dunglow. Dun + gleo = fort of strife. I. Dunglow. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 25 

Dunimarle. Dun + meirlech = robbers' fort. 
Dunino. Duneynauche. Dun + aonach = fort on the un- 
cultivated heath. 
Dunnahag-lis. Dun + eaglais = fort of the church. 
Dunniefard. Dun + fear = fort of the men. 
Dunniface. Dun + paiste = fort of the charmed serpents. 

Cp. Kilface. 
Dunnikeir. Denekery. Dun + Ciarraidhe = fort of the 

tribe of Ciar (whence Kerry in Ireland). 
Dunnygask. Tunygask, and probably Teykingask, Tech 

+ ceann + gasg = house of the head of the tail. 
Dunotter. Kincardineshire Dunottar stands for Dunfothir, 

but the Fife one should be connected with the 

Scandinavian Ottir, as in Otterston and in Pittottar. 
Dunshalt. 
Dura. Like a Dowray in Ayr this name is a contraction 

of Dollywraa = the enclosure of the Doleland. See 

Dolyland and Rires. 
Durdam. 
Durie. 
Dysart. Lat. Desertum, a place of retirement for religious 

purposes. It is a common name in Ireland frequently 

joined with the name of a saint. 



Earnieside. Of the same origin as the River Earn, Dun- 
earn, Lough Erne, and Erin i.e. Ireland. 

Eden. Edyne. Aodann = brow ; so called, probably, 
because the river rises at the brow of the W. Lomond 
Hill. 

Edindowny. Idindawny. Aodann + dunan = brow of 
the little fort. Cp. Edyndonyng in Perth. The spell- 
ing Idindawny indicates the conflict between " e " and 
" i " to represent Gaelic " ao." 

Eglismaly. Eglismaldie, another name for Buchadlach, 
and it means Church of St. Malie. Cp. Kilmalie in 
Argyll and the old name of the parish of Golspie, 
Culmallie. There was also an Eglismaldy in Kin- 
cardine. 



26 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Eglismartene. St. Martin's Church, old name for 
Strathmiglo. 

Elie (formerly known as The Elie, and still locally so). 
Several tribes in Ireland took name from an ancestor 
Eile, and the districts occupied by them came to be 
known by the same name, each being distinguished by 
the addition of a family or clan name. Thus Ely 
O'Carroll is the Ely of the O'Carrolls. See Crail. 

Endoreth. (A). 

Eschewyn. Cp. Ashes and Foodieash. 

Esky Loch. Iasg = fish ; loch well stocked with fish. 

Falfield and Falside. See Faluhill. These names show 
that in Old English the forms fal and falu occurred 
just as in Modern German fahl and falb. 

Falkland. Land of falconry ; the ancient name of the 
parish is Kilgour. 

Faluhill. The first part of this term is a Teutonic word 
meaning pale yellow. It appears in modern German 
as fahl and falb. In Old English it was fealu and 
fealo. The modern English fallow is a derived sense 
from the colour of unploughed land, or " red land " as it 
is locally termed. The word is identical in origin with 
Lat. palidus, Gr. ttoXios, Sansk. palita. 

Falulecche. For the first part see Faluhill ; the last part 
is an old form of lea. 

Fargie. Fourgie. Fuar + ceann = cold head. 

Feal, The. Faill = cliff. 

Feddinch = Feddins, an Eng. pi. of feadan = little stream. 
I. Feddan. 

Fernie, Farnie. Fearn = alder. I. Farnagh, Fernie. 

Ferry -Port -on -Craig". In (B) Petencraig. Port is 
probably a corruption of Pit, as in the case of Portmoak, 
q.v., so the name would mean portion of the rock. 

Fervenshyre or Foirvinsehip is described as being a 
" prebenda " of Abernethy. Fuar + beann = cold hill. 

Fetters. This is an English plural form of a Celtic term 
for a stream. I. Fethernagh. 

Fettykill. Fythkill. Fitheach + coille = raven's wood. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 27 

Feus {e.g. of Drunzie). English plural of fiodh = wood. 
I. The Fews, a barony in Armagh. 

Fife. The name represents Fib, one of the eponymous 
sons of Cruithne. 

Findatie. Findauchty. Fionn + dabhach = fair davochs (a 
measure). The name occurs also in Elgin Findochty 
and in Sutherland Davockfin, the adjective in the 
latter case being last. 

Finderly. Fionn + larach = fair-coloured site. Cp. Ma- 
cherrderly for Macharlary. 

Fingask. Fionn + gasg = fair -coloured tail. Earball, 
another term for " tail " is also often used in place 
names. 

Finglassie. Fin + glaise = fair stream. I. Finglas. 

Flass. Cp. Flashadder, i.e. Flass Water in Bervick. 

Flisk. Fleasc occurs in O'Davoren's Irish glossary with 
the meaning " traigh," i.e. shore. This meaning corre- 
sponds with the situation of Flisk. There is a river 
in Kerry named Flesk. 

Fluris. A plural form ; Fr. fieur = flower. 

Fluthers. Flotteris. Fluthers is a Fife term for flakes 
from laminated rocks (Jamieson). 

Fod. Foid = a peat. 

Foodie. Futhie. Fodagh = a soddy or grassy place. 

Foodieash. Cp. preceding, and for termination cp. 
Ashes. 

Fordel. Fordall = fore or front dale. 

Forg-an. 

Formonthills. Foirmanhillis. Fuar + monadh = cold 
hill. 

Forret. Forrat. Same as personal name Ferat (K). 

Forthar. Of the same origin as the name of the river 
Forth and of the village Forth in Lanarkshire, also 
Forth in Ireland. The name is derived from the 
legendary person Fothart. In Forth the "r" is 
misplaced. 

Fossoway. Fasach + mach = desert of the plain. 

Fotheris. Fothar = forest. 

Fothryff or Fothreve. Fothar = forest. A similar ter- 



28 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

mination occurs in Moravia, Moray. Fothryff was a 
district including West Fife and Kinross, and it is 
known historically from (R) that there was a forest of 
Kinross. 

Foulford. Dirty ford. 

Foulhoggep. 

Foulthumbs. 

Fourlums. An Eng. pi. Fuar -f lann = cold land. 

Foxton. No doubt identical with the old name Folkes- 
toun. So in I. O. M. Folkesdale has become Fox- 
dale. Cp. Folkstone in England. 

Freelands. These lands are situated in the parish of 
Ceres, and may be identical with " the Frieland of 
Lindors." The name indicates land free from rent or 
services. So in Ireland the name Serse is derived 
from saeirse, a noun derived from saer, free. See 
Sireisland. 

Freuehie. Fraoch = heather. 

Friarton. Town of friars. 

Fruix. Fruditis. An English plural of fraoch = heather. 
The explanation of these English plurals is that 
lands were generally divided into parts, e.g. the sunny 
and the shady halves, hence a plural was formed to 
describe all the parts collectively. 



Gadvan. Cp. the name Cadvan, king of N. Wales. The 
first part of the name is cath = war, and the name 
evidently means warrior. 

Gallatown. Probably the same as the Fife name given 
in (S), Galloustoun, i.e. town of the Gallows. 

Garpit. Gearr + poite = short hollow. 

Gartary. Gart + airidh = garden of the herd. Gart or Gort 
in Irish, meaning enclosure, is etymologically the same 
as Lat. hortus and Eng. garden. In modern Scots it 
assumes the form of " yard," as in kailyard, meaning a 
cottager's garden (a different word from the lineal 
measure). In Slavonic it assumes the form of gorod, 
as in Novgorod = New Town. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 29 

Gartwhinzean. Gart + Congan = Congan's garden or 
enclosure. 

Garvock. Garbh = rough. I. Garvagh = rough land. 

Gask. Gasg = tail. Cp. the use of earball with same 
meaning in place names. There must have been also 
an adjectival derivative, as Gaskie Hill occurs near 
Dunfermline, and Gasgow Park is the name of a field 
on Kirkness estate. 

Gaskinienemphy. Gasg + ionga + fionn = tail of the 
white-pointed rock. See Ingan. 

Gathereauld. Cathair + coille = fort of the wood. 

Gauldry. Gallery, Galuran. For the termination cp. 
the name Kelturan in (K). 

Gellet. Gullet. This word, literally meaning throat, 
(Lat. gula), indicates a narrow channel worn by water, 
and sometimes the small stream itself. The word is 
now better known in the form gully. See Gullet 
Bridge. 

Gelvan. Geal + beann = white hill. 

Glac. Glac = hollow. I. Glack. 

Gladney. Glaidnie. I. Gladney, Co. Down. 

Glanderstoun. Gillander's town. 

Glencortas. 

Glencraig". Clunecraig. Claon + carraig = meadow of the 
rock. 

Glenduckie. It is difficult to say if this is not the same 
place as Glenduogin (MS). The latter name seems to 
have been in the same district. The name may be 
gleann + dubh + ceann = glen of the dark head. 

Glenduogin. (MS). 

Glendy. Gleann + dubh = dark glen. 

Glenfarg" = Glen of the Farg river. This must be 
associated with the place name in the same district 
Fargie, Fourgie, q.v. Celtic river names often take 
name from the spot where they rise. 

Glenshee. Gleann + sidh = fairy glen. 

Glenshervie Moor. Glen is here probably a corruption 
of cluain (cp. Glencraig). Cluain + searbh = dandelion 
meadow. 



30 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Glentarkie. Gleann -f- tore = wild boar's glen. 

Glenvale. Cluain + faill = meadow below the cliffs. See 
Feal. 

Goatmilk. Gatmilk. The first part suggests the name 
Cait or Got, one of the eponymous sons of Cruithne 
or the Pict (Caithness, etc.), and the latter part 
Meilochon, a form of Maglocunos, I. Maelcon, W. 
Maelgwn. Goatmilk was one of the old " shires." 

Golland. This name is derived from a diminutive form 
of gabhal = fork. It indicates the land in the fork 
formed by two rivers. I. Golan, Gowlan. 

Golloch Hill. Coileach = grouse hill. 

Golstoun. The same name as Gaulstoun in Ireland, a 
partial translation of Ballingall, q.v. 

Gospetry. Kilkespardyn. Kilcospardy. 

Gott. A dirty meadow; hence the adjective "guittery" 
= miry. 

Goudierannet. Cul + da + roinnte = back of the two 
divisions. 

Gowkhall. Cuach = cuckoo. 

Growokys Wei (A). This was the name of the spring 
whence the river Lochty rises on Benarty Hill. This 
is evidently the Well of Gruoch, Macbeth's queen. It 
is recorded that Macbeth and Gruoch granted the 
neighbouring lands of Kirkness to the Culdees. 

Guardbridge. 

Gullet Bridge. This is the name of a bridge over the new 
cut made for the river Leven (1827-32) for the first 
few miles of its course. The name is derived from the 
mode of capturing the eels in the old river Leven. 
These fishings belonged to Bishopshire, and in (S) the 
subjects are described as " lie Cruvis alias lie Gulatis." 
Literally the word means throat, and is taken from the 
French " goulet," which signifies a contrivance by 
which fish after entering a place cannot escape. 

Gutterhole. Guittery hole = miry hole. 



Haknakel. Achadh + coille = field of the wood. 






THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 31 

Halcatis. " Hall " prefixed to names indicates the hall or 

manorhouse. 
Harelaw. 
Harestanes. In England the word appears as hoarstones ; 

they are said to be landmarks. 
Hatchbank. 

Hattonburn. Aiteann = furze. 
Higham. Heichame = high home. Cp. Letham. 
Hilcarny. 
Hillary, Haliry, Haligrie, Halyrig = holy ridge, i.e. ridge 

belonging to the Church. 
Hisseldean. Hissel for hirsell, hyrsale, hirdsel, is an 

old Scottish word meaning a multitude or flock. It 

is cognate with herd and German heerde. 

" The herds and hissels were alarmed." — Bums. 

Hoill. This name indicates land lying in a hollow. 

Humbie = town of the Homes. 

Hungrie Hills. Cp. Hungrie Hill in Kerry ; it may 
contain the name of the Pictish King Hungus, just as 
Countryhillis may contain the name Contan. Hungri- 
flet was also a Fife name. 

Hurlmachan. 

Hurly. 

Inch. This represents the Gaelic inis, often meaning 
island, and perhaps cognate with Lat. insula. But the 
word is also very generally applied to a river meadow 
or good pasture ground. 

Incharvie. Inis + tarbh = bulls' meadow. 

Inchcolm. Inch of Columba. 

Inchcurbrig'. Inis + cor + breac = inch of the speckled 
hill. 

Inchdairnie. Inis + dair = inch of the oaks. 

Incheg'ay. Inis + gedh = goose inch. 

Inchkerie. Inis + caorach = sheep meadow. I. Inish- 
keeragh. 

Inchminnolein (" cum capella Buchadlach nunc Eglis- 
maldie nuncupata "). 



3* 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 



Inglistarvet. Tarvet belonging to Inglis, subsequently- 
called Scotstarvet. 

Ingrie. 

Inneans, The. Summits on the Cleish hills. Inneoin = 
anvil. I. Mullaghnoney = hill top of the anvils. 

Innerbridge. 

Innergellie. Mouth of the Gelly. 

Insehelt. Inis + eilit = hind's island. 

Inverdovat. Dubh + ath = dark ford. The name 
Cassindoveth also occurs, meaning the path by the 
dark ford. 

Inverie. Invary, Inweary, the form Finvivie also occurs. 
St. Monan is said to have been buried here. 

Inverkeithing. See Dalkeith. 

Inverlochtie. Inbhir+Lochtie = at the mouth of the 
Lochtie. This is the earlier name of the lands of 
Spittell ; " Inverlochtie alias Spittell." 

Inverteil. Invirtule = mouth of the river Tiel, from tuil = 
torrent. See Auchtertool. 

Inzievar. Ingefair. Ionga + fear = the nail (i.e. the 
pointed rock) of the men. I. Duninga. 

Iratlengre, Sehyra de. This appears to have been in 
the district of Markinch. The first part is oireacht = 
inheritance. Cp. I. Iraghticonnor = Connor's inherit- 
ance. 

Jamphlars. 

Jargomyre. Dearg = red. 

Justinglands. Lands where jousting was practised. 

Kaikinch, Calkinsh. Probably derived from a personal 
name Calcan in the same way as Markinch from 
Marcan. The name occurs also in Aberdeen. 

Kaim. Caime = a winding or bend. 

Keavil. See Cavil. 

Kectethin. 

Kedlock. Keithlok, CaithlocJi. This name forms the latter 
part of such names as Balkaithly, Pitkeathly, Buchad- 
lach. It is identical with the personal name Cathlach, 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 33 

derived from cath, signifying battle. The name appears 

in Dumfries as Caitloch. 
Kellie. This name is identical with the Irish personal 

name Ceallach, Englished Kelly. 
Kemback. Kinbak, Kinbuc. Ceann + bac = head of the 

bend. See Covvbakie. 
Kenleygreen. Ceann + Hath = gray head. 
Kenniker. 
Kennoway. Ceann + mach = head of the plain. I. Canna- 

vvay. 
Kethyn. See Dalkeith. 
Kettle. Cital is a diminutive of the Irish personal name 

Cet, which appears in Scotland in such names as Keith 

and Caithness. I. Carrigkittle, Dunkettle. 
Kilbraekmont. Coille + breac + monadh = speckled wood 

of the hill. 
Kilconquhar. Coille + Cunuchar = wood of Cunuchar or 

Cunchar. This was the name of a thane of Angus. 

The name is pronounced Kinneuchar. Cunuchar is 

possibly the same as Conchobhar or Connor. See 

Balgonar. 
Kildonyng". Coille + dunan = wood of the little fort. 
Kilduff. Coille + dubh = dark wood. See Dowhill. 
Kilduncan. Coille + Donncha = Duncan's Wood. 
Kilface. Coille + paiste = wood of the charmed serpents. 

See Dunniface. 
Kilgowne. Coille + gamhain = wood of the stirks or 

yearling cattle. See Balgownie. 
Killernie. Coille + airne = wood of the sloes. I. Kil- 

larney. 
Killieerankie. 
Killraike. This name is identical with Kilravock in 

Ross, which is pronounced as Kilraike. Cp. Drum- 

raik. 
Kilmagadwood. Kilgad. Coille + gad = wood of the 

withes. 
Kilmany. Coille + Maine = wood of Maine. Maine was 

the ancestor of the Irish tribe of Ily Many, which 

literally means grandsons, i.e. descendants of Maine, 

D 



34 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

but is transferred to indicate the territory inhabited by 

the tribe. 
Kilmaron. Coille + mor + beinn = wood of the great hill. 
Kilminning". Kilmonane, Kilmounane. Church of St. 

Monan. 
Kilmumkyn (" de Karel "). A name Balmoumkin also 

existed in Fife. 
Kilmundie. Coille + muine = wood of the shrubbery. 
Kilmux. Kilmoukis. This name is an English plural. 

Coille + muc = wood of pigs. 
Kilnynane. Kilninian. Coille + eun = wood of birds. 
Kilquhiss. Kilquhous, Kilquhase, Kilquische. Coille + 

cos = wood at the foot. 
Kilrenny. Kilretheni. Coille + raithne = ferny wood. I. 

Kilrainy, Lisrenny. The now personal names Rainy, 

Ranaghan, are taken from the latter part of this word. 
Kilrie. Coille + reidh = wood of the plain. 
Kinaldy. Ceann + allt = head of the burn. 
Kincairny. Ceann + earn = head abounding in cairns. 
Kincaple. Ceann + capall = head of the horses. 
Kinchaldy. Ceann + coillte = head of the woods. 
Kincraig". Ceann + carraig = head of the rock. 
Kindargog. Ceann + edar + gag = head between the cleft. 
Kingask. Ceann + gasg = head of the tail. 
Kinghorn. Ceann + cearn = head of the corner. 
Kinglassie. Ceann + glaise = head of the stream. 
Kinkell. Ceann + coille = head of the wood. 
Kinloch. Kindelouche. Ceann + da + loch = head of the 

two lochs. 
Kinloss. 

Kinnaird. Ceann + ard = head of the height. 
Kinnear. Ceann + iar = western head. 
Kinnedar. Ceann + edar, literally " head between," the 

word to complete the description being omitted. 
Kinnesswood. Keaneskwood. The local pronunciation is 

still " Kinascut." The name seems to be ceann + eas 

+ ciad = head of the waterfall of the wood. See 

Coates. 
Kinneston. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 35 

Kinninmonth. Ceann + monadh = head of the hill. 

Kinsleith. Kinsleif. Ceann + sleibh = head of the hill. 
" Slieve," which occurs so frequently in the topography 
of Ireland is rare in Scotland, Ben superseding it. 

Kippo. Kippoke = & place full of stumps of trees. I. 
Kippagh. Lat. cippus. 

Kirkcaldy. Kircalethin, Kircaladinit. Cathair + Calaten 
= the fort of Calaten. The sons of Calaten were 
famous magicians mentioned in the Book of Leinster. 
See Revue Celtique TIL, p. 175. Calaten's sons are also 
spoken of in the Book of the Dean of Lismore. 

Kirkforthar. See Forthar. K. was formerly a parish, 
but is now merged in Markinch. 

Kirklands. Churchlands. 

Kirkmay. For the latter part of the word cp. the Isle of 
May. 

Kirkness. These lands, lying in the south-eastern end of 
Portmoak parish, are mentioned in the first entry in 
the Chartulary of St. Andrews, and were for a long 
period Church property. The name is of Teutonic 
origin, meaning the ness or promontory of the church. 
The locality, however, in no way accords with this 
meaning. But in the Constabulary of Crail there was 
the Kirkness, and there appears to have been a Kirk- 
ness near Balmerino. The Church seems, therefore, to 
have transferred to these lands the name of an earlier 
possession on the coast, and so superseded an old 
Celtic name. In contrast to this, here, as in many 
places, the fields bear old Celtic names, e.g. Drum- 
shandry, q.v. 

Kirkshotts. A place where archery was practised near 
the church. 

Kitchengreen. Coitchionn + grian = sunny commonty. 

Kittadie. 

Knabs. Cnap = round hillock. I. Knappagh. 

Knaggour. Cnoc + gobhar = goats' hill. I. Knockna- 
gower. 

Knig'htsward. Ward is a small piece of enclosed pasture 
for young animals. So Priorsward in Kirkness. 



36 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Knockas. Cnoc + eas = hill of the waterfall. 
Knockcannon. Cnoc + ceann + fhionn = hill of the white 

head. I. Foilcannon, Carrigcannon. 
Knockintinny. Cnoc + teine = hill of the fire. 
Knocknary. Cnoc + aedhaire = shepherd's hill. I. Corra- 

narry. 
Knocksodrum. Knoksuderon. Cnoc + sudaire = tanner's 

hill. I. Ballynasuddery, Knockatudor. 
Knoklargauch, i.e. Largo Law. See Largo. 
Knokmadyr. Cnoc + meadar = hill of the mead cup. 

Cp. I. Drumnamether, Rathmadder ; also Mathernock 

in Renfrew. 
Kyngarroeh. Ceann + carrach = rough head. 

Lacesston, Laucesston. This may be the same name as 

Launceston in Cornwall, a corruption of Lann + 

Stephen = St. Stephen's Church. 
Ladeddie. Leathad + aodann = breadth of the hill brow. 
Ladisfrone. (T). 
Lahill. Lachillis. Leamh + coille = elm wood. I. 

Laughil. See Lucheld. 
Lambflatt = lambs' meadow. 
Lamboletham. Lambeisletham. Letham, q.v., belonging to 

Lamb. 
Lappie. Leaba = bed, grave, monument. I. Labby. 
Larennie. Leathad + raithneach = ferny breadth. 
Largo. LargaucJi. Leargach = sunny, seaward slope. 

Knoklargauch also occurs, an old name for Largo 

Law. I. Largy. 
Lassindock. 
Lassodie. This name suggests the names Lessuden, an 

old name of St. Boswells, and perhaps Lasswade. 

Lios + aodann = garden on the hill brow. 
Lathallan. Leathad + aluinn = beautiful slope. The 

form Lathalmond also occurs. If the latter form is 

the true one, the last part is amhuinn = river, as in the 

Almond river in Linlithgow, the word being cognate 

with Lat. amnis. In a later form it appears as 

Avon. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 37 

Lathoekar. Leathad + ucaire = slope of the fuller. Cp. 

Pitteuchar. I. Knockanooker. 
Lathones. An English plural. Leathad + abhainn = 

slope by the river. 
Lathrisk. Lothreskey. Leathad + riasc = breadth of the 

marsh. 
Lathro. This name is the same as the Irish Lathrach, 

now Laragh, meaning a site, and so indicating the 

ruins of an ancient building. 
Lathrog'all. Lathrach + gall = site of the stranger. See 

Lathro. 
Lauer. Leamh = elm. Cp. Laueran, an old name in 

Dumbarton. 
Leckerstone. This name is usually derived from the 

Teutonic leich = dead body, indicating a spot where 

funerals rested. But the probability is greater that it 

is derived from the Celtic leac = a slab or flagstone, 

and that " stone " affixed to the name is merely a 

repetition of the meaning in English, See Lykyrstyne 

and Liquorstone. 
Ledenurquhart. Leathad + urchair = breadth of the cast 

or throw, a name indicating an expanse where the 

athlete exhibited his skill in throwing. 
Ledlanet. An old name occurs, Ledlewnule, which appears 

to be the same place. If so, -lanet represents lea- 

mhan = elm tree. See Lochleven. 
Ledlation. Ladglaschun. Leathad + glaisin = breadth of 

the little stream. I. Ardglushin. 
Leirhope. " Hope " is a Norse term for an anchorage. 

" Leir " associates itself with Lerwick. 
Leslie. Leslyn. Lios + linn = garden of the pool. 
Letham. Laigh + ham = the low-lying dwelling. Cp. 

Higham. 
Lethangie. Leathad + teanga = the breadth by the 

tongue or pointed piece of land. 
Letterie. Lcitir = wet hillside. I. Letteragh. 
Leuchars. Locres. An English pi. Luachair = a rush. 

I. Loughermorc = the great rushy place. 
Leven. Sec Lochleven. 



38 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Lierehardele. See Leirhope. 

Lillioche. Cp. the name Lylo in Armagh, and Lyiklyok 
in Lanark. Cp. the personal name Luloig in the 
Gaelic entries in the Book of Deir. 

Lindifferon. Landifferon. Lann + dubh + fearann = 
church or enclosure of the dark land. 

Lindoischot. 

Lindores. Londors. Lann + dobhar = church of the water. 

Lingarth. Lingorthyn. Linn + coirthe = pool of the 
pillar stones. 

Lingo. 

Liquorstone, near Falkland = Leckerstone, q.v. 

Liseoureviot ("alias Lochend"). Luscar + abhaicht = cave 
of the dwarf. 

Lizziewells. Latishoill, Lawteishoill. The first part 
" Lawteis " is a man's name, and " hoill " indicates land 
situated in a hollow. 

Lochfitty. Loch of the Fitty Burn. Lochs took their 
names from the river which drained them. The name 
is derived from feith = a stream flowing through a 
marsh. 

Lochgelly. LocJigilly. Loch + gile = loch of brightness. 
I. Loughgilly. 

Lochleven. Leamhan = elm tree. I. Laune. 

Lochmalony. Lochnalony. Loch + Ion = loch of the 
blackbird. 

Lochore. Loch of the R. Ore, Oir, Oar. The Gaelic 
term for cold is uar or fuar, but the radical idea of 
fuar is water, as the derivative, fuaran = fountain, shows. 
The representatives of this root are Sansk. vari = water ; 
Zend, vairi = sea, vairga = canal ; Gr. ovpla = a water- 
bird ; Lat. urina; Norse ver, and O. E. var — sea ; Norse 
ur = rain. Ore thus simply means water. Oir and 
oer were Brythonic forms of Goidelic uar. 

Loehornie. Loch + eornach = loch by the barley land. 
I. Loughorne, Loughourna. 

Loch Roaddaill. 

Lochran. See Drumlochtirnoch. 

Lochty. This is the name of a mountain stream rising 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 39 

in Benarty Hill and flowing east by Kinglassie. Before 
drainage, this stream formed a series of lochs and 
morasses, as the obsolete names Monlochty, Boglochty, 
and Polnavere prove, and Bogside farm is still a re- 
miniscence. Hence Lochty was named from its form- 
ing so many watery hollows. 

Logie. Lug = hollow. Anc. Logymurtache, i.e. Murdoch's 
Logie. So Murdocairnie in the same district. 

Lomond Hills. This name represents a different forma- 
tion from the same root as appears in Lochleven, 
leamhan = elm tree. In the west of Scotland in the 
same way the group occurs, Ben Lomond, Loch- 
lomond, and the river Leven. 

Lossley Burn. 

Lothries. 

Lucheld. Leuchall, Leuchill, Loquhell. The forms Luchall, 
Leuquhell, occur in Aberdeen. Leamh + coille = elm 
wood. See Lahill. In Ireland the name is corrupted 
in one instance into Longfield, the usual forms being 
Laughil, Loghill, and Loughill. The name Luchald 
exists at Dalmeny also. 

Ludgeden. This name is unknown now, but the latter 
part, -geden, suggests strongly the old Irish name for 
the Firth of Forth, the sea of Giudan (Reeve's 
Culdees, p. 124), and the city in the middle of it 
called by Baeda Urbs Giudi. 

Lumbenny. Lumbennane. Lorn + beinnin = bare little 
hill. 

Lumphinnans. Lann + Finan = church of St. Finan. 

Lumquhat. Linn + cat = pool of the wild cats. 

Lun. Linn = pool. 

Lundin. Londie. Linn + dun = fort of the pool, the same 
name as London. 

Lurg. Lurga = shin. I. Lurgan. 

Lurgyhury. 

Luscar. Luscar = cave. I. Lusgarboy. 

Luthrie. Luaithre = ashes, indicating probably land where 
grass or heather was set on fire for agricultural 
improvement. 



4 o THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Lydox. 

Lykyrstyne. This name occurs in the first entry in the 
Chartulary of St. Andrews in connection with the 
lands of Findauchty, and is described as " acervus 
lapidum." The name is unknown there now, but on 
a map of Findatie, dated 1760, one of the parks is 
designated Leckerston, clearly the site of the ancient 
Lykyrstyne. See Leckerstone. 

Lynn. Linn = pool. 

Machling". Mach + linn = field of the pool. Cp. Mauch- 
line. 

Madincastell = Castle of Maidens. There are ruins near 
Kennoway bearing this name. The Castle of 
Maidens of the Arthurian legends suggests that here 
we have another instance of Celtic myths repeating 
themselves in various localities. It is noteworthy 
that the Fife locality is situated on the lands of 
Dunnipace, meaning fort of the charmed serpents. 

Magask. Malgask. Maol + gasg = the bare hill of the 
tail. This is the origin of the name Magus Muir. 

Mailing", as in Petersmailing, i.e. Peter's farm. A mail- 
ing is what mail or rent is paid for, and secondarily 
the land itself. So the term farm originally meant 
the dues paid for the land. 

Mairsland. Land held " pro officio mauriatus " Maer = 
steward. See Balwearie. 

Malchrethre (" in Adnechtan "). Maol + criathar = bare 
rock of the sieve, the meaning being that the land 
around was shaking, i.e. boggy. 

Mannerless. Same as Manorleys. 

Manorleys, the lea or meadow of the demesne lands. 
Such names as this indicate that the manorial system 
with copyhold tenure prevailed far more extensively 
in Scotland than is supposed. At Scotlandwell a 
piece of land is still known as the officer's acre, the 
officer being the steward of the manor of Scotland- 
well. 

Manthrilzean. There is a word drillsean, meaning a 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 41 

glimmering light, and as the first part of the word is 
moin = bog, the name may have arisen from the light 
of marsh gas generated in the morass. 

Markinch. Marching. The termination is a corruption 
as shown by the earlier forms. It is derived from the 
personal name Marcan (K). Cp. W. Merchion (W). 
For similar corruptions see Dalginch and Feddinch. 
See Pitconmark. 

Markinslaw. See the preceding name. 

Mawardlary, also Maeherderrly. Maw is now represented 
by Mawcarse, and Ardlary by Arlary. The second 
form of the name Maeherderrly presents the word 
" mach " in its exact form as still used in Celtic. 
From the same word are derived such names as Roto- 
magus, now Rouen. 

Mawcarse. Mach = field. In Ireland also the word 
appears as Maw amongst other forms. 

Mawcloyeh. Mach + clach = field of the stones. This 
name, now obsolete, occurs in (R) alongside names in 
the neighbourhood of Mawcarse. In this district there 
are still three large pillar stones known as the Stand- 
ing Stones of Orwell, and Mawcloyeh refers doubtless 
to them. From such a name having been given by 
Celts, the argument is strong that these stones were 
erected by a pre-Celtic race. 

Mawcuich (" vulgo Mawhill," and now Mawhill) = field by 
the river Ouiech. Cp. Dalquiech. 

May, Isle of. Cp. Kirk may. 

Melgum. Maol + con = bare hill of the dogs. 

Menegre. 

Menywick. 

Methil. Methkill. Miath + coille = soft wood. Maethail 
in Ireland indicates wet, soft land, and gives name to 
the parish of Mothel in Waterford. 

Middens, The (rocks off May Isle) = The Maidens. Cp. 
The Maidens off the coast of Antrim. 

Milnathort. MilnquortJi, Myln de QuJwrt. The popular 
pronunciation is Mills-i-forth, just as Blairathort is 
found written Blairforth, and still so pronounced. A 



42 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

frequent corruption of the sound ch is into f {e.g. 
English laugh). Hence Milnquorth is the original 
form, maol + coirthe = bare hill of the standing stones. 

Minzion. 

Moithill, Motehill, Muithill, Muthill (of Cupar). This 
name is of Teutonic origin, indicating the place of the 
mote or meeting of the people. Muthill, in Perth- 
shire, however, is of Celtic origin. 

Moncotymire, Moneutyemyre. Moin + ciad = bog by the 
wood. See Coates. 

Monedy. Moin + aodann = bog of the hill brow. 

Moneloccodhan. This obsolete name occurs in (A) as 
being in Portmoak. Moin + loch + cadhan = bog of 
the loch of the ducks. Duck-shooting to this day is 
a favourite sport in the locality. 

Moneyreadywell. Muine + ruadh = red shrubbery. 

Monimail. Monymele. Muine + mil = shrubbery of honey. 
I. Clonmel. 

Monlochty (A). Moin + Lochty = bog of the Lochty, the 
stream flowing east from Benarty Hill towards King- 
lassie. See Lochty. 

Montagart. Moin + sagart = bog of the priest. This 
place is described as the ecclesiastical lands of 
Monimail. 

Montgwn. Moin + con = bog of dogs. 

Montrave. Montraive, Monthryvie. This name is prob- 
ably of the same origin as the Irish Moneenreave, or 
little bog of sulphur, indicating that a sulphur scum 
rose on the surface of the water. In the Irish name 
a diminutive form of moin is used. The term for 
sulphur is ruibh. 

Montroy. Moin + ruadh = red bog. 

Monturpie. Moin + Tarpaigh = Tarpy's bog. The Irish 
family name O'Tarpaigh, Anglicised Torpy and Tarpy, 
is derived from this personal name. 

Monybard. Muine + bard = poets' shrubbery. 

Moonzie. Muing = long, sedgy grass. 

Moreland. Morlet Mor + leathad = great, hill side. 

Morendy. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 43 

Mossmarron. Mossmorven = moss of the big hill. 

Mo tray. Multray (S). Molt, pi. muilt = wether. 

Mountcoy. 

Mountfleurie. Monfioure. 

Mountquhanie. Monquhannie. Moin + Cainnech = 
Cainnech's bog. Cainnech was a well-known Irish 
saint, and known in Scotland as Kenneth. Kilkenny 
is named after him. " Achadhbo was his principal 
church, and there is an abbey of his at Cill-righmonadh 
[St. Andrews] in Alba," Mart. Don., p. 271. Kenno- 
way church was dedicated to him. See Pitkinnie and 
Ramornie. 

Mountquhy. 

Mournipea. This seems to contain the name of Mouren, 
daughter of King Hungus ; a church was dedicated to 
her at St. Andrews (K). 

Muekieloch. Muclach = piggery. I. Mucklagh. 

Mugdrum. Muc + drum = boars' ridge. 

Muireambus. Morkambus, Murecambois. Mor + camus 
= big, bay, or bend. 

Muirmealing. See Mailing. 

Munbuehe. Moin + bac = bog by the bend. 

Munfariyn. 

Munshock Moss. Moin + seabhac = hawks' bog. I. 
Carrickshock. 

Nakedfield. Tornaikitaris alias Naikitfield. Cnoc + tarbh 
= bull's hill. I. Knockatarry. 

Naughton. Athuauthan. Ath + Nechtan = ford of 
Nechtan, whence the name MacNaughton. 

Navitie. Nevody, Nevathy, Navittie. This name occurs 
also in Cromarty, and has an early spelling Nevatye. 
O'Reilly gives an Irish adjective neimheach, meaning 
glittering or shining, and Skene derives from it the 
word Namet or Navit, an epithet of Vipoig, a king of 
the Picts. I take it to belong to the same root as 
Old Irish ncm, meaning heaven, modern Gaelic neamh, 
all connected with Lat. nubes, Gr. ve<j)o<;, signifying a 
cloud, while in Slavonic again nebo means heaven. 



44 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

From Gaelic neamh comes naomh a saint, and the 
past participle naomhaichte, consecrated, would exactly 
produce such a form as Nevatye. The lands of Kirk- 
lands are conterminous with Navitie, and neimhidh in 
Irish signifies glebeland. The lands of Navity in 
Cromarty were connected with the Church, as a 
chaplainry was endowed from it. Still, without 
further corroboration of this view, it is to be assumed 
that the name is of an earlier origin. If the Celtic 
etymon for bright, referred to for the explanation of 
the first part of the word, is retained, the latter part 
may well be athan, meaning ford, so that the name 
would be white or bright ford. Now, in the Chartulary 
of St. Andrews mention is made of " the stanry furde of 
Nevathy," referring to Navitie in Fife, and it is only 
one or two generations ago since this ford was replaced 
by a bridge. Again, Navity in Cromarty is close to 
Eathie or Ethie and the Ethie burn. Cromarty itself 
may be from the same word. The second " r " in the 
name is inorganic, being introduced through sympathy 
with the first " r," and older forms are Crombathy, 

Crumb auclityn, Crommaty, so that the name would 

mean crooked ford. See Inverdovat, where -dovat = 
blackford. 
Neuethin. Cp. Neveth, old name of Rosneath, also the 

personal name Nefydd in (K). 
Newark. Newwork = new building or fortification. It 

is described as " fortalicium de St. Monans." 
Newburn. Nithbren. The same change is seen in the 

name of the river Nith in Dumfries, which is Novios 

in Ptolemy's Geography. Becoming Newydd = new in 

Brythonic, it passed into Nith under Goidelic influence. 

The name is allied to that of the tribe Niduari. 
Nickery. Contraction of coinicer = rabbit warren, as in 

Irish, Nicker and Nickeres. 
Nivingston. The town of the Nivens : Niven itself is a 

Celtic name (Mac)Cnaimhin, (Mac)Niven. 
Nochnarie. See Knocknary. 
Nydie. Arnydie. Ard + Nidan = Nidan's height. Nidan 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 45 

was a Welsh saint, and Llanidan in Anglesey was 
dedicated to him. He is also known in Aberdeen- 
shire. 



Ode Land. 

Officer's Acre, The. See under Manorleys. 

Ore, The (river). Oir, Oar. See Lochore. 

Orkie. See under Denork. 

Orkvenay. See under Denork. 

Ormiston. Orme's town. Orme is a Scandinavian name, 

as in the names Ormesby, Orme's Head, etc. See 

Pittormie. 
Orroek. See under Denork. 
Orwell. Orrowall, Urwell, Vuerquhell. Iubhar + coille 

= yew wood. Cp. Ury in the same district. 
Otterston. Ottar's town. Ottar is a Scandinavian 

name. Cp. Pittottar, just as there occur Ormiston 

and Pittormie. 
Outh. Uchd = the breast. I. Oughtymore. 
Ovenstone. Evinstoune = Ewan's town. 
Oyglethe. Og + leathad = an expanse for young animals. 

Og, literally young, is said to be the origin of the term 

hogg as applied to sheep. 

Palgrown. 

Paphle, The (of Cleish). See Poffle. 

Parbroath. Parbroith. The first part of this name is 
barr — top ; for the latter part cp. the old Irish family 
name O'Broith. It must be noted that very frequently 
in Celtic a chief or a tribe gives name to the district 
occupied. 

Pardusin. This appears to be the same place as Perdew 
(q.v.), from the descriptions given in charters. 

Paris. 

Paris Bridge. 

Parnwell. Barr + coille = top of the wood. 

Paskarmylne. 

Pathcondie. Pitcontie. The portion of Contan. The 



46 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

same name occurs between Perth and Kinross, and is 

corrupted into Path of Condie. 
Pathemuir. Pette + mara = portion by the sea. 
Perdew (and in the pi. Perdewis) alias Brumhill (D). 

Barr + dubh = dark top. The other name seems to 

be the origin of Broomhall, the seat of the Earl of 

Elgin. 
Petealder. Pette + coille + dobhar = portion of the wood 

by the water. 
Petclery. Pette + cleireach = portion of the clergy. 
Petculan. The portion of Culen. 
Pethnathrene. Pette + trian = portion belonging to the 



strong man. 



Petsporgin. Sporgin is probably a man's name. 

Pettacherache. Pette + caorach = portion of the sheep. 
I. Ballynageeragh. 

Pettinhaglis. Pette + eaglais = portion of the Church. 

Pettultin. Pette + Ultan = portion of Ultan. The name 
Ultan appears in the Liber Hymnorum as author of 
a hymn in praise of Brigit. He is described as 
belonging to Dal Conchobair, that is, to the tribe of 
Connor, and Connor is found in Fife in the name 
Balgonar. 

Pettuscall. A similar name occurs in the Chartulary of 
Brechin in the forms Pettintoscall, Pettintoskell. This 
represents exactly the pronunciation of Pette an 
t-soisgeul = portion of the Gospel. Pettuscall is 
described as " terrae ecclesiastical." Cp. Bantuscall. 

Phantassie. Fan + tais = damp slope. See Teasses. 

Pickletillum. This is a greater corruption than the form 
assumed by the same name in Aberdeen, Pictillum. 
Pette + talamh = portion of fine land. 

Pilcolm. Pill + colum = river inlet of the pigeons. 

Pilkembare. Pill + cam + bar = river inlet of the crooked 
summit. 

Pillow, The. 

Pilmuir. Pill + mara = river inlet of the sea. 

Pirniss. An English pi. Of the same origin as Barns, 
q.v. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 47 

Pitbauchlie. Petbaclachin. Pette + bachlag = portion of 

the shoots or blades of grass. 
Pitbladdo. Pitbladar. See under Bladdershaw. 
Pitbrog 1 . Pette + brog = portion of the shoe. This must 

have been the shoemaker's allotment. See Runbroig. 
Pitbullieslak (S). 
Pitcairlie. Petcarlingis = portion of the carlings. (R) is 

the authority for Petcarlingis ; it is to be noted, 

however, that (MS) gives the names Pittuncarley 

and Pitcarlie as distinct places but in the same 

district. 
Pitcairn. Portion abounding in cairns. 
Pitconmark. Petconmarchin. Portion of Conmark. 

The name Marcan gives Markinch, so with the common 

Celtic name prefix Con- we get Conmark, cp. Cinmarc 

(K), Cynvarch (W). The name Petmarch also existed 

in Fife. 
Pitconnoquhy. The portion of [Mac] Conochie ( = Dun- 

canson). 
Pitcorthie. Pettecorthin. Pette + coirthe = portion of the 

pillar stones. Cp. Balgallin, Rumgally, Mawcloych. 

The Ordnance Survey shows standing stones at all the 

Fife Pitcorthies. 
Pitcullo. Pitcullow, Pitculloche. The portion of [Mac] 

Culloch. 
Pitdinnie. Pette + dion = portion of the place of shelter. 
Piteadie. Pette + Aedan = Aedan's portion. 
Pitfar. Pette + fear = portion of the men. 
Pitfechies. Pette + fitheach = portion of the ravens. 
Pitfirrane. Petfurane. Pette + fuaran = portion of the 

spring or fountain. 
PitgDrno. PitgornadL Garnach's (K) portion. 
Pitkeavy. Pette + ciabhach = the portion producing 

marshy grass. I. Keevagh. 
Pitkeirie. Pette 4- Ciarraidhc, the latter portion being 

the tribal name whence Kerry is derived. 
Pitkennetit = the portion of Kennedy. 
Pitkinnie. Pitkanyc. Cainncch's, i.e. Kenneth's portion. 
Pitlair. Pette -f lar = middle portion. 



48 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Pitlessie. Pette + lios = portion abounding in good garden 

ground. 
Pitlethie. Pitlathie. Pette + Liathan = Liathan's portion. 
Pitliver. Cp. Liverpool and the Welsh name Llywernog. 

It may be cognate with Lat. lupus, and so Pitliver 

would be portion abounding in wolves. 
Pitlochie. Portion near the loch. 

Pitlour. Petenlouir. Pette + lobhar = portion of the lepers. 
Pitlumbertie. Pette + lann + Brigit = portion of church 

of St. Bride. 
Pitmedden. Pette + meadhon = middle portion. 
Pitmenzies. Pitmunzies. Pette + muing = sedgy portion. 
Pitmiclardie. M'Clarty's portion. 
Pitmilly. Petmulin. Pette + muilleann = portion of the 

mill. 
Pitmossie. 

Pitnaurcha. Cp. the name Bridge of Orchy, and see Orkie. 
Pitreavie. Pette + riabhach = gray or brindled portion. 

It refers to the variegated strips of different crops 

grown. I. Gortrevagh. 
PitSCOttie. Pette + sgothach = flowery portion. 
Pitsoulie. The latter part seems to be identical with the 

personal name Soulis. It is probably of Teutonic 

origin. Cp. the name Soulisby and perhaps Selby. 
Pittarthie. Portion of Art or Arthur. 
Pittarvie. Pette + tarbh = portion of bulls. 
Pittauchop. 

Pittencrieff. Pette + craobh = portion of the trees. 
Pittendriech. Pette + fraoch = heathery portion. 
Pitteuchar. Petioker. Pette + ucaire = fuller's portion. 
Pittiloch. Petcclache. Pette + clach = portion of the 

stones. 
Pittinhag'gilis. Pette + eaglais = portion of the Church. 
Pittormie. Pette + Orme = Orme's portion. Cp. Ormiston. 
Pittottar. Pette + Ottar = Ottar's portion. Cp. Otterston. 
Pittowie. Pette + dubhan = portion of the dark man. 

Cp. the name M'lldowie. 
Pittuncarty. Pettoncardy. Pette + cearda = portion of 

the artificers. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 49 

Plains. 

Pleasance. French, plaisance, maison de plaisance. 

Poffle, The (of Strathkinness). Poffle signifies a small 
farm or pendicle. I think it is identical with bachille 
of the same meaning. Bachle in 0. F. means a small 
piece of land, and the word bachelor is derived from it, 
that probably being the amount of land necessary for 
that rank on the road to knighthood. 

Polduff. Poll + dubh - black pool. 

Polnaber. Polnavere. Poll + abar = pool of the miry 
place. As the land is now drained the mire as well 
as the name has disappeared. So near it the name 
Monlochty has gone, that is, the bog formed by the 
Lochty burn. 

Portmoak. Pettenmokane. Pette + Mochan = the portion 
of Mochain, a man's name in old Irish. The local 
pronunciation to this day is Pitmoag. 

Powguild. Poll + geal = white pool. 

Powmill. Poll + muileann = pool of the mill. 

Prathouse. See Pratis. 

Pratis. Pratirris, Prateris. This and the preceding name 
seem to be taken from the personal name Prat derived 
from St. Protus. See Brotus. Cp. Protstown in Banff. 

Prinlaws. Prenlas. 

Purin. Pourane. Poll + raith = ferny pool. I. Pollraine. 

Pusk. Pursk, Pureswick. The last part is the Scandi- 
navian wick, a village, and the first is a man's name. 

Pyeston. Pyotstouii. Magpies' town. 

Quheitquerrellhoupe = the anchorage near the white 

quarry. 
Quiech. Cuach = hollow in a hill, hence applied to a 

river flowing out of the hollow. 

Radernie. Rath + airne = fort of the sloe trees. 

Raith. The Raithe. The " wread," or place for confining 

cattle in winter. Sec under Riras for the origin of 

the term. 
Rambothie. Rann + both = division of the huts. 

E 



50 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Rameldry. Ratkmeldry, Ramdrike. The latter part 
seems to involve a personal name, as Melric, so that 
the name means Melric's fort. 

Ramoir. Rath + mor = great fort. I. Ramore Point at 
Portrush. 

Ramornie. Ramorgnie, Ramorgany. Rath + mor + 
Cainnech = the great fort of Cainnech. See Mount- 
quhanie. 

Rankeillour. Rann + coille + dobhar = the portion of 
the wood by the water. 

Rathelpie. Rathelpin. Rath + Alpin = Alpin's fort. 

Rathillet. Rathalet, Rathulct. Rath + Uladh = the fort 
of Ulster. 

Redwalls. So called from the iron scum rising on the 
surface of the water. See Strathruddie. 

Reelpinton. 

Rescobie. Ros + Colbain = the promontory of Colbain. 

Rhynd. Rinn = point or promontory. 

Rimalton. Rimmel's town. 

Rintoul. Rentonill. Rinn + toll = the point of the hollow. 

Rires. Riras, Rerays {schira de). A comparison of this 
name with such names as Rywrayis, Bulwrayis in 
Renfrew, and Wrae or Wraith in various districts, 
points out as the explanation of the latter part of the 
name the old Scottish word Wread or Wreath, 
signifying a small enclosure for confining cattle or 
for growing crops. The " reed " is still the name in 
Fife for the court where cattle are enclosed in winter. 
The term appears in Old Norse in such words as naep- 
nareitr, a place for growing turnips. Rerays signifies 
enclosures for growing rye. The root idea is tying 
up or enclosing ; in Gothic vrithus means a herd. 
See Raith. 

Risk, The. This is the name of a field on an old plan of 
Findatie. Riasc = marsh. I. Roosky. 

Rodmannan. Rothimanand. This place seems to have 
been near St. Andrews. The latter part involves the 
same word as appears in Clackmannan and Slamannan, 
for which see Skene and Rhys. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 51 

Rossyth. Ros + saighead = promontory of the arrows. 

Rufflets = rough flat or meadow. 

Rumdewan. Rann + Dubhan = division of Dubhan {i.e. 

the little dark man). I. Randouan. 
Rumgally. Ramgally, Ratmagallan. Rath + gallan = 

fort of the pillar stones. 
Runbroig" (" part of Balsasny "). Rann + brog = division 

of the shoe. See Pitbrog. I. Knocknabrogue. 
Ryelaw. Rialie, Royallie. 

St. Monans. This saint's name is also preserved in the 
name Kilminning, q.v. 

Saline. Sauelyn. Sabhal = a barn. 

Salrais-medow. Cp. Salramedow (S) in Roxburgh. 
The first part of this name seems to be sal, a word in 
all the Teutonic languages signifying an abode or hall, 
and sometimes applying to a place for storing crops. 
The latter is wread, an enclosure (see Riras) ; so the 
word means an enclosure for an erection for storing 
crops. 

Salveneich (Salveynche). This seems to be the same 
name as Sealvanach, son of Eogan, king of Dalriada. 
(K). 

Sauchope. Saldiop. Perhaps the hope or bay by the 
saugh or willow trees. 

Seabert. 

Scololand. Scolocs (Pictish scolofthes, explained by Latin 
scholasticus) seem to have been originally the lowest 
order of clergy, and employed in agriculture, and sub- 
sequently to have become simply the term for the 
small tenants under the clergy. Thus there were 
" scologlands " in Ellon and in Arbuthnot held under 
St. Andrews. The name scolog in Ireland means 
a small farmer, as in the name Scullogestoun. 

Scoonie. Scotiin. 

Scotlandwell. " Pons Scotiae." It does not appear when 
this name was given. It became titular of one of the 
few religious houses in Scotland termed a ministry, 
this foundation bcim* lord of the manor of Scotland- 



52 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

well. The Church was probably the giver of the 

name, as it superseded sometimes earlier names, e.g. 

Kirkness and Spittle. 
Scotstarvet. This means Tarvet owned by a Scott. It 

seems to have been previously called Inglistarvet, as 

being owned by an Inglis. 
Seg'g'ie. Sagy. Cp. the ancient river name Segeia, sup- 
posed to be the Mersey, and the tribal name Segantii. 
Serisland. Siresland, Scheirisland, Scheires. See Ceres. 
Shambleton. Sean + baile = old town. Cp. Shambellie 

in Dumfries. 
Shanwell. Sean + baile = old town. 
Sheardrum. Siar + drum = western ridge. 
Shirend. " Shire " here probably means barony, and the 

name indicates the most distant point of a barony. 
Shiresbare. 
Shires Mill. There were many " shires " in Fife, and the 

word seems to have been equivalent to barony, so that 

Shires Mill indicates the barony mill. 
Shirram Brae. 
Shoolbraids. Scumhal + braghad = steep hill of the 

gorge. I. For the first part of the name Shoolbraids, 

Drumscool, and for the second the Braid in Antrim. 

So in Scotland the Braid Hills near Edinburgh, and 

Breadalbane. 
Sillerhole. A place about which there must have been a 

legend to the effect that there was treasure there. 
Silloek. Saileach = willow. I. Silloge. 
Silverbarton. Barton belonging to one of the name of 

Solvar. 
Silverburn. See Sillerhole. 
Silverton. See Silverbarton. 
Sisterislandis. This refers to a custom where land was 

divided among all the children, but a daughter's share 

was less than that of a son. Cp. the term sister-part 

in Shetland. 
Skaildowhillis. Sgail + dubh = dark shade. 
Skeddoway. ScatJwchy. Scothach = flowery place. 
Skelpie. Scealp = cleft or chasm. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 53 

Skilmervie. Sgail + mor + beinn = shadow of the big 

hill. 
Skryne. From Latin scrinium = shrine. I. Skrine. 
Slungie Hill. Sliabh + Angus = hill of Angus. 
Solsgirth. Perhaps identical with the old name Saltgirs. 
Sorbie. 
Soytourlandis. A suitor was one who held land under 

a tenure which obliged him to appear in Court on 

behalf of his superior. 
Spalefield. See Spawell. 
Spale Inn. See Spawell. 
Spawell. A well for telling fortunes ; the same word 

appears in spaewife. The word is etymologically 

equivalent to Lat. specio. 
Spittal = Hospital. Cp. Dalnaspidal. Spittle is a very- 
common name in Ireland. 
Standalane. 
Stankhill. Stank is an old Sc. word for an open ditch 

for draining land. 
Star. Sturr — pointed rock. 

Starley Burn. Sturr + liath = gray pointed rock. 
Starrlaw. See preceding. 
Steelend. This name indicates a place for putting up 

horses, being cognate with stall. 
Stenhouse. 

Stenton. The Stentonne. 
Stovie. Stove in old Sc. means vapour or mist, so Stovie 

is a dewy place. 

"With hailsum stouis ouerheildand the slak." — DOUG., Virgil. 

Strabo Muir. Strath + bo = cows' strath. It is described 

as " communis pastura." 
Strathairly. Strath + ard + liath = strath of the gray 

height. 
Strathendry. Strathanery. Strath + righ = king's strath. 
Strathkinness. Strath of the Kinness Burn. Kinness 

appears also in the form Kineth. If this is correct, 

the meaning is Kenneth's Burn. 



54 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Strathmiglo. Strathmigloche. The strath of the Miglo 

stream. See Craigmiglo. 
Strathruddie. Strath + ruide = strath of the red iron 

scum. The iron from the soil appears on the surface 

of the water, giving it a rcddisli colour. I. Raruddy. 
Strathtyrum. Strath + tioram = the dry strath. 
Stravithy. Strath + beith = strath of the birch trees. 
Stronachy Hill. Sron = the nose. The letter " t " is 

frequently inserted between s and r. 
Sunnyside. Lands were on division distinguished by the 

terms sunny half and shady half. 
Sypsies. To " sipe " is to ooze, and sypsies must mean 

land kept wet with a number of small springs. Cp. 

Sypland in Galloway. 
Sythrum. Shyrthrum (?). Siar + drum = western ridge. 

The name appears as Sheardrum in Saline. 
Swallowdrum. 
Swilken Burn, The. 
Swinky. Swinecowhill. 

Tailabout. Cp. the Fife name Cuffabout. 

Tarbet. East and West (Isle of May). These are the 
names at the two extremities of a narrow neck of land 
in the Isle of May. The name is more accurately 
Tarbert, and is used both in Scotland and in Ireland 
to indicate a narrow isthmus across which boats could 
be carried from sea to sea. Cp. E. and W. Tarbert 
in Kintyre, Tarbet in Loch Lomond, Tarbert in 
Harris, and Tarbert in Ireland. 

Tarhill. Tor = hill. 

Tarvet. Tarbat. This name is of the same origin as 
Tarbet, q.v. 

Teasses. Taisses. An English pi. Tais = moist or 
damp. Cp. Ilantassyn near Islay. 

Tents Moor. An English pi. of teinte pi. of teine = fire. 
I. Tents. 

Tethyknowe. 

Teuehat. Tuquhitesse. Tigh + Cait = house of Cait. 

Thainislandis. The lands of a thane. The term thane 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 55 

was preserved in Scotland much later than England, 
and designated a tenant of lands under the crown. 
Cp. such names as Thainstoun in Aberdeen and in 
Kincardine, and Thaynisnett in Banff. 

Thimblehill. Perhaps named like Thimbletown in 
Ireland, the flowers of the foxglove being referred to. 

Thirlstone. This means a stone drilled or bored for some 
purpose, just as the Bore Stone at Bannockburn where 
Bruce's standard was fixed. 

Thomanean. Tomenaygne. Tom + eun = hill of birds. 
This is another instance of the old spelling trying to 
approximate the Celtic pronunciation. 

Thornton. This may be identical with the old name 
Thoriston. 

Thre. 

Threapmuir. From the old Sc. word threip, meaning to 
quarrel or debate. The name may commemorate the 
site of a controversy either as to the ownership of the 
land or of some other matter of dispute in the district. 
Many Irish names arise from the same circumstance, 
e.g. Quintinmanus. A similar state of affairs made 
Horace say of himself, " Lucanus an Apulus anceps." 

Tichindod, or, as it is usually written, Dichindod. The 
first part is tech = house. 

Tillybreck. Tulach + breac = speckled hill. 

Tillyochie. Tulach = hill. 

Tillyrie. Tulach + reidh = hill in the plain. 

Tillywhally. Tulach + coille = hill of the wood. 

Tippermacoy. Tiobar + MacAodha = Mackay's well. 

Tippermure. Tiobar + mor = great well. 

Tipperton. See preceding entry. 

Tolibrench. 

Tolybotheville. 

Tong-ueis. Ton + giumhas = back of the firs. 

Topitlaw. Topit is the same name as the Irish hill of 
Topped applied to a round hill. The Gaelic adjective 
is topach = having a tuft or crest, and is identical with 
the English word top. Cp. the expression "a weel- 
tappit hen." 



56 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

Torbain. Tor + ban = white hill. 

Torloisk. Tor + loisgthe = hill of burning {i.e. of the 
heather). 

Torr. This name probably indicates here a tower-like hill. 
The word, however, seems to have its proper meaning 
of an artificial tower in such old Fife names as 
Torcatholach, Torforret, and Tornacataris. 

Tosh. 

Touchie. Techyntulchy, TlieutiilcJiy. Tech + tulach = 
house on the hill. 

Transylaw. For Tansylaw. Tansy is a tall plant with 
small yellow flowers. O. F. tanasie. 

Trapinthie. 

Travalay. See Dovolay. The first part of the name 
seems to be the common Brythonic word tref, mean- 
ing a dwelling. 

Treaton. Tratone, Trettoiin, Trittoun. 

Trolbanyre or Tarvane, perhaps the same place as 
Turlvany. 

Troustrie. Trostry. Cp. Troustir in Cowal and Trostane 
in Carrick. Named after St. Drostan, who is 
described in connection with Markinch as Modrustus, 
mo = my, being often prefixed to saints' names in 
Irish. 

Tulliallan. Tulach + aluinn = beautiful hill. I. Tully- 
allen. 

Tulliebole. Tulach + Baeighill = the hill of Boyle. Cp. 
Maybole. 

Tullylumb. Tulach + lorn = bare hill. 

Turf hills. Tarbh + coille = bull's wood. 

Turlvany. 

Tushielaw. Dishilago = Sc. name for the coltsfoot 
plant. 

Tyrie. 

Uneakeris, Unakeris. 

Unthank. This name occurs frequently in Scotland, and 
sometimes in the form Winthank. It is derived from 
uinseann = ash tree. In Ireland Unshinagh means a 



THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 57 

place abounding in ash trees. In the South of 
Scotland the name appears as Inshanks, while in 
(S) Perth has Unschenach, and Lanark Uncheno. 
In the South of Ireland the word has " f " prefixed, so 
that the name appears as Funshinagh. 

Urquhart. Urchair = a throw, or cast of an athlete. 

Ury. This was the name of a streamlet running into 
Lochleven south of Milnathort. It is derived from 
iubhar = yew tree, and signifies a place abounding in 
yews. I. Uragh, or with the article prefixed Nevvry. 
See Orwell. 

Uthrogle. Utrogenalle, Utherogale. 

Vane, The. A'bheinn = the hill (bheinn being pronounced 

approximately vane). 
Vantage. 

Vicarford. The vicar's ford. 
Vows, The, East and West. Cp. Elanvow and Elan- 

vanow in Lochlomond. 

Wanleyis. Dark coloured or dirty meadows. Wan is 

an old Sc. word. 
Waterless. This is for water leas or meadows. Cp. 

Mannerless and Bredles. 
Waulkmill. The fulling mill. 
Weddersbie. Wethers' town. Cp. Balmuto. 
Wemyss. An English pi. of uaimh = cave. 
Whorlawhill. Cor = round hill. The name seems to 

comprise three words of the same meaning. 
Winthank. See Unthank. 
Wolmanstoun. Wolfman's town. 
Wolmerstoun. Wolmer's town. 
Womanhill, The ("apud Largo"). Wolfman's hill. 
Wormit. The Wormet. Worm or Orm in Scandinavian 

means a serpent. The article in Scandinavian -et is 

postfixed to the noun. The Wormet is thus an 

intelligible duplication. 



58 THE PLACE NAMES OF FIFE AND KINROSS 

OMISSA 

Cellardyke. Formerly called Skinfasthaven, or Skynfisch- 
heaven. 

Dalkeith. This name of lands in Kinross-shire (formerly 
in Perthshire) has been referred to for the explanation 
of several names such as Inverkeithing. Dalkeith 
signifies the field or district of Cait, one of the epony- 
mous sons of Cruithne. The name Cait is involved 
in Caithness as one of the seven divisions of the Picts 
in Scotland. The name appears also as Got (K), 
hence the Fife name Goatmilk. 



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