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Full text of "The place names of Middlesex (inclucing those parts of the county of London formerly contained within the boundaries of the old county)"

ES OF 
DDLESEX 

I.E.3.G0VER 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 



THE PLACE NAMES OF 
MIDDLESEX 

(INCLUDING THOSE PARTS OF THE COUNTY OF 

LONDON FORMERLY CONTAINED WITHIN THE 

BOUNDARIES OF THE OLD COUNTY) 



BY 



J. E. B. COVER, B.A. (Cantab.) 



LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO. 

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON, E.G. 4 

NEW YORK, TORONTO 

BOMBAY, CALCUTTA AND MADRAS 

1922 




Klb 



t 



PEEFACE. 

As a student of place name etymology, I have been 
struck by the fact that, whereas many of our northern 
and midland counties have been ably dealt with by 
competent hands, the southern counties, especially 
those in the vicinity of London, have for the most 
part been left untouched. It is for this reason that I 
have undertaken the present work. I selected Middle- 
sex for my subject — first, because it is a small county, 
and an investigation into the sources of its names could 
be accomplished in a shorter time than would be possible 
with one of the other ** home counties '* ; and secondly, 
because it contains the greatest city in the world, and in 
consequence might invoke more general interest than 
would be the case with any ordinary county. 

I take the opportunity of thanking Professor Mawer 
of Liverpool University for valuable help and advice on 
the subject which he has given me both personally and 
through the medium of his recent article on ** English 
Place Name Study'' printed by the British Academy, 
and which has lessened my diffidence in offering this 
work to the public. I also desire to acknowledge my 
indebtedness to my father, Mr. J. M. Gover, K.C., for 
assistance in revising proofs and otherwise. 

J. E. B. G. 

London, Mny^ 1922. 



565 5 5 1 



INTRODUCTION, 

In an attempt to elucidate the meanings of the place 
names of Middlesex, 1 have tried, to the best of my 
abihty, to follow out the rules laid down by Professor 
Skeat, Professor Mawer, Professor "Wyld and others. 
That is to say, I have first collected all available old 
spellings from the various records (of which a list will 
be found on pages xi-xiv) ; and secondly, having stated 
these in chronological order, I have endeavoured to 
interpret their meaning, paying strict attention in every 
case to the usual sound laws, and also to the topogra- 
phical situation of the places in question. 

Although Middlesex is the smallest but one of our 
English counties, I have found my task by no means 
free from difficulty. No good County History of Mid- 
dlesex exists to my knowledge (only one volume of 
the Victoria Series having been published, and that, 
curiously enough, being the second volume) ; and 
although Lysons covers the ground fairly completely in 
his ** Environs of London," he occasionally gives wrong 
references, and his attempted etymologies must in all 
cases be accepted with great caution. 

Since the coming of the railways in the nineteenth 
century the growth of London has been amazing. 



viii INTEODUCTION 

Originally occupying roughly the district now known as 
** the City," it had grown very little outward at the time 
of the Great Fire. Even as recently as 100 years ago 
the town hardly extended further west than Hyde Park 
or further north than the present Marylebone, Euston 
and City roads. Now the streets are stretching further 
out every year, and at the present rate of advance it 
appears probable that the whole county will be con- 
verted into metropolitan suburb at no distant date. 

The scope of this book is to include the names of all 
places historically and topographically in Middlesex, but 
excluding the actual **City'' names, which have been 
ably treated by Mr. Henry A. Harben in his ** Dictionary 
of London,*' published in 1918. I have, however, taken 
the liberty of including a few names such as Aldgate, 
Gracechurch, Walbrook, etc., which I consider to be 
proper '' place names '' and such as may be fairly in- 
cluded in the original county of Middlesex. I have 
also entered many place names now extinct or vanished, 
considering them to be as interesting to the philologist 
as those still surviving, together with a few names of 
historical or modern origin, a consideration of which, 
though of little interest from a language point of view, 
may tend to reassure investigators, who might other- 
wise be speculating on the chances of ** folk etymology " 
in such names as Copenhagen, Maida Vale, Portobello, 
etc. 

It will be noticed that I have not attempted any dis- 
quisition on the subject of Place Name Study as a whole. 
I considered it unnecessary since this has already been 
ably and learnedly dealt with by such eminent authori- 
ties as the late Professor Skeat and others. 



INTEODUCTION k 

My aim has been simply to add to the present list of 
county monographs on the subject a contribution on the 
local names of the County of Middlesex, comparing 
these, whenever possible, with names in other English 
counties, in the Anglo-Saxon Charters, and especially in 
Kemble's *' Codex Diplomaticus,'* which contains a com- 
plete index in the final volume. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



I. GENERAL SOUECES. 

Abbreviations, 
A Descriptive Catalogtie of A^icient Deeds, (Public Re- 
cord Office.) 6 vols. 1890- A.D. 

Cartularium Saxonicum. By W. de G. Birch. 3 vols. 

1885, 1887, 1893 Bch. 

Cale7idarium Rotula)'2im Chartarum, 1803 . . . Cal. Rot. Oh. 
Calejidarium Rotulorum Patentium in turri Lo9idiniensi, 

1802 Oal. Ret. P. 

Calendar of Charter Rolls (1226-1447). Public Record 

Office. 5 vols. 1903- Oh. 

Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel. 2 vols. Ed. 

Plummer and Earle. Oxford, 1892-1899 . . . Chron. 
Calendar of the Close Rolls (1227-1385). Public Record 

Office. 29 vols. 1892- Close. 

Crawford Cliarters. Ed. Napier and Stevenson. Ox- 
ford, 1895 Crawford. 

Domesday Book, 3 vols. Record Commission. 1816 . Dd. 
Monasticon Anglicanum. 6 vols. Ed. Dugdale. 1846 . Dug. 
A Handbook of the Land Charters and other Saxonic 

Docwnents, Ed. J. Earle. 1888 .... Earle. 
Calendariurn, inquisitionum post-mortem sive Escae- 

tarum. 4 vols. From 1806 Escaet. 

Excerpta e rotulis finium in turri Londiniensi asser- 

vatif tempore regis Johannis, Record Commission. 

T. D. Hardy. 1835 Excerpta. 

Inquisitions and Assess7iients Relating to Feudal Aids, 

5 vols. Public Record Office. 1899- . . . P.A. 
Booh of FeeSf cmnmonly called Testa de Nevill : Reformed 

, . , by the Deputy Keeper of the Records, Part I. 

1920 Fees. 



xii BIBLIOGEAPHY 

Abbreviations, 
Calendar of the Fine Rolls. 6 vols. Public Record Office. 

1911- Fine. 

Gesta Abbatum Monasterii Sancti Albani, Ed. H. T. 

Riley. 3 vols. 1867 Gesta. 

Rotuli Hundredorunit temp. Henry III. and Edward I. 

2 vols. 1812 ........ H.R. 

Index to the Charters and Bolls in the British Mtiseum, 

2 vols. Ed. Ellis and Biokley, 1900-1912 . . . Ind. 
Calendarium . . . inquisitionum ad quod damnum. 

1803 I.D. 

Calendar of hiquisitions post-7nortem. 11 vols. Public 

Record Office. 1904 I.p.m. 

Calendar of Inquisitions Miscellaneous (Chancery). 2 

vols. Public Record Office I.M. 

Codex Diplomaticus. 6 vols. Ed. J. Kemble. London, 

1839-1848 Kble. 

Public Record Office Lists and Indexes. 45 vols. . . L.I. 
Letters and Papers of the Beign of Henry VIII. 21 vols. 

Vols. 1-4, ed. Brewer ; Vols. 5-21, ed. Gairdner. . L.P.H. 
Magnum Botulum Scaccarii vel magnum rotulum pipae. 

Ed. J. Hunter M.R. 

Nonarum Inquisitionis in Curia Scaccarii (temp, regis 

EdwardillL). 1807 N.L 

Calejidar of Patent Bolls. 65 vols. Public Record Office. 

1891- Pat. 

Placitorum in dom^ capitulari Westmonasteriensi asser- 

vatorum Abbreviatio. 1818 Plac. Abb. 

Placitorum de quo Warranto. 1818 .... Pl.W. 
Pipe Boll Society Publications. Record Commission. 37 

vols., covering 1158-1199 P.R. 

Calendar of tlie Proceedings in Chancery in the Beign of 

Queen Elizabeth. 3 vols. 1830 .... Proc. Chanc. 
Botulorum originalium in curia Scaccarii Abbreviatio 

2 vols. 1810 Rot. Abb. 

Botulus Cancellarii vel Antigraphum magni rotuli pipae 

(de tertio anno regni regis Johannis) . . . , Rot. Cane. 
Botuli Chartarum in turri Londiniensi asservati. Vol. 

I., pars I. 1837 Rot. Chart. 

Bed Book of tlie Exchequer. 3 vols. Ed. Hubert Hall, 

P.S.A. 1896 . R.E. 



BIBLIOGEAPHY 



xiu 



Abbreviations, 
Rotuli curiae regis. 2 vols. Ed. Sir F. Palgrave. 1835 Rot. O.K. 
Rottdi Litterarum clausarum in turri Londiniensi asser- 

vati. 2 vols. 1844 Rot. L.C. 

Rotuli Litterarum Patentium in turri Londiniensi asser- 

vati. Vol. I., pars I. (Record Commission. 1835) Rot. L.P. 
Rotuli de oblatis et flnibus in turri Londiniensi asservati^ 

tempore regis Johannis. (Record Commission. T. D. 

Hardy). 1835 Rot. O.F. 

Onomasticon Anglo- Saxonicum. A list of Anglo-Saxon 

proper names from the time of Beda to that of King 

John. Ed. W. G. Searle. Cambridge, 1897 . . Searle. 

Selden Society Publications, 38 vols S.S. 

Taxatio Ecclesiastica Angliae et Walliae auctoritate Papae 

Nicholas IV, Circa a.d, 1291 T.E. 

Diplomatarium Anglicum aevi Saxonici, Ed. B. Thorpe. 

London, 1865 Thorpe. 

Testa de Nevill sive Liber Feodorum in curia Scaccarii 

(temp. Henry III. and Edward I.) . . . . T.N. 
Valor EccUsiasticus, c, 1535. 6 vols V.E. 

II. SPECIAL SOUECES OF MIDDLESEX NAMES. 

London and Middlesex ArchcBological Society Transac- 
tions. London, 1860, etc. Arch. 

London, North of the Thames. By Sir Walter Besant . Besant. 

Calendar of Coroner's Rolls of the City of London. Ed. 

Reginald Sharpe. London, 1913 .... Cor. 

A Calendar of the Feet of Fines for Lotvdon and Middle- 
sex, 2 vols. Ed. W. J. Hardy, F.S.A., and W. 
Page, F.S.A. London, 1892-1893 .... F.P. 

Greater London, a Narrative of its History, its People, 

and its Places. Vol. I. Ed. Edward Walford . G.L. 

A Dictionary of London. By Henry A. Harben, F.S.A. 

London, 1918 Harben. 

Environs of London, By Rev. Daniel Lysons. 4 vols. 

and Supplement. London, 1792 .... Lysons. 

Meinorials of St. John at Hackney, By R. Simpson . Mem. 

Old and New London, 6 vols. By Walter Thombury . 0. and N. 

Stow's Survey of London^ 1603. Ed. C. L. Kingsford, 

M,A. 2 vols Stow. 



XIV 



BIBLIOGEAPHY 



Abbreviations, 
The Victoria History of the County of Middlesex. Ed. 

WilUam Page. Vol. II. London, 1911 . . . V.C.H. 
Middlesex Pedigrees, Harleian Society Publications. 

Vol. LXV. 1914 Mid. Ped. 



III. MONOGRAPHS ON ENGLISH PLACE AND 



Alexander, H. 
Baddeley, W, St. C. 
Bannister, A. T. 
Duignan, W, H. 



Ekblom, E. 
Goodall, A. 
Jackson, C. E. 
Johjiston, J, B. 

»» 
Joyce, P. W. . 

Maioer, Allen . 



McClure^ Edmund , 

Middendorff, H. 
Moore, A. W. , 
Moorman, F, W. 
Morgan, T. 
Mutschmann, H. 
Roberts, B. Q. 
Skeat, W. W. . 



PERSONAL NAMES. 

Place Names of Oxfordshire. 1912. 
„ ,, Gloucestershire. 1913. 

,, „ Herefordshire. 1916. 

Notes on Staffordshire Place Names. 1902. 
Warwickshire Place Names. 1912. 
Worcestershire „ 1905. 

Place Names of Wiltshire. 1907. 

„ S.W.Yorkshire. 19U. 
„ Durham. 1916. 
„ „ England and Wales. 1915. 

„ Scotland. 1903. 
Origin and History of Irish Names of Places. 

2 series. 1870, 1876. 
Place Names of Northumberland and Durham. 

1920. 
English Place Name Study, its present condition 
and future possibilities. (Proc. Brit. Acad. 
Vol. X.) 1921. 
British Place Names in their historical setting. 

1910. 
Altenglisches Flurnamenbuch. 1902. 
Manx Names. 1903. 

Place Names of the West Riding of Yorks. 1910. 
Place Names of Wales. 1912. 

„ „ Nottinghamshire. 1913. 

„ ,, Sussex. 1914. 

„ „ Bedfordshire. 1906. 

„ „ Berkshire. 1911. 

„ „ Cambridgeshire. 1901. 

„ „ Hertfordshire. 190i. 

„ „ Huntingdonshire. 1902. 

„ Suffolk. 1911. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



XV 



Taylor, J. 
Walker, B. 
Weekley, E. 

Wyld^H.C. 
Zachrisson, B, E. 



Bosioorth 
Bradley , 

E.D.D, . 

N.E.D. . 

Skeat 



. Words and Places. (Revised edition. 1911.) 
. Place Names of Derbyshire. 1914-1916. 
. Romance of Names. Pp. 96-142. 1914. 
. Surnames. Pp. 47-101. 1916. 
arid Hirst, T, 0. Place Names of Lancashire. 1911. 



. Anglo-Norman Influence on English Pla.ce Names. 
1909. 

IV. DICTIONAEIES, Etc. 

. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Ed. Prof. Toller. 
. Middle English Dictionary. By F. H. Stratman, 

Revised by H. Bradley. 
. EngUsh Dialect Dictionary. 6 vols. 1898-1905. 

Ed. Joseph Wright. 
. New English Dictionary. Ed. A-V Inclusive. 

1888, etc. 
. Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. 

Ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. Fourth edition. 

1910. 



V. A LIST OF SOME USEFUL MAPS. 

Camden . . . (Map of Middlesex in Camden's Britannia.) 1695. 

Greenwood . . Map of the County of Middlesex. By 0. Green- 
wood. 2 inches = 1 mile. 1819. 

Rocque . . .A Topographical Map of the County of Middlesex. 
By J. Rocque. 4 sheets. 1754. 

Seller . . . The County of Middlesex actually surveyed by 
John Seller. 1710. 

Speed . . .An Atlas of England and Wales. By J. Speed. 
1610. 

Also map in Norden's •• Speculum Britannise " (1596), of which Speed's 
is a mere augmentation. 



ETYMOLOGICAL EEFEEENCES. 

A.S. = Anglo-Saxon (Old English). 

M.E.= Middle English. 

O.N.= Old Norse. 
The sign (X) before a name means that the charter from which it is 
taken is a later copy of a lost original. Hence these names are often 
not A.S. but M.E. in form. 



KEY TO PHONETIC SYMBOLS USED IN 



Symbol 

SB 

a: 

€ 

€: 

ei$ 

3 
3: 
I 
ii 



o: 

out 

u 

u: 

A 

af 
au 

01 



Vowels. 



THIS BOOK. 






Consonants. 


Key Word. 


Symbol, 


Key Word 


bat. 


b 


bat. 


bath. 


k 


cat. 


befc. 


d . . 


dad. 


Baring. 


f 


fat. 


bane. 


g 


gap. 


butter. 


h 


hat. 


bird. 


1 


late. 


bit. 


m 


mate. 


bee. 


n 


net. 


box. 


P 


pet. 


ball. 


r 


red. 


boat. 


s 


said. 


bull. 


t 


ten. 


boon. 


V 


vein. 


but. 


w 


wind. 


bite. 


z 


wise. 


bough. 


] 


yes. 


boil. 


s • • 


shop. 




3 


azure. 




e 


thigh. 




i . . 


thy. 




V 


^ng. 




X 


(Scotch) night, 



X As pronounced in the South of England, 



MIDDLESEX PLACE NAMES AEEANGED 
ALPHABETICALLY. 

An asterisk (*) before a name denotes tliat the place is not 
found in present-day maps. 

Abchurch (in the City). 

c. 1198. Abechurch (quoted Harben). 
1228. Abbecherche (A.D.). 
1291. Abbechurch (T.E.). 
1428. Abbechirche (F.A.). 
1565. Abchurch (F.F.). 
Prefix is an A.S. personal name Aba or Abba, of which 
Searle gives several examples. 

Cf. Abinger, Abingdoji, Abiyigton, etc. in various counties. 

Acton. 

1210. Actone (E.E.). 
1216-1307] ((T.N.). 

1291 [ Acton (T.E.). 
1316) i(F.A.). 

1316. Aketon (Ch.). 
Acton in the F.F. passim, 
*' oak farm or enclosure." A.S. * ac tiin. 

The vowel is shortened in composition before ct. 

Alderm ANBURY (in the City). 

c. 1190. Aldermanesbury (A.D.). 

1202. Aldermannesbir' (Eot. Cane). 
1267. Aldermanbury (Escaet), 



2 THE FliAGE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

" stronghold or manor of the * alderman *." See p. 112. 
A.S. ealdorman meant a " prince," *' noble," '* one of high 
rank." See N.E.D. 

Aldersgatb (a City gate). 

c. 1000. Ealdredesgate (quoted Harben). 
1197] ((F.F.). 

1260 [ Aldredesgate](A.D.). 
1216-1307) l(H.E.). 

1352. Aldresgate (Escaet). 
1535. Aldersgate (V.E.). 
Searle gives sixty-six examples of the A.S. personal name 
'* Ealdred." 

Aldgate (a City gate). 

1108. Alegate (quoted Harben). 

1231. Allegate (F.F.). 
1268^ ((I.p.m.). 

1272-1377 [ Alegate (P. W.). 

1291 1 i(T.E.) 

1295, 1348. Aldgate (F.F.). 

l^^n Algate/(^-^-)- 
1535/ ^ \(V.E.). 

1618. Aldgate (Stow's survey). 
The old forms show that the prefix is not A.S. eald *' old," 
but a personal name Ala or Alia. 

Aldwich (Strand). 

1219. Aldewich (F.F.). 

1233. Aldewych (F.F.). 

1267. Aldewich (Ch.). 
* se ealda wlc, " the old dwelling or settlement." 
*Ealdan wlc, " dwelling of Ealda," is also possible. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 3 

Alpbrton. 

? 1199. Alprinton (F.F.). 

1200. Alperton (Rot. c.r.). 

1322. Alpertone (Cor.). 

1342. Apurton (F.F.). 

1399. Alpurton (F.F.). 

14:07. Halperton (F.F.). 

1508. Alperton (F.F.). 
"farm or enclosure of Ealhperht" — for Ealhberht, the b 
becoming voiceless after the '' h " (= x)- See Epperston in 
" Place Names of Notts," p. 48. 

The earliest form looks like some other type, if referring 
to this place. 

ASHFORD. 

Type I. 

1 1062. Exforde (Kble.). 

1293J (^(I.p.m.). 

1470. Ashford (Escaet). 

1488, 1517. Assheford (F.F.). 

1610. Asheford (Speed). 
Type IL 

t 969. Ecclesforde (Bch., Kble., Thorpe). 

1291. Ethelesford (T.E.) [t clerical error for c]. 

1294. Echelesford (F.F.). 

1327-1377/ ^''^^^^^-^{iN.r^' 
1535. Echelford (V.E.). 

Type 7. Prefix either A.S. ceso '* ash " or Celtic root *esk, 
*eks = '* water," as in river names Esk, Exe, Axe, etc. 

Type II, Prefix is a personal name * Mccel, diminutive of 
-^cce or -^cci (2 in Searle). 

1* 



1272-1377) 



4 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

*AsTLEHAM (Laleham). 

1291. Estelham (F.F.). 

1362. Hastelham (F.F.). 

1445. Astleham (Index). 

1517. Astelam (F.F.). 

1819. Astleham (Greenwood). 
The A.S. cestel means " a waxen tablet " and could hardly 
fit in here. Perhaps a personal name ^Eastel. Eastulf 
(Eastwulf) is the nearest name in Searle, and is possible (of. 
Harlesden). 

Baenet, Friern Barnet. 
1216-1307. la Bernete (H.E.). 

1237. Little Bernete (F.F.). 
1272-1377. la Bernette (P.W.). 
1325. Barnette (F.F.). 
1408. Barnet (F.F.). 
1460. Freron Barnet (L.I., vol. 12). 
1535. Freren Bnet, Friern Bnet (V.E.). 
1610. Fryarn Barnet (Speed). 
Under Chipping Barnet (Herts), Prof. Skeat explained this 
name as Old French bernette ^ diminutive of berns **a slope, 
edge, bank " — of Teutonic origin and cognate with English 
*' brim." 

The place, therefore, is of post-conquest origin. 
Friern Barnet was in the possession of the friars or brethren 
of the order of the priory of St. John of Jerusalem. M.E. 
frere>A.F. frere, freire ''brother" survives in its original 
form in the surnames Frere, Freer. 

Barnsbury. 

ms} Bernersbury {1^3^^,^). 

1422. Berners Maner' in Iseldon (Escaet). 



THE PLACE NAMES OP MIDDLESEX 5 

U92. Barnersbury (F.F.). 

1541. Barnardesbury (F.F.). 

1543. Barnesbury (F.F.). 
" stronghold oi* manor of Bern(i)er." See p. 99. 

B. is a Norman personal name, cf. Kalph de Berners (ob. 
1297) and Roger de Berners (F.F. anno. 1356). 

Bayswater (Paddington). 

c. 1400. Baynards Watering Place (quoted Besant). 
1653. Baynards Watering (quoted 0. and N.). 
1710. Beards Watering Place (Seller). 
1809. Byards Watering Place (quoted Besant). 
1819. Bayswater (Greenwood). 
Evidently a cut down form of the Norman personal name 
Baynard, Baignard (cf. ''Baynards" in Surrey). Possibly 
named after the B. mentioned in Dd. who held land in the 
demesne of the Church of St. Peter of Westminster, or after 
one of his descendants. 

The *' water " referred to is the Westbourne stream. 

Bedfont. 

1086. Bedefunt, Bedefunde, West Bedefund (Dd.). 

1199. Bedefunte (F.F.). 

1200. Bedefunt (Eot. c.r.). 
1210. Bedefont (E.E.). 

1216-1307. Westbedefunte, Estbedefont (T.N.). 
1428. Bedfount (F.A.). 
*' well or spring of Beda (Baeda)," cf. ** the Venerable Bede." 
A.S. font > Latin font-[fons]. 

Beetonswood Farm (Ickenham). 

Beeton's Wood marked in Eocque. Probably an imported 
name. 



6 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

Bblsizb (Hampstead). 

So spelt in Norden and Eocque. Belsyse in Speed. Lysons 
also quotes forms Belses, Belseys of earlier date, and states 
that the place dates back to at least 1400 a.d. 

French '' bel sis," i.e. ''beautifully situated," '* finely 
placed." Belsize House (demolished last century) was situated 
on the slopes of Hampstead, facing south. 

Bentley Pbiory (Stanmore). 

1244. Benetlega (S.S., vol. 15). 

1248. Benethley, Benethleya (Dug.). 

1544. Bentley (L.I., vol. 34). 
The prefix is A.S. beonet " a kind of coarse grass," *' bent 
grass." There are many places of this name in England. 

Bethnal Green. 

13th century. Blithehale (A.D.). 

1341. Blithenhale fA.D.). 

1389. Blythenhale (F.F.). 

1550. Bleten hall green (quoted in Stow's survey, 

vol. 2). 
1568. Bednalgrene (F.F.). 
1603. Blethenhal green now called Bednal-greene 

(Stowe). 
1642. Bethnal Green (Index). 
A.S. 8et Sam bllSan heale, '' at the happy, pleasant (* blithe ') 
nook or corner." See Hale {infra). 

Or Bli^a may have been used as a personal name, short 
for Blithhelm, Blithhere, Blithmund, etc. (see Searle), this 
being perhaps the most likely sense. 
Loss of one '* 1 " by dissimilation. 

Billingsgate (in the City). 

c, 1100. Billingesgate (quoted Harben). 
c. 1200. Billynggesgate (A.D ). 



THE PLACE NAMES OP MIDDLESEX 7 

1393 1 Billingesgate J (Escaefc). 

1428J l(E.A.). 

" gate of Billing," i.e. of the son of Billa. 

A.S. bil '' a kind of sword," '* bill," was used as the first 
element of some personal names, like most *' war words," cf. 
Billingshurst (Sussex). 

BiSHOPSGATE (in the City). 

1086. ad portam episcopi (Dd.). 
1216-1307. Bischopesgate (H.E.). 
1232. Bissopegate (F.F.). 
1291. Bissopisgate (T.B.), etc. 

Blackwall (Poplar). 

1377. Blakewale (quoted O. and N.). 
1480. Black Wall (quoted 0. and N.). 
1541. Blackewall (S.S., vol. 8). 
1610. Blackwall (Speed). 
Referring to a wall along the Thames bank. 

Bloomsbuky. 

c. 1272. Blemondisberi (A.D.). 
1295. Blomundesbury (Escaet). 
1324. Blemondesbiry (I.p.m.). 
1535. Blumbesbury (V.E.). 
1567. Blomesburye (P.P.). 
" stronghold or manor of Bleomund." Probably named 
after the William Blemund, who held land in " Totenhale " 
(Tottenham Court) in 1202 (P.P.). 

But the modern outcome is due to the type Blom — as in 
the 1295 form. 

Blemund (Bleomund ?) looks Teutonic, like most Old 
Prench names, ^mund = "protection," ** protector." 

Loss of medial syllable is regular, cf. Harmondstvorth 
{infra). 



8 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

Boston House (Ealing). 

1536. Bordeston (V.E.). 

1695. Boston (Camden). 
" farm of Bord — or possibly Bordel," cf. Bordesley (Warwick), 
rs > rds, then loss of r possibly through influence of Boston 
(Lines) since Borstal (Kent) retains it. 

BoTWELL House (Hayes). 

i 831. Botewselle (Bch, Kble). 

1368. Bodewell (F.F.). 

1480. Bodwell (L.I., vol. 16). 

1754. Botwell (Rocque). 
" well or spring of Bota or Boda " (both in Searle). 

Bourne Farm (Harefield). 

Marked in Eocque. The 1-inch ordnance map shows a 
small stream flowing past it. 

Bow. 

1279. Stratford atte Bowe (F.F.). 
1346. Stratford atte Boghe (F.F.). 
1349. Strettford atte Bowe (Rot. abb.), 
c. 1386. Stratford atte Bowe (Chaucer: Prol. Cant. 
Tales, line 125). 
1535. Stratford at Bowe (V.E.). 
1754. Bow (Rocque). 
*' ford at the street." *' Street " here, as usually in place 
names, refers to a Roman road. ^' Atte " is M.E. ; earlier 
form is atten from A.S. aet Sam (at the). 

Bow refers to the arched bridge built over the Lea here at 
the time of Henry I, and supposed to be the first of its kind 
in England. 

The name Stratford is now restricted to the nineteenth 
century town on the Essex side of the river, Bow being still 
retained for the district on the London (Middlesex) side. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 9 

Bowes Paek. 

1412. (The manor of) Bowes (F.F.). 

1695. Bowe farm (Camden). 

1710. Bows farm (Seller). 
Bowe or Bowes I take to be a man's name, perhaps 
originally from Bowes (Yorkshire), which was spelt Boues 
and Boghes in the thirteenth century, or else from Bow 
{supra). Or possibly the name may be local, like Bow, from 
an arched bridge over the little stream here, which runs into 
the Lea. 

Brackenbury Farm (Ickenham). 

1485. Brakenburgh (I.p.m.). 
1488. Brakenborough (F.F.). 
1558-1579. Brakenbroughes (L.I., vol. 7). 
Lysons says that this place took its name from a certain 
Thomas de Brakynburgh, anno 1350. 

There is a Brachenborough in Lincolnshire. 

Breakspears (Harefield). 

Marked in Norden (1596). Called after a family Brake- 
Sjpere, cf. Nicholas Brakespere mentioned re Euislip in 1246 
(S.S., vol. 2). The meaning of this personal name is obvious, 
cf. Shakespeare, 

Brent (river). 

972. Innan, of, braegentan (Bch.). 
978. Braegenta (Index). 
1202. Brainte (F.F.). 
1384. Breynte (F.F.). 
1556. Braynt (F.F.). 
cf. also form as prefix in Brentford (infra) before twelfth 
century. The name of the river in A.S. spelling is BrcBgent, 
but it is probably Celtic or pre-Celtic. 

Johnston's derivations are unlikely, for Welsh gw> 
original Celtic iv (u), not g. 



10 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

Bbentfobd. 

705. Breguntford (Index). 

780. Bragentforda, Bregentforda, Breguntforde 

(Kble.). 

781. Bregentforda (Earle). 

1016. set BrsBgentforda, aet Brentforda (Chron.). 
1222. Brainford (F.F.). 



12911 ^ , nf(T.E.). 

1316/ ^^^y^^^^H(F.A.). 



1340. Braynford (Index). 

1428. Brayneford (F.A.). 

1596. Brentford (Norden). 
" ford over the river Brent." 

nf > ntf , the t being reintroduced through the influence of 
the river name, where it had been retained. 

Beockley Hill (Elstree). 

1596. Brokeley Hill (Norden). 

1754. Brockley Hill (Eocque). 
As there is no appreciable stream near by, the prefix is 
possibly A.S. broc " badger.*' 

Bromley (Bow) [brAmli]. 

1203. Brambeleg (F.F.). 
c. 1220. Brembeley (Index). 
1251. Brombelleg (F.F.). 
1216-1307, Brembeley, Brambelheye (T.N.). 
1272-1377. Brambele (P.W.). 
1408. Brambleley (Ch.). 
1535. Brameley, Bromeley (V.E.). 
1569. Bromley (F.F.). 
"bramble lea," "pasture or clearing overgrown with 
brambles" (A.S. bremel, brembel, brsembel). 

Modern outcome due to influence of " broom," M.E. 
brome, but the words are in any case related. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 11 

Bbompton (brAmtc)n). 

1309. Bromton (F.F.). 
1481. Brompton (Escaet). 
? 1526. Brampton (F.F.). 
1710. Brompton (Seller). 
" broom farm or enclosure." 

In the third form above — if it refers to this place — the a is 
due to influence of the related word " bramble." 

Brondesbury (Kilburn). 

1291. Brondesbury (T.E.). 

1375. Bronesbury (F.F.). 

1535. Brundesbury (V.E.) 
The prefix is probably the A.S. personal name Brand 
(Brond), '' a sword." See also p. 99. Cf. Branshiiry 
(Hants), Brandesberee in Dd. 

Bruce Castle (Tottenham). 

1312. manerium de Totenham qd fuit Eob'ti de 

Bruys (Rot. abb.). 
1374. Le Bruses in Totenham (Escaet). 
1487. Breuses (I.p.m.). 
etc. 
The manor was held by the famous Robert Bruce, who 
forfeited it, when he fled from the Court of Edward I. 

The surname Bruce is Norman from Brieux (formerly 
Brieus) in France. 

BucKLERSBURY (in the City). 

1284. Bokerelesberi (A.D.). 

1377. Bokelersbury (Escaet). 

1535. Bucklers Bury (V.E.). 
" stronghold or manor of Bukerell." 

A family of this name held it in 1272 (Harben). Cf. also 
Rener' Buckerell in 1235 (Gal. R.C.). B. ia a Norman 
personal name. 



12 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

BuETONHALE Fabm (Mill Hill). 

Burton Hole in Greenwood, Button Hole (sic !) in Eocque. 
I find no earlier forms, so it may be a modern name. 

Bury Street. 

1596. Bury Street (Norden). 
See Bury and Street (pp. 99 and 105). 
Unless Bury was here a man's name. 

BusHEY Park (Hampton). 

c. 1600. Bushey Park (Mid. Ped.). 
Named, according to histories, after Bushey (Herts). 
See '* Place Names of Herts," by the late Prof. Skeat. 

Cambridge Heath. 

1216-1307. Camprichtesheth, Camprichesheth (H.E.). 
1603. Cambridge Heath (Stowe's). 

The prefix is some personal name, perhaps Cenebriht 
(Coenbeorht). Cf . Sawbridgeworth (Herts) originally Scebrihtes 
wurjb. nb would easily be assimilated to mb. 

Camden Town. 

Marked in Greenwood's map (1819). Called after Lord 
Camden, who let out the land in 1791 on building leases. 

But Kentish Town (q.v.) is an old name. 

Canonbury. 

1373. Canonesbury (quoted Lysons). 

1374. Canonsburye (Escaet). 
1535. Canonbury (V.E.). 

So named, because a manor held by the prior of the 
Augustinian canons of St. Bartholomew at Smithfield. 

Cantelowes (a former manor in St. Pancras). 
1190. Kantelu (P.E.). 
1235. (de) Cantilupo (P.P.). 



THE PLAGE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 13 

1235. Cantelo, Cantalupo (Fees). 
1257. Cantilupe (Fees). 

1558-1579. Cantelowes (L.I., vol. 7). 

Other forms quoted in histories are : Gauntelowe, Kaunte- 
loe, etc. ? A.F. '' can (camp) de lo "— '' field of the wolf." 

Partially latinized, as was often the case, and anyway an 
imported name. 

Causeyware Hall (Enfield). 

No old forms that I can find. Perhaps modern. 

Chalk Farm. 

1710/ ((Seller), 

1819. Chalk Farm (Greenwood). 
No earlier forms that I can find. Chalcot in Somerset is 
earlier Chaldecote, " cold dwelling." 

Chalkhill (Kingsbury). 

1066. get Cealchylle (Kble.). 

1236. Chalehull (F.F.) [e transcription error for c ?] 
1240. Chalkhulle (F.F.). 

1483. Chalkhille (L.I., vol. 16). 
Apparently *' chalk hill," but the soil here is not such. 
The name might, however, refer to some peculiar colour of 
the soil. 

Charing (Cross). 

1198. Cherringe (F.F.). 

1232. Cherring (Ch.). 

1243. Cheryngge (F.F.). 

1316. Charyngge (F.F.). 

1369. By the cross at Cherryng (A.D.). 

1397. Charing Cross (Escaet). 
Points to a patronymic of some name * Cserra or * Cearra. 
The cross dates from the time of Edward I, by whom it was 



14 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

erected as a tribute to Queen Eleanor, whence the popular 
etymology '' chere reine." 

But rather doubtful without earlier forms, since Charing 
(Kent) was Ciornincg in Bch. No. 293. 

Charlton. 

1086. Cerdentone (Dd.). 

1232. Cherdinton (F.F.). 

1268. Cherdington (F.F.). 

1316. Cherdyngton (F.A.). 

1327-13771 p, . , f(N.L). 
1517} Chardyngton jj^^^^ 

1539. Charlyngton (F.F.). 

1610. Charlton (Speed). 
** farm of the sons of Cerda." 

For loss of patronymic, cf . Kenton. 

For change of d to I, cf. Harlington. 

Change of e to a before r + consonant is regular. 

Chattern Hill (Ashford). 

Spelt Chatern in Eocque and Seller. 

No earlier forms that I can find, but a good guess, if the 
name be old, would be *' house of Ceatta." (A.S. aern, 
*' house," *' storehouse," *' dwelling.") 

Chelsea. 

785. CealchySe (Chron.). 

7851 ^ , , ^({Ind.y 

789} ^^^^^y^|(Earle, Kble.). 

799. Cselichyth (Bch., Earle, Ind.). 

825. CselchySe (Kble., Thorpe). 

1086. Cerchede, Chelched (Dd.). 

1197. Chelchud' (F.F.). 

1272-1377. Chelchehethe (P.W.). 

1291. Chelcheth (T.E.). 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 15 

1316. Chelchehuth (F.A.). 

1499. Chelsehithe (F.F.). 

1535. Ghelshith (Y.E.). 

1556. Chelsyth (F.F.). 

1610. Chelsey (Speed). 

1754. Chelsea (Eocque). 
From A.S. cealc, " chalk," and hy'6, " a hithe, wharf, landing 
place." 

As the soil here is not chalk, the name may refer to a 
" hithe " where chalk or lime was landed for some purpose. 
Chelchehithe is the natural M.E. development, then s>5 to 
facilitate pronunciation and partly through dissimilation. 
For loss of final th cf . Stejmey {infra). Also Putney (Surrey) 
which was Puttenhuthe, Pottenhethe, Puttenhith in the 
Surrey Pedes Finium (fourteenth and fifteenth centuries). 

Childs Hill (Hendon). 

1596. Childes Hill (Norden). 
Childe, Chylde (Child) I take to be a man's name. It 
occurs in the F.F., 1396 and 1485. 

Chiswick (tjizik). 

1272-1377^ r(F.W.). 

1291 ^, u (T.E.), 

1306 ^^^^^^yM(A.D.). 
1316J 1(F.A.). 

1428. Cheswyk (F.A.). 
1558-1603. Cheesewyke (Proc. Chanc. Eliz.). 
1754. Chiswick (Eocque). 
" cheese farm or dwelling." A.S. cese, clese. 

The flat meadow lands in the neighbourhood were doubt- 
less early recognized as rich pasture grounds, [i > i : > e : ] 
cf. Keswklc (Cunaberland). 



16 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 



Clapton. 

1345\ ^, . /(L.L, vol. 17). 
1556/ ^1°P*^° |(F.F.)- 

1581, etc. Clopton, Clapton (Mem.). 
1610. Clapton (Speed). 

In a genuine charter, c. 880, Clapham (Surrey) appears as 
Cloppaham, and Prof. Skeat thought this must be a genitive 
plural of a noun "^ clop, which he compared with Mid, Danish, 
klop, '' stub," " stump.*' 

So the meaning may be " farm in the stubby or stumpy 
ground ** — with low bushes and shrubs. 

Prof. Mawer, however, considers this solution improbable, 
so an alternative meaning might be *' farm of Cloppa.** But 
Cloppa is only inferred in Searle from the place name Clap- 
ham (see above), and it is worth noting that the prefix Clop., 
Clap, in place names always occurs with ham or ton^ and I 
think it very unlikely that the numerous Cloptons, Claptons, 
Claphams in England all come from a personal name. 

Clayhill (Enfield). 

Clay Hill farm marked in Eocque. There is a Clahull 
(F.F., 1213), but this seems to refer to land near Harefield. 

Clebkenwell (kla : k — ). 

c. 1100. juxta fontem clericorum (Dug.). 
1197. Clerkenwell (F.F.). 
1199. Clerekenewell (P.E.). 
1200>. r(Eot. c.r.). 

1216-13071 Clerkenewell] (H.E.). 
1291^ HT.E.). 

1596. Clarkenwell (Norden). 
The form in Dugdale explains the name ; there were two 
or three religious houses in the district. 
See clerk in N.E.D. 



THE PLACE NAMES OP MIDDLESEX 1? 

Clutterhouse Farm (Hendon). 

1445. Clyderhous in Hendon (F.F.). 
1535. Clitherhouse (V.E.). 
1819. Clutter House farm (Greenwood). 
Named after a family Cliderhou — cf. Eobert de Cliderhou 
in F.F., 1311. This surname comes from Cliderhou, Clitherou 
(Lanes) — now Clitheroe. 

The modern outcome is due to folk-etymology. 

COCKFOSTERS (Enfield). 

1632. Cock ffosters (E. Cass* '' East Barnet "). 
1819. Cock Forsters (Greenwood). 
G. L. states that cock may = old French bicoque, " a little 
hut or hovel," but this is doubtful. 

Might not cock = '' chief " in this instance and the mean- 
ing be " (dwelling) of the chief forester " ? 

Cockfosters is a hamlet on the outskirts of Enfield Chase. 

CoLDH ARBOUR Farm (Hayes). 

Prof. Skeat explained this name as meaning a harbour or 
refuge where one could get shelter but no food or fire. 

N.E.D. says : '' Cold Harbour, a place of shelter from the 
weather for wayfarers, constructed by the wayside.*' 

There are many places of this name in England. 

COLHAM. 

831. Colanhomm (Ind., Kble.). 
1086^ r(Dd.). 

1198 f ^^^^^^^\(F.F.). 
1210. Colnham (RE.). 
1291. Coleham (T.E.). 
1331. Colham (Ch.). 
1434. Colnham (Ind.). 
This might mean '^ enclosure of Cola," and the river Colne a 
*' back formation " from it. 

2 



18 THE PLACE NAMES OP MIDDLESEX 

Prof. Mawer, however, considers the Colne to be a genuine 
river name, so the meaning will be *^ enclosure by the river 
Colne/' 

There is no appreciable bend in the Colne here to justify 
the interpretation *' bend " — see p. 103. 

The modern Colham is some distance from the river. 

CoLNB EiVEK (koun). 

Probably of Celtic origin. Gloucestershire Colne was 
originally Gtmngl, Cimelga, etc., but the oldest forms of the 
Hertfordshire Colne are Colen and Colne (893 Chron.), cf. 
also colenda in Kble. == Colney (Herts). 

The Colne is really a Herts river, though it forms the 
western boundary of Middlesex in the lower part of its course. 

Colney Farm (Harefield). 

1561. Colney (F.F.). 
Assuming that the river Colne is an old name, Colney 
must be so called from close proximity to it. Otherwise it 
might = ** island of Cola," "^Colan 63. 

Colney Hatch. 

1507. Colne Hatch (quoted Lysons). 
1596, 1610. Cony Hatch (Norden, Speed). 
1710. Coanie Hatch (Seller). 
1754. Colney Hatch (Eocque). 
Since this place is nowhere near the river Colne, it cannot 
be associated with the preceding names. 

The sense here must be either " island of Cola," or else 
*' rabbit" — M.E., coni, conni. 

Hatch refers to a side gate of Enfield Chase. See p. 103. 

^ Copenhagen Fields (Islington). 

Coopen Hagen in Camden, Copenhagen in Eocque. 
Named after an inn kept by a Dane, temp. James I, accord- 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 19 

ing to histories. Marked on maps down to c, 1850, when 
the cattle-market was built on the site. 

The name remains in the Copenhagen Tunnel on the 
G.N.E. main line. 

CoPTHALL Farm (Ickenham). 

1532. Coppydhall (F.F.). 
hall may stand for hale. (See p. 102.) 

With the prefix we may compare Copdock (Suffolk) and 
Copthorne (Surrey) where the sense is " copped," i.e. pol- 
larded. 

Its sense here is not so obvious, but cf . Copthall in Essex, 
which was Coppedehalle in the thirteenth century. 

CoRNHiLL (in the City). 

c, 1130. Cornhilla (quoted Harben). 
1183. Cornhill (P.E.). 
1202. Cornhill, Gornhull (Rot. Cane). 
1216-1307. Cornhulle, Cornhelle, Cornhille (H.R.). 
Stow says that a corn market had been held here ** time 
out of mind.'* 

Cornhill (Greenford). 

1313. Cornhull (Ch.). 
Here the meaning may be, **hill where corn was grown." 



Cowhouse Faem (Childs Hill). 


1398. 


Cowhous (Ch.). 


Cowley. 




1 959. 


Cofenlea (Kble., Thorpe) 


998. 


Cofanlea (Thorpe). 


1086. 


Covelei (Dd.). 


1204. 


Coueleg (P.F.). 


1272. 


Covele (Bscaet). 


1316. 


Couele (F.A.). 



20 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

1428. Cowle (F.A.). 

1535. Couley, Cowley (V.E.). 
*' pasture or clearing of Cufa." 

Loss of medial '' v " (cf. Harlesden), and usual develop- 
ment of A.S. u. 

Cowley Peachey. 

1252. Grant to Bartholemew Pecche . . . lands in 
Coueleg and Ikenham, Co. Middlesex (Ch.). 
** Peach " is still in use as a surname. 

Cranfobd. 

1086. Cranforde (Dd.). 
1210. Craunforde (E.E.). 

1231) ^ , ;,i{^'^')' 

129l| ^^^^^^in(T.B.). 

1301. Craunford (Pat.). 

1428. Craneford (F.A.). 
** crane ford," the meaning being either '' ford frequented by 
cranes" or *' ford over which a crane could wade" — and 
hence a means of judging its depth. 

The river Crane I take to be a back formation. 

Cricklewood (Hendon), 

So marked in Seller (1710). Krickle Wood in Eocque 
(1754). I cannot find earlier forms, but Johnston quotes a 
" Crekyll Woddes " (1525) and *' Crekle Woods " (1553), 
though without references. 

Perhaps originally ** crinkle wood " — cf. Dutch krinkel, 
** twist," ** turn," and crickle in N.E.D. = '' a tangle." 

Cripplegate (a City gate). 

c. 1000. Cripelesgate (quoted Harben). 
1068. Crepelesgate (quoted Harben). 
1204. Cripelgate (F.F.). 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 21 

1216-1307. Crepelgate, Cripelgate, Cruppelgate (H.E.). 
1315. Crypelgate (F.F.), etc. 

The forms in Harben point to a *' gate of Cripel (Crypel)," 
but the later forms answer to a ** cripple gate," i.e. gate where 
cripples lay. 

This latter is the most likely solution, beggars no doubt 
swarming at the city gates. 

Moreover there is no evidence that ** Crypel '1 was used as 
a personal name in A.S. 

Cbouch End (Hornsey). 

1400. Geoffrey atte Crouche . . . of Harengey (A.D.). 
1466. Crouchend (A.D.). 
1481. Crowchende (A.D.). 
1610. Cruch Ende (Speed). 
M.E. cruche, crouche. A.S. criic, "a cross," ultimately 
from the Latin crux, cruc-. 

Cf. the surname Crotcch and the Crutched Friars in the 
** City." End in the sense of ** boundary," '* limit." 

CuBiTT Town (Isle of Dogs). 

Modern. Named after William Cubitt (c. 1850) to whom 
the building of the church and most of the houses round about 
is due (Besant). 

Cuckoo Fabm (Euislip). 
Marked in Greenwood (1819). Probably a nickname. 

Dalston (Hackney) [do:lst()n]. 
1388. Dorleston (F.F.). 
1581, etc. Dorleston, Darleston, Darlston (Mem.). 

1754. Dalston (Kocque). 
Probably '*farm of Deorlaf," A.S. "^Deorlafes tun. Cf. 
Darleston (Warwickshire). 

The modern spelling means nothing. The name would be 
pronounced the same (in London) were it spelled * Dorleston, 



22 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

Dancebshill (Mimms). 

So spelt in Norden (1596). Dancer was probably a man's 
name. It is still in use as a surname. 

Dawlby (Hayes). 

1086. Dallega (Dd.). 
c. 1200. Dallee (Eot. c.r.). 

1210. Dalle (B.E.). 

1312. Dalley (F.F.). 

1710. Doyley (Seller). 

1754. Dawley (Eocque). 
Prefix probably A.S. ddl, ** portion," ** allotment," *' divi- 
sion," " dole " ; perhaps referring to land parcelled out to 
various ov^ners. 

■^Dernfoed (Tottenham). 

1412. Derneford (F.F.). 
Probably A.S. "^ se dyrna (dierna), ford = " the secret or 
hidden ford," cf. Durnford (Wilts). 

DoLLis Hill (Hendon). 

Spelt Dolleys (Hill) in Greenwood, Dollys in Eocque, 
Dallis in Seller, Daleson in Norden. 

Called after some man Dolley, Dalley or Dollison. This 
surname may be derived from Daivley (above). 

DowGATE (a City gate). 

1067^ /-(quoted Harben). 

1150 1 DuuegateJ (do.).' 
II74J I (do.). 

1216-1307. Douegate, Dowgate (H.E.). 
1428. Douegate (F.A ). 
1538. Dowgate (F.F.). 
There is a Duuua (Duwa) in Searle but it is *' nomen 
mulieris," so I prefer to assume a hypothetical Dtifa (cf. 
Cowley). 
Female names were rare as first elements in place names. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 23 

Down Baens (Northolt). 
1272-1377. La Doune (P.W.). 
1355. la Doune (Ind.). 
1361. Doune (F.F.). 
1535. Downebarnes (V.E.). 
*' at the down or hill." M.E. dun(e), doun(e). A.S. dun. 
The " barnes " is a late addition. 
The 1-inch ordnance map shows a small hill here. 

Deayton, West Deayton. 

939. Draegtun (Bch.). 
t 989. Draitune (Kble.). 
1086. Draitone (Dd.). 
1291. Drayton (T.E.). 
1316. Dreyton (F.A.). 
1485. West Drayton (Escaet). 
Prof. Skeat compared this prefix to provincial English 
dray^ " a squirrel's nest " (see E.D.D.) and assumed an A.S. 
■^(ge) dr88g(e), '' a retreat," " nook." 

There are many places with this prefix in England, and in 
almost every case the sufifix is -cott or -ton. 

The meaning is generally taken to be ** hidden homestead 
or farm," "isolated dwelling." 

Ealing. 

1165. Tiling (Mag. Eot.). 

1244, 1246. Gilling (F.F.). 

1272-1377. Gillyng (P.W.). 

1316. Yilling (F.A.). 

1327-1377. Yellynge (N.L). 

1399. Zyllyng(L.L, vol. 5). 

1428. Zylling (F.A.). 

1521. Elyng (F.F.). 

1535. Yelling (V.E.) 

1622. Ealing al. Yealing (Ind.). 
*' Place of the Gillingas." Searle has a Gillus and Gillo. 



24 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

The z in the above forms is of course the M.E. symbol 3, 
which indicated a sound (j), or something similar. The 
initial (j) sound is here lost before the long vowel following. 
It is retained in Yelling (Hunts). 

Eaels Court (Kensington). 

1558-1579. Earls Court (L.I., vol. 7). 
1593, 1609. Earrs Court in Kensington (L.I., vol. 6). 
1623. Earles Court (Mid. Ped.). 
So called, because the court house of the de Veres, Earls of 
Oxford, stood here. They had held the manor of Kensington 
since the Conquest. (See M'sex. Dd.) 

Eastcote. 

1296. Estcote (S.S., vol. 2). 
1596, 1710. Ascot (Norden ; Seller). 

1819. Eastcote (Greenwood). 
" east dwelling or house," i.e. east of Euislip. 

The modern form is partly artificial ; the forms in Norden 
and Seller show the normal development. In the F.F. I find 
also a Northcote (1250), Suthcote (1342, 1402) and Westcote 
(1310), but these places seem to be no longer represented on 
the modern ordnance map. 

Ebury, ''Eye." 

1086. Eia (Dd.). 

1206. Eya (F.F.). 
1316 \ KF.A.) 

1383 I Eye ] (Escaet). 
1406 j i(A.D.). 

1300. Euberye (Escaet). 

1324. Eyghebury (I.p.m.). 

1308, 1325. Eyebury (L.I., vol. 5). 

1535. Eybery, Eybury, Ebery (V.E.). 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 25 

Eia, Eyai s merely a latinized form of A.S. 63, ie3, ** island." 
—See p. 101. 

Bury is a later addition. See p. 99. 

The name remains in Ebury Square and Street (West- 
minster). 

Edgeware. 

972. iEgces wer (Boh.). 
1169, etc. Eggeswere (P.E.). 
11981 ^ r F.F.). 

1226} %^«^^r^ |(Ind.). 
1272-1377. Eggeswere (P.W.). 
1331. Eggewere (Ch.). 
1426. Eggeware (Escaet). 
1541. Edgeware (F.F.). 
Suffix is A.S. loer, "weir," ''dam/' ** fishing pool." 
Prefix is a personal name Ecg (Ecge, JEcge). 
The A.S. ecgy *' sword " — literally *' edge " — was used as a 
first element in numerous personal names, and Ecga (whence 
the surname *' Edge ") was used as a shortened or "pet" 
form of one of these names. The strong form Ecg, Ecge is 
not in Searle, but was probably in use also. 

Edmonton. 

1086. Adelmetone (Dd.). 

1182. iEdelmeton (P.E.). 

ante 1200. Eadelmeton (Ind.). 

1210. Edelmintone (K.E.). 

12141 ^^ , r(Kot. L.C.). 

1216-1307/ Edelmeston \^r^^^y 

1235. Edelmestun (Fees.). 

12911 ^^ , r(T.E.). 

1316/ Edelmeton |^^^^^ 

1369. Edmenton (A.D.). 
1397. Bdmunton (Escaet). 



26 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

1397. Edelmynton (P.F.)- 
1422. Bdelmyngton (F.P.). 
1424. Edmyngton (F.F.). 
1464. Edelmeton alias Edmonton (Escaet.). 
1492. Edmondton (F.F.). 

1535. Edelmeton, Edmundton, Edmonton (V.E.). 
There are two types (1) "^Eadhelmes tiin — as in Eot. L.C., 
T.N., and Fees. (2) "^Eadhelminga tiin, a patronymic. 

The modern outcome is due to Type (2), the development 
being similar to that of Admington (Gloucester). 

In the case of Edmonton, however, the prefix was associated 
with the Christian name Edmund, whence the modern form. 
The el appears to have been lost as early as 1369. 

Elstree (really in Herts, but part of the town is shown in 
the ordnance map to be in Middlesex). 

785. fram TiSulfes treow (Kble.). 
12th cent. Tidulvestre (quoted V.C.H., Herts). 
13th cent. Tydolvestre (do.), 

c. 1200. Thidolvestre (Eot. c.r.). 
c. 1250. Tydulvestre, Idulvestre (Dug.). 

1275/ Idulvestre ^^^^^^ 

1272-1377. Idolvestre (P.W.). 

13771 ,, , f(A.D.). 

1408/ ^^"^'^"^ 1(F.F.). 

1550. Ilestre (F.F.). 

1610. Elstre (Speed), 
''at the tree of Tidwulf " — probably marking some boundary. 
The modern outcome shows a rather violent contraction, but 
there are many similar cases in England, Golcar (Yorks), 
Her sham (Surrey), etc. 

Loss of initial t is due to preposition at (see Icke7iham), 
For loss of V cf. Harlesden, Finally dl < II by assimilation. 



THE PLACE NAMES OP MIDDLESEX 27 

Elthoene (name of a *' Hundred"). \ 

1086. Heletorne, Helethorne (Dd.). 
1169. Ellethorn (P.E.). 
1176. Ellesthorn (P.E.). 
1183. Helethorn (Ind.). 
1216-1307. Ellethorn (H.E.). 
1428. Elethorn (F.A.). 
'' at the thorn (tree) of ^lla." See p. 106. 

-^Ua is a known A.S. name, borne by the conqueror of 
Sussex for example. 

The initial h is meaningless, and betrays a Norman scribe. 

Enfield. 

1086. Enefelde (Dd.). 

1205. Ainefeld (Rot. L.C.). 

1210. Enefeude (R.E.). 

1216-1307. Enesfeud (T.N.). 

12191 ^ , ,, r(i^.F.). 

1248/ ^^"^"^^ l(Ch.). 

1464. Enfeld (F.F.). 

1535. Endefeild (V.E.). 

1638. Endfeild (Ind.). 
A.S. *-3Enan feld, '' clear open space of -^na." See p. 101. 
The d in the late forms is excrescent, due, perhaps, to the 
influence of the word " end." 

Enfield Chase. 

1326. park and chace of . . . Enefeld (Close). 
1530. Endefeld Chace (L.P.H.). 
Chase is old French, chacSy '' hunting ground," " tract of un- 
enclosed land for breeding and hunting wild animals," etc. 

N.E.D. gives first appearance of the word in English as 
1297. 

The following local names on the 1-inch ordnance map 
were all connected formerly with E. Chase ; — 



28 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

Gattlegate. Chase Farm. Chase Cottage. Chase Side. 
East, North, South, West Lodge, Oak Lodge. Gannic Corner 
(Gannoc, a man's name), Sanders Corner. 

Also Cockfosters, Potters Bar, and Southgate (q.v.). 

Fallow Coener (Finchley). 

Marked in Speed's map (1610). 

Here probably in the sense of "fallow land," i.e. *'land 
lying untilled and unsown periodically." 

Farringdon (a City ward). 

1281. Farindon (A.D.). 
1300. Farndon (Cor.). 
1329. Farendon (Escaet). 
1383. Faryngdon (A.D.). 
1428. Farndon (F.A.). 
etc. 
According to Harben named after a William de Farndon 
in 1280, so not an original Middlesex name. 

Farndon may = '^fern down," or contain a patronymic; 
it depends on which place in England this particular man 
came from. 

Feltham. 

1 969. Feltham (Bch., Kble., Thorpe). 
1086. Felteham (Dd.). 
12131 r(F.F.). 

12281 Feltham ](Ch.). 
1316J ICF.A.). 

Subsequent forms all similar. 

N.E.D. gives some M.E. forms of field (feld) ^' felt," but 
the Dd. form is against this derivation. 

There is no name ^ Felta in Searle, and the only possible 
derivation seems to be A.S. felt, '^felt." 

If the original suffix was " hamm " the epithet might have 
referred to the smooth dead level grassy country here. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 29 

Fbnchubch. 

c. 1170. Fenohirche (quoted Harben). 
1292. Fanchirche (A.D.). 
1300. Fencherche (I.p.m.). 
1535. Fanchurche (V.E.). 
etc. 
" church in the fen or marshy spot.^' 
The Langbourn stream ran near by. 

FiELDEND Fabm (near Eastcote). 

Field End in Rocque. Meaning obvious. 

FiNCHLBY. 

1243. Fynchesl' (F.F.). 
1272-1377. Fynchesleye (RW.). 
1291. Finchisle (T.E.). 
1316. Fynchesle (F.A.). 
1428. Fyncheley (F.A.). 
"pasture or clearing of "^Finc." A.S. finCy "finch," is not 
recorded as a personal name, but must have been so used, 
as the genitival 5 shows [J()8l — Jsl — Jl]. 
Finch is now used as a surname. 

FiNSBURY. 

1216-1307. Finesbur' (H.E.). 
1272. Fynesbyr (F.F.). 
1316. Fynesbury (F.A.). 
1397. Vynesbury (Escaet). 
1535. Fynnesbury, Fenysbury (V.E.). 
The prefix is a personal name Fin or Finn. As an example 
of the latter, Searle notes a king of the North Frisians. For 
second element see p. 99. 

Fleet (river). 

1199. Flete (Gal. Eot. Ch.). 
1202. FHete (Rot. Cane). 



30 THE PLACEi NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

1277. Flete (Esoaet). 

1280. Flete strete (I.M.). 
A.S. fleot, '* channel," '' stream," '' running water," the 
name being perhaps applied to the short navigable part of the 
river. Of. Byfleet (Surrey), '' Bifleote " in Kble., anno 1062. 

FoBTY Hill (Enfield). 

So spelt in Eocque, who also has a Forty Oreen near 
Finchley, now Fortis Green, 

Possibly ** four tree hill." Of. feower treowe hyl in Kble. 

Fbith Manor (Hendon). 

1294. Fryth(F.F.). 

1535. Fryth in Hendon (V.E.). 

1571. Frith al. Newhall (Ind.). 
M.E. frith =^ ^'d, deer park," " plantation," " preserve," 
'' wood " > A.S. /nSw, '' peace." See N.E.D. sub frith. 

FRoaMORE Farm and Frogmorb Green (Hayes). 

No forms earlier than the eighteenth century that I can 
find. Probably to be interpreted literally. 

Froqnal (Hampstead). 

1542. Frogenhall (F.F.). 
Possibly "frog nook or retreat." See Hale, p. 102. Or 
Frocga may have been used as a personal name, though it is 
not in Searle. 

FULHAM. 

879, 881. on, aet, Fullanhamme (Chron.). 

1052. Fullenham (Kble.). 

1086. Fuleham (Dd.). 

1172. Fuleha (P.E.). 

1197. Foleha (P.E.). 

1232. Foleham (F.F.). 

1312. Folleham (S.S., vol. 33), 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 31 

1326. Fulleham (F.F.). 
1428. Fulham (F.A.). 

Ful- as a prefix to English place names sometimes goes 
back to A.S. ful, " foul," *' dirty," but the forms above show 
that in this case the prefix must be A.S. ful^ " full." 

The second element is A.S. hamm (see p. 103) and since 
Fulham is situated in a large bend of the Thames the mean- 
ing may be '* at the full — crowded, overstocked ? — bend or 
* ham '." 

The land is dead level, and was doubtless entirely culti- 
vated from early times. 

GoLDERS Green (Hendon). 

1695. Goulders Green (Camden). 
Goulder or Golder was a man's name. Cf. also Goulds 
Green (Hayes), so marked in Eocque (1754). 

Gore (name of a Hundred). 

1086. Gara, Gare (Dd.). 
1169. Gar (P.K.). 
1216-13071 ^ f(H.E.). 
14281 ^"^n(F.A.). 
1610. Goare (Speed). 
A.S. gdra, '* corner of land," " triangular shaped piece of 
land," from gdVy ** a spear." 

We have also Kemington Gore, where stood Gore House, 
now demolished. 

Gospel Oak (Hampstead). 

Marked in Greenwood (1819). Eocque has another Gospel 
Oak near Ealing. 

The name refers to places where an open-air preacher held 
forth in former times during Eogation week. 



32 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

GoswELL (in the Cifcy). 

No date. Godewelle (quoted Harben). 

1197. Godewell (F.P.). 
1219\ ^ ,, /(Fees). 

1216.1307/ ^"^^^^" \(T.N.). 
1370. Goswell (Escaet). 

Looks like an A.S. "^Godan wielle, "well of Goda," i.e. 
** Good," the change of d to s being due perhaps to associ- 
ation with "goose." 

The name remains in the Goswell Boad. 

Gbacechurch (in the City). 

1198. Garschirch (P.E.). 
1200. Garscherch (A.D.). 

1291. Grascherche, Grescherch (T.E.). 

1298. Greschirche (Ind.). 

1355. Grasecherche (Ind.). 

1390. Gracechurche (Escaet). 
Prefix probably A.S. graes, gsers, M.E. gras, gres, gars, 
gers, "grass" — referring to a church surrounded by grass. 
(G. was always in the City of London, so the epithet might 
refer to a City church surrounded by lawns.) Prof. Mawer 
thinks this solution unlikely, but I can suggest no other. 

Garston (Surrey) was Garston, Gerston, Greston in the 
Surrey fines (Surrey Arch. Soc. Add., vol. I). 

Greenford. 

845. et [= set] grenan forda (Bch.). 



Greneford 



r(Ind., Kble., Thorpe). 
(Dd.). 
(E.E.). 
l(T.E.). 
1343. Grenford (Lp.m.). 
'* At the green ford," perhaps because the vegetation here 
was unusually luxuriant — as opposed to some other. 



1 1066-\ 
1086 
1210 
1291J 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 33 

Gebbnhill (Harrow). 

1479. Grenehill (P.P.). 
1695. Green Hill (Camden). 

Gbeen Lanes (Hornsey). 

Marked in seventeenth to nineteenth century maps. 
Formerly descriptive. 

Green Street (Enfield). 

1596. Gren strete (Norden). 
street may have sense of ''scattered hamlet." See p. 105. 

Gunnersbury. 

1348, 1390. Gunnyldesbury (P.P.). 
1364, 1373. Gonyldesbury (Close). 
1377. Gunnyldesbery (Escaet). 
1380. Gonyldesbury (Ind.). 
1486. Gonelsbury (Escaet). 
1531. Gonelbury otherwise Goneldisbury (P.P.). 
1610. Gunnersbury (Speed). 
Prefix is a personal name Gunhild — later Gunnild, Gunilda. 
This is a feminine name and the s may be explained by the 
fact that personal names as first elements of place names 
were almost always masculine. 

But it is very doubtful if the place name is as old as the 
Norman Conquest, though Histories like to associate it with 
Gunhild, niece of King '' Canute." 

rs > Is by interchange of liquids. Is > Ids by simplification 
of consonant group. 

Gutteridge Wood (S.E. of Ickenham). 

Spelt Orutedge in Eocque (1754). No earlier forms that I 
can find, but cf. Scrattage {infra), the suffix being evidently 
edge in both cases. 

3 



34 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

Hackney. 

1231. Hakney (F.F.). 
1216-1307] ((T.N.). 

1272-1377 Hakeneye (P.W.). 
1316) i(F.A.). 

1535. Hackeney, Hackney, (V.E.). 
The first element is a personal name Haca. For the 
second element, see p. 101. 

Cf. Hackbridge (Surrey), '' Hakebrug '^ in thirteenth century 
(Index). 

Hackney Wick. 

1242. la Wyke (F.F.). 

1549. Wyke (F.F.). 

1754. Wick (Eocque). 
A.S. wic, " dwelling," " house,*' " abode.*' See p. 107. 

Hadley. 
1216-1307\ ^ ,, /(T.N.). 
1272-1377/ ^^"^^^^^UP.W.). 
1291. Hadle, Hedle (T.E.). 
1348. Haddeleye (F.F.). 
1349,1365. Hadele (F.F.). 
1394. Hadle (F.F.). 
1483. Hadley Monachorum (F.F.). 
1489. Monken Hadley (P.F.). 
1535. Hedlegh (V.E.). 
The first element is a personal name Head(d)a. For the 
second element see p. 104. 

The words Monken, Monachorum show that the place 
was at one time monastic property. 

Hagqerston. . 

1086. Hergotestane (Dd.). 
1216-1307. Hargoldestone, Hargodelston (H.E.), 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 35 

1303. Hargodeston (F.F.). 
c. 1470, Argeston (L.I., vol. 16). 
1549. Argarston (F.F.). 
1554. Hargolston (F.F.). 
1561. Agerston (F.F.). 
" at the stone of Heregod or * Heregold." 
rs > Is > Ids. Cf . Gunnersbury, 

Hale (Edgeware). 
1216-1307. la Hale (H.K.) 
1327-1377. The Hale (N.I.). 

1525. Hale (F.F.). 

1710. The Hale (Seller). 

Old Mercian halh^ (dative " hale "). (A.S. healh, heale). A 
word of frequent occurrence in charters and apparently 
meaning "a nook," "corner," " retreat." 

The word occurs as a suflBx in many Middlesex names, in 
the disguised forms, -ale, -ell, -al, -hall, -holt, etc. 

Haliwell (Shoreditch). 

1235. Haliwell (Ch.). 
1282. Haliwelle (F.F.). 
1377. Haliwell (Dug.). 
1428) ^ , ,, r(F.A.). 
1440f ^"^y^^^H(F.F.). 
'* holy well or spring." 

*Haliwick (Barnet). 

1235. Hallewyc (F.F.). 

1596. Hollick (Norden). 
*' holy spot or dwelling." 




36 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 



to halgan forda (Earle, p. 293). 

r(Bch., Kble., Thorpe). 

Halgeforde-^ (Eot. Cane). 
i(F.F.). 

Halheford (F.F.). 

Halegheford, Halegeford (F.F.). 

Haleweford (F.F.). 

Halgford (P.W.). 

Halweford (Bscaet). 

Halgheford (F.A.). 

Netherhalford (F.F.). 

Uphalleford (F.F.). 

Halliford (Greenwood). 
Not '*holy ford," but rather "ford of the saint or holy 
person." See the old forms of *' holy" and '* hallow " in the 
N.E.D. 

Hammersmith. 

1312. Hameresmythe, Hameresmithe (S.S., vol. 33). 
1313, 1380. Hamersmyth (F.F.). 
1386. Hamersmytthe (F.F.). 
1642. Hamersmith (Ind.). 
Sufi&x must be A.S. (ge)mySe, '' mouth of river," '' junction 
of two rivers." Cf. the My the (Glos.). 

Old maps mark a small stream flowing into the Thames 
here. Or possibly the great bend in the river at this point 
gave rise to a fanciful or humorous suggestion of two rivers 
meeting. 

Prefix is a personal name, probably Heahmaer (Hsemar). 
There is a *'Hammersbach " in Germany. 

Hammond's Farm (Staines). 

1544. Hamondes (F.F.). 
probably named after Eobert Hamond (F.F., 1534). 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 37 

The surname Ham(m)ond is Norman Hamon (with ex- 
crescent d) of Teutonic origin cognate with the A.S. name 
Haganmund (Weekley). 

Hampstead. 

978. Hamstede (Bch.). 

986. Ham stede (Ind.). 

998. Hamstede (Th.). 

1066. Heamstede (Ind., Kble., Thorpe). 

1086. Hamestede (Dd.). 
1232] r(F.F.). 

12421 Hamstedi(Ch.). 
1291J l(T.E.). 

1316. Hampstede (F.A.). 

A.S. ham stede, '* home stead or place," assuming that the 
986 Index form is genuine. 

Hampton. 

781. Homtune (quoted in Johnston). 
1086. Hamntone (Dd.). 
1200. Hamton (Eot. c.r.). 
1237. Hampton (F.F.). 

etc. 

A.S. hamm tiin, i.e. '* enclosure in a bend of the Eiver ** 
(Thames). 

Dd. mn is difficult to explain unless an error for mm, 

Hampton Wick. 

1263. Hamptone la Wyke (F.F.). 
1289. Hampton a la Wyke (F.F.). 
1428. Wyke (Ind.). 

Cf. Hackney Wick. 



38 THE PLACE NAMES OP MIDDLESEX 

Hangekhill (Ealing). 

1610. Hanger Woode (Speed). 

1710. Hanger Hill (Seller). 
A.S. hangra, '' wood situated on a hill slope," '* hanging 
wood." 

Hanwell. 

J 959. Hanewelle (Thorpe). 

t 998. Hanawella (Thorpe). 

1066. Hanawelle (Index). 

1086. Hanewelle (Dd.). 

11501 ^ iJ(Ind.). 

1291/ ^"^^^^"l(T.E.). 

1428. Hanwell (F.A.). 
A.S. ^ Hanan welle, " well or spring of Hana." 
In Kble., No 331, we actually have "aerest on hanan 
welle, siSSan on hanan wurSe," though these do not, I think, 
refer to the Middlesex places. 

Hanworth. 

1086. Haneworde (Dd.). 
1210. Hanewrth (E.E.). 
1216-13071 ^ .uf(T.N.). 

1272-1377/ ^""^^"^'H(P.W.). 
1428. Hanworth (F.A.). 
" farm or enclosure of Hana.'' See p. 107 and cf. preceding. 
The literal meaning of hana is ** cock." 

Harefield. 

1086. Herefelle (Dd.). 

1176. Herrefeld (P.E.). 

1206. Herefeld (P.F.). 

1213. Herrefeld (F.F.). 

1219. Heresfeld (Excerpta). 

1216-1307. Herefeld, Harefeld (T.N.). 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 39 

1327. Herefeld (F.F.). 
1350. Herfeld (F.F.). 
1393. Harfeld (Escaet). 

The prefix looks like A.S. here, "army," the sense being 
perhaps '* open space where an army was encamped." The 
name may date from some period during the Danish In- 
vasions. Cf. Hereford. 

er + cons. <ar + cons, is regular, cf. ClerkenwelL 

Harlesden. 

1086. Herulvestune (Dd.). 
1191. Herlesdon (T.E.). 
1327. Herleston (F.F.). 
1327-1377. Herlaston (N.L). 
1535. Harleston (V.E.). 
1606. Harlesden (Ind.). 
'' farm or enclosure of Herulf (Herewulf)." Cf. Harleston, 
near Bungay (Suffolk). 

For dropping of v cf. Elstree. ar > er as preceding. 

Harlington. 

8251 , ,. , r(Kble.). 

969} ^ysereimg tun jj^^^ ^^ 

1086. Herdintone (Dd.). 

1235. Herdinton (F.F.). 

1291. Herdyngton (T.E.). 

1475. Hardlyngton (F.F.). 

1535. Hardington, Harlington (V.E.). 

1610. Harlington (Speed). 
*' farm of the sons of Hygered." 

Prof. Mawer thinks Dd. Herd for earlier hygered, possible. 
There must have been intermediate forms '^hiered, ^hierd. 
For change of d to i (through dl ?) cf. Charlton. 



40 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 



Habmondswobth. 

1086. Hermodesworde (Dd.). 

1295} Hermodesworth \^^^[^^°^- ^^^ 

1391} Hermondesworth jj^^^j- 

1428. Harmansworth (F.A.). 

15th century. Harmsworth (L.I., vol. 16). 

nil} Harmesworth {{Jf^-^'^^^ 

1610, Hamsworth (Speed). 

1754. Harmondsworth (Eocque). 
" farm or holding of Heremod." See p. 107. 

Later n inserted as in the word messenger (q.v. in N.E.D.). 
The spelling " Harmondsworth " is a mere artificial restora- 
tion. The natural outcome should be ^Harmsworth, which 
is attested by some of the above forms and by the well-known 
surname. The place was still so pronounced by the '* natives '* 
at the beginning of last century (G.L.), but the written word 
is becoming all powerful nowadays. 

The Eev. W. B. Sealey, vicar of Harmondsworth, who has 
kindly made inquiries, informs me that the place is still pro- 
nounced [ha:mzw():0, ha:mz()^] by *'the older people" of 
the neighbourhood, but that the " younger generations " tend 
to " pronounce as written." 

Habbingay. 

See under Hornsey (infra). 

The two words are the same, just as are '' chance " and 
" cadence." 

Habbow. 

767. Gumeninga hergae (Bch., Kble.). 
825. set Hearge (Bch., Ind., Thorpe). 



THE PLACE NAMES OP MIDDLESEX 41 

1086. Jlerges (Dd.). 
1232. Hereghes (Ch.). 
1235. Herghes (P.F.). 
1216-1307. Harrewe (H.E.). 
1243. Hergh' (P.F.). 
1316) ^ /(P.A.). 

1327.1377} ^^'^' |(N.L). 
1368. Harogh' (F.F.). 
1479. Harowe atte hill (F.F.). 
1535. Harrowe on the hill (V.E.). 
A.S. hearhf hearg — dative hearge = "a heathen temple or 
place of worship." Such places were often on hill-tops, but 
their traces are few, since the English usually destroyed them 
on their conversion to Christianity. The * Gumeningas were 
probably a tribe who held the place, or possibly even the 
temple priests. 

Cf. Peperharow (Surrey), Pipareherge (Dd.), Pyperhargh 
(T.E.), which undoubtedly contains the same word. 

The phonetic development of the name is exactly similar 
to the word ** marrow" (q.v. in N.E.D.), and the s in some of 
the above forms is *' simply a sign of the plural. The word 
might well so be used " (Prof. Mawer). 



Habkow Weald. 

1303. (Land in) Waldis in the parish of Harwes (A.D.). 

1382) ,^. .. f(A.D.). 

1550} ^'^^' {(F.F.). 

1553. Harrow Weelde (F.P.). 

A.S. weald, wald = " wood," '' wooded country," which 
took in M.E. the sense of " waste land," '* wild open country." 

The normal outcome of A.S. ivald is " wold," but there 
appears to have been a related form tvald, whence M.E. weld, 
weeld, weald. 



42 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

Hatch End. 

1393. . . . atte Hacche of Harowe (P.P.). 
1475. Hacheend (F.F.). 
1710. Hatch End (Seller). 
See both elements on pp. 101, 103. 

Hatton. 

1086. Hatone, Hattone (Dd.). 
1210. Hattone (E.E.). 



1213\ ^ ^^ f(F.F.). 
1233/ ^"^^^^ 1(F.F.). 



1373. Haddon (Escaet). 
1403. Haddon juxta Hnndeslowe (Escaet). 
1554. Hatton (F.F.). 
Probably A.S. * hseS tun, '^ farm on the heath." [tt > tht.] 
This suits the situation of the place. Of. Hatfield (Herts). 

Haveestock Hill (Hamstead). 

Marked in Eocque. H. was the name of a house. 

Probably an imported name, since stock is not a Middlesex 
suffix, and haver = '' oats," is a north country word. 

Hayes. 

793. linganhese, lingahsese (Bch.). 

831. hsese (Bch.). 

831. hyse (Kble, Thorpe). 

1086. Hesa (Dd.). 

1232. Hese (Ch.). 

1248. Haes (S.S., vol. 2). 

1316J ^^^^\(F.A.). 
1498. Heys (F.F.). 
1535. Hayes (V.E.). 
1541, 1557, 1561. Hees, Heese (F.P.). 
The supplement to Bosworth's A.S. dictionary gives: 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 43 

*' hese, hyse, haese, hoese," " brushwood," '' land with bushes 
and brushwood," quoting some examples from charters. 

Kemble says : " hoese, hyse, apparently brushwood, and 
as far as I have observed, always pasture for swine, cf. O.N. 
heisi, ' poor thin grass '." 

Hayes in Kent has similar old forms, and probably in many 
cases the prefix Has- Hes- in place names has this meaning. 

I cannot explain the lingaj lingan. Ling = '* heather" is 
of Norse origin. 

Headstone (Pinner). 

1398. Heggeton (Escaet). 
1526. Hegestone (L.I., vol. 34). 
1754. Hedston (Eocque). 

Perhaps A.S. *hecg tun, **farm enclosed by a hedge." 
•' Hedge stone " is a less likely meaning, and anyway the 
modern outcome could be explained [d3 — dz], the medial e in 
the 1526 form being of no importance, as it was by then 
silent in pronunciation at the end of a word or syllable. 

In the Rev. W. D. Bushell's *' Church Life on Harrow 
Hill," I note the following forms quoted ''de la Hegge," 
c. 1390, Heggedon, 1382, Heggeston, 1545 ; so that the s does 
not seem to be original. 

Heathrow. 

?155L Heth(F.P.). 

1553. Hitherowe (P.F.). 

1710. Hetherow (Seller). 

1754. Heath Row (Rocque). 

Referring to a row of houses or small hamlet on the heath. 

The i in the 1553 form may be a transcription error, but 
in any case the prefix could not be '' hithe " as the place is 
not near any stream or river. 



U THE PLACE NAMES OP MIDDLESEX 

Hendon. 

972. [0J5] heandunes gemaere (Bch.). 
978. Heandun (Ind.). 
1066. Heandune (Kble., Thorpe). 
1086. Handone (Dd.). 
1199\ ^ , ((F.-F.). 
129l| ^^°^°° |(T.B.). 
etc. 
A.S. aet Ssere h6an diine, '' at the high down or hill." Man 
is the inflected dative (weak decl.) alter ''set" of A.S. Mah 

(high). 

Hercies Farm (Hillingdon). 
1532. Hersies (F.F.). 
Probably called after a man " Hercy." Cf. Walter Hercy 
mentioned in 1453 (F.F.). 

Heston. 

c. 1180. Hestune (Dugd.). 

1200. Heston, Eston (Eot. c.r.). 

1227. Hestone (Cal. Eot. Ch.). 

1238] ((I'.F.)- 

1291 [ Heston ] (T.E.). 

1316 J i(F.A.). 

1544. Heeston (F.F.). 
Prefix may be A.S. Mse (see Hayes), It is only a few miles 
from Hayes and in similar surroundings. 
For the second element see p. 106. 

Highbury. 

c. 1370. Heybury (Gesta). 

^^^n Highbury ((^^^•)- 
1535/ ^^s^^^^y 1(V.E.) 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 45 

1577. Hiberie (Ind.). 
1710. Highbury Barn (Seller). 
" the high stronghold or manor." See p. 99. 

M.E. high, hie, hey, hye, hyghe, etc. See N.E.D. 

HiGHGATE. 

1391. Heygate (F.F.). 

^^^n Hygate l^^'^')- 
1478J ^^^^'^ l(Pat.). 

1502. Higate (A.D.). 

1529. Highgate (F.F.). 
Lysons says : " . . . the toll gate belonging to the bishop 
of London having stood from time immemorial on the summit 
of the hill." 

Highway Farm (Harefield). 

Marked in Eocque. It is situated on the road from Ux- 
bridge to Harefield. 



HiGHwooD Hill (Edgeware). 


1568. 


Hyewoodhill (F.F.). 


1596. 


Highwood Hill (Norden). 




Cf. preceding names. 


HiLLlNGDON. 




1086. 


Hillendone (Dd.). 


1229. 


Hillendon (F.F.). 


1238. 


Hilledon (F.F.). 


1252. 


Hillindone (Ind.). 


1291. 


Hilindon, Hillingdon (T.E.). 


1306. 


Hylendon (F.F.). 


1388. 


Hulynden (F.F.). 


1452. 


Helyngdon (F.F.). 


1494. 


Hillyngdon (F.F.). 



46 THE PLAGE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

The suffix -ing, though usually a patronymic, sometimes 
had the meaning of "dwellers in (on, at, by)." So that the 
sense may here be " down of the hill dwellers." 

The surrounding country, except to the north, is nearly or 
quite dead level. 

Searle, however, quotes one instance of a personal name 
"Hilla." 

HiTHEEMOOR Farm (Staines). 

No old forms. Probably a new or imported name. 

^HoDFORD (Hampstead). 

1318. Hodeford (F.F.). 

1398: Hoddesford (Ch.). 

1535. Hodford (V.E.). 
" ford of Hod(d)or Hod(d)a." Cf. Hoddesdon (Herts). 

Hodford farm was recently demolished. It was near 
Golders Green station. 



HoLBOEN (houbSn). 


1086. 


Holeburne (Dd.). 


1197. 


Holeburn, Holeborne (P.E.). 


1235. 


Holleburn (F.F.). 


1291. 


Holebourn, Holbourn (T.E.) 


1535. 


Holborne (V.E.). 


" stream in the hollow." A.S. hoi -e. 


HOLLOWAY. 




1480. 


Holwey (L.I., vol. 16). 


1486. 


Holewey (Escaet). 


1535. 


Holway (V.E.). 


1541. 


Holwey (P.F.). 


1543. 


Holowey (F.F.). 


1553. 


Holwaye (F.F.). 


1554. 


HoUowaye (F.F.). 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 47 

" way lying in a hollow," cf. preceding. Modern form due 
to adjective *' hollow " > A.S. holh. See N.E.D. " hole " and 
"hollow." The former hamlets of Upper and Lower Hollo- 
way were situated in a hollow between the villages of High- 
gate and Islington. 

HoMERTON (Hackney). 

1343. Humburton (A.D.). 

1550. Humbarton (Stowe, vol. 2). 
1581, etc. Humberton, Hummerton (Mem.). 

1710. Humerton (Seller). 
" farm or enclosure of Hunbeorht " [mb > nb by assimila- 
tion]. 

HoRNSEY, Harringay. (ho : nzi, haerir/gei). 

Although these names present great difiBiculties, one thing 
is certain, viz. they are identical in origin. 

Just as "chance" and "cadence" in French are both of 
the same origin, the one being the natural development of the 
Latin ^cadentia, and the other being artificially introduced 
recently, so Hornsey seems to be the outcome through the 
mouths of the people and Harringay to be a fossilized or 
preserved form of the original name of the manor. I give a 
complete list of all spellings I have found without dividing 
into " types." 

1201. Haringue (F.F.). 
1216-1307. Heringeye (T.N.). 

1236. Harengheye (F.F.). 

1291. Haringeye (T.E.). 

1293. Haryngeye (F.F.). 
1272-1377. Heringeye (P.W.). 

1316. Harengey (F.A.). 

1341. Haringeye (F.F.). 

1346. Harengeye, Harngeye (F.P.). 

1351, Harngeye (Ch.). 



48 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

1369,13771 ^ f(E.F.). 

1373 f Haryngeseye j^^^^^^^^ 

1381. Haryngey (F.F.). 
1400. Harengey (A.D.). 
1415. Haryngeay (A.D.). 
1461. Harensey (F.F.). 
1465. Haryngeay (F.F.). 

1488. Haryngey, Harnyngey, Harnyssay (F.F.). 
1630. Haryngay (F.F.). 
1543, 1553. Harnesey (F.F.). 
1556. Haryngey (F.F.). 
1562. Haryngey otherwise Harnessey (F.F.). 
1564. Hornsey (F.F.). 
1610. Harnesey (Speed). 
1710. Hornesey (Seller). 

1862. Hornsey (village). Haringey (name of manor 
house). [Ordnance Map.] 
The original name was, I think, a patronymic + ey (see 
p. 101). 

There is no evidence that A.S. hara, " hare,'^ was used as a 
personal name, but this was probably so as in the case of 
other animal names (cf. modern surname ''Hare "). 

In Escaet, vol. I alone, I find Haringeby, Harington, Har- 
ingworthe, and in T.B. Harynton, Harynby, and the personal 
name Haryng. But the name may have been influenced 
later by the Norman name Hareng, cf. Ealph Hareng' (F.F., 
1260). 

The manor house name apparently retained its old form 
throughout, perhaps through the influence of documents or 
tradition. It survived till about 1870, and, when the house 
was demolished and the land built over, the district and 
the new station on the Great Northern main line became 
known as '* Harringay." 

The change from Haringey to Hornsey is hard to explain,, 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 49 

It must have taken place either through the form *'Har- 
yngeseye,'' "^har^/ze, *harnze, the s being perhaps introduced 
through the influence of the personal name '* Hareng " (see 
above). 

Or was the g at one time pronounced (d3) ? There is a 
surname Earengey (b:rind3ei) which might be derived from 
the place — cf. *' Armitage," '* Earnshaw." In that case 
the change may have been hare);ge, harerygje, hare^^dje, 
har(x))nd3e, harndze, harnze. 

Abinger (Surrey), Bengeo (Herts), and Lockinge (Berks), all 
have the sound (d3), and it is also common in Northumber- 
land place names. 

Prof. Mawer says : " If you are right in assuming a pro- 
nunciation with * dge ' at one stage . . . what you have in 
that case is one of the * iggjo ' stems in place of * ingo.* . . ." 
Cf. the development of the modern Italian g (before e and i). 
Many of the spellings of the name above are of no help as 
the scribes in most instances would simply have copied 
from preceding documents, paying no attention to the chang- 
ing pronunciation in the mouths of the inhabitants of the 
village. Most of the references would have been to the 
manor, which, as mentioned above, appears to have kept its 
original spelling and pronunciation throughout. 

HoRSENDON Hill (Sudbury). 

1203. Horsendun (F.F.). 

1261. Horsindune (A.D.). 

1819. Horsington Hill (Greenwood). 

*' down of Horsa, or of his sons." See pp. 100, 109. 

HOUNDSDITCH. 

1216-1307. Hundesdich, Hondesdich (H.E.). 
1294. Hundesditch (Dug.). 
Cf. following name. A.S. die meant both a '' ditch " and 
" dike." Here probably the former. 



50 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

HOUNSLOW. 

1086. Honeslauu (Dd.). 

1216-13071 _ ^ . f(T.N.), (H.E.). 
1316/ Hundeslawe j^^^^ ^ 

1327-13771 Houndeslowe ((f 'I-); 
144:6J l(Ind.). 

1535. Hounslowe (V.E.). 
" mound or tumulus of Hund." See p. 105. 

The literal meaning of Hund is "dog," but here used as a 
personal name as the genitival *'s" shows. 

Cf. " On hundes hlcew:' (A.D. 953, Kemble, vol. V, p. 325.) 



1086. 


Hochestone (Dd.). 


1221. 


Hocston (F.F.). 


1291. 


Hoxton (T.E.). 


1352. 


Hoggeston (Close). 


1371. 


Hogeston (F.F.). 


1533. 


Hoggeston (F.F.). 


1545. 


Hoxton (F.F.). 


" farm or enclosure of Hocg." 


*HTDE(Halliford). 


1314. 


Hide (F.F.). 


1369. 


Hyde (F.F.). 



Hyde (Hendon). 

Marked in maps from seventeenth century, cf. above. 

Hyde (Hyde Park). 

1204. Hida (F.P.). 

12571 ^ ^ ((F.R). 

1306/ ^y^^ \(P.F.). 

1596. Hyde Park (Norden). 
A.S. hid, higid, '*a hide" — a certain measure of land of 
variable extent, generally estimated at 100 to 120 acres. 



THE PLACE NAMES OP MIDDLESEX 51 

ICKENHAM. 

1086. Ticheham (Dd.). 

1163, etc. Ticheha (P.E.). 

1205. Tikeha (P.F.). 

1206. Ykeham (F.F.). 
1252\ ^. , r(Ch.). 
1291/ ^^^^^^^ |(T.E.). 
1300. Tykenham (I.p.m.). 
1316. Ikenham (F.A.). 

The first element is a personal name Ticca. 
For second element see p. 103. 

Loss of initial '' t" due to influence of preposition " at," 
cf. Elstree and Oakington, 

Isle of Dogs. 

Isle of Doggs (Seller). Isle of Dogges (Speed). 

Origin of name uncertain. Various conjectures are given 
in '' 0. and N.," vol. I, pp. 533-537. There may have been 
kennels here at one time, chosen as a suitable spot by some 
former sovereign or lord. 

ISLBWORTH (aiZ^l-). 

1086. Gistelesworde (Dd.). 
1179. Ysteleswurde (P.R.). 
1216-1307. Istelesworth, Istleworth (H.R.). 
1291. Istelwrth (T.E.). 
1305. Yiselworthe, Yistelworth (F.F.). 
1330. Istelesworde (Ch.). 
1333. Yistilworth (F.F.). 
1428. Istelworth (F.A.). 
1610. Thistleworth (Speed). 
1754. Isle worth (Rocque). 
The first element is a personal name ^ Gistel (the persistent 
t is against derivation from A.S. gisl, ** hostage," as first 



52 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 



element). * Oistel might be an extension of GisL Searle 
has a " Gistheard." 

For the second element see p. 107. 



Islington. 

1086. 

1197. 

1220. 
1216-1307^ 

1282 
1291, 1316 
Up to 1500J 

1503. 

1535, 
1558-1603, 



Iseldon 



Iseldone, Isendone (Dd.). 
Iseldon (P.E.). 
Ysendon (F.F.). 
^(T.N.). 
(Escaet). 
(T.E., F.A.). 
,{F.F. passim), 
Islyngton (P.F.). 
Iselden, Islyngton (V.E.). 
Isledon alias Islington (Proc. Chanc Eliz.). 
There is no sign of the ing till the sixteenth centmy. It 
seems to have been inserted then for no particular reason. 
The type Isen- may mean **iron hill*' (because of its mineral 
springs?), or Isen may stand for *Isena{n), short for one of 
the A.S. personal names beginning with Isen (*' iron "). The 
type Isel' must be due, I think, to dissimilation, for A.S. gisl, 
** hostage," or a personal name Gisla, would give an initial 
y in M.E. — at least in some forms. Lysons states that 
" Isendune" occurs in the most ancient records belonging to 
the Church of St. Paul's, so we may consider that form to 
be the original type. 



Kempton. 
1086. 
1216-1307. 
1228. 
1293. 
1328. 
1407, 1421. 



Cheneton (Dd.). 
Keninton, Kenynton (T.N.). 
Keninton (Ch.). 
Keneton (I.p.m.). 
Kenyngton (Close). 
Coldekenyngton (P.F.). 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 53 

1610, 1754. Kenton (Speed, Eocque). 
1819. Kempton (Greenwood). 
'* farm of the sons of Cena or Coena." See pp. 106, 108. 

A comparison of the old forms shows that KemptoUy 
Kenton (infra) and Keymington (Sm-rey) are all of the same 
origin, so that it is curious that their modern forms are so 
different. 

Kensal Gbeen. 

1557. Kellsell Grene (Harl. MS., No. 62, fol. 46 h)} 
1756. Kensel Grene (Eocque). 
Since the place was insignificant, I think it must be named 
after a man KelshuU (Kelshelle, Kelshill, etc.). This personal 
name occurs frequently in old records (as in A.D.) and is, I 
suppose, from Kelshall (Herts), formerly Kelshulle, Kelshille, 
etc. 
n > 1 through dissimilation. 

Kensington. 

1086. Chenesitun (Dd.). 

1235. Kensington (P.F.). 

1264. Kensenton (I.p.m.). 

1284. Kensintone (Ind.). 

1291. Kensington (T.E.). 
" farm of the sons of Cynesige." The g being a mere glide 
would drop out. In fact, Searle gives late forms of the name 
Chinesi, Chenisi. 

The sound {rj) was difficult to the Normans. They either 
dropped it, or represented it by n (sometimes by </ or wc). 

Kentish Town. 

1208. Kentisston (F.F.). 

1227. Kentissetone (Cal. Eot. Ch.). 

1282. Kenteston (Escaet). 

^ For this information I am indebted to my friend, Mr. R. Coates of 
the MSS. Dept. Brit. Mus, 



54 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

1291. Kentisshetune (T.E.). 
1301. Kentissetown (F.F.). 
1316. Kentyssheton (F.A.). 
1535. Kentishe Towne (V.E.). 
** Kentish farm " (A.S. centisc). Histories give no clue to 
the reason for the epithet. Perhaps the original owner came 
from or had other property in Kent. 

It is curious that the original form should have come down 
so unchanged. Of. Ken Wood. 

Kenton (Harrow). 

1232. Keninton (F.F.). 
1368. Kenyngton next Harogh' (F.F.). 
1596. Kenton (Norden). 
Same origin as Kempton q.v. 

Ken Wood (Highgate). 

?1434. Kentwode (F.F.). 
1558-1579. Caen Wood (L.I., vol. 7). 
1603-1625) ^ ^, , f(L.L, vol. 25). 
1695} ^^^^ ^^^^ l(Camden). 
1754. Ken Wood (Eocque). 
Uncertain. 

Histories give little help, but suggest that the name may 
come from Eeginald de Kentewode, a dean of Westminster. 
The converse is, however, possible. Cf. Kentish Town 
nearby. 

KiLBUBN. 

c. 1150. Kyneburna, Cuneburna, Keneburna (Dug.). 

1208. Keleburne, Kelebirne (F.F.). 

1229. Kylleborne (Dug.) 

12361 ^ . , [(F.F.). 

1306/ ^'^^^^^^ V(Ind.). 

1340, Kellebourn (F.F.). 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 55 

1354. Kilbourn (Pat.). 
1526. Kylbourne (F.F.). 
1535. Kilborne, Kylborne (V.E.). 
Kelle-, Kele-, Kille-, Kil-, Kyi-, etc. F.F., Dug. 
If the earliest forms are to be trusted the meaning was 
" bourn or stream of Cyna." See p. 99. 

The later forms may represent a type * Cyllan burna, 
*' bourn of Cylla," but the I may be due to dissimilation. Cf. 
Islington. 

KiNGSBUKY. 

96g. aBt Cyngesbyrig (Kble.). 
1044. Kynges byrig (Ind.). 
1086. Chingesberie (Dd.). 
1200. Kingesbir' (Eot. C.E.). 
1316. Kyngesbury (F.A.). 
" at the King's stronghold." See p. 99. 

Cf. Kitigston (Surrey). Cyningestune in the Chronicle. 

Kings End (Euislip). 

1710. Kings End (Seller). 
Here "King" was probably a man's name. See also 
p. 101. 

KiNGSLAND (Hackney). 

1550] r(Stow). 

1581 1 Kingsland I (Mem.). 

1636J [(Middlesex and Herts Queries). 

This place name, which is found elsewhere in England, 
generally referred to land held by the king as opposed to the 
church. 

KiTTS End (Hadley). 
1545, 1569. Kyckes ende (F.F.). 
Kyck or Kitt was probably the name of a man. 
c and t easily interchange. 



56 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 



Knightsbridge. 

c. 1220. Cnichtebrugg (Ind.). 
1261. Knyttebrugg (F.F.). 
1270. Knichtebrugg (I.M.). 
1305. Knyghtebregg (F.F.). 
1364. Knyghtesbrugg (F.F.). 
1393. Knightesbrigge (Escaet). 
A.S. * cnihta brycg, " bridge of the 
having its original sense of " servant," 
or man." 

There is a cnihta bryge in Kble., but not referring to this 
place. 



'Knights,'" ''knight" 
" boy," " serving boy 



Knightscotb Farm (Harefield). 

1367. Knyghtecote (A.D.). 
1404. Knyghtcotes (F.F.). 
Cf. preceding and see p. 100. 

Knowlb Green (Staines). 

So spelt in Eocque. Knowl Green in Seller. 

M.E. knol, "hill," "mount" (A.S. cnol). Often applied 
to a small round hill. 



Laleham. 








1062. Lffilham (Kble.). 




1086. Leleham (Dd.). 




1207-1 r(P-F-)- 




1256 


- Lalham - 


(P.F.). 




1274 




(F.F.). 




1291. 




.(T.E). 




1328. Laleham (Ch.). 




1332, 1355. Lalham (F.F.). 




1467. Laleham (F.F.). 




There is d 


name lik 


e this in Searle. 


Perhaps the prefix 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 57 

is A.S. Icdy " twig," '* withy," " switch," etc., referring to cer- 
tain plants by the river there, used as such. 

Johnstone assumes an unrecorded personal name "^Lela as 
the prefix. 

Lampton (Hounslow). 

13751 J , - , . r(Close). 
13761 ^^^P^^^^^^d |(A.D.). 
1754. Lampton (Eocque). 
Probably '' lamb farm." [pt > bt is normal.] 
See field and ton, pp. 101, 106. Cf. Lamhton (Northumber- 
land), which has some early forms, " Lampton." 

Lea (river). 

891. Lyga (Chron.). 
896. Liggean, Lygean (Chron.). 
913. Ligean (Chron.). 
1216-1307. Luyam (H.E.). 
1313. Luye (Plac. Abb.). 
1319. aqua vocata la Leye (Ind.). 
Leye, Ley, Lea subsq. 
Of doubtful origin, possibly a pre-Celtic. s/Tyg [phonetic]. 
Modern spelling is due to association with ley^ lea (meadow). 
It was probably never pronounced [le:]. 

LiMBHOUSB. 

1367) , , , f(Cor.). 
14051 ^^^^y^"^'^M(A.D.). 
1496. Lymost (F.F.). 
1535. Lymehurst (V.E.). 
1547. Lymehouse (P.P.). 
" Lime oasts " (A.S. ast), i.e. oasts or kilns for burning lime 
in. Modern outcome due to popular etymology. 



58 THE PLACE NAMES OP MIDDLESEX 

" LissoN Green." 

1086. Lilestone (Dd.). 

1198] [(Fees). 

1237 1 Lilleston J (Ch.). 

1240j UF.F.)- 

1561. Lylleston (F.F.). 

1695. Lising Green (Camden). 

1795. Lisson Green (Lysons). 
" farm or enclosure of Lil(le)." 

Ist < Is < ss, cf. Sipson. Is > 1st due to simplification. 
The village of Lisson Green lay between Paddington and 
Marylebone and was absorbed into London, c. 1830. The 
name remains in " Lisson Grove." 



Type I. 




1184. 


Litleton (P.E.). 


1204, 


Lutleton (F.F.). 


1282. 


Littilton (F.F.). 


1291. 


Litleton (T.B.). 


1310. 


Littleton (F.F.). 


1467. 


Litilton (F.F.). 


1469. 


Lytellton (F.F.). 


Type 11. 




1216-1307. 


Litlinton (T.N.). 


1327-1377. 


Litelynton (N.I.). 


1328. 


Litlyngton (Close). 


1341. 


Lutilynton (F.F.). 


1347. 


Lutelyngton (F.F.). 


1350. 


Letelyngton (Cal. Eot. Ch.). 


1356. 


Litlyngton (F.F.). 


1428. 


Lytlyngton (F.A.). 


1558-1603. 


Litleton al. Litlington (Proc. Chanc. Eliz.) 


Type I. = 


" little farm or enclosure." Type II. = " farm 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 59 

of the Lytlingas or sons of Lytel " (Little). Modern form 
from Type I. 

Longford. 

13271 J , , f(F.F.). 

1343} ^^"^^'"^'^ {(Eot. Abb.). 

1402. Langford (A.D.). 

1430. Longford, Longforthe (F.F.). 

" long ford," referring to the many branches of the Colne 
here. 

LoTHBURY (in the City). 
1181-1203. Lodebure (quoted Harben). 
1232. Lothebiri (Ch.). 
1291. Lotheber', Lothesber' (T.E.). 
1374. Lothbury (Escaet). 
For the second element, see p. 99. 

The first element is a personal name "^HloJ^a, short for some 
name HloJ?gar, HloJ^here, Hlo]?wig, etc. (Luther, Louis). 

LuDGATE (a City gate). 
1100-1135. Lutgata (Harben). 
1216-1307. Ludgate (H.R.). 
1272. Ludegate (Ch.). 
1291. Ludgate, Lutgate (T.E.). 
1312. Lutgate (F.F.). 
1535. Ludgate (V.E.). 
I can suggest no sound interpretation. Absence of any 
forms with i is against derivation from A.S. hlidgeat (" swing- 
gate "). 

Maid A Vale (Kilburn). 

Maida Hill, 1819 (Greenwood). M. Vale is a "back 
formation." Named after the battle of Maida (1806). 



60 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

Mare Street (Hackney). 
1596, 1610. Mere Street (Norden, Speed). 
1710. Mare Street (Seller). 
** Street " raay here have the sense of *' scattered hamlet.*' 
See p. 105. " Mere " probably had reference to some neigh- 
bouring pool. 

Marylebonb ('maeriDbc^n). 

1 4-Qn / * • * ^^^or of Tyborne, otherwise "i /-p -p n 
\ called Maryborne J 

1^921 ,, ^ f(A.D.). 

1511/ Marybourne|Jj,j,| 

1535. Mariborne (V.E.). 

feS) «--"{!?J,'- 

1754. Mary le Bone (Eocque). 

Now usually understood as meaning '' Mary the good," but 
the original suffix was " bourn " (a stream) and the le is of 
quite recent introduction, perhaps due to such names as 
" Mary le Strand," etc. 

Originally known as Tyburn (q.v.), the name was changed, 
owing to the church on the banks dedicated to the Virgin. 
Of. " Land in the parish of the Blessed Mary of Marybourne " 
(P.P., 1511). 

Mayfair. See p. 96. 

Middlesex. 

704. in provincia quae nuncupatur Middelseaxan 

(Bch., Kble.). 

767. in Middil Saexum (Bch., Kble.). 

c. 970. on Middel Seaxan (Kble.). 

998. in Middilsexan (Thorpe). 

1011. Middelseaxe, Middelsexe, Middelsexa (Chron.). 

c. 1060. on Middelsexan (Kble.). 

1086. Midelsexe (Dd.). 

1154. Middelsexe, Middelsex (P.E.). 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 61 

" the middle Saxons," as opposed to east, west and south S. 
The actual boundaries, however, were not yet formed by 
704 A.D. There were two declensions of the word " Saxons " 
in A.S. (1) a weak plural Seaxan, (2) a plural Seaxe-a-um. 
This latter type of declension was used in A.S. in the names 
of certain tribes as Dene^ Engle, Su]>rige (Surrey), etc. See 
Wright's " Old English Grammar." 

The root of the name " Saxons " is generally held to be the 
word '' seax,'' *' knife," *' sword," cognate with Latin saxicm. 

Mile End (Stepney). 

Idth century. Milende (Gesta). 

1349. Mylende (L.I., vol. 6). 

1405. Mileshende (A.D.). 

1437. Mile End (P.F.). 
So called, according to histories, because distant one mile 
from Aldgate, on the road to Colchester, etc., eastwards. 

Mill Hill (Hendon). 

1596. Mylhill (Norden). 
I have found no earlier forms. Meaning obvious. 

Mill WALL (Poplar). 

Marsh Wall in Eocque. Mill Wall, Millwall in nineteenth 
century maps. Named, according to histories, after seven 
mills which stood here along the river bank. 

MiMMS (South). 

1086. Mimes (Dd.). 



1210^ 
1216-1307 
1268 
1291J 



r(E.E.). 
Mimmes ^ ^ * '^' 



(I.p.m.). 

(T.E.). 

1255. Suthmimmes (F.F.). 

1312. Suthmymmes (Ch.). 

etc. 



62 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

Doubtful. Perhaps the Mimmas were some small tribe or 
family otherwise unknown. 

North Mimms (Herts) has similar old forms, except Dd., 
which is Mimmene — ? gen. plur. of a corresponding weak 
declension Mimman. 

MooKHALL Farm (Harefield). 
1395. Morhalle (F.F.). 
15351 ,. , ,, f(V.E.). 

The prefix is " moor," which had however in A.S. the 
meaning of '' wet swampy land," and this suits the situation 
of the place. The suffix may be '' hall," but is possibly 
♦' hale." Cf. the M.B. forms of Northall and Southall. See 
Hale, p. 102. 

MuswELL Hill. 
1152-1160. Mosewella (Ind,). 
1535. Muswell (V.E.). 
1541. Mossewell (Dug.). 
1544. Muswell (F.F.). 
** mossy well or spring." A.S. mdos often gave mose in M.E., 
whence mus [o-u-u]. 

Johnston says '' Muswell Hill — Old Mustwell . . .," but I 
have not come across this form. 



Nbasden. 




1 (?) 939. 


Neasdune (Bch.). 


t (?) 939. 


Neosdune (Kble.). 


1291. 


Nesdon (T.E.). 


1300. 


Nesedon (A.D.). 


1322. 


Nesdone (A.D.). 


1535. 


Nesdon, Neesdon (V.E.), 


1610. 


Nesedon (Speed). 



For the second element, see p. 100. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 63 

The first element is M.E. nes, nese (neose, nease, nees, 
neese) = " iiose^'' also ** ness," cognate with Mid. Dutch and 
Mid. Low. Ger. nese. See nese in N.E.D., also nose, naze and 
ness, all of which words are probably related. A.S. had only 
nes and nas, according to N.E.D., but the earliest forms 
above are probably post-conquest copies. 

The name Neasden, therefore, may refer to a hill jutting 
out like a "" nose " into the plain. Cf. Nesbit (Northumber- 
land). 

NORTHOLT. 

962. aet norS healum (Earle, p. 202, Thorpe). 
1086. Northala (Dd.). 

1231/ Northale j^^^^^ 

1213. Northal (F.P.). 

1291. Northall (T.E.). 

1399. Northalle (A.D.). 

1596. Northold (Norden). 

1610. Northolt (Speed). 
Originally "north hale" as opposed to " Southall " (q.v.). 
See hale, p. 102. 

The additional d or Ms not due to the influence of the 
word " holt," which does not occur in Middlesex except in 
WormhoUj but is simply parasitic. Cf. sozmd in N.E.D. and 
the vulgar ** gownd " for gown. 

North Hyde (Southall). 

1243. Northyde (F.F.). 

1356. Northide (F.F.). 

1710. Northhide (Seller). 
from '' north " and " hide " — see Hyde {supra). 

North WOOD. 

1438, 1462. Northwode, Northwod (Pat.). Because it lay 
to the North of Euislip. 



64 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

NoBTON FoLGATB (Shoreditch). 

13071 ^^ f(t^F.)- 

1324/ Norton |^p ^ ^^ 

1433. Nortonfolyot (F.F.). 
1458. Nortonfoly (F.F.). 
1520. Norton Folyott (F.F.). 

1542. Norton Folgate, otherwise Norton Follyott 
(F.F.). 
*' north farm." It was just north of the City walls. 

According to Johnston there are twenty-two Nortons in 
the Post OflSce Directory alone. 

Foliott is a Norman family name (diminutive of fon, fol, 
**mad," according to Prof. Weekley), cf. Tamerton Foliott 
(Devon). 

The modern Folgate is due to the influence of the numer- 
ous City gates. 

Norwood Green. 

1294. Northwode (F.F.). 

1453. Norwode (A.D.). 
The modern outcome is the normal one, Northwood (supra) 
being unusual. 

NoTTiNG (Kensington). 

1476. Knottinge Bernes (Escaet). 

1519. Notingbarns (F.F.). 

1544. Nuttingbars (F.F.). 

1754. Knotton Barn (Eocque). 

1862. Notting Barns Farm (6-inch ordnance map). 
" Place of the Onottingas or sons of Cnotta." Cf. Knotting 
(Beds) and Knottingley (Yorks). 

Notting Hill and Notting Dale are back formations from 
this place. Notting Hill Gate — because a turnpike stood 
here on the main road from London to Oxford. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 65 

Oakington Paem (Wembley). 

12361 ("(Eot. Abb.). 

1240/ Tokmton |^j,p^ 

15081 ^ , r(F.F.). 

1535/ Tokyngton j^^ j,^ 

1819. Oakington farm (Greenwood). 
'' farm of the sons of Toca." 

For loss of initial ^, cf. Elstree and Ickenham, but the loss 
must have occurred quite recently in this case. 

Old Fold Farm (Barnet). 

c. 1340. Le Eldefolde (Gesta). 
1539. Oldfelde (F.F.). 
1754. Old Fold (Rocque). 
See p. 101 and cf. the following. 

Old Ford ('ould 'fo: d). 

1349. Eldeford (L.I., vol. 6). 

1383. Oldeford (Escaet). 

1384. Oldforthe (F.F.). 
1400. Oldford (F.F.). 

A.S. aet Sam ealdan forda, " at the old ford '*— probably as 
opposed to Stratford, lower down. 

There is no apparent reason for writing the name in two 
words. The normal outcome should be " Oldford " ('ouldf()d). 

OssuLSTON (name of a Hundred). 
1086. Osulvestan (Dd.). 
1168, 1187. Osulfestan (P.E.). 

1200. Osulvestan (Eot. C.R.). 
1216-1307. Othulveston (H.E.). 
1428. Osulveston (F.A.). 
1610. Ossulston (Speed). 
" at the stone of Oswulf." See pT 105. 
For loss of V cf. Elstree, Harlesden, etc. 

5 



66 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

OsTBBLBY Park (Hounslow). 
1294. Osterlye (P.P.). 
1342. Oysterley (Pat.). 
1351. Osterlee (Ch.). 

1376. Osturle (A.D.). 
1460. Osterley (Escaet). 

Prof. Mawer considers the first element to be A.S. eowistre, 
" a sheepfold " [ewe], which he and Dr. Bradley " agree now 
is the derivation of Durham ' Ousterley'." 

I can suggest no alternative, and the form oy (above) 
favours A.S. *' eowistre,** 

OxGATE Parm (Hendon). 

1291) Oxegate f^"^'^'^' 
1311J ^ l(F.F.). 

1535. Oxgate (V.E.). 

Of. the following. 

OxHEYLANB Parm (Pinner). 
Called after Oxhey (Herts). 

1007. set Oxangehaege (Crawford). 

1219. Oxehaie (P.P.). 

1248. Oxehaye (P.P.). 
" Enclosed or fenced in place of Oxen.'* 

Paddington. 

t 959. Padintune (Kble., Thorpe). 

t 998. Paddingtone (Thorpe). 

1168, 1169. Padinton (P.R). 

c. 1220. Padintune (Ind.). 

1377. Padyngton (A.D.). 
1610. Paddington (Speed). 

** farm of the sons of Pada or Padda.'* 

Cf. Padingdene in P,A., 1316 = Paddington farm, Abinger 
(Surrey). 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 67 

Page Steeet (Hendon). 

1710. Page Street (Seller). 
See street, p. 105. The name " Page ** occurs frequently in 
the F.F. 

^*'Pallingswick," ''Paddings wick" (Ealing). 

1270. Palyngewyk (F.F.). 
1364, 1373. Palyngeswiche (Close). 

1380. Pallyngeswyk (Ind.). 

1391. Pallingwike (Escaet). 

1486. Palyngeswyke (Escaet). 

1547. Palenswyke otherwise Padenswyke (F.F.). 

1819. Padderswick Green (Greenwood). 
(?) " dwelling of the son(s) of * Pala.'* This name, however, 
is not in Searle, and it is possible that the prefix is a personal 
name Pallig or Palling(us), Pallig being the name of a Danish 
earl (Searle). But Palliiisburn (Northumberland) = "bourn 
of Paulinus." 

For interchange of I and d, cf. Charlton and Harlington, 

Palmers Gbeen (Edmonton). 

? 1205. Palmeresfeld ... in Edelmeton (F.F.). 
1695. Palmers Green (Camden). 
Palmer = " pilgrim to the Holy Land." See " Eomance 
of Names" (Weekley), pp. 15, 167. 

Parsons Green (Fulham). 

1596. Parsons Grene (Norden). 
So called, according to Lysons, because the parsonage 
house of Fulham stood here, round which the hamlet grew up. 

Pentonhook (Laleham). 

1535. Pentyhoke (F.F.). 
"hook," referring to the point of land running into the 
Thames here. 
For want of early forms I cannot interpret the prefix. 

5* 



68 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

Pentonville (Islington). 

Named after Henry Pent on {ob. 1812). He owned the 
land, and laid out the first streets in 1773 (Besant). 

Perivale. 

1508, 1566. Pyryvale (P.F.). 
1564, Peryvale (P.P.). 
1568. Perevell (P.P.). 
Prefix is probably M.E. pery, piry, pirie, " pear tree " (A.S. 
pirije). The French suffix -vale shows that the place is of 
post-conquest origin. It was, in fact, known as ** Little 
Greenford " till the fifteenth century. 

Perry Oaks. 

1404. Godfrey atte Pyrye (P.P.). 

1411. Pyrye (A.D.). 

1553. Puryplace (P.P.). 

1754. Perry Oaks (Kocque). 
Prefix as in preceding name. The '' Oaks " is fairly 
modern. 

PiELD Heath (Cowley). 

1636. Peel's Heath (quoted Lysons). 

1754. Peel Heath (Eocque). 
I suppose '^ Peel'* to have been a man's name. The 
modern ** d " is excrescent. 

PiMLICO. 

c. 1626. Pimlico, Pimplico, Pimlicoe (quoted Clinch's 
" History of Mayfair and Belgravia "). 
1754. Pimlico (Eocque). 
The name, according to histories, seems to come from a 
certain Ben Pimlico, who had a tavern. I suppose it to be 
of foreign origin. 



• THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 69 

PiNKWBLL (Harlington). 

So spelt in Eocque, but no earlier forms that I can find. 

There is a Pinca in Searle, and cf. Pinhlmrst (Surrey) spelt 
Pinkehurst in the Surrey Fines, 1241 and 1356. 

PiNNEK. 

1232. Pinora (F.F.). 
1232. Pinnora (Ch.). 
1248. Pinnore (S.S., vol. 2). 
1255. Pinhore (F.F.). 
1332. Pinnere (Ind.). 
1532. Pynner (F.F.). 
The suffix is A.S. ora, ''brim," "edge," "bank," "shore," 
referring to the little river Pi7i here. 

I think, however, that the river name must be a back 
formation, and the prefix represent a personal name Pinna. 
Cf. "Pinnan rod" in Searle. 

A.S. ora becomes -or -er in place names when a sufifix, and 
in all cases is pronounced P(r)]. 

PiTSHANGER (Baling). 
1538, 1563. Pytteshanger (F.F.). 

1754. Pitshanger Lane (Eocque). 
1819. Pitch hanger Farm (Greenwood). 
For suffix, cf. Hanger Hill (supra). 

Prefix evidently a proper name, but uncertain what with- 
out earlier forms, since t and c so readily interchange. Per- 
haps the surname Pitt^ if the name is really modern. 

PoLEHiLL Farm (Hillingdon). 
Pole Hill Farm in Greenwood. 
Perhaps " pool hill," but it may be an imported name. 

Ponders End (Enfield). 

1610. Ponder's End (Speed). 
See p. 101. "Ponder," I suppose to have been a man*s name. 



70 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

* PoNTEFKACT, PoMFKET (a former manor by the Thames). 

1308. Pontefract (P.P.). 

1323. Ponfrayt super Thamisiam (Escaet). 

1358. Pountfreyt (P.P.). 

1370. Pomfreit (Escaet). 

1422. Pountfreit (P.P.). 
"broken bridge," cf. Pontefract (Yorks). 

The first form is an artificial Latin one ; the rest Norman 
French, cf. Grampound (Cornwall), Grauntpont, Graunt- 
pond (Ind., 1422), i.e. '* great bridge " (over the river Pal). 

Poplar. 

1340] ((F.P.). 

1351 [ Popeler ] (Escaet). 

1405 J ((A.D.). 

1398. Popellier (P.P.). 

1569. Popler (A.D.). 
** at the poplar tree," cf. Eyke, Elniy Ash^ Thome, Wellow, etc., 
in various counties. 

This name occurs earlier than the first record of the word 
in the N.E.D. (1382). 

* PoRTOBELLO Farm (Notting Hill). 

Marked in eighteenth and nineteenth century maps down 
to c. 1870. 

Named, according to histories in honour of the capture of 
Portobello in 1739. The name remains in the Portobello 
Eoad, formerly a lane leading to the farm. 

♦PoRTPOOL (a lost manor near the present Gray's Inn, 
London), 
c. 12001 /(Excerpta). 



12001 ^ , , f(Excer 
1203) ^^^^^P"^ 1(P,P.). 

'' 1309} p^^t^p^i^ {(Rp]; 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 71 

1316. Pourtepol (P.A.). 

1507. Portpole (P.P.). 

1535. Portepole, Portepoole (V.E.). 
the " u " shows that the prefix cannot be " port " in any sense 
of the word, but rather a personal name " Purta " (i in Searle). 
Cf. Purtanige in Kble. 

POTTEKS BaK. 

1596. Potters Barr (Norden). 

So called because formerly one of the '' bars " or barred 
gates of Enfield Chase. 

Potter was the name of an underkeeper of one of the lodges, 
which was known as ''Potter's Lodge" in 1635 (G.L.). 

POYLE. 

1210. Pulla (E.E.). 
1216-1307. Puilla (T.N.). 
1238. Poyle (P.P.). 
1259. la Puille (P.P.). 
1452. Poyle (Escaet). 
Prom the Norman family name Poille, Puille. 
Poyle comes from the form Poille, whereas Pewley Hill 
(near Guildford, Surrey) comes from Puille — like " pew " > old 
Prench " puy." See V.C.H., Surrey, vol. 3. 



Pkeston (Harrow). 

1210. Prestone (E.E.). 

^^^^1 Preston {^^'^'^^ 
1596/ •^^^'^'''' t(Norden). 

" farm of the priests," A.S. * preosta tun. A common place 
name in England. 

Prestone and Preostantun in Kble. refer, I think, not to 
this place, but to somewhere in Hants. 



72 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

Peimbose Hill. 

Marked in Kocque and mentioned in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, according to histories. Probably descriptive of its 
former appearance. 

Eatcliff (Stepney). 

1422. Eadclif (P.F.). 

1430. Eadclyf (P.P.). 

1541. Eadclyff, Eatclyff (S.S., vol. 8). 

1573. Eedcliffe (Mid. Ped.). 

1593. EatcUff (A.D.) 
" red cliff," the d becoming voiceless before the c. 

The notorious " Eatcliff Highway " formerly preserved the 
name. 

Eavenscoubt Pabk (Hammersmith). 

Eaven's Court in Greenwood. Only dates from the eigh- 
teenth century, but the name Eaven is old, having been used 
as a personal name in A.S. 

A patronymic is seen in Bavenyngemill (P.P., 1404). 

Eed Hill (Edge ware). 

So marked in Seller (1710). I suppose from a certain 
colour of the clay soil here, cf. Bedhill (Surrey). 

** EOKESHAL.'* 

1214. Eokeshal (P.P.). 
" nook or corner of Hroc.'* See Hale and cf. following. 

This name is perhaps represented by Buckhold Farm near 
Harlesden, cf. Northolt {supra), 

EOXETH. 

845. et (= set) Hroces seaSum (Bch.). 

845. Hroces seaS (Ind.). 

1422. Eoxhethe (P.P.). 

1508. Eoxehay (P.P.). 

1710. Eoxeth (Seller). 



THE PLACE NAMES OP MIDDLESEX 73 

A.S. seaQ meant " a pit, hole, well, lake." See p. 105. 
Prefix is a personal name Hroc (= Book), rather than the 
bird itself, owing to the presence of the genitival -es. 

^EuDSWORTH (Staines?). 

1243. Euddeswurth (F.F.). 

1258. Eudesworth (F.F.). 
1279, 1446. Eodesworth (F.F.). 

1391. Eodesworthe (Escaet). 

1464. Euddesworth (Pat.). 

1466. Euddisworth (F.F.). 
" farm or holding of ■*Eud(d)." . The weak Euda is in Searle. 

■^ EuGMERE (St. Pancras, a lost manor near). 
1086. Eugemere (Dd.). 
1291. Eugme (T.E.). 
1327-1377. Eeggeme (N.I.). 
1535. Eugmer (V.E.). 
Presumably ** ridge mere." A.S. hrycg (i.e. ridge or back). 
The letter ** e " is a Kentish symbol and the letter ** u " is a 
Norman symbol for the sound of A.S. *'y." 

EuiSLiP (raislip). 

1086. Eislepe (Dd.). 
1230. Eislep (F.F.). 

^^^H Eisselen /(S'S-^ vol 2). 

1252/ ^^^^^^^P |(Ch.). 

1291. Eusselep (T.E.). 

1307. Eisshelep, Eysshelep (F.F.). 

1315. Eushlep (F.F.). 

1327-1377. Eusshelep (N.I.). 

1434. Euyssheleppe (L.I., vol. 5). 

1436. Euyslyp (Escaet). 

1438, 1462. Euyslep, Euyslepe (Pat.). 

1506. Eyselypp (F.F,). 



74 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

The prefix is A.S. risoe, rysce (rise, rysc), " a rush." 

The suflBx is A.S. hlyp, hlep, '' a leaping place," '' distance 
to be leaped over," referring to the small stream (the Pin) 
here which flows into the Colne. 

The ui represents a M.E. spelling of the sound of A.S. y 
(= French '' u "), cf. buy, build, bruise, etc., in N.E.D. 

The sound was later " unrounded " according to rule, but 
the spelling remains. 

Eyefields Barn. 

Marked in Seller, 1710. Probably to be interpreted liter- 
ally. 

St. Giles. 

1204, 1247) ^^ ^ , f(F.F.). 
1257, 1519} ^'' ^^^'' {(A,D.). 

1565. St. Giles in the Fields (F.F.). 
The village and church were named after the hospital 
which stood here, dedicated to the Greek saint, St. Giles. 

St. Johns Wood. 

1577. St. Johns Wood (Ind.). 
The wood was in the possession of the Priors of St. John 
of Jerusalem. 

St. Pangeas. 

1086. (ad) Sanctum Pancratium (Dd.). 

1183. eccl. S. Pancratii (Ind.). 

1291. Sci Pancratii (T.E.). 

1353. de Sancti Pancrassi (F.A.). 

1428. Ecc. Sancti Pancracii (F.A.). 
" Pancratius " was a young Phrygian nobleman, who 
suffered martyrdom under Diocletian, and was at one time a 
favourite saint in England. Cf. St. Pancras (Sussex). 



THE2PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 75 

Sandford House (Fulham). 

I272I ^^''^^'''^ |(F.F.). 

SCKATTAGE (Hounslow). 

1710, 1754. Scratedge (Seller, Eocque). 
No earlier forms that I can find, but the suffix is possibly 
" edge." Of. Giitteridge {supra). 

Shackle WELL (Hackney). 

1550. Shakelwell (Stow). 
1553. Shackewell (P.F.). 
1581, etc. Shacklewell (Mem.), 
c. 1600. Shackelwell (Mid. Ped.). 
Might be " well by which beasts or people were shackled." 
So Walker interprets Shacklecross (Derbyshire). 
But Shackleford (Surrey) was Saklesford in 1229 (Surrey 
Fines), pointing to a personal name * Sceacul. 

Prof. Weekley quotes a Eobert Schakel in 1297 (Surnames) 
and Shackle is still found as a surname. 

Shadwell. 

1223. Shadewell (P.P.). 

1316. Shaldewelle (Ch.). 

1325. Shadewell (Plac. Abb.). 
" Shallow well or spring." Loss of I after a and before d 
is Norman, though this was often rendered ate. Cf. Adewych 
in P.P., 1237 = Aldwych, and Ghaldewelh P.P., 1318, now 
Chadwell (Essex). 

Sheepcote Parm (Harrow). 

1399. Schepcote (Escaet). 
1422. Shipcote (Escaet). 
1710. Sheepcoate (Seller). 
See p. 100. Probably a shepherd's dwelling. 
The 1422 form represents the normal outcome of the name. 



76 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

Shbphebd's Bush (Hammersmith). 

1710. Shepards Bush (Seller). 
A small hamlet till the nineteenth century. Shepard (i.e. 
** Shepherd ") was probably a man's name. It occurs several 
times in F.F. 

Sheppebton. 

t959, 10661 CI , /(Thorpe). 

il066} ^^^P^^^^^nllnd.) 

1 1066. Scepirton (Kble.). 

1086. Scepertune (Dd.). 

1208. Sceperton (F.F.). 

1297\ ^, ^ /(Pat.). 
1309/ Sheperton (J^ ^J^ 

1316. Scheperton (F.A.). 
1393. Sheperton (Escaet). 

For the second element see p. 106. 

The prefix is difficult. The persistent " e " is against 
Johnston's suggestion " scip here." For the same reason, 
and because there is no sign of any medial '*e," an A.S. 
* scipera tiin, '' farm of the shipping folk " is unlikely, though 
the place is on the Thames. " Shepherd's farm " is more 
probable, though very doubtful. Dd. forms often omit an 
'* h " and the forms in Kble. and Thorpe above are late copies, 
perhaps of the twelfth century. 

Sherkick Green (Willesden). 

1306. Scyrewyk (A.D.). 

1307. Scherewyk (A.D.). 

" village or dwelling on the ' scir ' or boundary." 

Shootup Hill (Kilburn). 

1604. Shuttop Hill (quoted Lysons). 
1695. Suteup Hill (Camden). 
1710. Seutup Hill (Seller). 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 77 

Not, I think, to be taken literally. Perhaps a corruption 
of some personal name ending in -op. Cf. Allsop, Hartopf 
etc., where the -op = the north country local sufi&x -hope, 
** hollow," ** small valley," " access." 

Shoeeditch. 
1216-1307. Soresdych (H.E.). 

1221. Schoresdich (F.F.). 

1235. Schoredich (F.F.). 

1248. Soresdich (F.F.). 

1291. Schoredich (T.E.). 

1457. Shordich (F.F.). 
** ditch of Sceorf or * Scorre " (Scorra is in Searle). 

Shorioell (I. of W.) was Sorewelle in Dd., Schorewell in 
T.N., and may contain the weak form Scorra as first element. 

Shobtwood (Staines). 

1754. Short Wood (Eocque). 

SiPSON. 

1342. Sibeston (F.F.). 

1391. Sibston (F.F.). 

1394. Sybbiston (A.D.). 

1564. Sybston (F.F.). 

1610. Sypson (Speed). 
'' farm or enclosure of Sibbe (Sibbi)." 

ps>bs > bst. Cf. Sihson (Hunts), which has not gone to 
the further stage of unvoicing the h before s. 

Smithfield. 

1216-1307/ Smethefeld j^g j^^ 
1272. Smytheteld (F.P.). 
1275] r(F.F.)- 

1293 1 Smethefeld \ (Escaet). 
1316] i(F.A.). 

1535. Smythfeld (V.E.). 



78 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

'^smooth field" (A.S. sm^Se). '* Field" in the A.S, sense of 
a wide tract of naturally clear open land. 

SOUTHALL. 

1210. Sudhale (E.E.). 

1233. Suhall (F.P.). 

1261. Suthalle (F.F.). 

1316. Suthall (F.A.). 

1496. Southall (F.F.). 

1695. Southold (Camden). 

1710. Southolt (Seller). 
*' South nook or corner," as opposed to Northolt q.v. In this 
case the parasitic d or t has been dropped again. 

SOUTHGATB. 

1371. Suthgate (A.D.). 
It was the south gate of Enfield Chase. 

Spelthorn (name of a Hundred). 
1086. Speletorne (Dd.). 
1169, etc. Spelethorn (P.R). 
1182. Spelesthorn (P.E.). 
1200. Spelethorn (Eot. C.E.). 
1216-1307. Spellethorn (H.E.). 
1428. Spelethorn (F.A.). 
1610. Spelthorne (Speed). 
For the suffix, see p. 106. 

There is no name Spel or Spel(l)a in Searle. Perhaps the 
prefix is A.S. spel, spell, *' story," '* discourse," ** sermon," 
referring to a certain boundary tree where such was preached 
or held. 

Cf. Spelbrdc in Kble., where the prefix (if the form is 
genuine) cannot be a personal name. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 79 

Spitalfields. 

Spyttlefields in 1586 (Ind.), cf. Spitelstrete in 1235 (F.F.). 
Both named after the priory of St. Mary Spital, founded in 
1197. 

Spitalf Spitel is a M.E. form of old French ospital, with a 
local accenting of the '' i " and loss of the first syllable by 
aphesis. 

Spoils ANK Wood (Hadley). 

E.D.D. says : " spoil bank, an artificial mound formed of 
spoil." ''Spoil, dross, rubbish, surplus soil from an excava- 
tion." 

Staines. 

: 960, 969, 1066. Stana (Kble., Thorpe). 
993. to Stane (Chron.). 

1009. at Stane (Chron.). 

10501 r(Ind.). 

1066/ ^^^^^ l(Kble.). 

1086J r(Dd.). 

11761 Stanesi{P.B.). 
1200j [(Eot. C.E.). 

Stanes, Staines, subsq. 
*' at the stone," referring to some boundary mark, perhaps 
the point where the Colne flows into the Thames. 

Prof. Skeat held that the modern (steinz) instead of 
(stounz) was due to Scandinavian influence. See '' Place 
Names of Cambs " under '' Staine." 

Stamfokd Brook (Hammersmith). 

1754. Stanford Brook (Eocque). 

Stamford Hill (Tottenham). 

1321. Sts^ii^ford (F.F.). 
*' stony ford,'' 



80 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

Stanmobe. 

1086| r(Dd.). 

1213/ Stanmerej^pp^ 

1230. Stanmer (P.F.). 

1291. Stanmere (T.E.). 

1535. Stanmer (V.E.). 

1710. Stanmore (Seller), 
''stony mere or pool." The 1-inch ordnance map marks 
three pieces of water in the neighbourhood. 
The change of suffix is recent. 

Stanwell. 

1086. Stanwelle (Dd.). 

1210. Stanewella (E.E.). 

1230. Stanwell (F.F.). 

1281. Stanewell (Ind.). 

1428. Stanwell (F.A.). 
" stony well or spring." 

Stakvhall Fabm (Drayton). 

1862. Starveall Farm (Ordnance Map). 
Names such as this and " Starve acre " seem to imply a 
poor soil. 

Stepney. 

1086. Stibenheda (Dd.). 

1172. Stubhuda (P.E.). 

1219. Stibbehe (F.F.). 

1216-1307. Stubeneth (T.N.). 

1316. Stebenhuthe (F.A.). 

1353. Stebenhith (F.F.). 

1370. Stepenhithe (F.F.). 

1446. Stebenheth alias Stepney (Escaet), 

1535. Stepenhethe, Stepneth (V.E.), 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 81 

Stepenhith, Sfeephenheth, Stepney subsq. Sfcebenei, Steb- 
behe, Stebbenheth, Stubbenhethe, Stebenhithe, etc., in the 
F.F. passim. 

Probably A.S. ^Stybban h^S, ^^ hithe of Stybba." See 
p. 110 and cf. Stybban snad in Kble. and Bch. 

The e would be due to Kentish influence, which had e for 
A.S. y. 

The prefix could not be A.S. stybb, stubb, stebb, " stump, 
stub," as that is not a weak noun ; nor A.S. st6ap, " steep,'* 
as the forms with '' p " do not appear till the fourteenth 
century. 

For the development of the suffix, cf. Chelsea (supra) and 
Putney, Surrey, Puttenhuthe, Pottenhith, etc., in the Surrey 
Fines. 

The '* n " may have become unvoiced before the '* h," which 
then caused the '' b " to become ''p." 

*Stickledon (Greenford). 

1331. Stikelynton (F.F.). 

1373. Stikelyngdon (Escaet). 

1385. Stikeldon (F.F.). 

1395. Stekyldon (F.F.). 

1400. Stykelendon (Escaet). 
For the suffix see don, p. 100. 

The prefix may be A.S. sticol, " steep," " lofty," the forms 
with ** n " being a remnant of the inflected A.S. weak de- 
clension, cf. Hendon, Doubtful ; possibly patronymic of 
^Sticol. 

Stoke Newington. 

1086. Neutone (Dd.). 
1197. Neweton (F.F.). 
1286. Newynton (Ch.). 
1316. Stokneuton (F.A.). 
6 



82 THE PLACE NAMES OP MIDDLESEX 

1459. Stokenewnton (Ind.). 

1535. Newton, Newington, Stokenewington (V.E.). 
A.S. aet Sdm niwan tune, " at the new farm or enclosure.'* 
Cf. Newnham (Cambs) and Neioington (Surrey). 

Stoke appears late and cannot be regarded here as an A.S. 
prefix, but was perhaps added merely to distinguish the place 
from Newington (Surrey). 

Stband. 

1219. Stranda (RF.). 
1236. la Straunde (F.F.). 
1291. la Stronde (T.E.). 
etc. 
A.S. strand, " margin, edge, shore." 

So called, as is well known, because the original village 
grew up along the bank of the Thames. 

Strand on the Green (Chiswick). 
1353. Stronde (F.F.). 
1596. ye Strande (Norden). 
1710. Strand Green (Seller). 
Cf. preceding. 

Stroud Green (Hornsey) [sfcraud]. 
1562. Strodegrene (F.F.). 
1754. Stroud Green (Eocque). 
A.S. strdd = " marshy land," '' marshy land overgrown with 
brushwood." See supplement to Bosworth's *' A.S. Diction- 
ary " and ** Transactions of the Philological Society, 1895- 
1898." 

Cf. also Stroud, Strood, Bulstrode, Gostrode, Strudwick, etc., 
in various counties. 

Sudbury. 

1066. SuSbure (Thorpe). 
1294. Subyry (F.F.). 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 83 

1398. Southbery (Escaet). 

1474. Sutbury (L.I., vol. 16). 

1535. Sudbury (V.E.). 
The first element is A.S. su5, '* south," which normally 
becomes d before b. 

For the second element see p. 99. 
So called because South of Harrow. 

SUNBURY. 

960. aet Sunnanbyrg (Boh.). 
962. Sunnanbyrg (Earle, Kble.). 
1066. Sunnabyri (Kble., Thorpe). 
1066. Sunnebyri (Ind.). 
1086. Suneberie (Dd.). 
1167. Sunefeia (P.E.). 
1258. Sunnebery (F.F.). 
1291. Sonneber* (T.E.). 
1428. Sonbury (F.A.). 
1535. Sunbury (V.E.). 
For the second element see p. 99. 

The first element is a personal name Sunna, cf . Sunning- 
hill (Berks) and Stcnnan dun (in Kble.). Also Sonning, 

* Sutton (Chiswick). 

1221. Suttone (F.F.). 

13161 r(F.A.) 

1327-13771 Sutton J(P.W.). 

1535J l(V.E.). 

" south farm or enclosure." Many places of this name in 
England. 

Sutton (Hounslow). 

Cf. preceding. Possibly the '* Sutton atte Hone," F.F., 
1310. 

*6 



84 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

SwAKELEYS (Ickenham). 

1327. Swalclyve (LM.). 

1334. Swaleclyf (P.F.). 

1532. Swalecliff (F.F.)- 

1549. Swalclyf (Ind.). 

1695. Swakley (Camden). 

1710. Swakeleys (Seller). 
Not an original Middlesex name, but named after Robert 
de Swalclyve who held ''premises in Herefeld" in 1327. 
He came from Swalecliff in Kent, which place means ' cliff 
by the Swale river." 

I do not know the origin of the Kentish river, but there is 
another river Swale in Yorks, spelt " Sualua " in Bede. The 
I in Swali- was vocalized between the long vowel and the 
k, and the final/ being dropped, the spelling of the sufiBx was 
assimilated to the common ending -ley. The 5 is modern. 

Syon House (Isleworth). 

1414] r(Ch.). 

14281 Syon J(F.A.). 

143lJ [(A.D.). 

Sion Abbey was founded by Henry V in 1414, and the 
name chosen as being an appropriate title for a religious 
house. Perhaps suggested by the text '' Daughters of Sion." 

Teddington. 

Type I. 

t 960, 969. Tudingtun (Bch., Kble., Thorpe). 

c. 970. set Tudincgatunae (Kble.). 

1198. Tudinton (F.F.). 

1280. Todinton (F.F.). 

1291. Todington (T.E.). 

1349. Tuddyngton (F.F.). 

1443. Todyngton (F.F.). 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 85 

1516. Todyngton (P.F.). 
1535. Toddington (V.E.). 
1593. Tuddington (Ind.). 
Type II, 

1327-1377. Tedinton (N.I.). 
1428. Tedyngton (P. A.). 
1754. Teddington (Eocque). 
Type I. = '' farm of the sons of Tuda." 
Type II. = ''farm of the sons of *Ted(d)a " (unrecorded). 
Type II, though the rarer type in M.E. records is the 
origin of the modern form, which would otherwise have been 
* Tuddington. 

Temple Fortune (Hendon). 

Marked in Eocque, 1754. I can find no earlier record or 
history of the place, but the name, if old, suggests that the 
Knights Templars held land here at one time. 

Compare "Eobert de Sanford the Master of the Knights 
Templars in England . . . premises in Hendon and Fyn- 
chesl' " (F.F. 1243). 

Thorney (Westminster). 

t 785. Torneia (Kble.). 

I 969. Thorneye (Bch.). 

? 1042. >ornige (Kble.). 

1291. Thorney (T.E.). 
" thorn island,*' " island overgrown with thorns." See p. 106. 

"^ToLLiNGTON (Islington). 

1086. Tolentone (Di). 

1392. Tolyndon (F.F.). 

1468\ ^. ^ j(F.F.). 
1543/ Tolyngton jj^ j,| 

1710. Tollington (Seller). 
" farm of the sons of Tola " (two in Searle). 



86 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

ToTHiLL (Westminster), 
late 12th century. Tothulle, Totehell (Ind.). 
1257. Touthull (Cal. Eot. Ch.). 
1268. Tothull (P.F.). 
1480, 1485. Totehilstrete (F.F.). 
1535. Totehill (V.E.). 
There are other places of this name in England. 
It means " look out or spy hill." M.E. toten, '' to spy out " 
from A.S. totian, " to peep, project." See also tout in N.E.D. 
As there is no appreciable natural hill here, the name may 
have referred to some artificial mound. 

The name remains in Tothill Street and the former Tothill 
fields. 

Tottenham. . 

1086] r(Dd.). 

11281 Toteham J (Ind.). 

1183] [(P.R). 

1236. Thotenham (F.F.). 

1265. Totenham (F.F.). 

1267] r(Ch.). 

12861 Tottenham J (F.F.). 

129lJ i(T.E.). 

1312) ^ , , ((F.P.)- 

1313} ^"'^^^"^ |(F.F.). 

Totenham, Tottenham, subsq. 
" home or enclosure of Tot(t)a." 
Tooting (Surrey) answers to a name Tota with long vowel. 



Tottenham Coukt. 

1086. Totehele (Dd.). 
c. 1190) ^ , , , r(Ind.). 
1202/ ^'''^^^' 1(F.F.). 



THE PLACE NAMES OP MIDDLESEX 87 

1216-13071 rn , . 1 r(H.E.). 
1303} ^^*^"^^^^ {(F.F.). 
1347. Totenhal (F.P.). 
c. 1510. Totnall Court (L.I., vol. 29). 
1596. Totten Court (Norden). 
1754. Tottenham Court (Eocque). 
'' nook or corner of Tot(t)a." Cf. preceding and see p. 102. 
The gradual change of the suffix may have been due to the 
influence of " Tottenham," while the Court only seems to 
date from the sixteenth century. 

The name remains in the Tottenham Court Eoad. 

Tottenham Hale. 

Marked in Eocque. See p. 102. 

Tottenham High Cross. 

1551. Totenham Hyghcrosse (F.F.). 
1567. Tottenham High Crosse (F.F.). 

Turnham Green. 

?1209. Turneham (Surrey Arch. Soc. Add., vol. I, 
Surrey Fines). 
1596. Turnham Greene (Norden). 
It is possible that the 1209 form refers to this place, as 
there is no place of this name in Surrey. 

Histories give no mention of the past of this place, and I 
can offer no suggestion as to the interpretation of the prefix. 

Twickenham. 

704. Tuican hom (Bch.). 
704. Twican hom (Ind.). 
793. Tuicanhamme (Bch.). 
1215. Twikeham (F.F.). 
1291. Twikenham (T.E.), etc. 
The suffix is A.S. hamm, homm, " bend in a river " 
(Thames). See p. 103. 



88 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

The prefix is a personal name Twica, rather than A.S. 
twicen, '' crossroads," " meeting of two roads," which would 
give a modern ^ Twichen, 

TWYFOBD. 

1086. Tueverde (Dd.). 

^^^H Twiford /(^•^•)- 
1291 f ^"^^^^'^ |(T.E.). 

1380. Twyford (Escaet), etc. 

A.S. twi ford, " double ford," ^' two fords near together." 

There are many places of this name in England. 

Tybubn. 

971. andlang Teoburnan (Kble). 
1086. Tiburne (Dd.). 
1216.1307| r(H.E.). 

1235J -^ 1(F.F.). 
1299. Tiburne (F.F.). 
1313. Teyborn (Eot. Abb.). 
1477. Tyburn (F.F.), 
For the suiBBx see p. . 

The prefix may be A.S. teah, tih = '' bond," '' tie," 
*' fastening " — also '* a close," '' enclosure," which is probably 
the meaning here. Cf. Prov. Eng. tye, tighe, '^ common 
land," '^ common pasture." 

The spelling in Kble. may be due to the influence of the 
word teohj '' band," " company," which was a related word. 

The name Tyburn was later superseded by Marybourne. 
(See *' Marylebone " (supra), 

Tey^ Tie, Tye are common in Essex local names. 

UXBBIDGE. 

1200. Wxsebrge, Oxebrig (Kot. C.E.). 

^2°^1 UxebriRR ((^'- ^"^^•)' 
1206/ ^"'^'''^^^ l(F.F.). 



THE PLACE NAMES OF mDDLESEX 89 

1219. Woxebruge (F.F.). 

1220. Wyxebrigge (F.F.). 
1220. Uxebrugg (Excerpta). 
1291. Woxebregg (T.E.). 
1294. Wexebrigge (Ch.). 
1316. Woxbrigg (F.A.). 

1398. Woxebrigge als. Uxbridge (Escaet). 

1515. Uxbrigge (F.F.). 

1547. Wooxbryge (F.F.). 

1560. Uxbridge (F.F.). 

The prefix here is rather difiBculfc. It points to an original 
^ wyes or * wysc, but there is no word like this in A.S. 

There is a Celtic root "^ wysc,/ use = "water," "river," 
which may be the prefix here, but Celtic names are rare in 
this part of England, and hence such an origin is extremely 
doubtful, though the town is certainly situated on the Colne. 

The old forms of Uxendon (infra) seem to point to an 
unrecorded personal name Wuxa (or Wusca). 

Oxen is extremely unlikely, since the old forms all point to 
an original A.S. y or -z^ the o in some of the above spellings 
being of common occurrence for tc in Norman orthography. 

Uxendon Farm (Harrow). 

1257. Woxindon (F.F.). 

1310. Wuxindon (S.S., vol. 19). 

1353. Oxendon (F.F.). 

1373. Woxindon (Close). 

1385\ „, . /(F.F.). 

1394) ^^^y^^^" IJpat.). 

1470. Woxington (L.I., vol. 16). 

1596. Uxendon (Norden). 

For the suffix see p. 100. 

The prefix is to be regarded as in the preceding name. 



90 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

Walbbook (in the City). 
1114-1130] ^(quoted Harben). 

^^H Walebroc ' (^-S-' ^^^- ^^^ 
1261 1 ^^^^^^^^ |(ind.). 

129lJ l(T.E.). 

1428. Walbrok (F.A.). 
Probably A.S. ^ Weala broc, " brook of the foreigners, 
Britons." Cf. Walton, Walworth (Surrey). The latter being 
" WealawnrS " in 1006 (Kble.). 

Walham Green (Pulham) [wol^m]. 
1274, 1280. Wenden (P.P.). 

^^^^' m2} ^^"^^" {(S^vol. 33). 
1327-1377. Wanden (N.I.). 
1481. Wendon (Bscaet). 
1546. Wanam Grene (P.P.). 
1558-1603. Wandon's Green (Proc. Chanc. Eliz.). 
1710. Wallam Green (Seller). 
1819. Walham Green (Greenwood). 
The original suflGix was -den (see p. 100). It could not, 
anyway, have been don since there is no hill here. 

The prefix points to an original * wsen, but there is no such 
word in A.S., so perhaps one must assume a personal name 
* Waena (Wana and Wanna are in Searle). Wanden became 
Wandam by dissimilation, then Wanam. The change of n 
to I is less regular, but occurs sometimes in place names. 
Cf. Kilburn and Islington. The suflSx was then assimilated 
in spelling to the common terminal -ham, 

Wapping. 

1231. Wapping (P.P.). 

1346. Wappyngge atte Wose (A.D.). 

1535. Wapping (V.E.). 

1661. Wappinge (P.P.). 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 91 

Evidently a patronymic. There is no name Wappa in 
Searle, but of. Wappingthorne (in Sussex) which was " Wap- 
ingetorne " in Dd. 

Wose « M.E. wose, " mud/' *' ooze." A.S. wase. 

Waxlow Faem (Southall). 

So spelt in Greenwood, but Wexley in Eocque. I can find 
no earlier forms, but it does not appear to be an old name, 
so far as I can gather from Lysons. 

Wealdstone (Harrow). 

Weald Stone in Eocque 1754. See Harrow Weald (supra). 
As an inhabited district, quite modern. 

Wembley. 

825, aet Wemba lea (Ind., Kble., Thorpe). 

1249. Wambeleg (RF.). 

1508. Wemley (F.F.). 

1535. Wembley (V.E.). 

For the suffix see p. 104. 

The prefix may be a personal name * Waemba — not in 
Searle, which has, however, two '' Wamba " (cf. "Ivanhoe"). 
This is probable since the form Wembanlea is endorsed in a 
contemporary hand at the end of the 825 a.d. charter. 

Westboukne. 

1259. Westeburne (F.F.). 
1272-1377. Westburne (P.W.). 

1316. Westbourn (F.A.). 

1754. Westborn Green (Eocque). 
''west bourn or stream " — as opposed to the '' Tyburn " to 
the east. The village of Westbourn Green lay to the west of 
Paddington and was absorbed into London^ c. 1860. 



92 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

West End (Hampstead). 

1535. Westende (V.E.). 
The hamlet lay at the west end of the parish of Etampstead. 
The name remains in West End Lane. 

West End (Northolt). 
Marked in Eocque. West end of the parish of Northolt. 

Westminstee. 

I 785. uuestmunstur (Kble.). 

X 804. uuestmynster (Kble., Thorpe). 

1039. Westmynster (Chron.). 

1050. Westmynstre (Chron.). 

1066. Westmenstre (Thorpe). 

1199. Westminster (F.P.). 

1305. Westmonastre (Escaet). 
A.S. ** mynster " was early borrowed from Latin ** monas- 
terium.** 

Westminster lay to the west of the City of London. 

Whetstone. 

1466. Whetston (F.F.). 
1490. Wheston (L.I., vol. 20). 
1516. Whetstone (F.F.). 
1535. Westone (V.E.). 
1558-1603. Whetston alias Fryern (Proc. Chanc. Eliz.). 
Probably simply ** at the whetstone," but one cannot say 
for certain without earlier forms. 

Whetstone (Leicester) was Westan in 1250 (Ind.), Whete- 
stan, Wetstan, Westan in 1318, 1340 (Ch.), Wetyston, Weit- 
ston in 1300 (F.A.), and means undoubtedly what it says. 
W. is on the Great North Eoad. 



THE PLACE NAMES OP MIDDLESEX 93 

Whitechapel. 

1348. Whitechapele (F.F.). 

1359. Whitchapelle (F.F.). 

1363. Whitechapel in Algatestrete (F.F.). 

1377. la Whytechapel without Algate (A.D.). 

Whiteheath Farm (Harefield). 

1819. White Heath Farm (Greenwood). 

Whitton (Hounslow). 

1300. Witton (Escaet). 
1354. Whitton (F.F.). 
1357, 1437. Whytton (F.F.). 
1535. Whitton (V.E.). 
'' white farm or enclosure." 

The long vowel in A.S. hwit is usually shortened in com- 
position, when it occurs as a first element in place names. 

WiLLESDEN (wilzd()n). 

I 939. Wellesdune (Kble.). 

1086. Wellesdone (Dd.). 

1180. Wilesdune (Ind.). 

1248. Wullesdon (F.F.). 

1277. Wyllesdon (F.F.). 

1291. Willesdon (T.E.). 

1316. Wyllesdon (F.A.). 

1563. Wylsdon (F.F.). 

1710. Wilsdon, Wilsdon Green (Seller). 
The original sufl&x was don (see p. 100), and the change to 
den must be quite recent. 

The prefix is a personal name '' Wille " (or rather " Wylle "), 

not actually in Searle, but the weak form ** Willa " occurs, 

short for one of the A.S. personal names beginning with Wil-, 

The earliest forms above rather favour an A.S. y, for which 

-w is a Norman and e a Kentish spelling. 



94 THE PLACE NAMES OP MIDDLESEX 

WiNCHMORE HlLIi. 

1319. Wynsemerhull (A.D.). 
1543. Wynsmore hill (P.F.). 
1565. Wynsmorehill (P.P.). 
1596. Winchmore Hill (Norden). 
** hill at the boundary of Wynsige." 
The late form Winsi is noted in Searle. 
A.S. gem^ru, " boundary," is more likely to be corrupted to 
" mor " than merej " mere." 

WooDEND (Northolt and Hayes). 

(Hayes) 1531. Wodehende (P.P.). 
(Northolt) 1674. Woodend (Ind.). 

Wood Green (Hornsey). 
1695, 1710. Wood-Green (Camden, Seller). 

It was a hamlet at the edge of the great wood of Totten- 
ham. 

WooDHALL (Pinner). 
1327-13771 ^, . , „ f(N.I.). 
1332/ ^^^"^^"M{P.F.). 



r(P.P.). 
(P.P.). 
(Escaet). 
l(F.F.). 
For the sufiSx see p. 102. 



1349^ 

If A Wodhall 

I415J 



WooDsiDE (Finchley). 

1710 Wood Side (Seller). 

WOEMHOLT, " WOEMWOOD ScEUBBS." 

1200. Wermeholte (Eot. C.E.). 
1290. Wrmeholt (I.p.m.). 
1465. Wormholt (L.I., vol. 6). 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 95 

1819. Wormholt farm. Wormholt Scrubbs (Green- 
wood). 
1862. Wormholt farm. Wormwood Scrubbs (6-inch. 
Ordnance map). 
For the suffix see p. 104. 

The prefix is a personal name Wyrma, short for one of the 
A.S. names beginning with Wyrm, '* dragon," '' snake." 

Scrubbs = ** brushwood," " underwood," '' waste land over- 
grown with low shrubs and bushes." 

'' The piece of land called Wormholt Common or Scrubs 
was formerly a wood containing about 200 acres, about sixty 
of which have been enclosed " (Lysons). 

WoETON Hall (Hounslow). 



1357 

1422' ^^'^^^^ 
1449J 



w 



f(F.F. 
(Close). 
(F.F.). 
l(A.D.). 
1535. Wortton (V.B.). 
Probably A.S. wyrt kin, " herb enclosure," " kitchen 
garden." 

Weotham Paek (Mimms). 

Called after Wrotham in Kent, the ancient residence of the 
family of Admiral Byng, who built the Middlesex place 
c. 1754. 

Yeading (jedu;). 

1727^ ^ ,,. |-(Ind.). 

1757} ^^^^^^S^nCBch., Kble.). 

825. set Geddincggum (Bch., Kble., Thorpe). 

1210. Geddinges (E.E.). 

1325. Yeddinggs (F.F.). 

1338. Yedding (F.F.). 

1710. Yeding (Seller), 



96 THE PLACE NAMES OP MIDDLESEX 

*' place of the sons of Gedd or Geddi." Johnston compares 
the surname Giddings, but this would answer rather to a 
name Gydda, the g remaining before A.S. y. 

Yeoveney Farm (Staines) [ji:v]. 
1219. Yveneye (P.F.), 
1251. Iveneye (I.M.). 
1272-1377. Yveneye (P.W.). 
1383. Yeveneye (F.R). 
1535. Yeveney (V.E.). 
1695. Eveney (Camden). 
1819. Yeovenny (Greenwood). 
For the second element see p. 101. 

The first element is a personal name "^ Gefa. Gyfa is in 
Searle, but the g sound would remain before A.S. y. 

YiEWSLEY (ju: zli). 

1383. Wyveslee (F.F.). 
1504, 1516. Wyvesley (F.F.). 

1596. Wewesley (Norden). 
1819. Yewsley (Greenwood). 
Prefix is a personal name ^ Wif or perhaps Wifel. The v 
here became w and the initial consonant was then dropped 
before the sound [l:u, j:u]. A.S. t(;i/ (wife, woman) seems 
less likely but is possible. 

ADDENDUM. 
Mayfair. 

1709. '*Eeasons for suppressing the yearly fair in 
Brookfield. Westminster, commonly called May 
Fair." (Quoted from Clinch's *' History of May- 
fair and Belgravia.") 

The fair here was granted by James II. in 
1688, to be held in May. 



ADDENDA. 

I. List of a Few Local Names on the 1-Inch Ord- 
nance Map, op Obvious Meaning, and Probably 
Fairly Modern. 

Broadwater Farm (Harefield). 

Hill Farm (Ickenham). 

Hillend (Harefield). 

Hollyhill Farm (Enfield). 

Hundred Acres Farm (Northolt). 

Kentonlane Farm (Kenton). 

Longlane Farm, 

Low Farm (Han worth). 

Newpond Farm (Euislip). 

Newyears Green (Harefield). 

Oak Farm (Hillingdon). 

Shepherdshill Farm (Harefield). 

Valley Farm (Kingsbury). 

Warren Farm (Uxbridge). 

Wijidmill Hill (Euislip). 

Woodcock Hill (Harefield and Harrow). 

IL List of Some Extinct Middlesex Place Names, 
Chiefly from the F.F. 

Bradeford, 1207, F.F. Bradfordhrige, F.F., 1532. In St. 
Pancras parish. Can the later '* Battlebridge " be a cor- 
ruption of this ? 

97 7 



98 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

Cleremont, E.F., 1535. Cleremondes, F.F., 1544. Near 
Staines. I suppose a Norman name, " clear or bright 
hill." 

Dermodeswellf F.F., 1247, ** well or spring of Deormod." 
Fackeswell, F.F., 1197, " well or spring of Fac(e)." (Facca 

is in Searle.) 
Farncroft, F.F., 1197, "fern croft or paddock.*' In Stepney. 
Fiscesburna, Ind., 704, " stream of Fisc." 
Frith (a wood called ... in Edelmeton), F.F., 1205. M.E. 

frithy " a wood." See Frith Manor {supra). 
HerefrefSing lond (near Harrow ??). Ind., Kble. and Thorpe, 

825, "land of the sons of HerefriS." 
Kingisholte, F.F., 1253, " kings wood." 
Lullinges tr^o, Ind., 704, " tree of the son of Lulla." 
Nanesmaneslande (Dd.). Nonemanneslond, 1255 (Ind.), "no 

man's land," " land without ownership." 
Bavenyngemyll, F.F., 1404, " mill of the sons of Eaven." 

(A.S. hrsefn). Early in use as a personal name. 
Beye, next Feltham, F.F., 1294 ; Eeye, F.F., 1305. ? A.S. 

riSe. M.E. rithe, ride, rie " small stream." 
Budynge, F.F., 1318 ; la Budinge, F.F., 1326 ; Budyng, F.F., 

1349, 1365. Looks like a patronymic, " place of the 

sons of Etida." 
• Skinner eswelly F.F., 1197, " well of Skinner," i.e. the skinner. 
Wenmaresfeld ( ... in Edelmeton), F.F., 1205, " field or 

clear space of * Wenmsere." 
Wulvesfeld, F.F., 1205, " field or clear space of Wulf." 

III. Middlesex Eivers and Streams. 

The Colne, Lea, and Thames merely form the W., E. and S. 
boundaries of the county and are not true Middlesex streams. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 99 

Ashe or Exe, See Ashford. 

Bre7it. See Brentford. 

Crane, Back formation from Cranford. 

Fleet, See Fleet, 

Holborn. See Holborn, 

Pimmes Brookj probably called after a man Pim(m). 

Pin. Back formation from Pinner. 

Tyburn, Westbotcrn, Walbrook (q.v.). 

Yeading Brook, See Yeading, 

IV. Note on the Suffixes to Middlesex Names. 

-BUBY. 

bury comes from A.S. byrig, dative case of burh — ** strong- 
hold," ** defended spot," " fortified place " — from the frequent 
use of the preposition cet (" at ") before place names, which 
governed the dative case. 

The nominative borough is unknown in Middlesex, and the 
majority of places with the suffix -bicry date from M.E. or 
very late A.S. times, when the distinction between borough 
and bury was lost. 

Prof. Mawer informs me that ** bury " as a suffix to Middle- 
sex, Herts and Essex names came to be used with little more 
than the sense of " manor." This, I suppose, refers to those 
names of post-conquest origin. 

Aldermanbury, Barnsbury^ Bloomsbury, Brondesbury, Buck- 
lersbury, Canonbury, Ebury, Finsbury, Gunnersbury, High- 
bury, Kingsbury, Lothbury, Sudbury, Sunbury, 

-BOURN, -BURN. 

A.S. burna, " stream," " brook," " running water." 
Bourn Farm, Holborn, Kilburn, Marylebone, Tyburn, West- 
bourn, 

-BRIDGE. 

A.S. brycg. M.E. brigge, brygge, brugge, bregge (Kentish). 
Knightsbridge, Uxbridge. 



100 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

-BBOOK. 

A.S. broc, ^* brook," "rushing stream." M.E. brok, broke. 
Only in Walbroolc, 

-CHURCH. 

A.S. cyrice, cyrce. M.E. chirche, churche, cherche. 
Only in the City Churches : Abchurch, Fenchurchf Grace- 
church. 

-CLIFF. 

A.S. clif. 

Only in Batcliff^ ** Swakeleys " being an imported name. 

-COTE. 

A.S. cot (neut.) and cote (fern.), " dwelling," " house," 
** cottage." " Originally the word had a general sense, and 
if applied to a man's house, did not necessarily imply a 
humble abode " (Prof. Wyld, ** Place Names of Lanes," 
p. 312). 

Chalk Farnij Eastcote^ Knightscote, Sheepcote. 

-DEN. 

A.S. denu, " valley," " dell." M.E. dene, den. 

(?) Walham Oreen, 

-DITCH. 

A.S. die, " ditch," " dike." 
Houndsditch, Shoreditch. 

-DON. 

A.S. dun, " hill," " down " — perhaps sometimes " fortilBed 
hill," of Celtic origin (see N.E.D.), and the same word as 
Modern English " down," but unstressed. 

Down Barnes, Hendon, Hillingdon, Horsendon, Islington, 
Neasden, {?) Stikeldon, Uxendon, Willesden, 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MTODLESEX . . 101 

-END. 

A.S. endCy '* end." Hence *' a limit," *' boundary," '' border." 
Common in Middlesex names, generally as a detached word. 

Grouch End, Hatch End, Kings End, Kitts End, Mile End, 
Ponders End, West End (2), Wood End. 

-EY. 

A.S. 63, 163, " island." The word was also used to denote 
a tract of elevated land, wholly or partly surrounded by low 
marshy ground. There was also an A.S. ea, ^' water river," 
*^ stream," which may have influenced the A.S. 63 in place 
names. 

Eye, Hackney, Hornsey {?), Thorney, Yeoveney. 

As prefix in Ehury, 

-FIELD. 

A.S.feld meant not so much *' field " in the modern sense, 
as " tract of open land opposed to woodland," " stretch of 
unenclosed land for pasture or grazing." 

Enfield, Harefield, Smithfield, Spitalfields (late). 

(?) as prefix in Feltham (doubtful). 

-FOLD. 

A.S. fald, falod, ''fold or pen for sheep, etc." 
Only in Old Fold. 

-FONT. 

See Bedfont. 

-FOED. 

A.S. ford, " a ford." Cognate with Latin porttis. 

Ashford, Brentford, Cranford, Dernford, Greenford, Halli- 
ford, Hodford, Longford, Old Ford, Sandford, Stamford, 
Twyford. 

-FBiTH, -FLEET. See Frith and Fleet, 



102 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

-GATE. 

A.S. geat, '' gate," " opening," " passage." Distinct from 
O.N. gata, "road," "way." 

The modern form with g instead of y is generally attributed 
to the influence of the plural gatu. 

Highgate^ Oxgate, Southgate, and the "City" gates. 

-GORE. See Gore, 

-GREEN. 

N.E.D. says : " A piece of public or common grassy land, 
situated in or near a town or village, from which it often 
takes its name." 

E.D.D. says : " A common, open or waste piece of ground." 

Common in Middlesex names as a detached word. 

Bethnal Green, Golders Green, Goulds Green, Palmers 
Green, Parsons Green, Tnrnham Green, Walham Green, Wood 
Green, etc. 

-HALE. 

The A.S. " healh " (dative " heale "). Old Mercian '* halh, 
hale" meant "a nook, corner, retreat." It is often difficult 
to tell in place names whether this word or A.S. heall, M.E. 
halle ( = " hall ") is implied, since both may occur as hall{e), 
though one " 1 " is the regular form for A.S. healh. Doubt- 
less the M.E. halle was often substituted for an older hale, 
when the latter became obsolete as a living word. 

Bethnal, Copthall, Frognal, Hale, Kensal {??), Moorhall, 
NorthoU, Ruckhold {?), Southall, " Tottenham Court," Totten- 
ham Hale, Woodhall. 

E.D.D. gives a more modern dialectal meaning : " Flat 
alluvial land by the side of a river," which would suit the 
situation of Tottenham Hale by the flat meadow land beside 
the Lea, 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 103 

-HAM. 

May represent : — 

1. A.S. ham, "home," "dwelling," "enclosure." 

2. A.S. hamrrby homm, " enclosure," " piece of land enclosed 
or hemmed in," " plot of meadow or pasture land." 

3. A.S. hamnij homm, " piece of land enclosed in the bend 
of a river," i.e. shaped like the bend of the knee [" ham "]. 

1. Astleham, Feltham {?), Ickenham, Laleham, Tottenham, 

2. Colham (J). 

3. Fulham, Ttoickenham. 

-HANGER. See Hanger Hill, Pitshanger, 
-HAKROW. See Harrow. 

-HATCH. 

A.S. hcec (half-door, wicket) ; M.E. hacche. Often referring 
to the side gate of some estate or enclosure. 
Colney Hatch. Hatch End. 

-HEATH. A.S. hd!8. 

Cambridge Heath, Heathrotu {?), Peel Heath, Whiteheath 
(late). 

-" HESE." See Hayes, Heston. 

-HILL. 

A.S. hyll. M.E. hylle, hulle, hille, helle (Kentish), etc. 

Common in Middlesex, but generally as a detached word, 
and chiefly in modern names. 

Chalkhill, Chattern Hill, Childs Hill, Glayhill, Gornhill, 
Dancershill, Dollishill, Greenhill, Hangerhill, Highwood Hill, 
Mill Hill, Polehill, Bed Hill, Shootup Hill, Tothill, Winch- 
more Hill. 

-HiTHE. See Chelsea, Stepney. 



104 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

-HOLT. 

A.S. holt, " a wood, copse.** 
Only in WormhoU. 

-HOOK. 

A.S. hoc, ''hook," hence "projecting point of land." 
Pentonhook, 

-HOUSE. 

A.S. hils, M.E. hous, hows. 
Cowhouse, 

-HIDE, -HYDE. See Hyde, North Hyde, 

-ING. 

This suf&x was used in A.S. as a patronymic, attached to a 
personal name, the sense being '* the son(s) or descendant(s) 
of." 

The declension in A.S. was : — 

StTigular, Plural. 

Nom. Ace. -ing -ingas 

Gen. -inges -inga 

Dat. -inge -ingum 

1. Alone : Charing, Ealing, Notting, Wapping, Yeading. 

2. '* 'ingdon'' Hillingdon (for meaning here, see under 
Hillingdon), 

3. -ington : Charlton, Harlington, Kempton, Kensington, 
Kenton, Oakington, Paddington, Teddington, Tollington, 

-LAND. See Kingsland. 

-LEY. 

A.S. leah (dative leage) = *' tract of cultivated or cultivable 
land," "piece of land cleared from forest for pasture, etc." 

The general meaning seems to have been, '* land artificially 
cleared " as opposed io f eld (q.v.), which meant, " land natur- 
ally clear and open." 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 105 

Bentley, Brochley, Cowley, Datoley, Eversley, Finchley, 
Hadley, Osterley, Wembley^ Yiewsley. 

-LIP. See Buislip. 

-LOW. 

A.S. hl3w, M.E. lawe, lowe, "mound," "tumulus" — also 
'* rising ground." Only in Hounslow. 

A.S. mere, " mere," " pool," " pond." 
Bugmere (?), Stanmore, 

-MiNSTEK. See Westminster, 

-MYTHE. See Hammersmith, 

-OAST. See Limehotcse, 

-ORA, -ER. See Pinner. 

-POOL. 

A.S. pol," pool." 
PortpooL 

" -seaS." See Boxeth, cf. Prov. Eng. " sheath," a brine pit. 

-STEAD. 

A.S. stede, " place," " stead." In Middlesex only in the 
combination ham stede, " homestead " — Hampstead, 

-STONE. 

A.S. stdn, " stone " — often some boundary stone. 
Haggerston, Ossulston, Staines. 

-STREET. 

E.D.D. says : " a hamlet or few scattered cottages." 
The name occurs in all the Home Counties — generally in 
small hamlets. 

Perhaps referred originally to a little row of houses 



106 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 

growing up alongside an already existing road or way, as 
opposed to a straggling village. 
Bury Street, Green Street, Mare Street, Page Street 

-STRAND. See Strand, 

-STROUD. See Stroud. 

-THORN. 

A.S. ]>orn, " thorn," '' thorn tree." Probably used to de- 
note boundaries or landmarks when occurring in place names. 
Elthorne, Spelthorn. 

-TON. 

A.S. tiln, *' enclosure " — hence, '* farmhouse," *' settlement," 
** farmstead with its outbuildings." 

For the development in meaning of modern English 
'' town," cf. Latin villa and French ville. 

This is the commonest suffix to place names in England 
as a whole, and examples in Middlesex are very numerous. 

Acton, Alperton, Boston, Brompton, Charlton, Clapton, 
Dalston, Drayton, Edmonton, Hampton, Harlesden, Harling- 
ton, Hatton, Headstone {?), Heston, Homerton, Hoxton, Kemp- 
ton, Kensington, Kenton, Kentish Town, Lampton, Lisson, 
Littleton, Norton, Oakington, Paddington, Preston, Shepper- ' 
ton, Sipson, Stoke Newington, Teddington, Tollington, Whitton, 
Worton. 

-VALE. See Perivale. 
-WALL. A.S. weall, BlackwalL 
-WARE. See Edgeware. 
-WAY. Holloway, 
-WEALD. Harrow Weald, 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 107 

-WELL. 

A.S. welle, wielle, etc., " spring," ** source," " well," 

The word was used as often of a natural spring as of an 

artificial well. 

Botwell, Glerkenwelly Goswelly Haliwell^ Hanwellf Muswelly 

Pinhwell {?), Shaklewell, Shadwell, Stanwell. 

-WICK. 

A.S. wiCj '' dwelling," *' house," " village." It is a disputed 
question whether this word is native or merely borrowed 
from the Latin uicus. O.N. vik^ " creek," *' bay," is unre- 
lated. 

Aldwich, Ghiswick, Hackney Wick, Hampton Wick, Hali- 
wick, Pallingswick. 

-WOOD. 

A.S. wudu. M.E. wode, wude, *' wood," " forest." 
Crickletvood, Highwood Hill, Ken Wood, Northwood, Nor- 
wood, St. John's Wood, Short Wood {?). 

As prefix in : Wood Green, Woodhall, Woodside. 

-WORTH. 

A.S. weorl?, wur}>, wyrj>, *' enclosure," "farm," ** estate," 
** holding," *' homestead with surrounding land." 

Prof. Skeat considered the word to be related to A.S. weorj? 
= " worth " (of value). 

Hanworth, Harmondsworth, Isleworth, Budsworth. 

Miscellaneous Names. 

(1) Bayswater, Belsize, Bow, Cockfosters, Coldharbour, 
Mimms, Perry Oaks, Pontefract, Poplar, Shepherds Bush, 
Spoilbank, Whetstone, 



108 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 
V. Note on the Prefixes to Middlesex Names. 
A, Personal Prefixes. 

A.S. personal names may be divided into two classes, as 
far as declension is concerned — those ending in a and those 
ending in any other vowel or a consonant. 

Those in a formed their genitive singular in -an, the others 
in -es. 

Most names ending in a were really shortened or ** pet '* 
(to use Prof. Skeat's word) forms of some longer name. 
Thus Billa was short for some narne like Bilfrith, Bilheard, 
Bilhelm, etc. (A.S. hil^ '*a sword"). 



Abba 


AbcMirch. Cf. surname '' Abbs.'* 


Ala, Alla 


Aldgate. 


^CG, iECGE 


Edgeware. A.S. Ecg, " &word *' (lit. 




- edge "). 


-^LLA 


Elthorne, Name of the conqueror 




of Sussex. 


^NA 


Enfield. 


Beda 


Bedfont. Cf . '' the Venerable Bede.** 


Billa 


Billingsgate, Bil. A.S. bil, '' sword.'* 


BOTA 


BotwelL 


Brand 


Brondesbury. 


* Cearra 


Charing. 


* Cearda, Cerda 


Charlton. 


Cenebriht (?) 


Cambridge Heath, ''bold, bright." 


Cena, Coena 


Kempton, Kenton. A.S. cene, " bold '* 




-brave" ("keen"). 


Cynesige (?) 


Kensington, ** bold victory," 


Cnotta 


Notting. 


CUFA 


Cowley. 


Cyna(?) 


Kilburn. Cynebriht, beald, heard, 




etc. 


Dborlap 


Dalston. 



THE PLACE 


NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 109 


* DUFA 


Dowgate. 


EADHBIiM 


Edmonton, " happy helmet." 


Ealdr^d 


Aldersgate, " old counsel." 


Ealhpekht 


Alperton. Of. " Albert." 


Eastulf (?) 


Astleham (east + wolf) 


^ EcCEIi, -iEcCEL 


Ashford, Of. surname Eccles. 


Fin(n) 


Finsbury. 


*FlNC 


Finchhy, '' finch." 


Gbdd(i) 


Yeading. Not related to surname 




" Geddesr 


Gill (us) 


Ealing, 


* GiSTEL (?) 


Isleworth. 


GODA 


Goswell, " good." 


Gunhild(a) 


Gunnersbury, a feminine name. 


Gefa 


Yeoveney, 


Haca 


Hackney. 


Heahm^r 


Hammersmith, 


Hana 


Hanwellj Hanworth, " cock." 


Hara (??) 


Hornsey, " hare." 


Head (d) A 


Hadley. 


Heregod, Heregold 


Haggerston, A.S. here = *' army." 


Heremod 


Harmondsworthy " army courage." 


Here(w)ulp 


Harlesden, " army wolf." 


Hlo>a 


Lothbury, 


Hocc, Hogg 


Hoxton. Of. surname Hogg'> 




Hocga. 


Hod(a) 


Hodford. Of. surname Hodding. 


HORSA 


Horsendon, '' mare." 


Hroc 


Buckhold {?), Boxeth, " rook." 


HUNBEORHT 


Homerton, Of. names '' Hubert," 




" Humbert." 


HUND 


Hounsditch, Hounshw, '* dog." 


Hygerjbd (?) 


Harlington, " mind counsel." 


Lil(le) 


Lisson. 



110 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 



Lytel 


Littleton, " little." 


[MiMMAS or MiMMAN 


Mimms, ? a small tribe or family.] 


OSWULP 


Osstilston, '' god wolf." 


Pad(d)a 


Paddington. ? Celtic name [initial 

"p."] 

Pallingswick. ? Danish. 


Pallig, Pallingus (??) 


PiNCA (?) 


Pinkwell ? Celtic - " finch." 


Pinna 


Pinner. 


PURTA 


Portpool. 


EUDDA 


Budsworth. 


^Sceacul(?) 


Shacklewell ? " shackle." 


^ SCEORRE, SCEORP (?) 


Shorditch, 


Sib, Sibbe 


Sipson, 


Stybba (?) 


Stepney, 


SUNNA 


Stcnbiiryy short for some name Sun- 




[A.S. sunne, *' sun "]. 


Ticca 


Ichenham. 


Tid(w)ulf 


Elstree. 


TOCA 


Oakington, 


Tola 


Tollington. 


TOTA 


Tottenham, 


Tud(d)a 


Teddington, 


* Turna (??) 


Turnham Green, 


TWICA 


Twickenham. 


^Wapa 


Wapping, 


* W^MBA 


Wembley, 


* W^NA (??) 


Walham Green, 


WlNESIGE 


Winchmore, 


* Wife, Wipel 


Yiewsley, 


WiLLE, * WyLLE 


Willesden, short for some name 




Wil-. 


Wyrma 


Wormholt, short for some name 




Wyrm-. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 111 



NoBMAN OR Post Conquest Names. 



Baignard 

Bernier 

Bleomund (?) 

Breakspear 

Bruce 

bukerell 

Clitheroe 

Hamond 

Hercy 

Peachey 

poille, puille, poyle 



Bayswater, 
Barnsbury, 
Bloomsbury, 
Breakspears. 
Bruce Castle, 
Bucklersbury, 
Clutterhouse. 
Hammonds Farm, 
Hercies Farm. 

Cowley Peachey, (" Pecche.") 
Poyle. 



(" Brake spere.") 



C^ Cliderhou.") 
C' Haman/') 



and quite modern names — Child^ Cubitt, Dancer^ Dolley, 
Golder, Gould, Page^ Penton, Peel, PimlicOy Ponder, Potter, 
Shepherd, etc. 

B Prefixes other than Personal Names. 



1. Animals, etc. 




BROCK (badger). 


Brockley, 


cow 


Cowhouse. 


CRANE 


Cranford, 


FROG (? ?) 


Frogmore, Frognal 


LAMB 


Lamp ton. 


OX 


Oxgate, 


SHEEP 


Sheepcote, 


2. Plants, etc. 




ASH (?) 


Ashford. 


BENT-GRASS 


Bentley. 


BRAMBLE 


Bromley, 


BROOM 


Brompton, 


CORN 


Cornhill. 


GRASS 


Gracechurch, 


MOSS 


Muswell. 



112 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 



OAK 


Acton. 


PEAR TREE 


Perivale, Perry Oaks. 


POPLAR 


Poplar. 


RUSH 


Buislip. 


THORN 


Thorney (Elthorn, Spel- 




thorn). 


'' WORT " (herb) 


Worton. 


3. Soil, etc. 




CHALK 


Chalkhill, Chelsea. 


CLAY 


Clay Hill. 


FEN 


Fenchurch. 


HEATH 


Heathrow, Hatton. 


IRON (?) 


Islington. 


LIME 


Limehouse. 


SAND 


Sandford. 


STONE 


Stamford, Stanmore, Stan- 




well. 


4. Bank, etc. 




ALDERMAN 


Aldermanhury. 


BISHOP 


Bishopsgate. 


CANON 


Canonshury. 


'* CLERK *' 


Clerkemvell. 


CRIPPLE (?) 


Cripplegate. 


FRIARS 


Friern Barnet, 


'' HALLOW ** (saint) 


Halliford. 


*' HERE " (army) 


Harefield. 


KING 


Kingsbury. 


KNIGHT 


Knightsbridge, Knightscote. 


PRIEST 


Preston, 


" WEALH " (foreigner, Briton) 


Walbrook. 


5. Various. 




CHEESE 


Chiswick. 


" CLOP " 


Clapton. 



THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 113 



" CEICKLE " 




Cricklewood (q.v.). 


CROUCH 




Crouch End. 


" DOLE " 




Dawley. 


" DRAY " 




Drayton. 


A.S. EOWISTRE 


(?) 


Osterley. 


FELT (?) 




Feltham. 


HEDGE 




Headstone. 


HOLLOW, HOLE 




Holborn, HoUoivay. 


A.S. L^L (?) 




Laleham. 


MILL 




Mill Hill 


MOOR 




Moorhall. 


" NESE " 




Neasden. 


" SPELL " 




Spelthorn. 


" TOUT " 




Tothill. 


" TY " (tie) 




Tyburn. 


" ux " (wysc, wyes) 


Uxbridge. 


6. Adjectives. 






BLACK 




Blackwall. 


BLITHE (?) 




Bethnal Oreen. 


'' copped" (i.e. 


pollarded) 


Copthall. 


EAST 




Eastcote. 


FULL (?) 




Fulham. 


GREEN 




Greenfordy Greenhill, Green 
Street. 


HIGH 




Hendony Highbury, High- 
gate, Highwood. 


''KENTISH" 




Kentish Town. 


LITTLE 




Littleton. 


LONG 




Longford. 


NEW 




Stoke NewiTigton. 


NORTH 




Northolt, North Hyde, 
Northwood, Norton FoU 
gate, Norwood Green. 



114 THE PLACE NAMES OF MIDDLESEX 



OLD 


Aldwich, Old Fold, 
Ford. 


Old 


BED 


Batcliff. 




SHALLOW 


Shadwell. 




SMOOTH 


Smithfield, 




SOUTH 


Southallf Southgate, 
* bury, Sutt07i. 


Sud- 


TWO (i.e. double) 


Twyford. 




WEST 


Westboiirne, West 
Westminster, 


End, 


WHITE 


Whitechapel, Whitton, 





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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 
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This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY