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PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY 



W'3 



PLACENAMES 



ROSS AND CROMARTY 



" BY 



w J WATSON 

M.A., ABERD. ; B.A., OXON. 

RECTOR OP INVERNESS ROYAL ACADEMY 



THE NORTHERN COUNTIES PRINTING AND PUBLISHING 

COMPANY, LIMITED 

EDINBURGH : NORMAN MACLEOD, 25 GEORGE IV. BRIDGE 
LONDON: DAVID NUTT, 57-M LONGACRE 

1904 



Dfi 




PREFACE. 



THE uncertainty and lack of precision which have 
characterised so much of the work attempted in 
connection with the study of our Scottish names 
of places are due chiefly to defective or imperfectly 
ascertained data. In Lowland districts, where the 
sole data for names of Celtic origin consist of 
modern Anglicised forms and old spellings, this 
uncertainty is largely inevitable : the old Celtic 
pronunciation, the quantity of vowels, and the 
quality of consonants must often be matter of 
sheer conjecture. But wherever Gaelic is still 
vernacular, or when, as often, genuine Gaelic forms 
of names occurring in districts once Celtic but now 
English are procurable, these difficulties are im- 
mensely simplified. It will be found that modern 
Gaelic pronunciation as handed down by unbroken 
tradition is in the main intensely conservative, 
whether the names so transmitted are Pictish, 
Scandinavian, or purely Gaelic in origin. With the 
aid of these modern Gaelic forms, either alone or 
supplemented by old written forms, the investi- 
gator, given knowledge and experience, should in 



VI. PREFACE. 

most cases be able to arrive at a high degree of 
accuracy in interpretation. The work is raised from 
the sphere of conjecture to that of solid scientific 
enquiry. 

In the present work, dealing with the Place 
Names of Ross and Cromarty, the method thus 
indicated has been followed throughout. In every 
case the genuine native Gaelic forms of names have 
been ascertained with absolute accuracy. In 
addition, the old spellings found in charters, etc., 
have been given wherever such were available. 
The result is that the interpretations offered can be 
criticised by Celtic scholars in the light of a full 
knowledge of the data. Incidentally a large number 
of new and important facts are offered for the con- 
sideration of philologists, both in the shape of 
obsolete Gaelic words rescued from oblivion, and in 
the treatment in Gaelic of Norse and Pictish names. 

An attempt has been made in the Introduction 
to focus the general results obtained. The opening 
historical sections, though necessarily much com- 
pressed, will, it is hoped, serve to lend perspective. 
The sections which deal with the formation of 
Gaelic names and with the Pictish and Norse 
elements, should afford some not unnecessary assist- 
ance to future investigators. The account given of 
the treatment in Gaelic of the Old Norse vowels 



- PREFA.CE. Vll, 

and consonants is a pioneer piece of work which 
will, I hope, be found generally trustworthy, but 
may at least be amplified by further research. The 
collection of facts adduced with regard to traces of 
the old Celtic Church proves the strength of the 
hold which that Church took in the North, and 
indicates the wealth of material that awaits col- 
lection. As for the Pictish language, its remains in 
place names are only beginning to be scientifically 
considered. Everything so far goes to prove its 
close affinity to Cymric, but we still desiderate a 
thorough critical examination of the place names of 
Dalriada on the one hand and of the Central High- 
lands on the other, respectively the most Gaelic and 
the most Pictish of Scottish districts where Gaelic 
is still spoken. 

In collecting materials for this work I have 

o 

personally traversed all parts of the County except 
Lewis, and therefore the number of those to whom 
I am indebted runs to hundreds. But I am under- 
special obligation to Mr Kenneth Mackenzie, Shade v, 
Barvas, both for general information on Lewis 
names and in particular for permission to make use 
of a valuable paper on that subject contributed by 
him to the Highland News. To that distinguished 
Celtic authority, Dr A. Macbain of Inverness, I owe 
much in friendly criticism and suggestions, especially 



Vlll. PREFACE, 

on the philological aspect of the names, and he has 
kindly read all my proofs. I have to acknowledge 
most valuable, and indeed indispensable assist- 
ance generously rendered by the Rev. Charles 
M. Robertson, who has freely placed at my dis- 
posal his unique knowledge of the Gaelic forms 
of Scottish names of places. The majority of 
the Gaelic forms contained in the following pages 
have been independently verified both by him and 
myself. Valuable assistance has also been received 
from Mr Donald Mackenzie, Inland Revenue, Bonar- 
Bridge ; Mr John Whyte, Inverness ; and from Mr J. 
Mathieson, H.M. Ordnance Survey, to whose pains- 
taking diligence we shall soon owe a map of Scot- 
land largely purged from those erroneous and mis- 
leading forms of names which render the existing 
O.S. maps useless to philologists. 

The complete Alphabetical Index of about 3000 
names has been prepared by my colleague, Mr H. 
F. Robson, with the help of our pupils, and revised 
by myself. 

W. J. WATSON. 

INVERNESS, May, 1904. 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

SECTION I. HISTORICAL. 

PAGE 
Physical Features*. Ptolemy's Account. The Picts. The Scots. 

The Norsemen in the Isles --on the West Coast on the East 
Coast. English Influence . . . . * . . . . xi. 

SECTION II. DIVISIONS. 

Ro.ss Original extent and meaning. Ergadia Borealis or North 
Argyle. Cromarty. Ardmeanach or Black Isle. Ferindonald. 
Ferintosh. The Five " Quarters." Parishes. Hebrides or Imise 
Gall xxi. 

SECTION III. THE BASIS OF INTERPRETATION. 

Modern Pronunciations, English and Gaelic. Old Written Forms. 

Physical Characteristics. Analogy ...... xxvii. 

SECTION IV. THE FORMATION OF GAELIC NAMES. 

Simple or uncompounded names. Simple words with extension. 
Compounds. Phrase Names. Periods represented by such. 
Prefixed Adjectives and Accent. Prefixed Nouns and Accent. 
Prepositions and Accent. Accent in Simple Names. Accent in 
Phrase-names. The Article. Case xxxiii. 

SECTION V. THE PICTISH ELEMENT. 

Terms used to denote " Pict." P and Q Celts. Pictish Names. 
P-names. Various. Picto-Gaelic Hybrids. Pictish Termina- 
tions. Stream Names (a) in -n, (6) in -ie, (c) various. Pictish 
prefixes xlr. 

SECTION VI. THE NORSE ELEMENT. 

Distribution of terms. Composition of Norse names. Quantity of 
first syllable. Crasis. Norse-Gaelic Hybrids. Norse Gaelic 
Phonetics (a) Vowels, (6) Consonants liii. 



X. 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION VII. CHURCH NAMES. 

PAGE 

Records of Applecross. Sculptured Stones. Ecclesiastical terms 
ncimhidh annaid cM clachan tcampvM eaglais seipeil 
manachainn comraich cdtair crois cananaich sgir 
manach sagart cliar dtireach, ministear. Norse Church 
terms. Dedications to Columba. Moluag. Donnan. Colman. 
Malruba. lurnan or Iturnan. Fillan. Congan. Kentigerna. 
Fionn. Brigh. Curitan. Ferchar. Dubhthach. Cormac. 
Roman Catholic Dedications lx. 

SECTION VIII. GENERAL. 

Terms for Streams. Marshes. Confluences. Fords. Sea terms. 
Flats. Hollows. rHeights. Promontories. Woods, trees, 
plants. Animals. Dwellings. Cultivations and Enclosures. 
Crops. Occupations and Customs. Land Measures. Numerical 
Combinations. Historical Events. Miscellaneous . . . Ixxi, 







PAGE. 


PAGE. 


Parish of 


Kincardine . 


. 1 


Parish of Cromarty . 


. 124 


it 


Edderton . 


. 23 


Rosemsrkie 


. 128 


sj 


Tain . 


. 32 


., Avoch 


. 132 


t 


Fearn . 


. 40 


Knockbain . 


. 136 


u 


Tarbat 


. 45 


,, Killearnau . 


. 142 


ii 


Nigg . . . 


. 50 


,, Contin 


. 147 





Logic Easter 


. 58 


Glenshiel . 


. 171 


., 


Kilmuir Easter . 


. 63 


Kintail 


. 178 


w 


Rosskeen . 


. 69 


Lochalsh 


. 184 


H 


Alness 


. 75 


,, Lochcarron . 


. 192 


u 


Kiltearn 


. 85 


Applecross . 


. 201 


,, 


Dingwall . 


. 93 


,, Gairloch 


. 220 


}J 


Fodderty . 


. 96 


Lochbroorn . 


. 241 


M 


Urray ' . 


. 104 


Lewis 


. 26* 





Urquhart . 


. 113 


Additions and Corrections . 


. 273 





Resolis 


. 120 


Index 


. 285 



INTRODUCTION. 



I. HISTORICAL. 

THE County of Ross and Cromarty, including Physical 
Lewis, the northern and larger part of the Long F 
Island, is the third largest in Scotland. Its mainland 
part extends from sea to sea, and falls naturally into 
three divisions, Easter, Wester, and Mid Ross, each 
of which possesses a character of its own. Much of 
Easter Ross, between the Dornoch and Cromarty 
Firths, is distinctly Lowland or even English in 
type. Its great alluvial plain, Machair Rois, the 
plain of Ross, comprises some of the richest agri- 
cultural land in Scotland ; much of it stands only a 
few feet above the sea level, and the skeleton of a 
" cetaceous animal" 1 found at Fearn proves that it 
was actually covered by the sea at no very remote 
period as geological time is reckoned. With it 
goes the large peninsula known as the Black Isle, 
between the Firths of Cromarty and Inverness, not 
level like the Machair, but sloping gently to 
both firths, and nowhere particularly Highland 
in aspect. Mid-Ross may be said to extend 
from the western watershed to the uplands of 

1 New Statistical Account. 



Xll. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Alness and Rosskeen. It is a region of glens, 
straths, and streams, dominated by the massive 
bulk of Ben Wyvis, and drains through the Conon 
and its tributaries Orrin, Meig, Blackwater into the 
head of the Cromarty Firth. Wester Ross is the 
long strip to the west of the watershed, between 
the latter and the sea, deeply indented by sea 
lochs and seldom far from sea influence. The great 
" hinterland " of Wester and Mid-Ross is wholly 
mountain and moor, with the exception of the 
beautiful valleys of the Kincardine Carron and its 
tributaries, and the Oykell and Kyleside Valley, the 
latter facing Sutherland. 

Ptolemy's Our earliest information about the inhabitants of 
Account. j^ oss comes from the geographer Ptolemy of Alex- 
andria, who lived about 120 A.D., and wrote an 
account of Britain, in which he locates a number of 
places and tribes, the position of which can be 
determined with more or less confidence. He states 
that from the Lemannonius Sinus (Loch Fyne) to 
the estuary of the Varar (Beauly Firth), and on the 
east side of Drumalban, lay the Caledonii ; westward 
of them were the Cerones or Creones. These, then, 
lay on the southern border of Ross. In the district 
corresponding to Ross were the Carnonacae on the 
west coast, the Decantae in Easter Ross from the 
Beauly to the neighbourhood of Edderton, and the 
Smertae, who may have occupied the valleys of the 
Carron, the Oykell, and the Shin. Northwards of 
these lay three tribes, the Caereni and Cornavii in 
north-west Sutherland and Caithness, and in the 



INTRODUCTION. Xlll. 

east of Sutherland the Lugi. At a later period all The Picts. 
the tribes to the north of the Roman wall between 
the Firths of Forth and Clyde were included under 
the general name of Picts, those north of the 
Grampians being referred to as Northern Picts, and 
the others as Southern Picts. The headquarters of 
the King of the Northern Picts at the time of 
Columba's visit in 565 were near Inverness ; his 
authority extended at least as far as the Orkneys, 
probably to the Shetlands. With regard to the 
Northern Picts, two questions arise which have to 
he kept separate, the question of race, and the 
question of language. On the latter point the 
place-names should throw some light ; here it is 
enough to say that most authorities now agree that 
the Picts spoke a Celtic language not of the Gaelic 
but of the Welsh or Brittonic type. When this 
Celtic language was introduced into the North it 
is hard to say ; certainly it was there in the first 
century, for Ptolemy's names are Celtic. Good 
authorities place the coming of the Celts into Britain 
about 600 B.C., others much earlier. One thing is 
certain, that when they came they found in 
possession another people less highly civilised, of a 
different race, with different manners and customs. 
And, as Celtic influence would reach the north last, 
and would long be comparatively weak, it is 
reasonable to suppose that there these primitive 
people would survive longest and have most influence 
on the new-comers. In point of fact, the northern 
Picts show very distinct traces of non-Celtic 



XIV. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

institutions and customs in respect of their family 
relations and their mode of succession. It may be 
concluded, therefore, that the Picts were a mixed 
race, combining a Celtic strain with a strong dash 
of non-Celtic and probably non- Aryan blood. In 
very remote places such as Lewis this non-Celtic 
element would naturally be strongest, and, indeed, 
is probably still recognisable. 

The Scots, In the early centuries of the Christian era Scots 
from Ireland began to settle among the Picts of the 
West Coast. The first colony on record was led in 
the second century by Cairbre Riada, whence the 
name Dal-Riada or Riada's lot. 1 In 501 the coming 
of the sons of Ere with a strong following marks 
the establishment of Dalriada as a Scottish kingdom 
roughly co-extensive with the modern Argyle. The 
influence of the Gaelic-speaking Dalriadic Scots 
gradually spread northward along the coast and 
among the islands. When it reached the west 
coast of Ross we cannot say exactly, but it is 
significant that in 673 Malruba, an Irish priest and 
noble, founded the monastery of Applecross, and it 
is probably safe to assume that at that date Apple- 
cross was well within Dalriadic territory. There 
are at least two other indications of the rapid spread 
of the Gaels on the west. When the Norsemen came 
in 793, they called the Minch Skotland-fjorcSr, the 
firth of the land of the Scots ; the province of 

1 " Scoti, duce Reuda de Hibernia egressi, amicitia vel ferro sibimet inter 
Pictos sedes quas hactenus habent Yindicaveruut." The Scots, led by Riada, 
left Ireland, and by friendship or force won for themselves among the Picts 
those territories which they still possess. Bede, Eccl. Hist., L. i., c. 1. 



INTRODUCTION. XV. 

Argyle extended from the Clyde to Lochbroom, and 
Argyle (Gael. Earra-Ghaidheal, older Airer Goedel), 
means the bounds of the Gael or Scots from Ireland. 
Not the least difficult of the problems in early 
Scottish history is the manner in which the language 
of the Gaels supplanted that of the Picts. For the 
west coast the answer, as has been seen, is easy : it 
was settled by Scots at an early date. In the east 
various causes can be seen to have co-operated. In 
the first place, Gaelic was the language of the more 
highly civilised people, which made it a priori 
unlikely that it should give way to Pictish. 
Another factor, the importance of which can 
hardly be over-estimated, was the influence 
of the Celtic Church. Again, the advent of 
the Norse on the West Coast must have had the 
effect of driving the Gaelic-speaking settlers east- 
ward. Lastly, we cannot tell how long Pictish 
survived in Easter Koss. It is possible and even 
probable that, just as on the West there was a 
period when first Gaelic and Pictish, then Gaelic 
and Norse, were spoken side by side, so on the East 
Coast, Pictish, Gaelic, and Norse were spoken con- 
currently. Pictish has, in any case, left very strong 
traces in Easter Ross place-names. 

The Norsemen began to make plundering expedi- The 
tions on the coasts of Britain before the end of the 
eighth century. In 793 they sacked Lindisfarne J 
in 798 they plundered part of Man and the Hebrides ; 
in 802 they ravaged lona, and in 806 they slew 
sixty-eight of the monastic family there ; during 



xvi. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

the same period they made incursions on the Irish 
coasts also. Monasteries, being rich and defenceless, 
were special objects of attack, and there can be little 
doubt, though record is silent on the subject, that to 
them was due the destruction of Malruba's Monastery 
of Applecross. 

i. In the By degrees they began to settle both in Ireland 
Isles ' and in the Isles. In 872 Harold Harfagr, King of 
Norway, found it necessary to lead an expedition 
against the western Vikings, when he subjugated 
Orkney, Shetland, and the Sudreys (the Hebrides) 
as far south as Man, But as in Ireland settlement 
began in the first quarter of the ninth century, it is 
probable that tbe Hebrides, which lie on the way to 
Ireland, were occupied long before King Harold's 
expedition. What is known of the subsequent 
history of the Norse settlements in the Western 
Isles has been related too often to need repetition. 1 
The Isles were finally ceded by Norway in 1266, in 
consequence of the disastrous battle of Largs, having 
been more or less under Norse influence for about 
470 years. For much of that time the Norse 
language must have been predominant ; the Isles 
were not felt to be part of Scotland ; mainland 
Gaels referred to them as Innse Gall, the Isles of 
the strangers. And if Norse was spoken in Lewis 
in 1266, as it doubtless was, it is not too much to 
suppose that it was not wholly extinct at the time 
of Bannockburn or even later. Hence at once the 

1 Gregory's History of the Western Highlands ; Dr A. Macbain iu Trans, of 
Inverness Gael. Soc., rol. xix. 



INTRODUCTION. XV11. 

preponderance of Norse names and their remarkable 
freshness as preserved in common speech. 

The Norse occupation of the western mainland ii. On the 
probably began later, ended earlier, and, to judge WestCoafit - 
from the place-names, was less continuous in extent. 
On the west of Boss they seem to have selected the 
parts most fertile arid best adapted for grazing. 
Kintail and Glenshiel show very little Norse influ- 
ence ; it was strong in Gairloch and round the 
shores of Loch Maree. But in no part of Wester 
Ross did the old Celtic nomenclature wholly give 
way ; from Loch Duich to Loch Broom not only old 
Gaelic but even Pictish names are well in evidence. 

On the eastern mainland, according to the Sagas, iii. On the 
Thorstein the Red, together with Sigurd of Orkney, East Coa8t - 
conquered and ruled over Caithness and Sutherland, 
Ross and Moray, and more than half of Scotland. 1 
Their exploits here referred to took place about 875, 
and the net result of them appears to have been 
that the Norsemen retained possession at least as far 
south as Dingwall. Over a hundred years later, 
eirc. 980, Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, defeated Finlay, 
Mormaer of Moray, at Skida Myre in Caithness, and 
established his power over " dominions in Scotland, 
Ross and Moray, Sutherland and the Dales." 
Earl Sigurd fell at Clontarf, 1014. The Norse 
power on the mainland attained its highest point 
under his son Thorfinn, of whom the Sagas say that 
he held " nine Earldoms in Scotland, the whole of 

1 Islands Landndmabdk. 



XV111. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

the Sudreys, and a large territory in Ireland." 1 He 
died in 1064, and after his time the Norse dominions 
gradually contracted to Caithness. " Many rikis 
which the Earl had subjected fell off, and the 
inhabitants sought the protection of those native 
chiefs who were territorially born to rule over 
them." 2 At the beginning of the twelfth century 
Norse may still have been spoken in Easter Ross, 
but the power of the native chiefs was reviving, and 
by the middle of it we find Malcolm MacHeth in 
the position of Earl of Ross, The total duration of 
the Norse supremacy in Easter Ross was rather less 
than 200 years. The place-names are instructive. 
No name of Norse origin appears south of the Beauly 
valley. The centre of administration was Dingwall, 
Thing-vollr, plain of the Thing, the Norse court of 
justice. Some important valleys well inland bear 
Norse names, Alladale, Dibidale, Strathrusdale, 
Scatwell. The Black Isle shows only two or three ; 
elsewhere the proportion is about the same for the 
area as on the West Coast. To Norse influence per- 
haps may be due the curious fact that none of the 
larger streams that flow into the Cromarty Firth 
Uarie, Averon, Conon show an Inver or an Aber. 
Such Invers as exist belong to small streams, the 
largest being the Peffery, which gives Inver-feoran 
(Inbhir-pheofharain), the Gaelic name of Dingwall. 
In the Dingwall Charters, the estuary of the Conon 
appears as Stavek, plainly Norse, probably Staf-vik, 

1 Orkneyinga Saga. 2 Orkneyinga Saga. 



INTRODUCTION. XIX. 

Staff-bay, a name which, it may be suggested, 
supplanted an old *Aberconon, to be in its turn 
forgotten. 

In Wester Eoss the Norsemen met the Gael ; on 
the eastern side they doubtless met both Gael and 
Pict. 

The twelfth century saw the triumph of Gaelic English 
over Pictish and Norse; and probably this period Influcnce - 
(circ. 1100-1200) was the only one since the coming 
of the Gaels, in which one language and only one 
was spoken throughout the mainland of Eoss. 
Under Pictish rule, Ross was governed from Inver- 
ness ; in the time of Norse supremacy its over-lords 
hailed from Orkney. The twelfth century was a 
transition stage ; at its close Eoss was fast coming 
into touch with the south of Scotland, and to some 
extent with the language of the Lowland Scots. 
That English is of long standing in the north is 
proved by the place-name Wardlaw, near Beauly, 
which appears on record in 1210 Wardelaue, the 
hillock where watch and ward was kept by the 
retainers of the Norman Lord of the Aird, John 
Byset. No Norman baron, however, obtained a 
grant of land in Eoss ; English was introduced 
there through the Eoyal Castles and the Church. 
In 1179 William the Lion founded the Castles of 
Dunskaith in Nigg, and Eddirdover, now Eedcastle. 
In the next century we find the Castles of Cromarty 
and Dingwall upheld by the Crown and the Castle of 
Avoch belonging to the De Moravia family. In all of 



XV111. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

the Sudreys, and a large territory in Ireland." 1 He 
died in 1064, and after his time the Norse dominions 
gradually contracted to Caithness. " Many rikis 
which the Earl had subjected fell off, and the 
inhabitants sought the protection of those native 
chiefs who were territorially born to rule over 
them." 2 At the beginning of the twelfth century 
Norse may still have been spoken in Easter Hoss, 
but the power of the native chiefs was reviving, and 
by the middle of it we find Malcolm MacHeth in 
the position of Earl of Ross, The total duration of 
the Norse supremacy in Easter Ross was rather less 
than 200 years. The place-names are instructive. 
No name of Norse origin appears south of the Beauly 
valley. The centre of administration was Dingwall, 
Thing-vollr, plain of the Thing, the Norse court of 
justice. Some important valleys well inland bear 
Norse names, Alladale, Dibidale, Strathrusdale, 
Scatwell. The Black Isle shows only two or three ; 
elsewhere the proportion is about the same for the 
area as on the West Coast. To Norse influence per- 
haps may be due the curious fact that none of the 
larger streams that flow into the Cromarty Firth 
Uarie, Averon, Conon show an Inver or an Aber. 
Such Invers as exist belong to small streams, the 
largest being the Peffery, which gives Inver-feoran 
(Inbhir-pheofharain), the Gaelic name of Dingwall. 
In the Dingwall Charters, the estuary of the Conon 
appears as Stavek, plainly Norse, probably Staf-vik, 

1 Orkneyinga Saga. 2 Orkneyinga Saga. 



INTRODUCTION. XIX. 

Staff-bay, a name which, it may be suggested, 
supplanted an old *Aberconon, to be in its turn 
forgotten. 

In Wester Ross the Norsemen met the Gael ; on 
the eastern side they doubtless met both Gael and 
Pict. 

The twelfth century saw the triumph of Gaelic English 
over Pictish and Norse; and probably this period Influen 
(circ. 1100-1200) was the only one since the coming 
of the Gaels, in which one language and only one 
was spoken throughout the mainland of Ross. 
Under Pictish rule, Ross was governed from Inver- 
ness ; in the time of Norse supremacy its over-lords 
hailed from Orkney. The twelfth century was a 
transition stage ; at its close Ross was fast coming 
into touch with the south of Scotland, and to some 
extent with the language of the Lowland Scots. 
That English is of long standing in the north is 
proved by the place-name Wardlaw, near Beauly, 
which appears on record in 1210 Wardelaue, the 
hillock where watch and ward was kept by the 
retainers of the Norman Lord of the Aird, John 
Byset. No Norman baron, however, obtained a 
grant of land in Ross ; English was introduced 
there through the Royal Castles and the Church. 
In 1179 William the Lion founded the Castles of 
Dunskaith in Nigg, and Eddirdover, now Redcastle. 
In the next century we find the Castles of Cromarty 
and Dingwall upheld by the Crown and the Castle of 
Avoch belonging to the De Moravia family. In all of 



XX. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

these the garrison was, doubtless, composed chiefly 
of Lowlanders. The seat of the Bishopric of Ross 
was at Rosemarkie ; in 1227 the Chapter of Ross 
consists wholly, with one exception, 1 of clerics bear- 
ing English names. So with the Bishops of Ross, 
all except the first, Macbeth. The other chief 
centre of ecclesiastical influence in Easter Ross at 
this period was the Abbey of Fearn, founded circ. 
1225, whose Abbots as a rule came from Whithorn 
in Galloway, and may or may not have known 
Gaelic ; their names are usually English. The fame 
of St Duthac's shrine at Tain was also a factor of 
some importance in attracting Lowland pilgrims. 
In 1306 we actually find Walter, son of the Earl of 
Ross, a scholar at Cambridge. All this, of course, 
had little effect on the native Gaelic, but it shows 
that in the vicinity of Castle, Cathedral, and Abbey, 
as well as among the upper classes, there must have 
been some acquaintance with English. And at the 
present day we find that it is precisely in these 
places Tain, Cromarty, Rosemarkie, Avoch, and, to 
a less extent, Dingwall that Gaelic, except for 
importations, has practically died out. The Castles 
of the West Coast, Strome and Ellandonan, were 
garrisoned not by King's men, but by Gaelic- 
speaking clansmen of native chiefs, and were oftener 
held against the King than for him. 

1 The exception is Donald, Vicar of Locunethereth (Logic Wester). 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXI. 



II. DIVISIONS. 

The ancient district of Ross, 1 which gives its 
name to the modern county, originally extended from 
the Stockford on the river Beauly to Tarbat Ness, 
thus comprising Easter and Mid Ross, together with a 
slice of Inverness-shire. The name has been explained 
as from (l) Ir. and Gael, ros, a promontory; (2) 
Ir. ros, a wood ; (3) Welsh rhos, a moor ; Breton 
ros, a knoll, all equally possible phonetically. Ros, 
a wood, does not seem to occur elsewhere in Scottish 
topography ; ros, a promontory, when it occurs, is 
used with the article, e.g., an Ros Muileach, the 
Ross of Mull, but the article never appears with 
the county name ; for these and other reasons a 
Brythonic or Pictish origin seems most likely. The 
meaning of " moor" would have been appropriate in 
times antecedent to regular cultivation. 

The Pictish kingdom was divided into provinces 
traditionally seven ruled by petty kings called 
Mormaers, who were subject to the head-king. 
Whether Ross ever possessed a Mormaer of its own 
does not appear ; in the records it goes with Moray. 

1 Probably the earliest mention of Ross occurs in the Life of St Cadroe, 
ascribed to the llth century. "The Choerisci" (wandering Celts from Asia 
Minor, according to the legend), crossed over from Ireland and peopled lona. 
Thereafter they coasted along the sea which adjoins Britain, and, through 
the valley of the river Rosia, entered Rossia (per Rosim amnem, Rossiam 
invaserunt). The river Rosis, according to Skene, is the Rasay, now called 
the Blackwater. The legend may be based on an eastward movement of the 
West Coast Gaels. 



XX11. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

The first Earl of Ross was Malcolm MacHeth, 1 
circ. 1157, son of Ed, Earl of Moray, and Malcolm, 
who succeeded his brother Angus slain in rebellion 
in 1130, appears to have received the Earldom of 
Ross on his reconciliation to King David I., as part 
of his ancestral dominions. 

The next Earl of Ross is the Count of Holland, 
of whom nothing is recorded. About 1220 the title 
was conferred by Alexander II. on Ferchar Mac-in- 
tagart (son of the priest), surnamed O'Beolan, who 
appears to be rightly regarded as the then repre- 
sentative of the lay Abbots of Applecross. The 
accession of Ferchar was fraught with important 
consequences, local and national. As lord of the 
Church lands of Applecross, he was already 
practically chief of the district from Kintail to 
Lochbroom, known then as North Argyle ; when, 
in addition, he became Earl of Ross, he was the 
leading man in the north. This power, loyally 
exercised as it was by Ferchar and his descendants, 
was largely instrumental in establishing the 
authority of the Scottish Crown in the Highlands 
at this critical period. Locally he brought the 
easter and the wester divisions together under one 
strong hand, thus preparing the way for the modern 
county. Previous Earls were, of course, Earls of 
Ross only, i.e., the district east of the central 
watershed. 

1 Heth, Head, Eth, Ed all represented Gael. Aed, later Aodh, Hugh 
(stili used as a personal name in Sutherland). MacHeth in modern Gaelic is 
MacAoidh, Mackay. Skene's Highlanders of Scotland, ed. Dr A. Macbain. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XX111. 



The western sea-board from Kintail to Lochbroom Ergadia 
was, from the beginning of the Scottish Monarchy, 
known as North Argyle or Ergadia Borealis. a term 
of which the significance has been explained above. 
In 1292 William, Earl of Boss, grandson of Ferchar, 
got his lands of " Skey, Lodoux, and North Argyle " 
erected into the Sheriffdom of Skye by King John 
Balliol. The West Coast continues to appear under 
the name of North Argyll till the early part of the 
fifteenth century. 

The Sheriffdom of Cromarty, which appears to Cromarty 
have been originally connected with the Royal 
Castle there, appears on record in 1266, when 
William de Monte Alto was " vicecomes de Crum- 
bauchtyn." It was of very small extent, apparently 
not exceeding the bounds of the modern parish of 
Cromarty, yet under its hereditary Sheriffs always 
continued separate, and when in 1661 the Sheriffdom 
of Ross was definitely disjoined from that of Inver- 
ness, Cromarty is specifically excepted. The first 
Earl of Cromarty was Sir George Mackenzie of 
Tarbat, grandson of the Tutor of Kintail (an 
Taoitear Taileach), who was made Earl in 1703, 
and obtained the privilege of having his various 
estates, large and small, throughout Ross erected 
into the new County of Cromarty, an arrangement 
extremely inconvenient, and now surviving only in 
the county name Ross and Cromarty. 

The Black Isle, Gael, an t-Eilean Dubh, a mis- 
nomer which can be easily paralleled, is the name 
the peninsula between the firths of Cromarty and 



The 



XXIV. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Inverness. Peninsulas are frequently miscalled 
" islands ;" the classical instance is Peloponnesus, 
Pelops' Isle. The epithet " black " is sensibly 
explained by the writers of the Old Stat. Ace., 
from the fact that even in their time four-fifths of 
it was black moor, uncultivated. Its old official 
name is Ardmanache or Arclmeaiiach, meaning the 
" mid height," midway, that is to say, between the 
firths, surviving in the farm of Ardmeanach, 
near Fortrose. A still older name is Eddirdail, 
now obsolete, meaning apparently Eadar-da-dhail, 
Between two dales. The Lordship of Ardmanach 
went with the fortalice of Redcastle, and included 
all the Black Isle, except the Sheriffdom of 
Cromarty. 

Ferindonald The district from "the Averon or Alness River to 
the burn of Allt na Lathaid, to the east of Ding- 
wall, was called of old Ferindonald, G. Fearainu 
Domhnuill, Donald's land, a name still in use. It 
comprises the parishes of Alness and Kiltearn, and 
is the land of the Clan Munro. The Donald in 
question is the traditional founder of the house of 
Fowlis, and is supposed to have received this grant 
of land from Malcolm II. (1005-1034) for services 
rendered against Danish invaders. Though this 
account cannot be verified the origin of the Munros 
is one of the problems of Clan history it may be 
substantially correct. The name Ferindonald i& 
parallel to Dalriada and Ferintosh. 

Ferintosh. The origin of the division of Ferintosh is explained 
at p. 114. It is expressly excluded from Ross in the 




INTRODUCTION XXV. 

Act of Parliament of 1661, and till recent times 
continued to form part of the county of Nairn. 

The "five quarters" of Ross appear in 1479 in The Five 
connection with the confiscated estates of John, last U( ^ ua 
Earl of Ross. They are (l) Delney, extending 
from Tarbat Ness to the Alness River ; (2) Balkeny 
or Balcony, co-extensive with the bounds of Ferin- 
donald as given above ; (3) Kynnardy or Kinnairdie, 
including the valley of the Peffery, arid the parts 
to the south and west of it, viz., Moy, Achilty, 
Scatwell Meikle, Brahan, Dunglust, Ussie ; (4) 
Kynnellane, modern Kinnellan, which included 
" Coul, Rogy, cum le Ess, Li till Sea thole cum le 
Ess, Foreste de Rannach, Meyn in Straquhonane, 
the two Eskatellis, Innermany, Innerquhonray, 
Kinlochbenquherane ;" (5) Fyrnewer (a name now 
obsolete), from Fairburn round by the Beauly Firth 
to Kessock : " the Ferburnys, Auchansawle, Arcoyn, 
Balbrade, Urra, Kynculadrum, le Orde, Belblare, 
Balnagoun, Kynkell, Logyenreith, and the two 
Kessokis." Though this is the first appearance 
of the quarters as a whole, there appear on 
record the quarter of Petkenney in 1281 and the 
" maresium of Fernewyr " in 1350, from which 
it is a fair inference that the other " quarters " 
also existed long prior to 1479. They were 
evidently divisions of the Earldom of Ross, each 
under a " maor," or land steward, but they may 
have represented still older tribal divisions, or, 
possibly, the Norse organisation. 



XXVI. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Parishes. The division into parishes must have been roughly 
contemporary with the organisation of the Bishopric 
of Ross, circ. 1128. The Bishopric was co-extensive 
with the Earldom, and therefore it was only on the 
accession of Ferchar Mac-in-tagart, circ. 1220, that 
it came to include the churches of North Argyle. 
But little change seems to have taken place in the 
parochial organisation, the chief being the disjunction 
of Fearn from Tarbat in 1628, the union of Kilt earn 
and Lemlair, of Kinnettes and Fodderty, and of 
Urray and Gilchrist (date uncertain) ; of Kirkmichael 
and Cullicudden in 1G62, of Urquhart and Logie 
Wester circ. 1669, and of Kilmuir Wester and 
Suddy in 1756, now Knockbain. Glenshiel is a 
new parish carved out of Kin tail. Before the 
arrangement of 1661, the parish of Kilmorack 
belonged territorially to Ross, as it still does 
ecclesiastically. In dealing with parish names, it 
is important to bear in mind that the name of a 
parish is regularly taken either from the old parish 
church, e.g. Kilmuir, or from the spot where the old 
church stood, e.g. Logie. 

Hebrides. The name Hebrides has arisen from a misreading 
of Pliny's Haebudes, which, he says were thirty in 
number. Ptolemy gives only five Aebudae. The 
word must be Pictish, or pre-Pictish ; its meaning 
is quite obscure, but it has been suggested with 
some probability that its modern representative is 
Bute, Gael. Bod. During the Norse occupation 
they were called by the Gaels Innse-Gall, by the 
Norse themselves Sudreys, the south isles. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXV 11. 



III. THE BASIS OF INTERPRETATION. 

The study of names of places involves two pro- 
cesses, collection of facts and interpretation, and if 
the interpretation is to be sound, the facts on which 
it is based must be accurate and adequate. It is 
therefore proper at the outset to consider the nature 
of the facts at our disposal in dealing with the 
names encountered in Ross and Cromarty, names 
which fall, in respect of language, into four 
divisions Pictish, Gaelic, Norse, and English. 
These facts or data are, in the main, of three 
kinds 

(1) The names as they are now pronounced. 

(2) Old written forms. 

(3) Physical characteristics of the places denoted by the 

names. 

(l) At the present day both Gaelic and English Modem 
are spoken over the whole of the county, with this 
qualification, that in the eastern part English is 
predominant, while Gaelic still prevails on the West 
Coast and in Lewis. The result is that to some 
extent over the whole, but especially in Easter Ross, 
we have a sort of double nomenclature ; on the one 
hand the names as they are pronounced by the 
Gaelic-speaking natives, on the other the Anglified 
forms used by English speakers, and by Gaelic 
natives, too, when speaking English. These latter 
are the "official" forms which appear in the 
Valuation Roll, the Post-Office Directory, and on 






XXV111. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

the maps, and are often of considerable antiquity. 
The form Raddery, for instance, must have come 
into vogue at a period when the d of the modern 
G. Radharaidh was still audible as a consonant. 
Culbokie dates from a time when the o sound had 
not yet become a, as it has in modern G. Cuil- 
bhaicidh. Strathpeffer shows in an unaspirated 
form the /of modern G. Srath-pheofhair. Cromarty 
and Drumderfit show old teminations lost in the 
modern G. forms Cromba! and Druima-diar. Yet 
the practical value of modern English forms by 
themselves is small ; at their best they fail to 
indicate the quantity or the quality of vowels, 
and often they have undergone changes that quite 
disguise the original. Modern Gaelic forms of 
Gaelic names which have been handed down by 
unbroken tradition have undergone only such 
changes as occur regularly within the language ; 
they are, in fact, Gaelic words, conforming to the 
rules of Gaelic phonetics, and form as good a starting 
point for the philologist as any other Gaelic words. 
There remains the question of the value of Gaelic 
forms of names originally Pictish or Norse. In the 
case of Norse names, the answer is easy. Gaelic 
has been, on the whole, wonderfully consistent in 
its treatment of the old Norse vowels and con- 
sonants, and it possesses the great advantage of 
clearly indicating the quantity of the vowel in the 
first syllable of Norse names, which is usually the 
important part. In one small class of such names, 
indeed, it fails us badly, but it is safe to say that 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXIX. 



very slight authority can be attached to any investi- 
gation of Norse names that fails to take careful 
account of the modern Gaelic forms. These forms 
are imitations, but they are only one degree removed 
from the original ; the English forms are imitations 
of an imitation. How Pictish names have fared in 
Gaelic mouths is the more difficult to determine, 
because practically no specimens of that language 
have come down to us. It may, however, be 
remarked that there is no reason to suppose that 
they were treated differently from the Norse names ; 
Gaelic may be expected to preserve the vowel 
quantity of accented syllables, and to be tolerably 
consistent in its phonetics. In both cases there was 
a bilingual period, which gave the Gaels ample time 
to become familiar with the names which they 
adopted from Pict and Norseman. The changes 
undergone subsequently have, of course, been in 
accordance with those of Gaelic. Examples of 
Pictish and Norse names as they appear in the 
modern forms will appear later in treating of these 
elements ; in the meantime some may be given to 
illustrate the comparative value of the modern 
Gaelic forms of Gaelic words as compared with their 
English equivalents 



Pitnellie(s) 

Tenafield 

Kindeace 

Ardroil 

Bogbain 

Locheye 

Kilcoy 



Bail' an ianlaith. 

Tigh na fidhle. 

Cinu-deis. 

Eadar dha fhaodhail. 

am Bac Ban. 

Loch na h-Uidhe. 

Cuil-challaidh. 



XXX. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Pookandraw Bog an t-srath. 

Fowlis Folais. 

Kiurive Ceanna-ruigh. 

Fain na Feithean. 

Dochcarty Do'ach Gartaidh. 

Other examples will be found passim. 

Old (2) The forms of names preserved in ancient 

Written d ocum erits have been utilised with much success by 
Dr Joyce in dealing with Irish names of places. In 
Irish writings, names have been transmitted with 
great care from very ancient times by scribes who 
were masters of the language, and from them 
the original forms can often be ascertained with 
immediate certainty. For Scotland, unfortunately, 
the case is diiferent. The great bulk of our written 
forms date only from the period not earlier than the 
twelfth century, when charters came in under the 
sons of Margaret. Their authority, moreover, is 
largely discounted by the fact that they were written 
by scribes who knew no Gaelic, and consequently 
spelled at random. In the case of Highland names, 
it is obvious that charter forms must have been 
more or less phonetic attempts at reproducing 
Gaelic pronunciations, and their value is, therefore, 
greatest when they can be controlled and inter- 
preted by the modern Gaelic. This applies equally 
to all names not of English origin, whether they are 
Pictish, Norse, or Gaelic. Thus controlled, the 
charter forms are often helpful and suggestive ; as 
independent authorities, they are unreliable. A 
few examples are given in illustration ; others in 
abundance will be found elsewhere 






INTRODUCTION. 



XXX 1. 



Pitnellies 


Petnely 1512 


Bail' an ianlaith. 


Pitkerrie 


Pitkeri 1529 


Baile-cheiridh. 


Strath of Pitcaluie 


Culderare 1611 


C uilt-eararaidh. 


Rhives 


le Royis 1479 


na Ruigheannaiu 




Ilu vis 1487 




Delny 


Dalgeny 1356 


Deilgriidh. 


Alness 


Aleiies 1227 


Alanais. 


Lemlair 


Lemnelar 1227 


Luirn na' Lar. 


Learnie 


Larny 1576 


Leatharuaidh. 


Achterflow 


Ochtercloy 1456 


Uachdar-chlo. 




Achtirflo 1560 




Kilooy 


Culcolly 1294 


Cuil-challaidh. 




Culcowy 1479 




Sanachan 


Tannachtan 1548 


Sambnachan. 




Safnachan 1583 





Perhaps the best example in Ross of a really 
helpful old spelling, which must take precedence of 
the modern Gaelic, is Inverasdale, Inveraspidill 
1566, &c. ; G. Inbhir-asdal. The oldest record 
forms for Ross names belong to the first half of the 
13th century, and come from the Register of Moray. 
Written forms antecedent to that date are very few. 
Ptolemy, the Alexandrian geographer, mentions two 
names of places which seem to be rightly located in 
Ross, Volsas Sinus, for which cf. Lochalsh, and High 
Bank, identified with Norse Ekkials-bakki, modern 
Oykell. 1 In addition, he mentions three tribal names, 
already referred to. The Carnonacae, somewhere on 
the West Coast, are, doubtless, the men of the 
Cairns, or of the Rough Bounds, and we may com- 
pare the modern Carranaich, the Lochcarron men. 
In Easter Ross were located the Decantae, but of 
their name no trace appears subsequently. So, too, 

1 Tliis identification is due to the Rev. Charles M. Robertson. 



XXX11. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

with the Smertae, who may have dwelt from Kin- 
cardine northwards in the valleys of the Carron, 
Oykell, and Shin. In the interval of over a 
thousand years between Ptolemy and the record 
forms, we find only the old forms of Applecross, 
Lewis, and Ross itself. 

Physical (3) As the names of places are usually descrip- 
Character- tive, it is often useful, sometimes necessary, to see 
the place itself. It is only by inspection and com- 
parison that one learns, for instance, to differentiate 
between the numerous words for hill, or to dis- 
tinguish between a strath, a glen, and a corry. 
Inspection is specially useful when names are 
applied in a metaphorical way, from likeness to some 
object, e.g., Meall an Tuirc, Boar-hill, from its 
striking resemblance, as viewed from a certain point, 
to a boar. Na Rathanan, the pulleys, require to be 
seen to be appreciated. Places involving obsolete 
names such as eirbhe, faithir, seolaid, eileag, have 
to be studied for confirmation of the meaning pro- 
posed. This applies specially to Pictish names such 
as Allan, Alness, Contin, Aradie. Orrin. But it is 
well to bear in mind that no amount of looking at a 
place can alter the phonetics of the name, and that 
inspirations derived from inspection must be received 
with caution. 

In the discussions that follow, I have availed 
myself wherever it has been possible of the three- 
fold data above indicated. In particular, the 
modern Gaelic forms, which, in the absence of 
reliable old spellings, must be regarded as by far 



INTRODUCTION. XXX111. 

the most reliable basis of interpretation, have been 
ascertained with accuracy from reliable native 
sources. In addition, advantage has been taken 
largely of the analogy of names occurring elsewhere Analogy, 
which are wholly or partly the same as the names 
under discussion, or which resemble them in assign- 
able respects. This is, of course, merely the method 
of comparative philology applied to place-names. 
The field from which possible analogies may be 
drawn is a wide one ; in practice it will be found 
that for Gaelic names one has to compare names 
occurring in Scotland and Ireland ; the pre-Gaelic 
or Pictish element involves, in addition, an acquain- 
tance with Welsh, Cornish, Old British, and Gaulish 
names ; while for names of Norse origin the best 
auxiliaries are the names that occur in the Sagas, 
and especially the Landnama-bok. 

IV. THE FORMATION OF GAELIC NAMES. 

Gaelic place-names may be divided into four 
classes according as they are (l) simple or uncom- 
pounded words without extension ; (2) simple words 
with extension ; (3) compounds ; (4) phrases. 

(1) Simple words without extension, e.g., crasg, 
a crossing ; magh, a plain (Moy) ; sron, a nose or 
point (Strone). The names belonging to this class 
are few, and present no difficulty. 

(2) Simple words with extension or extensions. 
This class is so important as to demand somewhat 
extended treatment. 



XXXIV. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

The following is a list of the extensions or ter- 
minations added on to primary Gaelic words in the 
names of Ross : -ach, -adh, -ag, -an, -ar, -dan, -I, 
-lack, -lean, -t(d) or -id. 

Combinations of two of the ahove are ; -ach + an, 
-ach + ar, -ag + an, -an + ach, -ar + ach, -ar + adh, 
-ar + an. 

Combinations of three are : -ar + an + acli, 
-ach + ar + an, -an + ach + an. 

-ach (Gaulish -dcus, abounding in ; -dcum, place of) ; 
in the locative case it appears as -aich ; the most 
eommon of Gaelic terminations. 

(a) With nouns : Crann-aich, place of trees ; 
Giuths-ach, place of fir ; Carn-ach, place of stones 
or cairns ; Capl-aich, place of horses ; Mias-ach, 
place of platters ; Soc-ach, place of the snout ; 
Eilean-ach, place of islands ; Glaodh-aich, place 
of mire ; Av-och, place on the stream ; 
Sleagh-ach, ? spear-place ; Ceap-ach, tillage place. 

(6) With adjectives, less common : Breac-ach, 
dappled place ; Ard-och, high place ; Dian-aich, 
steep place ; Liath-ach, grey place ; Leithe-ach, 
half place. 

In old Gaelic, as is still the case in Irish, the 
dative or locative, and also the genitive case of 
nouns ending in -ach was formed in -aigh (pro- 
nounced nearly -ie), and this old formation survives 
in a considerable number of names. On the west 
coast we have Logie (twice), G. an Lagaidh ; Dornie 
(thrice), G. an D6irnidh (cf. Dornoch, an accusative)^ 






INTRODUCTION. XXXV. 



both used with the article as nouns feminine, after 
the model of nouns in -ach ; e.g., Dun na Lagaidh, 
the fort of Logie ; Ceannaiche na Doirnidh, the 
merchant of Dornie, as compared with Ian Dubh na 
Carnaich, &c. The other west coast instances are 
not found with the article, viz., Duchary (as against 
an Dubhctiroch in Loch broom, for Dubh-chatharach) ; 
Tolly (twice) ; Arriecheirie, G. Airigh-che'iridh ; Ach- 
a-bhanaidh ; Coire-bhanaidh. In Easter Ross names 
with this ending are more common, and they never 
have the article. The following occur here : Logie, 
Tolly (twice), Pitkerrie (G. Baile-cheiridh ; cf. 
Airigh-cheiridh above) ; Delny ; Muie-blairie (cf. 
Blairich in Sutherland ; a locative) ; Kinn-airdie 
(cf. Ardoch) ; Drynie (cf. an Draighneach) ; Learnie 
(cf. Lernock in Stirlingshire) ; Comrie ; Garty ; 
Dounie ; Tarvie ; Carn Sgolbaidh ; Cambuscurrie 
(cf. Cambuschurrich on Lochtay-side), Haddery 
(cf. na Hadharaichean in Perthshire) ; Cartomie 
(cf. Tomich) ; Culcraggie ; Culbokie ; Culvokie ; 
Duchary ; Balaldie ; Cuil-challaidh (Kilcoy) ; Bealach 
Collaidh ; Creag lucharaidh ; Balcony. 

The above seem to be all tolerably certain cases 
of survival. In one or two instances the usage 
varies as between Gaelic and English : Pitglassie is 
in G. Bad a' ghlasaich ; Glen Docharty is G. Gleann 
Dochartaich. Here the Gaelic forms may be due to a 
process of levelling up to the modern -aick formation. 

In some other cases, especially in Easter Ross, 
this ending seems to have been introduced by 
analogy. It is difficult to account for otherwise 



XXXVI. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

in Pit-hoggarty, Fluchlady, Muiilochy. Analogy 
may also account for Rhynie and Gany (now in 
plural Geanies), where the Gaelic is Rathan and 
Gaan or Gathan. 

-aidh, diminutive : Indistinguishable in sound from 
the above is the diminutive ending -aidh found 
chiefly on the West Coast. 1 In Easter Ross there 
are Strathy in Rosskeen, Creagaidh-thom in 
Knockbain, and perhaps Aldie near Tain. On the 
west we have Lochaidh, a small loch, thrice at 
least ; Badaidh, a little clump, is common ; 
Camasaidh, a little bay ; Coiridh, a little corry ; 
Strathy, a little strath. In the spoken language 
perhaps the best instance is rudaidh beag, " a 
wee bittie ;" in Sutherland one hears beanaidh, 
wifie ; and I have heard eileanaidh beag, a little 
islet. This is an ending which does not seem to 
occur in Irish names of places, and may be com- 
pared with the common Scots diminutive seen in 
" wifie," "lassie," "Jamie," &c. 

-adh : this termination seems to occur only in con- 
junction with -ar, as -aradh. 

-ag (Irish -de), now the diminutive termination for 
nouns feminine, but in the old language added to 
nouns masculine also. 

(a) With nouns : Breab-aig. a little start ; 
Giag-aig, a little noisy one ; Fearn-aig, the little 
place of alder. 

(b) With adjectives : Leisg-eig, the little lazy 
one, a well ; Dubh-ag, the little black one, a 

1 It is also common in Sutherland. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXXV11. 



common streamlet name ; Cas-aig, the little steep 
one, a rock. 

-an (Ir. -an ; Proto-Celtic -agnos) now the diminu- 
tive ending for nouns masculine. 

(a) With nouns : Creag-an, little rock ; Torr- 
an, little hillock ; Poll-an, little pool or hollow ; 
Loch-an, a little loch. 

(b) With adjectives : Arc-an, the little black 
place ; Riabhach-an, the little brindled place ; 
Garbh-an, the little rough place. 

(c) It is common in a collective sense : 
C6inneach-an, place of moss ; Dobhr-an, place of 
water ; Olach-an, place of stones (stone houses) ; 
Eathan (Rhyme), place of raths, or, of the rath ; 
Poll a' Mhuc-ainn, pool, or hollow, of the place of 
swine ; Druineach-an, place of ? Druids. 

-or (cf. Gaulish -aros), rarely used alone. Croch-ar, 
place of the gallows ; Salach-ar, place of willows. 

-dan, the diminutive or collective termination which 
Dr Joyce finds in Sailcheadain, &c., is probably 
seen in Ardoch-dainn ; possibly in Crumbauchtyn, 
the old form of Cromarty. 

-I -II (-lo-), probably in Srath-Chromb-ail, Poll- 
moral. 

-loch (Gaul. Catu-slogi, war- folk ; G. sluagh) ; a 
noun, sunk to a termination. 

(a) With nouns : Meagh-laich (mang-lach), 
place of fawns ; Muc-lach, place of pigs. 

(b) With adjectives : Breac-lach, spotted place ; 
Garbh-lach, rough place; Cuillich (cuing-laich), 
narrow place ; Fuara-lach, cold place. 



XXXV111. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

-lean : Reidh-lean, a little plain ; Ceis-lein, a little 
sow (hill name). Very rare. 

t, d (-id), found in Ireland by Dr Joyce, and not 
uncommon with us. Se61-aid, place of (careful) 
sailing, or sailing mark ; Allt na Lath-aid, burn 
of the miry place ; Rath-t in Ratagan, from rath, 
a round fort ; Meith-eid, Meddat ; Blaad. In 
Ireland this ending is specially common in stream 
names : Duinn-id, the brown stream, is the only 
example in Ross. 

-ach + an : a combination in which -an usually seems 
to have a collective force. Gius-achan, place of 
fir ; Duchan, for Dubh-ach-an, black place ; 
Doire-achan, place of groves ; Cais-eachan, place 
of cheese ; Achlorachan ; Fiacl-achan, place of 
teeth. Na Bothachan (Boath) and na Peit'chan 
are plural forms, though -an has in both the open 
sound. 

-ach + ar : Poll-ach-ar, place of pools, or hollows. 

-ag + an: in form a double diminutive, seen in Irish 
also. Coire Mhail-eagan (twice), Rat-agan. 

-an + acli : a well-attested but rather uncommon 
combination. Rath-anaich, place of raths ; Cip- 
eanoch, place of blocks ; Frianach for Friamh- 
aiaach, place of roots ; cf. Baid-eanach (Badenoch), 
drowned place. 

-ar + ach: with adjective; Ruadh-ar-ach (Ruaroch), 
the red place. 

-ar + adh : Bog-aradh. soft place ; Fliuch-araidh, 
wet place ; possibly Garbh-araidK, rough place ; 
Loch a' Mhagraidh, Loch of the place of pawing 
(or, of toads). 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIX. 

The Gaelic pronunciation renders the first of 
these examples certain. The others, so far as 
sound goes, might come from a nominative in 
-ach, with the old genitive formation in -aigh. 

-ar+an : Dos-muc-ar-an, clump of the place of 
swine ; Garbh-ar-an, rough place. 

-ar+an+ach : Muc-ar-n-aich (Muckernich), place of 
pigs ; common ; Beith-ear-n-aich, place of birch : 
Ceap-ar-n-aich, place of blocks. 

ach+ ar+an : Loch Beann-ach-ar-an ; 

-n-ach-an : Samh-n-ach-an. 

isidh, seen in Camaisidh, Caoilisidh, Lianisidh, 
Cruaidhsidh ; a difficult termination, possibly 
Pictish. It does not seem to occur in Ireland. 
(3) Compounds : 

(a) Noun with noun ; an uncommon formation. 
Plucaird, lump promontory ; Carnasgeir, Cairn- 
skerry ; Eigintol, difficulty hole ; Mor'oich, sea 
plain, are the only examples met in Ross. 

(b) Adjective with noun : a much more com- 
mon formation. Fionn-alltan, white burns ; 
Dugaraidh, black den ; Cam-allt, bent burn ; 
Gearr-choille, short wood ; Crom-loch, bent loch ; 
Du-chary, black rough ground ; Du-loch, black- 
loch ; Seann-bhaile, Oldtown, and others. 

(c) Preposition with noun : Edderton, between 
duns : Eddracharran (New Kelso), between two 
Carrons ; Coneas, combined falls ; Contullich, 
combined hillocks ; Conchra, combined weirs ; 
Conachreig, combination of rocks ; Araird, fore- 
promontory ; Ach-eadarsain ; Urray for air-rath 
or air-ath. 



xl. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

(4) Phrases, of which the component parts stand 
in grammatical relation : 

(a) Without the article ; these approximate to 
compounds, but have the principal accent on the 
second syllable. Beinn-damh, Stag-hill ; Suil- 
ba, Cows' eye (a well) ; Acharn, field of the cairns, 
and others. 

(b) With the article : Carn a' Bhreabadair, 
the weaver's cairn ; Tobar a' Chlaidheimh dhuibh, 
well of the black sword ; Sgurr nan Conbhairean, 
peak of the dog-men. This is a class too common 
and well known to need further illustration. 
There is, however, a variety, specially common OR 
the West Coast, which deserves special notice, 
where, contrary to modern usage, the article is 
prefixed : an L6n-roid, the meadow of bog-rnyrtle ; 
am Blar-borraich, the moor of rough grass ; an 
t-Allt-giuthais, the fir-burn ; an Camas-raintich, 
the bracken bay. The modern Gaelic formation 
would be L6n na roid, &c.; in the old formation 
L6n-roid is treated as one word. 

Periods The different methods of formation indicated 

represented. a b ove mav b e taken roughly to represent different 
stages or periods. The second class of names, com- 
prising those formed by extensions from a simple 
root, must have been given at a period when the 
language still retained its power of using those 
extensions and combinations of extensions to form 
fresh names, when, in other words, these were still 
living and active. When precisely or even approxi- 
mately they ceased to be such is hard to say, but it 



INTRODUCTION. 



xli. 



is significant that the Gaelic names of Lewis and of 
Skye are almost wholly of the fourth class, phrase 
names. Compounds like Ben Damh, Poll-cas- 
gaibhre, Suil-ba, and names involving prefixed 
adjectives, nouns, or prepositions, are also of an 
antique cast. Phrase names are not necessarily 
modern, for they are well in evidence in the Book of 
Deer (circ. 1085-1150), but as a rule they belong to 
the most recent stratum. 

The formation of Gaelic names is closely con- 
nected with questions of accent, the position of 
general and qualifying words, and the usage of the 
article. 

In modern Gaelic the adjective regularly follows 
the noun, except in the case of the adjectives deagh, 
good ; droch, bad ; sar, excellent ; seann, old, which 
always precede. The old language was freer in this Prefixed 
respect, and in the place-names adjectives are prefixed Ad j e ? tlves 
which modern usage would place after their nouns. 
The number of such is small, and they are all adjec- 
tives of one syllable relating to colour or some 
other physical feature. Among the adjectives thus 
occasionally prefixed in the names of Ross are the 
following : dubh, black ; ? loch, black ; fionn, white ; 
ruadh, red ; Hath, gray ; glas, green ; gorm, blue ; 
gearr, short ; garbh, rough ; crom, bent ; cam, 
crooked ; meirbh, slender ; geur ; sharp ; cruinn, 
round ; saobh, false (in saothair) ; mor, big. 

In all such cases the principal accent falls on the 
adjective, with the result that the noun following it 
tends to be pronounced indistinctly, e.g., Fuar-tholl 



xlii. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

becomes Fuarthol ; Garbh-allt becomes Garbhalt. 
The effect is most apparent when the noun is of 
more than one syllable, in which case the first 
syllable of it is apt to be "jumped," e.g., Dugraidh 
for Dubh-garaidh ; or slurred, e.g., Glaic nan Seann- 
innsean is pronounced Glaic na' Seannisean ; so also 
Bog na Seannan is probably for Bog nan Seann- 
athan ; Seann-tulaich becomes Seannt'laich. 

The adjective dubh, when placed first, is some- 
times lengthened to du by the stress of the accent, 
as in Duloch, Dug(a)raidh. 

Prefixed Sometimes, though rarely, the prefixed part is a 
Nouns and noun use( ^ as an adjective (see above 3 (a) ), in 

-A.CCHL. 9 i 

which case the results are exactly the same in 
respect of accent and effect on the word following. 
A special instance of this formation is the very small 
class of names represented by Maoil Cheanndearg, 
a' Chlach CheanmT for ceann-dearg and ceann-liath 
respectively, meaniDg " head-red " and " head-gray/' 
or " red, gray in respect of the head." This was a 
favourite type of combination in Irish, and is seen in 
Gaelic in caisionn for cas-fhionn, foot- white, speckled; 
earrgheal, tail-white, etc., and in the common 
terrier name Busdubh, muzzle-black. 

Prepositions In compounds of which the first part is a pre- 
nt ' position the principal accent falls on the preposition, 
with consequent indistinctness or slurring of the 
second part. Thus Con-tulaich becomes Cunnt'laich, 
Con-chra is Conachra; Far-braoin becomes Fara- 
braoin. When the preposition eadar, between, is 
compounded with a dissyllabic noun, there are two 



INTRODUCTION. xliii. 

principal accents, one on preposition, one on noun, 
and eadar itself becomes ead'r, e.g., Eadar-dha- 
Charrann becomes Ead'ra-charrarm ; Eadar-da- 
chaolas becomes Ead'ra-chaolas. But if the second 
part is a monosyllable the accent follows the usual 
rule, e.g., Ettridge in Badenoch, Gael. Eadrais for 
Eadar-da-eae, between two falls ; cf. Edderton. 

In phrase names the principal accent falls on the Accent in 

qualify in & part, whether adjective or noun, which J>arase ~ 

J 1 J ' .: vmes 

regularly comes after the generic part. In con- 
sequence, the first part sometimes suffers, while the 
second part is preserved entire. Thus Achadh, a 
field, appears as achd in Achd-a-charn, Achtercairn, 
and many other names ; ach in Ach-na-seileach, 
Achnashellach ; acha in Acha-mor, Achmore ; while 
it retains its full form in Achadh -ghiiirain. Perhaps 
the best example is afforded by the treatment of 
neimhidh, church-land. Dalnavie is in Gaelic 
Dal-neimhidh ; so also Cnoc-navie and Inch-navie ; 
here the strong accent has preserved the second part 
in full. But when neimhidh comes first, as the 
generic part, it sinks to neo' as in Neo' na Gill, 
Nonakiln ; an Neo-mhor, Newmore. This is, 
fortunately, an extreme case. 

In uncompounded names the accent is always on Accent in 
the first syllable, as in Deilgnidh, Delny ; a' 
Mhucarnaich, Muckernich. 

The usage of the article is noteworthy. As a The Article, 
rule it is used with Gaelic nouns wherever the 
grammatical structure admits, and the presence of 
the article is a sure sign that the word to which it 



xllV. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMABTY. 

is prefixed either is Gaelic or has been borrowed 
into Gaelic, and become naturalised as a Gaelic 
word. 1 In English we speak of Torran, Tullich, 
Boath ; in Gaelic these places are always an Torran, 
an Tulaich, na Bothachan. 

The absence of the article, however, does not 
necessarily prove a name to be non-Gaelic, 
though it does raise that presumption. Pictish 
names never have the article ; Norse names very 
seldom, and then only in Lewis, never on the 
mainland. But we have already noted above an 
important class of names, chiefly found in Easter 
Ross, which almost consistently reject it, though 
they may be regarded as Gaelic. The exact explan- 
ation of this curious phenomenon is difficult ; these 
names were apparently regarded as in some way 
unfamiliar or foreign. Perhaps it was because of 
their retaining the old locative form, though this 
seems hardly an adequate reason. Another class 
seldom found with the article consists of names in 
-achan, e.g. Giusachan. The only exception met 
in Ross is am Fiadachan. Apart from these the 
principal case of an apparently genuine Gaelic 
name without the article is Suddy, G. Suidhe, 
seat, see. 

1 This perhaps requires some qualification in view of the usage of the 
article with names of countries. Here it is sometimes capricious. Ireland is 
Eirin ; Scotland, Alba ; in Ireland^is " Ann an Eirinn ;" in Scotland, " Ann an 
Alba ;" yet the article appears with the genitive ; " Coig coigimh na 
h-Eirinn ;" " Righrean na h-Alba ;" yet Brag had Albainn, Breadalbane. 
Rome, Italy, Spain, Germany, Holland, Greece, Egypt, Europe, Asia have the 
article in Gaelic an R6imh, an Eadailt, c. But Scandinavia is Lochlann. 




INTRODUCTION. xlv. 

Finally in this connexion we may note that Case, 
place-names seldom (if ever) appear in the nomin- 
ative case. They are usually in the dative or 
locative, the reason being that this was the case in 
most common use after a preposition ; there was 
seldom occasion to use the nominative, for a place- 
name rarely forms the subject of a sentence. Thus 
we get Tullich, Cill-duinn (Kildun), Cinn-deis, 
where Cill-duinn, 1 is dative of Ceall-dhonn, Cinn of 
Ceann, and so on. Not unfrequently a name 
appears in the accusative, as would arise in cases 
where the custom was to speak of " to such a place." 2 
Thus we have Tulloch, Dornoch, Ardoch, a' Chip- 
eanoch, Ceann-a-ruigh (Kinrive), and others, all 
accusative. 

V. THE PICTISH ELEMENT. 

The Picts of Alba 3 are sometimes called by the Terms used 
Irish writers Cruithnig arid Cruithne, genitive pi. *-^ e ^?, te 
Cruithnech, dative Cruithniu, and their land 
appears as Cruithen-tuaith. From this form pro- 
bably come such names of places as an Carnan 
Cruithneachd in Kintail, Airigh nan Cruithneachd 
in Applecross and near Scourie (Sutherland), and 
Cruithneachan in Lochaber. 

More often they are called in the Irish Chronicles 
Picti, Pictores, Pictones, rendered into Irish by 
Piccardai or Picardaig, genitive pi. Piccardach, 
dative Picardachaib. Their country is Pictavia. 
In Latin also they are Picti. There were Pictones, 

1 Cf. An Candidam Casam, the old Latin form of Whithorn 
2 Cf . Stamboul for eis rrjv TrdAti/. 
3 The Picts of Erin (immigrants thither) are always Cruithne. 



xlvi. PLACE-NAMEB OF ROSS AND OROMARTY. 

later Pictavi, in Aquitanian Gaul, whose capital 
was Pictava. 

The old Norse word for a Pict is Pettr, and the 
Norsemen called the channel between Caithness and 
Orkney (in G. an Gaol Arcach) Pettlands-fjonSr, 
now corrupted into Pentland Firth. In Shetland 
there still survive names such as Petta water, 
Pettidale, Pettasmog, Pettigarthsfell. 1 

In a charter of Alexander II. granted to the 
Monastery of Kinloss in 1221 appears the phrase 
" ad Rune Pictorum," glossed " Hune Pictorum, the 
carne of the Pethis or the Pechts feildis " (rune = G. 
raon). This gloss shows the old Scottish form of 
the name. 

Modern philologists derive Cruithne from the 
root seen in G. cruth, a shape, "the pictured, 
tattoed men." The Welsh equivalent of cruth is 
pryd, and as the Welsh name for Britain and for Pict 
is Prydain, 2 this makes it probable that the name 
Britain is derived from the Brit tonic form of Cruithne, 
and means the land of the Picts. 3 The name Pict 
itself, in view of the Gaulish Pictones or Pictavi, 
cannot be connected with the Latin pictus, painted. 
It was evidently the name by which the northern 
Picts were known to the Norsemen, and by which they 
doubtless called themselves. The initial p indicates 
Cymric affinities, and the word has been equated 
with Ir. cicht, engraver, carver, thus again leading 
to the notion of tattooing. 

1 J. Jakobsen Dialect and Place-names of Shetland. 

2 The best and oldest forms of Britain show p, Gr. IIpTTavot, 



our form is from the Latin Britannia. 
3 See further A. Macbain's Etym. Gad. Diet., p. 353. 



INTRODUCTION. xlvii. 

Linguistic evidence goes to show that the Pictish P and Q 
language was Celtic, and belonged to the Cymric 
branch represented now by Welsh and Breton, and 
until recent times by Cornish. One outstanding 
difference between the Brittonic and Gadelic 
branches of Celtic is their treatment of the 
primitive Indo-Germanic qu sound. In Gaelic and 
Irish this primitive qu invariably becomes c hard ; 
in Welsh, Breton, and Cornish it is represented by 
p. Thus a primitive maquo-s, son, becomes Gael. 
mac, Old Welsh map. As for the primitive p 
sound, it never appears in Gaelic. Initially and 
between vowels it has dropped entirely, e.g., Lat. 
pater, piscis as against G. athair, iasg. Elsewhere 
it is not wholly lost, but leaves some trace either by 
way of compensatory lengthening or by a new com- 
bination. 1 It follows that no genuine Gaelic word 
contains a p, except as the result of some late com- 
bination of consonants. 

Initial p is seen in the names involving Pit, 2 to Non-Gaelic 
be compared with Welsh peth, a part, Gael, cuid, j 
a share portion, O. Ir. cuit, English piece ; in Book 
of Deer pett. For the usage we may compare dal, 
a share, lot, in Dal-riada. Tiie Pictish pett was 
borrowed by Gaelic, and treated as a Gaelic word, 
e.g., na Peit'chan, the places of Pits ; Petty, G. 
Peitidh, a locative of Peiteach, place of Pits. For 
reasons that will occur to Gaelic scholars, Gaels have 
usually translated it, most frequently into baile, a 

1 For examples, cf. A. Macbain's Etym. Gael. Diet., xxxv. 
2 v. Index. 



xlviit. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

stead, e.g., Pitkerrie, G. Baile-cheiridh ; sometimes 
into innis, a meadow, e.g., Innis-fiur, formerly Pit- 
fuir, or bad, a clump, e.g., Pitglassie, G. Bad a' 
ghlasaich. Sometimes it is left untranslated, as in 
the Black Isle Pitfuir, G. Pit-uir ; Pitmaduthy, 
G. Pit-'ic Dhuibh, also Baile-'ic-Dhuibh. The Pits 
are mostly confined to Easter Ross, where Pictish 
influence was most lasting, but Peitneane appears on 
record in Lochcarron, and Pitalmit in Glenelg. 
Other names with initial p are Peffer, Porin, Loch 
Prille, Peallaig, and those involving preas. 
ii. Various. In addition to these p names, which are obviously 
non -Gaelic, the following are non -Gaelic either in 
whole or in part : 

Achilty (2) Drumderfit Monar 

Achterneed Fannich Navity 

Allan (4) Fodderty Oykell 

Alness Kinnettes Pitcalnie 

Balkeith Kincardine Tarlogie 

Blairwhyte Lochalsh Udais 

Contin Lundy (3) Urquhart 

Dallas Multovy 

With the exception of Lochalsh and that Lundy and 
perhaps Achilty are repeated on the West Coast, 
... <\ all the above occur in Easter and Mid Ross. The 
explanation of Multovy offered in the text requires 
qualification ; the termination is better compared 
with the Old Welsh suffix -ma 1 (Ir. mag, a plain), 
the whole representing a primitive Moltomagos, 
Wedder-plain. Lo with Mucovie, Migovie, Inver- 

1 Zeuss Gramm. Celt. 4, 890. 



INTRODUCTION. xlix. 

ness, and probably Rinavie, G. Roinnibhidh in 
Sutherland. 

It will be observed that Balkeith, Blairwhyte, 
Kiunettes, and Kincardine are hybrids, i.e., part 
Gaelic, part Pictish. The change from Pit into 
Baile has been already noted. That Pictish pen, 
head, has been translated into Gael, cinn is proved 
by names such as Kinneil and Kirkintilloch of old 
Pen-fahel and Caer Pen-taloch respectively. On 
this analogy we should have had also at one time 
Pencardine, Penettes. Blairwhyte is different ; it 
means the Blair (moor) of Whyte, just as we say 
the Moor of Rannoch. 

The non-Gaelic termination -ais (open a), found Termina- 
only on Pictish ground, and referred to a proto- 
Celtic vostis, a dwelling, appears in Alness, G. 
Alanais ; Dallas, G. Dalais ; Farness, G. Fearnais ; 
Kinnettes, G. Cinn-it-'ais or Cinn-iteais ; Cnoc- 
udais. The most northerly instance known to me is 
Altas, G. Alltais, in Sutherland ; elsewhere it 
appears in Forres, G. Farais ; Geddes, G. Geadais. 

Another termination occurring only in Pictland -tidh. 
is seen in Navity, G. Neamhaitidh or Neamhaididh 
(from neimhidh, Gaulish nemeton), Fodderty, 
Buchanty (as against Buchan) and others. 

Stream names are usually old, and probably most iii. Stream 
Ross -shire streams of any consequence possess names Names - 
imposed in Pictish times. This, of course, applies 
only to the mainland ; the names of Lewis streams, 
when they are not Norse, are unmistakably Gaelic 
and modern. The majority of the mainland streams 



tion. 
-ais. 



, 



1. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND OROMARTY. 

apart from mere burns, which are usually pure 
Gaelic admit of being classified by terminations, 
one class, numerically small but comprising the 
most important rivers, ending in -n, the other much 
larger, consisting of relatively secondary streams, 
ending in -ie. 

(a) in -n. The -n group includes the two Carrons, Conon, 
Gaul. -ona. Q rr i n? Crossan, a ll o f w hich in the text have been 

treated as showing the Gaulish river ending -ona, 
-onna, -ana, as in Matrona, Saogonna, Sequana. 
.--To them should probably be added Averon and 
Daan. 1 With these may be compared the Don, 
G. Dian, proto-Celtic Divona ; Almond from Ambona 
(Gaulish ambis, river) ; Spean, Spesona, from root- 
as in Spey cognate with Ir. sceim, vomo. 

(b) in -idh. To the -ie group belong the following : 

-ios. 

-ia m Allt Gowrie Wl Grudie (2) 

-eta. Allt Rapaidh H,(^ Inver-breakie 

Aradie Inver-many 

* Ard-essie . ;. Inver-markie 

Balgaidh Inver-riavenie 

Coire-bhacaidh Loch-calvie 

Coire-chrubaidh Polly 

Coire Liridh llaonaidh 

Eathie (2) Rogie 

Glen-calvie Uarie (Strathrory) 

Glen-marxie Ussie 

One or two of these, e.g., Breakie and perhaps 
Bacaidh, may be regarded as diminutives of Gaelic 
origin ; cf. p. xxxvi. sup. The majority, however, 

' At p. 26 Daaii is treated as a place-name. I have since found that the 
littl* glen through which the stream passes near its source is called Gleann. 
Da'an, thus suggesting Daao to be a stream name. 



INTRODUCTION. li. 



seem to be of very old type, showing the termination 
-ios seen in Ptolemy's Libn-ios, Tob-ios. Nov-ios, 
or perhaps rather -id, common in Gaulish rivers. 
The Gaulish ending -eta is also possible. 1 The 
geographical distribution of these -ie stream names 
points to a Pictish origin or strong Pictish influence. 
Few or none are found in Dalriada, the oldest 
Gaelic settlement. Of the above list nine are in 
Wester Ross as against fifteen in the eastern parts. 
In Sutherland, where Norse influence was strong, 
fewer are found ; there are, however, two Grudies. 
But their great habitat is east of Drumalban in the 
central Highlands, where Gaelic came latest ; e.g.. 
Feshie, Tromie, Mashie, Markie, Geldie, Nethy. 

There remain some stream names which fall (c) Various, 
under neither of the above categories, viz., Goran, 
G. Corainn, older Gonrainn ; Meig, G. Mig ; Sheil, 
G. Seile, Adamnan's Sale ; Dourag, G. Dobhrag, \ ^p* fjfc 
from dobur, water. The first two are difficult 
names, of which the explanations given must be 
regarded as tentative ; in any case they are obviously 
pre-Gaelic. The river Ewe, G. lu, I have taken, 
with hesitation, from Ir. eo, yew tree ; the fact that 
Tobar na h-Iu in Nigg shows the article is practically 
decisive in favour of iu being there at least a Gaelic 
word. No Pictish name is accompanied by the 
Gaelic article. But the river Ewe may be a Pictish 
name from the same root, or from a totally different 
one. 

1 Gaulish Albeta, White river ; Gabreta, Goat-wood ; cf. Cowrie ; 
" flumen Gobriat in Pictayia." 



Hi. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

foter. Of prefixes usually regarded as Pietish, there 
10 occur in Ross foter, in Fodderty ; and uachdar, in 
Achterneed, Achterflo, Achtertyre. The former is 
undoubtedly Pietish ; the latter is good Irish, 
though in point of fact in Scotland it is confined to 
Pietish ground, and may therefore be of Pietish 
origin. To these may probably be added the pre- 
a i r . positions ur, Gaelic air, Gaulish are, as seen in 
lir - Urray, G. Urra', on the Ford (ath), or possibly near 
the Fort (rath). The ur of Urquhart is certainly 
Pietish. 

In view of the number of Boss* shire rivers of 
fair size, it is remarkable that we can show only one 
abair. Aber, and that in a corrupt form, Apple-cross. 
This may be ascribed partly to strong Norse 
influence on the coast, partly to the Gaelic habit of 
translating abair into inbhir. To Norse influence 
may be due the singular circumstance that no 
important stream flowing into the Cromarty Firth 
has either abair or inbhir at its mouth ; translation 
accounts for Invercarron, Inveraithie. 

In dealing with the Pietish element in detail, the 
following Welsh words have been compared in the 
text : 

arqf, slow : Aradie, Inver-arity : Gaul. Arar, Arabus. 
cardden, brake or thicket : Kin-cardine, Ur-quhart. 
dot, plateau : Dallas, Dal-keith ; dol-men. 
- gwaneg, a wave : Loch Fannich. -v^ \\.\, 
gwydd, wood : Bal-keith. 
nant, valley : Achter-need. 

pawr, pasture : Porin ; Inch-f uir ; Pit-f uir ; Bal-f our ; Doch- 
four. 






INTRODUCTION. lili. 

pefr, bright : Strath-peffer. 

peth, portion : Pit-calnie, Pit-kerrie, &c. 

prill, streamlet : Loch Prill. 3 

MM, moor: Ross. 

tal, forehead : Tarlogie. 

uchel, high : Achilty, Oykel ; Ochil ; Ochil-tree. 

ud, a yell, blast : Cnoc-udais. 



To these should be added the word preas, 
borrowed from Pictish into Gaelic ; cf. W. prys. 
In modern Gaelic preas means " bush ;" in place- 
names, however, it has rather the meaning of 
" clump " or " thicket," which echoes the Welsh 
prys> brushwood, covert. 

In the above there is a distinct Brittonic element, 
which cannot be referred to Gaelic. Many other 
names show roots common to both branches, and are 
therefore difficult to classify. Thus Delny, G. 
Deilgnidh, might be referred to G. dealg or Cornish 
dele ; Lainn a' Choirc, Oat -flat, may show the rare 
G. lann or the common Welsh llan. 



VI. THE NORSE ELEMENT. 

While the list of Norse names given in the text 
may be regarded as exhaustive for the mainland 
part of the county, it is not so in respect of Lewis. 

Lewis and Harris are more Norse in nomen- 
clature than any other part of Scotland, and it 
would be possible from Lewis alone to add a 
thousand names, more or less. The great majority 
of Lewis names are wonderfully well preserved, and 



liv. PLACE-NAMESfiOF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

once the Gaelic pronunciation is heard, present 
little difficulty. But there also, as on the mainland, 
there is a residue difficult of explanation, to some 
extent no doubt involving old Norse words current 
in common speech, but not preserved in Icelandic 
literature. 

Bolstadr. On the mainland the distribution of the term 
bolstaftr is analogous to that of G. baile. No name 
involving bolstaSr is found on the West Coast ; on 
the east there are Arboll, Cadboll, Carbisdell, and 
Culbo. On the other hand, we have a parallel to 
erg. the distribution of G. achadh in the Norse erg 
shieling (borrowed at an early stage from G. airigh ; 
O. Ir. airge), which appears on the west in Smirsary, 
Kernsary, Blaghasary, Aundrary, but is not found 
in the east. 

Composition The composition of Norse names differs from that 
of Non o Q ae li c names, in that the specific or qualifying 
part, which in Gaelic comes after the generic term, 
is in Norse invariably prefixed to it. Thus N. 
dalr, a dale, comes at the end of names, after the 
descriptive epithet, e.g., Slattadale, Attadale, Scama- 
dale. G. dal, a dale, regularly stands first, e.g., 
Dalmore, Dalbreck, Dalnacloich. In this respect 
Norse resembles English ; Gaelic resembles Latin. 
The accent in Norse names, as in Gaelic names, falls 
on the qualifying part, that is, in this case, on the 
first syllable. 

Quantity In Norse names transmitted through Gaelic the 

\f KI* quantity of the first syllable which is the important 

one can always be ascertained from native Gaelic 



INTRODUCTION. Iv. 

pronunciation. The quantity of the following 
unaccented syllable or syllables (i.e., of the generic 
part) is lost ; long vowels are shortened, e.g., vik, 
bay, terminally becomes -aig. Further, in the case 
of polysyllabic names, or in the case of compounds 
consisting of three words triple-barrelled there 
is, under certain circumstances, a tendency to 
"telescope," i.e., to slur or even wholly jump the Oasis, 
middle part of the name. Thus Askary in Caith- 
ness is historically known to represent Asgrims- 
ergin, Asgrim's Shielings ; the old spelling of 
Inver-asdale is Inver-aspedell, G. Inbhir-asdal. 
This affects only a small number of names, but 
where it has taken place there must, in the absence 
of record forms, be considerable uncertainty in 
restoring the part suppressed. Apart from this, 
the modern Gaelic pronunciation is extremely con- 
servative in resisting corruption. A good example 
is Skibberscross in Sutherland, G. Siobarscaig; in 
1360, Sibyrs(k)oc ; 1562, Syborskeg, Schiberskek. 

The hybrids that occur between Norse and Norse-Gaeli 
Gaelic are of a nature easily intelligible. Examples 
are Inver-kirkaig, Glen-dibidale, Strath-rusdale, 
Ard-shieldaig, Eilean Thannara. Here the Gaels 
accepted the legacy of the Norsemen, and finding 
such names as Kirkaig, Dibidale, &c., added on 
further Gaelic descriptive terms as they found 
occasion. The result is frequently unconscious 
tautology, as in Glen-dibidale, Glen-deepdale ; 
Strathrusdale, Strath-ram's-dale ; Ard-shilldinish, 
Cape of herring-cape, and so on. What is not found 



Ivi. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CKOMARTY. 

is the conscious blending of Gaelic and Norse, e.y. r 
it would be wholly impossible to find Norse a, river, 
bolstaftr, stead, dalr, dale, ey, island, viJc, bay, 
qualified by a Gaelic adjective or noun. What we 
do find is the full-fledged Norse name further 
described by a Gaelic epithet or generic term, often 
unconsciously pleonastic. This is exactly parallel 
to the usage as between English and Celtic, e.g., 
the Kiver Avon, the Moor of Eannoch, the Strath- 
peifer Valley. There is, however, a very small class 
of names where the Norse fjcdl, hill, has been 
translated into Gaelic beinn ; the instances known 
being Goatfell, G. Gaota-bheinn, Goathill ; Blaven, 
G. Blabheinn, Blue-fell; Sulven, G. Suil-bheinn, 
Pillar-fell, and Badhais-bheinn in Gairloch. These 
must be regarded as the exceptions that prove the 
rule. Many Norse terms, of course, have been 
borrowed by Gaelic, the outward and visible sign 
of annexation being the prefixing of the definite 
article. On the mainland one of the names so 
borrowed was apparently tafta, an in-field, of 
which we have a plural diminutive in Taagan, 
G. na Tathagan ; the singular nominative is shewn 
in Fear nan Tathag (the genitive plural being in 
Gaelic identical with the nominative singular). In 
Lewis ordinary Norse names are sometimes found 
with the article, e.g., Cnoc a Mhiasaid : the 
inference is that there the meaning of these Norse 
names continued to be understood down to a late 
date. 






INTRODUCTION. Ivii. 

Eeliable interpretation of Norse names as pre- Norse-Gaelic 
served in Gaelic depends on an investigation of I>IlonetlC8 - 
Norse-Gaelic phonetics. A complete account of the 
interchanges between Norse and Gaelic has never 
so far been attempted, and that subjoined must be 
regarded as subject to amplification and alteration 
On subsequent enquiry. In the main I hope it is 
correct. 

Vowels. 

Norse. Gaelic. 

a a bakki, bac ; stafrr, stadh ; stafr, Staffa. 

a a a, amat ; mar, Masgeir ; skari, Scarista ; gas, 

Gasacleit ; grar, Gradail ; gja, geodh, geodha. 
e e, ea klettr, cleit ; hesl, Ard-heslaig ; hestr, Hestaval ; 

melr, Mealabhaig ; ger^i, gearraidh ; hellir, 

Thealasvaigh. 

e e slettr, Sleiteadal. 

i i gil, gil ; fit, fid ; skip, sgioba ; rif, Biof ; tirnbr, 

Teamradal. Final i is dropped : bakki, skiki. 
i i hris, Risadal ; sild, Sildeag ; iss, \slivig ; I'm, 

Linish ; gnipa, Gniba ; griss, Grisamal. 
o o hross, Rosay ; kollr, Colabol ; oruir, Ormiscaig, 

6 6 L611, toll ; h6p, ob ; 6ss, os ; stj6rn, Stebrnabhadh 

h61mr, Tolm (-tuilm). 
u u kuml, Traigh Chumil ; hund, Hundagro; tunga, 

Tungavat ; hlunnr, lunn. 
u u hriitr, Srath-rusdail; hiis, Husabost', siili, Sulbheinn; 

miili, mii^ (also maoil). 

7 i myrkr, Mircabat ; kyrr, Kirivick ; hryssa, Riwil ; 

byr^iiigr, birlinn. 
y iu dy'r, Diurinish. 

y'r, Z7ac?a/. 

se ei green, Greinatot. 
o o mol, ?7io/ ; stu^, s^o^A ; orfiris-ey, Orasay. 



Iviii. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Norse. Gaelic, 

au 6 straumr, Strom, ; haugr, Tbgh : sautfr, Soay ; 

hraun, Rbna. 
ei ao geit, Gaota-bheinn ; eifr, uidk(aoidh). 

ei breidr, Breidhvat ; belt, beid ; steinn, Steinn. 
ey ao reynis-a, Raonasa (Ranza) ; dreyr-rik, Draoraig. 
ei reyiT, Reireig. 

eu ey-fjord^r, Euord ; ey-fjall, Euval ; ey-fjorfrr, 
Euport. 

but, eyland, eilean. 
ja tjorn gen. tjarnar, (Loch an) tighearna ', hjortr 

gen. hjartar, Thartabhat. 
ja gja, geodh, geodha. 

J6 eo Lj6tr, Mac-Leoid; flj6t, Srath-Flebid (Strath 

Fleet) ; but, grj6t-a, Gride. 

kv cu kvi, Cuidhshader ; svord'r, Suardal ; sveinn, 
sv su Suainabost. 

Kvaran, Cuaran. 

hv f hvar es,far-as l (where is 1 ?); hvitr, fiuit. 2 

bh, v hvalr, Valasay. 
ch hvammr, Chamasord. 



Consonants (N on- Initial). 

Norfee. Gaelic. 

k g skip, sgioba ; thorskr, trosg vik, -aig ; skiki, 
-sgaig (-scaig) ; skata, sgat, sgait ; sker, sgeir. After 
a consonant remains c: myrkr, Mirckabat ; but 
Arkb61, ^rfco?. 

kk c stokkr, Stocanish ; bakki, iac ; stakkr, stac ; 

bekkr, Becamir. 

g gh haugr, Tbgh; hagi, Tao'udal (Taghadal) ; vagr 
-bhaigh; Sigurtf-haugr = Siwardkoch 1160; fugl, 
Fulasgeir. But ,^r stands : Tungavat, Stangarey. 

gg g Skeggi, Sgiogarsta ; egg, Aignish, eig. 

1 TFar o/ t^e tfaeZ and the GaU, p. 174. 

2 Book of Leinster, 172a 7 ; 205b 48. Tc these may b added Hritern 
(Whi thorn), Futernc, evideatly a Gaelic form. 



INTRODUCTION. lix. 

Norse. Gaelic. 

t d, t fit, jid ; belt, beid \ grjot, Gride ; setr, Siadar 

(Shader) ; flatr, Plaid ; holt, Nead-alt hrutr, 

ruta. tn final becomes t : -vatn, -bhat ; t before 6* 

is dropped ; hriitsdalr, Rasdal ; after a consonant 

remains t. 
tt t klettr, chit ; sle'ttr, Sleit : skattr, Scatail (Sgatail) ; 

brattr, Brataig, Bratanish. 
p b gnipa, Griba ; hop, bb, Oban ; Pap-ey, Paba. But 

pt becomes bht, topt, tobhta. 
pp p kleppr, Cleipisgeir ; kappi, Capadal. 
& th,dh breidr, Breidhvat ; hladU, Lathamur ; tada, 

Tathag ; saiicTa-ey, Sba ; stad'r, -sta(th) ; sto'fr, 

Stoth. For -rft- in the body of a word, cf. gerfri, 

gearraidh ; -r& final becomes -rd, -rt, fjord'r, 

Slpkort, Ckamasord. 
d d hund, Hundagro -nd final becomes -id in Miasaid 

for mj6-sund ; remains in Assynt for ass-endi ; 

elsewhere remains ; sandr, Sandabhaig. 
dd d oddi, Toddin (the point). 

1 1 melr, Mealabhaig ; but Is becomes s ; hals, Thais. 

m n hamarr, Puthar-hamar timbr, Teamradail. 

ormr, Ormiscaig. 
n n always except in terminal -nd, which is sometimes 

-id ; gn initial becomes gr in Griba from gnipa. 
f f, bh klif, diof; rif, riof; scarf, scarbh ; rof, Robhanis ; 

gljufr, Globhur (also ? Gleadhair) ; orfiris-ey becomes 

Orasay ; / before s is dropped : klifsgro, Clisgro. 

Initial / is apt to become jt? ; flatr, PfaiW (being 

mistaken for ph] ; /- becomes win, nn ; hofn, gen. 

hafnar, Thamnabhaigh, Tannara. 

th (initial) t throskr, trong ; thari, Tarigeo Thorir, Tbrasdal. 
b (initial) b regularly ; but, biid 1 , genitive bufrar, Putharol, 

Putharhamar. 

Initial h frequently developes t in Gaelic, being naturally 
mistaken for th, i.e., aspirated t thus hafnar-ey becomes Tannara ; 



Ix. PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

haga-dalr, Taghadal ; Mmr, Tolm and -tuilm ; hjalli-dalr, 
Tcalladal ; holl, ^To//. In one important name at least hj 
becomes se : Hjaltland, SeaUainn (Shetland), or, in Reay, Seoltain. 



VII. CHURCH NAMES. 

Columba, the great Apostle of the Northern Picts, 
arrived in lona from Ireland in 563, and two years 
later visited the Pictish King Brude at his palace 
near Inverness. The Irish monks were full of mission- 
ary zeal. On the occasion of Columba's visit to King 
Brude, incidental mention is made of a proposal by 
one of his brethren to seek " a desert in the sea '* 
somewhere about the Orkneys. By the end of the 
eighth century, as we know on the reliable authority 
of the Irish monk Dicuil, as also from other sources, 
the missionaries of the Celtic Church had reached 
even Iceland, which, however, they abandoned 
before the arrival of the Pagan Norsemen in 875. 
There is therefore no reason to doubt that before the 
year 800 the Christian religion had spread to Lewis 
also, though about that time it must have received 
a severe check from the influx of the invaders. The 
direct proofs of Celtic Church influence are three : 
(l) records, (2) sculptured stones, (3) dedications 
and ecclesiastical terms preserved in place-names. 
1. Records. Of records we have only those relating to the 
Monastery of Applecross, as follows : 

A.D. 

671 Maelruba in Britanniam navigavit (Tig. Ann.) 
673 Maelruba fundavifc ccclesiam Aporcrossan (ib.). 



INTRODUCTION. Ixi. 

A.D. 

722 Maelruba in Apercrossan, anno LXXX. aetatis suae et 

tribus mensibus et xix. diebus peractis in xi. kl. Mai, 

tcrtiae feriae die, pausat (ib.). 
737 Failbe me Guaire, Maelrubai eiris .i. Apnorcrosain .i. 

prof undo Pelagi dimersus est cum suis nautis numero 

xxn. (ib.). 1 

From other sources we learn that Malruba before 
he left Ireland was Abbot of Bangor, and that, like 
Columba, he was of noble birth. 2 His name has 
been derived from mael, tonsured, and ruba, peace 
or patience ; another quite feasible explanation is 
from ruba (now rudha), a promontory ; Mal-ruba = 
Gille an Hudha, the Lad of the Point. Names 
were often given from the accident of place or time 
of birth. 3 Dedications to him are extremely common, 
and his name assumes a variety of forms. In Ross 
we have Combrich Mulruy, i.e., Comraich Maol- 
ruibh, Malruba's sanctuary, to wit, Applecross. On 
Eilean Ma-Ruibli, Isle Maree, is a bury ing-ground 
and sacred well, whose waters used to cure insanity. 
In honour of him the finest of our northern lakes 
has changed its name from Loch Ewe to Loch 
Maree. Near Jamestown in Contin is Preas Ma- 

A.D. 

1 671 Malruba sailed to Britain. 

673 Malruba fouuded the Church of Aporcrossan. 

722 Malruba died at Apercrossan at the age of eighty years three months 
and nineteen days, on the 21st day of April, being a Tuesday. 

737 Failbe, son of Guaire, successor of Malruba in Apuorcrosain, was 
drowned in the open sea with his sailors to the number of twenty- 
two. 

2 Practically all that can be gathered about St Malruba is to be found in 
Dr Reeves' article (Proc. Soc. Scott. Antiq. vol. III.) 

3 Cf. Mael-Mocheirigh, Slave of Early-rising ; Lat. Manius. 



Ixii. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Ruibh, Malruba's Grove, long a place of sanctity, 
and now the burial-place of the family of Coul. An 
autumn fair, Feill Ma- Ruibh, was long held at 
Contin, later at Dingwall, where it died out within 
living memory. Two or three places are said to be 
called Suidh Ma-Ruibh, Malruba's seat, where he 
was wont to rest on his journeys, but I have been 
so far unable to verify them. One is said to be 
marked by a low pillar stone in a field at Bad a' 
Mhanaich, Monk's Clump, at the west end of Loch 
Rosque. 

ii. Sculp- Sculptured stones belonging to the Celtic Church 
58 have been found at Applecross, Rosemarkie, Nigg, 
Tarbat, Edderton, and Kincardine. The presence 
of such, most of them indicating a very high degree 
of skill in workmanship, is in itself a conclusive 
proof of strong Church influence. 

iii. Ecclesias- For convenience, it will be well to include all the 
tical Terms, ecclesiastical terms found, distinguishing those 

peculiar to the early Church from later ones. 
Neimhidh. The word neimhidh, church-land ; 0. Ir. nemed, 
saceUum, chapel ; Gaulish nemetoii or nemeton, a 
shrine in a grove, is a pagan term grafted on to 
Christian usage. It is a common element in Gaulish 
names, e.g., Nemetomarus, great shrine ; Augus- 
tonemeton, shrine of Augustus ; Vernemetis. faiium 
ingens, very great shrine. Zeuss quotes " de sacris 
silvarum quae nimidas vocant," concerning shrines 
in woods which they call nimidae ; " silva quae 
vocatur nemet," the wood which is called nemet. 
The root is seen in Latin nem-us, a grove ; Gael. 



i 



INTRODUCTION. IxiiL 

neamh, heaven: It is quite possible that the places 
in which the word occurs with us were originally 
sacred to the pagan deities of the Picts ; later they 
were church-land. In Rosskeeri are Dalnavie, 
Cnocnavie, and Inchnavie, Dale, Hill, and Haugh of 
the Church -land ; all adjacent to Nonakiln, G. Neo' 
na Cille, in 1563 Newnakle, Glebe of the Church, 
viz., the ancient chapel whose ruins still exist. 1 The 
N. Stat. Ace. mentions that in Rosskeen there were 
at the time of writing two glebes, one " at Noinikil, 
the cell or chapel of St Ninian," a derivation 
obviously impossible, for it would require Cill- 
Ninian. With this goes also the assumed dedi- 
cation to Ninian, who is nowhere commemorated 
in Ross. Eastwards of Nonakiln is Newmore, 
G. Neo'-mhor, of old Nevyn Meikle, Great-glebe, 
the exact representative of Nemetomarus above. 
It was church-land before the Reformation. All 
these names occur together. The only other 
instance in Ross is Navity, near Cromarty, also 
church-land, G. Neamhaitidh, the formation of 
which makes it very doubtful whether it was 
ever given by the Celtic Church, and strongly 
suggests Pictish origin. 2 It recurs in Fife as Navaty, 
in 1477 Nevody. Rosneath, G. Ros-neo'idh, in 1199 
Neveth, 1477 Rosneveth may mean Promontory of 
the Nemet. Nevay occurs as a parish name in W. 
For far. 

J In 1275 we hare " Nevoth et Roskerene " (Theiner, Vet. Mon.), i.e.^ 
Navie and Rosskeen. It is probable that at this date " Nevoth " included 
both Nonakiln and NeMrmoi-e. 

2 The well-known legend that the final Judgment is to take place on the 
mo'.ir of Navity may have its root in some pagan superstition. 



IxiV. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Annat. Annat, G. annaid or annait, Ir. annoid, O. Ir. 

Annaid. an^i^ i s a very old term, peculiarly and decisively 
characteristic of the Celtic Church. It appears to 
come from late Lat. antas, antat-is, glossed senatus, 
council of the ancients or elders. In Irish usage the 
annoid was the church in which the patron saint of 
the monastery or monastic district was educated, or 
in which his relics were kept. The Book of Armagh 
(c. 800) relates that St Patrick left Iserninus or 
larnan at a certain place to found his monastery 
(manche) and his patron saint's church (andooit). 
The exact position of the Scottish Annats is not so 
clear ; they are at any rate of great antiquity, indi- 
cating doubtless the earliest Christian settlements 
in their particular districts. We have Ach-na- 
h- Annaid in Kincardine ; Annat and Loch na 
h- Annaid in Nigg ; Annat and Clench na h-Annaid 
beyond Clachuil on the way to Strathconon ; Annat 
opposite Iiivermany ; Annat at Torridon ; and Annat 
at Kildonan, Lochbroom six in all, on the main- 
la'nd of Ross. In the Island of Crowlin, off Apple- 
cross, is Port na h-Annaid. In Lewis there is na 
h-Annaidean, the Annats at Shader ; there is also 
an Annat in the Shiant Isles, G. na h-Eileanan 
Sianta, the Charmed Isles. These names must 
have survived through the Norse occupation from 
the time of the early missionaries. 

Cill. dM is the locative case of O.I. cell, a church, 
from Lat. cella, a cell. In place-names it always 
means church, in modern G. churchyard. As a rule 
cill stands first in compounds, followed by the name 



INTRODUCTION. Ixv. 

of the saint commemorated by the dedication. 
Sometimes, but rarely, the specific part of the com- 
pound is not a saint's name, e.g., Kildun, G. Cill- 
duinn, appears to be the locative of Cell-dhonn, 
Brown Church. The Gill's of the Celtic Church 
may be distinguished by their dedications to Celtic 
saints, e.g. , Kilmachalmag ; names such as Kilmuir 
and Kilchrist are of Roman Catholic origin. In 
English spelling and pronunciation, but not in 
Gaelic, cill is apt to be confused with cuil, corner, 
e.g., Kilcoy ; caol, narrow, e.g., Kildary ; coille, 
wood, e.g., Kinkell, G. Ceann na Coille, Woodhead. 
For the Ross Gill's see index under Kil-, Gill-. 

Clachan, a stone church, Ir. clochan, a stone Clachan. 
bee-hive monastic hut. On the mainland of Ross 
clachan is practically confined to the West Coast : 
on the east the only instance known to me is Beinn 
a Chlachain, not far from the Parish Church of 
Kincardine. On the west, as a reference to the 
index will show, it is common. 

Teampull, a church, borrowed from Lat. templum, Teampull. 
a temple, occurs only twice on the mainland, and in 
both cases it seems likely that the term applied not 
to a "temple made with hands," but to places 
naturally adapted to shelter a few worshippers. 
In the Isles it means simply church, and is regularly 
followed by a saint's name. 

Eaglais, from Lat. ecelesia, the modern G. for Eaglais. 
church, occurs seldom in place-names. Beinn na 
h-Eaglaise above Annat, Torridon, is one of the few 
examples with us. 



Ixvi. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Seipil. Seipeil is a late word from Eng. chapel, as is 
shown by initial s ; a direct loan from Lat. capella 
would give caibeal. 

Manachainn Manachainn, a monastery, abbey, priory, from 
manach, a monk. From the Abbey of Fearn the 
parish is in G. Sgir na Manachainn. The other 
northern example is Beauly Priory, G. Manachainn 
'ic Shimidh, v. Fearn. 

Comraich. There were in Ross two girths or sanctuaries, 
that of St Malruba in Applecross, and of St Duthac 
at Tain. The memory of the former is preserved in 
the G. name for Applecross, a' Chomraich, and of 
the latter by Clais na Comraich, on the Scotsburn 
road, two miles from Tain. The limits of both were 
marked by stone crosses. Reference to the Tain 
girth-crosses is made in the text ; in Applecross one 
was to be seen just opposite the U.F. Church 
Manse till recent times, when the zeal of a Pro- 
testant mason smashed it. The most notable 
personages who sought to the sanctuary of St 
Duthac were the queen and daughter of King 
Robert Bruce (1306); "but that travele they mad 
in vane," for the influence of the English King was 
sufficient to induce William, then Earl of Ross, to 
violate the girth and surrender the fugitives. The 
last occasion of public importance in this connection 
was in 1483, when William, Lord Crichton, on a 
charge of treason, took refuge in the girth of Tain. 
Celtair. Celta-ir, an Irish word for church, is perhaps seen 
in Kildermorie, Alriess, though in the absence of 
the Gaelic form we can have no certainty. Natives 



INTRODUCTION. Ixvii. 

speak only of Gleanna-Mhoire, Mary's Glen. Per- 
haps Kildermorie is to be regarded as a reversed form 
of Maryculter, a name which, with Peterculter, has 
never been satisfactorily explained. 

Crois, a cross, appears in Crois Catrion, near Crois. 
Tain ; probably also in Crosshills, and Corslet. 

A' Ohananaich, the place of Canons, Chanonry, Cananaich. 
is the Gael, name of Fortrose. A Roman Catholic 
term. 

Sgir, a parish, is a loan from Ang. Sax. sci'r, a Sgir. 
county, now shire. 

Other ecclesiastical terms occasionally found in Manach. 
place names are manach, a monk ; sagart, a priest ; ^** " 
cliar, clergy ; cleireach, a cleric ; mfnistir, a minister Oeireach. 
the last a presbyterian term. Cf. Ard-mhanaidh , Mmistir - 
Priesthill, Dochnaclear, Dalnaclerach, Clach Airigh 
a' Mhinistir. 

Traces of ecclesiastical establishments found by Norse 
the Norsemen on their arrival are Inverkirkaig, ^ er ^g 
from kirkju-vik, Church Bay ; Mungasdale, Monk- 
dale, both in Lochbroom ; Pabay, Pope or Priest 
Isle ; Bayble, Priest-stead ; Mungarsta, Monk- 
stead, in Lewis. 

The saints commemorated in Ross are Columba, Dedications. 
Moluag, Donnan (contemporaries of Columba), 
Colman, lurnan, Malruba (already mentioned), 
Fillan, Congan, Kentigerna, Fionn, Brigb, Curitan, 
Ferchar, Dubhthach or Duthac, and perhups Cormac. 

No dedication to St Columba appears on the Columba. 
mainland of Ross. In Lewis the old church of 
Lochs, on Eileau Chalum-Cille (St Columba's Isle), 
was dedicated to him. 



Ixviii. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Moluag. Moluag shows the honorific prefix mo, my, com- 
mon with saints' names. Lu-oc itself is a pet form 
of Lugaid, root long, win, whence the Celtic sun- 
god Lugos. The saint was Bishop and Abbot of 
Lismore, and tradition says that he was buried at 
Rosemarkie. 1 His name survives in Davach-Moluag, 
Fodderty. 

Domian. Donnan of Eigg (from donn, brown), has his 
name preserved in Kildonan on Little Lochbroom, 
Seipeil Donnain or St Donan's Chapel in Kishorn, 
and probably j Eilean Donnain, Donnan's Isle, 
Kintail. 

Colman. Caiman, " little dove," was a favourite name 
among the Irish clerics, and in the multitude of 
Colmans it is impossible to be sure of the particular 
saint who is commemorated in the names Kilmach- 
almag, G. Cill-mo-Chalmaig, and Portmahomack, 
G. Port-mo- Cholmaig, and to whom the parish 
church of Tarbat was dedicated. In Portmahomack 
is Tobair Mo- Cholmaig, St Colman's Well. At 
Kilmachalmag, near the right bank of the burn not 
far from its mouth, there are still traces of a very 
small chapel adjoining a disused and sadly neglected 
bury ing-ground. East of it is Achnahannet, noted 
above, 
lurnan. ;p or I urnan Vm under Killearnan. 

Fillan, G. Faolan, little wolf, was the son of 
Kentigerna. Hence Kilillan, G. Cill-Fhaolain, in 
Kintail. 

1 Aberdeen Breviary. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixix. 

Congan, brother of Keritigerna, is the patron Congan. 
saint of Lochalsh, and appears also in Kilchoan, 
now Mountrich, in Kiltearn. 

Kentigerna, Ir. Caintigerna, kind lady, crossed Kentigerna. 
from Ireland to Lochalsh, according to the legend, 
c. 615, accompanied by her son, Fillan, and her 
brother, Congan. Her name is kept in Cill- 
Chaointeort (Glenshiel), in 1543 Kilkinterne, 1727 
Kilchintorn, 1719 Killiwhinton. It will be seen 
that the place-names support the legend. 

The existence of St Fionn is guaranteed by the Fionn. 
name Killin, G. Cill-Fhinn, at Garve, taken together 
with Loch Maol-Fhinn, Loch of the shaveling of 
Fionn, which is the G. for Loch Garve. 

Brigh, a female saint ; Cladh mo-Bhrlgli is a Brigh. 
small burial place with remains of chapel between 
the public road and the sea, two miles east of Ding- 
wall. 

Curitan, G. Curadan, Latinised Queretinus, and Curitan. 
sometimes called Boniface, was a native of Scotland, 
for he is referred to as Albanus Queretinus (i.e., 
Curadan Albanach), cf. St Duthac. Curitan was an 
important personage, who flourished c. 700, a con- 
temporary of Nechtan, son of Derili, that King of 
the Northern Picts who promulgated the edict of 
conformity to Rome in the matters of Easter and 
the tonsure. It is probable that Curitan was of the 
Romanising party, and was Nechtan's adviser in 
things spiritual. In Ross we have Cladh Chur- 
adain, St Curitan's graveyard, a small rectangular 
burying-ground north of the farmhouse of Assynt, 



Ixx. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Novar, used within living memory, and stated to 
have contained stories with inscriptions and car- 
vings. 1 Cnoc Churadair, north of Ardoch, Alness, 
is St Curitan's Hill (the n of Cladh Churadain is 
sometimes heard as r) ; as the place is thickly 
wooded, it would be difficult to search for remains 
of a chapel, and I have heard no tradition. Other 
traces of Curitan are Cladh Churadain and Suidh 
Churadain at Lochend, Inverness; Cladh Churadain 
at Struy, Strathglass ; Cladh Churadain, Tobair 
Churadain and Croit Churadain in Gleri-Urquhart. 
The old church of Fearnua, in Kirkhill paiish, was 
dedicated to " Corridon." 

Ferchar. Ferchar (Ver-caros, very dear), is known only by 
a small deserted burial-place opposite Shiel School, 
called Cill-Fhearchair. 

Dubhthach. Dubhthach or Dubtach (Dubotacos), from Dubh, 
black, was a name not uncommon. Dubhthach, 
contemporary with St Patrick (432), was one of the 
nine compilers of the Seanchus Mor ; another was 
Abbot of lona (850-870), and there were others 
besides. It is generally agreed, however, that St 
Duthac of Tain is the one whose death is thus 
recorded in the Annals of Ulster under date 1065: 

Dubtach Albannach, prim Anmchara Erinn agus Albain in 

Ardmacha quievit. 
Dubtach of Alba, chief soul-friend of Erin and of Alba rested 

in Armagh. 

St Duthac is the patron saint of Tain, where may 
be seen the ancient chapel " quhair he was borne," 

1 This venerable spot was inadvertently planted, but is now cleared and 
tended by order of Novar, 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxi. 

and Tain in G. is Baile-Dhubhthaich, Duthac's Town. 
Hugh Miller notes St Duthus' well near Cromarty. 
In Kintail there are Clachan Dubhthaich on Loch 
Duich, and Cadha Dhubhthaich, the name of the 
Bcalach leading into Glen Affric. 

The name of St Cormac may be commemorated Cormac. 
in Tobair Corniaig, Niggf. A Tain fair was also 
named after him (v. Tain). Cormac was the name 
of the brother for whom Columba sought the pro- 
tection of King Brude, and who reached Orkney in 
his voyaging. 

All the saints above mentioned belong to the Roman 
Celtic Church, though by Duthac's time relations Dedication!. 
with Rome were closer. To the subsequent period, 
when under the influence of Queen Margaret and 
her sons the Scottish Church was made in all 
respects to conform to the Church of Rome, belong 
such dedications as Kil-muir, Kirk-michael, Kil- 
chriat, and names like Tobair Eadhain Bhaist, Port 
Eadhain Bhaist, Weil and Port of St John the 
Baptist. St Cowstan's Chapel, on the Eye Penin- 
sula, shows a dedication to St Constantino . 



VIII. 

It may be useful to add a short analysis of the 
principal terms connected with natural features, 
artificial structures, old occupations, plants, animals, 
etc., found in the names of Ross. As the Norse 
names of Lewis are so arranged in 1 he text, it will 
be unnecessary to include them here. 



Ixxii. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Streams. The general name for a river is abhainn, applied 
to all relatively large streams, and often to smaller 
ones, whose course is tolerably smooth. The obsolete 
word abh, stream, is seen in Av-och, stream place. 
Allt, in Irish means a wooded valley or glen, a cliff ; 
in Welsh, a wooded cliff; connected with Lat. altus, 
high. Our meaning of " stream, burn," is peculiar to 
Scottish Gaelic, and is probably of Pictish origin. The 
original meaning appears in the common Leth-allt, 
half-burn, really half-height, applied to a burn with 
one steep side. Oaochan, from caocli, blind, is applied 
to a small stream which is sometimes almost hidden 
by the heather. Another term for stream is glais, 
more common in Ireland than in Scotland. With 
us it occurs in Glen-glass, in Fowlis G. Folais for 
fo-ghlais, arid in Allt Folais on Loch Maree. A 
slender rivulet is feadan. The very general term 
uisge, water, is met in Uisge Bhearnais, water of the 
cleft, Kintail. A still, narrow channel between two 
waters is uidh, a water isthmus, from Norse ei(S. 
The nearest Gaelic equivalent is eileach. Feitli, 
literally a vein, is applied to a bog channel. 
The O. Ir. word bir, denoting water, well, is seen in 
Poll a' Bhior, in the Applecross river. O.G. and 
Pictish dobur, water, gives Dobhran, Dourag, 
Eddirdover. A fall is eas ; a combination of two or 
more is coneas. Cuingleum, Coylum, narrow leap, gut. 

Marshes. The Pictish name for a marsh appears to be 
Allan, from the root seen in Lat. pal-us. Alness, 
G. Alanais, means ' the place of the marsh.' Riasg 
means a boggy place, where dirk grass grows. 
Bogradh is a soft place ; glaodhaich, a miry, gluey 






INTRODUCTION. Ixxiii. 



place ; cathar, a place of broken, mossy ground. A 
damp meadow is Ion usually ; once we find cala. 

The Pictish for confluence is Con tin, in G. Confluences. 
Cunndainn, cf. Gaulish Condate, Contion-acum. 
Another Pictish term is obair, for od-ber, out-put, 
out-How, corresponding to the Gael, inbhir for in- 
ker, in-put, in-flow. The real term for a junction is 
comar, from eon-ber, joint-flow ; also, though rarely, 
comunn. In Lewis the regular term for a river 
mouth is bun, bottom. The Norse for confluence is 
dr-mot or d-mot, river-meet, appearing as Amat. 

A ford is dth ; a ford-mouth, beul-atlia, pro- Fords, 
nounced quickly apt to be confounded with baite. 
A place where crossing was wont to be made on 
planks sometimes involves cldr, a board, e.g., Poll 
nan Clar. A place for crossing on stones is 
clacharan, in Lewis starran. 

Camas means a bay, bend ; ob from Norse hop is Sea Terms, 
the same ; also bdgh, a late word not much used in 
place-names. A sound, firth, or narrow is caolas or 
simply caol, e.g., Caolas Chromba', the Cromarty 
Firth ; an Caol Arcach, the Orkney Narrow, i.e., the 
Pentland Firth. A tide race is sruth, e.g., Sruth na 
Lagaidh ; or strom, from Norse straumr. Parts of 
the Minch are called linne, pool, e.g., an linne Sgith- 
eauach, an linne Rarsach. The Minch itself is a' 
Mhaoil, the Moyle ; also an Cuan Sgith, the sea of 
Skye ; Cuan Uidhist, the Little Minch. A shore is 
cladach ; a stony beach, faoilinn ; a sea bank, scaup, 
oitir ; port means a harbour on the west coast ; on 
the east a ferry, usually ; aiseig, a ferry. Feadhail 



Ixxiv. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

is an extensive beach, or a place between islands 
uncovered at low tide ; pi. feadhlaickean. Bodha, 
Norse bofti, is a sunken reef; iolla, a fishing rock, 
usually covered at high tide. Saothair, from saobh- 
thir, false-land or side-land, is a low promontory 
covered at high water, or the similar bank between 
an Eilean Tioram and the mainland. The shelving 
slope between the old raised beach and the present 
beach is on the west coast c&TLedfaithir, probably 
from fo-thir ; Tairbeart is a portage, isthmus. 
Flats. The level land by a river side is srath, a strath, 
Norse dalr, dale. The term srath is much commoner 
in Scotland than in Ireland, and may be rather 
Pictish than Gaelic. A narrow strath is gleann, 
a glen ; a rounded glen is coire, a cauldron, corry ; 
often narrow at the mouth. Innis, primarily an 
island, means commonly a haugh, river-side meadow ; 
fan is a level place or a gentle slope ; hence fanaich, 
place of the flat. Dail is a dale, usually by a river 
side ; it is to be compared with Pictish dol, 
dal, dul, plateau. A plain is magh ; a sea-plain 
is mor'oich, from mur-magh ; a mossy flat is blar. 
Machair is an extensive low-lying fertile plain ; 
monadh, tolerably level hill ground. In Lewis the 
land between machair and monadh, the strip where 
the houses stand, is the gearraidh, from Norse 
ger^Si, an enclosure. Another word for a plain is 
clar, primarily a board. A little plain is re'idhlean ; 
a wet plain or lea, leana, diminutive leanag, or 
with us lianag, e.g., Lianagan a' Chuil-bhaicidh. 
Faithche means a lawn ; ailean, a green ; cluan, 
meadow. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxv. 

ID dealing with names of lochs, straths, glens, 
and comes, it is well to remember that the Celtic 
custom is to name each after the stream that flows 
through it. 

A gap or pass between hills is bealach ; a cleft is Hollows. 
beam or bearnas. A chasm is glom, e.g., Eas na 
Glomaicb, Falls of Glomach. Eag is a sharp notch ; 
lag, a rounded hollow ; slacan, a circular depression 
like a kiln ; poll, a wet miry hollow, also, a pool ; 
sloe, a pit, slough ; cos, a nook ; dais, a narrow 
shallow ravine. 

Beinn (an oblique case of beann) with us means Heights, 
a high hill ; in Ireland applied only to hills of 
medium size. Its primary meaning is pinnacle, 
horn, which is still kept in Eilean na Binne and in 
the adjective beannach, pointed. Sliabh, applied in 
Ireland to mountains, is very rare with us, and 
means rather a mountain moor. A hill of medium 
height is cnoc ; xgurr is a high sharp pointed hill ; 
-sgor, a peak. A low smooth hill or ridge is tulach ; 
the highest tulach is Tulach Ard or Ard-tulach in 
Kintail. Tom is a rounded knoll, with diminutive 
toman ; a one-sided torn or toman is a tiompan. A 
great shapeless hill is meall, a lump ; sgonn is 
similar, but rare ; maol, maoil, means a great bare 
rounded hill. Aonach is (1) market place, (2) high 
moor ; aoineadh, a very steep hill side. A broad 
slope is leathad ; leacainn and leitir have much 
the same meaning. A level shelf in a hill side 
where one would naturally rest is spardan, a roost, 
or suidhe, a seat. Pait, a hump, sometimes a ford. 



Ixxvi. PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

Two words remain : sitliean and cathair. Slthean 
means a fairy mound ; in some of the very few cases 
in which it occurs with us it applies to a big rounded 
hill. The fairy mound is always called cathair on 
the West Coast, and conversely almost every cathair 
is a fairy mound. 

The following parts of the body are found used 
to denote shape, position, and appearance : Ceann, 
head ; claigionn, skull ; aodann, face ; sron, nose ; 
beul, mouth ; teanga, tongue ; fiat-ail, tooth ; bile, 
lip ; siiil, eye ; feusag, beard ; braghad, neck, upper 
part of the chest ; uchd, breast, with its diminutive 
uchdan ; cioch, mam, a pap ; druim, a back ; 
gualann, shoulder ; achlais, arm-pit ; ruigh, fore- 
arm ; meoir, fingers ; ionga, nail ; dorn, fist, cf. 
Dornie ; mas, buttock ; amhach, neck ; ton, rump ; 
slios, side. 

Woods. The generic term for wood is coille ; doire means 
Plants a g rove > primarily of oaks ; bad, diminutive badan 
and badaidh, is a clump ; gar, a thicket, is rare ; 
preas, in modern G. a bush, is in place-names better 
translated clump. The Pictish cardden, a brake, 
occurs in Kincardine, Urquhart, and Glen-Urquhart. 
A tree is crann, whence Crannich. Of individual 
trees we have call, hazel (the modern calltuinn never 
appears), darach, oak ; rala, oak ; beithe, birch ; 
caorunn, rowan ; giuthas, fir ; cuilionn, holly ; 
fiodhag, bird cherry ; fearna, alder ; sgiach, haw- 
thorn ; draigheann, blackthorn ; seileach, willow ; 
uinnsin, ash, is rare ; leamh, elm, also rare and 
somewhat doubtful. From fiodh, wood, comes 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxvii. 

Achnegie, G. Achd-aii-fhiodhaiclh, with which may 
be compared the Pictish Balkeitli. 

Among the smaller plants are aitionn, juniper ; 
bealaidh, broom ; eidheann, ivy ; roid, bog myrtle ; 
raineach, also rainteach, bracken ; fraoch, heather ; 
luacliair, rushes ; creamh, wild garlic ; borrach, 
rough hill grass ; giivran, cow parsnip ; suibhean, 
raspberry ; dris, bramble ; sarnh, sorrel ; feartag, 
sea-pink ; carrachan, wild liquorice. 

The regular words for promontory are rudha and Promon- 
ard or aird, corresponding to Norse ness. Ros, a 
point, occurs in Rosemarkie and Rosskeen. Some- 
times, chiefly in Lewis, gob, a beak, occurs. A little 
promontory at the end of a rounded bay is corran, 
very common on the west coast. Ploc is a lumpish 
promontory. Maoil, a loan from Norse miili, is rare. 
cf. the Mull of Cantyre. 

The various names for horse are each, marc, Animals. 
capull ; a mare is lar, and is often difficult to dis- 
tinguish from lar, floor, low ground ; and lar, middle. 
Tarbh is a bull ; bo, a cow ; laogh, a calf (of cow or 
hind) ; gamhainn, stirk ; gabhar, a goat ; boc, buck ; 
meann, kid. Caor, a sheep, does not occur, though 
mult, wedder, appears as applied figuratively to sea 
rocks ; also in the Pictish Multovy ; Norse, saufta, 
sheep, hrutr, ram, give Syal and Strath-rusdale ; 
muc, pig, is common ; tore, boar, is applied some- 
times to hills from their appearance, e.g., Meall an 
Tuirc ; sometimes from the wild boar ; cat, a cat, 
indicates haunts of wild cats ; broc, badger, is rare ; 
cu, dog ; cu odhar, otter, appears in Altchoriier, G. 



Ixxviii. PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

Allt a' choin uidhir ; madadh may mean either fox 
or wolf. Of the deer tribe, we have damh, stag ; 
eilid, hind ; agh, hind ; mang, fawn ; earb, roe. 
Moigheach, a hare, occurs once. 

The following names of birds are found : 
Coileach, a grouse cook ; clamhan and clamhag, a 
kite ; speireag, a sparrow-hawk ; seabhag, a hawk ; 
fitheach, a raven, also the old word bran, raven ; 
iolair, an eagle ; feadag. a plover ; druid, a thrush ; 
corr, a crane ; lack, tunnag, a duck ; leirg, black 
throated diver ; geadh, a goose ; caiman, a pigeon ; 
eala, a swan ; sgarbh, a cormorant. 

Dwellings. A house is tigh. The regular word for a home- 
stead is baile, so common in Ireland. The distri- 
bution of this term in Ross is remarkable. In 
Easter and Mid Ross it is extremely common, 
occurring over eighty times. On the west there are 
only four instances, Balmacarra in Lochalsh, Baile 
Shios, Baile Shuas, and am Baile Mor ( = Flower- 
dale) in Gairloch ; in Lewis there is only Balallan. 
The absence of baile in Lewis is natural : the town- 
ships are denoted by the Norse bol-sta&r and stafSr. 
On the West Coast its place is taken by achadh, a 
cultivated field, which is correspondingly rare in the 
east. The distribution of achadh is over forty in the 
west, to about twelve in the east. The Pictish pett 
so common in Easter Ross has already been noted. 
Both, a booth, hut, occurs only in na Bothaclian, 
Boath, and perhaps in Claonabo in Kin tail. This is 
another term the distribution of which throughout 
the Highlands deserves investigation. It is very 



INTRODUCTION. IxxiX. 

common along the valley of the Caledonian Canal, 
also in certain regions of Perth and Stirling, 
extremely rare north of Inverness. The obsolete 
fasadh, a dwelling, is frequent ; outside of Eoss it 
occurs in such names as Fassiefearn, Teanassie, Foss. 
Another much less common term of the same 
meaning is astail. A shieling hut was called long- 
phort, 1 which appears in Loch-luichart, and in the 
form of Longard, Lungard. Treabhar, as a collective 
noun in common use in Easter Ross, meaning farm 
buildings, is found once only in Tornapress, G. 
Treabhar nan Preas. The ancient fortified places 
are represented by dun, rath, lios. The site of a 
ruined house is larach ; a ruin with walls s Landing 
and roof fallen in is tobhta. 

A cultivated field is achadh (shortened into ach, Cultivation 
acha, achd), the distribution of which has been E nc u>g lircs 
noted above. Another word in common use for 
field is raon ; a lea field is glasaicli ; a park is 
pairc, an early loan from English ; bard, very common 
in Mid Eoss, means, usually, enclosed meadow. 
lomair is a ridge or rig ; feannag, a lazy-bed ; gead, 
a narrow strip of land. Gart is enclosed corn-land ; 
diminutive goirtean ; ceapach, a tillage plot. Terms 
connected with enclosures are eirbhe, now obsolete, 
a fence, or wall ; dig, a moat ; cro, a sheep fold, with 
its variant era, a cruive ; buaile, a cattle fold ; fang, 
a fank ; geata, a gate ; cacJ/aileitJi, a field gate, or 
hurdle. A tidal weir for catching fish is cairidh ; 
an arrangement for catching fish in a stream by 

1 Taylor, the Water Poet, who travelled in Scotland in 1618 and saw a 
hunting in Marr, mentions the " small cottages, built on purpose to lodge in, 
which they call Lonquhards." 



Ixxx. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

means of the cabhuil is eileach, applied also to a 
narrow shallow stream joining two lochs, or to a 
mill-lade. JEileag, now obsolete, appears to have 
been a Y-shaped structure, wide at one end, narrow 
at the other, into which deer were driven and shot 
with arrows as they came out. 1 

Together with the general term arbh, corn, 
Crops, which occurs thrice, there are several names 
involving seagail, rye ; Lainn a' Choir c is the Oat- 
flat ; lion, flax, occurs twice. 

In connection with the preparation of corn for 
Occupations f OO cl are ath, a kiln ; eararadh, the process of 
Customs, parching ; muileann, a mill. Sabhal, a barn, is 
fairly common, as also baitheach, a cow house. 
Cnagan na Leathrach, and possibly the Sutors, are 
connected with tanning. Allt and Muileann 
Luathaidh commemorate the fulling of cloth. 
Gobha, a smith, occurs in Balnagown and Led- 
gowan. Ceardach, a forge, smithy, has sometimes 
reference to ancient smelting works. The seven- 
teenth century works on Loch Maree side give 
a' Cheardach Huadh, the red smithy, Fuirneis, 
Furnace, and Abhainn na Fuirneis, E-iver of the 
Furnace. The old practice of making peat char- 
coal gives rise to Meall a' Ghuail. The shieling 
custom gives the numerous names involving 
airigh. Flax was steeped at the Lint-pools 
and Tobair narn Puill Lin, and linen was bleached 
at Baliritore. Balleigh means Leech's or Physi- 
cian's stead. Baronies with power of pit 

1 Another name, not found in Ross, for a similar arrangement, but not 
necessarily artificial, is Elriy, G. lolairig. 



INTRODUCTION. IxxxL 

and gallows have left traces in the not uncommon 
Cnoc na Croiche, where men were hanged, and Poll 
a' Bhathaidh, where women were drowned. 

The old standard measure of land in Pictland was Land 

. . ,, P ., , , Measures, 

the dabhach, originally a measure 01 capacity, vat. 

The extent of the dabhach varied according to the 
land and the locality. It is usually given as four 
ploughgates, but must have been often less. Many 
names involving dabhach are found all over the 
mainland part of Ross. Lewis was divided into 
fifteen davachs. The word usually appears in 
English as Doch ; in E. Ross the Gaelic form is 
do'ach. A half-davach is leith-do'ch, Englished 
Lettoch. or sometimes Halfdavach, whence Haddach, 
Haddo. Further divisions of the davach appear to 
have been the ceathramh, fourth part, and the 
ochdamh, eighth part, whence Balcherry, Ochto or 
Ochtow. 

The old Gaelic practice of division into fifths 
survives in the name Coigach, Place of fifths. 

The oxgate appears doubtfully in Midoxgate ; 
the rental of 1727 gives Mickle Oxgate and Middle 
Oxgate as divisions of Ruarach in Kintail. The 
merkland survives in Drumnamarg in the Black 
Isle, and in 1538 appear "the four merklands of 
Eschadillis" (Eskadale, Ashdale), somewhere in 
Strathconon. But apart from the davach and its 
divisions, the representation in place-names of these 
old land measures is trifling. 

Aon, one, is found in Leathad an aon Bhothain, 
Hillside of the one hut. Names involving the ations 
numerical da, two, are not uncommon on the West 



Ixxxii. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Coast, e.g., Achadh da Tearnaidh, Field of two 
Descents ; Cnoc da Choimhead, Hill of two pros- 
pects; Ach' da Domhnuill, Field of two Donalds; 
Ach' da Sgaillt, Field of two bare places; Poll 
da Ruigh, Wet hollow of two slopes. In the eastern 
part the only examples met are Cnoc Dubh eadar 
dk Allt a' Chlaiginn, Black hill between the two 
burns of the Skull, and Ach' d& Bhannag, Field of 
two Cakes. Trl, three, is found in Sgeir an Trith- 
inn, Trinity Skerry, a sea rock with three humps. 
Coig, five, is the base of Coigach, Place of Fifths. 
Seachd, seven, occurs in Fuaran seachd Goil, Well 
of seven Boilings. Leth, half, is frequently prefixed 
to denote one-sidedness. Lethallt, half-burn, really 
half-height, describes the valley of a stream with 
one steep side ; leth-ghleann, half-glen, is of similar 
meaning. Leth-chreag is a one-sided rock ; leith- 
each, a one-sided place, half-place, e.g., the narrow 
strip of land between loch and hill ; Norse skiki. 
So lethoir, half-border, similar in meaning to Welsh 
lledymyl = G. leth-iomall, border near the edge, which 
exactly describes Learnie, on the south side of the 
Black Isle, sloping down to the sea- cliffs. The very 
common leitir is probably for leth-tir, half-land, 
sloping hill-side. 

Historical Fights of olden times are commemorated in such 
Events and names as Blar nan Ceann, Knocknacean, Ath nan 
Ceann, Moor, Hill, and Ford of the Heads ; Allt nan 
Cnuimheag, Burn of Worms ; Bealach nam Brog, 
Pass of the Brogues; a more recent battle (1719) 
has left its mark in Sgurr nan Spainteach, Peak of 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxxiil. 

the Spaniards. Cadha na Mine, Path of the Meal, 
and other names near it, are connected with the '45. 
Leac na Saighid and Sgurr na Saighid recall old 
feats of archery. One of the most interesting names 
is Scotsburn, G. Allt nan Albanach, in connection 
with which are Cam nam Marbh, Dead men's Cairn ; 
Lochan a' Chlaidheimh and Bearnas a' Chlaidheimh, 
Sword Lochlet and Sword Cleft. That a consider- 
able battle was fought here is practically certain ; 
also that Albanaich, " Scotfcis men," were engaged 
in it. The curious thing is that the burn should 
have been named from the Albanaich, Scots, and 
not from their opponents, as might have been 
expected. It looks as if from the standpoint of the 
namers the Albanaich were regarded as strangers. 
They may have been Lowland Scots. 

The great Pictish name Nectan appears in the 
obsolete Dalvanachtan, i.e., Nectan's davach, also in 
Cadha Neachdain, Nectan's Path. The latter is one 
of the many steep paths in Nigg Rocks, and from the 
fact that near it is a cave called Uamh an Righ, the 
King's Cave, one is inclined to connect it with the 
Pictish King Nectan, son of Derili, who flourished 
circ. 715. This king had a remarkable and 
chequered career, one of the incidents in which was 
his joining the Church or becoming a recluse. The 
scene of his clericatus is unknown, but it may be 
plausibly conjectured that he spent some part of it 
in Uamh an Righ. 

The great forest or hunting ground of Freevater, 
G. Frith Bhatair, Walter's Forest, in which Leabaidh 



Ixxxiv. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Rhatair, Walter's Bed, occurs twice, most probably 
derives its name from Walter, that son of the fourth 
Earl of Eoss who fell at Bannockburn, v. p. 12. 

Glaic an Righ Chonanaich, Hollow of the Strath - 
conon King, is a somewhat surprising name, for 
which v. p. 249. The West Coast names are rich in 
references to local men and events of note. Of 
legendary heroes we have Fionn, Diarmad, and 
Oscar, all of the Fenian cycle. The widely spread 
story of Diarmad's tragic death is located with con- 
siderable circumstance in Kintail. A reference to 
Fionn seems to be contained in Suidheachan Fhinn. 
Fenian legends are attached to Feith Chuilisg, 
Loch Lurgainn, Cnoc Farrel, Clach nan Con Fionn, 
Coulin, but several of these have obviously been 
invented to explain the names. The Fenians appear 
in Coire na feinne, and legends of their huntings 
are connected with Sgurr nan Conbhairean. The 
hero Oscar's name is found in Buillean Osyair, 
Oscar's Strokes certain claisean or gaps on Little 
Lochbroom. From the great battles of modern time 
we get Camperdown, Waterloo (near Dingwall), and 
Balaclava (or Balnuig). Maryburgh, near Dingwall, 
was named from Queen Mary, wife of William of 
Orange. A good deal of fancy nomenclature has 
arisen in Easter Ross within the last century and a 
half, e.g., Mountgerald, Mountrich, Petley, Arabella, 
Invergordon, and others, in English not to the 
same extent in Gaelic displacing the old names. 

Under this head may be noted our one certain 
instance of druid/i, a Druid, viz., Port an Druidh, 






INTRODUCTION. IxXXV. 

the Druid's Port, with Cadha Port an Druidh, the 
Druid's path near it, both in Nigg, old names doubt- 
less. The term druineach, which occurs with us in 
Airigh nan Druineach, Cladh nan Druineach, 
Druineachan, Poll and Drochaid Druineachan is 
frequent elsewhere, e.g., Cam nan Seachd Druin- 
eachan in Glen Fin tag, Inistrynich is Lochawe, 
Cladh nan Druineach in lona, Tigh Talmhaidh nan 
Druineach (Earth House of the D.), a round house or 
broch in Assynt. The word is sometimes equated 
with druidh;ii is based on O. Ir., druin, glossed 
glicc, wise, clever ; and druinech in Ir. means an em- 
broideress. 'The exact significance of it in our place 
names is far from clear. Logan 1 takes it to mean 
cultivators of the soil as opposed to hunters, which 
may represent a genuine tradition. Martin makes 
mention of little round stone houses in Skye capable 
only of containing one person, and called " Tey-nin- 
druinich, i.e., Druids' House." Druineach, says 
Martin, signifies a retired person much devoted to 
contemplation. 

Some miscellaneous terms omitted above follow. 
Croit, a croft, with its variants creit, crait, cruit, is 
common in Easter Ross. The Exchequer Eolls 
supply an interesting record of the crofts held by 
the minor officials of a great castle, v. p. 146. Linne, 
besides meaning a pool in a river, is used to denote 
a part of the sea near the shore, also a bay. 2 Crasg, 
a crossing, generally, if not always, applies to a 

1 Scottish Gael, II., 72 (ed., Dr Stewart). 
2 The Greek equivalent At/xv?/ has exactly the same meanings in Homer. 



Ixxxvi. PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

crossing over a ridge. Gasg, diminutive gasgan, is 
explained at p. 208. Cadha is usually a steep, 
narrow path, but is sometimes applied to steep parts 
of a regular road, e.g., an Cadha Beag and an Cadha 
M6r, near Gruinard. By Bac we mean in E. Ross a 
peat moss ; in the west the primary sense of bank, 
ridge, is preserved ; Norse bakki. Grianan means 
a sunny hillock, or a place, e.g., good for drying 
peats. Roinn, a point, occurs in Roinn an Fhaing 
Mhoir. Botag is a wet or soft channel in a peat 
moss. Rabhan, after much search, I took to mean 
water lily, and from one description of it that seemed 
correct. But another and better authority had no 
hesitation in defining it as a long grass growing in 
shallow, muddy parts of lochs or pools, and formerly 
used for feeding cattle, an account of it which I 
have had since confirmed beyond doubt. The word 
is almost certainly a Pictish loan, to be compared 
with Welsh rhafu, to spread ; rhqfon, berries 
growing in clusters. It occurs frequently in Suther- 
land place-names. A similar kind of grass growing 
in pools and lochs is barranach, from l>arr, top. 



PLACE-NAMES 



OF 



ROSS AND CROMARTY 



PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



KINCARDINE. 

Kincardine Kyncardyri 1275 G. Ciim-chardain ; 
' cinn' is the locative case of ' ceann,' head ; cardain 
is of common occurrence in names on Pictish ground, 
cf. Adamnan's Airchartdan, now Glen-Urquhart, 
Plus-carden, Carden-den, and the various Kin- 
cardines and Urquharts. Though not found in 
Gaelic, it appears in Welsh as ' cardden,' a wood, 
brake, whence Kin-cardine means Wood-head or 
Wood-end. The name originally 110 doubt 
applied only to the immediate neighbourhood of 
the church ; whence it extended to the district 
served by the church, i.e., the parish. Such is 
the origin of most parish names. The parish falls 
into two divisions : the part drained by the 
Carron and its feeders, and the part beyond the 
watershed, toward Sutherland. We shall begin 
with the former. 

Carron There are two rivers Carron in Ross, and 
some half-dozen elsewhere in Scotland, all char- 
acterised by roughness of channel. The root is 
kars, rough, and, on the analogy of Gaulish rivers 

1 



PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

such as the Matrona, the primitive form of Carron 
would have been Carsona. It is doubtless pre- 
Gaelic, that is to say, Pictish ; cf. Carseoli in 
Italy. 

Pools in Carron are : Poll na muic, sow's 
pool, opposite Gledfield ; pott a ckapuill, horse 
pool, near Braelangwell ; linne sgainne, pool of 
the burst, a large dam-like pool opposite Dounie ; 
poll an donnaidh, pool of the mishap ; poll an 
t-slugaid, pool of the gulp or swallow. With the 
last named we may connect Braghlugudi, which 
appears in 1529 as belonging to the Abbey of 
Fearn, and no doubt refers to the braighe or brae- 
face above the pool. In 1623 appears " part of 
Carron called Polmorral," still known as Poll- 
moral. Mr Macdonald (Place-names of West 
Aberdeenshire) collects the following instances of 
this name : Balmoral, Polmorral on Dee near 
Banchory, Morall in Stratherne, Drummorrell in 
Wigtown, Morall and Lynn of Morall in the lord- 
ship of Urquhart, Morall mor and Morall beag on 
Findhorn. Mr Macdonald suggests mor choille, 
great wood, which is far from suiting the 
phonetics. The examples collected above may 
not all be of the same origin (Morel at Tomatin, 
for instance, is in Gaelic Moirl), but the second 
part of Poll-mbral above can hardly be other than 
moral, majestic, noble. The pool in question is 
one of the largest on the river. Craigpolskavane 
appears on record in 1619, and appears to refer 
to a pool somewhere below Craigs, near Amat. 
There is a Loch Sgamhain in Strathbran. 



KINCARDINE. 3 

Esbolg Waterfall of bubbles, appears on record in 
1657. On one of T. Font's maps it is located on 
the river now known as the Blackwater, which 
joins the Carron at Amat, but on the old map 
called Ayneck (perhaps from confusion with the 
Eunag, a tributary of the Oykell). There is a 
large waterfall on this stream near Croick, now 
Eas a' mhuilinn. Perhaps, therefore, Esbolg is 
the "Big Fall" on Carron. Balgaidh, bubbly 
stream, is the name of a river in Applecross ; 
cf. also the better known Strathbhalgaidh, 
Strathbogy. Working from the eastern part of 
the parish along the south side of Carron, we have 

Ardchronie, G. ard-chronaidh, an obscure name ; 
ard, of course, means height or promontory ; 
cronaidh may be from either cron, dark brown, or 
cron, a hollow, both found in Irish names. Dr 
Joyce gives Ardcrone in Kerry as meaning brown 
height, and Ardcrony appears in the " Four 
Masters." 

Gradal G. Gradal, Norse Gra-dalr, gray dale ; now 
usually called Badvoon. 

Allt Eiteachan (O.S.M. Allt na h-eiteig), probably 
from eiteach, root of burnt heather. Hence 
' an fheill eiteachan,' the Kincardine market. 1 

1 The old-established Feill Eiteachan, the winter market still held at 
Ardgay, is said to owe its name to a certain quartz stone (clach eiteag), the 
old custom being that the market was held wherever this stone happened to 
be at the time. The stone was sometimes shifted west by the Assynt men, 
and east by the men of Ross, but finally it was built into the wall of the pre- 
sent Balnagown Arms Hotel at Ardgay, and so the market has ever since been 
held there. I give the story for what it is worth. Ma 's breug bhuam e, is 
breug thugam e. But eiteachan cannot be based on e"iteag, which is a loan 
word from English hectic (Macbain). 



4 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Tigh'mhadaidh Dog's (or wolfs) house. 
An garbh choille The rough wood. 

Ardgay G. ard gaoith, windy height. A deed, 
granted in 1686 to erect it into a burgh of barony, 
was never carried into effect. 

Near it is Cam Deasgan, apparently the remains 
of a broch. There are numerous mounds near it. 
Less than half-a-mile away is Cnoc ruigh gricg, 
hill of the pebbly slope. It bears marks of forti- 
fication on its western brow, and this side is 
studded with tumuli. 

BadaVOOn G. bad a' mhun (' n ' long). This is 
the highest lying place with traces of cultivation 
in the locality. ' Mun,' with long ' n,' seems to 
be a dialectic form of ' muine,' just as ' dun,' with 
long ' n,' is heard for ' duine ;' muine means, 
according to O'Reilly, thorn, brake, mountain, and 
the last, if it can be relied on, would suit the 
situation mountain clump, Joyce, however, 
gives muine only in the sense of ' brake/ and 
Lhuyd has it ' thorn-tree ;' cf. Bad a' mhuin bheag 
and Bad a' mhuin mhor in Coigach. 

Gledfield A translation of G. leth'-chlamhaig, half 
(i.e., half-strath) of the buzzard. The word 
is usually clamhan, a masculine diminutive, 
while clamhag is of feminine form. The place is 
known also as e loii na speireig,' sparrow-hawk 
mead, but the other form is supported by the 
records: Lachelawak, 1529; Lawchclawethe, 1561, 
as belonging to the Abbey of Fearn ; Lachclawy, 
1606 ; Lachclaveig, 1643. A third form given me 



KINCARDINE. 5 

is Leac 'chlamhaig, which also satisfies the written 
forms. 
An t-sean bhaile Old town, a very common name. 

Clais a' bhaid choille Wood-clump dell. 

L6n dialtaig Bat-meadow (Upper Gledfield). 

Dounie Dun, fort, with extension. There are traces 
< >f an ancient fort. 

Ruigh na meinn Ore-slope. The epithet ' na 
meinn; literally ' of ore,' is usually applied to 
places where the water shows signs of oxide of 
iron. 

An airigh fhliuch The wet shieling. 

Alitan Domhnuill Donald's burn. 

Gruhiard or Greenyards, Croinzneorth 1450, Grain - 
yord 1528 ; Norse grunnfjorcSr, shallow firth ; cf. 
Gruinard in Loch broom and Gruineart in Islay. 

Na h-6rdan The heights, from ard, high. The 
common tendency to change 'a' into 'o' is par- 
ticularly strong in Strathcarron. 

An fhanaieh The declivity; fariach, of which 
fanaich is locative, is a derivative of fan, a gentle 
slope, which is itself a common element in place- 
names, e.g., Balnain (but Balnain in Badenoch is 
beul an iithain, ford-mouth) ; cf. also na fana, the 
Fendom, Tain. 

Bun an f huarain Well-foot. 

Croit na caillich Old wife's croft. 

Dal na era Dale of the (sheep) fold, or, possibly, 
cruive ; era is a variant of cro, and is here 
feminine, if, indeed, it is not, as it may well be, for 
dal nan era (gen. pi.) 



6 PLACE-XAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Grianbhad ? Sun clump ; but it may be Norse 
grunn-vatn, shallow loch. 

Dalbhearnaidh Dale of the cleft. 

Bail* an achaidh Town (i.e., homestead) of the 
cultivated field. 

Amat Amayde 1429 ; Almet 1643, G. amait, from 
Norse a-mot, river-meet, confluence, to wit, of the 
Carron and the Blackwater rivers. There are also 
Amat in Strath-Oykel and Amat in Strath-na- 
sealg, Brora, while the records show an Amot in 
North Kintyre 1643 (Eeg. Mag. Sig.), in Islay 
1614. Amat in Strathcarron is in two divisions, 
Amat iia' tuath (of the husbandmen) to the south 
of the Carron, and Amat na h-eaglais (of the 
church) on the north side. There is still a 
tradition of a church having once stood on the 
'claigionn,' above the present Lodge, and in 1609 
there appears ' Amott Abbot under the barony of 
Ganyes, called of old the Abbacy of Fearn ' ; also 
in 1611 Ammotegiis, and Amad Heglis, T. Pont. 
1608. The spelling Almet is of no significance 
beyond that the ' 1 ' shows that the initial vowel 
is long. 

BaiP an fhraoich Heather-stead. 

Baile Chaluim Maicolm's-stead. 

Bail' an dounie G. bail' an donnaidh, town of the 
mishap. Near it is a pool in Carron, poll un 
donnaidh, so called, doubtless, from some drowning 
accident. 

Bail* an loin Town of the damp meadow. 

Baile mheadhonach Mid-town. 



KINCARDINE. 7 

Bail' uachdarach Upper-town. 
Dal-ghiuthais Fir dale. 

An garbh allt The rough burn. 

Gar nan aighean Thicket of hinds ; from gar 

comes the diminutive garan, thicket. On it is 
Drochaid chaolaig, bridge of the little narrow 
place, over the Carron. The green place (lub) on 
the Glencalvie side was known as bail' bean an 
dro'idich, town of the bridge-wife, but a still 
older name for it is said to have been Tuitim- 
tairbheach. There may be here a confusion with 
the well-known place of that name at Oykell : my 
informant was born and bred at Gar nan aighean. 
Also Coylum. i.e., cumhang-leum, narrow leap ; 
cf. Cuilich in Rosskeen. 

Glencalvie G. Gleann Cailbhidh, cf. Loch Cail- 
bhidh in Lochalsh. A Glencalvie man (there are 
still such, but not in the Glen), is known as a 
' Cailbheach.' Glencalvie was, and is, noted for 
its herbage, and so are the shores of Loch Calvie : 
the root may therefore be calbh, colbh, plant- 
stalk ; Ir. colba, wand ; Latin culmus, stalk, 
calamus, reed. 

Coire mhaileagan V. Glenshiel. The waterfall 
at the mouth of the Corry was given by two 
informants, both natives of Glencalvie, as Eas 
caraidh and Eas cadaidh. 

Dibidale ' The half-davach of DebadailT 1623, 
G. Diobadal, from Norse djupr, deep ; dalr, dale, 
djiipidalr, ' deep-dale,' which accurately describes 
this beautiful, but now solitary, glen. There is a 



PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMAKTY. 

Glen Dibidil in Rum, Mull, Skye, and Lewis ; 
cf. also Diabaig, Gairloch. 

Sallachy Salki 1529, on record as pasture land of 
the Abbey of Fearn ; from saileach, the old form 
of ' seileach,' willow ; Ir. sail, saileog, with meaning 
' place of willows.' For formation cf. Lat. salictum, 
from salicetum, a willow copse, cf. Sallachy on 
Loch Shin, Sallachy in Lochalsh, Sauchie-burii ; 
also Salachar in Applecross, Salacharaidh, Loch 
Nevis. At the head of Strathcarron, forking off 
to the right, is 

Alladale G. Aladal, probably Ali's dale, from Ali, 
a Norse personal name. 

Glenmore Glenmoir, 1619 ; great glen. 

Deanich G. an dianaich, the steep place ; a locative 
of dianach from dian, steep, a name which well 
fits the place. 

Meaghlaich A place where the road crosses by a 
ford to Dianich ; locative of mang-lach, place of 
fawns ; cf. coire na meagh, between Dibidale and 
Lochan a* Chairn. On one of Pout's maps it is 
marked Meuloch. Above it is srbn 'n ngaidh. 
Near it is 

An giuthais mosach Pout's Gewish Moussach ; 

Gyrissmissachie 1619, Reg. Mag. Sig. (where the 
transcriber is surely at fault), the nasty fir wood. 

Tordigean : oigean, from 6g, young, is used as a, 
sort of nick-name ; the name therefore means 
Oigean's torr, or the youth's knoll. On the north 
side of the Carroii we have 

InvercaiTOn Estuary of the Carron. 



KINCARDINE. 9 

Baile na COite Boat-town ; cf. Sron iia coite on 

Loch Maree. 

Langwell Norse, lang-vollr, long-field. 
Cornhill G. Ciioc an airbh ; Knokinarrow, 1642; 

O. Ir. arbe, corn ; later Ir. arbar, genitive arba, 

whence our modern Gaelic arbhar. The form 

' arbh " occurs also in Cnoc an airbh, Urray, and 

in Ard-arbha, Lochalsh. 
Syal Seoll 1578, Soyall 1642; G. saoidheal ; locally 

explained as ' suidhe fala,' seat of blood ; but it is 

Norse sau'Sa-vollr, sheep-meadow. 
Clllvokie G. culbhocaidh ; hobgoblin's nook ; it 

has an uncanny reputation ; so has Poll-bhocaidh 

at the foot of Glenmore ; cf Culboky in Ferintosh. 
Cadearg G. an cadha dearg, the red steep path. 
Culeave G. Cul-liabh, apparently for cul-shliabh, 

back (or nook) of the mountain moor ; cf. for 

formation Cul-charn, Culcairn. 
Balnacurach Town of the curachs or hide boats ; 

cf. Balnacoit above. 
Hilton Bail' a chnuic. 
Corvest G. coire-bheist (accented on first syllable), 

locally explained as ' the monster's corry.' There 

is a very deep gully at the place, which gives 

colour to this, but the accent is against it. 
An t-allt domhainn- Deep burn, flowing through 

the corry just mentioned. 
Braelangwell -G. braigh-langail, upper part of 

Langwell. 
Bard an asairidh Asair, or fasair, good pasture : 

bard is a somewhat uncommon word, but known 



10 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

in Badenoch in the sense of ' meadow.' In Boath, 
Alness is Bard nan laogh, and in Glen-Urquhart 
is a meadow called ' the Bard.' The present name 
therefore means ' the meadow of good pasture.' 
Near Bard nan laogh in Boath there is curiously 
enough ' an asaireadh,' the Assarow. Bard seems 
borrowed from Norse bar^, meaning first, beard, 
then fringe, edge (cf. a hill, etc.,) hence applied to 
the land on the edge of a river, which is the 
situation of the Strathcarron, Boath, and Glen- 
Urquhart ' bards.' 

Scuitchal Scuittechaell 1642, Skuittichaill 1657, 
? Skatwell 1584, Skuddachall, Pont, G. Sguit- 
chathail. Scuit is a locative of sgot, a piece of 
land cut off from another, a small farm ; cf. the 
Scottish ' shot,' a spot or plot of ground. The 
second part of the compound is most probably the 
personal name Cathal, Cathel, the meaning of this 
being Cathel's section or croft. 

CraigS G. Tigh iia creige, Rock-house, from the 
rocky hill behind it. Font's map shows Kreig- 
skaweii about this spot, and in 1619 we have 
Craigpolskavane. 

Glaschoille Green wood ; Glaischaill 1619. 

Lub-conich Mossy bend. 

Lllb-na-meinn Bend of the ore (irony water). 

Letters Na leitrichean, the hill slopes. 

Croick G. a chroic ; ' gillean iia croic ' occurs in a 
Strathcarron song ; the word is thus feminine. 
It may be a locative of croc, an antler, thus 
meaning 'a branching glen, or side glen,' which 



KINCARDINE. 1 1 

would suit the locality ; a locative of crog, paw, 
hand, is also possible, in which sense the common 
' glaic ' might be compared. The latter meaning 
suits the Croick in Glencasley, Sutherland. A 
diminutive of cro, sheep-fold, has been suggested, 
but the difficulty here is that cro, being masculine, 
would give cro-an, unless, indeed, we may sup- 
pose cro to have been dialecticaily feminine. 

Strathcuillionach means as it stands, 'holly 
strath ;' there is, however, a strong local tradition 
that the older Gaelic was ' srath cuireanach,' 
from ' car ' a turn ; hence, winding strath. The 
stream which flows through it is certainly very 
winding, and the change from ' r ' to ' 1 ' is quite 
possible. In its upper reaches this stream is 
called Allt a glilais citha, burn of the wan ford. 
In the high ground adjoining Strathcarroii are 

Garvary G. garbhairigh, rough shieling. The 
termination -ary is usually best regarded as an 
extension of the adjective, but as there actually 
were shielings at Garvary, it may be taken as 
airigh. 

Meall na CUachaige Cuckoo hill ; possibly hill of 
the little ' cuach,' or cup-shaped hollow. 

Meall Bhenneit Apparently Bennet's Hill; cf. 
Bennetfield in the Black Isle, G. Baile Bhenneit. 

Coire bog The wet or soft cony. 

Sron na saobhaidhe Point of the den ; usually 
called sron saobhaidhe. 

Carn Bhren So often in Gaelic, but a Glen- 
calvie man, who ought to know, called it Cam 



12 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Bhreathainn. There is a legend connecting it 
with Fingal's dog Bran. He entered a cairn 
there, and was never seen again. It means 
Raven's Cairn. 

Cam salach 'Dirty' cairn, from the broken and 
boggy nature of its surface. 

Cam an liath-bhaid Hill of the grey clump. 
Creag na ceapaich Rock of the tillage plot. 

Ceapach (Keppoch) is one of the commonest 
names in the Highlands. 

Cnoc na Tuppat Locally derived from the English 
tippet, from the appearance of the vegetation on 
its rounded top ; but it is more likely from * tap,' 
a rounded mass or lump, which gives in Ireland 
Topped, Tapachan, Toppan, c. (Joyce). 

Creag Riaraidh So the O.S.M., but G. creag(a)- 

raoiridh, the rocky termination of the ridge behind 
the old lodge of Glendibidale. There is in Tarbat 
a famous cave called toll-raoiridh, and below 
Achtercairn, Gairloch, is Leac raoiridh. This 
somewhat difficult name may be from roithreim 
(O'.R.) a rushing (ro, very, and rethim, run), and 
may have reference to the very stormy nature of 
the place. 

Leaba Bhaltair Always called Leabaidh Bhatair, 
Walter's Bed, is on a hill on the south side of 
Glendibidale. There is another similar place 
bearing the same name on Alladale ground. 
Who the Walter in question was may be con- 
sidered doubtful ; but in any case the name 
must be connected with Frivater, ' fridh Bhatair.' 
or Walter's forest. The probability is, and 1 



KINCARDINE. 1 3 

believe there is a tradition to the effect, that the 
Walter whose name we find among these wild 
hills was one of the early Rosses of the line of 
Ferchar Mac an t-sagairt. The name is old, for it 
is stated in the Chronicle of the Earls of Ross 
that Paul Mactyre (fl. circ. 1360) acquired inter 
alia Friewatter. Sir Walter Ross, son of William, 
the fourth Earl, fell at Bamiockburn, and, as he 
was evidently a noted man, being recorded as the 
dear friend of Edward Bruce, he may be the 
eponymus of Walter's Bed and Walter's Forest. 
The next choice would be Sir Walter de Lesley, 
who married Euphemia, daughter of William, the 
sixth Earl, and regarding whom William, in 1371, 
addresses a ' querimonia ' to King Robert II., 
complaining of the way in which his lands had 
been given to Lesley. But the reference in the 
Chronicle of the Earls of Ross, though perhaps 
not decisive, points to the existence of the name 
before Sir Walter de Lesley's time. With regard 
to Paul Mactyre, I may say in passing that tradi- 
tion makes him a freebooter. He may have been, 
and probably was, a man of his hands, but he is 
said to have been a great-grandson of the King of 
Denmark, and he certainly married the niece of 
Hugh of Ross, Lord of Fylorth, and obtained the 
lands of Gairloch by grant of William, Earl of 
Ross, in 1366 ; and in 1365, by grant of Hugh of 
Ross, the lands of ' Tutumtarvok, Turnok, Amot 
arid Langvale in Strathokel.' His pedigree, as 
given by Skene, connects him closely with the 



14 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Rosses or Clan Anrias, for it makes him fourth in 
descent from Gilleanris (modern Gillanders). He 
was therefore highly connected, and held a 
respectable position, and his descendants, the 
Poisons, have no reason to feel ashamed of him. 

Creag Illie G. Creag-illidh. ; Illie ' has exactly the 
same sound as in Bun-illigh, Helmsdale, where it 
represents Ila, the Ptolemaic name of the Helms- 
dale river. Creag Illie stands just about the west 
end of Glendibidale, not far from the source of the 
stream, now nameless, which runs through the 
glen, and though, of course, the case does not 
admit of certainty, 'Illie' may here also be the old 
river name ; cf. the rivers Isla, and for root 
German * eilen,' to hurry. Cf. also G. ' ealadh ' 
(Macbain's Diet.). 

Creag Ruadh The red rock ; near Creag Illie. 

Dunach liath The grey place of dims ; Leac Gorai, 
the green hillside ; and the Dimaii liath, grey 
little dun, are beyond Coire Mhalagan. 

Cam Speireig The sparrow-hawk's cairn. 

Leab' a' Bhruic The badger's lair. 

Beinn Tarsuinn ' The cross hill,' which bars the 
head of Dibidale and of Coire Mhalagan. 

Feur mor The big grass. 

Crom Loch The bent loch descriptive of its semi- 
circular shape. 

Lochan Sgeireach The little rocky loch. 

Meall na Raineich Hill of bracken. 

An Socach The snouted hill. 

Sr6n gun aran Bread-less point a quaint name. 



KINCARDINE. 15 

Allt a mheirbh ghiuthais (O.S.M., allt a mhor 
ghiuthais). T. Pont, phonetically but accurately, 
has it ' alt very gewish,' ' burn of the slender 
pine- wood.' Mearbh is a variant of meaiibh. 

Loch Sruban G. Loch Struaban. ' Lochen Strom- 
aniiach so cald from great golden beared trowts ' 
(Pont). What 'beared' means I cannot conjecture; 
the letter rendered h is doubtful, otherwise the 
MS. is perfectly clear. It is interesting, however, 
to know that * struabanach math brie ' is still 
locally used to denote a good-sized trout, such as 
are the trout of Loch Struaban. The root may be 
sruab, to make a paddling noise in water (H.S. 
Diet. ) ; a ' sruabanach ' would thus mean a fish 
that lashes the water. 

Coire mor The great corry. 

Meall am madadh: prop. Meall a' Mhadaidh 
Dog's, or perhaps wolf's, hill. 

Bodach mor and Bodach beag The big and the 

little old man. 

Meall nam fuaran Hill of springs. 

Allt a* chlaiginn Skull burn. A ' claigionn ' is 

usually a skull-shaped hill ; but sometimes it 

means the best field of a farm. 
An Sgaothach ' Sgaoth,' swarm ; place of swarms ; 

cf. ' sguabach,' place of ' sweeps ' (of wind). 
Allt a' ghuail Coal burn ; what the coal is, I have 

not learned ; but cf. meall a' ghuail. 

Creagloisgte Burnt rock. 

Carn a' choin deirg Cairn of the red dog. 



16 PLACE-XAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

Sithean ruarach Sithean, a round hill, diminutive 
of sith, a fairy .seat ; ruarach, an extension ofruadh, 
red ; cf. Ruarach in Kintail. 

Coir' an t-seilich Willow cony. 

Gnoc an tubaist Hill of the mischance. 

Corriemulzie G. coire muillidh, mill-corry ; cf. 
Corriemulzie in Contin and in W. Aberdeenshire, 
Mulzie in Kiltarlity. Mr J. Macdonald suggests 
' maoile,' corry of the hill brow, but the Gaelic 
pronunciation at once negatives this. In Corrie- 
mulzie, it appears from local information, there 
were at one time or other no fewer than seven 
mills, the sites of five of which can still be pointed 
out. The Garve Corriemulzie is also a place of 
old habitation, where there were, doubtless, mills. 
Muileann, a mill, has a genitive muilne, which 
readily becomes muille. 

Abhainn dubhach Sad river. 

Mullach a' chadha bhuidhe Stop of the steep 

yellow path. 

Allt rappach Noisy or dirty burn. 
Creag Eabhain Gladsome rock ; cf. Beinn Eibhimi 

in Badenoch, which is a hill with good outlook. 
Allt Tarsumn Cross burn, from loch na bithe, 

pitch loch (from pine wood) ; cf. Blarnabee in 

Strathconon. 
Allt COIF an ruchain Probably from ruchan, throat, 

Bullet ; corry of the throat, a narrow opening. 
Strath Seasgaich Probably a derivative of ' seise,' 

reed, seasgach, loc. seasgaich, reedy place. There 

is also seasgach, a yeld cow, but this ought to 

give srath na(n) seasgach. 



KINCARDINE. 17 

Allt Ealag Ealag, properly eileag, is puzzling ; it 
looks like a diminutive of the feminine proper 
name Eilidh, only in point of fact this diminutive 
does not seem to be found. It may well be from 
ail, stone, meaning ' the little stony burn.' There 
is also Mointeach Eileag, a" dreary stretch of 
moor on the Lairg and Lochinver road. 

SgOiman m6r The great lumps ; sgonn, block, 
lump. 

Loch COir' na meidhe There is meidh, a balance, 
arid meidhe, a stem, stock, trunk, the latter of 
which is more likely to be in point here. 

Coir* a' Chonachair Conachar means uproar ; also, 
a sick person who gets neither better or worse. 
It may be the proper name Conachar ; there is 
really no means of determining ; cf. Badach- 
onachair in Kilmuir Easter. 

Lubcroy G. an lub-chruaidh, the hard bend ; 
cruaidh is applied to hard, stony ground, or to 
firm ground as opposed to bog. 

Oykell has been happily identified with Ptolemy's 
Ripa Alta, High Bank, the exact location of which 
has long been matter of dispute. It must also be 
identified with the Norse Ekkjals-bakki, i.e., 
Oykell Bank, which Skene strangely makes out to 
be the Grampians. Oykell represents the Gaulish 
uxellos, high, seen in Uxello-duiium, high fort. 
The word appears in Celtic in two forms (l) 
Welsh uchel, high, which gives the Ochil Hills 
and Ochil-tree, high town ; (2) Gaelic uasal, high, 
and, without the -llo- suffix, uaise, height, majesty, 

2 



18 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

whence Beinn Uaise, Wyvis. Oykell follows the 
Welsh form. It will thus be seen that Ptolemy's 
Kipa Alta is a part translation of Oykel, which is 
echoed by the Norse Ekkjalsbakki. The word for 
bank is gone, but it evidently existed in Ptolemy's 
time, and it looks as if it survived to the time of 
the Norse occupation, and was translated by the 
Norsemen into bakki. It is worth noting that the 
high ground on the Sutherland side of the Oykell 
estuary is Altas, G. Allt-ais, an extension of alt, 
eminence ; cf. Welsh allt, wooded cliff, hillside ; 
also O. Ir. alltar, heights. 

luveroykell is the confluence of the rivers Oykell 
and Casley. 

Einig A tributary of the Oykell ; G. Eunag. Pont 
makes Avon Ayneck flow into the Carron at Amat. 
Dr Joyce gives ean, water, as the basis of eanach, 
a marsh. The streams falling into the Eunag 
are Allt Eappach, noisy or ' dirty ' bum ; 
Abhainn Poiblidh, river of the booth, pubull ; 
Abhainn Coire Muillidh, the Corriemulzie river ; 
Abhainn Dubhach, the sad or gloomy river. 

Amat At the junction of Eunag and Oykell ; cf. 
Amat in Strathcarron above. The Oykell Amat 
was distinguished as Amat na gullan, i.e., na 
iicuilean, of the whelps. 

Lochan Phoil Paul's lochlet, is probably a remini- 
scence of Paul Mactyre, who held these lands, as 
above stated. 

Langwell Cf. Langwell, Strathcarron. 

Beinn Ulamhie Cf. ulbh (Sutherland), a term of 
reproach, from Norse ulfr, wolf. 



KINCARDINE. 



19 



Meoir Langwell The 'branches' of Langwell; i.e., 
hill streams that converge there. 

Loch Mhic Mharsaill probably contains the name 
of a son of ' William Mareschal, armiger to Hugh 
of Ross,' who was granted by the said Hugh, 
between 1350 and 1372, the lands of ' Dachynbeg 
in Westray' (Edderton) for good and faithful 
services. He received also lands in Tarbat and 
elsewhere ; but he could hardly have held lands in 
the Oykell district, for it was held by Paul Mac- 
tyre. This, however, does not necessarily affect 
the argument. 

Brae G. a bhraigh. 

Doune Downe, 1657 ; a township on the Oykell ; 
dun, fort. 

Oape 6b, creek ; Norse hop ; it is near a bend in 
the river ; cf. Oban. 

Innis nan damh Ox, or stag, meadow ; cf the 
other well-known Inshindamff. 

OchtOW G. an t-ochdamh, the eighth-part, to wit, 
of Davach-carbisdale (1623), which included most 
of this district. 

Birchfield Formerly Ach na h-uamhach, field of 
the cave, probably from the chambers of the broch, 
now much broken down, a little to the west of the 
farm-house. 

Kilmachalmag Sic 1548, Colman's cell ; v. Church 
names. Within a short distance of it, 011 the edge 
of the wood, is the foundation of what seems to 
have been a broch of rather small diameter. 

Achnahannet G. achadh na h-annait, field of the 
' mother church,' v. Church names. 



20 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

An ruigh cruaidh The hard slope. 
Meall Deargaidh G. Meall dheirgidh, from dear- 
gadh, redness ; Hill of redness. 

Badandaraich Oak copse. 

Achnagart Field" of the corn enclosure ; cf. Garty, 
Goirtean. 

Creag 'Chait Cat's rock. 

Lamentation Hill (O.S.M.) G. creag a' ehoh in- 
each an, rock of the mossy place. Cf the continu- 
ation of the "History of the Earldom of Suther- 
land " with reference to the defeat of Montrose, 
which took place here in 1650 : 'This miraculous 
victorie hapned the twentie seaventh of Aprill 
one thousand six hundreth fiftie years at Craig- 
choynechan, besides Carbesdell.' As this is a 
contemporary account, it effectually disposes of 
the popular notion, officially adopted 011 the O.S. 
Map as above, fthat the place meant Rock of 
Lamentation (Coineadh). The name was given 
long before the battle took place. 

Poll cas gaibhre, Goat's foot pool, is a deep rounded 
hollow situated near the Kyle between Stamag 
and Riantyre (ruigh an t-saoir, the carpenter's 
slope). There is another of the same kind near 
the Church of Dunlichity, Inverness. These 
curious cup-like depressions are explained as the 
result of swallow-holes in glaciers. 

Culrain Of old Carbisdale; Carbustell, 1548. The 
modern name 'is said to have been imposed from 
Coleraine in Ireland. Carbisdale is Norse kjarr- 
bolsta<5r, copse-stead, with the suffix dalr, dale. 






KINCARDINE. 21 



Rhilonie G. ruigh an loin, slope of the wet meadow. 

Balnallinsh Town of the meadow ; near it is the 
site of Carn nan Conach (O S.M. Carn nan 
Conacht). 

Achagllliosa Gillies' field ; Sithean an Radhairc, 
Prospect Hill. 

From a retour of 1623 it appears that at that 
date Strathkyle (Slios a' Chaolais) as far west as 
Ochtow was included under the term Davocb- 
carbistell. We have * the lands of Achnagart, 
belonging to Davoch-carbistell,' also 'the western 
bovate of Davoch-carbistell, called Ochtow, with 
the croft and arable land lying near the Meikill 
Cairne, called Cairne Croft, above the east 
side of the burn called Auldualeckach under 
the Barony of Kilmachalmag.' The names of 
burn and croft have now disappeared. The 
Meikill Cairne perhaps refers to the Birchneld 
broch. In 1657 we have 'the lands of Dal- 
vanachtan [i.e., Davach-nachtan] and Downe, 
extending to six davach lands, whereof four 
davach lands lye benorthe the water of Oichill 
and two davach lands on the south side.' Davach- 
nachtan is also gone. Nachtan is, of course, the 
personal name Nectan, so common among the 
Picts, still surviving in the surname Macnaughton. 
In 1619 (Reg. Mag. Sic.) we have the lands of 
Auchnagullane, Glaischaill, and Tormichaell ; the 
forest of Frawatter, adjacent to them ; the lands 
of Glenmoir, Glenbeg, Drumvaiche, Brynletter, 
Correvulzie, Knokdaill, Dovaik ; the lands called 




22 PLACE-XAMES OP BOSS AND CKOMARTY. 

' the thrie Letteris,' viz., Letterinay, Letternaiche, 
Letterneteane, and Corremoir under the said 
forest of Frewatter; the scheillings of Mullach, 
Craigpolskavane, Gyrissmissachie, Tokach, Laik- 
garny, Alladul moir, Straithfairne, Alladill na 
nathrach, and Cairnehondrig. Pont marks Acha- 
nagullann on Avon Ayneck, near Esbulg, above 
noted. Tormichaell is somewhere in Strathcarron. 
The three Letters may, perhaps, be Letters noted 
above ; they appear to stand for Leitir an fheiclh, 
Leitir 'n eich, and Leitir na teine. Mullach is 
Meaghlaich noted above. Craigpolskavane seems 
to be the present Craigs. Gyrissmissachie is An 
giuthais mosach above noted. Alladul moir and 
Alladul na nathrach are clear. Cairnehondrig is 
Cam Sonraichte. Brynletter, Tokach, Laikgarny, 
Drumvaiche I do not know. The fishing of 
Acheferne and Stogok 1341 ; Achnafearne and 
Sloggake 1657. Downlairne 1604 appears on 
Font's map as Downilaern, a little west of Layd 
Clamag (Gledfield). 




EDDEKTON. 23 



EDDERTON. 



Edderton Ederthayn 1275 ; Eddirtane 1532 ; 
Eddirthane 1561 ; G. Eadardan, with accent on 
eadar. The traditional explanation is eadar-dun, 
between forts. In confirmation of this view may 
be adduced the various brochs referred to below 
and the hill fort of Strathrory. The name 
applies especially to the part near the old church, 
now the U.F. Church, which stands on the left 
bank of Edderton Burn, and it would seem that 
the old name for the district as a whole was 
Westray ; cf. below ' Dachynbeg in Westray ' and 
Blaeu's Dunivastra. 

An luachar mhor ' The big rashes ' (rushes), a 
large swampy tract of moor. 

CHOC an t-sabhail Barn-hill ; in the face of it, 
above Raanieh, is clack meadhon latha, mid-day 
stone. There are two stones, some distance apart, 
and which of the two is the real mid-day stone is 
hard to say. The position is such that the sun 
shines on them about noon. 

Raanich G. an rathanaich ; the root is rath, a 
circular enclosure or fort, the rest being exten- 
sions (-n-ach), meaning ' place of raths.' South 
of Raanich is baile namfuaran, well- town. 

Ramore G. an rath mor, the great rath. These 
raths were, probably, simply farm-houses fortified 




24 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CKOMARTY. 

for security in troublous times. Behind Ramore 
is an linne bhreac, the dappled pool. Near it is 

Galanaich, from gallan, a standing-stone. There is 
a striking perched block not far off ; cf. Gallanaich, 
Argyll ; Achagallbn in Arran. 

An t-uisge dubh Black water. 

Gadha nan damh (O.S.M. Casandamff) Stags' 
pass. 

Gluich (Meikle and Little) G. an glaodhaich ; 
Glaodhaich ard agus Glaodhaich iosal ; from 
glaodh, glue, E. Ir. glaed, with -ach suffix ; hence 
the soft, sticky, miry place, which applies well to 
the lower Gluich. There is another Gluich in 
Altas, Sutherland, also wet, and a third in Glen- 
convinth. Local tradition ascribes the name to 
the ' glaodhaich ' or lamentation of the Edderton 
women on occasion of a battle with the Danes, 
and a similar origin is assigned to Itaanich (bha 
iad a' ranail an sin). 

Bailecharn G. beul-atha chain, ford-mouth of the 
cairns, a ford on the Edderton Burn, above Eas 
an tairbh, the bull's waterfall, which latter is 
reputed to be the haunt of a tarbh-uisge, water- 
bull. 

Inchintaury The Gaelic hesitates between innis 
an t-samhraidh and innis an t-sea'raigh, but the 
latter seems to be the common local form, pro- 
bably for seanii ruigh, old shieling. Innis an. 
t-samhraidh means summer-mead, i.e., a grassy 
meadow on which cows grazed in summer. 

Rhibreac G. an ruigh breac, the dappled slope. 



EDDEETON. 25 

Bogrow G. am bogaradh, a derivative of bog, soft, 
we t wet place ; it is a soft place by the water 
side. Also leathad a bhogaraidk, broad slope of 
the soft place. In 1634 appears on record (Reg. 
Mag. Sig.) ' magnus limes lapideus vocatus 
Clachnabogarie,' the great march stone called, 
etc., to the east of Edderton Burn. The stone 
is still there, and known by the same name, but 
it is 110 longer a march stone, the burn being now 
the march. 

CambuSCUrrie G. camus-curaidh, bay of the 
curach, coracle ; possibly currach, marsh. The 
Gaelic has certainly been affected by the modern 
English form. Locally said to have been the 
landing place of Curry or Carius (v. N. Stat. 
Ace.), the Danish prince whose prowess caused 
the ' glaodhaich ' and ' ranail J above referred to. 
Cf. Cambuschurrich on Lochtayside. 

Carrieblair G. blar a' charaidh ; the farm-stead is 
bail' a charaidh ; caraidh means ' grave-plot.' 
Cf. clach 'charaidh, the name of the fine sculptured 
stone at Shandwick, Nigg (see Nigg). There is a 
sculptured stone on Carrieblair also, still standing 
and depicted in Dr Stuart's ' Sculptured Stones of 
Scotland,' near which ancient graves have been 
excavated. According to local tradition, this 
stone marks the grave of Carius referred to above. 

Edderton Farm G. baile na fbitheachan (final "' a ' 
open). The formation of ' foitheachan ' seems 
parallel with that of Guisachan, etc., and suggests 
as the base ' faidh,' a beech, which in Scottish 



26 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Gaelic is ' faidhbhile,' beech-tree. The name 
would thus mean Place of beeches. 

BaUeigh - - Ballinleich 1550, Ballinleich, alia* 
Litchstoune 1666 ; G. bail' an lighe (also lighich), 
Leech's or physician's town. Locally said to have 
been the place where the wounded were treated 
after the battle of Carrieblair. 

Ardmore G. an t-ard mor, great promontory. 

Rudha nan Sgarbh Cormorants' point ; here is a 
large round cairn, ' earn mathaidh,' where 
mathaidh is perhaps a proper name, near loch 
nan tunnag, duck loch. 

Requill G. ruigh Dhughaill, Dugald's slope. 

Pollagharry G. poll a' ghearraidh, pool of the 
' gearraidh.' There is no pool here now, but there 
was once, according to local evidence, a small loch. 
Gearraidh is Norse ger^i, a fenced field, borrowed, 
very common in Lewis, and meaning the strip of 
land between machair and monadh, plain and 
upland moor. 

Garbad G. an garbh-bad, the rough chump ; also, 
coille a' gharbh-bhaid, Garbad wood. 

Meikle and Little Daan G. Dathan mhor and 

Dathan bhig ; ' Dachynbeg in Vestray ' was 
granted circ. 1350 by Hugh of Ross to his 
armiger, William Marescal ; Daane 1429 ; Little 
Dovaiie 1578. These forms may possibly point 
to its being a diminutive of ' dabhach,' the old 
Celtic measure of land, and at the Reformation 
Dathan Meikle was three-fourths of a davach, 
and Dathan Lytle one-fourth a davach in 



EDDERTON. 27 

all. The place, however, stands at the con- 
fluence of two streams, and as there is an 
O. Ir. word ' an,' water, the name may really be 
da-an, two waters. The joint stream is called the 
Daan burn, and the traditional explanation of 
Daan is da-athaii, two fords, which is quite 
possibly right. Near Daan is Torr a bhil, edge- 
hill. Also, ' an dtibhran,' which seems to be a 
derivative of O.G. dobur, water, meaning ' the 
wet place.' 

Balblair G. bail' a' bhlair, plain-tow T n ; near it is 
1 an ruigh bhreac,' spotted slope ; and east of it, 
' leac an duinej man's flat stone ; and ' ard 
mlianaidhj monk's point. 

Little and Meikle Dallas Doles 1560; G. Dalais 

mhor and Dalais bhig. It is never used with the 
article. The old form, as compared with the 
modern Gaelic, shows the common transition from 
o ' to ' a '; cf. Culboky, G. cul-bhaicidh ; -ais is 
the Pictish ending seen in Allt-ais, etc. (v. Introd.), 
and the first syllable is to be equated with ' dol ' 
in dolmen, used in place-names in the sense 
of ' plateau.' Dallas is thus a Pictish word, 
meaning ' place of the plateau,' which describes its 
situation ; cf. Dallas, Elgin ; perhaps also Dal- 
keith. 

Dounie from dun, fort. 

Hilton G. Bail' a' chnuic. 

Craigroy a chreag ruadh, red rock. 

Cartomie G. cathar-tomaidh ; cathar, a moss or 
bog, and torn, hillock ; compounded on the same 
principle as Balaldie, etc. (v. Introd.) 



28 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CKOMARTY. 

Polinturk G. poll an tuirc, boar's pool. 

Cnocan na goibhnidh (O.S.M. Cnoc al na 

gamhainn), smithy-hillock, near Polinturk. 

Muieblairie - - Moyzeblary 1429. G. muigh- 
bhlaraidh, spotted plain ; locative of magh, com- 
pounded with blar, spotted, with the -idh ending 
so common in Easter Ross. Blar is not nearly so 
frequent in place-names as its synonyms riabhach. 
breac, ballach. 

Alltnamain G. allt na meinu, burn of ore, with 
reference to its irony water. There are strong- 
traces of iron in most of the Edderton burns and 
wells, and there are even said to have been iron- 
workings in Edderton burn. 

Struie G. an t-sruidh ; rathad iia Struidh, the 
road from Alness to Bonar, which attains its 
highest point at Cnoc na Struidh. Before rail- 
ways this was the usual route from the south, so 
John Munro of Creich in his ' Oran Ducha,' on 
leaving Glasgow to visit his native place, says 

theid sinu, theid sinn le suigeart agus aoidh, 
theid sinu, theid sinn gu deonach, 
theid sinn, theid yinii thairis air an t-Sriiidli 
Gu muinntir ar daimh, is ar n-eolais. 

Struidh appears to be best regarded as a con- 
tracted form of sruth-aidh, an extension of the 
root of sruth, stream ('t' euphonic). From the 
base of Cnoc na Struidh streams flow in all 
directions ; cf. Struy in Strathglass, which is also 
a place of streams. At Lbn na Struidh, moist flat 
of Struie, isfaaran an oir, a well strongly impreg- 



EDDERTON. 29 

nated with iron, and reckoned to possess healing 
properties, but it has been insulted (chaidh tamailt 
a chur air), and is not what it once was ; so called 
from a gold ring having been lost in it in course 
of cleaning. 

Lechanich G. an leachanaich (Leachanaich ard and 
L. iosal) ; locally interpreted as leth Choinnich, 
Kenneth's half, but the presence of the article 
does not countenance this. The place is a sloping 
hill-side, and the name is, most likely, Leacanaich 
(with V aspirated), from leac, a sloping hill-face ; 
v. Macbain's Diet., s.v. lethcheann. 

Cnoclady G. cnoc leathadaidh, hill of the 'leathad 7 
or slope ; formed like Bal-aldie. Near it is badan 
binn ('n) eoin, where * eoin,' as in other cases 
where it occurs, seems to be the genitive singular 
of eun, bird. 

Craggan G. an creagan, the little rock ; behind it 
is edit na corrach, burn of the places of corries ; 
there are three small corries drained by it. 
Beyond this again, leading towards Fearn, is ' an 
cadha iosal? the low pass, over Struie. 

Gnoc an liath bhaid Hill of the grey clump. 

Beinn clach an fheadain Hill of the whistle 

stone or of the spout (of water). 

Carr Dubh G. an cathar dubh, a hill ; cathar, 
usually a moss or bog, is here used to mean ' a 
rough, broken surface.' 

Cnoc Bad a' bhacaidh Hill of the moss-clump. 
CDOC an Ruigh ruaidh Hill of the red slope. 
Chulash A' chulais, the recess. 



30 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CKOMABTY. 

CnOC Thorcaill Torquil's hill. 

Cnoc 'Chlachain Hill of the clachan, with reference 

to the Monastery of Fearn, the original site of 

which was not far off. 

Meall na siorramachd (O.S.M. Cnoc Leathado 

na siorramachd) ? Shire-hill, on the Kincardine 
boundary. 

Beinn nan oighreagan Hill of the cloud-berries ; 

the usual plural is oighrean, implying a singular 
oighre, oi which oighreag is diminutive. 

Easter, Western, and Mid Fearn Fearn' ard, 

Fearn' iochdarach, literally High Fearn and Lower 
Fearn, and Fearna meadhonach. Blaeu's Atlas 
has Faern lera, Faern Meanach, Faern Ocra ; 
from Fearria, alder. The Monastery of Fearn 
was originally founded ' near Kintarue, in Stiath- 
charron' (Chron. of Earls of Ross), probably, 
therefore, at Wester Fearn, about 1225, and 
about twenty years later, in the founder's life- 
time, ' for the more tranquillitie, peace and 
quietnes thereof translated ' to the spot it still 
occupies, where it was called at first Nova Farina, 
New Fearn, then simply Fearn. 

Allt Grugaig The little surly one, the burn of 
Wester Fearn. 

According to the New Stat. Ace. (1840), 
" there is a complete chain of those round towers 
called Dunes surrounding this parish ; none 
of them, however, in a state of even tolerable 
preservation. One of these, situated at Easter 
Fearn, and known by the name of Dune-Alliscaig 



EDDEKTON. 31 

(from Dun-fair-loisgeadh, or the beacon watcli- 
tower), was about fourteen feet in height within 
the last thirty years, and had vaults and a spiral 
staircase within the wall." It was destroyed for 
dykes, etc., about 1818. The site is still to be 
seen, and the name is still current in Gaelic as 
Dun Alaisgaig. Falaisg, moor-burning, which 
seems hinted at in the derivation oifered above, 
suits the phonetics exactly, but the word is 
probably Norse. Blaeu has it Dun Alliscaig. 
East .of it he marks Dunivastra, i.e., Dounie of 
Westray, now Dounie, where there are also the 
ruins of a broch still known as the * c&rn liath.' 
There is a third, nameless, at Lechanich, said to 
have been six or seven feet high, with chambers, 
within living memory. Carn mathaidh, on Rudha 
nan sgarbh, may have been another. 

There are no Norse names in Edderton, except 
the obsolete Westray, and possibly Dim Alaisgaig. 



32 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



TAIN. 

Tain Tene 1227; Thane 1483. The Gaelic form 
is not available, as Baile Dhubhaich, St Duthac's 
town, has in Gaelic displaced Tain. The existence 
of another Tain, near the head of Dunnet Bay in 
Caithness, suggests the name to be Norse, but it 
is difficult to offer a satisfactory etymology. The 
guesses of Rev. W. Taylor and others need not be 
repeated, nor have I arrived at anything certain. 
In Reg. Mag. Sig., under date 1612, the annual 
markets of Tain are given as follows : Midsomer 
or St John's, 26 June ; S. Barquhani, 4 August ; 
[St Berchan] S. Duthosi, 30 December, 6 March ; 
S. Makharboch, 20 November. The Calendar of 
Fearn gives only three fairs, on 18 March, 9 
August, and 20 December, the last being ' Mak- 
carmochis day.' (St Cormac ; cf. Tobar Cormaic 
in Nigg). 

The girth of Tain, marked out by four crosses 
(Charter of James II., 1457), appears to have 
been roughly co-extensive with the bounds of 
the parish. In 1616 (Reg. Mag. Sig.) appears 
4 the girth croce dividing the common lands of 
the Burgh of Tayne from Ulladil,' and Rev. 
W. Taylor notes dais na comraich, 1 hollow of the 
girth or sanctuary, on the southern boundary of 

1 It is at " The Canary." 



TAIN. 33 

the parish, towards Scotsburn (of old Ulladale). 
Crois Caitrion, Catherine's Cross, to the north of 
Loch Eye, may have been another girth cross. 
The revenues of the Collegiate Church of Tain, 
which dates from 1487, were derived from the 
lands of Tain, Innerathy, Newmore, Dunskaith, 
Morynchy, Tallirky, and Cambuscurry. Of these 
places, the last five were chaplainries, and the 
last three were within the girth of Tain. 

Meikle Ferry G. am port mor, of old Portin- 
coulter. The Little Ferry is at the mouth of 
Loch Fleet, between the parishes of Dornoch and 
Golspie. 

Ardjachie G. aird-achaidh, promontory of the 
cultivated field. 

Tarlogie Tallirky 1487 ; Tarlogy 1529; Tallarky 
1559 ; Talreky 1580 ; G. Tarlogaidh. Talorg, 
diminutive Talorgan, was a Pictish proper name, 
from tal, brow, and the root arg, white, seen in 
argentum, airgiod, Argos. The Gaulish proper 
name Argiotalus shews the same elements. The 
name of a Pictish saint Talorgan survives in Kil- 
tarlity, G. Cill-Taraghlain. As a place-name, 
white brow is, of course, quite appropriate. 

PitnelJies Petnely 1512; G. Bail' an ianlaith, 
Birds' town. The plural form has arisen from the 
division of Pitnely into two north and south. 
The English form is an instructive corruption. 

Balcherry G. Bail' a' cheathraimh, town of the 
quarter (davach), cf. Balcherry, near Invergordon, 
also Ochto. 

3 



34 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMAE-TY. 

Pithogarty Petogarthe 1548 ; Pettogarty 1560 ; 
Betagartie 1574 ; G. Bail' shogartaidh, Priest's 
town. The true Gaelic form Avould be Bail' an 
t-sagairt or Baile nan sagart ; cf. Pitentagart and 
Balhaggarty in Aberdeenshire. 

The Fendom G. na f ana (fanoo), from fan, a gentle 
slope, or, usually in Scottish topography, a flat, 
low-lying place, the Scots ' Laigh.' Fan is seen 
as an adjective in Rob Donn, ' an rum a's fhaine 
fo 'n uir,' the lowest room beneath the earth, i.e., 
the grave. The English form is a curious cor- 
ruption. 

Balkeith or Balkil Ballecuth 1548; G. Baile na 
coille, town of the wood ; keith looks like Welsh 
gwydd, wood, which would make the modern 
Gaelic Baile na coille a direct translation of an 
original Pictish Pit-keith. Similarly Dal-keith, 
which is on a flat-backed ridge, may mean 
' plateau of the wood.' 

Plaids Plaiddes 1560; G. a Phlaicl, from Norse 
flatr, the flat or low land. The plural form is 
English; cf. Pladday, Flat Isle. Fladay, off 
Barra, retains the Norse form. Near Plaids is 
said to have been a court-hill of Paul Mactyre. 

Morangie Morinchy 1487, Morinch 1507, Morin- 
schie 1618; G. M6r(a)istidh. The 't' of the 
modern Gaelic form is, doubtless, developed after 
4 s ' (cf. an drasd for an trath sa ; culaist for 
culaix), and from the old forms it may be inferred 
to be of fairly recent origin. This leaves us with 
M6r(a)isidh, where ' is ' is the reduced form of 



TAIN. 



35 



' iniiis,' haugh, and the rest is termination, the 
whole meaning Big-haugh. 

Kirksheaf Kerskeithl560,Kirkskeith 1607; Cros- 
kyth, Pont ; now in G. a chroit mhor, the big 
croft. The old forms suggest cathair, seat or fort, 
and either sgath, dread (cf. Dunskaith in Nigg), 
or sgeith, hawthorn. The place is close to the 
ancient Chapel of St Duthus. 

Cnoc nan aingeal, or Angels' Hill The small hill, 
now cut through by the railway, north-east of the 
old chapel. The road to Inver crosses the cutting 
by a bridge. Cf. Cnoc nan aingeal at Kirkton of 
Lochalsh. The name may equally well mean 
knoll of fires, from G. aingeal, light, fire. 

Knockbreck G. an cnoc breac, the spotted hill. 

Cnocanmealbhain Knoll of the white lump. 

Aldie G. Alltaidh, burn place, from allt, with 
extension. 

Garrick Burn Muirs and Moss of Garrack, 1690 ; 
also Ben Garrick, Beindyarrok 1632, and drochaid 
Gharaig, Garrick Bridge. 

Knocknacean G. cnoc nan ceann, hill of heads, 
with probable reference to a battle. 

Glastullich Green hillock ; locative of tulach. 

Blarleath G. am blar liath, the gray plain. 

Ardival Height of the home-stead. 

Loch Lapagial A tiny lochlet in the heights, the 
Gaelic form of which I have failed to verify. 

Loch Uanaidh (O.S.M. Lochan Uaine); Loch 
Owany, Pont ; perhaps from uan, lamb, but 
there is also O. Ir. uan, foam. 



36 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

An t-allt clachach The stony burn. 

Beinn na gearran of O.S.M. should be Bimi 

Garaig, the hill of Tain. 

Lairg ' The Lairgs of Tain ' ; G. lairig, a sloping 
hill, moor. 

KingSCauseway G. cabhsair an righ ; but, accord- 
ing to Rev. W. Taylor, rathad an righ ; probably 
the road by which James IV. so often rode to 
St Duthac's shrine. 

Balnagall Balnagaw 1560, town of the strangers ; 
scarcely likely to be a reminiscence of the Norse- 
man. 

Bogbain G. am bac ban, white moss. 

Hunting Hill G. druim na sealg. 

Morrich more G. a mhoraich mhor, a large, low- 
lying sandy flat by the sea shore. Moraich, 
better mor(mh)oich or mor'oich, is from Ir. mur- 
magh, sea plain ; cf. a mhor'oich, the Gaelic of 
Lovat ; Morvich, Kintail, &c. It is usually applied 
to a plain by the sea shore, yet we have a moor 
so called in Badenoch. A sand bank off the coast, 
accessible only at low tides, is called ' an aideal' 
from Norse va^ill, ford. 

Loch Preas an uisge, Loch na Muic, Loch nan 
Tun nag, Loch of the Water- bush, Sow Loch, 
and Duck Loch are small lochs in the Morrich 
More. 

An innis mhor, big isle, and an innis bheag, small 
isle, off the coast. 

Whiteness Apparently Norse, white point. 







TAIN. 37 

The Gizzen BriggS 1 A dangerous sandy bar guard- 
ing the entrance to the Dornoch Firth. G, 
drochaid an obh (ow). Taylor, however, gives 
drochaid an aobh, and says he had also heard 
drochaid an naomh, with a nasal sound. The 
local explanation connects with baobh, or baogh, 
hag, in Easter Ross called ' a vow,' and specialised 
into the meaning of water-sprite, or possibly 
mermaid ; in any case, a malicious spirit. Gizzen 
Briggs is connected by Taylor with Norse Geyser, 
a boiling spring, which suits neither the sense nor- 
th e phonetics. Brig, for bridge, is so utterly 
foreign to the English of Ross that it is most 
reasonable to regard it as a Norse survival, as also 
the ' meikle,' so common in. Easter Ross farm 
names. The name is, doubtless, the Norse 
' gisnar bryggja,' leaky bridge. In Easter Ross 
the term ' gizzened,' leaky, is still commonly 
applied to tubs or barrels that have shrunk in the 
sun. 

Inveraithie Now practically obsolete ; in a Retour 
of 1652 appears as 'within the liberty of Tain, 
and having salmon fishings and stells.' ' The 
tradition is that the town of Tain was once built 
much nearer than it is at present to the mouth of 
the river, on land that has been in great part 
swept away by the sea, but that was called in old 
charters and is sometimes remembered still as 

1 " Most of the Norwegian fiords are partially obstructed at their entrance 
by the remains of old moraines, which in the north are called havbroen, sea 
bridges" (Redus, Univ. Gcog.). 



38 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Inver-Eathie, or in Gaelic Inbhir-athai ' (Taylor). 
The Gaelic form here given, though it cannot now 
be verified, is doubtless right, for Eathie Burn 
in the Black Isle is Allt athaidh. Evidently 
athaidh was also the old name of the Tain river. 
The word is probably based on ath, a ford. 

Inver G. an in'ir (inbhir), the confluence, or mouth 
of a stream. Rev. W. Taylor says that it appears 
in old documents as Inverlochslin, which would 
imply that Lochslin, now drained, sent its waters 
in this direction. 

Na h-oitrichean The mussel scalps, from G. oitir, 
sea bank. 

Culpleasant A hybrid of comparatively recent 
origin ; cuil, nook. Near it is Fuaran Dhaidh, 
St David's well, the principal source of the Tain 
water supply. 

The Canary So called, it is said, from a drinking 
place which once existed here. 

Queebec Bridge and Brae, on the Scotsburn road 
about two miles from Tain ; the name arose from 
the fact that a gentleman who had made money 
in Quebec settled near. The Gaelic name is 
Muileann Luaidh, Fulling Mill, and the burn 
is Allt Luaidh. 

Commonty Once the common lands of the burgh 
of Tain. 

The following names appear to be obsolete : 
The two Thesklaris (on west side of Tain), 
Enycht, Croftmatak, Poltak, Neclacanalych, Bal- 
natouch, Petgerello, Skardy with its mill, Auley 



TAIN. 



39 



{? Aldie), the Buttis, Gorlinges, Clerk Island, and 
Priest Island, the last three ' belonging to the 
Burgh from time immemorial (confirmation of 
1612 by King James VI) 





40 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



FEAKN. 

Fearn was until 1628 included in the parish of 
Tarbat. The name was transferred with the mon- 
astery from Fearn, Edderton. The monastery, on 
its new site, was styled Nova Farina, New Fearn, 
but in Gaelic the parish is Sgir na Manachainn, 
Parish of the Monastery, also simply A' Mhan- 
achainn. As distinguished from Beauly (Manach- 
ainn 'Ic Shimidh), it is called Manachainn Hois, the 
Monastery of Koss. 

Cadboll Cathabul 1529 ; Norse kattar-bol, cat- 
stead ; from this and similar names in Tarbat 
it appears that the rocks facing the Moray Firth 
were of old a haunt of wild cats. Cf. Cattadale, 
Islay. Below Cadboll are Tobar ct bliaile duiWi, 
Well of the black town, and Tobar Suardalain, 
Well of Suardalan ; also Creag na fiaintighearna, 
the Lady's rock. 

Cadboll Mount The curious story of Cadboll 
Mount is told by Bishop Forbes. The Laird of 
Cadboll was on bad terms with his cousin, 
Macleod of Geanies, and built the ' mount' to 
look down on his lands. Geanies replied by 
planting a belt of trees which in time shut out 
the view. The mound, which still exists, was 
made quadrangular, built in steps like a pyramid, 
and about 60 feet high. 



FEAKN. 41 

Hilton Balnaknok 1610 ; G. bail' a' chnuic. 

Balintore G. bail' an todhair, bleaching-town ; cf. 
Balintore in Abriachan and in Kirkhill. The 
name goes back to the tiine when flax was culti- 
vated in the north. The old name of Balintore 
is given locally as Port an Ab, Abbot's Port, and 
Blaeu shows Abbotshaven here. 

Tullich Tulloch 1606; G. an tulaich (locative), 
at the hillock. 

Clasnamuiack Grlasnamoyache 1647; G. Clais na 
maigheach, Hares' hollow. 

Balmuchy Balmochi 1529 ; Balmoch 1561 ; G. 
Baile mhuchaidh. The meaning is uncertain ; 
muc, pig, is out of the question ; perhaps Ir. 
much, mist, or mucha, owl. Pendicles of 
Balmuchy were Bellewallie (Broomtown), Ballin- 
reich (Bail' an f/iraoich, Heather-stead, between 
Fearn U.F. Church and Manse, north of the road), 
and Glasnamoyache above. 

Pitkerrie Pitkeri 1529 ; G. Baile-cheiridh ; not 
the same as Balcherry, Tain, which has short e. 
The local derivation is ceir, wax : the place was 
covered with whins, from which the bees made 
only wax. This is quite possible, though it looks 
somewhat fanciful. But at least equally possible 
is a derivation from ciar, dark, whence ceiread, 
duskiness, hoariness. Behind it is Waterton, G. 
Baile nam fuaran, Well-town. 

Rhynie Eathne 1529 ; G. rathan (mhor andbheag, 
meikle and little) ; a derivative from rath, circular 
enclosure or fort. Rhynie in Aberdeenshire is- 



42 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

of different origin Ryny 1224, Rynyn 1226 ; 
from roinnean, diminutive of roinn, headland, as 
Mr James Macdonald thinks (Place-names of 
West Abercleenshire). 

Poulfock G. poll a' phoca, pool of the bag. 

IiOCheye G. loch na h-uidhe ; uidh, from Norse 
eith, isthmus, is common in place-names, where it 
may mean (i.) isthmus, cf. the Eye peninsula at 
Stornoway, or (ii.) according to some, slow running 
water between two lochs. Here, from the fact 
that we have ' an uidh ' (see below) near the 
outlet of the loch, uidh seems to be used with the 
second meaning. 

Mounteagle G. cnoc iia h-iolaire, also, an uidh, as 
above, but the ' uidh ' is strictly the western part 
of Mounteagle, near the outlet of Loch Eye. 

Lochslin G. Loch-slinn, from slinii, a weaver's 
sleye. Lochslin, as a loch, has disappeared, and 
survives only in ihe names Lochslin Farm and 
the ancient ruin of Lochslin Castle. It must 
have been a small loch, at the eastern end of Loch 
Eye, v. Inver. 

Knocknahar G. cnoc na h-aire, watch-hill. 

Loandhll G. an Ion dubh, black ' loan ' or wet 
meadow. 

Balnagore, probably baile nan gobhar, Goats' town, 
which is confirmed by a well, Tobar nan gobhar, 
Goats' well, noted by Rev. Mr Taylor, and 
appearing on record as Tobarnayngor. Formerly 
a number of small crofts. 

The Talich Dallachie, in the barony of Geanies, 
1676 ; G. loch an dailich, ?loch of the meeting. 




FEARN. 43 

Allan Allan Meikle 1479 ; G. Alan mhor (broad 
' 1 '). In the parish of Knockbain there are three 
Allans, Allan-grange, Allan nan clach, and Allan 
fhraoich ; there is also Alan-ais, the Gaelic of 
Alness, all pronounced alike in Gaelic, v. Alness. 

Ballinroich Munro's town. William Munro, son 
of Andrew Munro of Milntown, obtained the lands 
of Meikle Allan about 1570. 

Balblair G. bail' a' bhlair, town of the plain. 

Balindrum G. bail an druim, town of the ridge. 

Mttldearg G. a' mhuil dearg (locative), the red 
rounded eminence. 

Midoxgate G. an (t-)uchd meadhonach, the mid 
hillock or terrace. In view of the Gaelic it would 
be unsafe to regard this interesting name as a 
genuine survival of the bovate or oxgate, the old 
land measure. The place is on the 100 foot ridge 
between Hill of Fearn and Loch Eye, and ' uchd 
meadhonach' is therefore quite applicable. In 
the absence of old forms, it seems more reasonable 
to suppose Midoxgate to be an ingenious mis- 
translation of the Gaelic by some one of anti- 
quarian tastes, than to regard ' uchd ' as a Gaelic 
attempt at ' ox.' 

At Hilton of Cadboll stood a chapel, dedicated to 
the Virgin 'Our Ladyis Chapell ' 1610, in con- 
nection with which appears in 1610 (Reg. Mag. 
Sig.) Litill Kilmure, Toir of Kilmuir, a well called 
Oure-Lady-well, situated near the angle of the 
kailyard dyke occupied by And. Denune of Bal- 
naknok ; also the heavin called Our-Lady-heavin 



44 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

of Kilmure. Some of these names survive : 
Creag na baintighearna, Lady's Bock, is under 
Cadboll ; Tobar na baintighearna, Lady's Well, is 
(or was) near a small graveyard east of Hilton 
used for unbaptized children ; Port na bain- 
tighearna, Lady's haven. The name Kilmuir, 
curiously enough, seems to have gone, but there 
is Bard Mhoire, Mary's meadow or enclosure. I 
have met with no other clear instance of ban- 
tighearna in the above sense of ' Our Lady.' 



TARE AT. 45 



TAEBAT. 

Tarbat Arterbert 1227 ; Terbert 1529 ; Tarbat 
1561-66 ; G Tairbeart, a crossing, portage, 
isthmus. The land of Estirterbate stands first in 
the list of lands given in the Exchequer Holls as 
belonging to John, last Earl of Ross, which passed 
to the Crown on his resignation in 1479. 

Tarbat Ness G. rudha Thairbeirt, cf. Arterbert 
above, where Ar(t) is for airde, promontory. 
Cairns near the lighthouse are named Bodach an 
rudha, the old man of the point ; an Cailleach, 
the old wife ; a' Bhean-mhuinntir, the servant 
lass. A rock in the sea is called Steollaidh, 
Norse stagl-ey, rock-island. 

Port a' chait Cat's port ; cf. Oadboll. There is 
also Got nan cat, hole or cavern of the cats, 
from Norse gat, hole ; English gate. Near it is 
Got nan caiman, hole of the pigeons. 

Port Buckie G. Port nam faochag. 

Wilkhaven A translation of Port nam faochag. 
Near it is n a h-athan salach, the nasty fords, a 
small burn, which appears on record as Allan - 
sallaeh, with a chapel dedicated to St Bride. 

Blar a' chath The battlefield. 

Brucefield G. crioc an tighearna, the laird's hill, 
probably from Robert Bruce Macleod, a former 
proprietor. North Brucefield is in Gaelic Loch 



46 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Sirr\ Near it was Loch nan cuigeal ; cuigeal, a 
distaff, is also the name of a water plant. 

Port Uilleam William's port. 

Hilton G. Bail' a' chnuic ; near it is Cnoc beall- 
aidh, broom-hill. 

Bindal G. Biricleil ; Norse bind-clalr ? sheaf-dale, 
The name occurs in Norway. Near it is Stiana 
Bleadar or stoney -blather, Norse stein-blettr, 
stone-spot. 

Portmahomack Portmaholmag N.S.A. ; G. Port 
ma Cholmag, Colman's port. Tobar ma Chalmag, 
Colman's well, is near the Library. Behind it is 
Pitfaed) G. Baile Phaididh, of doubtful meaning. 

Gaza So called (i.) because it is desert, being 
mostly sand-hills (cf. Acts viii. 26), or (ii.) because 
a minister of Tar bat once referred to its people as 
" muinntir Ghaza," men of Gaza, i.e., Philistines, 
because of their irregular attendance at church. 
Such are the local explanations. 

Balnabruach Town of the banks. 

Rockfield G. a' Chreag, or Creag Tarail beag. 

Castle Corbet G. an Caisteal dearg, Red-castle. 
In 1534 James Dunbar of Tarbat sold one-third 
of the lands of Arboll to John Corbet of Estir 
Ard, and the Corbets appear on record thereafter 
as proprietors in Tarbet. 

Balachladich Shore town ; further inland is 
Scafield. 

Drumancroy G. an druim(a) cruaidh (locative),, 
the hard ridge. 



TARBAT. 47 

Petley So called in the first decade of last century 
by Sheriff Macleod of Geariies, who married Miss 
Jane Petley. The old name was Mulbuie, yellow 
height; Mulboyeid 1535. 

Tarrel John of Tarale 1373, Tamil 1561 ; G. 
Tarail. Probably ' tar,' across, over, and ' ail,' 
rock Over-cliff. There are high cliffs at Tarrel 
and at Rocktown (Little Tarrel), as there are at 
Geanies. Gaelic has ' Tarail mhor, is Tarail 
bheag, is Tarail fo na chreag.' 

Meikle Tarrel included in 1529 Royeindavoir, 
Renmasrycshe, Creitnacloyithegeill, Creitmantae, 
Kilpottis, Rownakarne, Rownaknoksenidis, and 
near it were Callechumetulle, Kandig, KilstaRe. 

Geanies Gathenn 1529 ; Eistir Gany, Wastir 
Gaiiy, Midilgany 1561-1566 ; G. Gaan. The 
modern form is thus an English plural. Gaan is 
most probably a Gaelic plural of Norse ' gja,' a 
chasm, from the precipitous rocks on the coast^ 
From the same root we have also ' gaw,' a furrow 
or small trench ; cf. ' yawn,' Ger. ' gahnen,' Scot- 
tish ' gant.' 

Balaldie ' Baile,' town ; ' alt,' burn, with -ie 
ending Burn-town. 

Balnuig G. bail' an aoig, town of death ; Baile na 
h-atha, Kiln-town, is part of it. 

Toulvaddie G. toll a' mhadaidh, dog-hole. 

Loch Clais na ere Loch of the clay hollow. 

Arboll Arkboll 1463 and 1535 ; Norse ork-bol, 
ark-stead, but possibly from orkn, seal, which in 
Skye gives Or-bost. Near Arboll were Knokan- 



48 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

girrach, on the coast, 1633 ; also Lochanteny and 
Loanteanaquhatt, i.e., L6n tigh nan cat, Cats' - 
house mead. 

Gallow Hill G. cnoc na croiche, about a mile from 
Balloan Castle. 

Skinnertown G. baile nan Scinnearach. Skinner 
is a surname very common in the coast villages of 
Easter Ross. 

Innis Bheag Small Isle off the north coast. 

A' Chreag Mhaol Bare or blunt rock, below 
Tarrel. 

Teampall Earach Easter Temple, a cave on the 
south coast, east of Bindal, opposite a moor now 
cultivated between Bindal and Wilkhaven, called 
Blar-Earach ; there is also Cruit Earach, easter 
croft ; cf. cuil earach, easter recess, in Islay. 
There is a tradition that the cave, which is but 
small, was once used for purposes of worship. 
Hev. Mr Taylor quotes a description, which 
applies not to it but to a much more imposing 
cave near it. 

Balloan Castle Two causeways lead to it, Cabh- 
sair an righ, King's causeway, and an cabhsar 
mbr, the big causeway. Near it is Cnoc Dubh, 
Black Hill, where stone coffins have been found, 
also Cnoc druim(a) langaidh. 

Port a* Chaisteil Castle-haven, whence the title 
in the Cromarty family of Viscount Castlehaven. 
In a rock to the west of it is Got a choice, hole of 
the cauldron. 



TAEBAT. 49 

Toll Raoiridh is a cave on the north-east side of 
Tar bat Ness. Its mouth is now blocked, but some 
cattle which entered it long ago came out in 
Caithness ! Cf. Creag Eaoiridh in Kincardine 
and Leac Eaoiridh below Achtercairn, Gairloch. 

Kilpots, which appears as Kilpotis, is a sea-mark ; 
there is also oir na poit, edge of the pot. 

Cillean Ilelpak is a fishing bank in the Moray 
Firth, called in Cromarty Geelyum Melpak. 
There is another ' Geelyum ' nearer Cromarty. 
Helpak is said to have been a witch. 

The following names, probably belonging to 
Fearn or Tarbat appear to be obsolete : Hard- 
nanen and Ardnadoler, Port na cloiche, Port 
nagrigack, Portnawest 1 alias St John's port all 
described as small ports, and the last three near 
Arboll ; Innerladour, Eochani, Knokydaff, Arth- 
reis, Coillen, Kandig, Eownaknoksenidis, Elvie 
more, Ballinsirach, and, near Arboll, a port called 
Camray. 

1 This is probably Port cC Lhaist, still known. 



50 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



NIGG. 

Nig Nig 1227 ; G. 'n eig, the notch (locative of 
eag). The notch in question may be that cut by 
the bay of Nigg ; but it is noteworthy that the 
parish church, which has always apparently occu- 
pied the same site, stands on the edge of a 
Y-shaped gully, and on the analogy of other 
parish names it is perhaps safer to regard this 
gully as the notch which gave its name first to 
the church and then to the parish ; cf. Eigg, and 
Nigg near Aberdeen. 

Broomtown Ballewallie ; G. bail' a' bhealaidtu 
Between it and Balintore is Dorus na(m) ba, 
door, or pass, of the kine. 

Shandwick G. seannduaig, from Norse sand-vik y 
sand-bay. In Islay the same combination gives 
Sanaig. A plan of the land about Shandwick, 
dated 1786, shews the following : Tobar no, 
slainte, well of health ; Stronmore, the big point ; 
Walter's Seat ; Craggan, the little rock ; Cull 
lisk, back or nook of the enclosure ; Crot kerk, 
Hens' Croft ; Crot Ganich, Sandy Croft ; Crot 
Oich ; Fisher Crofts ; Eallnamorich, Fisher- town ; 
Cromlet, the bent slope ; Leatcaum, the bent hill- 
side ; Clasinore, ? Claisean mora, the big furrows ; 
Riliindow, black slopes ; Cocli kinich (i.e., Cach- 
aileith Coinnich), Kenneth's gate. 



NIGG. 51 

Rarichie (Easter and Wester) Rarechys 1333, 
Raricheis 1368 ; G. Rath-riachaidh shios agus R. 
shuas. Fort of scratching (as by brambles), satis- 
fies the phonetics. The foundations of a circular 
fort still exist on a hillock, with well-marked fosse 
at foot, near the farmhouse of Easter Rarichie. 
The former existence of wood is proved by its 
name, Cnoc coille no, tobarach, Well-wood Hill. 
Of. Dunriachie, a hill fort in the parish of Dores, 
Inverness. The latter part of the compound may, 
however, be riabhach, dappled, with -idh exten- 
sion. The local derivation is as follows : The 
Picts lived at Cadha 'n ruigh, and in spring-time 
they would say, ' tiugamaid 'bhan 'dheanamh 
rotha riachagan,' ' let us go down to make rows 
of scratches ' (to sow seed in). 

Easter Rarichie includes Cnoc Coinnich, Ken- 
neth's Hill ; an Torran shuas and an Torran shios, 
the wester and the easter hillock. 

Lower Rarichie G. Bail' a' phuill, Pool-town. 

Drumdil G. Druim(a) daol, Beetle-ridge, west of 
Wester Rarichie. Below it is Croit Bhreunan, 
the little rotten croft. 

Pitcalnie Pitcahan 1662; G. Baile-chailnidh ; T 
silent in English ; an obscure name. 

Pitculzean Revived as the name of Westfield, 
which was of old Meikle Pitcalzean ; Pitcalzeane 
1581, Pitcalzean 1598 ; G. Bail' a' choillean, town 
of the little wood, as is proved by Tobar na coille, 
well of the wood, on the place. 

Culnaha Oulnahaw 1611 ; G. Cul-na-h-atha, Kiln- 
nook or Kiln-back, for it is practically impossible 



52 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

in such cases to distinguish cuil, recess, from cul, 
back. With it goes CadJi a bhreacaich, path of 
the spotted place. 

Culinald Culnald cum ustrina lie kill die Nig, 
1634 (Culnald with the kiln, called the kiln of 
Nigg) ; Burn-nook, now part of Nigg Farm. The 
streamlet in question flows through the gully at 
Nigg Church. 

Strath of Pitcalnie Culderare 1611 ; G. Srath 
chuilt-eararaidh ; eararadh is the process of 
parching corn ; cuilt occurs passim in Perthshire 
and elsewhere, e.g., a chuilt rainich, the ferny 
' cuilt ' ; doubtless the Aberdeenshire Cult-s. The 
meaning of this obsolete word seems to be some- 
thing like ' nook ' ; it may be cuil, O. Ir. cuil, with 
excrescent ' t.' Cuilt-eararaidh would thus mean 
the nook of parching. In this Strath is Cnoc 
Ghaisgeach. From a loch in the hill above it 
flows Allt an damhain (O.S.M. Aultandown), 
burn of the little ox. 

Balnabruach Kindeis Wester, within the barony 
of Ballinbreich, 1650 Ret. ; Bank-town. Near it 
is Cnoc na h-iolaire, Eagle-hill. 

Balnapaliag A hybrid, Paling-town ; there were 
a number of small plots of land separated by 
' palings.' 

Castlecraig G. Oaisteal Chrag (sic); now the 
name of a farm, on which may yet be traced the 
lines of the castle built by William the Lion in 
1179. Its name was Dun Sgath, fort of dread, 
now English Dunskaith. The farm of Castlecraig 
includes several holdings formerly distinct : an 



NIGG. 53 

Annaid,the 4nnat (Annot 1611 ; Rhidorach, the 
dark slope ; Culbinn, back (or nook) of the hill, 
and Dunsgath, Dunskaith. 

Bayfield Formerly Meikle Kindeace ; G. Cinndeis 
mh5r, or Cinndeis Rob'son shuas, Wester Kin- 
deace of Robertson, from William Robertson, a 
burgess of Inverness, who bought it and the fol- 
lowing in 1629. The name was changed to 
Bayfield by John Mackenzie, commander of the 
' Prince Kaunitz,' who bought the estate about 
1788 (v. Nevile Reid's 'Earls of Ross."). 

Ankerville G. Cinn-deis bhig, Little Kindeace ; 
also Easter Kindeace; bought in 1721 by Alex- 
ander Ross (locally known as Polander Ross), late 
merchant at Cracow, who changed the name (v. 
'Earls of Ross' and N.S.A.) v. Kindeace in 
Kilmuir Easter. 

Carse of Bayfield G. Mor'oich Cinndeis, Carse of 
Kindeace, or simply, a Mhor'oich. 

Gulliss Culisse 1296 ; Culuys 1351 ; Culliss alias 
Cullenderie, 1642 ; G. Cul an lios, back of the 
' lios ;' lios, now garden, formerly meant an 
enclosure or fort with an earthen wall ; cf. Lis- 
more. Rare in northern place-names. Near 
Culliss was Muileann Ach-railean, Achrailean 
Mill, cf. Badrallich in Lochbroom. 

Blackhili G. an cnoc dubh. 

Hill Of Nigg -G. Binn Nig ; of old ' the Bishop's 
Forest.' 

Big Audle A channel in the bay, from Norse 
va<5ill, a ford. There is also an oitir, the sea- 
bank. 



54 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

The Three Kings G. Creag Harail, Harold's Rock. 
This skerry off the Nigg coast is called in the 
N.S.A. The King's Sons. The story goes that 
three sons of a Danish prince, sailing to avenge 
their sister's wrongs, were wrecked here. Their 
graves were marked by the sculptured stones of 
Hilton, Shandwick, and Nigg. Another legend 
of their burial is given below. 

Of all Ross-shire parishes, Nigg is, in proportion 
to its size, the richest in wells. Most have 
names, but some that appear in the following list 
no longer rise to the surface at their proper 
place : 

Tobar Cormaig Cormac's well, at Shandwick farm- 
house. 

Tobar Cnoc Coinnich Well of Kenneth's hill, i.e., 
the hill above Easter Rarichie. 

Glagaig Now closed, to the south of the road at 
Torran shuas, ' the little noisy one ;' cf. glagan, 
the clapper of a mill ; glagar, a prating fellow. 

Sul bi Cows' eye, i.e., well-eye at which cattle 
came to drink ; in front of the old curate's house 
at Easter Rarichie. 

Tobar na h-iu At the wester side of Cnoc 
coille na tobarach, Well-wood hill, which is the 
Gaelic name of the so-called Fairy hill or Danish 
fort, really a Celtic hill fort, at Easter Rarichie. 
Hard by this well once stood a tree whose 
branches bent over the water, and while the tree 
stood, the well cured ' white swelling.' The tree 
was cut, and the well struck. The following 



NIGG. 55 

rhyme in connection with this tale shows the sort 
of feeling with which such wells were regarded : 

Tobar na h-iu, Tobar na h-iu, 

's aim duit bu chumha bhi uasal ; 

tha leabaidh deis ann an iuthairnn 

do 'n fhear a ghearr a' chraobh mu d' chluasan. 1 

Well of the yew, Well of the yew ! 2 
to thee it is that honour is due ; 
a bed in hell is prepared for him 
who cut the tree about thine ears. 

Tobar nam puill linn Well of the lint pools, 

above Wester Rarichie. 
Tobar nan geala (or deala) mdra Well of the big 

leeches, between Wester Rarichie and Culliss. 

This well was insulted and is not what it was. 
Tobar Sein Sutharlain Jane Sutherland's well, at 

Drumdil. 
Tobar a' bhaistidh Baptismal well, at Ankerville, 

just above the old U.P. Church. Otherwise, 

tobair Eapaig Ghearr, Eppy Gair's well. 
Tobar Eadhain Bhaist John Baptist's well, beside 

Chapelhill Church. 

Tobar a* Oh6irneil The Colonel's well (Colonel 
Ross), at Nigg Farm. 

Tobar na coille At Pitcalzean ; G. Bail' a 
choillean. 

Tobar Alaidh Bhodhsa Sandy Vass's well, sup- 
plies Westfield house. 

1 The two last lines would be rendered less rugged by reading 
tha leabaidh deis an iuthairnn do'n fhear 
a ghear a' chraobh mu d' chluasan. 

a This translation supposes " iu" to represent Ir. e6, a yew tree. 



56 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Tobar Dun-Sgath Dunskaith well. 

Tobar na h-6iteachan On the top of Nigg hill,. 

famous water, used by the Nigg smugglers. 
Tobar cadha 'n ruigh Ca'an ruigh well. 

Tobar na slainte Well of health, near Shand- 
wick Village, and noted for its healing powers. 

Tobar na' muc Pigs' well, by the shore, west of 
Shandwick. 

Leisgeig The little lazy one, near Shandwick ; 
its water comes in very small quantity. 

Tobar a* chlaidheimh duibh an Eirinn, 's i air 

aghaidh na greine an port an Druidh (al. a 
dh-eirich an Port an Druidh) Well of the black 
sword in Erin, facing the sun in the Druid's port 
(or, that rose in the Druid's port). It does not 
rise, but gushes out of the rock, and is excellent 
water. Port an Druidh is west of Shandwick. 

Besides the old churchyard at the Church of 
Nigg, there are, or were, four other places of 
burial in the parish. 

At Nigg Rocks, below Cadha Neachdain, there is 
a graveyard, now covered with shingle. Here 
the Danish princes were buried. Their grave- 
stones came from Denmark, and had iron rings 
fastened in them to facilitate their landing. So 
local tradition. This most unlikely spot for a 
graveyard was not selected without some good 
reason, the most probable being that hermits 
once lived in the caves, whence the place was 
reckoned holy ground. 

At Clach' charaidh, the sculptured stone near 
Shandwick, all unbaptized infants of the parish 



NIGG. 57 

were buried up till fairly recent times. It is now 
cultivated. 

At Easter Rarichie Here the curate of Nigg lived, 
and the field behind his house is called ' raon a 
chlaidh,' the graveyard field. The plough goes 
over it now, and formerly used to strike the 
gravestones, but these are now removed. 

Near Shandwiek Farm-house, to the south-west, 

between the sea and the rock was a graveyard, 
the name of which I failed to find. Some of the 
stones are still visible. 

The following are the paths (cadha) leading to 
the shore beneath the rocks : Cadha nan 
caorach, sheeps' path ; Cadha sgriodaidh, shingly 
path ; Cadha nan suibhean, path of rasp-berries ; 
Cadh a' bhodaich, the old man's path ; Cadha a! 
bhreacaich, pass of the speckled place ; Cadha 
Neachdain, Nectan's path ; Cadha 'n ruigh, path 
of the slope ; Cadha cul losaidh ; Cadha togail 
toinn, a path with one difficult part where a 
push from behind is requisite ; Cadha port an 
druidh, west of Shandwiek, path of the Druid's 
port ; Spardan nan gobhar, goats' roost. 



58 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



LOGIE EASTER 

Logic Logy 1270; G. Lagaidh ; 'lag,' a hollow, 
with -aidh ending. The O.S.A. correctly says that 
the name is derived from the little hollow in 
which the old church at Marybank stands. 
That church is probably pre-Eeformation, but 
there must have been a still older church or 
churches on the same site. The old grave-yard 
around it was used within living memory, and has 
some fine stones, but is unenclosed and disgrace- 
fully neglected. On the Kilmuir side of the river 
is Cadha an t-sagairt, the priest's path. 

Calrossie (accented on first syllable) Glossery 1476, 
Calrosse 1479, Calrossie 1586. The 1476 record 
(Reg. Mag. Sig.) runs : ' The lands of Mekle 
Meithaute, Drumgill, Glossery, Mekle Alane,' &c. 
The 1479 record (Ex. Bolls) is * Alane Mekle, 
Calrosse, Drummethat,' &c., so that there need be 
no doubt that Glossery and Calrossie are one and 
the same. Glossery has the advantage of being 
intelligible ' glasaraidh/ green place, or, possibly, 
green shieling ; but, if we assume this to be the 
true original form, the change to Calrossie involves 
a, double metathesis, explicable perhaps in itself 
(cf. Kiltarlity from Cilltalorgain), but startling as 
involving a change from a well-known and signifi- 
cant combination to an obscure one. Of course, 



LOGTE EASTER. 59 

Glossery may be an error of the scribe. Calrossie, 
as it stands, is extremely difficult, especially in 
view of its accent on the first syllable, which 
debars any explanation such as ' Coille Hois,' 
Wood of Eoss, or ' Coille Ehois,' Wood of the 
Moor. 

Arabella Formerly ' the Bog.' It was reclaimed 
in the earlier half of the nineteenth century by 
Hugh Eose of Calrossie, &c., who named it after 
his wife, Arabella Phips. Hence also Phipsfield, 
near it. 

Glastullich Glastollich 1479; ' glas,' green, ' tul- 
aich,' hillock. It is west of Calrossie, and the 
' glas ' may be an argument in favour of Glossery. 

Pitmaduthy Pitmadwy 1370, Pettecowy 1578 ; 
G. Pit 'ic Dhuibh, also Baile 'ic Dhuibh, Mac- 
duff's stead. Here, and also in the case of the 
Black Isle Belmaduthy, the modern Gaelic form 
is decisive against the common, and, at first sight, 
plausible, connection with St Duthac ; cf. Pett 
mal-duib (Book of Deer). Near it is Baile na toin, 
Auchownatone 1623, "the part of Pitmaduthy 
commonly called Auchnaton," 1691. Next Auch- 
naton was Drumgill, now obsolete. 

Lochan nan tunnag Duck-loch. 

Brenachie G. Breanagaich (long <n'); cf. Brink- 
nach 1610. The 1610 reference (Eeg. Mag. Sig.) 
runs : " The house and lands of Logie, with the 
fields called Eiharrald, Auldmuiramoir, Achim- 
moir, and the Bus of Preischachleif, and the 
mosses of Brinknach and Derrileane with the 



60 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

shielings and grassums bounded by tbe cairn of 
stones called cairnne na marrow alias Deidmannis- 
cairne, and the burn (torrente) called Aldainal- 
banache alias Scottismeriisburne, in the barony of 
Nig." Riharrald is ' ruighe-Harrald,' Harold's 
slope, evidently from Norse times. It is a strip 
of land near the river, towards the western 
extremity of Marybank Farm, under the Heather 
Park, still known as Ri-horral. There is ako 
Bi-horral Well, and, in the river, Ri-horral Pool. 
The two following places may also have been part 
of Marybank. The ' Bus ' in its G. form means 
' the bush of the gate ' ' preas 'chachaileith,' a 
word intelligible to few Easter Hoss people now. 
Derrileane is modern Torelean, G. Torr leathan, 
broad eminence. The cairn must be that in the 
wood north of Torelean. The burn, ' Scotsburn,' 
is to the west of Marybank Farm, and is now 
practically dried up. There are local traditions of 
a battle fought here by the ' Scots,' supported by 
cairns in Scotsburn Wood and by the names 
Lochan a' Chlaidheimh, Sword Loch, and Bewrns 
a' Chlaidheimh, Sword Cleft (bearnas). 

Marybank G. Lagaidh (no article), from the ' lag,' 
or hollow, which gives its name to the parish. 
The modern name is from Lady Mary Ross of 
Balnagown. 

Ballachraggan Rock-town ; otherwise L6n nam 
ban, the women's mead. In the wood near it is 
the Clootie Well, or Fuaran bean Mhuiristean, 
much frequented on the first Sabbath of May. 



LOGIE EASTER. 61 

Creag a' Chait Cat-rock. 

Leinster Wood So called, it is said, in honour of 
a Duchess of Leinster. 

Loch Buidhe Yellow loch. 

Badnaguin G. Bad na' gaoithean, windy copse. 
It is near the top of Scotsburn Hill. 

An Dun The Dun, at east end of Strathrory. 01 i 
people know it as Dim-gobhal, Fork-fort. They 
will have it, however, to mean Fort of Goll, the 
Fenian hero ; but ' gobhal ' is distinctly two 
syllables, and, besides, there is a typical fork at 
the spot, formed by two deep ravines. The name 
appears as Dungowill 1616 (v. Scotsburii), Dun- 
gald 1674. The dun, or fort, is the second largest 
in Scotland (Christison's 'Hill-forts'), and was in 
its time an awkward place to tackle. Its forti- 
fications are well worth examination (v. Trans, 
of Inverness Field Club, Vol. V.). 

Coag G. An Cumhag ; ' cumhang,' narrow the 
narrow place where the river enters Scotsburn 
ravine. 

Garbil Leitir The rough slope, just beyond the 
' Cumhag.' 

Dalrannich Dale of bracken. 

Scotsburn The name has now shifted from the 
burn to the farm of Scotsburn, apparently of old 
called in part Cabrach, Cabreithe 1571, and in 
part Ulladale. In 1616 appear on record (Heg. 
Mag. Sig.) ' the church lands of Ulladill with their 
crofts called Hifleuche and Kiddorache alias the 
Glen of Ulladill, the wood called Dungowill 



62 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

between the Girthcroce dividing the common 
lands of the Burgh of Tayne from Ulladiil," &c. 
The Glen is now called the Glen of Scotsburn. 
" The Commonty " is still well known. 

Parkhill Site of the post-office near Balnagowan 
Bridge. The name was transferred along with 
the P.O. from the real Parkhill, two miles further 
west. 

Poll a* Bhathaidh Drowning pool, near the Free 
Church Manse. This was the drowning pool of 
the barony of Nigg. The hanging hill is near it, 
G. Cnoc na croiche. Further south, near the 
railway, is Cnoc a' mhoid, the Moot-hill. 

Meddat Drummethat and Mekle Methat 1479 ; 
(Kilmure) Madath 1541, (Kilmure) Meddett 1575. 
Local pronunciation has a tendency to Merret ; 
G. Meitheid. For the terminal suffix cf. Rat from 
rkth-d, Bialaid from beul, Caolaid from caol, 
Croaghat from cruach. This leaves a root 'meith/ 
which is probably connected with maoth, soft ; 
meith, sappy ; meath, fail, 1 giving the meaning, 
which is appropriate, of soft or spongy place ; 
cf. MuthiL 

Shandwick Transferred from Shandwick, Nigg. 

1 ' Na h-alltaichean a' fas, agus na h-aibhnichean a' meath,' ' the burns 
growing and the rivers failing,' is a proverb applied to the growth of new 
families and the decay of old ones. 



KILMUIR EASTER. 63 



KILMUIR EASTER. 

Kilmor 1296, Kilmure Madath 1541, Kilmure 
Meddett 1575 G. Cill-Mhoir, Mary's Church. 

Milntown ' Myltoun of Methat with its two mills ' 
1479; G. Baile-mhuilin or Baile-mhuilin Anndra, 
from Andrew Munro, who built Milntown Castle, 
c. 1500, or his son, Black Andrew Munro. Now 
officially known as Milntown of New Tarbat. 

New Tarbat So called by the Cromartie family, 
from Tarbat, where their former seat was (v. 
Castlehaven). 

Kildary G. Caoldaraidh, based on caol, narrow, 
and analysed caol-d-ar-aidh, " d " being euphonic. 
The 'narrow place' in question is doubtless the 
river gorge between Kildary Farm and the parish 
of Logie. 

Apitauld (pron. Abijald) G. Ath-pit-allt ; ' ath,' 
ford, ' pet,' baile, ' allt,' burn. The place is close 
to Balnagown Bridge. ' Pit ' has survived here 
owing to the prefixing of ' ath,' ford, which caused 
the sense of ' pit ' to be obscured. Were it not 
for this, the name would no doubt have become 
Balnault. 

Balnagown Balnegovne 1375, Smith's town; the 
modern Gaelic is as the English form. Near the 
castle is a steep old bridge over the river, still in 
good order, known as ' the King's Bridge,' and 



64 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CKOMARTY. 

traditionally associated with James IV. It leads 
to the King's Causeway the old road to Tain. 

Polnicol Poll Neacail, Nicol's pool. Between the 
farms of Polnicol and Garty, on the north side of 
the road is a narrow strip called the Lint-pools. 

Garty Gorty 1368 ; ' gart,' standing corn ; 
' goirtean,' small field of corn, W. * garth.' Also 
Knockgarty. 

Shives G. Na Ruigheannan ; le Roy is 1479, le 
Ruvis 1487, later Huffis ; ' ruigh,' land sloping up 
to a hill in ridges. The G. form is peculiar, and 
looks like the pi. of a diminutive ' ruighean,' but 
the pronunciation does not countenance this. It 
is probably to be compared with such plurals as 
ainmeannan, l&umannan, etc. Cf. Kin-rive. The 
present farm of Hhives contains, in addition to the 
ancient le E/oyis, three other tracts whose names 
appear in record and are not yet wholly lost : 
Auchoyle, the northern part of the farm, partly a 
slope once heavily wooded, now rough pasture. 
Achawyle 1351, Achenwyl 1368, Achagyle 1619 ; 
* achadh,' field, and ' gall,' stranger. Near it was 
Badferne, now obsolete. Knoknapark 1527 and 
passim in E.R. This -was the hillocky part to the 
N.E. of Delny Station, where the P.O., ' Parkhill,' 
formerly stood. The P.O. and the name have 
now been shifted two miles east, just beyond 
Balnagown Bridge. Badebaa 1587, etc.; also 
Badebay. This is the part of Ehives lying south 
of the railway, still known locally as ' the Batty- 
bay.' Before being reclaimed, it was dotted with 
birch clumps ; hence ' bad a' bheith,' birch copse. 



KILMUIE, EASTER. 65 

Delny Dalgeny 1356 ; G. Deilgnidh, based on 
clealg, prickle, whence deilgne, thorns ; deilgneach, 
prickly ; * place of prickles.' Here stood a castle 
of the Earls of Ross. 

Tomabrock G. Torr na' broc, Mound of the 
badgers. 

Balvack Bail a' bhac, Moss-town ; between Delny 
Station and the U.F.C. Manse. 

Barbaraville G. an cladach, the shore ; its east 
end is Portlich, G. port fhlich (loc.), the wet port 
there being no proper place for landing. 

Polio G. Am Pollan; Estir Polga and Westir 
Polga 1479 ; diminutive of ' poll/ pool, or hole. 

Balintraid Balandrade 1479, Balnatraid 1507; 
' baile ' and ' traigh,' sea-shore, genitive, traghad. 

Priesthill Cnoc an t-sagairt ; the pre-Reformation 
manse and glebe were here. Somewhere to the 
west of it is said to have been a drowning pool, 
Poll a' bhathaidh, but its site can hardly be 
identified. John the Baptist's Well is, or was, 
west of Priesthill, near the burn. 

Broomhill Bromehill 1634 appears to represent 
Ardunagage 1479, Ardnagag 1487, Ardnagaag 
1586; 'gag,' cleft, chink; hence, Height of the 
cleft. Of. Gaick. 

Inchfuir Inchfure 1463,Petfure 1479,Inchfurealias 
Pitfure 1539, G. I's-fiur (i's = innis) ; interesting as 
showing the unique, or at least very rare, change 
of ' pit ' to ' inch ' (innis) ; cf. Pitfure in Black 
Isle and in Rogart, Porin in Strathconan, 
Dochfour, Balfour, etc. In the " Book of Deer " 

5 



66 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

".here occurs " nice furene/' unto Furene, which 
appears to be an aspirated Porin ; '-fure ' is from 
the root seen in Welsh ' pori,' to pasture, and 
4 poriant/ pasture. Thus ' Inchfuir ' means 
pasture meadow. 

Kiildeace, G. Cinn-deis, has been transferred from 
Nigg. William Robertson, of Inverness, acquired 
the estate of Kindeace, in Nigg, in 1629. The 
Nigg estate was subsequently disposed of, and the 
family acquired the estate now known as Kindeace, 
in Kilmuir, of old Inchfure, retaining the style 
" of Kindeace." ' Cinn,' locative of ' ceann ;' 
' deis/ perhaps loc. of ' dias,' an ear of corn ; 
1 corn-head / suitable, but doubtful. 

Lonevlne G. Lon a' bhinn ; ' Ion/ marsh, or low 
damp ground ; ' binn/ gen. of ' beann,' hill. 

Tullich G. An Tulaich, locative of ' tulach,' hillock. 

Burracks G. Na buraich ; ' burach/ digging ; 
' the diggings ' for peat and turf. The place is 
a rough peat-moss. 

Dorachan Extension of ' doire/ copse. Cf. for 
formation Giuthsachan, place of fir. 

Dnminault Druim (n) an allt, ' ridge of the burns/ 
one of \vhich flows into the Balnagown Water. 

Claisdhll ' Clais/ furrow, narrow and shallow 
valley ; ' dubh/ bkck. 

Torran G. An Torran, diminutive of ' torr/ heap ; 
of old Torran Hath, grey hillock. 

Badachonachar Baddiequhoncar,Baddiequhonchar 
1571 ; * bad/ copse ; ' conachair, (l) uproar, (2) a 
sick person who neither gels worse nor better 



KILMUIR EASTER. 67 

(Macbain's G. Diet.); a large peat-moss in the 
upper part of the parish. In this case it may be 
from the proper name Conachar. Cf. Coir' a' 
Chonacbair ( Kincardine). 

Dalnaclerach ' Dail/ dale, meadow ; ' clerach/ 
cleric ; clerics' dale. It appears to have formed 
part of the church lands of Kilrnuir, and is pro- 
bably included in the grant made in 1541 by 
" Master David Dunbar, chaplain of the chaplainry 
of the Virgin Mary in the parish of Kilmure 
Madath to Thomas Ross of Balintrait, etc., of the 
church-lands called Priestishill and Ulladule, 
reserving to himself and his successors on acre 
of the lands of Priestishill, lying near the manse 
on the south side for a manse and garden to be 
there constructed." Ulladule (v. Logie Easter) 
was the old name of Scotsburn, which is adjacent 
to Dalnaclerach. 

Kinrive G. Ceann-ruigh, Kennachrowe 1362, 
Candenrew 1547, Canderwiff' 1549, Kenroy 1556 ; 
' ceann,' head, ' ruigh,' ridgy slope. Kenrive is 
the hill to which the land slopes up from the sea 
in a succession of terraces. The various spellings 
are suggestive of the way in which the G. ' ruigh ' 
became Anglicised ' rive ' (pron. riv). Rhives, in 
the low part of the parish, shows the plural form 
in Gaelic and in English. 

GnoC-Still (west of Inchfure) Hill of the strip, i.e., 
strip of grass. ' Still ' is genitive of ' steall/ 
which in 0. Ir. is stiall/ and means a belt, 
girdle, strip, piece of anything. Cf. Loch Still ; 
Caisteal Still (now Castlehill), Inverness. 



68 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Cam Totaig (north of Cnoc-still) Diminutive of 
' tobhta,' knoll. The cairn has disappeared, but 
the place is still counted uncanny. 

Heathfleld G. Cal-fhraochaidh ; Kalruquhy 1479, 
Calrechy 1586, Calrichie 1616, from cala, a wet 
meadow (which exactly describes it), and fraoch, 
heather. Cf. Calatruim, hollow of the elder 
(Joyce) ; Freuchie, now Castle-Grant. 

Strathrory G. Srath-uaraidh ; Strathury 1362, 
Straithworie 1563, Strathworie 1628, but Strath- 
rowrie 1571. The modern English form is due to 
the false analogy of the personal name ' Ruaraidh,' 
Rory, which sometimes affects even the Gaelic. 
The Old Stat. Ace. of Logie states (referring to 
the Rory or Balnagown Water) ; " The only river 
in the parish goes generally by the name of Abhor 
or river," and in accordance with a custom so 
general as to be almost a rule, the Strath should 
take its name from the river. ' Srath-abharaidh ' 
might yield Srath-uaraidh ; cf. the dialectic change 
of farnhair, giant, into fua'r, e.g. Tigh 'n fhua'r, 
Novar. The New Stat. Ace. suggests uar, water- 
spout, which is worth considering. The river is 
liable to sudden spates. 

Drilim na gaoith Windy ridge ; a hill in the 
extreme north-west of the parish. 

Craskag The name, now obsolete, of the burn 
issuing from Achnacloich loch, and running at the 
foot of Kinrive hill the little cross (burn) ; cf. 
Allt Tarsuinn (Kincardine). 

Allt Eapaidh Noisy burn ; north side of Strath- 
rory; boundary between Balnagown and Kindeace. 



BOSSKEEN. 69 



ROSSKEEN. 

Rosskeen Kosken 1270, Roscuyn 1640; G. Bos- 
cuithnidh ; ' ros,' headland, referring most pro- 
bably to the promontory on which Invergordon 
stands, now called ' An Rudha.' The latter part 
is rather difficult. Dr Joyce notes in Ireland 
such names as Quinhie and Feaghquinny, from 
Ir. cuinche, pronounced nearly queenha, the 
arbutus tree. This suits the phonetics of Ros- 
cuithnidh, which would thus mean arbutus head. 
In a field by the roadside, near the Parish Church, 
is Clach d Mheirlich, the thief's stone, 

Saltburn G. Alltan an t-saluinn. Explained from 
the tradition that cargoes of salt were hid here in 
the times when there was a duty payable on that 
article. 

Ord ' Ord,' hammer, in root connected with ' ard,' 
high ; secondary meaning, ' rounded hill ' ; but 
the eminence in this case is very slight. 

Inverbrekie Inchbreky 1475, Innachbreky 1511, 
Uvachbrekie 1608, Innerbreky, 1512, Innerbreke, 
1533. The name is now applied to the farm lying 
north of Invergordon, but formerly included the 
site of the town. The ' inver ' implies a stream, 
which must have been called the ' Breakie,' from 
' breac,' dappled, and is probably that which enters 
the firth near Rosskeen church. The surface has 



70 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CBOMARTY. 

been much changed by cultivation and draining. 

Inchbreky is 'the meadow of the Breaky.' 
Invergordon appears in Pocock's Tour in 1760. So 

called by a former proprietor, Sir Alexander 

Gordon. 
The Cromlet The slope behind Invergordon ; 

* orom-leathad,' sloping hill-side. 
Kincraig Kynnacrege 1479 ; G. Ceann na creige, 

Rock-end. 

Achintoul G. Ach an t-sabhail, Barn-field. 
Achnagarron Probably 'ach,' field, and ' carran,' 

spurrey ; Ir. ' carran,' scurvy grass. Locally from 

' gearran/ a gelding, but the phonetics do not suit. 
Kosebank A modern name ; ancient Culquhnze 

1477, Culkenzie 1586; ' cuil,' nook, ' Coinneach,' 

Kenneth ? 
Newmore G. An ne' nahor, the great glebe (v. 

Church names). 
Stoneyfield probably represents Feauchlath 1479, 

Feachclathy 1487, Feauchclachy 1507 Faich 

nan clach, or, Feith nan clach. 
Ooillyoiore Kellymmoir 1571 ; G. A' Choille mhor, 

Big wood. 
Rhidlllen ' E-uigh/ land sloping up to a hill, and 

' cuileann/ holly. There is a remarkably fine holly 

bush, which must be of great age. 
Riaskmore ' Riasg,' morass with sedge or dirk- 

grass ; ' mor,' big. 
Tomich ' Tom/ conical hillock, with collective 

suffix ' ach,' in locative Place of hillocks. 
Inchindown Inchedown 1571 ; G. I's an duin, 

Meadow of the Dun, innis, as often, being reduced 



ROSSKEEN. 7 1 

to is. There is no trace of a fort, but Kinrive 
hill in the part immediately behind the farm is 
precipitous, and covered with stones. Many 
large cairns were removed when the farm was 
extended about forty years ago. 
Achnacloich and Dalnacloich Fie'd and dale of 
stones ; from the large cairn on the hillside, north- 
east of the loch. 

Dalnavie, Cnocnavie, Nonakiln, Inehnavie (See 

Church-names). 
Millcraig Craigemylne 1479, Cragmyln 1507; 

also molendinum de Crag ; G. Muileann na creige 

Rock-mill. 
Badcall Badkall 1571 and passim; G. Bad-call, 

hazel- clump ; to the east of Millcraig, and fast 

becoming obsolete. 

Mulnafaa ' Fuath,' spectre Goblin-mill. 
Caplich ' Capull,' horse, mare Place of horses. 

The name is fairly common. 
Obsdale Obstuill 1548 ; Norse hops-dalr, bay dale ; 

from the small bay near it. 
Culcairn G. Cul-chairn ; Culcarne 1571 ; 'back of 

the cairn/ i.e., Carn na Croiche, the hanging 

cairn, on the hill behind it. 
Crossbills Perhaps, in view of the nearness of 

Nonakiln, the name may be ecclesiastical. 
Balnaguisich Fir-wood stead. 
Ardross ' Ard-rois,' height of Ross. Blaeu's Ard- 

ross is the water-shed between Easter and Wester 

Ross, which may have been correct in his day. 

In any case, Fear Ard-rois was in use to denote 



72 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Laird of Ardross (in Rosskeen) before Sir A. 
Matheson's time. 

Ollillich Culyeoth Mekle and Culyeoch Manach 
(Mid) 1479, Chwleauchmeanach and Chwyulaich- 
mor 1571, Cunlich (Retours and Reg. Mag. Sig. 
passim), ' Cumhang-lach,' the place of the * cumh- 
ang' or narrow passage, with reference to the 
gorge of the river on which it is situated. Cf. 
Coy-lum, Badenoch ; Cuag, in Kilmuir ; ' cunglach' 
still means a narrow defile in modern Gaelic. 

Dalneich Horse-dale. Cf. Caplich. 

Glaick Locative of * glac,' grip ; it is, as it were, 
in the grip of the hills. Very common. 

Loanreoch ' L6n/ low meadow ; ; riabhach/ 
brindled from copse alternating with grass and 
heather. 

Balanrishallaich Eraser's town. 

Stittenham seems modern, as it does not occur on 
record. Gaelic accents the last syllable. 

Strathy G. an t-srathaidh with -aidh ending. 

Cranilich Locative of Crannach, place of trees, or 
abounding in trees ; G. a' Chrannaich. 

Srath-na-Frangach ? Tansy Strath, from Franga- 
lus or lus na frang. It was the abode of the 
noted cattle-thief, " Seileachan," the site of whose 
house is said to be still distinguishable. Near it 
is Allt na fuaralaich, burn of the cold place ; 
Aldnaquhorolache 1571. 

Coire-ghoibhnidh Corryzewynie 1571, ?corry of 
the smithy ; at the west end of Kinrive Hill ; cf. 
Ard na goibhne in Tanera. But possibly, Corry 
of the wintry stream, 0. Ir. gam, winter ; cf. the 
Goineag, Badenoch. 



ROSSKEEN. 73 

Tolly G. Tollaidh, probably here from ' toll/ hole ; 
'place of holes.' Tollie-mylne, alias mylne- 
chaggane appears on record. The lands of Tolly 
were part of the patrimony of the Chapel of 
Kildermorie. Above Tolly are Coire Thollaidh 
and Braigh Thollaidh. 

Baldoon G. Bail' an duin, town of the dun. There 
is a hill fort in the wood near. 

Inchlumpie G. I's-lombaidh ; ' innis/ meadow, 
'lorn/ bare, with -aidh ending. The 'V is 
euphonic. The place is a narrow level strip by 
the river-side. Above it is am Breac'radh, the 
spotted place ; cf. am bog'radh. The ground rises 
up to Cnoc an t-seilich, Willow-hill. 

Strathrusdale Strathrustell 1691 ; G. Srath- 
rusdail ; Norse ' hruts-dalr,' ram's dale, with G. 
srath prefixed. This name is interesting, and 
suggestive as to the extent and the character of 
the Norse occupation of Easter Ross. 

Aultanfearn Alder-brooklet. This and the four 
following are in Strathrusdale. 

Balnacraig Rock-town. 

Dalreoich Spotted dale ; cf. Dalbreak 

Balanlochan Loch-town. 

Braeantra Braighe an t-sraith, Head of the strath. 

Cnoc an t-sithean beag and Cnoc an t-sithean 

mdr are hills north of Strathrusdale. ' Slth/ 
slthean,' hill, usually grassy ; especially a green 
fairy hill ; but often (as here) applied to high 
hills with rounded tops. Cf. Schiehallion. 

Slthean a* choin bhain Hill of the white dog. 

Doire leathan Broad copse. 



74 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

Beinn Tarsuinn Cross hill. Very common. 

Garraran G. an gar(bh)aran, the rough place ; 
from garbh, with double suffix ; cf. Cloch-ar-an, 
Giuths-ar-an, &c 

Cam Cuinneag ' Cuinneag/ a milking pail. The 
Cairn (3000 ft.) is double peaked, and I am 
informed that the ' Cuinneag ' proper is the 
western and higher peak, the other being called 
Carn Mairi, from the name of a girl who perished 
there while crossing from Strathcarron to Kilder- 
morie. In a rock on the Cuinneag there are 
several clean-cut hollows, one or more of which 
is tub or pail-shaped. They are really pot-holes 
caused by wind action. From these the hill is 
said to have got its name ; but it may be from 
the fact that, when viewed from a distance, the 
peaks may be considered, with the help of a little 
goodwill, to represent a gigantic cuinneag with its 
' lug.' This is the explanation of the Sutherland 
Cuinneag. 

The following names, belonging either to Kil- 
muir or to the border of Rosskeen, are obsolete : 
Rawsnye or Risaurie, Knokderruthoiil, Ardachath 
(a cultivated field on Newmore), Glascarne (a 
cairn), Knocknasteraa, Abianemoir (a wood), 
Kirkchaistuil or Pollograyscheak (a hill), Alda- 
naherar (burn), Tobirinteir (well in Kinrive), 
Brakach, Rawcharrache, Rewchlaschenabaa, Chan- 
deraig, Binebreychst, Correbruoch, Alrnaddow. 
All these are taken from the marches of Newmore 
as given in the " Origines Parochiales' for 1571. 



ALNESS. 75 



ALNESS. 

Alness Alenes 1227 ; G. Alanais. Local tradition 
has it that the name Alness applies primarily to 
the spot where the Parish Church stands, which is 
at once probable from analogy, and confirmed by 
old maps and by the fact that south of the church 
is Pairc Alanais, Alness Park. 1 The name, there- 
fore, has nothing to do with Norse ness, a point. 
Its ending -ais is that seen in Dallas, etc. , and the 
first part is identical with Allan in E. Ross and 
the Black Isle Allans. There are at least three 
Scottish rivers called Allan, and this is supposed 
to be the modern form of the Alaunos of Ptolemy, 
who also mentions Alauna as a town of the 
Damnonii. Two roots seem possible ; ail, a rock, 
and that seen in Latin pal-us, a marsh, which in 
Celtic would drop initial p. Culcr aggie and 
Balachraggan (below), which adjoin the Church 
of Alness, favour ail ; one of the other Allans is 
Allan nan clach. But another is Bog Allan. 
Further, Allan in E. Ross, while far from stony, 
lies low, and was once, doubtless, marshy, while 
close by Alness Church is a burn and a low damp 
meadow. Local evidence therefore suggests the 
meaning of Allan to be ' the bog,' and of Alness, 

1 Seawards of this park is a marshy place called An Inbhir, the estuary, 
where the burn which flows by Alne?s Church enters the Cromarty Firth. 1 1 
is quite possible that this burn was once an " Allan Water." 



76 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

' place of the Allan, or wet place.' Of. the Welsh 
and Cornish rivers Alun. 

Ardroy * Aird,' promontory ; ' ruadh/ red ; a point 
west of Alness point. The ' stell,' or fishing 
station of Ardroy is mentioned in 1479 ; also 
" the Flukaris croft." 

Teaninich G. Tigh 'n aonaich, Moor-house, or 
Market-house. The name appears in the Retours, 
but not in the Ex. R., where the modern 
Teaninich appears as " the two Culmelathquhyis " 
(th = ch), 1479 and passim; Culmelloquhy 1526, 
Culmalochie 1586, Ovir-culmalochie 1526. The 
two Culmalochies were thus Over- and Nether- 
Culmalochy. 

Goulhill G. Cnoc na cuil ; the higher part of the 
village, in rear of the main street. Balnacoule 
1583. 

Clllcraggie Culcragy 1479 ; G. Cuil-chreagaidh, 
Rocky-nook, creagaidh being the old locative of 
creagach. The banks of the burn which adjoins 
the farm are steep, but not rocky. The reference 
is rather to large boulders with which part of the 
farm near the present house was once strewn. 

Ballachraggan Town of the little rock. 
Balnacraig G. Bail' na creige. Rocktown, so called 

from the precipitous banks of the Alness River 

close by. 
Contullich G. Gunntulaich ; ' con,' together ; 

1 tulach,' hillock ; * congeries of hillocks,' accurately 

descriptive. Cf. Conachreig, Coneas, Contin, etc. 

A park at the east side of the Boath road, near 



ALNESS. 77 

the Contullich farm-servants' cottages, is called 
An Triubhais, the Trews, probably because of a 
resemblance to that article of dress at a time 
when the field was only partly reclaimed. 

Clashnabulae Cleft of the yellow flowers. 

TallySOW (always with the article both in English 
and Gaelic, which latter is sounded as the Eng.), 
referred to in the New Stat. Ace. as Novar Inn. 
The name appears in Jamieson's Scottish Diet, as 
Tilliesoul, " a place at some distance from a gentle- 
man's mansion-house, where the servants and 
horses of his guests are sent when he does not 
choose to entertain the former at his own 
expense." He gives also the form ' tilliesow.' 
Derived by Jamieson from French ' tous les souls,' 
the place where all the drunkards congregate, or 
' tillet les soulds,' soldiers' billet, a place where 
soldiers are quartered out with money to pay for 
lodging ; or, G. ' tulach an t-sabhail,' barn- 
hillock. The last is out of the question. The 
Tally sow is by the roadside, near Novar House, 
and there is another Tallysow near Maryburgh. 

llovar Tenuer, Blaeu. G. Tigh 'n fhuamhair, 
Giant's house. 

Fyrish (farm and hill) G. Foireis ; Fyrehisch 1479, 
Feris 1539; the spelling varies almost with 
each appearance, and sometimes becomes even 
Fischerie ; probably from Norse ' fura ' or 'fyri,' 
pine-tree. Fyrish is and was noted for its wood. 
To the back of Fyrish hill, towards Ardoch, is 
Poll a Mhucainn, Poll of the place of swine. 



78 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Here, according to local tradition, was concluded 
the Communion service held at Obsdale in 1675, 
which was broken up on the approach of a party 
of soldiers sent to apprehend the minister. 

Ballavoulin Bail' a' mhuilinri, Mill-town. 

Assynt G. Asaint ; Norse ' ass,' rocky ridge ; 
6 endi,' end. Of. Assynt in Sutherland. 

Allltgrande G. an t-allt-grannda, the ' ugly burn ' 
which flows through the famous Black Rock. 

O 

Cladh Churadain (see Church names). 
Druim nan Damh Stag ridge. 

Redburn G. an t-allt dearg. 

IJig G. an uig, ' vik,' bay, but it is well inland, and 
so is an extension of the primary meaning. 

Sockach G. an t-socaich, a locative from ' soc.' 
snout, fore part of anything, with the suffix -ach. 
Common as a name for places that project. 

An Lainn LOG. of lann, enclosure ; very rare in 
Scottish names, but cf. Lhanbryde ; an Garbhlainn 
(Anglicised Caroline) on the farm of Tullich, 
Strathnairn. Part of Lainn is am blar borraich ; 
borrach is a species of rough grass. Near Glen- 
glass School. 

Lorgbuie G. an lorg bhuidhe, the yellow track. 

AchnagOU' ' Gobhal,' fork ; ' field of the fork.' 

Balnurd Town of the height. 

Eilean na Cabhaig (In Yal. Roll Ellancavie), 
Island of the hurry. With it goes Bruach dian, 
steep bank. 

Locll a* Chapuill ' Capull/ horse ; Horse Loch. 

Meall an Tuirc * Tore,' boar ; Boar's Hill. 



ALNESS. 79 

Bendeallt (Bennjullt), on O.S.M. Beinne na 
diollaide ; an un-Gaelic-looking name ; possibly 
corrupt. 

CROC L6ith Bhaid or, Cnoc an liath bhaid, hill of 
the grey clump. (O.S.M. Cnoc Liath Fad). 

Cnoc Coille Bhrianain (O.S.M. Cnoc a' Ghille 
Bhronaich), now often simply ' Brianan ;' Hill of 
Brendan's wood ; but ' coille ' is almost certainly 
a recent corruption of ' gille,' servant, follower. 

Loch a* Mhagraidh From mag, pawing, paw ; 
also toai, Loch of the place of toads (possibly of 
pawing) ; cf. Mucarach, from muc, pig. 

Sgor a* Chaoruinn Rowan-tree rock. 

Meall nam bo Cow-hill. 

Kildermorie (see Church names). Above the old 
chapel is Creag na Cille, Church-rock, below 
which is Glaic nan Clerach, where the parson of 
Kilmuir was killed by the parson of Kildermorie 
(or vice versa) ; near the chapel is Tobar Mhoire, 
Mary's Well. A market, Feill Mhoire, was once 
held here. The waters of Loch Moir, G. Loch 
Mhoire, are locally reputed to have an under- 
ground outlet to Loch Glass, a tradition noted by 
Macfarlane (c. 1750), who says that its waters 
sanctify those of L. Glass. Between Kilder- 
morie and Teaninich, on the north side of Loch 
Moir, is Allt na Fuirrid, Ir. furbaide, a cutting 
out? 

Leathad Riabhach The ' brindled hill-side,' north 
of Loch Moir a precipitous rocky face. 

Am Mam ' Mam,' large round hill ; M.Ir. ' rnamm,' 
breast. Cf. ' Cioch ' as a hill name 



80 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Kinloch Loch-end ; at the end of Loch Moir. 

Boath Bothmore 1583 ; G. na Bothachan, the 
places of booths or huts. The name applies to 
the spacious strath, or rather half-strath, from 
Cnoc a' Bhoth, Hill of the booth, which runs 
north and south at its western end, to Cnoc 
'Chroisg, Hill of the crossing. In Cnoc a' Bhoth 
is Creag d Bhoth, Rock of the Booth, and under 
it, Both-Wiig, with a field, am Blaran Odhar, the 
dun field, at the top of which is a sloping piece of 
grass called am Bard, the meadow, a name 
common in the district ; not yet obsolete in 
Badenoch speech. Both-mlibr is next to Glaick. 
The great cairns of Boath are noted below. 
There are hut circles and numerous tumuli 011 
Cnoc Alasdair, and on the highest of the hillocks 
to the east of Strone are the ruins of a hill-fort or 
broch with many tumuli on its south-east side, 
and a hut circle to the west. 

Poll na Cllilc Reedy pool, in the river east of 
Kinloch. 

StFOne Nose ; Cnoc na Srbin, the hill running to 
a point which separates Boath from Strathrusdale. 
West of the Strone peat road is Druim na 
Ceardaich, Smithy Ridge, with a curious circular 
ruin, said to have been a smithy. East of it An 
Ruigh Dreighean, Thorn-slope, with a small cairn. 

Glaick G. a' ghlaic, the hollow ; part of the farm 
so called is the highest cultivated land in Boath. 
Near it is an t-Uchdan, the terrace, breast-let. 

DuchaH Probably based on dubh, black ; the little 
black place. 



ALNESS. 8 1 

.Ballone Bail' an loin, town of the loan, or wet 
meadow. Above the farm-house is Am Bard, the 
meadow. 

Allt na' Cnuimheag Burn of worms ; explained 
locally by reference to a skirmish with cattle- 
lifters which took place near it, after which the 
dead were left unburied. 

MilltOWn G. Baile-mhuilinn. 

Cnoclea G. An Cnoc-liath, grey hill, from the grey 
appearance given by the two great cairns on the 
moor. One of these has an oval megalithic 
chamber, once vaulted, and still over eight feet 
deep. The other is much destroyed. 

Acharn ' Ach,' field ; ' earn,' cairn. It is adjacent 
to the cairns ; ' field of the cairns.' 

Clais na' mial A small winding glen opposite the 
road leading to Acharn ; ' saltus pediculorum,' 
locally explained (l) from its convenient privacy, 
(2) from the poverty of its grass and consequent 
effect on cattle. But ' mial ' is used here in its 
old general sense of ' animal ' ; ' beasts' hollow.' 

Balnagrotchen Bail' nan croitean, croft-township ; 
the hill to the south west is Cnoc na Leacachan, 
Flag-stone hill ; corruptly, Cnoc ar Leacachan. 
(O.S.M. Cnoc Hath na h-Acain). 

Balmainach G. Bail' meadhonach, Middle-town ; 
between Acharn and Loariroidge. 

Loanroidge G. An L5rt-roid, wet meadow of bog- 
myrtle, which is very plentiful here. East of the 
farm-house is a pretty meadow by the river-side, 
called Bard nan Laogh, calves' meadow. Further 

6 



82 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMABTY. 

along is The Assarow, G. an asaradh, a stretch of 
pasture sloping up from the river, based on fasair 
or asair, pasturage. It has no connection with Ir. 
Assaroe. Below the Assarow is Am Poll Ruadh, 
the red pool, the deepest in the Boath part of the 
river. 

Pollag Aitionn Juniper pool ; in the river below 
Loanroidge Farm. Known also as Poll nam 
morbh, Pool of the fish spears. It is a good pool 
for salmon and sea-trout. East of it is 

Poll na* Clar As this is a good place for crossing 
by leaping from stone to stone, the meaning may 
well be that seen in many similar Irish names, 
Pool of the Boards, i.e., planks to facilitate 
crossing. 

CHOC 'Ohroisg ' Crasg,' a crossing ; the hill over 
which the road crosses into Boath. The old road 
crossed rather to the west of the present road. 

Lealty Lealdy 1622 ; G. Lethalltaidh ; ' leth-allt,' 
half- burn, i.e., the sloping land on one side of the 
burn, common as Leault, but here it shews the 
-ie termination. A ' Leault ' is usually a ' one- 
sided ' burn, and is so here. East of Lealty 
and north of Ardoch is a wooded hill, Cnoc 
Churadair, a name which looks like " hill of 
the sower," but it really stands for Cnoc 
Churadain, St Curitan's hill. 

AtL Corran Dimin. of ' coire,' corry. 

Ardoch G. An ardach, the high place. Below it, 
north of the present road, is An Cablisair flinch, 
the wet causeway, part of the old road. 



ALNESS. 83 

BaddailS G. Na Badanan, the little copses. A 
little south of the farm-house and east of the road 
is Am Bard, a nice flat field. 

Clais druim bhathaich Cleft of the byre-ridge. 
Auchvaich and Ardache appear in 1608 as pen- 
dicles of Contullich. 

Multovy -- Multovvy 1490 ; G. Multabhaidh, an 
extension of* mult,' wedder ; place of wedders. Cf! 
Muckovie, place of swine. The termination repre- 
sents an early -ab-, -ob-, -ub-. Cf. Cen-abum, 
Or-obis, Es-ubii. 

Cnoc Duchary Probably ' dubh-chathraidh,' the 
black-moss-place. A great cairn containing cists 
stood on its easter slope. 

Cnoc Ceislein Hill at back of Fyrish ; a derivative 
of Ir. ' ceis,' sow. It is a broad-backed hill, and 
faces Meall an Tuirc (Boar's Hill) on the west. 
Cf. the Boar of Badenoch and the Sow of Atholl. 
East of it is Poll a' Mhiicainn, noted above. 

Averon The local name of the Alness Biver. The 
local derivation is worth recording. Once on a 
time there lived at Kinloch a widow with two 
sons. One died suddenly, and not long there- 
after the second was drowned in crossing the ford 
above Poll na Cuilc. When the sad news was 
brought to the mother, she exclaimed, " M' ath 
bhron ! " (My second sorrow !), whence the river 
is called Averon to this day. A similar derivation 
is locally given for Carn-averon in Aberdeenshire. 
The name is best regarded as an extension of 
O. Ir. ab, river, with diminutive termination 



84 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Abh-ar-an. Strictly it is said to apply only to 
the part from L. Moir to the junction at Strath- 
rusdale. An equation with the Gaulish Avara, 
though tempting, would be rash. Cf. Strathrory, 
Avoch. 

Ceann-uachdarach : " lands of Candwachterach 
with its brewhouse (cum brasina)," 1642 upper- 
head ; beyond Kildermorie, but of old evidently a 
less lonely place than it is now. It was near the 
drove road from the north to Dingwall. 

Cam Sonraichte Cairnehondrig 1619; * notable 
cairn,' north of Kildermorie. 

Loch Bad-a-bhathaich Loch of the byre-clump. 
About a mile to the east of it is Clach airigh a' 
Mhinistir, Stone of the Minister's shieling. 

Creachainn nan Sgadan Bare hill-top of the 
herring. There is a local tradition of a shower of 
herring, which may be founded on fact : for inland 
places in Ireland similarly named, see Joyce 
II, 312. 

Bad-Sgalaidh (Also Bothan Bad-sgalaidh), about 
five miles beyond Kildermorie, and noted for 
ghosts ; Ir. seal, spectre ; " Spectre-clump." In 
this direction, near the river, is Braonan, the 
little wet place ; v. Fairburn. 



KILTEARN. 85 



KILTEARN. 

Kilteam Kiltierny 1227, Keltyern 1296 ; G. Cill- 
tighearn. Usually explained as ' Lord's Kirk, 
either in the sense of ' Church dedicated to the 
Lord,' or from some early chief of the Munros 
having been buried there. As for the first of these 
explanations, there seems to be no parallel for 
such a dedication, though we find indeed Gill 
Chriosd. As to the second, the burying-place of 
the family of Fowlis, from the earliest times of 
which we have any record, was in the Chanonry 
of Ross, and it is in any case extremely improb- 
able that the church should receive its designation 
from the burial of a chief. A third theory is a 
dedication to St Ternan, who is supposed to have 
been a contemporary and pupil of Palladius. 
This also is unsatisfactory, for though Ternan's 
name is preserved in Banchory-Ternan, dedica- 
tions to him are extremely rare, and, moreover, it 
is difficult to see how Ternan would suit the 
phonetics, for the last syllable, ' -an,' could hardly 
have been dropped. The most feasible explan- 
ation is a dedication to Tighernach. Cf. Kiltierny 
in Ireland with Kiltierny 1227. 

The parish includes in its western part the old 
parish of Lumlair ; Lemnelar 1227, Lymnolar and 



86 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CKOMARTY. 

Lumlar 1548 ; G. Luim na lar ; luim, locative of 
lorn, a bare surface ; lar is most probably genitive 
plural of lair, mare ; lar, the ground, not being 
suitable in respect of meaning and gender. 
Names from the various words for ' horse ' each, 
capull, marc are very common, arising from the 
old practice of keeping the horses on a pasture by 
themselves ; cf. Glenmark, Glenmarkie, Ardin- 
caple, Kincaple, Caplich, Dalneich. The church 
of Lumlair, according to the Old Statistical 
Account dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and in 
modern times known as St Mary's Chapel, stood 
at Lumlair near the sea-shore. The site referred 
to is close by the roadside, about two and a-half 
miles east of Dingwall. The foundations of the 
chapel are still visible, with an ancient and now 
disused burying-ground, called Cladh ma-Bhri 
(Kilmabryd, Blaeu). This burying-ground is 
doubtless called after the saint to whom the 
chapel was dedicated, and who, moreover, from 
the above well-known modern Gaelic form of the 
name, could not have been Mary. Blaeu's Kil- 
mabryd suggests Bridget, but her name in 
Gaelic is always Brid, never Bri. The only 
name that satisfies the phonetics is Brig, later 
Brigh. There were at least two Irish female 
saints so called. 

Fowlis G. Folais (narrow o) ; cf. Allt Folais in 
Gairloch (Loch Maree), Foulis in Aberdeen (G. 
Folais), Fowlis in Perth, Fowlis in Forfar. The 
oldest forms of all are similar to the modern. 



KILTEARN. 87 

The phonetics indicate a lost ' g ' or ' d ' before 
*!,' which suggests fo-glais, foghlais, from fo, 
under, and O.G. glas, water, ' Sub-water/ or 
' Streamlet ' ; cf. for meaning Welsh c goffrwd,' 
streamlet, the philological G. equivalent of which 
is ' fo-sruth.' (For the phonetic process involved, 
cf. 'foghnadh,' sufficiency, from O. Ir. fognam). 
A small burn, Allt Folais, runs through the Glen 
of Fowlis, and there are burns near all the other 
places of the same name. 

DruniHlond G. Druimein, locative of drum, ridge ; 
cf. Drymen, in Stirling. 

Balconie Balkenny 1333 and 1341 ; x G. Bailcnidh, 
based on bailc, strong ; Welsh balch, proud ; for 
the extensions of the root cf. Delny. The Gaelic 
form is decisive against baile, a town or stead, and 
compels me regretfully to give up a former 
identification (by myself) of Balkenny of 1333 
with Petkenny of 128 1. 2 The traditional explan- 
ation is Baile Comhiiuidh, dwelling place, to wit, 
of the Earls of Ross ; but the meaning cannot be 
other than ' the strong place.' 

Teanord G. Tigh 'n uird, Ord-house. 

Katewell Catoll 1479 ; Keatoll 1608 ; G. Ciadail; 
Norse kvi, fold ; dalr, dale ; cf. kvia-bolr, milking 
place ; kvia-bekkr, fold-beck. 

Swordale Sweredull 1479 ; G. Suardal ; Norse 
svonSr, sward ; dalr, dale. 

1 Charters granted at Balkenny by Hugh, Earl of Ross, and by William, 
Earl of Ross. 

2 In 1281 William, Earl of Ross, granted a quarter of laud, which was 
called Petkenny, to the Bishop of Moray. Petkenny cannot be located. 



88 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Balachladich Shore-to wii. 

Ardllllie G. Aird-ilidh ; the latter part may repre- 
sent ' ileach,' variegated, in which sense may be 
compared the uses of breac, riabhach, ballach, 
blar ; ' speckled height.' Dilinn, as in leac 
dhilinn, natural rock, will not suit, as the i of 
Aird-ilidh is short. 

Pelaig Pellock 1583 ; G. Peallaig. Eob Dorm 
uses ' peallag ' in the sense of ' rough garment ' 
dimin. of ' peall,' hairy skin, borrowed from Latin 
pellis, hide. But the meaning is not satisfactory 
as a place-name, and the word may be non- 
Gaelic as is indeed suggested by the initial ' p.' 
' Peallaidh ' is a Pictish river-name, seen in Obair- 
pheallaidh, Aberfeldy. Peallaidh is used in Lewis 
as the name of a water-sprite. (Of. German quell,, 
a spring). 

Clachan Biorach ' Pointed' or ' standing stones 
they consist of two equal ovals joined to each 
other, and are described minutely by the late Mr 
Roderick Maclean in his " Notes on the Parish of 
Kiltearn" (Gaelic Society Transactions XV.) 
North of the Clachan Biorach is Cnoc an 
Teampuill, Temple Hill. There are also Clachan 
Biorach at the head of Clare. 

Fluchlady Fliuch leathad, wet hillside, with -aidh 
ending. 

Bogandllrie Bogginduiry 1696 ; G. Bog an dubh- 
raidh, gloomy bog. 

Culbin Back of the hill. 



KILTEARN. 89 

Octobeg G. An t-ochdamh beag, the small octave, 
i.e., eighth part of a davach ; cf. Ochto, Kin- 
cardine. 

Cnoc Vabin G. Cnoc Mhabairn, a name showing 
the good Celtic termination -ernos, but other- 
wise obscure ; perhaps a personal name. 

Fuaranbuy Yellow-well. 

Strongarve Rough nose or point. 

Skiach (water) Scraiskeith 1479 ; G. Allt na 

sgitheach ; O. Ir. see, G. sgeach, hawthorn ; a 

common element in names ; cf. Altnaskiach, near 

Inverness. 
Culnaskiach Culnaskeath 1546 ; nook of the 

Skiach, or, of the hawthorn. 
Teachatt (so, 1608) G. Tigh-chait, Cat-house ; cf. 

Cadboll. 
Knockancuim Cnocan, dimin. of cnoc ; caorunn, 

rowan. 
Rhidorach Ruigh, slope ; dorach, dark ; dark 

slope. 
Clare Clearmoir 1608 ; G. An Clar ; but also, anns 

na Clar ; clar, board, hence a flat place. But cf. 

Poll na' Clar in Alness. 
Gortan G. Goirtean, small field of corn. 
Knoekantoul Barn-hill. 
Druim Ridge. 
Achleach Achlich 1608; Achleich 1633; G. Ach- 

leitheich, locative of " ach-leitheach," half-field, i.e.,. 

field on a hill side. A cold sunless place. 
Sgorr a* Chl6i' Creel peak ; an exceedingly steep 
piece of land, where, according to tradition, 
manure, etc., had to be carried in creels. 



90 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Gleann and Meall na Speireig Glen and Hill of 

the Sparrow-hawk ( speireag.' 

An Socach The Snouted Hill ; a spur of Wyvis. 

Cabar Fuais The Antler of Wyvis. 

Allt nan Caorach Altnagerrack 1608 ; sheep- 
burn ; its precipitous sides are dangerous for 
sheep. 

Loch Glass and Glen Glass O.G. glas, water ; cf. 
R Glass in Strathglass; Douglas Water, where 
Eng. ' water ' is a translation of ' glas ;' Glenfin- 
glas (fionn-glas, white-water). Findglais and 
Dubglas appear in a list of ' healing waters ' in 
Ireland (O'Curry, M. and C. III. 97). Dubglas 
(Blackwater) is somew^hat disguised in Inver- 
uglas (L. Lomond). The river flowing through 
Glenglass is called in its lower reaches, where it 
passes through the famous chasm of the Black 
Rock, the Allt-grannda, Ugly Burn. The old 
name, at least of the upper part, must have been 
Glass. The river flowing into Loch Glass is now 
known as Abhairm nan eun, Bird-river (O.S.M.) 

Corrievachie G. Coire-bhacaidh, an old locative 
of Coire-bhacach, bent corry. 

Cuilishie G. Caolaisidh, the narrows. "The 
narrow passage at the lower end of Loch Glass. 
Here is the ford of the old drove road that passed 
that way." Mr H. Maclean. Cf. Lienassie. 

Kinloch At the eastern end of Loch Glass. 

Eileanach Place of islands ; it lies low by the 
river side, and is liable to be flooded. 



KILTEARN. 91 

Allt na Cailce Chalk Burn ; on its right bank is 
considerable deposit of lime, which is constantly 
. added to by a tiny rivulet. 

Cnoc a' Mhargadaidh Market Hill. There is a 
tradition of a market, which is probably correct, 
in view of the nearness of the old drove road from 
Sutherland. Certain enclosures near the foot of 

. the hill may be explained as connected with this 
market, or they may be very much older. There 
are numerous small cairns and some fine hut 
circles. There are traces of a road leading to the 
top, and on the top is black earth with charcoal 
fragments. At least one flint has been found on 
the top. 

Coneas The remarkable double waterfall below 
Eileanach. Con, together ; eas, waterfall : 'com- 
bination of falls' ; cf. Conachreig, Contullich, 
Contin, Conval, Conchra, Conglas, Conaglen. 

Clyne Clon 1231, Clonys, 1264, Clyne 1350-1372; 
G. an Claon, the slope ; now Mountgerald. 
' Amadan a' Chlaoin ' (the Fool of Clyne) was a 
well-known character in the earlier half of the 
19th century. 

Kilchoan Church of St. Congan, now Mountrich. 

Loch nan Amhaichean Loch of the Necks ; Loch 
Gobhlach (O.S.M. Loch nan Gobhlag), Forked 
Loch ; Loch Coire Feuchain (?) ; Feur Lochan, 
Grassy Lochlet ; Loch Bealach nan Cuilean ; 
Loch na' Druidean (O.S.M. Lochan Driogan), 
Loch of the Starlings ; Loch Mhiosaraidh (O.S.M. 
Loch Measach), Loch of dairy produce, are all in 
the uplands of the parish. 



92 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Allt Dubhag The small black burn. 

Ath a' bhealaich eidheannaich Ford of the ivy- 
pass. 

Balnacrae G. baile na ere, clay-town. 
Culcairn G. Cul-chairn, behind the cairn ; the cairn 
exists no longer. 

Dun-ruadh Red fort. 

Teandallan Explained by Mr Maclean as " house 
of swingle-trees or plough-yokes." "A carpenter 
lived here, who made a trade of them." Dalian 
also means a winnowing-fan. 

Altnalait G. allt na lathaid, burn of the miry 
place ; near Tulloch, and at the western boundary 
of Kiltearn. Based on root of lathach, mire, with 
ending seen in Bialid, &c. 
Modern names are : 

Evanton G. Bail' Eoghainn, or am bail' ur, New- 
town, as opposed to the old village of Drummond 
on the west side of the river. Evanton dates 
from about 1800. 

Fannyfleld Part of Swordale ; formerly am Bog- 
riabhach, brindled bog. 

Mountgerald, formerly Clyne, so called, says Mr 
Maclean, by a Mackenzie who owned the place 
about the middle of the 18th century, in honour 
of the supposed Fitzgerald descent of the Mac- 
kenzies. 

Obsolete are : Arbisak, 1608, and Badnagarne, 
a pertinent of Keatoll. 



DINGWALL. 93 



DING WALL. 

Dingwall Dingwell in Ross 1227, Dignewall 1263, 
Dingwal 1308, Dingwall 1382. Norse, Thing- 
vollr, Field of the Thing, the Norse general court 
of justice. Dingwall was therefore the centre of the 
Norse administration in Ross. The most southerly 
Norse place-name in this direction is Eskadale 
(Beauly), but Norse influence doubtless extended 
further. A mound, supposed to have been the 
actual meeting place of the Thing, is referred to 
about 1503, when James, Duke of Ross, resigned 
the earldom, and reserved to himself for life the 
moot-hill (montem) of Dingwall beside the town, 
in order to preserve his title as Duke. Dingwall 
is in Gaelic In'ir-pheofharan, Inver-peffray, and 
Inverferan appears in a Bull of Pope Alexander 
IV., 1256 (Theiner Vet. Mon.). 

Another term applied in a more or less familiar 
way to the ancient town is Bail' a' chail, Kail- 
town, but of the antiquity or origin of this term 
we cannot speak with confidence. Under date 
1526 appear the following names connected with 
the burgh of Dingwall : Blakcaris-land, Gray 
Stane, Mill of Brigend, Acris Scotte, Schortaker, 
march of Fesallich (dirty bog channel), Thombane 
(white-hillock). In 1655 we have the Boig of 



94 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Dingwall within the Burgh thereof, called Boig- 
moir, including Boigmoir or Westerboig, the Mid- 
boig and the Eister Boig, within the parish of 
Dingwall. 

Tulloch 1507, Tulch 1563; G. tulach, hillock; 
common also in locative case as Tullich. 

Kildun Thomas Dingwell of Kildon 1506, Kildun 
1527 ; G. Cill-duinn, locative of Ceall-donn, 
brown church. Cf. Kill in, from Cill-fhmn, white 
church ; Seipeil Odhar, dun chapel ; An Eaglais 
Bhreac, the spotted church (Falkirk). 

Humberston - - Formerly Upper Kildun. Major 
William Mackenzie, of the family of Seaforth, 
married Mary Humberston. 1 

Pitglassie Petglasse 1526 ; G. Bad a' ghlasaich, 
Lea- town ; the change from 'pit' into 'bad' is 
very rare ; but cf. Pitenglassie, G. Bad an glais 
tir. 

Kinnairdie Kynnardy 1479 ; G. Cinn-ardaidh, 
head of the high ground ; " the four Glakkis 
quhilkis are the ferd quarter of Kynnarde," 1539 ; 
" the demesne lands commonly called Kynnairdie, 
and the lands of Glakkis, a fourth part of the said 
demesne lands," 1584. 

Drynie Wester Drynee 1479 ; G. Droighnidh (no 
article) ; droigheann, thorns, with -aidh ending. 

Other names in the lower part of the parish 
explain themselves : Bakerhill, Blackwells, 
Knockbain, Allanfield, Croftandrum, Baddamh- 
roy (copse of the red stag or ox). 

1 V. A. Mackenzie's " History of the Mackenzies," p. 331. 



DINGWALL. 95 

In the uplands are Cnoc a' Bhreacaich (O.S.M. 
Cnoc a Bhreacachaidh), hi]l of the spotted place ; 
Leathad a' chruthaich (O.S.M. Leidchruich), hill- 
side of the quaking bog ; cf. suil- chruthaich ; 
Meall a' ghuail, Coal Hill, noted for excellent 
peats used for smithy charcoal, as was the regular 
custom before coals became available. Meall na 
speireig (hill of the sparrow-hawk, at the junction 
of Dingwall, Fodderty, and Kiltearn). 




96 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



FODDEBTY. 

Fodderty Ecclesia de Fotherdino 1238, Fotherdyn 
1275, Fothirdy 1350, Fothartye 1548, Fedderdy 
1561 ; G. Fodhraitidh (close ' o '). The spellings 
of 1350 and 1548 still represent the common 
English pronunciation. Fodder or fother, as a 
prefix, is well known on Pictish ground. Fod- 
derty itself is the most northerly instance ; in 
Inverness -shire is Fodderletter (Tomintoul) ; in 
Aberdeenshire, Fetterangus, Fetternear, and 
Fedderat (Fedreth 1205, Feddereth 1265) ; in 
Kincardine, Fetteresso (Fodresach, Pict. Chron.), 
and Fordun, which in St Berchan's Prophecy is 
Fothardun ; also Fettercairn (Fotherkern, Pict. 
Chron.) ; and in Perthshire, Forte viot, the Foth- 
uirtabaicht of the Pictish Chronicle. As a suffix 
it appears in the Annals of Ulster, under date 
680 A.D., " obsessio Duin Foithir," and again, 694, 
" obsessio Duin Foter" siege of Dunottar. The 
change to ' Fetter,' seen in the Aberdeen and 
Kincardine names, is curious, but mostly late, 
and perhaps a matter of umlaut in Scots dialect. 

Fodder, early Foter and Fother (in modern 
Gaelic ' for ' with close ' o '), is best regarded 
as a comparative of ' fo,' under, and may be com- 
pared with ' uachdar,' upper, from the root seen 



FODDERTY. 97 

in ' uasal,' high. The strong accent on Fodder, 
G. For, may have helped to obscure the second 
part of the compound. The ending -ty(n) is not 
uncommon on Pictish ground, and is always 
troublesome ; cf. Cromarty, Navity, Auchter- 
muchty, Buchanty. It is, however, probably safe 
to say that the meaning of Fodderty must be 
something like ' Lower place/ in contrast to 
Achterneed. 

The modern parish of Fodderty includes the 
ancient parish of Kinnettes Kenneythes 1256, 
Kennetis 1561, Kynattas 1574; Gael. Cinn-it'ais, 
' t 7 soft. The name is now applied to the farm 
on the high ground to the west of the Spa. 
' Cinn ' is the locative case of ' ceann/ head. The 
ending, ' ais,' is seen in Allt-ais (Altas), Fearn-ais 
(Farness), Forres, Durrais (Dores), Dallas, Geddes, 
being practically a local suffix. The middle part 
-it- is obscure, but may possibly be referred to 
Welsh ' yd,' corn ; 0. I. ith ; giving a meaning 
' place of corn ; ' Kinnettes, head of the corn-land. 
Achterneed Wethirnyde 1476, Ouctirnede 1479 ; 
G. Uachdar-niad, the high ground rising up from 
the plain of Fodderty, Uachdar means ' upland' ; 
niad can hardly be explained from any Gaelic or 
Irish source, but it would very well represent 
Welsh ' nant,' valley ; cf. Welsh cant, Gael, ceud, 
W. dant, G. deud. Achterneed would thus 
mean, ' The land above the valley/ Above 
Achterneed is a cup-marked stone called a' chlach 
phollach, the stone full of holes. 

7 



98 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

Strathpeffer G. Srath-pheofhair, 'Strath of the 
Peffer.' Peffer occurs as a burn name in Inver- 
peffray (Crieff), and there are two Peffer burns in 
Athelstaneford (Haddington), also a Peffer Mill 
at Duddingston. The initial ' p ' indicates a non- 
Gaelic origin. Dr Skene, misled by the resem- 
blance of Inchaffray (Insula Missarum, Mass Isle), 
has referred Inverpeffray and Strath-peffer to Ir. 
' aifrend,' a mass, which is quite out of the 
question. The various Peffer streams are more 
likely to be connected with the root seen in 
Welsh ' pefr,' beautiful, fair ; ' pefr in,' radiant ; 
' pefru,' to radiate. 

Knockfarrel G. Cnoc-farralaidh ; ' far ' in com- 
position denotes 'projecting' or 'high'; e.g., 
' far-bhonn,' fore-sole ; Ir. ' for-dorus/ porch ; 
G. 'far-dorus,' lintel; 'for-all,' high cliff. In 
farralaidh, a of ' farr ' is indefinite in quality, 
indicating that it has been affected by a succeed- 
ing slender vowel, which has become broadened 
in its turn. This gives an original far-eileach, in 
locative far-eiligh, ' high ' or ' projecting stone- 
house/ or ' stone-place,' with reference to the 
important vitrified fort which crowns the hill. 
For ' eileach ' in this sense, cf. na h-Eileachan 
Naomha or Garvelloch Isles, Jura ; also the great 
Irish Ailech. Cf. also Farrlaraidh, Rogart, from 
far-laraigh, old locative of larach ; ' projecting 
site.' 

Castle Leod Contaneloid 1507, Kandinloid 1534, 
Cultenloid 1547, Cwltelloid and Cultaloid 1556, 



FODDERTY. 99 

Cultalode 1575, Cultelloud, 1609, Culterloud 
1618. From these old forms it appears that 
Castle Leod is a corruption, facilitated doubtless 
by the presence of the ' castle,' which bears date 
1616. Contaneloid and Kandinloid represent 
' Ceann an leothaid,' Head of the sloping hill- 
side ; the other forms point to ' Cul da leothad,' 
At the back of two slopes, to wit, the slope of 
Achterneed and that immediately to the west of 
the castle. 

Ardival Ardovale 1479, Le Tympane de Ardovale 
1487, Ardwaill with its mill called Tympane 
Myln 1 1586, half davach of Ardauell 1655; G. 
Aird a' bhail', Height of the town or farm-stead. 

Kinnellatl Kynellane 1479; G. Cinn-eilein, Island- 
head, from the small artificial island in Loch 
Kinnellan, " resting upon logs of oak, on which 
the family of Seaforth had at one period a house 
of strength" New Stat. Ace. 

1 The site of the old mill is still well known, a little to the west of the 
present railway station, and just behind the stables. In 1681 it is mentioned 
as " Tympane mill, near Clach an Tiompan," the stone in the grounds of 
Nutwood near the public road, inscribed with an eagle and " horse-shoe" 
ornament. There seems now to be a tendency to the absurd corruption 
' Muileann tiunndain ' and ' Clach an tiunndain ' ' turning mill ' and ' stone 
of the turning,' a corruption arising from ' tiompan ' not being understood in 
this connection. ' Tiompan ' has two quite distinct meanings (1) a musical 
instrument ; (2) a rounded, one-sided knoll. In this sense it is common in 
place-names, and may be compared in point of derivation with English ' tump,' 
Greek ' tumbos,' Lat. ' tumeo,' Gael. ' tulach,' Welsh ' twmp,' a mound. In 
this particular case the ' tiompan ' is the knoll on which the house of Nutwood 
stands, and which is exactly all that an orthodox ' tiompan ' should be. I 
have been told that ' tiompan ' is used in a third sense viz., a narrow gully, 
or even the nozzle of a bellows ; and in support of this was quoted the 
proverb : " Tha a' ghaoth cho fuar 's ged a bhiodh i tighinn a tiompan " The 
wind is as cold as if it were blowing out of a bellows' mouth. 



100 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CBOMARTY. 

Ulladale Elodil 1476, Ulladall 1479 ; G. Ulladal 
is Norse, and probably means Ulli's dale. Cnoc 
Ulladail is the hill above Castle Leod. Of. Ulla- 
dale in Logie Easter, Ullapool, etc. 

Park Park 1476, le Park 1479; G. a' Phairc. 
The battle of Park, Blar na Pairce, between the 
Mackenzies and the Macdonalds, took place about 
1490. 

Dochcarty Dalcarty and Davachcarty 1541 ; G. 
Do'ach-gartaidh : dabhach of the corn-enclosure. 

Davochcarn Dalfcarne 1479 ; G. Do'ach a' chairn, 
davach of the cairn. 

Da VOChpollo Dalfpoldach 1479, Dauchauchpollo 
1526 ; G. Do'ach a' phollain, Davach of the pool. 

Davochmaluag Dalfmalawage 1497, Dalmalook 
1584 ; G. Do'ach Mo-luaig, St Moluag's davoch. 

These three were included in the farm of Brae, 
1777. On the moor to the west of the Heights 
of Dochcarty, G. Breigh Doch-gartaidh, are five 
stone slabs, heavy, broad, and pointed, marking 
an oval of about ten to twelve feet axis. They 
are called Na Clachan Gorach, the silly stones, 
and are evidently part of what was once the 
central chamber of a large round cairn, now 
almost quite removed. They may be compared 
with the chambered cairn near Acharn, Alness. 

Inchvannie Inchevaynel, Enchewany 1554, Inch- 
vandie 1584; G. I's-mheannaidh. probably from 
meann, a kid. These inshes were places frequented 
by cattle. 



FODDERTY. 101 

jBlarninich G. Blar an aonaich, Plain of the meet- 
ing, or, of the moor. It is near the church of 
Fodderty. 

Inclirory Chapel of the Virgin Mary of Inchrory 
1349, Inchrory 1583, Inchrorie 1609. G. I's 
Ruaraidh. On the right bank of the Peffery, 
immediately opposite the old bury ing-ground of 
Fodderty. Here stood the chapel of Inchrory. 
To the north of the bury ing-ground was ' Croit 
an Teampuil,' Temple Croft, where stone coffins 
have been found (O.S.A.). " Rory's Mead." 

Dochnaclear Dauachnacleir with the mill 1533, 
Davachnacleir 1533 ; G. Do'ach nan cliar, 
davach of the "cliar" ; cliar here has probably 
its old meaning of clergy ; in modern Gaelic it 
means poet or hero. The place is above the farm 
of Fodderty. 

Keppoch G. a' cheapaich, the tillage plot. Com- 
mon. 

Bottacks G. na botagan (close ' o ') ; botag in 
place-names means a sun-dried crack, or narrow 
channel. 

Creag an Fhithich Raven's Rock. 

Rogie le Rew 1476, Rewgy cum le Ess (with the 

waterfall) 1472, Rewy 1527, Rowe, Rowy 1575, 

Row^ 1614 ; G. Roagaidh, name of burn and 

district ; ? Norse rok-a, splashing, foaming river ; 

cf. Loch Roag, Lewis. Doubtful ; cf. Errogie, 

Inverness. 
Strathrannoch Foreste de Rannach 1479, Strath- 

rannoch 1542; strath of bracken. Cf. Rannoch 

and Loch Rannoch in Perthshire. 



102 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Allt a* choire ranaich Burn of the bracken corry r 

in Strathrannoch. 
Lilb a' chlaiginn Skull bend ; ' claigeann ' is 

common in place-names, and is usually applied to 

a bare rounded knoll. When applied to a farm 

or field, it is said to mean the best arable land 

(New Guide to Islay, p. 42). 
Allt COir a* Chundrain I have failed to verify this 

name. 

Meall a' ghrianain Hill of the sunny knoll. 
Beinn a' Chaisteil Casde Hill; cf. Beinn a r 

Chaisteil, at the head of Glen Rosa, Arran. 

Carn nan aighean Hinds' cairn. 

An leatbad cartach ' Carfcach ' may come from 
' cairt,' bark of a tree, but in this particular con- 
nection it is, I think, more likely to come from 
' cairt,' cleanse or scour ; whence ' cairteadh,' 
muck. Thus the ' leathad cartach ' would mean 
the ' scoury ' hillside, i.e., liable to be scoured by 
water. ' Cairt ' scour, is seen also in Glen Do- 
charty, and Glendochart ; cf. the rivers Cart. 

Allt an eilein ghuirm Burn of the green island ; 
Meall nan sac, hill of burdens or loads. 

Inchbae G. I's-beith, Birch-haugh 

Allt na Bana-Mhorair Lady's burn. 

Gleann Sgathaich Doubtful ; ' sgathach ' means 
lopped branches, brushwood, from 'sgath/ lop. 
The c a ' is short, otherwise we may think of a 
derivative from ' sgath,' fear ' uncanny place,' 

Ben Wyvis G. Beinn Uais (but prosthetic ' f ' seen 
in Cabar Fuais) ; High Hill ; ' uais/ from the 



FODDEBTY. 103 

root seen in ' uas-al,' high, noble ; Gaulish 
ux-ellos ; Gaulish c x' becomes ' s' in Gaelic, but 
in Welsh it becomes ' ch.' Thus ' ux-ellos ' 
gives in Welsh ' uch-el,' high, whence Ochil, 
Oykel, Achilty. The height of Wyvis is perhaps 
best appreciated from the higher parts of Inver- 
ness and neighbourhood. 

Bealach Collaidh An ancient drove road to the 
west of Wyvis ; hazel-gap or pass ; an extension 
of ' coll,' the old form of ' call/ hazel, representing 
a primitive Coslacum. The forest of Colly, in 
Kincardine, appears in 1375, modern Cowie ; cf. 
Kilcoy, and Duncow in Dumfriesshire. 



104 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 



UBRAY. 

TIrray Owra 1476, Urra 1479, Kingis Urray c. 
1560 ; G. Urrath. The New Stat. Ace. suggests 
ur-ath, new ford, from the tendency of the rapid 
Orrin, near which the church and churchyard are 
situated, to shifb its fords. This, however, does 
not satisfy the phonetics either in respect of the 
quantity of the 'u' or the quality of the 'r.' 
The first syllable is rather the preposition ' air,' 
O. Ir. ar, air, Gaulish are-, meaning ' before,' and 
cognate with the English 'fore.' In Gael, com- 
pounds it appears as ' ur- ' in ' ur-chair/ a shot 
(i.e., something cast forward), ' ur-sainn/ a door- 
post (i.e., something standing forward), 'ear-ball' 
or ' ur-ball,' a tail. It is seen in such Gaulish 
names as Are-brignus (' brig,' hill) and Are-morica 
(' mor,' sea). The second part may possibly be 
' ath/ a ford, which would give the not very satis- 
factory sense of ' projecting ford ' ; more probably 
it is ' rath/ a circular enclosure or fort, ' fore-fort,' 
or, ' fort on a projecting place.' For phonetics cf. 
urradh, person, security, = air + rath (Macbain). 

Brahan Browen 1479, Bron 1487, Branmore 1526, 
Brain 1561 ; G. Brathainn, as if loc. of brath, a 
quern. W. brenan, handmill) ; "place of the 
quern " is the local tradition, which may be 
correct. 



URRAY. 105 

Tollie G. Tollaidh, from ' toll/ hole. There was a 
chapel and also a burying-ground at Tollie. 
Of. Tollie, Ardross, and Tollie, Gairloch. 

Jamestown G. Baile Shiamais. 

Bealach nan Corr Cranes' pass. 

Moy Half davach of Moy 1370, le Moye 1479, 
Moymore 1542; G. a' mhuaigh, locative case of 
magh, a plain. Moy Bridge is Drocliaid Mhuaigh, 
and the ferry which existed before the bridge was 
Port Mhuaigh. (Moy, Inverness, is a' Mhoigh). 

Ussie (loch and district) Usuy 1463, Ouse 1476, 
Housy 1527, Lytill Usui and Mekill Usui 1583 ; 
G. usaidh ; an obscure name, Pictish or pre- 
Pictish. 

Balnain G. Baile 'n fhain, from ' fan,' a low-lying 
place or gentle slope, not uncommon in place- 
names ; cf. na fana, the Fendom (Tain) ; am fain 
Braonach (Aultbea), Forsinain (Sutherland). 

Fairburn 1 The two Ferburnys 1476, Fairburneglis 
1527, Eistir Farbrawne 1538, Kirkferbrune 1542, 
Farabren 1555, Avon Forbarin (Orrin River), 
Blaeu ; G. Farabraoin, or simply Braoin ; from 
' far,' over, as in Cnoc Farrail, and braon, water, 
which in place-names is used to denote a wet 
spot, e.g. Brin, Daviot, G. Braoin ; cf. Lochbroom. 

1 Local tradition connects the burning of the women of the Finn by 
Garry with the fort on Cnoc Farrail, and it is curious to find several old 
Gaelic poems on that subject, entitled " Losgadh Brugh Farbruin," the 
Burning of Fairburn Fort. A fragment of one is printed in " Reliquiaa 
Celtiquae," I. 226. Another version with same title is printed in Campbell's 
" Leabhar na Feinne," p. 176. 



106 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CEOMARTY. 

Arcan Arcoyn 1479, Arckyne 1561, Arcan 1584 ; 
from Old Gael. ' arc/ black ; Welsh ' erch,' dusky. 
In a West Highland Fingalian tale, one of the 
characters is Arc dubh, where ' dubh ' is a trans- 
lation of ' arc.' Cf. Loch Arklet, in Stirling ; 
Loch Arkaig, in Inverness-shire ; and Arkendeith, 
in Black Isle. 

Clachandhu Black stones. 

Achtabannock G. Ach-da-bhannag, field of two 
cakes. 

AultgOWrie G. Allt-gobhraidh, Goat-burn. The 
regular Gaelic form would of course be Allt nan 
gobhar ; but the formation seen here is not 
uncommon in Easter Ross ; cf. Invergowrie, identi- 
fied by Dr Reeves with " flumen Gobriat in 
Pictavia," Acta SS. Mart. II., p. 449. 

Balloan G. Bail' an loin, town of the low damp 
place. 

Teanafruich Tigh 'n fhraoich, Heather-house. 

Achnasoull Auchansowle 1479, Auchnasoill 1538, 
Auchnasowle 1542 Barnfield. 

Blackdyke G. An Garadh dubh, of which the 
English is a translation. 

Clachuil G. Clach-thuill, Hollowed stone. The 
name comes from a stone hollowed out as if for 
' crocking ' barley i clach an eorna,' the barley 
stone which may still be seen at the Inn of 
Clachuil. Cf. Clach-toll in Assynt. 

Cornhill G. Cnoc an airbh ; cf. Cornhill in Strath- 
carron (Ardgay), formerly Knockinarrow. 

Auchederson G. Achd-eadarsan ; it lies between 
the Gowrie burn and the Orrin, not far from their 



URRAY. 107 

junction. The meaning is obviously ' the field 
between ' (eadar), but the last syllable is puzzling. 
Perhaps with the extension of ' eadar ' shown 
in Auchederson, we may compare ' tarsuinn,' 
from ' tar/ across, and ' ur-sainn,' from ' air,' 
before, in both of which the ending represents 
a primitive ' -stan,' from root ' sta,' to stand. 

StrOiiachro Point of the fold or enclosure ; on the 
opposite side of the Orrin is 

Cnoc an oir Gold hill. 

Auchonachie Ach Dhonnachaidh, Duncan's field. 
In the birch wood south east of it is Cnocan nam 
Brat, hillock of the mort-cloths. near a very small 
bury ing-ground, now disused and nameless. 

Cabaan Cadha ban, white steep path. 

Rheindown Ruigh an duin : Slope or stretch of 
Dun ; adjacent to Dunmore. 

Teandalloch G. Tigh an dalach, House of the 
dale ; cf. Ballindalloch. 

Aultvaich Byre-burn. 

Aradie (in Glenorrin) G. Aradaidh. It is at the 
junction with the Orrin of a stream flowing from 
a loch marked on the O.S.M. Loch Annraidh, but 
which is locally called Loch Aradaidh, The 
stream is also Allt Aradaidh. Aradie is thus a 
stream name, and we are safe in comparing it 
with Inverarity (Inuerarethin 1250), in Forfar, 
now the name of a parish, but primarily the 
junction of the Arity streamlet with a small burn. 
There is also Arity Den, in Fife. The various 
streams Arity are piobably to be connected with 
the Gaulish river Arar, of which Csesar says that 



108 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

its current is so extremely slow that the eye can 
hardly distinguish in which direction it flows. 
This again points to the root seen in the Welsh 
'araf,' slow, still. Another Gaulish stream, 
apparently from same root, is the Arabo, and 
there is a personal name Arabus. The ending -ty 
is not uncommon on Pictish ground. 

Dunmore Great fort; there is a hill fort, of the 
usual type. 

Tarradale Taruedal 1240, 1278 ; Constable of 
Taruedale 1278 ; Ouchterwaddale and Onachter- 
vadale 1275-94 ; Taruedelle 1309, Tarridil 1372, 
Tarredill 1479 ; Norse ' tarfr-dalr,' bull-dale. 

Balvatie Bail' a' mhadaidh, Dog's or Wolfs town. 

Hughstown from Hugh Baillie, son of a former 
proprietor; formerly ' Cnocan cruaidh.' 

Hilton Hiltoun 1456, Balnoknok and Hiltoun of 
Tarradaill 1586 ; G. Baile-'chnuic. 

Gilchrist Kylchristan 1569 : ' Christ's Kirk.' 

Balnagown Ballingovnie 1476, Balngoun. 1479 ; 
Smith's town. 

Blair Balliblare 1475, Belblare 1479 ; G. Bail' a' 
bhlair, town on the plain. 

Carnaclasser Of, Kinkell Clairsair 1527 ; G. Cam 
a' Chlarsair, the Harper's cairn. 1 

1 The cairn is now gone, and its site matter of some uncertainty, but the 
oldest tradition available to me places it in the garden of the present school- 
house of Tarradale. The clarsair, according to the story, was slain by Iain 
Dubh Ghiuthais to prevent disclosure of a theft of mill-stones, of which he 
was unfortunate enough to be the spectator. But as this gentleman's father 
died about 1619 (Hist, of the Mackenzies), and we hare seen the term 
' clarsair ' attached to Kinkell in 1527, it follows that, whoever killed the 
clarsair, if indeed he was killed, Black Fir John must be held innocent. 
Perhaps the origin of the name is, like the cairn, gone beyond recovery. 



URRAY. 109 

Fiddlefield Recent and English. 

Ardnagrask Height of the crossings. ' Crasg ' is 
usually applied to a crossing place in the hills ; 
cf. Cnoc chroisg, Boath, Alness. Here, however, 
it is locally explained as from the old system, 
practised in Ardnagrask up to comparatively 
recent times, of cross rigs. On this system the 
arable land of the township was held in common, 
and allotments of rigs made at fixed periods in 
such a way that no two adjacent rigs fell to the 
same man. the idea being that so every man got 
his fair share of good and bad land. This is likely 
to be correct, and is favoured by the fact that in 
Ardnagrask ' crasg' is genitive plural, not singular 
as is usual elsewhere. 

Broomhill G. Cnoc a' bhealaidh, or An cnoc 
bealaidh. 

Caplich G, Caiplich ; from ' capull,' horse, or 
mare ' place of the horses ' ; a name of frequent 
occurrence. 

Croftnallan G. Croit an ail em, croft of the green 
flat. 

Balavullich Bail' a' mhullaich, town of the sum- 
mit. 

Torris Trean A pathetic attempt at G. torr a' 
phris draigheann, hillock of the thorn-bush. 

Clllach The back place. 

Highfield G. Ciarnaig ; a word of doubtful mean- 
ing, which may perhaps be compared with 
Acbiarnaig (Aviemore), 



110 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Glaickerduack G. Glaic an dubhaig, hollow of 
the simll black burn ; ' dubhag ' is a fairly 
common burn name. 

Cbapeltown G. Bail' an t-seipeil. 

Dreim The farm of Dreim (ridge) has swallowed 
up some small holdings such as Culblair, where 
some friends of Ewen Maclachlan's once lived, 
while modestly curtailing its own ancient name to 
a monosyllable. A reference to Blaeu's and 
Font's maps shows it to be identical with Hil- 
culdrum 1476, Kynculadrum 1479, Kilquhill- 
adrum 1707. With the old forms may be 
compared Kincaldrum, in Inverarity, Forfar ; 
Kingoldrum, Forfar. 

Balvraid Ballibrahede 1476, Belbrade 1479, Esche 
(waterfall) of Balbrait 1527, Ballivraid 1648 ; G. 
Bail' a' bhraghaid, town of the upper part. 

Tormuick Swine's hill. 

Febait G. an fheith bhaite, drowned, or wet bog. 

Balno Am baile nodha, new-town. 

Ord Le Ord 1479 ; G. An t-Ord ; Muir of Ord is 
Am Blar Dubli. Near it are standing stones called 
' na clachan seasaidh.' 

Milton G. Bail' a' mhuilinn. 

Teanacriech G. Tigh na criche, march-house. 

Corriehallie G. Coire shaillidh, fat corry ; noted 
for its grass ; cf. Coire feoil, Contin. In Corrie- 
hallie Forest is Creag a' Bhainne, Milking-rock. 

Droitham Anglicised form of Drochaid riabhan, or 
Drochaid cheann a' riabhain, connected with 



UREAY. Ill 

Canreayan G. Ceann a' riabhain ; ' riabhain ' is a 
derivative from root of 'riabhach,' meaning 
' dappled, speckled place.' 

Lettoch G. an Leithdach, i.e., leith dabhach, half 
davach. There are several Lettochs. Cf. Haddo, 
in Aberdeen, from Half-davach ; Lettoch, Knock- 
bain. 

Teanalick G. Tigh an t-sluic, bog-house ; also 
given as Tigh-an-luig, house of the ' lag ' or 
hollow. 

Claisdarran G. Clais an terrain, hollow of the 
hillock. 

Tenafield G. Tigh na fidhle, Fiddle-house. 

Dorrivorellie G. Doire Mhurchaidh, Murdoch's 
copse. 

Sron na saobhaidh Point of the den. 

Cnoc-udais A hill at the entrance to Glen Orrin, 
with a large cairn on top, locally asserted to mark 
the grave of Judas ! The ending -ais (open ' a ') 
is that noted above in Kinnettes, and means 
' place of.' The meaning of the root ud- must be 
conjectural ; but cf. Welsh ' ud,' howl, blast, 
which suggests ' place of blasts ' appropriate in 
point of sense. 

Cuthaill Bheag and Cuthaill Mhor. ? N. kiia- 
fjall, cow-fell. Hills near Cnoc-udais. 

Orrin River G. Abhainn Orthainn, which would 
point to a primitive Orotonna or perhaps Orsonna. 
We may perhaps compare the Orrin with such 
names as the Fifeshire Ore, with which has been 
connected Ptolemy's Orrea, a town of the Verm- 
cones ; and with Or-obis, a river of Gallia 



112 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Narbonensis ; there was also a Gaulish highland 
tribe called the Orobii. The root syllable in all 
seems to be 'or/ which may or may not^be the 
same as Latin ' or-ior,' start. The Orrin is 
notorious for shifting its channel during the 
sudden spates to which it is liable. The junction 
of the Orrin and the Conon is Poll a' choire. 
kettle-pool. Cf. Joyce II. , 432. 



URQUHART. 113 



URQUHART. 

Urquhart -- Utherchain 1275, Urquhard 1498, 
Wrchart (Blaeu) ; G. Urchadain, from the pre- 
position ' air/ on, in front of, which in composition 
frequently becomes ' ur-'; and ' cardden,' a wood, 
brake ; a word not found in Gaelic or Irish, but 
preserved in Welsh as above Urquhart thus 
meaning ' wood-side.' The Pictish name Urquhart 
is closely paralleled by the Gaelic Kinkell (wood- 
head), which appears below as occurring in this 
parish. ' Cardden ' is a frequent element in names 
of places on Pictish ground, especially in the com- 
pounds Kincardine passim (wood-head), and in 
Urquhart ; cf. Glen-Urquhart, Inverness, Adam- 
nan's Airchartdan ; Glen-Urquhart in the parish 
of Cromarty (though this has been connected 
with the Urquharts of Cromarty), and the parish 
of Urquhart in Elgin. We have also Pluscarden 
in Elgin, and Carden-den in Fife. 

The modern parish of Urquhart includes the 
old parish of Logie Wester (united about 1669) ; 
Logy 1498, Logy Westir 1569, Logwreid 1600. 
In 1238 it seems to appear as Longibride 
(Theiner's Yet. Mon.) and again in Baiamund's 
Roll we have Dunthard and Logynbrid, 1275. 
Logy, G. lagaidh, is from ' lag,' a hollow, with 



114 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

the ' -aidh ' ending. It forms the south-west 
portion of the united parish, and the name still 
appears in Logieside, half-a-mile or so north-east 
of Highfield Home Farm. 

In 1430 the King confirmed to Donald, Thane 
of Caldore (Cawdor in Nairnshire), the lands of 
Estirkynkelle and the mill of Alcok in the 
county of Ross. In 1476 the King united and 
incorporated into the one complete thanage of 
Caldor (unum et integrum thanagium de Caldor), 
having the liberties and privileges of a barony, 
certain lands in Nairn and Forres, as also the two 
Kinkells, Kindeis. Invermarky, Mulquhaich, and 
Drumvoourny in the county of Boss, all which he 
granted to his faithful William, Thane of Caldor. 
This explains the origin of Ferintosh, G. An 
Toisigbeachd, or an Tois'eachd, ' The Thaneship/ 
from ' toiseach,' the ancient Celtic dignitary 
ranking next to the ' mormaer,' who, in the 
language of feudalism, was translated into thane, 
while the mormaer became ' Comes,' or Earl. 
Ferintosh, ' land of the Toiseach,' is still the 
popular designation of the parish in English, as 
* An Toisigheachd ' is in Gaelic. Of the places 
mentioned in the grant of 1476, the two Kinkells, 
Mulcaich, and Dunvorny are in Urquhart ; Inver- 
marky, now obsolete, was near Rosemarky. If 
there was a Kindeis in the Black Isle, I have 
failed to identify it, the only Kindeis known to 
me having been in Nigg, where it has now become 
obsolete, and whence it has been transferred to 
Kindeace in Kilmuir Easter. 



URQUHART. 115 

Kinkell Kynkell 1479, Kinkell Clarsair 1527, 
Kinkell Clarshac 1542, Kinkell Clairsheoch 1556 ; 
G. ceann na coille, wood-head. The similarity in 
meaning to the name Urquhart is worth noting. 
There are two Kinkells Easter Kinkell and 
Wester or Bishop's Kinkell ; and Kinkell Clarsair 
of the records is doubtless the wester one, which 
is nearer Muir of Ord, or Carn a' Chlarsair. 

Mulchaich Mulcach 1456, Mulquhaich 1476, Mul- 
quhaisch 1507 ; G. Mul-caich; from ' mul,' rounded 
eminence ; the ' -caich,' or ' cathaich/ is doubtful. 

Alcaig Mill of Alcok 1430 ; " the Alcaikis with 
their pendicles, viz., Crostnahauin, and Bogboy, 
with the mil) of Alcaik and the yare of Alcaik 
called Corrinagale," 1611 ; G. Alcaig; from Norse 
Alka-vik, auk's bay. 

Bogboy is modern Bogbuie, yellow bog, two 
miles from Alcaig, beyond Easter Kinkell. 

Crostnahauin, Eiver-croft, is probably repre- 
sented by the modern Teanahaun, a farm at the 
mouth of the Conon. 

Corrinagale, from its description as a ' yare,' 
appears to be from Ir. ' cora,' or ' coradh,' a weir 
across a river ; cf. the Irish Kincora and Tikincor, 
and, in Scotland, Achnacarry ; Norsemens' Weir ? 

Dunvomie Drum war ny 1456, Drumwerny 1458 ; 
Drumworny 1507; G. Dun-bhoirinidh ; 'drum' 
and ' dun ' frequently interchange, in some cases 
at least because there was both a drum or ridge, 
and a dun or fort, and this is the case with Dun- 
vornie. The name seems to be from Ir. ' boireann,' 



116 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

a rock, or a stony, rocky district ' Stony Ridge,' 
which would suit a locality where, as here, the 

' rock frequently appears above the surface. In 
Ireland we have Rathborney, Knockanemorney, 
and many other names of the same origin. 

Findon Fyndoun 1456, Mekle Findon 1574, Little 
Findon 1587; G. Fionndun, white fort. We 
have in 1608 " Baddrean and Teazet, pertinents 
of Mekle Findon." Baddrean, now Baclrain, 
thorny copse ; Teazet is a phonetic spelling of 
Tigh 'gheata, Gatehouse ; it is now obsolete, but 
Knockgate is still part of Findon farm. Another 
pertinent of Findon, 1608, is Ballegyle, now 
Balgoil, Stranger's town. 

The Querrel, near the shore, appears 1503; 
obviously G. An Coireall, the quarry. 

Culbokie Culboky 1456 and 1542; Eistir and 
Westir Culboky 1563; G. Cuil-bhaicidh. The 
old form, retained in English, goes to prove that 
the original Gaelic was Cuil-bhbcaidh, the modern 
Gaelic showing the common change of ' o ' to ' a.' 
This is confirmed by comparison with the less 
know Cuil-bhocaidh in Strathcarron, parish of 
Kincardine. The second part of the compound 
appears to be from ' bocan,' hobgoblin, Scottish 
bogie, the meaning being * the haunted nook.' 
The name would, on this supposition, have been 
originally applied to the hollow near the ancient 
ruin, near the village, which is noted below, and 
which could hardly fail to have had uncanny 
associations. 



URQUHART. 117 

Balgalkin G. Bail' galcainn, from l gale,' tor 
thicken cloth, by a process akin to fulling 
' Fuller-town.' 

Leanaig G. Lianaig, diminutive of ' liana,' a 
meadow, swampy plain. This is a case of a 
feminine diminutive being formed from a mascu- 
line noun. 

Cornton G. Bail' an loch, Loch-town. West of 
it is 

Cononbrae G. Bog domhain, deep bog. 

Ryefleld G. Ach an t-seagaiL 

Drummonreach Speckled ridge. 

Teandore House of the grove ; it was once a 
drinking place, but the name has no sinister 
implication. 

Balnabeen G. Bail' na binn ; locally explained as 
Town of judgment, which is doubtless correct, 
seeing that near it is 

Gallows Hill G. Cnoc a' chrochaidh. Also 

Crochair G. Crochar, place of hanging ; from 
' croch/ gallows, modern ' croich.' 

Teanagairn, House of the cairn, and Glascairn, 
G. Clais 'chairn, are so called from the remarkable 
ruin in the wood about a quarter of a mile south 
of the west end of Culbokie. In Gaelic it is 
called Caisteal Cuil-bhaicidh, and also Caisteal 
Bhaicidh. It is circular, with two concentric 
walls, the inner of stone, and is surrounded by a 
ditch, now partly filled up. Some bones were 
found there about forty years ago, in the course 



118 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

of removing stones for dykes, since when it has 

remained untouched. Close by it is a small loch. 

Duncanston A quite modern name its eponymus 

is still with us the Gaelic of which is Boer a' 

o 

mhiodair. Local tradition says that the place 
was so named from the loss of a mitre there by 
the Bishop of Ross as he was going from his 
residence of Castle Craig to Chanonry. But it is 
much more likely to come from ' miodar,' pasture 
ground, or, possibly, ' miodar,' a round vessel of 
wood. 

Greenleonaehs G. Lianagan a' Chuil-bhaicidh, wet 
meadows of Culbokie. 

Baluachrach G. Bail' uachdarach, Upper town. 

Balmenach G. Bail' meadhonach, Mid-town. 

Baliachrach G. Bail' iochdarach, Lower town. 

Balachladaich Shore town. 
Badenerb Eoe-clump. 

Tore G. Torr, rounded hill. 

Crask of Findon Crasg, a crossing place. It 

includes Boggiewell, G. Bog an fhuail, palus 

urinae. 
Balreillan ' Reidhlean,' a green, or level plain ; a 

derivative of ' reidh,' level. Some graves were 

found in the neighbourhood. 
Loch Sheriff G. Loch an t-Siorra. 
Bracklach G. Breaciach, spotted place ; cf. ' garbh- 

lach,' rough place. 

Knoekandultaig G. Cnoc an dialtaig, bat's 

hillock. 
Balloan G. Bail' an loin ; town of the low, damp 

meadow. 



URQUHABT. 119 

Coulnagour Goats' nook. 

Balavil G. Bail' a' bhile, town on the brae-edge. 

Cocked-Hat Wood A small plantation, so named 

by the late Sir James Mackenzie. 
Mossend G. Ceann a' mhonaidh. 
Sunny Brae A euphemistic rendering of G. * am 

braighead mosach,' nasty upland. 
Cnoe na fanaig G. Cnoc na' feannag ; probably 

from ' feannag,' a ' lazy -bed,' but of course 

' feannag/ a hoodie-crow, is quite possible. 
Cnoc an araid, a mile or more west of Culbokie, 

most likely from ' anart,' linen, which in E. Ross 

becomes ' arad.' 
Logieside, at the west end of the parish, preserves 

the old name of Logy. 
Dugaraidh, on Ord. Sur. map Dungary, near the 

border of Urray Dubh-garaidh, black den or 

thicket ; the lengthening of ' dubh ' is owing to 

the stress of the accent ; cf. Duloch and dulan, 

also, Dougrie in Arran. 
Balvaird Bail' a bhaird, Bard's town. Or it may 

be from ' bard,' a meadow, paddock ; in Badenoch 

e still used in the sense of ' meadow ' in common 

speech. 
Tigh na h-innse Meadow-house near Alcaig 

Ferry. 
Cnoc 'chois Hill of the recess. 



120 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 



RESOLIS. 

Resells G. Ruigh-sholuis, slope of light, or bright 
slope. In 1662 the Commissioners for the 
plantation of Kirks united the parishes of 
Cullicudden and Kirkmichaell into one parish 
church, to be called the Parish Church of Kirk- 
michael, and to be built at Reisolace. As the 
site of the parish church has not been shifted 
since, it is clear that the name Resolis originally 
applied only to that slope on which the church 
now stands, a spot with a bright south-easterly 
exposure. The New Stat. Ace., written by Rev. 
Donald Sage in 1836, records that .Resolis rather 
than Kirkmichael was then the name in popular 
usage. It has now practically become the official 
designation also. 

Cullicudden included the western portion of 
the united parish. In addition to the early 
mention of it noted below, it appears as Cultudyn 
in 1275 among the churches taxed by the Holy 
See for relief of the Holy Land. The church was 
dedicated to St Martin of Tours, and the name 
of the parish in Gaelic was regularly Sgire 
Mhartuinn. Hence such names as Kilmartin 
(where the old church of Cullicudden stood, with 
its bury ing-ground), Ach martin, St Martins. In 



KESOLIS. 121 

1641 Charles I. granted to Inverness the fair of 
10th November, " quhilk was haldin of auld at 
Sanct Martenis Kirk in Ardmannoche now lyand 
waist." 

Kirkmichael is the eastern portion of the united 
parish. The church was known in Gaelic as Gill 
Mhicheil, and the parish itself as Sgire Mhicheil. 
The site of the church was at the east end of the 
parish, close to the firth ; and Hugh Miller, in his 
" Scenes and Legends," gives a wild legend 
bearing on its churchyard. The same legend is 
current with regard to the churchyards of Dala- 
rossie and of Petty, in Inverness-shire. 

Culbo Eistir Culbo 1557, Eistir and Wastir 
Cuiboll 1560; G. Curabol ; from Norse ' kiila,' 
a ball or knob, and ' bol,' a farm-stead. Kula is 
applied in place-names to a rounded hill ; cf. 
de Kool o' Fladabister in Shetland (Jacobsen). 
Gaelic ' r ' is due to dissimilation. 

Balblair Belblair 1551, Eistir Belblair 1557 ; G. 
Bail' a bhlair, town of the plain. 

Kinbeachy Kynbarch 1561-66, Kinbeachie 1565- 
71 ; G. Cinn a' bheathchaidh, head of the birch 
wood (beitheach). Cf. Kinveachy, Aviemore. It 
is to be taken in connection with 

Birkis 1551 ; G. a Bheithearnaich, still known as 
' The Birks ' ; beith-ar-n-aich ; for the formation 
cf. Muc-ar-n-aich, from ' muc,' pig ; preas-ar-ii-ach r 
from ' preas,' bush ; etc. 

Dmmcudden Drumcudyn 1528 and 1546; Drum- 
cudden 1458 ; G. Druimchudainn, also 



122 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Cullicudden Culicuden 1227 ; G. Cuila' chudainn, 
or, as a variant, according to the New. Stat. Ace., 
' Coull a Chuddegin.' The N.S.A. makes it " the 
Cuddie Creek that species of fish being formerly, 
though not now, caught in great abundance in a 
small creek on the shore of Cullicudden, and a 
little to the west of the old church." G. 
' cudainn,' or ' cudaig,' a cuddy. 

Braelangwell Braelangwell 1577 ; a hybrid ; G. 
1 braigh,' an up-land, and Norse ' langvollr,' long- 
field. There is Langwell in Strathcarron ; also 
Lang well, Oykell.. 

Balliskilly Bowskaly 1551, Ballaiskaillie 1580; 
G. Baile sgeulaidh, story- town, or town of the 
story-teller. 

Brae Brey 1533 ; town of Braire c. 1560 ; ' braigh,' 
up-land. 

Woodhead The Wodheid c. 1560 ; near it is am 
Bard Gobhlach, the forked meadow. 

Castle Craig Craighouse c. 1560; G. Tigh na 
creige. 

Tighninnich Tawninich (Blaeu), east of Balblair ; 
G. Tigh 'n aonaich, town of the market ; there 
was a market at Jemimaville until recent times. 

BadgriDan Copse of the sunny hillock. 

Chapelton G. Bail' an t-seipeil. 

Kirkton : 

Drumdyre G. Druim(a)doighr ; doubtful ; Daighre 
was an Irish personal name ; Maclruanaidh ua 
Daighre occurs in the Four Masters ; but it does 
not seem to occur in Scotland. 



RESOLIS. 123 

Bruichglass Green brae. 

Poyntzfield of old Ardoch, the high place. 

BalUcherry G. Bail' a' cheathraimh, town of the 

quarter (davach). 
Gavin Smooth pass. 
Toberchurn Well of the cairn. 
Capernich G. Ceaparnaich, or 'a' Cheaparnaich,' 

an extension of ' ceap,' a block, whence ' ceapach,' 

tillage plot ; cf. for formation ' a' Bheithearnaich ' 

above. 
Pleucherries G. Fliuchairidh, the wet place ; a 

locative of ' fliuch-ar-adh/ from ' fliuch,' wet. The 

' 's ' is the English plural, as in Geanies, Pitnel- 

lies, &c. 

Jamimaville : a modern name. 
Am Bard Loisgte The burnt meadow, near St 

Martins. 

Burnslde G. Tigh an daimh, ox-house. 
Camperdown G. form not found ; named after the 

battle of 1797. 

Obsolete are : 
Rostabrichty, situated, according to Blaeu's map, a 

little to the north-west of Braelangwell ; later 

Eosabrighty, 1740. 

Auchnintyne 1580, a pendicle of ' Ballaskaillie.' 
Wester Ballano 1580, mentioned in connection with 

the same. 

Milltoim (Blaeu), on the ' burn of Milltoun,' appar- 
ently now Allt Dubhach (O.S,M.) 



124 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



CEOMAETY. 

Cromarty- Crumbathyn 1263, Crumbauchtyn 1264, 
Crumbhartyn 1296, Crombathie 1349, Cromady 
and Crombathie 1349-1370, Cromardy 1398, 
Cromatyand Crumbaty 1479. 1 G. Cromba'. From 
an inspection of the old forms two things are clear 
first, that the modern English form, Cromarty, 
is the descendant and representative of the ancient 
Crumbauchtyii (with accent on first syllable) ; and, 
secondly, that the second ' r ' of Cromarty is not 
radical, but was developed at an early stage 
through sympathy with the V of the first syllable ; 
cf. Eng. bride-groom, from A.S. brid-guma, literally 
' bride-man.' Further, these forms, as well as 
other considerations, negative the derivation 
Crom-bagh, bent bay. The base is doubtless 
crom, bent ; the question is whether we are to 
regard the b of Cromba' as radical or as developed. 
Developed b after m is seen in lombar, from lorn ; 
Ir. crompan, a sea inlet, from crom ; and in the 
common Crombie applied to bent streams and to 
places at a bend, e.g., Crombie in Fife ; also Dal- 
crombie, G. Dul-chrombaidh, a place on a bend of 

1 Hugh Miller (Scenes and Legends," p. 49), mentions an ancient custom 
seal or cocket, supposed to belong to the reign of Robert II., and then iu the 
Inverness Museum, bearing the legend ' Crombhte.' 



OROMARTY. 125 

L. Ruthven, Inverness. On this theory we have 
(1) crom as base, (2) developed 1), (3) termin- 
ations -ach, place of, and -dan or -tan, diminutive, 
all meaning Little place of the bend ; cf. Loch 
Saileach in Ireland, called by the Four Masters 
Loch Sailcheadain, 1 also Ardochdainn, Lochcarron. 
On the other theory it would be possible to 
suggest crom-bath, with extension, bath being 
an O. Ir. word glossed saile ad muir, sea. 

Cromarty Firth G. Caolas Chromba'. 

Navity Navitie 1578 ; G. Neamhaididh. The 
lands of Navity formed the endowment of a 
chapel in the Cathedral of Fortrose. Hence from 
' neimhidh,' church-land ; Gaul. ' nemeton.' There 
is another Nevity in Fife ; Nevody 1477, Navety 
1531, which was also church-land. 

Davidston Dauidstoun 1529 and 1578 ; G. Baile 
Dha' idh. 

Williamstoun appears on Font's map east and north 
of Davidston. 

Peddieston Peddistoun 1578 ; the proper name 
Peddie occurs frequently in the session records. 

Farness Fames 1576, Eistir Fames and Litill 
Farness 1578 ; G. Fearnais, place of alders ; from 
' fearn,' with termination '-ais,' for which see Kin- 
nettes in Fodderty. For the meaning cf. Allerton. 
Cf. Glenferness, near Forres. 

Udale Vddall 1578 ; G. Uadal, from Norse ' y-dalr, 
yew-dale. 

1 Joyce, Irish Names of Places II., 36. 



126 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

The Souters " Craiges callit the Sowteris" appears 
in an Act of Par., 1593; G. na Sudraichean. 
Various theories have been offered in explanation 
of the name, the favourite being ' sutor,' a shoe- 
maker. The Gaelic form favours a derivation 
from sudaire, a tanner, which gives rise to many 
names in Ireland. Na Sudraichean would thus 
mean the place of tanners, or the tanneries. 
" The Souter" is a hill in Strathglass, G. an 
t-utar, Mullach an utair, and there is Souter 
Head between Aberdeen and Cove. 

Banans The Gaelic is not forthcoming, but it is 
probably an English plural of ' beannan,' a hillock. 

Ardevall Height of the township. 

" Castlehill of Cromarty, called the Mothill of the 

same," 1599. 

Glen Urquhart is supposed to have been so named 
by or from the Urquharts of Cromarty ; but of. 
the parish of Urquhart. 

Rosefarm, originally Greenhill ; so called after Mr 
Rose of Tarlogie. 

Easter Ardmeanach, on the summit of the ridge, 
retains the old official name of the Black Isle 
Mid-height. 

English names for which no Gaelic has been 
found are : Newton, Neilston, Allerton. Wood- 
side, Muirtown, Whitebog, Lambton, Blackstand, 
Colony, Gallow hill. 
Obsolete is 

Arnoche 1644, ' place of sloes.' 



CROMARTY. 127 

Chaplainry of St Regule 1561 is located by Hugh 

Miller, as also the Chapel of St Bennet and St 
Duthus Well. He also mentions a curious spring 
called Sludach. 



128 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CBOMARTY. 



EOSEMAEKIE. 

Rosemarkie Eosmarkensis Episcopus c. 1228; 
Eosmarky 1510. G. Eos-maircnidh or Eos- 
marcanaidh ; also Eos-mharcanaidh ; in Book of 
Clanranald Eos-mhaircni. Invermarky 1476 Eeg. 
Mag. Sig. proves that we are dealing with a stream 
name ; of. Marknie Burn flowing into L. Killin, 
Whitebridge. Marcnaidh, or by regressive 
assimilation Maircnidh, is based on marc, horse, 
and might well be the old genitive of marcnach, 
place of horses ; for formation cf. Muc-an-ach, 
place of swine ; Clach-an-ach, place of stones. 
Here, however, it is better regarded as showing 
the -ie ending so common in stream names, e.g., 
Feshie, Mashie, Tromie, representing an old -ios. 
Eos may mean (1) cape, point ; (2) wood, but as 
Eosemarkie is situated at the base of Fortrose 
point, the whole name means Point of the horse- 
burn rather than wood of the same. 1 
Fortrose Forterose 1455. G. a' Chananaich, the 
Chanonry, lit. Place of Canons, which has eclipsed 
the true Gaelic form of Fortrose just as that of 
Tain is eclipsed by Baile Dhubhthaich. The 

1 Dr Reeves (Culdees p. 45) quotes the Martyrology of Tamlacht 
" 16 March : Curitan epscoip ocus abb Ruis mic bairend," and amends to 
Rosmbaircend, yielding " Curitan bishop and abbot of Rosmarky." The 
Martyrology of Donegal has Curitan of Ros-meinn. 



ROSEMARKIE. 129 

strong accent on the first syllable of Fortrose 
shows Fort to be prepositional or adjectival ; pro- 
bably it is foter, a "comparative of fo, under. The 
second part may be ros, promontory ; and the 
name may have been given to a part of the pro- 
montory in contradistinction to Rosemarky. 

Balmungie " The lands of Balmongie with the 
mill of Bosmarky" 1567. G. Baile-Mhungaidh, 
possibly Mungo's stead, but more probably from 
rnong, mongach, a plant name ; mongach measca 
glosses " simprionica," and is rendered mugwort 
by O'Reilly ; mong mhear is explained as 
hemlock. 1 

PlatCOck " Platcok within the bounds of the 
college of the Chanonry " 1615 ; an obscure name 
of which the Gaelic form cannot be recovered. 
Plotcok appears in Kyle, and near Beauly is 
Platchaig, G. Plat-chathaig, Jackdaw Flat. On 
the West Coast Platach is fairly common. 

Eathie Ethie 1593; G. athaidh; a stream name, 
applying here primarily to the Eathie Burn ; cf. 
Inveraithie, Tain ; athaidh represents a primitive 
Celtic atia or atios, in root identical with ath, a 
ford. The name, like other stream names in -ie, 
is doubtless Pictish. 

Learnie Larny 1576 ; G. Leatharnaidh, locative 
of leatharnach, from lethoir, side, meaning ' place 
011 the side of the slope.' Lernock, Stirling, may 
be regarded as an accusative, Leatharnach, cf. 
Dornie as against Dornoch and Dornock. Near 

i Arch f. Celt. Lex. T. 3, pp. 336, 344. 



130 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Inverness is a farm Castle Heather, formerly 
Castle Leather, i.e., lethoir, Lordship of Leffare, 
1460. 

Kincurdy Kincowrdrie 1591 ; chapel of Kincurdie 
1615 and 1641 ; G. Cinn-churdaidh. With it 
goes Cnoc-gille-churdaidh, Avoch, Englished 
Hurdyhill, and probably Kincurdy on Speyside, 
G. Cinn-chaordaidh, where the difference in vowel 
sound may be dialectic. This very difficult word 
might be compared with Curr in Duthil, G. curr, 
corner or pit, Welsh cwr, corner, but for the fact 
that the formation Cnoc-gille-churdaidh strongly 
suggests some proper name. 

Raddery Eatherie and Wester Eatherie 1576 ; 
G. Eadharaidh from radhar ' an arable field not in 
tillage' (H.S.D.), pasture ground, with -ach 
suffix, giving radharach, place of pasture, old 
locative radharaigh. In Perthshire we have " na 
radharaichean,' the places of pasture. * Daimh 
mhor Eadharaidh,' the big oxen of Eaddery, is 
part of a local saw, which may, however, be really 
aimed at the people of Eaddery. 

Broomhill 'The Inche and Bromehill,' 1576. 

Ardmeanach Mid-height, i.e., between the Crom- 
arty and Moray Firths ; interesting as retaining 
the old official designation of the Black Isle. 

Boggiewell G. Bog an fhuarain; there is a fine 
spring just below the farmhouse. 

Corslet Probably Crois-leathad, cross-slope; it is 
by the road just above Eosemarkie, and may 
commemorate the site of one of the sculptured 
crosses. 



KOSEMARKIE. 131 

Plowerburn No Gaelic has been found for this 
modern name, but Kinnock of Blaeu and records 
appears to be now Flowerburn Mains. 

No Gaelic has been found for Hillock, 
Feddenhill, The Gamrock, Berryhill, Ryenat, 
Muiryden, Weston, Claypots ; while Pettyslaiiis 
or Petslaw of the records is obsolete ; its latest 
form is Piddslaw, and it seems to have been near 
Petconnoquhy, now Rosehaugh. 



132 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



AVOCH. 

Avoch Baronia de Auach 1328 ; Auauch 1338 
(Keg. Mor.) ; Alvach 1493 ; Awoch 1558 ; G. 
Obh'ch (for Abhach with change of a to o), from 
O. Ir. ab, later abh, a river, with -ach suffix : 
River-place. Cf. Loch Awe, Gael. Loch Obha, 
described by Adamnan as " stagnum fluminis 
Abae," the loch of the river Aba. The stream on 
which Avoch stands is called in its upper reaches 
the Gooseburn, G. Allt nan geadh, and appears in 
1676 as "the Goossburn" in connection with 
" the Goosswell of Killeane." 

Rosehaugh A name imposed by Sir George Mac- 
kenzie towards the end of the 17th century. The 
old name was Petconachy 1456, Petquhonochty 
1458 ; Pettenochy 1526 ; Petconnoquhy 1527 
(with a mill), i.e., Pit Dhonnachaidh, Duncan's 
stead. The spot where the gardens of Rosehaugh 
house now stand is still known as Pairc an 
Leothaid, Hill-side Park. 

Castleton Castletoun 1456 ; G. Bail' a' Chaisteil, 
from Ormond Castle hard by. The ruins of this 
once great and important seat may still be seen 
on Ormond Hill, also known as Lady hill, from the 
fact that there was a chapel on or near it dedi- 
cated to the Virgin Mary (Reg. Sec. Sig. 1528). 



AVOCH. 133 

The Castle of Ormond appears to have belonged 
to the De Moravia or Moray family from 
thirteenth century times, but there is little 
mention of it in records subsequent to the middle 
of the fourteenth. Frequent mention, however, 
is found of the Moot-hill (mons) of Ormond, in 
connection with the titles of Earl, Marquis, and 
Duke of Ormond. 

Muiralehouse Muirailhouse 1611 explains itself. 

Halloch G. ? (S)halach ; doubtful. 

Lochala G. Loch-ala, an obscure name, but cf. 
Welsh ' alaw,' water-lily. 

Bennetsfield -- Bennatfeld 1456 ; Bennatisfelde 
1458; Bannathfield 1527; Bannagefield 1541; 
Bennetisfield 1548; G. Baile Bhenneit, Town of 
Bennet, i.e., St Benedict. Near it is Clack 
Bhenneit, Bennet's stone, immediately below 
which is the holy well called Tobar Cliragag, well 
of the little rock, still frequented on the first 
Sabbath of May. 

Ballon 8 G. Bail an loin, town of the wet meadow. 

Corrachie G. Corrachaidh, from corrach, steep. 

Arcandeith Arky ndwy cht 1586; Auchindeuch 
1611 ; Arcanduth 1641 ; G. Arcan-duibh, Black 
Arcan ; cf. Arcan, Urray. Here ' duibh ' is 
obviously a translation of Arcan, the black place. 
On the place are the ruins of a small fortalice, 
whence the local explanation, airc-Eoin-dhuibh, 
Black John's ark, or fortress. A Highland reaver, 
Black John has been evolved to lend colour to 
this piece of popular etymology, but the phonetics 
do not suit. 



134 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

Newton ? Newton 1456 ; G. am baile nodha. 

Insch The Inch 1576 ; G. an i's, the meadow 
(imiis). 

Rhives G. given as (l) na Ruighean, the slopes ; 
(2) (ann an) Ruigheas. The latter may be a 
Gaelic pronunciation of the English form. Rhives 
in Kilmuir is ' na Ruigheannan ;' Rhives, Golspie, 
na Ruigheach. 

Coulnagour G. Cuil nan gobhar, goats' nook. 

Killen Kyllayn circ. 1338, Killan 1456 ; Killane 
1524 ; G. Cill-Annaidh or Cill-Fhannaidh. The 
Gaelic form puts Cill-fhinn, White-church, or 
Church of St Fionn out of the question, and there 
seems to be no saint whose name will suit the 
dedication. St Anue, which would suit the 
phonetics, is hardly to be thought of on Celtic 
ground. 
Near Killen is Cnoc-an-teampuill, Temple-hill. 

Auchterflow Ochtercloy 1456, Achtirflo 1560, 
Ochtercloy 1568 ; G. Uachdar-chlo. Clo is 
glossed by O'Mulconry ' gaoth,' wind. In the 
Psalms we have ' clo codail,' ' vapour ' of sleep. 
The word appears to be obsolete in spoken Gaelic, 
but ' windy upland ' gives good sense. 

Buntata proinnt' is bainne leo 
Biadh bodaich Uachdar-chlo ! 

Pookandraw G. bog an t-strath, Strath-bog, in 

the Strath of Auchterflow. 
Blairfoid (really pron. Blairwhyte) Blairfoyde 

1627; G. Blar-choighde, Moor of Coit, with 



AVOCH. 135 

which may be compared Erchite, Dores, G. 

Airchoighd.' This spelling represents the Gaelic 

pronunciation of this doubtless Pictish name, 

which may, perhaps, be compared with Teutonic 

hag, hedge. 

Shawpark G. Pairc an t-seadh ; doubtful. 
Ordhill G. Cnoc an uird. 
Templand Tempilland 1586 ; no Gaelic found. 
Geddeston G. Baile na' geadas ; ? Town of the 

tufty heads. 
Pitfuir Pethfouyr circ. 1338, Petfure 1456; Pet- 

fuyr, with its mill called Denemylne, 1526 ; G. 

Pit-fhuir, Pasture-stead, a Pictish name ; cf. 

Dochfour, Balfour, Pitfure (Rogart), Inchfuir, 

and Porin. The mill is now called the Mill of 

Den. 
Lochlaichley G. Loch Ligh, spate-loch ; cf. Loch 

Ligh in Contin. Achalee appears in 1458. 
Bog of Shannon Boigschangie 1586 ; G. Bog na' 

seannan, ? seann athan, bog of the old fords. 
No Gaelic has been found for the following : 

Crosshill, Tourie-lum, Gracefield, Knockmuir, 

Coldhome, Limekilns. 



136 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



KNOCKBAIN. 

Knockbain G. An Cnoc-ban, white-hill, is now 
the name of the joint parishes of Kilmuir Wester 
and Suddy (united 1756). 

Kilmuir Kilmowir 1561 ; G. Gill Mhoire, Mary's 
Church. The old church stands near the sea- 
shore. The graveyard contains many stones of 
considerable antiquity, with late Celtic carving 
similar to that seen on the stones in Killianan at 
Abriachan and at Glenconvinth Chapel. 

Suddy Sudy 1227; Suthy 1476. G. Suidhe 
(bheag is Suidhe mhor), Seat ; the absence of the 
article in Gaelic is noteworthy. 

Kessock Ferry Land and ferry of Estir Kessok 
1437. G. Aiseig Cheiseig, generally connected 
with St Kessock ; the Gaelic use, however, shows 
no sign of Kessock being regarded here as a per- 
sonal name. 

Bellfield includes what is known in Gaelic as 
Ceiseig uachdarach, Upper Kessock ; also partly 
covers the old Do'ach Cheiseig, Davach of 
Kessock. Near the firth is Tiyh a' mhuilinn, 
Mill-house. 

Redfield G. an raon dearg. Broomliill, G. an 
cnoc bealaidh, is now part of it. 

Arpafeelie G. Arpa-philidh, also Arpa-philich, an 
obscure name. The first part may be ' alp,' an 



KNOCKBAIN. 137 

eminence. In it is included Glaickmore, G. a' 
ghlaic mhor, the big hollow. 

CottertOH G. Achadh nan coitear. 

Allanbank G. an Reim, ' the course ' ; O. Ir. reim 
Near it is Quarryfield, G. Tigh an rothaid, 
Road-house. 

Teablair G. Tigh a' bhlair, House of the moor. 
Near it is Teaivig, G. Tigh a' bhuic, Buck- 
house. 

Teandore G. Tigh an todhair, Bleaching-house. 
There is another near Drynie. 

Allangrange Allangrange 1574. G. Alan (no 
article) ; a Pictish name for which v. Alness. 
Part of it is Bog Alain, the Bog of Allan. 

Allanglack G. Alan nan clach, Stony Allan. 

Allanrich G. Alan an fhraoich, Heathery Allan. 

Whitegate G. An geat ban modern name. 

Belmaduthy Balmaduthy 1456, Bo wmaldut hy 
1538 ; G. Baile mac Duibh, Stead of Duffs sons ; 
cf. Pitmaduthy. This disposes of the idea that 
the old Church of Suddy was dedicated to 
St Duthac of Tain, if, as the Editor of the Grig. 
Paroch. states, " the sole ground for conjecturing 
this is the local name Belmaduthy, interchanged 
in old writs of Tain with Balleguith 1 or Baile- 
dhuich." 

Balnakyle G. Baile na coille, Wood-town. 

Balnaguie G. Baile na gaoith, Windy town ; cf. 
Ardgay, without the article an older formation. 

1 Balleguith stands rather for Balkeith, q.v. 



138 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

Muirends or Muirtown ? Merane 1456; Muren 
1458 ; Meran 1478 ; G. Mordun, Great Fort ; the 
strong accent on mor has shortened dun to dun ; 
cf. Findon, G. Fionndun. There is a stone circle 
in a wood in this place. 

Roskhill G. An Boisgeil. 

Belton G. not known. 

Shantullich G. An t-seann tulaich, Old-hillock. 

Braevil G. Breigh a' bhaile, Upland of the stead. 

Drumderfit Drumdafurde 1456 ; Drumdervate 
1539 ; Drumdarwecht 1564 ; G. Druim(a)diar. 
Locally explained as " ridge of tears." Its former 
name was Druim dubh, but it became the scene of 
a battle so sanguinary that of the beaten party 
only one survived. Hence it was said " Bu druim 
dubh an de thu, ach 's druima diar an diugh." 
Black ridge wert thou yesterday, but ridge of 
tears to-day. 1 The legend as to the change of 
name is significant in view of the double form in 
Gaelic and English. The probability is that we 
are dealing with a word of Pictish origin, of which 
the Gaelic speakers took the part that seemed to 
them intelligible, dropping the rest which appears 
in English as -fit, and in the records as -vate, etc. 

Drynie Dryne 1586 ; G. Droighnidh (no article), 
place of thorns. Above it is Creagaidli thorn, 
little rock of hillocks or humps. Drynie includes 

1 With this may be compared the legend given in the Book of Deer as to 
the origin of the name Deer : " tangator deara drosta"n arscarthdin fri collum- 
cille ; rolaboir columcille, bedear dnim ohunn imaic " ; Drostan's tears came 
on parting with Columcille ; Columcille said : " Be Dear its name from 
hence forth." 



KNOCKS AIN. 139 

Ceann an achaidh, head of the cultivated field ; 

Bail' a' bhlair, Muirtown ; Srath fhliuchaidh, 

strath of wetness ; Tigh an t-sluic, house of the 

pit ; An Lainnsear, Englished Lancer, a doubtful 

word perhaps, based on lainn, an enclosure. 
Yairhead G. a' cheir-eud, on Munlochy bay ; the 

G. form, if it is not the English form taken over, 

is beyond me. 
Slagaharn G. Slac a' charn, Hollow or Slack of the 

cairn. Near it is Muilednn an t-sail, Salt-water 

mill, once a tidal mill. 
Drumsmittal G. Druima-smiotail, probably by 

dissimilation for Druim-spiteil, ridge of the Spital, 

or hostelry. The Spittal wood is well to the west. 
On the ridge are : An Cam Glas, the grey 

cairn ; also Am Blar Liath, the hoary moor, with 

many tumuli. 
Isteane G. I's-dian; ' i V is the reduced form of 

innis, haugh ; ' dian ' from the lie of the land 

cannot mean ' steep ' ; it must, therefore, mean 

' sheltered.' 

Coldwells G. am Bealaidh, the broom. 
Charleston G. baile Thearlaich, after Sir Charles 

Mackenzie of Kilcoy. The first house here was 

built 1812. 

Craigbreck G. a' chreag bhreac, the dappled rock. 
Grlaickarduich G. a' ghlaic, the hollow ; also Glaic 

ar dubhaig, hollow of the little black stream or 

place, ar being a corruption of an, the article. 

Of. Glaic an dubhaig in Urray. 



140 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Croftnacreich G. Creit nan Crioch, boundary croft. 

Pitlundie Petlundy 1456; G. Pit-lunndaidh, the 
stead of Lundy. Lundy, G. Lunndaidh, adjoins, 
and is very marshy. Also Loch Lundy, an ugly, 
dark loch, reputed of great depth, and the haunt 
of a ' tairbh uisge,' water bull, whose herd may be 
heard in winter bellowing beneath the ice. For 
meaning v. Maoil Lunndaidh, Contin. 

SligO Slego 1579. G. Sligeach, (the) shelly place. 
It is on the south shore of Munlochy Bay. 

Bayfield, formerly Creit Seocaidh, Jockey's croft. 

Craigiehow G. creag a' chobh, rock of the cave. 
Cobh is doubtless to be compared with the Ir. 
diminutive cabhan, a hollow, Welsh cau, Lat. cavea. 
In this cave lie the Feinn, awaiting the blowing of 
the horn which is to rouse them from their sleep. 
It is, or was, believed to extend to Loch Lundy. 
A dropping well at the mouth of the cave was 
resorted to until quite recently to cure deafness. 
" Ged is mor Creag a' Chobh, is beag a feum " ; 
though big is Craigiehow, small is its use. 

Arrie G. an airigh, the shieling, on the top of 
Craigiehow. 

Tigh na h-irich, locally connected with ' fir each,' 
a hill, or steep declivity, which suits the place ; 
but this would require tigh an fhirich, 

Teandore G. Tigh an todhair, Bleaching-house. 
Near it is an Raoid'as, an obscure name. Also 
Creit a chlobha, Tongs- croft ; but perhaps clobha 
(N. klofi) is here used in its primary meaning of 
1 fork,' 



KNOCKBAIN. 141 

Paulfield G. am Bard, the meadow. 

Tullich G. An Tulaich, the hillock. 

Munlochy Munlochy 1328, Mullochie 1605 ; G. 
Poll-lochaidh. Both the English and the Gaelic 
forms are corruptions of Bun-lochaidh, root or 
inner end of the loch, i.e., Munlochy Bay, which 
in Gaelic is Ob Poll-lochaidh. 

Hurdyhill G. Cnoc-gille-churdaidh, cf. Kincurdy. 
This hillock is famous for fairies, and possesses a 
holy well once in great vogue and still visited. 

James Temple G. Cnoc-Seumas-Chaisteil, as if 
' Hill of James of the Castle.' There is on it what 
may be the remains of a prehistoric fort. 

Ord Hill G. Cnoc an Uird, with remains of a 
large fort, with extensive vitrifaction. 

Blar na C6i G. Blar na Cuinge, Field of the yoke, 
with tradition of a battle in which, as at Lun- 
carty, the event was decided by a plough-yoke. 



142 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



KILLEAENAN. 

Killearnan Kilernane 1561 ; G. Cill-iurnain ; there 
is also Carn-iurnain in this parish. In Kildonan, 
Sutherland, is another Killearnan, the Gaelic form 
of which is exactly the same. lurnan is, of course, 
the name of the saint who founded the ' cill,' or to 
whom it was dedicated. Ernan, St Columba's 
nephew, does not suit the Gaelic phonetics, but 
we find exactly what we want in Iturnan, of whom 
the Chronicle of the Scots records, under date 
665, ' Iturnan et Corinda apud Pictones defunct! 
sunt.' A fragment of Tighernac's Annals reads 
'668 Itharnan et Corindu apud Pictores defuincti 
sunt.' The name of Iturnan, who died among the 
Picts circ. 665, will, with the regular aspiration of 
intervocalic t, become I(th)urnan. 

Carn-iurnain, lurnan's cairn, suggests the possi- 
bility of the saint having been buried there. Local 
tradition, as recorded in the new Stat. Ace., con- 
nects the name with Irenan, a supposed ' Danish 
prince.' 

Redcastle G. an Caisteal ruadh. It is now agreed 
that the modern Kedcastle represents the ancient 
castle of Edirdovar, founded by William the Lion 
in 1179. 1 Edirdovar is from eadar, between, 
and O.G. dobur, water, between the waters, from 

1 Or. Par. Scot. II. 2, Killearnan. 



KILLEAENAN. 143 

its position between the Beauly and Cromarty 
Firths. 

Kilcoy Culcolly 1294 and 1456, Culcowy 1479 
and 1511 ; G. Cul-challaidh. Cul is perhaps cuil, 
nook, rather than cul, back ; callaidh is to be 
compared with Bealach Collaidh, between Wyvis 
and Inchbae, both being based on coll, Welsh and 
O.I. for hazel, with -ach suffix, representing a 
primitive Coslacon. Kilcoy thus means nook 
(possibly back) of the hazel wood. ' The wood 
(bosco) of Culcolly' appears in record in 1294. 

Drynie Park Drynys 1579 ; G. Pairce Dhroigh- 
nidh, park of the thorn-place. 

Muckernich G. a' Mhucarnaich, the swine-place, 
common. 

Tore G. an Todhar, the bleaching spot ; cf. Balin- 
tore; at Tore is Cnoc-an-acrais, Hunger-hill, where a 
market used to be held called Feill Cnoc-an-acrais. 

Croftcrunie G. Creit a' Chrimaidh ; can hardly 
mean Crowner's croft, though such appears on 
record somewhere between this and Avoch ; per- 
haps a Pictish word based on root seen in W. 
crwn, round, Ir. cron, a circular hollow. What 
appears to be the article a' may be only the com- 
mon ' sporadic vowel,' as in Cill(e)- Mhoire. 

Drumnamarg Drumnamarg 1456, Drumnamergy 
1458, Drumnamarge 1511 ; G. Druim-nam-marg, 
merk-ridge, or ridge of the merk-lands. 

Teanahuig G. Tigh na h-uige, House of the nook, 
a term often applied on the West Coast to a small 
inn or shebeen. 




144 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Ryefleld G. Ach an t-seagail. 

Colington G. Baile Chailein, after Sir Colin Mac- 
kenzie. 

Whitewells G. am Fuaran ban. includes the small 
farm of Allt-an-digeadair, Dyker's burn. 

Spittal G. Spiteil, from hospital, a place of enter- 
tainment. 

GargUSton Gargastoun 1456 ; G. Baile-ghargaidh. 
The form Gargastoun points to a personal name, 
or rather nickname, garg, fierce ; garg, however, 
seems to occur in genuine place-names ; cf. Lub a r 
ghargain in Contin. 

Blairdow G. am Blar dubh, the black moor. 

Milton G. Bail a' mhuilinn. 

Fettes Called after Sir William Fettes ; includes 
An Claran, the little flat ; Am Baile Nodha, 
Newtown ; A Cheapaich, the tillage plot ; Burn- 
town, Bunchaim, Barntoivn, and Drumore, most 
of them holdings of fair size. Near it is na 
Peit'chan, an interesting formation from the Pictish 
pett, a stead, formed on the same principle as na 
Bothachan, Boath. The formation shows how 
thoroughly the Pictish pett became a Gaelic word. 

Chapelton G. Bail' an t-seipeil, now part of Fettes. 

ParktOWn G. Baile na pairce. 

Coulmore Culmor 1394 ; G. A' Chuil-mhor, the 
big nook, which describes it. 

Balglineirie G. Baile gun iarraidh, town without 
asking ; perhaps to be compared with the English 
Unthank, the name of three places in Cumberland 
and two in Northumberland, which, Canon Taylor 



KILLEABNAN. 145 

says, denotes a piece of ground on which some 
squatter had settled ' without leave ' of the lord. 

Balgunloune G. Baile gun lionn, town without 
beer ; perhaps modelled humorously on the pre- 
ceding. There are local tales, too pointless to 
relate, as to the origin of both names. 

Ploverfield G. Blar nam feadag. 

Lettoch Westir and Estir Haldach 1527, half the 
lands of Dawaucht 1530, lands of Haldacht with 
the kiln of the same called Toldegormok 1580, 
Wester Half Daokis 1586 ; Haddoch and Torgar- 
noche 1611, Leadanach and Torgormack 1639 ; 
G. An Leithda'ch, the half-davach. The record 
forms quoted show clearly the transition from 
the Gaelic Leith-dabhach to the hybrid Haddo. 
Part of Lettoch is Bog na h-eileig and Loch na 
h-eileig ; eileag is doubtful, but may, perhaps, be 
a formation from ail, rock, used in the sense of 
eileach, a contrivance for catching fish ; cf Allt 
Eileag. Seawards of this loch is Torgorm, green 
knoll, referred to in the record as Toldegormok, 
Torgarnoche, and Torgormack. 

Corgraiu G. Coir' a' ghrain. 

Wellhouse G. Tigh an fhuarain. 

Linnie G. An linne, the pool ; also Linn' a' bhuic 
bhain, pool of the white buck. Linne Mac Vain 
in old rental. 

Gallowhill G. Cnoc na croiche. 

Cnoc-an-eireach Hill of the assemblies or meet- 
ings (eireachd). 

10 



146 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Artafaillie Ardirfalie 1526, Arthirfairthlie 1584; 
G. Airt-a-fkillidh. From the old spellings and 
the t of Airt in Gaelic it appears that a word 
ending in r and beginning with d, or better t, has 
been curtailed to a in the middle of the name, 
thus giving Ard-tir-faillidh or Ard-dor-faillidh. 
Faillidh is probably genitive of falach, place of 
sods, falaigh, with regressive assimilation. The 
whole word would thus mean ' High land of 
the place of sods'; 'High water of,' &c., does 
not suit the place. With Faillidh of Drochaid 
Faillidh, Faillie Bridge and farm of Faillie in 
Daviot, and for meaning Fadoch in KintaiL 

In 1456 appear on record the Smithy croft, the 
Forestercroft, the Portarecroft, the Marecroft, 
the Sergandcrofft, the Crownarecrofb ; and in 
1479 the Currourecroft probably connected with 
Kedcastle. 



CONTIN. 147 



OONTIN. 

Contin Conten 1227, Contan 1510 ; G. Cunndainn. 
Contin is primarily the district at the con- 
fluence of the rivers Conon and Blackwater ; 
from this the name has been extended to 
cover the extensive Highland parish which 
stretches from Contin proper to the neighbour- 
hood of Kinlochewe. The Old Stat. Ace. sug- 
gests as a derivation ' con-tuinn,' from ' con/ 
together, and ' tonn,' wave, meaning ' meeting 
of the waves,' an explanation which satisfies the 
phonetics ; cf. Contullich, from ' con ' and ' tulach.' 
The question, however, is whether ' tonn ' would 
be naturally applied to the water of a river, and 
it will, I think, be agreed that such a usage would 
be very difficult to parallel, ' tonn ' being, except 
in the language of poetic metaphor, confined to 
the waves of the sea. The first syllable is cer- 
tainly ' con,' together, and the meaning is 
doubtless something like ' confluence.' If we 
turn to Gaul, we find that the stock name for a 
confluence is Condate, represented in modern 
French by Conde. This name appears often on 
the map of ancient Gaul at the junction of streams, 
and we find also Condatomagus, plain of the 
confluence, as well as Condatisco. In ancient 
Britain, Condate appears once, at the junction of 



148 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

the ? Weaver (Cheshire) with a small stream. 
The word is analysed into ' con/ and the root 
' dhe,' set, a root familiar in Latin and Greek, the 
etymological equivalent of Condate being in Greek 
' syn-thesis,' and in late Latin ' con-ditio,' from 
4 condo,' a setting together. It is tolerably certain 
that in Contin we have the representative of some 
such word as ' Condationn-,' an extension of Con- 
date. As a Scottish place-name, Contin, though 
rare, is not unique. Dr Macbain, in his Badenoch 
Place-names, notes that Killiehuntly in Badenoch 
is in Gaelic ' Coille Chunndainn,' the Wood of 
Contin, and refers also to Contuimi in Ireland, on 
the borders of Meath and Cavan. There is also 
Bohuntin in Glenroy, Gaelic Both-chunndainn. 
Both these Scottish names apply to confluences. 
Cf. also Confluentes, now Coblenz. 

Achilty Auchquhilye 1479, Hechely (Easter and 
Wester) 1528, the two Achelies 1529, Auchelle 
1539, Achillie 1681; G. Achillidh. The 't' of 
the English form is late and euphonic, and appears 
also in Achiltybuy, in Coigach. Achilty is a 
Pictish name, of the same origin as Welsh ' uchel,' 
high, seen in the Ochil Hills and in Oykel, 
Ptolemy's High Bank. The variation between 
' o ' and ' a ' is common ; cf. Scone, old Gaelic 
Scoan, genitive Scoine ; modern Gaelic Sgain. 

Coul Cwyl 1476, alehouse of Coul 1576 ; Easy 
Coull and the mill of the same 1586; Escoule 
(Waterfall of Coull) 1669 ; G. a Chuil, the corner, 
recess. 



CONTIN. 149 

Comrie Cumre 1479, Cumerley 1528, Cumry 1529 ; 
G. Comraidh, from ' comar,' confluence, meaning 
Place of the confluence. The confluence is that 
of the Conon from Lochluichart, and the Meig 
from Strathconan. Of. Comar in Strathglass, 
Comrie in Perthshire, and elsewhere. It appears 
also in Cumbernauld, i.e., ' comar-nan-allt/ where 
it has developed a * b,' just like the English 
'number' from Latin ' numerus.' There is a 
Combaristum in Gaul, on a tributary of the 
Liger. 

Scatwell Litill Scathole, Scathole Mekle 1479; 
the two Scatellis 1529 ; G. Scatail beag and 
Scatail m6r ; from Norse scat-vollr, i.e., common 
grazing land, the holders of which paid scat or 
tax for the grazing privileges. 

Strathconon ? Strathconon 1309, Strquhonane 
1479, Strachonane 1538 ; G. Srath-chonuinn. 
The initial difficulty about Strathconon is that its 
river, which by all analogy ought to be the 
Conon, is the Meig. There is a local saying 

Abhainn Mig tre Srath-chonuinn, 
Abhainn Conuinn tre Srath-bhrainn, 
Abhainn Dubh-chuileagach tre Srath-ghairbh ; 
Tri abhnaichean gun tairbh iad sin. 

The River Meig through Strathconan, 

The River Conon through Strathbran, 

The River of black nooks 1 through Strathgarve ; 

Three rivers without profit these. 

1 Possibly ' River of black flies.' 



150 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

The omission of the two last words of the fourth 
line would be an improvement ; but I give it as I 
got it, and it is a hard saying at best. In the 
first place, Strathbran has a river of its own, the 
Bran, which, as is proper, gives its name to its 
strath. The head waters of the Bran come from 
the watershed west of Loch Chroisg (Loch 
Kosque), and the river is called Bran the moment 
it leaves that loch. Thence it flows through 
Strathbran, widening out to form Loch Achanalt, 
Loch a' Chuilinn, and finally Loch Luichart. 
Issuing from Loch Luichart, it has a course of a 
little over a mile before it joins the Meig above 
Cornrie, and it is in this last short stretch that it 
is called the Conon. Thenceforward the Conon 
is the name of the joint stream. The solution of 
the difficulty that occurs to me is that the name 
Conon applies properly only to the stream below 
the junction with the Meig. On this supposition 
Strathconon would originally have been restricted 
to the valley of the joint stream, but in time 
extended to the valley of the Meig, of which it is 
a continuation. This would be natural enough, 
and it would also be natural to extend the name 
of Conon to the short stretch of river from Loch- 
luichart, though, as this latter valley is a 
continuation of Strathbran, the original name of 
its stream most probably was the Bran, and the 
name Strathbran would have covered the whole 
valley down to the junction. Such a change of 
name would be helped by the size of Loch 



CONTIN. 151 

Luichart, and the increased volume of water 
issuing from it. 

A somewhat similar difficulty is presented by 
Stratherrick (Inverness) arid the river Faragaig. 
The Faragaig ought to be in Stratherrick, G. 
Srath-fharagaig, but in point of fact it flows 
through a neighbouring glen. 

As to derivation, it is natural to connect Strath- 
conon with the personal name Conan. Conan 
was the name of a Fenian hero ; also of a Celtic 
missionary, whose name appears in Killachonan, 
Fortingall, Perth, and perhaps in the K Conon, 
Uig, Skye, G. Abhainn Chonnain, where Con- 
nan is a diminutive of Conn, a proper name. 
There is, however, no authority for the connection 
of either hero or saint with Strathconon, nor will 
either Conan or Connan suit the phonetics of 
Srath-chonuinn. I should suggest that Conon 
represents a primitive Conona ; -ona is a good 
Gaulish river termination, and Endlicher's glossary 
(in a 9th century MS.) actually explains onno as 
Jlumen, river. For con we have three choices 
con, together ; con from Gaulish kunos, high ; 
con, stem of cu, dog, giving respectively joint- 
stream, high-stream, dog-stream. If we could be 
certain that onno was a genuine Gaulish name, 
and not merely a termination raised to the 
standing of an independent word, it would be 
natural to render Conon as ' Joint-stream." This, 
however, is uncertain ; ' Dog-stream ' is unob- 
jectionable ; ' High-stream ' does not suit the 



152 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

physical requirements. The tidal part of the 
Conon appears in the Dingwall charters as 
Stavek, which may be N. staf-vik, staff-bay ; cf. 
Stafa, Staff-river ; and Stafa-holt, Staffwood, in 
Iceland ; Staffa, the isle, is N. Staf-ey, Staff-isle, 
from the columnar formation of its rocks. 
Loch Beannacharan Kenlochbenquharene 1479, 
Kinlochbanquhare 1538, Kinlochbeancharan 1571; 
G. Loch Beannacharan ; 'beann,' a top, horn, peak, 
gives adjective ' beannach,' peaked, pinnacled ; 
whence 4 beannachar,' place of peaks, of which 
c beannacharan ' is a collective form. The classical 
representative of ' beannach ' is probably seen in 
Lake Benacus, the * horned lake,' in Cisalpine 
Gaul, now Lago di Garda. Loch Beannach, 
horned loch (from the shape), is a common High- 
land name. The best known Beannachar is 
Bangot* in Ireland, whence the Welsh Bangor. 
Another well-known Irish form is Banagher. A 
locative formation from 'beannachar' is seen in 
Banchory Devenick and Banchory Ternan. Loch 
Beannacharan, then (for which the Ord. Survey 
Beannachan is a mistake) means ' the loch of the 
place of the peaks,' a name appropriate and 
descriptive. On the north side is Allt an 
Fhasaidh, Burn of the dwelling, O.G. fasadh, at 
a green place with signs of old habitation. On 
the south side is Allt na Faic\ Burn of the lair or 
hiding-place, half-way up the hillside from which 
is Bac an Airigh, doubtful ; ? shieling. At the 
west side is Cnoc a' Mhinistir, Parson's Hill, and 



CONTIN. 

near it a small graveyard. A large rock on the 
loch side is called na Caidhean, perhaps from 
caid, a rock, summit (O'Reilly). At the outlet 
of the loch is 

Camoch G. a' Charnaich, from ' earn,' a cairn, 
place of cairns ; to be taken in connection with 
Beannachar as far as meaning is concerned. 

Invercoran Innerquhonray 1479 and 1538, Inner- 
chonray 1571, Inverchonran 1633 ; G. Inbhir 
chorainn (o nasal). The ' inver ' is the confluence 
of the stream flowing through Glencoran with 
another small burn just before it reaches the 
Meig. The old form shows c n/ which has disap- 
peared, but has left its influence on the nasal ' o/ 
Goran is a stream name, and its old form, Quhon- 
ray, or rather Conray, is paralleled by the stream 
Conrie, flowing through Glenconrie in Strathdon, 
Aberdeenshire, into the Don. Both are high-lying 
streams, which suggests the first syllable to be 
the Gaulish ' kunos,' high ; it can hardly be ' con/ 
together. The second part may be the root seen 
in 'drudhadh/ oozing; cf. the stream Druie in 
Strathspey ; Gaulish Druentia. This would give 
' con-druent-/ which, with assimilation of 'd' to 
' n/ would become ' connruent-/ resulting in ' cor- 
rainn/ high oozing stream. Opposite Invercoran, 
on the river, is Creag lucliaraidh, probably based 
on iuchair, fish spawn, whence iucharach, place of 
spawn. 

Main and Glenmeanie Meyn in Strquhonane 
1479, Innermany 1479 and 1539, Meyn in 



154 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Strachonane 1538, Maneye 1543, Mainzie 1633 ; 
Gaelic Gleann meinnidh ; Leithdach Meinn (half 
davach of Main) ; from * meinn,' ore ; cf. Allt na 
meinn in Edderton, Lub na meinn in Kincardine. 
The term is applied usually where the water is 
marked by the rust of oxidized iron. Innermany 
is the junction of the stream Meinnidh flowing 
through Glenmeanie with the Meig. Opposite it> 
and west of Baile na Creige, Rocktown, is an 
Annaid, The Annat, or early church, a triangular 
piece of ground. 

Teanacallich Old woman's house. 

CraigdaiTOCh Oak rock ; there are still oaks. 

Drumandarroch Oak ridge. 

Cam na buaile Cairn of the cattle fold. 

Glascharn Grey cairn ; common name. 

Cam Sgolbaidh and Loch Sgolbaidh Cairn and 

loch of splinters ; showing old locative of sgolbach. 
Curin G. Caoruinn, place of rowans ; in Old Irish 
we have Caerthend, dative Caerthiund, from 
which latter comes our name Caoruinn. 

Loch a* mhuilinn Loch of the mill. 

Allt na Fainich Burn of the flat place, from fan ; 

also Poll na Fainich, in the river. O.S.M. Allt 

tuill an fhaire coise ! 

Carn na cloiche mor Cairn of the big stone. 
Loch na larach blaire Loch of the white-faced 

mare. 

Loch an uillt ghiuthais Loch of the fir burn. 
Balnault G. Bail' 'n uillt, Burn-town. 



CONTIN. 155 

Cam na h-Annaid Cairn of the Annat. Ammt 
has been already explained. We have here also 
Allt iia h-Annaid, Cladh na h-Annaid, Clach na 
h-Annaid, so that there is strong place-name 
evidence of an early Celtic religious settlement. 

GlacOlir G. a' Ghlaic odhar, dun hollow (among 
hills). There is another Glacour in Kilmuir- Easter. 

Achlorachan From the root seen in ' loirean,' a 
bedraggled or bemired person ; ' loireachan ' thus 
means a boggy or wet place, which applies 
exactly. Loireag means a water-sprite. 

Drumanriach Druimeinn riabhach, brindled Drum- 
mond, 'druimeinn' being the locative of 'drum,' 
ridge. 

Cnaigean na leathrach Leather knoll ; a knoll 
east of the bridge over the Meig, not far from the 
U.F. Church of Strathconon. When the river is 
high, this knoll is surrounded by water, and it 
was used of old in connection with the process of 
tanning leather. 

Dalnacroich Hanging or gallows plain. There is 
also a hillock called Cnoc na croiche, where male- 
factors are supposed to have been buried. 

Cnoc na h-uige Hill of the recess, or retired 
place. 

Cnoc na carrachan Hill of wild liquorice. 

Porin G. Porainn. This is one of the best pre- 
served examples in Scotland of the Pictish word 
so common in the aspirated form 'four,' e.g., 
Pit-four, Doch-four. The root is that seen in the 
Welsh ' pori,' to graze, eat ; and ' poriant,' 



156 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

pasture. The Strath conon Porin is a flat piece of 
land by the river side. Cladh Phorainn, Porin 
graveyard, was formerly Cladh Meinn, Main 
graveyard, and one good authority says that 
he has heard it called Cladh Ceann-loch- 
Beannacharan, but this is probably a contusion 
with the graveyard at the west end of that loch, 
noted above. 

Milltown G. Bail' a' mhuilinn ; close by is Allt a' 
mhuilinn, Mill-burn. 

Dalbreac Speckled dale. 

Crannich G. a' Chrannaich, place of trees ;. 
common. 

Blarnabee G. Blar na bith ; ' bith ' means resin, 
pitch ; the name having doubtless arisen from the 
presence of fat fir-wood in olden times, either as 
growing trees, or more probably as ' stocks ' in the 
moss. 

Allt a* choir' aluinn Burn of the beautiful corry. 

Cam Uilleim William's cairn ; Loch Gruamach, 
gloomy loch ; Creag ghaineamhach, sandy rock ; 
Loch an spardain, from ' spardan,' a roost, but 
also, metaphorically, a level shelf or resting-place 
in a hill-side ; cf. suidhe in this sense ; Meall 
Giuthais, Fir-hill ; Corry sleuch and Allt coire na 
sleaghaich, cf. Slioch, Gairloch. 

Scardroy G. Sgard-ruaidh. ' Sgard/ a scree, is 
in common use, as is also its diminutive 
sgardan. Scardroy means ' red scree/ Popular 
etymology has explained it from a circumstance 
connected with the over-driving of cattle by 



CONTIN. 157 

Lochaber raiders, who had lifted a ' creach ' from 
the Strathconon direction, and were being hotly 
pursued. The tale appears in Mr Dixon's 
" Gairloch." 
Corriewick G. Coir' a' bhuic, buck's corry. 

Glenuag, Gleniak, or Glenevaig Gleneak (in 

Kintail) 1542 ; G. Gleann fhiodhaig, glen of 
the bird cherry tree. Cf. Loch fhiodhaig in 
Lairg. 

Meig The Meig is the river of Strathconon. Its 
source is at the head of Gleniak, and, after a 
course of about ten miles, it widens out into 
Loch Beannacharan. After the junction with 
the stream from Loch Luichart, it is merged in 
the Conon. The Gaelic is Mig (i long and nasal). 
The long vowel before ' g ' points to compensatory 
lengthening from the dropping of an original ' n,' 
while the 'g' itself is reduced from an original *c.' 
This gives a primitive ' mine,' with which we may 
compare the Mincius, the stream of Cisalpine Gaul 
which flows by Virgil's birth-place, Mantus. It is 
a curious coincidence that our Meig flows through 
Loch Beannacharan, while the Mincius comes from 
the lake Benacus. The root I take to be that seen 
in Latin mingo, mic-turio ; Old English migan ; 
Lithuanian migla, mist ; Welsh, migen, a bog ; 
the root in all cases being ' mic-,' and the notion 
involved, that of 'pouring forth.' Cf. the Fife 
Strathmiglo, with its river, the Miglo, knoAvn also 
as the Eden ; perhaps also Loch Meiklie in Glen- 
Urquhart, G. Loch Miachdlaidh ; Meigle in 



158 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMAETY. 

Perthshire, which appears in the legend of St 
Andrew as Migdele ; and Maikle. 

Sron na Frianaich Frianach occurs in Loch na 

Frianaich, far up the B. Orrin, and in several 

other places ; meaning doubtful, but it may 

possibly be friamhnach, place of roots. (In Ross 

freumh is, of course, pronounced friamh). 

Maoil Lunndaidh (3294) ' Maoil ' as a hill name 
is common, and is to be compared with G. 
maol, bald, and Welsh moel, a conical hill. It 
is applied to bare, rounded hills. Lunndaidh is 
Englished Lundy, a name of very frequent occur- 
rence, always in connection with lochs or bogs. 
We have lochs of this name in Lochalsh, Apple- 
cross, Knockbain, Golspie, near Invergarry, and 
in Forfarshire. There is also Luiidin in the 
parish of Largo, Fife, but these are sufficient to 
show the frequency and area of its occurrence. 
In certain parts there may still be heard in 
common speech the word ' lunndan,' meaning 
a green spot, but apparently primarily a 
green wet place. 1 From all this it is clear 
that Lunndaidh or Lundy means a wet place, 
a boggy loch or stream. As to derivation, 
it may be regarded as a nasalised form of ' lod,' a 
puddle, the root of which is seen in Latin lutum, 
mud. Hence, most probably, London, Latin 
Londinium ; and we may compare Lutetia 
Parisiorum, the muddy town of the Parisii, now 

1 For this, as for much more information, I am indebted to the Rev. 
Charles M. Robertson. 



CONTIN. 

Paris, if, indeed, the reading Lutetia can be 
accepted as correct. South of Maoil Lunndaidh is 

Maoil ChoinnPmas Candlemas Bare-hill, a very 
curious term. 

Sgurr nan Conbhair Conbhair (1) dog-kennel 
(H.S. Diet.); (2) greedy person (E. Eoss) ; 
(3) clog-man, attendant on dogs (W. Eoss). ' Peak 
of the dog-men ' is most likely to be the meaning 
here. There are legends of Fingalian hunters 
attached. 

Sgurr a' Chaoruinn (3452 ft.)' Sgurr ' is locative 

of ' sgor,' a sharp rock, and is applied to sharp- 
pointed rocky hills. ' Rowan Peak,' 

Sgurr nan ceannaichean Merchants' Peak. I do 

not know the legend annexed, if there is one. 
Cam Eiteige Quartz Cairn. 

An Crom-allt The bent burn at head of Gleniak. 
Loch Coireag na' mang Loch of the little corry of 

the fawns. 

Cnoc an t-Sithein Hill of the sithean, or small 
fairy mound. 

Cam Mhartuinn, Loch Carn Mhartuinn, and 
Allt Carn Mhartuinn Cairn, loch, burn of 

Martin. 
Leanaidh Locative of leanach, based on lean, a 

swampy plain. 
Cam Chaoruinn RoAvan cairn ; Allt na criche, 

Boundary burn. 
Camasie G. Camaisidh, a stream name, also 

applied to the sheep farm ; from ' cam/ bent. 



160 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

The stream is very winding. Cf. for ending 

Lienassie, and for meaning Crombie. 
Caiseachan Apparently a collective from 'caiseach,' 

abounding in cheese, a reminiscence of shieling 

times. 
Carn na Feith-rabhain Rabhan is said to mean 

refuse left by the tide or by a stream in flood ; cf. 

Bad-a-rabhain, Dunrobin Glen. 
Badanluchie G. Bad-a-fhliuchaidh, clump of 

wetness. 
Achanalt Auchnanald 1682 ; G. Ach'-an-allt, Field 

of the burns. 

Sgurr a' ghlas-ieathaid Peak of the grey hill-side. 
Sgiirr a* mhuiliim Mill-peak. 

Sgurr ronnaich 'Ronnach,' of which 'ronnaich' 
is locative, means ' abounding in saliva.' There is 
a cliff over which there is a continual drip of 
water. 

Loch Rosque G. Loch 'Chroisg, loch of the 
crossing ; from ' crasg/ a crossing. The crossing 
referred to is that from Kiiilochewe through Glen 
Docharty, and so on to the low lands. Around 
Loch Rosque are the three following : 

Bad a' mhanaich Monk's clump ; not so strange a 
situation for a church-name when it is considered 
that it lay in the regular track from Kinlochewe 
to the east. 

Locative of lub, a bend, ' loop '; distinguished 
also as Lub a' Ghargain, bend of the rough place. 
The old inn of Luib was once a welcome stage 



CONTIN. 161 

between Achnasheen and Kinlochewe, and thus 
appears in song : 

'S e tigh-osda Chailein 
Dh' fhag mo phocaid falamh ; 
'S ioma stop is glainne 
'Chuir ini 'n tarruing awn. 

Leanach Place of swamp meadows, on the south 

side of the loch. 
Loch Crann, tree loch ; Lochan Sgeireach, skerry 

lochlet. 
Allt Ducharaidh Cf. Cnoc Ducharaidh, Alness, 

locative of dubh-chath'rach, a place of black 

broken ground. 

An Cabar The antler. 

LedgOWan Leathad 'ghobhainn, hillside of the 

smith ; also Loch Gowan. 
Dosmuckaran G. Dos-mhucarain, clump of the 

place of swine : mucaran is from mucar, place of 

swine ; cf. Crochar, Beannachar. 
Achnasheen Auchownosein 1633 ; G. Ach-iia-sin', 

field of storm ; sian, stormy weather, gen. sine. 
Garve G. Gairbh, rough (place); cf. E. Garry; 

probably here also a river name, since we have 

Strathgarve. The river is now the Black water. 

The N. Stat. Ace. says it was known as the Rasay, 

but if that was so, the name has completely gone. 

Yet the Life of St Cadroe mentions tbe river 

Rosis in these parts, and it might well be Norse 

hross-a, horse-river. 

11 



162 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

Garbat Garrowbat 1633; rough clump garbh 
bad. 

Gorstan of Garve G. Goirtean Gairbh, or simply 
' an Goirtean,' the small corn-enclosure, from 
' gort,' cognate with ' garth,' garden, hortus. 
The old ' in-town ' of Garve. 

Loch Garve In G. Loch Maol-Fhinn, Loch of the 
shaveling or follower of St Fionn, to be connected 
with Killin, G. Cill-Fhinn, at the west end of the 
loch. Taken together these names are conclusive 
as to the existence of a saint named Fionn, to 
whom the Garve Killin, and probably other places 
of the same name, were dedicated. " Cill-Fhinn 
's Cill-duinn, 's Cill-Donnain, na tri cilltean is sine 
an Albainn"; Killin, Kildun, and Kildonan, the 
three oldest churches in Alba. 

Dirriemore G. An Diridh mbr, ' the great ascent' ; 
the highest part of the road between Garve and 
Ullapool. Strath Terry, Straintirie 1635 ; G. 
Srath an Diridh, Strath of the ascent. 

Tarvie G. Tairbhidh, from ' tarbh,' bull ; ' place of 
bulls.' Of. Tarvie and Tarvie Burn in Glen 
Brerachan ; Tarvie Burn in Banff ; Tarves, Aber- 
deenshire. Here may be noted the local saw : 
daoine beaga Roagaidh, 's crogaicheaii Thairbh- 
idh, buic Srath-Ghairbh, meanbhlach Srath- 
bhrainn, fithich dhubh Loch-Carrainn, 's 
clarnhanan Loch Bhraoin ; the little men of 
Eogie, the crogs (i.e., worn-out sheep) of Tarvie ; 
the bucks of Strathgarve ; the slender folk of 
Strathbran ; the black ravens of Lochcarron, and 



CONTIN. 

the kites of Lochbroom : names descriptive of the 
people of these districts. 

Loch na crdic Antler loch ; it is shaped like the 
tine of an antler. 

Achnaclerach. on the road from Garve to Ullapool, 
Clerics' field, probably identical with Auchina- 
glerach 1479 ; to be connected with Killin. 

Loch an Droma Ridge-loch, between Loch Garve 
and Loch Achilty. 

Am Fireach ' Fireach ' is a mountain acclivity or 
hill ground ; ' fireach an f heidh,' hill of the deer. 
This is the mountain-side along the left bank of 
the stream from Loch Luichart. 

Glenmarksie G. Gleann-marcasaidh ; there are 
also Sgurr Marcasaidh and Sail Marcasaidh, Peak 
of Marxie and Heel of Marxie. Marcasaidh is 
based on marc, horse ; cf. Rosemarky ; -asaidh is 
difficult. It may be regarded as a double exten- 
sion of the root, and compared with Lienassie, 
G. Lianisidh, and Livisie, G. Libhisidh, Glen- 
Urquhart, but might here be the locative of fasadh, 
dwelling ; marc-fhasaidh, horse-stead. As coupled 
with glen, we should expect it to be a stream 
name, but Sail Marcasaidh and Sgurr Marcasaidh 
rather point to its being primarily here the name 
of a place. 

Some easy names follow : Strone, near Loch 
Achilty ; Altnabreac, trout-burn ; Loch an eich 
bhain, Grey-horse loch ; Loch a' chlarain, Loch of 
the small flat place ; Loch ruigh a' phuill, Loch of 
the marshy stretch ; Creag a' chaoruinn, Rowan 



164 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

rock ; Cadha fliuch, wet pass ; Loch nan eilid, 
hinds' loch ; Loch na' sgarbh, cormorant loch ; 
Loch a' chairn dhuibh, black-cairn loch ; Loch a' 
bhealaich (thrice), Loch of the gap ; Loch nan 
dearcag, berry loch ; Loch a' choire le*ith, grey 
corry loch ; Loch Bhaid ghaineamhaich, sandy- 
clump loch ; Loch a' Chuilinn, Holly loch ; 
Dubhchlais, black hollow ; Loch an alltain 
bheithe, Loch of the birch burnlet ; Carn iia Ore, 
Clay cairn. 

Lochluichart Locative case of 'longphort,' an 
encampment, or simply shieling, in which sense 
it is used here. Longphort is primarily a harbour, 
from ' long,' ship, and ' port,' harbour, but passes 
into other derivative meanings. From it come 
'luchairt,' palace; and the place-names, Camus- 
loncart on Loch Long, bay of the encampment ; 
Lungard and Loch Lungard in Kintail ; Luncarty. 

Ardachulish G. Aird' a' chaolais, Height of the 
Kyles, or narrows, where Loch Luichart contracts 
at its lower end. 

CnOC na h-iolaire Eagle hill, on north-east side of 
Loch Luichart. 

Corriemuillie Mill-corry ; G. Coire mhuillidh, v. 
Corriemulzie in Kincardine. 

Dorrygorrie Doire Goraidh, Godfrey's grove ; 
Gorry, from God frid, God's peace, was a 
favourite name among the Macdonalds (Mac- 
bairi). 

Strathvaich Strathwaith 1635; from ' bathach/ 
cow-house, a frequent element in place-names. 



CONTEST. 165 

Lubfearn Alder bend, or angle. 

Druimbuidhe Yellow ridge ; Lubriach, brindled 
bend ; Sr6n gorm, green point ; Meall an torcain, 
hill of the young boar ; Drumanguish, fir-ridge ; 
Tomban, white hillock ; Coire nan laogh, Calves' 
corry ; Meallan donn, brown hillock ; Coir' a 
ghrianain, corry of the sunny hillock ; Allt coir 
a' chliabhain, Corry of the little creel ; Meall na 
glaic baine, hill of the pale hollow ; Allt beithe, 
birch burn ; Allt a' ghlastuill mh6ir, burn of the 
great green hollow ; Creag Rainich, bracken rock ; 
Creag mholach, shaggy rock ; Cam gormloch, 
green-loch cairn ; Creag chlachach, stony rock ; 
Toll-milic, sow hollow ; Clach sgoilte, split stone 
(at the meeting point of three estates) ; Glenbeg, 
small glen. 

Kirkan G. na Cearcan, the hens ; there are 
numerous boulders, whence apparently the name. 

Glascarnoch G. Clais-chkroaich, cleft of the 
Carnach, or stony place. 

Aultguish G. an t-Allt giuthais, Fir burn. 

Meall Mhic lomhair Maciver's Hill. 

Sbrathbran and Eiver Bran 'Bran' is an obsolete 
word meaning raven. As applied to a river, the 
reference is not very clear, but it may have been 
given simply from ravens having haunted some 
parts of it. It is possible to suppose the name 
to have been given from the black colour of the 
water ; most probably, however, there is a 
mythological reference. The Hoss-shire Bran 
must be carefully distinguished from the Perth- 
shire Bran, the Gaelic of which is Breamhainn. 



166 PLACE-NAMES OF KOSS AND CROMARTY. 

Loch Fannich G. Loch Fainich. In spite of its 
Gaelic ring, Fanaich is rather an obscure and 
difficult word. Assuming that the 'f is radical 
and does not represent an aspirated ' p,' we may 
compare with Welsh ' gwaneg,' a surge, ' gwan- 
egu,' to rise in waves, Welsh * gw ' corresponding 
to Gaelic ' f,' as in W. gwern, G. fearn, alder. 
Another step backward would lead us to an early 
Celtic 'van-' or 'ven-,' which suggests a com- 
parison with the Gaulish Lacus Ven-etus, now 
Lake of Constance, and the two Gaulish tribes of 
Veneti, both maritime. But the name is one on 
which it is unsafe to be positive. In point of fact, 
when stormy winds from Strathcromble and from 
Cabuie meet at the nose of Beinn Hamh, the 
effect on the loch is said to be tremendous. 

Grudie, G. Gruididh, is the river from Loch Fannich 
falling into the Bran half-way between Loch-a- 
Chuilinn and Loch Luichart. There is an Allt 
Gruididh on the south side of Loch Maree, and an 
Abhainn Gruididh in Durness, Sutherland, also 
Gruids, near Lairg, so named from Allt Gruididh 
from Loch na Caillich and Lochan na fuaralaich 
which flows at the back of it. I am not aware of 
any to be found further south, but the examples 
given above go to show that we are dealing with 
a river-name. The root is most likely ' ghru,' 
gritty, which is at the bottom of such words as 
* grothlach,' a gravel pit ; ' grudair,' a brewer ; 
' gruid,' lees ; ' gruthan/ the liver ; allied with 
Eng. grit, Welsh grut, grit or fossil. The notion 



CONTIN. 167 

involved may be either ' gravelly,' or ' full of 
sediment.' Near the end of the wood on the 
Fannich road is Leum Ruaraidh, Rorie's leap, 
close to a fine fall on the river. Further up is 
an t-Eilean Critkinn, aspen isle, in the river, with 
many aspen trees. 

Eiginn The Hill Difficulty, a hill with bare ribs of 
rock at the north-east end of Loch Fannich. 
Near its west end is Beinn Ramh, hill of oars or 
of rowing ; it is at a very stormy part of the loch. 

An t-Alltan Mailis The sweet burn, at Eiginn ; 
its water is good ; mailis is a variant of meilis, the 
usual Ross form of milis, sweet. 

Aultdearg G. an t-Allt Dearg, Eedburn ; on the 
way to Fannich. 

Aultchonier G. Allt a' Choin uidhir, burn of the 
dun dog, i.e., the otter ; Otterburn. 

Nedd G. an Nead, the nest; the finest of the 
magnificent corries of Fannich forest. 1 In it is 
Comunn nan Caochan, meeting of the streamlets, 
a point where five small burns meet. Other cor- 
ries are an Coire MOT, the big corry, with Cadti 
a' Bhoicionn, Path of the goat-skin, at its upper 
end at the west ; an Coire Riabhach, the brindled 
corry ; an Coire Beag, the little corry, with, at 
its top, Coire nam Hang, Fawns' Corry. At the 
east side of Coire Beag is Gob a' Chiiirn, Beak 

1 In 1542 appear "the waste lands of lie Ned, between Lochboyne on the 
north. Lochtresk on the south, lie Ballach on the west an 1 Dawelach on the 
east." Lochboyne is either Lochivraoin (Lochaidh Bhraoin) or Loch Broom ; 
Lochtresk (1 Loch-cresk) is Loch Chroisg ; which Bealacli or Gap is referred to 
as the western boundary, is hard to say. Dawelach I c.nn ;t identify. 



168 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

of the Cairn, a remarkable projecting mass, with 
broad top almost perfectly flat and grassy. 

Meall nam Peithirean Lump (i.e. shapeless hill) 
of the foresters ; origin unknown ; also Cadti a 
Bhaillidli, the bailiff's path ; both behind Fannich 
Lodge. 

Sghrr nan Clach Stony skerry ; on its side, very 
high up, is eigintoll, difficulty hole, a small corry 
dangerous and difficult of access. 

SgUIT M6r 3637 Great skerry ; a peak from which 
on a clear day may be seen practically all Scotland 
north of the Grampians. 

Fuartholl Mor and Fuartholl Beag Little and big 
cold-hole ; wild corries adjacent to each other. 

Loch Ligh Spate loch ; above it is Toll Ligh, 
spate-hole, a deep and narrow corry ; from it 
goes Allt Gus-ligh, probably for Giuthais, fir- wood 
of Li. 

A' Bhiacaich The place of bellowing ; also Cadka 
na Biacaich, path of the same ; a place where 
stags roar. 

An Coileachan 3015 'The cockerel'; the applica- 
tion is difficult, but we say ' tha an coileachan air 
siubhal an diugh ' of a fall when spray is seen 
rising off it ; ' tha coileachan math air a' ghaoith ' 
of a gale ; ' tha coileachan air an loch ' of waves. 
On the other hand the name may mean literally 
' Place of grouse cocks,' which is the accepted 
meaning of Kyllachy, G. Coileachai(bh). 

Meallan Rairigidh (O.S.M.) Is not known in 
Fannich. 



CONTTN. 

Cabuie G. an Cadha Buidhe, the yellow path. 
Behind Cabuie Lodge is an Sgaoman, the stack, 
from its sharp conical shape. 

Strathcromble G. Srath chrombail, ' winding 
strath/ ' Crorn,' bent, here develops a ' b' before 
the suffix, as it does in Aber-crombie, Dalcrombie. 
Similarly from ' lorn ' we get Innis-lombaidh 
(Bosskeen), and ' lombar,' a bare place. The last 
example suggests that the form ' crombail' may 
have arisen by dissimilation from ' crombair/ 
parallel to ' lombar/ The Gaelic for Grantown- 
on-Spey is the same. 

Loch Droma Ridge Loch ; the ridge on which it 
lies is the great ridge of Drumalban, which forms 
the natural division between the east and west of 
Scotland, running from Argyllshire northwards. 

Loch a' Gharbharain Loch of the rough place, is 
the first of a series of five lochlets, connected by 
a stream running almost due south. Into this, 
the largest of the five, flows also Allt Mhucarnaich, 
Burn of the place of swine. 

Loch Coire Lair, north of the last mentioned loch. 
Into it flows Allt Lair. Here lar is used in the 
sense of * low place,' or ' place at the foot" ; e.g., lar 
a' ghlinn, lower part of the glen ; cf. Lair, Loch- 
carron. 

Loch na Still Loch of the Spout ; from ' steall,' a 
spout of water, or long narrow strip of anything, 
e.g., grass, ribbons. 

Loch Prille, a curious word, suggesting comparison 
with Welsh prill, a little brook or rill ; cf. Lacus 
Prilius in Etruria. 



170 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Loch Tuath North Loch ; the most northerly of 
five small lochs. 

Seann Bhraigh* Old upland. 

Fionn Bheinn (3060) White Hill, south-west of 
Loch Fannich. 

Airiecheirie and Allt Airiecheiridh G. Airigh- 
cheiridh, waxen shieling, from ceireach, waxen. 
The local explanation, which seems sensible 
enough, is that in summer, in walking through 
the grass, one's boots get a yellow waxen coating, 
testifying, as was thought, to the excellence of 
the pasture. 



GLENSHIEL. 171 



GLENSHIEL. 

Glenshiel Glenselle 1509, Innerselle 1571, Glen- 
schall 1574 ; G. Gleann-seile, named, as usual, 
after its river, Abhainn Seile. The Moidart Shiel, 
which is the same word, appears in Adamnan's Life 
of Columba as Sale, and again in the Dean of 
Lismore's Book as ' selli.' The root is ' sal-,' 
flow ; cf. ' seile,' saliva ; ' sil,' to drop ; ' seileach,' 
willow ; and the Continental rivers Sala. Shiel 
is doubtless a Pictish word. 

Morvich G. A mhor'oich (mormhoich), the sea 
plain (Ir. ' mur-magh ') ; a very common name. 
Cf. a Mhor'oich, the Gaelic of Lovat ; the Mor- 
richmore at Tain ; Mor'oich Cinn-deis, the Carse 
of Bayfield. In Badenoch there is a moor called 
' a Mhor'oich,' an instance of its use away from 
the sea. 

Eilean nan Gall Lowlanders' isle. 

Uchd an t-sabliail Barn-knoll. 

Achadh-ghiiirain Auchewrane 1543, field of 
giuran. The ' giiiran ' is a tall umbelliferous 
plant closely resembling the wild hemlock, and 
of the same family. It grows plentifully here, 
and in E. Ross. O.S.M., Achadhinrain. 

Torrluinnsich Torlouisichtl543,Torloiford(Blaeu), 
lounging knoll, from 'luinnse,' a loafer, which comes 
from the obsolete English word ' lungis,' lounger. 



172 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

The natives say that it is a knoll where lazy people 
used to lie to the sun ; and it is very suitable for 
the purpose. O.S.M., Torrlaoighseach. 

Ach-nan-gart Achnangart, Auchnagart 1543, 
Achengart (Blaeu), field of the corn enclosures. 

Rktagan and Bealach Ratagain The Rateganis 
1543. A diminutive of Ratag, which again is 
diminutive of Rat, i.e., ' rath/ with excrescent 
or strengthening ' t. J In Badenoch we have 
Raitts, G. Rat. The Irish ' rath ' was a fortified 
enclosure, usually circular ; of Maileagan, below. 
Along the south side of Loch Duich we have 

Cill-Chaointeort To be identified with Kil- 
kinterne 1543, Kentigerna's cell. Kentigerna is 
in Irish ' Caintigerna/ kind lady (Cain, G. caoin), 
and the slight corruption at the end of the 
Gaelic form, Cill-chaointeort, is due to the strong 
accent on ' chaoin,' which caused the final part of 
the compound to be pronounced indistinctly. 
There is an old burying-ground here, now disused. 
The last burial took place some thirty years ago. 

Eaglais Riabhachain Church of the brindled 
place, is the parish church of Glenshiel, just west 
of the last-named. 

Saraig Norse Saur-vik, muddy bay. 

Leacachan Lakachane 1543, place of flagstones. 

Letterfearn Alder slope. 

Ach na Taghart Achniterd in rental of 1727 ; 
diificult ; taghart may be for ' taobh-ghart,' side- 
corn field, which suits the place ; ' Field of the 
side-cornfields.' 



GLENSHIEL. 173 

Druideig The little shut-in place ; G. druid, to 

close. 
Totaig G. an Tobhtaig ; also Coille na tobhtaig ; 

tobhta means the remains of a ruined house. 
Aoinidh Eunich (Blaeu), the steep place ; also 

Aoineadh, which is nom. or ace. case. 
Ard an t-sabhail Barn promontory. 
Camus nan gall Lowlanders' bay. 
An Garbhan Cosach The little rough place of 

caves or fissures. 

The " five sisters " at the head of Loch Duich 

are given on the ground as 
Sgurr na mor'oich (2870) (O.S.M., Sgurr na 

moraich) Peak of Morvich. 
Sgurr nan saighead (2750) Arrow peak. 
Sgurr U(dh)ran (3505)? Oran's peak ; Gran, G. 

Odhran, from ' odhar, dun, is in the Dean of 

Lismore's Book written phonetically ' ooran. 3 

Equally possible, however, is odharan, the plant 

cow-parsnip. The G.S.M. has Sgurr Fhuaran, as 

if Well-peak, but the local pronunciation is quite 

against this. 
Sgurr nan carnach Peak of the stony places, or 

place of cairns ; not on O.S.M. 
Sgurr nan cisteachan dubh (3370) Peak of the 

black kists. Under it, but not marked in G.S.M., 

is 
Sgurr na' Spairmteach Peak of the Spaniards, 

just above the site of the battle of Glenshiel, 
1719. 



174 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Beinn Fhada (3383), best known as Ben Attow, 
the long hill. 

Sgiirr a' bhealaich dheirg (3378) Peak of the red 

gap. 

Cam na Fuaralaich (3378) Cairn of the cold 
place ; cf. Lochan na fuaralaich, Rosehall, Suther- 
land. 

A* Chraileag (3673) (O.S.M., Garbh-leac), appears 
to be a variant of ' cr6ileag,' a circular place. 

Sgiirr nan conbhairean (3634) Peak of the dog- 
men ; i.e., attendants of hunters ; this is the local 
explanation, which seems right. It may, how- 
ever, mean : Peak of the dog-kennels,' in allusion 
to some feature known to hunters. 

Cam Ghluasaid (3000) Cairri of moving from 
its screes. 

Druim nan cnaimh Hill of bones. 

Na Paiteachan The humps, on Loch Loyne. 

Creag a* mhaim (3103) Breast rock. 

Aonadh air Chrith (3342) Shaking precipice ; 
'airson gu bheil e cho biorach,' because it is so 
sharp-pointed and dangerous a ridge. 

Maol cheann-dearg (3214) --Red-headed brow 
(accent on 'cheann'). 

Sgurr COire na F6inne Peak of the Fenians' corry. 

Sgiirr an lochain (3282) Peak of the lochlet. 

Sgurr beag (2750) Small peak ; Creag nan damh 
(3012), stag rock ; Sgurr a Bhac Caolas, not 
known in Glenshiel ; Sgurr na sgine (3098), 
knife peak, from its sharpness ; An Diollaid 
(3317), the saddle ; Sgurr na creige (3082), rock 



GLENSHIEL. 175 

peak ; Sgurr leac nan each (3013), peak of the 
flat rock of horses ; Sgurr a' ghairg gharaidh, 
peak of the rough den. 

Sgurr 'ic Mharrais (O.S.M., Sgurr Mhic Bharraich), 
appears to mean peak of the son of Maurice. It is 
near Shiel Inn. 

Allt Undalain Near Shiel; probably a Norse 
compound involving dalr, ? with suffixed article. 
The burn flows into the river Shiel through a 
small flat. Opposite Shiel Schoolhouse is a 
disused burying-ground, called Cill Fhearcliair, 
Farquhar's Cell or Church. St Ferchar does not 
seem to be otherwise known. 

Allt Coire Mhaileagain Malegane 1543. We 

have Coire Mhaileagan in the parish of Kin- 
cardine ; Loch and Allt Valican in Glen Girnag, 
Perth ; Cnoc Malagan, Sleat. These again cannot 
be separated from such names as the River Maillie 
and Invermaillie, Kilmaillie in Inverness, Cul- 
maillie in Sutherland, arid Dalmally, Oban, all 
of which have the ' -maillie ' alike ' maili ' in 
Gaelic. The root is ' mal,' probably identical with 
Ir. ' mal,' noble (from a primitive ' mag-lo-s '), of 
which Lhuyd has a feminine ' an mhal/ the queen. 
This latter agrees well with the form ' rnal-ag-an,' 
meaning ' little queenly one ' ; cf. for meaning 
Glen-elg, noble glen. Phonetically 'mal' could 
come equally well from ' mad-lo,' wet, Latin 
'mad-eo/ but though the root 'mad-' is found 
in Celtic, we have no instance of it with this 
particular suffix. 



176 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

Allt Coire Lair into Loch Cluanie Burn of the 

low corry ; possibly Mares' Corry, or Mid Corry. 
Near it, but in Inverness, is Loch Lundie. 

Gleann Lie Glenlik 1509; Glenlic 1633; from 
' leac,' a flag-stone, not leac, a cheek ; the glen is 
narrow, with steep sides reaching a height of about 
3000 feet. At its head is Coir,e dhomhain, deep 
corry. In Glenlik, at the foot of Ben Attow, is 
Acli-a-dhaclid, where, according to local legend, 
Diarmid died. At his dying wish for water a 
well burst forth, Avhich is still well known as Tobar 
an Tuirc, the Boar's Well. Diarmid was buried 
at Dunan Diarmaid, near the manse of Kintail. 

The stream through Glenlik is called Abhainn 
a' Chrb, from the Cro of Kintail at its mouth. 
The first deep pool is called Fianntag, heath- 
berry. There is also Innis a' chro, meadow of the 
Cro. The famous Cro of Kintail is a fine hill- 
girt circular flat. 

Abhainn Conag The river Conag joins the Cro 
river. The local account is that a man was 
drowned therein in presence of his wife, whence 
the river was called Conag ' airson gun do ghori 
bas a fir i.' With this may be compared the 
derivation of Averon from ' ath bhron.' The name 
is probably connected with ' con,' from ' cu,' dog. 
Just beyond the head of this glen is Loch a' 
Bhealaich, loch of the gap or pass, to wit, the 
well-known pass leading into Glen Aflric, appear- 
ing in 1542 as ' lie ballach.' It is interesting to 
know that it is also known as Cadha Dhubhthaich, 



GLENSHIEL. 177 

St Duthac's pass, a name which implies that it 
was by the Bealach the saint travelled from 
Easter Ross to Loch Duich. 

Domsduan, at the junction of Connag and a burn 
called Alltan leothaid ghaineamhaich, burn of the 
sandy hillside. The Gaelic is Dorus-dubhain. 
Dubhain is very distinctly two syllables, and 
therefore may be regarded as from ' dubh-an,' 
black-water ; ' an/ genitive ' aine,' being an 0. Ir. 
word for water. Dorusduan thus means Black- 
water door. There is here a ford over the Connag, 
in crossing which Donnachadh nam Pios was 
drowned on a Friday. 

Loch Loyne G. Loch Loinn, Loch of shimmer or 
glitter ; this seems better than to take loinn as 
genitive of lann, an enclosure. Cf. Loch Neimhe 
in Applecross. 



12 



178 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 



KINTAIL. 

Kintail Kyntale 1342, Kyntaill 1535; G. Cinn< 
t-saile, l head of the salt water.' The parish of 
Tongue in Sutherland is Cinn t-saile 'ic Aoidh. 
Cinn t-saile nani bodach 's nam bo ; Kintail of 
carles and cows. Cf. Ir. Kinsale. 

Lienassie G. Lianisidh ; based on lean, a 
moist meadow ; for terminations cf. Caoilisidh, 
Camaisidh. 

Diman Diarmaid Diarmid's little fort ; " Dounan 
Diarmod, a circular stone building, 20 feet high 
and 20 feet wide, near the manse of Kintail " 
(O.S.A. 1790). 

Ruarach Roroch 1571 ; G. an Ruadhrach, the red 
place, from the screes immediately behind the 
farm house. In 1727 divided into Mickle Oxgate, 
Middle Oxgate and Culmuiln. 

Tigh a' mholain House of the little sea-beach (of 
shingle), mol. 

Loch nan Coir Loch of the cranes. 

Achadh an droighean Achadrein 1543, Achidren 
1727, field of thorns ; where the manse is. Behind 
it is Sgurr an Airgid, silver peak, otherwise 
Tulach ard or Ard-tulach, Artullich 1727, high 
hillock. " Tulach-ard " was the rallying cry of 
the Mackenzies. 



KINTAIL. 179 

Clachan Dubhthaich St Duthac's Kirktown ; the 
old chapel and burying-ground. 

Torr Chuilinn Hazel Tore, above Kintail Church. 

Inveiinate -- Innerenede 1571; G. In'ir-ionaid, 
applied now to the district from west of Clachan 
Dubhthaich to the burn from Coire Dhuinnid, 
called in G. Leitir Choill, Hazel slope ; Letterchall 
1509, Lettirchoull 1586, 1633. The only " inver " 
is that formed by the burn referred to, where it 
enters Loch Duich, and though the phonetics are 
not all that could be wished, In'ir-ionaid can 
hardly be dissociated from Coire Dhuinnid, Corry 
of the '' Duinnid.' Duinnid might be the genitive 
of an abstract noun meaning ' brownness,' but it is 
better regarded as a river-name formed from donn, 
brown, after the model of the Irish river-names 
Dianaid, 1 dian, swift ; Buanid, buan, lasting. Part 
of the corry is an Lethallt, Half-burn ; cf. Lealty. 

Keppoch Water of Keppach 1509, Keppach 1571 ; 
G. a' Cheapaich, the tillage plot. 

Carr Creag Charr, Carr rock ; carr means a rocky 
shelf, or projecting part of a rock ; from the root 
l-ars, rough, seen in carraig, carrach. Near it is 
Creag a' Ckriabaill (a nasal), Rock of the Garter. 

Claonaboth Climbo 1571, Clunabol, Blaeu ; Clin- 
bow 1727, claon-both, awry or inclining booth ; 
the intervening a is the 'sporadic' vowel. Claon- 
abol is also heard with / developed through 
sympathy. 

1 There is a stream Deinaid in Strathardle. 



180 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Dornie G. an D6irnidh, the pebbly place, an old 
locative of Dc-rnach, pebbly, from d6rn, fist. 
This will be found descriptive of all the places 
of the name Dornie, Dornoch or Dornock, Durno. 
Mr J. Macdonald (Place-names in Strathbogie, 
p. 112), mentions Craigdornie, and near it 
Beldornie ; Drumdurno, formerly Drumdornach ; 
Mindurno, formerly Mondornach ; and Edindur- 
nach, in all which d6rnach is adjectival, pebbly. 
He thinks it is doirionnach, stormy. As applied 
to the village, Dornie is modern. The old name 
was Bun d& loch, foot of two lochs, to wit, Loch 
Long and Loch Duich, but this is applied now 
to the * east end ' of the village only. The original 
Dornie was at Castle Donan, and applied primarily 
to the passage from the shore to the castle, easily 
fordable at low water, and strewn with rounded 
stones. Between Dornie and Bundalloch is Cam 
dubh, black cairn, a part of the village. Beyond 
Bundalloch is Tollaidh, place of the holes, at the 
narrowest part of Loch Long. 

Ellandonan Alanedonane 1503 ; G. Eilean 
Donnain, (? St) Donan's Isle. It is an island 
only at high water. Ellandonan was a place of 
strength from 13th century times, until its castle 
was battered by cannon in 1719. But there are 
clear indications that even before the days of 
castles it was the site of a vitrified fort. 

CnOC an Tuairneil Near Dornie, ?hill of dizzinees. 
Perhaps rather a variant of tuairnean, a mallet, 
beetle ; mallet-hill. Of. Ord. 



KINTAIL. 181 

Creag a' Chaisil Rock of the bulwark or wall ; cf 
Coiir a' mhuiridh in Applecross. 

Oamuslinnie G. Camas luinge, Bight of L. Long. 

Eillilan G. Gill Fhaolain, St Fillan's Church. 
Here is the site of a chapel, and a burying- 
ground still used, regarding which there is a 
tradition current that funerals come to it in 
threes. Some seven miles beyond is Maol 
Buidhe, yellow rounded hill. 

Camaslongart - - Bight of the encampment or 
shieling. 

Fadoch Nadoch, Blaeu ; G. an Fhadaich, place of 
fad, turf or sod. In Ireland fod, sod, gives rise 
to many names. It applies to a smooth grassy 
place ; cf. Swordale ; Artafaillie. 

Coille-righ So spelled means King's wood ; but it 
is really Coille-ruigh', Wood of the slope. 

Glen Elchaig G. Gleann Eilcheig, so named from 
its river Abhainn Eilcheig, a diminutive of 
eileach, meaning in modern G. a mill lade, but 
based on ail, rock or boulder, and therefore prim- 
arily rocky or place of rocks ; cf. Craig-ellachie, 
the Irish Ailech, and Alesia, better Alixia, the 
Gaulish rock fortress. Thus Eilcheig is ' the 
little rocky one.' In its upper reaches it widens 
into Loch na Leitreach, loch of the hill slope, with 
Carnach, G. a' Charnaich, rough place, or place of 
cairns, at its head. It rises in Loch Muireagan. 

Gldmach and Allt ca Glomaich, place of the 

chasm, from glbm, a gloomy hollow or chasm, 
gorge, applied in Lochcarron to the chasm or 



182 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

gorge of the river Taodal, which on a smaller scale 
resembles the terrific gorge of Glomach ; cf. the 
Gloume or Castle Gloom, Dollar ; now Castle 
Campbell. 
Abhainn Gaorsaig, also Loch Gaorsaig, Sgtirr 

Gaorsaig ; doubtful ; ? gaorr, a thrill. 

On the river is Loch thuill easaidh, loch of the 
waterfall hole ; easaidh being old genitive of 
easach ; cf. Essich, G. Easaich, near Inverness. 
Gleann Shiaghaidh and Abhainn Siaghaidh 
possibly from O. Ir. segda, stately, handsome. 

The river flows east into Loch Lungard, loch of 
the encampment or shieling, whose waters go to 
Maol-ardaich (Loch Mullardoch). 
Carnan Cruithneachd 2386 The little cairn of 

the Cruithne. or Picts ; the meaning of wheat 
seems impossible. The article is prefixed, but that 
sometimes happens when the sense of the second 
part being a proper noun is lost, e.g., an Fheill- 
Dubhthaich, St Duthac's Fair. 

Riochan G. Biabhachan, the brindled place ; deer- 
forest. 

Carn-6ite 3877 Cf. Carn-eit in Contin ; Allt- 
eiteachan in Kincardine parish ; Tobar na 
h-diteachan in Nigg ; Loch-eite and Gleann-eite, 
Loch Etive and Glen Etive ; Allt Chill-eiteachan 
near Ullapool. Whether the base in all these 
cases is the same is doubtful. The eite of Gleann- 
eite applies no doubt primarily to the stream of 
that glen, and the accepted etymology is from 
the root seen in Lat. i-re, to go, with extensions, 



KINTAIL. 183 

with which may perhaps be compared Gael, eite, 
eiteadh, stretching, extending. The connection 
in Carn-eite is not clear. 
Mam Sabhal 3862 Rounded hill of barns ; noted 

for grass. 

Carn-eite nan gobhar, 's Mam-sabhal an fheoir. 
Carn-eite of goats, and Mam-sabhal of grass. 

Gleann Choilich and Abhainn Coilich Glen and 

river of the rapid ; coileach is applied to the 
crests of broken water. 
Coileach is Siaghaidh is Braigh Ghlinne-ghriabhaidh. 

Mamag The little mam, or rounded hill ; beyond 
Coille righ, opposite Carnoch. 

Cain na Breabaig Beyond Carnoch ; ' cairn of the 
little kick or start ' ; the term ' breabag ' is 
applied to a hill in which there i's a cleft such as 
might be supposed to have been caused by a 
sudden start ; cf. Breabag adjoining Ben More in 
Sutherland. 

Ach-a-ghargain Field of the rough place, near 
Kilillan ; cf. Gargastoun. 

Lochaidh Mhuireagain (O. S. M. , Loch Muir- 
ichinn), Muireagan's Lochlet. The proper name 
Muireagan means * mariner/ based on muir, the 
sea. 

An Creachal Beag 2854; perhaps a variant of 
' creachan/ a bare hill top. 

River Ling Abhainn Luinge, Ship's river. 

Loch Long Ship loch. 



184 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



LOCHALSH. 

Lochalsh Lochalsche 1464 ; Lochalch 1472 ; 
Lochelch 1510 ; Lochalse 1576 ; G. Loch-aillse or 
Loch-ai'se (with I dropped before s, as usual) ; 
undoubtedly the Volsas or Volas Bay of Ptolemy, 
the geographer of the early part of the second 
century. The modern Gaelic favours an origin 
from Yolsas, and Dr A. Macbain would connect 
with a root vol, to roll, as a wave ; Eng. well, 
Lat. volvo. Loch Alsh, in Sutherland, is the same 
in Gaelic. 

Aldnarff Ardnanarf 1554; Ardenarra 1574; 
Ardonarrow 1607 ; G. Ard-an-arbha, Promontory 
of the corn. 

Inchnairn Inchenarne 1548, 1554, and 1607 ; 
Inchnairnie 1574 ; G. Inriis an fhearna, Alder- 
haugh. 

Femaig Fairnmoir and Fayrineagveg (big and 
little Fearnaig) 1495 ; Fayrnagmore and Fayrin- 
aegveg 1527 ; G. Fearnaig, place of alders. 

Achmore Achmoir 1495, 1527; Auchmoir 1548; 
G. Acha-mor, Big Field ; with it went Killochir 
1548, 1607, or Cuylohir, 1527 ? cuil odhar, dun 
nook ; seemingly obsolete. 

Achachonleich Achechoynleith 1495; Achchon- 
elyth 1527 ; Auchachondlig 1633 ; G. Ach-a- 
chonalaich. There is a confluence at the spot, and 



LOCHALSH. 185 

the name seems to be based on coingeall, a whirl- 
pool, ' Field of the place of the Whirlpool ' ; cf. 
Connal Ferry. 

Braeintra Brayeintraye 1495 ; Brayeintrahe 1548; 
Breaintread 1633 ; G. Braigh' an t-sratha : Upper 
part of the strath. 

Craig Cragy et Harsa 1548 ; 1554 lie Craig ; Craig 
et Harsa 1607 ; G. a' Chreag, the Eock ; with it 
goes Duncraig, the old name of which was am 
Fasadh, the dwelling, otherwise am Fasadh 
aluinn, the lovely dwelling. Harsa seems obsolete. 

Achandarach Achenadariache 1495 ; Achendar- 
iach 1527 ; Auchnadarrach 1548 ; G. Achadh nan 
darach, Field of the oaks. 

Achnahinich Auchnahowgych 1548 ; Auchna- 
henych 1554 ; Auchinnahynneych 1574 ; Auchna- 
hinginche 1607 ; Auchnahenginche 1633 ; G. 
Achadh na h-inich. Duncan Mathesoii, a 
Mathesoii historian, spells it Acha na Shinich, and 
he says that at Achadh da Tearnaidh (Field of 
two descents) here, the Mathesons used to rally 
as to a rendezvous when they took the field. 
They drank of the sacred stream of Alltan- 
rabhraidh (Burn of the murmuring) and started. 
Achnahinich is for Achadh na h-iongnaich 
(h-inich), Field of the Nail-place, i.e., of the point ; 
ionga, a nail, is common in Irish names in this 
sense. 

Balmacarra Ballimacroy 1548 ; Ballamaccarra 
1554, 1607, and 1653 ; Ballemakcarrane 1574 ; 
G. Baile mac Carra, or possibly Baile mac Ara, 



186 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Township of the sons of Carra or Ara. MacAra 
or MacCarra is a Perthshire name. For the 
formation cf. Belmaduthy, G. Baile mac Duibh. 

Auchtertyre -Wochterory 1495 ; Ochtertere 1527 ; 
Ochbertirie 1548 ; G. uchd-a-rire, or Uachdar- 
thire, Upper part of the land ; cf. lochdar-thire 
or lochdar-rire, Englished Eastertyre, in Strath - 
tay. 

Achtaytoralan Auchtatorlyne 1548 ; Auchtator- 
lane 1554; Auchridtidorillane 1574; Auchtator- 
rellan 1607 ; G. Achadh-da-torralan ; a doubtful 
word ; perhaps ' Field of two descents/ from 
torluimi ; perhaps a derivative of torrau, hillock, 
from torr. With Achtaytoralan went Ardach 
1548, Ardache 1607, Ardacht 1574, High-field. 

Nostie Nostie 1548, 1574; Noyste 1554; Nostie 
1607, 1633; G. Nosdaidh for 'n osd-thigh, the 
inn, with the article in the dative or locative 
prefixed as in Nonach. There is tradition of an 
inn here. 

Ardelve Ardelly 1548 ; Ardelf, 1554 ; Ardillie 
1574; Ardelleive 1607; Ardelve 1633; Ardhill 
1691 ; G. Ard-eilbh or Aird-iT (locally cf. 1691 
spelling) ; Feill na h-airde, Ardelve market ; most 
probably for Aird-eilghidh, Height of the fallow 
land. 

Conchra Connachry 1548 ; Concry 1554; Conchra 
1574 and 1633 ; Conchara 1607 ; G. Conchra, 
Place of Cruives, from con, together, and era, 
which is a variant of cro, fold, but specialised 
in the sense of cruive. 



LOCHALSH. 187 

Sallachy Sallach 1548; Salche 1554; Sallachie 
1574, 1633; G. Salachaidh, Place of Willows; 
O.G. sailech, willow, now seileach ; Scottish saucb 
for salch, O.E. salt ; cf. Sauchieburn for older 
Salcbie (Stirling), where possibly the word is 
Scottish ; also Salachar, Applecross. 

Port a' Chuilinn Holly Port. 

Plockton G. am Ploc, the Lump, applied to the 
humpy promontory which ends in Ruemore, Gaelic 
Rudha-mor, Big-cape. 

Duart G. Dubh-aird, black point. 

Strathy G. an t-Srathaidh; abhainn an t-Srath- 
aidh, Strathy river ; these G. forms prove 
Srathaidh to be singular number, and I take it 
to be a diminutive, meaning Little Strath. It is 
very small for a strath. 

Seann-chreag Old rock. 

Port-an-e6rna Barley Port ; Port-na-cloiche, Port 
of the stone. 

Badicaul G. Bada-call, Hazel Clump. 

Kyle of Lochalsh G. an Gaol, the narrow. 

rlen Udalan Udalan is a derivative of G. udail, 
to be unsteady, to rock ; ' the rocker ' ; applied 
primarily to the stream. Udalan in common 
speech means a swivel or swingle-tree, with same 
notion. Cf. Ben Udlamain, east of Loch Ericht, 
a different formation from the same word ; and, 
for meaning, Aonadh air Chrith in Glenshiel. 

Ullava An islet near Duncraig ; N. ulf-ey, Wolfs 
Isle ; probably Ulf was a person's name. On the 
mainland is Uaimh Ulabha, Cave of Ulva ; cf. 
Ulva near Mull. 



188 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Duirinish Dm-ris 1548, Durness 1554, Dowrnes, 
Durinische 1 607 ; N. dyra-nes, Deer's headland ; 
cf. Duirinish in Skye and Durness in Sutherland. 

Erbusaig Arbesak 1554, Erbissok 1633; G. Ear- 
barsaig, with developed r, for which cf. Cromarty. 
It appears to mean Erp's bay, Erp being a personal 
name borrowed by the Norse from the Picts. The 
Gaelic form of Erp is Ere, e.g. Fergus MacErc, the 
first King of Dalriada. 

Stromeferry A hybrid ; ferry is English ; Strome, 
N. straumr, current, stream, common in the Ork- 
neys and Norse regions generally ; G. Port an 
t-Sroim, where the presence of the article with 
Sroim shows it to have come to be felt a Gaelic 
word. The Castles of Strome and Ellandonan 
were of old the chief fortresses of the West Coast. 

Pladaig N. flatr, flat ; aig is either vik, bay, or 
possibly a G. diminutive terminative. 

Scalpaidh N. skalp-a, ship-river ; Scalpa, Skye, is 
Ship-isle, and in the Orkneys it is for Ship- 
isthmus (ei^) ; G. Scalpa 'Chaoil, Scalpa of the 
Sound, i.e., Kyleakin. 

Reraig Rowrag 1548, Rerek 1554, Rerag 1607 ; 
G. Rearaig, N. reyr-vik, Reed-bay. There is 
another Reraig in Lochcarron. 

Avemish Avernis 1495, Awnarnys 1527, Avar- 
rynis 1548, Evernische 1607, Averneis 1633 ; 
G. Abhairnis ; probably N. afar-nes, Big or Bulky 
Ness. 

Ceann-an-oba G. Ceann an oib, head of the bay ; 
N. hop, borrowed into Gaelic ; cf. Oban, Obbe in 



LOCHALSH. 189 

Harris, Ben Hope in Sutherland. Ob an duine, 

Man's bay, is in Plockton. 
Palascaig G. Palascaig, but Loch Fealascaig ; 

N. fjalla-skiki, Hill-strip ; cf. Pladda from N. flatr. 
Strathasgag G. Srath-asgaig, a hybrid; G. srath, 

strath ; N. li-skiki, river-strip ; cf. Arscaig on 

Loch Shin. 
Lundie Lunde 1495, Lundy 1527; G. Lunndaidh 

v. Maoil Lunndaidh, Con tin. There is also here 

Loch Lundy. The name is Pictish. It is a 

marshy place. 
Kirkton G. an Clachan Aillseach, the stone 

church of Lochalsh ; dedicated to St Congan. 

Near the burying-ground is Cnoc nan Ainyeal, 

Angels' knoll ; possibly knoll of beacon fires. 
Khmamoine G. Ceann na m6ine, Moss- head. 
Eilean Tioram Dry Island (a common name), at 

the entrance to Loch Long. Between it and the 

mainland is an t-saothair, where the rising tide 

rushes with great speed. 
Aultnasou Auldinseie 1691 ; G. Allt nan siibh, 

Raspberry burn. 
Nonach G. 'Nonach ; Loch na h-onaich, not far 

off, shows that we have here the article an with 

onach ; cf. Oriich, near Ballachulish, from Omh- 

anach (locative omhanaich), Place of foam. 
Poll-an-tarie G. Poll an tairbh, Bull's pool, where 

a legendary battle between the Mathesons and 

Sutherland men took place. 
Patt G. a' Phait Mhonarach, Hump of Monar. 



] 90 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMABTY. 

Loch Calvie G. Loch Cailbhidh, Loch of shoots . 

there is good grass here ; G. cailbh, shoot, twig ; 

cf. Glencalvie. 
Coire na SOrna Corry of the furnace, or furnace - 

shaped gully, interesting as giving a fern, genitive 

to G. sorn, but the word was both mas. and fern. 

in early Irish. We have the correct genitive in 

Loch Hourn, G. Loch Shuirn, cf. the Dean of 

Lismore's Book 

Leggit derri di worn 
eddir selli is sowyrrni 

an end of merriment is made 
between Shiel and Hourn. 

i.e., in the Clan Ranald country. 
Loch Monar Monare 1542 1 ; G. Loch Mhonair ; 
G. ' monar ' means a trifle ; a trifling thing ; 
but the place-name is probably quite different. It 
applies primarily to the place ; Loch Mhonair is 
the Loch of Monar, and Monar may be a Pictish 
name based, on root of monadh, viz., men, high, 
and meaning 'the High Land/ Near it is 
Innis-loicheil : Ir. lochall or lochull is explained 
as ' the plant called broomlime ' ; the o in 
the place-name is, however, long, and may be 
the old adjective loch, black, which would give 
loch-choille, Black- wood ; Blackwood-haugh. 

1 In 1542 appears : "the waste lands of Monare, between the water of 
Gleneak on the north, the ridge ef Laudovir on the south, the burn of 
Towmik and Inchelochill on the east, and the water of Bernia running inio 
the water of Long on the west." Qleneak is Gleann-fhiodhaig in Contin ; 
Laudovir I cannot identify ; burn of Towmik is Allt-Toll-na muioe, east of 
Loch Mouar ; the water of Bernis is still called Uisg' a' Bhearnais, water of 
the Cleft. 



LOCHALSH. 191 

Beinn Dronaig Probably from the root seen in G. 

droineach, ragged ; for meaning cf. Beinn Feusaig. 
Loch CrUOShie G. Loch Cru'oisidh ; Loch of 

the hard place, based on cruaidh, hard, with 

the extensions seen in Caolisidh. 
An Ruigh breac The dappled reach (O.S.M. Cam 

an Reidh bhric). 
Loch Anna G. Loch an aim'. 
Creag nan Grarrag ( = garradh) Rock of the dens ; 

O.S.M. Creag na Cairge. 
An Fhrith-ard Freeard 1691, the small height; 

G. frith, small. 

Cam nan Dobhran Otter-cairn. 

Drochaid Cnoc-a-chrochaire - - Hangman's Hill 
Bridge. 

Apparently obsolete are : Fadamine 1495, 
Fynimain 1527, Fineman 1548, Acheache 1495, 
Acheachy 1527, and Auchcroy 1548, 1607, 
Auchnacroy 1611, mentioned in connection with 
Fernaigbeg. The two merklands of Culthnok, 
Achnacloich, Blaregarwe, and Acheae appear in 
1495 and 1527. With Achtertyre goes Achich 
1548, Achiche 1607. Fuday (a Teiroung) 1627, 
Idiu 1691, Innershinak 1691, Auchowlosk 1633, 
Auchaiiloisk, Auchinleisk 1669, Auchalloch 1699. 



192 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



LOCHCAEEON. 

Lochcarron Loghcarn 1275 (Theiner Yet. Mon.) ; 
Lochcarryn 1474 ; G. Loch-carrann, from the 
river Carron, which enters the sea loch after a 
course through Glen-carron and Strath-carron. 
There are in Scotland some half-dozen or more 
rivers Carron, all with rough and rocky beds. 
The root is * kars-/ rough, seen also in ' carraig/ a 
rock, and ' earn,' a heap of stones. Ptolemy's 
Carnonacae, on the west coast of Eoss, are the 
' men of the cairns ' or of ' the rough bounds.' On 
the analogy of such Gaulish river names as 
Matrona, the primitive form of Carron, which is 
doubtless a Pictish word, would be Oarsona ; cf. 
Carseoli in Italy ; and for Gaelic ' rr ' arising from 
c rs,' cf. Man* and the Italian tribe Marsi. But 
cf. also the G. words barr and earr. 1 The old 
graveyard at the old parish church is Cladh a' 
Chlachain. 

Kishorn Kischernis 1464 ; Kissurine 1633 ; G. 
Cis-orn, Norse ' keis-horn,' bulky cape. Blaeu's 
Atlas put Combrich at the head of Loch Kishorn, 
confusing with Applecross. 

Tornapreas G. Treabhar nam preas, bush-stead. 
The English form is deceptive. 

1 A. Macbaiti's Gaelic Dictionary. 



LOCHCARRON. 1 93 

Courthill Cnoc a' mhoid : the moot-hill in question 
is close to the north side of the bury ing-ground 
below Courthill House. Behind the house again 
is Cnoc na croiche, Gallowhill. At the burying- 
ground was a chapel called Seipeil Donnain, 
St Donan's Chapel. 

The Dun: quarter of Domi 1495, Doune 1633, near 
Cnoc na croiche, was evidently once a township. 
The hill-fort from which it took its name is still 
traceable, though much broken. G. Lag an Duin, 
Hollow of the Fort. 

Ach-a-bhanaidh Auchvanie 1633 ; probably based 
on ban, white, yielding banach, white place, or 
untilled field. (Also Achbane 1548, Davach of 
Achwanye 1583). 

Seafield G. An rudha, the point ; also Rudha 
Nois ; perhaps Rudha 'n 6is, stream-mouth point ; 
it is right opposite Russell Burn, on the other 
side of the loch. 

Sanachan Tannachtan 1548; Safnachan, 1583; 
G. Samhnachan ; G. samh, sorrel, with extensions ; 
Little place of Sorrel. 

Arddarroch Oak-promontory ; south-east of it is 
Ardochdainn, Little High field. 

Achintraid Auchnatrait 1623, shore-field ; cf. 
Balintraid in Kilmuir Easter. The stream which 
enters Loch Kishorn at this point is commonly 
called the Kishorn river ; O.S.M., Amhainn 
Cuag a' Ghlinne. 

Goirtean na h-Airde The small corn enclosure of 
the point. 

13 



194 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Camusdonn Brown bay ; Meall no, h-airde, hill of 
the promontory. 

Loch Eeraig G. Rearaig, Norse ' reyrr-vik,' reed 
bay. There is another Eeraig in Lochalsh. 
Rerok 1583. 

Eilean na beinne Island of the peak. Beann is 
here used in its primary meaning. 

Ardnaniaskin G. Aird an fhiasgain, mussel pro- 
montory. 

Strome Strome Carranache 1495 ; Norse 'straumr/ 
a stream, current, race. There are Strom mor, 
Strom meadhonach, and Strom Carranach. 

Bad a' Chreamha Clump of the wild garlic ; 
behind Strome Castle. 

Slumbay Slomba 1495 ; Slumba 1633 ; G. Slumba ; 
probably Norse ' slaemr-vagr,' slim or small bay. 

Lochcarron Village, or Janetown, formerly Torr 
Dan clar, Torr of the staves or boards. Referring 
to its change of name and improved houses, 
there is a local rhyme, ascribed to the Rev. 
LachJan Mackenzie 

Faire faire, Torr-nan-clar ! 

Baile Seiiv th' ort an drast, 

Chan 'eil tigh air an teid fad [air teine], 

Nach bi similear air no dha. 

Out upon thee, Tornaclar ! 
Town of Jane thou now art called ; 
Not a house on which goes sod, 
That has not chimneys one or two. 

Behind Janetown is An Teanya Fkiadhaich, the 
wild tongue ; a very rugged piece of land. 



LOCHCARRON. 195 

Achintee Achintee, 1633 ; Achnanty (Blaeu) ; G. 
Achd an t-sithidh, as if from sitheadh, force ; 
sith, an onset ; ? ' Field of the blast ' ; cf. Achna- 
sheen. 

Eas an teampuill Temple waterfall, a very fine 
and wild double fall, fifteen minutes' walk from 
Strathcarron Station. The ' temple ' is said to 
have stood near it on the right bank of the burn, 
where there are some ruins. A further ecclesi- 
astical trace is found in Alltan an t-sagairt, 
priest's burnlet, a little to the west, near Achintee. 
Both are no doubt to be connected with the 
Clachan at Lochcarron. Blaeu places Clachan 
Mulruy near Achintee, but west of it. The 
Temple fall is on the river of 

Tao'udal, Englished Tweedle ; the birch and fir 
copses fringing its banks are called ' doire Thao- 
udail,' copse of Taodail ; ? Norse haga-dalr, 
pasture-field, with the usual prefixed t. The dale 
is of course on the lower reaches of the stream. 

Attadale ? N. at-dair, fight dale ; the Norsemen 
were fond of horse-fights, hesta-at, and this fine 
level strath would have been a suitable place for 
that purpose ; cf. Attadale in Applecross. 

Camallt Bent burn. 

Strathan Little strath. 

limner G. An t-iomaire, the rig, or ridge of land ; 

also Carn an iomair, Cairn of the ridge. 
Cnoc nam mult Wedder hill. 
CoulagS G. Na Cuileagan, the little nooks, or back 

places. Sgardan nan Cuileag, Scree of the little 

nooks, is a brae on the road near. 



196 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Balnacra G. Beul ath nan era, Ford-mouth of the 

cruives. 
Arinackaig Arimachlag 1543 ; G. Airigh-neacaig ; 

1 neacaig ' looks like the genitive of Neachdag, 

feminine of Neachdan, Nectan. 

Loch Dughall L. Dowill (Blaeu) ; Dougald's loch- 
Achnashelloch Auchinsellach 1584 ; Auchna- 

shelloch 1633 Willowfield. 

River Lair, Coire Laire, and Farm of Lair : from 

Lar in the sense of a low place, bottom. 

Gorstan G. an Goirtean fraoich, the small corn 
enclosure among the heather. 

Lon Coire Chrubaidh Moist flat of the bent 
corry. 

Loch Sgamhain ' Sgamban' means (1) lungs or 
lights, (2) corn or hay built up in a barn. Local 
authority connects the name of the loch with the 
former : when the water-horse devoured a man, 
the victim's lungs or liver usually floated to the 
shore. But the more peaceful alternative is 
preferable. 

Beinn F6usaig Beard-hill ; it is bare on one side, 
and has long heather on the other. 

Coulin, 1 Loch Coulin, River Coulin Coullin 

1633; G. Culainn ('u' strongly nasal). The 
word can hardly be other than a locative of ' con- 
lann,' meaning either ' high enclosure ' (' kunoe,' 
high), or * collection of enclosures ' (' con, 

1 " Coulin (or Connlin) is from Connlach, a Fingalian hero, who was buried 
on a promontory in the loch. The site of hi grave is still pointed out "- -Mr 
J. H. Dixon'a Gairloch. 



LOCHCARRON. 197 

together). ' Lann,' enclosure, is found alone, as 
An loinn, the enclosure ; and in composition as 
An garbhlainn, near Loch Ruthven (Inverness), 
which appears on the O.S. map as Caroline. 
The Kinlochewe tenants of old had their shielings 
where Coulin Lodge now stands. The old name 
of the spot is still remembered, and appears in the 
couplet 

Cumain is snathain is im'ideil l 
Ceithir thimchioll Liib Theamradail. 

Milk pails and threads and coverings 
All round the bend of Temradal. 

Teamradal, N. Timbr-dalr, timber-dale. 

Torran CUilinn Holly knoll ; at the east end of 
Loch Coulin. 

Loch Glair G. Loch Clair, loch of the level place. 

Loch a* Bharranaich (O.S.M. Loch Maireannach), 
Loch of * barranach,' very long and strong grass 
with broad leaves like corn, growing in lochs. 
Fionnaltan, Whiteburns, is at its head ; Loch an 
an iasgaich, lochlet of (good) fishing ; Lochan 
gobhlach, forked lochlet (has a fork at either end). 

SgtUT Ruadh (3141) Eed peak ; Maol cheann 
dearg (accented on 'cheann') (3060), red-headed 
brow; Ruadh stac (2919), red 'stack,' or steep 
hill, are all of the red Torridon rock. Na cinn 
liath, the grey heads, are quartzite. Cam breac, 
spotted cairn ; Fuar tholl, cold hole ; Cnoc na 

1 Im'ideal ; this was a vessel for carrying cream and milk home from the 
shielings. Its mouth was covered with a piece of skin (called in the Reay 
country iolaman), tied below the brim with thread (snathan). The word is 
doubtless imbhuideal. Rev. C. M. Robertson. 



198 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

h-&than, kiln-hill ; Torr na h-iolaire, eagle torr ; 
Glas bheinn, green hill. 

Blaad Bleyat, 1548 ; Blaad 1633 ; G. Blathaid ; 
O. Ir. bla, glossed faithche. a green ; bla, a 
place, glossed baile (both apparently the same 
word) ; with the suffix seen in Bial-id, Caol-id, &c. 
' Place of the green.' The place is noted for its 
pasture. 

New Kelso G. Eadar dha Charrainn, between two 
Carrons. The river Carron makes a large bend 
round it. Edira-carrain, Blaeu. 
Dail Mhartuinn Delmartyne 1633 ; Martin's dale, 

marching with Balnacra. 
Dail Charmaig Cormac's dale. 
Sevochan Where the smithy is, a mile west of 
New Kelso. Ruboachane 1546 ; G. Ruigh- 
Bhuadhchain ; near it is Abhainn Bhuadhchaig 
((XS.M. Abhainn Bhuidheach) ; also Buadhchaig ; 
Buadhchain is genitive of Buadhchan, probably 
Buadh-ach-an, place of victory, or place of virtue 
(i.e., efficacy) ; Buadhchaig is merely a variant 
with feminine termination. The ' virtue ' may 
have been in the place itself, i.e., in producing 
herbs of worth ; or in the water of its river. 
Abhainn Bhuadhchaig, however, means ' River of 
Buadhchag,' the inference being that Buadhchag 
is primarily the name of the place, not of the 
river. Cf. however Ir. river name Buaidnech. 
Tullich G. an Tulaich, the hillock ; but of old 

an Tulchainn. 
Brecklach G. a' Bhraclach, the dappled place. 



LOCHCARRON. 1 99 

Coire Fionnarach May be a formation from 
fionnar, cool (Ir. fionn-fhuar, white-cold), or it 
may come directly from fionn, white ; cf. ruadh'- 
rach, from ruadh, red ; ' Cool Corrv,' or ' Corry of 
the white places (or white water).' The river 
from Loch Coire Fionnaraich is Fionn Abhainn, 
white river, from the clearness of its water. 
About midway between the loch and Allt nan 
Ceapairean is Clack nan Con Fionn, Stone of the 
White Dogs ; a tapering stone about 10 feet bigh, 
to which local legend says the hero Fionn used to 
fasten his dogs. It is all worn by their chains. 
Probably a trysting place for hunters and their 
dog-men. 

Allt an ruigh' shleaghaich (O.S M. Allt reidh 

sleighich). Cf. Slioch in Gairloch. It rises in 
Mbiri a' Chreathair, sieve moss. 

Allt Doir-ithigean West of Cnoc na h-^than ; 
obscure ; perhaps contains a proper name. 

Allt a' Chonais Burn of Coneas ; G. an Conais ; 
this was a homestead by the burn. For Coneas 
cf. Coneas in Kiltearn, and na Coineasan, in 
English ' the Eockies,' a series of pools and falls in 
the Gruinard River. 

Coire Liridh Liridh is doubtless connected with 
G. Lirean, meaning the green slimy stuff that 
forms in quiet water ; cf. the Liris, a river of 
Italy ; Liriope, a fountain nymph. Liridh is 
probably a Pictish stream name, primitive Lirios ; 
root ti, smooth, polished, seen in Lat. limo, polish; 
G. liobh ; cf. Glenlyon, G. Ll'un, primitive Livona. 



200 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Sgurr nam Feartag 'Peak of the sea-pinks/ 
which grow there (O.S.M. Sgurr na Fiantag). 
From it comes Coire Bhanaidh, c Achvanie. 

Eagon (2260) A hill ; probably a formation from 
eag, a notch ; ' Place of the Notch, or, of Notches." 

Moruisg (3026) G. Morusg ; first part is mor, 
great, the strong accent on which has reduced the 
second part to obscurity. 

Poll Druineachain On the stream that twice 
crosses the Dingwall road, near the junction with 
it of the road from Strathcarron Station. The 
more easterly of the bridges is Drochaid Poll 
Druineachain ; the other is Drochaid na h- Uamh- 
ach, Cave- Bridge. Between that and the head of 
the loch is Cladh nan Druineach, Burial-place of 
the ? Druids, where cists are said to have been 
found. 

Peitneane 1563 Now obsolete, shows Pictish 
influence. There is still Pitalmit in Glenelg, G. 
Bail' an Ailm. 



APPLECROSS. 201 



APPLECROSS. 

Applecross " Malruba fundavit ecclesiam Apor- 
crosan 673" (Tighernac's Annals). This is also 
the form which occurs in the Aberdeen Breviary ; 
but Ablecross 1275 (Theiner Vet. Mon.). The 
old forms show the meaning to be ' estuary of the 
Crosan/ and the best native authority available 
to me gave the name of the Applecross river as 
Abhainn Crosan. There is also a field by the 
river side known as Crosan, and entered under 
that name in the valuation roll. Crosan may 
be a genuine old river name, Crosona, with 
which cf. the E/iver Crosa, now Creuse, a 
tributary of the Vienne, which again is a 
tributary of the Loire. 1 The parish, how- 
ever, in Gaelic, is always spoken of as 'a' 
Chomraich,' the girth, from the right of sanctuary, 
extending, it is said, for six miles in all directions, 
possessed by the monastery founded by Malruba. 
' In Applecross ' is idiomatically ' air [not anns] a' 
Chomraich." The minister of Applecross is, 
however, not * Ministir na Comraich," but, logi- 
cally enough, ' Ministir a' Chlachain ' (Minister of 
the Clachan), and the hill behind the church and 

1 The usual explanation of Crosan is " Place of Crosses." This would, of 
course, imply that the name was given subsequent to the arrival of the 
Christian settlers, a rather difficult supposition in view of the Pictish ' aber.* 
The word is more likely to be Pictish throughout. 



202 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

manse is Beinn a' Chlachain, the ' clachan ' 
denoting primarily the cell or the church of stone 
used by the early missionaries. Ecclesiastically 
there is no spot in Ross, nor, indeed, with the 
exception of lona, in Scotland, more venerable 
than the churchyard of Applecross, which con- 
tains, according to Dr Reeves, the site of that 
monastic settlement which was founded by 
Malruba, and from which he laboured as the 
Apostle of the North. Malruba's grave is still 
pointed out, marked by two low round pillar 
stones, and within a yard or two of the spot so 
marked there was excavated, in the incumbency 
of the late minister, what appears from the 
present indications to have been a cist burial. 
Nor has the belief, mentioned by Dr Reeves, died 
out, that the possession of some earth from the 
saint's tomb ensures safety in travelling, and a 
return to Applecross. The sculptured stone on 
the left as one enters the graveyard, known as 
' Clach Ruairidh mhoir Mhic Caoigean,' has been 
described by Dr Reeves ; but he did not see the 
beautifully carved fragments of a cross shaft 
which are built into the wall of the small chapel- 
like building at the east side, showing spiral, 
fret, and interlaced ornament. 

It is said that when the present church was 
built several carved stones were buried under the 
gravel, path near the south wall. 

The Strath of Applecross is ' Srath Maol- 
chaluim' Strath of Malcolm. This, which is 



APPLECROSS. 203 

the name given by the oldest inhabitants, is 
being corrupted into ' Srath Maor-chaluim,' or, 
worse still, 'Cul-chaluim.' 

The holy well by the roadside, west of Apple- 
cross House, is unfortunately nameless. Near it 
are the four trees in the form of an oblong, which, 
with a (supposed) crab-apple tree in the centre, 
were absurdly propounded as the origin of the 
name Applecross. This is the supposed site of 
Malruba's cell, and is called Lagan na Comraich, 
the little hollow of the sanctuary. 

Rudha nan Uamhag Promontory of the hollows, 
or the small caves, the most southerly point of 
Applecross ; named from 

UagS G. Na h-Uamhagan, the hollows. It is a 
tiny township. 

Toscaig Toskag 1662; G. Toghscaig (close o) ; 
' t-hauga-skiki/ how-strip ; ' hauga,' a cairn, bar- 
row, how. There is also Abhainn Thoghscaig, 
the river of Toscaig, and Loch Thoghscaig, the 
loch of Toscaig. 

Coillegillie G. Coille-ghillidh, Gilli's wood. 

An Airde Bhail The white promontory ; also Sron 
na h-airde bhan, nose of the same. 

Culduie G. Cuil-duibh (locative), the black nook. 

Am Poll Creadhaich (O.S.M. Poll creadha) Clay 
pool. 

Oamusterach G. Camas-teirach ; am Macan 
earach, north of it, on the shore, is a rock 
column. Probably Camas(t)-earach, Easter bay, 
with developed t ; cf. an drast for an trath-s'. 



204 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Camusteel G. Carnas-teile ; ? Linden Bay, from 
G. teile, borrowed from Latin tilia, a linden 
tree. 

Milton G. Bail' a' mhuilinn ; also Loch a' 
mhuilinn. 

An Fhaoilinn The beach-field, opposite the manse 
of Applecross. Behind it is Cadha na Faoilinn, 
pass of the ' faoilinn.' 

Applecross Mains Of old Borrodale, from N. 
borgr, a burg or stronghold, and dalr, a dale ; 
' Fort-dale ' ; Gaelic curiously accents the second 
syllable, which suggests that some third 
element, e.g. a, river, has to be reckoned with. 
Near this appears to have been Sardale, 
muddy dale. A third Norse name in dale is 
Coire Sgamadail, Corry of Scamadale, from 
N. Skam-dalr, Short-dale. It is west from Coire 
nan aradh, Ladder Corry. Langwell, Longfield. 

Hartfield G. Coille-mhuiridh, wood of the bul- 
wark ; murach, place of the mur, or rampart, 
bulwark, which here would serve to keep the 
river to its channel. A local song has ' Coille- 
mhuiridh da thaobh na h-aibhn' ' on both sides 
of the river. DrRee ves takes it to be ' Coille 
Mhourie,' Malruba's wood, but accent and quantity 
combine to make this impossible. Near the 
keeper's house is a pool called Poll a' bhior or 
a? Bhior-pholl ; bior is an old Ir. word glossed 
'water' and 'well'; 'Well-pool.' 

An t-allt M6r, big burn, comes down opposite. Its 
head branches are Allt a chuirn dheirg, irom Carn 



APPLECROSS. 205 

Dearg, Red Cairn (2119), and An t-allt granda, 

ugly burn. 

Maol an llillt mhoir Bare hill of the big burn. 
Ooire Attadale Corry of Attadale. Attadale 

seems to have been the Norse name of what is 

now called Srath-Mhaol-Chaluim. It is a very 

wild corry, branching off at right angles from the 

head of Srath-Maol-Chaluim. G. Coire Atadail ; 

cf. Attadale, in Lochcarron. 

An Cma'ruigh Hard slope, west of the manse. 
Rudha na guaille Shoulder-promontory ; also Allt 

na guaille. 

Allt na mucarachd Burn of the piggery. 
Allt Tausamhaig (O.S.M. Allt sabhsach) Norse 

' t-hausa-vik,' skull bay. 
Cruinn-leum, the round leap, is a narrow, rounded 

bay ; cf. the common Cuing-leum, narrow leap, in 

English Coylum. 
Sand G. * sannd/ Norse ' sand.' Behind it is 

Am meall gaineamhach Sandy hill. 

Salachar (final ' a' open), on a small burn ; an 
extension of ' sailech,' willow ; with meaning 
* place of willows ' ; cf. Croch-ar, place of the 
gallows ; also the common Sal] achy. There are, 
I am told, no willows now. 

Ard na claise moire Point of the big gully. 

Lonban G. An Lon ban, white damp meadow ; 
near it are Rudha na mbine, peat point ; and 
Allt na moine, peat burn. Near Lonban is a 
cave on the sea shore called an Eiginn (e), 
perhaps meaning * the place of resort in danger. 7 



206 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Calnakil Culnakle 1662 Harbour of the cell; an 
old church name. G. Cal na cille. 

Cuaig Norse * kua-vik,' cow bay ; the bay is now 
6 6b Chuaig.' There are, besides ths bay and 
township, rudha Chuaig, abhainn Chuaig (the 
latter from Loch gaineamhach). and eileari 
Chuaig. 

Rudha na fearna Alder point. 

Ob na h-Uamha Cave bay ; also Creag na 
h- Uamha, rock of the cave. The cave in question 
is on the east side of the headland, facing the 
north-eastern bight of Ob na h-Uamha, and is 
called an Uaimh Shiannta, the charmed or 
tabooed cave. The most northerly point of Apple- 
cross, Sron an larruinn, iron point, wrongly 
given on the O.S.M. as Rudha na h-Uamha, 
which latter name belongs to the headland that 
projects north-westward into Ob na h-Uamha. 

Fearnmore and Fearnbeg "The Famacks Litill 
and Meikil" (Ret.): big and little Fearn ; from 
' fearna,' alder. The two places are commonly 
called na Fearnan. 

Faingmore, and Eoinn an fhaing mhoir Big 

farik and big fank point. 

Rudh' a* chamais ruaidh Red bay point. 

Sgeir an coin (O.S.M., Sgeir neonach) Bird skerry. 

Airigh nan Cruineachd (O.S.M., Arrin-a-chruin- 

ach) ' Cruineachd,' wheat, as the writer of the 
Old. Stat. Ace. saw, is out of the question ; and 
we can hardly escape the conclusion that here we 
have to do with the Cruithne, the Gaelic name of 



APPLECROSS. 207 

the Picts. Cf. An Carnan Cruineachd, in Kintail. 
The Old Stat. Ace. says " Arenacrionuic, literally, 
sheiling of wheat, is clearly a corruption of 
' arenan Drumich,' of the Druids," which is still 
the popular notion. There is another place of 
this name near Scourie. 

Camas an eilein Island bay ; the island is An 
garbh eilean, the rough island, called in O.S.M. 
Eilean mor. Further on is Glas sgeir, grey 
skerry. 

Kenmore G. a' Cheannmhor ; ceannmhor (Ir. 
cend-mor or cendmar) means ' big-headed ' ; cf. 
ceanndearg, red-headed. This adjective seems to 
be here used as a noun fern. The G. of Kenmore 
in Perthshire is the same, and both are accented 
on the first syllable. Sron na Ceannmhoir, Ken- 
more Point. 

Loch Craiceach,. or Loch a* chraicich (O.S.M., 
Loch Creageach) ' Craiceach ' or ' croiceach ' 
means (1) rising into foam ; (2) full of cast sea- 
weed (H.S.D.) ; and the latter meaning suits 
very well here. At the head of the loch is an 
Craiceach , the place where the sea- weed collects. 

Ardheslaig ? Ardestag 1662 ; G. Ard-heisleag ; 
Norse ' hesla-vik/ hazel bay ; thus, with Gaelic 
' ard ' prefixed, meaning point of the hazel bay. 

Sron a' mhais Point of the buttock ; mas Aird- 
heisleig and mas Diabaig or mas na h-Araird 
opposite it, two great ice-smoothed and rounded 
rocky promontories, are known as An da mhas, 
the two buttocks. 



208 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Ob na h-acairseid Bay of the anchorage ; a narrow 
cleft in the eastern side of Ardheslaig. 

Inverbane G. an In'ir-ban, white estuary ; the 
outlet of the Abhairm Dhubh from Loch Lundie. 

Rhuroin Seal point. 

Doire-aonar Lonely copse ; and Ceann locha, loch 
head, at head of Loch Sbieldaig. 

Shieldaig G. Sildeag, Norse ' sild-vik,' herring 
bay ; the herrings are not now as numerous as 
they were. There is another Shieldaig in Gair- 
loch. In Shieldaig Bay is Eilean ShUdeig, with 
Clach na h-Armaid, Stone of the mother-church, 
facing the village, the name of a mass of rock 
which fell from the cliff above, and said to be 
modern. Behind the village is Gascan, G. an 

O ' 

Gasgan, the little tail, extremity ; applied to a 
place where a plateau ends in an acute angle and 
narrows down to the vanishing point ; cf. Gask. 
On the north side of Ben Shieldaig is Crvag 
Challdris, or rather Challdarais, rock of the 
gloomy hazel wood ; G. call, hazel, and dubhras, 
a dark wood. An Corran, the Point. 

Bail' a* Mhinistir Minister's town ; Camas an 
leum, Bay of the leap ; Camas ruadh, Red bay ; 
all on east side of Loch Shieldaig. 

Badcall Hazel-chump ; inside the narrows (O.S.M., 
Badcallda). 

Casaig On east side of Loch Shieldaig, is a per- 
pendicular rock ; from cas, steep, ' the little 
steep one.' 

Eilean a 7 chaoil Strait isle, at entrance to Loch 
Torrid on. 



APPLECROSS. 209 

Doir' a' chlaiginn Skull copse ; the ' claigionn ' 
is an ice-rounded hill. 

Ob 'mheallaidh Deceitful bay ; it is dangerous 
owing to large boulders. Its south-west angle 
is Camas da Phaidein, Bay of two Patons or 
Patricks. 

Camas a' chlarsair Harper's bay. 

Balgy Balgy 1624 ; G. Balgaidh ; a township near 
the mouth of the river Balgy, from Loch Damh ; 
'bubbly stream.' Of. Strathbogy, G. Srath- 
bhalgaidh. Balgy is a fairly common stream 
name. 

Badan Vugie (Mhugaidh) As the article is not 
prefixed, the second part is probably a proper 
name ; perhaps Mungo's little clump. 

Ob gorm beag and Ob gorm mor Little and big 
green bay ; two pretty inlets, near Dubh-airde 
(Duart), black point. 

Camas Drol Rather Camas Trol ; the burn falling 
into it rises in Coire Rol, and is called Allt Coire 
Rol ; G. rol, a roaring noise ; the burn runs a very 
steep course over numerous boulders. The name 
of the bay, Camas Trol, probably contains the 
same word with t developed between 5 and r. 

Annat G. an Annaid, ' the mother church,' with 
an ancient grave-yard and chapel ; dedication 
unknown. Behind it is Beinn na h-Eaglaise, 
Church-hill. 

An t-Ath Darach The oak ford; below Annat 
Bridge. 

14 



210 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CKOMARTY. 

Loch Neimhe (O.S.M. Loch nam Fiadh) ; from its 
situation can hardly be connected with neimhidh, 
seen in Dalnavie, &c. Lhuyd gives neimh, 
brightness (dealradh), which would give good 
sense : ' Gleaming Loch ' ; cf. Loch Loyne. From 
it comes 

Abhainn Traill Cf. Poll Traill, Monar ; this rather 
obscure name may be from traill, a trough 
(Lhuyd), a loan from Lat. trulla. l Trough pool r 
is good sense, nor is ( Trough river ' inappropriate. 

Torridon Torvirtayne 1464 ; Torrerdorie 1584 ; 
G. Toir(bh)eartan ; cf. Ir. tairbhert, to transfer, 
carry over, the infinitive of tairbrim ; this would 
give the meaning of ' Place of transference/ with 
reference to the portage from the head of Loch 
Torridon through Glen Torridon to Loch Maree. 
It can hardly come direct from G. tairbeart, a 
portage, as the l> of ' tairbeart ' never aspirates. 
The name applies specially to the strip of land at 
the head of the loch. 

Liathach (3456), pronounced Liathghach, the gh 
developing naturally; 'the hoary place.' The 
name is more appropriate to Beinn Eighe, which, 
except for the deep gash separating the two, is a 
continuation of Liathach towards Kinlochewe, 
and, enveloped in hoary gray screes, forms a 
striking contrast to the ruddy tiers and buttresses 
of its neighbour. A common derivation is 
Liaghach, place of the ladle or ladles, but this 
seems merely absurd. An Rathan, l the pulley/ 
designates two jagged stumps of rock near the 



APPLECROSS. 211 

top of the mountain, and seen from the sky -line 
from the head of Loch Torridon. ' Hathaii ' is 
the local name for the grooved pulley at the end 
of the spindle of a spinning wheel which receives 
the driving cord. Another place-name at Torridon 
contains the word. The ridge falling eastwards 
from the highest point of Ben Alligin is deeply 
notched three times, so that it presents a serrated 
outline of three peaks and notches, and these are 
named na Rathanan, ' the pulleys.' 

Liathach 's a mac air a muin. 

Liathach with her son on her back. 

Spidean a' Choire L6ith, Pinnacle of the gray 
corry, is the highest peak of Liathach. 

Sgorr a' Chadail Sleep scaur. 

Fasag G. Am fasag, a hardened form of the 
O. Gael. ' fasadh/ a dwelling ; cf. An Crom- 
fhasag (Cromasag), near Kinlochewe ; Fasnakyle, 
Fassiefern, Dochanassie, the Perthshire Foss, 
Teanassie, etc. 

Am ploc, or Ploc an Doire The lump, or lump of 

the grove, a small rounded projection with narrow 
neck extending into the loch. It has an arrange- 
ment of stone seats, once used for open air 
services. Cf. Plockton. 
Ooire mbic Cromuil, also Coire mhic N6buill. 

Corrivicromble 1793; Corrivicknobill 1633, 1672, 
Corrivicknoble 1668, 1672, 1741 ; these forms go 
to prove Coire mhic Nobuill to be the older form 
of the name. MacNoble was a common surname, 
though now only Noble. 



212 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Beinn Dearg (2995) Bed Hill; west of which is 
Beinn Ailiginn (3232) Ben of Alligin ; there is 

also the township of Alligin and 
Inveralligin G. Inbhir-ailiginn, which proves 
Alligin to be a stream name. It is usually 
connected with ailleag, a jewel, a pretty woman, 
which may possibly be correct ; but the single I in 
ailiginn is a serious difficulty. 

An t-Alltan Labhar The loud little burn, from 
Loch na Beiste, the Monster's Loch. O.S.M. Allt 
Lair. 

An Lagaidh dhubh (O.S.M. , Lagan dubh) The 
. black hollow, a patch of land among the rocks, 
facing seawards. North of it is 

Port Laire Port of Lair ; Lair is the name of the 
place, meaning probably here ' low place.' 

An Araird The Fore-headland ; G. air, aird ; cf. 
Urard at Killiecrankie, at the junction of Tummel 
and Garry. 

Creag nan caolan Gut-rock, between Araird and 
Port Lair, so called from pegmatite veins in it. 

Diabaig Norse ' djup-vik,' deep bay ; cf. the 
numerous Dibidales. The bay itself is deep, and 
is surrounded by hills. Its remoteness and 
security are indicated by the saying " 'S fhada 
bho 'n lagh Diabaig, 's fhaide na sin sios 
Mealabhaig" Far from the law is Diabaig, yet 
farther is Melvaig. " A far cry to Lochow." 

We shall now take the principal names of the 
interior of Applecross, which have not yet been 
mentioned. 



APPLECROSS. 213 

A' Bhinn Bhan (2936) The white hill ; the highest 
in Applecross proper. 

The corries on the north side of A' Bhinn Bhan 
are Coire Each, Horse corry ; Coire na Fedla, 
Flesh corry ; Coire na Poite, Caldron corry ; 
Coire an Fhamhair, Giant's corry ; all magnificent 
corries. 

Sgurr a' Chaorachain (2539) (O.S.M., Sgorr na 
Caorach). Based on ' caoir,' a blaze of fire, with 
the secondary meaning of torrent. The mountain 
is extremely steep on the Kishorn side. 

Meall Aoghaireachaidh (O.S.M., Meall an fhir- 
eachari) ' Hill of shepherding.' It is N.E. of 
Beinn a' Chlachain, and marks the spot where 
the green plain of Srath Maol-chaluim changes 
into the bleak uplands of Applecross. Near it is 
Meall nan doireachan, hill of the copses. 

Eas nan Cllinneag Waterfall of the buckets, in a 
dangerous gorge beside the path at the head of 
Applecross Glen. The buckets are pot-holes. 
Cf. Carn Cuinneag, in Rosskeen. 

Fuaid, or an Fhuaid (O.S.M. Meall na h-uaidne) 
'Fuat' appears in the Lecan glossary as 'bier.' 
There is a Sliabh Fuait in Ireland. 

At its foot, not far from the path, is Uamh an 
righ, the king's cave, 

Crdic bheinn Antler-hill. 

Staonag The bent or crooked hill, E. of Loch 
Lundie ; a fern, diminutive from staon, bent. 

Loch Lundie G. Loch Lunndaidh, a Pictish name ; 
v. Maoil Lunndaidh, Contin. 



214 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Loch Gobach (O.S.M. Loch Ceopach)- Snouted 

loch. 
Loch na maola fraochaich (O.S.M. Loch Meall 

an fhraoich) Loch of the heathery brow. 

Loch na h-oidhche (O.S.M. Loch na h-eangaich) 
Night loch. The name is common, and is applied 
to lochs that fish best at night. It is near the 
bigger of the two lochs Gaineamheach. 

Coire nan aradh (' dh' hardened to 'g') O.S.M. 

Coire nam faradh ; ladder cony. Through it there 
was once, before the Bealach road was formed, a 
ladder-like path ascending by tiers of steps in the 
rocky face. 

Bealach an t-SUidhe Pass of sitting or resting; 
the route of pedestrians between Applecross and 
Shieldaig. 

Am Bealach The gap or pass, or Bealach nam Bo, 
Pass of Kine, is the name of that remarkable road, 
rising among barren rocks and frowning precipices 
to a height of 2054 feet, which affords the only 
means of entrance to Applecross by land. 

Loch an loin Loch of the damp meadow. It is 
really part of the larger 

Loch Coultrie G. Loch Caoltraidh, Loch of the 
narrow place, an extension of ' caol,' narrow, with 
developed ' t ' ; ' caolt-ar-adh.' Of. ' bog-ar-adh,' ; 
Kildary. Caoltraidh is at the south end of the 
loch. 

Loch Damh and Beinn Damh Stag loch and hill. 
Beinn Damh gives its name to the deer forest. 
Also Doire Damh, Stag thicket. 



APPLECKOSS. 215 

Srath a* Bhathaich Byre-strath, opening on to 
Loch Damh. Cf. Strathvaich, in Contin. Net 
Mulcanan, innumerable hillocks filling part of 
Strathvaich, exactly resembling the Coire Ceud 
Chnoc formation in Glen Torridon. Mulcan is 
used in common speech as equivalent to bucaid, 
a pustule ; hence na mulcanan means the little 
mounds. 

Loch Dughall Dougald's Loch, in Glen Shieldaig. 

Sgiirr na bana-mhorair The Lady's scaur ; the 
lady was placed on the top of it by her cruel lord, 
and fed with shell-fish. The shells may still be 
seen ! 

Loch Uaill Proud loch ; above it is Meall Loch 
Uaill, in O.S.M. Meall a' Ghuail, Coal or Charcoal 
hill a very natural mistake, which is corrected 
with certainty only from the name of the loch. 

Na Botagan and Creag nam Botag There are 

three little flats, terraced one above the other, at 
the foot of the rock (creag). The natives assert 
the meaning to be ' the little flats ' ; but bota 
locally means a wet or soft channel in a peat 
moss. Cf. Bottacks at Achterneed. 

Loch na(m) Frianach Loch of the place of roots ; 
also Cadha na Frianach, Path of the same ; cf. 
Sron na Frianaich in Contin. 

Airigh nan Druineach Shieling of the ? Druids ; 
cf. Carn nan seachd Druineachan in Glenfintaig, 
and Poll Druineachan, etc., in Lochcarron. 

Loch an Turaraich (O.S.M., Loch an Treudaich), 
also Creag an Turaraich, Loch and Rock of the 
rumbling or rattling noise. 



216 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Rassal Rassor 1583 ; Rassoll 1633 ; G. Rasal ; N. 
hross-voflr, Horse-field ; cf. Rossal in Sutherland. 

Russel Ressor 1583; G. Riseail ; N. hryssa-vollr, 
Mare -field. 

Aridrishaig G. an airigh dhriseach, thorny 
shieling. 

Crowlin Islands G. Cr61aig, but also Crolainn ; 
An Linne Chrolaigeach, the pool of Crowlin, 
between these islands and Scalpay. 

Coire Ceud Chnoc Corry of a hundred knolls, on 
the road between Kinlochewe and Torridon. The 
corry is literally packed with small rounded 
hillocks, a formation seen often elsewhere in the 
Highlands, but nowhere perhaps in such per- 
fection. Cf. Na Mulcanan. 

Allt nan Corp A tributary of Abhainn Traill ; 
Burn of the Bodies, to wit, bodies of clay, placed 
there for evil purposes of magic. 

Cadha nan Sgadan The part of the path leading 
to Strathcarron on the slopes of Meall Loch 
Uaill. "Path of the herrings"; cf. Creacha.na 
nan Sgadan. 

Sgeir an t-Salainn Skerry of the salt. A rock, 
uncovered at low water only, where formerly, it 
is said, the fat of seals and porpoises used to be 
melted down. 

Port an t-Saoir Wright's haven. 

ToiT Fhionnlaidh Finlay's rock, where a Kintail 
man, Finlay Macrae, who hanged himself, is 
buried. 

Greag Raonailt Rachel's rock ; N. Ragnhildr, 



APPLECROSS. 217 

Cos Dubh Bean a' Ghranndaich The black nook 
of Grant's wife ; where the original owner of the 
famed Annat skull drowned herself. 

Cam an t-Suidhe Cairn of the sitting, about half 
a mile west of Ben Damph Lodge, said by local 
tradition to have been a resting-place of Malruba's 
body on its way to Applecross. 

Port 'ic-ghille-Chaluim Rarsaidh The landing 
place of Macgilliecallum of Raasay. This is the 
little bay where the Hon. Capt. Lionel F. King- 
Noel's boathouse is. There seems to have been a 
skirmish here once with the Raasay men. An 

J 

Annat man, whose son and house had been burnt 
by the Raasay band, is said to have performed 
some destructive archery practice from Sgeir na 
Saighid, killing a whole boat-load by himself! 

Am Mol M6r The great shingle bank, between 
Annat and mouth of Torrid on river. Also called 
Faoilinn na h-Annaite, sea beach of Annat. 

Na Campaichean The Camps ; two narrow dells 
running from Port an t-Seobhaic, Hawk's port, 
and Ob na Caillich, Old Woman's Bay (or Nun's 
Bay). This bay is also called an t-ob Laghaich, 
the muddy bay (for lathaich). 

Cadha na Mine, path of the meal, is to be taken 
along with Glac dhubh a 1 Cliais, the dark hollow 
of the cheese, and Bac nan Cisteachan, the ridge 
of the chests, all just above Annat. After the 
Rebellion of 1745 a Government vessel entered 
Loch Torridon, and the people, though they are 
said to have been neutral, thought it wise to 



218 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

;' remove themselves and their gear from harm's 

way. Hence these names. 
Airigh nam Bard Shieling of the Bards, possibly 

of the meadows ; but it is high up. 
Tunna Beag The little cask, a small rock on 

Sail na Beinne Bige, a spur of Ben Damh, from 

which a spring rises, making a noise as of water 

working about in a cask. 

Garaidh nam Broc The badgers' den. 

Toll nam Biast Hole of the monsters, also Spidean 

and Stiic Toll nam Biast on Ben Damh. 
Allt an Turaraich - - This burn makes a great 

rumbling noise. 

Creag an Dath The dyeing rock. 
Criathrach Buidhe The yellow marsh, from 

criathar, a sieve ; hence a boggy place. 
Gob nan Uisgeachan The point (beak) between 

the waters ; a confluence. 
Achadh Cul-a-mhill The flat field at the back of 

the hill ; at Loch an Neimhe ; the reputed scene of 

a battle between the Macleods and the Mac- 

kenzies. 
Spuic nighean Thormaid The peak of Norman's 

daughter. 
Meall Gorm or Green Dasses A steep green pass 

on Ruadh-stac. The latter name, which is regu- 
larly used, was given by Lowland shepherds ; dass 

means a hayrick. 
Loch na Cabhaig Loch of the hurry ; it lies in a 

hollow where the wind is always unsteady, and 

blows the water from side to side. 



APPLECROSS. 219 

Leathad an aon Bhothain The slope of the one 

bothy. 

Meall na Teanga Fhiadhaich The hill of the 

wild point. 

The Stirrup Mark A peculiar mark on the S.E. 
slope of Ben Damh below the high top, and a 
well-known landmark. 

Doire-mhaol-laothaich Under Liathach by the 
roadside ; also called Doirbhe-la(gli)aicJi, popu- 
larly said to be for Doire Blieul Bhaothaich. A 
curiosity of uncertainty. 

Boire nain Fuaran Derrinafoiran 1668 ; Spring- 
copse. 

An Doirneag ' The little pebbly one,' a field con- 
taining many rounded pebbles, at the N.W. end 
of an Fhaoilinn, the beach-field, w T hich latter is 
next the shore between Torridon Mains and the 
' Ploc.' 

Mormhoich a* Choire Sea plain of the Cony, 
west of mouth of Corry River. 



220 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 



GAIRLOCH. 

Gairloch Gerloth 1275, Garloch 1574 ; G. an 
Gearr-loch, the Short Loch ; cf. Gareloch. A 
well by the roadside at the mouth of Abhainn 
Ghlas, Gray River, is affirmed to have been the 
original Gairloch. 

Dibaig Debak 1638 ; G. Diabaig ; N. djup-vik, 
deep bay. Oirthir Dhiabaig, Coast of Dibaig. 

Craig G. a' Chreag, or Creag Ruigh Mhorgain ; 
the Rock, or the Rock of Morgan's slope. Morgan 
is a Pictish name ; Old British, Morcant, ' sea- 
bright ;' Gaulish Moricantos. The Craig river 
runs through Braigh-Thaithisgil, upper part of 
Taisgil. In Taithisgil the latter part is N. gil, a 
ravine ; the first part is perhaps genitive of haf, 
sea, with prefixed , giving t-hafs-gil, sea-ravine. 

Allt, Meall and Loch na h-Uamhach Burn, Hill 
and Loch of the Cave. Between the burn and 
Allt na Crlche, Boundary Burn, is a stone pillar 
called An Nighean Liath, the gray girl. Near 
the mouth of the little burn is Oirthir an Rudha, 
Coast of the point, off which is Sgeir an Trithinn, 
Trinity Skerry, a rock in the sea with three 
humps. 

Allt Saraig Burn of Saraig; N. saur-vik, mud-bay. 

Red Point G. an Rudha dearg ; but sometimes 
called an Rudha lachdunn, the dun or swarthy 
point. 



GATKLOCH. 221 

Port an Fhaithir Mhoir Harbour of the great 

shelving slope. Faithir, a sharp slope with a flat 
place at top, is in very common use in Gairloch 
and Lochbroom ; ? Ir. fachair, a shelf in a cliff ; cf. 
Foyers, Inverness, G. Foithir, the same word. 1 
On the West Coast faithir is applied typically to 
the steep slope between the old raised beach, 
about 30 feet high, and the present shore. 
The north-west point of this peninsula is a' 
Chreag Luathann, Rock of Ashes, with a peculiar 
genitive form, seen also in Cnoc na h-athan 
(single n) in Lochcarron ; Tom na h-athaimi, 
Strathnairn ; Mullach na h-Eagann (eag, a notch), 
the highest point of Ben Alligin. 

Bailesios G. am Baile Shios, the Lower township, 
as opposed to am Baile Shuas, the Upper town- 
ship. 

Allt a' Chaol-doire Burn of the narrow copse. 

An Tarbh The Bull, primarily the name of a 
knoll, but extended to designate the coastland 
from Bailesios to Erradale. 

South Erradale --Erredell 1638; G. Earradal 
Shuas or Earradal a Deas ; N. eyrar-dalr, gravel- 
beach dale. Great banks of gravel extend from 
here to Bailesios. 

Allt Uamh a* Chleibh Burn of the Creel-cave ; 
also Creag Uamh a Chleibh and Achadh Uamh 
a' Chleibh, Rock and Field of the same. 

An t-Se61aid A skerry north of the mouth of 
Abhainn Ruadh, Red river. There is another 

1 Foyers is the name of the place ; the famous fall is in G. Eas na 
Smuicl, Fall of Smoke, i.e., spray. 



222 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Seblaid near Fearnmore, Applecross. Based on 
seol, sail, with extension as in Bial-id ; Place of 
sailing, i.e., requiring careful navigation ; or, 
Sailing mark. On the shore adjacent are am 
Faithir Mor and am Faithir JBeag, the big and 
the little shelving declivities, 

Openham G. na h-6bainean, the little bays ; G. 
6b, borrowed from N. hop. 

Creagan na Mi-chomhairle Little rock of bad 
counsel. Two men quarrelled and fought here. 
One wished to stop fighting, but the other would 
not, and both were killed. 

Cnoc nan Carrachan Hill of wild liquorice. 

Sroin a* Charr Nose of the projecting rock ; 
cf. Carr Rock in Kintail. 

Camas nam P10C Bay of the lumpish promon- 
tories. 

Uamh Fhreacadain Cave of the watch. 

An Camas Raintich Fern Bay ; by-form of 

raineach. 
An SgUHiail The stack ; the northernmost point 

west of Port Henderson. 
Port Henderson Galled by natives Portigil, N. 

port-gil, gate-gully ; by others Port an Sgumain, 

Haven of the Stack. 
A* Chathair Dhubh The black fairy knoll ; 

between the above and Loch nan Eun, Bird Loch. 

N.E. of Port Henderson is Cnoc an Sgath, Hill of 

the fright. 
Sron nam Mult Nose or point of the wedders ; 

Na Muilt, the wedders, are three skerries that 

appear at ebb off the coast. 



GAIRLOCH. 22 3- 

Badantionail G. Bad an Inneil ; Clump of the 

tackle, or instrument. 
Badachro G. Bad a Chrotha, Clump of the Fold. 

Also Caolas, Meall, Abhainn, Eas and Loch Bad 

a' Chrotha, Sound, Hill, River, Waterfall, and 

Loch of the same. 
An Uidh The outlet to the sea of Loch Bad na 

h-Achlaise, Loch of the arm-pit ; achlais is very 

common in place-names. 
An Caochan Fearna The alder brooklet ; caochan, 

from caoch, blind, denotes a stream so small as to 

be almost covered by the heather. It is common 

in Gairloch. 

Loch nam Breac-Athar Loch of the sky-trout, 
i.e., trout that were supposed to have fallen in a 
shower ; cf. Creachann nan Sgadan. (O.S.M., 
Loch nam Breac Odhar). 

Badaidh nan Ramh Little clump of the oars. 

Badaidh, which must be a diminutive of bad, is 
common. Ramh, a root (Arran), long root as of 
a tree (Perthshire) ; not so used in Ross. 

Loch Clair Loch of the flat, 

Loch Sguata Beag and Loch Sguata Mor; cf. 

Sguataig. 
Glac na Senshesen, which appears on some maps, 

is Glac nan seani(nn)sean, hollow of the old 

haughs or inches ; cf. Loch na Shanish, Inverness. 
Doir* an Eala Swan copse ; also L6n Dhoir' an 

Eala, Marsh of the same, and Abhainn Dhoir' an 

Eala. 



224 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

An t-Allt Gillthas Fir burn ; the formation is the 
regular one on the west coast here. 

Doireachan nan Gad The copses of withes. 

Braigh Thoiriosdal Upper part of Horrisdale, i.e., 
N. Thorir's dale. Also Loch and River of the 
same. 

Beinn Bhric Dappled hill. 

Bus-bheinn G. Badhais-bhinn (or baoghais-bhinn, 
ao short). The phonetics do not admit the popu- 
lar explanation * Forehead Hill/ G. bathais. The 
name is probably a hybrid of the same type as 
Suilven, Blaven, Goatfell, G. Gaota-bheinn, where 
Norse fell, a wild hill, has been translated into G. 
beinn, the first part being left untranslated. The 
G. of Loch Boisdale is Loch Bhaoghasdail, or, Loch 
Baoghasdail. 

Nead an E6in Bird's nest ; a safe anchorage. 

Camas na h-Eirbhe Bay of the fence or wall. 
Eirbhe is in O. Ir. airbe, meaning (1) ribs (2) 
fence. It occurs often in Boss and Sutherland, 
e.g., Altnaharra is G. Allt na h-Eirbhe, burn of the 
wall. Further examples will occur later. On 
examination it will be found that wherever this 
name occurs there are traces of an old wall 
stretching through the moor ; some of these walls 
are of great length. 

Leac nan Saighead Flat rock of the arrows. The 
story of the destructive archery practice made 
from it is to be found in Mr Dixon's ' Gairloch. ' 

Camasaidh The little bay ; cf. badaidh above. 

An Cobhan The little recess ; it is a sea nook ; cf. 
Cavan, in Ireland. 



GAIKLOCH. 225 

Shieldaig G. Sildeag; N. Sild-vik, herring-bay; 
cf. Shieldaig, in Applecross. Also the hybrid 
name Aird-shildeig, Promontory of Shieldaig. 

Kerry River River Kerne 1638 ; G. Abhainn 
Chearraidh, N. kjarr-a, copse river, still as 
descriptive as ever. Also Inverkerry, G. Inbhir- 
Chearraidh, and Loch Kerry. But Kerrysdale is 
in G. a' Chathair Bheag, the little fairy knoll or 
seat. 

Loch Bad na' Sgalag Loch of the clump of the 

farm -workers. 

Loch na h-Oidhche Night loch, with large trout 

which take only at night. 
Beinn an E6in Bird-hill ; common. 
An Uidh Phlubach The 'plumping channel,' 

between Loch Bad na Sgalag and Feur-Loch, 

grassy loch. 

Loch nam Buaineachan (also Buannachan), Loch 

of the Eeapers. 
Meall Aundrary G. Meall Andrairigh ; a Norse 

formation ; possibly Andrew's shieling, Andres- 

erg (erg borrowed from Gaelic airigh). But this 

should give Andrasairigh. 
Charlestown G. Baile Thearlaich. 
Ob Cheann an t-Saile Kintail Bay. This Kintail 

is a tiny estuary, and at the bridge there was 

formerly a change-house. 
Flowerdale G. am Baile Mor, Big-stead. 
Flowerdale House The old house of Gairloch was 

called an Tigh Dige, Moat House, from its having 

been surrouoded by a ditch. The present house 

15 



226 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CKOMARTY. 

is called Tigh Dige nan Gorm Leac, Moat House 

of the blue flags, i.e., slates. Dialectically Tigh 

Glge. 
Port na h-6ile ; eile is most probably eibhle, 

genitive of eibheal, a live coal ; ' Port of the 

Ember ; ' the reference is lost. 
An Dun The Fort ; there are traces of such. 
Caisteil na Cloinne The Children's Castle ; a 

rock full of holes in which children play. 
An Crasg The crossing ; a ridge crossed by the 

road. 
Gairloch Hotel Its site is in G. Achadh Deu- 

thasdal, Field of Deuthasdal, an obscure N. word. 
An Cachaileath Dearg The red gate. 
Creagan nan Cudaigean Cuddies' Eock. 
Achtercairn Auchitcairne 1638; G. Achd-a'- 

charn, Field of the Cairn ; with hardening of -adh 

to -ag in achadh, and contraction. 
Leac Roithridh Eyrie's flag-stone ; in the bay. 

Eoithridh is a personal name still in use, and 

stories are told of Coinneach mac-Eoithridh. 

Cf. Creag-Eoithridh and Toll-Eoithridh. 1 The 

MacEyries were a sept of the Macdonalds. 
Poll an Doirbh Pool of the hand line ; a deep 

pool at the mouth of the stream here. N. dorg. 
Loch Airidh Mhic Criadh G. Loch Airigh Mac- 

Griadh, Loch of the shieling of the sons of Griadh. 
Strath G. an Srath. 
Mial Meall 1566 ; Meoll with the mill 1638 ; G. 

Miall (two syllables) ; Norse mjo-vollr, narrow 

1 Thee hare bten wrongly explained at p. 12. 



GAIRLOCH. 227 

field. It is the higher ground of which Strath is 

the lower ; cf. Miavaig, Lewis. 
Smithstown G. Bail' a' ghobha. 
Lonemore -- G. an Lon Mor, the great damp 

meadow. 
Big Sand and Little Sand The two Sandis 1638 ; 

G. Sannda Mhor agus Sannda Bheag ; N. Sand ; 

cf. the common Shandwick or Sandaig. Near Big 

Sand is Cathair a Phuirt, Fairy Knoll of the 

harbour. 

Longa Island Lunga (Blaeu) ; N. lung-ey, ship- 
isle. The passage between it and the mainland is 

An Caol Beag, the little narrow. 
North Erradale G. Earradal Shios or Earradal a 

Tuath. For the usage of sios, cf. Bailesios above, 

and for meaning, South Erradale. 
Na Feannagan Glasa The Green Rigs. Feannag, 

from G. feann, flay, was a ' lazy-bed.' (O.S.M., 

Fannachain glas). 

Senabhaile G. an Sean-bhaile, old-town. 
Peterburn G. Alltan Phadraig. 

Camas nan Sanndag Sand-eel Bay. 

A* Chipeanoch The name of the shore lands from 
Peterburn (or perhaps from N. Erradale) to 
Altgreshan ; a derivative of G. Ceap, a block, a 
piece of ground. 

Altgreshan Auldgressan 1638 ; G. Allt Ghrlsean, 
i.e., grisionn, or gris-fhionn ; ' Brindled Burn ;' 
cf. Inverbreakie. 

Melvaig Malefage 1566; G. Mealabhaig ; N. 
melar-vik ; melr denotes bent grass, or a sandy 



228 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

hillock overgrown with bent grass ; vik, bay. 
From melr we get the G. Mealbhan, sandy dunes 
with bent grass, common 011 the west. In Port- 
mahomack ' mealbhan ' means bent grass. Also 
G. mealach, full of bent grass ; cf. Lochan 
Mealaich between Strathy and Armadale, in 
Sutherland. 

Port nan Amall Harbour of the yokes. 

An Rudha R6idh The smooth point ; the north- 
westerly point of the peninsula. 

An t-Seann Sgeir Old Skerry, is the north point 
of Rudha Reidh. The sound of the sea on this 
rock is sometimes heard, it is said, in Glen 
Docharty, Kinlochewe. 

Camustrolvaig A hybrid ; N. troll-vik, goblin 
bay, with G. Camas, a bay, prefixed. It is still 
counted a most uncanny place. 

Abhainn nan Leumannan Eiver of the leaps. 

Abhainn, river, is often applied to quite a small 
stream if its course is comparatively smooth. 
Locha Dring (O.S.M. Loch an Draing) ; Tobar 
Dringaig, at its south end, points to the name 
being Gaelic ; perhaps a personal name or nick- 
name. 

Achadh nan Uirighean Field of the couches or 

beds. There is, I think, a Fingalian tale 

attached. 

Bac an Leith-choin Moss of the Lurcher. 
Fura Island G. Eilean Futhara; Fura also 

heard ; final -a is Norse ey, island ; first part 

obscure. 



GAIKLOCH. 229 

Sgeir Mhaoil-Mhoire Myles' skerry. 

Am Bodha Ruadh The red sunken rock, a very 
dangerous shoal skerry. 

Rudha an t-Sasain A wild promontory just as 
one enters the Minch. Sasan is from sas, a hold 
or grip, and means metaphorically ' a place or 
thing that grips,' i.e., a point difficult to get 
past ; or, where lines get entangled. 

Cove G. an Uaghaidh ; the north part of Cove is 
Achadh na h-Uaghach, meaning ' Place of the 
Cave ' and Field of the Cave respectively. 

Smiuthaig N. Smuga-vik, Cave bay. Am Faithir 
Mor and am Faithir Beag, the big and little 
shelving declivity ; also Gaineamhach Smiuthaig, 
Sands of Smiuthaig. 

An t-Eilean Tioram Dry Island, off the latter. 
Creag Bean an Tighe Housewife's Rock ; a good 

place for fishing. 
Sguataig To be connected with Loch Sguata, 

which is inland from it. There are three lochs of 

this name in Gairloch, all of which have tail-like 

ends or promontories, which suggests N. Skuti, 

to project. Sguataig is Sguat-bay. 
A' Chathair Ruadh The red fairy knoll. 
Stirkhill G. Meallan a' ghamhna, the Stirk ; an 

Gamhainn is a rock. 
Inverasdale Inveraspidill 1566 ; Inverassedall 

1569 ; Inveraspedell 1638 ; Inner-absdill (Blaeu) ; 

G. Inbhir-asdal, a hybrid ; G. inbhir, estuary ; 

N. aspi-dalr, Aspen-dale, from osp, the aspen tree. 

The old forms, together with the independent 



230 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

authority of Blaeu, prove that the modern Gaelic 
is a contraction with compensatory lengthening of 
the vowel a. 

Coast G. an t-Eirthire. 

Faithir an Roin Shelving declivity of the seal. 

F6ith Chuilisg Bog of Cuilisg. Cuilisg was a 
witch who ran off with the kettle of the Feinne. 
Caoilte caught her here, and the kettle spilled in 
the struggle, causing the ' feith.' The Fenian 
' coire ' was kept in the Feadan mor, the big 
runnel. 

Brae A' Bhruthaich ; behind it is an Leith-chreig, 
half-rock ; also Creag Chomhaidh. 

Loch a* Bhadaidh Shamhraidh Loch of the little 
summer clump. An Gead Dubh, the black rig, is 
near Brae ; also Gead a Chois, Rig of the nook. 

Naast The Nastis 1638 ; G. Nast ; doubtful. We 
may compare the Irish Naas, derived from nas, a 
fair ; t would easily develop. Norse naust, a 
boat-place, would land in G. nost, hardly nast, 
unless we could suppose a change from o to a. 
Also Platach Nast, the flat place of Naast ; and 
Dun Nast, Fort of Naast. 

Boor G. Bura ; N. bur-a, bower-stream. Also 
Loch Bhiira, from which comes Allt a Chuingleim, 
Burn of the narrow leap (Coylum) ; Sgeir Bhura, 
Boor skerry. Torran na Cle, ? Hillock of the 
Hurdle ; it is haunted. Above Boor is Torr a 
Bhiod, Torr of the Point. 

Poolewe G. Poll-iu ; the village is called by the 
natives Abhainn Iu< Ewe River. That Loch 



GAIRLOCH. 231 

Maree was formerly called Loch Ewe is clear from 
the facts that the River Ewe issues from it, that 
Kinlochewe stands at its upper end, and Letter- 
ewe on its north side. Blaeu's map makes it 
Loch Ew, yet Lochmaroy 1638. lu is difficult, 
but may be Ir. eo, Welsh yw, a yew tree ; cf. 
Tobar na h-iu in Nigg. 

Tollie Tolly 1638 ; G. Tollaidh, Place of the Holes ; 
there are the farm, bay, rock, burn, and loch of 
Tolly. Common ; this Tolly is a place of knolls 
and hollows. 

Slattadale G. Sleiteadal; N. Slettr-dalr, Even- 
dale. 

Talladale Alydyll 1494 ; Allawdill 1566 ; 
Telbadell 1638; G. Tealladal ; N. hjalli-dalr, 
ledge-dale ; hjalli is a shelf or ledge in a 
mountain side. 

Beinn a' Chearcaill Hill of the circle, from the 

lines of stratification running round it like hoops. 

Grudie River G. Abhainn Gruididh ; cf. Grudie, 
in Con tin. 

Ru Noa G. Rudh' 'n Fhomhair, Giant's point. 

Tagan Taag 1633; G. na Tathagan ; Fear nan 
Tathag, the goodman of Tagan. The singular 
nom. is thus Tathag, as in the 1633 spelling, a 
diminutive in form, which I take to be a loan 
from N. ta>i, fern., an in-field, homefield. Tathag 
thus means the small in-field ; na Tathagan, the 
small in-fields. 

Anancaun G. ath-nan-ceann, ford of the heads. 

Cromasag G. an Cromasag for Crom-fhasadh, 
bent or crooked dwelling. 



232 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

Beinn Eighe File peak, from its serrated outline 
as seen from Kinlochewe. The upstanding rocks 
which form the teeth of the file are called 
Bodaich Dhubh Binn Eighe, the black Carls of 
Ben Eay. The sides of this wild mountain are 
one mass of shingly screes, ever slipping, whence 
it was said 

'S i mo run Beinn Eighe, 

Dh'fhalbhadh i learn is dh'fhalbhainn leatha. 

My love is Ben Eay, 

She with me and I with her would go. 

A' Ghairbhe The Garry ; the river from Loch 
Coulin ; G. gairbhe, roughness, which describes 
it. The Inverness Garry is in Gaelic Garadh. 

An Giuthas mor The great fir wood; a relic of 
the indigenous forest. Also Mam a' Ghiuthais, 
Breast or round Hill of the Fir-wood. 

Bruachaig Little bank, locative of bruachag. Also 
Abhainn Bruachaig, Bruachaig River. Opposite 
Bruachaig is Cruchoille, Horse-shoe wood, where 
the stream makes a complete bend like a horse- 
shoe. Also Catliair CJiruchoille, Fairy knoll of 
the same. 

Eilean a' Ghobhainn The Smith's isle, with a 
burying-ground. Adjacent is the farm of Culm- 
ellan, Back of the Island. 

Am Preas Mor The big thicket ; here preas, which 
usually means ' bush,' must mean ' thicket.' It is 
a loan from Pictish, and in Welsh means brush- 
wood, covert. 



GAIRLOCH. 233 

Beinn a' Mhuinidh So called from a waterfall in 
its face, called Steall a' Mhuinidh ; cf. the Con- 
tinental Piss- v ache. 

Fasag G. am Fasag for fasadh, the dwelling. Also 
Abhainn an Fhasaidli, River of the dwelling. 
Site of old ironworks. 

Claona G. an claon-ath, the wry ford ; the vowel 
of ath is shortened by the strong accent on the 
prefixed adjective. 

Beinn Lair To be taken in connection with Ard- 
lair ; there are two rocks near this promontory in 
L. Maree called an Lair, the mare, and an 
Searrach, the foal. The meaning is thus Mare- 
hill, and Mare-promontory. 

Slioch G. an Sleaghach ; the adjective ' sleaghach r 
is common, in conjunction with ' coire,' a corry ; 
and ' ruigh,' a sloping stretch. Here ' sleaghach ' 
is a noun. The base can hardly be other than 
sleagh, a spear, but the application is far from 
clear. Slioch is a truncated cone, almost void of 
vegetation, with many water-worn gullies on its 
steep slopes. 

Smiorasair So in G., where a final -igh has been 
dropped ; Blaeu writes Smirsary, and cf. Smeari- 
sary, Moidart. Smior is the N. smjor, butter ; 
ary is N. erg, shieling, borrowed from G. airigh 
at an early stage. The as after smior is all that 
remains of some Norse word, which can only be 
guessed at. Norse compounds of this type (with 
three parts) are specially liable to " telescoping J> 
in Gaelic. 



234 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

Rigollachy G. Ruigh-ghobhlachaidh, sloping reach 
of the forked field. 

Coppachy G. Copachaidh ; cop means knob, foam ; 
probably ' foam-field/ as it is on the shore of Loch 
Maree. 

Furness G. an Fhuirneis, the Furnace. There 
were extensive smelting works here. Also 
Abhainn na Fuirneis, River of the Furnace. 

Folais For fo-ghlais, sub-stream, small stream ; 
also Allt Folais, Burn of Fowlis, a reduplication 
or tautology which shows that the name Folais 
has long ceased to be significant. Cf. Fowlis. 

Inishglass G. an Innis-ghlas, the green haugh. 

Meall Bheithinnidh Probably based on G. beithe, 
birch ; also Bealach Bheithinnidh, Gap of the 
Birch-place. 

Binn Airigh a' Charr Pronounced quickly with 
accent on first and last syllables, and shortening 
of a of airigh ; hill of the shieling of the pro- 
jecting rock or rock shelf. 

Ardlair G. Ard-lair v. Beinn Lair above. 

Poll Uidhe a' Chro Pool of the water-isthmus of 
the fold ; joined to Loch Kernsary by a narrow 
neck. 

Kernsary Kernsery 1548 ; G. Cearnai'sar ; of same 
formation as Smiorasair, above. The last part is 
N. erg, shieling, borrowed from Gaelic ; the first 
part may be kjarrii, kernel, denoting also ' the 
best part of the land ;' or it may be kjarr, copse. 
In the former case the s has to be explained as in 
Smiorasair ; the latter theory leaves nas to be 
accounted for. 



GAIRLOCH. 235 

Innisabhaird G. Innis a' bhaird, the poet's mead. 
The poet in question was the ' Bard Sasunnach,' 
a descendant of one of the English-speaking iron- 
workers on Loch Maree side. 

Loch Ghiuragairtaidh also Achadh-ghiuragair- 
tidh Probably from giuran, a plant resembling 
the wild hemlock, and gart, an enclosure ; cf. 
Achadh-ghiurain in Glenshiel. 

Inveran G. Inbhirean, the little ' inver,' or 
estuary, where the water of Loch Kernsary falls 
into the lower end of Loch Maree. It does not 
seem to have the article prefixed in Gaelic, and 
this is the case also with the Sutherland Inveran, 
on R. Shin. 

A' Phlucaird The Lump-promontory, a locative 
of ploc-aird. Inverewe House, which stands in 
its lee, is called Tigh no, Plucaird. 

Loch nan Dailthean Loch of the Dales. 

Coille-6agascaig Wood of Eagascaig, which is 
Norse eikir-skiki or eiki-skiki, oak-strip. A 1 
Ghlac Dharach, the oak dell, is in it, or at least 
very near it. 

Tmrnaig Towrnek 1548; G. Turnaig; a difficult 
name ; -aig looks like N. vik, bay ; but Turnaig 
in Strath Oykell, far inland, is seriously against 
it ; and the first part turn is not readily explained 
from N. sources. Perhaps locative of G. tuairneag, 
a rounded thing ; boss, hillock ; which would suit 
the places. Platach Thuirneig, flat of Tuirnaig, is 
the stretch of moor between Suil Mill a' CJirotha, 
Bog-eye of the hill of the fold, and Loch a 



236 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Bliaid Luacliraich, Loch of the Rush-clump. 
There are also Loch, Burn, and Point of Tuirnaig. 

Cois Mhic 'Ille Biabhaich Nook or recess of the 
son of the brindled lad. Also, JEileach of the 
same. Eileach, which usually means a mill -lade, 
is used in the west in the sense of an artificial 
narrowing of a stream for the purpose of catching 
fish by means of the ' cabhuil,' a sort of creel. 
There are legends with regard to the worthy 
referred to in these and other Gairloch names 
which may be found in Mr Dixon's " Gairloch." 

An Slugan Domhain The little deep pit. 

Aultbea In G. an Fhain, the gentle slope, locative 
case of am Fan. The real Aultbea, G. Allt- 
Beithe, Birch burn, is some little distance from 
the village. The Aultbea Coast is In G. an 
t-Eirtliire Donn, the brown coast. 

Badfearn G. am Bad-fearna, the alder clump. 

Tighnaflline G. Tigh na Faoilinn, House of the 
Shore-field. 

Croc nan Culaidhean Hill of the Boats (O.S.M. 
Cnoc nan Columan). 

Culchonich G. a' Chuil-choinnich, mossy nook. 

Ormiscaig G. Ormascaig ; N. orma-skiki, snake 
strip ; possibly Ormr, a proper name meaning 
' snake.' 

Buailnaluib Fold of the bend. 

Mellon Charles G. Meallan Thearlaich, Charles's 
little hill. 

Camas nan Dornag Bay of the rounded pebbles ; 
cf. Dornie. 



CAIRLOCH. 237 

An Fhaithche Pronounced an Fhothaigh, almost 
one syllable ; the green ; also Allt na Faithche, 
burn of the green ; cf. Foy Lodge, Lochbroom. 

Slaggan In G. an Slagan odhar, the dun rounded 
hollow. Slaggan is the name for the hollow of a 
kiln ; for sense cf. Loch Hourn, G. Loch Shuirn, 
Kiln-loch. Slaggan is noted as the residence of 
the Big Bari of Slaggan, Bard Mor an t-Slagaiu. 

Sian na h-Eileig Sian for sithean, a fairy hillock. 
Eileag, I think, was a V-shaped arrangement, 
open at both ends, into the wide end of which 
deer were driven and shot with arrows as they 
came out at the narrow end. 

Greenstone Point Row na Clach-moin (Blaeu) ; 
G. Hudha na Cloiche uaine. 

Obbenin G. na h-Obainean, the little bays ; cf. 
Oban. Near it is an Fheodhail, a shallow 
estuary, a dialectic form of an Fhaodhail, meaning 
' an extensive beach ' ; cf. na Feodhlaichean, in 
Lochbroom. 

An CaiT M6r The great rocky shelf; also an Carr 
Beag and Camas a' Charr, Bay of the rocky 
shelf, or projecting rock. 

Feith Rabhain Pronounced, as usual, Rawain ; 
rabhan is a very common element in names, often 
coupled with feith, a bog-stream ; also with bad, 
a clump, e.g., Allt Bad-a-rabhain in Dunrobin 
Glen. It has been explained as wrack left by a 
spate or tide. But rabhagach means ' certain 
weeds at the bottom of a lake or stream,' also, 
* water lily,' and rabhan is doubtless practically 
the same word. 



238 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Udrigle ? Udroll 1638 ; G. Udrigill (u) : N. litarr- 
gil, outer cleft or gully. Also Meallan Udrigle, 
little hill of Udrigle. 

Am Fiaclachan The little place of teeth ; sharp 
jagged rocks on the shore ; cf. an Fhiaclaich, Coire 
na Fiaclaich. 

Laid An Leathad, the broad slope ; Laid House, 
G. Tigh an Leathaid ; cf. Laid in Sutherland. 

Allt Ormaidh N. orm-a, snake stream ; also Bad 
Ormaidh, copse of Ormy. 

Loch na Cathrach Duibhe Loch of the Black 
Fairy Knoll. 

Sand G. Sannda, N. sand-a, sand-stream, as is 
proved by the presence of Inbhir-Shamida, estuary 
of Sandburn. The burial place is Cladh Inbhir- 
shannda. 

Am Pollachar M6r The big place of pools or holes ; 
also am Pollachar Beag, and Cois na Pollach- 
arach, foot of the place of pools ; for Pollachar 
from poll, cf. Beannacliar from beann. Here is 
an t-Saothair, a common term on the west, 
applied to a bank between an island and the 
shore which is bare at low tide, or to a spit of 
land projecting into the sea, covered at high tide 
and bare at low tide. Probably for saobh-thir, 
false-land, i.e., land that is not real dry land. 

First Coast G. an t-Eirthire or an t-Eirthire shios, 

Second Coast G. an t-Eirthire donn, or an t- 
Eirthire bhos. 



GAIRLOCH. 239 

Loch Maoil na h-Eileig Loch of the round bare 
hill of the 'eileag' (O.S.M. Loch Moine Sheilg). 

Strathanmore G. an Srathan mor, Big Little- 
strath ; a curious but not uncommon name. 

Am Fionn Loch The white loch. 

An Dubh Loch The black loch ; vowel of dulh 
lengthened by accent. Also am Fuar Loch, the 
cold loch. 

A* Mhaighdean The maiden ; a hill. 

Loch Maree Lochmaroy 1638 ; Loch Ew, Blaeu ; 
G. Loch-Ma-rui(bh), Loch of St Malruba ; v. 
Poolewe. In it is Isle Maree, G. Eilean Ma-rui' 
with a holy well and ancient burying-ground, 
whence, doubtless, the change of name in the case 
of the Loch. On the north side is Acti ruigh 'n 
fheadhail, Field of the sloping reach by the 
shallow water. An old name for the Loch itself 
was Loch Feadhal feas, 1 but what feas means is 
uncertain. 

Loch na Fideil Loch of the ' Fideal,' a certain 
dangerous water monster. Near Loch Maree 
Hotel. 

Glen Docharty G. Gleann Dochartaich, from the 
negative prefix do and cartach, scoury, or place of 
scouring; 'Glen of evil (i.e., excessive) scouring/ 
which describes it well. Cf. the Bivers Cart. 

Loch Doire na h-Eirbhe Loch of the copse of the 
fence. An old wall is stated to run from Loch 
Maree to Loch Torridon, but I have not ascer- 

1 Heard by 0. H. Mackenzie, Esq. of Inverewe, in hia boyhood from aa 
old man. 



240 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

tained whether it runs near this loch, which is 
near the south-west side of Loch Maree. 
Cliff Olive 1638; G. a' Chliubh ; Cliff House, G 
Tigh na Cliubha ; there are also Meall na Cliublia 
and Bruthach na Cliubha, all at Poolewe. A 
very steep rocky hill rises just behind. N. klif, 
a cliff, would answer as to meaning, but it appears 
in G. as cliof (H.S.D.), which is exactly parallel 
to N. rif, a reef ; G. Biof in Coigach. 



LOCHBROOM. 241 



LOCHBKOOM. 

IiOchbroOHl - - Lochbraon 1227 ; Inverasfran et 
Loghbren 1275 (Thein Vet. Mon.); G. Loch- 
bhraoin. In the uplands is Lochaidh Bhraoin, 
where lochaidh can scarcely be other than a 
diminutive of Loch ; cf. Lochaidh Nid. From it 
flows the river Broom, Abhainn Bhraoin, through 
Glenbroom, famed in William Boss's song, 
" Bruthaichean Ghlinn Braoin." The name 
Broom, G. Braoin, thus primarily applies to the 
river ; G. braon, 0. Ir. broen, a drop, shower, 
water. There are also R. Broom and Loch 
Broom, G. Loch Braoin, in Perthshire ; cf. Brin, 
G. Braoin, Inverness ; Fairburn, G. Farabraoin ; 
Braonag, a spot by the river side beyond Kilder- 
morie. 

At the head of Lochbroorn is Clachan Loch- 
Bhraoin, the stone Church of Lochbroom, still 
the site of the Parish Church ; dedication 
unknown. 

Crruinnardgarve G. Gruinneard garbh, rough 
Gruineard. 

Beinn a* Ohaisgein There are two hills so called, 
Little and Big. Also Feith Chaisgein. 

Inveiiavenie River Inverivanie 1669; G. Inbhir- 
riamhainnidh, also Allt Inbhir-riamhainnidh out 

16 



242 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

of an Gleanna garbh, the rough glen ; riam- 
hainnidh is probably based on the root seen in 
G. riamh, riadh, a course, running (in modern G. 
' a drill '). The suffixes may be compared with 
Ptolemy's Lib-nios. A Pictish name. 

Fisherfield G. Innis an lasgaich, of which the 
English is a rough translation. 

Gruinard River Flows into Gruinard Bay; N. 
grunna-fjb'rtSr, shallow firth. Dabhaoh Ghruin- 
neard, the davoch land of Gruineard, is still 
heard. On the river is Na Coineasan, the joint- 
falls, from con, together, and eas, a fall, a series of 
pools and rapids ; cf. Coneas, Allt a' Chonais. 

Lochan Giuthais Fir lochlet, behind Oreag nam 
Bord, Hock of the flats. 

Guisachan G. Gitithsachan, place of fir-wood. 
Creag Ghiuthsachan, Rock of Guisachan. Cf. 
Guisachan in Inverness-shire. 

Lochan na Bearta Lochlet of the deed. Near it 
are said to be uamhagan (little caves, holes), that 
would hold twenty persons. This seems like a 
description of earth -houses. Unfortunately the 
place is remote, and those who knew the 
uamhagan in their youth are too aged to guide 
one to the spot. 

Glenmuick G. Gleann na Muice, glen of the so\v ; 
Abhainn Gleann na Muice, River of Glenmuick. 

Larachantivore G. Larach an Tigh-mhoir, site of 
the big house ; once a large farm-house. 

Lochan a' Ehiaghad Lochlet of the upper part, 



LOCHBROOM. 243 

Suidheachail Fhinn Finn's Seat ; a place like a 
long seat, in the north side of Beinn Tarsuinn, 
'Cross-hill. 

Beinn a' Chlaidheimh Hill of the Sword. 

Loch na Sealg Loch of the hunts ; Srath na Sealg, 
and Abhainn Srath na Sealg, Strath and River of 
the Hunts ; cf. Srath na Sealg, Sutherland. 

Lochaidh Nid Lochlet of the nest ; from its situa- 
tion ; cf. the Nest in Fannich. There is a farm of 
Ned, situated in a hollow, near St Andrews. 

Achnegie Auchanewy 1574, Auchinevie 1633 ; G. 
Achd an fhiodhaiclh, Field of the place of wood ; 
G. fiodh, fiodhach. It is, or was within living 
memory, full of alder and birch. 

Eilean nan Ceap Island of the blocks or tree 

stumps. 
Shen avail G. an Sean-bhaile, the Old-town ; 

above it is Bac an Aorigh (ao short) ; cf. Bac 

an Airidh, near Loch Benncharan. 
An t-Siil Liath (3000) The Gray Heel. 
Sgurra Fiona (3474) ? Wine peak. 
An Teallach (3484) The Forge ; either from its 

smoke-like mists, or from some supposed resem- 
blance to a forge. The whole group of Bens is 

called an Teallaich, locative. 
Sp ; dean a* Grhlas-tllill Pinnacle of the green 

hole (O.S.M. Bidein a' Ghlas-Thuill). 
An Sgurra Ruadh (2493) The red skerry ; Lochan 

Euadh of O.S.M. is Lochan an Diabhaidh, 

Lochlet of Shrinking or drying. 
Cam na B&Ste Cairn of the Monster. By it is 

Cam a' Choiridh, Cairn of the little corry. 



244 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Loch na C16ire Loch of the Clergy. It flows into 
Loch Badcall. 

Lochan na Gaoirilt Lochleb of the Quarry, or 
quarry-like face (O.S.M. Lochan na Cairill). 

Loch an Eilich Loch of the eileach, which usually 
means a mill-lade, but here a short, shallow, 
narrow channel. 

Inchina G. Innis an ath, Haugh or water meadow 
of the ford. Below it is Torra Cadaidh, prob- 
ably Knoll of Adie's son, Adie being a diminutive 
of Adam. Mac-adaidh is an Easter Ross sur- 
name or an alternative surname for Munro in 
certain families. Of. Eas Cadaidh in Coirevalagan, 
Kincardine. 

Am Bad Rabhain Waterweed clump, or water 
lily clump ; Allt a' Bhaid Rabhain enters the 
sea N. of Gruinard House ; cf. Feith Rabhain in 
Gairloch. 

Cladh Phris Burial-place of the bush or copse ; a 
disused burying-ground on Isle Gruinard, at the 
landing-place S.E. Comas an Fhiodh, wood-bay, 
is also on the Isle. 

An Eilid The Hind, a small hill on Isle Gruinard ; 
Na Gamhnaichean, the Stirks, are rocks ; An 
t-Seanachreag, the old rock, a common name. 

Miotag G. Meideag ; the terminal part is N. vik, 
bay, which describes the place ; meid is difficult, 
and as there seems to be no single Norse word 
which would yield this in Gaelic, it appears to be 
the result of " telescoping " with compensatory 
lengthening of e. Cf. Inverasdale. 



LOCHBROOM. 245 

Mungasdale Mungasdill 1633 ; G. Mungasdal ; 
N. Munks-dalr, Monk's dale. Faitliir Mungas- 
dail, the shelving slope of M., and Mealbhan 
Mungasdail, the links on the shore at the farm ; 
N. melr. Sron an Fhaithir MJioir, Point of the 
great shelving slope, is on the coast further north. 
Faitliir Mungasdail runs from Stattic nearly to 
Rudha na Maine, Moss Point. 

Stattic Point G. JStadaig ; -aig is N. vik, bay r 
the only N. word that would result in Gaelic 
stad is stdt, prudishness, which gives no sense ; cf . 
Miotag, above. 

Little Loch Broom G. an Loch Beag. Blaeu has 
it as Loch Carlin ; but this name, if it ever 
existed, is quite gone. 

Badluachrach G. am Bad luachrach, the clump of 
rushes. 

Durnamuck Derymuk 1548, Derynomwik 1574, 
Dirinamuck 1633 ; G. Doire nam muc, Swine 
copse. 

Badcall G. am Bad-call, the Hazel Clump. Allt 
a' Bhaid choill, Burn of Badcall, flows through 
Badcall, but does not rise in Loch Badcall. 

Badbea G. am Bad beithe, the Birch Clump. 

Ardessie G. Aird-easaidh, Promontory of Essie, 
which latter is perhaps best regarded as a stream 
name, meaning Fall-stream. There is a very fine 
waterfall on the Ardessie Burn ; rises in Lochan 
an Diabhaidh above. 

Camasnagaul G. Camas nan Gall, Lowlanders' 
Bav. 



246 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Mac 'US Mathair 2293 -- Son and Mother; a 

fanciful name for two adjacent hills. 
Strathbeg G. an Srath beag, the Little Strath, 

as distinguished from Strathmore at the head of 

Lochbroom proper. 
Auchtascailt - - Auchadaskild 1548 ; Achadrach- 

skalie 1574; Achtaskeald 1633; G. Acha dk 

sgaillt, Field of two bald (places) ; G. sgallta, 

bald, bare. 
Allt Toll 'an Lochain Burn of the hollow of the 

lochlet ; the upper part of Allt a' Mhuilinn, 

Mill-burn. 
Corryhallie Corrinsallie ; G, Coire-shaillidh. Corry 

of Fatness, from its good pasture. 

Gleann Coire Chaorachain Glen of the corry of 

the place of mountain torrents ; cf. Sgurr nan 
Caorachan in Applecross. 

Cam a' Bhreabadair The Weaver's Cairn. 

An Cumhag The narrow ; ravine and waterfall ; 

cf. Coag ; G. An Cumhag in Kilmuir Easter. 
A* Chathair Dhubh The Black Fairy Knoll; 

where the public road crosses the Strathbeg 

River. 
Meall an t-Sithidh O.S.M. Meall an t-Sithe ; cf. 

Achintee. 
Na Lochan Fraoich The Heather Lochs ; two 

lochs joined by a short, narrow, shallow channel, 

of which it is said ' tha eileach eatorra.' 
Allt Eiginn Burn of Difficulty; eiginn is applied 

to places very rough and difficult of access ; also 

Loch Eiginn. 



LOCHBROOM. 247 

Fain G. na Feithean, the bog channels. 

Cam a* Bhiorain Cairn of the little sharp point. 

Loch ail Airceil Probably Ir. aircel, a hiding- 
place ; loch of the hiding-place. An Airceal was 
the name of a croft ; and there is a spot on Loch- 
broom Glebe called An Airceal. 

Maoil an Tiompain The bare round hill of the 
' tiompan.' A 'tiompan' is a one-sided hillock. 
A Chathair bhan, the white fairy knoll. 

Creag na Corcurach O.S.M. Creag Corcurach ; 
based on root of Ir. corcach, a bog ; rock of the 
boggy places. Torr na Cathrach, Mound of the 
fairy knoll ; Brutliach na Gearr(a)choille, Brae 
of the short wood ; cf. a' Ghearrachoille, near 
Ardgay. 

Dundonnell Auchnadonill 1548,Auehtadonill 1633, 
Auchterdoull 1649 ; G. Acha da Domhnaill, Field 
of two Donalds. This is the current G. for Dun- 
donnell ; but Dun Domhnaill also exists as the 
name of a spot near the farm-house. The spot 
where the lodge stands is an t-Eilean Daraich, 
the Oak Isle. 

Preas nam Bodach Bush or copse of the spectres ; 
it is haunted. Am Preas Mdr, the big clump ; 
once an alder clump, now a green island with 
fringe of alder trees on north side. Both near 
Dundonnell House. 

Loch na Lagaidh Loch of the pace of the 
hollow. Lagaidh, when it occurs on the west 
coast, is fern., and is used with the article ; the 



248 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

E. Ross Lagaidh, Logie, has not got the article 
prefixed. 

Cladh a' Bhord Bhuidhe Graveyard of the yellow- 
flat ; Pairc a Bhord Bhuidhe, Park of the same. 

Keppoch G. a' Cheapaich, the tillage plct ; com- 
mon. Also Raon na Ceapaich and Creacj na 
Ceapaich, Field and Rock of Keppoch. Sron na 
Ceapaich, Point of Keppoch, also called a' Chlach 
Cheannli, for Cheann-liath, gray-headed stone ; 
cf. Maoil Cheanndearg. 

Kildonan G. Gill Donnain, St Donan's Church. 
Corran Chill Donnain, Kildonan Point. Corran 
is very common along the west coast in this sense, 
and is usually found at the horn of a small bay. 
Clqdh Chill Donnain, Kildonan graveyard. 

Na Faithriehean The shelving slopes. 

Badrallach G. am Bad-railleach, the oak clump ; 
Ir. ral, oak. Birch and hazel still grow here. A 
poisonous plant used to be found here called 
' am boinne mear ;' Ir. benri mer, henbane. 
Corran a Bhaid-railleach, Badrallach Point. 

Allt an Leth Ghlinne Burn of the half-glen. 

Loch na h-Uidhe Loch of the water-isthmus. 

Loch na Coireig Loch of the little corry. 

A' Bheinn Ghobhlach The forked hill; Bin 
Cowloch, Blaeu. 

Allt an Uisge Mhath Burn of the good water. 

Rhireavach G. Euigh' riabhach, dappled hill- 
reach. 

An Carnach The stony place, which describes it. 



LOCHBROOM. 249* 

Sgoraig N. sgor-vik, rift-bay, from a narrow gully 
at the place. 

Sgoraig sgreagach, 's dona beag i, 

Aite gun dion gun fhasgadh, gun phreas na coille. 

Scraggy Scoraig, bad and little ; 

A place without protection or shelter, bush or wood. 

Mol Sgoraig, Shingle beach of Scoraig. Cam na 

Fir Freig (for bhreug), Cairn of the false men ; 

fir-breio- are stones on the sky-line, which might 

be taken for men ; behind Scoraig. 
Cailleach Head G. Sr6n na Caillich, nun's point; 

in O.S.A. Rudha Shanndraig. A 1 Chailleach, the 

nun, and Bodach a Chleirich, the parson's carl, 

are points facing one another. 
Camas nan Ruadhag Crab Bay. 
Meall a' Chaoruinn Rowan Lump, otherwise Stac 

Chaoruinn, Rowan Stack ; an island. 
Carnasgeir Cairn-skerry ; for formation cf. Elgin - 

tol and Plucaird. There are a cairn and a skerry, 

joined at low water. 
An Leac Dhonn The brown flat rock ; a baskiug- 

place of seals. 
Annat G. an Annait, the mother- church. Cladh 

na h- Annait, Annat graveyard. Annat Bay is 

G. Linne na h-Annait, or am Polla Mor. 
Giaic an Righ Ghonanaich Hollow of the ? Strath- 

conon King. This may be Torquil Conanach, son 
of Rory Macleod of the Lewis, so called because 
he was brought up in Strathconon. This Torquil, 
who was rightful heir to the Lewis, flourished in 



250 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND OHOMARTY. 

the latter half of the 16th century, and might 
have been styled ' king ' by the people of the west. 

An Talla The Hall ; a point with site of a tower 
occupied by Righ an Talla Dheirg, the king of 
the red hall. 

Achmore G. an Acha' Mor, big field. 

Badacrain G. Bad nan Cnaimhean, Clump of the 
Bones ; otherwise Badaidh nan Cnaimhean. 
Near it is Stall an t-Sagairt, Priest's Rock, about 
which there is a tradition that a certain stone is 
to fall on a priest passing in a boat. 

Camas a' Mhaoraich Shell-fish bay; Cammez 
Murie, Blaeu. 

Altnaharrie G. Allt na h-Airbhe (or Eirbhe), 
Burn of the wall or fence ; it comes from Loch na 
h-Airbhe, Loch of the Fence. The fence or wall 
in question runs along by the north end of the 
loch, and so on towards Maoil na h-Eirbhe, Hill 
of the Fence. It is a very old wall, composed of 
sods and stones. G. Airbhe or eirbhe is O. Ir. 
airbe, meaning (l) ribs (2) fence; and is not 
uncommon in northern place-names ; cf. Camas 
na h-Eirbhe and Loch Doire na h-Eirbhe in Gair- 
loch ; Loch Doire na h-Eirbhe in Coigach ; 
Altnaharra, G. Allt na h-Eirbhe, in Sutherland. 
At all these places similar old walls exist, and 
their antiquity may be gauged from their appear- 
ance, as well as from the fact that the word eirbhe 
is quite obsolete in the north, and that there is 
no tradition as to the purpose of them. 



LOCHBROOM. 251 

Logie Logy 1548 ; G. an Lagaidh, the place of the 
hollow. Here is Dim na Layaidh, Fort of Logie, 
a broch in a very ruinous condition. The 
current in the narrows here is called Sruth na 
Lagaidh. 

Blarnalevoch G. Blar na Leitheoch, Plain or 
moor of the half-place, i.e., place between hill and 
loch. But I have got also Blar-na-leamhach, 
Elmwood plain ; cf. an Leithead Leamhach in 
Kincardine. 

Eliroy G. an Ruigh Huadh, the red hill-reach. 
Here is Dun an Ruigh Ruaidh, Fort of the red 
slope (O.S.M. Dun an Bigh Buaidh), a broch of 
about 40 feet internal diameter, with its first 
storey gallery in very fair preservation. Very 
large stones have been used in it all round. Its 
north side is on the very edge of a precipitous 
rock, and it stands between two burns, each less 
than 100 yards distant from it. 

Ardindrean G. Ard an Dreaghainn, Thorn-point. 

Letters G. an Leitir, the hill-side slope. 

Strathmore G. an Srath mor, the big Strath, at 
the head of Lochbroom. This is the Strathmore 
of the well-known Gaelic chorus which ends 

Gur b6idhcach an comunn 

'Th' aig coinneamh 'n t Srath-mhoir. 

The words of this chorus, which are best known 
through the famous song beginning ' Gur gile mo 
leannan,' were composed by Mrs Mackenzie of 
Ballone, now In ver broom ; G. Bail' an Loin, 
Stead of the damp meadow. 



252 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

CroftOWn G. Bail' na Oroit. 

Achlunachan Aglonoquhan 1548, Achnaglowna- 
chane 1574, Auchlownachan 1633, Auchalunachan 
1669. Achaglounachan, Blaeu ; G. Ach-ghluinea- 
chairi and Acha-liiinneachain, of which the former 
is the better form ; G. gluineach, kneed, jointed, 
applied to grasses with jointed stalks ; Field of 
the jointed grass. 

Gar Van G. an Garbhan, the rough place. 

Achindrean Auchquhedrane 1543, Auchindrewyne 
1574, Auchindrein 1633; Thorn-field. 

Meall a' Ghrasgaidh 3062 Hill of the crossing. 

A' Chailleach 3276 The Nun, or the old woman. 

Abhainn Dhroma From Loch Droma, Ridge Loch, 
on the watershed. Otherwise Dubhag. 

Corryhalloch G. Coire-shalach, Ugly Corry, the 
tremendous chasm near Braemore House. The 
fine waterfall at the bridge which spans the 
ravine is Easan na Miasaich, the waterfalls of 
the place of platters ; the ' platters ' are the great 
pot-holes worn by the action of the water. (Falls 
of Measach). 

Meall Leacachain Hill of the place of flagstones ; 
also Leathad Leacachain, Hillside of Leacachan. 
There is a tale attached to it which is too long to- 
repeat. 1 

Dirriemore G. an Diridh Mor, the great ascent. 

Beinn Eunacleit O.S.M. Benin Aonaclair; N. 
Enni-klettr, Brow-cliff; cf. Eriaclete. 

Braemore G. am Braigh' Mor, the big upper part. 

1 V. Guide to Ulkpool and Lochbroom. 



LOCHBROOM. 253 

Fasagrianach G. an Fhasadh-chrionaich ; na 
Fasadh-chrionaich (genitive) ; Eotten-tree Stead ; < 
the compound takes the gender of the latter part 
crionaich, feminine ; fasadh is masculine. The 
formation is common, especially in the West ; 
cf. an Lon-roid, an t-Allt-giuthais. 

Diollaid a' Mhill Bhric Saddle of the speckled 
hill (meall). 

Glackour G. a' Ghlaic odhar, the dun hollow. 

Inverbroom Lodge or Foy Lodge G. an Fhoth- 
aith ; Tigh na Fothai', a weakened form of faithche, 
a green, a lawn ; cf. Baile na Foitheachan, Stead 
of the green places or lawns (wrongly explained 
supra, p. 25). 

Inverlael Innerlauell 1608; Inner laall, Blaeu ; 
G. Inbhir Lathail ; N. Lag-hoi, Low hollow, with 
G. Inbhir, confluence ; near the place where 
B. Lael enters Lochbroom. 

Grleann na Sguaib -- Known locally as GJeann 
Mhic-an-Aba, Macnab's Glen. The O.S.M. name 
I have not been able to verify. 

Sgurr Eideadh nan Clach Geala Garment- of- 
white-stones Peak ; sgurr is defined by the 
whole following phrase, to which it stands in 
apposition. 

Ard nan Long Promontory of the ships ; the 
anchorage at the head of Lochbroom. 

Ardcharnaich Ardhernich 1666 ; G. Ard-Cheath- 
arnaich, Champion's Promontory. Corran Ard- 
cheatharnaich, Ardcharnaich Point. 

Haonachroisg G. Raon a' chroisg, Field of the 



254 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Leckmelm Lachmaline 1548 ; Lochmalyne 1574 ; 
Lekmaline 1633 ; Leach Maillinim, Blaeu. G. 
Leac Mailm ; leac, a flag-stone, a flat stone over 
a grave ; Mailm, the old forms of which all show 
n, is probably the name of a man who was buried 
here ; cf. "the battle of Liacc Maelain," Ann. of 
Ulster, 677 A.D. 

Beinn Eildeach Hill of hinds ; eildeach contracted 
for eilideach. Under it is Leac Mhor na Cle. 

Corry G. an Coiridh, the little corry ; it is a little 
hollow. Also Corry Point. 

Braes of Ullapool G. Bruthaichean Ullabuil. 

Gadcaisceig G. Gead-caisceig, narrow rig or lazy- 
bed of Caisceig. 

Ullapool Ullabill (Bleau) ; G. Ullabul, N. Ulli- 
bolsta'Sr, Ulli's stead. 

Calascaig N. Kali-skiki, Kali's strip ; at the foot 
of Loch Achall. Maol Chalascaig, Bare hill of 
Calascaig, about a mile east of Ullapool. Leathad 
Chalascaig, broad hill-side of Calascaig, on south 
side of Loch Achall. Blaeu has Avon Cliallas- 
caig flowing into the loch. 

Loch Achall G. Loch Ach-challa, also Loch Ach- 
a-challa, Loch of the field of hazel, G. call. Also 
Gleann Loch-Achalla, Glen of Achall. 

Poll-da-ruigh Hollow of two hill-slopes ; near 
Ullapool. One slope rises up to Cnoc na Croiche, 
Gallows Hill. 

Rhidorroch G. an Euigh dhorcha, the dark hill- 
slope. 



LOCHBROOM. 255 

Allt Chill-6iteachan, behind Ullapool, in the 

Rhidorroch direction. The name implies an 

ancient chapel. Cf. Carn-eite, Kintail. 
Meall na Mocheirigh Hill of the early rising; 

or perhaps rather of the achievement that comes 

of early rising. 
Douchary G. Duchairidh for dubh-chatharaigh, 

place of black broken moor ; common. Also Glen 

Donchary and River Douchary. 
Glastullieh So Blaeu ; Green hillock. 
Morefield G. a' Mhor-choille, the great wood. 

Morefield Cottage is an Ceanna-chruinn, the 

round head. 
Allt an t-sratliain Burn of the little strath ; 

O.S.M. Allatyrne Burn. 
Rudh' Ard a' Chadail Point of Ardachadail, which 

again means Sleep-promontory. 
Cull a' Bhodha Nook of the reef; a good fishing 

bank. O.S.M. Cul Bo. 
Ard na h-Eigheamh Promontory of shouting (for 

the ferry-boat). 
Isle Martin G. Eilean Mhartainn ; a burial place 

in it is Cladh Eilein Mhartainn. 
Ardmair G. Ard Mheara, Finger promontory ; 

with fine beaches. The spit of land projecting 

into the sea and covered at high tide is called an 

Saothair. 
Keanchilish G. Ceann a' Chaolais, Head of the 

Narrows or Kyle ; at entrance to Loch Kanaird. 

South of it is Glutan, ' throat ' a gorge. 



256 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Loch Kan air d L. Cannord. Blaeu ; G. Loch 
Oaiimeart ; N. kami-fjor'Sr, Can-firth ; the Can 
was doubtless the broch, now ruinous, near the 
entrance to the loch on its western side, called 
still Dun Canna. Its can-like shape struck the 
Norsemen, 1 as did the can-like peak of the chief 
hill in Raasay, also called in Gaelic Dun Canna, 
in English Dun Can. 

Pollachoire G. Poll a' Choire, Cauldron pool. 

Duasdale G. Dubh-astail, black dwelling ; also 
Burn of Duasdale. 

Loch a* Ohroisg Loch of the crossing. 

Rapag Noisy place ; Allt Rapag, Noisy Burn. 

Meall a' Bhuirich Hill of bellowing (of stags). 

Langwell N. lang-vollr, long-field. 

Ach nan Cairidhean Field of the tidal weirs ; 
O.S.M. Achnacarnean. 

Drienach G. an Droighneach, place of thorns. 

Achendrean G. Ach' an Dreaghainn, Field of 
thorns. 

Blughasary G. Blaoghasairigh (ao short), or 
Bladhasairigh ; to be divided Blaogh (or Bladh)- 
as-airigh ; for airigh cf. Kernsary , Smiorasair, 
Meall Andraraidh ; as may well stand for N. hus, 
a house ; the first syllable is doubtful ; it requires 
a N. blag- or bleig-, which is not forthcoming. 

Drumrunie G. Druima Raonaidh, also Abhainn 
Raonaidh. Raonaidh is probably the stream 
name ; ' River of the upland plain.' 

1 This goes to prove, if additional proof were needed, that the brochs are 
pre-Norse. 



LOCHBROOM. 257 

Loch Lurgainn Shank Loch ; there is a Fingalian 
tale attached explanatory of the name. Fiona 
and his mother came to blows with some giants in 
the Garve direction, and as he was getting the 
worst of it he seized his mother by the legs, threw 
her over his shoulder, and fled westwards. He 
stopped at this loch, and on taking the old lady 
down, found he had only the shanks of her, which 
he threw into the loch. A more rationalistic 
explanation may be found in the fact that the 
loch has an outlet at both ends. 

Loch a' Chlaiginn Skull loch ; claigeann is com- 
monly applied to a knob-shaped hill. 

Loch Eadar da Bheinn Loch between two hills. 

Na Beannanan Beaga The little hillocks. 

Coigeach Cogeach 1502; Ladocchogith 1508; 
Coidgeach, 1538; Coygach, Blaeu ; G. a' Ch6ig- 
each, Place of fifths ; for which use of coig cf. the 
five Coig's in Strathdearn, Coig na Fearna, &c. 
Division of land into fifths is a common and 
ancient Gaelic practice, the best known fifths 
being the five fifths of Erin coig coigimh na 
h-Eirinn. 1 Tradition makes the five-fifths of 
Coigach to have been Achnahaird, Achlochan, 
Acheninver, Achabhraighe, and Achduart the 
five Ach's, ' na coig achaidhean,' and this is the 
local derivation of the name. 

1 A Gaelic saying has it, " Tha coig cdigimh an Eirinn, agus tha e<5ig 
o<5igimh an Srath-e'irinn ; ach 's fearr aon coigeamh na h-Eirinn ; na cdig 
c<5igimh Srath-e"irinn ;" there are five-fifths in Erin and five-fifths in Strath - 
erin ; but better is one fifth of Erin than the five fifths of Stratherin (Strath- 
dearn). 

17 



258 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Creag Mhor na Coigich The great rock of 

Coigach ; In it is Allt nan Coisichean, Burn of the 
walkers, a resting place on the way to Ullapool 

Coulnacraig G. CM na Creige, Back of the Eock. 

Achduart G. Achadh Dubhard, Black-point Field. 
Duart is a common name. Rudha Dubh-ard, 
Duart Point. 

lolla Bheag The little fishing rock ; also An lolla 
Mhor. 

Horse Sound G. Caolas Eilean nan Each. 

Horse Island G. Eilean nan Each. 

Acheninver G. Achd an Inbhir, Field of the 
estuary. 

Achabhraigh G. Achd a' Bhraighe, Field of the 
Upper part. 

Badenscallie Badskalbay 1617 ; Badinscally, 
Blaeu ; G. Bad-a-Sgalaidh, Clump of the place of 
pectres ; Ir. Seal, spectre. Cf. Bo than Bad- 
sgalaidh beyond Kildermorie, a place notoriously 
haunted. Local tradition derives the name from 
Sgal, one of the three brothers who first settled 
Coigach. The second was ' an Gille Buidhe,' the 
Yellow Lad 5 who settled at Achiltybuie. The 
name of the third I failed to learn. They used to 
meet at a great stone in the moor about equi- 
distant from the three, called Clack na Comhalach, 
Try sting- IStone. 

Polglass G. am Poll glas, the green hollow. 
Achlochan G. Achd an Lochain, Field of the little 

pool.' 
Eudh' an Dunain Point of the little fort. 



LOCHBROOM. 259 

Achiltibuie Badincarbatakilvy 1617 (read t for c) ; 
Achamuilbuy, Blaeu. The Gaelic is heard as 
Achd-ille-bhuidhe, Aichilidh bhuidhe, Achill 
bhuiclhe. Local tradition derives as ' Field of 
the yellow lad/ or * Cave (faic) of the yellow 
lad," and there are tales of the Gille Buidhe. 
But this is probably mere popular etymology, 
and it is to be feared that the first of the three 
Gaelic forms is a popular corruption to suit the 
story. The other two are similar to Achilty 
in Contin G. Achillidh, and may show the same 
root as Welsh uchel, high ; cf. Oykell, Ochil. 

Badentarbet Badintarbat 1617 ; G. Bad an 
Tairbeirt, Clump of the Portage ; the lochs 
behind it are separated by a narrow neck, across 
which boats would be hauled. 

Polbain G. am Poll ban, the white hollow. 

Dorney Dorny 1617 ; G. an Dbirnidh, the place 
of rounded pebbles. The real old Dorney, G. an 
t-Seann Doirnidh, is opposite Isle Ristol, to which 
it stands in the same relation as the Kintail Dornie 
to Ellandonan. There are here also rounded 
pebbles, and Meall na Sgriodain, Hill of the 
Scree, comes down to the water's edge ; v. Dornie 
in Kintail. 

Summer Isles G. na h-Eileanan Samhraidh. The 
chief of these follow, the last being Isle Ristol. 

Tanera G. Tannara (Tawnnara) ; N. hnfnar-ey, 
with usual prefixed t, Harbour-isle. The anchor- 
age, G. an acarsaid, on the eastern side of Tanera, 
is well known on the west for its security. There 



260 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

is another Tanera on the east of Lewis, near the 
Birken Isles. 
Ardnagoine G. Ard nan Gaimhne, Promontory of 

the Stirks ; from its good pasture. 
Caolas a* Mhuill Ghairbh Narrow of the rough 
Mull or promontory ; N. muli, a jutting crag ; cf. 
Mull of Kintyre. 

Sgeir Ribhinn Lady Skerry ; O.S.M. Sgeir Revan. 
Sgeir Neo-ghluasadach Immovable skerry ; Fast- 
skerry. 

Na Feadh'laichean The shallow sandy channels 
between na Sgeirean glasa, the green skerries, 
and Cam Deas, South Cairn, and between the 
latter and Cam lar, West Cairn ; pi. of feadhail, 
a variant of faodhail, an extensive beach. 
Bottle Island G. Eilean a Bhotuil ; otherwise 
Eilean Druim-briste, Broken-backed Isle ; there 
is a depression in the middle. 
Priest Island G. an Cle'ireach ; the Cleric (never 

Eilean a' Chl&rich). 

A' Mhullagraich ? The place of bumps, or knolls. 1 
Isle Ristol G. Eilean Kuisteil ; on the mainland 
opposite is Allt Ruisteil, Histol Burn, which 
suggests that the original Histol was on the main- 
land ; N. hryss-dalr, Mare dale. 
Altandow G. an t-Alltan dubh, the little black 

burn ; name of a township. 

Reiff Reiff 1617 ; G. an Rif (as Eng. riff), the 
reef; N. rif, a reef. The reef here is called 
Bogha a Bhuraich, Eeef of the bellowing. 

1 Mullagraeh occurs as an adjective, meaning, apparently, ' full of pro- 
tuberances,' in the Poems of Egan O'Rahilly (Irish Texts Society, Vol. III.). 



LOCHBROOM. 261 

Loch na Totaig Loch of the ruined homestead. 

Faochag G. an Fhaochag, ' the wilk,' a quaint 
name. Camas na Faochaige, Faochag Bay. 

Rudha na Coigich Coigach Point. 

Camas Coille Wood bay. 

Achnahaird Auchnahard 1617; G. AchacTh na 
h-Aird, Field of the Aird. The Aird, or pro- 
montory, of Coigach, is a large district. 

Loch Raa L. Rha, Blaeu ; G. Loch Ra, Eed Loch ; 
N. rau'Sr, red. 

Loch Battachan G. Loch nam Badachan, Loch of 
the copses. 

Garvie Bay G. Garbhaidh, seems to be the name 
of the stream from Loch Osgaig which enters the 
sea here ; Rough River ; cf. Garry. There is also 
Loch Garvie, a widening of the stream before it 
reaches the sea. 

Loch Osgaig (6) N. oss-skiki, Outlet-strip. O.S.M. 
Loch Owskeich. 

Loch Bad a' Ghaill Lowlander's-clump Loch. 

Aird of Coigach Dauachnahard 1617 (Dabhach 
na h-Airde) ; G. airde na Coigich, Promontory 
of Coigach. 

Loch na Sails Loch of the Heel ; from its shape. 

Beinn an Eoin Hill of the bird. 

River Polly G. Abhainn Phollaidh ; also Srath 
Phollaidh, Strathpolly ; Inbhir-Phollaidh, Inver- 
polly. Pollaidh is a river name, with the common 
river termination : River of Pools, or Holes. 

Loch Sianascaig N. sjonar-skiki, Observation 
strip. O.S.M. Loch Skinaskink. 



262 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Cuthaill Mhor and Cuthaill Bheag The latter 

part is N. fjall, a hill ; first part obscure. The 
names recur in the parish of Urray, where I have 
doubtfully suggested kua-fjall, Cow-fell. More 
probably kvi-fjall, Pen-fell, Fold-fell ; cf. Cuidha- 
shader, p. 270. 

Euighgrianach G. Ruigh-ghrianach, Sunny slope. 

Elver Kirkaig Abhainn Chircaig ; also Loch 
Kirkaig and Inverkirkaig ; N. kirku-vik, Church- 
bay. 

Cuil na Bioraich (O.S.M. Cuil na Beathrach); 
nook of the dog-fish (possibly of the heifer). 

Loch Veyatie L. Meaty (Blaeu) ; G. Loch 
Mheathadaidh ; for the first part may be com- 
pared the numerous Lewis names in meatha-, 
from N. mjo, narrow ; terminal -aidh is probably 
N. a, river, d being all that remains of the noun 
qualified by mjo ; ' the river of the narrow - - ? ' 
The loch would naturally be called after the 
river. 

Loch Doire na h-Airbhe Loch of the copse of the 
wall. An old wall runs near the loch ; cf. Altna- 
harrie. O.S.M. Loch na Doire Seirbhe. 

Loch an Arbhair Loch of the Corn ; O.S.M. Loch 
na Darubh. This loch and Loch a' Choin, Dog- 
loch, have got transposed on the one-inch O.S.M. 

Loch Call nan Uidhean Hazel-loch of the 
isthmuses ; there are four isthmuses round it. 
O.S.M. Loch Call an Uigean. 



LEWIS. 263 



LEWIS. 

The name of Lewis or Lewg, Gaelic Leodhas, or 
popularly Leodh's, appears in the Norse sagas as 
Lj6 i Shus 1 and Lj6 ; Sus 2 ; and the contemporary 
Gaelic form Le6dus is found in an Irish MS. of 
1 1 50. 3 Only another instance of the name occurs, 
and this was the name of a town not far from 
Gothenburg, in Sweden, latterly known as 
Lodose. This fact shows that the name is not 
special to either island or town. The attempts to 
derive it from Gaelic sources, such as Martin's 
(1700) leog, a marsh, have naturally failed. The 
latter part of the name is plainly Norse hus, a 
house, but and this is very unusual there is 
quite a plethora of root and stem forms available 
to explain the phonetics of the first part. Pro- 
fessor Munch favoured " the sounding house " 
(hlj(f6, sound) : " people's house " (ljo<$-) is just 
possible ; the real meaning seems best found in 
Ljo'Sa-hus, " house of songs or lays," in short a 
ceilidh house. A farm-house or such devoted to 
more or less public entertainment, first must have 
given its name to a district and then to the whole 
island. Norse- Gaelic phonetics will not suit the 
favourite derivation of the Lewis scholars, viz., 

1 Magnus (c. 1100 A.D.) and Orkney Sagas. s Hacon Sag*- 
3 Book of Leinster. 



264 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Ljot-hus, " Leod's House," because the t of Ljot 
regularly becomes hard d. Its " higher parts" 
were called Hin Haerri, and later made into the 
Gaelic form of Na Hearradh, Englished Harris. 

We shall first take in alphabetical order the 
chief Norse words that enter into the composition 
of names in Lewis. 

d, river : the River Creed or Greeta ; G. Gride ; 
grjot-a, shingly, gritty river ; Torray, Thor-a, 
Thori's water ; Laxay, Lax-a, salmon river ; 
Gisla, G. Giosla, gisl-a, ? hostage river, but Gisl 
is also a proper name ; Avik, a-vik, river bay, at 
the mouth of the Galsori river; Eirera, eyrar-a, 
beach river. 

boer, stead, town very rare; JEoropie, G. Eorrabaidh, 
beach- town ; Crumby, G. Crumbaidh, Krum's 
town. 

Bakki, a bank ; G. bac ; hence the district of Back ; 
Tabac, G. Tabac, t-ha-bakki, High Bank ; Baca- 
vat, N. bakka-vatn, Ridge-loch. 

Bekkr, brook Bee- amir, bekk-hamarr, the rock by 
the stream. 

Beit, pasture land Beid-ic, pasture bay ; Beid-ic- 
ean, pasture bays, at Cabag, Lochs. 

Bolsta^r, a homestead, appears in Bosta, Bernera. 
It is very common as -bost, at the end of names. 
Garrabost for Geira-bolstacSr, comes most prob- 
ably from geiri, a goar or triangular strip of land. 
Shawbost, G. Slabost, sja-holsta'Sr, Sea-stead; 
Melbost, G. Mealabost ; melr, bent grass, or a 
sandhill grown over with bent ; Link-stead ; 



LEWIS. 265 

Swanibost, G. Suaineabost, Sweyn's stead ; Leur- 
bost, G. Liurbost, clayey stead (leir, clay) ; Cross- 
bost, Cross-stead, Rood-stead ; Calabost, from 
kald, cold, possibly from Kali, a proper name ; 
Habost, high stead ; also as Tabost. 

Borg, a fort Borve or Borgh is in Barvas ; 
Boranish in Uig, borgar-nes, fort-ness ; Boreray, 
borgar-ey, fort-isle ; Dun-bhuirgh ,, a hybrid where 
dun is tautological. 

Biffi, a booth, genitive bu<5ar Putharol, bii'Sar-hol, 
hill of the booth, at Roineval ; Tom Phutharol at 
Gisla ; in the Flannan Isles is Mas Phutharol, 
buttock of Puarol ; Gearraidh Phutharol is east 
of Eristadh in Uig. Putharam, bu<5ar-holm, 
island of the booth, in Loch Roag. (Cleite) 
Putharamarr, bucSar-hamarr, the rock of the 
bothy. These examples all agree in the change 
from b to p. 

Dalr, a dale Dell, G. Dail, the dale, with its 
divisions, Dail o' dheas, South Dell, and Dail o' 
thuath, North Dell ; Laxdale, G. Lacasdail, lax- 
ar-dalr, salmon-river dale ; Dibidale, G. Diobadail, 
deep dale ; Raonadail, reyni-dalr, rowan -dale ; 
Swordale, G. Suardail, from svorcfr, sward, grassy 
dale ; Suaineagadail, from Sveinki, a derivative 
of Sveinn, Sweynki's dale ; Bruadale, bru-a-dalr, 
bridge-river dale ; Eoradale, G. Eorradal, eyrar- 
dalr, beach -dale, cf. Erradale ; Lundale, G. Lun- 
dal, hlunn-dalr, roller-dale (hlunnr was a roller 
for launching ships ; also, a piece of wood put 
under a ship when beached in winter) ; Capadal, 



266 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

kappa-dalr, champion's dale ; Ulladale, Ulli's 
dale ; Langadale, long dale. 

Egg, an edge, ridge Eig bheag and Eig mhor, 
little ridge and big ridge at Bragar moor ; Druim 
na h-Eige, back of the ridge (a tautology), at 
Galson. Apt to be confused with G. eag, a notch. 

Ey, an island appears terminally as -a, -ay, G. 
-aidh. Orasay (a common name) is Orfris-ey, 
ebb-isle, an island which is joined to the mainland 
at low tides ; the Gaelic equivalent is Eilean 
Tioram, Dry Island ; Bernera, Bjorn's isle ; 
Vatersay, vatns-ey, water-isle ; Berisay, bergs-ey, 
precipice-island ; Captain Thomas' byrgis-ey does 
not suit the phonetics. It was on the rock of 
Berisay that Neil Macleod made his three years' 
stand (1610-1613), before he was ultimately 
captured and executed. 1 Risay, hris-ey, brush- 
wood isle ; Rosaidh, hross-ey, horse-isle ; Eilean 
Tkorraidh, Thori's isle ; Pabay, priest's isle ; 
Rona, hraun-ey, rough isle ; Stangraidh, stangar- 
ey, pole-isle ; Flodday, fljot-ey, float isle ; 
Tannray, t-hafhar-ey, haven -isle, cf. Tanera ; 
Vuya, G. Eilean Bhuidha, bu-ey, house isle ; 
Valasay, ? hvalls-ey, whale isle. 

Eyrr, a beach Eoropie, G. Eorrabaidh, eyrar-boer, 
beach-town ; Earshader, beach -settl ement (saetr) ; 
JEarrabhig, eyrar-vik, beach bay ; Eirera, beach- 
river. 

Fit, meadowland by the seaside or by a river 
fidi-gearraidh, Fitja-gerSr, the enclosed meadow 
land ; Fidi-geodha, the cove of the pasture land. 

1 Gregory, History of the Western HigJdands, p. 336. 



LEWIS. 267 

Fjara, ebb-tide Feori-seadar (Fjori-shader), fjoru- 
setr, the shieling by the ebb-tide. 

Fjdll, a fell, a hill terminal as -vol. -al, -bhal ; 
Hestaval, hesta-fjall, horse or stallion hill ; 
Cleitshal, rocky hill, from klettr ; Grinnabal, 
green hill ; Mealasbhal, 1 Link-stead fell ; Soval, 
saucSa-fjall, sheep-fell ; Cracabhal, kraku-fjall, 
crow-fell ; Rdineval, hraun-fjall, rough-ground 
fell ; Suainebhal, Sweyn's fell. 

FjdySr, a firth Loch Seaforth, G. Loch Sithphort, 
sja-fjor'Sr, sea-firth ; Loch Hamasord, G. Loch 
Chainasort, hvamms-fjorSr, firth of the grassy 
slope ; Eilean lubliard or Eu-ord, ey-fjor'Sr, isle- 
firth (transferred from the firth to the island). 

Fors, a waterfall Abhainn an Fhorsa, Fall river ; 
Forsnaval, Fall fell ; Forsnavat, Fall loch, both 
with suffixed article. 

Gas, goose Gais'a-murr or Gashamurr, goose rock ; 
Gas-cleite, Gasclete, goose-cliif ; Gas-sker, goose- 
skerry : Gasaval, goose-fell or hill. 

Gjd, a cleft borrowed into Gaelic as geodha ; from 
the genitive plural gjar we get Gidhur-ol, hill of 
the rift or chasm. 

Gljufr, an abrupt descent in the bed of a river, 
becomes Globhur ; Loch a Ghlobhuir (O.S.M. 
Loch a' Ghluair), loch of the abrupt descent. It 
also appears to take the form gleadhar with a 
Gaelic plural from Gleadhairean ; Gleann Ghleadh- 
arean, in Carloway twice. 

Grof, a pit Terminally gro, a very common stream 
ending ; probably originally applied to streams 



268 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

which cut their way through peat, cf. mo-grof, a 
peat trench ; Allagro, eels' stream ; Clisgro, 
klifs-gro, stream of the cliff ; Hallagro, hallr, a 
slope, stream of the slope ; Hundagro, stream of 
the dogs ; Molagro, stream of the pebbly beach ; 
Fidigro, the stream of the meadow land ; fit 
means meadow land by the seaside or by a river ; 
Allt Miagro, narrow stream, allt being pleonastic. 

Hals, neck, becomes in Gaelic hais, I being dropped 
before s ; Gob Hais, point of the neck, at North 
Tolsta, where there is a neck between a rock and 
the land. 

Hla"6a, to load Lathamur, hla'S-hamarr, loading 
rock, a projecting rock where ships could be 
loaded. It is also applied to steep rocks on the 
moor. 

Holl, a hill Toll, the hill, in Barvas and elsewhere ; 
Tollar, a ridge at Laimishader, shows the plural 
hollar, the hills. 

Holmr, a holm, islet, appears in Gaelic as Tolm, 
whence Duntuilm, in Skye ; terminally it shrinks 
to (a)m. Craigeam, kraku-holmr, crow-isle ; 
Greinam, green isle ; Lingam, heather-isle. 

Holt, rough hill ground Erisolt, Erik's rough 
pasture or outrun ; Neidalt, neyt-holt, the rough 
cattle outrun ; Sgianailt, skjona-holt, the holt of 
the dappled horse. 

Hross, a horse Rossay, hross-ey, horse-island, cf. 
Eilean nan Each ; Rosnish, horse point, both at 
Marvig ; Rossol, hross-holl, horse-hill, at Gress ; 
Rosnavat, loch of the horses, on Laxdale Moor, 
with the article suffixed ; Rosmul, hrossa-miili, 



LEWIS. 269 

the ridge of the horses ; Rosgil, at back of Cross- 
host, the gulley of the horse. 

Klettr, a rock, cliff Loch Rahadeit, rau'Sr-klettr, 
red-cliff ; Breacleit, from breicSr, broad-cliff ; 
Breasclete, brei3-ass-klettr, broad-ridge cliff; 
Enaclete, enni-klettr, brow-cliff; Loch Mheatha- 
cleit, mjo-klettr, narrow-cliff; Sgiobacleit, skipa- 
klettr, ship-cliff; Eacleit, ey-klettr, island cliff; 
Haclete and Taclete, ha-klettr, high-cliff. 

Kuml, a mound, burial place (Lat. cumulus) 
Traigh Chumtl, beach of the cairn. 

Mjo, from mjor, narrow Miagro, G. Meathagro, 
narrow stream ; Meathadal, or Miadal, the narrow 
dale ; Meathanish, or Mianish, the narrow ness ; 
Meathacleit, the narrow cliff; Miasaid, at Loch 
Langavat and Loch Skibacleit, is for mjo-sund, 
narrow sound ; also Cnoc a' Mhiasaid at Raanish. 

Myrk, dark Mircavat, dark loch, cf. Gael. Dubh- 
loch ; Mircol, dark hill, at Valtos ; Uamha 
Mhircol, cave of the dark hill, at Uig. 

Nes, a ness, cape Shilldinish, silda-nes, herring- 
point ; Steinish, stone - point ; Roishnish, hross- 
nes, horse-point; Aignish, egg-nes, ridge or 
edge point ; Stathanis, stodvar-nes, harbour- 
point ; Callanish or Callernish, derived by Captain 
Thomas from kjalar-nes, keel-ness ; but as there 
is no trace of the kj sound in the Gaelic pronoun- 
ciation, this must be regarded doubtful ; Aird 
Thoranish, Thori's point ; Dun Bhorranish. 
from Borgar-nes, fort-promontory ; Breidhnis, 
broad ness ; Ranish, roe ness ; Linish, flax ness ; 
Phenish, fe-nes, sheep-ness ; Griamanais, Grim's 



270 PLACE-NAMES OF BOSS AND CROMARTY. 

ness ; Arnish, eagle-ness ; Drobhmish, from drofn, 
spotted ness ; Bratanish, from brattr, steep ness ; 
Altanish, from alft, swan, swan -ness ; Rudha 
Robhanish (the Butt of Lewis), from rof, an 
opening, Hole-ness with reference to the " Eye 
of the Butt." 

Neyti, from naut, cattle Neidelan, neyti-land, 
cattle land, at Shader, Barvas, and Mealista ; 
Neadavat, neyti-vatn, cattle loch ; Naidaval, 
cattle hill; Neadaclif, the cattle's cliff; Neidal, 
at North Tolsta, cattle dale. 
Papi, priest Pabbay. priest's isle ; Bayble, priest's 

town. 
Sandr, sand Sandwich, G. Sandabhaig, sandy bay ; 

Sandavat, sandy loch. 

Sauftr, a sheep Soval, sauQa-fjall, sheep-hill, thrice 
in Lochs ; (Gearraidh) Shoais, sau'Sa-ass, ridge of 
the sheep ; Soray^ one of the Flan nan isles, 
sau'Sar-ey, sheep isle. 

Setr, a residence, mountain pasture, dairyland 
Shader, G. Siadair ; Sheshader, sja-setr, sea- 
stead ; Cuidha-seadar, kvia-setr, fold stead ; 
Laimishader, lamb-stead ; Linshader, G. Lisea- 
dair (i nasal), flax-stead, cf. Linside, G. Lionasaid, 
in Sutherland ; Kershader. kjoir-setr, copse-stead ; 
Ungashader, Ung's stead ; Carishader, Kari's 
stead ; Grimshader, Grim's-stead ; Hamarshader, 
hammer stead ; hamarr means a hammer-shaped 
crag, or a crag standing out like an anvil ; fruli- 
shader, pillar stead, or solan-geese stead ; 
JSarshader, G. lar-seadair, ? beach -stead ; Hor- 
shader, Thori's stead. 



LEWIS. 271 

Sild, a herring Shildinish, herring point ; Sildam, 
sild-holm, herring-isle. 

Skdli, a shieling, plural skalar Scailleir, the 
shielings, two hills south of Valtos, Uig. 

Sker, a skerry or rock Vatisker, vatns-sker, water- 
skerry, covered at high tide ; Mas-sgeir, sea 
mew skerry ; Sgarbh-sgeir, Skarfs-sker, Cormorant 
skerry ; Hunisgeir, hiina-sker, young bear skerry ; 
but Hiinn may be a proper name ; Cleibisgeir, 
?from kleppr, a plummet, lump ; Cobha-sgeir, kofa 
sker, young puffin skerry. 

Skip, a ship Sgiobadal, ship dale ; Sgioba-geodha 
in Rona, ship cove. 

Stcffir, a farm, stead, appears terminally as -sta. 
Tolsta, Tollosta (Blaeu), Toll's stead; Mealasta, 
Link's stead, from melr ; Scarasta, Skara-sta^r, 
from skari, a young sea-mew ; Eirasta, beach- 
stead ; Grimersta, Grim's stead ; Sgiogarsta, 
Skeggi's stead ; Mangarsta, miinka-staSr, Monks' 
stead ; Torastaigh, Thori's stead ; Cabharstaigh, 
? kafa-sta^r, diving-stead. 

Stoft, a harbour Stathanis, near the Butt ; Port a' 
Stoth, south of it. a tautology. 

Sund, a sound Miasaid, a name recurring several 
times, mjo-sund, narrow sound. 

Tjorn, a small lake, tarn (Loch an) Tighearna in 
Bernera. 

, a heap of stones on the sea beach, or from a 
landslip Urranan, at Barvas Moor, with Gaelic 
plural ; Loch Urradhag or Ourahag, urS-vik, the 
bay of the heap of stones, near Arnol ; another 
place of the same name is at the Carloway shore. 



272 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

Vdgr, a creek, bay, appears as -way, -ay, ; Gael. 
-bhaidh, -aidh. Carloway, Karl's bay ; Storno- 
way, G. Steornabhadh. stj6rnar-vagr, steerage 
bay or rudder bay ; cf. Loch Steornua in Argyle ; 
Loch Thealasbhaigh, hellis-vagr, cave-bay ; Leir- 
avay, G. Leurabhaigh, muddy bay ; leir, mud ; 
Loch Thamnabhaigh, hafnar-vagr, harbour-bay ; 
c Hamiiavoe and Hamnadale in Shetland ; 
Tarravay, Thara-vagr, seaweed bay. 

Vatn, water, a lake, appears terminally as -vat, 
Gael. -bhat. Grinnavat, green loch ; Sandavat, 
sandy loch ; Ullavat, Ulli's loch ; Langavat, long 
loch ; Baccavat, ridge loch ; Tarstavat, t-hjarta- 
vatn, stag loch ; Lingavat, heather loch ; Gros- 
avat, grassy loch ; Allavat, eels' loch ; Raoinavat, 
reyni-vatn, rowan loch ; Scaravat, young sea-mew 
loch ; Breivat, broad loch ; Maravat, gull loch ; 
Drollavat, from troll, haunted loch ; Laxavat, 
salmon river loch ; Tungavat, tongue-shaped loch ; 
Seavat, sja-vatn, sea loch ; Strandavat, strand 
loch ; Loch Mhileavat (from milli, between), 
between (the) lochs ; Stacsavat, stakks-a-vatn, 
stack -river loch. 

ViJc 9 bay, appears terminally as -uig, -bhic ; hence 
the parish of Uig. Miavaig, mjo-vik, narrow 
bay ; Kiriwick, from kyrr, quiet bay ; Seilibhig, 
seal bay ; Breivig, broad bay ; EaravicJc, G. lara- 
bhaig, beach bay ; Fivig, G. Fiabhaig, fjar-vik, 
sheep bay ; Smiuig, Cave bay ; Brataig, steep 
bay ; Maravaig, sea-gull bay ; Nasabhig, nose 
bay ; Glumaig, Glumr's bay ; Islivig, is-hli^-vik, 
ice-slope bay. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



KINCARDINE. 

Gleann a' G/irdig, between Strathcarron and Cam Bhren. 
The large flat rock where tinkers camp by the roadside 
between Ardgay and Fearn is Leac a' Ghraig. 
Eileag Bada Ckallaidh (also eileag Bad-cailidh), the Eileag 
of the Hazel Clump (near Amat). For eileag see Sianna 
h-Eileig. With callaidh cf. BeaJack Collaidh. There 
used to be a saying in Kincardine that the people of old 
could never be starved into submission so long as they 
held Eileag Bada Challaidh and Gairidh Ginn-ihardain, 
the weir of Kincardine. This famous salmon weir was 
near the Parish Church, and its name survives in Eilean 
na Cairidh, Isle of the Weir, now a nice field reclaimed 
from the sea. 
Leac a' C/ilamhain Flagstone of the Kite, is a flat stone 

near the U.F.C. Manse ; cf. Gledficld. 
P. 4. Alltan nam Fuath Burnlet of the Spectres, comes through 

the Gearrchoill, Short Wood, not Garbh Choille. 
Conachreig Combination of rocks ; cf. Cona Glen, G. 

Conaghleann, etc. 
Allt fC Bhramain the Devil's Burn, flows through Ard- 

chronie. 

Caoilisidh the Place of the Narrow. 

An Claigionn the Skull, is a hillock near Caolaig Bridge. 
Also, Ach-a-Chlaiginn, Field of the Skull ; An Cragan 
Soilleir, the bright little rock ; Poll nan Gobliar, Goats' 
Slack ; Creag Ghlas, Gray Rock. 
P. 5. Clais a' Bkaid-choillH.&zel Clump Dell. 
P. 6. Crianbhad Small Clump or Withered Clump, not Grian- 
bhad of O.S.M. 

18 



274 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

P. 7. Coylum, better from cuing-leum ; same meaning. 
P. 9. Bard, common in the Heay Country, and derived from 
English ward ; not Norse. Asaireadh or asaradh is 
elsewhere fasanadh, good hill pasture. 

P. 11. Meall na h-ugaig, not Meall na Cuachaige. The latter is 
the O.S.M. form, which I was wrongly informed to be 
correct. ? cf. Sron 'n ugaidh. 
P. 11. Coire Bhenneit Near Meall Bhenneit. 
P. 12. Creag(a) Raoiridh means Ryrie's Rock ; cf. Leac Roithridh. 
P. 15. Loch Struaban. The MS. referred to is in the Advocates' 

Library, Edinburgh. 
P. 15. On last line read dheirg. 
P. 16. Abhainn dubhach Unverified and doubtful. 

Allt Coire Ruchain, not Allt coir an Ru chain (O.S.M,). 
P. 17. Allt Eileag Doubtless means Burn of Eileag's ; for eileag, 

v. p. 237, and cf. Eileag Bada-Challaidh. 
Oykell, G. Oiceil. 
P. 20. Achnagart read enclosures. 

EDDKRTON. 

Altnamain -the Inn is called Tigh a' Mhinaidh, Moor 

House ; also often " the Half-way House." 
Cnoc a' Chlaiyinn Skull Hill, a little to the south of 

Easter Fearn ; otherwise called 

Cnoc Dubh eadar da Allt a' Chlaiginn Black Hill between 
two burns of the Skull. Here tradition locates a Scan- 
dinavian treasure. 

P. 25. Baile na' Foitheachan means Stead of the places of lawns or 
greens ; faitkche. has come to be sounded foi' ; cf. Foy 
Lodge. 

P. 26. Pollagharry Pool of the Cutting ; a thunderbolt once fell 
here, and made a cutting in the soil. Gearraidh in the 
other sense, N. gerfri, is not found on the Mainland. 
F. 27. 1. 8, for "seems to be" read "is." 

Daan, cf. In ti eduction, p. 1. 

P. 28. Cnocan na Goibhnidh should probably be Cnocan na 
Gaimhne, Hillock of the Stirks. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 275 

P. 29. Allt na Con-each read Allt ncC Coireach. 

P. 30. Cnoc Thorcaill (O.S.M.), read Cnoc Chorcaill ; also Coire 

GhorcaiLL 
Cnoc a' Chlachain : the clachan in question was rather the 

old church of Kincardine. 
P. 31. Dun Alaisgaig means the Fort of All's Strip, N. Ali-skiki. 

TAIN. 

P. 32. Baile-Dhubhthaich boidheach, Dornoch na goirt, 
Sciobul nan ubhlan, 's Bil an arain choirc ; 
Eiribul nan coileagan, Dim-Robain a' chail, 
Goillspidh nan sligean dubh, 's Drum-muigh a' bharr. 
This, one of our best known topographical rimes, charac- 
terises Tain, Dornoch, Skibo, Bil, Embo, Dunrobin, 
Drummuie. Translation spoils it. 

P. 35. Cnoc nan Aingeal is the small hill, now cut through by 
the railway, north-west of the old chapel ; the road to 
the cemetery crosses the cutting by a bridge. 
Cnocanmealbhain : read Cnocan Mealbhain, Hillock of the 

best grass. 
P. 36. An aideal cannot come from N. vafrill ; Norse & would 

here disappear in Gaelic. 
P. 37. 1. 3, drochaid an obh: bh is here sounded long; pronounced 

ow, with a lingering emphasis on w. 
P. 38. Muileann and Allt Luaidh : better Luathaidh. 
P. 40. 1. 14, read dhuibh, 

FBARN. 

P. 41. Balmuchy : muchaidh may be Pictish, cf. Welsh mochyn, a 
pig. If so the old form would have been Pitmuchy, 
with which cf. Pitmachie in Strathbogie. 

P. 43. Allan : Clay of Allan is in G. Criadhach Alain Mhoir, 
Clayey Place of Meikle Allan. The criadhach is a 
Gaelic echo of Pictish Allan, meaning apparently " a 
swampy place." Cf. the Pictish Lovat, root lov t wash ; 
translated into Gaelic as a Mkor'oich, the sea plain. 

P. 45. 1. 10, read a' chailleach. 

1. 14, read Got ; so also in 1. 16, and p. 48, 1. 29. 

P. 47. 1. 8, read Rocktield. 



276 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

NlGG. 

P. 51. Pitcalnie, G. Baile-chailnidh : tliis difficult name may be 
from the root seen in Gaulish, caleto-, hard, representing 
a primitive Caletoniacon. 

P. 53. Big Audle : derivation possible but doubtful. G. not found. 
P. 54. Sul Ba, read Suil Ba. 
P. 56. 1. 11, read dhuibh. 

11. 12, 13, for an port read am port. 
P. 57. 1. 'JO, read toin. 

LOGIE. 

At Shandwick Farm is a tiny burn called Dourag, the 
Little Water, from O.G., dobur ; of. Aldourie, Dores, in 
G. Dobhrag. 

KlLMUIR. 

P. 63. 1. 23, read Smiths'. 

Apitauld : the first syllable is aih t a kiln. There was of 

old a kiln close to the site of the present smithy, and 

the name applies only to that spot. The old ford on the 

Balnagown Water was lower down. 
High up on the hill above Inchandown Farm is Clack 

Seipeil Odhair, Stone of the Dun Chapel ; a large 

granite boulder, which is now near the Newmore march, 

and of old probably formed part of it. 
P 68. Strathrory : uar in the Reay Country means a landslip, as 

well as a torrent of rain ; near the Coag there are great 

slides of boulder clay on the steep banks of the river. 

Cf. Allt Uaraidh, behind Abriachan, Inverness. 
Plubag, the little " plumping " place ; from a tiny gurgling 

burn ; cf . an Uidh Phlubach. 

ROSSKEEN. 

P. 70. Invergordon : in G. an fiud/w, the Point ; "I was in 
Invergordon," bha mi air an Rudha. I have also heard 
Rudha Nach-breacaidh. Port Nach-breacaidh, Invergor- 
don Ferry. 

P. 71. Achnacloich : G. Ach' na Cloi', Field of the Stone. There 
must have been one stone in some way remarkable. In 
point of fact, there are some very large travelled 
boulders of granite in the place. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 277 

P. 72. 'Above Cuillich is BaiV a' Mhuilaich, Summit Stead. 
Cuillich itself G., Cuinglich, is better taken as cuing- 
laich, from cuinge, narrowness. The meaning is in any 
case the same. 
Coire-ghoibhnidh : better Coire Ghaimhne, Stirk Corry. 

P. 73. 1. 2. Mylne-cliaggane of the record is still remembered as 
Muikann a' Chlagain, Mill of the Clapper. It was on 
the Strathrusdale river (or Black River), about 200 
yards from its junction with the Averon. The straight, 
steep road, a quarter of a mile west of Tolly Farm, 
between the public road and the White Bridge on 
Averon was of old, " before it was made," called Cadha 
Fionntain, Finntan's Path, obviously an ancient name. 
Nearly a mile east of Dalnacloich Farm, in the march 
between Newmore and Ardross, and close to the south 
side of the public road, is a big granite block called now 
Clack Ceann-a-mkeoir, as if Stone of the Finger-tip. 
The story goes that here a lad's finger point was cut off 
to ensure his recollecting the position of the march. In 
1571 it appears in an account of the marches of New- 
more as " the marchstone called Clachinnumoir," which 
suggests the real name to be Clack an Neo' Mhoir, 
Stone of Newmore, of which the modern form is a 
corruption. 

* ALNESS. 

P. 75. Alness : cf. also Alauna, Alaunos, and Alaunium in Gaul 

(Holder : Alt-Celtischer Sprachshatz). 
P. 76. Balnacraig : parts of Balnacraig Farm, north of the public 

road, are called Caoilisidk, the narrow place or stripe ; 

and the Sial ; cf. siaban, a sand drift. 
Dalgheal is locally pronounced in G. Dail-ghil, a locative 

form meaning " at the white dale." In English it is 

pronounced Dal-yil, thus proving its identity with the 

common Dalziel. 
P. 77 F ' yrisk: the spelling Foireis is inadequate: rather Faoighris. 

I fear that the name is Pictish. 



278 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

P. 78. A',i Lainn : also called Lainn a* Choirc, the Oat-flat or 
enclosure. The Blar Borraich is a somewhat extensive 
moor, and covers more than is contained in Lainn. The 
narrow spit of land between Allt nan Caorach and the 
Allt Granda at their junction is an t-Eilean Dubh, the 
Black Isle a peninsula. 

Meall an Tuirc : from some points near Glenglass School 
this hill is the perfect picture of a colossal boar. 

P. 79. Cnoc Coille Bhrianain I have now got as Cnoc Gille Mo- 
Bhrianaig, Hill of the follower of St Brendan. This is 
doubtless the genuine form. On Cnocan, the Hillock, in 
Glenglass, are Blar nan Ceann and Fuaran Blar nan 
Ceann, Moor of the Heads and Well of the Moor of the 
Heads, with legend of a combat. At Tigh na Creige 
moss is Fuaran Bod-muice. Fuaran Dhruim Dhuibh 
Ruigh Bhannaich, Well of the Black Ridge of the 
Bannock-slope, is behind Cnoc na Mbine, Moss-Hill, in 
Glenglass. Fuaran Seachd-goil, Well of seven Boilings, 
is at Ruigh 'n Fhuarain, Well-slope, between Boath and 
Glenglass. It is said to bubble up through the sand in 
seven distinct jets. Torr a' Bholcain is a knoll near the 
path between B. and G. as one comes in sight of 
Swordale. Torran Dubh Gob na Coille, Black knoll (at 
the) Point of the Wood, is near the same path where the 
burn bends at right angles near the Boath peat-mosses. 
There is not a vestige of wood anywhere near it. 
Clack nam Ban, The Women's Stone, is north of Kilder- 
morie ; so called from some women having perished 
there in a snowstorm while crossing from Strathcarron. 
A' Chlach Goil, the Boiling Stone, is on the drove road 
between Strathrusdale and Ardgay. Those who used 
the road boiled water there. 

P. 83. Multovy, better Pictish Moltomagos, wedder plain. The 
original Multovy was the level part ; west of it, now part 
of the farm, was Baile nan Seobhag, Hawks' Stead. The 
long Clais at the back was reclaimed within the last 
thirty years or so. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 279 

P. 83. Ceislein : there are two, viz., Ceislein a' Choire Dhuibh and 
Ceislein a' Choire Bhreac (sic). For meaning cf. Ceis 
Coraind, Sow of Corann, the name of a hill in Ireland. 
,, Averon : the termination -on, more probably represents 
primitive -ona ; Pictish. On the Averon below the 
intake to Dalmcre is Poll d Charrachaidh. 

KILTEARN. 

South of Loch Glass is a rocky place called an Fhiaclaich, 
the Place of Teeth (O.S.M. Feachdach) ; also Beul no, 
Fiaclaich, Mouth of the Tooth-place,, and Coire Granda 
na Fiaclaich, Ugly Corry of, etc. Near this is Afeall a' 
Chrimeig (long m). At west end of Caoilisidh, above 
the Lodge, is Meall-a-Bheithinnidh (? Mheithinnidh) 
close ei ; cf. Bealach Bheithinnidh. West of it is an 
Toman Coinnich, the Mossy Knoll, and between the two 
is Creay 'ic Gille Ch&r, Rock of the son of the Swarthy 
Lad. 

P. 87. Balcony : the narrow flat between the Allt Granda and 
Allt-na-Sgiach to the south of the public road is known 
in Gaelic as Innis a' Choltair, Coulter Mead. There is 
also Sgorr a' Choltair, Point of the Coulter, in Glenglass. 
Collar is an early Irish loan from Lat. cutter, and seems 
to have been applied to places from their shape, as it was 
to the razorbill (coltraich), from the form of his bill. Cf. 
Portincoulter, the old name for the Meikle Ferry, where 
there is a coulter-shaped point on the Ross side. The 
various Culters and Coulters, popularly derived from 
citl-t\r, back land a rather harsh and doubtful formation 
may be compared. They are now pronounced Couter, 
in early spelling Cultyr, which phonetically represents 
the Scottish pronunciation before / became silent. 

P. 91. Glaon Uachdarack, Upper Clyne, is now Woodlands. 

P. 92. On Allt na Lathaid is Drochaid na Lathaid, otherwise 
Drochaid Chrabart. Feith Dhubh 'ic Gillandrais, Gil- 
landers' Black Hag, is said to be on the march between 
Tulloch, Kildermorie, and Dianaich. 



280 PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 

P. 93. Bealach Collaidh is the gap between Inchbae and Coire- 
bhacaidh. Near it is Bealach nam Brbg, Gap of the 
Brogues, the scene of a famous fight between the 
Munros and the Mackenzies. 

KlLLEARNAN. 

P. 146. 1. 8, read failligh. 

1. 12, for "of "read " cf." 

CONTIN. 

Clack Und(ajrain (possibly Chund(a)rain) is at the head 
of Strathconon. *? Cf. Coire Chundrain. 

P. 154. Main, G. Meinn, is at the present day understood to 
denote the district of which Porin is part. This is about 
three miles east of Invermany. In view of its being a 
district name it is difficult to connect \vith G. meinn, ore ; 
more probably Pictish ; ? root seen in G. meith, sappy ; 
Welsh mwydo, soften. 
Conon Bridge is in G. Drochaid SguideiL 

KINTAIL. 

P. 179. Inverinate. For the dropping of dh in Inbhir-dhuinnid, 
cf. , Inver-uglas for Inbhir-dhubhghlais ; Aberdeen, G. 
Obair-eatham for Obair-dheathaiu. The possibility of 
this dropping of dk is always worth considering in cases 
where Inver or Aber is immediately followed by a vowel 
in Gaelic pronunciation, e.g., Abriachan, G. Ob'r- 
itheachan. 

LOCHCARKON. 

P. 199. Coire Fionnaraich fionnar, cool is from fionn- or ionn- 
to, against, and fuar ; M. Ir. indfhuar. 

APPLECROSS. 

About a mile west of Airigh-Dhriseack, Bramble Shieling, 
is Draoraig, N. dreyr-vik, Blood Bay. 

GAIRLOCH. 

P. 221. 1. 4, faithir is probably fo-thir, under-land ; it can 
hardly be the Irish fachair. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 281 

P. 229. Rudha an t-Sasain : the Sasan is a rock on the lee side of 
which boats ride by the painter, which affords the most 
satisfactory explanation of the name. 

P. 239. Loch na Fideil : the Fideal, whose haunt was in this loch, 
was at last encountered by a strong man named 
Eoghainn. " Bha comhrag eadar Eoghainn agus an 
Fhideal. ' Ceum air do cheum, Eoghainn,' ars' an 
Fhideal, 's i teannadh air an duine. * Ceum air do 
cheum, a Fhideil,' ars' E6ghainn, 's e teannadh air an 
Fhideil a rithist. Mharbh Eoghainn an Fhideal, agus 
mharbh an Fhideal Eoghainn." There was a combat 
between Ewen and the Fideal. " A step on your step, 
Ewen," said the Fideal, pressing on the man. " A step 
on your step, Fideal," said Ewen, pressing hard in turn. 
Ewen killed the Fideal, and the Fideal killed Ewen. (It 
is worth noting that the Fideal is feminine.) 

LOCHBROOM. 
P. 255. Glutan, G. Glotan. 

Bad-a-Chrbnaidh and Clais Bad-a-Chrbnaidh are at Bad- 
rallach ; cf. Ardchronie. 



INDEX. 



INDEX. 



NOTE. The stress accent is indicated by a full stop placed before the accented 
syllable ; e.y, Ach.duart is accented on the second syllable, .Achilty on the first* 
In the case of obsolete names the accent is usually left unmarked. 



Abbey of Fearn, xix., 40 
Abhainn a' Chro, 176 
Abhainn an .Fhasaigh, 

233 
Abhainn an .Fhorsa, 267 

.Bhuadhchaig, 198 

.Bruachaig, 232 

.Chonnain, 151 

.Coilich, 183 

.Conag, 176 

.Croean, 201 

.Gaorsaig, 182 

.Dhroma, 252 

Ghlas, 220 

Gleann na Muice, 242 

Gruididh, 166 

lii, 230 

na Ftiirneis, 234 

nan Eun, 90 

nan .Leumannan, 228 

.Poibliclh, 18 

.Kaonaidh, 256 

Ruadh, 221 

.Seile, 171 

.Siaghaidh, 182 

Srath na Sealg, 243 

Traill, 210 
Abianemoir, 74 
.Acairseid .Ghiuthais, 224 
Ach-a-bhanaidh, 193 
Ach-a-bhraigh, 258 
Ach-a-.chonalaich, 184 
Ach-a-dhachd, 176 
Achadh an Droighean, 

178 

Cul-a-Mhill, 218 

da .Tearnaidh, 185 

Ghill-Iosa, 21 

gbitirain, 171 

nan .Uirighean, 228 
Ach' a' .Ghargaiu, 185 



Achan.ault, 160 
Achan.darach, 185 
Ach.arn, 81 
Ach.duart, 258 
Achen.drean, 256 
Achen.inver, 258 
Ach.iarnaig, 109 
Achilti.buie, 259 
.Achilty, 148 
Achimmoir, 59 
Achin.drean, 252 
Achin.tee, 195 
Achin.toul, 70 
Achin.traid, 193 
Ach.leach, 89 
Ach.lochan, 258 
Ach.lorachan, 155 
Ach.lunachan, 252 
Ach. martin, 120 
Ach.more, 184, 250 
Ach' nan .Cairidhean, 256 
Achna. carry, 115 
Achna.clerach. 163 
Achna. cloich, 71 
Achna.garron, 70 
Achna. gart, 20, 172 
Achna. goul, 78 
Ach' na Fuirneis, 234 
Ach' na h-Airde, 261 
Achna. hannet, 19 
Achna. hinich, 185 
Ach na h-Uamhach, 19 
Achna. sheen, 161 
Achna.shelloch, 196 
Achna. soul, 106 
Achna.taghart, 172 
Ach-negie, 243 
Ach-railean, 53 
Ach - ruigh-'n - fheadhail, 

239 
Achta.bannock, 106 



Achtay.toralan, 186 
Achter.cairn, 226 
Achter.need, 97 
Aeh.vanie, 200 
Aideal, 36 
.Aignish, 269 
.Airceal, 247 
Aird of .Coigach, 261 
Aird .Thoranish, 269 
Airde Bhan, 203 
Airie.cheirie, 170 
Airigh Fhliuch, 5 

nam Bard, 217 

nan .Cruineachcl, 206^ 

xlv. 

nan .Druineach, 215 
.Alcaig, 115 
Aldain.albanache, 60 
Aldanaherar, 74 
.Aldie, 35 
.Alladale, 8, 22 
.Allagro, 272 

.Allan, 43, 75 
Allan.bank, 137 
.Allanfield, 94 
Allanglack, 137 
Allan. grange, 137 
Allan.rich, 137 
.Allavat, 272 
.Allerton, 126 
Allt a' Bhaid-choill, 245 

a' Bhaid.Rabhain, 244 

a' Bhealaich Eidh- 

eannaich, 92 

a' .Bhraniain, 273 

a' .Chaoldoire, 221 

a' Chlaiginn, 15 

a' Choir' Aluinn, 156 

a' Choire Rainich, 102 

a' .Chonais, 199 

a' .Chuingleum, 230 



286 



PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CEOMARTY. 



Allta' ChuirnDheirg, 204 

a' Ghlais-atha, 11 

a' Ghlastuil Mhoir, 165 

a' Ghuail, 15 

a' Mheirbh - ghiuthais 

15 

a' Mhuilinn, 246 

an t-Sagairt, 195 

an Damhain, 52 

an Bilein Ghuirm, 102 

an .Fhasaidh, 152 

an .Leothaid .Ghain- 

eamhaich, 177 

an Leth-ghlinne, 248 

an Euigh Shleagh- 

aich, 199 

an t-Srathain, 255 

an .Turaraich, 218 

an Uisge Mhath, 248 

Beithe, 165 

Chill .Eiteachan, 255 

.Clachach, 36 

Coir' a' .Chliabhain, 

165 

Coir a' Chundrain, 102 

Coire Lair, 176 

.Coire Mhaileagain, 

175 

Coire Rol, 209 

Coire .Ruchain, 274 

Doir-.ithigean, 199 

.Domhain, 9 

- .Dubhach, 123 

.Dubhag, 92 

- .Ducharaidh, 161 

.Ealag, 17 

.Eiginn, 246 

.Eiteachan, 3 

- .Folais, 86, 87, 243 

Giuthas, 224 

- .Granda, 90, 205 

- Grugaig, 30 

Gus-ligh, 168 

- Lair, 169 

.Luathaidh, 38 

.Mhucarnaich, 169 

.Miagro, 268 

nan .Albanach, 60 

na Bana-mhorair, 102 

na Cailce, 91 

na Faic, 152 

nan Cnuimheag, 81 

nan Coisichean, 258 

na Fainich, 154 

na .Fuaralaich, 72 

na .Fuirrid, 79 

na Glomaich, 181 



Allt na Guaille, 205 


Arda.chulish, 164 


na h-Annaid, 155 


Ard an t-Sabhail, 173 


na Moine, 205 


Ard.charnaich, 253 


na h-Uamhach, 220 


Ard.chronie, 3, 281 


Alltna.main, 28 


Ard.darroch, 193 


Allt nam Biast, 218 


Ar.delve, 186 


na .Mucarachd, 205 


Ard.essie, 245 


nan Caorach, 90 


Arde.vall, 126 


nan Corp, 216 


Ard. gay, 4 


.Ormaidh, 238 


Ard.heslaig, 207 


.Rapach, 16 


Ardin.caple, 85, 86. 


.Rapaidh, 68 


Ardindrean, 251 


.Ruisteil, 260 


Ardi.val, 35, 99 


.Saraig, 220 


Ard.jachie, 33 


Tarsuiiin, 16, 68 


Ard.lair, 234 


.Tausamhaig, 205 
Toll an .Lochain, 246 


Argyle, xv. 
Ard.mair, 255 


- Uamh' a' Chleibh, 221 


Ard.raeaaach, 126, 130, 


.Undalain, 175 


xxiii. 


Alltan Domhnuil, 5 


Ard.mhanaidh, 27 


Labhar, 212 


Ard.more, 26 


Mailis, 167 


Ard na Claise Moire, 205 


Rabhraidh, 185 


Ardnadoler, 49 


Almaddow, 74 


Ardnagaag, 68 


Almond, 1. 


Ardna.goine, 260 


.Alness, 75 


Ardna.grask, 109 


Altan.dow, 260 


Ard na h-.Eigheamh, 255 


.Altanish, 270 


Ardnan.iaskin, 194 


.Altas, 18 


Ard nan Long, 253 


Alt.greshan, 227 


Ard.narff, 184 


Altua.breac, 163 


.Ardoch, 82 


Altna.harra, 224 


.Ardochdainn, 125, 193 


Alt-na-.harrie, 250 


Ai'd.ross, 71 


Altna.lait, 92 


Ard.roy, 76 


Altna.skiach, 89 


Ard-tulach, 178 


Alun, 76 


Ar.dullie, 88 


.Amat, 6, 18 


Ari.drishaig, 216 


An Airceal, 247 


Ari.nackaig, 196 


An Da Mhas, 207 


.Arity, 107 


Anan.caun, 231 


.Arkaig, 106 


.Ankerville, 53 


Arklet, 106 


Annat, 53, 154, 155, 209, 


.Arnish, 270 


249, Ixiv. 


Arnoche, 126 


Aoineadh air chrith, 174 


.Arpa.feelie, 136 


Aoinidh, 173 


Arrie, 140 


Apit.auld, 63, 276 


.Arscaig, 189 


.Applecross, 201, xiv., Ix. 


.Arta.faillie, 146 


Applecross Mains, 204 


Arthreis, 49 


Arabella, 59 


.Assarrow, 82 


.Aradie, 107 


.Assvnt, 78 


Araird, 212 


Ath Darack, 209 


Arar, 107 


.Athan .Salach, 45 


.Arboll, 47 


.Attadale, 195, 205 


.Arcan, 108 


Auch.ederson, 106 


Arcan.deith, 106, 133 


Auchna.gullane, 21 


.Ardach, 186 


Auchnen.tyne, 123 


Ardachath, 74 Auch.onachie, 107 



INDEX. 



287 



Auch.oyle, 64 


Bad-sgalaidh, 84 


Auchta.scailt, 246 


Bail' a' Bhlair, 139 


Auchter.flow, 134 


Bail' a" .Mhinistir, 208 


Auchter.tyre, 186 


an Achaidh, 6 


Auldmuiramoir, 59 


an .Donnaidh, 6 


Auldualeckach, 21 


an Fhraoich, 6, 41 


Auley, 38 


an Loin, 6 


Aultan.fearn, 73 


a' Phuill, 51 


Ault.bea, 236 


Bean an Droidich, 7 


Aultchon.ier, 167 


Baile Chaluim, 6 


Ault.dearg, 167 


Baile.charn, 24 


Ault.gowrie, 106 


Baile .Meadhonach, 6 


Ault.granda, 78 


na h-atha, 47 


Ault.guish, 165 


na Creige, 154 


Aultna.sow, 189 


nam .Foitheachan, 


Ault.vaich, 107 


25, 274 


.Avernish, 188 


nam .Fuaran, 23, 41 


.Averon, 83, 1. 


nan .Seobhag, 278 


.Avic, 264 


.Nodha, 144 


.Avoch, 132 


na Toin, 59 


Avon .Chalascaig, 254 


Baile.sios, 221 




Bail' .Uachdarach, 7 


Bac an .Airigh, 152 


iia Coite, 9 


Bac an Aorigh, 243 


Bakerhill, 94 


Bac an Leith-Choin, 228 


Bakki, 264 


Bac nan .Cisteachan, 217 


Bala.chladich, 46, 88, 118 


.Bacavat, 262, 272 


Bal.aldie, 47 


Back, 264 


Balan.lochan, 73 


Bada.chonachar, 66 


Balan.rishallich, 72 


Bada.chro, 223 


Bala.vil, 119 


Bada.crain, 250 


Bala.vullich, 109 


Bad a' Chreamha, 194 


Bal.blair, 27, 43, 121 


Badaidh nan Ramh, 223 


.Balconie, 87, xxv. 


Bad a' Mhanaich, 160 


Bal. cherry, 33 


Badan.daraich, 20 


Bal.doon, 73 


Badan.tional, 223 


Bal.four, 65 


Badan.luchie, 160 
Badan Binn-eoin, 29 


Bal.galkin, 117 
Bal.goil, 116 


Badan .Vugie, 209 
Bada.voon, 4 
Bad.bea, 245 
Bad.call, 71, 208, 245 
Baddamhroy, 94 


Balgun.eirie, 144 
Balgun.loune, 145 
.Balgy, 209 
Bal.iachrach, 118 
Balin.drum, 43 


Baddans, 83 
Badebay, 64 


Balin.tore, 41, 143 
Balin.traid, 65 


Baden, erb, 118 
Baden.scallie, 258 


Bal.keith, 34, xlviii. 
Bal.kil, 34 


Baden.tarbet, 259 
Bad.fearn, 236 
Bad.grianan, 122 


Wester Ballano, 123 
Balla.chraggan, 60, 76 
Balla.voulin, 78 


Badi.caul, 187 
Bad.luachrach, 245 
Badna.guin, 61 


Bal.leigh, 26 
Balli. cherry, 1ZZ 
Ballin.dalloch, 107 


Bad .Ormaidh, 238 


Ballin.roich, 43 


Bad Rabhain, 244 


Ballinsirach, 49 


Bad. rain, 116 
Bad.rallach, 248 


Balli.skilly, 12^ 
Ballna.morich, 50 



Bal.loau, 48, 81, 118 
Bal.lone, 133, 215 
Balma.carra, 185 
Bal.mainach, 81 
Bal.menach, 118 
Bal.moral, 41 
Bal.muchy, 41, 275 
Bal.mungie, 129 
Balna.been, 117 
Balna.bruach, 46, 52 
Balna.curach, 9 
Balna.cra, 196 
Balna.crae, 92 
Balna.craig, 73, 76 
Balna.gall, 36 
Balna.gore, 42 
Balna.gown, 63, 108 
Balna.grotchen, 81 
Balna.guie, 137 
Balna.guisich, 71 
Balna.hiush, 21 
Bal.nain, 5, 105 
Balna.kyle, 137 
Bahia. paling, 52 
Bal.nard, 78 
Balna.touch, 38 
Bal.nault, 154 
Bal.no, 110 
Bal.nuig, 47 
Bal.reillan, 118 
Bal.uachrach, 118 
Bal.vack, 65 
Bal.vaird, 119 
Bal.vatie, 108 
Bal.vraid, 110, xxv. 
.Banans, 126 
.Banchory, 152 
.Bangor, 152 
Barbara.ville, 65 
.Barutown, 144 
Bard, 8, 80, 81, 83 

ail Asairidh, 9 

.Gobhlach, 122 

Loisgte, 123 

Mhoire, 44 

naii Laogh, 81 
Bayble, 270 
.Bayfield, 53, 140 
.Bealach, 214 

Bealach an t-Suidhe, 214 

Bheithinnidh, 234 

nan Corr, 105 

.Ratagaiu, 172 

Loch .Beaunacharan, 152 
.Beannanau .Beaga, <i57 
Bearnas a' Chlaidh- 
eimh, 60 



288 



PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



Beauly, 40 
.Becamir, 264 
.Beidic, 264 
.Beidicean, 264 
Beinn a' Chaisgein, 241 

a' Chaisteil, 102 

a' Chearcaill, 231 

a' .Chlachain, 202 

a' Chlaidheimh, 243 

.Ailiginn, 212 

a' Mhi\inidh, 233 

an Eoin, 225, 261 

Bhan, 213 

Bhric, 224 

Clach an Fheadain, 

29 

Damh, 214 

Dearg, 212 

.Dronaig, 191 

Eighe, 232 

.Eildeach, 254 
_ .Eunacleit, 252 

.Feusaig, 196 

Fhada, 174 

.Garaig, 36 

.Ghobhlach, 248 

Lair, 237 

na h-Eaglaise, 209 

nan .Oighreagan, 30 

Ramh, 167 

Tarsuinn, 14, 74 

Ulamhie, 18 
Beit, 264 
Bekkr, 264 
Bel.dornie, 180 
.Bellfield, 136 
Belma.duthy, 137 
Belton, 138 
Benacus, 152 
Bennetefield, 9, 133 
Ben .Attow, 174 

.Garrick, 35 

Hope, 189 

.Udlamain, 187 

.Wyvis, 102 
.Bendeallt, 79 
.Bcrisay, 266 
.Bernera, 266 
Bennetfield, 11 
Berry.hill, 131 

A' Bhean-mhuinntir, 45 
A' .Bhiacaich. 168 
.Blughasary, '256 
Big Audle, 53 
Big Sand, 227 
.Bindal, 46 
Binebreychst, 74 



Binn Airigh a' Charr, 

234 

.Birchfield, 19 
Birkis, 121 

Bishop's Kin.kell, 115 
Blaad, 198 
Black.dyke, 106 
Black.hill, 53 
Black Isle, xxiii. 
Black. stand, 126 
Black.wells. 94 
Blair, 108 
Blair.dow, 144 
Blair.foid, 134, xlviii. 
Blair.leath, 35, 139 
Blar a' Chatb, 43 , 

Earach, 48 

Liath, 35 

nam .Feadag, 145 
Blarna.bee, 156 
Blarna.coi, 141 
Blarna.levoch, 251 
Blar.ninich, 101 
.Blaven, 224 

Boar of Badenoch, 83 

Boath, 80 

.Bodaeh a' .Chleirich, 249 

an .Rudha, 45 

Beag, 15 

Mor, 15 

Bodaich Dhubh Binn 

Eighe, 232 

Bodha a' Bhuraich, 260 
Am Bodha Ruadh, 228 
Bog, The, 59 
Bogan.durie, 88 
Bog.bain, 36 
Bog.buie, 115 
Bog na h-.Eileig, 145 
Bog of Shannon, 135 
Boggie.well, 130 
Bog.riabhach, 92 
.Bogrow, 25 
Bo.huntin, 148 
Boisdale, 224 
Boor, 230 
.Boranish, 265 
.Boreray, 265 
Borve, 265 
.Bosta, 264 
Botagan, 215 
Both Bhig, 80 
Both Mhor, 80 
.Bottacks, 101 
Bottle Island, 260 
.Braclach, 118 
Brae, 19, 122, 230 



Braeau.tra, 73, 185 
Brae.langwell, 9, 122 
Brae. more, 252 
Brae.vil, 138 
Braes of .Ullapool, 254 
.Brahan, 104, xxv. 
Braigh .Thoiriosdal, 224 

Thollaidh, 73 
Brakach, 74 
Bran (River), 165 
.Braonan, 84, 241 
.Brataig, 272 
.Bratanish, 270 
.Breabag, 183 
.Breacleit, 269 
.Breac' radh, 73 
.Breasclete, 269 
.Brecklach, 198 
.Breidhnis, 269 
.Breivat, 272 
.Breivig, 272 
.Brenachis, 59 
Brin, 105, 241 
Broom.hill, 65, 109, 130 
.Broomtown, 50 
.Bruachaig, 232 
.Bruadale, 265 
Brucefield, 45 
Bruich. glass, 123 
Bruthach na Cliubha 

240 

na .Gearrachoille 247 
Brynletter, 22 
.Buadhchaig, 198 
Buailna.luib, 236 

Bun an Fhuarain, 5 
Bun.chairn, 144 
Bunda.lloch, 180 
Burn.side, 123 
.Burntown, 144 
.Burracks, 66 
.Busbheinn, 224 
Buttis, 39 

Ca.baan, 107 
.Cabar, 161 
.Cabar Pnais, 90 
Cabharstaigh, 271 
.Cabhsair an Righ, 48 
.Cabhsair Fliuch, 82 
.Cabhsair Mor, 48 
.Cabrach, 61 
Ca.buie, 169 
.Cachaileath Dearg, 226 
.Cadboll, 40, 89 

Mount, 40 
Ca.dearg, 9 



INDEX. 



289 



Cadh' a' Bhaillidh, 168 

a' Bhreacaich, 52 

an Ruigh, 57 

an t-.Sagairt, 58 
Cadha a' .Bhodaich, 57 

cuiLlosaidh, 57 

.Dhubhthaich, 176 

.Fionntain, 277 

Pliuch, 164 

.losal, 29 

na .Biacaich, 168 

na Faoilinn, 204 
- na Mine, 217 

nan .Caorach, 57 

nan Damh, 24 

nan .Sgadan, 216 

nan .Suibhean, 57 

.Neachdiiin, 56, 57 

Port an Druidh, 57 

.Sgriodaidh, 57 

Togail toin, 57 
.Caidhean, 153 
.Cailleach, 45, 249, 252 
.Cailleach Head, 249 
Cairidh Cinn - chardain 

273 

Cairmie na Marrow, 60 
.Caiseachan. 160 
Oaisteal Cml-bhaicidh,117 
Caisteil a Cloinne, 2 :} 
.Calabost, 265 
.Calaseaig, 254 
Calatruim, 68 
.Callanish, 269 
.Calldarais, 208 
Callechumetulle, 47 
.Callernish, 269 
Calna.kil, 206 
.Calrossie, 58 
.Camalt, 195 
Camas a' Charr, 237 

a' .Chlarsair, 209 
.Camasaidh, 224 
Camas a' .Ivlhaoraich, 

250 
an .Eilein, 207 

an Fhiodh, 244 

an Leum, 208 
Camas .coille, 261 

Drol, 209 
.Camasie, 159 
Camas .longart, 181 

na .Faochaige, 261 

na .gaul, 245 

na h-Eirbhe, 224 

nam Ploc, 222 

nan .Doriiag, 236 



Camas nan Gall, 173 

Ruadh, 208 

nan .Sanndag, 227 

nan .Ruadhag, 249 

.Raintich, 222 
Cambus.currie, 25, 33 
.Caochan .Fearna, 223 
Gaol .Arcach, Ixxiii. 

Beag, 227 
.Campaichean, 217 
Camper, down, 123 
Camray, 49 
Camus, donn, 194 
Camus. teel, 204 
Camus. terach, 203 
Camus.linnie, 181 
Camus.trolvaig, ^>28 
Can.ary, 38 
Can.reayan, 111 
Caolas a' Mhuill.ghairbh 

260 
-Capadal, 265 

Capernich, 123 
Caplich, 71, 86, 109 
Carbisdale, 20 
.Carishader, 270 

Carloway, 272 
Carr, 179 

Carn a' .Bhiorain, 247 

a' .Bhreabadair, 246 

Carnach, 248 
Carna.classar, 108 
Carn a' Choin Dheirg, 15 

a' Choiridh, 243 
Carnau Cruithneachd 

182, xlv. 
Cam an .lomair, 195 

an Liath.bhaid, 12 

an t'-Suidha, 217 
Carnasgeir, 249 

Carn.averon, 83 
Cam Beag, 237 

Bhren, 11 

Breac, 197 

Chaoruinn, 159 

.Cuinneag, 74 

Deas, 260 

.Deasgan, 4 

Dubh, 29, 180 

.eite,182 

- .Ghluasaid, 174 

Glas, 139 

Gorm-loch, 165 

lar, 260 

lurnain, 142 

Main, 74. 

Mathaidh, 26 



Carn Mhartuinn, 159 

na Beiste, 243 

na Breabaig, 183 

na Buaile, 153 

na Cloiche Moire, 154 

na Cre, 164 

na Feith .rabhain, 160 

na Fir Freig, 249 

na .Fuaralaich, 174 

na h-Annaid, 155 

nan Aighean, 102 

nan Dobhran, 191 
.Carnoch, 153 

.Sgolbaidh, 153 

Sonraichte, 83 

.Speireig, 14 
Carn.totaig, 68 
Carn Uilleim, 156 

.Salach, 12 
Carr, 179 
Carr Mor, 237 
Carrie. blair, 25 
Carron, 1, 192, xxxi. 
Carse of Bayfield, 53 
Car.tomie, 27 

Casaig, 208 

Castle Campbell, 182 
Castle .Corbet, 46 

- Craig, 52, 122 

Gloom, 182 

Grant, 68 

Hill, 67 

Hill of Cromarty, 126 

Leod, 98 

Castle of .Avoch, xviii 

132 
~ Cromarty, xviii., 

xxiii. 
.Dingwall, xviii. 

Elian, donan, 180, 

xix. 

Strome, xix. 

Castleton, 132 
.Cathair a' Phuirt. 227 

Bhan, 247 

Bheag, 225 

-Chruchoille, 232 

- Ruadh, 229 
Uathar Dubh, 29 
Ca.vin, 123 

C-eann an .Achaidh, 139 

.Locha, 208 

an oba, 188 

.Uachdarach, 83 
Ceanna.chruinn, 255 

Ceapaich, 144 
A' Chailleach, 45, 243 

19 



290 



PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



A' Chathair Dhubh, 222, 

246 

Chanderaig, 74 
.Chanonry, 12d 
.Chapelton, 122, 124 
.Chapeltown, 110, 144 
Chaplainry of St Reeule, 

127 ' 

.Charleston, 139 
-Charleetown, 225 
A' Chathair Bhan, 247 
A' Chathair Dhubh, 246 
A' Chipeanoch, 227 
A' Chraileag, 174 

Chulash, 29 

Cill .Chaointeort, 172 
Cill .Fhearchair, 175 
Cillean .Helpak, 49 
Cinn Liath, 197 
Claeh Airigh a' Mhin- 
istir, 84 

a' Mh&rlich, 69 

an .Fheadain, 29 

an .Tiompain, 99 

.Bhenneit, 133 

Ceann-.a-Mheoir, 278 

.Charaidh, 56 

.Cheannli, 248 

Goil, 277 

Meadhon .Latha, 33 

na .bogairie, 25 

na .Comhalach, 258 

na h-Annaid, 155 

nam Ban, 278 

nan Con Fionn, 199 

Ruaraidh Mhoir 'ic 

Caoigean, 202 

Seipeil Odhair, 276 

.Sgoilte, 165 

toll, 106 
Clach.uil, 106 
.Clachan .Biorach, 88 

- Dhu, 106 

Dubhthaich, 179 

Loch Bhraoin, 241 
Cladh a' Bhord Bhuidhe, 

248 

a' Chlachain, 192 

Ceann Loch .Beann- 

acharan, 156 

Chill Donnain, 248 

.Churadain, 78 

Eilein Mhartainn, 255 

Ma-Bhrl, 86 

M&nn, 156 

Inbhir-shannda, 238 

na h-Annait, 155, 249 



Cladh nan.Druineacb, 200 

Phorainn, 156 

Phris, 244 

Clais a' Bhaid Choille, 5 
Clais.darran, 111 
Clais.dhu, 66 
Clais Druim Bhathaich,83 
Clais na .Comraich, 32 

nam Mial, 81 
.Claona, 233 
.Claonaboth, 179 
Claran, 144 
Clare, 89 
Clashna.buiac, 77 
Clasin.ore, 50 
Clasna.muiach, 41 
Clay.pots, 131 
.Cleibisgeir, 271 
.Cleitshat, 267 
Clerk Island, 39 
Cliff, 240 

Cliff House, 240 

.Clisgro, 268 

Clootie Well, 60 

Clyne, 91 

Cnaigean na Leathrach, 

155 
Cuoc a' Bhoth, 80 

a' Bhreacaich, 95 

.Alasdair, 80 

a' .Mhargadaidh, 91 

a' .Mhinistir, 152 

a' Mhoid, 62 

an .Araid, 119 

an .Eireach, 145 

an .Liathbhaid, 29 
Cnocan .Mealbhain, 35 
Cnoc an oir, 107 

an Ruigh Ruaidh, 29 

an Sgath, 222 

an Teampuill, 88 

an t-Sabhail, 23 

an t-Seilich, 73 

an t-Sithean, 73, 159 

an .Tuairneil, 180 

an .Tubaist, 16 

Bad a' Bhacaidh, 29 

.Bealaidh, 46 

- Ceislein, 83, 279 

Chlachain, 30 

Chois, 119 

Chroisg, 80 

.Chuireadair, 82 

Coille .Bhrianain, 79, 

278 

Coille na .Tobarach, 

51, 54 



Cnoc .Coinnich, 51 

Druima.langnidh, 48 

Dubh, 48 

.Duchary, 83 

.Ghaisgeach, 52 

Gille-.churdaidh, 130 

Lady, 23 

.lea, 81 

- Leith Bhaid, 79 

na Croiche, 62, 193, 

254, 257 

nan .Carrachan, 155, 

222 

na .Fanaig, 119 

ua h-athan, 197 

na h-Iolaire, 164 

na h-uige, 155 

nan Aingeal, 35, 189, 

275 

nan .Culaidhean, 236 

nan .Lcacachun, 81 

nam Mult, 195 

- na Struidh, 28 

na .Tuppat, 12 
Cnoc.navie, 71, liii. 
Cnoc Ruigh Griag, 4 

Still, 67 

Thorcaill, 30 

udaia, 111. 

.Vabin, 89 
Coag, 61 
Coast, 230 
Cobhan, 224 
.Cobhasgeir, 271 
Cocked Hat Wood, 119 
Cocklikinich, 50 
.Coigach, 257 
.Coileachan, 168 
Coille .Eagascaig, 235 
Coille-gillie, 203 
Coille-righ, 181 
Coillen, 49 
Coilly.more, 70 

Na .Coineasan, 242 
Coir' a' Chonachair, 17 
Coir' an t-Seilich, 16 

a' .Ghrianain, 165 
Coire Attadale, 205 

an Fhamhair, 213 

Bhanaidh, 200 

Bheag, 167 

Bog, 11 

Ceud Chnoc, 215, 216 

.Dhomhain, 176 

.Dhuinnid, 179 

Feoil, 110 

.Fionnarach, 199 



INDEX. 



291 



Coire .Ghoibhnidh, 72 

Lair, 196 

.Mhaileagan, 7, 175 

- Mhic Cromuill, 211 

- Mhic Nobuill, 211 

- Mor, 15, 167 

nam Meagh, 8 

na Sorna, 190 

nan .Aradh, 214 

nan Laogh, 165 

Riabhach, 167 

Rol, 209 

- Liridh, 199 

.Sgamadail, 204 

.Thollaidh, 73 

- na Feola, 213 

na Poite, 213 

nam Mang, 167 

nan Each, 213 

Cois Mhic' ille Riabhaich, 

236 
Cois na .Pollacharach, 

238 

Cold.home, 135 
Cold.wells, 139 
.Colington, 144 
Colly, Cowie, 103 
Colony, 126 
.Comar, 149 
.Commonty, 38 
.Comrie, 149 
Comunn nan Caochan, 

167 

.Conachreig, 91, 76 
.Conaglen, 91 
.Conaghleann, 91 
.Conchra, 91, 186 
Condate, 147 
.Coneas, 91, 199, 242 
-Conglass, 91 
Connel Ferry, 185 
.Conon, 149, xviii. 
Conon.brae, 117 
.Contullich, 76, 91 
.Contin, 91, 147 
.Conval, 91 
.Coppachy, 234 
Cor. grain, 145 
Corn.hill, 9, 106 
.Cornton, 117 
.Corrachie, 133 
An .Corran, 208 
Corran, 82 

a' Bhaid.railleach, 248 
.Corran Chill .Donnain, 

248 
Correbruoch, 74 



Corrie.haUie, 110 
Corrie.muillie, 16, 164 
Corrie.vachie, 90 
Corrie.wick, 157 
Corrina.gale, 115 
Cony, 254 
Corry.hallie, 246 
Corry.halloch, 252, 257 
.Corslet, 130 
.Corvest, 9 
Cos Dubh Bean a' Ghrann- 

daich, 217 
.Cottcrton, 137 
Coul, 148, xxv. 
.Coulags, 195 
Coul.hill, 76 
.Coulin, 196 
Coul. more, 144 
Coulna.craig, 258 
Coulna.gour, 13, 119, 134 
Courthill, 193 
Cove, 229 
.Coylum, 7 
.Cracabhal, 267 
.Craggan, 29, 50 
.Craiceach, 207 
Craig, 185, 220 
Craig.breck, 139 
Craig, darroch, 153 
.Craigeam, 268 
Craigie.how, 140 
Craigpol.skavane, 22 
Craig. roy, 27 
Craigs, 10 
.Crannich, 72, 156 
An Crasg, 226 
Crask of .Findon, 118 
Craskag, 68 

An .Creachal Beag, 183 
.Creachann nan .Sgadan, 

84 
Creag a' Bhainne, 110 

a' Bhoth, 80 

a' .Chaisil, 181 

a' Chait, 20, 61 

a' .Chaoruinn, 163 

a' Choinneachan, 30 

a' .Ohriabaill, 179 
- a' Mhaim, 174 

an Dath, 218 

an .Fhithich, 101 

nan .Culaidhean, 225 

Bean an Tigh, 229 

.Challdris, 208 

.Chlachach, 165 

Ch6mhaidh, 230 

Eabhain, 16 



Creag .Ghiuthsachan, 242 

- .Harail, 54 

Illie, 14 

lucharaidh, 153 

Loisgte, 15 

.Luathann, 221 

- Mhaol, 48 

.Mholach, 165 

Mhor na Coigicb, 258 

na .Baintighearna, 40 

na Ceapaich, 12, 248 

na Cille, 79 

na .Corcurach, 247 

na h-Uamha, 206 

- nam Bord, 242 

nam .Botag, 218 

nan .Caolan, 212 

nan .Garraig, 191 

.Rainich, 165 

.Raoiridh, 12 

.Raonailt, 216 

Ruadh, 14 

Ruigh .Mhorgain, 220 
Creagaidh-thom, 138 
Creagan na .Michomh- 

airle, 222 
Creagan nan Cudaigean, 

226 
.Criadhach .Alain Mhoir, 

275 

.Criathrach Buidhe, 218 
Creed, 264 

Creit a' .Chlobha, 140 
Creitmantae, 47 
Creitnacloyithegeill, 47 
Cro of Kintail, 176 
.Crochair, 117 
Crof tan. drum, 94 
Croft.crunie, 143 
Croftmatak, 38 
Croftna.creich, 140 
Croft.nallan, 109 
Crof town, 252 
Croic Bheinn, 213 
Croick, 10 
Crois Cat.rion, 33 
Croit .Bhreunan, 51 

na .Caillich, 5 
.Cromalt, 159 
.Cromarty, 124, xxiii. 

Firth, 125 
.Cromasag, 231 
.Crombie, 125 
.Cromlet, 50, 70 
Crom Loch, 14 
.Crosan, 201 
.Crossbost, 265 



292 



PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



Cross.hill, 135 
Cross.hills, 71 
Crostna.hauin, 115 
Crownarecroft, 146 
Grot Ganich, 50 

Kerk, 50 

Oich, 50 
.Crowlin Islands, 216 
.Crua'ruigh, 205 
.Cruinn-leum, 205 
Cruit Earach, 48 
.Crumby, 264 
Cuaig, 206 

Cuan Sgith, Ixxiii. 

.Uidhist, Ixxiii. 
Cuidha.seadar, 270 
Cuil a' Bhodha, 255 
CM1 na .Bioraich, 262 
.Cuilishie, 90 
.Cuillich, 72 
.Gulach, 109 
Cul.bin, 88 
Cul.binn, 53 
.Culbo, 121 
Cul.bokie, 116, xxviii. 
Cul.caim, 71, 92 
Cul.chonich, 236 
Cul.craggie, 76 
Cul.duie, 203 
Cul.eave, 9 
Culin.ald, 52 
Culin.ellan, 232 
Culli.cudden, 122, xxvi 
.Cullish, 50 

Cul.liss, 53 
Cul.muiln, 178 
Culna.ha, 51 
Culna.skiach, 89 
Cul.pleasant, 38 
Cul.rain, 20 
Cul.vokie, 9 
An Cumhag, 246 
.Curin, 153 
Currourecroft, 146 
.Cuthaill Bheag. Ill, 262 
Mh6r, 111, 262 
Cuyl.ohir, 184 

Daan, 26, 1. 

.Dabliaca .Ghruinnearc.., 

P.T ' 

Dal.breac, 15G 
Dal.crcrnbio, 124 
Dahia.croieh, 155 
i/aina.cloich, 71 
Dal.iiavie, 71, liii. 
Dal.neich, 72, 86 



Dal.rannioh, 61 
Bail .Charmaig, 198 
Bail .Mhartuinn, 198 
Dal-.Bhearnaidh, 6 
Dal-.Ghiuthais, 7 
.Dallas, 27 
Dalna.clerach, 67 
Dal.reoich, 73 
Dal.riada, xiv., xxiv. 
Dal.ziel, 277 
Davach .Nachtane, 21 
.Davach of .Kessock, 136 
.Davidston, 125 
Davoch .Carbistell, 21 
.Davoch .Cam, 100 
Davochma.luag, 100 
Davoch. polio, 100 
.Deanich, 8 
Decantae, xii., xxxi. 
Deidmanniscairne, 60 
Dell, 265 
.Delny, 65, xxv. 
.Diabaig, 212, 220 
.Dibidale, 7, 255 
.Dingwall, 93, xx. 
.Diollaid a' Mhill Bhric, 

253 

Dirrie.more, 252 
.Diurinish, 188 
Dobhran, 27 
Doch.carty, 100 
Doch.four, 65 
Dochna. clear, 101 
Doir' a' .Chlaigitm, 209 

an Eala, 223 

.Aonar, 208 
Doire Damh, 214 
Doire .Leathann, 73 
Doire Mhaol.laothaich, 

219 
Doire nam Fuaran, 219 

.Thao'udail, 195 
Doireachan nan Gad, 

224 

.Doirneag, 219 
Don, 1. 

.Dorachan, 66 
Dores, 135 
Doniey, 259 
.Dornie, 180, 259 
.Dornoch, 180 
Dorri.vorchie, 111 
Dorry.gorrie. 164 
Dorus.duan, 177 
Dorus nam Ba, 50 
Dos.muckaran, 161 
.Douchary, 255 



.Douglas Water, 90 
Doune, 19 
Dounie, 5, 27 
.Dourag, 276 
Dovaik, 21 
Downilaem, 22 
.Draoraig, 280 
Dreim, 110 
.Drienach, 256 
Drimin.ault, 66 
.Drobhanis, 270 
Drochaid Chaolai" 7 
- Faillidh, 146 

.Gharaig, 35 

ua h-Uamhach, 200 

Poll .Druineachaia. 

200 

Cnoc a' .Chrochaire, 

191 

.Droitham, 110 
Drollavat, 272 
Druentia, 153 
.Druideig, 173 
Druie, 153 
Druim na .Ceardaich. 84 

na Gaoith, 68 

na h-Eige" 266 

nan Damh, 78 

nun Ciiaimi. 174 

Druim, 89 

Drum.vaiche, 21, 83 

Druman.croy, 46 

Druman.darroch, 154 

Druman.guish, 165 

Drumau.riach, 155 

Drum.buidhe, 165 

Drum.cuddcn, 121 

Drum.dil, 51 

Drum.derfit, 17,3 

Drum.dyre, 122 

Drum.gill, 59 

Drummond, 87 
Drummon. reach, 117; 
Drumna.marg, 143 
Drum, ore, 144 
Drum.runie, 253 
Druni.smittal, 153 
.Drymen, 87 
.Drynie, 94, 138 
Drynie Park, 143 
.Duart, 187 
.Duasdale, 256 

An Dubh Loch, 255 
Dubglas, 90 
-Dubhag, 252 
.Dubhchlais, 184 
.Duchan, 80 



INDEX. 



293 



.Dugaraidh, 119 


Eilean .Critliinn, 167 


Fasag, 211, 233 


.Duioh, Loch, 179 


.Daraich, 247 


Fasa.grianach, 253 


An Dim, 61, 226 


Druim Briste, 260 


Feadan Mor, 233 


The Dun, 61, 193 


.Euord, 267 


..ceadh' laichean, 260 


Dun .Alaisgaig, 31, 275 


na Beinne, 194 


Fearn, 30, 40 


Dun an Ruigh Ruaidh, 


na .Cairidh, 273 


.Feannagau-Glasa, 227 


251 


nan Ceap, 243 


Fearn. beg, 206 


Dunach Liath, 14 


nan Gall, 171 


Fearn.more, 206 


Dun. cow, 103 


.Shildeig, 208 


Fe.bait, 110 


.Diiuan Diarmid, 178 


.Thoriaidh, 266 


Feddeu.hill, 131 


- Liath, 14 


Tioram, 189, 229 


Fedderat, 96 


Dun .Bhorranish, 269 


Tioram, 228 


Feith .Rabhain, 237 


- .Bhuirgh, 265 


Eilid, 244 


.Ch usgein, 241 


Canna, 256 


Eiuig, 18 


.Chuilisg, 230 


Duii.riachie, 51 


.Eirthire Dcnn, 236 


.Fendom, 5, 34 


Duu.tuilm, 268 


.Eirasta, 271 


Feodhail, 237 


.Duncanston, 118 


.Eirera, 264, 266 


.Feoriseadar, 267 


Dun.donell, 247 


Ekkjalsbakki, 18 


Ferin.donald, xxiv. 


Di\n.gobhal, 61 


Ellan.donan, 180 


Ferin.tosh, 114, xxiv. 


- na Lagaidh, 251 


Elviemore, 49 


.Feruewyr, Fymewer, 


Dun.more, 108 


.Enaclete, 269 


XXV. 


Dun.ruadh, 92 


Enycht, 38 


.Fernaig, 185 


Dun.skaith, 33, 52 


.Eoradale, 265 


.Feshie, 128 


Dun.vornie, 115 


.Eoropie, 264, 266 


Fetter, angus, 96 


Duma. muck, 245 


.Erbusaig, 188 


.Fettes, 144 


.Durness, 188 


.Erchite, 135 


.Feur-lochan, 91 




Ergadia Borealis, xv., 


Feur Mor, 14 


.Eacleit, 269 


xxiii. 


Fiaclaich, 279 


.Eaglais .Riabhachain, 


.Erisolt, 268 


.Fiaclachan, 238, xliv. 


172 


.Erradale, 227 


.Fiddlefield, 109 


.Eagon, 200 


.Errogie, 101 


.Fidegro, 268 


.Earavick, 272 


.Essich, 182 


.Fidigearraidh, 236 


.Earrabhig, 266 


.Etive, 182 


.Fidigeodha, 266 


.Earshader, 266, 270 


.Evan ton, 92 


.Findglas, 89 


Eas an Tairbh, 24 


Ewe, li. 


.Findon, 116 


Bas an .Teampuill, 195 




.Fivig, 268 


Eas uaii .Cuinneag, 213 


.Fadoch, 181 


Fionn Abhauin, 199 


.Easan na .Miasaich, 252 


Faillidh, 146 


.Fionnaltan, 197 


Easter Fearn, 20 


Fain, 247 


Fionn Bheinn, 170 


- Kin.kell, 115 


Fain .Braonach, 105 


Fionn Loch, 239 


Easter, tyre, 186 


Faing.more, 206 


Fireach, 163 


.Eathie, 129 


.Fairburn, 105 


First Coast, 238 


.Edderton, 23 


Fairy.hill, 54 


Fisher Croft, 50 


Farm, 25 


Faithche, 237 


Fisherfield, 242 


Eddirdail, xxiv. 


.Faithir an Roin, 230 


.Fleucherries, 123 


Eddirdover, 142, xviii. 


Faithir Beag, 222, 229 


.Flowerburn, 131 


Eigg, 50 


Faithir Mor, 222, 229 


.Flowerdale, 225 


.Eiginn, 167, 205 


Faithir .Mungasdale, 245 


House, 225 


.Eigintol, 168 


Na .Faithrichean, 248 


.Flodday, 266 


Eig.bheag, 266 


.Fanaich, 5 


.Fluchlady, 88 


Eig.mhor, 266 


.Fannich (Loch), 166 


Fodderletter, 96 


Eileag Bada .Cliallaidh, 


.Fannyfield, 92 


.Fodderty, 96 


273 


.Faochag, 261 


.Folais, 234 


.Eileanach, 90 


Faoilinn, 204 


.Fordon, 96 


Eilean na .Cabhaig, 78 


.Farness, 125 


Foreste de Ramiacli, xxv. 


a' Chaoil, 208 


.Farrlaraidh, 98 


Forestercroft, 146 


- a 3 Ghobhainn, 232 


.Fasadh, 185 


Forsin.ain, 105 



294 



PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



.Forsnavat, 267 


Gascleite, 267 


Glen .Alladale, 61 


For.teviot, 96 


Gas-sker, 267 


Beg, 21, 165 


.Fortrose, 128 


.Gaza, 46 


.Calvie, 7 


.Foulis, 86 


Gead a' Chois, 230 


.Conrie, 152 


.Fowlis, 86 


Gead Dubh, 230 


.Docharty, 239 


Foy Lodge, 237, 253 


.Geanies, 47 


Dubh, 230 


.Foyers, 221 


.Gearraidh .Phutharol, 


.Elchaig, 181 


Fra.watter, 21 


265 


.Evaig, 137 


Freuchie, 68 


.Gearrchoille, 4, 274 


.Finglas, 90 


.Frithard, 191 


.Geddeston, 135 


Glass, 90 


Fri.vater, 12, 21 


.Geelyum .Melpak, 49 


.Grivie, 183 


Fuaid, 213 


a' Ghairbhe, 232 


Gleii.iak, 107 


Fuaran an oir, 28 


Gidhurol, 267 


Glen .Lyon, 199 


Fuaran Bean .Mhuir- 


Gil.christ, 108 


Mark, 86 


istean, 60 


Girthcroce, 62, Ixvi. 


Glen.markie, 86 


Fuaran Bocl-muice, 278 


.Gisla, 264 


Marxie, 163 


Fuaran. buy, 89 


,Gii\sachan, 242 


Glen.meanie, 153 


- Dha' idb, 38 


.Giuthais .Mosach, 8 


Glen.moir, 21 


Seachd-goil, 278 


Giuthas Mor, 232 


Glen.more, 8 


.Fuar-tholl, 197 


Giuthsach, 66 


Glen.muick, 242 


.Fuartholl Beag, 168 


Gizzen Brigs, 37 


Glen of Scotsburn, 61, 62 


mor, 168 


Glac Dhubh a' Chais, 217 


Glen.shiel, 171 


.Fura Island, 228 


Glac na Senshesen, 223 


Glen.uag, 157 


Furene, 66 


Glack.our, 253 


Glen.udalan, 187 


.Furness, 234 


Glac. our, 155 


Glen .Urqu'hart, ".^6. 


.Fyrish, 77, 277 


.Glagaig, 54 


Globhur, 267 




Glaic an .Dubhaig, 139 


Glomach, 181 


Gad.caiscaig, 254 


Glaic an Rigli .Chonan- 


Gloume, The, 182 


Gaineamhach Sniiuthaig, 


aich, 249 


Gluich, 24 


229 


nan Cleireach, 79 


.Glumaig, 272 


Gairbhe, 232 


Glaick, 72, 80, 83 


.Ghitan, 255, 281 


.Gairloch, 220 


Glaickar.duich, 139 


Goatfell, 224 


Hotel, 226 


Glaicker.duack, 110 


Gob-a-Chtiirn, 167 


.Galanaich, 24 


Glaick.more, 137 


Gob Hais, 268 


Gallow Hill, 48, 126, 145 


.Glaischoille, 21 


nan .Uisgeachan, 218 


Gallows Hill, 117 


.Glasbheimi, 198 


Goirtean na h-Airde, '.93 


.Gamhnaichean, 244 


.Glascarne, 74 


Gooseburn, 132 


.Gamrock, 131 


Glas.carnoch, 165 


Gorlinges, 39 


Gar nan Aighean, 7 


.Glascharn, 154 


.Gorstan, 196 


.Garaidh nam Broc, 218 


.Glaschoille, 10 


of Garve, 162 


Garbat, 26, 162 


.Glascairn, 117 


Gortan, 89 


.Garbhalt, 7 


.Glas-sgeir, 217 


Got a' choire, 48 


.Garbhleitir, 61 


Glass River, 90 


nan Colman, 4S 


.Garbhan Cosach, 173 


.Glastullich, 35, 59, 255 


nan Cat, 45 


.Garbhlainn, 197 


Gleann 'a Ghraig, 273 


Gowrie, li. 


Gareloch, 220 


Choilich, 183 


Gracefield, 135 


.Garguston, 144, 183 


Coire .Chaorachain, 


.Greeba, Ivii. Ivix. 


.Garrabost, 264 


246 


Green Dasses. 218 


.Garraran, 74 


.Ghleadharan, 267 


Green.hill, 123 


.Garrick Burn, 35 


Loch Ach.alla, 254 


Green.leonachs, 118 


.Garty, 64 


Lie, 176 


.Greinam, 268 


.Garvan, 252 


na Speireig, 90 


.Griamanais, 269 


.Garvary, 11 


na Sguab, 263 


Grianbhad, 6, 274 


Garve, 161, 162 


Shiaghaidh, 182 


.Grimersta, Zll 


.Garvie Bay, 261 


.Sgathaich, 102 


.Grimshader, 270 


.Gaeaval, 267 


.Gleanna Garbh, 242 


.Grinnabhal, 267 


.Gascan, 208 


.Gledfield, 4 


.Grinnavat, 272 



INDEX. 



295 



.Grosavat, 272 


Inver.alligin, 212 


Grudie, 166, 251 


.Inveran, 235 


Gruids, 166 


Inver. arity, 107 


.Gruinard, 5 


Inver. asdale, 229, Iv. 




Inver. bane, 208 


.Habost, 265 


Inver. breakie, 69 


.Haclete, 269 


Inver. broom Lodge, 252 


.Haddo, 111 


Inver.carron, 8 


.Hallagro, 268 


Inver. coran, 153 


.Halloch, 135 


Inver. gordon, 70 


.Hamarshader, 270 


Inver.iavenie River, 241 


Hardnaneu, 49 


Inver. inate, 179 


.Harris, 264 


Inver.lael, 253 


.Hartfield, 111, 204 


Inverlochslin, 38 


.Heathfield, 68 


Inver.many, 153 


.Hebrides, xxvi. 


Inver.oykell, 18 


.Hestaval, 267 


Inver.polly, 261 


.Highfield, 103 


lochdar-thire, 186 


Hill of Nigg, 53 


lolla Bheag, 258 


.Hillock, 131 


lolla Mhor, 258 


.Hilton, 9, 27, 41, 46, 108 


Isle Ma.ree, 239 


Horse Island, 258 


Isle Martin, 255 


Sound, 253 


Isle .Risiol, 260 


.Horshader, 270 


.Islivig, 272 


.Hughstown, 108 


Is.teane, 139 


.Humberstou, 94 




.Hundagro, 268 




.Hunisger, 2/1 


James Temple, 141 


Hunting Hill, 36 


Jamestown, 105 


Hurdy Hill, 141 


Jamimaville, 123 




.Janetown, 194 


.Immer, 195 


John Baptist's Well, 65 


.Inbhir, 75 




Inch.bae, 102 




Inch.breky, 70 


Kandig, 47, 49 


Inch. coulter, 279 


.Katewell, 87 


Inch.fuir, 65 


Kean.chilish, 255 


Inchin.a, 244 


.Kenmore, 207 


Inchin.down, 70 


.Keppoch, 101, 179, 248 


Inchin.taury, 24 


.Kernsary, 234 


Inch.lumpie, 73 


Kerry River, 225 


Inch.nairn, 184 


.Kerrysdale, 225 


Inch.navie, 71 


.Kershader, 270 


Inch.rory, 101 


.Kessock Ferry, 136 


luch.vannie, 100 


Kil.choan, 91 


Inish. glass, 234 


Kil.coy, 143 


Inner.athy, 33, 37 


.Kildary, 63 


Innerladour, 49 


Kilder.morie, 79, 84 


Inner.many, 153 


Kil.donan, 248 


Innis a' Bhaird, 235 


Kil.dun, 94 


a' Chro, 176 


Kill.earnan, 142 


Bheag, 48 


Kill.en, 134 


Loicheil, 190 


Killie.huntly, 148 


Mhor, 36 


Kill.ilan, 181 


nan Damh, 19 


Kill.in, 94 


Insch, 154 


Killochir, 184 


Inver, 38, 75 


Kilma.chalmag, 19 


Inver.aithie, 129 


Kil.martin, 120 



Kil.muir, 136 

Easter, 63 
Kilpottis, 47, 49 
Kilstane, 47 
Kil.tarlity, 58 
Kil.tearn, 85 
Kin.beachie, 121 
Kincaldrum, 100 
Kin.caple, 86 
Kin.cardine, 1 
Kin.cora, 115 
Kin.craig, 70 
Kin.curdy, 130 
Kin.deace, 53, 66 
Kin.ellan, 99 
King's Bridge, 63 

Causeway, 36 
Kin.kell, 115 
Kin.loch, 80, 90 
Kinn.airdie, 94, xxv. 
Kinna.moin, 189 
Kinn.eil, xliv. 
Kiii.nettes, 97, 111 
Kin.rive, 67 
Kin.sale, 178 

Kiu .tail, 178 
Kin.veachy, 121 
.Kiriwick, 272 
.Kirkan, 165 
Kirkchaistull, 74 
Kirkin.tilloch, xlix, 
Kirk.michael, 121 
Kirk, sheaf, 35 
.Kirkton, 122, 189 
.Kishorn, 192 
Knockan.dialtaig, 118 
Knockan.toul, 89 
Knockan.cuirn, 89 
Knock.bain, 94, 138 
Knock. breac, 35 
Knock.farrel, 98 
Knock. muir, 134 
Knockna.cean, ?5 
Knockna.har, 42 
Knokangirrach, 47 
Knokdaill, 21 
Knokderruthoill, 74 
Knoknapark, 64 
Knoknasteraa, 74 
Kyle of Loch.alsh, 187 

Lag an Duin, 193 
.Lagaidh Dhubh, 212 
.Lagan na .Comraich, 203 
Laid, 238 
Laikgarny, 22 
Lainn, 78 
.Lainnsear, 139 



296 



PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



.Laimishader, 270 
An Lair, 233 
Lair, 196, 212 
Lairg, 36 
Lambton, 126 
Lamentation Hill, 20 
.Langadale, 266 
.Langavat, 272 
.Langwell, 9, 18, 204, 256 
Larachanti.vore, 242 
.Lathamur, 268 
.Laxavat, 272 
.Laxay, 264 
.Laxdale, 265 
Leaba Bhatair, 12 
Leab' a' Bhruic, 14 
Leac an Duine, 27 
Leac Dhonn, 249 

Mhor na Cle, 254 

nan Saighead, 224 
- .Roithridh, 226 
.Leacachan, 172 
.Lealty, 82 
.Leanaidh, 159 
.Leanaig, 117 
.Leanach, 161 
.Learnie, 129 
Leat.caum, 50 
.Leathad a' .Bhogaraidh, 

25 

.Cartach, 102 
.Leathad a' Chruthaich, 

95 

.Chalascaig, 254 

an aon Bhothain, 219 

.Leacachain, 252 

-Riabhach, 79 
Leault, 82 
-Lechanich, 29 
Leck.melm, 254 
Led.gowan, 161 
Leinster Wood, 61 
Leiravay, 272 
Leisgeig, 56 

Leith Chreig, 230 
Leithdach Meinn, 154 
.Lernock, 129 
-Leth Allt, 179 
Letteray, 22 
Letter.fearn, 172 
Letternaiche, 22 
Lietterneteane, 22 
Letters, 10, 251 
-Lettoch, 111, 145 
Leum .Ruaraidh, 167 
-Leurbost, 265 
Lewis, 263 
-Liathach, 210 



.Lienassie, 90, 178 
Lime.kilns, 135 
.Lingam, 268 
.Lingavat, 27 
.Linish, 269 
Linne na h-Annaid, 249 

Rarsach, Ixxiii. 

Sgainne, 2 

Sgitheanach, Ixxiii. 
.Linnie, 145 
.Linshader, 270 

Lint Pools, 64 
Little .Daan, 26 

.Dallas, 27 

Loch Broom, 245 

Minch, Ixxiii. 
Little Sand, 227 

' Loan.dhu, 42 
| Loan.reoch, 72 
I Loan.roidge, 81 

Loanteanaquhatt, 48 

Loch Ach.all, 254 

.Achilty, 163 

Airigh 'ic Gnadh, 226 

.Ala, 133 

Alsh, 184 

Anna, 

a' .Bhadaidh .Shamh- 

raidh, 230 

a' .Bharranaich, 197 

a' .Bhealaich, 176 

a' Bhraghad, 242 

a' .Chapuill, 78 

a' Chlarain, 163 

a' Chraicich, 207 

a' Chroisg, 256 

a' Chuilinn, 150 

a' .Gharbharain, 169 

a' Mhagraidh, 79 

a' .Mhuilinn, 154, 204 

an .Airceil, 247 

an .Arbhair, 262 

an Droma, 163 

an Eich Bhain, 163 

an Eilich, 244 

an Loin, 214 

an Turaraich, 215 
Loch Bad a' Bhathaich, 84 

a' Ghaill, 261 

na h-Achlaise, 223 

na Sgalag, 225 

Battachan, 261 

Bealach nan Cuilean, 

91 

.Beannacharan, 152 

Bhura, 230 

Broom, 241 

Buidhe, 61 



Loch Call nan Uidhean, 
262 

Calvie, 190 

Carron, 192 

Carron Village, 194 

a' .Chlaiginn, 257 

Glair, 197, 223 

Clais na Cre, 47 

Cluaine, 176 

.Coireag nam Mang, 

159 

Coire .Feuchain, 91 

Coire Fionnaraich, 

199 

Coire Lair, 169 

Coir' na Meidhe, 17 

.Coulin, 196 

.Coultrie, 214 

Craiceach, 207 

Cran, 161 

.Cruoshie, 191 

Damh, 214 

Doire na h-Eirbhe, 

239, 262 

Dring, 228 

.Droma, 169 

.Dughall, 196, 215 

Eadar da Bheinn, 257 

.Eiginn, 246 

Eye, 42 

.Fannich, 166 

Feadhal Feas, 239 
' Fyne, xii. 

.Gaorsaig, 182 

Garve, 162 

Ghiuragartaidh, 235 

a' .Ghlobhuir, 267 

Glass, 90 

.Gobach, 214 

.Gobhlach, 91 

.Hamasord, 26? 

.Kanaird, 256 

Laichley, 135 

Lapagial, 35 

Ligh, 135, 168 

Long, 183 

Loyne, 177 

.Luichart, 164 

.Lundie, 213 

.Lungard, 182 

.Lurgainn, 257 

Maoil na h-.Eileig, 

239 

Ma.ree, 239 
- .Meiklie, 157 

.Mheathacleit, 219 

Mhic .Mharsaill, 19 

.Mhileavat, 272 



INDEX. 



297 



Loch .Mhiosaraidh, 91 
Moir, 84 

.Monar, 190 

na .Cabhaig, 218 

ua .Cathrach Duibhe, 

238 

na Cleire, 244 

na .Coireig, 248 

na Croic, 163 

na .Pideil, 239 

ua h-Airbhe, 250 

i;a h-Oidhche, 214, 225 

na h-Uidhe, 42, 248 

na .Lagaidh, 247 

na Larach Blaire, 154 

na .Leitreach, 181 

na .Maola .Fraoch- 

aich, 214 

>aSaile, 261 

na Sealg, 2<f5 

na .Shanish, 223 

na Still, 169 

nam Breac Athair, 

223 

nam Buaineachan, 225 

nam .Frianach, 215 

nan Amhaichean, 91 

nan Corr, 178 

nan .Cuigeal, 46 

nan Dailthe.an, 235 

nan .Druidean, 91 

nan Eun, 22 

nan .Tunnag, 26 

Neimhe, 210 

.Osgaig, 261 

- .Prille, 169 

- Raa, 261 

- .Ranacleit, 269 

- .Seraig, 194 

Rosque, 160 

.Seaforth, 267 

.Sgamhaiu, 196 

- .Sgolbaidh, 154 

.Sguata Beag, 223 

-Sheriff, 118 

.Sianascaig, 261 

.Slin, 42 

- Still, 67 

.Struaban, 15 

- -Thamnabhaigh, 272 

.Thealasbhaigh, 272 

.Totaig, 261 

- Tuath, 170 

Uaill, 215 

.Uanaidh, 35 

.Urradhag, 271 

.Veyatie, 262 



Lochaidh Bhraoin, 241 

.Mhuireagain, 183 

Nid, 243 

Lochan a' Chlaidheimh, 
60 

an Diabhaidh, 243 

an. .lasgaich, 197 

Giuthais, 242 

Gobhlach, 197 
- .Mealaich, 228 

na Bearta, 242 

na .Caoirilt, 244 

na .Fuaralaich, 174 

nan .Tunnag, 57 

Phoil, 18 

.Sgeireach, 14 
.Logie, 58, 251 
Logie.side, 119 
Lon.ban, 205 

Lon Coire ..Chn\baidb,196 

Dialtaig, 5 
Lone.more, 227 
Lone. vine, 65 
Lon nam Ban, 60 
Lonteana.quhatt, 48 
Longa Island, 227 
Lorg.buie, 78 
.Luachar Mhor, 23 
Ltib a' .Chlaiginn, 102 
Lub a' .Ghargainn, 144 
Lub .Coinnich, 10 
Lub.croy, 17 
Lub.fearn, 165 
Lub.riach, 165 

Lugi, xii. 
Luib, 160 
Lum.lair, 81, 85 
.Lundale, 265 
.Lundie, 158, 189 
.Lundin, 158 

Mac us .Mathair, 246 
.Macan .Earach, 203 
.Machair Hois, xi. 
Maileagan, 172 
Main, 153 
Mam, 153 
Mal.ruba, Ixi. 
Mamag, 183 
Mam a' .Ghiuthais, 232 
.Mulcanan, 215 
Mam .Sabhal, 183 
.Manachainn Ross, 110 

'Ic .Shimidh, 40 
.Mangarsta, 271 
Maoil, Ixxiii. 

Maoil .Choinnl'mae, 159 



.Lunndaidh, 158 
Maol an Uillt ivlhoir, 205 
- Buidhe, 181 

.Chalascaig, 254 

.Cheanndearg, 174, 197 
.Maravaig, 272 
.Mai-avat, 272 
Marecroft, 146 
.iviarybank, 60 

Mas Aird.hesleig, 207 

.Diabaig, 207 

na h-.Arairi, 207 
Mas .Phutharol, 265 
Maoil an .Tiompain, 247 

na h-Eirbhe, 250 
.Mashie, 128 
.Mas-sgeir, 271 
.Meaghlaicli, 8 
.Mealasbhal, 267 
.Mealasta, 271 
.Mealbhan .Mungasdail, 

245 

.Meathacleit, 269 
.Meathadal, 269 
.Meathanish, 269 
Meall na h-Airde, 194 

a' Bhuirich, 256 

a' .Cnaisteil, 102 

a' .Chaoruinn, 249 

a' .Chrasgaidh, 252 

a' .Chrimeig, 279 

a' .Ghrianain, 102 

a' Ghuail, bo 

uam .Madadh, 15 

an t-.Sithidh, 246 
an .Torcain, 165 
.Meallan .Udrigle, 238 
Meall an Tuirc, 78, 83, 

xxxii. 

.Aoghaireachaidh, 213 

.Aundrary, 225 

.Bheithinnidh, 234 

.Bhenneit, 11 

.Dheirgidh, 20 

.Gainmheach, 205 

Gonn, 218 

Leacachain, 252 

Loch Uaill, 215 

Mnic .lomhair, 165 

na .Cliubha, 240 

na Cuachaige, 11, 274 

nan .Doireachan, 213 

nam Bo, 79 

na .Mocheirigh, 255 

nam .Fuaran, 15 

nam .Peit/hirean, 168 

na .Rainich, 14 



298 



PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



Meall na .Sgriodan, 259 


Mor'oich Cinn-deis. 53,171 


.Nonach, 189 


na .Siorramachd, 30 


Morrich.more, 36 


North .Erradale, 227 


na .Speireig, 90, 95 


.Moruisg, 200 


.Nostie, 188 


na .Teanga .Fiadh- 


.Morvich, 171 


No.var, 77 


aich, 219 


Moss.end, 119 




nan Laogh, 165 


Mount.eagle, 42 


Oape, 19 


nan Sac, 102 


Mount, gerald, 92 


Ob an Duine, 189 


.Meddat, 62 


Mount.rich, 91 


Ob Cheann an t-Saile, 


Meig, 156 


Moy, 105 


2*o 


Meikle .Allan, 43 


.Muckernich, 143 


Ob.gorm beag, 209 


.Daan, 26 


.Muckovie, 83 


Laghaich, 217 


.Dallas, 27 


Muie.blaire, 28 


mor, 209 


Ferry, 33 


Muileann Ach-railein, 53 


Ob na h-.acairseid, 208 


.Gluich, 24 


a' .Chlagain, 277 


- na .Oaillich, 217 


Kin.deace, 53 


an t-SA.il, 139 


na h-.uamha, 206 


Pit.calzean, 51 


.Muileann .Luathaidh, 38 


.mheallaidh, 209 


.Bhynie, 41 


Muilt, 222 


.Oban, 188 


.Tarrel, 47 


Muir. alehouse, 133 


Obbe, 188 


Mekle .Methat, 62 


Muir.ends, 138 


.Obbenin, 237 


.Melbost, 264 


.Muirtown, 115, 126, 138 


.Obsdale, 71, 78 


.Mellon Charles. 236 


Muiry.den, 131 


.Ochil, 103, 148 


.Melvaig, 227 


Mul.buie, 47 


Ochto.beg, 89 


Meoir 'Langwell, 19 


.Mulcanan, 215 


.Ochtow, 19, 89 


A' .Mhaighdean, 239 


Mul.chaich, 115 


Oir na Poit, 49 


A' .Mhullagraich, 260 


Mul.dearg, 43 


.Oirthir an .Rudha, 220 


.Miagro, 269 


.Mullach, 22 


.Dhiabaig, 220 


.Mial, 226 


.Mullach a' Chadha 


.Oitir, 53 


.Miasaid, 269, 271 


Bhuidhe, 16 


.Oitrichean, 38 


.Miavaig, 272 


Mulna.fua, 71 


.Onich, 189 


Mickle Oxgate, 178 


.Multovy, 83, xlviii. 


.Openham, 222 


Mid Fearn, 30 


.Mungasdale, 245 


.Orasay, 266 


Mid Ross, xi. 


Mun.lochy, 141 


Ord, 69, 110 


Mid.oxgate, 43 


Muren, 138 


.Ordan, 5 


Mill.craig, 71 




Ord.hill, 135, 141 


.Milltoun, 123 


.Naast, 230 


Ore, R., Ill 


.Milltown, 81,123,156 


.NTaidaval, 270 


.Ormiscaig, 236 


.Milntown, 63 


.Nasabhig, 272 


.Orrin River, 111 


.Milton, 110, 144, 204 


.Navity, 125, Ixiii. 


Oure Lady Heavin, 43 


Minch, xiv., Ixxiii. 


Nead an Eoin, 224 


Oure Lady Well, 43 


Mincius, 157 


.Neadaclif, 270 


Our Lady is Chapell, 43 


.Miotag, 244 


.Neadavat, 270 


.Oykell, 17, 103 


.Mircavat, 269 


Neclacanalych, 38 




.Mircol, 269 


Nedd, 167 


.Pabay, 266 


Moin' a' Chr^athair, 199 


.Neidalt, 268 


.Pabbay, 270 


Mointeach Eileag, 17 


.Neidelan, 270 


Pairc .Alanais, 75 


Mol Mor, 217 


.Neidal, 270 


a' Bhord Bhuidhe, 248 


Mol .Scoraig, 249 


.Neilston, 126 


an .Leothaid, 132 


.Molagro, 268 


Neimhidh, Ixii. 


.Paiteachan, 174 


Moothill of Ci-omarty, 126 


Nemetomarus, Ixiii. 


.Palascaig, 189 


.Dingwall, 93 


New Tarbat, 63 


Parishes, xxvi. 


.Ormond, 133 


New.more, 70, Ixiii. 


Park, 100 


.Morall, 2 


.Newton, 126, 134 


Park.hill, 62 


.Morangie, 34 


New Kelso, 198 


.Parktown, 144 


.Morefield, 255 


.Nighean Liath, 220 


Patt, 189 


.Morel, 2 


Nigg, 50, 66 


.Paulfield, 141 


.Monnhoich a' Choire, 


Nigg Rocks, 56, 71 


.Peallaidh, 88 


219 


Nona.kiln, 70 l .Peddieston, 125 



.Peiteachan, 144 
Peitneane, 200 
Pelaig, 88 
Peloponnesus, xxiv. 
Pentland Firth, xlvi. 
.Peterburn, 227 
Petgerello, 38 
Petkeuney, 87, xxv. 
.Petley, 4-7 
Petty, xlvii. 
Pettyslanis, Petslaw, 

Piddslaw, 131 
.Phenish, iid9 
.Phips^eld, 59 
Picts, xlv. 
Pit.almit, 200 
Pit.calnie. 51, 276 
Pit. conn oquhy, 131 
Pit.culzean, 51 
Piteng.lassie, 94 
Pit.faed, 46 
Pit.fuir, 65, 135 
Pit.glassie, 94 
Pit.hogarty, 34 
Pit.kerrie, 41 
Pit.lundie, 140 
PUma.duthy, 59 
Pit.nellies, 33 
.Pladaig, 188 
.Pladda, 189 
Plaids, 34 
Platach-Nsist, 230 
Platach Thiirneig, 235 
Plat.chaig, 129 
.Platcock, 129 
Ploc, 211 

Ploc an Doire, 211 
.Plockton, 187 
Plotcok, 123 
.Ploverfield, 145 
.Plubag, 276 
.Plucaird, 235 
Pol.bain, 259 
Pol. glass, 258 
Polin.turk. 23 
.Pollachar Mor, 238 

Beag, 238 

Poll a' .Bhathaidh, 62 

a' Bhior, 204 

a' Chapuill, 2 

a' Choire, 112, 256 

a' .Mhucainn, 77, 83 

an Doirbh, 226 

an .Donnaidh, 2 
an-.tarie, 189 

an t^Slugaid, 2 

Bhocaidh, 9 

Cas.gaibhre, 20 



INDEX. 

Poll .Chreadhaich, 203 

.Druineachen, 200 

Da.ruigh, 254 

na Clar, 82, 89 

na Guile, 80, 83 

na Muic, 2 

nam ivorbh, 82 
.Pollag .Aitionn, 82 
Polla. gharry, 26, 274 
.Polio, 65 

Pollograyscheak, 74 
Poll Ptuadh, 82 

Poll Uidhe H' Chro, 234 
Pol.nicol, 64 
Poltak, 38 
Pookan.draw, 134 
Pool.ewe, 230 
.Porin, 155 
Port a' .Chaisteil, 48 

a' Bhaist, 49 

a' Chait, 45 

a' Chuilinn, 187 

an Ab, 41 

an Druidh, 57 

an Eorna, 187 

an.FhaithirMhoir,221 

an t-Saoir, 216 

an t-.Seobhaig, 217 

Buckle, 45 

.Henderson, 222 

'ic Ghille Chaluim 

Rarsaidh, 210 

na .Baintighearna, 44 
i Lair, 212 

I Portin. coulter, 279 

| Port.lich, 65 
Portma.homack, 46 
Port na Cloiche, 49 

na h-Eile, 226 

Nach.breacaidh, 276 
Portna.grigack, 49 

nan Am all, 228 
Portarecroft, 146 
Portnawest, 49 
Port Uilleim, 46 
Poul.fock, 42 
.Poyntzfield, 123 
Preas, liii. 

Preas Ma-.Ruibh, Ixi. 
Preas Mor, 232, 247 

nam Bodach, 247 
Preis.chachleif, 59 
Priest.hill, 65 
Priest Island, 39, 260 

i .Putharam, 265 
I .Putharamar, 265 
i .Putharol, 265 



290 

Quarryfield, 139 
.Queebec, 38 

.Raanich, 23 

.Raddery, 130 

Raitts, 172 

Ra.more, 23 

.Ranish, 269 

.Kannoch, 101 

.Raoideas, 140 

Raoinavat, 272 

Raon a' Chlaidh, 248 

Raona.chroisg, 253 

.Raonadail, 265 

Raon na .Ceapaich, 248 

.Rapag, 256 

Ra.richie, 51 

.Rasay, 161 

.Rassel, 216 

,Ratagan, 172 

.Rathan, 210 

.Rathanan, 211, xxxiu 

Rawcharrache, 74 

.Redburu, 78 

Red. castle, 142, xviii. 

.Redfield, 136 

Red Point, 220 

Reiff, 260 

Renmasrycshe, 47 
Re.quill, 26 

.Reraig, 188 
Re.solis, 120 
Re.vochan, 198 
Rewchlascheaabad, 74- 
Rhi.dorroch, 254 
Rhein.down, 107 
Rhi.reavach, 248 
Rhi.cullen, 70 
Rhi.breac, 24 
Rhi.dorach, 53, 61, 89 
Rhi.lonie, 21 
Rhi.roy, 251 
Rhives, 64, 134 
Rhu.roin, 203 
.Rhynie, 41 
Riask.more, 70 
Ri.fleuche, 61 
Righ an .Talla Dheirg, 

250 

iii.gollachy, 234 
Ri.harrald, 59, 60 
Rihindow, 50 
.Rinavie, xlviii. 
.Riochan, 182 
Ri.saurie, 74 
.Risay, 266 
River Bran, 165 



300 



PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CROMARTY. 



River Creed, 264 

- Lair, 196 

- Ling, 183 

.Kirkaig, 262 

Polly, 261 
3J.ocha.ni, 49 
.Kockfield, 46 
.Regie, 101, 1. 
.Roineval, 267 

Roinn an Fhaing Mhoir, 

206 

.Roishnish, 269 
.Rona, 266 
Ros .Muileach, xx. 
Rose. bank, 70 
Rose. farm, 126 
Rose.haugh, 131 
Rose.markie, 128 
.Rosgil, 269 
Rosie, 161 
.Roekill, 138 
Ross.keen, 69 
Rostabrichty, 123 
.Rosaidh, 266 
.Rosmul, 268 
.Rosnavat, 268 
Bos.neath, Ixiii. 
.Rosnish, 268 
Ross, xxi. 
.Rossay, 268 
.Rossol, 268 
Rowna.karne, 47 
Rownaknoksenidis, 47, 

49 

Royeindavoir, 47 
.Ruadh-stac, 197 
.Ruarach, 178 
Rudh' Ard a' .Chadail, 

255 

a' .Chamais Ruaidh, 

206 

an Dunain, 258 
Rudha an t-Sasain, 229, 

280 

.Dubhard, 258 

na Coigich, 261 

na Fearna, 206 

na Guaille, 205 

na Moine, 205, 245 

- na Sgarbh, 26 

nan .Uamhag, 203 

- Nois 

- Reidh, 228 

.Robhanish, 270 
Rue. more, 187 
Ruigh Breac, 27, 191 
Ruigh Cruaidh, 20 



luigh .Dreighean, 80 

na Meinn, 5 
luigh.grianach, 262 
Ru.noa, 231 

Russel, 216 
Ryefield, 117, 144 
Rye.flat, 131 

Sail Liath, 243 

.Marcasaidh, 163 

na Beinne Bige, 218 
St Duthus' Well, 127 
St John's Port, 49 

St Martins, 120 
.Salachar, 187, 205 
Sale, 171 
.Sallachy, 8, 187 
,Saitburn, 69 
.Sanachan, 193 
Sand, 205, 238 
.S?.ndavat, 272 
.Sandwick, 270 
.Saothair, 238, 255 
.Sardale, 204 
.Saraig, 172, 220 
Sasan, 229 
.Sauchieburn, 8 
.Scailleir, 271 
.Scalpaidh, 188 
.Scaravat, 272 

.Scardroy, 156 

.Scarista, 271 

.Scatwell, 149 

Scone, 148 

.Scotsburn, 67 

.Seafield, 46, 193 

.Seanachreag, 187. 244 

.Sean-bhaile, 227, 243 

Seann Bhraigh, 170 

.Seansgeir, 228 

.Searrach, 233 

.Seavat, 272 

Second Coast, 238 

.Seilibhig, 272 

.Seipeil .Donnain, 193 

.Odhar, 94 
Seolaid, 221 
Sergandcroft, 146 
.Sgaoman, 169 
.Sgaothach, 15 
.Sgarbh-sgeir, 271 
Sgardan nan Cuileag, 195 
Sgeir an Eoin, 206 

an t-Salainn, 216 

an .Trithinn, 220 

Bhura, 230 

Mhaoil Mhoire, 228 



Sgeir Neo.ghluasadach, 
260 

.Ribhinn, 260 
Sgianalt, 268 
Sgiobacleit, 268 
Sgiobadal, 271 
Sgioba-geodha, 271 
Sgiogarsta, 271 

!?gire Mhartuinn, 120 
Sguataig, 229 
Sgonnan Mor, 17 
3gor a' .Chaoruinn, 79 
Sgoraig, 249 
Sgorr a' .Chadail, 211 

- a' Chlei', 89 
Sguman, 222 

Sgurr a' .Bhealaich 

Dheirg, 174, 
Sgurr a' .Chaorachain, 213 

a' .Chaoruinn, 159 

a' Ghlas .Leathaid, 

160 

a' .Mhuiliun, 160 

an .Airgiod, 178 

an .Lochain, 174 

- Beag, 174 

nan .Cisteachan 
Dubh, 173 

Coire na Feinne, 174 

.Gaorsaig, 182 

- 'Ic .Mharrais, 175 

.Marcasaidh, 163 

Mor, 168 

Ruadh, 197 

nam .Feartag, 200 

na .Bana-mhorair, 215 

na .Mor'oich, 173 

nan Caruach, 173 

nan .Ceannp.ichean, 

159 

nan .Cisteachan 

Dubh, 173 

nan .Conbhair, 159 

nan .Saighead, 173 

na' Spainnteach, 173 

nan .Conbhairean, 174 

nan Clach, 168 

Ouran, 173 

.Ronnaich, 160 

Udhran, 173 
Sgurra .Fiona, 243 

Ruadh, 243 
.Shadir, 270 
.Shantullich, 138 
.Shandwick, 50, 62 
Shaw Park, 135 
.Shawbost, 264 



INDEX. 



301 



.Shenavall, 243 


Sron a' Charr, 222 


Stron.garve, 89 


.Shetland, Ix. 


a' Mhais, 207 


Struie, 28 


.Sheshader, 270 


an .larruhm, 206 


Suaineagadail, 265 


.Shiattt Isles, Ixiv. 


gorm, 165 


Suainebhal, 267 


.Shildinish, 271 


Gun .Aran, 14 


Suardal, 265 


.Shieldaig, 208, 225 


na .Ceannmhoir, 207 


Suddy, 136, xliv. 


.Shoais, 270 


na Coite, 9 


Suidh Ma-.Ruibh, Ixii. 


Sian na h-Eileig, 237 


na .Frianaich, 158 


Sulven, Ivi. 


.Sildam, 271 


nam Mult, 222 


Suidheachan Fhinn, 243 


.Sithean .Ruarach, 16 


na .Saobhaidhe, 11, 


Suil.Ba, 54 


a' Choin Bhain, 73 


111 


Mill a' Chro, 235 


Skardy, 38 


'n .ugaidh, 8 


.Sulishader, 270 


.Skiach, 89 


Sruth na .Lagaidh, 251 


Sulven, Ivi. 


.Skibberscross, Iv. 


Stacsavat, 272 


Summer Isles, 259 


.Skinnertown, 48 


.Stattic Point, 245 


Sunny Brae, 119 


Skotlandijordr, xiv. 


.Stangraidh, 266 


.Swanibost, 265 


Slaga.harn, 139 


Staonag, 213 


.Swordale, 87, 268 


.Slaggan, 237 


.Stathanis, 269, 271 


.Syal, 9 


.Slattadale, 231 


Stavek, xviii. 




.Sligo, 140 


.Steinish, 269 


.Tabac, 264 


.Slioch, 233 


Steollaidh, 45 


.Taboet, 265 


Sloggake, 22 


Stirk.hill, 229 


.Taclete, 269 


Sludach, 127 


Stirrup Mark, 219 


.Tagan, 231, Ivi. 


.Slugan .Domhain, 136 


.Stittenham, 72 


Tain, 32 


.Slumbay, 194 


Stockford, xx. 


.Talich, 42 


Smertae, xii. 


Stoney. blather, 46 


.Talla, 250 


.Smithstowu, 227 


.Stoneyfield, 70 


.Talladale, 231 


Smithycroft, 146 


.Stornoway, 272 


Tally.sow, 77 


.Smiuig, 272 


Stac .Chaoruinn, 249 


.Tanera, 253, 2j'-- 


.Smiuthaig, 229 


Straith.fairne 22 


.Tannray, 259, 266 


.Smiorsair, 233 


.Strandavat, 272 


.Tao'udal, 195 


.Socach, 14, 78, 90 


Strath, 226 


.Tarbat, 45 


.Soray, 270 


a' .Bhathaioh, 215 


Ness,, 45 


.Scmter Head, 126 


.Strathan, 195 


Tarbh, 221 


.Sotiters, 126 


Stra than. more, 236 


.Tarlogie, 33 


South .Erradale, 221 


Strath, asgag, 189 


.Tarradalc, 103 


.Soval, 270 


Strath. beg, 246 


.Tarravay, 272 


.Sovat, 270 


Strath. bogie, 209 


.Tarrel, 47 


Sow of Athole, 83 


Strath Bran, 165 


.Tarstavat, 272 


.Spardan nan Gobhar, 


Conon, 149 


.Tarvie, 162 


57 


Cromble, 169 


Tea.blair, 137 


.Spean, 1. 


.miglo, 157 


Tea.chatt, 89 


Spey, I. 


More, 251 


.Teallach, 243 


.Spidean a' Choire Leith, 


na Sealg, 243 


.Teampall .Earach, 48 


211 


Strath. peffer, 98 


.Teamradal, 197 


.Spideau a Ghlais-tuill, 


Strath of Pit.ca-lme, 52 


Teana.callich, 154 


243 


.Rannoch, 101 


Teana.criech, 110 


.Spittal, 144 


Strath.rory, 68, 84 


Teana.fruich, 106 


Spuic .Nighean .Thor- 


Strath.rusdale, 73, 84 


Teana.gaim, 117 


maid, 218 


.Terry, 162 


Teana.huig, 143 


Srath-.cuillionach, 11 


.vaich, 164 


Teana.lick, 111 


-.fhliuchaidh, 139 


.Strathy, 72, 187 


Tean.dallan, 92 


Maol-.Chaluim, 202 


Strcme, 194, xix. 


Tean.dalloch, 107 


r.a .Frangach, 72 


Strome.ferry, 188 


Tean.dore, 117, 137, 140 


na Sealer, 243 


Strona.chro, 107 


.Teanga .Fhiadhaich, 194 


.Phollaidh, 261 


Strone, 80, 163 


Tean.ord, 87 


.Fea^gaich, 16 


Strone.more, 50 


Tean.inich, 7$ 



302 



PLACE-NAMES OF ROSS AND CBOMARTY 



Tea.wig, 137 
Tea.zet, 116 
Tempi and, 135 
Tena.field, 111 
Thesklaris, 38 
Three Kings, 54 
Tigh a' .Mholain, 178 

a' Mhuilinn, 136 

an t-Sluic, 139 
.Tighearna, 271 
Tighernach, 85 
Tigh.mhadaidh, 4 
Tighna-filine, 236 
Tigh na h-.Irich, 140 
Tighn.innich, 122 
Ti^h na h-Innse, 119 

na .Plucaird, 235 
.Tobar a' Bhaile Dhuibh, 

40 

a' Bhaistidh, 55 

a' .Chlaidheimh, 56 

a' Choirneil, 55 

.Alaidh .Bhodhsa, 55 

an Tuirc, 176 

Cadh' an Ruigh, 56 

.Chragag, 133 
_ .Cormaig. 54 

Cnoc .Coinnich, 54 

.Dringaig, 228 

Dun Sgath, 56 

.Eathain Bhaist, 55 
Mo-.Chalmaig, 46 

Mhoire, 79 

na .Baintighearna, 44 

na Coille, 51, 55 

na h-eiteachan, 56 

- na h-Iu, 54 

nan Geala mora, 55 

nan .Gobhar, 42 
Tobarnayn.gor, 42 
.Tobar na' Muc, 56 

nam Puill Lin, 55 

- na Slainte, 50, 56 

Sein .Sotharlain, 55 

.Suardalain, 40 
Tober.churn, 123 
Toberinteir, 74 

Tokach, 22 

Toll, 268 

.Tollaidh, 73, 105, 180, 
231 



.Tollar, 268 
.Tollie, 73, 105, 180, 231 
Toll Ligh, 168 
Toll Muic, 165 
Toll nam Blast, 218 
Toll .Raoiridh, 49 
Tollie Mylne, 73 
Tolly, 73, 105, 180, 231 
.Tolsta, 271 
Tom.ban, 165 
Tom .Phutharol, 265 
.Tomich, 70 
.Torastaigh, 271 
Tore, 118, 143 
Tore.lean, 60 
Tor.muick, 111 
Torna. brock, 65 
Torna.preas, 192 
Torr a' Bhil, 27 

a' Bhiod, 230 

na h-.Iolaire, 198 

- nan Clar, 194 
Torra Cadaidh, 244 
.Torran, ob 
Torran .Cuilinn, 197 

- na 016, 230 

Shios, 51 

Shuas, 51 
Torray, 264 
.Torridon, 210 
Torr.luinnsich, 171 
Torr.micliaell, 21 
Torr na .Cathrach, 247 
- .Fhionnlaidh, 216 
Torr .Oigean, 8 
Torris .Trean, 109 
.Toscaig, 203 
.Totaig, 173 
Toul.vaddie, 47 
.Tourie.lum, 135 
Traigh .Chumil, 269 
.Triubhais, 77 
.Tromie, 128 

Tulach .Ard, 178 
.Tulchainn, 198 
.Tullich, 41, 66, 141, 198 
.Tulloch, 94 
.Txmna Bheag, 218 
.Tungavat, 272 
.Turnaig, 235 
.Tympane Myln, 99 



[ .Uags, 203 

Uaimh .Shianta, 206 

Uaimn .Ulabha, 187 

Uamh .Fhreacadain, 222 

Uchdan, 80 

Uchdant-.Sab-ail, 171 

.Udale, 125 

.Udrigle, 238 

Uidh, 223 

Uidh .Phlubach, 225 

Uig, 78 

Uisge Dubh, 24 

.Ulladale, 61, 67, 100, 266 

.Ullapool, 254 

.Ullava, 187 

.Ullavat, 272 

.Ungashader, 270 

.TJrard, 212 

.Urquhart, 113 

.Urranan, 271 
i .Urray, 104 
i .Ussie, 105 



.Valasay, 266 
Varar, xii. 
.Vatersay, 266 
.Vatisker, 271 
Vernemetis, lx : i. 
.Vuya, 266 

Walter's Seat, 50 
Wardlaw, xix. 
.Wellhouse, 145 
Wester Ballano, 123 
Wester Fearn, 30 
\Vester Ross, x.i. 
.Weston, 131 
Westray, 23 
White. bog, 126 
Whitegate, 137 
Whiteness, 36 
White.wells, 144 
Wilk.haven, 45 
Williamstown, 125 
\vood.head, 122 
.Woodlands, 279 
Wood.side, 131 

Yair.head, 139 



f> 









DA Watson, William John 

880 Place names of Ross 

R7W34 and Cromarty 



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