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LIBRIS WILLIAM JOHN ROBERTSON 






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Presented to the 

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PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND 



Printed by Ne'dl & Company 

FOB 
DAVID DOUGLAS. 

LONDON . . SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, AND CO., LIM. 
CAMBRIDGE . MACMILLAN AND BOWES. 
GLASGOW . . JAMES MACLEHOSE AND SONS. 



PLACE-NAMES OF 




BY 






JAMES B. JOHNSTON, B.fr? ri ' 

MINISTER OF THE FREE CHURCH, FALKIRK 




EDINBURGH: DAVID DOUGLAS 

1892 



[All rights reserved.] 



PREFACE. 



THAT this book is an attempt, only an attempt, with 
many deficiencies, the writer of it is well aware. The 
would-be severest critic could not criticise it more 
severely than he. But a pioneer may surely at all 
times claim a certain measure of grace and indulgence. 
And if the critic find here anything that is truly useful 
at all, he is courteously entreated to lend his much- 
needed aid to make the book better, instead of picking 
out the many shortcomings which a first attempt in 
this philological field cannot but display. The book 
has been long a-gathering, and has been compiled in 
the mere shreds and fragments of time which could be 
spared from the conscientious discharge of exception- 
ally heavy ministerial work. It has been composed 
away from all large libraries, to which the writer was 
only able to make occasional reference ; and both in 
the writing and in the passing through the press 
though he has done his best he has been subject to 
incessant interruption. But nobody else had hitherto 
attempted a task, whose accomplishment not a few 
seemed to desire ; hence this book. 



11 PREFACE. 

Some may be disappointed with the large use of 
conjecture. The words ' perhaps ' and ' probably ' may 
occur oftener than they would like. But, from the 
nature of the case, this was unavoidable. And indeed 
all science is daily being advanced by the hypotheses 
of trained workers. The writer has endeavoured to 
keep all his conjectures within the bounds of scientific 
sobriety. 

It must not be expected that so satisfactory a guide 
to the Place-Names of Scotland can ever be produced 
as the public already has for the names of England and 
Ireland, and for this simple reason, that the materials 
to form its foundation, to a large extent, no longer 
exist. This is sufficiently explained in the body of 
the work. As will soon be seen, the majority of the 
names dealt with are Celtic, and the writer would at 
once frankly confess that he has only an amateur's 
knowledge of Gaelic ; but he has tried what he could, 
with the aid of dictionary and grammar, and also 
with the kind aid, to some extent, of a few Gaelic 
friends. The dictionary used is M'Leod and Dewar's, 
to whose standard the Gaelic spelling is usually con- 
formed. But a scholarly Gaelic dictionary, such as a 
philologist would like to be able to consult, is still sadly 
to seek. 

The book owes much to the work of others. Special 
mention must be made of the valuable contribution of 
the writer's only real predecessor, Sir Herbert Maxwell, 
in his Studies in the Topography of Galloway, 1885, 
of which considerable use has been made, and for which 



PREFACE. Ill 

most grateful thanks are now tendered to the author. 
The historical substratum has, of course, been taken 
chiefly from Dr W. F. Skene's classic history of Celtic 
Scotland, 3 vols., edition 1886. Would that the 
learned historian had condescended to explain some 
more of those difficult early names, about which he 
has given us a few most useful hints. The writer 
has to express his personal indebtedness to Dr Skene 
for more than one communication with which he 
has been favoured. For things Celtic and things 
Norse, too, this book owes not a little both to the 
published writings and to private letters of the Edin- 
burgh Professor of Celtic, Professor M'Kinnon. His 
article Gaelic, in the new edition of Chambers's Ency- 
clopedia, has been very helpful; but, above all, his 
scholarly series of letters on the Place-Names of 
Argyle, which unfortunately lie buried in the ephemeral 
columns of the Scotsman, October 1887 to January 
1888. These letters are the most competent contribu- 
tion to the subject which have yet appeared. To a 
much smaller extent the writer is under obligation to 
various publications of Professor Rhys, by whom he 
has been favoured with at least occasional private help. 
Hearty acknowledgment is, furthermore, due to the 
ready assistance of Dr J. A. H. Murray, the laborious 
editor of the great New English Dictionary, who can 
always spare ten minutes to help a friend ; and through 
the writer's connection with the great Oxford dictionary 
he has more than once been privileged to draw upon 
its unpublished as well as published stores. Topo- 



IV PREFACE. 

graphical books and articles innumerable have been 
ransacked. Special mention needs to be made of the 
interesting first chapter of Professor Veitch's History 
and Poetry of ike Scottish Border, 1878, and Bishop 
Forbes' Calendars of Scottish Saints. For more 
reasons than one no material has been borrowed from 
Isaac Taylor's well-known Words and Places. But 
both, series of Dr P. W. Joyce's most scholarly and 
most entertaining Irish Names and Places have been 
freely used. 

A few things hitherto unpublished will be found in 
the Introduction ; but the chief contribution to know- 
ledge will be found in the Alphabetical List of Names 
which follows, of which by far the most is original. 
No such collection of early name-forms (on which all 
scientific study must be based) has ever appeared 
hitherto. Many have been taken from various books, 
but most of them have been laboriously picked out by 
the writer from the valuable, but, as a rule, by no means 
easy to consult, publications of the Bannatyne and 
Spalding Clubs. The early charters have, to some 
extent, been systematised in Cosmo Innes' great but 
unfinished Origines Parochiales, 1851-55, which have 
been our chief quarry. Volume I. contains the parishes 
in Dumbarton, Renfrew, Lanark, Peebles, Selkirk, 
Roxburgh ; Volume II. Part I., Argyle, all the Western 
Isles, Lochaber, Bute, and Arran ; Part II., Ross and 
Cromarty, Sutherland, Caithness. The name-forms 
have each been dated as accurately as possible ; but 
detailed references have very rarely been given, as this 



PREFACE. V 

would have added very greatly to the bulk and labour 
of the work, with but little corresponding advan- 
tage. 

No attempt has been made to make the List 
exhaustive. Its size might with ease be trebled ; 
and F. H. Groome's excellent Ordnance Gazetteer of 
Scotland, 1885, contains many more names than are 
to be found here. Nevertheless the writer ventures 
to hope that he has omitted few names known 
beyond a ten-mile radius, and few names likely to 
interest the ordinary traveller by road, rail, or sea. 
Comparisons with places in England are chiefly based 
on the Postal Guide (July 1890), whose list is the most 
complete with which the writer is acquainted. Of 
course it is impossible for one man to know every site 
even in little Scotland; and thus some few of the 
explanations conjectured may turn out inapplicable. 
But it is hoped that the critic will believe that, in 
several cases, this is not due to lack of effort, but to 
the fact that a reply post-card addressed to the writer 
is still lying unused in some spot not far away from the 
site in question. Valuable hints for the compilation of 
this list have been received from many friends. Speci- 
ally deserving of mention are the Rev. J. M'Lean, 
Pitilie, Aberfeldy ; Mr A. J. Stewart, Schoolhouse, 
Moneydie, Perth ; Dr Joass, Golspie ; Dr Laing, New- 
burgh ; Dr Joseph Anderson ; Rev. John S. Mackay, 
Fort Augustus, and probably others. To all those 
mentioned in this Preface the writer 'won Id again 
express his grateful indebtedness, but he Avould have 



VI PREFACE. 

it distinctly understood that for all errors and short- 
comings he alone is responsible. 

Last, but by no means least, he must very warmly 
thank his publisher for not a few additions and much 
help most liberally rendered while the sheets were 
passing through the press. This only he would add, 
that all communications, corrections, and additions will 
be gladly welcomed by the reader's fellow-student, 

JAMES B. JOHNSTON. 



FREE CHURCH MANSE, FALKIRK, 
December 1891. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGK 

INTRODUCTION, ix 



CHAPTER I. 
CELTIC NAMES, xvii 

CHAPTER IT. 
NOESE NAMES, 1 

CHAPTER III. 
ENGLISH NAMES, Ixviii 

CHAPTER IV. 
ROMAN, NORMAN, AND PURELY MODERN NAMES, . . Ixxxi 

CHAPTER V. 
ECCLESIASTICAL NAMES, r Ixxxvii 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND, 1-250 
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PLACE-NAMES IN ENGLAND, . . 251 
ADDENDA, 254 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 



INTRODUCTION. 

EVERY science has its byways as well as its highways. 
It is along an interesting byway that this book invites 
the student to walk. The study of place-names may be 
said to stand to -History and Ethnology in somewhat the 
same relation as the study of fossils stands to Geology. 
Each group or set of fossils represents, with more or less 
strictness, a distinct age of geologic time ; so, roughly 
speaking, does each group of place-names represent a 
period of historic or prehistoric time. All the place- 
names worth studying are fossils ; no man now living 
was present at their birth. Sometimes the geologist 
who wishes to map out his territory finds his task the 
simplest possible; e.g., for hundreds of monotonous 
miles over the steppes of Russia he finds the same 
strata, the same soft Permian sandstones, lying hori- 
zontal and unaltered as on the day, or rather age, when 
first they hardened on the old sea-bottom. At other 
times, though he may have only fifty, or even twenty, 
square miles to map out, the geologist finds his task 
one of extreme difficulty and complexity. Half a dozen 
different systems crop up in that little space, and 

A 



X PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

igneous rocks rise here and there among the aqueous, 
crumpling, distorting, and altering all things around ; 
such a region is the Isle of Arran, or the English 
counties along the Welsh border. Again, the eager 
fossil-hunter is sometimes delighted on splitting open 
a nodule, or in cleaving the thin laminse of the shale, to 
discover an exquisitely symmetrical ammonite, or a yet 
more delicate fern, in shape as perfect as the day it 
died. But, just as often, the only specimens he can 
find are fragments crushed and broken, which require 
the highly-trained eye of the expert to tell what once 
they were. 

Now, if the devotee of such a physical science as 
geology will but lay aside his hammer and his pocket- 
microscope for a little while, he will find somewhat 
similar problems to study when he grapples with 
(Scottish) place-names. Sometimes his task will be all 
plain sailing, if only he have learnt the rudiments 
of the craft; e.g., for miles and miles in the central 
Highlands he will find himself in a purely Gaelic 
region, where all the names are as unmistakably 
Gaelic as they were on the far-off, unknown day when 
they were born. In sound and shape these names are as 
they have ever been since history began. But in other 
districts, more especially in those where English has 
long been spoken, the old names have often come down 
to us in much-corrupted and truncated forms, some- 
times in a ludicrously-altered form, which it requires 
the greatest skill and care and patience to decipher 
if, indeed, the name can now be deciphered at all. 

The subject which is here to be treated, the Place- 
Names of Scotland, is one which has never yet been 
grappled with as a whole; and even when we have 
done our best it will be found that there is much, and 



INTEODUCTION. XI 

that the most difficult part of the work, yet to be 
done. Too many of those who have tried their 'prentice 
hands at the task have proceeded in the most reck- 
less fashion, in giving way to unscientific guess-work 
which, like the obstructive undergrowths in the 
virgin j.orest, must first be cleared away before we 
can begin to make our road at all. But much 
foundation work, much pioneering, has already been 
done, and done well. And now, thanks to the labours 
of Skene, and Rhys, and Joyce, and many true men 
more, it should be impossible that, e.g., Poma Dei 
should ever again be put forward as the likely etymology 
of that place which Glasgow railwaymen know so 
well Polmadie. 1 Nor do we think that any grown-up 
person will ever believe any more that the name of 
Dr Chalmers' well-known first charge, Kilmeny, can 
have any reference to a command to slaughter a 
multitude ! 

Our treatment of the subject will be historic, pro- 
ceeding strictly in order of time. The first chapter 
will refer to all we know of the aborigines of 
Britain call them Iberians, Ivernians, Silurians, or 
what you please and then will rapidly discuss the 
largest and most complicated portion of our task the 
Celtic names. Then purely English or Anglo-Saxon, 
Scandinavian, and Norman names will each receive a 
chapter ; and with the Norman we will treat the Roman 
names, a group too insignificant to call for separate 
handling. Purely modern names will be dealt with 
last of all ; and, as ecclesiastical names form so large 
and important a group, they will receive a chapter to 
themselves. The study will be no mere dilettante 
trifling. The historian, the philologist, the antiquarian, 
1 Gaelic, poll madaidh, ' pool of the wolf or ' wild dog.' 



Xll PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

the anthropologist will, each and all, find for them- 
selves side-lights both helpful and interesting ; and Dr 
Murray's great English Dictionary will sometimes 
be supplemented by earlier instances of words than 
any which its learned columns now record see List, 
s.v. BEN, CARSE, MOREBATTLE, &c. 

What further seems needful to be said in introduc- 
tion, by way of rule, caution, or useful hint, we shall 
now throw into a series of numbered paragraphs : 

(1) It will be found in Scotland, 1 as in any other 
country, that the oldest place-names, the names which, 
like the hard granite, best resist weathering, are those 
of large rivers, mountains, and promontories, and of all 
islands. The names of rivers and islands especially are, 
as a rule, root-words, and therefore archaic, and difficult 
to explain. In a few cases we cannot explain them at 
all, because we know practically nothing of the ancient 
language to which they probably belong. The names 
of man's dwellings change pretty often ; but the name 
of a big ben or a steady-flowing river has hardly ever 
been known to change. 

(2) Every place-name means something, or at least 
once meant something. Only in this degenerate 19th 
century have men begun to coin silly, meaningless 
names. Only within late years could a Dickens or a 
Thackeray have had the chance of satirising his neigh- 
bour for calling No. 153 in a dingy back street, full 
20 feet above the level of the sea, Mount Pleasant, or 
for christening an ugly brick house, in full sight of a 
gaswork, Belle Vue. But Brother Jonathan does even 
worse. In the newly-erected State of Washington 

ome of the county names are Snohomish, Klickitat, 

1 Of. Skene, Celtic Scotland, vol. i. bk. i. chap, iv., a very valuable 
chapter. 



INTRODUCTION. Xlll 

Yakima, Wahkikum, Chehalis. These monstrosities 
are not the vocables of the fast-dying Red Indian. 
They were made by the simple process of shaking the 
letters of the alphabet in a sack, and then emptying 
them out, by instalments, on the floor ! 

(3) It may be taken as a general rule that every 
name was once fairly appropriate. Therefore try, if 
possible, to study names, as every honest student 
studies his quotations, in situ, on the spot. But one 
must not always expect to find the name appropriate 
to-day. The cause or circumstance which gave rise 
to the name may have utterly passed away. What 
was ' Kingsbarns ' once need not be so now. Or the 
physical aspect of the site may have become entirely 
altered ; e.g., many think that CALTON l means ' bald, 
bare hill,' G. calbh dun, which may well be ; and the 
' bald hill ' is still to be seen plain enough in Edinburgh ; 
but little trace of it can be found among the wynds and 
courts which now cover ' the Calton ' in Glasgow. 

(4) Though every name has a real meaning, never 
prophesy unless you know. It is quite likely that a 
name does not mean what it says, or seems to say; 
and a name which looks like English pure and simple 
may possibly not be English at all. Abundant 
illustration of this will be found further on. Mean- 
time, take one illustration. There is a spot in the 
Stewartry in the parish of New Abbey which at present 
goes by the sadly vulgar and thoroughly English-look- 
ing name of SHAMBELLY. On examination this turns 
out to be pure Gaelic, sean baile (shanbally), which has 
the very innocent meaning of ' old house ' or ' hamlet.' 2 

1 The printing of a name in capitals means See further information 
in the List. 

2 See Sir Herbert Maxwell's Studies in the Topography of Gallcnvay, 
1887 p. 283. 



XIV PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

(5) It is thus of the highest consequence, wherever 
possible, to secure not only an old but the very oldest 
extant form or spelling of a name. For, though a 
name may be spelt so-and-so to-day, it by no means 
follows that it was always spelt thus. And frequently 
it is only when one sees the old form that any idea 
of the name's true meaning can be reached. This also 
will find copious illustration as we proceed. For the 
present, take just one instructive instance from the 
writer's own experience. TESTER, the name of a parish 
at the foot of the Lammermuirs, was long a puzzle. 
The writer communicated with the courteous Professor 
of Celtic in Edinburgh University, giving a somewhat 
foolish conjecture, which need not be repeated. The 
conjecture Professor M'Kinnon repudiated, but said he 
could throw no light upon the name. Then his con- 
frere at Oxford, Professor Rhys, was applied to, with 
the suggestion that Yester might be the same name as 
the hill Yes Tor in Dartmoor, and was asked for the 
latter 's meaning. We then learnt that Yes is a Cornish 
superlative, and Yes Tor means ' highest hill ; ' but 
Professor Rhys would not venture to identify it with 
Yester, and declared himself puzzled. But one day 
we discovered that the oldest charters call the place 
Ystrad, and the meaning appeared with a flash. For 
this is just the ordinary Welsh word for 'a valley/ 
Thus were we supplied with a plain warning against rash 
guesses, and at the same time found a clear footstep of 
the Brython among the Lammermuirs. The joy of 
the palaeontologist when he cracks open a limestone 
nodule and finds therein a magnificent Productus, 
every curve and line of the shell perfect, is hardly 
greater than the satisfaction of the historical philolo- 
gist when he first discovers that a puzzling and prosaic 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

name like CARSTAIRS originally was ' Casteltarres ' (sic, 
c. 1170), Terras being a familiar Scotch surname to 
this day. Even yet all will not be well unless the 
student also knows that the oldest usage of the word 
' castle ' in English was as a translation of the Vulgate's 
castellum, where castellum means always, not a fortress 
but a village. Thus Carstairs, if dressed in Saxon 
garb, would be Tarreston, in Norman garb, Tarresville. 
It may be taken as a rough rule, with many exceptions, 
that if we can find a name on record before the year 
1200, we have a fair chance of correctly surmising its 
meaning ; whereas if no record of it be found till after 
1500, that record may be of small scientific value. 

(6) If it be highly desirable to ascertain the old 
spelling of a name, it is almost equally desirable that 
we should know its local, native pronunciation. Celtic 
scholars are so thoroughly agreed as to the need for 
this, if Celtic names are to be rightly interpreted, that 
we hardly need to emphasize the rule wherever you 
can get a native Gael to pronounce a name listen care- 
fully to him. Such a proceeding will save many a 
time from writing or talking nonsense. But the rule 
holds good, to a less extent, about all Scotch place- 
names, and about Celtic names even when the pro- 
nouncer himself no longer speaks Gaelic. The writer 
does not need to go far from his own Lowland door to 
find very pertinent examples of this. If the reader 
will consult the List of this book he will find that, in 
the case of two of our local Celtic and two of our local 
English names, the present native pronunciation comes 
much nearer the true etymology than the present spell- 
ing. The four names are the Celtic CAMELON (kamlon) 
and POLMONT (p6mon), and the English FALKIRK 
(fawkirk) and SHIELDHILL (sheelhill). The liquids 



r: XVl PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

I, m, r always need special watching ; and, when the 
whole truth is known, it will be seen that the Celt 
makes far sadder havoc with his hs than the Cockney 
(see p. xxxv). 

(7) It should not be thought that a given name 
must of necessity be all Celtic, all English, or all Norse. 
Hybrid names occur by the score, e.g., the Celtic and 
English CAMBUSLANG, the English and Celtic NEWTON- 
MORE, the Celtic and Norse GARRABOST, &c. Nor 
must it be supposed that the names in any given dis- 
trict ought all to belong to one language all Gaelic in 
the Highlands and all English in the Lowlands. This 
is far from being the case ; though it is true that some 
districts are nearly unmixed in this respect, e.g., Orkney 
and Shetland names are practically all Norse; the main- 
land of Argyle names practically all Celtic, pure Gaelic 
too, with no Brythonic or Welsh admixture ; whilst in 
Berwickshire there is scarcely a name left which is not 
English. 

When all these seven caveats have been surely learnt 
and gripped, then, and only then, is the amateur in- 
vestigator fit to advance a single step in safety. 



CHAPTER I. 

CELTIC NAMES. 

IT is impossible to speak with strict accuracy on the 
point, but Celtic names in Scotland must outnumber all 
the rest by nearly ten to one. And their importance may 
be measured well by the one fact that, up to so late a date 
as the death of Malcolm II. in 1056, all Scotland was 
purely Celtic. Wide and difficult though the Celtic 
problem still is, answers can be found far more surely 
and accurately than was at all possible fifty years ago. 
Here, as in every other field, the last half-century has 
seen science advancing with swift, sure foot. Fifty 
years ago the subject of Celtic place-names spread out 
like a vast morass with a little solid footing round 
the edges alone a vast morass, with no thorough- 
fares and no beacons, and with many a Will o' the 
Wisp dancing deceitfully about, to lead the luckless 
follower to confusion. Some solid footing there has 
always been; e.g., nobody who knew Gaelic at all 
would ever be at a loss to say that Achnacloich 
meant ' field of the stone.' But whenever any name 
a little less simple than this was met with, or 
when men began to argue, Was this stone a Druid 
relic, or a " mere boundary mark ? Is cloich a true 
Gaelic, or a Pictish, or a Brythonic (Welsh) form ? 



XV111 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

then at once arose a hopelessly bewildering Babel of 
tongues. But now the morass has been largely drained, 
and everywhere good footpaths run. 

During the early part of our century all was wildest 
conjecture as to Britain's aborigines, and most of what 
had then been written was purest nonsense. Almost 
everybody was satisfied that our aborigines were Aryans 1 
and Celts, and that in Scotland the eldest race was 
most likely the Picts. Learned old Pinkerton laboured 
hard with the names (many probably spurious) of the 
Pictish kings, to prove the Picts Gothic, while indus- 
trious Dr Jamieson plied a lusty cudgel in favour of 
a Teutonic origin. Mais nous avons change tout cela. 
That new science called Anthropology, born c. 1862, 
but now in a vigorous youth, has supplanted the shifty, 
precarious methods of mere root-guessing. Those who 
say they know now tell us, that what survives longest of 
a race is its type of skull and face, next longest its place- 
names ; whilst that which most readily changes is its 
language. Anthropology has proved beyond question 
that the primeval inhabitants of our isles, down to the 
very close of the Stone Age, were those non-Aryan 
cave-dwellers of dark complexion, black hair, long skull, 
and short, feeble build, whose remains are found in the 
long barrows, a people typically represented by the 
tribe Silures, whom Julius Caesar describes to us as 
dwelling on what is now the Welsh border. Their 
marks may still be recognised by the skilled observer 
almost all over Scotland from Galloway northwards, 
and very specially in such a Hebridean isle as Barra. 
Curious to relate, if we want to find the one living 
race which is a tolerably pure representative of these 

1 The name Aryan was not actually applied to this great family of 
languages till about 1846. 



CELTIC NAMES. XIX 

'Iberians' 1 of old, both in build and speech, we must 
journey to the south shore of the Bay of Biscay and 
see the Spanish Basques, the folk whose uncouth 
speech, 'tis said, the Devil gave up learning in despair. 
In sooth, the Basque tongue is but a poor specimen at 
the best. 

Naturally these old ' Iberians ' would give a name to 
every prominent physical feature in the land ; but what 
these names were we can hardly in any instance tell. 
Their tongue is dead, drowned by the many later 
comers in almost utter forgottenness. Written monu- 
ments of any kind the British 'Iberian' has none. 
However, Professor M'Kinnon thinks a pre- Celtic 
element may still be dimly recognised in the modern 
Gael's vocabulary ; and there are a very few Scottish 
place-names w T hich may with some confidence be 
identified with Basque roots, e.g., URR, name of the 
river which runs by Dalbeattie, which is almost 
certainly the Basque ur, ' water,' and ISLA, a river in 
Eorfar and Banff, il- being very common in Basque 
place-names. Besides these, Sir Herbert Maxwell 
offers to us a handful of Galloway names of which 
he can make nothing, and which he thinks may be 
Iberian. This is only conjecture ; and, to take just one 
of the names he mentions, Gutcloy may quite possibly 
be Celtic for ' hut of stone' cf. W. cut, ' a cot,' and G. 
clack, cloich, ' a stone.' Professor Rhys has done his best 
to discover for us some more of our aboriginal, or ' Iver- 
nian ' names, as he prefers to call them. His method 
(Rhind Lectures, 1890, No. 3) is, if he can find Scottish 
names not readily explainable from Gaelic, which 
resemble the names of some princesses, heroes, or 

1 So called from Iberia, an ancient name of Spain, though it is only 
a careful guess to say that Britain's aborigines came from Spain. 



XX PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

divinities, mentioned in the earliest Welsh and Irish 
legends, then he conjectures that these Scottish place- 
names must be pre-Celtic, because all three countries 
have them in common. Such a method is precarious, 
and in no given case has he reached demonstration. 
See List, s.v. ATHOLE, BANFF, CLYDE, DUNFERMLINE, 
EARN, ELGIN. 

After these dim aborigines came the Celts, most 
westerly band of the Aryans. Till about ten years ago 
it was considered a settled commonplace of philology 
that the Aryan's home was somewhere in Western Asia, 
among the sources of the Oxus, to the north of Persia. 
Here, again, all is changed. Max Muller almost alone 
remains by the old flag; and now the suggestion, 
perhaps first made to Europe by our own Dr Latham, 
and developed by the acute erudition of Schrader, 
Penka, and others, has been almost universally 
adopted, 1 viz., that the Aryan's cradle and nursery 
must have been among the wide, swampy plains of 
Central Germany. The skull-men, with their measur- 
ing tapes, have fairly routed the men who clave 
to the dictionary alone. Among the first of the many 
wandering sons to leave the old Aryan home was the 
Celt, who went West with the sun, filling what is now 
France and Belgium, and the lands fringing thereon. 
It is thought he must first have entered Britain by way 
of Essex and Kent ; when, we cannot say in years B.C., 
but it was at the end of the great Neolithic Age, for 
he brought bronze tools and weapons with him. What 
we have here to say about the Celt can lay no claim to 
original research ; and now that reliable information is 
so easily obtained, e.g., take Professor M'Kinnon on 
Gaelic and Professor Rhys on Celts in the admirable 

1 See Isaac Taylor, Origin of the Aryans, 1889, chap. i. 



CELTIC NAMES. XXI 

new edition of Chambers's Encyclopaedia, we need say 
but little. However, a few remarks are absolutely 
necessary for the intelligent appreciation of our subject. 
Tis pleasant to be able to state that, after long dispute, 
the main facts about the Celtic race and languages in 
Britain are now practically agreed on by all scholars. 
And though there must be a good deal of conjecture 
still we cannot help it yet whatever is said about 
Scottish Celtic place-names by Drs Skene and Keeves, 
or Professor M'Kinnon, may be accepted as in all 
probability correct ; moreover, though Joyce deals with 
Irish names only, he gives us much sure and valuable 
guiding. 

It is likely the first disturbers of the swarthy 'Iberian' 
were the Goidels, then, after a time, the stronger 
Brythons. The physical characteristics of the 'Iberian' 
and the newer race are somewhat difficult to dis- 
tinguish ; but we all think we know the Celt when we 
see him a big-boned, short-skulled man of fair com- 
plexion, with red or tawny yellow hair, strong, often 
somewhat fierce in look. The Goidels, or better Gadhels 
Gadhel is just Gael, dh being quiescent and the 
Brythons same root, indeed same word, as Briton 
these are the names by which the two great branches 
of the Celtic race in Britain are now commonly known. 
It is only in popular parlance that ' Gaelic' is confined 
to the tongue of the Scottish Celt. The Gadhelic race 
comprehends the Irishman, the Manxman, and even the 
Cornishman. Perhaps we should explain, however, 
that, like good patriots, the Scottish Dr Skene calls the 
Cornish Gadhels, while Welsh Professor Rhys tends to 
class them with the Brythons. From the few inscrip- 
tions which have come down to us, and from the many 
proper names recorded by Caesar, it is now considered 



XX11 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

certain that the most of the ancient Gauls spake a 
Brythonic speech, practically identical with Welsh ; 
points of contact with Gadhelic tongues are harder to 
find, but they do exist too. In both Gaul and Britain 
Brython was stronger than Gael, and largely supplanted 
him all over England and Wales, and southern Scotland 
too, leaving to the Gael only Ireland and Man, and 
remoter Scotland. 

Thus, when we come to examine the Celtic place- 
names of Scotland, we must expect to find two types 
or groups of names. Yet the stronger Brython has 
made but little permanent mark among us, and the 
names indisputably his are few; north of the Grampians, 
almost none. The Gael and the later-inflowing Saxon 
very nearly killed him out. The Gael or Gadhel again 
includes, in Scotland, both an invader and an invaded. 
Before the Brython entered the whole land seems to have 
been peopled by the wild, woad-stained Caledonians, 
those Pictij f painted men/ of whom so many early 
historians have to tell. The name first occurs in 
Ammianus Marcellinus, c. 378 A.D. Our earliest native 
writers, Gildas, c. 550, and Nennius, of the 7th century, 
thought them a foreign people, who first landed in 
Orkney. Until the beginning of the 6th century the 
northern two-thirds of Scotland was all Pictish, there 
being both a northern and a southern kingdom of the 
Picts. The boundary between the two was the massive 
backbone of the Grampians and that ridge which is 
now the eastern frontier of Argyle, Drumalban, c ridge, 
backbone of Alban,' the Celt's name for Scotland. The 
Niduari who occupied Galloway were Picts too. In the 
year 498 the true Scots, 1 the men of Ulster, came over 
in their wicker boats, conquered all Argyle and the 
1 'Scots' never meant anytbingibut Ulstermen till the llth century. 



CELTIC NAMES. XX111 

Isles, south of Ardnamurchan, founded the kingdom of 
Dalriad Scots, and imposed their speech there too. 
Even as the Jute and Angle, whose prows were fast 
turning towards England at this same time, imposed 
their speech on all England, and have left very few 
Brython names in any thoroughly English shire, so 
those Scoto-Irish, in course of time, imposed their 
tongue on all Scottish Celts, and largely, though not 
so universally, stamped their impress on the nomencla- 
ture too. But from the first the difference between 
Erse and Pictish must have been small. Were there 
no other evidence, the names in the Pictish region of 
the mountains, lochs, and rivers, names which so rarely 
change, would amply prove this. 

A run through Joyce's Irish Names and Places will 
soon convince any Scotsman that his names and the 
Irishman's are largely alike ; e.g., all the Bals- or Ballys-, 
all the Carricks-, so common in those parts of Scotland 
nearest Ireland, as Carrickaboys, Carrickcow, Carrick- 
glassen, &c., and all the Kils- and Knocks-, of which 
there are scores in either land. The Pict had his own 
distinctive marks, it is true. In the Postal Guide list 
for Wales and for Ireland there is not a single Fetter-, 
For-, or Pit-, all sure sign-manuals of the Pict. But to 
argue, like Professor Rhys, from the pronunciation in 
Aberdeenshire (once Pictish) of / for w, fat for what, 
&c., and on almost no other evidence, that Pictish was 
not an Aryan speech at all, is surely precarious indeed. 1 
But this branch of our subject can never be thoroughly 
expiscated, owing to almost total lack of material. 
Scottish education practically began, and almost wholly 

1 But see too pp. xix, xx. Near Cullen is a cave called by the 
natives 'Fal's mou,' i.e., whale's mouth. This the Ordnance Survey, 
in their ignorance, have marked in the map as Falmouth ! 



XXIV PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

spread, through the Donegalman Columba and his far- 
travelling monks, of whom the earliest were all Irish- 
bred; and down to the middle of the 16th century all 
Gaelic put into writing in Scotland was practically 
identical with Erse. The Book of the Dean of Lis- 
more, which dates so late as 1512-40, is the first known 
MS. of any consequence in Scottish Gaelic. 

To draw the dividing line between names Brythonic 
and names Gadhelic is a more needful matter. Here 
is a problem, interesting but delicate, which has caused, 
and perhaps still causes, not a little debate. Here two 
of our greatest living authorities are not yet quite 
agreed. Professor Rhys of Oxford has elaborated his 
theory about the Picts being non- Aryans in his recent 
Rhind Lectures. In his former work on Celtic Britain, 
he was inclined to think the Picts Brythons, but said that 
some of them in Lothian may possibly not have been 
Celts at all, quoting in support of this such unCeltic 
names as Inchkeith, Penco/iland, &c. But Dr Skene's 
verdict is generally held the true one. In his early 
work, The Highlanders of Scotland (1837), he tells us 
Pictish was ' a sort of low Gaelic dialect partaking 
largely of Welsh forms.' But when we quote another 
sentence from his mature work, Celtic Scotland, i. 225, 
edit. 1886, ' The generic terms do not show the existence 
of a Cymric [Welsh] language in the districts occupied 
by the Picts,' it will be seen that for Welsh in the 
earlier sentence he would now write British. In Celtic 
Scotland (i. 211) Dr Skene examines the list of Pictish 
kings handed down to us, and shows that the earlier 
part is made up of purely Irish or Gaelic names, all 
belonging to the Northern Picts, but that the later 
part shows more connection with the Southern kingdom, 
and more largely partakes of British, especially Cornish, 



CELTIC NAMES. XXV 

forms. The southern kingdom stretched over Perth- 
shire south to the Forth. This was the region inhabited 
by the tribe whom the Romans called Damnonii, prob- 
ably the same men as the Damnonii of Cornwall. 
And probably this same Pictish race, in Ireland called 
Cruithnigh (descendants of Cruithne), the Firbolg of 
Ireland's legendary history, once occupied all Ulster. 

So much for the region north of the Forth. The 
student will find it worth while to try and understand 
how things lay in the south too. To begin with, in the 
far south-west, or Galloway, as in neighbouring Ulster, 
there were Picts, the Romans calling the tribe here 
Niduari (see NITH). Then all Dumfries, Berwick, and 
most of Roxburgh and Haddington were early tenanted 
by the same great tribe which peopled most of Northern 
England, the Brigantes, a Brythonic or Cymric race. 
For, of course, all the old kingdom of Cumbria or 
Strathclyde, stretching from Clyde to Ribble, was Bry- 
thonic. Even after the northern part of this kingdom 
was incorporated with Scotland, c. 950, we find the 
people called in 12th-century charters, ' Strathclwyd 
Wealas ' or ' Walenses,' i.e., Welsh or foreigners. But 
from the testimony of charters also of David I.'s reign 
(1124-53) we learn that by his time the spoken Cymric 
must have practically disappeared from Strathclyde. 
Even by the days of Kenneth M' Alpine, first king 
of the Scots, c. 850, the Brythons of Scotland had been 
overrun and largely eclipsed by the Gaels. Next, the 
Damnonii once spread from Tweeddale away through 
Lanark to Ayr, Renfrew, and Dumbarton, and south to 
the Lowther Hills, and north, as we have seen, to the 
Tay, perhaps a little further. In Tweeddale, probably 
in West Lothian too, the tribe went by name of Gadeni. 
Here the place-names have a strong Cornish cast, whilst 

B 



XXVI PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

both Gaelic and Pictish forms are scanty. The typical 
Gaelic auchen-, bal-, craigen-, and mack-, and the 
Pictish auchter-, for-, and pit-, are here few and far 
between. 1 Wherever we find the letter / and the 
familiar auchter- and pit-, there the Gael or Pict must 
have been. They are never found in Wales. But. wher- 
ever we meet the letter p, there probably the Brython 
pitched his camp. 2 That letter seldom occurs in true 
Gaelic ; it is chiefly found in a few imported words 
like pibroch, from piobair, which is just our English 
' piper.' At a very early stage p vanished from true 
Gaelic; witness that word which must be one of the 
oldest in every tongue, athair, the L. pater, T^ng. father ; 
also ore, a pig or sea-pig, i.e. t whale, the L.porcus, found in 
ORKNEY, which is, curiously enough, perhaps the earliest 
Scottish name on record. Strabo (bk. ii.), who preserves 
for us the narrative of the great voyager Pytheas, c. 
330 B.C., gives it in the form '0/o/ca? ; even then the p 
was gone. A modern Gael, even when he sees p printed 
before him, will often read it b iompachadh (conver- 
sion) he will pronounce imbacha, &c. ; thus, too, he will 
make poll, a pool, into bol, as in BOLESKIN, &c. But, 
curiously enough, in some quarters the reverse process 
is found, and that even where Brythonic influence is 
hardly possible, e.g., in the Hebrides the Norse bol not 
seldom becomes pol, see p. Ixv ; BONSKIED, Pitlochry, 
is pronounced by some natives Pownsktitch ; a. 1300 we 
find ' Palgoueny ' as the spelling of BALGONIE ; and 
c. 1320, Prenbowgal for BARNBOGLE. 

As p is not found in pure Gaelic, all the pens or 
pins must be Brythonic, the Gaelic being ben. There 
are only two pens north of Stirling PENDRICH, just 

1 Cf. Professor Veitch, History of the Scottish Border, 1878, chap. i. 

2 Pit- itself is an almost unique exception. 



CELTIC NAMES. 

beyond the Forth, and PENNAN, near Fraserburgh,' 
the latter's origin is unknown. A common prefix, neV$$ Fi tj 
found in pure Gaelic or in Irish, is pit-, pitte-, petti-, 
first met with in the Pictish Gaelic entries of the Book 
of Deer ; e.g., ' pette mac Garnait,' homestead of Gar- 
nait's son, &c. Neither Brython nor Gael ever use pit- ; 
e.g., Gaels call PITLOCHRY Bailechlochre, and this is the 
general rule, the G. baile, 'house, hamlet,' being the 
equivalent of the Pictish pit-. But names in tra- or tre- 
are pure Brythonic ; for this is the W. tref, Cornish, tre, 
also Ir. treb, house, home. 

A fierce battle has been waged over the question, ' Is 
the common prefix aber-, " at the mouth" or " confluence 
of," a purely Brythonic form or no ? ' Welshmen have 
always been eager to assert that, 'aber- is Welsh, pure 
and simple, the Gael always uses inver-.' The ber 
or ver is the same root in both, the scholastic spellings 
being abhir and iribhir, and this bhir is evidently cog- 
nate with the Eng. bear, Li.ferre, Gk. fapeiv. The oldest 
extant spelling is abbor (see ABERDOUR) ; but in old 
charters we often find the Brythonic p for b (see ABER- 
ARGIE, ABERDEEN, &c.). The a in aber- is thought to be 
ath, pron. ah, a ford ; for aber- is sometimes found in a 
name where there is no river-junction or mouth, but 
where there is or was a ford, e.g., ABERNETHY, near Perth, 
and ARBIRLOT, the old Aberelloch. Down the river 
Nethy from Abernethy we find Invernethy, where Nethy 
and Earn actually meet. This much is certain about 
aber- and inver-, that in Wales there are scores of abers-, 
but of invers- not a solitary one. But if aber- be a sure 
sign of the Brython, which is not quite certain, we may 
from it alone gain a pretty fair idea how far he ever 
spread himself in Scotland. He must have travelled 
all along the east coast from St Abb's to Inverness 



XXV111 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

witness Aberlady, Aberdour (Fife), Abernyte, Aberdeen, 
and Aberdour (Aberdeen). He must also have travelled 
inland from the east coast in every direction for a con- 
siderable distance ; see Aberfoyle, Aberfeldy, Abergeldie 
(Braemar), Aberchirder (Banff) ; and as far west as 
Aberchalder on the Caledonian Canal. But on the 
west coast, and north of Inverness, aber- barely exists. 
There is none in Argyle, land of the Dalriad Scots; 
none in Selkirk, Peebles, Lanark, Stirling, Dumbarton, 
Renfrew, Ayr, land of the Damnonii ; none in Galloway, 
land of the Picts; and none in Cornwall, which is 
Damnonian too. Speaking generally, if aber- is to be 
our clue, the Brython hardly touched the land of the 
northern Picts at all. Then, in Aberdeen, Kincardine, 
Forfar, Perth, and Fife, land of the southern Picts, 
there are said to be seventy-eight invers- and only 
twenty-four abers-, which proportion probably indicates 
that here the Brythons were the later comers, because 
no place-names readily change. In Forfar the abhir 
gets hardened into ar, as in ARBROATH, the famous old 
Aberbrothick, and ARBUTHNOT, at first spelt Abir- 
buthenoth; just as fothir, later fetter, becomes in this 
region hardened into for. Thus we have FETTER- 
ANGUS and FETTERNEAR in Aberdeen, but FORDOUN 
and FORTEVIOT, the old Fothuirtabaicht, further south. 
Dr Skene would like to lay it down, as a rule, that ar 
and for belong to the southern, aber and fetter to the 
northern part of this north-east corner of Scotland, 
making the Mounth or Grampians the boundary. But 
this rule has many exceptions; e.g., FORGLEN and 
FORDYCE stand north of the line, and FETTERCAIRN 
and FETTERESSO south of it. But, to return from this 
digression, and to complete the discussion of aber-, it 
may be remarked that, on the whole west coast, the soli- 



CELTIC NAMES. XXIX 

tary instance is one which would not easily be guessed 
under its cheating mask, viz., APPLECROSS in West Ross, 
which is a modification of Abercrosan or ' Apurcrossan/ 
the Crosan being a little burn there. The initial a does, 
very rarely, get rubbed off, and BERVIE may be, though 
certainly BERWICK is not, a case in point. 

To sum up then in the study of the Celtic names the 
aid of the Welsh dictionary will occasionally be required 
for the district south of the Grampians, particularly 
Tweeddale ; but by far the largest number of our place- 
names are to be interpreted from the dictionary, and by 
the laws, especially the pronouncing laws, of Scottish 
Gaelic. True, more names may have had a Brythonic 
origin than at first sight appear ; for Zeuss in his great 
Grammatica Celtica (1853) gives it as his opinion, that 
the divergence between Gaelic, in its broadest sense, 
and Welsh began only a few centuries B.C., and in the 
days of Julius Ca3sar must have been very small. 

By far the best known form of Gaelic is Irish ; and 
Scottish Gaelic is as much a variety or dialect of Irish 
as Broad Scots is of Anglic or Old English being 
nearer Connaught Irish than any other. Perhaps the 
most distinctive note of the Scottish tongue is, that the 
primary accent is always on the first syllable. In some 
grammatic peculiarities Scottish Gaelic is more like 
Manx than Irish, which means, in other words, that 
Gaelic and Manx have ceased to develop at a further 
or later stage of disintegration than Irish ; and to this 
day a Manxman can understand a Gael better than a 
man from Erin's isle. 

Already have we heard that scores of Scottish names 
are identical with names in Ireland. But let it be 
clearly understood that, more than this, the assistance 
in our study to be gained from names in Ireland is 



XXX PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

immense, assistance splendidly systematised and clari- 
fied for us by Dr Joyce in his two handy volumes. 
The aid from Ireland is all the more precious to the 
scientific student, because we possess copious remains 
of early Irish literature, annals, historic poems, and the 
like, which give us the early forms of many of the Irish 
names. Abbot Tighernac, c. 1080, and the Annals of 
Ulster have quite a number of Scottish names too ; and 
sometimes we get forms as old as the 5th or 6th cen- 
tury A.D. From these early, uncorrupted forms scholars 
can usually tell with certainty the meanings of the 
names. Irish names are much easier to interpret 
because they have never, to the same extent, been so 
mangled and corrupted as in Scotland, either by Dane 
or Englishman. Again, the Scottish student is not 
nearly so fortunate as his Irish neighbour, because 
early Gaelic literature is sadly wanting. Not that 
early Scotsmen could not handle a pen, and handle 
it well; but their writings have not been allowed to 
survive. For this we have to thank the kindly atten- 
tions of our invaders ; not so much the armies of 
England's two Edwards', though they did their share 
but rather the rough hands of pagan Vikings from 
Norroway, who hated anything which seemed to smell 
of the mass, and who consigned hundreds of precious 
Scottish MSS. to the sea or to the flames. These same 
rude pirates have made early Celtic MSS. very scarce 
all over Britain. This country contains only about six 
MSS. which date before 1000 A.D. ; but the Celtic 
clergy fled from their native cells to the Continent, 
bearing their books with them ; and the libraries of 

1 Cf. Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland, 1881, vol. i. pref. 
pp. vi. sq., where the gross neglect of our own public record-keepers 
in early days is much commented on, and Edward I. vindicated. 



CELTIC NAMES. XXXI 

Central and South-West Europe have now rich store of 
early Celtic MSS., not less than 200 in all. However, 
the subjects of these continental MSS. make them to 
be seldom of much service for place-names. Nor do 
the many later bundles of Scottish Gaelic MSS. in the 
Edinburgh Advocates' Library and elsewhere yield us 
much fruit either. Of annals or topographic works 
they are said to contain hardly any, though there are 
rare exceptions, like the Islay charter of 1408. 

Of two other precious survivals every student of 
Scottish history has at least heard : 

(1) The Book of Deer in Aberdeenshire ; for the 
touching origin of the name DEER, or ' tear,' see the 
List. This manuscript contains the gospel of John, 
and parts of the three other gospels, in Latin; and 
then, what is important for us, in the blank spaces of 
the MS. parchment was costly in those days there 
are written in Scottish (or Pictish) Gaelic, grants of land 
and privileges to the church of Deer, containing several 
place-names. The MS. is all written in one hand, which 
some say is of the 9th century, though others make it 
as late as the reign of David I., c. 1150. 

(2) The Pictish Chronicle of the monks of Brechin, 
a brief work writ in Latin, but clearly a translation 
from the Gaelic, and containing a good many examples 
of place-names, which will all or very nearly all be 
found embodied in our List. It breaks off at the 
year 966, and its date cannot be much later. Besides, 
we have several instructive name-forms in Abbot 
Adawinan's well-known life of his great predecessor, 
Columba, of which one MS. dates from 710 A.D. Then, 
from the days of King Alexander I., 'the Fierce/ 
onwards, we have the copious Abbey Chartularies, 
whose stores of names of hill and dale, of town and 



XXX11 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

hamlet, have largely been made available by the zeal 
of the Bannatyne Club. Specially have we to thank 
the huge industry of Cosmo Innes and Brichan in the 
Origines Parochiales, which, alas ! cover only half of 
Scotland (see Preface). The famous Inquisitio de 
Terris Ecclesice Glasguensis, made by Prince David, 
afterwards David I., and now printed in the Chartulary 
of Glasgow, is perhaps the oldest authentic example of 
such documents. The Chartularies of Glasgow, Pais- 
ley, St Andrews, Holyrood, and Melrose are perhaps 
those most deserving of note. But when, as is often 
the case, the chartularies have been written by scribes 
wholly ignorant of Gaelic, their phonetic attempts at 
the spelling of a place-name often sadly disfigure the 
real word (see AUCHTERMUCHTY, &c.). Sometimes they 
get a little more blame than perhaps they really 
deserve, e.g., we are commonly told that the far-famed 
name IONA is just a scribe's error for loua, the Latin- 
ised form of Hy, Hii, as the name is in Bede. Hy, of 
course, is the English Bede's way of representing the 
G. aoi (ui), ' isthmus/ lona being so called because it 
and its near neighbour, Mull, once joined. But the 
whole truth seems to be, that the isle's Gaelic name 
was aoi uain, ' green isthmus ; ' for both Cuminus, or 
St Cummian, c. 657, first man to mention the place, 
and also Columba's second biographer, Adamnan, name 
it Hyona ; cf. the List, s.v. 

As an example of what we may find in a charter, and 
of how little after all place-names change, even in 750 
years, take the following list, being all the names men- 
tioned in the charter (in the Paisley Chartulary) 
granted by King Malcolm IV. to Walter, Stewart or 
Seneschal of Scotland, in 1158: 'Francis (i.e., 
Normans) et Anglis, Scotis et Galovidiensibus 



CELTIC NAMES. XXX111 

de terris de Keinfrew, Paisleth, Pullock, Tulloch, 
Kerkert (i.e., CATHCART), Le Drip, Egilsham, Lochynoc, 
et Inerwick, Inchenan, Hastendeii (i.e., HASSENDEAN), 

Legerwood, et Birchensyde, Roxburgh, 

St Andrae, Glasgow, Kelcow, Melross.' Among 

others, there are the following noteworthy personal 
names: 'Colvill, Sumervilla, et Macus;' the latter 
has not yet the appended -mil to make him Maxwell. 

The Celt gave names to all Scotland, so we must be 
prepared to find thousands of Celtic names to study ; 
but, unfortunately for those who wish to make sure of the 
true pronunciation of a puzzling name, Gaelic is now 
spoken over less than half its old area. It has been 
retreating up the glens ever since the days of foreign, 
Saxon Queen Margaret, and is destined to retreat 
further still, till finally, at no distant future elteu 
fugaces ! it must give up the ghost altogether, even as 
Cornish has already done. Take the region north of 
a line drawn from Forres to Campbelton, and throw in 
the upper valley of the Dee, and there, roughly speak- 
ing, is the area in which Gaelic is still a living speech. 
But Gaelic lived on in most parts of Scotland much 
longer than is commonly thought. We have the 
evidence of George Buchanan that it was spoken in 
Galloway down to the days of Queen Mary. It lingered 
in Glenapp (south of Ballantrae) a full century later ; 
and it probably continued to be the vernacular of some 
in Fife till quite 1700. Little wonder then that 
Galloway and Fife, though now English in speech, are 
crammed with Celtic names. South of the above- 
mentioned line we cannot be so sure about the real 
pronunciation, and consequently, the real meaning of 
many of the names. But, nota bene, it will not always 
do to trust local pronunciations and interpretations, 



XXXIV PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

even when given by a true Gael. Loch MAREE, so 
universally and wrongly thought to be ' Mary's Loch,' 
is a good case in point. 

No sure progress can be made until at least some- 
thing is known of the difficult laws of Gaelic inflection 
and pronunciation; and, of course, Scottish Gaelic shares 
its chief difficulties with all the other Celtic tongues. 
The inflections are sometimes a little difficult, because 
they largely take place within the word, e.g., nom. cu, 
< a dog ;' gen., the very different-looking coin, ' of a dog,' 
earn, ' a cairn,' cuirn, 'of a cairn,' &c. Then it is the rule 
and this is of great moment for our study that when- 
ever certain consonants come between two vowels they 
aspirate or add an h ; these aspirating (and the tyro may 
well call them also exasperating) letters are b, c, d, f, g, 
in, s, t ; e.g., Adam in Gaelic is A.dh&mli, and Adamnan, 
more correctly Adhamnan, is the diminutive, ' little 
Adam,' 'Adie.' For the extraordinary results produced 
on the name Adamnan by these aspirations, see p. xcv. 

The laws of pronunciation are yet more difficult. 
Many must heartily re-echo the wish that Gaelic, like 
Manx, had been written phonetically, according to 
sound, and not according to what Professor M'Kinnon 
calls ' the strict and highly artificial rules of the 
schools.' 1 As things now stand, there is probably no 
language in the world in which the eye can give less 
help to the tongue. Of course, there is method in the 
seeming madness ; but, to an untrained eye, the spelling 
gives almost no clue to the sound, and is usually 
altogether misleading. Thus, an ordinary English- 

1 Dr Stewart in his Grammar (pp. 29-35, 3rd edit), and we could 
have no higher authority, points out many ways in which Gaelic spell- 
ing ought to be simplified. This could so easily have been done a 
century ago, before the Bible was printed ; and those who love the 
old speech cannot but feel that it is a pity it was not. 



CELTIC NAMES. XXXV 

man consulting a Gaelic dictionary will find himself 
altogether at sea. The majority of the numerous 
diphthongs could, with advantage, be spelt with a single 
vowel, 1 and the uncouth-looking triphthongs, aoi,iai,iui, 
are really unneeded. But it is the ' aspiration' which 
causes the chief troubles. When h gets next any letter in 
the middle or end of a word it has always a tendency to 
eclipse its neighbour, and to make both it and the h silent 
altogether. Thus, many of those strange mh's and dh's, 
with which Gaelic is so thickly peppered, have no sound 
ab all ; e.g., Anihalgliaidli, which looks such a mon- 
strous mouthful, subsides into Owlay, so well known to 
us in the name Macaulay. Hence, too, such pronuncia- 
tions as Strabungo for STRATHBUNGO, Stracathro for 
STRATHCATHRO ; and, as we have already seen, Gael 
for Gadhel here dh is called evanescent. The usual 
sound of mh and bh is v, as in damh an ox, hence 
DAVA, and in da bharr, 'two heights/ or DAVARR. 
Sometimes it is nearer w, as in Craigwhinnie, the G. 
creag mhuine, ' crag of the thicket;' sometimes the 
v-sound goes all the way to b, though not in good 
Gaelic, as STRATHBUNGO = 'Mungo's vale;' and then 
often, as we have seen above, the aspirate and its 
neighbour have no sound at all. Yet more puzzling is 
it when the original consonant falls away altogether, 
leaving only the h, or else leaving no trace at all ; thus 
G. fada, ' long,' unaspirated, gives us the name Loch 
FAD in Bute, but aspirated it gives us the names of 
Ben ATTOW and HADDO House. 

Another matter of crucial importance is the accent. 
In Gaelic, which here differs from Irish, the accent 

1 The vowel sounds in Gaelic are so varied that they can only be 
learned by considerable experience. They also differ a good deal in 
different localities, and in different centuries (cf. KYLE, MULL, &c. ). 



XXXVI PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

tends to fall on the first syllable. Thus, in many names, 
the second or unstressed syllable is corrupted by 
indistinct pronunciation, e.g., Damhach becomes DAVA, 
or oftener falls away altogether ; e.g., achadh, ' field,' 
has in hundreds of names become ach or auch. Almost 
never has the final syllable survived in a name. But 
there is one interesting example at least. In a charter 
of Malcolm the Maiden, c. 1160, in Cosmo Innes' Col- 
lections for the History of Aberdeen and Banff '(p. 172), 
we read of a place in the Don Valley, 'Brecachath 
quod interpretatur campus distinctis coloribus ;' and 
there is still a Breakachy, or ' speckled field,' near 
Beauly, and in Caithness. Similarly, tulach, ' a hill, 
mound,' usually appears in names as Tully- or Tillie-, 
as in TULLYMET and TILLIECHEWAN, though we have 
the whole word in TULLOCH, and the second syllable 
intact in MoRTLACH. According to Professor M'Kinnon 
it is a firm rule in Gaelic phonology, in compound 
names, which Gaelic place-names usually are, that the 
accent falls on the qualifying word or attributive. 
Attention to the accent in the native pronunciation 
will thus save many an incorrect guess at a name's 
meaning; thus Knockan Avould mean 'little hill,' 
(dimin. of G. cnoc], but Knockan, ' hill by the river ' 
(abhuinn), an being here the qualifying word ; thus, 
too, TYRIE, the name of a farm near Kirkcaldy, might 
from its look mean 'king's house' (tigli righe), but 
when we know it is accented Tyrie, it can only be the 
G. tir, tire, ' land, a bit of land.' 

English speakers often put ' The ' before a name, as 
' The Methil,' ' The Lochies' (see p. Ixxx); in Gaelic the 
article is almost never prefixed to a place-name, except 
in the form t' ; ANSTRUTHER, ' the river,' is a rare excep- 
tion. The nominative of the article, an, is then rarely 



CELTIC NAMES. XXXV11 

met with ; but the genitive na, in plur. nan, before 
labials nam, is very often met with ; e.g., Babiabruaich, 
' village on the bank,' Coimcmuriskin, ' ravine of the 
goblins/ Bealach--n.am-bo, ' pass of the cattle.' The 
na of the article is very liable to abrasion or corrup- 
tion ; e.g., it may become simple a as in Dalarossie, or 
simple n as in Kibiinver, or may even slip down into 
i, as in Cullicudden (cf. the Welsh y, as in Bettws-y- 
Coed, ' house in the wood '). It is worth remembering 
that, except in feminine polysyllables, the gen. plural 
of a noun is always just the same as the nom. singular. 
With masculine nouns beginning with a vowel the article 
is an t\ or t\ as in TOB, ' the bay.' The same is true 
of feminine nouns beginning with s, here the t eclipses 
the s; as in the names COLINTRAIVE and KINTAIL, 
which are in G. coil an t'snaimh, and cinn t'saile. 

The mediae b, d, y approach in sound much nearer to 
our English tenues p, t, c, and are often found inter- 
changing in names. Final dh often sounds like k or 
ch. (cf. ARDVERIKIE). The letter d seems often to insert 
itself, as in the Galloway names, Cullendeugh, Cullen- 
doch, and Ciillenoch, all, as the accent shows, from G. 
cuileanach, 'place of hollies'; also, as in DRUMMOND, 
G. dromainn, and in LOMOND, Old G., Lomne. The s 
of the English plural in scores of cases affixes itself to 
Gaelic names, as in CRATHES, LINDORES, WEMYSS. The 
Eng. diminutive -ie is also very freely found, generally 
representing all that is left of some ending in -ach, as 
in BRODIE, CAMLACHIE, &c., but also representing 
sometimes no Gaelic syllable, as in BANAVIE and 

LOGIE, from G. ban abh and lag, respectively. 

****** 

Of all Scottish place-names those sprung from Celtic 
lips show by far the most sympathy with nature. The 



XXXVlll PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Celt's warm, emotional heart loved to seek out the 
poetry and colour in the world around, and many of his 
place-names show that ( stern nature was his daily 
companion and friend.' Indeed, the majority of Celtic 
names, be it noted, give either the simplest possible 
description of the site named, or describe some promi- 
nent feature, or else the colouring or appearance 
of it as it strikes the eye. A very large number of 
Gaelic names mean simply, ' house on the bank,' 'village 
by the straits/ ' field of stones,' or the like. The first 
two of these are represented in Gaelic by those Cockney 
terrors TIGH-NA-BRUAICH and BALL-A-CHULISH; whilst 
that mouth-filling name, which awes even a Scots- 
man, MACHRAHANISH, Kintyre, just means 'thin plain' 
or ' links,' plus the Norse nish, i.e., ness. Thus we may 
almost venture to lay it down as a general rule thab 
the simpler the meaning conjectured, the more likely 
is it to be correct, e.g., take the somewhat puzzling- 
looking name, MENSTRIE, near Alloa. This we could 
never explicate without the aid of its old spelling, 
Mestreth (sic 1263). This is most likely just the G. 
magli sratha, ' plain of the valley ' (at the foot of the 
Ochils), the final gh and th having now both vanished ; 
though we suppose it is at least possible that the mes- 
represents G. mias, ' fruit.' From what has been said 
the reader will not be surprised to find that the words 
for ' water,' ' river,' ' stream,' occur very often in names 
dobhar or dor (see ABERDOUR, &c.) ; abhuinn or an 
or AVON; dbh, found in AWE and AVIE-MORE, and in 
A-RY, the bh here being quiescent; also uisg, uisge, 
painfully familiar in the shape and sound of that 'strong 
water,' commonly called 'whisky;' this word we see in 
COR-UISK and in ESK. In England the same root rings 
the changes on almost all the vowels, as in Ax, Ex, 



CELTIC NAMES. XXXIX 

Isis, Usk, and Ux (in Uxbridge) ; whilst Ox- in Oxford, 
and Ouse, are probably brothers of the same family. 

Whether the last rule be accepted or not, there -is 
no question that personal acquaintance with a spot is 
highly desirable before making any attempt to solve 
its name. One sight of a place may prevent ludicrous 
mistakes, and may also suggest with a flash the real 
meaning. BOLESKINE, from the look of the word, 
might well be = Pollanaskin, Mayo, i.e., 'pool of the eels;' 
but, from the look of the place, it must be boll (or poll) 
eas cumhan (pron. cuan), ' pool of the narrow waterfall.' 
It was personal inspection, too, which brought that 
happy inspiration which translated COLINTRAIVE, on 
the quiet Kyles of Bute, as coil an t'snaimJi (pron. 
traive, for t eclipses s, and n changes to its kindred liquid 
T), ' corner at the swimming-place,' where the cattle 
for market were made to swim over. ARDENTRYVE,. 
opposite to Oban, has, of course, a similar origin. 

Where Gaelic names now survive in an English- 
speaking region, and to some extent in Gaelic-speaking 
regions too (for few Gaels can spell their own tongue), the 
place-names are apt to get so corrupted by generations 
of illiterate speakers that one requires to know, not 
only the look of a place and the true pronunciation 
of its name, but also something of the lines on which 
these corruptions or alterations usually run. We 
already know how apt b and p are to interchange, so 
too are d and t ; e.g., take AULDEARN, near Nairn. It 
has nothing to do with auld or earn, but is the G. edit 
fhedrna (fh mute), 'river of the alders.' Again, take that 
kirk whose name Burns has made undying, ALLOWAY, 
near Ayr. This is probably a corruption of G. allt-na- 
bheath (vay), ' river of the birches,' and so identical with 
AULTBEA, away up in West Ross-shire. This word allt 



xl PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

is a very remarkable one, for it means both ' river/ 
' glen/ and ' heights on either side a glen/ thus being 
plainly akin to the L. altus, high. It recurs again and 
again in Gaelic names, in the guises of All-, Alt-, Auld, 
Ault- (see List). As showing the length to which the 
Gael can go in flinging away his alphabet, we may cite 
the name BEALLACHANTUIE, on the Atlantic side of 
Kintyre, meaning ' pass of the seat/ G. suidhe; but the 
name is now pronounced Ballochantee, which means 
that all that is now left of the six letters su-idhe is the 
final long e ! 

The commonest names are those giving a bare, brief 
description of the site named ; next in frequency are 
those which give the general appearance of the place 
as it strikes the eye rough (garbh) or smooth (mm, 
also ' level, gentle-looking '), straight (deas) or crooked 
(cam), black or dark (dubh), speckled or spotted (breac), 
long (fada) or short (gearr), little (beg) or big (mbr) ; 
such names as GARVOCK, 'rough field/ MINARD, 'smooth 
height/ MORVEN, ' big ben/ are legion. Almost all of 
Nature's common colours figure largely in the sym- 
pathetic speech and nomenclature of the nature-loving 
Gael. Specially common are dubh, black, which every 
one knows in the guise of Duff, but often also sounded 
dhu, as in DOUGLAS, DHU HEARTACH, ROSSDHU ; and 
ban smdfionn, white, light-coloured, clear to the view, 
as in BANAVIE, BANNOCKBURN, CARFIN, FINDON. 
Names denoting red or reddish are also plentiful. 
Here we have two words, dearg, ' red/ also, ' the colour 
of newly-ploughed land/ as in Ben Dearg ; when the 
d is aspirated it sounds almost like j, as in Barrjarg, 
red height/ near Closeburn. The other word is ruadh, 
familiar to us all in the name of Rob Roy, ' red Robert/ 
with his ruddy tartan plaid ; but also pronounced rew, 



CELTIC NAMES. xli 

and something very like roch, as in TANNIEROACH, 
' reddish meadow.' The dh is preserved in the spelling 
of the name RUTHVEN, though the name itself is now 
often pronounced Rivven. Green, chief colour in 
Nature's paint-box, is gorrti. Every one is familiar 
with CAIRNGORM, and every lover of Scottish song 
has heard of ' Tullochgorum,' i.e., 'green hillock.' 
Then there is glas, grey, pale, wan, as in Strathglass, 
GLASSFORD, and probably also in the name of the great 
Western Metropolis. On that much-controverted sub- 
ject, the etymology of GLASGOW, see the List. 

Few objects make a more striking feature in a land- 
scape than a clump or forest of trees ; thus we are pre- 
pared to find tree-names bulking largely in Gaelic 
topography. Common as any, perhaps, is beath (bay), 
the birch, one of the few natural or indigenous trees of 
Scotland. This we find pure and simple in Beath and 
Beith, where the th retains its sound ; often the th is 
mute as in AULT-BEA, West Ross-shire, and CARNBEE, 
near Anstruther. Through aspiration of the b such 
forms arise as ALLOW AY, just referred to, and DARNA- 
WAY (G. dobhar-na-bheath), near Forres. The word 
dair, gen. dara, an oak, its derivative darach, an oak- 
wood, and its cognate doire, a grove, have also many 
representatives. We have the simple Darroch at Fal- 
kirk,&c., and we have a Scottish as well as an Irish Derry, 
close to Crathie. Then there are DAR-VEL, AUCHTER- 
DERRAN, and DAL-JARROCH, near Girvan, &c. The 
Gaelic for an elm is leamhan (louan), which appears 
in many a dress. One of these is the very common 
name LEVEN. The Vale of Leven was once called 
Levenax or LENNOX, whilst the old form of Loch 
LOMOND was Lomne, which must just be leamhan; 
and its sea-neighbour Loch LONG is perhaps the Loch 

c 



xlii PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Lemannonius of Ptolemy. He, by the way, wrote 
c. 120 A.D., but he is supposed to have taken his names 
from an old Tyrian atlas, and so the forms he gives are 
probably a good deal older than this date. Leman- 
nonius must be from leamhan; but INNER-LEITHEN 
is probably not, as some think, from this root. Humbler 
plants have also contributed their quota, like the sedge, 
siosg, as in DERNA-CISSOCK, Wigton, and the rush, 
luachair, as in LEUCHARS. 

If trees and plants give feature to a landscape, 
animals have their own prominence too. And the Celt 
was very fond of raising a monument to his dumb 
cattle by means of a place-name ; e.g., the Gaelic for a 
cow is bo, = L. bos ; this we find in the name which 
Scott has made all the world know by the Lady of the 
Lake, Bealach-nam-bo, i.e., 'pass of the cattle/ bealach 
being better known to most of us in the shape 01 
BALLOCH ; then there is BOCHASTLE, and BOWLAND, 
near Galashiels, which has no connection with archery, 
but is just ' cattle-land.' Madadh, the wild dog or wolf, 
is commemorated in LOCHMADDY and POLMADIE. The 
ordinary dog is cu, gen. coin, as in Loch Con, and 
probably also in its neighbour, Ben CHONZIE. The 
unsavoury pig, muc, has left many a sign of his former 
abundance, as in AUCHTERMUCHTY, DRUMMUCKLOCH, 
and MUCKHART, all of which imply the site of a swine- 
field or pen. Even the swift-gliding, shy otter, doran, 
gives name to Ben Doran ; and so forth. 

Not only did the Gael give the names of animals to 
many spots associated with them, he was also con- 
stantly seeing in some landmark a resemblance to some 
part of an animal. Most common of all do we find 
druim, = L dorsum, the back, especially a long back like- 
that of a horse, hence a long hill-ridge. Sir H. Maxwell 



CELTIC NAMES. xliii 

names 198 instances in Galloway alone, and we find 
them everywhere DRUMCLOG, DRUMLANRIG, DRUM- 
SHEUGH, DROMORE, &c. DRUMMOND and DRYMEN are 
just the G. dromainn with the same meaning. Then 
there is crubka, a haunch or shoulder, hence the 
shoulder of a hill, as in CRIEFF, whose name just 
describes its site; on the other side of the hill is 
CULCRIEFF, 'the back of the haunch;' see, too, DUM- 
CRIEFF and DUNCRUB. Sron, the nose, the equivalent 
of the Norse ness, and of the English name Naze, is 
found in a good many names of headlands, where it is 
always spelt stron, but the t is like the t in strath, a 
mere Sassenach intrusion to enable the poor Lowlander 
to pronounce the word. Examples are STRONE itself, 
Stronbuy, and that little cape on Loch Katrine 
which is unpronounceable by English lips, STRONACH- 
LACHAR, 'cape of the mason.' CAMERON, too, is just 
cam sron, ' crooked nose.' Besides, there is the widely 
scattered ceann, a head, and so, a promontory, usually 
found as ken-, or in its old dative form of cinn or kin- 
(see KINALDIE) ; instances are too numerous to require 
mention. 

The Gael has always been a more modest man than 
his English supplanter. John Bull always dearly loves 
to perpetuate his own or his own kith's name, be it in 
a town, a castle, an hospital, or even by surreptitious 
carving on his bench at school. There are scores of 
towns and villages in England, and Scotland too, called 
by the names of Saxonmen (cf. p. Ixx and foil.). The Celt 
adopted this fashion much more rarely. But a good 
many of the heroes of Ossian and other early legends 
are commemorated in this way, e.g., CORRIEVRECKAN, 
off Jura, is ' the cauldron' or ' whirlpool of Brecan,' grand- 
son of the famous Niall of the nine hostages. COWAL 



xliv PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

is called after Coill, the ' old king Cole/ of the well- 
known rhyme ; LORN, after Loarn, first king of Scots in 
Dalriada or Argyle. The seven sons of that legendary 
eponymous personage, Gruithne or Cruidne, reputed 
father of the Cruithnig or Pictish race, both in Scot- 
land and Ireland, are always cropping up. According 
to the Pictish Chronicle, the seven were Fib, Fidach, 
Floclaw, Ce, Fortrenn, Got, Circinn. Fortrenn was the 
old name of Strathearn and its vicinity ; for the others 
see ATHOLE, CAITHNESS, FIDDICH, FIFE, MEARNS, &c. 
The old man's own name we find in Cruithneachan, 
Lochaber. But Celtic names of the type of BALMA- 
CLELLAN, ' M'Lellan's village,' New Galloway, and of 
PORT BANNATYNE, Bute, are quite rare. The Celt did 
little in the way of handing down his own or his own 
folk's name ; but, having always been a pious man, 
there was nothing he liked better than to call a village 
or a church or a well after some favourite saint. This, 
however, is so wide a subject as to deserve separate 
treatment (see Chap. V.). 

It is often said that several place-names preserve the 
memory of the ancient Druidic or Pagan sun and fire 
worship. This is conceivable, though it is absolutely 
certain that no Bal- in Scotland represents or preserves 
the name of Baal, the Phoenician sun-god ; and one is 
surprised to find this unscholarly superstition repeated 
in a bulky history of Scotland published within the 
last three or four years. And even though GREENOCK 
be the G. grian-aig, 'sun-bay,' that will just mean 
'sunny bay;' and ARDENTINNY, 'height of the fire,' 
on the west shore of Loch Long, probably just refers 
to some beacon or signal fire, whilst AUCHENDINNY 
probably does not mean 'field of the fire' at all, but 
comes like DENNY, from the old G. dinat, a woody glen. 



CELTIC NAMES. xlv 

The inquisitive amateur, somewhat dismayed by the 
many difficulties in the study of Celtic names detailed 
in the early part of this chapter, will now, we hope, be 
beginning to take heart again. He ought to be 
further reassured when he hears that acquaintance 
with about a dozen Gaelic words will enable any 
one to interpret nearly half the real Gaelic names in 
Scotland. As fitting close to the section, let us en- 
umerate these : 

(1) Aber or abhir, already discussed. 

(2) Achadh, a field, also already discussed in part. 
From achadh, with its unaccented second syllable, comes 
the common prefix and suffix ach, as in ACHNACARRY, 
CABRACH, DORNOCH (c. 1230, Durnach), &c. As a 
prefix the form is as commonly auch-, as in AUCHIN- 
LEYS, AUCHMITHIE, &c.; and ach- and auch- often 
interchange, as in Ach- or AUCH-NASHEEN, Ach- or 
Auch-engean, &c. 

(3) Auchter, in the spelling of the schools uachdar, 
Welsh uchder ; but even the oldest charters spell it 
auchter or ochter, or octre; au and o are here found 
freely interchanging, as in Auchtertyre or OCHTERTYRE, 
AUCHTERNEED, in 1619 Ochterneid, &c. This uachdar 
is literally the summit or upper part, hence, a high 
field ; then, seemingly, any field, as in AUCHTER- 

MUCHTY. 

(4) Bail, baile, a hamlet, or simply a house. We all 
have heard of the multitudinous Irish Sallys; and 
ball- or balla- is a common prefix in the Isle of Man. 
But it is as common in Scotland BALNABRUAICH, 
BALLATER, BALLINLUIG, and so almost ad infinitum. 
In the lowlands of Aberdeen alone there are said to be 
no less than fifty instances. Occasionally the b has 
become p, as in BALGONIE, a. 1300, Palgoveny. 



xlvi PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

(5) Barr, a height or hill, as in BARE, BARRA, 
BARRASSIE, &c. ; the aspiration of the b appears in 
CRAIGIEVAR, and in the name of ' young LOCHINVAR * 
(G. lockan-a-bharra). But the second part of DUNBAR 
probably refers to an Irish St Barr. 

(6) BlaT, a plain, as in Blair, BLAIRGOWRIE, BAL- 
BLAIR, &c. 

(7) CM, or cuil, a corner, a nook, as in COILANTOGLE, 
COLFIN, CULROSS, &c. This word is always apt, in 
names, to be confused with coill, 'a wood' (see the List 
passim*). The island of COLL itself probably means a 
' hazel.' 

(8) Daily a field or meadow; the prefix dal- is 
always Gaelic, and has this meaning, as in DALAROSSIE, 
DALNASPIDAL; but the suffix -dale is always either 
Norse (see p. Iv) or English, in Scotland usually the 
former, and always means ' valley.' 

(9) Grarradh, an enclosure, garden, akin to the Mid. 
Eng. garth, and the ordinary Eng. yard, usually found 
as Gart-, as in GARTCOSH, GARTNAVEL ( = APPLEGARTH) ; 
sometimes as Garry-, as in GARRYNAHINE, ' garden on 
the river,' in Lewis ; but garry in names usually repre- 
sents garbh, rough, as in Glengarry. In GARRABOST, 
another Lewis name, we have a compound of Gaelic 
and Norse, = { garden-place.' Just as in the case of 
dal or dale, the prefix gart- is Gaelic, but the suffix 
-garth must be English or Norse. 

(10) Inver or inbhir, already referred to (pp. xxvii- 
xxviii). Unlike aber, and contrary to Isaac Taylor's 
idea, inver is found practically all over Scotland, save 
in those northern isles where the Norseman has clean 
swept the board ; but it is much commoner north than 
south of the old Roman Wall. Aber alone does not 
occur as a Scottish name,, though the railway traveller 



CELTIC NAMES. xlvii 

in North Wales knows it well. But simple INVER 
occurs again and again on the south shore of the 
Dornoch Firth, as name of a little village, formerly 
Inverlochslin, and near Crathie, and where Bran joins 
Tay ; and then there is Loch Inver, so well known to 
the Sutherland salmon-fisher. Inver always tends to 
slide into inner-, as both old charters and modern 
pronunciations amply testify, e.g., Inver- or INNER- 
ARITY, Inner- or INVER-KIP, &c. Inver does not exist 
in Brythonic Wales, and it is rare in Ireland; these 
facts, coupled with its comparative rarity south of 
Forth and Clyde, point to its being, in all likelihood, a 
Pictish word. Sometimes it helps to form a hybrid 
name, as in INNERWICK, south of Dunbar. 

(11) Magh, a plain, probably akin to mag, ' the palm 
of the hand/ as in MACHRAHANISH ; but the final 
guttural usually vanishes. Thus we get MAMBEG and 
MAMORE, 'little' and 'big plain/ and also such a 
curious-looking name as C AMBUS o' MAY, which just 
means 'crook of the plain;' whilst magh appears in 
two Inverness-shire names as MOY. MEARNS, the old 
name for Kincardine, as Dr Skene is never weary of 
telling us, is probably magh Girginn, to which the only 
existing early form, Moerne, seems to point. 

(12) The Pictish pette, found in names as Pit-, Pitte-, 
Petti- (see p. xxvii.); also, in 1211, we find the form 
Put-mullin ( ' land of the mill ' ). After the common 
fashion of such words cf. the Eng. ham and ton 
pette or pit first means an enclosed bit of land, then a 
farm, then the cottages round the farm, and so, a 
village. In Gaelic, i.e., the tongue of the Dalriad 
Scots, which afterwards overspread the whole land, pit 
is commonly rendered by baile ; it is doubtful if it is 
ever rendered by both, ' a hut ' (see PITGAVENY). The 



xlviii PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

region of pit- is the east centre of Scotland from the 
Firth of Forth to Tarbat Ness. There is, perhaps, none 
north of Pitkerry, Fearn ; and there seem to be none 
at all in the west. 

(13) Tulach, a hillock or hill : the unstressed second 
syllable usually drops into y or % ; but we have the full 
word standing by itself in TULLOCH, near Dingwall, 
already so spelt in 1158. Tulach occurs both as prefix 
and suffix, as in TILLYFOUR, TULLYMET, GRANDTULLY, 
KIRKINTILLOCH. It has somewhat more disguised 
itself in MORTLACH, and yet more in MURTHLY, both 
of which represent the G. mbr t(h)ulach, ' big hill.' 

To these, the amateur can, of course, at once 
add all those Gaelic words entering into place- 
names which have already become part of ordinary 
English speech. Such a word is ben, or in its 
Brythonic form pen, as a suffix, usually aspirated into 
-ven, as in MORVEN, SUILVEN, more rarely thus as a 
prefix, e.g., VENLAW and VENNACHAR ; penny or penni 
has nothing to do with pen (see p. Ivii). Then there 
are brae, G. braigh, the upper part of anything, hence 
BRAEMAR, the Braes of Balquhidder, &c., but also quite 
common in Lowland names, as in Cobble Brae (Fal- 
kirk), Whale Brae (Newhaven) ; cairn ; corrie, G. 
coire, lit. a cauldron or kettle ; craig or crag, and its 
diminutive craigan ; glen; inch, G. innis, an island 
or links ; knock, G. cnoc, a hill ; loch, and its diminu- 
tive lochan; and strath. Most of these words have 
only been used by Southron tongues for a century, or a 
little more or less. Sibbald in his well-known History 
of Fife (edition 1710) does not speak of Ben Lomond, 
but uses the cumbrous phrase ' Lomundian mountain.' 
The earliest quotation for ben which the writer can 
find is for the year 1771, when a T. Russell in Den- 



CELTIC NAMES. xlix 

holm's Tour Through Scotland (1804, p. 49), writes : 
' Prompt thee Ben Lomond's fearful height to climb.' 
Dr Murray's earliest instance is for 1788; and the 
earliest example in his great dictionary for the use of 
the word cairn as a landmark is from John Wesley in 
1770. 



CHAPTER II. 

NORSE NAMES. 1 

WHEN we come to deal with the Norse names in Scot- 
land, perhaps to say Scandinavian names would be 
more correct, we find ourselves amongst a group most 
interesting, and far more numerous than the outsider 
would think. The story of the Norseman's deeds in 
Scotland has been skimmed over but lightly by most 
historians, and therefore it may be useful to set at least 
the bones of that history before the reader. Dr Skene 
thinks there is proof of Frisians, i.e., men from Holstein, 
in Dumfriesshire even before the year 400 A.D. How- 
ever that may be we have certain evidence that, before 
the 8th century passed away, bold Vikings from Den- 
mark and Norway had already begun to beach their 
galleys on our long-suffering coasts. In 793 we find 
their rude feet on holy Lindisfarne, close to the modern 
Scottish border ; and in 794 they swooped down among 
the Hebrides, being forced forth from their homes 
because their own barren rocks could not sustain the 
growing population. A field the size of a large pocket- 
handkerchief cannot feed many extra mouths. This 
quest for resting-place and sustenance drove some as 
far away as the Volga ; it urged others over the cold 

1 Their importance and greater difficulty incline us to put this 
chapter before the English names, of which some are earlier in historic 
time. 



NORSE NAMES. li 

seas, to Iceland and Greenland, and some rested not 
till they had coasted down to where mighty New York 
now spreads and grows. The uprise in the next century 
of ambitious Harold of the Fair Hair (Haarfagr), who 
at length made himself absolute king of Norway, drove 
out many more of his most active opposers, who found 
in. the numerous rocky bays and friths of Western 
Scotland the quarters most suited for the plunder- 
ing forays of their long-oared ships. King Harold 
followed after them, conquered all the isles away 
as far south as Man (875 A.D.), and made his brother 
Sigurd their first Jarl. Even before this the Orkneys 
had been a station of call for the Vikings ; while 
by the 10th century Norse rule had spread over all 
the Hebrides, Caithness, and all but the south-west of 
Sutherland. It has little affected Scottish topography 
south of the river Oykel ; though latterly it included 
the west of Inverness, Argyle, and all Arran, and even 
reached as far as old Dumbarton. 

In Orkney and Shetland the Viking completely 
superseded the Pictish Celt, who, so far as place- 
names are concerned, has strange to tell left scarcely 
a trace behind. Almost the only exception, and 
it is just half a one, is the name ORKNEY itself; 
and one other partial instance is the Moulhead of 
Deerness, Orkney, the Mtili of the Saga, which is just 
the G. maol, 'brow of a rock, cape.' It must be 
remembered that here the Norseman had 600 years 
and more in which to do his obliterating work. The 
Nordreyar, 'northern isles,' as they were called in 
contrast with the Sudreyar, 'southern isles' or Hebrides, 
did not escape from his dominion till 1469, when 
James III. of Scotland married Margaret, daughter 
of Christian I. of Denmark, and received these northern 



lit PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

isles as her dowry. But the Hebrides only remained 
an appanage to the Norwegian crown for a scant 
three years after King Haco was so sorely smitten, and 
his fleet shattered, at the brave battle of Largs in 
1264. 

In these parts of northern and western Scotland, 
Scandinavian names are found in more or less abund- 
ance. 1 They also form quite a notable colony in Dum- 
friesshire, especially between the rivers Esk and Nith ; 
but the distinctive gill, beck, and rig spread a good deal 
further than that away into Kirkcudbright, and up 
Moffat Water, and not a few have even flowed over 
into Peebles ; though on all Tweedside there is not a 
single representative of the characteristic Norse suffixes 
beck, force, garth, thorpe, thwaite, and wald. The 
Dumfries colony of names, like the Scandinavian names 
in the Isle of Man, bear a more strongly Danish cast 
than the others. This points to the now generally- 
admitted fact that this special group of names is due 
to an irruption of Danes, coming north from England 
via Carlisle, and not to any landing of fair-haired pirates 
direct from the sea. The native Gaels called the 
Norsemen ' the fair strangers,' and the Danes ' the 
dark strangers ' or gaill. The most hurried comparison 
will show how like the Dumfries Danish names are to 
the kindred names across the Border in Cumberland 
fell and beck and bie arid thwaite are alike common to 
both. 

In other parts of Scotland, especially those at some 
distance from the sea, Norse footprints are few and 
far between. Even on the east coast itself, south of 
Dingwall, undoubtedly Norse names are very rare. 

1 Though we can remember none in Dumbarton. 



NORSE NAMES. liii 

( 

Mr W. J. Liddell 1 has drawn attention to a series of 
interesting names connected, he thinks, with the doings 
of one of these pirate Northmen called Buthar, cor- 
rupted into Butter, the man after whom, he thinks > 
bonnie Buttermere is named. He, it is said, has also 
given his name to Butterstone or Butterstown, near 
Dunkeld, and his path from thence to the sea is 
marked by an old road over the Ochils, still called the 
Butter Road, and past a Kinross-shire farm called 
Butterwell, on to Largo Bay. However, Mr A. J. 
Stewart of Moneydie, a careful student, says Butters- 
town is from the G. bothar, a road or lane, its name 
having once been Bailebothar. There is another 
'Buter mere' away down in Wilts, mentioned in a 
charter of King Athelstan's, 931, and there are several 
spots in Galloway called Butter Hole ; all probably 
refer to the bittern and its haunts, the Scotch name 
for that bird being butter, the Mid. Eng. bitoure, Old 
Fr. butor. It ought to be noted, en passant, that 
here we have several instances of names which seem to 
say ' butter,' and yet have nothing whatever to do with 
that useful commodity. 

It is usually said that Icelandic is the nearest modern 
representative of the tongue which these Viking-invaders 
spake ; it would be more correct to say it was Icelandic 
itself. 2 Before the year 1300 all the lands peopled by 
the Northmen Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, 
the Faroes, Orkney, Shetland, and the Hebrides used 
the same speech, and so did the Norse or Danish settlers 
in England, Ireland, and the mainland of Scotland. 
And this northern tongue, the language of the old 

1 See Scottish Geograph. Mag. for July 1885. 

2 In our List will be found both 'O.N.,' i.e., Old Norse, and 
1 Icel.,' but these mean almost the same thing. 



Hv PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Eddas and Sagas, differed as little from modern Ice- 
landic as Shakspere's English from Browning's. The 
remote Arctic isle has preserved the mother-tongue 
with little change. Thus in studying the Scandinavian 
place-names of Scotland it is chiefty the Icelandic 
dictionary on which we must rely; though the 
amateur must again be warned that unless he have 
some little knowledge of Norse speech, knowing to seek 
the origin of a name in wh- under hv-, and the like, he 
will find himself unable, even with his dictionary, to 
explicate many unquestionably Norse forms. Modern 
Swedish and Danish are to Icelandic as Italian and 
Spanish to Latin. They did not begin palpably to 
diverge from the parent stem till the 13th century. 
Yet scholars are pretty well agreed that in the Scottish 
names which we are now dealing with, all of which 
probably existed before 1300, there are some which 
have a decidedly Danish cast, whilst the majority are 
rather Norse. The Norsemen seem to have loved 
mountainous regions like their own stern, craggy 
fatherland ; hence it is chiefly Norse forms which we 
find in the names among the uplands of Southern 
Scotland and North- West England, and chiefly Danish 
forms on the flat and fertile stretches of Dumfries, a 
district so like the Dane's own flat homeland, where 
hills are a rarity even greater than trees in 
Caithness. 

It is also pretty generally understood that the old 
Norse speech was near of kin to our own Old English, 
which, of course, came from the flat coast-region imme- 
diately south-west of modem Denmark; and the 
Norsemen themselves emphatically recognised this 
near kinship. The best living representative of Old 
English is Lowland or Broad Scots, that most ex- 



NOKSE NAMES. Iv 

pressive of tongues, so rich in vivid adjectives, whose 
rapid decay is almost as much to be regretted as that 
of Gaelic. Broad Scots is just the survival of 
Anglian or Northern English, giving to us still, in its 
pronunciations, the same sounds as fell from the lips 
of the old kings and warriors of Bernicia and Deira. 
And Broad Scots, both in vocabulary and pronuncia- 
tion, approximates, in scores of cases, far more closely 
to Danish and Icelandic than modern English does. 1 
In consequence of this, when we have no external 
evidence to guide us, it is sometimes impossible to say 
whether a given name is of Anglo-Saxon or of Norse 
birth. So far as history has to tell, some few names 
in South-East Scotland might be either, to wit, names 
containing forms common to both, such as dale and 
shaw, garth and holm. 

In quite another direction there are proofs that the 
West Highland Gaels borrowed a few words from the 
Northmen, who settled so plentifully upon their bays 
and lochs, without leave asked. There is the Icel. 
gja or ' goe,' a chasm, which the Gael has made into 
Geodha. In Colonsay there is a Rudha Oheadha or 
' red cleft,' where the Old Norse a is still preserved. 
The word firth or frith, the Icel. fjorftr, and N. fjord, 
is, of itself, sufficient proof that the Norse galleys sailed 
round every angle of our coasts, north and south, 
east and west. There are firths everywhere from 
Pentland to Solway, and from Dornoch to Clyde. The 
Gael has copiously adopted this word fjord, but in his 
mouth the / gets aspirated, and, therefore, soon dis- 
appears. Thus on the west coast we have few ' friths,' 
but plenty of names ending in -ord, -ort, -ard, -art ; the 

1 See Worsase, The Danes atid Norwegians in England, Scotland, 
and Ireland; and J. Veitch, History of Scot. Border, pp. 31-36. 



Ivi PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

usual pronunciation in modern Gaelic is arst. Such 
is the origin of KNOYDART, ' Cnud's ' or ' Canute's 
fjord/ ENARD, Mo YD ART, SNIZORT. The / remains in 
BROADFORD, ( broad fjord,' and MELFORT. And if the 
Gael borrowed from the Norsemen, we are told there 
are traces in modern Norse of vice versa borrowing 
from the Gael. 

The student is well served with early forms of our 
Scandinavian place-names. For all the ' Norse region,' 
except Dumfries, Orkney, and Shetland, the Origines 
Parochiales liberally supply us with old name-forms, 
and the Dunrobin charters cited there often take us 
back to c. 1220. For Orkney itself we have the curious 
early rental-books of the Bishops of Orkney, which 
have all been printed, the oldest dating from 1497. 
For the northern counties we also have Torfseus' His- 
tory of Norway, dating c. 1266 ; but here, far above 
all else in value, is the famous Orkney inga Saga, so 
well edited for English readers by Dr Joseph Anderson. 
Its date seems c. 1225, but it embodies songs from 
several earlier skalds. Of course the Norse names 
have not altered nearly so much as have Celtic names 
in a now English region, and thus early forms are not 
so often of crucial importance ; but the names NORTH 
and SOUTH RONALDSAY (q.v.) are pertinent examples to 
the contrary. 

No one in Scotland now speaks a Scandinavian tongue, 
but it seems to have lingered on in far sequestered Foula, 
away to the west of the Shetlands, till c. 1775 ; and the 
local speech of Shetland and Orkney is still full .of 
Scandinavian words. This is little to be wondered at 
seeing that, for centuries, Norwegian kings were wont 
not seldom there to live, and even there to die. And 
though the speech be gone the physiognomist can still 



NOKSE NAMES. Ivii 

pick out the Old Norse face, with the blue eyes and fair 
hair, almost all over Scotland. One usage borrowed 
from a Norse source has had large influence in Scottish 
place-names, viz., the measuring of land by rental, the 
unit being the oimceland Old G. unga, Mod. G. unnsa, 
L. uncia, as in UNGANAB in North Uist, the land for 
which the abbot (ab) was paid an ounce of silver as 
rental. 'Ounceland' rarely is met with; but the smaller 
amounts are quite common. In an ounce of silver there 
were held to be 18 or 20 dwts., and ' penny ' lands 
(O^R.penig^ening.IcQl.penning-r, Dan.penge) abound, 
e.g., PENNYGHAEL, Pennymuir, &c. ; so do all the lesser 
sums down to the farthing or feorling there is a place 
of this name in Skye and even to the half-farthing. 
In the Orkney early rentals we read of a ' cowsworth ' 
of land, which was = J, J, or -J of a mark of land. In 
the same rentals (c. 1500) we find a 'Cowbuster' or 
'cow-place ' in Firth, and a Noltland or 'cattle-land' in 
Westray. 

Though the Danes visited Ireland too, and were there 
in power all along the east coast for at least a century, 
having Dublin for a time as their chief seat, there are 
now barely twenty names of Danish origin in all Ireland. 
This is rather remarkable when we find their print so 
plain and oft in Scotland. The leading place-names in 
several Scottish counties are all Norse in Shetland, 
LERWICK and SCALLOWAY ; in Orkney, KIRKWALL and 
STROMNESS ; in Caithness, WICK and THURSO ; in 
Sutherland, GOLSPIE, HELMSDALE, and TONGUE ; in 
Ross, DINGWALL and TAIN ; in Bute, ROTHESAY and 
BRODICK. It has been already stated that in Orkney 
and Shetland Norse names have a complete monopoly ; 
in the Outer Hebrides, where now every man speaks 
Gaelic, the Norse monopoly is nearly as complete. 

D 



Iviii PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Captain Thomas, R.N., who very carefully investigated 
the subject some forty years ago, reports that in the 
Lews Norse names outnumber the Gaelic ones by four to 
one, and that in all Harris there are only two pre-Norse 
or Celtic names. No place-name of any consequence 
in the whole Long Island is of Celtic origin, unless we 
call that queer name BENBECULA an exception. The 
marks of the Viking grow rarer in the isles south of 
Ardnamurchan, for here he dwelt about a century less. 
Jura has very few, Islay has a good many Conisby, 
Lanay, Nerby, Oversay, Scaraboll, &c.; Captain Thomas 
says, here Norse names are to Gaelic as three 
to one. But, though both JURA and ISLAY are 
words with a Norse look, and commonly reputed of 
Norse origin, they are not so (q.v.*). Islay 's real spelling 
is He, which Dr Skene thinks an Iberian or pre-Celtic 
word ; but lie has been ' improved' by some would-be 
clever moderns into Islay, which would literally mean 
' island-island.' 

Norse and Saxon names sometimes give us a little 
glimpse of mythology, sometimes of natural, and yet more 
frequently of family, history. The Teuton was much 
fonder of leaving the stamp of his name behind him 
than the Celt. The Saxon was even prouder of his own 
name than the Northman ; and Norse names of the 
common Saxon type of DOLPHINTON and SYMINGTON 
are rare. HELMSDALE may be called after some Viking 
of the name of Hjalmund ; ' Hjalmundal ' is the form 
we find in the Orkney inga Saga ; and GOLSPIE may be 
from some man Gold or Goa. And from Scottish place- 
names we can pick out a good many of the gods and 
men oft sung in the grand Old Norse epics. Take, e.g., 
THURSO, O.N. Thorsa, Thor, the thunder-god's river. 
This is one of the cases where the river has given its 



NORSE NAMES. lix 

name to the later town upon it. It is almost always 
so ; even ' Water of Leith ' is only a deceptive modern 
instance of the reverse, for as early as c. 1145 we find 
' Inverlet ' or INVER-LEITH. The mighty Thor is also 
commemorated in THURSTON, and in many English 
names, Thurleigh, Thurlow, &c. Ran, the giant goddess, 
queen of the sea, much feared by the Icelanders, has 
her name preserved in Loch RANZA, in Arran; in 1433 
Ransay, i.e., ' Ran's isle.' Hero-names are seen in 
HAROLDSWICK, Shetland; CARLOWAY or Carl's bay, 
Lewis ; and SUN ART or ' Sweyn's fjord/ Morven. Then 
there are those two Orkney isles, North and South 
Ronaldsay, which everyone would naturally think must 
both be called after the same man, Ronald, Rognvald, 
or Reginald these names are all one. But it is not 
so. SOUTH RONALDSAY was formerly Rognvalsey or 
' Rognvald's isle;' but NORTH RONALDSAY was origi- 
nally Rinansey, in which name we, following Professor 
Munch of Christiania, may safely recognise the much- 
commemorated St Ringan or Ninian of Whithorn. It 
is popular corruption and ignorance which have assimi- 
lated the two. We have been giving only northern 
examples of places called after gods or men ; but they 
occur, more sparsely, in the south also, e.g., PERCEBIE, 
' Percy's town,' in Dumfriesshire. 

Unlike Celtic, Norse yields us few prefixes for the 
making-up of our place-names. They are chiefly two : 

(1) Fors, which is just the Icelandic for ' water-fall/ 
familiar to every tourist in the English lakes as force, 
Stockgill Force, and all the rest. FORSE, pure and 
simple, is the name of a Caithness hamlet, and FORRES 
is probably the self-same word. As prefix we find it 
in FORSINARD and FORSINAIN in East Sutherland. 

(2) Toft, Icelandic and Danish for 'an inclosed field 



Ix PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

near a house/ as in TOFTCOMBS, near Biggar ; but it is 
commoner as a suffix, as in Aschantofb and Thurdis- 
toft. But, if the prefixes be few, Norse has yielded us 
suffixes in abundance. To garth (Icel. gar$r) and to 
dale (Icel., &c., dal) we have already referred (p. xlvi.) ; 
examples of the latter are easily found, as in BERRIE- 
DALE and HELMSDALE ; very often it is suffixed to some 
Celtic word, as in ATTADALE and CARRADALE. Some- 
times the Gael has forgotten the meaning of the dale, 
and so has added his own prefix strath- ; hence that 
tautology ' Strathhalladale.' An interesting set of names 
is connected with the suffix -shiel, -shiels, -shield, 
-shields; all these forms appear. This, like the Scottish 
shieling or shealing, a hut or bothy, comes from the Icel. 
skjdl, a shelter. The O.N. skali is still used in Nor- 
way for a temporary or shepherd's hut. The shel- in 
1 shelter ' is in root the same, being connected with the 
O.E. scild, Icel. sJcjold-r, a shield. A shiel is, therefore, 
' any place which gives shelter,' and so, ' a house.' The 
suffix is seen in GALASHIELS, POLLOKSHIELDS, &c. The 
word is seen in SHIELDHILL, in 1745 Shielhill, and so 
often pronounced still ; also in a more disguised form in 
SELKIRK, the old Sele- or Seles-chirche. Shiels enters 
into many names of Lowland farms Biggar Shiels, 
Legholm Shiels, &c. 

Another very common suffix is -fell, Icel. fjall, fell, 
"N.fjeld, a mountain or hill, as in the Dovrefjeld of the 
Romsdal. In the Outer Hebrides this aspirates into 
-bhal or -val, as in Trelavall. Fells are very common 
in Northern England, but almost equally so in Southern 
Scotland, e.g., Coulter Fell, Goat Fell, Hart Fell, &c. 
Noteworthy also are : -holm, the Dan. and O.E. holm, 
a small island in a river, an islet, Icel. holm-r, an 
island, also a meadow near river or sea. Those in the 



NORSE NAMES. Ixi 

far north, like HOLM itself, one of the Orkneys, and 
like GLOUPHOLM, are, without doubt, Norse ; while 
those in the south, like BRANXHOLM and MIDHOLM, 
are probably English in their origin, and they are per- 
petually interchanging with the purely English ham 
(see YETHOLM and HODDOM): -hope is not the O.E. 
hopa, hope, but the Icel. hop, ' a haven of refuge,' as in 
the two ST MARGARET'S HOPES ; the Lowland -hope, as 
in SOONHOPE, Peebles, is the same word (see HOBKIRK). 
Soonhope means ' pen, shelter-place, for swine ; ' there 
are both a Chapelhope and a Kirkhope near St Mary's 
Loch : -thwaite, Icel. ]>veit, a place, is common enough 
in England, but rare north of the border, MURRAY- 
THWAITE, Ecclefechan, being one of the very few Scotch 
examples, but the original form of the name of the 
MOORFOOT Hills was ' Morthwaite.' 

Beck and gill are pure Scandinavian, and common to 
both Northern England and Southern Scotland. The 
former, Icel. bekk-r, Dan. baek, Sw. back, a brook, is 
seen in Bodsbeck and WATERBECK ; but it is rarer 
in Scotland than gill, Icel. gil, a ravine or gully. Quite 
a cluster of gills are found far inland, to the west of the 
sources of the Tweed Duncan, Ram, Snow, Wind 
Gills, &c. : -rigg, Icel. hrygg-r, Dan. ryg, Sw. rygg, also 
O.E. hrycg, a ridge of land, literally the back, the 
equivalent of the common G. drum- (p. xlii.), is a fre- 
quent suffix, chiefly in the south,as ROUGHRIGG, TODRIG, 
&c. But these ' riggs ' are seldom of pure Norse 
descent ; BONNYRIGG and DRUMLANRIG, for example, 
cannot be. A curious popular corruption is seen in 
BISHOPBRIGGS, which most Scottish folk would naturally 
think denoted the presence of a bridge ; but the name 
really tells of the ' riggs ' or fields of the Bishop of 
Glasgow : -voe, Icel. vor, a little bay or inlet, is common 



Ixii PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

in the far north, as in AITHSVOE, Caithness, and CUL- 
LIVOE, Shetland: -goe, Icel. gjd, already referred to 
(p. lv.), is of similar meaning, literally it is a cleft or 
gap, as in GIRNIGO and Whaligoe in Caithness. 

A very large group of words end in ey, ay, a, the 
O.N. and Icel. ey, Dan. oe, cognate with O.E. {g, an 
island. The ending is found all over the north and 
west, as in PAPA WESTRAY, a double instance, RAASAY, 
ULVA, and that very curious name COLONSAY (q.v.). 
Almost in no case has the original -ey been retained. 
PLADDA, off Arran, is the old Flada or ' flat isle,' another 
instance of the Celt's very shifty use of the letter p. 
The name remains uncorrupted in Fladay, off Barra. 
An almost equally important group are the wicks, O.N. 
and Icel. wik, a (little) bay ; hence vik-ing or ' bayman.' 
Wick we have still in English in the expression ' the 
wicks ' or corners of the mouth. LERWICK arid BRODICK, 
or ' broad bay,' are- certainly Norse ; but this suffix is, 
in the south, apt to be confused with the O.E. ivic, a 
dwelling, village, as in Alnwick, and probably BERWICK. 
Another Old Norse word for a bay or cove is vdg-r ; 
but the r of the nominative generally falls away, and 
we get -ivay, as in SCALLOWAY, STORNOWAY, &c., which 
-ivay must be carefully distinguished from the similar 
Celtic ending, as in DARN AW AY, G. dor na bheath. In 
other cases the r in vag-r changes into its brother liquid 
I, as in Osmundwall, PIEROWALL, and especially KIRK- 
WALL. This last town first appears in the Orkneyinga 
Saga, under the spelling Kirkiuvag ; before 1400 it 
has become Kirkvaw, and already by 1497 it is Kirk- 
mf^, and Kirkwall, to many a one's puzzlement and 
misleading, it is to this day. In Harris and Benbecula 
vagr appears as -vagh, as in FLODAVAGH and Uskevagh. 
Of somewhat similar meaning is the suffix -vat (Icel. 



NORSE NAMES. Ixiii 

vatn, N. vand, water, a lake), as in Loch LANGAVAT, 
Lewis, &c. 

The Norsemen have not only named many of our 
inlets with their own names of firth and voe and goe, 
they have named many of our 'outlets' too. Every 
' ness ' is Norse, this being the Icel. nes, Dan. naes, a 
nose ; hence a cape or f Naze,' a transfer of meaning 
precisely parallel to that of the G. sron (p. xliii.). But 
though names like STROMNESS and DEERNESS are pure 
Norse, it does not follow that names like BUCHAN Ness 
and BUDDON Ness are all Norse too; what Buddon 
actually does mean no one seems sure. Ness often 
becomes in Gaelic mouths wish, for the Gael almost 
always aspirates his s, and loves to speak of the 
' Shawms of David ' (cf. ARDALANISH, MACHRAHANISH, 
&c.). The Viking has largely determined the nomen- 
clature of our stormy northern and western shores. 
All the ' stacks,' O.N. stak. these wild-looking, lonely 
juts or columns of rock, in Caithness, are Norse ; so are 
all the ' skerries/ N. and Dan. skjaer, a cliff or rock, of 
which there are numerous examples around the wild 
Pentland Firth SCARFSKERRY, SULESKERRY, &c. ; and 
such names as SUMBURGH ROOST are from the N. rost, 
a whirlpool. 

Two remarkable suffixes remain, and demand special 
attention. The first is -by or -bie, so useful in detecting 
the foot of the Dane rather than the Norwegian. This 
is the north. O.E. by, Mid. Eng. bi, Dan. and Sw. by, 
almost certainly all derived from the O.N. boer or byr, 
and all meaning a dwelling, a hamlet or town. The 
root is the same as that of the good old Scottish word 
big, to build, but not the same as that of ' bury ' or 
' borough,' which is from the O.E. byrig or burh, a 
fortified enclosure. The suffix -by is frequent in the 



Ixiv PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

north of England,, and almost as frequent in South- 
West Scotland CANONBIE, MIDDLEBIE, PERCEBIE, 
SORBIE, &c. There are nine examples in the Dumfries 
district, three in Ayr (Crosby, Magby, and Sterby), and 
only four in the south-east. There is one near Glasgow, 
BUSBY, and just one north of the Forth, HUMBIE, near 
Aberdour, Fife. In the extreme north by reappears in 
the misleading guise of -bay, as in CANISBAY and 
DUNCANSBAY. But perhaps the most remarkable 
group of suffixes in the whole study of Scottish names 
is that evolved out of one compound O.N. word 
bolstaftr, a dwelling-place, which has been chopped 
and changed into almost every conceivable shape. 
It occurs alone, as a place-name, again and again, 
and in many shapes, as in Bosta, Lewis, Boust, 
Coll, and Busta, Shetland. Perhaps nearest to the 
original are the forms -bolsy, found in ' Scarrabolsy/ 
mentioned in Islay in 1562, and -bustar, -buster, and 
-bister, as in ' Skelebustar,' ' Swanbuster,' in Orphir, 
mentioned in the early Orkney rental books, c. 1500, 
Cowbuster (Firth, Orkney), and Fimbuster, and Libister, 
old form of LYBSTER. This last shows us the first 
vowel dropped out, as is also seen in BIL-BSTER and 
SCRA-BSTER (in 1201 Skara-bolstad). As common as 
any is the form -host, as in Colbost, GARRABOST, Shaw- 
bost, all in Long Island ; there are thirteen names in 
-host in Lewis alone. In Islay poor bolstafir is squeezed 
down into -bus, as in Eorabus, ' beach-house,' Persebus, 
' priest's farm,' &c. Then -bol often occurs alone, and, 
indeed, bol is itself the O.N. for a dwelling, thus we 
have BORROBOL and ERIBOL in Sutherland ; and then 
that shifty liquid I drops away, and so we get EMBO 
and SKIBO, near Dornoch. In Islay, Coll, Tyree, and 
Mull the b may become p, and so for bol we get pol or 



NORSE NAMES. Ixv 

pool, as in CROSSAPOL, GRISAPOLL. In Caithness it is 
the second or staftr half which has been chiefly used, 
staftr being the Norse equivalent of the O.E. stede or 
' stead/ a place, as in ' homestead.' Staftr gives us in 
Caithness scores of -sters OCCUMSTER, STEMSTER, 
THRUMSTER, &c. Instead of -ster we usually find, in 
the Long Island, -'stra, as in SCARRI-STRA, or even 
-sta, as in TOLSTA. Further, metamorphosis could 
hardly go. 1 

An interesting little group is formed by the three 
names, DINGWALL, TINGWALL (Shetland), and TINWALD 
(Dumfries), which are all shapes of the same word, 
tyingavollr, ( meeting-place of the Thing, diet, or local 
parliament.' In Norse th is sounded t, hence the latter 
two forms ; and every one who knows Grimm's law, 
knows how naturally th becomes d, hence Dingwall. or, 
as it first occurs in 1263, Dignewall. The Icel. "ping, 
and the Dan. and Sw. ting mean, properly, a court or 
assembly, but in our own O.E. the thing is originally 
the cause or matter which the Thing met to discuss. 
The ancient little burgh of TAIN is commonly supposed 
to come from tying or ting too. Its earliest spelling, 
in 1227, is Tene, which makes this likely. The second 
syllable of Dingwall, &c., is the O.N. voll-r or void, 
Sw. falla, O.E. fold, Dan. and Mod. Eng. fold, an 
enclosure, or what is enclosed, hence ' an assembly.' 

Several Scottish counties have a Norse element in 
their names, e.g., CAITHNESS, a name never used by any 
Gael. He always speaks of Gallaibh, 'land of the 
Galls ' or ' strangers,' these, of course, being the 

1 In all matters regarding West Coast names this chapter is largely 
indebted to Professor M'Kinnon's valuable series of articles on the 
Place-Names of Argyle, published in the Scotsman in the winter of 

1887-88. 



Ixvi PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

marauding Northmen ; -aibh is the old locative case- 
ending. The name Caithness is the O.N. Calcines, 
* ness ' or ' projecting land of the tribe Cat.' Cat is the 
name actually given to the district by the man who 
first mentions it, the Irish Nennius (? of 8th century). 
This tribe of Cat or Caith took their name from Cat, 
Gatt, or Got, one of the sons of the legendary Cruithne 
(see p. xliv). The next neighbour of Caithness, SUTHER- 
LAND, which, curiously enough, contains nearly the 
whole of the extreme north of Scotland, is the O.N. 
Sudrland, so named because it lay to the south of the 
Norse settlements in Orkney and Caithness; just as 
the Hebrides were termed Sudreyar, as contrasted 
with the more northerly Orkney and Shetland Isles. 
Already in a Latin document of date 1300 we find 
the name as Sutherlandia. The ending of the name 
ORKNEY, at least, is Norse (see List). SHETLAND or 
Zetland is the O.N. Hjcdtland or Hetland, but what 
that means Dr Vigfusson in his Icelandic dictionary 
makes no attempt to explain. 

Just one or two noteworthy scraps in conclusion : be 
it noted that the PENTLAND Frith has nothing to do 
with the word pent, which would be singularly inappro- 
priate as applied to this swift-running sea-channel, 
which is no true frith at all. Pentland frith, like 
Pentland hills, is the O.N. word Petland, the Norse 
for ' Picts' land,' which conveys to us some useful 
information as to the settlements and migrations of 
the Picts. Cape WRATH, standing in its stormy soli- 
tude at the far north-west corner of Scotland, has 
doubtless been thought to bear a very appropriate 
name. So it does ; but what it means is, not rage and 
fury, but ' corner, turning point,' or ' shelter/ Icel. 
hvarf, and Sw. hwarf, the same word as our Eng. 



NORSE NAMES. Ixvii 

wharf. And that far northern isle in Shetland, YELL, 
seems to bear a very startling name. But Yell is 
the O.N. Jali, Icel. gelid or gall, which means nothing 
more than ' barren. 3 This last is also the root of that 
ugly name JAWCRAIG, near Slamannan, spelt in a 1745 
map, Jallcraig. The present form is one among many 
hundreds of examples of 'popular etymology/ or, as 
likely, of popular carelessness. 



CHAPTER III. 

ENGLISH NAMES. 

To the student who has fairly tackled the Celtic, or 
even the Norse, names of Scotland, the purely English 
names are mere child's play. Considering that English 
is now the vernacular of sixteen out of every seventeen 
persons in the land, the number of our English or 
Anglo-Saxon place-names is surprisingly small. We 
are not aware, however, if the proportion of English to 
Celtic and to Norse names in Scotland has ever been 
exactly ascertained or even estimated. The calculation 
would be rather a difficult one, but full of interest. 
English has for some time been the language of all the 
most populous districts ; but over a very wide area in 
the Highlands English influence had scarcely any 
existence before the Rebellion in 1745 ; and very few 
place-names of any interest to us have originated 
since that date. The place-names of yesterday are of 
small account. 

Both the contemporary historian Ammianus Mar- 
cellinus and the contemporary poet Claudian prove, 
that as early as 360 A.D., Saxons had invaded the 
Roman province of Britain. How soon they entered 
Scotland we are hardly able to tell ; but we have 
already alluded to the possible presence of Frisians in 
the flats of Dumfriesshire before the year 400. Octa 
and Ebissa, leaders of the Frisians, were probably 



ENGLISH NAMES. Ixix 

established in East and Mid Lothian c. 500 A.D. ; and, 
at any rate, by 547 Angles and Frisians, i.e., men from 
the swamps arid plains around the mouths of the Weser, 
Scheldt, and Rhine, had spread from Tees to Forth. 
A district on the south of the Frith of Forth was early 
known as the 'Frisian Shore;' and probably the 
earliest recorded appellation of the frith itself is that 
used by Nennius, Mare Frenessicum or ' Frisian Sea.' 
The true modern representatives of these Frisians are, 
of course, the Dutch or Low Germans of Holland and 
Hanover. Though the Angle and the Saxon were thus 
early on the ground, very few English names indeed 
can be proved to have been in use in Scotland before 
the days of Malcolm Canmore, c. 1060 ; therefore is it 
that we have made this Chapter III. when strictly it 
should have been Chapter II. Almost the only excep- 
tions which occur to us are these that Simeon of 
Durham (d. 1130), when writing of the year 756, 
mentions a Niwanbyrig, which may be NEWBURGH in 
Fife, and Eddi and the venerable Bede (both c. 720) 
mention ' Coludesburg,' or, in Bede's Latin Urbs Goludi, 
which is the modern COLDINGHAM. Of course, probably 
many more English names than these actually existed 
at as early a date ; but our extant information is very 
scanty. 

Professor Freeman informs us that exiles were wel- 
comed from England as early as the days of Macbeth, 
who, ' as every schoolboy knows/ was slain at Lumphanan 
in 1057. But the chief inflow of English blood came 
not till Macbeth's equally famous successor, Malcolm 
Canmore, had been seated for fully half a score of 
years upon his throne. By that time the Norman 
Conquest was a sad reality to Saxon and to Angle ; and 
King Malcolm now gladly welcomed the exiled Saxon 



Ixx PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

royal family to his palace at Dunfermline. Nor was 
he long in espousing the devout Saxon princess, 
Margaret, who has left her trace in North and South 
QUEENSFERRY, hard by Dunfermline. From the 
marriage of Malcolm with Margaret (1070), and from 
the incoming of the English exiles about the same 
time, we may safely date the decay, not only of the 
old Celtic Church, but also of the Celtic speech. 
Henceforth Gaelic was a courtly language no more. 
But just after the Norman Conquest many of our 
English town and village names must have sprung 
up. By the aid of the old charters, of which we have 
a rich abundance after 1116, we can see many of these 
names coming in and taking shape before our very 
eyes. And to the student of history the process 
is quite as interesting as the embryologist finds it 
to watch the slowly beautiful growth of the ascidian 
or the tadpole under the microscope. Here, too, is 
evolution. 

The English ending denoting ' town,' ' village,' is ton 
or ham. We might, for illustration, select almost any 
Scottish name ending thus. Let us take SYMINGTON, 
which occurs twice, in Lanark and in Ayr. Both take 
their name from the same man, Simon Lockhart, a 
local knight, about whom we read a good deal in the 
records of the middle part of the 12th century, and 
whose surname is still preserved in Milton Lockhart, 
near Carluke. In 1160, in one of the oldest charters 
of Paisley Abbey, we read, 'Inter terram Simonis 
Loccardi & Prestwick,' which shows us Knight Simon 
already in Ayrshire, and prepares us for the entry in 
1293, ' Symondstona in Kyi.' Again, c. 1189, we find 
' Villa Symonis Lockard ' in Lanarkshire, which, before 
1300, has become ' Symondstone;' in either case 



ENGLISH NAMES. Ixxi 

the further advance to ' Symington ' is easy. Take 
one other very similar case, COVINGTON, near Lanark. 
About 1120 we find among the followers of David 
Prince of Cumbria a certain Colban. About 1190 
we find mention of a 'Villa Colbani,' villa, by the 
way, being just the Latin form of the Norman- French 
ville, literally, a countryhouse, then a town. In 1212 
we find ' Colbaynistun ;' in 1434 this has become 
' Cowantoun/ showing how the surname Cowan has 
arisen; but c. 1480 it has slipped into its modern 
shape of ' Covingtoun ;' for toun is still the good 
Scottish way of pronouncing town or ton. 

As might be expected, genuine English names are 
to be found more or less all over the Lowlands ; but as 
all the hills and streams had, long ere his coming, 
received Celtic names, the Angle has named for us 
very few of these ; though sometimes he managed to 
add an adjective, as in the Black and White ADDER. 
Perforce he adopted the names he found, though 
seldom had he much inkling of their meaning. 
English names for Scottish natural features are rarely 
found. As for hills, neither MOORFOOTS nor PENT- 
LANDS are true cases in point, and a name like 
Norman's Law or North Berwick Law cannot be called 
a very serious exception ; and as for rivers, if few even 
of England's rivers bear English names, there are 
positively none at all, of any consequence, in Scotland. 
But there are several hows (O.E. holy, holh) or hollows 
or valleys, as 'the How o' the Mearns,' famous 
HABBIE'S How at Carlops. 

The region 1 for true English names is that which 

1 Readers of Armstrong's sumptuous History of Liddesdale, &c., will 
see that English farm and manor names are very plentiful here 
too. 



Ixxii PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

lies between Edinburgh and Berwick, whose original 
population were the Celtic Ottadeni, a branch of the 
great tribe of the Brigantes. But 1400 years of 
Anglian settlement have largely obliterated the traces 
of the old Celt here, especially as regards the names of 
the towns or villages. Almost the only notable excep- 
tion is DUNBAR, mentioned as early as the days of 
Eddi (c. 720), certainly a Celtic name, and perhaps 
commemorating St Bar or Finnbarr, an ancient bishop 
of Cork. In the Highlands, English names, unless 
they be quite modern, are very rare. Wherever an 
English or partly English name occurs, the Gael is 
sure to have a name of his own, e.g., he calls Taymouth 
BALLOCH, and so forth. And the Gael deals precisely 
so with Norse names also ; he speaks not of Tain, but 
of Baile Dhuthaic, or ' the town of St Duthac.' Some- 
times an English name is just a translation of an older 
Gaelic one, as in the town now erroneously spelt and 
called by outsiders FALKIRK, but which is really Fahkirk 
(1382, Fawkirc), and is so pronounced by the natives to 
this day. This is Simeon of Durham's Egglesbreth, 
and the modern Highland drover's An Eaglais bhreac, 
' the spotted church/ referring to the mottled colour of 
its stone. 

Place-names of English origin are a faithful reflection 
of the typical Englishman stolid, unemotional, full of 
blunt common-sense. They almost all spell plain 
* John Bull his mark,' ' John Bull his house.' Anglo- 
Saxon names are, as a rule, abrupt, matter-of-fact, 
devoid of aught poetic, having of music none. How 
different is Birmingham or ' Brummagem,' or Wolver- 
harnpton, from ' Be-a-la-nam-bo,' or COILANTOGLE ! and 
even Balla-chd-lish has something pathetically Celtic 
about it, if pronounced by understanding lips. For 



ENGLISH NAMES. Ixxiii 

pure expressiveness., however, few names can beat the 
name (it cannot be very ancient) given to a conspicuous, 
monument-capped hill nearLinlithgow, 'Glower-o'er-ern' 
or Glowr(5rum. To translate glower into ' English ' 
would be to make the name feeble indeed. A little to 
the south, near Drumshoreland, is found the feebler 
name, ' Lookabootye.' The pure Englishman shows in 
his names almost none of the Celt's inner sympathy 
with nature either in her sterner or in her softer 
moods. And the modern Socialist will not be too well 
pleased to find that most of our O.E. town names 
give strong expression to the idea of individual rights, 
and to the sanctity of private property. Many of them 
are the very embodiment of the adage that every 
Englishman's house is his castle ; so many of the com- 
monest O.E. place-endings imply ' enclosure, fencing-off.' 
This is the root-idea in burgh, ham, and ton, in seat 
and worth. 

And the English thane, as well as the Norman baron, 
invariably called the little village, which grew up under 
the shadow and shelter of his castle walls, after his own 
noble self. Places ending in -mile, or, as it is some- 
times found in Scotland, -well, are Norman ; but the 
burghs, tons, and hams are all English. Burgh, or 
more fully borough, is the O.E. burg, burh, gen. by rig, 
dat. buri, biri, hence its other form ' Bury ' or -bury, 
common in England but not in Scotland, though on 
the Ayrshire coast stands TURNBERRY (in 1286 Turne- 
byry). The root of burgh is probably the Old Ger. 
bergan, to shelter ; and its earliest meaning, as given 
in a Kentish glossary dating c. 820 A.D., is arx, i.e., 
'citadel, castle,' then it comes to mean, 'a fortified 
town ; ' but the idea of ' civic community ' or * town ' 
arises very early also. In names the word occurs 

E 



Ixxiv PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

chiefly as a suffix, -burgh, but occasionally as a prefix, 
as in Borrowstoun-ness or BO'NESS, and in BURGHEAD, 
where the O.E. word burg with its hard g is still pre- 
served intact. The Old Norse form borg (used by 
Charles Kingsley in his Hereward) also occurs, on the 
west coast of Lewis, as Borgh, as every reader of the 
Princess of Thule knows. 

The O.E. tun(e) or ton(e) never originally meant a 
large town ; and we still have the common Scots 
phrase, 'the farm toun/ which means a collection of 
houses very different in size from Leeds or Bradford. 
In O.E. the word occurs both with and without the 
final e ; thus JoHNSTONE means not ' John's stone/ but 
* John's town.' Ton seems also to have implied a village 
belonging to a certain class, as FULLERTON or ' fowler's 
town/ HALKERSTON or ' settlement of the hawkers/ i.e., 
falconers. Genuine cases of Scottish names in -burgh, 
called after some man, are hard to discover ; but COLD- 
INGHAM was originally Coludesburg or ' Colud's town/ 
and WINCHBURGH may be another case in point. The 
peculiar case of EDINBURGH is fully dealt with in the 
List where it is shown that the name of Scotia's capital 
is most likely of Brythonic origin W. din eiddyn, or 
Dunedin, ' fort on the hill-slope/ i.e., what is now the 
backbone of Edinburgh, its High Street, from the 
Castle to Holyrood. The name was merely remodelled, 
though it certainly was remodelled, in honour of King 
Edwin of Northumbria. But if burghs called after 
Saxon thanes or knights are rare, tons are found in a 
rich plenty, e.g., DOLPHINTON, DUDDINGSTON, EDDLES- 
TON or * Edulf s ton/ STEVENSTON, &c. Wherever this 
suffix -ton is still, even occasionally, spelt -town, the 
name is pretty sure to be modern, of which we see 
examples in the two CAMPBELLTOWNS, Hutchesontown, 



ENGLISH NAMES. Ixxv 

PULTNEYTOWN, SiNCLAiRTON, &c. Moreover, the 
amateur must always walk warily in dealing with 
English-looking tons in the north, aye, and in the 
south too, for ton is not seldom a corruption of the 
G. dun, a hill or fort, e.g., EDDERTON, near Tain, is just 
eadar duin, ' between the hillocks ; ' and away in the 
south, near to the boundary-line of the Tweed, stands 
EARLSTON, a simple name enough, one would think; 
but Earlston is just the result of careless tongues. In 
1144 the name was Ercheldon, which at once shows 
that here is the ' Ercildune ' famed as the birthplace 
of Thomas the Rymer. To return for a moment to 
burgh, it may be noted that, with the partial excep- 
tions already mentioned, all other Scottish -burghs are 
comparatively modern, except perhaps three SUM- 
BURGH, south most point of distant Zetland, the Svin- 
borg of the Sagas; ROXBURGH, which we find away 
back as early as 1134, ' Rokesburch,' presumably mean- 
ing ' castle on the rock ; ' and thirdly, and most curious 
of all, NEWBURGH in Fife, which, as we saw a few pages 
back, is possibly the very oldest extant English name 
in Scotland. Of recent burghs we may mention 
COLINSBURGH, built c. 1696 ; MARYBURGH, near Ding- 
wall, c. 1690 ; and HELENSBURGH, which only dates 
from 1776. 

Ham, O.E. hdm, is just our winsome English word 
* home/ the original a being preserved in the Sc. 
hame. A typical example is COLDINGHAM or WHIT- 
TINGHAM, though hams, called after Saxon men, are 
much rarer north than south of the Tweed. Instances 
not connected with any man's name are BIRGHAM in 
Berwick and KiRKPATRiCK-DuRHAM, near Dumfries. 
EAGLESHAM, the only ham near Glasgow, is a deceptive 
hybrid, meaning ' church-place ' (W. eglioys, G. eaglais, 



Ixxvi PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

a church). Ham often gets clipped down, for h easily 
vanishes in an Englishman's mouth, and in a Scotsman's 
too, if only he were aware of it. Almost no Scotsman, 
e.g., will pronounce the h in such a sentence as ' John 
told me that &e said,' &c. Thus ham becomes am, as 
in BIRNAM, and EDNAM, ' home on the R. Eden,' or yet 
more disguised, as in MIDDLEM, or EDROM, ' home 011 
the K. Adder.' There is one lonely but very interesting 
ham away up near Forse in Caithness, ' Notingham/ 
which is so spelt in the Bk. of Scone in 1272. 

It is generally said that -ing- in O.E. place-names 
implies ' descendants of,' e.g., SYMINGTON was thought 
to be the ton or village of Sym's sons. But in every 
case of -ing- occurring in a Scottish place-name, so far 
as we have been able to trace the origin of the names, 
the -ing- is a later corruption, generally of an, in, or 
O7i. See ABINGTON, COLDINGHAM, COVINGTON, DUD- 
DINGSTON, LAMINGTON, UDDINGSTON, &C. 1 

As with names Norse so with names English, of 
English prefixes there are but few (burgh has been already 
referred to), but English suffixes are almost innumer- 
able, the most of them requiring little or no elucidation. 
There is, e.g., the little cluster signifying some kind of 
height or eminence hill itself, as in Maryhill, Town- 
hill ; knoive, the softened Scottish form of knoll, O.E. 
cnoll (cf. the Dan. knold and W. cnol, a (rounded) 
hillock), just as How is the Scottish form of the O.E. 
holg, and Pow the Scottish form of the G. poll, a stream 
or pool; this we find in BROOMIEKNOWE, COWDEN- 
KNOWES, &c.; law, the Scottish form of the O.E. hldew, 
a hill, a mound, a barrow, as in GREENLAW, HARLAW, 
LARGO LAW, and also in many hybrids like the LAM- 

1 No doubt such English names as Barking and Woking are real 
patronymics, and do denote the abode of a family or clan. 



ENGLISH NAMES. Ixxvii 

MERLAWS, the well-known cliffs at Burntisland, and like 
MINTLAW. The English form low; as in Ludlow and 
Taplow, plentiful though it be south of the Border, does 
not seem to occur in Scotland. To this little group of 
suffixes mount can hardly be added, for the Scottish 
-mounts or -monts almost all represent the G. monadh, 
a mountain or moor, as in ESSLEMONT, GLASMONT, &c. 

In many cases it would be more correct to say that 
a given suffix or word is Scots rather than English, which 
just means that the word, or often simply the form, 
though once used in northern literary English, is now 
preserved only in Lowland Scots. Neither Jmowe, 
e.g., nor law is to be found at all in Annandale's most 
reliable Concise English Dictionary ; another instance 
is that very interesting word kirk or ' church,' fully 
dealt with in our Index. It may just be added that a 
charter dating a. 1124, which mentions ' Selechirche ' 
or SELKIRK, is earlier than any document quoted by 
Dr Murray for the soft or ch form of the O.E. cyrc, our 
modern church. An interesting instance is -gate, which 
in Scottish place-names like CROSSGATES, TRONGATE, 
WINDYGATES, always has its Scottish meaning of ' way,' 
' road.' ' I gae'd a weary gate yestreen, a gate I fear 
I'll dearly rue.' In Scots, unlike both O.E. and 
Mod. Eng., it never means a door or entrance; but 
the well-known Border pronunciation 'yet,' which is 
the English not the Scottish gate, is to be found in 
YETHOLM, that Roxburgh hamlet at the ' gate ' between 
Scotland and England. Similar is -woder, still on the 
Scottish borders pronounced like the O.E. waeter, 
which means riot only the brook or burn itself, but also 
the valley through which it flows, as in Galawater, 
Jedwater, Kulewater : ' Nor Yarrow braes nor Ettrick 
shaws can match the lads o' Galawater.' A curious and 



Ixxviii PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

deceiving suffix is -battle. MOREBATTLE, near Kelso, 
looks very like some bloodthirsty borderer's cry. But 
when we find the name on record in 1170 as Merebotle, 
we see that the true meaning is the ' dwelling (O.E. 
boil) by the mere' or lake. By 1575 it had become 
Morbottle ; it is only within the present century that 
the o, through ignorance, has become permanently 
changed to a ; and the same is true of fair NEWBATTLE 
Abbey, near Dalkeith. The Northumbrians still retain 
the o, as in Harbottle ; and there is a Newbottle near 
Durham. The O.E. botl is also found smothered up in. 
the name BOLTON, which c. 1200 was spelt Botel- or 
Bothel-tune. 

So far as sound goes, the ending -haven might indi- 
cate either an English (O.E. haeferi) or a Norse (Icel. 
hofn, Dan. havri) name ; but, as a matter of fact, most 
of the ' havens ' are demon strably English, and late in 
origin ; e.g., both BUCKHAVEN and NEWHAVEN, on the 
Frith of Forth, date only from the 16th century. And 
some ' havens ' do not mean a haven at all ; such an 
one is that tautological-looking name belonging to an 
Islay village, spelt PORTNAHAVEN, but pronounced 
portnahaVn, which at once shows that this is really the 
G. port na h'abhuinn, ' harbour on the river.' 

In looking for truly English names two of our pre- 
liminary cautions must always be kept well in view : 
(1) Many names may be partly English and partly 
something else ; e.g., that name dear to every Scottish 
heart, BANNOCKBURN. ' Burn ' is good Scottish or O.E., 
but 'bannock' is neither Scots nor English, and has 
nothing to do with flour or pease-meal scones; it is just 
the G. ban cnoc, ' white ' or ' gleaming knoll.' BARR- 
HEAD has nothing to do with toll-bars or any other bars, 
the 'head' simply repeating what has already been said in 



ENGLISH NAMES. Ixxix 

the G. barr (a head or height). In GOREBRIDGE, near 
Dalkeith, the ' bridge ' is English without doubt ; but 
the gore has nothing to do either with blood or bulls, 
being the innocent Gaelic word gobhar, a goat. An- 
other well-known name is GLASSFORD, near Hamilton, 
a name which pictures to the mind's eye some shallow 
spot in a river of glassy smoothness. ' Ford,' indeed, is 
English, but the ' glass ' is just the common G. glais or 
glas, grey or dark, as in DUNGLASS, GLASMONT, and 
many more ; or else it is the Old G. glas, a river, as in 
DOUGLAS and great GLASGOW itself. 

All the examples given for our first caveat would serve 
well for the second, viz. : (2) An English-looking name 
may not be English at all. Look well before you leap. 
We shall just point out one or two more conspicuous 
instances of the need of this. There are several glens 
with deceptively English-like names, e.g., mighty Glen 
LYON, which is probably the G. lithe amhuinn (the h 
has silenced both the t and the m), ' spatey river/ A 
little to the south is Glen ALMOND ; both the Scottish 
rivers called Almond were formerly spelt Awmon, 
showing that here we have simply one of the many 
guises of the G. amhuinn, a river. Glen Howl, in the 
Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, has no connection with 
cries or roars ; it is but the G. gleann-a-ghabail, ' glen 
of the fork,' where two streams join. And again, in the 
Highlands, as in Ireland, we meet with many a Letter-. 
But they were all there long before the days of the Post 
Office. The first syllable in LETTERFEARN or LETTER- 
FINLAY is just the G. leitir (leth-tir), ' land on the slope 
of a glen.' 

It is both curious and interesting to know that the 
1 Cockney ' very early began to prefix his hs to Scottish 
names. The hand of an English scribe is clearly seen 



Ixxx PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

in such forms as Habberden, Haberbervi, Hinernairn, 
and Hecles, all found in MSS. of about the year 1290. 1 
Though the definite article is so rare at the beginning 
of Celtic names it is common enough before English 
ones ; but, for euphony's sake, it seems only to be used 
with words accented on the first syllable, as The 
Lochies (Burntisland), the Methil (Lev en), and the 
Redding (Polmont). 

Many types of names very common in England seem 
wholly wanting in Scotland. In England 'Great' 
abounds as an appellation Great Malvern, and the 
like; but in Scotland there are none. The same 
remark holds true about ' Little,' unless we count ' The 
Little Ferry/ near Dornoch, as an exception. Again, 
' Market ' and ' Stoke ' (i.e., place) are very common 
Anglican prefixes and suffixes, as in Market Drayton, 
and Bishopstoke, and many more ; but in Scotland 
they are never used at all. 

1 See Rev. Joseph Stevenson's very interesting collection of Docu- 
ments Illustrative of the History of Scotland, vol. i. , under the years 
1289-92, and the itineraries and accounts of expenditure of English- 
men quoted there. 



CHAPTER IV. 

ROMAN, NORMAN, AND PURELY MODERN NAMES. 

IN strict propriety the Roman names should have been 
dealt with before either the English or the Norse ones ; 
but they form a group so small and so unimportant, 
that little harm can be done by treating them along 
with those names which stand last in historic sequence, 
the little handful from the Norman-French, which is, 
of course, one of Latin's many daughters. The Roman 
left a deep mark on Southern Britain, and his memory 
is preserved in many a name there. But even though 
Rome's legions, from the days of Agricola onwards for 
more than 300 years, may have marched many a league 
and thrown up many a camp in North Britain, they 
never could make much dint upon the hardy savage of 
Caledonia in his bogs and woods ; and traces of Roman 
influence north of the Roman Wall 'twixt Forth and 
Clyde are but trifling. England is literally covered 
with -casters, -cesters, and -cheaters, all denoting the 
site of a camp of the invaders, L. castrum or castra ; 
but, surprising to relate, there is not one such com- 
pound name in Scotland, unless it be BONCHESTER 
Bridge, in the neighbourhood of Hawick. Close by is 
n place called the Chesters ; and any large map of the 
Border district will show a good many names like 
Chester Knowes (Chirnside), Chester Hill and Rig 
(Traquair), Chester Lees (Tweedsmuir) ; and at most 



Ixxxii PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

of these spots there are remains of circular or oval 
hill forts. It is quite certain that the Romans were in 
Berwick and Peeblesshire ; but it is not quite certain 
that these names are of Roman origin. Of course, in 
no case is their second part Roman; and Professor 
Veitch thinks that these Peeblesshire ' Chesters ' were 
the last retreats of the Cymri or Brythons of Forth 
and Clyde, the forts where they made their final but 
unsuccessful stand against Pict, and Scot, and Angle. 
Of any other real Roman names there seems no trace. 
Verily ' Stat nominis umbra.' 

Many a broad acre of Scotland's best land was gifted 
into Norman hands. But Dr Skene (Celtic Scotl., i. 430) 
thinks that the Normans, who are just our old friends 
the Norsemen back again with an infusion of new blood 
and with a new tongue, had no perceptible influence on 
Scottish affairs till the reign of David I. (1124-53), a 
date too late to allow of much result in the way of place- 
names. And the later frequent intercourse between 
the courts of France and Scotland had practically 
no influence on our topography at all. Even as the 
Gael's common name for his village was bal or baile, and 
as the Saxon's regular name for the hamlet round his 
thane's castle was ham or ton, so the Norman's regular 
name for the castle-village was ville, from the L. 
villa, a country-house or farm. Ville, in Scotland, 
has seldom survived un corrupted, though we have both 
a MELVILLE and a MOUNT MELVILLE in Fife. Now, in 
Fife charters of the days of Alexander II. (1214-49), 
we find notice of a Norman knight called ' Philippus de 
Malavilla;' and so Melville has the strange meaning of 
' the bad (? unhealthy) town.' A ' Gralfred de Melville ' 
is found in the Lothians in 1153; in all probability, 
therefore, ' the bad town ' was no place in Scotland, but 



ROMAN, NORMAN, AND MODERN NAMES. Ixxxiii 

some spot in Normandy, from which Galfred or his 
forefathers took their name. The writer does not 
know of any other miles in Scotland ; for, of course, such 
a vile compound as JEMIMAVILLE (Cromarty) is not a 
case in point. 1 But we have still among us such com- 
mon surnames as Bonville, Colvill (sic 1158), and 
Somerville (1158, Sumervilla). 

Moreover, mile was not unfrequently Anglicised into 
-well, as in Maxwell, already thus c. 1190, which is 
just ' Maccus' ville.' The man Maccus or Macus we 
find mentioned in the Melrose charters c. 1144. There 
is no Scottish place now called Maxwell ; but there is a 
MAXWELLTON, which is just a part of Dumfries, and also 
a MAXTON, near St Boswell's. It is evidently the influ- 
ence of this Norman ending -ville which has changed St 
Boisil's name into ST BOSWELL'S; and we venture to think 
that the final syllable both in BoTHWELL 2 and MANUEL 
(Linlithgow) is due to the same influence (see List). 

A Norman noble, De Belassize, has given his name 
to one of the North British Railway stations on the 
Waverley route, BELSES; and LUNDIN LINKS in Fife 
owe their title to the family of De Lundin, who are found 
in Fife in the 12th century, and who were at that time 
the Scottish king's hereditary hostiarii, doorkeepers, or 
' door-wards/ hence the modern surname, Durward. 
One of the most famous Norman families in Scotland 
was the Lindsays, whose name we see in Lindsaylands, 
near Biggar. In an appendix to the Lives of the 
Lindsays (vol. i.) we find a curious list of no less than 
eighty-eight spellings of this name, which have all 
actually been found in some old charter or letter, 

1 The place called Coshieville at the mouth of Glen Lyon is an 
ill-formed attempt to render the G. cois-a-m7iill, ' the foot of the hill.' 

2 Bothwell is spelt Botheuill a. 1242, and Both vile a. 1300. . 

'' 



Ixxxiv PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

varying in length from the ten letters of Lyndyssaye 
to the five of Lynse, which last, if the final e be 
sounded, gives the exact modern pronunciation. BED- 
RULE, near Jedburgh, does not come from the W. bedw, 
a birch, as Professor Veitch supposes. In 1280 its 
name was Rulebethok, and Bethoc was wife of the 
Norman Radulph, the earliest known lord of the 
manor here (c. 1150). The name Bedrule is still locally 
pronounced bethorule, or was so quite recently, as Dr 
J. A. H. Murray informed the writer ; though, of course, 
his old schoolmaster at Denholm, near by, was wont to 
teach that such a pronunciation was ignorant and vulgar! 
Bethoc, however, is hardly a Norman name ; we find it 
again, a. 1300, in the Registrum Aberdonense, in a 
' Kynbethok.' RULE is, of course, the name of a river. 

On a beautiful spot at the head of what is now the 
BEAULY Frith the monks Vallis umbrosce founded a 
priory (c. 1220), which we, in 1230, find styled Prioratus 
de Bello Loco. The pure French spelling Beau lieu, 
' beautiful spot/ also occurs ; and in 1497 we meet with 
' Beulie/ the present pronunciation. Beaulieu, as most 
are aware, is also the name of a village in Hants, formerly 
seat of a Cistercian monastery ; which name is also pro- 
nounced bewly. Well did the old monks know how to 
choose out the fairest sites. BELMONT, ' fine hill/ is a 
common name for modern residences ; but we also find 
it attached to hills, not only in the Sidlaw range, but 
even away up in Unst. But perhaps the naming has 
been quite recent. MONTROSE is very French-looking, 
but we already know that it is just the G-. moine t'rois, 
' moss ' or ' bog on the promontory.' Such names as 
BONNYBRIDGE and BONNYRIGG are usually thought to 
be at least half French ; but it is doubtful whether the 
Sc. bonny has really anything directly to do with the 



ROMAN, NORMAN, AND MODERN NAMES. Ixxxv 

Fr. bon, bonne, good. BURDIEHOUSE, near Edinburgh, 
is, according to the common tradition, a corruption of 
' Bordeaux-house.' Grant in Old and Neiv Edinburgh 
(iii. 342), thinks that it was probably so called from 
being the residence of some of the exiled French silk- 
weavers, the same exiled Huguenots who settled so 
largely in Spitalfields, London. They also founded the 
now vanished village of Picardy, between Edinburgh 
and Leith, whose name is still preserved on the old site 
by ' Picardy Place.' 

Gape, a headland, is just the Fr. cap, head or cape ; 
thus we have few ' capes ' in Scotland, and those few, 
such as Cape Wrath, of quite modern application, 
Gulf, the Fr. golfe, is not represented at all, either in 
Scotland or England. 

A few quite recent names still remain, calling for a 
passing word. And, be it remarked, even though a 
name has sprung up within the last couple of centuries, 
its origin is by no means invariably easy to trace ; e.g., 
the writer has not yet been able to trace the exact 
origin of ALEXANDRIA in the Vale of Leven, or of that 
German-sounding village near Arbroath, called FRIOCK- 
HEIM, but on local tongues Freakem, although the 
former is only a little more than a century old, and 
the latter very much less. Nor does he know why a 
certain spot in Ayrshire has been called PATNA ; nor 
why a little railway station near Holytown has been 
dubbed with the Honduras name of OMOA. But he 
presumes it must have been some Bible lover (?) who 
christened JOPPA, near Edinburgh, about the beginning 
of this century, and who planted both a Jordan and a 
Canaan Lane on the south side of that same city. 
There is also a Jordanhill to the west of Glasgow, and 
a PADANARAM near Forfar. 



Ixxxvi PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Some recent names are, of course, very easily solved ; 
as, for instance, the three well-known forts planted 
along the Caledonian valley to overawe the Highlanders 
at different periods from 1655 to 1748, and called after 
scions of the reigning house, FORT WILLIAM, FORT 
AUGUSTUS, and FORT GEORGE. Battles have pretty 
frequently been commended to the memory of posterity 
by a place-name ; e.g., we have a farm on the south 
shore of the Dornoch Frith called BALACLAVA, its 
former name having been Balnuig (' farm town on the 
bay'). PORTOBELLO, near Edinburgh, like Portobello, 
near Wolverhampton, takes its name from a seaport on 
the Isthmus of Darien, where Admiral Vernon won a 
great victory for Britain in 1739. The name means 
'beautiful harbour;' but, as most people know, the 
Edinburgh watering-place is not itself specially 
beautiful, and it certainly has no harbour. 

The suburbs of the large cities have, of course, modern, 
and often purely fancy, names ; such are TRINITY, 
near Edinburgh, MAGDALEN GREEN, Dundee, and 
MOUNT FLORIDA and MOUNT VERNON on the outskirts 
of Glasgow. The latter name occurs in the Glasgow 
Directory of 1787. Probably all the place-names 
north of Inverness, which are neither Gaelic nor Norse, 
are quite recent; e.g., THE MOUND and THE POLES, 
near Dornoch, and BETTYHILL, between Thurso and 
Tongue, the market knoll or stance of the district, 
so called after Elizabeth, Marchioness of Stafford 
(c. 1820). 



CHAPTER V. 

ECCLESIASTICAL NAMES. 

FROM the earliest times a distinguishing and far from 
unpraiseworthy feature of the Scot has always been 
his warm attachment to the church. The Norseman, a 
pagan born, drinking to Thor and Wodin, dreaming of 
Asgard and Valhalla, and, long after his nominal conver- 
sion to Christ, a pagan at heart, has left little mark on 
the ecclesiastical nomenclature of Scotland ; the Angle, 
whose conversion, thanks largely to lona missionaries, 
was more real, has left considerable impress here. But 
the warm-hearted, pious, and always somewhat super- 
stitious Celt has left far more. His personal names, 
too, have often a churchly flavour ; e.g., Macnab, ' abbot's 
son,' Mackellar, 'the superior's son,' MacBrair, 'the 
friar's son/ Gilchrist, * servant of Christ/ Gillespie, 
' servant of the bishop/ &c. 

Till 1469 Orkney and Shetland had the Bishop of 
Trondhjem as their ecclesiastical superior; but for all 
that the Norse churchly names may be dismissed in a 
few sentences. All northern 'kirks' have received 
their name from Norse lips, as HALKIRK, KIRKWALL, 
and KIRKABY; but these are not many. Near Kirkwall, 
seat of the Bishop of Orkney, stands QUANTERNESS, 
and quanter- is the Icel. kantari, which enters as an 
element into a good many Icelandic words ; it is an 
adaptation of the Canter- in holy Canterbury (O.E. 



Ixxxviii PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Cantwaraburh), being used in Icel. for ' bishop.' Then 
we have the oft-recurring PAPA, and its derivatives 
PAPILL and PAPLAY, as local names in Orkney 
and Shetland. Papa is a Latin name for ' a bishop/ 
in use as early as Tertullian ; the Norsemen at first 
gave the name to any Christian, but soon it came to 
be applied only to ' a priest.' We have already 
explained North RONALDSAY as ' St Ringan's ' or 
' Ninian's isle,' and that same saint's name reappears 
in St Ninian's Isle in Shetland. We do not remember 
any other Orcadian or Zetland isle bearing the name 
of a saint. 1 A curiously corrupted name, half Celtic, 
half Danish, is CLOSEBURN, in Dumfriesshire. It has 
nothing in the world to do with either a close or a burn. 
In the 12th century the name appears as Kylosbern, 
though already in 1278 it has donned its present guise. 
The early form shows that here we have another of 
the superabundant Celtic kits ; only this was the ' cell ' 
or ' church ' of a Norse saint ; for Osborne is the N. 
Asen-bjom, ' the bear of the Asen ' or ' gods.' 

Over the true English church-names we must linger 
a little longer. Seeing that English-speaking monks 
were at one time owners of a large proportion of the 
whole area of Scotland, it is not strange that we 
should find not a few English ecclesiastical place- 
names. We have both a MONKTON and a NUNTON, the 
one near Troon, the other away beside Lochmaddy, but 
both pronounced almost alike, i.e., the local habitants 
always talk of l the Munton.' ' Abbey ' and ' Abbot ' 
occur again and again in places ABBEY CRAIG, ABBEY 
HILL, ABBOTSFORD, ABBOTSGRANGE, ABBOTSHALL, as 
well as ABBEY ST BATHAN'S. The 'bishop' has left 
his name too, though he has long since lost the lands, 
1 Except DAMSEY, for which see p. xcv. 



ECCLESIASTICAL NAMES. Ixxxix 

as in BISHOPBRIGGS (see p. Ixi) and BISHOPTON : even 
the humble priest (O.E., preost) has come in for his 
share of mention. There are at least fifteen Prestons in 
England, and at least two in Scotland, besides PRESTON- 
KIRK, PRESTONPANS, and PRESTWICK. 

Probably all the many 'kirks' south of Caithness 
are of English origin. ' Kirk ' is the O.E. cyrc ; but 
already by the 12th century, in Scotland (e.g., a. 1124, 
Selechirche or SELKIRK) as well as in England, the 
hard c often became the soft cli ; and perhaps it may be 
useful here to inform the benighted Southron that 
educated Scottish people do not now, as a rule, speak 
about their 'kirk.' Kirk occurs both as prefix, 
suffix, and alone, as in KIRKMAIDEN or Maidenkirk, 
Wigtown, KlRKBUDDO, KlRKCOLM, CHANNELKIRK, FAL- 

KIRK, LAURENCEKIRK, and Iirk o' Shotts. There are 
many Kirktons in Scotland, corresponding to the 
Kirtons of England, just as the Scotch KIRKABY (O.N. 
kirkia-bi) corresponds to the English Kirby, in West 
Kirby, Kirby Stephen, &c. The old, full name of 
Golspie was ' Golspiekirktoun,' and there is a farm 
called Kirkton there still. KIRKCALDY is English only 
so far as the kirk is concerned. Popular etymology 
long explained the name as 'church of the Culdees.' 
But in the St Andrews charters, c. 1150, the name is 
' Kircaladinit,' i.e., ' church by the wood of the den ' or 
glen, (in G. coille dinait,) which bonny wooded ' Den ' 
stands there to this day. 

All place-names in the form of St 's are also, of 

course, to a certain extent, English ; but only a few are 
called after really English saints. Take the first two 
examples which would occur alphabetically ABBEY 
ST BATHAN'S, Berwick, and ST ANDREWS ; Bathan, or 
rather Baithen, was a Scot, i.e., an Irish Celt, and was 

F 



XC PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

the man who succeeded Columba in the abbacy of 
lona, 597 A.D. His name is also commemorated in 
the north in the hill called Torr Beathan, near Inver- 
ness. St Andrew, Scotland's present patron saint, is 
of course the apostle of that name, whose bones, as 
a dubious tradition declares, were brought to the 
east of Fife by St Regulus. But the church built by 
this last saint (? 400 A.D.) was called by his own name, 
till rechristened in the middle of the 9th century as 
' St Andrews/ by King Kenneth Macalpine. For long, 
whenever this ancient bishop's see is referred to in any 
document it is in its Latin form, e.g., in 1158, ' St 
Andrae ;' but as early at least as 1434 we find ' Sanct- 
androwis,' and in 1497 ' Sanctandris.' The old Celtic 
name of the place was Kilrymont, or, as Abbot 
Tighernac has it, Cindrighmonaigh, 'the church/ 
or else 'the head, the promontory of the king's 
mount.' 

Among real English or Anglian saints who have 
given their names to places in Scotland are the Abbess 
^Ebba, sister of Oswald of Northumbria, commemorated 
in ST ABB'S HEAD, and St Boisil, contemporary of 
^Ebba, and Prior of Melrose, while the great Cuthbert 
was being educated there, whose name is preserved in 
the well-known railway junction, ST BOSWELL'S ; how- 
ever, the old name of the parish here, until the 17th 
century, was Lessuden. Then, of course, there is St 
Cudberct, better known as St Cuthbert, great pastor 
and bishop, missionary too all over Northumbria, most 
lovable of all the Saxon saints. By far the most 
populous parish in Scotland, ' St Cuthbert's/ Mid- 
lothian, embracing a large portion of Edinburgh itself, is 
called after him. His name appears in a slightly 
altered spelling in KIRKCUDBRIGHT, whose present 



ECCLESIASTICAL NAMES. XC1 

pronunciation, Kircdobry, must have been in vogue 
as early as c. 1450, when the town's name stands 
recorded as ' Kirkubrigh.' The Gael has made the 
saint's name into Cudachan (see CLACHNACUDDAN). 
The name of Canm ore's saintly Saxon queen is still 
preserved in ' St Margaret's/ Queen's Park, Edinburgh, 
and in the two ST MARGARET'S HOPES, or ship-refuges, 
one at Queensferry, the other at South Ronaldsay. 1 

The Celtic ecclesiastical names form, perhaps, the 
most puzzling and complex portion of our subject, a 
portion which it needs much care and skill to unravel. 
One can hardly say that the whole subject has been 
set in clear daylight yet, notwithstanding all that 
members of the Scottish Society of Antiquaries have 
done. Many of the old Celtic saints and saintesses 
are to us very dim and hazy personages, almost lost in 
the clouds of legend and the mists of antiquity ; and 
their identity is often very difficult to establish, 
especially when, as is frequently the case, two or three 
bear the same name. 

Once more let it be pointed out, that though the Celt 
never showed any great anxiety to hand down the name 
of his own humble self attached to some village or glen, 
he never wearied of thus commemorating his favourite 
or patron saints. The majority of the saints brought 
before us in Scottish place-names were either friends 
and contemporaries of St Columba, or belong to the 
century immediately thereafter, the 7th. After 700 the 
Celtic Church began to wax rich and slothful, and 
its priests were embalmed in grateful memory no 
more. Foreign saints are rarely met with. KILMARTIN 
(Lochgilphead), called after good St Martin of Tours, 

1 Some think the latter place was called after Margaret, the Maid of 
Norway, who died not far from here on her voyage to Scotland. 



XC11 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

the preceptor of St Ninian, is an easily under- 
stood exception. Why the French St Maurus should 
appear in KILMAURS is not quite so plain. The first in 
all the Scottish calendar, and, presumably, the first 
bringer of Christianity to Scotland, was St Ninian of 
Whithorn, born c. 360 A.D., whose name also appears as 
Ringan and Rinan. He is commemorated in twenty- 
five churches or chapels, extending from Ultima Thule 
to the Mull of Galloway. MAIDENKIRK, near that 
Mull, is now believed to be the kirk of St Medana, a 
friend of Ninian. Some have thought that the Nen- 
in NENTHORN, near Kelso, is a contraction of his name, 
but the original form is ' Nathan's thorn.' 

If Ninian, first of Scottish saints and missionaries, 
has received twenty-five commemorations, it is no 
marvel that Columba of lona (521-597), greatest of 
them all, has had fifty-five Scottish places called after 
him, either places of worship, or spots or wells sacred 
to him; and there are forty-one others in his native 
Ireland. Of course the saint's name is seldom or never 
now found as Columba, 'dove,' its Latin shape, but 
rather in its Celtic form, Colum; e.g., on the west 
coast there are six isles called Eilean Colum or ' Colm's 
isle,' in Loch Erisort, Loch Arkeg, the Minch, &c. 
Then there is lona itself, often called alternatively 
Icolmkill, 'island of Colum-cille ' or 'Colm of the 
churches.' For, in sooth, if men called John Henry 
Newman ' father of many souls,' other men might well 
call earnest, much-travelling Columba, founder or 
' father of many churches.' Sometimes his name is 
clipped down into Comb, as in Eilean Comb, Tongue ; 
or even into Com, as in GILCOMSTON, Aberdeen, ' the 
place of the gillie ' or ' servant of Columba.' 

With the exception of two about to be mentioned, 



ECCLESIASTICAL NAMES. XC111 

the saint most frequently honoured, next to Columba 
and Ninian, has been Donan, the former's contem- 
porary and friend, and, to their honour be it said, the 
only martyr who died by pagan hands in Scotland; 
and even his death at Eigg, by order of the Pictish 
queen, is said to have been rather for political 
reasons. Donan's name lies sprinkled all over the map 
of Scotland from the north of Sutherland to the south 
of Arran. These things being so, it is somewhat 
strange that the great Kentigern or Mungo, bringer 
of the glad tidings to Glasgow and Strathclyde, should 
have received such very scanty remembrance. No 
place-name seems to embody ' Kentigern ; ' there is a 
BALMUNGO, but quite likely it has nothing to do with 
the saint. 

Bishop Reeves, the valued editor of Adamnan, has 
drawn attention to the marked contrast between the 
names of the parishes on the east and those on the 
west of Scotland. On the east the names are chiefly 
secular, even though chiefly Celtic, and probably date 
from remote pagan times. But on the west the parochial 
names, in a large number of cases, are found to combine 
with the prefix Kil- (G. cill, ceall, a monk's cell, then a 
church, also a grave ; see KILARROW), the name of some 
venerated Scoto-Irish saint. Undoubted instances of 
this on the east coast are rare. We have, near Beauly, 
KILMORACK, 'church of St Moroc/ and KILTARLITY, 
from St Talargain, and KILKENNY (Anstruther), prob- 
ably from St Ringan, or, perhaps, St Irenseus, but not 
many more. There are many other names in Kil-, as 
KILDRUMMY (Aberdeen), KILLEN (Avoch), KILMENY 
(Fife), and Kilmore (Loth) ; but in these the kil- may 
be G. coil, SL wood; and, in any case, their second halves 
do not stand for any saint. KILCONQUHAR (Elie) and 



XC1V PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

KILSPINDIE (Errol) are two very curious names, which 
can hardly commemorate any saint either (q.v.). I)r 
Reeves' contrast is true not only of the parish names, but 
the names generally; e.g., take the case of St Columba. 
All along the east coast we find but one INCHCOLM, 
while, as we have just mentioned, there are six 
instances of an Eilean Colum ('Colrn's isle') on the 
west. Yet the monasteries of Deer (Aberdeen) and 
St Serf (Kinross) are, to say no more, sufficient 
proof that the Columban missionaries did not neglect 
the east. 

Students of the Origines Parochiales know that 
there were many more ' Kils- ' among the names of the 
ancient parishes than among the modern ones. And, 
just as we still have churches called ' Christchurch ' or 
' Trinity Church,' so do we find that the old name of 
the parish of Strathy in Skye, and the old name of the 
parish where Muir of Ord now stands, was KILCHRIST, 
the variants Kirkchrist and Crisfciskirk also occurring. 
The first Norse church in Orkney, built a. 1064, was 
known as ' Christ's Kirk in Birsay,' such a name 
being given by the Norse only to a cathedral church. 
There was also at least one Kil losa, 'church of 
Jesus/ and near Beauly is KILTEARN, in 1269 Kel- 
tyern, the G. ceall Tighearn, ' church of the Lord ; ' 
whilst on Blaeu's map of North Uist we find a KIL- 
TRINIDAD, now called Teampul-na-Trianaide, ' church 
of the Trinity.' 

Many of these ancient Celtic saints have had their 
names so twisted and distorted by centuries of tongues, 
ignorant alike of spelling and hagiology, that now the 
personages themselves are hardly recognisable. It needs 
clever eyes to see St Comgan in KILCHOAN, and yet 
cleverer to recognise Talargyn (d. 616) in KILTARLITY, 



ECCLESIASTICAL NAMES. XCV 

or Begha in KILBUCHO. St Beglia, disciple of St Aidan 
and Abbess Hilda, is the well-known English St Bees. 
Recognition is made all the more difficult from the 
warm-hearted Celt's frequent habit of prefixing to the 
saint's name mo or ma, 'my own/ which signifies endear- 
ment, and of affixing an -oc, -og, or -aig (cf. G. bg, 
' young '), which is a kind of pet diminutive. Thus KIL- 
MARONOCK, near Alexandria, like Kilmaronog on Loch 
Etive, really means ' church of my dear little Ronan.' 
But KILMARNOCK is really Kilmaernanog, from St 
Ernan, of the 7th century. This unaccented ma explains 
the true and still largely-preserved pronunciation of that 
pretty Renfrewshire village, KILMALCOLM, pronounced 
Kilrnacom, ' church of my own Columba ; ' and Robert 
of Gloucester (371, edit. 1724) in 1297 writes of our 
Scottish monarch as ' Kyng Macolom.' 

The two names which, above all the rest, have gone 
through the most extraordinary and varied vicissitudes, 
almost rivalling the fate of the Norse bolstaftr (pp. Ixiv- 
Ixv), are Adamnan and Maolrubha. Adamnan, a man 
of royal Irish blood, and Abbot of lona (679-704), is far 
famed as Columba's biographer. His name means 
' little Adam,' and in Lowland Scots it would be 
' Adie.' The unaccented initial A easily goes ; and we 
find that, through aspiration, the two aspirable con- 
sonants here, d and m, in many cases go too. Thus all 
that is left of ' Adamnan ' is sometimes no more than 
eon, as in ARDEONAIG, pronounced arj6naig, on Loch 
Tay, ' height of my own Adamnan/ or than eun as in 
Ben Eunaich (Eunog), Dalmally. In Orkney all that 
is left is dam, as in DAMSEY, the old Daminsey, 
'Adamnan's isle.' The saint's name appears as veon 
(v = dh) in KILMA VEON AIG (Blair- Athole), as ennan 
in Kirkennan (Galloway), as innan in INCHINNAN, 



XCV1 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Paisley ; whilst in Aberdeenshire his name is pro- 
nounced Teunan or Theunan. 

Maolrubha is a saint who hailed from the Irish Bangor. 
In 671 he came over and founded the monastery of 
Applecross in West Ross ; and in that district his name 
is still preserved in Loch MAREE, which, contrary to 
popular tradition, does not mean ' Mary's Loch.' The 
Modern Gaelic for Mary is Maire, but the older form, 
and that which is always applied to the Virgin Mother, 
is More; thus we have in Scotland, as in Ireland, 
several ' Kilmorys ;' hence, too, is TOBERMORY, ' Mary's 
well/ whose Lowland equivalent is MOTHERWELL. But 
the name of St Maolrubha has had to endure far more 
than this. In the older forms of the place-names his 
name is sometimes preserved with tolerable plainness, 
e.g., the old name of Ashig in Strath (Skye) was 
Askimilruby ; and in 1500 the name of KILARROW 
(Islay) was Kilmolrow, in 1511 it was spelt Kilmorow, 
in 1548 Kilmarrow, whilst to-day the m has, through 
aspiration, clean vanished away. The old saint's name 
appears in another shape in AMULREE (Dunkeld), which 
is just ath Maolrubha, 'Maolrubha's ford;' and Dr 
Reeves mentions Sammareve's Fair, held in Keith o' 
Forres, as also embodying his name. 

Maolrubha must be carefully distinguished from St 
Moluag of Lismore, patron saint of Argyle and friend 
of Columba, who died in 592. His name is to be found 
unaltered in Kilmoluag (Tiree, Mull, and Skye), and 
almost so in Kilmolowok (Raasay). The change is 
more violent in Knockmilauk, 'Moluag's hill,' near 
Whithorn. KILMALLOW (Lismore) has sometimes been 
thought to come from the saint of Applecross ; but the 
form Kilmaluog, also preserved, shows that this cannot 
be. The parishes of Raasay and Kilmuir, in Skye, 



ECCLESIASTICAL NAMES. XCV11 

both once bore this same name, Kilmaluog ; and Kil- 
malew was the old name of the parish of Inveraray. 
Moluag's original name was Leu or Lua, perhaps the 
L. lupus, a wolf; the Gaelic spelling was Lugaidh. 
The final syllable has been dropped, and the endearing 
mo and the pet suffix -oc have been added, hence the 
forms Moluoc, Moluag, or Molua ; the curious spellings 
Malogue, Mulvay, and Molingus also occur. Somewhat 
similar in composition is the name of St Modoc, a saint 
of the Welsh calendar a rare thing to find in Scotland. 
The basal name is Aidan = Aedh-an, 'little Hugh,' 
then Mo-aedh-oc, Moedoc, Modoc. His name we see 
in KILMADOCK, Doune. On the other hand, we have a 
few pseudo-saints, like St Brycedale, long the residence 
of good old Patrick Swan of Kirkcaldy. Of course 
there never was such a being; the name is really St 
Bryce's dale, Bryce being a corruption, less common 
than Bride, of that worthy woman St Brigid of Kildare, 
whose name is so dear to Irish tongues as Bridget 
(cf. KILBRIDE). A worse fraud is ST FORT, near Dundee, 
a silly modern corruption of Sandford, the old name of 
the estate there. 

In Scotland by far the commonest prefix to denote 
'church' or 'chapel' is Jcil. But the Brythonic llan, 
than, or Ian is also found. This word means (1) a 
fertile, level spot, (2) an enclosure, (3) a church, 
with which three meanings the student may find it 
interesting to compare the similar meanings which 
appertain to the L. templum, itself also often adopted 
into Gaelic as teamptdl, a church or holy cell. Scottish 
lans are rare ; the chief is LHANBRYDE, Elgin, ' St 
Bridget's church ;' but LANARK, c. 1188 Lanriarc, must 
contain the word also, though the second syllable is 
hard to expound with certainty. In Wales llan- super- 



XCV111 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

abounds. Professor Veitch, in his most interesting 
History of the Scottish Border, says there are 97 there ; 
but there are actually 187 given in the Postal Guide 
alone. 

Besides Jcil and Ian, the Scotch Celt also occasionally 
adapted for himself the Latin (or Greek) ecclesia, a 
church ; thus we have ECCLES, near Coldstream, as 
well as three others south of the Tweed ; thus, too, 
comes ECCLEFECHAN, 'church of St Fechan,' that 
saint's name having the pretty meaning of ' little 
raven ; ' also ECCLESMACHAN (Linlithgow) and ECCLE- 
SIAMAGIRDLE (S.E. Perthshire), which queer-sounding 
appellation means ' church of my own Griselda ' or 
' Grizel ; ' and, strangest of all, LESMAHAGOW, ' church 
of St Machute.' In a charter of 1195 we find St 
Ninian's, Stirling, called ' the church of Egglis/ which 
approximates to the G. eaglais, a church ; itself, of 
course, like the W. eglwys, a mere adaptation of ecclesia. 
M'Dowell (History of Dumfries, p. 37) mentions an 
estate of Eccles, Penpont, which he says was called 
after a certain Elsi or Eklis, a knight-templar of the 
reign of David I. 

That same modesty and retiringness which kept 
back the Celt from giving his own name to his hamlet 
or farm led him, when he became a devout Christian, 
to dwell much in seclusion. Hence the very name 
Culdee or Cwilteach, 'man of the recess' or 'nook.' 
The Roman missionaries sought busy, wealthy Canter- 
bury or York ; but the men of lona, like the hermits of 
Egypt and Syria long before, chose rather some dwelling- 
place like wild Tiree, as did Baithean, or wilder 
Rona as did Ronan. Their retreats or cells or caves 
were wont to be called deserta, adapted into Gaelic as 
diseart, where it also has the meaning of a place for 



ECCLESIASTICAL NAMES. xcix 

the reception of pilgrims. Hence we have DYSART, 
in Fife, still called by George Buchanan Diserta, and 
Dysart, near Montrose ; and hence, e.g., the old name 
of the parish of Glenorchy, Dysart or Clachandysert. 
These Diserts or Dyserts are still more common in 
Erin's isle. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 

OF ALL THE IMPORTANT 

DMace=1Rame6 of Scotland 



WITH 



EXPLANATIONS OF THEIR ORIGIN 



N.B. All prefixes are dealt with fully only under the first 
name in which they occur : e.g., for auchter-, see AUCHTERARDER ; 
for kil-, see KILARROW, &c. Any name printed in small capitals 
is meant to be consulted as giving some confirmation to, or 
throwing some side-light on, the explanation offered. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



Dan. Danish. 

Fr. French. 

G. Gaelic. 

Icel Icelandic. 

Ir. Irish. 

L. Latin. 

M.E. Middle English (1100- 
1500). 

N. Norse. 

O.E. Old English or Anglo- 
Saxon. 

O.N. Old Norse, of the Sagas. 



Sc. Lowland Scots. 
Sw. Swedish. 
W. Welsh. 
a. ante, i.e., before. 
ann. anno, i.e., in the year. 
c. circa, i.e. t about. 
cf. compare. 
fr. from. 
perh. perhaps. 
prob. probably. 
pron. pronounced or pronun- 
ciation. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST. 



ABBEY CRAIG. It overlooks Cambuskenneth Abbey, Stirling. 
ABBEY HILL. Close by Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgli. 

ABBEY ST BATHAN'S (Berwickshire). 1250, Ecc a . sci. boy- 
thani (' church of St Boy than J ) ; Baithen of Tiree was 
Columba's successor as Abbot of lona, 597 A. D. 'Abbey,' 
O.Fr. abate, is so spelt in Eng. as early as 1250. 

ABBOTRULE (Roxburgh). a. 1153, Kula Herevei ; 1220, 
Ecclesia de Rule Abbatis (gen. of L. abbas, abbot) ; 
1275, Abotrowl. The RULE is a river; cf. BEDRULE, 
and, as to Hereveus, HALLRULE. The name prob. 
means the lands in Rulewater belonging to the Abbot 
of Jedburgh. ' Abbot,' fr. L. abbas, abba-tis or -dis, is 
so spelt in Eng. as early as c. 1123. 

ABBOTSFORD. That used by the monks of Melrose Abbey. 

ABBOTSGRANGE and ABBOTSHAUGH (Grangemouth). The land 
here formerly belonged to Newbattle Abbey. ' Grange/ 
in the L. charters granagium (fr. granum, ' grain J ), now 
often = ' a farm,' was the place where the rents and 
tithes of a religious house used to be delivered and 
deposited. ' Haugh ' is common Sc. for meadow-land 
by a river ; prob. fr. Icel. liagi, a pasture. 

ABBOTSHALL (Kirkcaldy). Now a parish; once connected 
with Dunfermline Abbey. ' Hall ' is O.E. heal, Jieall. 

ABB'S HEAD (ST). 1461, Sanct Abbis Heid. Fr. ^Ebba, 
sister of King Oswald of Northumbria, and first Abbess 
of Coldingham, close by, c. 650 A.D. 'Head,' O.E. 
heafod, is precisely similar in use to G. ceann or ken-, 
Icel. hofuth, and Fr. cap, which all mean both the head 
and a cape. 



4 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

ABDEN (Kinghorn). Old, Abthen, Abthania, lands of Dun- 
fermline Abbey. The word is an adoption of G. 
abdhai?ie, abbacy or abbotric, fr. G. abaid, abbey. In 
Chartul. Arbroath, a. 1200, is 'Ecclesia Sancta Marise 

de veteri Munros (Montrose) qua3 Scotice (i.e., in 

Gaelic) Abthen vocatur.' In the Exchequer Rolls occurs 
' Abden of Kettins,' Forfar. 

ABDIE (Newburgh). a. 1300, Ebedyn. Prob. same as above, 
only with reference here to Lindores, close by. Less 
probably G. aba dun ("W. dm), ' abbot's hill.' 

ABERABDER (Inverness and Aberdeen). For aber, see p. xxvii. 
G. abhir-dird-dur (Old G. dobhar), 'confluence at the 
height over the water.' 

ABERARGIE (Perth). Old, Apurfeirt = Aber-farg ; R,. Farg is 
fr. G. fsargaehf fierce, f r. fearg, anger ; the / has dis- 
appeared through aspiration. Thus the name means 
'confluence of the fierce river.' 

ABERCAIRNEY (CriefT). G. carnach, ' rocky place,' fr. earn, a 
cairn, rock. Aber- seems sometimes to occur where 
now we see 110 confluence or ford. 

ABERCHALDER (Inverness). Old, Aberchalladour. G. dbliir- 
c(Jt)oille-dur, 'confluence of the water by the wood' 
(coill). Cf. E. DOUR. 

ABERCHIRDER (Banff), c. 1212, Aberkerdouer ; 1492, -dor. 
' Confluence of the dark-grey or brown water,' G. abhir- 
a-cJnar-dobhair (dur). The name is now pron. Aber- 
hfrder. 

ABERCORN (S. Queensferry). Bede, 'Monasterium Aebber- 
curnig; 7 a. 1130, Sim. Durham, Eoriercorn. The burn, 
formerly called the Comae, is now the Cornar, a name 
of doubtful meaning. 

ABERCROMBIE (Fife). 1250, Abircrumbyn ; 1461, Abir- 
cumby; omcial name of the parish of St Monan's. 
Crumlyn is prob. G. crom abhuinn, 'crooked stream;' 
cf. ANCRUM. 

ABERDALGIE (Perth). 1150, Abirdalgyn. Prob. 'confluence 
in the field of the height ' or ' head,' G. dail-cinn 
(gen. of ceann, head). 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. D 

ABERDEEN. 1153, Snorro, Apardion; 1178, Aberdeen; 1297, 
Abberden ; in Latin charters, Aberdonia, ' confluence of 
DEE ' and * DON ; ' the early forms represent, seemingly, 
either or both. The Southerner had given the name 
an h before 1300. See Wardrobe Molls, Edw. I., 23rd 
Sept. 1293, Haberdene. 

ABERDOUR (Fife and Aberdeen). Abdn. A. in Bk. Deer, 
Abbordoboir. Fife A., 1126, Abirdaur ; also Aberdovar, 
'confluence or mouth of the stream.' See R. DOUR. 

ABERFELDY. After Pheallaidh, i.e., St Palladius, Romish 
missionary to Scotland in 5th century. Cf. Cast ail 
Pheallaidh, in the Den of Moness, close by. In the 
village of Fordoun is found ' Paldy's well.' 

ABERFOYLE (S. of Perthshire). G. abhir-phuill, gen. of G. 
and Ir. poll, a pool or bog or hole. Cf. Ballinfoyle, 
Ireland. 

ABERGELDIE (Braemar). ' Confluence of the Gelder ;' G. geal 
dobhar or dor, 'clear, fair water.' Near by is Inver- 
gelly, where the Gelder joins the Dee. In map 1654, 
Galdy. 

ABERLADY (Haddiiigton). 1185, Jocelyn, Aberlessic ; but 
thought to be Aber-lefdi = G. liobli-aite, ' smooth place.' 

ABERLEMNO (Forfar). 1250, Aberlevinach ; c. 1320, Abber- 
lennoche; 1322, Aberlemenach ; 1533, Abirlemnon ; 
prob. fr. G. leamhanach, adj., 'of the elm wood,' fr. 
leamhan, an elm. Cf. LENNOX. 

ABERLOUR (Banff 1 ). Lour is G. luath ir, ' strong water.' Ir 
is the Old G. bior ; the connection of this word with 
Eng. beer is uncertain. 

ABERMILK (Dumfries). 1116, Abermelc. R. Milk is G. 
milleach, ' flowery or sweet grass,' fr. mil, L. mel, honey. 
This is one of the only four ' abers ' in Dumfriesshire. 

ABERNETHY (Perth and Inverness). Perth A., c. 970, Pict. 
Chron., Apurnethige; c. 1150, Ailred, Abernith; c. 
1220, Abyrnythy; 1292, Abernethyn. Inv. A., 1461, 
Abirnethi. Here aber means the ford near the Nethy's 
mouth. Cf. ARBIRLOT. Invernethy stands at the actual 
junction with R. Earn. Nethy is usually thought to be 

G 



6 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

fr. Nechtan, king of Picts, c. 700, who founded a 
church here. Inverness A. stands at the confluence 
of Nethy and Spey. 

ABERNYTE (Forfar). Old, Abernate ; prob. G. abhir n'aite, 
' confluence at the place.' 

ABERTARPF (Lochaber). c, 1240, Aberterth ; c. 1 400, Bk. Clan- 
ranald, Obuirthairbh, in which the latter syllable is 
gen. of G. tarbh, a bull. 

ABERUCHIL and ABERUTHVEN (Perth). 1200, Abirruotheven ; 
in Aberuchil e is mute. See EUCHIL and RUTHVEN. 

ABINGTON (S. Lanarkshire). 1459, Albintoune, * Albin's 
village.' Of. Albyn Place, Edinburgh, and Abington, 
Cambridge. Abingdon, Berks, is not the same word. 

ABOYNE (Deeside). c. 1260, Obyne ; 1328, Obeyn ; forms 
apt to be confused with OYNE. A- or O- will repre- 
sent Old G. abh, water, river, cf. AWE; and -boyne is 
perh. G. boine, gen. of bo, a cow ; hence ' cow's river ' 
or ' watering-place.' 

ABRIACHAN (L. Ness). G. abh-riabhach, pron. reeagh, ' grey 
water.' 

ACHALEVEN (Argyle). G. acliadh-na-leamhain, l field of the 
elm.' Cf. LEVEN. There is an Auchlevyn in Registr. 
Aberdonense, a. 1500. In Ir. names we have Agh-, not 
Ach-. 

ACHANAULT (Ross-sh.). G. acliadh-an-uillt, 'field by the 
river ' or ' river-glen,' G. allt. 

ACHARACLE (Strontian). G. racail, l a noise such as is made 
by geese or ducks.' 

ACHARN (Kenmore). G. acli-clidirn, ' field of the cairn,' G. 
earn, or ' of the booty,' charna. 

ACHBRECK (Ballendalloch). 'Spotted field;' G. breac, 
speckled, spotted. 

ACHILTY, L. (Strathpeffer). Also Torachilty (G. torr, a 
hill). The accent is on the ach. Achil is = OcniLS, 
meaning 'height,' cognate with G. uachdar, the summit, 
and W. ucJiel, high; -ty is prob. G. tir, land. Cf. Achil 
in Co. Mayo, and Achiltibuie, Ullapool, fr. G. buidhe, 
yellow. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 7 

AcHLtf ACHRACH (Fort "William). * Rushy field; ' G. luachrach, 
fr. luachair, rushes. 

ACHNACARRY (Fort William). 1505, Auchnacarre ; ' field of 

the conflict,' G. carraid, or perh. * of the cliff,' G. car- 

raig. 
ACHNASHELLACH (W. Ross-sh.). 1543, AuchnashelHcht ; 

1584, Achnasellache ; fr. G. seileach, a willow, or fr, 

sealg, seilg, stalking, hunting. 

ACHNASTANK (Ben Rinnes). a. 1500, Auchynstink; 'field 
of the pool ;' G. stang, gen. staing, a pool, ditch. 

ACHNOSNICH (Strontian). 'Field of sighing;' G. osnaicfi^ 
sighing, groaning ; in pi., blasts of wind. 

ACHRAY, L. (Perth). ' Smooth field ;' G. reidh, smooth, 
level. Cf. REAY. 

ACKERGILL (Wick). 1547, Akirgill; also Acrigill. O.TsT. 
akr, O.E. cecer, acer, cognate with L. ager, lit. ' open 
country, untilled land ;' hence Mod. Eng. acre, which 
is literally ' tilled land.' Gill is Icel. gil, a ravine (see 
p. Ixi). 

ADD, R. (Crinan). In G. abliuinn fhada, ' long river/ 
Ptolemifs Longus Fluvius. The / has disappeared 
through aspiration. Cf. ATTOW, and Drumad, Ireland. 

ADDER, Black and White (Berwicksh.). a. 1130, Sim. 
Durham, Fluvius Edre; prob. G. fad dur, ' long water ;' 
cf. above, and W. dwr, water, a stream. The second 
river's name is pron. Whitadder. 

ADDIEWELL (W. Calder). Adie is dimin. of Adam; for 
absence of sign of possessive, cf. MOTHERWELL. 

ADVIE (Ballendalloch). Prob. G. /had abh, 'long river,' 
Cf. ADD and AVIEMORE. 

AFFRIC, L. and Glen (Inverness). Prob. G. abh b(h}reac, 
' mottled, spotted water.' Cf. W. a/on for AVON. 

AIKET HILL (Urr). 1550, Aikhead. Sc. aik, O.E. ac, Icel. 

eik, an oak ; -head may only be a corruption of the 

common suffix -et, as in thicket, BLACKET, and in 

BIRKET'S Hill, near by. 
AILSA CRAIG (Fr. of Clyde). G. aillse, a fairy ; but c/., too, 

Old G. al, aill, a rock, rocky steep. 



8 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

AIRD DHAIL (W. Butt of Lewis). 'Height' or 'cape of 
the meadow.' G. aird-d(li)ail. Cf. ' the Aird of Sleet.' 

AIRDS Moss (Ayr). Prob. fr. G. dird, a height, hill, as s 
often adds itself to Gaelic names, cf. WEMYSS. Might 
be fr. a man, Aird. 

AIRDRIE. As accent is on first syll., prob. G. airidh, ' hill- 
pasture/ the N. 'saeter' or summer hill-farm. In 1570 
an ' Airdrie,' near Cromarty. 

AIRLIE (Forfar). Perh. G. dird liath, ' grey height.' 

AIRTH (Larbert). 1296, Erth. G. airidh, meaning here ' a 

level green among hills.' 
AIRTHRIE (Stirling). More correctly Aithrie ; a. 1 200, Athran, 

also Atheran ; prob. G. ath-raon, ' water in the field ' or 

' green.' 

AITHSVOE (Cunningsburgh, Shetl.). Seems to be 'inlet of 
the oath,' in Sc. aith, Icel. eithr ; voe is Icel. vor, a 
little bay or inlet. 

AKIN (Broadford). Generally Kyle Akin; 'straits of King 
Haco' or Akon, of Norway, who is said to have sailed 
through here on returning from his defeat at Largs, 
1263 ; and see KYLE. 

ALCAIG (Dingwall). Prob. Icel. elgr, L. alces, an elk, + aig, 
bay, as in ARISAIG, ASCAIG, &c. 

ALDCLUNE (Blair Athole). G. allt-duain, 'glen of the 
meadow.' 

ALDER, or AULER BEN (Perthsh). Prob. G. allt-dur (dobliar\ 
' valley of the water,' with form Auler, cf. AULTBEA, &c. 

ALDIE (Buchan, also name of part of Water of Tain). Prob. 
G. alltan, 'little stream.' There is a Balaldie, in Fearn 
parish, near Tain. 

ALDNAVALLOCH (L. Lomond). G. allt-na-bhealaich ( = BAL- 
LOCH), ' water of the pass.' 

ALDOURIE (L. Ness). Either = ALDER, or with second syll. 
fr. pre-Celtic root, meaning 'water.' See URR. 

ALE, E. (Roxburgh), c. 1116, Alne; might be connected 
with G. dhunn or dilne, exceedingly fair, lovely. Cf. 
ALLAN and ANCRUM. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 9 

ALEXANDRIA. Dates from c. 1760. 

ALFORD. c. 1200, Afford; 1654, Afurd. Looks like a 
tautology; G. ath + Eng. or O.E. ford, both with same 
meaning. Ford here formerly, over R. Leochel. Perh. 
the first syllable is G. abh, water, and the second, G. 
brd, gen. uird, a hill, or lord, gen. biiird, a board, plank ; 
hence ' water by the hill ' or ' ford with the plank.' 

ALGUISH (Ullapool). Perh. G. allt-giusaich or giuthas, ' river 

of the pine-wood.' 
ALINE, L. (N. Argyle). G. aluinn, exceeding fair or beautiful. 

ALLAN, K. (Stirling), and ALLEN (Fearn). 1187, Strath- 
alun ; might be as above, or more prob. G. ailean, a 
green plain ; but, on Allan Water, Melrose, also called 
Elwand, see ELVAN. None of these is, as some have 
thought, Ptolemy's Alauna, which is the R. Lune. 

ALLANTON (Berwicksh.). Prob. G. ailean, a green plain, 
+ Eng. -ton ; but quite possibly ' Allan's village.' 

ALLOA. Prob. Old G. al, dill, a rock or height, referring to 
Ochils, + abh, water (the R. Forth) ; ' water beneath 
the hills.' 

ALLOWAY (Ayr). Prob. G. attt-na-bheath (pron. vay), ' river 
of the birches.' Cf. DARN A WAY. 

ALMANACK HILL (Kirkcudbright). G. allt-manacli, ' monks' 

glen.' 
ALMOND, R. (Perth and Edinburgh). Edinburgh A., 1178, 

Amonth, in Caramonth ( = CRAMOND), also Awmon. Perth 

A., 1 46 1 , Almond ; 1640, Amond ; prob. G. abhuinn, river ; 

and so = AVON. For suffixing of d, cf. Drummond, fr. G. 

droman, a ridge. Near Huddersfield is an Almondbury. 

ALNESS (Invergordon). Prob. ' cape at mouth of the river ' 
Rusdale, fr. G. allt + Icel. nes, Dan. nces, a cape or 
ness, lit. a nose. 

ALTASS (Bonar Bridge). G. alH-eas, ' burn ' or ' stream 
with the waterfall.' 

ALTNABREAC (Caithness). G. allt-na-bric, 'burn with the 
trout,' G. breac. Cf. Troutbeck. 

ALTNAHARRA (Sutherland). G. allt-na-charraigli, 'stream 
with the pillar or rock.' 



10 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

ALTRIVE BURN (Selkirk). Prob. G. allt-fsnaimli, 'stream 
with the swimming-place.' Cf. ARDENTRYVE. 

ALTVENGAN BURN (Aberfoyle). G. allt-mliengain or math- 

yhamhuinn, a bear. 
ALTYRE (Elgin). 1492, Altre ; 1573, Alter. G. allt-tir, 

river land ; and cf. TRAQUAIR. 
ALVA (Alloa). 1195, Alveth; prob. G. ailWieach, rocky, fr. 

ailbhe, rock, flint. 

ALVAH (Banff), a. 1300, Alueth; as above. 
ALVES (Moraysh.). Perh. as ALVAH, with Eng. s. Cf. 

DORES. 

ALVIE (Aviemore). Prob. = ALVA. 
ALWHAT HILL (E. Ayrsh.). G. aill-chatt, hill, 'rock of 

the wild cat.' 
ALYTH (Forfar). Prob. \\ ALVA (1195, Alueth). Perh. G. 

al bheith, ' rock of t e birches/ bh lost by aspiration. 

AMISFIELD (Dumfries and Haddington). Dumfries A., a. 
1175, Hempisfield; looks as if fr. Dan. liamp, Icel. 
hampr, hemp. But the Haddington name is prob. fr. 
the personal name Ames. 

AMPLE GLEN (Balquhidder). Cf. Ampleforth, Yorkshire ; 
near by the glen is Edinample. Can it be fr. G. team- 
put, a cell, church, ' temple V For loss of t, cf. 

KlLLEARNAN. 

AMULREE (Perthsh.). G. ath-MaolruWia, ' ford of St Maol- 
rubha,' the patron saint of the district. Cf. MAREE, and 
see p. xcvi. 

ANCRUM (Roxburgh). c. 1116, Alnecrumba; a. 1300, 
Alnecrom ; 1275, Ankrom, ' the crook or bend on the R. 
Alne or ALE ;' fr. Old G. crumbadh, Mod. G. cromadh, 
a bending, fr. crom, crooked. Cf. ABERCROMBIE and 
Alnwick. 

ANDAIL, L. (Islay). Perh. G. aWiuinn (pron. avn, an) 
dail, ' river of the meadow.' 

ANDREWS, St (Fife, Elgin, Orkney). Fife St A., 1158, St 
Andrae; c. 1160, 'apud Sanctumandream ;' 1272, ' Epis- 
copatus Sancti Andree ;' 1434, Sanctandrowis. It was 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 11 

prob. King Kenneth M 'Alpine, c. 850, who first named 
St Regulus' church here ' St Andrew's.' Its old name 
was KILRIMONT. The patron saint of Scotland also 
gives his name to the parish church of Lhanbryd, Elgin. 
N.B. Before 800 the Saint of Scotland was St Peter. 

ANGUS, or FORFAR. a. 1200, Enegus; a. 1300, Anegus. 
Said to be fr. Anegus, Aengus or Ungust, son of Fergus, 
and King of Picts, 729 A.D. 

ANNAN, E. and Town. Sic 1300, but on coin a. 1249, 
' Thomas on An.' The article is very rare in G. names, 
but see AN-STRUTHER. This looks like an abhuinn, 
'the river;' but the accent should then be on second 
syllable. See also next. 

ANNANDALE. c. 1124, Estrahannent ; a. 1152, Stratanant ; 
c. 1295, Anandresdale. Estra-, c. 1124, is W. ystrad 
= G. strath, valley; cf. YESTER. The -dre in c. 1295 
looks like dur or dobhar, Old G. for water ; cf. ADDER. 
The -hannent or anant might have some connection 
with G. ceanann (cean-Jionnj, * white headed, bald.' But 
evidently there has been early confusion as to the real 
word. 

ANNAT (Inverness and Appin) and ANNAIT (Dunvegan). G. 
anait, 'a parent church. 3 There is a well of Annat or 
tobar-na-h'-annait at Strath, Skye, and Calligray, Harris. 
Cf. also Balnahanait in Glen Lyon. 

ANNBANK (Ayr). 

ANNICK WATER (Irvine). Might be G. abhuinn, river, 
+ O.E. wic, bay (cf. WICK), referring to the bay at 
Irvine. There is Prestwick not far off. Of. Alnwick. 
Or the -ick may represent G. achadh, a field. 

ANSTRUTHER. 1231, Anstrother; 1362, -oythir. G. an 
sruthair, 'the stream.' jtfow often pron. Anster, 
Ainster. 

ANWOTH (Kirkcudbright). 1575, Anuecht ; doubtful, but cf. 
CARNWATH. 

AONACH, MHOR, and BEAG (hills near Ben Xevis). Big and 
Little Aonach, which in G. means ' a height? a heath, 
a desert place.' Cf. ONICH. 



12 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

AONAIN, Port (Mull, lona, Lismore). Harbour of St 
Adamnan (see p. xcv). 

APPIN (Argyle ; also a burn in KW. Dumfries). Spelt in 
G. Apuinn. Old, Apthania or Apthane, * the abbey- 
lands ' of Lismore. See ABDEN. 

APPLEBIE (Wigton). As in Westmoreland (1131, Aplebi), fr. 
O.JS". cepU or apU, Q.J.'ceppel, apple, H- Dan. or North. 
O.E. bi, by, town. Cf. Appleton (five in England). 

APPLECROSS (W. Ross-sh.). c. 1080, Tighernac, aim. 673, 
Aporcrosan ; ann. 737, Apuorcrossan ; 1510, Appill- 
croce; 1515, Abilcros. This is just aber-crossan, ' the 
confluence of the Crosan ' ( = little cross), a burn there. 
All who have seen Appledore, K". Devon (in 893, 
Apulder), will recognise it to be aber-dor, place at the 
confluence of R. Taw and R. Torridge. Similar is 
Appul-dur-combe, near Ventnor, pron. Appledic6mbe. 
See aber, p. xxvii. 

APPLEGARTH (Dumfries). Old, Apilgirth ; 1578, Aplegirth, 
' apple garden ' or orchard. Icel. garSr, O.E. geard 
(a. 1300, garth), a yard, court, enclosure. In the 
Catliolicon Anglicanum, 1483, is ' Appelle garth 
pometmn.' 

AQUHORTIES (Kintore). 1390, Athquhorthy ; a. 1500, 
Auchquhorty. There is old mention of an Achorthi in 
the barony of Troup, prob. same name. Might be G. 
acliadli-na-mliortaidh, * field of the murdering.' But, of 
course, G. edit is a ford, or fordable river. 

ARAY, R. (Inveraray). G. abh-reid/i, ' smooth river,' same as 
AYR. 

ARBIRLOT (Forfar). 1250, Aberelloch, 'ford on R. ELLIOT.' 
See aber, p. xxvii. 

ARBOLL (Fearn). Sic 1507 ; but 1463, Arkboll. G. earbil, 
point or extremity of land (here the Tarbat peninsula). 
Cf. Urbal, common in N. Ireland, and Darnarbil, Kirk- 
cudbright ; boll, of course, has been influenced by the 
common X. ending -bol, fr. bolsta&r (see p. Ixiv). 

ARBROATH. c. 1272, Aberbrothoc; a. 1300, Abbirbroth. 
G. aber-lrothach, * filthy, muddy confluence;' Old G. 
broth, a ditch. See aber, p. xxvii. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 13 

ARBUTHNOTT (Fordoun). 1202, Abirbuthenot(h) ; ? con- 
nected with G. buthainnich, to thump, beat; and see 
aber, p. xxvii. 

ARCHERFIELD HOUSE (N. Berwick). 

ARCHIESTON (Moray). Founded 1760. Archie is short for 
Archibald. 

ARD, L. (Aberfoyle). G. aird, drd, a height, head, pro- 
montory. 

ARDALANISH (Mull). G. dird-gheal, white cape, + JSTorse 
ness ; thus tautological ; for a G. name ending with 
nis/ij cf. MACHRAHANISH. 

ARDALLIE (Aberdeen). G. aird-aitte, ' height ' or ' head of 
the cliff.' 

ARDARGIE (Perth). G. aird ; and see ABERARGIE. 
ARDBEG (Rothesay). G. clird-beag, ' little height ' or ' cape.' 

ARDCHALZIE (Breadalbane). G. aird-clwille, 'height of the 
wood.' 

ARDCHATTAN (Argyle). 1296, Ercattan, 'height of Cattail' 
or Chattan, an abbot, and friend of Columba. Ard chat- 
tan's other name was Balmhaodan or 'St Modan's village.' 

ARDCHULLERIE (Ben Ledi). G. aird-clwille-airidli, ' high 
shoaling or hut in the wood ' (coill). 

ARDCLACH (Nairn). G. aird-dachach, 'rocky height.' 
ARDEER (Ayr). G. aird-iar, 'west cape' or 'height.' 

ARDELVE (Lochalsh). G. dird-ailbhe, 'height, cape of the 
rock or flint.' 

ARDENTINNY (L. Long). G. aird-an-teine, 'cape, height of 
the (beacon-) fire ; ' perh. some reference to fire-worship. 
Cf. Achateny, KW. Argyle. 

ARDENTRYVE (Kerrera, Oban). G. aird-an-fsnaimli, 'height 
or point of the swimming-place.' Cattle used to be 
swum over here (cf. COLINTRAIVE). The t eclipses the 
s, and n changes into its kindred liquid r ; thus is 
fsnaimh pron. tryve. 

ARDEONAIG (L. Tay). Pron. Arjonaig. 'Height of little St 
Adamnan ' (see p. xcv) ; -aig is a G. diminutive. 



14 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

ARDEONAN (on R. Tay). As above, without diminutive, 
Eonan being a contraction fr. Adamnan. Cf. Balvouliii 
Eonan, or 'mill-village of Eonan,' in Glenlyon. 

ARDERSIER (Nairn). This, or its like, was also the old name 
of Cromarty; 1227, Ardrosser ; 1570, Ardorsier; 1661, 
Ardnasier. G. dird-rois-iar, 'high western promon- 
tory ' (ros). 

ARDFIN (Jura). ' White cape ; ' G. fionn, white. 
ARDFERN (Argyle). ' Height of the alders ; ' G. /earn. 

ARDGAY, or BONAR BRIDGE. 1642, Ardgye (so now pron.). 
' Windy height ; ' G. gaoith, wind. Cf. MILNGAVIE. 

ARDGOUR (L. Linnhe). 1479, Ardgovre; 1483, -gour. 
' Goats' height ; ' G. gobhar, a goat. 

ARDKINGLAS (Inveraray). According to Prof. M'Kinnon, 
G. dird-a-choin-ghlais, 'point' or 'height of the grey 
dog ' (cu, gen. con or clwiri). 

ARDLAMONT (Firth of Clyde). 1550, Ardlawmonth, 'La- 
mont's height.' A Lauman is found at Kilmun, c. 
1240. Cf. Kerry lament, Bute. 

ARDLER (Forfar). 1384, Ardillar; prob. G. dird-chuill- 
Idrach, ' farm or house or ruin in the high wood ' (coill). 
Cf. ARDCHULLERIE. Ardlair, Perthsh., is just dird-lar 
or Idracli. 

ARDLUI (L. Lomond). Prob. G. aird-luil, 'height of the 
creek ' or ' bend of the shore ; ' or f r. luibli or Imdh, a 
plant, herb. 

ARDMADDY (L. Etive). 'Height of the dog or wolf;' G. 
madadh. 

ARDMILLAN HOUSE (Girvan). ' Height of the mill ; ' G. 
muileain. 

ARDMORE PT. (Islay ; also in N". W. Mull, &c.). G. dird mor, 
' big cape ' or ' height.' 

ARDNACROSS BAY (Campbelton). ' Height ' or ' cape of the 

cross ; ' G. crois. 
ARDNADAM (Kilmun). ' Adam's height.' 

ARDNAMURCHAN (N.W. Argyle). Adamnan, Ardnamuirchol ; 
a. 800, Ardalbmurcol ; 1292, Ardenmurich; 1309, 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 15 

Ardnamurchin. Name evidently changed; now prob. 
G. dird-na-mor-chinn (gen. of ceann), 'height over\ v -- 
the great headland,' rather than 'of the huge seas.*, 4 
(clman) ; but the -chol or -col of Adamnan, &c., is pro$T' 
G. coill, a wood. 

ARDOCH (Perth and Kirkcudbright). ' Height of the field ; ' 
G. acliadh or auch. Cf. Auchter- and Ochter-. 

ARDOW (Mull). 'Height over the water;' Old G. abh. 
Cf. AWE. 

ARDPATRICK (Kiiapdale). 'Height of St Patrick;' in G. 
Padruig. 

ARDRISHATG. ' Height of the briers ; ' G. driseag, dimin. of 
dris, a thorn. 

ARDROSS (Invergordon). 'High land' or 'moor.' The 
whole mountainous centre of Koss used to be called 
Ardross; G. aird-rois. Cf. ARDERSIER. 

ARDROSSAN. Sic 1461. 'Height of the little cape;' G. 
rosan. 

ARDTORNISH (Sound of Mull). 1390, Ardthoranis; 1461, 
-tornys. G. dird-t(h)orr, 'cape of the hill, ' + Norse ness, 
nose or cape. Cf. ARDALANISH. 

ARDTUN (Mull). Pron. in G. aird-tunna, 'height or cape 
like a tun or cask.' 

ARDVASAR (Ornsay, Inverness). Prob. G. dird-bhdsar or 
basmhor, ' fatal headland.' 

ARDVERIKIE (L. Laggan). Said to be 'height of the roar- 
ing ; ' G. bhuirfdh. Final dli often is almost = k. 

ARDWELL (Wigton). Prob. 'stranger's height;' G. gall, 
foreigner, Lowlander. Cornwall is just 'horn' or 
'peninsula of the foreigners' or 'Welsh.' Cf. WAL- 

LACETOWN. 

ARGYLE. Pict. Chron., Arregaithel; Old Ir. MS., Erregaithle; 
in L. chrons., Ergadia; 1147, Errogeil; 1292, Argail ; 
Wyntoun, c. 1425, Argyle. 'District of the Gaels,' 
i.e., Scots fr. Ireland. Skene says Sc. form is Earr- 
gaoidheal, fr. earr, limit, boundary ; in Ir. Airer-Gaedliil 
(pron. arrer gale). Before this it was called, in the 
Albanic Duan, Oirir Alban, or ' coast lands of Alban,' 



16 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

fr. oirthir, coast, border. Albainn is now the regular 
G. name for Scotland, but was till c. 1100 the name of 
Pictavia or kingdom of Scone. Of. ' Duke of Albany.' 

ARISATG (KW. Argyle). 1250, Arasech; 1309, Aryssayk ; 
1506, Arrisak. Either all K and = AROS + aig, a bay, 
or G. aros, house, mansion, + aig. 

ARKAIG, L. (Fort William), c. 1310, Logharkech ; 1516, 
Locharcag. 1 G. aird-caoch, ' blasted height.' With 
c. 1310, logli, cf. Ir. lough. 

ARKLET, L. (L. Katrine). Skene thinks Loirgeclat (i.e., 
L. Irgeclat), scene of battle mentioned by Tighernac, 
ann. 711, is L. Arklet. AT- will be G. dird, height, 
and dat or Idet prob. is death, a prince or chieftain. 

ARLARY (Kinross). Old diart. Magh-erderrly ; prob. G. 
dird-ldraiche, ' height of the site, ruin, or farm.' 

ARMADALE (Bathgate, Skye, and Farr). Evidently K". ; 
prob. O.N. armr, O.E. arm, arm, which can mean not 
only 'arm of the sea,' but also 'arm of the land,' i.e., 
spur or branch, as of a dale or valley, Icel. and Sw. dal. 

ARNAGOUR (Coll). ' Height of the goat ;' G. dird-na-gobhair. 
Cf. ARDGOUR. 

ARNCROACH (Elie). ' Height of the stack-like hill ;' G. cruadi. 
Cf. CRUACHAN, and Croach, in Galloway. 

ARNGASK (Kinross), c. 1147, Arringrosk ; 1250, Ardgrosc. 
G. dird-na-croisg, 'height of the pass' or 'crossing.' Cf. 
Ardingrask or -grosk, near Inverness. 

ARNHALL (S. Kincardine). Pron. Arnha ; so prob. G. dird- 
na-h'abh, ' height over the water ; ' cf. BALMAHA, and 
for a similar corruption, HALLRULE. 

ARNISDALE (Lochalsh). Prob. after some Viking named Ami. 

ARNISORT (Skye). As above ; -ort or -art or -worth are all 
corruptions of N. fjord, a firth, sea-loch. Cf. SNIZORT, 
&c. 

ARNOTHILL (Falkirk). Prob. fr. G. ornacht, barley. Cf. 
Knockharnot, Leswalt ; also 1541, ' Arnothil,' in Liddes- 
dale. 

ARNPRIOR (Kippen). ' Height of the prior,' referring to 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 17 

Inchmahome on L. of Monteith. Just to W. is the curi- 
ous name Arngibon, fr. G. gibean, a hunch on the back. 

ARNSHEEN (Ayr). ' Height of the foxgloves ;' G. sion (pron. 
sheen). Cf. AUCHNASHEEN. 

AROS (Mull). Said to be = Dan. Aarlius, ' mouth of the 
rivulet,' aa ; but spelt Aros, 1449, which means in G. a 
house, mansion. 

ARPAFEELIE (Cromarty). 

ARRAN (Island, also loch in Kirkcudbright). 1154, Four 
Masters, Arann ; c. 1294, Aran; 1326, Arram. Mod. G. 
Arrain, which some think ' lofty isle.' Dr Cameron of 
Brodick, a high authority, said prob. fr. G. ara, gen. 
aran, a kidney, which exactly gives Arran's shape. 
The proper spelling of the Irish group is 'Arann Isles.' 

ARROCHAR (L. Long). Old, Arachor, Arathor, which is G. 
and Ir. corruption of L. aratru?n, a plough, * a carrucate,' 
used as a land-measure = 104 or 160 acres. We also find 
a Letharathor, i.e., a half carrucate. 

ARTAFALLIE (Munlochy, Inverness). 1526, Ardirfalie ; c. 
1590, Arthirfairthlie ; 1599, Ardafailie; prob. G. aird- 
a-thir pheallach (fr. peall, a hide, 'fell'), 'height of the 
rough or shaggy land ' (tir). 

ARTFIELD FELL (Wigton). Font's map, Artfell; prob. G. 
aird, a height, to which is tautologically added Icel. 
fell, a hill, Dan. field, a mountain. Thus Artfield Fell 
is a triple repetition of a word for ' hill ! ' 

ARTHURLEE (Barrhead). 'Arthur's meadow,' O.E. leuli, 
pasture, Dan. dial, lei, fallow. 

ARTHUR'S OON (formerly at Carron and in Tweeddale). 1 293, 
Furnum Arthuri; 1727, A. 's Oon ; lit. 'Arthur's Oven' 
(O.E. of en, Icel. ofn), popularly thought to be mounds 
or cairns in memory of King Arthur's battles. His 
battle of Bassas was prob. fought at DUNIPACE, near 
Carron ; the mound perh. referred to by the Geographer 
of Ravenna (7th century) as Medio Nemeton, nemed 
being Ir. for 'sanctuary.' Cf. BESSIE YON. 

ARTHUR'S SEAT (Edinburgh) and BEN ARTHUR (Arrochar). 
No real reason to doubt named fr. the famous King 



18 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Arthur of 6th century. Skene thinks four of his battles 
fought near L. Lomond. At Arthur et, K". of Carlisle, 
the battle of Ardderyd was fought, 573. 

ARTNEY GLEN (S. Perthsh.). In G. always pron. Arter = 
Arthur (see above). 

ASCAIG, L. (Sutherland), ASCOG (Bute), and PORT ASKAIG 
(Islay). Bute A., 1503, Ascok ; 'ash-tree bay;' O.N. 
askr, O.E. cesce, an ash, + N. aig (or -ocj or -ok), a 
bay. 

ASHANESS, or ESHA NESS (Shetland). 'Ash-cape,' might 
either be fr. O.N. aska, Dan. aske, ashes, or O.N. askr, 
O.E. cesce, the ash-tree ; ness, see p. Ixiii. 

ASHDALE (S. Arran), ASHKIRK (Roxb.), ASHTON (Greenock). 
All Eng. and fr. O.E. cesce, the ash-tree; prob. all 
three somewhat recent. 

ASHIESTEEL (Melrose). Prob. ' place of the ash-trees,' fr. 
O.E. steall, steel, a place, then the ' stall ' of a stable ; 
and cf. STEELE. 

ASLOON (Alford). 1654, Asloun. Eirst syllable either G. 
eas, waterfall, or atli (tli mute), water or ford ; and 
second, either leamlian (pron. louan), the elm, or 
sleamlminn, slippery ; cf. Craigslouan, ' the elm rock,' 
New Luce. I have not been able to ascertain if there 
be any waterfall here. 

Ass OP THE GILL (ravine on R. Cree, Kirkcudbright). G. 
eas, a waterfall, and Icel. and 1ST. gil, a ravine. Curious 
name, yet so simply explained ! 

ASSYNT (Sutherland). 1343, Asseynkt, Askynkte ; 1455, 
Assend; 1502, Assent; 1584, -schin. Very difficult 
word. Possibly fr. man named Eas-aonta, i.e., Discord, 
lit. ' without license ;' but that tradition does not 
square with the earliest forms. In Icel. and N. place- 
names ass often means a rocky ridge ; but the second 
syllable is puzzling. In 1632 we read of ' the chapel of 
Assind in Brakadaill,' in Skye. 

ATHELSTANEFORD (Haddington). c. 1200, Alstanesford ; 
1250, Elstan-; 1461, Athilstanfurd. Said to be the place 
where Atlielstane, general of Eadbert of Northumbria, 
was defeated by Angus, king of the Picts, c. 750. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 19 

ATHOLE. Bk.Deer, Athotla; Tighernac, ann. 739, Athfhotla; 
c. 1140, Norse Atjoklis; a. 1200, Adtheodle ; c. 1320, 
Atholie. G. ath-Fhotla or Fodla (but in Pict. Chron. 
called Floclaic), ' ford of Fodla/ one of the seven sons 
of the famous legendary Cruithne. The name is more 
perfect in the place-name Badfothel, found a. 1300 in 
Registr. Aberdon. Another version is that F. was wife 
of an early Welsh prince ; certainly Fodla was an old 
poetic name for Ireland. Of. BANFF. 

ATTADALE (Ross). 1584, Attadill. G. fhada, long, / dis- 
appearing through aspiration, + Icel. and N. dal, a dale ; 
with -dill, rf. dell. 

ATTOW BEN (Ross). As above ; final a in fliada taking 
common sound of aw. 

AUCHELCHANZIE (Crieff). Prob. 'height of Kenneth,' fr. W. 
uchel, high, + aspirated form of Kenneth, in O.Ir. Canice. 
Of. CHONZIE and OCHILS. 

AUCHEN CASTLE (Moffat). Prob. pi. of G. ach, a bank, or 
of achadh, a field, pi. achanna. 

AUCHENAIRN (Glasgow). G. achadh-an-iaruinn (O.Ir. iarn t 
W. haiarri), ' field of the iron.' 

AUCHENCAIRN (Kirkcudbright). 1305, Aghencarne. G. 
achadh-na-cairn, nom. earn, ' field of the cairn ' or 
1 barrow.' 

AUCHENCLOICH (Kilmarnock) and AUCHENCLOY (Stoneykirk). 
' Field of the stone ; ' G. cloiche, nom. clack. 

AUCHENCROW or -CRAW (Ayton). c. 1230, Hauchincrew, 
' field of the sheep pen ' or fold or hut ; G. cro, lit. a 
circle. Note how Anglian influence has identified 
the G. achadh with the Eng. or Lowl. Sc. haugh ; 
-crew might quite prob. be G. crubha, haunch, shoulder 
of a hill. 

AUCHENDINNY (Penicuik). Prob. 'field with the woody 
glen ;' Old G. dinat (cf. DENNY) ; though often said to 
be ' field of fire,' G. teine. Cf. ARDENTINNY. 

AUCHENGRAY (near Qarstairs and Kirkcudbright). Perh. 
' field of the level moor or high flat ;' G. greaich (pron. 
graigh). Cf. IRONGRAY. 



20 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

AUCHENHEATH (Lanark). Second syllable only perhaps the 
O.E. haeth, Icel. heithi, a heath. 

AUCHENMALG BAY (Wigton). -mdlg might be = G. milleacli, 
flowery (see ABERMILK) ; but mealy in G. is the milt of 
a fish, so the name might refer to the manuring of the 
field. 

AUCHINBLAE (Kincardine). Prob. 'field of the flowers or 
blooms,' G. Uath; G. bldith, is 'smooth, level.' Auchm- 
and Auchew- constantly interchange ; both, of course, 
represent the article na or an. 

AUCHINCREOCH (Kinross). ' March ' or ' boundary field ;' G. 
crioch. Cf. CRIECH. 

AUCHINCRUVE (Ayr and Kirkcudbright). ' Field of the trees,' 

G. craoiblie, or ' of the shoulder or haunch,' G. crubha. 

Of. Dalcruive, Perthshire. 
AUCHINDACHY (? Aberdeen). ?' Field of the meeting;' G. 

dail, gen. dalach, also, a fastness. DALLACHY, near 

Aberdour, is called Dachy. 

AUCHINDOIR (Aberdeen). Prob. ' field of the chase or dili- 
' gent search ;' G. toir. 

AUCHINGILL (Caithness). Now pron. Oukingill. ' Field of 
the gap or opening ;' Icel. gil, a gap ; cf. Sw. gal ot fish- 
gel, fish-gill. ' Gill ' is either a ravine or a little bay. 

AUCHINLECK (Ayrshire and Newton Stewart). ' Field of the 
stone ;' G. lee, properly a tombstone or flat stone. 
Same as the name Affleck, in 1306, Aghelek. 

AUCHINLEYS (Ayr and Perth). ' Field of the glimmering 
light ' or torch ; G. leus. 

AUCHINLOCH (Lanark). 'Field with the loch.' 

ATJCHINTORLIE (Dumbarton). ' Field of Sorlie ' or Somerled, 
in G. t'shomhairle ; the t has eclipsed the s. 

AUCHLECKS ( Blair- Athole). 'Field of the flat stone' or 

tomb ; G. lee, with Eng. pi. s. 
AUCHLEVEN (Aberdeen). 'Field with the elms;' G. leam- 

han. 
AUCHMACOY (Ellon). Perh. G. achadh-na-choille, ' field by the 

wood.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 21 

AUCHMEDDEN (Aberdeen). Prob. 'middle field,' fr. G. 
miadhon, the middle. Cf. ' Middlefield ' and PITMEDDEN. 

AUCHMITHIE (Arbroath). 1434, Achmuthy. Prob. G. acliadh 
muthaidh, 'field of the herd.' But Meath in Ireland, 
old Mide, was so called because ' mid ' or centre pro- 
vince. 

AUCHMULL CASTLE (Forfar). 'Bare field;' G. maol, bald, 
bare. 

AUCHNACRAIG (Mull). ' Field with or under the crag.' 

AUCHNAGATT (Aberdeen). Prob. 'field with the gate,' G. 
geata ; or 'of the wild-cat,' G. cat, as in Carnagat, 
Ulster. 

AUCHNASHEEN (Ross). 1548, -schene. Prob. 'field of the 
foxgloves ;' G. sion (pron. sheen). There is an Auchen- 
sheen, near Dalbeattie. 

AUCHTARSIN (L. Rannoch). G. acltadli tarsuinn, 'oblique 
field.' 

AUCHTERARDER. 1330, Huchtirardor ; 1597, Ochterardour. 
G. uachdar-dird-tir, 'upper highland,' lit. G. uachdar, W. 
uchdar, is the top, summit, and tiird is a height, peak, 
or cape. But Rhys thinks in -arder may be a trace of 
Ammianus' (c. 360) ' Vertur-iones,' and Sim. Durham's 
(c. 1130) ' Wertermorum.' Certainly A. is in the old 
land of Fortrenn, which name is = Vertur-iones. 

AUCHTERDERRAN (Kirkcaldy). G. uaclidar-doirean, 'high 
land with the thickets or groves.' 

AUCHTERGAVEN (Perth). G. uaclidar-cjamliainn, 'highland 
(or, simply, 'field,' as auchter often means) of the 
yearling cattle.' 

AUCHTERHOUSE (Forfar). a. 1300, Hutyrhuse; 1461, Uchtir- 
house ; -house (here pron. hoos) may be a corruption, 
perh. fr. G. fuathas, a spectre or apparition. 

AUCHTERLESS (Aberdeen), a. 1300, Octhrelyss; c. 1280, 
TJchterless ; 1364, Othyrles. Prob. G. uachdar-lios, 
' high land with the garden on it.' 

AUCHTERMUCHTY (Fife). 1250, Hucdirdmukedi ; 1293, 
Utermokerdy; 1294, Utremukerty. ' Field of the swine- 
pen.' The G. uacliter or uachdar must here mean 

H 



22 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

simply 'field;' and '-mukerdy' is muc-garadh 'pig- 
enclosure' (cf. BALMUCHY). Forms 1293-94 give the 
1 Sassenach's ' pron. of auckter- to this day. 

AUCHTERNEED (Strathpeffer). 1447, Wethirnyde ; 1619, 
Ochterneid. ' High field with the nests ;' G. made, L. 
nidus. With form 1447 rf. Bally water, 'upper town,' 
Wexford. 

AUCHTERSTRUTHER (Largo), c. 1150, Ocliterstruther. But 
temp. Robert III., c. 1400, we find a curious form, 
Auchterutherstruther. ' High field by the stream ; ' G. 
srutliair. 

AUCHTERTOOL (Kirkcaldy). 1 178, Ochtertule ; a. 1200, Octre- 
tul. ' Field upon the hill;' G. tulach. 

AUGUSTUS, Fort. So called in 1716, after William Augustus 
Duke of Cumberland. 

AULDBAR (Forfar). 1250, Aldebar. Prob. G. allt-a-barra, 
' glen by the height ' (edit). 

AULDEARN (Nairn), c. 1340, Aldyriie (see EARN). As it 
stands, looks like G. allt-fhearna, ' glen with the alders ;' 
but in Registr. St Andrews, re ami. 954, Ulurn, which 
might be allt-chuirn, 'glen of the cairn;' G. earn. 

AULDGIRTH (Dumfries). Prob. G. allt, glen, +N. garth, 
garden. Cf. APPLEGARTH, in 1578, Aplegirth. 

AULISTON PT. (Sound of Mull). Doubtful ; the -ton is prob. 
'hill or castle,' G. dun; cf. EDDERTON. 

AULTBEA (Poolewe). G. allt-beath (pron. bay), 'glen with 
the birches.' 

AULTMORE (Banff). ' Big glen ; ' G. mor, big. 

AVEN WATER (Kincardine), R. (Lanark), L. and Ben (Banff). 
See AVON. 

AVICH (Lorn) and AVOCH (Cromarty). Crom. A., c. 1333, 
Auauch; 1481, Avauch; 1493, Alvach ; 1580, Awach, 
now pron. Auch. G. alh-achaidh, ' water in the 
field.' But forms 1481-93 are - ALVA. 

AVIEMORE (Inverness). G. dbli mor, 'big river,' i.e., the Spey. 

AVON, R. (Linlithgow and Banff) and L. (Ben Macdhui). 
The Loch is pron. A'an ; the R. is prob. the Haefe in 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 23 

O.E. Chron., aim. 710. Strathaven in Sim. Durham 
(a. 1130), re aim. 756, is Ovania. G. abkuinn, water, 
river; W. afon (for Antona, now Avon, trib. of R. 
Severn, in Tacitus, Ann., xii. 31, should be read 
Aufona). Same root is seen in Guadi-awa in Spain, in 
Dan-w&e, and in Punj-aub ('five rivers') ; and prob. in 
Aa, name of several European rivers. Evan in Tweed- 
dale is the same word ; see also AVEN. Five Avons in 
S. Britain. 

AVONBRIDGE (Slamannan), AVONDALE (Lanark). 

AWE, L. and R. a. 700, Adamnan, Aba; 1461, Lochqwaw; 
also Ow. G. abk, water. 

AYR (town and county take name fr. the river). 1197, Are ; 
c. 1230, Air; c. 1400, Aare; prob. G. abh-reidh, 
'smooth river,' same as ARAY. 

AYTON (Berwick), c. 970, Athan ; 1250, Aytun. G. ath- 
abhuinn, 'ford on the river' (Eye). Old form Eitun 
occurs, which shows it was then thought = ' town on 
the Eye.' There are also Aytons in Yorks. Of. YTHAN. 

B 

BACK (Lewis, bum S. of Ha wick). N. bac, ' a bank ; ' but 
same root as O.E. Ixjec, O.N. bak, back, O. Icel. bakki, 
a ridge, Dan. bakke, Sw. backe, a hill, hillock. Cf. 
Backford and Backworth in England. 

BACKIES (Golspie). As above, with diminutive and Eng. 
pi. s. Cf. ' The Lochies,' &c. 

BADDINSGILL (Peebles). 'Baldwin's gill 5 (cf. baldric and 
baudric). ' Baldewinus the Fleming ' occurs in a local 
deed c. 1150 ; Icel. gil is a mountain recess, dale. 

BADENOCH (Inverness). 1290, Badenaghe; c. 1300, -nau; 
1379, -nach; 1522, Badzenoch. Prob. G. badanach, 
bushy, abounding in groves. 

BADEXSCOTH (Aberdeen). G. badh an sgotha, ' creek, harbour 
of the boat.' 

BAILLIESTON (Lanark). 

BAINSFORD (Falkirk). Old., Brainsford. Here Brianjay, 



24 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Knight-Templar, stuck fast while trying to cross Mungal 
Bog, and was slain in the Battle of Falkirk, 1298. The 
story is found in the contemporary chronicler Trivet. 
Xo real ford ever here. 

BAINSHOLE (Insch). From some man Bain. 

BALACLAVA (Johnstone and Portmahomack). The former is 
a village founded in 1856, two years after the famous 
Charge ; latter's old name was Balnuig. 

BALADO (Kinross). G. bail, baile, a hamlet, village, house, 
farm (cf. Sc. use of ' toun'); ball- and balla- are common 
in Manx names, arid bal- and bally- in Irish ; not in 
Welsh ; ado is prob. G. fhada, long. Cf. ADVIE and 
HADDO. 

BALAGIECH (S. of Renfrew). Might be G. baile-na-geadaig, 
'village with small spot of arable ground.' 

BALALLAN (Stornoway). See ALLAN. 

BALBEGGIE (Perth). 'Little village;' G. beag, with Eng. 
dimin. -ie. 

BALBIRNIE (Markinch). Sic 1517. Prob. G. baile-Brendon 
or Brandon. See BIBNIE ; and cf. KILBIRNIE. 

BALBLAIB (Eoss-sh.). ' Village of the plain ; ' G. blar. 

BALCAITHLY (Denino, Fife). Prob. G. baile-cliathach, 'farm 
on the side of the hill, 5 fr. cliath, breast, chest. Cf. 
BALELIE. 

BALCAREES (Colinsburgh). 'Village of the contest;' G, 
carraid or carraix. 

BALCARY PT. (Kirkcudbright). Perh. ' village of the stand- 
ing-stones;' G. caithre (pron. carey). 

BALCASKIE (Anstruther). 1296, Balcaski. ?' Village of the 
stopping or checking ; ' G. casgadh. 

BALCOMIE (Crail). 1297, Balcolmy. Prob. 'village of St 
ColmanJ perh. he of Northumbria, 7th century ; just as 

BALCONY (Kiltearn), 1333, Balkenny, is fr. St Cainnecli or 
Kenneth, friend of Columba. 

BALDERNOCK (Dumbarton), c. 1200, Buthirnok; c. 1400, 
Buthernock; 1745, Badernock. Perh. ' Buthar'* 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 25 

knoll,' G. cnoc (cf. BUTTERSTONE) ; more likely, ' the 
road or lane in the field,' G. bothar an acliaidh ; cf. 
DORNOCK. 

BALDOVIE (Broughty Ferry). 1 ' Village of the deep pool ; ' 
G. dubhagan. Cf. PARDOVAN. 

BALDRAGON (Broughty Ferry). 'Village of the dragon,' a 

word adopted in Gaelic. 
BALELIE (Denino). ' Other farm ; ' G. eile, as contrasted 

with BALCAITHLY. 
BALERNO (Midcalder). Perh. 'village at the end of the 

field ; ' G. earr-an-acliaidh. Of. EARNOCK. 

BALFOUR (Kirkwall and Markinch). ' Cold village;' G. fuar. 
In first case prob. modern. No G. names now in Orkney. 

BALFRON (Stirling). a. 1300, Bafrone. G. baile-bhron, 
' house of mourning.' 

BALFUNNING (L. Lomond), a. 1300, Buchmonyn. Perh. 
' village of the heathy expanses ;' G. monadhean. For 
Buch-, see BUCHANAN. 

BALGEDIE (Kinross). See BALAGIECH, only here d, being 
unaspirated, remains. 

BALGONIE (Markinch and Aberdeen). Markinch B., 1163, 
-gone. Aberdeen A., prob. a. 1300, Palgoveny, 'village 
of the smith.' G. and Ir. gobfia, gobhann, or ' Gow.' 
Of. Ballygow and -gowan, Ireland. 

BALGOWAN (Perth, Kirkcudbright, &c.). Prob. as above. 
BALHARVIE (Kinross). G. baile-thairbh, village of the bull 
(tarbh) ; Eng. dimin. -ie. 

BALINTORE (Fearn). Prob. same as Ballindore (Muckairn, 
Argyle) ; G. baile-an-Dearaidk ( = Dewar), ' village of 
the stranger ; ' surname of St Maelrubha (cf. KINTORE). 
But Ballitore and Tintore, Ireland, are fr. Ir. tuair, 
bleaching-green. 

BALISHARE (Lochmaddy). ? G. baile-na-shearraidh, ' village 
of the slaughtering or reaping.' 

BALLACHULISH (Argyle). 1522, Ballecheles. G. bail-na- 
chaolais, ' village on the straits.' Cf. EDDRACHILIS and 
KYLE. 



26 -PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

BALLANTRAE (S. Ayr). * Village on the shore ; ' G. and Ir. 
bail-an-traigli. Cf. Ballintrae, Antrim. 

BALLATER (Aberdeen). 'Village on the hill-slope ;' G. leitir 
(fr. letJi, a half or part, and tir, land), Ir. leitar, as in 
Letterfrack, &c. Cf. LETTERFEARN. 

BALLINDALLOCH (Moray), c. 1300, Balinodalach. 'Village 
in the field;' G. dalacli. 

BALLINGALL (Kinross). 1294, Balnegal. G. bail-na-gaill, 
' village of the stranger or Lowlander.' 

BALLINGRY (Lochgelly). a. 1400, -yngry. Pron. Bingry ; 
prob. = Irish Ballingarry, ' house with the garden ; ' G. 
garradh. Might be ' house of the flock ; ' G. greigli. 

BALLINLUIG (Pitlochry). ' Village in the hollow ; ' G. lag, 
gen. luig ; also in Ireland. 

BALLINTUIM (Blairgowrie). ' House by the grave ; ' G. and 
Ir. hiaimm. Cf. Knockiedim (Galloway) and Tuam. 

BALLOCH (L. Lomond, lochlet near Muthil, and old name of 
Taymouth, sic 1570). G. bealach, a pass. Cf. W. 
bwlch, a gap. a pass. 

BALLOCHINRAIN (Killearn). 1745, Balackinrain. 'Passat 
the division ; ' G. rann, gen. rainn, a part or division. 

BALLOCHMYLE (Ayr). ' Bare pass ; ' G. manl. Cf. Craigmyle 
House, Glassel. 

BALLYGRANT (Islay). = GRANTSHOUSE ; G. bails. Bally- is 
very common in Ireland ; and in Arran, as Ballykine, 
-menach ( ' middle-house ' ), -michael, &c. 

BALLYNAVIN (Perthsh.). 'Village on the river;' G. na 
li'amlminn. 

BALLYOUKAN (Pitlochry). Prob. ' village with the graves ; ' 
G. uaghaichean, pi. of uagli. 

BALMACARRA (Lochalsh). Prob. 'village of the erect rock 
or pillar;' G. carragli. 

BALMACLELLAN (New Galloway). ' Village of John M'Lellan,' 
whose charter is of date 1466. 

BALMAGHIE (Castle-Douglas). (Cf. 1420, 'Balmaceth' or 
'Balmagye,' Fife.) Prob. G. bail magach, 'house, 
village with many arable fields.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 27 

BALMAHA (L. Lomond). 1806, Bealmacha. Prob. G. bail- 
magh-abh, ' village on the plain by the water ; ' or na 
h'ab/i, 'village on the water.' 

BALMERINO (N. Fife). Pron. now Bamernie ; c. 1200, Bal- 
merinach ; 1227, -morinach ; 1629, -merinoch. G. bail- 
mor-an-acliadh, ' large farm in the field.' 

BALMORAL (Braemar). Prob. ' house by the big cliff or rock;' 

G. mor-al or aill. 
BALMUCHIE (Fearn). 1529, Balmochi. 'House or farm of 

swine ; ' G. muc, gen. muic. 

BALMUNGO (St Andrews). ' Mungo's house or farm.' 

BALNAB (twice in Galloway, and Islay). 'House of the 
abbot ; ' G. ab, aba. The two first are, or were, near 
Whithorn and Saulseat Priories respectively. Cf. 
Lochanabb, Kildonan. 

BALNABRUAICH (Tarbat, &c.). 'Village on the bank or shore ; ' 
G. bruach. Cf. TIGHNABRUAICH. 

BALNAGOWAN (Invergordon and Appin). Invergordon B., 
1475, Balnagovin; 1490, -gown. 'The smith's village.' 
See BALGONIE. 

BALNAKILL (Kintyre). ' House in the wood ; ' G. coill, or 
' church,' rill. Cf. Ballinakill, Ireland. 

BALQUHIDDER (Callander). G. baile-chuil-tir, 'farm on the 
backlying land,' cut, the back. But formerly it was 
called Buchfudder, cf. BUCHANAN and ORDIQUHILL. 

BALRUDDERY (Forfar). ' Place of the fitter or knight ; ' G. 
ridire. Cf. Kilruddery, Bray. 

BALTA SOUND (Shetland). Sagas, Baltey ; 'belt-isle,' O.N. 
balti, Dan. baelt + ey or ay or a, island. 

BALTHAYOCK (Kinfauns). Prob. G. baile-thathach, 'house 
of the guest or visitor,' an inn. Cf. Tayock, Montrose. 

BALVENIE (Dufftown). c. 1200, Balbegno. G. baile-Bhaine, 
' house of St Beyne,' first bishop of Mortlach. 

BALWEARIE (Fife). Prob. G. baile-iaracli, ' west house.' Cf. 
Blaw Weary (west plain) and Castle Weary, in Galloway. 

BAMFLAT (Biggar). Old, Bowflat ; 'flat or field for cattle' (see 
BOWLAND). Bam- is a curious and unexplained corruption. 



28 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

BANAVIE (Fort William). 1606, Banvy. G. ~ban abh, 'white 
or clear water' (cf. AVIEMORE). Prob. this is not 
' Vicus Bannavem,' c. 450 A.D., in Patrick's Confessions. 

BANCHORY DEVENICK and BANCHORY TERNAN (W. from 
Aberdeen), a. 1300, Banchery defnyk; 1361, Ban- 
chory deveny : a. 1300, Bancheri-tarny ; 1489, Ban- 
quhori-terne ; also c. 1300, Benchorin. Banchory is G. 
heinn y(h)eur, ' sharp, pointed ben or hill,' same name as 
Bangor in Wales and Ireland (Ir. Beannchor, peaked hill 
or pinnacle ; W. bangor, upper row, high circle), for 
which the Lat. adj. is Benchorensis, as in Ulst. Ann., 
ann. 671, 'Maelrubha Benchorensis.' Devenick is fr. 
St Devinicus, said to be contemporary of St Columba, 
who laboured in Caithness. Perh. same name as is 
seen in Lan-dewednack, near Lizard Point. St Ternan's 
date was c. 500 ; he was prob. a disciple of Palladius. 

BANFF. 1290, Bamphe; 1291, Banffe. Banba, according to 
Irish Xennius, was a Welsh or Irish Queen, reported to 
have come fr. Scotland. Banba is also an early poetic 
name for Ireland; connection with Banff cannot be 
proved. Prof. M'Kinnon thinks, possibly fr. Ir. banbh, 
a sucking-pig, as in Bannow, Wexford. Cf. Bamff 
Well, Coupar-Angus, and Bamff House, Perthshire. 

BANKEND (Dumfries), BANKFOOT (Perth), BANKHEAD (Lanark, 
&c.). O.E. bane, a bank, hillock, cognate with bench. 

BANNOCKBURN (Stirling). Sic 1314; 1494, Bannockys- 
borne. G. ban cnoc (also Ir. cnoc), 'white hill;' same 
as Banknock, The Haggs, not far off. Cf. KNOCKBAIN, 
and Whitehill, Aberdour. 

BANTASKIN (Falkirk). 1617, Pantaskon; 1745, Pentaskin; 
1774, Bantaskine. Perh. G. bun t'easgan, 'low place 
with the eels' (cf. Pollanaskin, Mayo, and Pantaskel, 
Farnell). Pen-, of course, refers to the hill to the south. 
Quite possibly the second half is the same as in BOL- 

ESKIN. 

BANTON (Denny). Prob. G. ban dun, 'white hill,' = Bank- 
nock not far away. For ton = dun, cf. Edderton. 

BARCALDINE CASTLE (L. Crerar). Prob. G. barr calltuinn, 
'height of the hazel.' Cf. CALTON. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 29 

BARDOWIE (Baldernock). G. barr dubh, ' dark or black height ' 

(barr). Cf. DOWALLY. 
BAREMMAN (Roseneath). Prob. G. barr-Adamnan, 'height 

of A.' See p. xcv. 
BARGEDDIE (Coatbridge). ' Height with the little field.' See 

BALGEDIE and BALAGIECH. 

BARGRENNAN (Newton Stewart). 'Height of the castle,' or 
chief's residence ; G. c/rianain. Cf. Arngrennan, Tung- 
land. 

BARJARG (Closeburn). 'Red height;' G. dhearg, red. 

BARLINNIE (Glasgow). 'Height by the pool;' G. linne, a 
pool. Cf. LINNHE. 

BARMEKIN, THE, OF ECHT (S.E. Aberdeen). Here was an 
old British hill-fort. B. means the outer fortification 
or barbican of a castle, also a turret; found c. 1340 in 
the romance of Alexander, 'barmeken.' Dr J. A. H. 
Murray thinks perh. fr. O.N. barmr, brim, border, wing 
of a castle, but cannot explain -Itin; perh. the diminutive. 

BARNAICH (Alva). G. bairneach, a limpet, name of a house 
clinging to the hillside. 

BARNBOGLE CASTLE (Dalmeny). c. 1320, Prenbowgal; 1481, 
Bernbougale. G. barr-an-baoghail, 'height or cape of 
danger' (cf. Barnbauchle, in Galloway), or -an-boglain, 
'in the marsh.' Pren is W. for a tree (cf. PRINLAWS). 
First syll. possibly G. beam, a gap. 

BARNHILL (Glasgow and Forfar). May be plain English. 
Perh. G. barr-na-choille, 'height with the wood' (coill). 
Cf. Barnhillie, formerly Barnkylie, in Kirkcudbright. 

BARNSMUIR (Crail). Cf. KINGSBARNS, near by. 

BARNTON (Edinburgh), c. 1400, Berntoun, 'barn town/ 

toun here in its Sc. usage. O.E. bere-ern, ' barley place, 5 

M.E. beren, mod. barn. 
BARNYARD (Irongray). Popular corrup. of G. bearnach aird, 

' height with the gaps or fissures ' (G. beam, Ir. bearna, 

a gap, a notch). Of. Craigbernoch and CRAIGIEBARNS. 
BARR (Ayr). G. barr, the top, ' a height.' 
BARRASSIE (Troon). 'Height of the waterfall;' G. easa. 
BARRA(Y) (Hebrides). llth century, Gaelic MS. Barm, 



30 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Sagas Barey; 1292, Barrich. In 1549 the parish is 
called Kilbarr. ' St Ban's isle ' (Icel. ey). See D UNBAR, 

BARRHEAD and BARRHILL (Ayr, &c.). Both tautologies, 
formed by English speakers who did not know that G. 
barr means head or hill. 

BARROCK (Thurso). Prob. G. barr-acliaiclli, 'height in tho 
field.' Of. ARDOCH. 

BARROGILL CASTLE (Caithness). ' Height on the gill ; ' Icel. 
gil, a ravine. 

BARRSHAW (Paisley). Hybrid, ' height with the wood ; ' 
O.E. scaga. See SHAW. 

BARRY (Forfar). Sic 1234. 1 G. barrack, brushwood, birch, 
or = BARROCK ; also in S. Wales. 

BARSKIMMING (Mauchline). 1639, Barskinning. Perh. 'grace- 
ful height,' fr. G. sgeimheach, handsome, fr. syeimJi, 
beauty. Of. Craigskimming, Sorbie. 

BARTHOL (Old Meldrum). ' Head of the hollow ; ' G. barr 
thuill, fr. toll, a hole, hollow, crevice. 

BARVAS (Lewis). 1536, Barwas. Might be 'streaked height ;' 
G. barr bhasach. 

BASS EOCK (Firth of Forth). Perh. G. latliais, ' forehead, 
front,' fr. the curious shape of the rock (cf. PAISLEY). 
G. bais or bass also means a mound which looks artificial, 
but is really natural (cf. DUNIPACE). A man Bass is 
mentioned in Bk. of Lecain (Chron. of Picts and Scots, 
p. 48). 

BATHGATE. c. 1160, Bathchet; 1250, -ket; 1316, -getum. 
Prob. G. both diet, ' house of Chet,' Ce or Got, one of 
the seven sons of Cruitlme. Cf. CAITHNESS and DAL- 
KEITH. The Eng. bath was so spelt fr. earliest times. 

BATTOCK, Mt (Kincardine). Doubtful ; G. bdthach is a cow- 
house ; but cf. BEATTOCK. 

BAVELAW (Currie). c. 1240, Baueley. First syllable perh. 
same as Bavan, common name in Ireland, = Ir. badhun, a 
strongly-fenced enclosure for cows. Law is Sc. for hill 
(see p. Ixxvi) ; ley is lea, a meadow. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 31 

BAYBLE (Lewis). Prob. corruption of ]^. papuley, 'little 
priest's isle.' See PAPLAY. 

BAYHEAD (Lochmaddy). Might be fr. G. beatli, a birch 
(pron. bay). 

BEALACH-NAM-BO (Aberfoyle). G. 'pass for the cattle.' On 
the article nam, see p. xxxvii. ; and cf. BALLOCH. 

BEALLACHANTUIE (Kintyre). G. bealach-an-fsuidlie, ' pass of 
the seat.' Cf. p. xl. 

BEAM, The (farm, Bonnybridge). Prob. fr. O.E. beam, a 
tree. Cf. the ' hornbeam.' 

BEANCROSS (Falkirk). Pron. bean-corse, prob. = -carse. It 
stands in the CARSE of Falkirk, where beans are largely 
grown. Cf. board, Sc. brod. 

BEARSDEN (Glasgow). O.E. denu, ' a den,' is closely akin to 
dene, Eng. dean, Sc. den, a valley. 

BEATH (Dunfermline) and BEITH (Ayr). Ayr B., 1178, 
Beth. G. beath or beith, a ' birch ; ' final tli here pre- 
served, lost in AULTBEA. 

BEATTOCK. Prob. G. beath-achadh, 'birchfield.' 

BEAULY. 1230, Prioratus de Bello Loco ; a. 1300, Beaulieu; 
1497, Beulie; 1639, Beawly (so now pron.). Fr. beau 
lieu, 'beautiful spot' (cf. Beaulieu, pron. Bewly, in 
Hants). Monasteries in both ; that in Beauly founded 
by the monks Vallis umbrosce, c. 1220. 

BEDRULE (Jedburgh). 1275, Badrowll ; 1280, Rulebethok; 
1310, Bethocrulle; a. 1600, Bethrowll ; still sometimes 
pron. Bethorule ; 'lands of Betlwc on the river RULE.' 
B. was wife of Radulph, earliest known lord of the manor 
here, c. 1150. A Kynbethok is found in Begistr. 
Aberdon., a. 1300. 

BEESWING (Dumfries). 

BEGBIE (Kirkcudbright). Prob. G. beag, little, + Dan. bae, 
by, town, village. 

BELHAVEN (Dunbar). Fr. bel, beau, + O.E . haefen, Dan. 
havn. ' fine haven.' 

BELHELVIE (New Machar). 1292, Balheluy; 1293, -helwy; 



32- PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

1450, Balhelfy. Prob. G. baile-eJiailbhe, l village by the 
headland.' G. calbh is lit. a bald pate. 

BBLIVAT (^airn). Perh. G. baile-liobh-aite, 'hamlet in the 
smooth place.' Cf. Belclare, Belfast, &c., in Ireland, 
and GLENLIVAT. 

BELLAHOUSTON (Eenfrew). 1818, Billy honston House ; 

? baile-na-Houston, ' HOUSTON'S village.' 
BELLIE (Fochabers). Perh. G. baile, a village, house. 

BELL KOCK (off Arbroath). Fr. the warning bell formerly 
hung on the ' Inchcape ' reef. 

BELLSHILL and BELLSIDE (Lanark). 
BELLSQUARRY (Edinburgh). 

BBLMONT (one of the Sidlaw Hills, and in Unst). Fr. bel 
mont, fine hill. 

BELSES (Hawick). 1541, Belsis ; fr. De Bel Assize, a 
Gorman knight. 

BENABTY HILL (Kinross). Chartul. St Andr., Cabennartye, 
perh. first part = Caesar's Gehenna, the Cevennes, W. 
cefn, a ridge ; second part perh. = Arthur. Cf. ARTNEY. 

BENBECULA (Outer Hebrides). 1449, Beanbeacla; 1495, 
Bendbagle; 1549, Benvalgha, Buchagla; c. 1660, Ben- 
bicula; also, 1535, Beandmoyll, and 1542, Beanweall 
(prob. G. maol, bare). Might be G. beinn-na-faoghail, 
'mountain of the fords,' or better, bemn-na-faogMacJt, 
'hill by the strand,' an appropriate name ; but, as Prof. 
M'Kinnon says, how comes its modern shape ? 

BENDERLOCH (L. Etive). Old Bendraloch, 'hill between 
(G. eadar) the lochs' (i.e., L. Etive and L. Creran). 
Cf. DORNOCH and EDDRACHILIS. 

BENDOCHY (Coupar- Angus). c. 1130, Bendacthin. 1 Fr. 
Old G. daochan, anger, horror. 

BENDOURAN (Tyndrum). More correctly doireann, 'mount 
of storms.' 

BENHAR (Lanarksh.). Prob. fr. G. ghar, 'near hill.' 

BENHOLM (Kincardine). Perh. St Cliolum or 'Columba's 
hill.' See p. xcii. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 33 

BENJOCK (Stobo). ? * Hill of the drink ; ' G. d(h)eoch (cf. 
BARRJARG). Prof. Yeitch says, this with Eenrig (Rox- 
burgh) and Mt. Bengerlaw (to which add Benhar) are 
the only Lowland 'bens.' 

BENNACARRAIGAN (Kilmory, Arran). G. = ' hill of the cliffs.' 
Cf. CARRICK. 

BENNACHIE (Insch) and BENNOCHY (Kirkcaldy). Insch B., 

c. 1170, Benychie. Perh. 'hill in the field' (G. 

achadh) ; or, G. beannachadh, blessing. Cf. Tigh 
Beannachadh on Gallon Head, Lewis. 

BENTPATH (Langholm). 

BENVIE (Dundee). ? = Ben-avie (G. abh), 'hill over the 
water.' 

BERNERA (Inverness). Sayas, Bjarnar-ey, 'Bjorn's (lit. 
'bear's') isle.' 

BERRIEDALE (Caithness). Sagas, Berudal; 1340. Beridale ; 
and most prob., says Dr Jos. Anderson, the Beruvik in 
Orkney. Sag., v. and xciv. Bern- is doubtful ; Icel. 
and O.N. dal, is a dale ; peril. Berriedale, like Birgidale, 
S. Bute, = BORRODALE. 

BERVIE (Kincardine, town and river). Sic 1199; c. 1212, 
Bervyn ; 1290, Haberberui. G. bear or bior is a spit or 
pin ; but this is prob. abhir abh (cf. AVIEMORE, &c.) or 
abhuinn, ' at the mouth of the river.' Cf. ' Bergeveny,' 
in 1291, for Abergaveny, and METHVEN. 

BERWICK, also NORTH BERWICK, a. 1150, Berewic, Ber- 
wich; 1187, Suthberwyc ; c. 1225, Orkney. Say., cli. 
xcii., Beruvik; 1303, Berwik : 1250, Northberwyk (cf. 
too, 700-15, Chart. Wihtred, 'Bereueg' in Kent; 1060, 
Chart. Educ. Confessor, 'Uppwude cum Eavelega bere- 
wico suo'). O.E. bereivic, a demesne farm, fr. O.E. 
bere, barley, bere, + wic, a dwelling, village ; so same in 
meaning as the Eng. place-name Barton. Cf. Berwick 
St James and St John, both near Salisbury. 

BESSIE YON (Glasserton, Wigton). 'Bessie's Oven;' in 
Yorks. yoon, O.E. of en. Cf. 8c. yin = one. 

BETTYHILL (Farr). Market knoll, called after Elizabeth, 
Marchioness of Stafford, c. 1820. 



34 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

BIEL (Drem). Prob. = ' bield ; ' in sense of shelter, refuge it 
is fr. O.E. beldo, boldness, but this sense is not found till 
c. 1450. So prob. fr. M.E. bylde, a building, fr. verb 
build ; old past tense, Held', O.E. byldan. For lost d, 
cf. kin and kind. Also in Northumberland. 

BIELD, The (Tweedsmuir). Perh. fr. O.E. beldo, bieldo, bold- 
ness ; though in Sc. a bield always means ' a shelter, 
refuge,' and is found so c. 1450. 

BIGGAR. c. 1170, Bigir; 1229, Bygris; 1524, Begart. G. 
beag tir, ' little land ;' in 1524 confused with garth (see 
APPLEGARTH). 

BILBSTER (Caithness). Old Bilbuster. Perh. * sword- 
place;' fr. O.Sw. and O.E. bil, a sword or 'bill,' and 
N. bolstafti', see p. Ixiv. 

BINDLE (Portmahomack). 

BINNEND (Burntisland). In O.E. binn was a manger, then a 

' bin ;' but this is prob. = next. 
BINNY (Uphall). 1250, Binin. G. beinnan, a little hill. 

BIRGHAM (Coldstream). Pron. -jam ; prob. 1250, ' Capella 
Brigham Letham.' O.E. beorg, shelter, same root as 
borough, +hdm, home, house, village; 'shelter- village.' 
It stands just on the Borders. 

BIRKET'S Hill (Urr, Kirkcudbright). O.E. beorc, Sc. and 
Dan. b-irk, a birch. On- et, cf. AIKET. 

BIRKHALL (Ballater). As above. 

BIRNAM (Dunkeld). O.E. biorn, beorn, warrior, in M.E. 
berne, birn, + ham, home, 'hero's house.' Cf. BIRGHAM. 

BIRNESS (Ellon). May be same as BURXESS, in Orkney. 

BIRNIE (Elgin), a. 1200, Brennach. Prob. ' Brendan's Field ' 
(G. achadli). Very old church of St B. here. He it 
was who made the famous seven years' voyage ; friend 
of St Columba. 

BIRNIEKNOWE (?Ayrsh.). As above, or perh. N. bjorn, a 
bear, + tcnoiue, Sc. form of O.E. cnoll, K Jinoll, a knoll 
or hillock. 

BIRRENSWARK HILL (Annandale). First part doubtful, cf. 
the Broch of Burrian, Orkney; work (O.E. ivorc), as in 
' outwork,' often means a fortification. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 35 

BIRSAY (Orkney), c. 1050, Birgisherad; c. 1225, Orlmey. 
Sag., ditto. This is O.N". for 'hunting territory;' cf. 
HARRAY. Here the Jaiis of Orkney lived. 

BIRSE (Aboyne). 1170, Brass. G. bras, rash, impetuous as 
of a torrent. For transposed r, cf. Sc. Kirsty, and Eng. 
Christie, &c. 

BIRTHWOOD (Biggar). Peril, fr. Icel. byrSi, a board, ' wood 
fr. which planks were got.' Berth is quite a recent 
word, and purely nautical. Of., too, Tusser's Husbandry, 
of date 1573, p. 62, ed. 1878, 'In tempest . . . 
warm barth under hedge is a sucker to beast.' But 
the origin of barth is unknown to Dr Murray. 

BISHOPBRIGGS (Glasgow). ' Lands or rigs of the bishop ' of 
Glasgow. Rig is Sc. for ridge (or furrow), O.E. hnjey, 
hrick, Icel. hryf/gr, Dan. ryg, a ridge, lit. the back. The 
b has crept in through confusion with Sc. brig, a bridge. 

BISHOPTON (Renfrew). Also referring to the Bishop of Glas- 
gow. In England usually Bishopston. 

BIXTER (Walls, Shetland). Might be ' brook-place,' fr. O.N. 
bekkr, Sw. back, a beck or brook, +-ster, fr. bolstaftr. 
See p. Ixiv. 

BLACKBURN (Bathgate, Liddesdale, Aberdeen). Liddes. B., 
c. 1160, Blachaburne. Its Celtic equivalent is DOUGLAS. 

BLACKFORD (Edinburgh and Perthsh.). Also c. 1240, in 
Chartul. Moray, Blakeford. 

BLACKBALL (Midlothian), BLACKHILLS (Aberdeen), BLACKNESS 
(Linlithgow, c. 1200, Blackenis), BLACKRIDGE (Bath- 
gate). 

BLACKSBOAT (Craigellachie). ' Boat' enters into many names of 
ferries in this region. 'Boat of Forbes, Garten, Inch,' &c. 

BLACKSHIELS (Edinburgh). On Sc. shiels, 'group of huts or 
houses,' see p. Ix. 

BLACKWATERFOOT (Arran). Three Blackwaters in England. 
BLACKWOOD (Lesmahagow and Mthsdale). 

BLADNOCH (Wigtown). 1563, Blaidroo. G. lladh (or blaidh) 
-an-achaidh, 'bit of the field.' In Ir. bladh, blod, bla<j 
is a division, partition. 



> PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

BLAIKET (Wigtown). 'Black place ;' O.E. blaec, blac; -et is 
prob. just suffix as in thick-et (cf. AIKET). There is. a 
Blacket Place in Edinburgh. Of. 'Ecclesiam Sce.Brigide 
de blacket,' temp. Alexander II. 

BLAIRADAM (Kinross) ' Plain of Adam ' (the proprietor) ; 
G. blur, means a field or plain, and also a battlefield. 

BLAIR ATHOLE. Often simply Blair; as above, and se.e 

ATHOLE. 

BLAIR DRUMMOND (Perthsh.). 
BLAIRGOWRIE. G. lilar-goiblire, plain of the goat (gobhar). 

BLAIRHILL (Coatbridge) and BLAIR LODGE (Polmont). 
Hybrids. 

BLAIRINGONE (Clackmannan). G. blar-na-gobhamn, 'field of 
the smith ' or ' Smithfield.' 

BLAIR LOGIE (Stirling). 'Field in the hollow;' G. lay or 

ledge. 

BLAIRMORE (Firth of Clyde). 'Big plain;' G. mdr, big. 
BLAIR'S SMITHY (Aberdeen). 

BLAIRVADDICK (Dumbarton), c. 1240, Blarvotych. Prob. 
'plain full of cottages;' G. b(li)othach, adjective fr. botli y 
a hut, cottage; or else 'bushy plain,' fr. G. b(h)adach 3 
fr. bad, a bunch, thicket, grove. 

BLALOWAN (Cupar-Fife). G. laile-na-leamJtan, 'house among 

the elms.' 
BLANEFIELD (Lanark). Prob. 'flowery field' (see STRATH- 

BLANE) ; but W. blaen is 'source.' 

BLANTYRE (Lanark). 1290, Blantire. Perh. 'land at the 
source ;' W. blaen + G. tir t land. 

BLEBO (Fife). Prob. 1144, Bladebolg; but sic 1570. ? G. 
blad-a-bolg, ' the mouth of the bag ' or ' womb.' 

BLINGERY (Wick), -cry is corrup. of G. airidh, shealing, 
hill-hut, as in Assary, Shurrery ; and perh. Bling- (g 
soft) is fr. O.N". llekkja, blenkja, to cheat, deceive, 
referring to the appearance or site of the place. 

BLINKBONNY (Falkirk, Gladsmuir, &c.). Prob. = ' Belle 
Yue ;' but Auchnabony, Galloway, is fr. G. banbh, a 
young pig. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 37 

BLOCHAIRN (Glasgow). Perh. G. Uot-cliairn, 'the cave or 
den of the cairn/ 

BLYTHEBRIDGE (Dolphinton). Near to Blyth Hill ; presum- 
ably O.E. blifte, O.N. blifir, mild, gentle ; hence joyous, 
' blithe ;' but Dr Murray's dictionary has no quotations 
referring to a hill or the like. 

BOARHILLS (St Andrews), c. 1120, Alexander I. gave Cursus 
Apri, or 'boar chase,' to the See of St Andrews; 
curious proof of the former existence of the wild boar in 
Scotland. 

BOAT OF FORBES (on Don), BOAT OF GARTEN (Grantown), 
BOAT OF INCH (Kingussie). Names of old ferries ; see 
FORBES and INCH. Garten is usually thought fr. G. 
garradh, garden ; but might be fr. gart, standing corn, 
or the old word gartan, a bonnet. 

BOATH (Forres). Prob. the llth century, Bothguanan; but 
see PITGAVENY. Dr M'Lauchlan says, later syllables 
are often dropped, leaving Both (G. for ' house ') alone. 
Cf. INVER. Same word as bothy. 

BOCHASTLE (S. Perthsh.). G. bo-chaisteal, 'cow castle' or 
fort. 

BODDAM (Peterhead and S. of Shetland). Prob. 'booth- 
home,' temporary abode, fr. M.E. bode, Mod. Eng. booth, 
0. Icel. bui$, Dan. and Sw. bod, a dwelling or stall, 
+ O.E. ham, home, house. There is a Bodham and a 
Bodiam in England. Cf. 'bother' and 'bodder.' 

BOGIE (river and strath, Aberdeen). 1187, Strabolgin; 
1335, -bolgy; 1594, Strathbolgie. Same root as the 
Irish legendary Firbolg(' bag-men'), fr. Ir. bole/, a bag or 
sack. A ' Bolgyne ' is mentioned in grant of land by 
Macbeth. Cf. Cairnbulg, in Aberdeenshire. 

BOGLILY (Fife). Perh. just as it stands ; G. and Ir. bog, 
which lit. means ' soft,' + O.E. lilie, L. lilium, a lily. 

BOGROY (Inverness-sh.). G. bog-ruadh, 'red bog' or clayey 
ground. 

BOGSIDE (near Alloa, and near Fintry). Also BogTON (Cath- 
cart), sic 1384. 

BOGUE FELL (Kirkcudbright). G. bog, soft ; fell (see p. Ix). 

I 



38 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

EOHALLY (L. Eannoch). Prob. G. bo-cliallaid, ' cow fence ' 
or hedge; and cf. CALLY. 

BOHARM (Banff), c. 1220, Boharme ; also Bucharin. Perh. 
G. bogh-cliarn or cairn, ( foot of the cairn.' The liquids 
m and n often interchange. Cf. Duni- and Dimbarton, 
Dum- and Dunfermline, and L. BROOM. 

BOISDALE (loch and parish, Outer Hebrides), c. 1400, Boys- 
dale ; 1427, Baegastallis ; 1549, Baghastill. Prob. K 
l>ui (pron. boy), 'a goblin, tenant of a tomb,' + dal, 
dale, of which tall is a corruption. Can Baega be 
8t Begha? See KILBUCHO. 

BOLD (Peeblessh.). Old, Boild; G. bo allt, 'cow river.' 
Cf. Oxford. 

BOLESKINE (Foyers). G. poll eas clmmlian (pron. kuin), 
'pool of the narrow waterfall,' i.e., Fall of Foyers. 

BOLTON (Haddingtonsh.). c. 1200, Botheltune, Boteltune, 
Boweltun; 1250, Boultun; 1297, Boltone. O.E. botl- 
tun, 'dwelling, enclosure,' i.e., a collection of houses, a 
village ; influenced by O.N. bol, a house, dwelling-place 
(see p. Ixiv). At least nine Boltons in England. Cf. 

MOREBATTLE, BoDDAM, and BOTHWELL. 

BONALLY (Edinburgh). G. bonn-aill or all, 'foot of the 
rock ' or cliff. 

BONAR BRIDGE (Sutherland). 1275, Bunnach ('foot of the 
field'). G. bonn aird, 'foot of the height.' 

BONCHESTER BRIDGE (Hawick) and BOXCHESTER HILL 
(Abbotrule). Early history unknown. L. bonus, Fr. 
bon, good, + O.E. caester, adapted fr. L. castra, a camp. 
Though England is full of -chesters and -casters, this is 
perh. the only Scottish instance. 

BO'NESS, or BORROWSTOUNNESS. 1783, Boness; in 1745 is 
found Borroustoun, N.W. of Kirkintilloch, and in 1538, 
ibid., Reay ; fine example of contraction. The original 
village of Borrowstoun is a mile inland fr. the ness and 
seaport. The full form was a common name for a Sc. 
municipal borough (O.E. burg, fort, ' shelter-place '), and 
Borough-town is still used in Ireland. Burrows-toun 
(in Ormin, c. 1 200, ' burrghess tun ') is used as an 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 39 

ordinary Sc. word by Henryson, Allan Kamsay, and 
even Scott (Antiquary, ch. xxvi.). 

BONHILL (Alexandria), c. 1270, Buthelulle ; c. 1320, Buch- 
nwl; c. 1350, Bullul. Good example of corruption. 
Difficult to explain; first part either O.E. botl, M.E. 
bothelj a dwelling, see BOLTON ; or G. both, cottage, or 
bogh, bonn, bun, the foot or bottom ; and latter part 
prob. fr. G. edit, gen. milt, a river. If so, Bonhill 
may mean ' the low ground by the stream.' 

BONKLE (Lanarksh.). 1290, Bonkil. G. bun or bonn-choill, 
' the foot of the wood ' (cf. BUNKLE). There is a place 
near Falkirk always called ' The Foot of the Wood.' 

BONNINGTON (Leith, Ratho, Lanark, Peebles, and Renfrew). 
(1296, Bonigtone, England). Peebles B., c. 1380, Bon- 
nestoun. Leith B., old, Bonny toun. Lanark B., 1776, 
Boniton. 'Bonny' or 'pretty place ' (cf. Beaulieu) ; bonie 
is found in Eng. c. 1300, doubtful if fr. Er. bon, bonne, 
good. On -ing bef. ton, cf. p. Ixxvi. 

BONNYBRIDGE (Falkirk) and BONNYRIGG (Dalkeith). See 
above ; on -rigg, cf. BISHOPBRIGGS and L. dorsum. 

BONSKIED (Pitlochry). Local pron. Baunskiid, also Pown- 
sku'tch. G. bun, or bonn sgaoid, 'low place with the 
blackthorns,' or fr. sgeod, and so, 'the foot or lower 
part of the triangular bit of ground ' (between R. 
Tummel and Glenfincastle Burn). Former is favoured 
by Rev. R. W. Barbour, the late proprietor, and by the 
parallel Baunskeha (Ir. sceach, haw or thorn), Kilkenny; 
the latter by Mr A. J. Stewart of Moneydie. The great 
local authority, Mr M'Lean of Pitilie, expresses himself 
doubtful. 

BORELAND, or BORLAND (Perth and Biggar, and often in 
Galloway). ' Board or mensal land,' land held on the 
rental of a food-supply ; O.E., Sw., and Dan. bord, a 
board, shelf, table ; O.N. bof, plank, table, maintenance 
at table, 'board.' 

BORGUE (Kirkcudbright and Caithness). O.K, Sw., and 
Dan. borg, O.E. burg, burh, a fort, ' shelter-place/ a 
' burgh.' The diminutive Borgan is found in Minigaff 
parish. 



40 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

BORLICK (Perthshire). Prob. G. mlwr lag, ' big hollow ; ' cf. 
VOIRLICH. 

BORLUM (Urquhart). Corruption of BORELAND ; so says 
Professor M'Kinnon. 

BORNISH (S. Uist). K borg-nis, ' ness or cape with the fort ' 
(see BORGUE) ; nis is common West Coast form of Icel. 
nes, Dan. nces, lit. a nose. 

BOROUGHMUIRHEAD (Edinburgh). See BO'NESS and BORGUE ; 
muir = moor, O.E. and Dan. mor. 

BORRERAIG (Dunvegan). Prob. N. borgar-aig, castle-bay (cf. 
BURRA). On aig, see ASCAIG. 

BORROBOL (Sutherland). Prob. ]S". borg-bol, ' fort place,' 
fortress. On bol, see p. Ixiv. 

BORRODALE (Ardnamurchan). As above, + X. dal, dale, 
glen. Cf. Birgidale, Bute. 

BORTHWICK (Midlothian arid Roxburgh). Midi. B., sic 
1430. Prob. O.E. burh, burg, M.E. borli, fort, + wic, 
place, village ; thus B. = Castleton. Cf. Berwick, near 
Carnforth. 

BORVA, or BORVE (Lewis). Another corruption of JST. borg, 
a fort. Cf. BORGUE. 

BOSWELLS, St (Melrose). 1296, 'William de Boseville.' Fr. 
Boisil, Prior of Melrose, G. 650, and preceptor of the 
great Cuthbert ; -well arises through influence of ]S"orm. 
suffix ville, or vil, 'town' (cf. MAXWELLTON). The 
name of the parish till 17th century was Lessuden 
(Lessedwyn). 

BOTHKENNAR (Grangemouth). 1291, -ner. G. both-ceann-iar, 
'hut or house on the western promontory' (ccann, a 
head). 

BOTHWELL. a. 1242, Botheuill ; a. 1300, Bothvile, -wile; 
c. 1340, -euyle. Prob. G. both, hut, house, + Norm. Fr. 
wile (L. villa), village or farm. Cf. Maxwell = Maccus'- 
ville; and for similar formations, cf. BODDAM, and 
BOLTON. 

BOTRIPHNIE (Keith). Possibly G. bot ribhinne, ' house of 
the beautiful woman.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 41 

BOURD, BEN-Y- (Ben Macdhui). G. beinn na buird, * table 

mountain ; ' G. bord, a ' board ' or table. 
BOURTIE (Aberdeen). Old, Bourdyn. G. buar dun, ' cattle 

hill.' 
BOURTRIEBUSH (Aberdeen). Sc. for 'elder-bush;' M.E. 

burtre, further origin unknown. 
BOUST (Coll). N. l)dlsta&r t place (see p. Ixiv). Cf. Colbost 

Ske&bost, &c. 

BOWDEN (Melrose and Torphichen). Tor. B. may be Mons 
Badonis, scene of one of King Arthur's battles ; at least 
Dr Guest has proved it cannot be Bath. But early forms 
of Melr. B. hardly countenance this 1124, Bothendene ; 
c. 1150, Bouldene; c. 1250, Bowelden; with these cf. 
forms of BOLTON and BONHILL. Prob. G. both-an-duin 
(W. din), 'house on the hill;' if so, not the same word 
as Great Bowden Market Harborough. 

BOWER (Wick), c. 1230, Bouer. O.K Mr, Dan. brnir, O.E. 
bur, 'house;' same root as our ' bower' and 'byre.' 

BOWHILL (Selkirk, and Colvend, Galloway). Sir H. Maxwell 
thinks, G. buacliaill (pron. boghel), boy, lit. cowherd, 
name often given in Ir. to standing stones. But as 
likely fr. Sc. bow, the O.N. 1m, farm, farm stock, cattle. 
Bu is found in Eng. a. 1300 in the Cursor Mundi, 
6744. 

BOWHOUSE (Polmont). ' Cattle house.' See above. 

BOWLAXD (Galashiels). Prob. ' cattle-land,' but some think 
corruption of BOR(E)LAND. 

BOWLING (Dumbarton). Uncertain ; possibly bowling or 
boiling (fr. bole, trunk), old word for ' a pollard ' (tree). 
Cf. Bowling Bank, Wrexham, and Bowling Old Lane, 
Bradford, and BUTT OF LEWIS. 

BOWMORE (Islay). Prob. G. but mor, 'big mound or house.' 

Bow OF FIFE. So called fr. its shape; fr. O.E. boga, Dan. 
hue, a bow. 

BOWPRIE (Aberdour, Fife). 1320, Beaupre, which is Fr 
for 'fine meadow.' Cf. BEAULY. 

BOYNAG, or BYNACK, BURN (Crathie). Prob. G. bonnag, 'a 
jump, a spring.' 



42 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

BOYNDIE (Banff), c. 1170, charter, church of luver-bondin. 
Prob. G. bonn duin, 'the foot of the hill.' 

BOYNE (Banff). G. bo, gen. boine, a cow. Of. ABOYNE. 

BRACADALE (Skye). 1498, Bracadoll. Prob. G. breacachadh, 
' spotted field,' + ^J". dal, dale, valley. 

BRACARA (Arisaig). Perh. G. breac car a, l spotted, mottled 
haunch ' (of the hill). 

BRACKLINN FALLS (Callander). G. breac linne, 'speckled, 
foamy pool,' "W. lynn. 

BRACO (Dunblane and Cruden). The a pron. as in fate ; 
prob. G. breac achadh, 'spotted, speckled field.' Cf. 
ARDOCH ; here the ch is lost by aspiration. 

BRAEHEAD (Lanark, &c.). O.N. brd = O.E. brdeiv, brcaiv, 
the eyelid ; a brae is properly the steep bank of a river 
(' banks and braes o' bonnie Doon '); + head, O.E. heafod. 

BRAEMAR. 1560, The Bray of Marre ; map, 1654, Brae of 
MAR. See above ; but in Highland names rather 
through the G. form, brdigh, 'the upper part,' then a 
' brae ' or slope. 

BRAES, The (Skye), also BRAE (Lerwick). See above ; latter 
certainly fr. O.X. bra, former either through JSL or G. 

BRAID (Edinburgh). 1165, Brade. G. and Ir. brdghaid or 
brdghad, neck, gulley; or fr. G. brdghad, gen. of brdigJi, 
the upper part, a brae. In the former case referring to 
glen where Hermitage of Braid now is, and = Braid K., 
Antrim, in the latter to the Braid Hills. 

BRAIDWOOD (Lanark). Braid is Sc. for broad ; O.E. brad. 

BRAIGO (Islay). Prob. the ' brae goe ' or inlet (cf. BRAE- 
HEAD). Goe is the Icel. gja. 

BRAN, Falls of (Dunkeld). a. 1200, Strathbranen. Prob. 
G. braon, drizzling rain, a shower. Bran was the name 
of Fingal's dog ; and O.Ir. bran is a raven, as in 
Brankill. 

BRANDER (L. Awe). G. Bran dobhar or dw\ 'the dog 
Bran's water.' 

BRANDERBURGH (part of Lossiemouth). See above ; and cf. 
BORGUE. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 43 

BRANXHOLM (Ha wick), a. 1400, Branch eshelm. Brariks is 
prob. a man's name (cf. next). The Eng. branch, Fr. 
branch e, is found in Kobert of Gloucester, 1299 ;-<- O.E. 
and Dan. holm, small island in a river, Icel. holmr, 
island ; also applied to rich land by a river's side. Cf. 
Branksome, Bournemouth. 

BRANXTON (Coldstream). 1291, Brankistone. Prob. as 
above, + ton, O.E. tun, place, village. 

BRAWL (Strathy, Thurso). c. 1375, Brathwell. G. brath is 
information, betraying, treason, and broth is a quern, 
handmill ; -well is hardly O.E. ivell, icetta, a well ; perh. 
G. mheall, a bare, round hill. 

BREADALBANE (Perthsh.). G. Bragad or Braget Albainn, 
upper part or ' hill district of Alban ' or Scotland (cf. 
BRAEMAR). This is prob. the Brunalban of Pict. Chron., 
c. 970, the east slope or brae of Drumalban (the great 
dividing ridge of Scotland) ; while in same Chron. 
Brunhere or Bruneire (G. iar, west) is probably the 
west side. Brun is an old word for a bank or slope or 
brae (cf. BRUAN). Alban did not include Argyle. 

BREAKACHY (Beauly, Kincraig, and Caithness). Cf. Charter 
re Don Valley, c. 1170, * Brecacliath quod interpretatur 
campus distinctis coloribus.' G. breac achadh, 'spotted 
or mottled field ; ' one of the very few cases where the 
second syllable of achadh is still represented in a place- 
name ; cf. 1297, Garviagha or GARIOCH. 

BREAKISH (Broadford). Perh. G. breac innis, 'spotted 

island or meadow.' 
BRECHIN. Pron. Breehin. Pict. Chron., ann. 966,Magnacivitas 

Brechne (gen. case) ; c. 1375, Breachyn. Perh. G. breac 

abhuinn, 'spotted or foamy river' (the S. Esk ; cf. 

METHVEN) ; or possibly fr. a man, Brachan or Brychan. 

Cf. Skene, Celtic Scotl, ii. 36, ed. 1887. 

BREICH (Holytown). G. breac, speckled, or perh. brebcJi, 
the brim, brink. 

BRERACHAN GLEN (Pitlochry). Also spelt Briarachan; c. 
1392, Glenbrerith. Prob. G. brathair achanna, 'friar's 
(lit. brother's) fields ; ' -itli may be G. ath, a ford. 

BRESSAY (Shetland). Perh. O.N. brestr-ay, 'island of the 



44 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

crack' or 'burst;' or fr. O.N. brjost, Sw. brost, and so, 
'island like a breast.' 

BRIDGENESS (Bo'ness). Pron. Brignes, no bridge here ; prob. 
G. breac, spotted, + ness. 

BRIDGE OF ALLAN, DEE, DUN, EARN, ROY, TURK, WEIR, q.v. 

BRIMS or BRINS NESS (Thurso). 1559, Brymmis. O.N. and 
O.E. brim, surf, or the sea; s is the Mod. Eng. pi. 

BROADFORD (Skye). ' Broad frith ' or fjord ; Sw. and Dan. 
bred fiord. Of. Strangford Lough. 

BRODICK (Arran). c. 1306, Brathwik ; 1488, Bradewik. 
O.N. breiftr vik, 'broad bay;' broad in 13th and 14th 
century Eng. was brad(e). 

BRODIE (Nairn). Sic 1311; 1380, Brothie. Prob. G. 
brothach, muddy. Cf. ARBROATH; and on d and th, cf. 

BODDAM. 

BROGAR (Stennis). Perh. M.E. brod garth, 'broad yard' or 
garden; or fr. O.N. bra, the eyelid, a brae. 

BROOKLANDS (Kirkcudbright). Also near Manchester. O.E. 
broc t a brook. 

BROOM (loch in west of Ross, and Pitlochry). Loch B., 1227, 
Braon; 1569, Breyne ; 1573, Brune ; 1586, Brume. 
G. braon, 'drizzling rain, dew.' M and n often inter- 
change. 

BROOMHILL (Lenzie and Inverness), BROOMHOUSE (Lanark), 
BROOMLEE (Dolphinton). Er. O.E. bruin, broom, same 
root as bramble; lee is O.E. leah, pasture, fallow-land. 

BROOMIEKNOWE (Lasswade), and BROOMIELAW (Glasgow). 
'Broom-clad hill' (see KNOWE) ; Sc. law is O.E. 
hldew, a hill. 1325, Bromilaw. Dr Murray gives no 
quotation for 'broomy' a. 1649. 

BRORA (Golspie). 1542, Broray. 'Bridge river;' O.N. bni, 
Dan. and Sw. bro, gen. broer, a bridge, and act, a river. 
Once the only important bridge in Sutherland was here. 

BROUGH (Thurso, also Brough Ness, S. Ronaldsay, andBrough 
of Birsay, an islet). Thurso B., 1506, Brucht. By 
common transposition of r fr. O.N. and Dan. borg = O.E. 
burh, a castle, fort, a 'broch' (cf. BORGUE and BURG- 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 45 

HEAD). There is a Brongh in Yorks., near Kirby 
Stephen. 

BROUGHTON (village now part of Edinburgh, and near Biggar). 
Edinb. B., c. 1145, Broctuna ; c. 1200, Brouhtune ; then 
Bruchton, which is still the vulgar pron. Prob. as 
above, + O.E. tun, village. Of course, O.E. broc is a 
badger. 

BROUGHT Y (Dundee). 1629, Bruchtie. Prob. G. bruach-taibh, 
'bank of the Tay,' or possibly 'brink of the ocean.' G. 
Tabh means either, and the site well admits of either 
meaning. Perh. = BROUGH TAY. 

BROXBURN (Bath gate) and BROXMOUTH (Dunbar). c. 1100, 
Broccesmuthe. 'Brock's burn' and 'mouth;' O.E., 
G., and Ir. broc, a badger. Of. Brockly, Kinross, and 
Broxbourne, Herts. 

BRUAN (Wick). Old G. for ' a bank.' See BREADALBANE. 

BRUAR, Falls of (Blair Athole). Mr M'Lean, Pitilie, recog- 
nises here no G. root, and Prof. Rhys nothing Brythonic. 
Possibly there is some connection with W. brwtli, stir, 
tumult, or W. friu, flow, as in RENFREW. But B. is 
hardly in a Brythonic region. 

BRUCKLAY (New Deer), c. 1220, Brachlie; 1654, Bruclaw. 
Perh. fr. G. brack, a bear, afterwards confused with G. 
and O.E./; roc, a badger; hence G. brodach and broduidh, 
a warren, 'badger's den,' cavern. Cf. Brockly, Kinross, 
and Brockley, Cavan. 

BRUICHLADDICH (Argyle). G. bruacli cliladaicli, 'bank on 
the shore ' or stony beach. 

BRUNTON (Cupar). Old, Bryantoun, after some Norman. 

BRYDEKIRK (Annan). Same as KILBRIDE and LHANBRYDE, 
' Church of St Brigida ' or Bridget, contemporary of St 
Patrick. 

BUACHAILL (Staffa) and BUACHAILL EITE (L. Etive). G., 
' The Shepherd of Etive,' fr. bo-ghille, cow-herd. 

BUCCLEUCH (St Mary's Loch), a. 1600, Bockcleugh, Buck- 
cleuch. 'Buck's glen,' fr. O.E. line, O.K bukkr, Dan. 
buk, male of the he-goat or fallow-deer, -f Sc. deugh = 



46 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Eng. dough, O.E. deofa, a cleft, ravine, gorge. Cf. 
Walter Scott's Gandercleuch. 

BUCHAN (Aberdeen and Minigaff). Abdn B., sic in Bit. Deer, 
a. 1000; c. 1295, Bouwan ; 1601, Baugham. Peril. G. 
baoghan, a calf; but Minig. B., like Bohaun, Galway, 
is fr. G. liotlian (pron. bohan), 'a little hut.' 

BUCHANAN (S. of L. Lomond). c. 1240, Buchquhanane ; 
1296, Boughcanian. Prob. G. boghchanan, 'low ground 
(lit. foot) belonging to the canon.' 

BUCHANTY (on R. Almond). Possibly Ptolemy's Banatia ; 
as it stands looks like G. bogh an fir, ' low part of the 
land.' 

BUCHLYVIE (Aberfoyle), also EASTER and WESTER BUCHLYVIE 
(Aberdour, Eife). Aberd. B., old, Boclavies ; possibly 
G. boyk Idmhaidi, 'low place of gleaning.' 

BUCKET (trib. of E. Don). 1654, Buchet. 1 G. bucaid, a 
bucket, pimple, knob. 

BUCKHAVEN (Leven). Founded c. 1555; said to be fr. G. 
betic, a roar, ' roaring, stormy haven ; ' O.E. lice/en, Dan. 
havn. 

BUCKHOLMSIDE (Galashiels). Buck's pasture.' See Buc- 
CLEUCH and BRANXHOLM. 

BUCKIE (Banff). G. beucach, noisy, roaring,, fr. beuc, a roar, 
especially of the sea ; here, too, is Buckpool. 

BUDDON NESS (Barry). Prob. same as Bodden Point, near 
Montrose, which is prob. G. both dun, ' hut hill ; ' for 
hardening of th, cf. BODDAM. 

BUITTLE (Castle-Douglas). 1296, Botel (perh. not this B.) ; 
1572, Butill. Prob. O.E. botl=O.X. lol (for botil), a 
dwelling, spelt a. 1200 buttle, found in NEWBATTLE, old 
Kewbotil, &c. Cf. Bootle, Liverpool. 

BULLERS OF BUCHAN (Peterhead). A raging, rocky recess, in 
which the sea boils as in a cauldron. Sw. bidler, noise, 
roar, Dan. bulder, tumbling noise. G. Douglas in 1513 
uses this as a Sc. word, bullyer. 

BUNAVEN (Islay). G. bun na-h'abhuinn, 'foot or mouth of 
the river.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 47 

BUNAVOULIN (Morven). ' At the foot or end of the mill ;' G. 

Lun-na-inhuileain. 
BUNA WE (Argyle), or BONAWE. 'Mouth (G. bun, bonn) of 

the R. AWE.' 
BUNCHREW (Inverness). ' Low place with the garlic or 

leeks ; ' G. and Ir. creamh (cf. Cloncrew, Limerick), or 

fr. G. craebh (pron. crew), a tree. 
BUNESSAN (Mull). ' At the foot of the little waterfall ; ' G. 

easan. Of. Moressan, Aberfoyle. 

BUNKLE (Berwickshire) = BONKLE. 

BUNRANNOCH. * Lower part' or 'reaches (G. bun) of Ran- 
noch.' 

BUNROY. ' Red end ; ' G. ruadli. Gf. Bogroy. 

BURDIEHOUSE (Edinburgh). Always said to be 'Bordeaux 
house,' fr. some Fr. settlers ; but who these were history 
does not record. 

BURGHEAD (Elgin). G pron. hard ; site of a borg (see BORGUE) 
built by the 2sorse c. 880. They called the cape 
Torfnses. 

BURGIE (Moraysh.). c. 1240, Burgyn. Perh. O.E. byrgen ; 
later burien, a tomb. In Sc. burian is now a tumulus 
or hill-fort. 

BURN OF C AMBUS. O.E. burna, O.JS". brunnr, a burn or brook, 
lit. a spring or fountain; also in Med. L., e.g., c. 1160, 
Mel rose Chart., 'ad burnam de fauhope.' See CAMBUS. 

BURNBANK (Lanarksh.) and BURNBRAE (Methven and Fal- 
kirk). See above, and BRAEHEAD. 

BURNESS (X. of Orkney). Prob. N". borg-naes, 'castle point.' 
See BORGUE, and cf. BURWICK. 

BURNHERVIE (Kemnay, Aberdeen). Perh. ' Harvey's burn.' 
Cf. HALLRULE. 

BURNMOUTH (Berwick). 

BURNSWARK, Hill of (Lockerbie). See BIRRENSWORK. 
Roman camp here. 

BURNTISLAND (Fife). 1538-1710, Bruntisland. Said to be 
fr. the burning (burnt, in Sc. brunt, O.E. and O.X. 



48 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

brinnan, to burn) of a few fishermen's huts on islet to 
west of present harbour, leading them to settle on the 
mainland. Name a. 1 500, Wester Kingorne. 

BURRA (Shetland). 1299, Borgarfiord, K". for 'castle frith' 
or bay, fr. borg, fort. 

BURRAVOE (Shetland). As above, + Icel. vor, a little bay or 
inlet. 

BURRAY (Orkney), c. 1260, Borgar; 1529, 'vulgo Burge 
and Burray ' = BURRA. Cf. Burradon, Northumber- 
land. 

BURRELTON (Coupar-Angus). 1 ' Birrell's town/ possibly fr. 
O.Fr. burel (now bureau), coarse, woollen cloth, baize, 
frieze; found in Eng. fr. c. 1300 till last century, e.g., 
1600 in Xichol's Progress of Queen Elizabeth, iii. 511, 
' To we remnants of blacke burrell.' 

BUR(S)WICK (S. of Orkney), c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Bardvik. 
Prob. X. bar vik, ' the edge or brim of the bay. 

BUSBY (Glasgow). 1542, Busbie ; 1787, Bushby. 'Bush 
town;' O.jST. buskr, Dan. busk, Sc. bues, a bush, + Dan. 
by, place, village. See p. Ixiii. 

BUSTA (Shetland). Corruption of X. bolslatir, place. Cf. 
Bosta, Lewis, and BOUST. 

BUTE. Xorse chron., c. 1093, Bot ; 1204, Bote ; 1292, Boot ; 
in G. Boite. Some think G. bot, the hut or bothy (of 
St Brendan) ; but Dr M'Lauchlan says fr. Boete of 
Bute, son of Kenneth III., who lived early in llth 
century. 

BUTT OF LEWIS. (1716, Bowling-head.) Dr Murray says 
fr. verb butt, 'to jut out' (O.Fr. buter). The only 
quot. fr. butt= cape, which he gives, is fr. Florio's Hal. 

Dictionary, 1598, 'capo , a cape or but of any 

lands end.' More likely to be fr. Dan. tut, short, blunt, 
stumpy. Butt occurs in Eng. = buttock as early as c. 
1450. 

BUTTERGASK (Dunkeld). Sic 1461. Prob. G. botliar crasg, 
' causeway-pass ' (cf. ARNGASK) ; fr. Ir. buthar come four 
Batterstowns. On Mr "W. J. Liddell's probably wrong 
theory, see p. liii. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 49 

BUTTERSTONE (Dunkeld). Perh. 'Buthar's town 'or village; 
but see p. liii, and cf. BALDERNOCK. 

BUXBURN (Old Machar). * Buck's burn.' See BTJCCLETJCH. 

BYRECLEUGH (Lammermuirs). ' Cowhouse glen ; ' O.E. and 
Sc. byre, cowhouse, shed, lit. dwelling; same root as 
BOWER, + cleugh. See BUCCLETJCH. 

BYRES (on Borders). 1294, Byrys. See above. 

BYTH (Turriff). Sic 1654; y pron. as in by; ?Icel. vithja, 
viih, a withy, willow, osier. Cf. bytlucind, spelling of 
the plant with wind, in Lilly, 1647. 



CABRACH (Jura), and Buck of (Khynie, Aberdeen). The 
latter a tautology ; G. cabar-achadh, deer-field. Cf. 

BUCCLEUCH. 

CADBOLL (E. Koss-sh.). 1281, Kattepoll ; 1478, Catbollis ; 
1529, Cathabul ; c. 1560, Catboll. Prob. 'battle-place ;' 
G. cath, gen. catha, W. cad, cat, a battle, + K poll or 
bol, place (see bolstafir, p. Ixiv). Might be 'place of 
the Cat or Cataibh ; ' see CAITHNESS. 

CADDER (Glasgow), a. 1300, Chaders, Kader. Prob. = 
CALDER and CAWDOR. 

CADDONFOOT (Selkirk). Prob. G. cath or W. cad, battle, + 
G. dan, hill. Cf. Cadden Castle, Kinneff. 

CADELAW and -MUIR, and CADEMUIR WHAUM or WHYM 
(Peebles). Old, Cadmore, ' big battle ; ' W. cad, G. cath y 
a battle. On laic, see p. Ixxvi. Wliaum is Icel. hvammr, 
grassy slope, vale. 

CADESLEA (Earls ton), c. 1150, Cadesley. As above, + O.E. 
leah, fallow land, pasture. 

CADZOW (Hamilton), c. 1150, Cadihou, Cadyhow; c. 1360, 
Cadyow. Looks as if = cad-y-hoice, ' battle of the hollow ' 
or valley, but this would be an abnormal combination 
of the W. cad, G. cath + O.E. liolh, holy, a hollow, 
Sc. how. 



50 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

CAERDON (Tweeddale). 'Fort on the hill;' "W. caer, Ir. 
caher, G. cathair (pron. car), a fort, + W. din, G. and Ir. 
dun, a hill, cognate with 'Downs' and dune. The 
Brythonic form caer, Armor, cear, her, predominates in 
this region ; prob. origin of names Carr and Kerr. 

CAILLEACH HEAD (W. Ross-sh.). G. 'old wife's head.' 

CAIPLIB COVES (Crail). Wyntoun, c. 1420, Caplawchy. 
Perh. 'horse-field;' G. capall (L. caballus) achadh, 
which last so often occurs as auch or achy. 

CAIRNAQUHEEN (Balmoral). 'Cairn of memory or recol- 
lection;' G. carn-na-cuimlme. It was the rendezvous of 
the countryside. 

CAIRNBAWN, L. (W. Sutherland). G. earn bd?i, ' white cairn 
or heap.' Cf. Ir. 'colleen bawn.' 

CAIRNBEDDIE (Perthsh.). G. 'cairn of Beth' or Macbeth. 
For interchange of th and d, cf. BRODIE and BUDDON ; 
-ie is Eng. diniin. Tradition points to the ruins of 
M.'s fort (now ploughed over) between Birnam and 
Dunsinane. 

CAIRNESS (Lonmay, Aberdeen). G. earn eas, ' cairn at the 
waterfall.' 

CAIRNGORM MOUNTAIN. 'Green cairn or hill;' G. gor/n, 

green, as grass, or blue. 
CAIRNGRASSIE (Stonehaven). 'Cairn of the blessing;' G. 

yraise, gen. of gras, grace, prosperity, a divine blessing. 

CAIRNIE or -EY (Huntly). G. caimeach, 'stony ground,' fr. 

earn, a loose heap of stones. 
CAIRNIEBRIDGE (Kinross). See above. 

CAIRNNORRIE (Methlie, Aberdeen). Prob. 'east cairn or 
hill;' G. noir, the east. 

CAIRNRYAN (Wigton). See RYAN. 

CAIRNTABLE (Muirkirk). Prob. G. earn tabhail, ' cairn of the 
sling.' 

CAIRN TotfrL (Aberdeen). G. cam tuatlieal (pron. tooal), 
'northern cairn,' fr. tuath, north (cf. CAIRNNORRIE); but 
Carrantual, Killarney, is fr. Ir. tuathail, left-handed, 
meaning ' hill like a reverted sickle ' (carran). 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 51 

CAITHNESS. Irish Nennius, Cat ; also Old Ir. Caith ; c. 970, 
Pict. Chron., Kathenessia; c. 1205, Lai/amon, Catenes; 
1232, Kataness; 1329, Cathanesia. In O.K Catanes, 
but in Orkney. Sag. simply Ness ; Naze, nose or * ness of 
the Cataibh,' Old G. locative of Cat, also called Gait, 
Gatt, Got, legendary son of the eponymous Cruithne, 
'father of the Picts.' Rhys thinks Gait or Gatt may be 
connected with Bede's Urbs Giudi or INCHKEITH. Gaels 
call it Gallaibh, 'strangers' land.' 

CALDALE (Kirkwall). Prob. fr. Icel. and Sw. kol, coal; 
abundance of peat found there. Otherwise, fr. Icel. 
kaldr, Sw. hall, cold. 

CALDER (loch, &c., near Thurso ; East, Mid, and West 
Calder, Midlothian ; and Water, near Airdrie). Thurso 
C., c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Kalfadal (?' calf's glen,' fr. 
Icel. kdlfr, Sw. half); but Midi. C., 1250, Kaldor, and 
some Southern C. is spelt in Chartal. Paisley, Kaledour ; 
also 1293, Caldovere; 1294, Calder. G. coille dobhar 
or dur, 'wood by the water or stream' (coiU}. Of. 
GADDER, CAWDOR, SCOTSCALDER. Coil, a wood, in place- 
names, seems generally to become cal. See below. 

CALDERBANK (Airdrie). 

CALDERCRUIX (Bathgate). Pron. -crooks; 1561, -cruikis. 
' The crooks ' or windings of the R. Calder. 

CALDERHEAD (Shotts). 

CALDWELL (Renfrew). Presumably 'cold well,' fr. Sc. 
catdd, O.E. cald, Icel. kaldr. 

CALF (Eday, Orkney), also CALF OF MULL (Tobermory), and 
CALVA (islet in W. of Sutherland). Orkney C. in N. 
chrous., Kalf-ey. Mull C. in do., Mylarkalfr (in G. An 
ealWi). Icel. kdlfr, Sw. half, a calf, hence a small islet 
near a large one (cf. ' Calf of Man ') ; + ey or ay N. 
suffix for island. 

CALIFORNIA (Polmont). Fancy name. 

CALLANDER (S. Perthsh. and Falkirk). The parishes of Fal- 
kirk, Polmont, and Muiravon were once called Calatria, 
in Ir. annals Calathros, and by Britons Catraeth or 
fort of Che (G. catliair Caith, c lost through aspiration). 
Calatria is commonly supposed = Callander ; but c. 1 190, 



52 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Callander is found asKalenter; 1296, Calentyr; c. 1350, 
Callanter. This can hardly be aught else but G. coill 
an tir, ' wood of the land,' or an dur (dobhar), ' of the 
water;' prob. the two names have been assimilated. 

CALLERNISH ("W. of Lewis). Prob. G. coill aird, l wood on 
the height,' + N. nces, ness, cape. Of. ARDTORNISH. 
Possibly the same as the Icel. ' Kj alar-ness.' 

CALLIGRAY (Harris). Prob. G. coill na greaich, 'wood on 
the high flat.' Of. AUCHENGRAY. 

CALLY, Bridge of (Blairgowrie). G. coille, a wood. 

CALROSSIE (Fearn). G. coill rois or rhos, 'wood of Koss' 
or ' of the promontory.' 

C ALTON (Edinburgh and Glasgow). Prob. G. coill duin, 
'wood on the hill;' G. calltuinn is the hazel; and 
there was a Cailtaine or Cailtarn, son of Girim, king of 
the Picts. 

CALVINE (Blair Athole). G. coille mliim (f r. mm), ' smooth 

woods.' 
CAMBUS (Stirling). G. and Ir. camus, a bay, creek, crook. 

For intrusion of b, cf. CAMERON, CROMARTY, and CUMBER- 

NAULD ; and cf. Cambo, Northumberland (in 13th 

century, Cambhou, Camou). 

CAMBUSBARRON (Stirling). 'Bend at the height over the 
water;' G. barr an = abhainn, water, river (cf. CARR-ON). 
Cambusdrenny (G. draighneach, thorns) refers to the 
same crook of the Forth. 

CAMBUSCURRY BAY (Tain). Sic 1487. 'Bay of the glen;' 

G. coire. Cf. CURRIE. 
CAMBUSDOON (Ayr). 'Bend of the R. DOON.' 

CAMBUSKENNETH (Stirling). /S^'cll47; 1290, Kambuskinel; 

1296, Cambusshenel. 'Bend of Kenneth' or Canice, 

in Adamnan, Cainnachus, friend of Columba, and patron 

of Kilkenny. 
CAMBUSLANG (Glasgow). 'Long bend;' Sc. lang, O.E. lang, 

long, Icel. langr ; a hybrid. 

CAMBUSMORE (The Mound). 'Big bay' (Loch Fleet); G. 

camits mar. 
CAMBUSNETHAN (Lanarksh.). a. 1153, Kambusnaythan. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 53 

* Bend of Nathan ; ' perh. same man as gave name to 
NENTHORN; or perh. fr. King Necthan, king of the 
Picts c. 700. 

CAMBUS o' MAY (Aberdeensh.). G. camus a maigh, 'crook 
in the plain.' Of. May, in Mochrum parish, and 
ROTHIEMAY. 

CAMELON (Falkirk, and Balmaghie, Galloway). Talk. C., 
977, Camlan ; local pron. never sounds the e. G. cam 
Jon, ' crooked marsh,' prob. extension of the now-drained 
Mungal Bog ; Ion also means meadow. Cam is one of 
those few G. adjectives which usually stand before the 
substantive. Of. Camling, Carsphairn ; Cameline, Ire- 
land ; and Lincom, New Luce. 

CAMERON (Fife and Stirling). Stirl. C., a. 1200, Cambroun. 
Fife C., c. 1320, Cambron. There is also early mention 
of a Kambroun, near Craigmillar. Must be G. cam sron, 
'crooked nose.' For intrusion of 6, cf. CAMBUS and 
Cambo ; also cf. Campbell. 

CAMLACHIE (Glasgow). Prob. G. cam lathach, lit. 'crooked 
puddle ' or mire. A -zigzag burn used to flow here. 

CAMPBELTON (Kiiityre and Cromarty). Kint. C., fr. Duke 
of Argyle, head of the Clan Campbell. Crom. C., 
named in 1623 after John D. Campbell of Calder. 
Campbell occurs in chrons. as De bello campo = Norm. 
Beauchamp or 'Fairfield;' but this is popular etymo- 
logy. Earliest mention of the name is of a ' Gillespic 
Cambell,' 1263; plainly G. cam beul, 'crooked mouth.' 
Cf. CAMERON. 

CAMPERDOWN (Dundee). Presumably after the scene of 
Admiral Duncan's victory over the Dutch in N. Holland, 
1797. 

CAMPFIELD (Banchory and Falkirk). Former prob., latter 
certainly, a field of battle (1298 and 1746). 

CAMPSIE (Glasgow). 1216, Kamsi; a. 1300, Camsy. G. cam 
sitk, 'crooked hill' or hill-range. Also near Londonderry. 
CAMPTOWN (Jedburgh). Cf. Chester. 

CAMSTRADDAN (L. Lomond). 'Crooked lanes;' G. sraddan, 
pi. of sraid. 

K 



54 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

CAMUSNAGAUL (Fort William). ' Creek or bend of the 
stranger;' G. gall. Here we get the Mod. G. spelling 
of CAMBUS. 

CAMUSTOWN (Forfarshire). A curious hybrid (see above). 

CANISBAY (John o' Groat's House). c. 1240, Cananesbi ; 
1274, Cranesby ; 1455, Cannasby. A ' crane ' in Icel. is 
tram, Dan. trane; so 1274 is prob. a mistake. Font's 
map, c. 1620, gives Conansbay, which Dr Jos. Anderson 
thinks shows the name is after an early Celtic chief, 
Conan ; but the earliest form makes it most likely = 
'canon's place.' Canon is found c. 1205 in Layamon 
as a name for a clergyman. Bay is the northern form 
of the Dan. and O.E. by or bi, a village. See p. lxiii > 
and cf. DUNCANSBAY. 

CANISP BEN (Assynt). Fossibly ' bishop's lake,' fr. Old G. 
can, a lake, + easpuig (L. episcopus), a bishop. 

CANNA (Arisaig). 1549, Kannay. Prob. 'island like a can 
or pot;' O.X. and Sw. kanna, O.E. canne, G. cunna, a 
can, + ay or ey ~N. for * island.' 

CANNY, R. (Banchory, Kincardine). Perh. fr. StKenneth (see 
CAMBUSKENNETH) ; G. cannach, is sweet-willow, myrtle. 

CANONBIE (Dumfries). 1290, Canenby and Canneby. 
' Canon's town ' = CANISBAY ; O.E. canonic, M.E. canon 
or -un. An Austin priory founded here in 1165. 

CANTY BAY (North Berwick). Its site makes it prob. = 
KINTYRE, ' head, end of the land,' only accent is here on 
first syll. (cf. Blantyre). G. cann-thigh is a strawberry. 

CAPPLEGILL (Moffat). ' Horse glen ; ' G. capall, a horse, + 
N. gil (see AUCHINGILL). Shows how far inland Scan- 
dinavian influence went. 

CAPUTH (Dunkeld). Pron. Kayput ; ' full of heights like 
shoe-lasts,' fr. G. ceap, a last, as in Edinkyp, Loch 
Earn ; so Rev. J. M'Lean. Cf. Caputhall, Bathgate. 

CABBERY (Inveresk). Said to be fr. Cairbre, son of JSTiall of 
the nine hostages ; common in Ireland. Quite possibly 
a tautology fr. W. caer, a fort, + Eng. burgh, bury ; see 
TURNBERRY, and cf. BERRIEDALE. 

CARBETH (Killearn). Perh. ' fort among the birches ; ' G. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 55 

cathair (pron. carr) beath ; or 'Macbeth's forfc,' cf. 
CAIRNBEDDIE. 

CARBOST (Skye). G. cathair, a fort, + IS", host, short form of 
bolstaftr, place (see p. Ixiv). Cf. Shawbost, Skeabost. 

CARBROOK (Larbert). G. cathair, W. caer, a fort, + O.E. 
broc, a spring or brook. Cf. CARRON, close by. Three 
in England. 

CARDENDEN (Dunfermline). Prob. G. cathair diona, f fort of 
protection,' + den, O.E. denu, a dell, 'dean,' or 'dene,' 
often found in place-names. 

CARDONALD (Paisley). * Donald's fort ; ' G. cathair Donull. 

CARDORCAN (Newton Stewart). Old, Garrowdorkan. Here 
car-, as in several cases, is fr. G. ceathramhadh (pron. 
carrou), ' a land-quarter,' fr. ceithir, four ; second syllable 
prob. a man's name (cf. Dorking) ; perh. from G. and Ir. 
tore, a boar ; cf. Edendurk, Tyrone. 

CARDOWAN (Lanark). Prob. G. carr dubhagain, ' rock at the 
deep part of the stream,' fr. dubh, black. Cf. PARDOVAN. 

CARDRONA (Peebles). Sic 1534 ; c. 1500, Cardronow ; 1530, 
-ono. ' Eort on the ridge ' (G. dronnag). Old British 
fort here. 

CARDROSS (Helensburgh). 1208-33, Cardinros, Cadinros; 
1401, Cardrose. Looks like G. ceardach an rois, 'smithy 
on the promontory.' 

CARESTON (Brechin). Old form, Caraldston. 

CARFIN (Lanarksh.). G. cdrrfionn, ' white or glistening rock.' 

CARGiLL(Perthsh.). 1296, Carghill. Either 'fort in the glen' 
(see AUCHINGILL), or G. carr gill (gen. of geall), ' rock of 
the pledge,' or ' wager,' or ' love,' or fr. geal, gile, white. 

CARINISH (Lochmaddy). ' Rock island ;' G. carr innis ; or, as 
likely, N. Kariness, Kari being a Norse personal name ; 
cf. Carness, near Kirkwall. 

CA(E)RLANRIG (Hawick). See below, and DRUMLANRIG. 

CA(E)RLAVEROCK (Dumfries). Sic 1299. W. caer, a fort; 
laverock is Sc. for a lark ; O.E. Idwerce, or -ferce. Some 
think fr. Ly warch-Ogg (or ' the little '), son of Lywarch 
Hen, lord in Mthsdale, c. 600. 



56 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

CARLONAN LINN (Inveraray). Perh. G. carr lonain, ' rock of 
prattling, foolish talk.' 

CARLOPS (Penicuik). c. 1425, Wyntoun, Karlynlippis. Mar- 
line's loup,' 'old woman's leap,' fr. northern M.E. and 
O.N. Jcerling, old woman; fern, of Karl, assimilated 
with carl, Sc. for churl ; -ing in Sc. is usually -in' (cf. 
waddin' = wedding, &c.), + loup, Sc. for a leap, O.N. 
hlaup (cf. O.E. hfedpan, past tense Jileop, Icel. Jilaupa, to 
leap). Carlops Hill, Dean, and Burn, ancient names ; 
village only founded in 1784. 

CARLOWAY (Lewis). 1716, Carlvay. 'Karl's bay;' N. vagr. 
Cf. STORNOWAY. 

CARLOWRIE (Kirkliston). G. carr labliairadli (pron. lowra), 
'rock of the echo,' lit. 'of speaking.' Cf. Craiglowrie, 
Galloway. 

CARLUKE (Lanarksh.). c. 1320, Carneluke; 1567, Carlouk. 
1 ' Cairn of St Luke.' Its old name was Eglismalescoch 
(cf. LESMAHAGOW, near by), i.e., 'church of ?' The 
ma is prob. the endearing prefix, and -ocli the dimin. 
(see p. xcv.) ; so Lesc may be the name here corrupted 
into Luke. 

CARMICHAEL (Lanark), c. 1180, Kermichael. W. caer 
(Armor, cear, her) Michael, ' Michael's fort.' 

CARMUIRS (Falkirk). 1774, Caer-muirs. Prob. 'fort in the 
moors;' Sc. muirs, O.E., Icel., and Dan. mur, a heath 
or marsh ; thus hybrid word. It stands just by the old 
Roman wall. 

CARMUNNOCK (Glasgow), c. 1177, Cormannoc. Prob. G. 
coire manaich, 'glen or corrie of the monk/ 

CARMYLE (Lanarksh.) and CARMYLIE (Forfar). Lanarksh. C., 
c. 1240, Kermill. G. carr maol, 'bare, rounded rock.' 
Cf. Myl, spelling of MULL in the sagas. Of course -mill 
may be the gen. of G. meall, a hill, and the Car- will 
mean 'fort;' thus, 'fort on the hill.' 

CARNBEE (Anstruther). c. 1450, Carnbe; 1457, Carnebene. 
Looks like G. carr na bein, ' rock of the hide ' or wild 
beast's skin. Perh. fr. G. beath, a birch, Hi quiescent. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 57 

CARNBO (Kinross). Sic c. 1210. 'Rock or mound of the 
cattle;' G. bo. 

CARN DEARG, LEAC, &c. (Inverness-sh.). G. = 'red cairn or 
mound,' * cairn of the flag or tombstone,' &c. 

CARNETHY (Pentland Hills). W. caer Nechtan, 'King 
Nechtan's fort ' or ' rock.' See ABERNETHY. 

CARNOCK (Dunfermline, St Mnians, and Ross-sh.). St .N". 
C., c. 1150, Jocelyn, Kernach. Dunf. C., 1250, Kernoch. 
* Fort or rock in the field ; ' W. caer, Armor, cear, her, 
G. cathair an acliaidli. The G. -acli often becomes -ock 
in names, as Beattock, Corsock, &c. 

CARNOUSTIE (Arbroath). Perh. G. cathair, carr, or earn na 
flieusta, fort, rock, or cairn of the feast; fli lost by 
aspiration. 

CARNWATH (Lanarksh.). c. 1165, Charnewid; 1174, Kar- 
newic; 1186, Carnewith. The old forms are puzzling. 
Seems to be G. earn, cairn, mound, + N. with, a forest, 
or N. and Dan. wath, a ford, same root as Icel. and 
Sw. vada, O.E. waden, to wade, go. 

CAROY (Skye). G. carr ruadh, 'red rock.' Cf. Rob Roy. 

CARPOW (Abernethy). Prob. the ancient Cairfull, which is 
W. caer pivl, 'rock or fort at the pool.' Cf. POWBURN. 

CARRADALE (Kintyre and Skye). G. and Ir. carraig, a cliff, 
rock, + N. dal, dale, valley. 

CARRBRIDGE (Aviemore). See CARR ROCKS. 

CARRICK ( Ayrsh. and Lochgoilhead). Ayrsh. C., c. 1 200, Karic ; 
1286, Carryke. G. and Ir. carraig, 'a sea-cliff or rock.' 
Compounds very common in Ireland, and in Galloway, 
where, e.g., we have Carrick-aboys, -cow, -glassen, &c. 

CARRIDEN (Bo'ness). c. 560, Gildas, Cair Eden, and prob. in 
Brit. Triads, CaerEiddyn; 1250, Karedin. W. caer, 
G. cathair, 'fort on the slope or hillside,' W. eiddyn. 
Cf. G. aodann, front, face ; and Dunedin, or EDINBURGH. 

CARRINGTON (Edinburgh), a. 1300, Kerington. Prob. from 
some man ; 1 who. 

CARRON (Falkirk, Elgin, W. Ross-sh.). Talk. C. prob. Caere 
in O.E. chron., ann. 710 ; c. 1470, Carroun. Ross-sh. C. 



58 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

prob. seen in tribes, Carnones and Cerones, mentioned 
by Ptolemy, c. 120, in this region. Prob. G. cathair or 
W. caer + Gr. abliainn, 'fort on the river.' Cf. CAMBUS- 
BARR-ON and C ARBROOK, near Falk. C. But th e Ir. Carrons 
are corruption of Ir. and G. earn, cairn, rock. 

CARRONBRIDGE (Stirlingsh. and Dumfriessh.). 

. CARRONSHORE (Falkirk). Founded c. 1750. The Carron is 
a tidal river even above this. 

CARR ROCKS (Crail and Berwick-on-Tweed). Tautology ; G. 
carr, W. caer, Armor. Jeer, cear, also O.E. (in Lindis- 
farne Gosp., c. 950) carr, a rock (cf. Ir. carraig, sea-cliff, 
rock). Car- is in some Ir. place-names, Carlow, &c., 
though not in the Irish dictionaries. Carr is perh. 
cognate with scaur. 

CAR(R)UBER (Linlithgow, also farm in Fife). Perh. 'fort 
with the yews ; ' G. iubhar, now pron. yure. ' William 
of Caribris' was Bailie of Edinburgh in 1454. 

CARRUTHERSTONE (Lockerbie), c. 1350, Caer Ruther, 'fort of 
R.,' an old Celt. The final syllable is O.E. tun, tune, village. 

CARSEBRECK (Auchterarder). ' Spotted, mottled CARSE ; ' 
G. breac, speckled. 

CARSE OF ARDERSIER (Cromarty), OF THE FORTH, OF GOWRIE 
(Forfar), OF STROWAN, also FRIAR'S CARSE (Dumfries). 
Dr Murray's earliest quotation is fr. Barbour, 1375, 
'kerss;' but in charter of Win. Lyon, c. 1200, we find 
'Filio Walteri Falconer in lie Carse de Gowrie,' and in 
oath of fealty to Edward L, 1296, ' Johan Strivelyn de 
Cars ' ( = C. of Forth). In Sc. still called kerss, as in 
KERSE, Grangemouth. It means low, alluvial land along 
a river. Root doubtful; prob. O.N. carr, Dan. kaer, 
pool, marsh, fen-land, Icel. kjarr, copse-wood ; common 
in M.E. as carr. 

CARSETHORN (Kirkcudbright). 

CARSHOGLE (hill, Thornhill). Prob., by common transposi- 
tion of r, G. crasg (or crosg} oglaich, ' pass or crossing of 
the soldier ;' lit. a youth. Cf. ARNGASK, and also CARSE. 

CARSKEY (Kintyre). G. cathair sgeaig, 'fort among the 
hawthorns.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 59 

CARSPHAIRN (Kirkcudbright). ' CARSE with the alders;' 

G. fearna. 
CARSTAIRS (Lanarksh.). 1170, Casteltarres; 1592, Carstairs. 

O.E. castel (or G. caisteal) Terras, 'T.'s castle or fort;' 

but see CASTLEBAY. Terras is still a Sc. surname ; and 

cf. Tarrisholme,' 1376, in Liddesdale. 

CART, R. (Renfrewsh.). The Black and "White Cart join to 
form the R. Cart, G. caraid, ' a pair.' The Water of 
Kilmarnock is also called Garth; for it, too, forms a pair 
of streams. Cf. Cartmel, Lancashire. 

CARTER FELL and HAUGH (Cheviots). Sic a. 1540. Looks 
like G. cathair (or W. caer) tir, 'fort on the land.' 

CARTLAND CRAGS (Lanark). 
CARTSDYKE (Greenock). 

CARWHINELOW, R. (S. Dumfriessh.). Prob. W. caer Gwen- 
dolew, * fort of G.,' leader in the Battle of Ardderyd, 573. 

CASHEL DHU (Sutherland). G. and Ir. caiseal, circular 
stone fort, + G. dhu, black, dark. Fifty ' Cashels ' in 
Ireland ; cognate with L. castellum. 

CASKARDY. Prob. G. crasg airde, ' pass of the height.' Cf. 
ARNGASK. 

CASKIEBEN (Aberdeen). Prob. G. crasg-a-beinn, 'pass 
between the hills.' Cf. above, and ' Kaskybaran ' ( = na 
bearna), Fife, ' opening between high lands.' 

CASSILIS (Maybole). Prob. G. and Ir. caiseal, a wall, castle, 
with the Eng. pi. s. 

CASTLEBAY (Uist). In dealing with some names containing 
castle, it needs to be remembered, O.E. castel originally 
was=L. castellum, 'the Vulgate N. T.'s translation of 
Gr. Kco/xr;, ' village ' or ' ton ; ' only through Fr. influence 
did it come to mean 'a fortress.' 

CASTLE CAMPBELL (Dollar). Formerly 'Castell Gloume' 
(? =G. gocli leum, mad leap). Name changed in 1489, 
after its owner, first Earl of Argyle. 

CASTLECARY (Falkirk). Perh. ' Gary's castle,' or a tautology 
fr. W. caer, fort. Old Roman fort here. 

CASTLE CAVAN (Perthsh.). Old G. cabhan, a field, Ir. cabJian, 



60 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

a hollow, 'hollow place.' Common in Irish names, but 
not cognate with cabin. 

CASTLE DOUGLAS. Modern; after a man who built mills 
here. 

CASTLE KENNEDY (Stranraer). 

CASTLEMILK (Dumfries and Glasgow). Dumfries C., 1189, 
Kastelmilc. See ABERMILK and CASTLEBAY. Zfyefr JT-/ 

CASTLE STALKER (Appin). On Island Stalker, sic 1501 
(Q.Eilein-an-stalcaire, 'falconer's isle'), fr. O.Kstaelcan, 
Dan. stalke, to go warily, stalk. Said to have been 
built for James IV. 's hunting expeditions. 

CASTLE SWEN (Knapdale). In old Ir. MS. Dun Suibltm 
(pron. Sween). S. was Abbot of lona, 766. Dr 
M'Lauchlan says fr. Sweyn, a chief who died in 1034. 

CASTLETON or -TOWN (Koxburgh, Braemar, Thurso). Rox- 
burgh C., 1220, Caseltoun. Eight in England. Of. 
p. Ixxiii.-lxxiv. 

CAT, Hill of (Forfar). G. cat, a cat, or cath, a battle. 

CATACOL (L. Eanza). 1433, Catagill. Prob. G. cath na gill, 
'battle of the gill;' O.N. gil, ravine. Cf. AUCHINGILL, 
and for interchange of c and g, cf. AUCHNAGATT. 

CATHARINE'S, St (L. Fyne). Modern. 

CATHCART (Glasgow). 1158, Kerkert; c. 1170, Ket- or 
Katkert ; c. 1375, Catkert. ' Battle (G. cath) on the R. 
CART.' On Ker-, cf. CAERDON. 

CAT(H)KIN BRAES (Glasgow). G. cath cinn, ' battle on the 
height or head ; ' and cf. BRAES. 

CATHLAW (Torphichen). Hybrid; G. cath, battle, + law (O.E. 
hldeiv, a cairn), Sc. for hill. 

CATRAIL, or PICTS WORK DITCH (said to run from Peel Fell 
to Mossilee, near junction of Tweed and Gala). Dr J. 
A. H. Murray, a Border man himself, informs me that 
this is an invented name for an invented rampart, both 
due to the imagination of Chalmers (Caledonia, 1807). 

CATRINE (Mauchline). Perh. ' battle at the point or division 
of the land ; ' G. rinn. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 61 

CAT(T)ERLINE (Bervie). Old, Katerlyn. Perh. G. ceathra 
linne, ' cattle pool.' 

CAULDCOTS (Arbroath). ' Cold huts ; ' O.E. cot, cott, a cham- 
ber, hut, Icel. kot (cf. dovecot, and see CALDWELL). 
Of. Calcots, Elgin. 

CAULRIG (Inverness). Prob. ' cold (Sc. caul' or cauld) rig or 
ridge.' See p. Ixi. 

CAUSEWAYEND (Manuel) and -HEAD (Stirling). Fr. Eng. 
causey + way, M.E. cauce, O.KFr. caucie, late L. 
calceata, a beaten, trodden way, fr. calx, the heel. 

CAVAY (Orkney). Not, as some say, * cheese isle,' but prob. 

Kalf-ey. Cf. CALF, CALVA. 
CAVERS (Roxburgh). 1291, Kauirs ; c. 1310, Cauers. Prob 

a man's name. Cf. Caversham, Eeading. 

CAVERTON (Roxburgh). As above. 

CAWDOR (Nairn). Now pron. Kahdor; c. 1280, Kaledor; 
1501, Caldor, = C ALDER. 

CEANNACROE (Inverness). ' Peak or head of the hill.' G. 
ceann in names is usually Ken-, Kin-. Croe is the G. and 
Ir. croagh, cruach, a stack-like hill, of which CRUACHAN 
is the diminutive. Cf. Glencroe, Croagh patrick, &c. 

CEANN A MHAIM (Inverness). ' Head or point of the 
rounded hill ; ' G. mam, gen. m/iaim, prob. cognate 
with L. mamma, a breast. The n of the article is 
merged in the ceann. 

CELLARDYKE (Anstruther). Doubtful; Cellar (O.F. celier, L. 
cellarium,fr. cella, cell) occurs in Eng. a. 1225. Dyke 
is O.E. die, ditch, or bank of earth thrown up from the 
ditch, which is softened form of the same word. 

CERES (Cupar). 1279, Sireis; 1517, Siras, which is almost 
the modern pron. G. siar, west, or saor (pron. seer), 
carpenter (cf. Balsier, Sorbie) ; with Eng. plural. Siris 
is G. and Ir. for a cherry. Bishop Eorbes thinks, perh. 
fr. St Ciricius or ST CYRUS ; cf. EGLISGIRIG. 

CHALLOCH (Girvan and Newton Stewart). G. teallach, a 
hearth, forge. Initial t often = ch. Cf. CHIPPERDINGAN. 

CHALMAN ISLAND (lona). Prob = Colman, name of about 
sixty Irish saints. 



62 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

CHANCE INN (Arbroath). 

CHANNELKIRK (Lauder). Old, Childeschirche, sacred to St 
Cuthbert, fr. O.E. did, a child, especially of gentle 
birth; but present name means 'church on the river' 
(Leader), common former meaning of channel O.Fr. 
clianel, L. canalis, canal. Cf. Channelsea, on E. Lea, 
Essex. 

CHANONRY (Fortrose). 1503, ' The Canonry of Koss ; ' 1570, 
Channonrie. 'The ric, O.E. rice, or jurisdiction of the 
canon ' (see CANONBIE). The word canonry does not 
seem to occur till 1482. The G. name of Fortrose is 
A'chanonach, ' the canonry.' 

CHAPEL (two in Fife, and four others). Common, too, in 
England. Chapel (late L. cappella, fr. cappa, cape, cope ; 
see Dr Murray's dictionary) is so spelt in Eng. c. 
1275. 

CHAPELHALL (Airdrie), -HOPE (St Mary's L. ; see HOBKIRK), 
-KNOWE (Hawick ; Knowe, see p. Ixxvi.), -TON (Hamil- 
ton), -TOUN (Ballindalloch). 

CHAPPELERNE (Carmichael). 'Chapel-house;' O.E. erne, 
house, cot. Cf. WHITHORN and Blackerne, Kirkcud- 
bright. 

CHARLESTON (Dunfermline). Also near St Austell. 

CHARTERSHALL (Bannockburn). Charteris (i mute) is a 
common Sc. surname. 

CHERRYBANK (Perth). Cherry, c. 1350, cheri, is in O.E. 
ciris, G. kirsche. 

CHESTERS, The (Hawick and Bolton, Haddington), CHESTER 
KNOWES (Chirnside), CHESTER LEES (Tweedsmuir), and 
CHESTER RIG and HILL (Traquair). L. castra, camp, 
castrum, fort (cf. Chester, and the many -chesters in 
England). Eemains of circular or oval hill-forts found at 
all, or nearly all, the places cited. The Romans certainly 
were in Peeblesshire, but it is doubtful whether these are 
Roman or British. Professor Veitch thinks they mark 
the Cymri or Brythons' final but unsuccessful stands 
against Pict, Scot, and Saxon, their last retreats. 

CHEVIOT HILLS. W. cefn, a ridge or back. Cf. Chevy 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 63 

Chase and Chevington, Northumberland ; -ot is a difficult 
ending to explain. 

CHICKEN HEAD (Stornoway). Translation of G. name, 
ceann na circ. Circ is now obsolete. 

CHIPPERDINGAN WELL (Wigtown). G. tiobar Dingan, ' well 
of St JS T inian.' See p. xcii., and cf. CHALLOGH and 
TIPPERLINN. 

CHIRNSIDE (Berwicksh.). Sic 1250. ' Hillside like a churn ;' 
O.E. cyrin, M.E. chyme, Sc. kirn. 

CHONZIE, Ben (S. Perthsh.). Might be = Choinneach, G. 

fen. of St Kenneth, more prob. fr. chon, gen. of G. cu, a 
og. Cf. Carchonzie Woods, Callander, while L. Con 
is not far away. 

CHRYSTON (Glasgow). Pron. as 'Christ' is; so just 'Christ's 
village.' Cf. Christon, near Exeter, and Christskirk, old 
name of Strath, Skye. 

CIR MHOR (Corrie). . G. 'great comb or crest.' 

CLACHAIG (Dunoon). 'Stony bay;' G. clacli, a stone, +N. 
aig, bay. Cf. ASCAIG. 

CLACHAN (Tayinloan), also CLACHAN OF ABERFOYLE, &c. 
Perh. twenty 'clachans' in Scotland; G. for 'village;' 
often also for ' church.' 

CLACHAN EASY (Wigtown). ' Village of Jesus ; ' G. losa. 
Cf. CHRYSTON. 

CLACHDHIAN (Ben Machdui). 'Stone of shelter;' G. dion. 

CLACHNACUDDAN (stone at a street corner, Inverness). G. 
' stone of Cudachan ' or St Cuthbert. Cf. Sc. name 
'Cuddie,' and Killiemacuddican, Kirkcolm, 'church of 
my Cuthbert.' 

CLACHNAHARRY (Inverness). Prob. = Clach-charra, Onich, 
'stone of strife, quarrel, trouble,' G. carraid ; but 
Knockenharrie, Galloway, is 'little rough hill,' fr. G. 
carrach, rough, lit. mangy. 

CLACKMANNAN. 1147, Clacmanant; 1283, -annan ; c. 1585, 
Clacmana. ' Stone of Manann,' prob. same as the Man- 
annan MacLir of Ir. legend, who gave his name to the 
Isle of Man. The district, called in G. Manann, in W. 
Manaw, stretched fr. Clackmannan over the Forth 



64 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

through Stirlingshire to SLAMANNAN Moor and east to- 
R. Avon. 

CLADICH (Inveraray). G. cladaidi, the shore. Cf. BRUAN. 

CLA(I)RDON HILL (Thurso). G. dar dun, 'smooth, bare> 
bald hill.' 

CLARENCEFIELD (Annan). 

CLARKSTON (Airdrie) ; cf. 1183, ' Clerkinton,' Midlothian. 

CLASHBREAC (Morvern). 1496, Clashbrake. 'Spotted,, 
speckled hollow ;' G. dais breac, G. and Ir. dais, a ditch r 
trench, furrow, hollow in a hill, is common, as Clash-,, 
in names in Galloway and Ireland. 

CLASHMACK HILL (Huntly). 'Son's hollow' or 'swine's, 
hollow ; ' G. mac, gen. maic, or mite, gen. muic. 

CLASHNEACH, Nick of (Minigafi). A tautology; G. dais 
n'ech, ' trench or furrow of the horse.' 

CLATT (Aberdeen), a. 1500, Clat. G. deitlie, 'concealed 
(place),' or = CLETT. 

CLAVERHOUSE (Dundee). Prob. fr. a man, (cf. Claverdon, 
-ing, and -ley, England). Perh. fr. Sc. daver, to gossip,, 
found a. 1605 ; cf. G. dabaire, babbler. 

CLAY OF ALLAN (farm, Fearn). Clay, prob. as in Clayshant, 
Galloway, =G. clack scant (fr. L. sanctus), 'holy stone.' 
Cf. Cambus o' May, and see ALLAN. 

CLEGHORN (Lanark). Perh. corruption of G. and Ir. doicli- 
rean, stony place, fr. dach, a stone, as in Clogherane^ 
and Cleighran, Ireland. Cf., too, Ir. daigeann, G. 
daigionn, a skull, ' often applied to a round, hard, dry 
hill,' Joyce. Cf. DREGHORN. 

CLEISH (Kinross). 1250, Kles. G. and Ir. dais, 'a ditch,, 
furrow.' In the same district is Clashlochie (G. locha),. 
'ducks' ditch;' the name has nothing to do with Loch 
Leven, on which the place stands. 

CLELLAND (Motherwell). Thought to be = Cleveland, i.e., 
'cliffland;' O.E. dif, M.E. clef. Cf. woman = O.E. 
wifman. 

CLEPINGTON (Dundee). Prob. 'Clephane's village.' Cf. 
Clephantown, Nairn. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 65 

CLETT, The (Thurso). 1329, in S. Ronaldsay, Klaet. G. 

deit, ' a rocky pillar. 7 
CLIBRECK BEN (Sutherland). 1269, Clybry. G. cliath 

breac, l spotted side or slope.' 

CLINTMAINS (St Boswells). Sw. and Dan. dint, brow of a hill, 
promontory. Cf. Clint, Yorks., and Clent Hills, Stafford ; 
but Clinty, Antrim, is Ir. duainte, meadows. Mains is 
common Sc. term for a farm-steading, or large country 
house; prob. the same as manse, mansion. Low L. 
mansus, fr. L. maneo, mans-um t I remain. 

CLOCH, The (Gourock). G. dach, gen. doiche, a stone, rock. 

CLOCHAN (Fochabers). Diminutive of above. In Ir. it 
means a beehive-shaped stone house. 

CLOCHNABEIN or -BANE (mountain, Kincardinesh.). Prob. 
G. dochan Ian, 'little white rock.' It is sometimes 
called 'White Stone Hill.' 

CLOCKSBRIGGS (Forfar). Without further information ex- 
planation of this corruption is impossible; but first 
syllable prob. G. dodi, a stone. 

CLOLA (Mintlaw, Aberdeen). ? G. dadh lacha, 'hillock of 
the wild ducks.' Cf. CLOVA and CLOVULLIN. 

CLONE (three in Galloway), c. 1230, Clon in Ross-sh. G. 
and Ir. duaiu (pron. cloon), a meadow. 

CLOSEBURN (Dumfries), a. 1200, Kylosbern; 1278, Close- 
burn. G. till Osbern, 'cell or church of St Osborne,' 
N. Asenbjorn, l bear of the gods.' 

CLOUSTA (Shetland). Perh. O.N. Tdof-sta, ( place of the 
cleft,' fr. klofi, a cleft or rift, and statir, place, see 
p. Ixiv. 

CLOVA (Forfar and Aberdeen), a. 1300, Cloueth; 1328, 
Cloveth. Prob. G. dadh ath, ' mound at the ford.' 

CLOVENFORDS (Galashiels). 

CLOVULLIN (Ardgour). In G. dadh-a-mhuillinn, ' the mound 
of the mill.' 

CLOY GLEN (Arran). Perh. G. doidie, gen. of doche, a 
stone ; and cf. LOY or Gloy. 



66 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

CLUDEN, K. (Dumfries). Peril. W. dwyd afon or an, l warm 
river.' Cf. AVON, and K. Clwyd, Wales. 

CLUGSTON (Wigton). A Cloggeston is found in 1296, 
? where. 1 Pern. = Bally clug, Ireland ; Ir. dug, G. clag y 
a bell. 

CLTJNAS (Nairn). G. and Ir. cluain or duan, a meadow, 
with Eng. plural. 

CLUNIB, -Y (Blairgowrie, Aberdeen, Laggan, and loch west of 
Fort Augustus). 1291, Clony. As above; old form 
Cluanan occurs. Cf. Clun, Salop ; also Cluniter (duan- 
a-tir), Dunoon. 

CLUTAG (Kirkinner, Galloway). Prob. refers to the valua- 
tion of land in * pennylands ; ' G. ditag, being ^th of a 
farthing. 

CLYDE, E. Tacitus (c. 80 A.D.) and Ptolemy (c. 120), Clota; 
a. 700, Adamnan, Cloithe; a. 1249, Clud. Doubtful. 
Whitley Stokes says = L. cluere, to wash. Not likely 
to be fr. G. cltih, strength. Khys thinks Clota may 
have been a pre-Celtic divinity, and says the name is 
not = Welsh E. Clwyd, which means warm, Cf. also 
Joyce, Irish Names, 2nd series, pp. 371-72. 

CLYDEBANK (Glasgow). 

CLYDESDALE. 1250, Matthew Paris, Cludesdale. 

CLYNDER (Helensburgh). G. duain dur (or dobhar), 
'meadow on the water.' 

CLYNE (Golspie and E. Koss-sh.). Gols. C., c. 1240, Clun. 
Boss C., 1375, Clyn. G. doom, a slope. 

CLYNELISH (Sutherland). G. daon-lios, ' hill slope with the 
garden.' 

CLYTH (Lybster). G. diathadi, a side, 'the slope of a hill ; ' 
fr. diabh, the breast. 

CNOC AINGIL (lona, Islay, Lismore, Lochaber, Kintail, 
Tain). G. cnoc aingeal, 'hill of fire,' rather than 
' angel's hill ; ' prob. relic of Druidic sun or fire worship 

1 SeeJ. Stevenson, Documents Illustrative of the History of Scotland, 
vol. ii., s. ann. 1296. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 67 

(see Alex. Carmicliael on 'Place-Names of lona,' Scot. 
Geogr. Mag., Feb. and May 1887). Cnoc in names is 
usually spelt Knock. 

COALTON (Dysart). 

COATBRIDGE, and near it COATDYKE and COATS. W. coed, a 
wood, G. coid, brushwood, sticks. Two Coathams in 
north of England, and three Coats in England. 

COBBINSHAW (S. of Edinburgh). Prob. 'Colvin's hill.' 
Shaiv is properly a wood, O.E. scaga, but in Sc. often 
applied to a hill, Cobbie Row's Castle in Weir, Ork- 
ney, is corruption of Kolbein Hruga's Castle, a name 
mentioned c. 1150. Hruga means a heap. 

COCKAIRNIE (Aberdour). a. 1169, Kincarnathar ; 1178, 
Kincarnyne ; form a. 1 169 = Kincarn Nether ; and there 
are still Nether and Upper Cockairnie. Kincarn = G. 
ceann cairn, ' head of the cairn or heap.' But Cockairnie 
is rather the W. coch earn, ' red heap ' or ' hill.' 

COCKBURNSPATH (Berwicksh.). 1128, Colbrandspath ; 1461, 
Coburnispeth, and now pron. Coburnspath. Trans- 
position of r is very common, and I easily drops. Of. 
POWBURN. 

COCKENZIE (Prestonpans). Kenzie is prob. G. Coinneach^ 
Kenneth; the first syll. might be G. cobh, a victory, 
triumph. 

COCKMUIR (Leadmuir). 

COCK OF ARRAN. Its northern point. Cf. Cocklaw; 1461, 
Coklaw. N. kok means a heap, a lump. 

COCKPEN (Dalkeith). 1250, Kokpen; a. 1300, Cockpen, 
W. coch pen, ' red head ' or hill. 

COIGACH (Ullapool). 1502, Cogeach (the mod. pron.); 
1530, Coidgeach. Prof. M'Kinnon says, G. cuigeach, a 
fifth. The local explanation is coigach, ' five fields,' there 
being five places there beginning with Ach- (cf. FIM- 
BUSTER). G. coigeach is a hand. 

COIGNAFEARN (Inverness). First syll. doubtful (see above) ; 
nafhearna, ' of the alders.' 

COILANTOGLE (R. Teith). G. coil an foglaich, 'nook' or 
'wood of the youth or soldier.' 



68 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

COILTON (Ayr). Fr. King Cole. See KYLE. 

COIR-NAN-URISKIN (Ben Venue). G. ' cave (coire, a dell or 
hollow) of the goblins.' It was thought to be haunted. 

COLABOLL (Lairg). Perh. * wood of the place/ G. coill and 
!N". bol, or fr. G. coil, now cuil, a corner, recess ; or, as 
likely, fr. the Norse personal name Kol, ' Kol's place.' 

COLDBACKIE (Tongue). See CALDWELL and BACK. It means 
' cold hill ridge.' 

COLDINGHAM (Berwicksh.). c. 720, Eddi, Coludesburg; 
Bede, same date, Urbs Coludi; 1235, Coldingham; a. 
1500, often spelt with a G; 1639, Cauldingham. 
' Colud's place ' or ' home.' 

COLDSTREAM. 1290, Colde-, Caldestreme, referring to the K. 

Tweed. 
COLDWELLS (Cruden). Cf. CALDWELL. 

COLFIN (Port Patrick). The cols may often either be fr. G. 
coil, cuil, a corner, nook, or coill, a wood ; so this will 
either be 'clear, white (G. fionn) nook' or 'wood.' 

oLiNSBURGH(Fife). Fr. Colin, thirdEarl of Balcarres, c. 1690. 

COLINTON (Edinburgh). c. 1540, Collintoun. ' Colin's 
village.' There are two Collingham's in England. 

COLINTRAIVE (Kyles of Bute). G. coil an> t'snaimh, ' corner 
at the swimming place ' (for cattle to be driven over). 
Of. ARDENTRYVE. Liquids n and r often interchange, 
and mh is = v. 

COLL (island, and in Lewis). Sic 1449; c. 1590, Collow. 
G., Ir., and W. coll, a hazel. 

COLLAGE (Perth). 1250, Kulas; 1403, Cullace. Prob. G. 
cuil eas, ' nook of the waterfall,' if there be one there. 

COLLESSIE (Newburgh). 1288, Cullessy. Perh. G. coill or 
cuil easaige, 'wood' or 'nook of the pheasant' or 
'squirrel;' and cf. above. 

COLLI(E)STON (Ellon and Arbroath). Collie is a common Sc. 
surname, also Sc. for 'sheep-dog.' 

COLLIN (Kirkcudbright). G. cuileann, 'holly.' 

COLMONELL (Girvan). c. 1240, -manel. Fr. St Colmonella, 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 69 

died 611; called in Adamnan, Columbanus; Golum 
an Eala, ' Colum of the Eala' (name of stream in 
King's Co.). Cf. KILCALMONELL. 

COLONSAY. 1335, Golwonche ; 1376, Colowsay ; 1463, 
Colonsay ; 1549, Colvansay. In Adamnan it is Colosus, 
which is perh. = COLL, 'a hazel.' Most say = 'Colmnba's 
or Colum's isle ' (a?/), or ' isthmus ' (G. aoi), for C. and 
ORONSAY once joined. But Prof. M'Kinnon thinks this 
cannot be the original meaning, as m would not easily 
become n. Yet m and n often do interchange (ef. 
the many cases of dum for dun, DUMBARTON, &C.). 1 
However, the ending is Norse, and the name as it now 
stands is = ' Colum's isle,' he in 10th-century ]N"orse 
being called Koln. 

COLPY (Aberdeen). Doubtful. G. calpa is 'the leg' or 
* the brawn of the leg ;' and Colpa was one of the sons 
of the legendary Milesius ; hence Colp on the R. Boyne. 
A Colpley in Renfrew occurs in 1461. 

COLTNESS (Lanarksh.). Cf. Coltbridge, Edinburgh. Quite 
possibly G. coillte an eas, ' woods by the waterfall.' 

COLVEND (Dalbeattie). 1560, Colven; 1610, Culwen; Font's 
map, c. 1620, Covenn or Cawenn. First two forms = 
G. cul Wieinn, 'back of the hill;' Font's is evidently 
G. and Ir. cauhan, a hollow. See CASTLE CAVAN. 

COMAR (Ben Lomond). Farm at mouth of ravine on Ben 
Lomond's north side. G. and Ir. comar, a meeting, 
confluence of two waters. Cf. CUMBERNAULD. 

COMERS (Aberdeen). As above, with Eng. plural. 

COMISTON (Edinburgh). Derivation fr. Camus, Danish 
general who fought here, is prob. mythical. 

CON, L. (L. Katrine). G. cu, gen. coin, a dog. 

CONAGLEN (Fort William). Prob. G. cona gleann, ' Scots-fir 
glen.' 

CONCHRA (Strachur). Perh. for Conchubar, G. form of Connor. 

1 Joyce, Irish Names, 1st series, gives one or two other examples of 
this iu his chapter on Corruptions; and, e.g., comfort and all its 
derivatives were in M.E. frequently spelt confort, 

L 



70 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

CONDORRAT (Cumbernaulcl). Possibly G. caoin dobhar (or 
dor) aite, 'gentle river place' (cf. CONON). The river 
would be the Luggie Water. 

CONISBY (Islay). Prob. fr. Dan. konge, a king. Cf. Coniston 
and CONNINGSBURGH. On Dan. by or bi, a village, see 
p. Ixiii. 

CONNELL FERRY (Oban). Not after some Celtic saint or 
hero, like Inis Chonaile, L. Awe ; but G. coingheall, a 
whirlpool, referring to the falls on L. Etive. 

CONNINGSBURGH, or CUNNINGSBURGH (Shetland). Prob. fr. 
Icel. konungr, Dan. konge, a king. CONISBY may be 
fr. same root. Cf. Kingstown, Queensborough, &c. 
But, of course, O.E. coning, cunning, M.E. cunny, cony, 
was the regular word for a ' rabbit.' 

CONON, or CONAN (E. Ross-sh.). G. caoin dbliainn or an, 
'gentle, pleasant river.' 

CONTIN (Strathpeffer). 1227, Conten ; 1510, Contan. Prob. 
G. cointin, a dispute, debateable land ; but cf. Quentan's 
Head, Carsphairn. 

CONWAY (Beauly). c. 1220, Coneway ; a. 1300, Conveth. 
G. coinneajnh or coinmlie (pron. conve), a refection = 
food-rent, cf. BORELAND. But Conva and Convoy, Ire- 
land, are fr. Ir. (and G.) con mhagh, ' hounds' plain.' 

COODHAM (Kilmarnock). Prob. W. coed, a. wood, + O.E. 
ham, home, village. Cf. Codford, Bath. There is a 
Cootham Common in Sussex. 

COOKNEY (Stonehaven). Doubtful. Cf. 'Quikenne,' a. 
1400, near Hawick. 

COOMLEES (Tweeddale). 'Hollow pastures;' W. cwm, hollow 
(cf. Eng. coomb, O.E. cumb, a valley or a bowl). On 
lee, see BROOMLEE ; and cf. Coomb Hill, Tweedsmuir. 
Leo of Halle says, root is same as O.E. cimban, to join. 

COPINSHAY (Orkney), c. 1260, Kolbensey. N. 'Colvin's 
or Kolbein's Isle.' Cf. COBBINSHAW. On ay, cf. 
BARRAY, &c. 

COPPERCLEUCH (Selkirk). ? ' Copper-beech glen.' See Buc- 
CLEUCH. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 71 

CORBY (Eoxburgh). Corbie is Sc. for a raven, crow; N. 

and Sw. korp, L. corvus. Three in England ; and cf. 

Corbiehall, Carstairs, Corbie Den, Cults. 
CORGARFF (Strathdon). G. wire garbli, ' rough ravine or 

corrie.' 

CORNHILL (Coldstream, Coulter, Banff). 
CORPACH (Fort William). ?G. corp-achadh, 'corpse-field, 

grave-yard, i.e., that at Kilmallie. Cf. Lochan-nan-Corp, 

Callander. 
CORRA LINN (Lanark). Corra is said here to mean ' round 

(cf. G. corran, a reaping-hook). Linn is W. rather 

than G., which is linne. Cf. Corra Pool, Galloway. 
CORRAN (L. Linnhe). G. ' a reaping-hook,' in Ir. carran, as 

in Carran Tual. 
CORRIB (Arran and Dumfries). Arran C., 1807, Currie. G. 

coire, a cauldron ; hence, a glen, ravine. 

CORRIEGILLS (Arran). Tautology, see above. Icel. gil, a 
ravine. Cf. CATACOL. 

CORRIEMULZIE (Braeiiiar). G. coire muileagacli, l glen abound- 
ing in cranberries.' 

CORRIEVAIRACK, or CoRRYARRiCK (Inverness). G. coire eirich, 
' rising ravine or glen.' 

CORRIEVRECKAN (Jura). a. 700, Adamnan, Vortex or 
Charybdis Brecain ; c. 1380, Fordun, Corebrekane. 
G. coire Blirecain, 'cauldron, i.e., whirlpool of Brecan,' 
grandson of the famous Mall, c. 450. 

CORSEWALL POINT (Wigtown). ' The cross well ;' here dedi- 
cated to St Columba. Transposition of r is very 
common. Cf. Corsapool, Islay. 

CORSOCK (Kirkcudbright). 1527, Karsok. Sc. CARSE + G. 
achadh, field. Cors in Corn, means bog, fen. Cf. Cors- 
cleugh, Yarrow. On ock, cf. BEATTOCK. 

CORSTORPHINE (Edinburgh). 1147, Crostorfin; 1508, Cor- 
storphyne. G. crois torr fionn, ' cross of the clear (lit. 
white) hill.' A cross certainly stood here; and cf. CORSE- 
WALL. There is an Incheturfin, c. 1130, in charters of 
Dunkeld, but that is G. innis tuar fionn, ' meadow of 
the white bleaching-green.' There is a Torphin Hill just 



72 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

opposite Corstorphine, near Juniper Green ; and cf. 
CARFIN. A Thorfinn or Turphin, son of the Norse 
Earl Harold, appears in Scotland, c. 1165, but he has 
probably given rise to no place-name. 

C6RTACHIE (Kirriemuir). c. 1320, Carcathie. G. cathair 
(pron. car) catha, 'fort of the battle.' 

CORUISK (Skye). G. and Ir. coire uisge, 'glen of the water/ 

Cf. Usk, Esk. 
CORVEN. G. corr bheinn, 'rounded hill.' Cf. Corwen, Wales. 

COTHAL (Kinaldie, Aberdeen). Doubtful. Cf. ' Couthal,* 
1329, in Arbroath Chart., vol. ii. 

COULBEG and COULMORE (Sutherland). G. cul beag and 
mhor, 'little' and 'big back' (of the hill). 

COULISS (Mgg). 1351, Cnluys; 1550, Guiles. G. cul lios 
(pron. lis), 'at the back of the garden.' 

COULL (Aboyne). a. 1300, Coul; 1454, Colle. G. cul, 
'the back.' 

COULMONY HOUSE (Nairn). 'At the back of the moss or 
moor;' G. moine. 

C(O)ULTER (Biggar, loch near Stirling, and Aberdeen). Big. 
C., c. 1210, Cultyr; 1229, Cultir. Aberd. C., c. 1170, 
Kultre and Culter ; a. 1300, Cultyr. 'At the back of 
the land;' G. tir, W. tre. Cf. BAL-QUHIDDER. Simeon 
Durham, a. 1130, mentions a Culterham near theTeviot. 

C(O)ULTER ALLERS (Biggar). See above. A llers= 'alders ;* 
O.E. alor, aler, O.K olr. 

COUNTESSWELLS (Aberdeen). 

C(o)upARFiFE and C(O)UPAR ANGUS. Fife C., 1183, Cupre; 
1294, Coper. Angus C., c. 1169, Gilbert; 1296, Coupre 
in Anegos. Can it be G. cu-barr, 'dog height, or hillT 
G. bearrta means ' clipped, pruned, shorn.' 

COURANCE (Lockerbie). Prob. fr. a man. 

COUSLAND (Dalkeith). Sice. 1160. ' Cows' land;' O.E. cw, 
Icel. Jcu, Lowl. Sc. coo, a cow. Cf. Cousley Wood, Sussex. 

COVE (Dumbarton, Aberdeen, L. Ewe). O.E. cofa, chamber, 
cave, Icel. kofi, Sw. kofioa, a hut. Two in England. 

COVINGTON (Lanark), c. 1190, Villa Colbani; c. 1212, Col- 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 73 

baynistun; 1434, Cowantoun; c. 1480, Covingtoun. 
'Colban's or Cowan's village.' C. was follower of 
David, Prince of Cumbria, c. 1120. There is a Coving- 
ton near St Neot's. Of., too, Coven, Wolverhampton, 
and SYMINGTON. 

COWAL (L. Fyne). From King Comgall, Coill, or Cole, chief 
of the Dalriad Scots in the 6th century ; but Liber 
Pluscardensis, 1461, spells it Touvale. 

CowCADDENS (now in Glasgow). 1521, Kowkadens. Latter 
half puzzling. But cf. Icel. gaddr, Sw. gadd, an ox- 
goad. It was a loan by which the cows went to pasture. 

COWDENBEATH (Dunfermline). There is a Cowden in Eng- 
land, and it is an Eng. surname ; but here it is prob. 
Celtic as in next. See BEATH. 

COWDENKNOWES (Earlston). 1604, Couldenknowes ; 1827, 
Coldingknowes. Hybrid; G. cul duin, ' the back of the 
hill,' + Sc. Jcnowe. Cf. Cowdenhill, Bonnybridge. On 
knoive, see p. Ixxvi. 

COWLAIRS (Glasgow). Prob. just 'cow pastures or lairs;' 
O.E. leger, couch, bed. 

COYLET INN (L. Eck). Perh. G. coill eich, 'wood of the horse.' 

COYLTON (Ayr). Prob. fr. King Cole. See COWAL and 
KYLE. On -ton, see pp. Ixxiv, Ixxv. 

CRACKAIG, or CRAGAIG. Either G. creag, ' a crag,' a rock, or 
croic, ' a skin ' (cf. Clintycracken, Tyrone ; Ir. cluainte, 
croiceann, 'meadows of the skins,' = Sc. SKINFLATS). 
Aig is N. suffix for 'bay.' 

CRAGGANMORE (Craigellachie). G. creagan mar, lit. 'big, 
little rock.' 

CRAGGIE, or CREAGACH. G. creagach, rocky. 

CRAICHIE (Forfar, and Parton, Kirkcudbright). G. cruacliach, 
hilly. Cf. CRUACHAN. 

CRAIG(A)NURE (Mull). ' Kock of the yew-tree ; ' G. iubhar 
(pron. yure). 

CRAIGDAM (Old Meldrum). G. creag daimh, ' rock of the ox.' 

CRAIGDUCKIE (Kinross). < Crag of the hawk ; ' G. t-sealliac 
(pron. tavac). 



74 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

CRAIGELLACHIE (Ballindalloch). G. creag eagalach, ' rock of 
warning/ war-cry of Clan Grant. Cf. 'Stand fast, 
Craigellachie.' 

CRAIGENPUTTOCH (Mthsdale). Said to be G., 'rock of the 
kite,' same root as L. buteo ; but dictionary gives only 
putag, a small ridge of land. 

CRAIGENVEOCH (Old Luce). G. crew/an blifitliich or bhfiaicJt 
(pron. veeagh), ' little rock of the raven.' 

CRAIGFOODIE (Cupar). Might be G. creag-bhodaig, 'rock of 
the calf,' or bhodaich, 'the churl, rustic.' 

CRAIGHALL (Edinburgh). 
CRAIGHOUSE (Jura). 

CRAIGIE (Kilmarnock, Blairgowrie). c. 1272, Cragyn. G. 
creagan, dimin. of creag ', crag, rock. 

CRAIGIEBARNS (Dunkeld). As its site shows, plainly G. 

creag-a-beirn, 'crag at the gap or pass ;' with the common 

Eng. plural. 
CRAIGIEBUCKLER (Aberdeen). The second part is sure to be 

corruption of some G. word. Difficult to say what. 

CRAIGIEVAR (Alford). G. creagach bharr, 'rocky point or 
head.' 

CRAIGLEITH (Edinburgh). ' Rock over the (Water of) Leith.' 

CRAIGLOCKHART (Edinburgh). 1528, Craglokhart. Peril, 
fr. a man ; but cf. Bar- and Drum-lockhart, Galloway, 
and Drumlougher, Ireland, fr. G. and Ir. luacTiair, 
rushes. 

CRAIGLUSCAR (Dunfermline). Perh. 'rock of the sudden 
noise ; ' G. lasgar. Also cf. Ir. lusca, a cave, and loisgrean 
(fr. loisg, to burn), ' corn burnt in the ear,' as in Knock- 
aluskraun, Clare, &c. 

CRAIGMILLAR (Edinburgh). Sic 1212. Old form Craig- 
moilard is said to occur, if so = G. maol drdj ' rock of 
the bare height.' 

CRAIGMORE (Rothesay and Aberfoyle). G. creag mbr, ' big 
rock.' 

CRAIGNEUK (Motherwell and Kirkcudbright). Eng. corrup- 
tion of G. creag an eag, ' crag of the nook.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 75 

CRAIGNISH (Lochgilphead). 1434, Cragginche ; 1609, Cregi- 
nis. ' Rock of the meadow ; ' G. and Ir. innis. 

CKAIGO (Montrose). Prob. G. creag-abh, 'rock by the 
water.' Of. Toe, old form of Tay = tabli. 

CRAIGROTHIE (Cupar). Either ' red rock,' G. ruadh, or, more 
likely, ' rock of the fort,' G. rath. Cf. ROTHIEMAY, &c. 

CRAIGROWNIE (Dumbarton). Prob. ' rock of the little head- 
land ; ' G. rudhan, dimin. of rudha (cf. Row). Might 
be fr. Dan. ron, ronne-trce, Sw. ronn, the rowan or 
mountain-ash. ^ , ^ ^ 

CRAIGROYSTON (Ben Lomond). ' Rock of Roy's place,'/jrj; * 
Rob Roy. Cf. Royston, Twynholm. ? JT - 

CRAIGS, The (Bonar Bridge, &c.). p' ( J 

CRAIGVAD (Aberfoyle). G. creag mhadaidh, * rock of the wolf ; 
or wild dog.' Oil 

CRAIL (Fife), c. 1160, Carele ; a. 1300, Carail ; 1639, Car- 
rail. G. carr aille '= ' rock cliff.' For omission of the 
first a, cf. C RAMON D. The ' Carr Rocks ' are just east 
of Crail. 

CRAILTNG (Roxburgh), c. 1147, Creling, Craaling; 1606, 
Craling. Doubtful, cf. CRAIL. No proof that it is = 
traver-ling, fr. G. treamhar, a bare hillside, as in 
TRANENT, but possibly so. 

CRAMOND (Edinburgh). 1 1 78, Caramonth ; 1292, Cramunde ; 
1 293, Karamunde. W. caerAmontk, ' fort on R. ALMOND.' 
For dropping of the first a, cf. CRAIL ; d and t are often 
suffixed, as in DRUMMOND, &c. Cf., too, Cramonery, 
Minigaff, and Cramalt Craig = 'bowed or bent cliff' (G. 
allt), which it exactly is, in Tweeddale. 

CRANSHAWS (Duns) and CRANSTOUN (Midlothian). 1250, 
Craneschawes ; c. 1 160, Craneston. O.E. cran, * a crane ;' 
on Shaw, cf. Cobbinshaw. But Ir. crann, a tree, is 
common in Ir. names, Crancam, Cranlome, &c. 

CRASK, The (Sutherland). G. crosg, a cross, crossing, pass. 

Cf. ARNGASK. 
CRATHES (Kincardinesh.). a. 1600, Crathas. Prob. G. croit, 

Ir. cruit, humpback, with English plural ; cf. next. 

CRATHIE (Braemar). Perh. = CRATHES, or fr. G. creathach, 



76 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

' brushwood.' Cratlie, Ireland, is Ir. cruit stiabh, ( crook- 
backed hill.' 

CRAVIE (Banff). G. craobhach, ' woody,' fr. craobh, a tree. 
Of. Corncravie, Stoneykirk, Wigtown, and Corriecravie, 
Arran. 

CRAWFORD (Lanark). * John of Crauford ' was witness to a 
Lesmahagow charter, c. 1150. Craw- may be O.E. 
crdwe, a crow ; or possibly G. craob/i (pron. crav), a tree ; 
a similar combination is found in GLASSFORD. 

CRAWFORDJOHN (Lanark). See above, c. 1300, Craw- 
fordeione ; 1492, Crawfurde Johne. The John (G. Ian) 
was stepson of Baldwin, Sheriff of Lanark. This place- 
name is almost unique. 

CRAWICK (Sanquhar). Perh. = CRAVIE. 

CRAY (Blairgowrie). This, too, may be fr. G. craobh, a tree. 

CREAGORRY (Lochmaddy). Perh. G. creaga garradh, l garth 
or garden with the cluster of houses.' 

CREE, R. (Kirkcudbright), and CREETOWN. 1363, Creth. G. 
cricJi, ' boundary ' between E. and W. Galloway. 

CREICH (N. Fife and Bonar Bridge). Fife C., 1250, Creyh. 
Bonar C., c. 1240, Crech ; 1 275, Creych. = CREE ; and 
cf. Coil-a-creich, Ballater. The name Creagh is common 
in Ireland. 

CRERAN, R. and L. (Argyle). G. crearadh abliainn (or an), 
'bending of the river,' fr. wear oicriathar, a hoop, sieve. 

CREWE (Granton). * Crew ' is common in Ireland, = Ir. 
craebhj G. 'craobh, 'a large tree.' Cf. BUNCHREW. 

CRIANLARICH (N. of L. Lomond). Seems to be G. creachan 
laraich, ' mountain path or pass,' though some say crian 
means 'calves.' 

CRICHTON (Midlothian). 1250, Krektun; 1337, Krethtown; 
1367, Creigchton (the Sc. pron. still sounds the cli as a 
gutural). 'Border or boundary town ;' G. crich. Cf. 
CREE and CREICH. 

CRIEFF. (A Pet-na-crefe is found in Strath Guay in 1457.) 
G. crubha, haunch, shoulder of a hill. Cf. Dumcrieff, 
Moffat. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 77 

CEIFFEL (mountain, Kirkcudbright). 1330, Crefel. G. 

crich, boundary, cf. CREE, + Icel. fell, hill, Dan. fjdld, 

fjeld, a mountain, rock. 
CRIMOND (Buchan). a. 1300, Crechmond; c. 1550, Crich- 

mound. G. crich monadh, 'boundary hill.' Monadh 

in 1550 is Anglicised. 

CRINAN (Argyle). Perh. fr. Crinan or Cronan, warlike lay 
Abbot of Dunkeld in 10th century, whose sway may 
have reached here. See Skene, Celtic ScotL, i. 392, 
note. 

CROCKETFORD (Kirkcudbright). G. crocJiaid, 'hanging,' fr. 
croch, to hang. Cf. l Crockatshot ' (or ' hanging-place,' 
cf. Aldershot) in Kenfrew in 1452, and Craigcrocket, 
Carsphairn. 

ROE GLEN (Argyle). Ptolemy, c. 120 A.D., mentions tribe 
Croenes, who prob. extended from Loch Linnhe to 
Loch Carron. G. crd, a circle, sheep-cot, hovel; prob. 
referring to the encircling hills. 

CROFTHEAD (Bathgate). O.E. croft, a field. Prof. Yeitch 
says, in Sc. croft properly means 'enclosed, cropped 
land.' Cf. Croft-an-righ, or ' king's field,' Holyrood. 

CROICK (Bonar Bridge). G. cruach, a stack or ' stack-shaped 
hill.' 

CROMAR (Aberdeen). 'The circle or enclosure of Mar.' See 
CROE. 

CROMARTY. 1263, Crumbathyn; 1315, -bathy; c. 1400, 
-bawchty; 1398, Cromardy; c. 1565, -arte. Looks like 
G. crom athan, 'crooked little ford ' (but ? what ford). For 
intrusion of b, cf. CAMERON, old, Cambroun. Might be 
fr. Old G. baith, the sea, i.e., the Cromarty Frith, with 
its sharply crooked entrance. Some explain the later 
ending, -ardy or -arty, as aird-fach, ' height of the field.' 

CROMBIE (Fife). Prob. G. erom(b) achadh, ' crooked, curved 
field.' 

CROMDALE (Craigellachie). G. crom dail, ' crooked plain,' fr. 
the sweep of the Spey here. 

CROMLIX (Inverness). 

CRONJBERRY (Muirkirk). Prob. G. cronay, a circle, a fort, fr. 



78 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

G. cruinn, Ir. cruin, W. crwn, round, + O.K. byrig, 'a 
burgh' or fortified place. Thus the word is a tauto- 
logical hybrid like Barrhead. For -berry, cf. TURNBERRY 
in same region. 

CROOK (Biggar, Stirling, Kirkinner). Icel. krokr, Sw. krok, 
also G. crocan, ' a hook or crook.' 

CROOK OF DEVON (Kinross). The DEVON is a river. Cf. 
the G. CAMBUSDOON, &c. 

CROOKSTON (Paisley and Stow). Paisley C., c. 1160, 
Crocstoun; 1262, Cruikston. Place given by Robert 
de Croc to his daughter on marrying a Stewart, temp. 
Malcolm III. Stow C. perh. similar in origin. 

CROSBY (Ayr). ' Cross town.' Prob. Fr. cros, Fr. croix. On 
Dan. suffix -by, see p. Ixiii. Four in England. 

CROSS (Lewis and Orkney). Cross in G. is crois, Fr. croix, 
L. crux. 

CROSSAIG (Kintyre). As above, + K". dig, a bay. 

CROSSAPOOL (Mull). 1542, Crosopollie. Pool here=jpo/or 
bol N. for ' place ' (see on bolstafir, p. Ixiv). The r is 
transposed in Corsapool, Islay. 

CROSSBOST (Stornoway). Keally same as CROSSAPOOL. See 
bolstafir, p. Ixiv. 

CROSSFORD (Lanark and Dunfermline), CROSSGATES (Dun- 
fermline), CROSSBILL (Glasgow and Maybole), CROSS- 
HOUSE (Kilmarnock), CROSSLEE (Stow), CROSSKIRK 
(North Mavine), and CROSS KOADS (Cullen). Lanark 
C., 1498, Corsefoord (cf. Corsapool). Most of these 
names also occur in England, but not Crosskirk. 
Crosslee, in Ireland, means ' grey cross ; ' and that near 
Stow may be the same, fr. G. liath, grey, with th lost 
by quiescence. 

CROSSMICHAEL (Castle-Douglas). 

CROSSMYLOOF (Glasgow). The story runs, after the fatal 
battle of Langside, 1568, when Queen Mary wished to 
fly to Dumbarton, and was warned she could not cross 
the Clyde because of the enemy, she cried, 'By cross (i.e., 
crucifix) i' my loof (i.e., in my palm or hand) I will/ 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 79 

Cf., too, the gipsy slang phrase, ' Cross my loof, and see 
till your fortune/ 

CROSSRAGUEL ABBEY (Maybole). a. 1200, Cosragmol. 
Doubtful. 

CROWLIN (W. Ross-sh.). G. craoWi linne, 'pool with the 
trees ; ' or f r. cro, a circle. 

CROWNPOINT (now in Glasgow). Country-house built there 
by William Alexander, and called after the frontier fort 
onLake Champlain, just (1775) captured from the French. 

CROY (Kilsyth and Fort George, also one near Gartness, on 
map of 1745). Kilsyth C., sic 1369. Fort George C., 
sic 1473. Prob. G. crois, Ir. crock, L. crux, a cross. 
Of. Knocknacrohy = ' Crosshill ; ' three in Ireland. 

CRUACHAN, Ben (Argyle). G. dimin. of cruach, a stack, or 
stack-shaped hill. 

CRUACH LUSSA (Knapdale). G. 'hill of plants;' G. lus, lusa. 
Of. Ardlussa, Jura. 

CRUDEN (Aberdeen). a. 1300, Crowdan; also Crudane. 
Perh. G. craoWi-dun, ' tree hill ' (cf. BUNCHREW). Tradi- 
tion says = Croju Dane, l slaughter of the Dane,' fr. 
great battle here between Cnut and Malcolm III. All 
such stories are very dubious. 

CRUITHNEACHAN (Lochaber). 'Picts' places;' fr. G. Cruitlmiy, 
or people who painted the forms (crotha) of beasts, 
fishes, &c., over their bodies. Hence the name Picti or 
Picts; though Prof. Rhys now thinks Piet is a non- 
Aryan word. ' 

CUCHULLIN HILLS, properly CUILLINS (Skye). 1702, Quillins. 
First form is a ' guide-book ' name only forty years old. 
Coolin or Cuillin is = G. cu Gliulainn, 'hound of Gulami,' 
hero in Ossian, ' noble son of Semo.' Not likely to be 
fr. G. cuilionn, ' holly ; ' but cf. Collin Hill, Galloway. 

CUFF HILL (Beith). 1 G. cubliay, ' the cuckoo.' 

CUICH, R. (Kinross). G. cuach, drinking-cup, a ' quaich,' cf. 

DUNIQUAICH. 

CUIL (Ballachulish). G. ciiil, a corner, ' retired nook.' 



80 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

CULBEN (Banff), e. 1270, Coul-, Culbin. G. cul beinne, 
'back of the hill.' 

CULBOKIE (Dingwall). 1542, -oky. 'Back of the crook;' 
G. bocan, or 'bow,' G. bogha. 

CULCRIBPP (Crieff). 'At the back of the haunch.' See 
CRIEFF. 

CULDUTHIL (Inverness). ' At the back of the dark stream ; ' 
G. dhu thuil. 

CULLBN (Banff), a. 1300, Culan ; 1454, Colane. Perh. 
Celnius Fluvius of Ptolemy ; G. cul abliainn or an, ' at 
the back of the river.' 

CULLICUDDEN (Cromarty). 1227, Culicuden ; 1535, Culli- 
cuddin. Prob. G. cul na cliudainn, 'the back of the 
tub or large dish.' Near by was a ' Drumnecudyne ' or 
' Dromcudyn.' Of. DRUM. 

CULLIPOOL (Oban). G. cul na p(h)oll, 'the back of the 
pool.' 

CULLIVOE (Shetland). Sagas, Kollavag. Prob. fr. a man, 
' Colla's bay ;' Icel. vor, a little inlet, or O.N\ vagr, a bay. 

CULLODEN (Inverness). 'At the back of the little pool;' 
G. lodan. Of. CUMLODDEN. 

CULNAHA (Mgg). G. cul na h'cWt, ' at the back of the kiln ' 
or kiln-like hill. 

CULNAKNOCK (Uig). ' The back of the hill ; ' G. cnoc. 
CULRATN (Bonar Bridge). G. cul raoin, ' the back of the field 

or road.' But Culdrain, Galloway, is fr. G. draigliean, 

1 the blackthorns.' 

CULROSS (Alloa). c. 1110, Culenross; also Kyllenros. 'At 
the back of the promontory ; ' G. ros. 

CULSALMOND (Insch). Sic a. 1600. 'At the back of the 
Salmond,' which might mean ' dirty hill ; ' G. salach 
monadh (cf. CRIMOND). In Garioch, a. 1300, we find a 
' Culsamuelle.' 

CULTERCULLEN (Ellon). Curious combination, prob. recent. 
See COULTER and CULLEN. 

CULTS (Aberdeen, and two in Galloway). G. coillte, ' woods,' 
with Eng. plural. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 81 

CUMBERNAULD (Larbert). 1417, Cumyrnald ; pron. Cum- 
mernaud. G. comar riallt, ' meeting, confluence of the 
streams,' which is actually nearer Castlecary. Skene 
says her in cumber is same as in aber (see p. xxvii). On 
intrusion of b, cf. CAMERON in Ireland we have p as 
well as b, as in Donaghcumper, Kildare. But, rtota 
bene, Cumberland is from the Cymri or Kymry, i.e., 
' fellow-countrymen.' 

CUMBRAES (Frith of Clyde), c. 1270, Kumbrey; c. 1330, 
Cumbraye. Some say = ' Kymry's isle ' (N. ay or ey) 
(see above) others say = Kimmora or Kil Maura, cell 
or church of a female saint who early laboured there ; 
but where is the proof ? 

CUMINESTOWN (Turriff). Fr. Cutnaine or Cummene, an abbot> 
who died 669 ; best known for his Life of St Columla. 

CUMLODDEN (Inveraray and Galloway). G. cam lodan, 
' crooked little pool.' Cf. CULLODEN. 

CUMMERTREES (Dumfries). Prob. G. comar dreas, ' the con- 
fluence at the thorn or bramble' (cf. CUMBERNAULD). 
In Ir. we have both comar and cummer, as in Cum- 
meragh, Kerry ; Comeragh, Waterford. 

CUMNOCK (Old and New). 1297, Comnocke ; 1461, Cunnok ; 
1548, Canknok. G. cam cnoc, 'crooked or sloping hill.' 
Cf. Kenick Wood, Kirkcudbright. 

CUNNINGHAM (Ayr). Old Welsh bards, Canawon; c. 1150, 

Cunegan; Brev. Aberdon., (yoninghame. ?P1. of G. 

cuinneag, a milk-pail ; -ham is the alteration of some 

Saxon scribe. 
CURRIE (Edinburgh). Sic c. 1230. G. coire, 'a cauldron,' 

ravine. Cf. CORRIE, and Currie Rig, Carsphairn. 

CURROCHTRIE (Wigtown). Fr. G. currach, a marsh (cf. ' The 
Curragh,' Ireland, meaning 'undulating plain'); -try 
may be W. tre, land. 

CUSHNIE GLEN (Aberdeen), a. 1300, Cuscheny; also 
Cussenin. G. ch'oisinn, ' a corner,' or perh. cos (pron. 
cush) an achaidh, ' foot of the field.' 

CUTHILL (farm, West Calder). (A Cuthilgarth, c. 1500, in 
Sanday.) Prob. fr. W. cut, a hovel, shed, civt, round- 
ness ; hence a cot. Cf. Cutcloy, p. xix. 



82 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

CYDERHALL (Dornocli). c. 1160, Siwardhoch; 1640, Blaeu, 
Siddera. Interesting corruption fr. Earl ' Sigurd's How ' 
or Haugh (O.N. haugr, a grave-mound, cf. N. hoi, a 
hill) ; he was buried here in 1014. 

CYRUS, St (Montrose). After St Cyricus, Ciricius, or Cyr, of 
Tarsus. See EGLISGIRIG. 



D 

DAILLY (Maybole, and Urr, Kirkcudbright). G. dealghe, 
' thorns.' 

DAIRSIE (Cupar). 1250, Dervesyn; 1639, Dersey. First 
syll. prob. either Celtic der, dor, G. dobhar, 'water, 
river,' or G. doire, 'a grove, thicket,' as in DERRY; and 
second syll. perh. fr. b(h)as, pi. basan, 'a hollow,' lit. the 
palm of the hand. ' Grove ' or ' river in the hollows.' 

DALAROSSIE (Inverness). G. dail-a-rois, ' field on the point 
or promontory;' G. dail, older dal, W. dol, is not 
the same word as dale (O.E. dael, Icel. and Sw. dal, a 
valley, 'dell'). Unlike the Eng. and Norse ending 
-dale, the Celtic dal is always a prefix, and means a 
meadow or plain. 

DALAVICH (Lorn). 'Field, plain of the AVICH,' or G. dail 
amliaicli, 'field of the narrow neck.' 

DALBEATTIE (Kirkcudbright). 1599, Dalbatie. 'Field of the 
birch trees ; ' G. heath. 

DALCHREICHART (Glenmoriston). G. dail chreaich drd, ' high- 
up field of the foray ' or ' division of the spoil ' (creach). 

DALDERSE (Falkirk). 1745, -derce. G. dearsach, 'bright, 
gleaming, radiant,' so 'shining meadow.' 

DALE (Halkirk). c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Dal. Icel. N. and 
Sw. for 'dale, valley.' 

DALGARDIE (Perthsh.) = DALNACARDOCH. G and c in Celtic 
often interchange. 

DALGETY (Aberdour, Fife). 1178, Dalgathyn. ' Windy (G. 
gaothanach) meadow.' 

DALGUISE (Dunkeld). 'Field of firs;' G. guithseach. Cf. 

KlNGUSSIE. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 83 

DALHOUSIE (Dalkeith). 1461, Dalwosy; same as Dal- 

choisne, Rannoch, = G. dail-a-ch'oisinn, 'field in the 

corner or angle.' 
DALIBORG or -BURGH (Lochmaddy). ' Meadow of the borg 

or fort.' See BORGUE. 
DALJARROCH (Girvan). G. dail dharaich, 'field of oaks.' 

For dhj, cf. Barrjarg, 'red height,' fr. G. dearg. 

DALKEITH. 1140, Dalkied; c. 1145, -keth; and Dolchet. 
Perh. fr. Ce, one of seven sons of great Cruithne, father, 
according to the legend, of the Picts. But see on 
INCHKEITH, and cf. KEITH. 

DALLACHY (Fochabers, and Aberdeen, Fife). In Fife pron. 
Daichy. Prob. G. dalacli, gen. of dail, a field ; perh. 
fr. dealachd, a separating, a division, a space. 

DALLAS (Forres). ' Meadow of the waterfall ; ' G. eas. 

DALMAHOY (Edinburgh). 1295, -mehoy. G. dail ma ( = na) 
thuath (pron. hua), 'field to the north.' 

DALMALLY. Its old name was DYSART. Prob. f r. St Maluog. 

See KILMALLOW. 
DALMELLINGTON (Girvan). 1 Same as DALMALLY, + O.E. ton, 

tun, hamlet, village. 

DALMENY (Edinburgh). c. 1180, Dumanie; 1250, Dun- 
manyn. Of course du or dim is 'black,' and dun is a 
hill. Perh. the name is dhu moine, ' black moss ; ' but 
on -manyn, cf. CLACKMANNAN. 

DALMUIR (Dumbarton). Hybrid G. dail, a field, + O.E., 
Icel., and Dan. mor, a moor, morass, heath. 

DALNACARDOCH (S. Inverness-sh.). ' Plain of the smithy ; ' 
G. c(h)eardaich, fr. ceard, a smith. DALGARDIE is the 
same word. 

DALNAGLAR (Glenshee). Fr. G. gleadhar, a loud noise, 
clang of arms. 

DALNAMEIN (Dalnacardoch). Fr. G. mein, ' ore, a mine, a 

vein of metal.' 
DALNASPIDAL (N. Perthsh.). G. spideal, a 'spittal' or inn. 

Same word as ' hospital.' 

DALNAVAIRD (Forfar and Kincardine). 1338, 'Dalnavert,' 



84 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

near Aviemore. 'Rhymer's or bard's glen;' G. na 
bhaird, gen. of bard. 

DALQUHARRAN CASTLE (Dailly). Doubtful; perh. * field of 
drunkenness or lasciviousness or madness ;' G. m(h)earan. 
Qu is w, and we have mh = w in DALWHINNIE, &c. 

DALREOCH (Dumbarton). G. riabhach (pron. reoch or 
reeugh), 'grey, brindled.' 

DALRY (Edinburgh, Ayrshire, Castle Douglas, and Tyndram). 
' King's meadow ; ' G. righ (pron. ry or ree, as in Dal- 
ree, Tyndrum, and PORTREE). 

DALRYMPLE (Ayrshire). 1467, -rumpyll. G. dail rumpuill> 
'field of the tail' or ' rump.' Of. Buttock, near Polmont. 

DALSERF (Hamilton). Formerly ' Mecheyii ' or ' Machan > 
(for which cf. METHVEN and ECCLESMACHAN). From St 
Serf, 5th century, Prior of Lochleven. 

DALSETTER (Lerwick). ' Valley of the saetor,' N. for a 
summer, hill, or dairy farm. Ending -setter also occurs 
in Caithness. 

DALSWINTON (Dumfries). 1292, Dalsuyntone; also c. 1295, 
Bale-swyntoun, which is a tautology, G. baile being = 
O.E. ton, tun, a village. See SWINTON. 

DALTON (Ayr). Dal may be G. or Norse, prob. the former. 

DALWHINNIE (S. Inverness). G. dail mlmine, ' field of the 
thicket.' Cf. Dalmoney, Galloway. Mh usually is = v ,- 
but cf. Craigwhinnie, Galloway. 

DALZIBL (Motherwell). a. 1200, Dalyell, -iel ; 1352, Daleel. 
Now pron. Dalzell ; prob. G. dail ial, ' field of the sun- 
gleam.' 

DAMHEAD (Kinross). 

DAMPH, or DAIMH (L. Broom). G. damh, ' an ox.' 

DAMSEY (Kirkwall), c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Daminsey and 
Demisey; curious contraction for ' Adamnan's isle ' (N. 
ay, ey), see p. xcv. 

DARNAGIE (New Luce). G. dobhar (pron. dor or dar) na 
gaoithe, ' water or stream of the winds.' With dar, 
dor, cf. W. dwr, river. 

DARNAWAY (Forres). 1453, Tarnewa; 1498, Darnway. G. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 85 

doWiar na bheath (pron. vay), 'birch-water.' Of. above, 
and ALLOWAY. 

DARNCONNER (Ayr). 'Connor's Water' (see above). C. 
might be a man, but Connor in Antrim opposite is the 
old Condeire, -daire, glossed in old Ir. MSS. doire na 
con, 'oak-wood of the wild dogs.' Cf. Gartconner, 
Kirkintilloch. 

DARNICK (Melrose). a. 1150, Dernewick. Prob. G. dobhar 
an ackaidh, ' stream in the field.' 

DARVEL (Galston). Prob. G. daire chuill, 'oak wood;' G. 
coill, a wood. Cf. Barluell, Galloway, barr leamli- 
chuill, or ' elm wood.' Here the ch is wholly lost 
through aspiration. 

DAUGHTIE MILL (Kirkcaldy). Pron. dawty ; ? G. dabhaich 
Ugh, ' farm-house.' See DAVA. 

DAVA (Grantown). More fully davoch, older dabach, a land 
measure = four ploughgates, fr. G. damh-ach, 'ox-field 
or ox-gang.' 

DAVARR ISLAND (Campbelton). G. and Ir. dd bharr, 'two 
heights.' Cf. Inishdavar, Ireland. 

DAVEN, L. (Ballater). Ptolemy's town of Devana is by some 
supposed to have stood near here. As it stands, it 
might be G. damli bheinn, 'ox mountain.' 

DAVIDSON'S MAINS (Edinburgh). On mains, see CLINT- 
MAINS. As early as 1761, and still called, curiously, 
' Muttonhole.' 

DAVIOT (Old Meldrum and Inverness). Old Meldrum, sic 
a. 1300 ; also Davyoth. Prob. Mod. G. dabhoch, a farm 
sufficient for so many cows (G. damh, an ox), in 
Hebrides usually 320. Cf. DAVA. 

DAWIC (Stobo). c. 1200, Dauwic. Prob. G. and Ir. damh, 
an ox, +O.E. wic, a dwelling or camp. Cf. Dawros, 
Donegal, and BOCHASTLE. 

DAWSTANE BURN and KIGG (Liddesdale). a. 720, Bede, 
Degsastan, ' Degsa's stone ' (O.E. stdn, Sc. stane), \vhere 
King Aidan was defeated in 603. 

DEAN (Edinburgh), c. 1145, Dene. O.E. denu, M.E. dene, 

M 



86 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

a valley or glen, generally deep and wooded, cognate 
with O.E. denn, a den, cave, lurking-place. 

DEANBURNHAUGH (Hawick). See HAUGH. 

DEANSTOUN (Doune). Place or 'house (O.E. tiln, Sc. toun} 
in the DEAN,' or glen. 

DEARG, Ben (Ross-sh.). G. deary, red. 
DEARN, K. (Carrbridge). 

DECHMONT (Cambuslang and Uphall). Tribe Decantae lived 
in the north of Scotland (c/. Deganwy, Llandudno) ; and 
the name Mac Decet is common on inscriptions in Devon, 
Anglesea, and Ireland. So prob. ' Decet's hill;'fG. 
monadli. Cf. CRIMOND. 

DEE, E. (Aberdeen [and Kirkcudbright). For early forms, 
cf. ABERDEEN, also Ptolemy's L. Deva. In G. Deabhadh 
(pron. devay), which is lit. 'draining,' it also implies 
hastiness. 

DEER, Old and New (Aberdeen). Bk. Deer, 10th century, 
Dear. G. deur, a tear, so called, says Bk. Deer, fr. 
the tears shed here at the parting of Columba with his 
friend Drostan, who founded the abbey here. 

DEERNESS (Kirkwall). Prob. not ' deer ness ' or cape ; IceL 
and Dan. dyr, a deer ; rather, fr. the door-like recess in 
the mural cliff here, dyr-ness or ' headland with the door/ 

DEGENISH (Argyle). Prob. the ness or nish of some Norse- 
man, 1 Dega. Cf. ARDALANISH. 

DELNY (Invergordon). Sic 1463 ; but 1398, Delgeny. G. 
dealganacli, 'full of little prickles or thorns;' G. dealy, 
a thorn or bodkin. 

DELTING (Shetland). K dal Iping, 'dell or valley of the 
thing or meeting.' Cf. TINGWALL. 

DEMYAT. See DUNMYAT. 

DENBURN and DENHEAD (St Andrews, andAuchmacoy,Ellon). 
Den is Sc. for DEAN, ' wooded glen.' 

DENHOLM (Hawick). See DEAN and BRANKS-HOLM. 

DENINO, or DUNINO (St Andrews). 1250, Duneynach; 1517, 
Dinnino. G. dun aonaicli, 'hill on the heath' or 
' waste.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 87 

DENNIS HEAD (Orkney) and DENNISTOUN (Glasgow). Dennis 
is a common Ir. name, prob. = St Denis or Dionysius, 
first bishop of Paris, beheaded c. 280. 

DENNY (Stirling). Old G. dinat, a wooded glen or DEAN 
(cf. DUNNET). There is a Denny Bottom near Tun- 
bridge Wells. 

DENNYLOANHEAD (Denny). Of. LOANHEAD, head of the loan 
or lane (O.E. lane). 

DERNACISSOCK (Kirkcowan). G. ilobhar na siosg, ' water with 
the sedges.' Cf. DARN AWAY. 

DERRY (burn, Crathie). G. and Ir. daire, doire, an oak or 
oak-wood. Two in England. 

DERVAIG (Tobermory). 1 G. darbh aig, ' worm or reptile 
bay ;' aig is ISTorse. 

DESKFORD (Cullen). a. 1600, Deskfurd. Prob. da uisge, 
1 two waters,' + O.E. ford, a ford. Cf. Desford and Des- 
borough, Leicester. 

DESKIE BURN (Elgin). As above. 

DEVANHA (Aberdeen). Ptolemy's Devana was at Nor- 
mandikes, 8 miles west of Aberdeen (cf. DAVEN). Last 
syllable looks like G. and Ir. b(h)eannach , hilly, as in 
Aghavannagh, Wicklow. But cf. next. 

DEVANNOC (L. Lomond). Sic 1776; 1804, Tavanach. 
Prob. G. Ugh mhanaich, 'house of the monk.' A 
hermit once dwelt here. 

DEVERON, R (Banff), a. 1300, Douerne. Must be the same 
word as Ptolemy's Ir. Dabrona ; G. dobharan, dimin. of 
dobhar, 'water, stream.' Cf. Devoran, Cornwall. 

DEVON, K. (Kinross), c. 1210, Glendovan. G. dubhabhainn 
or an, ' black, dark river.' The district seems to have 
been inhabited by the Mseatse, an outlier of the great 
tribe of the Damnonii, inhabiters and namers of the 
Eng. ' Devon,' in W. Dyvnaint. Ehys thinks the names 
identical in meaning and origin. 

DHU HEARTACH (rock off Colonsay). G. dim cheartaich, ' the 
black adjuster or corrector,' fr. ceart, right, just. A 
lighthouse now on the rock. Some say it means ' black 
rock to the wester.' 



88 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

DHUSKER, L. (Eribol). G. dhu sgeir, ' black rock ; ' cf. N. 
skjaer or sker, a rock or 'skerry.' 

DINGWALL. 1263, Dignewall; 1290, Dingewal; 1463, 
Dingvale. O.N". ftngavoll, 'meeting of the thing' or 
local assembly, = TINGWALD and TING WALL. 

DINNET (Aberdeen). Old G. dinat, a wooded glen. Cf. 
DENNY and DUNNET. 

DINWOODIE (Dumfries), c. 1500, Dunwedy ; 1578, Dum- 
widdie. Perh. G. dun Iheadaig, 'hill of the gossip or 
wanton.' 

DIPPIN (S. Arran). 1807, ' The Dipping Rocks,' 300 feet of 
perpendicular basalt. 

DIRLET (Caithness). Prob. dirl-det, ' stack-like rock with 
the hole in it.' There is a CLETT here ; and see next. 

DIRLETON (N. Berwick and Kirkinner). N". Berw. D., 1270, 
Dirlton; 1288, Driltone; looks like 'village by the 
drills' or planted rows (of potatoes, &c.). The Sc. dirl 
and the Eng. drill and thrill are all fr. same root as 
O.E. thyrl, a hole ; hence nosethril or nostril. 

DISTINKHORN HILL (Galston). Prob. fr. a man. Cf. Disting- 
ton, Whitehaven. Horn may well represent G. earn, 
cuirn, a heap of stones, a rock. 

DOCHART, L. andE. (Perthsh.). c. 1200, Glendochard; 1428, 
Dochirde. Prob. G. dabkack aird, 'height with the 
ploughed land.' See DAVA, and cf. Dawachnahard, 
Coigeach. 

DOCHFOUR (Inverness). ' Cold ploughed land;' G. fuar, cold. 

Cf. PITFOUR, Avoch. 
DOCHGARROCH (Inverness). ' Ploughed part of the rough 

field;' G. garbh acliadli. Cf. GARIOCH. 

DOCHLAGGIE (Strathspey). G. daWioch laggain, ' ploughed 
land in the little hollow ' (G. lag). 

DODD, common name of rounded hills in the south of Scot- 
land. Cf. Lowl. Sc. doddy, doddit, ' without horns,' or 
'bald.' Perh. cognate with 0. Icel. toddi, a portion. 
Cf. Dodridge, Eord. 

DOLLAR (Alloa) and DOLLAR LAW (Peebles). 1461, Doler; 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 89 

1639, Dolour. W. dol, G. dail dird, 'meadow below 

the height.' On law, see p. Ixxvi. 
DOLPHINTON. 1253, Dolfinston. Dolfine was brother of 

the first Earl of Dunbar, c. 1240. Of. Dolphinholme, 

Lancaster. 
DON, R. Sic c. 1170. G. donn, 'brown,' or domhain, 'deep,' 

mil mute. 
DONIBRISTLE (Aberdour, Fife), a. 1169, Donibrysell; 1178, 

Donybrisle. Prob. G. dunan brisg-gheal, 'clear, 

bright little hill.' Cf. ARDALANISH. 

DOON, R. and L. (Ayrsh.). c. 1300, Logh done. G., Ir., 
and O.E. dun, a hill, then a hill-fort. 

DORBACK (Grantown). G. dobhar or dor bathaich, ' stream 
of the cow-house.' On dobhar (which is Pictish), cf. 
DARNAGIE. 

DORES (L. Ness). The e is mute. G. dobhar or dor, water, 
with the common Eng. plural. 

DORLINN (between Morven and Oronsay, Davaar and Kin- 
tyre, CALF and Mull). G. doirlinn, a bit of land, or 
isthmus, which is temporarily submerged by the tide. 
Dornie (1617, Dorny) is thought to be a corruption of 
the same word. It is on Lochalsh. 

DORNOCH. 1199, Durnah; c. 1230, Durnach; 1456, Dor- 
v nouch. G. dobhar or dur an achaidh, 'water of the field.' 

DORNOCK (Annan). As above. 

DOUGLAS (Lanark, and two burns on L. Lomond). L. Lorn. 
D., in Nennius, Dubglas. Lan. D., c. 1150, Duuelglas, 
Duueglas, Duglas ; c. 1220, Dufgles. Old G. dhu or 
dubh glas, 'black, dark water;' the only meaning of 
glas in Mod. G. is 'grey, pale.' 

DOUGLASTOWN (Maybole and Forfar). Fr. the great Scotch 
family of that name. 

DOUNBY (Stromness). Sw. and O.E. dun, a hill, + by, town, 
village, see p. Ixiii. = HILTON. 

DOUNE (Callander) = DOON. 

DOUR, R. (Fife). Forms, see ABERDOUR. G. dobhar, dor, 
dur, W. din', water, river. 



90 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

DOVECRAIGS (Bo'ness). 'Black rocks;' G. dulh, 'black. 
Cf. the name Duff. 

DOWALLY (Pitlochry). G. dubli Ihaile, 'dark, black village.' 
Cf. BALLYGRANT, &c. 

DOWNFIELD (Dundee). Down, as in Ir. ' Down ; ' prob. = 
G. and Ir. dun, a hill, hill-fort. 

DOWNTES (Kincardine). Corruption of G. dunan, 'a little 
hill,' with the common Eng. plural. There was a 
thanage of ' Duny ' or Downie at Monikie ; and there 
is Port Downie, above Falkirk. 

DRAINE (Lossiemouth). G. and Ir. dralgheann, "W. dram, 
'(black) thorns.' Cf. Drain, Drains, Dreenan, &c., in 
Ireland. 

DRANIEMANNER (Minigaff). Prob. as above, +G. mainnir, 
a sheep-pen, booth, cattle-fold. 

DREGHORN (Irvine and Musselburgh). Prob. corruption of 
G. draiglieann. See DRAINE, and cf. CLEGHORN. 

DREM (Haddington). Sic. 1250. G. druim, the back; 
hence 'a hill-ridge.' Cf. Drimagh, Ireland. 

DRIMNIN (Morven). G. druinnein, dimin. of dronn, the 
back, a ridge. Cf. Drimna and Drimmin (Ir. druimin), 
Ireland. 

DRIP, The (Stirling, on the Forth), and DRIPPS (Renfrew). 
Renf. D., 1158, Le Drip. Prob. Sc. dreep, 'a jump or 
drop down,' same as drip, O.E. drypan, Icel. drjupa, to 
drip or drop. 

DROMA, L. (Ross-sh.). G. gen. of druim, the back, a hill- 
ridge. It stands where the great backbone of Scotland 
(Drum Alban) crosses the valley at the head of the 
R. Broom. Cf. Drom and Dromagh in Ireland. 

DROMORE (Kirkcudbright), or Drummore. ' Big hill-ridge ;' 
G. mor, big, and see above. Also in Ireland. 

DRON (Bridge of Earn). Sic c. 1190. G. dronn, the rump, 
back, a hill-ridge. 

DRONGAN (Coylton). G. dronn gaothanach (pron. ganach), 
' windy hill-ridge.' 

DRONLEY (Dundee). G. dronn, '+ Eng. ley or lee, a meadow. 
Cf. Dronfield, Sheffield. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 91 

DRUM (farm, Bonnybridge, &c.). G. druim = L. dorsum, 
the back ; hence a hill-ridge like a beast's back. Sir H. 
Maxwell names 198 Drums- in Galloway alone. It is 
seen in Ptolemy's (c. 120 A.D.) KoA^Sonos Spv/xos, which 
Skene thinks is translation of Caledonium Dorsum or 
Drum Alban, the great dividing mountain-ridge of 
Scotland. Drum and dum or dun, 'hill,' are con- 
stantly interchanging in Sc. names. 

DRUMBLADE (Huntly). a. 1500, -blate; perh. fr. G. bladh, 
smooth, or blath, a flower, bloom. 

DRUMCHAPEL (Dumbarton). Probably 'mare's back;' G. 
c(h)apuH, a mare. 

DRUMCLOG (Strathaven). Prob. fr. G. dog, a bell. Was 
there a chapel here 1 

DRUMELDRIE (Largo). Prob. fr. G. eildeir, 'the elder-tree.' 

DRUM(M)ELZIER (Biggar). Pron. -elyer ; c. 1 200, Dunmedler ; 
c. 1305, Dumelliare; 1326, Drummeiller; 1492, -mel- 
zare. Here G. druim and dun, ' hill-ridge ' and ' hill,' 
have been interchanged. The second part looks like 
O.Fr. medler or meslier, the medlar-tree, but this is very 
unlikely, especially as 'medler' (sic) is not found in 
Eng. till c. 1400 in Romaunt of the Rose. Perh. fr. a 
man, or fr. O.^N". melr, pi. melar, bent grass. 

DRUMFADA, Mountain (Banavie). 'Long (G. fada) hill- 
ridge.' 

DRUMGLOW HILL (Kincardine). ' Ridge of the cry or shout ; ' 
G. glaodli. Cf. DUNGLOW. 

DRUMLANRIG (Thornhill). 1663, -lanerk. As it stands looks 
like a tautology, for drum is = rig (see p. Ixi), and Ian 
= long (cf. Carlenrig, north of Langholm) ; but cf. 
LANARK. 

DRUMLEMBLE (Campbelton). 

DRUMLITHIE (Fordoun). ' Gray (G. liatli) hill-ridge.' 

DRUMMOND (S. Perthsh. and Whithorn). Perthsh. D.,1296, 
Droman; c. 1300, 'Gilbert de Drymmoiid.' G. dro- 
mainn, a ridge, fr. druim, the back. Several Drum- 
monds in Ulster ; also in Ireland, Drummin, &c. The 
d has not added itself in DRYMEN. 

DRUMMUCKLOCH (Kirkcudbright). ' Eidge of the piggery ; ' 



92 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

G. mudach, fr. muc, a pig. Of. Drimnamucklach, 
Argyle, and Gortnamucklagh, Ireland. 

DRUMNADROCHIT (Inverness). ' Hill-ridge by the bridge ; ' 
G. drochaid. Of. Drumdrochat, Minigaff, and KIN- 

DROCHIT. 

DRUMOAK (Aberdeen), c. 1250, Dumuech, also Dulmaok, 
and still (?) pron. Dalmaik. 'Field (G. dail) of St 
Mazote,' the Irish virgin, friend of St Bride or Bridge t, 
5th century. 

DRUMOCHTER (Dalnaspidal). ' Upper hill-ridge ; ' G. uach- 
darach, fr. uaclidar, the top. Of. the names in Auchter-. 

DRUMSHEUGH (Edinburgh). ' Hill-ridge with the trench or 
furrow ; ' G. sheuch. 

DRUMSMITTAL (Knockbain). ' Vapoury, misty (G. smuideil) 
hill-ridge.' 

DRUMTOCHTY CASTLE (Fordoun). ? c Obstructing, lit. choking, 
hill-ridge ; ' G. taclidacli, fr. tachd, to stop up. choke. 

DRUMVUICH (Perthsh.). * Hill-ridge of the buck ; ' G. Untie. 
DRYBRIDGE (Buckie). Possibly fr. G. draigh, a thorn. 

DRYBURGH (St Boswells). Sic c. 1200; c. 1160, Drieburh; 
c. 1211, Dryburg, Driborch, also -brugh; 1544, -brough. 
Quite possibly 'dry fort/ O.E. dry ye, drie, dry (see 
BROUGH); but commonly said to be fr. G. daracli bruach, 
'oak-bank.' Cf. BROUGHT Y. 

DRYFESDALE (Lockerbie). Now pron. Drysdale; 1116, 
Drivesdale. Prob. fr. O.E. drifan y Dan. drive, to drive. 

DRYMEN (S. of L. Lomond). Pron. Drimmen; 1238, 
Drumyn ; also Drummane. = DRUMMOND. 

DRYNACHAN HOUSE (Nairn). Charter, c. 1170, ' Trenechinen 
quod Latine sonat lignum recte extension;' 1497, 
Drynahine. G. draigneachan, substantive dimin. meaning 
' a thicket,' lit. 'abounding in thorns;' G. draiglmeaclt. 

DRYNIE (Dingwall). G. draigkneach, 'thorns.' There is 
also a Drynoch. 

DUBFORD (Banff). Prob. 'black (G. duWi) ford;' dub is 
also Sc. for a pool, puddle. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 93 

DUBTON (Montrose). Prob. corruption of G. dubh dun, l dark 

hill.' Of. EABLSTON, EDDERTON. 
DUDDINGSTON (Edinburgh). Charter, c. 1150, 'Dodinus de 

Dodinestun;' 1290, Dodingstone. Dodin must have 

been a Saxon settler. Six Doddingstons and one 

Duddingston in England. 

DUFFTOWN (Banff). Fr. the clan Duff; G. dubh, black. 
Cf. Dufton, Appleby. 

DUFFUS (Elgin). 1290, Dufhus; 1512, Duffous. 'Dove- 
house;' O.E. dufa, dufe, + O.E. and Icel. Tms. Prob. 
this is the Dufeyrar in Orkney. Sag., in which the 
latter part = O.I^. eyri, a spit of land. 

DUICH, L. (Glenelg). Fr. St Duthac, died at Armagh, c. 1062. 
Cf. Bailedhuich, G. name of Tain. 

DUIRINISH (Skye). (1501, Watternes;) 1567, Durynthas; 
1588, Durinysh. It is a peninsula, almost an island, 
so prob. G. dur (or dobliar) innis, 'water-island.' Cf. 
Craig Durnish, in 1613 -durinche, L. Etive. Prof. 
M'Kinnon thinks = DURNESS or ' deer-ness.' 

DULL (Aberfeldy). Sic 1380; c. 1230, Dul. G. dtilacli, 
'misty gloom.' A mountain called Doiliceme ('murky 
cave ') is mentioned in the Irish Life of St CutJibert as 
near by. In charter, c. 1170, re the Don Valley, we 

read, 'Rivulus Doeli quod sonat carbo ("coal") 

La tine propter ejus nigredinem.' 

DULLATUR (Falkirk). G. dim leitir, 'dark hill slope.' See 
BALLATER. 

DULNAN, R (Grantown). ?G. dail an tin or abliainn, 'field 
by the river.' 

DUMBARTON, a. 1300-1445, Dunbretane ; 1498, Dunber- 
tane; 1639, Dumbriton. G. dun Blireatuin, 'fort or 
hill of the (Strathclyde) Britons.' Its old name was 
Alcluith. Dum and dun are constantly found inter- 
changing in Sc. names ; so are dun and drum. 

DUMBUCK (Dumbarton). G. dun lute, ' hill of the buck or 
he-goat' (boc). 

DUMCRTEFF (Moffat). ' Hill with the haunch or shoulder.' 
See CRTEFF. 



94 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

DUMFRIES. 1288, D(o)unfres; 1395, Drumfreiss, formerly 
called Caerf eres. Skene thinks both these = ' fort of 
the Frisians,' here a. 400. Others say fr. G. phreas, 
copse, shrubs, = Shrewsbury. Cf. the Sc. surname 
Monf ries, 1 = G. monadh phreas. 

DUMGREE (Kirkpatrick-Juxta). G. dun greighe, ' hill of the 
herd ' (of deer, &c.). 

DUN (Montrose). Sic 1250. G. and Ir. dun, a hill, then a 
hill-fort, W. din, cognate with O.E. tiin, enclosure, village, 
and L. ending -dunum, so common in Csesar, Lugdunum, 
Camalodunum, &c. 

DUN ALASTAIR (Pitlochry). G. ' Alexander's hill.' 

DUNAN (Broadford). G. ' a little hill.' 

DUNASKIN (Ayr). Prob. 'hill of the water;' G. uisgean. 

DUNBAR (Haddington and Kirkbean). Hadd. D., c. 720, 
Eddi, Dyunbaer; a. 1200, Dunbarre. 'Fort on the 
height;' G. barr. Possibly connected with St Bar or 
Fin bar, Bishop of Cork, to whom Dornoch Church is 
dedicated. 

DUNBARNEY (Bridge of Earn), a. 1 1 50, Drumbernin. ' Hill 
with the gap ;' G. bearna. Cf. DUMBARTON. 

DUNBEATH (Caithness). Sic 1450; Ulst. Ann., re ann. 680, 
Duinbaitte. ' Hill of the birches ; ' G. beath. 

DUNBLANE. Old chron. Dubblain; c. 1272, Dumblin. 
'Hill of Blane,' son of King Aidan, who founded a 
church here in the 6th century. 

DUNBOG, or DINBUG (Cupar). c. 1190, Dunbulcc; 1250, 
-bulg. ' Massive, bellying hill,' fr. G. ~bulg, the belly. 
Cf. Drumbulg, Tarland. 

DUNCANSBAY (Caithness), c. 1225, Orkney. Sag.,T)\mgQ\sba& f , 
c. 1700, Dungasby; present spelling only later than 
1700. ' Donald's house or village.' Donnghol is the 
Old G. form of Donald, now Dbnull; and in Orkney. 
Sag. we read of a 10th-century Celtic chief Dungad or 
Dungal, who prob. gave his name to this place. For 
-bay = Dan. by orbi, 'village,' cf. CANISBAY. 

DUNCANSBURGH (Fort William). A modern name. 

DUNCANSTONE (Inscll). 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 95 

DUNCOW (Dumfries). Prob. 'hill of the gow or smith;' 
G. goblia. 

DUNCRUB, or DRUMCRUB (Strathearn) ; in Pict. Chron., ann. 
965, 'Dorsum Crup.' 'Hill with the haunch or 
shoulder;' G. crublia. = DUMCRIEFF, only here the & 
is hard. 

DUNDEE. 1199, Dunde; 1367,, Dundee. No reason to 
dispute the common derivation, G. dun De (gen. of 
Dia\ ' hill of God ; ' ? = ' Gadshill.' 

DUNDONALD (Ayrsh., sic 1461) and DUNDONNELL (Ulla- 
pool); cf. ''Dundouenald,' 1183, in Forfar. 'Hill of 
Donald ; ' G. Dbnull or Domhnull. There is a Dun- 
donald in County Down. 

DUNDRENNAN (Kirkcudbright). 1290, -draynane; 1461, 
-dranan. 'Hill of the thorn-bushes;' G. draiglmeanan. 
Cf. DRYNACHAN ; also Dreenan and Aghadreenan, Ire- 
land. 

DUNECHT (Aberdeen). See ECHT. 

DUNFALLANDY (Logierait). Latter part unknown; ? some 
man. 

DUNFERMLINE. Sic 1251, but c. 1145, -fermelin; 1160, 
-fermling. No explanation very satisfactory ; for if it 
be 'hill of the crooked pool,' the G.fiar linne could with 
difficulty become fermling ; and if it be 'Farlan's Hill,' 
as Dr M'Lauchlan says, the first form Avhich favours 
that is in Barbour's Bruce, c. 1375, ' Dunferlyne.' This 
Farlan (now seen in the surnames M'Farlane and Par- 
lane), according to legend, was, with Nemed, first 
coloniser of Ireland. Prob. a pre-Celtic name, Khys 
thinks. The m is best accounted for by deriving fr. 
that Melyn, whose name is supposed also to enter into 
STIRLING ; so the name would mean ' crooked hill of 
Melyn.' 

DUNFION (hill, L. Lomond). ' Finn ' or ' Fingal's hill ; ' he 
is said to have hunted here. 

DUNGLASS (Firth of Clyde). ' Grey, wan (G. glas) hill.' 

DUNGLOW (Kinross). ' Hill ' or ' fort of the shout or cry ; ' 

G. ylaodh. 
DUNIPACE (Denny). Sic 1195; 1293, Dunypas. Skene 



96 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

says fr. bass, a mound (see BASS), the two mounds here 
being supposed to mark the site of that battle of King 
Arthur, which Nennius calls Bassas. The local ex- 
planation is G. dun na bais, ' hill of death.' 

DUNIQUOICH HILL (Inveraray). 'Hill like a drinking-cup ; ' 
G. and Ir. cuach, ' a quaich ; ' cj. R. Quaich, south of 
Kenmore. 

DUNIRA (St Fillan's). ' Hill of the west water ; ' G. iar abh. 

DUNJUMPIN (Colvend, Kirkcudbright). ' Fort of the hillock ; ' 
G. tiompain, ti being = ch in G. Tiompan also means 
cymbals ; perh. with reference to some religious rites. 

DUNKELD. Sic a. 1150; but Ulst. Ann,, ann. 865, Duin- 
caillen ; Pict. Chron., Duncalden ; Wyntoun, c. 1 420, 
Dwnkaldyne. ' Hill with the woods.' Caillen or 
chaillein is gen. pi. of G. coille, a wood. Same root as 
Caledonii. 

DUNKIRK (Kells, Kirkcudbright). Prob. 'hill of the 
grouse;' G. cearc, gen. circe. 

DUNLOP (Ayrsh.). (Of. 1250, 'Dunlopin,' Forfar.) Prob. 
'hill of the bend, angle, or little glen;' G. lub. Cf. 
Crup for crubha, s.v. DUNCRUB. 

DUNMORE (Falkirk). * Big hill ; ' G. mbr, big. 

DUNMYAT (Ochils), or Dum-, or Demyat ; fr. tribe Mceatai 
or Miati (sic in Adamnan) = Verturiones, outliers of 
the Damnonii. Of. DEVON Valley near by. Miati is 
prob. fr. W. meiddio, to dare ; so Prof. Rhys. 

DUNNAIST (W. Ross-sh.). G. dun-an-(f1i)aste, ' hill of the 
fort.' 

DUNNET (Caithness). c. 1230, Donotf ; 1275, Dunost; 
1455, Dunneth. Doubtful ; early forms make it unlikely 
to be = DINNET. 

DUNNICHEN (Forfar). ' Fort of Nechtan,' King of the Picts, 

died 481. 
DUNNIKIER (Kirkcaldy). G. dunan czar, ' dusky, dark brown 

little hill.' 
DUNNING (Perthsh.). 1200, Dunine, later Dunyn. G. 

dunan, ' little hill ' or ' fort.' 

DUN(N)OTTAR (Stonehaven). Ulst. Ami., ann. 681, Duin 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 97 

f either; 1461, Dunotir. 'Fort on the reef or low 
promontory;' G. oitir. Mod. G. has lost the / by 
aspiration. 

DUNOLLY CASTLE (Oban). Ulst. Ann., aim. 685, Duin 
Ollaigh; Tighemac, ann. 714, Dunollaig; 1322, Dun- 
ollach. Prob. fr. some man. 

DUNOON. Sic 1472: but c. 1240, Dunnon; 1270, Dun- 
hoven ; c. 1300, Dunhon ; 1476, Dunnovane. ' Hill by 
the water ; ' G. abhamn, in S. Argyle, pron. o'aii. Of. 
AVON and PORTNAHAVEN. Possibly fr. h'amhuinn 
(pron. havun), an oven. Dunoon and Dunowen are 
names common in Ireland. 

DUNPHAIL (Forres). Perh. ' hill of the horse ; ' G. p(h)eall. 
Cf. Drumpail, Old Luce. Fail in G. means a ring, 
a wreath, a sty. 

DUNRAGIT (Glenluce). ? 'Hill of the noise or disturbance;' 
G. racaid, Eng. ' racket.' 

DUNROBIN CASTLE (Golspie). 1401, robyn; 1512, Drum- 
rabyn ; also Drum Raffn. In 1222 Kaffn was Logmadr, 
'law-man,' or crown representative here. Name prob. 
remodelled in compliment to Robin or Robert, Earl of 
Sutherland, c. 1400. On interchange of drum and 
dun, cf. DRUMELZIER, DUMFRIES. 

DUNROD (Kirkcudbright). Sic 1360. Prob. 'hill by the 
road ; ' G. rathaid, pron. raad ; more likely than fr. 
ruadh, red. 

DUNROSSNESS (Shetland). Sagas, Dynrostarnes, 'ness, 
'promontory of the hill by the rust, 1 N. for whirlpool, 
i.e., SUMBURGH ROOST. 

DUNS (Berwick). Prob. G. dun, hill or fort, with the com- 
mon Eng. plural. No proof of the tradition that it is 
contracted fr. Dunstan. 

DUNSCAITH CASTLE (Sleat). 1505, Dunskahay. ? G. dun 
sgatha, ' hill of the consuming, destruction.' Cf. ' Dun- 
schath' or 'Dunscacht,' 1461, in Ross. 

DUNSCORE (Dumfries), a. 1300, Dunescor. 'Hill with the 
sharp rock ; ' G. sgor. 



98 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

DUNSHELT or -ALT (Auchtermuchty). Prob. 'hill of the 
hunt;' G. sealg. 

DUNSINANE (Dunkeld). c. 970, Pict. Chron., Dunsinoen 
(and prob. the Arsendoim or -in, Tigliernac, ann. 596). 
Prob. 'hill with the breasts or dugs;' G. siiteachan, 
fr. sine, a breast. 

DUNSTAFFNAGE CASTLE (Oban). 1322, Ardstof niche. 
Hybrid ; prob. ' hill of the inch (G. innis, island or 
peninsula), with staff-like markings;' Icel. stafr, Dan. 
stav. Of. STAFFA. 

DUNSYRE (Dolphinton). 1180, -syer; a. 1300, -sier. 'East 
(G. siar) hill.' Of. Balsier (old, Balsyir) and Balshere, 
Galloway. 

DUNTOCHAR (Dumbarton). 1265, Drum toucher (cf. DUM- 
FRIES, &c.). 'Fort of the causeway ;' Ir. tocliar (not in 
Mod. G.). Cf. Cantoghar, Ireland. 

DUNTULM (Uig). 1498, -tullen. 'Fort on the hillock ;' G. 
tolm, gen. tuilm. 

DUNVALANREE (Benderloch). G. dun-a-bhaile-na-righ, 'hill 
of the king's house ' or ' village.' 

DUNVEGAN (Skye). 1498,.-begane; 1517, -veggane; 1553, 
Dunne vegane. 1 'Fort of the few, small number;' G. 
b(h)eagain. 

DUPPLIN CASTLE (Perth). Pict. Chron., Duplyn. 'Black 
pool ' = Dublin ; G. dubh, black ; lynn is W. rather than 
G., which has linne. On p for 6, cf. Dor sum Or up for 
DUNCRUB. 

DURA DEN (Cupar). G. doWtaracli (duracli), watery; fr, 
dobhar, water, cf. DOUR, DURIE ; + DEAN. 

DURHAM (Kirkpatrick-Durham, and name of hill there). 
O.E. deor ham, 'wild beasts' home or lair;' cf. Icel. 
dyr, Sw. diur, a wild beast ; same as Eng. deer. 

DURIE (Fife). G. dohharach or durach, watery. Cf. DURA 
DEN, and Dourie, Mochrum, also Doory and Dooragh, 
Ireland. 

DURNESS (W. Sutherland), c. 1230, Dyrnes. 'Deer ness;' 
Icel. dyr, Dan. dyr, a beast, deer. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 99 

DUROR (Glencoe). (1343, Durdoman, i.e., 'deep water;') 
1501, Durroure. G. dobhar or dur oir, ' water's edge.' 

DURRIS (Banchory). Prob. G. doras, dorus, a door, entrance. 
Cf. Durrus, south of Ireland. 

DUR(R)ISDEER (Thornhill). 1328, Durrysder. G. dorus 
doire, ' entrance of the grove or forest.' There was an 
ancient forest here. Cf. Deerhass, near by. 

DUTCHMAN'S CAP, The (isle off W. of Mull). 

DUTHIL (Carrbridge). G. dhu thuil, l black stream ' or ' flood.' 

DYCE (Aberdeensh.). ? G. deas, south, or dias, an ear of 
corn. 

DYE, K. (Kincardine). 

DYESTER'S BRAE and EIG (Galloway), -ster is the old female 
suffix ; cf. spinster, webster, or female weaver, now only 
a proper name, &c. 

DYKE (Forres). Sic 1311. O.E. die, bank of earth cast up 
fr. a ditch, which is the same word. Wherever dyke or 
dykes enters into a name, as in Battledykes, Forfar, 
Cleaven Dyke on Isla, and Kaedykes on Ythan, it 
usually means the site of an ancient camp. 

DYKEBAR (Paisley). Barre, a barrier, is found in Eng. as 
early as c. 1220. 

DYSART (Fife and Montrose). Fife D., 1250, Dishard; 
c. 1530, G. Buchanan, Deserta. G. diseart fr. L. deser- 
tum, desert place, then a hermit's cell or house for 
receiving pilgrims. Dysart (sic 1446) or Clachandysert 
was the old name of the parish of Glenorchy ; others, too, 
in Scotland. Desert, Disert, &c., common in Ireland. 



E 

EAGER-, EGGER-NESS (Wigtown). 'Eagre ness,' i.e., 'cape of 
the tidal wave ' or bore (of the Solway) ; O.E. edyor, 
egor, Icel. cegir, the sea. 

EAGLESFIELD (Ecclefechan). Also one near Cockermouth. 
EAGLESHAM (Paisley). 1158, Egilsham ; 1309, Eglishame. 
Not fr. the eagle, which is Fr. aigle, but W. eglwys, G. 



100 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

eaglais, fr. L. (and Gk.) ecdesia, a church, + O.E. ham, 
home, place, village. Only -ham in this quarter, and 
even this is a hybrid. 

EARLSFERRY (Elie). a. 1300, Erlesferie. O.E. eorl, an earl ; 
said to be after Macduff, thane of Fife, but he is a 
* mythic character ; (Skene). 

EARLSTON (Berwicksh.). c. 1144, Ercheldon; c. 1180, 
Ercildune ; a. 1320, Essedoune; 1370, Hersildoune; 
fine example of popular corruption and 'etymology.' 
Prob. G. aird clioil, ' height of the wood,' cf. ARD- 
CHALZIE ; to which prob. the Angle immigrants added 
O.E. dtin, a hill 

EARN, E. Propliy. St Berclian, a. 1100, Eirenn; very old 
M.S., Sraith hirend, i.e., Strathearn. Pron. eran, which 
looks like G. ear an or abliainn, ' east (flowing) 
river.' But Dr Skene says fr. Eire, Irish queen, men- 
tioned in the Ir. JSTennius, who, tradition says, was fr. 
Scotland. Eire or Erin, accusative $rinn, was also an 
old name of Ireland, = Gk. 'le/oi/r/ and Juvenal's luuerna, 
corrupted into Hibernia ; so Rhys. He thinks it pre- 
Celtic, and does not accept Windisch's meaning, ' fat, 
fertile land ; ' cf. Sanskrit pivan, fern, pivari; Gk. TriW. 
Eren was the old name of the K. Findhorn. Of. BANFF. 

EARNOCK (Hamilton). Prob. G. earr an achaidh, ' end, 
boundary of the field.' Of. DORNOCK. 

EASDALE (Oban). G. eas, waterfall, + N. dal, dale, valley; 
see p. xlvi. 

EASSIE (Meigle). 1250, Essy. G. easach, 'abounding in 

waterfalls;' G. eas. Cf. ESSY. 
EASTHAVEN (Arbroath). 
EAST NEUK o' FIFE. Sc. neulc is G. and Ir. niuc, a 'nook ' 

or corner. 

EASTWOOD (Glasgow). Also in Notts. 
EATHIE (Cromarty). Prob. =ETHIE, c. 1212, Athyn, i.e., G. 

athan, a little ford. 
ECCLEFECHAN (Dumfriessh.). L. Ecdesia Fechani, 'church 

of St Fechan'(G. fiachan, 'little raven,' dimin. of 

fitheach}, Abbot of Fother, West Meath, time of Ken- 

tigern. Cf. ST VIGEAN'S. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 101 

ECCLES (Coldstream and Penpont). Colds. K, 1297, Hecles = 
' church ' (see EAGLESHAM). St Mary's Cistercian 
nunnery, founded here 1155. In 1195 St Ninian's, 
Stirling, is called the church of Egglis. Three in Eng- 
land. See, too, p. xcviii. 

ECCLESIAMAGIRDLE (S.E. Perthsh.). ' Church of St Griselda ' 
or Grizel, ma being the Celtic endearing prefix, 'my 
own.' The parishes of Flisk and Lindores are dedi- 
cated to a St Macgidrin, but this is prob. a Bishop of 
St Andrews, called Mac Gilla Odran. 

ECCLBSMACHAN (Uphall). 1250, Eglismanin; 1296, Eggles- 
mauhy, ' church of 1 Manclianj* Irish saint, 7th century. 
See EAGLESHAM, and cf. CLACKMANNAN. 

ECIIT (Aberdeen). Sic a. 1300. ?G. each, a horse, or pos- 
sibly eaclid, an exploit. Duneight, Lisburn, is the old 
Dun EacUdach, ' Eochy's hill or fort.' Cf. DUNECHT. 

ECK, L. (Dunoon). Prob. same as OICH, fr. Old Celtic 
root for 'water.' Cf. Axe, Esk, Usk, and G. uisge, 
also Ecton, Northampton. 

ECKFORD (Jedburgh). c. 1200, Eckeforde; 1220, Hecford. 
See above. 

EDAY (Kirkwall). Sagas, Eidey; c. 1260, Eidoe. ?'Eddy 
isle ' ( N. ay, ey), fr. Icel. itha, an eddy or whirlpool. 
The earliest known form of the Eng. word ' eddy ' is 
in Houlate, a. 1455, 'aneydy.' Or fr. Icel. ceft-r, Dan. 
eder, the eider-duck. 

EDDERTON (Tain). 1461, Edirtonne; 1532, Eddirtane; c. 
1565, -thane. Early corruption, perh. influenced by 
nearness to Tain, fr. G. eadar dun, 'between the hills.' 
Cf. EARLSTON. 

EDDLESTON (Peebles), c. 1200, Edoluestone; 1296, Edal- 
stone; c. 1305, Edwylstone. 'Edulfs place;' a, 1189 
lands here granted to a Saxon settler, Edulf or Edulphus. 
The Celtic name had been Penjacob. 

EDDRACHILIS (W. Sutherland). Pron. -heelis ; 1509, Eddira- 
quhelis. G. eadar-a-cliaoilas, 'between the straits;' G. 
caol, a KYLE or narrow sound; cf. Eddergoll ('between 
the fork,' G. goWiaT), Breadalbane. 

N 



102 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

EDEN, E. (Fife and Koxburgh). Perh. c. 120, Ptolemy, Tinna. 
Prob. W. eiddyn or G. eadann, 'face, slope of a hill.' 

EDENSHEAD (Kinross). 

EDGERSTONE ( Jedburgh). =1455, 'Eggerhope Castell;' only 
perh. = 'Edgar's town.' 

EDINBANE (Portree). G. eadann ban, ' white slope or face of 
the hill/ 

EDINBURGH, a. 700, Nennius, 'The Mount Agned' = Welsh 
bards' Mynyd Agned (1 who was A.) ; but in c. 970, Pict. 
Chron., 'Oppidum Eden,' plainly -- Dunedin (oppidum 
is always the translation of dun in the L. chronicles), W. 
din eiddifn, or G. dun eadain, 'fort on the hill slope ' (that 
fr. the Castle Eock down to Holyrood). This exactly 
suits the case, bunjli being the Eng. for dun; and with this 
agrees the Orkney. Sag. spelling c. 1225, Eidiniaborg. 
This makes connection with St Edana or Medana, the 
Cornish Modwenna, very doubtful, though the form 
Medanburgh or Maidenburgh does occur, and we find 
David I. (1140-50) signing charters ' apud Castellmn 
puellarum,' or the 'Castle of the Maidens.' But, without 
doubt, the name of King Edwin of Northumbria (616- 
33) did influence the later spellings, indeed influenced the 
oldest spellings we have, viz., Holyrood Charter, c. 1128, 
' Ecclesia Sancti Crucis EdwinesbuYgensis,' and Simeon 
Durham (died 1130), Edwinesburch. But in later 
charters of David L, a. 1147, we find Edeneburg, 
Edensburg. On burgh, cf. BORGUE. 

EDINGIGHT (Banff"). G. eadan gaoith, ' hillside exposed to 
the wind.' 

EDINKILLY (Dunphail). G. eadan choille, 'face or front 
of the wood.' 

EDNAM (Kelso). c. 1100, Aednaham; 1116, Edyngahum ; 

1285, Edinham ; 1316, Ednam. ' Home or village (O.E. 

lidm) on the Eiver EDEN.' Cf. Edenham, Bourne, and 

EDROM. 
EDRADYNATE (Logierait). G. eadar dinait, 'between the 

woods or woody glens.' Cf. EDDRACHILIS and DINNET. 

EDROM (Berwicksh.). O.E. Edr-liam, 'home' or 'village 
on the E. ADDER. Cf. EDNAM. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 103 

EDZELL (Brechin). a. 1204, Edale; c. 1230, Addele. ?G. 

eadha, an aspentree, + N. dal, dale. 

EGILSHAY (Orkney). Orlmey. Sag., Egilsey ; 1529, Jo. Ben, 
' Egilschay quasi ecclesia? insularum.' If fr. G. eaglaia 
(L. ecclesia), a church, the name is a very exceptional 
one for Orkney. Perh. fr. some man, 'Egil's isle.' 

EGLINTON (Ayr). 1205, Eglingstoun, Eglintoune. Fr. 
some Saxon settler. Cf. Eglingham, Alnwick ; Eglin 
Lane, Minigaff; and Eglin Hole, Yorks. 

EGLISGIR(I)G (Kincardine). 'Church (G. eaglais) of Girig,' 
Grig, 9th-century Scottish king, dedicated by him to St 
Ciricius, and now ST CYRUS. 

EGLISMONICHTY (Monifieth). 1211, Eglismenythok. See 

MONIKIE. 

EIGG (Hebrides). Adamnan, Egea; Ulst. Ann., ann. 725, 
Ego ; old Celtic MS., Eig, which last in Old Ir. means 
'a fountain.' The G. eag, gen. eige, means a nick or 
hack. 

EILDON HILLS (Melrose). a. 113Q, Sim. Durham, Eldunum; 
a. 1 1 50, Eldune. Prob. G, dill, a rock, cliff, + dun, a 
hill. Cf. Ercildun or EAKLSTON. 

EILEAN DONAN (W. Eoss-sli.). 1503, Alanedonane; 1539, 
Elandonan. G. = ' St Donan the martyr's isle.' He 
died, 617, in Eigg. Perh. fr. dunan, a little fort or 
hill. 

EILEAN MUNDE, or ELANMUNDE (Glencoe). ' Isle of Munnu,' 
Columba's friend. See KILMUN. 

EILEAN NA NAOIMH (The Minch). G. = 'isle of saints.' 

EILLERHOLM, or HELYER HOLM (Kirkwall). Icel. for, 'isle 
of the flat or slaty rocks.' Cf. HOLM. 

EISHORT, L. (Skye). Perh. G. eisg, gen. of iasg, fish, + Norse 
suffix art, art, or arth, frith, bay, or fjord. 

ELCHIES (Craigellachie, g.v.}. The s is the common Eng. 
plural added to a G. word. 

ELCHO (Perth), c. 1230, Elchok. ? G. eallach, gen. eallcha, 
'a battle.' 

^LDERSLIE (Renfrew). 1398, -sly. ' Alder lea ' or meadow 



104 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

(cf. COULTER ALLERS). The elder in Sc. is ' bourtree,' 
though in O.E., a. 800, we find ellcern as the gloss of 
L. sambucus. 

ELGIN. Sic 1283; in 1281, Elgyn; on old corporation 
seal, Helgyn. Said to be fr. Helgy, a Norse general, 
victor near here c. 927. But Rhys thinks it pre-Celtic 
or Ivernian. Elga is a character in Irish mythic 
history, and also poetic name for Ireland, peril, mean- 
ing 'noble.' 

ELGOLL (Broadford). Perh. G. al-goWiail, 'rock at the fork,' 
if that suit the site. 

ELIE (Fife). Perh. ' on the other side ; ' G. eile, other. 
Cf. BALELIE and Ely. 

ELLIOT (Forfar). Old, Elloch (see ARBIRLOT). Prob. G. aill 
or al achaidh, 'rock in the field;' perh. connected with 
Ir. aileach, a stone fort, as in Ardelly, Ireland. 

ELLON (Aberdeensh.). 1265, Elon. Prob. G. ailean, 'a 
green plain.' Cf. ALLAN. 

ELLSRIDGEHILL, or ELSRICKLE (Biggar). 1293, Elgirig, which 
must be G. al Girig, 'rock of King G.' (see EGLISGIRIG). 
A very curious corruption. 

ELPHIN (Lochinver). Prob. = Elphiii, Ireland ; G. and Ir. 
aill fhionn, 'white rock' or 'cliff.' 

ELPHINSTONE (Airth) and PORT ELPHINSTONE (Inverurie). 
May be as above, + O.E. ton, tun, hamlet ; more prob. 
fr. some man. Elpin is the name of one of the Pictish 
kings. 

ELSICK (Portlethen, Kincardine). Sic 1654; cf. Elswick, 
Newcastle, pron. Elsick. It looks like G. aillse, a fairy, 
+ O.E. wic, dwelling, village ; but that is rather a 
dubious combination. 

ELVAN WATER and ELVANFOOT (N. of Beattock). c. 1170, 
El wan, and, same date and district, 'Brothyr-alewyn.' 
Prob. W. al-wen, ' very white, bright,' fr. gwen, white, 
as in Gwenystrad (Gala Water) or ' white strath,' now 
WEDALE ; cf. R. Alwen, N. Wales, and Elwand (c. 1160, 
Alewent, Aloent), other name of Allan Water, Melrose. 
Elwan is the name in Cornwall for a porphyritic rock. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 105 

EMBO (Dornoch). a. 1300, Ethenboll; 1610, Eyndboll. 
A difficult name; ? ' place of the little ford.' G. athan, 
+ N. bol, see p. Ixiv ; cf. ETHIE. But in G. it is 
Eirpol = ERIBOLL, K". eora-bol, beach-town or -place, 
just its site. 

ENARD or EYNARD BAY (W. Sutherland). 1632, Eynort. N. 
eyin ard, art, or ort, ' island bay ' or ' fiord ' (see p. Iv). 

ENDRICK, E. (Stirlingsh.). (Of. Strathendry, Leslie, a. 
1169, -enry). Prob. G. abhainn or an reidh, 'smooth' 
or ' straight river.' Final dli is sometimes pron. with a 
click, almost = k. On d intruding itself as here, see p. 
xxxvii. 

ENHALLOW (Orkney). c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Eyin helga, 
* holy isle ' (cf. ENARD). Eng. hallow is fr. O.E. lidlyian, 
to hallow ; hdlga, a saint. 

ENOCH DHU (Pitlochry) and ENOCH (Durrisdeer). G. aonach 
dim, 'black, steep hill ; ' for ao = e, cf. aodaim and edann, 
slope, hill face. But St Enoch's, Glasgow, is fr. Thenew, 
c. 500, mother of St Kentigern or Mungo. The th in 
her name has been lost by aspiration. 

ENTERKIN BURN (K of Drumlanrig). ?G. an (abhainn) 
fuircein, ' sow's water,' or far coin, ' mastiff's, blood- 
hound's water.' 

ENZIE (Buckie). 1654, ' Ainia (Ainyee),' sic in E. Gordon's 
Survey; nowpron. Irigee ; doubtful. The Eiver Inny, W. 
Meath, c. 6 70 in Tirechan was Ethne ; and E. was daughter 
of an Irish king. 1 Any connection with this Enzie. 

EOCHAR (Lochmaddy). More correctly lochdar, G. for ' low 
place, bottom.' Cf. YOKER. 

EOROPIE (Lewis). Erroneously spelt Europa ; N. eora pie 
( = by, bi), beach-place, or village.' Cf. ERIBOLL, and 
' Eurobolsey,' in Islay, 1562. 

EPORT, L. (Lochmaddy). Prob. K". ey, isle, + G. port, port, 
harbour. 

ERCHLESS (Beauly). 1258, Herchelys ; 1539, Hereichlis; a 
puzzling name. Can it be = Hercules, whose G. name is 
lorcall, as in Uinneaglorcaill, 'H.'s window,' a huge cleft 
in a rock in Colonsay, and cf. Erackhall, Breadalbane. 

ERIBOLL (^S T . Sutherland). 1499, Erribull; 1530, Ireboll. 



106 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

N. eyri-bol, 'place on the tongue of land,' same as 
G. earbil and Ir. earbatt. Of. ARBOLL, and Erribul, 
Foynes. 

ERICHT, E. and L. (K Perthsh.). Stream from ' the ascent 
or rising slope;' G. eiridh. Cf. Coire Eirigh, Loch 
Katrine. 

ERISKA(Y) (L. Creran and S. Uist). Crer. E., 1558, Yriskay. 
Uist E., 1549, Eriskeray. Looks like 'goblin's' or 
' diviner's isle ; ' G. uruisg + N. ay, ey, isle. But some 
say it is the !N". Eiriksey, ' Eric's isle.' 

ERISORT, L. (Lewis). Prob. ' Eric's bay ; ' N. ort, art (see 
p. lv). 

ERROGIE (Fort Augustus). Prob. G. aird raoig, ' height of 
rushing.' Cf. Falls of Rogie, and Ercattan, old form of 
ARDCHATTAN. 

ERROL (Firth of Tay). c, 1190, Erolyn ; c. 1535, Arole. 
Doubtful. 

ERSKINE (Renfrew). 1225,Erskin; 1262, Ireskin; a. 1300, 
Irschen, Yrskin, Harskin. Prob. G. aird sgionn, ' squint ' 
or 'projecting height.' Cf. Ercattan, spelling in 1296 
of ARDCHATTAN. 

ESK, R. (Midlothian, Berwick, Forfar). Midi. E., a. 1145, 
Esch. Berw. E., a. 1130, Sim. Durham, Esce ; c. 1200, 
' Northesk.' Celtic for ' water.' Same root as G. uisge, 
Ax, Usk, &c. 

ESKADALE (Beauly ). 1 538, Eschadillis. See above, and DALE. 

ESKBANK, ESKBRIDGE, ESKDALE, &C. 

ESSACHOSEN (Inveraray). G. easar-chasain, ' a thoroughfare.' 

ESSLEMONT (Ellon). a. 1 600, Essilmontht. G. eoisle-monadli-, 
' mount, hill of the spell, incantation.' Cf. TULLYNESSLE. 

ESSY (Strathbogie). 1187, ' Esseg in Strabolgin.' Prob. G. 
easach, ' abounding in waterfalls ; ' G. eas, a waterfall. 

ETAL (Coldstream). Prob. G. aitedl, 'a juniper' or 'a 
glimpse.' 

ETHIE HOUSE (Arbroath). c. 1212, Athyn; 1433, Athe, 
Athy. G. athan, a little ford. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 107 

ETIVE, L. (Argyle). Old Ir. MS., Loch-n-Eite. Prob. eite 
or eiteag, a white pebble ; also name for the streaks of 
quartz with which the rocks there abound. 

ETTRICK (Selkirk), c. 1235, Ethric, Hetterich, Etryk ; 1776, 
Atric. Doubtful. Can it be G. atharrach, an alien ? 

EUNAICH, Ben (Dalmally). Prob. = ENOCH. 
EVAXTON (Dingwall). ' Evan's town. ' 

EviE'(Orkney). " Orkney. Sag., c. 1225, Efju, also Efja; last 
syllable prob. N. gjd } a goe or narrow inlet. 

EWE, L. (W. Koss-sh.). Prob. =AWE, ( water. ' 

EWES and EWESDALE (Langholm). a. 1180, Ewichedale ; 
c. 1280, Ewycedale; 1296, 'Le Vale de Ewithe;' c. 
1300, Ewytesdale. ' Newt's ' or ' eft's dale ;' O.E. efete, 
M.E. evete, eivte ; the n in newt is fr. the article an. 

EYEMOUTH and EYE WATER (Berwicksh.). Eye is prob. 
Celtic for * water. 3 Cf. AYTON. 

EYE PENINSULA (Stornoway). 1506, Fy; 1552, Y. Old G. 

y, ui, aoi, island, peninsula. Cf. IONA. 

EYNARD, L. See ENARD. 



F 

FAD, L. (Bute). G.fada, 'long.' Of. Inchfad, L. Lomond. 

FAIRGIRTH (Dalbeattie). ' Fair garth or garden ;' O.E. faeger, 
Icel. ftujr, Dan. feir, fair, pleasant ; and cf. APPLEGARTH, 
old, Applegirth. 

FAIR ISLE. Orkney. Sag., Fridarey, the goddess 'Freya's 
isle.' Cf. Friday. But Jo. Ben, 1529, says, 'Faray, 
quasi clara (fair) insula.' 

FAIRLIE (Largs). ' Fair lea ' or meadow, untilled land ; O.E. 
leak, Dan. lei, fallow. 

FALA (S. Midlothian). 1250, Faulawe. Fahlaw, 'pale, dun 
hill;' cf. next, and LAW; also cf. 'Fauhope,' c. 1160, in 
Melrose Chart. 

FALKIRK. Sic 1 546 ; but Sim. Durham (died 1 1 30), ann. 1065, 



108 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Egglesbreth; 1166, charter, 'Ecelesia de Egglesbrec, 
que varia capella dicitur;' 1382, Fawkirc (which still is 
the local pron., accent on either syllable). These forms are 
most instructive. Its original name, and its name in G. 
still, is Eaglais (W. eglwys) breac, 'speckled church, 
church of mottled stone,' of which Fah- or Faw-kirk is 
the translation, Sc. faw, faucli^ meaning 'dun, pale red/ 
O.E. fah, varicoloured. Of. Faside Farm, Newton 
Mearns. 

FALKLAND (Fife). c. 1125, Falleland; 1160, Falecklen ; 
but a. 1150, Falkland. Doubtful. Perh. connected 
with G. failc, to bathe or_a bath, t or falaich, to hide, a 
hiding. The old forms seem to prevent any derivation 
fr. O.E. fah, as in FALKIRK. 

FALLOCH, E. (L. Lomond). G. falach, a hiding, a veil. 

FALLSIDE (Lanarksh.). Prob. = Faside, 'spotted side.' See 

FALKIRK. 
FALMOUTH (Cullen). So spelt in Ordn. Survey Map. Its 

real name is ' whale's mouth,' locally pron. fal's mou\ 

Icel. hval-r, Sw. and Dan. lived, a whale. 

FANDOWIE (Strathbraan). c. 1200, Fandufuith. Prob. G. 

fan dubh, 'dark, black slope.' Fuith may further 

represent fuachd, cold. 
FANNYSIDE, L. (Slamannan). Prob. fr. G. feannag, a ridge 

of land ; a peculiar way of laying out ground, sometimes 

called ' a lazy-bed.' 
FARG, R. (Kinross), c. 960, Pict. Chrort., Apur-feirt. See 

ABERARGIE. 
FARNELL (Brechin). c. 1220, Fernevel; 1410, Fernwell. 

Prob. G. fearna lhail, ' alder village/ 

FARNESS (Cromarty and Wigtown). Wig. F., in Ada Sanct., 
Farness. Crom. F., 1578, Fames. Prob. G. faire, 
watching, + N. ncets, nose, ness, cape. Cnoc-na-faire, or 
' watch hill,' is common in the Highlands. 

FAR OUT HEAD, or FARRID HEAD (N. Sutherland). Prob. 
Icel. fjarri, ' far.' 

FARR (N. Sutherland), c. 1230, Far. Icel. far means a 
passage, means of passage, ship. Ships can sail right 
up the River Naver here. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 109 

FARRER, E. and GLEN (Inverness). Possibly G. faraire, a 

lyke-wake, night-watch over a corpse. 
FASNACLOICH (Appin). G. fasadh na doich, ' protuberance 

of the stone or rock.' 

FASQUE CASTLE (Laurencekirk). JProb. G. fdsach, ' a wilder- 
ness, forest, mountain ; also stubble, choice pasture.' 

FASSIEFERN (Banavie). 1553, Faschefarne. G. fasach na 

fhearna, ' forest of alders.' 
FAST CASTLE (Coldingham). Sic 1461. Prob. O.E. fest, 

Dan. fast, Icel. fast-r, 'firm, solid.' 

FAULDHOUSK (Lanarksh.). 'House by the fold;' O.E. fold, 
a pen (cf. GUSHETFAULDS). JS"ames in Fauld- common 
in Galloway. 

FE(A)RINTOSH (Dingwall). G. fearainn Toishacli, 'land of 
the thane' or 'land-officer.' 

FEARN (Tain and Brechin). Tain F., 1529, Feme. G. 
fedrna, an alder. Cf. COULTER ALLERS. 

FEDDERAT (Brucklay). c. 1205, Fedreth ; 1265, Feddereth. 
Prob. Old G. father, hardened to fader (sometimes to for, 
as FORDOUN, &c.) ath, 'land at the ford.' Cf. FOD- 

DERTY. 

FENDER BRIDGE (Blair Athole). G. fionn dur or dobhar, 
i white, fair, pleasant water.' 

FENTONBARNS (Haddington). 1332, Fenton. ' Village in the 
fen, bog, mud ;' O.E. and Icel. fen. 

FENWICK (Kilmarnock). The w is mute; = FENTON; O.E. 
wic, Idwelling, village. Common in the north of 
England. 

FEORLIN(G) (Skye). G. fabirlinn, 'a farthing,' a land- 
measure (see p. Ivii). 

FERNAN (Fortingall). Black Bk. Taymouth, Stronferna, 
which is G. for ' point of the alder trees.' 

FERNIEGAIR (Hamilton). G. fearna gwradh, clump or 
' garden of alders.' Cf. GREENGAIRS. 

FERRIELOW (Colinton). 1 =' Ferry-hill ;' O.E. JtMiv Sc. law. 
But this and the following quite possibly fr. G. fearann, 
land, a farm. 



110 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

FERRYDEN (Montrose). See above, and DEAN. 
FERRYHILL (Aberdeen). Also in Durham. 
FERRYPORT ON CRAIG (N. Fife). 
FESHIE BRIDGE (Kingussie). Prob. G. fasach, desolate. 

FETLAR (Shetland). Sagas, Faetilar. Perh. connected with 
Icel. fitla, to touch lightly. 

FETTERANGUS (Mintlaw). Here and in next Old G. fothir, 
'bit of land, field,' is softened into fetter; often it 
is hardened into for, cf. p. xxviii, and FEDDERAT, and 
ANGUS. ' 

FETTERCAIRN (Laurencekirk). c. 970, Pict. Chron., Fother- 
kern. ' Field in the corner ;' G. cearn. 

FETTERESSO (Stonehaven). c. 970, Fodresach (bat cf. 
FORRES); 1251, Fethiresach. 'Land abounding in 
waterfalls;' G. easach, fr. eas, waterfall. 

FETTERNEAR (Chapel of Garioch). a. 1300, Fethirneir. 
' Field to the west ;' G. an iar. 

FETTYKIL (Leslie), c. 1200, Futhcul. G. fodha, or perh. 
Old G.fetMr coill, 'foot' or 'field of the wood.' 

FEUGH, E. (Kincardine). Prob. G. fuachd, cold, dullness. 
FIDDICH GLEN (Banff). Prob. fr. Fidach, son of the legendary 

Cruithne. 
FIDRA (N. Berwick). Prob. 'Feodore's isle;' N. ay, eij. 

FIFE. 1165, Fif. Fr. Fibh, mentioned in the Irish Nennius 
as one of the seven sons of Cruithne, legendary father 
of the Picts. 

FIFE KEITH (Keith). See above, and KEITH. 

FIGGATE BURN (Portobello). First syllable doubtful. Gate 
in Sc. means ' a road, way.' 

FILLAN'S, St (L. Earn). Fillan succeeded St Mund as Abbot 
on the Holy Loch ; died 777. 

FIMBUSTER (Caithness). 'Five places' or 'houses;' Icel. 
Jim, five. Cf. COIGACH, and see bolsta&r, p. Ixiv. 

FINCASTLE (Pitlochrie). G. and Ir. fionn caisteal, * white, 
fair castle ' or fort. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. Ill 

FINDHORN, K. (Forres). On part of its course still called 
Findearn. Prob. = G. fionn Earn, or ' white, clear 
EARN.' On the d, cf. p. xxxvii, and next. 

FINDLATER CASTLE (Portsoy). G. fionri leitir, ' white, clear 
hillside.' Cf. BALLATER. On the d, see above; in 
pron. it is usually mute. 

FINDON (Aberdeen, Eoss, Perth). ' Clear hill ;' G.fionn dtin. 

Also near Worthing. 
FINGLAND LANE (Carsphairn). Fingland is a personal name 

now iii this district. 

FINLARIG CASTLE (Killin). G. fionn lairig, ' clear, sloping 
hill.' 

FINHAVEN (Oathlaw). c. 1445, Fynewin; 1453, Finevyn. 
G. fionn abhuinn, ' clear, white river.' Cf. METHVEN 

and PORTNAHAVEN. 

FINSTOWN, or PHINSTOWN (Kirkwall). Phin is a Sc. surname. 

FINTRAY (Kintore). c. 1203, Fintrith; a. 1300, Fyntre. 
1 White or fine land;' at least trith, tre, is prob. the older 
form of G. tir, land, W. tre. 

FINTRY (Stirlingshire and Cumbraes). 1238, Fyntrie; = 
above. 

FINZEAN (Aboyne). c. 1150, Feyhan. Doubtful, though 
prob. G. f aiche or fonn abhainn, * plain by the river.' 

FIRTH (Orkney), c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Fiord. Mod. K 
fjord, a frith, bay. 

FISHERIE (Turriff). 

FISHERROW (Musselburgh), FISHERTON (Ayr). 

FITEACH, Ben (Islay). G. fltheacli, a raven. 

FITFULL HEAD (Shetland). Saga, Fitfugla hofdi. Prob. Icel. 

fet, a step, and Icel. and Dan. fugl, a fowl, from being 

spot where the sea-birds love to light. 
FIVE-MILE-HOUSE (Dundee). 
FLANNAN ISLES (Minch). Fr. St Flannan, a Culdee saint. 

FLEET, E. (Sutherland and Kirkcudbright). Icel. fljot, a 
stream, fljot-r, quick. Cf. Eng. fleet, float. Three 
Fleet streams in England. 



112 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

FLEURS CASTLE (Kelso). ~Fr.fleurs, 'flowers.' 

FLISK (Cupar). Sic 1250. 1 G. fleasg, a wand, a ring. 

FLODAVAGH (Harris). Prob. 'flood-bay;' fr. Icel., O.E., 
Sw., and Dan. flod, flood, flow of the tide, + N. vag-r, a 
bay, cove, as in STORNOWAY. Might be fr. Icel. floti, 
a fleet. 

FLOTTA (Orkney). Sagas, Flottey. 'Isle of the fleet;* 
Icel./o^', O.E. fleot. The = N. ay or ey, isle ; Icel. 
flota-liolmr simply means an islet. 

FLOWERHILL (Airdrie). 

FOCHABERS (Elgin). 1325, Fouchabre ; 1514, Fochabris. 
G. faiclie abhir, plain, meadow, at the river mouth ; * 
is the common Eng. plural. 

FODDERTY (Dingwall). c. 1360, Fothirdy ; 1548, Fothartye ; 
1572, Foddertie. Old G. fothir, 'land, field,' of which 
we find here both the soft and hard forms, + tigli, a 
house. Of. FETTERANGUS. 

FOGO (Duns). 1250, Foghou ; a. 1300, Foggov ; 1352, 
Foggowe. Prob. 'fog how,' i.e., 'hollow (O.E. holy, 
holh, Sc. hou'e) in which the fog, after-math, or second 
growth is found ; ' W. ffwg, dry grass. 

FOINAVEN, Ben (Sutherland). Prob. G. fonn aWiuinn, ' river 
land.' 

FOLDA (Alyth). Perh. G. faoc/ltail (pron. foyl) daimh, 'ford 
of the ox.' 

FOLLA RULE (Fyvie). 1245, Folayth ; 1364, Fouleroule ; a. 
1400, Folethroule, Foleroule; seems to be G. foladlt, 
a covering, hiding-place. On Rule, cf. R. RULE, Rox- 
burgh, and ABBOTRULE. 

FONAB (Perthsh.). G. fonn aba, 'land of the abbot.' 

FORBES (Alford). Sic a. 1500. Prob. fr. Old Ir. (and ? (r.) 
forba, 'afield, district,' with the common Eng. plural. 
G. forbhas is an ambush. 

FORD (Coldstream, Dalkeith, Loch Awe). Colds. F., 1293, 
Forde. O.E. ford, a ford. Four in England. 

FORDOUN (Kincardine). a. 1100, St Berchan, Fothardun ; 
Colgan, Life of St Patrick, Forddun; c. 1130, Fordouin. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 113 

Old G. fothir duin, ' land of the hill or fort ; ' fothir is 
here hardened. Cf. p. xxviii, and also FETTERANGUS, 

FODDERTY, FORTEVIOT. 

FORDYCE (Portsoy). a. 1 300, Fordyse. ' Land to the south ; ' 
G. deas, also 'trim, fit.' 

FORFAR. Sic 1199. Prob. G. fothir or for fuar, 'cold 
. land.' 

FORGAN (N. Fife). 1250, Forgrund. Perh. G. fothir grunda, 
'land with bottom' or 'ground,' i.e., good subsoil. 

FORGANDENNY (Perth). 1250, ' Forgrund in Gouirryn.' See 
above, and DENNY. 

FORGLEN (Turriff). G. fothir gleann, land in the glen. 

FORGUE (Huntly). a. 1300, Forge. Perh. 'land of the 
wind ; ' G. fothir gaoith. 

FORRES. Perh. the Fodresach, c. 970, Pict. Chron. (cf. 
FETTERESSO); 1187, Fores; 1283, Forais. G. fothir or 
for eas, ' land by the waterfall.' Prob. influenced some- 
what by N. fors, a waterfall, the Eng. force, so common 
in Lake district. Tacitus, in his Agricola, mentions a 
tribe Horestii hereabouts. 

FORSE (Lybster), FORSS (Thurso). Thurso F., c. 1225, 
Fors. N. fare, a waterfall ; cf. Stockgill Force, &c. 

FORSINAIN (Sutherland). Said to be ' lower waterfall/ as 
contrasted with 

FORSINARD (Sutherland). ' Higher waterfall ; ' G. an dird, 
' of the height.' 

FORT, St (K Fife). A quite modern, silly corruption of 
Sandford, old name of the estate here. Cf. Sandyford, 
Glasgow. 

FORTEVIOT (Perth), c. 970, Pict. Chron., Fothuirtabaicht ; 
1280, Ferteuyoth; but 1251, Forteviot. Old G. fothir 
fabaicht, land of the abbey ; Mod. G. dbachd. Not the 
same as R. TEVIOT. 

FORTH, Firth of, and R. Sic a. 1150; form Forthin also 
occurs. In Bede c. 720, called Sinus Orientalis ; in 
Nennius, about the same date, Mare Frenessicum 
('Frisian Sea') ; in Descriptio Albanian, a. 1200, ' Scottice 



114 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

(i.e., Gaelic) Froch, Brittanice, (i.e., in Welsh) Werid, 
Romana (i.e., Old English) vero Scottewattre (or 
'Scots water'); Orkney. Sag., c. 1225, Myrkvifiord 
(i.e., 'murky, dark frith'). In Jocelyn, 1185, the 
northern shore is called 'Frisican (Frisian) shore;' .the 
12th century Froch may be connected with G, fraigh, 
edge, rim, border of a country. By the common trans- 
position of r, Froch has become Forcli, softened to Forth. 
As likely, Forth is the corruption of N. fjord, a frith, 
often found in Sc. names as worth. Cf. KNOYDART 
and MOYDART. j 

FORTH (Lanark). 

FORTINGALL (Aberfeldy). c. 1240, Forterkil; a. 1300, 
Fothergill ; 1544, Forty rgill. Interesting example of 
a name which has quite changed. It really is Old G. 
fotliir gaill or till, ' land of the stranger ' or ' of the 
church.' In this region we could not have Icel. gil, a 
ravine. The r has been transposed, as often, through 
the influence of the Eng. fort. 

FORTISSAT (Shotts). 

FORTROSE (Cromarty). Prob. G. fothir or for frois, 'land on 
the promontory.' Cf. MONTROSE. 

FORTS AUGUSTUS, GEORGE, and WILLIAM (Strathmore). Fort 
A., named in 1716 after William Augustus, Duke of 
Cumberland. Fort G., named in 1748 after George II. 
Fort W., so named c. 1690 after William III., though 
there was a fort built here in 1655. 

Foss (Pitlochry). c. 1370, Fossache. Prob. G. fdsach, 'a 
desert, forest, hill.' 

FOSSOWAY (Kinross), c. 1210, Fossedmege. Prob. G. fasadh 
mhagha * protuberance, hill in the plain.' 

FOULA (Shetland). Icel. and Dan. fugl-ay, ' fowl island ; * 
abundance of sea-fowl there. Cf. Fugloe, Faroes. 

FOULDEN (Ayton). 1250, Fulden. Prob. O.E. ful\(Icel. full) 
denu, ' foul valley ' or ' dean.' Cf. Foulden, Norfolk. , 

FOULFORD (Crieff). Prob. tautology ; G. faogJiail (pron. 

foil, full), a ford. 
FOUNTAINBRIDGE (Edinburgh), FOUNTAINHALL (Stow). 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 115 

FOVBRAN (Ellon). a. 1300, Fouerne. Perh. G. fothir 
abhuinn or an, 'land by the river.' 

FOWLIS (E. Eoss-sh. and Crieff). Pron. Fowls. Ross-sh. F., 
1515, Foulis. Prob. G. pliuill, ' a pool,' with the common 
Eng. plural. 

FOYERS, Fall of (Fort Augustus). Prob. G. fairs, ' reflec- 
tion of light' fr. the clouds of spray. The s is the 
common Eng. plural. 

FRASERBURGH. Sic 1605. Land here bought by Sir 
William Eraser of Philorth, close by, in 1504. Town 
founded c. 1600. Erasers found in Scotland fr. c. 
1160. Fraser was formerly often spelt Fresel. The 
old name of the spot was Faithlie. 

FRESWICK (Wick), c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Thresvik. Prob. 
' Frisian's bay ; ' K vik. Of. Freston, Ipswich. 

FREUCHIE (Auchtermuchty). (1479, Freuche, near Banff; 
1548, Freuchy, Loch Broom.) G. fraochach, 'heathery, 
heathy ' place ; fr. fraoch, heather, and name of an 
isle on Loch Lomond. Cf. French, Galloway. 

FRIOCKHEIM. Pron. Freakem ; German. Village founded 
c. 1830. 

FRUID WATER (Hart Fell). W. frwyd, 'impulsive, hasty 
stream.' Cf. RENFREW. 

FRUIN GLEN (L. Lomond). Said to be G. br&n, brdin, 
lamentation (over the dreadful slaughter here of 
Colquhouns by the M'Gregors, 1602). 

FUINAFORT (Bunessan). G. fionna pliort, white or 'fair 
port 3 or bay. 

FULLARTON (Irvine and Forfarsh). Irvine F., 'Geoffrey 
of Foullertoune,' king's falconer in 1327; 1391, Fouler- 
toun. 'Fowler's town' or hamlet; fr. O.E. fugel, -ol, 
Icel. and Dan. fugl, Sc. foul, a fowl or bird. 

FURNACE (old iron-work near Inveraray). G. fuirneis, a 
furnace. Also near Llanelly. 

FUSHIEBRIDGE (S. Midlothian). Perh. Sc. fussie ; fr. Fr. 
fosse, a ditch, or fr. G. fdsach, a desert, forest, hilL 
Cf. FOSSOWAY. 



116 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

FYViE~(Aberdeen). a. 1 300, Fy vyn. Peril. G. fiodli aWminn, 
with dh quiescent, ' wood ' or * wilderness by the river.' 
Cf. METHVEN. 



G 

GADIE, R. (Aberdeensh.). G. gad, a withe. Cf. GARNGAD. 

GAIRLOCH (W. Ross-sh., and Kells, Kirkcudbright) and 
GARELOCH (Helensburgh). Ross. G., 1366, Gerloch; 
1574, Garloch ; prob. fr. G. gearr, 'short loch,' as con- 
trasted with its much longer neighbours, Lochs Carron, 
Torriden, and Broom. The same is true re Helensburgh 
G., 1272, Gerloch. 

ITAIRN (or Gairden) WATER (Ballater). ? G. garan, -ain, ' a 
thicket,' or earn, cairn, a cairn. 

GALA, R. (Galashiels). a. 1500, Gallow. G. geal abh, 
1 clear water ; ' cf. AWE and Gala Lane, Carsphairn. 
1 Galawater,' according to Border usage, means the valley 
through which the Gala flows. 

-GALASHIELS. 1416, Gallowschel; 1503, Galloschelis, * shiel- 
ings ' (O.N. skali) or ' huts on the River Gala.' Skali is 
still used in N. for a temporary or shepherd's hut. Cf. 
SELKIRK. 

GALBRAITH, Inch (L. Lomond). Family of Galbraith (1492, 
Galbreytht) used to reside here. It is G. gall-Breatun- 
nach, Brythonic, British, or "Welsh stranger, ' Low- 
lander.' 

GALCANTRY (Fort George). Prob. G. geal ceann-tire, ' white, 
clear promontory.' Cf. KINTYRE. 

GAL(L)ATOWN (Kirkcaldy). ?G. gall, a stranger, foreigner, 
or galla, a bitch. 

GALLON HEAD (Lewis). G. gallan, a branch, or gaillionn, 
a storm. Cf. Gallan, Tyrone, Gallana, Cork. 

GALLOWAY, c. 970, Pid. Chron., Galweya; c. 1250, Gale- 
weia; Led. chrons., Gal(l)wethia (1158, Galovidienses). 
W. Gallwyddel (dd = th) = G. Gall-Gaidhel, 'stranger 
Gael.' Prob., says Dr Skene, fr. Galloway being long 
a province of Anglic Northumbria. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 117 

GALLOWFLAT (Rutherglen). 'Plain' or 'flat of the gallows. 7 
Of. SKINFLATS. 

GALSTON (Ayrsh.). 'Gall's' or 'stranger's (G. gall) town.' 
Of. GATTONSIDE. 

GAMRIE (Banff). c. 1190, Gameryn; c. 1200, Gamery. 
Prob. G. cam airidhean, 'crooked shielings' or 'hill 
pastures.' Cf. BLINGERY. C and g constantly inter- 
change in Gaelic place-names. 

GARDENSTOWN (Banff). 

GARDERHOUSE (Lerwick). Icel. garfi-r, an enclosure, garden, 

GARGUNNOCK (Stirling), c. 1470, -now. G. garWi cuinneag, 
'rough, uneven pool.' Cf. Girgunnochy, Stoneykirk. 

GARIOCH (Aberdeensh.). c. 1170, Garuiauche; c. 1180, 
Garvyach; 1297, Garviagha; a. 1300, Garuiach. G. 
garbh achadh, ' rough field.' 

GARLIESTON (Wigtown). Prob. 1592, Garlics, i.e., G. garlh 
or gearr lios, ' rough ' or ' short garden.' 

GARMOUTH (Fochabers). G. gearr, 'short.' Cf. GAIRLOCH. 

GARNGABER (Lenzie). G. gdradk na cabair, ' deer forest ; ' 
gar(r)adh is an enclosure, park, garden, = O.E. geard, 
Icel. garft-r ; and cdbar usually means an antler. Cf. 
Glengaber, Yarrow, and Ringaber ('antler-point'), 
Buchanan. 

GARNGAD (Glasgow). ' Enclosure of the withies ; ' G. gad. 

GARNKIRK (Glasgow). 'Enclosure of the hens,' hen-roost; 
G. cearc, circe, a hen. 

GARRABOST (Stornoway). Hybrid; G. gatradh, enclosure, 
+ N. bolstafir, place (see p. Ixiv). 

GARROCH HEAD (Bute). 1449, Garrach (old MS., Ceann 
garbh, ' rough head ' or ' cape ') = GARIOCH. 

GARRY, R. (Inverness and Perth). G. garbh, rough, turbu- 
lent. Cf. GARVE. 

GARRYNAHINE (Stornoway). G. gdrradh na tiabhuinn, 
' garden ' or ' enclosure by the river.' Cf. PORTNAHAVEN. 

GARSCADDEN (Glasgow). 'Herring (G. sgadan) enclosure;' 
? herrings cured here. Cf. Culscadden, Galloway, and 
Balscadden, Howth. 

O 



118 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

GARSCUBE (Glasgow). G. garbh cub, rough curve or bend, 
or ?fr. sguab, a broom. 

GARTCOSH (Glasgow). Prob. G. yarradh cbi$, ' enclosure at 
the fissure, little hole ' (cf. Cash Bay, Wigton) ; or fr. 
G. cots, lit. 'a foot,' which seems also to have meant 
'servant,' as in the surnames Cospatrick, Cosmungo, 
and Cosh. 

GARTH (Aberfeldy). M.E. garth, farm, garden. Cf. APPLE- 
GARTH and GARNGABER. 

GARTIE, Mid and West (Helmsdale). Icel. yarft-r, an 
enclosure ; cf. above. 

GARTLEY (Insch). Prob. G. yaradh tulaich, 'enclosure on 
the hill.' Cf. MURTHLY. 

GARTMORE (Balfron). G. = ' big enclosure ' or ' farm.' 

GARTNAVEL (Glasgow). ' Enclosure of the apple-trees ; ' G. 
n'abhail. = ORCHARD and APPLEGARTH. 

GARTNESS (Drymen). Prob. G. yarradh an eas, 'enclosure 
by the waterfall.' 

GARTSHERRIE (Coatbriclgc). 'Enclosure of the foals;' G. 
searrach (pron. sharragh). Cf. Barsherry, Galloway. 

GARTURK (Coatbridge). 'Enclosure of the boar or hog;' 
G. tore, gen. tnirc. Cf. TURK. 

GARVALD (Haddington and Peebles) and GARVALTBURN 
(Braemar). Hadd. G., sic 1250. G. garbh allt, 'rough 
stream' or 'cliff.' Cf. Garrel (prob. fr. /, a rock), 
Dumfries. 

(TARVE (Ross-shire). G. yarbh, rough. 

GARVELLOCH, I. (Jura). 1390, Garbealeach. G. garbh 
aileach, 'rough, stone house;' or 'rough pass,' G. bealach. 

GARVOCK (Laurencekirk). = GARIOCH. 

GASK (Dunning). Corruption of G. crosg, 'crossing, pass.' 
Cf. ARNGASK, and Gergask, Laggan. 

GASSTOWN (Dumfries). Founded by Mr Joseph Gass, c. 
1812. 

GAS WATER (E. Ayrsh.). Prob. G. gasach, ' full of branches,' 
fr. gas, a branch. N. gas means a goose. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 119 

GATEGILL BURN (Girthon). Icel. gat gil, gill or ' ravine of 
the gap.' 

GATEHOUSE (Kirkcudbright), GATESIDE (Kinross, Renfrew). 

GATTOXSIDE (Melrose). a. 1150, Galtuneside. G. gall, a 
stranger, + O.E. tun, ton, a hamlet. Of. GALSTON and 
WALLACETOWN. 

GAULDRY (Cupar). Prob. G. <jall-doire, ' stranger's wood ' 
or * grove.' 

GAVINTON (Duns). Fr. a man. 

GEANIES (Tarbat Ness). Pron. Gaynes. c. 1500, Genes; 
1529, Gathenn; 1570, Gany. Like Gannochy, Edzell, 
fr. G. gaothanach (pron. gan-ach), windy, + T. nces, 
nose, ness. 

GELSTON (Castle-Douglas). Prob. = 'Gael's town.' Of. 
GALSTON. 

GE6RGEMAS (Thurso). Site of a modern market held on ' St 
George's feast' or 'mass;' O.E. maesse, Dan. messe. 
Of. Hallo wm ass. 

GHENAGHAN, I. (L. Lomond). ? G. geangach, ' crooked, thick 
and short.'. 

GIFFEN (N. Ayrsh.). Sic c. 1600. W. cefn, a ridge. Of. 
Cefn, St Asaph's. 

GIFFNOCK (Glasgow). Looks as if partly Brythonic, partly 
Gaelic ; fr. W. cefn, a ridge, + G. achadh, field (cf. 
CORSOCK), or CHOC, a hill. 

GIFFOBD (Haddington). Prob.fr. 'Hugo Gyffard,' c. 1180, 
in Newbattle Chart., p. 63. Origin of that name 
doubtful. 

GIGHA, I. (Kintyre). 1263, Gudey; 1309, Gug; 1343, 
Geday; c. 1400, Gya; 1510, Giga; 1516, Geya; 1549, 
Gigay ; a very curious assortment. ? ' Isle of Ged or 
Gug;' cf. JEDBURGH. 

(TIGHT, Braes of (Fyvie). Perh. corruption of G. yaoth, wind. 

GILABOLL (Helmsdale). Prob. G. giulla or gille, a servant, + 
N. 161, place, dwelling; cf. p. Ixiv. 

GILCOMSTON (Aberdeen). 1361, Gilcolmystona. Hybrid ; 
* hamlet of the gillie ' (G. gille) or ' servant of St Colm ' 



120 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

or Columba ; cf. p. xcii, and GILMERTON. The -ton is 
fr. O.E. ton, tun, a village. 

GILLESPIE (Old Luce). G. till easbuig, ' church or cell of the 
bishop,' L. episcopus. In all other names till remains 
as Kik 

GILLIESHILL (Bannockburn). 'Attendants', servants' (G. 
gille) hill.' 

GfLMERTON (Edinburgh), c. 1200, Gyllemoreton. 'Abode 
("ton") of the servant of Mary' the Virgin; G. gille 
Moire. Cf. Gilmorton, Lutterworth, and GILCOMSTON. 

GILNOCKIE (Canonbie). G. geal cnocan, ' white or clear 
little hill.' 

GIRNIGO (Wick). Sic 1547. 1 ' Gaping inlet,' fr. Icel. girna, 
to yearn, desire, + gja, a goe or narrow inlet. 

GIRTHON (Gatehouse). ? G. garradh abliainn or an, 
1 enclosure on the river,' influenced by M.E. garth, girth, 
yard, garden. Cf. APPLEGARTH. 

GIRVAN, R. and Town (Ayrshire). Prob. G. gearr abhairtn 
or an, ' short river.' But cf. GARVALD. 

GIZZEN BRIGS (shoal off Tain). Pron. rather like Giessen, 
prob. means 'boiling breakers.' First word akin to 
geyser, f r. Icel. geysa or gjosa, to ' gush ; ' second perh. 
the same root as Eng. break, breaker. 

GLADHOUSE (Midlothian), GLADSMOOR (Kirkcolm), GLADS- 
MUIR (Tranent). a. 1150, Gledehus. Tran. G., 1328, 
Glademor ; like ' Gladstone,' formerly Gledstane, all 
thought to be fr. Sc. gled, O.E. glida, the kite, the ' glid- 
ing' bird, and there is a Gleadhill; but cf. Icel. gla&r, 
smooth, bright, light. Muir or moor is O.E. and Icel. 
mor, a heath, moor, morass. 

GLAM(M)IS (Forfar). The i is now mute. 1187, Glammes; 
1251, Glemmis. G. glamhus, lit. a wide gap; hence, 
open country, a vale. 

GLASGOW. 1116, Glasgu; 1158, Glasgow; 1185, Jocelyn, 
Cleschu. 1 This last, Rhys thinks, shows the real meaning ; 
it is just W. glas chu (G. glas cu), ' greyhound,' Kenti- 

1 In the oldest MS . it stands Descliu, but the D is usually thought 
to be a scribe's error for CL. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 121 

gern, or St Mungo of Glasgow, being called, in Vitce 
Sanctorum, ' In glas chu,' the greyhound. But is 
there any place-name with a similar meaning? Others 
make it the Celtic glas cu, ' dear (W. cu, dear) river ' (see 
GLASSFORD). Glas-cu, ' dear, green ' spot, is an unknown 
combination in Celtic names. 

GLASMONT (Kirkcaldy). 1178, Glasmonth. G. glas monadh, 
1 grey hill ' or mount. 

GLASS, R. (Beauly). (1309, Straglass. G. srath ghlais.) 
Old G. glas, river ; see above. 

GLASS (Huntly). G. glas, 'grey;' but in "W. also 'blue' or 
' green. ' Two in England. 

GLASSARY (Lochgilphead). 1251, Glassered; 1284, Glasrod ; 
1394, Glaster; 1513, Glastre. G. glas airidh, 'grey 
(or green) shieling ' or 'hill-pasture,' c/. BLINGERY ; but 
the last two forms are fr. tir, land. 

GLASSERTON (Whithorn). In early chronicles seemingly 
confused with Glastonbury, the famous Somerset monas- 
tery. It is pron. Glais'ton. Its origin is thus doubtful, 
but cf. GLASS and GLASSARY. 

GLAS(S)FORD (Hamilton), c. 1210, Glasfruth, -furth; 1296, 
Glasford. Prob. G. glas, grey or bluish, + O.E. ford, a 
ford ; but -frutli may be G. frith, a forest. Besides, in 
Old G. glas means a river ; cf. Strathglass. 

GLASTERLAW (Forfar). G. glas tir, 'green' or 'greyish 
land,' + O.E. hldew, a hill. 

GLENALMOND (Perth), GLENARAY (Inveraray). See ALMOND, 
ARAY, &c. 

GLENAPP (Ballantrae) andGLENNAPP (Berwick). Ball.G., prob. 
the Glen Alpinn where King Alpinn. was slain in 750. 
But they may both be G. gleann an aba, ' the abbot's glen.' 

GLENBARR (Tayinloan). 'Glen by the height;' G. barr. 

GLENBOIG (Coatbridge). 'Soft, moist glen;' G. and Ir. bog 
or bulge, soft, boggy. 

GLENBUCK (Lanark). 'Glen of the buck or he-goat;' G. 
boc, gen. buic. 

GLENCAIRN (Thornhill). 1301, Glencarn. 'Glen of the 
cairn' or 'heap of stones;' G. earn, gen. cairn. 



122 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

GLENCAPLE (Dumfries). 'Glen of the mare;' G. capull, 
gen. capuill. Cf. KINCAPLE. 

GLENCABSE (Errol). ' Glen of the CARSE ' of Gowrie. 

GLENCOE (N. Argyle). 1 343, Glenchomyr ; 1494, Glencole ; 
1500, Glencoyne; 1623, -coan. The forms show the 
word has been constantly altering. 1343 is fr. G. 
chomair gen. of COMAE, confluence, meeting of two 
valleys; 1494 is fr. G. coill, a wood; the two last are 
fr. G. cu, gen. coin, a dog ; whilst the Mod. G. spelling 
is gleann comliann, which last means ' a shrine ' truly 
a useful warning against dogmatism about any name. 

GLENCORSE (Penicuik). 'Glen with the pass or crossing;' 
G. croisy. R is very commonly transposed. Cf. 

CORSOCK, CORSEWALL. 

GLENDALE (Skye). Tautology ; G. gleann + X. dal. 

GLENDARVEL (Tighnabruaich). 1238, Glen da rua, i.e., ' of 
the two points ; ' G. da rudha. 

GLENDOICK (Errol). Perh. fr. St Dutliac or Duthus of 
Tain. Cf. DUTCH. 

GLENDUCKIE (N. Fife). Old, -duachy. Perh. as above. 

GLENELG (W. Inverness). Sic 1292; but 1282, Glenlialk. 
Prob. fr. Icel. elgr, Sw. elg, an elk. Khys thinks fr. 
Elga. See ELGIN. 

GLENFINNAN (Fort William). G. ficmn abliainn or an, 
' white, clear river.' 

GLENGARNOCK (Ayrsh.). (Cf. t c. 1240, 'Dalegernoc.') Prob. 
fr. G. garradli an achaidh, 'enclosure of the field.' 
Cf. GARNGABER. 

GLENGIRNAIG (Ballater). Prob. 'glen of the little cairn,' 
see GAIRN ; -aig is prob. a G. diminutive. 

GLENGONAR (Abington). Sic 1239. Either 'blacksmith's 
height' (G. gobhann drd), or 'height with the little 
beak ' (G. gobari). 

GLENHOWL, -HOUL (Carsphairn). 1563, hovyll. ' Glen with 
the fork' or 'two branches;' G. gaWial, gen. gTiaWiail 
(pron. houl), a fork. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 123 

GLENIFFER (Paisley). Perh. fr. G. aifrenn or aoibhrionn, L. 
offerens, 'offering,' i.e., the mass. Cf. INCHAFFRAY. 

GLENKENS (Galloway). ' Glen of the river KEN.' 

GLENKINDIE (Aberdeen). ' Glen of the black head ; ' G. 
gleann clnn duibhe. 

GLENLIVAT (Craigellachie). ? Fr. G. liobh aite, ' smooth, 
polished place.' 

GLENLOCHAR (Castle-Douglas). G. loch aird, ' loch of the 
height.' 

GLENLYON (Aberfeldy). Sic 1522; but c. 1380, Forduii, 
-leoyne. G. lithe amhuinn, 'spatey river,' the th and 
mil being lost by aspiration. Cf. LYON. 

GLENMORISTON (Fort Augustus). 1479, Glenmorison. G. 
mar easan, 'the big waterfalls.' 

GLENMUICK (Ballater). ' Glen of the swine ; ' G. muc, gen. 
muiCj a pig. 

GLENORCHY or -URCHY (Argyle). 1292, Glenurwy ; 1510, 
-vrquha; in G. Urchaidh, 'tumbling' stream, fr. G. 
ur chair, gen. -aire or -air each, a cast, throw, push, 
sudden sally. 

GLENPROSEN (Kirriemuir). 1524, Glenprossin, -osswym. 
Prob. fr. Old G. brosnach, a river. The root brosd or 
brosn means to excite. 

GLENQUAICH or -QUOICH (Perth, Forfar, Inverness). G. 
cuach, a quaich or drinking-cup. 

GLENSHEE (Blairgowrie). G. sith, gen. slthe (pron. shee), 
means 'a hill,' 'a fairy,' or 'peace, a truce.' 

GLENSHIEL (Strome Ferry). Fr. Icel. skjol, a shieling, 
shelter. Of. GALASHIELS, &c. 

GLENSHIORA (Badenoch). 'Glen of the attack, onset;' G. 
siorradh. 

GLENTRUIM (Laggan). G. from, gen. truime, means a burden, 
protection, defence, and pregnancy. 

GLEN VILLAGE (Falkirk). G. gleann, a glen or valley. 

GLENWHILLIE (Stranraer). G. gleann clwille, ' glen of the 
wood.' 



124 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

GLOON BURN and RIG OP GLOON (Minigaff). Prob. G. glun, 
the knee. Cf. Glunpatrick, Roscommon. 

GLOUPHOLM (Shetland). Prob. ' soft isle ; ' Icel. gltipr, soft, 
porous, + HOLM ; cf. the Sc. gloppen, to become soft. 

GLOWER-O'ER-EM (Linlithgow). Name of a hill with a fine 

view. Sc. glower is to stare, gaze. 
GOATFELL (Arran). Fell is Icel. fell, a hill, or fjall, a 

mountain. 
GODSCROFT (Abbey St Bathan's). 'God's field.' See 

CROFTHEAD, and cf. ' God's acre,' a churchyard. 
GOGAR (Edinburgh). 1250, Gogger ; a ' Gogar ' is marked in 

1745 map near Alva. Prob. G. goWia or gow, a smith, 

+ gdrradh, enclosure, yard. Cf. LOCHNAGAR. 
GOGO BURN (Largs). 
GOIL, L. (Firth of Clyde). 1430, -goyle, " Loch of the fork ;' 

G. gablial, -ail ; it forks off from Loch Long ; perh. f r. 

G. gall, goill, ' a stranger.' 

GOIN, L. (Fenwick). 'Loch of the geese or barnacle ducks;' 
G. and Ir. geadh, gen. pi. geadhan (pron. goin). Cf. 
Loughnagoyne, Mayo. 

GOLDEN ACRE (Edinburgh). O.E. acer, cecer, Icel. akr = 
L. ager, a field. 

GOLSPIE (Sutherland). 1330, Goldespy; 1448,Golspi; 1550, 
Golspiekirktoun (farm of Kirkton still there), locally 
pron. Gdishpie or Gheispie. Either fr. some Norse- 
man Gold or Goa, or fr. G. gall, a stranger (cf. the 
surnames Gould and Gauld), + Dan. by, bi, bae, a 
hamlet, town (cf. pol for bol, p. Ixiv). Its Celtic name 
was Kilmaly. 

GOMETRA, I. (Mull). 1390, Godmadray; 1496, Gowmedra. 
' Godmadr ' or * Godmundr's isle ; ' K ay, ey. 

GORBALS (Glasgow). Perh. W. gor, spacious, or G. gobhar, a 
goat, -f G. baile, a village, with the common Eng. plural. 

GORDON (Earlston). 1250, Gordin ; 1289, Gordun. W. gor 
din, 'spacious hill;' or perh., like GOURDON, G. gobhar 
(pron. gore) dun, 'goat-hill;' but Killgordon in Ireland 
is Ir. coill-na-gem'ridin, 'wood of the parsnips,' a word 
which does not seem to be found in G. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 125 

GORDONSTOWN (Aberdeen and Kirkcudbright). Fr. a man, 
Gordon. 

GOREBRIDGE (Dalkeith). Hybrid; G. and Ir. gobhar, a goat; 
in O.Ir. gobur, also meant a horse ; hence, probably, is 
it so common in place names. 

GORGIE (Edinburgh), c. 1 280, Gorgyn. 

GORTLECH (Fort Augustus). G. goirt leac, i stone in the field 
or standing corn.' Cf. cromlech, i.e., 'a crooked stone.' 

GOURDON (Fordounj. 1315, Gurdon. Prob. = GORDON ; 
perh. fr. G. curr, a corner or a pit. 

GOUROCK (Greenock). See above ; the -ock may be G. 
achadh, a field, or JS". aig, a bay. 

GOVAN (Glasgow), a. 1147, Guven ; 1518, Gwuan. Might 
be ' dear river ; ' Celtic gliu an ( G. abhainn), W. cu, 
dear (cf. GLASGOW) : or second syllable might be G. 
bhemn, a ben or hill. Not likely to be fr. G. gobhann, 
a smith. Cf. GOWANBANK. 

GOWANBANK (Arbroath and Falkirk). Sc. gowan is a daisy, 
G. and Ir. gugan, a flower, a bud. 

GOWRIE, Carse of (Firth of Tay). a. 1200, Gouerin; c. 
1200, Gowrie. G. gabhar or gobhar, a goat; but the 
origin of the last syllable is doubtful. The old name 
of Ossory, Leinster, was Gabhran (pron. Gowran). 

GRAHAMSTON (Falkirk). Modern; it stands on ' Graham's 
Muir,' sic 1774, fr. Sir John de Graham, slain here 
1298. In 1295 (charters of the Roses of Kilravock) 
we find the name both Graham and Gram. 

GRAIN. O.N. greni, a branch, as of a tree. In Tweeddale 
and Liddesdale applied to branches of a valley towards 
its head, where it splits into two or three small glens, 
and to the burns or waters in these ; e.g., Grain Burn, 
near Coulterwaterhead. 

GRAMPIAN MOUNTAINS. H. Boace, F. vii. 45 (ed. 1520), is 
the first (T) to identify them with Mom Grampius in 
Tacitus' Agricola, 29, where Skene reads Granpius. 
Origin unknown. 

GRANDTULLY (Aberfeldy). 1492, Grantuly ; in G. Garan- 



126 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

tulach, prob. = ' cairn-hill,' and </. under CAIRN Touu 
But it is sometimes called Baile na Grandaich, ' the 
Grants' village.' 

GRANGE (Edinburgh, Eo'ness, Dunfer inline, Burntisland, 
Keith). ' Farm ' (see ABBOTSGRANGE). Common in 
England. 

GRANGEMOUTH. Owes origin to the Forth and Clyde Canal, 
begun 1768, at whose mouth, and also at the mouth of 
' Grange Burn,' it stands. Takes name fr. ABBOTS- 
GRANGE. 

GRANTON (Edinburgh). 1544, ' Grantaine Cragge.' Either 
' Grant's ton or village,' or fr. G. grdnda, gen. t/rdn- 
dainde, ugly, ill-favoured. 

GRANTOWN (Inverness-sh.). The oldest known Grant is 
' Gregory le Grant,' a. 1250. 

GRANTSHOUSE (Berwicksh.). Cf. Grantham, Lincoln. 

GRAVIR (Lewis). ? Icel. grdr, grey, or ? G. garWi tir, ' rough 
land.' 

GREENGAIRS (Airdrie). 'Green fields;' G. yarradh. Cf. 
FERNIEGAIR. 

GREENHILL (Larbert), GREENLAND, Hill of (Dunnet), GREEN- 
LAW (Berwick and Crossmichael). Berw. G., 1250, Gren- 
lawe. Five Greenhills in England. On law, see p. 
Ixxvi. 

GREENLOANING (Auchterarder). Sc. loan is a green lane, 
O.E. lane, Fris. lona, lana, a lane, Icel. Ion, a row of 
houses. For -ing, cf. shieling, fr. Icel. slgol, a shelter. 

GREENOCK. G. grian, gen. yreine, the sun, + cnoc, a hill, or 
achadh, a field, or K aig, a bay (cf. ASCOG). There are 
several Greenoges (Ir. grianog) in Ireland, meaning 
1 sunny little hill.' Loch Grennoch, Minigaff, is either 
fr. G. greanach, gravelly, or grianach, sunny. 

GREENS (Turriff) and GREENSIDE (Edinburgh). 

GRENAN (Bute), GRENNAN (Penpont, and several in Galloway). 
Bute G., sic 1400. G. grianan, a sunny spot, summer- 
house, also a mountain peak, fr. grian, the sun. 

GRETNA (Carlisle and Old Luce). 1376, Gretenhowe ; 1576, 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 127 

Gratnay. Prob. 'how' or 'hollow of greeting;' O.E. 
gretan,"' to greet,' i.e., either 'to salute,' or, as still in 
Sc., 'to weep,' Icel. grata, to weep. For similar 
corruptions of how, cf. RATHO and STOBO, 

GREYSTOXE (Arbroath). ' Grey's town ' or * grey stone.' 
GRIMSAY (L. Eport). The man ' Grim's isle ; ' X. ay, ey. 

GRISAPOLL (Coll). G. gresacli, a cobbler, or Icel. gris, Dan. 
grits, Sc. grise, a young pig, +poll = l$. 161, place, 
village. 

GRUDNESS (Shetland). ? Icel. grjot, stones, rubble, O.E. 
greot, sand, 'grit,' +n-ess. 

GRUINART or -ARD (Islay, Gairloch). Prob. 'green bay;' Dan. 
and Sw. gron, Icel. grcenn, + art, ard, a.rst, = N. fjord 
(see p. Iv). Some say ' shallow bay ; ' fr. Sw. and 
Dan. grund, ground, a shoal. 

GRULINE (Aros, Mull). 

GRYFE WATER (Renfrew), c. 1160, Strath Grief; a. 1200, 
Gryff. Perh. W. grif, frog-spawn. 

GUARDBRIDGE (St Andrews). Built by Bishop AYardlaw, 
before 1440. 

GUAY (Dunkeld). Sic 1457. G. gaothacJi, windy. 
GUILDTOWN (Perth). 

GUISACHAN (Beauly). 1578, -ane. Pron. Gheesachan. 
G. giuthsaclian, ' pine forests ; ' fr. G. giutJtafi, a pine, 
Scotch fir. Cf. Inverghuisachan, Loch Etivc. 

GULLANE (Longniddry). 1 250, Golyn. Pron. Gillan ; 
orgin doubtful. W. golyn is 'the guard of a sword,' 
which might refer to the shape of the bay. The name 
Gillon is just the G. gille or giolla Eoin, 'John's 
servant.' Perh. the first syllable is O.E., O.X., and 
Dan. gul(l], golden, yellow. 

GUSHETFAULDS (Glasgow). Sc. gusliet is a triangular corner, 
Fr. gousset, a gusset in a dress or boot ; fauld is = fold, 
O.E. fold, Dan. fold, lit. 'an enclosure by felled trees,' 
Prof. Veitch. 

GUTCHER (Cullivoe, Shetland). 



128 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

GUTHRIE (Arbroath). 1359, Gutherie. G. gaothair, -aire, 
* windy.' The surname is derived from the place. 

GWENYSTRAD (Galashiels). W. = ' white strath ' or ' vale ; ' 
now usually called WEDALE. 



II 

HABBIE'S How (Carlops). Sc. for ' Halbert's hollow ; ' O.K. 
holg, holh, a hollow, fr. hoi, a hole. 

HADDINGTON. a. 1150, Hadintun, Hadingtoun. 'Hading's 
village ; ' O.K. tun, ton. Hading is said to be a 
Frisian name, some early settler's. There are two 
Haddenhams in England. 

HADDO HOUSE (Aberdeensh.). Sic 1654. G. fhada, long ; 
/ lost by aspiration. Of. ATTOW. 

HAGGS, The (Denny). O.E. haga, a hedge, Old Sc. hag, 
copsewood. Cf. Hag, Parton. 

HAILES, New (Musselburgh). 1250, Halis; 1467, Newhal. 
1 O.E. 7 teal, heall, Icel. holl, hall, a public room, a hall : 
fr. O.E. heal, a stone. 

HAIRMYBES (Renfrew). First syllable prob. O.E. har, her, 
a boundary ; second syllable is Icel. myrr, myri, X. 
myre, a swamp fen. Of. HARLAW ; also Halmyre, or 
-mure, Kelton. 

HALBEATH (Dunfermline). G. choil beath, * wood of birches;' 
c lost by aspiration. Cf. CALROSSIE. 

HALF MORTON (Canonbie). See MORTON. 

HALIVAL (mountain, Rum). 1 G. chala na l)hail, 'haven, 
shore, bay of the village.' 

HALKERSTON (Moray), c. 1200, -ertoune. 'Hawker's,' i.e., 
' fowler's, village ; ' Icel. haukr, a hawk. Cf. EULLERTON, 
also 'baldric' and 'bawdric.' 

HALKIRK (Caithness). Sic 1500, but in saga Hd Kirkiu, 
'high church;' 1222, Hakirk ; 1274, Haukyrc ; 1601, 
Halkrig. The I is prob. due to association with Icel. hall-r, 
a slope, frequent as Hall-, in Scandinavian place-names, 
Hall-ormr, Hall-land, &c. On Kirk, see KIRKBAY. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 129 

HALLADALE (Sutherland), or, by tautology, Strath Halla- 
dale; e. 1230, Helgedall; 1274, Haludal. 'Holy dale' 
or 'vale of saints ; ' Icel. heilag-r, Dan. hellig, O.E. hdlig, 
holy, hdlga, a saint (cf. to hallow), + N. dal, a dale. Cf. 
Hallaton, Uppingham. 

HALLIN-IN-VATERNISH (Skye). Cf. Hallen, near Bristol, 
and see VATERNISH. 

HALLRULE (Hobkirk, Hawick). c. 1560, Harroull. Modern 
' refining ' for the traditional Harrule, i.e., Haraway 
Kule, Rula Herevei. See ABBOTRULE. 

HALLSIDE (Glasgow). Prob. tautology fr. Icel. hall-r, a slope. 
See HALKIRK. 

HAMILDEAN-HILL (Lyne). Prob. 'Ham il's woody glen.' See 
DEAN, and next. 

HAMILTON. 1291, Hamelton ; the surname also occurs as 
Hambleton. Walter 'Eitz-Gilbert,' called Hamilton, 
is known to have held the lands in 1296. Hamil is 
still an English surname. The old name was CADZOW. 

HAMMA VOE (Yell). Sagas, Hafnarvag. Dan. Jiawi, Icel. 

hofn, a ' haven, ' + 0.l!s". vag-r, a bay or inlet. Voe is 

Icel. vor, a little bay or inlet. 
HANGINGSHAW (farms, Coulter). ' Wood on the side of the 

hill.' See SHAW. 
HARBURN (Carnwath). O.E. har, her, 'a boundary mark;' 

cf. 'menhar,' boundary stone. 
HARLAW (Aberdeen), c. 1500, Hayrlau. ' Boundary hill ;' 

O.E. hldew. Cf. Harelaw, Lochore, Fife, and Herlaw, 

E. Kilbride. 
HARLOSH (Dunvegan). G. chdrr lois, 'rock of the fire.' Cf. 

Ironlosh, Galloway. 
HAROLDSWICK (Balta Sound). 'Bay (N. vik) of Harold,' 

prob. King H. Hardrada, died 1066. 

HARRAY (Orkney). Old, Herad, O.K for 'territory.' See 
BIRSAY. 

HARRIS, c. 1500, Blc. Clanmnald, Heradh; 1542, Harrige ; 
1588, Harreis. N. karri, 'heights,' with Eng. plural 
s. Its G. name is Na h'earadh (dirdead), with same 
meaning. This last accounts for the form c. 1500, 
though we must cf. HARRAY. 



130 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

HARSTANB (Kirkurd). 'Boundary stone.' See HARBURN, 
and <'/. Haer Cairns, Clunie, Blairgowrie, and Kinlocli 
(Perthshire), and Haerland Faulds, Finhaven. 

HARTFELL, and HARTHILL (Whitburn). O.E. heor(o)t, Icel. 
hjorl-r, a male deer. 

HARTREE (Biggar). 'Boundary tree.' Of. HARBURN. 

HARVIESTON (Edinburgh). 1250, Heruistun. 'Harvey's 
dwelling.' Of. HALLRULE. 

HASKBVAL (mountain, Rum). Ha#k is prob. corruption of 
G. crosg, a pass, cf. ARNGASK and CASKIEBEN ; so it 
will be 'pass of the dwelling,' bail. Cf. HALIVAL. 

HASSENDEAN (Hawick). 1155, Halestonesden ; 1158, Has- 
tenden ; c. 1320, Hassenden. O.E. hdlig stem denu> 
' dean, wooded valley of the holy stone.' 

HATLOCK (TAveeddale). The root idea of both our Eng. 
words hat (O.E. haet, Icel. hatt-r, Dan. hat) and lock 
(O.E. loca, loc, Icel. I ok) is ' covering.' But early 
forms of this name are needed. Cf. Matlock. 

HATTON (Ellon, Perthsh., and Montrose). Prob. c. 970, Pid. 
Chron., Athan = G. ath abliainn or an, 'ford of the 
river' (cf. AYTON). Ir. aiteann (pron. attan) is furze, as 
in Ballynahattin. There is a Hattonknowe, Eddleston, 
the 'Haltoun' or 'village by the hall,' mentioned a. 
1400. Three in England. 

HAUGH (Coulter, &c.). O.E. halech(&sina. 1150, ' Galtunes- 
halech,' Melrose, = Gattonshaugh), Icel. hagi, a pasture- 
place which is flat, and by a river-side. Cf. SAUCHIB. 
But 

HAUGH OF URR (Dalbeattie) is X. hoi, a hill, O.K hauya, 
a mound. 

HA WES INN (S. Qucensferry). Prob. Icel. hdls, M.E. and 
Sc. halse, hause, the neck, throat ; hence, a narrow 
opening, defile. 

HAWICK. a. 1183, Hawic, Hawich, Hauuic. First syllable 
may be fr. either root of HAUGH ; the second is O.E. 
toic, M.E. loiclc, with, dwelling, village, as in BERWICK, 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 131 

HAWTHORN DEN (Edinburgh). Of. DEAN. 
HAYWOOD (Lanark). 

HEBRIDES, c. 1 20, Ptolemy, Ebudae (prob., too, the same word 
as the Epidii, who, according to him, inhabited most of 
modern Argyle) ; Soliims, Polyhistor., 3rd century, 
Hebudes (Ulst. Ann., ann. 853, Innsegall, 'isles of 
strangers,' i.e., Norsemen; and always called by the 
Norsemen 'Sudreys' or Southern isles to distinguish 
them from the Northern Orkneys, &c., the ' Nordreys '). 
Origin unknown ; possibly Old G. c(h)abad, a head, or 
c(h)dbadh, a notching, indenting. The u is supposed to 
have become ri through some early printer's error. 

HECKLEGIRTH (Annan). ' Church-field ' or ' yard.' See 
ECCLES (1297, Hecles), ECCLEFECHAN, and APPLEGARTH. 

HEE, Ben (Keay). Perh. G. fliiadli, a deer (cf. HADDO). 
As likely fr. sltith (pron. hee), peace, i.e., 'tame, peaceful- 
looking hill.' Cf. TEE. 

HEITON (Kelso). K hoi, a hill, 4- O.E. ton, tun, a village. 
Cf. Huyton, Cheshire. 

HELENSBURGH. Founded c. 1776 by Sir James Colquhoun, 
and called after his wife. 

HELLMUIR, L. (Hawick). K liella, 'flat,' +O.K, Icel, 
and Dan. mor, a moor, marsh. 

HELL'S GLEN (Lochgoilhead). 

HELMSDALE (Sutherland), c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Hjalmund- 
dal; another Saga, Hialmasdal; 1290,Holmesdale; 1513, 
Helmisdaill. ' Hjalmund's dale,' or ' valley of the helmet ; ' 
Icel. lijalm-r, Dan. hjelm. Cf. Helmsley, Yorkshire, and 
Helmdon. 

HEMPRIGGS (Wick). Icel. hamp-r, Dan. liamp, hemp. On 
rig, see BISHOPBRIGGS. 

HERBERTSHIRE CASTLE (Denny). Sic c. 1630; said to have 
been given by an early James to the Earl of Wigton 
as his ' halbert's share,' for service in war. 

HERIOT (Stow). 1250, Herieth ; c. 1264, Herewyt. O.E. 
here-geatu, ' army-equipment,' a ' heriot,' payment given 
to the lord of a fee on the death of a vassal or tenant. 

HERIOTFIELD (Methven). 



132 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

HERMISTON (Currie). 1251, Hyrdmanstoun, ' herdman's ' or 

' Herdman's village.' Of. HALKERSTON. 
HERMITAGE CASTLE (Riccarton Junction). 1300, Eremitage ; 

f r. Fr. ermite, Gk. ep^/xtrr;?, a hermit, fr. ep^os, solitary. 

Of. vicarage. 

HERRIES (Dumfries). 1578, Hereis (1585, 'Herres,' in 
Glenelg) . = HARRIS. 

HEUGH. O.K hauga, a mound. 

HIGH BLANTYRE. See BLANTYRE. ' High ' or * Higher ' is 
very common as a prefix in England. This is the only 
instance of consequence in Scotland. 

HIGHLANDMAN (Crieff). Humorous name. The earliest 
mention of the word Highland I have found is in the 
poet Dunbar, who in 1503, in his Daunce, speaks of 'a 
Heleand padyane' or pagan; Lyndesay, c. 1536, in his 
Compleynt, 384, has ' Baith throw the heland and the 
bordour;' while Hollinshed, 1577, says, 'Justice should 
be administered in the Isles and hie lands.' 

HIGHTAE (Lockerbie). Can hardly be fr. O.E. and Icel. 
id, toe ; but cf. the fee. tee, point of aim in quoits or 
starting-point in golf, fr. Icel, tjd, to mark. 

HILLEND (Inverkeithing), HILLHEAD (Glasgow), HILLSIDE 
(Aberdeen and Montrose), HILLTOWN (Dundee). 

HILLSWICK (Lerwick). Saga, Hildiswik, i.e., 'battle-bay/ 

Cf. WICK. 
HILTON (Fearn). 1544, Hiltown. = HILLTOWN. Five in 

England. 
HINTON (Anwoth). 'Hind's, servant's place;' O.E. hina- 

tun. Cf. Carleton or ' churl's place.' 

HIRSEL (Coldstream). Sie 1572. Sc. hirsle, a shepherd's 
term, means to move along on the hams ; but 1 con- 
nection here. 

HOBKIRK (Hawick). 1220. Hopechirke ; 1586, Hopeskirk ; 
c. 1610, Hoppkirck; still sometimes Hopekirk. Sc. 
hope (e.g., c. 1200, Hopekeliov, see KAILZIE) is a valley 
among hills, a cul de sac, Icel. hop, a haven, place of 
refuge. On kirk,, see KIRKABY, and cf. KIRKHOPE. 

HODDAM (Ecclefechan) and HODDOM (Parton). Ecclef. H. T 



PLACE-NAMES OF -SCOTLAND. 133 

1116, Hodelm; 1185, Jocelyn, Holdelin; c. 1320, Hod- 
holme. First syllable prob. = hold, in sense of ' fortress,' 
hold being pron. hod in the north of England. Holm in 
Icel. is a meadow near the sea or a river, but in place- 
names of ten used interchangeably with ham for 'dwelling, 
house' (cf. LANGHOLM, YETHOLM, also Durham, old Dun- 
elm). Hoddam will thus prob. mean 'fortified dwelling.' 

HOLLAND (S. Eonaldshay). Sice. 1500. 'Hole (Icel. and 
O.E. hoi) land,' land in a hollow. 

HOLLANDBUSH (Denny). 

HOLM (Orkney). Dan. and O.E. holm, a small island in a 
river, Icel. holm-r, an island, also a meadow near river 
or sea; and often interchanged with ham (cf. LANGHOLM, 
YETHOLM, &c.). Six Holmes in England. But Glenholm, 
Peebles, can hardly be the same word, for its forms are 
c. 1200, Glenwhym; c. 1300, -whim ; 1530, -quhome, 
which may be ' glen of the captive ;' G. chiomaich. 

HOLY ISLE (Lainlash). Sagas, Melansay, ' Melan's ' or ' St 
Molios' isle.' His well here was long famed for its 
cures. Cf. LAMLASH. 

HOLYROOD (Edinburgh), c. 1128, foundation charter, 
' Ecclesia Sancti l Crucis;' as late as 1504, ' Abbey of the 
Holy Croce.' Rood is O.E. rod, a rod, pole, cross. Eor 
the legend how David I. scared the fierce stag with the 
miraculously given ' holy rood,' see Grant's Old and Neio 
Edinburgh, i. 21. 

HOLYTOWN (Coatbridge). Pron. H611ytown. 

HOLYWOOJD (Dumfries). Aberdeen Brev., Sacrum Nenius. A 
monastery once here. Its old name was Darcongall, 
'thicket, wood (G. daire) of StCongal.' 

HOPE, Ben and L. (Eriboll). Icel. hop, a haven of refuge. 
See HOBKIRK, and p. Ixi. 

HOPEKIRK. See HOBKIRK. 

HOPEMAN (Burghead). Icel. hop, haven of refuge. Man 
might be G. manach, a monk. 

HORNDEAN (Berwick). ? G. ornach, barley, + DEAN. 

HOSH (Crieff). Its site shows it is an aspirated form of G. 
cois (pron. cosh), ' the foot.' 

1 The medieval Latin charters often pay little attention to gender. 

P 



134 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

HOUNAM (Kelso). c. 1200, Humim, Hunedun; 1237, 
Honum ; 1 544, Hownome. Prob. ' hound's home or 
place' (O.E. ham); O.E., Dan., and Sw. hund, a dog. 
Of. EDNAM, EDROM. 

HOUNDWOOD (Grantshouse). 

HOUBN, L. (W. Inverness). Prob. urrin or uitharn, hell; 
corruption of G. Ifreoine, which, nota bene, was the 
cold island of Fingal, fr. fuar, cold. Cf. Glenurrin, 
Cowal. 

HOUSTON (Johnstone). c. 1200, Villa Hugonis ; c. 1230, 
Huston; c. 1300, Houstoun. 'Village of Hugo' de 
Paduinan, mentioned in the Paisley Chartulary, c. 
1160. Cf. SYMINGTON, and see p. Ixxiv. 

HOWFF (farm, Orkney). Sc. Iwwff is a rendezvous, house of 
call; but in N. hof means properly 'the house of God.' 

HOWMORE (Lochmaddy). How prob. represents some G 
word. G. mor is ' big.' 

HOWOOD (Johnstone). 

HOWPASLEY (Roberton, Roxburgh). Sc. Iww is a hollow. 
Cf. HABBIE'S How and PAISLEY. 

HOXAY (S. Ronaldshay). c. 1390, Haugaheith, which is 
O.K for ' mound of the heath ' or ' waste.' The -ay 
means ' island.' 

HOY (Orkney), c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Haey; c. 1580, Hy. 
'High isle;' Icel. hd-r, Dan. hoi, high, + IS", ay, ey, an 
island. Cf. Hysker, ' high rock.' west of Rum. 

HUGHTON (Beauly). 

HUMBIE (Haddington, and Aberdour, Fife). Prob. ' Hume's 
place or dwelling;' Dan. bi, by, northern O.E. ~by. 
There is no -by or -bie between Aberdour and Caith- 
ness. 

HUME (Greenlaw). 1250, Home. Home and Hume are 
, still common surnames hereabouts. 

HUNA (Canisbay). Sagas, Hofn, i.e., 'haven.' The -a is 
N. ay, ey, isle. Prob. referring to Stroma opposite. 

HUNGYRFLAT. 1361, in Liddesdale. Cf. SKINFLATS. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 135 

HUNTER'S QUAY (Frith of Clyde). On the estate of the 

Hunters of Hafton. 
HUNTINGTOWER (Perth). Hunting-seat of Lord Ruthven. 

Cf. 'Castle Stalker.' 
HUNTLAW (Roxburgh). Sic 1170. O.E. hunta, a hunter, + 

lilcBW, a hill. 
HUNTLY (Aberdeensh.). 1482, -lie. Originally the name of a 

Berwickshire hamlet, now extinct, and transferred north 

by the Duke of Gordon = ' hunting lea ' or ' meadow.' 

Cf. Huntley, Gloucester. 

HURLET (Barrhead). Possibly G. cliur liath, ' the grey turn ' 
or ' bend ' (G. car). 

HURLFORD (Kilmarnock). If above be correct, which is 
doubtful, this cannot be the same. Prob. liurl = whirl, 
referring to the river Irvine. 

HUSEDALEBEG and -MORE (Skye). Hybrids ; Icel., Dan., and 
Sw. husdal, ' house-dale,' + G. beag, little, and m6r, 
big. 

HUTTON (Berwicksh. and Lockerbie). Berw. H., c. 1300, 
Hutona. Prob. not ' hut-village,' as hut is not in O.E., 
rather ' Hugh's village ' (cf. HOUSTON). Seven in Eng- 
land. Isaac Taylor says the English Buttons mean 
' enclosure on a hoo or projecting heel of land.' 

HYLIPOL. Sagas, Heylipol. ' Heyli's place ; ' JS". 161. Cf. 
p. Ixiv. 

HYNISH (Tyree). Dan. lioi naes, 'high ness' or ' promontory.' 
Cf. YATERNISH. 



IBROX (Glasgow). (Cf. c. 1200, 'Monabroc,' in 

not far away.) / might be the Ir. liy, ' tribe, 
in Ikeathy, Kildare ; and there is an Irish j^t 
Broc means a badger both in G. and in '6? 
BROXBURN, &c. ^ & 

IDRIGILL POINT (Skye). 1 Er. Idris, a reputed giant, as l 

Cader Idris, Wales, + Icel. gil, a ravine. {'} vi t cl T i , 

IDVIES (Montrose). 1219, Edevy ; 1254, Edevyn. Prob. 




136 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

G. fliada dbh or abhuinn, ( long water ' or ' river ' (cf. 
ADD and ADVIE). The s is the English plural. 

INCH (Forfar, Perth, and Wigtown, also loch, Kincraig, and 
isle in Tweed). G. and Ir. innis, an island; also 'pasture- 
ground, links.' The Gael loves to aspirate his s. Wig- 
town Island is so called fr. the island in the White Loch 
of Inch. Cf. INSCH. 

INCHADDON (Taymouth Castle). 'Isle of St Aidan,' died 
651. 

INCHAFFRAY (Muthil). c. 1190, 'Incheaffren Latine 

Insula Missarum;' 1290, Incheafraue. 'Isle of the 
offering.' i.e., ' the mass ; ' G. aifrenn or aoibhrionn, 
corruption of late L. offerens, offering or mass. Cf. 
INNERPEFFRAY, and the surname Jaffrey. 

INCHARD, L. (Sutherland). G. innis dirct, ' isle of the 
height.' 

INCHBARE (Brechin). Here G. innis has its meaning of 
' pasture-ground, sheltered valley : ' and the meaning 
prob. is ' field of the battle ' or ' game ; ' G. innis baire. 

INCHCAILLOCH (L. Lomond). ' Isle of ntins,' lit. ' old 
women ; ' G. cailleacli. Ruins of a nunnery here. 

INCHCOLM (Aberdour, Fife). Monastery founded here by 
Alexander L, c. 1123, whose charter calls this 'Insula 
Sancti Columbse,' or 'St Columba's isle;' in G. Innis 
Colum, cf. p. xcii. 

INCHES (Douglas). G. innis, a meadow, 'links,' with Eng. 
plural. Cf. INCHBARE and Perth Inches. 

INCHGARVIE (Queensferry). G. innis garbh, ' rough, rocky 

islet.' 
INCHINNAN (Paisley). 1158, -enan, -ienun ; 1246, -innun. 

' Inch of St Adamnan ' (cf. KIRKENNAN, and see p. xcv). 

The inch is the angle made by the junction of the rivers 

Gryfe and Cart ; G. innis } an isle or a meadow. 

INCHKEITH (in Firth of Forth, and hill near Lauder). a. 
1200, Insula KeS ; 1461, Ynchkeyth. Bede, c. 720, 
speaks of Urbs Giudi in the midst of the Firth of Forth ; 
which frith the Irish once called Sea of Giudan or of 
the Giuds ; perh. = the Jutes f r. Jutland. May mean 
'isle of Che, : Pictish prince, one of the seven sons of 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 137 

the famous Cruithne. Skene (Celtic ScotL, i. 208) 
thinks fr. a successor of his, Gaeth or Giudid Gaeth 
brechach. Of. KEITH. 

INCHMAHOME (L. of Monteith). Sic c. 1550: 1296, lisle 
de St Colmoc. * Isle of Macholmoc,' the Irish pet name 
of St Colman, c. 520. See p. xcv, and cf. KiLMALc6LM. 

INCHMARNOCK (Bute). ' Isle of St Marnock,' pet form of 
Ernan. See KILMARNOCK. 

INCHMICKERY (Aberdour, Fife). G. innis na bkicaire, ' isle of 
the vicar.' Inchcolm Monastery was close by. 

INCHMOIN or -MOAN (L. Lomond). 'Isle of the mossy spot ;' 
G. moine. 

INCHNADAMPF (L. Inver). G. innis na daimli, 'pasture- 
ground of the ox.' 

INCHTURE (Errol). 1183, -ethore. 'Inch' or 'links of the 
tower ' or ' hill ; ' G. tbrr. 

INGAN (hill, Kinross). G. ionga, 'anail, talon, claw,' fr. its shape. 
INGLESTON (T wynholm). ' Village of the English ' or ' of Inglis. ' 

IN(N)ISHAIL (L. Awe). 1375, Insalte ; 1542, Inchalt. G. 
innis ailt, 'stately, charming isle.' 

IN(N)ISTRYNICH (peninsula, L. Awe). Prob. G. innis nan 
Druineacli, ' isle of artists or sculptors \ ' so Prof. 
M'Kinnon. 

INKERMAN (Paisley). Fr. the battle in the Crimea, 1854, 

INKHORN (New Deer). Likely to be the corruption of G. 
ionga, pi. iongaingean, nail, claw, cloven hoof. Cf. 
INGAN, CLEGHORN, and DREGHORN. 

INNELLAN (Firth of Clyde). 1571, -lane. Prob. G. an eilean, 
' the island,' fr. the rocks off the shore. 

INNERLEITHEN (Galashiels). G. inWiir, mouth of a river or 
confluence, is a purely Gadhelic form = the Bry thonic, 
and prob. also Gadhelic dbhir or aber (see p. xxvii). 
Inbhir in place-names is always fluctuating between 
inver- and inner-, the b getting lost by aspiration ; e.g., 
this name, c. 1160, is Inverlethan, 'confluence of the 
R. Leithen,' which may either be G. liath, leithe an or 
abhainn, 'grey river,' or = LEiTH, fr. W. Ueithio, to 
moisten. 



138 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

INNERPEFFRAY (Crieff). 1296, Inrepeffre. ' Confluence of the 
Peffray,' corruption of G. aoibhrionn, offering. See INCH- 
AFFRAY, which is just to the east ; cf. also river PEFFER. 

INNERWICK (Dunbar). 1 250, Inuerwike. Hybrid ; G. inbhir 
+ O.E. wic, 'dwelling, village,' or !N". vik, 'bay at the 
confluence.' Cf. LINTON, POLTON, &c. 

INSCH (Aberdeensh.). a. 1300, Insula. =!NCH; G. innis, 
1 isle ' or ' links, meadow.' S in G. generally has the 
sound of sh. 

INVER (Crathie, Tain, where the Bran joins Tay, river and 
loch in W. Sutherland). See INNERLEITHEN ; = ' con- 
fluence' (cf. Aber, Bangor). The Tain Inver was 
originally Inverlochslin. 

INVERALLOCHY (Aberdeen). G. inbhir ciilleach, 'beautiful 

confluence.' 

INVERAMSAY (Inverurie). 1 ' Eamsay's confluence.' 
INVERAN (Bonar Bridge). G. inbhiran, 'little confluence.' 

INVER- or INNER-ARITY (Forfar). 1250, Inuerarethin. Prob. 
'confluence at the shielings;' G. airidliean. Cf. INVER- 

QUHARITY. 

INVERARY, ' Mouth of the ARAY ' or ' smooth river.' 
INVERAVON (Balindalloch). ' Confluence of the AVON.' 

INVERCANNICH (Beauly). ' Confluence of the Cannich.' Prob. 
the G. caonnag, a fight, a fray. 

INVERDOVET (N. Fifesh.). Old, -dufatha or -doveth, i.e., G. 
dubli ath or dtha, ' black ford ' or ' kiln.' 

INVERESKANDY (Fern, Forfar). G. inbhir uisgain dim ' con- 
fluence of the dark little water or stream.' , 

INVERFARIGAIG (L. Ness). ' Mouth of the fierce, turbulent 
little river;' G. feavgaig, dimin. of feargach, fierce. Cf. 
ABERARGIE and FARG. 

INVERGARRY (Fort Augustus). ' Mouth of the GARRY ' or 

' rough river.' 
INVERGORDON (E. Eoss-sh.). Quite recent ; used to be Inver- 

or Inch-breckie ; G. breac, speckled. 

INVERGOWRIE (Dundee). This can only mean 'place in 
Gowrie at the mouth of the Tay.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 139 

INVERIE (Fort Augustus and Oronsay). (Old name of St 
Monan's, * Inverry '). The -ie is perh. G. iodh, corn. 

INVERINGATE (Lochalsh). 1 Fr. G. ionga-aite, ' claw or hoof- 
like place.' Cf. INGAN. 

INVERKEILOR (Arbroath). c. 1200, Innerkeledur, which 
shows that Keilor is just another form of CALDER ; G. 
coille dur or ' wood by the river.' 

INVERKEITHING (Dunfermline). 1229, Innerkeithing; 1250, 
Innerkethyn; 1290, Inver- and Inner-kethin. 'Mouth 
of the Keithing;' 1 G. tithean, grumbling, lamenting. 
Cf. next. 

INVERKEITHNY (Turriff). Here K&ithny prob. represents 
some G. adjective formed from KEITH. 

INVERKINDIE (Rhynie, Aberdeen). River Kindie is the 
G. cinn dim, ' black head.' 

INVER- or INNER-KIP (Greenock). c. 1170, Innyrkyp. Kip 
is G. and Ir. ceap, a block, trunk of a tree; in G. a 
shoelast. Cf. Edinkyp, Loch Earn, and Coolkip and 
Knockacip, Ireland. 

INVERLEITH (Edinburgh), c. 1145, Inverlet; also Iiinerleith. 
' Mouth of the Water of LEITH.' The present Inverleith 
is a good distance from the sea, one of the many proofs 
of the once much wider extent of the Firth of Forth. 

INVERLOCHY (Fort William). ' Mouth of the river LOCHY.' 

INVERNESS, a. 1300, Invernis; c. 1310, Invirnisse ; 1509, 
Innernis. See NESS. 

INVERNOOK BAY (Jura). G. iribhir an uige, ' confluence in 
the nook.' Cf. CRAIGNEUK. 

INVERQUHARITY (Kirriemuir). 1444, Innerquharady, Iner- 
carity. * Confluence of the pair of streams; G. c(h)araid. 
Cf. CART. 

INVERSHIN (Sutherland). ' Mouth of the river SHIN.' 

INVERSNAID (L. Lomond). ' Needle-like or narrow con- 
fluence ;' G. and Ir. snathad, a needle. 

INVER- or INNER-TIEL (Kirkcaldy). 'Mouth of the Tiel;' 
? G. t-siol, spawn, fish-fry, seed. 

INVERUGIE (Peterhead). a. 1300, Innerugy. River Ugie is 



140 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

G. uigeach, full of nooks or retired corners, fr. wig, a 
nook. 

INVERUGLAS (L. Lomond). 'Confluence of the grey pro- 
montory;' G. rudha glas. 

INVERURIE (Aberdeensh.). Sic 1199; 1203, Inuerurin; a. 

1300, Innervwry. * Confluence of the river URIE.' 
IOCHDAR (S. TJist). G. 'the bottom, nether lands.' Gf. 

YOKER. 

IONA (Mull), c. 657, Cuminus, and c. 690, Adamnan, Hyona; 
JBede, Hy, Hii; a. 900, O.E. Chron., li; c. lIQQ,ibid., 
Hiona-Columcille. Forms loua, Yona, and la also occur. 
Hy or li may be either G. aoi, isthmus (as lona once 
seems to have been joined with Mull), or i, island, 
while Hyona or lona may be either aoi uain, 'green 
isthmus,' or i-thonna, 'isle of waves.' M'Lauchlan 
derived f r. G. iodh, com. Also called Icolmkill (cf. form 
c. 1100), i.e., ' isle of Columcille,' pet name of Columba. 
Cf. Kilcolmkill, formerly on Loch Aline, and Kilcalm- 
kill, Sutherland ; also Aoi Columcille, Lewis, G. name of 
EYE (i.e., isthmus), peninsula. lona itself is called by 
this name in the Annals of Innisfailen, ann. 807. 

IRONGRAY (Dumfries). Corruption of G. dird an greaicli 
(pron. graigh), ' height of the moor.' 

IRVINE (river and town, Ayrsh.). c. 1230, Irvin; 1295, 
Ore win ; also Ire win. G. iar alhuinn, ' west-flowing 
river.' 

ISLA, R. (Banff and Forfar). (1263, Strath ylif, and prob. the 
Hilef, mentioned in Angus by Bishop Andrew of Caith- 
ness, 1165.) 1 G. filleadh, a folding, wrapping ; / lost by 
aspiration. 

ISLAY. c. 690, Adamnan, Ilia ; a. 800, Nennius, He ; Sagas, 
II; 1376, Harbour, Yla (this is very near the modern 
pron.); c. 1450, Yle. Skene thinks the name pre- 
Celtic, and II- is common in Basque place-names. Mean- 
ing doubtful. The s is a quite recent innovation, so no 
derivation fr. G. iosal, ' low,' is to be thought of. 

ISLE TOLL (Auldgirth). G. isle, compar. of iosal, means 
' lower ; ' but is this name Gaelic ? 

ITLAW (Banff). Hybrid ; prob. G. fiath, a calm, fine weather, 
/lost by aspiration, + law, O.E. lil&w, a hill. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 141 



JAMESTOWN (Balloch and Strathpeffer). 

JANET'S BRAE (Peeblessh.). Said to be Danes' BRAE. 
Certainly d in G. often comes near the sound of j. There 
is a JanetstOwn near Thurso. 

JAWCRAIG (Slamannan). 1745, Jallcraig, i.e., 'bare rock 5 
or ' crag,' Icel. gall, barren (cf. YELL) ; also stalk (pron. 
stawk), falconer (pron. fawkner), &c. 

JEDBURGH and JEDFOOT (Roxburgh). Jedb., a. 1100, 
Geddewrde; c. 1130, Gedword ; c. 1145, Jaddeuurd; 
c. 1160, Jeddeburgh; 1251, Jedwarth ; a. 1300, Gedde- 
worth; c. 1500, Jedward; 1586, Geddart (cf. the 
modern phrase ' Jeddart justice,' and by some still living 
pron. Jethart). The name of the river Jed is prob. fr. W. 
gwd, a turn, a twist. The second syllable was originally 
(and even still) O.E. or M.E. worth, word, l a place like 
an island;' cf. POLWARTH, Isleworth, and Donauwerth 
on the Danube ; cf., too, the similarity of its forms here 
to those taken by the N. fjord in the west, see p. Iv. 

JEDBURGH KNEES (hill, Carsphairn). Knees is prob. O.E. 
and Dan. naes, a ness, cape, nose. Cf. Calf Knees. 

JEMIMAVILLE (Cromarty). A modern type of name happily 
confined chiefly to Brother Jonathan. 

JOCK'S LODGE (Edinburgh). 1650, Jokis Lodge. Jock is 
Sc. for John ; said to be fr. an eccentric beggar who 
built himself a hut here. 

JOHN o' GROAT'S HOUSE (Wick). Tradition says this was 
an octagonal house with eight windows and doors, and 
a table with eight sides. We certainly read of ' John 
o' Grot of Duncansbay, baillie to the Earl in those 
pairts,' 1496-1525. Grot suggests Holland. 

JOHNSHAVEN (Montrose). 

JOHNSTONE (Paisley and Moffat). ' John's town ' or village. 
Perth, in 1220 (and earlier), was called 'Sanct 1 Johns 
toun.' Le Seigneur de Jeanville, a Norman, is said to 
be the ancestor of the Johnston(e)s. Paisley Johnstone 
was only founded in 1781. 



142 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

JOPPA (Portobello). Called, c. 1800, after the Joppa on the 
Mediterranean. 

JORDANHILL (Glasgow), JoRDANBURN (Edinburgh), and JOR- 
DANSTONE (Alyth). Modern j though Jordanhill goes, 
back at least to the 16th century. 

JUNIPER GREEN (Edinburgh). Quite recent. 

JURA (Inner Hebrides). Ulst. Ann., ann. 678, Doirad 
Eilinn; 1335, Dure ; c. 1590, Dewra, alias Jura; in 
Mod. G. Diura. Form 678 shows it is 'Island of 
Doirad,' and not K dyr-ay, 'deer isle.' Very few 
Norse names in Jura. Cf. Jurby, in Man. 



KAIL WATER (Hawick). 1 Old G. cail, an assembly, or coil, 
a wood ; on Water, see GALA. All river-names here- 
abouts are pre-Anglian, so Kail will not be Sc. kail, 
Icel. Jail, cabbage. 

KAILZIE (Innerleithen). c. 1200, Hopekeliov; c. 1265, 
-kelioch; 1494, Hopkelzow ; 1653, Kelzeo. Prob. G. 
coilleadli, a wood, or coillteacli, woody. On hope, 'a 
shut-in valley,' see HOBKIRK. 

KAMES (L. Fyne). 1475, Camys. G. camas, l a creek, bay/ 
Cf. CAMBUS. 

KATRINE, L. (Callander). In G. pron. Ketturin or -urn; 
G. cath, 'the battle/ or as prob. ceatliach, 'the mist, 
fog,' urrin or uitharn, 'of hell.' Urrin is corruption of 
Ifreoine, the cold island of Fingal ; fr. fuar, cold. Cf. 
Loch HOURN, and Glenurrin, Cowal. 

KEIG (Alford). Pron. Kaig, {/hard; a. 1200, Kege. 1 G. 
ceadha, the part of a plough on which the share is fixed. 

KEIL(L)OR, E. (Forfarsh.). = C ALDER. See INVERKEILOR. 

KEILLS (Lochgilphead), and KEIL or KIEL (Kintyre). Prob. 
Old G. cil, 'ruddle,' a kind of clay; in Sc. keelie. 

KEIR (Thornhill and Bridge of Allan). G. ciar, dark brown. 
Cf. Keer, mentioned in the thanage of Belhelvie. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 143 

KEISGAG, B. (Cape Wrath). Prob. Icel. keisa, to jut out, 
+ aig, ag, og, a bay. 

KEISS (Wick). Icel. Jceisa, to jut out. 

KEITH (Banffsh.). The upper part of river Tyne, Haddington, 
is called Keith Water, and near by is Keith-Humbie. 
Haddington Keith in 1160 is Keth. Prob. fr. CJie or 
Gait, the Pict who gave his name to CAITHNESS and 
INCHKEITH. Cf. Ikeathy, Kildare, = hy Ceatacli, ' race 
or family of Ce ; ' also KEITHOCK. Keith Hall is near 
Inverurie. 

KEITHAN (Keith). G. = ' Little KEITH.' 

KEITHOCK (Brechin). c.H30,Chethec; 1617,Keithik. 'Field 
(G. achadh) of Cheth ' or KEITH. 

KELBURN CASTLE (Fairlie). Old, Kilburne. Hybrid; G. 
coil, a wood, + Sc. burn, O.E. burna, a stream. 

KELLAS (Elgin). G. coill eas, 'the wood with the waterfall.' 

KELLIE ('Mar and Kellie') and KELLY (Carnbee). Carnbee 
Kelly, c. 1140, Chellin. G. c(h)oill(t)ean, plural of 
coille, a wood. Cf. Collyland, Alloa. 

KELLS New Galloway). May either be G. coill, a wood, or 
till or ceall, a cell, church, with Eng. plural ; Dan. hell, 
means 'a spring,' as in Kellhead, Dumfries. Kells, Co. 
Meath, in its oldest form was Cenandas, then Kenlis or 
ceann-lis, 'head fort.' 

KELSO. 1126, Calkou; 1158, Kelcou; c. 1203, 'Ordo 
Kelchoensis ; ' c. 1420, Wyntoun, Kelsowe; 1447, Cal- 
couia. The old Welsh bards called it Calchvynyd, of 
which Calkou may be the rubbing down, fr. Old W. 
calcli vynyd or mynyd, ' chalk ' or ' limestone height.' 
Calch is = O.E. cealc (sic c. 700), L. calx, chalk or 
lime. The second syllable may possibly be Sc. liow 
(here pron. hu), a hollow, O.E. hoik. Cf. STOBO. 

KELTON (Castle-Douglas). (Cf. a 'Cheletun,' temp. Wm. 
Lyon.) Prob. G. coil, a wood, + O.E. ton, tun, a 
hamlet, village. Cf. LINTON. 

KELTY (Kinross), KELTY WATER (Gartmore). Kinross K., 
1250, Quilte. G. coillte, plural of coil, a wood. Cf. 
Keelty, and Quilty, Clare. 



144 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

KELVIN, E. (Glasgow). G. coil aWiuinn, 'wood by the river,' 
or fr. caol, narrow. 

KELVINHAUGH (Glasgow). Haugh is Icel. hagi, a pasture 
place, flat, and by a river-side. 

KEMBACK (Cupar-Fife). Sic 1517; but 1250, Kenbak. 
Prob. = KINBUCK, ' buck's head ; ' but perh. G. cam 
(old camb, cf. CAMERON) achadli, ' crooked field.' 

KEMNAY (Kintore). Prob. G. ceann na maigli (pron. may), 
' head of the plain.' 

KENMORE (Aberfeldy). G. ceann mbr, big head. 

KENNAGEALL, or WRITTEN HEAD (L. Eriboll). G. ceann na 
gil (nom. geal), ' promontory, head of the white mark,' 
fr. geal, white. White is in O.E. hwit, Sw. hvit, Dan. 
livid, Icel. livit-r. 

KENNET (Clackmannan). G. ceann dth, ( head of the ford,' 
or ferry over the Forth. Cf. Kennetis, name in 1565 
of a Ross-shire parish. 

KENNETHMONT (Huntly). See KINNETHMONT. 

KENNOWAY (Leven). 1250, Kennachyn, -achi; Aberdeen 
Brev., Kennoquy. G. ceann achaidli(eari), ' at the head 
of the field(s).' ' 

KEPPOCHHILL (Glasgow). G. ceapacli, tilled land, fr. ceap, 

a turf or turned sod. Cf. Keppach (sic 1 662), Applecross. 
KERRERA (Oban). Sagas, Kjarbarey; 1461, Carbery. Prob. 

some man, ' Kjarbar's isle.' 
KERRIEMORE (Glenlyon). G. coire mbr, ' big glen,' lit. 

cauldron. Cf. CORRIE. 
KERRYCROY (S. Bute). 1449, Kervycroy. Prob. G. coire 

crois, ' glen of the cross.' Cf. CROY. 
KERRYSDALE (W. Ross-sh.). G. coire, a glen, + N. dal, a 

dale, so a tautology. 
KERSE (Grangemouth and Lesmahagow) = CARSE. Cf. Kers- 

land Barony, Dairy. 
KESSOCK FERRY (Beauly Frith). 1564, Kescheok; 1576, 

Kessok. Fr. St Kessog, or ' little Kess,' born of royal 

blood at Cashel, died at Luss, L. Lomond. Church at 

Auchterarder is dedicated to St Makessog ; see p. cxv, 

and cf. Tommachessaig, Callander. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 145 

KETTINS (Coupar-Angus). Old, Kethynnes, and prob. the 
thanage of ' Kathenes,' mentioned in this region in 1264, 
which looks as if the same as CAITHNESS ; but as prob. 
fr. G. cathanacli, pertaining to soldiers, adjective fr. 
cathach, a warrior ; with the Eng. plural s. 

KETTLE, or KINGSKETTLE (Cupar). 1183, Cathel; a. 1200, 
Cattel; 1558, Kettil, Chapel-Kettle. Perh. 'hollow 
like a kettle;' O.E. cetel, Icel. Tcetill. Cf. Kettle- 
burgh, Suffolk, and Kettlesing, Leeds. Possibly 
Celtic. 

KIL(L)ARROW (Islay). Pron. Kilarru, -ard; 1500, Kilmol- 
row; 1511, -morow; 1548, -marrow; 1661, Killerew. 
' Church of St Maolrubha' (see p. xcvi), m disappearing 
by aspiration ; to be distinguished f r. KILMALLOW, Lis- 
more. G. till (Ml) is really a survival of the old dative 
or locative case of ceall, a hermit's cell (L. cella\ then 
a church, especially a parish church (cf. cinn, see KIN- 
ALDIE). The proper form is seen in Loch-nan-ceall, 
'loch of the churches,' in the west of Mull. Names in 
Kil- often come fr. the G. coil, which means both a 
wood and a corner or nook. 

KILBARCHAN (Johnstone). ' Church of St Berchanj 7th 
century. 

KILBERRY (Kintyre). Sic 1492; 1531, -berheth. Prob. fr. 
the Irish abbot, St Berach. 

KILBIRNIE (Beith). 1413, -byrny. Prob. fr. St Brendan. 
' Birnie's well ' is here. See BIRNIE. 

KILBOWIE (Dumbarton), c. 1234, Cullbuth. G.culbuidhe, 
' yellow back ' (of the hill). Cf. CULDUTHIL, and Drum- 
bowie, Linlithgow. 

KILBRANDON (Oban). ' Church (G. till) of St Brendan,' 6th- 
century missionary. See BIRNIE. 

KILBRENNAN, or -BRANDON, SOUND (Arran). G. caol Brendain, 
'kyle' or 'strait of St Brendan.' 

KILBRIDE, East and West (also Arran, Argyle, Dumfries). 
East K., c. 1180, Kellebride. Arg. K., 1249, 'Ecclesia 
Beati Brigide Virginis in Lorn.' Dumf. K., c. 1300, 
Kylebride. Arran K., c. 1400, St Briged Kirk. ' Church 
of St Brigit ' or Bridget of Kildare, 453-523 A.D. 



146 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

KILBUCHO (Biggar). c. 1200, Kelbechoc, Kylbeuhoc; c. 1240, 
Kylbevhhoc; 1475,Kilbouchow; 1567, -bocho. 'Church 
of St BeghaJ female disciple of St Aidan and Abbess 
Hilda, 6th century. Same as St Bees, Cumberland; 
and St Bees' well stands near the old church of Kilbucho. 

KILCALMONELL (Kintyre). 1247, 'Ecclesia Sti Colmaneli;' 
1327, Kylcolmanel. ' Church of St Colmanela,' friend of 
Columba (see COLMONELL). Gaels call the place where 
the church used to stand Clachan, i.e., church. 

KILCHATTAN (Bute and Colonsay). Bute K., 1449, Killecatan 
(c still pron. hard). ' Church of St Chattan ' or Cathan, 
an Irish Pictish abbot, and friend of St Columba. Of. 
ARDCHATTAN. 

KILCHOMAN (Islay). 1427, Killecomman; 1508, -comane. 
Like Kilchoan, prob. fr. St Comgan or Comhghain, 
uncle of St Fillan, c. 750, = the name Cowan. 

KILCHRENAN (Dalmally). 1361, Kildachmanan, Ecclesia Sti 
Petri Diaconi ; 1600, Kilchranan. Curious corruption, = 
' church of the Dean ; ' G. dachman or deadhan. Dean 
and deacon were often confounded. 

KILCHRIST (old name for parish at Muir of Ord, and Strath, 
Skye). Strath K., 1505, Kilcrist, Cristiskirk ; 1574, 
Kirkchrist. = ' Christchurch.' Of. KILTRINIDAD. 

KILCHURN CASTLE (Dalmally). Pron. -hum ; 1432, Kyl- 
quhurne. G. caol-a-chuirn, ' straits ' or ' narrows of the 
cairn ; ' L. Awe narrows there. Gf. Kilhern, JS r ew Luce. 

KILCONQUHAR (Elie). Sic 1461 ; but 1250, Kilkunekath ; c. 
1300, Kalconewauth. Old pron. Kinuchar; IG.ceann 
uachdair, 'head of the high land;' but perh. fr. G. 
caoineachadh, a drying, as of hay. 

KILCOY (Killearnan). 1557, Culcowy; also Culcolly. Prob. 
G. cut coille, ' the back of the wood.' 

K.ILCREGGAN (Firth of Clyde). ' Church on the little crag ; ' 
G. creagan. Old church said to have been here. 

KILDA, St (island). Sic 1716. St K. is unknown. Fordun, 
c. 1370, calls the isle Irte. 

KILDALLOIG (Campbeltown). Prob. G. coil dailoig, ' wood by 
the little field.' Aig, oig, or og is a G. diminutive, 

JVILDALTON (Islay). 1548, -tane. G, coill, ' wood,' or till, 
1 church,' daltain, ' of the little foster-child or god-child. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 147 

KJLDARY (Invergordon). G. coill daire, ' wood of oaks.' 

KILDONAN (Arran, Eigg, Skye, S. Uist, Eoss-sli., Sutherland). 
Suth. K., c. 1230, Kelduninach ; 1332, Kyldonane. 
' Church of St Donan,' friend of Columba, martyred at 
Eigg in 617. 

KILDROSTAN. ' Church of St Drostan,' nephew of St 
Columba, who dwelt in Glenesk, Forfar, where 
' Droustie's Well ' is. Kildrostan is a name now found 
only in Dr Walter Smith's poem. But 'Kildusklan,' 
Grig. Paroclt., ii. 40, 44, represents the same man. 

KILDRUMMY (Aberdeensh.). Sic c. 1280. G. coil droma, 
' wood on the hill-ridge ; ' G. druim, the back, a ridge. 

KILDUICH (L. Duich) and KILDUTHIE (Loch of Lays). ' Church 
of St DuthacJ died c. 1062 : famed for his miracles. 
Cf. DUICH. 

KILELLAN (Lochalsh). ' Church of St Fillan ' (see FILLAN'S, 
St). The / is lost by aspiration. Cf. Gill Fhaelain, 
Leinster, in the Martyrology of Donegal. 

KILFEATHER (New Luce). c Church of St Peter ; ' G. Plietir 
or Pheadair. Cf. Kilphedre, S. Uist. 

KILFINICHEN (Mull). 1561, Keilfeinchen ; c. 1640, Kilin- 
nachan (/ lost by aspiration). Prob. fr. St Findchan, 
one of Columba's monks. Peril, fr. St Fincana, virgin, 
one of the nine daughters of St Dovenald. 

KILFINNAN (Tighnabruaich). c. 1240, Killinan, Kylfinnan. 
Prob. ' church of St Finnan,' of Cunningham, a pupil of 
St Patrick; see KILWINNING. But possibly G. coilf(li)ionn 
abhainn, 'wood of the clear stre'am/ cf. GLENFINNAN. 

KILHAM (Coldstream). G. coil, a wood, or cill, a church, 
+ O.E. ham, home, village ; also near Hull. 

KILKENZIE (Campbeltown). (1561, Skeirkenze ; G. sgeir, a 
rock.) ' Wood ' or ' church of Kenneth ;' G. Coinneach. 
Cf. the name Mackenzie. 

KILKERRAN (Ayr, and old name of Campbeltown). a. 1250, 
Kilchiaran. 'Church of St Kiaran,'' founder of Clonmac- 
noise Monastery, died 545. Cf. Kilkeran, Islay, and 
river Aultkieran, Fort- William. 

KILLBAN (Muasdale, and Torosay, Argyle). 1243, Killiean; 
a. 1251, Ecclesia Sancti Johannis; 1545, Killane. 



148 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

' Church of St John ; ' G. Jam, Eoin. But Barnean, 
Galloway, is fr. G. en, a bird. 

KILLEARN (Stirlingsh., and old name of parish in Jura). 
Stirl. K., c. 1250, Kynerine ; 1320, Kynherin ; c. 1430, 
Killern. Both, with Killern, Anwoth, are prob. = 
'church of St Kieran,' see KILKERRAN, the c being 
lost by aspiration. Kyn- is, of course, G. ceann, head. 

KILLEARNAN (Muir of Ord, and Kildonan, Sutherland). 
Muir K., 1569, Kyllarnane. Either fr. St Ernan, uncle 
of Columba, or fr. St Ternan, see BANCHORY. . 

KILLEN (Avoch and Lismore). Avoch K., c. 1340, Killayn. 
Either fr. G. Jain, John, or en, a bird. See KILLEAN. 

KILLENNAN (Kintyre). ' Church of St Eunan ' or Adamnan, 
see p. xcv. 

KILLIAN (Strome Ferry). 'Church of John;' G. Eoin, or 
' wood of the bird,' eun, gen. ebin. 

KILLICHRONAN (Mull). In G. coille chrbnain, ' wood of the 
low, crooning murmur,' as of bees or a brook ; but 
possibly fr. St Cronan, founder of the Irish abbey of 
Roscrea, died 665. 

KILLICRANKIE (Blair Athole). G. coille Chreithnich, 'wood 
of the Picts' or sons of Cruithne. Gaels call K., Cath 
raon Ruaraidh, 'battle of Eory's meadow.' 

KILLIN (L. Tay, and river and loch, Foyers). Prob. G. cilia 
fhionn, 'white church' (cf. Finlarig, close by Loch Tay). 
But Perth K. is the burying-place of the Macnabs, and 
so may be = Killean, common name for ' burying-place * 
the S. W. Ireland. 

KILLINTAG (Morvern). 1542, Killindykt. Prob. 'church of 
St Findoc,' virgin. On the /, cf. KILELLAN. 

KILLISPORT, L. (Knapdale). G. caoilas-port, 'port' or 
'harbour in the narrow sea' or 'straits.' Cf. KYLE(S). 

KiLL6cHAN (Girvan). Prob. G. coil lochain, ' the wood by 
the little loch.' 

KILLORAN (Colonsay). 'Church of St Odhran' or 'Oran,' 
died 548. Colonsay, not ORANSAY, was sacred to St 
Orna. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 149 

KILLYWHAN (Dumfries). ?G. coille Wiainne, 'wood of the 
milk.' Of. Barwhanny, Galloway. 

KILMADOCK (Doune). * Church of St Modoc,' Saint of the 
Welsh calendar, a rare thing in Scotland. Moedoc or 
Mogue is = Mo-Aedh-oc, ' my dear little Hugh,' and so 
is the same as Aidan, i.e., l little Hugh ; ' cf. p. xcv. 

KILMALCOLM (Greenock). c. 1205, Kilmacolme, i.e., 'church 
of my Colm' or Columba (see p. xcv). The pron. 
-makom is thus the true one. The common pron. 
Kil-inal-kom is clue to supposed derivation fr. Malcolm. 

KILMALLIE (Fort William). 1296, -malyn; 1532, -male. 
Malyn looks like G. mdilin, eyebrow (cf. mala, brow of 
a hill). But Kilmallie is usually thought = next. 

KILMALLOW (Lismore). Pron. -malu ; old, -maluog. Here, 
too, come Kilmaluog, old name of the parishes of Raasay, 
and Kilmuir, Skye. ' Church of St Maluog } or Moluoc, 
prob. friend of Columba, and = ' my dear little Leu ' or 
St Lupus, same name as in Killaloe, Clare (cf. p. xcv). 
But Kilmalew (sic 1529), old name of Inveraray, was in 
1304 Kylmalduff, i.e., ' church ' or ' wood,' maoil duibk, 
' of the black, bare rock ' (maol). 

EJLMAREE LODGE (Broadford). Prob. ' church of St Maol- 

rubha.' See MAREE. 
KILMARNOCK. Sic c. 1400 ; but 1299, Kelmernoke. ' Church 

of St Marnock = Maernanoc, i.e., ' my dear little St 

Ernan,' priest, and uncle of St Columba ; see p. xcv. 
KILMARON (Cupar). 1245, -merone. * Church of my own 

Ron ' or St Konan. Cf. next. 
KILMARONOCK (Alexandria), and KILMARONOG (L. Etive). 

c. 1325, -merannok; c. 1330, -maronnok. ' Church |/)f 

Moronoc,' i.e., ' my dear little St Ronan,' Abbot L of 

Kingarth, died 737 ; cf. p. xcv. 

KILMAROW (Kintyre). a. 1251, Ecclesia Sancti Marie; 

1631, Kilmaro. ' Church of the Virgin Mary ; ' G. Moire 

or Maire. 
KILMARTIN (Lochgilphead). ' Church of St Martin ' of Tours, 

teacher of St Ninian, c. 380. 
KILMAURS (Kilmarnock). c. 1550, Kylmawar. 'Church of 

St Maurus,' French saint, c. 550. 

Q 



150 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

KILMAVEONAIG (Blair Athole). 'Church of my dear little 
Eunan ' or Adamnan ; see p. xcv, and cf. ARDEONAIG. 

KILMELFORT (Ford, Argyle). Kil- either = G. coil, a wood, or 
till, a church, or caol, straits, narrow inlet. See MELFORD. 

KILMENY (N. Fife and Islay). (11th-century MS. in Skene, 
Celtic Scotl., i. 387, Cillemuine, i.e., St David's, S. 
Wales, or, just possibly, K. in Islay.) 'Church in the 
thicket ;' G. muine. But Fife K. is, 1250, Kylmanyn, 
prob. ' church of ST MONAN ' or Monyn. 

KILMICHAEL (Lochgilphead). ' Church of St Michael,' the 

archangel; also in Cromarty in 1535. 
KILMODAN (Argyle). Sic 1250. 'Church of St Modem,' 

colleague of St Ronan, in 8th century. Old name of 

Ardchattan was Balimhaodan. 
KILMONIVAIG (Spean Bridge). 1449, -manawik; c. 1600, 

-manevak; 1602, -navag. Pron. now-moneevaig; 'church 

of my own little St Naomhan,' the ' Neamhan Mac ua 

Duibh ' of the Martyrology of Donegal. The G. and 

Ir. naomlian (pron. navan) means ' a little saint.' See 

p. xcv. 
KILMORACK (Beauly). 1437, -rok. 'Church of St Moroc, } 

said to be a Celtic abbot of Dunkeld. 
KILMORE (Loth and Lorn). Lorn K., 1304, Kylmoor. ' Big 

(G. mbr) church,' or = KILMORIE. 
KILMORICH (Lochgoilhead). Sic 1511. Prob. 'church of 

St Muredach ' (Murdoch), Bishop of Killala, c. 440. 

KILMORIE (Wigtown, Arran, Rum). Arran K., 1357, ' Ecclesia 
Sancte Marie de Arane;' 1483, Kilmory. 'Church of 
the Virgin Mary ; ' G. Moire. Common in Ireland. 

KILMUIR (Skye and E. Ross). Ross K., 1394, Culmor ; 1482, 

Culmore. Skye K. is = KILMORE. Ross K. is G. cul 

mbr, ' big back ' of the hill. 
KILMUN (Holy Loch). Sic c. 1240; c. 1410, Kilmond. 

' Church of St Mund.' Fintan Munnu or Mundu was 

an Irish friend of St Columba. Cf. St Mund's Church, 

Lochleven. 
KILNINIAN (Mull), 1561, Kilnoening. Prob., says Skene, 

fr. St Nennidius, friend of St Bridget, 5th century. 

Name remodelled after St Ninian of Whithorn. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 151 

KILNINVER (Lorn). 1250, Kyllivinor; 1558, Kylnynvir. 
G. cill an inbhir, 'church by the confluence.' 

KILPATRICK, Old and New (Dumbarton). ' Church of St 
Patrick,' who was prob. born near here, c. 410. 

KILRAVOCK (Nairn), c. 1286, Kelrevoch; 1295, Kylravoc. 
' Church of St Eevoc,' unknown. 

KILKENNY (Anstruther). c. 1160, -rinny. Either h.StNinian 
or Ringan of Whithorn ; or perh. fr. St Irenceus, Bishop 
of Lyons, c. 180, locally called Irenie. St Ir(e)nie's 
Well is here. But in 1250 we find Kilretheni, prob. fr. 
G. rail tain, ferns. Bishop Forbes thinks K. may be fr. 
Ethernan, fuller form of Ernan, the uncle of St Columba. 

KILRIMONT, or CHILRYMONT (old name of St Andrews). 

' Church of the king's mount;' but in Tighernac, Cind- 

rigli-monaigli ( = monaidh), ' head of the king's mount.' 
KILRY (Kinghornand Alyth). Kinghorn K., 1178, Kyllori. 

1 G. cille Mhoire, the Virgin 'Mary's church.' 
KILSPINDIE (Errol). 1250, Kynspinedy. Prob. G. ceann, 

cinn spuinneadaire, ' height of the plunderer.' 
KILSYTH (Glasgow), -sytli pron. like scythe. ' Church ' or 

' wood of (prob.) the arrow ;' G. and Ir. saighead (pron. 

syed). Of. Coolsythe, Antrim. jtiU&^llk'^ R^X- 
KILTARLITY (Beauly). 1279, Keltalargyn. ' Church of St 

Tolorggain or Talarican,' an Irish saint who died in 616. 
KILTEARN (Beauly). 1227,Keltierny; 1296,Keltyern. G.ceall 

Tigliearna, 'church of the Lord.' Thus = KILCHRIST. 
KILTRINIDAD (K Uist). Sic in Pont's map, c. 1620; now 

Teampul-na-Trianaide, ' church of the Trinity.' 
KILVARIE (Muckairn). G. cille Mhaire, the Virgin ' Mary's 

church.' Of. KILMORIE. 
KILWINNING (Ardrossan). 1357, Kylvynnyne. 'Church of 

St Vininus' or Wynnin, an Ulsterman, who crossed 

over to Ayrshire ; died 579. His name is also spelt 

Finnan, cf. KILFINNAN. 
KIMMERGHAME (Duns). Possibly G. comar, confluence (i.e., 

the meeting of Blackadder and Langton Waters, cf. 

CUMMERTREES), + O.E. Mm, house, village. 
KINALDIE (Aberdeensh.). Km or cin, older cind, is really a 

survival of the old dative or locative of G. ceann (W. 



152 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

penn), head, promontory (cf. Kil ; see KILARROW). 
Kinaldie is G. cinn alltain, 'the head of the little brook.' 

KINBLETHMONT (Forfar). 1189, Kynblathmund ; 1322, 
Kinblaukmounthe. Prob. * head of the flowery mount ' 
(G. bldtha-monaidJi). Form 1 322 is a Sassenach's attempt 1 

KINBRACE (Sutherland). G. cinn-a-bhrdiste, 'seat of the wearer 
of the brooch' (br distich), i.e., the chief of the Gunns. 

KINBUCK (Auchterarder). ' Buck's head;' G. boc, buic, a 
roe-buck. Cf. DRUMVUICH. 

KINCAPLE (St Andrews). 1212, -pel. 'Mare's head;' G. 
capidl, a mare. Cf. PORTINCAPLE. 

KINCARDINE (county, K. on Forth, and K. O'Neil, also 
Ross-sh., and Boat of Garten). County, 1295, Kynge 
Garden. Ross-sh. K., 1227, Kyncardyn; 1536, Kincarn. 
K. O'Neil, 1277, Kincardyn. Prob. G. cinn gdirdein, 
'head of the arm,' i.e., inlet. K. O'lSTeil must be a bor- 
rowed, not an original name. The O'Neils were a royal 
Irish family. 

KINCLAVEN (Stanley). 1195, -clething; 1264, Kynclevim 
' Head of the breast ;' G. cliathain. 

KINCRAIG (Kingussie and Elie). 'Head of the rock;' G. 
creag, gen. craige. 

KINDROCHIT (Aberdeensh.). 1245, -ocht. 'Head of the 
bridge ;' G. drocliaid. Cf. DRUMNADROCHIT, and Kin- 
trockat, Brechin, 1574, Kindrokat. 

KINFAUNS (Perth), c. 1230, Kynfaunes. ? Fr. Old G. fan, 
a slope, or b(h)an, white, fair. 

KINGARTH (Bute). Tigliernac, ann. 737, Cindgaradh, i.e., 
'head of the enclosure' or 'yard;' 1204, Kengarf; 
1497, Kingarth. G. and Ir. gar(r)adh is = M.E. garth. 

KINGENNIE (Broughty Ferry). 1473, Kyngenny. 1 The old 
Kingalteny, which looks as if fr. G. gealltanacli, * maker 
of promises ;' if not, prob. ' windy (G. gaothanach) head.' 
Cf. GEANIES, and Bargueney (sin 1639), Galloway. 

KING EDWARD (Banff), a. 1300, Kynedward, i.e., 'head 
or ' height of Edward.' 

KINGHORN (Fife) and KINGHORNIE CASTLE (Kinneff). Fife 
K., c. 1140, Kingornum; 1280, Kinkorn; 1317, -gorin; 
1639, -gorne. Kinn. K, 1654, Kingorny. G. cinn 
cuirn (nom. corn), ' head of the horn ' or bend or corner. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 153 

In Gaelic c and g are so near in sound that they often 
interchange in names. 

KINGLASSIE (Leslie), c. 1170, Inner-kinglassin. 'Head of 
the green, grassy plain ; ' G. glasanacli. Near by is Fin- 
glassie fr. G. fionn, white, clear. Cf. Edinglassie, 
Aberdeenshire ; and 1296, 'Petglassi.' 

KINGLEDORES BURN (Tweed smuir) . Prob. G. cinn gill dor 
(dobhair), ' head of the clear water ' or ' brook.' 

KINGOLDRUM (Kirriemuir). 1454, Kyncaldrum. 'Head of 
the thin, narrow ridge ; ' G. caoil druim. 

KINGSBARNS (Grail), KINGSBURGH (Skye, two -burys in Eng- 
land), KINGSHOUSE (Callander and Tyndrum), KINGS- 
KNOWE (Edinburgh, cf. KNOWE), KINGSMUIR (Forfar), 
KINGSTON (Glasgow and Banff, twelve in England), 
KINGSWELLS (Aberdeensh.). 

KINGSCAVIL (Linlithgow). Perh. erroneously, 1 498, Kincavill. 
' King's allotment' or 'share of land;' Dutch kavel, lot, 
parcel. Gavel is found, a. 1300, in Cursor Mundi, 18907. 
Cf. 1805, State, Leslie of Poivis, $c., 17 (in Jamieson), 
' The Town and Bishop feued out this fishing in shares; six 
of them called the King's cavil, six the Bishop's cavil.' 

KING'S CROSS (Lamlash). 1807, King's Corrs. 

KINGSEAT (Dunfermline) and KINGSKETTLE (Fife). These 
prob. take their names from their proximity to Dunferm- 
line and Falkland Palaces respectively. See KETTLE. 

KINGUSSIE. 1380, Kyngucy ; so still pron., or else Kineuzie. 
' Head of the fir wood ; ' G. guithseacli, a pine. 

KININMONTH (Mintlaw). G. cinn na monaidli, 'head of the 
mount ' or ' hill.' 

KINKELL (St Andrews, Aberdeensh., and Cromarty). Croni- 
arty K., a. 1300, Kynkell; c. 1350, Kynkellee. Aber- 
deen K., c. 1320, Kingkell. G. cinn-dlle, 'head- 
church,' having several chapels under it. 

KINLAS (Strath, L. Lomond). 1 'Grey' or 'green head;' 
G. glas, the g lost by aspiration. 

KINLOCH (Lewis, Rum, and Eossie, Fife). Eossie K., 
c. 1270, Kyndelouch, i.e., Old G. cind-a-loch, 'head of 
the loch.' 

KlNLOCHARD, -BERVIE, -LAGGAN, -LUICHART, -MOIDART, 

-RANNOCH (c. 1532, Kenlochr-), -SPELV(I)E, &c. ; also 



154 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

KINGAIRLOCH. = ' Head of Loch Ard,' &c. See ARD, 
BERVIE, &c. 

KINLOSS (Moray). 1187, Kynloss; 1251, Kinlos. Prob. 
' head of the garden ; ' G. lios. 

KINMUCK (Inverurie). * Sow's head ; ' G. muc, muic, a pig. 

Cf. KlNBUCK, KlNCAPLE, &C. 

KINMUNDY (Aberdeensh.). a. 1300, Kynmondy. 'Head of 
the mount ' or ' hill ; ' G. monadh, -aidh. 

KINNABER (Montrose). c. 1200, Kinabyre ; 1325, Kynn- 
aber. ' Head of the estuary ; ; G. aWiir. 

KINNAIRD (Dundee and Larbert). Dundee K., 1183, 
Kinard. 'Head of the height;' G. aird, or 'high point ; * 
aird, adjective. 'Kinnaird Head' is thus a tautology. 

KINNEFF (Kincardine). Sic. 1361. Perh. G. cinn eibhe, 
' headland of the cry or howl.' 

KINNEIL (Bo'ness). 1250, Kinel. Bede, c. 720, speaks of 
a Pennel-iun at the end of the Roman Wall which the 
Picts called Peanfaliel, or, modernised, penn-vael, W. 
for 'head' or 'end of the wall,' = ' Wallsend.' The 
addition to Nennius calls this Cenail, the same word, 
only now passed fr. Brythonic to Goidelic. 

KINNEIR (Fife), c. 1200, Kyner. 'West head' or 'height;' 
G. iar, the west. Cf. KINNOIR. 

KINNELL (Arbroath). Prob. 'head of the wall;' G. balla 
(cf. KINNEIL) ; b disappears by aspiration. 

KINNELLAR (Aberdeensh.). Prob. 'head' or 'end of the 
high wall ; ' G. ciird, high. See above. 

KINNESSWOOD (Fife). 'Wood at the head of the waterfall;' 
G. cinn eas. 

KINNETHMONT (Huntly). c. 1203, Kelalcnumd; a. 1300, 
Kynalchmond, -akemond ; c. 1550, -alchmund. The 
modern spelling, Kennethmont, is due to association with 
Kenneth. Perh. ' church ' or ' height of a StAlcmund.' 

KINNETTLES (Forfar). c. 1226, Kynetles; 1296, Kynathes. 
Prob. ' head ' or ' height of the glimpse, passing view,' 
or ' breeze ; ' G. aiteal, -teil, with Eng. plural s. The 
form Kynecles (see ECCLES) also occurs, because a church 
once stood at the head of the Kerbet Valley. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 155 

KINNING PARK (Glasgow). 

KINNOIR (Huntly). Prob. ' east head ' or ' point ; ' G. oir, 
east; also 'a border, edge.' Cf. KINNEIR. 

KiNN6uLL (Perth). 1250, Kynul. Prob. G. cinn mliaol, 
' bald, bare head ; ' m lost by aspiration. 

KINPURNIE (Newtyle). ' Head ' or * chief spring, fountain ;' 

G. fuaran, -ain. 
KINRARA (Aviemore). 1338, Kinrorayth. Prob. G. cinn 

ruaidh ratha, ' head ' or ' height of the red fort ' (cf. 

Craiganra, Kildonan). Mitadh, red, is generally found 

in names as Roy. 
KINROSS. 'Head 'or 'end of the wood,' for 'wood,' not 

' promontory,' is here the meaning of the Celtic ros. 

KINROSSIE (Scone). = KINROSS. For the diminutive suffix 
-ie, cf. ROSSIE and RHYNIE. 

KINTAIL (L. Duich). 1509, Keantalle; 1535, Kyntaill; 
1574, Kintale. G. ceann fsaile or cinn t'sail, 'head' 
or ' end of the salt water.' Cf. p. xxxvii. 

KINTESSACK (Forres). Perh. G. cinn t'easaige, 'squirrel's 
head.' Cf. KINBUCK, KINMUCK, &c. 

KINTORE (Inverurie). 1273, Kyntor. ' Head of the hill ' or 
' mound ; ' G. tbrr, -ra. 

KINTRADWELL (Brora). a. 1500, Clyntraddel; 1509, Clen- 
tredaill; 1563, Clyntredwane. Fine example of corrup- 
tion or popular etymology ; G. claon Tradail, ' slope of 
StTriduana,' locally pron. Trullen, in /Sagas, Trollhsena, 
who lived c. 600. Cf. St Trodline's Fair, Forfar; 
also CLYNE, near by. 

KINTYRE (S. Argyle). Ulst. Ann., ann. 807, Ciunntire ; 
1128, Kentir; Welsh lards, Pentir. 'Head 'or 'end 
of the land ; ' G. tlr, tire. 

KIPPEN (Stirling). G. ceapan, dimin. of ceap, a stump or 
block. 

KIPPENDAVIE (Dunblane). Prob. 'hillock (lit. little stump) 
of the field-sorrel;' G. fsamhaidh (pron. tavie). Cf. 
Auchindavy, Kirkintilloch, and Knockdavie, Kells. 

KIPPENROSS (Dunblane). G. ceapan rois, 'hillock of the 
wood.' See KIPPEN and KINROSS. 



156 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

KIPPFORD (Dalbeattie). Fr. G. and Ir. ceap, gen. dp, a 
tree-stock or stump. Cf. Makeness Kipps, a hill near 
Eddleston. 

KIRKABY (Unst) and KIRKAPOL (old name of Tyree parish). 
Tyr. K.'(?1375, Kerrepol; G. coire, a hollow), 1561, 
Kirkapost ( = Kirkbost ; see on bolstdftr, a place, p. Ixiv) ; 
1599, Kirkcapol. ' Church-place,' both by or bi, and 
pol or bol, being common Scandinavian endings = place, 
building, village (cf. Kirkebo on the Sogne Fjord). 
Church, in its hardened northern form kirk, is the 
Gk. KvpidKov, lit. 'of the Lord' (Kv/otos), 'Dominical,' 
used c. 280 A.D. as the name for ' a Christian church.' 
Found in O.E. in Laws of King Wilitraed, 696 A.D., as 
cirice; in 870 as circe ; in a will of 960, TcirTce; c. 1175, 
chirche; a. 1280, cliurclie. In Sc. place-names are 
found, a. 1124, Selechirche or SELKIRK; 1220, Hope- 
chirke or HOBKIRK, &c. In O.N. it is kirkiu or -ia, 
Jcyrkja, Dan. kirJce. Not in any Celtic dictionary ; yet 
kirk occurs in several Gaelic place-names as early as 1200. 
Kirkaby is the same word as the common Eng. Kirby. 

KIRKANDREWS (Liddesdale). 1295, -andres. Cf. ST ANDREWS. 

KIRKBANK (Roxburgh), KIRKDEN (Forfar, see DEAN), KIRK- 
FIELDBANK (Lanark), KIRKHILL (Inverness and Peni- 
cuik), KIRKMUIRHILL (Lesmahagow), KIRKNEWTON 
(Midcalder), KIRKTON (Hawick, Penicuik, L. Melfort, 
Golspie). There are many Kirtons in England. 

KIRKBEAN (Dumfries). Prob. 'church of St Bain' or 'Beyne,' 
first bishop of Mortlach. 

KIRKBUDDO (Guthrie). Prob. 'church of St Buitte' or 
'Bcethius,' friend of King Nechtan, who came over 
from Ulster, and died 521 ; so Skene. But Carbuddo, 
in the same parish, is the old Crebyauch ; G. craobhach 
achadh, ' wooded field.' 

KIRKCALDY. Pron. Kirkaudy ; c. 1150, Kircaladinit and 
-din; 1250, Kirkaldin. Hybrid; 'church of the wood 
of the Den ' or DEAN, still there ; in G. coille dinait. 

KIRKCOLM (Stranraer). 1296, Kyrkum, which is the present 
pron. 'Church of St Colm' or 'Columba;' cf. p. xcii. 

KIRKCONNEL (Sanquhar). 'Church of St ConvalV Seven 
Irish saints bear this name. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 157 

KIRKCOWAN (Wigtown). 'Church of St Comhghain' or 
' Comgan,' uncle of St Fillan, c. 750. 

KIRKCUDBRIGHT. 1291, Kirkcutbrithe ; 1292, Kircutbrith; 
c. 1450, Kirkubrigh ; and now pron. Kirktibry. 'Church 
of St Gudberctj the great Cuthbert of Melrose, c. 700. 

KIRKENNAN (Minigaff ). 1611, Kirkcunaiie. 'Church of St 
Eunan ; or ' Adamnan ; ' see p. xcv. 

KIRKGUNZEON (Kirkcudbright). c. 1200, Kirkwynnin. 
' Church of St Wynnin,' see KILWINNING. The z repre- 
sents, as so often, the old Scottish y. 

KIRKHOPE '(Selkirk) and KIRKHOPE CLEUCH (Dumsdeer). 
' Church in the valley ' or cul de sac, = HOBKIRK. A 
clench is a ravine ; see BUCCLEUCH. 

KIRKINNER (Wigtown). 1584, Kirkinver; but it is dedicated 
to St Kennera, virgin and martyr, who accompanied 
St Ursula to Kome. 

KIRKINTILLOCH (Glasgow), c. 1200, Kirkentulach ; 1288, 
-intolauche. Prob. ' church at the head ' or ' end of the 
hillock ; ' G. ceann or cinn tulaicli. Dr Keeves thinks 
this is the site of the Battle of Chircliind, 596 (-ind 
= Old G. cind, now ceann). 

KIRKLISTON (S. Queensferry). 1250, Listun; 1298, Lystone 
Templi; c. 1300, Templehiston, * Listen church.' 
L. is prob. G. Uos, a garden, + O.E. tu?i, dwelling, 
village. New Listen is near by. In G. teampull 
means simply a church. 

KIRKMABRECK (Kirkcudbright). ' Church of Mabrec,' i.e., 
my own Brecan or St Bricius. Prob. he who was such 
an enemy of St Martin of Tours, 4th century. 

KIRKMAHOE (Dumfries). 1321, Kircmacho. Prob. 'church 
of St Machute* See LESMAHAGOW. 

KIRKMAIDEN, or MAiDENKiRK (Wigtown). Aberdeen Brev. 
says, fr. the Irish St Medana, contemporary of JSTinian, 
c. 390. St Medan's Cave is here. Cf. EDINBURGH. 

KIRKMICHAEL (Dumfries, Maybole, Blairgowrie, Grantown). 
'Church of St Michael,' the Archangel. Also in the 
Isle of Man ; and cf. KILMICHAEL, and Kilmichil, 
Ireland. 

KIRKNESS (Orkney and Kinross). Ork. K. is certainly 



158 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

'ness' or 'cape' with the church. But Mr "W. J. 
Liddell thinks Kinr. K. is fr. G. cafliair (pron. car) 
cinn eas, 'fort at the head of the waterfall.' This is 
doubtful, for the name in the llth century is already 
Kyrkenes. See Skene, Celtic Scotl., i. 406. 

KIRKOSWALD (Maybole). Fr. Oswald, King of Northumbria, 
died 642, regarded as a saint and martyr. Also in 
Cumberland. 

KiRKPATRiCK-DuRHAM (Dalbeattie), -FLEMING, -!RONGRAY,. 
and -JuxTA (Dumfries). ' Church of St Patrick,' the- 
renowned Irish missionary of the 5th century. K.- 
Juxta (L. for ' next '), formerly Kilpatrick, was so called 
in the 15th century to mark it off fr. K.-Fleming. 

KIRKSHEAF (Tain). JN". Kirk-skaWi, i.e., land given as tribute 
to the church, fr. Icel. skatt-r, Dan. skat, O.E. sceat, a 
'scat,' i.e., a coin ; hence, a tax. 

KIRKURD (Biggar). c. 1180, Ecclesia de Orda : 1186, E. de 
Horda; c. 1200, Orde ; 1296, Horde; c. 1320, Urde ; 
1382, Kyrkhurde. Possibly fr. a man, or fr. G. oir, a 
corner, edge ; cf. ORD. Hardly fr. G. aird, a height. 
Ladyurd and ISTetherurd are near by. 

KIRKWALL. Sic c. 1500; but c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Kirkiu- 
vag(r) ; a. 1400, Kirkvaw, -cwav; 1438-1554, -waw : 
1529, -wallia. O.K kirkiu vag-r, 'church (cathedral) 
on the bay.' The forms show how ' liquid ' the liquid 
letters are. Cf. SCALLOWAY, STORNOWAY. 

KIRN (Dunoon). Quite modern. Se. kirn, O.E. cyrn, Icel. 
kirna, a chum; fr. the churn-shaped quarry out of 
which the place was built. 

KIRRIEMUIR (Forfarsh.). 1229, Kerimure, Kermuir. Prob. 
G. ceathramh (pron. carrou) mbr, ' big quarter ' or ' divi- 
sion.' Kerimor (sic 1250) was one of the quarters of 
Angus, and is prob. Sim. Durham's (a. 1 130) Wertermor, 
where werter is corruption of O.E. feorde, a 4th; so. 
Skene. Also called ; Kilmarie,theYirgin 'Mary's church,' 
with which the modern pron. Kirriemare has nothing 
to do ; cf. STENHOUSEMUIR, pron. Stanismare. 

KIRRIEROCK, or -ROACH, HILL (Barr). Old, Kererioch. G. 
coire riaWiach, 'greyish, grizzled ravine.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 15 $ 

KIRTLE, R, and KIRTLEBRIDGE (Annan). Perh. O.E. cyrtel, 
Icel. kyrtill, a short gown, petticoat ; but why so called 1 
Cf. Kirtling, Newmarket; Kirtlington, Oxford. 

KISHORN (loch, W. Koss-sh.). 1472, Kysryner ; 1554, Kes- 
sarne; 1575, Kisyrne. Prob. G. cis-roinn, 'cape of the 
toll ' or ' impost ' (MS). But Icel. kis, kisa, is pet name 
for a cat, and Kisi was a Scandinavian giant ; whilst, on 
the analogy of CLEGHORN, Kishorn might be G. cisean, a 
little chest. Cf. Kismull, Barra. 

KITTLEGAIRY HILL (Soonhope, Peebles). Kittle is Sc. for 
' tickle,' so the first part may be some G. word or words 
represented by tickle ; so ? tigli coill gairbh, ' house in 
the rough wood.' 

KITTYBREWSTER (Aberdeen). Prob. a name. 

KITTYSHALLOCH (Miiiigaff). G. (and Ir.) ceide sealgaich, 
' hillock ' or ' green for hunting ; ' f r. sealg, the chase. 

KNAPDALE (N. and S. Argyle). 1471, -dal. Icel. knapp-r- 
dal (or G. cnap, as in next), 'knob-dale,' i.e., glen with 
the hillocks. On the coast is Knap Point. Cf. Knapp 
Hill, Woking; Knapton, Yorkshire. 

KNIFE, The (hill, New Cumnock). G. and W. cnap, knob, 
button ; hence, little hill ; O.E. cnaep, hill-top. 

KNOCK (Largs, Banff, Lewis, &c.). G. and Ir, cnoc, a hill. 
Sir H. Maxwell gives 220 Knocks- in Galloway. 

KNOCKANDO (Moray). G. cnocan dhu, 'black hillock.' Cf. 
Knockin, Oswestry. 

KNOCKBAIN (Cromarty). G. cnoc, ban or bdine, 'white, fair 
hill.' 

KNOCKFARREL (Strathpeffer). Prob. G. cnoc faire, ' hill of 
the watch ' or ' guard ; ' but G. farrcd, -rail, means 
'anger.' 

KNOCKLEGOIL (?Stirlingsh.). G. cnoc till goill, 'hill of the 
strangers' (G. gall) grave.' This was a cairn full of 
cinerary urns. 

KNOCKRIOCH (Argyle, passim). G. cnoc riabhach, ' brindled, 
brown, heather-coloured hill.' 

KNOCKSTING, L. (N. Kirkcudbright). G. cnoc staing, 'hill 
of the pool 3 or 'ditch.' 



160 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

KNOXLAND (Dumbarton). 

KNOWE (Kirkcowan). Sc. knowe, O.E. cnoll, Dan. knold, 
W. cnol, a (rounded) hillock. Knowe is just a softened 
form of knoll. Cf. Pow, fr. G. poll, W. pwl, a pool. 

KNOYDABT (Sleat Sound). 1309, Knodworath; 1343, 
Cnudeworth; 1511, Knod wart; 1517, Knodort. King 
Canute or ' Onut's fjord,' of which last the Norse endings 
worth, wart, ort are corruptions; in G. Crojarst. Cf. 
MOYDART. Cnut invaded Scotland in 1031. 

KYLE (district of Ayrsh.). 750, Continuation of Bede, 
Cyil; c. 1150, Chul; 1293, Kyi; Bk. Taliesin (very 
ancient), Coelin, which makes it likely to be fr. Coel 
Hen or C. the aged, the famous 'old King Cole;' so 
Rhys. Cf. Coilsfield and Coilton in this district. Form 
Chul suggests G. cliaolas, straits ; see below. 

KYLE AKIN. See AKIN. Cf. 1549, Dunnakyne. 

KYLE SKOW or SKU (Assynt). Prob. G. caol sgdtha, ' straits 
of dread.' Kyle, kil, and heel are all only approximations 
to the sound, in different localities, of G. caol, caoil, a 
strait, fr. caol, slender, thin. See KILCHURN, EDDRA- 
CHILIS. 

KYLOE, West. Prob. G. caol abli, ' narrows of the water.' Cf. 
AWE. 

KYLES OF BUTE. In G. Na Caoil Bhodach. See KYLE 
SKOW. 



LACHSAY (Skye). N. lachs-d, 'salmon river.' Cf. LAXA, 
LAXAY. 

LADHOPE (Galashiels). Prob. O.E. lad, a way, course, canal; 
Sc. lade, a mill-race. On hope, a shut-in valley, see 
HOBKIRK. 

LADY (Kirkwall), LADYBURN (Greenock), LADYKIRK (Nor- 
ham), LADYWELL (Glasgow). All prob. fr. ' Our Lady/ 
i.e., the Virgin Mary. Lady is O.E. hlaefdige or -die, lit. 
' breadmaid.' 

LADYBANK (Fife). Lindores monks dug peats here, fr. 13th 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 161 

century, hence called c Our Lady's BogJ but also ' Lathy- 
bog,' which looks like G. leatliad bog, ' moist hill-slope ;' 
about fifty years ago ' improved ' into Ladybank. There 
was also once a ' Lady-Bank, 7 near Arbroath. 

LAGAVOULIN BAY (Islay). G. lag-a-mhuilinn, 'bay of the 

mill.' Cf. MOULIN. 
LAGG (Arran and Jura). G. and Ir. lag, a bay, hollow ; 

same root as Icel. lag-r, low. Cf. LOGIE. 

LAGGAN (loch and village, Inverness-sh., and Bonar Bridge). 
G. lagan, diminutive of lag, a hollow. Laggankenney, 
on Loch Laggan, is fr. St Cainneacli (Kenneth or 
' Kennie ') of Achaboe, Irish friend of Columba. 

LAID (Durness). G. lad, laid, a water-course, a foul pool, 
same as O.E. lad, way, course, canal, fr. laedan, Dan. 
lede, to lead. 

LAIGH CARTSIDE (Johnstone). 'Low place on the side of 
the river Cart;' Icel. lag-r, M.E. lagli, Sc. laigh, low. 

LAIGHDOORS (Muthill). ' Low doors ; ' gh is always sounded 
and guttural in Scotch. 

LAIRG (Sutherland), c. 1230, Larg. G. learg, 'a plain, 
little eminence, beaten path.' Cf. LARGS. 

LAMANCHA (Peebles). The Grange of Eomanno was so 
called, c. 1736, by Admiral Sir A. ~F. Cochrane, who 
had resided for a time in this province of Spain. 

LAMBERTON (Berwicksh.). 1235, -ertona. Perh. fr. a man. 
Cf. Lamberhurst, Sussex, and Lamerton, Tavistock ; 
but see LAMMERMUIR. 

LAMBHILL (Glasgow). Cf. Lambley, Notts and Carlisle. 

LAMINGTON (S. Lanarksh.). 1206, Lambinistun; 1359, 
Lambyngyston; 1539, Lammyntoun. Fr.amanZ-amfoX 
found here before 1150. Cf. p. Ixxiv. 

LAMLASH (Arran). Formerly simply Molas ; G. lann Lais, 
1 church of St Las,' commonly in the endearing form 
Molas, or Molios, or Molaise ; though Molios is also 
interpreted as = Maol-Iosa, l servant, shaveling of Jesus ' 
(cf. p. xcv). Of the three St Molaises this is M. of 
Leighlin, grandson of King Aidan of Dalriada, c. 610. 
G. lann, W. llan, is rare in Sc. names, but cf. LHAN- 
BRYDE. It means (1) a fertile, level spot; (2) an 



162 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

enclosure; (3) a church; cf. a similar gradation of mean- 
ings in L. templum. 

LAMMERLAWS (grass-topped cliffs at Burntisland). Lammer- 
law is also name of one of the LAMMERMUIRS, so the 
names must be the same. Sc. law is O.E. lilcew, a 
mound or hill. 

LAMMERMUIR HILLS. Sim. Durham, a. 1130, Lombormore. 
Prob. G. lann barra mbr, ' level spot on the big height. 5 
See LAMLASH and LAMMERLAWS. 

LANARK, also LANRICK, CASTLE (E. Teith). c. 1188, Lannarc ; 
1289 Lanark; c. 1430, Lamarke; also Lanerch. Lanark, 
Lanrick, and DRUMLANRIG (1663, -lanerk), are perh. all 
the same, = ' level spot on the ridge ; ' G. lann (see LAM- 
LASH) + O.E. hrycg, hric, Sc. rig. a hill-ridge, furrow, 
= G. druim or DRUM. But -ark might be f r. G. arach, 
field of battle ; and -ercli is like Old G. earc, a cow, which 
last gives the likeliest origin of all ; and so Lanark may 
mean ' level spot, enclosure for the cows.' 

LANGAVAT, L. (Lewis). K lancja-vatn, ' ling (the fish) loch ' 
or ' water ; ' perh. fr. Icel. lang-r, Dan. lang, long. Cf. 
Langavill, Mull ; -mil prob. = G. bail, village, dwelling. 

LANGBANK (Port Glasgow), LANGHAUGHWALLS (Hawick, see 
HAUGH), LANGSHAW (Galashiels, see SHAW), LANGSIDE 
(Glasgow, c. 1600, 'The Langsyd field'), LANGTON 
(Duns, 1250, Langetun). Sc. lang, O.E. and Dan. 
lang, Icel. lang-r, long. 

LANGHOLM (Carlisle). Pron. Langom; sic 1376; but 1776, 
Langham; formerly Arkinholm. On the interchangeable- 
ness of holm, a meadow, and ham, house, see HODDOM, 
YETHOLM. 

LANGLOAN (Coatbridge). ' Long, country lane ; ' Sc. loan, as 
in ' Lovers' Loan,' O.E. lane, a lane, Fris. lona, a lane, 
Icel. Ion, a row of houses. 

LANTON (Jedburgh). = LANGTON, or perh. fr. G. lann, 
enclosure, church, + O.E. tun, ton, village. 

LAOGHAL, Ben (Tongue). Popularly spelt and pron. Loyal ; 
G. laogh dl, 'hind calves' rock.' 

LARACHBEG (Morvern). G. = ' little house ' or ' farm ' or 
' ruin ; ' larach has all these meanings. 

LARBERT (Stirling). 1195, Lethberth; c. 1320, Lethberd. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 163 

G. letli is a half, a share, but Lar- is prob. f r. larach ; see 
above. The second half may be fr. G. bard, bdird, 
a poet, bard, or beart, work, exploit, a yoke, burden, 
machine, so that the exact meaning is hard to define. 

LARG HILL (Kirkcudbright) and LARGS (Ayrsh.). Ayrsh. L., 
c. 1140, Larghes ; 1318, -gys ; and prob. Tighernac Ann., 
ann. 711, Loirg ecclet. G. learg, the side or slope of a hill, 
a plain, a beaten path, with English plural. Cf. LAIRG. 

LARGO and LARGO WARD (Fife). 1250, Largauch; 1279, 
-aw. G. learg achaidh, ' slope of the field ; ' ward, O.E. 
zueard, expresses direction, as in l homeward,' &c. 

LARIG, Hill (Dava). G. larig, a path, way. Cf. CRIAN- 

LARICH. 

LARKHALL (Hamilton). Also near Bath. 

LASSODIE (Dunfermline). Prob. G. leas-aodann, 'garden- 
slope ' or ' face,' = Lessuden, old name of St Bos well's, 
c. 1200, Lassedwyn; in the latter the ending is Bry- 
thonic, W. eidchjn, a slope. 

LASSWADE (Dalkeith). a. 1150, Leswade; and cf. LESWALT, 
in 17th century Lesswad; first syllable prob. G. leas or 
lios, a garden. G. Chalmers' M.E. weyde, ' a meadow,' 
is a pure invention. 

LiTHERONand LATHERONWHEEL (Caithness). 1274, Lagheryn; 
1275, Laterne ; 1515, Latheroun; c. 1565, Lethrin. 
Prob. G. lagliran, ladhran, ' prongs, forks.' Eorms 
1274-75 show it cannot be, as Dr M'Lauchlan says, = 
LORN. Latheronwheel is prob. G. laghran-a-bhuill, 
'the forks or divisions of the plot of ground,' fr. G. 
ball, a spot, a limb. With this agrees the recorded 
spelling ' Lather on-fuil.' Icel. latra is a place where 
seals, whales, &c., lay their young. It is common in 
place-names, Latra-bjarg, Latra-heiSr, &c. 

LATHONES (St Andrews). Prob. G. leathad aonaich, ' the 
slope of the hill ' or ' heath ; ' with the common Eng. 
plural. 

LATHRISK (Fife). 1183, Loschiresk; 1250, Losresk; a. 
1400, Lothresk. Prob. G. loisgear uisge, 'swift water.' 
Cf. ESK. 

LAUDALE (Strontian). Prob. 'low dale;' Icel. lagr, Dan. 
lav, low, and Icel. and Dan. dal, a dale. 



164 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

LAUDER and LAUDERDALE. 1250, Lawedir; Lauderdale, 
1560, Lawtherdale, is the valley of the river Leader ; 
c. 800, Leder ; c. 1160, Ledre, and prob. the names are 
the same. Prob. G. liath dobhar or dur, l grey water ' 
or 'stream.' Of. ADDER. 

LAURENCEKIRK. Formerly Conveth. Prob. fr. St Laurentius y 
the martyr, c. 260. Cf. next. 

LAURIESTON (in Edinburgh, and Glasgow, Cramond, Bal- 
maghie, Kinrieff). Laurie is corruption of Laivrence, 
e.g., Kinn. L., 1243, Laurenston ; 1461, Laurestoun. 
Cram. L., 1590, Laurenstoun; and a chapel to St 
Laurence is mentioned in 1249 near Kinneff. Laurie- 
ston, nearFalkirk, was called Merchistown in 1774, and 
was renamed after the late Sir Lawrence Dundas of 
Kerse. Edinb. L. is fr. Lawrence, son of Edmund of 
Edinburgh, to whom the Abbot of Kelso granted a toft 
between the West Port and the Castle in 1160. 
Larriston Fell, Roxburgh, is the same name. Cf. the 
English ' Larry.' 

LAW (Carluke). Sc. law, O.E. hlcew, a mound, hill; in England 
usually -loio, as in Marlow, Taplow, &c. ; cf. FERRIELOW. 

LAWERS, Ben (L. Tay). G. lathar (pron. lar), ' a hoof,' with 
Eng. plural. Ben L. = ' cloven mountain.' 

LAXA (Shetland), LAXAY (Islay and Lewis). Isl. L., old, Laxa, 
= LACHSAY, ' salmon river ' (cf. Laxay, Isle of Man, 
and next) ; but Laxa, Shetland, is O.N. lax-ay, ' salmon 
isle.' 

LAXFORD, L. (Sutherland) and LAXVOE. 1559, -fuird. 
' Salmon frith, fjord, or bay ; ' O.K lax, K lacks, a 
salmon. Cf. BROADFORD. Voe is O.K vag-r, a bay. 

LEADBURN (Peebles). Prob. fr. O.E. lad, a way, course, 
canal; cf. 'mill-lade.' 

LEADER, R. See LAUDER. 

LEADHILLS (S. Lanarksh.). Lead (O.E. lead) has been mined 
here for at least 600 years. 

LECROPT (Bridge of Allan), c. 1550, Lekraw. G. lee, a 
flagstone, tomb. Perh. + rath, a circle, rampart; but 
cf. Ir. crapain for Ir. and G. cnapan, 'a little knob, 
hillock;' as in Carrickcroppan, Armagh. G. has 
craparra for cnaparra, stout. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 165 

LEDAIG (Connel Ferry). G. lad, laid, a water-course, + 

O.K". aig, a bay. 
LEDI, Ben (Callander). Commonly said to be the ' Mount 

of God ; ' G. beinn le Dia. Cf. Cnoc Ledi, Tain. 
LEE, Pen (Peeblessh.). Icel. hlie, Me, Dan. Uce, O.E. hleo, 

shade, shelter, the 'leeside.' Pen is the Brythonic or 

Welsh form of Ben, a hill. 
LEEDS, New (New Deer). Leeds, Yorkshire, is ' Loidis ' in 

Bede. Prob. ' people's place ; ' O.E. leoda, people. 

LEFFENBEG (Kintyre). G. letli-pliegliinn, 'a halfpenny/ a 
land measure (see p. Ivii), + beag, little. 

LEGERWOOD (Earlston). Sic 1158; 1160, Legerdswode. 
Prob. fr. a man ; cf. the Eng. name ' St Leger.' 

LEGSMALEE (Aberdour, Fife), a. 1169, Ecclesmaline ; later, 
Egilsmalye, Egsmalye. 'Church of St Maline' (cf. 
Malines, Belgium). For a similar corruption, see LES- 

MAHAGOW. Cf. ECCLES. 

LEITH (town, and Water of) and LEITHEN, E. (Innerleithen). 
Leith is (c. 1145, Inverlet, INVERLEITH), 1439, Leicht ; 
1570, Leth. Prob.fr.W. lleithio, to moisten, overflow (cf. 
G. lighe, a flood). The -en in Leithen will be W. afon 
or G. abhuinn, ' river.' Cf. Leet Water, Coldstream ; 
Leaths, Buittle ; and Lethen Burn, branch of the river 
Findhorn. 

LEITHOLM (Coldstream). * Meadow on the Leet.' See HOLM 

and LEITH. 

LENDAL WATER (Girvan). G. lean dail, 'marshy meadow.' 
LENIMORE (Caticol). G. leana mbr, ' big, marshy flat.' 
LENNOX (Dumbarton) and LENNOXTOWN (Kirkintilloch). 

c. 1210, Levenax, -nach ; 1234, Lenox ; 1296, Levanaux; 

Old G. MS., Lemnaigh. G. leamlian-achadli, ' elm-field.' 

Cf. LEVEN. 

LENTRAN (Inverness). G. leana traona, ' marshy flat of the 

corn-crakes.' 

LENT (Callander). G. leana, ' a marshy flat.' 
LENZIE (Glasgow), c. 1 230, Lenneth; 1451, Lenyie. Prob. Old 

G. Vean-achadh, swampy field ; or eth may as likely be G. 

ath, a ford. Cf. CLOVA. The z is just the Old Sc. y. 

R 



166 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

LEOCHEL CUSHNIE (Alford). c. 1200, Loychel; a. 1300, 
' Loch el ' and ' Cuscheny ' are mentioned in Registr. 
Aberdon. as separate places. L. prob. = LAOGHAL, ' calf's 
rock;' and see CUSHNIE. 

LERWICK. 1ST. leir-vik, ' mud-bay.' Cf. Lervik, Norway, 

LESLIE (Fife and Garioch). Gar. L., c. 1180, Lesslyn; a. 
1300, Lessly; Fife L. is named fr. this one. Malcolm, 
son of Bardulf, was granted the lands of Lesslyn, 
1171-99, and took his name fr. them ; though a 
Bartholomew Lesly is said to have come to Scotland in 
1097. 1 Prob. G. lios linne, 'garden by the pool.' 

LESMAHAGOW (Lanarkshire). 1144, Ecclesia Machuti; but 
c. 1130, Lesmahagu; 1316, Lesmachute. * Church of St 
MachuteJ disciple of the missionary Brendan ; went with 
him to the Orkneys, 6th century. Cf. ECCLESMACHAN 
and LEGSMALEE. 

LESSUDEN, now St Boswell's. See under LASSODIE. 

LESWALT (Stranraer). 1580, Loch Swaid ; 17th century, 
Lesswoll, -wad. Perh. ' garden (G. lios) at the base ' 
of the hill. W. gwaelod, ' base, bottom,' could have 
originated all the early forms. For w. = gw or gu, cf. 

KlRKGUNZEON. Cf. LASSWADE. 

LETHAM (Forfar, Collessie, Larbert, Dunfermline). (1250, 
1 Capella Brigham Letham,' Berwicksh.) G. leth, a half, 
a share, + O.E. ham, home, house. 

LETHENDY (Blairgowrie) and LETHENTY (Inverurie). 1285, 
Lenthendy. 1 G. leathan tir, 'broad land,' or 'broad 
house,' tigh. 

LETHNOT (Brechin). 1275, Lethnoth ; 1359, Lethnotty ; but 
1328, Petnocy. ' Bit of land on the hillock ;' G. leth lit. 
means ' a half,' then ' half a township ' or villula, then 
perh. simply 'a piece of land,' = pit, pet (see PETTY). The 
second half would seem to be G. c?iocan, a little hill. 

LETTERFEARN (L. Duich). $^1509. ' Alder-clad slope,' fr. 
G. leitir (leth-tir), Ir. leitar, 'land on the slope of a 
glen,' and G. fedrna, an alder ; or perh. fr. leth-oir, ' the 
one side or edge ' (oir) ; cf. ' Letherpen,' a harbour in 
Argyle, in an Old Irish MS. (Skene, Celtic ScotL, ii. 
203). A 'Letter' is marked on a 1745 map, north- 
1 Sibbald's History of Fife, edit. 1710, p. 370. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 167 

west of Campsie. Common in Ireland, Letterfrack, 

-kenny, &c. Cf. BALLATER, DULLATUR. 
LETTERFINLAY (L. Lochy). 1553, Lettirfmlay. ' Land on 

the slope belonging to Finlay;' see above. 
LETTERPIN (Girvan). ' The slope of the hill ' (pin pen or 

ben) ; cf. above, and PINMORE. 
LEUCHARS (St Andrews), a. 1300, Locres ; 1639, Leucheries. 

Prob. G. luachair, 'rushes/ with Eng. plural. Cf. 

Leuchar, Skene ; Luichar Loch, Lewis ; and Ardlougher, 

Ireland. 
LEUCHAT (Aberdour, Fife), c. 1214, Lowchald. Prob. 

G~. luachrach allt, 'rushy glen' or 'stream.' 
LEVEN (lochs, Kinross and Argyle ; river, Dumbarton ; town, 

Fife). Kin. L., a. 1100, Lochlevine; 1156, Lohuleuene. 

Arg. L., a. 1100, Tigliernac, ann. 704, Glenlemnae. 

Fife L., c. 1535, Levin. Dumb. L., c. 1560, Levinus. 

G. leamhan, an elm (cf. LENNOX ; also Leven, Hull ; 

Levens, "Westmoreland). Ptolemy, c. 120 A.D., calls 

Loch Long, L. Lemannonius, evidently the same word. 

LEVENHALL (Musselburgh) and LEVENWICK (Shetland). See 
above. Wick is N. vik, a bay. If the Shetland name 
be really partly Gaelic, it is almost unique. 

LEVERN (Paisley). Prob. = LEVEN. Cf. MORVEN and MOR- 
VERN. 

LEWIS, a. 1100 (Gaelic MS.), Leodus; Sagas, LyoShus; 
c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Li6dhus; 1292, Lodoux. Com- 
monly said to be Icel. Jiljoth hus, O.E. Mud 1ms, ' loud ' 
or 'resounding house.' Martin and Prof. M'Kinnon 
say fr. G. leoig, 'a marsh,' which is appropriate, but 
has no support from early forms. 

LEYSMILL (Arbroath). Prob. fr. a man Leys or Lees. 

LHANBRYDE (Moray). G. lann Brid, 'church of St Bride.' 
See LAMLASH and KILBRIDE. 

LIBERTON (Edinburgh and Carnwath). Edinb. L., c. 1145, 
and Carnw. L., c. 1186, Libertun. 'Leper-town;' G. 
loWiar. Sometimes called ' Spitaltown,' i.e., place of 
the leper hospital. 

LIDDESDALE (Roxburgh). 1179, Lidelesdale, 'Glen' or 'dale' 
(O.E. duel, Icel. and Dan. dal) of the Liddel Water, c. 



168 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

1160, Lidel; c. 1470, Ledaill. Perh. G. Hath dail, 

'grey field,' or fr. U, coloured, tinged. If so, 'Lideles- 

dale ' is not a reduplication. 
LIFP (Dundee). 1250, Lif. Perh. G. Hath, grey ; but Clonliff, 

Ireland, is Ir. and G. duain luibh, ' meadow of herbs.' 
LILLTESLEAF (Selkirk). 1116, Lilleseliva; 1296, Lilleslyve. 

Prob. just ' lily's leaf ; ' O.E. lilie, L. lilium, a lily, and 

O.E. leaf, a leaf. 
LIMEKILNS (Dunfermline), LIMERIGG (Slainannan, cf. BONNY- 

RIGG, &c.),'LiME ROAD (Falkirk). 
LINCLUDEN (Dumfries). Sic 1449 ; 1452, Lyncludene. 

' Pool (W. llyn) on the river CLUDEN.' 
LINCUMDODDIE (hamlet in Peeblessh., now extinct). Prob. 

"W. llyn cam, ' crooked linn or water,' + dodd, doddy, 

a rounded hill, see DODD. 
LINDEAN (Selkirk). Also old name of Galashiels. 1275, 

Lyndon; 1353, Lindene. W. llyn din, 'linn' or 

' water by the hill ; ' but influenced by den or DEAN. 

LINDORES (Newburgh). 1199, Lundoris; c. 1203, Londors; 
1639, Lundors. Prob. W. llyn dwr (G. linne doMair), 
' pool ' or ' loch near the water ' (the Tay), with Eng. 
plural 6-. Cf. Poldores Burn, Carsphairn. Hardly fr. 
G. doran, an otter. 

LINDSAYLANDS (Biggar). The Lindsays held lands in Clydes- 
dale in the 1 2th century. The first known of the family, 
' Randolph de Limesay ' or ' Lindesey,' was a nephew of 
William the Conqueror, and came over with him. The 
name means 'lime-tree' or 'linden isle,' JST. ay, ey. 

LINGA (Shetland). Sagas, Lyngey. Icel. and Dan. lyng-ay, 
'ling' or 'heather isle.' Cf. Lingholm (see 'HOLM), 
Stronsay, and Lingrow, Scapa. 

LINLATHEN (Dundee). Prob. G. linne leatlian, 'broad linn' 
or 'pool/ 

LINLITHGOW. 1147, Linlitcu; 1156, Lillidchu; c. 1160, 
Linlidcu; 1264, Lenlithgow; and contracted as still 
popularly 1489, Lythgow; also Lithcow. Linlidcu is 
plainly Brythonic = ' dear, broad, lake ; ' W. llyn, Corn. 
lin, Ir. linn, G. linne t a 'pool' or 'loch;' W. lled t . 
broad, and W. cu, dear. Cf. GLASGOW. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 169 

LINNHE, L. (N. Argyle). G. linne, a pool, enclosed sea- 
loch ; thus Loch Linnhe is a tautology. 

LINN OF DEE, &c. G. linne, a pool. See under LINLITHGOW. 
LINTMILL (Cullen). O.E. linet, lint, fr. O.E. line, L. linum, flax. 

LINTON, East and West (and near Kelso). East L., 1250, 
Lintun. West L., 1 567, Lyntoun. ' Hamlet by the linn ' 
or pool. See LINLITHGOW. Five Lintons in England. 

LINTRATHEN (Kirriemuir). 1250, Lumtrethyn ; 1433, Lun- 
trethin. G. Ion, 'meadow,' or G. linne (or W. llyn) 
frathain, 'pool in the ferny spot.' 

LINWOOD (Paisley). W. llyn, a pool, + ivood, O.E. wudu. 

LISMORE (N. of Oban). a. 1100, Tighernac, ann. 611, 
Lesmoir; 1251, Lesmor; 1549, Lismoir. G. lios mor, 
'big garden,' the island is so fertile. Lios is lit. the 
ground within a lios, i.e., a wall, often a rampart. 

LISSA (Mull). Corruption of O.N. lax-d, ' salmon-river.' Cf. 
LACHSAY, LAXA. 

LITTLE FERRY (Dornoch). In G. Port Beag. Almost the 
only ' Little ' in Scotland, although they are so common 
in England. 

LIVINGSTONE (Midcalder). 1250, Leuinistun; 1297, Levynge- 
stone. 'Abode of Leving' or Levyn, an early Saxon 
settler. 

LOANHEAD (Edinburgh). Loan is Sc. for ' a country lane ' 
(see LANGLOAN). Cf. Loans, Troon. 

LOCHABER (district, S.W. Inverness) and LOCH LOCHABER 
(Troqueer). a. 700, Adamnan, Stagnum (i.e., standing 
water, swamp, pool) Aporum; 1297, Lochabor; 1309, 
-abre. ' Loch at the river-mouth ; ' G. abliir, see p. xxvii. 

LOCHALSH (W. Inverness). 1449, -alche; 1472, -alch. Perh. 
fr. Sw. elg, an elk, cf. GLENELG, near by ; or possibly f r. 
G. aillse, a fairy. 

LOCHANHEAD (Dumfries). G. lochan, diminutive of loch, 
1 a lakelet.' Cf. Lochans, Stranraer. 

LOCHARBRIGGS (Dumfries). Lochar Water is possibly fr. the 
same man's name as LOCKERBIE ; but more likely G. loch 
ctird, ' loch of the height.' Sc. brig is O.E. bricg, a bridge. 



170 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

LOCHBUIE (Mull). 1478, -bowe; 1549, -buy. G. buidhe, 
' yellow, golden.' Cf. KTLBOWIE and Stronbuy. 

LOCHBURN(IE) (Glasgow). Burnie is diminutive of Sc. burn, 
O.E. burna, a stream, rivulet. 

LOCHEE (Dundee). Perh. fr. G. iodh, corn. Cf. TIREE. 

LOCHEIL (Fort William). 1528, -iell. Prob. fr. G. ial, a gleam 

of sunshine. 
LOCHEND (Edinburgh and Dumfries). Prob. fr. G. can, a bird ; 

on the d, see p. xxxvii. But cf. Lochfoot, also in Dum- 
fries. 
LOCHGAIR (Inveraray). = GAIRLOCH. * Short loch ;' G. gearr y 

short. 
LOCHGELLY (Dunfermline). G. geal, gile, clear, white. Cf* 

Innergelly, see ABERGELDIE. 
LOCHGILPHEAD (Argyle). Gilp is prob. G. gilb, a chisel, from 

its shape, 

LOCHGOIL, -INVER, &c. See GOIL, INVER, &c. 
LOCHINVAR (Dairy, Kirkcudbright). 1578, -in war; 1639, 

Louchinvar. G. lochan-a-bharra, 'lochlet of the height/ 
LOCHLEE (Brechin). G. Hath, grey, pale; or llomh, smooth. 
LOCHLUICHART (Ross-sh.). G. liichairt, a castle ; or luachair y 

rushes. 
LOCHMABEN (Dumfries). 1166, Locmaban; 1298, Logh- 

maban; c. 1320, Lochmalban ; 1502, -mabane. 'Loch 

of the bare hill ; ' G. maol beinn. Cf. MULBEN. 
LOCHMADDY. Fr. G. madadh, a wolf, wild dog. Cf. POL- 

MADIE. 

LOCHNAGA'R (Aberdeen). ' Loch of the enclosure, dyke, 

mound, garden;' G. yaradli. 

LOCHORE (Lochgelly). Fr. G. odhar (pron. owr), grey. 
LOCHRUTTON (Kirkcudbright), a. 1300, Loghroieton. Prob. 

G. loch ruad/i, ' red, ruddy loch,' +-ton; butc/. p. Ixxv 
LOCHS (Lewis), c. 1620, Loghur, which is prob. G. loch 

chur, ' loch of the turn or bend ' (cor). Cf. STRACHUR. 
LOCHWINNOCH (Beith). 1158, Lochynoc (which is very 

like the local pron. still); a. 1207, -winnoc; 1710, 

-whinyeoch. Fr. St Winnoc, diminutive of Wynnin, 

died 579 ; see KILWINNING. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 171 

LOCHY, R. and L. (Inverness), a. 700, Adamnan, Lacus 
Lochdiae; 1472, Locha; 1496, Loquhy; prob., too, 
= Nigra J)ea in Adamnan; if so, it is the O.Ir. loch, 
black, + dea, a river-name in Ireland \ or, as its modem 
G. spelling is Lochaid, the second syllable may be G. 
and Ir. achadh, a field. 

LOCKERBIE (Dumfries). ' Loker's dwelling ' or ' village ; ' 
Dan. bi, Inj (cf. p. Ixiii). Also cf. Locke rley, Romsey, 
and Lokeren, Belgium. 

LOGAN, Port (Wigtown). Prob. = LAGGAN ; G. lagan, a 
little hollow. Cf. LOGIE. 

LOGIE (Bridge of Allan and Cupar), LOGIEALMOND (Perth, 
see ALMOND), LOGIE BUCHAN, LOGIE COLDSTONE (Aber- 
deensh.), LOGIE EASTER (Ross-sh.), LOGIE PERT (Mori- 
trose). More than one of above, c. 1210, Logyn, i.e., 
G. lagan, a little hollow ; or lag, luig, a hollow den, 
with Eng. diminutive suffix -ie, found as early as 1270, 
'Logy,' i.e., Logie Easter, and a. 1300, 'Logy' in 
Buchan. On Pert, cf. PERTH. 

LOGIERAIT (Ballinluig). c. 1200, Rate, Rath. G. lagan 
raith, ' little hollow with the fort, rampart,' or ' circle.' 

LOGIERIEVE (Ellon). ? G. lagan riabaidh, ' little hollow of 
the rent ' or ' fissure.' 

LOMOND, L. and Ben, and LOMOND HILLS (Fife), c. 1225, 
Lochlomne. Prob. G. leamlina or leamhan, an elm. 
Cf. LEVEN. On the d, see p. xxxvii. 

LONG, L. (Firth of Clyde). Thought to be Ptolemy's 
(c. 120 A.D.) L. Lemannonius ; if so, = LEVEN and 
LOMOND, ' loch of the elms ' (G. leamhan). But in 1776 
it is Loung, which is G. long, luing, a ship. Cf. LUING. 

LONGFORGAN (Dundee), c. 1160, Forgrund; 1461, Lang- 
f orgend ; but Ada Sanctorum, Lanfortin, where Ian must 
mean 'church' (see LAMLASH). A church is said to 
have been built here, a. 500, by St Monenna or Medana. 
For- may be Old G. fothir, ' bit of land ' (see FETTER- 
ANGUS) ; but the whole name is perplexing. 

LONGFORMACUS (Duns). ? G. lann fothir Maccus, ' church 
on the land of Maccus,' who lived hereabouts c. 1150. 
See MAXTON, &c., and cf. LONGFORGAN. 



172 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

LONGHAVEN (Ellon), LoNGHOPE (Stromness ; Icel. hop, a 
refuge, see HOBKIRK), LONGMANHILL (Banff), LONGRIGG- 
END (Airdrie, cf. p. Ixi), LONGSIDE (Aberdeen). 

LONGMORN (Elgin). Perh. popular corruption of G. Ion mor 
abliainn or an, ' big meadow by the river.' 

LONMAY (Aberdeensh.). a. 1300, Lunme; c. 1445, Lymaij ; 
a. 1500, Lummey. G. Ibnmaigh, 'marsh' or 'meadow 
in the plain.' Cf. CAMBUS o' MAY. 

LORN (Argyle). a. 1300, Loren. Er. Loarn, first king of 

the Scots in Dalriada, c. 500 A.D. 
LOSKIN, L. (Dunoon). G. losgann, a frog. 

LOSSIE, R. (Elgin), and LOSSIEMOUTH. If this be Ptolemy's 
Loxa, it cannot be O.N. lax-a, 'salmon-river' (cf. 
LAXAY). Perh. fr. G. las, to be angry, sparkle, shine. 

LOTH (Brora). 1565, Lothe. Prob. G. lathach, clay, mud, 
or rather, fine alluvial soil, such as is here ; so Dr Joass, 
Golspie. 

LOTHIAN, East, West, and Mid. c. 730, Bede, re aim. 654, 
Regio Loidis (Loidis in Bede also means LEEDS) ; c. 
970, PicJ. Chron., Loonia ; c. 1120, O.E.chron., Lothene ; 
1158, 'inLoeneis;' a. 1200, Ailred L&udomsi ; c. 1245, 
Laodinia ; c. 1 600, Lawdien. Possibly, like LOTH, con- 
nected with G. ldb(h}an or Idthach, mire, clay, alluvial 
soil ; possibly fr. O.E. leod, a prince, or leoda, people. 

LO"THRIE BURN (Leslie). 1250, Lochris; 1294, -ry. Perh. 
G. loch reisg, ( loch with the rushes.' 

LOUDOUN (Kilmarnock). ?G. laclidunn, dun, tawny. Found 
as an Ayrshire surname f r. 1 4th century. 

LOVAT (Beauly). Pron. Luvat. 1294, Lovet. Perh. G. 
lobht, lobhta, ( a loft, high floor ; ' or luibh-aite, ' herb- 
place,' district abounding in plants. 

LOWER CABRACH, LOWER LARGO, &c. See CABRACH, LARGO, &c. 

LOWES, L. of (St Mary's L.). The w is pron. as in 'how.' 
Prob. Dan. lav, Icel. Idg-r, M.E. latv, low. Cf. Lowes- 
water. 

LOWLANDS. Apparently quite modern. Cf. 1691, Petty, 
Polit. Arithmetic, iv. 69, ' the Low-land of Scotland.' In 
G. called Galldachd, or ' stranger-dom,' as opposed to 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 173 

Gaeltachd, Gael-dom, ' th e Highlands ; also called Machair, 

1 the plain.' 
LOWTHER HILLS (Dumfries). Gf. LAUDER, and Lowther 

Newtown, Penrith. 
Low WATERS (Hamilton). 
LOY GLEN (Fort "William). Eeally Gloy. G. gloath, noise, 

fr. the high sound the wind makes here. 
LOYNE, R. and L. (L. Garry). Fr. G. lonn, loinn, variant 

of lann, enclosure, church, or fr. loinneach, beautiful, 

bright. 
LUBNAIG, L. (Callander). Prob. named from its shape ; fr. 

G. lub, bend, curve, with double diminutive an and aig. 
LUCE, Old and New (Wigtown). 1461, Glenlus. Perh. same 

as Ptolemy's AuKoTri/Jia. Possibly G. lus, an herb, plant ; 

but Dunluce, Portrush, is Ir. dun lios, ' strong fort.' 
LUFFNESS (Aberlady). 1180, Luffenac ; c. 1250, Luffenauch. 

Prob. G. letli-plieginn-acliadh, 'halfpenny field' (cf. 

LEFFENBEG). Or, as Luffness stands in a bay, not on a 

ness, fr. G. lub(h)ain-achadh, ' field at the little bend or 

curve of the shore.' 
LUGAR, R. (Auchinleck). Accent on the Lu-; so prob. G. 

lub- garadk, l enclosure, garden at the bend ' or * curve.' 
LUGGIE WATER (Cumbernauld). Perh. G. lugha, ' the lesser ' 

stream ; but cf. next. Sc. luggie is a little dish, plate. 
LUGTON (Neilston). Prob. 'village in the hollow;' G. and 

Ir. lag, which in the south and west of Ireland is 

always lug, e.g., Lugduff,Wicklow, &c. But cf. DUBTON. 
LUIB (Killin). G. lub, luib, a bend, curve, angle. 
LUING ISLAND (S. of Oban). G. long, luing(e\ a ship. Cf. 

Portnaluing, opposite lona, Adamnan's * Lunge.' 
LTJMGAIR (Kinneff). c. 1220, Lunkyrr ; 1651, Lumger; 

also Lonkyir. Prob. G. Ion gearr, 'short meadow.' 

The letters c or k and g often interchange. 
LUMPHANAN (Mar) and LUMPHINNAN (Dunfermline). Mar 

L., a. 1100, Tighernac, and also a. 1300, Lumfanan. 

G. lann Finan, ' church of St Finan ' or Wynnin, see 

KILWINNING. Of. LAMLASH, and Llanfinan, Anglesea. 
LUMSDEN (Alford). (Surname spelt 'Lumisdean,' 1424; 

' Loummysden,' 1431.) 



174 PLACE-NAMES OF* SCOTLAND. 

LUMWHAT (Auchtermuchty). Prob. G. Ion chatt, 'meadow/ 
or * morass of the wild cat.' Of. ALWHAT. 

LUNAN BAY (Montrose). Sic 1250. G. lunnan, waves. 

LUNCARTY (Perth). Perh. 1250, Lumphortyn (Chartul. St 
And7\), which looks like G. Ion fortain, 'meadow of 
fortune, luck;' but 1461, Longardi, prob. 'meadow of 
justice ; ' G. ceartas, -tais, Scone palace being near by. 
Cf. 1564, 'Luncartis in Glentilth.' // ^ix^d <* A**~. 

LUNDIE (Dundee). Perh. = next. 

LUNDIN LINKS (Leven). c. 1200, Lundin. The family of 
De Lundin, found in Fife in the 12th century, were the 
king's hereditary hostiarii or doorkeepers, hence the 
name they took, Durward = ' doorward.' 

LUNNA and LUNNASTING (Shetland). Lunna is perh. Icel. 
lundra, a grove, common in place-names ; or (f r. its sup- 
posed shape) fr. lunga, a lung. Ting is O.K. \ing, 
meeting, assembly. Cf. TINGWALL. 

LURG HILL (Cullen). G. learg, sometimes pron. lurg, 'a little 
hill, a beaten path.' Cf. LAIRG and PITLURG. 

Luss (L. Lomond). Sic c. 1250. Prob. G. lus, 'an herb, 
plant.' Cf. CRUACH LUSSA. 

LUSSA (Mull). Said not to be = Luss, but corruption of O.K. 
lax-d, salmon-river. Cf. LAXA. 

LUTHERMUIR (Laurencekirk). The name Luthir is frequent in 
Old Ir. MSS. Muir is Sc. for moor, O.E. and Icel. mor. 

LUTHRIE (Cupar). Perh. G. ludraigeadli, a bespattering with 
foul water. Cf. LOTHRIE. 

LYBSTER (Wick). The y pron. as in lyre; 1538, Libister. 
Prob. hlie-bister, ' shelter-place,' or harbour ; bister is 
corruption of K. bolstafir, a place (see p. Ixiv, and cf. 
Bilbster). Also see LEE. 

LYNE WATER (Peebles). c. 1190, Lyn ; c. 1210, Line. 
Corn. lin t W. llyn, a pool, a ' linn,' a stream. 

LYNTURK (Alford). G. linne (or W. Uyn) tuirc, pool of the 
wild boar (tore). 

LYNWILG (Aviemore). G. linne (01 W. Uyn} guilce, 'pool' or 
'loch with the rushes,' G. giolc; hence the name 'Wilkie.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 1*75 

LYON, E. (Perthsh.). See GLENLYON. The Irish Lyons are 
fr. the tribe O'Liathain, and the name O'Lehane is still 
found. 

M 

MACBIE HILL (Dolphinton). ' Coldcoat ' was bought by 
Wm. Montgomery in 1712, and named by him after 
Macbeth or Macbie Hill, Ayrshire. 

MACDUFF (Banff). From the clan Macduff. 

MACHAR, Old and New (Aberdeen), a. 1300, 'Ecclesia 
beati Sti Machorii.' Machor was a disciple of St 
Columba, 

MACHRAHANISH (Campbeltown). G. magh radian, 'thin,' or 
'shallow plain' or links, + N. nisli or nces, ness, cape 
(cf. ARDALANISH). The root of magh is prob. mag, 
'the palm of the hand.' 

MACMERRY (Haddington). Perh. G. magli mire, 'plain of 
the merry' or 'wanton one' (mear). Merry is a Sc. 
surname. 

MADDERTY (Crieff). a. 1100, Tighernac, ann. 669, Mad- 
derdyn. Prob. G. meadair dun, 'hill like a little 
pail ' or 'circular wooden dish.' 

MADDISTON (Polmont). Prob. G. madadh, -aidh, wolf, wild 
dog, + -ton (see pp. Ixxiv, Ixxv). Harold, son of the Earl 
of Athole, in 12th century, was called 'Maddadson.' 

MAESHOW (S tennis). A famous chambered cairn. Saga, 
Orkahaug, i.e., 'mighty cairn,' and how is just a cor- 
ruption of haug. Cf. CYDERHALL. 

MAGBY (Ayr). Prob. G. magh, a plain, + Dan. bi, by, 
dwelling, village, town. 

MAGDALEN GREEN (Dundee). 

MAGGIKNOCKATER (Dufftown). Looks like G. mdgach cnoc-a- 
tire, ' hill (cnoc) with many arable fields on the land.' 

MAHAICK, L. (Doune). Perh. G. ma fhaitche, ' my green 
field,' /lost by aspiration. 

MAIDENHEAD, B. (Wigtown). Prob. a corruption, in this wanton 
county, of O.E. meddan hyti, 'middle port' or 'Hythe.' 



176 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

MAIDEN PAP (hill, Caithness and Colvend). Named fr. their 
shape. The Maidens is the name of rocks on the west 
of Skye, and near Kirkoswald. 

MAINLAND (Orkney and Shetland). Both, in Sagas, Megin- 
land, i.e., mainland, 'continent.' Icel. megin means 
' might ' or * the main part.' 

MAINS (Dundee, &c.) and MAINSRIDDELL (Dumfries). Com- 
mon name of a farm-steading, or little group of houses, or 
a country-house ; same root as manse, L. maneo, mansum, 
to remain. Elddell, of course, gives the owner's name. 

MAKERSTON (Kelso). 1250, Malkaruistun ; 1298, Malcaris- 

tona. 'Malcar's tiin 1 or 'hamlet.' 
MALSAY (Shetland). Prob. ' isle (ay, a) of the stipulation ' 

or 'agreement;' Icel. mdl. 

MAMBEG (Gareloch). G. mam beg, ' little round hill ' like a 

breast; L. mamma. 
MAMORE FOREST (Lochaber). c. 1310, Maymer ; 1502, 

Mawmor; 1504, Mammore. G. magh mbr, 'big plain.' 

MANISH (Harris). May be G. magh, a plain, + N. nisli or 
nffis, a ness, promontory. 

MANNOFIELD (Aberdeen). 

MANOR (Peebles). 1186, Maineure; 1323, Mener. Prob. 
O.Fr. manoir, -eir, -er, land belonging to ' the lord of the 
manor.' Manor was the Norman name for township. 
'Villas quasa manendo manerios vulgo vocamus,' 
Ordericus Vitalis, c. 1141. May be G. mainnir, a 
cattle-pen; and cf. Manorbier and Manordilo, Wales. 
The local pron. is Msener. 

MANOR SWARE (Peebles). O.E. sivcer, neck or pass on the 
top of a mountain, a col. 

MANUEL (Polmont). Sic 1296 ; 1301, Maiiewell. Prob. W. 
maen, a stone, + Fr. ville, township (cf. BOTHWELL, 
MAXWELL ; also cf. SLAMANNAN, which is to the south of 
this). No proof that it is a contraction from Immanuel. 

MAR (Aberdeensh.). 1165, Marr. Possibly G. mear or meur, 
a bough, branch, branch of a river. 

MARCHMONT (Duns). 1461, March einond. ' Hill (G. monadh, 
and cf. Fr. mont) at the march or border.' The name 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 177 

Marjoribanks, found hereabouts, is pron. Marchbanks. 
This may have a similar origin. 

MARINE, L. (Ross-sh.). 1633, Maroy. Kbt fr. Virgin Mary, 
but from St Maelrublia, who arrived in this district fr. 
Bangor, Ireland, in 671 ; see p. xcvi. 

MARGARET'S, St (Edinburgh), and ST MARGARET'S HOPE 
(Queensferry and Orkney). Prob. both called after 
Queen Margaret, Saxon wife of Malcolm Canmore, died 
1093. On hope, i.e., haven, refuge, see HOBKIRK. 

MARKINCH (Fife), a. 1200, Marcinche, Marchinge. Prob. 

G. marc-innis, ' Horse's inch ' or ' pasture ground.' Of. 

INCH, also river Mark, Edzell. 
MARNOCH (Huntly). Possibly G. mear-an-achaidh, * branch, 

outlier of the field ' or ' plain.' Cf. DORNOCH. 

MARTIN'S, St (Scone). After Martin of Tours, teacher of St. 
Ninian of Whithorn, c. 380 A.D. 

MARY'S LOCH, St (Selkirk), ST MARY'S HOLM (Orkney ; see 

HOLM). Fr. Mary the Virgin. 
MARYBURGH (Dingwall). Fr. Mary, wife of William III.,. 

died 1694. Also old name of Fort William. 

MARYCULTER (see COULTER), MARYDALE, MARYHILL (Glasgow), 
MARYKIRK (Laurencekirk), MARYPARK (Ballindalloch), 
MARYWELL (Aboyne ; cf. MOTHERWELL and LADYWELL). 
Fr. Mary the Virgin, or otherwise. 

MARYTON (Montrose). a. 1220, Maringtun ; c. 1600, Mariton. 
Perh. not fr. Mary, but from the name of some man. 

MASTERTON (Dunfermline). Also used as a surname. Cf. 

ton, p. Ixx. 
MAUCHLINE (Kilmarnock). c. 1130, Machline ; c. 1200, 

Mauchlyn. Prob. G. magli Linne (or W. llyri), 'plain 

of the pool.' Cf. Maghline, Ulster. 
MAUD (New Deer). Prob. G. maodli, soft, moistened. Hardly 

= the Sc. maud, a plaid. 
MAULDSLIE (Lanark). Old, Maldisley. Prob. fr. some man ; 

perh. fr. O.E. molde, Dan. muld, earth, mould, + lee, lea, 

a meadow, pasture-land, O.E. ledh. 
MAVEN, -VINE, North (Shetland). 
MAVISBANK (Polton). Mavis is Sc. for thrush, Fr. mauvis, 



178 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Span. malviSj but thought to be originally Celtic (cf. 
Armorican milvid, a thrush). The G. for 'thrush' is 
smebrach. 

MAWCARSE (Kinross). Prob. a tautology ; G. magh, a plain, 
+ CARSE. 

MAWKINHILL (Greenock). Maukin is Sc. for a hare (cf. the 
G. maigheach), also spelt mdlkin. This last in Eng. is 
a variant of Moll-kin, ' little Mary/ used for a wench, or 
a scarecrow. 

MAXPOFFLE (St Boswell's). 1317, -poffil. Fr. Maccus (see 
next) + ? G. both, house, + Norman ville, house, township 
(cf. BOTHWELL). This is simply a conjecture ; but on p 
and b, cf. p. xxvi. 

MAXTON (St Boswell's). 1165-1214, Mackustun, -istun, 
Maxtoun; c. 1240, Makestun. Fr. a man, Maccus, men- 
tioned in Chartul. Melrose, c. 1144. Cf. ton, p. Ixx. 

MAXWELLTOWN (Dumfries). Tautology ; = Maccus' ville + ton, 
ville being the Norman for ton, ham, or township (see 
p. Ixxxii, and cf. BOTHWELL). The surname is found c. 
1190 as Maxwell; 1290, Macswelle; a. 1300, Maxeuell. 

MAY, Isle of (Firth of Forth), c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., 
Maeyar; c. 1272, ' Prioratus de May.' Prob. fr. Icel. 
md-r, a gull ; cf. Icel. md-grund, sea-mews' haunt. The 
-eyar means ' isle.' 

MAYBOLE. 1522, Mayboile. Old G. magh baoil, 'plain with 
the water ; ' or perh. fr. baoghal, -ail, danger. 

MAYFIELD (Edinburgh). Cf. 'Mayflower.' 

MEADOWFIELD (Airdrie). 

MEALFOURVOUNIE (L. Ness). G. meall-fuar-a-bhuinne, 'cold 
hill of the cataract.' Of hills called Meall (lit. a lump 
or boss) Sutherland is full Meall Garve, Horn, &c. 

MEALLANT'SUIDHE. G. = ' hill of the seat ; ' it is a part of 
Ben Nevis. 

MEARNS (Kincardine), a. 1200, Moerne, which is supposed 
to be G. magh Chirchinn, 'plain of Circinn,' one of the 
seven sons of the legendary Cruithne, father of all 
the Picts. All the gutturals must have been lost by 
aspiration. Cf. MOY. 

MEARXS (Glasgow). Sic c. 1160; 1178, Meorns; 1188, 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 179 

Mernis. Prob. G. magJi edrna, 'field' or 'plain of barley;' 
also cf. above. The s is the common Eng. plural. 

MEGGAT WATER (St Mary's L.). c. 1200, -gete. ?G. 
meigead, the cry of a kid. 

MEIGLE (Newtyle). 1183, Miggil; 1296, Miggyl; also Mig- 
dele. Prob. fr. G. meigeallaich, meigeadaich, or meigh- 
licli, bleating. 

MEIKLE EARNOCK (Hamilton, see EARNOCK), MEIKLE FERRY 
(Dornoch), &c. Sc. meikle, muckle, O.E. micel, mycel, 
great, large. 

MEIKLEOUR (Coupar Angus). Prob. G. magli coill odliair 
(pron. owr), 'plain of the grey wood' (cf. the form 
Meorne, s.v. MEARNS). The spelling has been conformed 
to a ' kent ' word. 

MELDRUM, Old and New (Aberdeen). 1330, Melgdrum. 
Prob. G. meilleach druim, 'bulging hill-ridge,' lit. one 
having swollen cheeks ; but cf. also ABERMILK. The 
Irish Meeldrum is fr. G. and Ir. maol, bare. 

MELFORD, or -FORT, L. (Lorn). 1403, Milferth. Either 
G. maol, bare, or Icel. mel-r, a sand-dune covered with 
bent, a sand-bank, +N. fjord, a firth or bay. Of. 
BROADFORD, EISHORT, &c., also MELVICH. 

MELNESS (Tongue). 1546, Melleness. On Mel-, see above; 
ness is JS T . noes, lit. a nose. 

MELROSE. c. 730, Bede, Mailros. Celtic maol ros, 'bare 
moor;' ros here is not the G. ros, a promontory, but 
rather Corn, ros, a moor. 

MELVICH (Reay). Mel- (see MELFORD) + K vik, a bay. 

MELVILLE (Lasswade and Ladybank) and MOUNT MELVILLE 
(St. Andrews). Er. a Norman family. 'Galfred de Mel- 
ville ' x is found in Lothian in 1153 ; and a ' Philippus 
de Malavilla,' c. 1230-50. L. mala villa, Fr. mal ville, 
means 'bad township.' Bonville also is a Scottish 
surname. 

MEMSIE (Fraserburgh). Perh. G. mam sith, ' little, breast-like 

hill.' Cf. CAMPSIE and MAMBEG. 
1 But in Scotland till recently Melville was constantly confounded 

with the radically different name Melvin. In his nephew's Latin 

letters the great Andrew Melville is always 'Melvinus;' and old 

charters often have ' Melin ' or ' Meling ' for the surname Melville. 

Cf. DUNFEKMLINE and STIRLING. 



180 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

MEMUS (Kirrieimrir). 

MENMUIR (Brechin). c. 1280, Menmoreth. Puzzling; peril. 

Corn, men, W. maen, a stone, or ? G-. mean, little, + Sc. 

muir, O.E. and Icel. mor, a moor. 
MENSTRIE (Alloa). 1263, Mestreth. Prob. G. magli sratlia, 

' plain of the strath ' of the Forth (cf. MEIKLEOUR). G. 

meas means fruit. 
MERCHISTON (Edinburgh and Falkirk). Edinb. M., 1494, 

Merchanistoun, which looks like ' merchant's abode,' 

but more prob. fr. Murclia, G. for Murdoch or Murchy, 

as in M 'Murchy. Muirchu occurs as an Irish name in 

the 7th century. 

MERSE (Berwicksh. and Twynholm). Perh. O.E. mearsc, a 
marsh. The former might well be ' land on the march * 
or borders of England ; O.E. mearc, Fr. marche. 

MERTOUN (St. Boswell's). 1250, Meritun. O.E. mere-tun, 
'dwelling by the mere ' or ' lake.' Cf. Merton, ]N". Devon. 

METHTL (Leven). 1250, Methkil. G. maoth c(h)oill, 'soft, 

boggy wood.' Cf. DARVEL. 
MBTHLIC(K) (Ellon). a. 1300, Methelak. Perh. = METHIL, + 

G. achadh, a field ; or the latter half may be G. tulacli, 

a hill, hillock. Cf. MORTLACH and MURTHLY. 
METHVEN (Perth). 1250, Methphen; 1500, Mechwynn. 

? G. magli ablminn, ' plain of the river ' Almond. Cf. 

Mecheyn, old name of DALSERF, of course, referring to 

the river Clyde. 
MEY (Dunnet). Prob. one of the many forms of G. magli, 

'a plain' or 'field.' 
MIAVAIG (Lewis). Prob. ' ill-luck bay ; ' G. mi-adli + ^. 

aig, a bay. Cf. ARISAIG, &c. 
MIDCALDER, Mm CLYTH, MID YELL, &c. See CALDER, 

CLYTH, &c. 
MIDDLEBIE (Ecclefechan). 'Middle village' or 'abode.' 

O.E. and Dan. middel, + Dan. bi, by, northern O.E. by. 
MIDDLEM (Selkirk). Prob. O.E. middel-lidm, 'middle home ' 

or 'village.' Cf. Middleham, Yorkshire, and p. Ixxvi. 
MIDDLETON (S. of Edinburgh). = The previous two ; on ton, 

cf. p. Ixxiv. Very common in England. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 181 

MIDHOLM (Selkirk). =MIDDLEM. See HOLM for inter- 
change of ham and holm. 

MIDMAR (Dunecht). (Prob. a. 1300, Migmarre.) ? 'Field 
of Mar ; ' G. mag, maig, arable field. 

MIGDALB (Bonar). Perh. G. mag dail, 'plain with the 
meadow.' Cf. MEIGLE and MUGDRUM. 

MIGVIE (Tarland). 1183, Miguuith; a. 1200, -aveth ; 
a. 1300, -ueth. G. maig-a-bheith, 'field of birches.' 

MILBY (1 Dumfries). = MILTON or ' mill-place ; ' Dan. bi, 
by, northern O.E. by, a building, village, town. 

MILLBREX (Fyvie). Brex is prob. = ' breaks,' i.e., pieces of 
ground broken up by the plough. Cf. 1794, Statist. 

Account of Scotland, xi. 152. 'Farms divided 

into three enclosures, or, as they are commonly called, 
breaks.' 

MILLERHILL (Dalkeith), MILLERSTON (Glasgow). 

MILLEUR, St (L. Kyan). G. meall odhar (pron. owr), ' grey 
hill.' Cf. W. mod, a hill. 

MILLHOUSE (Tighnabruaich), MILLPORT (Cumbraes), MILL- 
TIMBER (Aberdeen), MILLTOWN OF CUSHNIE. 

MILLIFIACH (Beauly). G. meall-a-Jitheach, ' hill of the raven.' 

MILLIKEN PARK (Johnstone). Ken or km is an English 
diminutive, as in manikin, pannikin. 

MILLISLE (Whithorn). Old, Milnisle. O.E. mylen, miln, a mill. 

MILLSEAT (Aberdeensh.). Seat is Icel. saeti, set, Sw. sate, a 
seat. Site is pron. in Sc. seat. 

MILNATHORT (Kinross). Prob. G. meall na tlwrraidli, 
' mound ' or ' hill of the burial.' 

MILNGAVIE (Glasgow). Pron. Milguy. G. muileann-gaoithe, 
'a windmill;' or perh. G. meall na gaoithe, 'hill of 
the wind,' ' windy knoll.' 

MILNGRADEN (Coldstream). 1515, -gradon. Might be G. 
muilean (jradain, ' mill of the grain dried by burning 
the straw ; ' or perh. G. meall na gradain, ' hill of the 
hazard.' 

MILNHOLME (1 Kelso). 1376, Mylneholme. O.E. mylen, 
miln, a mill, + HOLM. 

S 



182 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

MILTON (Auchendinny, Bannockburn, Glasgow), MILTON 
Brodie, Milton of Balgonie, Milton of Campsie, Milton 
Lockhart, &c. Eighteen ' Miltons ' or ' mill-villages ' in 
England. 

MIXARD (L. Fyne). G. mm dird, smooth height. 

MINCH (Channel, Lewis). Doubtful. Cf. La Manche, * the 
sleeve,' French name of the English Channel. 

MINDRIM MILL (Yetholm). G. mm druim, 'smooth hill- 
ridge,' lit. 'back.' 

MINGARRY CASTLE (Ardnamurchan). 1499, Mengarie. 
G. mm gdradk, ' smooth enclosure ' or ' garden.' 

MINISHANT (Maybole). Prob. G. muine seant, 'sacred (L. 
sanctus) thicket.' Cf. CLAYSHAXT. 

MINNIGAFF, or MONIGAFF (Newton-Stewart). Old, Monegoff, 
Munygoiff. Possibly G. muine gobha, ' thicket of the 
smith.' 

MINTLAW (Peterhead). Prob. G. moine flaclia, ' moss of the 
wild ducks,' as there is a moss here, but no 'law' or 
hill. Cf. MINISHANT and MONTROSE. 

MINTO (Roxburgh) and MINTO HILL and CRAIGS. Sic 1275 ; 
1296, Mynetowe; c, 1320, Minthov. Prob. G. mbin- 
teacli, a mossy spot, + Sc. how, O.E. holh, holg, a 
hollow, a hole. 

MOCHRUM (Port William), c. 1341, Mochrome, Mouchrum. 
Prob. G. magli chrom, 'crooked plain,' or magh cliruim, 
'plain of the circle.' Cf. MEARNS, MOY. 

MOFFAT. 1296, Moffete. Prob. G. maghfada, 'long plain,' 
its very site ; cf. above. 

MOIDART, MOYDART (Arisaig). 1309, Modworth ; 1372, 
Mudewort; 1532, Moydort. Prob. 'muddy frith' or 
'fjord;' Icel. mod, dust, Sw. modd, mud; and see 
KNOYDART. 

MOLENDINAR BURN (Glasgow). 1185, Jocelyn, Mellindonor. 
Said to be Rivus Molendinarius, 'the millers' stream;' 
but 1185 looks like G. meall na dhuinne (or donii) drd, 
'hill with the brownish eminence,' i.e., the Necropolis 
hill. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 183 

MONADHLIATH MOUNTAINS (Inverness). G. = ' grey moor ' 
or 'mountain' (monadli). 

MONAN'S, St (Elie). Said to be fr. Monamis, Archdeacon of 
St Andrews, killed on 1st May 871. St Moinenn was 
Bishop of Clonfert, died 571 ; and St Monyn or Mod- 
wenna was a friend of St Patrick, died 519. 

MONCRIEFF HILL (N. of river Earn), a. 1100, Tighernac, 
ann. 726, Monid Croib ; ami. 728, Monagh Craebi. G. 
monadh craoibh, 'hill of the trees,' or crubha, 'of the 
haunch' or 'hoof.' Cf. CRIEFF and DUNCRUB. 

MONCUR, MONQUHUR (Carmylie). Prob. Ulst. Ann., ann. 
728, Monitcarno, which will be G. monadh carnaich, 
'hill of the pagan priest,' or 'in the rocky spot;' but 
-cur seems to be fr. G. car, cuir, a turn, bend, cf. 
STRACHUR. 

MONDYNE (Kincardine). 1251, Monachedin. G. monach 

aodain (W. eiddyn), 'hilly slope' or 'face.' 
MONESS (Aberfeldy). G. monadh eas, ' hill of the water-fall.' 

MONEYDIE (Perth). 1294, Monedy, and so still pron. G. 
monadh aodain (W. eiddyn), ' face ' or ' slope of the 
hill.' 

MONIAIVE (Thornhill). The ai pron. like i in ivy. Old, 
Minnyhive. Possibly G. moine ghdbaidh, ' dangerous 
moss,' gh lost by aspiration. 

MONIFIETH (Carnoustie). c. 1205, Monifod; c. 1220, Muni- 
feth, Monifodh, -foth. G. moine fodha, ' lower, under 
moss ' or ' moor.' 

MONIKIE (Carnoustie). Pron. Moneeky. c. 970, Pict. Chron., 
EglisMonichti/.e.,prob. G. eaglais manaich-tigh, 'church 
of the monk's house;' form Monichi is also found. 

MONIMAIL (Ladybank). 1250, Monimel; 1495, Monymeal. 
Prob. G. moine mil, ' moss ' or ' moor by the mound ' or 
'hill,'G. meaU. 

MONIMUSK (Aberdeen). $z'c!315; but c. 1170, Munimusc. 
G. moine mus(g)ach, ' nasty, filthy bog.' 

MONKLAND, Old and New (Glasgow). 1323, Munkland. 
The land belonged to the see of Glasgow. 

MONKTON (Prestwick). Pron. Miinton. Four in England. 



184 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

MON(T)QUHITTER (Turriff). Perh. G. monadh rnhiodair, 
'hill with the pasture ground.' Cf. DALWHINNY. 

MONREITH (Wigtown). Old, Murith, Menrethe. Perh. G. 

moine riabhach, 'grey moor.' 
MONTBITH, Lake of (Aberfoyle). a. 1200, Meneted; c. 

1 200, Menteth. Prob. G. moine teichidh, ' moor of the 

flight.' The river Teitli in G. is T(h)aich. 
MONTEVIOT, or MOUNTEVIOT (Jedburgh). See TEVIOT. 
MONTROSE. a. 1200, Munros; 1296,Montrose; 1322, Mon- 

ros; 1488, Moiitross. G. moine t'rois, 'moss on the 

peninsula.' 
MONYNUT WATER (Berwick). Prob. G. moine cnuith, 'moor 

with the (hazel) nuts;' influenced by O.E. knut, a nut. 

MONZIE (Crieff). Pron. Monee. Prob. G. monadh fheidh, 

' hill of deer.' Cf. next. The z is the old Sc. y. 
MONZIEVAIRD (Crieff). 1251, Moeghavard; 1279, Mor- 

goauerd. G. mayli, 'plain,' often in names as Mo- or 

MOY, or monadh, l hi\],'a-bhdird, 'of the bard' or 'rhymer/ 

The r in form 1279 must be an error. 
MOONZIE (Cupar). c. 1230, Mooney, and so now pron. ; it 

seems to be the old Monechata (cf. MONIKIE). But perh. 

G. muin flwidh, ' the deer's back ; ' muin is lit. the back 

of the neck. Cf. DRUM and MONZIE. 
MOORFOOT HILLS (Midlothian). a. 1150, Morthwait, 

-thuweit. Icel. mor Ipveit, ' moor-place.' Cf. MURRAY- 

THWAITE. 

MORANGIE (Tain). 1457, Morinchy; 1520, -inch. G. mbr 
innis or innse, 'big inch ' or 'links' or 'pasture.' It is 
now pron. Murinjy. Cf. 'Morinche,' found in 1550, 
near Killin. 

MORAY, c. 970, Pict. Chron., Morovia; Vlst. Ami., ann. 
1085, Muireb; a. 1200, Muref; Orkney. Sag., Maer- 
haefui ; c. 1295, Morref. Possibly G. mbr dbJi, 'big 
water/ referring to the river Spey. 

MORAY FRITH. In Orkney. Sag., c. 1225, Breidafjord. 
O.N. = ' broad frith.' 

MORDINGTON (Berwick). 1250, -tun. Perh. Martin's ton 
(see p. Ixxiv) ; cf. mord for G. mart, an ox, in Ardni- 
niord, Galloway. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 185 

MORE, Ben (Perth, Mull, Assynt, Lewis). G. beinn mbr, 
' big mountain.' 

MOREBATTLE (Kelso). 1116, Mcreboda ; 1170, Merebotle; 
1575, Morbottle; 1639, Marbotle. O.E. mere-botl, 'lake- 
house ' or ' dwelling.' Botl is cognate with the O.iN". 
bol so common in Sc. place-names. Of. NEWBATTLE, a 
similar corruption, and Harbottle, near Rothbury. The 
-boda in 1116 is an early form of booth, earlier than 
any in Dr Murray's dictionary; cf. O.Icel. biift, Dan. 
and Sw. bod, a booth, dwelling. 

MORHAM (Haddington). Sic 1250. O.E. mor-hdm, 'moor- 
house ' or 'village.' 

MORMOND (Fraserburgh). G. mbr monadli, ' big hill.' 
MORNINGSIDE (Edinburgh and Bathgate). 

MORTLACH (Dufftown). a. 1300, Morthilache; also Muir- 
thillauch; 1639, Murthlack. G. mdr Mack, 'big 
hillock.' Cf. MURTHLY. 

MORTON (Thornhill) and HALF MORTON (Canonbie). Prob. 
fr. O.E. and Icel. mor, a moor, + ton; see p. Ixxiv. 

MORVEN (N. Argyle). G. mbr Wieinn, ' big mountain ; ' so 
Morar, Arisaig, is 'big height,' G. ard. 

MORVERN (N. Argyle). 1343, Garwmorwarne (G. garbh, 
rough); 1475, Morvarne; a. 1500, Bk. Clanranald, 
Morbhairne. Prob. G. mbr earrann, ' great division ' or 
'province.' 

MOSSAT (Aberdeensh.). Prob. ' mossy-place,' fr. Dan. mos, 
O.E. meos, + -et. Cf. AIKET, thicket, &c. 

MOSSBANK (Lerwick), -END (Holytown), -GREEN (Crossgates). 

O.E. meos, Icel. mosi, Dan. mos, a moss or bog. 
MOSSFENNAN (Peebles), c. 1260, Mospennoc; 1296, Mes- 

pennon. Prob. hybrid; 'moss by the bheinnan,' G. 

for 'little mountain.' The p marks the name as 

Brythonic. Pennoc is a tautology ; W. pen and G. cnoc, 

both meaning 'hill.' 

MOSSPAUL (Ewes Water). Prob. also hybrid ; ' moss with 
the pool, hole, or bog ; ' G. poll, puill. 

MOSSPEEBLE BURN (Ewes Water). Prob. ' moss ' or ' bog by 
the tents ; ' W. pebyll. Cf. above, and PEEBLES. 



186 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

MOTHERWELL (Hamilton). 1362, Modyrwaile ; 1373, Moder- 
vale. Prob. G. tnathair-bhaile, 'mother's house' or 
'village,' influenced by O.E. modor, Dan. and Sw.moder, 
Icel. mothir, mother ; and cf. BOTHWELL, close by. The 
Mother- is prob. the Virgin Mary (cf. LADYWELL and 
MARYWELL) ; but the O.E. well, wella, a well, would not 
give us -waile or -vale. 

MOULIN (Pitlochry). G. muileann, muilinn, a mill. Cf. 
O.E. mylen, a mill, and the name Milne. 

MOUND, The (Dornoch). This modern mound or breakwater 
at the head of Loch Fleet must not be confounded with 
The Mountli (i.e., the Grampians), G. monadh, a hill, 
so frequently mentioned in early Scottish history. 

MOUNT FLORIDA and MOUNT VERNON (Glasgow). Recent. 
Mount Vernon is mentioned in the Glasgow Director} 7 , 
1787. 

MOUNTHOOLY (Aberdeen). Perh. G. monadh clihile, 'hill 
with the corner ' or ' nook ' (cuil) ; cf. Knockhooly or 
-hillie, Colvend. But Tomnahulla, Galway, is the Ir. 
and G. tuam na h'ulaidh, 'mound of the altar tomb,' or, 
in Scottish G., rather 'grave with the treasure;' and 
-liooly may be fr. this. 

Mous A (Shetland). Sctf/as, Mosey. ' Moss-isle ;' Icel. mosi, 
Dan. and Sw. mos, + ay, ey, island (cf. ' Nethirmous- 
land,' c. 1500, near Stromness). Not likely to be fr. 
Icel. mus, a mouse. 

MOUSWALD (Euthwell). c. 1340, Musfold. Prob. O.E. 

meos-fald or Dan. mos-fold, ' moss-grown enclosure/ 

Cf. FAULDHOUSE. 
MOY (S. of Inverness, and near L. Laggan). Inv. M., 1497, 

Moye ; in G. Mhaigh, i.e., magli, maigli, a plain. Cf. 

MOCHRUM. 
MOYNESS (Forres). 1238, Moythus; c. 1285, Motheys; 

1295, Moythes. ? G. maoth eas, ' soft, gentle water-fall.' 

MUASDALE (Argyle). Prob. Dan. muus-dal, 'valley of the 
field-mice ; ' cf. O.E. and Icel. mus, a mouse. 

MUCHALLS (Aberdeen). (Castle Fraser, Monimusk, used to 
be called Muchals or Muchil ; in 1268, Mukual). Prob, 
G. muc-al, ' boar's (or pig's) cliff,' with Eng. plural s. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 187 

The old name of the district east of St Andrews, where 
' Boarhills ' now is, used to be * Muicros ' or ' Muckross ' 
(as at Killarney), i.e., 'boar's promontory.' 

MUCK (Hebrides). G. muc, a whale, generally called muc- 
mliara, lit. 'sea-pig.' 

MUCKAIRN (Taynuilt). 1527, Mocarne. Perh. G. mar/h 
cairn, ' plain, field of the cairn ; ' as likely muc-earrann, 
'swine's portion' or 'lot.' Cf. MORVERN. 

MUCKHART (Dollar). 1250, Mukard. G. muc-ard, 'boar's' 
or ' sow's height.' Cf. AUCHTERMUCHTY and DOCHART. 

MUGDOCH (Dumbarton). 750, Irish chron., Magedaue. 
Prob. G. mag-a-dabhaich, 'field of ploughed land.' 
Cf. DOCHART. 

MUGDRUM, I. (Newburgh). Island like ' a sow's back ; ' G. 
muic druim. 

MUGSTOT (Skye). ' Monk's place ;' Icel. muJc-r, for munk-r, 
a monk, + X. stad-r ( = Ger. stadt), = the G. Baile mhan- 
aich, Uist. 

MUICHDHUI, Ben (Braemar). G. beinn mulch duiblie, ' moun- 
tain of the black boar ' (muc). 

MUIRAVON and -AVONSIDE (Polmont). 'Moor of the river 
AVON ;' O.E. and Icel. mor, Dan. moer, a moor, swamp. 

MUIRDRUM (Carnoustie). ' Hill-ridge on the moor ' (see 
DRUM). Moor (see above) is almost a G. word. 

MUIRKIRK (Ayrsh., see above), Mum of ORD (Beauly, see 
ORD), MUIRTOWN (Inverness). 

MUIRNEAG (Lewis). G. diminutive of muirn, cheerfulness, 
joy. Name of a beautiful hill ; the only one near here, 
which the fishers can see far out at sea. 

MULBEN (Elgin). G. maol beinn, 'bare hill.' 

MULL. c. 120, Ptolemy, Maleas; a. 700, Adamnan, l ~NLslea, 
insula;' Sagas, Myl ; Act. Sanct., Mula ; 1542, Mowill. 
These forms well illustrate the varying sound of the 
G. diphthong ao (cf. KYLE SKOW) ; G. maol, bald, bare. 

MULL OP DEERNESS, or MOULHEAD (Orkney). Sagas, Miili. 
MULL OP GALLOWAY; 1375, Barbour, Muller Snook; 
&c. G. maol, 'brow of a rock, a cape;' prob. cognate 
with maol, bare. 



188 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

MUMRILLS (Falkirk). Possibly G. mam righle, ( round hill of 
the reel ' or ' dance ; ' with Eng. plural. 

MUNCHES (Dumfries). 1527, -cheiss. G. moine cheis, 
'moss, bog of the furrow' or 'of the swine.' 

MUNGALL MILL (Falkirk). Prob. G. moine calla, ( bog, moss 
of loss, disaster/ or perh. fr. gall, gaill, a stranger. 
There was once a large bog here. 

MUNLOCHY (Fortrose). 1605, Mullochie. Either G. maol 
lochan, 'bare little loch' or 'bay,' or moine lochain, 
' moss, bog by the little loch.' 

MURKLE (Caithness). Old, Myrkhol. Icel. myrk-r hoi, ' dark, 
dusky hole ; ' cf. ' mirk ' and ' murky.' 

MURLAGAN (R. Spean). G. mur lagain, ' the house ' or ' wall 
of the little hollow ' (lag). 

MURRAYFIELD (Edinburgh) and MURRAYTHWAITE (Eccle- 
fechan). Eccl. M., a. 1300, Moryquhat. Both mean the 
same, thicaite being the Icel. ]>veit, = ' place.' Common 
south of Carlisle Braithwaite, Crosthwaite, &c. The 
surname Murray comes from MORAY. 

MURROES (Dundee), c. 1205, Muraus; 1250, Moreus. ? G. 
mbr iiisg, ' big water.' 

MURTHILL (Tannadice). 1 360, Murethlyn ; c. 1 390, Morthyll. 
G. mbr tulaclian or tulach, ' big hillock,' cf. next. But 
the ending has plainly been conformed to the Eng. hill. 

MURTHLY (Dunkeld). G. mbr tulach, 'big mound' or 'hill/ 

= MORTLACH. 

MURTLE (Cults). Prob. G. mbr tuil, 'big stream' or 'flood/ 
re the river Dee. Cf. DUTHIL. 

MUSSELBURGH (Portobello). 1250, Muskilburk. From Fr. 

muscle, meaning, as here, 'a mussel;' also 'muscle.' On 

burgh, see p. Ixxiii. 
MUTHILL (Crieff). 1199, Mothel. O.E. mot-kill, 'hill of 

the meeting' (cf. 'the Mute Hill,' Scone; 'a moot 

point;' and Witenagemot). 

MUTTONHOLE (Edinburgh). Humorous name, found as early as 
a map of 1680. Now usually called Davidson's Mains. 

MYLNEFIELD (Dundee). The name Mylne is fr. G. muileann, 
a mill. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 189 

MYRESIDE (Edinburgh). Icel. mijri, myrr, bog, swamp, the 
Eng. mire. Of. BOGSIDE and WHITEMIRE. 



NACKERTY (Bothwell). Prob. G. cnac-dirde, 'height of the 
fissure ' or ' crack ' (cnac}. 

NAIRN (river and town), c. 1200, Hoveden, Ilvernarran (i.e., 
Invern-) ; 1 283, Inernarn ; 1583, Name. Thought to be 
one of the very few cases of names where initial n repre- 
sents the article; so perh. G. an am, ' the loin' or ' flank;' 
or an earrann, 'the division, province,' cf. MORVERN. 

NAVER, E. (Sutherland). Prob. Ptolemy's (c. 120) Nabaros ; 
1268, Strathnauir; 1401, -navyr; 1427, -nawarne. 
Prob. G. naomh drd, ' holy height.' Cf. Elachnave or 
eilean na naomh, an islet off Mull, = ' isle of saints.' 
But Navar, Brechin, old, Netheuer, is said to be Celtic 
neth var, 'whirling streams,' which is doubtful. 

NAVIDALE (Helmsdale). Perh. Dan. nav-dal, 'valley like 

the nave of a wheel.' 
NAVITY (Cromarty). 1578, Navite.^ G. naomh dite, 'holy 

place' or 'spot.' 
NEANT, R. (L. Etive). Looks like W. nant, a stream, or a 

ravine ; but this is a very un-Brythonic region ; ? G. 

neanntag, nettles. 
NEIDPATH CASTLE (Peebles). Either fr. Dan. nod, 'neat- 

cattle,' or W. nyddu, to twist, turn, referring to the 

river Tweed. Path is the O.E. paeth. 

NEILSTON (Barrhead). c. 1160,Neilstoun; c. 1220, Neleston. 
The O'Neils were a royal race in Ireland. 

NELL, Loch (Oban). G. loch-nan-eala, 'loch of the swan.' 

NENTHORN (Kelso). 1204, Naythansthorn. ? Who was 

Nathan. 
NESS, K. and L. (Inverness, and in Lewis), a. 700, Adamnan, 

river and loch, Nisa, Nesa; a. 1300, Nis. Can it be 

G. nios, from below, up? Lewis N. is Icel., N., and 

O.E. noes, cape, lit. nose. 
NESTING BAY (Shetland). Icel. nes ]>ing, ' ness ' or ' cape of 

the thing or meeting.' 



190 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

NETHERBURN (Lanarksh.), NETHERCLEUGH (Lockerbie, see 
BUCCLEUCH), NETHER DALLACHY (Fochabers), NETHER- 
LEY (Muchalls, Ice, a meadow), NETHERTON (Bearsden), 
NETHERURD (see KIRKURD). 

NETHY, R. and Bridge (Grantown). See ABERNETHY. 

IS T EVIS, Ben aad R. (Fort William). Sic 1532 ; 1552, Nevess. 
Pron. Neevush. Prob. G. nimli uisy, 'biting cold 
water ; ' nimh is properly a noun. 

NEW ABBEY (Kirkcudbright). 1301, La ISTovelle Abbey. 
Abbey of Sweetheart (Douce Coeur), founded here by 
Lady Devorgilla in 1275. 

NEWARK (Port Glasgow). (Of. ' Newark one Spey,' 1492.) 
= ' New work,' i.e., ' new castle.' There was a castle here. 
Work, Sc. wark, does not occur in this sense in O.E. ; 
but cf. ' outwork ' and ' bulwark,' Old Germ, bolwerk, 
Dan. bulvcerk. 

NEWARTHILL (Motherwell). Prob. tautology, G. nuadh ard 
'new hill.' 

NEWBATTLE (Dalkeith). 1141, Niwebothla; c, 1145, New- 
botill; 1222, Neubotle; a. 1500, Nowbatile ; 1825, 
Newbottle. O.E. neowe botl, 'new dwelling.' Of. 
MOREBATTLE, and Newbottle, Durham. 

NEWBIGGING (Oxnam, Carnwath, Monifieth, S. Ronaldshay). 
Oxn. N., 1153, -bigginghe. A 'bigging' is a building, 
Dr Murray's earliest quotation being c. 1250 fr. ' Genesis 
and Exodus ; ' cf. Dan. bygge, to build, bygninff, a build- 
ing. Four Newbiggins in England. 

NEWBRIDGE (Dumfries), NEWCASTLETON (Roxburgh), NEW- 
HILLS (Aberdeen), NEWHOUSE (Airdrie), NEWLANDS 
(Peebles and Gran gem outh), NEWMAINS (Holy town, see 
MAINS), NEWMILL (Keith), NEWMILNS (Kilmarnock, cf. 
MILNHOLME), NEWPORT 1 (Dundee; nine in England). 

NEWBURGH (Fife, Aberdeen). Fife N., prob. a. 1130, Sim. 
Durham, re ann. 756, Niwanbyrig ; 1309, Noviburgum ; 
it is not, then, a very new burgh ! Burgli see p. Ixxiii. 

NEWBURN (Largo). 1250, Nithbren, i.e., 'new burn' or 
'stream.' See Nrra and BURN OF CAMBUS. Also in 
Northumberland . 
1 This may or may not be the ' Newporth,' temp. William "Lion, in 

Melrose Chartulary, i. 33. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 191 

NEWHAVEN (Leith), 1510, Edinburgh Charter, * The new 
haven lately made by the said king,' James IV. 

NEWSEAT (Pefcerhead). Of. MILLSEAT, in same district. 

NEWSTEAD (Melrose). Stead is O.E. stede, Dan. sted, a 
place ; cf. ' farm-steading.' Also in Notts. Near by is 
Eed Abbey Stead. 

NEWTON (Glasgow, Dysart, &c. ; thirty-four in England), 
NEWTON FERRY (Lochmaddy), NEWTON GRANGE (Dal- 
keith, see ABBOTSGRANGE), NEWTONHEAD (Ayr), NEWTON- 
HILL (Stonehaven), NEWTON MEARNS (Glasgow), NEW- 
TON-ON-AYR, NEWTON or KiRKNEWTON(Midcalder; 1250, 
Neutun), NEWTON OF EERINTOSH (Ross-shire), NEWTON 
STEWART (modern). 

NEWTOWN (Kirkcaldy, Dumbarton), NEWTOWN ST BOSWELL'S 
(Roxburgh). Twenty Newtowns in England. 

NEWTYLE (Coupar Angus). 1199, Neutile; 1250, -tyl. G. 
nuadh tulacJi, ' new hill.' 

NIDDRIE (Musselburgh, Winchburgh). 1572, Nidderie 
Prob. G. nuadh (or W. newydd) diridJi, ' new shealing 
or summer shepherd's hut. Cf. BLINGERY. 

NIGG (Aberdeen, Invergordon). Abdn. N., 1250, Nig 
Ross N., 1296, Nig. Prof. M'Kinnon's derivation, G 
an uig, 'the bay, 5 is only possible. Perh. G. and Ir. nine, 
a nook or corner. 

NINIAN'S, St (Stirling, &c.). Stirl. N., 1301, Seint Rineyan. 
There are twenty-five chapels in Scotland dedicated to 
St Ninian, or Ringan, of Whithorn, c. 390, first 
missionary in Scotland. 

NISBET (Jedburgh, Biggar). Jed. N., 1298, Nesebit. ? ' Ness- 
bit,' i.e., prominent, projecting site ; O.E. and Dan. 
noes, Icel. nes, a ness, cognate with nose, O.E. ndsu, 
Icel. no's, Dan. ncese, and O.E. bita, O.N. biti, Sw. bit, a 
bit, mouthful. Bit is used in Sc. for a piece of ground ; 
see, e.g., Scott, Waverley, iii. 237. 

NITH, R. (Dumfries). Sic 1327; c. 120, Ptolemy, Novios ; 
and found in iWd-uari (Bede), tribe of Picts who 
inhabited Galloway. Prob. same root as W. newydd, 
L. novus, new. Cf. NEWBURN. 



192 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

NITHSDALE. a. 1350, Stranith, Stranid, i.e., the strath of 

the Nith.' 
NITSHILL (Paisley). ?' Nuts' hill;' O.E. hnut, Icel. Jtnot, 

Dan. nod, a nut. 
NOBLEHOUSE (Peebles). 

NOE GLEN (Ben Cruachan). Prob. G. nodha, new. 
NORMAN'S LAW (Cupar). Law is O.E. hldew, a hill. 
NORRIESTON (Stirling). Norrie is a common Sc. surname. 

Cf. Nome's Law, Largo. 
NORTH WATER BRIDGE (Laurencekirk). 
NORTON (Edinburgh), c. 1380, Nortoun. O.E. north, Sw. 

and Dan. nord, north or nor'. Fifty-seven in England. 
Noss OF BRESSAY (Shetland). Sagas, and 1539, Nos. Icel. 

nos, a nose, akin to ness. 
NOVAR (Dingwall). Perh. G. nodha bharr, ' the new hill ' 

or 'height.' Cf. NEWTYLE. 
NUNTON (Lochmaddy). Cf. MONKTON and MUGSTOT. 

o 

OA, Mull of (Islay). In G. maol-na-Ho. Hardly fr. G. 

ubh (pron. oo), an egg. Perh. Norse. 
OAKBANK (Midcalder). 

OAKLEY (Dunfermline). ' Oak meadow.' Three in England. 
OATHLAW (Brechin). 1635, Ouathlaw. G. abh atli, 'stream 

with the ford,' cf. AWE, old Ow ; and see LAW. 
OATLANDS (Glasgow). Also near Weybridge. 
OBAN. G. = ' little bay.' 
OBBE (Portree). G. ob, oba, a bay. 

OCCUMSTER (Lybster). 1 ' Occam's place.' On -ster, see p. Ixv. 
OCHIL HILLS (Alloa). The Geographer of Ravenna has ' Cin- 

docellun,' = ceann ocliil (cf. KINALUIE), so Skene ; c. 

850, Bk. Lecan, Sliab(le., hill) Nochel; 1461, Oychellis. 

W. uchel, high. Cf. AUCHELCHANZIE and OGLE. 
OCHILTREE (Auchinleck and Galloway). Auch. 0., a. 1200, 

Okeltre; 1537-72, Ychiltre, Gall. 0., old, Uchiltry. 

W. uchel tre, 'high house.' 
OCHTER- or AUCHTERTYRE (Crieff). G. uacJidar tir (W. 

uchder tir), ' high land.' Cf. AUCHTERARDER. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 193 

OCTAVULLIN (Islay). G. oclidamh-a-mlmiUnn, 'the eighth 
(cf. L. octauus) belonging to the mill. 5 On land 
measurement, see p. Ivii. 

ODAIRN, L. (Lewis). 1 G. odha-earrann, ' the grandchild's, 
division ' or ' share.' Cf. MORVERN. 

OGILVIE GLEN (Forfar). c. 1205, Ogilvin. First syll. prob. W. 
uchel, high, and the second, G. bheinn, a hill. Cf. OCHIL. 

OGLE GLEN (Killin). = OCHIL, and so Brythonic. 
OLD ABERDEEN. Eight places called Old in England. 

OLDHAMSTOCKS (Cockburnspath). 1250, Aldhamstok; 1567, 
Auldhamesokkes. O.E. aid ham stoc(c), 'old home 
stock ' or * stump ' or ' block ' (cf. Dan. stok, Icel. stokk-r, 
a block, cognate with stack and stick, and cf. the ' stocks ' 
on which a ship rests). The second syllable of Knock- 
stocks, Galloway, must have the same origin. 

OLD MAN OF HOY (Orkney). A striking high rock there. 

OLLABERRY (N. of Lerwick). Saga, Olafsberg, i.e., ( King 
Olaf s burgh' (see BORGUE, and cf. TURNBERRY). St Olaf 
or King Olaf the Holy was King of Norway, 1015-30. 

OLNAFIRTH (Shetland). FIRTH or ' bay like the forearm ; ' 
Icel. alin or din, Sw. aln, = the Eng. ell. Cf. Olney. 

OLRIG (Thurso). c, 1230, Olrich; 1587, -rik. Prob. 'alder- 
ridge;' O.K olr, an alder; possibly fr. X. ole, old. 
On rig, see BISHOPBRIGGS. 

OMOA (Holytown). Presumably called after the port of 
Omoa in Honduras. 

ONICH (Ballachulish). Said to be G. ochanaich, ' wailing 
for the dead,' because the boats started from here for the 
island burial-places. 

ONWEATHER HILL (Tweeddale). 

ORAN- or ORONSAY (Colonsay, W. Skye, Bracadale, L. 
Sunart, Coll, and Lewis). ' St Oran's isle ' (O.N. ay, 
ey, a) or 'isthmus' (G. aoi, see COLONSAY). Oran or 
Odhran was an Irish friend of St Columba, died 548. 

ORCHARD (Hamilton). 1368, 'Terrae de Pomario,' i.e.,. 
'lands of Orchard;' fr. O.E. ortgeard, wyrtgeard, 'wort- 
yard ' or ' garden.' 



194 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

ORD (Caithness) and Mum OF ORD (Beauly). G. ord, ' a steep, 
roundedheight.' Thus Ordhead,Tillyfourie,isatautology. 

ORDIQUHILL (Banff). Local pron. Ordifiill. G. brd-a-Wiuill, 
' height in the plot of ground ' (ball). Qu is = iv ; cf. 
LATHE RON WHEEL. 

ORKNEY. Strabo, bk. ii., fr. Pytheas, e. B.C. 330, 'Op/cas 
(prob. earliest Sc. name on record). 45 A.D., Pompo- 
nius Mela, Orcades ; c, 970, Pict. Chron., Orkaneya; c. 
1295, Orkenneye; 1375, Orkenay ; 1420, Orkney; also 
1115, * jarl i Orkneyium.' ' Whale isles ;' Gk. opvg, -vyo?, 
L. orca, N. ore, a whale. On G. ore = L. porcus, a pig, 
see p. xxvi. Ay, ey, a is O.N. for 'island.' 

'ORLOGE KNOWE (Wigtown). O.Fr. horloge, L. horoloyium, a 
sundial or water-clock. See KNOWE. 

ORMIDALE (L. Riddon). 'Orme's valley;' N". dal. 

ORMISTON (Tranent) and GLENORMISTON (R. Tweed). Tran. 0., 
sic 1293; c. 1160, Ormystone. 'Orme's dwelling' or 
'village;' O.E. ton, tun. Cf. Ormesby, Ormskirk, and 
Great Orme's Head. 

ORMSARY (Ardrishaig). 1 'Orme's shieling' or ' hut;' G. diridh. 
Cf. GLASSARY. 

ORPHIR (Kirkwall). c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Jorfiara; but 
other Sagas, Orfiara; c. 1500, Orphair. Orfiris -ey, or 
-a is the 1ST. name for an island joined at low water with 
the mainland. 

ORR or ORE WATER (Leven). Perh. Ptolemy's town, Orrea. 
G. odhar (pron. owr), grey, or oir, a corner, edge. 

ORTON (Fochabers). 'At the border' or 'edge of the hill ;' 
G. oir duin. See ton, p. Ixxv. 

ORWELL (Kinross). 1330, Urwell. Perh. ' village (G. b(h)ail) 
by the water.' See URR, and cf. FARNELL. 

OSPISDALE (Dornoch). Prob. 1384, Hospostyl; 1583, 
Obstuill. Prob. ' valley (N. dal) of the hospice ' or ' inn ;' 
Fr. hospice, L. liospitium. Cf. DALNASPIDAL. 

OSTAIG (Sleat). O.K = ' east bay ; ' cf. Icel. aust, O.E. east, 
the east. 

OTTER FERRY (L. Fyne). Cf. Otterburn. 

OTTERSTON (Aberdour, Fife). Old, Otherston. Other was 
a Saxon settler. See ton, p. Ixx. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 195 

OUTON. * Out-ton ' or ' hamlet,' outside the town of Whithorn. 

OVERTON, -TOWN (Dumbarton, Wishaw, New Abbey), 
' Upper village. 7 Six in England. 

OXGANG (Grangemouth and Kirkintillocli). Prob. named 
fr. a grant of land to a church or abbey of as much 
land as an ox could plough or ' gang ' over in a day. 
Sc. gang is 'to go.' 

OXNAM (Jedburgh). c. 1150, Oxeneham; 1177, Oxeham ; 
c. 1360, Oxinghame. 'Home of the oxen;' O.E. 
oxena-lidm. = Oxenholme, near Kendal. 

OXTOX (Lauder). O.E. oxa, Icel. oxi, Dan. and Sw. oxe, 
an ox ; cf. above. Three in England. 

OYKELL, E. (Sutherland). 1365, Okel; 1490, Ochell; 1515, 
Akkell. Though this is a very un-Brythonic region, 
perh. = OCHIL, fr. W. uchel, high. This is the Ekkials- 
bakki or 'coast' or 'border of the river Oykell,' in the 
Flateyjarbok, c. 1390; but Dr Jos. Anderson thinks 
Ekkialsbakki in Orkney. Sag., Ixviii., is for Atjokls- 
bakki, i.e., ' coast nearest ATHOLE.' 

OYNB (Insch). a. 1300, Ovyn. Prob. a form of G. abhuinn, 
a river. Cf. ABOYNE. 



PABAY (off Barra). O.N. pap-ay, ' priest's isle,' = PAPA. 
P and b often interchange, see p. xxvi. 

PADANARAM (Forfar). Fancy name, meaning Padan in 
Syria. See Genesis, xlviii. 7. 

PAISLEY. 1157, Passeleth ; 1158, Paisleth ; c. 1550, Passele. 
Prob. ' at the front of the slope,' which suits the site of 
the old town, fr. G. balhais (th mute, and with the 
Brythonic p for b), brow, front, and leathad, a slope, 
declivity. Cf. Howpasley, Eoberton, Eoxburgh. 

PALDY'S WELL (Fordoun). Fr. Palladius, missionary from 
Rome, said to have been here c. 430 A. D. 

PALINKUM (Kirkmaiden). Prob. Brythonic, poll lijnn cam, 
' stream with crooked pools.' 

PALNACKIE (Dalbeattie). Prob. G. poll an acliaidli, ' stream 
in the field.' 



196 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

PALNTJRE (Newton Stewart). Old, Polnewyir. G. and Ir. 
pott n'iubhar, 'stream of the yews.' Cf. Newry. 

PANBRIDB (Arbroath). c. 1200, Pannebrid; 1485, Panbrid. 
Ban or pan is a G. prefix = ' female,' ' she-.' Bride is St 
Bridget ; see KILBRIDE. 

PANMURE (Forfar). 1286, Pannemore. Prob. G. Ian, lame, 
white, light in colour, waste, + O.E. and Icel. mur, Se. 
muir, a moor, almost a G. word. 

PAPA, LITTLE, and STOUR (Shetland), PAPA STRONSAY and 
WESTRAY (Orkney). Saga, Papeylitla; 1229, Papey 
stora ; c. 1 225, Orkney. Say., Papey ( = P. West ray). O.K 
pap-ey is ' priest's isle,' strictly that of a monk from lona. 1 
Pap is same root as pope and papa. Litill, litla is O.N. 
or Icel. for 'little ;' star (pron. stour), stora is O.K for 
* great ; ' WESTRAY means ' western isle ; ' and cf. 
STRONSAY. 

PAPILL (Unst and Yell) and PAPLAY (Mainland and S. 
Konaldshay, Orkney). Papl., c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., 
Papuley, Papuli; 1369, Pappley; 1506, Pappale. 
'Island of the papulus,' i.e., little 'pope' or priest. 
Cf. above, and the Papyli of Iceland. 

PAPS OF JURA. Hills so called fr. their shape. 

PARDOVAN (Linlithgow). Pron. -diivan ; a. 1150, Pardufin. 
G. barr dubliain, ' height like a hook or claw.' 

PARENWELL (Kinross). Well of the saint called in W. 
Piran, and in Corn. Peran ; but in Ir. Kieran, of Cloii- 
macnois, 6th century. Cf. KILKERRAN, and Peranwell 
and Peranzabuloe ( = in sabulis), Cornwall. 

PARK (Banchory, Old Luce, Lewis, &c.). G. pairc, W. 
parwg, O.E. pearruc, an enclosed field, park. 

PARKFOOT (Falkirk, &c.), PARKGATE (Dumfries ; three in 
England), PARK HEAD (Glasgow), PARKHILL (E. Eoss 
and Dyce). 

PARTICK (Glasgow). 1136, Perdyec ; 1158, Pertheck ; 1483, 
Perthic. A difficult name ; perh. G. barr dliu uige, 

1 Cf. 'Sanctus Patricius, papa noster,' in letter of Cummian, 634 

A.D. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 197 

' height of the dark nook ' or ' cave/ but this does not 
seem very apposite. Possibly aper dim ec, Celtic for 
* at the confluence ' or ' mouth of the dark water ' (see 
PERTH, ECK, ECKFORD) ; Kelvin and Clyde join here. 
Cf. p. xxix. 

PARTON (Castle-Douglas). G. portan, ( little port ' or ' harbour. ' 
Cf. Parton, Whitehaven ; and Parteen, several in Ire- 
land. 

PATHSTRUIE (Forgandenny). 1 G. both sruthain, ' house on 
the little stream ' (cf. BATHGATE and STRUAN). Possibly 
fr. G. poit, and so ' cauldron, pool on the little stream.' 

PATNA (R. Doon). Presumably after Patna on the Ganges. 

PAXTON (Berwick). ? * Place ' or ' village of the packs ;' Dan. 
pak, pakke, G. and Ir. pac, a pack or bundle. 

PEAT INN (Ceres) and PEAT HASS (Carsphairn). Our Eng. 
word peat is not, as some dictionaries say, the same as 
the Eng., especially Devonshire, beat, ' the rough sod of 
the moorland.' Hass means ' gap, opening,' prob. same 
as M.E. halse, Icel. and Dan. hdls, the neck ; and as 
liaicse, the hole in a ship's bow. 

PEEBLES. 1116, Pobles; 1126, Pebles. W. pabett, plural 
pebyll, a tent. The s is the Eng. plural. 

PEFFER, R. (E. Ross-sh.), and PEFFER BURN (Duddingston). 
Ross. P., 1528, Paferay. Dr Skene says, corruption of 
G. aifrenn, * offerer.' See INCHAFFRAY. 

PENCAITLAND (Haddington). a. 1150, Pencatlet ; 1250, -kat- 
land. 'Land of the hill (W. pen) of Cat' or 'CM' 
See INCHKEITH, KEITH. 

PENDRICH (Tweeddale and Perthsh.). 'Hill of the view' 
(W. drych, a spectacle), or perh. ' of the meteor ' (G. 
dreag, dreige). Pen is the W. or Brythonic form of 
the G. beinn. Cf. PITTENDRIECH. 

PENICUIK (Midlothian). 1250, Penicok; 1296, -ycoke. W. 

pen-y-cog, ' hill of the cuckoo.' 
PENNAN (Fraserburgh). ^1654. Prob. = G. beinnan, 'a 

little hill ' (cf. BINNY). The only Pen- north of Perth. 

PENNILEE (Paisley). Quite possibly ' penny-lea ' or ' meadow ; ' 
on the old land measures, see p. Ivii. If Celtic, perh. 
pen na lithe, ' hill of the spate.' 

T 



198 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

PENNINGHAME (Newton Stewart). 1576, Pennegem. O.E. 
peneg ham, 'penny holding' or 'land;' O.E. also has 
the form penning. The penny was a frequent land 
measure in the west of Scotland; cf., too, Merkland, 
Dunscore, and Poundland in Parton ; also Pennington, 
Ulverston. In the south-west of Scotland are also 
Pennymuir and Pennytown. 

PENNYGANT (Tweeddale). Prob. W. pen y gan, ' hill of the 
thrush ;' also in Yorkshire. Cf. PENICUIK. 

PENNYGHAEL (Argyle) and PENNYGOWN (Mull). Here penny 
is the diminutive of W. pen, or G. betnnan, ' little hill ' 
'of the Gael,' and 'of the smith;' G. gobhann. Cf. 
PENNAN and BINNY; also 'Pennyfurt' (sic 1596), in Lorn. 

PENPONT (Thornhill). Pron. -punt ; "W. pen y pont, ' hill of 
the bridge,' L. pons, -Us. Cf. ' Kinpunt,' Koxburgh, sic 
in 1316. 

PENTLAND FIRTH and PENTLAND HILLS. P. Hills, sic 1250; 
but a. 1150, Pentlant; Sagas, Petlands fjord (they 
tell that the Norsemen learnt this name from the natives); 
1403, Mare Petlandicum. Generally thought to be a 
corruption of ' Picts' or Pehts' land.' Land is so spelt 
in IceL, Dan., and O.E. 

PENVENNA (Tweeddale). ? W. pen banau or ban, ' hill with 

the peak ' or * beacon.' 
PERCEBIE (Dumfries), PERCETON (Ayr). ' Percy's dwelling ' 

or 'village;' northern O.E. and Dan. bi, l>y. Cf. 

p. Ixiii. 

PERCLEWAN (Dalrymple). Prob. G. pairc leamhan, 'park 
with the elms.' Of. BLALOWAN. 

PERSIE (Blairgowrie). G. pearsa, a person, ' a parson.' The 
-ie may represent G. achadh, a field (cf. Persebus, Mull, 
' priest's place ' or ' farm '). On bus, see p. Ixiv. 

PERTH. Sic a. 1150; c. 1178, Pert; 1220, 'St Johnstoun 
or Perth;' 1527, Boece, Bertha, which shows Boece 
thought the name was the G. barr Tha, ' height over 
the Tay,' i.e., Kinnoull Hill. Possibly it means 'at the 
confluence of the TAY, with the Almond or Earn.' Aber 
could easily become per. See p. xxix, and cf. 'Ber- 
geveny ' (sic 1291) for Abergaveny, and PARTICK. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 199 

PETERCULTER. Perh. corruption of pette cul tire, ' plot at the 
back of the land.' See PETTY and COULTER; but cf. 
MARYCULTER. 

PETERHEAD. Old charter, Petri promontorium ; 1654, R. 
Gordon, ' Oppidulum Peter-head.' 

PETTICUR (Kinghorn). Old G. pette cuir, ' bit of land at the 
bend ' or ' turn ' (car). See PETTY. 

PETTINAIN (Carstairs). c. 1150, Pedynnane ; c. 1180, 
Padinnan, -uenane ; c. 1580, Pettynane. Prob. G. pette 
n'en, ' bit of land with the birds,' en (pron. ain), a bird. 

PETTY (Fort George). Cf. a. 1000, Bk. Deer, ' Pette mac 
Garnait,' i.e., homestead of Garnait's son. Pette, also 
found in names as Pedy, pett, peth, pith, put, is Pictish, 
meaning 'bit of land,' then 'hamlet;' in G., i.e., the 
dialect of the Dalriad Scots, which afterwards became 
the universal speech, often rendered by baile. Cf. 

PlTLOCHRY, &C. 

PHILIPSTOUN (Linlithgow). Sic 1720. 

PHILORTH (Buchan). Sic 1361 ; but a. 1300, Fylorthe. 

Perh. G. faille ghort, ' market-field,' gh quiescent. G. 

feill is a feast, fair, market, holiday. 
PHYSGILL (Glasserton). Old, Fishcegil. Dan. fislc gil, ' fish 

gill;' cf. O.E. jisc, and AUCHINGILL. 
PIEROWAAL or -WALL (Westray). Hardly ' the pier on the 

bay ; ' O.F. piere, Mod. Fr. pierre, L. and Gk. petra, a 

stone. On O.K vag-r, a bay, here wall, see KIRKWALL. 

Perh. 'Peter's bay;' but prob. 'little bay,' Sc. peerie, 

little, a word common in the Orkneys ; cf. ' The Peerie 

Sea,' Kirkwall. 
PILRIG (Leith) and PILTON (Granton). W. pill, a moated 

fort, a ' peel ; ' cf. Pilmore, St Andrews ; and see EIGG. 
PINKIE, or -KEY (Musselburgh). Perh. cognate with Old Sc. 

link, binkie, a ' bank ' of earth. 
PINMORE (S. Ayr). Brythonic form of G.beinn mor, 'big 

hill.' The most northerly Pin- is Pinvally ( = beinn 

bhaile), near Cumnock. 
PINWHERRIE, -IRRIE (S. Ayr). Prob. 'hill of the copse;' 

G. fhoithre (pron. whirry), and see above. 
PIRN MILL (W. Arran). Pirn is Sc. for a reel or bobbin. 

Cf. Pirnhill, Innerleithen. 



200 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

PITALPIN (Dundee). 'Land of King Kenneth MacAlpin,* 

c. 850. See PETTY. 
PITCAIEN and PITCAIRNGREEN (Perth). 1247, Peticarne. 

Old G. pette cairn, ' field of the cairn ' or ' barrow.' 
PITCAPLE (Aberdeen). 'Field of the mare' (G. capuill ; 

cf. KINCAPLE), or ' of the chapel ' (G. ca-ibeil). 
PITCORTHY (Carnbee). a. 1150, Petcorthyn; c. 1195, Peth- 

corthing, Pitcortyne. Prob. ' field of the stingy fellow, 

miser ; ' G. gortan, -ain. 
PITCULLO (Fife). Sic 1517. Prob. 'field of Cullo;' the 

surname Kello is still found. Cf. Edenticullo, Ireland, 

= 'slope of the house of Collo ;' Ir. Ugh Oolla. 
PITFODDLES (Forfar). 1525, Petfothellis. 'Field of the 

foundling or waif ; ' G. faodail, with Eng. plural s. 
PITFOUR (Avoch). c. 1340, Pethfouyr. 'Cold field' or 

'hamlet.' G. fuar, cold; = BALFOUR. 
PITGAVENY (Elgin). Some think = a. 1100, Bothnguanan; 

1187, -gouane ; 1251, Bothgauenan, i.e., G. loth na 

gobhainn, ' house of the smith ; ' but there seems no 

other case of pit (cf. PETTY) being rendered by G. both. 

Dr M'Lauchlan says, Bothnguanan is Boath, near Forres, 

and that the final syllables of a name often drop ; cf. 

INVER. In any case the meaning is almost the same. 
PITILIE (Aberfeldy). Pron. -eelie ; G. pit-a-dhile, 'hollow 

of the water.' Cf. Cnocadile, Duncansbay. 
PITKEATHLY, -CAiTHLY (Bridge of Earn). Prob. ' field of the 

seeds ' or ' chaff ; ' G. cdithUch. 
PITKELLONY (Muthill). ?' Field of the multitude;' G. 

coilinne, fr. coimh-lion, or ' of the truant, poltroon,' G. 

coilleannich. 
PITLESSIE (Ladybank). ' Bit of land with the garden ; ' G. 

lios, -ise. 
PITLOCHRY. In G. Bailechlochrie, ch quiescent; either 

'hamlet,' 'field of the assembly ' or 'convent' (G. 

chlochar, -air), or 'of the stepping-stones' (G. dochran, 

-ain). 
PITLOUR (Kinross). ' Village of the lepers ; ' G. lobliar. 

Of., c. 1190, ' Petenlouer,' in Aberdeen. 
PITLURG. ' Field on the slope' or 'little hill;' G. learg, -eirg. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 201 

PITMEDDEN (Dyce). ' Middle, centre bit of land ; ' G. 
meadhon, the middle. 

PITMILLY (Grail). 1211, Putmullin. ' Land, hamlet of the 
mill ; ' G. muileann, -inn. 

PITRODIE (Errol). ' Land, hamlet by the wayside, or road ;' 
G. rod, raid. 

PITSCOTTIE (Cupar). ' Land ef the small farm ' or * flock ; ' 
G. sgotan, ~ain. 

PITSLIGO (Fraserburgh). Sic 1467. 'Shelly land;' G. and 
Ir. sligeacli. Of. Sligo. 

PITTEDIE (Kirkcaldy). 'Bit of land on the slope ' or ' hill- 
face ; ' G. aodann, -ainn, W. eiddyn. But Killeedy, 
Limerick, is fr. lie. or Ide, famous Irish virgin and 
saint, c. 500 A.D. 

PITTENDREICH (Denino). Of. a * Petyndreih,' 1140, in 
Chart. Newbattle. Perh. Old G. pette na drioga, ' field 
of the drop ' or ' tear ' (but see PENDRICH). Mr W. J. 
Liddell says, ' land covered with heather ; ' G. fraoch, 
fraoich. 

PITTENWEEM (Anstruther). a. 1150, Petnaweem; 1528, 
Pittenwemyss. * Land, hamlet with the caves ; ' G. 
uamli. Of. WEMYSS. 

PLADDA (Arran). 1549, Flada; 1609, Pladow. D&n.flad-a, 
'flat isle' (cf. Icel. flat-r, and Sw. flat, flat; also cf. 
Fladda, Treshnish Isles, and Fladay, Barra). 

PLAID Y (Turriff). Perh. G. plaid, -de, an ambush ; also cf. 
DRUMBLADE. 

PLAINS (Airdrie). 

PLANTATION (Go van). In 1783, ' Craigiehall ' was purchased 
by a John Robertson, who had made his money in the 
West Indian plantations. 

PLASCOW (Kirkgunzeon). Prob. "VV. plas cu, 'dear place.' 
Cf. GLASGOW, LINLITHGOW. 

PLEAN (Bannockburn). 1745, Plen, and so pron. still. ? G. 
blian, 'the flank, groin, or as an adjective, 'lean, 
starved.' 

PLEWLANDS (Edinburgh and Peeblessh.). Edin. P., sic 1528. 



202 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

' Ploughed lands ; ' plough, Dan. ploug, is pron. in Sc. 
pleu, or pleugh, with gh guttural. 

PLOCKTON (Strome Ferry). G. ploc, a large clod or turf, a 
' block,' + Eng. -ton; but see p. Ixxv. 

PLORA (Peeblessh.). Prob. G. blorach, noisy, fr. blor, a loud 

noise. 
PLUCKERSTON (Kirriemuir). Old, Locarstoun, i.e., ( Lockhart's 

hamlet.' Cf. for the p, PEFFER. 

PLUSCARDEN (Elgin). 1461, Pluscarty; 1639, -cardy. Prob. 
* place of the smith(s) ; ' W. plas, not in G., and G. 
ceard, gen. ceirde, plural ceardan. 

POCKBIE (1 Berwicksh.). ?Fr. Sc. poke, Icel. pold, a bag, 
sack, + northern O.E. and Dan. bi, by, house, village. 

POLES, The (Dornoch). 

POLKEBUCK BURN (Muirkirk). G. poll cabaig, ' pool like a 
cheese,' Sc. kebbuck. Pool is in G., Jr., and Corn, poll, 
in W. pwll, Armor, poull, and these words may mean 
either running or stagnant water, either * stream ' or 
'pool.' 

POLKEMMET (Bathgate). See above. Kemmet is prob. G. 
cam ath, 'crooked ford ' or 'fordable river;' cf. KENNET. 
The river Almond meanders through this estate. 

POLLOKSHAWS and POLLOKSHIELDS (Glasgow). 1158, 
Pullock, Pollock, prob. = G. poll achaidh, ' pool in the 
field.' In Malcolm lY.'s reign, Peter, son of Fulbert, 
took the local surname of Police, and gave to Paisley 
Abbey the church of Polloc. See SHAW, and for 
-shields, i.e., ' shielings,' see GALASHIELS. 

POLMADIE (Glasgow) and POLMADIE HILL (Barr). ' Pool ' or 
' water of the wolf ' or ' dog ; ' G. madadh. Cf. Pul- 
maddy Burn, Carsphairn ; but Polmood, Peebles, is f r. 
Celtic mod, a gathering, court, fold. 

POLMAISE (Stirling). Sic 1309 ; but 1147, Pollemase. Perh. 

'beautiful water;' G. maiseacli. 
POLMONT (Falkirk). Local pron. P6wmon. 'Pool on the 

moor ; ' G. moine. 

POLNASKY BURN (Mochrum). 'Water of the eels;' G. 
n'easgann. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 203 

POLSHAG BURN (Carsphairn). Perh. ' water of the hawks ; ' 
G. seoWiac (pron. shock). 

POLTON (Lasswade). ' Hamlet on the water,' the river Esk. 
Cf. LINTON. 

POLWARTH (Duns). ] 250, Poulwrd ; 1299, Powelsworthe. 

' Place on the water ; ' on M.E. word, worth, a place, cf. 

JEDBURGH. 
POMATHORN (Penicuik). 

POMONA, or MAINLAND (Orkney), c. 1380, Fordun, Insulse 
Pomoniee ; 1529, Pomonia. Said to be fr. L. pomum, an 
apple, because ' Mainland ' is, as it were, in the middle of 
the apple, between the north and south isles. This is 
dubious. The L. Pomona was goddess of fruit-trees, 
and so not very appropriate for Orkney. 

PONFEIGH (Lanark). Prob. G. bonn fiaidh or fiaigli, 'low 
place with the deer' (cf. BONSKIED, &c.). But Ballyna- 
feigh and Eathfeigh are fr. Ir. faitche, G. faiche, a level 
green plot, a field. 

POOLEWE (L. Ewe). See POLKEBUCK and EWE. 

PORT BANNATYNE (Eothesay). 'Mnian Bannachtyne,' of 
Kames, granted lands here to his son Robert in 1475. 

PORT CHARLOTTE (Argyle), ELLEN (Islay), ELPHINSTONE 

(Inverurie), &c. 
PORTENCALZIE (Wigtown). Old, Portincailly. G. port na 

cailliclie, l nun's harbour.' 
PORTENCROSS or -NACROis (Ardrossan). G. = ' harbour of the 

cross ; ' G. crois. Cf. Portnacroish, Appin. 

PORTESSIE (Buckie). ' Harbour with the waterfall ; ' G. eas, 

easan. 
PORT-GLASGOW. Site feued here by the Glasgow Town 

Council in 1668. 
PORTINCAPLE (L. Long). ' Harbour of the chapel ; ' G. 

caibeal, and cf. PITCAPLE. 

PORTKNOCKIE (Cullen). ' Harbour by the little hill ; ' G. cnocan. 
PORTLETHEN (Kincardine). Prob. G. port leathan, 'broad 

harbour ; ' also cf. INNERLEITHEN. 

PORTMAHOMACK (Tain), a. 1700, Portus Columbi. G. port 
machalmac or Mocholmoy, ' harbour of my own little 



204 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Colman,' champion of the Celtic Church at the great 
Whitby Conference, 664. See p. xcv, and cf. Kilma- 
chalmag, Kincardine. The 1700 assertion, 'harbour of 
St Columba,' is possibly correct ; see p. xcii. 

PORTNAGURAN (Stornoway). ' Harbour of the brood of birds ' 
(G. gur), or ' of the goats ' (G. gobhar). 

PORTNAHAVEN (Islay). Pron. -naha vvn ; not a tautology, but 
G. port na h'abhuinn, 'harbour on the water.' Cf. 
AVON. 

PORTOBBLLO. Portobello Hut was built in 1742 by an old 
Scotch sailor, who had served under Admiral Vernon, to 
commemorate his victory at Portobello, Darien, in 
1739. 

PORTPATRICK (Wigtown). Fr. the famous St Patrick, 5th 
century ; Ir. Padric, G. Padruig, L. Patricius. 

PORTRBE (Skye and Portpatrick). 'Harbour of the king,' 
G. port riglie ; so called from James V.'s visit here. Cf. 
Port-an-righ, Saddel, and Inchree, Onich. 

PORTSOY (Banff). ? ' Harbour of the warrior ' (G. saoi, saoidh), 
or ' of the bitch ' (G. saigh, -he). 

PORTYERROCK (Wigtown). Old, Portcarryk. ' Harbour of the 
sea-cliff;' G. carraig (cf. CARRICK). The y sound is 
the result of the aspiration of the c. Dr Skene thinks 
this is the Beruvik of IN ial's Saga. 

POSSIL (Glasgow). 1787, -el. Perh. 'the front' or 'face of 
the wood;' G. pais (bathais) clmill, fr. coill, a wood. 
See PAISLEY, and cf. DARVEL. 

POTTERHILL (Paisley). 

POWBURN (Edinburgh). Pow is Sc. for a sluggish stream ; 
W. pwl, G. poll, . see POLKEBUCK. Cf. Pow, New 
Abbey, Powmill, Plean; also 'Pomon' and 'Pomaise,' 
local pron. of POLMONT and POLMAISE. Powburn is 
thus a tautology. 

POYNTZFIELD (Invergordon). Fr. a man. 

PREMNAY (Insch). ? ' Tree in the plain ' (cf. KEMNAY), fr. 
W. pren, a tree, a word common in Ir. names as cran, 
e.g., Crancam, &c. On G. magh, plain, = may, cf. 
CAMBUS o' MAY. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 205 

PRESHOME (Buckle). Prob. ' priest's home ' or 'house;' O.E. 
preost-hdm; cf. christen, pron. chrissen. 

PRESTON (Dumfries and Colvend). 'Priest's abode' (cf. 
above, and Prescot). Fifteen in England. See ton, 
p. Ixxiv. 

PRESTONGRANGE (Prestonpans). c. 1240, Grangia de Preston. 
See above, and ABBOTSGRANGE. 

PRESTONKIRK (Haddington). 

PRESTONPANS (Musselburgh). 1625, Prestounepannis. Salt- 
pans erected here by the monks fr. ? Aberlady. 

PRESTWICK (Ayr). Sic 1158; 1160, 'Prestwick usque Pul- 
prestwick' (pul is W. pwl, pool, water); c. 1230, 
Prestvick; 1265, -wick. Either 'priest's dwelling' or 
'village' (O.E. wic; cf. BERWICK), or 'priest's bay' 
(N. vile). 

PRINLAWS (Leslie). Prob. W. pren, a tree, + Sc. law, 
O.E. hldew, a hill. Cf. BARNBOGLE. 

PROSEN (see GLENPROSEN) and PULMADDY (see POLMADIE). 

PULCAIGRIE BURN (Kells). ' Water of the boundary ' (G. 
coigriche) ; and see POLKEBUCK. 

PULHAY BURN (Carsphairn). 'Water of the swamp;' G. 
chaedhe (pron. haye). 

PULTENEYTOWN (Wick). Founded in 1808 by the British 
Fisheries Society. 

PUMPHERSTON (Midcalder). Pumpher seems an unknown 
name. 

PYATKNOWE (Biggar). Sc. = 'magpie's hill;' see KNOWS. 
Pi/at is the Eng. pie, Fr. pie, L. pica, with the 
diminutive -at or -et. 

Q 

QUAIR WATER (Peeblessh.). 1116, Quyrd; 1174, Cuer; 
1184, Queyr. Corn, quirt, later gwer ; W. gwri/d, 
green. Cf. ' The green, green grass o' Traquair kirk- 
yard ; ' and cf. TRAQUAIR. 

QUANTERNESS (Kirkwall). Fr. Icel. Kantari, i.e., 'Canter- 



206 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

bury,' and meaning ' bishop.' It enters as an element 
into a good many Scandinavian names. See NESS. 

QUARFF (Shetland). Icel. hvarf, O.Sw. Jiwarf, a turning, 
a shelter. Of. Cape WRATH, and the Wharf e, Yorkshire. 

QUARRYWOOD (Elgin). 

QUARTER (Hamilton and Galloway), WEST QUARTER (Fal- 
kirk). 

QUEENSBERRY HILL (Drumlanrig). Prob. a corruption of 
some Celtic word. But cf. TURNBERRY. 

QUEENSFERRY, N. and S. (Frith of Forth), c. 1295, Quene- 
ferie ; 1461, Quenis Fery. So called because Princess 
Margaret of England, afterwards wife of Malcolm 
Canmore (1057-93), crossed here. 

QUENDALE BAY (Sumburgh). Icel. Tcvan, a wife, Dan. qvinde, 
a woman, O.E. civen, Sc. quean, a woman, + N., &c., 
dal, a dale, valley. 

QUIEN, L. (Bute). ^Old G. cuinne, a corner, angle, meet- 
ing. 

QUINAG (mountain, Sutherland). Either G. cuinneag, 'a 
churn, milk-pail, 'fr. its supposed shape; or fr.G. caoinag^ 
diminutive fr. G. caoin, beautiful ; cf. Coshquin, Derry. 

Quivox, St (Ayr). Fr. St Kevoca, holy virgin in Kyle, c. 
1030; or perh. from the Ir. St Caemftan, in its pet form 
(p. xcv) Mochaemhoc (pron. Mokevoc) ; also called 
Pulcherius. 

QUOICH, R. (Braemar). So called because the stream-bed is 
full of circular holes ; G. cuach, a cup, * quaich.' 

QUOTHQUHAN (Biggar). It is a round hill. 1253, Cuthquen; 
1403, Quodquen. Difficult ; first syllable looks like W. 
cwt, roundness. Possibly ' woman's hut,' f r. W. cut, a 
hovel, shed, + O.E. civen, Sc. quean, a woman ; but 
this is very doubtful. 

QUOYLOO (Stromness). A quoy is an enclosure with turf or 
stones, a fence. In the earliest Orkney rentals ' quoy- 
land ' is very common ; also such names as ' Quoybew- 
mont,' near Kirkwall, ' Gloupquoy,' Deerness, &c. Loo 
is Dan. hlce, Icel. hlie, the same as O.E. hleo, lileow, 
1 shelter ; ' cf. LEE. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 207 



B 

RAASAY (Skye). Saga, Hrauneyjar; 1263, Raasa; 1501, 
Rasay. Perh. G. ras y a shrub, + JNT. ay, ey, a, an island. 

RACHAN MILL (Biggar). G. v mean, arable land. 

RACKWICK (Westray and Hoy). c. 1225, Orkney Sag., 
Rekavik. Prob. 'bay full of wrack,' i.e., cast-up sea- 
weed, fr. O.jN". vik, a bay, and Icel. rek or vrek, Sw. 
wrak ; same root as wreck. 

RAFFORD (Forres). Prob. G. rath, rampart, fort, + Eng. ford 
(cf. Radford, Gal way), which is in Ir. Ath-a-ratha, ' ford 
of the fort.' Cf. ALFORD. 

RAHANE (Gareloch). Prob. G. rathain (pron. rahan), ' ferny 
place.' Cf. Rahan, Rahin, Ireland. 

RAIT (Errol). G. rath, a fort, rampart. Cf. LOGIERAIT. 

RAITH (Kirkcaldy). c. 1320, Rathe ; as above. Cf. Raithby, 
England, and O.Ir. raith, fern, bracken. 

RAMORNIE (Cupar). 1439, Ramorgney. Possibly G. rath 
mbr gainimh, ' big rampart of sand ' or ' gravel.' 

RAMSEY (Whithorn). O.E. rammes ige, ' ram's isle ; ' so Sir 
H. Maxwell. Cf. Portramsay, Lismore. 

RANKEILLOR (Cupar). c. 1530, Rankilor. 'The part' or 
'division (G. rann) on the river Keilor.' See INVER- 

KEILOR. 

RANNOCH (Perthshire). G. raineach, fern, bracken. 

RANZA, L. (Arran). 1433, Lochransay ; 1549, -renasay. 
O.K Mans-ay, 'isle of Ran,' giant goddess, queen of 
the sea. 

RARICHIE (Fearn). 1333, Rarechys ; 1550, -echy. Prob. 
G. riarachas, or -adh, distribution, a share. 

RARNISH (Lewis). Nish is the N. ness, promontory. Perh. 
rar is cognate with O.E. rdrian, to roar, from the noise 
of the sea ; but it is also spelt Ranish. Cf. RANZA. 

RASHIEDRUM (Denny). G. rasach druim, ' hill-ridge covered 
with shrubs.' Cf. DRUM. 



208 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

RATHELPIE (St Andrews). 1183, Rathelpin. 'Fort (G. rath) 
of King Alpin.' Of. PITALPIN. 

KATHEN (Lonmay). a. 1300, Rathyn. Prob. G. rathain, 
'ferny place,' O.Ir. raith, fern. Cf. RAHANE. 

RATHILLET (Fife). a. 1200, Radhulit. Prob. G. rad-a- 
li'ulaidh, ' road of the treasure ' (or fr. rath, a fort). 

Cf. MOUNTHOOLY. 

RATHMURIEL (Garioch). 'Muriel's fort.' 

RATHO (S. Queensferry). 1250, Ratheu; 1292, Radchou; 
1293, Rathou ; 1316, -oe. G. rath, a fort ; second syllable 
doubtful. Cf. STOBO. 

RATHVEN (Buckie). G. rath bheinn, ' fort on the hill.' 
RATTRA (Borgue) and RATTRAY (Blairgowrie). Perh. 'fort- 
town,' fr. tre, tra, trev, Corn, and W. for ' town ' or 
'house.' Sir H. Maxwell thinks that the former is fr. 
G. rath toruidhe (pron. tory), ' fort of the hunter ' or ' out- 
law.' Dr Jos. Anderson thinks Rattar Brough, Caithness, 
is the Rauda Biorg, or 'red headland,' of the Sagas. 

RAVELRIG (Midcalder). Ravel is prob. a man's name ; cf. 
Ravelston. On rig, see BISHOPBRIGGS. 

RAVENSTRUTHER (Carstairs). Perh. G. rabhachan sruith-ard, 
'beacon on the height by the river ;' G. rabhachan, a 
beacon, warning; cf. ANSTRUTHER. 

RAW YARDS (Coatbridge). Prob. corruption of G. rath airde, 
' fort on the height.' Cf. BARNYARD, MAWCARSE, and 
Benraw, Ireland, = ~beinn rath, ' hill of the fort.' 

RAYNE (Garioch). a. 1300, Rane. G. rann, rainn, a part, 
division. 

REAWICK (Shetland). ? 'Bay (Icel. vik) with the reef or 
rocks;' Icel. rif, Dan. and Sw. rev. 

REAY (K Sutherland), c. 1230, Ra; c. 1565, Ray. G. 
reidh (pron. ray), ' smooth, level,' or ' a plain.' 

REDCASTLE (Dingwall and Arbroath). Ding. R., 1455, -castell. 

REDDING and REDDINGMTJIRHEAD (Polmont). Prob., like 
Reading, Berks, called after some man. 

REDGORTON (Perth). G. ruadh gort, 'reddish field,' + Eng. 
-ton, see pp. Ixxiv, Ixxv. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 209 

REISS (Wick). Prob. G. riasg, reisg, moorland, morass. Cf. 
Risk, Minigaff. 

RELUGAS (Dunphail). Old, Relucos. Locally interpreted, 

' shieling of the throat,' referring to ' Randolph's 

Leap,' a narrow passage of the river Findhorn here. 

Perh. G. ruith luaitli gais, ' flowing (stream) of the swift 

foot,' gais for cais, gen. of cas or cos, a foot. 

RENDALL (Orkney). Saga, Rennadal. Prob. fr. Icel. renna, 
to run, cf. 'runnel,' i.e., a rivulet, + N., &c., dal, a 
dale, valley. 

RENFREW. SicIlGQ; 1158, Reinfrew; 1164, Renfriu. W. 
rhen friu, 'flowing brook;' friu, flowing (water), is fr. 
frw, frou, impulse. 

RENTON (Dumbarton). * Village on the river, streamlet ; ' 
W. rhen. Cf. LINTON, and see ton, p. Ixxiv. 

RERRICK or -WICK (Kirkcudbright). 1562, Rerryk. Possibly 
'reaver's, robber's dwelling;' O.E. redfere-ivic. 

RESCOBIE (Forfar). 1251, Rosolpin; 1270, Roscolpin ; also 
Roscolbyn ; Aberdeen Brev., Roscoby. Brythonic 
ros col pin or pen (G. beinn), 'moor at the back 
of the hill.' 

RESOLIS (Cromarty). G. rudha or ros soluis (in Ir. solais), 
'point, cape of the (beacon-) light.' Cf. Rossolus, 
Monaghan; Barsoles, -lis, Galloway. 

RESTALRIG (Edinburgh), c. 1210, Lestalrig; 1291, -ric; 
1526, Restalrig. G. lios-talamh, garden-soil, + rig, a 
ridge (see BISHOPBRIGGS). The liquids I and r always 
interchange easily. Cf. Loch Restal, near Glencroe. 

RESTINNET (Forfar). 1322, Roustinot. Prob. Old G. ros 
dinait, 'height, promontory of the woody glen' or 
' dean ' (cf. DINNET). In Old G. ros also means a wood. 

RESTON (Berwick). Ros, Old Celtic for a 'moor' or ' wood/ 
Cf. MELROSE, + Eng. -ton, see pp. Ixxiv, Ixxv. 

RHICONICH (Sutherland). G. rudha or rhu coinnich, ' head- 
land covered with moss' or ' fog.' 

RHU COIGACH, &c. G. rhu or rudha, 'cape, promontory,' 
is common in names, especially in Sutherland. See. 
COIGACH. 



210 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND, 

RHUDUNAN (Skye). G. = ' cape of the little dune ' or ' hill.' 

RHYND (Bridge of Earn), EHYNIE (Aberdeen, Fearn), RHYNNS 
POINT (Islay), RHYNNS OF GALLOWAY. Team R., c. 1564, 
Rany. R. of Gall, old, Ryndis (cf. Irish Life of St 
Cutlibert, 'Regio quse Rennii vocatur in portu qui 
Rintsnoc [G. cnoc, a hill] dicitur,' prob. referring to 
Portpatrick). All prob. fr. O.Ir. rinn, rind, G. roinn, 
W. rhynn, a point of land ; but with the form Rany, 
cf. RANNOCH, fr. G. raineach, ferny. The s is the 
common Eng. plural. 

RIBIGILL (Tongue). Perh. ' ribbed glen,' fr. Dan. rib, Icel. 
rif, a rib, + Icel. gil, a ravine. 

RICCARTON, -KARTON (Hawick, Kilmarnock, Currie, Stone- 
haven). Currie R., c. 1320, Richardtoun. Haw. R., 
1376, Ricarden. ' Richard's dwelling ; ' see ton, p. Ixxiv. 

RICHORN (Urr). 1527, Raeheren; 1623, Rithorne. Perh. 
O.E. redd oern, ' red house.' Cf. WHITHORN. 

RIDDON, L. (Kyles of Bute). G. rudan is a knuckle ; but this 
is prob. ruadli dun, ' reddish hill.' 

RIGG (Gretna). Sc. rig, a ridge, furrow, hill-ridge, fr. O.E. 
lirycg, hrick, Icel. hrygg-r, Dan. ryg, a ridge, lit. 'the 
back.' Cf. DRUM. 

RINGFERSON (L. Ken). G. roinn farsaing, 'wide pro- 
montory.' 

RINGFORD (Kirkcudbright). Prob. ' ford at the point.' Cf. 

above. 
RINNES, Ben (Banff). = RHYNNS ; s and es are English 

plurals. 

RIRAS Largo). Pron. Reeres. 1353, Riras. ? G. riarachas, 
a distribution, sharing. 

ROADSIDE (Errol). 

ROAG, L. (Lewis). Prob., as Captain Thomas thinks, Norse 
= ' roe deer bay.' Cf. RODIL and ASCOG. 

ROBERTON (Biggar, Hawick). Big. R., c.' 1 155, Villa Roberti 
fratris Lambini (cf. LAMINGTON) ; 1229, Robertstun. 
Cf. ton, p. Ixx, and Robert Town, Normanton. 

ROCKCLIFFE (Dalbeattie). Also near Carlisle. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 211 

ROCKVILLA (Glasgow). Modern. 

RODIL (Harris). Perh. ' roe's dale ; ' Icel. rd, Dan. ma 
(pron. ro), a roe-deer; perh. fr. Icel. rotSz, redness, + dil 
= N. &c., dal. Cf. ' Attadiiy-wc 1584. 

KOGART (Golspie). Sic 1546 ; butc. 1230, Eothegorth. Icel. 
rauft-r gar$-r, 'red enclosure,' from the Old Eed Sand- 
stone here ; cf. G. garadh and gort, ' field. 7 

ROGIE, Falls of (Strathpeffer). G. raog, raoig, a rushing. 

ROLLOX, St (Glasgow). Chapel to St Roche, built here in 
1508. But cf. Woloc, Abbot of lona. 

ROMANNO (Peeblesshire). a. 1300, Roumanoch; 1530, 
Romannose. Possibly G. rliu or rudha manaich, ' head- 
land of the monk.' 

RONA (Skye), N. RONA (N. of Lewis). Fr. St Ronan, died 
737, who died in wild N. Rona, where is 'Teampull 
Rona ; ' cf. Port Ronan, lona, and ' St Ronan's Well.' 

RONALDS(H)AT, North and South (Orkney). Two distinct 
names. North R., c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Rinarsey; 
also Rinansey, i.e., 'island (O.N. ay, ey, a) of St 
Ringan,' common Sc. corruption of Ninian of Whithorn, 
c. 390. South R., in Sagas, is Rognvalsey; 1329, 
Rognvaldsay. The Rognvald was prob. he, jaii of the 
famous Romsdal, whose brother Sigurd was the first 
jarl of Orkney, c. 880. 

ROOE and ROOENESS VOE (Shetland). Sagas, Raudey mikla 
(Icel. miliill, great), and Raudaness vagr (O.N. for 
* bay ; ' cf. KIBKWALL) ; Raudey is ' red isle ' (O.N. 
ay, ey, a}, fr. Icel. raufi-r, raud-r, Dan. and Sw. 
rod, red. 

ROSA GLEN (Arran). c. 1450, Glenrossy. G. rbsach, rosy, 
red, fr. rbs, a rose ; cf. Icel. ros, a rose. 

ROSEBURN (Edinburgh), ROSEHALL (Sutherland), ROSEMOUNT 
(Aberdeen), ROSEWELL (Hawthornden). O.E. rose, Icel. 
ros, G. rbs, L. rosa, a rose ; but cf., too, Ross. 

ROSEHEABTY (Fraserburgh). Prob. G. ros cheartach, 'guid- 
ing, directing promontory.' 

ROSEMARKIE (Fortrose). 1226, Rosmarkyn ; 1510, -ky; in 
old Ir. calendar, 'Ruis mic bairend,' which Bishop 



212 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Reeves thinks = Rosmbaircind (pron. Rosmarkyn). On 
cind, ' head,' see KINALDIE ; ros here may either 
mean cape or wood. Bair is perh. the G. barr, the top, 
a height, or bdir, a battle ; thus it is impossible to speak 
decidedly about the name's meaning. 

ROSLIN or ROSSLYN, and ROSSLYNLEE. c. 1240, Roskelyn. 
The name is Brythonic. Prob. ros coil lyn, i headland 
of the wood beside the water ' (W. llyn, a linn, 
stream, pool). Lea, lee, ' meadow,' is O.E. ledli, pasture- 
land. 

ROSNEATH (Gareloch). a. 1199, Neveth; 1225, Rosneth ; 

also Rusnith, Rosneveth. ' Promontory (G. ros) of 
Neveth ' or Nevydd, British or Welsh bishop of the 6th 
century. 

Ross ; also THE Ross (Borgue), and Ross OF MULL. G. ros, 
( a promontory, isthmus,' in the case of Ross-shire, 
referring to Tarbat peninsula. In Corn, ros is a moor 
(cf. MELROSE) ; Ir. ros is a wood. 

ROSSDHU (L. Lomond), c. 1225, Rosduue. G. ros dhu or 
dubh, 'black, dark cape.' 

ROSSIE (Fife), c. 1170, Rossyth; 1187, Rossyn. Perh. 
= RosA, and cf. Ross. 

ROSSKEEN (Invergordon). 1270, Rosken; 1575, -kin. Prob. 
same as the Rosskeens in Ireland ; fr. Ir. ros caein (G. 
caoin), 'pleasant, dry wood.' Cf. Ross. 

ROTHES (Elgin). Sic 1238. G. ruadh, red, from the red 
river banks here, or more prob. fr. rath, a fort, rampart 
(cf. RAITH, ROTHIEMURCUS) ; in either case with Eng. 
plural s. 

ROTHESAY. 1321, Rothersay; c. 1400, Rosay; a. 1500, 
Rothissaye ; c. 1590, Rosa. What is certain is that the 
name originally applied to the castle, which is an islet 
within a moat; and in the 15th century the parish 
seems to have been called ' Bute.' Thus Rosey, which 
otherwise might mean ' isle (O.N. ay, ey, a) of the 
wood ' (cf. Ross), is prob. the corruption of ' Rother's 
isle.' Mother is said to have been a descendant of 
Simon Brek ; cf. Rotherham. Rotlies- may be a corrup- 
tion of G. rath, a fort, cf. ROTHES. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 213 

KOTHIEMAY (Huntly) and ROTHIE-NORMAN (Turriff). ' Fort 
in the plaift ' (G. rdth-a-maigh) and ' fort of Norman.' 
Cf. CAMBUS o' MAY. 

ROTHIEMURCUS (Aviemore). 1226, Rathmorchus; 1499, 
Ratamorkas. Prob. G. rath a? morchuis, ' fort of pride ' 
or 'boasting.' 

ROTTEN Row (Glasgow). 1434, Ratown rawe. Thought to 
be fr. Fr. routine, route or way, because it was the 
common highway to the Cathedral. 

ROUGHRIGG (Airdrie). See RIGG. 

ROUSAY (Orkney), c. 1260, Hrolfsey, Rolfsey; 1529, Jo. 
Ben, ' Rowsay, Raulandi Insula/ ' Hrolfs ' or ' Rollo's 
isle ; ' O.N. ay, ey. Hrolf founded the Norse settlements 
in Gaul, c. 820. 

Row (Helensburgh). Pron. Roo. G. rudlia or rhu, a cape, 
point. 

ROWANTREE (Barr). 'Rowan;' Dan. ran, r'on?ie-trce, Sw. 
ronn, is the Sc. for the mountain-ash. 

ROWARDENNAN (L. Lomond). G. rhu airde Eonain, ' cape of 
Eunan's height ; ' see St Adamnan, p. xcv. 

ROXBURGH. Sic 1158; but 1134, Rokesburch; c. 1160, 
Rochisburc; 1231, Rokisburk. Perh. simply 'castle (O.E. 
burg, burh) on the rock,' Fr. roc ; or from a man called 
Rock or Roche, as ' rock ' or ' roche ' is not found as an 
Eng. word before Chaucer. Cf. BORGUE, and p. Ixxiii. 

ROY BRIDGE. (Iriverness-sh.). G. ruadh, reddish, ruddy. 
Cf. ' Rob Roy.' 

RUBISLAW (Aberdeen). 1358, Rubyslaw. 1 G. reubadh, -aidh, 
a rent, fissure, + L.AW. Might be 'Reubie's,' i.e., 'Reu- 
ben's hill.' 

RUCHIL, R. (Comrie). G. ruadh coil, 'reddish, ruddy 
wood.' 

RULE or ROULL, R. (Teviot). Forms, see BEDRULE. Prob. 
fr. W. rhull, rash, hasty, fr. rhu, a roar. Close by is 
the ' Town o' Rule.' 

RUM (Hebrides), a. 1100, Tigliernac, aim. 677, Ruim; 
1292, Rume; and prob. Sagas, Rauney. G. rum, ruim, 

U 



214 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

is ' a place, space, room ; ' but Ruim was also the old 
name of the Isle of Thanet, and may be a man's name. 
Cf. Ramsgate. 

RUMBLING BRIDGE (Kinross and on river Bran). Cf. ' Rout- 
ing Bridge,' Kirkcudbright. 

RUSKIE (Stirling). G. riascach, boggy, riasg, a bog. Cf. 
Rusco, Girthon. 

RUTHERFORD (Kelso). Icel rauft-r, red. 

RUTHERGLEN (Glasgow). Sic a. 1150. Hybrid; 'red glen.' 
The common pron., Riiglen, c. 1300, ' Ruglyn,' preserves 
the original G. ruadh gleann, ' reddish glen.' 

RUTHVEN (Huntly and Meigle). Hunt. R., c. 1200, Ruthaven, 
a. 1300, Rothfen. Meig. R., 1200, Abirruotheven ; 
1291, Rotheivan. G. ruadh abliuinn, 'reddish river' 
(cf. METHVEN), Often now pron. Rivven. 

RUTHWELL (Dumfries). Prob. G. ruadli b(k)ail, 'red-looking 
village ' or ' house.' Of. FARNELL. 

RYAN, L. (Wigtown). 1461, Lochrian. Prob. a man's name, 
common in Ireland. Cf. Seskinryan, Ireland. 

s 

SADDELL (Kin tyre). 1203-1508, Sagadul; also Saghadul. 
Prob. 'arrow-shaped valley,' fr. G. saigliead, an arrow, 
+ N., &c., dal, also found in names as 'dil,' dyl,' 'a 
valley' (cf. ' Sacadaill,' sic 1662, near Applecross). 
There is a G. dula, meaning 'a hollow.' 

SALEN (Mull and Sunart). G. sailean, ' a little inlet,' arm 
of the sea. 

SALINE (Dunfermline). ?G. salann, salt. Cf. Saling, 
Braintree. 

SALISBURY CRAGS (Edinburgh). Old, Sarezbury Crags. Said 
to be called after the Earl of Salisbury who accompanied 
Edward III. to Scotland. By a common change of I for 
its kindred liquid r, Sarum-lurg has become already, in 
1290, 'Salebire;' this, of course, is Salisbury, Wilts. 

SALSBURGH (Holy town). Prob. 'willow-town;' O.E. 
salh, a willow ; and see BORGUE. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 215 

SALTCOATS (Ayrshire). The salt-workers' * cots ' or huts ; 

O.E. cot, cott. Cf. CAULDCOTS. 
SALTON (Haddington). 1250, Sawilton. Prob. = BARNTON, 

fr. G. sabltal, a barn, + ton; see p. Ixxiv. Possibly 

* Savile's village/ Also near York. 
SALTPANS (Campbeltown). Cf. PRESTONPANS. 

SAMSON'S LANE (Stronsay), SAMSON'S KIBS (Arthur's Seat, 

Edinburgh). 
SANDAIG BAY (Knoydart). ' Sandy bay ;' Icel. sand-r, Dan. 

and Sw. sand, sand, + O.K aig, og, a bay. 

SANDAY (Orkney, Canna, and N. Uist). K Uist S., 1561, 
Sand ; 1576, Sanday. ' Sandy isle ; ' O.K ay, ey, a, an 
island. Cf. above, and Glensanda, Lorn, and Sanna, 
Mull, and Ardnamurchan. 

SANDBANK (Kilmun), SANDEND (Cullen), SANDHAVEN (Fraser- 
burgh), SANDILANDS (Lanark), SANDNESS (Walls). 

SANDSTING (Shetland). ' The tiling on the sands ;' Icel. ]>ing, 
Dan. and Sw. ting, which in Icel. means both an 
assembly, a parish, and a district or shire. 

SANDWICK (Shetland, Stromness, Lewis). Strom S., c. 1225, 
Sandvik. ' Sand bay ' (N. vik). Cf. Senwick, Kirkcud- 
bright, c. 1350, Sanaigh; aigh being = aig, O.JST. for 
' bay.' 

SANNOX (Arran). Prob. = Sannaig, Islay and Jura, = SAN- 
DAIG. * Sandy bay.' The x is the Engl. plural, as there 
are North, South, and Mid Sannoc. Some think fr. G. 
sannoch, ' river trout ;' cf. Sannoch, Kells. 

SANQUHAR (N. Dumfries). Pron. Sankar. a. 1150, Sanchar. 
G. sean catliair (W. caer), ' old fort.' 

SAUCHEN (Aberdeen) and SAUCHIE (Stirling and Alloa). 
Alloa S., 1208, Salechoc; 1240, Salwhoch; 1263, 
Salewhop. ' Field or HAUGH of the willows ;' Sc. saucli, 
O.E. salig, salli, L. salix; cf. Saughall, Chester. The 
-oc or -och in the old forms may represent G. achadh, a 
field ; cf. CARNOCK. 

SAVAL MORE (mountain, Keay). G sabhal mbr, 'big barn,' 
fr. its shape. 

SAVOCH (Deer). ?G. samhadh-achadh, 'field of sorrel.' 

SCALLOWAY (Shetland). O.N. skaaler-vagr, 'bay with the 



216 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

shielings or booths round it.' Cf. GALASHIELS and 
STOENOWAY. 

SCALPAY (Harris). Sic 1549. ?G. sgealb, splinters, frag- 
ments of rock, + O.K ay, ey, a, island. 

SCAMADALE (Kilninver). Perh. ' dale (N. dal) of the fright ' 
or 'alarm;' G. sgaoim, -me. 

SCANIPORT (Inverness-sh.). Prob. G. sgainidh-port, ' harbour 
of the rent, cleft,' lit. a bursting. 

SCAPA (Orkney). Old, Scalpeid. Cf. SCALPAY, and Icel. itha, 
an 'eddy.' 

SCARBA ( Jura). 1536, Skarba. N. slcarf-ay, 'cormorant's isle.' 

SCARCLET or SARCLET (Wick). It is hard to pronounce both 
cs. Scar- is either ' sharp rock, rocky pillar,' G. sgbr, a 
rock, 'a scaur,' mountain (often spelt sgur, sguir, scuir, 
skeir), Dan. and N. skjaer, a cliff, rock (cf. Icel. skor, a 
cleft in a precipice); or N. skari, 'sea-gull.' A clet is 
a rock (G. de'it), so this is prob. ' sea-gull's rock.' Cf. 
Scarborough, and Scar Hill, Kirkcudbright. 

SCARFSKERRY (Dunnet). 'Cormorants' rocks.' See SCARBA 
and SCARCLET, and cf. Sule-skerry. 

SCARINISH (Tyree). N. skari-nces, ' sea-gulls' ness ' or ' cape,' 

SCARRISTRA (Harris). First syllable, see SCARCLET; the -stra 
is = -ster, latter half of N. bolstaftr; see p. Ixiv, and 
cf. ' Scarrabolsy,' sic 1562, in Islay. 

SCHALLASAIG (Colonsay). Perh. 'shell-bay' (N. aig), Icel. 
skel, a shell ; perh. = SCALLOWAY. 

SCHIEHALLION, Mountain (K. Tummel). Usually said to be, 
f r. its shape, ' maiden's breast ; ' G. sich or sine cliailin 
(cailin, a maiden) ; cf. Sichnahnighean, mountain in the 
north of Arran, with same meaning (fr. G. nighean, a 
maiden), and Maiden Pap, Caithness. Some think, G. 
sltJi Chaillinn ' hill of the Caledonians.' Cf. DUNKELD. 
N.B., s in Gaelic usually has the aspirated sound sh. 

SCHILLEY (Outer Hebrides). See SELLAY. 

SCIENNES (Edinburgh). Pron. Sheens. Fr. the monastery 
of St Catherine of Siena, Italy, once here. 

SCONE (Perth). Sic 1503, but c. 1020, Sgoinde; a. 1100, 
Scoine; c. 1170, Scoone (still pron. Skoon). Prob. G. 
sgonn, sguinn, a lump, mass, block of wood. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 217 

SCOONIE (Leven). 1156, Sconin; 1250, -nyn. G. sgonnan, 
a little lump or block. 

SCOTCH DYKE and SCOTS GAP, on the Borders. The true 
adjective is Scots or Scottish, e.g., 1549, Gompleynt 
Scotland, prol. ' Oure Scottis tong.' But ' Scotch ' is 
used by grave Eng. writers as early as 1641, 'the 
Scotch warre.' * 

SCOTLAND, also SCOTLANDWELL (Leslie), c. 1000, ^Elfric, 
Scotlande ; c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Skotland. First 
mention of the Scoti (of Ulster) is in Ammianus Mar- 
cellinus, bk. xxi., c. A D. 360 ; and Jerome, a little later, 
speaks of ' Scotica gens.' Rhys thinks the name is fr. 
W. ysgthru, to cut, sculpture, and Isidore, 6th century, 
says the Scotti were so called from tattooing themselves 
with iron points ; cf. the Picts, 'painted men,' L. Pieti. 

SCOTSCALDER (Caithness). The part of CALDER dale possessed 
by the Scots or Celts, as contrasted with Norn Calder, 
near by, possessed by the Norse. 

SCOTSTOUNHILL (Glasgow). Cf. Scotton, Lincoln; Scotby, 
Carlisle. 

SCOUR or SGUR. Common G. name for a mountain, or 
'scaur;' e.g., Scour Ouran, prob. 'St Oran's hill,' L. 
Duich ; Scour-na-Gillian, 'servant's hill,' Rum; and 
Sgur Ruadh, ' red hill,' west of Beauly. 

SCOURIE (W. Sutherland). G. sguracli, rocky, fr. sgbr, sgur, 

a rock, mountain. 
SCOURINGBURN (Dundee). 

SCRABSTER (Thurso). 1201, Skarabolstad; c. 1225, -abolstr; 
1455, Scrabestoun ; 1557, Scrabustar. N. slgaere 
bolstatir, ' rocky place ; ' see p. Ixiv. 

SCRAPE (Tweeddale). ?By common transposition of r = 

' scarp ; ' Fr. escarpe, a slope. 
SCREEL, Ben (Glenelg). Prob. G. sgrath-eileadi, ' turf bank 

or ' mound ; ' the th being quiescent. Cf. next. 
SCRIDAIN, L. (Mull), and SCRIDEN (N. of Arran). G. sgrath- 

aodann, ' turf -covered slope ' or ' face ' (cf. W. eiddyn). 

1 See A Discourse concerning Puritans, p. 54, cited by Dr M'Crie, 
Miscellaneous Writings (1841), p. 344, and called by him 'the words 
of a sensible author. ' 



218 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

This exactly suits the Arran site ; near by is a rocky 
burn, the ' Scridan.' 

SEAFIELD (Cullen and Leith), SBAMILL (W. Kilbride). 

SEAFORTH, L. (Lewis). ' Sea-frith ' or 'fjord ' (cf. FORTH). 
Sea in Dan. is so, Icel. sce-r. 

SEATON (Haddington) and PORT SETON. c. 1210, Seaton; 
1296, Seytone. O.E. sae tun, l village on the sea.' 

SELKIRK, a. 1124, Selechirche ; c. 1190, Seleschirche ; c. 
1200, Selekirke. 'Church among the shielings' or 
' hunters' huts.' See GALASHIELS and KIRKABY. 

SELLAY, SHELLAY, or SCHILLEY (Outer Hebrides). !NT. sel 
-ey, ' seal isle ; ' cf. Icel. sel-r, Dan. seel, a seal. 

SERF'S, St (isle, L. Leven). St Serf had a monastic college, 
here, c. 440 A.D. 

SGUR NA LAPAICH (R. Farrar). G. = ' rock of the muddy ' 
(river). Cf. SCOUR. 

SHAMBELLY (New Abbey). 1601, Schambellie, G. sean 
baile, ' old house ' or ' village ' (cf. ' shanty ' = sean tigli). 
Initial s in Gaelic is usually aspirated. 

SHANDWICK (Fearn). IN". sand-vik, ' sandy bay,' the only such 
bay hereabouts. Cf. Shellay or SELLAY. 

SHANKEND (Hawick). Fr. sliank (O.E. scanca, Dan. and 
Sw. sJcank), the leg, the shin-bone. 

SHANNO (Montrose). 1516, Skannack. 1 G. sgainn-achadh, 
1 field of the herd ' or ' drove ' (sganri). 

SHANT GLEN (Arran). G. seunta, sianta, a charm. Initial s 
in G. is usually aspirated. 

SHAPINSAY (Orkney). c. 1225, Hjalpaiidisay ; 1529, Jo. 
Ben, ' Schapinshaw dicta, the Shipping Isle ' (Icel. 
skip, a ship). But Ben is evidently wrong, it must be 
' Hjalpand's isle,' whoever he was. 

SHAW (Coulter, &c., five Shaw Hills in Galloway). O.E. 
scaga, Icel. skog-r, Sw. skoy, Dan. sJcov, a wood ; cf. the 
O.E. Imc/a, a hedge, softened in haw, a hedge, a haw- 
thorn berry. 

SHAWBOST (Barvas). 'Place of the wood.' Cf. above, and 
N. bolstaftr, p. Ixiv. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 219 

SHAWHEAD (Dumfries), SHAWLANDS (Glasgow). 

SHEABOST (Lewis). Perh. ' house, place set askew ; ' Icel. 
skeif-r, Dan. skier, oblique, ' skew.' Bost is contraction 
of N. bolstaftr, see p. Ixiv. Cf. SKEABOST. 

SHEBSTER (Reay). ' Sheep's ' or ' ship's (Icel. skip, Dan. skib) 
place.' On-ster = N. staftr, see p. Ixv. 

SHETLAND, or ZETLAND. Sagas, Hjaltland, Hetland; 1403, 
Zetlandie. Cleasby and Vigfusson's Dictionary suggests 
no explanation. 

SHETTLESTON (Glasgow). 1226, Shettilston. Prob. fr. a man ; 
cf. Shuttleworth (worth = place). A shuttle in O.E. is 
scytel, a scuttle ; O.E. scutel is a dish. Might be fr. either. 

SHEUCHAN (Stranraer). Prob. G. suidheachan, diminutive of 
suidlie, a seat. Several similar Irish names. 

SHIANT ISLES (The Minch) and BEN SHIANTA (Ardna- 
murchan). G. seunta, enchanted, sacred, fr. seun, a 
charm. Cf. MINISHANT, and Pen-zance, 'holy headland.' 

SHIBBERSCROSS (Sutherland). Pron. Sheeverscross. 1535, 
Heberriscors. Perh. G. siabair-erois, ' cross of the 
rubber or wiper,' referring to the action of cattle. 

SHIEL, L. (Moydart). Prob. loch of the 'shieling' or 
'booth;' O.N. skali, Icel. skjol, a shelter, skyU, a shed. 
Cf. GALASHIELS. 

SHIELDAIG (L. Torridon). 'Shielding, sheltering bay' (O.N. 
aig); Icel. skjold-r, a shield. 

SHIELDHILL (Falkirk and Lochmaben), SHIELHILL (Stanley 
and Oathlaw), and four SHIEL HILLS (Galloway), 1629, 
prob. Stanley S., Shilhill. All prob. 'sheltering hill;' 
see above. Talk. S. is in 1745 Shielhill, and is still 
so pron. Some say Shielhill (Stanley) is the G. sealg 
clwill, ' hunting wood.' 

SHIELDS ROAD (Glasgow). See SHIEL and POLLOKSHIELDS. 
SHIELS (Belhelvie). 'Huts.' See GALASHIELS and SHIEL. 

SHIN, L. (Sutherland). Perh. 'loch of the charm ;' G. seun, 
sian (cf. SHIANT) ; but Shinnock, Galloway, is thought 
to be G. sean cnoc, ' old hill.' 

SHINNESS. ' Cape on Loch SHIN.' See NESS. 



220 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

SHIRA, K. and L. (Inveraray). ?G. sear or seur dbli, 'east 
river.' 

SHISKINE (Arran). a. 1250, Cesken ; 1550, Ceskane.TG-. 
seiscinn (pron. sheskin), a marsh, fr. siosg, sedge; cf. 
Ir. sescenn, as in Sheskin, Seskin. 

SHOTTS (1ST. Lanark) and SHOTTSBURN (Holy town), a. 1476, 
Bertramshotts. O.E. shot, a division, plot ; cf. Shottes- 
ham, Shotover, Shotton. 

SHUN A (Appin). Sic 1511. G. seun, seuna, a protecting 
charm. Cf. SHIN. 

SHURRERY (Halkirk). G-. suire-airidli, * shieling, hut of the 
maid, nymph, syren.' Cf. BLINGERY. 

SICCAR POINT (Berwicksh.). Thought to be = ' scaur ' or 
rock. See SCRABSTER and CARR. 

SIDLAW HILLS (Forfar). Prob. G. sith, fairy, or sith, a hill, 
+ O.E. hldew, Sc. law, a hill. For the latter origin, 
cf. VENLAW; and for interchange of tli and d, cf. 

NlTH. 
SlGHTHILL (Glasgow). 

SIMPRIN (Duns). 1250, Simp'nge; c. 1300, Sympring. 
Doubtful. Perh. fr. W. pren, a tree. Cf. PRINLAWS. 

SINCLAIRTON (Kirkcaldy). After the St Glairs, Earls of 
Eosslyn, whose seat, Dysart House, is close by. 

SINNAHARD (Lumsden). Prob. G. sineacli ard, 'height with 
bosses' or 'breasts;' G. sine, a pap. 

SKAIL, L. (Sandwick, Orkney). ?Fr. Icel. sJiel, a shell, or 
Dan. skael, a scale of a fish, &c. 

SKEABOST (Portree). Prob. = SHEABOST, 'place set askew.' 
Also cf. SKYE. 

SKEIR, SKERRIES ; also the SKARES, off Cruden. Common 
name for rock islets, especially in the Minch Skeir -inoe, 
&c. It is N. and Dan. skjaer, cliff, rock, of which 
Skerries is the plural, as in Pentland Skerries; 1329, 
Petland-Sker ; and Auskerry, east of Orkney (in Saya, 
Austr-sker, or ' eastern rock '). Cf. SCARCLET, and the G. 
sgur or SCOUR. 

SKELBO (Dornoch). c. 1210, Scelbol ; a. 1300, Scellebol ; 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 221 

1455, Skelbole. 'Shelly place;' Icel. skel (rf. O.E. seel, 
a shell, and see N. bolstafir, p. Ixiv). In 1290 an Eng. 
scribe writes it Schelbotel, see MOREBATTLE ; and cf. 
SKIBO. 

SKELDA NESS (Shetland). Prob. 'shield, shelter isle;' Icel. 
skjold-r, a shield, + ay, a, isle. Cf. SHIELDAIG. 

SKELMORLIE (Wemyss Bay), c. 1400, -morley. Prob. 'shelter, 

leeside of the great rock ;' G. and Ir. sceilig mor. 

Skel- is evidently cognate with SKEIR. See LEE, and 

cf. the Skelligs, Kerry. 
SKENE (Peterculter). Sic 1318. A 'Johannes Skene' is 

found in 1290. G. sceitliin (th mute), a bush. Cf. 

Skeengally, Kirkinner. 
SKERRAY (Bettyhill), SKERRIES (Shetland, &c. ; see SKEIR), 

and SKERRYVORE (Hebrides ; G. mhor, big). 
SKIBA (Islay). Dan. slab -aa, ' ship-water ' or ' stream.' 
SKIBO (Dornoch). 1275, Schytheboll; 1557, Skebo. Perh. 

'scythe-place,' i.e., meadow; Icel. siyth, a scythe (cf. 

SKELBO, and p. Ixiv). More likely fr. Icel. akeithi-r, Dan. 

skede, a sheath, cognate with shed. 

SKINFLATS (Grangemouth). As there is no trace of a tannery 
here, Skin- may be G. sceitJiin, a bush (cf. SKENE). 
Flats, i.e., 'meadows,' is a common suffix hereabouts 
Millflats, &c. 

SKIPNESS (Frith of Clyde), c. 1250, Schepehinche ; 1260, 
Skipnish; 1502, Skipinche. Icel. skip, Dan. skib, 
O.E. scip, a ship, +Icel. and. K nces, a ness, cape, or 
G. inniif, an island, peninsula. Cf. INCH and ARDA- 

LANISH. 

SKIRLING (Biggar). a. 1400, Scrawlin; c. 1535, Scraling. 
Prob. ' water, pool by the scaur ' or rock (cf. SCRABSTER, 
and Dunskirloch, Galloway, and Skirlaugh, Hull). The 
-lin is W. llyn, a water or pool. 

SKYE. Perh. Ptolemy's Scetis; a. 700, Adamnan, Skia; 
Sagas, SkitJ, Skid ; 1272, Sky; 1292, Skey. Usually 
said to be G. scjiatli (pron. skey), a ' wing,' fr. its shape. 
Cf. Dunskey, Galloway. 

SKYREBURN (Gatehouse). Skyre- is prob. = SKEIR : so ' rocky 
burn.' 



222 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

SLAINS (Cruden). a. 1300, Slainys. Prob. G. sleamhuinn, 
1 slippery, smooth,' with Eng. plural. Cf. Slane, Tara. 

SLAMANNAN (S. Stirlingsh.). 1250, Slethmanin. 'Moor of 
Manan ' (see CLACKMANNAN). Sla- is G. and Ir. sliabli, 
mountain, hill, face of a hill; in G. also 'a moor.' 
Cf. Slamonia, Inch. 

SLATEFORD (Edinburgh). Prob. 'smooth ford;' O.K slett, 
smooth. Cf. next. ' Sclaitford ' was the name of the 
village of Edzell, a. 1700. 

SLEAT (Skye). a. 1400, Slate; 1475, Slet; 1588, Slait. 
Prob. as above ; Sleat Sound is sheltered. But Arden- 
slate, Dunoon 1401, Ardinslatt is 'slaty height' 
(G. sgleat, a slate) ; and Sleety, Queen's Co., is fr. Ir. and 
G. sliabli, a hill, plural slcibhte (pron. sleety). 

SLEWCREEN (Kirkmaiden). G. sliabli crion, l withered heath ' 
or 'moor.' 

SLEWNARK (Portpatrick). G. sliabli n-arc (ore), * hill of the 
pig,' or other large beast. 

SLIDDERY (Arran). Sc. for 'slippery.' Cf. O.E. slidan, to 
slide, and Slidderick, Wigtown. 

SLIGACHAN, -ICHAN (Skye). G. = ' abounding in little shells;' 
G. sligeag, diminutive of slige, a shell. 

SLIN, L. (Tain), c. 1560, Lochislyne. Prob. G. sleamhuinn, 

smooth. Cf. SLAINS. 

SLIOCH (mountain, L. Maree). Prob. G. sleagli, a spear. 

SLOCKGARROCH (Portpatrick). G. sloe carrach, ' rough, rocky 
gulley ; ' G. sloe, a pit, a hollow. 

SMAILHOLM (Kelso). 1250, Smalham. Either 'small house' 
(O.E smcel ham), or home, village of a man called Smail 
or Small. On the frequent interchange of -ham and 
-holm, cf. HOLM ; also see next. 

SMEATON (Ormiston and Carsphairn). Prob. ' smooth village ; ' 
O.E. smethe, smoethce. tun or ton. Cf. Smeaton, Ponte- 
fract, and Kirksmeaton, Northallerton. 

SMERBY (Kintyre). Prob. Icel. smd-r bi, ' small house ' or 
'hamlet.' On -~by, cf. CANISBAY. 

SMOO, Cave of (Durness). ? Fr. Icel. smjuga, to creep (same 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 223 

root as smuggle), fr. its low roof. Possibly fr. Dan. 
smog, smoke. 

SNAPE (Coulter). Prob. Dan. sneb, a beak, Sc. neb (cf. Snab 
Hill, Kells), or fr. Dan. sneppe, a snipe. Two in 
England. 

SNIZORT (Skye). 1501, Snesfurd ; 1526, Sneisport ; 1662, 
Snisort. * Fjord, frith of snow;' G. sneachd, Dan. snee, 
or ' of rain ' (G. snidli, snitli). See KNOYD-ART. 

SOAY (Hebrides). 1549, Soa. Dan. and Sw. so, a sow, a 
pig, + ay, a, island. 

SOLLAS (Lochmaddy). G. solus, a (beacon-) light. Cf. 

KESOLIS. 
SOLWAY FRITH, c. 1300, Sulway; also Sulliva; also called 

Tracht-Romra, fr. G. traghadh, ebbing, and Scottwade, 

or Scottiswathe, i.e., ' Scots' ford ' (N. and Dan. icath). 

Solway is thought to be fr. the tribe Selgovae, perh. 

meaning 'hunters,' fr. G. sealg, hunting; so Prof. 

M'Kinnon. More likely fr. O.N. sol-vagr, ' muddy bay,' 

O.E. sol, mud, that which ' sullies.' Cf. SCALLOWAY. 
SONACHAN PORT (L. Awe). Dimin. of G. sonnach, a castle, 

a wall, a palisade. 
SOONHOPE (Peeblessh.). c. 1200, Swhynhope. 'Valley of 

the swine;' O.E. swin, Icel. svin, Dan. sviln; but soon 

is Sc. plural of soo, a sow, O.E. su (cf. shoe, pi. shoon). 

On the strict meaning of hope, see HOBKIRK. 
SORBIE (Wigtown) and SOROBY (Tyree). Tyr. S., 1461, 

Sourbi; 1561, Soiribi; 1615, Sorbi. Prob. 'east 

village ; ' G. soir, seur, east, + Dan. l>i, by, dwelling, 

hamlet. Cf. Sourby, Ewisdale. 
SORN (Mauchline). G. sorn means a snout or a kiln. 
SOURIN (Raasay), ? G. suirean, sea-nymphs, syrens. f 
SOUTHDEAN ( Jedburgh, see DEAN), SOUTHEND (Campbeltown). 
SOUTH WICK (Dumfries). O.E. stitli zcic, ' south house ' or 

' dwelling.' Four in England. 
SOUTRA (S.E. of Dalkeith). 1455, Sowtra ; 1461, Soltra (cf. 

the SUTORS). Perh. fr. Icel. sbt-raiti-r, ' soot-red,' i.e., 

dark red. 
SPEAN, R. (Fort William). 1516, Spayng; 1552, Spane. 

The sp indicates a non-Gaelic, prob. Pictish, origin. 



2*24 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Prob. c gleaming, flashing ' river, cognate with G. sgian, 

a knife. 1 
SPELVE, L. (Mull). Prob. Pictish, ' stony,' cognate with G. 

sgealbacli, abounding in splinters or fragments of rock ; 

fr. sgealb, a fragment. 1 
SPEY, K. Sic 1492 ; 1235, Spe. Prob. connected with G. 

sceim, sgeitli, to vomit, to ' spue ; ' so Whitley Stokes. 1 
SPIGIE, L. (Shetland). Icel. spik, blubber of seals, whales, 

&c., or spik, a spike. Of. spigot. 
SPINNINGDALE (Ardgay). 1464, Spanigidill ; 1545, Spanzi- 

daill. The word perh. means just what it says. Of. 

Icel. and Sw. spinna, to spin; but it is prob. fr. Icel. 

spaning, temptation. 
SPITALFIELD (Murthly). Spital is the old form of 'hospital/ 

in G. spideal. 
SPITTAL (Watten, two in Galloway), SPITAL OP CBAIGLARD 

(Campsie Hills), SPITTAL OF GLENSHEE. 
SPOTT (Dunbar). G. spot, a plot of ground, or Icel. spotti, 

spot-r, a bit, piece. Of. Spotland, Lancashire. 
SPOUTHEAD (Kirkintilloch). 

SPRINGBANK (Glasgow, &c.), SPRINGBURN (Glasgow), SPRING- 
FIELD (Cupar), SPRINGHOLM (Dalbeattie, see HOLM), 

SPRINGSIDE (Kilmarnock). 
SPROUSTON (Kelso). c. 1150, Sproston; a. 1250, Sproues- 

ton. Prob. fr. some man (cf. Sprowston, Norwich). 

There is a surname Sprott, just possibly from it. 
SPYNIE (Elgin), c. 1295, Spyny. Prob. Pictish, akin to G. 

sginneadh, a projection ; fr. sf/inn, to protrude. 1 
STACKS (often in Caithness). O.ISL stah, G. stac, a cliff, an 

isolated rock, cognate with Eng. stack. 
STAFFA (Mull). N. staf-ey^ * isle with the staves,' i.e., its 

basaltic columnar rocks. 

STAFFIN (Portree). Prob. G. stacfionn, 'white cliff ' or ' preci- 
pice,' influenced by N. staf, for the rocks here are very 

similar to those at STAFFA. 

STAIR (Ayr). G. stair, stepping-stones, path made over a bog. 
1 These are all good illustrations of "VVindisch and Stokes' classifica- 
tion of Celtic languages, into the p group, Welsh, Pictish, Cornish, 
&c., and the c (or g or q) group, Sc. and Ir. Gaelic. Cf. PEE.ANWELL, 
PREMNAY, &c. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 225 

STANHOPE BURN (Borders). O.E. stdn, a rock, stone. On 

hope, an enclosed valley, see HOBKIRK. 

STANLEY (Perth). May be ' rocky lea ' or ' meadow ; ' but 
here Stan- might be G. stang, a pool, ditch, or staon, 
awry, askew. Five in England. 

STAPLEGORTON. Old name for Langholm ; c. 1180, Stapel- 

gorton; 1493, Stabilgortoun. In M.E. a 'staple' is a 

mart or market (cf. Barnstaple). Gorton is prob. G. 

gort, a garden + Eng. -ton, cf. LINTON. 

STAR (Markinch). Sc. starr, sedge, Sw. stair, a rush. Cf. 

Starcross, Exeter, Starbeck, &c. 
START POINT (Sanday). O.K = ' the tail ' (cf. the bird red- 

start). Also in Devon. 
STAY-THE- VOYAGE (Kirkcowan). Cf. 'Rest-and-be-Thankful,' 

Corstorphine Hill. 

STEELE ROAD (Hawick). Jamieson says the Sc. steel is ' a 
wooded cleugh or precipice ; ' but O.E. stael means 
' place.' Cf. ASHIESTEEL, and Steel, Hexham. 
STEMSTER (Wick). 1557, Stambustar. ' Place like the stem 
or prow of a ship ; ' Icel. stamn, stemni ; and see 
bolsta^r, p. Ixiv. 
STENHOUSEMUIR (Larbert). Local pron. Stanismare. 1293, 

Stan hus, i.e., O.E. for 'stone house.' 

STENNIS, -NESS (Orkney). c. 970, Steinsness ; c. 1500, 

Stanehous (an ignorant Anglicising); 1700, Stennis. 

' Rocky ness ' or ' cape ;' Icel. steinn, Dan. and Sw. sten, 

stone, + Icel. and K". nces or ness, a cape, lit. nose. 

STENSCHEL (Portree). Prob. N. for ' stone shieling ' or 

' booth.' See above, and GALASHIELS. 
STENTON (Haddington). a. 1150, Steinton. Icel. steinn, 

Dan. and Sw. sten, stone, + Eng. -ton, village. 
STEPPS ROAD (Glasgow). 
STEVENSTON (Ayrsh.). 1246, -enstoun. 'Stephen's 'or 

' Steven's place.' Two Steventons in England. 
STEWARTON (Ayrsh.). 1201, -toun. Place of Walter, High 
Steward (O.E. stiiueard, lit. a sty-keeper) or Seneschal 
of David L, c. 1140. 
STICHILL (Kelso). 1250, Stichil. Prob. 'sty-shieling;' O.E. 

sti, stige, a sty ; and see GALASHIELS. 
STIRKOKE (Wick). Perh. G. sturrack achadh, ' rugged field ' 



226 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

(cf. GARVOCK, &c.). It is not easy to see how it can bo 
fr. Icel. stir/c-r, strong ; but cf. Stirchley, Birmingham. 

STIRLING. 1147, Strivelin; c. 1250, Estriuelin; 1295, 
Estrevelyn; 1455, Striviling; 1639, -veling. In W. 
Ystrevelyn, 1 ' dwelling (ystre) of Melyn,' or Meling, old 
Sc. form of MELVILLE. The same name, perh. the 
same man, is found in DUNFERMLINE, 1295, Donffrem- 
elyn. In G. it is Srutlilinn, lit. ' river-pool,' a mere 
' shot ' at this Brythonic name by a Gael. St BereUan 
(a. 1100) mentions another Sruthlinn, near Perth. 

STOBINEAN (mountain, Perthsh.). Perh. 'the little stump of 
the birds ; ' G. stoban ian. 

STOBO (Peebles), c. 1116, Stoboc; 1170, Stubho; 1223, 
Stobohowe; 1296, Stubbehok. Prob. G. stob-achadJi, 
1 field enclosed with stobs ' or * stakes,' but with the 
second syllable confused with HAUGH, ' pasture ' (cf. the 
forms of SAUCHIE). There is a Poltenstobbo in the same 
parish, c.1200, ' Poltenstobbeh.' 

STOBS (Hawick). G. stob, a stake or stump, with Eng. plural. 

STOCKBRIDGE (Edinburgh and Cockburnspath). A wooden 
bridge formerly there, made of stocks, stakes, or sticks 
(the root is the same). Also in Hants. 

STOCKING HILL (Old Luce). Lowl. Sc. stoken, l enclosed,' fr. 
verb steek, to fasten, cognate with to stick. 

STOER (Lochinver). c. 1225, Orkney. /Sag., Staur. DrJoass, 
Golspie, thinks fr. N. staftr, place, but this always 
becomes -ster ; see p. Ixiv. Perh. N. stor, a steep peak. 

STONEHAVEN, STONEHOUSE (Larkhall, two in Kirkcudbright, 
and two in England). O.E. stem, a rock, stone. 

STONEYBYRES FALL (Lanark). Byre in O.E., as now in Sc., 
was a * cow-house,' cognate with bower ; but this name 
is very prob. a corruption, ? of what. Of. next. 

STONEYHAUGH (Liddesdale). 1376,Stanyhalch. See HAUGH. 

STONEYKIRK (Stranraer). 1725, Stevenskirk. 'SteenieV 
or ' St Stephen's church.' 

STONEYWOOD (Dyce). 

STORMONTH (Perthsh.). 1292, Starmonthe. Prob. G. starr- 
monadh, 'distorted, crooked hill.' 

_ J Velyn would be spelt in G. Mhelin, with the same sound, only a 
little more nasal aspiration. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 227 

STORNOWAY. 1511, Stornochway; a. 1630, Steornway; 1716, 

Stornbay. 'Steep peak ($. stor) on the bay' (O.K". 

vagr). Of. SCALLOWAY. 
STOW (Galashiels). O.E. stow, a place, town ; prob. one 

enclosed with a stockade or 'stobs.' Cognate with 

Stoke, so common in English names. Four in England. 
STKACATHRO (Forfar). c. 1212, Stracatherach. The G. 

sratli (in Old G. also srad) is usually spelt in Eng. 

strath ; but, as the final til becomes mute, we often find 

only sir a. The t is only an English device to aid 

pronunciation, for sr is always pron. sr in G. In one 

case, a. 1200, we find scrad (see STRATHMIGLO). 

'Strath' iirW. is ystrad (cf. ANNANDALE and TESTER). 

Stracathro is 'valley of the fort' or 'the seat;' G. 

cathair, cathrach. 
STRACHAN (Banchory). Pron. Strawn. Prob. G. srathan, 

' a little strath.' 
STRACHUR (L. Fyne). 1368, Strachore ; 1500, Stroquhor. 

' Strath with the twist or turn ; ' G. cor, chur. 
STRAITON (Edinburgh, Maybole). Edinb. S., 1296, Straton. 

Prob. 'straight village.' Straight is really the past 

participle of the verb stretch (O.E. streeean). Perh. fr. 

Icel. strd, O.E. streaw, straw. 
STRALACHUN (Strachur). Prob. 'dun-coloured (G. laclidunri} 

strath.' See STRACATHRO. 

STRANRAER. c. 1320, Stranrever; 1600, -raver. Sir H.Max- 
well thinks G. sron reamhar, ' thick point,' lit. nose ; 

perh. referring to Loch Eyan peninsula. 
STRATH (Broadford). See STRACATHRO, and cf. DALE and 

GLEN VILLAGE. 
STRATHABDLB (Skye). c. 1160, -erdel; 1542, -ardol. 'Glen 

with the high rocks' (G. drddl); or 'of the high wood,' 

(ard choil) cf. DARVEL. 
STRATHAVEN (Lanarkshire). Pron. Straven. 1522, Straith- 

awane. ' Valley of the AVEN.' 

STRATHBLANE (Glasgow). c. 1200, Strachblachan, -blahane ; 
1253, -blathane; c. 1300, Strablane. 'Glen with the 

(little) flowers;' G. bldtkan; and cf. bldd/iach, flowery. 
STRATHBUNGO (Glasgow). Pron. Strabungy. G. srath 

Mhunga, 'valley of St Mungo' or Kentigern, c. 550. 



228 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

STRATHCARRON, -DON, -FILL AN, -ORD, -PEFFER, -TUMMEL, &c. 

See CARRON, &c. 
STRATHEARN (Perthsh.). a. 1200, Sradeern, Strdeern. See 

EARN. 
STRATHENDRY (Leslie), a. 1169, -enry. =ENDRICK or 

Strathendrick (Stirlingsh.). 
STRATHKINNESS (St Andrews). 1156, Stradkines. 'Valley 

at the head of the waterfall ; ' G. ceann or cinn an eas. 

In 1156 Kinness is Kinninis. 
STRATHMARTIN (Forfar). 1250, Stratheymartin. 'Little 

glen (G, srathan) of St Martin' of Tours; cf. KILMARTIN. 
STRATHMIGLO (Auchtermuchty). a. 1200, Scradimigglock ; 

1294, Stramygloke ; 1517, Strathmiglo. ' Valley of the 

swine-pen;' G. muclach. Cf. DRUMMUCKLOCK. 
STRATHY (Thurso). G. srathan, 'little valley.' 
STRATH YRE (Callander). ' Valley of the land ' (G. tlr), t lost 

by aspiration ; so Rev. J. M'Lean, Pitilie. 
STRAVITHIE (St Andrews). 1156, Strauithin. Prob. 'rich, 

fertile (G. m(h)eith) strath.' Cf. AUCHMITHIE. 
STRICKEN (Maud). Perh. G. stribchau, 'a little streak' or 

' line ; ' or G. srath cliinn, ' valley of the headland,' G. 

ceann, a head. 
STROMA (Pentland Firth). Sic 1455 ; but Sagas, Straumsey. 

'Island in the current' or 'stream.' Here the Firth 

runs like a river. Icel. straum-r, Dan. strom, stream, 

+ ay, ey, a, island. Cf. Stromoe, Faroes. 
STROME FERRY (W. Ross). Sic 1472; 1492, Strome- 

carranach (i.e. ' of L. Carron '). ' Stream ; ' see above. 

Cf. Strome, Reay. 
STROMNESS (Orkney). Sagas, Straumsness. ' Ness, cape on 

the current ' or ' tide.' See STROMA. 
STRONACHLACHAR (L. Katrine). G. sron na cMachair, 

' cape (lit. nose, cf. "ness ") of the mason ;' but Strone 

clachan, Killin, is ' promontory of the village.' 
STRONE (Firth of Clyde), c. 1400, Stron. G. sron, nose, 

beak, cape. Cf. the two Stroans in Kirkcudbright, 

and Stronehill, near Luss. 
STRONSAY (Orkney). c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Stiornsey ; 

1529, Jo. Ben, ' Stronsay vel Sdronsay ;' c. 1225, must 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 229 

mean 'star-like island' (Icel. stjarna, a star); 1529, 
looks as if there had been G. influence, for sdron 
certainly suggests G. sron, nose, cape. 

STRONTIAN ( W. Argyle). Prob. G. sron tiadhain, ' promon- 
tory of the little hill.' 

STRUAN (N. Perthsh. and Skye) and STROWAN (Crieff). 
Crieff S., c. 1210, Strain. G. sruthan, ' a little stream.' 
Three Stroans in Ireland. Stru(e)y, in South Arran, is 
the same word. 

STRUMINOCH (New Luce). G. sron meadlwnacli (pron. 

mennach), ' middle height, promontory/ 
STUARTFIELD (Mintlaw). 
STUC A CHROIN (Ben Voirlich). G. stuc is a projecting, 

little hill, a horn; and crann, gen. croinn, is a plough 

or a tree. 
SUAINABOST (Butt of Lewis). ' Swain's, boy's place ; ' Icel. 

sveinn, Sw. sven, O.E. swan. Possibly fr. King Sweyn 

of Denmark and England, died 1014. See p. Ixiv. 
SUILVEN (mountain, Lochinver). Prob. G. suil-bh&inn, 

'eye-like hill,' from its shape. 
&ULLAM (Lerwick). ' Home of the gannets, solan geese ; ' 

Icel. sule + 7iem-r,O.E. Mm, home, house. Cf. BODDAM; 

also Sule-skerry, west of Stromness, and Sulby Man. 

SUMBURGH HEAD (Shetland). Sagas, Sunnboejar hofSi, 
Svinborg; 1506, Swynbrocht. Prob. ' the swain's castle ' 
or ' hold ' (see SUAINABOST, BORGUE, and BROUGH). But 
see, too, SWANNAY. Ho/Si, of course, is Icel. hofuft, the 
head. Sumburgh Koost is fr. N. rost, ' a whirlpool,' lit. 
strife. 

SUMMERHILL (Aberdeen, and three in Galloway), SUMMERSTON 
(Glasgow). Summers is a common surname. 

SUMMERTON (New Luce). Also near Oxford. 

SUNART, L. (Morven). King ' Sweyn's fjord ' or bay. He 
died 1014. See KNOYDART. 

SUNNYSIDE (Lanark, Coatbridge, Falkirk, &c.). 

SUTHERLAND, c. 1250, Suthernelande ; 1300, Sutherlandia; 
in N., Sudrland, 'southern land,' compared with the 
Orkneys or Nordreys. Cf. Sudreys, N. name for the 
Hebrides. 

X 



230 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

SUTOBS OF CROMARTY. Two cliffs at the firth's mouth, on 
either side. N. skuti, shelter, formed by jutting rocks, 
fr. skuta, to jut out, shoot. Form influenced by Sc. 
sutor, a shoemaker. 

SWANNAY (Kirkwall). c. 1260, Torfceus, Sviney, i.e., 'isle 
of the swain, boy' (Icel. sveinn-r, Sw. sven), or 'of 
swine' (Icel. svin; cf. SWONA). But the name now is 
' isle of swans ; ' Icel. svan-r, Sw. svan, a swan. Cf. 
' Swanbustar,' c. 1500, in Orphir. 

SWERDALE (Criech). 1275, Swerdisdale. 'Valley (N. dcU) 
of the green sward' or 'turf;' Icel. svord-r, Dan. suaer. 

SWINEY (Lybster). Sic in Orkney. Saga. Dr Jos. Anderson 
thinks it was so called from being the property of Grim 
of SWONA. Cf. Svinoe, Faroes. 

SWINTON (Duns). 1250, Swyntun. Prob. 'village of the 
swine;' O.E. stum, Icel. svin, Dan. sviin. Cf. DAL- 
SWINTON. Two in England. 

SWONA (Orkney). Orlmey. Sag., Sviney (see SWANNAY); 
other Sagas, Swefney. 

SYMINGTON (Ayr and Lanark). Ayr S., 1160, 'Inter terram 
Simonis Loccardi & Prestwick ;' 1293, ' Symondstona 
in Kyi.' Lanark S., c. 1189, Villa Symonis Lockard ; 
a. 1300, Symondstone. 'Abode, village of Simon Lock- 
hart,' a local knight. Cf. MILTON LOCKHART, and see 
ton, p. Ixx. 

T 

TAENDORE (Cromarty). Prob. ' house by the water ; ' G. Ugh 
(gen. teighe) an dobhair or dor; cf. TAYINLOAN, and W. 
ty, a house. 

TAIN (E. Koss-sh.). 1227, Tene ; 1483, Thane ; 1505, Tayn. 
Prob. Icel. ]>ing, a meeting. Cf. DINGWALL. 

TALISKER (Raasay). ? G. talamli uisge ard, ' high land by 
the water ' (uisge). Cf. ESK. The -sker might also be 
1ST. skjaer or G. sgor, a rock, a ' skerry.' 

TALLA (Tweeddale). Fr. W. root tal, 'that tops or fronts,' 
'a brow;' a name, as Prof. Veitch shows, very appro- 
priate to this precipitous burn. Cf. Taliessin of Strath- 
clyde, i.e., ' The Bright-browed.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 231 

TALMINE (Tongue). G. talamJi mln, ' smooth, level land.' 

TAMFOUR (Falkirk). 1617, Thomf our. G. torn f war, ' cold knoll. ' 
Form 1617 is an ignorant association with Thomas. 

TANNADICE (Forfar). 1250, Tanethais; 1322, Thanachayis. 
? G. deanaclidach, rough, fierce. 

TANNER WATER (Aberdeen). G. teannair is ' the noise of 
the sea in a cave ; ' possibly this may be ton dirde, ' the 
backside, rump of the height.' Of. Tandoo, Galloway. 

TANNIEROACH (Old Luce). Perh. G. and Ir. tamnach ruadh 
(here pron. roch), ' reddish meadow.' Cf. Tamnymartin 
and Tawnyeely, Ireland. 

TANTALLON CASTLE (N. Berwick), c. 1300, Dentaloune; 1481, 
Temptallon; 1572, Tomtallon (G. torn, a knoll). Prob. 
G. dun (W. din) talain, ' hill,' or ' fort of the feats of 
arms,' or perh. 'of the hall' (talla, -achan). For change 
of d into t, cf. DUBTON and EDDERTON. 

TARBAT (E. Ross), TARBET (L. Lomond and Kirkmaiden), 
TARBERT (L. Fyne, five in Mull, &c.). Ross T., 1227, 
Arterbert, i.e., ' high Tarbat.' Fyne T., Sagas, Torfnes. 
G. tairbeart, ' an isthmus,' lit. place over which a boat 
can be drawn, contracted fr. tarruing-bata or -bad, 
'boat-draught,' fr. tarruing, to draw (cf. O.W. bat, a 
boat). Both King Magnus Barefoot and Robert the 
Bruce dragged their galleys across Tarbert, Kintyre. 

TARBOLTON (Ayrsh.). Hybrid ; G. tbrr, a hill, mound, castle, 
+ BOLTON. 

TARFF (Kirkcudbright). G. tarbh, a bull. 

TARFSIDE (Edzell). Cf. above. The Tarf is a violent stream. 

TARLAND (Aboyne). 1183, Tarualund; a. 1300, Taruelayn, 
Tarhlund. Looks like G. tarbh-alachain or -uin, ' bull's 
keeping-place.' Can it be so ? The letter d is fond of 
suffixing itself (see p. xxxvii). Land is spelt land in 
O.E., Icel., Sw., and Dan. 

TARRADALE (Conon Bridge). 1240, Taruedal; c. 1320, 
TarrodalL Hybrid; 'bull's valley;' G. tarbh + N. dal. 

TARREL (Tarbat, Ross). 1571, Tarrall; 1579, -ell. Prob. 
G. tbrr dl, 'tower on the cliff. ' 

TARVES (Buchan). 1287, Taruays; a. 1300,Tarvas. Prob. 
G. tbrr bhdis, ' mound of death ' (bds). 



232 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

TARWILKIE (Balmaclellan). G. tlr guilcach, 'rushy land. 
Of. LYNWILG. 

TASSIESHOLM (Wamphray). Prob. G. tais, -se, moist, damp, 
soft, + HOLM, a riverside field. 

TAY, K. c. 80, Tacitus, Tavaus ; c. 600, Amra Columcille, 
Toi, Tai; a. 1100, St Berclian, Toe; a. 1150, Tey ; 
1199, Th ay; c. 1300, Tay. G. tamli, rest, quiet, slug- 
gishness, W. taw, smooth (cf. river Taw). Perh. G. 
t'abJi, ' the river,' cf. AWE. 

TAYCHREGGAN (L. Awe). G. tigh-a-chreagain, ( house by the 
little crag ' or rock. 

TAYINLOAN (Argyle). Prob. G. iigli (gen. teiglie) na loin. 
'house in the meadow,' or 'marsh.' 

TAYNUILT (L. Etive). In G. Ugh an uillt, 'house on the 
burn ' or brook ; G. allt, gen. uillt. 

TAYPORT (N. Fife). ' Harbour on the river TAY,' 

TAYVALLICH (Crinan). G. Ugh (gen. teiglie} b(h)attach, 
' lofty- walled ' or ' spotted house.' 

TEALING (Forfarsh.). 1639, Telin. ? G. Ugh linne (W. llyn\ 

' house by the water ' or ' pool.' 
TECHMUIRY (Fraserburgh). Prob. 'leper's hospital;' G. 

tigh t teighe, a house, and muire, leprosy. Cf. LIBERTON. 

TEE, Ben (Fort Augustus). Locally pron. Hee. 'Hill of 
peace,' G. slth or sin ; i.e. ' tame-looking hill.' 

TEITH, K. (S. Perthsh.). In G. Thaich ; prob. fr. G. tatc, 
strength, vigour. 

TEMA, K. (tributary of Ettrick). W. tamh, spreading, quiet, 
still. = Thames. 

TEMPLAND (Lockerbie). ' Land of the Knight Templars ;' 
or fr. G. teampull, a church, + O.E. land, land. 

TEMPLE (Gorebridge) and TEMPLELANDS (Strathmartine). 
Lands belonging to the Knight Templars. But G. 
teampull, L. templum, 'a church' built of stone, occurs 
as a name in Colonsay, Tyree, lona, Skye ; also Team- 
pull Columchille, Benbecula. 

TENANDRY (Blair Athole). Prob. G. Ugh nan doire, ' house in 
the grove.' But tenandry is also a charter-term, = tenancy. 

TERERRAN (Moniaive). G. tlr iaran, ' western land' or ' farm.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 233 

TERREGLES (Dumfries). c. 1240, Treueger ; prob. = G. 
treabliadh-garradli, 'ploughed land-enclosure,' i.e., 'a 
farm;' but 1350, Travereglys, i.e., G. treamhar eaglais 
(W. eglwys), 'farm by the church;' also 1461, Tor- 
riculis, Torrekillis. Cf. TRANENT, TRAQUAIR. 

TEIOT WATER. Pron. Teiit. Name of the valley of the 
Teviot above Hawick, not applied to the river Teviot 
itself. Cf. GALA WATER. 

TEVIOT, E. (Hawick), TEVIOTDALE, and TEVIOTHEAD. la. 
600, Avellencm, Teiwi; c. 1100, Teuegetedale ; c. 1150, 
Teswetadala ; c. 1160, Teuiot ; a. 1300, Tyvidale. Prob. 
fr. W. tyw, ' spreading around ' (cf. river Teifi in Wales, 
prob. = ' spreading stream'). Mention of the names Tyivi, 
Teifi is common in the earliest Welsh and Strathclyde 
literature. Dale is the O.E. dael, O.N. dal, a valley. 

TEXA (Islay). c. 1380, Fordun, Helan (G. eilean, island) 
texa; 1549, Munro, 'InErische,' i.e., Gaelic, 'Tisgay.' 
? G. teas-yaoth, a parching wind, fr. teas, heat, warmth. 

THANKERTON (Carstairs). c. 1180, Villa Thancardi, Tan- 
cardestun; c. 1320, Thankaristone. 'House' or 'village 
of Thancard.' Cf. Loch Thankard, old name of the 
Loch of Kilbirnie. Also formerly called Woodkirk. 

THIEVESHOLM (Orkney). See HOLM. The public gibbet 
once stood here. 

THOM, L. (Greenock). G. torn, a hill, knoll. Cf. TAMFOUR. 

THORNHILL (Dumfries, and E. of Monteith; three in Eng- 
land), THORNILEE (Renfrew; c. 1340, -yle), THORNLIE- 
BANK (Glasgow), THORNTON (Dysart, Keith; 1292, 
-tone ; twelve in England), THORNTONHALL (Busby). 

THORNKIP (Colvend). Fr. G. ceap, a stump, block. Cf. 
KIPPFORD, and Makeness Kipps, Eddleston. 

THREEPNEUK (Kirkcudbright) and THREEPWOOD (Lauder). 
Fr. M.E. threap, a scolding contest, fr. O.E. Ipreapin, 
to reprove, afflict. Neuk is, of course, Sc. for ' nook,' 
corner. 

THREPLAND (Biggar and Banff). Big. T., 1296, Threpeland. 
See above. 



234 PLACE-XAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

THROSK (S. Alloa). Prob. O.E. tlirisc, Icel. tlirost-r, a thrush. 
Of. Throston, Hartlepool. 

THRUMSTER (Wick). ? Icel. ]>ruma, a thunder-clap, + -ster 
= staftr, ' place (see p. Ixv). Perh. fr. a man, Thrym. 

THURSO (river and town). 1152, Thorsa (river); c. 1200, 
Hoveden, Turseha (town); c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., 
Thorsey (town); 1547, Thorso. O.K Thorsaa, the 
god 'Thor's river.' 

THURSTON (Berwick). 1292, Thureston. ' Thor's village.' 
Cf. Thurleigh, Thurlow, England. 

TIBBERMORE, -MURE (Perth). G. tiobar, a well, + moor. See 

MUIRAVON, MUIRDRUM. 

TIENDLAND (farm, Elgin). Tiend is Sc. for 'tithe;' Icel. 
tiund, Sw. tiende, a tenth. Cf. Merkland. 

TIGHARRY (L. Eport). G. tigli cliarraigli, 'house on the 
rock,' ch lost by aspiration. 

TIGHNABRUAICH (Kyles of Bute). G. = ' house on the bank, 
or slope.' Cf. Balnabruaich, Portmahomack. 

TILLICOULTRY (Dollar). Old, Tuligcultrin. G. tulacli cuil 
tire (W. tre), 'hill at the back of the land,' i.e., the 
carse of the Forth. Cf. COULTER. 

TILLIECHEWAN (Alexandria). G. tulacli cumliann, ' narrow 
hill.' 

TILLITUDLEM (Lanark). Fancy name of Sir W. Scott's in 
Old Mortality. The castle's real name is Craignethan. 

TILLYFOUR, -RIE (Alf ord). G. tulacli fuar or fuaraidh, ' cold, 
chilly hill.' 

TILLYMORGAN (Aberdeen). Here prob. G. teaglacli (pron. 
tella) Morgan, lit. 'the family,' hence, 'the ground 
belonging to the family, of Morgan.' 

TILT, R. (Perthsh.). 1564, 'Glentilth.' Rev. J. M'Lean, 
Pitilie, does not recognise this as Gaelic ; but surely it 
looks like G. tuUteach, flooding, overflowing, adjective 
fr. tuil, a flood. Perh. = G. fallt, 'the river' or 'glen.' 
Cf. TAY. 

TINGWALL (Scalloway). Saga, Thingavoll, and Orkney. Sag. 
mentions a Thingavoll (c. 1500, Tyngwale) in Rendale, 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 235 

Orkney, = DINGWALL, ' meeting of the Thing.' For 
Interchange of t and d, cf. Trondhjem and Drontheim. 

TINTO (hill, S. Lanark), c. 1320, Tintov. Prob. hill of 'the 
(signal-) fires, by the water,' i.e., the R. Clyde ; G. teinte- 
abh (cf. AWE, old Ow). The Mod. G. plural of teine, 
fire, is teintean, but the Ir. plural is teinte (cf. Tulla- 
tintin, Cavan, 'hill of the fires'). Knocktentol, Gal- 
loway, is G. cnoc tendail, ' hill of the bonfire.' 

TINWALD (Dumfries). O.N. tyinyvold, 'meeting-place,' lit. 
fold, 'of the Thing' or local assembly; O.E. fold, 
Dan. fold, a fold, pen. Cf. TINGWALL, and Thingvellir, 
Iceland. Also in Isle of Man. 

TIPPERLINN. Once a village, now name of a road in the 
south-west of Edinburgh. G. tiobar linne (W. ttyn), 
' well by the water ' or ' pool.' 

TIPPETCRAIG (Bonnybridge). Craig or rock tipped with a 
house. 

TIREE (Hebrides), a. 700, Adamnan, Terra Ethica; c. 1225, 
Orkney. Sag., Tyrvist; 1343, Tiryad; 1354, Tereyd; 
1409, Tyriage; also Terra Hith. Skene says, G. 
tir-i-odh, ' land of corn;' but Rhys, &c., think Hith or 
Ith is a legendary Scot, perh. uncle of Miled of the 
Irish legends. Several places called Mag-Ithe, ' plain of 
Ith,' in Ireland. 

TIRRY, E. (L. Shin). Prob. G. tuireadh, a lament, a 

dirge. 
TOB (Lewis). G. fob, 'the bay' or 'little bay.' 

TOBERMORY (Mull), (c. 1200, Bk. of Scon, a 'Tubermore.') 
1540, Tibbirmore. G. and Ir. tobar Moire, 'well of 
the Virgin Mary,' = LADYWELL. Cf. Toberonochy, 
Luing. In a Moray charter, temp. Alexander II., 
are ' Tubernacrumkel ' and ' Tubernafein.' 

TOCHIENEAL (Banff). 1' House of the fishing station;' G. 
Ugh an iola, or ' of the shout ' (G. iolach). The G. tochar 
means 'a causeway' and 'a dowry;' but the r would 
not easily disappear. 

TOD RIG (Kirkinner). 'Hill of the fox;' Sc. tod, so called 
fr. his bushy tail, fr. Icel. toddi, a mass of wool. See 
RIGG; and cf. 'Todholys,' 1376, in Liddesdale. 



236 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

TOFTCOMBS (Biggar). Dan. toff, a field ; cf. Icel. to])t, tott, 
land, + O.E. comb, cumb, a vessel, a valley, cf. W. 3wm,, 
a hollow. Cf. COOMLEES. 

TOLLCROSS (Glasgow, Edinburgh). 

TOLSTA HEAD (Lewis). ' Place of the toll ' or ' custom-dues ;' 
Icel. toll-Tj Dan. told. On sta = staftr, place, see p. Ixv. 

TOM-A-MHOID (Dunoon). G. = ' hill, knoll of the court of 
justice ; ' G. mod, a court, assembly. 

TOMATIN (Carr Bridge). G. tom-a-teine, ' hill, knoll of the 
fire.' 

TOMBEA (Pass of Leni). Pron. -bay. ' Hill of the birches ; ' 
G. beath. Cf. AULTBEA. 

TOMICH (Beauly). G. tomach, ' full of knolls,' G. torn. 

TOMINTOUL (Ballindalloch). Pron. -t6wl. Prob. G. toman 
tuathealj 'northern little hill.' 

TOMNAHURICH (Inverness). Prob., says Prof. M'Kinnon, G. 
torn na h'iubhraich, ' hillock with the juniper bushes ; ' 
G. iubhar, a yew. lubrach also means a 'boat,' as in 
Portnachuraich, lona, and may do so here. 

TOMNAVOULIN (Gleiilivet). ' Knoll of the mill ; ' G. torn na 
mlmilinn. 

TONGUE (N. Sutherland, and three in Galloway). 1542, 
Toung. N". tunga, ' a tongue, spit of land.' Two Tongs 
in England. 

TONGUELAND (Kirkcudbright). 1461, Tungland. 

TORBANEHILL (Bathgate). Tautology; G. torr ban, 'white 
hill ' or ' mound.' Tor is the common name for a hill 
in Devon and Cornwall. 

TORBOLL (Sutherland), c. 1230, Thoreboll; 1575, Thuri- 
boll. =THURSTON. The god ' Thor's place.' On bol, 
bolstaftr, 'place,' see p. Ixiv. 

TORDUFF (Currie). a. 1200, Turdaphe. G. torr dubh, 
' black hill' or 'tower.' 

TORE (Inverness). G. torr, a heap, mound, fort, Ir. tor, W. 
tur, a tower. Cf. Tur, W. Calder. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 237 

TORLANE (Kirkcudbright). G. tdrr leathann (pron. lahan), 
'broad hill.' 

TORNESS (Inverness). G. tdrr, a hill, a castle, or from the 
god Thor, cf. TORBOLL; + NESS. 

TOROSAY (Mull). Sic 1390; 1561, Toirrasa. 1 G. tdrr 
rasaclt, 'hill, mound covered with shrubs,' with ending 
influenced by O.N. ay, ey, a, island. 

TORPHICHEN (Bathgate). Sic 1540; but 1296, Thorfighyn, 
Torphychin. G. tdrr phigheainn, ' magpie's hill.' 

TORPHINS (Aboyne). G. tdrr fionn, 'white, clear hill,' with 
the common Eng. plural. 

TORRANCE OF CAMPSiE. Prob. G. tormnach, ' abounding in 
hills' or 'knolls.' See CAMPSIE. 

TORRIDON (W. Ross). 1633, -den, Prob. G. tdrr-a-duin, 
'hill, knoll of the fort.' 

TORRY (Aberdeen). G. torran, ' a little hill.' 
TORRYBURN (Dunfermline). 

TORSONCE (Stow). Prob. G. tdrr sonnaicli, 'hill with the 
palisade, wall,' or 'fort.' 

TORTHORWALD (Dumfries). 1287, -thorald; 1297, Thorthar- 
alde. Might be ' hill of Thorold;' or a hybrid, G. tdrr, 
a hill, + JS r . Thorvold, ' meeting, assembly in honour of 
the god Thor.' See TINWALD. 

TOR WOOD (Larbert) and TORWOODLEE (Peebles). Larb. T., 
c. 1140, Keltor, i.e., G. coil tdrr, 'wood of the hill' or 
* fort ; ' so that Torwood is half a translation of Keltor. 
See LEE. 

TOUGH (Alford). Pron. Toogh. 1605, Towch ; but c. 1550, 
'Tulluch or Tough,' i.e., G. tulach, a hill, mound, or 
Hugh, thick, dense, closely set. 

TOWARD (Rothesay). Sic 1498. ? G. taoWi ard, lit. 'direc- 
tion-height,' i.e., cape by which to steer one's course. 

TOWIE (Alford). Perh. G. tomhach, 'full of knolls;' cf. 

TOMICH. 

TOWNHEAD (Glasgow, Castle-Douglas), TOWNHILL (Dunferm- 
line, &c.). 

TOXSIDE (Gorebridge). Prob. fr. G. toch, thigh, hough of an 
animal, or toic, a swelling. 



238 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

TRADESTON (Glasgow). The ground here was bought in 
1790 by the Glasgow 'Trades' House,' and laid out by 
them. 

TRAILTROW (Dumfries). Old, Travertrold. Hybrid; 'fairy's 
farm,' G. treamhar, a farm (cf. TRANENT), + Dan. and 
Sw. trold, Icel. troll, a kind of fairy, 'Kobin Good- 
fellow.' Of. Pow for G. poll. 

TRANABY ( Westray). ' Cranes' abode ; ' Icel. trani, Dan. 
trane, + ly, bi, dwelling. Cf. CANISBAY. 

TRANENT (Haddington). c. 1147, Trauernent ; c. 1210, 
Tranent. G. treamhar (pron. traver), ' farm,' lit. 
ploughed land 'in the dell' or 'by the stream' (W. 
nant). 

TRANTLEBEG (Forsinard). Prob. G. traona-thuil beay, ' little 
stream (cf. DUTHIL) of the corn-craik ' (traona). 

TRAPRAIN LAND (Haddington). (1150, Dunpelder.) Perh. 
W. tre, tra pren, 'house by the tree.' 

TRAQUAIR (Peebles). Sic 1265; but 1116, Treverquyrd; c. 
1140, Trauequair ; 1174, Trauercuer ; 1506, Trawere. 
''Farm (G. treamhar, cf. TRANENT) on QUAIR Water/ 
The first syllable of Trabroun and Trahenna in the same 
locality may have the same origin. As likely fr. "W. 
tra, tre, and Corn, trev, tref, house, home. Two instances 
of Tre- in Stratherrick, Loch Ness, showing perh. the 
extreme limit of Brythonic influence. 

TRESHNISH ISLES (Mull). Prob. Icel. tre, gen. tres, a tree, 
wood, + nish, nces, a ness, cape, or G. innis, island, 
' inch ; ' these two often are confused. Cf. SKIPNESS, 
&c. 

TRESTA (Shetland). Icel. tre-sta$r, ' tree-place ; ' cf. p. Ixv. 
Trees are very rare in Shetland. 

TRILLEACHAN, Ben (L. Etive). G. for ' the pied oyster- 
catcher.' 

TRINAFOUR (Struan). Said to be = BALFOUR, ' cold (G. fuar) 
village.' Cf. Corn, tre, tra, W. tref, trev, Ir. treb, 
house, town. 

TRINITY (Edinburgh) and TRINITY GASK (Crieff). Fancy 
name. A ' Trinity Lodge,' where Trinity now is, is 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 239 

found advertised in 1783. Gask is for G. crosg, a pass, 
crossing. See ARNGASK. 

TROCHRY (Dunkelcl). c. 1650, -rig. G. troch, bad, dan- 
gerous, + Sc. rig or ridge. See RIGG. 

TROON (Ayr). Peril. G. troman, 'the dwarf elder,' m being 
lost by aspiration. Also near Camborne. 

TROQUEER (Dumfries). c. 1380, Treqvere also Traquire. 

Prob. = TRAQUAIR, 'green farm.' Cf. Trowier Hill, 

Girvan. 
TROSACHS (Callander). Said to be G. for ' bristled territory,' 

with the common Eng. plural. 
TROUP HEAD (Banff). 1654, Trowp ; peril. Torfiies of Sagas. 

G. trup is just 'a troop.' Meaning here doubtful. 
TROTTERNISH (Skye) and TRUDDERNISH (Islay). Skye T., 

1309, Trouternesj 1573, -tyrnes; ? 1588, Trotwayshe. 

Both are said to mean ' enchanted cape ' or * ness ; ' 

O.N. nces or nisli. Cf. Icel. truftra, a juggler. 
TRUFF HILL (Wigtown). By common transposition of r, 

1 turf hill ; ' O.E. turf, Icel. and Sw. torf. 
TUACK (hill, Kintore). Peril. G. tuamacli, 'abounding in 

graves,' or tuadh or tuagli, an axe. 
TULLIALLAN (Diuifennline). G. tulach dileinn, ' hill by the 

meadow,' or fr. aluinn, ' exceeding fair, beautiful,' like 

Tullyallen on the Boyne ; Ir. tulaigli alainn. 
TULLIBARDINE (CriefT). 1461, Tulybardyn and -bardy. ' Hill, 

mound of the warning ; ' G. bardainn. 
TULLIBODY (Alloa). c. 1150, Dunbodenum; 1195, Tulli- 

botheny; also Tuligbotuan. 'Hill, mound (G. tulach 

or dun) of the hut ' or ' cottage ; ' G. bothan, -ain. 
TULLOCH (Dingwall). 1542, Tulche. G. tulach, a hill, hillock. 
TULLYBOLE (Kinross). 1685, Tulliboal. Perh. 'hill of the 

smell, stink ' (G. boladh), or ' of the pool ' (G. boll for 

poll, as in BOLESKINE). Hardly fr. the N. bol, place. 
TULLYMET (Ballinluig). c. 1200, Tulichmet, Tulimath. Prob. 

' rich, fat, fertile (G. mcith) hill.' 
TULLYNESSLE (Alford). a. 1300, Tulynestyn; a. 1 500, -restil. 

Perh! 'hill of the charm, spell;' G. tulach-an-eoide (cf. 

ESSLEMONT). In the same district, a. 1300, we find 

'Tulynahtlayk.' 



240 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

TULLYPOWRIE (Perthsh.). G. tulacli fuarach, * chilly hill/ 
For p pro / in this district, cf. BONSKIED. 

TUMMEL, E. (Perthsh.). G. tum-allt, 'plunging stream,' fr. 
turn, to dip, plunge. 

TUNDERGARTH (Lockerbie). Prob. ' fallow field or enclosure/ 
fr. W. tyndir, 'ley land' or fallow, fr. tyn, stubborn, 
rigid, -f garth, see APPLEGARTH. The Icel. and Dan. 
tondr, tundr, O.E, tynder, is 'tinder.' 

TURC, Ben (Glen Shee and Argyle), and BRIG o' TURK (L. 
Katrine). G. tore, tulrc, a wild boar. Cf. Altaturk, 
Ireland. 

TURNBERRY CASTLE (Ayrsh.). c. 1200, Turnebiri; 1286, 
-byry. Prob. hybrid ; G. tor ran, a hillock, + O.E. 
byrig or burg, a fortified place, castle, cf. QUEENSBERRY. 
Turn may just mean ' turn ' or ' corner.' 

TURRET WATER (Crieff). 1 G. tumid, a turret, fr. the shape 
of the rocks here. 

TURRIFF (Aberdeensh.). a. 1000, Bit. Deer, Turbruad; a. 
1300, Turrech ; a. 1500, Turreff. Case of a name which 
has changed ; at first G. tdrr bruid, ' hill of anguish ' or 
' of the stab;' or, possibly, ' fort of Brud-e;' but a. 1500, 
'hill' or ' fort in the field' (G. achadh); and now, ' hiir 
or ' fort by the stream,' G. abh. 

TWATT (Stromness). Icel. tyveit, a 'thwaite, a place.' Cf. 

MURRAYTHWAITE. 

TWEED, E,., and TWEEDSMUIR (Peebles). 1 a. 600, Avellanau, 
Tywi; c. 966, Pict. Chron., Tede; a. 1150, Thveda ; 
c. 1160, Tweda. Prob. W. tivyad, 'a hemming in,' fr. 
tioy, to check or bound. 

TWYNHOLM (Kirkcudbright). 1605, Twyneme, i.e., Twynham. 
O.E. tweon, 'between,'and HOLM or ham, which constantly 
interchange ; holm is ' meadow,' ham is house, home. 
Cf. the Roman ' Interamna,' and Twineham, Sussex. 

TYDEAVERYS (Balmaclellan). Old, Tydauarries. G. fiidan 
bharra, ' the little heap on the top ' or ' height ' (barr). 
Cf. Tudhope. The s is the common Eng. plural. 

TYNDRUM (K-W. Perth). G. teinedruim, 'hill-ridge of the 
fire.' Cf. DRUM. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 241 

TYNE, R. (Haddington). Perh. fr. W. tynu, to draw, pull, or 
Gr. teann, to move, stir, proceed. More likely fr. W. 
tynoy a green plot, a dale. Also in England. 

TYNECASTLE (Edinburgh). 

TYNETT. Doubtful ; -ett may be G. dth, a ford. 

TYNINGHAME (Haddington). a. 1130, Sim. Durham, ann. 
756, Tiningaham; 1265, Tynynham; perh. Bede's 
Incuneninghum, c for t. A unique name in Scotland. 
Prob. ' home of the dwellers on the Tyne ' see p. Ixxv, 
and Ixxvi note. On the Tyne also stands Tyneholm. 

TYNRON (Moniaive). Prob. G. teine sron, ' beacon -fire point.' 
Cf. CAMERON. 

TYRIE (Fraserburgh and Kirkcaldy). Fras. T., a. 1300, 
Tyry. G. tlr, tire, 'land.' Cf. STRATHYKE and 
ALTYRE. 

u 

UAMVAR. G. uamli-a-Wiarra, 'cave on the height' or 'hill- 
top ' (barr). Cf. WEEM and LOCHINVAR. 

UDDINGSTON (Glasgow). Perh. ' village of the god Odin ' or 
' Woden ' (cf. THURSTON). But the name Udstoii close 
by seems to point to some man Ud. 

UDNY (Ellon). 1417, Uldnay. Prob. G. allt an bfieath, 
' river of the birches ; ' bh lost by aspiration, cf. ALLO- 
WAY ; and AULDEARN. 

UIG (Skye and Lewis). Skye U., 1512, Wig; 1552, Vig. 
Lewis U., 1549, Vye; c. 1620, Oig, Vyg. G. uig, a 
nook, retired cove, influenced by Icel. vik, a small bay. 
Cf. WICK. 

UISKENTUIE (Islay). G. uisg'an tsuidhe, 'water of the seat,' 
place where funerals used to halt to rest and drink 
'whisky.' Cf. BEALLACHANTUIE. 

UIST (Outer Hebrides). 1282, luist; 1292, Guist; also 
Ewyst (the pron. now) and Uibhist. Icel. i-vist, an 
abode, lit. in-dwelling. Vist is the same root as Ger. 
wesen and Eng. was. 

ULBSTER (Wick). Prob. O.N". ulf-bustar, 'wolfs abode.' 
Cf. ULVA, and see p. Ixiv. Perh. fr. a man named Ulf. 

ULLADALE. O.K Uladalr; perh. fr. G. ulai, 'washing, 



242 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

fulling,' + N. dal, dale. But cf. Ir. uladh (pron. ulla), 
' a tomb, cairn,' as in Kilulla, Clare. 

ULLAPOOL (W. Ross-sh.). See above. Pool is G. and Ir. 
poll, a pool or water (cf. POLKEBUCK). Some think 
Ulla- is fr. King Olaf (cf. OLLABERRY). There seems no 
local tradition in re. An 'Ulyshaven' is found in 
Forfarshire, c. 1415. 

ULLTE STRATH. Through this the river Helmsdale flows. 

Perh. Ptolemy 1 s Ila. Of. ULLADALE and ISLAY. 
ULLOCHHILL (Kirkcudbright). G. uallacli, proud, i.e., high. 
ULSTA (Shetland). Prob. = ULBSTER, ' wolfs place ; ' N. stadr. 
ULVA (Aros). 1473, Ulway. ' Wolfs isle ; ' Icel. ulf-r, Dan. 

and Sw. ulv, a wolf, + ay, ey, a, isle. 
UNGANAB (N. Uist). G. = ' ounce-land of the abbot,' Old G. 

unga, L. uncia, an ounce, i.e., the rent was an ounce of 

silver. See p. Ivii, and cf. BALNAB. 
UNICH K, (Edzell). G. uinich, 'bustle,' 'hurry.' It is a 

rapid stream. 

UNST (Shetland). Sagas, Ornyst, Ormst, Aumstr. Doubtful. 
UNTHANK (farm, Biggar, and burn near Mosspaul). Mosspaul 

U., 1228, Vnthanc; 1290, Wnthanke. O.E. un-]>anc 

means ' ingratitude,' prob. here referring to the barren 

soil. Cf. Winthank, St Andrews. 
UPHALL (Bathgate). 
UPLAWMOOR (Neilston). Cf. LAW. 
URIB, URY (Aberdeensh.). Forms, see INVERURIE. Either 

G. iuWiaracU, ' abounding in yews ' (G. iuWiar, pron. 

yure), or = URR. 
URQUHART (Conoii Bridge, Inverness, Elgin, Fife). Inver. 

U., a. 700, Adamnan, Airchartan; a. 1150, Urchard. 

Elgin U., c. 1340, Urquhart ; also Owrchard. CononTL, 

1340, Urchard. Dr M'Lauchlan says its G. form is 

Urchudain, fr. urcJt, a knoll, and din, a fort. But 

Airchartan and Urchard look more like G. ard-a-cheaird 

or ch ear dart, 'height of the smith' (ceard); or, quite 

possibly, the first syllable may be = URR, ' water.' 
URR (Dalbeattie). 1607, Or. Generally thought = Basque 

ur, 'water;' cognate with G. and Ir. dobhar or dor, W. 

dwr, water, a river. Cf. DOUR, 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 243* 

URRAY (Muir of Orel). 1546, Vrray ; c. 1565, Vurray. Prob. 
Old G. ur reidh, 'smooth water.' Cf. above, and ARAY. 

USSIE (glen, Conon Bridge). Perh. G. easach, 'abounding in 
falls,' G. eas. 

UYEA SOUND (Unst). 

v 

VALE OF LEVEN (Dumbarton). See LEVEN. 

VATERNISH or WAT- (N. Skye). 1501, Watternes. Prob. 
'water-peninsula,' O.E. wceter, cf. Icel. vain, water, 
and Waterford, Ireland, i.e., ' water-fjord ;' + O.N\ noes- 
or nisli, ' ness/ peninsula, lit. nose. 

VEIRA (Rousay). Either fr. Icel. ver, the sea, then a fishing 

station, cf. Eng. weir, O.E. wer, a fence, enclosure for 

fish ; or O.N. vigr, a bay, + ay, ey, a, island. 
VELLORE (Polmont). G. mheall odhar (pron. our), 'grey 

hill.' ' Cf. MEAL, EOURVOUNIE. 
VENLAW (Peebles). iSVc 1469. Tautology ; G. Wieinn + Eng. 

LAW, both = 'hill.' Cf. Penlaw, Dumfries. 
VENNACHAR, L. (Callander). G. Wieinn na char, ' hill with 

the bend or turn,' G. car. 
VENUE, Ben (Trossachs). Said to be G. meanb/i, with the m 

aspirated, meaning 'little,' as compared with its big 

neighbour Ben Ledi. Cf. YARROW. 
VICE, Lochan of (Ttmgland). Old, Voyis, G. lochan is ' a 

little loch.' Vice is doubtful. 
VIOLIN (Shetland). Icel. vid-r, Dan. and Sw. vid, wide ; -lin 

may perh. be N. hind, a grove. The N. lun means 

' sheltered.' 
VIGEANS, St (Arbroath). Vigeanus is the Latin form of St 

Fechan, abbot of Fother, West Meath, d. 664; cf. 

ECCLEFECHAN. 

VIRKIE (Dunrossness). Icel. virki, a work, bulwark, castle ; 

cf. ' outworks,' and WORK Head. 
VOE (Shetland). Icel. v'6-r, a little bay, inlet. Common in 

Shetland Burra Voe, Hamma Voe, &c. 
VOIL, L. (Strathyre). Possibly aspirated form of G. moil, 

a heap, or of boil, fury, rage. 



244 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

YOIRLICH, Ben (L. Lomond). G. mhor leaa, 'big, flat rock,' 
or fr. leacach, ' bare summit of a hill.' 

VRACKIE, or BHRAGGIE, Ben (Golspie). G. Ihreac, Ihrice, 
spotted, speckled. Of. BREAKACHY. 

YUILLIN, Scuir (Achnasheen). G. sgdr-a-mhuitinn, 'rock 
of the mill.' 

w 

WADDENSHOPE (Glensax, near Yarrow). 1262, Waltamshope, 
which is said to mean the Saxon god ' Wodin's valley.' 
Of course Waltliam is also a man's name. On hope, 
see HOBKIRK. 

WALKERBURN (Innerleithen). Burn or stream where the 
wauking or fulling or dressing of cloth was done ; O.E. 
wealcere, a fuller. See WAUK MILL, and cf. Walkern. 
England. 

WALLACESTONE (Polmont). The stone commemorating 
Wallace's Battle of Falkirk, 1298. 

WALLACE-TOWN (Ayr). Old, Walenseton. ' Abode, village of 
the strangers' or ' WelshJ i.e., Brythons from Strathclyde; 
O.E. wcelise, ivelise, a foreigner. In the first charter 
of Paisley, 1160, we find 'Kicardo Walas,' perh. earliest 
Sc. mention of the name Wallace. Le Waleys (after- 
wards Wallis) was a common Eng. name in the 13th 
century. Cf. Wales, Sheffield, and Walesby; also 
GALSTON. ' Wallachia ' has a similar origin. 

WALLS (Hoy and Shetland). Hoy W., c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., 
Yagaland ; also Saga, Yaley. Thought to be ' isle of 
the strangers ' (cf. O.E. loealh, a foreigner) ; this is 
doubtful. Val- might be Dan. val, Sw. vail, a wall, 
rampart. 

WALSTON (Biggar). 1293, Walyston, -lliston. = WALLACE- 
TOWN. Cf. Walsham, Suffolk. 

WAMPHRAY (Beattock). Prob. G. uamli-a-pliraimli, ' cave of 
slumber' or 'sorrow.' Cf. UAMVAR. 

WANDEL (Lamington). Also called Hartside. c. 1116, 
Quendal. O.E. cwen, a woman, a 'queen,' Icel, kvdn, 
a wife, + O.E. dael, Icel. and IS", dal, a dale, valley. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 245 

WANLOCK WATER and WANLOCKHEAD (Sanquhar). Can this 
mean 'stream like a woman's ringlet' or 'curl' (O.E. 
locc, Icel. lokk-r)1 Of. WANDEL. To the east lies 
Midlock Water. 

WARDIE (Edinburgh). Wardie is a man's name. Cf. 
WARRISTON and Wardington, Banbury. 

WARDLAWHILL (Glasgow). 

WARRISTON (Edinburgh). Prob. ' Wardie 1 s abode ' or 'village.' 
Cf. above. 

WARTHILL (Aberdeen). Prob. fr. its shape, fr. wart, O.E. 
wearte, Icel. varta. 

WATERBECK (Ecclef echan). Tautology ; here water and beck 
(Icel. bekk-r, Dan. baeTc) both mean ' brook ' (cf. Wans- 
beckwater). The O.E. form and sound, waeter, is still 
preserved on the Scottish border. Cf., too, GALAWATER. 

WATERNISH. See VATERNISH. 
WATERSIDE (Fenwick). Also in Essex. 

WATTEN (Wick), c. 1230, Watne. Icel. vatn, water, a 
loch. 

WAUCHOPDALE (Langholm). 1220, Walleuhope ; 1247, 
Waluchop ; c. 1330, Wachopdale ; 1340, Walghopp. 
Prob. fr. O.E. wealg, Icel. valg-r, volg-r, warm, lukewarm, 
+ hope, a shut-in valley ; see HOBKIRK. 

WAUK MILL (Haddington, &c.). 1561, Walkmiln. 1587, 
'The Waulk Miln of Partick.' Sc. loauk is 'to full' or 
'dress cloth,' O.E. ivealcan, to turn about, Icel. vdlka, 
Dan. valke, to full, cognate with Eng. walk and L. 
calcare. 

WEDALE (Galashiels). Sic c. 1160. O.E. wd-dad (in Dan. 
vee-dal), 'vale of woe,' so called by the Angles from their 
great defeat there by King Arthur. 

WEDDERBURN (Borders). 1300, Wederburn. Sc. wedder, 
O.E. wether, a wether or ram. 

WEEM (Aberfeldy). G. uamh, here pron. warn. Cf. 
UAMVAR and WEMYSS. An old Ir. MS. mentions a 
high mountain near Dull, called Doilweme. 

WEIR, or WYRE (Orkney). Sic Jo. Sen, 1529 ; but c. 1225, 

Y 



246 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Orkney. Sag., Vigr ; c. 1500, Wyir. Vigr is prob. 
the O.K for 'a bay.' 

WELLBANK (Monikie). 

WBMYSS, E. and W. (Fife), and WEMYSS BAY (Largs). 
Fife W., 1239, Wemys ; 1639, Easter Weimes. = 
WEEM, 'a cave,' with the common Eng. plural s. 
There is a Port Wemyss in Islay. 

WEST BARNS, CALDER, LINTON, &c. See CALDER, &c. 

WESTERDALE (Halkirk), WESTERKIRK (Langholm). Icel. 
vest-r, the west; but Westerkirk is found from 1296 
to 1641 as Westerker (cf. CARR), and in 1322 as 
Watsterker. 

WESTRAW (Lanark). ' West row ; ' O.E. raw. 

WESTRAY and PAPA WESTRAY (Orkney). Orkney. Sag., 
Westray; c. 1260, Vesturey. O.K or Icel., vestr-ey or 
-ay, l western isle.' See PAPA, 

WEYDALE (Thurso). Prob. l valley (Icel. and ~N. dal) of the 
road ' or ' way ; ' Icel. veg-r, Dan. vei. 

WHALSAY (Shetland). Saga, Hvalsey, i.e., ' whale's isle ; ' 
Icel. hval-r, Dan. and Sw. lival, a whale. 

WHAUPHILL (Wigtown). Se. ivhaup is ' a curlew,' fr. O.E. 
luveop, wop, a cry. 

WHIFFLET (Airdrie). Prof. Rhys suggests to me 'whin 
(i.e., furze-covered) flat ; ' as likely ' white (in names 
often pron. whit) flat.' On flat, cf. SKINFLATS. 

WHINNEYLEGGATE, -LIGGATE (Kirkcudbright). With whinny, 
i.e., full of whins or furze, cf. W. cliwyn, weeds. 
Liggate is a gate-post; O.E. leag-geat, 'field-post.' Cf. 
Liggatcheek in Dairy. 

WHINNYFOLD (Cruden). Prob. 'enclosure or fold full of 
wliins ' or furze bushes. 

WHITBURN (Bathgate). ' White stream ; ' O.E. htoit, Icel. 
hvit-r, white. Also near Sunderland. 

WHITEBRIDGE (Fort Augustus), WHITECAIRNS (Aberdeen), 
WHITEHILL (New Deer; Aberdour,Fife; Kirkcudbright), 
WHITEHILLS (Banff, Sorbie), WHITEHOUSE (Edinburgh, 
Argyle, Aberdeen), WHITEKIRK (Prestonkirk), WHITE- 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 247 

NESS (Shetland), WHITERIGG (Airdrie, 1572 Quhitrig; 

see BJGG), WHITEVALE (Glasgow). 
WHITEFARLAND (Arran). 
WHITEINCH (Glasgow). 'White meadow' or 'links;' G. 

innis. Cf. INCH. 
WHITEMIRE (Forres). ' White-looking swamp ; ' Icel. myrr, 

myri, N. myre, a swamp, fen, cognate with the Eng. 

moor. Cf. MYRESIDE. and ' Wytteriggemyre,' temp. 

William the Lion, in Newbatite Chart 

WHIT(T)EN HEAD. See its Gaelic form, KENNAGEALL. 

WHITERASHES (Aberdeen). Rashes is Sc. for 'rushes,' O.E. 
risce, a rush. Cf. Eashiehill, Stirlingshire. 

WHITHORN (Wigtown). Early Latin writers, ' Candida Casa ; ' 
1296, Candida Case; O.E. chron., Hwiterne; 1159, 
Whitherne; 1250, Witernen; 1498, Quhithern; a very 
old MS. has the form Futerne, with which cf. the 
common Aberdeen / for wh, foo for who, far for where, 
&c. O.E. hwit erne, ' white house ' or ' cot,' is a transla- 
tion of Candida Casa, the clay house built by St Ninian, 
c. 390. There is a Blackerne in Kirkcudbright. 

WHITING BAY (Arran). Named from the fish of that name. 
Whiting lit. means ' little white thing.' 

WHITLETTS (Ayr). Perh. ' white flats,' and so perh. = 
WHIFFLET. 

WHITSOME (Chirnside). 1300, Quitesum. Prob. ham, i.e., 
' home of White,' some man, cf. p. Ixxvi. Of course, 
qu was a true guttural in Old Scots, and in form 1300 
is = the O.E. hw. 

WHITTINGHAM (Haddington). 1250, Whitingham. Prob. 
'home (O.E. ham) of Whiting,'' i.e., 'the little white 
man.' Also in Northumberland, and near Preston. 

WICK. Sic in Barlour, c. 1375; but 1140, Yik; 1455, 
Weke. Icel. viJc, a (little) bay, in Sw. ivik. 

W r iDEWALL (S. Eonaldsay). c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Yidi- 
vag(r), i.e., 'beacon voe ' or 'bay.' 

WIESDALE, WEIS- (Voe, Shetland). Perh. ' hissing valley ; ' 
Icel. hvaesa, Dan. hvaese, to hiss, the Eng. wheeze. Cf. 
Glen LOY. Perh. = W T EDALE. 



248 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

WIGTOWN. 1283, Wyggeton ; c. 1565, Wigston. 'Dwelling, 
village on the bay;' O.E. wic, O.IST. vigr. See ton, p. 
Ixxiv, and cf. Wigg, Whithorn. 

WILKIESTON (Ratho). The name Willtie is fr. G. guilcacli, 
rushy, fr. giolc, a rush. 

WILSONTOWN (Auchengray). 

WILTON (Hawick). c. 1170, 'Ecclesia de Wilthona or 
Wiltona ;' 1186, Wiltun. ' Abode, village (O.E. tun) of 
Will? i.e., William. Two in England. 

WINCHBURGH (Linlithgow). Peril. ' castle (O.E. lurJi, cf. 
BORGUE) with the winch (O.E. ivince), crane, or hoisting 
machine,' or fr. tvench (M.E. wenche), a (young) woman. 
Cf. Winchcombe, Winchfield. 

WINDMILL HILL (Motherwell). Also at Gateshead. 

WINDLESTRAE LAW (Tweeddalc). Sc. for ' windlestraw hill ; ' 
O.E. windelstreow properly means ' straw for plaiting,' 
fr. windelj a basket. 

WINDYGATES (Markiiich). Gate in Sc. is a way, road, 
though O.E. geat means ' a gate.' 

W r iNDY GOUL (Queen's Park, Edinburgh). G. and Ir. 
gablial, a fork, a pass. Cf. Ardgoul, Ireland. 

WINTON (Ormiston). c. 1 1 60, Wynton ; 1 2 1 0, Winton. Prob. 
' windy abode, village ;' O.E.?mi<i,wmd,in Sc. ivm\wun'. 

WIRRAN (hill, Lethnot, Eorfarsh.). G. fhuaran, a spring of 
water. 

WISHAW (Lanark). Prob. as next ; * Wice ' or ' Wisclie's 
wood ' or SHAW. 

WISTON (Biggar). c. 1155, Ecclesia de Wicestun; 1159, 
Ecclesia ville Withce; c. 1190, Ecclesia de Wische; 
1406, Wyston. This knight of the 12th century, 
Witlice or Wice, is well known from his charters. (See 
ton, p. Ixxiv. Also near Haverford West.) 

WOODBURN (Falkirk), WOODHEAD (Fyvie), WOODSIDE (Glas- 
gow and Aberdeen). 

WORK HEAD (Kirkwall). Icel. virfci, a work, bulwark, 
castle, cognate with verJc, work. Cf. VIRKIE. 

WORMIT (N. Fife). 1517, -et. Peril, 'warm place;' Icel. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 249 

varm-r, fern, vorm, O.E. wearm, warm ; perh. from O.E. 

wyrm, a serpent, worm. Worm- is common in Eng. 

names Wormelow, Wormley, &c. On the ending -et, 

cf. thicket, BLAIKET, &c. 
WRAE (Tweeddale). N. wraa, ra, a corner, a landmark ; cf. 

wry, fr. O.E. wrigian, to bend. Cf. Woodwrae, Fin- 
haven, in 1549, Woodwra. 
WRAITH (Berwick). G. rath, a circular earthen fort, a 

rampart. Cf. EAITH. 

WRATH CAPE. Icel. hvarf, a turning out of sight, a shelter, 
f r. hverfa, to turn round. 

WYSEBY (Kirtlebridge). Prob. ' dwelling, village (Dan. and 

northern O.E. by, bi) of a man Wyse.' 
WYVJS, Ben (Dingwall). 1608, Weyes. Doubtful; possibly 

corruption of G. uamh, a cave, with the common Eng. 

plural s. Cf. WEMYSS. 

T 

YARROCK, Port (Whithorn). Skene thinks this is the 
Beruvik of Nidi's Saga (cf. BERWICK) ; but, as it stands, 
prob. G. garbh achabh, 'rough field.' Cf. next. 

YARROW (Selkirk). Also called ' St Mary's Kirk of Lowis ; ' 
c. 1120, Gierua. G. garbh abk, 'rough stream.' Cf. 
VENUE, and Yar on Tweed. 

YELL, Mid, K, and S. (Shetland). Sagas, Jala, Ala; 1586, 
Jella, Yella. Icel. gelid, gall, barren. Cf. JAWCRAIG. 

YESTER (Haddington). 1295, Yestre, older Ystrad, which 
is W. for ' valley ' = G. srad or 'strath;' cf. Estra- 
hannent, s.v. ANNANDALE. Yester is just on the brim 
of the Damnonian region ; see p. xxv. 

YETHOLM (Kelso). 1233, Jetham ; 1297, Yetham; also 
Zethame, Yettame : c. 1420, Kirkyethame ; 1608, Toun- 
Yettam. ' Hamlet at the gate ' (on the Borders pron. yet, 
O.E. geat) between England and Scotland. See HOLM. 
With c. 1420 and 1608, cf. GOLSPIE. 

YOKER (Glasgow). Sic 1505; 1804, Yocker. G. iochdar, 
iocar, the bottom, low-lying ground. 



250 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

YORKHILL (Glasgow). 

YOUCHTRIE HEUGH (Kirkmaiden). G. and Ir. uachdarach, 

upper ; cf. the names in Aucliter-. Heugh is = HAUGH, 

a hill. 
YTHAN, E. (Ellon). Prob. = ETHiE; c. 1212, Athyn, i.e., G. 

athan, a little ford. 

z 

ZETLAND. See SHETLAND. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 

OF 

PLACE-NAMES IN ENGLAND 

4 



THE following list of place-names in England, which are 
identical, or practically identical, with names found in Scot- 
land, is more curious and interesting than scientifically 
valuable. Many of the names must be quite modern ; 
others, though similar in spelling, are probably not alike 
in origin for England as for Scotland. 



Abington. 
Alford. 
Appleby. 
Ashton. 


Bowden, Great. 
Bowling Bank. 
Brooklands. 
Broom. 


Chester. 
Coates. 
Corby. 
Cove. 


Avon. 
Ayton, Great. 

Barry. 
Berwick. 


Broomhill. 
Brough. 
Broughton. 
Broxbourne. 


Covington. 
Coylton. 
Cray. 
Crewe. 
Crook. 


Bishopton. 
Blackburn. 
Blackford. 


Calder. 
Caldwell. 
Carbrook. 


Crosby. 
Crossgates. 
Crossbill. 


Blackball. 
Blackhill. 


Castle Gary. 
Castleton. 


Curry Mallet. 


Blackwater. 


Castletown. 


Dalton. 


Blackwood. 
Blythe Bridge. 
Bolton. 


Chapel. 
Chapeltown. 
Charlestown. 


Dean. 
Dee. 
Denholme. 



252 



PLACE-NAMES OF ENGLAND. 



Denny Bottom. 
Deny. 
Devon. 
Don. 


Huntley. 
Hutton. 

Johnstone. 


New Mill. 
New Mills. 
Newport. 
Newstead. 


Douglas. 
Durham. 


Jordanwell. 


Newton. 
Newtown. 




Kilham. 




Eaglesfield. 
Eastwood. 


Kingston. 
Kirkmichael. 


Oakley. 
Oatlands Park. 


Eccles. 


Kirkoswald. 


Orton. 


Eden. 




Orwell. 


Ely. 
Esk. 


Langton. 
Larkhall. 


Overton. 

Oxton. 


Eskdale. 


Leven. 




Eye, 

Ferry Hill. 
Findon. 


Linton. 
Longhope. 
Lundy Island. 


Parkgate. 
Parkhead. 
Parton. 
Pilton. 


Fleet. 


Maxton. 


Portobello. 


Ford. 
Foulden. 


May field. 
Merton. 


Preston. 


Furnace. 


Mill House. 

Milton. 


Queen's Ferry. 


Garth. 
Gilmerton. 


Monkton. 

Morton. 


Reading. 
Rockcliffe. 


Glass. 




Ross. 


Grange. 
Greenhill. 
Greenlands. 


Newark. 
Newbigging. 
Newborough, 
Newbottle. 


Salton. 
Seaforth. 
Shaw. 


Harthill. 
Hatton. 
Hilton. 


Newbridge. 
. Newburn. 
Newcastle. 


Smeaton. 
Snape. 
Southend. 


Holme. 


Newhaven. 


South wick. 


Holy Island. 
Horndean. 


Newington. 
Newland. 


Spittal. 
Springfield. 



PLACE-NAMES OF ENGLAND. 253 



Sprowston. 


Swinton. 


Westfield 


Stanhope. 




Whitburn. 


Stanley. 


ThornhilL 


WhitehilL 


Start Point. 


Thornton. 


Whittinghani. 


Steel. 


Townhead. 


Wick. 


Stockbridge. 


Trinity. 


Wilton. 


Stonehouse. 


Troon. 


Winton. 


Stow. 


Tyne. 


Wiston. 



Summer Hill. Woodside. 

Sunnyside. Waterside. 



ADDENDA. 



Page xxxvii, foot. For LOGIE and lag read BOGIE and raog. 

Page Ixxix, foot. It should here have been stated that, while 
the forms here given do seem to have come from the 
pen of English scribes, and while no place-name inAber- 
or Inver- is now spelt with an h, yet the Celt does, not 
infrequently, prefix such an h. Cf. HARRIS, IONA, &c. 

AIKENHATT (Finhaven). Perh. G. athcliuinge tiaite, pron. 
ahkuin haty, ' prayer-place.' The Finhaven church was 
often called ' the kirk of Aikenhatt.' 

AIRTH. Prob. c. 1145, Hereth. Cf. the note above. 
ARBIRLOT. c. 1210, Abereloth. 

ARBROATH. 1178, Aberbrothoc; 1546, Abirbrothoke ; c. 
1600, Arbrothe. Of course the town stands at the 
mouth of the river Brothock. 

ARGYLE. An adjective ' Argathelaine ' is found as late as 
1650. See Napier's Memoirs of Montrose, ii. 735. 

AUCHTERARDER. 1295, Eutrearde, Outreart. 

BASS. a. 1300, Basse. 

BENHOLM. 1262, Bennum; c. 1280, Benam. Prob. G. 
beinn, a hill, + O.E. ham, home, dwelling ; cf. EDROM. 
On ham and holm, see p. Ix. 

BOHARM. The derivation given is confirmed by the 
1 Bochquharne,' found in 1488, near Brechin. 

BUTTERGASK. c. 1200, Buthyrgasc, Buthurgasc. Cf. also 
Burghill; in 1574, Buthirgille, ' road- valley,' near 
Brechin. 



ADDENDA. 255 

CAMPSIE. 1522, Campsy. 

CARESTON. Old, Keraldiston ; 1529, Caraldstoun; 1643, 
Carralstoun. 'Dwelling of Keraldus,' the 'judex' or 
'dempster' of Angus in 1227. 

CARNEGIE (Carmyle). c. 1350, Carinnegi. G. cathair 
(pron. car) an eige, * fort at the gap ' (G. eag, a nick or 
hack). 

CAULDCOTS. 1572, Calcoittis. 

CELLARDYKE. 1600, 'The Silverdyk;' in Sc. Sillerdyke; 
hence corrupted to its present form. 

CHEVIOT HILLS, c. 1250, Montes chiueti, a. 1300, Mons 
chiuioth. Prob. G. c(h)iabach, ' bushy,' fr. ciabh hair, 
which would yield both ' Chevy ' and ' Cheviot.' For 
-ach becoming -ot cf. ELLIOT, 

CLEGHORN must be O.E. cldeg erne, ' clay house,' cf. Dan. 
kleg, clay, and WHITHORN. So DREGHORN will be ' dry 
house,' fr. O.E. drige, dry. 

CLUNY (Blairgowrie). 1164, Kluen. 

COLLAGE. The village is built on a slope, down which 
tumbled a rocky burn. 

CORRA LINN. a. 1300,- Polcorr, where the G.pott represents 
the W. llyn, a pool. 

CRICHTON. c. 1145, Crechtune. It is thus an early hybrid. 
CUMBERNAULD. a, 1300, Cumbrenald. 

DALLACHY. For Aberdeen read Aberdour. 

DUCHRAY (Stirling), DUCHRAYS (Dumfries), DEUCHRIES 
(Glen Tanar, Aberdeen). G. dhu chraobli, 'the dark 
tree,' or perh. 'wood.' The s is the common Eng. 
plural. 

DUNDEE, c. 1200, Liber de Scon, pp. 26-28, Dundo, 
Dundho, Dunde ; which shows the name to be G. dun 
dhu, dark, black hill.' 

DUNFALLANDY. c. 1200, Dunfolenthi, -foluntyn. Perh. G. 

dun faoilinn, ' sea-gulls' hill.' 

DUNLOP (Ayr) and DUNLAPPIE (Fern, Forfar). Ayr D., sic 



256 ADDENDA. 

1522; but c. 1523, Dunloppie. Fern D., 1178, Dun- 
lopyn. G. dun liibain, ' hill of the little bend or bow.' 

EDINBUKGH. As late as 1680, Edenburgh. 'Dun Edin' is 
found in a document of Unknown but early date, in the 
jRegister of St Andrews, referring to the year 1107. 

ELIE. c. 1600, 'The Alie.' 

EXZIE. 1295, Lannoy, where the V represents the Fr. 
article; 'The Anny.' Perh. G. eanach, eanaiche, 
1 down, wool.' 

FASQUB. 1471, Fasky. 

FINHAVEN. 1379, Fothynevyn. This is prob. G. fodha 
n'abhuinn, ' below the river.' 

KINFAUNS. c. 1200, Kinfathenes; G. cinn fathain, 'head, 
height with the coltsfoot ; ' with Eng. plural es. 

Note. Several of the above are from Andrew Jervise's Land of the 
Lindsays, 2nd edition, revised by James Gammack, M.A. 



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