(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Place-names of Scotland"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



-^ 



^<- 





i 



I l:-V.^ 



% 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLA>'D 




Printed by NeiU and Company ^ Limited 

FOB 
DAVID DOUGLAS 

LONDON . SIMPKIN, MAB8HALL, HAMILTON, KBNT, AND CO., LIH. 

SAMBRIDOB . MACMILLAN AND BOWKS. 
GLASGOW . . JAMBS MA0LBH08B AND SONS. 



PLACE -:>^ 

SC'ML 







EDINBURGH: DAVID DOUGLAS 
1903 

[AU righU remrttd.] 



PREFACE TO THE SECX)XD 
EDITION. 



The fact that twelve years have now elapsed since 

the preparation of the first edition of this book, shows 

that earnest interest in the study is still confined to 

a few. Yet the author had no reason to complain of 

the public criticisms of his work, which surprised him 

by the uniform kindliness and appreciativeness of 

their tone. The warmth of their words seemed to him 

too emphatic by far, in praise of such a mere 

attempt as the first edition was. Few of his critics, 

^v* however, contributed much fresh material, though an 

VS> exception must be gratefully made in the case of an 

unknown writer in the Athenwum (10th Sept. 1892), 

\ and of Dr Hay Fleming in the BrUisli Weekly \ and 

^ not less gratefully in the case of his only unfavourable 

0$ critic, Dr A. M'Bain, one of our chief living Gaelic 

experts, in the Inverness Coui^r, Since then Dr 

M*Bain kindly contributed a series of most valuable 

notes on the names of the first half of the Alpha- 

Sfetical list. It is to the student's great loss, as well 



VI PREFACE. 

as to the writer's great regret, that Dr M*Bain has 
never found time to complete his vohmtary task. 

Much has happened in twelve years, and the author 
has striven hard in the interval to improve his book. 
Much that was found to be erroneous, not a little too 
that seemed, on raaturer consideration, very doubtful, 
has been deleted ; and the range of conjecture has been 
brought within much narrower bounds. It is hoped 
that now the book will be found a few steps nearer 
to the high standard of that model work, Dr Joyce's 
Irish Names and Places, The Introduction has been 
carefully revised, though all its main lines remain as 
before. The Alphabetical List has been pruned of 
many purely obvious names, and has been increased, 
first, by the insertion of all really well-known names, 
but few in number, which were found to have been 
omitted; and second, by the insertion of a liberal 
selection of new names of interest, selected chiefly, not 
because they were well known, but because something 
definite could be said about them. Of course hundreds 
of names are still omitted. Anything like an ex- 
haustive List of Scottish Place- Names would consti- 
tute a task beyond the reach of private, unendowed 
enterprise. But, if any wealthy enthusiast would like 
to furnish his country with such a list, the work 
could probably be done, and a fairly satisfactory 
working list produced, in about five years' time, and 
at no very great cost. It is impossible to say how 
many distinct names there would be altogether. After 
pretty careful examination the writer has found that 



PREFACE. Vll 

there are not more than about 500 names worthy of 
note in his own county of Stirling, which is about 
l-67th of the area of Scotland ; but, of course, the total 
would be very much less than 67 times 500. 

In his work of revision and addition the writer has 
received most valuable help in many ways. Of printed 
material he has found very useful the Inverness Gaelic 
Society's Proceedings^ where the papers of Messrs 
Hector Maclean, Colin Livingstone, Mackay of Hereford, 
and others contain much that is helpful and suggestive, 
though often to be used with caution. The Place-Names 
of Strathhogie, by the late Mr James Macdonald, is a 
very thorough piece of work, which was issued just 
too late to be used in the first edition. Sir Herbert 
Maxwell's Scottish Land-Names, his Ehind Lectures for 
1894, is also a thorough piece of work, which somehow 
has not received the approbation which it deserves. 
The writer has to acknowledge very considerable help 
received through private correspondence with the Bhind 
Lecturer. The lists of old forms of names have been 
enriched and corrected from many sources, notably the 
Coldingham Charters, the oldest authentic Scottish 
charters we have ; whilst several valuable early forms 
have been taken from the History of St Guthbert, which, 
with the exception of Adamnan's Columba, is just about 
the oldest Scottish writing we now possess. 

The correspondents who have assisted to improve the 
book by kindly correction or amplification are Legion by 
name ; and the author regrets the impossibility of men* 
tioning them all in detail. The unnamed are not the 



viu PREFACE. 

unvalued. But there are a few names which cannot 
go without their record ; and first, that of lieutenant- 
Colonel Lumsden, whose most painstaking help has 
rendered the Scandinavian section of this work very much 
more accurate than it was before. Prof. G. B. Carr, 
Lincoln University, U.S.A. (Berwickshire names); 
Dr Eonald Currie, Wemyss Bay; R Oliver Heslop, 
Esq. of Corbridge (comparisons with North of Eng- 
land names); John F. Clark, Esq.. (names around 
Beith); the late Rev. Geo. Wilson, of Glenluce; and 
G. B. Steuart, Esq., Edinburgh, are also among those 
who have given most valuable help. The writer 
must likewise note the generous assistance of J. A. 
Harvie Brown, Esq. of Dunipace, who has not only 
contributed interesting notes on Highland names, but 
has placed his splendid collection of works on Scottish 
topography most freely at the writer's disposal. He has 
also profited by a considerable correspondence with Mr 
W. J. Watsoti, of the Eoyal Academy, Inverness, whose 
work on the Place-Names of Boss-shire will soon, convince 
the studious public that in him* we have one of our best- 
equipped explorers in the Celtic field. The author's 
own original research has been done chiefly in Stirling- 
shire and on the mainland of Argyle. But he has 
embodied here comparatively little of the material in 
his booklet on The Place-Naines of Stirlingshire (1903), 
now out of print, because he hopes by-and-by to issue a 
new edition much enlarged and improved. 

In conclusion, the author would seek once more to 
emphasise the fact that the field here skimmed is 



PRIFACE 

'^Qje far tax) wide for juit dnirJ«; .ndivuiuai o '.nmx»nm 
aicroughiy. Perfef»tion ^^an :)ft '^oacnefl mi/ ^n^ou^LJI 
die kindly and patient r.oilahoration ')lf ul vno :iav»y 
•*WHi a mite of new ;md jusr.urate iniDrmiilifin *-o 
xuisributeL And who that la wiilimr. lias iic>ri * hat ' 
AU helptid hinta will \m r.onliail/ ^oic.omfi'i 'imi 
oarrfiilly conaidere<L The author will iduft 'jniluma 
cheerfullT to a^uiat all inqiiirerH, to far ;i» .t IiKft in 
his power, even as it has been lua priviljtttf^ to do for 
scores of applicants diirinj^ nhe pattt. d(jzen ynarw* 
There is no 68» 8A fee, but he doeft «ixpef!fc a W. 

stamp! 

J. B. J. 
Sr AifDRKw's MxNBE, Falkirk^ 

Xote. — ^The student will finil it uiseful to have the 
following list of the contents of the great but unfinished 
Oriijines Paroehiales, 1*^5 1-55. Volume I. — The parishes 
in Dumbarton, Eenfrew, Lanark, Peebles, Selkirk, Kox- 
burgh. Volume XL — Part 1., Argyle, all the Western 
Isles, Lochaber, Bute, and Arran: Part IL, Koss and 
Cromarty, Sutherland, Caithness* 



CONTENTS- 



bfTBODCCnOX, - - _ . 

CHAPTER L 
Ckltic X 



CHAPTEB IL 
XoBSB Naxsb, ....... Kill 

CHAPTEE IIL 
Enctjsh Xaios, Ixrri 

CHAPTEK IT. 
Roman, Xorkax, a5t» pukklt Moi»ers Xaios, xc 

CHAPTER V, 

EoCLBSLASnCAL XAlf]Eg^ 



Alphabetical List of the Plac^Xamk of SooTLAXit, 

IXDKX to XaMSS KOT OX THE LiBT, 904 



• 



PLACE-NAMES OF ^iKjTLAl^Tj, 



IXTEODTICTEO^r. 

Eyiry science has it& byways a& well aa- its liiid^iways-. 
It is along an interesting byway that this rjo<jk invites- 
the student to walk. The atndy ot place-aame!* may be 
said to stand to History and Etiinology in .iomewhat tlie 
same relation as the study of fosals stands to Geology. 
Each group or set of fossils represents, with more or les» 
strictness, a distinct ^e of geologic time ; so, roughly 
speaking, does each group of place-names represent a 
period of historic or prehistoric time. Almost all the 
place-names worth studying are fossils; no man now liv- 
ing was present at their birth. Sometimes the geologist 
who wishes to map out his territory finds his task the 
simplest possible; e,g.y for hundreds of monotonous 
miles over the steppes of Eussia he finds the same 
strata, the same soft Permian sandstones, lying hori- 
zontal and unaltered as on the day, or rather age, wht)U 
first they hardened on the old sea-bottom. At othor 
times, though he may have only fifty, or even twimty, 
square miles to map out, the geologiMt iUnU hiu tftok 
one of extreme difficulty and complexity. HitU t^ doM^h 
different systems crop up in that littlo n\»M'4i, nui\ 

A 



XIV PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

igneous rocks rise here and there among the aqueous, 
crumpling, distorting, and altering all things around ; 
such a region is the Isle of Arran, or the English 
counties along the Welsh border. Again, the eager 
fossil-hunter is sometimes delighted in splitting open 
a nodule, or in cleaving the thin laminae of the shale, to 
discover an exquisitely symmetrical ammonite, or a yet 
more delicate fern, in shape as perfect as the day it 
died. But, just as often, the only specimens he can 
find are fragments crushed and broken, which require 
the highly trained eye of the expert to tell what once 
they were. 

Now, if the devotee of such a physical science as 
geology will but lay aside his hammer and his pocket- 
microscope for a little while, he will find somewhat 
similar problems to study when he grapples with 
(Scottish) place-names. Sometimes his task will be all 
plain sailing, if only he have learnt the rudiments 
of the craft; e.g., for miles and miles in the central 
Highlands he will find himself in a purely Gaelic 
region, where all the names are as unmistakably 
Gaelic as they were on the far-ofif, unknown day when 
they were born. In sound and shape these names are as 
they have ever been since history began. But in other 
districts, more especially in those where English has 
long been spoken, the old names have often come down 
to us in much-corrupted and truncated forms, some- 
times in a ludicrously-altered form, which it requires 
the greatest skill and care and patience to decipher — 
if, indeed, the name can now be deciphered at all. 

The subject which is here to be treated, the Place- 
Names of Scotland, is one which has never yet been 
grappled with as a whole ; and even when we have 
done our best it will be found that there is much, and 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

that the most difficult part of the work, yet to be 
done. Too many of those who have tried their 'prentice 
hands at the task have proceeded in the most reck- 
less fashion, giving way to unscientific guess-work 
which, like the obstructive undergrowtt^ in the 
virgin forest, must first be cleared away before we 
can begin to make our road at all. But much 
foundation work, much pioneering, has already been 
done, and done welL And now, thanks to the labours 
of Joyce and Mackinnon and M'Bain, and many true 
men more, it should be impossible that, e.g., Pomxi Dei 
should ever again be put forward as the likely etymology 
of that place which Glasgow railwaymen know so 
well — PoLBiADiE.^ Nor do we think that any grown-up 
person will ever believe any more that the name of 
Dr Chalmers' well-known first charge, Kilmeny, can 
have any reference to a command to slaughter a 
multitude ! 

Our treatment of the subject will be historic, and 
will proceed in the order of time. The first chapter 
will refer to all we know of the aborigines of 
Britain — call them Iberians, Ivemians, Silurians, or 
what you please — and then will rapidly discuss the 
largest and most complicated portion of our task — the 
Celtic names. Then purely English or Anglo-Saxon, 
Scandinavian, and Norman names will each receive a 
chapter ; and with the Norman we will treat the Eoman 
names, a group too insignificant to call for separate 
handling. Purely modern names will be dealt with 
last of all ; and as ecclesiastical names form so large 
and important a group, they will receive a chapter to 
themselves. The study will be no mere dilettante 

^ The printing of a name in capitals means that its origin is treated 
of in the Alphabetical List. 



XVi PLACK-NAMBS OF SCOTLAND. 

trifling. The historian, the philologist, the antiquarian, 
the anthropologist will, each and all, find for them- 
selves side-lights both helpful and interesting ; and Dr 
Murray's great English Dictionary will sometimes 
be supplemented by earlier instances of words than 
any which its learned columns now record — see List, 
8,v, Ben, Cabsk, Morkbattle, &c. 

What further seems needful to be said in introduc- 
tion, by way of rule, caution, or useful hint, we shall 
now throw into a series of numbered paragraphs : — 

(1) It will be found in Scotland,^ as in any other 
country, that the oldest place-names, the names which, 
like the hard granite, best resist weathering, are those 
of large rivers, mountains, and promontories, and of all 
islands. The names of rivers and islands especially are, 
as a rule, root- words, and therefore archaic, and difficult 
to explain. In a few cases we cannot explain them at 
all, because we know practically nothing of the ancient 
language to which they probably belong. The names , 
of man's dwellings change pretty often ; but the name 
of a big ben or a steady-flowing river has hardly ever 
been known to change. 

(2) Every place-name means something, or at least 
once meant something. Only in the degenerate 19th 
century had men begun to coin silly, meaningless 
names. Only within late years could a Dickens or a 
Thackeray have had the chance of satirising his neigh- 
bour for calling No. 153 in a dingy back street, full 
20 feet above the level of the sea, Mount^ Pleasant, or 
for christening an ugly brick house, in full sight of a 
gaswork. Belle Vue. 

(3) It may be taken as a general rule that every 

^ Cf, Skene, Celtic Scotland, vol. i. bk. L chap, iv., a very valuable 
chapter. 



INTKODUCnON. XVU 

name was once fairly appropriate. Therefore try, if 
possible, to study names, as every honest student 
studies his quotations, in situ, on the spot. But one 
must not always expect to find the name appropriate 
to-day. The cause or circumstance which gave rise 
to the name may have utterly passed away. What 
was 'Blingsbams' once need not be so now. Or the 
physical aspect of the site may have become entirely 
altered ; «.y., Gamlachie, now a wilderness of stone and 
lime in the East End of Glasgow, probably means, * the 
crook or bending of the swamp' or 'muddy puddle'; 
but the swamp itself can be seen no more. 

(4) Though every name has a real meaning, never 
prophesy unless you know. It is quite likely that a 
name does not mean what it says, or seems to say; 
and a name which looks like English pure and simple 
may possibly not be English at all. There is a constant 
tendency to assimilate the spelling of a word of 
unknown meaning to the spelling of a word which is 
known, a *kent' word, as we Scots call it. The 
enquirer must always be on the outlook for this ; many 
a true Celtic name has been thus disguised. Abundant 
illustration of this will be found further on. Mean- 
time, take one illustration. There is a spot in the 
Stewartry in the parish of New Abbey which at present 
goes by the sadly vulgar and thoroughly English-look- 
ing name of Shambbllt. On examination this turns 
out to be pure Gaelic, sean baUe (shanbally), which has 
the very innocent meaning of * old house ' or * hamlet.' ^ 

(5) It is thus of the highest consequence, wherever 
possible, to secure not only an old but the very oldest 
extant form or spelling of a name. For, though a 

' See Sir Herbert Maxwell's Studies in the Topography of Oalloway^ 
1887, p. 288. Cf. too Kinoedwabd, Meikleour, Montrose, ko. 



XVm PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

name may be spelt so-and-so to-day, it by no means 
follows that it was always spelt thus. And frequently 
it is only when one sees the old form that any idea 
of the name's true meaning can be reached. This also 
will find copious illustration as we proceed. For the 
present, take just one instructive instance from the 
writer's own experience. Ykster, the name of a parish 
at the foot of the Lammermuirs, was long a puzzle. 
The writer communicated with the courteous Professor 
of Celtic in Edinburgh University, giving a somewhat 
foolish conjecture, which need not be repeated. The 
conjecture Professor Mackinnon repudiated, but said he 
could throw no light upon the name. Then his con- 
frire at Oxford, Professor Ehys, was applied to, with 
the suggestion that Yester might be the same name as 
the hill Yes Tor in Dartmoor, and was asked for the 
latter's meaning. We then learnt that Yes is a Cornish 
superlative, and Yes Tor means * highest hill'; but 
Professor Ehys would not venture to identify it with 
Yester, and declared himself puzzled. But one day 
we discovered that the oldest charters call the place 
Ystrad, and the meaning appeared with a flash. For 
this is just the ordinary Welsh word for 'a valley.* 
Thus were we supplied with a plain warning against rash 
guesses, and at the same time found a clear footstep of 
the Brython among the Lammermuirs. The joy of 
the palaeontologist when he cracks open a limestone 
nodule and finds therein a magnificent Producttis, 
every curve and line of the shell perfect, is hardly 
greater than the satisfaction of the historical philolo- 
gist when he first discovers that a puzzling and prosaic 
name like Cabstairs originally was * Casteltarres ' {sic 
c, 1170), Terras being a familiar Scotch surname to 
this day. Even yet all will not be well unless the 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

student also knows that the oldest usage of the word 
* castle' in English was as a translation of the Vulgate's 
casUUum, where castellum means always, not a fortress 
but a village. Thus Carstairs, if dressed in Saxon 
garb, would be Tarreston, in Norman garb, Tarresville. 
It may be taken as a rough rule, with many exceptions, 
that if we can find a name on record before the year 
1200, we have a good chance of correctly surmising its 
meaning ; whereas if no record of it be found till after 
1500, that record may be of small scientific value. In 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries all spelling 
either of names or words ceased to be under law, and 
was, generally speaking, regulated by mere caprice. 

(6) If it be highly desirable to ascertain the old 
spelling of a name, it is almost equally desirable that 
we should know its local, native pronunciation. Celtic 
scholars are so thoroughly agreed as to the need for 
this, if Celtic names are to be rightly interpreted, that 
we hardly need to emphasize the rule — wherever you 
can get a native Gael to pronounce a name listen care- 
fully to him. Such a proceeding will save one many a 
time from writing or talking nonsense. But the rule 
holds good, to a less extent, about all Scotch place- 
names, and about Celtic names even when the pro- 
Douncer himself no longer speaks Gaelic. The writer 
does not need to go far from his own Lowland door tu 
find very pertinent examples of thi& If the reader 
will consult the List of this book he will find that, in 
the case of at least three of our local names, the protjoiit 
native pronunciation comes much nearer the true 
etymology than the present spelling. The names im\ 
the Celtic Dknovan (pron. dunni'ven), and the Englis^ti 
Falkirk (fawldrk) and Shieldhill (sheelhfll). Th© 
liquids /, m, w, r always need special watching; and, 



i 



J 



I 



XX PLAGE-NABfES OF SCOTLAND. 

when the whole truth is known, it will be seen that 
the Celt makes far sadder havoc with his A's than the 
Ck)ckney (see p. xli). He who would further this 
interesting and valuable study must himself first make 
some study of the Laws of Phonetics. He must learn 
that any letter cannot become any other, as too many 
seem to think. Kg., an esteemed correspondent, now 
dead, assured the present writer that Musselbubgh 
must be * mouth-Esk-burgh ' ! And what is worse, he 
believed so till the day of his death ! 

(7) It should not be thought that a given name 
must of necessity be all Celtic, all English, or all Norse. 
Hybrid names do occur, not often but occasionally, e,g,, 
the Celtic and English Lammerlaws or Eestalrig, the 
Celtic and Norse Geanies or Jura, and the Norse 
and Celtic Forsinard or Rutherglen. Nor must it be 
supposed that the names in any given district ought all 
to belong to one language — all Gaelic in the Highlands 
and all English in the Lowlands. This is far from 
being the case; though it is true that some districts 
are nearly unmixed in this respect, «^., Orkney and 
Shetland names are practially all Norse ; the mainland 
of Argyle names practically all Celtic, pure Gaelic too, 
with no Brythonic or Welsh admixture; whilst in 
Berwickshire there is scarcely a name left which is not 
English. 

When all these seven caveats have been surely learnt 
and gripped, then, and only then, ia the amateur in- 
vestigator fit to advance a single stop in safety. 



CHAPTER L 

CELTIC 9AMBS. 

It is impossible to speak with strict aocniacj on the 
point, but Celtic names in Scotland mnst outnumber all 
the rest by nearly ten to one. And their importance 
may be measured well by the one fact that, up to so 
late a date as the death of Malcolm IL in 1056, all the 
mainland of Scotland, except the shires between Edin- 
burgh and Berwick, was purely Celtia Wide and 
difficult though the Celtic problem still is, answers can 
be found far more surely and accurately than was at all 
possible fifty years ago. Here, as in every other field, 
the last half -century has seen science advancing with 
swift, sure foot. Fifty years ago the subject of Celtic 
place-names spread out like a vast morass with a little 
solid footing round the edges alone — a vast morass, 
with no thoroughfares and no beacons, and with many 
a Will o' the Wisp dancing deceitfully about, to lead 
the luckless follower to confusion. Some solid footing 
there has always been; e,g., nobody who knew Gaelic 
at all would ever be at a loss to say that Achnacloich 
meant * field of the stone.' But whenever any name a 
little less simple than this was met with, or when men 
began to argue, Was this stone a Druid relic, or a mere 
boundary mark ? Is cloich a true Gaelic, or a Pictish, 



XZU PLACS-NAMSS OF SGOTLAND. 

or a Brythonic (Welsh) form ? — then at once arose a 
hopelessly bewildering Babel of tongues. But now the 
morass has been largely drained, and eveiywhere good 
footpaths run. 

During the early part of last century all was wildest 
conjecture as to Britain's aborigines, and most of what 
had then been written was purest nonsense. Almost 
everybody was satisfied that our aborigines were Aryans^ 
and Celts, and that in Scotland the eldest race was 
most likely the Picts. Learned Pinkerton laboured 
hard with the names (many probably spurious) of the 
Pictish kings, to prove the Picts Gothic, while indus- 
trious Dr Jamieson plied a lusty cudgel in favour of 
a Teutonic origin. Mais rums avons change tout cda. 
That new science called Anthropology, bom c 1862, 
but now in a vigorous youth, has supplanted the shifty, 
precarious methods of mere root guessing. Those who 
say they know now tell us, that what survives longest of 
a race is its type of skull and face, next longest its 
place-names ; whilst that which most readily changes is 
its language. Anthropology has proved beyond question 
that the primeval inhabitants of our isles, down to the 
very close of the Stone Age, were those non-Aryan 
cave-dwellers of dark complexion, black hair, long skull, 
and short, feeble build, whose remains are found in the 
long barrows, a people typically represented by the 
tribe Silures, whom Julius Caesar describes to us as 
dwelling on what is now the Welsh border. Their 
marks may still be recognised by the skilled observer 
almost all over Scotland from Galloway northwards, 
and very specially in such a Hebridean isle as Barra. 
Curious to relate, if we want to find the one living 

^ The name Aryan was not actually applied to this great family of 
languages till about 1846. 



CELTIC XAnncs. xxiil 

race which is a tolerably pui^ repre«ent«itivx3 of these 
* Iberians '^ of old, both in bnild And speech, we mURt 
joumeT to the south shore of the Bay of Biacay m\k\ 
see the Spanish Basques, the folk whose uneoitth 
speech, 'tis said, the Devil gave up learning in deRpaii\ 
In sooth, the Basque tongue is but a poor specimen Ab 
the best. 

Naturally these old * Iberians * would give a name to 
every prominent physical feature in the land ; but what 
these names were we can hardly in any inRtanco tell. 
Their tongue is dead, drowned by the many laiet* 
comers in almost utter forgottenness. Written mnnti- 
ments of any kind the British 'Iberian* has nutm. 
However, Professor Mackinnon thinks a pre-Cleltin 
element may still be dimly recognised in the mrnlfit tl 
Gael's vocabulary ; and there are a very few Mcriiiifl)) 
place-names which may with some conflclniir^fi ]m 
identified with Basque roots, c.^., Ubr, imtne of Dim 
river which runs by Dalbeattie, whicli is altMn^t 
certainly the Basque U7% 'water,' and IsLA, a tlv<^^ IM 
Forfar and Banff, H- being very coninioji in t)«o«(tJM 
place-names. Besides those. Sir Hor)»nrt M«>^w<'ll 
offers to us a handful of Oalloway nuniM« nt wh)''b 
he can make nothing, and whinh ho tliinhei nifff/ Iki 
Iberian. This is only conjecttire ; an«l, to tako Jij«t <mm* 
of the names he mentions, (Jvtrlo// may t^i^u^ fmt^ih/f/ 
be Celtic for 'but of stone'— ^/ W, fnf, 'tt t'l/i/ ami U. 
eUich, cloich, * a stone/ Professor litiys Um doMo h)« U^t 
to discover for us some more of our iil>oni/jnal, or • I vt'i* 
nian ' names, as he prefers to cjall th<;m, His^ ii)t'<ho<t 
(Hhind Lectures, 1890, No. 3) iH,lf ho oun Hn.i Sr./tii^h 
names not readily explainable from ^ii^'lW, wiU' h 

'So caUed from Iberia, an Atn'uui ununs of Hjmiii, tliuuj/li U u uuly 
m esrefo] guess to ny that BriUiu^M alxynv:itii'» *nuu' ftom »S|>a)u. 



XXIV PLACB-NAMKS OF SCOTLAND. 

resemble the names of some princesses, heroes, or 
divinities mentioned in the earliest Welsh and Irish 
l^ends, then he conjectures that these Scottish place- 
names must be pre-Celtic, because all three countries 
have them in common. Such a method is precarious, 
and in no given case has he reached demonstration. 
See List, s.v. Atholk, Banff, Clyde, Dunfermlinb, 
Earn, Elgin. 

After these dim aborigines came the Celts, most 
westerly band of the Aryans. Till about twenty-five 
years ago it was considered a settled commonplace of 
philology that the Aryan's home was somewhere in 
Western Asia, among the sources of the Oxus, to the 
north of Persia. Here, again, all is changed. Max 
Miiller was one of the last to remain by the old flag; 
and now the suggestion, perhaps first made to Europe 
by our own Dr Latham, and developed by the acute 
erudition of Schrader, Penka, and others, has been 
widely adopted,^ viz., that the Aryan's cradle and 
nursery must have been among the wide, swampy plains 
of Central Grermany. The skull-men, with their measur- 
ing tapes, have fairly routed the men who clave 
to the dictionary alone. Among the first of the many 
wandering sons to leave the old Aryan home was the 
Celt, who went West with the sun, filling what is now 
France and Belgium, and the lands fringing thereon. 
It is thought he must first have entered Britain by way 
of Essex and Kent ; when, we cannot say in years B.C., 
but it was at the end of the great Neolithic Age, for 
he brought bronze tools and weapons with him. What 
we have here to say about the Celt can lay no claim to 
original research ; and now that reliable information is 
so easily obtained, e,g., take Professor Mackinnon on 

' See Isaac Taylor, Origin of the Aryans, 1889, ohap. i. 



^'»-- ' ~s.*"gy 




c»:nz<rrris:i-is ib*- T^^* ^\l7, iJLC ijn*- \LJui.VT:iL.7. js> v^C ii$. 
ibr SoiClJsL G-icL FrTt^Tis v* scjc cld *x:\ol:.t^ V w-^ v^ -^ 
lL*s like m ^:oi pfcoTxc. ^e Scc^ii^i. Tr Si:t'r»^ ir.v^.vvxl 
for sorae reascus to cLfcs^ ^he Ccrr.:»<i 4li^ Oas;>.<»'^ ^w c 
but the Terdict of pf^tsent-viAv yh:I. lo^ >iro;xlv; uVv*\\^\"t4i^- 



XXVI PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

ingly proclaim them Brythons. From the few inscrip- 
tions which have come down to us, and from the manj 
proper names recorded by Csesar, it is now considered 
certain that the most of the ancient Gauls spake a 
Brythonic speech, practically identical with Welsh; 
points of contact with Gadhelic tongues are harder to 
find, but they do exist too. In both Gaul and Britain 
Brython was stronger than Gael, and largely supplanted 
him all over England and Wales, and southern Scotland 
too, leaving to the Gael only Ireland and Man, and 
remoter Scotland. 

Thus, when we come to examine the Celtic place- 
names of Scotland, we must expect to find two types 
or groups of names. Yet the stronger Brython has 
made but little permanent mark among us, and the 
names indisputably his are few; north of the Grampians, 
probably none. The Gael and the later-inflowing Saxon 
very nearly killed him out. The Gael or Gadhel again 
includes, in Scotland, both an invader and an invaded. 
Before the Brython entered the whole land seems to have 
been peopled by the wild, woad-stained Caledonians, 
those Fidif * painted men,' of whom so many early 
historians have to tell. The name first occurs in 
Ammianus Marcellinus, c. 378 A.D.; though the much 
later historian Eumenius mentions them as at war 
with the Emperor Constantius Chlorus some 80 years 
earlier. Our earliest native writers, Gildas, c. 550, and 
Nennius,^ thought them a foreign people, who first landed 
in Orkney. IJntil the beginning of the 6th century the 
northern two-thirds of Scotland was all Pictish, there 

^ The History of the BrUunSf commonly called after its reputed author 
Nennias, seems to consist of two parts, the earlier dating c, 738 A.D., 
and the later 823. The Irish additions to Nennius can hardly date 
before 1100. 



unw "Hit -RaffiffTT zrrr7rH=^ c ^^zirr^r^ Zt: 

X'lrt THT- TTi^ (Xr^IZTfi^. '-i^ T^S"' ^iF2T- .. 
iLTIi*- Irflar^:* lE-^TrK- "trJCS. tBrJIb: 



tiioae Sl-ulc— IzEi-. zi, vTzrsr " xzirt :ziiiJ2?t*--^ i::-^ 

mrt- loo. 3»ii: itch, xiii: urs: Tirr iifrrT-'ri.'-^ •i-^n^i. 
Erap and TH'^ t?^! t?'t>?~ i^''%=t ;*e5:_ -g^--' 'VT^.^^ t::^^ 

ciiikiigB, voLiL aniijj^ pri-^v^ Tr.' rr . jlLuz.- i. ..c'. zr^': zz:t 
di3ereii9e berveer Tue ?ifrr2i_ ce Z'lrc: i*i,L >:- i: ilus: 
haTe liftesL vfiTv sullII iiia-e^:^. Tvc !» ilts i: 'Vre^e' aa.Tf 
oerii&iEL iLe Sc*.tii :*-lriBL ^ ■ m ":»;>. i^^aei io: n Ti*r:i7t*T^r 
when be weLi i.: f^fin^elizt^ ^jd jut ziit Ir^i^nYt^sj^ i*i.t;i^ ; 
and Fiem^ hi-vf^er !ii:ae t: iirs«: v&«^ cui}^ cc i^'j^ 
p group c»f Celtic i:»iLriie?^ vLiie InsL ^.tj^ Scotn^C^ 
Gaelic are of cc»Tirae metiers o: irie t re f cr*^**^-? — * 
diTision or groTiping for viicl we ire ir?.itCu^.i to t>K-<j*e 
great philologists, Winiisch izji WhiUt y Suikes. Thu^ 

* 'Seote' nerw meuit aurthiiu: bi:t n>c*irnjer. r. "'. t'he lli>» vvr.i-j^T\\ 
PerliAps the eariiest instance of our pnsient u«t i> ;r. xhf 0, K, C>< •/•>n^H 
Aim. 924. 



XXVIU PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Pictish, in this respect, must have stood nearer Welsh, 
Breton, and Cornish than to Erse or Manx ; and the 
substitution of the Pictish p for the Erse c offers an apt 
solution of many a puzzle. See Panbiude, Pathstruie, 
Spelve, Spey, &c. 

A run through Joyce's Irish Names and Places will 
soon convince any Scotsman that his names and the 
Irishman's are largely alike ; e.g,, all the Bals- or Ballys-, 
all the Carricks-, so common in those parts of Scotland 
nearest Ireland, as Carrickaboys, Carrickcow, Carrick- 
glassen, &e., and all the Kils- and Knocks-, of which 
there are scores in either land. The Pict had his own 
distinctive marks, it is true. In the Postal Gruide list 
for Wales and for Ireland there is not a single Fetter-, 
or Pit-, both sure sign-manuals of the Pict. But to 
argue, like Professor Ehys, from the pronunciation in 
Aberdeenshire (once Pictish) of / for w, fat for wJiat, 
&c., and on almost no other evidence, that Pictish was 
not an Aryan speech at all, is surely precarious indeed^ 
However, this branch of our subject can never be 
thoroughly expiscated, owing to almost total lack of 
material. Scottish education practically began, and 
almost wholly spread, through the Donegahnan Columba 
and his far-travelling monks, of whom the earliest were 
all Irish-bred ; and down to the middle of the 16th 
century all Gaelic put into writing in Scotland was 
practically identical with Erse. The Book of the Dean 
of lismore, which dates so late as 1512-40, is the first 
known MS. of any consequence in Scottish Gaelic. 

To draw the dividing line between names Brythonic 
and names Gadhelic is a more needful matter. Here 

^ Bnt see too pp. zxiii-zziy. Near Cnllen is a cave called by the 
natiyes * Fal's mon,' i.e., whale's month. This the Ordnance Snnrey, 
in their ignorance, have marked in the map as Falmouth 1 






is a pr\>blem» ii\U3Vi».r.l\uy v:- --- ^^^ 
And{*erhap8 8till cttUH»j'.i»'; ^, . .^ ^ 
of our jrrettte«t tttitljorr,^; ^r. , . 
fess-^r KhvH of Ox Ion; j;^ ^ .y. rr-^^^ 

Letturee. In lur l'/rn*>r' ▼--''- ■. 

was indiiied to tlnnr *.fM *',-;. ?,- 

some of theuj in j/;*.:;,^,- \^ ,.-, 

Celte at all, cjtjoliny i: 

namee an IwAik^xth y^m^/f.' 

verdict in |^<fn*^ral;; i*i;/ '..^ -^ -/. , . ,*.,• 

work, TliA' JJyjUitMwJjyt, '// .;- '/.>//./ •.''- ., / 

rictiBh wan 'u w;rr o* i'/y ',.^' . ' ,. .-/^ ^..-^ >^^ .,,, 

largely of W».'j«h i'/n/i ' iy r» ^. r, .... ^ . . .... 

senteiioe from \n> \wx.^^u y^ n-' 0*/./ ,y //,,.,./ // . 
edit. 188G, 'Th' y;*^i*ir?i' j^* .-.^ '.. .,^. . /.. , .., ,. ^... , 
of a Cyuiri'- [W*;i>-;, I'^n/^^^- ,. > ' .- ,. ,: ,, ..,. / 
l»y tiie ViK\^j' \\ >t..,. t> **>', ' .r- . / ^//,..,/ , 
earlier »eiJt<fn''i' j»<- vi"^ j' ;i'/y y.-.^ h*'.--^,i , ^^,/> 
ScidUnid (\. 2'^ f \f* • r^A^. ^/,-nnfi.^, i.> ,,* <, i.' ... 
kiii^h ljaiia*.-o oow; t/, u *i.i' «-.,./*, .... ..., -,,*•..-,• 

part ih iiiau* up </ j/mm; ;♦;>. </• 'r.v ,, ,..*,.,-, . '. 
beioiipii;.' U/ tip ;«•>♦«;**-; r.< ^ ,/♦• ...X' ..J .-,i,' 
part BUowi- uu'.^r* <;miu»*^*'.i'^; r- , \,^ ,,,>• .j... ....t ., , ^ 

aud mor*' lafv^'iv p4»Uir.<3 o t^^*-.. */• ^»x' i* . '/i/*;..., 

foniJfe. Tip- r>0'itl**-f' fi»/SM; r.it ^' ;>!/ o».,' I .>♦ I, 
Knir*- H'Mlt/ l^ t!*i ) 'ff',.'. 'J •.! r»«j, ^i.«.i./.\; i:..i»x:/ ^./ 



XXX PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Danann of Ireland's legendary history, once occupied 
all Ulster. 

Stokes, in his very valuable paper On the Linguittie 
Value of the Irish Annals (Bezzenberger's Bdtrdge, 
xviiL pp. 84 folL), surveys the whole of our known 
and possible Pictish names and words, and concludes 
that Pictish is Brythonic rather than Gaelic ; but the 
positive evidence he can adduce is very scanty. For 
further speculations on the origin of the Picts, the 
enquirer should go to a curious paper by Mr Hector 
Maclean of Islay in the Inverness Gaelic Societi/s Pro- 
ceedings, xvL pp. 228 foil 

So much for the region north of the Forth. The 
student will find it worth while to try and understand 
how things lay in the south too. To begin with, in the 
far south-west, or Galloway, as in neighbouring Ulster, 
there were Picts, the Romans calling the tribe here 
NiduarU (see Nith).^ Then all Dumfries, Berwick, and 
most of Roxburgh and Haddington were early tenanted 
by the same great tribe which peopled most of Northern 
England, the Brigantes, a Brythonic or Cymric race. 
For, of course, all the old kingdom of Cumbria or 
Strathclyde, stretching from Clyde to Ribble, was Bry- 
thonic. Even after the northern part of this kingdom 
was incorporated with Scotland, c. 950, we find the 
people called in 12th-century charters, *Strathclwyd 
"Wealas ' or ' Walenses,' ie,, Welsh or foreigners. But 
from the testimony of charters also of David I.'s reign 
(1124-53) we learn that by his time the spoken Cymric 
must have practically disappeared from Strathclyde. 
Even by the days of Kenneth M* Alpine, first king 
of the Scots, c. 850, the Brythons of Scotland had been 

^ Some think the Niduarii must have lived near Abeb-nethy. Our 
knowledge of them is confined to one passage in Bede. 



overnin and largely eriiin.^fc'L rr xjt rJifcja. Z^z^ X£: 
Damnonii once spreart firim TTv^v-^-ar s.vt^t lz^-i^ 
Lanark to Ayr, Eenfrew^ ami Z'miiArrc:!- isx. ;6iil. <> 
the Lowther Hilla, ami a/it^i, iit vi ^v.=: -fiftj:. o i^ 
Tay, perhaps a little trr/nt^ 2i Tv^ifr'tiLaift. ir-i'-suii;^ 
in West Lothian too, the iji'*^ vfitnz ly oame ii rfitum. 
Here the place-names harx* a frir.mc — imiwi latiC "vouhc 
in Tweeddale hoth Gaelic an/i ?'-r.^nfKi 5M!m» i:^ %cisi,Tr. 
The typical Gaelic auchj'.v^^ hd-^ ^r^v/^?*-.. aizii mjich^^ 
and the Kctish auchter-^ fr/r-^ kA p^^, are bere^ 
few and far between.^ Wlierever we find ;he finniliar 
auchter- and pit-, there the Gael or Kct must have 
been. They are never found in Wales. But, wher- 
ever we meet the letter p, there probably the Bry thou 
pitched his camp. That letter seldom occurs in true 
Gaelic; it is chiefly found in a few imported words 
like pibroch, from piobair, which is just our English 
•piper/ At a very early stage p vanished from tru<j 
Graelic; witness that word which must be one of tU^ 
oldest in every tongue, oJthair, the L p<U^, hii^,/^/JMr; 
also arc, a pig or sea-pig, Cf-, vhale, tiie L jf^/tti^^ fouju<J jju 
Orknkt, which is, cutiotibIt eiiou^. \i^vls<i,^^ '^t <5<*r.A<jrti 
Scottish name on record. Sii-^^-j. l»k. ii ww, yjif^yt . .>-, 
for us the MLrrtiiiTe n: lut p-*;^: vv»; a,.'-:? > » :.*..^ >. 
330 B.C., give^ ii in liie ii>ru_ '^ >>f.fi^ *?vc; ;^-?: i,y. ^ 
was gone. Ain.»at?!x -jnt^ -fv^i v>r: ^ e-^^ y y^'- >^y 
before Lim. vill tm-:n_ r^«iC r i- — * '/.,*<^i..^/x, ' .^. .^ 
aion') be ttIZ iTTOLiLiuiii't :jL.jb*:--kt u., *^ .* < / ^ . 
make /«.'•« h ik»-j- nii- I'l a ^ ^' ^^^^ 

is fouiii aiiC i-i-i* ^v*i. *^.-r-i' ^ . ,-, 






XXXU PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

is pronounced by somo natives Pownskiitch ; a. 1300 we 
find 'Palgoueny' as the spelling of Balgonie; and 
e, 1320, Prenbowgal for Barnbogle. 

As p is not found in pure Gaelic, all the pens or pins 
must be Brythonic, the Gaelic being ceann, locative cinn 
(Ken- or Kin-). There are only two pens north of 
Stirling — Pendrich, just beyond the Forth, and Pennan, 
near Fraserburgh ; pen in the former case is a contrac- 
tion for pUten-, and the latter's origin is unknown.^ A 
common prefix, never found in pure Gaelic or in Irish, 
is pit; pUte-, petti', first met with in the Pictish Gaelic 
entries of the Book of Deer ; e,g.y * pette meic Garnait,' 
homestead of Gamait's son, &c. Neither Brython nor 
Gael ever use^-; e.g,y Gaels call Pitlochry BaUecJUocJire, 
and this is the general rule, the G. baile, * house, hamlet,' 
being the equivalent of the Pictish ^i^-. But some names 
in tra- and all in tre- are Brythonic ; for this is the W. 
and Cornish tra, tre, tref, also Ir. treb, * house, home.' 

A fierce battle has been waged over the question, ' Is 
the common prefix aber-, " at the mouth " or " confluence 
of," a purely Brythonic form or no ? * This dber is 0, 
Welsh aper, Corn, dber, glossed gurges ; and analysed by 
Whitley Stokes at-bor. In old Gaelic it also seems to 
mean * a marsh ' ; with which meaning we may compare 
the modern G. eabar, *mud, mire, marshy land.' A 
little islet called Aber stands at the mouth of the E. 
Endrick, L. Lomond. Welshmen have always been 
eager to assert that * aber- is Welsh, pure and simple, 
the Gael always uses inver-! The ber or ver is the same 
root in both, and may be cognate with the Eng. bear, 
Jj.ferre, Gk. (pepeiv. The oldest extant spelling is abbor 
or aebber (see Abercorn and Abkrdour); but in old 

1 But note also Resoobie, the old Rosolpin. Besides there is said 
to be a farm called Penick near Nairn ; history unknown. 



CELTIC NAMES. XXXIU 

charters we often find the Pictish jp for b (see Abbr- 
ARGiE, Aberdeen, &c.). The a in aber- is thought to be 
cUh, pron. ah, a ford ; for aber- is sometimes found in a 
name where there is no river-junction or mouth, but 
where there is or was a ford, e.g., Abernethy, near Perth, 
and Arbirlot, the old Aberelloch. Down the river 
Nethy from Abernethy we find Invernethy, where Nethy 
and Earn actually meet. This much is certain about 
cbber- and inver-, that in Wales there are scores of abers-, 
but of inverS' not a solitary one. But if aber- be a sure 
sign of the Brython, which is not quite certain, we may 
from it alone gain a pretty fair idea how far he ever 
spread himself in Scotland. He must have travelled 
all along the east coast from St Abb's to Inverness — 
witness Aberlady, Aberdour (Fife), Abemtye, Aberdeen, 
and Aberdour (Aberdeen). He must also have travelled 
inland from the east coast in every direction for a con- 
siderable distance ; see Aberf olye, Aberf eldy, Abergeldie 
(Braemar), Aberchirder (Banfi); and as far west as 
Aberchalder on the Caledonian Canal. But on the 
west coast and north of Inverness, dbev'- barely exists. 
There are only two in Argyle,^ land of the Dalriad Scots; 
none in Selkirk, Peebles, Lanark, Stirling, Dumbarton,'^ 
Eenfrew, Ayr, land of the Damnonii ; none in Galloway, 
land of the Picts; and none in Cornwall, which is 
Damnonian too. Speaking generally, if aber- is to be 
our clue, the Brython hardly touched the land of the 
northern Picts at all. Then, in Aberdeen, Kincardine, 
Forfar, Perth, and Fife, land of the southern Picts, 
there are said to be seventy-eight invers- and only 
twenty-four abers-, which proportion probably indicates 

^ Viz., EiNNABER and Badabery, which probably means, 'thicket 
by the little confluence.' 

^ Except the afore-mentioned islet of Aber. 



XXXIV PLACB-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

that here the Brythons were the later comers, because 
no place-names readily change. In Forfar the aber 
gets hardened into ar, as in Arbboath, the famous old 
Aberbrothock, and Arbuthnot, at first spelt Abir- 
buthenoth ; just as fothir, later fetter, becomes in this 
region hardened into for. Thus we have Fbttkr- 
ANGUS and Fbttbrnear in Aberdeen, but Fordoun 
and FoRTBViOT, the old Fothuirtabaicht, further south. 
Dr Skene would like to lay it down, as a rule, that ar 
and for belong to the southern, dber and fetter to the 
northern part of this north-east corner of Scotland, 
making the Mounth or Grampians the boundary. But 
this rule has many exceptions; e.g., Forglbn and 
FoRDYCB stand north of the line, and Fettercairn 
and Fetteresso south of it. But, to return from this 
digression, and to complete the discussion of aber-, it 
may be remarked that, on the whole west coast, the soli- 
tary instance (unless we count Lochaber, as Stokes does) 
is one which would not easily be guessed under its 
cheating mask, viz., Applbcross in West Ross, which is 
a modification of Abercrosan or ' Apurcrossan,' the 
Crosau being a little burn there. The facts stated as to 
the local distribution of aber will be, to most, sufficient 
reason for demurring to Stokes' proposal to call the 
word Pictish. An early loan-word of the Picts it may 
well have been ; but if it had been an original Pictish 
word, how explain its total absence from Galloway, and 
its almost total absence from our Northern Highlands ? 
The initial a very rarely gets rubbed oflf; e.g., in 1291 
we find Bergeveny for Abergaveny, and Partick may 
be, though Berwick^ is not, a case in point. 

To sum up, then — in the study of the Celtic names the 

^ Though there is aD Abberwick in Northumberland, near the 
junction of the Edlingham bum with the Aln. 



CELTIC NAJfEa 'VJiJiV 

aid of the Welsh dictdonary will occasionally he rftouireft 
for the district south of the GrampianH, partir-.nUriy 
Tweeddale ; but by far the lai^est number of our piar-^- 
names are to be interpreted from the flictionary, ami ..f 
the laws, especially the pronouncing lawft, of Hrott.iH^i 
Gaelic True, more names may have Karl a Rr/tLr>nut 
origin than at first sight appear; for Zeimn in hm xf^^x, 
Grammaiica Celtica (1853) gives it as his opinion, tJiAt 
the divergence between Graelic, in itH broarif^t -tfrnitfr, 
and Welsh began only a few centuries B.C., anrl in rhe 
days of Julius Csesar must have been very nm^ilU Tl^iit 
is important, for thus it is we may, with muiHf.ftuiuic.ncf:, 
derive a name partly from what is now a pumly W":Uh 
word, and partly from a word now pure Oaf?lir'., r/, 
Cutcloy (p. xxiii), Leswalt, Ogilivb, Pu;Hf:AiajVM, <ir.a. 

By far the best known form of Gaelic is Irinh ; arul 
Scottish Gaelic is as much a variety or d'mUtfX of iiinh 
as Broad Scots is of Anglic or Old En^dinh- — b*rinj/ 
nearer Connaught Irish than any other, l^;r[iapH the 
most distinctive note of the Scottinh ton^nie iH, that the 
primary accent is always on the first ayllable. fn Home 
gnunmatic peculiarities Scottish Gaelic is mr>re like 
Manx than Irish, which meanfi, in other worrlH, that 
Gaelic and Manx have ceased to develop at a further 
or later stage of disintegration than Irish ; and to this 
day a Manxman can understand a Gael better than a 
man from Erin's isle. 

Already have we heard that scores of Scottish names 
are identical with names in Ireland. But let it be 
clearly understood that, more than this, the assistance 
in our study to be gained from names in Ireland is 
immense, assistance splendidly systematized and clari- 
fied for us by Dr Joyce in his two handy volumes. 
The aid from Ireland is all the more precious to the 



XXXVl PLACK-NAMBS OF SCOTLAND. 

scientific student, because we possess copious remains 
of early Irish literature, annals, historic poems, and the 
like, which give us the early forms of many of the Irish 
names. Abbot Tighemac, c. 1080, and the Annals of 
Ulster, c, 1300, have quite a number of Scottish names too ; 
and sometimes we get forms as old as the 5th or 6th cen- 
tury A.D.^ From these early, uncorrupted forms scholars 
can usually tell with certainty the meanings of the 
names. Irish names are as a rule easier to interpret 
because they have never, to the same extent, been so 
mangled and corrupted as in Scotland, either by Dane 
or Englishman. Again, the Scottish student is not 
nearly so fortunate as his Irish neighbour, because 
early Gaelic literature is sadly wanting. Not that 
early Scotsmen could not handle a pen, and handle 
it well; but their writings have not been allowed to 
survive. For this we have to thank the kindly atten- 
tions of our invaders; not so much the armies of 
England's two Edwards,^ though they did their share, 
but rather the rough hands of pagan Vikings from 
Norroway, who hated anything which seemed to smell 
of the mass, and who consigned hundreds of precious 
Scottish MSS. to the sea or to the flames. These same 
rude pirates have made early Celtic MSS. very scarce 
all over Britain. This country contains only about six 
MSS. which date before 1000 a.d. ; but the Celtic 
clergy fled from their native cells to the Continent, 

^ Our Alphabetical List will be found to take note of 44 still-existiiig 
Celtic names of which we have record before the year 900. There may 
be one or two more still to be identified in Adamnan. In addition, the 
List contains about 100 names of all kinds recorded before 1100 ; and 
probably this total can only be very slightly increased. 

'^ Cf. Codevdar of Documents relating to Scotland , 1881, voL L, pret 
pp. vi. sq., where the gross neglect of our own public record-keepers 
in early days is much commented on, and Edward L vindicated. 



CBLTIO NAMES. XXXVU 

bearing their books with them; and the libraries of 
Central and South- West Europe have now rich store of 
early Celtic MSS., not less than 200 in all. However, 
the subjects of these continental MSS. make them to 
be seldom of much service for place-names. Nor do 
the many later bundles of Scottish Gaelic MSS. in the 
Edinburgh Advocates' Library and elsewhere yield us 
much fruit either. Of annals or topographic works 
they are said to contain hardly any, though there are 
rare exceptions, like the Islay charter of 1408, so 
luckily rescued from a peat-hc^ in Antrim.^ 

Of two other precious survivals every student of 
Scottish history has at least heard : — 

(1) The Book of Deer in Aberdeenshire, discovered 
by Mr Bradshaw in Cambridge University Library in 
1860. This manuscript contains the gospel of John, 
and parts of the three other gospels, in Latin; and 
then, what is important for us, in the blank spaces of 
the MS. — parchment was costly in those days — there 
are written in Scottish (or Rctish) Gaelic, grants of land 
and privileges to the church of Deer, containing several 
place-names. The original MS. is written in a hand 
which may probably be assigned to the 9th century, 
whilst none of the later entries come beyond the reign 
of David L, c. 1150. 

(2) The Fictish Chronicle of the monks of Brechin, 
a brief work writ in Latin, but clearly a translation 
from the Gaelic, and containing a good many examples 
of place-names, which will all or very nearly all be 
iound embodied in our List. It breaks off at the 
year 966, and. its date cannot be much later, although 
the only known MS. must belong to the 14th century. 

^ See Prof. Mackinnon in Inverness Oaelie Society*s Proceedings, xvi. 
pp. 287 foil. 



XXZVlil PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Besides, we have many instmctive name-forms in 
Abbot AdamnarCa well-known life of his great pre- 
decessor, Columba, of which one MS. dates from 710 A.D. 
Then, from the days of King Duncan (1094) onwards, 
we have the copious Abbey Chartularies, whose stores 
of names of hill and dale, of town and hamlet, have 
largely been made available by the zeal of the Banna- 
tyne Club. Specially have we to thank the huge 
industry of Cosmo Innes and Brichan in the Origines 
Parochiodes, which, alas! cover only half of Scotland 
(see Preface). The famous Inquisiiio de Terris Ecdesim 
GlasgtiensiSy made in 1116 by Prince David, afterwards 
David I., and now printed in the Chartulary of Glasgow, 
is the oldest authentic example of such documents now 
preserved in Scotland. The only earlier ones are cer- 
tain Coldingham Priory Charters, which go back some 
22 years earlier. These are now preserved at Durham ; 
and they may be conveniently studied by all the curious, 
in the noble collection, so carefully edited, of The 
National Manuscripts of Scotland, The Chartularies of 
Glasgow, Paisley, St Andrews, Holyrood, and Melrose 
are perhaps those most deserving of note. But when, 
as is often the case, the chartularies have been written 
by scribes wholly ignorant of Gaelic, their phonetic 
attempts at the spelling of a place-name often sadly 
disfigure the real word (see Auchtermuchty, &c.). A 
famous scribe's error with permanent results is to be 
found in the name of the cradle of Scottish Christi- 
anity, wave-vexed Iona, whose original spelling cer- 
tainly was loua^ which, like so many of the names 
in Adamnan, is probably an adjectival formation, 
in this case from the old word % *an island,' The 
earliest mention of Iona in history is by Cummian, 
who in 634 a.d. writes of ' Huensis abbas.' 



CELTIC NAMES. XXXIX 

As an example of what we may find in a charter, and 
of how little after all place-names change, even in 750 
years, take the following list, being all the names men- 
tioned in the charter (in the Paidey Chartidary) 
granted by King Malcolm IV. to Walter, Stewart or 
Seneschal of Scotland, in 1158 : — ' Francis (i.e., 

Normans) et Anglis, Scotis et Galovidiensibus 

de terris de Eeinfrew, Paisleth, PuUock, TuUoch, 
Kerkert (i.e., Cathcart), Le Drip, Egilsham, Lochynoc, 
et Inerwick, Inchenan, Hastenden {ie,, Hassbndean), 

Legerwood, et Birchensyde, Eoxburgh, 

St Andrae, Glasgow, Kelcow, Melross.' Among 

others, there are the following noteworthy personal 
names : — * Colvill, Sumervilla, et Macus ' ; the latter 
has not yet the appended -vdel to make him Maxwell. 

The Celt gave names to all Scotland, so we must be 
prepared to find thousands of Celtic names to study ; 
but, unfortunately for those who wish to make sure of the 
true pronunciation of a puzzling name, Gaelic is now 
spoken over less than half its old area. It has been 
retreating up the glens ever since the days of foreign, 
Saxon Queen Margaret, and is destined to retreat 
further still, till finally, at no distant future — eheu 
fugaces ! — it must give up the ghost altogether, even as 
Cornish has already done. Take the region north of 
a line drawn from Forres to Campbeltown, and there, 
roughly speaking, is the area in which Gaelic is still a 
living speech. But Gaelic lived on in most parts of 
Scotland much longer than is commonly thought. We 
have the evidence of George Buchanan that it was 
spoken in Galloway down to the days of Queen Mary ; 
and it lingered in Glenapp (south of Ballantrae) a full 
century later. Little wonder then that Galloway, 
though now English in speech, is crammed with Celtic 



xl PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

namea But, south of the above-mentioned line we 
cannot be so sure about the real pronunciation, and 
consequently, the real meaning of many of the names. 
And, nota bene, it will not always do to trust local 
pronunciations and interpretations, even when given by 
a true Gael. Loch Mareb, so universally and wrongly 
thought to be ' Mary's Loch,' is a good case in point. 

The investigator will find that the modern Gael, even 
the scholarly Gael, is apt to exaggerate the importance 
of his present-day pronunciations. To take a crucial 
instance, Coulter, both in Lanarkshire and Aberdeen, 
is mentioned in charters as early as 1200 or earlier, 
with the spelling Cul-, never Col- ; and it is invariably 
pronounced with the u in both these places to-day. And 
yet our Gaels adduce such an obscure northern name as 
Inchcoulter, which they tell us is in G. innis-a-choUair ; 
and, on the strength of this, deny that Coulter can have 
anything to do with ciil, * the back,' though they them- 
selves have no idea what coltair means. It will also be 
found that the ' oldest inhabitant ' (Gaehc) is apt to be 
extremely ignorant and misleading in his ideas of Celtic 
etymology. 

No sure progress can be made until at least some- 
thing is learnt of the difficult laws of Gaehc inflection 
and pronunciation ; and, of course, Scottish Gaelic shares 
its chief difficulties with all the other Celtic tongues. 
The inflections are sometimes a little difficult, because 
they largely take place within the word, e.g,^ nom. m, 
* a dog ' ; gen., the very different-looking coin, * of a dog,' 
cam, * a cairn,' cuim, * of a cairn,' &c. Then it is the rule 
— and this is of great moment for our study — that when- 
ever certain consonants come between two vowels they 
aspirate or add an h ; these aspirating (and the tyro may 
well call them also exasperating) letters are b, c, d,f, g. 



CELTIC NiJfZ:. 

vt. h 7: u^ Aiina in Gaelic i- ^ 
n T^ !t:rrft:-> Adhamnan, i- ::,- 
Auju-'-Aij?.* For the extra.' T-..;^-i- - 
" lie iLizie Adamnan by tr^e^ * \ r. 

The ii? of pronuncii*.',:. isr-- 
MiZT--ii: heartfly re-ec:.. *.'.-^ i_ 
Mmi. Lid been writtei- p-. ^^ . ,. 
«•- -zzi and not aecordii:^ v. -t ^ - - 
ca^o 'the strict and :..:.,. >:* 
^ch•:•:ls.'^ As things nfrf >vi ^ - 

-^iig^iage in the wori^; ir. » . . - ^ 
help to the tongue. 0: 'r. r*- . ^ - 
se^niing madness ; br:: y. *- .• -^ -. 
CTes ahnost no ti-j*: * . - -,. 
altogether mialead::.^* T ,- < 
iDan consulting a Gv:_ . . , ^<r- 
altogether at sesa. i:^-,- . - . ^ 
could, with advanta^r .- • ^ r 
the uncouth-looki;-:.' r. . 
needed The n'^/r.:*-':. ,:. - .-^ 
where the sou tb-^^r-i:" -< 

to the true loi::: ^ or ^ ' - <, 
etc. Local d:!/*;r*?: .< . 
endless; and ^^j-**^./, **t..^<' .^ ^ ^. 
fashion of swf';: ^r^.r... .<t -, •. - 

But it ir t:i«: 5^: •-.■ .. 

troubles. Wl^*^ / y^;. ;,^ . ^ 

*I)r Stemar i: :, Vw*^*^' . ^ - 
bave no hijrr*r a-'.i.v *: '• , v- ~^- •— "- 
iiie oupii: V «A r--v .^ ^ - -, 

MDturr ajfr- ^^ '^- ' .- 'j*-- '- -- • <^ — - ^ 
iht old si#**-.-i •ati".*- •—.«>..« 

learned by •:*nj'->»r<v> tsr-^^-^ " " -^ 



Xlii PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

or end of a word it has always a tendency to eclipse its 
neighbour, and to make both it and the h silent 
altogether.^ Thus, many of those strange mA's and dh\ 
with which Gaelic is so thickly peppered, have no sound 
at all ; e,g,^ Amhalghaidh, which looks such a mon- 
strous mouthful, subsides into Awlay, so well known to 
us in the name Macaulay. Hence, too, such pronuncia- 
tions as Strabungo for Strathbungo, Stracathro for 
Strathcathro ; and, as we have already seen, Gael 
for Gadhel — here dh is called evanescent. Only, in 
scores of cases, as early spellings show, the letters mute 
to-day were sounded long ago, and indeed were not 
aspirated at all, see e.g. Dunbeath or Douglas, in 
Nennms, Dubglas, etc. The usual sound of mh and hh 
is i?, as in mhbry *big,' hence Skbrryvorb, and in ddu 
bharr, *two heights,' or Davarr. Sometimes it is nearer 
Wj as in Craigwhinnie, the G. creag mhuine^ * crag of the 
thicket ' ; sometimes the v-sound goes all the way to 6, 
though not in good Gaelic, as Strathbungo = * Mungo's 
vale ' ; and then often, as we have seen above, the 
aspirate and its neighbour have no sound at all. Yet 
more puzzling is it when the original consonant falls 
away altogether, leaving only the A, or else leaving no 
trace at all ; thus G. fada^ * long/ unaspirated, gives us 
the name Loch Fad in Bute, but aspirated it gives us 
the name of Ben Attow near Loch Duich. 

Another matter of crucial importance is the accent. 
In Gaelic, which here differs from Irish, the accent 
tends to fall on the first syllable. Thus, in many names, 
the second or unstressed syllable is corrupted by 
indistinct pronunciation, e.g., Lagan becomes LOGIE, or 

1 Of course, this often happens even in English, especially with ^ ; in 
Eng. h almost always silences g, as in high, naughty, straight, &o. 
This does not apply to Lowland Scots. 



CELTIC NAMSa xlui 

oftener falls away altogether; e.g.y a^^vih, ' deid,* has in 
hundreds of names become ack or aurJi^ Seldcm baa 
the final syllable survived in a name ; though we have, 
e.g.y Achanancarn and Achanamoine in Benderltxth^ 
and Auchamore, Dunoon. Here is another intiereating 
example. In a charter of Malcohn the Maiden, «- 1160, 
in Jos. Robertson's Collections for iJu History of Ahtr- 
deen and Banff (p. 172), we read of a place in the Don 
Valley, 'Brecachath quod interpretatar campus di»- 
tinctus coloribus'; and there is still a Breakachy, or 
* speckled field,' near Beauly, and in Caithness. 
Similarly, tulach, * a hill, mound,' usually appears in 
names as Tully- or Tillie-, as in Tullymkt and Tillie- 
CHEWAN, though we have the whole word in Tulloch, 
and the second syllable intact in Mobtlach. According 
to Professor Mackinnon it is a firm rule in Gaelic 
phonology, in compound names, which Gaelic place- 
names usually are, that the accent falls on the qualifying 
word or attributive. Attention to the accent in the 
native pronunciation will thus save many an incorrw^t 
guess at a name's meaning ; thus Kn6ckan would mean 
' little hiir (dimin, of cnoc\ but Knockard, 'high hill/ 
drd being here the qualifying word; thus, X/jo^ TYUtK, 
the name of a farm near ^rkcaldy, might frox/j itK look 
mean * king's house ' (^i^A ri^^), but when wh know li 
is accented T^e, it can only be the G* hr, h/^^, ' land, u 
bit of land.' However, even this rule Ji<i>i a f<j»v i./'A^i 
tions, loath though the Celtic w^iolar naxy \m: i/j n/Ut,ii 
it. JE.g., natives of Central Ferthhhif*; do </4.»Uw.l/ 
speak of K^nmore, just afc uaUv^. *A O^aw^^*;*/ »'y>>>y o1 
Kenmure; and thou;ih we do hav K.^.'/i., w< '-o t*:,^, 
say currently Kin]'y:L-itanii'A:h> il«;i^'.< i^r* u*>*/ ^ . ,\ ^ 
the meanin^r assi;riied v^ ^\'/A\y.\/ _ <!>>'///-/,./ *...^,> , ^ 

POLMOKT, &C 



xliv PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

English speakers often put *The' before a name, as 
'The Methil/ 'The Lochies' (see p. Ixxxix); in Gaelic the 
article is almost never prefixed to a place-name, except 
in the form ^ ; Anstruther may be an exception. The 
nominative of the article, an, is then rarely met with ; 
but the genitive ria, in plur. ruin, before labials nam, is 
very often met with ; «.^., Balwabruaich, ' village on the 
bank,' Coir/wjuuriskin, ' ravine of the goblins,' Bealach- 
wam-bo, * pass of the cattle.' The na of the article is 
very liable to abrasion or corruption; e.^., it may 
become simple a as in Dalarossie, or simple ti as in 
Kilninver, or may even slip down into i, as in CulH- 
cudden {cf, the Welsh y, as in Bettws-y-Coed, * house in 
the wood '). It is worth remembering that, except in 
feminine polysyllables, the gen. plur. of a noun is always 
just the same as the nom. singular. With masculine 
nouns beginning with a vowel the article is an t\ or t\ 
as in ToB, *the bay.' The same is true of feminine 
nouns beginning with s, here the t eclipses the s ; as in 
the names Colintraive and Kintail, which are in G. 
cool an t'sTiaimh, and dnn fsaUe. 

The mediae 6, d, g approach in sound much nearer to 
our English tenues p, t, c, and are often found inter- 
changing in names. Final dh sometimes sounds like 
k or ch. The letter d seems often to insert itself, 
as in the Galloway names, Ciillendeugh, Ciillendoch, 
and Ciillenoch, all, as the accent shows, from G. 
cuUeanach, 'place of hollies'; also, as in Drummond, 
G. dromainn, and in Lomond, old G. Lomv^, The 
letter I always seems ready to run away from a name ; 
see, e,g,. Bogie, Cockburnspath, or Cowdenknowes, in 
which last both the ws represent an original l. The s 
of the English plural in scores of cases afi&xes itself to 
Gaelic names, as in Crathes, Lindores, Wemyss. In 



-*--■% ilr_> 



aid r.'A .i'. r^>f<nr^^Iy. In rivor-t;i*n-co 52 c --.^ i^ >;:»v,; 
ally cjiLZDr-n — ^Fesr^e, Lossie. Trv»!t.rt.;r Isu \t „,,a 
>^ms u. pTrni to a terminatiun in -t /;. j,c.i...j^ *{,» 
^aaie en'iing as is seen in ^tol<^li]v'^ J;ii»u 'u.^. N,»v u.^. 
T..b-ios, ic. 

Of all Scottish place-ixazii*;*; IhutM- t»)>riiij^' tnw*i ^ «'li.M 
lip^ show by far thie most ♦^vuij^atiiN vnKh tui^hi^a i,^ 
Celt's wamr, eiiio*uiyiJU- i*^<a-' /t,\4:^.' i^, o^^v >, > t.. 
p:<etry and ecl'jrj :x 'ii**: v*':''.* ^iv/,,' y».,' ,,..^ .. / ., 
I . i'l-e-naiLier »iiiinr 'h-r-st: r^rr; ^<xi'^i-' ♦-» . -', . . 

hf iit'f, n' tf'rfK*^':*' ->»>//? /•'!//' w.'./ .-,♦ •^^ f 

• ' .'^ .I'l tr 'I r*!' "•''tt'jf f ' c 1- • . '. .- .. . 

'--tt I::t^ ri.ii .1?^- vo -^ ,^..^ ^^ j_,- J" ^ 

- •^— .•♦ "r::,-.:^ - >^ -^t - ,r -, ,., ». ..••... 



.1 .. -;•-. -'.n . . Tnt» '. ; -\-, r- 




xlvi PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

G. magh sratha, * plain of the valley ' (at the foot of the 
Ochils), the final gh and th having now both vanished. 
From what has been said the reader will not be sur- 
prised to find that the words for * water/ * river,' * stream/ 
occur very often in names — dobhar or ddr (see Abkr- 
DOUK, &c.) ; abhuinn or dn} or AvON ; abk, found in AwE, 
and very likely in Balmaha, the bh here being quies- 
cent ; also uisg, uisge, painfully familiar in the shape 
and sound of that 'strong water/ commonly called 
* whisky ' ; this word we see in Cob-uisk, in Esk, and 
in a little hill in Gartly parish called Wisheach, * the 
watery ' or * wet ' hilL In England the same root rings 
the changes on almost all the vowels, as in Ax, Ex,^ 
Isis, Ock (in Ockbrook, Derby), Usk, and Ux (in Ux- 
bridge) ; whilst Ox- in Oxford, is probably a brother of 
the same family. The softer form of this word is OusE, a 
river-name found not only in England, but on this side 
the Border too ; see Oxnam. 

Whether the last rule be accepted or not, there is no 
question that personal acquaintance with a spot is 
highly desirable before we make any attempt to solve 
its name. One sight of a place may prevent ludicrous 
mistakes, and may also suggest with a flash the real 
meaning. Boleskine, from the look of the word, 
might well be = PollanasMn, Mayo, i,e., * pool of the 
eels ' ; but, from the look of the place, it must be boll 
(or poll) eas cumhain (pron. cuan), ' pool of the narrow 
waterfall' It was personal inspection, too, which 
brought that happy inspiration which translated 
COLINTRAIVE, on the quiet Kyles of Bute, as caol an 

^ The final -an in a good many Celtic names like Abriachan, &c. , is 
an adjectival ending similar to wlu^t we see in those ancient Gaulish 
river-names, SequaTia and Matrona, now Seine and Mame. 

^ E.g,t Simeon of Durham speaks of Exeter as, ' Brittannice Cairuisc, 
Latine Civitas Aquarum.' But Wh. Stokes thinks Esk {q.v,) Pictish. 



fs/uiiitxh iprin. omiv** for ' ^dri^etj >. luli • niuiiies ~o 
its kiiidr«E>i i.'iiii -^\ ' oarrow^ -yizIi "he- -wrzizirziL- 

over. AE:£5"a^ 'ii ipn«^sire ~o ."'-.iii. i^. -r -o'Tz^e-. k 
similar ori^-fn. 

Where G^^Iiii oamej^ now ^nr^vp- m ai ^- -'^ rr- 
speaking reci'-c^ 'iii»i -^^ st>iue exteur ji ^-iniv: -fr*^ .xTtt- : 



regions to»> » : :r rerw^ 'IneLs !aa ip^ -iieir iwt. Aiic^.e*, 
the place-nAziea ix^ icn :ii les ^^ ':imp^eti ^t- j^^iein- 
tions of illiter^ce .-^peak^^ra liiiis me r^jiir^ ro iioMr. 
not only the If>>k 'jt a puuie la^t zhe une pr'ii'ineiiicn:a 
of its name, h^z H^'} aitneilr-ii:^ if ±.e lii':^^ r ^ii«necic$w 
s-^mething of the lines on wtLc'z, ibe^e vivmTaj.rs? cc 
alterations usTiaLIv mn. Phoiieae* is a 5i:i«er.':e w::h 
real laws, and these miist c« ziastertii We Al:Vi*v\v 
know how apt h and // are to interchan^, so tvx^ arx> ,i 
and t ; <r.y., take Auldkarx, near Nairn, which is in 0» »>/V,» 
Eire, the last syllable, curiously enough, being tho sntno 
as that of its neighbour, Findhorn. Again, Uiko thui 
kirk whose name Bums has made undying, AULOWAY, 
near Ayr. This is either G. alia mhagh, ' wild Hold,' nr 
eke a corruption of G. allt-a-hheath (vay), * rivnr iif I Im» 
birches,' and so identical with AULTHBA, iiwuy up In 
West Ross-shire. This word allt is a vijry nMn^nlMilJiJ 
one, for it means both * river/ * ^1«mi/ iind 'lit')>/\iU* nn 
either side a glen,' thus Txjing plaiuJy nhn Ut H<i / 
"ItuSy high. It recurs again aud a/uii/ m hu^ \i* nnnn . 
in the guises af All-, Alt-, Auld, A*-U. (.^a i.». ly / 
showing the length tfj wlji'b lj*<' Oiitl < >i\ •/.*, .<. i:.^ , < , 
away his alphabet, "we Uiay <-:l>«' ^m «.m.'i.4 J.»/ / < / < h 
ANTUIE, on the Atki.tir- M't* m1 J^ j'/m /,....i ., ^ , 
of the seat/ G. Kn.ih,* : tm'*. 'jii i«^t;.*i o i,',,, ;/ . 
Billochant-*^, "W'^.i' i. nj*;j'.ii' ^.^t '. -* . ,.> .i 

the six letter? ^vt^V i*- j** ti.--.. * / v ' 



xlviii 



PLACK-NAMBS OF SCOTLAND. 



' 1 



! 



The commonest names are those giving a bare, brief 
description of the site named; next in frequency are 
those which give the general appearance of the place 
as it strikes the eye — rough {garth) or smooth (m\n, 
also * level, gentle-looking '), straight {deas) or crooked 
(cam), black or dark (duhh), speckled or spotted (breac), 
long (fada) or short (gearr), little (beag) or big (nidr) ; 
such names as Garvalt, * rough glen/ Mingarby, 
'smooth enclosure/ Morven, *big ben/ are legion. 
Almost all of Nature's common colours figure largely 
in the sympathetic speech and nomenclature of the 
nature-loving Gael. Specially common are diibh, * black/ 
which everyone knows in the guise of Dufif, but often 
also sounded dhu, as in Douglas, Dhu Hkartach, 
ROSSDHU; and ban and Jionn, * white, light-coloured, 
clear to the view/ as in Banavie, Bannockburn, 
Carfin, Findon. Names denoting red or reddish are 
also plentiful. Here we have two words, dearg, ' red/ 
also *the colour of newly-ploughed land,' as in Ben 
Dearg ; when the d is aspirated it sounds almost like^, 
as in Barrjarg, * red height,' near Closeburn. The other 
word is ruadh, familiar to us all in the name of Eob 
Eoy, * red Eobert,' with his ruddy tartan plaid ; but also 
pronounced rew, and something very like roch, as in 
Tannieroach, ' reddish meadow.' The dh is preserved 
in the spelling of the name Euthvbn, though the name 
itself is now often pronounced Eivven. Green, chief 
colour in Nature's paint-box, is gorm. Everyone is 
familiar with Cairngorm, and every lover of Scottish 
song has heard of * Tullochgorum,' i.e., ' green hillock.' 
Then there is glas, * grey, pale, wan/ as in Glass Maol, 
* the grey, bare hill,' so frowningly conspicuous on the 
road between Braemar and Glenshee, Glassford, and 
possibly also in the name of the great Western 



Few or:V-^ Hii-is- i n- .-p- vr'. — -i ' ^irrzr- zi - .jul— 
scape thai. ^ i-:i:zin »r n-T^r r ":=t«: n:3 ■»=- jit- -t?-^ 
pared to rzii xr^-iiinir^ ^iT-.tt c j-iz?^" zi ^Tirtl: 
topograpLy, ^>'m:Tii'fi i^ ui-^ f-*fr_irt»_ 3 ♦- — a.t 
the birc'b, *:irr :c iih: n^^ i.*ni:ru. -r jr_i-jr?i-~-5 tt^^-s- r 
Scotland- Tl-** v*- imi i>irr»r ici ^:T.r,.=T n I-3JI1 *n.. 
Beith, wheT«e in*- '/ r^^t^iiit j> *— ji.l iiirfi "iz^ t. ii- 
mute, as ii. A'nr'22^ "^-^rr: jli.ts— cilt^ uill r'}iT?iT.~> 
Pass of Leri Tir'.'n^ fe«:ir:irji n. r iih^ r ^rmvi 
forms arise as Allf^'^iT nii*^i r^^rr^: i:. lul r^Lj:*:^.- 
WAY (G. fhyy-/ir'/in'^j''*''r) .. zifJiz JiirrsL. Tze v:ir,^ 
rfa?>, gen- ^^'/^i. an ^.*iii- :i^ ftrrrrfeTrrr f --v/^ iz: .^t- 
wood, and its cognate *f>:"/r^, a gri-T^. hi^Te ils^^ n:^" y 
representatives. We have the simple Danvxh at V\^1- 
kirk, &c., and we have a Scottish as weD as an Iri<^h lVm\ 
near Braemar. Then there are Dar-vkl, Auohtrk^ 
DEBBAN, and Dal-jarroch, near Girvan, Cto, 11m 
Gaelic for an elm is leamhan (louan), which rti»])iMir« 
in many a dress. One of these is the very coirnrMUi 
name Levkn. The Vale of Leven waH oiico cullml 
Levenax or Lennox, whilst the old Umn of \,ni\\ 
Lomond was Lonme, which may alno tx^ li'ii/nihun ^ 
and its sea-neighbour Loch Long ik y^ilinim i^<' //>//// 
Lemannoniiis of Ptolemy. He, by Ua<^ woy, Y^t*,ij^ 
c. 120 A.D., but he is Buppob^ Uj )i>x\^. U/rs u \>^*- i**»t*.' ^ 
from an old Tynan atla^^ at ^1«'/^*i'/mj .m.^i »y/ <<> 
forms he gives are pro'^^'-ly a y/^/ '*** 
this date. HuinUer plaiu ijifv* 
quota, like the wjdi?*- a-'v i^ m *'r,^ * -'..../,-, ^/ 
town, and the ruj-!. i*'/*"/ >^ »-. ' ,, , , 

If trees auc v-«i" -1^ ^' .* : -« * > . 
animals hare t'ti*- • **y: 






1 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

was very fond of raisiiig a monnmeDt to his dumb 
cattle by means of a place-name ; e.g,^ the Graelic for a 
cow is &o, = L. &08; this we find in the name which 
Scott has made all the world know by the Lady of the 
Lake, 6^1ach-nam-bo, i.e.j ' pass of the cattle/ lealach 
being better known to most of us in the shape of 
Balloch; then there \a Bochastls, and Botns, near 
Banff, which seems to be G. ha-fhionn, 'white cow/ 
Madadh, the wild dog or wolf, is commemorated in 
LoCHMADDT. The ordinary dog is «*, gen. coin^ as in 
Loch Con. The unsavoury pig, mvx^y has left many a 
sign of his former abundance, as in Auchtermuchtt, 
Dbummuckloch, and Muckhart, all of which imply 
the site of a swinefield or pen. Even the shy otter, 
doran, gives name to Ben Doran ; and so forth. 

Not only did the Gael give the names of animals to 
many spots associated with them, he was also con- 
stantly seeing in some landmark a resemblance to some 
part of an animal. Most common of all do we find 
dnmn, = L. dorsum, the back, especially a long back like 
that of a horse, hence a long hill-ridge. Sir H. Maxwell 
names 198 instances in Galloway alone, and we find 
them everywhere — Drumclog, Drumlanrig, Dbum- 
SHEUGH, Dromorb, &c. Drummond and Drtmen are 
just the G. dro^mainn with the same meaning. Then 
there is crubha, *a haunch or shoulder,' hence the 
shoulder of a hill, as in Duncrub, perhaps too in 
Crieff, whose name just describes its site ; on the 
other side of the hill is Culcrieff, *the back of the 
haunch.' Sron, * the nose,' the equivalent of the Norse 
71688, and of the English name Naze, is found in a 
good many names of headlands, where it is always 
spelt 8t7vn, but the t is like the t in strath, a mere 
Sassenach intrusion to enable the poor Lowlander to 






pronounce the worn. Z::2jzr>:* jli- t: 
Stronbuy, and that lirrirr :ai*r x Ll>::^ Z^ 
is nnpronounceabie hy r:>:g'^fL Izpt. nxT 
* cape of the maaon. '- B^rr^-sft. rj^f^ ^ ri^ ^^^^^ ' 
scattered ceann^ 'a hesuL iE-i ^■*- * rr^c.ir:.?^ li^;^"- 
found as ken-, or in x=r j-^ -.'',3iiri> -^rni .i - . .r 
kin- (see Kdtaldiz^ ; initv.iiic5!St ^rs X'* r.u:L=ir.-::>^ -. 
require mention. 

The Grael has alwajs l>;**n * ami* jnjyiirrs: xaa "Z^aa 
his English supplanter. J .ex 2»iJ. *..'f-^7> ;fcuj 7 j.^"^-:^ 
to perpetuate his own or Li^ c vx krr- f aa:nhr. :«r it 1:2: 
a town, a castle, an hogpL:*! cr ^Trtrn bj ?r:zr^:.cirj.v;:ai 
carving on his bench at scLooL There are 5e»?r\?i$ o^ 
towns and villages in England, and Scotland u«o, ealltxi bv 
the names of Saxon men (cf, p. Ixxxiii and foil.). The Celt 
adopted this fashion much more rarely. But a good 
many of the heroes of Ossian and other early legends 
are commemorated in this way, g.^., Corrievrkckan, otf 
Jura, is * the cauldron ' or * whirlpool of Breean/ grand- 
son of the famous Niall of the nine hostages. CowA^ 
is called after Coill, the 'old king Cole/ of the well- 
known rhyme; Lorn, after Laarn, first king of >SfM^fe '\n 
Dalriada or Argyle. In \Vigtowni^}Jire w^ tjxiv<? iy^i 
liachan, which Dr irLauclilau vii\Mr\)y^vA ixt 'i//il 
(enclosure) of Eochan,' t/., M-^.^^j^:. Tia: b<-vi:5t ir/A^r <>»♦ 
that legendary eponym-jue perbv»uaj^«r. ^yi^-Pr.oA *,i 
Cruid)u^ reputed l^uiier \.t tiit O'lu^iii.// '^i y /....-, 
race, both in St^oiiluuc auc" li-^iitiui ai* a** -*-•* \ ,^ ^> ,/ 
up. Acoordixi^' tt' iijf j^/'/- f.>/ :"/".'/'.•.> i*. .-, , . 
Fib, FidaeL, FiO'MiJV. '^ }/"..'.,: ' , 
Fortrenn va8 tu*- ui» ,xt:^ * -r. ... 

vicinity; l'.»r tu*: •:.><•: cko- . ^ ^ ' , . 

FiDDICH, Yin, jVlL-VrJ* u ' , i . 



lii PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

we find in Cruithneachan, Lochaber. It should be 
said, however, that several scholars vehemently object 
to our deriving any names at all from the Cruithne, his 
sons, or any such. They consider them all pure myths, 
noms pour serviVy deliberate inventions to conceal 
ignorance. How that hill in Badenoch, * Craig Eigh 
Harailt,' came to be called after the Norse king Harold 
nobody seems to know ; and certainly Celtic names of 
the type of Balmaclellan, * M*Lellan's village,' New 
Galloway, are quite rare. Near Lesmahagow is the 
curious name, Auchtigammell, * field of the house of 
Gemmell ' ; but the latter name is just the common 
Norse gamniely * old,' or in its Scots form, so common as 
a surname among us, Auld. The Celt did little in the 
way of handing down his own or his own folk's name ; 
but, having always been a pious man, there was nothing 
he liked better than to call a village or a church or a 
well after some favourite saint. This, however, is so 
wide a subject as to deserve separate treatment (see 
Chap. v.). 

It is often said that several place-names preserve the 
memory of the ancient Druidic or Pagan sun and fire 
worship. This is conceivable, though it is absolutely 
certain that no Bal- in Scotland, nor yet Tulliebel- 
TANE, represents or preserves the name of Baal, the 
Phoenician suu-god; and one is surprised to find this 
unscholarly superstition so often repeated. Even 
though Greenock be the G. grian-aig, * sun-bay,' that 
will just mean * sunny bay ' ; and Ardentinny, * height 
of the fire,' on the west shore of Loch Long, just refers 
to the old signal fire for the ferryman, whilst Auchen- 
DINNY probably does not mean * field of the fire ' at all, 
but comes from the G. dion, * shelter, refuge.' 

The inquisitive amateur, somewhat dismayed by the 



CELTIC NAMES. liii 

many difficulties in the study of Celtic names detailed 
in the early part of this chapter, will now, we hope, be 
beginning to take heart again. He ought to be 
further reassured when he hears that acquaintance 
with about a dozen Graelic words will enable any 
one to interpret nearly half the real Gaelic names in 
Scotland. As fitting close to the section, let us 
enumerate these : — 

(1) AheVy already discussed. 

(2) Achadh, * a field,' also already discussed in part. 
From achadh, with its unaccented second syllable, 
comes the common prefix ach, as in Achnacarbt or 
ACHRAY. As a prefix the form is as commonly aueh-, 
as in AUCHINLEYS, AuCHMiTfflE, &a ; and (ich- and auch- 
often interchange, as in Ach- or Auch-nasheen, Ach- 

or AUCH-ENGANE, &C. 

(3) AucMer, in Gaelic uachdar, Welsh uchder\ but 
even the oldest charters spell it aiukter or ochter, or 
odre ; au and o are here found freely interchanging, as 
in Auchtertyre or Ochtertyre, Auchterneed, in 1619 
Ochtemeid, &c. This VMchdar is literally * the siunmit 
or upper part,' hence, * a high field ' ; and seems to be 
Pictish Gaelic. Occasionally Achter- or Auchter- 
represents G. uchd-a- or tcchdach, * a short, steep ascent,' 
from tichd, ' a breast or bosom,' as in Achtertyre, Loch- 
alsh. In Achtercaim, Eoss-shire, the first part is really 
the hard West Coast pronunciation of achadh, — acKd- 
a-chaim. 

(4) Baily haile, * a hamlet,' or simply * a house.' We 
all have heard of the multitudinous Irish Ballys ; and 
halU or lalla- is a common prefix in the Isle of Man. 
But it is as common in Scotland — Balnabruaich, 
Ballatsr, Ballinluig, and so almost ad infinitum. 
In the Lowlands of Aberdeen alone there are said to be 



liv PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

no less than fifty instances. Occasionally the h has 
become p, as in Balgonie, a. 1300, Palgoveny. 

(5) Barr, a height or hill, as in Barr, Barlinnie, &c.; 
in Lochaber, once a swampy region, barr means a road, 
because these roads could only be made along the high 
ground. The aspiration of the b appears in Craigievar, 
and in the name of * young Lochinvar' (Q.lochan^- 
bhai^a). But Barra and Dunbar probably refer to an 
Irish St Barr. 

(6) Bldr, * a plain,* as in Blair, Blairgowrie, &c. 

(7) CbU, or ciiU, 'a corner, a nook,' as in Coilan- 
togle, Colfin, Culross. &c. This word is apt, in 
names, to be confused with coUle, *a wood' (see the List 
passim). Coll itself probably means a ' hazel.' 

(8) Daily ' a field or meadow,' possibly a loan-word 
from Norse ; the prefix daU is always Gaelic, and has 
this meaning, as in Dalarossie, Dalnaspidal ; but the 
suffix 'dale is always either Norse (see p. Ixviii) or 
English, in Scotland usually the former, and always 
means * valley.' 

(9) Gart or Gdjrradh (a late loan-word from English), 
* an enclosure, garden,' akin to the Mid. Eng. garth, and 
the ordinary Eng. \yardy usually found as Gart-, as in 
Gartcosh, Gartnavel ( = Applegarth); sometimes as 
Garry-, as in Garrynahine, * Garden on the river,' in 
Lewis. But Garrabost, another Lewis name, we should 
probably interpret the man 'Geirra's place.' Just as 
in the case of dal or dale, the prefix gart- is Gaelic, but 
the suffix -garth must be English or Norse. 

(10) Inver or Inbhir, already referred to (p. xxxiii). 
Unlike aber, and contrary to Isaac Taylor's idea, 
inver is found practically all over Scotland, save in 
those northern isles where the Norseman has clean 
swept the board ; but it is much commoner north than 



CELTIC NAMES. Iv 

south of the <M Bomazi WalL The simple Inysk 
occurs again and s^ain — ou the south shore of the 
Dornoch Firth, as name of a little village, formerly 
Inverlochslin, and near Crathie, and where Bran joins 
Tay ; and then there is Loch Inver, so well known to 
the Sutherland salmon>fisher. Liver alwajrs tends to 
slide into inner, as both old charters and modern pro- 
nunciations amply testify, e.g., Inver- or Inner- ARITY, 
Inner- or Inykr-kip, &c. Inver does not exist in 
Brythonic Wales, and it is rare in Ireland ; these facts, 
coupled with its comparative rarity south of Forth and 
Clyde, point to its being, in all likelihood, a Pictish 
word. Sometimes it helps to form a hybrid name, a» 
in Innkrwick, south of Dunbar. 

(11) Mctgh, * a plain,' probably akin to mag^ * the palm 
of the hand,' as in Machrahanish ; but the Hnal 
^ttural usually vanishes. Thus we get Mambkci and 
Mamore, 'little' and 'big plain,' and also such a 
curious-looking name as Cambus o' May, which juHt 
means ' crook of the plain ' ; whilst ma(jh a\)\mi\'H in 
two Invemess-shire names as MoY, and more than onct* 
in Stirlingshire as Mye. Mearns, the old nanuj for 
Kincardine, so Dr Skene is never weary of tellin^^ uh, 
is probably magh Oirginn, to which the only (^xiwting 
early form, Moerne, may possibly point. 

(12) The Kctish pette, found in names as Tit-, PitU}-, 
Petti- (see p. xxxii); also, in 1211, we find the form 
Put-mullin ('land of the mill'). After the common 
fashion of such words — cf. the Eng. luim and inn. — 
j)ette or pit first means 'an enclosed bit of land/ then a 
farm, then the cottages round the farm, and bo, a 
village. The word seems still to linger in Assynt as 
}nU or poot, applied to a small patch of cultivated land 
among the rocks. In Gaelic, i.e.y the tongue of tlie 



I 



Ivi PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Dalriad Scots, which afterwards overspread the whole 
land, pit is commonly rendered by haUe ; it is doubtful 
if it is ever rendered by both, * a hut ' (see Pitgaveny). 
The region of pit- is the east centre of Scotland from 
the Firth of Forth to Tarbat Ness. There are two 
instances as far north as Golspie — Ktfure and Rt- 
grudy ; but there seem to be none at all in the west. 

(13) Tulach, * a hillock or hill ' : the unstressed 
second syllable usually drops into y ot ^; but we have 
the full word standing by itself in Tulloch, near 
Dingwall, already so spelt in 1158. Tulach occurs 
both as prefix and suffix, as in Tillyfour, Tullymet, 
Grandtully, Kirkintilloch. It has somewhat more 
disguised itself in Mortlach, and yet more in Murthly, 
both of which represent the G. mbr t(h)ulach, * big hill.' 

To these, the amateur can, of course, at once 
add all those Gaelic words entering into place- 
names which have already become part of orcKnary 
English speech. Such a word is len, as a suffix, usually 
aspirated into -ven, as in Morven, Suilven, more rarely 
thus as a prefix, e,g.y Venlaw and Vennachar. Then 
there are hrae, G. hraigh, the upper part of anything, 
hence Braemar, the Braes of Balquhidder, &c., but also 
quite common in Lowland names, as in Cobble Brae 
(Falkirk), Whale Brae (Newhaven); caim\ corrie, G. 
coire, lit. * a cauldron or kettle ' ; craig or crag, and its 
diminutive craigan ; glen ; inch, G. inniSy * an island or 
links*; knock, G. cnoc, 'a hill'; h/le, kyles, G. caol, 
caolas, * narrow place, straits ' ; loch, and its diminutive 
lochan] and strath. Most of these words have only 
been used by Southron tongues for a century, or a little 
more or less; though crag is found in the Cursor 
Mund% before 1300, and in Barbour's Bruce, whose 
date is 1375 ; loch, though in Barbour too, still sounded 



CELTIC KAMS& 



Ivii 



new and strange to Dr Johnson. Sibbald, in his well* 
known History of Fife (edition 1710), does not speak of 
Ben Lomond, bat uses the cumbrous phrase ' Lomundian 
mountain.' Bp. Pocoeke refers to *Benevis' in 1760; 
but the earliest quotation for ten which the writer can 
find is for the year 1771, when a T. Eussell in Den- 
hohn's Tour Through Scotland (1804, p. 49) writes :— 
* Prompt thee Ben Lomond's fesurful height to climb/ 
Dr Hurray's earliest instance is for 1788; and the 
earliest example in his great dictionary for the use of 
the word cairn as a landmark is from John Wesley in 
1770. Corrie is imrecorded till 1795, and was first 
popularised by Sir Walter Scott, 




I 



CHAPTEE 11. 

NOBSE NAMES.1 

When we come to deal with the Norse names in Scot- 
land, — perhaps to say Scandinavian names would be 
more correct, — we find ourselves amongst a group most 
interesting, and far more numerous than the outsider 
would think The story of the Norseman's deeds in 
Scotland has been skimmed over but lightly by most 
historians, and therefore it may be useful to set at least 
the bones of that history before the reader. Dr Skene 
thinks there is proof of Frisians, i.e., men from Holstein, 
in Dumfriesshire even before the year 400 a.d. How- 
ever that may be, we have certain evidence that, before 
the 8th century passed away, bold Vikings from Den- 
mark and Norway had already begun to beach their 
galleys on our long-suffering coasts. In 793 we find 
their rude feet on holy lindisfarne, close to the modem 
Scottish border ; and in 794 they swooped down among 
the Hebrides, being forced away from their homes 
because their own barren rocks could not sustain the 
growing population. This search for resting-place and 
sustenance drove some as far away as the Volga ; it urgecl 
others over the cold seas, to Iceland and Greenland, and 

^ Their importance and greater difficulty incline us to pnt this 
chapter before the English names, of which some are earlier in historic 
time. 



XOBSE NAMES Ux 

some rested not till they had coasted down to where 
mighty New York now spreads and grows. The uprise 
in the next century of ambitious Harold of the Fair Hair 
{Haarfagr), who at length made himself absolute king 
of Norway, drove out many more of his most active 
opposers, who found in the numerous rocky bays and 
friths of Western Scotland the quarters most suited for 
the plundering forays of their long-oared ships. King 
Harold followed after them, conquered all the isles away 
as far south as Man (875 a.d.), and made liis brother 
Sigurd their first JarL Even befoi-e this the Orkneys 
had been a station of call for the Vikings; while 
by the 10th century Norse rule had spread over all 
the Hebrides, Caithness, and all but the south-west of 
Sutherland. It has little affected Scottish topography 
south of the river Oykel; though latterly it included 
the west of Inverness, Argyle, and all Arran, and even 
reached as far as old Dumbarton. 

In Orkney and Shetland the Viking completely 
superseded the Pictish Celt, who, so far as place- 
names are concerned, has — strange to tell — left scarcely 
a trace behind, a result perhaps unique in history. 
Almost the only exception, and it is just half a one, is 
the name Orkney itself ; and one other partial instance 
is the Moulhead of Deerness, Orkney, the MMi of the 
Saga, which is the 6. maol, ' brow of a rock, cape.* ^ It 
must be remembered that here the Norseman had 600 
years and more in which to do his obliterating work. 
The Nordreyar, * northern isles,' as they were called in 
contrast with the Sudreyar^ 'southern isles* or Hebrides, 
did not escape from his dominion till 1469, when 

^ A few other names have been very plausibly pressed as Gaelic, like 
Corrigall Burn in Harray, and Deasbreck. But even as to these, one 
would like to know more of their history before feeling quite sure. 



Ix PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

James III. of Scotland married Margaret, daughter 
of Christian I. of Denmark, and received these northern 
isles as her dowry. But the Hebrides only remained 
an appanage to . the Norwegian crown for a scant 
three years after King Haco was defeated and 
his fleet shattered, at the brave battle of Largs in 
1263. 

In these parts of northern and western Scotland, 
Scandinavian names are found in more or less abund- 
ance.^ They also form quite a notable colony in Dum- 
friesshire, especially between the rivers Esk and Nith : 
but the distinctive gill, heck, and rig spread a good deal 
further than that — away into Kirkcudbright, and up 
Moffat Water, and not a few have even flowed over 
into Peebles; though on all Tweedside there is not a 
single representative of the characteristic Norse sufl&xes 
hecky force, thorpe, thwaite, and wald. The Dumfries 
colony of names, like the Scandinavian names in 
the Isle of Man, bear a more strongly Danish cast 
than the others. This points to the now generally- 
admitted fact that this special group of names is due 
to an irruption of Danes, coming north from England 
via Carlisle, and not to any landing of fair-haired pirates 
direct from the sea. The native Gaels called the 
Norsemen * the fair strangers,' and the Danes ' the 
dark strangers * or gailh The most hurried comparison 
will show how like the Dumfries Danish names are to 
the kindred names across the Border in Cumberland — 
fell and leek, bie and thwaite are alike common to 
both. 

In other parts of Scotland, especially those at some 
distance from the sea, Norse footprints are few and 
far between. Even on the east coast itself, south of 

^ Though we can remember none in Dumbarton. 



yOHSE ^TAMES. Ixi 

Dingwall, undoubtediT Xorse names are very rare; 
because the snug riks or bay? are so very few. Mr W. J. 
liddall ^ has drawn attendon to a aeries of interesting 
names connected, he thinks, with the doings of one of 
these pirate Northmen caZel Buthar, corrupted into 
Butter, the man aher whom, he thinks, bonnie 
Buttermere is named. He, it is said, has also given 
his name to Butterstone or Burterstown, near Dunkeld, 
and his path from thence to the sea is marked by an 
old road over the Ochills, still called the Butter Eoad, 
and past a Kinross-shire farm called Butterwell, on to 
Largo Bay. However, Mr A. J. Stewart of Moneydie, 
a careful student, says Butterstown is from the G. 
Mhar, *a road or lane,' its name having once been 
Bailebothar. There is another * Buter mere ' away down 
in Wilts, mentioned in a charter of King Athelstan^B, 
931, and there are several spots in Galloway called 
Butter Hole ; all probably refer to the bittern and itn 
haunts, the Scotch name for that bird being htifffr, tlio 
Mid. Eng. hiiourc. Old Fr. hidor. It ought to be noted, 
ra jydssant, that here we have several instancea of naiuea 
which seem to say 'butter/ and yet have nothing 
whatever to do with that useful commodity. 

It is usually said that Icelandic is the nearest nioderu 
representative of the tongue which these Viking-in vadera 
spake ; it would be more correct to say it was Iceljindie 
itself.* Before the year 1300 aU the lands iM^.<4jlod by 
the Northmen — Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, 
the Faroes, Orkney, Shetland, and the Hel;ritie« — ut>ed 
the same speech, and so did the Norse or Danihii tic^iilert^ 
in England, Ireland, and the luainlund of Seuilaud. 

> See Srotiish Geograph. Mout, for July l^^^•. 

« In our List wiU be found b«nh *0.N./ V.*., OM Nois>e, aud * hcl.,» 
but these XDeui almost tlie bauie thiiig. 

I) 



Ixii PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

And this northern tongue, the language of the old 
Eddas and Sagas, differed as little from modern Ice- 
landic as Shakspere's English from Browning's. The 
remote Arctic isle has preserved the mother-tongue 
with little change. Thus in studying the Scandinavian 
place-names of Scotland it is chiefly the Icelandic 
dictionary on which we must rely ; though the 
amateur must again be warned that unless he have 
some little knowledge of Norse speech, knowing to seek 
the origin of a name in wh- under hv-, knowing when 
to expect the r of the genitive (see Aros, Brora, &c.), 
and the like, he will find himself unable, even with his 
dictionary, to explicate many unquestionably Norse 
forms. Modern Swedish and Danish are to Icelandic 
as Italian and Spanish to Latin. They did not begin 
palpably to diverge from the parent stem till the 13 th 
century. Yet scholars are pretty well agreed that in 
the Scottish names which we are now dealing with, all 
of which probably existed before 1300, there are some 
which have a decidedly Danish cast, whilst the majority 
are rather Norse. The Norsemen seem to have loved 
mountainous regions like their own stem, craggy 
fatherland; hence it is chiefly Norse forms which we 
find in the names among the uplands of Southern 
Scotland and North- West England, and chiefly Danish 
forms on the flat and fertile stretches of Dumfries, a 
district so like the Dane's own land, where hills are a 
rarity even greater than trees in Caithness. 

It is also pretty generally understood that the old 
Norse speech was near of kin to our own Old English, 
which came from the flat coast-region immediately 
south-west of modern Denmark ; and the Norsemen 
themselves emphatically recognised this near kinship. 
The best living representative of Old English is Low- 



land or Broad ?co:i?. :hai jl -t -rT^-*^:-^ : i-jr-r 
so rich in vivid a^r^iri-'e*. -jft. -^ i-l-t.i .^il^ - ^--i---r 
as much to be regrertei is ::..ii r Va--_^i. --" i**. ^ "? 
is just the survival of Xi^ziihz. ^r -i' r^ii^-^L L' , --ii, 
giving to us still, in its pr-.n-juciiti' i^ rii=r -ifczir^ -•' 'Z-.^ 
as fell from the lips of :Le -ii kiz.^- -i-: Ti-rr ..r- i 
Bernicia and Deira. And Broad '^: *.ri, i -^^ z_ ^t-u "i- 
lary and pronunciation, app^oiiinii>t^^ il -r^ r^ r rtiref^, 
far more closely to Danish and I'^elizi^d.'-: tt.vj- r, •-i-'-Ti 
English does.^ In consequence of rr.:?. -g^-rfn t* ^i-* 
no external evidence to guide ns, it is ^.netme^ zri- 
possible to say whether a given name is of A^g" :-^^^ n. 
or of Xorse birth. So far as history ha^ Vj telL 5*:zn* 
few names in South-East Scotland might be ei:her, :»> 
wit, names containing forms common to both, such as 
^'tk and shmc, garth and holm. 

In quite another direction there are proofs that the 
West Highland Gaels borrowed a few words from the 
Northmen, who settled so plentifully upon their bays 
and lochs, without leave asked. There is the Ifu;l. 
3jd or *goe,' a chasm, which the Ga^l lias ma/le wUp 
GefdJia. In Colonsay there is a Kvdh/i Oh/^/zAJ'/i hf 
'red cleft,' where the old Xorse tt ie Kt'JJ p^^^i'/^'y*/]. 
The word /7'f// or /rt^/t, the loeL />^'^/-, ufiC >' jy^^'^ , 
is, of itself, sufficient proof that tij*: '^\>''**: iJi.^*" ' '-" '' ' 
round every an^rle of our coaHU iio*-*.: uji' <*' "'' *" ' 
and west. There are firtiih ifv*?*-* w:**^'* i; /» ' - -- ' 
to Sol way, and from I>orin>^*i v ^ '.••** ' * '''*^ '' 
copiously adopited tiiii- v^«»''' /"' *' • *- 
the / gets aepiral'e^ an' *,*>'-:*'/" - ^ ' / /' 
Thus on tbf weKt 'ro**"' %v* i<S'- ^''* 
of names eii'iiu:: i: '•"' - '' ' ' 

^ Set \VorhAP Tti j^ *^ ' ' ' " 



Ixiv PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

pronunciation in modern Gaelic is arst. Such is the 
origin of Knoydart, 'Cnud's' or * Canute's fjord/ 
Enard, Moydart, Snizort. The / remains in Broad- 
ford, * broad fjord/ and Melfort. And if the Gael 
borrowed from the Norsemen, we are told there are traces 
in modern Norse of vice versa borrowing from the Gael. 

The student is well served with early forms of our 
Scandinavian place-names. For ^11 the * Norse region/ 
except Dumfries, Orkney, and Shetland, the Origines 
Parochiales liberally supply us with old name-forms, 
and the Dunrobin charters cited there often take us 
back to c. 1220. For Orkney itself we have the curious 
early rental-books of the Bishops of Orkney, which 
have all been printed, the oldest dating from 1497. 
For the northern counties we also have Torfaeus' His- 
tory of Norway, dating c. 1266 ; but here, far above 
all else in value, is the famous Orkneyinga Saga, so 
well edited for English readers by Dr Joseph Anderson. 
Its date seems c. 1225, but it embodies songs from 
several earlier skalds. The oldest existing Norse 
manuscript dates from about 1100. Of course the 
Norse names have not altered nearly so much as have 
Celtic names in a now English region, and thus early 
forms are not so often of crucial importance ; but the 
names North and South Eonaldsay {q^v,) are pertinent 
examples to the contrary. 

No one in Scotland now speaks a Scandinavian tongue, 
but it seems to have lingered on in far sequestered Foula, 
away to the west of the Shetlands, till c, 1775 ; and the 
local speech of Shetland and Orkney is still full of 
Scandinavian words.^ This is little to be wondered at, 

1 A Shetland deed has lately been found written in Norse, of so late 
a date as 1597. See Proceedings Soc. Antiq, Scotland, 1892-93, p. 235 
foil. 



seeing that, for eeir-^-^. Z — = ^r"-' — -r- -=^ — n 
not seldom there v. ^-^ ^-. - -^ i.r::rr ' -i^ - - : 
though the BpeecL :•*: _- :>^ ijr _-^i j::: — -- iil ^il» 
pick out the Xor>»»r i^-^t t^il lir _i-r -*^-=* .z_^ :^:r 
hair, aknost all ct-^^ '^'. -lii^— \z^ ^^.- rr-^rs^^ 
from a Xorse Bcmr^jje i-^k lia.. -^i-^ jzn-.i^fi-rr^ ::_ ■•^ — :^ v 
place-names, viiL, \i^, 2ii^«--:.-:z.j^ r -i^i -^ :'=!izi^ Zj^ 
unit being the oi'.u^'.,^:l^'^ — -V,! :r. - •' JZy^ r: .-> 
L W7i^i^«, as in U5GAJ^,i3: 21 IT *^^ Tj=l t*- .^:z_ :rz 
which the abbot (^'l 1 ^i* ^alI iz. /uli^ ^t ^^Lt^^^ \sh 
rental *Oiinceland' rar^Ij s ziirr: "rm. , ."n: ni^^ -suulrr 
amounts are quite comniOi^ Iz. izi .^iiL^fr .t ^'~™r ::j^e\n 
were held to be 18 or 21* iTTS^ szji zenLy' Ji^nj 
(0.E 2)€n ig, p^nf/?^, IceL pen a « . .//-r, L^a^- j.>: - .». i :♦: cz.» .v 
€,g., Pennyghael, Pennymuir, &c ; so do aZ ibe jesser 
sums down to the farthing or feorling — there is a place 
of this name in Skye — and even to the half-farthing. 
Names Uke Shillingland and Twomerkland and Three- 
merkland, which may also be found in our directorieHi 
have, of course, a similar origin. In the Orkney early 
rentals we read of a * cowsworth * of land, whidi wuh 
= i, J, or J of a mark of land. In the same reJitaln (/. 
1500) we find a 'Cowbuster' or 'cow-plaf;e' iu y\i^'\\f 
and a Noltland or * cattle-land ' in We«ti uy. 

Though the Danes visited Ireland V>o, aii<J w«'.m t'/'' 
in power all along the east coaHt ior a* i*?^*^* >/ '*,•»■. i ^ 
having Dublin for a time ^ fu^r *:u»i^ »><>i' "* ." *■ 
now barely thirty names of l^itjn-/ v/'.- * ^ ' * 
This is rather remarkaoj** w :>*fj *>< ' i' • >• - , 
plain and oft in bcollau^. 'J :** >^*' ; ' 
several Scottish ^z^^miu^ <»i- <, ^ •/ 

Lebwick and bcA:--/jv * * ^ •• -. 

SlROMKEbti : ii. '^<i.* --<' 
Sutherlanc. fjr'.\>*' = •- - 



I 



Ixvi PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Eoss, Dingwall and Tain; in Bute, Eothesay and 
Brodick. It has been already stated that in Orkney 
and Shetland Norse names have a complete monopoly ; 
in the Outer Hebrides, where now every man speaks 
Gaelic, the Norse monopoly is nearly as complete. 
Captain Thomas, E.N., who very carefully investigated 
the subject some fifty years ago, reports that in the 
Lews Norse names outnumber the Gaelic ones by four to 
one, and that in all Harris there are only two pre-Norse 
or Celtic names. No place-name of any consequence 
in the whole Long Island is of Celtic origin, unless we 
call that queer name Benbecula an exception. The 
marks of the Viking grow rarer in the isles south of 
Ardnamurchan, for here he dwelt about a century less. 
Jura has very few, Islay has a good many — Conisby, 
Laxay, Nerby, Oversay, ScaraboU, &c. ; Captain Thomas 
says, here Norse names are to Gaelic as three 
to one. But, though both Jura and Islay are 
words with a Norse look, and commonly reputed of 
Norse origin, they are not so (q.v,), Islay's real spelling 
is He, which Dr Skene thinks an Iberian or pre-Celtic 
word ; but lie has been * improved ' by some would-be 
clever moderns into Islay, which literally means 
* island-island.' 

Norse and Saxon names sometimes give us a little 
glimpse of mythology, sometimes of natural, and yet more 
frequently of family, history. The Teuton was much 
fonder of leaving the stamp of his name behind him 
than the Celt. The Saxon was even prouder of his own 
name than the Northman ; and Norse names of the 
common Saxon type of Dolphinton and Symington 
are rare. Helmsdale may be called after some Viking 
of the name of Hjalmund; 'Hjalmundal' is the form 
we find in the Orkneyinga Saga ; and OccuMSTER may be 



called after some man to«j. And from. ^corriarL jlmie- 
names we can pick out a iood many or :hfr io«iit ina 
men oft sung in the grand OLii Yorae -^ici*. T.^^. . ;^ 
Thurso, O.X. Thor^i^ Tbor. rhe Tiiiuniier-ccti.:^ rrn^. 
This is one of the cases w^herer the river hiisi ztt^^il .3 
name to the later town iip«jn hl It ia timiX^t u-iv-^v^ 
so ; even * Water of Leidi ' ia oniv a. ieeerjiire- mi'iit^ra 
instance of the reverse, tor as early la •. 11-to -ve- ic^i 
'Inverlet' or Ixter-letth- Tae mifflry Tlnvr la u5o 
commemorated in TnuRaTC^ir. and in ni;*nr Z;.^L=r. 
names, Thnrleigh, Thorkw. i:c,; Tlnie -re- ^^^ve- i 
Woden Law hard bv Jetibiir^h, W.iien^ )r '..cin.^ 
name may enter into several other pia<-:e-aaniei*. 3.ir 
Ran, the giant goddess, oieen of zhe sea, much leareti 
by the Icelanders, can hardly have her name preat^rreti 
in Loch Sanza, in Arran : in 1433 rhe name - jccnr3 la 
Eansay, while the genidve of J^iti would ive Hanarav. 
Hero-names are seen in Haroldswics, f^herlami: 
Cabloway or Carl's bay, Lewis : and Scs^art or • S^eyn a 
fjord,* Morven. Then there are nhose nwo Orkney iaiea, 
North and Sonth Eonaldaay, which everyone wonld 
naturally think must both be called after rhe same 
man, Ronald, Bognvald, or Eeginald — these names are 
all ona But it is not so. Socth Ron'aldsaV was 
foraierly Bo^amlse}/ or * Rognvald'a isle'; but XoRTH 
RONALDSAY was originally Rmanse-}/, in which name we 
following Professor Munch of Christiania, may safely 
recognise the much-commemorated St Eingan or Xinian 
of WhithonL It is popular corruption and ignorance 
which have assimilated the two. We have been giving 
only northern examples of places called after gods or 
men ; but they occur, more sparsely, in the south also, e.g.y 
Pierceby or Pebcebie, * Percy's town,' in Dumfriesshire. 
Unlike Celtic, Xorse yields us few prefixes for the 



ll'l 



Ixviii PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

making-up of our place-names. They are chiefly two : — 

(1) ForSy which is just the Icelandic for * water-fall/ 
familiar to every tourist in the English lakes as force, 
Stockgill Force, and all the rest. FoRSE, pure and 
simple, is the name of a Caithness hamlet, and Fobres 
is probably the self-same word. As prefix we find it 
in FoRSiNARD and Forsinain in East Sutherland. 

(2) Tofty Icelandic and Danish for 'an enclosed field 
near a house,' as in Toftcombs, near Biggar ; but it is 
commoner as a suffix, as in Ecclestoft (Berwicksh.), 
Aschantoft, and Thurdistoft (Thurso). But, if the pre- 
fixes be few, Norse has yielded us suffixes in abundance. 
To garth (Icel. gar&-r) and to dale (Icel., &c., dal) we 
have already referred (p. liv) ; examples of the latter 
are easily found, as in Berriedale and Helmsdale ; 
occasionally it is suffixed to some Celtic word, as in 
Attadale. Sometimes the Gael has forgotten the 
meaning of the dale, and so has added his own prefix 
strathr\ hence that tautology * Strathhalladale.' An 
interesting set of names is connected with the suffix 
'shiely -shielSt -shield, -shields ; all of these forms appear. 
This, like the Scottish shieling or shealing, *a hut or 
bothy,' comes from the Icel. sJcjdly a * shelter/ The 
O.N. sJcali is still used in Norway for a temporary or 
shepherd's hut. The shel- in * shelter' is in root the 
same, being connected with the O.E. scild, Icel. sJcjold-r 
a shield. A shiel is, therefore, * any place which gives 
shelter,' and so, * a house' ; it is still the common name 
on Tweedside for a fisher's hut ; as a suffix, it is seen 
in Galashiels, Pollokshields, &c. The word is seen 
in Shieldhill, in 1745 Shielhill, and so often pronounced 
still ; also in a more disguised form in Selkirk, the old 
Sole- or Seles-chirche. Shiels enters into many names 



riljli of Lowland farms — Biggar Shiels, Legholm Shiels, &c. 

i 



NORSE NAMES. ^^^ 

Another very common suffix is -fell, Icel fjall, ^- fjdd, 
• a mountain or hill/ as in the Dovref jeld of the EomsflaL 
In the Outer Hebrides, through Gaelic influence, this* 
aspirates into -hhal or -val^ as in Bens Haluval, 
Haskeval, and Oreval in Eum, and Iseval in S. dsr. 
Fells are very common in Northern England, but al- 
most equally so in Southern Scotland, ^./y., Coulter 
Fell, Goat Fell, Hart Fell, &c. Noteworthy also are : 
'Jwlm, the Dan. and 0.K holm, ' a small Island in ^ 
river, an islet,' IceL hohn-r, ' an island, also a meariow 
near river or sea.' Those in the far north, like HoL.vf 
itself, one of the Orkneys, and like rxLOTTPriOLir, -ixr^. 
>vithout doubt, Norse ; while those in the south. lik*r 
Branxholm and MmHOLM, are probably Enc'lL-.a \n 
their origin, and they are perpetually Lnterr-.toufiinci 
with the purely English ham (see Yarnoc^f ^nd 
Hoddom): 'hope is not the O.E. koya, ' hrjpe/ rint '.'^.tz 
IceL Up, *a haven of refuge,' as in nhe %vo '^T 
Mabgaket*s Hopes ; the Lowland -kiiyp..^ a« In ?/j,K'i\(\^'t 
Peebles, is the same word (see HoBxrax^, >,f,/>r»rir,r,*r 
means *pen, shelter-place, for swine' ; "herr^ ^irr^ v>r;'i 
a Chapelhope and a Kirkhope near Sn if^rr^ r>V'.:i 
•thmite, IceL yveit, {lit 'a piece cut ^,tf; f/',ru x-rO//, 
to cut, hence 'a small piece of larui, ^ m ",r,rfi;fu,a 
enough in England, but rare ncrtr. r,f -x^, v,r :/r^' 
MuKRAYTHWAiTE, Ecclefechan, heirur '^r^ '-^f mo^ / c / 
few Scotch examples : but the ori-inal 5',LTa .t "^r.P: :.'^..j-: 
of the MooRFOOT Hills was ' llsr-x-v-ilvt. 

Beck and yi7/ are pure SoandiiJixjir., ^tvt 'V.r^.vu,»i v, 
both Northern England ar:d S.-.-rj^.'::. -rv,n^.v:, Z jr 
former, IceL hikk-r, Dan. hcAn:, hir, c/2/:/r. . ' t '.»' r,'i^ ' ^ 
seen in Bodsbeck and WATiCiiir^z: \^.z j: j« ♦:c'V3f _ 
Scotland than y.7/, IceL /■/. 'a ra-r^jr ^.^r ^'-"/ ' ^i -> 
a cluster of gills are fo:ii:d far ir.lji:i:- v. *.:>: i»^t* ',# y>^ 



Ixx 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 



sources of the Tweed — Duncan, Sam, Snow, Wind 
Gills, &c. : -riggy IceL hrygg-r, Dan. ryg^ Sw, rygg, also 
O.E. hrycg, *a ridge of land,' literally the back, the 
equivalent of the common 6. drum- (p. 1), is a fre- 
quent suffix, chiefly in the south, as Eoughrigg, Todrig, 
&c. But these ' riggs ' are seldom of pure Norse 
descent; Bonnyrigg and Drumlanrig, for example, 
cannot be. A curious popular corruption is seen in 
BiSHOPBRiGGS, which most Scottish folk would naturally 
think denoted the presence of a bridge ; but the name 
really tells of the * riggs ' or fields of the Bishop of 
Glasgow : -voe, Icel. i?o-r, * a little bay or inlet,' is 
common in the far north, as in Aithsvoe and Cullivoe, 
Shetland : -goe, Icel. gjd, already referred to (p. Ixiii), is 
of similar meaning, literally it is * a cleft or gap,' as in 
GiRNiGO and Whaligoe in Caithness. 

A very large group of words end in ey, ay, a, the 
O.N. and IceL ey, Dan. oe, cognate with O.E. {g, an 
island. The ending is found all over the north and 
west, as in Papa Westray, a double instance, Raasay, 
Ulva, and that very curious name Colonsay {q,v,). 
Almost in no case has the original -ey been retained. 
Pladda, oflf Arran, is the old Flada or • flat isle,' another 
instance of the Celt's very shifty use of the letter p. 
The name remains uncorrupted in Fladay, oflf Barra. 
An almost equally important group are the wicks, O.N. 
and Icel. vik, a (little) bay ; hence mk-hig or * bayman.' 
Wick we have still in English in the expression * the 
wicks ' or corners of the mouth. Lerwick and Brodick, 
or * broad bay,' are certainly Norse ; but this suffix is, 
in the south, apt to be confused with the O.R vric, 
a dwelling, village, as in Alnwick, and Berwick. 
Another Old Norse word for a bay or cove is vdg-o", 
but the r of the nominative generally falls away, and 



o:her zac*?* ~Zcr ■ j:. •' — • --~ "— i^ _- ^z. '-i. 

WAIL TjLli ".^t: -'V-_ HZT -' -— r - _ _^- 

aid Etic»:5^ Z'-ir* ir^^ «*! J^ t*=- » ^5~_ti Z "_ n- 

'j^hawms of L^iTii ";. Aiz ^i-s-m-^i ^*' -^ ^^^■- ^ - ^^ "^^ 

c'.tture of o::r r^iT^j z.:nLtTr:L iz_i "^^-tC^^l ^tij-iresw 
All the 'stacks/ O-N" s' .1 — -ile^ vl i-I- .*: "t"^-c. ^ > ■^--^-T 
j^its or columns of rii>:k- in C ii:iz.e» IlTt X : ri*r : 5»c at^ 
all the * ekenies,' N. ani I^iii i«/ < -. " a :!::: :r r.vk.^ c^f 
*hich there are numerous ex^mrles &r:::r.vi :he wr*>i 
I'entland Firth — Scarfskekky. Suleskkkkw v^o. ; h\u\ 



Ixxii 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 



III 



such names as Sumburgh Eoost are from the N. rosf, 
' a whirlpool.' 

Two remarkable suffixes remain, and demand special 
attention. The first is -by or -bie, so useful in detecting 
the foot of the Dane rather than the Norwegian. This 
is the north. O.E. by. Mid. Eng. fri, Dan. and Sw. &y, 
almost certainly all derived from the O.N. boe-r or by-r, 
and all meaning * a dwelling, a hamlet or town.' The 
root is the same as that of the good old Scottish word 
big, to build, but not the same as that of * bury ' or 
* borough,' which is from the O.E. byrig or burh, * a 
fortified enclosure.' The suffix -by is frequent in the 
north of England, and almost as frequent in South- 
West Scotland — Canonbie, Middlebie, Pbrcebie, 
SoRBiE, &c. There are nine examples in the Dumfries 
district, three in Ayr (Crosby, Magby, and Sterby), and 
only four in the south-east. There is one near Glasgow, 
Busby, and just one north of the Forth, Humbie, near 
Aberdour, Fife. In the extreme north by reappears in 
the misleading guise of -bay^ as in Canisbay and 
Duncansbay. But perhaps the most remarkable 
group of suffixes in the whole study of Scottish names 
is that evolved out of one compound O.N. word 
bolstad'r, a dwelling-place, which has been chopped 
and changed into almost every conceivable shape. It 
occurs alone, as a place-name, again and again, and in 
many shapes, as in Bosta, Lewis, Boust, Coll, and 
Busta, Shetland. Perhaps nearest to the original are 
the forms -&o%, found in * Scarrabolsy,' mentioned in 
Islay in 1562, now Scarabus, and -biistar, -buster, and 
-bister, as in * Skelebustar,' * Swanbuster,' in Orphir, 
mentioned in the early Orkney rental books, c. 1500, 
Cowbuster (Firth, Orkney), and Fimbuster, and Libister, 
old form of Lybster. This last shows us the first 



ii- 



ALT'S liliJ: UlCIL -^'lif. ^ JH -^ J^^L -^'".7. -.tv'-lII 'nj.;*'- 

Ei3X iiL T^ii^itr^:.!: . ,r 1 "LrrfL riis Eizrr _:.r:Li 
d::zft vvt:^ hlx ^"» tp- j^ Zjst/ xr: -tiZzr.. le^z 

r»^'i nm* J inir fci T«:r <"- 'wp- ,z^ >»/ r >"." -& z- 

tb* X:c5e ■i'uuriitfnr ir i^ -2- ftOit .7 -rrtit_ -. 

>:-:re* :c -a>;-i — >: ZTiErrxz -"'zziiTSiL Zzzziistzil ix. 

lL.r.cJiii if -r- r "VPt ibiiiiJj^ zc jl 1^^ 2jz_: ~ - t- 

-»? "• is ZL '*»z±32r-izz^ Jl" ^ri^^n. -r''.. ^ zi r z^zl=« 

Az izr-erisuziir zmii: ir^'-i^ J? j'jznrrL it^ zl:^ zit'^-' 

I'irliiziH^x' Iz y jr-!**- "/ -» ■i<Jiiii'.tf-L ■ lerrr-f ziti- .iiv~fr 
tTj ::rzii»': izjI -e^^r^iiiH: "vzi: iz* w^ ~zzlzl5 jiv. 

*■* :: zr?i xr/^r* :. 1-1.:«I Z*r "cf^iol Zzif- Ii'fi. >/ /</" izii 
t:j* L*iiL iz?i ^v- r,// zieiz, ;:r' i:»ez-l7. i :«:ji::i .-c 



Ixxiv PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

assembly, but in our own O.E. the thing is originally 
the cause or matter which the Thing met to discuss. 
The ancient little burgh of Tain is commonly supposed 
to come from }^viig or thig too. Its earliest spelling, 
in 1227, is Tene, which makes this likely. The second 
syllable of Dingwall, &c, is the O.N. vbll-r or void, 
Sw. falla, O.R fold, Dan. and Mod. Eng. fold, an 
enclosure, or what is enclosed, hence * an assembly.' 

Several Scottish counties have a Norse element in 
their names, e.g., Caithness, a name never used by any 
Gael. He always speaks of Gallaibh, 'land of the 
Grails' or 'strangers,' these, of course, being the 
marauding Northmen; -aibh is the old locative case- 
ending. The name Caithness is the O.N. Catanes, 
* ness ' or * projecting land of the tribe Cat.' Cat is the 
name actuaUy given to the district by the Irish Nennius. 
This tribe oJhCat pr Caith took their name from Cat, 
Gatt, or Got. one of the sons of the legendary Cruithne 
(see p. li). The next neighbour of Caithness, Suther- 
land, which, curiously enough, contains nearly the 
whole of the extreme north of Scotland, is the O.N. 
Sudrland, so named because it lay to the south of the 
Norse settlements in Orkney and Caithness; just as 
the Hebrides were termed Sudreyar, as contrasted 
with the more northerly Orkney and Shetland Isles. 
This last we meet again in the title of the Bishop of 
Sodo7' and Man. Already in a Latin document of date 
1 300 we find the name as Sviherlandia. The ending of the 
name Orkney, at least, is Norse (see List). Shetland 
or Zetland is the O.N. Hjaltland or Hetlwad, but what 
that means Dr Vigfusson in his Icelandic dictionary 
makes no attempt to explain. Some think it was 
I because the islands, or the chief island, look like the 

hilt — Icel. hjalt — of a sword. 



t: 



Just one or twrc- r-'Cfvmi" ir:^^ z. vniiL'-iiiuii: e 
:t Dotecl thai the Pi^TL^iz Iiii_ — & :l:z:zc q jj 
vilh ibe word /" /<:. vli::: x^-^j *t -^t^ .t. .rr' "ni^ri^ro- 
Tnate as appliec f iiir rT^r-'^zz"^-! -e^- 2.1^111:^^1. 
vLic'h is DO true nni ir ^ 1- ^"— nu rii:i. ike 
reLUand hills, is li^e 'r~ ^ r-^ !■" ". r^e IT-v^^e^ 
:*■! 'Hcts' laiid/ v:^j. /.^-==^ -j js -Ayjn^ :ser.:i 
iironiiatiaii as T'' lire Tfi^ir^iir^:::^ xjll -^r. '- irry v< i 
uie Picts. C&T»e ^2.^^:1, ~-^r ~- -_ zl -3 -roriz.^- --ui- 
raae at the iar i-'Tii-T<^=r -.rr:^^ -i '*'*•. ^iuJi-.u -u-a 
<:.vt>ues5 r«eeL "z.r^zii -n .-lir k, -hpt^ .r'.^r' ■"•iii.Le- 
La3ie. So it d •e^ ; nr ^^z^ r -r-^.rs ^ jior -^^e jij. 

■'■T'^i and Sw, t'-r - zi::^ :&Zj± TTl^l jB TIT — . 1 

■'' '.^. And iiitt: il: ii.T'iir^n ^i£^ zl ^' e^ '.-r -. Tjill. 
j^3is to te,ar & ^^^t' fCuZ'iizz zjlizj±. 3-.ir T-il 3 

llt^ 02s, t7''//i. Ic**;^ '» i JT ' fJ. TtlljIL IT^^tLTLS Ij. — ~ _ 

ere than 'harrsL ft? ziii~ •t^ *e^ ji -ne- ^*^ ~ -._ .:=rr 

''^ aisci the r:»:»i x ziuZ tc^ -t,..t-j > 7_ — x^~. z.-^^ 
^.ooiannaiL ?i*ti:i zl i. "-iJ ~r*r«^ 7 ." -- n - Z-^ 
T-resent Iohl k rci* izmriLZ iri.tir' r^^ -r^v^- r - =^^ — --^ 
•-■* 'p^-'pular fi^miiXT" '^ *^ iisi." /r p ^'— r .-ir"-^- — 
te& As CTLn:»TS t !''!m::cjiL && si" * iirr :ijjz-^ 

liliT— Icy Xuasazin-a: -m^ lin^i 17^ -^ ^ ±t" 
iLust reajT iie zinajz.": t-x ^Lii*- i^i IT- r^ '■ - • 



CHAPTER III. 



ENGLISH NAMES. 



To the student who has fairly tackled the Celtic, or 
even the Norse, names of Scotland, the purely English 
names are mere child's play. Considering that English 
is now the vernacular of over sixteen out of every 
seventeen persons in the land, the number of our 
English or Anglo-Saxon place-names is surprisingly 
small. We are not aware, however, if the proportion 
of English to Celtic and to Norse names in Scotland 
has ever been exactly ascertained or even estimated. 
The calculation would be rather a diflScult one, but 
full of interest. English has for some time been the 
language of all the most populous districts ; but over 
a very wide area in the Highlands English influence 
had scarcely any existence before the Eebellion in 
1745 ; and very few place-names of any interest to us 
have originated since that date. The place-names of 
yesterday are of small account. 

Both the contemporary historian Ammianus Mar- 
cellinus and the contemporary poet Claudian prove, 
that as early as 360 a.d., Saxons had invaded the 
Eoman province of Britain. How soon they entered 
Scotland we are hardly able to tell; but we have 
already alluded to the possible presence of Frisians in 
the flats of Dumfriesshire before the year 400. Octa 



and Ebissa, leaders of zhs: j -^ • "=^=^- 

established in East and Ar: . i ^ ~ - ^ — — 

at any rate, by 547 Ancles an- - ^^-^ - -^_ "^ 

the swamps and plarns ar^TZL^ i^i^r- zz- -~_^ ' .- -— ' 

Scheldt, and Khine, bad 5^^==^^ zrzi _— — 

scroll after Ida, * the T'liinie'^-esz^^ ^ - .^ 

of Xorthumbria. A ci5m!i' H- ".^ - " 

of Forth was early £:ii'--^«^ ^3^ '^"^ 

the name of the frizr. n^^i-i m ^-^uls.-. _ - 

or 'Frisian Sea.' -^r^e 'mr :zl -rfT_ r*-=^-*' — ; -^ 

these Frisians are, cf - — ^-=^ ^ — "^ — ^ - ^^^ - - 

of Holland and ElazL7~-^ ^" — :i ^i . <sj 

400 years Cc 561 — ^r^- ^=^ ^^rt— :? ::. -^ ^-^ 

an integral part of -^ ^ " ■ '"" -^:i-^-' =- -'" -"^ - 

of the XortLuinli-rii^ *=i^- -^^ r z-'— --_ 

hardly have bed =•' 7^:r=^~ ^::^-_-. * '" ■ -^ --: 

represents it, zz^ "JI^Stz ^it:" -..r-- . . ^l -r--^.. 

trie of the vee^^fn: yrr^r, r - v. .^ " — - - j 

as ficnired in i-^ ^^^^j- — "^ "^ 

suident sho-iLli ci^h^-T i-- xt>^- - . .ii: - - • - 

p. 5S2, 3rd eii:^ - -'' ^-^^ ■ '• ^- '^ ' -*- -' 

an integral p&r: :r i:^ -^t*- r _-/-^-: 

Though ilje ^^ r- s^: ':<* ^-'.\*i: -r^-x -^ ---- 
on the gri'zzi.i- "^^^r^ >^ 2:_-:-.=- ^t ^. \^. ^ ■*- -< 
to h;*ve be»efr: ir "irs!^ -z^ -!'. -:^*.: r-' -=- ^ .r^ 

ni^ie tLis C-i^-^ ▼ .i»r. •"-:.- ; -.. - - ..r 

tieen Cha^vir H ^:il -ic *'.-^ "^-"^^ -^ -^- -^r r = s- 
TTyi5GHJJCi izji '^irrr::::»-=; -x 7 -* -^ ^- ^ _f . 

be adie»i :liS .V-ZUica u 2':rr^»i2, -. : -/-LI., 
when wririr-z cc ^he j^iasr TTd :ni*nr;rr^i _\:t-sc. — r., 

3 



Ixxviii 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 



^1^^ 



which must be Newburgh in Fife ; and Eddi and the 
venerable Bede (both c. 720) mention * Coludesburg/ 
or, in Bede's Latin Coludi Urbs, which is the modern 
CoLDiNGHAM. Of course, probably many more English 
names than these actually existed at as early a date ; 
but our extant information is very scanty. It is very 
tantalising that all the many English chroniclers who 
write of events before the Norman Conquest, though 
not seldom referring to Scotland, almost never mention 
the name of any place in it, Simeon alone excepted. 

Professor Freeman informs us that exiles were wel- 
comed from England as early as the days of Macbeth, 
who, * as every schoolboy knows,' was slain at Lumphanan 
in 1057. So far as Scotland, apart from Lothian, is 
concerned, the chief inflow of English blood came not 
till Macbeth's equally famous successor, Malcolm 
Canmore, had been seated for fully half a score of 
years upon his throne. By that time the Norman 
Conquest was a sad reality to Saxon and to Angle; 
whilst King Malcolm at that time made a cruel invasion 
of Northumberland and Durham on his own account, 
and carried back thousands of English-speaking slaves. 
To quote our Durham chronicler, * Scotland was thus 
crammed with slaves and maidservants of the Anglic 
race, so that even to this day there is, I do not say, 
not one little village, but not even one little mansion- 
house, where these are not to be found/ ^ At the same 
time Malcolm gladly welcomed the exiled Saxon royal 
family to his palace at Dunfermline. Nor was he long 
in espousing the devout Saxon princess, Margaret, who 
has left her trace in North and South Qubbnsferry, 
hard by Dunfermline. From the marriage of Malcolm 
with Margaret (1070), and from the incoming of the 
^ Simeon of Durham, ann. 1070. 



EngKsh exiles abom ^lc- 
date the decay, nor iz^^r n z^ ..^ .--i:^ .-n^^ :-* 
also of the Celtic speeer^ Zj:^ t.zzl . i^ ^ r::.:^:-i«rfi^- -.-^^s: 
with England Mjaicjim "i^sja. rrai. j£. ^r:-i-. - :..r!v.?^'&». 
and spoke English * TPerff 'i~ : ifc* ".vrr,:: **^'ri'v. 
Henceforth Graelic w;?» « rizrr^ if.ura^^i^ -« 3s /.^* 
But just after laie ZT'TTHiai . .-n^a^s tiv& ^ .- .u: 
English town ami tlLIi^ r-zeft- tt-^n jv.v: x.*7-::rc 
up. By the aid or '72jt i^^ ciiirTtTi o. tc-i:_ t*^ j^.v; 
a rich abundance ar^s: II iH ^9rt tai ft*: Hj^^^ »\ i-rrxsr 
names coming in sni liucmr fiusii*: KYia'ft ivu: ^-:v\^ 
eyes. And to tbe s;iiii:!i:i ir lusiii-^ ~.\n^ iv^.v^as. 
is quite as interestiiig af uiif -aiuiirTvUi^ir^si iaKi> .."^ 
to watch the slowly l^eauiifiil p'i.>Vili iif ^^^ iijt.u.:4j^ 
or the tadpole under the niicTc»f<i'L»}»eL Hrjv; i.\\ vi 
evolution. 

The English ending denoting • town/ ' xilla^* ia f, 4 
or hiiii. We might, for illustration, select ahui^at rtuy 
Scottish name ending thus. Let us take SyminivIH^n, 
which occurs twice, in Lanark and in Ayr. lV)lJi tiilui 
their name from the same man, Simon I^ckliarl/, m 
local knight, about whom we read a good doui in l/l<o 
records of the middle part of the 12th i'A^iuUw) , un'l 
whose surname is still preserved in MiJtx^n Jz/'M/Mil, 
near Carluke. In 11 GO, in one of tlif; '/'^jaI ^ » ,^ii/ 1^ 
of Paisley Abbey, we read. ' lnv-.t Vn.j.'^ * ////.^ 
Loccardi & Prestwick.' wni^.L hiivrr •.//<,/- . . i',i 
^ready in Ayrsiiire. a:J^ \r»^\>i'<^ u ', »* , ,.- <, „/ . 
1293, ' Symon'isioLia il K - t.^^ ' ' * - 
'Villa Symonif \^*:y:^: .. '^^-•' #» - / ' #«• 

1300, has bt^v.'iii^ * • u. * . •■ - > ^ ^ 

the further a':.«ii.-- • .. - .^ 

one other ver; • c <^^ - ^ m^ 

About : II' *' - . «. . . 4^ 



i 



IXXX PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Prince of Cumbria a certain Colban. About 1190 
we find mention of a 'Villa Colbani,' villa, by the 
way, being just the Latin form of the Norman-French 
vUle^ literally, a countryhouse, then a town. In 1212 
we find * Colbaynistun ' ; in 1434 this has become 
*Cowantoun,' showing one way how the name Cowan 
has arisen ; but c. 1480 it has slipped into its modem 
shape of * Covingtoun ' ; for toun is still the good 
Scottish way of pronouncing town or ton. 

As might be expected, genuine English names are 
to be found more or less all over the Lowlands ; but as 
all the hills and streams had, long ere his coming, 
received Celtic names, the Angle has named for us 
very few of these; though sometimes he managed to 
add an adjective, as in the Black and White Addee. 
Perforce he adopted the names he found, though 
seldom had he much inkling of their meaning. English 
names for Scottish natural features are rare. As for 
hills, neither Moorfoots nor Pentlands are true cases 
in point, and a name like Norman's Law or North 
Berwick Law cannot be called a very serious exception ; 
as for rivers, if few even of England's rivers bear 
English names, there seem positively none at all, of any 
consequence, in Scotland. But there are several hows 
(O.E. holg, holh) or hollows or valleys, as * the How o' 
the Mearns,' and famous Habbie's How at Carlopa 

The region^ for true English names is that which 
lies between Edinburgh and Berwick, whose original 
population were the Celtic Ottadeni, a branch of the 
great tribe of the Brigantes. But 1400 years of 
Anglian settlement have largely obliterated the traces 
of the old Celt here, especially as regards the names of 

^ Readers of Armstrong's sumptuous History of Liddesdale, &c., will 
see that English farm and manor names are very plentiful here too. 



ENGLISH NAMES. Ixxxi 

the towns or villages. Almost the only notable excep- 
tion is DuNBAB, mentioned as early as the day« uf 
Eddi (c. 720), certainly a Celtic name, and perhajis 
commemorating St Bar or Finnbarr, an ancient ]mh(jp 
of Cork. Considering the usual paucity oi our earJy 
material, it is right pleasant for the stad^jut to find 
quite a store of Berwickshire names in th*; af^jr*^ 
mentioned 11th century Coldingliam dharUirh, Ai] 
the leading present-day names are to be fouud ih*^t^ 
and had probably existed already for 300 or 400 y^aj^ 
mora The village and farm names jcrt; aU ^vrt 
English. It is only a few rivers like lUt AijDZt m jujl';L 
are Celtia 

In the Highlands, English nAaie*^, -xzJfim LJjef jj^ 
quite modem, are very rare. WLererar .uu J^xr.x^ii^ *jt 
partly English name oecure, ifc^e GaiCi k ieiT^ :uv iuri^*: ^ 
name of his own, e,g.^ he calls Tayxn jciii f>jkZJL/x:^, «ut 
80 forth. And the (Jael deak pc«caae:Ij ii^ w^Otv 2ff -^rne 
names also; he speaks not of T^^v/a bia r^ ^v.^e 
Dhuthaic, or ' the town of St I>ai±aii:i:.' i*«';rj.i*niaii» ;va 
English name is just a traiksIatiLoa r>if :ul <'uiit^ ^r:ii^ii(t 
one, as in the town now erroneijii^^Iy ^p»*Lii ^vA (^aI>ll Wy 
outsiders Falkirk, but which ia really F^hkirlc (T-TV^, 
Faukirke), and is so pronoTince«i by the iiACi7»*8 n«'> Rhm 
day. This is Simeon of Durham'.^ Ku';^i«^hrpinh, and nh«^ 
modem Highland drover's An. E'UifjuA ^/'/y/M, ' nhii* 
spotted church,' referrin;^ to the mo^AfA (-.oWir of lU 
stona 

Place-names of Engli=;h orizin ar*; a f;ii';r.:' ,1 r*>**.<>r tion 
of the typical Engli^hitaD — *v.Li, .r.eTr.c:.or*;*s f *,1 of 
blunt conrnxon-sense, Tlviy al ::.>**> all ^pel* pUin 
'John Bull his mark,' 'J.:-r. fc-.l r...^ r.c=?e/ Arj^J^-^ 
Saxon names are, ats a r-le, a.r.p* rr^tter-'/f/a^!^, 
devoid of aught y^f^.lr:. t^rz^z A ::.\?^. ,v.r^, IVm 



A 



Ixxxii PLACK-NAMBS OF SCOTLAND. 

diflferent is Birmingham or ' Brummagem/ or Wolver- 
hampton, from * Be-a-la-nam-bo/ or Coilantogle ! and 
even Balla-chii-lish has something pathetically Celtic 
about it, if pronounced by understanding lips. For 
pure expressiveness, however, few names can beat the 
name (it cannot be very ancient) given to a conspicuous, 
monument-capped hill near Linlithgow, and also to an 
English township near Bamborough, * Glower-o*er-em * 
or Glowrorum. To translate glower into 'English' 
would be to make the name feeble indeed. A little to 
the south, near Drumshoreland, is found the feebler 
name * Lookabootye.' Some other expressive names iu 
good broad Scots, found in the County Directory, are 
Eeekitlane, Dustyriggs, Gathercauld, Ducksdub, Gowks- 
knowe, Deil-ma-care (a fishing station on the Tay), and 
Crossmyloof. The Scots- looking Dinna Muck must be 
the G. dihTirna-rauiCy * pigshill/ The pure Englishman 
but rarely shows in his names the Celt's inner 
sympathy with nature either in her sterner or in her 
softer moods. And the modern Socialist will not be too 
well pleased to find that most of our O.E. town names 
give strong expression to the idea of individual rights, 
and to the sanctity of private property. Many of them 
are the very . embodiment of the adage that every 
Englishman's house is his castle ; so many of the com- 
monest O.E. place-endings imply * enclosure, fencing-ofif.' 
This is the root-idea in burgh, ham, and ton, in seat and 
worth. 

And the English thane, as well as the Norman baron, 
invariably called the little village, which grew up under 
the shadow and shelter of his castle walls, after his own 
noble self. Places ending in -ville, or, as it seems some- 
times found in Scotland, -well, may be Norman ; but the 
burghs, tons, and hams are all English. Burgh, or 



more folly horouglt, is riie -JEl : -^ 

dat. huri, hirly iience ix- z.:lzi^z rz=^ ^ — 

commoii in England, ct:.* r_ " i— *: 

liie Ayrshire coast snaii-iL- 1 ^^" 

r.yry). The root oi o ■ . i tt _ 

hrtjaii, to shelter: ax. . ~-t rr^_- _-::_ 

in a Kentish giossaT^ ■■ " • - — — 
citadel, castle,' tLt^r- ** _ _^^ - _rz 
;«»wii'; but the ide^^ -i ■ :ir- . .^>_i _-- 
arises very early ia.^^ - - - — *- _ 

'jhietiy as a su rr; t: . — c * "~- --^ _. 

a? in Borro\^3Toi:Li_!L-xi.-=r~ - ' • ~^-. ^. - ...: 

where the O.IL Tis-'-r - : -- - ^ 

served intact. ^^ *^ ^^=^-^ ------ ,, 

itiat verv intere=?x^r — :_-- --i--L_- _- —^ ,,,, 

Uid Xorstf loni- ?^ - -^^ — - -^ . .: •>- . 

liurizL, a> e^eT7" r •:=<=. --=^ _.».-- . - ., ^^ 

Tne Ui. ?• ' ♦ - --^-^ •,-^- ,.„,:» 

iar^e tovn^ : «*x- - ^^' — — .~'- .- ■:::,: ^ 
t^hras^, * tLt*r :i£i.r:^— - — .-_ -L.-^i:i ,.. : - 

rit)U;?et? very 1.1^ ^-'^ — — — - :-:^ ^r---^ r ":-:.. 
In O.H tit^ ^''' ' '~ - ^ • -- - - -• 

b*^loidlI*ir t* «^ '- — "^ — »^ » _' *^.ji;' , r .-1 

iai'-oxiersi. -.T-^r-Tiii^ :-«-?. :- -• --^^ ...^1:^.=-. z - 
and 1: liB^Tfe-^ ii-*~ .-^ iL .-^ 'J«- :i - ::' 



i'l 



Ixxxiv PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Dunedin, ' fort on the hill-slope/ i.e., what is now the 
backbone of Edinburgh, its High Street, from the 
Castle to Holyrood. The name was merely remodelled, 
though it certainly was remodelled, in honour of King 
Edwin of Northumbria. But if hurghs called after 
Saxon thanes or knights are rare, tons are found in a 
rich plenty, e.g., Dolphinton, Duddingston, Eddlks- 
TON or * Edulf 8 ton,' Stevenston, &c. Wherever this 
suffix 'ton is still, even occasionally, spelt -town, the 
name is pretty sure to be modem, of which we see 
examples in the two Campbeltowns, Hutchesontown, 
Pultneytown, Sinclairtown, &c. Moreover, the 
amateur must always walk warily in dealing with 
English-looking tons in the north, aye, and in the 
south too, for ton is not seldom a corruption of the 
G. dibn, a hill or fort, e.g., Eddbrton, near Tain, is just 
eadar dim, 'between the hillocks'; and away in the 
south, near to the boundary-line of the Tweed, stands 
Earlston, a simple name enough, one would think; 
but Earlston is just the result of careless tongues. In 
1144 the name was Ercheldon, which at once shows 
that here is the 'Ercildune' famed as the birthplace 
of Thomas the Eymer. To return for a moment to 
hurgh, it may be noted that, with the partial excep- 
tions already mentioned, all other Scottish -burghs are 
comparatively modern, except perhaps three — Sum- 
burgh, southmost point of distant Zetland, the Svin- 
borg of the Sagas; Eoxburgh, which we find away 
back as early as 1127; and thirdly, and most curious 
of all, Newburgh in Fife, which, as we saw a few 
pages back, is the very oldest extant English name 
in Scotland. Of recent burghs we may mention 
Colinsburgh, built in 1682; Maryburgh, near Dingwall, 
c. 1690; and Helensburgh, which only dates from 1776. 



Sam, 0-E. ham^ :3 
•home/ the orisni^ 
hame, A tvrncaL ^ESi: 



TINGHAM, thocga '.'-Tii ^-"-^ r-=^ -r-r: — "r^ JS 

much rarer norta —.tz- ^et t^ z ^i^z Z-=^t_ — ^.r-=: 
not connecteti wnii ^zt- zisl^ zszisr .^^ ~^="^ t ::i 

Ham often gea ilfirp^i — tz^ zr -saii — rr-i-^ ^l 

he were aware A ii;. - -"« ?*gr m -r^- .Tr-iaj; ^tlL 

pronounce the .i in. ?i-i:l & ,»»n ^-m-t *^ ^ .T ,--r "~_L :z2^ 
that Ae said,' Ac Tjlzs -••-''» jeetizrea jtl a ji: ~~7r'"t^'' 
and Edxam, 'Lccie m. ±ic i T.^ 3 -^5^ zn-z^ 
disguised, as in itzEtaii: ir Tr^^y — ^ .- t^ ^ 
Adder/ There is ine jTreV rir ^?2-^ Jiig^r^^^r-c ^. '■'•'» 



away up near Forse zi "lizziies^ Isr~7:-r::.arrs. "v-:l.v-1 
is so spelt in the Bk. :f S*t.^^ ix UT^ 

It is generally said iLii -i?^^- ±l C^ TiA:t?siii:ii>ex$^ 
implies 'descendants of; ^-j-, ST!c:s:?r::s ^^^ :;h.N^>a 
to be the ton or village of Sym's sonsw Bui in n^A^l 
cases of -ing- occurring in a Scottish plao€^nanu\ j^^ (;4V 
as we have been able to trace the origin of \\\is uuuu^«» 
the -171^- is a later corruption, generally of <n*, <o, \\\ 
on. See Abington, Covington, Duddinohton, Laminm 
TON, Nbwington, Uddingston, &c.^ Th« ouly r^uunu 
exceptions are Coldingham and TyNiN^i/MMi';; j^/^-^l^-Ajy^^ 
ako Whittinghame- 

As with names Xor^e bo wjt/L fj^is*<,i- iV/'-'^^/^ 
English prefixes there ar^ but f<:;w<^</</,/y/'^w 'aa^i ...>'/.// 
referred to), but Eju^'IhL tewtl/.i^fc ♦*'♦. * i^-v**' -^-^ - - > 

* Not oiJt art su'-u hui^J.^ti .^/.«<» i» 'y^**/' '^ - > • ' / 
patTonjTLi'^ Q«D<»tmiL' ti** «*.'» / ' ^.- ^ *' > / / 



IxxXVi PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

able, the most of them requiring little or no elucidation. 
There is, e.g,^ the little cluster signifying some kind of 
height or eminence — hUl itself, as in Maryhill, Town- 
hill; knowe, the softened Scottish form of knolly O.E 
cnoll {cf, the Dan. knold and W. cnol, a (rounded) 
hillock), just as How is the Scottish form of the O.E. 
holg, and Pow the Scottish form of the G. poll, a stream 
or pool; this we find in Broomieknowe, Cowden- 
KNOWES, &c. ; lawy the Scottish form of the O.E. hldew, 
a hill, a mound, a barrow, as in Greenlaw, Harlaw, 
Largo Law, and also in many hybrids like the Lam- 
MERLAWS, the well-known clififs at Burntisland, and like 
MiNTLAW. The English form low, as in Ludlow and 
Taplow, plentiful though it be south of the Border, 
does not seem to occur in Scotland. To this little 
group of suffixes mount can hardly be added, for the 
Scottish -mounts or -monts almost all represent the 
G. monadh, a mountain or moor, as in Esslemont, 
Glasmont, &c. 

In many cases it would be more correct to say that 
a given suffix or word is Scots rather than English ; 
which just means that the word, or often simply the 
form, though once used in northern literary English, is 
l| '; now preserved only in Lowland Scots. Neither knowe, 

e.g,y nor law is to be found at all in Annandale's most 
reliable GoTicise English Dictionary ; another instance is 
that very interesting word kirk or * church,' fully dealt 
with in our List. It may just be added that a 
charter dating a, 1124, which mentions * Selechirche ' 
or Selkirk, is earlier than any document quoted by 
Dr Murray for the soft or ch form of the O.R cyrc, our 
modern church. An interesting instance is -gate, which 
in Scottish place-names like Crossgates, Trongate, 
WiNDYGATES, always has its Scottish meaning of * way,' 



y?' 



mil: *ntf Srrorrsfi "-■ -i 




A ' -*^ Trar ^.'. 



"i:it* T.^rr.!^ ^ 



Jr_rj. X J ■rTi- u^tr z-- tt-zl i_:r _ :_ ^^£:z-.z^ 



Ixxxviii PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

portnah&vn, which at once shows that this is really the 
G. port na h'aiihne, * harbour on the river.' 

In looking for truly English names two of our pre- 
liminary cautions must always be kept well in view : — 
(1) Many names may be partly English and partly 
something else ; e.(/,, that name dear to every Scottish 
heart, Bannockburn. * Burn ' is good Scottish or O.K, 
but * bannock ' can hardly be either Scots or English, or 
have anything to do with flour or pease-meal scones ; it 
is just the Celtic ban oc, ' white ' or * gleaming brook/ 
Babbhbad has nothing to do with toll-bars or any other 
bars, the * head ' simply repeating what has already been 
said in the G. barr (a head or height). Another well- 
known name is Glassford, near Hamilton, a name 
which pictures to the mind's eye some shallow spot in 
a river of glassy smoothness. * Ford,' indeed, is English, 
but the * glass ' is just the common G. glais or glas, grey 
or dark, as in Dumglass, Glasmont, and many more ; 
or else it is the Old G. glas, a river, as in Douglas. 

All the examples given for our first caveat would serve 
well for the second, viz. : — (2) An English-looking name 
may not be English at all. Look well before you leap. 

jj; j) i We shall just point out one or two more conspicuous 

instances of the need of this. There are several glens 
with deceptively English-like names, e.^., mighty Glen 
Lyon, which is probably the G. lithe amhuinn (the h 

■ I has silenced both the t and the m), ' spatey river.' A 

\ ii little to the south is Glen Almond ; both the Scottish 

rivers called Almond were formerly spelt Awmon, 
showing that here we have simply one of the many 
guises of the G. amhuinn, a river. Glen Howl, in the 
Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, has no connection with 
cries or roars; it is but the G. gleann-a-ghabaU, 'glen 

'III of the fork,' where two streams join. And again, in the 



ENGLISH VA¥PL 



Highlands, as in Ireland, we meet wiii many a Leti^-. 
But they were all there long bef ire rhe iay^ if ±j& ? 5^ 
OflBce. The first syllable in IxmE^iA^x ir Isrrss.- 
FINIAY is just the G. leitir (Idk-ti.'i, ' laxai in :he 3i. pe 
of a glen/ We have the simple w-rd izL Letri^a near 
Beith. 

There is some manuscript reason f jr thinking thac 
English scribes were rather fond of precring an '» jo 
Scottish place-names beginning with a vowei, eapeciaZj 
those in Aber- and Inver-, which are never 3o apela 
now. But there is no doubt that the Celt, both in 
Scotland and in Ireland, often prefixed such an aspirate 
himself. See the old spellings of Ebchless, Ebskins, 
lONA, &c.^ Though the definite article is so rare at the 
beginning of Celtic names it is common enough before 
English ones ; but, for euphony's sake, it seems only to 
be used with words accented on the first syllable, as 
The Lochies (Burntisland), The Methil (Leven), and 
The Eedding (Polmont). 

Many types of names very common in England seem 
wholly wanting in Scotland. In England * Great ' 
abounds as an appellation — Great Malvern, and the 
like; but in Scotland there are none. The same 
remark holds true about ' little,' with the exception of 
' Little Dunkeld,' and 'The Little Ferry,' near I)orno<:h. 
Again, 'Market' and 'Stoke' {i^., pla««) ar<^ \iuy 
common Anglican prefixes and suffixes, as in MiiiK«'C 
Drayton, and Bishopstoke, and many mora; but i^^ 
Scotland they are never used at alJ. S^i, K'^wi vii, 
OLDHAMSTOCK& 

iSee, e,g., Bev. JotepL B'^vwibou't very iiit.'i.;«ia./ </>>:</ u^ii •/» 

Engliahmea q^ut.*jd tbeit. 



CHAPTER IV. 



ROMAN, NORMAN, AND PURELY MODERN NAMES. 

In strict propriety the Roman names should have been 
dealt with before either the English or the Norse ones ; 
but they form a group so small and so unimportant, 
that little harm can be done by treating them along 
with those names which stand last in historic sequence, 
the little handful from the Norman-French, which is, 
of course, one of Latin's many daughters. The Roman 
left a deep mark on Southern Britain, and his memory 
is preserved in many a name there. But even though 
Rome's legions, from the days of Agricola onwards for 
more than 300 years, may have marched many a league 
and thrown up many a camp in North Britain, they 
never could make much dint upon the hardy savage of 
Caledonia in his bogs and woods ; and traces of Roman 
influence north of the Roman Wall 'twixt Forth and 
Clyde are but trifling. England is literally covered 
with -casters, -cesters, and -chesters, all denoting the 
site of a camp of the invaders, L. castrum or castra; 
but, surprising to relate, there are hardly any such com- 
pound names in Scotland, save Kerchester, near Kelso, 
which is a tautology, and Bonchester Bridge, in the 
neighbourhood of Hawick, and one or two obscure 
spots in Berwickshire, like Habchester and Cairn- 
chester. Close to Hawick is a place called the 



Chesters; and any janre msi c: X£*- 1»'t^^ jnEini* 
will show a g'ood mairy naroer 2i£^ liitf^re TT^ -t8c»> 
(Chimside), Chester Hill aiii 7>'_ 72 ri^-^^^- i^^^v?: 
Lees (Tweedfinmir ; : and a: :il_^ c: iiit?E- ->'.i ii^fr- 
are remaiiiE of cinnijai or nrii.. xH r ti- I i r -ir 
certain that the li^jciaii^ w^?r r^ i*err-i.': ai. r^^ .rt?— 
shire; hut it it not ^-.iziv^ c^erajiL ^-.z - n**?^ i-^iiitr ii?- 
of Boman oriiriii. C^ eo"zr«: ii_ n ^a*-^ i i^^rf: : ft*f :•' m . 
part Roman: and i*rc'i-esei:*: T-ei:ci ^ vk '..^ ii^-^^ 
PeebleBBhire ' CiieBxerF j^^tpt ti*^ ih-r Tt'jr^Li '/ :^ 
Crmri or BTythc^ns or J-.'n:_ an: _':- -^ iif- : tt y i^t^ 
they made their final bii: iiuF'j-'jt^--T-^ ^..ai:. tJiz-ni* 
Het, and Scot, and Aiiza^. TT- i4i;'-r ii^-*: «. 'jv-.'.-u 
looking compound near (^ai-enju^ 'La-iraiL: ^i:' v ..^^-: 
seems to he made hi o: c.ur^r ^^i zsi- -1- '-/,. 
'river/ *iort on the rrr-?: ^^lz^i il -esr::- "Jiarrt-"' *" 
Eelso Abher we hnd nam^sr iliir * _,*;.• .i-t^hr^- i.^v^, 
* Stamklichestr^.' itc_ '1^ ai:'" a::*rf: r^a* i.. ^i^ii: li^iiL^^ 
there Been^ no tr«i'.-e 

Manr a hr-jad acre 'X >/?iiai.:. - .^-' i^;.' v si jiri-ir: 
into Xorman Landt- : anc I^jr-^e-r - V »r/^-vf: v ^y-^ 
ins of the year I^jZL. iL::»r:ii- \i- v,fi.\ ^^-fi a' : .ii 
early date, several ^'jmiiU- no -j-a- L*tf; • •! ::.f-:nL»*ic"»^'' i-. 
Scotland, fieeinc: Itjil tii^ vraiL o: ii*^ L:.;:.i-: Ji:z/j 
t'.' tbe oonrt cc MacM^etL Lu: l»r "^ii':fij^ ".' *- /: . 
L430)tLinkF that tiie INomiant. vLi. are ;:•-•: uv* v^c 
friends the Xorsemen ba^ji; icriiii. v::i. ul :i::ar:i »i. 'C 
new bi<:»c»d and vitL a new tjnsrut ua. nc a>er'-'^:»il' a*: 
inf oenoe on Sc*ordfiL aliairfc till tbe rel.^ u: l^aViC L 
< 1124-53 1, a date vx» iLt-e to all»w of mit'/i r^iii in 
the way of plaoe-nameE. And tne ic^te: freiuei^i ii^'^^er- 
cvTUBe between the C'.»iirt5 -i^f France and Sc;: iliiZid had 

' At. ojd«T farm is CasuuiiiBJL Sir Heriien Xhxwtll der:T-«. frrm 
Bft gr dr^inan, * the eider-trt*.' 



xcu 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 



practically no influence on our topography at all. Even 
as the Gael's common name for his village was hcU or 
haile, and as the Saxon's regular name for the hamlet 
round his thane's castle was ham or torif so the Norman's 
regular name for the castle-village was vUk, from the 
L. villa, -a, coimtry-house or farm. Ville, in Scotland, 
has seldom survived uncorrupted, though we have both 
a Melville and a Mount Melville in Fife. Now, in 
Fife charters of the days of Alexander 11. (1214-49), 
we find notice of a Norman knight called * Philippus de 
Malavilla * ; and so Melville has the strange meaning of 

* the bad (? unhealthy) town.' A * Galfred de Melville ' 
is found in the Lothians in 1153; in all probability, 
therefore, * the bad town ' was no place in Scotland, but 
some spot in Normandy, from which Galfred or his 
forefathers took their name. The writer does not 
know of any other villes in Scotland ; for, of course, such 
a vile compound as Jemimaville (Cromarty) is not a 
case in point. ^ But we have still among us such com- 
mon surnames as Bonville, Colvill (sic 1158), and 
Somerville (1158, Sumervilla). It is evidently the 
influence of this Norman ending -ville which has 
changed St Boisil's name into St Boswell's ; and we 
venture to think that the final syllable both in Both- 
well^ and Manuel (Linlithgow) may be due to the 
same influence (see list). The name Maxwell {sic c, 
1190), however, was originally 'Maccus' wiel,' the 
name given to a salmon pool (O.E. imel, a pool) on the 

1 The place called Coshieville at the mouth of Glen Lyon is an 
ill-formed attempt to render the G. cois-a-mhilly *the foot of the hill.' 
So Belleville, Eincraig, is in G. hail-a-bhile, * village at the brae-top.' 

3 Bothwell is spelt Botheuill a. 1242, and Bothvile a, 1300, whilst 
in England we have, e.gr., Tidwell (Devon), spelt in 13th century 
charters Todewil, Todd ville, Todevil, Tudewille, Toudeville, t.<., 

* Tod's dwelling,' N.dsQ,, Mar. 13, 1897, p. 218-1. 



Tweedy hj :3ie \a:\-r z -r-:.-- . ^^-^z: 
to one of :^ Y. mi '^"'''""?^-- ~,:. ~^.~ ^ 



Waver ley miie. Bsi^sE ji_l Izi 

owe their irle xi iir ~-t— "~ r Z^ L: 

in Fife in ±e Zirii ^^inr^ ju. ~l 

the SojnssiL ^rr-^ T -Irr^^ rT LT^ . '— 

* door-war*fs.' 'ien.rr -r^ zi_- ..-^^ 

One of the nic^r •v^t?- -> Z^ : 

was the Liniiaa':^ ~r~ i*p- lULzie- ^1?=- -ee- z_ ':^ -^ -^^ '- 

near Bijgir, Zi in >r~e^ ~ ~ "Trr Z^ . ~ - 

Lindsii^ \ t:L i vi^ ttt : » -n — is Zh^ r z. ^== ~ .r- 

eighty-eigbj: fctrZin^ n tt?- ^lt^h- ; ^^'~^ -Z. 

actuallj bcHL 5:iiiLii _a. t-zz^ _> ~ j^ -^^^ t ^^e^ 
varying in >n'r±. fz^zHL -z^ "h^ .zr^z:^^ r Z . - - 
to the five cf Z / z..-', ^r.-r. z^f:^ ~ ~zi^ .;■. *^ 
soonded, gives "he •^^Arr zi. :. -?-: 2^ ^" : — ^tllzi. Zzt- 
RULS, near Jed'criz'^ :«:•?- ni t : inrr tt- zz. il^ ~^ • - 
*a hireh,' as Pr»:i:-i=c»:c V:^.:::l ^tz..:?-:^ Zz. IZ:r _z^ 
name was Riiltrcethtik. icji '^•^ • *• "v:^ v^~- .r :iir- 
Norman Baiiulph, :Lie eitzZcr^c: kz.- ^»va Zri .z ziiTf 
manor here (<r. 1 150 1 TZe Ziizie r*r-inli± j* =cZl Z^-iZ~ 
pronounced bethomle. :«r w^s *.: z::ir-f r^^^HiZ-. is Zr 
J. A. H. Murray informei :ihe wrirer : rZcccz. :c ^:--l:^. 
his old aehoohnaster at D«iLoZ::i, ne^r 77, Tiris Tir:ii^ ro 
teach that such a pronundatioii was ignoric.: jlz.! v:ilcJLr! 
Bethoc, however, is hardly a Norman name ; w^ find it 
again, a. 1300, in the Beijistnun Ah^nicuaise, m a 
'Kynhethok'; and BuLS is the name of a rivt>r. 
Traces of the Norman knights are also to be seen ii\ 
Barassie, better Barrassie, and Turnbirry, Ayrshiiu 

On a beautiful spot at the head of what is now tho 
Bkauly Frith the monks Vallis umbrosm fomuUnl a 

V 



il 



XCIV PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 



priory (c. 1220), which we, in 1230, find styled Prioraius 
de Bello Loco, The pure French spelling Beau lie^t^ 
* beautiful spot/ also occurs ; and in 1497 we meet witli 
' Beulie,' the present pronunciation, Beaulieu, as most 
are aware, is also the name of a village in Hants, formerly 
seat of a Cistercian monastery ; which name is also pro- 
nounced hewly. Well did the old monks know how to 
choose out the fairest sites. Belmont, * fine hill,* is a 
common name for modern residences; but we also find 
it attached to hills, not only in the Sidlaw range, but 
"i even away up in Unst But perhaps the naming has 

been quite recent. Montrose is very French-looking, 
but we already know that it is just the G. vioine frois, 
' moss ' or * bog on the promontory.' Such names as 
BoNNYBRiDGB and Bonnyrigg are usually thought to 
be at least half French ; but it is doubtful whether the 
Sc. bonny has really anything directly to do with the 
Fr. bon, bonne, good. Burdiehouse, near Edinburgh, 
is, according to the common tradition, a corruption of 
' Bordeaux-house.' Grant, in Old and New Edinburgh 
(iii. 342), thinks that it was probably so called from 
being the residence of some of the exiled French silk- 
weavers, the same exiled Huguenots who settled so 
largely in Spitalfields, London. They also founded the 
now vanished village of Picardy, between Edinbui^h 
and Leith, whose name is still preserved on the old site 
by * Picardy Place.' 

Cape, a headland, is just the Fr. cap, ' head or cape ' ; 
thus we have few ' capes ' in Scotland, and those few, 
such as Cape Wrath, of quite modern application. 
Chdf, the Fr. golfe, is not represented at all, either in 
Scotland or England. 

A few quite recent names still remain, calling for a 
passing word. And, be it remarked, even though a 



ROMAN, NORMAN, AND MODERN NAMES. XCV 

name has sprung up within the last couple of centuries, 
its origin, is by no means invariably easy to trace ; e.g., 
the writer has not yet been able to trace the exact 
origin of Alexandria in the Vale of Leven, although the 
place is only a little more than a century old. Nor 
does he know why a little railway station near Holy- 
town has been dubbed with the Honduras name of 
Omoa. But he presumes it must have been some Bible 
lover (?) who christened Joppa, near Edinburgh, about 
the beginning of this century, and who planted both a 
Jordan and a Canaan Lane on the south side of that 
same city. There is also a Jordanhill to the west of 
Glasgow, and a Fadanaram near Forfar. The place 
marked Succoth on the Ordnance Survey of the parish 
of Glass does not belong to this category. It is the G. 
socach, * place full of projecting points or snouts ' (soc). 

Some recent names are, of course, very easily solved ; 
as, for instance, the three well-known forts planted 
along the Caledonian valley to overaw^e the Highlanders 
at different periods from 1655 to 1748, and called after 
scions of the reigning house. Fort William, Fort 
Augustus, and Fort George. Battles have pretty 
frequently been commended to the memory of posterity 
by a place-name; e.g., we have a farm on the south 
shore of the Dornoch Frith called Balaclava, its 
former name having been Balnuig (* farm town on the 
bay'). Portobello, near Edinburgh, like Portobello 
near Wolverhampton, takes its name from a seaport on 
the Isthmus of Darien, where Admiral Vernon won a 
great victory for Britain in 1739. The name means 
* beautiful harbour'; but, as most people know, the 
Edinburgh watering-place is not itself specially 
beautiful, and it certainly has no harbour. Beeswing 
is the curious name of a little village on the high road 



XCVl PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

between Dumfries and Dalbeattie. The oldest of our 
sporting readers may remember a famous race-horse 
so-called. It is this horse which has been immortalised 
in the present village. 

The suburbs of the large cities have, of course, modern, 
and often purely fancy, names; such are Trinity, 
near Edinburgh, Magdalen Green, Dundee, and 
Mount Florida and Mount Vebnon, on the outskirts 
of Glasgow. The latter name occurs in the Glasgow 
Directory of 1787. Probably all the place-names 
north of Inverness, which are neither Gaelic nor Norse, 
are quite recent; e,g.. The Mound and The Poles, 
near Dornoch, and Bettyhill, between Thurso and 
Tongue, the market knoll or stance of the district, 
so called after Elizabeth, Marchioness of Stafford 
(c. 1820). 



CHAPTER Y. 

ECCLESIASTICAL liTAMlS. 

Fbom the earliest times a distingnishing and far from, 
unpraiseworthy feature of the Scot has been his warm 
attachment to the Church. The Norseman, a pagan 
bom, drinMng to Thor and Wodin, dreaming of Asgard 
and ValhaDa, and, long after his nominal conversion 
to Christ, a pagan at heart, has left little mark on the 
ecclesiastical nomenclature of Scotland; the Angle, 
whose conversion, thanks largely to lona missionaries, 
was more real, has left considerable impress here. But 
the warm-hearted, pious, and always somewhat super- 
stitious Celt has left far more. His personal names, 
too, have often a churchly flavour ; e.g,y Macnab, * abbot's 
son,' Mackellar, *the superior's son,' MacBrair, Hhe 
friar's son,' Gilchrist, * servant of Christ,' Gillespie, 
' servant of the bishop,' &c. 

Till 1469 Orkney and Shetland had the Bishop of 
Trondhjem as their ecclesiastical superior ; but for all 
that the Norse churchly names may be dismissed in a 
few sentences. All northern * kirks' have received 
their name from Norse lips, as Halkibk, Kikkwall, 
and KiRKABY ; but these are not many. Near Kirkwall, 
seat of the Bishop of Orkney, stands Quantkunks.s, 
and fuajUer- is the loel. ka/oUxri, which enters ay uu 
element into a good many Icelandic words; it ia an 



XCVIU 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 



adaptation of the Canter- in holy Canterbury (O.E. 
Cantwaraburh), being used in Icel. for * bishop.' Then 
we have the oft-recurring Papa, and its derivatives 
Papill and Paplay, as local names in Orkney 
and Shetland. Papa is a Latin name for *a bishop,' 
in use as early as TertuUian; the Norsemen at first 
gave the name to any Christian, but soon it came to 
be applied only to *a priest.' We have already 
explained North Eonaldsay as = *St Eingan's' or 
'Ninian's isle/ and that same saint's name reappears 
in St Ninian's Isle in Shetland. We do not remember 
any other Orcadian or Zetland isle bearing the name 
of a saint.^ A curiously corrupted name, half Celtic, 
half Danish, is Closeburn, in Dumfriesshire. It has 
nothing in the world to do with either a close or a burn. 
In the 12th century the name appears as Kylosbern, 
though already in 1278 it has donned its present guise. 
The early form shows that here we have another of 
the superabundant Celtic kils ; only this was the ' cell ' 
or 'church' of a Norse saint; for Osborne is the N. 
Asen-bjoniy * the bear of the Asen * or ' gods.' The same 
name is equally disguised in Orbiston near Bothwell, 
which we find to have been * Osbernston' in 1399. 

Over the true English church-names we must linger 
a little longer. Seeing that English-speaking monks 
were at one time owners of a large proportion of the 
whole area of Scotland, it is not strange that we 
should find a good many English ecclesiastical place- 
names. We have both a Monkton and a Nunton, the 
one near Troon, the other away beside Lochmaddy, but 
both pronounced almost alike, i.6., the local inhabitants 
usually talk of 'the Mimton.' 'Abbey' and 'Abbot' 
occur again and again in places — Abbey Craig, Abbey 

* Except Damsey, for which see p. cvi. 



ECCLESIASTICAL KAMES. xcix 

Hill, Abbotsfoei), Abbotsgrange, Abbot^full, aj? 
well as Abbey St Bathai^'s. The ' bishop ' has loft 
his name too, though he has long sinc^ lost i.lie lands, 
as in BiSHOPBRiGGS (see p. Ixx) and BisHorrox : ovon 
the humble priest (O.E prms^t) has come in f(^r his 
share of mention. There are at least fiftA\>n rn>st(^n!!< 
in England, and at least three in Scotland, bosiiio.^^ 
Prestonkirk, Prestonpans, and Trestwick, 

Probably all the many * kirks' south of CJaithnoss 
are of English origin. 'Kirk' is the O.K. rv/^v; but 
already by the 12th century, in Scotland (r.r/., a. 1124, 
Selechirche or Selkirk) as well as in England, tho 
hard c often became the soft ch ; and porhai)H it may bo 
useful here to inform the benighted Southron that 
educated Scottish people do not now, as a ruin, wpoak 
ab<iut their * kirk' Kirk occurs both an prolix, 
suffix, and alone, as in Kirkmaidex or Maidonkirk, 

Wigtown, KiBKBCDDO, KiRKCOLM, ChAN.VKLK/K'K, V Mr- 

KIRK, LArs:£N'CEs:5:s:, anl Kirk (/ Hhotti^, Th^'^r^j ar^ 
m^nv Kirrir.rLs in Scodanrl, r;orre^]:/>Tidin^ Ut tf»^ 
Kir:«:i-5 of EnizLiiji p.^c as the .Sry>t/;h K:kK ah7 (().>f. 
it- 'L-.--^'' :t:r7»rtipi;ii.:rt zn nhe Engll.^h Kir',7, in W^^f, 
Kirzj Ez:-7 ."^cecr.en, .hi. The ojrl, f.^;] n^rne r>f 
G:l^r,u*- WW ''^-LMriieklrktonn/ and tht^rp^ ig a f^r^ 

Fr'r:hHi u; iJ- P »niuiir erynioiorr/ lont? exoiaine^i tlwt 
zome IS ■ 'iunvh .)i *!m diUiPftn/ Rnr/in *-,h*» ^^ 
J-iir-^i^^^ 'hiii-k^r^, -. ::.:.! *he nanip is • K.r.^;iUf|inir ^ 
-wiu-i .B men :ikvir 'Trt^jjp :or ' :r>rr -n- -he h^r>ftf 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 



St Bathan's, Berwick, and St Andrews; Bathan, or 
rather Baothen, was a Scot, i.^, an Irish Celt, and "wsts 
the • man who succeeded Columba in the abbacy of 
lona, 597 A.D. It is another saint, St Bain, who is 
commemorated in the hill called Torr Beathan, near 
Inverness. His name is derived from the G. becUha, 
life. St Andrew, Scotland's present patron saint, is 
of course the apostle of that name, whose bones, as 
a dubious tradition declares, were brought to the 
east of Fife by St Regulus. But the church built by 
this last saint (? 400 A.D.) was called by his own name, 
till rechristened in the middle of the 9th century as 
* St Andrews,* by King Kenneth Macalpine. For long, 
whenever this ancient bishop's see is referred to in any 
document it is in its Latin form, e.g,, in 1158, *St 
Andrae ' ; but as early at least as 1434 we find * Sanct- 
androwis,* and in 1497 ^ Sanctandris.' The old Celtic 
name of the place was Kilrymont, or, as Abbot 
Tighernac has it, Gindrighmonaigh, 'the church,' or 
else * the head, the promontory of the king's mount.' 

Among real English or Anglian saints who have 
given their names to places in Scotland are the Abbess 
iEbba, sister of Oswald of Northumbria, commemorated 
in St Abb's Head, and St Boisil, contemporary of 
-ffibba, and Prior of Melrose while the great Cuthbert 
was being educated there, whose name is preserved in 
the well-known railway junction, St Boswell's ; how- 
ever, the old name of the parish here, until the 17th 
century, was Lessuden. Then, of course, there is St 
Cudberct, better known as St Cuthbert, great pastor 
and bishop, missionary too all over Northumbria, most 
lovable of all the Saxon saints. By far the most 
populous parish in Scotland, *St Cuthbert's,' Mid- 
lothian, embracing a large portion of Edinburgh, is 



called after ^Tm "FFb nama iTrrears jl i ^li: 



altered speUing fn. KjHEcnDBBiffHT: -vhuse jre'Eenr 
pronunciation, Kiret}«:nr7. nin5tr -lave 'leea j. vDene 
as early as c 1450, when. The towtl.s name stands 
recorded as 'Kirkx:riiitL' Tlie- -rrror liaa irorred 'lis 
name down intO' ^ Ciiiiiiie:* '^hile the - T?%ei liaa niade 'he 
saint's name into Cadachan. is in KlUiemacuddican, 
* ch.urch of mv owtl lime- Cntliijerr.'' in Klrkcoim. 
Clachnacudda:* js •ririj inGther -vord. Year Kirk- 
cudbright is a einrn:iiaL7 miHieaiiing name, Klrkiaugh, 
Font's Caerelaclu ''tivn on, ihe- rock.' Tlie name or 
Canmores sainiily Stxon crie«i is still preserved in 
• St Margaret'V Kings P^izk. Klinbnrgx and in tht^ 
t^wo St Maegabjets H:?es, or sriip-refoges, one at 
Queensfeny, the o^Ler an SjTiah. E.:nal«isa7.^ 

The Celtic ecclesia^rii-al names fcrm, perhaps^ the 
most puzzling and co-mplei p>rtion of our subject* a 
portion which it needs much care and still to uiu'avt>t 
One can hardly say that the whole subject hns U>ou 
set in clear daylight yet, notwithstanding all \]u\\^ 
members of the Scottish Society of Antiquftvitm hrtVti 
done. Many of the old Celtic saints, male and ftiiiiHln, 
are to us very dim and hazy personages, ahnowt l<m(< in 
the clouds of legend and the mists of antiquil/y; himI 
their identity is often very difficult to «til.»il/l).ih, 
especially when, as is frequently the <jfiw<i, two or ihi^j^ 
bear the same name. 

Once more let it be pointer! out, ilmt lliow/jj lin; ^ oil 
never showed any great anxiety Uj laxi^i d-^vvn iJ.*: i^om^ 
of his own humble self attacWi Uj ly-^n^e vi;,;^^ oi yi' ;i 
he never wearied of thus comiueitiojuiit.x **"' ^ •"'<''' '*•■• 
or patron saints. The umyjiM ol li*^ c.,i.h'jr \,.>, jt i 

* Some think the latu;r ptj»ofc w«fc^ caKo*; ai-'.j y ^. , • '< • / i 

Norway, who di»jd uut iat li»u. in>i« ^^» j-.«-j • ^,. -^ ... 



cu 



PLACK-XAMES OF SCOTLAND. 



before OS in Scottish place-names were either friends 
and contempoiaries of St Columha, or belong to the 
century immediately thereafter, the 7th. After 700 the 
Celtic Church began to wax rich and slothful, and 
its priests were embalmed in grateful memory no 
more. Foreign saints are rarely met with. Kilmartin 
(Lochgilphead), called after good St Martin of Tours, 
the preceptor of St Ninian, is an easily under- 
stood exception. Why the French St Maurus should 
appear in Kilmaubs is not quite so plain. Palladius, 
Some's missionary to Scotland in the fifth century, has 
received recognition in Aberfeldy, as well as in Paldy's 
Fair and Paldy's Well at Fordoun. The first in all the 
Scottish calendar, and, presumably, the first bringer of 
Christianity to Scotland, was St Ninian of Whithorn, 
bom c 360 A.D., whose name also appears as Eingan 
and Einan. He is commemorated in fifty-one churches 
or chapels, extending from Ultima Thule to the Mull 
of Gralloway; and there are several more in England. 
Xonakiln, in the parish of Eosskeen, is a curiously dis- 
guised way of expressing 'Ninian's cell' or 'church.' 
Maidenkirk, near the above Mull, is believed to be the 
kirk of St Medana, a friend of Ninian. Some have 
thought that the Xen- in Nenthorn, near Kelso, is a 
contraction of his name, but the original form is 
* Naythan's or Nectan's thoriL' • 

If Ninian, first of Scottish saints and missionaries, 
has received fifty-one commemorations, it is no marvel 
that Columha of lona (521-597), greatest of them all, 
has had fifty>five Scottish places called after him, either 
places of worship, or spots or wells sacred to him ; and 
there are forty-one others in his native Ireland. Of 
course the saint's name is seldom or never now found 
as Columba, 'dove,' its Latin shape, but rather in its 



ECCUtSIASTIOAL NAMF.S. Hij 

C;eili<. form. Cotu/in : e.u.. on the west ooasi tboro f\^^o six 
ifiifit called Hiieaii Coiimii or 'John's i«?]e.,' in Tooh 
EnsoTt. Xocli ArkeiT, the jVlincl., ^c. Thf^r. t^oro is 
lona itself, often called altcrnativoly IrohnVill. 'is]*in«I 
{& ColiiiE-cille ' 01' ' Coim of the rlniiThes.' For. m 
sooth, if nien calleil »lohn Honrv "Newman 'fniho] o| 
mauT fiouk.' other men might well oall earnest, mTK^I":- 
trarelling Colinuba, founder or * father of m-^uA 
chiircliefi.' Sometimes his name is olinpe<i dox^n info 
Cvmli, as in Eilean Comb, Tonpne ; or even into On^o^ 
as in GucoMBTON, Aberdeen, * the plaee of the eillio ' ov 
* serrant of Columba.' 

With the exception of two about to be mention<vK 
the saiiit most frequently honoured, ne\i to Voh}mhf\ 
and Ninian, has been Donan, the former'?* eontemp-^rr^i v 
and friend, and, to their honour \ks it n^id. the 1^n^V 
martrr who died by pagan handu in S^otlnni^ { rt>^»! 
eren his death at Eigg, by ordnr of thii TiiMit^h v^^Un^i. 
is said xo hare been ratbctr for f)ollfli>rtl tPf^qnh^. 
DcfLfciif naane lies «i/rinkl/fj<tl all ovf^r i\\fi u\t\\i nf 
fc'iruiimd frctm like j^Mh *4 ¥)iii\mfUut\ in i\m ttnuiU 
^l lirmi and ^t' Wi^t^jij, Vm'!^, ihUtUf^ it^Utu ^h^ ]\. Id 

teuBwr 01 ;iit' iiiati iiUmQ?* i^v ^y^'Ai^^/Kf ^f/] .^r-,7*^/.|//|r.^ 
fltioiUL iavt wvttiv^t >ttieh -^^^^ ^.^n-y ^^-A/.ro v.^r.^ 

ffl3 ibiyc-w^::^ 1^ -^^im near '^'-T^iotz-n 
*'*>»f^. r ir.e 



'^/. 






•A'"* 



CIV PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Bishop Eeeves, the valued editor of Adamnan, has 
drawn attention to the marked contrast between the 
names of the parishes on the east and those on the 
west of Scotland. On the east the names are chiefly 
secular, even though chiefly Celtic, and probably date 
from remote pagan times. But on the west the parochial 
names, in a large number of cases, are found to combine 
with the prefix Kil- (G. ceall, locative cUl, ' a monk's cell, 
then a church, also a grave ' ; see Kilarrow), the name 
of some venerated Scoto-Irish saint. Undoubted in- 
stances of this ori the east coast are rare. We have, 
near Beauly, Kilmorack, ' church of St Moroc/ and 
KiLTARLlTY, from St Talargain, and Kilrenny (An- 
struther), probably from St Ringan, or, perhaps, St 
Irenseus, but not many more. There are many other 
names in Kil-, as Kildrummy (Aberdeen), Kjllen 
(Avoch), KiLMBNY (Fife), and Kilmore (Loth) ; but in 
these the kil- may be G. coil, a wood ; and, in any case, 
their second halves do not stand for any saint. 
KiLCONQUHAR (Elie) and Kilspindie (Errol) are two 
very curious names, which can hardly commemorate 
any saint either {q,v.), Dr Eeeves' contrast is true 
not only of the parish names, but the names generally ; 
e.g., take the case of St Columba. All along the 
east coast we find but one Inchcolm, while, as 
we have just mentioned, there are six instances 
of an Eilean Coluim (' Colm's isle ') on the west. Yet 
the monasteries of Deer (Aberdeen) and St Serf 
(Kinross) are, to say no more, sufficient proof that 
the Columban missionaries did not neglect the 
east. 

Students of the Origines Parochiales know that 
there were many more ' Kils- ' among the names of the 
ancient parishes than among the modern ones. And, 



Ii.£E3. 



just as we stiZ iiir^ -izzzriicir s^l^tt Tjzzicziznn r 
'Trinity Cl-bjt^' if l. ^jp- izj. i:-:: :iir _^ ':^>- : 

the parish of >r:t2L7 tl 'Icr?^ ju. z-^- ir- - - i - 1- 

parish wh€fre 3i^i=:r r l*^! ^-v f.\r...j. ^^ Hz^zzz^n 
the variants KzriiMLzir-r vt-, , ' -^r- -^^r— - ...^^ij. *•• —'—- 
The first Xotsk: ^ni-jr^ jl "nze^ i.^ . __■.— ^rLi 
known as 'C^LTLiCi Tr-- j^ l:r?2k.~ -hz::- ^ niziii- 
heing given l-j "Lii*: 3 j!3fi: nL.r o ^ imj^'-'-T.^ r.T^.^ 
There was al=»:> i.! j^iav. toc^ T!T ^cra. . — "in. z 
Jesus/ and ntjar r»i&L_^ ^ Ttttt. .tt. :z. .h:. Z!.^:^^ 



tyem, the G, <yy-'Z^ Tu/hjyj'-nu nurjrrL -r iir- l^r*. . 
whilst on Blaens hjc x Slit:! Tin: tf»: iili.l a aIi^- 
TRINIDAD, now eaZtni 7^ & . /? j; u^-u c^Z •^uiu ut. im ir'^ir 
of the Trinity.' 

Many of these ancient C-rlioL mr^ t* iilt^ liiiii :Ivct 
names so twisted and distort-ed hj c^z.vzz-^Sr :•: iv r^,::;>c$s 
ignorant alike of spelling and hagiolc^, iha: nv^vr iht^ 
personages themselves are hardly recognisable. 1 1 iuhsIh 
clever eyes to see St Comgan in Kilghoan, mul yot> 
cleverer to recognise Talargyn (d. 616) in KiLTAin.irv, 
or Begha in Kilbtjcho. St Begha, disciplo of Hi, AIiImii 
and Abbess Hilda, is the well known Kii^linh Hi/ liiii-M 
Kecognition is made all the more diflnJill trmn ih^i 
warm-hearted Celt's frequent liabjt of |y;<;0/i^^i/ <>>/ ^h*- 
saint's name mo or ma, * my owu/ wbkb t//h/'.*,< *. ^y./ ,/> 
ment, and of affixing an -'x-. -'j'^, o/ V'^ ''/ '/ //// 
'young'), which is a kliiC 'A '^ '. ^^ ^ v .i ♦ -* y - 
MAiM)NOCK, near Al^2:iiL»'-ir><. i r^ i^, ;.>,'>. .^ ^^ // • 
Etive, really r>e4iiifc vm";: / i:* <>>-• .»^ *^ 

But KnjLLiSXX ji r-si. * i" »- 'r 

Eman, of lit*- ^v^ *j*r. .-— * '**•»•'' 

the true au'i k^II ij^'V" '.'--^o-" ••/ >^ ^ ^ - ' 

pretty EcErr^v.-':"> • .,-'• / -' ■ ' , 



CYl PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

of Gloucester (371, edit 1724) in 1297 writes of our 
Scottish monarch as ' Kyng Macolom.' ^ 

The two names which, above all the rest, have gone 
through the most extraordinary and varied vicissitudes, 
almost rivalling the fate of the Norse hohtad^r (pp. Ixxii- 
Ixxiii), are Adunnan and Maolrubha. Adamnan, a man 
of royal Irish blood, and Abbot of Zona (679-704), is far 
famed as Columba's biographer. His name means 
'little Adam,' and in Lowland Scots it would be 
' Adie.' The unaccented initial A easily goes ; and we 
find that, through aspiration, the two aspirable con- 
sonants here, d and m, in many cases go too. Thus all 
that is left of * Adanman ' is sometimes no more than 
eon, as in Ardbonaig, pronounced arj<5naig, on Loch 
Tay, 'height of little Adanman,' or than eun, as in 
Ben Eunaich (Eunog), Dalmally. In Orkney all that 
is left is dam, as in Damsey, the old Daminsey, 
'Adamnan's isle.' The saint's name appears as veon 
(v = dh) in KiLMAVEONAiG (Blair- Athole), and as ennan 
in Kirkennan (Galloway) ; whilst in the North-East his 
name is pronounced Theunan or Teiman. Till quite 
lately this last was the name of the parish of Forglen, 
Banffshire. 

Maolrubha is a saint who hailed from the Irish Bangor. 
He seems to have been almost as great a missionary as 
Columba himself. In 671 he came over and founded 
the monastery of Applecross in West Eoss ; and in that 
district his name is still preserved in Loch Mabee, 
which, contrary to popular tradition, does not mean, 
* Mary's Loch.' The Modem Gaelic for Mary is Maire, 
but the older form, and that which is always applied to 

* However, in 0,E. Chron, (Worcester), ann. 1075, we find *Kynge 
Malcholom,' which implies the G. moLol Choluim, 'servant,* lit 
'shaveling of Columba* ; ibid. (Laud), ann. 1079, we have 'Melcolm.' 



ECCLESIASTICAL KAMEfi. rrX 

the Virgin Mother, is Moire ; tboB wt iur^t n Sr-jrliiHtU 

as in Xxeland, several 'EilmoTTB'.; ItaiLitt: i-n. U'^-Sii- 

MOBY, * Mary's well' But the nanifc ic fc iila'jLrri.JJii*. 

lias liad to endure far more than rir.if., Ii oint liiier 

forms of the place-names his name it jtimt^mt^ ir*.^ 

served "with tolerable planmeas, t.a^ izn usl nunt*- »r 

AftViig in Strath (Skye) was Aaldmu'ri'jfi : oji j, 15'' 

tbe name of KrLAiatow (Iskj) va* iL-znir"^. .n IJIl 

it -was spelt Kilmorow, in 154S ir~m;fcr!r:w. -v'jilirc 

to-day the m has, through aspiraiDJJL. iltfiiiL -riairjiiei 

away. The old saint's name appear* ii. Azcdier iiiiice 

in Amuleee (Dunkeld), vhich i& ji&i (^.>> jAf^-f^-i.'^jho^ 

• Maob-ubha's ford'; and I>r lifjerts znfjiiLeciJ 5:tii- 

mareves Fair, held in Keith o' Turrit, i*? i^ iiiL':r»v/- 

ing his name. 

Maobubha must be carefuHy disvjuzz^i^'i^-L r-ci ^a 
Moluag of lismore, patron saint of Ar^j'jt hz. i ir^r^ni 
of Columba, who died in 592, Kir LitiLe if- iri re ::r-z.»i 
unaltered in Kilmoluag (Tiree, M:ill, ai..! S'xjr . in-i 
almost so in Kilmolowok (Eaasax). Tiie Lr^i^f: i* 
more violent in Knoeknulauk, 'MoI^Lag's r". ' i,->iz' 
Whithorn. Kilmallow (lismorej ha? soinerliiit^i "r»^^ 
thought to come from the saint of App]t;crori= : bit t'rjt; 
form KUvuilaog, also preserved, shows that thir oai.i-:;t 
ba The parishes of Raasay and Kilrnuir, in S'±rre, 
both once bore this same name, Kilmaluog ; and Kil- 
malew was the old name of the parish of Inveraray, 
whilst we have Clochmaloo near Ehynie. Moluag's 
original name was Leu or Lua, perhaps the L. hipuSy 
a wolf; the Gaelic spelling was LugaidL The tiual 
syllable has been dropped, and the endearing mo and 
the pet sufl&x -oc have been added, hence the forms 
Moluoc, Moluag, or Molua; the curious spellings 
Malogue, Mulvay, and Molingus also occur. Somewhat 



CVm PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

t 

similar in composition is the name of St Modoc, a saint 
of the Welsh calendar — a rare thing to find in Scotland. 
The basal name is Aidan = Aedh-an, * little Hugh/ 
then Mo-aedh-oc, Moedoc, Modoc. His name we see 
in KiLMADOCK, Doune. On the other hand, we have a 
few pseudo-saints, like St Brjcedale, long the residence 
of good old Patrick Swan of Kirkcaldy. Of course 
there never was such a being; the name is really St 
Bryce's dale, Bryce being a corruption, less common 
than Bride, of that worthy woman St Brigid of Kildare, 
whose name is so dear to Irish tongues as Bridget 
{cf. Kilbride). A worse fraud is St Fort, near Dundee, 
a silly modern corruption of Sandford, the old name 
of the estate there. Hard by is *St Michaers,' as 
Ordnance Survey and Valuation EoU call it, which 
really commemorates one Michael Irvine, who kept a 
public-house there in the early part of the 18 th century. 

In Scotland by far the commonest prefix to denote 
* church' or * chapel' is kU. But the Brythonic llan, 
Ihan, or Ian is also found. This word means (1) a 
fertile, level spot, (2) an enclosure, (3) a church, 
with which three meanings the student may find it 
interesting to compare the similar meanings which 
appertain to the L. templum, itself also often adopted 
into Gaelic as teampull, a church or holy cell. Scottish 
lam are rare; the chief is Lhanbryde, Elgin, *St 
Bridget's church ' ; but Lanark, c. 1188 Lannarc, must 
contain the word also, though the second syllable is 
hard to expound with certainty. In Wales llan- super- 
abounds. Professor Veitch, in his History of the Scottish 
Border, says there are 97 there ; but there are actually 
212 given in the Postal Guide alone. 

Besides kit and Ian, the Scotch Celt also occasionally 
adapted for himself the Latin (or Greek) ecdesia, a 






JLi-Jk-L" 






Utr-.-_at- 






t;^:-- 1^ -tv 



-v;*: i_ 






ex PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

name is in Ulster Annals^ ann. 920, where we have 

* Ceile De/ while an early charter, c, 1150, gives us 

* Chelede.' But the zeal for solitude can hardly be traced 
to the influence of Eome. The Roman missionaries 
sought busy, wealthy Canterbury or York ; but the men 
of lona, like the hermits of Egypt and Syria long 
before, chose rather some dwelling-place like wild Tiree, 
as did Baothen, or wilder Eona, as did Eonan. Their 
retreats or cells or caves were wont to be called desertay 
adapted into Gaelic as diseart, where it also has the 
meaning of a place for the reception of pilgrims. 
Hence we have Dysart, in Fife, still called by Greorge 
Buchanan Diserta, and Dysart, near Montrose; and 
hence, e.g.y the old name of the parish of Glenorchy, 
Dysart or Clachandysert. These Diserts or Dyserts are 
still more common in Erin's isle. 

One more interesting point, and then we must leave 
the student to his own devices. The lonely isle, 
Scotland's most westerly inhabited spot, commonly 
called St Ejlda, bears a name which has caused much 
puzzlement. It is first mentioned in a charter of King 
Eobert II., c. 1350, by the name of Hyrt, whilst 
Fordoun, the well-known historian of the next, genera- 
tion, calls it Irte. Then in a map published by Peter 
Goas of Eotterdam in 1663 we first light upon the 
track of the present name ; it is there St Kilder, plainly 
a seaman's carelessly ascertained form. But, five and 
thirty years later, in Martin's well-known Voyage to St 
KUda, it has assumed the form it has ever since 
retained. There is no proof that such a personage as 
St Kilda ever existed ; though no doubt * St Kilda,' like 
every other lone Hebridean islet, was once the dwelling- 
place of some saint ; and there once were chapels there 
to both Columba and Brendan. The inhabitants till 



recsentlj had quhe lost iht - smniL unL ilwitj* ouuit; la 
/; so that the nriptna^ Htti iesumj: m ali»itr Ii^j? 
Childa : and there is a 't^wv' .V /]/a( io. nbi* bluLiid 
u>-day. This is no veZ ascastSitL ti: ^ sujitiv bcU 
probaTJy means, 'well or the nff^aHTL aul^J txooL G. wr^ 
the West 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 

OF ALL THE IMPORTANT 

place^flames of Scotland 



EXPLANATIONS OF THEIR ORIGIN 



N,B, — ^All prefixes are dealt with fully only under the first 
name in which they occur : e.g.f for auchter-, see Auchtebarder ; 
for kil-, see Kilarrow, &c. Any name printed in small capitals 
is meant to be consulted as giving some confirmati(Hi to, or 
throwing some side-light on, the explanation offered. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



Dan, 


Danish. 


TF, 


Welsh. 


Fr. 


French. 


a. 


ante, i.e., before. 


G, 


Gaelic. 


ann. 


anno, i.e., in the 


Icel. 


Icelandic. 




year. 


Ir, 


Irish. 


c. 


circa, i.e., about. 


L. 


Latin. 


cf. 


compare. 


M.E, 


Middle English (1100- 


cny. 


century. 




1500). 


dvmin 


diminutive. 


N, 


Norse. 


fr. 


from. 


0,E. 


Old English or Anglo- 


gen. 


genitive. 




Saxon. 


lit. 


literally. 


O.G, 


Old Gaelic 


perh. 


perhaps. 


O.N. 


Old Norse, of the Sagas. 


prob. 


probably. 


Sc. 


Lowland Scots. 


pron. 


pronounced or pronun- 


Sw. 


Swedish. 




ciation. 



ALPHABETICAL LL^T. 



Abbey Craig. Itoveriooka CamhusKennetk.ti.bf^r. -«'ir!:ri:2. 

Abbet St Bathajt^ (Bftr^ickuhm), Iu/70. £t:rr ^t-u tov- 
thani Cchnrcli of yrt Boyriiiin , • B(f/,rh>=^ if Tlrpe vaa 
ColTimba':* :*acceaflor m« in hot or Jfjiia. 71? T .u.j, • .tutjt^y. 
O.Fr. a^jdie^ \a ^^« ^peit in Ems. m« -^irtr is I'jJiO. 

Abbotrulz (Roxhnr'xii). a, L1.73, R.ua rltfrf-^vti : lilllO. 
Ecclei*ia de Pu.iie AJioaris* uf^n, of L- -Vthrui. Uinot/ . 
1275, AbotrowL Tlie Rut^ is* i nwtr: --7. BEDRrrLS, 
and, as to Hereveiis, B-vr.r.ftrrJL Tin .liiine nrrin. 
means the lanriH in R.iiewattir Of^idmnnti Tn riie .L.)ooi: 
of JedbTir^fcu ^ Abbot." fr. L. 'Uthftji. 'U>fni^'':>t )r -*/?**, i» 
so spelt in En^r. an early a« »:, L Lilli. 

Abbotsford- That rwefi by the monk.'* of iCiiirnrte A-ohey. 

Abbotsgraxge and Abb< jT«*HAr< :. h ' Oraniienn »urh , , The land 
here formerly belon^red tUi N'ewnattie Anr-^y. * < .rmnjie. 
in the L, charter* 'jrrwwiiwm. ' tr. 'jranurn. ' .rrtin \ now 
often = 'a farm,' wt^a the oi^ure wht^re the i^nts and 
tithes of a Feli;£iocii* htjiiite Oi^efi to be d«^iivered and 
depotiited. ' Harurh ' i» coccimon S(*. for " mea<i«3w-Iaud 
by a river ' ; ace Hacoh. 

Abbotshaix (Kirkcaldy). Now a parish: once connected 
with Dunfermline" Abbey. ' Hail ' is O.E. Aea^. /le^tt/^. 

Abb's Head (St). 1461, Sanct Abbis Heid. Fr. .AV^k 
sLster of King Oswald of Northumbria, and tiret AblHxss* 
of Coldin^ham, close bv, c. 650 a.d. Its earlier nanu\ 
in Liber Eltewns, was Coldebiircheshead ; rf, Cou>iNiniAM, 
•Head,' O.K. heafod, is similar in use to U, i*t^*nf* ^»v 
ken-, Icel. Juifuih, and Fr. cap, which all n\eau both * tho 
head ' and ' a cape.' 



4 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Abdbn (Kinghom). OZcZ, Abthen, Abthania, the lands of 
Dunfermline Abbey. The word is an adoption of G. 
abdhaine, abbacy or abbotric, fr. G. abaid, abbey. In 
Cfiartul, Arbroath, a. 1200, is 'Ecclesia Sanctse Marise 

de veteri Munros (Montrose) quae Scotice (i.e., 

in Gaelic) Abthen vocatur.' In the Exchequer Rolls 
occurs * Abden of Kettins,' Forfar. 

Abdib (Newburgh). a. 1300, Ebedyn. Prob. same as above, 
only with reference here to Lindores, close by. Less 
probably G. aba diln (W. din), * abbot's hill.' 

Aberarder (Strathnaim, Deeside, L. Laggan). Stra. A., 
1456, Aberardor; Lag. A., c, 1645, Abirairdour. For 
aber, see p. xxxii. G. aber-dird-dur (Old G. dobhar), 

* confluence at the lieight over the water.' 

Abbrargib (Perth), c. 970, Pict. Chron,, Apurf eirt = Aber- 
farg; E. Farg is fr. G. feargach, * fierce,' fr. fearg, 

* anger ' ; the / has disappeared through aspiration. 
Thus the name means * confluence of the fierce river.' 

Abbrcairnby (Crieff). Old G. abar camach, * rocky marsh ' ; 
cf. Cairnie and Lochabbr. There is no confluence 
here. 

Abbrchalder (Inverness). Old, Aberchalladour. G. aber- 
a-c(h)oille-dur, * confluence of the water by the wood ' 
(coiliy Cf. R. Calder. 

Aberchirdbr (Banff). Pron. Aberhlrder. c. 1212, Aber- 
kerdouer ; 1492, -dor. * Confluence of the dark-grey or 
brown water,' G. aber-Orchiar-dobhair (dur), 

Abbrcorn (S. Queensferry). c. 720, Bede, * Monasteriimi 
Aebbercumig ' ; a, 1130, Sim, Durliam, Eoriercom; 
c. 1300, Trivet, Abourcom; 1363, Abircome. The 
bum, formerly the * Comae,' now the Comar, is thought 
by Whitley Stokes to be perh. named fr. Cumach, a 
Pictish champion. 

Abbrcrombie (Fife). 1250, Abircrumbyn; 1270, Abber- 
crumby ; 1461, Abircumby ; ofl&cial name of the parish 
of St Monan's. Cruniban is prob. an old form of G. 
crom, * crooked ' ; cf. Ancrum. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 5 

Aberdalgib (Perth). 1150, Abirdalgyn. Prob. 'confluence 
bj the little thicket ' ; G. dealgaUy dimin. of decUg, * a 
thorn/ 

Aberdeen, c. 1000, Bk, Deer^ Abberdeon; 1114, Aberdon; 
1153, SnarrOj Apardion; 1178, Aberdoen ; c. 1180, 
Aberden; c. 1225, Orkn. Saga, Apardjon; 1293, 
Haberdene; in Latin charters, Aberdonia. 'At the 
mouth of the Don.' 

Aberdour (Fife and Aberdeen). Abdn. A. in BL Deer, 
Abbordoboir. Fife A., 1126, Abirdaur; also Aberdovar. 

* Confluence or mouth of the stream.' See R. Dour. 

Aberfeldy. Called after PheallaidJi, i.e., St Palladius, 
Romish missionary to Scotland in the 5th century. 
Cf, Cadail Pfieallaidh, in the Den of Moness, close by. 

Aberfoyle (S. of Perthshire). 1481, AbirfuU ; G. aber-phuill, 
gen. of G. and It, poll, *a pool or bog, also a stream.' 
Cf, ]?allinfoyle, Ireland. 

Abbrgeldie (Braemar). 1451, -gheldy; c, 1610, Pont 
Galdy. These forms look like G. aher-a-Ghallda, * ford 
of the stranger or Lowlander.' Here aher has its rarer 
meaning, see p. xxxiii. However, in Mod. G. the name 
is Geallaidh; cf. gecd, * clear, fair.' 

Aberlady (Haddington). Life Kerdigem, AherlQ^iQ] 1328, 
Abirleuedy. Prob. fr. G. leithid or leatlian, * broad,' or 
leatJiad, *a slope.' 

Abbrlbmno (Forfar). 1250, Aberlevinach ; c. 1320, Abber- 
lennoche; 1322, Aberlemenach ; 1533, Abirlemnon; 
G. leamJianach, adj., *of the elm wood,' fr. leamhan, an 
elm. Of, Lennox. 

Aberlour (Banff). 1275, -logher. Perh. fr. G. luaeliair, 

* rushes,' or else, lobhar (pron. lo'ar), *a leper.' 

Abbrmilk (Dumfries). 1116, Abermelc. R. Milk is perh. 
(and if so, it is a rare case) fr. O.E. meolc, milCj Dan. 
melk, *milk'; cf. too *rivulus de Melych'; 1272, in 
Cartul, Levenax, fr. G. milleach, * flowery or sweet grass.' 
This is one of the only four * abers ' in Dumfriesshire. 

Abernethy (Perth and Inverness). Perth A., c. 970, Pid. 
Chron,, Abur- Apurnethige; c. 1097, Flor. Worcester, 
Abemithici; a, 1130, Sim, Durham, Abernithi; Irish 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Nenniics, Apuimige ; 1292, Abemethyn. Inv. A., 1461, 
Abimethi. Here aber means the ford near the Nethy's 
mouth. Gf, Arbirlot. Invemethy stands at the 
actual junction with R. Earn. Nethy is usually said 
to be fr. NecJitan, king of Picts, c. 700, who founded a 
church here. But the early forms rather point to G. 
aber-an-eitighichy * confluence at the narrow opening,' 
lit. * gullet.' Also cf. NiTH. Inv. A. stands at the 
confluence of Nethy and Spey. 

Abbrnytb (Inchture). Oldy Abemate ; perh. G. abet* n^aite, 

* confluence at the place ' ; or f r. G. eite, see Etivb. 

Abbrtarff (Lochaber). c. 1240, Aberterth; 1282, Abirtarf; 
c. 1400, Bk. ClanrandLdy Obuirthairbh, in which the 
latter syllable is gen. of G. tarbh, * a bull.' Gf. Tarff. 
Aber is sometimes pron. ober in Mod. G. 

Aberuchil and Aberuthven (Perth). 1200, Abirruotheven j 
in Aberuchil e is mute. See Ruchil and Ruthven. 

Abington (S. Lanarkshire). 1459, Albintoune, ^ Alhin's 
village.' Gf. Albyn Place, Edinburgh, and Abington, 
Cambridge. Abingdon, Berks, is not the same word. 

Aboynb (Deeside). c. 1260, Obyne; 1328, Obeyn; forms 
apt to be confused with Oynb. A- or 0- will repre- 
sent Old G. abhy water, river, cf. Awe ; and -boyne is 
G. bo fhionn, * white cow ' ; hence * white cow's river ' 
or * watering-place.' 

AbrIachan (L. Ness). 1334, Aberbreachy ; G. aber breacach^ 

* confluence abounding in trout,' G. breac. The -an is a 
mere adjectival ending. 

AcHALEVEN (Argyle). G. achadh-norleamhain, * field of the 
elm.' Gf. Lbvbn. There is an Auchlevyn in Registr. 
Aberdonense, a. 1500. In Ir. names we have Agh-, not 
Ach-. 

AcHANAULT (Ross-sh.). G. achodJiran-uUlt, * field by the 
river ' or * river-glen,' G. allt. 

AchAraclb (Strontian). G. racail, * a noise such as is made 
by geese or ducks.' 

AcHARN (Kenmore). G. acJiadh-chdimf * field of the. cairn,' 
G. chm, or * of the booty,' charna. 



AcBBSBCK (BailendaZucn.. -r?ijr:£a :2in. -. --n.. 
speckled, spoa:€<L 

ACHXSGBOCH (Caddtrr\ • riiJ. tie JUijB •'. -.l-^'-i^AiL; . 

ACHILTT, L. (Strathpcrfe'!. -iLaft T.raeiiiiiv -r. ./-r. . 
hill). The accsir js -a ne c/?. ^tiiiiL i^viii.^ 

TP waning *heii£!ll« Jj'.£ZiLZer ^niL t. . Oi-V^'iaA Hit *iliiiiu., 

and W. itch*^, hi^n . -'^. a TP?n. x. ! ///. V. 7, 't. .ona<. 
Of. Achil, Co. MiiTiu uiii AirniiaL'^ue, I'Lio<i«uu r. ^. 
buidJie, 'yellow.' 

AcHLi^ACHR^CH (Forc "^ilkiii.. • 3aMi^ itid^ \v 
lucLchrachj fr. Iwit^uuf', riwies. 

AcHNACABBT (Fort W'''-;t.r >. 13»j3;, A uiilzuwiimv ; "t\oU vU 
the weir' ; G. <rai;-i.!^J.. 

AcHXACLOiCH (Oban and Rctssieienl •Fiold of the atDUd »>r 
boulder'; G. c/a<r/* or c/'xAi, ty, Auohmclooh, liiUytir 

AcHNASHELLACH (W. Ross-sh.). 1543, AuchuiwilMUxt lit : 
1584, Achnasellache ; rather fr. G. miliuuik^ *«, will<y»v/ 
than seaLg, seilg, * stalking, hunting.' a m </ Iv^^^ V> 
aspirate. Cf, Glaickshellach, Robfck<X5Ji, I'r. <^. ^V/ ^ 
narrow valley.' 

AcHNASTANK (Ben Rinnes). 1474, Aucniw/^v*-!-*' c/ i ^ ' 
Auchynstink : 'field of the p^>^; ; '^ ^^^'"*.; *- - *" ^ 
a pool, dilch. 

Ach6skich <StroutiaL;. F.^i', v '. j: : 
sighing, groaumg : n. p... Oi<ir., ^i . ...-' 

leveL './. ia-^v 
AcKKBGiLL Wi'ji:, ^r,r' _ 
a/:r. O.L ««"'" u'>' '^,v -'- - 
couiitr}'. u:: •-.♦-' -s -^ 

if in^TuJ:; • i..*-- -«i 

Ai>u. i: ' '--*'- 

a-l.irii..- » 



8 PLACE-NAMES OF SOOTLAND. 

water ' ; cf, above, and W. c?trr, water, a stream. The 
second river's name is pron. Whltadder. Gf, R. Adder, 
Wilts ; R Adur, Cornwall ; and Cloined, * long slope,' in 
S. Arran. 

Addiewbll (W. Calder). Adie is dimin. of Adam ; but this 
may be G. (Jh)aide bhatl, * long village ' ; for absence of 
sign of possessive, ^. next and Motherwell. 

Advie (Ballendalloch). Prob. G. fhad, fhaide, *long.' Cf. 
Add. The -vie seems purely terminational. 

Affrig, L. and Glen (Inverness), Perh. G. abh bhricy * stream 
of the trout.' M'Bain suggests aih bhraichj *ford of 
the boar ' or * bear.' 

AiKENHATT (Finhavcn). Perh. G. aiJidiuinge h*aity pron. 
ahkuin hat, * prayer-place.' Finhaven church was 
often called * the kirk of Aikenhatt.' 

AiKET Hill (Urr), 1550, Aikhead. Sc. atk, O.E. ac, Icel. 
eik, * an oak' ; -head may only be a corruption of the 
common suffix -et, as in thicket, Blacket, and in 
Birket's Hill, near by. Some take -et as corruption of 
O.E. wudu, *a wood'; e.g., a. 800 we find the R. Coquet 
as Cocwuda. 

Ailsa Craig (Fr. of Clyde). G. aiUse, * a fairy ' ; but cf., too. 
Old G. at, aill, * a rock, rocky steep.' 

Air Point (Mainland, Orkney). N. eyri, * gravelly point ' or 
'spit.' 

AiRD Dhail (S. W. of Butt of Lewis). * Height ' or * cape of 
the meadow.' G. aird'd{h)aiL. Gf. * the Aird of Sleet' 

AiRDS Moss (Ayr). Prob. fr. G. ^aird, a height, hill,' as s 
often adds itself to Gaelic names, cf. Wbmyss. Might 
be fr. a man, Aird. 

AiRDRiB (also near Crail). As accent is on first syll., 
prob. G. dird airidh, *high hill-pasture,' the N. *saeter' 
or siunmer hiU-farm. In 1570 an *Airdrie,'* near 
Cromarty. 

AiRLiB (Forfar). Perh. G. aird ailbke, * high rock.' 

AiRTH (Larbert). 1128, Hereth; c. 1214, Harth; 1296, 
Erth. G. airidh, meaning here *a level green among 
hills.' 



PIACB-NAMES OF SCXTELA5D. > 

AiRTHRDE (Starling). Mare correctlv Aiihhe: jl I«l>\ 
Athran; 1317, Atliray, -eray: i4-:5l Adira : perh. u. 
(Uthrin, * a sharp point, a condiet.' 

AiTHSYOE (Cunningsbui^ ShetL i. IceL eiif. - ui istiiniiidw 
and vo-r, *a little liy or inlet.' 

Asis (Broadford). Generally Kyle Akin: '^rmitsi ^f X.r.^ 
Haeo,^ or Akon, of Norway, who ia aaid :o aave- ^ailert 
through here <m retumiag frcni ai;a icitAZ u L^urcs. 
1263 ; and see Kyle. 

Alcaig (Dingwall). Prob. IceL e''.-^. L. i*- '-=:*, • m e-k, — 
otV/, Norse G. for *bay,' as in Aa&Aiii. A^<^Air^ jc»-. 

Aldcluxe (Blair Athole). G. *"-- or u^.t-<'s,ii"., - j:Le-T. r 
the meadow.' On aJU see p. xlviL 

Aldeb, or AinJEB Bks (PertL^L.-. \ l-^'.-\ P — a... r 
now pron, Yallar. Doubtril : with ii-mi A...r-r, 7 

AULTBKA, &C 

Aldis (Buchan, also name of part of Wuer »f ?.*::... ^r^. 
G. all fan, * little stream.' There is i B^».w.:.r-, r. /-;'•-.. 
parish, near Tain. 

Aldxatalloch (L. Lomond ► and AiDr.'ALi^rH '^^rr**,- . ^ 
ailt-na-hhealaidi ( = Balu>:h . * Titer >f :,-,e :;s%>«4. 

ALDoi^Bns (L. Ness). Either =Aix eh. >r T-.tr. -.►^/-.i: -.- ' 
fr. pre-Celtic root, meaning * t trer/ :*nt 'I .<ft. 

Als, R. (Roxburgh), c. 1116, Alr.e : :::::-:;: -^ vr/..i^-^; 
with G. fHuinn, ailiye^ * eieeed.r.,il-r ::i;r, .«^"^ 7 
Allax and AxcRUM. Alniiioi;trw N .rt,v;r... ..^.., j« v^«>rv 
pron. Alemouth. 

Alxxakdria. Dates from c 17«iO. N a ir. O^r v- ^. A y^ 

Alfobd. c 1200, Afford; 1654, Ar.ri. L/r-cn V.i^ * 
tautology; G. o^/t {th mute > -»- E.-Z. or 0.r^/>'/- v,v, 
with same meaning. Ford here :'yrr-.r:T-7- '^/^'^r k. I>^^. 
Perh. G. aik bkuird, ' ford with tr^e p^..*.' 

Alikk, L. (N. Argyle). G. alu'^r,^ ^ t^iJiKKr^zy^ tx.r 'jr 

beautifuL' 
Allax, R. (Stirling), and Allex (Feam;. U'iT, .v.f<i'-f. 

alun; might be as above, but prob. G. atl^^a, 'a '^tKA:u 



10 PLACa-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

plain, as a rule wet and low-lying ' ; but, on Allan Water, 
Melrose, also called Elwand, see Elvan. C/. the W. 
and Com. Alun. 

Allanton (Ayrsh. and Berwicksh.). ^Allan's village.' The 
Berw. A. was so named by a Stewart of Allanton, 
Ayrshire. 

Allbrmuir (Pentland Hills). Old Alamore. Prob. G. dl 
mdr, *big rock.' 

Alloa, ^zc 1707 ; but 1409, A1 way. Doubtful Prob.= 
Alva and Alvie. 

Alloway (Ayr). Prob. G. alia mhaghy *wild field.' Cf. 
Cambus o' May. 

Allt Grad (Kiltearn). G. = * ugly bum.' 

Almanack Hill (Kirkcudbright). G. allt-manacJij 'monks' 
glen.' 

Almond, K. (Perth and Edinburgh). Edinburgh A., 1178, 
Amonth, in Caramonth ( = Cramond); also Awmon. Perth 
A., Ulst, An7i.f ann. 686, Aman; Cronic. Megiacum, Amon, 
Aven, Awyne ; 1461, Almond ; 1640, Amond ; prob. G. 
amhuinn, * river ' ; and so = Avon. For suffixing of d, cf, 
Drummond, fr. G. drornmi^ a ridge. The spelling 
* Almond ' is due to assimilation to a known Eng. word. 
Near Huddersfield is an Almondbury. i 

Alness (Invergordon). At the mouth of R. Rusdale, called 
in 1608 AfFron. G. ath ^n-innis, *ford of the island' 
(the Black Isle) ; influenced by Ness. 

Altass (Bonar Bridge). G. allUeas, * bum ' or * stream with 
the waterfall.' 

Altguish (Ullapool). G. allt-giusaich or giuthas, * river of 
the pine- wood.' 

Altnabrbac (Caithness). G. aUt-narhrie^ *bum with the 
trout,' G. hreac, Cf, Troutbeck. 

Altnaharra (Sutherland). G. aUt-na-charraigh, * stream 
with the pillar or rock,' or ? fr. mJiarbaidh, * of the 
slaughter.' 

Alton (Beith). G. alltariy dimin. of allt, * a little stream.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 11 

Altrivb Burn (Selkirk). Prob. G. alli-fenainUi, 'stream 
with the swimming-place.' Cf, Ardbntryvk. 

Altvbngan Burn (Aberfoyle). G. alli-mhengaifi or math- 
ghamfiuinriy * stream of the bear.' 

Altyrb (Elgin). 1492, Altre; 1573, Alter. G. alU-tlr, 
* river land ' ; and cf. Traquair. 

Alva (Alloa), c. 1180, Alueth; prob. G. ailbJieachy * rocky,' 
fr. ailbhey rock, flint. 

Alvah (Banff), a. 1300, Alueth ; as above. 

Alves (Moraysh.). Perh. as Alvah, with Eng. «. 

Alvib (Aviemore). c. 1350, Alveth, Alway ; c. 1400, Alvecht ; 
1603, Aluay;=ALVA. 

Alwhat Hill (E. Ayrsh.). G. ul cfiatt, *hill, rock of the 
wild cat.' Of, Macherwhat, * field of the cat,' not far 
off". 

Alyth (Forfar). Pron. Aylith. Prob. G. aileach or eUeach, 
*a mound, bank, stone-building.' 

Amisfibld (Diunfries and Haddington). Dumfries A., pron. 
Emsyfield; a. 1175, Hempisfield; 1298, Amesfelde; looks 
as if fr. Dan. liamp^ Icel. hamp-r, O.E. kenepj *hemp.' But 
the Hadd. name is prob. fr. the personal name Ames or 
Amy as ; and the Dmnf. name may have been modified in 
honour of an early lord, Amyas de Charteris. 

Ample Glen (Earn). G. gleann amailly * glen like the master- 
tree of a plough.' Cf. Ampleforth, Yorkshire. 

Amulreb (Perthsh.). G. ath-Maolrubha, *ford of St Maol- 
rubha,' the patron saint of the district. Cf, Maree, 
and see p. cvi. 

Ancrum (Roxburgh). Sic 1522 ; but c. 1116, Alnecrumba; 
a. 1300, Alnecrom ; 1275, Ankrom, * the crook or bend 
of the R. Alne or Ale ' ; fr. Old G. cmmbadJij Mod. G. 
cromadhf a bending, fr. crom, crooked. C/> Aber- 
CROMBiE and Alnwick. 

Andail, L. (Islay). Doubtful. Last syll. prob. O.N. dcUy * a 
dale.' 

Andrews, St (Fife, Elgin, Orkney). Fife St A., a. 1130, 
Sim. Durham, ann. 1074, Ecclesia Sancti AndresB ; 1 158, 



12 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

St Andrae; c. 1160, *apud Sanctumandream ' ; 1272, 
^Episcopatus Sancti Andree'; 1434, Sanctandrowis. 
It was prob. King Kenneth M*Alpine, c. 850, who first 
named St Regnlus' church here * St Andrew's.' Its old 
name was Kilrimont. The patron saint of Scotland 
also gives his name to the parish church of Lhanbryd, 
Elgin. N,B. Before 800 tlie Saint of Scotland was St 
Peter. 

Angus, or Forfar, a. 1150, Bk. Z>ee?-, Engus; a. 1200, 
Enegus; a. 1300, Anegus. Said to be fr. Anegus^ or 
Oengus (Com.), or Ungust, son of Fergus, and King of 
Picts, 729 A.D. The name means *imique choice'; G. 
aon glius, 

Annan, R. and Town. Sic 1300, but c. 1180, Benedict 
Peterb,, Anant; on coin a. 1249, * Thomas on An/ 
Possibly connected with W. nant, * a stream, a ravine.' 
See also next. 

Annandalb. c. 1124, Estrahannent; a. 1152, Stratanant; 
c. 1295, Anandresdale ; 1297, Vallis Anandi. Edra-, c. 
1 124, is W. ystrad = G. srath, * valley ' ; cf. Yestbr. The 
-dre in c. 1295 looks like dw or dohhar, Old G. for 
* water ' ; cf. Adder. The hannent or anant might have 
some connection with G. ceanann (cean-fionn), * white 
headed, bald.' But evidently there has been early con- 
fusion as to the real word. 

Annat (Inverness, Perth, Appin) and Annait (Dunvegan). 
G. anaif, * a parent church.' There is a well of Annat 
or tohar-na-h^ -annait at Strath, Skye, and Calligray, 
Harris. Cf, also Annothill, Airdrie; Balnahanait in 
Glen Lyon; and Kildalton. 

Annick Water (Irvine). Might be G. anfacli, anfaiche (f 
mute), 'overflowing,' influenced by O.E. wic, *bay.' 
Gf, VvQ^twick not far ofi*, and Alnwick. 

Anni^ (Callander). G. ath-na-fheidh, * f ord of the deer.' 
The th is mute, and the fh lost by aspiration. Cf. 

MONZIE. 

Anstruther. c. 1205, Anestrothir; 1231, Anstrother;. 
1362, -oythir. G. an srathair, *the cart-saddle'; but 
cf. p. xliv. In 1225 we find Kynstruther, *the 



A^T.Ait Ai^iL .41^ iii-A- _^* littr 3--: \-— s- 1 ^ ^z.. 









1. i*=L 



14 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Aray, K. (Inveraray). G. airidh, *hill pasture/ or CN. 
eyrif 'gravelly bank.' Gf. Ayr. 

Arbirlot (Forfar), c. 1210, Abereloth; 1250, Aberelloch, 
*ford on R. Elliot.' See aber, p. xxxii. 

Arboll (Feam). Sic 1507 ; but 1463, Arkboll. G. earbil, 
* point or extremity of land ' (here the Tarbat peninsula). 
Gf. Urbal, common in N. Ireland, and Damarbil, Kirk- 
cudbright; boll, of course, has been influenced by the 
common N. ending -bol, fr. bolstaffr (see p. Ixxii). 

Arbroath. 1178, Aberbrothoc; a. 1300, Abbirbroth; c. 
1470, Arbroithe; 1546, Abirbrothoke ; *at the mouth 
of the Brothock,' i.e., * filthy, muddy ' river ; G. brothach, 
fr. Old G. brothy a ditch. Gf. Curbrottack, Pitlurg. 
See abeVy p. xxxii. 

Arbuthnott (Fordoun). Sic 1482; but 1202, Abirbuthe- 
not(h); 1206, Aberbothenoth ; 1 connected with G. 
buthainnichy to thump, beat ; and see abeVy p. xxxii. 

Archieston (Moray). Founded 1760. Archie is short for 
Archibald. 

Ard, L. (Aberfoyle). G. dirdy drdy * a height or headland.' 

Ardalanish (S.W. Mull). G. aird-ghecUy * white cape,' + 
Norse ness ; thus tautological ; for a G. name ending 
with nishy cf. Machrahanish. 

Ardallie (Aberdeen). G. dird-aUley * height' or *head of 
the cliff.' 

Ardargie (Perth). G. dird ; and see Aberargie. 

Ardbbg (Rothesay). G. dird-beagy * little height ' or * cape.' 

Ardohalzie (Breadalbane). G. dird'Choilley * height of the 
wood.' G. coilley Ir. caill. 

Ardchattan (Argyle). 1296, Ercattan, * height of Cattan' 
or GhMtaUy an abbot, and friend of Colmnba. Ardchat- 
tan's other name was Balmhaodan or *St Modan's 
village.' 

Ardchullbrib (L. Lubnaig). G. dird-a-cJioileire, 'height 
of the quarry.' 

Ardclach (Nairn). G. dird-dachachy * rocky height.' 

Ardebr (Ayr). G. dird-iaVy *west cape' or * height.' 



f —1 ^^r. 






i 



16 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Ardlui (Lu Lomond). Prob. G. drd-laoigh, * height of the 
calves ' ; or fr. luibh or luidhy * a plant, herb.' Mr J. 
Macdonald derives Ardluie, Cabrach, fr. the former. 

Ardmaddy (L. Etive). * Height of the dog or wolf; G. 
madadh, 

Ardmarnock (Tighnabruaich). 1403, -memak. * Height of 
my little Eman ' ; see Kilmarnock. 

Ardmillan House (Girvan). 'Height of the mill'; G. 
muileann. 

Ardmore Pt. (Islay ; also in N.W. Mull, &c.). G. dird mdr, 

* big cape ' or * height.' 

Ardnacross Bay (Campbeltown). * Height ' or * cape of the 
cross ' ; G. crois, 

Ardnadam (Kilmmi). * Adam^s height.' 

Ardnahuath (Bute). Pron. amah6e. 1440, Ardnahow. 

* Height to the North ' ; G. thuath^ pron. hua. 

Ardnamurchan (N.W. Argyle). a. 700, Adamnan^ Ardna- 
muirchol, Artdaib Muirchol; 1292, Ardenmurich ; 
1309, Ardnamurchin. Name evidently changed; 
now prob. G. dird-normdir-chinn (gen. of ceann), * height 
over the great headland,' rather than *of the huge 
seas ' (chiian) ; but Adamnan's forms look like drd-muir- 
chctol, *high seas' strait.' 

Ardoch (Perth, N. Ayrsh., and Kirkcudbright). G. drdochy 
aspirated form of fdrdach^ * a house, a lodging.' 

Ardow (Mull). G. drd duhhy * dark height.' 

Ardpatrick (Knapdale). * Height of St Patrick'; in G. 
Padruig. 

ArdrIshaio. * Height of the briers ' ; G. driseag, dimin, of 
driSf a thorn. 

Ardross (Invergordon). *High land' or *moor.' The 
whole mountainous centre of Ross used to be called 
Ardross ; G. dird-rois. Of, Ardersibr. 

Ardrossan. /Sic 1375. * Height of the little cape'; G. 
rosan, 

Ardtbligan (Ardrishaig). Tighemac, Delgon; Ulst. Ann,, 
Telocho. G. drd dealgan, * height covered with thorns.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Ardtornish (Sound of Miill). 139«J. Anirhi.nimii 1^1. 
-tomys. G. nird-t(h)urr, "cape of rhe iiiLL — 2^»r5.e w^"^. 

* nose or cape/ CJr. Abdalaxish. 

Ardti5n (Mull). Pron. in G. aird-hinna, ' \\tti'jjxz »r ^ine •! 
the waves ' ; G. tonn : or ' like a run >r ':itaii: : TreL 'nrrmt^ 
Cf. An Tunna, Glen Sannox. 

Ardvasar (Omsay, Inverness). <t. 'nM-^'hj'>ar nr "'.<ri'h'jf, 

* fatal headland.' 

Ardverikie (L. Laggan). <]r. >fH irmeit'^tpj''lt^ *'.ifc!,pr fur 
rearing the standard,' G. mf^irje. 

Ardwell (Kirkmaiden). Prob. Smmrer-i .lei^nn 'r, ;«//, 
glimllf foreigner, Lowlamier. CV^m^riLI ^ iiyx ' .\(,r:i 
or * peninsula of the forei^^ners ' or ' "^-tl.-^n." '. ^. 'V^L- 
LACETOWx; and the local proverh. 'Tae S^-rtcmiiifiHa 
folk were aye Fenians ' : hut ifr J. ^Gu:ri( ,na.a i -tfi -^-t 'innz 
Ardwell, Strathbogie, is G. nH-^/naiL ' s,t:::j i-V'^ilin^r: 

Argyle. Pidt, C%ro7i., Arregaithel : Ol'J Ir, J/>^.. 51rr^xi/:^Ie : 
in Z. chrons.y Ergadia : 1147. Errriiieil : L2'>'-L Arxul : 
c. 1425, Wtjntoun^ Argyle- ' Erii*trti:i: of 'tji • j-<i*tL*. i..-^ 
Scots fr. Ireland. Skene says Sc. roriii t» EiVi'^':f7/A'ih.fitu\ 
fr. earr, limit, boundary: in Ir. Atrftr-^'J^ittr'h.u proc 
arrer gale). An adj. ' Ai-gatheliiine ' > z-'jrirA 2tsi Ia.ne ai 
1 650 ; and cf. Anniegathel^ a farm in Gl-rn •^li-e^.h. 
Earlier it was called, in the Alb«nic Iri^n, Oirir A-z^an, 
or 'coast lands of Alban,' fr. oirthir, •erjsv-t, b«jrder/ 
Alhainn is now the regular G. name for Scot bind, but 
was till c. 1100 the name of Pictavia or kintrdom of 
Scone. Cf. * Duke of Albany.' 

Arisaig (W. Inverness). 1250, Arasech; 1309, Aryssayk ; 

1506, Arrisak. Prob. N. = Arcs + aiA*, i.e. viky a bi\y, 

or G. aros, house, mansion, + aik. 
Arkaig, L. (Fort William), c. 1310, Logharkech ; 1516, 

Locharcag. Dimin. of G. arc^ which means 'a dwarf, 

a hero, a bee, or a wasp !' With c. 1310, logh, cf. Ir, 

lofigh. 
Arklet, L. (L. Katrine). Skene thinks Loirgeolat (/.e«., 

L. Irgeclat), scene of battle mentioned by Ti'i/hfrfnn', 

ann. 711, is L. Arklet. G. ar rhit, ' battle-licld i»f llu« 

snow-flakes.' 



18 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Arlart (Kinross). Old chart. Magh-erderrly ; prob. G. 
dird-OrlcLraiche^ * height of the site, nun, or farm.' 

Armadale (Bathgate, Skye, and Fair). Prob. Icel. ami-r, 
O.E. arm^ arm, which can mean not only ' arm of the sea,' 
but also *arm of the land,' t.e., spur or branch, as of a 
dale or valley, Icel. and Sw. dal. Of, Armathwaite, 
Cimiberld. 

Arnagour (Coll). * Height of the goat ' ; G. dird-na-gobhair. 
Cf, Ardgour ; and for Am-, cf. Aimtully, Murthly. 

Arnahean (Argylesh., several). G. airidh or aird na 
nigJieain, * shieling ' or * height of the maiden.' 

Arnburn (Luss). *Bum with the ams,' Sc. name fcfr 

* alder-trees.' Cf, Ams, Cumbernauld. 

Arncroach (Elie). * Height of the stack-like hill ' ; G. cruach. 
Cf. Cruachan, and Croach, in Galloway. 

Arngask (Kinross), c. 1147, Arringrosk; 1250, Ardgrosc; 
1389, Aryngosyk. G. dird^na-croisg, * height of the 
pass' or * crossing.' Cf. Ardingrask or -grosk, near 
Inverness ; also Fingask, Gask. 

Arnhall (S. Kincardine). Pron. Amha. Prob. *hall, 
manor among the am-trees.' This certainly was the 
origin of the recent Arnhall, Huntly. 

Arnisdale (Lochalsh). Prob. after some viking named 
Ami. 

Arnisort (Skye) and Arniston (Gorebridge). As above; 
-ort or -art or -worth are all corruptions of N. fjord, a 
firth, sea-loch. Cf. Snizort, <fec. But L. Amish, 
Kaasay, is * eagle's ness ' ; N. om, an eagle. 

Arnothill (Falkirk). 1541, *Amothil,' in Liddesdale. 

* Earth-nut hill'; 1551, emut, also called the pig-nut. 
But Knockhamot, Leswalt, is fr. G. omacht, * barley.' 

Arnprior (Kippen). 'Height of the prior,' referring to 
Inchmahome on L. of Monteith. To the W. is the 
curious name Amgibon, fr. G. gibean, * a hunch on the 
back.' 

Arnsheen (Ayr). * Height of the foxgloves ' ; G. sion (pron. 
sheen). Cf. Auchnashbbn. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 19 

Abos (Mull). Prob. = Dan. Aarhtts, corruption of N. 
dr 088, * river's mouth/ <£, gen. aar, a river, but spelt 
Aros, 1449, which means in G. a house, mansion. 

Arpafei^lie (Cromarty). M^'Bain says, fr. G. ard-na- 
fh€U)linn, * height of the sea-gulls,' a very singular 
corruption. 

Arran (Island, also loch in Kirkcudbright). 1154, Four 
Masters^ Arran; c. 1294, Aran; 1326, Arram. Mod. G. 
Arainn^ which some think * lofty isle.' In W. aran is *a 
peaked hill, which would give a most appropriate 
meaning. The ending -inn is really an old locative, 

4 'at Ara.' Dr Cameron of Brodick, a high authority, 
said prob. fr. G. ara^ gen. aran^ *a kidney,' which 
exactly gives Arran's shape. The proper spelling of 
the Irish group is *Arann Isles.' 

Arrochar (L. Long). Sic c. 1350, also Arachor, Arathor, 
which is G. and Ir. corruption of L. aratrum, a plough, 
*a camicate,' used as a land-measure = 104 or 160 
acres. We also find c. 1248, Letharathor, -archore, i.e., 
a half camicate. See Cartul. Levenax^ passim. 

Artafallie (Munlochy, Inverness). 1526, Ardirfalie; c. 
1590, Arthirfairthlie ; 1599, Ardafailie; prob. 
-Arpafeelie. The -ir- and -tJiir of the old forms 
is due to some thought of G. t(h)ir, * land.' 

Artfield Fell (Wigtown). Ponfs mapj Artfell; prob. G. 
dirdy a height, to which is tautologically added Icel. 
fdlf a hill; DsLn.fjeld, a mountain. Thus Artfield Fell 
is a triple repetition of a word for * hill ' ! 

Arthurlee (Barrhead). 1439, -lie, * Arthur's meadow,' O.E. 
ledhj pasture, Dan. dial, lei, fallow. 

Arthur's Oon (formerly at Carron and in Tweeddale). 
1293, Fumum Arthuri; 1727, A.'s Oon; lit. * Arthur's 
Oven' (O.E. of en, Icel. ofn), popularly thought to be 
mounds or cairns in memory of King Arthur's battles. 
His battle of Bassas was prob. fought at Dunipace, near 
Carron; Arthur's O'on may be the *Stan hous,' see 
Stenhousbmuir. The mound is perh. referred to by the 
Creographer of Ravenna (7th century) as Medio Nemeton, 
nemed being Ir. for * sanctuary.' Cf. Bessie Yon. 



20 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Arthur's Seat (Edinburgh), 1508, Kennedy Flytimj 
Arthurissete; and Ben Arthur (Arrochar). No real 
reason to doubt named fr. the famous King Arthur of 
6th century. Skene thinks four of his battles were 
fought near L. Lomond. At Arthuret, N. of Carlisle, 
the battle of Ardderyd was fought, 573. 

Artnby Glen (S. Perthsh.). In G. always pron. artair = 
Arthur (see above). Of. Tir Artair, Killin. 

AscAiG, L. (Sutherland), Asoog (Bute), and Port Askaiq 
(Islay). Bute A., 1503, Ascok; * ash-tree bay'; Icel. 
ask-r^ O.E. cesce, an ash, + aig (for N. vik)^ a bay. 
Or, as likely, fr. N. ask-r, *a small boat.' 

AsHANESS, or EsHA Ness (Shetland). * Ash-cape' might 
either be fr. O.N. a^kcL, Dan. aske^ ashes, or possibly 
Icel. es/o, a kind of clay ; wess, see p. Ixxi. 

AsHDALE (S. Arran), Ashkirk (Roxb.), Ashtox (Greenock). 
1253, Haschirche; 1505, Askirk. All Eng. and fr. 
O.E. (Esce^ the ash-tree. 

Ashibstbbl (Melrose). Prob. * place of the ash-trees,' fr. 
O.E. stecdly 8t(el, a place, then the 'stall' of a stable; 
and c/. Steele. 

AsLOOx (Alford). 1654, Asloun. Prob. G. eas leamhan 
(pron. louan), * ravine of the elms.' Eas usually means 
* waterfall,' but there is none here ; cf, Aswanley (G. eas 
hhan deibh), Glass, and Craigslouan, * the elm rock,' 
New Luce. The latter perh. fr. G. deamhuinn, * smooth.' 

Ass OF the Gill (ravine on R. Cree, Kirkcudbright). G. eas, 
*a waterfall,' and Icel. and N. gil, *a ravine.' Curious 
name, yet so simply explained ! 

AssYNT (Sutherland). 1343, Asseynkt, Assynkte ; 1455, 
Assend ; 1502, Assent; 1584, -schin. A difficult word. 
Perh. N. asyrd, * visible, seen fr. afar,' referring to the 
view of its many peaks fr. the Minch. In Icel. and N. 
place-names ass often means a rocky ridge, as in Asdale, 
in the same county ; but it is inadmissible here, as the a 
in Assynt is short. In 1632 we read of *the chapel of 
Assind in Brakadaill,' in Skye. 

Athelstaneford (Haddington). Local pron. Elshinfurd. 
c. 1200, Alstanesford ; 1250, Elstan-; 1461, Athilstan- 



PLACE-KAMES OT SCOTT-A^O.. -2^ 

ford. Said to l»e the piaet \riieP: Aih/^jfran- sieireT^. o:* 
Ead>»ert of Nortlmmbriii. wa- a^ieat^rc rr ALcrnt. sznm 
of the PictB, c. 750. lu tht LatiL I'nL 1117. . 'rnromirtteu. 
f-7., Flcdoard (rf Itheimti. Kini: Atii-istaL o: tiiar niu^ & 
caiiiiiion}T called 'lies Aistamtt/ 
Athole. o. 1150, Bh Ih^r, AtiiotLi : Tfih^nui-. am. T:'f;. 
Athfcfithle ; c. 1140, JSun^ Atioiili- : a. l-'^'L-^cirii^rfxitf. : 
c 13i*0, Atbolie. (t. cdlt-Fuotic. or i^'"7/£> 'nu: 11. Z'^^. 
Cltrmu called Fhtdatcl }. *ff3rd or F^kJij^ on* a* tii* i^t^l 
sons of the fauiou*; leireudarr CTuniiit*;- Tn* nani* ij- 
more perfect in the pluce-imme li(j.oi(}itt*i^. iomiL a. I '^^K- 
in Rff'jigtr. AlpeirdniL. Ancrther ^erriioL fc' tnat I. vrar 
wife of an early "Welnh prince : certain *t Fodia v,ar aL 
old poetic name for Ireland, fjf. LaT'fj . 

Attachoikrik (IbLit). G. aha rhanrvtun. hMu^e <£ tut 

rowau-tree,' caorunn, 
Attadale (Ho8fc). 1584, AttadlH. <:». iha'^a, *j'jiii:.'/ di^ 

appearintr throuirh a«j)iration, -^Icei. and X. ad'., 'a 

dale ' : with -fUlU a. delL 

Attow Bex (Rosis). As ahore : frrial a in fiio/la tiukinjr thfr 
couunon Bound of avr, (Ji. \xcs±i\, 

ArcHKLCHAXZiE (CTief ). ProTi. "hei^rLt of KennetK' fr. W. 
or Brythonic uf:hd^ high, + a>jjirat/t'!d fonii of K^mirif^li^ 
in O.lr. Vardoe. Cf. <L"Hr»xzrE and < ^rmi^s. There i^ 
a Tibberehindy, Aberdeeni^h. ; 15if'% Tolterchenze. 

AucHEX Castle (Moffat). Prob. pL of <;. a^lu "'a Hink/or of 
CLchwIh, *a field,' pi. achanna. 

AuCHSXAiRN (Glasgow). Prob. = next, r. l<ist V»y aspiration. 

AucHENCAiRX (Kirkcudbright). 1305, AghenoAnio. G. 
acliwlh-na-caini^ nom. cam^ Afield of the ciirn ' or 

* barrow.' 

ArcHEXCLOiCH (Kilmarnock) and Auchkxcloy (Stoneykirk). 

* Field of the atone'; G. cloiche, nom. dach or dorh. 

Auchbxcrow or -craw (Ayton). c. 1 230, Hauchinci^ew ; 
also AucHEXCRUiVE (Dumbarton); 1208, Hackoucmw, 

* field of the sheep pen ' or fold or hut ; G. rnt, lit. a 
circle. Note how Anglian influence has identified the 
G. achadh with the Eng. or Lowl. 8c. hauifit ; -creir 



22 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

might quite prob. be G. craobh, * field of the trees.' Cf. 
BuNCHREW. In a charter of Edw. III., however, the 
former name is Aldencrewe ; i.e., G. alld-an-craohh, fr. 
alld or <dlt^ a stream, a glen. 

AucHBNDiNNY (Penicuik) and Auchindinny (Gartly). Prob. 

* field of refuge,' G. dion ; though often said to be * field 
of fire,' G. teine, Cf. Ardentinny. 

AucHBNGANB (Falkirk). 1458 -ingavenis; c. 1610, Achingein. 
G. dchadh an gamhna (sing, gamhainn), * field of the 
yearling cattle.' The -is in 1458 is the common Eng. 
plural. 

AucHBNGRAY (near Carstairs and Kirkcudbright). Perh. 

* field of the level moor or high flat ' ; G. greaich (pron. 
graigh), or, *of the horse,' G. greadh. Of. Irongray 
and Drumgray, Airdrie. 

AucHBNHBATH (Lanark). Second syllable can hardly be O.E. 
haeth, Icel. heithi, * a heath.' Perh. G. mheith, * soft.' 

AucHBNMALG Bay (Wigtown). G. mealg, *the milt of a fish,' 
so the name might refer to the manuring of the field. 

AucHiNBLAB (Kincardine). 1506, -inblay. Prob. * field of 
the flowers or blooms,' G. hlath ; G. blaith, is * smooth, 
level.' Auchiw- and Aucheyi- constantly interchange; 
both, of course, represent the article na or an, 

AucHiNCREOCH (Kinross). * March ' or * boundary field ' ; G. 
crtoch. Cf, Cribch. 

AucHiNCRUVE (Ayr and Kirkcudbright). * Field of the trees,' 
G. craobh, or *of the shoulder or haunch,' G. crubha, 
Cf, Dalcruive, Perthshire. 

Auchindachy (Keith). ? * Field of the meeting ' ; G. 
daily gen. ddlach, also a fastness. Dallachy, near 
Aberdour, is called Dachy. Or fr. G. dabha^, a vat, 
a tub. 

AucHiNDOiR (Aberdeen). Prob. * field of the oakwood,' G. 
doire ; or * of the chase or diligent search ' ; G. toir, 

AucHiNGiLL (Caithness). Pron. Oukingill. Icel. hauka-gil, 

* hawk's gill,' lit. gap; cf, a * fish-gill.' The name is 
also found in Iceland. *Giir is either a ravine or a 
little bay. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 23 

AucHiNLECK (Ayrshire, Newton Stewart, &c.). ' Field of the 
stone'; G. lec^ properly a tombstone or flat stone. 
Same name as Affleck, Lesmahagow. In 1306 the 
surname is foimd as Aghelek, also the name of an old 
estate in Kyle. 

AucHiNLEYS (Ayr and Perth). * Field of tln^ glinimeiing 
light ' or torch ; G. lem. 

AucHiNLOCHAN (Tighnabruaich). * Field with the little 
loch/ 

AucHiNTORLiB (Dumbarton). * Field of Sorlie ' or Somerled, 
in G. fSomhairle ; the t has eclipsed the s. 

AucHiNVALLEY (Kilsyth). G. aehadh-an-hhaUf', * field with 
the farm-town,' or * township-field.' 

AucHLECKS (Blair-Athole). * Field of the flat atone' or 
tomb ; G. lee, with Eng. pi. 8. 

AucHLEVEN (Aberdeen). * Field with the elms ' ; U* leam'- 
han, 

AucHMACOY (EUon). Prob. G. achadh mac Aotdh^ 'field of 
Mackay.' 

AucHMEDDEN (Aberdeen). Prob. * middle titl<l/ fr. G. 
miadJion, the middle. Cf. * Middlefield ' and PiXiiEDDEN. 

AucHMiTHiE (Arbroath). 1434, Achmuthy. I'rob. G. 
achadh miUhaidh, * field of the herd.' 

AucHMTJLL Castle (Forfar). *Bare field'; G, maol^ bald, 

bare. 
AucHNACRAiG (Mull). * Field with or under the crag.* 

AucHNAQATT (Aberdeen). Prob. * field of tht^ wi]d*<3at/ Q, 
cat, as in Camagat, Ulster; or *of the witliew/ U. ijad. 

AucHNASHEEN (Ross). 1548, -schene. * Field uf the fox- 
gloves'; G. sion (pron. sheen); or, as likely, *of the 
drizzle,' G. sine. There is an Auchenhbeenp near 
Dalbeattie. 

AucHTARSiN (L. Rannoch). G. achadh tan^idnn^ * oblique 
field.' Cf, Ben Tarsuinn, S. Arran, and Penny teruia, 
Kilmalcolm. 

AucHTERARDER. 1295, Eutrearde, Outreart ; 1330, Uu£;h- 
tirardor; 1597, Ochterardour. G. uufhdar'aiTd-iiu 




24 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

* upper highland'; lit. G. uachdar, Pictish uactah\ W. 
uchdar (fr. uch above), is the top, summit, and aird is 
a height, peak, or cape. But Rhys thinks in -arder 
may be a trace of Ammianus' (c. 360) * Vertur-iones,' 
and Sim. Durham's (c. 1 130) * Wertermorum.' Certainly 
A. is in the old land of Fortrenn, which name is = 
Vertur-iones. 

AucHTBRDBRRAN (Kirkcaldy). G. iiachdar-doirean, *high 
land with the thickets or groves.' 

AucHTBRGAVBN (Perth). G. uaehdar-gamhainn, *high land 
of the yearling cattle.' Gf. Auchbngane. 

AucHTBRHOUSB (Forfar). 1245, Hwuchtyruus; a. 1300, 
Hutyrhuse; 1461, Uchtirhouse; -Iwvse (here pron. 
hoos) may be a corruption, perh. fr. G. fuatlms^ a 
spectre or apparition. 

AucHTBRLBSS (Aberdeen), a. 1300, Octhrelyss; c. 1280, 
Uchterless; 1364, Othyrles. Prob. G. tiacMar-lioSf 

* high land with the enclosure or garden on it.' 

AucHTBRMUCHTY (Fife). 1250, Hucdirdmukedi ; c. 1290, 
Hichermakedi ; 1293, Utermokerdy; 1294, Utre- 
mukerty. * Field of the swine-pen.' The G. uachter 
or itachdar refers to the slight rising in the centre of 
the village ; and * -mukerdy ' is muc-garadh * pig- 
enclosure' (c/. Balmuchy). Forms 1293-94 give the 

* Sassenach's' pron. of auchfer- to this day. 

AucHTBRNBBD (StrathpcfFcr). 1447, Wethirnyde; 1619, 
Ochterneid. * High field with the nests ' ; G. neade, L. 
nidtis. With form 1447 cf. Bally water, * upper town,' 
Wexford. 

AucHTBRSTRUTHBR (Largo). c. 1150, Ochterstruther. But 
c. 1400, we find a curious form, Auchterutherstruther. 

* High field like a cart-saddle ' ; G. srathair. 

AuoHTBRTOOL (Kirkcaldy). 1178, Ochtertule; a. 1200, 
Octretul; c. 1240, Huctartule; 1289, HouthyrtuUech. 

* Field upon the hill ' ; G. tulach. 

AucHTOSE (Lesmahagow). G. achadh tuas, 'field above, 
upper field.' 



PLACE-NAMIS OF SCOTXASD. .25 

AucuTKiKVANE (Kirkmabrcck). G. ufich'^arafh hkcaiy ^ white 

upland.' 
AucHTYFARDLE (LesBoahagow). Looks like G. ot^JuvIh ttti*jke 

fdrdatl, * field of the house of delay or detention.' 

Augustus, Fort. So called in 1716, after William Augustus, 
Duke of Cumberland. 

AuLDBAR (Forfar). 1250, Aldbar. Prob. G. a//f- or cdlJ^ 
barrOy * glen by the height ' 

AuLDRARN (Nairn), c. 1340, Aldyme. G. allt Eireann, see 
£1arn. As it stands, looks like G. ant-rJteamOy 'glen 
with the alders.' In Registr, St Arylrevr*^ re ann. 954, 
we find UhuTi, which might be allt-chuimj 'tjlen of 
the cairn ';G.car». 

AuLDGiRTH (Diunfries). ' Old garden," N. 'jartk^ garden. Cf. 
next and Applegabth; in 1578, Aplegirth. 

AuLDHAME (N. Berwick). 1094, Aldeham. O.E. aid /earn, 

* old house.' 

AuLiSTON Pt. (Sound of Mull). Doubtful : the -ton \s prolj. 

* hill or castle ' G. dun ; cf. Eddbbtox. 

AuLTBKA (Poolewe). G. cdlt-beath (pron. bay), *glen with 

the birches.' 
AuLTMORE (Banflf). * Big glen ' ; G. //jor, big. 

AtJLTNAPADDOCK (Glass). * Glcu ' Or ' bum of the spectres or 
clowns ' ; G. bodach, influenced by Eng. paddock, a toad. 

AvEN Water (Kincardine), R. (Lanark), L. and Ben (Banff). 
See Avon. 

AviCH (Lorn) and Avoch (Cromarty). Lorn A., c. 1322, 
Louchaby. Crom. A., c. 1333, Auauch ; 1481, Avauch ; 
1493, Alvach; 1580, Awach, now pron. Auch. Perh. 
G. amhach, *neck.' But form 1493 is = Alva. 

AviEHORE (Inverness). G. abh iiwr, * big river,' i.e., the Spey. 
Gaels now call it Agidh mlvor, whatever that may mean. 
Cf, W. ag, a cleft or opening. Blargie, Badenoch, 
was spelt in 1603 Blairovey, the same change. 

Avon, R. (Linlithgow and Banff) and L. (Ben Macdhui). 
The Loch is pron. A'an ; the R. is prob. the Haefe in 
O.E. Chron., ann. 710. Strathaven in Sim. Durluim 



26 PLACS-NAMSS OF SCOTLAND. 

(a. 1130), re ann. 756, is Oyania. 6. abhuinn (pron. 
aoun), water, river; W. a/on (for Antona^ now Avon, trib. 
of K. Severn, in Tacitus, Ann.^ xii. 31, should be read 
Aufona), Same root is seen in Guadi-aTki in Spain, in 
Dan-u6e, and in Punj-at*6 ('five rivers') ; and prob. in 
Aa, name of several European rivers. Evan in Tweed- 
dale is the same word ; see also Avbn. Five Avons in 
S. Britain. 

AwB, L. and R. Former pron. locally ow; G. ou] latter, 
ah; G. atha. a. 700, Adamnany Aba ; 1461, Lochqwaw ; 
1682, Owe. Former prob. Old G. abh, W. aw, ' water ' ; 
cf, Eu, Normandy; c. 1110, Owe. Latter prob. same 
root as G. ath, ' a ford, a shallow part of a river.' 

Ayr (town and county take name fr. river), a, 1177, Ar ; 
1197, Are; c. 1230, Air; c. UOO, Aare; prob. O.N. 
eyri, * tongue of land, gravelly bank.' 

Ayton (Berwick, and near Abemethy, Perth). Berw. A., 1 c. 
970, Athan; 1098, Eitun; 1250, Aytun. Perh. G. 
aihan, * the little ford.' The form Eitun shows it was 
then thought = * town on the Eye.' There are also 
Aytons in Yorks. Cj\ Ythan. 

B 

Back (Lewis, bum S. of Hawick). N. hacy * a bank ' ; but 
same root as O.E. 6cbc, O.N. hak, back, 0. Icel. hcikkiy 
a ridge, Dan. hakke, Sw. Ixtcke, a hill, hillock. Cf, 
Backton and Baokworth in England. 

Backies (Golspie). As above, with diminutive and Eng. 
pi. 8, Cf *The Lochies,' &c. 

Baddinsgill (Peebles). ^ Baldwin^ s gill' (cf. baldric and 
baudric). * Baldewinus the Fleming ' occurs in a local 
deed c. 1150 ; Icel. gil is a moimtain recess, dale. 

Badenoch (Inverness). Local pron. bdh-janach. 1229, 
-nach; 1290, -naghe; c, 1300, Badenau, Baunagd; 
1522, Badzenoch. Prob. G. badanach, * bushy, 
abounding in groves.' Only 1522 and the modem 
pron. suggest M*Bain's derivation, G. bdidJieancLch, 
* marshy land,' fr. badh * to drown ' ; cf. Lochaber, 
Adanman's Stagnum Aporiciun. 



^ -^ » - 



PLACE-NAMES OF -/.gt::.^.: 

BADKJfscoTH (Aberdeen). L>f»iCA \^'. 

'creek, harbour oi the Lomt.. .r .rr- — 

here? Ferh, ir. hwian Mtjor ft fu ::.:,-. : ^-^-r 
a boat/ 

Bad - na - Carbad (Aiasynt j. • - -^ - • - ^ ^.-f. 

where the mourners /-rr-fi r r---"..^ 

UlSKBNTUIE. 

Badtchark (Leochel). <;. y///-^-^r./. '.-'-- .1 - 
among the oaks, (1. •o;/'/-. 

BAiLLiEarroN (Lanark). 

Baxnsford (Falkirk). 17'? 7 :r.t : " .. 

Bainsford.' Here -ir .:r^_*. - - 

the Scottish TeriiTjUrL r-.-.u- 1.! -.• 

Mungal Boir, ,iiia ^'Hi% ^.,^ .. \*' u:::.- 

1298. The ^tr.rv ..• ,..:-:: . .- .u^r..., -. • ... - 

clers Matt. «*f 'A'-^TTi.ir.-'-f^ r^t - i.t- .r 1 

*The Pt^t Burr, raj- :.. -.-i \.'- ,^ - -.: *. -^ 

it may have ztm -ai***? r./;.. .* ---:. 

Baixsholb ^Iniw.'L,. /?'.i^ fT...ir .w.-. .:/'.. 

Balaclava 'J« If ii^-t'.t^ ..J 1 ' r^.^... w*^-.. - - .^zf . 

a villaiitf. :''/ .rjif'i . ^.> •♦ -^t.- ...-r .*.- %^^. - 

Chanre : latt*rr- t*: .i^^^-r ,-« >.. 

Balaixi K:ur>*j... -t. yo^ ^o/*' ^...-r ... *- /. ».-< 

farm .'^'. ^-^ wt#r r * .^ ^.*. .-', ..*-- » 

common n A^^ jos^t. ij.: ;'.« i... ;'.- •- - >- 

not in ^\rr:-f. <»v>y j« . " / /'# ■-<- • :"*--• 

Balaoieth ^. .: _-i*-r-:r-'a .L>:-- •^ . ./... — /- -.-y-^--". 
B^iAiLA-'f "*:#.rm.¥t-' , >-; r ^: 



Bauoaib i K^>s^^L- 1. • VilU^i^f of tii^ plain ' ; t«. >- • • 



28 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Balcatthlt (Denino, Fife). Prob. G. baQe-<:nithlidi, 'farm 
or village of the seeds, chaC Cf. Pitkkathly. 

Balcanqxtel (Strathmiglo). 1294, BalmaccancoUe ; 1490, 
Balcancole. G. hail-narceann-coiU{e), 'hamlet at the head 
of the wood.' The mod. gen. of eeann would here be 
chinn, 

Balcarbbs (Colinsburgh). ' Tillage of the contest * ; G. 
carraid or carrais. 

Balcart Pt. (Kirkcudbright). Perh. * village of the stand- 
ing-stones ' ; G. caithre (pron. carey). 

Balcaskie (Anstruther). 1296, Balcaski. ?' Village of the 

stopping or checking ' ; G. casgaidh, or ' of the warrior,' I 

G. gaisgick. I 

Baloomie (Crail). 1297, Balcohnj. Prob. 'village of St | 

Golnuifi^ perh, he of Northumbria, 7th century; just | 

as 

Balooxt (Kilteam), 1333, Balkenny, is fr. Cainnech or 
Kenneth, perh, he who was friend of Columba, But 
in G. it now is Balcomhnuidh, which just means ' the I 

residence.' I 

Baldernock (Milngavie). c. 1200, Buthimok; 1238, i 

Buthemokis; 1745, Bademock. Froh. G. both or bail, \ 

eamag, * house, farm, or hamlet, with the sloes.' 

Baldovie (Broughty Ferry). Perh. G. bail doimh, 'poor 

hamlet.' 
Baldragox (Broughty Ferry). 'Village of the dragon,' a 

word adopted in Gaelic. 
Balelie (Denino), 'Other farm'; G. etfe, as contrasted 

with Balcaithly. 
Balerno (Midcalder). 1289, -nauch. Prob. 'village at the 

end of the field ' ; G. earr-an-achaidh. Cf. Farnock. 

Balfour (Markinch, Edzell, and Kirkwall). Mark. B., 
1568, Balfouris. Prima fa^ie, 'cold village'; G. fitar. 
But we also have Delfour (1569, Dallefour), Kincraig, 
which, if f r. fiuir, would become by aspiration Daluar. 
So Wh. Stokes thinks -four must be Pictish, cognate 
with W. paur, Armor, peur, 'pasture-land.' Of, 
Forfar and Trinafour, The vulgar pron, Balfour is 
thus the correct one. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 2d 

Balfron (Stirling), a. 1300, Bafrone; (? 15«>:X B»ithran^^ 
cf. Baldbrnock). G. bail-bhrcm, 'hoiwe of mo^imiTi^/ 

Balfunning (Drymen). a. 1300, BuchmoTijn, P-erh. 
* village of the heathy expan.ses ' ; G. rnKm^t/^fhean^ or ' of 
the hills,' G. monachan. On the B'ich-, «, 13'», ^,e^ 
Baldbrnock; and for the -ing, ^'. AriinniT.^ (y/4 
dunain), Strathblane. 

Balgedie (Kinross). See Balagiech, only here </, W>,:/ 
unaspirated, remains. 

Ba]jG<Snie (Markinch and Aberdeen). M^rkinfrh B,, MKZ^ 
-gone. Aberdeen A., prob. a. 1300, PalgoTer.j: H^T, 
Balgowny ; * village of the smith/ G. aryl Ir, ti^^f'% 
(jobhann, or * Gow.' 6/. Bally gow and -goiriiirA, \re,;s;iA. 

Balgowan (Perth, Kirkcudbright, kc.). Prob. aA aVj^^ve, 

Balharvie (Kinross). G. baUe-thairhh, 'village of tr.e 'o .»i ' 

(iarbh) ; with Eng. dimin. -ie. 
Balixtore (Feam). Possibly same a« Ball ind ore ^M i^^ka^n^, 
Argyle); G. baileran-Dearaidh ( = Devar;, *vi I );*$(<; ^/f 
the stranger' ; surname of St Maelmbha : <;^. Ki*»70>iit, 
More likely, * village of the hillocks' G, torr^ i%jA wt » 
the neighbouring Hilton. Ballitore mA Tirit/zr*;, 
Ireland, are fr. Ir. tuair^ bleaching-green. 
Baushare (Lochmaddy). N. hjJ* fjjri^ *jrrav<;lly npit or 
point, with the beacon,' N. }j61. CY. Ah*Hry L. Aylort, 

BallachiJlish (Argyle). 1522, Ballechele-*. G. bail^rjir 

chaolais, 'village on the straits.' Of. KijUHACUiUii and 

Kyle. 
Ballantrae (S. Ayr). 'Village on the i^\t(jr<s* ; G, and Ir. 

bail-anrtraiijh, Cf, Ballintrae, Antrim. 
BAllater (Aberdeen). 'Village on the hill-ftlojic'; G. leitir 

(fr. leth, a half or part, and tir, land;, Ir. leitaTf as in 

Letterfrack, &e. Cf. Letterfeakx. 

Ballikixrain (Killeam). Sic 1680, but c. 1610, Pojit, 
Balachendrain, -ekendrain. G. bail-Orchinn-'rainn^ 
' village, farm, at the head of the division,' or bealack- 
an^ainn, ' pass at the division.' 

Ballixdalloch (Moray and Balfron). Moray B. r. 1300, 
and Balf. B. a. 1350, Balinodalach. 'Village in the 
field ' ; G. dalach, gen. of daiL 



30 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Ballingall (Kinross, and 2 in Fife). 1294, Balnegal; 1590, 
Bamgall; G. bail-na-gaUl, * village of the stranger or 
Lowlander.' Cf, Baligal, Melvich. 

Ballingrt (Lochgelly). a. 1400, -yngry. Pron. Bingry; 
perh. = Irish Ballingarry, * house with the garden' ; G. 
gdrradh. Might be * house of the flock ' ; G. greigk. 

Ballinluig (Pitlochry). * Village in the hollow'; G. Icig, 
gen. luig ; also in Ireland. 

Ballintuim (Blairgowrie). * Village on the knoll ' ; G. toniy 
tuim. Tuam, Ireland, is fr. Ir. tiiaimm, a grave. 

Balloch (L. Lomond, lochlet near Muthil, and old name of 
Taymouth, sic 1570. Also c. 1190, *Belach,' near 
Abemethy, Perthsh.). Lom. B. 1238, Bellach, c. 1370, 
le Balach. G. hedlach^ * a pass.' Cf, W. bwlch, a gap, a 



BALLOCHMf LE (Mauchlinc). * Bare pass ' ; G. f?iaoL Of. 

Craigmyle House, Glassel. 
Ballygrant (Islay). = Grantshousb ; G. baile. Bally- is 

very common in Ireland ; and in Arran, as Ballykine, 

-menach (* middle-house ' ), -michael, &c. 

Ballynavin (Perthsh.). * Village on the river ' ; G. an- 
aibhne (abhuinn). 

Ballyoukan (Pitlochry). Prob. * village with the graves ' ; 
G. uaghaichean, pi. of uagh. 

Balmacarra (Lochalsh). Prob. * village of the erect rock 
or pillar ' ; G. cat^agh, 

Balmaclbllan (New Galloway). Sic 1505 \cf, 1183, Chart, 
Dunferm.^ BalmacgleninJ. * Village of John M'Lellan,' 
whose charter is of date 1466. 

BalmaghIe (Castle-Douglas). {Of, 1420, ^Balmaceth' or 

* Balmagye,' Fife.) ' Village of M*Ghie.' 

Balmaha (L. Lomond), c. 1610, Balmacha. Possibly Old 
G. bail-magh-abh, * village on the plain by the water ' ; 
the accent forbids bail maghay 'village on the plain.' 
Perh. bail-na-ckath (pron. h4), * village of the battle.' 

Balmashannbr (Forfar), a. 1400, -moschenore. Prob. 

* village of my dear bard or elder'; G. mo seanair, 
cf. p. cv. 






^ •- 



1*' ■ ^ 



till JT- 



i»L 111* : r *: i;'.._ j: , "^- *- _ • 

/-.'///'i. * TUTii_ tr tilt at^-j.r^f. o: T-:Laert\ roji. 

Ptrrt*. <--«. ''a/ su.>iiauit'L. •Luiilisminu > iuuj>; 

Balta S.»ryn iSbttland*. ^t/./w^s. Iwilifi ; M»iili i>.h./ i^^ 
6a// 1, I>*ai- i*u*ifi-^eo or oy or a, irti^iu* 



32 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Balthangib (Aberdeensh.). Prob. * house of thanks'; G. 
tang, timing, 

Balthayock (Kinfauns). Prob. G. hail thathachy 'house of 
the guest or visitor,' an inn. Cf. Tayock, Montrose. 

Balvbnie (Dufftown), c. 1200, Balbegno. G. haile-Bliaine^ 
' house of St Beyne,' reputed first bishop of Mortlach. 
But as there never was such a bishopric, perh. fr. Baine, 
daughter of the K. of Alban, Four Masters, p. 10. 

Balwearie (Fife). Prob. G. haile-iarach, * west house.' Cf. 
Blaw Weary, *west plain,' and Castle Weary, in 
Galloway. 

Bamflat (Biggar). Old, Bowflat ; * flat or field for cattle ' 
(see Bowland). Bam- is a curious and unexplained 
corruption ; but cf. Bamgall for Ballingall. 

Banavib (Fort William). 1606, Banvy; cf c. 1270, 
Banevyn, Gowrie, fr. G. ahhuinn, river. G. ban oMiy 
* white or clear water ' ; cf Avibmore and L. Vanavie, 
L. Shin. Prob. this cannot be *Vicus Banna vem,' 
c. 450 A.D. in Patrick's Confessions, 

Banchory Dbvenick and Banchory Tbrnan (W. from 
Aberdeen), a. 1300, Banchery defnyk; 1361, Ban- 
chory deveny; a. 1300, Bancheri-tamy ; 1489, Ban- 
quhori-teme; also 1164, Benchorin. Banchory is G. 
heinn g(h)eur, * sharp, pointed ben or hill,' same name as 
Bangor in Wales and Ireland (Jr. Beannchor, peaked hill 
or pinnacle; W. bangor, upper row, high circle^), for 
which the Lat. adj. is Benchorensis, as in Ulst, Ann., ann. 
671, * Maelrubha Benchorensis ' ; tf Beannachar (1603, 
Benchar), Kingussie. Devenick is fr. St Devinicus, 
said to be contemporary of St Columba, who laboured 
in Caithness. Perh. same name as is seen in Lan- 
dewednack, near Lizard Point. St Teman's date was 
c. 500 ; he was prob. a disciple of Palladius. 

Banff, a. 1150, Bk Deer, Banb; c. 1140, Banef; 1290, 
Bamphe ; 1291, Banfle ; 1295, Banet. Banba, according 
to Irish Nennius, was a Welsh or Irish Queen, reported 
to have come fr. Scotland. Banba is also an early 
poetic name for Ireland ; connection with Banff cannot 

^ Professor Bright says, this means * eminent community. ' 



5!LAGE-5L^»[EB Cff" SCDTLAKXj. SB 

be jHored Mkiit -EimJL possflirr ir. Jr. itcmu "a 
suckin^-jd2-" b^ in Bamirw. l^fixiard. if «o, ii mfix ^ 
a relic of Kiiiemiaiii. <>". liumf TTfill, Ooupttr-AiHrn^ 
and Bam^ Hcnaiifc. I'eriiittdiirfi. 

Haxkknd (Dmrifriet'i. IlA5^yc»OT I'ertLi. 'Rak j.^vat . -l^aiuc^ 

Sax KNOCK (DemnjlcitLLijd i. ITJCl BtJiinknok. G, liGil-aif 
cnoCf * Tillage cm liit tDoTL" 

Caxxachra tL. LiarDcnjdi- G, J^eamia^Ji ratK *fart set 
oonierm:ays. or Tdtii liCirrfr or angrier' 

Baxxockbtbx (Starling-)- li'15, Vtred Banoc Sv> 1?14; 
1494, BwinciciTsitcaTie. C'fehic han oc. ^-whjve, shining 
stream,' same rc»at as £s£^ itc : qf. Oxsam and Ock~ 
broc^ Derbv, aud see p. xlxi It is thus paxalkQ 
to Baxattk, thongii not to Bakes c»C£. X ot at all likdr 
to be fr. G. btmna^ * a banncKik,' as in Aeii da banna^, 
Urraj, Boss-^hire: tbongii this origin has bad its 
supporters fr. the dajs of BeUenden, 15;>6, oaiwaids. 

Bantaskin (FalkiriL). 6ic 1774, but 1450 Pettantostale ; 
1451, -toskale ; 1497, Pettentoskane ; 1617, Fantaskin ; 
1745, Pen-. A puzding name ; originally prob. Pictish 
G. pette or pet on foisgan, * croft of the yearling ewes,' 
or ' of the lubbers, the blockheads ' ; G, ou<>g or t^hai^ 
may mean either. Pan- or Pen- is here a contraction 
of pet an ; cf. Pexdribch. Ban- is prob. a mod. modifica- 
tion ; if ancient, prob. contraction of G. badan^ * a little 
thicket,' or ' clump of trees,' as in Bandeath, S. Alloa ; 
1195, Badyndeth (deaihach, mist^ vapour). The lat^r 
ending -taskin suggests G. feas eumhain (pron. kuin), 

* of the narrow waterfall,' or, possibly, esgtivi^ * fen.' 

Banton (Denny), c. 1610, Bantoin. Prob. G. bail 'l(i% 

* white hiU.' For ton = dim, cf. Edderton. 

Barcaldinb Castlb (L. Crerar). Prob. G. barr calHurnn^ 
' height of the hazel.' Cj\ Calton. 

Bardrishach (Argyle). G. barr drisach^ 'branible-cavored 
height,' fr. dreaa, bramble. 

Bardowis (Baldemock). G. barr dubh, *dark or black 
height' (barr). Cf. Dowally. ^ 

3 



1 



34 PLACE-NAICBS OF SCX)TLAND. 

BARiMMAK (Roseneath), Prob. G. harr-Adamnan, * height 
of A.' See p. cvi 

Babgeddie (Coatbridge). * Height with the little field/ G. 
geadcahK 

Barorennak (Newton Stewart). * Height of the castle,' or 
chiefs residence ; G. gricmain. Cf. Amgrennan, Tung- 
land. 

Barjaro (Cloeebum), * Red height ' ; G. dhearg, red. 

Barlinnis (Gla^^ow). 'Height by the pool'; G. linne, a 

pool. Cf, LiNNHK. 

Barmskin, The, op Echt (S.E. Aberdeen). Here was an 
old British hill-fort. B. means the outer fortification 
or barbican of a castle, also a turret; found c. 1340 
in the romance of Alexander , * barmeken.' Dr J. A. H. 
Murray thinks perh. fr. O.N. barm-r, brim, border, 
wing of a castle, but cannot explain -kin; perh. the 
diminutiTe. 

Barnaich (N. Ayrsh. and Alva). G. bdimeach, * a limpet,' 
name of a house clinging to the hillside. 

Barnbogle Castle (Dalmeny). [fa. 1177, Lennox Charters, 
Berenbouell] ; c. 1320, Prenbowgal; 1481, Bembougale. 
G. barr^n-iaoghail, 'height or cape of danger,' or -an- 
bua,chaillj *of the shepherd'; cf. Bambauchle, in 
Galloway. Prefi is W. for a tree (cf. Prinlaws). 
First syll. possibly G. beam, a gap. 

Barx^go (Dunipace). [? c, 1177, Lennox Clvart., Brenego]; 
1503, Bymago; 1510, Bamago; c. 1610, Bamegy. 
* Height,' G. barr, or possibly, * water, fountain,' old G. 
bior, an aigich * of the stallion,' aigeach. Cf. Balerno. 

Barneywater (Kirkcudbright). G. beama ua^Mar, * upper 
pass' or * cleft.' 

Barnhill (Glasgow, Kinnoull, and Forfar). May be plain 
English. Perh. G. barr-an-choille, * little height with 
the wood ' (coin). Cf. Bamhillie, formerly Bamkylie, 
in Kirkcudbright. 

Barnsmuir (Crail). Cf. Kingsbarns, near by. 

Barnton (Edinburgh), c. 1400, Bemtoim; 1493, Bame- 
toune; ^ ham town,' toun here in its Sc. usage. O.E. 
bere-em, * barley place,' M.E. beren, mod. bam. 



Barxtabd Iraunn- . 3 r-^ 

Barb (Ayr ^ »V. »•«-. -l^— - . jei:^ 

Barrassik Tr--#'JL . X£_ f .••^•^ r 
barre^ a tat. • nir-^jr_ > — _ — " 



Barrhead aEti E-LiaaEui .t-'ti jcc. . rAiiauviTf^ \u-u\x.i: 
by Fng. «ceu:ias ■«ai' iLl jlit inow iiat ^. --;/-- tu^*i?< 
'head or r.~'.. Tid Lacrrfr 01^17 le lur ^cr-^ ■>-;. -. ' . ;• 
Babshili- 

Barrock (Thuiso^ Pnr. r — -? . :c •>. ^c^. "i >.c?i:*x;x 

Barrogill Cjl?tile I Gkiiiirjesfe > Feni^ Ic^-L ,»*«>» /..^ 
'raTine of the wave «jr tcLlow/ 

Barrshaw (Paisley). Hybrid, ' height with tho >X\ss< ' v 
O.E. seagcL See Shaw. 

Barrt (Forfar). Sic 1234. ? G. harmclu * brush \v\hhK b(h^l\/ 
or = BABBOCK; also in S. Wales. 

BarskImming (Mauchline). 1639, IkrHkiuninH, l^*tll 
'protruding height,' fr. G. i^jmimuih^ w phih milium 
fr. sffinuy *to squeeze or force out/ (J/, i Jnilt/rtMliHMlMt^, 
Sorbie. 

Babthol (Old Meldrum). *Hciul of UMt UnWnY/ ' ^ h linn 
thutll, fr. toll, a hole, hollow, urtMm, 

Babvas (Lewis). 1536, Barw;^. %U'/U h^ <> /////// // 
*wan, pale mouth' of %^t4: riy^^:f' 

Bass Rock (Firth of V*^li. *a P/^r ^^- -^ ^ ' ' 
Bass of Inveram". f^»v. ^/ 'yy/^/x^' v^jii- /^ /' 
fr. the curio^iA <«^a«^ v' m** *«/*}/ ^/ A ' 
Basquhairiiier '^j^///*//** *>//,<»' m'^v;* ^/,v.i.{.' '• ^v' 
frdtfifalao miftacit i> uivvuit rtuoi #/>/* » ^ «• 
really iiauir<.TLi f j.»* : t>..^.*- « »•"*• >' 
in Bk. of LtWrtbuh '.Jutwt i/ >'/;^ '*^« -w » 

Bathgatk. 'C. DLiil Ut:i/;.*'? '/ ^ -^ . 

Profcu G. i/i/J/ 'Jit^' »>/^ ^ '-'- ' ' ' 



36 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

the seven sons of Cruithne. Cj\ Caithness and Dal- 
KBiTH. The Eng. haih was so spelt fr. earliest times. 

Battock, Mt. (Kincardine). G. Monadh bicUaich, *hill of 
the raven'; but c/. Beattock. 

Bavelaw (Currie). c. 1240, Baueley. First syllable perh. 
same as Bavan, common name in Ireland, = Ir. hadhun^ 
a strongly-fenced enclosure for cows. Law is So. for 
hill (see p. Ixxxvi) ; ley is lea^ a meadow. 

Batblb (Lewis). Prob. corruption of N. papvley^ * little 
priest's isle'; see Paplay; perh. of papa-dcU-r, * priest's 
dale.' 

Bathead (Lochmaddy). Translation of G. Ceann-a-bhaidh, 
badhj a bay. 

Bealach-nam-bo (Aberfoyle). G. * pass for the cattle.' On 
the article naiUy see p. xliv and cf. Balloch. 

Bballachantuie (Kintyre). G. bealach-an-l'suidhe, *pa8s of 
the seat.' Cf. p. xlvii. 

Beam, The (farm, Bonnybridge). Prob. fr. O.E. beajn, a 
tree. Cf. the * hornbeam.' 

Beancross (Falkirk), c. 1610, Beanscorse; and now pron. 
bean-corse, prob. = car8e. It stands in the Cabsb of 
Falkirk, where beans are largely grown. Cf, board. So. 
brod. 

Bearsden (Glasgow). Modem : though there were bears in 
Scotland not more than 900 years ago. O.E. denu, * a 
den,' is closely akin to dene, Eng. dean, Sc. den, a 
valley. 

Beath (Dunfermline) and Bbith (Ayr). Dunf. B., c. 1140, 
Beith. AyrB., TcUiessin Beit; 1178, Beth. G. beath 
or beith, a * birch'; final th here preserved, lost in 

AULTBEA. 

Beattock. Prob. G. biodach, * sharp-topped,' fr. biod, a hill- 
top. 

Beauly. 1230, Prioratus de Bello Loco ; a. 1300, Beaulieu ; 
1497, Beulie; 1639, Beawly (so now pron.). Fr. beau 
lieu, * beautiful spot' (cf. Beaulieu, pron. Bewly, in 
Hants). Monasteries in both ; that in Beauly founded 
by the monks Vallis umbrosce, c. 1220. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 37 

Bbdrule (Jedburgh). 1275, BadrowU; 1280, Rulebethok; 
1310, Bethocrulle; a. 1600, BethrowU; still sometimes 
pron. Bethorule; * lands of Bethoc on the river Rule.' 
B. was wife of Radulph, earliest known lord of the manor 
here, c. 1150. A Kynbethok is found in Registr, 
Aberdon.y a. 1300. 

BsBSWiNG (Dimifries). A picture of Beeswing, a racehorse 
famous 80 years ago, was the sign of a public-house 
once here, around which the village grew. 

Bbgbie (Kirkcudbright). Prob. G. beag, little, + Dan. bae, 
by, town, village. 

Bblhaven (Dunbar). Fr. bel (found in Eng. c. 1314),+ 
O.E. haefen, Dan. havn, * fine haven.' G. names are rare 
here, or it might be, bail-a-h'aibhne, * village on the river.' 

Cf, PORTNAHAVEN. 

Bblhklvik (New Machar). 1292, Balheluy; 1293, -helwy; 
1450, Balhelfy. Prob. G. baile-chailbJie, * village by 
the headland.' G. calbh is lit. a bald pate. 

Belivat (Nairn). Perh. G. baile-Hobh-aite, * hamlet in the 
smooth place.' Cf. Belclare, Belfast, &c., in Ireland, 
and Glenlivat. 

Bkllahouston (Renfrew). 1818, Billyhouston House; 
1 batle-na-Houdon, * Houston's village.' 

Bblue (Fochabers). Perh. G. baile, * a village, a house.' Cj\ 
Billie, Ck)ldingham, c. 1400, Bilie ; also 1386,*Billymire.' 

Bell Rock (off Arbroath). Fr. the warning bell formerly 
hung on the * Inchcape ' reef. 

Bellshill and Bellside (Lanark); also Bellsquarbt 
(Edinburgh). 

Bblltbocht Hill (Thomhill). G. baile bochd, * house of 
the poor man.' 

Belmont (one of the Sidlaw Hills, and in Unst). Fr. bel 
mont, * fine hilL' 

Belsbs (Hawick). 1541, Belsis; fr. De Bel Assize, a 
Norman knight. Belassis near Durham is in 14th cny. 
spelt Belasise, Bellassys, Belas. 

Bemkrside (Melrose). Perh. fr. O.E. beamere, hemera, a 
trumpeter, fr. beme, a trumpet. 



38 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Benarty Hill (Kinross), c. 1420, Wyntoun Bennarty. 
ChartuL St Andr,, Cabennartye, perh. first part= 
Csesar's Cebenna, the Cevennes, W. cefn, a ridge ; 
second part perh.= Arthur. Cf, Artney. 

Bbnbecula (Outer Hebrides). 1449, Beanbeacla; 1495, 
Bendbagle; 1549, Benvalgha, Buchagla; c, 1660, 
Benbicula; also, 1535, Beandmoyll, and 1542, Bean- 
weall (prob. G. maoly bare). Might be G. beinn-norfaog- 
kaily 'mountain of the fords,' or better, beinn-norfaogh- 
lach, * hill by the strand,' an appropriate name ; but, as 
Prof. Mackinnon says, how comes its modem shape ? 

Bbnderloch (L. Etive). Old Bendraloch, * hill between (G. 
eadar) the lochs ' (t.e., L. Etive and L. Creran). Gf, 
Eddrachilis. 

Bendochy (Coupar- Angus), c. 1130, Bendacthin. 1 Fr. Old 
G. daochan, anger, horror. 

Bbndouran (Tyndrum). More correctly doireann, * mount 
of storms.' 

BenhAr (Lanarksh.). Prob. fr. G. ghar, *near hill.' 

Benholm (Kincardine). 1262, Bennum; c. 1280, Benam. 
Can it be * Ben's home,' O.E. Mm, or a hybrid fr. G. 
beinriy a hill 1 On ham and holm see p. Ixix. 

Benjock (Stobo). ? *Hill of the drink'; G. d{h)eoch (cf. 
Barrjarg). Prof. Veitch says, this with Benrig (Rox- 
burgh) and Mt. Bengerlaw (to which add Benhar) are 
the only Lowland * bens.' 

Bennacarraigan (Kilmory, Arran). G. = * hill of the cliffs.' 
Cf. Carrick. 

BBNNACHfE (Insch). c, 1170, Benychie; c. 1356, Benechkey ; 
1359, Benchye. Perh. *hill of Che'; see p. li. But 
Bennochy (Kirkcaldy) maybe G,beannachadh, * blessing.' 
Cf. Tigh Beannachadh on Gallon Head, Lewis. 

Bentpath (Langholm). 

Benvie (Dundee). Sic 1479, but a. 1300, Banvy. Prob. = 
Banavie. 

Ben-y Glow (Blair Athole). * Veiled, hooded, cloud-capped 
mountain ' ; G. glo, a veil. 



Berxkra (IxKi^ liiiifciid mid Lotl,. Sajof*, Bifim&r-CT, 

Bkrrikdaijc iCiiriLzie^- >r//o*», iieruiiiZ : 2^Jl KeridiJi^; 
and mosl pr;»t^ sfax^ I»r ,1 .t^ Andaman, xbt BeruvilL it 
Orkney. Sj..- x, fcud xcrr. I^ir- k> dviu'ltthi] ; IcftL 
and O.X- iiT is & itje : jeri^ Berrieiiuit. like BirpoAJc^ 
S. Bute i5=B'-iEB';»i«jLLE. 

Bervis (Kincardii>e. ^r^wTi &iii irrer^ ^/^ llPi*; a l:i?lfi, 
Bervrn: li?i»'A H2ir»sn:»eniL Terh. fr. G, f»f'i2^ or hfcr-^ 
W. and CofTL f^^r. a spit or pin ; l^ut M*Rain think* 
fr. root borr^ a^ in Bn^irt^DCL There is aa f.Od G. }>ir^ 
bior^ water, a m^eH 

Berwick, also Xobth ^ewice. .Nr 1097 : a. llx\ Beivwic, 
Berwich; 11 ST, StiiL Berwxc : r, li?i!5, CH.^fL. Si7.j^ 
eh. iciL, Berax-ik : i:X«:i Berwik : 1:250, Xonhberwxk 
(cf. too, 7CH)-15, Cft'2^. ITi'.rrr'T. 'Bereut^' in Kent: 
1060, Chart. Kirr, Cj'i/ij^jr^ ' Uppwnde cum Ravelo^ 
berewioo suo '). O.E. i*ere^n>^ * a demesne farm,' fr. O.K. 
berCj bariey, bere, + •'■!>, a dwellinii, villa^ : so same in 
meaning as tlie Eng. place-name Barton. Cr\ Berwick 
St James and St John, both near Salisbury. 

Bessie Yox (Glasserton, Witrtown ). * Bessie's Oven ' : in 
Yorks. yoori, O.K of en. Cf. Sc. /ym = one, 

BETTTTHnx (Farr). Market knoll, called after Elizabeth, 
Marchioness of Stafford, c. 1820. 

BiBL (Drem). Prob. = * bield ' ; in sense of shelter, refuge, it 
is fr. O.E. hddoj boldness, but this sense is not fomid till 
c. 1450. So prob. fr. MR hylde^ 'a building,' fr. verb 
huUd ; old past tense, bieid ; O.E. byldan. For lost </, 
cf. kin and kind. Also in Northumberland. 

Bield, The (Tweedsmuir). Perh. fr. O.R beldOy hiehfo, bold- 
ness; though in Sc. a bield always means *a shelter, 
refuge,' and is found so c. 1450. 

BiGGAR. c, 1170, Bigir; 1229, Bygris; 1524, Begtirt Perh. 
G. beag tir, * little land'; but 1524, like Biggart, Beith, 
and Biggarts, Moffat, is N. bygg garff-r, * barley-tield.' 
Cf. Applbgarth. 

BiLBSTER (Caithness). Old Bilbuster. Perh. * sword-place' ; 
fr. O.Sw. and O.E. Ml, a sword or *bill,' and N. bohtaffr, 
see p. btxii. 



40 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

BiNDLE (Portmahomack). Sic in local pron. Prob. = Eng. 
bundle^ spelt in 16th cny. byndle, O.E. byndde, in G. 
beinnecU, 

BiNNBND (Burntisland). In O.E. binn was a manger, then a 

* bin * ; but this is prob. = next. 

BiNNY (Uphall). 1250, Binm. G. beinnan, *a little hill.' 

BiRGHAM (Coldstream). Pron. Birjam; c. 1098, Brycgham; 
c. 1180, Brigeam; prob. 1250, * Capella Brigham 
Letham.' O.E. bricg, a bridge ; here, as so often, the 
r has been transposed ; + hdm, home, house, village ; 

* village at the bridge.' 

Birket's Hill (Urr, Kirkcudbright). O.E. beorcj Sc. and. 
Dan. birk^ * a birch.' On -et, cf. Aiket. 

BiRKHALL (Ballater). As above. 

BiRNAM (Dunkeld). O.E. biom, beam, warrior, in M.E. 
beme, Mm, + hdm, home, * hero's house.' Cf, Birghah. 

BiRNBSS (Ellon). Formerly also Bishop's Brynnes. 1392, 
Brenes, Byrnes. Doubtful ; at any rate nothing to do 
with Nbss. 

BiRNiB (Elgin), a. 1 200, Brennach. Prob. ' Brendan's Field ' 
(G. achadh). Very old church of St B. here. He it 
was who made the famous seven years' voyage ; friend 
of St Columba. Brennach might be G. for * pretty, 
striped with various colours.' 

BiRNiBKNOWB (Cumuock). As above, or perh. N. bjom, a 
bear, + Sc. Tmowe, O.E. cnoll, N. knoll, a knoll or 
hillock. 

BiRRBNSWARK HiLL (Anuandalc). First part doubtful; cf, 
the Broch of Burrian, Orkney ; work (O.E. wore), as in 

* outwork,' often means a fortification. 

BiRSAY (Orkney), c. 1050, and c. 1225, Orhney, Sag, ; 
Birgisherad. This is O.N. for * hunting territory ' ; cf. 
Harray. Here the Jarls of Orkney lived. 

BiRSB (Aboyne). 1170, Brass. G. bras, *rash, impetuous,' as 
of a torrent. For transposed r, cf, Sc. Kirsty, and Eng. 
Christie, &c. 

BiRTHWOOD (Biggar). Perh. fr. Icel. byrffi, a board, * wood 
fr. which planks were got.' Berth is quite a recent 



of dase IT^r. x »-:- -el. 
WBITC bini imit^ ire__f- i- 
the ortz^ ir '»o*f i- ir*— -g^ 



The b ha& srap: B- :iim^:i.^n- t mr^sZTi ^til -*•. •— . * 
bridge. 

gow. In Ezi^iimz. isuiJr" 3imiTT?^:!i. 

BlXTKB fWaHa. ^^i^lilillf . JLiSnr 1^ TT-*i:-TiJa.-r-, T: ~i *r-. 

beki-r, Sw. l^a'u^ tk !»ei!«: uc tit* it. cf-^ :n • --^.w^- 

See p. Iyttj. 

Blackbubx I two zn Bgryi-^si... Z»ii:iiri:^- IjaSi^i*..*?^ 
Aberdeen). Liiiss^ B- r_ ll^i\. Ziiu^aiLMzTsi- !::> 
Celtic equiTaksi is I»:c?^: .ils 

Blackford (£>lmbarsb *r»i Pcnii^ ^ Aic ,v Ii^^.\ :r. 
Chariul. Mom»j, ^^efc«d. 

Blackness (Linlithgow), c^ \'2^>X Bl^^kecisw 

Blacksboat (Craigellachie). 'Boat' enters iuu'» ttVAn> 
names of femes in this region. 'Boat of ForlH>s. 
Garten, Inch,' <kc. 

Blackshielb (Edinburgh). On Sc. sliiel<^ * group of huUs or 
houses,' see p. Ixviii. 

Blackwater (Cabrach) and BLACKWATBurooT (Arrun). 
Latter is the G. Bun na Duihh Aihhm*, Tliroo llliu'h 
waters in England. 

Bladnoch (Wigtown). 1563, Blaidnoo. i\. hlwlh (or 
hlaidh) -an-achaidh, *bit of the field/ U\ fr hlwlh, 
blod, blag is a division, parti timi. Tho 0, whwlh N 
sometimes pron. ach6o, 

Blaiket (Wigtown). 'Bhu;k pW;fj'; 0,K. //////v, Idw -^ nl n 
prob. just a suffix ^ m th.v;k <ft /'//. Arfcr/r;. 7K^^^ /" rr 
Blacket Place in fMir.rv^r/h. ^//. •' F/zJ^-^jvi'^r •^'- 
Brigide de WadKt.' /-^'Vj^v. A.^,-/;»r/)Air #^ 

Blairadaji ^Kir.ir#w . - P!;^.'-. '■Z A''^>»^.' '"^^^^ '^v,-''''^// 



42 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Blair Atholb. Often simply Blair; as above, and see 
Atholb. Cf, Blair Drummond, Perthshire. 

Blaircbssnock (Perthsh.). * Battlefield of the Saxon,' G. 

Blairgowrie. G. hlar-goihhre, * plain of the goat ' (gobhar). 

Blairhill (Coatbridge) and Blair Lodge (Polmont). 
Modem hybrids. 

Blairhoyle (Port of Menteith). c. 1600, -guhoille. * Plain 
of the wood.' G. c(h)oille. 

Blairingone (Clackmannan). G. bldr-afirgobhainn, * field of 
the smith,' or *Smithfield.' 

Blair Logie (Stirling). * Field in the little hollow'; G. 
lagan. Cf. Logie. 

Blairmore (Firth of Clyde). 1248, Blarmor. * Big plain ' ; 
G. mdr, big. The village was named fr. a neighbouring 
farm, c, 1854. Blairbeg, * little plain,' is close by. 

Blair's Smithy (Aberdeen). 

Blairvaddick (Gareloch). c. 1240, Blarvotych. Prob. 
'bushy plain,' fr. G. b(h)adach, fr. body a bunch, thicket, 
grove. Or fr. b(h)odach, * a peasant, a churl.' 

Blalowan (Cupar-Fife). G. baile-narleanihan, * house among 
the elms.' 

Blanbfield (Lanark). Prob. 'flowery field' (see Strath- 
blanb) ; but W. blaen is ' source.' 

BI.ANTYRE (Lanark). 1263, -tthyre; 1290, -tire; 1319, 
Blaunty-r; W. blaentir, 'a promontory, or projecting 
land,' lit. foreland. 

Blawrainy (Kirkcudbrt.). G. bldr raithnea^hy 'ferny 
plain.' 

BLBBo(Fife). Prob. 1144, Bladebolg; but sic 1570. 1 G. 
blad'Orbolg, 'the mouth of the bag' or 'womb.' 

Blingbry (Wick), -ery is corrup. of G. airidh, shealing, 
hill-hut, as in Assary, Shurrery, &c. ; and perh. Bling- (<g 
soft) is fr. O.N. blekkja, blenkja, to cheat, deceive, 
referring to the appearance or site of the place. 



youno: pill. 

Bltthebrii»»>i: ^» iii.iizii n. JT'^^u* i Z — ii_ -^ " 7* m. 
ooDneex^z v-n T" - •. . t-- — •_ - :-^ • 

blciated i»er*»Ji^ 'jr ^Tti "^ . * _aa?i * -rzi ZT-ir- •-' 
* blithe' rL l*r j2u!!t..'-* -j_n_.^jLi7^ -u^ ^ ".--*.T-.c5- 
referririir zi i, i:'T .jr -nr^ •'?•- j_ — n. '^ _ .T!ijt^ ^ • 
1110. Bliih- 

BOARHILI^ 'St AZi'b-^^i^ .. ^ 111?- > >-^-^- '-^ --?*'"- >.^'^^ 

intereiftir^r tc^xc x "iij± ^joiter -tzz-ri-m -t: re rit * - ;: 
boar in Sc/ciiaiji. T-^ -znt zsr^rf^iz <zr,7:r.\z i> ^*:-i 3^ 
be the ^ hi^Ts^.rreiirfUi ic tr I>':j_ c:_j. i.c;. :.v. 
Previouslv the nsizu*: vai^ tjvtj^ -^eh ?V~-r>. oc YN'rv 
hills ; cf. Btbecletgh. 

Boat of Forbes (on iKmu B>at of Gaktes .v^Tar,To>fc't>\ 
Boat OF Inch (Kintrus&ie). Names of o;vi toTTu>:?i : 5i!^v 
Forbes and Ixch. Garten is fr, G, j7i?/.f?\)>N Km tor 
ffoirtean, *a field of com,' a croft, fr. iKirf^ standi wjj \>m\v 

BoATH (Forres and Ahiess). For, B. prok tho I ItU oont\»v\ » 
Bothgiianan ; but see Pitgavkny. Dr M*l *ivno)Utn\ m\\ »*, 
later syllables are often dropped, leaving;: Holh Ml, !»»» 
'house*) alone. Cf. Inver. Same word mn ' U)\\\)' ' 

BocHASTLE (S. Perthsh.). G. hoth-cliaii^h'al^ • hniim', Inil, hy 
the castle ' or fort. 

BoDDAM (four in Aberdeensh. and H. of HUi'\Uw\) M' M, 
Me Boddoms/ near Alford. Af><'rdi'* m »^^ ini ' v^lh )- 
or * bottom,' O.E. /xy/m, wt^U, K, hotloin*', th < ' )/>/'M'<'" . 
1513, boddum. 

Bogie (river and fetrath, A^>7<<><'f / J J''/ »*'> i > ^ , i. 
1335, -Ixilgv: J.v'^i. ^''<"'/v/.* ►•''>•* / v" ' 

Irish \e\i^/ury V rvv/ ' ''-/ <-.* « ^ ♦i ^ / Vy ' / 
or sack. A 'bv^'y*' *^-'"'''' '''"-^ « ".- • .'''•■'' ■ y 
of land "tr i*r«. ,i-,i ^/ ^. -» . / i 

shire. 



44 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

BoGLfLY (Fife). G. bog liligh, * marsh with the lilies,' 
loaned fr. Eng. lih/, O.E. lilie. 

BoGNAMOON (Aberdeensh.). G. boy na muin, *bog at the 
back/ 

BoGRiFFiB (Aberdeensh.). 'Brown, heathery-coloured bog,* 
G. riahhach. 

BoGROY (Invemess-sh.). G. bog-ncadh, *red bog' or clayey 
ground. 

BoGSiDB (near Alloa, and near Fintry). Also Bogton (Cath- 
cart), sic 1384. 

Bogus Fell (Kirkcudbright). G. bog, soft ; fell, see p. Ixix. 

BoHALLY (L. Rannoch). Prob. G. both-chcUlaid, 'house 
with the fence or hedge ' ; and cf, Cally. 

BoHARM (BanflE). c. 1220, Boharme; also Bucharin. Of, 
'Bocquhame,' 1488, near Brechin, and Bucham, 
Gartly, 1534, Bogquhame. Perh. G. both-chdm or 
cdim, * house by the cairn.* The liquids m and n often 
interchange. Cf. Dum- and Dunbarton, Dum- and 
Dunfermline, and L. Broom. 

BoiSDALE (loch and parish. Outer Hebrides), c. 1400, Boys- 
dale; 1427, Baegastallis ; 1549, Baghastill. Prob. N. 
bdss (pron. baws), * rocky basin at the foot of a water- 
fall,* + dcU, dale, of which tcUl is a corruption. The 
derivation fr. N. but (pron. boy), *a goblin,* leaves the 
8 unaccounted for, as its gen. is btui. Can Baega be 
St Begha ? See Kilbucho. 

Bold (Peeblessh.). Old, Boild. O.E. and M.E. bold, *a 
dwelling,* cognate with O.N. b6L Cf. Bolton. 

BoL^SKiNE (Foyers). G. poll eas cumhan (pron. kuin), 
*pool of the narrow waterfall,* i,e.. Fall of Foyers. 
M*Bain suggests bucd esguin, * place of fen.' 

Bolton (Haddingtonsh.). c. 1200, Botheltune, Boteltune, 
Boweltun ; 1250, Boultun ; 1297, Boltone. O.E. botl-tun, 
* dwelling-enclosure,* i.e., a collection of houses, a 
village; influenced by O.N. h6l, *a house, dwelling- 
place * (see p. Ixxiii). At least nine Boltons in England. 
Cf MoRBBATTLE, and Bothwbll. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 45 

BoNi^LLY (Edinburgh). G. hoth-an-aile^ 'house on the rock 
or cliff.' 

B6nar Bridge (Sutherland). 1275, Bunnach, and still 
locally pron. much the same, only with the first vowel 
a. The name must be G. honn achaidh or ath, * end of 
the field' or 'of the water,' i.e., the Dornoch Firth. 
Bonar is a mod. corruption, influenced by the common 
Eng. surname. 

BoNCHESTER BRIDGE (Hawick) and Bonchestbr Hill 
(Ahbotnile). Ekrly history unknown. Prob. 'at the 
foot of the camp,' G. bonn, 'foot'; cf. Bonjedward, 
near by ; + O.E. caester, adapted fr. L. castra, a camp. 
Though England is full of -chesters and -casters, this is 
perh. the only Scottish instance out of Berwickshire. 

Bo'ness, or BoRROWSTOUNNESS. c. 1470, Bowne; 1783, 
Boness; in 1745 is found Borroustoim, N.W. of 
Kirkintilloch, and in 1538, ibid., Reay, fine example of 
contraction. The original village of Borrowstoun is a 
mile inland fr. the ness and seaport. The full form 
was a common name for a Sc. municipal borough (O.E. 
burg, fort, 'shelter-place'), and Borough-town is still 
used in Ireland. Burrows-toim (in Ormin, c. 1200, 
'burrghess tun') is used as an ordinary Sc. word by 
Henryson, Allan Bamsay, and even Scott {Antiquary, 
ch. xxvi.). 

BoNHiLL (Alexandria), c. 1270, Buthelulle; c. 1320, Buch- 
nwl; c. 1350, BuUul. Good example of corruption. 
Difficult to explain ; first part either G. both, * cottage,' 
or bonn, bun, 'the foot or bottom'; and latter part 
prob. fr. G. allt, gen. uillt, 'a river.' If so, Bonhill 
may mean ' the low ground by the stream.' The h is 
a mod. intrusion. 

BoNKLS (Lanarksh.). 1290, Bonkil. G. bun or bonn-coill, 
' the foot of the wood ' (cf. Bunkle). There is a part of 
Falkirk always called 'The Foot of the Wood.' 

Bonninoton (Leith, Ratho, Lanark, Peebles, and Renfrew), 
(c. 1087, Bonintone, Kent; 1296, Bonigtone, England.) 
Peebles B., c. 1380, Bonnestoun. Leith B., old, Bonny- 
toun. Lanark B., 1776, Boniton. c. 1600, Bonitone, 
near Maryton. It is doubtful if this can be fr. ' bonny,' 



46 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

though honie is found in Eng. c. 1300. It is also 
doubtful if honny is fr. Fr. ftow, honne^ good. On -ing 
hef. ton, cf. p. Ixxxv. 

Bonnyrigg (Dalkeith). See Bonnington; on -rigg, cf, 
BiSHOPBRiGGS and L. dorsum. 

Bonny Water and Bonnybridgb (Falkirk), c. 1610, Bony. 
Like nearly all names of streams, prob. a Celtic root, 
perh. connected with G. bonnag, * a jump, a spring.' 

BoNNYTOUN (Linlithgow). 1451, Bonyntone. See Bonning- 
ton. 

BoNSKiBD (Pitlochry). Local pron. Baimskiid, also Pown- 
skiitch. G. bun or bonn sgaoid, *low place with the 
blackthorns,* or fr. sgeod, and so, *the foot or lower 
part of the triangular bit of ground' (between K. 
Tummel and Glenfincastle Bum). Former is favoured 
by the parallel Baimskeha (Jr. sceach, haw or thorn), 
Kilkenny. 

BoQUHiPLB or BucHQUHAPLB (Thomhill, Perth). 1523, 
Buchoppil. G. both chaibeail, * house of the chapel,* 
one of the six belonging to Inchmahome Priory. 

BoRDLANDS (Peebles), Borbland or Borland (Perth, Denny, 
Biggar, and often in Galloway). * Board or mensal 
land,' land held on the rental of a food-supply ; O.E., 
Sw., and Dan. bord, a board, shelf, table ; O.N. bord, 
plank, table, maintenance at table, * board.' 

BoRGUB (Kirkcudbright and Caithness). O.N., Sw., and 
Dan. borg, O.E. burg, burh, a fort, * shelter place,' a 
* burgh.' The diminutive Borgan is found in Minigaff 
parish. 

BoRLiCK (Perthshire). Prob. G. mhdr leac, * big flat rock ' ; 

cf, VOIRLICH. 

BoRLUM (Ft. Augustus and Urquhart). Corruption of Bore- 
land ; so says Professor Mackinnon. 

BoRNiSH (S. Uist). N. borg-nes, * ness or cape with the fort ' 
(see Borgub) ; nish is the common West Coast form of 
Icel. wes, Dan. nces, lit. a nose. 

BoROUGHMUiRHBAD (Edinburgh). See Bo'ness and Borgub ; 
muir = moor, O.E. and Dan. mor. 



PLACK-3AjIE5 jF ^_ 



BoRBKRAiG (Danvegan,. Prr/n. Y. '• ' ^r-j . :a£^ie- l— "-. 
Burra). On. 'ja^u ^ee _L?*:a^ix. _ ' 3. r^^^.-. J. T^^ 

BoRBOBOL (Satfafidaml.. Prrm. Y. V --. . -zirz z-^r. 
fortress. On. b*'L *iti ^. ttttt. 

BoBTHWicc (Midlocjifuii ind rLt^-xD^inin . liLiL 3- ■^'- 
1430. Prob. O.E. 3^iH. -. - . LL£- -^. -i-^ - r- -, 
plaoe. Tillage : dina B.=H-aaritfa n. _- B^j-r-^^LJi. jjtar 

BoBYA, or Bo&vc fLewia . ^ni rhrr rrrr^Tii.a j 5". j'srj, 
'a fort.' Cr. B.jHGUH. 

BoswKLUS, St (Melr»e . L±!H. - ^::::i.-n i*t 3. -^-Ztt. Jz. 
BoifHy Prior of Mefcsie- ^ n-T* . imi ;:r'^r-t':ti.r .f thk 
great Cuthbert : ht*?" ir:ae» ^nr-.n^a Ji±i*tfiii*r ,r V ,im, 
suffix riZZ«, or r>''. '::..wtl 'f. 3» ^l*'^:..' . Tiii T^.Tit- 

of the p*yT>*^ gZ^ Tnp- ITlIL ***yir- Try Tiit Ijc:S*;iiIfcai- 

(LesaedwTii). 
BoTHKESSAB. (GiangemoniiL . I:!i}L -!ier I V.4:. B^.tp-ksiuir 
(G- 6o;yA, a "b:>w^ or htimi ' : l.>!^i. 3ti-.-; .-r.-rmittr^ O. 
&oA O0ai»vitr. "b>:t:ae :c the ii::r>^ :r r^-aiisn-ii^ 

BoTHWSLi. IL 124:1 B»:die^ifII: t I-V.*'-, 5»,rii— I»r. -v€^ ; 

c ISIO, -enTle- Tbii* is* * i^iriijiit irni ii nrril r.Arr.e. 

Prob. G. bfjiK, hit. bjitte.-^X:r:iL- Fr, ;- -; 1- r../.i , 

Tillage or £ann- See p. itiii- Fir * *rr. ";tr r-.miiti'yC. 

^. BoLioir. 
BoTBiPHNiB (Keith I- 1±2»>. B*i:uri-.r>- : Ir7-3- Er:tritri-r- 

G. 6trf ruaidh aiirri,*^ -bjcae '.jthje re*iii^ riT-r/ Cr. 

RUTHTKX. 

BouBD Bkx-t- (Beo Macdhii- G, c*f>T •i.j r:-^'>L "table 
mountain'; G. for/, a "h»>iri' or tA-l-^. 

BocRTiB (Aberdeen). Old, Bo'jriTn. G. c-f^-ir dUi^ 'cattle 
hill,' thoo^ a Gael vo'iki always say d*jv Jiti huar. 

BouBTBiKBUSH (Aberdeen). Sc. for 'elier-bu<h': M.E. 
hurire^ fortiier ori^rin unknown. Perh. 'the bower- 
tree.' 

BousT (Coll). X. holMaffr^ place (see p. liiii). Ct\ Co16<x< 
Skea6o8f , &c. 



48 PLACB-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

BowDKN (Melrose and Torphichen). Tor. B. may be Mons 
Badonis, scene of one of King Arthur's battles; at 
least Dr Guest has proved it cannot be Bath. But 
early forms of Melr. B. hardly countenance this — 1124, 
Bothendene; t\ 1150, Bouldene; c. 1250, Bowelden; 
with these cf. forms of Bolton and Bonhill. Prob. 
Ct. hoth-an-duin (W. din\ * house on the hill ' ; if so, 
not the same word as Great Bowden, Market 
Harborough. 

BowBR (Wick), c. 1230, Bouer ; 1605, Boar ; O.N. hUr, Dan. 
huur^ O.E. hUr^ * house'; same root as our * bower' and 
'byre,' 

BowHiLL (Selkirk, and Colvend, Galloway). Sir H. Maxwell 
thinks, G. huaclmill (pron. boghel), boy, lit ' cowherd,' 
name often given in Ir. to standing stones. But as 
likely fr. Sc. 6ofr, the O.N. 6tf, farm, farm stock, cattle. 
Bn is found in Eng. a. 1300, Curs(yr Mundt, 6744. 

BowHOUSE (Polmont). * Cattle house.' See above. 

BowLAND (Galashiels). Prob. * cattle-land,' but some think 
corruption of Bor(e)land. 

Bowling (Dumbarton). Uncertain; possibly bowling or 
boiling (f r. bole^ trunk), old word for * a pollard ' (tree). 
Cf, Bowling Bank, Wrexham, and Bowling Old Lane, 
Bradford, and Butt of Lewis. 

BowMORE (Islay). G. bdlh-rndry * big mound or house.' 

Bow OF Fife, Sic 1770. Fr. its shape ; O.E. boga^ Dan. bue, 
a bow. 

BowPRiB (Aberdour, Fife). 1320, Beaupr^, which is Fr. for 
*fine meadow.' Of, Bbauly. 

BoTNAG, or Bynack, Burn (Crathie). Prob. G. bonnag^ *a 
jump, a spring.' 

BoYNDiE (Banff), c. 1170, charter, church of Inver-^ofu/in. 
Prob. G. bonn duin^ * the foot of the hill.' 

BoYNE (Banff). G. bofhionn^ * white cow.' Cf. Aboynb. 

Brabstbrmire (Caithness). N. breiff bolstaffr, 'broad 
place ' + myrr, moor, bog. 

Bracadalb (Skye). 1498, Bracadoll. 1549, Vrakdill N. 



FLACE-yjJEia <:ff hiztlajh, -til 

brekica (confused wizh. G. 'jhn£U'\ uiL ■ infjxrefi. hda ir 
valley.' 

Bracara (Arisaig). Perfu G, nryui 'ccr^u ' ffliiirii'L zLuiiiiif'L 
haunch ' (of the hiLLi. 

Bracklixx Fall* (€aILijiiier<, <jL //"-'fi/' ''/;z;zf'- ' -^ntikla*!^ 
foamy pooL' W. /^(/y'/i. 

Bragho (Beith) and Baxco i D'm'- iitiui: .irui L'indeiL . T^e 
a pron, as in fate: proo. <■>. nru-ju-J}. 'ir±Y^h^' '-/. 
Craigo, and Breaerbx Ferrr.ihrtt;^,. wimiii i» Ir. rrHtt^jii 
rnhagh, 'wolf-field.' 

Braehead (Lanark, »fce.). O.X, ^/^i = O.E. bnium^ b(ya'tL\ 
the eyelid ; a brae is properly tKe *ceep bjink of a river 
('banks and braes o bjnnie I>Joa*); -h /itfciJy CXE. 
heafud. 

Braemar. 1560, the Bray of ilarre ; ^. 1610, Ptmt Brtve of 
>Iar; 1682, Brea-mair. See above: but in Highkml 
names rather through the G. hmighy 'the upper part/ 
then a ' brae ' or slope, a different root fr. hni or bnmi\ 

Braes, The (Skye), also Brae (Lerwick). See above : luttor 
certainly fr. O.N. ftra, the former is in G. Bn\igh. 

Braid (Edinburgh). 1165, Brade. G. and It. hnhjhaiii or 
hntgJiad, 'neck, gully,' referring to the glon whtnt* 
Hermitage of Braid now is, and = Braid R., Antrim. Tho 
gen. form hraghad has been transformed topo^^mphl- 
cally into a nomin., meaning *the upper part," fV. 
Breadalbane. 

Braidwood (Lanark). Braid is Sc. for * broad ' ; OM, hnl^l. 

Braigo (Islay). Prob. the *brae goe'or inlot (^,7'. M«A^ 
head). Goe is the Icel. f^a. 

Bran, Falls of (Dunkeld.) a. 1200, HtrnihhmuNh I'tolr. 
G. braorij * drizzling rain, a Hhowor/ iJnin wmr fh^ ff^fff^ 
of Fingal's dog; and O.In If^rrm i« a nivf^n, «*» ]u 
Brankill. 

Brander (L. Awe). G. Bran dohhar (ft tlur, Mlf^ /l^t^ 
Bran's water.' 

BrANDERBURGH (part of I>/HHif;Tn<'>ijth>. S*^/- rt^<^v^ . 'irr/f /;/. 
BORGUE. 

4 



50 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Branxholm (Hawick), a. 1400, Brancheshelm. Branks is 
prob. a man's name {cf. next). The Eng. branchy Fr. 
branclie, is found in Robert of Gloucester, 1297 ; + 0.E. 
and Dan holrrij small island in a river, Icel. hMm-y 
island ; also applied to rich land by a river's side. Cf. 
Branksome, Bournemouth, and Branxton, Coldstream. 

Brawl (Strathy, Thurso). c. 1375, Brathwell. Perh. 
* quern-shaped hill'; G. hrathy a quern, handmill, and 
mkecUlf a bare, round hill. 

Breadalbane (Perthsh.). c. 1600, Bredalban. G. Bragad 
or Braget Albainn, upper part or * hill district of Alban ' 
or Scotland (cf, Brabmar). This is prob. the Brunalban 
of Pict, Chron,, c. 970, the east slope or brae of Drum- 
alban (the great dividing ridge of Scotland) ; while in 
same Ghron, Brunhere or Bruneire (G. iar, west) is 
probably the west side. Brun is an old word for a 
bank or slope or brae {cf, Bruan), W. brynn, * a hill.' 
Alban did not include Argyle. 

Breakaghy (Beauly, Kincraig, and Caithness). Of, Charter 
re Don Valley, c. 1170, ^ Brecachath quod interpretatur 
campus distinctus coloribus.' G. breac achadh, * spotted 
or mottled field ' ; one of the very few cases where the 
second syllable of achadh is still represented in a place- 
name ; cf, 1 297, Garviagha or Garioch. 

Brbakish (Broadford). Perh. G. breac innisy * spotted 
island or meadow.' 

Brbcham Wood (Longformacus). So called because withes 
were cut here for draught-horse collars, in Sc. brechaniy 
M.E. berhoTriy perh. fr. O.E. beorg-auy to protect, -f- hame 
or henriy the iron guard of the collar. 

Brechin. Pron. Br^ehin. Sic a, 1150, but Pict, Chron.y 
ann. 966, Magna civitas Brechne (gen. case) ; c. 1000, 
Bk, Deer, Brecini (ibid.); 1435, Brequin. Perh. contains 
G. breac, * spotted, speckled'; or possibly fr. a man, 
Brachan or Brychan. Of. Skene, Celtic ScotL, ii. 36, 
ed. 1887. 
Brbich (Holytown). G. bredch, * the brim, brink.' 
Brbrachan Glen (Pitlochry). Also spelt Briarachan; c. 
1392, Glenbrerith. Prob. G. brathair achanna, 'friar's 
(lit. brother's) fields.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 51 

Bressat (Shetland). Perh. O.N. h'edr-ay, 'Kjland of the 
crack ' or ' burst ' ; less likely fr. O.N. brjSd, Hw, hrM, 
and 80, * island like a breast.' Possibly ' Brenti's inle/ 

Bridgeness (Bo'ness). Pron. Brignes, no bridge here ; proh, 
G. hreac^ 'spotted/ + ness. 

Bridge op Allan, Deb, Dun, Earn, Rot, Turk, Weir, ^.v. 

Brims or Brins Ness (Thurso). 1559, Brymmis, O.N, and 
O.E. hriTn, * surf, or the sea ' ; « is the genitive. 

Broadford (Skye). * Broad frith' or fjord; IceL l/reid^, 
fjOrS-Ty Sw. and Dan. bred fiord. Of. Strangford Iy>tigh. 
But Broadland, Caimie, is a corruption of Bordland. 

Brodick (Arran). c. 1306, Brathwik; 1488, Bradcwik. 

IceL breid'^ vik, 'broad bay'; broad in 13th and 14th 

century Eng. was hra'l{e). 
Brodie (Nairn). Sic 1311; 1380, Brothie. Prob. G. 

broihach, ' muddy.' Cf, Arbroath. Its other name is 

Dtke, which is thought to be a translation. 

Brooar (Stennis). Perh. M.E. brad garth, * broad yard ' or 
garden ; or fr. O.N. brd, the eyelid, a brae. 

Brooklands (Kirkcudbright). Also near Manchester. O.E. 

br6c, ' a brook.' 
Broom (loch in west of Ross, and Pitlochry). Loch B., 1227, 

Braon; 1569, Breyne; 1573, Brune; 1586, Brume; 

1682, Loch Broom or Brian. G. braoriy 'drizzling rain, 

dew.' 771 and n often interchange. 

Broomhill (Lenzie and Inverness), Broomhouse (Lanark), 
Broomlee (Dolphinton). Fr. O.E. brom, ' broom,' same 
root as bramble ; lee is O.E. leak, pasture, fallow-land. 

Broomieknowe (Lasswade), Broomknows (Berwicksh.), and 
Broomielaw (Glasgow). ' Broom-clad hill ' (see Knowk) ; 
Sc. late is O.E. hldew, a hill. 1325, Bromilaw. Dr 
Murray gives no quotation for 'broomy ' a. 1647. 

Brora (Golspie). 1542, Broray; 1595, Browra. *Bridgii 
river'; O.N. bru, Dan. and Sw. bro, ^en. brofir, n 
bridge, and aa^ a river. Once the only irniMirtant 
bridge in Sutherland was here. 

Brouoh (Thurso, also Brough Ness, S. Ii/>naldK;iy, and lirough 
of Birsay, an islet). Thurs^i B., 1500, linicbt. By 



52 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

common transposition of r fr. O.N. and Dan. 6orr/ = O.E. 
burhf a castle, a fort, a * broch * (cf, Borgue and Burg- 
head). There is a Brough in Yorks., near Kirby 
Stephen. 

Broughton (village now part of Edinburgh, and near Biggar). 
Edinb. B., 1128, Broctima; c. 1200, Brouhtune; then 
Bruchton, which is still the vulgar pron. Prob. as 
above, + O.E. tun, village. Of course, O.E. hroc is a 
badger. 

Broughty (Dundee). 1595, Brochty ; 1629, Bruchtie. 
Prob. G. bruach-taibhy *bank of the Tay,' or possibly 
' brink of the ocean.' G. Tabh means either, and the 
site well admits of either meaning. Perh. = Brough 
Tay. 

Broxburn (Bathgate) and Broxmouth (Dunbar). 1094, 
Bix)ccesmuthe. * Brock's bum' and * mouth'; O.E. 
G. and Ir. broc, a badger. Cf, Brockly, Kinross, and 
Broxboume, Herts. 

Bruan (Wick). Old G. for * a bank.' See Breadalbane. 

Bruar, Falls of (Blair Athole). Mr M'Lean, Pitilie, recog- 
nises here no G. root. But Mr Jas. Macdonald derives 
Caim-a-Bruar, Cabrach, fr. old G. brotliaire (th mute), 

* a cauldron.' No doubt this is the same ; root bruitJi, to 
boil. Cf, K. Brue, Somerset. 

Brucklay (New Deer), c. 1220, Brachlie; 1654, Bruclaw. 

Perh. fr. G. brachy a bear, afterwards confused with G. 

and O.E. broc, a badger ; hence G. brodach and broduidh, 

a warren, * badger's den,' cavern. Cf, Brockly, Kinross, 

and Brockley, Cavan. 
Bruichladdich (Argyle). G. bruach chladaidi, *bank on 

the shore ' or stony beach. 

Brunton (Cupar). Old, Bryantoun, after some Norman. 
Brydekirk (Annan). Same as Kilbride and Lhanbryde, 

* Church of St Brigida ' or Bridget, contemporary of St 
Patrick. 

BuACHAiLL (StafFa) and Buachaill Eite (L. Etive). G., 

* The Shepherd of Etive,' fr. bo-ghille, cow-herd. 

BuccLEiicH (St Mary's Loch), a. 1600, Bockcleugh, Buck- 
cleuch. * Buck's glen,' fr. O.E. buc, O.N. bukk-r, Dan. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 53 

huh, male of the goat or fallow-deer, + Sc. detujh ^En^. 
dough, early Eng. dou, dog, a cleft, ravine, gorge. Cf. 
Doecleugh, and Wolf-cleuch near by, and Catcleuch, 
Bonnybridge. However, the original name was Bal- 
cleiich, which is prob. G. hail duidie, 'house of the 
sports ' or * funeral solemnities.' 

BucHAX (Aberdeen and MmigafF). Abdn. B., »ie in Bk, Deer, 
a. 1000 j c. 1295, Bouwan; 1601, Baugham. Perk G. 
baoghan, *a calf '; but Minig. B., like Bohaun, Gal way, 
is fr. G. bothan (pron.. bohan), *a little hut.' 

Buchanan (S. of L. Lomond), c. 1240, Buchquhanane ; 
1296, Boughcanian; 1562, Bowhanan. Possibly fr, fk 
hogh, *a bow or bend,' cf. Bothkennar; but prob. G, 
hoth-Orchanain, * house of the canon.' 

BucHANxr (on R. Almond). Possibly Ptolemy's Banatia; 

perh. G. baoghan-tigh, * calf-house.' 
Bucharx. See Boharm. 

BucHLfviB (Aberfoyle), also Easter and Wester Buchltvib 
(Aberdour, Fife). Aberd. B., old, Boclavies; possibly 
G. both lamhaidi, * house for shooting or slinging,' or 
' house of swords,' i.e.. Armoury. The last part may be 
fr. sliabh, * a moor.' Phonetically this would suit. 

Bucket (trib. of R. Don). 1654, Buchet. 1 G. bucaid, *a 
bucket, pimple, knob.' 

BucKHAVEX (licven). Founded c. 1555; said to be fr. G. 
beicc, a roar, 'roaring, stormy haven,' because of the 
breakers outside ; cf. the huckie shell, so called because 
of the roaring or booming it makes. Haven is O.E. 
hcefen, Dan. havn, 

BucKHOLMSiDB (Galashiels). 'Buck's pasture.' See Buc- 
CLEUCH and Branxholm. 

BucKrE (Banff) and Buckibs (Glen Quiech). G. bucaidh, lit. 
' a pimple, a knob.' 

BuDDOx Ness (Barry). Prob. same as Bodden Point, near 
Montrose, which is prob. G. both dun^ * hut hill ' ; for 
hardening of th, cf. Brodie. 

Buittle (Castle-Douglas). 1296, B^jtel (pcrh. not tliia H.). 
1572, Butill. Prob. O.E. botl « O.N. bol (fur bfjdl), 'a 



54 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

dwelling/ spelt a. 1200 huttUy found in Nbwbattlb, old 
Newbotil, <fec. Cf, Bootle, Liverpool. 

BuLLERS OF BucHAN (Peterhead). A raging, rocky recess, in 
which the sea boils as in a cauldron. Sw. buller, noise, 
roar, Dan. Imlder, tumbling noise. G. Douglas in 1513 
uses this as a Sc. word, bullyer, 

BuLLiONFiBLD (Dundee). 1509, Bulyeoun. Presumably fr. 
hvllion^ found in Eng., 1463, as holy on, Fr. hovloriy a 
knob or boss of metal, fr. houle, a ball. 

BuNAVEN (Islay). G. hun aihhne, *foot or mouth of the 
river.' 

BuNAVOULiN (Morven). * At the foot or end of the mill ' ; 
G. bun-na-mhuilinn. 

Buna WE (Argyle), or Bona we. * Bottom, foot, root ' (G. hun^ 
bonn) * of the R. Awe.' 

BuNCHREW (Inverness). G. hun chraohh, * at the foot of the 
trees,' fr. G. craobhy a tree. 

BuNESSAN (Mull). * At the foot of the little waterfall ' ; G. 
easan. Of, Moressan, Aberfoyle. 

BuNKLE (Berwickshire), c. 1130, Bonekil = Bonkle. 

BuNRANNOCH. * Lower part,' 'reaches (G. hun) of Ran- 
noch.' 

BuNROY. * Red end ' ; G. ruadh. Of, Bogroy. 

BuRDiEHOUSE (Edinburgh and Beith). Always said to be 
* Bordeaux house,' fr. some Fr. settlers ; but who these 
were, history does not record ; ? weavers. 

BuRGHBAD (Elgin). G pron. hard ; site of a borg (see Borgue) 
built by the Norse c. 880. They called the cape 
Torfnses. 

BuRGiE (Moraysh.). c. 1240, Burgyn. Perh. O.E. hf/rgen ; 
later hurien, * a tomb.' In Sc. hurian is now a tumulus 
or hill-fort. 

Burn of Cambus. O.E. huma, O.N. hrvnn-r, a bum or brook, 
lit. a spring or fountain; also in Med. L., e.^., c. 1160, 
Melrose Chart, ^ * ad bumam de fauhope.' See Cambus. 

BuRNBANK (Lanarksh.) and Burnbrae (Methven and Fal- 
kirk). See above, and Braehead. 



PLiCZ-^'lMBS • F FCCTT.ANR 



OO 



BuH>'^rorTH ■: Zerrro k :. ' >" n. i »ia ■ » vimieaniuize : >l •/••'*-'- 

rkciuim. •:in.'n .t^nL 
BnumsL^Ti 71:2:. "'-.-< — — - ^r r:— - <ir,: -r-^ 

"o -tie Ti^z r "*ui ' rt^eci: -ir^ z:. ^^-Z-j. ^7"' 
-eni^ a ne ';nr,:;ir.n. - - -^le; _ . "- "^ 



L.— *• — i'^ ' 



58 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Cairnib or -BY (Huntly). G. caimeach, * stony groui 
cam, a loose heap of stones. 

Cairnnorrib (Methlie, Aberdeen). Prob. 'east cai 
hill ' ; G. iwiVf the east. 

Cairnryan (Wigtown). See Ryan. The name of 
village till c. 70 years ago was Macharysk^eg ; but 
Postmaster-General changed it then. 

Cairntablb (Muirkirk). Perh. G. cdm tahhail, *cair 
the sling.' But see next. 

Cairn Toul (Aberdeen). G. cam fsabhail (pron. W), * Ci 
of the, or like the, bam.' The hill near by is cal 
* Bam.' But Carrantual, Killamey, is fr. Ir. ttiatlu 
left-handed, meaning *hill like a reverted sicki 
(carran), 

Caithness, a. 970, Fid. Chron,, Kathenessia ; a. 100 
Bk. De&t\ Catness; c. 1100, Irish Nennitts, Cat; ( 
1130, Sim. Durham, ann. 934, Cathenes; 123ii 
Kataness; 1329, Cathanesia. In O.N. Catanes, bu 
in Orkney. Sag. simply Ness; Naze, nose or 'ness Ox 
the Cataibh,' old G. locative of cat, 'among the cats.* 
Why the men here were so called is unknown. Cait, 
Gatt, Got, was the legendary son of the eponymous 
Cruithne, 'father of the Picts.' Rhys think Cait or 
Gatt may be connected with Bede's Urhs Givdi or 
Inchkeith. Gaels call it Gallaibh, 'strangers' land.' 
Quite possible is the derivation fr. O.N. kati, gen. kata, 
a kind of small ship ; cf. Catacol and Cattegat. 

Calava.Bay (Sutherland). Tautology, Icel. kfala-r vdg-r, 
' keel bay.' 

Caldale (Kirkwall). Prob. fr. Icel. and Sw. kol, 'coal'; 
abundance of peat found there. Otherwise, fr. Icel. 
kald-'r, Sw. kail, 'cold.' 

CaJjDBR (loch, &c., near Thurso; East, Mid, and West 
Calder, Midlothian ; and Water, near Airdrie). Thurso 
C, c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Kalfadal (? 'calf's glen,' fr 
Icel. kdlf-r, Sw. kalf) ; but Midi. C, 1250, Kaldor, 
some Southern C. is spelt in GhaHvl. P< 
Kaledour; also 1293, Caldovere; 1294, Caldc 
coille dohhar or dur, 'wood by the water or 8 




PLACS-TirAMBS OF SCOTLAND. 0^ 

Cf. Caddeb, Cawdoh, Scotscaldhe, CoiL Ir. -aiU. t 
wood, in placeHiames, aeema ott«i to become -ai. -lee 
below. 

OALDERCRUiX (Bathgate). Pron. -erooks : LZiBL -irmkia. 
* The crooks ' or windmgs of the R. ("ctider. 

Caldwell (Renfrew). Presumably " u^ld ^eiL zr. ^•. imna. 
O.K crt/t/, IceL kald-r. Cf. Coidweils* Lmaea. 

Calkdonlax Canal (Inverness). The name L' u^Aoma rirs^ 
occurs m Tacitus, AgricoltL, c*. .^0 a.3. Cr. DrTTSELD. 

Calf (Eday, Orkney), also Calf op iluLL - T inermfjry^ uia 
Calva (islet bi W. of Sutherland;. Orsnev <:. n S. 
chrons., Kalf-ey. Mull C. in do.* My'-arrg.tt fr in • r. J:7» 
calbh). IceL hdlf-r, Sw. Ara/r, 'a eaii. hencti. * t ^snail 
islet near a large one ^ ('_/. ' Caif «jf Man : — -^y jr /?/ 
N. suffix for ' island.' 

California (Polmont). Fancy name, 

Callander (S. Perthsh. and Falkirk. FiL «J. Iln-k 
Calentare; 1296, -tyr; c. 13o«j. CaZiiJirctr- F t.T-f -ri. 
Muiravon, and Polmont district w-is -'^nce ':;t.re*i Calanrra^ 
e.(/., in Ailred of Rievaux, <r- 11^5: zi Ir. \.Tr.a»r>> 
Calathros, said to be Jr. cabith rc-.^. * nari v^tfi ' ; <izji 
this name is often thought the aaiL>? ac^ OjJI*ii:ri*rr. 
Early forms do not encourage thi>. Th^ey k« k like ii. 
caill an tir, ' wood on the land.' Tnis sf^uiyi^ awkward : 
so perh. cailleanach tir, ' district, land hill \>i reeds <>r 
husks of grain,' G. caillean. However, M'Riiu derives 
both this and Calder fr. root ccd, * sound, call.' 

Callernish (W. of Lewis). The same as the Icel. * Kjalar- 
ness,' * keel cape ' ; cf, Calava. 

Calligrat (Harris). Prob. G. coUl na tjreaich^ *wood on 
the high flat.' Cf. Auchbngray. 

Cally, Bridge of (Blairgowrie). G. caillearh, a nun. 6^. 
Benchallie, not far off. 

Calrossie (Feam). G. calbh romn^ *bare, bald little 
promontory.' 

Calton (Edinburgh and Glasgow). Prob. (i. mlUuinn^ or 
calldainn^ *a hazel or hazel-coi>se.' 



60 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Calvinb (Blair Athole). G. coille mhine (fr. mtn), ' smooth 
woods.' 

Cambo (CraU). 1327, -bov. G. cam, ' crooked/ and? bogh, ' a 
bend.' Gf. Cambo, Northumbld., 1298, Cambhou, 
Camou. 

Cambus (Stirling). Adamnan mentions an Ait-Chambns 
near Adnamurchan. G. and Ir. camvs, * a bay, creek, 
crook.' For intrusion of 6, cf, Cameron, Cromarty, 
and Cumbernauld. Also cf. Old Cambus. 

Cambusbarron (Stirling). 1215, -barroun; c. 1270, -run. 

* Bend at the little height,' G. harran ; possibly camus- 
barr-abhuinn (pron. 5wn), *bend at the height over 
the river.' Cambnsdrenny (G. draighneach, * thorns') 
refers to the same crook of the Forth. 

Cambuscurry Bat (Tain). Sic 1487. *Bay of the glen'; 
G. coire, Cf, Currie. 

Cambusdoon (Ayr). * Bend of the R. Doon.' 

Cambuskenneth (Stirling). Sic 1147; a. 1150, Cambus- 
kinel; 1296, Cambusshenel. 'Bend of Kenneth' or 
Canice, in Adamnan, Cainnachus, friend of Colmnba, 
and patron of KiVcejiny. 

Cambuslang (Glasgow). 1344, Camyslang. * Creek of the 
boat or ship,' G. long, confused with Sc. and O.E. langy 

* long.' Also cf, LONGFORGAN. 

Cambusmore (The Mound). 'Big bay' (Loch Fleet); G. 
camus mdr. 

Cambusnethan (Lanarksh.). a. 1153, Kambusnaythan ; c, 
1200, Neithan. ' Bend of Nechtan ' ; in Bede ' Naiton,' 
perh. he who was king of the Picts c. 700. Cf. 
Nenthorn. 

Cambus o' May (Aberdeensh.). G. camvs a maigh, ' crook 
in the plain.' Cf. May, in Mochrum parish, and 

ROTHIEMAY. 

Camelon (Falkirk, and Balmaghie, Galloway). [977, Hist. 
Britonum, 'Gueith {i.e. the battle of) Camlann in qua 
Aruthur et Medrant corruere.' This Camlann, W. cam 
llan, * crooked enclosure,' must have been in S. Britain.] 
Originally Carmutrs; 1526 Boece, erroneously. 



PLACK-5AXI5 -? SjljTL^x^T. )1 

Cuneloduniim: htrn.^ IV.-T. ^r-^-.i^-^ • '.lEieiiaone : l.".*IM, 
B-ii^^n^leny Canit^ :c. 1 . JT". /../**, N*^w • '.Luieion. 
Yjr^cal pron. Kiiaul c k? j: •^. 'tvTi • m. • ^Ttv^Kofi UiirHu 
ivferriny: to a ^uTir r "iit^ jfiTiiiru 3«»i£. ' '^ L.uniiiiL:, 

^-arsphiiim ; Canic-Zlt:- 7~ q^:trii ina F. n rrnn ^ Now 

Luce. 

V!iMEROx (Fife and Sdrlin^- . >rrn- iL, i. I2<'<). Cdmi)niUii. 
Fife C, r. 1320, C-i^-r-.c «:4hi7. Gilla Cimhnnii : 
1594-, 'clan chantrcc' T^^ere is ril^io ejirly aieucuju 
o! a KambrouiL near Crii^m-iHajr. ♦.Tt^neriZv "Siid to b^ 
G. catiimjn^ 'crooked i>:«5e': in whioii a: ilix'ar iou iKWiJS^ 
make the ^ mute. For inaTi>ri»:*i of % ♦•r. Caxbl'5> {^ud 
Cambo ; also cf. CampVielL But Wb. Stoketj :?ay>:s prv>K 
* crooked hill.' For G. hrun, see Brkadairaxk. 

('AMLicHiE (Glasgow). Prob. G. eamadh lathaich, lit. 
•crook or bending of the puddle' or swampy plaoo. 
A zigzag bum used to flow here. If the name were fr. 
the adj. cam, 'crooked/ the accent would bo on tho 
first syllable. 

Campbeltown (Kintyre and Fort George). Kint. ()., naujed 
f- 1598, fr. Duke of Argyle, head of the CLm Cauiphcjj. 
Crom. C, named in 1623 after John D. (Jai/iplxjj of 
(^ alder. Campbell occurs in chroriw. a*j De MIo oiinjfj ^ 
Nf'niL Besiuchitnip or * Fairtield * : and a* tf^vly a* *S///. 
/>'//''/i/ >, aiiTL lll'L we fii-d •G:.!:*:!^:. ^ de <,aijijx; ..-, 

Ea:i.r> -/ A •«-:lI-r-*;i:'j C<iL^''j^-_ ll',v «m.a-l ^v^i-..- .v.< 

- '- ^ -•'--' >:^ 



Camth:, ¥- 


I'--!- 


1^ 


. 


^^..^. 


"^r. 


•^ 


"-iT 


^UL»T3I2 L. 


.L -_ 


-- 


t : '. 


'yr^ju\ - 


». TL'r 




K 


^Ajn-2 :..^ 


' ir i 


f.l' 


l»^t' 


''i4i* 


j_ *• 


*^ 


f ..'^ 



62 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Camstraddan (L. Lomond). * Crooked lanes ' ; G. sraddariy 
pi. of sraid. 

Camusnagaul (Fort William). 'Creek or bend of the 
stranger ' ; G. galL Here we get the mod. G. spelling 
of Cambus. 

Camustown (Forfarshire). A curious hybrid (see above). 

Canisbay (John o* Groat's House), c. 1240, Cananesbi ; 
1274, Cranesby ; 1455, Cannasby. A * crane ' in IceL is 
trani, Dan. trane; so 1274 is prob. a mistake. Font's 
map, c. 1610, gives Conansbay, which Dr Jos. Anderson 
thinks shows the name is fr. an early Celtic chief, 
Conan; but the earliest form makes it most likely = 
* canon's place.' Canon is found c. 1205 in Layamon 
as a name for a clergyman. Bay is the northern form 
of the Dan. and O.E. by or bi, a village. See p. Ixxii, 
and cf, Duncansbay. 

Canisp Ben (Assynt). ? N. kenna ups, * well-known house- 
roof,' fr. its shape. 

Canna (Arisaig). 1549, Kannay. Prob. * island like a can 
or pot ' ; O.N. and Sw. kanna, O.E. canne, G. cunna, a 
can, + a or ay or ey, N. for 'island.' Gf. Canna Mill, 
Wooler. 

Canny, R. (Banchory, Kincardine). Perh. fr. St Kenneth (see 
Cambuskennbth) ; G. cannach is sweet-willow, myrtle. 

Canonbib (Dumfries). 1290, Canenby and Canneby. 
'Canon's town ' = Canisbay ^ O.E. canonic^ M.E. canon 
or -un. An Austin priory founded here in 1165. 

Canty Bay (North Berwick). Prob. G. ceann-tighe, ' head of 
the house, i.e., chieftain.' G. cann-thigh is a strawberry. 

Capplbgill (Moffat). 'Chapel glen'; N. kapilla-gil (gee 
Auchingill). Shows how far inland Scandinavian 
influence went. 

Caputh (Dunkeld). Pron. Kayptlt; *full of heights like 
shoe-lasts,' fr. G. ceap, a last, as in Edinkyp, Loch 
Earn ; so Rev. J. McLean. Gf. Caputhall, Bath^te. 

Carbery (Inveresk). Said to be fr. Gairbre, son of Niall of 
the nine hostages; common in Ireland. Quite possibly 
a tautology fr. W. caer, a fort, + Eng. burgJi, bury ; see 
TuRNBERRY, and cf. Bbrribdalb. 



Tjr'mir tprnn. -ii: 

3HDDEB. 

Cahhbook Plean^ _- 
rmdnLit 



' ■ if ne. •rr.-n '"^ ' 

< -'aEERu-a - - 

-'IK-. ^ 



•-a££-~' 



€4 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Ca(e)rlanrig (Hawick). See below, and Drumlanrig. 

€a(b)rlavbrock (Dumfries). Sic 1299. W. caer, a fort; 
laverock is Sc. for a lark ; O.E. Idwerce, or -ferce. Some 
think fr. Lywarch-Ogg (or ' the little '), son of Ly warch 
Hen, lord in Nithsdale, c. 600. Possibly fr. G. leamh- 
reach, * elm- wood.' 

Carleton (3 in Galloway, Colmonell). A 13th cny. charter 
is said to have Karlaton, which, like the Eng. Carletons, 
must be O.E. ceorla tUn^ * churls', serfs' dwelling.' But 
for most of the Sc. places the old form Cairiltoun occurs 
(Whitlwm Priory Rentals). This shows the origin to 
be * Ton of the Cairils,' who came fr. Antrim to Carrick, 
it is said, in 1095. They are still represented in Gallo- 
way by the M*Kerlies. Cf, Minnie Carlie (fr. G. moine, 
a moss) on Carleton Fell. 

Carlonan Linn (Inveraray). Perh. G. cdrr lonain, * rock of 
prattling, foolish talk,' and G. linne, * a pool.' 

Carlops (Penicuik). c. 1425, Wyrdoun, Karlynlippis. 

* Carline's loup,' * old woman's leap,' fr. northern M.E. 
and O.N. kerling, *old woman'; fem. of Karl, assimi- 
lated with carl, Sc. for churl ; -ing in Sc. is usually -m' 
(cf, waddin'= wedding, &c.), + Zow^, Sc. for a leap, O.N. 
hlaup (cf, O.E. hledpan, past tense Jdedp, Icel. Maupa, 
to leap). Carlops Hill, Dean, and Bum, ancient 
names; village only founded in 1784. Cf, Carlinwark, 
old name of Castle Douglas. 

€arloway (Lewis). 1716, Carlvay. N. Karla-vag-r, 

* Karl's bay,' or simply, ' men's bay.' Cf, Stornoway. 

Carlowrib (Kirkliston). G. cctrr labhairadh (pron. lowra), 

* rock of the echo,' lit. * of speaking.' Cf, Craiglowrie, 
Galloway. 

Oarlukb (Lanarksh.). c, 1320, Carneluke; 1567, Carlouk. 
1 ' Cairn of St Luke.' Its old name was Eglismalescoch 
(cf. Lbsmahagow, near by), i.e., * Church of 1 ' The 
ma is prob. the endearing prefix, and -och the dimin. 
(see p. cv) ; so Lesc may be the name here corrupted 
into Luke. 

Oarmichael (Lanark). c. 1180, Kermichael; c, 1250, 
Karemigel. W. caer (Armor, caer, her) Michael, 

* Michael's fort.' 



PLACB-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 65 

CarmiJirs (Falkirk). 1458, Duae Carmuris; 1632, Wester 
and Easter Carrmure. Prob. G. cathair, W. caer, *a 
fort' — there was one here in Roman days; and muir 
O.E., Icel. and Dan. mor, *a moor, heath, or marsh,' a 
word early adopted into G. However, Dalmuir is fr. 
G. 77idr, 'big.' 

Carmunnock (Glasgow), c. 1177, Cormannoc. Prob. G. 
coire manaich, *glen or corrie of the monk.' 

Carmyle (Lanarksh.) and Carmtlie (Forfar). Lanarksh. C, 
c. 1240, Kermill; 1510, Cermyle. G. cdrr rnaol, *bare, 
rounded rock.' Cf. Myl, spelling of Mull in the sagas. 
Of course -mill may be the gen. of G. meally a hill ; the 
Car- will then mean * fort ' ; thus, * fort on the hill.' 

Carnbeb (Anstruther). c. 1450, Cambe ; 1457, Camebene. 
Looks like G. cdrr na bein, * rock of the hide ' or wild 
beast's skin. 

Carnbo (Kinross). Sie c, 1210. *Rock or mound of the 
cattle'; G. bo. 

Carn Dsaro, Leac, &c. (Invemess-sh.). G = ' red cairn or 
mound,' * cairn of the flag or tombstone,' &c. 

Carnegde (Carmyle). c. 1350, Carinnegi. *Fort at the 
gap ' ; G. eagy eige, ' a gap, nick or hack.' 

Carnetht (Pentland HiUs). W. c(ier Necktan, *King 
Nechtan's fort ' or * rock ' ; see Cambusnbthan ; though 
Rhys says W. cameddi, * cairns.' 

Carnock (Dunfermline, Airth, and Ross-sh.). St N. C, 1185 
Jocdyn, Kemach. Dunf. C, 1215, Carnock; 1250, 
Kemoch. Airth C, 1449, Crannok ; 1468, Kemok. G. 
cameaehy ' a rocky place, a quarry ' ; G. cranna/f is * a 
pulpit.' 

CARNOUflms (Arbroath). Perh. G. catltair, carry or cam na 
fheuBUiy * Fort, rock, or cairn of the feant ' ; fh lost by 
aspiration. 

Carntyne (Glasgow). ?c. 1200, Prenteineth, Dwibtfiil, Cf, 
Premnat and Tyne. It seems Brythonic. 

Cabnwath (Laoarksh.). c. 1165, Oiamewid ; 1174, Kar- 
newic ; 1186, Came with ; ?c. 12^»'', Kamebuth. W. ram 
gtcydd (pron. with), 'cairn, UiO-ind ar/jonj^ the nliniJ^f/r 

5 



66 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

woods ' ; cf, Icel. vith-r^ O.Dan, wede, Dan. ved, a wood, 
a tree. 

Garot (Skye). G. cdrr ruadhy ' red rock.' Of. Rob Roy. 

Garpow (Abemethy). Prob. the ancient Gairfull, which is 
W. caer pwl^ * rock or fort at the pool.' Gf, Powburn. 

Garradale (Kintyre and Skye). C. in Kintyre, like the 
neighbouring Glen Risdalb, might mean 'copsewood- 
valley,' N. Igarry copse, brushwood. Only there is a 
R Garra, and river names are rarely N. ; so perh. 
cognate with Ir. and G. carraig or carvy *a rock, a cliff.' 

Garrbridoe (Aviemore). G. can-j * a pillar, stone, or rock.' 

Garrigk (Ayrsh. and Lochgoilhead). Ayrsh. G., Taltesgin, 
Garrawgj c 1200, Karic; 1286, Carryke. G. and Ir. 
carraig^ *a sea-cliff or rock.' Compoimds very com- 
mon in Ireland and in Galloway, where, e.g., we have 
Carrick-aboys, -cow, -glassen, <kc. 

GXrrIdbn (Bo'ness). c. 560, Gildas^ Gair Eden, and prob. 
in Brit, Triads, Gaer Eiddyn ; 1250, Karedin. W. caer, 
G. cathair, * fort on the slope or hillside ' ; 0. W. eiddyn. 
Cf, G. aodann, front, face; and Dunedin, or Edin- 
burgh. 

Garrington (Edinburgh). 1296, Keryngton. Prob. from 
some man ; 1 * the descendants of Kerr or Carr.' 

Garron (Falkirk, Elgin, W. Ross-sh.). Falk. C., prob. O.E. 
Chron,, ann. 710, Caere ; c. 1200, Karun ; 1208, Caroun. 
Ross-sh. G., prob. seen in tribes, Gamones and Gerones, 
mentioned by Ptolemy, c. 120, in this region. Either 
G. car ahhuinn (pron. <5wn), * bending, winding river,' fr. 
car, *a turn or winding'; or perh. fr. same root as 
carranuich, *to separate or stir up.' But the Ir. 
Garrons are corruption of Ir. and G. cam, cairn, rock. 

Carronflats and Garronshorb (Falkirk). 1552, Garroim- 
flat. Latter founded c. 1750. The Garron is a tidal 
river even above this. 

Garr Rooks (Grail and Berwick-on-Tweed). Tautology ; G. 
cdrr, W. caer, Armor, ker, cear, also O.E. (in Lindis- 
fame Chsp., c. 950) carr, * a rock ' {cf. Ir. carraig, sea- 
cliff, rock). Car- is in some Ir. place-names, Carlow, 



PLAGE-NAUSS OF SCOTLAND. 67 

&c., though not in the Irish dictionaries. Carr is 
perh. cognate with scaur. 

Car(r)uber (Linlithgow, also farm in Fife). * Fort by the 
marsh,' O.G. abar. * William of Caribris ' was Bailie of 
Edinburgh in 1454. 

Cabbuthebs (Ecclefechan) and Caruthsrstonb (Lockerbie), 
c. 1350, Caer Ruther, 'fort of R,' an old Celt. The 
final syllable is O.E. turiy tune, village. QT. Karruderes, 
? Berwicksh., Raine's, N, Durham, append. 39. 

Carsebrbck (Auchterarder) and Cabsbthobn (Kirkcudbright). 
See Cabse ; G. breac is * speckled, mottled.' 

Cabse op Abdebsieb (Cromarty), op the Fobth, of Gowbik 
(Forfar), op Stbowan, also Fbiab's Cabse (Dumfries). 
Dr Murray^s earliest quotation is fr. Barbour, 1375, 
'kerss'; but in charter of Wm. Lion, c. 1200, we find 
* Filio Walteri Falconer in lie Carse de Gowrie,' and in 
oath of fealty to Edward I., 1296, * Johan Strivelyn de 
Cars' ( = C. of Forth). In Sc. still called hersa, as in 
Kerse, Grangemouth. It means 4ow, alluvial land 
along a river.' Root doubtful ; prob. O.N. carr, Dan. 
kaer, also W. cora, pool, marsh, fen-land, Icel. I^arr, 
copse-wood; common in M.E. as carr, Cf, Hungry 
Kerse, Br. of Allan, and Kersie (1195, Carsyn), S. Alloa. 

Cabshoglb (Hill, Thomhill). Possibly by common trans- 
position of r, G. crasg (or croag) oglaich, 'pass or 
crossing of the soldier'; lit. a youth. Cf. Abngask, 
and Carsegour, old Caskygour, Kinross. More prob. 
cathair seagail, * fort among the rye.' 

Cabsket (Kintyre). G. cathair sgeaig, *fort among the 
hawthorns.' 

Cabsphaibn (Kirkcudbright). * Cabse with the alders ' ; G. 
feama. 

Cabstaibs (Lanarksh.). 1170, Casteltarres ; c. 1250, 
Castrotharis ; 1510, Carstaris ; 1536, Castarris ; 1540, 
Castalstaris. O.E. castel (or G. caisteal) Terras, *T.'s 
castle or fort'; but see Castlebay. Terras is still 
a Sc. surname; and cf, * Tarrisholme,' 1376, in 
Liddesdale. 



68 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Cart, R. (Renfrewsh.). The Black and White Cart join 
to form the R. Cart ; G. caraid, * a pair.' The Water 
of Kilmarnock is also called Carth, for it, too, forms a 
pair of streams. Cf. Cartmel, Lancashire. M'Bain 
connects with W. earth, * scouring.* 

Carter Fell and Haugu (Cheviots). Sic a. 1540. G. ccur 
tiVy * twisting, undulating land.' 

Cartland Crags (Lanark). 

Cartsdykb (Greenock). 

Carwhinblow, R. (S. Dumfriessh.). Prob. W. caer Groen- 
doleic, 'fort of G.,' leader in the Battle of Ardderyd, 
573. 

Cashel Dhu (Sutherland). G. and Ir. caisecU, 'circular 
stone fort,' + G. dubJi, ' black, dark.' Fifty * Cashels ' in 
Ireland ; cognate with L. castellum, 

Caskardy. Prob. G. gasc dtrde, 'nook, hollow by the 
height.' Cf, Gask. Others derive fr. casg, 'a stopping, 
a limit.' 

Caskiebbn (Aberdeen). Prob. G. (jasc-Orheinn, * nook between 
the hills.' Cf. above, and ' Kaskybaran ' ( = wa beama), 
Fife, ' opening betwen high lands.' 

Cassilis (Maybole). Prob. G. and Ir. caisecUy ' a wall, a castle,' 
with the Eng. pi. s. 

Castlebay (Uist). In dealing with some names containing 
castle, it needs to be remembered O.E. castd originally 
was = L. castellum, the Vulgate N.T.'s translation of Gr. 
KtafiTf, 'village' or 'ton'; only through Norman 
influence did it come to mean ' a fortress.' Cf, Freeman, 
Nor, Conq,, ii. app. S. 

Castlb Campbell (Dollar). Formerly 'Castell Gloume' 
(?=sG. goch leum, mad leap). Name changed in 1489, 
after its owner, first Earl of Argyle. 

Castlbcary (Falkirk.) Sic 1450, but c. 1200, Castelcarris 
{Lennox Charters), Prob. a tautology fr. W. caer, ' fort.' 
Old Roman fort here. 

Castlb Cavan (Perthsh.). Old G. cabhan, a field, Ir. cabhan, 
a hollow, 'hollow place.' Common in Irish names, but 
not cognate with cabin. 



PLACE-XAMES OF SOOTLAXTV €^ 

Castle Douglas. Modem. Sir Wkl. iKiz^li^ vi*? l^-fli 
largely here, chaoged the uhzrtt fr. Cirlzivaii. Cj\ 
Castle Kennedy (Stranneri 

Castlemilk (Dumfries and Glasgow l L^^ .^-fs C- 1IS9, 
Kastelniila Glas. C 1S87, C*sul ii^ylke. See Abes- 
milk and Casilkbat. 

Castle Stalker (Appin). On T>laT>i Stalker. #i>! l-x»l 
(G. EUem-an-staleaire^ * Mcoos' s iale " u fr. O.EL fitjeLcai^ 
Dan. stalhe^ to go warily, stalk. Satid to hare been 
built for James IV.'s hunting e3q)editi<>nsu 

Castle Swen (Knapdale). La old Ir. MS. />*/•? SuC^tme 
(pron. Sween). S. was Abtot erf lona, 766. Dr 
Maelauchlan says fr. Sveyn^ a chief who died in 10S4. 

Castleton or -towx (Roxburgh, Braemar. Thurso). Eoi- 
burgh C, 1220, Caseltoun. Eight in England. Cf. 
pp. Ixzxii— IxxxiiL 

Castr^oxt (Girthon). See p. xcL 

Cat (Hill of Forfar). G. cerf, *a cat,' or cath, *a battle.' 

Cataool (L. Ranza). 1433, CatagilL Dr Cameron says 
cata means 'a small ship,' and gill is O.X. gil^ 'ravine.' 
Cf. AucHiNGiLL, and for interchange of c and y, c^. 
Auchnagatt. 

Catharine's, St (L. Fyne). Modem. 

Cathcart (Glasgow). 1158, Kerkert; c. 1170, Ket- or 
Katkert; c. 1375, Catkert. * Battle (G. cath) on the 
R. Cart.' On Ker-, cf. Caerdon. 

Cat(h)kin Braes (Glasgow). G. cath cinn, * battle height 
or head ' ; and cf Braes. 

Cathlaw (Torphichen). Hybrid; G. cath, * battle,' + Zaw 
O.K. hldew, a *caim,' Sc. *for hilL' 

Catrail, or PiCTs' Work Ditch (said to run from Peel 
Fell to Mossilee, near junction of Tweed and Gala). 
Dr J. A. H. Murray, a Border man himself, informs me 
that this is an invented name for an invented rampart. 
It is first described in Gordon's Itinerar, SeptefUrioTiy 
1726 ; but this is improved upon by the imagination of 
Chalmers (Caledonia, 1807). Some think it is referred 
to in a a. 1304 charter, as * the fosse of the Galwegians.' 



70 PLACB-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

CAtrinb (Mauchline). Perh. 'battle at the point or 
division of the land ' ; G. rtnn. Or, as accent is on Cat-, 
perh. corruption of G. caitearij * a rough, shaggy surface.' 
Also cf. Katrine. 

Ca(t)brlinb (Bervie). Old, Katerlyn. Prob. G. ccUJuir, 
*8oft, boggy ground,' and linne, *a pool.' 

Cauldcots (Arbroath). * Cold huts ' ; O.E. cot, cott, a cham- 
ber, hut, Icel. kot (cf. dovecot, and see Caldwell). 
Cf. Calcots, Elgin. 

Caulrig (Inverness). Prob. * cold (Sc. cauV or cauld) rig or 
ridge.' See p. Ixx. 

Causbwaybank (Chimside), -end (Manuel), and -head 
(Stirling). Fr. Eng. causey + way, M.E. cauce, O.N. Fr. 
caucie, late L. calceata, * a beaten, trodden way,' fr. calx, 
the heel. At Stir. C. stood the Spittal, to which a 
causeway ran fr. Stirling Bridge, c. 1220, La chausee ; 
Stlg, Burgh Sasines, Lang Calsay. 

Cavay (Orkney). Not, as some say, 'cheese isle,' but prob. 
Kalf-ey, Cf. Calf, Calva. 

Cavers and Cavbrton (Roxburgh). 1291, Kauirs; c. 1310, 
Cauers. Prob. fr. a man's name. Cf. Caversham, 
Reading. 

Cawdor (Nairn). Now pron. Kfthdor; c. 1280, Kaledor; 
1501, Caldor, = Calder. 

Ceannacroe (Inverness). *Peak or head of the hill.' G. 
ceann in names is usually Ken-, Kin-. Croe is the G. 
and Ir. croagh, cruach, a stack-like hill, of which 
Cruachan is the diminutive. Cf. Croaghpatrick, &c. 

Ceann a Mhaim (Inverness). 'Head or point of the 
rounded hill ' ; G, man, gen. mhaim, prob. cognate 
with L. mamma, a breast. The n of the article is 
merged in the ceann. 

Cellardykb (Anstruther). 1600, *The Silverdyk,' in Sc. 
* Sillerdyke.' Dyke is O.E. die, ditch, or bank of earth 
thrown up from the ditch, which is a softened form of 
the same word. Cf. Sillerford, Strathbogie. 

Ceres (Cupar). 1279, Sireis; 1517, Siras, which is almost 
the modem pron. G. siar, * west,' or aaor (pron. seer), 



' carpenter' ('7* Bikiv.SartK^v^E![i^.phinL «$rm 
IS 6. and Ir. for a dkenrj. Bfefaop Foibes thinks^ pertu 
fr. St CiiichB or St Cth:» : y. £gu9HU6. 

Cbsxock K (HandilineL 16±a. Cemok. Fertu G. 
seag^eataek, ^maiahj/ There is a CeaaJoid Bom near 
Morebattle, 1596 'Ceafmde, vfaich must be fr. Eng. 
0688^ 'a peat bog,' of unknovn etrmologT, and far vhich 
Dt Munaj's earliest qnotatian is 1636. 

Challoch (Girvan and Nevton Stewart). G. teaOatk^ 'a 
hearth, foige.' Initial / in G. often = dt. Cf. 
Chipfbrdixgax. 

Ohalmax Island (lona). Prob =C9/iium, name dt about 
sixty Irish saints. 

Chancb Inn (Arbroath). 

Channelkibk (Lauder). First a. 1200. Lib. de Ortu Outhbti, 
Childeschirche, and then said to have been built in 
honour of St Cuthbert, who was in that region when a 
child, O.K cild^ 'a child, especially of gentle birth.' 
The mod. form comes through the common spelling, 
1160-1300 (Dryburgh Chart.), Childenechirohe, Childin- 
chirch, which either gives an irr^ular gen. plur. of 
cUd or the rare adj. chUdene, ' pertaining to children ' ; 
1535, Chyndylkirk ; 1620, Chingelkirk ; 1634, GheinU- 
kirk ; 1834 (given as still the local pron.) Ginglekirk. 
It is a curious corruption. Channel in mod. Sc. means 
* gravel.* 

Chanonry (Fortrose). 1503, * The Canonry of Ross ' ; 1570, 
Channonrie. * The ric, O.E. rfcc, or jurisdiction of the 
canon' (see Canonbib). The word canonry does not 
seem to occur till 1482. The G. name of Fortrose is 
A'chanonachj * the canonry.* 

Chapbl (two in Fife, and four others). Common, too, in 
England. Chapel (late L. eappdla, fr. cappc^ cape, 
cope; see Dr Murray's Dicty.) is so spelt in Eng. c, 
1275. 

Chapblhall (Airdrie and Annan), -hopb (St Mary's L. ; see 
Hobkirk), -knowb (Hawick ; knowe, see p. Imtvi), •ton 
(Hamilton), -toun (Ballindalloch). 



72 PLACB-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Chappblerne (Carmichael). * Chapel-house ' ; O.E. emCy 

* house, cot.* Of, Whithorn and Blackeme, Kirkcudbrt. 

Charleston (Dunfermline). Also near St Austell. 

Chartershall (Bannockbum). c. 1610, Chartreushall. So 
prob. not fr. the family of Gharteris (i mute), but some 

* Charterhouse ' or house for Carthusian monks. 

Chbrrybank (^erth). Cherry, c. 1350, cJieri, is in O.E. 
ciriSy G. Mrsche, 

Chesters, The (Hawick and Bolton, Haddington), Chester 
Knowbs (Chimside), Chester Lees (Tweedsmuir, and 
Chester Rig and Hill (Traquair). L. castroH, camp, 
castruniy * fort * {cf, Chester, and the many -chesters in 
England). Remains of circular or oval hill-forts found 
at all, or nearly all, the places cited. The Romans 
certainly were in Peeblesshire, but it is doubtful 
whether these are Roman or British. Professor Veitch 
thinks they mark the Cymri or Brythons' final but 
unsuccessful stands against Pict, Scot, and Saxon, their 
last retreats. 

Cheviot Hills, c. 1250, Montes chiueti; a. 1300, Mons 
chiuioth ; 1596, Cheuott. Prob. G. c{h)iabach, 'bushy,' 
fr. eiahh, hair, which would yield both Chevy and 
Cheviot. For -ach becoming -tot cf, Elliot. Cf, too 
Chevington, Northumbld. 

Chicken Head (Stomoway). Translation of G. name, rudha 
na chirce. But circe is really a G. mistake for kirke^ 
the name having been originally half N., indicating 
the spot where a church was built. See Kirkaby. 

Chipperdinqan Well (Wigtown). G. tiobar Dingany * well 
of St Ninian.' See p. cii, and cf. Challoch and 

TiPPERLINN. 

Chirnside (Berwicksh.). Local pron. Chirsit. Sic 1250; 
but c. 1098, Cimside (this early spelling supplies a 
lack in Dr Murray's Dicty.). * Hillside like a chum ' ; 
O.E. ct/ririy M.E. chymey Sc. Mm, 

Chisholm (Roxburgh). 1254, Cheseholme. * The Chisholm,' 
G. an SioscUach, is a branch f r. the Norm. Sysilts or 
- Cecils, early settled in Roxburgh. The name is thus 
* CeciFs home.' See Holm. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 73 

Choxzie, Ben (S. Perthsh.). Froh. = Choi nneach, G. gen. 
of * St Kenneth/ not so prob. fr. chon, gen. of G. cit, 'a 
dog.' Of. Carchonzie Woods, Callander, while L, Con 
is not far away. The z is the old Sc. y. 

Chryston (Glasgow). Pron. as * Christ ' is ; so just ' Christ's 
village.' Cf. Christon, near Exeter, and Christskirk, 
old name of Strath, Skje. 

Cm Mhor (Corrie). G. * great comb or crest.' 

Cl^chaio (Dunoon and Arran). Inflected form of G. ckuhag, 
Ir. dochag, *a stony place,' fr. dach or dock, a stone. 

Cla-CHan (Tayinloan), also Clachan of Aberfoyle, <fec. 
Perh. twenty * clachans ' in Scotland ; G. for ' village ' ; 
often also for 'church.' Same root as above. 

Clachan Easy (Wigtown). * Village of Jesus'; G. losa, 
Cf. Chryston. 

Clachdhian (Ben Machdui). * Stone of shelter ' ; G. dion. 

Clachnacuddan (stone at a street comer, Inverness). G. 
dach nan cudainn, * stone for the tubs ' ; cf. Culucudden. 

Clachnaharry (Inverness). G. dadi na h'aire, * stone of 
watching,' which it actually was. But Clach-charra, 
Onich, is * stone of strife, quarrel, trouble,' G. carraid, 
where two sons of Cummin of Inverlochie were said to 
have been slain; and Knockenharrie, Galloway, is 
* little rough hill,' fr. G. carradi, rough, lit. mangy. 

Clackmannan. Sic 1221, but 1147, Clacmanant; c. 1585, 
Clacmana. 'Stone of Manan,' prob. same as the 
Manannan MacLir of Ir. legend, who gave his name 
to the Isle of Man. The huge stone now in the middle 
of the village is prob. of glacial origin. The distrk t, 
called in G. Manann, in W. Manaw, stretched ir. 
Clackmannan over the Forth through Stirlingshire to 
Slamannan Moor and east to R. Avon. 

Cladich (Inveraray). G. dadaich, *the shore.' Cf. Bruan. 

Claioinn, common as a hill name in both Scotland mid 
Ireland, G. daigionn, Ir. daigeann, * a skull,' and heuce 
*a round, dry hill.' 

Cla(i)rdon Hill (Thurso). G. ddr dun, * smooth, Imret 
bald hill.' 



74 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Clarbnckfibld (Annan). 

Clarkston (Airdrie); cf. 1173, * Clerkynton,' Midlothian. 

Clashbreac (Morvem). 1496, Clashbrake. 'Spotted, 
speckled hollow * ; G. dais breac. G. and Jr. datSy ' a 
ditch, trench, furrow, hollow in a hill,' is common as 
Clash- in names in Galloway and Ireland. Cf, Clash- 
more, Assynt. 

Clashmach Hill (Huntly). * Hollow of the battle field,' 
a secondary meaning of G. magh, * a plain.' Tradition 
points to three battles here. 

Clashneach, Nick of (MinigaflP). A tautology; G. dais 
n'edi, * trench or furrow of the horse.' 

Clatt (Aberdeen), a. 1500, Clat. = Clbtt. 

Clavbrhousk (Dundee). O.E. da/re, dcefre^ * clover,' spelt 
daver in both Eng. and Scots fr. 14th to 17th cnies ; 
{cf. Claverdon, -ing, and -ley, England). 

Clay op Allan (farm, Feam). Clay, prob. as in Clayshant, 
Galloway, = G. dach seant (fr. L. 8andus\ * holy stone.' 
Cf, Cambus o' May, and see Allan. 

Clbghorn (Lanark and Cairnie). Cair. C. oldy Clegem. 
O.E. ddeg erwe, *clay house,' cf, Dan. Megy *clay.' Cf, 
Drbghorn and Whithorn. 

Cleish (Kinross). 1231, Kles; c. 1280, Cleth. G. and 
Jr. dais^ *a ditch, furrow.' In the same district is 
Clashlochie (G. locha)y * ducks' ditch'; the name has 
nothing to do with Loch Leven, on which the place 
stands. 

Clblland (Motherwell). Prob. * clay land,' fr. O.E. dceg^ 
M.E. dey, dei, *clay.' 

Clbpington (Dundee). Prob. *Clephane's village.' Cf, 
Clephantown, Nairn. 

Clett, The (Thurso). 1329, in S. Ronaldsay, Klaet. G. 
deity * a rocky pillar.' 

Clibrbck Ben (Sutherland). 1269, Clybry. G. diath 
breac, * spotted side or slope.' 

Clifton (Morebattle). a. 800, Hist, St Cuthbti, Cliftun, O.E. 
for * dwelling by the cliff.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 75 

€lintmain8 (St Boswells). Sw. and Dan. dint, *browof a 
hill, promontory.' Gf. Clint, Yorks., and Clent Hills, 
Stafford ; but Clinty, Antrim, is Ir. dvmnte, meadows. 
Mains is common Sc. term for a farm-steading, or large 
country house; prob. the same as manse, Low L. 
mansus, fr. L. maneo, mans-um, * I remain.' 

€lippens (Kilbarchan). G. dibein, *a small excrescence,' 
with Eng. plur. 8. 

Cloch, The (Gourock). Chart, Jas, F/., Clochstane. G. 
dochy or dadiy * a stone, rock.* 

Clochan (Fochabers). Diminutive of above. In Ir. it 
means a beehive-shaped stone house. 

Glochnabbin or -bank (mountain, Kincardinesh.). Prob. 
G. dodv-narhan, * rock of the women.' It is sometimes 
called * White Stone Hill,' as if fr. G. ban, * white.' 

Clocksbriggs (Forfar). Without further information ex- 
planation of this corruption is impossible; but first 
syllable prob. G. dodi, * a stone.' 

Clola (Mintlaw, Aberdeen). Doubtful. Gf, Clova and 

Clovullin. 
Clone (three in Galloway), c. 1230, Clon in Ross-sh. G. 

and Ir. duain (pron. cloon), * a meadow.' 

Closeburn (Dumfries), a. 1200, Kylosbem; 1278, Close- 
bum. G. cill Osbemy *cell or church of St Osborne,' 
N. Asenbjomy * bear of the gods.' 

•Clousta (Shetland). Perh. O.N. Tdof-sta, * place of the 
cleft,' fr. klofi, * cleft, rift,' and staff r, * place,' see 
p. Ixxii. 

€lova (Forfar and Aberdeen), a. 1300, Cloueth; 1328, 
Cloveth. Prob. G. diobadi, * rough,' rather than G. 
dadh ath, * moimd at the ford.' There was a ford at 
the Aberd. C. till quite recently. Gf. Clovullin. 

Clovenfords (Galashiels). 

Olovtjllin (Ardgour). In G. dadh-c^mhuilinn, * the mound 
of the mill.' 

•Cloy Glen (Arran). Fr. the Macloys or FuUartons, who 
received lands here fr. Robert the Bruce. Macloy is 
Mac Loui, or * son of Louis.' 



76 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Cludkx, R. (Dumfries). Tcdiessin, Glut vein. Perh. W. 
clwyd afon or dn, 'warm river.' Cf. Avon, and R. 
Clwyd, Wales. 

Clugston (Wigtown). A Cloggeston is found in 1296,^ 
Perh.=Ballyclug, Ireland; Ir. cltigy G. dag, *a bell.' 

Clunaig (Skipness). 1511, Clynage. Dimin. of G. dtiany 

* a meadow.' See next. 

Clitnas (Nairn). G. and Ir. dttain or duan, *a meadow,* 
with Eng. plural. 

Clunik, -y (Blairgowrie, Aberdeen, Laggan, and loch west of 
Fort Augustus). Blair., c. 1164, Kluen; 1291, Clony. 
Lag., c. 1603, Cloonye. As above ; old form Cluanan 
occurs. Cf, Clim, Salop; also Cluniter (dtum-a'tir)y 
Dunoon. 

Clutag (Kirkinner, Galloway). Prob. refers to the valua- 
tion of land in * pennylsoids ' ; G. ditag being the 8th of 
a farthing. 

Clyde, R., Tacitus (c. 80 a.d.) and Ptolemy (c. 120), Clota; 
a. 700, Adamnan, Cloithe ; c. 720, Bede, *Alcluith'; 
O.E. airon. (Wore.), ann. 924, Straecled (Strathclyde) ; 
a. 1249, Clud. Doubtful. Whitley Stokes 8ayB = L. 
duere, to wash. Not likely to be fr. G. dUh, strength. 
Rhys thinks Clota may have been a pre-Celtic divinity^ 
and says the name is not = Welsh R. Clwyd, which 
means warm. However, Domesday's spelling of R. 
Clwyd, * Cloith,' is practically the same as Adamnan's 
spelling of Clyde. Of, also Joyce, Irish Names, 2nd 
series, pp. 371-72. 

Clydesdale. 1250, Matthew Paris, Cludesdale. 

Clynder (Helensburgh). Old, Clyndairg. G. duan dearg^ 

* reddish meadow.' 

Clyne (Golspie and E. Ross-sh.). Gols. C, c. 1240, Clun. 
Ross C, 1375, Clyn. G. daoin, *a slope.' 

Clynelish (Sutherland). G. daon-lios, * hill slope with the 
garden.' The Gael usually aspirates his s, 

Clyth (Lybster). G. diathadi, a side, * the slope of a hill.' 

^ See J. Stevenson, Documents Illustrative of the History ofScotUmdy 
vol. ii., s, ann, 1296. 



PLACE-XAMi> :•: ^:: 



Cxoc AiNGiL (lana, Kiay- Li^^ij - _^_ — ^^ -^ 

G. cnoc aingeal. •aii:_'e.- £_ ^•- — — 
in names is iijsiiali7 si-tr jlz.-«^ 

CoALTON (Dysart). A c-Iii^:- - — ^- 

CoATBBiDGE, and near r '---^^--^ ^ „ "^' _ ' 
W. ct>^t?, 'a wi.«>_ ♦- -^ - -^ — . =- 

Coathaiiife in noru. -i: r.: — -^- -l^ :^'— 
En<rland. 

CoBBiNSHAW (S. of £::3.'^Tji_ r- — 

^7taf^ is properrr . t . . __ •■:. .^ — . _ ■ 
applied tc» a lIx^ _'^ ^ _ -»?'- : 

ney, is cormptioL -'j=- - ^^ rr^^-j.- 
mentioned c. ll-"- ^' - :~=£z:i^ -^ 

CocKAiRNiE lAl'eri.zr - 1_ 11 -—-.^ 
Kincamyne : rjr: — --' -^ — --jr- -' -? 
are still Netner ac: ' — ^ -t-t^- 
Cf'«7< evim^. -a' tii- --=« *' ".^ t-:-^ r --s" 
the lonL <-<•'- £-:JT:ii:^ ^ TZi" j::- 

CocKBTRy SPATE ber^i-Xt^ -_::. r '-^^ 

Cobumi=?peti. . --^* -- -^--r-^ =-^ - j^ 
Coliumspati^ Irs^j-'-r^-:! ' - ht- -rz- 
/ easily drf^pt- -" -' *' - --- 

COCKENZIE 'Trtfsl' --Kil.- '• r . .-- 

Cocktunie. ?t^-'- = ...»-<-- *- - —% .-'*-. 
nook-* G. ri.'. '' :>^- -t-i »^.^~r - ^^3^ 

Cocklaiiacht 1»^il---.>- --^- -^ -r 

of tne Cl^rit. /r 'T-TrrT. 

<;oc3KLEBC»y <ir -EVL i^H n^^-.-j: *- r^' ^' ** 

or cmiuai »L r ^ '-'^ t-- z' -- 
'red »'>»c^- i' --^ -• -».-.: ~-:i •• 

a.cK or Aiii^^ *•-' ' -■' 

G. An *. 'j1h=4*'::- "i^ '-'-^^ 

Cokii»w. 

CoCKFiy (balkt-L. .-'• 5- <''^- 



^.^ 5-..'- 



- v» J- ^T 



78 PLA^CS^NAUS OF SCOTLAND. 

CoiQACH (Ullapool). 1502, Gogeach (the mod. pron.) ; 
1530, Coidgeach. Prof. Mackinnon says, G. eui^each, 
*& fifth.' The local explanation is coigaehy 'five fields,' 
there heing five places there heginning with Ach- (^. 
FmBusrsR). 

CoiGNAFSARN (InTemess). G. ekig na fheam, 'fifth part 
with the alders.' There are five farms at the head 
of Strathdeam, Guignasith, &e. 

GonjLNTOQLB (R. Teith). G. eoU an foylaichj 'nook' or 
' wood of the youth or soldier,' or fr. fseagaily ' of the 
rye.' Cf, Garshgolk. 

GoiLTOX (Ayr). Fr. King Gole. See Ktlb. 

Gom-NAN-URinsGiN (Ben Venue). G. 'cave {coirSy a dell or 
hollow) of the gohlins.' It was thought to he haunted. 

GoLABOLL (Lairg). Proh. fr. the Norse personal name Kol, 
'Kol's place' (N. bol,) 

GoLDBACKiE (Tougue) and Goldbagks (Shetland). See 
Galdwbll and Back. It means ' cold hill ridge.' 

GoLDiNGHAM (Berwicksh.). Seems to he c 120, Ptolemy ^ 
Golania ; c 709, Eddi^ Goludeshuig ; Bede, same date, 
GoludiUrhs; c. 1098, GoUingham; c 1100, Goldingaham; 
c 1180, Goldingham; a. 1500, often spelt with a G; 
1639, Gauldingham; 'Home, village of Golud's 
descendants ' ; c^. p. Ixxxv. The part of Berwicksh. near 
the Priory was, after the 11th cny., called 'Goldingham- 
schire.' 

GoLDSTREAM. 1290, Goldc-, Galdestreme, referring to the lEL 
Tweed. 

GoLDWELLs (Cruden). Cf, Galdwell. 

GoLFiN (Port Patrick). The cols may often either be fr. G. 
edQ, cuU, 'a comer, nook,' or coiK, 'a wood'; so thiswiU 
either be ' clear, white (G. Jionn) nook ' or ' wood.' 

GoLiNSBURGH (Fife). Founded by Golin Lindsay, third Earl 
of Balcarres, in 1682. 

GoLiNTON (Edinburgh). 1538, Golintoun. ' Golin's village.' 
There are two GoUinghams in England. 



CoL^TTBAivB (Kylea of BnLe . r. -zo* «^--JWt.M. ^f.-!^ 

krie, at the swimming zun^^ ' -^ -a-.ie x « LT-.-^ii. 

o^er). Cf. ARDKSTsr^ 1^: uvia i j[:ii - n-dt\ ii:*--r 

diange, and ttia is = '- 
Coll (island, and in Lc'f:^ . -•• :^> '- --'^^V ..lU..** 

G., It., and W. x/V. - i. :i;izei. 
CoLLACK (Perth). li:' - - i^^^ - - ^ "*- ^ * ^^*'"' '*'''' * 

slope, down -sti^j^ ^zuti^ i .-tm-sv .«itl 
CoLLBsiE (Newriiz^.. lii^S. ■ '.lu^^r. /.m. : ^.w/ -- 

* squirm : iini J- i'>ov^, 
Colu(e)sto5 ZZiLii tnd Arnmathi. /.y///*' 4.- ',i.-*-...- >- 

CoLLix K-rkiTiiiT:r:i£!iti. 't vu^nun. ^ -' 

Colm-:vel;l • rir'Tui.. -. '^'^ -.^^ " - — ..--—— 

i^urt •*... '■' ' —- 

C'ji'.-«ii^ T -. •' '-^ - = - — ' - '■ ~'" 

i-, a* -• _ ^- -- - - . -^ 

Sk- -» .. ^ -S: — . - 

ti. — :>-■ - .- ^ - -* 

Colgate i/^ ••■ — ^ •' 






80. PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

also Colquhan. Local pron. Cuchiiin. Prob. G. coil 
cumhann (mh mute), * narrow wood.' 

CoLTNBSS (Lanarksh.). Cf. Coltbridge, Edinburgh. Quite 
possibly G. coiilte an eas, * woods by the waterfall.* 

CoLVEND (Dalbeattie). 1560, Colven ; 1610, Culwen ; Pones 
mapy c. 1620, Covenn or Cawenn. First two forms = 
G. (M bheinn, *back of the hill'; Pout's is evidently 
G. and Ir. cabhan, * a hollow.' See Castlb Cavan. 

CoLziUM (Kilsyth), c. 1610, Colyam. Prob. G. coille-a- 
mhairn, * wood on the rounded hill,' G. mam^ L. mamma^ 
* a breast or pap.' 

CoMAR (Ben Lomond). Farm at mouth of ravine on Ben 
Lomond's north side. G. and Ir. comar, *a meeting, 
confluence of two waters.' Cf. Cumbbrnauld. 

Comers (Aberdeen). As above, with Eng. plural. 

OoMiSTON (Edinburgh). Derivation fr. Camus, Danish 
general who fought here, is prob. mythical. 

CoMRiB (Crieff) and Cumrib (Caimie) = Comar, with the 
Eng. dimin. 

Con, L. (L. Katrine). G. cw, gen. coin, * a dog.' 

CoNAGLBN (Fort William). ? G. cona gleann, * Scots-fir glen.' 
M*Bain says, G. con-gleann, con here being the L. 
prefix con-, in G. usually cmnh, * together.' Of, Cona 
Mheall (hill), Durness. 

CoNCHRA (Strachur and Lochalsh) and Conochra (Drymen). 
Latter, c. 1610, Connochra. G. con-era, * collection of 
folds,' era or cro, *a fold or weir.' Of, Contullich. 

CoNDORRAT (Cumbemauld). G. con or comhrdobhar (or dSr) 
ait, * joint-river place' {cf. Conaglen. and Conwhisk). 
A little tributary here joins the Luggie Water. 

CoNiSBY (Islay). Prob. fr. Dan. konge, * a king.' Of. Coniston 
and CuNNiNGSBURGH. On Dan. by or bi, * a village,' see 
p. Ixxii. 

CoNNBL Ferry (Oban). Not after Conall, K. of Dalriada, 
c. 560, or some other Celtic hero, like Inis Chonaile, L. 
Awe ; but G. coinghedll, * a whirlpool,' referring to the 
falls on L. Etive. 



FIACS-I^AiaE^ OF SCOTLAXI;. 81 

CONNINGSErBGH OF CrXKUfOSBUllGE (Siiotiand .. IV>V.. fl\ 
IceL konufi^?-r^ Dan. h-trnffi^ •& kmr. i oxism irun im^ 
fr. same root. (.X Einjrstown, c^hit^ensimmiiirii, iTt.. 
But, of ooursa OJL rimtftt,, cunniui,, A1.E. n/mt-,, nn*/,, 
was the regular vord for * a labbu. 

CoNON or Cos AS (R RosertsL.) Peril, fr. Coitau, tih itesuuiir 
hero. 

CoNTiN (StrathpeflFer). li^JiTr, Oonten : ir>]0, Omixan. 
Prob. G. coimtin, *■ a dispute, debatable land ' : bm 7, 
Quentan's Head, Cars^diaini. 

Conway (Beaulj). c 1220, CouewaT : cl 1.H30, CanTo^h, 
G. coinnean^ or coininJie (pron. couTt"), a rtTfeotiiin ~ 

* food-rent,' cf. BobxlajsD. But OouTa and OanvoT, 
Ireland, are fr. Ir. (and G.) am mh.a^h^ * hounds' plain,^ 

GoKWHiSK (Dumfries). G. txm ui^ife, * joint, united irators 
or streams.' Cf, Coxdob&at. 

CooDHAM (Kihnamoek). Said to be a. 13tX), Ch^vrfcr^ 
Cowdams. A mod. refinement, c. 1850, fr, *OoodAi«' 
or ' Cowdams,' prob. referring to a cows' drinking-pkoiv 

CooKXEY (Stonehaven). Doubtful. Cj\ *QuikcniMS* a, 
1400, near Hawick. 

G00MLEE8 (Tweeddale). 'Hollow pastures*; W. nwrn, 

* hollow ' (c/". Eng. coomb, O.E. cuynb, a valloy or a bowl). 
On Zee, see Broomlee ; and cf. Coomb Hill, TwochIhiiiuIi'. 
Leo of Halle says, root is same as O.K. nmhan^ to Jriitt. 

CopiNSHAT (Orkney), c. 1260, KolbenHcy. N. M'l)lvlt^^ 
or Kolbein's Isle.' Cf, Cobbinmhaw. On ay^ rf, 
Barrat, die. 

COPPBRCLEUCH (Selkirk). V Copi)(ir'\ffi4*jih i(U*ti/ H*<' tUr. 

CLEUCH. 

CoRBT (Roxburgh). Corbie w S^;, for *firtiyni, *'rnti^ \ **. 

and Sw. /corp, L. <5orrt«r, Thf^; \u Kn'/ltff,^i , nn*) // 

Corbiehall, Can^tairK, Oyrb;*? I><t/, ( ,-/.^», 
CoRGARFF (Strathdon). G, ^//»/<^ ^f^nrhh ■ f/'-^'u t?. r>t,t> »t* 

oorrie.' 

of the oomizfeuti oc^jk^*^ f-vwAr h * * f,^Uu,/y, 



82 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

CoRNSiLLOCH (Dalserf). G. cdLvn seileach, 'cairn, mound of 
the willows/ 

C6RPACH (Fort William). G. corp-achadh, 'corpse-field/ 
grave-yard, i.e., that at Kilmallie. Cf, Lochan-nan-Corp, 
Callander, and Lancarf, lit. ' body-enclosure,' ComAvall. 

CoBBA Linn (Lanark). Corra is said here to mean * round ' 
{cf. G. corran, a reaping-hook). Linn or llyn is W. 
rather than G., which is linne. Of. Corra Pool, 
Galloway. 

CoRRAN (L. Linnhe). G. ' a reaping-hook,' in Ir. carran, as 
in Carran Tual. Of, Zancle, now Messina, in Sicily. 

CoRRiE (Arran and Dumfries). Arran C, 1807, Currie. G. 
coire, * a cauldron ' ; hence, * a glen, ravine.' 

CoRRiEFECKLACH (Galloway). G. coire feocalaich, ' glen of 
the polecat.' 

CoRRiBGiLLS (Arran). Tautology, see above. Icel. gil, *a 
ravine.' Of, Catacol: Possibly fr. N. kanri^ * a cock- 
ptarmigan.' 

CoRRiEMULZiE (Bracmar and S.E. of Oykell Bridge). Perh. 
G. coire muileagach, 'glen abounding in cranberries'; 
though natives call it c. mhuileadh, which they interpret 
*fit for driving a mill,' G. muileann. 

CoRRiBVAiRACK, or CoRRYARRiCK (Invcmess). G. coire eirich, 
* rising ravine or glen.' M*Bain thinks it may be con- 
nected with G. eirach, * spring.' 

CoRRiEVRBCKAN (Jura). a. 700, Adamnan, Vortex or 
Charybdis Brecain; c, 1380, Fordun, Corbrekane. 
G. coire Bhrecain, ' cauldron, i.e., whirlpool of Brecan,' 
grandson of the famous Niall, c. 450. 

CoRSEWALL Point (Wigtown). * The cross well ' ; here dedi- 
cated to St Columba. Transposition of r is very 
common. Of. Corsapool, Islay. 

CoRSOCK (Kirkcudbright). 1527, Karsok. W. and Com. 
cors, *bog, fen,' + dimin. oc or og. Of. Carse and 
Corscleugh, Yarrow. 

CoRSTORPHiNB (Edinburgh). 1147, Crostorfin; 1508, Cor- 
storphyne. G. crois torr fionn, ' cross of the clear (lit. 
white) hill.' A cross certainly stood here ; and cf. Corse- 



TLACESAXE^ OF ^Z^'ZZ.ASZ, ^.> 

WALL. There b an Jncb^rrr^z'tz^ -r. 113^1- zi iiajrjs^ -^ 
Dunkeld, bat that fi G. m/j./.^ Tiysr jLi^uk^ 'zz^u^ajw :c 
the white bleachmg-gregn-' T^lkt^ is ji Tir^c:-: F:~ 
just opposite Corstofph.JTu^. turar J^ziz:»ir "jr^^iigL : loi -X- 
Carfin. a TLortTTin *'x T^:^ciz* irje itzi»:r;2i Eizi :e 
the OrkneTS, appeazs fn Sinril^iJiii n. 1 1 -1-3. iin i»i ksK 
probably gireo riae to ni> puia^r-cajiut*:. 

CoRTACHiB (Kirriemiiir*. f:. l-iii^L Cjtr^iJiiijti- G. 'SSL/^aar 
(pron car) eathcLf • rV>rc ♦x :iJbr ' tLii^rc.' 

Ck)RUiSK (Skye). G. and Ir. oy^f^ %'u*i^ ' z^^:. x lij^ wizeeS 
Cf. Usk, Esk. The HiZ *A C.^r^kie- •jt^tl^j. ]ii^*r. ^« 
the same name. 

CoRVBX. G. corr IKeirnfiu 'ryzzsir^l r "',' C'^ OicTrrc 
Wales. 

CosHLBTTER (Skje). G. o'yU fe/Ti '. * zjAI x litr Li3-^^ :i;#t-' 

CoTHAL (Kinaldie, Aberdieicti .. I>:'^'cf"iL ! G, '^:z:?oZ,'J'^2j^^ 
* mist J.' Cf. '0>athaL' ICiV- z- J.'^.''>3^>', C^'^arr- T>1 
iL 

CouLBBG and Coulmore » .S j.-Xierliiiii . G- r>i/r ^^/x; 4z:ii 
twdr, 'little' and '\^ o.TCfer -jT zsykJ 

CouLiss (Nigg). 1351, C^ilij^ : !->-». C:^-^!^ G, ^; fcf 
(pron. lis), ' at the back oc tbe ^iri-r*i -or *?'s:jrj 

CouLL (Aboyne). a. 13«». *,-.*ju ; \h-^ K^a^ »■ ^rviyC *Ik 
nook, a comer.' 

CouLMOKT House (Nairn;, 'At ife \m^ nl sSit aioH ir 

moor ' ; G. rnoiue. 

C(o)rLTER (Biggar, loch oku r?«irihiaie mud Al^fdwm^ Bi^ 
C, e. 1210, Cultrr : U^, Cdtir. AJkrd. C^ «. 1170, 
Kultre and Culter; a, 1»>, Cultrr, *At %ht \mA of 
the land ' ; G. /tr, W. Irt. Cf. hM^^icmwmm. Oii^ 
Inchcoulter is in G, inmu^-dk^Mmr. O^Hmir m m 
puzzle. Simeon Durfiajn, m^ 1130, fit^itimm m €«ll<r 
ham near the Teriot, pfufn Ksla^iiltxMftt 

C(o)uLTER Allers (Bifcfr^p. S«e abate AUsv 
O.E. oZor, ofer, O.N. 4f, Qf. AlWWk, 
and EUerlie, Dumfs, 

Countbsswellb (Aberdeen;. ^4c lilS. 





84 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

C(o)uPAR Fife and Coupar Angus. Fife C, 1183, Cupre ; 
1294, Coper. Ai^us C, c 1169, Cubert ; 1296, Coupre 
in Anegos. Doubtful. ?G. cuphair, *the cypress-tree.' 
G. bearrta means * clipped, pruned, shorn.' 

CouRANCB (Lockerbie). Prob. fr. a man. 

CousLAND (Dalkeith). Sic c 1160. 'Cows' land'; O.K 
cd, Icel. h^ LowL Sc coo^ *a cow.' Cf, Cousley Wood, 
Sussex. 

Cove (Dumbarton, Aberdeen, L. Ewe). O.K. c6fa, * chamber, 
cave,' IceL kqfi^ Sw. ko^wa, * a hut.' Two in England. 

Covington (Lanark), c. 1190, Villa Colbani; c. 1212, Col- 
bajnistun; 1434, Cowantoun; c 1480, Covingtoun, 
'Colban's or Cowan's village.' C. was a follower of 
David, Prince of Cumbria, c 1120. There is a Coving- 
ton near St Neot's. C/.^ too. Coven, Wolverhampton, 
and Symington. 

CowAL (L. Fyne). From King Comgall, CoiU, or Cole, 
chief of the Dalriad Scots in the 6th century; but 
Liber Pluscardensis, 1461, spells it Touvale. 

CowcADDENS (Glasgow). 1510, Kowcawdennis ; 1521, 
-kadens ; 1532, -caldens. Latter half, perh. same as in 
CowDEN-KNOWES ; thus the name would be a hybrid. 
But cf. Icel. gadd, Sw. gadd, an ox-goad. It was a 
loan by which the cows went to pasture. 

Cowdenbeath (Dunfemdine). There is a Cowden in 
England, and it is an Eng. surname; but here it is 
prob. Celtic as in next. See Beath. 

CowDENKNOWES (Earlston). 1604, Coiddenknowes ; 1827, 
Coldingknowes. Hybrid; G. cool dim, 'narrow hill,* + 
Sc. knofce. Cf. Cowdenhill, Bonnybridge. On kniwe, 
see p. Ixxxvi. 

CowiE (St Ninians, Kincardine and Huntly). St N. C, 
1147, Collyne; later, Collin, CoUie. Hun. C, c. 1340 
Collie. Kinc. C, old, Colly. G. coiUe, *a wood.' Cf. 
* how ' and * hollow.' 

CowLAiRS (Glasgow). Prob. just *cow pastures or lairs'; 
O.E. leger, couch, bed. 



ELAC&KAMES oF SCOTLA^TD. ?5 

CoTLEF Its <L. Ei:k:. Pertu Tr. ^aoi aa, * narrow place." 

CoTLToy (Ayri. Prob. (t. '.-ooi -///», -narrow liiiL' See 
Kflk. and r. Eddertox 

CRACtAfiiv or CRAiJAie. (t. I'rpotf, ' a ctslqJ a rock. t)r nem* 
rrjfji% ^ a >jkin ' i cf. ( lintvcraeken. Tvrone : Lr. -tuamce 
rrm**f*cBn$u * meadows ot the skins. = Sc. Skestflax^K 
A'.>j is che hiot of the locative or iative. *anionj£ :he 

CRAG«xjjr3B5HH M^niic^eilachie). <jr, ^^Tpcujcm 'nor, lit. 'big, 
Intie rrutk.' 

Craggis^ or (ZaHAGACH. It. '!rewjcu:h, ' rociqr.' 

Cruchte ( Forfiir, and Parton. Kirkcndbright). G. >yniachacky 
'LlIj.' Cr\ Chuachax. 

CraI'I* A -^miH 'MiillV 'Rock of the jew-tr«e\: G. iubhar 
Crjligdax (Old MeidmmK G. a^of/ dcuinihy 'rwk of th*> 

CRAi.,Dcc^iE(Kinro«j4). 'Crag of the hawk*; Gv t-seabhi^o 
• pron. tavac). 

Craigellachie (Ballindalloch). Some say, G, i'mhj eaijiUiioli,^ 
'rock of warning' (lit. *causinj;' feav*). wuv i^O ^f 
CUn Grant. C/. * Stand fast, CmiKt^lUuhiM.' Gl»l^ 
the g in eagalach is hard; and M*lkiu thiuU, n 
eil^^achaidh, prob. meaning, *Ht<)uy, Ji^rky/ U- m//. 
ai'/ec^ or et'Zec/i, *a rock/ Mr Ja^j. M'J>^>>>'^I^< ''^'O' 
Eallachie Bum, Cabrach, w Ck oLU Iwhm, '^^U^.um ui 
the pools,' lit. * little loch«/ 

Ckaigknputtoch (Nithfidak). Said t<^ ^:>^' Z^-' '^'""^^ "\'^," 

kite,' same root a8 L. /y^^^^^ ; but du^uoiiiujr {,,..• •"• ./ 

putofjj a small ridge erf laud. 
CkaIGENVBOCH (Old Luce). i). cn.Wj <ln-/jhl</hn;h oi /A//'//- 

(pron. veeagb), 'rock of tUe ravci..' 
Craiofoodk (Cupar). Might U- G. o'^^'^:; ./""'' ' " ' " 

the turf.' 
Craioib (Kilmarnock, JVrtl . B..Aii^'.-«-.w ^' " ^ ' ^ .' 



86 PLACE-NAMBS OF SCOTLAND. 

Craigiebarns (Dunkeld). As its site shows, plainly G. 
creag-arbeirrij *crag at the gap or pass'; with the 
common Eng. plural. 

Craigiebuckler (Aberdeen). Fancy name given to an 
estate by its purchaser, James Blaikie, in 1815. Its 
former name was Bumieboozle. 

Craigibburn (Falkirk and Perth). Perth C, 1466, Cragy- 
burn. Hybrid, fr. G. creagacfi^ * rocky,' and hum, 

Craiqibvar (Alford). G. creag-a-bharr, *rock with the 
point or head.' 

Craiqleith (Edinburgh). *Rock over the (Water of) 
Leith.' 

Craiqlockhart (Edinburgh). 1528, Craglokhart. Prob. 
G. creag-loch-drd, *high rock over the loch.' There 
was once a loch here ; but cf. Bar- and Drum-lockhart, 
Galloway, and Drumlougher, Ireland, fr. G. and Ir. 
luachaiVy rushes. 

CraighJscar (Dunfermline). Perh. 'rock of the sudden 
noise'; G. lasgar. 

Craigmillar (Edinburgh). Sic 1212; but c. 1140, Crag- 
milor. Old form Craigmoilard is said to occur, if so = 
G. maol ctrd, * rock of the bare height.' 

Craigmorb (Rothesay and Aberfoyle). G. creag mdr, *big 
rock.' 

Craigneuk (Motherwell and Kirkcudbright). Eng. corrup- 
tion of G. creag an eag, * crag of the nook.' 

Craignish (Lochgilphead and Ayrsh.). Loch. C., 1434 
Cragginche; 1609, Creginis. *Rock of the meadow'; 
G. and Ir, innis, 

Craigo (Montrose). G. creagach, * rocky.' Gf. Abbrlemno. 

Craigrothib (Cupar). Either * red rock,' G. nuzdh, or, more 
likely, * rock of the fort,' G. rath. Cf. Rothibmay, &c. 

Craigrownib (Dumbarton). Prob. *rock of the little head- 
land'; G. riulhan, dimin. of ritdha (cf. Row). Might be 
fr. Dan. ran, ronne-trce, Sw. ronn, the rowan or moimtain- 
ash. 

Craigrostan (Ben Lomond). 1272, Cragtrostane, *rock 
of St Drostan,' pupil of Columba; the d lost by 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 87 

aspiration. Cf, Allt-Rostan, near bj, fr. G. ailiy * a bum.' 
The spelling -royston comes fr. recent association with 
Rob Roy Macgregor. 

Craigs, The (Stirling, Bonar Bridge, Ac). 

Craig VAD (Aberfoyle). G. creatjfkada^ *long rock.' 

Grail (Fife), a. 1153, Caraile ; c. 1160, Carele ; 1195-1639, 
CarraiL G. carr aUle^^ rock cliff.' For omission of 
the first a, cf. Cramond. The 'Carr Rocks' are just 
east of CraiL However, Tomcrail and Pitkerril, Perthsh., 
are prob. fr. the Irish ^unily Cairill or O'CarroU. 

Crailing (Roxburgh), c. 1147, Creling, Craaling; 1606, 
Craling. Doubtful, cf. Crail. No proof that it is = 
traver-ling, fr. G. treamhar, *a bare hillside,' as in 
Tranent, but possibly so. 

Cramond (Edinburgh). 1178, Caramonth ; 1 292, Cramunde ; 
1 293, Karamimde. W. caer Amonth, ' fort on R. Almond.' 
For dropping of the first a, cf, Crail ; d and i are often 
suffixed, as in Drummond, <kc. Cf., too, Cramonery, 
Minigaff, and Cramalt Craig =* bowed or bent cliff' (G. 
allt), which it exactly is, in Tweeddale. 

Cranshaws (Dims) and Cranstoun (Midlothian). 1250, 
Craneshawes ; c. 1 1 60, Craneston. O.E. cran, ' a crane ' ; 
on shaw, cf. Cobbinshaw. But Ir. crann, *a tree,' is 
common in Ir. names, Crancam, Cranlome, &c. 

Crask, The (Sutherland). G. crasg, * a cross, crossing, pass.' 
Of. Arngask and Loch-a-Chraisg, Eddrachilis. 

Crathes (Kincardinesh.). a. 1600, Crathas. English 
plural 8 ; see next. 

Crathib (Braemar). Perh. = Crathes, fr. G. creathachy 
* brushwood.' Cratlie, Ireland, is Ir. cruit sliabhy 
' crook-backed hill.' 

Cravib (Banff). G. craobhachy * woody,' fr. craobhy a tree. 
Cf. Comcravie, Stoneykirk, Wigtown, and Corriecravie, 
Arran. 

Crawford (Lanark). * John of Crauford ' was witness to a 
Lesmahagow charter, c. 1150 ; a 1300 Croweford. Craw 
must be O.E. crdwCy Sc. crawy *a crow.' 



88 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Crawford JOHN (Lanark). See above, c. 1300, Craw- 
fordeione ; 1492, Crawfurde Johne. The John (G. Ian) 
was stepson of Baldwin, Sheriff of Lanark. This pla<»> 
name is almost imique. 

Crawick (Sanquhar). W. caer Rywc, 'Rywc's fort.' Cf. 
Cramond and Roxburgh. 

Cray (Blairgowrie). Prob. G. creadh, *clay,' or, 'the 
grave.' 

Crkagorry (Lochmaddy). Perh. G. creaga curaidfi, 'the 
cluster of houses of the champion,' or fr. gaire^ 
'shouting.' 

Cree, R. (Kirkcudbright), and Crbbtown. 1363, Creth. G. 
crich, ' boundary ' between E. and W. Galloway. 

Creich (N. Fife and Bonar Bridge). Fife C, 1250, Creyh; 
1298, Creegh. Bonar C, c. 1240, Crech ; 1275, Creych ; 
= Cree; and cf. Coil-a-creich, Ballater. The name 
Creagh is common in Ireland. 

Creityhall (Buchanan). Corruption of G. croit an choiUe 
or chain, ' croft by the wood.' Of. Creitendam, Drymen, 
fr. G. damh, ' an ox.* 

Crbran, R. and L. (Argyle). G. crearan, 'bending of the 
river,' fr. crear or criathar, a hoop, sieve. 

Crbtanree (Banff). G. croit an fliraeich (pron. ree), ' croft 
among the heather.' 

Crewe (Grantown). 'Crew' is common in Ireland, = Ir. 
craebhy G. craohh, *a large tree.' Cf, Bunchrkw. 

Crianlarich (N. of L. Lomond). Prob. G. crion laraich 
or lairig, ' little pass.' 

Crichton (Midlothian), c. 1145, Crechtune ; 1250, Krektun ; 
1337, Krethtown; 1367, Creigchton (the Sc. pron. 
still sounds the c^ as a guttural). * Border or boundary 
town ' ; G. crich. Of, Cree and Creich. It is thus an 
early hybrid. 

Crieff. 1380, Crefe. Some say, G. crubba, 'haunch, 
shoulder of a hill,' more prob. G. craoibh, locative, 
'among the trees.' Of, DumcriefF, Moffat, and 

MONCRIEFF. 



ELACK-NAMEB OF SCOTLA^TDl S9 

Criffel (linountaiii^ Kirkcudbrisiit). 13«». CrefeL G. 
crichj 'boundary'; '/. CREE*-l-IeeL/''?«Y, ' hiii/ T>-\TLfjnLiU 
fjdil, ' a moiintaiiu rock.' Or perh. more proo. * >piiti 
fell^^ fr. IceL kr^jfjcL, to j^plrL 

CRDfOXD (Bucfaan). cl 1300. Crecfamoiid : '•. Io.jO, irricb- 
mound. Gr. crrVA Tmmadh, 'bouncbjy hilL' M^-nadk 
in 1550 is Angiiciaed. 

Ceesas (Ai^le). Periu fr. Cnnan or Cronan, warlike lay 
Abbot of Dnnkeld in 10th *2enrary. whosse *way may 
have reached here. See Skene, Cdtic :>:fjcU L -3^2, 
note. 

Cbockbtford (Kirkcudbright). G, 'rrochaitL 'baugiug./ tr. 
crfj*:K to hang. Cf. ^ Crockatshot " (or * hau^iiiig-pIaL-e/ 
cf. Aldershot) in Renfrew in 145 2, and Craigc rocket, 
Carsphaim. 

Croi Gucf (Aigyle). Ptolemy. »:. 120 a.d., mentiou;:^ trilv 
Crfjeneit, who prob. extended frjm Loch Liimhe to 
Loch Carron. G. crd. "a circle, sheep-cot, hovel ' ; pi\»\K 
referring to the encircling hills. 

Cropthead (Bathgate). O.E. cr^?ft^ a field, l^vf. Yeitoh 
says, in So. croft properly means 'enck^stnl, oivppod 
land,' Cf. Croft-an-righ, or 'kings field,' HoIyixhhI. 

Croick (Bonar Bridge). G. cruach^ a stack or * ataok shupml 
hill ' ; or ctioc, a hill. 

Cbomab (Aberdeen). 'The circle or enclosure of Mar,' Si hi 
Crob. 

Cromarty. 1263, Crumbathyn ; 1315, -bat by ; f, 1 1 00, 
-bawchty; 1398, Croniardy ; e. \hi\\), arti». U. 
CTomh cahariy 'crooked little bay.' In luo'i. «• '''••'*♦ 
bath. The -ardy or -arty must be due t4) h«»imi' ib«iuf;la 
of G. dtrd, drde,A 'height/ So ('n»iiiu(> n«a) iMi.ui 
'bend between the heights,' tlie Sutoiw. 

Crombib (Fife). Prob. G. crom{h), 'ero^au.l, iMu\..i; \Mili 
the common dim in. -ie. 

Cromdaue (Craigellachie). G. from 'A///. '. innl.til i»l.im,' li 
the sweep of the Spey here, iiiit ii.i G. n.uiM lo ,,,>tn 
bail, 'crooked village.' 



90 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Cbomlix (Inverness). G. crom leaCy * crooked stone,' with 
Eng. plur. (cfi = x). 

Cronbbrry (Muirkirk). Prob. G. cronag, * a circle, a fort,' fr. 
G. cruinn, Ir. c^-mw, W. crton, round, + 0.E. byrig^ *a 
burgh * or fortified place. Thus the word is a tauto- 
logical hybrid like Barrhead. For -berry, cf, Turnbbrry 
in same region. 

Crook (Biggar, Stirling, Kirkinner) and Crooks (Cold- 
stream). Icel. krdk-r, Sw. krok, also G. crocaiiy * a hook 
or crook.' 

Crook of Devon (Kinross). The Devon is a river. Cf. the 
G. Cambusdoon, &c. 

Crookston (Paisley and Stow). Paisley C, c. 1160, 
Crocstoun; 1262, Cruikston. Place given by Robert 
de Croc to his daughter on marrying a Stewart, temp. 
Malcolm III. Stow C. perh. similar in origin. 

Crosby (Troon). 1503, Corsby. * Cross town.' Prob. fr. 
crosy Fr. croix. On Dan. suffix -by, see p. Ixxii. 
Four in England. 

Cross (Lewis and Orkney). Cross in N. is kross, G. crois, 
Fr. cr&ix, L. cmx. 

Crossaig (Kintyre). As above, + aig, N. Gaelic for * a bay.' 

Crossapool (Mull), and L. Crosspuill (Durness). Mull C, 
1542, CrosopoUie. Pool here prob. ^pol or bol, N. for 

* place' (see on bolstaffi'y p. Ixxii). The r is trans- 
posed in Corsapool, Islay. 

Crossbost (Stomoway). Really same as Crossapool. See 
bolstaffvy p. Ixxii. 

Crosspord (Lanark and Dunfermline), Crossqatb Ha' 
(Berwicksh.), Crossgates (Dunfermline), Crossbill 
(Glasgow and Maybole), Crosshouse (Kilmarnock), 
Crosslee (Stow), Crosskirk (North Mavine), and Cross 
Roads (Cullen). Lanark C., 1498, Corsefoord (cf, 
Corsapool). Most of these names also occur in Eng- 
land, but not Crosskirk. Crosslee, in Ireland, means 

* grey cross ' ; and that near Stow may be the same, fr. 
G. liMhy grey, with th lost by quiescence. 

Crossmichael (Castle-Douglas). 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 91 

Crossmtloof (Glasgow). The story runs, after the fatal 
battle of Langside, 1568, when Queen Mary wished to 
fly to Dumbarton, and was Earned she could not cross 
the Clyde because of the enemy, she cried, * By cross 
{i.e., crucifix) i' my loof (i.e., in my palm or hand) I 
will.' Cf., too, the gipsy slang phrase, * Cross my loof, 
and see till your fortime.' 

Crossraguel Abbey (Maybole). Pron. CrossrAygel. a. 
1200, Cosragmol. DoubtfuL Prob. 'Cross of St 
Regulus,' reputed founder of St Andrews, c. 370, 

Crowlin (W. Ross-sh.). G. cro linne, 'circular pool,' fr. cro, 
a circle. 

Crownpoint (now in Glasgow). Country-house built there 
by William Alexander, and called after the frontier 
fort on Lake Champlain, just (1775) captured from the 
French. 

Croy (Kilsyth and Fort George, also one near Gartness, on 
map of 1745). Kilsyth C, sic 1369. Fort George C, 
sic 1473. G. cruavdhy 'hard,' or 'a hillside.' Three 
in Ireland. 

Cri^achan, Ben (Argyle). G. ' the upper part of the hip ' ; 
cf. crtMcJi, a stack, or stack-shaped hill. 

Cruach Lussa (Knapdale). G. * hill of plants ' ; G. Iils, lusa. 
Cf. Ardlussa, Jura. 

Cruden (Aberdeen), a. 1300, Crowdan ; also Crudane. 
Perh. G. craobhrdun, 'tree hill' {cf. Bunchrew). Tradi- 
tion says = Grqju Dane, ' slaughter of the Dane,' fr. 
great battle here between Cnut and Malcolm III. All 
such stories are very dubious. 

Cruithnkachan (Lochaber). 'Picts' places'; fr. G. Oruithnig, 
or people who painted the forms (crotfui) of beasts, 
fishes, ^c. over their bodies. Hence the name Picti or 
Picts; though Prof. Rhys now thinks Fid is a non- 
Aryan word. See also Chambers, JSncr/cL, s.v. Pict, 

Cuchulun Hills, properly C*uillins (Skye). 1702, Qiiillins. 
First form is a 'guide-book ' name only fifty years old. 
Coolin or Cuillin is= G. cu Chulainn, * hound (A CuJann,' 
hero in Oseian, 'noble son of Sualtain.' Not likely Uf 




92 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

be fr. G. cuilionn, * holly'; but c/. Collin Hill, 
Galloway. 

Cuff Hill (Beith). ? G. cubhag, * the cuckoo/ or O.G. cuibJiy 

* a dog, a greyhound.' 

CuiCH, R. (Kinross). G. cuach, drinking-cup, a * quaich ' ; ef. 

DUNIQUAICH. 

CuiL (Ballachulish). G. cUily a comer, * retired nook.' 

CuLBBN (Banff), c, 1270, Coul-, Culbin. G. cool beinney 

* narrow hill.' 

CuLBOKiE (Dingwall). 1542, -oky. *Back of the crook ';^ 
G. cid bocan, 

CuLCRiEPF (Crieff). *At the back of the haimch.' See 
Crieff. 

CuLDUTHiL (Inverness). * North back,' G. tuaihaily 

* northern.' Cf. Dulnan. 

CuLLBN (Banff and Gamrie). a. 1300, Culan; 1454, Colane. 
Perh. Gelnius Fluvius of Ptolemy. G. cililan, * little 
nook.' 

CuLLicuDDEN (Cromarty). 1227, Culicuden; 1535, Culli- 
cuddin. G. cid-a'Chiidainn, *the back of the tub or 
large dish.' Near by was a * Drumnecudyne ' or 

* Dromcudyn.' Gf. Drum. 

CuLLiPOOL (Oban). G. ciil a p(h)uiU, *the back of the 
pool.' 

CuLLivoB (Shetland). Sagas, KoUavag. Prob. fr. a man, 

* CoUa's bay ' ; Icel. vo-r, a little inlet, or O.N. vagr, a 
bay. 

CuLLODEN (Inverness). *At the back of the little pool'; 
G. lodan. Cf, Cumloddbn. But Gaels call it GuU 
odair, which is prob. ' at the back of the ridge or sand 
bank'; cf, Dunottar. Possibly the last syll. represents 
the god Odin; the liquids n and r do interchange 
inG. 

CuLNAGRBEN (Pcrthsh.). Prob. G. cul na greine, 'at the 
back of the sim.' 

CuLNAHiL (Nigg). G. dU na h*dth, * at the back of the kiln * 
or kiln-like hill. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 93 

CuLNAKNOCK (Uig). * The back of the hill ' ; G. cnoc. 

CuLRAiN (Bonar Bridge). Prob. G. cul rathan, * the hill-back 
with the ferns.' But Culdrain, Galloway, is fr. G. 
draighean, * the blackthorns.' 

CuLROSS (Alloa), c. 1110, Culenross; 1295, Cnlncross; also 
Kyllenros. Pron. Kiiross. G. cuileannrros, * holly wood,' 
Ir. cuilenTiy W. celyn-en, * holly.' 

CuLSALMOND (Insch). Sic 1446, but 1195, Culsamiel; 1198, 
-samuelle, both in papal bulls writ by foreign scribes. 
*At the back of the Salmond,' which might mean 

* dirty hill'; G. salach monadh {cf. Crimond). 

CuLTERCULLEN (EUou). Curious combination, prob. recent. 
See Coulter and Cullen. 

CuLTOQUHEY (CrieflF). Pron. -owh^y. Perh. G. coUlte-OrChe, 

* woods of Che.' See p. li. 

Cults (Aberdeen, and two in Galloway). G. coillte, * woods,' 
with Eng. plural. 

Cumbernauld (Larbert). a. 1300, Cumbrenald; 1417, 
Cumymald ; pron. CummemAud. G. comar n^allty 

* meeting, confluence of the streams,' which is actually 
nearer Castelcary. Skene says ber in cumber is same 
as in aber (see p. xxxii). On intrusion of 6, cf, 
Cameron ; in Ireland we have p as well as 6, as in 
Donaghcumper, Kildare. But, nota bene, Cumlberland 
is from the Cymri or Kymry, i.e,, 'fellow-countrymen.' 

CuMBRABS (Frith of Clyde), c. 1270, Kumbrey; c. 1330, 
Cumbraye; 1515, Litill Comeray. Prob. * Kymry 's 
isle ' (N. ay or ey) (see above) ; others say = Kimmora 
or Kil Maura, cell or church of a female saint who 
early laboured there ; but where is the proof ? 

Cuminestown (Turriff). Fr. the Cumines of Auchry, brant^h 
of the well known family of Corny n, now usually i:tilled in 
Scotland Gumming, whose ancestor, Robert de Comines, 
came over with William the Conqueror — *EADdbertiis 
cognomento Cumin,' as Sim. Durham calls him, 

CuMLODDEN (Inveraray and Galloway). G. cam lodauj 

* crooked little pool.' Cf. Culloden. 



^ 



94 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

CuMMERTREES (Dumfries). Prob. G. comar dreas, * the con- 
fluence at the thorn or bramble ' ; cf. Cumbernauld and 
Cummerland, Lanarksh. In Ir. we have both comar 
and cummer, as in Cummeragh, Kerry; Comeragh, 
Waterford. 

Cumnock (Old and New). Sic a, 1300; but 1297, Com- 
nocke; 1461, Cunnok; 1548, Canknok. G. cam cnoc, 

* crooked or sloping hill.' Cf. Kenick Wood, Kirkcud- 
bright. Possibly from W. cwm, *a hollow.' 

Cunningham (Ayr). Old Welsh bards, Canawon; c. 1150, 
Cunegan; c. 1180, Cuninham ; Brev, Aberdon., Coning- 
hame. ? PI. of G. cuinneag, * a milk-pail ' ; -ham is the 
alteration of some Saxon scribe. 

CuNNOQUHiE (Cupar). Pron. Klnnowhy. 1480, Cunyochy. 
Prob. = Kennoway, * at the head of the field ' ; or f r. 
G. iocJidrach, * lower height ' (G. ceann, cinn), 

CuRLEY Wee (Galloway). G. cor le gaeith (pron. * gwee '), 
*hill in the wind.' 

CuRRiE (Edinburgh). Sic c, 1230. G. coire, * a cauldron,' 
ravine. Of. Corrie, and Currie Rig, Carsphairn. 

CuRROCHTRiE (Wigtown). Fr. G. currach, *a marsh' {cf, 

* The Curragh,' Ireland, meaning, * undulating plain'); 
-try may be W. tre, * house.' 

CusHNiE Glen (Aberdeen). a. 1300, Cuscheny; 1395, 
Causchini ; also Cussenin. G. ch^oisinn, *a comer,' 
with the Eng. dimin. -te. G. cosnamh is 'a battle.' 

CuTHiLL (Prestonpans, and farm, West Calder). (A Cuthil- 
garth, c. 1500, in Sanday). Prob. fr. W. cut, *a hovel, 
shed,' cwt, 'roundness'; hence 'a cot.' Of, Cutcloy, p. 
xxiii, CoTHAL and Kettle. 

Cydbrhall (Dornoch). c. 1160, Siwardhoch; c, 1610, 
Pont, Siddera. Interesting corruption fr. Earl 
' Sigurd's how ' or haugh (Icel. haug-r, a grave-moimd, 
cf N. hoi, a hill) ; he was buried here in 1014. 

Cyrus, St (Montrose). After St Gyricus, Ciricius, or Gyr, 
of Tarsus. See Eqlisgiriq. 



PUkCK-XAKES OF 900TLA5D. 95 



D 

Daillt (Majbde, and Urr, Kiikeodbrigfat^ Maj. D., 1625, 
Dajlie.' G. dealgJt/i, *thoni&' 

Daibsib (Cupar;. 1250, Dervesyn ; 1639, Dener. Flret 
8t1L prob. O.G. dair^ ^an oak ' ; <f, D^ibt ; and second 
flyfl. peril, fr. h(}i)cuf^ pL ^omii, 'a hollow,' lit the 
palm of the hand — ^oak-clad hollowti.' 

DALABoasiB (InTeraeas). G. dail FhearghuU, 'field of 
Fei^gus.' G. <2atZ, dder dal, W. <2o2, is not the same 
wotd as dale (O.Eu dad^ loeL and Sw. dod^ a Tallej, 
•deU'). 

Dalatich (Lorn). 'Field, plain of the Atich,' or G. dot/ 
amhaich, 'field of the narrow neck.' 

Dalbkattie (Kiikcudbrigfat;. 1599, Dalbatie. ' Field of the 
birch trees ' ; G. beaih^ 

Dalchbxichabt (Glenmoristan). G. daU ehreaieh drdy 
'high-up field of the foray' or 'division of the spoil' 
(ereaeh), 

Dau>kbse (Falkiri^;. c, 1610, -dane. G. dednaeh, 'bright, 
gleaming, radiant,' so 'shinii^ meadow.' 

Dalb (HalkiriL). c 1225, Orkney. Sag., DaL IceL N. and 
Sw. for 'dale, Talley.' 

Dalgabdis (Perthsh.;. =: Dalxacabdoch. g and c in Celtic 
often interchange. 

Dalgarxock (Closebum;. G. dail gearr enoc, 'field with 
the short hilL' 

Dalgett ^Alierdoar, Fife). 1178, Dalgathjn. * Windj (G. 
gaothana/:h) meadow J 

Dalguise (Donkeld). 'Field or firs'; G. guitJueach. Cf. 

KCCGUSSIK. 

Dalhousis (Dalkeith). 1298, Dalwlsj, -wulsy; U61, 
Dalwosy ; peril, fr. G« €(h)^ach, 'abounding in hollows.' 
But Dakboiime, Rannoch, w G. daUrOrKoisinn, 'field 
in the comer or angle/ 

Daubobg or 'BUBOH (l>x;hmaddjj. 'Meadow of the borg 
or fort.' See Bobguz. 



96 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

DAui-RROCH (Girvan). G. dail dharach, 'field of oaks.' 
For dh =y, cf, Barrjarg, ' red height,' f r. G. dearg. 

Dalkeith. 1140, Dalkied; c. 1145, -keth; and Dolchet. 
Perh. fr. Ce, one of seven sons of great Cruithne, father, 
according to the legend, of the Picts. But see on 
Inchkeith, and cf. Keith. 

Dallachy (Fochabers, and Aberdour, Fife). In Fife pron. 
Daichy. Prob. G. dcUach, gen. of dail, *a field,' with 
common Eng. dimin. 

Dallas (Forres). G. dall eas. * Dark, obscure waterfall.' 

Dalmahoy (Edinburgh). 1272, -mohoy; 1295, -mehoy. 
G. dail mo JCAoidhy * field of my dear Hugh.' 

Dalmally. Its old name was Dysart. In G. dail mhaili ; 
perh. fr. maile or mailley * a helmet, a coat of mail.' 

Dalmbllington (Girvan). Pron. Dam^linton. Prob. hybrid ; 
'field or dale among a cluster of knolls or hills.' G. 
medllan] though for -melling, cf, Dunfermline; + 
O.E. ton, tun, 'hamlet, village.' 

Dalmeny (Edinburgh), c. 1180, Dumanie; 1250, Dun- 
manyn. Of course du or dub?i is * black,' and ditn is a 
hill. Perh. the name is dubh moine, ' black moss ' ; but 
on -manyn, cf. Clackmannan. 

Dalmuir (Dumbarton), c. 1200, -more; 1680, -muire. G. 
dail mdr, ' big field,' confused with O.E., Icel., and Dan. 
mdr, a moor, morass, heath. 

Dalnacardoch (S. Invemess-sh.). 'Plain of the smithy'; 
G. c(h)edrdaich, fr. ceard, a smith. Of. Dalgardie. 

Dalnaglar (Glenshee). Fr. G. gleadhar, 'a loud noise, 
clang of arms.' 

Dalnamein (Dalnacardoch). Fr. G. mHn, ' ore, a mine.' 

Dalnaspidal (N. Perthsh.). G. spideal, a 'spittal' or inn. 
Same word as ' hospital.' 

Dalnavaird (Forfar and Kincardine). ' Rhymer's or bard's 
meadow ' ; G. na bhaird, gen. of bard. But Dalnavert, 
Aviemore, sic 1338, is 'field of graves,' G. feart. 

Dalquharran Castle (Dailly). Doubtful; perh. 'field of 
the scurvy-grass or corn-weed'; G. c(h)arran. Qu is w; 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 97 

cf. Sanquhar. But the old name of Dailly, Ayrsh., was 
Dalmakeran, 'field of my St Kieran/ of which this mxay 
be a corruption, Cf, Kilkerran. 

Dalreogh (Dumbarton and Cabrach). G. riahliach (pron. 
reoch or reeugh), *grey, brindled.' 

Dalrt (Edinburgh, Ayrshire, Castle Douglas, and Tyndrum). 
* King's meadow ' ; G. righ (pron. ry or ree, as in Dal- 
ree, Tyndrum, and Portree). 

Dalrymple (Ayrshire). 1467, -rumpyll. As its site shows. 
G. dail dvruim puill, * field on the curving (G. crom) 
stream.' 

Dalserf (Hamilton). Formerly *Mecheyn' or *Machan' 
(for which cf, Methven and Ecclesmachan). From St 
Serf, 5th century, Prior of Lochleven. 

Dausetter (Lerwick). * Valley of the saetor,' N. for a 
summer, hill, or dairy farm. Ending -setter also occurs 
in Caithness. Cf Flashader. 

Dalbwinton (Diunfries). 1292, Dalsuyntone; also c. 1295, 
Bale-swyntoun, which is a tautology, G. baile being = 
O.E. ton, tUn, * a village.' See Swixtox. 

Dalton (Ayr). Possibly G. doll dun, *dark hill'; cf 
Edderton. 

Dalwhinnie (S. Inverness). G. dail chuinnidh. The latter 
half possibly means 'narrow.' Others say, fr. coinr 
fi^amh^ -rtimh^ *jt m^-ttLii^ or it.^C'iiibly/ Cf Crmu- 
whinnie, Galltiway. 

DiLZfEL (Mothenvdl). a. 1200, Dalyeil, -id; 1352, DtlML 
Xow pron. Dalzi'U ; prob, O. daif ial, * Jreld of th* 
gleam/ or, by a^piratioti, fr. ghml, * whiu?,' 

Di3iKEAJ> (Kini^osH) v\n<\ White Dambeab (Berwick). 

Dakph, or lUiMH (U Brcroui), (*, ^ImJi, **ij q%; 

Damsey (Kirkwall), r-. 1225, Orht^y, i^j,^l^uikm&f 
Deumey ; ciirioiii eoutr^*tirjp for * AdAiiixyi£i'» y^* 

mj, ei/)^ see p. cvL 

Dani>aleith (Elothes). Perh. G, dmmniOffjaieh It* 

nbouudiiig in nettle«.^ 




98 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Darnagie (New Luce). G. dohhar (pron. dor or dar) na 
gaoitJie, * water or stream of the winds.' With dar, 
dor, cf, W. dwr, river. 

Darn A WAY (Forres). 1453, Tamewa; 1498, Dam way. O. 
dohhar na bheath (pron. vay), * birch- water.' Cf. above. 

Darnconner (Ayr). * Connor's Water' (see above). C. 
might be a man, but Connor in Antrim opposite is the 
old Condeire, -daire, glossed in old Jr. MSS. doire na 
con, * thicket of the wild dogs.' Cf, Gartconner, 
Kirkintilloch. 

Darnick (Melrose), a. 1150, Demewick. O.E. deme icicy 
*out of the way, dreary, dark dwelling or village.' Cf. 
Damrig, Slamannan. 

Darvel (Galston). Prob. G, daire chuill, *oak wood'; G. 
coill, a wood. Cf Barluell, Galloway, = barr leainh- 
chuill, or *elm wood.' Here the ch is wholly lost 
through aspiration. The latter part may be fr. fal, 
*a hedge.' 

Daughtib Mill (Kirkcaldy). Pron. dftwty; 1 G. ddbhaich 
Ugh, * farm-house.' See Dava. 

Dava (Grantown). More fully davodc, Bk. Deer dabach, a 
land measure = four ploughgates, f r. G. dabach, * a tub, 
a corn-measure.' Cf Davochbeg and Davochfin, 
Dornoch. 

Davarr Island (Campbeltown). G. and Ir. dd bharr, * two 
heights.' Cf Inishdavar, Ireland. 

Davbn L. (Ballater). Ptolemy's town of Devana is by some 
supposed to have stood near here. As it stands it 
perhaps may be G. dd bheann, * two mountains.' 

Davidson's Mains (Edinburgh). Named fr. the Davidsons 
of Muirhouse, the family of the present Abp. of 
Canterbury, there in 18th cny. and perh. earlier. On 
mains, see Clintmains. As early as 1680 and still 
called, curiously, *Muttonhole.' 

Daviot (Old Meldrum and Inverness). Old Meldrum D., 
sic a. 1300; also Davyoth. Prob. mod. G. dabhoch, *a 
farm sufficient for so many cows,' in the Hebrides, 
usually 320. Cf Dava. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 99 

Dawic (Stobo). c. 1200, Dauwic. Prob. G. and Ir. danih^ 
*an ox,' + O.K trie, *a dwelling or camp.' Cf. Dawros, 
Donegal, and Bochastle. ZXifr = jackdaw is not found 
till c. 1450. 

Dawstanb Burx and Rigg (Liddesdale). a. 720, Bede^ 
Degsastan, * Degsa's stone ' (O.E. stdn, Sc. stane), where 
King Aidan was defeated in 603. 

Dean (Edinburgh), c, 1145, Dene. O.K denu, M.E. dene, 
dane, *a valley or glen, generally deep and wooded,' 
cognate with O.E. denn, a den, cave, lurking-place. 

Deanburnhaugh (Hawick). See Haugh. 

Deanstoun (Doune). Place or * house (O.E. tUn, Sc. ioun) 

in the Dean,' or glen. 
Dearg, Ben (Ross-sh.). G. dearg, * red.' 

Deabn, R. (Carrbridge). 1 G. deaitif 'the palm of the 
hand.' 

Dechmont (Cambuslang and Uphall). A tribe Decantae 
lived in the north of Scotland {cf, Deganwy, Llan- 
dudno); and the name Mac Decet is common on 
inscriptions in Devon, Anglesea, and Ireland. So it 
may be * Decet's hill ' ; G. monadh. More likely fr. G. 
deaghj *good, excellent.' Cf. Esslemont. 

Dee, R. (Aberdeen and Kirkcudbright). Same name as 
Ptolemy's L. Ai/ova. In G. Deabhadh (pron. devay), 
which is lit. 'draining'; it also implies hastiness. 
Some connect with L. divOy 'goddess.' Gildas refers 
to river-worship, and there is confirmation in Gaulish 
inscriptions. See also Don. 

Deer, Old and New (Aberdeen). Bk. Deer, 1 1th cny.. Dear ; 
c. 1320, Der. So called, says Bk. Deer, fr. the tears, 
Ir. der, G. deitr, * a tear,' shed here at the parting of 
Coliunba with his friend Drostan, who founded the 
abbey here. Scholars usually reject this legend, and 
derive fr. G. doire, * a grove or forest,' such as once was 
there. Cf. Durrisdeer and Kildrostan. 

Deerness (Kirkwall). Prob. not * deer ness ' or cape ; Icel. 
and Dan. dyr, a deer; rather fr. the door-like recess 
in the mural cliff here, dyr-ness or ' headland with the 
door.' 



535217 



100 PLA.OE-NAMKS OF SCOTLAND. 

Dkgbnish (Argyle). Prob. the neas or niah of some Norse- 
man, ? Dega. Of, Ardalanish. 

Delny (Invergordon). Sic 1463; but 1398, Delgeny. G. 
dealganach, * full of little prickles or thorns ' ; G. dealgy 
a thorn or bodkin. 

Del6rain (Selkirksh.). G. dail Grain, *Oran's field.' Cf, 
Oransay. 

Delting (Shetland). 1597, Daleting. N. dal ping, *dell 
or valley of the thing or meeting.' Cf. Tingwall. 

Denburn and Denhbad (St Andrews, and Auchmacoy, 
Ellon). Den is really O.E. denn, *wild beasts' lair'; 
but in Sc. names it usually means a wooded glen, and so 
is equivalent to the cognate words, Deax and dingle. 

Dexholm (Hawick). See Dean and Branks-holm. 

Dbnino, or DuNiNO (St Andrews). 1250, Duneynach; 
1517, Dinnino. G. dim aonaich, *hill on the heath' 
or * waste,' or fr. eunach, * full of birds,' G. eu7i, a bird. 

Dennis Head (Orkney) and Dennistoun (Glasgow). Dennis 
is a common Ir. name, prob. « St Denis or Dionysius, 
first bishop of Paris, beheaded c. 280. 

Denny (Stirling). Prob. a dimin. of Dean. Cf. Denny 
Bottom, near Tunbridge Wells. 

Dennyloanhbad (Denny). Cf. Loanhbad, * head of the loan 
or lane ' (O.E. Idne). 

DONOVAN (Denny). A modem 'refinement.' Local pron. 
dunnlven, G. dim aibhne, *fort by the river.' Cf. 
Craigniven, Stirling. 

Dernacissock (Kirkcowan). G. dobhar na siosg, * water with 

the sedges.' Cf. Darnaway. 
Derry (L. Earn, Crathie). G. and Ir. daire, doire, * an oak 

or oak-wood.' Two in England. 
Dervaig (Tobermory). ? G. darbh aig, *worm or reptile 

bay ' ; aig is Norse G. f r. mk, a bay. 
Deryngton (Lammermuirs). c. 1250, Diveringdounes. 

Doubtful. 
Deskford (Cullen). a, 1600, Deskfurd. Prob. G. dubh uisg, 

*dark water,' -h O.E. ford, *a foi-d.' Cf. Desford and 

Desborough, Leicester. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. lOl 

Deskie Burn (Elgin) and Dusk Water (Beith). As above. 

Dkvanha (Aberdeen). Modem. Ptolemy's Deiafia was at 
Normandikes, 8 miles west of Aberdeen (cf. Daven). 
Last syllable looks like G. and Ir. h{h)eannach^ * Hilly,' as 
in Aghavannagb, Wicklow. But cf, next. 

Dkvanxoc, Inch (L. Lomond). Sic 1776; 1804, Tavanach. 
Prob. G. Ugh da mhanach, * house of the two monks.' 
A hermit once dwelt here. 

Beveron, R. (Banff). 1273, Douem; a. 1300, Duffhern ; 
later, Duvem. Must be the same word as Ptolemy's 
Ir. Dabrona; G. dohharan, dimin. of dobhar, * water, 
stream.' Cf. Devoran, Cornwall. Still * Duffhern ' 
must have been intended to represent G. duhh Eam^ 
*the dark R. Earn.' Cf Findhorn and Lindifferon, 
Monimail. 

Devon, R. (Kinross), c. 1210, Glendovan. Perh. G. duhh 
dbhainn or an, * black, dark river.' The district Heernn 
to have been inhabited by the 'SiseaUe, an outlier of the 
great tribe of the Damnonii, inhabiterK and imriierw of 
the Eng. * Devon,' in W. Dycnaint. Khy« thinki$ i\iii 
names identical in meaning and origin. 

Dhu Heartach (rock off Colonisay). iyfjuna ffAV it uuinu^ 
'black rock to the we^t^er/ G. h'iartarM (tar xk^t^i v^My, 
Cf. Hirta or Hirta DLtj, <A<1 unsij^ 'A >t K.l'U; ^^t 
pp. cx-cxL 

Dhusrer, L. (EriVx/1 l ii. 'ft,/V< >},^;^ * vl^,\k i^/:ic ; rf ^, 
$kjaer or ^-^ a r^x-k <jr '*k*:frrj.' 

DiLLOT, The (Meot<KiLL -^Ci— «^-ih;.;ii^>:Jl: r. ... r-ri^ ^ #K 
dioUaui, 'a sftiddku^ 

Dingwall, r. li>'.t I»ii. 
Dingewal : 14^-?. Ini;; 
of the thiTijf ' "W io«iu! 
WALL ^j*«:i* taol h 1: 

DiNNET ^AI>erit»«L^ «,-. 
sanct'iairir/ 

Dnnrooc^iE • L» uhj^hj^ . 

widdie. F-sru. '♦i*. ^/c7> 
waiiVx-.* 



t:.tiuiu; 


: - 


IJ'.I.. 


1*'/:*.**'1» 


^, t^m. 


MflKTU^ 




•5 






•'»*!'7^»* 


f.M. 


"»\.. 






t.nj^u 


r^,. 


^ 


;im*A ^/ 


*»*iip;. ^ 


. T»'.»' 




.Mivir tr'^* 


-^ ^Mn 


'ni>ftt' 


'''". 


U 


ll \*' '(\- 


- .- f 



102 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

DiPPiN (S. Arran). 1807, *The Dipping Rocks/ 300 feet of 
perpendicular basalt. But Dr Cameron says an older 
form is Dupenny, which means * twopenny land ' ; see 
p. Ixv. 

DiPPLK Burn (Beith). W. du pwll, or G. dubh poll, * dark 
stream.' 

DiRLET (Caithness). Prob. dirl-clet, * stack-like rock with 
the hole in it.' There is a Clbtt here ; and see next. 

DiRLKTON (N. Berwick and Kirkinner). N. Berw. D., 
1270, Dirlton; 1288, Driltone ; 1298, Drillintone. 
Looks like * village by the drills ' or planted rows (of 
potatoes, (kc). Only, drill in this sense is not recorded 
till 1727. The Sc. dirl and the Eng. drill and thrill are 
all fr. same root as O.E. thyrl, a hole. 

DiSTiNKHORN HiLL (Galstou). Prob. fr. a man. Of, Dis- 
tington, Whitehaven, and Cleghorn. 

DocHART, L. and R. (Perthsh.). c. 1200, Glendochard; 
1238, -chir; 1428, Dochirde. Prob. G. dahhoch dird, 

* height with the ploughed land.' See Dava, and cf, 
Dawachnahard, Coigeach. 

DocHFOUR (Inverness). * Land for pasture ' ; see Balfour, 
and cf, PiTFOUR. 

DocHGARROCH (Invcniess). 'Rough, ploughed field'; G. 
garbh, * rough.' The -och may be a mere suffix; but 
cf, Garioch. 

DoOHLAGGiE (Strathspey). G. dahhoch laggain, * ploughed 
land in the little hollow ' (G. lag), 

DoDD, common name of rounded hills in the south of Scot- 
land. Cf Lowl. Sc. doddy, doddit, * without horns,' or 

* bald.' Perh. cognate with 0. Icel. toddi, a portion. 
Of Dodridge, Ford. 

Dollar (Alloa) and Dollar Law (Peebles). 1461, Doler; 
1639, Dolour. W. ddl, * meadow, dale,' and ary 

* ploughed land.' On law, see p. Ixxxvi. 

DoLPHiNTON (S. of Edinburgh and near Tranent). Edin. D., 
1 253, Dolfinston. Dolfine was brother of the first Earl of 
Dunbar, c, 1240. Cf, Dolphinholme, Lancaster, called 
after Dolfin of Cumbria, c, 1080. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 103 

Don, R. Sic c. 1170. Other forms, see Aberdeen. Not G. 
donn^ * brown,' or domhain^ *deep*; mh mute. In mod. 
G. it is Dian or D^an, older Deon, which points to a 
connection with Ptolemy's Aiyovava, which is prob. the 
same as L. Diana, and as Dtvona, mentioned by 
Ausonius the Gaul, *Divona, Celtarum lingua, fons 
addite divis ' (L. divics, diva, * divine,' hence * a god, a 
goddess '). Thus Don like Dek must be a survival of 
the general Celtic river-worship. 

DoNiBRiSTLE (Abcrdour, Fife), a. 1169, Donibrysell; 1178, 
Donybrisle. Prob. G. dunan Msg-gheal, * clear, bright 
little hill.' Of, Ardalanish. 

DooN, R. and L. (Ayrsh.). c. 1300, Logh done. G., Jr., 
and O.E. dUn, *a hill, then a hill-fort.' Possibly = Don. 

DoRBACK (Grantown). M*Bain says, * place abounding in 
tadpoles,' G. doirb, 

DoRES (L. Ness). Pron. doors. G. dorus, ^ the opening,' lit. 
* the door.' 

DoRLiNN (between Morven and Oronsay, Davaar and Kin- 
tyre, Calf and Mull). G. doirlinn, ^ a bit of land, or 
isthmus, which is temporarily submerged by the tide.' 
DoRNiE (Lochalsh), 1617, Dorny, is thought to be a 
corruption of the same word. But Craigdornie, Glass^ 
is prob. G. creag doirionnach, * stormy crag.' 

Dornoch. 1150, Dumach; 1199, Durnah; 1456, Dor- 
nouch. Prob., like Drumdurno, old, -dornach, and 
Edindumach, fr. G. doirionnach, 'stormy,' perh. with 
reference to the Gizzen Brigs. For a similar name, 
see Lernock, Balfron, prob. fr. G. leatharnaich, * place 
at the one side or edge.' 

DoRNOCK (Annan). As above. 

DoRRATtTR (Falkirk). Perh. Daratho in Chart, Holyroody 
12th-14th cnies. G. doire-a-torr, *wood on the hill.' 

Douglas (Lanark, and two burns on L. Lomond). L. Lom. 
D., in NenniuSj Dubglas; 1272, Douglas. Lan. D., c. 
1150, Duuelglas, Duueglas, Duglas; c. 1220, Dufgles; 
1298, Douglas. Old G. dubh glas, * black, dark water' ; 
the only meaning of glas in mod. G. is *grey, pale.' 



104 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

DotTGLASTOWN (Maybole and Forfar). Fr. the great Scotch 
family of that name. 

DouGRiB (W. Arran). Old Dowgare, Dougarre. G. dubh 
garadh, *dark cave,' or fr. gctrradhy * garden, enclosure.' 

DouNBY (Stromness). Sw. and O.E. dUn, a hill, + by, town, 
village ; see p. Ixxii. = Hilton. 

DouNE (Callander) = Doon. 

Dour, R. (Fife). Forms, see Aberdour. G. dobhar, dor, 
dur, W. dywr, dufr, Com. dour, * water, river.' Of. 
Adamnan's *Dobor Artbranani.' Also in Yorks. 

DovECRAiGS (Bo'ness). * Black rocks'; G. dubh, * black.' 
Cf. the name DufF. 

DowALLY (Pitlochry). Pron. dii-Slly. G. dubh aille, * dark, 
black cliff.' 

DowHiLL (Kinross). Old, Doichill. G. dubh choill, *dark 
wood.' 

DowNFiELD (Dundee). Down as in Ir. *Down'; prob. = 
G. and Ir. dhn, a hill, hill-fort. 

DowNiBS (Kincardine and Beith). Corruption of G. dfinan, 
*a little hill,' with the common Eng. plural. There 
was a thanage of 1254, *Dunny,' now Downie, at 
Monikie ; and there is Port Downie, above Falkirk. 

Draine (Lossiemouth). G. and Ir. draigheann, W. draen, 

* (black) thorns.' Cf, Drain, Drains, Dreenan, &c., in 
Ireland. 

Dbaniemanner (Minigafi). Prob. as above, + G. mainnir, 

* a sheep-pen, booth, cattle-fold.' 

Dreghorn (Irvine and Colinton). c. 1240, Dregem; 
1438, -arn. O.E. drige erne, *dry cot' or * house.' Cf. 
Clbghorn. 

Drbm (Haddington). Sic 1250. G. druim, the back; 
hence * a hill-ridge.' Cf Drimagh, Ireland. Possibly, 
W. draen, * the blackthorn.' 

Drimnin (Morven). G. druinnein, dimin. of dronn, *the 
back, a ridge.' Cf, Drimna and Drimmin (Ir. druimin), 
Ireland. 



PRTP^Tiifr {>TrrT7L- a: xii "^ Tn^ .tl 1 i^zz?^ « ..rr*^-. 
Eem. I',, l^-^'r ^- -Lttl: ^^ "^ -^f^ nn- 

(T»niiL -njoaij rT».*w*r- tii- '\;ii.-^ r i_l i.-v,. . tr 

GL vt'r, box;, aiic €i^ a.i^Tvt. ^i±» ni rrtruji^ 

Dhos ''Bridxr* cr iimi.. >>- : 11^^ t, "vmv. •tn '•.v.-.-j. 
lack, i> iiiL-Tidfft. 

a meadow. iVl I^rcmiifcja Sbti&fOvi. 

Dsrx <farDQu BomaTltrid^e, ^^-.>. G. ti^^^U'i ^ \f. »?♦'".<•*,' , 
the back ; hence a hill-ridge like * Ixv^s^t V Ivax^K. S)^ \\. 
Maxvell names 198 Drums- in G«lK>\v»\^v lOw^^^v \\ \< 
seen in Ptolemy's (c. 120 A.i\) Ko\t^M'»»)t »\)vim<*» \\\\\\M 
Skene thinks is translation of OfM^mff^fM fhsi'^ftm \\\ 
Drum Alban, the great (livldlu>< iniMmlMllMhtj^M hI" 
Scotland. Druyyi and than or ttm, 'lilll/ >!♦*• /-mIi 
stantly interchanging in Mr,, untiwn. 

Drumblade (Hiintly). 1403, blflffi/' ; //. (V/O, hi'^*' h H 
bladhj blathOf *gmrx>th/ //r ////////, ?»ir»/J ',-y ^^//" ^ K^' -.,,. ' 

Druhchapel (Dumljart^jT,; ^'r.*'/*''// -^/y/". r, ^ . / 
c{h)apullj a mar^, 

Drumcloo (Stfatha7*r. . ?-^>- '" ''^ -/' v '' 

there a ch«p«*^i A*»r,» ' yy- -^ \ ,>, t 
rock'; ^. Jov^i*. .. t 

Drumdollo LVJ-^rrt**^.-* , * "' '- , f 

fieki-fihrew. *\ *-^t ■ ► ' 



106 • PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Drum(m)elzier (Biggar). Pron. -<51yer ; c. 1200, Dunmedler ; 
c. 1305, Dumelliare; 1326, Drummeiller ; 1492, -mel- 
zare. Here G. druim and dUn^ * hill-ridge ' and *hill,' 
have been interchanged. The second part looks like 
O.Fr. medler or meslier^ the medlar-tree, but this is very 
unlikely, especially as * medler' {sic) is not found in 
Eng. till c. 1400 in Romaunt of the Rose. Perh. fr. G. 
maol drdy ^ bare height * ; cf, Drummeiller, Denny. 

Drumfada, mountain (Banavie). *Long (G. fada) hill- 
ridge.' 

Drumglow Hill (Kincardine). * Ridge of the cry or shout ' ; 
G. (jlaodh. Of, Dunglow. 

Drumlanrig (Thornhill). 1663, -lanerk. As it stands it is a 
tautology, for dru7n is = rig (see p. Ixx) ; but cf, Lanark, 
and Carlenrig, north of Langholm. 

Drumlemble (Campbeltown). In G. this is druim leamhaUy 

* ridge of the elms.' In Eng. it is also called Coal HilL 

Drumlithib (Fordoun). * Grey (G. Hath) hill-ridge.' 

Drummond (S. Perthsh. and Whithorn). Perthsh. D., 1296, 
Droman ; c. 1300, * Gilbert de Drymmond or Drumund.' 
G. droinainn, *a ridge,' fr. druim^ the back. Several 
Drummonds in Ulster ; also in Ireland, Drummin, &c. 
The d has not added itself in Drymen. 

DrummiJckloch (E. Wigtownsh.). * Ridge of the piggery'; 
G. muclachy fr. muc^ *a pig.' Cf, Drimnamucklach, 
Argyle, and Gortnamucklagh, Ireland. 

Drumnadrochit (Inverness). * Hill-ridge by the bridge'; 
G. drocJiaid, Cf, Drumdrochat, MinigafF, and Kin- 
DROCHiT. Droch Head, Kirkcolm, is just the G. 
drochaid, 

Drumoak (Aberdeen). Sic 1407; but 1157, Dulmayok; c. 
1250, Dumuech, and even till lately pron. DalmAik. 

* Field (G. dail) of St Mazote,^ the Irish virgin, friend 
of St Bride or Bridget, 5th century. St Maik's Well is 
still here. 

Drumochter (Dalnaspidal). * Upper hill-ridge'; G. uach 
darachf fr. uachdavj *the top.' Cf the names in 
Auchter-. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 107 

Drumsheugh (Edinburgh). 'HiU-ridge with the trench or 
furrow ' ; G. shmdi. Only, the old name is said to have 
been Meldrumshaugh. See Haugh. 

Dbumshoreland (Ratho). G. druim sair, 'east hiU-ridge/ 

+ G. lann ; see Lamlash, or Eng. land, 
Drumsmittal (Knockbain). 'Vapoury, misty (G. smuuleU) 

hm-ridge.' 
Drumtochty Castle (Fordoun). ? * Obstructing, lit. clirAing, 

hill-ridge' ; G. tacJidacJi, fr. iacJid, *to stop up, choke. 

Drumvtjich (Perthsh.). ' Hill-ridge of the buck ' ; G. Uiuic. 

Drumwhindle (Abeideensk). Perk *hillridge of, or like 
to, a bundle ' ; G. b{h)einneal, corruption of Sc. ^An/Ik ; 
see BiNDLE. 

Drybridge (Buckie). Cf. Dryden, Roslin, and 

Dryburgh (St Boswells). Sic c. 1200: c, IW), Dricburh ; 
c. 1211, Dryburg, Driborch, also -bru^^h ; 1544, brouj^h. 
Quite possibly *dry fort,' O.K. dr^^je, driA, dry; and 
see Brough. 

Dryfbsdale (Lockerbie). Now pron- DryAixh ; 111^, 
Drivesdale. Prob. fr. N. d/i/a, Uj drive, like fej>ray, ^/r 
drifa, * snow, sleet.' 

Drymen (S. of L. Lomond). Pron. lyriuiiutm ; 1 t%H, 
Drumyn ; also Drummane. = Vuvmho^ik 

Drynachan House (Nairn). Chart«r, e, | tW, * TtmrnMimu 
quod Latine sonat lignum iwet^ ezummsm' ; 1 4^, 
Drynahine. G. dravmmii:hm^ «utj«Untif« limine 
meaning *a thicket,' lit. * a>jotiiiflti^ tu thr^fns'} 
draighneach, 

Drynie (Dingwall). G. d rai^tiknm^A, 'tbrjnM. 
also a Drynoch, 

DuBFORD (Banflf). Prob. *bkck lO. dmfA^ im\* i ..^ ^ 
also Sc. (foimd fr. c. 15O0| fm '• j*^«l, pi»iMiif/ m In 
Dubbieside, Leven. 



DuBTON (Montrose). Prob. ^jrng^m ^ IJ, 4 

*dark hilL' Cf. EABLrfr'>:i, EMmrtjp, 




108 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

DucHRAY (Aberfoyle), Duchrays (Dumfries), Deuchribs 
(Glen Tanar, Aberdeensh.). G. dubh chraobh, * the dark, 
black tree/ or perh. *wood.' The a is the common 
Eng. pliir. 

DuDDiNGSTON (Edinburgh). Charter, c, 1150, 'Dodinus de 
Dodinestim ' ; 1290, Dodingstone. Dodin must have 
been a Saxon settler. Six Doddingstons and one 
Duddingston in England. 

Dufftown (Banff). Fr. the clan Duff; G. dubh^ black. 
Of, Dufton, Appleby. 

DuFFUS (Elgin). 1290, Dufhus; 1512, Duffous. Prob. 
G. dubh uisg, *dark water.' Not fr. the dove^ which 
is not an O.E. word, and first occurs, c, 1200, as duu&, 
Prob. this is the Diifeyrar in Orkney. Sag.j in which 
the latter part = O.N. eyrt, a spit of land. 

DuiCH, L. (Glenelg). Fr. St DuthaCy died at Armagh <r. 
1062. Of, Bailedhuich, G. name of Tain. 

DuiRiNiSH (Skye). (1501, Watemes); 1567, Duiynthas; 
1588, Durinysh. It is a peninsiila, almost an island, 
so possibly G. dur (or dohhar) innis^ 'water-island.' 
Cy. Craig Diunish, in 1613 -durinche, L. Etive. Prof. 
Mackinnon thinks = Durness or * deer-ness ' ; which is 
prob. correct. 

Dull (Aberfeldy). Sic 1380; c. 1230, Dul. G. diOach, 
'misty gloom.' A mountain called DoUweme ('murky 
cave') is mentioned in the Irish Life of St Otdhbert 
as near by. In charter, c 1170, re the Don Valley, 

we read, 'Rivulus Doeli quod sonat carbo 

("coal") Latine propter ejus nigredinem.' 

DiJllatur (Falkirk). G. dubh leiiir, * dark hill slope.' See 
Ballater. 

DuLNAN, R. (Grantown). c. 1610, Pont Tulnen. Variant 
of G. tuilnean, f r. tuil, ' a flood ' ; often a very appropriate 
name for it. 

Dumbarton, a. 1300-1445, Dunbretane; 1498, Dunber- 
tane ; c. 1600, Dumbarten ; 1639, Dumbriton. G. diin 
Breatuin, 'fort or hill of the (Strathclyde) Britons.* 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 109^ 

Its old name was Alcluth, sic a. 1 1 30 in Siyn. Dui'liam, 
Dum and dun are constantly found interchanging in 
Sc. names ; so are dun and drum, 

DuMBUCK (Dumbarton). G. dun huic, *hill of the buck or 
he-goat' (hoc), 

DuMCRiEFF (Moffat). * Hill among the trees.' See Crieff. 

Dumfries. 1 Nennius, Caer Pheris; 1288, D(o)unfres ; 
1395, Drumfreiss ; 1465, Dumfrise. Skene thinks both 
these = * fort of the Frisians,' here a. 400. Others say 
fr. W.pri/8, G,phrea8, * copse, shrubs,' = Shrewsbury, the 
O.E. Scrobbesbyrig. Of. the Sc. surname Monfries?« 
G. monadh phreas. 

DuMGREE (Kirkpatrick-Juxta). G. dun greighe^ Miill of the 
herd ' (of deer> &c.). 

Dun (Montrose). Sic 1250; 1375, Dwn. G. and Jr. dtin, *a 
hill,' then *a hill-fort'; W. din^ cognate with O.E. ^w, 
enclosure, village, and L. ending -dunum^ so common in 
Caesar, Lugdunum, Camalodunum, &c. As early as a. 
800, Hid, St Cuthbiiy we find Duiia, now Dunion, a 
hill near Jedburgh. 

Dux Alastair (Pitlochry). G. * Alexander's hill.' 

DuNAD (Crinan). Chron, lona, ann. 683, Duin-Att. G. dun 
fhada, * long hill ' or * fort ' ; cf, Attow. 

DuNAN (Broadford). G. *a little hill' 

DuNA8Kix*(Ayr). Prob. *hill of the water'; G. uinfjean. 

DuNAv-ERTY (Kintyre). Chron. lona, ann. 712, Aberte. 
Doubtful. Perh. contains G. abarach, * marshy,' or 
afxir, * a marsh.' 

Dunbar (Haddington and Kirkbean). Hadd. \l, t\ 70&, 
Bhli, DynWr; Sim. Durham, ann. 1072, IhrjjUr, 
*Fort on the height'; (). harr. Possibly mm\k*m*4\ 
with St Bar or FinV>ar, Bishop of (Jork, (ci ^hfm 
Dornoch Church is dedicated. 

DuxBARXEY (Bridge of Earn). a. 1150, \)n%m\mmht 
*Hill with the gap'; G. hmrna. Of. r>rMB>^MrMV, 

DrxBEATH (Caithness). Sir U50 : Uf4. Am,., r^> ^m. ^*0 
Duinbaitte. * Hill of the birches ' ; (;. honf}, 



A 



11.0 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Dunblane. Old chron. Dubblain; c. 1272, Dumblin. 
*Hill of Blane/ son of King Aidan, who founded a 
church here in the 7th century. 

DuNBOG, or DiNBUG (Cupar). ? Chron. lona, ann. 598, Duin- 
bolg; c. 1190, Dunbulcc; 1250, -bulg. * Massive, 
bellying hill,' fr. G. bulg, the belly. Cf. Drumbulg, 
Tarland. 

DuNCANSBAY (Caithness), c. 1225, Orkney. Say., Dunguls- 
bae; 1682, Dungisby; present spelling only later than 
1700. * Donald's house or village.' Donnghal is the 
old G. form of Donald, now Ddnull; and in Orkney. 
Sag, we read of a 10th century Celtic chief, Dungad or 
Dungal, who prob. gave his name to this place. For 
-hay = Dan. by or bi, * village ' ; cf. Canisbay. 

DuNCANSBURGH (Fort William). A modem name. 

DuNCANSTONE (Insch). 

DuNCOW (Dumfries). Prob. * hill of the gow or smith ' ; 
G. gobha, or fr. O.G. cobh, * a victory.* 

DuNCRUB, or Drumcrub (Stratheam) ; in Pid. Chron., ann. 
965, 'Dorsum Crup.' *Hill with the haunch or 
shoulder ' ; G. crubha, W. crwb, * a hump.' 

DuNDAFF (Fintry). Sic 1237; 1480, Dundafmore; perh. 
Chron. lona, ann. 692, Duin Deauae. If this last, then 
prob. same as Deb. Very likely, G. dhn daimh, *hill 
of the stag ' or * ox.' 

Dundee, a. 1177, Donde; 1199, Dunde; c. 1200, Liber de 
Scon, Dundo, Dundho, Dunde. The common and quite 
possible derivation is G. diln De (gen. of Dia), ^ hill of 
God'; ? = *Gadshill.' But the c. 1200 forms look 
more like G. dun dubh, * dark hill.' 

DuNDONALD (Ayrsh., sic 1461, but Acta Sand, -devenel) and 
DuNDONNELL (Ullapool) ; cf, * Dundouenald,' 1183, in 
Forfar. *Hill of Donald'; G. Dbntdl or Domhnull. 
There is a Dundonald in County Down. 

DuNDRENNAN (Kirkcudbrt.). c. 1160, -drainan; 1290, 
-draynane ; 1461, -dranan. * Hill of the thorn-bushes ' ; 
G. draighneanan. Cf. Drynachan; also Dreenan and 
Aghadreenan, Ireland. 



PLACE-KAME> OT SCOTLAXT;. ] ;; l 

DuNDUKX (L. Hani J. I*roi,. Cnrrn^. Jfm^^ ann. flS:^, Thnn 
Duim, * hill of tiit lisi, ^.c nK± i, hsl. i^, tioru^ (i'iJi-n4.. 

DuxEATOK (S. Lanark ^ *Hfl: o: ti±t iimiper^/ (, aito/iu or 

aittin. 
DuxBCHT (Aberdeen). Quit^- HKKiertL Set Ersr. 
DuxFATJ.AyrPY (lx>£riemit ;. c. Ii?mO, -foieiitiii, -folmnxni. 

Perh. ^MU aboimdiii^ in sea-^rulii^' i^. janu^anuarh. 

Of. Creag-na-Fhaoilinn, Ihinieaci. 

DirxFKRMLJNK. Sic 12T)1, hnt c. 1](>0. Turnrn^ I>^mifcTnio]\Ti ; 
1124, -f erlin ; c. 1140, I^mifemielrtane : n. 114:2,' 
-fennlin; 1160, -melin, -ermlmir ; c, 1875, f>^^nfo^h^lc' 
Two names seem interminfrled here. There k (1) 
*Farlan's HHI' This Farlan (now seen in the sur- 
names MTarlane and Parlane), according to legend 
was, with Xemed, first coloniser of Ireland, Bnt r2) 
the rti is best accounted for by deriving fr. that MeJi/n 
whose name also enters into Stirling ; so the nanio 
will mean 'crooked hill of Melvn,' G. dunfiar Mhelain. 
See Melville, and cf. Mjnjd PwU Melyn, Wales. 

DuNFiON (hill, Lu Lomond and Lamlash). 'Finn' or 
* Fingal's hill ' ; he is said to have himted here, 

DuNOLASS (Cockbumspath). 'Grey, wan (G. glas) hill.' 

DuNGLOW (Kinross). *Hill' or *fort of the shout or crv ' * 
G.glaodh. ^ ' 

DuNiPACB (Denny). Sic 1195; hut 1183, -ipast; r^ 1190, 
Dimypais. Skene says fr. Celtic ^>fr^.^, n trHiumI {t^m 
Bass), the two mounds here bt^in^ i^uppiwHfd tg umrk 
the site of that battle of King Arthnj^ whiHi N(*rinfiiii 
calls Bassas. Fats in G. is %iiftbnnj^/ Tb^ jfnail 
explanation is G. ditn na hhais^ Miill of rlfutih' 

DuNiQUOiCH Hill (Inveraray). *Hill liki* u t\rmV\n^-^m* , 
G. and It. cuack, *a quaich'; r/ FL yiidcli/dOMtli J 
Kenmore. 

DuNiRA (St Fillan's). * Western hill ' ; H, iar, **eit' 

DuNJUiiPiN (Colvend, Kirkcudbright ), ' Fort *4 ih** fill f/. 

G. tiompain, it being « <r/* in (I, Ti^^mpim \ 

cymbals; perfa. with reference Ui fi^tntu 

Cy. 1395, 'Tympane-' 



■IP 



112 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

DuNKELD. Sic a. 1150; but Ulst, Ann., ann. 865, Duin- 
caillen ; Pict. Chron,, Duncalden ; c. 1000, Bk. Deer, 
Dunicalleim; Wyntoun, c. 1420, Dwnkaldyne. *HilI 
with the woods,' Gaillen or ccUlenn is gen. pi. of G. 
caUle, a wood. Same root as GcUedonn. 

Dunkirk (Kells, Kirkcudbright). Prob. *hill of the 
grouse'; G. cearc, gen. circe. 

DuNLOP (Ayrsh.) and Dunlappie (Fern, Forfar). Ayr D., 
sic 1522; c. 1523, Dunloppie. Fern. D., 1178, Dunlopyn, 

* Hill of the little bend or bow,' G. Ihban, Of, crap for 
crubha, s.v. Duncrub. 

DuNMORB (Athole and Airth). *Big hiU'; G. mdr, big. 
The Airth name is borrowed ; there is no hiU here. 

DuNMYAT (Ochils), or Dum-, or Demyat; fr. tribe MceatcB 
or MicUi (sic in Adamnan) = the Verturiones, outliers of 
the Damnonii. Of, Devon Valley near by. Micstt is 
prob. f r. W. meiddio, to dare ; so Prof. Rhys. 

DuNNAiST (W. Ross-sh.). G. dun^n^fh)d$tej *hill of the 
fort.' 

DuNNET (Caithness). c. 1230, Donotf; 1275, Dunost; 

1 455, Dunneth. Doubtful ; early forms make it unlikely 

to be « DiNNBT. 
DuNNiCHEN (Forfar) and Dunachton (Kincraig). Forf. D., 

Tif^hemac, Duin Nechtain. Kin. D., 1381, Dionachtan. 

*Fort of Nechtan,' King of the Picts, died 481. 

DuNNiKiER (Kirkcaldy), c. 1250, Duniker. G. dUnan davy 

* dusky, dark brown little hill.' Or * hill of the fort ' ; c^. 
Bankier, Castlecary, 1510, Ballinkeyre, fr. G. cathair or 
W. caer, a fort. 

Dunning (Perthsh.). 1200, Dunine; later, Dunyn. G. 
dUnan, 4ittle hiU' or *fort.' 

Dun Nosbbridgb (Bridgend, Islay) An old fort. Curious 
tautology ; corruption of Icel. hnaiis horg, *turf fort.' 

Dun(n)ottar (Stonehaven). Ulst Ann., ann. 681, Duin 
foither; a. 1130, 5m. Durham, ann. 934, Dunfoeder; 
c. 1270, -notyr ; 14^61, Dunotir. 'Fort on the reef or 
low promontory ' ; G. oitir. Mod. G. has lost the / by 
aspiration. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 113 

DuNOLLY Castle (Oban). Ul^. Ann.^ ann. €85, Duiu 
OUaigh; Tighemac, ann. 714, Dnnollaig ; 1322, I>uii- 
ollach. Prob. fr. some man. 

Dunoon. Sic 1472; but c. 1240, Dthhiod ; 1270. Irm- 
hoven; c. 1300, Dunhon ; 1476. iKmiioraut, 'HIZ >/t 
tbe water ' ; G. abhainn, in S. Argjle prjii- o'ai^ 6VL 
Avon, Portnahaven, and Deitoxai^ l>ii±iii^y^ yr'j^ 
Dunnfven. Possiblr fr. KauJiuififi ■yr'jLt. ttii^'ji.*. 'aii 
oven.' Dunoon and Dunowen are Ttfe":>*i» v/r-^y/:^ ii; 
Ireland. 
DuNPHAiL (Forres). Peiii. * LCI oc tLr t^jT^ ' , ';r. y /. th'jZ . 
Cf. Drmnpail, Old La£T&- i^'2^" ii. O- ii»^j^-^-. '4i rr.;;^:. 
a wreath, a sty.' 
DuxRAGiT (Glenluce). ? ' HiII or dbe :u:?k«ir •:? ':::i^r..;.r*-Arj*^ ' ; 
G. racaid, Eng. 'racket.'" 

DuKROBiN Castle (Golspie k l^\l^ r-J'.^sLi IZIL '^vvxir- 
rabjn ; also Drum Rati&i- In I±«± furLi vis* ^ ';'.'/.;*r *. 
* law-man,' or crown representatr^-i j^r^ yi;v.«* -r-r>. 
remodelled in cooaplimeat dj R*;»' hi ;r ic.;r#iir. J^r: ^f 
Sutherland, c, 14<», •in inti*r'irutr.;v«i ->f r -/ j^ irj* 

where sea-weed accTUu'ilates. 'V R.i:fin, X^>*7:ir, 

DuNROD (Kirkcudbright:;. .^^: I>i<}: iist-, Dnnr.vt**n, :inVn 
*hill with the sweet gale or hog mji-rie ' : <r. •:»./. 

DuNROSSXESS (Shetland;, .iriija^, DTiiroHt ^r mu>ft, • lin, 
noise (IceL Jyn-r) of the A>r,' >r. rV^r 'v:iir:ix.r,L '.<*.. 

SUMBTRGH RojftT. -H yH.Sft. 

Duns (Berwick^. Si^: 120*^. Pi-oh. (r. fim, -niil ir forr," 
with the eommon Eng: piumu Xr» nr^ifit' ^f :he 
tradition that it ia concraiited :V. Dyri^i-^PK 

DuxacAiTH or -^kaigb: Ca^-^it^ ^'^Uvar-. LTiio. Dnn.^k^hay 
G. './/Vti V"^'^ '^'^r^ ''^n -he ^iirrimr-onr ;;tnfi. u. >//;/)i/;^ 
lit. -a wing or pinion." also, • i MM^^in ' : fr. .-///j/a?,/ 
Cy. ' Dunachath " or • DnnHcaiiht," 1 1^:, in Ro.'^m. 

DrxscoRE ilMnifntti. a. 1:]«,0, Dunwor. • ffij] of the 
stones.' G. ea*«fya;'/-. or ' wirh -he nriL/f>, (;. ^v,y/-,.^ 

Drx*HiLT or -ALT /A:ichr»^rmuchrr). Pr.h • ,?' ,rf ^# *u 
hunt-: G. .^,. r,-; Aachea^it. ,;i,:i;,^. '"'' "^ ^*'« 

8 



114 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

DuNSiNANB (Dunkeld). c. 970, Pid. Chron,j Dunsinoet 
(and prob. the Arsendoim or -in, Tighemac^ ann. 596). 
Prob. *hill with the breasts or dugs'; G. dneachan, 
fr. sine, a breast. The forms do not admit of a deri- 
vation fr. G. sitheauj * hill of the fairies.' 

DuNSTAFFNAGE Castle (Obau). 1322, Ardstofniche ; c. 1375, 
Dunstaffynch ; 1595, -stafage. Doubtful; prob. con- 
taining Icel. dqf-r, a staff. The true pron. seems now 
lost, though some say it is G. ditn da innse, with sta 
for da, * fort by the two islands,' G. innis, 

DuNSYRE (Dolphinton). 1180, -syer; a. 1300, -sier. *West 
(G. siar) hill.' Cf, Balsier (old, BalSyir) and Balshere, 
Galloway. 

DuNTOCHAR (Dumbarton), c. 1230, Drumthoker; 1265, 
Drumtoucher; 1273, -tocher (c/. Dumfries, <kc.). *Fort 
of the causeway ' ; Jr. t6char (not in mod. G.). Cf. Can- 
toghar, Ireland. See also Drum. 

DuNTRBATH (Kilsyth). 1497, -treth. *Hill or fort of the 
chief,' G. trtath ; or, as likely, fr. triath, gen. treith^ * a 
boar.' 

DuNTULM (Uig). 1498, -tuUen. *Fort on the meadow by 
the sea,' G. tuiln, borrowed fr. IceL holm-r; see Holm 
and Taliskbr. 

DuNVALANREE (Bendcrloch). G. diln-a-hMile-norHgh, *hill 
of the king's house ' or * village.' 

DuNVEGAN (Skye). 1498, -begane ; 1517, -veggane; 1553, 
Dunnevegane. ? * Fort of the few, small number ' ; G. 
b(Ji)eagain, 

DuppLiN Castle (Perth). Pict Chron,, Duplyn. * Black 
pool '= Dublin; G. dubh, black; llyn is W. rather than 
G., which has linne. On p for b, cf. Dorsum Grup for 

DUNCRUB. 

Dura Den (Cupar). G. dobharach (durack), * watery'; fr. 
dohhar, water ; cf. Dour, Durie ; + Den. 

Durham (Kirkpatrick-Durham, and name of hiU there). 
O.E. de6r ham, *wild beasts' home or lair'; cf. Icel. 
cZz/r, Sw. diur, a wild beast ; same as Eng. deer. The 
oldest forms of the Eng. Durham are *Dunelm, 



r^3:'yiL>'?:f> _if -^ dz 



'- ''^^. .vV I;]II: .TIC '.'2-'""'- 



116 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Dykebar (Paisley). Barre, * a barrier,' is found in Eng. as 
early as c. 1220. 

Dysart (Fife and Montrose). Fife D., 1250, Dishard ; 
c. 1530, G. Buchanan, Deserta. G. diseart, fr. L. 
desertum, * desert place, then a hermit's cell, a house 
for receiving pilgrims, a church.' Dysart {sic 1446) 
or Clachandysert was the old name of the parish of 
Glenorchy; others, too, in Scotland. Desert, Disert, 
(fee, common in Ireland. The earliest monkish 
* desert' was Le Desert de St Bruno (11th cny.) at La 
Grande Chartreuse. There are a Cladh-an-Disert (G. 
dadh, graveyard) and a Port-an-Disert at lona. 

E 

Eager-, Egger-ness (Wigtown). * Eagre ness,' i.e,, *cape 
of the tidal wave ' or bore (of the Sol way) ; Icel. Oigir, 
edgor, O.E. egor, the sea. 

Eaglesfibld (Ecclefechan). Also one near Cockermouth. 

Eaglesham (Paisley). 1158, Egilsham; 1309, Eglishame. 
Not fr. the eagle, which is Fr. aigle, not even fr. W. 
eglwysy G. eaglais, * a church,' but prob. fr. a man Egli, 
a name still found in Switzerland + O.E. hdm, * home, 
place, village.' The only -ham in this quarter. Of, 
Egilshay. 

Earlsferry (Elie). a. 1300, Erlesferie. O.E. eoi^l, *an 
earl ' ; said to be after Macduff, thane of Fife, but he 
is a * mythic character ' (Skene). 

Earlston (Berwicksh). Local pron. Yirsiltoon. c. 1144, 
Ercheldon; c. 1180, Ercildune; a. 1320, Essedoune; 
1370, Hersildoune; fine example of popular corruption 
and * etymology.' Prob. G. aird choil, * height of the 
wood,' cf. Ardchalzie ; to which prob. the Angle immi- 
grants added O.E. dUn, * a hill.' 

Earn, R. and L. Prophy, St Berchan, a. 1100, Eirenn; a. 
1300, Eran, Strathere; very old MS., Sraith hirend, 
i.e., Stratheam ; 1615, Lockerrane. In G. Eire, gen. 
Eireann. Pron. dran. Skene suggests perh. fr. Eire, 
Irish queen mentioned in the Ir. Nennius, who. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 117 

tradition says, was fr. Scotland. Eire or jEWn, 
accusative £rinn, was also an old name of Ireland, = 
Gk. *UpvTj and Juvenal's luuema, corrupted into 
Hibemia ; so Rhys. He thinks it pre-Celtic, and does 
not accept Windisch's meaning, * fat, fertile land ' ; cf. 
SsLuekntpivany fern, pivari ; Gk. ttiW. Eren was also the 
old name of the R. Findhorn. Cf. Banff and Dbveron. 

Earnock (Hamilton). Prob. G. ear-cnoc, *east hill.' But 

cf, Balerno. 
Earnslaw (Berwicksh.). c. 1200, Hemeslawe. * Hem's' 

or * heron's hill,' Fr. Jwron, O.Fr. hairon. 

Easdalb (Oban). G. eas, * waterfall,' + N. dal, * dale, valley ' ; 

see p. liv. 
Eassie (Meigle). 1250, Essy. G. easachj * abounding in 

waterfalls ' ; G, eas, Cf, Essy. 

East Neuk o' Fife. Sc. neuk is G. and Jr. ntiic, a *nook' 

or * nick ' or * comer.' 
Eathie (Cromarty). Prob. = Ethib, c. 1212, Athyn, i.e., G. 

dtfiarij * a little ford.' M*Bain thinks fr. root it, * going.' 

EccLBFECHAN (Dumfricssh.). L. Ecdesia Fechani, * church 
of St Fechan' (G. fiadian, * little raven,' dimin. of 
jHheach), Abbot of Fother, West Meath, time of Ken- 
tigem. Cf, St Vigban's. 

EccLBS (Coldstream and Penpont). Colds. E., 1 297, Hecles = 

* church,' L. ecclesia, St Mary's Cistercian nunnery 
founded here 1155. In 1147, St Ninian's, Stirling, is 
called the church of Egglis, Three in England. See, 
too, p. cviii. 

EccLBSiAMAGiRDLB (S.E. Pcrthsh). Prou. Exmagirdle. 

* Church of St Griselda ' or Grizel, ma being the Celtic 
endearing prefix, * my own.' The parishes of Flisk and 
Lindores are dedicated to a St Macgidrin, but he was 
prob. a Bishop of St Andrews, called Mac Gilla Odran. 

EccLBSMACHAN (Uphall). 1250, Eglismanin; 1296, Eggles- 
mauhy, * church of ? Manchan,^ Irish saint, 7th century. 
See EccLBs and cf, Clackmannan. 

EcHT (Aberdeen). Sic a, 1300. ? G. each, *a horse,' or 
possibly eachd, * an exploit.' Duneight, Lisbum, is the 
old Dun Eackdach, * Eochy's hill or fort.' 



118 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

EcK, L. (Dunoon). 1595, MerccUor Heke. Prob. same as 
OiCH, fr. old Celtic root for * water.' Cf. Axe, Esk, 
UsK, and G. uisge ; also Ecton, Northampton. 

EcKPORD (Jedburgh), c. 1200, Eckeforde; 1220, Hecford. 
See above. 

Eday (Kirkwall). Sagas, Eidey ; c. 1260, Eidoe. Prob. N. 
eid'-ay, * isthmus island.' Or fr. Icel. aeff-r, Dan. eder,. 
*the eider-duck'; cf, Affej, Iceland. 

Eddbrton (Tain). 1461, Edirtonne; 1532, Eddirtane; c. 
1565, -thane. Early corruption, perh. influenced by 
nearness to Tain, fr. G. eadai* dim, * between the hills.^ 
Gf. Earlston. 

Eddlbston (Peebles), c. 1200, Edoluestone; 1296, Edal- 
stone; c. 1305, Edwylstone. * Edulf's place ' ; a. 1189^ 
lands here were granted to a Saxon settler, Edulf or 
Edulphus. The Celtic name had been Penjacob. 

Eddrachilis (W. Sutherland). Pron. -h^elis; 1509, 
Eddiraquhelis. G. eadar-Orchaoilas, * between the 
straits ' ; G. caol, a Kyle or narrow sound ; cf, Eddergoll 
(* between the fork,' G. yobhal), Breadalbane, and 
Eddraven (* between the bens'), Assynt. 

Eden, R. (Fife and Roxburgh). Forms see Ednam. Perh. 
c, 120, Ptoleiny, Tinna. Prob. O.W. eiddyn, G. eadanuy 
Ir. eudan, * face, slope of a hill.' 

Edbnample (L. Earn). See above and Ample. 

Edgbrstone (Jedburgh). = 1455, * Eggerhope Castell'; only 
perh. = * Edgar's town.' 

Edinbane (Portree). G. eadann ban, * white slope or face of 
the hill.' Gf, Edinglassie, Aberdeensh., 1219, Adynglas. 

Edinbarnbt (Duntocher). 1381, Edyn-, //,. 1400, 
Edenbeman. G. eadann beatma, * slope at the gap or 



Edinburgh. First in the ancient W. bards, e.g., Gododin, 
re 7th cny., Eydden, Eidden, Taliemn, Dineiddyn; 
Black Bk, Carmarthen, Mynyd (i.e.. Mount) Eidden; 
Ulst, Ann., 638, Etin. a, 750, Nennivs, *The Mount 
Agned' = Welsh bards' Mynyd Agned (? who was A.) ; 
but in c. 970, Pict. Ghron., *Oppidum Eden,' plainly- 



PLACS-XAMKS OF SC0TL4XD. 119 

Dunedin {oppuJum is always the translation of dvm in 
the L. chrcmicles), W. din eiddyn (not in mod. W. 
dictionaries) or G. dm eiidcun, * fort on the hill slope ' 
(that fr. the castle rock down to Holjrood). This 
exactly suits the case, burt^h being the £ng. for dun ; 
and with this agrees the OrJmsy. Sag. spelling, c 1225, 
Eidiniaboig. This makes oonnection with St Exiana or 
Medana, the Cornish Modwenna, very doubtful, thoogh 
the form Medanbui^ or Maidenbuigh is said to occur, 
and we find Daiid L (1140-50) signing charters 'apod 
Castellum puellarum,' or the * Castle of the Maidens ' ; 
also, 1163, Chart, Camlm^henneth^ Oppidum pueUarum. 
But, without doubts the name of King Edwin of 
Northumbria (616-33) did influence the later spellings, 
indeed influenced the oldest spellings we have, viz., 
Holyrood Charter, c 1128, 'Ecclesia Sancte Crucis 
^Sifrtnesburgensis,' and Simeon Durham (died 1130) 
or his interpolator, Edwinesburch. In a charter of 
Alexr. I. {c 1120) we have Edenesburg, and in later 
charters of David L, a. 1147, we find Edeneburg, Edens- 
burg. As late as 1680 we find Edenburgfa. A Dunedin 
is also mentioned in Roxbuighsh^ Drybumjh Clitirt.^ p. 
83. On hurgh^ ef. Bobguk. 

Edindurno (Huntly). * Stormy hiU-slope.' See above and 
Dornoch. 

Edingight (Banff). G. eculen ffooith^ ' hillside exposed to 
the wind.' Cf. E/iingeyth, sic 1522, near Gla£^w. 

Edington (Chimside). c. 1098, Haedentun ; 1166, Edington. 
Cf. Haddingtox, which prob. emljodies the isatiie n^mt^ 
and perh. the same man. Not so likely fn Uie xmm% 
Edicin, 

Edinrilly (Dumphail). G. eculan coilk^ * face or fnmt 
the wood.' 

Ednam (Kelso), c. 1100, Aednaham ; IllB^ EdyuKnhui 
c. 1120, Ednaham; 1285, EdinUnm ; 151G, Efii 
'Home or village (O.E. ham) ou Ujc H K !>«?».* 
Edenham, Bourne, and Edrom, 

Edradtnate (Logierait). G. ewlar dion-ail^ * 
refuges.' Cf. Eddrachills and DiN^rr. 




120 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Edbom (Berwicksh.). /•. 1098, Ederham. O.E. Edi^ham^ 
'home' or 'village on the R. Adder.' Cf. Ednajc 
and WhitesoDie. Edrington, on the Whitadder, mras 
Haedrintun in 1098. 

Edzell (Brechin). 1204, Edale ; 1267, Adall; 1275, AdeL 
? G. ecuUiOy an aapen-tree, + N. dcd, 'dale.' If this were 
not so (jJ^. a region, one would derive fr. O.E. ea, M.E. oe, 
' a river, running water ' ; t/. Edale, N. Derbjsh. 

Egilshay (Orkney). Orknet/. JSotj., Egilsej; 1529, Jo. Ben^ 
' ElgUflchay quasi ecclesiae insularum.' If fr. G. eaglais 
(L. ecdeina)j 'a church,' the name is a very exceptional 
one for Orkney. Prob. fr. some man, ' E^'s isle.' C/l 
Eaglesham. 

Eglinton (Ayr). 1205, Egliugstoun, Eglintoime. Fr. 
some Saxon settler. Cf. Eglingham, Alnwick; F^lin 
Lane, ^liuigaff ; and Eglin Hole, Yorks. 

Eglisgir(i)g (Kincardine). 1243, Ecclesgreig. 'Church 
(G. ecujlaU) of Girig' or Grig, 9th-century Scottish 
king, dedicated by him to St Ciricius, and now St 
Cybus. 

Eglismonichty (Monifieth). 1211, Eglismenythok. See 

MONIKIB. 

Eigg (Hebrides). Adamnany Egea ; UM. Ann.^ ann. 725, 
Ego; 1292, Egge; old Celtic MS., Eiy^ which last in 
old Ir. means 'a fountain.' The Ir. and G. eo^, gen. 
eige^ means a nick or hack. 

EiLDON Hills (Melrose), a. 1130, Sim. Durham^ Eldimum; 
a. 1150, Eldune. Prob. G. aill, 'a rock, cliff,' + ^«i«, 'a 
hill.' Cf. Ercildun or Earlston. 

EiLEAX DoNAN (W. Ross^sh.). 1503, Alanedonane; 1539, 
Elandonan. G. = ' St Donan the martyr's isle.' He 
died, 617, in Eigg. Perh. fr. dutian^ 'a little fort or 
hilL' The G. eilean is seen in Adamnan's Elena, which 
cannot be identified. 

Eilean Mundb, or Elanmunde (Glencoe). * Isle of Munnu,' 
Coliunba's friend. See Kilmun. 

Eilean na Bearaghd (Eddrachilis). G. 'island of the 
precipice.' 



ElT. KA X :::. 

Eit.t.ff.f: 
o: zz. 

EisH-in 



Elchte> _ r : ' - 

ElCH' ': -^— 

Its. ' ' 1-^^ 



El. 



F.T r 




122 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Elphin (Lochinver). Prob.==Elphiii, Ireland; G. and Ir. 
aiil/hionn, * white rock' or 'cliff.' 

Elphixstonb (Airth). c. 1320, Elfyngston. May be as 
above, + O.K ton, tUtiy * hamlet ' ; more prob. fr. some 
man, Elpin or Eljyhitiy Pict for Alpin, Albin, or 
Albinus, was the name of one of the Pictish Kings. 

Elphinstoxb, Port (Inverurie), was named some 80 years 
ago after Sir Robt. Elphinstone. It stands at the end 
of the canal from Aberdeen. 

Elrick (Inverness and Cabrach) and Elrigk More 
(Dalguise). Inv. E., 1576, Allerik. G. al lairig, *rock 
on the hillside.' More is G. mdr, ' big.' 

Elsick (Portlethen, Kincardine). Sic 1654; c/. Elswick, 
Newcastle, pron. Elsick. It looks like G. aillsey a * fairy,' 
+ O.R frtr, * dwelling, village ' ; but that is rather a 
dubious combination. 

Elvan Water and Elvanfxx)t (N. of Beattock). c. 1170, 
Elwan, and, same date and district, * Brothyr-alewyn.' 
Prob. W. al-fC€7i, * very white, bright,' fr. gtcen, white, 
as in Gwenystrad (Gala Water) or * white strath,' now 
Wbdalb ; cA R. Alwen, N. Wales, and Elwand (c. 1160, 
Alewent, Aloent), other name of Allan Water, 
Melrose. Elwan is the name in Cornwall for a 
porphyritic rock. 

Embo (Dornoch), a. 1300, EthenboU ; 1610, Eyndboll. 
A difficult name ; ] ' place of the little ford.' G. dtthan^ 
+ N. b6lj see p. Ixxiii; cf. Ethie. But in G. it ia 
jKt/yoZ = Eriboll, N. eora-bdl, 'beach-town or -place,' 
just its site. 

Enard or Eynard Bay (W. Sutherland). 1632, E^-nort. N. 
eyin ard, ari, or oH, * island bay ' or * fiord ' (see p. bdii). 

Endrigk, R. (Stirlingsh.). 1238, Anneric, -erech; but 
Strathendry, Leslie, is a. 1169, -enry. Prob. G. anrachy 
* stormy.' On d intruding itself as here, see p. xliv. 
But *Strathenry ' rather suggests O.G. an reidJi, * smooth ' 
or 'straight river.' In G. dh is sometimes sounded 
with a click, almost = k. 

Enhallow (Orkney), c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Eyin Helga, 




* holy isle ' (^". Ef^lEIs. rr.tL^ /.:. '*•-!-: 

* to hallow ' ; itdf^ta. t& ii&TTr^ 

ExocH Dhu (PhlocirTr hul ij«^ <:^ 
dtibh, * black, di^ik ti«htst , ii::r. 
is fr. Theme^r^ or Th^irn.oi'K, z 
Kentigem or Mnniro — l^Lzri. - 
1509, St Tennoc-L. 

Entkbkin Bukx (X- a: l»nTT...aTir^:- *^ *5t.'«'<-. 

* sow's,' or faj-cfjtii^ •Tna<Tr"s, :^ •x.— i*.>zi_i * tu 

Enzie (Buckie). 1295, Laiim'7- ^: 

Fr. article, *tbe AtitjI'T : 'J^.rZ. -.tt.t:^ _-~-t:^ -.—.fa. 

(Ainjee),' ^ic in R. GorijcV ^fc— ■-/ zn^ tt-:!^ > -a -^ 

Doubtful. Prob- like Eaatj Htr"in:lr^l. :=_•",-?• . * 

meadow.' 
EocHAR (Locbmaddy). Mort Ckjirret'irr Jlr-T/arr ^z. it j.'*" 

place, bottom.' Ct\ Yccxs. 

EoBOPiE (Lewis). ErroDeon=JT spelt Yjzr-rjk. . y ^' — a* '-a* 
(= by^ bi), *beach-pia^ or t-I1^«^' _--' r.^r^j^^ 
and • Eurobolsey,' in Lslav, 156i 

Eport, L. (Lochmaddy). Piob. X. a, f>. *islic.' nzii j^- /r*'^. 

* frith,' </. Knoydart ; influenced by G. or Fr-r^ tf,/«-. 

EBfJHT.waa (Beauly). Sic 1403; but 1256. HereLelj^ : 
1539, Hereichlis. Prob. G. ani ehtyjiaiA, 'hii^rh p»ta»*" 
lit, 'strait.' Of. Abdchattan and Eddrachius. 

Eriboll (N. Sutherland). 1499, Erribull ; 1530, IreholL 
N. eyri-bol^ * place on the tongue of land or grayelly 
bank,' loaned in G. as earbil and Ir. earfniii, Cj\ 
Arboll, and Erribul, Foynes. 

Eeicht, R. and L. (N. Perthsh^ and triby. of lslay)« Not, 
stream from * the ascent or rising slope ' ; G. nriflh, a» 
in Coire Eirigh, Loch Katrine, and Glen Erichdie, Blair 
Athole. But as the e in Erich t is short, M'Beari 
suggests fr. G. eireactulag^ 'handsomeneH^s.' 

Eri8Ea(t) (L. Creran and S. ULst). Crer. E, 1558, Yriskay 
Uwt E, 1549, Erizikeray. Lor^ks like *gohlirr?j' (^ 
•diviner's isle'; G. hrui^j + \. ay, ^y, i.sle. But .some 
say It IS the N. Eirik^j, 'Eric's isle.' 



124 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

EnisoRT, L. (Lewis). Perh. ' Eric's bay ' ; N. orty art (see 
p. Ixiii). Capt. Thomas says =* Harris Bay.' 

Ernanity (Kirkcudbrt). G. earrann annaid^ * land belonging 

to the church.' Of, Annat. 
Erngath Hill (Bo'ness). 1488, Ardyngaith. G. aird-an 

gaoithy * height of the wind, windy hill.' 

Errogib (Fort Augustus). Prob. G. aird raoig, * height of 
rushing.' CY. Falls of Rogie, and Ercattan, old form 
of Ardchattan. 

Errol (Firth of Tay). c. 1190, Erolyn; c. 1535, Arole. 
Doubtful. 

Erskine (Renfrew). 1225, Erskin; 1262, Ireskin; a. 1300, 
Irschen, Yrskin, Harskin. Prob. G. aird sgaintie^ *high 
cleft,' fr. sgaifij to burst. Of, Ardchattax, 1296, 
Ercattan. 

fiscART (Skipness). 1511, Escarde. Prob. N. aska /jordy 

* ash-tree bay ' ; c/\ Eskadalb. Possibly f r. Icel. e^'a, * a 
kind of clay,* cf, Ashaxbss. For -art, see p. Ixiii. 

EsK, R. (Midlothian, Berwick, Forfar). Midi. E., a, 800, 
Escemuthe; a. 1145, Esch. Berw. E., a. 1130, Sim. 
Durliam, Esce; c. 1200, *Northesk.' Forf. E., c. 1260, 
Glenesch. Celtic for * water,' same root as G. ui^By Ax, 
Exe, Usk, &c. Cf, Invbreskandy. Wh. Stokes denies 
this, and thinks Esk Pictish, cognate with O.Ir. e^y 

* a marsh, a fen,' 0. W. uisc (in R. Usk or Uisc), and vfith 
Ptolemy's lo-Ka, now the R. Exe. 

Eskadalb (Beauly). 1538, Eschadillis. See above, aiid 
Dale. 

eskbank, eskbridoe, eskdalb, &0, 

EssACHOSBX (Inveraray). G. easar-cJiasainy * a thoroughfare.' 

EssLBMONT (Ellon), a, 1600, Essilmontht. G. eoide-monadhy 
'mount, hill of the spell, incantation.' Of. Tully- 

NBSSLE. 

EssY (Strathbogie). 1187, *Esseg in Strabolgin'; 1227, 
Essy. Prob. G. easachy 'abounding in waterfalls'; G. 
eaSy a waterfall. 

Ethib House (Arbroath), c. 1212, Athyn ; 1483, Athe, 
Athy. G. dthany ' a little ford.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 125 

Etive, L. (Argyle). Did Jr. MS., Loch-n-Eite. Prob. G. 
eite or eiteag, a 'white pebble ' ; also name for the streaks 
of quartz with which the rocks there abound. 

Ettrick (Selkirk), c 1235, Ethric, Hetterich, Etrjk ; 1776, 
Atric. Doubtful Can it be fr. G. atharrachy * an alien 1 ' 
M'Bain says, Etteridge, Badenoch, 1603, Ettras, con- 
tains the prep, eadar, • between.' 

EuNAiCH, Ben (Dalmally). G. eunach, * hunting ' ; or aonachy 
*ahilV 

EvANTON (Dingwall). Named, c. 1800, after Evan Eraser of 
Balcony. 

EviB (Orkney). Orkney, Sag,, c. 1225, Efju, also Efja; last 
syllable prob. N. gjd, *a goe or narrow inlet.' 

EwE, L. (W. Bx)ss-sh.). In G. Iiigh ; perh, for eugTi, eubh, 
*an echo, a cry.' Gf, Aird na h'eugh, opposite Letter- 
ewe. But Wh. Stokes says = Eo, Eu, loua, original 
forms of loNA. 

Ewes and Ewesdale (Langholm), a, 1180, Ewichedale ; 
c. 1280, Ewycedale; 1296, *Le Vale de Ewithe'; c. 
1 300, Ewytesdale. * Newt's ' or * eft's dale ' ; O.E. efete, 
M.E. evete, ewte ; the n in newt is fr. the article an, 

Eyemouth and Eye Water (Berwicksh.), and Ey R. 
(Braemar). Berw. E., 1098, Ei; 1250, Aymouthe; 
1595, Haymouth. Eye is prob. Celtic for * water.' 
See Ayton. 

Eye Peninsula (Stomoway). 1506, Fy; 1552, Y, Norse 
G. y, ui, aoi, isthmus, island, peninsula.' Cf, Iona. 

Eynard, L. See Enard. 

F 

Fad, L. (Bute and Colonsay). G. fada, * long.' Cf, Inchfad, 
L. Lomond. 

Fairgirth (Dalbeattie). . *Fair garth or garden'; O.E. 
faeger, Icel. fag-r, Dan. feir, fair, pleasant ; cf, Apple- 
garth, old, Applegirth, Or. fr. Icel. /oer, * sheep.' 

Fair Isle. Orkney, Sag., Frid'arey, i.e,, *isle of peace.' Gf. 
Friday. But Jo. Ben, 1529, says, 'Faray, quasi clara 



126 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

(fair) insula,' c. 1600, Fear Yll. As likely as not it 
is, like the Faroe Isles, Icel. faer-eyj * sheep island.' 

Fairlie (Largs). * Fair lea ' or meadow, untilled land ; O.E. 
ledUi, Dan. leiy fallow. Or fr. Icel. faer, * sheep.' 

Fala (S. Midlothian). 1250, Fanlawe. Fah law, *pale, 
dun hill'; cf. next, and Law; also cf. 'Fauhope,' c. 
1160, in Melrose Chart. ; and 'Faluhill,' 1231, in Chart. 
Dtmferm^ p. 109. 

Falkirk. Sic 1546; but Siin, Durham (died 1130), ann. 
1065, Egglesbreth; 1166, charter, 'Ecclesia de 
Eiglesbrec, que varia capella dicitur'; 1253, Varie 
Capelle; 1298, Barth de Cotton, Faukirke quae a qui- 
busdam vocatur la Chapelle de Fayerie ; 1298, Norm, 
Fr, fcritSy often. La vaire or veyre Chapelle; a. 
1300, MS, Dighy, Locus qui Anglice vocatur ye fowe 
chapel; 1381, FaUkirk;i 1382, Fawkirc; c, 1600, the 
Fawkirk, which stiU is the local pron., accent on either 
syllable. These forms are most instructive. Its 
original name, and its name in G. stiU, is Faglais (W. 
etjlwys) breac, 'speckled church, church of mottled 
stone,' of which Fah- or Faw-kirk, and La vaire Chapelle, 
is the translation, Sc. fato, fatich, meaning *dun, pale 
red,' 0,E, fah, varicoloured. Cf, Faside Farm, Newton 
Meams; 1469, Fauside. 

Falkland (Fife). Sic a, 1150; but 1160, Falecklen. 
Doubtful. Perh. connected with G. failc, * to bathe ' or 
'a bath,' or falaich, *to hide, a hiding.' The old forms 
seem to prevent any derivation fr. O.E. fah, as in 

FAIiKIRK. 

Falloch, R. (L. Lomond). G. falach, * a hiding, a veil.' 

Fallside (Lanarksh.) and Fawside Castle (Tranent). 
Tran. F., c. 1200, Fausydde. Prob. = Faside, * spotted 
side.' See Falkirk. 

Falmouth (Cullen). So spelt in Ordn. Survey Map. Its 
real name is * whale's mouth,' locally pron. fal^s 7njou\ 
IceL hval-r, Sw. and Dan. hval, * a whale.' 

^ In Gough's Scotland in 1298, DocuintrUs Battle Falkirk, the form 
with I is never once found. 



PLACI-5AnS OF SCOTLAND. 127 

Faxpowie (Strathbraan). r. 1200, Fandufuith. Prob. G. 
fan duf'h^ *dark, bkek sl(^' 

Faxxysidk, L (Slamamian). Prob. fr. G. feannofj, a ridge 
of land ; a peculiar way of laving out ground, some- 
times called a *lazy-hei' Cr. Port-na-Feannaige, H. 
Arran, and Feinag More, EiiracLilia, 

Farg, R (Kinross), c, TA P'.dt, airnn,^ Apur-feirt, >»>^ 
Aberargis. 

Farxell (BrecLzL't. ITsk. Wisrub^-.tl It;; y^;*.*^ 
Prob, G. fiiwit^ iFhaiL Mauar -^iLu^t, ^ ? i^j\ .i\ «; 

Farxess (Cr:cii4BrrTanc 'Vunnm,, V ^ ^ . :^ , -^, .,^^ 
Faroe*. 'Cjrum. J.. ].7iTt r jTLfts, *-- - / ^ .,*^ 
'nejfe. etu;»t iTTtitt TJBiss4:£- -.•• ♦..v -• s^-- ^^, 

fjiirt. or *wuta uiL. i v'y-"-ja\ ^ -^ - ,^ ^, . ^ 

Far iyn Elal. <r iAiii.i hi.i. ; --.,^ .. 

fr. I'jtil. fiarr.. *iar x»:: -^-t ^u* ^ - ^ ^, - 

trua nrur^i tat .'/ \ aiir-rxa • • ii • • • 
Fa£e ^. hutueriiin^. , ii::^ , <- ,-^ ^ ^^ 

111 tli* tiivf' l\v.x*^ »^t ij . -, 

F^aim L au ^ •u: --v^r.^ - - - ._ 

htrjiin:KTr»-! . «•:- ,,-3^- 



128 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Fauohlin Burn (Kilsyth). Prob. same name as Fauchlands, 
S. of Falkirk, fr. So. fauch, fauyh, found fr. 1513, 
meaning * fallow.* 

Fauldhouse (Lanarksh.). * House by the fold ' ; O.E. fcUd, 
a pen (cf. Gushbtfaulds). Names in Fauld- are common 
in Galloway. 

Fb(a)rintosh (Dingwall). G. fearainn Toishaicli, ' land of 
the thane * or * land-officer.* Cf, Ferrindonald, Kilteam. 

Fbarn (Tain and Brechin). Tain F., 1529, Feme. G. 
feama, * an alder.* Cf, Coulter AiJiKRS. 

Fedderat (Brucklay). c. 1205, Fedreth ; 1265, Feddereth. 
Prob. old G. /other, hardened to foder (sometimes to 
for, as FoRDOUN, &c.) ath, 'land at the ford.* Cf. 
Fodderty. 

Fender Bridge (Blair Athole). G. Jionn diir or dobhar, 

* white, fair, pleasant water.* 

Fendoch (Amulree). Pron. fi^nnach. Prob. G. fionn achadh, 

* white, clear-looking field.* 

Fkntonbarns (Haddington). 1332, Fenton. 'Village in 
the fen, bog, mud * ; O.E. and Icel. fen. 

Fenwick (Kilmarnock). The w is mute ; = Fenton ; O.E. 
me, dwelling, village. Common in the north of 
England. 

Feorlin(q) (Skye). G. feoirlinn, *a farthing,* a land- 
measure (see p. Ixv). 

Fbrnan (Fortingall). Black Bk. Taymouth, Stronfema, 
w^hich is G. for * point of the alder trees.* 

Ferniegair (Hamilton). Perh. G. feama garradh, clump or 

* garden of alders.* Cf, Greengairs. 

Ferrielow (Colinton). ? = * Ferry-hill * ; O.E. hldtc, So. lav. 
Cf. the Eng. Houndslow, Marlow, &c. But this and 
the following quite possibly fr. G. feuracJi, pron. ferrach, 
'grassy.* 

Ferrydkn (Montrose). See above, and Dknburn. 

Ferrthill (Aberdeen). 1451, Fferihill. Also in Durham. 

Ferryport on Craig (N. Fife). 



PLACB-XAMES OF SCOTLAND. 129 

Fkrrytoxfikij) (Forfar), 1S59, FerrntoTiD-- Ejlnid : fr. 
G. fearaintk, 'enclosed land, a farm." 

Fbshib R (Kingussie). f- l-3a C-efy •& nii«rLfakt iar 
Fessy). Doubtful : peiii. pre-CeJrii^ IkT'iiiiiL Tiimk» 
Pictish, and compares R. Gve^m. Brei-Ji*. rr. t:#x_ ar--«K 
(for vest--), 'that which moxet. or £^:«es.' 

FsTLiAR (Shetland). Sajati. Faetfl&r. X./fr.T^ piur. J^ia^^ 

' a belt, a stiap.' 
Fkitkraxgus (Mintla w ). Hr5^ izii iL zisn «!• C^- ar rinLtsr 

Pictish, fothir^ ' woc>i' ca- ps^ ■ a irii '^' Zr. 7 c^a-. & 

forest), is softened into^^ifrr^ : nfisi zi is- iiErosiH^c hill. 

/or, </'. p. xcdv, and Fe:c42..»2- ini A3;<sr5t. 

FvTTKRCAiRX (Lauiencekiik t ii ?"'- 5* r-. _'7.-.vt^ FirLne?^ 
kern. * Wood in the ozr^Dst ' : «ju sf r-^ 

Fetterbsso (StonehavecL r. S^TI. F>rrew»'A tiui ^. 
FoRBBs); 1251- FeiLiresfcic. : r- Ii''L Fn^r7T»5Sfi«'jL 

* Forest abouoiing in w^u^rritZk : »-„ ^ofu-:/^ ±:. *ttt. 
'waterfall' 

FnrsRNKAR (Chapel c«€ «im:«ifL .. jl I «»>!. J^rjirruijc^ 

* Wood to the west " ; G. js* 5«isr, 

FiTTTKiL (Leslie), a 13>\ F-rrhtrTC '^ /i^r./^t ;nn'7^ iirji 
of the wood.* 

Fbugh, R. (KincaidineX Proo. akfn v, •>. fuw^tt, • *rM^^^ 
chillness.' 

FiDDiCH Glkx (Banff). Prob. nr. F*'tiU'Ji. w.vl \f zutt ^es^^miax^ 
Cniithne. 

FiDRA (N. Berwick). Proiu F:-:!!!*!:!. :.T»'«>. F^raeTn^ 
•Fethere's tsle': N. ay, ^7/. ^-nv^r 3t omn. --.le ^^ 
as Boitter in ^Ts^rhet Btirtnidn' i:-. Aimu^-, Til, 7 ^ 
There is a Tart)at on Fidia^ ' ^ 

Fife. o. 1150, ^i-. I^r. Fl^h : ^.'. ILT.l .^^r-'r F:ti • I ' ^i^ 
Fif. Fr. Ftb. mentioned in ihe [rjiii y-nmuH *« ine '^f 
the seven aoDs» •>£ Cmitime. leuremiiiry raniier if -;if» ex- ,^ 

Fife Rkith (K«tii). See above, Jind BIjith. 

FiGGATB Btbx (Portobello). First 



^ old form of ^Tet^ii,' r^u, :n .^,^ meann a n>ad, 






130 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Fillan's, St (L. Earn). Fillan succeeded St Mund as Abbot 
on the Holy Loch ; died 777. 

FiMBUSTER (Caithness). *Five places' or * houses'; Icel 
fim^ five. Cf, CoiGACH, and see hokta&r^ p. Ixxii. 

FiNCASTLB (Pitlochrie). G. and Ir. fionn caisteal, 'white, 
fair castle ' or fort. 

FiNDHORN, R. (Forres). Old Fynderan, -erne; 1595, 
Fyndorn; on part of its course still called Findeam. 
Prob. = G. fi(m7i Earn, or *Earn with white, clear 
banks.' On the d, cf. p. xliv and next. For a similar 
change of -erne into -horn, cf, Whithorn. 

FiNDLATBR Castlb (Portsoj). G. fionn leitir, * white, clear 
hillside.' Cf Ballatbr. On the dy see above; in 
pron. it is usually mute. 

FiNDON (Aberdeen, Ross, Perth). * Clear hill ' ; G. fionn 
dun. Also near Worthing. Cf Finden Hill, Durham. 

FiNGASK (Perth, Aberdeensh., Inverness). Per. F., 1114, 
Fingask; 1164, -gasc. G. fixmn gasg^ 'clear, white 
hollow or valley.' Cf, Gask. 

FiNGLAND Lane (Carsphaim). Fingland is a personal 
name now in this district. Prob. G. fionn lann^ * white, 
clear field.' 

FfNLARiG Castle (Killin). G. fionn lairig^ 'clear, sloping 
hill.' 

FiNHAVEN (Oathlaw). 1379, Fothynevyn. G. fodha 
n'abhuinny 'below the river.' But c. 1445, Fynewin; 
1453, Finevyn. G. fionn abhuinny 'clear, white river.' 
Cf Methven and Portnahaven, and ' Fynobhyn,' 1272, 
in CartuL Levenax, 

Finnart(L. Long), a. 1350, Fynnard. G. fionn drd, 'clear 
height.' 

Finnieston (Glasgow). So named in 1768, after Rev. John 
Finniey tutor of the proprietor. Matt. Orr. 

FiNSTOWN or Phinstown (Kirkwall). Phin is a Sc. surname; 
but the reference is prob. to the race of the Finm, 
often referred to in the sagas. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 131 

FiNTRAY (Kintore). c. 1203, Fintrith; a. 1300, Fjntre. 
* White or fine land'; at least trith, trCy is prob. the 
older form of G. tir, land, W. tre^ tref, * village, house.' 

FiNTRY (Stirlingshire and Cumbraes). 1238, Fjntrie; = 
above. 

FiNZEAN (Aboyne). c. 1150, Feyhan. DoubtfuL 

Firth (Orkney), c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Fiord. Mod. N. 
fjord, * a frith, bay.' 

FisHERiE (Turriff). FiSHERROW (Musselburgh). 

FiSHWiCK (Farm, Hutton, Berwicksh.). c. 1098, Fiscwic, O.E. 
= * fish-house.' 

FiTEACH, Ben (Islay). G. fitheach, * a raven,' 

FiTFiTLL Head (Shetland). Saga, Fitfugla hofdi. IceL 
fitfugl, *a web-footed bird,' fr. fet, a step, and IceL 
and Dan. fugl, a fowl. It is a spot where the sea- 
birds love to light. 

FiVE-MiLE-HousB (Dundee). 

Flanders Moss (Buchlyvie). Many Flemings settled early 
in Scotland; e.g,, *Dominiis Willielmus Flandrensis 
de Barruchane,' a. 1350, in Cartid. Levenax. 

Flannan Isles (Minch). Fr. St Flannan, a Culdee saint. 

Flashader (Skye); 'Flat pasture,' Icel. flat^, and set-r, 
a shieling, a siunmer pasture, of which shader is the 
G. corruption. 

Fleet, R. (Sutherland and Kirkcudbright). Icel. fij6t, *a 
stream,' flj6t-r, * quick.' Cf. Eng. fleet, float. Three 
Fleet streams in England. 

Fleurs Castle (Kelso). Fr. fleurs, * flowers.' 

Fuse (Cupar). Sic 1250. ? G.fleasg, *a wand, a nog/ 

Flodavaoh (Harris). Either * flood-bay,' fr. Icel.» O.E., 
Sw., and Dan. fldd, flood, flow of the tide, + N. 
vag-r, a bay, cove, as in Stornoway. Or, mom 
likely, fr. Icel. floti, * a fleet.' 



I 




132 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Flotta (Orkney). Sagas, Flottey. *Isle of the fleet'; 
Icel. floti, O.E. fleot. The a = N. ay or ey, isle ; Icel. 
flotarholmr simply means an islet. 

Flowbrdalb (Ross-sh.) and Flowbrhill (Airdrie). Former 
fr. N. flUr, ' a flower.' 

F6CHABBRS (Elgin). 1124, -oper; 1325, Fouchabre; 1514, 
Fochabris. G. faiche abir, * plain, meadow, at the river 
mouth ' ; or f r. abar, ' a marsh ' ; s is the common Eng. 
plural. 

FoDDBRTY (Dingwall), c. 1360, Fothirdy ; 1548, Fothartye; 
1572, Foddertie. O.G. fothir, *wood, field,' of which 
we find here both the soft and hard forms, + tigh, *a 
house.' Of, Fbtterangus and Fodderletter, Strathaven. 

Fogg (Duns). 1250, Foghou; a. 1300, Foggov; 1352, 
Foggowe. Prob. ^fog how,' i,e., * hollow (O.E. kdg, 
holh, Sc. howe) in which the fog, after-math, or second 
growth is found ' ; W. fftog, dry grass. 

FoiNAVBN, Ben (Sutherland). G. foinne bfieinn, *wart 
mountain.' It has three protuberances. 

FoLDA (Alyth). Perh. G. faoghail (pron. foyl) daimJi, * ford 
of the ox ' ; or, Ifoladh, *a cover, a screen.' 

FOLLA RuLB (Fyvie). 1245, Folayth; 1364, Fouleroule; a. 
1400, Folethroule, Foleroule. Folia seems to be G. 
foladh, 'a covering, hiding-place.' On Rule, cf. R. 
RuLB, Roxburgh, and Abbotrulb. 

FoNAB (Perthsh.). G. fonn aba, * land of the abbot.' 

Fgrbbs (Alford). Sic a, 1500. Prob. fr. old Ir. (and ? G.) 
forba, *a field, district,' with the common Eng. plural. 
G. forbhas is an ambush. 

Fgrd (Dalkeith, Loch Awe). O.E. ford, a ford. Five in 
England. 

FoRDOUN (Kincardine), a. 1100, St Berchan, Fothardun; 
Colgan, Life of St Patrick, Forddun; c. 1130, 
Fordouin. O.G. or Pictish fothir duin, * land on the 
hill,' or * by the fort ' ; fothir is here hardened. Qf p. 
xxxiv, and also Fbtterangus, Foddbrty, Fortbviot. 



FoRDYCK (Pom-.- . t -. 
south*: G. >taa^ *-j^ t= 

Forfar. Sir Il-:» -^ :j.>'_ 
/ucoTj 'cc«i ^.c=ijs:. cr 
Peril, fr- O _-. --^ar- . t tt 

FoRGAX (X- Fr:^. iJ.^-- - 7r=rrzi:i^ -LTf- ^' un^- 

Perii. G-/.r- " .'-in- •*. i-ijj^ v-nL .'rrroi. r- jr* ...^^ 
I.e., goal «u'.M jL 

FoRGLKX (Turrrr^ >/r ITlr^ r.i: i _:! . J.t^t"-:*^ A 
fothir f^ijvL. ' w\*AZ n. "Lie: jrxei- 

FoRGUB (HnntlT^ t ITi.*.. Jjcp^ T^ji.r- >2\>;. ::^, 
*wood of the wizii - 'j./rvv-' ./a -ri^ 

FoBRBS. Peril, the F-yire^i^ ^ r*.. -F*- ." -i*v / 
Fbtteresso); 1187, F:»r^; IfSrL F.ints^ vv ^^v.^v 
or for easj * wood by the wai^erfsCI/ 1V>K irst^vu^\\>\) 
somewhat by ^k./orgy *a wateriiul/ tho Kix^. -x^'Wx '*\\ 
common m the Lake district, Tacitus, in his J>.*^va^,^^ 
mentions a tribe Horedii hereabouts* 

FoRSE (Lybster), FoRSS (Thurso). ThurHo l'\, w I'lih, 
Fors. N./ors, * a waterfall'; c/. Stook^^lll V\m^^^ iVf 

FoRSiNAiN (Sutherland). Doubtful HM Ui \m * hrw/w 
waterfall/ as contrasted with 

FoRsiNARD (Sutherland). *Hii^h/rr ^fhUifUiW ; h, m nlf,l 
*of the height.' 

Fort, St (N. Fife;, A ^-.^..ta fc»f/U^r.\ *^,,^ ^z,-^^,^/ -,,, ,,/ 

Glasgow. 

FoRTBvioT (Periii . ?. >'' . />; O.-^/^ f ,*, 

1280, Fervr.-'.rii ,i.r ,;. *• .-, ,* /• ^/ ^ 

the ^aiune m .i. T -• »^ 
Forth, F':r:n >f. rf," * -' , ' . /, ,. 

7i<A B*^'/'. '• ^ ' ,• . , ' 



134 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Chron,, 'Ripse vadonim Forthin'; 1072, O.E. Chron., 
Scodwade, i.e., * Scots Ford/ so wade may be meant for 
a translation of a name like Forth; c. 1110, OrderiCy 
Scotte Watra, and Irish Nennius, Foircu; a. 1150, Forth ; 
a. 1200, Descript. Alhanice, Scottice [i.e., in Gaelic] 
Froch, Brittanice [i.e., in Welsh] Wend, Itomana [t.e., 
in O.E.] vero Scottewattre ; c. 1225, Orkney. Saga, 
Myrkvifiord, i.e., * dark, murky, frith.' The root seems 
G. foir or j'raigh ; ' rim, edge, border or boundary of a 
country,' i.e., the boundary between Saxon Lothian and 
Celtic Fife. The softened form Forth may have been 
influenced by early pronunciations oil^. fjord, * a frith.' 

Forth (Lanark). Perh. = ' Fort ' ; cf. *The Forth,' New- 
castle; 1653, * Sandgate fort.' 

FoRTiNQALL (Aberfeldy). c. 1240, Forterkil; a. 1300, 
Fothergill ; 1544, Fortyrgill. Interesting example of 
a name which has quite changed. It really is old G. 
fotliir gain or cill, *wood of the stranger' or *of the 
church.' In this region we could not have IceL gU, a 
ravine. The r has been transposed, as often, through 
the influence of the Eng. fort. The -in- represents the 
G. article. 

FoRTissAT (Shotts). 

FdRTROSE (Cromarty). Prob. G. fothir or for frois, * wood 
on the promontory.' Cf. Montrose. 

Forts Augustus, George, and William (Strathmore). Fort 
A., named in 1716 after William Augustus, Duke of 
Cumberland. Fort G., named in 1748 after George II. 
Fort W., so named, c. 1690, after William IIL, 
though there was a fort built here in 1655. 

Fobs (Pitlochry), c. 1370, Fossache. Prob. G. fdsach, *a 
desert, forest, hill.' 

FossowAY (Kinross), c. 1210, Fossedmege. Prob. G.fdsadh 
mhagha, * protuberance, hill in the plain.' 

FouLA (Shetland). Icel. and Dan. fugl-ay, *fowl island'; 
abundance of sea-fowl there. Cf. Fugloe, Faroes. 

FouLDEN (Ay ton), c. 1098, Fugeldene; 1250, Fulden. 
Prob. O.E. fugel (Icel. fvgV) dmu, * dean, valley of the 
fowls or birds.' Cf. Foulden, Norfolk. 



S.M ' ' 


''Ill' 1 


vi, ^* 


■ aiLn 




i ! .-Ht.l,; 


. ' r. 


-'tt^r' 


''^/fr, •♦ 


-• — '- 


Ki\ ' 


►iiitrti,^. 


''\ i>.. 


1. • 


.. 1 t » 


•r'l. r. 


'.'>,, 


, t'tLi't 



iiiL r-iil. "1 :"3ra.' .:aia -Jjhe : a .L , 
FiiTfTAiirni-ii'ii-s: EmnDTum.). rj'3TATNnAi,i, -••«» 

'vCniKDIl). 

ih 

jiitt •th»r < tr -na ct t tie '. jitncr ' . ' i 

"t i«»«i» vnh. "tie ommotL 'jTiIL ji'-rii: ina>r .'t-^i., ji^ 
J^iiiUti = Ti-";aaw. ''UL'—crefcLiiu 'irti. 

F . naih. IF liL ir " trr -AUirnatiLi i. 3 rn.. .t. ttx / -. • n linv. ^.is. ^^ 
:r iu!iu ni lie -ioucia >t -rijm.^'. 5vlv .lum^s >*.<.•. ,». c- 
u/"A. •• initer irrnmit . Tie viic-r i«;ii>- -jtinm >y^iw>4i ».*.»y\ 
au. T!ii± >* Ji- rutt rumnuii £aic 'ji'ii"?VL. 

VA»V. F^nLH^ vjis foTO>OTK aftoi^ x\>oU ^^'".•>w v\\ 7 ■ ^'y 

ii*e fr-pot was Faithli^?, 

Fbesvick (T^ick), <?. 1225, Orhurfj. .^.*.v, TIui^^mU I'^ ^K 
fr. some man; or porh, »Fii»UiUfe l>a^ ; N. ,.f. >., 
Freston, Ipswich. 

Frkuchie (Auchtenimchty). (147y, luviulir, h...i J'....n . 

1548, Freuchy, L<joirbnxiui.) (;./'""•/'"■/■ '"•'"■ ' 
heathy' place; ir. J'rauch, 'Uuiiluj, anil li...... -i ..i. 

isle on Locb Loimmd. <[f. Fn urh, (.all. ^..^ 

Fbiockheui. Prou. Kn-uktiiii. In I'^^'l v.. l.. ii 'u... i 
Freok' ; lOO:^, Knock : aiid a i' ai.|. /■,/■./ / 
baiiie of Kortar, 131^0 «^. <'i ./-^ y' ' ' 

readv ' ; './. Ficckinuaii., I ai'-. . l-'/' ' 

The Cier. /«*///', ' liuna- ^'•' ' " 

pruprielo!\ J<«iii- Aii«*. •>: . »^'"' -'• 



136 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Frobost (S. Uist). * Seed-place.' X. frjo. See p. kxiL 

Fruid Watbr (Hart Fell). W. frwyd^ * impulsiye, hast j 
stream.' Cj\ Renfrew. 

Fruin Glen (L. Lomond), c 1225, Glean freone, Glanfrone. 
Doubtful. ? G. frioghanj * a bristle ' ; it can hardly be 
fr. bhrdfi^ * lamentation.' 

FuiNAPORT (Bunessan). G. fionna phort^ white or *fair 
port ' or bay. 

FuLLARTON (Irvinc and Forfarsh.). Irvine F., 'Geoflrey 
of FouUertoune,' king's falconer in 1327 ; 1391, Fouler- 
toun. * Fowler's town ' or ' hamlet ' ; fr. O.K fugd^ -ol, 
Icel. and Dan. fugly Sc. foiily a fowl or bird. 

Furnace (old iron-work near Inveraray). G. fuimeU^ *a 
furnace.' Also near Llanelly. 

FusHiEBRiDGE (S. Midlothian). Prob. fr. N. /««, *a roar,' 
dve/uSy the roar of a river. But cf. Fossoway. 

Fyne, Loch. In G. lock fionna, * bright, clear loch.' Also 
sometimes called by natives Loch Briagh, t.e., 'fine, 
bonnie loch.' For the pron. Fyne cf, Aboyne. 

Fyvie (Aberdeen), a. 1300, Fy^yn. The Fy- is haid to ex- 
plain ; 1 0.G. feigli, 'bloixiy'; the -vyn suggests abhuinn, 
* river.' 

G 

Gadie, R (Aberdeensh.). G. gad, 'a withe,' has a short a, 
and here it is long ; so perh. pre-Celtic. Cf. Gadgirth, 
Ayrsh. 

Gairloch (W. Ross-sh., and Kells, Kirkcudbright) and 
Gareloch (Helensburgh). Ross. G., 1366, Gerloch; 
1574, Garloch; prob. fr. G. gearr, 'short loch,' as con- 
trasted with its much longer neighbours. Lochs Carron, 
Torriden, and Broom. The same is true re the Helens- 
burgh G., 1272, Gerloch; a. 1350, Keangerloch, i.e., 
Garelochhead. 

Oairn (or Gairden) Water (Ballater) and Gairniebridob 
(Kinross). 1 G. garan, -ain, * a thicket,' or cdniy cairn, 
*a cairn.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 137 

Gala, R. (Galashiels), c. 1150, Galche; c. 1200, Galue; 
1268, Galu ; a. 1500, GaUow. Perh. fr. G. geal, * clear,' 
or f r. W. gwala, * the full stream ' ; cf . Gala Lane, Cars- 
phaim. *Galawater,' according to Border usage, 
means the valley through which the Gala flows. 

Galashiels. 1237, Galuschel; 1416, Gallowschel; 1442, 
Galowayscheelis ; 1503, Galloschelis ; 'shielings' (O.N. 
skalt) or *huts on the river Gala.' Skali is still 
used in N. for a temporary or shepherd's hut. Cf. 
Selkirk. 

Galbraith, Inch (L. Lomond). Family of Galbraith (1492, 

Gralbreytht) used to reside here. It is G. gall-Breaiuiv- 

nachj Brythonic, British, or Welsh stranger, 'Low- 
lander.' 

Galcantry (Fort George). Prob. G. geal cearm-tlre^ ' white, 
clear promontory.' Cf, Kintyrb. 

Gal(l)atown (Kirkcaldy). ? G. gdll^ ' a stranger, foreigner,* 
or galla, ' a bitch.' 

Gallon Head (Lewis). G. gallariy * a pillar, standing-stone.' 
Cf, Achagallon, W. Arran; also Gallan, Tyrone, 
Gallana, Cork. 

Galloway, c, 970, Pict. GJiron,, Galweya; c. 1160, Galweie; 
c. 1250, Galeweia; Lot. chrom,, Gal(l)wethia (1158, 
Galovidienses). W. Gallwyddel {dd = th) = G. Gall- 
Gaidhel, 'stranger Gael.' Prob., says Dr Skene, fr. 
Galloway being long a province of Anglic Northumbria. 

GiLLOWPLAT (Rutherglen). * Plain ' or * flat of the gallows.' 
Qf. Skinplats. 

Galston (Ayrsh.). 'Gall's' or 'stranger's (G. gall) town.' 
Of, Gattonside. 

Gambscleuch (Ettrick). Old Gamelscleuch. Said to be fr. 
Celtic root meaning 'twin, double,' fr. the bum 
branching into two near its source; cf, L. gemellus. 
However, K Camel, Cornwall, means ' crooked stream.' 
On cleiich see Bucclbuch. 

Gamrie (Banff). Pron. Gfiemri. c. 1190, Gameryn; c. 
1200, Gamery. Prob. G. cam airidheariy 'crooked 



138 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

shielings ' or * hill pastures.' Gf^ Glassary. C and g 
sometimes interchange in Gaelic place-names. M'Bain 
suggests G. gamhainnravi'idhj * stirk-shieling.' ()f. 

AUCHTERGAVKN. 

Gantocks, The (rocks off Dimoon). The real name in G. is 
Na Gainhneachan, interpreted *the stirks/ fr. gamhairm, 

* a yearling beast.' 

Garbraid (Glasgow). 1515, -bred. G. garbh, 'rough,' or 
gearTy * short,' and braghaid, * a guUey or neck.' 

Garderhouse (Lerwick). Icel. garc^-r, *an enclosure, garden.' 

Garqunnock (Stirling), c. 1470, -now. G. garhh cuinneagy 

* rough, imeven pool.' Of. Girgimnochy, Stoneykirk. 

Garioch (Aberdeensh.). c. 1170, Garuiauche; c. 1180, 
Garvyach; 1297, Garviagha; a, 1300, Garuiach. G. 
garbh achadh, ' rough field ' ; same as Garwachy, 
Wigtown. 

Garlieston (Wigtown). Prob. 1592, Garlics, i.e., G. garbh 
or gearr lios, * rough ' or * short court or garden.' 

Garmouth (Fochabers), c. 1650, -mogh, -moch, Germoch. 
The local pron. seems uncertain and permits derivation 
either fr. G. gearr, * short,' or garbh, * rough.' Prob. the 
name is G. gearr magh, * short plain.' The -mouth is a 
modem corruption by persons ignorant of G. 

Garnqaber (Lenzie). G. garadh na cabair, *deer forest'; 
gdr{r)adh is an enclosure, park, garden, and prob. a 
loan word fr. O.E. geard, Icel. gard^-r ; the true G. 
is gort or gart ; and cabar usually means an antler. 
Of. Glengaber, Yarrow, and Ringaber (* antler-point'), 
Buchanan. 

Garngad (Glasgow). * Enclosure of the withies ' ; G. gad. 

Garnkirk (Glasgow). 1515-66, Gartynkirk, * little enclosure 
of the hens,' hen-roost; G. gartan circ, G. cearc, dree, 
*a hen.' 

Garrabost (Stomoway). Perh. * Geirra's ' or * Garri's farm ' 
or * place,' N. bolstad'r (see p. Ixxii). Cf. Garrisdale, 
Canna, and L. Garrasdill, Kintyre. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 139 

Garrionhauoh (Cambusnethan). G. gearran^ *a work- 
horse '+ Haugh. 

Garrogh Head (Bute). 1449, Garrach (old MS., Ceann 
garhhy * rough head ' or * cape ') = Garioch. 

Garry, R. (Inverness and Perth). In G. garadh. This cannot 
be the mod. G. garadh, * enclosure.' The first syllable 
is short, and the root is thought to be the same as 
Gk. xa/x£3pa, * a ravine.' There is a G. garidh, * a copse, 
a rough place.' 

Garbynahine (Stomoway). G. garidh na h^aibhne, * copse ' or 

* rough land by the river.' Of. Portnahaven. 

Garscadden (Glasgow). 1372, Gartscadane, * herring en- 
closiire ' ; G. gart sgadan ; 1 herrings cured here. Of, 
Culscadden, Galloway, and Balscadden, Howth. 

Gabscube (Glasgow). G. garbh cub, * rough curve or bend,' 
or ? fr. sguab, * a broom.' 

Gartclosh (Stirling), Gartclush (Lanarksh.). G. gart 
dots, * paddock with the ditch.' 

Gabtcosh (Glasgow). 1520, -gois. Prob. G. gart cdis, 

* enclosure at the fissure or cavern'; cf. Cash Bay, 
Wigtown. 

Garth (Aberfeldy). M.E. garth, *farm, garden.' Cf. Apple- 
garth and Garngaber. 

Garthdeb (Aberdeen). Fr. Sc. garth, *a dam or weir for 
catching fish ' ; in Aberdeensh. also * gravel, shingle at 
the riverside.' 

Gartib, Mid and West (Helmsdale). Icel. gar&-r, *an 
enclosure'; cf. Garth. 

Gartlt (Insch). a. 1500, Garintuly and Grantuly; 1600, 
Gartullie. Prob. G. garan tulaich, 'thicket on the 
hill.' Cf, Murthly. 

Gartmobb (Balfron). G. = ' big enclosure ' or * farm.' 

Gabtnavbl (Glasgow). 1521, -nawyll. 'Enclosure of the 
apple-trees'; G. gart-an-abhatl. = Orchard and Applb- 
oarth. 



140 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Gartnbss (Drymen and Islaj). Prob. G. gari an ea«, * en- 
closure by the waterfall.' 

Gartshbrrie (Coatbridge). * Enclosure of the foals'; G. 
%earrajch. Of, Barsherry, Galloway. 

Garturk (Coatbridge). 'Enclosure of the boar or hog'; 
G. torc^ gen. tuirc, Gf, Turk. 

Garvald (Haddington and Peebles) and Garyalt Bubx 
(Braemar). Hadd. G., sic 1250. G. garhh allt, 'rough 
stream' or 'cliff.' Of, Garrel (fr. oZ, 'a rock'), Dum- 
fries and Kilsyth. 

Garvb (Ross-sh.). G. garbh^ * rough.' 

Garvelloch, I. (Jura). 1390, Garbealeach; 1589, Garow- 
hellach, -whileach. G. garbh aileachy 'rough, stone 
house ' ; or ' rough pass,' G. bealach. 

Garvock (Laurencekirk). = Garioch. 

Garwoling (Argyle). Old Garfoling. G. gari feorltn, 
* farthing-land ' ; cf. p. Ixv. 

Gask (Dunning, Strathnaim, and Turriff). Prob. not a 
corruption of G. erosg, ' crossing, pass,' as in Arnoask ; 
but perhaps Pictish gasc, * a nook, gusset, hollow ' ; G. 
gaisg means 'a slope.' Of. Gergask, Laggan, and 

FiNGASK. 

Gasstown (Dumfries). Founded by Mr Joseph Gass, c 
1812. 

Gas Water (E. Ayrsh.). Prob. G. gascLchy 'full of branches,' 
fr. gas, a branch. N. gas means a goose. 

Gassibslack (Aberdeensh.). Prob. G. gasach doc, 'pit full of 
branches or arms.' 

Gatend or Gaithend (Beith). ' The end of the gate,' Sc. 
for 'road.' See p. Ixxxvi. 

Gategill Burn (Girthon). Icel. gat gil, gill or ' ravine of 
the gap.' 

Gatehope (Peeblessh.). N. geit hop, 'goats' shelter.' 

Gateshaw (Morebattle). Perh. a. 800, Hist, St CtUhbU, 
Gistatun. See Shaw. 



PLACK-5AMES OF .^TOTLAJ'D. 



Glam(m)is (Forfar). The i ia ni:>w rmire. 1 1 fT r^j^cir 



1251, Glemmis. G. 'jlamh'i^, lit. '-^ T-jie lan ir^^s^ 
* open country, a vale.' 
Glasgow. 1116, Glarfgii : 1130. .'^/W. Lntr^am, 'r-^^-rr^ 
ensis epLicopaii ' ; Ilo^if. ♦riartsr'ivr : llt.7. #' •"- -t. 
Cleschu.^ This la^st. J^T^ 'iimici. tfn i^ iirr tiw 
meaning ; it w jix^t W. y/.tx r;?/* < r. ;• ^ ta , jr^"- 
hound,' Kentigenu or .St Kiruiri \x ^^'^■^. ^z.^ 
called, in VitoR <^aiV!torur/K 'In .pi« -r..:, i^ ir^"- 
hound. But ia there aaj oiaiie-Oiinie irni ». -* - ' .-r- 
meaning? GUjuHni. 'dear. jcr=t**Ti -tr^.x V t*. va*-. ji 
an imknown comrvinatiivn ji <Lriii:a: i^iur^c i* i^— r 
as any is the Aervr^Ufjii fr^ni T, //,t^- ^i.;*- ,r^T^. .. .- 
lows'; cau ia pron. kajr. irniiia i^cr^r:* T^r;i i^ - jzr- 
pron. Glea-cay. There ari \*i*fi tt«'> rl^;^''-r- i: ;_.*ir- 
deensh. 

Glasmont (Kirkcaldy;. 117^. ^rj^i^nivxA^ ^ .- -* •* "-i* - 

* grey hill ' or mount. 

Glass, R. (Beauly;. (IZ^'Sf. T^ijn^iaieiL r ^ni:- y .^> 

G. tjlas^ ' ^^Jt dark-i<>otcn4i: 
Glass (Huntly). G. ///x^. 'ir^y : -iiin n V i^.. .^ ^ 

* green.' Two in Ejcj^^l^^ 

Glassabt (Lochgilphead . IzZ"^ ' rannt^'fi i*^, -^m^ 
1394, Glaater; \l\\, ♦r.;u<r.*3- . . i> r .- ^.^ 

(or green; shieling or • iiJ^-^jtiiTATt. r /t. , :• k.c-.- z 
the last two fornis *r> fr. ' .'. - .aivi, 

Glasskbto!C (WLhhom,. T.i ^xr-^ ni-r ....v:i ,.^^. .. 
confused Mxiti^rA^jjxs.wrj. "iie ^t^iu .j.- '^' -^j^,^ -_ -^ 
tery. It is pmc- •xiaa ->..n. >h \»-i/:.^ , :.. ^ .^ . -- 
but cf, dutm azui •Vr.^^f.iiT^ 

Gla8(8)foro fHaimIt*'jt: . ". I::, , i;^> . .^ . ^. ..^ 

GQasford. Prr>hu i^. ^w- r^ u* > ...n, - > 
A lord: ^T:t 4ndh ^ vX ^*-f- j ^ 7.- 




142 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

GiLABOLL (Helmsdale). * Place of the gills or ravines, ' Icel. gil. 
See hoi, place, dwelling, p. Ixxiii. Thus = Gillsland, Beith. 

GiLCOMSTON (Aberdeen). 1361, Gilcolmystona. Hybrid; 
* hamlet of the gillie ' (G. gille) or * servant of St Colm ' 
or Columba; cf, p. ciii and Gilmerton. The -ton is 
fr. O.E. ton, Mn, *a village.' 

Gillespie (Old Luce). G. cill eashuig, * church or cell of the 
bishop,' L. episcopits. In all other names cill remains 
as Kil-. 

GiLLiBSHiLL (Bannockbum). 'Attendants', servants' (6. 
gille) hill.' 

GiLMERTON (Edinburgh), c. 1200, Gyllemoreton. * Abode 
(" ton ") of the servant of Mary ' the Virgin ; G. giUe 
Maire, Of. Gilmorton, Lutterworth, and Gilcomston. 

GiLNOCKiE (Canonbie). G. geal cnocan, * white or clear little 
hill.' 

Girdle Ness (Kincardinesh). O.E. gyrdel is *a girdle'; but 
this is very prob. a corruption of some Celtic name. 

GiRNiGO (Wick). Sic 1547. 1 * Gaping inlet,' fr. Icel. gima, 
to yearn, desire, + gjd, a goe or narrow inlet. 

GiRTHON (Gatehouse). Icel. gard^^, M.E. garth,, girth, 
*yard, garden,' with suffixed N. article. Of. AppiiB- 

GARTH. 

GiRVAN, R. and Town (Ayrshire). Old Garvane. Prob. G. 
gearr abhainn or an, * short river,' as contrasted with 
the Stinchar. It is not a * rough ' (G. garhh) river. 

GizzEN Brigs (shoal off Tain). Pron. rather like Glessen; 
prob. means * boiling breakers.' First word akin to 
geyser, fr. Icel. geysa or gjosa, * to gush ' ; second perh. 
the same root as Eng. break, breaker, 

Glack (Newtyle). G. glac, * a valley, a hollow.' 

Gladhouse (Midlothian), Gladsmoor (Kirkcolm), Glads- 
MUiR (Tranent), a, 1150, Gledehus. Tran. G., 1328, 
Glademor; all thought to be fr. Sc. gled, O.E. glida, 
the kite, the 'gliding' bird, and there is a Gleadhill; 
but cf, Icel. glad'-r, smooth, bright, light. Muir or 
moor is O.E. and Icel. mdr, *a heath, moor, morass.' 
Of. Gledstanbs. 



Glax(m: ra- ■Forfzir!. TLe "s lownute. 'IS 7. -iiumiLe* : 
12o L <ritiinims. 'f. '/tn7ih.u.<. Viz, • i vide jau .lenre. 
"opeiL '!(iiiiitr^. i TUe. 

GLA3«i4:>w. Lll»i. < lt;usgn : \lZiK ^ini. .jur^am, • * '♦n.^/n- 

i.lt±*!iiii.' riiia -iiar. /Jiv^ - mntr^. >aQws "nji 'lai. 
meiininic : ir .s ^anu V. .his nii '^. / :.^ 'n. jri^- 

«:alieL in ^^'f/« ^'(jy-mnrm. ' Ln jij^ an. "ne _r^T- 
hijimiL Silt :a "tiere mv^ ^lacii-tianie Ttn. l 'n'::.<.r 
meanirur ' 'xr<iA-^u. -'tear, ^een -not V •»/. :t:Ltr'. .^ 
an 'inimowTi •omtviEUitii)a .a ■ etat: .anit-A. -i:* Jic^r 
aa m^ is 'iie lenvatiiia 'rrnL V hia 'i,ii. • _T:?*i^n jiit- 
Iijw^": -an la irnn. vav-. rroiiri -.iar?:*^. "na nje -^uar 

GLASX«..?rr ' Klrkcaiiir'. 117^. Ii;is4mi>n.tri. r. /^w vt^^auilu 
" rrey mil )r .niiun-L 

tj-. .//a*?. • '.irT^y. ULrK.-:0(»Ki.iir.' 
GLiaH 'Hmti^''. <T. tifu. • iTPV . .lit a V'. .i^<, Me r 

ciu* luHC '7^^^ "ormji trp -"r. *^/-. j-iui. 

t#*r7. It If* imrL < tJ;ilv ^ 111. .fi* -r^:. .h U-.a *r:.;- 

but 'f. ^n^J^i^ lUft Tt.jj^,*^.vxtr. 

Gla^^p^rd ' rtaiiiilfonj. -. \'i\n, \\A^^rT^\r\i, -T.r-i. .J^?*:. 
•j^is^forL P'nn. <r. ///o.. • rrr-r ,r !...».- f_ — -^..L or^'t. 
& rVr-i : hut --4/// 'm;xcf':*rrt . .L '• rn-. X.L -;//. <. 

to be * *:n >t'< -^rrtr or >L. 



144 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Glkdstanbs (Biggar). 1296, Ragman Roily Gledestan, i.e,, 
* kite's rock' or * stone,' O.E. glida^ *a kite.' Cf. 
Gladhouse. Hence the mod. surname Gladstone. 

Glbnalmond (Perth), Glenaray (Inveraray). See Almond, 
Aray, &o. 

Glbnapp (Ballantrae) and Glknnapp (Berwick). Ball. G., 
prob. the Glen Alpinn where King Alpinn was slain in 
750. But they may both be G. gleann ah or abh^ *glen 
with the stream,' or * of the abbot,' O.G. ah, 

Glenbarr (Tayinloan). * Glen by the height ' ; G. harr. 

Glbnboiq (Coatbridge). * Soft, moist glen ' ; G. and Ir. hog 
or huige^ soft, boggy. 

Glbnbuck (Lanark). *Glen of the buck or he-goat'; G. 
hoCy gen. huic. 

Glencairn (Thomhill). 1301, Glencam. *Glen of the 
cairn ' or * heap of stones ' ; G. cdm^ gen. cairn. 

Glen Caladh (Kyles of Bute). G. caladhy *a harbour, a 
ferry.' 

Glencaple (Dumfries). *Glen of the mare'; G. cajpvlly 
gen. capuUL Cf, Kincaple. 

Glencarse (Errol). * Glen of the Carse ' of Gowrie. 

Glengoe (N. Argyle). 1343, Glenchomyr; 1494, Glencole; 
1500, Glencoyne; 1623, -coan. The forms show the 
word has been constantly altering. 1343 is fr. G. 
chomair, gen. of Comar, * confluence, meeting of two 
valleys'; 1494 is fr. G. caoly * narrow'; 1500 almost 
looks as if fr. G. cu, gen. cow, * a dog ' ; whilst 1623 
agrees with the mod. G. spelling gleann comhanny or 
cumhann (cf, Glencune, Haltwhistle), which last also 
means * narrow ' — truly a useful warning against dog- 
matism about any name. 

Glencorse (Penicuik). * Glen of the bog or moss,' W. and 
Com. cors. R is very commonly transposed. Cf 

CORSOCK, also CORSEWALL. 

Glencroe (Argyle). G. crOf * a circle, a hut, a sheep-fold.' 

Glendale (Skye). Tautology ; G. gleann + N. dal. Also in 
Northumbld. 



TLACEr^AMSa OF 3C0TLA3D. 145 

GLENDARifEL (Tiglinabruaicfa.). 1238, Glen da nia, i.e.^ 'of 
the two points ' ; G. da rtKlha. There is a R. Ruel^ 
which the natrves 3ay is G. rua/Oi aflt "red stream*^ 
because once made red by a blciody battle ! 

Glkndoick (Errol). Perh. fr. St Duthcu: or Duthus of Tain. 
Cf. DriCH. 

Glknduckib (N. Fife). Old^ -dnachy. Perh. as above. 

Glexeaglbs (Blackford), e, 1165, Gleninglese. G. »jleannr<xnr 
eayiats, ' glen of the ehnreh.' 

Glknklg (W. InTemeas). Sic 1292 ; hnt 1282, Glenhalk. 
Perh. fr. Icel. elg-r^ Sw. ehj, 'an elk.' Rhys thinks fr. 
Elga; see Elgin; also ef. Basqne elgej 'a cultivated 
plain.' 

GuENFEfNAN (Foit William). G. fiown (Mbhairm or (In, 
'white, clear river.' M'Bain says the real name is 
gleann an cunUy ' glen of the one,' a very curious name I 

Glbngarxock (Ayrsh.)- (Qf., c. 1240, * Dalegemoc.') Prob, 
G. garbh enoc, * rough hill.' Perh. = Carnock, * rooky 
place.' 

Glekgirnaig (Ballater). Prob. * glen of the little cairn,* aeo 
Gairn ; -atg is a G. diminutive. 

Glkngonab (Abington). Sic 1239. Either * blaokHmitli'« 
height' (G. gobhann ard), or * height with the littla 
beak ' (G. gohan), 

Glkngtrb (Wigtown). * Glen of the greyhound,' G. gtu)thnii\ 
fr. gajoth, * wind.' 

Glknhowl, -houl (Carsphaim and Glenluce). 15(1.1, lnivyll. 
*Glen with the fork' or *two branohoH*; (3. \nihhal^ 
gen. ghobhail (pron. houl), * a fork.' 

Gleniffer (Paisley). Perh. fr. O.E. o/<^, *a boumljiry,' or 
fr. G. aifrenn or aoibhrionn, L. offareiM^ *oHi»rin^/ /.f^, 
the mass. Cf, Inchaffray. 

Glsnkens (The New Galloway). *(ilenof tluM'ivtir Kkn. 
The plur. s refers to the four parinlieM alouK thu livi r. 

Glenkindib (Aberdeen). *Glen of the bhuk \mu\* \ U. 
gleann cinn duibJie, 

)0 



146 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Glbnlivat (Craigellachie). ? Fr. G. liohh aite, 'smooth, 
polished place.' M*Bain thinks it the same root as in 
Glbnlyon. 

Glbnlochar (Castle-Douglas). G. loch dird, *loch of the 
height.' 

Glbnlyon (Aberfeldy). Sic 1522; but c. 1380, Fordun, 
-leoyne. Some think G. lithe obhuinn, *spatey river/ 
the th and mh being lost by aspiration. Perh. more 
likely G. Ikan, * a swampy plain, a meadow.* Of, Leyen 
and Lyon. 

Glbnmidgb (Dumfries). May be fr. O.E. micge, * a midge ' ; 
but old forms are wanted. 

Glbnmoriston (Fort Augustus). Ulst Ann., 638, Glinne- 
mureson; 1479, Glenmorison. G. mdr easan, *the big 
waterfalls.' 

Glbnmuick (Ballater). 1451, Mukvale; but 1511, Glenmuk. 

* Glen of the swine ' ; G. mtic, gen. muic, a pig. 

Glbnorchy or -urchy (Argyle). 1292, Glenurwy; 1510, 
-vrquha; in G. Urcfiaidhy said to mean Humbling' 
stream. 

Glbnprosbn (Kirriemuir). 1524, Glenprossin, -osswym. 
Prob. fr. Old G. brosnach, * a river.' The root brosd or 
hrosn means to excite. 

Glbnquaich or -quoich (Perth, Forfar, Inverness, Braemar). 
G. cuachy * a quaich or drinking cup.' 

GLENRiSDEiiL (Tarbert, L. Fyne). 1495, -restiU ; 1511, 
-rysadill. Icel. hris-dal, * copse wood-glen.' Of. Risabus, 
Islay, and for the tautology, Strathhalladale. 

Glensheb (Blairgowrie). G. dth, gen. slthe (pron. shee), 
means * a hill,' * a fairy,' or * peace, a truce.' 

Glbnshibl (L. Duich). Fr. IceL skjdl, * a shieling, shelter.' 
Of, Galashiels, &c. 

Glenshiora (Badenoch). In G. sioro, fr. root dr, sior, 

* long ' ; or perh. siaradh, * obliqueness.' Of, Shira. 

Glentruim or -tromib (Laggan). G. tromany *the dwarf 
elder,' Ir. tromm, truimmy* the elder-tree ' ; hence Trim, 
Meath. 



Glen ViLLAGH • FtZkrk . '- ---3'^ * j_r^ r 

wood-' 

Gloon Burx jtfii Lj^ :p ^_ v '^ - - — ^ 

'the knee.' fl"' "^jTiiijairrr^.£. ^. ^.. r- -^ •-, 

Gloupholm rSbeiituf. l-r'-. ^■— it.- 

*80ft, pOTfjQaL^E'CJT -T lit- '^_ : . -fV- 
80ft' 

Glower-o'kb-km LoLr-jLiir.^ . r ,il^ -r & i-.I 
view. Scl ^'An^ jt **: ^.mZP:, r-^f^ i^,,. 
bonnigfa. 

Goatfkll (Air&z: ^ T*-rr ili,*:-^ -::: r o < /j- ', ix-^y^ 
sacred.' FeZ » I i>iL /-..*. t i-lL r ;.' -'. * i- -.:-«..:. 

GODSCROFT (Ahbcj i*<: •>i:i'.;Ul * . .^ r: • 1/-r;!_ *>* 

GoGAB (EdinhQJidjt *z:*i M^-it^nr^ . Z-'j^i. _-. Ij.- .* •^♦r' : 
1250, Cogger: I^V,- «xtVir-:^. ♦--..i-^ Ir a -:TiiT 
gives a Sc. *,V'Wr, wriL :rH: v-j'.fi-. lir.-— t jr /iTtir irj'.i'Jt- 
But what kiwi w&i tL^r: ' 

GoGO Burn (Lai^^ 

GoiL, L. (Firth of Ovde;. 1 4.> . -'^/T>^ ' I>^> -^ f. 'l^^h '.'>nL ' ; 
G. gobhaly -ail ; it forks o»? frx-L I»ji. L/x-^ : y^fjtx^ ir. 
G. <7a/4 g<nlL, ' a stranger/ 

GoiN, L. (Fen wick). * Loch of the zr^>ri^ or rjaiT«a/:]e dack* ' ; 
G. and Ir. geadh, gen. pL <^a./'i/i« 'prr>n. goin). (Jf. 
Loughnagoyne, Mavo. 

Golden Acre (Edinburgh). O.E. arer, oscer^ IceL akr^ 
L. ag^y * a field.' 

GoLBPiE (Sutherland). 1330, Goldespy ; 1448, Golspi ; 1550, 
Golspiekirktoun (farm of Kirkton still there), locally 
pron. G<Sishpie or Gheispie. Perh. fr. some Norse- 
man Gold or GoOy or fr. G. gaily * a stranger ' (cf. the 
surnames Gould and Gauld), + Dan. 6y, 6t, ftoe, *a 
hamlet, town ' {cf. pol for holy p. Ixxii). Its Celtic name 
was Kilmaly. 

GoMKTRA, I. (Mull). 1390, Godmadray; 1496, Gowmedra. 
* Godmadr ' or * Godmundr's isle ' ; N. ay, ey. 



148 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

GoRBALS (Glasgow). 1521, -baldis. Perh. W. gor, * spacious,' 
+ G. haily *a village,' with the common Eng. plural. 
Sir Herb. Maxwell thinks N. gorr bcUk-r, * built walls, 
breastwork.' 

Gordon (Earlston). 1250, Gordin; 1289, Gordun. W. gor 
din, * spacious hill ' ; or perh., like Gourdon, G. gobhar 
(pron. gore) rfwn, * goat-hill ' ; but Killgordon in Ireland 
is Ir. coill-na-geuirtJiny * wood of the parsnips,' a word 
which does not seem to be foimd in G. 

GoRDONSTOWN (Aberdeen and Kirkcudbright). Fr. a man 
Gordon. 

GoRBBRiDOE (Dalkeith). Prob. fr. O.E. gdra, M.E. gorOj *a 
triangular or wedge-shaped piece of land, a promontory'; 
same as the mod. gore, in a dress. 

GoRQiB (Edinburgh), c. 1200, -gin; c. 1280, -gyn; c. 1320 
-gy. Possibly W. gor cyn (G. geinn), 'spacious, 
wedge-like field,' W. cyn, *a wedge.' 

GoRTLECH (Fort Augustus). G. goirt leaCy * stone in the field 
or standing com.' C/. cromlech, t.e., * crooked stone.' 

GouRDiE (Dundee), c 1120, Gfudin. Doubtful. Cf. next, 

Gourdon (Fordoun). 1315, Gurdon. Prob. = Gordon ; 
perh. fr. G. curry * a comer or a pit.' 

GouROCK (Greenock). Perh. G. chrrog, * the little comer.' 

GovAN (Glasgow) and Govanhill (Glasgow and Carstairs). 
a. 1147, Guven; 1518, Gwuan. H. McLean says, G. 
gudhbhan, dimin. of gudhbh, * schoolhouse, study.' 
Might be *dear hill'; Celtic gu, W. cu, dear ((/. 
Glasgow), and G. bheinn, * a ben or hill.' 

GowANBANK (Arbroath and Falkirk). Sc. gowan is * a daisy,' 
G. and Ir. gugan, a flower, a bud. 

GowRiE, Carse of (Firth of Tay). c. 1120, Gowrin ; a. 1200, 
Gouerin ; c, 1200, Gowrie. G. gabhar or gobhar^ *a 
goat ' ; the last syllable may be the dimin. -aw. The 
old name of Ossory, Leinster, was Gabhran (pron. 
Gowran). 



il^z!:-" ^r 1 '-n T. ^ ..OIL .e — '•Tr....m. -rL.:: -tr-*^ 
is ^vZiauL ti* rfatnii^: jiil n. _::l*-3 niyrrHrj r —a 

y.'ihr xTisiit uitL "ti "lie nirra jr vi^orJT* n "tir-***: 
Grampian 5L:iiY!Li^T?h 1^ 3iBf^. J ^ --7 .-iL l"^i:V'.» ^ 

the hilL" ^~n n 3< sccnetiinirjs t-AlIixi i^.s.- ,i »^ > < % \ w > . > • ;• K 

* the Grants" Yilkg^,' 

Grange (Ljckerbie, Elinhiir^li, RVnos;^ 0<^h(ov^\lh\A 
Bumtislaad, Keith). *Farm' (soo Auu U">t)>*\\><»t\ 
The Edin. G. was the fjvrm lH^lonj;iuj; lo ri! \\\V\^ 
Church. Common in Euji^land. 

Graxgbmouth. Owes origin to tho Forth un«l i'lv»l»> t'.mil. 
begun 1768, at whose mouth, and ul«ti «U \\\^^ iM'Hih A 
•Grange Burn,' it stands. Talii's n<mh> M Aj.h.'i • 

GRANGE. 

Grantox (Edinburgh). c» 1200, (ilniidiiii . I'iH. 'Juini .hh 
Cragge.' i),K, f/m^/i^' ddut *</icvn\\\\\ i'wn ^n. n^^^i t 
in England. 

Graxtcjwx (Inveru<*f4>%-sh.;. 'J'lu- ul-l. .ii Im.-nu •••...i i, 

* Gregory k'<>r rant,' a. \'A')^i. v\li<> »v.i. |m-»i< .i j-".. i« I 
not a Norman. Jr. i/f^'X'f »• .^qjl.-.l i.. .. .... i^ •• 

hair>' man. 



150 PLACB-NAMKS OF SCOTLAND. 

Grantshousk (Berwicksh.). Named by the N.B.R. Co. from 

* Tammy Grant's Inn.' He was a Highlander of the 
early part of thfc 18th cny. Of. Grantham, Lincoln. 

Gravir (Lewis). Norse, *pits, graves,' Icel. grqf^ Dan. grof^ 
Sc. grafts * a grave.' 

Grbkngairs (Airdrie). * Green fields ' ; in Northumberland 
a gair is *a strip of verdure on the upland,' e.(/., Barty's 
Gair, Coquetdale, O.E. gasrs^ Sc. gers^ 'grass.' Cf, 
Fbrnibgair and Garth. 

Greenlaw (Berwick, Crossmichael, and Glencorse). Berw. 
G., 1250, Grenlawe. On law^ see p. Ixxxvi. 

Grebnloaning (Auchterarder). Sc. loan is * a green lane,' 
O.E. Idne^ Fris. lona^ lana, a lane, Icel. Zow, a row of 
houses. For -ingy cf, shieling, fr. Icel. sJgdlf a shelter. 

Grbbnogk. Perh. dimin. fr. G. griany gen. greine, * the sun.' 
There are several Greenoges (Ir. grian6g) in Ireland, 
meaning * sunny little hill.' Loch Grennoch, MinigafF, 
is either fr. G. greannachy * rough, bristly,' or grianachy 

* sunny.' 

Greens (Turriff) ? = next, with Eng. plur. s. 

Grbnan (Bute), Grbnnan (Penpont, and several in Galloway). 
Bute G., 8ic 1400. G. grianauy * a sunny spot, summer- 
house, also a mountain peak,' fr. griauy the sun. 

Gr^skinb (Beattock). O.G. creas cinn, * on the straight or 
narrow head or height.' 

Gretna (Carlisle and Old Luce). 1376, Gretenhowe; 1576, 
Gratnay. Prob. * how ' or * hollow of greeting ' ; O.E. 
gretan, *to greet,' i.e., either *to salute,' or, as still in 
Sc, * to weep,' Icel. grdtUy to weep. For similar cor- 
ruptions of howy cf. Ratho and Stobo. 

Grbtstone (Arbroath). * Grey's town ' or * grey stone.' 

Grimsay (L. Eport), and Grbmsa (Orkney). The man 

* Grim's isle ' ; N. ay, ey, 

Grimshadbr (L. Lewis). * Grim's sceter or summer-farm'; 
see Flashadbr. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 151 

Grisapoll (Coll). Icel. gris, Dan. griis^ Sc. grise^ * a young 
pig/ +2?oZ/ = N. &6Z, * place, village.' 

Grudnbss (Shetland). 1 Icel. grj6t, stones, rubble, O.E. 
greot^ sand, *grit,' + nes«. 

Gruinart or -ard (Islay, Gairloch and Shetland). Isl. G., 
1595, Gimard. Prob. * green bay'; Dan. and Sw. gron^ 
Icel. grcenn, + art, ard^ arst = N. fjord (see p. Ixiii). 

Grulink (Aros, Mull). 

Gryfb Water (Renfrew), c. 1160, Strath Grief; a. 1200, 
GryflF. Perh. W. grif, *frog-8pawn.' 

GuARDBRiDGB (St Andrews). Built by Bishop Wardlaw, 
before 1440. 

GuAY (Dunkeld). Pron. Guy. Sic 1457. G. gaotJiachj 
* windy.' 

GuiLDTOWN (Perth). 

GuiSACHAN (Beauly). 1578, -ane. Pron. Gh^esftchan. G. 
giuthsachan, *pine forests'; fr. G. giuthas^ a pine, 
Scotch fir. Cf. Inverghuisachan, Loch Etive. 

GuLBBRWiCK (Shetland). N. gul-hcer-vik^ * yellow-town-bay.' 

GuLLANB (Longniddry). c. 1200, Golin; 1250, Golyn. 
Pron. Goolan; W. golyn is *the guard of a sword,' 
which might refer to the shape of the bay. As likely 
fr. G. gtudlan, *a shoulder.' 

GuNSGRBBN (Eycmouth). 1542, Gunisgrene. *Gunn's 
meadow.' 

GusHBTFAULDS (Glasgow). Sc. gushet is *a triangular comer,' 
Fr. gousset, a gusset in a dress or boot ; fauld, is = fold, 
O.E. faldy Dan. J'oldj lit. * an enclosure by felled trees,' 
Prof. Veitch. 

GuTCHER (Cullivoe, Shetland). 

Guthrie (Arbroath and Airth). Arb. G., 1359, Gutherie. 
G. gaothatr, -aire, * windy.' The surname is derived 
from the place. 

Gwbnystrad (Galashiels). W. = * white strath' or *vale'; 
now usually called Wbdale. 



152 PLACE-NABiES OF SCOTLAND. 



H 

Habbib's How (Carlops). Sc. for 'Halbert's hollow'; O.E 
holg^ holhy a hollow, fr. holy a hole. 

Haddington. 1098, Hadynton; a. 1150, Hadintun, Hading- 
toun. * Hading's village ' ; O.E. tun^ ton. Hading is 
said to be a Frisian name, some early settler's. Cf. 
Edington. There are two Haddenhams in England. 

Haddo House (Aberdeensh.). Sic 1654. Perh. G.fhada, 

* long ' ; / lost by aspiration, cf, Attow. But Mr Jas. 
McDonald says, like Haddoch, Caimie, corruption of 
Half Davoch ; see Dava. 

Haggs, The (Denny). O.E. Jiaga, *a hedge,' old Sc. hag^ 
copse wood. Of, The Hag, Parton and Foidden, Berwicksh., 
and Haggisha', Strathbogie. 

Hailbs, New (Musselburgh). 1250, Halis; 1467, NewhaL 
O.E. healy hecUl^ Icel. Mil, holly 'a public room, a hall'; 
fr. 0.K healy a stone. 

Haibmtres (Renfrew). First syllable, see Habburn; second 
syllable is Icel. m^rry mpriy N. myrey * a swamp, fen.' 
Cf. Harlaw ; also Halmyre, or -mure, Kelton. 

Halbbath (Dunfermline). G. choU heathy *wood of birches'; 
c lost by aspiration. G. coiMSy Ir. cailly * a wood.' 

Half Morton (Canonbie). See Morton. 

HaTiTVAl (moimtain, Riun, and two in Skye). IceL hjaUi-feU^ 

* fell, hill with the ledge or terrace.' Of. p. Ixix. 

Halkbrston (Midlothian and Moray). Mor. H., c 1200, 
-ertoune. * Hawker's,' i.e., 'fowler's, village'; IceL 
hauhTy a hawk. Of. Fullbrton, also * baldric' and 

* bawdric' 

Halkirk (Caithness). Sic 1500, but in saga Hd Kirkiu, 

* high church'; 1222, Hakirk; 1274, Haukyrc; 1601, 
Halkrig. The I is prob. due to association with IceL 
hall-r, a slope, frequent as Hall-, in Scandinavian place- 
names, HaU-ormr, Hall-land, &c. Cf. Halcrow Head, 
Orkney, fr. N. kroy * a pen.' On Kirky see Kirkaby. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 153 

TTat.t.at>at.w (Sutherland), or, by tautology, Strath Halla- 
dale; c. 1230, Helgedall; 1274, Haludal. 'Holy dale' 
or * vale of samts ' ; IceL Jieilag-r, Dan. heUigj O.E. hdlig, 
holy, hdlga, a saint (cf, to haUow), + N. dcU^ a dale. Cf. 
Hallaton, Uppingharn. 

Hallin-in-Vatbrnish (Skye). Icel. holl^ hall *a hall,* with 
suffixed article. Gf, Hallen, near Bristol, and see 
Vaternish. 

Hallrule (Hobkirk, Hawick), c 1560, Harroull. Modem 
'refining' for the traditional Harrule, t.e., Haraway 
Rule, Rfda Herevei, See Abbotrhlb. 

Hallsidb (Glasgow). Prob, tautology fr. Icel. hall-r^ *a 
slope.' See Halkirk. 

Haltbrburn (Yetholm). a. 800, Hist St Guthbti, Elther- 
bume. Obscure. Either cannot represent * halter,' 
which in O.E. is hodftre. 

Halt- or Hallyburton House (Kettins). c. 1200, Hali- 
burhtoun, * village by the sacred enclosure.' On hwr\ 
see p. Ixxxiii. 

Hamildean Hill (Lyne). Prob. *Hamil's woody glen.' See 
Dean, and next. 

Hamilton. 1291, Hamelton; the surname also occurs as 
Hambleton. Walter * Fitz-Gilbert,' called Hamilton, 
is known to have held the lands in 1296. Hamil is 
still an English surname. The old name was Cadzow. 

Hamma Voe -(Yell). Sagas^ Hafnarvag. O.N. hormi, hqfn^ 
a * haven,' gei^. sing, hafnar, gen. plur. hamna^ + vag-r^ 
* a bay or inlet.' Voe is Icel. vo-r, a little bay or inlet. 

Handa (Eddrachilis). Prob. aspirated form of Sandat. 

Hanoinoshaw (farms, Coulter, Selkirk, &c.). *Wood on 
the side of the hill.' See Shaw. 

Harburn (Camwath). Har is said to mean *a boundary 
mark ' ; but prob. (O.E.) 6a hdra stan, so often men- 
tioned in the boundaries of the Codex Diplomaticus, 
simply is *the hoary or ancient stone,' cf. the Hare 
Stane, Edinburgh, and Hare Stanes, Kirkurd. Har 
seems to be applied often, to the place of a cairn, 
sepulchral or otherwise. Soe next. 



154 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Hablaw (Aberdeen), c, 1600, Hayrlau. See above. Law 
is O.E. hld&So^ hill. Cf, Harelaw, Lochore, Herlaw, 
E. Kilbride, and Haerfaiilds, Legerwood; also Harstanb 
and Hartree. 

Harlosh (Dunvegan). G. charr lots, * rock of the fire * Cf, 
Ironlosh, Galloway. 

Haroldswick (Balta Sound). *Bay (N. vik) of Harold,' 
prob. King H. Hardrada, died 1066. 

Harray (Orkney). Old, Herad, O.N. for • territory.' See 

BiRSAY. 

Harris; also Harris (Rum), c, 1500, Bk, Glanranald, 
Heradh ; 1542, Harrige ; 1588, Harreis. N. har 
*high,' hceriy * higher,' or the noun hced^, *a height,' plur. 
hoe&ir, from which the 6^ has dropped ; Eng. plural s. 
Its G. name is Na h'earadh (dirdead), with same 
meaning. This last accounts for the form c. 1500, 
though we must cf. Harray. 

Harstane (Kirkurd). See Harburn, and rf. Haer Cairns, 
Clunie, Blairgowrie, and Kinloch (Perthshire), and 
Haerland Faulds, Finhaven. 

Hartfbll, Hartsgarth (Roxburgh), and Harthill (Whit- 
bum). All fr. Icel. hjort-Vy * a male deer,' same as O.E. 
heor{o)t 

Hartree (Biggar). See Harburn. 

Harvibston (Edinburgh). 1250, Heruistun, * Harvey's 
dwelling.' Of. Hallrule. 

Haskeyal (mountain. Rum). Prob. Icel. Haska-fell^ 
'dangerous mountain,' fr. haski, * danger.' This would 
be very appropriate. On vcU- see p. Ixix, and cf. 
Halival. 

Hassbndban (Hawick). 1155, Halestonesden ; 1158, Has- 
tenden; c. 1320, HaBsenden. O.E. Mlig stdn denUy 
* dean, wooded valley of the holy stone.' 

Hatlock (Tweeddale). TI;ie root idea of both our Eng. 
words hat (O.E. haet, \ Icel. hatt^, Dan. hai) and lock 
(O.E. loca, loc, Icel. ^lok) is * covering.' But early 
forms of this name are ineeded. Cf, Matlock. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 155 

CL&TTON (Ellon, Perthsh., and Montrose). Prob. c. 970, Pict, 
Chron,^ Athan; G. athan, *a little ford or fordable 
river ' {cf, Ayton). G. aiteann (pron. attan) is * furze,' 
as in ToMATiN. There is a Hattonknowe, Eddleston, 
the *Haltoun' or * village by the hall,' mentioned a. 
1400. Three in England. 

'Hauqh (Coulter, &c.) and Haugh of Urr (Dalbeattie). 
O.E. hecUh or halech (as in a. 1150, * Galtunes-halech,' 
Melrose, = Gattonshaugh), *a pasture-place which is 
flat, and by a river-side.' Cf. Sauchib. But hatigh in 
some names is N. hoif 'a hill,' O.N. hatiga, a mound. 
The Haugh, Inverness, is in G. An falchan, an interest- 
ing preservation of the old /, which is also preserved in 
the Eng. surname Greenhalgh. 

Hawbs Inn (S. Queensferry). Prob. O.E. and Icel. hdls, 
M.E. and Sc. halse, havse^ * the neck, throat ' ; hence, * a 
narrow opening, defile.' 

Hawick, a. 1183, Hawic, Hawich, Hauuic. O.E. heaih-wiCj 
M.E. toickj wich, * dwelling, village on the flat meadow.' 
See Haugh and Berwick. 

Hawthorndbn (Edinburgh). Cf. Dbnburn. 

Hebrides. 77, Pliny , Heebudae, c. 120, Ptolemy, E^ovha 
(prob. too, the same word as the Epidii, who, according 
to him, inhabited most of modem Argyle) ; Solinus, 
Polyhisior,, 3rd century, Hebudes (Ulst. Ann,, ann. 
853, Innsegall, * isles of strangers,' i.e., Norsemen ; and 
always called by the Norsemen * Sudreys ' or Southern 
isles to distinguish them from the Northern Orkneys, 
Ac, the 'Nordreys'). Origin unknown. The u is 
supposed to have become ri through some early 
printer's error. It is said to occur in the Paris Bede, 
1544-45 ; unfortunately, as the present writer found 
on enquiry, there is no copy of this edition even in the 
National Library at Paris ; certainly in Mercator's map, 
1595, we have * Hebrides insulee.' 

Heckleqirth (Annan). 'Churchfield' or *yard.' See 
EccLES (1297, Hecles), Ecclefechan, and Applegarth; 
and cf, Hecklebimie, Caimie. 



156 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Heb, Ben (Reay). Perp. G. fhiadh, * a deer.' More likely 
fr. shkh (pron. hee), peace, i.e., *tame, peaceful-looking 
hill.' Of, Tee. 

Heiton (Kelso). N. hoi, *a hill/ +0.E. ton, tun, « a village.' 
C/. Huyton, Cheshire. 

Helensburgh. Founded c. 1776 by Sir James Colquhoun, 
and called after his wife. 

Hell (Sanday) and Hellmuir, L. (Hawick). N. Jidla, 'flat,' 
•f O.E., Icel., and Dan. inor, * a moor, marsh.' 

Hell's Glen (Lochgoilhead). 

Helmsdale (Sutherland), c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Hjalmund- 
dal; another /S^a|(7a, Hialmasdal; 1290, Holmesdale; 1513, 
Helimsdaill. * Hjalmund's dale, ' or * valley of the helmet ' ; 
Icel. hjalm-r, Dan. hjdm. Of. Helmsley, Yorkshire, and 
Helmdon. 

Hempriggs (Wick). Icel. hamp-r, Dan. hamp, *hemp.' On 
rig, see Bishopbriggs. 

Herbertshirb Castle (Denny). Sic c. 1450, but 1426, 
* baronia de Harbertschire ' ; said to have been given by 
an early James to the Earl of Wigton as his * halbert's 
share,' for service in war. Only James I. did not begin 
to reign till 1424; and the *halbert' or * halberd 'is 
not found in Eng. till 1495. 

Heriot (Stow) and Heriotfibld (Methven). 1250, Herieth; 
c. 1264, Herewyt. O.E. here-geatu, * army-equipment,' 
a * heriot,' payment given to the lord of a fee on the 
death of a vassal or tenant. 

Hbrmiston (Currie and Salton). Cur. H., 1251, Hyrdmans- 
toun, * herdman's ' or * Herdman's village.' Of. Halk- 

BRSTON. 

Hermitage Castle (Riccarton Junction). 1300, Eremitage; 
fr. Fr. ermite, Gk. ip-qfurifs, a hermit, fr. iprjfijo^, solitary. 
Of. vicarage. 

Herries (Dumfries). 1578, Hereis (1585, *Herres,' in 
Glenelg). = Harris. 



FLACErSAXES^ OF dDOIIAXIl 157 

Hesterheugh (liili YetbcdixiL a. ^HX Hi^^ Si CvtJiUi, 
Hesteriiolu which is pf>c»h. W. y*^T«. ** dwelling/ rf, 
Stirling, umL od prefixm^ ctf an K p^ Ixxxix : + O.E. 
Jiedh, heh^ ^higfa,' vhich in Sc is prou. with gh 
guttuniL The Sc kem^fu *^ height^' has proh. be^ 
influenced bj O.X. ham^a, *a mound.' 

High Bla^ttrs. See Blaxttbbl * High ' or ' Higher ' is 
very common as a prefix in England. This is the <Mily 
instance of consequence in Scotland ; there are a few 
obscure examples in Wigtown. 

Hi6HLAND]CA>' (Crieff). Humorous name. The earliest 
mention of the word Highland I have found is e. 1425, 
Wjntoun, who speaks of 'the Scottis Hielandmen.' 
Ljndesay, 1529, in his Compleynt^ 384, has 'Baith 
throw the heland and the bordour.' 

HiGHTAE (Lockerbie). Can hardly be fr. O.E. and Icel. id, 
toe; but ef. the Sc ieCj point of aim in quoits or 
starting-point in golf, fr. IceL ffd^ to mark. 

HiLi^wiCK (Lerwick). SagcL, Hildiswik, i.c., 'battle-bay.' 
Cf. Wick. 

Hilton (Berwicksh. and Feam). Ber. H., c. 1098, Hyltun. 
Fea. H., 1544, Hiltown. 'Hill town.' Five in England, 

HiNTON (Anwoth). 'Hind's, servant's place'; 0,E. hinorhin. 
Of. Carleton or " churl's place.' 

HiBSKL (Coldstream). Sic 1572. Sc. hirslej a shepherd's 
term for ' a flock, a fold, the entire stock of sheep on a 
farm.' Cognate with herd, t.e., shepherd. 

HoBKiRK (Hawick). 1220, Hopechirke; 1586, Hopeskirk; 
c. 1610, Hoppkirck; still sometimes Hopekirk. Sc. 
hope (e,g,, c, 1200, Hopekeliov, see Kailzie) is a 'valley 
among hills,' a cul de sac, Icel. Ii6p, a haven, place of 
refuge. On kirk, see Kirkaby, and c/\ Kirkhope. 

HoDDAM (Ecclefechan) and Hqddom (Parton). Ecclef. H., 
1116, Hodelm; 1185, Jocelyn, Holdelin; c. 1320, Hod- 
holme. First syllable prob. = //o/(f, in sense of * fortress,' 
hold being pron. hod in the north of England. Holm 
in Icel. is a meadow near the sea or a river, but in 



158 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

place-names often used interchangeably with ham for 
'dwelling, house' (cf. Langholm, Yetholm, also Dur- 
ham). Hoddam will thus prob. mean * fortified 
dwelling/ 

HoGSTON (Ruthven). 1306, Hoggistoun. Prob. *toun' or 
*farm of the hogs,' dial. Eng. and Sc. for * young sheep.' 
For this *hog' Dr Murray's earliest quotation is 1350. 

Holland (S. Ronaldshay and Papa Westray). Sic c. 1500. 
Dan hoi land, * high land.' 

HoLLANDBUSH (Denny). 1707, HoUin-; 1769, HoUybush. 
Sc. holltn, O.E. hollen, 'pertaining to the holly tree,' 
O.E. holen, holegn. Of, * Hollanmedu.' c. 1250 in 
Gartul, Kelso. 

Holm (Orkney). Dan. and O.E. holm, * a small island in a 
river,' Icel. hdlm-r, an island, also *a meadow near river 
or sea,' such as might be covered or surrounded in time 
of flood ; often interchanged with ham (cf, Langholm, 
Ybtholm, &c.). Six Holmes in England. But Glenholm, 
Peebles, can hardly be the same word, for its forms are 
— c. 1200, Glenwhym; c. 1300, -whim; 1530, -quhome, 
which may be * glen of the captive ' ; G. chiomaich. 

Holy Islb (Lamlash). Sagas, Melansay, 'Melan's' or *St 
Molios' isle.' His well here was long famed for its 
cures. Cf. Lamlash. 

Holy Loch (Firth of Clyde). So called from its association 
with St Mund. See Kilmun. 

HoLYROOD (Edinburgh). c. 1128, foundation charter, 
*Ecclesia Sanctfe Crucis'; 1392, Holyrud; as late as 
1504, * Abbey of the Holy Croce.' Mood is O.Krod, 
*a rod, pole, cross.' For the legend how David I. 
scared the fierce stag with the miraculously given * holy 
rood,' see Grant's Old and New Edinburgh, i. 21. 

HoLYTOWN (Coatbridge). 1792, HoUytown, and so pron. 
still. 

HoLYWOOD (Dumfries). 1296, de Saint Boyse {i.e., hois\ de 
Sacro bosco, and de Sacro Nemore. Aberdeen Brev., 
Sacrum Nemus. A monastery once here. Its old 
name was Darcongall, * thicket, wood (G. daire) of St 
Congal.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 159 

HoMELiKNOW (Coldingham). 1 1 98, -lenoUe. * Homil's hill ' ; 
cf, Homildon Hill, and see Knowe. 

Hope, Ben and L. (Eriboll). Icel. /i6p, * haven of refuge.' 
See HoBKiRK, and p. box. 

HopBKiRK. See Hobkirk. 

HoPEMAN (Burghead). Icel. ^6p, * haven of refuge.' Last 
syllable doubtful. 

HoRNDEAN (Berwick), c. 1120, Horverdene, Horeuordane, 
+ Dean. First part doubtful. 

HosH (Crieff). Its site shows it is an aspirated form of G. 
cois (pron. cosh), * the foot.' 

HouNAM (Kelso). c. 1200, Hunum, Hunedun; 1237, 
Honum; 1544, Hownome. Prob. * hound's home or 
place' (O.E. tidm)) O.E., Dan., and Sw. hund^ a dog. 
Of, Ednam, Edrom. 

HouNDWOOD (Grantshouse). c. 1200, Hundewde. Near by 
is Harewood, also mentioned in the same charter of 
William the Lion. 

HouRN, L. (W. Inverness). Prob. G. urrin or uifham^ 
*hell'; corruption of G. Ifrinn, which is simply an 
adaptation of the L. infema. Of, Glenurrin, Cowal. 

Houston (Johnstone), c. 1200, Villa Hugonis; c. 1230, 
Huston; c. 1300, Houstoun. 'Village of Hugo' de 
Paduinan, mentioned in the Paisley Chartulary, c. 
1160. Of, Symington, and see p. Ixxix. 

Howpp (farm, Orkney). Sc. howff is * a rendezvous, house of 
call ' ; but in N. hof means properly * the house of God.' 
The Howff, 1565 Houf, is the name of the chief burial- 
ground in Dundee. 

HowMORB (Lochmaddy). How prob. represents somo CK 
word. G. mdr is * big.' 

HowooD (Johnstone). See next. 

HowPASLEY (Roberton, Roxburgh). Sc. how is * a hollow/ 
Cf. Habbie's How and Paisley. 

HoxAY (S. Ronaldshay). c. 1390, Haugaheith, which li 
O.N. for * mound of the heath' or * waste.' Tho -a^ 
means 4sland.' 




160 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Hot (Orkney), c. 1225, Orkney, Sag,, Haey ; c, 1580, Hy. 
* High isle ' ; Icel. //<£-r, Dan. hoi, high, + N. ay, ey, an 
island. Cf, Hysker, * high rock,' west of Rum. 

HuGHTON (Beauly). * Hugh's village.' 

HuMBiE (Haddington, and Aberdour, Fife). Prob. * Hume's 
place or dwelling'; Dan. bi, by, northern O.E. by. 
The sb. hum is not found till 1469. 

Hume (Greenlaw). 1250, Home. Home and Hume are 
still common surnames hereabouts. 

Hun A (Canisbay). Sagas, Hofn, Icel. hqfn, hirnin, * haven.' 
The -a is N. ay, ey, ' isle.' Prob. referring to Stroma 
opposite. 

Hungry Hill (Carron) and Hungry Kbrse (Br. of Allan). 
Dr Murray, s.v. hungry 6, gives a good many quota- 
tions referring to poor or starved land, the earliest 
1577. Of, * Hungyrflat,' 1361, in Liddesdale ; and see 
Carse. 

Hunter's Quay (Frith of Clyde). On the estate of Hafton, 
which formerly belonged to the Hunter family. 

HuNTiNGTOWER (Perth). Hunting-seat of Lord Ruthven. 
Cf, * Castle Stalker.' 

HuNTLAW (Roxburgh). Sic 1170. O.E. hunta, * a hunter,' 
-I- hlcBW, * a hill.' 

HuNTLY (Aberdeensh.). 1482, -lie. Originally the name of 
a Berwickshire hamlet, now extinct, and transferred 
north by the then Earl of Huntly ; = * hunting lea ' or 
'meadow.' Cf. Huntley, Gloucester. 

HuRLET (Barrhead). Perh. Celtic chur leth, *tum, bend of 
the hillside,' G. car, cuir, a bend (cf, Strachur), and G. 
leathad, W. llethr, *hill slope,' cf, Cromlet, Airdrie, 
and Passelet, old form of Paisley. Also see next. 

HuRLFORD (Kilmarnock). This must be a similar word to 
hurlpool and hurlwind, obsolete variants of whirlpool 
and whirlwind. The reference must be to the * whirling' 
of the R. Irvine. 

HusBDALBBEG and -MORE (Skyc). Hybrids ; Icel., Dan., and 
Sw. hUs-dal, * houseniale,' H- G. beag, * little,' and mk, 

'big.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 161 

HuTTON (Berwicksh. and Lockerbie). Berw. H., c. 1098, 
Hotun; c. 1300, Hutona; 1548, Hooton. Prob. not 
* hut-village,' as hut is not in O.E. Seven in England. 
Isaac Taylor says the Eng. Buttons mean * enclosure 
on a hoo or projecting heel of land,' and the Sc. ones 
prob. mean the same. 

Hylipol. Sagas, Heylipol, *Heyli's place'; N. b6L Cf, 
p. Ixxiii. 

Hyndland (Glasgow). 1538, Rental BL, * Fermeland callit 
the Hynde land,' i.e., land lying back fr. the R. Clyde. 

Hynish (Tyree). Dan. hoi noes, *high ness,' or * promontory.' 
Of. Vaternish. 

Hysksr (off Rimi, Harris, &c.). 1703, Haisker. N. hx)i 
slgcer, * high rock ' or * skerry.' 



I 

Ibrox (Glasgow). {Of. c. 1200, 'Monabroc,' * badger's hill,' 
in Strathgryfe, not far away.) Prob. not Ir. hy, * tribe, 
race,' as in Ikeathy, Kildare ; though there is an Irish 
St Broc. Prob. G. aih broc, * badger's ford.' The a in 
ath must once have had a sound like i, cf. Ethib and 
Ebroch, Kilsyth. Broc means a badger both in G. 
and in O.E., cf. Broxburn, &c. 

Idrioill Point (Skye). Possibly N. hliSar-gil, 'hill-ravine'; 
or perh. fr. Idris, a reputed giant, as in Cader Idrii^^ 
Wales, + Icel. gil, a ravine. 

Idvies (Montrose). 1219, Edevy ; 1254, Edevyn. Prob. 
G. fhada ahh or abhuinn, * long water ' or * river * {cj\ 
Add and Advie). The s is the English plural. 

Inch or Insh (Forfar, Perth, and Wigtown, also loch, Kio- 
craig, and isle in Tweed). Kin. I., 1226, Inche. G. iiiid 
Ir. innis, 'an island'; also 'pasture-ground, links.' 
The Ga«l loves to aspirate his «. Wigtown I. is so 
called fr. the island in the White Loch of Inch. Gf* 
InsCh. 

11 I 



J 



162 PLACE-NAMSS OF SCOTLAND. 

In'chaddon (Taymouth). • Isle of St Aidan,' died 651. 

Ikchaffrat (Muthil). c. 1190, *Incheaffren .... Latine 
lusula Missariim'; 1290, Incheafraue. 'Isle of the 
oflfering,' t.<»., • the mass ' ; G. ai/renn or aoibhrionny 
oomiption of late L. offei^em^ offering or mass. Of. 
the surname Jaflrey. 

IxcHARis Ik (Sutherland), G. tnnis ctrd, * high island.' 

Inchbjous (Brechin). Here G. innis has its meaning of 
* pasture-ground, sheltered valley': and the meaning 
prob. is * field of the battle ' or * game ' ; G. itmis baire. 

IxchcaiujOCH (L. Lomond). *Isle of nuns,' lit. *old 
women ' ; G, cailleach. Rums of a nunnery here. 

Inchc\>ui (Aberdour, Fife). Monastery founded here by 
Alexander L, r, 1123, whose charter calls this 'Insula 
Sancti Colimibje,' or * St Coliunba's isle * ; in G. /www 
C\)/wim, cr\ p. cii. In Macbeth^ 1605, *St Colmes 
Ynch,' 

Inchrs (Douglas). G. iMwis a meadow, * links,' with Eng. 
plural. ty\ IxcHBARK and Perth Inches. 

Inch Gall (Ballingry, Fife). * Isle of the stranger,' G. gall. 
Lochore, which once surrounded it, is now drained. 

Inchgarvib (Queensferry). G. innis garble * rough, rocky 
islet' 

Inchinnan (Paisley). 1158, -enan, -ienun; 1246, -uinun. 
Prob. not * Inch of St Adamnan ' {cf, Kirkbnnan, and 
see p. cvi). Prob. Bp. Forbes is right in deriving fr. 
St FintMf^ / lost by aspiration ; see Kilwinning. The 
former name of the parish was Kilinan. The inch is 
the angle made by the junction of the rivers Gryfe and 
Cart ; G. iVmiV, an isle or a meadow. 

Inghkbith (in Firth of Forth, and hill near Lauder), a. 
1200, Insula KetS; U61, Ynchkeyth. Bede, c. 720, 
speaks of Urbs Giudi in the midst of the Firth of Forth; 
which frith the Bk, of Lecan calls * Sea of Giudan ' or 
of the Giuds; perh. = the Jutes fr. Jutland. May 
mean *isle of Clie^ Pictish prmce, one of the seven 



PLACK-XAJfES OJ SZrjZlJk2 



sons of the famous Cnrrr.rj^ "^-tjiiiir I't'^ -t .>r.n^ L 
208) thinks fr. a successor 'x 'z:^. 'jfir^ :r •^i-iiai 
Gaeth brechach. Cjf. Ketth- 

Inchmahome (L. of Mooteitii _ .>'.'f -r- I-:-Y». : rm 1^3-^. 
-maquhomok ; 1296, IX?!^ d^r .>«: •...iiii>* : !-!•, L EJi«xi- 
mahohnok. ' Isle of ^iau^*jlzisjc.' zLk: ln*L yefi zolujtz o€ 
St Cobnan, c. 520. See p. er. *rji ^', Kiulhtclm 

and PORTMAHOMACK. 

Inchmarlo (Aberdeen). 14&4, -iLsrrl^rti. ->£-^A:ioir or i-tk 
of the thief/ G. meaiiadu )'V^ir.a.^K. 

Inchmarnock (Bute). 'Isle of .St Man»rk-' p^ f'vrm of 
Eman. See Kilmarxock. 

Inchmartin (Perth). 1324, In<rhemartTn. .See KiuiABTiy. 

Inchmigkert (Aberdour, Fife;. G. ir<i^iU na hhirair^,^ 'Ule 
of the vicar.' Incheolm Mona.sterv wa* clcrse bv. C/. 
The Bicker Hill, Glenluce. 

Inchmoin or -moax (L. Lomond), a. 1350, YnLsmoin. ' Lsle 
of the mossy spot ' ; G. moine. 

Inchmurrin (L. Lomond). 1395, -murrne. Fr. G. muireann, 
'inn, * a fish spear, a spear.' 

Inchnadampf (L. Inver). G. innis na daimh, 'pasture- 
ground of the ox.' Cf. Toldamh, Blair Athole. 

Inchtavanach (L. Lomond). 1395, Elanvanow, i.e., G. eilean 
mhanaich, * monk's isle.' Also called Devannoc. 

Inchture (Errol). 1183, -ethore. 'Inch' or 'links of the 
tower ' or ' hill ' ; G. innis-a-tliarr. 

Inchyra Grange (Polmont) and House (Perth). IVt. I., 
1324, -esyreth. 'Western meadow,' from G. mr or 
star, 'the west.' 

lNGAN(hill, Kmross). G. iontja, 'a nail, talon, claw/ fi\ ita 
shape. 

Ingleston (Twynholm). 'Village of the English L>r *of 
Inglis.' 

In(n)i8Hail (L. Awe). 1379, Insalte; 1542, InchdL i- 
innis ailt, 'stately, charming isle.' m 



J 



164 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

In(n)i8TRYNICH (peninsula, L. Awe). Prob. G. innis nan 
Drutneach, 'isle of axtists or sculptors'; so Prof. 
Mackinnon. 

Inkerman (Paisley). Fr. the battle in the Crimea, 1854. 

Inkhorn (New Deer). Perh. corruption of G. tonga, pi. 
iongaingean, *nail, claw, cloven hoof.' Cf, Ingan. 

Innbllan (Firth of Clyde). Native pron. E^nlan. 1571, 
Inellane. Prob. G. en eilean, 'bird-island,' i.e., the 
rocks where * the Perch ' now is, a favourite lighting- 
place for sea-birds. 

Innbrlbithen (Galashiels), c. 1160, Innerlethan. G.inbhtr, 

* mouth of a river or confluence,' is a purely Gadhelic 
form ■= the Brythonic, and Pictish aber (see p. liv). 
Inhhir in place-names is always fluctuating between 

inver- and inner-, the h getting lost by aspiration. 

* Confluence of the R. Leithen,' which may either be 
G. liaih, leithe an or abhatnn, *grey river,' or = Lbith, 
fr. W. lleithio, to moisten. The -en or -an is an adjec- 
tival ending. 

Innbrpbffray (Crieff). 1296, Inrepeffre. 'Confluence of 
the Peffray.' See R. Pbpfer. 

Innbrwick (Dunbar). 1250, Inuerwike. Hybrid; G. inhhir 
H-O.E. wicy 'dwelling, village,' or N. vik, 'bay at the 
confluence.' Of. Cluqston, Polton, etc. 

Insch (Aberdeensh.). a. 1300, Insula. =Inch; G. innis, 
'isle' or 'links, meadow.' 5 in G. generally gets the 
sound of sh, 

Inshbwan (Glen Quiech). Prob. G. innis suidlieachain, 
' inch or meadow with the little seat.' Cf, Sheuchan. 

Inver (Crathie, Tain, where the Bran joins Tay, river and 
loch in W. Sutherland). See Innerleithen ; = ' con- 
fluence' {cf, Aber, Bangor). The Tain Inver was 
originally Inverlochslin. 

Invbrallochy (Aberdeen). G. inhhir dilleach, 'beautiful 
confluence.' 

Invbramsay (Inverurie). 1355, Inuiralmusy; 1485, Inver- 
alumsy, Inveramsay. G. inhhir ail micsaich, ' confluence 
at the damp or dirty rock.' 



FLACK-XAJB1£ DT fiDDTLAKD. i^^ 

Inveran (BoDar Brid^). G. vdUiLiraeu, •link rfmii«m«^/ 

Invkb- or IxxER-ARmr (Fcwfaj-^ li}r»0. luucrM^'tiiiTi. TV^h. 
* confluence at the feld-eliiig* ' : G. airiah:fa7i.. (>'. 1^^T^ 

QUHARITY. 

Interarat. ' Mouth of the Abjlt.^ 

Invercannich (Beauly). * Confluence of tiio 0*iuuoK>^ 
Perh. fr. G. caannag, *a fight, a fray.' 

Ikvbrcharragh (Cabrach). 1296, -kerack ; 1474, K\\\\<^v 
cheroche. * Confluence of the Carrach,' whicli w (3» (or 
' rough, stony ground.' 

Invbrdovet (N. Fifesh.). Old, -dufatha or -dovoili, «>., (K 
dubh dth or atha, * black ford ' or * kihi.' 

Invbresk (Musselburgh), c. 1140, InuircMc. Si-i' K«k. 

Invereskandy (Fern, Forfar). G. inhhir uufjahi, iluihh^ 
'confluence of the dark little water or ninifim/ 

IXVERFARIGAIG (L. Ncss). ^Mouth r/f th/; i'uzft',4^, Uif\fu\Mii 

little river ' ; G. feargaig, dimin, fA/mrfjmk, f^fftt^. n/. 
Aberargib and Farg. 

InveRGORDON (E. RohR-ih.;- ^/,>>: ff/^rX h^/t'^/r, f^ ,f -/ 
the name of a late pr'/r.r>::*>.r r^-a/; v, '^ J ^'.r /^/. 
Inch-breckie : G. ^/re/i/;: *r^<,»^, 

Invbrgowrie (l>^jTidee , 
-goueren. This* car. 
the mouth of :r^ T* - 

Ikterib fFort A ;j->* .- 
(Braemar; : uy^> ':,r- 
The -te in p^rri. 't /. 
confluence ti 1.*^ *i - 
the Etb. 

IntBRING ATE r^ .r-r.*- - ' 
like pLacf. 

IXTBBXEILi.B .-. '* •"-c^- 

Inverkii*-* -■' r *^ 

another :. r^:, - cv 

river/ 






166 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Invbrkbithing (Dunfermline). 1114, Innerkethyin ; c. 
1200, Inverchethin ; 1229, Innerkeithing ; 1250, 
Innerkethyn; 1290, Inver- and Inner-kethin. * Mouth 
of the Keithing'; ? G. cithean, * grumbling, lamenting/ 
Gf, next. 

Invbrkbithny (Turriff). Here Keithny prob. represents 
some G. adjective formed from Kbith. 

Invbrkindib (Rhynie, Aberdeen). River Kindie is the 
G. cinn dubh, * black head.' 

Inver- or Innbr-kip (Greenock), c. 1170, Innyrkyp; 1375, 
Ennirkyp. Kip is G. and Ir. ceap, * a block, trunk of a 
tree'; in G. *a shoe-last.' Gf, Edinkyp, Loch Earn, 
Barkip, Beith, and Coolkip and Knockacip, Ireland. 

Invbrlbith (Edinburgh), c. 1145, Inverlet ; also Innerleith. 
* Mouth of the Water of Lbith.' The present Inverleith 
is a fair distance from the sea, one of the many proofs 
of the once much wider extent of the Firth of Forth. 

Invbrmbath. Prob. fr. G. meathach, *soft, fat.' 

Invbrnbss. a. 1300, Invemis; c. 1310, Invirnisse; 1509, 
Innemis. See Nbss. 

Invbrnook Bay (Jura). G. inbhir an Uige, 'confluence in 
the nook.' Gf, Craignbuk. 

Invbrquharity (Kirriemuir). 1444, Innerquharady, Iner- 
carity. 'Confluence of the pair of streams'; G. c{h)araid. 
Gf, Cart. 

Invbrsnaid (L. Lomond). 'Confluence of Snaid ' and 
Arklet. R. Snaid is fr. G. and Ir. sndthad, * a needle.' 
Gf, Snaid, Dumfries. 

Inver- or Innbr-tiel (Kirkcaldy). 'Mouth of the Tiel'; 
1 G. t-slol, ' spawn, fish-fry, seed.' 

Invbrugib (Peterhead), a. 1300, Innerugy. River Ugie is 
G. uigeachy ' full of nooks or retired comers,' fr. Norse 
G. iiigy a nook. 

Invbruglas (L. Lomond and Badenoch). 'Confluence of 
the grey promontory ' ; G. rudha glais, or duibh glais, 
' of the dark stream.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 167 

IxvBRURiE (Aberdeensh.). Sic 1199; 1203, Inuerurin; a. 
1300, Innervwry. 'Confluence of the river Urib.' 

loGHDAR (S. Uist). G. Hhe bottom, nether lands.' Cf. 

YOKBR, 

loNA (Mull). 634, Cummian, 'Huensis abbas'; c. 657, 
Cummine Ailbe, and a, 700, Adamnaiiy loua insula 
(2 late MSS. lona); c. 730, Bede, Hy, Hii; c. 831, 
Walafridus StrabOy Eo; a. 900, 0,E, Chron., li; c. 
1100, ibid., Hiona-Columcille ; c. 1080, Tir/hej^nac, la, 
gen. lae, le ; Four Masters, la. Hi ; Ulst Ann, twice 
have * Hi Coluim-Cille.' Some derive Hy or li fr. aoi, 
isthmus (as lona once seems to have been joined to 
Mull), or i, island ; and so make Hyona or lona either 
aoi tmin, * green isthmus,' or i thonna, 'isle of waves.' 
But both aoi and i are said to be Gaelicised N. ; if so 
they are inadmissible before 700 a.d. The N. for 

* isthmus ' is eid, and lona is called Eidi in the Saga 
(Johnstone, 232). Whatever be the case with aoi, Dr 
Reeves is prob. right in taking 1 to mean * island ' ; and 
it may be pre-Celtic. loua will then be an adjectival 
derivative. Wh. Stokes thinks, cognate with Ir. eo-ma, 
'barley,' Sansk. yava^ cf. Java, also that Hy, Hii is a 
different word. lona is called also Icolmkill {cf. forms 
above), i.e., *isle of Columcille,' pet name of St 
Columba. Of. Kilcolmkill, formerly on L. Aline, and 
Kilcalmkill, Sutherland, and Aoi Columcille, Lewis, G. 
name of Eye (i.e., isthmus) peninsula, lona itself is 
called by this name in the Annals of Innisfailen, ann. 
807 j by native Gaels to-day it is called Ee Choluim- 
cille. 

Irongray (Dumfries). 1298, Drungray (prob. scribe's 
error). Corruption of G. aird an (jreaich (pron. graigh), 
'height of the moor.' 

Irvine (river and town, Ayrsh.). c. 1140, Yrewen; c. 1230, 
Irvin; 1295, Orewin; also Irewin. G. iar abhuinn, 

* west-flowing river.' 

IsLA, R. (Banff and Forfar). (1195, Glennilefe; 1263, 
Strath ylif, and prob. the Hilef mentioned in Angus by 
Bishop Andrew of Caithness, 1165.) Wh. Stokes thinks, 



168 PLACE-NAMSS OF SGOTUIND. 

perK cognate with Old High (xer. Ueriy mod. Ger. eUmi, 

* to hunr ' ; <f. Ulue, the same root. 

IsLAT. c 690, Adamnan^ Ilea ; o. 800, NenniuSy lie ; Sagas^ 
n ; 1376, Barbottr^ Yla (this is very near the modem 
prou,) ; c 1450, Yle. Skene thinks the name pre> 
Celtic, and //- is common in Basque place-names. Mean- 
ing douhtfuL Adamnan's Ilea, like Malea and Egea, 
must be an adjectival form. The s is a quite recent 
innovation, ao no derivation fr. G. iosaly * low,' is to be 
thought of. 

TsLB Toll (Auldgirth). G. ide^ compar. of iosaly means 

* lower ^ ; but is this name Gaelic ? 

Itlaw (Banff). Doubtfid. ! fr. Itfiy name of a pre-Celtic 
Irish people, +to«', O.E. hUkc, *a hill.* 



Jambsiowx (Balloch and Strathpeffer). 

Janet's Brae (Peeblessh.). Said to be Danes' Brae. 
Certainlv d in G. often comes near the sound of j. There 
is a Janetstown near Thurso. 

Jaw, Easter and Wester, and Jawcr&jo (Slamannan). 1458, 
Estir Jal ; 1745, Jallcraig ; 1761, Jawcraig, i.e., 'bare 
rock' or 'crag,' Icel. gaU^ barren, cf. Yell ; also Mti 
(pron. stawk), falconer (pron. fawkner), &c. 

Jedburgh and Jedfoot (Roxburgh). Jedb., a. 800, Gedwearde: 
rt. 1016, O.E. Chron., 952, ludanbyrig; a. 1100, 
Geddewrde; c 1130, Gedword ; r. 1145, Jaddeuuid: 
c, 1160, Jeddeburgh; 1251, Jed warth; 1 295, Gaydeftud : 
a. 1300, Geddeworth ; c 1500, Jedward ; 1586, Geddait 
(cf. the modem phrase * Jeddart justice ' ; by saoke still 
living the pron. is Jethart), Here, too, we find Bonjed- 
ward, * the foot or low part of Jedburgh,' G. bonn, 'base., 
bottom.' The name of the river Jed is prob. fr. W, 
fffcdy *a turn, a twist.' The second syllable was origin- 
ally (and even still) O.E. or M.E. worthy word^ *a pboe 



PLACE-KAMES OF 5C0TLAXD. 169 

like an island ' ; cf. Polvakth. l&i^wortL, and Ikmmui- 
werth on the Danube : cf., too. tiit siaiiiarirr of its 
forms here to those taken hj the N. rVon/ m the west, 
see p. bdii. 
Jedburgh Knees (hill, Carsphaim). Knees i*- proli. O.E. 
and Dan. noes, *a ness, cape, nose." Of. Cab" Knees. 

JsMiMAyiLLB (CromartT). A modem type of name happily 
confined chiefly to Brother Jonathan. 

Jock's Lodge (Eidinburgh). 1650, Jokis Lod^re. JocJ: is 
Sc. for John ; said to be from an eccentric beggar who 
built himself a hut here. 

John o' Groat's House (Wick). Tradition says this was 
an octagonal house with eight windows and doors, and 
a table with eight sides. We certainly read of * John 
o' Grot of Dimcansbay, baillie to the Earl in those 
paurts,' 1496-1525. Grot suggests Holland, 

Johnstone (Paisley and Moffat). * John's town ' or village. 
Perth, in 1220 (and earlier), was called *Sanct Johns 
toun.' Gillebertus de Jonistune is found in Annandale, 
1194-1214; Johriy his father, lived early in 12th cny. 
Paisley J. was only founded in 1781. 

JoppA (Portobello). Called, c. 1800, after the Joppa on the 
Mediterranean. 

JoRDANBURN (Eldinburgh), Jordanhill (Glasgow), and Jon- 
DANSTONB (Alyth). Modem ; though * Jordenhill ' gcies 
back at least to 1595. 

Juniper Green (Edinburgh). Quite recent. 

Jura (Inner Hebrides). UUt, Ann., ann. 67 H, \}o\rfu] 
Eilinn; 1335, Dure: c. 1590, Dewra, aliruf Jura; in 
mod. G. Diunu Form 678 shown it i«» * Island ftf 
Doirad,' and not N. df/r-af/, ^fh'cr isl/-.' Wry f^w 
Norse names in 4um. Cf. Jurbv. in Man. 



Kail Watie aedl-inrjrh . 0'/ r-t.^v * O/;. /•//// Mr, 
asBemblj/ or vi*h fr. 'V?/./, • \ x.v/I : /-m W^rf^f, j^*^ 
Gala. Ail riv»»r-n:im*»<» iv't'.»M«^»'r-» ir*^ p^-^ \i,'/I r»n. *f> 
KaH will not h#» S«». fn,., \rA. t-n*. -^i^h'v/r 



170 PLACE-NAMES OP SCOTLAND. 

Kailzib (Innerleithen). c. 1200, Hopekeliov ; c. 1265, 
-kelioch; 1494, Hopkelzow; 1653, Kelzeo. Prob. G. 
coiiJecuIhy *a wood,' or coillteachy * woody.' On hope^ *a 
shut-in valley,* see Hobkirk. 

Eames (Kyles of Bute). 1475, Camys. G. raimi^ *a creek, 
bay.' cy. Cambus. 

Katbwell (Kilteam). G. cetui hhail, * the first village ' or 
piece of land owmed by the EsltI of Hoss. 

Katrine, L. (Callander). 1682, Kittem. In G. pron. 
Ketturin or -iim ; said to be G. cath uitham, or uirin 
(variant of ifrinti), * battle of hell.' The th in cath is 
now mute ; but with the hard t here, cf, cateran and 
kern, really the same >vord, Ir. ceithem^ O.Ir. ceitem. 
Of,, too, Cathcart. 

Keig (Alford). Pron. K&ig, g hard ; a. 1200, Kege. Prob. 
O.G. caedh, *a quagmire.' 

Keil(l)or, R. (Forfarsh.). = Calder, See Inverkeilor. 

Keilus (Lochgilphead), and Keil or Kiel (Kintyre). Prob. 
old G. cU, * ruddle,' a kind of clay ; in Sc. kedie, 

Keir (Thomhill and Bridge of Allan). G. ciar, 'dark brown.' 
Of. Keer, or * The Keir,' in the thanage of Belhelvie, 

Keisgag, B. (Cape Wrath). Prob. Icel. keisoj *to jut out,' 
+ aigy ag, og, *abay.' 

Keiss (Wick). Prob. Icel. keisa, * to jut out.' 

Keith (Banfish. ). The upper part of river Tyne, Haddington, 
is called Keith Water, and near by is Keith-Humbie. 
Haddington Keith in 1160 is Keth. Prob. fr. Che or 
Caif, the Pict whose name is associated with Caithness 
and Inchkeith. Ct\ Ikeathy, Kildare, = hy Ceatachj 
*race or family of C^'; also Keithock. Keith Hall, 
near Inverurie, was named after the Kintore family. 

Keithan (Keith) and Keithock (Brechin), c 1130, Chethec ; 
1617, Keithik. G. dimm. = * Little Keith.' 

Kelburn Castle (Fairlie). Oldy Kilbume. Hybrid; G, 
cot7, *a wood,' + Sc. bui^, O.E. burria^ *a stream.' The 
origin of the London Kilbium seems imcertain as to its 



yLAtTt-^AMBS IF SCOTLAND. 171 

hhJL jia -^atrzj forms are Keele- and Calebume ; 
l^»---€w ALLnr •rne. 3«>T!i it and the Sc. K. may mean 
• \'-:2iZi JL virm i kiei U.K '.-toZ) or boat could go.' 

Kmi %^ T7;^-t: > •>. rtt»/ --as, * narrow waterfall' 

KKTjnr '-ILbT imi K^ilie.' 1183, Kellin) and Kelly (Cam- 
>*ee. K^. i^ -r. 114J), Chellin. G. c(h)oill(f)ea?i^ 
"plinl x r.*s'~rt. ' JL wood.' Cf. CoUyland, Alloa. 

Kki.Xjs> 'X*Tr •jrAZi:wiy.. May either be G. co«7/, 'a wood,' or 
riZx cr f^i - "a ceil church,' with Eng. plural : Dan. k^ll 
juteam *k -ycriiig;" as in Kellhead, Dumfries. Kelb, Co. 
Mesiii^ i:: 7Z& Adeat form waa Cenandas, then Kenlis or 
<¥>2*/%-k'>*. *biad fort.' 

Kelso. 1:>:, CaDlou : 1158, Kelcou : c. 1203, 'Or^lo 
K<rJ:-L:iK::-i " ; c 1-1:20, Wyrdfjun^ KeLsowe ; 14:-t7, Cal- 
cvriiai- Th« old Welah barda called it CoLchntjnrj'ly of 
which C^Ik'>a may be the rubbtog down, fr. Old W. 
'-o.'Wt r>'«>' or mf/nf/fl, 'chalk' or 'limestone height.* 
CaJrh is = O.EL cealc (nc c. 700), L. ralx^ chalk or 
lime. The second syllable may possibly be Sc. h'^v 
(liere proiD, ha>, 'a hoUow/ O.K holh, ty\ Stdbo, 

Kklto.v (Caatle-Douglas). (Cf. a 'Cheletun/ temp. Win. 
Lion.; Prob. G. eroi"/, 'a wood,' + O.E. ton^ tuitt 'h 
hamlet, village.' Cf. Polton. 

Kkltt (Rmross), Kklty Water (Gartmore). Kinrcmn K., 
1250, Quilte. G. coillte, plural of coil^ *a wood.' ('/. 
Keelty and Quilty, Clare. 

Kelvin, R. (Glasgow). Sic c. 1200 ; 1208, Kelvyn. (i. caol 
ahhuinn, 'narrow river.' 

Kelvinhaugh (Glasgow). See Haugh. 

Kemback (Cupar-Fife). Sic 1517; but 1250, Kcnbak. 
Prob. = KiNBUCK, * buck's head'; but pcrh. (i. nim, 
(old camb, cf. Cameron) arhuffh, * crooked lii'ld.' 

Kemnay (Kintore). Prob. G. cea7t}i na maiijh (i)roji. luav), 
'head of the plain.' 

KiNMORE (Aberfeldy). G. cea7t>n tuAJr^ ' bij/ hiad.' 



172 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Kbnnageall, or Whittbn Head (L. Eriboll). G. ceann 
gecdy * white promontory or head.' White is in O.E. 
hmty Icel. hvit-rf Sw. hvit, Dan. hvid. 

Kbnnet (Clackmannan). G. ceann ath, 'chief ford/ or 
ferry over the Forth. Cf. Kennetis, name in 1565 
of a Ross-shire parish. 

Kbnnethmont (Huntly). See Kinnbth3iont. 

Kbnnoway (Leven). 1250, Kennachyn, -achi; Aberdeen 
Brev., Kennoquy. G. ceann a^aidh{ean\ * at the head 
of the field(s).' 

Kentallbn (Ballachulish). G. ceann fsailein, *head of the 
little inlet.' Cf, Salbn, pron. sallen, and Kintail. 

Kbppochhill (Glasgow). 1521, Keppok (1353, Keppach, 
Lennox). G. ceapach is *full of stumps or tree trunks," 
fr. ceap, *a block or shoe-last.' It also means Hilled 
land.' Cf. Keppach (sic 1662), Applecross, and 
Lochaber. 

KifeRRBRA (Oban). Sagas, Kjarbarey; 1461, Carbery. Prob. 
some man, * Kjarbar's isle.' 

Kbrribmore (Glenlyon). G. ceithramh (pron. kerra) mor, 
*big quarter or fourth part.' Cf Kirriemuir. 

Kerrycroy (S. Bute). 1449, Kervycroy. Prob. G. ceitk- 
ramh cruaidhy * hard quarter ' or * division.' Cf Croy. 

Kbrrysdalb (W. Ross-sh.). G. ceithramh, ' quarter, division/ 
+ N. dad, 'a dale,' so a hybrid. 

Kersb (Grangemouth and Lesmahagow) = Carsb. Cf Kere- 
land Barony, Dairy. 

Kbrshopbfoot (Canonbie). 1595, Mercator, Kirsopfoote. 
*The place of refuge of the Kerrs,' Icel. Mp. Gf. 
Priesthope, Walkerburn, and the surname Kirsop. 

Kbssock Ferry (Beauly Frith). 1564, Kescheok; 1576, 
Kessok. Fr. St Kessog, or ' little Kess,' bom of royal 
blood at Cashel, died at Luss, L. Lomond. Church at 
Auchterarder is dedicated to St Makessog ; see p. cv 
and cf, Tommachessaig, Callander. 

Kettins (Coupar-Angus). Old, Kethynnes, and prob. the 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 173 

thanage of ' Kathenes,' mentioned in tins regi<Hi in 1264, 
which looks as if the same as Caithness ; bat as prob. 
fr. G. cathanach, ' pertaining to soldiers,' adjective fr. 
cathack, * a warrior ' ; with the Eng. plural «. 

Kjbttlb, or KiNGSKETTLE (Cupar). 1183, Cathel ; a, 1200, 
Cattel; 1558, Kettil, Chapel-Keule. Perh. 'hollow 
like a kettle'; O.E. cetd, IceL ketai. Tery prob. 
Celtic ; cf. Balnakettle, Balmacathill, and Curmix. If 
so, the root meaning is prob. the same — * a hollow ' or 

* a den.' See next. 

Kettlesteb (Yell). Unlike Kettle, this prob. comes, as 
local tradition says, fr. a man KetHe^ a X. settler there. 
There was a * Kettilstonn ' in 12th cent, near Stirling, 
and we find a ' Cramellus filius Ketelli ' coming over 
with William the Conqueror. For -ster see p. bcdii ; 
and (^. Kettleburgh, Suffolk, and Kettlesing, Leeds. 

Kil(l)arrow (Islay). Pron. Kilarru, -aru; 1500, Kilmol- 
row; 1511, -morow; 1548, -marrow; 1661, KiUerew. 

* Church of St Maolrubha ' (see p. cvi), m disappearing 
by aspiration ; to be distinguished fr. Kilmallow, Lds- 
more. G. ciU (JcU) is really a survival of the old dative 
or locative case of ceaU, a hermit's cell (L. ceZ2a), then 
a church, especially a parish church, also the church- 
yard, or any burying-place, a grave {cf. cinn, see Km- 
aldib). The proper form is seen in Loch-nan-ceall, 

* loch of the churches,' in the west of MulL Names in 
Kil- often come fr. the G. cdilj * a comer or nook,' or 
coille, * a wood.' 

Kilbarchan (Johnstone). * Church of St Berchan,' 7th 
century. 

KiLBERRY (Kintyre). Sic 1492 ; 1531, -berheth. Prob. fr. 
the Irish abbot, St Berach, 

KiLBiRNiB (Beith). 1413, -bymy. Prob. fr. St Brendan. 

* Bimie's well ' is here. See Birnib. 

KiLBOWiB (Dumbarton). 1233, Cullbuthe ; 1273, Cultbovy ; 
1330, Cultboy. G. cid buidhe, * yellow back ' (of the 
hill). Cf, CuLDUTHiL and Dnimbowie, Linlithgow. 
The forms with t are fr. coillte, * woods.' 




174 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

KiLBRANDON (Oban). * Church (G. cUl) of St Brendan^' 6th- 
century missionary. See Birnib. 

KiLBRENNAN, Or -BRANDON, SouND (AiTan). 1549, Culi- 
brenyn. G. canl Brendain, * kyle ' or * strait of St 
Brendan.' 

Kilbride, East and West (also Arran, Argyle, Dumfries). 
East K., c. 1180, Kellebride. Arg. K., 1249, 'Ecclesia 
Beati Brigide Virginis in Lorn.' Dumf. K., 1298, 
Kirkebride; c. 1300, Kylebride. Arran K., c, 1400, 
St Briged Kirk. ' Church of St Brigit ' or Bridget of 
Kildare, 453-523 a.d. 

KiLBUCHO (Biggar). c. 1200, Kelb^choc, Kylbeuhoc ; c. 1240, 
Kylbevhhoc; 1475, Kilbouchow; 1567, -bocho. ' Church 
of St Begha,^ female disciple of St Aidan and Abbess 
Hilda, 6th century. The final -oc in the early forms is 
the dimin., * little Begha.' Same as St Bees, Cmnber- 
land. St Bees' well stands near the old church of 
Kilbucho. 

KilcAlmonbll (Kintyre). 1247, *Ecclesia Sti Colmaneli'; 
1327, Kylcolmanel. * Church of St Colmanela,^ inend 
of Columba (see Colmonbll). Gaels call the place 
where the church used to stand Ctachan, i.e., church. 

KiLCHATTAN (Butc and Colonsay). Bute K., 1449, Killecatan 
(c still pron. hard). * Church of St Chattan ' or Catan 
(* little cat '), an Irish Pictish abbot, and friend of St 
Columba. Cf. Ardchattan. 

KiLCHOAN (Ardnamurchan). Fr. St Coingan or Comhghain, 
uncle of St Fillan, c. 750; the modem form of the 
name is Cowan. Cf. Kirkcowan. 

KiLCHOMAN (Islay). 1427, Killecomman; 1508, -comane. 
Fr. St. GoinmantLS of Tyrconnell, 7th cent., brother of 
Cumin, Abbot of lona, where latterly he lived. 

KiLCHRENAN (Dalmally). 1361, Kildachmanan, Ecclesia Sti 
Petri Diaconi; 1600, Kilchranan. Curious corruption, 
= * church of the Dean ' ; G. dachman or deadhan. 
Dean and deacon were often confounded. 



ILzi.nHiiffn Ilia, j^bh^ tc: ucriii- ^ --— 
n viifiiiiiu^. C'. ixiTEnm:-^^ 

;-Ullunil:. *(i. GLlf'^f*-r.il'"'. "m'Jir 

11x7 iitll. ir T!£iiiri!: -^a ' :.:: ^^'-^-' 
a: L. ILontoiiL 

RuiHiat^to^ J'rrti c _'~"-r * ."-. •. 

"Slit imii il*ilL ^r. - '- . - -' 

'^i':iii**'*iuui . '^rii- i- - ^ 
E7j*j.cn-ije- • !uir:i - ** . • - 

X"''ZC :t "^ « • I'liuiiA. » " / 
«.»lTC«cr*iC F :rr:tr. vit-*^' rt .» ,. \' 
s* A EiLiiie it^y 'I 111111 w.r* n '- ^ 

the 'iiLii.e oiiiii. uul '.h- T '-• *'■ 



176 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

KiLDRUMMT (Aberdeensh.). Sic c, 1280, but a, 1300 -dromy. 
G. coil droma^ ' wood on the hill-ridge ' ; G. druim, the 
back, a ridge. 

KiLDUiCH (L. Duich) and Kilduthib (Loch of Leys and 
Kincardine). * Church of St Ihdhac^^ died c. 1062; 
famed for his miracles. Cf. Duich. 

KiLELLAN (Lochalsh). ' Church of St Fillan ' (see Fillan's, 
St). The / is lost by aspiration. Cf, Cill Fhaelain, 
Leinster, in the Martyrdogy of Donegal. 

KiLFSATHBR (New Lucc). * Church of St Peter ' ; G. Fhetir 
or Pheadair. Cf. Kilphedre, S. Uist. 

KiLFiNiCHEN (Mull). 1561, Kcilfcinchen ; c. 1640, Kilin- 
nachan (/ lost by aspiration). Prob. fr. St Findchan^ 
one of Columba's moi^s. Perh. fr. St Fincana, virgin, 
one of the nine daughters of St Dovenald. 

KiLPiNNAN (Tighnabruaich). c 1240, KilUnan, Kylfinnan. 
Prob. * church of St FinnaUy' of Cunningham, a pupil of 
St Patrick ; see Kilwinning, and cf, Inchinnan. 

KiLHAM (Coldstream). Looks like G. coUj * a wood,' or cUl, 
* a church,' + O.E. hdniy home, village. But Isaac 
Taylor is prob. right in deriving fr. O.E. locative 
chilloti, * at the springs.' Also near Hull. 

KiLKSNZiE (Campbeltown). (1561, Skeirkenze ; G. sgeir, a 
rock.) ' Wood ' or * church of Kenneth ' ; G. Cknnnead. 
Of. the name Mackenzie. 

KiLKERRAN (Maybolc, and old name of Campbeltown), a. 
1250, Kilchiaran. * Church of St Kianm,' founder of 
Clonmacnoise Monastery, died 545. Qf. Kilkeran, 
Islay, and river Aultkieran, Fort- William. 

KiLLBAN (Muasdale, and Torosay, Argyle). 1243, Killiean: 
a. 1251, Fcclesia Sancti Johannis; 1545, EjUane. 
'Church of St John'; G. Jotn, Eoin. But Bameaa 
Galloway, is fr. G. e?i, a bird. 

KiLLEARN (Stirlingsh., and old name of parish in Juia) and 
KiLLERN (Anwoth). Stirl. K., c. 1250, Kynerine, 
-hem; 1320, -herin; c. 1430, Killem. Stir. K. is a 
name that has changed. Originally, ' at the head or 
height,' G. cinn, but now, 'at the church,' G. off, 'of 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 177 

the division or district,' G. earrainn; cf, Morvbrn. 
All the Killems, with small likelihood, have been 
derived fr. St Cieran of Clonmacnoise, 545 ; c lost by 
aspiration. 

KiLLEARNAN (Muir of Ord, and Kildonan, Sutherland). 
Muir K., 1569, Kyllamane. Either fr. St Eman, 
uncle of Columba, or fr. St Teman. See Banchory. 

KiLLBN (Avoch and Lismore). Avoch K., c. 1340, Killayn. 
Either fr. G. Jain, * John,' or en, *a bird.' See Killban. 

KiLLBNNAN (Kintyrc). * Church of St Eunan ' or Adamnan, 
see p. cvi. 

KiLLiAN (Strome Ferry). * Church of John ' ; G. Eoin, or 

* wood of the bird,' eun, gen. eom. 

KiLLiCHRONAN (Mvdl). In G. ooille chronain, * wood of the 
low, crooning murmur,' as of bees or a brook; but 
possibly fr. St Crona^i, founder of the Irish abbey of 
Roscrea, and a visitor of St Columba, died 665. 

KiLLiCRANKiB (Blair Athole). G. coUle chreithnich, * wood of 
the aspen-trees,' still found there. Gaels call K., Cath 
raon Ruaraidhy * battle of Rory's meadow.' 

KiLLiN (L. Tay, and river and loch, Foyers). Prob. G. cille 
fhionn, * white church ' {cf, Finlarig, close by Loch Tay). 
But Perth K. is the burying-place of the Macnabs, and 
so may be = Killean, common name for * burying-place ' 
in S.W. Ireland. 

KiLLiNTAG (Morvem). 1542, Killindykt. Prob. * church of 
St Findoc,^ virgin. On the /, cf, Kilbllan. 

KiLLisPORT, L. (Knapdale). G. caoilas-port, *port' or 

* harbour in the narrow sea ' or * straits.' Cf, Kylb(s). 

Kill6chan (Girvan). Prob. G. coil lochain, *the wood by 
the little loch.' 

Killoran (Colonsay). * Church of St Odhran 'or *Oran,' 
died 548. Colonsay, not Oransay, was sacred to him. 

Killywhan (Dumfries). G. coille hhan, * white wood.' Cf, 
Barwhanny, Galloway. 

12 



178 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

KiLMADOCK (Doune). 'Church of St Modoc,' Saint of the 
Welsh calendar, a rare thing in Scotland. Moedoc or 
Mogue is = Mo-Aedh-oCj * my dear little Hugh,' and 
so is the same as Aidatiy i.e., 'little Hugh ' ; c/". p. ct. 

Kilmalcolm (Greenock), c. 1205, Kilmacolme, i.e., 'church 
of mv Colm* or Columha (see p. cii). The pron. 
-mlkom is thus the true one. The common pron. 
KilHooil-kdm is due to supposed derivation fr. Malcolm 
(^A-. Deer, Malcoluim). 

Kn-MALUB (Fort William). 1296, -malyn ; 1532, -male. 
Malyn looks like G. mdUin, * eyebrow ' (<^. mala, brow 
of a hill). 

KiLMALLOW (Lismore). Pron. -mSln ; old, -maluog. Here, 
too, come Kilmaluog, old name of the parishes of 
Raasay, and Kilmuir, Skye ; cf. Davoch maluag, 
Urray. 'Church of St Maluog^ or Moluoc, prob. 
friend of Columba, and = 'my dear little Leu' or 
St Lupus, same name as in Killal6e, Clare {<^. p. 
CTii). But Kilmalew {sic 1529), old name of Inver- 
aray, was in 1304 Kylmaldufr, i.e., ' church ' or ' wood,' 
maoU duibh, ' of the black, bare rock ' (moot). 

KiLMAaDiNXT (New Kilpatrick). Sic 1680. 'i G. coU an 
dird dianaidh, * wood of the high shelter or defence.' 

EiLMARBE LoDGB (Broadford). Prob. 'church of St Maoi- 
rubha.' See Maree. 

Kilmarnock. Sic e. 1400 ; but 1299, Kelmemoke. 
' Church of St Mamock ' = Maemanoc, i.e., * my dear 
little St Eman,' priest, and uncle of St Columba; 
see p. cv. 

Kilmason (Cupar). 1245, -merone. 'Church of my own 
Ron ' or St Ronan. Cf. next. 

KniMAROXOCK (Alexandria), and Kilmaroxog (L. Etive). 
c 1325, -merannok, -moronock; c. 1330, -maronnok. 
'Church of Moronoc,' i.e., 'my dear little St Ronan,' 
Abbot of Kingarth, died 737 ; cf. p. cv. 

Kilmarow (Kintyre). a. 1251, Ecclesia Sancte Marie; 
1631, Kilmaro. 'Church of the Virgin Mary'; G. 
Moire or Maire. 



FLACS>X.&US OF SCOTLAND. 179 

Kn^iSABTix (Lochgilphead-. 'Churcli of St Martin' of 
Tours, teacher oe Ss Xinian, c. 360. 

KiiLjfAURS (EilmanxKk iL «:. 1550. Kylmawar. 'Church of 
St Jfairrtt*,' Freii-:-h saint, c, 550. 

KrL.MATBoxAiG (Bkir Ath^^leu 'Church of mj dear little 
Eunan^ or Adamnan : see p. ctu and t/. Ari>kon.\io, 

KiiiMELFORT (Fori Ai^le). JTi/- either = G. coiU 'a wood/ 
or «Z/, *a church,' or eaol^ 'straitSs narrow inlet/ 
See MsLFORD. 

KiLMBXT (X. Fife and Islay). (11th-century MS. in Skene, 
Celtic SeotLy L 387, (^iUemuine, i.e., St Davids S. 
Wales, or, just possibly, K. in Islay.) *Churt'h in 
the thicket'; G. muine. But Fife K, in, l-'fiO, 
Kylmanyn, prob. ' church of St Monan * or Mauyu, 

KiLMiCHAEL (Lochgilphead). * Church of St Michael,' tli« 
archangel; also in Cromarty in 1535. 

KiLMODAX (Argyle). Sic 1250. * Church of St Afodan/ 
colleague of St Ronan, in 8th century, Ol/i nai/*/- hi 
Ardchattan was Balimhaodan. 

KiLMONiYAio (Spean Bridge). 1449, -liiA/^-iWik : /:. JM;';, 
-maneyak ; 1602, -navag. Prou. i*'/w -uj^J*- i'Uj , 
* church of my own little St ^a/jtjAjJxi.. tL»: *>*^in.i."i. 
Mac ua Duibh ' of the MarttjroU>*jtj of iP/n/ujaJ '\\,t 
G. and Ir. nctomhan ([jrtm. w.Mxi.j u^*.».i.A o. J.^J<»^ 
saint.' See p. cv. 

KiUfORACK (Beauly). 1437. -f^k. *< i, w;i, '/*. .v. Munn , 
said to be a Celtic ab^^jt *A J>^i>k'.-*o. 

KiLMORE (Loth aiid L<jn.i. \jjr\. K.. ]V.» h. '//; i' / 

(G. min') church.' or « Ki._iivr..h. 

KiLMORlCH (Iyx-h;r'»iiii»-a'i . .^.' \'/.\. Vtr. '» ... 'J 
St Murt'Jacii <Mu!'a-^:L . b^-ii^y^ -3* )r .... / •> .'/ 

KlLXORIE (Wi;rto\M.. A»ia:,. \s .,. ,./. >• I W 

'Eeelesia >au«,'W Ma»it <>■ .»j-. .• ,- , /• , .. ., 

1595, Kyrkuior*'.-!.. <..,»:. v* '. -• ... i ., 
G. Af'jtrt. i^Kjiuiixji. ii. ii-.i^.-'' 



180 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

KiLMUiR (Skye and E. Ross). Ross K., 1394, Culmor; 1482, 
Culmore. Skye K. is = Kilmorb. Ross K. is G, ciil 
mdr, * big back ' of the hill. Only to-day it is pron. 
Cill Mhoire. 

KiLMUN (Holy Loch). Sic c, 1240; c. 1410, Kilmond. 
* Church of St MundJ Fintan Munnu or Muiidu 
was an Irish friend of St Columba. Cf. St Mirnd's 
Church, Lochleven. 

KiLNiNiAN (Mvdl). 1561, Kilnoening. Prob., says Skene, 
fr. St NennidiuSy friend of St Bridget, 5th century. 
Name remodelled after St Ninian of Whithorn. 

KiLNiNVBR (Lorn). 1250, Kyllivinor; 1558, Kylnynvir. 
G. dll an inbhir, * church by the confluence.' 

KiLPATRiCK, Old and New (Dumbarton). 1233, Kylpatrick; 
1298, Kirkpatricke super Cludam. 'Church of St 
Patrick,' who was prob. bom near here, c. 380. 

KiLRAVOCK (Nairn). 1282, -rethuoc; c. 1286, Kelrevoch; 
1295, Kylravoc. ] G. coU riabhach, * brownish, brindled- 
looking wood.' 

KiLRBNN Y (Anstruther). c. 1 1 60, -rinny. Either fr. St Ninian 
or Ringan of Whithorn ; or perh. fr. St IrencBus, Bishop 
of Lyons, c. 180, locally called Irenie. St Ir(e)nie'8 
Well is here. But in 1250 we find Kilretheni, prob.fr. 
G. rathaiUy * ferns.' Bishop Forbes thinks K. may befr. 
Etheman, fuller form of Eman, the uncle of St Columba. 

KiLRiMONT, or Chilrymont (old name of St Andrews). 
'Church of the king's mount'; but in Tighemac, Cirui- 
righ-monaigh { = monaidh), *head of the king's mount' 
There are still an E. and W. Balrymonth in the parish. 

KiLRY (Kinghom and Alyth). Kinghom K., 1178, Kyllori. 
] G. cille Mhoire, the Virgin ' Mary's church.' 

KiLSPiNDiB (Errol). 1250, Kynspinedy; c. 1470, Kilspjnde. 
Prob. G. ceann, cinn spuinneadaire, * height of the 
plunderer.' But some make it, 'church of Pensandus,' 
a bishop said to have accompanied St Bonifacius, 
founder of the church of Invergowrie, ? 8th cny. 



FLAC1E-XA10E& -OT jstnr CTAV r? I>1 

Cosmo limes tw te. l^]-^ Kiahnna^Trii. z2i.T»rr=ir * 5sn- 
vation fr. R. Kbltidc j: Iflir. Kishiksr-fiit : li;^-'?', Ki^Tnii: 
c. 1300, KelresTiiL "C^ii^zrii" or -v»i cc priiTw "Ebe 
arrow'; G. and Ir. iOh-p^t^ai jir-nsu iroi ^ *>'. tC.xii^Tiiifiw 
Antrim. 

K.iiiTARLnT (Beaulri 127$, K^ahatiarirrD- -Cb^src^ rf St 
Tclorggain ' or Talwicaffla. * liir- tin^iii-tr'^TineiL' jc \n^ 
saint who died in SI'Sl 

K.ILTSARX (Beaulvl. 1227,K€:ihaejnj:l?i*5-K-ca[Ti-€nL- G.flsai/ 
Tigheama, *dniieiii of ihe Lori" Tb:35 = KiucHK^r. 

KiLTRixiDAD (N. Uisti- Si'C m. Prct* iiajx r. liSlO : i»w 

KiLVARis (Muckaim). G. r^Zk J/A/i-i?;. iLe V^tct "Marrs 
churcL' (y. KnjfOBm. 

KiLWixxiNG (AidioBsani. a. 13«>X Kynwenyn; 1357, 
Kylvynnvne. *ChTiicb of St l'*w*«ir«^" or Wynnin. an 
Ulsterman, who crossed over to AjisLire : died 579. 
Of, Caerwinning. Dairy. His naice is also spelt Finnan, 

C/\ KiLFIXXAX. 

KiMMEBGHAMB (Duns). 1547, Kamargan. Not likely to be 
G. comoTj 'e(Miflueuee' (i.e., the meeting of Blaekadder 
and Langton Waters, rf. CnfMSBTBSBSK + O.EL hdtn^ 
* house, village.* More prob. it is to be identified with 
Cynebritham, c, 1098, in a Durham charter, i.tf., 
*Cynebrith'8 home.' In Sim. Durham^ ann. 854, is 
Tigbrethingham, mentioned ne3a: Mailros ; ? here, as 
often, / mistaken for c. 

KiNALDis (Aberdeensh. and St Andrews). Kin or ci'n, older 
ciiui, is really a survival of the old dative or locative of 
G. eeann (W. penn), head, promontory {cr\ Kil ; see 
Eilarrow and p. civ). Except perh. in *Canmore' 
and * Cantire ' (for Kintyre), ceann in names has always 
become Ken- or Kin-. Kinaldie is G. cinn aUtaitiy ' at 
the head of the little brook.' 

KiNBLETHMONT (Forfar). 1189, Kynblathmund ; 1322, 
Kinblaukmounthe. Prob. 'head of the flowery mount' 
(G. Uathormonaidh), Form 1 322 isa Sassenach's attempt ! 



182 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

KiNBRACB (Sutherland). G. cinn-a-bhrctiste, *seat of the wearer 
of the brooch ' (frrdw^iWi), i.e., the chief of the Gunns. 

KiNBUCK (Auchterarder). 'Buck's head*; G. boCy buic^ a 
roe-buck. Of, Drumvuich. 

KiNCAiD (Lennoxtowii). 1238, -caith; 1250, Kyncathe. 
G. cinn eaedh^ *at the head of the quagmire,' or cadhoy 

* of the pass.' 

KiNCAPLB (St Andrews). 1212, -pel. G. cinn caibealy *head 
chapel.' Or, fr. G. capully *a mare,' cf, Portincaplb. 

Kincardine (county, K. on Forth, and K. O'NeO, also 
Ro8s-sh., and Boat of Garten). For. K., 1 1 95, Kincardin. 
County, 1295, Kynge Garden. Ross-sh. K., 1227, 
Kyncardyn ; 1536, Kincam. K. O'Neill, 1277, Kin- 
cardyn. Prob. G. cinn gairdein^ *head of the arm,' i.e., 
inlet. Some explain -cardine to mean * rowan-wood,' fr, 
a hypothetical cerddin^ G. caor or caorann, a rowan 
berry. K. O'Neil must be a borrowed, not an original 
name. The O'Neils were a royal Irish family. 

KiNCLAVBN (Stanley). 1195, -clething; 1264, Kyiiclevin. 

* Head of the breast ' ; G. cliathain, 

KiNCRAiQ (Kmgussie and Elie). *Head of the rock'; G, 
creaky gen. craige, 

KiNDROCHiT (Aberdeensh.). 1245, -ocht. *Head of the 
bridge ' ; G. drochaid. Cf, Drumnadrochit, and Kin- 
trockat, Brechin, 1574, Kindrokat. 

Kinfauns (Perth). Pron. Kinfanns. c. 1200, -fathenes. 
c. 1 230, Kynfaunes. * Head, height with the coltsfoot^' 
G.fathajiy with Eng. plur. 8. 

KiNGARTH (Bute). Tigfiemacy ann. 737, Cindgaradh, i>., 
*head of the enclosure' or *yard'; 1204, Kengarf: 
1497, Kingarth. G, and Ir. gar{r)adh is = M.E. gartk 

KiNGENNiE (Broughty Ferry). 1290, -galtenyn; 1473, Kp- 
genny. Prob, fr. G. gealitanachy * maker of promises.' 

King Edward (Banff). a. 1300, Kynedward; c, 1320, 
Kinerward; also said to have been spelt Kinedar; local 
pron. Kinedart. Perh. * height at the division,* G, 
eadaradhj fr. eadaVy * between.' This is a very hoary- 
headed corruption ! Cf, Cairn Edward, L. Ken. 



PLAC5-5AMIS Off SCOTLAND. 183 

K.i:xGHORX (Fifet and Kis^xHORyiH C^stuk (Kinnelf). Fife 
K., <r. 11-t^X Kingonmiru -^m ; 12v?0, Kinkum ; 
1317, -g»jrbi: I6oi>, -t2»)nie. Kmn, K., 1654, Kin- 
gomj. G. 'nwn, '^ui-m « aom. ':dm i, ^ at the head of the 
horn ' or bend or comer. In Gaelic <! and g are jh> near 
in sound that they <D«!cik5ionally interchange m nameH. 

KrxGLASSiE (Leslie >- »r- II7«X Inner-kinglaasin. 'Head of 
the green, gntasy plain * ; G. gli^anach. Near by \h 
Finglasae, tt. G. ji&in^ white, clear. Cf. EdiiigluwHie, 
Aberdeenshire: and 1296, ^Petglaaai.' 

Kjengledores Bcbx (Tweedsmnir). Prob. G. cinn gill dor 
(dMiair^ *head of the clear water ' or ' brot>k,' 

KiSGOLDBnc (Kirriemuir). 1-154, Kyncaldmm. *Head of 
the thin, narrow ridge ' ; G. cuoil druim, 

KiXGSBABXS (Craili, Kxsgsburgh (Skye, two -bury m in Eng- 
land), KiXGSflousE (Callander and Tyiidmm), Klnuh- 
KXOWB (Edinburgh, cf. Kxowe), KiNOfiMUiR (Forfar), 
Kingston (Glasgow and Banff, twelve in Knglaud), 
KiXGSWELLS (Aberdeensh.). 

KiXGSCAYiL (Linlithgow). 1451-98, KincaviL Now * Kiu^''«* 
allotment ' or * share of land ' ; Dutch kavel^ lot, 
parcel. Cacel is foimd, a. 1300, in L'artmr Mumh, 
18907. Cf. 1805, State, Leslie of Fotritt, Sfc, 17 (\\\ 
Jamieson), *The Town and Bishop feuctl out tliiii 
fishing in shares; six of them called the KiiiKH cavil, 
six the Bishop's cavil.' But prob. the oritriuul iiiiiuo ia 
G. cinn caibhecd, 'head chapel.' 

King's Cross (Lamlash). Sic 1757; but c Wti^^, IVuny- 
crosche, see p. Ixv. 

KiNGSEAT (Dunfermline) and KiNtJHKKTTi.K {V\U')> Thohe 
prob. take their names from their prokiioh.v to Diui- 
fermline and Falkland PalaccM nH)»fiiui'l>. Hto 
Kettlb. 

Kingussie, c. 1210, -gussy ; 1380, KyuK'»«'.V ; »" »»^^'^ P»*'»» 
or else Kineuzie. * Head of the iw^mA ' ; H, ifuit/taiuit'/i^ 
*a pine.' 

KiNiNMONTH (Mintlaw). (*. riim lui vumuidh^ 'hnul at thu 
mount' or *hill.' Cf. * KynuiunUu-/ |;JH2, utuv IVnh. 



184 PLAGB-NAMSS OF SCOTLAND. 

KiNKELL (St Andrews, Lennoxtown, Aberdeensh., and 
Cromarty). Cromarty K., a. 1300, Kynkell; c. 1350, 
Kynkellee. Aberdeen. K., 1298, Kynkelle; c. 1320, 
Kingkell. G. cinn-ceall, ' head-church,' having several 
chapels under it. 

KiNLAS (Strath, L. Lomond). 1 *Grey' or * green head'; 
G. glas, the g lost by aspiration. 

KiNLOCH (Lewis, Rum, Meigle, Rossie, Fife). Rossie K., 
c. 1270, Kyndelouch, i.e., O.G. cind-a-loch, *at the 
head of the loch.' 

KiNLOCHARD, -BbRVIB, -LAGGAN, -LUICHART, -MOIDART, 

-RANNOCH (c. 1532, Kenlochr-), -spblv(i)e, &c. ; also 
KiNGAiRLOCH. = * Head of Loch Ard,' &c. See Ard, 
Bervib, «kc. 

KiNLOSS (Moray). 1187, Kynloss; 1251, Kinlos, Prob. 
* height with the garden ' ; G. lio8, 

KiNMUCK (Inverurie). ' Sow's head ' ; G. muCj muic^ a pig, 

Cf, KiNBUCK, KiNCAPLB, &C. 

KiNMUNDY (Aberdeensh.). a. 1300, Kynmondy. *Head of 
the mount ' or * hill.' G. monadh, -atdh. 

KiNNABBR (Montrose and Argyle). Mon. K., c. 1200, Kin- 
abyre; 1325, Kynnaber. *Head of the estuary'; G. 
aMr, 

KiNNAiRD (Dundee and Larbert). Dundee K., 1183, 
Kinard; Lar. K., 1334, Kynhard. Like L. Kinord, 
Ballater, this means, 'at the head of the height'; G. 
dird, or *high point'; dird, adjective. 'Kinnaird 
Head ' is thus a tautology. 

KiNNBFF (Kincardine). Sic 1361. Perh. G. cinn eibhe^ 
' headland of the cry or howl.' 

KiNNBiL (Bo'ness). 1250, Kinel. Bede, c. 720, speaks of 
a Pennel'tun at the end of the Roman Wall which the 
Picts called Fean/ahel, or, modernised, pennroad, W. 
for *head' or 'end of the wall,' = 'Wallsend.' The 
addition to Nennius calls this Cenail, the same word, 
only now passed fr. Brythonic to Goidelic. 



TLhCSr-JiAJBEt G? £l 



KLiNNsfB (Fife;, c. I2? *! Z-nis: T ^r ^-^ 
G. tar, the wtsL. _.- iirr* .::a> 

K.IKNELL (AitnwrL 
((f. Kcrazn. ; 



^ r^^^ - 



KiNNELLAB (AbesosjesesL^ . ?-t- . £- 1^ .rf».' -r -r--: 
the deer'fi wtZt . ^ -:l'^mr 

G. 



with K^nmtS.1^ ' Sii-jr-n^ -.- r-:i*. r w-r-^* r, -^ -r^r/T 
of St A^ttiKbL. *Ji. vT r>-:f.i:^r. .*■'*. ^-fic *<.'•'. irn. 
781 ^ 

or'hrecat'. *^- tt.i^ra. ->rf. vr.i i^.-^:. ;v. i-t» *, 7i>* 
form Kjitfie^ «**: £.'-."-ia> «*r* ^.": '•^'- -*^;*i>^ i^ *.*:.- 'n 

KiKinsG Pake ^^jut^.nr . 

^hald. b«re li^sbC . 7/. j>c -7 ii':r-^r,jx^ 'm f*. O. 

G./lMVtUk. -Ckfu 

1605, Kjiiian. Prr,- O- f/v., fo.-* /o^ml, 'Ltaid' 
or * height of tLe r*jl f jt: 7'- Cr^-j-^iLja, Ki^douaLii;. 
Mmadh^ rwi, i» ir<eirtraulT f'y^uLii -jl TAJi.e^ as Rot. 
M'Bain thiiik^ the ro </r n ilat li^tsui * great, noble.' 

KiSBCM. JS*c c 1214, but c 1150, Chinroea. *At the 
beMl' or 'end of the wood,' CVltic ros; g\ Cui-Roes. 



186 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

KiNROBSiE (Scone). = Kinross. For the diminutive suflQx 
-ie, cf. RossiB and Rhynie. 

KiNTAiL (L. Duich). 1509, Keantalle; 1535, KyntaiU ; 
1574, Kintale. G. ceann fsdile or cinn fsailj *head' or 
* end of the salt water.' Cf. p. xliv. 

KiNTBSSACK (Forres). Perh. G. cinn feasaige, 'squirrel's 
head.' Cf, Kinbuck, Kinmuck, <kc. 

KiNTORB (Inverurie). 1273, Kyntor. * At the head of the 
hill ' or * mound ' ; G. tdr^\ -ra. 

KintrAdwbll (Brora), a. 1500, Clyntraddel; 1509, Clen- 
tredaill; 1563, Clyntredwane. Fine example of corrup- 
tion or popular etymology ; G. daon TradaU, * slope of 
St Triduana,' locally pron. Trullen, in Sagas, Trollhaena, . 
a reputed miracle worker, who lived c. 600. Cf. Caim- 
tradlin, Aberdeensh., St Trodline's Fair, Forfar; also 
Clynb, near by. 

Kintyrb (S. Argyle). a. 700, Adamnan, Caput regionis ; 
Uld. Ann., ann. 807, Ciunntire; 1128, Kentir; c. 1200, 
Chentyr; Gododin^ Pentir. *Head' or 'end of the 
land ' ; G. tlr, tire, Cf, Kinneil. Ciimn is very near 
the mod. pron. of the G. ceann, kySnn. 

KiPPBN (Stirling). Sic 1238. G. ceapan, dimin. of ceap, 'a 
stump or block ' ; or perh. cupan, * little cup.' 

KiPPENDAViB (Dunblane). Prob. * hillock (lit. little stump) 
of the field-sorrel ' ; G. fsamhaidh (pron. tavie). Cf. 
Auchindavy, Kirkintilloch, and Knockdavie, Kells. 

KiPPENROSS (Dunblane). G. ceapan rois, * hillock of the 
wood.' See Kippen and Kinross. 

KiPPFORD (Dalbeattie). Fr. G. and Ir. ceap, gen. dp, 'a 
tree-stock or stump.' Cf. Makeness Kipps, a hill near 
Eddleston. 

KiRKABY (Unst) and Kirkapol (old name of Tyree parish). 
Tyr. K. (11375, Kerrepol; G. coire, a hollow); 1561, 
Kirkappst ( = Kirkbo8t; see on holda^r, a place, p. 
Ixxii) ; 1599, Kirkcapol. 'Church-place,' both by or hi, 
and pol or h6l, being common Scandinavian endings = 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 187 

place, building, village (cf, Kirkebo on the Sogne Fjord). 
Church, in its hardened northern form kirk, m the 
Gk. KvpukKov, lit. *of the Lord' (Kvpio?), * Dominical,' 
used c. 280 a.d. as the name for *a Christian church.' 
Found in O.E. in Lcvws of King Wihiraed, 696 A.D., as 
cirice; in 870 as circe ; in a will of 960, kirke; c 1175, 
chirche; a. 1280, churche. In Sc. place-names are 
found, a. 1124, Selechirche or Selkirk; 1220, Hope- 
chirke or Hobkirk, &c. In O.N. it is kirkiu or -ia, 
kyrJga, Dan. kirke. Not in any Celtic dictionary ; yet 
kirk occurs in several Graelic place-names as early as 
1200. Kirkaby is the same word as the common Eng. 
Kirby. 

Kirkandrews (Liddesdale). 1295, -andres. Gf. St Andrews. 

EiRKDEN (Forfar, see Denburn). Kirkton (Hawick, 
Penicuik, L. Melfort, Golspie). There are many 
Kirtons in England. 

KiRKBEAN (Dumfries). Prob. *church of St Bain' or ^Beyne.* 
See Balvenie. 

KiRKBUDDO (Guthrie). Prob. * church of St Buitte' or 

* Boethius,' friend of King Nechtan, who came over 
from Ulster, and died 521 ; so Skene. But Carbuddo, 
in the same parish, is the old Crebyauch ; G. craobhach 
achadh, * wooded field.' 

Kirkcaldy. Pron. Kirkdddy; c. 1150, Kircalathin, Kir- 
caladinit and -din, and Kirkaldin; 1451, Kircaldy. 
Prob. fr. G. cala dion or dion-ait, * Harbour of refuge, or 
with the refuge-place.' The first syllable will then 
prob. be originally G. too, cathair, pron. kar or kair, 
*a fort.' Mr W. J. Liddall derives fr. Calaiin, father 
of certain famous magicians in the Bk, of Leinster, 

Kirkcolm (Stranraer). 1296, Kyrkiim, which is the present 
pron. * Church of St Colm ' or * Columba ' ; c/". p, L'ii. 

Kirkconxel (Sanquhar). * Church of St GonvalV Seven 
Irish saints bear this name. 

KiRKCOWAN (Wigtown). * Church of St Comhgham or 

* Comgan,' uncle of St Fillan, c. 750. 



188 PLACK-NAMKS OF SCOTLAND. 

Kirkcudbright. 1291, Kirkcutbrithe; 1292, Kircutbrith ; 
c. 1450, Kirkubrigh; and now pron. Kirkubry. * Church 
of St Cudberct,^ the great Cuthbert of Melrose, c. 700. 

KiRKENNAN (Minigaff and Buittle). Min. K., 1611, Kirk- 
cimane. * Church of St Eunan ' or * Adamnan ' ; see 
p. cvi. 

KiRKGUNZBON (Kirkcudbright). 1469, -zean; but c. 1200, 
Kirkwynnin. * Church of St Wynnin,^ see Kilwinning. 
The gu (or in W. gw) is the same sound as w ; while 
the z represents, as so often, the old Scottish y. 

KiRKHOPB (Selkirk) and Kirkhopb Clbuch (Durrisdeer). 
* Church in the valley ' or cul de sac, = Hobkirk. A 
deiich is a ravine ; see Bucclbuch. 

KiRKiNNER (Wigtown). 1584, Kirkinver ; but it is dedicated 
to St Kennera, virgin and martyr, who accompanied 
St Ursula to Rome. See Innerleithbn. 

Kirkintilloch (Glasgow), c. 1200, Kirkentulach ; 1288, 
-intolauche. Prob. * church at the head ' or * end of the 
hillock ' ; G. ceann or cinn tulaich. Dr Reeves thinks 
this is the site of the Battle of Circind, 596 (-ind 
= old G. cind, now ceann). 

KiRKLBBRiDB (Kirkpatrick - Durham). Tautology, = Kirk- 

KiLBRIDB. 

Kirkliston (S. Queensferry). 1250, Listun; 1298, Templum 
de Lystone; c, 1300, Templehiston, *Liston church.' 
L. is prob. G. lios, *a garden,' + O.E. tdii, ton, * dwelling,, 
village.' New Liston is near by. In G. teampvM 
means simply a church. 

KiRKMABRBCK (Kirkcudbright). 'Church of Mdbrec,' i.e., 
my own Brecan or St Bricius. Prob. he who was such 
an enemy of St Martin of Tours, 4th century. 

Kirkmadrinb (Wigtownsh.). Perh. 'Church of my St 
Draighen ' (MartyroL of Donegal), 

KiRKMAHOB (Dumfries). 1321, Kircmacho. Prob. 'Church 
of St Machute' See Lbsmahagow. 

KiRKMAiDBN, or Maidbnkirk (Wigtown). Aberdeen JBrev. 
says, fr. the Irish St Medana, contemporary of Ninian,. 
c. 390. St Medan's Cave is here. Of. Edinburgh. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 189 

KiRKMiCHAEL (Dumfries, Maybole, Blairgowrie, Grantown). 
'Church of St Michael,'' the Archangel. Also in the 
Isle of Man; and cf, Kilmichael, and Kilmichil, 
Ireland. 

KiRKNESS (Orkney and Kinross). Ork. K. is certainly 
'ness' or *cape with the church.' But Mr W. J. 
Liddall thinks Kinr. K. is fr. G. cathair (pron. car) 
cinn eas, * fort at the head of the waterfall.' This is 
doubtful, for the name in the 11th century is already 
Kyrkenes. See Skene, Celtic Scotl.y i. 406. In Stoney- 
kirk par. we find Kirlauchlin, site of a fort, erroneously 
spelt by the Ord, Survey, Kirklauchlin. 

KiRKOSWALD (Maybole). Fr. Oswald, King of Northumbria, 
died 642, regarded as a saint and martyr. Also in 
Cumberland. 

KiRKPATRiCK-DuRHAM (Dalbeattie), -Fleming, -Irongray, 
and -JuxTA (Dumfries). 1298, *Rogerus de Kirke- 
patrike.' * Church of St Patrick,^ the renowned Irish 
missionary of the 5th century. K.-Juxta (L. for 
*next'), formerly Kilpatrick, was so called in the 15th 
century to mark it off fr. K.-Fleming. 

KiRKSHBAF (Tain). N. Kirk-skaith, i.e,, *land given as 
tribute to the church,' fr. Icel. skaM-r, Dan. skat, O.E. 
sceai, a * scat,' i.e., a coin ; hence, a tax. 

KiRKURD (Biggar). c. 1180, Ecclesia de Orda; 1186, E. de 
Horda; c. 1200, Orde; 1296, Horde; c. 1320, Urde; 
1382, Kyrkhurde. Possibly fr. a man, or fr. G. drd, 
*a steep, rounded height'; cf. Ord. Ladyurd and 
Netherurd are near by. 

Kirkwall. Sic c. 1500; but c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Kirkiu- 
vag(r); a. 1400, Kirkvaw, -cwav; 1438-1554, -waw ; 
1529, -wallia. O.N. kirkiu vag-r, * church (cathedral) 
on the bay.' The forms show how * liquid ' the liquid 
letters are. Cf. Scalloway, Stornoway. 

Kirn (Dimoon). Quite modem. Sc. kirn, O.E. cym, Icel. 
kima, * a chum ' ; f r. the chum-shaped quarry out of 
which the place was buOt. 



190 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Kirriemuir (Forfarsh.). 1229, Kerimure, Kermuir. Prob. 
G. ceathramh (pron. carrou) mdr, * big quarter ' or * divi- 
sion.' Kerimor (sic 1250) was one of the quarters of 
Angus, and is prob. Siin, Durham^ 8 (a. 1 130) Wertermor, 
where werter is corruption of O.E. feorde, a 4th ; so 
Skene. Also called Kilmarie, the Virgin * Mary's church, ' 
with which the modem pron. Kirriemdre has nothing 
to do ; (^. Stbnhousemtjir, pron. Stanismare. 

KiRRiEROGK, or -ROACH, HiLL (Barr). Old, Kererioch. G. 
caire riabhach, 'greyish, grizzled ravine.' 

KiRTLB, R., and Kirtlebridge (Annan). Perh. O.E. cyrtel, 
Icel. kyrtillj *a short gown, petticoat'; but why so 
called 1 Of, Kirtling, Newmarket ; Kirtlington, Oxford. 
Or perh. G. cearGall, * a ring, a circle.' 

KiSHORN (loch, W. Ross-sh.). 1472, Kysryner; 1554, Kes- 
same ; 1575, Kisyme. Prob. G. dts-roinn, * cape of the 
toll ' or * impost ' {c\s). But Icel. Ms, kisa, is pet name 
for a cat, and Kisi was a Scandinavian giant. 

KiTTLEGAiRY HiLL (Soonhope, Peebles). Kittle is Sc. for 

* tickle,' so the first part may be some G. word or words 
represented by tickle ; so *? tigh coill gairhh, * house in 
the rough wood.' Of, the Den of Kittlemannoch, 
Gartly. 

KiTTYBREWSTER (Aberdeen). She is said to have kept an 
inn here. 

KiTTYSHALLOCH (Miuigaff). G. (and Ir.) c^ide sealgaich, 

* hillock ' or * green for hunting ' ; f r. sealg, the chase. 

Knapdalb (N. and S. Argyle). 1471, -dal. Icel. knapp-r- 
dot (or G. cnapy as in next), * knob-dale,' i.e., glen with 
the hillocks. On the coast is Knap Point. Of. Nabden, 
also Knapp Hill, Woking ; Knapton, Yorkshire. 

Knipe, The (hill. New Cumnock). G. and W. cnap, * knob, 
button ' ; hence, * little hill ' ; O.E. cnaep, * hill-top.' 

Knock (Largs, Banff, Lewis, &c.). G. and Ir. cnoc, * a hill,' 
in W. Highlands, often crochd. Sir H. Maxwell gives 
220 Knocks- in Galloway. 



FLAC3&-KAJC1& OJ SO-y^AlTlL IPl 

Knockaxdo (Monj l CarmpraaL a: ^L o»i*r eEomms^i. ' iiH 
of coDunerce.' Le^ markei-iJIl. 

KxocKBAix (CroourtT ^ G. j»>r :^* or \»a.i'h£^ * vLritfc. iij 
hilL' 

Knockdouax (Balkxitnke u 35'.*fL Kniiin^ihSL Lex. • at- 
ceiying hfl],' fr. G- 'i .'."- * V-« lusska^i' So caJIkd tecfciase 
80 often mistJLk£Ti icr Ailsk CTJai^. ^rii^:^ seiesD fr. a 
distance oat at siEsa. It fci-s'^ 2^.*£* \t iLt Errg- o&sje c»f 

* The Mock Craig." 

KxocKFARBEL (StrathpeSer *- PVc-'-x G. raujtc fairt^ ^hill of 
the watch ' or • g'^said ' : V^t G- farral, -rwlL means 

* anger/ 

Knocklbgoil (Balderoocki. G. r'.^r ri,V ^>i77, *hill of the 
stranger's (G. gal^i graTe/ Ttii was a cairn full ol 
cinerary urns. 

Knockollochie (Abcrdeen-rh- 1. G. cTtoc mJioiacf* • rt\ lost hv 
aspiration), ' roogh. b'x^hy knolL" 

Knockquham (Aberdeen^h.;. G. cnoc-a-nJiaini, 'hiUock like 
a breast or pap/ 

KNOCKRfocH (Argyle, pa^iN*. ;. G. cnoc riabhach^ ' brindled, 
brown, heather-coloured hill/ 

Knockstixg, L. (X. Kirkcudbright). G. cnoc stain^, *hill 
of the pool ' or ' ditch.' 

Knows (Kirkcowan). Sc. knotce, O.E. cnoU, Dan. knold^ 
W. C7K?/, *a (rounded) hillock.' Knowe is just a 
softened form of knoU. Cf. Pow, fr. G. 2»//, W. ^w /, a 
pool. A *Knolle' in Lothian is found in 1094 in a 
charter of K. Duncan. 

Kkoxland (Dumbarton). Potisibly G. cnoc, a hill, with 
Eng. plur. (cs = i). 

Kkotdart (Sleat Sound) 1309, Knodworath ; 1343, 
Cnudeworth ; 1511, Knodwart; 1517, Knodart. King 
Canute or ^Cnul^sfjord^^ of which last the Norse enduigs 
tDorth, warty art are corruptions ; in G. Crqjarst, Of\ 
MoTDART. Cnut invaded Scotland in 1031. 



192 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Kylb (district of Ayrsh.) 750, Continuation of Bede, Cyil ; 
c. 1150, Chul; 1293, Kyi; Bk. Taliesin (very ancient), 
Coelin, which makes it likely to be fr. Coel Hen or C. 
the aged, the famous ' old King Cole ' ; so Rhys. Of. 
Coilsfield and Coilton in this district. Form Chul 
suggests G. chaolas, * straits ' ; see below. 

Kyle Akin. See next and Akin. Gf. 1549, Dunnakyne. 

Kylb Scon or Sku (Assynt). In G. cool cumhanny * narrow 
straits or frith.' The s, through the ignorance of map- 
makers, has been transferred fr. noim to adjective. 
Kyle, Ml, col, and heel are all only approximations to 
the sound, in different localities, of G. caol^ caoU, 
caolas, * a strait, a frith,' fr. cool, * slender, thin.' See 

COLINTRAIVE, KiLCHURN, EdDRACHILIS. 

Kylob, West. Prob. G. cool dbh, * narrows of the water.' 
Cf, Awe and Kyloe, 1610, Kyley, S. of Berwick. 

Kylbs op Bute. In G. Na Gaoil Bhodach. See Kylb 
Scon. 



Lachsay (Skye). N. lachs-d, * salmon river.' Of, Laxa, 
Laxay. 

Ladhopb (Galashiels). Prob. O.E. Idd, *a way, course, 
canal ' ; Sc. lade, a mill-race. On Twpe, * a shut-in 
valley,' see Hobkirk. 

Lady (Kirkwall), Ladyburn (Greenock), Ladykirk (Nor- 
ham), Ladywbll (Glasgow). All prob. fr. * Our Lswly,' 
i.e., the Virgin Mary. Lady is O.E. fdaefdige or -die, 
lit. ' bread-maid.' 

Ladybank (Fife). The Lindores monks dug peats here, fr. 
13th century ; hence called ' Our Lady's Bog,^ but also 
*Lathybog,' which looks like G. leathad hog, 'moist 
hill-slope ' ; about sixty years ago * improved ' into 
Ladybank. There was also once a * Lady-Bank ' near 
Arbroath. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 193 

Lagavoulin Bay (Islay). G. lag-a-mhuilinn, *bay of the 
mill.' Of. Moulin. 

LiAGG (Arran, Ayr, Jura). G. and Ir. lag, *a bay, a hollow' ; 
same root as Icel. lag-r, low. Of. Logie. 

LiAGOAN (loch and village, Invemess-sh., and Bonar Bridge). 
G. lagan, diminutive of Imj, 'a hollow.' Laggankenney 
(1239, Logynkenny; 1380, Logachnacheny), on Loch 
Laggan, is fr. St Cainneach (Kenneth or * Kennie ') of 
Achaboe, Irish friend of Columba. 

Laid (Durness). G. lad, laid, * a water-course, a foul pool,' 
same as O.E. Idd, way, course, canal, fr. laeden, Dan. 
lede, to lead. 

Laioh Cabtside (Johnstone). 'Low place on the side of 
the river Cart ' ; Icel. lag-r, M.E. lagh, Sc. laigh, low. 

Laiohdoors (Muthill). * Low doors ' ; ^^ is always soimded 
and guttural in Scotch. 

Lairo (Sutherland). c. 1230, Larg. G. learg, *a plain, 
little eminence, beaten path.' Cf, Largs, and Largue, 
Cabrach. 

Lamancha (Peebles). The Grange of Romanno was so 
called, c. 1736, by Admiral Sir A. F. Cochrane, who 
had resided for a time in this province of Spain. 

Lambbrton (Berwick-sh.). c. 1098, -tun (two found here- 
abouts at this date) ; 1235, -ertona. Prob. fr. a man, 
Lambert, Of. Lamberhurst, Sussex, and Lamerton, 
Tavistock ; but see Lammbrmuir. 

Lakbhill (Glasgow). Cf. Lambley, Notts and Carlisle. 

Lamixgton (S. Lanarksh.). 1206, Lambinistun ; 1359, 
Lambyngyston; 1539,Lammyntoun. Fr.a man Lam W», 
found here before 1150. Of. p. Ixxxiv. 

LamlXsh (Arran). 1595, Lamalasche ; c. 1610, Pont, 
Lamlach. In 1549, simply Molas; usually explained, 
with some probability, G. lann Lais, * church of St 
Las,' commonly in the endearing form Molas, or Molios, 
or Molaise, i.e., * my flame ' (cf. p. cv). Of the three 

13 



194 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

St Molaises this is M. of Leighlin, grandson of King 
Aidan of Dalriada, c. 610. Breton, O.W. and G. lann, 
W. Uan, O.Ir. land, is rare in Sc. names, but cf. Lhax- 
BRYDE, LoNGPORGAN, etc. It means (1) a fertile, leTel 
spot ; (2) an enclosure ; (3) a church ; cf, a similar 
gradation of meanings in L. templum. Of course it is 
cognate with the Teutonic land, Dr Cameron of 
Brodick, a high authority, held that Lamlash is a 
corruption of G. eilean Molai&, Msle of Molas.' Certainly 
it was Holy Island which used to bear the name. 

Lammbrlaws (grass-topped clifls at Burntisland). Lanmier- 
law is also the name of one of the Lammermuirs, so the 
names must be the same. Sc. law is O.E. hldiw^ a 
mound or hill. 

Lammermuir Hills, a, 800, Lombormore; 1114, Lambremor. 
G. lomhair mdr, * big bare surface with a little grass.' 
Of, Lammbrlaws. 

Lanark, also Lanrick Castle (R. Teith) and Lanrig 
(Whitburn), c, 1188, Lannarc ; 1289, Lanark; 1375, 
Lanrik; c. 1430, Lamarke; also Lanerch. Lanark, 
Lanrick, and Drumlanrig (1663, -lanerk), are prob. 
all the W. llanerch, 'a forest-glade.' But the -arc or 
-erch may be either W. erch^ *dun,' or O.G. earCj 
* a cow ' ; and Lanark may quite possibly be G. lann 
earc, * level spot, enclosure for the cows.' Cf. Lamlash, 
and Llanerchymedd, Anglesea. 

Landifperonb or Lind- (Monimail). Perh. O.G. lann dob- 
karain, * enclosure,' or * church by the little stream.' 

Langavat, L. (Lewis). N. langa-vatUj * ling (the fish) loch ' 
or * water ' ; perh. fr. Icel. lang-r, Dan. laiig, long. Cf. 
Langavill, Mull ; -vill prob. = G. bhail, village, dwelling. 

Langbank (Port Glasgow), Langhaughwalls (Hawick, see 
Haugh), Langshaw (Galashiels, see Shaw), LAXGsms 
(Glasgow, c. 1600, *The Langsyd field'), Langton 
(Duns, 1250, Langetun) ; also old name of Laurieston, 
Falkirk, 1393, Langtoime. Sc. lang, O.E. and Dan. 
lang, Icel. lang-r^ *long.' 

Langholm (Carlisle). Pron. L4ng0m; sic 1376; but 1776, 



ness of hci^A. "* =jflfcfi:-r-" izii ija//t^ "ircasfi.* si» 

HODDOM, YbTHOlJL. 

in * Loveis' Loaa.' O-E. l,n.fj^^ & jkztt, ¥r&. .V-ni. a ii&e; 
Icel. laiiy a low of bxises. 

enclosure, chunrh. -r U-E. :«.7^ 7.*^ T"'';t>,^. 

Laoghal, Ben (Tongue . Prp'-LArlj sc^eh *r>i prvjo. LoTal : 
G. laogh a/, ''hind calTes' reci-' v€ fr. i^scrA, 'a henx a 
champion.' 

Labachbbg (Morrem). G. = ' little b:-:iae* or ^^um' or 
' ruin ' ; Utrach has all these niear.ir.jrsw 

Larbert (Stirling). Sic 1251; but 1195. Lethbeith : c^ 
1320, LethtenL G. hz\ is a half, a share, but Lar- 
is prob. fr. larach : see above- The second half may 
be fr. G. hard^ baird^ a poet, bard, or t'^art^ work, 
exploit, a yoke., burden, machine, so that the exact 
meaning is hard to define. 

Larg Hill (Kirkcudbright) and Largs (Ayr^.). Ayrsh. L., 
c 1140, Larghes; 1318, -gys ; and prob. Tt\f?»emaCy 
ann. 711, Loirg ecclet, G. iearg^ lain*/, *the side or 
slope of a hill, a plain, a beaten path,' with Eng. plur. 
Of. Lairg. 

Largo and Largoward (Fife). 1250, Largauch ; 1279, -aw; 
1595, -go. G. leargach, 'steep, sloping field'; tcaniy 
O.K weard, expresses direction, as in * homeward,' «fco, 

Larig, Hill (Dava). G. larig, *a path, way.' Of. Crian- 

LARICH. 

Larkhall (Hamilton). Also near Bath. 

Lassodie (Dunfermline). Prob. G. lecuf-aodantiy * garden- 
slope ' or * face,' = Lessuden, old name of St Bos well's, 
c, 1200, Lassedwyn; in the latter the ending is Bry- 
thonic, O.W. fsiddyn, a slope. Of, Edinburgh. 

LasswjIdk (Dalkeith), a. 1150, Leswade; and cf, Lkswalt, 



196 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

in 17th century Lesswad ; prob. W. llys, *a court, hall, 
palace,' G. lios^ and gwaedy * blood, gore,' referring to 
some murder. G. Chalmers' M.E. weyde, *a meadow,' 
is a pure invention. 

LItheron and Latheronwheel (Caithness). Pron. Lahran. 
1274, Lagheryn; 1275, Lateme; 1515, Latheroun; c. 
1565, Lethrin. Prob. G. laghran, ladhran, * prongs, 
forks ' ; referring to the two valleys of the parish. 
Forms 1274-75 show it cannot be, as Dr M*Lauchlan 
says, = Lorn. Latheron wheel is prob. G. laghran-a- 
bhuilly * the forks or divisions of the plot of ground,' fr. 
G. ball, a spot, a limb. With this agrees the recorded 
spelling * Latheron-fuil.' 

Lathonbs (St Andrews). Prob. G. leathad aonaich, *the 
slope of the hill ' or * heath ' ; with the common Eng. 
plural. 

LathrIsk (Fife). 1183, Loschiresk ; 1250, Lorresk ; a. 
1400, Lothresk. Prob. G. loisgear uisge, * swift water.' 
Cf, EsK and Lothrib. 

Laudalb (Strontian). Prob. *low dale'; Icel. lag^, Dan. 
lav, low, and Icel. and Dan. dal, a dale. 

Lauder and Laudbrdalb. 1250, Lawedir; 1298, Loweder. 
Lauderdale, 1560, Lawtherdale, is the valley of the 
river Leader; a, 800, Leder ; c. 1160, Ledre, and prob. 
the names are the same. Prob. G. lia dobhar or dur, 
*grey water' or * stream.' Cf, Adder. 

Laurencekirk. Formerly Conveth. Prob. fr. St Laurentius, 
the martyr, c. 260. Cf. next. 

Laurieston (in Edinburgh, and Glasgow, Cramond, Bal- 
maghie, Dundee, Kinneff). Laurie is corruption of 
Lawrence, e.g., Kinn. L., 1243, Laurenston ; 1461, 
Laurestoun. Cram. L., 1590, Laurenstoun; Dun.!., 
1385, Louranzstone ; and a chapel to St Laurence is 
mentioned in 1249 near KinnefF. Laurieston, near 
Falkirk, originally Langtoune {sic 1393), was called 
Merchistown in 1774, and was renamed after Sir 
Lawrence Dundas of Kerse. Edinb. L. is fr. Lawrence, 
son of Edmund of Edinburgh, to whom the Abbot of 



PLACE-NAMES OF SOCfTLkjrDL 197 

Kelso granted a tc^ betwcsen iLe Wcsst Port and the 
Castle in 1160. Larnstcn Fell hoiburgh^ is the same 
name. Cf. the Kn gligh 'Lany/ 

LiA^w (Carluke). Sc. tew, O.K 7J(w, a nioimd, LUl ; in 
England usuallj -fcic, as in Marlow, Taplow, Ac ; cf- 
Ferriblow. 

La^wers, Ben (L. Tay), and Laitebs (Comrie). G. Iaih4Mr 
(pron. lar), *a hoof,' with Eng. pluraL Ben L. = * doTcn 
mountain.' 

TjAXa (Shetland), Laxat (Islay and Lewis). IsL L., old, 
Laxa, s Lachsat, 'salmon rirer' (cf. Laxay, Isle of 
Man, and next); but Laxa, Shetland, is O.N. lax-ay, 
'salmon isle.' 

Laxford, L. (Sutherland) and Laxtob. 1559, -fuizd. 
'Salmon frith, fjord, or bay'; O.N. lax, N. lachs, a 
salmon. Cf. Broadpord. Voe, is O.N. vag-r, * a bay.' 

LsADBURN (Peebles), c. 1200, Lecbemard, 'Bernard's stone' 
or ' grave,' G. leac But the corruption is strange. 

Leader, R. See Lauder. 

Leadhills (S. Lanarksh.). Lead (O.K Uad) has been mined 
here for at least 600 years. 

Lecropt (Bridge of Allan). 1260, Lecroith; 1394, Lecro; 
c. 1550, Lekraw. G. Zee, *a flagstone, a tomb ' ; perh. + 
rathy 'a circle, rampart'; or perh. croit^ *a hump, a 
knoll,' also cf. Ir. crapain for Ir. and G. cnapan, * a little 
knob, hillock ' ; as in Carrickcroppan, Armagh. 

Ledaio (Connel Ferry). G. lad, laid, *a water-course,' + 
Gaelic, N. aig, for N. vik, * a bay.' 

Ledi, Ben (Callander). Commonly said to be the * Mount of 
God ' ; G. heinji le Dia. Cf. Cnoc Ledi, Tain. 

Lee, Pen (Peeblessh.). Icel. hlie, hie, Dan. hlce, O.E. hleo, 
shade, shelter, the 'leeside.' Pen is the Brythonic or 
Welsh form of G. ceann, * headland, height.' 

Leeds, New (New Deer). Leeds, Yorkshire, is 'Loidis' in 
Bede. Prob. 'people's place'; O.E. Itdda, people. 



198 PLACB-NAMKS OF SCOTLAND. 

Leffenbbo (Kintyre). G. leth-pJieghinn, *a halfpenny,' a 
land measure (see p. Ixv), -hbeag, * little.' Gf. Levin- 
corrach, Arran, * steep halfpenny land,' and Lephin- 
mor, Strachur. 

Lbgbrwood (Earlston). Sic 1158; but 1127, Ledgaresude; 
1160, Legerdswode. Prob. fr. a man; cf. the Eng. 
name * St Leger,' + O.E. vmduj * a wood.' 

LbglanWood (Auchencruive). c. 1470, Laklyne. G. leacach 
lann, * slaty or sloping land.' 

Lbgsmalbb (Aberdour, Fife), a. 1169, Ecclesmaline ; later, 
Egilsmalye, Egsmalye. * Church of St McUine' (cf, 
Malines, Belgiimi). For a similar corruption, see Lbs- 

MAHAQOW. Cf, ECCLES. 

Leith (town, and water of) and Leithen R. (Innerleithen). 
Leith is (c. 1145, Inverlet, Inverlbith), 1439, Leicht; 
1570, Leth. Prob. fr. W. lleithiOj * to moisten, overflow ' 
(cf, G. ligJie, a flood). The -en in Leithen is adjectival. 
Cf, Leet Water, Coldstream ; Leaths, Buittle ; and 
Lethen Bum, branch of the river Findhom. 

Lbitholm (Coldstream). 'Meadow on the Leet.' See Holm 
and Leith. 

Lbndal Water (Girvan). G. Ikan dail, * marshy meadow.' 

Lenimorb or Lynibmorb (Caticol). G. Uana mdr, *big, 
marshy flat.' Some say, fr. lann ; see Lamlash. 

Lbnnel (Coldstream), c. 1098, Lenihale. Perh. 'scantly 
furnished hall,' fr. O.E. hltJkne, M.E. lene, 'lean,' 
found in this sense a. 1340, and O.E. heal, Icel. Jioll, 
hall, * a manor-house, a hall.' 

Lennox (Dimibarton) and Lennoxtown (Kirkintilloch), 
c. 1210, Levenax, -nach; 1234, Lenox; 1296, Levanaux, 
old G. MS., Lemnaigh. G. leamhanach, * abounding in 
elms.' Cf Leven. 

L^tran (Inverness). G. leana traona, * marshy flat of the 
com-orakes.' 

Lent (Callander). 1238, Lanyn. G. Uanan, *a little 
meadow or marsh.' 



PLACK-XAMSS OF SCI'TLayTi. 199 

Lknzib (Glasgow), c 123a Lecneii: c IS'Xt Leogae; 
1451, Lenjie. Prcth. oji G- '-3:7*0. *a swimp or 
marsh ' ; the eth is ppcih. adiecizTiJ : Ijia: ^- CijC»tjl 
The z is just the old Sc v. 

Lbochkl Ccshxik (AlfcHdu f- li">:«, Lcydiel: a. l.SC«Ct 
Regist. Aberdon^ *Liocbel' and 'Cnsciieiix/ These two 
separate parishes were uriiiBd. c 17-XL L. prob. 
= Laoghal, *calfs rodt " : and aese Clsumjl 

X.BRWICK. 5rc 1625. X. leir-rJ:^ ^mzid-lAjJ CV. Lervik, 
Norwav. 

Lbsub (Fife and Gariocb). Gar. L, c 11S(», Lesslvn : a, 
ISCk), Lesslj : Fife L. is naiDfd fr. this one. MaJcolm, 
son of Baidulf, was grarit<ed the Isinds of Lessliru 
1171-99, and took his naiDe fr. them: though a 
Bartholomew Ledy is said to hare come to Scotland in 
1097.* Perhaps G. leaf^a^i (for Jeuf^a/rJi) Jinne. * flash in g 
or spotted pooL' 

LbshahIgow (LanariLshire). 1144, E^xlesia Machuti; but 
c, 1130, Lesmahagu ; 129S, Lismago : 1316, Lesma- 
chute. * Church of St Marhui^^' disciple of the 
missionary Brendan ; went with him to the Orkneys, 
6th century. €f. Ecclesmachax and Legsmaleb. Or 
the first syllable may be G, leas^ lio^^ * house, court-' 

Lbssudbn, now St Boswell's. See under Lassodib. 

Lbswalt (Stranraer). 1580, Loch Swaid ; 17th century, 
LesswoU, -wad. Perfi. 'house, court (G. leas), at the 
base ' of the hill. W. gtcaelod, * base, bottom,* could 
have originated all the early forms. For w^gw or gu^ 
^. Kirkgunzbox. Qr'. Lasswade, and Gwaelod-y-Garth, 
Cardiff. 

Lbtham (Arbroath, CoUessie, Larbert, Dunfermline, and 
Berwick). (1250, 'Capella Brigham,Letham,'Berwicksh.) 
Arb. L., 1 284, Latham. Col. L., 1 296, Letham. G, leih, 
*a half, a share,' + O.E. hdrOj * home, house.' 

L^THBNDT (Blairgowrie) and Lethexty (Inverurie). 1285, 
Lenthendy. Perh. G. leatfian Ugh, * broad house.' 

> Sibbald's History of Fife, edit, 1710, \k 870. 



200 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Lbthnot (Brechin). [1225, *Lethenoth,' Gamrie.] 1275, 
Lethnoth; 1359, Lethnotty; but 1328, Petnocy. 
* Bit of land on the hillock ' ; G. leth lit. means * a half,' 
then *half a township' or vUliUa, then perh. simply 
' a piece of land,' « pit, pet (see Petty). The second 
half would seem to be either G. nochd, * watching, 
observation,' or G. cnocan, * a little hill.' Lightnot, 
Gamrie, the old Lethenoth, is evidently the same word. 
Of. Tap o' Noth. 

TiETTBRPBARN (L. Duich). Stc- 1509. * Alder-clad slope,' fr. 
G. leitir (leth-tir), Ir. leitar, *land on the slope of a 
glen,' and G. fedma, an alder ; or perh. fr. leth-oir, *the 
one side or edge ' (oir) ; cf, * Letherpen,' a harbour in 
Argyle, in an old Irish MS. (Skene, Celtic ScotL, il 
203). A 'Letter' is marked on a 1745 map, north-west 
of Campsie. Common in Ireland, Letterfrack, -kenny, 
&c. Gf. Ballater, Dullatur. 

Letterfinlay (L. Lochy). 1553, Lettirfinlay. *Land on 
the slope belonging to Finlay ' ; see above. 

Letterpin (Girvan). *The slope of the hill' (pin=^?en); 
cf, above, and Pinmore. 

Leughars (St Andrews), a. 1300, Locres ; 1639, Leucheries. 
Prob. G. luachair, * rushes,' with Eng. pluraL Of, 
Leuchar, Skene ; Luichar Loch, Lewis ; and Ardlougher, 
Ireland. 

Lbuchat (Aberdour, Fife). c. 1214, Lowchald. Prob. 
G. luachrach allt, * rushy glen ' or * stream.' 

Leven (lochs, Kinross and N. Argyle; river, Dimibarton; 
town, Fife) ; also Lbvbnhall (Musselburgh). Kin. L., 
a. 1100, Lochlevine; 1145, Lochlewyn ; 1156, Lohu- 
leuene. Arg. L., a. 1100, Tighemac, ann. 704, Glen- 
lemnae. Fife L., c. 1535, Levin. Dumb. L., 1238, 
Flumen de Levyne; 1370, Lewyne; c. 1560, Levinus. 
G. leamhan, * an elm ' {cf, Lennox, also Leven, Hull ; 
Levens, Westmoreland). Ptolemy, c. 120 a.d., calls 
Loch Long, L. Lemannonius, evidently the same word. 
G. sleamhuinn, W. llevn, * smooth,' is suitable enough 
in several of the cases and phonetically possible, as 
initial 8 does occasionally fall away {Place-Names of 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 201 

StrcUhbogte, p. 64). But this would hardly occur so 
early as the oldest spellings of Leven. Mr C. Living- 
stone, Ft. William, says : neither llevn nor G. leamhaUy 
*an elm,' suits the Arg. L., which is always pron. 
lle-un, and so may, like Lyon, be the G. Uan, *a 
swampy place, a meadow.' 

LiBVBNWiCK (Shetland). A G. name is very unlikely here ; 
so perh. Icel. hlce-vang-r-vik, * bay of the warm garden 
or haven.' Cf. Maven. 

Lbvbrn (Paisley). Prob. =Lbven. Cf, Morvbn and MoR- 

VERN. 

Lewis, a. 1100 (Gaelic MS.), Leodus; Sagas, Lyod^hus; 
c. 1225, Orkney, Sag,, Li6dhus; 1292, Lodoux; 1449, 
Leoghuis. Commonly said to be Icel. Mj6d^ hiis, * hear- 
ing house,' whatever that may mean; more prob. fr. 
IceL hlj6-&^, * silent, melancholy ' ; or else, as in Sagas, 
Ij off 'hits, * house of song.' Martin, Thomas and Prof. 
Mackinnon say, corruption of G. leoig, *a marsh,' or 
leogus, gen. leoghuis, * marshiness,' which is appropriate 
enough, but has no support from early forms. 

Letsmill (Arbroath). Prob. fr. a man Leys or Lees. 

Lhanbryde (Moray). Old Lamna-, Lamanbride; G. lann 
na Brid, * church of St Bride.' See Lamlash and 
Kilbride. 

Liberton (Edinburgh and Camwath). Edinb. L., 1128, 
and Camw. L., c. 1186, Libertun. Said to be * Leper- 
town ' ; G. lohhar. Leper is not found in Eng., how- 
ever, till c. 1 250, and never with a h. Sometimes called 

* Spitaltown,' i,e,, place of the leper hospital. 

LiDDESDALE (Roxburgh). 1179, Lidelesdale, *Glen' or *dale' 
(O.E. dael, Icel. and Dan. dal) of the Liddel Water, c. 
1160, Lidel; c, 1470, Ledaill. Perh. G. Jia dail, 

* grey field,' or fr. l\, * coloured, tinged.' If so, * Lideles- 
dale ' is not a reduplication. 

LiFF (Dundee). Sic c, 1120, but 1250, Lif. Perh. like 
ClonlifF, Ireland, which is Ir. and G. duain luihh, 

* meadow of herbs.' 



202 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

LiLLiKSLKAF (Selkirk). 1116, LUleseliva (?-cliva); 1186, 
Lillesclif; 1296, LiUeslyve; 1721, Lilsly. Prob. just 
*lil/8 leaf; O.E. ZtZtc, L. ZiZtmn, a Hly, and O.E. ledj\ 
a leaf. Or else, fr. O.E. dif, *a cliff.' 

Limekilns (Dunfermline). 1561, Lymekil ; Limbrigg (Sla- 
mannan, cf, Bonnyrigg, &e.). Lime Road (Falkirk). 

LiNCLXTDEN (Dumfries). ^ic 1449; 1452, Lyncludene. 

* Pool (W. llyn) on the river Cludbn.' 

LiNGUMDODDiE (hamlet in Peeblessh., now extinct). Prob. 
W. llyn ca7n, 'crooked linn or wdLter,' + dodd, doddy, 
*a rounded hill,* see Dodd. 

LiNDBAN (Selkirk). Also old name of Galashiels. 1275, 
Lyndon; 1353, Lindene. W. llyn din, *linn' or 

* water by the hill ' ; but influenced by den or Dean. 

LiNDORBS (Newburgh). Pron. -d6ors. 1199, Lundoris; c. 
1203, Londors; 1639, Lundors. Prob. W. Uyn dwr 
(G. linne dobfuzir), * pool ' or * loch near the water ' (the 
Tay), with Eng. plural s. Cf. Poldores Bum, Cars- 
phaim. Hardly fr. G. doran, an otter. 

LiNDSAYLANDS (Biggar). The Lindsays held lands in Clydes- 
dale in the 1 2th century. The first known of the family, 

* Randolph de Limesay ' or * Lindesey,' was a nephew of 
William the Conqueror, and came over with him. The 
name means * lime-tree ' or * linden isle,' N. ay, ey. 

LiNGA (Shetland). Sagas, Lyngey. Icel. and Dan. lyng-ay, 
*ling' or * heather isle.' Cf. Lingholm (see Holm), 
Stronsay, and Lingrow, Scapa. 

LinlAthbn (Dundee). Prob. G. linne leatkan, * broad linn' 
or *pool.' 

LiniJthgow. 1147, Linlitcu; 1156, Lillidchu; c. 1160, 
Linlidcu; 1264, Lenlithgow; a. 1347, Linliscoch; and 
contracted — as still popularly — a. 1300, Lithcowe; 
1489, Lythgow. Linlidcu is plainly Brythonic= *dear, 
broad lake'; W. llyn, Com. lin, Ir. linn, G. linne, a 
pool or loch; W. lied, broad, and W. cu, dear. Cf. 
Glasgow. 



PLACE-NAMES 07 SCOTIASD. 203 

LiNNHE, L. (N. Argyle). G. liniiej 'a pool, enclosed sea- 
loch ' ; thus Loch Linnhe is a tautologj. 

Linn op Dbe, &c. G. linne, *a pooL' See under LuLiTHGOir. 

Ldttmill (Cullen). O.K liTtety 'lint,' fr. O.E, liWj L- linum^ 
flax. 

Linton, East and West (and near Kelso). East L, 1127, 
Lintun. West L., 1567, Ljntoun. 'Hamlet by the 
linn,' O.E. hlynn, 'a torrent'; not same word a« G, 
Zi«7i6, or W. llyn. See LufUTHGOW. Five Lintons in 
England. 

LiNTRATHBN (Kirriemuir). 1250, Lumtrethjn; 1433, Lun- 
trethin. G. Idn, * meadow,' or G. lann (or W. llan) 
frathainy * enclosure in a ferny spot.' 

LiNWOOD (Paisley). W. llyn, *a pool,' + woorf, O.E. wudu, 

LiSMORK (N. of Oban), a. 1100, Tighemac, ann. 611, 
Lesmoir; 1251, Lesmor; 1549, Lismoir. G. lion mdry 
*big garden,' the island is so fertile. Ltos is lit. the 
ground within a lios, i.e., a wall, often a rampart. 

LissA (Mull). Corruption of O.N. lax^, * salmon-river.' Cf. 
Lachsat, Laxa. 

LiTTLB Ferry (Dornoch). In G. Port Beag. And Littlb 
Dban (Berwickshire). See Dean. Almost the only 
* Littles ' in Scotland, although they are so common in 
England. 

Livingstone (Midcalder). 1250, Leuinistun ; 1297, 
Levyngestone. * Abode of Leving ' or Levyn, an early 
Saxon settler. A Living was Abp. of Canterbury in 
1013. 

LoANHSAD (Edinburgh). Loan is Sc. for * a country lane ' 
(see Langloan). (y. Loans, Troon. 

LoGHABER (district, S.W. Inverness) and Loch Lochabbr 
(Troqueer). a. 700, Adamnan, Stagnum (t.e., standing 
water, swamp, pool) Aporum; 1297, Lochabor; 1309, 
-abre. * Loch which is the river-mouth,' i.e., L. Linnhe ; 
G. abir, see p. xxxii. M'Bain derives fr. G. ahar, *a 
marsh.' 



204 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

LocHALSH (W. Inverness). 1449,-alche; 1472, -alch; Aberdeen 
Brev,, -elch. Perh. fr. Sw. elg, an elk, cf, Glenelg, near 
by ; or possibly fr. G. aiZZse, a fairy. 

LocH-AN-EiLBiN (Rothiemurcus). G. = * loch with the island/ 

LocHANHBAD (Dumfries). G. lochan, diminutive of loch, *a 
lakelet.' Cf. Lochans, Stranraer. 

LocHARBRiGGS (Dumfries). Lochar Water is possibly fr. the 
same man's name as Lockerbie; but more likely G. 
luachair, * rushes.' Cf. Lochar Moss, Longformacus. So. 
brig is O.E. hricg,' a bridge.' 

LocHBUiE (Mull). 1478, -bowe; 1549, -buy. G. buidhe, 

* yellow, golden.' Cf Kilbowie and Stronbuy. 

Lochburn(ib) (Glasgow). Bumie is diminutive of Sc. hum^ 
O.E. buma, * a stream, rivulet.' 

LocHEB (Dundee). Perh. fr. G. iodhy * com.' Cf. Tireb. 

LocHEiL (Fort William). 1528, -iell. Prob. fr. G. toZ, 'a 
gleam of sunshine.' 

LocHEND (Edinburgh, Dumfries). Prob. fr. G. ^an, *a bird ' ; 
on the d, see p. xliv. But cf. Lochfoot, also in Dimifries. 

LocHGAiR (Inveraray). = Gairloch. * Short loch ' ; G. gearr. 

LocHGELLY (Dunfermline). G. gecd, gile^ 'clear, white.' 
Cf. Innergelly, see Abbrgbldib. 

Lochgilphead (Argyle). Gilp is prob. G. gilb, a 'chisel,' 
from its shape. 

Lochgoil, -inver, &c. See Goil, Inver, &c. 

LochinvAr (Dairy, Kirkcudbright). 1578, -in war; 1639, 
Louchinvar. G. lochan-arbharra^ * lochlet of the height.' 

Lochleb (Brechin). G. liath^ *grey, pale'; or Umnk, 

* smooth.' 

Lochluichart (Ross-sh). G. luchairt, * a castle ' ; or luachair, 

* rushes.' 

Lochmabbn (Dumfries). 1166, Locmaban; 1298, Logh- 
maban; c. 1320, Lochmalban; 1502, -mabane. *Loch 
of the bare hill ' ; G. maol heinn. Cf. Mulben. 



PLACK-NAMKS OF SOfyTLASIL 205 

LocHMADDY. G. mododhy 'a wolf, wili dog.' Or. F:iImaddT, 

Carsphaim. 

LocHNAGin (Aberdeen). Perb. • loch of the ei^clasrire, dyke, 
mound, garden ' ; G. gdradlt. 

LocHORE (Lochgelly). Fr. G. O'Jj.ar iproo. owr*, 'grey/ 

LocHRUTTON (Kirkcudbright), a. 1300, Lo^fa loieton- Prob. 
G. loch ruculhy * red, ruddy loch,' -r -///n ; but ^'. p. btxxiv. 

Lochs (Lewis). 1549, Monro, ' the Loches,' ao called, a8 he 
explains, fr. the number of small loehii in the parish. 
c. 1620, Loghur, which is prob. G. lorh rhur, 'loch of 
the turn or bend ' (cor). Cf. Strachtr. 

LocHWiNNOCH (Beith). 1158, Lochynoc f which is rery like 
the local pron. still); a. 1207, -winnoc ; 1710, 
-whinyeoch. Fr. St Winnoc, diminutive of Wynnin, 
died 579 ; see Kilwixxixg. 

LocHT, R. and L. (Inyemess). a. 700, Adarnnan, Lacus 
Lochdiae; 1472, Locha; 1496, Loquhy; prob., too, 
= Nigra Dea in Adarnnan ; if so, it is the O.lr. loch, 
* black,' + dea, a rirer-name in Ireland, cf. Dee. Its 
modem G. spelling is Lochaid, 

Lockerbie (Dumfries). ' Loker's dwelling ' or * village ' ; 
Dan. bi, by (cf. p. Ixxii). Also cf. Lockerley, Romsey, 
and Lokeren, Belgium. 

Logan, Port (Wigtown). Prob. = Laggax ; G. lagan, * a 
little hollow.' Cf. Logie. 

Logie (Bridge of Allan, (1184, Logyne) and Cupar), Logie- 
ALMOXD (Perth, see Almond), Logie Buchan, Logie 
CoLDSTONE (Aberdeensh.), Logie Easter (Ross-sh.), 
Logie Pert (Montrose). More than one of above, c. 
1210, Logyn, i.e., G. lagan, 'a little hollow,' cf. Laggan ; 
or lag, luig, * a hollow den,' with Eng. diminutive suflBx 
-te, found as early as 1270, * Logy,' i>., Logie Easter, 
and a. 1300, *Logy' in Buchan. As to Logie Cold- 
stone, these were two parishes, Logie and * Codilstan,' 
united in 1618. Pert is prob. G.feart, *a small, round 
fort,' with Pictish p. 



206 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

LoGiBRAiT (Ballinluig). c. 1200, Rate, Rath. Gr. lagan 
raithy * little hollow with the fort, rampart,' or * circle.' 

LoGiERiBVE (Ellon). ? G. lagan riabaidh, * little hollow of 
the rent ' or * fissure.' 

Lomond, L. and Ben, and Lomond Hills (Fife), c. 1225, 
Lochlomne ; and m Chart, Paisley, * lake of Leven ' ; 
a. 1350, Lochlomond. Derivation fr. G. leamhna or 
leamhaiiy * an elm,' is very doubtful. Perh. G. loman, 
* a shield, a banner.' Of. Leven. On the rf, see p. xliv. 

Long, L. (Firth of Clyde). Sic. c, 1225. Thought to be 
Ptolemy's (c. 1 20 a.d.) L. Lemannonius ; if so, * loch of 
the elms,' G. leamhan. But in 1776 it is Loung, which 
is G. long, luing, a ship ; and the Norse called it Skipa- 
fiord. However, mod. Gaels call it Loch fada, i,e.j 
Loch long. Gf, Luing. 

LoNGFORGAN (Dundee), c. 1160, Forgnmd ; 1250, Forgrund 
in Gouirryn j 1315, Lonforgaund, Longforgnind ; 
1461, Langforgend; 1661, Long Forgund; but Acta 
Sanctorum, Lanfortin, where Ian must mean * church ' 
(see Lamlash). A church is said to have been built 
here, c. 600, by St Modwenna or Medana. For- may 
be old G. fothir, * wood or bit of land ' (see Fettbr- 
ANGUs) ; so the whole name is prob. G. lann fothir 
grunda, * church on the land with " groimd " or bottom 
in it,' i.e., with good subsoil. 

LoNGFORMAOUS (Duns). c. 1340, Langeford Makhous. ? G. 
lann fothir Maccvs, * church on the land of Maccus,' 
who lived hereabouts c. 1150. See Maxton, &c., and 

Cf. LONGFORGAN. 

LoNGHOPB (Stromness ; Icel. h&p, * a refuge,' see Hobkirk), 
Longriggend (Airdrie, cf. p. Ixx). 

LoNGMANHiLL (Banff). Cf. Standingmanhill, Fordyce, 
Stonemanhill, Fyvie. 

LoNGMORN (Elgin). Perh. popular corruption of G. Ion 
mdrain, * meadow rich in grass.' 

Longniddrie (Haddington). 1595, Langnedre. The first 
part must be lann, * enclosure, church,' see Lamlash ; 
for the second see Niddrib. 



FLACK-TJLKS^ Iff ^'' — ^v ^ 207 

a. 1500, T.rr^— tJ^T V- ;;,«!. mrpu -nukTiC. ::r "zneaiow 
in the [dain.' •>* *r_tJDir- : jLsJT. 

Loftx (Argrlei- 'Jl I->>r_ liiirin. Fz. ^.'^"^ nr L/.*rr%^ arst 
king of the S>:-ca zi Z'tiJzTsit^Ah. n 4^»-». j^» 

luossns, R (Elgin.. *iii Li:>*K"nw.C!!S- If '±:sf t«? P:ot«eniTs 
Ziora, it caiii]!>x ce v^^. Js^-t - sb^zruic rrr-r." '.r. Laxat 
and Loxlej, Fjrg'.Lni. r^ir^ fr. "jr. Jj^. *.> bie angry, 
sparkle, shine. E-n L#:i*n Kil-T-iL 2< G. iVt.*^^, 'a 
kneading tr*>rigt:.' M^ne h rsii^ T:r:o~:i:iTe d^ii'*; ef, 
* Losset,' 12:5:5. Mid Rilpisrirk. 

Loth (Brora). 1565. hz^L-t. Pr:<L G. 7 r-, trA. 'clay, mud,' 
or rather, '6ne alliTiil =*.C' *n.r. as e* h^re; so Dr 
Joass, GoLspie. 

LoTHiAX, East, West and Mi-i <•_ 7->X ^vi?. re ann. 654, 
Regio Loidis <Lo:iis is. B^ie aL^j cleans Leeeks); «•. 
970, PiW. t'hrr/n^ LoocJa : M'&L 'A^l Chnyn.^ Lod'ene; 
1158, 'in Loeneis' : a. 12«». ^«;Wi!f Laud«>nia ; -r. 1200, 
Louthion; <r- 1245, Laodinia : c. 16«>3, Lawdien. 
Possibly, like Loth, connected with G. lafAh)<m or 
laifiochj ' mire, clay, aUurial soil ' : poissibly from O.K 
leody * a prince,' or leo^Ja, ' people/ 

LoTHRiE Burn (Leslie;. 1250, Loehris: 1294, -ry. G. loch 
reisg, *loch with the rushes,' or, like Lochrie, Strath- 
bogie, fr. G. luachrcKh, ' full of rushes.' 

Loudoun (Kilmarnock), c. 1200, Loudun. Doubtful ; 
% • low dune ' or * hill.' 

LovAT (Beauly). Pron. Liivat. 1294, Lovet. Perh. G. 
lobivt^ lobhta, * a loft, high floor * ; or luibli-aite, * herb- 
place,' district aboimding in plants. 

Lower Cabrach, Lower Largo, &c. See Cabrach, Largo, &c, 

Lowes, Loch of (St Mary's L. and Dunkeld). The w pron. 
as in * how.' Prob. a reduplication ; ct\ the Forest of 
Lowes, N. of Roman Wall, Northumbld. In Spood's 
map, 1610, the Ir. form loughy for lake or loch^ in 
general in N. of England. Or else Dan. /ay, lool. ld(j'f\ 
M.E. late, * low.' Cf. Lowes water. 



208 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Lowlands. Apparently quite modem. Gf. 1682, Christ. 
Irvin, Hivt, Scoticce, s.v. Albinensis. ' At this day the 
English and our Low-landers call and account them 
[the Highlanders] Irish'; and a. 1687, Petty, Polit 
Arithmetic, iv. 69, * the Low-land of Scotland.' In G. 
called Galldachd, or * stranger-dom,' as opposed to 
Gaeliachdy Gael-dom, * the Highlands ' ; also called 
Machair, * the plain.' 

LowTHBR Hills (Dumfries). Of. Lauder, and Lowther 
Newtown, Penrith. 

LoY Glen (Fort William). Really Gloy. G. gloathj 'noise/ 
fr. the high sound the wind makes here. 

LoYNE, R. and L. (L. Garry). Fr. G. lonn, loinuy variant 
of lann, ' enclosure, church,' or fr. loinrieacJi, * beautiful, 
bright.' 

LuBNAiG, L. (Callander). Prob. named from its shape; fr. 
G. liih, * bend, curve,' with double diminutive an and aig. 

Luce, Old and New (Wigtown). 1461, Glenlus. Perh. same 
as Ptolemy's AvKOTrijSta. Possibly G. his, * an herb, plant '; 
but Dunluce, Portrush, is Ir. dun lioSy * strong fort.' 

LuFFNESS (Aberlady). 1180, LufFenac ; c. 1250, Luffenauch. 
Prob. G. leth'pheginn-achadhj * halfpenny field' (cf, 
Leffenbeg). Or, as Luffhess stands in a bay, not on a 
ness, fr. G. lub(h)ain-achadhj * field at the little bend or 
curve of the shore.' 

LiJgar, R. (Auchinleck). Perh. G. liib carr, * short bend ' or 
* curve.' 

LuGGiE Water (Cumbernauld), c. 1300, Luggy. Prob. 
dimin. fr. G. lag or lug, * a hollow ' ; cf. next ; and not 
f r. Sc. luggie, *• a little dish, a plate, with a lug or ear for 
a handle.' 

LuGTON (Neilston and Dalkeith). Prob. * village in the 
hollow ' ; G. and Ir. lag, which in the south and west 
of Ireland is always lug, e.g., LugdufF, Wicklow, &c. 

But cf. DUBTON. 

LuiB (Killin). G. lab, luib, * a bend, curve, angle.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 209 

LuiNG Island (S. of Oban). G. long, luing(e), a ship. Cf, 
Portnaluing, opposite lona, Adamnan's * Lunge.' 

LuMGAiR (KinnefF). c. 1220, Lunkyrr; 1651, Lumger; 
also Lonkyir. Prob. G. Idn or lanri gearr, 'short 
meadow.' The letters c or k and g often interchange. 

LuMPHANAN (Mar) and Lumphinnan (Dunfermline). Mar 
L., a. 1100, Tighemac, and also a. 1300, Lumfanan. 
G. lann Finan, * church of St Finan ' or Wynnin, see 
Kilwinning. Cf. Lamlash, and Llanfinan, Anglesea. 

LuMSDKN (Alford). Quite modem. The old lands fr. which 
it was named were N. of Coldingham. K. Edgar, 
charter 1098, mentions *mansio Lummesdene.' Origin 
unknown; perh. fr. some man. See Dean. 

LuMWHAT (Auchtermuchty). Prob. G. Ion chatty * meadow' 
or * morass of the wild cat.' Cf. Alwhat, and Lynchat, 
Badenoch. 

LuNAN Bay (Montrose). Sic 1250. G. lunnan, 'waves.' 

LuNCARTY (Perth). Perh. 1250, Lumphortyn (ChartuL St 
Andr.), which looks like G. Ion fat tain, ' meadow of 
fortune, luck'; but 1461, Longardi, prob. 'meadow of 
justice ' ; G. ceartas, -tais, Scone palace being near by. 
Cf 1564, 'Luncartis in Glentilth.' 

LuNDiE (Dundee). Perh. = next. 

I LuNDiN Links (Leven). c. 1200, Lundin. The family of 

De Lundin, found in Fife in the 12th century, were tlic 

I king's hereditary hodiarii or doorkeepers, hence tbc 

name they took, Durward = ' door ward.' Very likely = 
London, llyn-din, 'pool-hill.' 

LuNNA and Lunnasting (Shetland). Lunna is perh. Icel. 
I lundra, *a grove,' common in place-names; or (fr. its sup- 

posed shape) fr. hmga, 'a lung.' Ting is O.N. ]tiwj^ 
I 'meeting, assembly.' Cf Tingwall. 

LuRO Hill (Cullen). G. lurg, ' the ridge of a hill graduiLlly 
declining into a plain.' Cf, Pitlurg. 

Luss (L. Lomond). Sice. 1250; but 1225, Lus. I^mK 
G. lua, 'an herb, plant.' Cf Cruach Lussa. The 
explanatory traditions are all doubtful. 

14 




/ 



210 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

LusSA (Mull). Said not to be » Luss, but corruption of O.N. 
lat-df salmon-river. Of. Laxa. 

LuTHERMUiR (Laurencekirk). The name Luthir is frequent in 
old Ir. M8S. Perh. G. Luachair, 'rushes.' Jfnir is 
Sc. for moor, O.E. and Icel. fn6r. 

LuTHRiE (Cupar). Perh. G. ludraigeadhj *a bespattering 
with foul water.' Cf, Lothrie. 

Ltbster (Wick). The y pron. as in Ijre. 1538, Lilnster. 
Prob. Jilie-bufter, 'shelter-place,' or harbour; bister u 
corruption of N. boUta/ffry a place (see p. Ixxii and <^. 
Bilbster). Also see Lee. 

Lynb Water (Peebles), c. 1190, Lyn; e. 1210, Line; 1399, 
Leigne. Com. liuy W. Uyn ; a pool, a ' linn,' a stream. 

Lynturk (Alford). G. linne (or W. Uyn) tuircy * pool of the 
wild boar ' (tore), 

Lynwilg (Aviemore). 1603, Lambulge; Pont, LjnbuHg. 
G. lann builg, ' land of the bulge or bag ' ; <f. Bogie. 
But perh. fr. G. linne (or W. Uyn), * a pool.' 

Lyon, R. (Perthsh.). See Glenlyon. The Irish Lyons are 
fr. the tribe WLdathain, and the name O'Lehane is still 
found. But Lyonshields (Beith) is pron. LansheiLi, 
and so may be fr. G. lann, 'enclosure'; also see 
Galashiels. 



M 

Macbib Hill (Dolphinton). 'Coldcoat' was bought bj 
Wm. Montgomery in 1712, and named by him after 
Macbeth or Macbie Hill, Ayrshire. 

Macduff (Banff). From the clan Macduff. 

Machar, Old and ^ew (Aberdeen), a, 1300, 'Ecclesia 
beati Sti Machorii.' Machor was a disciple of St 
Columba. Cf. *' Acchad Madchor ' in Bk, Deer, 3 mk 
N.W. of Deer; this may be G. maehair, *a plain.' 



PLACK-XAKSS 'Iff ^r.TTL^JQ.. 1^,1 

Machbahaxish (Campt^ehoiTL „ Ttritflr i\. ♦>«/>. li ^Wi'^Wi, 
'thin,' or ^shkUow jiihm' or m><:-i^ ^ S, ♦/»>*!. 40* «MW^ 
'ness, cape' (rf. Abi»alaxise : or *s fxiUfcaiuvi l*vxftr^\^ 
G. machair annai^ ^stanuT, uajs^r imt^' ; an^t^fi^ i$i^ hu 
* fierce.' The root of ituiah is prcih. m/ip^ " the- pA))Yi t\f 
the hand.' 

Machbie Bay (Arnm). It. and G. marhaiT^ •* iH^Ki A 
plain.' 

Macmbrry (Haddington). Peril. G. fnocfh miiy\ ^vAmw i>f 
the merry' or 'wanton one' (mear). Mo^^y im k 8o. 
surname. 

Maddebty (Crieff), a. 1100, TighemaCy mm. CUU), Mml 
derdyn. Prob. G. meadair dutiy Miill liko m IHUo 
pail ' or * circular wooden dish.' 

Maddiston (Polmont). 1424, MandirHtoun. • MhimIi'Im ' m» 
'Maunder's village.' Good iiwtaiic*} how )I«jmI«Iw |||»m 
n and r may totally disappear. (!/, M<»M'Ii'»mIi»m, 
Berwicksh. 

Masshow (Stennis). A famous duii/il><'r«''l ni)ni t^'tif't 
Orkahaug, t.6., 'mighty cairn/ ai*<i /tow it» ^H'^i m >m^ 
ruption of hatig. The maen- i« p;»^.-il;l y f* I" 1 //<//'/ • / / 
'greatest,' i.e., moist iamoMH. f!f. ^ i\t^\>iu w 

Maoby (Ayr). Prob. G. nt/ji/jh, '« |/I>'hi, \ tf"** it Iff 
'dwellii]^, village, V>wii.' 

Magdalen Gbeev (Duiici«>. ;. 

MaOGIKSOCKATEB ^'DuitV^w I y \/'^ir> i /" '/ o<uj,,,h I' I 
Hre, 'hill icrtoc) wiu. iix^iiM iv« /.•/,* J.' '<< 

Mabaicx, L- /'I>ouij< ,. ^»"'i '• tiijt ihu,i,h> 



I 



i.v :- 


MAIDK»H£Ali. B. V .^<r,nr • , i ' / 




ocmutT. «y ', h //*" ' '// /',/* 


(H\ " 









df'^ 



212 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Mainland (Orkney and Shetland). Both, m Sagas, Megin- 
land, i.e., mainland, * continent.' Icel. megiii means 

* might ' or * the main part.' 

Mains (Dundee, &e.) and Mainsriddell (Dumfries). Com- 
mon name of a farm-steading, or little group of houses, or 
a country-house ; same root as manse, L. inaneo, mansum^ 
to remain. Kiddell, of course, gives the owner's name. 

Makerston (Kelso), c. 1160, Malkarustun; 1241, Malcar- 
vestun ; 1298, Malcaristona. * Malcar's tan ' or 

* hamlet.' 

Malsat (Shetland). Prob. * isle {ay, a) of the stipulation ' 
or * agreement'; Icel. rtidl. And Mallaig may have 
the same origin, + Norse G. aig, * a bay.' 

Mambbg (Gareloch). 1248, Mambege and Mammore. G. 
mam beag, * little round hill ' like a breast ; L. T/iam^Tio. 
Cf. Cioch Mhor, * the big breast,' Ben Wyvis. 

Mamore Forest (Lochaber). c. 1310, Maymer; 1502, 
Mawmor; 1504, Mammore. G. magh mdr, * big plain.' 

Manish (Harris). Icel. md-r, * a gull ' + Norse G. nish or 
nces, *a ness, promontory.' 

Mannopield (Aberdeen). 

Manor (Peebles). Pron. Msener. 1186, Maineure; 1323, 
Mener. Prob. O.Fr. manoir, -eir, -67', land belonging 
to * the lord of the manor.' Manor was the Norman 
name for township. * Villas quasi manendo manerios 
vulgo vocamus,' Ordericus Vitalis, c. 1120. May be 
G. mxiinmr, * a cattle-pen ' ; and cf. Manorbier and 
Manordilo, Wales. 

Manor Sware (Peebles). O.E. swcer, * neck or pass on the 
top of a mountain, a col.' C/. Reidswire, and Swyre 
or Sware, Dumfries. 

Manuel (Polmont). c. 1190, Manuell ; 1301, ManewelL 
No proof that the Scottish M. is a contraction from 
Immanuel. But a priory was founded here in 1156, 
and perh. it was called after the famous monastery of 
Manuel in the patriarchate of Constantinople. Manuel 
was a common personal name there at that time. The 
ending in 1301 -well reminds one of Both well. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 213 

Mar (Aberdeensh.). a. 1100, Bk. I>er, Marr. Wh. Stokes 
says, a tribe-name cognate with Marsi and Marsigm. 

Marchmont (Duns). 1461, Marchemond. ' Hill (G. monadh, 
and cf. Fr. iiumt) at the march or border.' The name 
Marjoribanks, found hereabouts, is pron. Marehbanks. 
This may have a Kimilar origin- 

Maree, L. (Ros&^h-). 1633, Maror; 1656, Mourie. Xot 
fr. the Virgin Maiy, but from St Maelruhha^ who 
arrived in this district fr. Bangor, Ireland, in 671 ; see 
p. cvi 

Margaret's, St (Edinbur^;, and St Margaret's Hope 
(Queensferrr and Orkney;, c, 1425, Wyntoun^ Saynt 
Margretys Hope. Prob. both called after Queen 
Margaret, Saxon wife of Malcolm Canmore, died 1093. 
Hope is O.N. /i^je/, * a small, land-locked bay.' 

Mark, Marete, R. (Perth, Forfar, Banf^ Badenoch). G. 
marc^ ' a horse.' 

Markinch (Fife), cl 1200, ^larcinche, ^larchinge : c 1290, 
^farkynchs. G. ruarc-inni*^ * Horse's inch '" or ' pasture 
ground.' Cf. Ixce. 

Marnoch (Huntly;. Posaibly G. m*:ar'an-achaidh, * branch, 
outlier of the field ' or ' plain ' ; cf. Earxoce : perh. 
marhhana^u, ' full of corpisea.' 

Martin's, St ^Seone>. After Martin of Tours, teacbtr tf Bt 
Ninian of Whithorn, c. 3^0 a-d. 

Marys Loch, St '><rlkirk,«, St Mary's Holm (Ch-kner; see 
Holm i. Fr. Mary the Virgin. 

Marybtegh 'Din^riralii. Fr. Mary, wife of Willi im U1-, 
died 1694. \l^) old naiLiC of Fort W 



Maryctlteb tlM^f^'Aei. TL*.- TeILipIa^^ t^rt*/tt:*i :* *.^p«l 
here Uj St Mary. 14^7 : rf. CVjltee ai^i I^o \Tjna, 

Marthiix '<JlaL»::ow. so jh^il^^A in 1700 ir.»Li. M.xn Iffl of 
Ciairi^rayL tne prypn-rtni •. Makykikk Laiiv: ^rkfi%X 
Martwell A*f»>yiae : ^\ M 'Thekwell aiji Laiiwsll^ 
Fr. Mary th^ Vir^ij, *jt otht-r* i-;^- 




214 PLACB-NAMKS OF SCOTLAND. 

Martton (Montrose), a. 1220, Maringtun ; c. 1600, Mariton. 
Perh. not fr. Mary^ but from the name of some man. 

Masson Glbn (Kilmun). Native pron. gJ-eann medsairiy G. for 

* glen of the puppy or lapdog.' 

Masterton (Dunfermline). Cf. ton, p. Ixxxiii. 

Ma^chlinb (Kilmarnock), c, 1130, Machline; a. 1177, 
Mauhhelin; c. 1200, Mauchlyn. Prob. G. magh linne 
(or W. llyn), * plain of the pool.' Cf. Maghline, Ulster. 

Maud (New Deer). Prob. G. niaodh, *soft, moistened.' 
Hardly = the Sc. maud, a plaid. 

Mauldslib (Lanark). Old, Maldisley. Prob. fr. some man ; 
the family Dt Monte Alto has now as its name * Maude.' 
Perh. fr. O.E. molde, Dan. muld, 'earth, mould,' + fee, 
leoy a meadow, pasture-land, O.E. ledk. 

Maven, -vine, North (Shetland). Perh. * sea-mews' haunt,' 
Icel. md-r, * a mew,' and vang-r, * a garden, a home.' ^ 

Mayisbank (Polton). Mavis is So. for thrush, Fr. mauvis. 
Span, malvisy but thought to be originally Celtic (cf, 
Aj-morican milvid, a thrush). The G. for * thrush ' is 
sme&rach, 

Mawcarse (Kinross). Prob. a tautology; G. magli, *a 
plain,' + Carse. 

Mawkinhill (Greenock). Maukin is Sc. for a hare {cf, the 
G. maigheaoh), also spelt malkin. This last in Eng. is 
a variant of Moll-kin, * little Mary,' used for a wench, 
or a scarecrow. 

Maxpoffle (St Boswell's). 1317, -poffil. Perh. G. magh 
pabhail, * plain with the causeway.' But as to Max-, (/. 
next. Also cf the Paphle, Kinross, whose old spelling 
seems to be found in * Popilhall ' ; cf G. pobtdl, 

* people.' 

Maxton (St Boswell's). 1 165-1 2 U, Mackustun, -istun, 
Maxtoun; c. 1240, Makestun. Fr. a man, MaccuSy 
mentioned in Chartul. Melrose, c. 1144. Cf. ton^ 
p. Ixxxiii. 

^ Yigfiisson says : * In several modem Scandinavian names ** vangr *' 
remains in the inflexion -ing, -inge.* 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 215 

Maxwellheugh (Kelso), Maxwelltown (Dumfries), and Max- 
WELLTON Braes (Sanquhar). On Maxtcell, t.e., *wiel* 
or *pool of Maccus,' see p. xcii, and cf. *The Weal,* 
Maryculter. It was formerly the name of a parish 
near Melrose, c. 1160, we find 'Herbert de Macchus- 
wel,' we also early find * Macheswel ' and * Makeswele,' 
but already in 1190 Maxwell. On -heugh, cf. 
Hesterheugh. 

Mat, Isle of (Firth of Forth), c. 1225, Orkney. Sag.y 
MAeyar; c. 1272, * Prioratus de May.' Prob. fr. Icel. 
9nd-r, * a gull ' ; cf. IceL md-grund^ sea-mews' haunt. 
The -eyar means * isle.' 

Matbole. 1522, Mayboile, also old, Minibole (G. maine, ' a 
moss, a bog'). O.G. magh baoil, * plain with the 
water ' ; or more prob. fr. btioghal, -ail, * danger.' The 
* Bog ' is still there. 

Matfield (Edinburgh). Cf. * Mayflower.' 

Mealpourvounie (L. Ness). G. TnecUlftLar-a-bhuinne^ * cold 
hill of the cataract.' Of hills called Meall (lit. a lump 
or boss) Sutherland is full — Meall Garve, Horn, <kc. 
Cf W. moely * a conical hill.' 

Meallant'suidhb. G. = * hill of the seat ' ; it is a part of 
Ben Nevis. 

Mearns (Kincardine), a. 1200, Moerne. No proof of 
Skene's derivation, G. magh Chirchinn, 'plain of 
Circinn,' one of the seven sons of the legendary 
Cruithne. Prob. G. niagh Etreann, * plain of Eire,' see 
Earn. Cf Mot and next. 

Mearns (Glasgow). Sic c. 1160; 1178, Meorns; 1188, 
Memis. Prob. G. magh edma, afield' or * plain of 
barley ' ; also cf above. The 8 is the common Eng. 
plurad. 

Meooat Water (St Mary's L.). c. 1200, -gete. 1G. 
meigead, * the cry of a kid.' 

Meoginch (Errol). c. 1200, Melginch; c. 1240, Melginge; 
later, Melkinche. 1 G. meihj^ * a pod,' and inniSf 'meadow 
by a river.' But cf Meldrum. 



216 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Mbigle (Newtyle). 1183, Miggil; 1296, Miggyl; also Mig- 
dele. Perh. fr. G. meigecdlaich, meir/eadaich, or mktgh- 
Itchy 'bleating.' Wh. Stokes thinks the name Pictish. 

MsiKLE Earnock (Hamilton, see Earnggk), Meikle Ferrt 
(Dornoch), <kc. So. meiklej muckle, O.E. micel, mycd, 
* great, large.' 

Mbikleour (Coupar Angus). Prob. G. magh coille odhair 
(pron. owr), 'plain of the grey wood' (cf. the form 
Meoms, 8,v, Mbarns). The spelling has been con- 
formed to a ' kent ' word. 

Mbldrum, Old and New (Aberdeen). 1330, Melgdrum. 
Melg- perh. as in Mbggingh; but cf. also Abermilk. 
The Irish Meeldrum is fr. G. and Ir. maol, bare. 

Mblford, or -PORT, L. (Lorn). 1403, Milferth. Icel. 7weZ-r, 
*a sand-dune covered with bent, a sand-bank,' -h fjord, 
*a firth or bay.' Cf Broadford, Eishort, &c., also 
Melvich. Milford Haven is prob. the same name. 

Mblnbss (Tongue), 1546, Melleness. As above; ness is 
Icel. nceSf lit. ' a nose.' 

Melrose, c. 730, Bede, Mailros. a. 1130, Sim, Durham, 
Melros. Celtic, maol ros, * bare moor ' ; ros here is not 
the G. ros, *a promontory,' but rather Com. ros, 'a 
moor.' 

Melvich (Reay). Mel- (see Mblford) + N. vik, a bay. Cf. 
Achmelvich, Assynt. 

Melville (Lasswade and Ladybank) and Mount Melville 
(St Andrews). Fr. a Norman family; only the Fife 
names are quite recent. Moimt M. used to be called 
Craigton. ' Galfrida de Malevile ' ^ is found in Lothian 
in 1153; and a 'Philippus de Malavilla,' c. 1230-50. 
L. mala villas Fr. malle ville, means 'bad township.' 
Bonville also is a Scottish surname. 

1 But in Scotland till recently Melville was constantly confounded 
with the radically different name Melvin. In his nephew's Latin 
letters the great Andrew Melville is always * Melvinus,' and old 
charters often have * Melin ' or * Meling' for the surname Melville. In 
the * Antiqua Taxatio * the now suppressed parish of Melville in the 
deanery of Linlithgow is spelt Mailvyn, Maleuyn, Maleuile, MalauilL 
Cf. Dunfermline and Stirling. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 217 

Memsie (Fraserburgh). Perh. G. mdm slth, * little, breast- 
like hill.' Of. Campsib and Mambeg. 

Memus (Kirriemuir). ? O.G. miomasg^ * a lance, a javelin.' 

Mbnmuir (Brechin), c. 1280, Menmoreth. Puzzling ; perh. 
like the Ir. Meenmore, fr. meen mdr, *big mountain- 
meadow,' influenced by Sc. mmV, O.E. and Icel. mdr, a 
moor. But -moreth rather suggests G. maorach^ 

* abounding in shell-fish.' Have any shells been found 
here? 

Mbnstrie (Alloa). 1263, Mestreth; 1505, Menstray. 
Prob. G. meith or mUneach sratli, *rich, sappy, fertile 
strath ' of the Forth {cf, Mbiklbour). G. meas means 
fruit. 

Mbnteith (S. Perthsh.). a. 1185, Meneted; 1234, Mynyn- 
teth, Mynteth; 1724, Monteath. G. moine T(h)aichj 
*moss, moor of the R. Tbith.' The 1234 fonns perh. 
show Brythonic influence. Cf, W. mynyndatj Com, 
menit, ineneth, * a moor.' 

Mbrchiston (Edinburgh and Falkirk). Edinb. M., 1494, 
Merchanistoun, which looks like * merchant's abode,' 
but more prob. fr. Murcha, G. for Murdoch or Murchy, 
as in M*Murchy. Muirchu occurs as an Irish name in 
the 7th century. 

MsRSE (Berwicksh. and Twynholm). Ber. M., 1577, Mers. 
Perh. O.E. inearsc^ *a marsh.' The former, even a 
century ago, was full of bogs and pools ; yet it might 
well be * land on the march ' or borders of England ; 
O.E. mearc^ Fr. marche, 

Mbrtoun (St Boswell's). 1250, Merit iiu. O.E. imre-fihh 

* dwelling by the mere' or *lake.' Cf. Merton^ N. Devon. 

Methil (Leven). 1250, Methkil. G. rnaoth c{h)&iU^ *sKift, 
boggy wood.' Cf, Darvel. 

Methlic(k) (Ellon), a, 1300, Methelalu VmK 'm>iX^ b 
hill.' As above, and G. t{h)ulach, a hill, hiUooL 
MoRTLACH and Murthly. 

Methvbn (Perth). Pron. Meffan. 1250, Methpbeii ; 1500, 




218 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Mechwynn. Perh. G. meith abhuinUj *rich, fertilising 
river ' (Almond). Cf. Mecheyn, old name of Dalbkrp, 
of course referring to the river Clyde ; and * Mackbeth 
May wen' in Charter Bp. Turpin, c. 1180. 

Met (Dunnet). Prob. one of the many forms of G. maghj 
*a plain ' or * field.' Cf. Mye, Stirlmgshire. 

MiivAiG (Lewis). Perh. * ill-luck bay'; G. mi-adh + N. 
aig, a bay; more prob., as Capt. Thomas says, Icel. 
mj6-r vag^y * narrow bay.' Cf, Arisaig, &c. 

MiDGALDER, MiD Clyth, Mid Ybll, &c. See Calder, 
Clyth, &c. 

Middlebie (Ecclefechan). 'Middle village' or * abode.' 
O.E. and Dan. middel, + Dan. hi^ hy, northern O.K bj. 

MiDDLEM (Selkirk). Prob. O.E. middd-hdm^ * middle home ' 
or * village.' Cf, Middleham, Yorkshire, and p. butxv. 

MiDDLETOX (S. of Edinburgh). = The previous two ; on toriy 
cf. p. Ixxxiii. Very conmion in England. 

MiDHOLM (Selkirk). = Middlbm. See Holm for inter- 
change of ham and holm. 

MiDMAR (S. Aberdeen). (Prob. a. 1300, Migmarre.) % * Field 
of Mar ' ; G. ma^^ mmg, arable field. 

MiODALE (Bonar). Perh. hybrid ; G. maig as above + Dale. 
Cf. Meigle. 

MiGViE (Tarland). 1183, Miguuith ; a. 1200, -aveth ; 
a. 1300, -ueth. G. maig-arbheith, * field of birches.' 

Milk, R. (Dumfries). See Abermilk. 

MiLLBREX (Fyvie). Brex is prop. = * breaks,' i.e., pieces of 
ground broken up by the plough. Cf 1794, Statist, 

Account Scot.f xi. 152. * Farms divided into 

three enclosures, or, as they are conunonly called, 
breaks.' Or, G. meall breac, * speckled round hill,' with 
common Eng. plur. (cs^x). 

MiLLEUR, St (L. Ryan). G. meall odhar (pron. owr), *grey 
hill.' Cf. W. mx)el, a hill. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 219 

MillifIach (Beauly). G. meaU-a-fitheach^ *hill of the raven.' 

MiLLiKBN Park (Johnstone). Founded 1856, and called 
after the Major Milliken who bought the property in 
1733. Mill, is perh. G. maolagan, * little shavelmg,' 
as in the surnames Milligan and Mulligan. 

Millisle (Whithorn). Old Milnisle. O.E. mylen, miln, *a 
mill.' 

Millseat (Aberdeensh.). Seat is Icel. saeti, set, Sw. sate, * a 
seat.' Site is pron. in Sc. seat. 

Milltimber (Aberdeen). 

Milnathort (Kinross). Local pron. Millsyforth; 1359, 
Moloworth or Moloforth cum molendino ejusdem; 1372, 
Milnethort; 1491, The Myllis of Fortht; 1645, *Thuart 
Mills ' are marked in Gordon's map on * Fochy Bume.' 
Curious name. * Mill on the Forth or Fochy,' a bum 
there; but its meaning is doubtful; cf. Forth. The 
first part may either be O.E. and M.E. miln or G. 
muileann-na-, 

Milngavib (Glasgow). Pron. Milgiiy. G. muileann-gaoithej 

* a windmill ' ; or perh. G. meall na gacntJiej * hill of 
the wind,' * windy knoll.' 

MiLNORADEN (Coldstrcam). c. 1098, Greidene; 1515, 
Gradon ; 19th cny.. The Graden. Prob. O.E. grceg dene, 

* gray-looking Dean.' Cf, Icel. grd-r, *gray.' The 
Milne- was prefixed by Mr Milne, a recent proprietor. 

MiLNHOLMB (Kelso). 1376, Mylneholme. O.E. mylen, 
miln, *a mill,' + Holm. 

MiLTON (Auchendinny, Bannockbum, Leuchars, Glasgow), 
Milton Brodie, Milton of Balgonie, Milton of Campsie, 
Milton Lockhart, &c. Eighteen *Miltons' or *miU- 
villages' in England. 

MiNARB (L. Fyne). Norse ;= 'small bay,' Icel. minni, O.E. 
min, * small ' + ard = * fjord ' ; see p. Ixiii. 

MiNCH (Channel, Lewis). Doubtful. Cf, La manche, ' the 
sleeve,' French name of the English Channel. There 
seems no G. or N. word to support the reputed meaning 

* stormy.' 



220 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

MiNGARRY Castle (Adnamurchan). 1499, Mengarie. 
G. mln gdradhj * smooth enclosure ' or * garden.' 

MiNGULAY or MiNQULA (Outer Hebrides). 1 G. mln gaUy 

* smooth, polished rock'; or can it be, * island of the 
mixed or variegated wools'?, fr. Icel. meng-r, * mixed, 
blended,' and ull, * wool ' + a, ay, * island.' 

MiNiSHANT (Maybole). Prob. G. muine seant, * sacred (L. 
santus) thicket.' Cf, Clayshant. 

MiNNiGAFF, or MoNiGAFF (Newton-Stcwart). Old^ MonegoiF, 
Munygoiff. Possibly G. or rather Ir. mairhe gamhy 

* moss of the storm.' Of. Joyce, ii. 242. 

MiNTLAW (Peterhead). Prob. G. moi7ie flacha, * moss of the 
wild ducks,' as there is a moss here, but no * law ' or 
hill. Cf. MiNiSHANT and Montrose. 

MiNTO (Roxburgh) and Minto Hill and Craigs. Sic 1275 ; 
1296, Mynetowe; c. 1320, Minthov. Prob. G. mdinr 
teachj *a mossy spot,' + Sc. how, O.E. holh, holgy *a 
hollow, a hole.' 

MocHRUM (Port William), c. 1341, Mochrome, Mouchrum. 
Prob. G. mo chrom, gen. chruim, * my circle.' Perh. fr. 
maghf * a plain ' ; cf. Mbarns, Moy. 

M6ffat. 1296, Moffete. Perh. G. mo^/i/o^a, * long plain/ 
its very site ; but the accent is against this. So perh. 
some connexion with W. mafy *that breaks out, or forms 
into a cluster,' and ffettan, *a sack, a bag' — * plain 
bulging out like a sack.' 

MoiDART, Moydart (Arisaig). 1309, Mod worth; 1372, 
Mudewort; 1532, Moydort; 1682, Muideort. Prob. 

* muddy frith ' or * fjord ' ; Icel. mod, dust, Sw. m^odd, 
mud ; and see Knoydart. 

MoLBNDiNAR BuRN (Glasgow). 1185, Jocelyn, Mellindonor. 
Said to be Eiviis MoleiidinariuSy *the millers' stream'; 
but 1185 looks like G. meall an dhuinne (or donn) ard, 

* hill with the brownish eminence,' i.e., the Necropolis 
hill. 

Monadhliath Mountains (Inverness). Pron. Monachl^e. 
G. = * grey or light blue mountain ' or ' moor ' (monadh). 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 221 

Monan's, St (Elie). 1565, Sanct Monanis. Said to be fr. 
Monanus^ Archdeacon of St Andrews, killed by the 
Danes on 1st May 871. 

MoNCRiEFF Hill (N. of river Earn), a. 1100, TighemaCy 
ann. 726, Monid Croib; ann. 728, Monagh Craebi. 
Prob. G. monadh craoibk, *hill of the branchy trees.' 

MonciJb, Monquhur (Carmylie). Prob. Ulst, Ann., ann. 
728, Monitcamo, which will be G. nwnadh camaichy 
*hill of the pagan priest,' or *in the rocky spot'; but 
-cur seems to be fr. G. car, cuir, * a turn, a bend ' ; cf, 
Strachur. 

MoNDYNE (Kincardine). 1251, Monachedin. O.G. numach 
eadauj * hilly slope ' or * face.' 

MoNESS (Aberfeldy). G. monadh eos, * hill of the water-fall.' 

MoNETDiE (Perth). 1294, Monedy, and so still pron. G. 
monadh eadain (W. eiddyn), *face' or 'slope of the 
hiU.' 

MoNiirvB (Thomhill). The ai pron. like i in ivy. Old, 
Minnyhive. Possibly G. mxrine ghabaidh, 'dangerous 
moss,' gh lost by aspiration. 

MoNiFiiTH (Carnoustie). 1178, Munifod ; c. 1205, Monifod ; 
c. 1220, Munifeth, Monifodh, -foth; 1242-3, Munifeit. 
Originally G. rtwine fodha, * lower, under moss' or 

* moor ' ; but now * moss of the deer,' G. fiadh. 

MoNiKiE (Carnoustie). Pron. Mon^eky. c. 970, Pict Chron,, 
Eglis Monichti, i.e., prob. G. eaglais manaich-tigh, * church 
of the monk's house ' ; form Monichi is also found. 

MoNiMAiL (Ladybank). 1250, Monimel; 1275, Monymaile; 
1495, Monymeal (so still pron.). Prob. G. moine mil, 

* moss ' or * moor by the mound ' or * hill,' G. meall ; or 
perh. fr. m^wl, *bare.' 

MoNiHUSK (Aberdeen). Sic 1315; but c. 1170, Munimusc, 
which look^ like G. moine mus{g)ach, * nasty, filthy, 
bog.' Only this is very inappropriate to the site ever 
since historic times. Mui<k is early found as a personal 
name in Ireland. 



222 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

MoNKLAND, Old and New (Glasgow). 1323, Munkland 
The land belonged to the see of Glasgow. 

MoNKTON (Prestwick). Pron. Miinton. Four in England. 

MoN(T)QUHiTTBR (TuiriflF). Perh. G. monadh mhiodair^ 

* hill with the pasture ground.' Of. Dalwhinny. 

MoNRBiTH (Wigtown). Old Murith, Menrethe. Perh. G. 
moine riahhach, * grey moor.' 

MoNTBiTH, mod. form of Mbntbith. 

MoNTBViOT, or MouNTBviOT (Jedburgh). See Tbviot. 

MoNTGRBBNAN (Kilmamock). 1480, grenane. G. morutdh 
grianain, * hill of the hall or palace,' or, * of the sunny 
eminence.' 

MoNTROSB. a. 1200, Munros; 1296, Montrose; 1322, Mon- 
ros; 1488, Montross. G. moine frois, *moss on the 
peninsula.' 

MoNYNUT Watbr (Berwick). Prob. G. moine cnuit\ *moor 
with the (hazel) nuts ' ; influenced by O.E. hnuty a nut. 

MoNziB (Crieff). Pron. MOn^e. Prob. G. monadJi fJihidh, 

* hill of deer.' Of. next and Annib. The z is the old 
Sc. y. 

MoNZiBVAiRD (Crieff). 1251, Moeghavard; 1279, Mor- 
goauerd. G. magh, * plain,' often in names as Mo- or 
MoY,or monadh J *hill,' a-bhaird, *of the bard' or 'rhymer.' 
The r in form 1279 must be an error. 

MooNZiB (Cupar), c. 1230, Mooney, and so now pron.; it 
seems to be the old Monechata (cf, Monikib). But perh. 
G. muinffikidh, * the deer's back ' ; muin is lit. the back 
of the neck. Cf. Drum and Monzib. 

Moorfoot Hills (Midlothian). a. 1150, Morthwait, 
-thuweit. Icel. mSr yceit^ * moor-place.' Of, Murray- 

THWAITB. 

Morangib (Tain). 1457, Morinchy; 1520, -inch. G. mdr 
innis or innse^ * big inch ' or * links ' or * pasture.' It is 
now pron. M6rinjy. Cf. *Morinche,' found in 1550, 
near Killin. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 223 

Moray, c. 970, Pict Chron,, Morovia; Ulst. Ann., aim. 
1085, Muireb; a. 1200, Muref; Orkney. Sag., Maer- 
haefui; c. 1295, Morref. The first part must be G. 
muir, *the sea,' and the second, the old locative. 
Muirahhy will thus mean ' beside the sea.' Cf. Gallaibh, 

* among the strangers,' old name of Caithness. 

Moray Frith. In Orkney. Sag., c. 1225, Breidafjord. 
O.N. = * broad frith.' 

MoRDiNGTON (Berwick). c. 1098, Morthintun; 1250, 
Mordingtim. *Morthin's' or perh. 'Martinis ton' 
(see p. Ixxxiii) ; cf. mord for G. mart, an ox, in Ardni- 
mord, Galloway. 

More, Ben (Perth, Mull, Assynt, Lewis). G. beinn mdr, 

* big mountain.' 

MoRBBATTLE (Kelso). a. 800, Hist. St Guthbti, * Scerbedle ' 
is prob. scribe's error for Merbedle; 1116, Mereboda; 
1170, Merebotle; 1575, Morbottle ; 1639, Marbotle. 
O.E. mere-botl, * lake-house' or 'dwelling.' Botl is 
cognate with the O.N. b6l so common in Sc. place-names. 
Cf. Newbattlb, a similar corruption, Bothal Castle, 
Morpeth, and Harbottle, near Rothbury. The -boda in 
1116 is an early form of booth, earlier than any in Dr 
Murray's dictionary ; cf. O.Icel. biid', Dan. and Sw. 
bod, a booth, dwelling. 

MoRHAM (Haddington). Sic 1250. O.E. m6r-hdm, * moor- 
house ' or * village.' 

MoRMOND (Fraserburgh). G. mdr monadh, * big hill.' 

MoRNiNGSiDE (Edinburgh and Bathgate), 

MoRRONE (hill, Braemar). G. mdr srdny *big snout' or 

* headland ' ; cf. Cameron. 

Mortlach (Dufftown). 1157, Murthilloeh ; a, 13Q0, Mor- 
thilache; also Muirthillauch ; 1631K Murtlilack. G. 
mar tulacli, * big hillock.' Cf. MuHTiiLY. 

Morton (Thomhill) and Half Morton (Canonbie). l*rob, 
fr. O.E. and Icel. mdr, *a moor,' + tan ; see p. bttxiiL 



/ 



224 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

MoRVEN (N. Argyle and Aberdeensh.). G. 7ndr bheirmy 

* big mountain ' ; so Morar, Arisaig, is * big height,' 6. 
drd. But the tme G. name in Argyle is A whbr 
earrann, *the big division or province'; or, as it is 
commonly spelt in English — 

MoRVERN (N. Argyle). 1343, Garwmorwame (G. garbhy 
rough); 1475, Morvame; a. 1600, Bk. Clanranddy 
Morbhaime. 

MossAT (Aberdeensh.). Either G. mosach aiiy * dirty place,* 
or * mossy-place,' fr. Dan. mos^ O.E. me^s^ + -et. Of. 
AiKET, thicket, &c. 

MossBANK (Lerwick), -end (Holytown), -green (Grossgates). 
O.E. rm6s^ Icel. mosi, Dan. mos, * a moss or bog.' 

MossFENNAN (Peebles), c. 1260, Mospennoc; 1296, Me&- 
pennon. Prob. hybrid ; * moss by the bheinnan,* G. for 

* little mountain.' The p marks the name as Brythonic. 
Pennoc is a dimin. 

MossPAUL (Ewes Water). Prob. also hybrid; *mo88 with 
the pool, hole, or bog ; ' G. poll^ puilL 

MossPEEBLE Burn (Ewes Water). Prob. * moss ' or * bog by 
the tents ' ; W. pehyll, Cf. above, and Peebles. 

Motherwell (Hamilton). 1266, Moydirwal; 1362, Modyr^ 
waile ; 1373, Modervale. Prob. G. matJiair^fiaile^ 

* mother's house ' or * village,' influenced by O.E. mSdoTf 
Dan. and Sw. moder, Icel. m6thir, 'mother'; and cf. 
BoTHWELL, close by. The Mother- is prob, the Virgin 
Mary (cf. Lady well and Mary well) ; but the O.E. 
well J tcella^ * a well,' would not give us -waile or -vcUe, 

Moulin (Pitlochry). 1207, Molin ; 1323, Molyn. G. 
muileanii, muilinn, *a mill.' Cf. O.E. my ten, a mill, 
and the name Milne. 

Mound, The (Dornoch). This modem (1816) mound or 
breakwater at the head of Loch Fleet must not be 
confounded with The Mounth (i.e., the Grampians), G. 
monadh, *a hill,' so frequently mentioned in early 
Scottish history. 

Mount Florida and Mount Vernon (Glasgow). Recent 
Mt. Vernon is mentioned in the Glasgow Directory, 1787. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 225 

MouNTHooLY (Aberdeen and Roxburghsh.). Perh. G. 
monadh cJiiiile, * hill with the comer ' or * nook ' (cuil) ; 
cf. Knockhooly or -hillie, Colvend. But Tomnahulla, 
Galway, is the Ir. and G. tuam na h^ulaidh, * mound of 
the altar tomb/ or, in Scottish G., rather 'grave with 
the treasure ' ; and -hoolij may be fr. this. 

MousA (Shetland). Sagas, Mosey. * Moss-isle'; Icel. motn, 
Dan. and Sw. mos, + a?/, et/, * island ' (cf, * Nethirmous- 
land/ c. 1500, near Stronmess). Not likely to be fr. 
Icel. mus, ' a mouse.' 

MouswALD (Ruth well). Pron. Musald c. 1340, Musfold. 
Prob. OlE. meds-fald or Dan. mos-foldf * moss-grown 
enclosure.' Cf. Fauldhouse. 

MoY (S. of Inverness, and near L. Laggan). Inv. M., 1497, 
Moye ; in G. Mhaigh, i.e., magh, maigh, * a plain.' Cf. 
MocHRUM, and Mye, Balfron. 

MoYXEss (Forres). 1238, Mo}i.hus; c. 1285, Motheys ; 
1295, Moythes. 1G. inaoth eas, 'soft, gentle water-falL' 

MuASDALE (Argyle). Prob. Dan. muus-dal, 'valley of the 
field-mice ' ; cf. O.E. and Icel. raus, a mouse, and 

MoUSWALD. 

Ml^cualls (Aberdeen). (Castle Fraser, Monimusk, used to 
be called 'Muchals or Muchil in Mar'; in 1268, 
Mukual.) Prob. G. muc-al, 'boar's (or pig's) cliff,' with 
Eng. plural k. The old name of the district east of St 
Andrews, where ' Boarhills ' now is, used to be 'Muicros' 
or ' Muckross ' (as at Killamey), i.e., ' boar's wood.' 

Muck (Hebrides). G. muc, *a whale,' generally called ijitic- 
nUmra, lit. 'sea-pig.' 

MucKAiRN (Taynuilt). 1527, Mocame. Perh. G. viagh 
cairn, * plain, field of the cairn ' ; as likely muc-earrann, 
' swine s portion ' or ' lot.' Cf. Morvern. 

Mi^CKHART (Dollar). 1250, Mukard. G. muc-arrl, 'IxMir's' 
or * sow's height.' Cf. Auchtermuchty and Dochart. 

Mug DOCK (Strathblane). Sir 1680, but 750, Ann. Cambr., 
Magedauc, Mocetauc ; 1392, Mukdoc. Prob. G. rnag-a- 
dabhoich, ' field, plain, of ploughed land.' Cf. Dochart. 

' 15 



226 PLACE-NAMES OP SCOTLAND. 

MuGDRUM, L (Newbiirgh). c. 1190, Mukednim. Island 
like * a sow's back ' ; G. muc-druim, 

MuGSTOT or MuGSTAD (Skye). * Monk's place ' ; Icel. rnvk-Vy 
for munk-r, a monk, +8tad-r (cf. Ger. stadt), = the Gr^ 
Baile mhanaich, Uist. 

MuiCHDHUi, Ben (Braemar). G. beinn muich duihhe, * mouii- 
tain of the black boar ' {muc), 

MuiRAVON and -avonsidb (Polmont). *Moor of the river 
Avon ' ; O.E. and Icel. m6r, Dan. moer, a moor, 
swamp. 

MuiRDRUM (Carnoustie). * Hill-ridge on the moor' (see 
Drum). Moor (see above) is almost a G. word. 

MuiRKiRK (Ayrsh., see above), Muir of Ord (Beauly, see 
Ord), Muirtown (Inverness). 

MuiRNEAG (Lewis). G. diminutive of muh'n, 'cheerfulness, 
joy.' Name of a beautiful hill, the only one near here, 
which the fishers can see far out at sea. 

MuLBEN (Elgin). G. maol beinn, * bare hill.' 

Mull. c. 120, Ptolemy, Maleos; a. 700, Adamnan, Malea 
insula; Sagas, Myl ; Act Sand,, Mula; 1542, Mo will. 
These forms well illustrate the varying sound of the 
G. diphthong ao (cf, Kyle Skon); G. maol, *bald, 
bare.' Wh. Stokes thinks the name may be Pictish, 
meaning * mountainous.' 

Mull of Dbbrnbss, or Moulhead (Orkney). Sagas, Miili. 
Mull of Galloway; 1375, Barbour, Muller Snook; 
ike. G. maol, ' brow of a rock, a cape ' ; prob. cognate 
with 7iiaol, bare. Mull in Wigtown is still pron. myole, 
my owl. 

Mull of Kintyrb. c. 1375, Barbour, already called *the 
Mole ' par excellence. See Kintyrb. 

MuLLOCH or Malloch, The (Carron). G. mullacli, ' a smaller 
eminence, a little ridge ' ; cf, Balmalloch, Kilsyth. 

Mi^MRiLLS (Falkirk). 1552, Mummer-, Mummerallis. Proh. 
G. mmne, 'moss'; perh. mam, * round hill,' 'with the 
oak trees,' Ir. ral, rail, *an oak.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 227 

Munches (Dumfries). 1527, -cheiss. G. moine cheis, 

* moss, bog of the furrow 'or * of the swme.' 

MuNGALL Mill (Falkirk). Prob. G. moiTie calla, *bog, moss 
of loss, diaster,' or perh. fr. gcUl, gaill, *a stranger.' 
There was once a large bog here. 

MuNLOCHY (Fortrose). 1605, MuUochie. Either G. maol 
lochaH, *bare little loch' or *l>ay,' or moine lochain, 

* moss, bog by the little loch.' 

MuRKLE (Caithness). Old Myrkhol. Icel. myrkrt hoi, ' dark, 
dusky hole'; cf, *mirk,' * murky,' and Markk, E. 
Linton. 

MuRLAGAN (R. Spean). G. mhr lagain^ *the houae' or 

* wall of the little hollow ' {lag), 

MuRRAYFiELD (Edinburgh) and Murraythwaitb (Kccle- 
fechan). Eccl. M., a. 1300, Moryquhat. Both mt^au 
the same, thwaite being the Icel. JweeY, = 'place/ 
Common south of Carlisle — Braithwaite, Crosthwaite, 
«kc. The surname Murray comes from Moray. 

MuRROES (Dundee), c. 1205, Muraus; 1250, Moreus. tG. 
mbr uisg, *big water.' Locally interpreted *muir 
houses.' 

MuRTHiLL (Tannadice). 1360, Murethlyn ; c. 1390, Mc^rthj 11 
G. mdr tidacfian or tulach, * big hillock,' cf, next. But 
the ending has plainly been conformed to the Eng. htlh 

MuRTHLY (Dunkeld). G. mdr tulacTi, * big mound ' or ' hill ^ 

= MORTLACH. 

MuRTi^ (Cults). Prob. G. mdr tuil, * big stream ' or * flcfKj * ; 
re the river Dee. Cf, Duthil. 

MusAL (Durness). Prob. N. 7H0si-fJ(Ul, * moss fell ' or "- high 
land.' Fell in the Hebrides is usually -val, see p. I six, 

Musselburgh (Portobello). 1 1 89, Muxelburg ; 1 200, M iiHiihd- 
burg; 1250, Muskilburk. From Fr. muscle, meuriing^ 
as here, *a mussel'; also * muscle.' On burgh ^ ttcct 
p. kxxiii. 

MuTHiLL (Crieff ). 1199, Moethel. Often said to be M,M 



228 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

mdt'hill, *hill of the meeting' {cf. *the Mute Hill,' 
Scone ; * a Trioot point ' ; and Witenagemdt). There is a 
Muthillock, Drumblade, and two Moathills in Aber- 
deensh., all with the same meaning. But Reeves and 
Wh. Stokes derive Muthill fr. Ir. maothail, * spongy- 
ground/ a very likely origin. 

MuTTONHOLB (Edinburgh). Humorous name, found as early 
as a map of 1680. Now usually called Davidson's 
Mains. 

Mylnefibld (Dundee). The name Mylne is fr. G. muileannj 
a mill. 

Myrbsidb (Edinburgh). Icel. myriy mprr, *bog, swamp,' 
the Eng. mire, Cf. Bogsidb and Whitbmire. 



N 

Nabdbn (Paxton). c, 1100, Cnapadene ; c. 1120, Cnape- 
dane. * Dban or valley by the hill-top,' O.E. cnc&p ; cf. 
W. and G. cnapy *a knob, a button,' hence * a little hill.' 
Also cf. Knapdalb. 

Nackerty (Bothwell). Prob. G. cnacrhirde, * height of the 
fissure ' or * crack ' {cnac). 

Nairn (river and town), c. 1200, Hoveden^ Ilvemarran {i.e., 
Invem-) j 1283, Inemam ; 1583, Name. Thought to 
be one of the very few cases of names where initial n 
represents the article ; so perh. G. an earrann, * the 
division, province,' cf. Morvbrn. Wh. Stokes thinks it 
Pictish. 

Naver, R. (Sutherland). Prob. Ptolemy's (c. 120) Nabaros; 
1268, Strathnauir; 1401, -navyr ; 1427, -nawame. 
Perh. pre-Celtic, cognate with Navarre, which is said 
to mean in Basque * highlands.' Perh. G. naomh drdy 
*holy height.' Cf. Elachnave or eilean na naomh , an 
islet off Mull, = * isle of saints.' But Navar, Brechin, 
1451, Nethuer, must be another word. 

Navidalb (Helmsdale). Perh. Dan. nav-dal, 'valley like 
the nave of a wheel.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 229 

Navity (Kinross and Cromarty). Kin. N., Old, Nevathy, 
Nevody. Crom. N., 1578, Navite. G. naomh d.ite^ 

* holy place ' or * spot.' 

Neant, R. (L. Etive). Looks like W. nant^ * a stream, or a 
ravine ' ; so prob. Pictish. 

Nedd (Assynt). * A sheltered place like a nest ' ; cf. Corn. 
neid, * a nest.' 

NEroPATH Castle (Peebles). Either fr. Dan. nod^ 'neat- 
cattle,' or W. nyddu, * to twist, turn,' referring to the 
river Tweed. Path is the O.E. paetlu 

Nbilston (Barrhead), c. 1160, Neilstoun ; c. 1220, Neleston, 
The O'Neils were a royal race in Ireland. 

Nell, Loch (Oban). G. locli-nan-edla^ * loch of the swans.' 

Nenthorn (Kelso), c. 1204, Naythansthom and Naithanes- 
thum. Prob. this was a boundary-mark, like the 
Nicor's and Tiw's thorn, of which we read in England, 
cf. Green, Making of England^ p. 183. ? Who was this 
Nechtan. Of, Cambusnbthan. 

Ness, R. and L. (Inverness, and in Lewis), a. 700, Adamnan, 
river and loch, Nisa, Nesa ; a, 1300, Nis. Origin un- 
known. Wh. Stokes thinks cognate with Sansk. nodi, 

* a river.' Lewis N. is Icel., N., and O.E. nces, * cape,' 
lit * nose.' 

Nesting Bay (Shetland). Icel. nes ping, ' ness ' or * cape of 
the thing or meeting.' Cf Thingoe ( = how), Suffolk. 

Nethbrburn (Lanarksh.), Nbthbrcleugh (Lockerbie, see 
Buccleuch), Nether Dallachy (Fochabers), Nether- 
ley (Muchalls, Zee, a meadow), Nethbrton (Bearsden), 
Netherurd (see Kirkurd). 

Nethy, R. and Bridge (Grantown). See Abernethy. 

Nevis, Ben and R. (Fort William). Pron. Nc^^evush. Sic 
1532 ; 1552, Nevess. Some say G. nimh uisg, * biting 
cold water ' ; nimh is properly a noun. But Mr C. 
Livingstone is prob. right — G. ni-mJiaise, * no beauty,' 
an appropriate name for this big, ungainly ben. 

New Abbey (Kirkcudbright). 1301, La Novelle Abbey. 
Abbey of Sweetheart (Douce Coeur), founded here by 
Lady Devorgilla in 1275. 



230 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Newark (Port Glasgow and Yarrow). (Of. * Newark one 
Spey,' 1492.) = *New work,' i.e., *new castle.' Work^ 
Sc. wark^ does not occur in this sense in O.E. ; but cf. 
'outwork' and * bulwark,' old Germ, bolwerky Dan. 
bulvcerk. 

JNewarthill (Motherwell), c. 1610, Pont, Neuwhil. Prob. 
tautology, G. ntiadh drd, * new hill.' 

Newbattlb (Dalkeith) and Newbottlb (Beith). Dal. N., 
1141, Niwebothla; c, 1145, Newbotill; 1222, Neubotle; 
1295, Neubattaill; a. 1500, Nowbatile : 1825, New- 
bottle. O.E. neowe botly * new dwelling.' Cf. More- 
battle, and Newbottle, Durham. 

Newbigging (Oxnam, Camwath, Monifieth, S. Ronaldshay). 
Oxn. N., 1153, -bigginghe. A *bigging' is a building, 
Dr Murray's earliest quotation being c, 1250 fr. * Genesis 
and Exodus '•; cf, Dan. hygge, to build, hygning, a build- 
ing. Four Newbiggins in England. 

Newburgh (Fife, Aberdeen). Fife N., prob. a. 1130,' 6Vm. 
Durham, ann. 756, Ad Niwanbyrig, id est, ad Novam 
Civitatem; 1309, Noviburgum; it is not, then, a very 
new burgh ! Dr Laing says, the town grew up around 
Lindores Abbey, but it was not founded till 1178. 
Burgh, see p. Ixxxiii. 

Newburn (Largo). 1250, Nithbren, i,e,, *new bum' or 
* stream.' See Nith and Burn op Cambus. Also in 
Northumberland. 

Newcastleton (Roxburgh), Nbwmains (Holytown, see 
Mains), Newmilns (Kilmarnock, cf. Milnholmb), New- 
port ^ (Dundee ; nine in England). 

New Galloway (Kirkcudbrt.). 1682, *The New Town of 
Galloway.' 

Newhavbn (Leith), 1510, Edinburgh Charter, *The new 
haven lately made by the said king,' James IV. 

Newington (Edinburgh). Here quite a recent name ; but 
we find the London N., a. 1250, Neweton. On the 
'ing- see p. Ixxxv. 

^ This may or may not be the * Newporth,' temp, William Lion, in 
Melrose Chartulary, i. 33. 



?LACI-y^ 



Newskat (Peterijd 



place': </. ' f^m^-iC'^afcTr r - z ^r^^. :=- y .«::::=». NrSkT ry 
is Red A'r.'.^v ^-ca«L 

Nbwtox Grait^ ZfiT^.-—^ 

TOX or KjBJE3rEWT 

Newtox S 




Newtoxmore. lietter -mtis. iiiii^-ia^ - In G. Bji\ w.- a> 
fdeibftj i.e^ 'new TfTjw>r :c. the z_i>:r.' './. MriRAVox. 

Newtox Woolmet » LhilkehL , t- \ Wi^TrrC Wii^et. Wometu 
Wymed, Wymeth. Xc-tb- pn-c «>:aiet- The tirst 
syllable seems to \je G. **!. -i, 'a cave,* perb. +G. ait 
* place/ 

Newtowx (Kirkcaldv, Dumbarton), Newtowx St Bosweli/s 
(Roxburgh). Twenty Xewtowns in England. 

Nbwtyle (Coupar Angus). 1199, Neutile; 1250, -tyl. G. 
niLadh ttdach, *new hill.' 

NiDDRiE (Musselburgh, Winchburgh). Old^ Nudroth. Win. 
N., 1521, Nwcby; 1572, Nidderie ; Mus. N., 15«9, 
Nudrie. G. nuadh (or W. newydd) airidh^ * wqw shcftling 
or siunmer shepherd's hut.' Cf, Blingbry* 

NiGG (Aberdeen, Invergordon). Abdn. N., 1250, Nig. Hohh 
N., 1296, Nig. This seems to be a case of the survival 
of the article. G. an uig, * the bay.' 

Ninian's, St (Stirling, <kc.). Stirl. N. [1147, EggliH, »./'., 
G. eaglais, * church'; 1207, KirketounoL I'JPJ. 
Ecclesia Scti Niniani de Kirkotoun ; 1301, Schit 



Rineyan. There are twenty-fivo chapolH in ScotlHiid 
dedicated to St Ninian, or liinf/an, of Whitlioni, r. 'MH), 
first missionary in Scotland. 

Nisbet (Berwicksh., Jedburgh, Biggar). Jorl. N., r. I|M(», 
Nesebita; c. 1260, Nesbyth ; I21)H, N^Mi'Mf, Vn,), 
*Ness-bit,' i.e., prominent, projecting/ Hjtf, wliieli Mcrirm 
always to suit; O.K. and J>aii. w^m, fer-l, f/fi, 'n m- •/ 



232 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

oogiiate with nose, O.E. ndsu, Icel. nos, Dan. ncese, and 
O.E. bita, O.N. biti, Sw. fetY, 'a bit, a mouthful.' Btt 
is used in Sc. for a piece of ground ; see, e.g., Scott, 
Waverley, iii. 237. 

NiTH, R. (Dumfries). Sic 1327; c. 120, Ptolemy, Novios ; 
and found in iWeZ-uari (Bede), tribe of Picts who 
inhabited Galloway. Prob. same root as W. neun/ddy 
L. noous, *new.' Of, Nkwburn. 

NiTHSDALK. a. 1350, Stranith, Stranid, i.e,, 'the strath of 
the Nith.' 

NiTSHiLL (Paisley). ?* Nuts' Hill'; O.E. hnuty Icel. knot, 
Dan. niid, a nut. 

NoE Glkn (Ben Cniachan). The local G. varies between 
Gleann nodlia and gleann otha. Meaning unknown ; it 
can hardly be nodha, new. 

Norman's Law (Cupar). Law is O.E. hldew, a hill. 

NoRRiESTON (Stirling). Norrie is a common Sc. surname. 
Of, Norrie's Law, Largo. 

Norton (Edinburgh), c. 1380, Nortoun. O.E. north, Sw. 
and Dan. nord, north or nor.' Fifty-seven in England. 

Noss OP Bressay (Shetland). Sagas, and 1539, Nos. Icel. 
niis, * a nose,' akin to ness. See Bressay. 

Novi-R (Dingwall). Perh. G. nodJia bharr, *the new hill' 
or * height.' Cf, Newtyle. 

NuNTON (Lochmaddy). C/\ Monkton and Mugstot. 

Nyadd (Stirling). Either G. neade, ' a nest,' cf. Nedd ; or 
fr. W. nyddu, *to twist and turn,' referring to the 
R. Forth near by. 



o 

Oa, Mull of (Islay). In G. maol-na-Ho, N. hoe, ho, 'a 
promontory, a hill.' 

Oakbank (Midcalder). 

Oakley (Dunfermline). * Oak Meadow.' Three in England. 



Oathlaw (Breclun). 1635, «>ianiinw. ij. j^' /r^, • -rcr^raiii. 
with the ford," /./. AwHy y/'/\ 'Jw : ind 2*^ I-a"!'. 

Oatlaxdq (Glasgow). Also near ^eybrfdiie. 

Oban. G. = ' little bay.' 

Obbe (Portree). G. df>y aba, "a cut/ 

OccuMSTKR (Lybster), ? ''0*y:am.^ place.' <->!i -*<^-/. -s*^ p. i'.Ti:i. 

OcHiL. HiiJ^ (Alloa). The Ge^Jtrrarher of FmtT^iiz^ Li^f •<_'iii- 
docellim,' = CTflJ o^hil ('.7. KryAix.E : ':. >/'«.». ^^. 
Lecauy Sliab (i.«., hill) N«jchei; 1481, *^r:L-llL>. lu 
France, near the mod. Besancoiu and ir. tTr-j pl^»-s in 
the W. of Spain, were hill -ranges call«:rd hy tL-^r Koinaiw 
* Ocellnm,' which must be the same Ctrltic word. c<.»taiate 
with O.Ir. achil, \V. w/r/e-f/, 'hiirh.' Cf. Achiltv, 
AucHELCHANZiE, and Ogle. 

OcHiLTRBB (Auchinleck and Gallowav). Auch. O., a. 1200, 
Okeltre; 1537-72, Ychiltre. GaU. O., oiJ, Uchiltry. 
W. tichd ire, * high house.' 

OcHTER- or AucHTERTYRB (Crieff and Lochalsh). G. uachfar 
tlr (W. uchder tir), ' upper land.' Cf. Auchterardeh. 

OcTAVULLiN (Islay). G. oclidamh-a-mliuUinn, 'the eighth 
(ef. L. odavus) belonging to the mill.' On land 
measurement, see p. Ixv. 

Odairn, L. (Lewis). 1 G. odha-earrann, *the grandchild's 
division ' or * share.' Cf. Morvern. 

Ogilvie Glex (Forfar), c. 1205, Ogilvin. First syll. prob. 
cognate with W. uchel, 'high,' and the second, G. hheinn, 
'ahiU.' cy. OcHiL. 

Ogle Glex (Killin). =OcHii^and so Brythonic. ([f. O^iXa, 
Northiunbld. 

Old Aberdeen. Eight places called Old in England. 

0lik:a3(BUm (Cockbunispath). 1098, Aldcaiiibiis. G. fdlt 
camuit, 'stream with the cr<j<jk or bend.' <[r\ Amx;lun'e 
and Cam BUS. 

OLDHAMKTfXTKs (Cockburnspath). 1127, Haldehasiok : 1250, 
Aldliamstok : 1507, Auldliuuu'hokkes. O.K. aid kdtn 



234 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

8toc{c), * old home stock ' or * stake ' (cf, Dan. dok, Icel. 
stokk-r, a block, cognate with stack and stick, and cf, the 

* stocks' on which a ship rests). Stoke is very common 
in Eng. place-names, and there means simply 'place/ 
The second syllable of Knockstocks, Galloway, must 
have the same origin. Cf. Auldhame. 

Old Man of Hoy (Orkney). A striking high rock there. 

Old Shore (Durness). Corruption of Ashir, i.e., G. fas-thlr, 

* productive, cultivatable land.' In charters it is 
Ashlair, Aslar, 

Ollaberry (N. of Lerwick). Saga, Olafsberg, i.e., *Kin^ 
Olaf s burgh' (see Borgue, and cf, Turnbbrry). St Olaf 
or King Olaf the Holy was King of Norway, 1015-30. 

Olnafirth (Shetland). Firth or * bay like the forearm ' ; 
Icel. alin or oln, Sw. aln, = the Eng. ell. Cf. Olney. 

Olrig (Thurso), c. 1230, Olrich ; 1587, -rik. Prob. * alder- 
ridge'; O.N. oln, an alder; possibly fr. N. ole, old. 
On rig, see Bishopbriggs. 

Omoa (Holytown). Presumably called after the port of 
Omoa in Honduras. 

Onich (Ballachulish). Said to be G. ochanaich, Availing 
for the dead,' because the boats started from here for the 
burial-place on Mungo's Isle. Others say, G. omhanacJi, 
' full of froth,' referring to the waves as they dash up 
on a stormy day. 

Onweathbr Hill (Tweeddale). 

Oran- or Oronsay (Colonsay, W. Skye, Bracadale, L. 
Sunart, Coll, and Lewis). 1549, Col. 0., Omansay ; 
Skye 0., Oransay. *St Oran's isle' (O.N. ay, ey, a) 
or * isthmus ' (G. aoi, see Colonsay). Oran or Odhran 
was an Irish friend of St Columba, died 548. 

Orchard (Hamilton). 1368, *Terrae de Pomario,' i.e., 

* lands of Orchard ' ; fr. O.E. ortgeard, wyrtgeard, ' wort- 
yard' or * garden.' 

Ord (Caithness) and MuiR of Ord (Beauly). G. &rd, *a steep, 
rounded height.' ThusOrdhead, Tillyfourie, is a tautology. 
Ord is the name of a township near Tweedmouth. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 235 

Ordiquhill (Banff). Local pron. Ordiflill. G. drd-a-choille, 
' round height with the wood/ or drd-a-b?iuill, * height 
in the plot of ground ' {hall). Qw is = tt7; cf. Latheron- 
WHBEL and Ordwiel, Bunkle, Berwicksh. 

Orkney. Strabo, bk. ii., fr. Pytheas, c. b.c. 330, 'Opicas 
(prob. earliest Sc. name on record). 45 a.d., Pompo- 
niu8 Mela^ Orcades; c. 970, Pict. Chron., Orkaneya; c. 
1080, Tighemac, Insulae Orcnenses ; 1066, O.E. Chron., 
Orcanege ; c. 1375, Orkenay ; also 1115, * jarl i Orkney- 
ium.' * Whale isles ' ; Gk. 6fyv$, -vyos, L. oi'cay N. ore, a 
whale. On G. ore = L. porcus, a pig, see p. xxxi. The 
Romans are said to have taken the name Orcades fr. 
Cape Orcus, prob. Dunnet Head. Ay, ey, a is O.N. for 

* island.' 

Orloge Knowe (Wigtown). O.Fr. horloge, L. horologium, 

* a sundial or water-clock.' See Knowb. 

Ormidale (L. Riddon) and Glenormidale (Arran). ' Orme's 
valley,' N. dal] or as likely fr. Icel. orm-r *a snake,' 
*a worm.' With the form Glenormidale or -ormadell 
cf. Strathhalladale. 

Ormiston (Tranent and Abemethy, Perth) and Glenormiston 
(R. Tweed). Tran. 0., wc 1293; c. 1160, Ormystone. 
*Orme's dwelling' or * village'; O.E. ton, tUn, Gf. 
Ormesby, Ormskirk, and Great Orme's Head. 

Ormsart (Ardrishaig). ?* Orme's shieling' or *hut'; G.diridh. 
Of, Glassary. 

Orphir (Kirkwall), c. 1225, Orkney, Sag., Jorfiara; but 
other Sagas, Orfiara; c. 1500, Orphair. Orfiris -ey, or 
-a is the X. name for an island joined at low water with 
the mainland. 

Orr or Ore Water (Leven). Perh. Ptolemy's town, Orrea. 
Perh. G. odhar (pron. owr), * grey,' but many think it a 
pre-Celtic name for * water,' same root as Urr. If so 
the stream, Orrin, Ross-shire, will contain the same root 
also. Orr and Orrin will then be parallels to G. ahh 
and dbhuinn where the former meant simply * water,' 
while the latter always means * a river.' 

Orton (Fochabers). * At the border ' or * edge of the hill ' ; 
G, oir dkin. See ton, p. Ixxxiii. 



236 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Orwell (Kinross). 1330, Un\'ell. Perh. *new village,' 
G. ur b(?i)ail ; cf. Farnell. 

OspiSDALB (Dornoch). Prob. 1384, Hospostyl. There was 
an Obstaill, 1583, Obstiiill, on R. Alness. At Ospis- 
dale Ospi, a brave N. leader, is said to have fallen, 
1031. But perh. it is * valley (N. dal) of the hospice ' 
or * inn ' ; Fr. hospice, L. hospitium, Cf, Dalnaspidal. 

OsTAiG (Sleat). O.N. = ' east bay ' ; cf, Icel. aust, O.E. ea^f , 
the east. 

Otter Ferry (L. Fyne). As the site shows, G. oitir, * a reef,' 

cf, DUNOTTAR. 

Otterston (Aberdour, Fife). Old, Otherston. Ohthere or 
Other was a Saxon settler. See ton, p. Ixxxiii. Cf. 
Outerston, Midlothian. 

OuAX, L. (Glen-Tiirret, Crieif). Prob. Sim. Durham, ann. 
756, Ouania. ? G. uan, * a lamb.' 

OusB (stream, near Jedburgh). As in England, old Celtic 
root for * water,' soft form of same root as G. uisge, and 
as EsK and Usk. Also see Oxnam. 

Outon. *Oiit-ton' or * hamlet,' outside the town of AYhithom. 

Overton, -town (Dumbarton, Wishaw, New Abbey). 
* Upper village.' Six in England. 

OxGAXG (Grangemouth, Kirkintilloch, and Mouswald). 
Prob. named fr. a grant of land to a church or abbey 
of as much land as an ox could plough or * gang ' over 
in a day. Sc. gang is 'to go.' The word 'oxgang' 
survived in Yorksh. till quite recently. 

Oxnam (Jedburgh). c. 1150, Oxeneham; 1177, Oxeham; 
c. 1360, Oxinghame. *Home of the oxen'; O.E. 
oxena-hdm, =Oxenholme, near Kendal, c/. Oxendean, 
Duns. But as Oxnam stands on a little stream, the 
Ousenan, the Ox- may be originally, like Ox- in Oxford, 
the Celtic oc, hardened form of Ouse; cf, Bannock. 
This district can never have been very suitable for oxen. 

OxTON (Lauder). c. 1200, Ulfkilston. A caution in 
contraction ! Three in England. 

Oykell, R. (Sutherland). 1365, Okel ; 1490, Ochell ; 1515, 
Akkell. Prob. Pictish, = OcHir^ fr. W. iichel, *high.' 



This 2^ lAit SouUi-'LUSLII 'T Vtia?' T »» 

river '.^iiiL xl iitf J^ ^-, y*"#^ i _-' - 
is f'lif AriiffJrtiauan. ..-. • jar litsjrer r.TrT 

OyXE (IlS5*^-i^ t I :♦'•'- ' — 3. 4t « ' j: :i 12- 

river." •_>' -*i3* r:73- 



and *:• -iCjin. TMi-i^rtnuruif^ -^-r* i, —- 

Svria- >t»i 'j-^^yf"*- iL'^iL ^ 
Paislkt. 11^7- r'tofetiiiit^ix 111'* ^iii-^^-'iL - I'-i . 3'u-;*tit- 
Prob. • ill liii: tr.nn x '.Ajtt -^ r:»t- v xaji ^lltl- ~_itt -ei^ jc 
the ol-i V-in:. zr. •-> 'yu't'Uts f/ ihiTv^ tcii vtzj. Z2rr 

declivrrj- 'J^- H:«v">b'^^7. ^ rrfTLXL^ ^ lt^t^i^ A 
yet oli-er zazi^ \t zitt '•vn -»ttiii* -• nt^i ':»i*i?L ^!nr:z. 
f.e-, W. 'v-^n -•-»—, - -ir_^-i 'Jj^LZ rr^-tr "*". -•' 'S"fci:'-:Ei 
T¥M>fTirA^T>> 'Xjaz. zl>*: 'Ar-'tt- i* t i-'.mzrj'.c. ic 1- '*:;»-• '~i ** 
court of j-issi-fe.' tJ>r!L * h *Vi:r2<r:tr i*:l iiri:::-. . Ir_ :»-i-'^'-ir- 

pAiDrt Weul -F^rijir.. Ft. /T- - ^>- z_j>«!£«:c:akry fr:ci 
Rnue, said lo Latc tj*::*:^ icrr ii -^M t-i^ 

Pauxkum (KiikiDayie;! . Priou Bsjzhir'.n\ j»>T .T.n r-j.';u 
* stream with crocked vorAsS 

Palnackie (Dalbeattie). Pr&b. G. pii^ an aai-^ 'str«im at 
the fissure.' 

Palxure (Newton Stewart). 01 Jj Polnewyir. G. and Ir. 
poll n'itibJiarj 'stream of the vews.' Cf. Newiy. 

Paxbride (Arbroath). <r. 1200, Pamiebrid ; 1485, Panbrid. 
Pan is prob. the Piet. equivalent of G. ceantiy 'head, 
headland.' Sir H. MaxwelFs identification of pan with 
Uan is unproven. Bride is St Bridget ; see Kilbride. 

Paxmurb (Forfar). 1286, Pannemore. Prob. * height on 
the moor,' O.E. and Icel. m6r, Sc, miw\ a moor, 
almost a G. word. 

Paxnaxich (Ballater). Accent uncertain. Pict. pariHy U. 
ceann eanaich, * height of hunting,' or ceann an icf^ * hill 
of the cure,' from the medicinal springs there. 



238 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Papa, Little, and Stour (Shetland), Papa Stronsay and 
Westray (Orkney). Sagck^ Papey litla; 1229, Papey 
stora; c. 1225, Orkney. Sag.y Papey ( = P. Westray). 
O.N. pap-€ij is * priest's isle,' strictly that of a monk 
from Iona.i p^p \^ same root as pope and papa. 
Litilly litla is O.N. or Icel. for * little ' ; stor (pron. stour), 
dora is O.N. for * great'; Westray is * western isle'; 
see Stronsay. 

Papill (Unst and Yell) and Paplay (Mainland and S. 
Ronaldshay, Orkney). Papl., c. 1225, Orkney, Swj,, 
Papuley, Papuli ; 1369, Pappley ; 1506, Pappale. 

* Island of the paptdus,' i.e., little * pope ' or priest 
Cf. above, and the Papyli of Iceland. 

Paps of Jura. Sic 1804. Hills so called fr. their shape. 

Pardovan (Linlithgow). Pron. -diivan. a. 1150, Pardufin; 
1372, Purdovine; 1462, Pardovyn. G. barr dublmin^ 

* height like a hook or claw.' 

Parenwell (Kinross). Well of the saint called in W. 
Piran, and in Com. Peran ; but in Ir. Kieran, of Clon- 
macnois, 6th century. Cf. Kilkbrrax, and Peranwell 
and Peranzabuloe ( = in sabvlis), Cornwall. 

Park (Banchory, Old Luce, Lewis, «fec.). G. pairc, W. 
parfcg, O.E. pearruc, * an enclosed field, a park.' 

Partick (Glasgow). 1136, Perdyec ; 1158, Pertheck ; 1483, 
Perthic. A difficult name. Prob. aper du ec, Celtic or 
O.W. for 'at the confluence' or 'mouth of the dark 
water ' (see Perth, Eck, Eckford) ; Kelvin and Clyde 
join here. Cf. p. xxxiv, also Barmouth, Wales, = 
(d)er Mawddach. 

Parton (Castle-Douglas). G. portan, * little port ' or 'harbour.' 
Cf. Parton, Whitehaven ; and the Irish Parteens. 

Pathstruie (Forgandenny). Prob. Pict. path for G. c(Uh 
i<ruthain, * battle on the little stream ' ; cf. Panbride 
and Struan. 

Patxa (R. Doon). Named c. 1810, after Patna on the 
Ganges, a city where a former laird is said to have 
made his money. 
* Cf. ' Sanctu8 Patricius, papa noster,' in letter of Commian, 634 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 239 

Paxton (Berwick), c. 1098, Paxtun. Prob. not * place' or 
' village of the packs ' ; Dan. pdk, pakke, * a pack or 
bundle.' Quite possibly it is fr. L. pax, * peace/ fr. 
some truce being made here; more especially as Eng. 
names are seldom much contracted or altered a. 1100. 
Pack or pah is first found in Eng. or anywhere in the 
13th cny. 

Pease Bridge (Cockbumspath). 1502, * the Path of Pease ' ; 
1548, *the Peaths.' Can it be, as is said, a corruption 
of paths or pethes ? 

1*EAT Inn (Ceres) and Peat Hass (Carsphaim). Our Eng. 
word peat is not, as some dictionaries say, the same as 
the Eng., especially Devonshire, beat, ' the rough sod of 
the moorland.' Hass means *gap, opening,' prob. same 
as M.E. Jialse, Icel. and Dan. hdls, the neck ; and as 
Jiawsey the hole in a ship's bow. Cf. Deerhass, Durris- 
deer. 

Pbaton (L. Long). 1680, ' Alterpittoune ' ; 1792, Piton. 
Doubtful. Possibly contains the Pict. pit ; see p. Iv. 

Peebles. 1116, Pobles; 1126, Pebles. W. pabell, plural 
pehyU, * a tent.' The 8 is the Eng. plural. 

Peffer, R. (E. Ross-sh.), Pepfer Burn (Duddingston and 
Aberlady). Ross P., 1528, Paferay. a. 1130, /SVm. />Mr- 
ham^ * Pefferham ' in E. Lothian. Dr Skene says, corrup- 
tion of G, aifrenn, * offering.' But this cannot be, as in 
G. it is Feothar, and feotharan means * land adjoining 
a brook.' The Lowland names are clearly fr. \V. pefi\ 
*fair, beautiful.' 

Pencaitland (Haddington), a. 1150, Pencatlet : 1250,-kat- 
land. * Land of the height (W. penn) of Cat' or ' Che.' 
See Inchkeith, Keith. 

Pexdrich (Tweeddale and Br. of Allan). Br. P., 1288, 
Petendreich ; 1503, Pettyn-. Pict. G. pitie-iia-droich^ 
* farm, croft of the dwarf.' = Pittexdriech. But Tw. 
P. may be W. penn th-ych, * height of the ^^ew or 
spectacle.' 

Penicuik (Midlothian). 1250, Penicok ; 1296, ycoke. AV. 
penn-y-eogj ' hill of the cuckoo.' 



240 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND, 

Pennan (Fraserburgh). iSic 1654. Prob. Picti8h= G. 
ceannan, *a little head or headland.' The only Pen- 
north of Perth ; but see Pinderichy. 

Pennilee ( Paisley). Quite possibly * penny-lea ' or ^meadow ' ; 
on the old land measures, see p. Ixv. If Celtic, perh. 
pen7i na I it lie, * height of the spate.' 

Pbnninghame (Newton Stewart). Pron. pemiicum. 1576, 
Pennegem. O.E. peneg Mm, * penny holding ' or * land ' ; 
O.E. also has the form penning. The penny was a 
frequent land measure in the west of Scotland ; cf,, too, 
Merkland, Dunscore, and Poundland in Parton; also 
Pennington, Ulverston. In the south-west of Soot- 
land are also Pennymuir and Pennytown, and in Arran, 
Pennycastel. 

Pennygant (Tweeddale). Prob. W. penn y gan, * hill of the 
thrush ' ; also in Yorkshire. Ct\ Penicuik. 

Pennyghael (Argyle) and Pennygown (Mull). * The penny 
land of the Gael,' and * of the smith ' ; G. gohlumn. Gf, 
Penny cross, Mull, a. 1600, Peanagross, and *Penny- 
furt' {sic 1596), in Lorn. 

Pexnytersan (hill, Kilmalcolm). Brython. penn tarsuinn, 

* oblique hill.' 

Penpont (Thomhill). Pron. -piint ; W. penn y pont, ' hill of 
the bridge,' L. pom, -tis, Cf. * Kinpunt,' Roxburgh, sic 
in 1316. 

Pentland Firth and Pentland Hills. P. Hills, tsic 1250; 
but a. 1150, Pentlant; Sagas, Petlands fjord (they 
tell that the Norsemen learnt this name from the natives); 
1403, Mare Petlandicum; 1595, Pinthlande Firth; cf, 

* Peohtas,' O.E. Ghron., ann. 597. The firth is clearly 
named after the Fids or Pelits ; its spellmg has only 
recently been assimilated to that of the * Pentland 
Hills.' This last prob. just means * the pent land,' perh. 
referring to the Penicuik valley. To *pen' and to 
*pin' are fr. same root; cf, Sc. pend, as in a *pend- 
close.' Rhys thinks it is W. penri lann (cognate with 
land), * height over the enclosed land.' The Picts never 
lived here. Land is so spelt in Icel., Dan., and O.E. 



PLACE-XAmS OF SOOH-OO?- 241 

Pkkvbnna (Tweeddale). ! W.pewA '.ofh^rt, <x o:Bh. *i£l irhL 
the pesik ' or ' beacon.' 

Pkrcbbib or PiEBCKBr Hall iXhTrr.fr^^ FiascKT:^ 'Att', 

* Percy's dwelling' or * Tillage " : oorth. O.E^ auiii I>iiL ?'5. 
6y. C/'. p. IxxiL HardIv = P-cTs*rtc^ *»=»& t-tl'>»^. 

Perolewax^ (Dalirmple). Prwx G. joa*'-? fei- ,a<i.'s. 'p&rk 
with the elms.' C/, BLALOirA3f. 

Persie (Blairgowrie). G. f^ar^fu a pieT&fm, *a panioij'; 
cf . Persebus, Mull, and IslaT i • pritst'a place ' <m- * farm '|. 
On hw^^ see p. IxxiiL 

Perth. Sic a. 1150; but r. 112^, Pert; 1220, SSt John- 
stoun or Perth'; 1527, Boece, Bertha, which shows Boece 
thought the name was the G. iarr Tha, 'height over 
the Tay/ i.e., Kinnoull Hill. Wh. Stokes is prob. right 
in making it Pict.,=W. perih, *a thicket'; and not 
either 'height over the Tay,' or * confluence of Tay' 
(aper Tha) and Almond, where the original village and 
castle are said to have stood. 

Petebctjlter (Deeside). So called because the parish 
church of Coulter was dedicated to St Peter; cf. 
Maryculter, across the river. 

Peterhead. Old diar/er, Petri promontoriimi ; 1595, 
Mercator, Peterpolle (poll, ' a head ') ; 1654, H. Gordon^ 

* Oppidulum Peter-head.' 

Petticur (Kinghom). c. 1150, Petioker. Old G. pettecuir, 

* bit of land at the bend ' or ' turn ' (car). See Petty. 

Pettinaix (Carstairs). c. 1150, Pedynnane; c. 1180, 
Padinnan, -uenane; c, 1580, Pettynane. Prob. G.petfe 
w'cw, ' bit of land with the birds,' en (pron. ain), a bird ; 
or else, like Balnam, Aviemore, j)€rt 'an athain, ' land 
by the little ford.' 

Petty (Fort George), a. 1400, Petyn. Of. a. 1000, BL 
Deer, * Pette mac Ganiait,' i.e., homestead of Garnait's 
son. Pette, also found in names as pedy, pett, peth, 
pith, put, is Pictish,^ 'meaning *bit of land,' then 

* hamlet ' ; in G., ue., the dialect of the Dalriad Scots, 
which afterwards became the universal speech, often 

16 



242 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

rendered by haile. Cf, Pitlochry, &c. Its W. 
equivalent is petli^ and its true G. equivalent cuit^ * a 
portion ' ; c/". p. Iv. 

Philipstoun (Linlithgow). Sic 1720. 

Philorth (Buchan). Sic 1361 ; but a. 1300, Fylorthe. 
Perh. G. feille ghort, * market-field,' gh quiescent, G. 
fnll is a feast, fair, market, holiday. 

Physgill (Glasserton). Old, Fishcegil. N. fisk gil, * fish 
gill or ravine ' ; cf, O.E. fisc, and Auchingill. 

PiEROWAAL or -WALL (Westray). Hardly 'the pier on the 
bay ' ; O.F. piere, mod. Fr. pierre, L. and Gk. petra, a 
stone. On O.N. vag-r, a bay, here wall, see Kirkwall. 
Perh. * Peter's bay ' ; but prob. * little bay,' Sc. peerie, 
little, a word common in the Orkneys, fr. N. pirtl, * a 
small person ' ; cf. ^ The Peerie Sea,' Kirkwall. 

PiLRiG (Leith) and Pilton (Granton). W. pill, a moated 
fort, a ' peel ' ; cf. Pilmore, St Andrews, and Pillmuir, 
Coldingham ; and see Rigg. 

PiNDBRiCHY (Glen Ogil, Forfar). An isolated Brythonic 
form ; W. penn, * height, hill,' and G. doireach, -iclie, 
* woody,' fr. doire, * forest.' Cf Pexnan. 

Pinkie, or -key (Musselburgh and Duns). Perh. cognate 
with old Sc. hink, hinkie, a * bank ' of earth ; more 
prob. * small,' lit. * contracted,' fr. vb. pink, ' to contract 
the eyes.' 

Pinmore (S. Ayr). Brythonic form of G. cinn iiidr, *big 
hill.' The most northerly Lowland Pin- is Pinwinnie, 
Airdrie, W. penn gwynn, * white head or height.' Cf. 
Kinaldie. 

Pinwherrie, -irrib (S. Ayr). Prob. * hill of the copse ' ; 
G. fhoithre (pron. whirry), and see above. 

Pirn Mill (W. Arran). Pirn is Sc. for a reel or bobbin. 
Cf. Pirnhill, Innerleithen, and Pirn, Gala Water. But 
these last are surely Celtic. 

PiTALPiN (Dundee). ' Land of King Kenneth MacAlpin,' 
c. 850. See Petty. 

PiTCAiRN and PiTCAiRNGREEN (Perth). 1247, Peticanie. 
Old G. pette cairn, * field of the cairn ' or * barrow.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 243 

PrrcAPLE (Aberdeen). * Field of the mare ' (G. capuill ; cf. 
Kincaple), or * of the chapel ' (G. caibeil), 

PiTCORTHY (Cambee). a. 1150, Petcorthyn; c. 1195, Peth- 
corthing, Pitcortyne. Prob. * field of the stingy fellow, 
miser ' ; G. gortan, -ain, 

PiTCULLO (Fife). Sic 1517, Prob. 'field of Cullo'; the 
surname Kello is still found. Cf. Edenticullo, Ireland, 
= * slope of the house of Collo ' ; Ir. Ugh Golla, 

PiTPiRRANE (Dunfermline), c. 1200, Pethfuran. Pict. G. 
pitfuarain^ * croft with the well.' 

PiTFODDLES (Aberdeen). 1525, Petfothellis, also Badfodullis 
(G. had, * copse, thicket '). * Field of the foundling or 
waif ' ; G. faodail, with Eng. plural s. 

PiTFOUR (Avoch) and Pitfure (Golspie). Av. P., c. 1340, 
Pethfouyr. Pictish, = Balfour. 

PiTGAVBNY (Elgin). Some think = a. 1100, Bothnguanan; 
1187, -gouane; 1251, Bothgauenan, i.e., G. both na 
gohhainn, ' house of the smith ' ; there are a few cases 
of pit (cf. Petty) being rendered by G. both, e.g., 
Botarie, Caimie, G. hoth-airidh, in 1662, 'Pittarie.' Dr 
Maclauchlan says, Bothnguanan is Boath, near Forres, 
and that the final syllables of a name often drop ; cf. 
Inver. In any case the meaning is almost the same. 

PiTiLiB (Aberfeldy). Pron. -^elie ; G. pit-Ordhile, ' hollow of 
the water.' Cf. Cnocadile, Duncansbay. 

PiTKKATHLY, -CAiTHLY (Bridge of Eam). Prob. * field of the 
seeds ' or * chaff' ; G. cdithlich. 

Pitkellony (Muthill). 1 * Field of the multitude'; G. 
coilinne^ fr. coimh-lion, or * of the truant, poltroon,' G. 
coilleannich. 

PiTLBSSiE (Ladybank). * Bit of land with the garden ' ; G. 
Zto«, -ise. On lios, cf. Lismore. 

Pitlochry. In G. Bailechlochrie, ch quiescent ; either 
* hamlet,' ' field of the assembly ' or * convent ' (G. 
chlochar, -air), or * of the stepping-stones ' (G. clorhran, 
-ain). 

PiTLOUR (Kinross). * Village of the lepers ' ; G. lohhar. 
Cf., c. 1190, * Petenlouer,' in Alwrdeen. 



244 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

PiTLURG (Banffsh.). 1230, Petynlurg, Petnalurge. 'Field 
on the slope ' or * ridge ' ; G. lurg ; cf. Lurg Hill. 

PiTMKDDEN (Dyce). 'Middle, centre bit of land'; G. 
ineadkcm, the middle. 

PiTMiLLY (Grail). 1211, PutmuUin. *Land, hamlet of the 
mill ' ; G. muileann^ -inn. 

PiTRODiE (Errol). * Land, hamlet by the wayside, or road ' ; 
G. rbd^ rbid. 

PiTscoTTiK (Cupar). 1375, Petscoty. *Land of the small 
farm ' or * flock ' ; G. sgotan, -ain, 

PiTSLiGO (Fraserburgh). Sic 1467. * Shelly land'; G. and 
Ir. sUgeach. Cf. Sligo. 

PiTTKDiE (Kirkcaldy). * Bit of land on the slope ' or ' hill 
face ' ; G. exidann^ -ainn. But Killeedy, Limerick, is 
fr. Ite or Ide, famous Ir. virgin and saint, c. 500 a.d. 

PiTTENDRBiCH (Dcnino). Cf. a ' Petyndreih,' 1140, in CItart. 
Newbattle, See Pendrich. Some say, 'field of the 
magician or Druid ' ; G. draoidh. 

PiTTBN.WEBM (Anstruthcr). a. 1150, Petnaweem, Pitneweme; 
1528, Pittenwemyss. * Land, hamlet by the cave ' where 
St Fillan dwelt ; G. uan^j O.G. warn. Cf. Wemyss. 

Pladda (Arran). 1549, Flada; 1609, Pladow. Dslu. flad-a, 
* flat isle ' ; cf. Icel, flai-r, and Sw. flat, flat ; also cf. 
Fladda, Treshnish Isles, and Fladay, Barra. 

Plaidy (Turrifl"). Perh. G. plaid, -de, * an ambush ' ; also cf. 
Drumblade. 

Plains (Airdrie), Plan (Beith). Cf. Plean. 

Plantation (Govan). In 1783 *Craigiehair was purchased 
by a John Robertson, who had made his money in the 
West Indian plantations. 

Plascow (Kirkgunzeon). Prob. W. plas cu, *dear place.' 
Cf. Glasgow, Linlithgow. 

Plean (Bannockbum). 1215, Plane; 1745, Plen, usually 
called *the Plean'; 1449, *le Plane,' and pron. rather 
like 1215 or 1745 than like the spelling of to^ay. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 246 

Doubtful. Possibly Eng. plaiuy L. planvs. Possibly 
Pict. form of G. gleann, 'a glen.' Not likely fr. G. 
pleadhan, * a dibble, a small spade.' 

Plewlands (Edinburgh and Peeblessh.). Edin. P., sic 1528. 
' Ploughed lands ' ; plough, Dan, ploug, is pron. in Sc. 
pleu, or pleugh, with gh guttural. 

Plockton (Strome Ferry). G. ploc, * a large clod or turf/ 
' a block,' + Eng. -ton ; but see p. Ixxxiv. 

Plora (Peebles). Prob. G. blorach, * noisy,' fr. blor, *a loud 
noise.' 

Pluckbrston (Kirriemuir). Old, Locarstoun, i,e., *Lockhart's 
hamlet.' 

PliJscardbn (Elgin). 1124, Ploschardin; 1461, Pluscarty; 
1639, -cardy. Prob. Pictish, * place of the smith(s) ' ; 
W. plas, not in G., and G. ceard, gen. chirde, plural 
ceardan, 

PoGBiE (Upper Keith, Haddington). 1 Fr. Sc. poke, Icel. 
poM, *a bag, sack,'+ northern O.E. and Dan. hi, bp, 
* house, village.' 

Poles, The (Dornoch). 

PoLKEBUCK Burn (Muirkirk). G. poll cctbaig, *pool like a 
cheese,' Sc. kebbticL Pool is in G., Ir., and Com. poll, 
in W. pwll. Armor. potUl, and these words may mean 
either running or stagnant water, * stream ' or * pool.' 

PoLKjfeMMET (Bathgate). See above. Kemmet is prob. G. 
cajn ath, 'crooked ford' or *fordable river' ; cf. Kennet, 
The river Almond meanders through this estate. 

PoLLOKSHAWs and PoLLOKSHiELDS (Glasgow). 1158, Pullock, 
Pollock, prob. Brython. for * little pool.' In Malcolm 
IV. 's reign, Peter, son of Fulbert, took the local 
surname of PoUoc, and gave to Paisley Abbey the 
church of PoUoc. See Shaw, and for -shields, i.e., 
' shielings,' see Galashiels. 

PoLMADiE (Glasgow) and Polmadie Hill (Barr). Glas. P., c. 
1200, -macde. Prob. this has the curious derivation, 
G. poll mhig de, * bum or pool in the field of God {Dia) ' ; 
Was this some sacred spot ? The final -de or -die may 
be G. dubh, * black.' Of. Dundee. Pulmaddy Bum, 



246 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Carsphaini, is fr. G. madadh, ' a dog or wolf ' ; and 
Polmood, Peebles, is fr. Celtic mdd, * a gathering, a fold/ 

PoLMAiSE (Stiriing). * 1147, Pollemase; 1164, Polmase. 
Perh. * beautiful water ' ; G. maiseach. 

PoLMONT (Falkirk). Local pron. P6mon. 1319, -munth; 
1552, -mond; c. 1610, Poumon; G. poll mo7iaidh, 
'stream or pool on the moor or moorland hill.' Onlj, 
the accent must have changed. 

POLNASKY Burn (Mochrum). * Water of the eels'; G. 

n^easgann, 

POLSHAG Burn (Carsphaim). Perh. ' water of the hawks ' ; 

G. seohliac (pron. shack). 

POLTALLOCH (Argyle). * Stream by the smithy,' G. teallach. 

POLTON (Lasswade). * Hamlet on the water,' the river Esk. 
OA Linton. 

POLWARTH (Duns). 1250, Poulwrd; 1299, Powelsw^orthe. 
' Place on the water ' ; on M.E. word^ worthy a place, cf. 
Jedburgh. 

POMATHORN (Pcuicuik). 

Pomona, or Mainland (Orkney), c. 1380, Fordun^ Insulse 
PomonisB ; 1529, Pomonia. Said to be fr. h.pomuni, *an 
apple,' because * Mainland ' is, as it were, in the middle of 
the apple, between the north and south isles. This is 
dubious. The L. Pomona was goddess of fruit-trees, 
and so not very appropriate for Orkney. 

PoNPBiGH (Lanark). Prob. G. honnfiaidh or fiaigh, * low place 
with the deer' {cf, Bonskibd). But Ballynafeigh and 
Rjithfeigh are fr. Ir, faitche, Q.faiche^ a level green plot, 
a field. In W. pon means * what is puffed up, blistered.' 

PooLBWE (L. Ewe). See Polkebuck and Ewe. 

Port Bannatyne (Rothesay). *Ninian Bannachtyne,' of 
Kames, granted lands here to his son Robert in 1475. 

Ports Charlotte and Ellen (Islay). Port C. named in 1828 
after Lady Charlotte, mother, and Port E. named in 
1821 after Lady Ellenor, the first wife, of W. F. Campbeli 
of Islay. 

PoRTENCALZiE (Wigtowu). Old^ Portiucailly. G. part m 
cailliche, * nun's harbour.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 24? 

PoRTENCROSS (Ardrossau). G. = ' harbour of the cross ' ; G. 
CTois, Cf. Portnacroish, Appin. 

PoRTESSiE (Buckie). * Harbour with the waterfall ' ; G. eas, 
easan. 

Port-Glasgow. Site feued here by the Glasgow Town 
Council in 1668. 

PoRTiNCAPLE (L. Long), a. 1350, Portkebillis, Porchappil. 
* Harbour of the chapel ' ; G. caibeal, and cf. Pitcaple. 

PoRTKXOCKiE (Cullen). * Harbour by the little hill ' ; G. cnocan. 

Portlethex (Kincardine). G. port leathan, * broad har- 
bour ' ; also cf, Innerleithen. 

PoRTMAHOMACK (Tain), a. 1700, Portus Columbi. G. port 
machalmac or Mocholmoy, * harbour of my own little 
Colman,' champion of the Celtic Church at the great 
Whitby Conference, 664. See p. cv, and cf. Kilma- 
chalmag, Kincardine, and Inchmahome. The 1700 
assertion, ' harbour of St Columba,' is possibly correct ; 
see p. cii. 

PoRTMOAK (Kinross), a. 1150, -moack; 1187, -moog; 1250, 
-mochoc ; Porthmook ; also Chart. St Andrews, Pette- 
mokane (see Petty). * Harbour of St Moack' or 
'Moucum,' in honour of whom a priory was erected 
here by a King of the Picts. 

PoRTNAGURAN (Stomoway). * Harbour of the brood of birds ' 
(G. gu7')y or * of the goats ' (G. gobhar). 

Portnahaven (Islay). Pron. -nah&vvn ; not a tautology, but 
G. port 7ia Kaihhne, * harbour on the water.' Cf. Avon. 

PoRTOBBLLO. PortobcUo Hut was built in I74ii \i} lai uUl 
Scotch sailor, who served under Admiral Veniuii, Lu ximxi- 
memorate his victory at Portobello, Darieii, iu 1739. 

PoRTPATRiCK (Wigtown). Fr. the famous St Patndi\ 5tU 
century ; Ir. Padric, G. Padruigy L. Pat r kins. 

Portree (Skye and Portpatrick). Skye P., 1549, Portri- 
* Harbour of the king,' or * Port Royal,' G. pt/rt righn ; 
80 called from James V.'s visit here. Cf. l\>rtrJin-ri|^lif 
Saddel, and Inchree, Onich. 




248 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Portsoy (Banff). ? * Harbour of the warrior ' (G. sooty saoidh), 
or * of the bitch ' (G. migh, -Jie), 

PoRTYERROOK (Wigtown). Old, Portcarryk. * Harbour of the 
sea-cliff'; G. carraig (cf, Carrick). The y sound is 
the result of the aspiration of the c. Dr Skene thinks 
this is the Beruvik of NiaFs Saga. 

PossiL (Glasgow). 1512, -ell, -il. Perh. ' the front ' or * face 
of the wood ' ; G. pais (bathais) chuilly fr. coill, a wood. 
See Paisley, and cf. Darvkl. 

Powburn (Edinburgh). Pow is Sc. for * a sluggish stream ' ; 
W. pwly G. poll, see Polkebuck. Cf. Pow, New 
Abbey, Powmill, Plean; also *Pomon' and 'Pomaise,' 
local pron. of Polmont and Polmaise. Powburn is 
thus a tautology. 

PowGREE (Beith). * Stream of the herd' (of deer). G. 
greigh, -eighe. 

PoYNTZFiELD (Invcrgordon). Fr. a man. 

Preasandye (Stirling). Prob. G. preasan duhh, * dark httle 
thicket.' 

Premnay (Insch). ] * Tree in the plain ' (cf. Kemnay), fr. 
W. pren, a tree, a word common in Ir. names as cran, 
e.g., Crancam, &c. On G. magh, plain, = may, cf. 
Cambus o' May. 

Preshome (Buckie). Prob. * priest's home ' or ' house '; O.E. 
preost-Mrriy cf christen, pron. chrissen. 

Press (Coldingham). G. preas or phreas, * a copse, a thicket.' 

Preston (Duns, Dumfries, and Colvend). * Priest's abode ' 
(cf Preshome, and Prescot). Fifteen in England. See 
ton, p. Ixxxiii 

Prestongrangb (Prestonpans) and Prestonkirk (Hadding- 
ton), c. 1240, Grangia de Preston. See above, and 
Abbotsgrange. 

Prestonpans (Musselburgh). 1625, Prestounepannis. Salt- 
pans erected here by the monks fr. Newbattle. 

Prbstwick (Ayr). Sic 1158; 1160, *Prestwick usque Pul- 
prestwick' (pul is W. ptcl, pool, water) ; c. 1230, Prest- 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 249 

vick ; 1265, -wick. Prob. 'priest's dwelling' or 
* village ' (O.E. wie ; cf. Berwick), not * priest's bay ' (N. 
vik). Also in Northumberland. 

Prinlaws (Leslie). Prob. Pictish, fr. W. jrren, 'a tree,' 
+ Sc. law, O.E. JUdetD, *a hill.' Cf. Barnbogle. 

Prosen, see Glbnprgsen. 

PuLCAiGRiB Burn (Kells). * Water of the boundary' (G. 
coigriche) ; and see Polkbbuck. 

PuLHAY Burn (Carsphaim). * Water of the swamp'; G. 
cluxedhe (pron. haye). 

Pulteneytown (Wick). Founded in 1808 by the British 
Fisheries Society. 

PuMPHERSTON (Midcalder). Pumpher seems an unknown 
name. 

PuRiN (bum and farm, Freuchie). Prob. G. peur, plur. 
peuran, W. pererij * a pear.' 

Pyatknowb (Biggar). Sc. = 'magpie's hill'; see Knowb. 
P(/at is the Eng. pie, Fr. pie, L. pica, with the 
diminutive -at or -et 



Q 

QuAiR Water (Peeblessh.). 1116, Quyrd ; 1174, Cuer; 
1184, Queyr. Com. quirt, later gtcer ; W. gwryd, 
* green.' Cf, * The green, green grass o' Traquair kirk- 
yard ' ; and cf, Traquair. 

QuAXTERNBSS (Kirkwall). Fr. Icel. Kantari, i.e., * Canter- 
bury,' and meaning * bishop.' It enters as an element 
into a good many Scandinavian names. See Xess. 

QuARFF (Shetland). Icel. hvarf, O.Sw. hwaif, *a tuming, 
a shelter.' Cf. Cape Wrath, and the Wharfe, Yorkshire. 

Quarter (Hamilton, Dunipace, Galloway), West Quarter 
(Falkirk). Dun. Q., 1510, ly Quartir. 

QuEENSBERRY HiLL (Drumlanrlg). Perh. a corruption of 
some Celtic word. But rf. Turnberry. 



250 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

QuEBNSPERRY N. and S. (Firth of Forth). 1183, Passagium 
S. Marg. Regme; c. 1295, Queneferie; 1461, Quenis 
Fery. So called because Princess Margaret of England, 
afterwards wife of Malcolm Canmore (1057-93), crossed 
here. 

QuKBNZiKBURN (Kilsjth). c. 1610, PmU, Goyny. Perh. G. 
caoin, * gentle.' 

QuENDALB Bay (Sumburgh). Icel. hvan, *a wife,' Dan. 
qvindCy a woman, O.E. ctveuy Sc. qiceaUy a woman, + 
N., tfec, dcdy * a dale, valley.' 

QuiEN, L. (Bute). Prob. G. cuithean, 'little trench or pit.' 

QuiLS (Perthsh.). G. coil (Ze, *a wood,' with Eng. plur. s. 
Cf. Cults and Kelty. 

QuiXAG (mountain, Sutherland). Pron. Koneag. Either 
G. cui?ineag, * a chum, milk-pail,' fr. its supposed shape ; 
or fr. G. caoinag, dimin. fr. G. caoin, 'beautiful'; cf. 
Coshquin, Derry. 

QuiRAiNG (mountain, Skye). G. corruption of Icel. kvi rongy 
'crooked enclosure.' Of. Quoyloo. 

Quivox, St (Ayr). Fr. St Kevoca, holy virgin in Kyle, c. 
1030; or perh. from the Ir. St Caemhan, in his pet 
form (p. cv) Mochaemhoc (pron. Mokevoc), also called 
Pulcherius. 

QuoiCH, R. (Braemar). So called because the stream-bed 
contains circular holes ; G. cuachy a cup, a ' quaich.' 

QuothquhIn (Biggar). 1253, Cuthquen; 1403, Quodquen. 
Difficult ; perh. W. cwt^ ' roundness,' and gwen^ ' white, 
clear.' So ' clear-looking, round hill,' which well describes 
its look. Of course qu in Sc. is w ; and in most names 
containing gwen the g falls away. 

Quoyloo (Stromness). Icel. kvi hloe, ' the warm fold.' A quoy 
is an enclosure with turf or stones, a fence. In the 
earliest Orkney rentals 'quoyland' is very common; 
also such names as ' Quoybewmont,' near Kirkwall, 

* Gloupquoy,' Deerness, &c. Cf. Dan. koviy O.Du. coye, 

* a hollow, an enclosure.' Loo is Dan. hloBy Icel. hliey 
the same as O.E. hUoy Medio , 'shelter,' or as an adj. 
' warm ' ; cf, Lee. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 251 



R 

Raasay (Skye). Saga, Hrauneyjar; 1263, Raasa; 1501, 
Rasay. Either Icel. rds, *a course, a channel,' or rd, *a 
landmark,' would give an appropriate meaning, + N. 
«y> 6y, a, * an island.' 

Rachan Mill (Biggar). G. racan, * arable land.' 

Rackwick (Westray and Hoy), c. 1225, Orkmy, Sag,, 
Rekavik. * Bay full of wrack,' e.e., cast^up seaweed, fr. 
Icel. vik, a bay, and reki, gen. reka, Sw. wrak; same 
root as wreck, 

Rapford (Forres). Prob. G. i^ath, * rampart, fort,' + Eng. 
ford ; cf. Radford, Gal way, which is in Ir. Ath-a-Wathay 

* ford of the fort.' Cf, Alford. 

Rauane (Gareloch). Prob. G. rathain (pron. rahan), * ferny 
place.' Of. Rahan, Rahin, Ireland. 

Rait (Errol). G. rcUh, * a fort, rampart.' Gf. Logibrait. 

Raith (Kirkcaldy), c, 1320, Rathe; as above. Gf, Raithby, 
England, and O.Ir. raith, *fern, bracken.' 

Ram6rnie (Cupar). 1439, Ramorgney. Possibly G. rath 
mor gainimh, * big rampart of sand ' or * gravel.' 

Ramsey (Whithorn). O.E. rainnies ige, * ram's isle ' ; so Sir 
H. Maxwell. Gf, Portramsay, Lismore. 

Ramshorn (once an estate, now a parish church, Glasgow). 
1241, Ramnishorene ; 1494, Ramyshome. Prob. *hom' 
or *8pur of land belonging to Ramiii,' some Saxon 
settler. Gf, Reamnesbyrig (sic c. 1100), now Rams- 
bury, Wilts. Form 1241 precludes derivation fr. O.E. 
erne, a house, as in Whithorn. Horn in O.E. is spelt 
as now. 

Ranfurlie (Br. of Weir). G. rann fedirlinn, *part, division 
let at a farthing rent,' see p. Ixv. 

Rankeillor (Cupar), c. 1530, Rankilor. *The part' or 

* division (G. rann) on the Keilor.' See Inverkeilor. 

Kaxnoch (Perthshire). G. raineach, *fem, bracken.' 



252 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Ranza, L. (Arran). 1433, Lochransay; 1549, -renasay. 
Icel. Bans-ay J ^isle of the house,' rann, or perh. *of 
phmder,' rdn, 

Raplooh, The (Stirling). Sic 1329, but 1361, -lach ; and 
now pron. raplach. G. rapalachy * noisy, bustling, brawl- 
ing,' fr. raped, * noise.' 

RARicHiE (Feam). 1333, Rarechys; 1368, -icheis. W. J. 
Watson thinks, prob. G. rath riachaidh shios, * fort of 
scratching' (as by brambles). There was a fort here. 
Cf, Dunriachie, Dores, perh. fr. G. riabliacJiy * dappled.' 

Rarnish or Ranish (Lewis). = * Cape of the roe-deer ' ; Icel. 
rd, gen. rdr. Niah is N. rieas, * promontory.' Cf. Rodil. 

Rashibdrum (Denny). G. rasach druim, * hill-ridge covered 

with shrubs.' Of, Drum. 
Rathelpie (St Andrews). 1183, Rathelpin. * Fort (G. rath) 

of King Alpin.' Cf. Pitalpin. 

Rathkn (Lonmay). a. 1300, Rathyn. Prob. G. ratJiain, 

* ferny place,' O.Ir. raith, fern. Cf. Rahanb. 

Rathillbt (Fife), a. 1200, Radhulit. Prob. G. rad-a- 
h^ulaidhy *road of the treasure' (or fr. 7'afhy a fort). 

Cf MOUNTHOOLY. 

Rathmuribl (Garioch). * Muriel's fort.' 

Ratho (S. Queensferry). 1250, Ratheu; 1292, Radchou; 

1293, Rathou; 1316, -oe. G. rath, *a fort'; second 

syllable doubtful. Cf. Stobo. 

Rathvbn (Buckie). G. rath hheinn, ' fort on the hill.' 

Rattra (Borgue) and Rattray (Blairgowrie and Peterhead). 
Perh. * fort-town,' fr. tre, tra, Com. and W. for ' town ' 
or * house.' Sir H, Maxwell thinks that the former is 
fr. G. rath toruidhe (pron. tory), * fort of the hunter ' or 

* outlaw.' Dr Jos. Anderson thinks Rattar Brough, 
Caithness, is the Rauda Biorg, or ' red headland,' of the 
Sagas. 

Ravelrig (Midcalder). Ravel is prob. a man's name; cf. 
Ravelston. On rig, see Bishopbriggs. 

Ravbnstruther (Carstairs). Perh. G. rahhachan srathair, 

* beacon on the height like a cart-saddle ' ; cf. An- 

STRUTHER. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 253 

Hawyards (Coatbridge). Prob. corruption of G. rath, aird, 
'fort on the height/ Of, Barnyard, Mawcarsb, and 
Benraw, Ireland, = heinn rath, * hill of the fort.' 

Rayxb (Garioeh). a. 1300, Rane. G. rann, rainn, * a part, 
division.' 

Reawick (Shetland). ? *Bay (Icel. vik) with the reef or 
rocks ' ; Icel. rif, Dan. and Sw. rev. 

Reay (N. Sutherland), c. 1230, Ra; c. 1565, Ray. G. 
retdh (pron. ray), * smooth, level,' or * a plain.' 

Redcastle (Dingwall and Arbroath). Ding. R., 1455, -castell. 

Redding and Rbddingmuirhead (Polmont). Red. sic c. 
1610. Prob. like Reading, Berks (871, Readingas), 
called after some family. But cf. * Redinche,' t.e., * red- 
looking peninsula' or * pasture land,' name in 1195 of 
the peninsula on the Forth, E. of Polmaise ; also 
Redden, Sprouston, ' Roundredding,' 1609, in Dumbar- 
ton, 1464, *Reddingis,' 1530, * Ridinghill,' Ayrshire, and 
1459, ^Rydynland,' 1546, * Raddin-dyke,' Lanarksh. 

Redgorton (Perth). G. iniadh gortan, * reddish little field.' 

Reiss (Wick). Perh. G. riasg, reisg, * moorland, morass.' 
Of. Risk, MinigafF. Or fr. Icel. risa, * to rise.' 

Relxjgas (Dunphail). Oldy Relucos. Locally interpreted, 

* shieling of the throat,' referring to * Randolph's Leap,' 
a narrow^ passage of the river Findhom here. Perh. G. 
ruith luaith gats, 'flowing (stream) of the sw^ift foot,' 
gais for cats, gen. of cos or cos, a foot. 

Rexdall (Orkney). Saga, Rennadal. Fr. Icel. r&nna, *to 
run,' cf, * runnel,' i.e., a rivulet, or rend-r, * striped,' + 
N., &c., dal, * a dale, valley.' 

Renfrew. Sic 1160 ; but c. 1128, Renifry ; 1158, Reinfrew ; 
1164, Renfriu. W. rhen friu, * flowing brook'; friu, 
flowing (water) is fr. frw, frou, impulse. 

Renton (Coldingham and Dumbarton). Col. R., 1098, 
Reguintun; c. 1200, Reningtona, Regnintun (Who was 
ReguinVj. Dumb. R. was so named in 18th century 
after a Berwicksh. Miss Ronton. See ton, p. Ixxxiii. 

Rerrick or -WICK (Kirkcudbright). 1562, Rerryk. Possibly 

* reaver's, robber's dwelling ' ; O.K. redfere-wic. 



] 



254 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Rescobik (Forfar). 1251, Rosolpin; 1270, Roscolpin; also 
Roscolbyn; Aberdeen Brev.y Roscoby. Brythonic ros 
col pin or pen (G. ceann, cinn), * moor at the back of 
the bill.' 

Resolis (Cromarty). G. rudha or ros soluis (in Jr. aoUm)^ 

* point, cape of the (beacon-) light.' Cf. Rossolus, 
Monaghan ; Barsoles, -lis, Galloway. 

Restalrig (Edinburgh). Still pron., though rarely, Lestarick. 
c. 1210, Lestalrig; 1291, -ric; 1526, Restalrig. G. 
HoS'talamhf * garden-soil,' + rig, * a ridge' (see Bishop- 
BRiGGs). The liquids I and r always interchange easily. 
Of. Loch Restal, near Glencroe. 

Restinnet (Forfar). 1162, Rostinoth ; 1289, Rustinoth ; 
1322, Roustinot; 1586, Restenneth. Prob. old G. 
ros, *a wood,' and perh. tuineadh, -idh, *a residence, 
dwelling,' or tionnadh, -aidh, *a turning.' 

Reston (Berwick). 1098, Ristun. Perh. * Village of Rhys.' 
A S. Wales prince has his name spelt Ris or Ees in 
O.E, Chrons. ann. 1053; to-day it would be Rhys. 
Possibly fr. O.E. rest, rtest, * rest ' ; and so Reston = 

* resting-place.' 

Rhioonich (Eddrachilis). G. rhi or rudha coinnich, * head- 
land or slope covered with moss ' or * fog.' Near by is 
Rhivoult, fr. G. m(h)uilt, *a wether,' same root as 
mulct Sheep were a common fine. 

Rhu Coigach, &c. G. rhu or rudha, * cape, promontory,' 
is common in names, especially in Sutherland. See 
Coigach. 

Rhu dunan (Skye). G. = * cape of the little dune ' or * hill.' 

Rhynd (Bridge of Earn), Rhynie (Aberdeen, Fearn), Rhynns 
Point (Islay), Rhynns op Galloway. Aber. R., c. 
1230, Rhynyn, Ryny. Fearn R., c. 1564, Rany. R. of 
Gall., old, Ryndis (cf. Irish Life of St Cuthbert, * Regio 
quae Rennii vocatur in porta qui Rintsnoc [G. cnoc, a 
hill] dicitur,' prob. referring to Portpatrick). All prob. 
fr. O.Ir. rinn, rind, G. roinn, W. rh'^nn, *a point of 
land,' or the G. adj. roinneach, * abounding in points.' 

* Rhynyn' looks like the dimin. roinnean, *a little 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 255 

point or headland ' ; but with the form Rany, ^rf. 
Raxxoch, fr. G. raineaehy ferny. The ^ is the common 
Eng. plural. 

RJBIGILL (Tongue). Possibly * ribbed glen," fr. Dan. riby 
leel. ri/y a rib, + Icel. gil, a rayine. Perh. G. riahwih 
eUlj * the fissure of the grayeyard,' G. ceally ciUj church, 
grayeyard. 

RiccARTON, -KARTOX (Hawick, Kilmarnock, Currie, Stone- 
hayen). Currie R., c. 1320, Richardtoim. Haw. R., 
1 376, Ricarden. * Richard's dwelling ' : see toiij p. iTXTiii. 

RiCHORX (Urr). 1527, Raeheren ; 1623, Rithome. Perh. 
O.E. redd erne, * red house.' Q'. Whithorx. 

RiDDOX, L. (Kyles of Bute). G. rudan is a knuckle ; but 
this is either ruadh dan, * reddish hill,' or a corruption. 

RiGG (Gretna). Sc. rig, * a ridge, furrow, hill-ridge,' fr. O.E. 

hrycg, hrick, Icel. hrygg-r, Dan. ryg, a ridge, lit. 'the 

back.' Of. Drum. 
RiXGFKRSOX (L. Ken). G. roinn farsaing, 'wide point.' 
RixGFORD (Kirkcudbr.), Prob. * ford at the point.' Cf. aboye. 
RixxBS, Ben (Banff). = Rhtxxs ; s, es, are Eng. plurals. 
RiRAS (Largo). Pron. Reeres. 1353, Riras. ? G. riarachas, 

' a distribution, sharing.' 
RoAG, L. (Lewis). Prob., as Captain Thomas thinks, Norse 

= • roe deer bay.' Cf. Rodil and Ascog. 

RoBERTOX (Biggar, Hawick). Big. R., c. 1155, Villa Roberti 

fratris Lambini {cf. Lamixgtox) ; 1229, Robertstim. 

Of. ton, p. Ixxxiii, and Robert Town, Xormanton. 

Robert is the O.E. Bodbeard, Rodbert, * red beard.' 
RocKviLLA (Glasgow). Called after the mansion of Robert 

Graeme, Sheriff-Substitute, 1783. 
Rodil (Harris). 1682, Roadilla, or RovadiL Perh. 'roe's 

dale ' ; Icel. rd, Dan. raa (pron. ro), a roe-deer ; perh. 

fr. Icel. rod"i, redness, + dil = N., «kc., dcd. Cf. ' Attadill,' 

sic 1584. 
Rogart (Golspie). Sic 1546; but c. 1230, Rothegorth. 

Icel. rauff-r gard^-r, * red enclosure,' from the Old Red 

Sandstone here ; cf. G. g'\rwlh and gort, * field.' 

RoGiE, Falls of (Strathpeffer). (i. raog, raoig^ ' a rushing.* 



256 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

RoLLOX, St (Glasgow). Also St Roque, Rowk, Rollock. 
Chapel to St Rocksj a French saint, built here in 1502. 

RoMANNo (Peeblesshire), c. 1160, Rothmaneic; c. 1200, 
Rumanach; a. 1300, Roumanoch; 1530, Romannose. 
Prob. G. ratli^ *fort,' rather than rudha maiiaich^ 
' headland, of the monk.' G. roth is * a wheel.' Cf. 
Rothes. 

RoNA (Skye), N. Rona (N. of Lewis). Fr. St Ronan, died 
737, who died in wild N\ Rona, where is * Teampull 
Rona ' ; cf. Port Ronan, lona, and * St Ronan's Well.' 

Ronalds(h)ay, North and South (Orkney). Two distinct 
names. North R., c. 1225, Orkney, Sag., Rinarsej; 
also Rinansey, i.e., 'island (O.N. ay, ey, a) of St 
Ringan,' common Sc. corruption of Ninian of Whithorn, 
c. 390. South R., in Sagas, is Rognvalsey; 1329, 
Rognvaldsay. The Rognvald (rogn-wald, ' gods' wielder') 
was he, jarl of the famous Romsdal, whose brother 
Sigurd was the first jarl of Orkney, c. 880. 

RooE and Rooenkss Voe (Shetland). Sagas, Raudey mikla 
(Icel. mikill, * great '), and Raudaness vagr (O.N. for 
'bay'; cf. Kirkwall); Raudey is *red isle' (O.N. 
^i/> ^y, a), fr. Icel. rau&-r, raud-r, Dan. and Sw. rod, 
red. 

Rosa Glen (Arran). c. 1450, Glenrossy. G. rdsach, 'rosy, 
red,' fr. ros, a rose ; cf. Icel. ros, a rose. The final -a 
may be N. for * river ' ; cf. Thurso. 

RosEHEARTY (Fraserburgh). Prob. G. ros cheartach, * guid- 
ing, directing promontory.' 

RoSEMARKiE (Fortrose). 1226, Rosmarkyn; 1510, -ky ; in 
old Ir. calendar, * Ruis mic bairend,' which Bishop 
Reeves thinks = Rosmbaircind (pron. Rosmarkyn). On 
cind, * head,' see Kinaldie ; ros here may either mean 
cape or wood. Bair is perh. the G. harr, the top, a 
height, or bair, a battle ; thus it is impossible to speak 
decidedly about the name's meaning. 

RosLix or RossLYN, and Rosslynlbb. c. 1240, Roskelyn. 
The name is Brythonic. Prob. ros coil lyn, ' headland 
of the wood beside the water ' (W. %//, a linn, 
stream, pool). Lea, lee, * meadow,' is O.E. ledK 
pasture-land. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 257 

RosNEATH (Gareloch). a. 1199, Neveth; 1225, Rosneth ; 
1447, Rosneveth ; also Rusnith. * Promontory (G. 
ros) of Neveth' or Nevydd, a 6th cny. British or W. 
bishop. 

Ross ; also The Ross (Borgue), and Ross of Mull. G. ros, 
*a promontory, isthmus'; but Ross-shire is prob. fr. Ir. 
roSy * a wood.' In Corn, ros is a moor, cf, Melrose. 

RossALL (Mid Atlantic). O.Ir. rossdl, loaned fr. Icel. hross- 
hval-r, * a walrus.' 

RossDHU (L. Lomond), c. 1225, Rosduue; a. 1350, Elan- 
rosdui; 1595, Rosdoy. G. ros dubhy * black, dark 
cape.' The -dui in a. 1350 is the sign of the gen. 

RossiE (Fife and Stratheam). Fif. R., c. 1170, Rossyth ; 
1187, Rossyn; 1488, Rossy. Perh. Ir. and G. 7*osa?i, 

* a shrub ' ; but cf. Ross. 

RossKSEN (Invergordon). 1270, Rosken ; 1575, -kin. Prob. 
same as the Rosskeens in Ireland ; fr. Ir. ros caein (G. 
caoin), * pleasant, dry wood.' Cf. Ross. 

RosYTH (N. Queensferry). Sic 1363. G. rdsach, 'rosy' or 

* abounding in roses.' 

Rothes (Elgin). Sic 1238. G. ruadJi, *red,' from the red 
river banks here, or more prob. fr. rath, * a fort, rampart ' 
(cf. Raith, Rothiemurcus) ; in either case with Eng. 
plural s. 

Rothesay. 1321, Rothersay; c. 1400, Rosay; a. 1500, 
Rothissaye ; c. 1590, Rosa. What is certain is that the 
name originally applied to the castle, which is an islet 
within a moat; and in the 15th century the parish 
seems to have been called * Bute.' Thus Rosey, which 
otherwise might mean 'isle (O.N. ay, ey, a) of the 
wood ' {cf. Ross), is prob. the corruption of * Rother's 
isle.' Bother is said to have been a descendant of 
Simon Brek ; the name may be the same as the well- 
known Hrothgar in Bemculf, the modem Rogei\ 
Rothes- may be a corruption of G. raih, 'a fort,' cf. 
Rothes. 

Rothiemay (Huntly) and Rothie-Norman (Turriff). * Fort 
in the plain' (G. rdth-a-niaigh) and *fort of Norman.' 
Cf. Cambus o' May. 

17 



258 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

RoTHiEMURCUS (Aviemore). 1226, Rathmorchus ; 1499, 
Ratamorkas. G. rath oH morchuis^ *fort of pride, 
boasting.' 

Rotten Row (Glasgow, street, Carnoustie, farm). Glas. R., 
1283, Ratonraw; 1434, Ratown rawe; 1452, Vicus 
Ratonum. Cam. R., 1476, Ratoune Raw. Several 
similar names occur in 15th- 16th cnies. all over the 
Lowlands, and even in Menteith. * Vicus ratonum' 
means * village of rats' ; but though M.E. and Sc. rottin 
means *a rat,' this cannot be the real origin. It prob. 
is Fr. routine, * Common highway or thoroughfare,' + O.E. 
rdwy * a row.' There are or were many * Rotten Rows ' or 
* Rattan raws ' all over England, specially Yorkshire. 

RouGHRiGG (Airdrie). See Rigg. 

RousAY (Orkney), c. 1260, Hrolfsey, Rolfsey ; 1529, Jo. 
Ben, *Rowsay, Raulandi Insula.' ^ Hrolfs isle'; O.N. 
ay, ey. Hrolf founded the Norse settlements in Gaul, 
911-27. His name in O.Fr. is Rous, in L. Rollo. 

Row (Helensburgh). Pron. Roo. 1638-48, Rue, Row. G. 
rudlia or rugadh, * a cape, a point.' 

RowANTREB (Barr). * Rowan'; Dan. rim, ronne-troi, Sw. 
ronn, is the Sc. for the mountain-ash. 

RowARDENNAN (L. Lomond). G. rudlm hirde Eonain, * cape 
of Eunan's height ' ; see St Adamnan, p. cvi. 

Roxburgh. Sic 1158; but 1127, Rokisburc; a, W^O, Sim, 
Durham, Rochesburh. Not 'castle (O.E. hurg, burh) 
on the rock,' Fr. roc; as *rock' or *roche' is not 
found as an Eng. word before Chaucer. But prob. fr. 
a man, called in Taliessin *Rywc.' Cf, Crawiok and 
BoRGUB, and p. Ixxxiii. 

Roy Bridge. (Invemess-sh.). G. ruadh, * reddish, ruddy.' 
Cf. * Rob Roy.' 

Rubislaw (Aberdeen). 1358, Rubyslaw. ? G. reuhadh, -aidhy 
'a rent, fissure,' + Law. Might be *Reubie's,' i.e., * Reu- 
ben's hill.' Cf. Ruberslaw, Jedburgh. 

RiJcHiL, R. (Comrie) and Ruchill (Glasgow). G. 7'uadh coil, 
' reddish, ruddy wood.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 259 

RiJiSGACH (Glen Lyon). 'Field, where the swords were 
bared or unsheathed,' before a fight, fr. G. ruisg^ * to 
strip, make bare,' and aehadh, *a field.' 

Rule or Roull, R. (Teviot). Forms, see Bedrule. Prob. 
fr. W. rhuU, * rash, hasty.' fr. rhUy a roar. Close by is 
the * Town o' Rule.' 

Rum (Hebrides). a. 1100, TighemaCy ann. 677, Ruim ; 
1292, Rume ; and prob. Sagas, Rauney. G. rum, ruim, 
is * a place, space, room ' ; but Capt. Thomas thinks 
Rum is the aspirated form of druim, * hill-ridge,' and 
that the name would originally be I-dhruim, * ridge 
island'; , while Wh. Stokes says, this lozenge-shaped 
island is prob. cognate 'with Gk. pyfifio^ or pofi^o^. 
Ruim was also the old name of the Isle of Thanet, and 
may be a man's name. Of. Ramsgate. 

Rumbling Bridge (Kinross and on river Bran). Of, * Rout- 
ing Bridge,' Kirkcudbright. 

RusKiE (Menteith). 1472, Rusky. G. riascach, * boggy,' 
riasg, a bog. Of. Rusco, Girthon. 

Rutherford (Kelso). Icel. rauff-r, *red.' 

RuTHERGLBN (Glasgow). /S'tc rt. 1150. Hybrid; * red glen.' 
The common pron. Ri\ggleii, c. 1300, 'Ruglyn,'pre8er\'^es 
the original G. rtiadh gleann, * reddish glen.' 

RuTHRiESTON (Aberdeen). 1531, Rudruston. Prob. fr. 
Ruadri or Rothri, mormaer or Earl of Mar, c. 1130. 

RuTHVEN (Huntly, Kingussie, Perth, and Meigle). Hunt. R., 
c. 1200, Ruthaven, a, 1300, Rothuan; Roth fen ■ also 
Ruven. Meig. R., 1200, Abirruotheven ; 1291, 
Rotheivan. The old forms strongly point to G. raadh 
abhuinn, * reddish river' (cf, Methvbn). But there is 
no such * reddish river ' near Huntly, so that hori^ the 
first syll. is prob. G. raih, *a fort.' Often now prou, 
Rivven. 

Ruth WELL (Dumfries), Pron. Rlvvel. O.E. r6de wdly *the 
rood or cross well.' A very ancient *rood' stands hL-re, 

Ryan, L. (Wigtown). 1461, Lochrian. Prob. a man's nan le^ 
common in Ireland. Cj\ Seskinryan, Ireland. 



260 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 



Saddkll (Kintyre). 1203-1508, Sagadul; also Saghadiil. 
Prob. * arrow-shaped valley/ fr. G. saiyhecuf, an arrow, 
+ N., «kc., dal, also found in names as * dil,* * dyl/ * a 
valley* {cf, *Sacadaill,' sic 1662, near Applecross). 
There is a G. dula, meaning * a hollow.' 

Salkn (Mull and Sunart). (Mull S., perh. Adamnan*s Coire 
Salchain ; more likely one of the many Sallachans in 
Morv'em, Lorn, &c. G. salachy * dirty.') G. saiJean^ * a 
little inlet,' arm of the sea. Of, Kbntallen. 

Saline (Dunfermline). ? G, mlann^ *salt.* Ct\ Saliug, 
Bniintree, 

Salisbury Crags (Edinburgh). Old, Sarezbury Crags, i c, 
1661, Ntcoll the diarist, Salisbury Hill. By a late 
tradition, said to be called after the Earl of Salisbury 
who accompanied Edward III. to Scotland in 1355. 
By a common change of I for its kindred liquid r, 
tiarum-burg has become already, c. 1110, Salesburia ; 
this, of course, is Salisbury, Wilts. The L. name of 
Old Sarum was Sorbio-dunum ; the Saxons only sub- 
stituted bi/rig for dun ; lirst in 0,E. Chron,, ann. 552, 
Searobyrig. 

Salsburgh (Holytown). Prob. * willow-town ' ; O.E. mligy 
salhf a willow ; and see Borgue. 

Saltcoats (Ayrshire). The salt-workers' * cots ' or hut« ; 
O.E. coty cotL Cf. Cauldcots. 

Salton (Haddington). 1250, Sawilton. Prob. = Barntox, 
fr. G. sabhcd, * a barn,' -h ton ; see p. Ixxxiii. Possibly 
* Savile's village.' Also near York. 

Samson's Lane (Stronsay), Samson's Ribs (Arthur's Seat, 
Edinburgh). 

Sandaig Bay (Knoydart). * Sandy bay * ; Icel. aand-r, Dan. 
and Sw. »aiul, sand, + Gaelic N. aig, og, a bay. 

Sanday (Orkney, Canna, and N. Uist). N. Uist S., 1561, 
Sand; 1576, Siuiday. * Sandy isle'; O.N. ay, eg, a, an 
island. Of, above, and Glensanda, Lorn, and Sanna, 
Mull and Ardnamurchan. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLANB. 261 

Sandsting (Shetland). * The thing on the sands'; Icel. fiVi^, 
Dan. and Sw. ting, which in Icel. means both an 
assembly, a parish, and a district or shire. 

Sandwick (Shetland, Stromness, Lewis). Strom S., c. 1225, 
Sandvik. ' Sand bay ' (N. vik). Cf. Sen wick, Kirkcud- 
brt., c. 1350, Sanaigh ; aigh is^aig, Gaelic N. for *bay.' 

Sannox (Arran). Prob. = Samiaig, Islay and Jura, = San- 
DAiG. * Sandy bay.' The x is the Engl, plural, as there 
are North, South, and Mid Sannoc, all in Ponty c. 1610, 
and spelt *Sennoc,' *Sennoch.' Some think fr. G. 
sannoch, * river trout ' ; cf, Sannoch, Kells. 

Sanquhar (N. Dumfries). Pron. Sdnkar. a. 1150, Sancliar; 
1298, Senewhare.* G. sean cathair (W. caer), *old fort.* 
The 8, as often, has been aspirated in Shanquhar, (iartly, 

Sarclbt. See Soarclet, 

Sauchkn (Aberdeen) and Sauchib (Stirling and Alloa). 
Alloa S., 1208, Salechoc ; 1240, Salwhoch ; 1263, 
Salewhop. ' Field or Haugh of the willows ' ; Sc. nawhy 
O.E. scdig, scdh, L. scUix; cf. Saughall, ChcKter, 

Saughton (Edinburgh). 1150, Salectuna; c. 1320, Sale ht^m, 
* Hamlet by the willows.' See alx>ve. 

Saval Beag and More (mountaiiw, licay). G, mfjhal Ua/j 
and mbr, * little ' and * big bam,' fr. their ¥\iii\Hi, 

Savoch (Deer). ? G. mmJiadftrC^hadhf * field of ij/^rr*rl ; </r 
fr. isamJiaeli, * sl haft, a liandle.' 

Scalloway (Shetland). O.N. xk/j/dtcf-tfufr^ M/cav v>'«i, \%jz 
shielings or bo^Ahs rouiMJ it/ i'f, ifALA.mitiA .f,iA 
Storxowat. 

ScALPA (Lewii^; aii'i .vjajj^ay mjuni^f. H^r. J^., *// iviV. 
IceL fkdlp-r^ *a k'::A ^/f Jy/^l/ -r //y, /.y, -ot, \i^../i.' 
Named fr- tL*r;r *iuij^r> 

SCAHADALIE (KiJj-ijJV^fry. i''*f*'i^^ \'A.}. *huf'W.^f //•//. ^ fx'.^'jV\ 

dale.' 

SCAXIFOBT llL.v*fr:ji«:V5iv-<H*. . . V*/',. <j. t^jO'O.'fi y,///f. *• i.X'j'^vS 

of tl*e rer-TL viv^i. .. i. * v. ♦^' ■ /. 
SCAPA UHkzjiri'. ^y '. >>-^.y*v ^/A 



262 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

SoARBA (Jura). 1536, Skarba. N. skarf-ay, 'cormorant's 
isle.' 

SOAROLBT or Sarolbt (Wick). It is hard to pronounce both 
cs. Scar- is either * sharp rock, rocky pillar,' G. sgor^ a 
rock, * a scaur,' mountain (often spelt sgur^ sguir, scuir, 
skeir), Dan. and N. skfaer, a cliff, rock (cf, Icel. sAw, a 
cleft in a precipice) ; or N. skarty * sea-giill.' A det is 
a rock (G. cleit), so this is prob. * sea-gull's rock ' ; but 
Vigfiisson gives klettascora, *a scaur.' Cf. Scarborough, 
and Scar Hill, Kirkcudbright. 

SoARPSKERRY (Dunnct). * Cormorants' rocks.' See Sgabba 
and ScARCLET, and cf, Sule-skerry. 

SoArinish (Tyree). N. skari-noHs, * sea-gulls' ness ' or * cape.' 

SoARRiSTRA (Harris). First syllable, see Soarclet ; the -stra 
is = -stevy latter half of N. hdstaj^r ; see p. Ixxii, and 
cf. * Scarrabolsy,' sic 1562, in Islay. 

ScHALLASAiG (Colousay). Perh. * shell-bay' (N, aig), Icel. 
skely a shell ; perh. = Scalloway. 

ScHiEHALLiON, mountain (R. Tummel). Usually said to be, 
fr. its shape, * maiden's breast ' ; G. sich or sine chailinn 
(cailin, a maiden) ; cf Sichnanighean, mountain in the 
north of Arran, with same meaning (fr. G. nighean, a 
maiden), and Maiden Pap, Caithness. Some think, G. 
slth Ghaillinti, * hill of the Caledonians.' Of. Dunkeld. 
N.B., s in Gaelic usually has the aspirated soimd sh. 

SoHiLLBY (Outer Hebrides). See Sellay. 

SoHiVAS (Aberdeensh.). Perh. fr. G. root siabJif *to drift, 
like snow.' 

SciBNNBS (Edinburgh). Pron. Sheens. Fr. the monastery 
of St Catherine of Siena^ Italy, once here. 

SooNE (Perth). Sic a. 1300, but c, 1020, Sgoinde ; a. 1100, 
Scoine; c. 1170, Scoone (still pron. Skoon). Prob. G. 
sgrniUy sguinuy * a lump, mass, block of wood ' ; but Wh. 
Stokes calls it Pictish. 

ScooNiE (Leven). .1156, Sconin; 1250, -nyn« G. sgonnan^ 
* a little lump or block.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 263 

Scotch Dyke and Scors Gap, oq the Borders. The true 
adjective is Scots or Scottish, e.g.y 1549, Cample f/nt 
Scotland, prol. *Oiire Scottis tong.' But 'Scotch' is 
used by gi-ave Eng. writers as early as 1641, 'the 
Scotch warre.'^ 

Scotland, also Sootlaxdwkll (Leslie), c. 1000, JElfric^ 
Scotlaiide; c. 1225, Orkney. Sag.j Skotland. First 
mention of the Scoti (of Ulster) is in Ammianus Mar- 
ceUinus, bk. xxi., c. A.D. 360 ; and Jerome, a little later, 
speaks of 'Scotica gens.' In O.W. they are called 
Yscotteit, and Rhys thinks the name is fr. W. ysgtkni, 
to cut, sculpture ; and Isidore, 6th century, says the 
Scotti were so called from tattooing themselves with 
iron points ; cf. the Picts, * painted men,' L. Pidi ; 
though this last derivation is now disputed. 

ScoTSCALDER (Caithness). The part of Calder dale possessed 
by the Scots or Celts, as contrasted with Norn Calder, 
near by, possessed by the Xorse. 

ScoTSTouN (Aberdeen) and Scotstouxhill (Glasgow). Cf. 

Daneston, Aberdeen, and Scotton, Lincoln ; also Scotby, 

Carlisle. 
Scour or Sgur. Common G. name for a mountain, or 

* scaur'; e.g.. Scour Quran, prob. *St Oran's hill,' L. 
Duich ; Scour-na-Gillian, 'servant's hill,' Skyeand Rum; 
and Sgur Ruadh, * red hill,' west of Beauly. 

ScouRiE (W. Sutherland). N. skorrie, 'a bird,' + ey, ay, 

* island ' ; or perh. G. syhrach, * rocky ' ; fr. sghr, »yur, 
*a rock, mountain.' 

Scouringburx (Dundee). 

ScRABSTER (Thurso). 1201, Skarabolstad ; c. 1225, -abolstr ; 

1455, Scrabestoun; 1557, Scrabustar. N. shjaere 

bohtaffr, * rocky place ' ; see p. Ixxii. 
Scrape (Tweeddale). 1 By common transposition of r = 

* scarp ' ; Fr. escarpe, a slope. 

Screel, Ben (Glenelg and Kirkoudbrt.). *Bon of the 
shrieking or screaming,' G. syreadaiL Gf, next. 

* See A Discourse conceding Puritans, p. 54, cited by Dr M'Crie, 
Misoellafieous Writings (1841), p. 344, and called by him *the wuitU 
of a sensible author.' 



264 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Sgridain, L. (Mull), and Scriden (N. of Arran). G. sgrath- 
eadanriy * turf-covered slope' or *face.' This exactly 
suits the Arran site ; near by is a rocky bum, the 
' Scridan.' 

Seafibld (Cullen and Leith), Sbamill (W. Kilbride). 

Sbaforth, L. (Lewis). * Sea-frith' or ^ fjord' (cf. Forth). 
Sea in Dan. is so, Icel. sas-r, 

Seaton (Haddington) and Port Sbton. c. 1210, Seaton; 
1296, Seytone. Called after the De Sey family. 

Selkirk, a. 1124, Selechirche; c. 1190, Seleschirche ; c. 
1200, Selekirke. * Church among the shielings' or 

* hunters' huts.' See Galashiels and Kirkaby. 

Sellay, Shellay, or Schilley (Outer Hebrides). N. sel 
-pt/y * seal isle ' ; cf, Icel. sel-r^ Dan. seel, a seal. 

Serf's, St (isle, L. Leven). St Serf is said to have had a 
monastic college here, c. 440 a.d. 

Sgur na Lapaich (R. Farrar). G. = * rock of the muddy ' 
(river). Of. Scour. 

Shambelly (New Abbey). 1601, Schambellie. G. sean 
baile, *old house' or 'village' (cf. *shanty ' = sean Ugh), 
Initial s in Gaelic is usually aspirated. 

Shandon (Helensburgh). G. sean duriy * old fort.' 

Shandwick (Fearn). N. sand-vik, * sandy bay,' the only such 
bay hereabouts. Of course it is G. tongues that put in 
the h. Of. Shellay or Sellay. 

Shankend (Hawick). Fr. shank (O.E. scanca, Dan. and 
Sw. skank), *the leg, the shin-bone.' 

Shanno (Montrose). 1516, Skannack. ? G. sgann-achadhy 

* field of the herd ' or * drove ' (sgann). 

Shant Glen (Arran). G. seunta, sianta^ * a charm.' Initial 
s in G. is usually aspirated. 

Shanter (Ayr). G. sean tlr, * old land.' 

Shapinsay (Orkney), c. 1225, Hjalpandisay ; 1529, Jo. 
BeUy *Schapinshaw dicta, the Shipping Isle' (Icel. 
skip, a ship). But Ben is evidently wrong ; it must be 

* Hjalpand's isle,' whoever he was. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 265 

Shaw (Coulter, &c., five Shaw Hills in Galloway). O.E. 
scagcL, Icel. skdg-r, Sw. skog, Dan. skov, * a wood ' ; cf, the 
O.E. haga, a hedge, softened in haWy a hedge, a haw- 
thorn berry. 

Shawbost (Barvas). Prob. same name as Sheabost. 

Shawhead (Dimifries), Shawlands (Glasgow). 

Sheabost (Lewis). * Sea-place'; Icel. sja-7\ the sea. Bost 
is contraction of N. bolda&r, see p. Ixxii. Cf. Shaw- 
bost and Skeabost. 

Shebster (Reay). Prob. = Sheabost. 

Shetland, or Zetland. Sagas, Hjaltland, Hetland ; 1403, 
Zetlandie. Cleasby and Vigfiisson's Didioimry suggests 
no explanation. Perh. fr. N. personal name HJaltt\ 
which may be represented by the Sc, name Sholto. 

Shettleston (Glasgow). 1226, Shettilston; 1515, Schedil- 
stoime. Prob. fr. a man ; cf, Shuttleworth (worth = 
place). A shuttle in O.E. is sq/tel; O.E. scutd is a 
dish. Might be fr. either. 

Sheucham (Stranraer). Prob. G. suidheachan, 4imin. of 
midhe, *a seat.' Several similar Irish names, Gf. 
Inshewan. 

Shiant Islbs (The Minch) and Ben Shianta (Ardna- 
murchan). G. seuntOy * enchanted, sacred,' fr. setin, a 
charm. Gf. Minishant, and Pen-zance, *holy headland.' 

Shibberscross (Sutherland). Pron. Shdeverscross. 1535, 
Heberriscors. Perh. G. siabair-croiSy * cross of the 
rubber or wiper,' referring to the action of cattle. 

Shibl, L. (Moydart) and Shiels (Belhelvie). Prob. loch of 
the * shieling' or * booth'; O.N. skali, Icel. ^A'/oV, a 
shelter, skyli, a shed. Cf. Galashiels. 

Shieldaio (L. Torridon). * Shielding, sheltering bay' (N. 
Gaelic aig) ; Icel. sk/old-r, a shield, 

Shieldhill (Falkirk and Lochmaben), Shielhill (Stanley 
and Oathlaw), and four Shiel Hills (Galloway). 1629, 
prob. Stan. S., Shilhill. All prob. * sheltering hill'; 



266 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

see above. Falk. S. is in 1745 Shielhill, and is still 
so pron. Some say Shielhill (Stanley) is the G. sedlg 
choilly ' hunting wood.' Also a Shield Hill in Northumbld. 

Shields Road (Glasgow). See Shiel and Pollokshields. 

Shin, L. (Sutherland). 1595, Shyn. Perh. *loch of the 
charm ' ; G. seun, dan {cf, Shiant) ; but Shinnock, 
Galloway, is thought to be G. sean cnocj * old hill.' 

Shinness. * Cape on Loch Shin.' See Ness. 

Shira, R. and L. (Inveraray), and Shirramorb and -beag 
(Badenoch). Inv. S., 1572, Shyro; Bad. S., 1603, 
Schyroche. G. sidr sir, * long ' ; or perh. fr. siaradhj 

* squinting, obliqueness.' Mlr7* is *big,' and beag, * little.' 

Shiskinb (Arran). a. 1250, Cesken; 1550, Ceskane. G. 
and Ir. sescenii (pron. shesken), ' a marsh,' fr. siosg^ 
sedge ; cf. Sheskin, Seskin, Ireland. 

Shotts (N. Lanark) and Shottsburn (Holytown). 1399, 
Bartramshotts. O.E. shot, *a division, plot'; cf, 
Shotteshara, Shotover, Shotton. 

Shuna (Luing and Appin). Sic 1511 ; but a. 700, Adamnan, 
Sainea; c. 1385, Fordun, Sunay. G, seun, seuna, *a 
protecting charm.' Of, Shin. Island Shona, Moydart, 
is 4ook-out island,' fr. Icel. sj6n-a, * sight'; but Adamnan 
could not have had an Icel. name. 

Shurrery (Halkirk). G. suire-airidh, 'shieling, hut of the 
maid, nymph, syren.' Of. Blingery. 

SiccAR Point (Berwicksh.). Thought to be =* scaur' or 
rock. See Scrabster and Carr. 

SiDLAW Hills (Forfar). Prob. G. sith, * fairy,' or sUh, *a hill,' 
+ O.E. hldew, Sc. law, * a hill.' For the latter origin, cf. 
Venlaw ; for interchange of th and d, cf Nith. 

SiGHTHILL (Glasgow). 

SiLLYCHARDOCH (Aberdecnsh.). G. seileach-a-cheardaicii, 

* willow at the smithy.' 

SiMPRiN (Duns). 1250, Simp'nge; c. 1300, Sympring; 
1548, Simprone. Doubtful. Perh. fr. W. root simp, 

* the state of being unstable,' and pren, * a tree ' — * the 
shaky tree.' Cf, Prinlaws. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 267 

SixcLAiRTOX (Kirkcaldy). After the St Glairs, Earls of 
Rosslyn, whose former seat, Dysart House, is close by. 

SiXNAHARD (Lumsden). Prob. G. sineacti ard, * height with 
bosses ' or 'breasts ' ; G. sine, a pap. 

Skail, L. (Sandwick, Orkney). ? Fr. Icel. skel, * a shell,' or 
Dan. skael, ' a sc»Je of a fish,' &c. 

Skeabost (Portree). Prob. * place set askew.' Icel. skeif-r, 
Dan. skier, * skew,' oblique. On -host, see p. Ixxiii. Also 
(f. Skyb, 

Skeir, Skerries; also the Skares, off Cruden. Common 
name for rocky islets, especially in the Minch — Skeir 
-inoe, *ko. It is N. and Dan. skjaer, * cliff, rock,' of which 
Skerries is the plural, as in Pentland Skerries; 1329, 
Petland-Sker ; and Auskerry, east of Orkney (in Saga, 
Austr-sker, or * eastern rock '). Of. Scarclbt, and the 
G. sgur or Scour. 

Skelbo (Dornoch), c, 1210, Scelbol; a. 1300, Scellebol; 
1455, Skelbole. * Shelly place'; Icel. skd, O.E. seel, 
a shell, and see N. bolstaffr, p. htxii. In 1290 an Eng. 
scribe writes it Schelbotel,see Morbbattle; and cf. Skibo. 

Skblda Ness (Shetland). Prob. * shield, shelter isle ' ; Icel. 
skjold-r, a shield, + ay, a, isle. Gf. Shieldaig. 

Skblmorlie (Wemyss Bay), c. 1400, -morley. Prob. * shelter, 
leeside of the great rock'; G. and Ir. sceilig mdr. 
Skel' is evidently cognate with Skeir. See Lee, and 
cf, the Skelligs, Kerry. 

Skelstox (Diunfries). * Farm toun made up of shielings or 
huts,' O.N. skcUi. See Galashiels. 

Skene (Peterculter). Sic 1318. A * Johannes Skene' is 
found in 1290. G. sceithin {th mute), *a bush.' Cj\ 
Skeengally, Kirkinner. 

Skerrat (Bettyhill), Skerries (Shetland, «kc.), and Skerry- 
voRE (Hebrides ; G. mlior^ big). See Skeir. 

Skiaok, R. (Kilteam) ; also Skeoch (Bannockbum). Latter 
pron. ske6gh. 1317, Skewok; 1329, Skeoch; c. 1610, 
Skyoch. G. sgitheach, * the blackthorn.' 



268 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Skiba (Islay). Dan. skib-aa, ' shipwater ' or * stream.' 

Skibo (Dornoch). 1275, Schytheboll ; 1557, Skebo. 'War- 
ship-place,' fr. Icel. $keid', * a war-ship,' and see p. IxdiL ; 
cf, Skelbo. Glen Skible, Skipness, is prob. the same 
name; 1511, Glen Skippail. 

Skilltmarno (Auohnachar, Aberdeen), c. 1100, Bk, Deer, 
Scali merlech. M^Bain thinks sciili may mean * a hut ' ; 
see Galashiels ; while G. nteirleach is * a thief.' 

Skixflats (Grangemouth). As there is no trace of a tannery 
here. Skin- may be G. sceithin, a bush {cf. Skene). 
Flats, i.e., * meadows,' is a common suffix hereabouts — 
Millflats, &c. Some suggest Ger. Sc?idn Platz, * beautiful 
place.' It is hardly so. 

Skipness (Tarbert). c. 1250, Schepehinche ; 1260, Skipnish ; 
1262, Schypinche. Icel. skip, Dan. skib, O.E. sdp, *a 
ship,' 4- Icel. nces, * a ness, cape,' or G. innis, * an island, 
peninsula.' Cf, Inch and Ardalanish. 

Skirling (Biggar). a. 1400, Scrawlin ; c, 1535, Scrallng. 
Prob. * water, pool by the scaur ' or rock (cf, Scrabster, 
and Dunskirloch, Galloway, and Skirlaugh, Hull). The 
-lin is W. llyn, * a water or pool.' 

Skye. c. 120, Ptolemy, ^KrjTi^; a. 700, Adamnan, Scia; 
Tigliemac,^\t\i', ^^a</a«, Skid^, Skid ; 1272, Sky; 1292, 
Skey. Prob. Ir. sdath, G. sgiath (pron. skey), a * wing,' 
fr. its shape. Cf. Dimskey, Galloway. 

Skyreburn (Gatehouse). Skyre- is prob. = Skeir ; so * rocky 
bum.' 

Slains (Cruden). a. 1300, Slainys. Prob. G. sleamhuinn, 

* slippery, smooth,' with Eng. plural. Cf. Slane, Tara. 

Slam ANNAN (S. Stirlingsh.). Sic 1457; but 1250, Sleth- 
manin ; Ckron. lona, ann. 711, Campus ^lanonn. 

* Moor or hill-face of Manan ' (see Clackmannan). Sla- 
is G. and Ir. sliabh, * mountain, hill, face of a hill ' ; in G. 
also * a moor.' Cf. Cremannan, Balfron, and Slamonia, 
Inch. 

Slateford (Edinburgh). Prob. 'smooth ford'; O.N. slett^ 
smooth. Cf. next. * Sclaitford ' was the name of the 
village of Edzell, a. 1700. 



PLACE-SAMKS OP SOOTLAXD. 269 

Slkat (Skye), a. 1400, Slate (and so jiroii. stiD); 1475, 
Slet ; " 1588, Slait. Prob. as above ; Sleat Sound is 
sheltered, and the land of the parish is remarkably level 
for this quarter. Bat ArdensLate, Dunoon — 1401, 
Ardinslatt — ^is ^sLatr height ' (G. sgleat, a slate) ; and 
Sleety, Queen's Co^ is fr. Ir, and G. di^hlt, a hiU, plural 
slsibhte (pron. sleety). 

Slewcheen (Kirkmaiden). G. siiahh crion, ' withered heath ' 
or * moor.' 

Slewnark (Portpatrick). G. tiiatfli n-arc {crc\ * hill of the 
pig,' or other l&igre beasL 

Sliach (Drumblade and Glengaim). Drum. S., c 1375, Bar- 
hour^ Slevach- G. sliaJbhadt^ ^ billy,' sliabh^ * a hill,' Ac 

Sliddebt (Arran). c. 1610, Ponif^ SledroL Sc for * slippery/ 
Cf. O.E. didan, to slide, and Slidderick, Wigtown. 

Sligachax, -ichax (Skye). G. = ' abounding in little shells ' ; 
G. digeag, dimin. of dvje^ a shell. Cf. G^odha Sligaeh, 
Durness. 

Slix, L. (Tarn), c. 1560, Lochislyne. Prob. G. deamhuirmy 
* smooth.' Cf. Slaixs. 

Slioch (mountain, L. 3klaree). Prob. G. deagh^ *a spear.' 

Slockgarroch (Portpatrick). G. doc carracJi^ * rough, rocky 
gulley ' ; G. docj a pit, a hollow. 

Smailholm (Kelso). 1250, Smalham. £ither 'small house ' 
(O.E. sfucd hdm)y or home, village of a man called Smail 
or Small. There is a N. smalt, * small cattle.' On the 
frequent interchange of -ham and -holm, cf. Holm. 

Smeatox (Ormiston and Carsphaim). Prob. * smooth village ' ; 
O.E. sniethe, smoefhe fun or ton, Cf, Smeaton, Poiite- 
fract, and Kirksmeaton, Northallerton. 

Smerby (Kintyre). Icel. S7nd-r hi^ * small house ' or * hamlet.' 

On -by, cf, Canisbay. 
Smoo, Cave of (Durness). Icel. smuga, * a hole,' fr. smjUga, 

to creep (same root as smuggle), 

SnXegow (Dunkeld). * Snowy gulley or ravine,* fr. O.N. 
snce-Ty Dan. enee, snow, and O.N. gjdy a goe, a gap, a 
cleft. 



270 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Snape (Coulter). Prob. Dan. sneb, * a beak/ Sc. neb (c^. Snab 
Hill, Kells), or fr. Dan. sneppe, *a snipe.' Two in 
England. 

Snizort (Skye). 1501, Snesfurd; 1526, Sneisport; 1662, 
Snisort. * Fjord, frith of snow ' ; Icel. sruie, gen. 4f7*a». 
See Knoyd-art. 

SoAY (Hebrides). 1549, Soa. Dan. and Sw. so, * a sow,' a 
pig, + ay, a, 'island.' 

SoLLAS (Lochmaddy). G. solus, *a (beacon-) light.' Cf. 
Resolis. 

SoLWAY Frith, c. 1300, Sulway; 1682, Snlloway ; also Sul- 
liva ; also called Tracht-Romra, f r. G. trhghadh, ebbing, 
and Scottwade, or Scottiswathe, i.e., * Scots' ford ' (N. 
and Dan. wath), Solway is thought to be fr. the tribe 
Sdgovae, perh. meaning * hunters,' fr. G. sealg, hunting ; 
so Professor Mackinnon. More likely fr. O.N. sol-vagr, 

* muddy bay,' O.E. sol, mud, that which * sullies ' ; cf. 
Scalloway. Dr Guest's explanation must also be given, 
though it hardly tallies with the early forms. He says, 
Celtic or Armor, sol, * the tide,' and wath, * ford ' — * ford 
of the tide.' The sol is also seen in * the Solent,' whilst 
Silloth on the Solway is = Sulwath, and so, thinks Dr 
Guest, the same word. Origines Celticce, II. ii. 

SoNACHAN Port (L. Awe). Dimin. of G. sonnach, * a castle, 
a wall, a palisade.' 

SooNHOPB (Peeblessh.). t*. 1200, Swhynhope. * Valley of 
the swine ' ; O.E. swin, Icel. svin, Dan. svu7i ; but soon 
is Sc. plural of soo, * a sow,' O.E. su (cf. shoe, pL shoon). 
On the strict meaning of hope, see Hobkirk. 

SoRBiE (Wigtown) and Soroby (Tyree). Tyr. S., 1461, 
Sourbi; 1561, Soiribi; 1615, Sorbi. Prob. *east 
village ' ; G. soir, seur, east, 4- Dan. bi, by, dwelling, 
hamlet. Of. Sourby, Ewesdale. 

SoRN (Mauchline). G. som means * a snout ' or * a kiln.' 

SouRiN (Raasay). 1 G. suirean, * sea-nymphs, syrens.' 

SouTHDEAN (Jedburgh, see Dean), Southend (Campbeltown). 

SouTHWiCK (Dumfries). O.E. suth wic, * south house' or 

* dwelling.' Four in England. 



PLACK-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 271 

SouTRA (S.E. of Dalkeith) and Soctries (Beith;. DaL S., <•. 
1160, Soltre; 1455, Sowtra; 1461, S^jltra. Brython. 
std'tra, * watch-tower,' lit. ' oatlook-hoase ' ( W. and Com. 
tra, tre). Cf, W. gulWj a sight, a view, G. ^ail^ the eye, 
a glance, a look. 

Spean, R. (Fort William). 1516, Spayng; 1552, Spane. 
The sp indicates a non-Gaelic, prob. Pietish, origin. 
Perh. * gleaming, flashing ' river, cognate with G. sgian^ 
a knife. ^ Wh. Stokes thinks it may be a dimin. of Spey. 

Speddoch (Dumfries). ? G. spaidreackj * scattered here and 
there.' 

Spelve, L. (Mull). Prob. Pietish, * stony,' cognate with G. 
sgealbachf abounding in splinters or fragments of rock ; 
fr. sgealh, a fragment.^ 

Spey, R. Sic 1451 ; 1124, Spe. Prob. connected with 
Ir. sceim, G. sgeith, to vomit, to *spue'; so Whitley 
Stokes. 1 It is the most rapid river in Scotland. 

Spigie, L. (Shetland). Icel. spik, * blubber of seals, whales,' 
&c., or spik, * a spike.' Cf. spigot. 

Spinningdale (Ardgay). 1464, Spanigidill ; 1545, Spanzi- 
daill. The word perh. means just what it says ; cf, 
Icel. and Sw. spinna, to spin. But it is prob. fr. Icel. 
spaning, * temptation.' 

Spitalfield (Murthly). Spital is the old form of * hospital,' 
in G. spideal. 

Spittal (Watten, Denholm, Gladsmuir, two in Galloway, c, 
1160, De Ospitali), Spital of Craiglard (Campsie 
Hills), Spittal of Glensheb. See above. 

Spott (Dunbar). G. spot, *a plot of ground,' or leel. spotti, 
spoi-Ty * a bit, piece.' Gj\ Spotland, Lancashire. 

Springholm (Dalbeattie). See Holm. 

Sprouston (Kelso), c. 1150, Sproston; a. 1250, Sproues- 
ton. Prob. fr. some man {cf, Sprowston, Norwich). 
There is a surname Sprott ; possibly from it. 

Spynib (Elgin), c. 1295, Spyny. Prob. Pietish, akin to G. 
tigifineadJi, *a projection'; fr. sginn, to protrude.* 

* These are all good illustrations of Windisch and Stokes' classificii- 
tion of Celtic languages ; see p. xxvii. 



272 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Stacks (often in Caithness). O.N. stak, G. stac, * a cliff, an 
isolated rock/ cognate with Eng. stack, Cf. Cran 
Stackie, a mountain in Durness, where we have the adj. 
stacachj * abounding in precipices.' 

Staffa (Mull). N. staf-ey, *isle with the staves,' ^.e., its 
basaltic columnar rocks. 

Staffin (Portree). Prob. G. stac fionn, * white cliff' or 
* precipice,' influenced by N. stafy for the rocks here are 
very similar to those at Staffa. ' 

Stair (Ayr). Said to be a G. stair, * stepping-stones, path 
made over a bog.' 

Standalane (Falkirk, Peeblessh., and Dumfries). Humorous 
name applied to a solitary house. 

Stanhope Burn (Borders). O.E. stdn, *a rock, stone.' On 
hope, an enclosed valley, see Hobkirk. 

Stanley (Perth). May be * rocky lea' or * meadow'; but 
here Stan- might be G. stang, a pool, ditch, or staon, 
awry, askew. Five in England. 

Staplegorton. Old name for Langholm; c. 1180, Stapel- 
gorton; 1493, Stabilgortoun. In M.E. a * staple' is a 
mart or market (cf. Barnstaple). Gorton is prob. G. 
govt, * a garden ' + Eng. -ton, cf. Polton. 

Star (Markinch). Sc. starr, * sedge,' Sw. starr, a rush. Cf. 
Starcross, Exeter, Starbeck, &c. 

Start Point (Sanday). O.N. = 'the tail' (cf. the bird red- 
start). Also in Devon. 

Stay-the- Voyage (Kirkcowan). Of, * Rest-and-be-Thankful,' 
Corstorphine Hill. 

Steele Road (Hawick). Jamieson says the Sc. steel is * a 
wooded cleugh or precipice'; but O.E. stael means 
* place.' Cf. AsHiESTBEL, and Steel, Hexham. 

Stemster ( Wick). 1557, Stambustar. * Place like the stem 
or prow of a ship ' ; Icel. stamn, sternni ; and see holstaffr, 
p. Ixxii. 

Stenhousemuir (Larbert). Local pron. Stdnismare. c. 1200, 
Johannes de Stan hous, i.e., O.E. for * stone house.' 
Oldest Eng. name in the shire. Cf. Stonehouse. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 273 

Stennis, -NESS (Orkney), c. 970, Steinsness; c. 1500, 

Stanehous (an ignorant Anglicising) ; 1700, Stennis. 

( ? standing) * stone ness ' or * cape ' ; Icel. steinn, Dan. 

and Sw. sten, stone, + Icel. and N. nces or 7iesSf * a cape,' 

lit. *nose.' 
Stbnsohbl (Portree). Prob. N. for * stone shieling' or 

* booth.' See above, and Galashiels. 

Stenton (Haddington), a. 1150, Steinton. Icel. steinn, 

Dan. and Sw. sten, * stone,' + Eng. -tmi, * village.' 
Stepps Koad (Glasgow). 
Stevenston (Ayrsh.). 1246, -enstoun. 'Stephen's' or 

* Steven's place.' Two Steventons in England. 
Stewarton (Ayrsh.). 1201, -toun. Place of Walter, High 

Steward (O.E. stiweard, lit. a sty-keeper) or Seneschal 
of David I., c, 1140. 
Stichill (Kelso). Sice, 1200; c. 1270, Stichehill. Prob. 

* sty-shieling '; O.E. sti, stige, a sty ; and see Galashiels. 
Stixchar, R. (Ballantrae). 1682, Stinsiar. Possibly G. 

»tao7iach siar, the river * always inclined to turn west- 
wards,' fr. staon, to bend or curl. 

Stirkokb (Wick). Perh. Icel. sterk-r akr-r, * strong, vigorous 
crop,' lit. * acre or field ' ; cf, Stirchley, Birmingham. 

Stirling, a. 1124, Strivilen ; c. 1250, Estriuelin ; 1295, 
Estrevelyn; 1455, Striviling; c. 1470, Sterling; 1639, 
Striveling. In W. Ts^re Fehjn,^ * dwelling of Velyn,' 
aspirated form of Melyn, or Meling, old Sc. form of 
Melville. The same name, perh. the same man, is 
found in Dunfermline, 1295, Donffremelyn. The W. 
/ely7i means yellow (cf, Bankyfelin, Carmarthen) ; and 
it occurs in its aspirated form in Melyn llyn, Llanrwst. 
But Melin in our Sc. names must be a person, as it is 
hardly permissible to postulate a W. adj. in a Fifeshire 
name. In G. it is Sruthlinn, lit. * river-pool,' a mere 

* shot ' at this Brythonic name by a Gael ; and St Berchan 
(a, 1100) mentions another Sruthlinn, near Perth. But 
the better G. name is SiiiithJa, 

Stobinean (mountain, Perthsh.). Perh. * the little stump of 
the birds ' ; G. stoh an ean, 

* Felyn would be spelt in G. MJielin, with the same sound, only a 
little more nasal aspiration. A single/ in W. always sounds v, jf sounds/. 

18 



274 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Stobo (Peebles), c. 1116, Stoboc ; 1170, Stubho ; 1223, 
Stobohowe; 1296, Stubbehok. Prob. G. stohach, * f uU 
of stobs ' or * stakes,' but with the second syllable con- 
fused with Haugh, * pasture ' {cf. the forms of Sauchib), 
or with How. There is a Poltenstobbo in the same parish, 
c. 1200, * Poltenstobbeh.' 

Stobs (Hawick). G. stoh^ *a stake or stump,' with Eng. 
plural. 

Stockbridgb (Edinburgh and Cockbumspath). A wooden 
bridge formerly there, made of stocks, stakes, or sticks 
(the root is the same). Also in Hants. 

Stocking Hill (Old Luce). Lowl. Sc. stoken, * enclosed,' fr. 
verb steek, to fasten, cognate with to stick. 

Stoer (Lochinver). c. 1225, Orkney. Sag.^ Staur. Dr 
Joass, Golspie, thinks fr. N. staSr, place, but this 
always becomes -ster; see p. Ixxii. Perh. N. stor, *a 
steep peak.' 

Stonehaven, Stonbhouse (Larkhall, two in Kirkcudbright, 
and two in England). Lark. S. 1298, Stanhus. O.E. 
stdn, *a rock, stone.' 

Stonbybyres Fall (Lanark). B^re in O.E., as now in Sc, 
was a * cow-house,' cognate with hmcer ; but this name 
is very prob. a corruption, ? of what. Gf. next. 

Stonbyhaugh (Liddesdale). 1376, Stanyhalch. See Haugh. 

Stonbykirk (Stranraer). 1725, Stevenskirk. *Steenie's' 
or * St Stephen's church.' 

Stormonth (Perthsh.). 1292, Starmonthe. Prob. G. starr- 
monadh, * distorted, crooked hill.' 

Stornoway. 1511, Stornochway; 1549, Steomaway ; a. 
1630, Steornway; 1716, Stornbay. 1549, which is 
close to the present local pron., makes it likely to be 
* steering, steerage-bay,' Icel. stjdm vag-r. In G. it is 
Sronbhaidh (badh, * a bay '). C/\ Scalloway. 

Stow (Galashiels). Formerly, * The Stow of Wedale.' O.E. 
stow, a place, town ; prob. one enclosed with a stockade 
or * stobs.' Cognate with Stoke, so common in English 
names. Four in England. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 275 

Stracathro (Forfar), c. 1212, Stracatherach. The O. 
srath (in O.G. or Pict. also S7'acl) is usually spelt in Eug- 
strath ; but, as the final th becomes mute, we often find 
only stra. The t is only an English device to aid 
pronunciation, for sr is always pron. sr in G. Occasion- 
ally we find c or A: (see Strathmiglo). * Strath ' in W. 
is ystrad {cf, Annandalb and Tester); but in a W. 
writ of 1298 we find *Strat Tewy.' Stracathro is 

* valley of the fort ' or * the seat ' ; G. cathair, cathrach. 

Strachan (Banchory). Pron. Strawn. a. 1153^ Htrath- 
eyhan ; also Strathauchin. Doubtful. Cf, Finzean. 

Straohi^r (L. Fyne). 1368, Strachore; 1500, Stroqnhor. 

* Strath with the twist or turn ' ; G. cor, cliur, 

Straiton (Edinburgh, Maybole). Edinb. S., 1296, Straton. 
Prob. * straight village.' Straight is really the past 
participle of the verb stretch (O.E. strecean). Perh. fr. 
Icel. strdy O.E. streaw, * straw.' 

Str^u:j^ohun (Strachur). Prob. * dun-coloured (G. lachJunn) 
strath.' See Stracathro. 

Stramallochy (Dalmally). Commonly called Glen Strae; 
but this is a much more expressive name, * glen with 
the humped or rounded hills,' G. meallach, 

StranrXer. c. 1320, Stranrever ; 1600, -raver. Sir H. Max- 
well thinks G. sron reainhar, * thick point,' lit. nosej 
perh. referring to Loch Ryan peninsula. (Jt\ Can- 
rawer, Galway. 

Strath (Broadford). See Stracathro, and cf. Dale and 
Glen Village. 

Strathardle (Skye and Perthsh.). Sky S., r. 1160, 
-erdel; 1542, -ardol. Per. S., c. 1200, -ardolf. 'Glen 
with the high rocks ' (G. drd nl) ; or * of the high wood/ 
(ard choil), cf, Darvel. 

Strathaven (Lanarkshire). Pron. Straven. 1522, Straith- 
awane. * Valley of the Aven.' 

Strathblane (Glasgow), c. 1200, Strachblachan, -bMwtne ; 
1238, -blachyne; c. 1240, Stratblathane ; c. 1300, 8tra- 
blane. *Glen with the (little) flowers'; G. blAthani 
and cf, bladhachy flowery. 



276 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Strathbungo (Glasgow). Pron. Strabiingy. G. srath 
Mhunga, * valley of St Mungo ^ or Kentigem, c. 550. 

Strathcarbon, -don, -pillan, &c. See Carron, <fec. 

Stratholydb. O.E, Ghron., ann. 924, ^Strsecled Weala 
cyning ' ; in the L. translations of Florence of Worcester, 
* Rex Streatcledwalorum ' ; 977, Hist, Britonum, Strat 
Glut. See Clyde. 

Strathbarn (Perthsh.). c. 1185, Stradeam; a. 1200, 
Srad-, Strdeem. See Earn. 

Strathendry (Leslie), a. 1169, -enry. = Endrick or 
Strathendriok (Stirlingsh.). 

Strathkinnbss (St Andrews). 1156, Stradkines. * Valley 
at the head of the waterfall ' ; G. ceann or cinn an eas. 
In 1156, Kinness is Kinninis. 

Strathmartin (Forfar). 1250, Stratheymartin. * Little 
glen (G. srcUhan) of St Martin ' of Tours; c/. Kilmartin. 

Strathmiglo (Anchtermuchty). a. 1200, Scradimigglock ; 
1294, Stramygloke ; c. 1385, Stramiglaw; 1517, 
Strathmiglo. * Valley of the swine-pen ' ; G. muclach. 
Of, Drummucklock. 

Strathy (Thurso). G. srathan, * little valley.' 

Strathyre (Callander). 1457, -yire, 'valley of the land' 
(G. tlr), t lost by aspiration ; so Rev. J. M*Lean, Pitilie. 
But natives call it Strahiir, which is = Strachur. 

Stravithib (St Andrews). 1156, Struuithin. Prob. *rich, 
fertile (G. m(h)eith) strath.' Of, Auchmithib. 

Strawfrank (Carstairs). 1528, Strafrank. G. srath 
Frangadiy * French Valley,' referring to the many 
Norman bands or settlers in Mid-Clydesdale. Cf. 
Strachur, &c. 

Strichen (Maud). Perh. G. stribchan^ * a little streak ' or 
'line.' 

Striven, L. (Rothesay). 1595, Skruien. Native pron. 
stra-fnn, i.e., G. srath Fliionn, * Finn's strath.' The 
district is full of supposed reminiscences of this Ossianic 
hero. On the k in 1595 cf. Strathmiglo. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 277 

Stroma (Pentland Firth). Sic 1455 ; but Sagas, Straumsey. 
'Island in the current' or 'stream.' Here the Firth 
runs like a river. Icel. straum-r, Dan. strom, stream, 
+ «y> 6y> «> island. Of. Stromoe, Faroes. 

Strome Fbrry (W. Ross). Sic 1472; 1492, Strome- 
carranach (i.e. * of L. Carron '). * Stream ' ; see above. 
Of. Strome, Reay. 

Stromness (Orkney). Sagas, Straumsness. • Ness, cape on 
the current ' or * tide.' See Stroma. 

StronachlAchar (L. Katrine). G. sron na chlachair, 
' cape (lit. nose, cf. " ness ") of the mason ' ; but Strone- 
clachan, Killin, is * promontory of the village.' 

Stronb (Firth of Clyde), c. 1400, Stron. G. sron, *nose, 
beak, cape.' Cf. the two Stroans in Kirkcudbright, 
and Stronehill, near Luss. 

Stronsay (Orkney). c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Stiomsey; 
1529, Jo. Ben, 'Stronsay vel Sdronsay'; c. 1225, must 
mean 'star-like island' (Icel. stjarna, a star); 1529, 
looks as if there had been G. influence, for sdron 
certainly suggests G. sron, ' nose, cape.' 

StrontIan (W. Argyle). Prob, G^sron tiadhain, 'promon* 
tory of the little hill.' 

Stroquhan (Dmnfries). Prob. G. srath hlian, 'fine, lit 
white valley ' ; cf. Strachur* 

Struan (N. Perthsh., Skye) and Strowan (Crieff). CriefF 
S., c. 1210, Struin. G. sruthan, ' a little stream.' Three 
Stroans in Ireland. Stru(e)y, S. Arran, is the same 
word. 

Struminoch (New Luce). G. sro7i meadhonach (pron. 
mennach), ' middle height, promontory.' 

Stuc a Chroin (Ben Voirlich). G. stiic is *a projecting, 
little hill, a horn ' ; and crann, gen. croinn, is *a plough 
or a tree.' 

Suainabost (Butt of Lewis). 'Swain's boy's place'; Icel. 
sveinn^ Sw. sven, O.E. stcdn. Possibly fr. King Swet/n 
of Denmark and England, died 1014. See p. Ixxii. 



278 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

SuiLVEN (mountain, Lochinver). Prob. G. mil-bJieinn, 

* eye-like hill,' from its shape ; or * prospect-hill.' Cf. 

SOUTRA. 

SuLLAM (Lerwick). * Home of the gannets, solan geese ' ; 
Icel. 8ule + heim-r, O.E. ham, home, house. Of. Hoddam ; 
also Sule-skerry, west of Stromness, and Sulby, Man. 

SuMBURGH Head (Shetland). Sagas, Sunnboejar hofd'i, 
Svinborg ; 1506, Swynbrocht. Prob. *the swain's castle ' 
or * hold ' ; see Suainabost, Borgue, and Brough ; also 
cf, SwANNAY. Hqffft, of course, is Icel. hqffid', the 
head. Sumburgh Roost is fr. N. rost, * a whirlpool,' lit. 
strife. 

SuMMERHiLL (Aberdeen, and three in Galloway), Summkrston 
• (Glasgow). Summers is a common surname. 

SuMMERTON (New Luce). Also near Oxford. 

Sun ART, L. (Morven). King * Sweyn's fjord ' or bay. He 
died 1014. He is called in the L. chronicles Sttanvs or 
Sueno, and in Dan. Sven. See Knoydart. 

SuNNYSiDE (Lanark, Coatbridge, Falkirk, &c.). 

Sutherland, c. 1250, Suthernelande ; 1300, Sutherlandia ; 
in N., Sudrland, * southern land,' compared with the 
Orkneys or Nordreys. Cf, Sudreys, N. name for the 
Hebrides. 

SuTORs OF Cromarty. Two cliffs at the firth's mouth, on 
either side. N. skuti, 'shelter,' formed by jutting rocks, 
fr. skuta, to jut out, shoot. Form influenced by So. 
sutor, a shoemaker. 

SwANNAY (Kirkwall), c. 1260, Torfoeus, Sviney, i.e,, *isle 
of the swain, boy' (Icel. sveinn-r, Sw. sven), or 'of 
swine ' (Icel. svin ; cf. Swona). But the name now is 

* isle of swans ' ; Icel. svan-r, Sw. svan, a swan. Cf. 

* Swanbustar,' c. 1500, in Orphir. 

SwBERiB (bum, Freuchie). Prob. as a place for courting, 
fr. G. suire, * a nymph,' or suiriclie, * a wooer.' 

SwBRDALB (Criech). 1275, Swerdisdale. * Valley (N. daJl) 
of the green sward ' or * turf ' ; Icel. svord-r, Dan. svaer. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 279 

8wiNEY (Lybster). Sic in Orhnetj. Saga. Dr Jos. Anderson 
thinks it was so called from being the property of Grim 
of SwoNA. Cy. Svinoe, Faroes. 

SwiNTON (Dims), c, 1098, Suineston; c. 1120, Suintune, 
Swintun. Prob. 'village of the swine'; O.E. sioin^ Icel. 
svin, Dan. sviin ; cf. Swinewood, Ay ton, 1098, Swinewde, 
and Dalswinton. Two in England. 

SwoNA (Orkney). Orkney. Sag., Sviney (see Swannay) ; 
other Sagas, Swefney. 

Symington (Ayr, Lanark, and Fountainhall). Ayr S., 1160, 
* Inter terram Simonis Loccardi & Prestwick'; 1293, 
'Symondstona in Kyi.' Lanark S., c. 1189, Villa 
Symonis Lockard ; a. 1300, Symondstone. 'Abode, 
village of Simon Lockhart,' a local knight. Gf. Milton 
LocKHART, and see ton, p. Ixxxiii. 



Taexdork (Cromarty). Prob. * house by the water ' ; G. Ugh 
(gen. teighe) an dobhair or do7' ; cf. Tayinloan, and W. 
ty, a house. 

Tain (E. Ross-sh.). 1227, Tene; 1375, Tayne ; 1483, 
Thane. The derivation fr. Icel. ying, * a meeting,' is 
doubtful. But if it be O.G. tain, * water,' why do Gaels 
not use the name still 1 cf. p. Ixxiv. 

Talisker (Raasay). This seems an instance of Capt. 
Thomas's rule, where an N. name in H has been 
thought a G. gen., so the h has been dropped and t pre- 
fixed. The original name will thus be N. hjalli -sker, 
* shelf-like rock or Skbir.' Cf. Talladale, L. Maree, 
i.e., Hjalla-dal. No G. word can be written in the 
nominative begimiing with h. 

Talla (Tweeddale, also ruins of a castle on L. of Menteith). 
Fr. W. root tal, *that tops or fronts,' *a brow'; a name, 
as Prof. Veitch shows, very appropriate to this pre- 
cipitous bum. Gf. Taliessin of Strathclyde, i.i., *The 
Bright-browed.' G. tail is * a hillock.' 



280 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Talmine (Tongue). G. tdlamh mlrij * smooth, level land.' 

Tamfour Hill (Falkirk). 1617, Thomfour; 1632, Tome- 
furhill. Tautology. G. torn fiuir, * cold knoll.' Form 
1617 is an ignorant association with Thomas, while 
Tamfour is due to thoughts of * Tam ' ! 

Tandoo (Galloway). G. tdn dubh, * dark height like a nunp 
or buttock.' 

Tannadice (Forfar). 1250, Tanethais; 1322, Thanachayis. 
? G. deanachdach, * rough, fierce.' W. tan means * fire.' 

Tanner Water (Aberdeen). 1511, Glentannyr. G. 
teannair is * the noise of the sea in a cave ' ; but it is 
now pron. tana, G. tanaj * thin, slender.' 

Tannibroach (Old Luce). Perh. G. and Ir. tamnach niadh 
(here pron. roch), * reddish meadow.' Gf, Tawnymartin 
and Tawnyeely, Ireland. 

Tantallon Castle (N. Berwick), a. 1300, Dentaloime; 
1481, Temptallon; 1572, Tomtallon (G. ^(wi, a knoll). 
Prob. G. dun (W. din) tcUain, ' hill,' or * fort of the feats 
of arms,' or perh. *of the hall' {talla, -achan). For 
change of d into t, cf. Dubton and Edderton. 

Tap o' Noth (hill, Strathbogie). The o is short. Prob. G. 
taip-a-nochd, *hill of observation'; taip is, strictly, a 
conical hill, and nockd, * showing, revealing.' 

Tarbat (E. Ross), Tarbet (L. Lomond and Kirkmaiden), 
Tarbbrt (L. Fyne, five in Mull, (fee). Lom. T., 1392, 
Tarbart. Ross T., 1227, Arterbert, t.e., *high Tarbat.' 
Fyne T., Sagas, Torfnes ; Ulst. Ann., Tairpirt Boetter 
(i.e., opposite Bute); 1375, Tarbart. G. tairheart, *an 
isthmus,' lit. place over which a boat can be drawn, 
contracted fr. tarruing-haia or -had, * boat-draught,' fr. 
tarruing, to draw {cf. O.W. bai, a boat). Both King 
Magnus Barefoot and Robert the Bruce dragged their 
galleys across Tarbert, Kintyre. 

Tarbolton (Ayrsh.) a. 1177, Torboultoun. An early 
hybrid ; G. tbrr, a hill, mound, castle, + Bolton. 

Tarff R. (Wigtownsh.), G. tarhh, *a bull.' 



suffixing hst^ see z.. iiit"^ Lazj£ 5> s:*rl* "/'>-•' u^ 
O JL, Icid^ St^ azai !*«=. : izii ace I,iir ^^^. 

Tarradalb iG:-q:c Bni^ . 11^.. Timeiil : -. I«^-X 

or can it be fr. IceL t'>t^ "tar ' * 

Takrkl (Tarta:, Ri& . I-:-::. TimZ ; 1:7,-. -cIl lV4x 
G. tar 'i/. -over ibe cli£.' Tl;is s::ii:s the siie : -'. the 
Undenrlif^ Venii>:«r- 

Tartravox (Torphiche:! ■- ? W. /i>, • Land ' ; f.-ii, r >\ -house/ 
Ar'cny *on the R Atoq.' 

Tarybs (Bachan). 12S7, Taruays : a. 1300, Tarvasw Piv>k 
G. torr bhaiSf 'moond of death' ^f-:-*K 

Tarwilkib (Baknaclellan). G. fir ^/fn'/^-orft, 'rushy laud/ 

Tassdesholm (Wamphiay). Prob. G. taiSy se^ * moist, dauip, 
8oft,'+ Holm, 'a riverside field.' Cr\ Drumtas&ie, 
Slamannan. 

Tay, R. e. 80, TacUuSy Taus, Tavaus; c, 120, Ptolnntf, 
Taova; c. 600, Amra CduniciUe, Toi, Tai; a, 1100, >V 
Berchan, Toe; a, 1150, Tey; 1199, Thaj; a. LUX). 
Tay. G. tamli^ 'rest, quiet, sluggishness,' W. A?*'', 

* smooth ' (cf, river Taw). 

Taychreggan (L. Awe). G. tigh-a-chreaijain^ * house hy tlio 
little crag' or rock. Gf. G. teach and W, ^/, 'a Iumimo.' 

Tayinloan (Argyle). Prob. G. tujh (gen. iviijhe) na loin^ 

* house in the meadow,' or * marah.* 

Taynuilt (L. Etive). In G. titjh (m uiiit^ Miouhc on i\w 
bum ' or brook ; G. edit, gen. uiiit, 

Tayport (N. Fife). 'Harbour on the riv^jr Tay.' 

Tayvallich (Crinan). G. tigh (gon. t/'ighfi) h(h)all(u% 
•lofty- walled' or 'spotted hoUHc' 



282 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Tbaling (Forfarsh.) 1497, Teling. ? G. Ugh linne (W. llyn\ 

* house by the water ' or * pool.' 

TbanInich (Ahiess). G. teach-an-aonaich, 'house on the 
market-place.' 

Techmuiry (Fraserburgh). 'Leper's hospital'; G. teachy 
a house, and muire, leprosy. Gf, Libbrton and 

* Dumtechglunan,' 1233, near Kilbowie. 

Tbb, Ben (Fort Augustus). Locally pron. Hee. *Hill of 
peace,' G. sUh or shi; i.e., * tame-looking hill.' 

Tbith, R, (S. Perthsh.). In G. Thaich ; prob. fr. G. taic, 
'strength, vigour'; or, as likely, tetchy 'to flee.' See 
Menteith. 

Tema, R. (tributary of Ettrick). W. tamh, 'spreading, 
quiet, still.' = Thames. 

Templb (Gorebridge), Templand (Lockerbie and Rhynie)^ 
and Tbmplblands (Strathmartine and Denny). Lands 
belonging to the Knight Templars. But G. teampvUy 
L. teniplumy * a church ' built of stone, occurs as a name 
in Colonsay, Tyree, lona, Skye ; also Teampull Colum- 
chille, Benbecula. Land is in O.E. also larid. 

Texaxdry (Blair Athole). Prob. G. Ugh nan doire, ' house 
in the groves.' But tenandry is also a charter-term, 
= tenancy. 

Tererran (Moniaive). G. tir iaran, 'western land' or 'farm.' 

Terregles (Dumfries), c. 1240, Treueger ; prob. = G. 
treabliadh-garradhf 'ploughed land-enclosure,' ^.e., 'a 
farm'; but 1350, Travereglys, i.e., G. treamliar eaglais 
(W. eglicys), 'farm by the church'; also 1461, Tor- 
riculis, Torrekillis. Gf. Tranent, Traquair. 

Teviot Water. Pron. Teiit. Name of the valley of the 
Teviot above Hawick, not applied to the river Teviot 
itself. Cf. Galawater. 

Teviot, R. (Hawick), Tbviotdalb, and Tbviothead. 1 a. 
600, Avdlenau, Teiwi; a. 800, Tefe; c. 1100, Teuegete- 
dale; c. 1150, Teswetadala; c. 1160, Teuiot; a. 1300, 
Tyvidale. Prob. fr. W. tyw, 'spreading around' {cf. 



PLACE-NAMES OP SCOTLAND. 283 

river Teifi in Wales, prob. = * spreading stream *). 
Mention of the names Ty^ioi^ Teifi is oonmion in tho 
earliest Welsh and Strathclyde literature. Dale is tho 
O.E. dael, O.N. dal, * a valley.' 

Texa (Islay). c. 1380, Fordun, Helan (G. eilean, island) 
texa; 1549, Munro, * In Erische,' t.e., Gaelic, * Tisgay.' 
? G. teas-gaoth, *a parching wind,' fr. teas, heat, warmth. 
But prob. N. t'heggs-ay, * bird-cherry's isle.' 

Thankertox (Carstairs). c. 1180, Villa Thancardi, Tan- 
cardestun ; c. 1320, Thankaristone. * House ' or * village 
of lliajicard,^ a Fleming. C/. Loch Thankard, old 
name of the Loch of Kilbimie. Also formerly calhsd 
Woodkirk. 

Thie\'B8H0lm (Orkney). See Holm. The public gibliet 
once stood here. 

Thirlstanb (Ettrick). 1282, Thirlestan. Prob. ^pierced 
stone ' ; thirl = vb. drill. 

Thom, L. (Greenock). Called after a Mr Thorn. 

THOMAxiKN' (Kinross). Old, Tomenayne. G. tf/rnan eurt, 
* little knoll with the birds.' 

Thornhill (Dumfries, and E. of Monteith ; threr; in Err/ 
land), Thornilek (Renfrew; c, 1340, -yle), ThorntjR' 
BAXK ((Glasgow), Thorxto.v (f^yj^art, Keith, Meamn ; 
last is ^. 1 153, Thometowne ; 1309, Thomtoun) ; twelve 
in England. 

Thorxkip ^Colvend). Fr. G. treap, a ntiinip^ *^i**(tk^ t/. 
KiPFORD, and Makenefw KippM, F>ldleMtrin. 

TnRMMPyvcK ^ Kirkcudbritrht; and Tkkkrpwmji 'Ijuniii^^ k. 
of Weir, and Beith;. B*^it. T., /-. lll^^ Tm^mmd 
Lau. T., c 1230, Trepewr,de. Fr. >LH ^Jtr-^v^^ * 
ing content,' fr. O.K. jwvv/yy/^/n, n^j r-nr^v^i, ^Ao^ 
is ?5«*. for ' nfK>k.' C'f. T}ire<tTjw«if;fL N'ir:iiti 

Thrbplaxd ^Big;rarand Banrf;. Biir. T., i2i}*x. 
" L>^\iHXiihin land.' .See ano^-'*. ^>'. 'V.nt 
Bataiile lande5! or T}»r»*r>e jiiiflez, Trwa j# 
14-V.> ^Jetvreen PLiiLriuinl uid "•'."iriiiii'l. 




284 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Throsk (S. Alloa). Sic c. 1610. Either O.E. th^-isc, Icel. 
throst-r, * a thrush,' or G. t(h)ro8g, * a cod.' Of, Thros- 
ton, Hartlepool. 

Thrumster (Wick). ? Icel. \frumaj * a thunder-clap,' + -ster 
= staff r^ * place ' (see p. Ixxxiii). Perh. fr. a man, TJirym. 

Thundergay (Catacol). Oldy Tonregethy. Now in G. 
torr-na-gaoithj * hill of the wind,' but originally ton re- 
gaoithj * backside to the wind.' Of. Craignathunder, 
Benachie, and Tonregee, Ireland. 

Thurso (river and town). 1152, Thorsa (river); c. 1200, 
Hovedeti, Turseha (town); c. 1225, Orkney. Sag,, 
Thorsey (town); 1547, Thorso. O.N. Thorsaa, the 
god * Thor's river.' 

Thurston (Berwick). 1292, Thureston. ' Thot^s village.' 
Gf, Thurleigh, Thurlow, England. 

TiBBERMORB, -MURE (Perth). G. tiohar mdr, * big well.' But 
see MuiRAVON, Muirdrum. 

TiENDLAND (farm, Elgin). Tiend is Sc. for * tithe ' ; Icel. 
tiuiid, Sw. tiefide, a tenth. Cf, Merkland. 

TiGHARRY (L. Eport). G. tigh aodhaire, * house of the herds- 
man,' or charraigh, * on the rock,' ch lost by aspiration. 

TiGHNABRUAiOH (Kylcs of Butc). G. = * house on the bank, 
or slope.' Gf, Balnabruaich, Portmahomack. 

Tillicoultry (Dollar), 1195, Tulycultri; 1270, -cultijaiie; 
also Tuligcultrin. G. tidw:h cuil tire (W. tre\ * hill at 
the back of the land,' i.e., the carse of the Forth. Gf, 
Coulter. Or, very possibly, fr. G. cuiltear, plur. cuil- 
tearan, * a skulking fellow.' Gf, Tillyskookie. 

TiLLiBCHBWAN (Alexandria). G. tulach c{h)umhann, * narrow 
hill.' 

Tillitudlem (Lanark). Fancy name of Sir W. Scott's in 
Old Mortality, The castle's real name is Craignethan. 

TiLLYFOUR, -RIB (Chapel of Garioch and Tough). G. tiUach 
fiuir or fuaraidhf *cold, chilly hill.' 

TiLLYBVE (Aberdeensh), Perh. fr. G. iob, * a lump.' 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND 285 

TiLLYMORGAN (Aberdeen). This also is a hill; but here 
prob. G. teaglach (pron. tella) Morgan, lit. *the family/ 
hence, * the ground belonging to the family, of Morgan.' 
The clan Morgan is mentioned as early as the Bk. of 
Deer. The hill itself in 1510 is called Knockmorgan. 

TiLLYSKOOKiE (Aberdecnsh.). * Hill of the soft, boorish 
fellow,' G. sgugacJi. 

Tilt, R. (Perthsh.). 1564, *Glentilth.' Rev. J. McLean, 
Pitilie, does not recognise this as Gaelic ; but surely it 
looks like G. tuilteach, * flooding, overflowing,' adjective 
fr. tuH, a flood. Perh. = G. fallty * the river' or *glen.' 

TiNGWALL (Scalloway). Saga, ThingavoU, and Orkney. Sag. 
mentions a Thingavoll (c. 1500, Tyngwale) in Rendale, 
Orkney, = Dingwall, * meeting of the Thing.' For 
interchange of t and d, cf. Trondhjem and Drontheim. 
Perh. Tingall Top (hill near Abemyte) is the same 
word. 

TiXTO (hOl, S. Lanark), c. 1320, Tintov. Prob. hill of * the 
(signal-) fires, by the water,' i.e., the R. Clyde ; G. teinfe- 
ahh {cf. Awe, old Ow). The mod. G. plural of feiiie, 
fire, is teintean, but the Ir. plural is teinte (cf. Tulla- 
tintin, Cavan, *hill of the fires'). Knocktentol, Gal- 
loway, is G. cnoc tendail, *hill of the bonfire.' 

Tin WALD (Dumfries). Sice. 1320. O.N. yingvold, * meeting- 
place,' lit. fold, *of the Thing' or local assembly ; O.E. 
fold, Dan. fold, a fold, pen. Cf. Tixgwall, and Thing- 
vellir, Iceland. Also in Isle of Man. 

Tipperlinn. Once a village, now name of a road in the 
south-west of Edinburgh. G. tiohar linne (W. %»), 
* well by the water ' or * pool.' In Pictish we find tijfra 
for tiohar ', and there are several Sc. places called 
Tipperty, i.e., * black, dark well,' G. dubh, ' black.' 

Tippetcraig (Bonnybridge). Craig or rock iipped with a 
house. Cf. Tappitknowe, Denny. 

TiRi^E (Hebrides), a. 700, Adamiian, Terra Ethiea ; c. 1225, 
Orkney. Sag., TjTyiat ; 1343, Tirjad ; 1354, Terevd; 
1409, Tyriage; 1467, Tiroda ; also Terra Hith, Wh. 
Stokes says, Ir. fir-etha, *land of com'; but Rhys, A-c, 



286 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

think Hlth or Ith is a legendary Scot, perh. uncle of 
Miled of the Irish legends. Several places called 
Mag-Ithe, * plain of Ith,' in Ireland. Tir and L. terra 
are cognate. 
TiRRY, R. (L, Shin). ? G. tuireadli^ * a lament, a dirge.' 

TiTABOUTiB (three in Aberdeensh.). Perh. G. Ugh taoihli 
ucJulairiy * house on the side of the hillock.' 

TiTWOOD (Glasgow), 1513, Tytwoyd. Perh. Brythonic, fr. 
W. ffctf * rising ground ' + Eng. wood. 

ToB (Lewis). G. fob, *the bay' or 'little bay.' 

ToBBRMORY (Mull). {c, 1200, Bk, of Scon, a * Tubermore.') 
1540, Tibbirjnore. G. and Ir. tobar Moire, *well of 
the Virgin Mary,' = Lady well. Gf. Toberoiiochy, 
Luing. In a Moray charter, temp, Alexander II., 
are * Tubemacrumkel ' and * Tubernafein.' 

TocHiBNBAL (Banff). 1 * House of the fishing station ' ; G. 
tigh an tola, or *made of lime,' G. aol. The G. tochar 
means * a causeway ' and * a dowry ' ; but the r would 
not easily disappear. 

Tod Rig (Kirkinner). * Hill of the fox ' ; Sc. tod, so called 
fr. his bushy tail, fr. Icel. tod.di, a mass of w^ool. See 
Rigg; and cf. *Todholys,' 1376, in Liddesdale. 

ToFTCOMBS (Biggar). Dan. toft, * a field ' ; cf, Icel. to\>t, tott, 
land, + O.E. comb, cumb, *a vessel, a valley,' cf, W. ctam, 
a hollow. Of, CooMLEBS. In Northumb. Eng. cornb is 
at times used for kai7n, a crested hill, usually of gravel. 

ToLLCROSS (Glasgow, Edinburgh). 

ToLSTA Hbad (Lewis). * Place of the toll' or * custom-dues'; 
Icel. toll-r, Dan. told. On sta = staffr, place, see p. Ixxiii 

ToM-A-MHOiD (Dunoon). G. = * hill, knoll of the court of 
justice ' ; G. m^d, a court, assembly. 

ToMATiN (Carr Bridge). G. tom-aitein, *hill, knoll of the 
juniper tree,' in Argyle G. aiteil. 

ToMBEA (Pass of Leni). Pron. -bay. * Hill of the birches ' ; 
G. beath. Cf. Aultbea. 

ToMiCH (Beauly). G. toinach, * full of knolls,' G. torn. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 287 

TomintotJl (Ballindalloch). Pron. -t6wl. Prob. G. toman 
fsabhail, * little hill like a barn.' Cf. Cairn Toul. 

ToMNAHURiCH (Invemess). Professor Mackinnon says, prob. 
G. to7n na hHvhhraich^ * hillock with the juniper bushes'; 
G. iubJiar, a yew. But the name till quite recently is 
said to have been toin na fhiodraich, *hill of the timber,' 
i,e.j for gathering sticks on. lubrach also means a * boat,' 
as in Portnachuraich, lona, and may do so here. 

ToMNAVOULiN (Gleulivet). * Knoll of the mill ' ; G. torn na 
mhuillinn. Tomnavowin, Cabrach, is prob. the same. 

ToNGLAND (Kirkcudbright). c. 1150, Tuncgeland; 1461, 
Tungland. See next. 

Tongue (N. Sutherland, and three in Galloway). 1542, 
Toung. N. tunga, *a tongue, spit of land.' Two 
Tongs in England. 

ToRBANBHiLL (Bathgate). Tautology; G. tbrr bdn^ * white 
hill ' or * mound.' Tor is the common name for a hill 
in Devon and Cornwall ; and there are The Torrs, sand- 
hills on the Bay of Luce. 

ToRBOLL (Sutherland), c, 1230, ThoreboU; 1575, Thuri- 
boU. = Thurston. The god * Thor's place.' On bol, 
bolstaffvy * place,' see p. Ixxii. 

ToRDUFF (Currie). a, 1200, Turdaphe. G. tuir dubfij 

* black hill ' or * tower.' Cf. TardufF, Dunipace. 

Tore (Invemess). G. tdi-Vj *a heap, mound, fort,' Ir. tor, W. 
tur, a tower. Cf. Tur, W. Calder. 

Torlane (Kirkcudbright). G. tbrr leaihann (pron. lahan), 

* broad hill.' 

Tormasdale (Islay). The N. Ormas-dal, see Ormiston, to 
which Gaels have, as often, prefixed a t. 

Torness (Inverness). G. tbrr, *a hill, a castle,' or from the 
god iVto/*, cf. Torboll ; + Ness. 

ToROSAY (Mull). Sic 1390; 1561, Toimisa. ? G. tbrr 
rasach, *hill, mound covered with shrubs,' with ending 
influenced by O.N. ay, ey, a, island. 

ToRPHicHEN (Bathgate). Sic 1540 ; but 1296, Thorfighyn, 
Torphychin. G. tbrr-a-phigheainn, *magi)ie'8 hill.' 



288 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

ToRPHiNS (Aboyne). G. tdrr fionUj 'white, clear hill/ with 
the common Eng. plural. 

Torrance of Campsie, and Water op Torrance (Drum- 
blade), Prob. G. toiTan, *a little mound/ with 
common Eng. plur. 8 (ce = «). See Campsie. 

ToRRiDOX (W. Ross). 1633, -den. Prob. G. tbrr-Orduin, 
* hill, knoll of the fort.' Only the mod. G. is tm^r tux 
fhuaran, * hill with the springs.* 

ToRRY (Aberdeen) and Torrtburn (Dunfermline). 1350, 
Torry. G. tbrran, *a little hill.' 

ToRSONCE (Stow). Prob. G. tbrr sonnaichy *hill with the 
palisade, wall,' or * fort.' 

ToRTHORWALD (Dumfries). 1287, -thorald; 1297, Thorthar- 
alde. Might be * hill of Tliorold ' ; or a hybrid, G. tbrr, 
a hill, + N. Thorvold, * meeting, assembly in honour of 
the god Thor.' See Tinwald. 

ToRWooD (Larbert and New Luce) and Torwoodlbb (Peebles). 
Larb. T., c. 1140, Keltor, i,e., G. coil tbrr, * wood of the 
hill ' or * fort ' ; so that Torwood is half a translation of 
Keltor. See Lee. 

Tough (Alford). Pron. Toogh. 1605, Towch ; but c, 1550, 
*Tulluch or Tough,' i,e,, G. tulach, a hill, mound, or 
tiu(/h, thick, dense, closely set. Touch or Tough Hills, 
Stirling, 1329, Tulch, is the same word. 

Toward (Rothesay). Sic 1498. Formerly G. rudha-a-tonn 
ard^ * promontory of the high waves.' Of, Powra, fr. 
pbnair, Joyce, ii. 305. 

TowiE (Alford). Old, Tolly. Prob. G. tollan, * a little hole,' 
fr. toll, tuill, a hollow, a cavity. Cf. Logie. 

ToxsiDB (Gorebridge). Prob. f r. G. toch, * thigh, hough of an 
animal,' or tolc, * a swelling.' 

Tradeston (Glasgow). The ground here was bought in 
1790 by Glasgow * Trades' House,' and laid out by them. 

Trailtrow (Dumfries). Old, Travertrold. Hybrid ; * fairy's 
farm,' G. treamhar, * a farm ' (cf. Tranent), + Dan. and 
Sw. trold, Icel. troll, a kind of fairy, * Robin Good- 
fellow.' Of. Pow for G. 2^oll. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 289 

Tranabt (Westray). * Cranes' abode'; Icel. trani^ Dan. 
trane^ + 6y, 6i, dwelling. C. Canisbay. 

Tranent (Haddington), c. 1147, Traueraent; c. 1210, 
Tranent. G. treamhar (pron. traver), *farm,' lit. 
ploughed land, *in the deir or *by the stream,' W. 
Tiant, 

Trantlebbq (Forsinard). Prob. G. traonorthuil beag, * little 
stream (cf, Duthil) of the corn-craik ' (traona), 

Traprain Law (Haddington). (1150, Dunpelder.) Perh. 
W. tre, tra pren, * house by the tree.' Cf. Trahenna, 
Tweeddale. 

Traquair (Peebles). Sic 1265 ; but 1116, Treverquyrd ; c. 
1140, Trauequair; 1174, Trauercuer; 1225, Trefquer ; 
1506, Trawere. *Farm (G. treamJiar, cf, Tranent) on 
Quair Water.' The first syllable of Trabroun, E. of 
Tranent, may have the same origin. As likely fr. W. 
and Com. trUy tre^ trev, tref, * house, home.* 

Trbig L. (Lochaber). Prob. G. treigeadh, 'abandonment, 
desolation ' ; which it certainly was till the railway was 
made. 

Trelong Bat and Trelunq Ness (S. Kincardine). 
Brythonic for * boat-house ' ; cf.G. long, luiiig, * a ship.' 
Two instances of Tre- occur in Stratherrick, Loch Ness, 
showing perh. the extreme limit of Brythonic influence. 

Trbmuda Bay (S. Kincardine). Prob. * house on the cove,' 
fr. W. mwddj an * arch, a spring, a cove.' Possibly fr. 
W. 7nudan, * a dumb man.' 

Treshnish Isles (Mull). Prob. Icel. tre, gen. tres, * a tree,' 
wood, + nt«/i, IKES, *ne88, cape,' or G. innis, * island,' 
*inch'; these two often are confused. Cf. Skipnes^s, 
4fec. 

Tresta (Shetland). Icel. t re-staff r, * tree-place ' ; ^. p. Ixxiii. 
Trees are very rare in Shetland. 

Trilleachan, Ben (L. Etive). G. for *the pied oyster- 
catcher.' 

Trinafour (Struan). Brython. or Pict., 'house with the 
pasture land.' W. and Com. tra^ tre, a house, and W. 
pater, Armor, peur, pasture land. Cf. Balfour. 

19 



290 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Trinity (Edinburgh) and Trinity Gask (CriefF). Fancy 
name. A * Trinity Lodge,' where Trinity now is, is 
found advertised in 1783. Gask may be for G. crosg^ *a 
pass, crossing.' But see Gask. 

Trochry (Dunkeld). c. 1650, -rig. G. troch, *bad, dan- 
gerous,' + Sc. rig or ridge. See Rigg. 

Troon (Ayr). 1464, le Trune; Pont, *the Truyn.' W. 
tnvyn, = G. sron, * a nose, point, cape.' Also near - 
Camborne, Cornwall. 

Troqueer (Dumfries), c. 1380, Treqvere; also Traquire. 
Prob. = Traquair, * green farm.' Qf. Trowier Hill, 
Girvan. 

Trosachs (Callander). Said to be G. for * bristled territory,* 
with the common Eng. plural. 

Troup Head (Banff). 1654, Trowp ; perh. Torfnes of Sagas, 
G. trup is just * a troop.' Meaning here doubtful. 

Trottbrnish (Skye) and Truddernish (Islay). Skye T., 
1309, Trouternes; 1573, -tymes; 1 1588, Trotwayshe. 
Both are said to mean * enchanted cape' or *ness'; 
O.N. nois, Gaelic N. nish, Cf. Icel. trii^ra, a juggler. 

Trufp Hill (Wigtown). By common transposition of r, 
*turf hill'; O.E. turf, Icel. and Sw. tor/. 

TuACK (hill, Kintore). Prob. G. stuaichd, *a projecting 
crag or hillock.' 

TuBEG and Tumore (Assynt). G. = * little ' and * big side of 
land ' ; G. taobh, W. tu, 

TuLLiALLAN (Dunfermline). G. tulach dileinn, * hill by the 
meadow,' or fr. aluinn, * exceeding fair, beautiful,' like 
Tullyallan on the Boyne ; Ir. tulaigh alainn, 

TuLLiBARDiNE (Crieflf and Moray). Cri. T., 1461, Tuly- 
bardyn and -bardy. *Hill, mound of the warning'; 
G. bardainn. The Moray T. is prob. the original one. 

TuLLiBELTANB or -TON (Auchtcrgaven). G. tulach healltainny 
Miill of the beltane,' an ancient Celtic celebration on 
May Day, when great bonfires were kindled on the hills. 
The origin of beltane is doubtful ; but Wh. Stokes has 
shown it cannot be G. teitie, *fire.' Still less has it 
anything to do with the god Bel or Baal. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 291 

Tullibody. The old charters seem to imply that there was 
such a place S. as well as N. of the Forth, near Alloa. 
North T., c. 1147, Dunbodeuin ; c. 1150, Dumbodenum ; 
1195, Tulibotheny. South T., 1163, Tulibodevin; 
1164, Tulybethwyne ; 1195, Tulybotheuyn ; c. 1200, 
Tulliboyene. This seems G. tulach both aihhne or 
abhuinn, * hillock with the house by the river.' Bod is 
just the hard form of both^ and of course dun is * hill 
or fort.' 

TuLLOCH (Dingwall). 1 542, Tulche. G. tulach, *a hill, hillock.' 

TuLLYBOLB (Kinross). 1685, TuUiboal. Prob., as in May- 
bole, * hill by the water,' G. baol, or * of danger,' G. 
baogkal. 

Tullymbt (Ballinluig). c. 1 200, Tulichmet, Tulimath. Prob. 

* soft ' (G. maoth) or * rich, fat, fertile (G. meith) hill.' 

Tullynbsslb (Alford). a. 1300, Tulynestyn; a. 1500, -nestil. 
Perh. * hill of the charm, spell,' G. tulach-an-eoide (cf. 
Esslbmont). In the same district, a. 1300, we find 

* Tulynahtlayk.' 

Tullypowrie (Perthsh.). G. tulach fuarachy * chilly hill.' 
For p pro / in this district, cf, Bonskibd. Perh. fr. G. 
pbnaire, * beans.' 

TuMMBL, R. (Perthsh.) G. tum-allt^ * plunging stream,' fr. 
tum^ to dip, plunge. 

TuNDBRGARTH (Lockcrbic). Prob. * fallow field or enclosure,' 
fr. W. tijndir, *ley land' or fallow, fr. tt/n, stubborn, 
rigid, + garth, see Applegarth. The Icel. and Dan. 
tondry tundr, O.E. tynder, is * tinder.' 

TuRC, Ben (Glen Shee and Argyle), Glbn Turk (Wigtownsh.), 
and Brig o' Turk (L. Katrine), and Turkey Burn 
(Glen Quiech). G. toir, tuirc, *a wild boar.' Cf. 
Altaturk, Ireland. 

Turnbbrry Castlb (Ayrsh.). c. 1200, Turnebirij 1286, 

' -byry. Prob. hybrid ; Nor. Fr. tounie, * a feudal court,' 

H-O.E. by rig or fjurg, *a fortified place, castle,' cjf. 

Qubensberry. Turn may just mean * turn ' or * comer.' 

Turrbt Water (Crieff). 1 G. turaid, *a turret,' fr. the shape 
of the rocks here. 



292 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Turriff (Aberdeensh.). c. 1000, Bk, Deer, Turbruaxi; a. 
1300, Turrech ; a. 1500, TurreiF. Case of a name which 
has changed ; at first G. tdrr hruid, * hill of anguish ' or 

* of the stab ' ; or, possibly, * fort of Brude ' ; but it is 
hard to say what the second syllable represents now. 

TwATT (Stromness). Icel. ^veit, *a thwaite, a place.' Cf. 

MURRAYTHWAITE. 

TwECHAR (Kilsyth). 1369, Tweoures. Perh. G. tuath-a- 
chavj * north of the bend or turn ' ; G. covy cf, Strachur, 
This suits the site of the original farm. 

Tweed, R., and Twbedsmuir (Peebles). ? a. 600, Avellanau, 
Tywij Bede, Tuidus, Twidus; a. 800, Tweoda; c. 966, 
Pid. Ghron., Tede; a. 1130, Tweda; a. 1150, Thveda. 
Prob. W. twyad, * a hemming in,' fr. twy, to check or 
bound. 

TwiSLEHOPB Burn (Newcastleton). Doubtful. Perh. 

* separating hill,' fr. W. twys, * a top, tuft, head, heap,' 
and yll, * that tends to separate ' ; cf, Twizel, Cold- 
stream ; and for -hope, see Hobkirk. 

TwYNHOLM (Kirkcudbright). c. 1200, Twenham; 1605, 
Twyneme, i.e., Twynham. O.E. tweon, * between,' and 
Holm or ham, which constantly interchange; holm is 

* meadow,' ham is * house, home.' Cf, the Roman 

* Interamna,' and Twineham, Sussex. 

Tydeaverys (Balmaclellan). Old, Tydauarries. G. tudan 
bharra, * the little heap on the top ' or * height ' (barr), 
Cf Tudhope. The s is the common Eng. plural. 

Tyndrum (N.-W. Perth). G. tigh-arirdruim, * house on the 
hill-ridge.' Cf Drum. 

Tynb, R. (Haddington). Perh. fr. W. tynu, to draw, pull, or 
G. teann, to move, stir, proceed. More likely fr. W. 
tyno, * a green plot, a dale.' Also in England, Ptolemy's 
Tinea. 

Tynecastlb (Edinburgh). 

Tynett. Doubtful. 

Tyninghame (Haddington). a, 800, Hist., St Guthhti^ 
Tinningaham; 1094, Tiningeham; a, 1130, Sim, Dur- 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 293 

/ia??i, ann. 756, Tiningaham; 1265, Tynynham; perh. 
Bedels Incuneninghum, c for t. Prob. *home of the 
dwellers on the Tyne ' ; see p. Ixxxv, and note. On 
the Tyne also stands Tyneholm. 

Tynron (Moniaive). Prob. G. Ugh an sroin, * house on the 
point or height.' Of, Cambron and Tyndrum. 

Tyrie (Fraserburgh and Kirkcaldy). Fras. T., a, 1300, 
Tyry; 1595, Tyer. G. tlr, tire, Hand.' Of, Strath- 
YRB and Altyre. 

u 

Uamvar. G. luiim-a-bharra, *cave on the height' or 'hill- 
top ' {harr). Of, Webm and Lochinvar. 

Uddingston (Glasgow). 1475, Odingstoune. Perh. * village 
of the god Odin ' or * Woden ' {cf. Thurston). But we 
find an Ittingston near Huntly, 1534, Utinstoun; 1677, 
Uttingstoun ; also a Wittingham, Midlothian, which 
point to an origin through the Teutonic family of the 
Wittings; cf, Wittingham and Weddington, England, 
and Whittingham. The name Udston close by seems 
to point to some man Ud, 

Udny (Ellon). 1417, Uldnay. Prob. G. allt an bheath, 

* river of the birches,' bh lost by aspiration ; cf. Auld- 
earn. 

Ugadalb (Kintyre). * Valley of graves,' G. imghach, * full of 
graves,' + N. JoZ, * valley.' 

UiG (Skye and Lewis). Skye U., 1512, Wig; 1552, Vig. 
Lewis U., 1549, Vye; c. 1620, Gig, Vyg. G. iiig, *a 
nook, retired cove,' Icel. vik, a small bay. Of. Wick. 

UiSKENTUiE (Islay). G. uisifan fsuidhe, * water of the seat,' 
place where funerals used to halt to rest and drink — 

* whisky.' Of. Beallachantuib and Bad-na-Carbad. 
Uisgey or rather its adj., is seen in another form in 
Wisheach, Gartly. 

UisT (Outer Hebrides). 1282, luist ; 1292, Guist; also 
Ewyst (the pron. now) and Uibhist. Icel. i-vid, *an 
abode,' lit. in-dwelling. Vist is the same root as Ger. 
wesen and Eng. %ca». Also cf, Capt. Thomas, Proc. 
Soe. Ant. Scot., xi. 476. 



294 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Ulbster (Wick). Prob. O.N. ulf-btLstar^ * wolf's abode.' 
Cy. Ulva, and see p. Ixxii. Perh. fr. a man named Ulf. 

Ulladale. O.N. Uladalr; prob. Icel. ola dat-r, * valley of 
the alders,' iil-r ; perh. fr. G. ulaiy * washing, fulling,' + 
N. dal, dale. But cf, Ir. tdadh (pron. uUa), * a tomb, 
caim,' as in Kilulla, Clare. 

Ullapool (W. Ross-sh.). See above. Pool is N. pol or boly 
* place,' see p. Ixxiii, rather than G. and Ir. poUy *a 
pool or water.' Some think UUa- is fr. King Olaf {cf, 
Ollaberry). There seems no local tradition in re. 
An *Ulyshaven' is found in Forfarshire, c. 1415. 

Ullib, Strath. In G. Utile or liligh. Through this the 
river Helmsdale flows. Prob. Ptolemy^s Ha. Cf. Isla. 

Ulloch Hill (Kirkcudbright). G. ucdlach, * proud,' i.e., 
*high.' 

Ulsta (Shetland). Prob. = Ulbster, 'wolf's place'; N. 
sta&r. 

Ulva (Aros). 1473, Ulway. 'Wolf's Isle'; Icel. ulf-r, 
Dan. and Sw. ulv, a wolf, + ay, ey, a, isle. 

Unganab (N. Uist). G. « * ounce-land of the abbot,' old G. 
UTiga, L. uncia, an ounce, i.e., the .rent was an oimce of 
silver. See p. Ixv, and cf. Balnab. 

Unich, R. (Edzell). G. uinich, 'bustle,' 'hurry.' It is a 
rapid stream. 

Unst (Shetland). Sagas, Omyst, Ormst, Aumstr. Doubtful. 

Unthank (farm, Biggar, Berwick, Kilbimie, and bum near 
Mosspaul). Mosspaul U., 1228, Vnthanc; 1290, Wn- 
thanke. O.E. un-panc means ' ingratitude,' prob. here 
referring to the barren soil. Cf. Winthanke, St Andrews. 
Also twice in Northumbld. 

Uphall (Bathgate). 

Uplawmoor (Neilston). Cf. Law. 

Upsbttlington (Norham). c. 1098, Upsetinton; 1296, 
Upsetlington. Fr. some unknown man. 

Urie, Ury (Aberdeensh.). Forms, see Inverurie. Either 
G. iubharach, 'abounding in yews' (G. iubhavy pron. 
yure), or = Urr. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 295 

Urquhart (CJonon Bridge, Inverness, Elgin, Fife). Mod. 
pron. in G. arochdan. Inver. U., a. 700, Adamnany 
Airchardan; a. 1150, Urchard. Elgin U., c. 1340, 
Urquhart; also Owrchard. Conon U., 1340, Urchard. 
Dr Maclauchlan says its G. form is Urchtidaitiy fr. urcfi^ 
* a knoll,' and din^ * a fort.' But Airchardan is better 
taken as air, G. prep., * on, upon,' and, some say, caoTy 
caorann^ or cartd^ * a rowan wood ' ; perh. G. caovr^ * a 
rapid torrent.' Wh. Stokes ventures on no opinion. 

Urr (Dalbeattie). 1607, Or. Generally thought « Basque 
wr, * water ' ; cognate with G. and Ir. dohhar or d&r^ W, 
dmr^ water, a river. Gj\ Dour and Orr, 

Urray (Muir of Ord). 1546, Vrray ; c. 1565, Vurray. 
Prob. old G. ur reidhy * smooth water.' Cj\ above, and 
Aray. 

UssiB (glen, Conon Bridge). Perh. G. easacliy * abounding 
in falls,' G. eas. 

Uyka Sound (Unst). 



Vale of Levbn (Dumbarton). See Leven. 

Vaternish or Wat- (N. Skye). 1501, Wattemes. It can 
hardly be * water-peninsula,' O.E. waiter^ cj\ Icel. vcdn^ 
water, and Waterford, Ireland, i.e., * water-fjord ' ; rather 
Icel. v6it-ry * a glove,' + O.N. ncBS or nuh^ * ness,' peninsula, 
lit. nose. 

Veira (Rousay). Either fr. Icel. ver^ *the sea, then a 
fishing station,' cj\ Eng. weir^ O.E. we?*, a fence, en- 
closure for fish; or O.N. vigr^ *a bay,' + a?/, e//, a, 

* island.' 

Yellore (Polmont). Not G. mJieall odhar (prou. oar), 

* grey hill ' ; but named last century f r. the town in 
India near Madras. 

Venlaw (Peebles). Sic 1469. Prob. tautology ; G. bfieinn 
+ Eng. Law, both = * hill,' c/\ Penlaw, Dumfries. Others 
say, G. or Ir./hionn lagh, * white hiU.' 

Vbnnachar L. (Callander). G. hheinn na diary *hill with 
the bend or turn,' G. car. 



296 PLACE-NAMBS OF SCOTLAND. 

Venue, Ben (Trossachs). Said to be G. meanbh, with the 
7n aspirated, meaning * little,' as compared with its big 
neighbour Ben Ledi. Cf. Yarrow. 

Vice, Lochan of (Tungland). Old, Voyis. G. lochanis *a 
little loch.' Vice is doubtful. 

ViDLiN (Shetland). Icel. vid-r, Dan. and Sw. vid, *wide'; 
'Itn may be N. lund, *a grove,' or Zww, * sheltered.' 

Vigeans, St (Arbroath). Vigeanus is the Latin form of St 
Fechan, abbot of Fother, West Meath, d. 664; cf, 

ECCLEFECHAN. 

Vinegar Hill (Grampians). Corruption of G. fionna gabhary 

* the white goat.' 
ViRKiB (Dunrossness). Icel. virkif *a work, bulwark, 

castle'; cf. 'outworks,' and Work Head. 

VoB (Shetland). Icel. vo-Vy *a little bay, inlet.' Common 
in Shetland — Burra Voe, Hamma Voe, &c. 

VoiL, L. (Strathyre). Possibly aspirated form of G. motly 
*a heap,' or of boil, *fury, rage.' 

VoiRLicH, Ben (L. Lomond). G. mhdr leac, * big, flat rock,' 
or fr. leacacJiy *bare summit of a hill.' Of, Blairlick 
Hill, Cabrach. 

Vrackie, or Bhraggie, Ben (Golspie, Blair Athole, (fee.). 
G. bhreac, bhrice, * spotted, speckled.' Of. Breakachy. 

VuiLLiN, Scuir (Achnasheen). G. sghr-a-mhuilinn, *rock of 
the mill.' 

w 

Waddenshope (Glensax, near Yarrow). 1262, Waltamshope, 
which is said to mean the Saxon god * Wodin^s valley.' 
Of. Woden Law, Jedburgh. Of course Waltham is also 
a man's name. On liope, see Hobkirk. 

Walkbrburn (Innerleithen). Bum or stream where the 

wauMng or fulling or dressing of cloth was done ; O.E. 

wealcere, * a fuller.' See Wauk Mill, and cf. Walkem, 

England. 
Wallacbstone (Polmont). The stone now commemorating 

Wallace's Battle of Falkirk, 1298, was erected in 1810 

in place of an older slab. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 297 

Wallacbtown, (Ayr). OLd^ Walenseton. * Abode, village 
of the strangers ' or * Welsh^' i.e., Brythons from Strath- 
clyde; O.E. wcelisc, welisc, a foreigner. In the first 
charter of Paisley, 1160, we find *Ricardo Walas,' perh. 
earliest Sc. mention of the name Wallace. Le Waleys 
(afterwards Wallis) was a common Eng. name in the 
13th century. Cf. Wales, SheflBteld, and Walesby; 
also Galston. * Wallachia ' has a similar origin. 

Walls (Hoy and Shetland). Hoy W., c. 1225, Orkney. 
Sag., Vagaland ; also Saga, Valey. Said to be * isle of 
strangers ' (c/. O.E. wecUh, a foreigner) ; this is doubt- 
ful. Val- might be Dan. val, Sw. vally a wall, 
rampart. 

Walston (Biggar). 1293, Walyston, -Uiston. = Wallace- 
town. Of. Walsham, Sufiblk. 

Wamphray (Beattock). Prob. G. uamh-a-phrainih, *cave of 
slumber ' or * sorrow.' Gf. Uamvar. 

Wandbl (Lamington). Also called Hartside. c. 1116, 
Quendal. O.E. cwen, a woman, a * quean,' Icel. Icvdn, 
a wife, + O.E. dael, Icel. dal, *a dale, valley.' Gf, 
Wandil, Surrey. 

Wanlock Water and Wanlockhead (Sanquhar). Can this 
mean * stream like a woman's ringlet' or 'curl' (O.E. 
locc, Icel. lokkrr)'\ Gf. Wandel. To the east lies 
MicUock Water. 

Wardie (Edinburgh). Wardie is a man's name. Gf 
Warriston and Wardington, Banbury. 

Wardlawhill (Glasgow and Ettrick). 

Warriston (Edinburgh). Prob. * Wardie^ s abode' or * village.* 
Of. above. 

Warthill (Aberdeen). Prob. fr. its shape, fr. wart, O.E. 
wearte, Icel. varta. There is no * hill ' here. 

Watbrbbck (Ecclefechan). Tautology ; here waiter and beck 
(Icel. hekk-r, Dan. haek) both mean * brook' {cf, Wans- 
beckwater). The O.E. form and sound, waeter, is still 
preserved on the Scottish border. Gf., too, Gala water. 

Watbrnish. See Vaternish. 



298 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

Watten (Wick), c. 1230, Watne. Icel. vain^ * water, a 
loch.' 

Wauchopdalb (Langholm). 1220, Walleuhopej 1247, 
Wahichop; c. 1330, Wachopdale; 1340, Walghopp. 
Prob. fr. O.K wecUg^ Icel. v(dff-r, volg-r^ *wann, luie- 
warm,* + hope^ * a shut-in valley ' ; see Hobkirk. 

Wauk Mill (Haddington, &c.). 1561, Walkmihi. 1587, 
*The Waiilk Miln of Partick.' Sc. wauk is 'to full' or 
'dress cloth,' O.E. wecUcan^ to turn about, Icel. vdiha^ 
Dan. valke^ to full, cognate with £ng. ivaik, 

AVedale (Galashiels). Sic c 1160. The legend says, fr. 
O.E. tcdnlael (in Dan. v€e-dal\ *vale of woe,* so called 
by the Angles from their great defeat there by King 
Arthur. As likely, fr. Icel. w, *a house,' or tc<^r, *a 
way,' cf. Wetdale. 

AVedderburn (Duns). 1300, Wederbum. Sc. wedder^ 
O.E. wetheTy * a wether or ram.' 

Weem (Aberfeldy). G. uai?)iy *a cave.' Cf, Uamvar and 
Wemyss. An old Ir. MS. mentions a high mountain 
near Dull, called Doilweme. 

Weir, or Wyre (Orkney), Sic Jo, Ben, 1529 ; but c. 1225, 
Orkney, Sag,, Vigr; c, 1500, Wyir. Vigr is prob. the 
O.N. for *abay.' 

Wemyss, E. and W. (Fife), and Wemyss Bay (Largs). 
Fife W., 1239, Wemys ; a. 1300, Whense ; 1639, Easter 
Weimes. = Weem, *a cave,' with the common Eng. 
plural s. There is a Port Wemyss in Islay. 

West Barns, Calder (1183, West Caledoure), Linton, dec. 
See Calder, &c. 

Westerdale (Halkirk), Westerkirk (Langholm). Icel. 
v€8t-r, 'the west'; but Westerkirk is found from 1296 
to 1641 as Westerker (c/. Carr), and in 1322 as 
Watsterker. 

Wbstraw (Lanark). * West row ' ; O.E. rdto. Of. Nunraw, 
Haddington. 

^^'ESTRAY and Papa Westray (Orkney). Orkney. jSo^., 
Westray ; c. 1260, Vesturey. O.N. or Icel., vestr-ey or 
-ay, * western isle.* See Papa. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 299 

Weydale (Thurso). Prob. 'valley (Icel. and N. dal) of tho 
road ' or ' way ' ; Icel. veg-r, Dan. vet. 

Whalsay (Shetland). Saga, Hvalsey, ^.e., 'whale's islo'j 
Icel. hval-r, Dan. and Sw. hval, a whale. 

Wham, Glen (Kilsyth). G. tuimh or uaim, 'a cave.* (/, 
Uamvar. 

Whauphill (Wigtow^n). So. whaup is *a curlew/ fr. O.K. 
hwe&py wop, a cry. 

Whipflet (Airdrie). Prof. Rhys suggests * whin {i.e,, furze- 
covered) flat ' ; as likely * white (in names often i)ron, 
whit) flat.' On flat, cf, Skinplats. 

Whinxeyleggate, -liggatb (Kirkcudbright). With whinny, 
i.e., full of whins or furze, cf. W. chwijn, woocIh. 
Lif/fjaie is a gate-post; O.E. leag-yeat, * field-post.' 
Cf. Liggatcheek in Dairy. 

Whinnyfold (Cruden). Prob. 'enclosure or fold full of 
whins ' or furze bushes. 

Whitburn (Bathgate). 'White stream'; O.E. hwit, Icel. 
huit-r, white. Also near Sunderland. 

Whitefarland (Arran). 

Whiteinch (Glasgow). 'White meadow' or 'Imks'; G. 
innis. Cf. Inch. 

Whitemire (Forres). 'White-looking swamp'; Icel. nif/rr, 
myri, N. myre, a swamp, fen, cognate with tho Kng. 
moor. Cf. Drakemire, Berwicksh., My reside, and 
' Wytteriggemyre,' temp. William the Lion, in New- 
battle Chart. 

Whit(t)en Head. See its Gaelic form, Kbnnageall. 

Whiterashes (Aberdeen). Raslies is Sc. for 'rushes,' O.E. 
risce, a rush. Cf. Rashiehill, StirUngshire. 

Whitbrigg (Airdrie). 1572, Quhitrig; see Rigg. 

Whithorn (Wigtown). Early Latin writers, 'Candida Casa*; 
1296i CandidfiB Case; O.E. Chron., ann. 565, Hwiteme; 
1159, Whithenie; 1250, Witemen ; U98, Quhithem ; 
a very old MS. has the form Futenie, with which cf. 
the common Aberdeen / for wh, foo for who, far for 



300 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

where, <fec. O.E. hwit erne, * white house/ or * cot,' is a 
translation of Candida Casa, the clay house built by St 
Ninian, c. 390. There is a Blackeme in Kirkcudbright. 

Whiting Bay (Arran). Named from the fish of that name. 
Wliitimj lit. means * little white thing.' 

Whitletts (Ayr). Perh. * white flats,' and so perh.= 
Whifflet. 

Whitsomk (Chimside). 1296, Whytesum; 1300, Quitesum. 
Prob. Ttam, i.e., * home of WJiite,' some man, c. p. Ixxxv. 
Of course, qu was a true guttural in old Scots, and in 
form 1300 is = the O.E. hw. 

Whitstbr (St Abb's Head). Old, Whitchester. * White 
camp.' This is one, then, of the few Sc. -chesters, see 
p. xc. Also cf, Glo'ster for Gloucester. 

Whittinghamb (Haddington), a. 1 1 30, Sim. Durham, Hwiting- 
haham; 1250, Whitingham. Prob. *home (O.E. hdm) 
of Wliiting,' i.e., * the little white man,' or * of the sons 
of White ' ; c^. p. Ixxxv, and Uddinqston. There is a 
Wittingshill in Buchan. Also in Northumberland, and 
near Preston. 

Whitton (Morebattle). Said to be a. 800, Hist. St Cuihbti, 
Waquirtun; but the scribe's spelling in this MS. is 
very reckless. 

Wick. Sic in Barbour, c. 1375; but 1140, Vik; 1455, 
Weke. Icel. vik, * a (little) bay,' in Sw. wik. 

WiDEWALL (S. Ronaldshay). c. 1225, Orkney. Sag., Vidi- 
vag(r), i.e., * beacon voe ' or * bay.' 

WiBSDALB, Wbis- (Voc, Shetland). Perh. 'hissing valley'; 
Icel. hvaesa, Dan. hvaese, to hiss, the Eng. wlieeze. Cf. 
Glen Lot. Perh, = Wbdalb. 

Wigtown. 1283, Wyggeton; c. 1565, Wigston. * Dwelling, 
village on the bay'; O.E. wic, O.N. vig^. See ton^ p. 
Ixxxiii, and cf. Wigg, Whithorn, and Wigton, Cumber- 
land. 

Wilkibston (Ratho). The name Wilkie is fr. G, guilcach, 
rushy, fr. giolc, a rush. 

WiLSONTOWN (Auchengray). Of. Sir W. Scott's Journal, 
25th Oct. 1826 (1891), p. 283. 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 301 

TViLTOx (Hawick), a. 800, Wiltuna ; c. 1170, *Ecclesiade 
Wilthona or Wiltona' ; 1186, Wiltun. ''Abode, village 
(O.E. tun) of Will,' i.e., William. Two in England. 

WixcHBURGH (Linlithgow). 1375, Wynchburch. Perh. 
'castle (O.E. hurh, cf, Borgue) with the winch (O.E. 
tcince)y crane, or hoisting machine,' or fr. wencJi (M.E. 
tcenche), a (young) woman. Cf, Winchcombe, Winch- 
field. 

WixDHOusB (Shetland). Corruption of O.N. vind -488, 
* windy ridge.' 

Windmill Hill (Motherwell). Also at Gateshead. 

WiNDLESTRAB Law (Twccddalc). Sc. for * windlestraw hill * ; 
O.E. windelstreaw properly means * straw for plaithig,* 
fr. tcindel, a basket. 

WiXDYGATES (Markinch). Gate in Sc. is *a way, road,* 
though O.E. geat means *a gate.' 

Windy Goul (Queen's Park, Edinburgh, and Tranent). G. 
and Ir. gabhal, *a fork, a pass.' Cf. Ardgoul, Ireland 
and Windy Gyle, Northumberland. 

WiNTON (Ormiston). c. 1160, Wynton; 1210, Wintou. 
Prob. * windy abode, village'; O.E. wind, wind, hi So. 
win\ wun\ 

WiRRAN (hill, Lethnot, Forfarsh.). G. fhuaran, *a spring 
of water.' 

WiSHAW (Lanark). Prob. as next ; * Wice ' or * Wuche^$ 
wood ' or Shaw. 

WiSTON (Biggar). c, 1155, Ecclesia de Wicestun ; 1159, 
Ecclesia ville Withce; c. 1190, Ecclesia do Wischo ; 
1406, Wyston. This knight of the 12th century, 
Withce or Wice, is well known from his charters. (See 
ton, p. Ixxxiii.) Also near Haver ford West. 

WoLFSTAR (E. Lothian). Prob. N. Ulf-r staff -r, * Ulf's place ' 
or * farm.' 

Work Head (Kirkwall). Icel. virki, *a work, bulwark, 
castle,' cognate with verk, work. Cf. Virkib. 

WoRMiT (N. Fife). 1517, -et. Perh. *wann place'; Icel. 
varm-r, fem. vonuy O.E. wear7n, warm ; perh. from O.E. 



302 PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. 

wyr7n, *a serpent, worm.' Worm- is common in Eng. 
names — Wormelow, Wormley, &c. On the ending -ety 
cf, thicket, Blaiket, &c. 

Wrab (Tweeddale). N. wraa, ra, * a comer, a landmark ' ; 
cf. tcry, fr. O.E. ^crigian^ to bend. Gf. Woodrae, Fin- 
haven, in 1549, Woodwra. 

Wraith (Berwick). G. rath^ *a circular earthen fort, a 
rampart.' Cf. Raith. 

Wrath Cape. 1583, Wraith; c. 1610, Pont, Faro Head. 
Icel. hvarf *a turning out of sight, a shelter,' fr. 
hveifa, to turn round. Cf. Hvarfs-gnipa, * peak of the 
receding land,' O.N. fr. Cape Farewell, Greenland. la 
Lewis G. the Cape is An Carbh, a corruption of hvarf ; 
but other Gaels call it Am Parph or Barpa, *the 
cairn or barrow.' 

Wysbby (Kirtlebridge). Prob. 'dwelling, village (Dan. and 
northern O.E. by, U) of a man WyseJ 

Wyvis, Ben (Dingwall). 1608, Weyes. In G. heinn 
fhuathais, which prob. means * formidable or spectral ben,' 
a very appropriate name. 



Yarrock or Ybrrock, Port (Whithorn). Skene thinks this 
is the Beruvik of NicU^s iSaga (cf. Berwick) ; but, as it 
stands, prob. G. garbh achadh, * rough field.' Cf. next. 

Yarrow (Selkirk). Also called * St Mary's Kirk of Lowis ' ; 
c. 1120, Gierua. Jarrow-on-Tyne is a. 1130, Sim. 
Durham, Gyruum, Girva. Prob .G. garbh abh, 'rough 
stream.' Cf. Venue, and Yar on Tweed. 

Yell, Mid, N., and S. (Shetland). Sagas, Jala, Ala ; 1586, 
Jella, Yella. Icel. gelid, gall, 'barren.' Cf. Jawcraig. 

Yester (Haddington). 1295, Yestre, older Ystrad, which 
is W. for ' valley ' = G. srad or 'strath'; cf. Estra- 
hannent, s.v. Annandale. Yester is just on the brim 
of the Damnonian region ; see p. xxix. 

Ybtholm (Kelso). a. 800, St Cuthbti, Gatha'n; 1233, 



PLACE-NAMB8 OF SOOTLANIi, »()» 

Jethamj 1297, Yotham ; alno Zoihiirno^ ViyifAWi*f; r. 
1420, Kirkyethamo ; 160H, Toun-Yotturn, * \\mu\^ Hi 
the gate' (on the Bordoro proii. vot, (),K, i/^ir^) )j»«f,w^»wi 
England and Scotland. (J/, Tho YijitK </ MuakhHtt, 
mouth of a pasM in tho OchilM. Hoo Uoufm, With ^. 
1420 and 1608, cf, Golhpik. 

YoKBR (Glasgow). Sic 1505; 1804, YiHikor. (L h/'M/^r, 
iocar, *the bottom, low-lying ground.' (J/. HWif Ohifi, 
Dumferra., Yochry Den. 

YoBKHiLL (Glangow). 

YoucHTBiE Heuoh (Kirkmaideii). (i. aiid \f» wmhtmft/'k^ 
' upper ' ; cf. the namcM in AwMar-, Ifmigh i« * a fi»n ' ; 
see HnmcRHEUOH. 

Ythax, R. (Ellon). Prob. - EriiiK ; c.Vl\% Aibyfi, iA., a 
d^Aan, 'a little ford or umall frir(kbl« rir<^/ 



z 



INDEX TO SCOTTISH PLACE-NAMES 

referred to, but not in their alphabetical place in the List. 





PAGE 




PA6B 


Aber, . . . . 


xxxii 


Auchnabony, 


. 43 


Achagallon, 


137 


Auchtdgammell, , 


. lii 


Achanancftrn, Achanamoine 


, xliii 


Aultkieran, 


. 176 


Achateny, . . . . 


15 


Auskerry, . 


. 267 


Achteicaim, Achtertyre, 


lui 






Affleck, . 


23 


Badabery, 


xxviii 


Aird na h'eugh, 


125 


Badfothel, . 


21 


Airntully, . 


18 


Balaldie, . 


9 


Albany, . . 


17 


BaUgal, . . 


. 30 


Alisary, . 


29 


Balmacathill, Balnakettle, . 173 


AUerbeck, . 


83 


BalmaHoch, 


. 226 


An Tunna, 


17 


Balnabruaich, 


. 285 


Aoi Colmncille, . 


167 


Balnahanait, 


. 241 


Ardenslato, 


. 269 


Balnain, . 


. 241 


Ardingrask, 


18 


Balshere, Balsier 


, . . 114 


Ardinning, 


29 


Balvoulin Eonan 


, . . 15 


Ardlussa, . 


91 


Bamff, 


. 33 


Ardnimord, 


223 


Bandeath, . 


. 33 


Arngibon, . 


18 


Bankier, . 


. 112 


Arngrennan, 


34 


Barassie, . 


. xdii 


Asohantoft, 


Ixviii 


Barkip, 


. 166 


Assary, 


42 


Barsherry, . 


. 141 


Aswanley, . 


. 20 


Barsolas, . 


. 254 


Auchamore, 


xlui 


Barwhanny, 


. 177 


Auchensalt, 


. 113 


BellevUle, . 


xciinote 


Auchensheen, . 


. 23 


Benchallie, 


. 59 


Auchincloch, 


7 


Birgidale, . 


47 


Auchindavy, 


156 


Blackerne, . 


. 72 


Auchlevyn, 


6 


Blairlick, . 


. 296 



INDEX. 



305 





PAGE 




PAGB 


Blargie, . 


25 


Craig Dumish, . 


. 108 


Boath, 


243 


Craigentinny, , 


. 15 


Bodden, . . . . 


53 


Craiglowrie, 


64 


Bodsbeck, . 


Ixix 


Craignathunder, 


. 284 


Boigh, 


Ixzxiii 


Craigniven, 


. 100 


Boata, Boost, . 


. Ixxii 


Craig Righ Harailt, . 


. lii 


Brockly, . . . 


52 


Craigskimming, . 


. 35 


Busta, 


. Izxii 


Craigslouan, 


. 20 


Butter Hole, 


Ixi 


Craigwhinnie, . 


97 






Cramsmoo, 


. 55 


Caebwinnino, . 


. 181 


Cranstackie, 


. 272 


Caimbulg, , 


43 


Creag-na-Fhaoilinn, 


. Ill 


Caimchester, 


xc 


Cremannan, , 


. 268 


Calcots, . 


70 


Croach, 


. 18 


Garbuddo, . 


187 


Cromlet, . 


. 160 


Carohonzie, 


. 73 


Coignasith, 


. . 78 


Camess, . 


63 


Culdrain, . 


. 93 


Cash Bay, . 


. 139 


Gulscadden, 


. 139 


Cateleach, . 


53 


Corbrottack, 


14 


Cauchestep, 


xci 


Cutcloy, . 


. zziii 


Chipperdandy, . 


cix 






Gioch Mhor, 


212 


Dalohoisnk, . 


. 95 


Cladh-an-disert, . 


. 116 


Dalcniive, . 


. 22 


Glashloohie, 


74 


Damarbil, . 


. 14 


Glochmaloo, 


cvii 


Davochbeg and-fin, 


. 98 


Gloined, , 


8 


Davoch Maluag, 


. 178 


Gnoc-a-dile, 


. 243 


Dawachnahard, . 


. 102 


Gnoo-na-fhaire, . 


. 127 


Deasbreck, . 


WnnoU 


Gobble Brae, . 


Ivi 


DeerhasB, . 


. 289 


Goil-a-creich, 


88 


Deil-ma-care, 


Ixxxu 


Goire Eirigh, 


123 


Delfour, 


. 28 


Gollyland, . . . 


171 


Demyat, . 


. 112 


GontulHch, 


. 80 


Dinnamuck, • 


Izzxii 


Gomar, 


4 


Doedeogh, 


. 53 


Gorncravie, Corriecravie, 


. 87 


Dourie, 


. 115 


Gomgall, . . . 1 


ixnoU 


Drakemire, 


. 299 


Gowkie, . . . 


. 83 


Drinmamacklach, 


. 106 


Goehieyille, 


xcii 


Droch Head, . 


. 106 


Cowboster, 


Ixxii 


Drumbowie, 


. 178 


Gnigama, . 


188 


Drombulg, 


. 110 


Gnigorooket, 


85 


DroiDgray, 


22 


Craigdornie, 


103 


Dmmlookhart, . 


. 86 



20 



306 



INDKX. 





PAOB 




PAGR 


Drumtassie, 


. 281 


Habchester, . 


xc 


Ducksdub, 


Ixxxii 


Haerfaulds, 


. 154 


Dunriachie, 


. 252 


Halcrow Head, . 


. 153 


Dunskey, . 


. 268 


Howpasley, 


. 237 


Dunskirloch, 


. 268 


Hutchesontown,. 


Ixxxiy 


Dustyriggs, 


Izzxii 










Inchcoulter, .. 


. xl 


Eallachib Bxten, 


. 85 


Inchree, . 


. 247 


Ebroch, 


. 161 


Inis Chonail, 


. 80 


Ecclestoft, . 


.Ixviii 


Inverghuisachan, 


. 151 


Eddergoll, . 


. 118 


Iseval, 


. Ixix 


Edindumaoh, . 


. 103 






Edinglossie, 


. 183 


Karruderes, . 


. 67 


Edinkyp, . 


. 166 


Kenick Wood, . 


. 94 


Eilean Coluim and Comb, 


. ciii 


Kennethmont, . 


. 186 


Elachnave, 


. 228 


Keppus, 


Ixxiii 


Eldrig, . . . 


. 121 


Kerchester, 


xc 


EUerlie, . 


. 83 


Kerrow, . . . 


63 


Eorabus, . 


. Ixxiii 


Eerrylamont, 


. 16 


Eunaich, . 


. cvi 


Kersie, 


. 67 


' 




Kilcalmkill, 


. 167 


Faside, . 


. 127 


Killosa, . 


cv 


Feinag More, 


. 127 


Eilliemacuddican, 


ci 


Finlarig, . 


. 177 


Kilmoluag, Kilmolowok, 


cvii 


Fladay, Fladda, 


. 245 


Kintrockat, 


. 182 


Fortrenn, . 


. 24 


Kirklaugh, . 


ci 






Kirk o' Shotts, . 


xcix 


Gannoohy, 


. 141 


Eirlauchlin, 


. 189 


Garliachan, 


li 


Knockenharrie, . 


. 73 


Garrel, 


. 140 


Knockhamot, 


. 18 


Oartconner, 


. 98 


Knockhooly, 


. 226 


Oathercauld, 


Ixxxii 


Knockmilauk, . 


. cvii 


Oergask,! . 


. 141 


Enockstocks, 


. 234 


Oirgunnochy, . 


. 138 


Knocktentol, 


. 286 


Olaickshellach, . 


7 






Glenholm, . 


. 158 


Largue, . 


. 193 


Glen Howl, 


Ixxxviii 


Larriston Fell, . 


. 197 


Glenstrae, . 


. 276 


Leaths, Leet Water, . 


. 198 


Glenumn, . 


. 159 


Legholm Shiels, . 


Ixviu 


Gloupquoy, 


. 266 


Lernock, . 


. 108 


Glower-o'er-em, . 


Ixxxii 


Lessuden, . 


. 47 


Gowksknowe, • • 


Ixxxii 


Letters, 


Ixxxix 



INDEX. 



307 





PAGE 




page 


Liggatcheek, 


. 298 


Peraebus, . 


Ixxiii 


lightnot, . 


. 200 


Pest Burn, . 


. 27 


Lindifferon, 


. 101, 194 


Picardy, . 


. xciv 


Little Dunkeld, . 


Ixxxix 


Pierceby, . 


. Ixvii 


Lochanabb, 


. 31 


Pitfure, Pitgrudy, 


. Ivi 


Lochan-nan-Corp, 


. 82 


Rtkerril, . 


87 


Lochies, The, . 


. xliv 


Poldores, . 


. 202 


Loch-nan-ceall, . 


. 173 


Poltenstobbo, . 


. 274 


Lookabootye, 


Ixxxii 


Port-an-righ, 


. 247 


Luichar Loch, . 


. 200 


Portnachuraich, 


. 287 






Portnacroish, 


. 247 


Macherwhat, 


. 11 


Port-na-feannaige, 


. 127 


Makeness Eipps, 


. 283 


Portnaluing, 


. 209 


Manderston, 


. 211 


Portramsay, 


. 251 


May (Mochnun), 


60 


Poundland, 


. 240 


Merkland, . 


. 240 


Priesthope, 


. 172 


Midlock Water, . 


. 297 


Pulmaddy, 


. 205 


MUlflats, . 


. 268 






Minnie Carlie, . 


64 


Raddindyke, . 


. 253 


Moathill, . 


. 228 


Raedykes, . 


. 115 


Moressan, . 


54 


Raffin, 


. 113 


Mungowells, 


. ciii 


Rashiehill,. 


. 219 


Mye, . .. . 


Iv, 218 


Red Abbey Head, 


231 






Reekitlane, 


Ixxxii 


Nerby, 


. Ixvi 


Reidswire, . • 


. 212 


Noltland, . 


, Ixv 


Rest-and-be-Thankhil 


. 272 


Nonakiln, . 


. cii 


Risabus, 


. 146 


Norman's Law, . 


. Ixxx 


Rudha Gheadha, 


. IxUi 


Notingham, 


Ixxxv 






Nunraw, . 


. 298 


St Michaels, . 


. cviii 






St Mund's Church, 


. 150 


Orbiston, . 


xcviii 


Sammareve's Fair, 


. cvii 


Oreval, 


. Ixix 


Sanna, • 


. 260 


Osmandwall, 


. . Ixxi 


Scarabus, . 


Ixxii 


Outerston, . 


. 236 


Shanquhar, 


. 261 


Oversay, . 


Ixvi 


Shillingland, . 


. Ixv 






Shurrery, . 


42 


Paldy's Well, . 


cii 


Sichnanighean, . 


. 262 


Paphle, The, . 


. 214 


Sillerford, . 


. . 70 


Peerie Sea, The . 


. 242 


1 Skeengally, 


. 266 


Penick, . 


. xxxii 


Sourby, 


. 270 


Penlaw, 


. 295 


Standingmanhill, 


. 206 



308 



INDEX. 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Sterby, 


. Ixxu 


Torachilty, 


7 


Strathendry, 


. 122 


Trahenna, . 


. 289 


Stroan, 


. 277 


Trommie, . 


. xlv 


Stronbuy, . 


. 204 


Trongate, . 


Ixxxvi 


Succoth, . 


. xcv 


Tullochgorum, . 


xlviii 


Swyre or Sware,. 


. 212 


Tur, . . . 


. 287 






Twomerkland, . 


. Ixv 


Tappitknowe, . 


. 285 






Tarrisholme, 


67 


USKEYAOH, 


. Ixxi 


Tarsmnn Ben, . 


23 






Tayock, . 


. 32 






Threemerkland, . 


. Ixv 


Vanavie, , 


. 32 


Thurdistoft, 


Ixviii 






TibbercMndy, . 


21 


Weal, The 


. 215 


Tigh Beannaohadh, 


38 


Whaligoe, . 


. Ixx 


Tighnagavil, 


. 141 


Winthanke, 


. 294 


TiobarChUda, . 


ex 


Wisheach, . 


xlvi, 293 


Tir Artair, . 


20 


Wittingham, 


. 293 


Toldamh, , 


. 163 


Wittingshill, . 


. 300 


Tomcrail, . 


. 87 


Woden Law, 


Ixvii, 296 




. 172 


Woodrae, . 


. 302 



FINIS. 



PBIMTED BT NULL AND CO., LTD., EDINBUBGB. 



Recent Publications. 



SCOniSH HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY. 



The Castellated and Domestic Architecture of 
Scotland, from the Twelfth to the Eighteenth 
Century. By David MacGibbon and Thomas Ross, Archi- 
tects. With about 2000 Illustrations of Ground Plans, Sections, 
Views, Elevations, and Details. 5 vols., royal 8vo, 42s. each 
vol. net. 

The Ecclesiastical Architecture of Scotland. By 

David MacGibbon and Thomas Ross. Illustrated. 3 vols., 
royal 8vo, 42s. each vol. net. 

The Life of a Regiment: The History of the 
Gordon Highlanders from 1794 to 1898. Including an 

Account of the 75th Regiment, from 1787 to 1881. By Lt.-CJol. 
C. Greenhill Gabdyne. With Illustrations. 2 vols., demy 
8vo, 42s. net. 

'* One of the most interesting and readable regimental histories which 
it has been our fortune to meet with." — Olohe, 

Popular Tales from the Norse. By Sir George 

Webbe Dasent, D.C.L. With an Introductory Essay on the 
Origin and Diffusion of Popular Tales. New Edition. With a 
Memoir by Arthur Irwin Dasent. Demy 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

'' May claim to rank as a classic. One of the most capable, earnest, 
and scholarly disciples of the Grimms, Sir George contnbuted greatly 
to the knowledge of comparative mythology and folklore, and besides 
doing much to popularise a branch of knowledge at that time confined 
to the specialist, gave us a book of stories which has been a perpetual 
delight to manhood and to youth.*'— JVb^ arid Queries, 

Celtic Scotland: A History of Ancient Alban. By 

the late William F. Skene, D.C.L., Historiographer- Royal 
for Scotland. In three vols. I. History and Ethnology. 
II. Church and Culture. III. Land and People. Dlustrated 
with Maps. Demy 8vo, 458. 

Scottish Kings : A Revised Chronologry of Scottish 

History, 1005-1625, with Notices of the Principal Events, Tables 
of Regnal Years, Pedigrees, Calendars, etc By Sir Archibald 
H. Dunbar, Bart. Demy 8vo, with 4 Maps, 128. 6d. net 



Edinburgh : DAVID DOUGLAS, 10 Castle Street. 



Recent Publications. 



RHIND LECTURES IN ARGH>EOLOGY, Etc 



Scotland in Early Christian Times. By Joseph 

Andebson, LIj.D., Keeper of the National Museum of the Anti* 
quaries of Scotland. (Being the Rhind Lectures in Archaeology 
for 1879 and 1880.) Profusely Illustrated. 2 vols., demy 8vo, 
12s each vol. 

Scotland in Pagran Times. By Joseph Anderson. 
LL.D. (Being the Rhind Lectures in Archseology for 1881 and 
1882.) Profu^ly Illustrated. 2 vols., demy 8vo, 12s. each vol. 

The Past in the Present. What is Civilisation? 

(Being the Rhind Lectures in Archeology delivered in 1876 and 
1878.) By Sir Arthur Mitchell, K.C.B., M.D., LL.D. With 
148 Woodcuts. Demy 8vo, ISs. 

Ogrham Inscriptions in Ireland* Wales, and Scot- 
land. (Being the Rhind Lectures in Archaeology for 1884.) 
By the late Sir Samuel Ferguson. Demy 8vo, 12s. 

Heraldry in Relation to Scottish History and Art. 

(Being the Rhind Lectures in Archseolofipr for 1898.) By Sir 
James Balfour Paul, F.S.A. Scot, Lord Lyon King of Arms. 
Illustrated. Demy 8vo, lOs. 6d. net 

The Edwards in Scotland, A.D. 1296-1377. (Being 

the Rhind Lectures in Archaeology for 1900.) By Joseph Bain, 
F.S.A. Scot. Demy 8vo, 5s. 



Scotland as it was and as it is: A History of 
Races, Military Events, and the Rise of Commerce. 

By the Duke of Aroyll. Illustrated. Demy 8vo, 7s.. 6d. 

Early Travellers in Scotland, 1295-1689. Edited 

by P. Hume Brown. Demy 8vo, 14s. 

By-ways of History: Studies in the Social Life 
and Rural Economy of the Olden Time. By James 

CoLViLLE, M.A., D.Sc, Examiner in History, University of 
Glasgow. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

Recollections of a Toiir made in Scotland, A.D. 

1803. By Dorothy Wordsworth. Edited by J. C. Shairp. 
Third Edition. Crown 8vo, Ss. 



Edinburgh : DAVID DOUGLAS, 10 Castle Street. 



THE NEW YORK PUBLIC UBRARY 
RBPBRBNGB DBPARTMBNT 



ThU book is nndor no eifl^umstanceft to 1>< 
taken from tho Buildini 









OtCi^ \ 


\M 


















































































form «!• 




1 



/