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MARCH 22, 1911, AT 10 O'CLOCK A. M. 

LUND 1911 


A short time after this little treatise appeared in its first 
rather incomplete form, my attention was called to a 
work entitled Die Stellung des Attributiven Adjektivs im 
Englischen von den ersten Anfangen der englischen Sprache 
bis zur Friih-Neuenglischen Sprach-Periode, by A. Milli- 
ner, and published in 1Q06 *. I began to fear that much 
of my labour might have been in vain, but soon found 
that Milliner was not a very formidable rival. This may 
sound arrogant, but the fact is that Milliner's work con- 
tains hardly anything beyond a very limited collection of 
quotations in the shortest form possible, one half of them 
being taken from poetry. The prose texts examined 
by my esteemed colleague are: Alfred, Othere and Wulf- 
stan (Kluge, Angels. Leseb.); Alfred, Vorrede zur Cura Pas- 
toralis (Kluge, Leseb.); Alfred, Cura Pastoralis (E. E. T. S. 
Bd. 45); ytlfric, Homilien (Kluge, Leseb.); Saxon Chronicle 
(Kluge, Leseb.); Morris, Specimens of Early English, Part 
I; Dan Michel, Ayenb. of Inw. (pp. 70-76); R. R. de Hampole 
(Matzner, Altengl. Sprachproben); Trevisa, Polychronicon 
(Vol. I, Ch. XXIII- XXV) ; Maundeville, Voiage and Travaile 
(Matzner; pp. 155-182); Chaucer, Tale of Melibeus; Malory, 
King Arthur (pp. 150). Voila tout! 

It is true that Milliner gives a brief resume after each 
period, but he restricts himself to stating that the word- 

The copy I possess was printed in New York, 1909. 



order is such and such in such and such authors. Besides, 
his book presents not a few peculiarities among which may 
be mentioned: postposition of a word governing the gen- 
itive case (e. g. 'fela' and numerals) is looked upon as 
an instance of inversion of the adjective attribute (cf. pp. 
18, 24); 'foresaed' is counted a participle (cf. p. 27); 'self 
and 'ana' are said to be quantitative adjectives (p. 23); 
such words as 'aelmihtig' and 'hunigswettre' are classed 
among attributes with an adverbial modifier (p. 27). 

It will not be difficult to see that Milliner's disser- 
tation cannot have been of much use either to me or to 
anybody else wanting to know anything about the rules 
for English word-order. 

Be it far from me to have pronounced this severe 
sentence in order to exalt my own little book! I know there 
are many weak points in it and many assertions open to dis- 
cussion. But at least I have, to the best of my power, tried 
not only to point out the actual state of things, but also 
to account for the reason why things are so, and not so. 

Many will perhaps blame me for not having suffic- 
iently heeded the fact that English is not a pure Ger- 
manic language. Maybe they are right. But I cannot 
help looking upon the assuming of French influence here 
and there and everywhere as often a convenient means 
of escaping difficulties. Where such an assumption can be 
avoided it should be, it seems to me. 

My examples I have arranged chronologically, so far 
as that has been possible. As to the spelling of M. E. 
words it ought to be noted that in several texts th and p 
occur alternately. I have thought best in such texts al- 
ways to write th where this is most frequent, and p where 
this type is the usual one. 

Before finishing this Preface, I will not omit to express 
my sincere thanks to my teacher, Professor E. Ekwall, who 

has always shown the greatest indulgence and has much 
encouraged me during the preparation of the present syn- 
tactical study, besides giving me many valuable pieces of 
advice. Mr. Bert Hood of this town has kindly gone 
through my manuscript and has also helped me with the 
reading of the proof-sheets. 

Malmo, Febr. 1911. 

Birger Palm. 




(i) What was the original word-order 1 10 

(ii) Contamination ...... 11 12 

(iii) The Adverb in an Attributive Function... 13 
(iiii) Phrases used as Attributes 14 

CHAPTER I. The Past Participle 1544 

(A. As a real Adjective |see 55] 16) 

B. As a quasi-Adjective 17 

C. As a real Verb 18-44 

1. I have a father killed 18 

2. Virtue personified*, >These two united* 19 

3. After grace said 20 

4. P. P. instead of a verbal noun 21 

5. P. P. instead of a cond. clause 22 

6. Participle Attribute.... 2343 

7. Advertisements and Headings 44 

CHAPTER II. The Present Participle 4554 

(A. As a real Adjective [see 85] 46) 

B. As a quasi-Adjective 47 48 

C. As a real Verb 4954 

1. He had a fire blazing 49 

2. Pr. Part, in a subst. function 50 

3. For three days running* 51 

4. Participle Attribute 52-54 

CHAPTER III. The Past Part, as a pure Adjective 5584 

A. 'Aforesaid'. 'Past'. 'Born' 5572 

1. 'Aforesaid' 5562 

2. 'Past' 6367 

3. 'Born' * 6872 

B. Postposition of adject. Past Part, in general 7384 

1. Culinary Art 75 

2. Dressing and Weapons 76 

3. Workmanship 77 

4. Medicine... 78 



5. Legal Style 79 

6. Bible Style 80 

7. Noun unstressed, Participle emphatic 81 

8. Two Part, outbalancing the weight 

of the Noun 82 

9. Postposition by Analogy 83 

10. The Part, is connected with another 

word (comp. adj.) 84 

CHAPTER IV. The Pres. Part, as a pure Adjective 8592 

A. 'Being'. 'Coming'. 'Adjoining'. 'Follow- 
ing' and 'Ensuing' 8591 

1. 'Being' 85 

2. 'Coming' 86 

3. 'Adjoining' 87 

4. 'Following' and 'Ensuing' 8891 

B. Postposition of adj. Pres. Part, in general 92 
CHAPTER V. Participles preceded by Adverbs 93101 

A. Postposition of part, preceded by modal 
adverbs 93 

B. Postposition of part, preceded by temp- 
oral adverbs 94 96 

C. Participles preceded by quantitative 
adverbs 97 

D. Pre-position of part, modified by a 

modal or temporal adverb 98101 

CHAPTER VI. Adjectives made up of un- and a past part. 102104 

CHAPTER VII. Adjectives in -idle, -able, -ant, -ent 105114 

A. Adjectives in -ible, -able 107110 

1. In a [semi-] verbal function 107108 

2. Without any verbal force 109 

3. Adj. in -ible, -able negatived by 

un-, in- 110 

B. Adjectives in -ant, -ent 111114 

1. Other adj. than 'Present' 112 

2. 'Present' 113 

Appendix. Adjectives in -ate 114 

CHAPTER VIII. 'Due' 115 

CHAPTER IX. 'Necessary' and 'Needful' 116 

CHAPTER X. Postposition of two adj. connected by 

'and' or 'or' 117123 

A. The adj. are added as an afterthought 117119 

. 1. General cases 118 

2. Adjectives of opposite meanings... 119 



B. Averseness to accumulating too many 
attributes 120 

C. The attributes outbalance the noun ... 121 

D. Noun unstressed, adj. preceded by 

adverb 122123 

CHAPTER XI. Postpos. of a single attribute preceded by 

a quant, adverb 124 131 

A. The adj. is more strongly stressed than 

the adverb 125127 

B. The adj. and the adv. are both equally 
emphatic 128129 

Appendix 1. Emphatic postpos. with other 

kinds of adverbs 130 

Appendix 2. Postposition with somewhat 131 

CHAPTER XII. Adjectives preceded by temporal adverbs 132133 
CHAPTER XIII. Postposition of ordinary adj. not qualified 

by any adverb 134 214 

A. Doubtful cases 134139 

1. 'Previous 7 134 

2. 'Last' and 'Next' 135136 

3. 'Sufficient' 137139 

B. 'Square' and 'Sterling' 140141 

C. Postposition after 'with' 142147 

D. 'Dear' 148151 

E. Pliny the Elder, Charles the Great 152154 

F. Phrases borrowed or copied from the 

Latin 155164 

1. Grammatical phrases 155157 

2. Biblical phrases ,... 158162 

3. Titles 163 

4. Astronomical phrases 164 

G. Phrases borrowed from the French.... 165176 

1. Middle Engl. phrases 168171 

a. Legal style 168 

b. Ecclesiastic language 169 

c. Learned style in general 170 

d. Titles 171 

2. Still remaining collocations 172176 

a. Legal style 173 

b. Heraldic language 174 

c. Titles and terms of chivalrous 

life , 175 

d. Other expressions 176 


H. 'Proper 7 and 'Improper' 


I. Pseudo- Anglo-French terms 


J. Humorous phrases 


K. Postpos. of Rom. adj. in general... 


L. Postpos. with 'thing', 'matter' 


M. Postpos. of native adj. not preceded 


by any adverb in O. E. and M. E. 


N. Postpos. in isolated cases of native 

adj. in Mod. Engl 




Attributes qualified by 'how', or 'too', 

and anal 




Attributes qualified by 'so', or 'as' 










1. 'All' and 'both' 


2. 'Many' 


3. 'More' and 'Much' 


4. 'Other' 


5. 'Same' 


6. Whatever 


7. Whatsoever 


8. Possessives 


9. 'Ana' and 'Sylf 






1. Cardinals 


2. 'Half, 'double', etc 


3. Ordinals 




Attributes qualified by 'not' 




Attributes preceded by more than one 





Attributes in adv. relation to each other 




Attributes preceded by a lengthy phrase 




Attributes preceded by an object 




Attributes followed by a qualifier 




Crosswise word-order 


1. Attribute completed by a prep, phrase 


2. Attribute completed by an infinitive 


3. Attribute completed by a 'than'-clause 


Appendix. Things, as it is written, won- 









Reciprocal order between two prep. attr. 





(I do not here include such works the abbreviated titles of which 
will be easily understood by everybody.) 

BEDE, Ecclesiastical History; E.E.T.S., Orig. Ser. 95, 96. 
ALFRED, Cura Pastoralis; E. E.T.S., Orig. Ser. 45, 50. 
SWEET, An Anglo-Saxon Reader. 
Vices and Virtues (1200); E.E.T.S., Orig. Ser. 89. 
Ayenbite of Inwit (1340); E.E.T.S., Orig. Ser. 23. 
WYCLIF, The Engl. Works of; E.E.T.S., Orig. Ser. 74. 
LANFRANK, Science of Cirurgie (1380); E.E.T.S., Orig. Ser. 102. 
ARDERNE, Treatises of Fistula in Ano; E. E.T.S., Orig. Ser. 139. 
Early English Meals and Manners (1413); E.E.T.S., Orig. 

Ser. 32. 

De Imitatione Christi (ab. 1440); E.E.T.S., Extra Ser. 63. 
An Alphabet "of Tales; E.E.T.S., Orig. Ser. 126, 127. 
R. ROLLE DE HAMPOLE, The Fire of Love; E.E.T.S., Orig. 

Ser. 106. 
CAPGRAVE, Lives of St. Augustine and St. Gilbert etc.; E.E.T.S., 

Orig. Ser. 140. 

CAXTON, Godeffroy of Boloyne (1481); E.E.T.S., Extra Ser. 64. 
CAXTON, Blanchardyn and Eglantine (1489); E.E. T.S., Extra 

Ser. 58. 

The Coventry Leet Book; E.E.T.S., Orig. Ser. 134, 135. 
The 50 Earliest English Wills; E.E.T.S., Orig. Ser. 78. 
The Three Kings' Sons (ab. 1500); E.E.T.S., Extra Ser. 67. 
English Gilds; E.E.T.S., Orig. Ser. 40. 
KLUGE, Mittelenglisches Lesebuch. 


SKEAT, Specimens of English Literature; 1394 1579. 

TH. LEVER, Sermons (Arber's English Reprints). 1550. 

J. LYLY, Euphues (Arber's Reprints). 1579. 

PH. SIDNEY, An Apologie for Poetrie (Arber's Reprints). 1595. 

FLORID, The Essayes of Montaigne; Vol. I (World's Classics). 

BACON, Essays, Wisdom of the Ancients, New Atlantis (People's 


The New Testament, The Authorised English Version (Tauchnitz). 
J. EARLE, Micro-cosmographie (Arber's Reprints). 1628. 
R. NAUNTON, Fragmenta Regalia (Arber's Reprints). 1630. 
J. MILTON, Areopagitica (Arber's Reprints). 1644. 
J. ADDISON, Criticism on Paradise Lost, Spectator (Arber's 

Reprints). 1712. 
ADDISON and STEELE, The Sir Roger de Coverly Papers (ed. 

by R. G. Watkin). 

FIELDING, The History of Tom Jones; Vol. I (Tauchnitz). 
FIELDING, The Adventures of Joseph Andrews (Routeledge 

and Sons). 
JOHNSON, Essays selected from the Rambler, the Adventurer, 

and the Idler (ed. by S. J. Reid). 

MACAULAY, History of England; Vol. I (Everyman's Library). 
SCOTT, Quentin Durward (Nelson). 
CARLYLE, Sartor Resartus, and Essays on Burns and Scott 

(People's Library). 

LAMB, The Essays of Elia (People's Library). 
E. A. POE, Tales of Mystery and Imagination (People's Library). 
THACKERAY, Denis Duval (Tauchnitz). 
THACKERAY, The History of Henry Esmond (Nelson). 
THACKERAY, The Adventures of Philip (Nelson). 
DICKENS, A Tale of Two Cities (World's Classics). 
RUSKIN, The Two Paths, etc. (People's Library). 
DISRAELI, Venetia (Tauchnitz). 
BULWER, Rienzi (Tauchnitz). 
Captain MARRYAT, The Children of the New Forest (Tauchnitz). 


MARRYAT, Florence, Her World against a Lie (Tauchnitz). 

ELIOT, The Mill on the Floss (People's Library). 

JEROME, Paul Kelver (Tauchnitz). 

H. CAINE, The Christian (Tauchnitz). 

WILDE, The Picture of Dorian Gray (Tauchnitz). 

MERRIMAN, Tomaso's Fortune and other Stories (Tauchnitz). 

Mrs. ALEXANDER, Brown, V. C. (Tauchnitz). 

HARLAND, The Cardinal's Snuff-box (Tauchnitz). 

PEMBERTON, Doctor Xavier (Tauchnitz), 

TWAIN, Pudd'nhead Wilson (Tauchnitz). 

KIPLING, The Light that failed (Tauchnitz). 

KIPLING, Plain Tales from the Hills (Tauchnitz). 

KIPLING, Puck of Pook's Hill (Tauchnitz). 

Mrs. H. WARD, Marcella (Nelson). 

Miss BRADDON, Lady Audley's Secret (Nelson). 

LORIMER, Old Gorgon Graham (Nelson). 

A. HOPE, The God in the Car (Nelson). 

A. HOPE, The King's Mirror (Nelson). 

MEREDITH, Evan Harrington (Constable and Co.). 

KINGSLEY, Two Years Ago (Nelson). 

OUIDA, Pipistrello and other Stories (Tauchnitz). 


ABBOTT, E. A., A Shakespearian Grammar. London 1905. 
BEHRENS, D., Franzosische Elemente im Englischen; Pauls 

Grundriss, pp. 950 964. 

BRADLEY, H., The Making of English. London 1908. 
BRUGMANN und DELBRUCK, Grundriss der Vergl. Gramm. der 

Indog. Sprachen; V, Syntax. 
DAHLSTEDT, A., Rhythm and Word-Order in Anglo-Saxon. 

Lund 1901. 
EINENKEL, E., Syntax; Pauls Grundriss, pp. 1071-1151. 


EINENKEL, E., Engl. Wortstellung; Anglia XVIII, p. 148 ff. 
FRANZ, W., Die Grundziige der Sprache Shakespeares. Berlin 

HELLWIQ, J., Die Stellung des attributiven Adjektivs im Deut- 

schen. Halle 1898. 
HODGSON, W. B., Errors in the Use of English. Edinburgh 

IDELBEROER, H. A., Die Entwicklung der kindlichen Sprache. 

Berlin 1904. 
JESPERSEN, O., Growth and Structure of the Engl. Language. 

Leipzig 1905. 

JESPERSEN, O., Progress in Language. London 1894. 
KELLNER, L., Historical Outlines of English Syntax. London 

KOCH, F., Hist. Gramm. der Englischen Sprache; II, Satzlehre. 

Kassel 1878. 

KRUGER, G., Englische Erganzungsgrammatik. Dresden 1898. 
KRUGER, G., Syntax der Englischen Sprache. Dresden 1904. 
KUBE, E., Die Wortstellung in der Sachsenchronik. Jena 1886. 
LANNERT, G., An Investigation into the Lang, of Robinson 

Crusoe. Uppsala 1910. 
LATHAM, R. G., A Dictionary of the Engl. Language. London 

LINDROTH, H., Om adjektivering af Particip i svenskan. Lund 

Me KNIGHT, G., Primitive Teutonic Order of Words. Journal 

of Germ. Phil., I. 1897. 
MURRAY, J. A. H., A New English Dictionary. 
MULLNER, A., Die Stellung des Attributiven Adjektivs im Eng- 
lischen von den ersten Anfangen der englischen Sprache 

bis zur Fruh-Neuenglischen Sprach-Periode. New York 


MATZNER, E., Englische Grammatik, II: 2. Berlin 1865. 
MATZNER, E., Alt-Englische Sprachproben, I: 2. 


ONIONS, C. T., An Advanced English Syntax. London 1905. 
PAUL. H., Prinzipien der Sprachgeschichte. 
PLATTNER, Ausfuhrliche Gramm. der franzosischen Sprache IV. 
POUND, L., The Comparison of Adjectives in English in the 

XV and the XVI century. Anglistische Forschungen. 1901. 
POUTSMA, H., A Grammar of Late Modern English. Gro- 

ningen 1904. 

STOFFEL, C., Studies in English. London 1894. 
STORM, J., Englische Philologie. Leipzig 1892. 
STREITBERG, W., Gotisches Elementarbuch. Heidelberg 1906. 
SWEET, H., A New English Grammar, I and II. Oxford 1903. 
UHRSTROM, W., Studies on the Lang, of Sam. Richardson. 

Upsala 1907. 

VISING, J., Franska Spraket i England. Goteborg 1900. 
WEIL, H., De 1'ordre des mots dans les langues anciennes com- 

parees aux langues modernes. Paris 1869. 
WIDHOLM, A. E., Grammatical Notes on the Language of John 

Bunyan. Jonkoping 1877. 


(i) What was the Original Word-Order? 

According to the accepted grammatical definition the ad- i. 
jective attribute is that, property of a noun which is 
added to it without any intermedium, whereas the predi- 
cative complement is a property added to it by means of 
a verb. Looking at the matter from an historical point of 
view it is certainly true that the predicative complement in 
its present form is a younger phenomenon than the ad- 
jective attribute, as it must of course be taken for granted 
that the need of such neutral verbs as 'to be', 'to become' 
was not felt until a great deal later than the necessity of 
having words denoting things and qualities. But if we 
leave out of consideration the restriction that the predica- 
tive complement requires an auxiliary for its realisation, 
matters assume another aspect. The little child that has 
but just learnt to speak gives utterance to its opinions in 
such a garb as cake good, doll nice, long before it is 
able to form the phrases a good cake, the nice dolb '. 
And those who lived in the childhood of mankind, when 
the art of speaking first arose, must have shaped their 

1 Cf. PAUL, Principien der Sprachgeschichte, 87: Bei den er- 
sten Satzen, welche Kinder bilden, dient die blosse Aneinanderreihung 
von Wortern zum Ausdruck aller moglichen Beziehungen. (Still in: 
Ehestand Wehestand etc.) -- Cf. Lat. Terra rotunda = the earth is 



speech in a similar manner. What then does cake goocb 
mean? No doubt what people of later periods when ar- 
rived at a certain stage of development, express thus: The 
cake is good. Here we have the modern predicative com- 
plement fully developed. But we might in the same case also 
say: Here is a cake, it is good, or, if we have reached 
a still higher degree of linguistic accomplishment: < Here 
is a cake which is good. The last two sentences may, 
however, be replaced by < [Here is] a good cake. The 
cake good > of the child and of primitive man is, accor- 
dingly, exactly the same as the [a] good cake of the 
more advanced human being; and a good cake is, in its 
turn, a contraction of a cake which is good>. Hence it 
will be clear that the attributive use of the adjective 
is a later stage of development out of its predica- 
tive use; the attributive clause has served as an interme- 
diate link. 

2. But the adjective attribute must also be supposed to 
have arisen in another way. While we, in ordinary lan- 
guage, speak of <the fretting sorrow ;>, the poet is stilJ al- 
lowed to say sorrow the fretting*. The fretting' is not ne- 
cessary for the comprehension of the matter in question, 
it is simply an embellishing addition. HELLWIO (Stel- 
lung des attributiven Adjectivs im Deutschen, p. 44) makes 
mention of such expressions as < Esel, dummer>, Tropf, 
elender as still occurring in the living popular language, 
and he declares the adjective to be only < ein erklarender 
Zusatz. I should rather consider the attributes here as 
embellishing additions in a less good sense. On the other 
hand, in, say, give me the book, the green [one] the 
adjective is certainly meant as an explanation afterwards 
thought necessary. 

3. In none of these cases is the adjective organically 
and inseparably connected with the noun, and so the phras- 

es come nearer to the mode of expression of the child 
and of primitive man. It is then out of the apposition that 
the restrictive and the merely supplementary attribute has, 
to a certain extent at least, developed itself. 

From what has here been said it follows that the 4. 
adjective attribute, whether it originates from the predica- 
tive complement or from the apposition, had for these very 
reasons its place after the noun when it first came to be 
used. That this is also the word-order most in accordance 
with primitive thinking is shown by the following quota- 
tions from IDELBEROER, Die Entwicklung der kindlichen 
Sprache, and HERRLIN, Minnet: <cDamit sind auch die An- 
fange einer Syntax gegeben, die wir auch in der Verbindung 
'mea waia-waiar 1 , dunkler Pelz (mea =j Katze, Pelz) finden, 
wobei das Adjektiv dem Substantiv folgt (Idelberger, p. 
5Q. He is speaking of a girl four and a half years old.), 
... sein Zahlwort beifugt und zwar gewohnlich nachfolgen 
la'sst; z. B. eine Kuh heisst kurzweg 'muh', zwei oder 
mehrere Kiihe bezeichnet er als 'muh wei' (ib., p. 7Q), 
Jag har ett helt liv i huvudet mitt, Jag har hela den Th:ska 
musiken i huvudet mitt, . . . Jag ar trygg och lugn for tal- 
formagan min (Herrlin, p. 176. Quoted by H. from A. 
PETREN, En analys av cirka 800 fall av kronisk sinnessjuk- 
dom. It is a patient who has written down the above sentences.). 
The following quotation is also interesting: Den minsta 
lilla tvaaringen upplat sin nabb: Vatten . . . my eke . . . 
tattvatten . . . mycke (much [washing-]water) (S. Siwertz, Sv. 
Dagbl. 24 Dec. 1910) ! . 

Postposition is, as is well known, in most cases the 5. 
rule in Latin and the modern Romance languages. Post- 
position is frequent in Slavonic, old and modern, in Greek, 

1 The points are the author's, not mine! 


and in Sanscrit l . As for the Teutonic dialects, inverted 
word-order is .often met with in Gothic even where the 
original text has the normal arrangement -. Postposition 
is not unknown to Old High German 3 , Old Norse, and 
Old Swedish, remnants of which are Germ, mein Vater 
selig, Vater unser, Swed. bror min, and the like. In Anglo- 
Saxon, indefinite quantitative adjectives particularly and also 
ordinary adjectives, especially in the vocative case, are not 
seldom placed after the substantive. This is also the case 
in the poetry of most nations, and does not poetry in every 
respect exhibit many more archaisms than prose? 

6. Lastly, it is not always easy to know what is an at- 
tribute and what is a predicative complement in modern 
advertising or telegraphic style, or curtailed language in 
general. Where the Englishman says Terms moderate , 
we in Sweden say Moderata priser. The English phrase 
is undoubtedly short for Our terms are moderate*, but the 
adjective will surely be taken by many for an attribute, as 
is proved by the fact that the whole phrase can be in- 
serted in a real sentence (cf. Swed. Valuta bekommen for- 
sakrades, Svenska Dagbl. 27 July 1910). - What is 'critical' 
in Position critical, come home at once? In all proba- 
bility it is meant as a predicative complement, but I do 
not see any real obstacle to its being looked upon as an 

7. Such foot-notes as Words deleted, Words uncertain 
(Coventry Leet Book, Editor) may signify either These 
words are deleted, uncertain (pred.) or < Words that are 
deleted, uncertain (attrib.). Of course it comes to the 
same thing whether we take it to mean the one or the 

1 HELLWIG, Stellung des attrib. Adj. im Deutschen; DELBRUCK, 
Vergl. Syntax; Brugmanns Grundriss. 


other, but the example shows the near relation between 
the attribute and the predicative complement. - - Cf. also: 
Kept in heat intense - natives all fainted (Pickwick 

Now this question arises: Why has the original word- 8. 
order, i. e. postposition, been given up in our Teutonic 
languages? SWEET says, New Engl. Gram. I, p. 194, where 
he is treating of the general arrangement of the different 
parts of speech: The natural logical word-order is to put 
the subject first and the adjunct-word after it. - 
But there are other principles of word-order, which some- 
times contradict this purely logical order. Emphatic word- 
order consists in putting first that word which is most pro- 
minent in the speaker's mind. Thus in such a sentence as 
that man is a good man, it is evident that good is a more im- 
portant word than the accompanying man . . . Hence many 
languages which generally put an assumptive adjective after 
its noun often put the adjective first when it is emphatic . 
- Such emphasizing of an adjective we may easily ima- 
gine to have taken place long before any adjective attri- 
bute in its present form was in hand. Also the 
predicative complement is apt to be put before the noun. In- 
stead of saying < cake good the speaker may, if the idea 
'a cake' plays an inferior role, say: good cake*, meaning 
it is good, this cake. In far-away times certainly only 
such qualities as were essential and of importance used 
to be predicated of a thing. Primitive man was surely 
anything but a verbose creature. It may then have hap- 
pened frequently enough that the word denoting the qua- 
lity was a more important part of the sentence than the 
noun itself; it may have gone so far that the emphatic 
order became the more usual one in this case, and 
there we have our modern arrangement complete and ready. 

But when the order of adj. noun had come to 9. 

be the most frequent one, or perhaps the one nearly always 
employed, it could no more produce the impression of 
emphasis. To make the word-order emphatic one had to 
transgress the rule; it proved necessary to return to the 
original arrangement of the words, and thus noun -j- adj. 
became the emphatic order. This shifting must have been 
an accomplished fact already in the parent language from 
which the several Indo-European dialects have branched out. 
10. The further development in this respect shows a dif- 

ferent character according to the natural disposition of the 
respective tribes. People of a lively temperament use em- 
phasis oftener than the more phlegmatic. This may be 
the reason why the Greeks and Romans and their descend- 
ants are more fond of inverted word-order than Teutons 
and Sclavonians. - Emphasis has determined the word- 
order in many English phrases consisting of a substantive 
and an adjective when the adjective is modified by an 
adverb ( 124-130). 

(ii) Contamination. 

11. I have noted down some interesting instances from 

Modern Swedish ?n which an attributive adjective has come to 
be placed after its noun, through contamination: Dei f inns 
saker hardare (There are harder things), Det finns fjorton kort 
mindre \i Vdrde} (There are fourteen smaller cards), Det finns inte 
tvd mdnniskor lika (There are no two persons alike 1 ). The 

sentences quoted are evidently the result of the mixing up 
of two separate constructions: Det finns hardare saker 
(There are harder things) and [Somliga] saker tiro hardare 

(Some things are harder), Det finns fjorton mindre kort (There 
are fourteen smaller cards) and Fjorton kort dro mindre (Fourteen 
cards are lower in value), Det finns inte tva lika\-dana] mdn- 

1 Swed. lika- is an adjective; Engl. alike is an adverb! 

niskor (There are no two congruent persons) and Illte tva mtin- 
niskor tiro Ilka (No two persons are alike). The confusion of 
construction has been made the easier by the fact that 
< det finns> is used as an alternative for dar ar. 

There are quite similar phenomena in English, where 
an adjective may sometimes be both an attribute and a 
predicate, although in many cases it must certainly be the 

Examples: per is an ypocrisye voul an anopre fole 
(foolish) and J)e j)ridde sotil (Ayenbit, 1340). If there be 
any man faultless, bring him forth into public view (The 
Idler). Connected with this there is a hypothesis now cur- 
rent (Carlyle, Essay on Scott). There is no act more bind- 
ing than that which makes the child the property of the 
father (Fl. Marryat, Her World). / have no man likeminded, 
who will naturally care for your state (Auth. Vers., Phil. 
II: 20). It was difficult to conceive a scene more silent and 
more desolate (Venetia). He could conceive no sympathy 
deeper or more delightful (ibid.). Sometimes in the same 
couplet we find one line Iambic and the other trochaic 
(Abbott, A Shakespearian Grammar). 

The participle especially is often found in such an 12. 
ambiguous position. Instances of this kind may have con- 
tributed to smoothing the way to the possibility of putting 
the adjective after its head-word in other cases as well. 

Also the following quotations from living Swedish are of great 
interest: Medlidande renodladt, det vill saga i och for sig, ar blott ett 
och nagonting ytterst fatalt (Strix, 24 Aug. 1910). Redan i l:sta tablan 
marktes ett nytt arrangement, korens placering synlig, varigenom ef- 
fekten .... vasentligt forhojdes (Sv. Dagbl. 19 Sept. 1910). They show 
how easily such transpositions are able to take place when special 
qualifications are present. 

(iii) The Adverb in an Attributive Function. 

13. Before I pass to the real subject of this treatise I 

should like to say a few words on the adverb in an attrib- 
utive function. Any fundamental difference between an 
adjective attribute and an adverbial attribute does not exist, 
so far as I can see. The present pronunciation and < The 
pronunciation nowadays) both confer the same ideas; <no 
other man and no man else both mean the same thing. 
And cannot the adverbs almost be said to be adjectives in 
instances like the following: 

Set your affection on things above, not on things on 
the earth (Auth. Vers., Coloss. 3: 2). My heart alive (Oliver 
Twist). A man apart (Two Cities). A boon apart (Pudd'n- 
head). A back street near (Paul Kelver). My day out (Punch). 

And what prevents us from regarding 'here' and 
'there 1 in the man here, the house there as adjectival pro- 
nouns just as well as 'this' and 'that'? 

The only real difference lies in the word-order. If 
the attributive word stands before the noun we speak of 
it as an adjective, if it stands after the noun we say that 
it is an adverb. Now there is a marked tendency, however, 
towards putting also an attributive adverb before the sub- 
stantive. In his Historical Outlines of English Syntax (pp. 
30, 31) KELLNER says on this matter: <The use of an adverb 
instead of an adjective ] may be traced back to Middle 
English, but then the adverb always follows the noun. 
But the adverb preceding the noun is of recent date and 
probably due to the influence of Greek . It seems to me 
unnecessary to resort to Greek influence to account for 
this phenomenon. In English as well as in several other 
modern languages it is by no means unusual to find the 
adverb performing the function of a predicate. What won- 

1 Of course he means as an adjective*. 

der then if it encroaches on the other territory of the adjec- 
tive as well, and places itself before the noun by way of 
an adjective attribute? The less wonder as the difference 
in meaning between an adjective and an adverb could 
often be reduced to a minimum. Adverbs that admit of 
being put before the substantive are for instance: 'then', 
'hither', 'above', 'whilom', 'far-away' (That far-away time; 
Lady Audley), 'far-off (The far-off snow peaks; Merriman, 
The Mule. A far-off time; Mill on the Floss). 'Yonder' 
is used as an adjectival pronoun in < yonder man and 
the like. 

That an adjective attribute is apt to be transformed 
into an adverbial one is exemplified by the expression all 
day long>, all his life long, as compared with They f aught e 
alle the longe day, in Malory's Morte Darthur (1470). 

In at least one instance the position of the adverbial 
attribute has certainly influenced that of the adjective attri- 
bute (see 137); in other cases such influence is not im- 

(iiii) Phrases used as Attributes. 

It is a well-known fact that in English even whole 14. 
phrases and sentences are sometimes suffered to stand be- 
fore a noun by way of an adjective attribute, e. g. A little 
man with a puffy Say-nothing-to-me-or-I'll-contradict-you 
sort of countenance (Dickens 1 ). But this is nothing but 
an extremely complicated instance of the English freedom 
in word-coining. The whole phrase is treated as one word, 
a rather curious sort of an adjective. Matters of this kind 
do not, therefore, belong to the subject I have to examine. 

1 JESPKRSEN, Growth and Structure, p. 15. 

Chapter I. 

The Past Participle. 

15. In dealing with the past participle here, careful dis- 
tinction must be made between three alternatives: 1) The 
participle may have turned into a real conventional 
adjective, 2) It may be used as a[quasi-]adjective 
for the occasion only, 3) It may, although used 
attributively, retain the whole of its verbal force. 

16. A. If the participle is a real adjective it is more 
convenient for our purpose to postpone its treatment until 
later (see Ch. III). But it might not be out of place here 
to give some instances of this alternative. A real adjec- 
tive, no longer a verb, is Swed. < < given in / ett givet ogon- 
blick, in contradistinction to den givna tillatelsen where 
'givna' implies an acting person. Real adjectives in the 
form of participles are also found in the following English 

The secretaries and employed men ( servants) of am- 
bassadors (Bacon). The received (= traditionary) revelation 
of the divine will (Venetia). The plural inverts, in most 
cases, the accepted (---- usual) signification of the singular 
(F. Hall, Modern English). A word which does not re- 
semble the name of any known drug(Ver\iy, Macbeth; Notes). 

All these participles* denote some quality of the noun 
and on that score differ from the verbal participle. 


B. Qualities are also expressed by the participles in 17. 
the following examples, but here their signification is only 

an occasional one: 

A hasty fortune maketh an enterpriser and remover, 
but the exercised (in opposition to 'hasty'!) fortune maketh 
the able man (Bacon, Of Fortune). I undertook to com- 
pose his epitaph, which, however, for an alleged (in oppo- 
sition to 'real'!) defect of Latinity . . . still remains unengraven 
(Sartor Resartus). My supposed voluptiousness in the use 
of opium (Opium-eater). When a preposition is used in 
this way we call it a detached preposition. Detached pre- 
positions are liable to be disassociated from their noun- 
words .- ... as in he was thought of >, where the detached 
(no verb!) preposition is no longer able to govern the pro- 
noun in the objective case (Sweet, New Engh Gram.). 
Derivation, being a process of forming new words, neces- 
sarily alters the meaning of the derived word (ibid.). If the 
whole group shows a marked falling tendency the inserted 
words follow it (ibid.). 

C. The participle is a real verb. 

1. In such a sentence as: Though there be no blow 18. 
given, or: // there be no fuel prepared (both from Bacon), the 
participles have, of course, no attributive function. Nor 

is this the case in: / have a father killed, a mother stained, 
nor in: He found no thing written, nor, probably, in this 
quotation either: pu nevre sculdest finden man in tune 
sittende ne land tiled (Saxon Chronicle). - - Ic hcebbe pone 
fisc gefangenne only shows the origin of the tense called 
perf. indicative. 

2. In the following instances the participles are to 19. 
be regarded as posterior explanatory additions of 
rather an adverbial character: 


Monsieur de Gabelle was the Postmaster, and some other 
taxing functionary united ( in one ! ; Two Cities). All 
these impressions united (= together) overcame him (Ve- 
netia). Some men kneeled down, made scoops of their 
two hands joined, and sipped (Two Cities). A tone of 
humour and pathos mixed (The Christian). The proscenium 
was surmounted by the German and English flags inter- 
twined (ibid.). Virtue personified. She summed him up as 
a buccaneer modernized (God in the Car). When two or 
three ragged peasants emerged from the crowd to take a 
hurried peep at Monsieur the Marquis petrified, a skinny 
finger would not have pointed to it for a minute, before 
they all started away (Two Cities). 

20. 3. Although we say in Swedish efter gjorda under- 

sokningar, efter skedd omandring, the participles can 
in no way be said to be attributes in such English expres- 
sions as the following: 

Incontynent after grace saide (Early Engl. Meals and 
Manners). After the second course served (ib.). After salut- 
ation made, they sat down (Pilgr. Progr.). After consulta- 
tion had, they resolved to give an answer (Bunyan, Holy 
War). Upon invasion offered (Bacon). 

These phrases are simply contractions of < after grace 
having been said etc., upon invasion having been offered;*, 
respectively. Similarly: Be-cause of divers condiciones 
broken (Coventry Leet Book; 1426). Dick began to whim- 
per feebly, for childish vanity hurt (Light that failed). 
21. 4. Sometimes a past participle stands in the place 

of a verbal noun: Already he had been suffering from 
the vexation of a letter delayed (= the delaying of a letter; 
Opium-eater). - This is accounted for in this way: <a letter 

1 But: The combined (= collective; adj.) ingenuity of Messrs. 
Blathers and Duff (Oliver Twist). 


delayed is an abbreviation of <a letter having been delayed , 
and this is the same as < [the fact] that a letter had been 
delayed , which again might be replaced by <the delaying 
of a letter . 

Further instances: They looked as they had heard of 
a world ransomed or one destroyed (Winter's Tale, V: 2). 
Integrity used doth the one; but integrity professed, and 
with a manifest detestation of bribery, doth the other (Ba- 
con, Of Boldness). Cruel massacres followed by cruel 
retribution, provinces wasted, convents plundered, and cities 
rased to the ground, make up the greater part of the his- 
tory of those evil days (Macaulay, History). The past has 
been a dreary waste with you, of youthful energies misspent, 
and such priceless treasures lavished as the Creator be- 
stows but once (Twist). With the sense of a danger 

escaped (Mill on the Floss). Such a feeling was a 

falseness to our true selves, born of some convention, or of 
a scruple overstrained, or of a fear not warranted (King's 
Mirror). Plaudits renewed proved that their fame had not 
slumbered (Evan Harrington). His shrugs at the aspirates 
transposed and the pronunciation prevalent (ib.). You 
shall turn into a cross-road rather suggests the idea of 
a case put, an hypothesis made (Molloy, Shall and Will). 

5. In the following examples the participles represent 22. 
conditional clauses: 

What is more heavy than evil fame deserved (Bacon, 
Of Death). Penal laws pressed are a shower of snares 
upon the people (Bacon, Of Judicature). Good counsel 
rejected returns to enrich the giver's bosom (Wakefield). 
An affront handsomely acknowledged becomes an obligation 
(Sheridan, Rivals). Of all things in the Jungle the wild 
elephant enraged is the most wantonly destructive (Second 
Jungle Book). Trouble postponed has to be met with 
accrued interest (Lorimer, Gorgon Graham). 


23. 6. All the above quotations tend to evince that the 
natural position of the verbal participle is that after the 
noun. Therefore, when the Englishman says, This . . . . 
reflects an intimacy with the material handled which is 
unmistakable *, the word-order ought not to make such 
a strange impression on Swedish or German ears as it 
really does. That fact alone that 'handled' is a contraction 
for which is handled is no sufficient reason for the in- 
verted word-order, for any adjective attribute may be 
resolved into an attributive clause, either an indis- 
pensable relative clause, as is the case when the attribute 
implies a restriction, or a parenthetical clause, as is the 
case when the attribute is only a characteristic addition 
or an apposition. 'Handled' as in the above sentence is 
certainly used attributively, but it is not strictly speaking 
an adjective attribute, because 'handled' is not an adjective, 
as it does not denote any quality in the noun. A more 
suitable term would be participle attribute. It is then 
rather a verbal part of the sentence, and so it seems 
natural that its given place should be after the word to 
which it belongs. 

24. But how is it then to be explained that this kind of 
attribute occupies the same position in Swedish and Ger- 
man as the ordinary adjective attribute, whereas the noun 
comes first in English? Let us look into the matter. - 
The grammatical construction in question evidently derives 
its origin from Latin, and has been further developed in 
French. Now it is well known with what ease English 
swallows foreign elements raw - as JESPERSEN has it - 
without any transforming preparation. A mediaeval Eng- 
lish translator of a French phrase containing a noun followed 
by a past participle had no need then, in many cases, 

G. FriiuKKN, Moderna Sprak, VI, 1909. 


to change the original expression otherwise than by re- 
placing the French participle ending by that of his own 
language. The words themselves were transported without 
further alteration, and any re-arrangement of them was not 
thought necessary. - If, however, the Romance participle 
must needs be exchanged for an Anglo-Saxon one, the 
French word-order was nevertheless kept, as one was in 
no wise unfamiliar with such inversions in other cases as 
well (cf. below). 

It stands to reason that it was especially in legal 25. 
style, where one was as anxious as possible to imitate the 
Gallic spirit, that the construction noun -f- past part, instead 
of the old manner of writing a full clause came into favour. 
And it is still in such language, as well as in official se- 
rious style in general, that this mode of expression most 
occurs. In free-and-easy language, above all in spoken 
English, it would be quite out of place. On this account, 
partly by reason of the well-known conservatism of the 
British people, the English language up to the present 
day has the same order between noun and participle in 
this case as it had when the construction in question was 
first introduced '. This statement does not, however, hold 
good without some restrictions, as will appear later on. 
If the participle allows of being interpreted as in some 
measure adjectival it is usually placed before the substan- 
tive in Present English. Neither would it perhaps be im- 
possible to point out a slight tendency towards using the 
same word-order as in other Teutonic languages, even 
where the import of the participle is decidedly verbal. 

POUTSMA says in his Grammar of Late Modern Eng- 26. 
lish (p. 341): Participles are placed before the noun they 

1 In Swedish and German, on the other hand, where one was 
not used to any kind of postpositive attribute, the participle was 
early placed before the noun. 


modify, when the actions or states they express are not 
associated with any limitation of time. This is their reg- 
ular place also, when their meaning is that of ordinary 
adjectives, i. e. when they have stripped off their verbal 
character and have come to denote permanent attributes. 
But when the actions or states they express are as distinctly 
connected in our thoughts with the limitation of time as in 
the case of finite verbs, they are placed after the nouns 
they modify, and felt as undeveloped clauses*. The being 
felt as undeveloped clauses is, however, no characteristic 
applicable to verbal participles only; as such the Englishman 
seems to apprehend also ordinary postpositive attributes, 
as is shown by the following excerpt: / made a couple of 
discoveries -quite interesting l (with an unfortunate suppres- 
sion of the relative and verb)> (C. S. Fearenside, Moderna 
Sprak, April 1910, p. 43). 

27. Let us more closely examine POUTSMA'S rule. What 
he means to say is evidently this, that inverted word-order 
can only be thought of with regard to that which is re- 
presented as something done or taking place on a given 
occasion. What shall we then say to the following example 
cited by POUTSMA in this same connection: It is a truth 
universally acknowledged? That a truth is universally ac- 
knowledged cannot well be a fact limited to a certain mo- 
ment! And how does the word-order in the following 
quotation tally with POUTSMA'S rule: Pecock defends images 
on the score of the ease with which they recall the stories 
of the saints represented (Skeat, Specimens of Engl. Lit.)? 
To be sure the verbal act here predicated implies nothing 

28. We cannot then feel satisfied with the rule that the 
esteemed grammarian gives us, but must try to find some 

1 A Swedish schoolboy's rendering of jag . . . hade lyckan att 
gora ett par ratt intressanta fynd. 


more reliable criterion of what we are to regard as a real 
verbal participle, and what as a more or less adjectival 
participle. But first, let us hasten to dismiss for the 
moment those cases where the participle is decidedly ad- 
jectival, as it obviously is in the following passages: 

It seemeth that death hath no whit discharged the 
former of his word given, and that the second, without dying, 
was quit of it (Florio). A goodly leads upon the top railed 
with statues interposed (Bacon, Of Building. Cf. the inde- 
pendent < with statues interposed !). His stock consisted 
of a wooden stool, made out of a broken-backed chair cut 
down (Two Cities; cf. 120). A conversation in which I 
was indirectly a party concerned (Opium-eater. < A party 
concerned has passed into a standing expression, where 
concerned is put after the noun although it has now lost its 
verbal character. Cf. It might be thrown out as a pertinent 
question for parties concerned; Sartor Res.). 

On the other hand, in many cases no such transition 29. 
from one class to another can be traced, yet the participle 
may stand before the noun, as in: The young man seated 
himself in the indicated seat at the bottom of the bed 
(Lady Audley). 

What, then, is the difference between this and the afore- 
mentioned This . . . reflects an intimacy with the material 
handled which is unmistakable*? The great difference is 
this: in the latter case one has a definite acting person 
(operative force) in view, whereas in the former case one 
does not think of any such. The presence in one's 
thoughts of a certain agent is then the criterion to 
be kept in mind. This means in other words that the 
past participle can be replaced by an active attributive 
clause (thus, in the above instance: the material which the 
author handles). Only in that case is the past participle 
regularly placed after the noun in Recent English. 



30. In Anglo-Saxon we find: Se gecyrreda sceada, pas 

ongunnenan ding (Aelfric's Homilies l ), Fela para gecorenra 
engla (Sept. 2 ). But in these passages the participles are 
undoubtedly to be looked upon as adjectives, just as 
'acenned' is in: Comon .... to Herode, and hine axodon be 
pam acennedan elide (Aelfric's Horn., Nativity of the Inno- 
cents; Anglo-Sax. Reader. Cf. new-born , adj.!). 

31. The present construction did not arise, as has been 
mentioned already, until the French tongue began to gain 
influence on British soil, and probably has its root in the 
legal style. 

Examples: Be accion atte (at the) suyt of the partle 
greved (Coventry Leet Book, 1480). To se the partle greved 
have ryght (ib.). Som of the personez endited remayg- 
nen in prison (Cov. L. B., 1481). Be confession of the 
partie endited (Cov. L. B., 1493). 

32. From here it soon spread wider and wider; yet in 
every one af the following quotations from older and more 
recent periods a distinct agent looms behind: 

Aftirwarde whan pou removes ])e emplastre and hap 
mundified pe filpe y-fonden (= which thou hast found), If 

pou fynde pe bone of it blak it behove]) ... be 

drawen out (Fistula in Ano, ab. 1400). pe oile insetted 
went out by al pe holes (ib.). For to garse pe place 
y-smyten and for to draw out blode per-of (ib.). pus men 
gope surely in pe way begonnen (De Imit. Christi, 1440). 
He pat desirip to kepe pe grace of god, lete him be kin- 
der for pe grace goven, and pacient whan it is taken awey 
(ib.). To thentente tencourage them by the redyng .... 
of the holy myracles shewyd that every man in his partye 
endevoyre theym (Godfrey of Bologne, 1481 ; Prologue). 

1 Cited by MULLNER, Stellung des attributiven Adjektivs im 
Englischen, pp. 26, 27. 

2 KOCH, Hist. Gram., pp. 65, 66. 


The goode swerde entred in to the brayne porf ended (cleave), 
and clove his hed (Blanchardyn and Eglantine, 1489). The 
thing described cannot be evill (Sidney, Apologie; 1593). 
The one is, when the matter of the point controverted is 
too small and light (Bacon, Unity in Religion). Durward 
took the road indicated (Quentin, Durward). Lockit's, the 
Greyhound , . . . was the house selected (Thackaray, Es- 
mond). To ensure accuracy in the printing of the forms 
cited (Skeat, Introd. to A Concise Etym. Diet.). The extracts 
given are too short to represent adequately the style of the 
author (Skeat, Introd. to Specimens of Engl. Lit.). A heavy 
blow that tends to smash or beat in the surface struck 
(New Engl. Diet.). The present will of the person addressed 
(Molloy, Shall and Will). When the question put is about 
a simple matter of fact (ib.). The Abroad Romic notation 
employed would be more acceptable if it were more exact 

(G. Fuhrken, Mod. Sprak, IV, 1908). A tendency to 

put the governing word after the word governed (Me Knight, 
Primitive Teut. Order; cf., however, 81). The brush used 
is a broad flat brush (Studio, Nov. 1910). 

Especially when the noun is at the same time quali- 
fied by a superlative or an equivalent word ('only', 'all', 
'any', and such like) the verbal character of the participle is 
prominent. Here postposition is all the more indispensable 
as the meaning often becomes another if the participle is 
put before the noun. Compare on the one hand: 

The first health proposed is that of the newly-married 
couple (Moren-Harvey, England och Engelsmannen). The 
chief difficulty experienced is that when . . . (D. Jones, Pronun- 
ciation of English). The most notable paintings shown were 
those belonging to the Sung dynasty (Studio, Nov. 1910). The 
earliest electric phenomenon observed (Annandale, Concise 
Engl. Diet.). Yet there are sentences whose only subject 
expressed is in the singular (Hodgson, Errors in the Use 


of English). She knew that any poison dropped would find 
good holding-ground in the heart of the Colonel's wife 
(Plain Tales). The best smoking-mixture ever made; 

and on the other hand: 

The earliest known edition (Verity, Hamlet; Introd.); 
The best made smoking-mixture; The only expressed sub- 
ject, where the superlative qualifies the attribute, not the 
substantive. Oscar Wilde even has: The only person un- 
moved was the girl herself (Dorian Gray); 'unmoved' is of 
course an adjective, but its form is that of a past participle 
(compare also below, 102). 

34. Also when the word 'one' (or 'that', pi. 'those') stands 

for a substantive the same word-order is kept up under 
the circumstances mentioned. KRUGER says in his Syntax 
( 2283) on 'one' + adj.: <Adjektiv + one klingt nach 
Umgangssprache. In der hoheren Sprache umgeht man es 
durch Wiederholung des Hauptworts oder durch one + 
Adj. Vor P. P. P. \ das nicht adjektivisch gemeint ist, ist 
letzteres durchaus notig. (Ex. The husband had been 
evidently the one first attacked). - - As far as the latter 
statement is concerned, it is of course correct. As for the 
former, however, it is indeed doubtful whether in ordinary 
Late Modern English, phrases are coined on the model of 
such as the following: 

Like one distracted (real adj. ===? 'mad' !), He stood like 
one thunderstruck; Leicester remained like one stupified 
(Kenilworth) (cf. He lay as one dead 2 )-, Certainly they are 
a proof of the converse of spirits and a secret communica- 

1 Passive past participle. 

2 Such phrases might have arisen through confusion with a 
clause with as if, and this seems all the more plausible as in older 
English both 'as' and 'like' were used in the sense of as if. Like a 
man exhausted means the same as As if he were exhausted. 


tion between those embodied (adj.!) and those unembodied 

Similar expressions with Mike', although containing a 
substantive instead of 'one', may really be met with in 
certain modern authors, but they can hardly be considered 
as anything other than mannerisms: 

He sank upon his rustic bench, like a man exhausted 
(Cardinal's Snuff-box). He swayed in his seat like a man 
bereft (J. Haslette, Arundel's Aeroplane; London Magazine, 
April 1Q10). When that moment came she was like a child 
lost and frightened (Pemberton, Doctor Xavier). Also: John 
Briggs looked as one astonied (Kingsley, Two Years Ago). 

But with a verbal participle: The one addressed, 
Those invited; There was a similar custom with which that 
mentioned may be confounded (Kriiger) *. 

Because the indefinite article mostly implies some- 35. 
thing generalizing, so that an added attribute is in that 
case more universal, the past participle in an expression 
with 'a' or 'an' is oftener to be set down as an adjective 
than as a verb. This of course also applies to an indefi- 
nite form without any article and very often to nouns pre- 
ceded by indefinite pronouns. Therefore normal word- 
order is used in: 

enne a man hap fully sorowe, whenne hym disple- 
sij) fordon synne (Wycliff, Of Confession). The commaun- 
der of a besieged place ought never to sallie forth (Florio). 
An added attribute. A given point. Meditating on the 
uncertaintie of some conceived hope (Florio). From the 
strong principle of inheritance, any selected variety will tend 
to propagate its new form (Origin of Species, Introd.). 
Man selects only for his own good; Nature only for that 

1 POUTSMA wrongly classes the attributive words in like one 
fascinated, like a man distracted among the verbal participles (Poutsma, 
Oramm., Ch. VIII, 104). 


of the being which she tends. Every selected character is 
fully exercised by her (ib., p. 76). The baron got the 
worst of some disputed question (Nickleby). The compound 
rise expresses doubt of some implied statement (Sweet, 
Primer of Spoken English). Other suggested interpretations 
are ... (Verity, Coriolanus; Notes). 

36. But that such need not always be the case is shown 
by the following quotations: 

And also other peynez forfeted be rered (Coventry 
Leet Book, 1425). As hit appearith by indentur made (Cov. 
L. B., 1430). Also y be-quethe ... for oblacions for-etyn 
(forgotten), XII d. (Early Engl. Wills, R. Yonge; 1413). I 
be-quej)e ... for tiftingys and offeringes forgete, XX d. (ib., 
H. van Sandwyk; 1430). Whether the captaine of a place 
besieged ought to sallie forth to parlie (Florio; heading). 
I doe not so much remember injuries received (ib.). Think- 
ing it harder for our mistress to devise imposition enough 
than for us to undergo any difficulty imposed 1 (Troilus 
and Cressida, III: 2). No doubt it was for services rendered 
that Betty Martin was so bribed (Vanity Fair). This . . . 
mark of ... repentance for wrong done (Esmond). 'Your 1 
is used to appropriate an object to a person addressed 
(Abbott, Shakesp. Gram.). As payment for services per- 
formed (Chatto and Windus, Slang Diet.). 'Ladylove', a lady 
or woman loved (Chambers's Etym. Diet.). In each passage 
quoted (Molloy, Shall and Will). 

37. If the substantive is qualified by a possessive or 
demonstrative pronoun an acting person is never 
thought of. The participle is then always adjectival and 
accordingly has its place before the noun: 

The unfolding of our felt wrongs (Florio). Some frac- 
tion of his allotted natural sleep (Carlyle). To lose their 

1 'Any' might, however, here have a superlative power; in that 
case compare 33. 


acquired characters (Darwin). For want of these required 
conveniences (Othello, II: 1). This added name (Jespersen 
Rhode, Lasebok). These here described phenomena. 

How antiquated sounds therefore Milton's: This whole 
Discourse proposed will be a certaine testimony (Areopa- 
gitica, 1644). 

Normal word-order is then the rule so often as no 38. 
distinct agent is borne in mind. If the participle is only 
a more or less superfluous addition, inversion should 
in particular be interdicted. Compare the following quo- 

The rebuked Israelite took his bunch of keys (Kenil- 
worth). The remodelled procession started (Two Cities). 
Amidst the cheers of the assembled throng (Pickwick). Which 
of the multitude of faces that showed themselves before 
him was the true face of the buried person, the shadows 
of the night did not indicate (Two Cities). The young 
man seated himself in the indicated seat (Lady Audley). 
A portion of the public . . . hurried towards the acquitted 
man (Times; Poutsma, p. 141). Then they . . . levered the 
released end of the track over so that it met the end of 
the newly constructed siding (G. Volk, The Train that was 
Lost; Royal Magazine, July 1910). As a matter of fact the 
drawn curtain disclosed nothing (Doyle, Adventure of Three 
Students). The few remaining auxiliary expressions all re- 
tain 'to' before the subjoined infinitive (Lloyd, Northern 
English). The subjoined examples (Hodgson). 

It is a little doubtful whether there is any such reason 
in these two: Mr. Pole took the extended volume (Venetia). 
When treating form in black-and-white, with the suggested 
interest of colour (Studio, Oct. 1910). 


Some verbs there are which by virtue of their mean- 
ing are nearly always put before the noun when used 
attributively. These are: 'desire', 'want', 'need', 'require', 
'expect', 'lose', 'remember', and similar words. Such verbs 
do not denote an action in the same sense as most tran- 
sitive verbs; they are more passsive, and no special agent 
is generally thought of, so that their past participles come 
very near ordinary adjectives: 'desired' means desirable, 
'required' means requisite, and so on. 

Examples: It schal bryng in pe desired effecte (Fistula, 
ab. 1400). It had not the desired effect (Nickleby). This 
would have had the desired effect (O. Twist). It produced 
the desired effect (ib.). Full 5 of the desired amount 
(ib.). A very fixed resolution that the desired result should 
ensue (Fullerton, Countess de Bonneval). The chief method 
for attaining the desired end (Bain, Rhetoric and Com- 
position). To Steele belongs the credit of having forged 
the needed implement (Preface to Sir Roger de Coverly, 
edited by R. G. Watkin). Fagin beat down the amount 
of the required advance from 5 to 3:4:6 (Twist). In 
the meantime, his son . . . kept the required watch (Two 
Cities). Pat's Irish eyes were watching Rose, as he lay 
with ... his fore-paws in the required attitude (Evan Har- 
rington). These were evidently the expected visitors (Denis 
Duval). To break the pressure of the expected crowd (Twist). 
As a means of identifying the expected green chariot (Nick- 
leby). When the expected swain arrived (ib.). The expected 
hour of the visitation (Verity, Hamlet; Notes; cited from 
Coleridge). Awakening thoughts of the lost girl (Opium- 
eater). Till they could catch up with the lost year (Second 
Jungle Book). The reward offered for the lost knife was 
humbug (Pudd'nhead Wilson). Poor Oliver should, for 
the contemplated expedition, be ... consigned to Mr. Wil- 
liam Sikes (Twist). An alteration in the design of the 


contemplated work (Verity, Paradise Lost; Intr.). We can 
no longer . . . weep over it, as we do over the remem- 
bered sufferings of five or ten years ago (Mill on the Floss). 
A renewal of the remembered joy (Lady Audley). Kingsland, 
the destined termination of his journey (Essays of Elia). He 
talked of projected alterations, as if he really had the power 
immediately to effect them (Venetia). The anticipated meet- 
ing excited in her mind rather curiosity the sentiment (ib.). 

But it may nevertheless happen that the verbal char- 40. 
acter of even such participles becomes more prominent; 
sometimes the verb has then a somewhat different meaning 
from the usual one. So we do find instances of post- 
position here. 

'Examples: Having a full supply of food for all the 
guests expected (Crusoe. === all the guests that I expected. 
A11 the expected guests might be mistaken for the oppo- 
site of all the unexpected guests; cf. also the only guest 
expected, the dearest guest expected, and 33). The se- 
crecy desired (= enjoined) was so far preserved (Kenil- 
worth). Who . . . inferred . . . that I must be the person 
wanted (= ordered, sent for. Opium-eater). Where no sug- 
gestion is made as to the answer expected (Molloy, Shall 
and Will). What their joint feelings would be in the event 
contemplated (ib.). Jacob brought back the salt and other 
articles required (New Forest. Other required articles* 
might stand in opposition to unrequired articles*). Just 
sufficient colour to cover the space required (Studio, Nov. 
1910). Upon the resistance ... of an atmosphere, existing 
in the state of density imagined (namely: by myself), I had, 
of course, entirely depended (Poe, Hans Pfaal). 

Especially the participle 'intended' is thus often found 41. 
postpositive: Isabell . . . had utterly been cast away, had 
she come unto the port intended, being there expected by 
her enemies (Florio). Adapting the apparatus to the object 


intended, and confidently looked forward to its successful 
application (Poe, Hans PFaal). 'That' instead of 'who v 
would clearly express the meaning intended (Onions, Syn- 
tax). He literally did, but hardly in the sense intended 
(Bartlett). In the following quotation 'intend' has not 
the same meaning as in the others; it expresses a consid- 
erably higher degree of activity and could not stand be- 
fore the noun: It is dangerous and misleading to specify 
the coins without specifying the particular issues intended 
(Swed. asyfta. C. S. Fearenside, M. S., VI, 1910). 

42. Also when the participle is 'proposed', 'promised', 
'offered', or, above all, 'appointed', the notion of an acting 
person is very often put in the background. Accordingly 
pre-position is frequent even in the definite form. 

Examples: Artificial rules, which still are compassed 
within the circle of a question, according to the proposed 
matter (Sidney, Apologie; 1595). This done, the draft of 
the proposed petition was read at length (Nickleby). New- 
man . . . gave way to the proposed arrangement (ib.). The 
benefit derived by this class of students from the proposed 
changes (D. Jones, Maitre Phon., Sept.-Oct., 1910) '. Where 
was the quiet, where the promised rest (Ess. of Elia). He 
then again pressed me to receive a letter of offered pro- 
tection from Lady Betty (Clarissa). - Also: The injured 
parties should have a right to ... (School for Scandals). - 

43. The appointed houre (Florio). Bringing home the cravats 
to the appointed hour (Elia). To the appointed time (ib.). 
Not . . . until the appointed time (Pickwick). When the 

1 POE, on the other hand, has: When they had gone, I spoke 
freely with M. Valdemar on the subject of ... the experiment pro- 
posed (Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar). And, naturally: The first 
health proposed is that of the newly-married couple (Moren-Harvey, 
Engl. och Engelsm.; cf. above, 33). 


clock struck the appointed hour (Fullerton, Bonneval). He 
persisted in travelling over the appointed course (Opium-eater). 

But in bygone days 'appointed' was usually placed 
after the noun. It is only in the course of time that it 
has lost most of its verbal force. 

Examples: And pis knyght mett pis abote at a place 
apoyntid, wij) a grete menaye . . . wi|) hym (Alph. of Tales, 
15:th cent.). At the houre apointed they came. (Three 
Kings' Sons, 1500). [Even: Every man came to his place 
appointed, and did their devoir (ib.).] At the time appointed the 
king came to Coventrie (Holinshed, Chron.). At the day 
appointed, the duke . . . (ib.). The better man should ever 
come first to the place appointed (Florio). At the houre 
appointed made the sign agreed upon (ib.). Keep times 
appointed (Bacon, Of Boldness). Look you, this is the 
place appointed (Merry Wives, III: 1). 

The same word-order is only occasionally met with 
in Modern English: 

At the day appointed he turns me at three-score years 
and ten adrift upon the earth (Ch. Reade, It is never too 44. 
late to mend. Poutsma, p. 188). 

7. The succinct style in advertisements and head- 
ings has its own phrases. They need here only be men- 
tioned cursorily, as they do not reflect the real living lan- 
guage, but one highly curtailed. The participle may be 
supposed to be an attribute or a complement of the pre- 
dicate, it does not matter which. 

Examples: Articles lost, found, stolen, or astray ed. 
Situations wanted. Reply paid. Woman murdered; Chauf- 
feur sentenced (Daily Mail). Adjectives compounded; Com- 
parative and superlative doubled (Abbott); The Critic, or A 
Tragedy Rehearsed (Sheridan). 


Chapter II. 

The Present Participle. 

45. The present participle is like the past participle. We 
must distinguish between three special alternatives: 1) The 
participle has totally lost its original verbal char- 
acter and has become an ordinary adjective; 2) It 
is used for the occasion only as a [quasi-Jadjec- 
tive; 3) It is an attribute, but retains the whole of 
its verbal force. 

46. A. In such combinations as running water, a charm- 
ing view the participles are pure adjectives, says SWEET, 
New Engl. Gram. 335. I shall not deal with those 
cases here, but reserve them for a special chapter (Ch. IV). 

47. B. Quasi-adjectives, and therefore placed before their 
nouns, are the participles in: 

The greatest living historians (cf. the greatest histo- 
rians living >, where 'living' is a verb, and: a living crea- 
ture, where living' is a pure adjective, the opposite of 
'dead'). Yet he is the levyng man that I most love (Three 
Kings' Sons, 1500). He would yield to no living creature^ 
(North, Plutarch). There is not a burning hearth or a stand- 
ing stone in all Glen-houlakin (Durward. The participles 
do not predicate any qualities, only a kind of activity, as 
when I say: There is not a hearth burning or a stone 

48. But the participle is often placed after the noun in 
this position too, on the analogy of the many cases where 
it is a real verb. 

1 It is quite natural that 'living' here cannot stand in opposition 
to 'dead'! I also think that it is read with a more fleeting accent 
than the adj. 'living'. Cf. also no (the best) creature living, where it 
is a verb; 53. 


Examples: Where is it expressid bi word or bi eny 
persoonys ensaumpling in holi scripture that men schulden 
make ale or beer (Pecock, Represser; 144Q). Here they do 
the ceremonies belonging, and make the circle (II, Henry 
VI, I: 4). Under the dread of mischief impending, a man 
is not fit for a comforting performance of the duty of 
praying to God (Crusoe). The great darkling woods with 
a cloud of rooks returning, and the plain and river (H. 
Esmond). He would dine then with the Officer Command- 
ing, and insult him (Plain Tales. The capitals indicate 
that the two words form a set phrase; so 'commanding 1 
cannot here be felt as a verb, as it is when it denotes 
something more occasional). The Officer Commanding 
could not well refuse (ib.). His openness to ridicule was 
that of a man on his legs solus, amid a company sitting, 
and his sense of the same, acute (E. Harrington). 

C. The participle is a real verb. 

1. It is obvious that the participle is not an attribute 49. 
in the following instances: 

Without any harm ensuing. He had a fire blazing. I 
beheld the people dancing. He that rides at high speed and 
kills a sparrow flying (I, Henry IV, II: 4). 

It may be the one or the other in: Aelc beorn hcefde 
on heonde ane pechene (torch) bcerninde (Fr. Koch, Hist. 
Gram.). There is no man living, whom it may lesse be- 
seeme to speake of memorie, than myself (Florio). The 
remnants of a porch which the stucco falling has left ex- 
posed (Paul Kelver). 

2. In the same manner as the past participle, the 50. 
present participle may be used in a substantival func- 
tion, though it looks like an adjective attribute. The ori- 
gin of this construction is perhaps to be found in cases 
like the following, where 'hills' can be both the accusative 
and the genitive case: What else is the awakening his 


musical instruments . . . ., his telling of the Beastes joy- 
fulness, and hills leaping, but a heavenly poesie (Sidney, 
Apologie; 15Q5). 

Further instances: Groans and convulsions, and friends 
weeping (= the weeping of friends), and the like, show death 
terrible (Bacon, Of Death). Whence you hear the sound of 
jingling spinets and women singing (Vanity Fair). The 
wonderful corner for echoes resounded with the echoes of 
footsteps coming and going, yet not a footstep was there 
(Two Cities). What a laugh she had! - just like a thrush 
singing (Dorian Gray). It sounds like a heart beating 
(Light that failed). One that represents the sound of an 
animal snarling (Verity, Rich. II; Notes). The murmur of 
water falling was restful to the ear (Xavier). For a little 
while [she] heard nothing but the sound of her own heart 
beating (ib.). 

51. 3. In all the above quotations the given place of the 
present participle is that after the noun. Such is also the 
case in the standing expression For three (four etc.) days 
running, where 'running' is rather an adverb than any- 
thing else. 

52. 4. The attributive present participle is a real verbal 
form only when it denotes an action distinctly fixed 
as to the time, not a property or an incidental circum- 
stance. Only when matters stand thus is postposition of an 
attributive present participle the rule (participle attribute). 

Here too l we have to deal with a mode of expressing 
oneself borrowed from a foreign language. It was un- 
doubtedly first used in legal style, as in: 

All the billes . . . shul-be . . . red before the coun- 
sel 1, and . . . declaryd unto the partie sueyng (Coventry 
Leet Book, 1424). And theire indenture to be sealed before 

1 As in the case of the past participle attribute. 


the Maire . . . and that he bryng in at every indenture of 
eny prentlse sealyng II s. XII d. to the Cite (Cov. Leet 
B., 1496). 

Thence it has been transferred to other solemn style 
and has there held its ground up to the present time, al- 
though inversion does not seem to be quite as indispen- 
sable in the case of a present participle as in the case of 
.a past participle, probably on account of the less frequent 
occurrence of the combination of a noun and a verbal pres- 
ent participle. 

Examples: Whan oure inwarde affeccion is muche 

corrupte, it must nedes be t>at pe torching folowing be 

.corrupte (De Imit. Christi, 1440). Before the rayne, there 

'Came fleying ouer bothe batayls a great nombre of crowes, 

for feare of the tempest commynge (Lord Berners, Battle of 

Crecy; 1523). Every man praying or prophesying, having 

his head covered, dishonoureth his head (Auth. Vers., I 

Cor. XI: 4). In order to find out the persons inhabiting 

.(Crusoe). The Priests and Priestesses attending chant a 

dirge over the bier (Sheridan, Pizarro; Stage direction). Taking 

the Parliamentary side in the troubles then commencing 

i(Henry Esmond; cf. also Q6). The ladies listening could 

not gainsay this favourable claim of universal brotherhood 

(Evan Harrington). The goal of one proposition may form 

the initial notion of the proposition following, making a 

continuous thought-chain (Me. Knight, Primitive Teutonic 

Order of Words). The solicitor prosecuting stated during 

the hearing of the case that there was more in the matter 

than appeared on the surface (Daily Mail, 2 July 1QOQ). 

Secondly, we have its use as a formal subject in which 

<;it represents an infinitive or subordinate clause following 

(Onions, Adv. Syntax). The alternative was that someone 

passing had observed the key in the door (Doyle, Adv. of 


Three Students). Old woman knitting (Studio, Nov. 1910. 
Under a picture). 

53. The present participles of such verbs as do not, as a 
rule, indicate any action, but only a state of things, are 
not put after the noun unless the latter is qualified by a 
superlative or a similar word (e. g. 'all', 'only'). In that 
case alone do these present participles denote a verbal act. 

Examples: Truste not . . . in pe wilyness of eny man 
livyng (De Im. Christi, 1441). No man living could tell 
what they said (Pilgr. Progr.) How much more unfortu- 
nate than all the women living (North, Plutarch). No man 
living is more bound to show himself thankful (ib.). Of 
the Gothic, the only monument remaining is a copy of the 
gospels (Johnson, Diet.). Kotzebue saw himself the greatest 
man going (Carlyle, Ess. on Scott). The best men living 
(Ruskin, Two Paths). The only person sleeping. The worst 
creature existing. 

The following instance is therefore an exception: The 
poor daub that Evil has painted over it, hating the sweet- 
ness underlying (P. Kelver). The same is, of course, the 
case with the following, although there does not exist any 
verb 'pend' in the living language: Miss Crawley being 
pleased at the notion of a gossip with her sister-in-law 
regarding the late Lady Crawley, the funeral arrangements 
pending, and Sir Pitt's abrupt proposal to Rebecca (Van- 
ity Fair). 

Otherwise: The sleeping girl was awakened. The liv- 
ing generation. The missing money was not found (Krtiger). 
The few remaining auxiliary expressions all retain 'to' before 
the subjoined infinitive (Lloyd, Northern English). 

54. Normal word-order is always employed when the 
participle is merely an extra addition of no great conse- 
quence, or in general weakly stressed. 

Examples: At last one of the advancing bulls stood 


still (New Forest). The resulting pe, pat, peo was at first 
used, as in O. E., both as a dem. and as a def. article 
(Sweet, New Engl. Gramm.). The resulting sound differs 
from the corresponding breathed plosive in being pronounced 
with less force (D. Jones, Pronunc. of Engl.). In such a 
sentence as <that man is a good man it is evident that 
'good' is a more important word than the accompanying 
'man' (Sweet, N. E. Gram.). In some words the e is always 
written and in such it forms a diphthong with the following 
vowel (Sweet, Anglos. Reader). Then they tore down the 
obstructing wall (G. Volk, The Train that was Lost; Royal 
Mag., July 1910). 

Chapter III. 
The Past Participle as a pure adjective. 

A. Aforesaid. Past. Born. 

Among those past participles which have changed into 
pure adjectives special interest is attached to aforesaid (and 
its equivalents), past, and born. 

1. Aforesaid etc. It is clear that 'afore-said' and 55. 
'above-mentioned' as in The cases above mentioned , The 
premises afore said were at the outset used verbally, just 
as the participle in The instances [here] quoted belongs 
to the verbal class. But they can hardly be said to be so 
now. On account of their frequency they have exactly 
like our Swedish 'ovannamnd', 'sistnamnd' - lost their ver- 
bal meaning and have grown into pure adjectives, or per- 
haps rather adjectival pronouns. Thus it has also fared 
with the simple 'said'; nobody thinks of an agent any 
more. Therefore: The muslin curtain of the said door 
would get out of order (Two Years Ago). 


56. In Anglo-Saxon we find the adjectives 'foresprecen' 

and 'foresaed', and they are placed before the noun: Ond 
Jiy ylcan gere worhte se foresprecena here geweorc be Lygan 
(Saxon Chronicle). Se foresprecena hungur (Fr. Koch, 
Hist. Gram.). Se foresceda halga (ib.). Seo forescede boc (ib.). 

They were pure adjectives coined after the pattern of 
Lat. predictus; for in Anglo-Saxon there was no verbal 
attribute. But in Middle English, when that novelty was 
brought in by the French, the new (or resuscitated) words l 
'before-said', 'afore-said', etc. were certainly first felt as equiv- 
alent to active attributive clauses, and so they were placed 
after the noun (cf. also Q4). Soon, however, they got 
weakened into adjectives and could stand before the sub- 
stantive. Yet in. the majority of cases they kept their old 
place, for they were mostly, or nearly exclusively, used in 
legal style 2 , and this style was half French. And, as 
such language is always ultra-conservative, the same word- 
order is there still retained. 

Examples: pe landys beforenemnyt (Schott. Schied- 
spruch, 1385; Kluge, Mittelengl. Leseb.). pe cause bef ore- 
say de (ib.). Thise wronges biforesaide (Lond. Urk., 1386; 
Kluge). I Alice West, lady of Hynton Marcel befornemed 
(Early Engl. Wills, Alice West; 13Q5). Thomas my sone 
forseyd (ib.). With alle . . . tapites that longeth to my chap- 
ell forsayd (ib.). For to have the governance of the II 
nyghtes beforseid (Coventry Leet Book, 1421). John Well- 
ford and his felows above-namyd (ib.). In the mater afore- 
named (Cov. Leet B., 1446). All thes peynyes abovesaid be 
reryd to the use of the comyn profet (ib.). ]3ei schuld 
have J)e governaunce of all pis puple forseyd (Capgrave, St. 

1 The A.-S. words died away; in later A.-S. they were not used, 
since what was then written was almost exclusively poetry. 

2 I have there even found this curious passage: Forfatur of the 
said tymbur abovesaid (Coventry Leet Book, 1421). 


Gilbert; 1451). The Alderman of the seid Glide shalbe at 
Seynt Katrynis Chapell aforesaid (Ordinances of the Gild 
of St. Katherine, Stamford, 14Q4; E. Toulmin Smith, Engl. 
Gilds). And also it is ordeynede yat alle . . . shul comen . . . 
to ye Chirche forsayde ... up ye peyn forseyde (Gild of 
St. Botulph., ib.). That they shal pay VI d. in forme above- 
seid (Ordin. of Worcester; ib.). 

Thus also in similar learned style: Huervore pise 57. 
zeve pinges tovore yzed bye}) ycleped blyssinges (Ayenb. 
of Inw., 1340). WiJ) pe oyntment of dyvylyn aforeseid and 
a elope wette in water (Fistula in Ano, ab. 1400). In the 
seconde course for the metes before sayd ye shall take for 
your sauces: wyne, ale, vynegre and poudre. Araye him 
in the maner aforesayd (Boke of Kervynge, 1413; F. J. 
Furnivall, Early Engl. Meals and Manners). Our righte 
heritage beforeseyd (Maundeville; Kluge, Mittelengl. Leseb.). 

In time, however, these words came to be used in 58. 
literary language as well, and mostly without any changing 
of the accustomed word-order. Even in Late Modern Eng- 
lish inversion is often met with, yet the result is mostly 
an impression of archaism or humour. 

Examples: Alle the contreyes and lies abovesaid (Maun- 
deville, Voiage and Travaille, 1366; N. E. D.). Thies thre 
reaumes aforeselde (Three Kings' Sons, 1500). Everich of 
the kynges aforesaid (ib.). Making his residence at Glas- 
gow for the cans afoirtold (Hist, of James VI, 1582; N. 
E. D.). By that command to Peter, and by this to all 
Ministers abovecited (Milton, Consid. Hirelings, 1653; N. 
E. D.). For the reasons aforegiven (Richardson, Pamela; N. 
E. D.). Nor is it sufficient, that a man who sets up for 
a Judge in Criticism should have perused the Authors 
above-mentioned (Addison, Spect., Febr. 2, 1712). Upon 
this my friend with his usual cheerfulness related the par- 
ticulars above-mentioned (Roger de Coverly). He then ran 


away with her over the field to the rivulet above-mentioned 
(Fielding, Tom Jones). Owing to the distemper above-men- 
tioned (ib.). By some years' daily practice of riding to 
and fro in the stage aforesaid (Elia). The world aforesaid 
(ib.). The six small boys aforesaid cheered prodigiously 
(Pickwick). The young lady aforesaid (ib.). The principal 
magistrate aforesaid (ib.). Forthwith appearing before the 
coffee-room blinds aforesaid (ib.). The other half of the 
roll of flannel aforesaid (ib.). To attract the notice of the 
gentleman aforesaid (Twist) i . One of Dick Boyce's first 
acts .... had been to send a contribution to the funds of 
the League aforesaid (Marcella). Since the year 1882 above^ 
mentioned (Skeat, Introd. to A Concise Etym. Diet.). 

In the following two quotations 'above' -f- 'mentioned' seems 
to be really verbal: The man above mentioned (New Forest). The 
valuables above mentioned (Merriman, In a crooked Way). 

59. When the substantive is a pro per noun postposition 
may still be said to be the rule, probably because the ad- 
jectives are then appositional addenda, rather than real at- 

Examples: When young Lord Egham, before mentioned, 
got the erysipelas (Thackaray, Philip). Who . . . accompa- 
nied him to his lawyer, Mr. Bond, before mentioned (ib.). In 
default of which issue the ranks and dignities were to pass 
to Francis aforesaid (H. Esmond). Punch, in the hands of 
George Powell afore-mentioned, had set himself up as a 
censor of manners (Roger de Coverly, Notes; R. G. Watkin). 

60. As will have been noticed, inverted word-order also 
occurs very often after a possessive or demonstrative pro- 
noun 2 in older English. I have found a few instances of 
postposition after a poss. pron. in 18:th century English, 
but none in Present English: 

1 Otherwise DICKENS mostly places this word before the noun, 
most probably always when he is earnest. 

2 Compare 37. 


In open war with his Majesty aforesaid (Gulliver). 
As I observed in my letters above-mentioned (Richardson, 
Clarissa). One word more from my noble and venerable 
lord aforesaid (Scott, Qu. Durward). 

After a dem. pronoun I have not met with any in- 
stance of postposition in Modern English. 

I subjoin some examples of pre-position 1 in the ear- 61. 
lier idiom: The frontels of the for say d auter (Early Engl. 
Wills, Alice West; 13Q5). Summe of the bifore seid men 
(Pecock, Represser). The afore-rehersede wurthy-men (Cov- 
entry Leet Book, 1455). Our aforesaid King (Florio). As 
in the afore-named dialogue is apparent (Sidney, Apologie; 
15Q5). The afore-mentioned battle (Pilgr. Prog.). The above- 
mentioned particulars (Addison, Spect., Febr. 2, 1712). The 
before-mentioned opinions (T. Jones). 

Darwin treats above specified as an adjective in: 62. 
The above-specified breeds, The above-specified marks (Origin 
of Species). 

Otherwise, when the collocations have not been so 
frequently used as to have grown into adjectives: The 
awful locality last named (Twist). The monosyllable just re- 
corded (ib.). The three little boys before noticed (Nickleby). 
A handkerchief before noticed (Pickwick). 

This is, of course, the order also when the adverb 
follows the participle: The charter cited above (Saxon Chron.; 
Earle and Plummer, Notes). And, for reasons easily 
understood: In the manner as above mentioned (Crusoe). 

2. Past. The participle 'past' has come to be used 63. 
not only as an adjective, but also as an adverb and a pre- 
position. When it was a real verbal participle, it was natural 

1 Also in Anglo-French this word-order occurs: Les susditz 
Eveqe et countte, Nostre dit counsaill (Cov. Leet Book; letter from 
Henry VI). Whether this order was the usual one, I do not know. 


to let it follow the substantive. Hence its use as a pre- 
position developed itself (cf. 'ago'): 

As his predecessours many yeres past have hen (Cov. 
Leet Book, 1480). He had nearly lost the use of his legs 
for a few years past (Irving, Sketchbook). In consequence 
of having worn the regimentals for six weeks past (O. Twist). 
For years past English sailors had been exploring the 
universe (Verity, Tempest; Introd.). The robbers are ex- 
pert diamond-thieves who have been following Mr. Gold- 
smith for days past, watching their opportunity (Daily Mail, 
July 3, 1909). 

In the following quotation one does not quite know whether 
'past' is an adjective or a preposition, which shows how easily the 
transition is apt to take place: Dick was in the Park, walking round 
and round a tree that he had chosen as his confidante for many Sun- 
days past (Kipling, Light that failed). 

64. 'Past' was often associated with Mast' and then nat- 
urally placed after its noun (cf. 94). 

Examples: The X day of December last past (Cov. 
Leet B., 1430). In the tyme off John Michell last past (ib., 
1439). By Michelmasse day last passed (ib., 1464). The 
XI/II day of Jule last passed (ib.). The even last past, had 
[he] spoken wyth hym (Blanch, and Egl., 1489). I have 
not been out of the saddle for six days last past (Rog. de 
Coverly). Even the Cock-lane ghost had been laid only a 
round dozen of years after rapping out its messages, as 
the spirits of this very year last past rapped out theirs 
(Two Cities). 

65. Hence its rather adverbial use in connection with a 
dem. pron. in expressions of time: 

Pontanus and other recount the like metamorphosies 
to have hapned in Italy these ages past (Florio). You don't 
know what I have suffered within these few weeks past 
(Clarissa H.). He has scarce done an earthly thing for 
this month past (Wakefield). I have read it in his eye for 


this hour past (Durward). These few months past . . . have 
proved that you and Humphrey can .... (New Forest). 

On the analogy of such phrases, 'past' was always 66. 
put behind in the adverbial expression in time(s) past. 
Still it may be possible that this is partly -due to the near 
resemblance to the corresponding French expression. 

Examples: Ordenaunce .... made in tyme past (Cov. 
Leet B., 1440). In tymes past men were ful of pytie and 
compassion (Hugh Latimer, Sermon on the Ploughers; 
1549). I my-selfe know none so ill as my-selfe, who in 
times past have bene . . . (Euphues, 1579). He which per- 
secuted us in times past (Auth. Vers., Gal. I: 23; 1611). 
Though they in time past had offered great affronts to his 
person (Pilgr. Progr.). His insolence in times past to them 
. . . he'd got to look to (Mill on the Floss). 

Also in days past : Oure progenitours in dayes past (Cov. 
Leet B., 1474). 

By further analogy we often find adj. 'past' after its 67. 
head-word in other cases as well: 

J)ere shal be no remembraunce of pe toys passed (De 
Imit. Christi, 1440). In recompense of their service past 
(North, Plutarch). In regard of our deliverance past, and 
our dangers present and to come (Bacon, New Atlantis). 
Both dangers past and fears to come (ib.). As if fames 
were the relics of seditions past (Bacon, Seditions). I had 
terrible reflections upon my mind on the account of my 
wicked and hardened life past (Crusoe). The times past 
are said to have been a nation of Amazons (Adventurer). 

Of this I have not hit upon any instance in Present 
English. 'Past' is there used prepositively: 

The great men of past centuries (Nickleby). Past years 
recurred to him like a faint . . . dream (Venetia). It seemed 
impossible that past events should be so obstinate (Mill on 
the Floss). 


It may perhaps not be too daring to ascribe many of 
the instances of postposition of the adj. 'past' to the fear 
of confusion with the prep. 'past'. 

68. 3. Born. The primary word-order in < He was born 
a lord was another, namely, He was a lord born. For 
in Anglo-Saxon, and also in Middle English, a non-attribut- 
ive participle was usually placed at the end of the sen- 
tence, as in German Ich bin ein Protestant geboren 1 . 

Herodes from him selfum ofsticod (Sax. Chron.; Kube, 
Wortstellung in der Sachsenchronik). Sie hi mid stanum 
ofworpod (Alfred's Laws; Me Knight). To Westseaxena 
kyninge, Cynegyls gehaten (Aelfric, Life of King Oswald). 
And ear me menn sindon sare beswicene and hreowlice be- 
syrwde and ut of disan earde wide gesealde (Wulfstan, Ad- 
dress to the English; Anglos. Reader). This have I by 
credible informadon learned (Th. More, Rich. III). A boy 
of no high blood borne (Malory, Arthur). In a cedule 
yn this closed (Cov. L. B., 1461) 2 . 

Still in Modern English in: As in duty bound, Ernest 
called on Diana (Winds. Mag., July 1910). 

69. 'Born' in He was a lord born in the meaning of 
He was born a lord is, of course, no attribute, but it 
is easily understood that it might have been taken for one. 
Who could, therefore, determine whether we have to deal 
with an attribute or a predicative complement in instances 
like the following: 

By nature they were beggars born (1. Sam., II: 8; Pilgr. 
Progr.). Duke: What is that Barnadine who is to be exe- 
cuted in the afternoon? Provost: A Bohemian born, but 

1 German has, it is well known, preserved most of the old Teu- 
tonic word-order. 

2 Cf. also: For certaine considerations us moevyng (Cov. L. 
B., 1461). Honestly thame-self behaveynge (F. of L., 1435). 


here nursed up and bred (Measure, IV: 2). Sarah Battle 
was a gentlewoman born (Ess. of Elia). 

So 'born' has kept this place also when used attrib- 70. 
utively, in those cases where its character of a verb is 
not quite obscured: Howe should than a Frenche man 
borne soche termes con (Chaucer, Test, of Love). Come, - 
boy; I am past moe children, but thy sons and daughters 
will be all gentlemen born (Winter's Tale, V: 2). Yet I live 
like a poor gentleman born (Merry Wives, I: 1) '. 

And finally the same word-order is often preserved 71. 
even when 'born' is a pure adjective in the sense of 
Swed. boren, i. e. ^endowed with the qualities that be- 
long to the idea. 

Examples: In his person ... every body distinguishes 
the gentleman born and educated (Clarissa). Your dress, as 
I consider, is a sort of disgrace to a cavalier born, and the 
heir of Arnwood (New Forest). Edward appeared as he 
was - - a gentleman born (ib.). The authority of any writer 
but an Englishman born and bred (Molloy, Shall and Will. 
This phrase has grown into a standing expression). 

As a rule the real adj. 'born' is not, however, placed 72. 
after the noun in normal Mod. English: He was a prince, 
a born prince (Verity, Hamlet; Introd.). 

This is the necessary construction when the word in 
question cannot be interpreted in any other way: And me 
bound, too, to a born devil (O. Twist). The first vanity 
of your born eccentric is that he shall be taken for in- 
fallible (Meredith, E. Harrington). The Countess was a 
born general (ib.). 

1 In the following it looks as if we had to deal with compound 
words: Stalwort men and old, gentle born and peasant born (Two 

B. Postposition of adjectival past participles in general. 

73. We have already seen how frequently postposition 
of participles does occur in English. We have seen that 
the truly verbal past and present participles are nearly always 
placed after the noun they modify. We have also seen that 
such is often the case with past participles that were orig- 
inally verbal, but have come to be adjectives. And we 
shall see that inverted word-order is not at all rare even 
when no such reasons can be descried. It would indeed 
be surprising if analogy should not have exerted its level- 
ling influence. Why should one not be permitted to put 
an ordinary attributive past participle after its head-word 
when in so many cases the participle could, or must, stand 
behind? Instances are exceedingly frequent in Middle Eng- 
lish, but they diminish considerably towards the more 
recent periods. In Anglo-Saxon there are only a few, and 
those are to be set down as Latinisms. 

74. Several categories can be discriminated 1 : Direct 
French influence is apparent in phrases that belong to 
the arts of cookery, dressing, medicine 2 , workmanship. Some- 
times it is the Anglo-Norman legal style that reap- 
pears; sometimes it is the language of the Latin Bible; 
in some cases the substantive is of very little importance, 
but the attribute all the more significant (emphasis); 
again, in other cases there are two participles which outbal- 
ance the weight of the noun. 

75. 1. Culinary art. 

'Garlic stampid, salt fisch . . . and amptyn I-stampid 

1 I leave out such cases as: pa geseah ic swelce ic gesawe 
same duru onlocene (Cura Past.), He shall show to you a great sup- 
ping place arrayed (Wycliffs Bible, Mark. XIV), He will show you a 
large supper room furnished (Auth. Vers., Mark. XIV), where the 
participles may be predicative. 

2 Imitation of Latin is here, of course, also possible. 


(Science of Cirurgie, 1380). Fyrste sette ye forthe mustarde 
and brawne, potage, befe, motion stewed (Book of Carving; 
1413). With vinegre and percely theron and a tansy e fried 
and other bake metes (ib.). Vele, porke, pygyons, or chek- 
yns rosted (ib.). Pike boyled, Lamprons ybake, Vele ro- 
sted, Pertrich stewyde (Two 15th Century Cookery-Books, 
edit, by Th. Austin. Headings). How she longed to eat 
adders' heads and toads carbonadoed (Winter's Tale, IV: 4). 
In stead of bread, they use a certain white composition, 
like unto corianders confected (Florio). L. has recorded 
the repugnance of the school to <gags, or the fat of 
fresh beef boiled (Ess. of Elia). A name for hake-fish dried 
and salted (Verity, Tempest; Notes; cf. also 117). Burnt 
sack was wine heated or mulled (Verity, Tw. Night; Notes; 
cf. also 82). Hungbeef: beef spiced or salted (Watkin, 
Rog. de Coverly; Notes; cf. also 82). 

2. Dressing and weapons. 76. 
Ring ne broche . . ., ne gar del imembred ne gloven ne 

no swuch }}ing (Ancren Riwle, ab. 1200). A swerd har- 
nesed, a wodeknyf harnesed, and a Dagger (Early Engl. Wills, 
J. Credy; 1426). A gowne of scarlet with slyt slyves 
y-furred (E. E. W., R. Dixton; 1438). I had on a broad 
belt of goat's skin dried, which I ... (Crusoe). Richly 
trapped in blue velvet embroidered (New Atlantis). A rich 
cloth of state of blue satin embroidered (ib.). 

3. Workmanship. 77. 
Hare unirude duntes wij) melles istelet (Sawles Warde, 

ab. 1200). Silver sponys with acharnus (acorns) overgald 
(E. E. W., Th. Bathe; 1420). 1 marc and a cuppe over- 
gilte (Cov. Leet B., 1426). A litell basyn knopped, and III 
candelstikes (E. E. W., R. Elmesby; 1434). A litill coverkull 
for his coppe ygilt (ib.). A litill panne of brasse y-ered 
(ib.). An coavered cuppe gilt (E. E.Wills, R. Dixton; 1438). 
Silver gilt (ib.). With handsome windows, some of glass, 


some of a kind of cambric oiled (New Atlantis). Metal 
vitrified (ib.). Its weight in gold ay, gold well-refined, 
I will say six times (Scott, Kenilworth). Arm-chair in wood 
carved and gilt (Placard in Wallace Coll., London; cf., how- 
ever, 117). Detached high relief in gilt copper chased and 
engraved (ib.). - Cf. also: Silver repousse (Studio). 

78. 4. Medicine. 

Take J)e pouder of crabbis brent VI parties, gencian 
III parties (Science of Cirurgie, 1380). Off woundes Im- 
postemede (tumorous) (ib.; heading). f>at is to sai litarge 
nurschid (ib.). A good quantite of tow I-tosid (ib.). Flour 
of bras brent, vitriol leed brent (ib.). is is a medicyn 
compouuned (sic! ib.). After pe sleyng of flessh putred [ 
(Fistula in Ano, ab. 1400). Pulver of hennes feperez y-brent, 
of an old lyn elope y-brynt, asshen of heres of hares 
y-brent 2 (ib.). A mitigative of akyng to emeroidez bolned 
(ib.). Ladanum, storax calamita, anyse rosted, and sich ope 
(ib.). Ane herbe y-brissed pat is called pede lyon (ib.). 

79. 5. Legal style. 

Vifte is mid wyfman ymarissed (Ayenbit, 1340). Man 
y-sponsed (ib.). If so be he be a Notary sworen and ad- 
myttyd and may not refuse hit (Cov. Leet B., 1423). And 
that they scale with measures insealyd (ib. 1421). That no 
man delyver no werk but be weyghtes ensealed (ib., 1450). 
Oure Manoir of Cheylesmore is ... a place franchesied (ib., 
1464). There is no power in Venice can alter a decree 
established (Shakesp.). The supplanting or the opposing 
of authority established (Bacon). According to all prece- 
dents in disputes of matrimony established (Twist). The 
victorious conqueror met with the body of his enemie de- 
ceased, mourned very grievously for him (Florio). Mr. Ham- 

1 Latin text: Post mortificationem putridce carnis! 

2 But, where the style is less learned: Ful of blak fil[) in 
maner of brent flesch (Fistula). 


merdown will sell by the orders of Diogenes's assignees 
... the library, furniture, plate, wardrobe, and choice cellar 
of wines of Epicurus deceased (Van. Fair). The beautiful 
Lady Tollimglower, deceased (Pickwick). Authority limited 
(Kipling). Ticket limited (in the United States) ! . 

6. Bible style. 80. 
Oyle owtgettede es J)i name - (Rich. Hampole, ab. 1350). 

It smellys oyle outgetted (ib.). In syngne of Cryste cruci- 
fiede (ib.; Milliner). From |)e levaciourt of cristis body 
sacrid in til pat ... (Guild of St. Mary, Norwich; Toulmin 
Smith, Engl. Gilds). Joe whiche shal be reveled in us in 
tyme ordeined (De Imit. Christi, 1440). A true king anoynted 
(Malory, Arthur; Milliner). Knowing, brethren beloved, your 
election of God (I. Thessal; I: 4; A. V.; cf. also 148). 

7. The noun is unstressed, but the participle em- 81. 

pei J)at might not wel suffre temptacion were made 
men repreved and failed in her way (De Imit. Christi 1441). 
I count it but time lost to hear such a foolish song (As 
you like it, V: 3). For their second nobles, there is not 
much danger from them, being a body dispersed (Bacon, 
Of Empire). Like the bleeding of men murdered (Naun- 
ton, Fragmenta Regalia; 1630). What is then this narrow 
selfishness that reigns in us, but relationship remembered 
against relationship forgot (Clarissa). A thousand carriages 
come tumbling in with food and other raw produce inani- 
mate or animate, and go tumbling out again with produce 
manufactured (Sartor. Cf., however, 142 ff.). The invari- 
able principle of political action in searches for articles 
concealed (Poe, The purloined letter). One of a family of 
tyrants, one of a race proscribed (Two Cities). I tried to 
find my way out of this chamber - - a chamber accursed 

1 Langenscheidt, Land und Leute in Amerika, p. 116. 

2 Latin Text: Oleum effusum nomen tuum. 


(Ouida, Pipistrello). There is no such separation heard 
between words spoken as is between words printed (Lloyd, 
North. Engl.). 

82. 8. Two participles outbalancing the weight of the 
noun 1 . 

Zuiche clepejj oure Ihord: berieles (sepulchres) ypeynt 
and y-gelt (Ayenb., 1340). Y bequeth ... my wrecchid 
body to the erthe sanctified and halowed (E. E. Wills, 1454; 
cf. also 117). ' If ye continue in the faith grounded and 
settled, and be not ... (Auth. Vers., Col. I: 23). To gratify 
their curiosity with knowledge, which, like treasures buried 
and forgotten, is of no use to others or themselves (Ram- 
bler). Those . . . who have seen death untimely strike 
down persons revered and beloved (Esmond). To take the 
place of their betters killed or invalided (Light that failed). 

83. Q. In the following quotations there do not seem 
to be any special reasons for the inverted word-order, 
other than those of analogy. 

J)e tende is of wyfmen to clerkes yhoded (Ayenb., 
1340). Maki of one mete vele mes desgysed (\b.). To kepe 
a lyme (limb) woundid fro swellynge (Science of Cir., 1380). 
A boon to-broken (ib.). Every festre ... is heelid wi]> pis 
medicyn I-preved (ib.). And cover it wij3 a lynne clothe 
y-wette (Fistula in Ano, ab. 1400). fre schappe of a fist 
y-closed (ib.). He bare opon hym an evangell wretten (Alph. 
of Tales; 15th cent.). Cled all in parchemyn writyn, wijj 
smale letters wretten ])eron (ib.). A thousand knyghtes 
armed (Caxton, Historyes of Troye; 1477). Here endeth 
the table of the content and chapytres nombred of this 
present book (Godfr. of Bol., 1481). For to shewe hit to 
the knyght wounded, that he shulde take the more comfort 
(Blanch, and Egl., 148Q). Or other person diffamed (Cov. 

1 Cf. 121. 


Leet B., 1492). A man which can rede in bokis stories 
writun (Pecock, Represser). A beard neglected, which you 
have not (As you like it, III: 2). Third Apparition: a Child 
crowned, with a tree in his hand (Macbeth, IV: 1). Masque 
of the Gipsies Metamorphosed (Ben Jonson). For he saith, 
I have heard thee in a time accepted, and in the day of 
salvation have I succoured thee * (Auth. Vers., II. Corinth. 
VI: 2). And was delivered of Pallas armed, out of his 
head (Bacon, Of Counsel). I remember an Irish rebel con- 
demned put up a petition that he might be ... (Bacon, 
Custom and Education). Making provision for the relief 
of strangers distressed (New Atlantis). Mansoul has weap- 
ons proved, and garments white as snow (Bunyan, Holy 
War. Rhythmical reasons?). I observed somewhat that looked 
like a boat overturned (Gulliver. Cf. Like a man exhausted 
etc.). Note the eyes slightly askance, the lips compressed, 
and the right hand nervously grasping the left arm (Two 
Paths. The reason is here probably a desire of conform- 
ity). When the sight of some shop-goods ticketed freshen- 
ed him up (Elia). They looked curiously small, moreover 
- the garden circumscribed, the two-storied house, with 
its striped sun-blinds (Cardinal's Snuff-box). They could 
see the shimmer of bronze armour . . . and the friendly 
flash of the great shield uplifted (Kipling, Puck of Pook's 
Hill). The hard road goes on and on past altars to Legions 
and Generals forgotten, and broken statues of Gods (ib.). 
Behold, there were the Eagles of two strong Legions en- 
camped (ib.; cf., however, 120). 

10. I insert here the following quotations also in 84. 
which the participle in connection with another word 
forms a compound adjective: 

1 Immediately after this comes: Behold, now is the accepted 
time, probably because now is the time accepted* might be mis- 


Ostlers trade-fallen (I, Henry IV, IV: 3). Nothing but 
the granite cliffs ruddy-tinged (Sartor). The feeling of 
Heavenly Behest, of Duty god-commanded (Carlyle, Ess. 
on Scott). To pace alone in the cloisters or side aisles of 
some cathedral, time-stricken, is but a vulgar luxury (Elia). 

Chapter IV. 

The Present Participle as a pure adjective. 

A. Being 1 . Coming. Adjoining-. Following and Ensuing^ 

It will be necessary to devote a special section to 
the adjectival participles being, coming, adjoining, following 
(and its synonym ensuing). 
85. 1. Being. 

The participle in for the time being may, it is true, 
be said to Tiave a pregnant signification (going on, or 
something like that), so as to express a weak degree of 
activity. It might then be looked upon as a verb, but 
certain it is that nobody is sensible of that when he uses 
the expression, which has passed into a set phrase equiv- 
alent to for the present time, or on that occasion . 
It is not quite improbable that we have here to deal with 
an inheritance from the Anglo-Norman time. 

Examples: And that the Stuarde off the Gilde for the 
tyme being shall truly controulle them (Gild of St. Katherine, 
Stamford; Toulmin Smith, Engl. Gilds). Aldermen of this 
City for- the time being shall be ordered and appointed (An 
Act on the 'Election of Sheriffs, 1748; Gray Birch, Hist. 
Charters of London). The light deprived her, for the time 
being, both of the power to rise and of the wit to think 
(Dr. Xavier). 

2. Coming. 

'Coming' is also a pure adjective, in spite of its po- 
sition after the noun, in [the] time coming*. But it is not 
necessary that it should have been so from the very be- 
ginning; it might have been a verbal participle then. I 
am not aware of any French analogue. 

Examples: In tyme comynge (Chaucer, Melibeus; Milli- 
ner). Allso we command that no Bocher ne vitaler in 
tyme corny ng mak non ordynaunce but . . . (Cov. Leet 
Book, 1421). Who shal be besy for ^e in tyme corny ng 
(De Imit. Christi, 1440). For to be hald in mor reverens 
in tyme comand (Capgrave, St. Gilbert; 1450). He that 
hopes or depends upon time coming, dreams waking (Ba- 
con, Of Death). It shall and may be lawful in all time 
coming for the English people to communicate with each 
other (Opium-eater). 

3. Adjoining. 87. 
'Adjoin' does not express so much activity, as rather 

a state of things (= be near). Nevertheless the participle 
'adjoining' is often found after the noun it modifies. This 
may partly be due to its somewhat adverbial character, 
nothing preventing us from regarding it as an adverb 
adjunct, just like 'near' or 'close by' in a similar position. 
Examples: The first that came to him were the lords 
of Lincolnshire and other countries adjoining (Holinshed). 
A private house in the town adjoining (Gulliver). I broke 
my way from the ball-room into a small ante-chamber ad- 
joining (Poe, Wilson). Sikes dragged her into a small room 
adjoining, where he sat himself on a bench (Twist). They 
began to search narrowly the ditch and hedge adjoining (ib.). 

4. Following, Ensuing. 88. 
In, say, The preceding word is but a dim image of 

the clause following*, The article belongs more properly 
to the noun following than to the genitive , 'following' is, 


of course, a verb, not an adjective. So it was originally 
in temporal expressions too, but there it stands already on 
the border line between a verbal participle and an adjective, 
or it has just passed over to the latter category. Com- 
parison with French suivant easily suggests itself, all the 
more because ensuing is used alternatively. But direct 
French influence should only be thought of as a means of 
establishing the word-order. 

Examples with 'following 1 : In pe day, forso^e, folow- 
yng (= the day following the one last mentioned, but 
also: on the next day!) I ... perceyved . , . (Fistula, ab. 
1400). To chose kepers for the yer folowyng (Cov. Leet 
B., 14Q5). And the night following the Lord stood by him 
(Acts, 23: 11; A. V.). I took shipping for Lisbon where 
arrived in April following (Crusoe). I arrived at the country 
town at twilight, in order to be ready for the stage-coach 
the day following (R. de Coverly). On the fifth night 
following 1 he was seen for the last time (Sartor Res.). He 
arrived at his destination in the October following (Macaulay, 
Warren Hastings; Poutsma). On the day following Oliver 
and Mr. Maylie repaired to the market-town (Twist). 

In normal Present English 'following' precedes its 
noun in expressions of time. Yet, necessarily: At noon on 
the second day following 1 he did not feel that the campaign 
had been in vain (Winds. Mag., July, 1910; cf. above). 

Examples with 'ensuing': Sullen looks and short an- 
swers the whole day ensuing (Wakefield). I trust you re- 
member we mean to taste the good cheer of your Castle of 
Kenil worth on this week ensuing (Kenil worth). Would you 
not prefer, sir, to have the items added on to the month 
ensuing (Ev. Harrington) -. 

1 It seems to be rather adverbial here, but may be verbal. 

2 Cf. also: On the day succeeding (Esmond). 


Variants are < next following*, <next ensuing, which 89. 
belong to the older idiom only. 

Examples: Also it is ordeynede yat alle ye bretheren 
and sisteren of yis fraternitee shul comen, on ye monday 
next folowande, to ye Chirche forsayde (Gild of St. Bo- 
tulph; T. Smith, Engl. Gilds). Within a quarter of a yere 
next folowynge (Ordinances of Worcester; T. Smith, Engl. 
Gilds). On the morrow next ensuing (Holinshed). And 
crown her Queen of England, ere the thirtieth of May next 
ensuing (II, Henry VI, I: I) 1 . -- Also then next ensuing*: 
The Seturday then next suyng (Cov. Leet B., 1457). The 
XV day of Feveryere then next suyng (ib.). 

Sometimes 'next' is placed before, and the part, after: 90. 
In the next weke suying the kyng came to Coventre (Cov. 
L. B., 1464). If thou the next night following enjoy 
not Desdemona, take me from this world with treachery 
(Othello, IV: 2). 

Even when distinctly a pure adjective, or, if preferred, 91. 
a pronoun (= 'this'), 'following' ('suing') is very frequently, 
by analogy, put after the substantive in older English. 

Examples: j)ise bye|) J)e capiteles of pe hoc volginde 
(Ayenbit, 1340). As it schal be told in pe VIII chapitle 
folowynge- (Science of Cirurgie, 1380). In pe pridde tretis 
folowynge 2 (ib.). I ... make my testament in the maner 
suyng* (E. E. Wills, J. Credy; 1426). They have made 
this ordynaunce folowyng (Cov. L. B., 1421). Wherupon 
the Meir lett make of thies wurthy men folowyng .... (ib., 
1424). In the forme and maner folowyng (ib., 1444). All 

1 Next coming is used in the same way, in close imitation 
of Anglo-Fr. prochein venant (e. g. En le mois davrell prochein ve- 
naunt, En Iverne prochein venant [Cov. Leet B., 1430]): At Esture next 
cotnyng (Cov. L. B v 1421). At Mydsomer next comyng (ib.). 

2 In these two quotations 'following' may, however, be a verbal 
participle. Cf. also p. 50, foot-note 1. 

3 In legal style this word-order is not surprising. 


pese transiimpciones folowing. rehersi|3 our auctour (Cap- 
grave, St. Gilbert; 1451). Pay to the seid Craft of Card- 
makers XIII s. IIII d. in the forme saying (Cov. L. B., 14Q5). 
Also that no seriaunt take of eny citezen for servynge of 
a capias eny thynge but in maner folowynge (Ord. of Wor- 
cester; T. Smith, Engl. Gilds). In form and manner folow- 
ing (Gild of St. Katherine, Stamford; T. Smith). In which 
is plainly to be seen, what wit can and will doe, if it be 
well imployed, which discourse following, although it bring 
lesse pleasure to your youthful mindes, then the first dis- 
course, yet will it bring more profite (Euphues). In what 
manner? In manner and form following, sir (Love's Labour, 
I: 1). Let there be certain persons licensed to lend to known 
merchants upon usury, at a higher rate, and let it be with 
the cautions following: . . . (Bacon, Of Usury). 

In Modern English 'following' always stands before the noun in 
the above sense. Yet Dickens has, in evident imitation of the Middle 
English style: The arbour in which Mr. Tupman had already signal- 
ized himself, in form and manner following: first the fat boy . . . 

In this instance: And they went forth and preached everywhere, 
the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs 
following (S. Mark, 16: 20), the part, is most probably verbal. Com- 
pare, however, also below, Ch. XIII, C. 

92. B. Postposition of adjectival present participles 

in general. 

Postposition of a pres. part, is by no means rare in 
Anglo-Saxon prose. This may be due to Latin influence, 
but I would rather make no distinction, in this early per- 
iod of the language, between participles and ordinary 
adjectives. It will be pointed out further on that also the 
latter are often placed after the noun in Old English. So 
I refer to 207 below. 

In Middle English postposition is very frequent, as 


in the case of a past participle. I suppose the reason to 
be not so much direct French influence although in 
some translations it is often undeniable as rather 

analogy *. 

Examples: And swa swa claene neten eodorcende in 
|)aet sweteste leod gehwyrfde (Alfred, Caedmon; Anglo-S. 
Reader). An hrider dugunde (Kentish Charter; ib.). Grow- 
ende gsers and seed wircende (Gen.; Matzner, Gram.). Fur 
beorninde (Old Engl. Homilies; Miillner). Snow sledrende 
{ib.). Janne cum]) J)e hali gast J)e is all fier barnende (Vices 
and Virtues, 1200). A huyt zech vol of donge stynkinde 
(Ayenbit, 1340). pe clerk zyinde ne yzy^}) nag-t (ib.). er 
byej) leazinges helpinde, and leazinges likynde, and leazinges 
deriynde (hurting) (ib.). And J)er was a pyler of yrn byrn- 
and, sett full of sharpe rasurs (Alph. of Tales; 15th cent.). 
And J)an he send unto hym his wyfe and his childre wep- 
and, J)at besoght hym to forgiff hym (ib.). Atte porte des- 
cendeth a fressh water rennyng whiche is lytil in the somer 
{Godfrey of Bol., 1481). The londe is ful of depe waters 
rennyng and large mareyses (ib.). She mounted anon upon 
her whyte palfray amblyng 2 , and sayde . . . (Blanch, and 
Egl., 148Q). Ladyes for whome I have foughten whanne I 
was man livinge (Morte Darthur). 

The following instance is uncertain, inasmuch as the 
participle may be verbal: ])urch hwam bieo 4 alle wittes and 
alle wisdomes and alle tungen spekinde (cf. the only man 
speaking. Vices and Virtues, 1200). 

The following is an instance from Modern English, 
but the word-order may be due to special reasons: The 
handbill had the usual rude woodcut of a turbaned negro 

1 But we cannot say with MATZXKU (Engl. Sprachproben I, 2, 
p. 62): Part. auf -inde stehen natiirlich haufig nach. 

2 French text: la haguenee ( whyte palfray amblyng). 


woman running \ with the customary bundle on a stick 
(Twain, Pudd'nhead Wilson). 

Chapter V. 

Participles preceded by adverbs. 

A. Participles preceded by modal adverbs. 

93. In case a participle is modified by a modal adverb 

its verbal character becomes more prominent than usual, 
as it is almost exceptional for an ordinary adjective to 
be accompanied by an adverb of that kind. Accordingly 
there are numerous instances of postposition under these 
circumstances. In the oldest language this is the only 
occurring word-order, in Middle English it is the rule. An 
attribute preceded by a modal adverb seems to have been 
a too heavy combination to be placed before the noun. 
Indeed, it was not until modern times that this began to 
be thought feasible. In Wycliffs: Restitucioun of extor- 
cions and evyl geten goodis (Leaven of Pharisees), we are 
therefore bound to presume a compound adjective (cf. 
<wi]) outen [ib.] in two words!). 

Examples: Ac monige scylda openlice witene beoj) to 
forberanne (Cura Past.). f>onne he ongiet be sumum {)in- 
gum odde fieawum utone cetlewdum call [>aet hie innan pen- 
cead (ib.). Nedeful it is J)at a surgian be of a complexioun 
weel proporciound (Science of Cir., 1380). A surgian muste 
have handis weel schape (ib.). Brynge a^en Jje rondness 
of ])ilke ulcus .... wij) a knyf hoot brennynge (ib.). He 
come]} of a wounde yvel heelid (ib.). Fretyng with a threde 
strengely yfestned (Fistula in Ano; ab. 1400). A wounde 

1 Cf. 120, and perhaps also 174. 


yvel y-cured (ib.). Coton wele y-tesed (ib.). To him and 
to hys heirs of ys body lawfully be-goten (E. E. Wills, Sir 
W. Langeford; 1411). pis man pus hurt herd telle of f>e 
grete myracles (Capgrave, St. Gilbert; 1451). O])ir neces- 
saries of his rentys and of oj)ir good lefully goten (ib.). 
A pagent right well arayed (Cov. Leet B., 1456). As in a 
ship, wares well stowed and closely piled 1 take up least roome 
(Florio). O, knowledge ill-inhabited (As you like it, III: 3). 
Suit ill spent, and labour ill bestowed (Much Ado, III: 2). 
A message well sympathized (Love's Labour, HI: 1). The 
great multiplication of virtues upon human nature resteth 
upon societies well ordained and disciplined 1 (Bacon, Custom 
and Education). They were like horses well managed and 
disciplined l (Bacon, Simulation and Dissimulation). Some 
fine banqueting-house with some chimneys neatly cast, and 
without too much glass (Bacon, Of Gardens). A Queen at 
Chesse of gold richely enameled (Naunton, Fragm. Reg.; 1630). 
This is the benefit which may be had of books promiscuously 
read (Milton, Areopagitica). Having a head mechanically 
turned, I had made for myself a table and chair (Gulliver). 
As the slipper ill executed was censured by a shoemaker 
(Rambler). An expanse of waters violently agitated (ib.). 
Sentiments generally received (ib.). Some means of happiness 
really existing (ib.). By efforts successfully repeated (Wake- 
field). Two young ladies richly dressed (ib.; cf. 120). There 
were household officers, indeed, richly attired; there were 
guards gallantly armed (Durward). Ere his adversary could 
extricate his rapier thus entangled, he closed with him (Kenil- 
worth). A fine rider perfectly mounted (Philip; cf. also 120). 
Such delicate complexions artificially preserved and mended 1 
(Two Cities). A beadle properly constituted (Twist). No 
doubt, had I been a man well born, I should have fallen 

Compare, however, 82. 


at her feet (Pipistrello). That pleasant content .... which 
follows rest properly employed (Xavier). This . . . adds a 
charm to out-door exercise that older folks in districts 
better policed enjoy not (P. Kelver). She . . . had given him 
a book of nursery rhymes brilliantly illustrated, which he 
greatly enjoyed (Mrs. Alexander, Brown, V. C.). The 
subtle monotony of their music, so full as it was of com- 
plex refrains and movements elaborately repeated, produced 
in the lad a form of reverie (D. Gray). 

B. Participles preceded by temporal adverbs. 

94. What has been said above (p. 54) also applies to the 
case of a participle modified by a temporal adverb. It 
stands to reason that the verbal character, i. e. possibility of 
expressing different shades of time, must here stand forth 
with great distinctness '. In fact, it is not easy, many a 
time, to decide whether the participle thus qualified is a 
verb or an adjective. It may, however, with full certainty 
be set down as a verb in such cases as these: When the 
religion formerly received is rent by discords (Bacon). Some 
system of building already understood (Ruskin). Such 
may be the case also in: There existed proofs -- proofs 
long suppressed - of his birth (Twist), although the in- 
version in this quotation is more probably due to the total 
want of stress of the noun (Cf. 130, 132). 

It will be good to compare: Cured of a canker by 
the sign of the Crosse, which a female newly baptized ( 
who had been baptized only a short while ago) made unto 
her (Florio), and: A newly-baptized woman (Swed. <nydopt, 
not nyss dopt; one idea). 

95. It is particularly when the participle is in the present 
tense that the verbal element is predominant, as witness: 

1 Cf. Our view into long past geological ages (Darwin, Origin). 
'Past' is otherwise usually an adj., but here it must be verbal. 


My Lord of Essex death in Ireland and the marriage 
of his Lady yet living (Naunton, Fragm. Reg.; 1630). A 
time which is within the memory of men still living (Ma- 
'caulay, Hist.). He was uncle to the fine old whig still 
.living (Elia). Taking the Parliamentary side in the troubles 
then commencing (Esmond). There were the two beds and 
the fire still burning (Pickwick). There is no need for 
anyone to add to the thousands of pictures already existing 
(Studio, Nov., 1910). 

More or less verbal, adjectives or verbs at discretion, 96. 
are the participles in the following quotations: 

is witnessi]) he in pat sermone often alleggid (Cap- 
grave, Augustine; 1450). And broght J^aim owder a swyne 
or a schepe new slayn (Alphabet of Tales; 15th cent.). 
A pair of old breeches thrice turned (Shrew, III: 2). This is 
a piece of prudence lately discover' d (Milton, Areopagitica). 
She was the sole daughter of the only sister of my mother 
long departed (Poe, Eleonora). I trust I shall be found to 
have little, if at all, trespassed upon ground previously oc- 
cupied (Bulwer, Rienzi; Preface). In the name of that sharp 
female newly-born, and called La Guillotine, why did you 
come to France? (Two Cities). A face habitually suppressed 
and quieted, was still . . . (ib.; cf. also 82). The honest 
keeper's wife brought her patient a handkerchief fresh washed 
and ironed (Esmond) 1 . A standard of perfection compar- 
able with that given to the plants in countries anciently 
civilized (Darwin, Species). He wanted energies for com- 
bating evils now forgotten (Opium-eater). The scarlet dew 
that spotted the hand seemed brighter, and more like blood 
newly spilt (D. Gray). Compare also: Our existing chron- 
icles, and many others now lost (Earle and Plummer, Sax. 
Chron.; Vol. II, Pref.). 

Compare, however, also 117. 


97. C. Participles preceded by quantitative adverbs 

are not more verbal than they are when standing alone. 
Therefore postposition is rare under ordinary circumstances *. 
I have only three instances to cite: 

Whyning like a Pigge halfe rosted (Euphues). He 
found the body of a lad half-clothed lying there (New 
Forest). A crowd in those times stopped at nothing, and 
was a monster much dreaded (Two Cities). 

D. Pre-position of participles modified by a modal 
or temporal adverb. 

98. With what hesitation a participle preceded by a modal 

or temporal adverb is placed attributively before a noun, is 
shown by the fact that many authors up to our days tack 
the adverb to the participle by means of a hyphen, notwith- 
standing the two words do not in reality constitute one 
idea only. 

a. Examples with modal adverbs: 

The gaily-equipped Cavalier cavalry (New Forest). By 
means of those illegibly-written, incorrectly-spelt, but incom- 
parably agreeable letters (Fullerton, De Bonneval). A pair 
of crookedly-hung pictures (Hodgson, Errors in the Use of 
Engl.). His fondly-loved wife (Lady Audley). Lamp and 
fire-light showed a finely-carried head (Marcella). A neatly- 
kept, respectable-looking house (Brown, V. C.). 

b. Examples with a temporal adverb: 

The consolation of the never-leaving goodnesse (Sid- 
ney, Apologie; 15Q5). Our often-assaulted bodies (ib.). 
The never-fading fruits thereof (Pilgr. Progr.). ' That fair 
and always-remembered scene (Esmond). The last-built 
institution (Two Paths). This long-neglected art (Ruskin, 

Otherwise see Ch. XI. 


Architecture and Painting). Long-continued self-fertilisation 
(Darwin, Origin). The now-vanished pomp (Rienzi). The 
long-sealed door (Venetia). The oft-quoted classical exam- 
ples (Verity, Tempest; Notes). An ever-swelling chorus 
(Verity, Hamlet; Introd.). That recently-despised but now 
welcome article of costume (Mill on the Floss. Cf. <now 
welcome without any hyphen! 'Welcome' is an adj.). The 
oft-repeated wail (Light that failed). Long-neglected can- 
vasses (ib.). The long-pent-up delirium (ib.). The ever-felt 
contrast (Verity, Coriolanus; Notes). 

c. With other kinds of adverbs this is rare: " 

The neere-following prosperitie (Sidney, Apologie). That much- 
admired spot (Durward). Its arched and far-receding path (Marcella; 
possibly a comp. adj.). Half-clothed (Marryat; certainly a comp. adj.). 
Half-frightened (B. Harte, By Shore and Sedge). 

Instances of a participle preceded by a temporal 100. 
adverb being placed before the noun without any hyphen 
do not, as a matter of fact, occur until modern times 
with very few exceptions at least. 

Examples: The ever whirling mills (Macaulay, Hist.). 
Long hoarded spleen (Sheridan, Rivals). All hitherto discov- 
ered Universities (Sartor). My as yet sealed eyes (ib.). The 
complex and sometimes varying conditions of life (Darwin, 
Origin). Long past geological ages (ib.). The still smoking 
ruins (New Forest). Their now increased Sunday dinner 
(Venetia). The once gilt (adj.?) frame (P. Kelver). His hither- 
to envied young devil of an heir (Pudd'nhead Wilson) A . 

With and without a hyphen side by side: The recently 101. 
discarded favourite and the long-banished minister (Fullerton, 
De Bonneval). 

The following are from older times, but in most of them we 
seem to have to deal with a compound adjective, rather than two 
separate notions: Se cer gef arena broftor getacnad Crist (Cura Past.). 

1 Compare also: Tom's hitherto unforgiven offences (Mill on the 
Floss). Some as yet unidentified source (Verity, Hamlet). 


pu aa iblescet laverd (Life of St. Juliana; Milliner), fre first be-gotcn 
child hite ludas (Capgrave, Sermon; 1422). Thei please to remember 
the longe continued and hertly love betwixt them (Cov. Leet B., 1480). 
His untrue and long purpcnsed malice (ib., 1481). 

Chapter VI. 

Adjectives made up of un- and a past participle. 

102. The possibility or necessity of placing a participle 

after its head-word has come to influence those adjectives 
in particular that are made up of un- and a past participle. 
They have been felt as equivalent in meaning to a participle 
negatived by 'not', all the more as un- is not unstressed. 

That the words in question are not always wholly 
destitute of verbality appears from such instances as the 
following, where they are used predicatively: There be no 
evyll unpunyshed, nor no good unrewarded (Lever, A Ser- 
mon; 1550). There live not three good men unhanged in 
England (I, Henry IV, II: 4). These mean: There is 
no evil [that is] not punished , There live (or: are) not 
three good men [that are] not hanged , or, turned into a 
positive form: Every evil is punished*, A11 good men 
no three excepted - are (or: have been) hanged in 
England*. - An ordinary adjective could not be used in 
that way. 

Thus also: He hcefde ])agyt, da he ]>one cyningc 
sohte, tamra deora unbebohtra syx hund (Voyages of Othere 
and Wulfstan; Anglos. Reader). 

Still more conspicuous is the verbal character in the 
following instance from Modern English : A case, which 
should prove a warning to those paper sellers who fail 
to return the papers unsold, was heard at Dunstable (The 
People, 11 July 1909). The word 'unsold' may indeed here 


be " said to be a verb just as much as is 'sold' in The 
papers sold; it corresponds to an active sentence. Sim- 
ilarly: The only person unmoved was the girl herself (Dorian 
Gray. Cf. The only person moved, not moved). 

Collocations of these kinds may, therefore, have 103. 
greatly contributed to the propagating - - if they are not 
the origin - of the word-order which is exemplified by 
the following quotations and appears to be, and to have 
been, common enough: 

O|)er alsso [>at before men lyfe in fleschly penance 
unsene (Fire of Love, 1435). ])e flaume unmesurde of lufe 
(ib.). It happenij) som tyme })at a persone unknowen shinej) 
by bright fame (De Imit. Christi, 1441). Be reasonable 
cause unfayned (Cov. Leet B., 1444). J)e coveryng wi]) 
which a wommanys heed oug" to be covered was oonli |)e 
heer of wommenys heed unschorn (Pecock, Represser; 1449). 
If eny mysdoers, or persones undisposed, shuld be ... (Cov. 
Leet B., 1472). As on holy body undivided (ib., 1480). 
Muche better myghten the people of the Citie resorte to 
defende on parte unwalled then to defende many paries 
uncalled (ib.). Diverse ben fledde ... to paries unknowen 
(ib., 1481). In nombre undesired (ib., 1495). Yf . . . eny 
persone unassigned take uppon hym to ... (ib.). For othir 
wise might he never accomplissh his desire unknowen (Three 
Kings' Sons, 1500). Charity out of a pure heart, and of a 
good conscience, and of faith unfeigned (Auth. Vers., I 
Tim., I: 15). By the Holy Ghost, by love unfeigned (Auth. 
Vers., II Cor., VI: 6). Thou wentest in to men uncircum- 
cised, and didst eat with them (Acts, 11: 3). He stood up, 
holding forth his hand ungloved (New All.). Seeds unplaced 
(Bacon, Of Atheism). A hundred pieces of gold uncoined 
(Crusoe). Mimicking distresses unfelt (Rambler). By facts 
uncontested (ib.). His heart . . . throbbing with desires unde- 
fined (Esmond). Colour ungradated is wholly valueless 


(Two Paths, Appendix V). The prisoner went down, with 
some fellow-plotter untracked, in the Dover mail (Two Cities). 
No extras, no vacations, and diet imparallelled (Nickleby). 
A creed unchanged (Xavier). Latin unaltered (Abbott, Shakesp. 
Gram.). Latch-keys and license unlimited (Light that failed). 
They will continue to the end of time a constellation undi- 
vided, a literary Gemini (Watkin, Pref. to R. de Coverly). 
Appealing to gods or devils unseen (Winds. Mag., June, 1910). 
104. With some words formed of un- and a past participle 

postposition seems to have become the nearly settled rule 
in Mod. Engl., at least in certain combinations: 

The well of English undefiled (Morris, Introd. to 
Chaucer). I am as innocent as the babe unborn (Floss). 
As helpless as the babe unborn (Two Years Ago). You 
are guiltless as the child unborn, and I love you (Ouida, 
Umilta). Of noble touch , i. e. of true metal unalloyed 
(Warburton; Verity, Corilanus; Notes). Fear unalloyed is a 
a painful passion (Bain, Rhetoric and Compos.). For we 
here are in God's bosom, a land unknown (New Atlantis). 
I signed it <your friend unknown* (Sheridan, Rivals, I: 1). 
M:lle L'Espanaye had been throttled to death by some 
person or persons' unknown (Poe, Murder in the Rue Morgue). 
A young forester, a youth unknown (New Forest). Keneu 
introduced to Dick some man unknown who would be 
employed as war artist (Light that failed). 

Chapter VII. 

Adjectives ending in -ib/e, -able, -ant, -ent 

105. I now proceed to a group of adjectives which on 

account of their form or signification bear great resemblance 


to verbal participles. Such are, on the one hand those in 
-ible and -able, on the other hand those in -ant and -ent. 

Just as we can say: There is no evil unpunished*, in 106. 
:the sense of: Every evil is punished, in like manner we can 
say: There are no people visible* = & No people are [to be] 
-seen. So it will be justifiable to maintain that 'visible' 
partakes of a verbal character. Moreover, this word, as 
well as others in -ible, -able, is formed from a verbal stem. 

In the same way, There are strange customs pre- 
valent* can be changed into: Strange customs prevail. 
Thus also, I, Henry IV, II: 4: Is there no virtue extant?, 
which means: Does no virtue exist?. 

It is also well-known that words like 'prevalent', 'extant' 
:are at bottom nothing but present participles. 

It is obvious that these are the reasons why adjectives 
in -ible, -able, -ant, and -ent are so frequently placed after 
.their head-words. 

A. Adjectives in -able or -ible. 

1. Instances with adj. in -able, -ible in a [semi-] 107. 
verbal function: 

The Meyre ... at all tyme covenable dud his due 
parte (Cov. Leet B., 1451). Emended or otherwise reformed 
.at eny tyme behovabull (ib., 1480). - He practised it with 
the easiest address imaginable (Wakefield). At these words 
Barnabas fell a-ringing with all the violence imaginable 
<Fielding, Andrews). The prettiest distress imaginable (Rivals). 
The smallest thing imaginable (Verity, Mids. Night; Notes) 1 ; 

1 But 'conceivable' usually precedes: With every conceivable nost- 
rum (Esmond). This duty to which the strongest conceivable promptings 
call (Verity, Hamlet; Intr.). The rudest conceivable attempts at history 
(Earle and Plummer, Sax. Chron.; Introd.). He never seems to have 
a moment's doubt on any conceivable question (M:c Carthy, Own 
Times; N. E. D.). 


The only people visible were one or two University 
students (Westm. Gaz., Aug. 5, 1Q02). In the most pleas- 
ant form practicable (Kath. Laud; Poutsma). I've shot 
and hunted every beast, I think, shootable and huntable 
(Kingsley, Two Years Ago). The most primitive language 
accessible. - - In all hast possibull (Cov. Leet B., 1435, and 
passim). In all haste possible (Malory, Arthur; 1480). He 
and his feliship in alle Haste possible entrid ther-yn (Three 
Kings' Sons; 1500. This phrase was evidently a standing 
expression.). The first remedy is to remove, by all means 
possible, the material cause of sedition (Bacon, Of Sedit- 
ions and Troubles). In the fullest and firmest manner pos- 
sible l (Crusoe). Mr. Esmond . . . chose to depart in the 
most private manner possible (Esmond). The most perfect 
representation possible of colour, light, and shade (Two 
Paths). Not with the most composed countenance possible 
(Nickleby). The most emphatic tone of amazement possible 
(Pickwick). In those days respectability fed at home, but 
one resort possible there was - - an eating-house . . . be- 
hind St. Clement Danes (P. Kelver). 2 

As the reader will have noticed, the substantive in 
every one of the above quotations is at the same time 
qualified by a superlative or an equivalent word ('only',, 
'all', 'any', 'one'), and it is exactly in such cases that the 
verbal character is most predominant. 3 The meaning would 

1 MATZNER says (p. 295): >Das Adjektiv possible ist eigentlich 
eine Satzverkiirzung, which is a convenient explanation, but hardly 
anything more. 

- But. when 'possible' is more adverbial and unstressed: The 
brightest possible little fire (Pickwick). The worst possible port-wine 
at the highest possible price (ib.). With blue wandering eyes under 
the blackest possible eyebrows and hair (Marcella). The utmost pos- 
sible distance (Shaw, Candida). With the smallest possible stretch of 
fancy (Chatto and Windus, Slang Diet.; Preface). 

3 Cf. 53: The best man living, The only person sleeping, etc.. 


indeed often be another if the adj. were put before the 

But it is not necessary that the substantive should 108. 
be qualified by a superlative word, for an adjective in 
-ible (-able) to have a verbal import, as appears from the 
following quotations: 

Payments which should be used to increase the stock 
of books available (C. S. Fearenside, Mod. Sprak, VII, 1909; 
b to be used). The conclusions attainable (= to be attain- 
ed) are generally too vague (Sir H. Holland, Recollections 
of Past Life). 

2. In older English, however, a postpositive adjective 109. 
in -able without any verbal force is not rarely met 
with. Still such phrases are generally to be considered as 
direct borrowings from the French. 

Examples: Withouten any entent decevable (Chaucer, 
Test, of Love). The residue of all my goodes mevable y 
yeve and be-quethe to Alice Whitman my wif (E. E. Wills, 
R. Whyteman; 1428). All his other godes and stuffes 
mevable (E. E. Wills, Sir R. Rochefort; 1439). l At prys 
resonable (Godfrey of Boh, 1481). Orlesse he knowe cause 
resonable of his resorte hider (Cov. L. B., 1495). Without 
he can shewe cause resonable (ib.). Withoute cause or 
matter resonable (ib., 1481). ~ There is but lytil londe gayn- 
able (Godfrey of Bol., 1481. Fr. gaingnables, capable of 
being cultivated). Comien of pasture to their bestes comin- 
able (C. L. B., 1480). As well as other Catell comenable 
(ib.). She sholde purveye therto of a remedy covenable 
(Blanch, and Egl., 1489). 

The following are probably solely imitations of these: 

1 Cf. Ses biens meubles et immeubles (Balzac, Fern me de 
30 Ans). 

2 On the other hand: A reasonable somme of money (C. L. B.). 
Ye shall have a reasonable censure (ib.). 



The preiudyce of her pryde dampnable (Blanch, and 
Egl., 1489). A sacrifice acceptable, well-pleasing to God 
(Auth. Vers., Phil. IV: 18). There are no terms negotiable 
as between Government and Government (Times; Poutsma). 
- In Scott I find: I think thy modesty might suppose that 
were a case possible (Kenilworth). 

no. 3. Adjectives in -able or -ible and negatived by un- 

or in- are also very often placed after the noun. They 
are never verbally tinged, so we must here resort to anal- 
ogy where the phrase is not a direct borrowing l . But 
there is another reason too: the adjectives in question are 
always heavily stressed; and it has been held forth already 
that emphasis has something to say in respect of word- 
order. The substantive is here always in the indefinite 

Examples: But chaffis he shal brenne wi{) fur un- 
quenchable (Wycliffs Bible, Math. Ill: 2). O weight un- 
measurable, o see intransnatable (De Imit. Christi, 1440). 
Hit shal be occasyon of a love inseparable betwyx her and 
you (Blanch, and Egl., 148Q). Colde caused thrughe a hete 
intollerabyll (ib.). And the chaff he will burn with fire 
unquenchable (Auth. Vers., Luke 3: 17; cf above!). Sick 
of the Philosophers stone, a disease uncurable (Earle, Micro- 
cosmographie; 1628). She spoke the last words with 
a smile, and a softness inexpressible (T. Jones). With a 
sensibility inexpressible (Andrews). Who . . . finds difficul- 
ties insuperable for want of ardour sufficient to encounter 
them (Adventurer). It is often occasioned by accidents ir- 
reparable (Rambler). It will give me joy infallible to find 
Sir Lucius worthy (Sheridan, Rivals). With awe unspeakable 
(Sartor). Consider . . . what benefits unspeakable all ages and 
sexes derive from clothes (ib.). There is a power irresistible 

As in: A fistula is... one ulcus undesiccable (Fistula). 


impelling all of us (Duval). Filling his mind with alarm 
undefinable (Esmond). Proofs of love and kindness inestim- 
able (ib.). Which are in fact mines inexhaustible of elo- 
quence (Opium-eater). Wars and revolutions innumerable 
(R. Haggard, Dr. Therne). Then followed a scene of hor- 
ror indescribable (R. Haggard, Jess.). Only through the 
curious processes of my own mind did it raise an obstacle 

insurmountable (King's Mfrror). Since Torpenhow used 

contempt untranslatable, it will never . . . (Light that failed). 
Shame unspeakable (Two Years Ago). 

B. Adjectives in -ant, -ent. 

Where an adjective in -ant or -ent is postpositive ill. 
it is always [semi-] verbal, l 'present' occupying a place 
of its own. As to 'adjacent' I refer, however, to 87. 

1. Other adjectives than 'present'. 112. 

Examples: As hit appearith the V leffe precedent 
(= which precedes this, cf. p. 50; Cov. L. B., 1430). WiJ) all 
o/jlr houses pertinent (= that belong here; Capgrave, St. 
Gilbert; 1451). In the contrees adiacent (Godfrey of Bol., 
1481; cf. adjoining!). Upon payne of every Brother absent 
a li. of wax (Ordin. of the Gild of St. Katherine, 1494; 
T. Smith, English Gilds). Such matter as must here be 
revealed and treated of might endanger the circulation of 
any Journal extant (Sartor; cf. existing!). The earliest Eng- 
lish play extant. 2 You have heard, of course, the many 

1 Of course not in : Every man that is in the Route defendant 
(Cov. L. B., 1534), where the italicized expression is obviously a direct 
French borrowing. 

2 But also, when less stressed: The only extant translation dates 
from 1608 (Verity, Hamlet; Introd.). -- And without any verbal im- 
port: The Court of Love . . . the extant Romaunt of the Rose, are 
also... ascribed to Chaucer (Morris, Chaucer; Intr.). 


stories current, about money buried (Poe, Gold-bug). By 
this time Edward's continual calls had aroused the people 
of the house, and also of the cottages adjacent (New For- 
est). One whose peregrinations had been confined to the 
New Forest and the town adjacent (ib.). Some squireen of 
the parts adjacent (Two Years Ago) *. His shrugs at ... 
the pronunciation prevalent had almost ... (E. Harrington). 
We seem, however, to have no verbality in: Emman- 
uel resolved to make at a time convenient (cf. the only 
time convenient!) a war (Bunyan, Holy War). 

2. Present. 

113. As to the word 'present', usage prescribes, for the 

sake of clearness, that it should always be placed after 
the noun when not denoting time, except in the one ex- 
pression Present company always excepted 2 , where it 
is more universal, more indefinite, and, consequently, less 
verbal than ever. 

Examples: If you speak as you thinke, these gentle- 
women present have little cause to thank you (Euphues). 
Looking round at the strangers present (Nickleby). At those 
times they quietly spoke of Lucie, and of her father then 
present Two Cities). He had felt it . . ., though as strong 
as any man present (Meredith, Belloni). Rose now in- 
timated her wish to perform the ceremony of introduc- 
tion between her aunt and uncle present and the visitors 
to Beckly Court (E. Harrington). 

In Middle English it may occasionally be found after 
its substantive also when it has a temporal sense: Forced 

1 Therefore, when KKUGER, Syntax 2283, declares: Adjektiv - r 
one klingt nach Umgangssprache. In der hoheren Sprache umgeht 
man es durch ... one-}- Adj., and in support of this cites inter alia: 
Many of these rooms had doors which led into the one adjacent, he is, 
of course, making an unhappy mistake. 

- KRUGER, Syntax 287. 


I am at this houre present, syth . . . (Blanch, and Egl., 

Appendix. Adjectives in -ate. 

In older English, inversion is sometimes used also 114. 
with adjectives in -ate. These adjectives are not verbal in 
meaning, but certainly in form. 

Examples: Som-tyme pe sperme go]) oute by J)e hole 
of pe serde infistulate (Fistula; ab. 1400). Unlike is {)e 
savour ... of light increate and light illuminate (De Im. Chri- 
sti, 1440). It wol be late or J)ou be a man illuminate (ib.). 

The postposition in the following is due to special 
reasons to be dealt with in 119: A thousand carriages 
come tumbling in with food and other raw produce inani- 
mate or animate, and go tumbling out again with produce 
manufactured (Sartor). 

Chapter VIII. 


The word 'due' is, properly speaking, a past parti- 115. 
ciple. It is therefore still put after the noun in cases where 
it reminds us of its verbal origin, i. e. in the signification 
of falling to be paid \ as in: Payment for money due, 
Debts due and owing. 

In the signification of appropriate, on the other 
hand, where its verbal character has been totally obscur- 
ed, 'due' is always placed before the noun: In due time, 
To behave with due gravity, With all due respect. 

1 ANN AMiALi:, Concise Engl. Diet. 


Chapter IX. 

'Necessary' and 'needful'. 

116. We have seen that the participle needed > - among 

others - - is not usually placed after its head-word because 
it does not denote an action in the same sense as most 
transitive verbs; it rather implies passivity than the con- 
trary. Thus it comes very near to an ordinary adjective, 
i. e. it expresses something more permanent or univer- 
sal. But it may happen - - as has been indicated in 40 
that such participles do express something more limit- 
ed. This is the case above all when the substantive is 
qualified by a superlative or 'all 1 , 'only', etc. Compare: 
The needed implement, and: The first implement needed, 
the only implement needed. 

The adjectives 'necessary' and 'needful' are of a simi- 
lar meaning to 'needed', so there may be cases where 
they have something verbal in them, namely under the 
circumstances just mentioned. By consequence it is not 
so very astonishing that postposition is met with now and 
then, especially after 'one' ('only'). 

Examples: As afore this tyme have be used at all 
tymes nedefull (Cov. Leet B., 1480). He was . . . endoc- 
tryned of the names and usages for the moost parte of 
thabylymentes necessary (Blanch, and Egl., 148Q). For 
man's well-being, Faith is properly the one thing needful 
(= that man needs; Sartor). I do not possess the kind of 
information necessary, I do not possess the kind of intelli- 
gence (Two Cities). My mother praised me when I was 
good, which was to her the one thing needful (P. Kelver). 

'Requisite' as in the following quotations might perhaps be said 
to form a parallel: To open the gate at tymes and season requysite 
(Cov. L. B., 1470). At eny tyme requisite (ib., 1480). 


Chapter X. 

Postposition of two attributes connected with each 
other by means of 'and', or 'or'. 

A. If two (or more) adj. attr. connected with each 117. 
other by means of 'and', or 'or', are placed after a noun, 
the motive is very often that they are, or were originally, 
added as an afterthought. I insert were originally* 
because in some cases a standing expression has arisen, 
so that the attributes are now integral parts of the utterance. 

As a rule, the substantive is in the indefinite form. 
A comma is sometimes put in after the substantive; this 
only makes the parenthetic character of the attributes still 
more marked. Both . . . and (either . . . or) could often 
be added without any change of meaning. 

1. General examples: 118. 

Onweg aworpenum Cristes geoce fiam leohtan and 
/jam swetan (Bede). Many paleys real and noble (Trevisa; 
Milliner). In a prison voul and stinkinde (Ayenb., 1340). 
1?is bye}) gaveleres (usurers) kueade and voule (ib.). In 
the name of God glorious and almyghty (Maundeville; 
Matzner, p. 56Q). And witte J)ou J)at if J>e ferseid pacient 
sende out blode blak and pikke and stynkyng, ]>at J)is 
flowyng is no^t to be restreyned (Fistula; ab. 1400). Eat 
made a feste grete and costios unto ]:>e weddyng of a son 
of his (Alph. of Tales; 15th cent.). A benefactonr holy and 
gode, of whom we have receyved all good Binges (De 
Imit. Christi, 1440). After this lyf short and transytorye 
all we may atteyne to come to the everlastyng lyf in heven 
(Godfrey of Bol., 1481; Prol.). Without a cause goode or 
raysonable (Blanch, and Egl., 148Q). But I my-self have seen 
and can shew you bybles fayre and old writen in englishe 
(Th. More, Dial, concernynge Heresy; 1528). They hunted 


lions, liberdes, and suche bestis, fierce and savage (Th. Elyot, 
Governor). It never could be that Agnes the pure and 
gentle was privy to this conspiracy (Thackaray, Philip). 
Six horses to her carriage, and servants armed and mounted 
following it (Esmond). The dawning Republic one and in- 
divisible { (Two Cities). Pain, new-born and insistent, for 
her mother, her father, and herself (Marcella). The candy- 
striped pole which indicates nobility proud and ancient 
(Puddn'head Wilson). Eternal youth, infinite passion, pleas- 
ures subtle and secret (D. Gray). Arts feminine and irre- 
sistible encompassed him (E. Harrington). Sort of lake 
green and winding, with nice quiet swims all about (Punch). 
119. 2. Particular notice should be given to the case 

where two adjectives of opposite meanings are added 
to one substantive. 

Examples: God delyvere us from alle evyl of synne 
prevy and apert - (Wycliff, Paternoster). First, table-clothis, 
towelles longe and shorte, covertours and napkyns (Early 
Engl. Meals and Manners). Ewers with water hole or colde, 
as tyme of the yere requirith (ib.). She proceeded to praise 
Mr. Lovelace's person, and his qualifications natural and 
acquired (Clarissa). Publications periodical and stationary 
(Carlyle, Ess.- on Scott). With food and other raw produce 
inanimate or animate (Sartor). Every one of her Lady- 
ship's remedies spiritual or temporal 3 (Vanity Fair). Whom 
neither . . . nor voices plebeian or patrician favoured (Es- 
mond). English Rational and Irrational (Fitzedward Hall. 
Book title). Don't quote from Anecdotes, New and Old, 
interrupted Adela unkindly (God in the Car). It surrounded 
him with friends new and old (Robertson, Hist, of Engl. 

1 Possibly a direct imitation of the French. 

2 Thus also in 15th century German, e. g. Wiser Ititen gelerter 
und ungelerter (Hellwig, p. 113). 

3 Cf., however, Lords spiritual, Lords temporal. 


Lit.). The greatest of all writers ancient or modern (ib.). 
The constant mention or introduction of ballads old and new 
is a marked feature of the Elizabethan drama (Verity, Tw. 
Night; Notes). Playgoers young and old will learn with 
regret that Mr. Ch. Groves has utterly broken down in 
health (The People, 4 July, 1Q09). Forgetfulness of trou- 
bles past and imminent (E. Harrington). In fashions origi- 
nal or imitative (ib.). Birds black and white (Sweet, N. 
E. Or.). A collection of wax figures of celebrities past and 
present (Moren-Harvey). An English Grammar Past and 
Present (Nesfield). A New English Grammar Logical and 
Historical (Sweet). The recent numbers of various econom- 
ical journals, English and foreign (Marcella). 

B. In the last three quotations the postposition may 120. 
.also be due to the averseness to accumulating too 
many qualifiers before one noun. This seems to have 
been the reason in the following: 

Your trewe frendes olde and wise (Chaucer, Melibeus; 
Milliner). Every conseil honeste and profitable (ib.). Many 
sekenez aduste and corrupte (Fistula; ab. 1400). And 
there-in were all maner of serpentes and wylde bestes foul 
and horryble (Morte Darthur, 146Q). Thies letters writen, 
he called a messangere right wise and discrete and delyver- 
ed them unto hym (Three Kings 1 Sons, 1500). Their pe- 
culiar manners and customs, with other matters very curi- 
ous and useful (Gulliver). An elderly butler, English and 
well-trained, took his master's hat (Xavier). A forlorn blue 
ribbon, soiled and frayed (Cardinal's Snuff-box). Second 
Edition revised and enlarged. 

Thus I also account for the word-order in the fol- 
lowing quotations, which do not, however, strictly be- 
long here: 

Lyft is lichamlich gesceaft swyde pynne (Wright, Pop. 
Treat.; Matzner). Many other barons moche worshipful 


(Godfr. of Bol., 1481). We that have so many things truly 
natural that induce admiration (New Atl. Cf. also lQOff), 
Eight tall men likewise armed l (Scott). Twenty other gent- 
lemen .... in Lincoln green a little coarser- (Nickleby). 
121. C. It may also happen that two (or more) attri- 

butes united have much more weight in the sen- 
tence than the noun itself, whereas the latter is hardly 
anything - - from a logical point of view but an almost 
superfluous frame on which the attributes must rest (cf. 
you silly creature, where 'creature' adds nothing to the 
meaning!). That such is really the case is proved by the 
fact that the noun can often be replaced by something^ 
or can simply be left out, so that the adjectives become 
predicative. Sometimes the subst. has been mentioned 
immediately before. 

The attributes here are then emphatic and frequently 
equivalent to a phrase with < both . . . and (either . . . or) T 
and postposition is therefore used. ;i It is very easy for 
anybody to ascertain that the emphasis will be considera- 
bly lessened, one might say totally annihilated, if the word- 
order is altered in the following numerous instances: 

God is juge stalworfte, rygtful and suffrand (the same 
as: God is stal worth etc.; Early Engl. Psalter; Anglos, 
Reader). Cneoris ftweoru and forcerredu (Merc. Hymns, A, 
S. Reader). A venym ulcus is in whom aboundiji venym 
sutil and liquid (Science of Cir., 1380). The duchemen, 

1 The postpositive attribute may, however, be appositional here. 

- The phrase <a little* may, of course, often be awkward if the 
attribute qualified by it is placed before the substantive. Hence the 
transposition in: I shall know to recompense a devotion a little im- 
portunate, my lord (Esmond). 

3 Thus sometimes even in Swedish: Ett verk skapadt for ar- 
hundraden, ett verk stort, hanforande, dgnadt att ... (Sv. Dagbl., 17 
Jan. 1911. Ett storre antal personer -- och personer, mera olika, mera 
naturtrogna (Sydsv. D., 11 Febr. 1911). Notice the rep. of the subst.! 


whiche ben a peple rude and hardy, sawe this glorye 
(= who are rude and hardy; Godfrey of Bol., 1481). I 
knowe you to be a man wyse, resonable, and of good 
wille (ib.). They might unnethes opyn their mowthes, but 
as folkes ded and transitory (Three Kings' Sons, 1500). 
Although one be al, have that one ben most disobedient 
to me in a request lawful and reasonable (Euphues). And 
yit is it holde for a dede allowable and vertuose that worn- 
men were coverchefis (Pecock, Represser). The King etern- 
al, immortal, invisible, the only wise God (Auth. Vers., I, 
Tim. I: 17). And now was it a day gloomy and dark 
(Bunyan, H. War). Fuel ... to flames insatiate and devour- 
ing (Clarissa). There is more pleasure in an innocent and 
virtuous life, than in one debauched and vicious (Tom Jo- 
nes). A man uneducated and unlettered 1 (Adventurer). A 
style clear, pure, nervous, and expressive (ib.). He that is 
carried forward by a motion equable and easy perceives 
not . . . (Idler). Establishing their authority over minds 
ductile and unresting (Rambler). The new development 
of those powers, though a development natural, inevitable, 
and to be prevented (Macaulay, Hist.). I, for my part, 
only remember a lady weak, and thin, and faded, who . . . 
(Philip)'. Its use for purposes vain or vile (Two Paths). 
What could be seen was of a nature singular and ex- 
citing (Poe, Hans Pfaal). The whole character of that 
bold address became invested with a something preter- 
natural and inspired (Rienzi). The easy humour 

had changed into a vein ironical, cynical, and severe (ib.). 
In the humblest grades of art there were men younger, or 
more fortunate, or more preferred (Ouida, Fame). Musical 
bells chimed softly from the hall below, an octave deep 
and sonorous and pleasing, like the chimes from an Italian 

1 Cl, however, Ch. VI. 


campanile (Xavier). It had been a death swift, silent, vio- 
lent, terrible (Ouida, Pipistrello). I led a life noisy and 
joyous, and for ever in movement (ib.). Snakes? says 

Mary. Yes, Mary; but these were snakes spiritual and 

metaphorical* (Kingsley, Two Years Ago). Forgive me, 
Glory ! he was saying, in a voice tremulous and intense 
(Christian). In other words, a purse long and liberal (Mer- 
edith, E. Harrington). 

We cannot, however, class among these such expressions as: 
It is cheating pure and simple* ', where the two adjectives united 
form an adverbial adjunct, or: The sticklers for English pure and un- 
defiled (P. Kelver), which has come to be a set phrase. 
122. D. What has been said above applies with still more 

reason to the case of an unstressed noun being modi- 
fied by two weighty attributes, one or both of 
which preceded by an adverb. It would indeed be 
impossible not to lay some stress on the substantive if it 
were put after the adjectives; so these would thereby lose 
most of their emphasis. 

Examples: Yet would I not have parents altogether 
precise, or too severe (Euphues). Socrates, who refused to 
save his life by disobeying the magistrate, yea a magistrate 
most wicked and unjust (Florio). Characters extremely good, 
or extremely bad, are seldom justly given (Clarissa). Symp- 
toms of a spirit singularly open, thoughtful, almost poetical 
(Sartor Res.). To which they added an expression almost 
corpse-like and unearthly (Qu. Durward). Nay>, said Ade- 
line, in a voice singularly sweet and clear (Rienzi). A tract 
of country excessively wild and desolate (Poe, Gold-bug). 
The impulses of a heart originally just and good (Opium- 
eater). The stars shone out, though with a light unusually 
dim and distant (ib.). She was a woman very pure and 

1 This mode of expression is a direct borrowing from the French. 
Cf. Qu'est-ce que tout cela, si ce n'est de la chimie pure et simple 
(Flaubert, M:me Bovary). 


very honest (Pipistrello). Ali the warm expressions of a 
heart naturally kind and generous (Venetia). He or she 
will end in believing evil of folk very near and dear (Plain 
Tales). It is in the domain of mezzo-tint that he holds 
a place quite unique and commanding (Studio, Oct. 1Q10). 

Also when the adverb is 'most' or 'less': I cannot 123. 
call to mind where I have heard words more mild and 
peace/all (Milton, Areopagitica). Of a size more large and 
robust (Gulliver). With miseries more dreadful and afflictive 
(Johnson, Rambler). In terms less acrimonious and unfair 
(Thackaray, Philip). 

Chapter XI. 

Postposition of a single attribute preceded by 
a quantitative adverb. 

When an emphatic attribute is preceded by a 124, 
ponderous quantitative adverb it seems to be almost 
the rule to use inversion when the noun is in the indefi- 
nite form. Otherwise the emphasis becomes considerably 
less than it should be. Two cases are to be kept apart: 

A. The adjective is more strongly stressed than 
the adverb. 

The adverbs here used are most often 'almost', 'well- 125. 
nigh', 'quite', 'truly', 'full', and some others. 

Examples: An oj)re }}et is zenne wet grat, {)et is 
felhede (fierceness) of herte (Ayenb.; 1340). This bataylle 
endured wel an houre al hoole (Godf. of Bol., 1481). The 
palays and the cyte were . . . replenyssed wyth sorowe ful 
byttir (Blanch, and Egl., 1489). With a contenaunce full 


sadde, more than ever she was byfore (ib.). He entre herde 
the cryes fill piteouse of a rnayden (ib.). All your scruples, 
you see, have met with an indulgence truly maternal from 
me (Clarissa). The Comfort he draws from ... is a sen- 
timent truly Diabolical (Addison, Spectator, Febr. 23, 1712). 
A barrier almost Impassable l separates him from the com- 
missioned officer (Macaulay, Hist.). The multitude . . . attrib- 
uted to him a prescience almost miraculous (ib.). He was 
surrounded by pomp almost regal (ib.). With a strength 
quite surprising (Durward). Long-drawn chirpings and 
activity almost superhirundine (Sartor). Here also we have 
a Symbol well-nigh superannuated (ib.). A coolness from 
business, an indolence almost cloistral (Elia). Turned to- 
wards Byronism with an interest altogether peculiar (Car- 
lyle, Ess. on Scott). I perceived that it had grown to a 
pallor truly fearful (Poe, W. Wilson). This one has . . . 
a weight altogether irresistible L (Poe, Mystery of Marie 
Roget). With a rolling gait altogether indescribable 1 (Twist). 
An expression of villainy perfectly demoniacal (ib.). A fi- 
delity which he returned with an ingratitude quite Royal 
(Esmond). Turner appears as a man of sympathy absolutely 
infinite (Ruskin, Pre-raphaelitism). As the synonym for 
rectitude in dealing quite old-fashioned (P. Kelver). But 
do not despise a virtue purely Pagan (E. Harrington). 
Without a title or money he was under eclipse almost total 
(ib.). A bill was presented ... for a sum quite preposterous 
(Wide World Mag., Sept. 1010). 

126. Also the adverb 'most' belongs to this section. LOUISE 

POUND says (Comp. of Adj. in Engl. in the XV and the 
XVI cent., 88; Anglistische Forschungen) without 
any restriction or explanation! as to the postposition of 
an attribute preceded by 'most': The order exemplified by 

Cf., however, Ch. VII, A. 


Ascham's a virtue most noble ... is common in both the 
fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries, especially in the latter 
part of the 16th. This word-order is not, however, un- 
usual in Modern English either, in case the attribute is 
emphatic and the noun in the indefinite form, that is. 

Examples: Danaus whome they report to be the 
father of fiftie children, had among them all but one that 
disobeyed him in a thing most dishonest l (Euphues). He 
multiplieth in brother-hood, a thing most singular *, and a 
lonely one (Florio). There are certaine by-wayes and deep- 
flows most profitable, which we should do well to leave 
(ib.). What is heaven? A place and state most blessed, 
because God dwelleth there (Pilgr. Progr.). Accusation 
was formally preferred and retribution most signal was 
looked for (Elia). O outcast of all outcasts most abandoned 
<Poe, W. Wilson). It was a stain that can never be effaced 
a deed most diabolical, and what we thought would 
call down the vengeance of Heaven (New Forest). What 
if the Cogglesby Brewery proved a basis most unsound 
(E. Harrington). A man most enviable (ib.). My thanks 
to you most sincere (ib.). - Also: That is the term most 
suitable, inasmuch as ... (Pearson's Mag., Jan. 1Q10). 

Where 'most' is preceded by the def. art. one would 127. 
feel inclined to take the whole for a direct imitation of the 
French. This seems to me quite unnecessary, firstly be- 
cause a real superlative in this case requires 'the' if it is 
not to be misunderstood as a weaker form ('most' = Swed. 
hogst), secondly because the same construction can be 
used in Swedish (e. g. Ett forhallande det mest egen- 
domliga, man kan tanka sig), and thirdly because French 
influence would not very likely have, stopped there. 

Examples: A resolution the most momentous of his 

1 Cf., however, Ch. XIII, L. 


whole life (Macaulay, Hist.). Under circumstances the most 
pathetic (Kenilworth). From circumstances the most singu- 
lar dragged on to a precipice (ib.). Born in an age the 
most prosaic ... in a condition the most disadvantageous 
(Carlyle, Ess. on Burns). Cowardice the most abject and 
selfish ! (Opium-eater). Friendship the most delicate and 
love the most pure (Disraeli, Venetia). The extraordinary 
interest ... for minds the most diverse (Verity, Tempest; 

B. The adjective and the adverb ape both equally 

128. Examples: For Jjon he waes se monn swide cefcest 

(pious) (Caedmon; A. S. Reader). is porcion turnyd in-to 
a little fynger all bludy (Alph. of Tales; 15th cent.) Wise 
men clepid he men gretly lerned, and on wise, simple ydiotis 
(Capgrave, St. Augustine; Prol.; ab. 1450). A gentilman, 
a knyght right noble, named Gaultier (Godfrey of Bol.,, 
1481). The knyght ... is of byrth right hyghe (Blanch, 
and Egl., 1489). They . . . made unmeasurable sorow, as 
folkes utterly dispeired (Three Kings' Sons; 1500). Courage, 
constancie, and resolution, means altogether opposite (Florio). 
To forswear the full stream of the world, and to live in, 
a nook merely monastic (As you, III: 2). In a hand scarce 
legible (Milton, Areopagitica). Like a man perfectly confused 
and out of myself, I came home (Crusoe). He had made 
me several offers very advantageous, which, however, I 
refused (Gulliver). I came from countries very remote of 
which they never heard (ib.). He, I say, formed a conjec- 
ture equally absurd (Wakefield). They have not, perhaps, 
expected events equally strange, or by means equally inade- 
quate (Rambler). Had they not happened to wound apart 

Cf., however, Ch. X, D. 


remarkably tender (ib.). Such fears argued a diffidence 
and despondence very criminal (Andrews). It had infinitely 
a stronger effect on him . . . an effect, however, widely dif- 
ferent (T. Jones). The militia was an institution eminently 
popular (Macaulay, Hist.). Some passages, which, to minds 
strongly prepossessed, might seem to confirm the evidence 
of Gates (ib.). Your passion transports you into a language 
utterly unworthy. The hand of no gentlewoman can be 
disposed of by force (Durward). The moon shed a full 
sea of glorious light upon a landscape equally glorious 
(ib.). I am not mad - I am but a creature unutterably 
miserable (Kenil worth). Yet it is a difference literally im- 
mense (Carlyle, Ess. on Scott). He makes a bow to the 
doctor who replied by a salutation equally stiff (Duval). 
A scholar who . . . bore the same Christian and surname 
as myself, a circumstance, in fact, little remarkable (Poe, W. 
Wilson). A man thoroughly great has a certain contempt 
for his kind while he aids them (Rienzi). The printed re- 
port gave excellent design (that is to say, design excellently 
good), which I did not mean (Two Paths). With a fore- 
sight and prudence highly commendable (Nickleby). Many 
exotic plants have pollen utterly worthless (Darwin, Origin). 
This incident I look back upon with feelings inexpressively 
profound (Opium-eater). Those years had been steeped in 
the sense of a lot irremediably hard (Floss). When a tem- 
porary gust of feeling carried her into an emotion unex- 
pectedly strong (King's Mirror). The glass showed her a 
rosy face, and arms and shoulders superbly white (Xavier). 
Some of them . . . proffered an assistance entirely unneces- 
sary with an emphasis absolutely unnecessary (ib.). He was 
roused from his reverie by an altercation unmistakably fierce 
(E. Harrington). We have privileges equally enviable (ib.). 
The Critic has been once or twice revived in days com- 
paratively recent (Introd. to Plays of Sheridan; World's 


Classics). There might be rejoinders equally subtle (Molloy, 
Shall and Will). * 

129. This also applies to an adjective preceded by 'more' 

or 'less', as these are quantitative adverbs as good as any 
and can be emphasized. 

Examples with 'more': That he shold enclose them 
in a place more strayt, that they shold not renne in to the 
contre (Godf. of Bol., 1481). Here's metal more attractive 
(Hamlet, III: 2). Other societies possess written Constitu- 
tions more symmetrical 2 (Macaulay, Hist.). You cannot derive 
it from a source more worthy, answered Toison d'Or (Dur- 
ward). Some of lower education, or a nature more brutal, 
saw only . . . (ib.). Aid more seasonable (Opium-eater). If 
I were you, I should feel myself in a danger more delightful 
(King's Mirror). Perhaps it would support an interpretation 
. more subtle (ib.). No scene of contrasts more picturesque could 
have been discovered or imagined (Xavier). Prince Arthur 
had no friend more enthusiastic (ib.). An influence more 
potent refrained her (ib.). Rest more absolute could not 
have been . . . (ib.). No salon of Paris had shown her a 
figure more distinguished (ib.). Rome surely contained no 
slum more fetid, none more perilous (Cardinal's Snuff-box). 
They retreated . . . and went to other listeners more facile ' 2 
(Ouida, Umilta). Another trouble awaited me, one more 
tangible (P. Kelver). 

Examples with 'less': If it had come from a person 
less prejudiced (Clarissa). If it be detained by occupations 
less pleasing it returns again to study (Rambler). Which, 
in souls less enlightened, may be guiltless (ib.). A century 
earlier, irritation less serious would have produced a general 
rising (Macaulay, Hist.). The vacant seats were generally 

1 Cf. also: He commended the services of somebody pretty high 
(E. Harrington). We could not say somebody high. 

2 Cf., however, 120. 


filled with persons less tractable (ib.). Though with emo- 
tions less stormy (Rienzi). Wearing a character less offens- 
ive (Opium-eater). There were other functionaries less for- 
tunate *, that night and other nights (Two Cities). Out of 
other hands less scrupulous (New Forest). 

With both 'more' and 'less': In a manner more or less satis- 
factory (Durward; Introd.). 

Appendix 1. 130. 

The same word-order is sometimes observed also 
where other kinds of adverbs are concerned, under the 
circumstances mentioned. 

Examples: To an extent elsewhere unknown (Macaulay, 
Hist.). The understanding of a man naturally sanguine 
may, indeed . . . (Rambler). A skin transparently pure (Dur- 
ward). Who sometimes has with some . . . little nook of 
literature an acquaintance critically minute (Opium-eater). 
Authorities notoriously neutral (ib.). A case of the hybrid 
offspring of two animals clearly distinct 2 , being themselves 
perfectly fertile (Darwin, Origin). With expressions subtly 
various (King's Mirror). Complexions otherwise flawless are 
often ruined . . . (Cosmopol. Mag., Oct. 1Q10). 

As for attributes preceded by adverbs of time, see 
the following chapter. 

Appendix 2. 131. 

In the older language postposition of an attribute 
preceded by 'somewhat' was not uncommon. In ordinary 
Present English this is not found, as 'somewhat' is never 

Examples: It ought to bee a voluptuousnesse somewhat 
circumspect and conscientious 3 (Florio). A counsel some- 
what rash (ib.). You were better take for business a man 

1 Cf., however, Introduction, 11, 12, and 120. 

2 Clearly distinct* italicized by Darwin! 

3 Compare also 122 and 120. 


somewhat absurd than over-formal (Bacon, Of Seeming Wise). 
Rubb the neck well with a linnen napking somewhat course l 
(E. E. Meals and Man., 1624). He came at a place some- 
what ascending, and upon that place stood a cross (Pilgr. 
Prog.). Domestics of a kind somewhat unusual (Gulliver). 
A copy of the gospels somewhat mutilated, which . . . 
(Johnson, Diet.). 

The following is from Late Mod. Engl., but sounds 
decidedly archaic: Wales . . . breeds a population somewhat 
litigious (Opium-eater). 

There was also another arrangement frequently used, namely: 
It hath somewhat a sharp taste (Florio). Brick of somewhat a bluer 
colour (New Atl.). In somewhat a humbler style (Sheridan, School for 
Sc.). My gossip has somewhat an ugly favour to look upon (Durward). 

Chapter XII. 

Adjectives preceded by temporal adverbs. 

132. It has been pointed out above ( 98) that some hesitation 

prevails with a view to placing a participle modified by a 
temporal adverb before the noun. Also when the attribute 
is an adjective proper we frequently meet with postposit- 
ion in this case. The motive is, of course, another, as 
adjectives in general cannot be said to be in the slightest 
degree verbal, even if the notion of time is strong. 

I have already hinted at the fact that the only cate- 
gory of adverbs that did not entail inversion of noun and 
attribute in older English was the quantitative. So we 
naturally expect postposition there. But postposition is 
also the rule in Modern English as soon as the adjective 
and its temporal qualifier are to be emphasized at the 

Compare also 120. 


cost of the substantive. Otherwise the latter deprives the 
other two parts of speech of a great portion of their stress. 
This rule may, by the way, also be applied to many of 
the instances of the order noun + temp. adv. -f- part, given 
in a previous chapter. 

Examples: It is a quality ever hurtfull, ever sottish 
(Florio). An insolent man is a fellow newly great, and 
newly proud (Earle, Micro-cosm.; 1628). Unfurnished with 
knowledge previously necessary (Adventurer). That Elizabeth 
might enter the Castle by a path hitherto untrodden 1 
(Kenilworth). With a precision before unexampled * (Rus- 
kin). The remembrance of a home long desolate (Two Cities). 
A boy living at the time then present (Mill on the Floss). 
A yesterday already remote (Cardinal's Snuff-box). 

Other motives ( 120) may account for the transposit- 
ion in the following: Some fair lady hitherto unknown (P. 
Kelver). A harmonising attractiveness continually delightful 
(Daily Mail, July 6, 190Q). An eminent English man of 
letters now dead (King's Mirror). 

When no emphasis is aimed at, postposition is not 133. 
used in Mod. English: 

He walked moodily some paces up the once populous 
avenue (Poe, The Man of the Crowd). The hitherto irre- 
proachable firm of Stillschweigen (Sartor). My once bright 
prospects (D. Duval). A once predominant order (Darwin, 
Origin). A new and sometimes very different character (ib.). 
Costly and sometimes unhallowed sacrifices (Fullerton, Bon- 
neval). That recently-despised but now welcome article of 
costume (Floss). The yet green grapes (Ouida, Umilta). 
The always cold, bleak North (Ouida, Birds in the Snow). 
The then favourite game of tennis (Verity, Tempest; Notes). 
The still active use (Chatto and Windus, Slang Diet.). An 
ever fresh pleasure (Light that failed). 

1 Cf., however, Ch. VI. 


A hyphen between a prepositive adjective and its adverb is 
occasionally found in the older language. This method may be look- 
ed upon as an intermediate stage J . 

Examples: You ever-gentle gods (Lear, IV: 6). The ever-praise- 
worthy poesie (Sidney, Apologie). Cf. also: Any directly-constant. . . 
judgement (Florio). 

Even as late as Dickens and Disraeli: The once-peaceful streets 
(Two Cities). The still-distant huntsman (Venetia). 

Chapter XIII. 

Postposition of ordinary adjectives not qualified 
by any adverb. 

A. I begin this section with some doubtful cases, 
namely those touching previous, next, last, and sufficient. 
134. 1. Previous. It is indeed rather uncertain whether 

'previous' is an adjective, and not an adverb, when it is 
placed after a noun denoting time. In Middle English, in 
Elizabethan English, and also in the living vulgar language, 
there are numerous instances of an adjective being used 
as an adverb without the ending -ly. It is then not im- 
possible that we have to deal with a remnant of the older 
idiom in the case of 'previous' put after its head-word. 
'Previous' following a substantive of time means exactly 
the same as the adverb 'before', just as 'previous to' is 
equivalent to the preposition 'before'. - There is an in- 
teresting parallel tending to corroborate this view in the 
following examples: 

1 A hyphen is still often used in Modern Engl. with some quan- 
titative adverbs: That half-pleasurable... sentiment (Poe). A half- 
polite, half-tender glance (Floss). With a half-angry gesture (Lady 
Audley). The thrice-guilty principal (ib.). A half-frightened, half- 
vacant sorrow (Harte, By Sedge and Shore). 


A poor little wretch who had been awake half the 
night before and many nights previous (D. Duval). The 
pamphlet of yesterday, or the poem of the day previous, 
or the scandal of the week before (Thackaray, Philip). 

Further instances: 

Mrs. B. had told him of the accident at supper on 
the night previous (Duval). My little white dimity bed was 
as smooth and trim as on the day previous (Van. Fair). In 
1812..., as well as for some years previous, \ had been 
chiefly studying German metaphysics (Opium-eater). 

Perhaps the likeness in use to postpositive 'following', 'coming' 
may also count for something. 

2. Last and next. As regards Mast' and 'next', they 135. 
might very well be dismissed as adverbs when placed 
behind in expressions of time. So they are too in the 
collocations last past, next coming (following, ensuing), 
as in: 

This very year last past (Two Cities). And crown her 
Queen of England, ere the thirtieth of May next ensuing 
(II, Henry VI, I: 1). At Esture next comyng (Cov. L. Book, 
1421) l . 

Even if we need not look upon postpositive Mast' 
and 'next' as short for last past, next coming (follow- 
ing, ensuing), it is at any rate possible that the analogy 
of these as well as of the simple postpositive 'past', 'com- 
ing', etc. has at least contributed to the rise and propa- 
gation of the word-order in modern Saturday last, Satur- 
day next, etc. 

One might also imagine, if 'last' and 'next' are not 
adverbs here, that Saturday last (next) stands for Saturday 
last (next) week, and that The 30th of May last (next) 
stands for The 30th of May last (next) year (spring). Com- 

For further instances, see 89. 


pare Latin proximo, ultimo. It looks as if that were the 
case in: On Thursday evening last (Twist). 

136. Postposition is frequent as early as the Middle Eng- 
lish period. 

Examples: XV li. at Esteren next, and X li. at Este- 
ren come twelmonthe (E. E. Wills, 1417). To be yeven 
be Michelmas day next (Cov. L. B., 1464). The matier 
shuld be continied till Estur next (ib., 14Q3). On Wednes- 
day next (Rich. II). Why did you not lend it to Alice 
Shortcake upon All-hallowmas last (Merry Wives, I: 1). 
You spit on me on Wednesday last (Merch. of Yen., I: 3). 
On Black-Monday last at six o'clock (ib., II: 5). On Good- 
Friday last (I, Henry IV, I: 2). 

137. 3. Sufficient. It is quite apparent that 'sufficient' is 
often at bottom an adverb when it has its place after its 
head-word, a phenomenon frequently met with in older and 
modern English, from the 15th century down to our days 1 . 

Examples: I had both scissors and razors sufficient 
(Crusoe). There are already books sufficient in the world 
(Johnson, Adventurer). He may find real crimes sufficient 
to give full employment to caution or repentance (Rambler). 
The gazetteers and writers . . . have given accounts suffic- 
ient of that bloody battle (Esmond). Juliana at least had 
hints sufficient (E. Harrington). 

138. But it is nowise necessary always to have recourse 
to such an explanation. 'Sufficient' may very well be an 
adjective also when postpositive, having received its place 
on the analogy of 'enough', which is not an adjective, 
but an adverb (originally a noun probably). Since enough 
company is the same as sufficient company, company suffic- 
ient ought easily to be substituted for company enough, 
one would think. 

1 We cannot refer 'sufficient' to 111 above, because it has 
never anything verbal in it. 


Thus 'sufficient' may be a real adjective, though it is 
uncertain, in: 

Then we shall have work sufficient, without any more 
accrease (Florio). For want of ardour sufficient to en- 
counter them (Adventurer). He had salary sufficient of the 
state (New Atlantis). Any illness which left the patient 
strength sufficient to walk about (Opium-eater). That will 
be explanation sufficient (New Forest). 

On the other hand it cannot well be an adverb in 139. 
the following quotations: 

f)ou shalt finde tyme sufficient and covenable. . . (Imit. 
Christi, 1440). If the Vintners nose be at the doore, it is 
a signe sufficient (Earle, Micro-cosm., 1628). Nor were the 
rocks in the island of hardness sufficient, but all were . . . 
(Crusoe). Sufficient indication, if no proof sufficient, re- 
mains for us in his works (Carlyle, Ess. on Burns). 

B. Square and Sterling-. 

1. Square is often placed after 'foot'. KRUGER says 140. 
(Syntax 289): Unterscheide six feet square = 6 Fuss 

im Quadrat, 6 Fuss lang und 6 Fuss breit, von six square 
feet, 6 Quadratfuss. This in other words means that 
'square' is put after the noun only when used adverbially 
(Swed. i kvadrat), not in an attributive function. 

Postposition is not, however, used solely when the 
expression is a predicative complement, as in: Each is 
about forty feet square (Gulliver), but also in other com- 
binations, e. g. A space of eight feet square (Ruskin), In 
the space of a foot and a half square (Ruskin), The little 
parlour, of some 12 feet square (Irving, Sketchbook). 

Strictly speaking, foot square does not fall within 
the compass of this treatise. 

2. Pound sterling is short for Pound Easterling; so 141. 
'sterling' is not, properly speaking, an adjective in this 


collocation, although it has later on been apprehended as, 
and has passed into, an adjective. 

As a real adjective it does not, however, stand after 
its substantive. 

C. Postposition after 'with'. 

142. In a phrase like He returned with his mind unchanged 
'unchanged' is not, of course, an attribute, but predicative 
in the same way as the participles in: Then Jack Hunter, 
without a word said, sped across the marshes (H. Sutcliffe, 
The Jolly Smugglers; Winds. Mag., May 1Q10), // was not 
the first time he had borrowed a neighbour's horse without 
leave asked (ib.); thus = He returned, his mind being- 
unchanged, or: having his mind unchanged^. 

In like manner, With prices affixed (where 'prices' stands 
for the prices , in accordance with the principles of the 
advertising style) may be transcribed: The prices being 

Compare also: That is victorie indeed, which shall 
be attained with credit unimpeached, and dignitie untainted 
(= without impeachment of credit etc. Florio). I come with 
no fame won, and no young vision realised (Twist). 

143. In the following quotation the part, should be un- 
derstood as a substantive (cf. 50): With drums beating 
and music sounding (= with beating of drums etc.). There 
must be a battle, a brave, boisterous battle, with pendants 
waving and cannon roaring (Audley). 

144. Under the influence of such combinations the same 
word-order is kept up also when the adj. or part, after 
'with' is used attributively. 

1 Such expressions are, of course, renderings of the Latin abla- 
tive absolute, without a word said* being equivalent to with no 
word said. 

a) Very often it will be possible to explain the matter 
simply by assuming omission of a poss. pron., so that 
the adjective becomes properly speaking a predicative part 
of the sentence. That the pronoun can be omitted is clear 
from the following quotations: 

With eyes fixed upon the spot where the carriage had 
disappeared (Twist). My mother sat quite still, with eyes 
intent on the floor (King's Mirror). With blood aflame (adv.!) 
and face hot with anger, Sherlock strode from his hiding- 
place (F. M. White, The Salmon Poachers; Winds. Mag. 
July 1910). 

No doubt it was so at first; French Les yeux fermes 
was rendered by With eyes shut, where 'with' was thought 
to correspond to Mes'. But it is hardly probable that the 
adj. (or part.) is felt to be predicative now; otherwise one 
would not combine the two different constructions, as in: 

This good angel . . . v . . stood before him with keen 
words and aspect malign (Esmond). With folded arms and 
bodies half doubled (Twist). For nearly ten minutes he 
stood there, motionless, with parted lips, and eyes strangely 
bright (D. Gray). 

At any rate, where a poss. pron. may be supposed 145. 
to be omitted postposition is considered the best con- 
struction. In Moderna Sprak VI, 1910, Mr. Fearenside cor- 
rects a Swedish learner's A ship with set sails into [better:] 
sails set. 

Examples: This yonge Davyd, with visage assured, 
as he that abode the dethe . . ., seide to the Soudan yn 
this wise . . . (Three Kings' Sons, 1500). Toothless, with 
eies dropping, or crooked and stooping (Florio). Meagre 
looking, with eies trilling, flegmatick, squalid, and spauling 
(ib.). A small cherub of gold with wings displayed (New 
Atlantis). He marched into Liege as a conqueror, with 
visor closed (Durward). I think they wear helmets with 


visors lowered (ib.). He turned toward Durward with mace 
uplifted (ib.). As if he were . asleep with eyes open (Sartor). 
While they waited with stomachs faint and empty, they be- 
guiled the time by embracing one another (Two Cities). 
He walked to and fro with thoughts very busy until it was 
lime to return (ib.). Who, with prospects blighted, lingered 
on at home (Twist). You gentle reader, with brain fully 
grown, trained by years ... (P. Kelver). 'Winking', with 
eyes shut (Verity, Henry V; Notes). Placid like a statue, 
with cheeks a little hollower, and lips a little whiter (Merri- 
man, -On the Rocks). I should be proud of it, she said, 
with head erect (King's Mirror). 

146. b) On the other hand there can be no doubt as to 
the attributive character of the adjective (or participle) in 
the following quotations: 

If he smyte with a swerd or a knyfe drawyn he schall 
pay half a marke (Cov. L. B., 1421). Whereas he should 
return with a mind full-fraught, he returns with a wind- 
puft conceit (Florio). He is sent to the University, and 
with great heart burning takes upon him the Ministry 
(Earle, Micro-cosm.; 1628). I stored my boat with the car- 
casses of 100 oxen and 300 sheep, with bread and drink 
proportionable l (Gulliver). My aunt was there and looked 
upon me as if with kindness restrained, bending coldly to 
my compliment (Clarissa). We are, therefore, not to won- 
der that most fail . . . with a mind unbiassed and with 
liberty unobstructed (Rambler) 2 . 

147. Inversion in this case cannot, however, be said to 
be in accordance with modern usage. In the following 
examples from more recent times other motives have, I 
think, determined the word-order: 

A forked radish with a head fantastically carved 

1 Cf., however, in proportion, and also 109. 

2 Participles are, of course, most liable to transposition. 


(Sartor) l . With a hope ever darkening 2 , and with . . . (Two 
Cities). I heard him descending with steps slow and steady 3 
(Opium-eater). The Doctor, with a countenance unusually 
serious 3 , offered her his arm (Venetia). 

In the following quotations 'with' is omitted: She paused, mouth 
open, eyes wide, listening (C. Carr, Votes for Women; Winds. Mag. 
June 1910). At all events, eyebrows raised, face unsmiling, it was a 
glance that . . . (Cardinal's Snuff-box). 

D. Dear. Just as 'child' in: A rich husband, Polly, 148. 
child! and you are a lady ready made (E. Harrington), is 
a term of endearment or word to attract attention added 
afterwards, in the same way 'dear' in Come, Annie (,) 
dear! is a posterior supplement thought necessary for the 
sake of better effect. DICKENS has: Oliver, my dear, come 
to the gentleman > (Twist), where 'dear' comes pretty near 
to a noun. The similarity between the two modes of ex- 
pression is thence obvious. 

Postposition in such cases was the rule as early as 149. 
the Anglo-Saxon period: Hroftgar leofa (Sweet). Men pa 
leofestan (Blickl. Horn.; Milliner. Anrede). Hceleft min se 
leofa (Elene; Kellner, Hist. Outlines). Mine gebroftra pa 
leofostan (Aelfric's Horn.; Milliner). Broker min seleofosta 
(ib.). Dohtor min seo dyreste (Juliana; Kellner). 

Examples from later times: Thisby dear (Mids. Night). 150. 
My father ! she called to him. Father dear (Two Cities). 
Maisie, dear, it sounds absurd (Light that failed). Grace 
dear, interposed her mother (Two Years Ago). I won't 
leave you, uncle dear (G. P. Hawtrey, Pickpocket). 

It is not in accordance with the modern idiom to use 151. 
inversion also when the substantive is preceded by a pos- 
sessive pronoun. But Shakespear has: Ah, Pyramus, my 
lover dear (Mids. Night). Thisby dear, my lady dear (ib.). 

1 Cf. Ch. v. 

2 Cf. 121. 

3 Cf. 130. 


The following quotations should also be compared as parallels: 
A ! traytour antrewe (=-. traitor, you untrue dog), sayd kyng Ar- 
thur (Morte Darthur). -- You're tied up in a sack and made to run 
about blind, Binkie-wee (= Binkie, my little dog. Light that failed). 

E. Pliny the Elder, Charles the Great, and the like. 

152. Phrases like Pliny the Elder, Charles the Great are 
no special characteristics of English. They are common 
to both ancient and modern languages, and the reason 
of the postposition is simply that the adjectives were originally 
appositions, i. e. explanatory additions, just as are the 
nouns in: The difference between one the numeral and one 
the pronoun is ... (Sweet, Gram.). 

In older English nearly all appositions are placed after the head- 
word, e. g. Ignatius bisc., Eoppa mcessepreost, Cometa se steorra, 
On Hit pam ealonde (Kube, 29). Honorius casere (Bede's Eccl. 
Hist.). Fram Agusto pam casere (ih.). 

153. In Anglo-Saxon such appositional adjectives could 
even be separated from the noun by other parts of the 
sentence, as in: Ond }>aer weard Sidroc eorl ofslaegen se 
alda, and Sidroc eorl se gioncga etc. (Sax. Chron.). 

154. Direct borrowings from the Latin are Asia Minor and 
proper nouns + senior, junior, major (e. g. Fowler major 
told me the yarn one day; J. Pope, Pym's Sister; Winds. 

* Mag., June, 1910). 

Other instances from older and more recent times: 
Sidroc eorl se gioncga (Sax. Chron.). Bi {>am cuaed Salo- 
monn se snottra (Cura Past.). Oswald se eadiga (Aelfr. 
Horn., Milliner). Libye the hye, and Libye the lowe (Maun- 
dev., Matzner). Ynde the lesse (ib.). Ermonye the litylle 
and the grete (ib., Milliner). Peris Smyth the yongar (E. E. 
Wills, 1411). A centre named danemarche the moyen l (God- 
frey of Bol., 1481). Thence into Little Saffron Hill, and so 

Fr. Danemarche la Maienne, Lat. Dacia mediterranea. 


into Saffron Hill the Great (Twist). Amomma the outcast 
because she might blow up at any moment -- brows- 
ed, in the background (Light that failed). 

F. Phrases borrowed or copied from the Latin. 

1. Grammatical phrases. 

It can hardly be doubted that nominative absolute and 155. 
ablative absolute are descendants in a direct line of Latin 
nominativus absolutus, ablativus absolutus. 

And all other grammatical terms with a postpositive 
adjective naturally go back to the same source. They have 
passed into standing expressions and might therefore, from 
a modern point of view, be regarded as compound words. 

Examples: The persons plural keep the termination of 
the first person singular (Ben Jonson). Nouns signifying 
a multitude require a verb plural (ib.). The formation of 
a participle passive from a noun is a licence . . . (Colle- 
ridge, Table Talk). 'Strucken', the old participle passive 
(Johnson, Diet. 1 ). We might take two years in getting 
through the verbs deponent (Elia). It is separated from the 
participle passive (Abbott, Sh. Gram.). Progress , the 
verb neuter (Fitzedw. Hall, Mod. Engl.). His verb active 
pleasure, and several similar forms, are archaisms (ib.). 
English Imperfects Passive (ib.). Mostly after verbs intrans- 
itive (Abbott), e mute, -ed sonant, h mute (ib.). Omission 
of the subject relative (Verity, As you; Notes), m final. 

In Late Modern English this word-order is not gen- 156. 
erally used, except perhaps in the language of conserv- 
ative latinizing grammarians. 

It is somewhat uncertain whether we are to look upon the fol- 157. 
lowing as imitations of the above: / short is decidedly secondary 

1 Cited by G. LANNERT, An Investigation into the Lang, of R. 
Crusoe, Uppsala 1910. 


(Lloyd, North. Engl.). e short is the normal short printed e (ib.). e 
long is not found quite pure in N.-Engl. (ib.). We might indeed 
be entitled to regard i short etc. as an abbreviation of i, when it is 
short, or i, the short, so that the adjectives were either predicative 
or appositional. 

2. Biblical phrases. 

158. God Omnipotent derives its origin direct from Lat. 
Deas Omnipotens. The more- frequent form is, however, 
the anglicized God Almighty (cf. Swed. Gud allsmaktig). 

Examples from older English: Gode allmehtgum ond 
J)ere halgon gesomnuncgae (Kent. Chart., Oswulf; A. S. 
Reader). Gif daet donne God cellmcehtig geteod habbe 
(Kentish Charters, Aelfred; ib.). Heora heortan . . . Gode 
celmihtegum claene healden (Bede, Eccl. Hist.). 

Normal word-order also occurs, according to KOCH 
(Hist. Gram.) only in the vocative case; e. g. Almichte God 
(Ancr. Riwle). 

159. After God almighty had become practically a com- 
pound word, people would say: Laverd godalmihtin (O. 
E. Horn.; Milliner), and thence: Hlaford almihti (ib.); Saith 
the Lord Almighty (Auth. Vers., II. Cor. VI: 18). 

160. Imitations of the Latin are also to be seen in expres- 
sions with a postpositive 'everlasting'. 

Examples: Hi ssel become a welle })et him ssel do 
Iheape (jump) in-to pe lyve everelestynde (Ayenb., 1340). Gret- 
yng in God aylestand tyt yhure (to your) universite (Schott. 
Schiedspr., 1385: Kluge, Leseb.). Hayle fjerfore, o lufly lufe 
everlastynge (Fire of Love; 1435). When pore to pes ever- 
lastyng sal be borne (ib.). A crovne everlasting (De Imit. 
Christi, 1440). Into the fire everlasting (ib.). Into ly fever- 
lasting (ib.). Go to the fest everlastinge (ib.). l He be- 
longed now to the world everlasting (John Hal.; Poutsma). 
All Marsh folk have been smugglers since time everlasting 
(Kipling, Puck). 

1 But also (ib.): Everlastinge dampnacion, Everlastinge lif. 


That the same word-order was kept also when A. 161. 
S. 'everlasting' had been exchanged for Rom. 'eternal', is 
still more intelligible. 

Examples: And these shall go away into everlasting 
punishment, but the righteous into life eternal (Matthew, 
25: 46). x And this is life eternal, that they might know 
thee the only true God (John, 17: 3). 1 That he might 
know Christ Jesus, to know whom is life eternal (Crusoe). 

Other biblical phrases: O Father Beneficent! strength- 162. 
en our hearts (Thackaray, Philip). I know one that 
prays . . . that the Eye all-seeing shall find you in the hum- 
ble place (Esmond). Thus also: My goodness gracious 
(Brown, V. C), where 'goodness' stands for 'God'. 

He chose the church militant (T. Jones). A visible 
Communion and Church Militant (Sartor). This . . . revealed it 
as a Church militant and crusading (Opium-eater). Church 
triumphant. 2 - Yes, that 'a did, and said they were devils 
incarnate (Henry V, II: 1). O, devils incarnate / he yelled 
(Ouida, A Hero's Reward). Also: A very light-ray incarn- 
ate (Sartor). 3 The First Epistle General of John (Auth. 
Vers.). The Second Epistle General of Peter (ib.). 

3. Titles. 

Vicar-Apostolic (Lat. Vicarius Apostolicus). 4 Poet Laur- 163. 
eate (Lat. Poeta Laureatus). Notary-public (Lat. Notarius 
publicus). - Professor Emeritus also has the form Eme- 
ritus Professor (Bain, Rhet. and Comp.). 

4. Possibly also such as these: 

Toward the parties septemtrionales (Maundeville). 164. 

1 But also, passim: Eternal life. 

2 Meredith has in imitaiion of this: Thither Tailordom Trium- 
phant was bearing its victim (E. Harrington). 

3 But (ib.): Some incarnate Mefistopheles. The one incarnate 
hero of a life's imaginings (Cosmop. Mag., Oct. 1910). 

4 But: Apostolic See, Apostolic Fathers, Apostolic Succession. 



Toward the parte meridionalle (ib.). No man may see the 
sterre transmontane (ib.). 

G. Phrases borrowed from the French. 

165. As is well known, the French language for a long 
time reigned supreme in England, as far as certain depart- 
ments were concerned. Above all, this was the case among 
the clergy and accordingly in public education, in 
court proceedings -- from which it did not quite disap- 
pear until 1731 and in parliament. Furthermore, every 
branch of higher social life wore a French guise, and 
there are even evidences of French having held a position 
in the commercial world as well. 1 

166. The consequence of all this was that, when the for- 
eign language was at length replaced by English, not 
only separate words, but also a great many stationary ex- 
pressions which had taken root deeply, remained, in the 
same way as the inundating flood always leaves several 
things behind, both good and evil. Some of these phras- 
es later on took a partly anglicized form, whereas others 
were kept unchanged. 

167. Thus English up to this day exhibits a long file of 
traditional phrases consisting of a noun with a postposi- 
tive attribute, either so, that both.subst. and adj. are of 
Romance extraction, or so, that only the adjective -- more 
rarely the substantive only - originally belonged to the 
French vocabulary. Many of the Anglo-Norman express- 
ions in question have become extinct, but it appears from 
the collection of examples that I have gathered how fre- 
quent they were in Middle and Early Modern English. 

As a matter of course, they are chiefly found within 

1 Cf. VISING, Franska Spraket i England (Goteborg, 1900); BEHKENS, 
Franz. Elemente im Engl.; Pauls Orundriss. 


the provinces where French had most influence. They are, 
then, to be met with in the language of heraldry, in eccle- 
siastic language and learned language in general, in the 
titles of the highest society, in the legal style, where chiv- 
alrous life is referred to, etc. 

1. Middle English phrases. 

a. Legal style: 

Allso })ai orden pat no bocher ... sle no booll but 168. 
3"if he be baityd a-fore at a place consaet (Cov. L. B., 1423). 
Myn executrice principall (E. E. Wills, 1433). They ordeyne 
that . . . such maner upholders ... be pursewed as they 
were persones sole (Cov. L. B., 1439). Your tables matri- 
monial j)at wer made betwixt you and your husbandis 
(Capgrave, Augustine; 1450). In eny Court spirituell (C. L. 
B., 1457). He that hit wereth be servaunt menyal to us 
(ib., 1461). Whoos names apperen in a letter testy moneall 
(ib., 1472). Both in plee riall and personell (ib., 1464). 
Our dute roiall (ib., 1472). Astate Roy all (ib.). A success- 
oure legytyme (Blanch, and Egl., 1489). His resolucion fyn- 
all was that . . . (ib.). 

b. Ecclesiastic language: 

Ase he dede to Even and to Adam in paradys ter- 169. 
estre (Ayenb., 1340). God glorious, God victorious (Maundev. 
Milliner). More pai lufe gudes temporall pen eternall (Fire 
of Love, 1435). In paynes perpetuall pat pai have syn- 
ned . . . (ib.). J>e psalme, transfourmed in-to pe persone 
of man contemplatyve, sayes . . . (ib.). O pou light perpet- 
ual, passynge all lightes create (Imit. Christi, 1440). Gadre 
riches immortal (ib.). Be veraye permyssion devyne (Blanch, 
and Egl.; 1489). Never . . . she sholde wedde paynem nor 
noo man infydele l (ib.). There are also celestial bodies, 
and bodies terrestrial (Auth. Vers., I. Cor., 15:40). 

French text: Ung Infidele aovrant les y doles dyaboliques. 


c. Learned style in general: 

170. Mars rectograde, Mars direct. The excellence of the spere 
(= sphere) solid (Chaucer, Astrolabe). L Cause accidental, 
cause material, cause formal, cause final (Chaucer, Meli- 
beus; Milliner). Sulphur vif (Maundev.; Mullner). A medi- 
cyn defensif (Science of Cir., 1380). Medicyne mundificatif 
(ib.). Medicyns mollificatyves (ib.). A piastre maturatijf (ib.). 
Alle J)ese . . . ben but techinge of medicyns speculatijf (ib.). 
A medicyn caustik (ib.). Heelynge by him-silf in fisik me- 
dicinal (ib.). Veynis miserak ben smale veynes (ib.). Vey- 
nes capillares (ib.). e oon cause is clepid cause coniuncte; 
and ]3e to})er cause antecedent (ib.). e medicyne restric- 
tive, forso])e (Fistula, 1400). A medicyne laxatyve (ib.). A 
medicyne cauterizative (ib.). Vertue retentyve is feble, and 
vertu expulsyve strong (ib.). A poudre J)at is called Pulver 
greke (ib.). After pe pyttyng of J)e poudre greke (ib.). 

d. Titles: 

171. Sende hem to J)e mynystris provyncials (Wyclif, Rule 
of St. Francis). A frere minour (Fistula). Je frere mynours 
of Yorke (ib.). I cured 4 frerez prechours (ib.). 5is Ru- 
ben is referred on-to chanones secular (Capgrave, Sermon; 
1422). tis may be applied in f>e best maner to chanones 
regular (ib.). Whethur he be Notary impereall, or he be 
not (Cov. L. B., 1423). Certeyn maydenes secular (Cap- 
grave, St. Gilbert; 1451). My most dradde lorde and ffa- 
dirs roiall ioureney into Scotland (C. L. B., 1481). His 
lady soverayne (Blanch, and Egl., 148Q). 

172. 2. The still remaining collocations are, however, 
also numerous enough. To give a complete list of them 
would neither be feasible nor of any particular interest. 
For that reason I content myself with citing the most com- 

1 STORM, Engl. Philologie. These may also have been formed 
on Latin models. 

mon among them, and perhaps some more which have 
happened to fall into my hands. 

a. To the legal style belong: 

Malice prepense (I felt sure she had played this card 173. 
of malice prepense; Allen, Hilda Wade), and the half ang- 
licized Malice aforethought. - - Fee-simple, and the like (Fee 
is divided into two sorts: fee-absolute, otherwise called 
fee-simple, and fee-conditional . . .; Cowell; Latham, Diet.). 
Court Martial (Courts Martial; Macaulay, Hist.). Lords Ap- 
pellant (Verity, Rich. II; Notes). Seal manual, Sign man- 
ual (Therto I point my signet and my syne manuell; E. 
E. Wills, 1428. That we undir our prive seal or signet 
or signe manuell commande you to doo; C. L. B., 146Q. 
The master's final sign-manual; Ruskin). Letter patent 
(Letters patents; Rich. II, II: 1), Letters commendatory (There- 
fore it ... is ... like perpetual letters commendatory to 
have good forms; Bacon, Of Ceremonies), Letters dismissory 
(The Bishop of London gave letters dismissory to the Bish- 
op of Sodor and Man; H. Caine, Christian). Proof pos- 
itive (And that she loves him I have proof positive; E. 
Harrington), Proof demonstrative (cf. Oration demonstrative; 
Wilson, Art of Rhet.; Latham, Diet.). Body politic 1 , Body 
corporate (We . . . ordain that the said body politic and cor- 
porate shall consist of . . .; Charter of Univ. of Lond.). 
Heir female, Heir male (To him and to his heires males; 
E. E. Wills, 1426. Sole heir male; Henry V, I: 2). Heir-ap- 
parent (Esmond. -- POUTSMA: Formerly also apparent heir), 
Heir-presumptive (POUTSMA: Also occasionally presump- 
tive heir). Line male, Line female, Issue male (Gef the 
same William dye withoute issue male; E. E. Wills, 1426. 
For want of issue male; Naunton, Fragm. Reg.; 1630). 

1 But BACON has, for reasons easily understood: As there are 
mountebanks for the natural body, so are there mountebanks for the 
politic body (Of Boldness). 


Right divine l (Esmond. - POUTSMA: It seems to be quite as 
usual to place 'divine' before 'right' ). Blood royal (There 
was no prince of the blood royal in the parliamentary 
party; Macaulay. - From the outset sank royal : Saunke 
realle; Morte Darthur. Sank royall; J. Skelton, 1522). 
Signet royal (Producing his credentials under the signet 
royal; Gulliver). Patent royal (Esmond). 

b. To heraldry belong: 

174. Lion couchant, Lion dormant, Lion seiant, Lion re- 

g(u)ardant, Lion passant; 2 Luces haurient (Three pikes or 
luces haurient). Bar sinister (My bar sinister may never be 
surmounted by the coronet of Croye; Durward). Ensign 
armorial (An escutcheon or ensign armorial, granted in mem- 
ory of some distinguished feat; N. E. D., i. v. 'hatchment'). 3 

c. Titles and terms of chivalrous life: 

175. Prince f-ssj Royal 4 ", Prince Imperial, Crown Imperial 

(Verity, Henry V; Notes). Ambassador Extraordinary, En- 
voy Extraordinary, Physician Extraordinary. County Pal- 
atine. (Opium-eater), Count [-ess] Palatine, Elector-Palatine 
(Esmond). Queen Dowager (Esmond: Viscountess Dowa- 
ger), Queen Regnant; Queen Elect (Esmond; ib. also: 
My Lady Duchess elect), Bride[-groom] elect (Esm.), Bishop 
elect (The bishop elect takes the oaths of supremacy; 
Ayliffe, Parergon Juris Canonici; Latham, Diet.). Lord 
paramount 6 (He was also feudal lord paramount of the 
whole soil of his kingdom; Macaulay. A great vassal 
entering the presence of his Lord Paramount; Durward). 
Governor General, Attorney General, Solicitor General, Vic- 
ar General, Inspector General (Latham, Diet.). Minister 

1 Cf. Right conferred. 

2 These do not belong to 111, as there is no verbality. 

3 Cf. also, in heraldry: An eagle displayed. 

4 KOCH mentions also: Astronomer royal, Chaplan royal. 

5 Also: Traitor paramount. 


Plenipotentiary. Premier Apparent. Bishop Designate, Vice- 
roy Designate, Bishop Suffragan. Lords spiritual, Lords 
temporal (POUTSMA: Occasionally Spiritual Lords, Temp- 
oral Lords ). Knight errant l , Knight Templar. Table 
round (Arthur helde a Royal feeste and table rounde with his 
alyes; Morte Darthur), Table dormant 2 (table with a 
board attached to a frame, instead of lying loose upon 
threstles; Morris, Chaucer). 

d. The following fall within different provinces: 
Gumme arable (Fistula). Sal volatile (Nickleby). Ac- 176. 
count-current (Crusoe). Sum total (The sternest sum-total 
of all worldly misfortunes is Death; Carlyle, Ess. on Burns), 
Net-total (Carlyle, Ess. on Scott). Point-device, Point-blank 
(As it were point-blancke before them; Florio). Sister Ger- 
man 3 , Brother German 3 (J)is childe stale ane halpeny from 
his bruper-german; Alph. of Tales, 15:thcent.), Cousin ger- 
man 3 (They were cosyn germyns; Three Kings' Sons, 1500. 
This . . . seemeth in my opinion cosen-german to this; Florio. 
They knew it was their cousin german; Ph. Sidney). A knave 
complete (Wenstr.-Lindgr.). From times remote (Kriiger), From 
time immemorial 4 (From time immemorial a fundamental 
law of England; Macaulay). Quantity neglectable (KRUGER: 
0blicher a negligible quantity '). 

Younger: Goblet in old silver repousse (Studio, June, 1910). 

H. Proper (Improper). 

'Proper' deserves to be treated apart. 'Proper' is, '177. 
says KRUGER, always placed behind in the sense of eigent- 

1 Also Bailiff errant, Justice errant (Our judges of assize are 
called justices errant. Called a bailiff errant; Butler; Latham, Diet.). 

2 But, Naunton, Fragm. Reg.: She held a dormant Table in her 
own Princely breast. 

3 Possibly originating in the legal language. 

4 Cf. Depuis un temps immemorial (Balzac, Femme de 30 Ans). 


lich. This is not quite correct, inasmuch as we say in a 
proper sense, the proper type, proper (improper) fraction. 
The matter is better formulated by POUTSMA: Proper [is 
placed after the noun] in the sense of 'exclusive of ac- 
cessories' (e. g. Food proper, Egypt proper, the Dictionary 

178. The origin of the inverted word-order is certainly to 

be looked for in the Anglo-Norman legal language. 
The first combinations with 'proper' probably were such 
as London proper, The City proper, Seamen proper. At first, 
then, it might have been a question of set phrases only, 
similar to those above dealt with. But on account of the 
emphasis of the adjective, and possibly also as a means 
of avoiding misinterpretation, since 'proper' had other mean- 
ings too, 1 it became by and by the rule always to use 
postposition when 'proper' meant exclusive of accessories. 
Nowadays one does not any more say: Proper Arabia is 
divided into five provinces (Sale, Koran; 1734; N. E. D.); 
but one does not either say: Noun proper (N. E. D., 1551), 
where 'proper' has another meaning ('peculiar'). 'Improp- 
er' agrees with 'proper'. 

Examples: It contains the Fin proper of Finland, the 
Estonian etc. (Latham, Diet.). The seamen proper form but 
a portion of the crew of a ship (Escott, England, its Peo- 
ple, Polity, and Pursuits). Thus 'will' has to do duty both 
as 'will' proper and also as l wilf improper (Abbott, Sh. 
Gram.). The author's views on phonetics proper are ex- 
" pressed in the vaguest and most abstract way (Sweet). 
Novels proper and novels improper (Sweet). 

More freely used: The dingiest of windows which . . . 

1 Cf. With his own propre swerd he was slayn (Maundev.; N. 
E. D.). For to sytte in dome in proper parsoun (Hampole; N. E. D.). 
Of the King of England's own proper cost (II, Henry VI, I: 1). 


were made the dingier by their own iron bars proper, and 
the heavy shadow of Temple Bar (Two Cities). 

For the sake of variety or euphony the longer prop- 179. 
erly so called is sometimes used: 

In so splendid ... a manner did the English people, prop- 
erly so called, l first take place among the nations of the world 
<Macaulay, Hist). It was not till 1 740 that the first English 
novel, properly so called, Richardson's Pamela, made its 
appearance (Robertson, Hist, of Engl. Lit.). 

In heraldry 'proper' means in the natural colouring* . 180. 
Of course it is here" also put after the noun: Ivy proper 
(N. E. D., i. v. 'proper'). 

I. Pseudo-Anglo-French terms. 

After the pattern of the above-mentioned fixed phras- 181. 
es a great many collocations resembling these have been 
coined by different authors, some of which have come to 
be more commonly used. Several of the expressions in 
question might be styled pseudo-Anglo-French terms, be- 
ing direct imitations of real Anglo-French terms and con- 
taining either the same substantive or the same adjective. 

Examples: The crowns and garlands personal (Bacon, 
Of Health). Malice domestic (Macbeth, III: 2). And that 
not only as a town corporate (Bunyan, H. War). Besides, 
our times have seen enough to make men loathe the Crown 
Matrimonial (Kenilworth). A free coronet of England is 
worth a crown matrimonial held at the humour of a wom- 
an (ib.). Damosels-errant (Durward). 2 (Cf. also: The trade of a 
damsel adventurous; ib.). Benevolence prepense (Carlyle, Ess. 
on Scott). The master-organ and true pineal gland of the 
Body Social (Sartor). The tax for the lord, tax local and 

1 Cf. Fr. La grammaire proprement dite. 

2 Also: Damsel-err anting (Durward). 


tax general (Two Cities). Tribune-Elect (Rienzi). Such is 
man, though a Deucalion elect; such is woman though a 
Pyrrha (Opium-eater). Fool Errant (Hewlett, Book title). Com- 
pare also: This is the Father Superior, sir (Christian). 1 

182. Particularly such with 'royal' are very common: 
Rime roial (Seven-lined stanzas used first by James I, 1424). 

Draws the eyes of the people somewhat aside from the 
line royal (Bacon, Of Nobility). The tent royal of their em- 
peror (Henry V, I: 2). It is against the law, government, 
and the prerogative royal of our king (Holy War). A com- 
edy as performed at the Theatres-Royal in Drury Lane 
and Covent Garden (Sheridan, Rivals). 2 The clump of 
large oaks, which they call the Clump Royal (New Forest). 

J. Humorous phrases. 

183. A rather extensive group of imitative expressions with 
a postpositive adjective is formed by such as seem to have 
been coined by the several authors in a moment of good 
humour and tend to give a comical colouring to what is 
being said. Such formations are naturally of an ephemeric 
character, as a rule, but some there are nevertheless that 
prove to have been more tenacious of life. Similar hu- 
morous phrases have been common ever since Shake- 
spear's days. Some of them are exclusively satirical. 

Examples: Sport Royal, I warrant you (Tw. Night, 
II: 3). And yet he will not stick to say his face is a face 
royal (II, Henry IV, I: 2). Thou buckram lord, now art 
thou within point-blank of our jurisdiction regal (II, Henry 
VI, IV: 7). Bully Sir John! Speak from thy lungs military: 
art thou there (Merry Wives, IV: 5). He is a motion gener- 
ative, that's infallible (Measure, III: 2). Scene individable, 

1 This might also be an imitation of a Latin expression. 
- Theatre Royal occurs, however, not only in Sheridan. 


or poem unlimited (Hamlet, 11:2. But cf. 110). From the 
inwards to the parts extreme (II, Henry IV, IV: 3). Have 
you been a sectary astronomical (Lear, I: 2). That sprightly 
Scot of Scots, Douglas, that runs o' horseback up a hill 
perpendicular (I, Henry IV, II: 4). This we call the oath 
referential, or sentimental swearing (Rivals). Puffing is of 
various sorts: the puff direct, the puff preliminary, the puff 
collateral, the puff collusive, and the puff oblique (Sheri- 
dan, The Critic). Mr. Dangle [reading newspapers] : Theat- 
rical intelligence extraordinary (ib.). Whilst the battle roy- 
al was going on between me and Tom Caffin (Duval). 
He stood on the other side of the gulf impassable l (Van. 
Fair). Until November should come with its fogs atmos- 
pheric and fogs legal and bring grist to the mill again 
(Two Cities). The life-matrimonial (Nickleby). He had 
allied . . . himself . . . with a Farmer-General (Two Cities). 
As to finances public, because . . .; as to finances private, 
because . . . (ib.). The postillion would rather have had 
to do with the gentleman royal, who is above base com- 
putation (Ev. Harrington). Superior by grace divine (ib.). 
Eyebrows as black and as straight as the borders of a 
Gazette Extraordinary, when a big man dies (Plain Tales). 
That wonder, the human heart female (Meredith, S. Belloni). 
Failing to find the growth spontaneous she returned (E. 
Harrington). The burial alive of woman intellectual (S. Bel- 
loni). The we matrimonial must be as universal as the we 
editorial (Hope, Quistante). Proceeding from jokes linguistic 
to jokes practical (R. Haggard, Jess.). That was his title 
ecclesiastical (Cardinal's Snuff-box). Peter was sufficiently 
versed in fashions canonical (ib.). Sent to a place unmen- 
tionable ten times in an hour (Two Years Ago. But cf. 
110). He rose as high as he conveniently could in the Navy 

1 Cf., however, 110. This expression is, besides, imitated by 
KINGSLEY: That . . . looked to N him a gulf Impassable (Two Years Ago). 


active, and turned his attention to the Navy passive 1 (Mer- 
riman, In a Crooked Way). The powers that are in the 
world journalistic (Punch, Aug. 19, 1893). Mrs. Melville . . . 
gave her the glance intelligible (E. Harrington. Cf. next ). 
184. It is chiefly those with 'lie' and 'retort' that seem to 

have been more durable; they appear indeed to have grown 
into what may be called slang expressions. (Always def. art.). 
Examples: The first, the Retort Courteous; the sec- 
ond, the Quip Modest; the third, the Reply Churlish; 
the seventh, the Lie Direct (As you, V: 4). Give the lie 
direct (Merc, of Yen.; Q. Durward). He cannot, however, 
give the lie direct to Guildenstern (Verity, Hamlet; Notes). 
Thus in As you like it ... the lie circumstantial is the 
lie indirect (ib.). Twill be but the retort courteous on 
both sides (Sheridan, Scarborough). That is the retort dis- 
courteous (Molly Bacon). Dropping for the first and 
last time . . . into the retort direct (P. Kelver). The Retort 
Sarcastic. She: Hullo, John . . . (Winds. Mag., April, 1910). 
The Countess, an adept in the lie implied, deeply smiled 
(E. Harrington). To turn it from the lie extensive and in- 
appreciable to the lie minute and absolute (S. Belloni). 

K. Postposition of Romance adjectives in general. 

185. During the Middle English and the Early Modern 

English periods people did not restrict themselves to using 
postposition of Romance adjectives in set phrases and imi- 
tations of such. On the contrary, all those being so fre- 
quent, it was indeed thought necessary or at least admiss- 
ible to use inverted word-order in other cases as well, 
wherever a French adjective was concerned even if 

1 These are perhaps rather imitations of the grammar style: Par- 
ticiple passive etc. ( 155). 


nothing was attained but a more dignified* tone. 1 And 
down to our days occasional echoes of this, strictly speak- 
ing, licentious practice are to be found. 

Examples: 5e oper is to wyfmanne commune, pe Jjridde 
is of man sengle mid wodewe (Ayenb. Legal style?). o bye}) 
ypocrites sotyls f>et . . . (ib.). !>ri manere worries venimoa- 
ses (ib.). ise bye|) J3e ])ri boges principals (ib.). He lye- 
se|) pane time pecious (ib.). Ee folk of pe mercerye of 
London . . . compleyen ... of many wronges subfiles and 
also open oppressions (Note the different ways of treating 
the foreign adj. and the native one! Petition from the 
folk of Mercerye of London, 1386; Kluge). Now wol I pray 
mekely every person discrete, that . . . (Chaucer, Astrolabe; 
13Q1). The morwe is a day uncertayn (Imit. Christi, 1440). 
To lyve in remembraunce perpetuel (Godfrey of Bol., 1481. 
Prologue. The prologue is written by Caxton himself!). 
By his blessyd presence humayne (ib., Prol.). To thende 
that ther may be gyven to them name Inmortal (ib.. Prol.). 
For tempryse and accomplysshe enterpryses honnestes (ib., 
Prol.). In which wordes generall and other thynges ys 
understanden thornes, firres etc. (Cov. L. B., 1480). Her 
lover and frende specyall (Blanch, and Egl., 148Q). There 
nys no ton ge humayn that coude . . . (ib.). Her right sieve, 
whiche was of riche clothe of golde crymosyn (ib.; cf. 
riche clothe!) A sieve that was of satyn vyolet (ib.). An- 
dreas Goveanus, our Rector principall (Florio). To enter 
their City as a place confederate 2 (ib.). Finally me thynk- 
eth that the constitucion provincial . . . hath determyned 
this question (Legal style? Th. More, Concerning Heresy). 

1 In some M. E. translations, e. g. the Fire of Love, the Mend- 
ign of Life, the Ayenbite of Inwit, postpositive attributes are nearly 
as frequent as prepositive. This does not even touch Romance adj. 

2 Cf., however, 114. 


The confederate had leagues defensive with divers other 
states (Bacon). His chamber ... is a kind of Charnel- 
house of bones extraordinary (Earle, Micro-cosm.; 1628). If 
hee be qualified in gaming extraordinary (ib.). His fac- 
ulties extraordinary (ib.). He was a great master of the 
Art Military l (Naurrton, Fragm. Reg.; 1630). Behold a man 
gluttonous, 2 and a wine-bibber (Matth., XI: 1Q). Duty im- 
plicit is her cry (Clarissa). By art-magic she has spell- 
bound thee (Sartor). Gorgon, and Hydras, and Chimceras 
dire (Lamb, Elia). His coat dark rappee, tinctured by dye 
original (ib.). Goddesses have youth perpetual (Esmond). 
In a little dust quiescent (ib.). 3 We have gone so far as to 
combine the ideas of an agility astounding, a strength 
superhuman, a ferocity brutal, a butchery without motive 
(Po'e, Murders in the Rue Morgue). Rest is force resistant, 
and motion is force triumphant* (Lewes, Hist, of Phil.; 
Poutsma). No doubt to the wise it seems a fool's life, 
to the holy a life impure (Ouida, Pipistrello). The Dish 
Delicious that gratifies every taste (Royal Mag., July 1Q10; 
cf. 184). Tree-training extraordinary (ib.). 

Ears polite has become a standing expression: 
The improper application of the wrong term at the wrong 
time makes all the difference in the world to ears polite (Cole- 
ridge, Society Small Talk). To say that she is inclined to 
embonpoint, will, however, sound less shocking to ears 
polite (Mrs. Hungerford, Phyllis). A horror to ears polite 
(Jespersen, Growth). 

In the following quotation there seems to be anal- 
ogy with 'deceased', and also influence from the short 

1 Thus also Lamb, in a humorous way: Studying the art military 
over that laudable game French and English* (Elia). 

2 But Luke, VII: 34: A gluttonous man. 

3 There is no verbality in the adj., so they do not belong to 
Ch. VII. But of course there might be analogy. 


annotation style: Some half-forgotten humours of some 
old clerks defunct (Lamb, Elia; cf. 79). 

The word-order in the following, again, is apparently 187. 
due to contamination with such modes of expression as 
<with [his] head erect: If necks unelastic and heads erect 
may be taken as the sign of a proud soul . . ., my artist 
has the major for his model (Harrington). 

I think we have to deal with an apposition in: 188. 
But then Philip drunk with jealousy is not a reasonable 
being like Philip sober (cf . Philip senior*. Thackaray, Philip). 

The adjectives are most likely predicative in the 189. 

We are in a state of sad confusion officers quar- 
elling, men disobedient, much talking and little doing (New 
Forest). This may also be the case in: Colour ungra- 
dated is wholly valueless; colour unmysterious is wholly 
barbarous (=to have the c. unmysterious? Two Paths). 1 

L. Postposition with 'thing, 'matter". 

FR. KOCH (Hist. Gram. //, 241) assumes French in- 190. 
fluence for All things secular , Things spiritual*, Matters 
ecclesiastic* , etc. -- ABBOTT says (Sh. Gram., 419): The 
adjective is placed after the noun (1) in legal expressions ... (2) 
where a relative clause, or some conjunctional clause, is 
understood between the noun and adjective. Hence, where 
the noun is unemphatic as 'thing', 'creature', this transpo- 
sition may be expected*. POUTSMA remarks (Gram, of 
Late Mod. Engl. I, p. 333): Even adjectives standing by 
themselves and not accompanied by any modifier, when 
placed after the noun they modify, are sometimes felt as 

1 Compare: What profitip a body dene and a hert defouled (= to 
keep one's body clean. Capgrave, St. Gilbert; 1451). We should simply 
combine a noun which implies a glottis wide open with an adjective 
which implies a glottis nearly shut (Lloyd, North. Engl.). 


undeveloped clauses. This is especially the case with 
many when qualifying the nouns 'matters' or 'things', or 
the indefinite pronoun 'one'. 

191. The talk about an undeveloped clause is totally 
valueless, for any adjective attribute can be resolved into 
a relative clause. Besides, as I have tried to make plain, 
the adjective attribute derives its origin from the predi- 
cative use of the adjective. Compare, moreover, 26. 

192. As for assuming French influence in expressions con- 
sisting of 'thing(s)' or 'matter(s)' -{- adj., this theory seems 
plausible only as far as 'matters' is concerned. 'Matters' is 
nearly always followed by an adjective of Romance ex- 
traction, mostly one in -al or -tic. But 'things' -)- adj. 
does not occur in set phrases only, there is rather a tend- 
ency almost always to place the attribute after this word 
in an abstract sense, and postposition is even often met 
with when 'things' has a concrete meaning. And, indeed, 
why should French influence* be more likely in the case 
of 'things' than in the case of any other noun, whenever 
a French equivalent of the expression might be fancied? 

193. With regard to instances like the following, where 
there is a sing, 'thing' without any article, one would feel 
much tempted to subscribe to the above theory: 

e proude zekf) ping worfissipvol, J)e covaytous ping 
vremvol (Ayenb.). Vor ping gostlich (ib.). Of pinge ypas- 
ed (ib.). l 

But in the first place the Ayenbite follows its French 
original, in other cases too, so slavishly that no heed need 
be taken to this 2 ; secondly, omission of the indefinite 
article is rather common even in older Middle English; 
cf. for instance: 

1 Cf. Le manage a paru chose si excellente (Balzac, Femme de 
30 Ans). 

2 Cf. MULLNER p. 53. 


fu bethlem eordu undaerfe ding lyttel ar6 (North. 
Transl. of Matth.). It is more blissid condicioun for to ^yve 
betere ping f>an to take ping lesse worfi (Wycliff, De Off. 

I will try to give an explanation that is exclusively 194. 
based on the inherent possibilities of the language. Still, 
let me premise the admission that the fact that there is 
no obstacle to using inversion in several other cases, mostly 
owing to the influence of French really, and in particular 
the phrases with 'matters' - though they are not numer- 
ous may have been one of the reasons for the pro- 
pagating of the now very common word-order 'things' 
+ adj. 

First, however, an illustration of postposition in con- 195. 
nection with 'matters': 

Maters dyvers for the wele of this cite (Cov. L. B., 
1451). With penal statutes in matters ecclesiastical (Ma- 
caulay, Hist.). Nay, even in matters spiritual is it not well 
that there should be what we call professions preap- 
pointed to us (Sartor). France, less favoured on the whole 
as to matters spiritual 'than her sister (Two Cities). The 
recent interference of Parliament in matters ecclesiastical 
had fluttered the dove-cotes of the Church (Oliphant, 
Victorian Age). [He] was lenient in matters scholastic 
(Boothby, Woman of Death). [He] had suddenly lost all 
interest in matters aquatic (ib.). Concerning the admini- 
stration of matters parochial (Merriman, On the Rocks). 
His Majesty is still a good way behind the times in mat- 
ters artistic (Westm. Gaz., Aug. 5, 1Q02). 

All these combinations make decidedly the impress- 
ion of set phrases, the oldest of them no doubt orig- 
inally belonging to juridical phraseology. 

The following is of course only an imitation in which 'matters' 
stands for the more common 'things': No one... could hold a candle 



to Cartoner in matters Spanish (Merriman, Tale of a Scorpion). - 
Thus also 'matter' instead of 'thing' in: This is a thing may seem 
to many a matter trivial (Bacon, Unity in Religion). 

In the following quotation 'matter' is concrete, meaning 'stuff 
(cf. Fr. matiere). The postposition is probably due to the quality of 
the attribute: To greet aboundaunce of mater corrumpinge (part.! 
Science of Cir., 1380). 

196. What has been said about 'matters' also applies to 
'causes': His Majesties Commissioners for causes Ecclesi- 
astical in the high Commission Court (A decree of the 
Star-Chamber, Concerning Printing; 1637). 

197. I now proceed to 'things' + adj. - In a sentence 
like / have seen something horrible 'horrible' is at bottom 
a partitive genitive. Cf. Lat. aliquid pulchri, Fr. quelque 
chose de beau, Germ, etwas Schones, Goth, hva ubilis (Mark., 
15: 14), A. S. hwcetvugu ryhtices (Cura Past.). 

In course of time, however, such an attribute has, 
just as in German, come to be taken for an ordinary in- 
dependent adjective in the same grammatical relation as 
the substantive word. Naturally this was not possible in 
English until the adjective flexion had disappeared. l There- 
fore in Anglo-Saxon on the one hand: Mid Qaere gewil- 
nunge bara ungesewenlicra ftinga (Cura Past.), on the other: 
Sum ping niwes, Nan ping grenes, Ainig ping godes (Matz- 
ner, p. 284). 

198. As then the connection between 'some' ('any', 'no', 
'every') and 'thing' was not so close in olden times as it 
is now - as is shown by the two words being written 
separately a phrase consisting of 'some' etc. -f 'thing' 
-f- adj. got every outward appearance of being a case of 
postposition of an adjective attribute. 

Compare: Her-of come}) it f>at in every ping general . . . 
f>er mot ben some ping {)at is perfit (Chaucer, Boethius). 
No thinge wretyn (R. Hampolle). The hearing of any thing 

1 In German the reason is another. 


good (II, Henry IV, I: 2). If afterwards I should see any 
thing objectionable in his conduct (Clarissa). Without any 
thing remarkable (Andrews). Every thing great or excellent 
(Rambler). - - Even as late as Irving: A home destitute of 
every thing elegant (Sketchbook). 

There is something very similar in the case of 'all' + 199 - 
'things' + adj., where all things is identical with the pro- 
noun 'everything'; the former may be said to stand in the 
same relation to 'all' as the latter does to 'every'. 

Examples: Ther was all things necessary (== every- 
thing necessary ; Euphues, 157Q). Sir, I thank you for 
all things courteous and civil (Bunyan, H. War). Leaving 
out verbs and particles, because in reality all things imag- 
inable are but nouns (Gulliver). In those last days all 
things false and meaningless they laid aside (P. Kelver). The 
great brick monster had crept closer round about us year 
by year, devouring in his progress all things fair (ib.). 
His enthusiasm for all things microscopical (ib). Virtue 
could not change her appearance even if all things base 
chose to assume the appearance of Virtue (Verity, Macb.; 

In like manner a thing in the following quotations 200. 
is to be looked upon as simply an impersonal pronoun 
very much the same as 'something' \ in the place of which 
it stands in order that ambiguity may be avoided, since 
'something' was in older English used also in the sense 
of modern 'somewhat'. 

Examples: Herein I do not profess myself a Stoic, to 
hold grief no evil, but . . . a thing indifferent (Bacon, Of 
Death). It must absolutely be received as a thing grave 
and sober (Bacon, Pref. to Wisdom of the Ancients). It 

1 Cf. Of a thing known, something new, unknown, is predicated. 
This something known . . . naturally comes first (Me Knight, Prim. 
Teut. Order of Words). 


is a thing rare and hard to keep (Bacon, Of Empire). Why 
should it be thought a thing incredible with you that God 
should raise the dead (Acts, 26: 8). To which I return that, 
as it was a thing slight and obvious to think on ... (Mil- 
ton, Areopagitica). I looked now upon the world as a thing 
remote (Crusoe). It is a thing perilous in war and must be 
amended (Durward). It is a thing remarkable, a thing sub- 
stantial (Carlyle, Ess. on Scott). He affects to regard it as 
a thing natural (Sartor). 

201. In Late Modern English there are few instances of 
a thing being followed by an adjective, probably because 
'something' has not now the meaning of a little, abit. 

I have found these: A drum in these hills was a 
thing unknown (Cf., however, 'unknown', 104. Poe, Rag- 
ged Mountains). Those who conceive the Ego in man 
as a thing simple, permanent, reliable, and of one essence 
(Cf. 121! D. Gray). Of a thing known something new, 
unknown, is predicated (No doubt in order to avoid two 
something's. Me Knight, Prim. Teut. Order of Words). 
To her excited fancy Macbeth's attainment of the crown 
seems almost a thing accomplished (This is a participle! 
Perhaps the author has also had in mind Fr. un fait ac- 
compli . Verity). 

The inverted word-order in the following quotations is due to 
other reasons which apply to any unemphatic noun: To prove that 
it was a tiling very convenient, apd fitting a man of his quality (Florio; 
128). A thing most singular (ib.; 126). To which Jenny . . . 
replied that it was a thing quite impossible (E. Harrington; 125). 

In instances like the following the participle is verbal: 'Addita- 
menf, addition, or thing added (Latham, Diet.). 'Dictatum', a thing 
dictated (Verity, As You; Glossary). 

202. On the other hand, it is very common even in Present 
English to find an adj. attr. placed after an abstract 
unemphatic plur. 'things'. Also in this case 'things' 
may be said to be a kind of indefinite pronoun, one 


might indeed often be justified in saying that it has sunk 
to be simply an article, just as the original dem. pron. has 
become an article. Things divine* is precisely the same 
as The divine (Det gudomliga, Das G6ttliche). Where 
participles are concerned other circumstances may, of 
course, have played a role, but not, generally, when the 
attribute is an ordinary adjective. Emphasis alone is no 
sufficient reason, as that would make us expect the same 
word-order with other unemphatic substantives as well. 

Examples with participles: The nature of thinges ne 
token nat her bigynnyng of thinges amenused and imperfit 
(Chaucer, Boethius). And answere he sleig-ly to pingis y- 
asked 1 (Fistula, 1400). It is grevous to leve fringes acust- 
iimmed (Imit. Christi, 1440). Sithen thynges passed cannot 
be gaine called (Th. More, Rich. Ill; 1513). Although their 
lips sound of things done 1 , and verity be written in their 
foreheads (Sidney, Apologie; 15Q5). Old men are dangerous 
who have onely the memorie of things past left them (Florio). 
Knowledge of things forbidden (Bacon, Pref. to Wisdom of 
the Ancients). The law makes a difference between things 
stolen and things found 2 (Andrews). I come ... to speak of 
things forgotten or things disputed (Ruskin, Pre-raph.). 

Examples with adjectives: Studie J)erfore to wi]> 
drawe J>in herte fro |>e love of fringes visible, and translate 
hem to fringes invisible (Imit. Christi, 1440). So })ei put to 
pingis coeterne, and called J)ei good (Capgrave, Augustine; 
1450). The reporte of them contayneth thinges impossible 
and is not written by any approved author (Th. Elyot, 
Governour). Things unknown are the true scope of im- 
posture (Florio). If thou be capable of things serious, thou 
must know the king is full of grief (Winter's Tale, IV: 4). 

1 Here the part, may, of course, be quite verbal. 

2 I do not take 'things' to be concrete here. 


What else is all that rank of things indifferent, wherein 
Truth may be on this side or on the other (Milton, Areop.). 
I will talk of things Heavenly, or things Earthly ; things more 
essential, or things circumstantial (Pilgr. Progr.). His mind 
was on things divine (ib.). Many felt a strong repugnance 
even to things indifferent which had formed part of the 
polity (Macaulay, Hist.). I do not mean the assertion to 
extend to things moral (Ruskin, Pre-raphael.). In the world 
of things enjoyable (Opium-eater). He would soon grow 
reconciled to things monstrous (E. Harrington). In the im- 
putation of things evil, and in the putting the worst con- 
struction on things innocent (Plain Tales). Joy in things 
physical (Cardinal's Snuff-box). Things good and things bad 
may be concealed (King's Mirror). 

203. The following examples belong, strictly speaking, to a 
previous chapter (Ch. X), but may be cited here. 

To wyfjdrawe us bi f>e same comaundement fro 
pynges nedeful and lefful (Petition from the folk of Mer- 
cerye of- London, 1386; Kluge). All commerce between things 
divine and human (Bacon, Pref. to Wisdom of the Ancients). 
Things necessary and certain often surprise us (Idler). I 
had dreamed so many foolish gracious things; things heroical, 
fantastical, woven from the legends of saints (Ouida, Pi- 
pistrello). Not open wide to embrace the universe of things 
beautiful and ugly (King's Mirror). Hecate is essentially the 
goddess of things supernatural and magical (Verity, Ham- 
let; Notes). None of the beautiful things of the world 
were to be seen here, but only the things coarse and ugly 
(P. Kelver). 

204. The following belong more appropriately to Ch. XI: 
At least things more absurd have surely happened (King's 
Mirror). To be compared to Ganymede in private by a 
lady and in public by a scoffer are things very different 
(God in the Car). 


Even a concrete 'things' is sometimes followed by 205. 
its attribute, by analogy, I suppose. Of this I have not 
found any instance in modern English, excepting such cases 
where the word-order depends on other circumstances. 

In the following quotations 'things' is pronominal: 

Aye (against) {rise heste seneg-e}) {30, f>et to moche 
loviej) hire guod, gold o{>er zelver, oj)er opre fringes erpliche 
(Swed. annat jordiskt. Ayenb.). They shold lede vytaylle 
ynowe unto the hooste and other thynges necessary e 1 
(Godfr. of Bol., 1481). Perished for want of food and 
other things necessary 1 (Bacon, New Atlantis). Wherein . . . 
I have had glimpses of buried treasure and other things 
submerged (Part.! Two Cities). [ Other things is in the 
same relation to 'other' as is 'something' to 'some'.] 
With many mo thynges profitable whiche are commonly 
knowen by every man (W. Bulleyn, Booke of Compounds; 
1562. E. E. Meals and Manners). Many things necessary l 
are omitted (Rambler). 

In the following two ex. a concrete sing, 'thing 7 is followed 
by its attribute, but it should be noticed that the attributes are, in 
the first instance an adj. in -able (cf. 109), in the other instance a 
participle: Wif> smytynge of staf or stoon ... or wi[> ony opir ping 
semblable (Science of Cir., 1380). He passes on with no recognition, or, 
being stopped, starts like a thing surprised (Elia; cf. 34). 

The following also contain special kinds of attributive words: 
Now bless thyself: Thou mettest with things dying, I with things new- 
born (Winter's Tale, III: 3). We write unto them that they abstain 
from pollution of idols and from fornication, and from things 
strangled, and from blood (Acts, 15: 20). The regulating of prices of 
things vendible (Bacon, Seditions). 

Other motives may lie at the bottom of these instances: 2 206. 
Which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and 
old (Matth., 13: 52). It was a breath . . . hinting of things 
exquisite, intimate of things intimately feminine, exquis- 

1 Cf., however, 116. 
- Cf. Chapters X and XI. 


itely personal (Harland, Cardinal's Snuff-box). The in- 
gredients of the Witches' caldron naturally consist of things 
venomous or loathsome (Verity, Macb.; Notes). A world 
which is so corrupt that the very sun produces things foul and 
offensive (Verity, Hamlet; Notes). 

The following is unique: The thing Visible, nay the thing Imag- 
ined, what is it but a garment (Sartor). Usually: Things visible*, 
or: The visible*. 

M. Postposition of native adjectives not preceded 
by any adverb in Old and Middle English. 

207. In Anglo-Saxon and Middle English it is nowise 
uncommon for a single attributive native adjective 
not preceded by any adverb to stand after the noun. 
In the first place word-order was then in all respects freer 
than it is in Modern English. The older idiom naturally 
stands on a lower stage of development and is more like 
the parent language. Also in the oldest German and Scan- 
dinavian, and in Gothic, postpositive adj. attr. are met with: 
Moysise dodemu (Lat. text: defuncto Moyse!), Fater einemu 
(Isidor; Hell wig); Rikr hofdingi ok malafylgjumaftr mikill^ 
(Hellwig, p. 20); Bi hveila niundon (In disagreement with 
the Greek order! Me KNIGHT). 

208. Moreover, much of what is classed among A. S. and 
M. E. prose is in reality nothing but disguised poetry; and 
it is a well-known fact that poetry is prior to prose. A 
great many of the Anglo-Saxon and mediaeval sermons, 
religious tracts, and legends of saints - - and they formed 
the bulk of the prose literature of those times - were 
written in a kind of rhythmic prose which may perhaps 

1 Me KNIGHT, Prim. Tent Order of Words, of Old Norse: In 
.case of two nouns, each with an adj., the order is, adj., noun, noun, 
adj.. Similarly HELLWIG, p. 20. 


sometimes have been imitated by authors of chronicles and 
other secular works. 

Under these circumstances it is not so very difficult 
to account for the fact that inverted word-order is met 
with to such an extent as proves to be the case. As regards 
M. E., French models may, of course, often have had 
something to do with the matter. But I do not attach 
much importance to this, for would postposition have been 
possible, if there had not been any basis for it in the 
language itself? 

In the following instances the adjectives seem most 209. 
probably to be used appositionally: 

is is min sunu se leofa (Rushw. Gloss.). Cyle pone 
grimmestan (Blickl. Horn.; Milliner). Sethes eafora se yldeste 
waes Enos haten (Caedmon; Matzner). Bisenctum swe swe 
lead in wetre deem strengestan (Merc. Hymns; A. S. Reader). 
Aet ea pcere halgan (Sax. Chron.). Smeche forcudest (Sawles 
Warde). While fortune unfaithfnll favoured me with light 
godes (Chaucer, Boethius). f>is odyr solitary in contemplacion 
hiest onely givyn to godly Hingis (Mending of Life, 1434). 1 

In cases like the following the word-order is best explained by 
the added complements: Cethegrande is a fis 6e moste bat in "water 
is (Rel. Ant.; Matzner, p. 287). It is a lake the grettest of the world 
(Maundev.; ib). 

Examples in which the attribute is not appositional: 210. 
f>a gemette he gebeoras blfoe 2 aet ])am huse (Aelfric, Os- 
wald; A. S. Reader). Her synd on earde apostatan abroftene 
and cyrichatan hetole, and leodhatan grimme (Wulfstan, 
Address to the Engl.; ib.). Tobrocene sind muntas swidlice, 
and tofleowun hyllas ecelice (Merc. Hymns; ib.). And J)aer sint 
swide micle meras fersce geond J>a moras (Voy. of Othere; 

1 Imitations of these in Modern Engl.: From peace the deepest 
(Opium-eater). Under the mere coercion of pain the severest (ib.). 

2 MULLNER (p. 30) declares the adj. to be predicative here, which 
I do not think to be the case. 


ib.). Condel beorht (Sax. Chron.; Kube). Eorlas arhwate (ib.). 
Cild unweaxen (ib.). Her Jirote ys agraueopen (E. E. Psalter). 
Felagrede flesslich (Ayenb.). et' is zenne dyadlich (ib.). 
Vor some skele kueade (ib.). Oure vaderes gostliche (ib.). l 
Wordes ydele (ib.). Manye of>re kueade roten 2 (ib.). Of ane 
zuetnesse wondervol (ib.). Hare eawles gledreade (Sawles 
Warde). 5e mlddelwei guldene (ib.). J>is writ open (Procl. 
of Henry III, 1258). These thinges . . . moche bringen us 
to the ful knowleginge sothe 2 (Chaucer, Test, of Love). 
To make festis huge to lordis and ladies (Wycliff, Leaven 
of Phar.). Aboute temperal almes nedles (ib.). Recipe: 
malvez tame M. I or II (Fistula). WiJ) oile or butter fressh, 
or suche o{)er (ib.). Erede of silk white (ib.). A pare of glovys 
of plate blacke (E. E. Wills, 1411). Glovis of plate white 
(ib.). I hafe bene broght up in f>is abbay of bam littil 
(Alph. of Tales). A yong preste }>at sho had broght up 
of barn little hur self (ib.). Large shetes goode (E. E. Wills, 
1434). Be eny suche ordenaunce unlafull (Cov. L. B., 1476). 
As a man madde (Blanch, and Egl.'; cf. also 34). That was 
of damask blake (ib.). Two holies hore (Arthur). 

211. When a poss. pron. follows the noun in Anglo-Saxon 
the adjective does so too. 

Examples: J>is is sunu mm leof in 9aem me woel 
gelicade (North. Transl. of Matth.). Sehde in sibbe bitternis 
min sie bittreste (Merc. Hymns, A. S. Reader). To donne 
mildheortnisse mid fedrum urum, ond gemunan cydnisse his 
haligre (ib.). Eaet he ... ofdrysce pa lustas his unfteawa 
(Cura Past.). Thus also with a dem. pron.: Se J>e toslittes 
enne of bebodum pissum loesestum (North. Matth.). 

212. Words denoting the points of the compass and 

1 According to MATZNER, Engl. Sprachproben, I, II, p. 62, it is 
particularly adj. in -lich that are placed behind in the Ayenbite. 

2 Co-ordination of two attributes before a noun is rare in the 
oldest language. This is one way of avoiding it. 


others in -weard seem always to have had their given place 
after the noun in Anglo-Saxon. It looks as though they 
were even at that early date, in spite of their adjectival 
flexion, felt as adverbs, rather than real adjectives. In case 
they were put before the subst. the word-order was this: 
J>reo stodon aet ufeweardum poem muftan on drygum (Sax. 
Chron., 8Q7). On midde-weardutn hyre ryne (Pop. Treat., 
Wright; Matzner, p. 568). 

Otherwise: /Et paem muftan uteweardum (Saxon Chron., 
897). IV mila fram J)aem muftan uteweardum (ib., 893). 
onne is toemnes fjaem lande sufteweardum, Sweoland, oj> 
J^aet land norfteweard; and toemnes poem lande norfteweardum, 
Cwena land (Voyages of Othere; A. S. Reader). /O pam 
lea ufeweardan (A. S. Charters, Eadmund; A. S. R.). On 
pa lytlan dune middewearde (ib.). On foxhylle easteweardre 
(ib.). f>a eagan bioj) on f>am lichoman foreweardum and 
ufeweardum (Cura Past.). On pysse dune ufanweardre (Bede). 
- pone storm towardne foreseah (Bede; Matzner). Gehalde 
hine heofones cyning in pissum life ondwardum (Kentish 
Charters, Alfred; A. S. R.). - Cf. also: Signes owtward 
(Capgrave, Augustine). 

N. Postposition in isolated cases of native adjectives 
in Modern English. 

Remembering all the many cases of inverted word- 213. 
order that have been brought forward in this treatise we 
ought not to be surprised if we were to find some author 
or other in Modern English time using inversion of an 
attributive adjective that is not of French origin and is not 
qualified by an adverb nor co-ordinated with any other 
attribute whether the reason be an attempt at gaining 
the strongest possible emphasis, an affectation for the 
satirical turn, a desire of deviating from the every-day Ian- 


guage, or whatever it be. On the contrary, it is, it seems 
to me, rather a matter of surprise that such instances are 
not more frequent than they really are. The fact is that 
ihey are very rare, and most of the cases that do occur can 
be reduced to certain prototypes. 

The following are the only instances I have found: 
My implement, hight Joseph Leman, has procured me 
the opportunity of getting two keys made to the garden 
door (one of which I have given him, for reasons good); 
which door opens to the haunted coppice (Clarissa). So sunk- 
en and depressed it was, that it was like a voice under- 
ground (Two Cities. Cf. cases where 'underground' is an 
adverb!). My father's death . . . meant no more to me 
than a week of rooms gloomy and games forbidden (King's 
Mirror. Games forbidden is correct, =- inhibation of 
games; cf. 21. This has no doubt influenced the other 
phrase). Ah, so it is, muttered Evan, eyeing a print. 
The Douglas and the Percy: 'he took the dead man by 
the hand' . . . . And looking wistfully at the Percy lifting 
the hand of Douglas dead, Evan's eyes filled with tears 
(E. Harrington. Cf. Douglas, deceased ; 79). 
214. In instances like the following the adjectives are per- 

haps rather used adverbially than attributively: 

Inland and along the Thames there were battles end- 
less between them and the revenue people (= without end, 
without any intermission, continually 1 . Thackaray, D. Du- 
val). Knights and squires numberless will thank you 
(== without number, at all places and in all times. Meredith, 
S. Belloni). The Prince had friends numberless in the ar- 
my (Esmond). -- Compare with these: For 65 pounds addit- 
ional you can get that music at any time (= in addition, 

1 'Endless' is found postpositive also in Middle English: Desire 
it to be lyghtynd with wysdome endles (Fire of Love, 1435). Into 
dyrknes endles thai sail be kest (ib.). But compare 207. 


more, extra. 111. Lond. News; Poutsma. Cf. also: pre or 
foure dayes continued; Fistula, 1400; and 51). 

Chapter XIV. 

Adjective attributes qualified by 'how*, or 'too*, 
and analogues. 

Attributes qualified by 'how' or 'too' are placed be- 215. 
fore the indefinite article, according to ABBOTT because 
< we regard too great as a quasi-adverb, and because we 
look upon how poor as an adverbialized expression* *. - 
STOFFEL (Studies in EngL, p. Q8) takes how just a man and 
too just a man to be imitations of so just a man. -- How- 
ever this be, certain it is that the same word-order is used 
in Danish: Alt/or 0mt et F0lelseliv, Hvor fager en pande. 
Scandinavian influence is perhaps therefore not impossible. 

That the said word-order is old appears from such 
quotations as these: How gret a sorwe suffreth now Arcite 
(Chaucer, C. T.; Matzner). Than sholde I make to longe 
a tale (Maundev. ; Matzner). It was to importable a losse 
(Three Kings' Sons, 1500). 

1. Too. 

There is, however, no obstacle to putting an adjec- 216. 
tive qualified by 'too' between the indefinite article and the 
substantive. At first the adverb and the adjective may 
have been regarded as a compound adjective (Cf. A too- 
long withered flower [Rich. II, II: 1], and also 'overfull', 
'overfond', etc.). 

Examples: A too ready consent (Clarissa). She had 
given a too easy admission to ... (Macaulay, Hist.). A too 

Shakesp. Gram. 422. 


thankful heart (Sheridan, Rivals, III: 2). A too sagacious ob- 
server (Eliot, Floss). A too frequent use of prepositions 
(Hodgson, Errors in Engl.). 

217. Thus always when 'too' is qualified by 'not': Per- 
haps some apprehension might be felt even by a not too 
impatient reader (Times; Poutsma, p. 346), and when the 
noun has the deL article: The not too gracious bounty of 
moneyed relatives (Sartor). The too hasty conclusion (Floss). 
The too rigid insistance on a duty (Hodgson, Errors). The 
already too long tale (Kruger). 

218. Where emphasis is aimed at, postposition is used. 
Examples: })e o5er is gaveling (usury) to grat, ase 

ne^en for tuelf (Ayenb.). Lest my zeal . . . might drive me 
into times too remote, and crowd my book with words no 
longer understood (Johnson, Diet.). Fears that were un- 
certain, and creditors too certain (Opium-eater). A freezing 
arrest upon the motions of hope too sanguine that haunted 
me (ib.). He was still sufficiently youthful not to be ac- 
cused of wearing a flower too artificial (E. Harrington). 

219. 2. How. 

Postposition is much less frequent with 'how', although 
it does occur: If any, then by a title how special could 
my own mother invoke such a co-operation (Opium-eater). 

In the following there is good reason for the inver- 
sion: With sensations how different from . . . (Kenilworth). 

220. 'However' has the same effect as 'how': However large 
a fortune his father may have left him (Poutsma). 

221. 3. Analogues. 

By analogy of too just a man it was not uncom- 
mon in older English to say for instance: Overgret a wit 
(Chaucer; Abbott, 422). They are purchased at over-high 
a rate (Florio). 

Hence through further analogy the same word-order 
was, and is sometimes still, used in other collocations too: 


The honour of seld-seene an amity (Florio). Big a 
puzzle as it was, it had not got the better of Riley (Eliot, 
Floss. Cf. As big a puzzle as . .!). 

In the following instance 'poor' is best looked upon as an ad- 
verb: It was upon this fashion bequeathed me by will but poor a 
thousand crowns (= only. As you). 

As for less just a man, what poor an Instrument, etc. 222. 
I refer to ABBOTT, Sh. Gram., 85, KRUGER, Synt., 733, 
and STOFFEL, Studies, p. Q4, where this matter is dealt with 
in detail. 

Chapter XV. 

Adj. attributes qualified by 'so' ('as'). 

If an adj. attr. is qualified by 'so', the modern Eng- 223. 
lish idiom allows this attribute to precede the noun only 
on condition that an indef. art. separates the substantive 
and its modifier. Otherwise 'such' is substituted for 'so', 
or else inverted word-order is used 1 . Thus: So strong a 
power, Such cold weather, Such nice girls, People so unedu- 
cated. A declaration of affection so conditional (King's 
Mirror). - Kingsley has: In such strange a way (T. Y.). 

Why the substantive will not tolerate 'so' -f adj. im- 
mediately before it, it is not easy to tell 2 . The same ar- 
rangement is, however, met with in at least one more Teu- 
tonic language, e. g. Dan. (Norw.) Elskog er sd stcerk en 
magt (Ibsen, Haermendene). Cf. also 16th cent. Germ. So 
ein geringes gelt (Hell wig, p. 127). 

1 Not when the attribute is a pronoun, however: So few people, 
so many books, so much money. 

2 SWEET simply declares (N. E. Gr., 1793) that in a constr. 
like so long a time the order is the result of avoiding the awkward 
collocation a so long time*. Why is this colloc. more awkward in 
Engl. than in German or Swedish? 


224. The Anglo-Saxons expressed themselves in the follow- 
ing way: Hie . . . cwaedon pet hit gemalic (disgraceful) waere 
and unryhtlic paet swa oferwlenced cyning sceolde winnan 
on swa earm folc (Alfr., Orosius; A. S. Read). Swa heane 
lariowdom (Cura Past.). - Thus in Middle English after 
'one' and 'none': per ne ys non zuo guod man (Ayenb.). 
One so gentil and hye pry nee (Godf. of Bol., 1481). 

As late as the transitional period between M. E. and 
Mod. Engl. it was possible to say: A so new robe (Abbott, 

225. The original construction was apparently that without 
any article; and when it was inserted at last, one did not 
quite know where to put it. Where no article was em- 
ployed the normal word-order was the regular order in 
M. E. and is also frequent enough in older Modern English. 

Examples: poug- pei ben getyn bi nevere so fals title 
(Wycliff, Of Clerks' Poss.). So mervelos and so spirituall 
affeccion (Alph. of Tales). Never after ware so costios hose 
nor shone (ib.). So grete and horrybyll strokes (Blanch, 
and Egl.; 148Q). We have taken soo greate hurte (Th. 
More, Rich. III). So hard terms (North, Plut.). Arrius and 
Leo his Pope died both at several times of so semblable 
deaths (Florio). Encircled with so horrible and great quan- 
titie of snow (ib). So apparent cowardlze (ib.). With so 
full soul (Tempest, III: 1). Our haste is of so quick con- 
dition (Measure, I: 1). Nature never set forth the earth in 
so rich taplstry (Sidney, Apol.; 1505). I have not found 
so great faith, no, not in Israel (Auth. Vers., Luke, 7: Q). 
- Even as late as Poe I find this construction: Should I 
avoid claiming a property of so great value (Murder in the 
Rue Morgue). 

226. It was not until Queen Elizabeth's time that the present 
usage became settled, but then it was already old enough, 
instances of it being found both in Chaucer and Wycliff: 


In so smal an instrument (Chaucer, Astrolabe). With so 
benigne a cheere (Cant. T.; Matzner). So long a time (Wycl., 
Hebrews IV: 7; Abbott, 67). 

After a dem. or poss. pron. and the def. art. the old 227. 
construction held its ground much longer: 

These so strong bonds (Florio). These so frequent and 
ordinary examples (ib.). The so presentient auscultator (Sar- 
tor). The so passionate Teufelsdrock (ib.). These his seem- 
ingly so aimless rambles (ib.). These seemingly so dis- 
obedient times (Carlyle, Ess. on Scott). These otherwise so 
powerful pieces (Carlyle, Ess. on Burns). 

Through confusion of This so pleasant path and 228. 
So pleasant a path a curious construction developed it- 
self in the 17th century: 

This so pleasant a path (Pilgr. Progr. *). Deliverance 
from this so dangerous an enemy (ib.). What will be the 
end of this so dreadful and so ireful a beginning (Bunyan, 
H. War). This so weighty a matter (ib.). 

In Present English 'so' -f- adj. is usually placed after a 229. 
substantive preceded by a pronoun: 

For that preparation so necessary (Xavier). My God ! and 

for my degradation so tremendous (Light that failed). There 

is no passion so cruel and selfish as love (Merriman, Sister). 

- Or else: You shall stay in no such dull place (Esmond). 

Postposition is sometimes also used when the subst. 230. 
is preceded by the indef. article. At the outset postposit- 
ion in this case was no doubt simply caused by analogy; 
in Late Modern English it is only employed for the pur- 
pose of emphasis or for similar reasons, e. g. in order 
to avoid too many attributes before a (short) substantive. 

Examples: The pulling of a knot so hard, so fast, so 
durable (Florio). Happy am I that have a man so bold 

WIDHOLM, Notes on the lang. of Bunyan. 


(II, Henry IV, V: 2). Therefore it is good to take know- 
ledge of the errors of a habit so excellent (Bacon, Good- 
ness of Nature). He will not disgrace himself with a com- 
parison so odious (Clarissa). A superiority so visible (ib.). 
At a juncture so unexpected (Wakefield). To pursue a track 
so smooth, and so flowery (Rambler). A monarch so great, 
so ambitious, and so unscrupulous (Macaulay, Hist.). In a 
manner so despotic (ib.). Gaiety was not foreign to a coun- 
tenance so expressive (Durward). It were extravagant waste 
of a commodity so rare (ib.). A being so unfortunate (ib.). 
In a way so new and so admirable (Two Paths). To strength- 
en an impression so desirable and useful (Twist). A phe- 
nomenon so low and unaccountable (Two Cities). In a voice 
so trumpet-tongued (Opium-eater). A notice so gratifying 
(Venetia). The excitement of an experience so new (Pem- 
berton, Xavier). With a smile so sweet, so benign, so sun- 
ny-bright (Cardinal's Snuff-box). Out of a friendship so 
unequal sprang . . . (Reid, Introd. to Ess. of Johnson). 

231. At times we come across rather curious constructions 
with 'so': 

So mild a relenting and gentle kindnesse (Florio). So new 
a fashion'd robe (King John, IV: 2) 1 . No so hard a heart- 
ed one (Butl., Hud.; Matzner, p. 567). -- Thus with 'as': 
I have known as honest a faced fellow have art enough 
to do that (Kenilworth). 

Nor is the word-order in the following quotation to 
be recommended: Warning me not to trifle with an en- 
gine so awful of consolation and support (Opium-eater). 

232. Where a participle is concerned it should be remem- 
bered that in A statesman so trained 'so' usually means 
in that way, thus, but in So trained a statesman it 
means in that degree*. 

1 For other similar constructions in Shakesp. see ABBOTT, 422. 


Thus also: A Smithfield means a cattle or meat mark- 
et, originally a market after the pattern of the London one 
so called. But: A so-called ^Rhyme-Booker. 'So-called' is a 
compound adjective. 

When an attribute is preceded by as, the same rules 233. 
are observed as where the adverb is 'so'. An abstract or 
plural substantive stands before the attribute: 

The great dignity that his valour hath here acquired 
for him shall at home be encountered with a shame as 
ample (All's well, IV: 3.). Other leaders have inspired their 
followers with zeal as ardent (Macaulay, Hist.). Cruelty 
as fierce may indeed have been wreaked and brutality as 
abominable been practised before (Two Paths). Work done 
by hands quite as rude and by minds as uninformed (ib.). 
Was it certain that ever -again I should enjoy hours as 
happy (Opium-eater). 

Thus also in the case of emphasis: He loved to 
dream of the past and conjure up a future as glorious 
(Venetia). Compare: She found herself the centre of a circle 
alike powerful, brilliant, and refined (ib.). 

Otherwise: As straunge a man l (Chaucer, Melibeus; 
Miillner). Then Britain should have had as rigorous a clim- 
ate as Labrador (Poutsma). I do not think he was as 
good a scholar (ib.). He is -as pleasant a man as any. 

Thus if 'as' does not modify an adj., but another 
adverb: Matters of as little practical importance (Macaulay). 

1 In M. E. one could, however, say: Yet shoulde the realme 
alway finde kinges and paradventure as good kinges (Th. More, Rich. 
III). Thus even as late as Thackaray: There were as brave men on 
that field (Esmond). With a pronoun as attribute this word-order 
is still used: As many people as . . . In as few words as possible. 
Cf. So many people, So much gold. Here 'such' cannot, of course, 
be used. 


Chapter XVI. 


234. 'Such' is etymologically == so like. For this reason 
it cannot be placed between the article and the noun in 
Modern English: Such a man. Thus also in other Ger- 
manic languages: Slig en mand. saadan en man; Sicken en 
dumbom; Solch erne Verbindung. Similarly in older Eng- 
lish also: Swillc an mann Alls Adam haffde strenedd (Orm.; 
Matzner, p. 187). War-to liveth selke a wrecche (Wright, 
Anecd.; Matzner). Suche a yong man (Alph. of Tales). 

235. But before the construction 'so' -f- adj. -f- art. -j- noun 
became settled, 'such' could be treated like ordinary ad- 
jectives : 

Er we an such kyng han y-founde (Wright, Pol. S.; 
Matzner). A swuch bale bute bote (Sawles Warde). 

236. If 'such' is completed by 'as', it may stand after the 
noun, next to 'as' 1 : 

He graunted him a day, such as him leste (Chaucer; 
Einenkel). Suerte suche as shall be thowght convenient (Cov. 
L. B., 1427). He gave his wife a look such as his coun- 
tenance could wear when angered (Van. Fair). I listened with 
a pleasure such as that with which . . . ' 2 (Opium-eater). Con- 
versation such as has been described (Fullerton, Bonneval). 
Cases such as these (Molloy). Word-connecting adverbs 
such as 'than' (Sweet; N. E. G.). An independent sentence 
such as it is true (ib.). 3 

1 Cf. Swed. Att just nu hogt prisa en handling, sddan som 
Charlotte Corday utfort, var brottsligt (G. Janson). 

2 Here 'such' is emphatic, and the word-order should be com- 
pared with Swed. En osdkerhet sddan, ait hon knappt visste, med 
vilken fot hon skulle stiga over en troskel (P. Hallstrom, G. Sparfvert). 

8 Cf. also Fr. C'est le cas pour des verbes tels que . . . 


POUTSMA cites further instances on page 427 and re- 
marks: Such is sometimes placed after the noun it quali- 
fies, with the result that it makes a kind of unit with the 
conj. as. Cf. also EINENKEL, Pauls Grundriss, p. 1143, 
who says: Im Ne. ist dies such as zu einer relativartigen 
Partikel zusammengeschmolzen. 

But, of course, also: 237. 

Such a combination as . . . (Sweet; N. E. G.). In such a 
sentence as . . . (ib.). Such differences as those presented (ib.). 

Chapter XVII. 


Certain pronouns are of great interest as regards their 
place in the sentence. 

1. All and both. The very word-order in all the 238. 
gentlemen *, both the gentlemen, as compared to the old 
gentlemen, indicates clearly enough that 'all' and 'both' can- 
not be adjectives in the same sense as 'old'. - Thus also: 
These fine books, the boy's fine books, my fine books, but : 
all these books, all the boy's books, all my books, both these 
books, both the boy's books, both my books. 

'All' and 'both' should rather be considered as ad- 
verbs of some kind. POUTSMA, p. 340: They partake of 
an adverbial character . - Hence also their free position 
in: The boys all (= with one voice, unanimously) con- 
sented. The soldiers were all (= collectively) angry. The 
two girls both began to cry. The gentlemen had both been 

1 In Chaucer also: Al a yer (Einenkel, Pauls Grundriss). In Fi- 
stula in Ano: al a nyt. 


officers 1 . Thus in Anglo-Saxon: Ball wifa cynn (Ein- 
enkel). Begen ofslegene wceron pa ealdormen (Sax. Chron. ; 

239. In Old English these words were mostly put after 
the noun, which SWEET ( 1781) ascribes to their want of 
emphasis. Whether they were unemphatic or not, I 
leave to further discussion. I feel, however, inclined to 
look upon 'all' and 'both' (or rather the old word ba to 
which the def. art. has been added) as originally substan- 
tive words, as is the case with several other pronouns, 
with at least certain numerals, and probably also with 
some quantitative adverbs. This explains both the fact 
that they cannot be inserted between the article and the 
noun, or between this and another pronoun (which is not 
impossible with many ordinary adverbs), and also their 
generally rather free position in the sentence. 

Compare: A. S. Ealle poet flcesc })aet wilddeor laefan 
(Alfred; Matzner), f>a sende se cyng aefter eallum his wit- 
urn (Sax. Chron.), Begen pa beornas (Matzner); Goth. Alia 
so hairda (Matth.; Matzner), Ba po skipa (ib.). 

240. They must have governed a partitive genitive at first, 
as for instance also in Beowulf: Sona haefde unlifigendes 
eal gefeormod (Matzner, p. 282). This is the case with 
'gehwa' in Anglo-Saxon (before or after the noun; Kube, 
35), and with several pronouns in Gothic: all manageins, 
all gaskaftais (Matzner) ; filu manageins, leitil beistis (Streit- 
berg, Got. El. Buch, 262) 2 . 

241. The genitive could always be placed before or after 3 : 

1 Cf. also the following German sentence in which 'alle' looks 
very much like a real ordinary attribute: 1st das langweilig die Vo- 
kabeln hier alle zu lernen (E. A. Meyer, Deutsche Gesprache). 

2 That a noun taking a part. gen. is apt to pass into a kind of 
adj. is illustrated also by Germ. Eine Art Fisch, M. E. Know ye 
whatkyn a token [>is is (Alph. of Tales). 

3 Certainly its original place was that after the other noun. 


Skatte fimf hunda, Manne sums (Streitberg). The word 
'enough' will be good as a parallel: Water enough, as well 
as Enough water. With a genitive: Eonne gife ic him pees 
leohtes genog (Gen., 1000; N. E. D.); Enough of impudence 
(T. Jones); Just enough of learning (Byron; Matzner). Cf. 
also Germ. Genug der Tranen, Des Weins genug. Instead 
of all these tribes, both these plans we sometimes find all 
of these tribes, both of these plans (Poutsma p. 217). Con- 
struction with 'of is indeed the rule when the noun is 
qualified by a relative: All of which letters, Both of whose 
husbands (Poutsma). 

As has already been stated, 'all' and 'both' were 242. 
mostly placed after their head-words in A. S. This is also 
sometimes the case, with 'all' at least, in older German: 
Die ding alle, Die frawen alle (Hell wig, pp. 114, 115), Die 
gliedmass des corpers alle (Luther; Hell wig, p. 126). 

Postposition of 'all' occurs as late as Present English, 
although it does not, of course, agree with the living 
idiom, dialects possibly excepted. 

a. Examples af postpos. of 'all': pas land eall (Alfr., 243. 
Orosius; Milliner). Se J>e pcet ingedonc eall wat (Cura 
Past.; ib.). Rice men alle (Sax. Chr.; ib.). Verod eall aeras 
(Caedm.; Matzner). a dyde he on his byrnan and his ge- 
feran ealle (Sax. Chron., 1048). To pam witum eallum {)e . . . 
(ib.). Sumorscete alle (Sax. Chron.; Kube). pa scipu alle 
(ib.). My lordes alle that here be (Three Kings' Sons; 
1500). My lord and you gentlemen all, this fellow I have 
known of a long time (Pilgr. Prog.). Hear me, William 

de la Marck and good men all (Scott, Durward). Listen 
to this, gentlemen all, said he (Norman Innes, Uncle Jabez; 
Winds. Mag., Xmas 1909). 

b. Examples with 'both' aer waes ungemetlic wael 244. 
geslaegen . . . and fa cyningas beg cvz ofslaegene (Sax. Chron.). 


The parties booth (Chaucer, Melibeus; Milliner). Fare you 
well, gentlemen both (II, Henry IV, HI: 2). 

245. 2. Many. 'Many' also originally took a part, gen.; 
cf. Goth, managai pize siponje (Streitberg). Hence its free 
position in: Manige Cristes cyrcan (Einenkel, Grundriss). 

246. Postposition is occasionally met with in Modern English, 
when 'many' is modified by an adverb. But postposition 
is very frequent in A. S. and occurs here and there in M. 
E. and Eliz. Engl. as well. 

Examples: Hlafordswican manege (Wulfstan's Address; 
A. S. Reader). Her syndan . . . fule forlegene horingas ma- 
nege (ib.). To hefegum byrQenum manegum (Cura Past.). 
Dagas well manege (Blickl. Horn.; Miillner). i>a sealdon hi 
him bysne monige (Bede's Eccl. Hist.). 1 Martires ful many 
(Trevisa; Milliner). Good people verye manye have deserved 
the revengaunce of God (Th. Lever, A Sermon; 1550). 
As there be gods many and lords many (Auth. Vers., I Cor., 
VIII: 5). It sheared off heads so many that it and the ground 
. . . were a rotten red (Two Cities). Friends enough and too 
many among his fellow book-wrights (Two Years Ago). 

247. As for many a man cf. MATZNER, p. 258, and EINENKEL, 
Grundriss, p. 1 144. Anal.: Lyke as other a tygre (Bl. and E.). 

248. 3. More and much may be placed on a level with 
'many'. Cf. gen. pees folces mycel ofsloh (Sax. Chron., 
626; Matzner). 

Examples of postposition: And other murthes mo (Matz- 
ner, p. 262). Her father and other knyghttes mo (ib.). 
And many things more (Latimer, Sermon on the Ploughers; 
1549). There is Christian, thy husband that was, with 
legions more, his companions (Pilgr. Progr.). - - y us is 
pearf micel 2 })aet we ... (Wulfstan's Address, A. S. R.). 

1 Cf. also: Swylce eac oper monig (Caedmon). 

2 According to MULLNER, p. 39, aufs Conto des lateinischen Ein- 
flusses zu setzen, which is not probable. 


Here is hunger and . . . odre wowe muchel (Rel. Ant. ; 
Matzner, p. 272). 

4. Other is sometimes placed after the noun when 249. 
emphasized and completed by 'than' x : 

But what if eyes other than his spied behind (D. Gray). 
It is evident that the clauses having order other than First 
or invested, are the exceptions (Me Knight, Prim. Order). 
When preceded by consonants other than dentals (J ones > 
Pron. of Engl.). Some syllable other than that which is 
normally stressed (ib.). The acquisition of works by artists 
other than Scottish (Studio, Nov. 1Q10). In the following 
quotation 'other than . . .' is appositional: He had no means 
other than his salary (Winds. Mag., Aug. 1Q10). 

5. Same. I have come across two instances of em- 250. 
phatic postposition of the same: 

On my passage I should meet with atmosphere essen- 
tially the same as at the surface of the earth (Poe, Hans 
Pfaal). Keats has the phrase the winnowing wind 
a threefold iteration of syllables nearly the same (Bain, 
Rhet. and Compos.). 

6. Whatever precedes the noun if this is not qual- 251. 
ified by another pronoun as well: We must make greater 
progress with the dictionary at whatever sacrifice (Murray). 

In other cases the noun comes first, owing to 'what- 252. 
ever' not being an attribute, but the the pred. complement 
of an abbreviated clause which it introduces itself: I felt 
no anxiety whatever (= whatever it be). Without any know- 
ledge whatever. 

1. Whatsoever was formerly as a rule, and is some- 253. 
times still, divided in this manner that 'what' stands be- 
fore the the noun, and 'soever' behind. 

Examples: It shall be lawfull for any man ... to use 

Cf. 308. 


what advantage soever (Florio). Of what degree or dig- 
nity soever (New Atlantis). Will be stragling abroad at 
what perill soever (Earle, Micro-cosm.; 1628). Power of what 
sort soever (Carlyle, Ess. on Scott). 

Compare also German: Diese konnen sich nun in einzelnen 
Sprachen, aus was filr Grtinden immer, verandern (Delbruck, Brug- 
manns Grundriss). 

254. 8. Possessives. In the oldest English the poss. pron. 
often followed the substantive. This is not to be wond- 
ered at, any more than the fact that other genitives can 
have this place. A. S. 'his', 'heara' are real genitives: He 
sende engel his (Merc. Hymns, A. S. R.), In hergum heara (ib.). 

Postposition is frequent in other Teutonic languages 
as well: Scand. Has fodur sins, /tad mitt (Hell wig, p. 20); 
Goth. Leik mein, Naseins unsara x (Hell wig, p. 18); O. H. 
Germ. Druthin got dhin, Gote unseremu (Hellwig, p. 54.) 

Instances of postposition in O. E.: Lytel ic waes be- 
twih brobur mine and iungra in huse feadur mines (Merc. 
Hymns). ' Fingras mine wyrctun hearpan (ib.). Gecerred is 
hatheortnis bin (ib.). To donne mildheortnisse mid fedrum 
urum (ib.). Eis is sunu min leof (North. Matth.). Bread oure 
eche dayes yef ous (Rel. Ant., Matzner). - - M. E.: And 
agreid wij) hym J>at he sulde gett hym pe lyff hur (her 
love. Alph. of Tales). 

255. Inverted word-order was particularly frequent in the 
vocative case 2 : 

Sunn min, ne todael du on to fela 9in mod (cf. the 
difference! Cura Past.). Vader oure (Rel. Ant., Matzner). 
Dryhten min (Andr., ib.). - This usage was also kept up 
by Shakespear, at least in poetry. FRANZ (Shakesp. Gram.): 

1 HELLWIG, p. 18: Wie . . . erwiesen wird, stehen die Poss. meins 
etc. eher nach als vor dem Nomen, auch wo das Griechische um- 
gekehrt stellt*. 

2 Cf. Germ. Lieben frawen min (15th cent.), Vater unser (Hell- 
wig, p. 115). Cf. also Father dear etc., 148 ff. 


Mlne in der Stellung nach dem zugehorigen Subst. (lady 
mine, brother mine) begegnet gelegentlich als die Form 
feierlicher and geftihlvoller Anrede. I have not found any 
instance of this in Shakespear's prose. 

Even certain modern authors sometimes use this 256. 
archaic word-order in exclamations and in address: 

Nay, sweet lady mine (Rienzi). In truth, lady mine, I 
rejoice (ib.). Oh! mother mine! (Westward Ho! Poutsma). 
Reader mine, if ever you go to Harrow ... (A. Besant, 
Autob.; Poutsma). Oh, if thou shouldst ever be like that, 
Berthold mine! (Ouida, Fame). 

Q. A. S. ana ('alone') may also be classed among 257. 
the pronouns. This word was usually put after its noun, 
which is evidently due to its appo si tional character. Cf. 
A. S. 'sylf, Germ, 'selbst'. 

Examples: Monige })e fleof) for eaftmodnesse anre 
(Cura Past.). Codes wisdomes anes (ib.). pa ping ana 
(ib.; Milliner). 

10. A. S. sylf, self is placed after for the same rea- 258. 
son as 'ana': From ftcere dura selfre (Cura Past.; Milliner). 
Ge eac swylce dead sylfne to f>rowianne (Bede). 

Chapter XVIII. 


1. Cardinals. 259. 

I take all cardinal numerals to have been originally 
substantives, not only 'hundred', 'thousand', 'twenty', etc., 
but also the smaller numbers. In the quality of substan- 
tives they were at the outset accompanied by a part, gen- 
itive. Thus it will be possible to account for the word- 


order in: Theves he schal herberon neyer won (one; Hall., 
Freemas.; Matzner). Souls and bodies hath he divorced 
three (Tw. Night, III: 4). Also: On pe fairest loan, pre pe 
beste yles (Einenkel, p. 1143). - Compare, moreover, the 
following sentences with 'none' (= not one): Hayir wered 
he non, ne lynand wold he non were (Capgrave, St. Gilbert; 
1451). Other of the apostles saw I none (Auth. Vers., Gal. 
I: 1Q). Satisfaction can be none (Tw. Night, III: 4). Other 
count of time there was none (Two Cities). 

The transition from a noun into an adjectival numeral is illus- 
trated by: pe pridde del mi kinedom l (Rob. of Glo.; Einenkel, Anglia 

260. By reason of their origin, cardinal numerals could 
stand before or after in the older language (cf. para scipa 
[gen.] tu; Sax. Chron.). Postposition is not uncommon in 
A. S.; in Modern English this is only met with in poetry 
or poetic style. 

Examples: Mid his eaforum prim (Caedmon; Matzner). 
Ond J>a fengon ;{)elwulfes suna twegen to rice (Sax. Chron., 
855). Comon J)aer scipa six to Wiht (ib., 8Q7). Hiera pegn 
an (ib.; Kube). Smale bollen preo (Pop. Treat.; Matzner). 
Ge neschulen habben no best bute kat one (Ancr. Riwle). 
Spearmen 200 (Acts, 23: 23). - - Myself and children three 
(Cowper, Gilpin; Kellner, Hist. Outlines). 

261. In the same way: Make ready 200 soldiers and horse- 
men threescore and ten (Acts, 23: 23). Nobody doubts but 
that 'threescore' is a noun, not an adjective. Nevertheless 
it can be employed attributively like other cardinals, getting 
its place before the substantive by way of an ordinary 
adjective: Wretched old sinner of more than threescore 
years and ten (Two Cities). Thus also 'fourscore': Even 
though I lived for fourscore years and ten (Ouida, Pipist- 

1 According to EINENKEL angeglichen an half, which I do not 


rello). Even: Threescore and ten miles (Franz). She was 
a widow of about fourscore and four years (Auth. Vers., 
Luke, 2: 37). 

In like manner: Ten miles and a half, but also: 262. 

Zebra is about four and a half feet high (Just so 
Stories). The barometer gave a present altitude of three 
and three-quarter miles (Poe, Hans Pfaal). It is five and a 
quarter miles in length (Daily Mail, July 6, 190Q). 

We see how nouns pass into adjectival numerals. 
Cf. also: One of the hundred or so deadly sins (P. Kelver). 

2. Half, double, etc. 263. 

'Half stands on a level with 'all' and 'both': it was 
originally a substantive 1 only and could not stand between 
the article (or pronoun) and its noun. 

Heo healfne forcearf pone sweoran him (Judith; Matz- 
ner). Halfe a man (Chaucer, Test, of Love). He schall 
pay half a marke (Cov. L. B., 1421). Half the sum, half 
a day, half my work. You have told me only half this 
lady's story (Audley). I have half a mind to do it (More 
correctly an adverb here: Swed. till halften). 

Distinctly a substantive is 'half in such cases as: Fox 
beat half the lawyers in the House (Clive; Poutsma). You 
might turn the heads of half the girls in town (Don.jib.). 

Where 'half stands immediately before the noun it 264. 
has either lost its primary meaning, or else we must speak 
of a compound: 

A half loaf (Sweet, N. E. Or.). A long half minute; 
a half-hour; a half-measure; a half-crown; only a half truth. 
His half brother (Esmond). He invented a half-dozen of 
speeches in reply (ib.). The half-memory falsely called im- 
agination (Kipling, Many Inv.) -. 

1 For the transition into an adj. compare: Mare then halfendele 
a myle (Matzner, p. 218). 

2 Cited from LEEB-LUNDBERG, Word-formation in Kipling. Lund 1909. 


265. The Romance double, treble, and quadruple have 
partaken of the construction of 'half : double the deficiency, 
double his income; treble the number. At least quadruple 
its usual duration (Kenilworth). 

When they stand after the article or pronoun, they 
form a compound with the substantive or have another 
signification: A double game, the double windows, this dou- 
ble journey. 

Note. Also Dutch half and dubbel can have the same position 
as Engl. half, doable (Poutsma, p. 216). 

3. Ordinals. 

266. The ordinal numerals in Henry the Fourth, Edward 
the Seventh, etc. follow their head-words because they are 
explanatory appositions added afterwards, just like 
the adjectives in Pliny the Elder, Charles the Great ( 152). 
That is of course the reason why the ordinal can be 
placed as it is in this quotation: Be j)e commaundment 
of Innocent Pope pe pird (Capgrave, St. Gilbert; 1451). 

Normal word-order is occasionally made use of when 
the author wishes to make his style more dignified: The 
trying reigns of the second Charles and the second James 

267. In A. S. postposition could be used in ordinary col- 
locations too, as with other adjectives: Ymb wucan prid- 
dan (Caedmon; Matzner). 

268. Note especially the following construction in M. E. : 
The reyne of the kynge Richard the Secund after the 

conquest the X (E. E. Wills, R. Corn; 1387). In the yere 
of our kyng Henry the VI:te the second (Cov. L. B., 1424). 
The yere of Kyng Herri the VI the IX (ib., 1431). 

This construction is evidently due to analogy with 
in the year -f- card, and has certainly also been influ- 
enced by the Latin. Cf. Anno domini Millesimo CCCC:mo 


(E. E. Wills). Anno regni Regis Henrici sexti post conque- 
stum Anglie decimo septimo (ib.). 

In Chapter the first, Page three, etc. French influence 269. 
is generally assumed (SWEET, N. E. G. 1782. POUTSMA, 
p. 336). As the same word-order is often used in Swedish 
and German, it seems to me that this explanation is somewhat 
arbitrary. The origin of this mode of expression is doubt- 
less simply this, that, when people had become accustom- 
ed to writing - - after the Latin pattern, that is true 
Chapter I, Page 3, they also took to reading the words 
in the same order, and thus the numeral was kept behind 
the substantive. 

Instances without any article: In Conto Twelfth (Byron, D. 
Juan; Matzner). Chapter twenty-fifth (Scott, Rob Roy; ib). 

Thus it has also fared with the pronouncing of the 270. 
date of the month. The fifth of February is usually written 
Febmary(,) 5:th, and so it has come to pass that one can 
say and write: 

Boys who on November the ninth . . . were suffering 
from a severe toothache, told me on November the tenth 
the glories of Lord Mayor's show (Paul Kelver). 

Chapter XIX. 

Attributes qualified by <nof. 

An attribute preceded by 'not' can stand before the 271, 
noun *, and this is the usual order when the adjective is 
negated by un- or in-. That pre-position is more freely 
used in that case must be seen through the medium of 

1 POUTSMA simply states (p. 332): Adjectives may stand before 
their head-words although modified by adverbs of time, adverbs in 
-ly, or the word-modifying not. 


the fact that 'not' and un- (in-) neutralize each other, so 
that the negation and the adjective form only one positive 
idea. Postposition is therefore in that case exclusively 
employed for the sake of emphasis. 

Examples of p re-position: The perhaps not unwilful 
slights of those whose approbation we wish to engage 
(Clarissa). A not unintelligent officer (Macaulay,Hist.). A not 
unworthy rival (ib.). The Countess had a not unfeminine 
weakness for champagne (E. Harrington). Lying at his door 
in a not unwonted way (ib.). 

Examples of postposition: [He] remembered this 
part of his life as a period not unhappy (Esmond). An 
event not unfrequent, for in those days ... (P. Kelver). The 
man . . . was of a mighty nature not unheroical, a man of 
the active grappling modern brain (Meredith, Tragic Com., 

272. In the case of other adjectives normal word-order 

does not seem to be much favoured, exception being made 
for the combination 'not' -f 'very' ('quite', 'altogether'} 
+ adj., which group is felt to be equivalent to a single 
word *, e. g.: 

The ardent and not altogether disinterested zeal with 
which . . . (Macaulay, Hist.). The not too gracious bounty 
of moneyed relatives (Sartor). This nagging and not very 
courteous chaff (Pudd'nhead Wilson). He plays a not very 
conspicuous part in the story (Sweet, N. E. Or., 1788). 

Otherwise postposition is preferred: 

Many have an opinion not wise that . . . (Bacon, Of 
Faction). With features not dissimilar (Esmond). 2 The 

1 It might be objected that 'not' does not here belong to, the 
adj., but that is only a half truth. 

2 Such an adjective might, however, be put on a level with 
those in w/z-, in-. It is therefore possible that the word-order is em- 
phatic here. 


grace of God working in a heart not ill-disposed (Fullerton, 
Bonneval). Verbs not auxiliary, except 'be' and 'have', 
are resumed by 'do' (Lloyd, North. Engl.). 

But there is an expedient frequently resorted to of 273. 
getting rid of this often rather unwieldy arrangement, namely 
that of substituting 'no' for 'not' (or 'a not'). According to 
STOFFEL (Stud, in EngL, p. 106) this is very rarely met with 
in modern English*. I doubt very much whether this state- 
ment is correct, but I am unfortunately not able to dis- 
prove it by a sufficient number of quotations. I cite those 
that I have come across: 

To my no small pleasure (Florio). Looking forward 
with no small anxiety to his fate (Esmond). He ... thought 
of it with no small feeling of shame (ib.). With no very 
well-pleased air (ib.). Standing in no common need of rest 
(Nickleby). To the no small delight of a group of dimin- 
utive boys (Pickwick). Peter Ruff returned ... in no very 
jubilant state of mind (Pearson's Weekly, Jan. 1Q10). For 
no very disinterested end (Two Years). 

Also with adjectives in in-: Situated at no inconsider- 
able distance from the place (Rienzi). Saying which in no 
inaudible tones (Fl. Marryat, Her World). 

Another expedient of avoiding art. -f- 'not' + ad J- + noun is 
to place 'not 7 before the article, as in: I myself, not the least afflicted 
person on the roll (Opium-eater). A liberal-minded man, and not a 
very rigid ecclesiastic (Christian). l 

As to constructions such as No easie an apprentiship 274. 
(Florio), Upon no better a ground (Coriolanus), I refer to 
STOFFEL, Studies in EngL, p. Q5 ff. 

1 Compare with this: It had infinitely a stronger effect on him 
(T. Jones). The stars intimate yet a prouder title (Kenilworth). Mr. 
Torpenhow's ten times a better man than you (Light that failed). - 
This word-order is, it is well known, very frequent with 'rather' and 



Chapter XX. 

Attributes preceded by more than one adverb. 

275. An adjective attribute may be preceded by two ad- 
verbs, one of which qualifies the other, and it may never- 
theless stand between the article (pron.) and the substan- 
tive. SWEET (N. E. G., 1788) lays down the following 
general rule for this case: Groups precede when pre-order 
involves no awkwardness of construction, especially when 
the group is felt to be equivalent to a single word, or 
when the group may be regarded as a compounds 

Above all, of course, this applies to the case of one 
adverb being qualified by 'more' or 'most'; here we might 
be authorized to say that only one compound adverb pre- 
cedes the adjective. But many other combinations occur. 

Examples: These now before rehercid thingis (Pecock, 
Represser). The never-yet beaten horse (Ant. and Cleop. ; 
Abbott). The almost equally unimaginable volume (Sartor). 
That pretty-densely populated quarter (Pickwick). Her 
scarcely less dear namesake (Two Cities). More easily broken 
shells (Darwin). With not less disastrous consequences 
(Venetia). The no longer mysterious door (ib.). The most 
widely read book ever written (Editor's Pref. to Pilgr. Progr.; 
People's Library). Thus also: In a clear, bell-like, for 
ever memorable tone (Sartor). Our as yet miniature philos- 
opher's achievements (ib.). 

276. In instances like the following the first adverb be- 
longs to the second adv. -f the adj., which two thus form 
one idea, i. e. a kind of compound: 

The perhaps not unwilful slights (Clarissa). His seemingly 
so aimless rambles (Sartor). These otherwise so powerful 
pieces (Carlyle, Ess. on Burns). An otherwise studiously 
inexpressive countenance (Merriman, A small World). The 


demon's really rather cogent intervention (Cardinal's Snuff- 
box). Respectably ill dressed or disreputably poorly dressed 
people (Shaw, Candida). - Thus also: So utterly sad a 
scene (Carlyle, Ess. on Burns). So thoroughly judicious a 
manner (Floss). 

Even three adverbs may be allowed to stand before 277. 
a prepositive attribute: 

That perhaps not ill-written Program > (Sartor). Much 
more highly-instructed persons (Floss). Our Arabian Nights 
and fairy tales seemed at last not altogether cunningly 
wrought deceptions (King's Mirror). 

Postposition in accordance with the common rules: 278. 

I have known sons much more confidential (Thackeray, 
Philip). An effect not less disproportionate followed out 
of that one accident (Opium-eater). A value not otherwise 
attainable (ib.). With an unconscious equanimity not less 
diverting (Venetia). There was in his air just now a hint 
of amusement most decorously suppressed (King's Mirror). 

The group more than usually (ordinarily, commonly) 279. 
does not prevent pre-position, which is all the more natural 
as it only expresses one idea.- It is then in full accordance 
with SWEET'S rule that the whole long attribute is placed 
before the noun. 

Examples: When there were some more than usually 
interesting inquests (Twist). A more than commonly good 
thing (Nickleby). A more than usually unpronounceable name 
(Plain Tales). A more than ordinarily friendly soul blocked 
the procession (Twain, Wilson). 

Similarly, if the adjective is preceded by more than, pre-order 
is kept: With a more than ordinary vehemence (Rog. de Coverly). 
One of those more than mad English girls (Light that failed). The 
rays of the sun were reflected in more-than-oriental (sic!) splendour 
(Just so Stories). 

Cf. The man knew more than enough English for that (D- 
Gray). The more than favour with which she accosted him (Kenilworth). 


Chapter XXI. 

Adjective attributes in adversative relation to 
each other. 

280. He made a manly but, at first, a vain effort (Scott); 
A natural, although a very deep sigh escaped him (Poe). - 
There is nothing remarkable in these sentences. But what 
would be the word-order in case the article were not 
repeated? POUTSMA (p. 332) answers thus: When an adjec- 
tive or a group of adjectives is in adversative relation to 
another, or to an adnominal clause, they are often found 
after their head-words. Instances of the alternative case 
are not unfrequent. 

Examples: {oas Dryhten geedleanades, swe folc dysic 
(foolish) and nales snottur (wise. Merc. Hymns; A. S. R.). A 
person small and emaciated, yet deriving dignity from . . .; 
a brow pensive but not gloomy; a face, pale and worn but 
serene (Macaulay, Hastings; Poutsma). A mind Intelligent, 
if not brilliant (Venetia). In a language eloquent though 
rude (P. Kelver). Manikins grotesque but pitiful crept across 
the star-lit curtain (ib.). He has . . . a mouth resolute, but 
not particulary well cut (Shaw, Candida). A fake is a 
story invented, not founded on fact (Harper's Monthly, July 
1893). He looked at her averted face, a profile soft and 
lovable, yet full of . . . (Cosmop. Mag., Oct. 1910). 

281. In reality, however, the matter certainly stands thus, 
that this word-order is in Modern English only observed 
when the substantive has a great deal less importance 
than the attributes. Otherwise not merely not un- 
frequently, in consequence, but rather in most cases - 
both the attributes precede the noun. 

Examples: This low but not unuseful subject (Clarissa). 
Those few, simple and familiar, yet whispered syllables 


(Poe, Wilson). With an objectless yet intolerable horror 
(ib.). A neighbouring though still somewhat distant parish 
(Venetia). Like a faint, yet pleasing dream (ib.). With 
a brief but ineffectual radiance (B. Harte, By Shore and 
Sedge). A fierce though unequal conflict (Bain, Rhet. and 
Comp.). With equal, yet different, effect (Studio, Oct. 1910). 
Even : An integral but in many respects distinct part of 
the United Kingdom (C. S. Fearenside, Mod. Spr. VI, 1910.) 
In case of an adjective not compounded with un- negatived by 
'nof repetition of the article is the best construction: A good but not 
a gay horse (Kenilworth). 

Appendix 1. To this section I also refer such rather 282. 
rare combinations as the following: 

In vain, because unguided, attempts (Poe, Gold-bug). 
That half-pleasurable, because poetic, sentiment (Poe, House 
of Usher). It exhibits no lofty and almost useless, because 
unimitable, example of excellence (Irving, Sketchbook). 

Appendix 2. It is by far the most usual to say: 283. 
With features rather strong than pleasing (Kenilworth). 1 In 
a manner practical rather than academic (Fearenside, M. S., 
Jan. 1911). Elsley had a dread more nervous than really 
coward of infectious diseases (Two Years). Dick established 
himself in quarters more riotous than respectable (Light that 
failed). But Dickens has: That not more populous than 
popular thoroughfare (Pickwick). 

A rare construction is also the following: My as fair 284. 
as noble ladies (Coriolanus II: 1). I have made a short as 
well as early dinner (Clarissa). Having made this act of pru- 
dent as well as just restitution (Kenilworth). He runs great 
personal as well as political risks (Winds. Mag., July 1910). 

I cannot produce any striking instance of pre-position of an ex- 
pression with both . . . and >. Instead of *A both pretty and rich girl we 
say either: Both a rich and a pretty girl, or: A girl both rich and pretty- 

Thus also: With indulgence as unbounded as injudicious (ib.). 


Chapter XXII. 

Attributes preceded by an adverbial phrase of 
some length. 

285. In English there exists, as is well known (cf. 14), 
rather great freedom as to the attributizing of whole 
phrases, in one way at least. Thus: 

A good-for-nothing husband (Her World). Well-to-do 
professional men (Kelver). One of those hundred and sixteen 
piece five-dollar-ninety-eight-marked-down-from-six sets of 
china (Lorimer, Graham). A this-is-very-sad-but-I-need-the- 
money tone (ib.). A Leeds to Hull goods train (D. Mail). 

But here the whole of the more or less longish 
phrase constitutes a simple idea and forms only one com- 
plicated adjective. 

286. On the other hand, placing an attribute preceded by 
an adverbial adjunct of some length before the noun is 
decidedly at variance with the principles of English syn- 
tax. Notwithstanding instances do occur in Late Modern 

287. To meet with by no means preceding a prepos- 
itive attribute is common enough and is, of course, quite 
comprehensible, as the said expression has lost its orig- 
inal meaning and has sunk to be a negative adverb, only 
more emphatic than 'not'. 

Examples: Her by means affectionate brother (Two 
Cities). A by no means unusual circumstance (Slang Diet.). 
A by no means pre-Raphaelite conclusion (Two Years). 

In the same way anything but is equivalent to a 
single adverb: The anything but settled use. l 

1 Compare, however, also: With anything but an assured coun- 
tenance (Her World). In anything but an enviable position (ib.). 


But the following quotations are more interesting: 288. 
This, I fear, cannot be said of our happily in all other re- 
spects cleaner island (Ch. Weld, Vacation in Brittany; Poutsma). 
Marcella was no longer a clever little imp, but a fast- 
maturing and in some ways remarkable girl (Marcella). An 
integral but in many respects distinct part of the United 
Kingdom (Fearenside, Mod. Spr. VI, 1910). 

POUTSMA declares the first of these to make a lu- 
dicrous effect. I cannot agree with him in this. When 
the subst. has a poss. pronoun, it is always more natural 
to place the attribute in front, as it usually mentions a well- 
known fact. . In the last two quotations the word-order 
may be due to the long distance between the article and the 
attribute in question. It would have been grammatically 
more correct to have repeated the article after 'ways' and 
'respects', respectively. 

The same applies to such cases where a whole sent- 289. 
ence is the qualifier of the adjective, as in: 

A silent, as it were unconscious, strength l (Sartor). 
Then in a smooth, even, and what I may call reasonable 
voice, she remarked . . . (King's Mirror). 

Again, a combination like the following makes the 
impression of being quite a free-and-easy mode of express- 
ion: For I forget how many days, Peter and the Duchessa 
did not meet (Cardinal's Snuff-box). 

Concerning the attributive participle there are not a 290. 
few cases of such preceding the head-word although ac- 
companied by an adverbial phrase. In most of these, 
however, we must look upon the long attribute as a com- 
pound adjective. Cf. ABBOTT, Sh. Gr., 434: Short phrases, 
mostly containing participles, are often compounded into 

1 Of course the adjective was here originally pred., but as it 
were is now no longer felt as as // it were. 


epithets , e. g. The to-and-fro-conflicting wind (Lear). - 
Further instances: 

Yet my mind ceased not ... to have peculiar unto 
it selfe well setled motions (Florio). I chanced to stumble 
upon an high, rich, and even to the clouds-raised piece (ib.). 
A twenty-years-removed thing (Tw. Night). A without- 
pain-delivered jest (Lamb, Elia). Sheridan's brilliant, though 
in its day much condemned, alteration (Introd. to Sheridan's 
Plays, World's Classics). 

291. Pre-position is particularly frequent when the adverbial 
phrase contains the word 'times'. In the quotations from 
more recent times we can hardly speak of a compound any 
more in this case. 

Examples: A jewel in a ten times barred up chest 
(Rich. II). The most illustrious, six-or-seven-times-honoured 
captain-general of the Grecian Army (Tr. and Cress., Ill: 3). 
To pay a fifty-times repeated visit (Elia). Like a many- 
times-repeated kiss * (Light that failed). A many-times- 
told tale (Kipling, Kim; Leeb-Lundberg). A several times 
repeated percussion (Lloyd, North. Engl.). 

292. A passive infinitive can, when preceded by another 
word, stand attributively before a substantive. We are 
bound to regard the whole group as a compound adjective. 

Examples: My ever to be revered mamma (Clarissa). Your 
lordship's most beautiful and all-to-be-unmatched - Castle 
of Kenilworth (Kenilworth). The never-to-be-forgotten whis- 
per (Poe, Wilson). The never-enough-to-be-esteemed Gener- 
al Post-office (Opium-eater). The not-every-day-of-the-week- 
to-be-attained benefit (Poutsma, p.' 341. Can hardly be 
taken quite seriously). 

293. The only adverbial adjunct of some length that could 

1 Kipling's hyphens do not count for much! 

2 This is not of course, properly speaking, a passive inf. But 
the likeness is obvious. 


precede a prepositive attribute in Anglo-Saxon was one 
denoting measure: Ond widutan J)aem dice is geworht 
twegea elne heah weall (Orosius; A. S. R.). Suilc it ware 
pre niht aid mone (Sax. Chron., 1132). - Thus also in 
M. E.: To robbe a riche man of an hundrid markis worp 
godis (Wycliff, De Off. Past.). 

But in Modern English this word order is impossible, 
except in stating a person's age: A ten-year-old boy, A 
two-hundred-year-old grammar. In the case of a numeral 
4- 'year' (uninflected plural!) the old word-order has sur- 
vived up to our days, but the whole combination is now 
looked upon as a compound word (Cf. A five-and-twenty- 
mile walk. Pickwick). 

If, however, the plural -s is added to 'year' the re- 
ceived tradition is deviated from, and the attribute should 
be placed after the noun. Notwithstanding, in opposition 
to the rule: I looked across the terrace and saw Victoria's 
three-years-old l girl playing about (King's Mirror). 

Postposition may in other cases be avoided by omission of the 
quantit. noun, as in: The hundred-strong (hundra man stark >) guard 
packed before the obstruction in the tunnel (Royal Mag., July 1910). 

Chapter XXIII. 

Attributes preceded by an object. 

The fact that pre-order is sometimes used even if 294. 
the adjective is accompanied by a dative must be regard- 
ed as a noteworthy omen, showing the direction of de- 
velopment in this respect. Instances are, of course, as yet 
comparatively rare. 

1 The hyphens are of no real importance! 


Examples: On that to me memorable evening (Words- 
worth; Poutsma). Under the to me unmeaning title (Car- 
lyle; Einenkel, Grundriss). After this remarkable and to 
Scotland most disgraceful transaction (W. S. Tal., 4; 
Koch, Hist. Gram., p. 174). She contrived still to speak 
on the, to her, ever-interesting subject (Venetia). The mighty 
men of old who had penetrated into these, to them, re- 
mote regions (Brown, V. C.). Many of their (to us) pecu- 
liar usages (Verity, Coriolanus; Notes). He exhibited such 
a faculty for apt, but to the brothers totally incomprehens- 
ible quotation (E. Harrington). The accidental charm of 
his graceful, though to him only half-serious, fopperies 
(D. Gray). By which term Heale indicated the, to him, 
astounding fact that . . . (Two Years Ago). 

295. I have even noted down a few cases where an attrib- 
utive present participle has an accusative object and never- 
theless precedes the noun. As yet we must, I think, set 
such- phenomena down as specimens of word-formation. 

Examples: To an ambitious and fame aspiring mind a. 
man must yeeld little (Florio). Olive-branch-bearing doves 
(Audley). The last sketch representing that much enduring 
man (Light that failed). The all-surpassing interest (Verity, 
Hamlet; Introd.). 

296. The same is applicable to the case of a prepositive 
participle accompanied by a predicative complement, as in: 
I will . . . pluck the borrowed veil from the so seeming 
(cf. so-called) Mistress Page (M. Wives, III: 2). The dark- 
growing moor (Sartor). l 

T Cf. Swed. Skjutit den oegennyttiga karleken i bakgrunden och 
pa dess tom-blivna iron satt upp nagra klumpiga avgudar (Fr. Hed- 
berg, Hero och Leander). 


Chapter XXIV. 

Attributes followed by a qualifier. 

If an adjective or participle is followed, not preceded, 297. 
by some qualifier, it cannot stand attributively before a 
noun. That one can, and could, nevertheless say: They call 
him a babishe and ill brought up thyng (Ascham, Schole- 
master), She is a well-brought-up and religious young woman 
(Thackeray, Philip), is .of course owing to the fact that the 
participle and the adverb make up a unit so as to form a 
compound adjective. Such is naturally also the case 
when a preposition which is necessary to the verb is 
tacked on to the participle. It appears from the very pro- 
nunciation that a composition is present. 

Examples: That little booke of unheard of wonders 
(Florio). This unhoped for victory (ib.). I love not this 
relative and begd-for sufficiencie (ib.). He mangles poore 
foules with unheard of tortures (Earle, Micro-cosm.). Over- 
refining and overdefining can seldom reach their wished- 
for end (Clarke, Gram, of the Engl. Tongue). A small but 
much-sought-after school for young ladies (Marcella). The 
talked-of tutor had not yet arrived (King's Mirror). 

There is, however, one case in which an attribute 298. 
followed by its adverb is placed before the noun. This 
is when the adverb is 'enough*. 

Three different arrangements are possible when the 
attribute is qualified by 'enough': 1) The word-order most 
in accordance with the English idiom: I have reason good 
enough (Tw. Night, II: 3). Answers satisfactory enough 
(Hope, God in the Car). With a natural merriment about 
her attractive enough (King's Mirror). [Cf. Some system 
more corrupt still. Macaulay]. - 2) With the adj. before 


and the adv. after the noun: An honest fellow enough 
(Shakesp.; Matzner). A snub-nosed, common-faced boy enough 
(Twist). A well-meaning woman enough (Nickleby). It was 
a becoming robe enough (Two Cities). A shabby, dirty- 
looking box enough (Audley). She was a pious maiden 
enough (Ouida, Umilta). A doleful hole enough (Two Years 
Ago). l [Cf. It would have been a stranger contrast still. 
Nickleby]. 3) With both the adjective and the enclitic 
adverb before the subst. This arrangement is comparatively 
new and is not mentioned by MATZNER. ELLINGER, Engl. 
Stud. XXIV, gives some instances of it. I will add some 
myself, all belonging to Modern English: 

The natural enough excuse of his lady's insanity 
(Kenilworth). In dreary enough humour (Sartor). You're 
a good enough fellow in yourself (Fl. Marryat, Her World). 
Pleasant enough fellows (Merriman, Goloss-aal). A willing 
enough beast (Merriman, The Mule). This here's a strange 
enough world (E. Harrington). For most of us life is a 
tolerable enough business (King's Mirror). [A better still 

299. In all these quotations 'enough' has its weaker sense 

of 'rather', and the strange-looking word-order is evidently 
made possible by the fact that the adj. and the adv. are 
pronounced in one breath (Cf. nice-and-warm!). 

The word-order in question has, however, also spread 
to cases where 'enough' has a more independent, i. e. its 
primary, meaning ('sufficiently'): 

I was a meek enough wife to endure it without flinch- 
ing (Fr. Moore, Rosamund's Lady; Winds. Mag., May 1Q10). 

1 In the foil. quot. 'enough' belongs with all probability to the 
noun: And f>er he sulde hafe glide wyne enogh, and clarett (Alph. of 


Quite a large enough village to be called a town (ib.). You 
have not heavy enough rains for a flood L . 

The phenomenon here illustrated is very interesting, 
as it proves that the resources of English in the matter of 
an easy arrangement of the words are as yet far from 
being exhausted. 

In such constructions as Six more persons, In one 300. 
more respect it looks as if we had another instance of the 
above word-order. This is, however, only seemingly. 

MATZNER says on page 260: Schwer ist es fur das 
moderne Sprachbewusstsein in manchen Fallen zu entschei- 
den, ob more als Adverb oder als Adjektiv anzusehen ist. 
Englische Lexikographen nehmen more in der Verbindung 
mit bestimmten und unbestimmten Zahlwortern fur ein 
Adjektiv in der Bedeutung von additional*. 

Whether 'more' is here to be looked upon as an 
adverb or not is totally immaterial. At any rate, if it is 
not an adjective here, it is not an adjective in More per- 
sons, More money either. But thus much is certain: it 
cannot possibly belong to the numeral in Six more per- 
sons, because a numeral cannot be modified by such an 

I quote some of Matzner's examples: 

That he might have one more look at the day (Ma- 
caulay, Hist.). There might be one more motive (Byron, D. 
Juan). Twelve more tragedies (Taylor a. Reade, Masks). 
Many more stories (Andrew). I add one from M. E.: 
Monie mo hweolpes (Ancr. Riwle). 

1 Uttered by an Australian-English lady. 


Chapter XXV. 

Crosswise word-order. 

301. 1. If an attribute is completed by a following adjunct, 
it must according to general rules be placed after the noun. 
We have, however, seen the cross-arrangement possible 
when the adjunct is 'enough' or 'still'. But a similar 
arrangement considerably more daring was used by authors 
of older times J : 

If he fynde wij)in f>e lure ane hard ping as a stone 
(Fistula). That a swift blessing may soon return to this 
our suffering country under a hand accursed (Macbeth; verse). 
With declining head into his bosom (Shrew, III). A long 
parted mother with her child (Sh.; Einenkel, Grundr.). I 
found Friday had still a hankering stomach after some of 
the flesh (Crusoe). 

Such word-order is all but inconceivable in Late Mod- 
ern English. Therefore the following is a striking case: 
That will be an accepted type by everybody (Two Paths). 

302. O the other hand, it is - - and was - rather com- 
mon for an ordinary adjective and its prepositional 
complement to be separated by the noun, as soon as the 
prepositional phrase may be said to belong just as much 
to the noun -f- adj. as to the adjective alone, or whenever 
the prepositional phrase might be felt as an afterthought. 

Examples : Two weren grete men of name and havynge 
(Wycliff, Leaven of Phar.). Able men af kunnynge and lif 
(ib.). Syzile . . . was ... the next Reaume unto the mys- 
bilevers (3 Kings' Sons). The chiefest noble man of blood 

1 Not only in the case of an adj. attr., but also for instance: 
The kynges sone of Ireland (Morte Darthur; Einenkel, Grundriss). 
The archbishop's grace of York (Sh.; ib.). 


(North, Plut.). A stout man of nature (ib.). A common 
custom among us (Florio). A dear manakin to you (Tw. 
Night). A happy gentleman in blood (Rich. II). Your lordship 
is the most patient man in loss (Cymbeline, II: 3). I am .... 
a far weaker man by nature than thou art (Pilgr. Progr.). 
My mind seemed to be in a suitable frame for so outrage- 
ous an execution (Crusoe). The most pernicious thing to 
my health (ib.). It became a fit mantle for a prince (Kenil- 
worth). Father Holt was a very kind man to him (Esmond). 
In the next pew to her (ib.). A pretty useless thing for 
him (Pickwick). An unsatisfactory sort of things under any 
circumstances (ib.). The most popular personages in his 
own circle (ib.). A reasonable assumption at the close of 
November (Opium-eater). That was by no means a new 
idea to Maggie (Floss). This is a common story among the 
vulgar in Gloucestershire (Verity, Hamlet; Notes). He was 
a fairly humane man towards slaves and other animals 
(Twain, Wilson). The old Cant is a common language to the 
vagrants of many descriptions (Slang Diet.). Your Cohort's 
the next tower to us (Kipling, Puck). 

Such is the only possible word-order with last (next) 
but one: The last (next) syllable but one; and in such 
cases as: The second house from the corner. 

The same peculiarity is found in older High German: Ein . . . 
starker mann von kreften. Ein grosser, gerader mann von lib and 
person (Hellwig, p. 114). 

In one case the above word-order seems by and by 
to become the only one used, namely in the case of ad- 
jectives of similitude and dissimilitude. That the crosswise 
arrangement is preferred with such a word as 'different' 
is probably to be accounted for by the fact that different 
.... from is equivalent in meaning to other . . . than. 
Than' introduces a clause (which may be curtailed) and 
is not, therefore, so closely connected with 'other' as is the 


preposition with the adjective that takes this preposition. 
This theory is, it seems to me, confirmed by instances 
like the following: A far different cause than the real one 

Besides, the preposition after the said category of 
adjectives has a more general sense (compared to, <in 
relation to), i. e. it comes very near a conjunction \ Com- 
pare 'to' (which is also used after 'different') in: 

A person of very superior capacity to my own (- 
higher cap. than..*; Elia). A very superior stamp of man 
to himself (Two Years Ago). That noble Earl . . . had found 
himself in a subordinate situation to Leicester (= a less 
high sit. than . . .; Kenilw.). An inferior poem to . . . (Kriiger). 

The preposition may then here, on still better grounds 
than above, be said to belong to both the adjective and 
the noun, or, in other words, to the whole expression 
adj. -f- noun. 

Examples: They are of a far different disposition from 
the Jews in other parts (New Atlantis). A quite different 
kind from our European cats (Crusoe). Is your duke made 
of a different metal from other princes (Durward). People 
who have different tastes from his (Thackaray, Ess. on 
Whitebait). Quite a different bearing to that of the Cam- 
bridge student (Esmond). A being of different order from 
the bustling race about him (Sketchbook). A very diff- 
erent man from the prisoner (Two Cities). Come, said 
the leader in a very different tone to the one in which . . . 
(Venetia). She is altogether a different being to the wretch- 
ed helpless creature who . . . (Audley). 

But, of course: A function different from and vague/- 
than that of the same conjunctions (Sweet, N. E. G.). - 

1 Cf. She had taken the illness on the same day with Esmond 
<H. Esmond). 'With' here stands for the conj. 'as'. 


And, when the adjective has more emphasis: In a tone so 
different from his own (Kenilworth). 

Other adjectives denoting dissimilitude and such 304. 
as denote similitude have followed the example set by 

Examples: Davyd was ... of like age to Surnome 
(Three Kings' Sons). ' Let us take a cleane contrary way from 
the common (Florio). In the opposite extremity to the place 
where thou art known (Kenilworth). They seemed to en- 
tertain similar opinions with the syndic 1 (Q. Durward). 
He had seen similar lists to these (Two Cities). The op- 
posite direction to the natural current of the river (Opium- 
eater). They advanced to the opposite declivity to that which 
they had descended (Venetia). In the opposite direction to 
the one she desired (Floss). A separate chamber from the rest 
of the imprisoned offenders (Ouida, Umilta). A Cognate 
Object because it is of kindred meaning with the verb 
(Onions, Syntax). A similar case to mine (Daily Mail). 

Examples with the adj. 'superior', 'inferior', and 'sub- 
ordinate' have been given in 303. 

2. Crosswise word-order is also the most common 305. 
when the adjective is supplemented by an infinitive. 

Examples: Then was it a mervailous thinge to se, and 
a faire (Three Kings' Sons). A likely plot to succeed (Sher- 
idan, Scarborough). What a pleasant thing filial piety is, 
to contemplate (Nickleby). A very desirable person to know 
(ib.). The correct thing to do (P. Kelver). It seems an 
absurd question to ask, but the fact is ... (Light that failed). 

The verbal supplement is here best regarded as a 306. 
posterior explanatory (often superfluous) addition which 
does not belong to the adjective only. When this is not 

1 Here it is quite clear that the prep, does not belong to the 
adj. only. Cf. The same opinions as the syndic. 



the case, postposition is used, as in: It was an invitation 
too tempting to resist (= an invit. so tempting that it could 
not be resisted). A charm too sweet to withstand. 

307. 3. The natural continuation of a comparative is a 
clause with 'than'. As this clause is necessary to the context, 
the comparative and the conjunction are in very near rela- 
tion to each other. l Hence one would expect inverted 
word-order when a comparative followed up by a 'than'- 
clause is used attributively. In most cases, however, the 
conjunction may be looked upon as belonging to the unity 
of adj. -f- noun, and by consequence normal word-order is 
made use of, just as in A subordinate situation to Leice- 
ster^ An absurd question to ask. 

Examples: Ane wurse man pane }DU art (Vices and 
Virtues; 1200). A better nature than his own (Bacon). For 
a much longer space of time than 3 minutes (Twist). Even 
a shorter allowance than was originally provided for them 
(ib.). Within a less distance of the ground than his own 
height (ib.). To these pursuits ... the little Doctor added 
a more Important one than any (Pickwick). The worse fate 
than being blind yourselves (Ruskin). Far greater poets than 
Burns (ib.). A much more substantial man than he really 
was (Floss). Always: In more ways than one (Snuff-box). 

308. Again, if 'than' belongs to the adjective alone and 
this is the case when the attribute is emphatic and thus 
outbalances the noun - - then inversion is in its place. 

Examples: An amyse (amice) mor precious pan I am 
wone to were (Capgrave, Augustine; 1450). The English 
government was . . . regarded by foreign powers with re- 
spect scarcely less than that which . , . (Macaulay, Hist.). 
An interest deeper than aught concerning earth only could 

1 Than' is not so indispensable after 'other' as it is after an 
ordinary comp., 'other' having passed into an absolute comp. Hence, 
what is said here is not at variance with what has been said in 303. 


create (Kenilworth). And don't young men always begin 
by falling in love with ladies older than themselves (Philip). 
When he unexpectedly made his appearance, in health no 
worse than usual (Poe, Ragged Mountains). They use 
phrases much stronger than naturally belong to their thoughts 
(Opium-eater). The attention of people wiser than myself (ib.). 
It seemed to me ... to have roots deeper than any acci- 
dental occurence (King's Mirror). In a voice lower than her 
usual tones (ib.). A swindle more energetic and less skilful 
than the rest (Marcella). The big drops pelted the river 
like bullets, sending up splashes bigger than themselves 
(Snuff-box). The voice reaches notes much higher than the 
upper limit of ... (Savory a. Jones, Sounds of the Fr. lang.). 

Appendix. 309. 

Before leaving this section, I will take the opportunity 
of mentioning one more kind of remarkable word-order, 
namely that of a prepositional phrase, or the like, being in- 
serted between the substantive and a postpos. attribute. 

Examples: /// quisshonus of the same colour unstopped 
(E. E. Wills, 1434). A litill panne of brasse y-ered (ib.). 
In pe day, forsojje, folowyng (Fistula). Tuo knottis or J:>re 
unlouseable (ib.). He ... did things, as it is written, won- 
derful and incredible (North, Plut.). There are some laws 
and customs in this empire very peculiar (Gulliver). { With 
a triumph over her passion highly commendable (Andrews). 
An effect, however, widely different (T. Jones). There are 
several other strokes in the First Book wonderfully poetical 
(Addison, Spect; Febr. 16, 1712). * There were household 
officers, indeed, richly attired (Q. Durward). A circumstance, 
in fact, little remarkable (Poe, Wilson). A ... kindness that 
left an impression upon my heart not yet impaired (Opium- 
eater). With a natural merriment about her attractive enough 

1 But compare also 11. 


(King's Mirror). My thanks to you most sincere (Harrington). 
Her voice had a running sob in it pitiful to hear (Plain 
Tales). I've shot and hunted every beast, I think, shootable 
and huntable (Two Years Ago). 

Thus formerly also with 'something': A shudder that 
had something in it ominous (Q. Durward). This solitude 
has something in it weird and awful (Rienzi). 

Chapter XXVI. 

Umschliessung. * 

310. Some way or other is a well-known phrase. The 
two pronouns exclude each other, and so this arrangement 
of the words is the logically correct one; 'some' and 'other' 
belong each to one 'way', 'other' standing for 'another', 
which also occurs, e. g. At some hour or another (Rambler). 
Who . . . hath . . . not worshipped some idol or another 
(H. Esmond). All of them bearing, in some way or another, 
the name of Boyce (Marcella); also the other: In one 
sense or the other (Carlyle, Ess. on Scott). 

311. The matter stands in exactly the same way whenever 
two adjectival words, one of which is the contrary of the 
other, are co-ordinated by means of 'and' or 'or'. 

Examples: Aegder ge godcundra hade ge woruldcundra 
(Cura Past.; Mullner). Berenne kyrtel otte yterenne (Voy. 
of Othere; A. S. R.). Ne rice men ne heanne (Sax. Chron.; 
Mullner). Assoylinge of suche confessours hap lytel vertu 
or non (Wycliff, Of Confession). BringiJ) furj>e litel frute 

1 The expression is borrowed from MTLI.NKR, although he takes 
it to mean something more than I do. 


or noon (Imit. Christi; 1441). Ye make . . . little counten- 
aunce, or noon (Three Kings' Sons; 1500). Suche worries 
and semblable (ib.). A nonne in whyte clothes and blacke 
(Morte Darthur). The hunting of redde dere and fallowe 
(Elyot, Governour). Merry faces and sad, fair faces and 
foul, they ride upon the wind (P. Kelver). In the literal 
sense and figurative (Verity, Henry V; Notes). 1 By fair 
means or foul. 2 

Numerals always exclude each other; therefore: 312. 

pe pridde article and pe vifte (Ayenb.). I putte in tuo 
tentes or pre (Fistula). Fyve tymes or seven (ib.). WiJ)in ane 
howr or II after (Alph. of Tales). Where might not come 
past // horses or III (Three Kings' Sons). A pinnacle or 
two shining in the sun (Esmond). The third article and the 
fifth (Ayenb. ; marginal note by the editor). A day or two 3 . 

Thus also: For three hours and more (Kingsley; Matz- 313. 
ner). Forty bodies and more (Two Years Ago). During 
the past year or two I have been ... (C. S. Fearenside, 
Mod. Spr., VIII, 1909). 

Thus likewise with poss. pronouns: My father and 314. 
yours. 4 

In many languages standing on a less elevated plat- 315. 
form in general the word-order above exemplified is a 
characteristic trait, however, and is indeed the rule not only 
where two attributes excluding each other are concerned, 

1 Cf. Swed. Svarta hjartan och roda (D. Fallstrom). Danska 
bekymmer och svenska (Sv. Dagbl.). 

- In the case of ordinary adj. this mode of expression is in 
Present Engl. chiefly limited to that standing phrase, although anybody 
might say, for instance: In fine weather and (or) bad. Compare also: 
It was a chivalrous boast but vain (Xavier). 

3 In mod. Engl. usually: Two or three days, The third and (the) 
fifth articles. Only one or two doubtful cases (Two Years). 

4 EINEXKEL, Anglia XVIII: H6chst selten stehen beide vor dem 
Subst.; n. e. In defence of our and your enemies (Fliigels Leseb.). - 
Thackeray has: Yours and her very humble servant (Esmond). 


but also wherever two or more attributes, or in fact any 
kind of sentence-elements, are co-ordinated. Compare for 

Old Norse Kynstorr madr ok rikr (Hell wig, p. 19); 1 
Old High Germ. Guoter dinge unde ntitzer (Hellwig, 
p. 10Q); Old French Se Deu plest et Saint Esper/te 
(Einenkel, Anglia XVIII, p. 153). A. S. For f on heo neowe 
syndon and uncude (Bede); Ongiett poet hit self dys/g 
sie and synfull (Cura Past.); pa het se cyning his hea- 
fod of aslean and his swidran earm (^Elfric); Ines 
brofjur and Healfdenes (Sax. Chron.; Kube); And reesp 
(rushes) suide do/I/ce on celc weorc and hrasd/ice (Cura 
P.); Gedence hu he gehwelcne Iceran scyle and hwonne 
(ib.). M. E. Godes luve and mannes (Vices and Virtues, 
1200); To clepie god to wytnesse, and his /noc/er(Ayenb., 
1340); That right wyse was and subtyll (Blanch, and 
Egl, 1489). 

316. Examples with two or more adj. attributes in A. S. 

and M. E.: 

Seo burg waes getimbred an fildum landa ond on swide 
emnum (Orosius; A. S. R.). Hwittra manna and fcegerra 
(Bede). God man and clcene and swide cedele (Sax. Chron.). 
Becume to godum men and to wisum (Boethius; Kellner's 
Introd. to Blanch, and Egl., p. CV). As a voide stomake 
and a lere worchi}) in h itself (Trevisa). - To zygge vayre 
wordes and y-slyked (Ayenb.). Olde rotid woundis and 
stynkynge (Science of Cir.; 1380). In a foul stynkynge stable 
and cold (Wycliff, Leaven of Phar.). It is a gret vertue and 
an happy (Fistula, 1400). A mervolos maner, and a wrichid 

1 Von zwei Adj. steht das eine gewohnlich nach mit ok 
('and 7 ; Hellwig, p. 19). 

2 The modern arrangement occurs, though very rarely, also in 
the oldest lang., e. g. Mid myclum and hefegum gefeohtum-(Bede). 
Se wisa and fcestrceda Cato (Boeth.; Matzner). Mamgeforemcere and 
gemyndwyrde weras (ib.). Cf. Matzner, Gramm., p. 292. 


(Alph. of Tales). A moche fayr cyte and good (Godfr. of 
Bol.; 1481). Ye have, dy verse tymes and many, herde speke 
of ... (Three Kings' Sons, 1500). She was called a right 
fair lady, and a passing wise (Morte Darthur). 

As late as Early Modern English this construction 317. 
is not uncommon: 

To ryde suerly and clene on a great horse and a 
roughe (Elyot, Governour; 1531). A blue eye and sunken 
(As you, III: 2). Are you good men and true (Much Ado, 
III: 3). Good sparks and lustrous (All's well, II: 1). An 
honest gentleman, and a courteous, and a kind, and a hand- 
some (Romeo, II: 5). They were young men and strong 
(Pilgr. Progr.). With melodious noises and loud (ib.). They 
being a simple people and innocent (Holy War; Widholm). 
He would shew me a better way and short (= shorter? P. 
P.; Widholm). 

Even in 18th and IQth century English the same ar- 318. 
rangement of the attributes is occasionally found without 
any contrast being expressed, but then intentional imita- 
tion of the older style is certainly underlying. 

Examples: A good sentence and a true, said Varney 
(Kenilworth. The scene is the time of Queen Elizabeth!). 
She is a good Queen and a generous (ib.). Now Mr. Bum- 
ble was a fat man and a choleric (Twist). Mr. Stryver was 
a glib man, and an unscrupulous, and a ready and a bold (Two 
Cities). Rudolf of Saxony, a brave man and a true (Ri- 
enzi). A tedious race perhaps and pig-headed (Marcella). 1 

In older English such word-order was likewise em- 319. 
ployed with composite numerals: 

Ymb tu hund wintra and syx and hundeahtatig aefter 
|)aere Drihtenlican mennyscnysse (Bede). // pusend Wala 
ond LXV (Sax. Chron.). pritty yere and pre (Trevisa; 

1 Compare also: It's a long story and a sad one (Kingsley, Two 
Years Ago), which is a more modern way of putting it. 


Mullner). Two hondred feet and sixty (ib.). Twenty degress 
and oon (Chaucer; Einenkel, Anglia XVIII). A hundred ger 
and fifty (Capgrave, Aug.; 1450). 

Imitated in more recent language: Ninety years old 
and nine (Gen., 17: 24; Einenkel, Anglia XVIII). Three hund- 
red spears and three (Scott, L. Minstr.; ib.). 

Always: A thousand nights and one (Einenkel). 
320. Thus also up to this very day with 'half, 'quarter', 

'threescore', etc.: prie and prihti wintre and an half (Vices 
and Virtues, 1200). 5 degrees and an half (Maundev.). 
pre score myle and sixtene (Trevisa; Mullner). He turns 
me at three-score years and ten adrift upon the earth (Ch. 
Reade; Poutsma, p. 188). Cf. 261, 262. 

Chapter XXVII. 

The reciprocal order between two prepositive 

321. As to the reciprocal order between two or more attri- 

butes belonging to the same noun and not connected by 
'and' ('or') or separated by a comma, SWEET (TV. E. G., 
1789, 1791) lays down the following rules: When a noun 
has more than one modifier, the general principle is that 
the one most closely connected with it in meaning comes 
next to it. - - Qualifiers come before such groups, the one 
that is the most special in meaning coming next to it: A tall 
black man, The three wise men, Bright blue sky. - When 
the modifiers are about equally balanced, the order may 
vary as in the two first weeks, the first two weeks. 
That the adjective and the noun are closely connected in 
meaning* is here evidently as much as to say that they 


constitute one idea ajid may be regarded as a compound 

Compare the following quotations: 

A worthy honest man (Swed. hedersman. Florio). 
Good sweet sir; (Winter's Tale, IV: 3). My dear young man 
(Nickleby). Any cautious worldly advice (ib.). A saucy upturned 
nose and a pair of changeful grey eyes (Brown, V. C.). Some 
vague mental distress (B. Harte). Mutual logic dependence 
(Sweet). A voiced pure fricative (Jones, Pron. of Engl.). 

It is for this reason that 'old', 'young', and 'little' are 322. 
mostly placed next to the substantive, since they have usu- 
ally no real meaning of their own, but are rather nearly 
superfluous when the noun has other attributive modifiers 
as well. 

Examples: pis seli olde man (R. of Glo.; Matzner). 
Wise old men (Chaucer, Melibeus; Mullner). A low litylle 
dore (Maundev.; Matzner). A blak litel cruste (Fistula). // 
fayr yong men (Alph. of Tales). A gude holie aide man 
(ib.). Davyd was a goodly yonge man (3 Kings' Sons). 
As beautiful a little gipsy as eyes ever gazed on (Esmond). 

But: The olde good loos (Melibeus). A lytylle round 323. 
hole (Maundev.). He had done him a litle sober trispas 
(Alph. of Tales). So J)er was a noder yong strong fellow 
(ib.). A young English doctor, Old French wine, A little 
white cat. To swallow up all young fair life (Two Years). 

Here the adjectives 'little', 'old', and 'young' are not 
merely used as terms of affection. 

As far as 'little' is concerned, usage seems, however, 324. 
to be unsettled. RICHARDSON, for instance, most frequently 
places this adjective before the other ] : Here I am, at a little 
poor village; We could not reach further than this little 
poor place; Like a little proud hussy; I came up towards 

UHRSTROM, Studies on the langi of Sam. Richardson. 


the little pretty altar-piece; They wece shown another little 
neat apartment (Pamela; Uhrstrom). Other instances: 
Even in the little quiet village of Castlewood (H. Esmond). 
The disease dealt very kindly with her little modest face 
(Thackeray, Philip). The little old gentleman was suddenly 
seized with a fit of trepidation (Poe, Hans Pfaal). Her 
little white hands are fluttering like doves 1 (Shaw, Salome). 
I do not quite know what to make of the following: I long to 
talk with the young noble soldier (All's well, IV: 5). 

325. Speaking of the order between 'such' and 'another' 
POUTSMA states: Usage is divided as to the placing of 
'such' and 'another', either of which may precede the other. 
The arrangement < such another, however, is the usual 
one. Murray, another, 1, c.. (Poutsma, p. 346). 

It seems at least to be the oldest. 

Compare: Oile or butter fressh, or sache ofjer (Fistula), 
g-if pacientes pleyne ]>at per medicynes bene bitter or sharp 
or sich oper, pan shal . . . (ib.). There was not such an- 
other ragged family in the parish (Fielding, Andrews). 

326. When one of the attributes is a numeral, this usu- 
ally comes first. Yet there are exceptions: Her syndon 
inne unwemme twa dohtor mine- (Caedm.; Matzner). Bisie 
two wummen (Ancren Riwle). 

Thus still with 'past 1 : The past three weeks (Cf. Dur- 
ing the past few months. Roy. Mag., June, 1910); with 
'said' and 'following' 3 : The seid III! arbitrours (Cov. L. 
B., 1464), The said two persons, The following three quota- 
tions; - with 'other' when the def/art. precedes: On pcem 
obrum prim dagum (Alfr., Othere; Milliner), pe oder pre 

1 It is possible that the author wishes to emphasize also the 
littleness of the hands. 

- The numeral is unstressed, just like 'little', 'old', etc. Cf. Germ. 
Heilige drei Konige; Swed. Det var fruktansvarda 36 timmar, vi haft 
att utsta (Sydsv. Dagbl., Oct. 8, 1910). 

3 When pronominal. But: The three following days (Sweet). 


fringes (A. Riwle), The other three wise men; - - and with 
'next': The next two years. Similarly: The second two notions 
(Fearenside, M. S., Jan. 1911). - But also: The two follow- 
ing lines: . . . (Abbott). With Mast' and 'first', cf. 328. 

Thus formerly usually, and sometimes also in Modern 327. 
English, in connection with 'other' without any art.: l 

He ... gesaegh opre twegen gebroper (Rushw. Gloss.). 
My Cosyn schel have other X marces (E. E. Wills, 1417). 
He and opir pre felawls (Capgrave, Aug.; 1450). The Lord 
appointed other seventy also (Auth. Vers., Luke, 10: 1). 
Other seven days (Gen., 8: 12; Matzner). [He] would 
have . . . sworn to other nlne-and-thlrty [sc. Articles] with 
entire obedience (Esmond). Other seven faces there were, 
carried higher, seven dead faces (Two Cities). 

Compare with these: A wretched 200 pounds (= only 200).- 
There was silence in the room for full (= fully) three minutes (God 
in the Car). For full five minutes (Two Years). B 

Whether it is more correct to say The first (last) two 328. 
or to say The two first (last), is a question that has been 
a subject for much debate. I have already cited SWEET'S 
opinion ( 321). According to the N. E. D. the latter 
arrangement seems to have been the more common up 
to the 17th century. 

I annex some quotations of my own: J>e ne^ende 
article and pe pri laste (Ayenb.). The Turke liked best 
the two first wales (Three Kings' Sons, 1500). The four 
first acts (Sheridan, Critic, I: 1). - The word-order may 
be a matter of taste, in most cases, but when the cardi- 
nal is only an extra addition, it would receive too much 

1 'Other' here looks very much like an adverb (= 'additionally', 
'further'). Cf. however: Opir certeyn women (Capgrave, St. Gilbert). 

2 The indef. art. makes it clear that 200 pounds is treated as 
a compound subst. Cf. That five minutes on the shore had told her 
that (Two Years Ago). Cf. also: Another two minutes. 

8 But also: It is six full months since . . . (Two Years). 


stress if it were not placed next to the noun; thus: The 
first six [or seven] weeks. For the last three days (2 Years). 
The last few days (ib.). Cf. a nice little girl.( 322 ff.). ] 

329. Otherwise the same principles are observed in the 
case of ordinals as in the case of other adjectives. Thus: 
The third pretty woman was Miss A.; but: The action 
would have been almost imperceptible to an observant third 
person (Twist). 

330. In older English the rule pronounced by SWEET also 
applies to poss. pronouns. FRANZ says on this matter 
(Sh. Gram. 166): Ein Adjektiv kann in der alteren Sprache 
vor das poss. Pron. treten, wenn letzteres mit dem folgenden 
Substantiv eng verwachsen ist, wie in good my lord, dear 
my liege, sweet my child*. In A. S. and M. E. this 
word-order was used also when one of the attributes was 
a pronominal or numeral word. 

Examples: Twegen his ceftergengan - (/Elfr., Horn.; 
Milliner). The sayd our soveraign lorde (Cov. L. B., 1430). 
Thurgh the same our lande (ib., 1472). Dyvers myn olde 
frendes (Flugels Leseb.; Einenkel, Anglia XVIII). Do, good 
my friend (Othello, III: 1). Good my liege (K. John, I: 1. 
Imitated by Addison and Bulwer; Matzner). Do so, good 
mine host (M. Wives, I: 3). Imitated by SCOTT: True, good 
mine host, the day was long talked of (Kenil worth). 


331 It has been shown in this treatise how considerably 

English differs from other Teutonic languages as to the 

1 Note also the difference between The twenty-first years, and 
The first twenty years! 

3 Cf. Swed. Straffarbete for hustrudrap och sedlighetsbrott mot 
tre sina dottrar (Sydsv. Dagbl.). 


place of the adjective attribute. In numerous cases the 
attribute must or may follow its head-word. Similar gram- 
matical principles are, upon the whole, unknown to mod- 
ern German, Dutch, Swedish, or Danish prose. Never- 
theless I have tried in most cases to explain the inverted 
word-order out of the language itself, leaving out of con- 
sideration -- where that was possible -- the influence that 
French has in several other departments exercised on the 
English tongue. English is in so many other respects un- 
like its cognates. Why should it not then have followed 
its own course also as regards word-order? One must, 
of course, partially agree with H. WEIL l in saying that 
l'anglais ... en raison de son origine meme, occupe 
naturellement une place intermediate entre Fallemand et 
le francos . But certainly it is not owing to French in- 
fluence that Swedes and Germans are allowed without 
further circumstances to place an attributive adjective after 
its noun in poetry! Moreover, in the case of English it 
must be remembered that the adjectives in this language 
have been inflexible for many hundred years past, so that the 
attribute does not differ from the predicative complement, 
any more than the participle does from the supine. 

We have also seen that development goes in the di- 332. 
rection of pre-position: Even a verbal participle can some- 
times be put before the noun, in more conformity with the 
word-order in German and Swedish. And concerning adjec- 
tives we are able to perceive a tendency not to suffer an 
adverbial modifier of some length imperatively to entail 
postposition of the attribute, a constraint which the other 
Teutonic dialects have long ago shaken off. 

De I'ordre des mots dans les langues anciennes. Paris 1869.