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Full text of "A plain and literal translation of the Arabian nights entertainments, now entitled The book of the thousand nights and a night"

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FROM-THE- LIBRARY-OF 
TRINITYCOLLEGETORDNTO 




,*TO THE PURE ALL THINGS ARE PURE 
(Paris omnia pura) 



"Niuna corrotta mente intese mai sanamente parole." 

"Decameron " conclusion. 



Erubuit, posuitquc meum Lucretia librum 

Sed coram Bruto. Brute 1 recede, leget. " 

Martial. 



Mieulx est de ris que de larmes escripre, 

Pour ce que rire est le propre des hommes." 

RABELAIS. 



The pleasure we derive from perusing the Thousand-and^One 
Stone* makes us regret that we possess only a comparatively small 
part of these twily enchanting fictions." 

CMCHTON'S "ffisUy>of Arabia. 



\ 






TO THE BOOK OF THE 



ftijottsattfc Nigftte atifc a Nigf)t 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL AND EXPLANATORY 



VOLUME IV. 



BY 



RICHARD F. BURTON 




PRINTED BY THE BURTON CLUB FOR PRIVATE 
SUBSCRIBERS ONLY 



Shammar Edition 

Limited to one thousand numbered sets, 
of which this is 

NrnnW 



PRINTED IN U. S. A. 



8903^ 



TO WILLIAM H. CHANDLER, ESQ., 

Pembroke College^ Oxford. 

MY DEAR MR. CHANDLER, 

As without your friendly and generous aid this volume 
could never have seen the light, I cannot resist the temptation of inscribing 
it to you and without permission, for your modesty would have refused any 
such acknowledgment. 

I am, ever, 

Yours sincerely, 

RICHARD F. BURTON. 

TRIESTE, 

March loM, 1888. 



THE TRANSLATOR'S FOREWORD. 



As my first and second volumes (Supplemental) were composed of 
translated extracts from the Breslau Edition of The Nights, so this 
tome and its successor (vols. iv. and v.) comprise my version from 
the (Edward) Wortley Montague Codex immured in the old 
Bodleian Library* Oxford. 

Absence from England prevents for the present my offering 
a satisfactory description of this widely known manuscript; 
but I may safely promise that the hiatus shall be filled up in 
vol. v., which is now ready for the press. 

The contents of the Wortley Montague text are not wholly 
unfamiliar to Europe. In 1811 Jonathan Scott, LL.D. Oxon. 
(for whom see my vols. i., ix. and x. 497), printed with Longmans 
and Co. his " Arabian Nights Entertainments " in five substantial 
volumes 8vo, and devoted a sixth and last to excerpts entitled 

TALES 
SELECTED FROM THE MANUSCRIPT COPY 

OF THE 

iooi NIGHTS 
BROUGHT TO EUROPE BY EDWARD WORTLEY MONT^UE, ESQ. 



Translated from the Arabic 
BY JONATHAN SCOTT, LL.D. 

Unfortunately for his readers Scott enrolled himself amongst 
the acolytes of Professor Galland, a great and original genius in 
the line Raconteur , and a practical Orientalist whose bright example 
was destined to produce disastrous consequences. The Frenchman, 



viii Translator's Foreword. 

however unscrupulous he might have been about casting down and 
building up in order to humour the dead level of Gallican bon gotit, 
could, as is shown by his " Aladdin/' translate literatim and 
verbatim when the story-stuff is of the right species and accept- 
able to the average European taste. But, as generally happens 
in such cases, his servile suite went far beyond their master and 
model. Petis de la Croix ("Persian and Turkish Tales"), 
Chavis and Gazette (" New Arabian Nights "), Dow (" Inayatu 
llah") and Morell ("Tales of the Genii"), with others manifold 
whose names are now all but forgotten, carried out the Gallandian 
liberties to the extreme of licence and succeeded in producing a 
branchlet of literature, the most vapid, frigid and insipid that can 
be imagined by man, a bastard Europeo-Oriental, pseudo-Eastern 
world of Western marionettes garbed in the gear which Asiatic are 
(or were) supposed to wear, with sentiments and opinions, manners 
and morals to match ; the whole utterly lacking life, local colour, 
vraisemblance, human interest. From such abortions, such 
monstrous births, libera nos, Domine ! 
And Scott out-gallanded Galland : 

Diruit, sedificat, xnutat quad rat a rotundis. 

It is hard to quote a line which he deigned textually to 
translate. He not only commits felony on the original by 
abstracting whole sentences and pages ad libitum, but he also 
thrusts false goods into his author's pocket and patronises* the un- 
fortunate Eastern story-teller by foisting upon him whatever he, the 
" translator and traitor," deems needful. On this point no more 
need be said : the curious reader has but to compare any one of 
Scott's " translations " with the original or, for that matter, with 
the present version. 

I determined to do that for Scott which Lane had done partly 
and imperfectly, and Payne had successfully and satisfactorily 
done for Galland. But my first difficulty was about the text. It 



Translator's Foreword. ix 

was impossible to face without affright the prospect of working 
for months amid the discomforts and the sanitary dangers of 
Oxford's learned atmosphere and in her obsolete edifices the 
Bodleian and the Radcliffe. Having ascertained, however, that 
in the so-called " University " not a scholar could be found to read 
the text, I was induced to apply for a loan not to rnyself 
personally for I should have shunned the responsibility but in the 
shape of a temporary transfer of the seven -volumed text, tome by 
tome, to the charge of Dr. Rost, the excellent Librarian of the 
India Office. 

My hopes, however, were fated to be deferred. Learned bodies, 
Curators and so forth, are ponderous to move and powerless to 
change, for 

The trail of the slow-worm is over them all. 

My official application was made on September I3th, 1886. The 
tardiest steps were taken as if unwillingly and, when they could no 
longer decently be deferred, they resulted in the curtest and most 
categorical but not most courteous of refusals, under circumstances 
of peculiar disfavour, on November 1st of the same year. Here 
I shall say no more : the correspondence has been relegated to 
Appendix A. My subscribers, however, will have no reason to 
complain of these u Ineptiae Bodleianae." I had pledged myself in 
case of a loan " not to translate Tales that might be deemed 
offensive to propriety :" the Curators have kindly set me free 
from that troublesome condition and I thank them therefor. 

Meanwhile I had not been idle. Three visits to Oxford in 
September and October had enabled me to reach the DIVth 
Night. But the laborious days and inclement evenings, combined 
with the unsanitary state of town and libraries the Bodleian 
and the Rotunda brought on a serious attack of " lithiasis " as it 
is now called, and prostrated me for two months, until it was time 
to leave England en route for my post. 



x Translator's Foreword. 

Under these circumstances my design threatened to end in 
failure. As often befalls to men out of England, every move 
ventured by pie menaced only check-mate. I began by seeking a 
copyist at Oxford, one who would imitate the text as an ignoramus 
might transcribe music : an undergraduate volunteered for the task 
and after a few days dropped it in dumb disgust. The attempt 
was presently repeated by a friend with the unsatisfactory result 
that three words out of four were legible. In London several 
Easterns were described as able and willing for the work ; but they 
also were found wanting; one could not be trusted with the MS. 
and another was marriage-mad. Photography was lastly proposed, 
but considerations of cost seemed to render it unavailable. At 
last, when matters were at the worst, the proverbial amendment 
appeared. Mr. Chandler, whose energetic and conscientious 
opposition to all " Bodleian loans," both of books and of manu- 
scripts, had mainly caused the passing of the prohibitory statute, 
came forward in the most friendly and generous way : with no 
small trouble to himself he superintended the " sun-pictures," each 
page of the original being reduced to half-size, and he insisted 
upon the work being done wholly and solely at his own expense. 
I know not how to express my gratitude. 

The process was undertaken by Mr. Percy Notcutt, of Kings- 
bury and Notcutt, 45, St. George's Place, Knightsbridge, and the 
four hundred and odd pages were reproduced in most satisfactory 
style. 

Being relegated to a port-town which never possessed even an 
Arabic lexicon, I have found some difficulty with the Wortley 
Montague MS. as it contains a variety of local words unknown 
to the common dictionaries. But I have worked my best to sur- 
mount the obstacle by consulting many correspondents, amongst 
whom may be mentioned the name of my late lamented friend, the 
Reverend George Percy Badger ; and, finally, by submitting my proofs 
to the corrections and -additions of the lexicologist Dr. Steingass. 



Translators Foreword* xi 

Appendix B will requfre no apology to the numerous admirers 
of Mr. E. J. W. Gibb's honest and able work, "The History of the 
Forty Vezirs " (London, Redway, MDCCCLXXXVl). The writer in 
a book intended for the public was obliged to leave in their 
original Turkish, and distinguished only by italics, three " facetious " 
tales which, as usual, are some of the best in the book. These 
have been translated for me and I offer them to my readers on 
account of their curious analogies with many in The Nights 



RICHARD F. BURTON, 



TRIESTE, 

April loM, 1 883. 



CONTENTS OF THE FOURTH VOLUME 



PAGE 

1. STORY OF THE SULTAN OF AL YAMAN AND HIS THREE 

SONS I 

(Scott : Story of the Sultan of Yemen and his Three Sons : Vol. VI. p. I.) 

2. STORY OF THE THREE SHARPERS . . . . . . if 

(Scott : Story of the Three Sharpers and the Sultan, p. 7.) 

a. THE SULTAN WHO FARED FORTH IN THE HABIT OF A 

DARWAYSH 35 

(Scott : The Adventures of the Abdicated Sultan, p. 18.) 

b. HISTORY OF MOHAMMED, SULTAN OF CAIRO . . 37 

(Scott : History of Mahummud, Sultan of Cairo. p. 20.) 

c. STORY OF THE FIRST LUNATIC .49 

(Scott: Story of the First Lunatic, p. 31.) 

d. STORY OF THE SECOND LUNATIC . '''' . 67 

(Scott : Story of the Second Lunatic, p. 45.) 

e. STORY OF THE SAGE AND THE SCHOLAR . . . Y 74 

(Scott: Story of the Retired Sage and his Pupil, related to the Sultan 
by the Second Lunatic, p. 52.) 

/. THE NIGHT-ADVENTURE OF SULTAN MOHAMMED OF CAIRO 

WITH THE THREE FOOLISH SCHOOLMASTERS ... 90 

(Scott : Night- Adventure of the Sultan, p. 68.) 

: .r> 

g. STORY OF THE BROKE-BACK SCHOOLMASTER . . . - . 95 
( Scott : Story of the Broken-backed Schoolmaster. /, 72) 



xiv Contents. 

k. STORY or THE SPLIT-MOUTHED SCHOOLMASTER . , 97 
(Stott : Story of the wry-mouthed Schoolmaster, p. 74.) 

i. STORY OF THE LIMPING SCHOOLMASTER . . . , . 101 

/. STORY OF THE THREE SISTERS AND THEIR MOTHER THE 

SULTANAH . , . . . . 109 

(Scott: The Sultan's Second Visit to the Sisters, p. 76; and 
Story of the Sisters and the Sultana t their Mother, "p. 82.) 

3. HISTORY OF THE KAZI WHO BARE A BABE . . . .167 

(Scott: Story of the Avaricious Cauzee and his Wife. p. 112.) 

4. TALE OF THE KAZI AND THE BHANG-EATER . . . 187 

(Story of the Bang- Eater and the Cauxee. p. 126.) 

a. HISTORY OF THE BHANG-EATER AND HIS WIFE . . .202 
(Scoff: Story of the Bang-Eater and his Wife. p. 133 ) 

6. How DRUMMER ABU KASIM BECAME A KAZI . . . .210 

. STORY OF THE KAZI AND HIS SLIPPER (including the Tale ojf 
the Bhang- Eater who became the Just IVazir and who decided 
two difficult cases) 212 

(Scott : Continuation of the Fisherman, or Bang- Eater* s Adventures, 
p. 138.) 

V* TALE OF MAHMUD THE PERSIAN AND THE KURD SHARPER . 242 
(Scott: The Sultan and the Traveller Mhamood al-ffyjemmee. 
p. 154.) 

*. TALE OF THE SULTAN AND THE POOR MAN WHO BROUGHT 

TO HIM FRUIT 242 

(Scott : Story of the Husbandman. p. 157.) 

/. THE FRUIT-SELLER'S TALE 244 

. TALE OF THE SULTAN AND HIS THREE SONS AND THE 

ENCHANTING BIRD % 244 

{Scott: Story of the Three Princes and Enchanting Bird. p. 160.) 
ft. ADVENTURE OF THE FRUIT-SELLER AND THE CONCUBINE . 256 

STORY OF THE KING OF AL-YAMAN AND HIS THREE SONS AND 

THE ENCHANTING BIRD ..... 258 
{Scott : Story of a Sultan of Yemen and hit Thret Sons. p. 169.) 



Contents. xv 

i. HISTORY OF THE FIRST LARRIKIN ...... 281 

(Scott : Story of the First Sharper in the Cave. p. 185.) 

k. HISTORY OF THE SECOND LARRIKIN 290 

/. HISTORY OF THE THIRD LARRIKIN 294 

m. STORY OF A SULTAN OF AL-HIND AND HIS SON MOHAMMED 

(told by the First Larrikin} 297 

(Scott: History of the Sultan of Hind. p. 194.) 

. TALE OF THE FISHERMAN AND HIS SON (told by the Second 

Larrikin) 314 

(Scott : Story of the Fisherman's Son. p. 2IO.) 
o. TALE OF THE THIRD LARRIKIN CONCERNING HIMSELF . . 329 

HISTORY OF ABU NIYYAH AND ABU NIYYATAYN . . 334 

(Scott : Story of Abou Neeut and Abou Neeuteen ; or, the Well-intentioned 
and the Double-minded, p. 2I$.) 



APPENDIX A. INEPTI^E BODLEIAN^ 355 

APPENDIX B. THE THREE UNTRANSLATED TALES IN 

MR. E. J. W. GIBB'S "FORTY VEZIRS" . . . 367 



STORY OF THE SULTAN OF AL-YAMAN AND 
HIS THREE SONS. 



STORY OF THE SULTAN OF AL-YAMAN AND HIS 
THREE SONS. 1 

THERE was erewhile in the land of Al-Yaman a man which was a 
Sultan and under him were three Kinglets whom he overruled. 
He had four children ; to wit, three sons and a daughter : he also 
owned wealth and treasures greater than reed can pen or page 
may contain ; as well as animals such as horses and camels, sheep 
and black cattle; and he was held in awe by all the sovrans. 
But when his reign had lasted for a length of time, Age 2 brought 
with it ailments and infirmities and he became incapable of faring 
forth his Palace to the Divan, the hall of audience ; whereupon he 
summoned his three sons to the presence and said to them, "As 
for me, 'tis my wish to divide among you all my substance ere I 
die, that ye may be equal in circumstance and live in accordance 
with whatso I shall command." And they said, " Hearkening and 
obedience." Then quoth the Sultan, " Let the eldest of you 
become sovereign after me : let the cadet succeed to my moneys 
and treasures 3 and as for the youngest let him inherit my animals 



1 From the Wortley Montague MS. vol. iii. pp. 80-96. J. Scott : vol. vi. pp. 1-7.. 
Histoire du Sulthan d 1 Yemen et de ses trois fils ; Gauttier vol. vi. pp. 158-165. 

* The worst disease in human life, now recognised as " Anmis Domini." 

8 Arab. "Mai wa Ghawdl" : in Badawi parlance "Mai" would = flocks and herds 
(pecunia, pecus) ; and amongst the burghers = ready money, coin. Another favourite 
jingle of similar import is " Mdl wa Nawal." 

This is an older form of the Sultan of Al-Yaman and his three sons, taken from 
M. Zotenberg's " Chronique de Tabari," vol. ii. pp. 357-6l. 

Apres la mort de Nizar, ses fils, en prenant possession des objets que leur pere avait 
donna's chacun, eurent des contestations relativement aux autres biens. Alors i!s 
monterent sur des chameaux pour se rendrei Nadjr&i aupres du devin, voulant sou- 
mettre k sonjugement le partage. Sur la route, ils rencontrerent un terrain couvert 
d'herbe, dont une partie tait broute"e, et une partie intacte. Modhar dit : Le chameau 
qui a broute cette herbe est borgne de 1'oeil droit. Rabi'a dit : II est boiteux du pied 



4 Supplemental Nights. . 

of every kind. Suffer none to transgress against other ; but each 
aid eacn and assist his co-partner." He then caused them to sign 

droit. lyad dit : II a la queue coupee. Anmar dit : II s'est echappe des mains de son 
maJtre, parce qu'il est farouche. Un peu plus loin, ils rencontrerent un homme monte" 
sur un chameau ; ils lui demanderent qui il tait. II repondit qu'il etait de telle tribu, 
t qu'il etait a la recherche d'un chameau qui s'etait e'chappe. Modhar lui dit : Ce 

chameau n'est-il pas borgne de 1'ceil droit ? Oui, repondit 1'homme. Ne penche- 

t-il pas du cote* droit? demanda Rabi'a. Oui. II n'a pas de queue, dit lyad. 

C'est vrai, repondit 1'homme. Anffiar ajouta : II est farouche. Oui, dit, 

1'homme ; ou est-il, ce chameau ? Nous ne 1'avons pas vu, dirent les freres. Si 

vous ne 1'avez pas vu, replique I'homme, comment savez-vous toutes ces particularite's ? 
II insista et dit : C'est certainement vous qui 1'avez ; rendez-le moi. Nous ne 
1'avons pas. II leur demanda ou ils allaient. Les freres lui dirent qu'ils se rendaient 
a Nadjrzln, aupres d'Af a, le devin, pour soumettre a son jugement un differend qui 
s'etait e'leve' entre eux. Get homme, qui e"tait seul, s'attacha a leurs pas, et suivit les 
quatre freres jusqu'a Nadjran. 

Af a ne les connaissait pas, mais il les recut gracieusement et leur demanda le but de 
leur voyage. Ils lui dirent : Notre pere est mort, et nous ne pouvons pas nous accorder 
sur la partage de ses biens ; nous sommes venus afin que tu prononces entre 1 nous 
quatre ; nous sommes tombe's d'accord de nous soumettre a ton jugement. Alois le 
proprietaire du chameau dit : Arrange d'abord 1'affaire de mon chameau entre eux et 
moi ; j'ai perdu un chameau, ce sont eux qui le tiennent. Af'a lui dit : Comment safe- 
tu qu'ils 1'ont? L'homme re*pondit: Parce qu'ils m'ont donne son signalement: s'ils 
ne 1'avaient pas vu, comment le sauraient-ils ? Modhar dit : J'ai reconnu que ce 
chameau e"tait borgne de 1'ceil droit, parce qu'il avait broute 1'herbe d'un cote* seule- 
ment, et qu'il ne 1'avait pas touche du cote* ou elle e"tait meilleure. Rabi'a dit : 
J'ai remarque" que son pied droit avait imprime sur le sol des traces bien marquees et 
je n'ai pas vu celles de 1'autre pied ; de la j'ai su qu'il penchait du cote* droit. ly&d 
dit : J'ai vu que ses crottins e"taient re*unis en tas, comme ceux du bceuf, et non comme 
sont ordinairement ceux du chameau, qui les e*crase (parpille ?) avec sa queue; j'ai 
reconnu par la qu'il n* avait pas de queue. Anmar dit: J'ai remarque que 1'herbe 
n'e'tait pas broute'e a un seul et meme endroit, mais qu'il avait pris partout une 
bouchee : j'ai su que le chameau e"tait d'un caracte're farouche et inquiet. Le devin 
admirait le savoir et 1' intelligence des quatre freres. Cette rnaniere de juger fait 
partie de 1'art de la divination, et on 1'appelle b&b al-tazktn c'est une des branches 
de la science. Ensuite le devin dit au proprietaire de chameau : Ces gens-la n'ont 
pas ton chameau ; va-t'en. Ayant demande aux quatre freres qui ils etaient, et ceux-ci 
lui ayant declare* qu'ils Etaient les fils de Nizir, fils de Ma'add, fils d'Adnin, le devin 
dit : Excusez-moi de ne vous avoir pas reconnus ; j'ai e*te* lie d'amitie* avec votre pere : 
soyez mes h6tes ce jour et cette nuit, demain j'arrangerai votre afiaire. Ils consentirent. 
Le pere et les ancetres de ce devin avaient &< chefs de Nadjran. 

Le devin leur fit pre*parer un repas. On leur servit un agneau roti et une cruche de 
vin, et ils mangerent. Lorsque le vin leur monta a la tete, Modhar dit : Je n'ai jamais 
bu un vin plus doux que celui-ci ; mais il vient d'une vigne plant^e sur un tombeau. 
Rabi'a dit: Je n'ai jamais mange" de la viande d' agneau plus succulente que celle-ci; 
mais cet agneau a etc" nourri du lait d'une chienne. Anmar dit : Se \A6 qui a servi a 
faire le pain que nous venons de manger a etc* seme* dans un cimetiere. lyad dit : 
Notre hote est un excellent homme ; mais il n*est pas un fils legitime j ce n'est pas son 
pere (legal) qui 1'a engendre*, mais un autre homme ; sa mere 1'a concu dans l'adultere 



Story of the Su j tan of At- Yaman and His Three Sons* 5 

a bond and agreement to abide by his bequeathal ; and, after 
delaying a while, he departed to the mercy of Allah. Thereupon 
his three sons got ready the funeral gear and whatever was suited 



Le devin recueillit leurs paroles, mais il ne leur en dit rien. Quand la nuit fut venue 
ct qu'ils furent endormis, il appela son intendant et lui demanda de quelle vigne 
provenait le vin (que Ton avail servi aux hotes). L'intendant dit : Une vigne a pousse 
sur le tombeau de ton pere et elle est devenue grande ; j'en ai recueilli le raisin, et ce 
vin en provient. Ensuite le devin fit venir le berger, et le questionna relativement 
a 1' agneau. Le berger dit : Quand cet agneau vint au monde, il e"tait tres-joli ; mais 
se mere mourut, et il n'y avait pas alors de brebis qui cut mis bas. Une chienne 
avait eu des petits ; je mis cet agneau avec la chienne jusqu'a ce qu'il fut grand. 
Je n'en ai pas trouv6 de meilleur pour te 1'apporter, lorsque tu m'as fait demander un 
agneau. Enfin le devin appela le metayer, et 1'interrogea sur le ble. Le me"tayer lui 
dit : II y a d'un cote de notre champ un cimetiere. Cette anne*e-ci j'ai ensemence une 
partie du cimetiere, et c'est de la que provient le bl que je t'ai apporte". Le devin, 
fort e*tonne de ces explications, dit : Maintenant c'est le tour de ma mere. II alia 
trouver sa mere et lui dit: Si tune m'avoues pas la verite en ce 'qui me concerne, je 
te fais mourir. Sa mere parla ainsi : Ton pere e*tait le chef de ce peuple et possedait 
de grandes richesses. Comme je n'avais pas d' enfant de lui, je craignis qu'a sa mort 
ses biens ne tombassent entre des mains etrangeres et qu'un autre ne prit le pouvoir, 
Un Arabe, homme de belle figure, fut un jour I'h6te de ton pere ; je m'abandonnai a 
lui, la nuit ; je devins enceinte, et c'est a lui que tu dois ta naissance. J'ai dit a ton 
.pere que tu avais etc engendre par lui. 

Le lendemain, le devin ihterrogea les quatre freres sur leurs paroles, en disant : Je 
veux que vous me fassiez connaitre comment vous avez su les choses que vous avez dites. 
Modhar, le premier, lui dit : J'ai su que la vigne etait planted sur un tombeau, parce que, 
quand nous avions bu le vin, nous devenions tristes et nous avions la figure alte'ree ; ce 
qui n'est pas 1'effet ordinaire du vin. Le deuxieme, dit; J'ai reconnu ce qui concernait 
1'agneau, parce que nous n'avions jamais mang de viande plus douce que celle-la, et 
qu'il n'y a, dans le monde, rien de plus doux que le lait de la chienne. Le troisieme dit : 
Les Arabes honorent beaucoup leurs hotes ; lorsqu'ils traitent des hotes, ils restent avec eux 
et partagent leur repas ; mais toi tu nous as fait servir le repas, tu nous as quittes et tu 
t'es mis a epier nos paroles. J'ai reconnu par la ta condition ; j'ai remarque" que tu 
n'avais pas la gravite des Arabes, et j'ai pense qu'il y avait quelque ille'galite dans ton 
origine. Le quatrieme dit : J'ai reconuu la qualite du ble, parce que le ble sem dans 
un cimetiere donne au pain un gout de terre ; et j'ai trouve ce gout dans ce pain. Le 
devin leur dit : Vous etes plus savants que moi ; vous n'avez pas besoin de mon juge 
ment. Ils repliquerent : Quand deux personnes ont un differend, il faut un tiers pour 
juger, qu'il soil savant ou non. Ce sont les dernieres volonte*s de notre pere, qui nous 
a dit de nous en rapporter a ton jugement, si nous n'etions pas d' accord sur 1' heritage. 
Le devin dit : Indiquez-moi exactement ce que votre pere a donn a chacun de vous et ce 
qu'il a laisse". Notre pere, dirent-ils, a laiss de 1'or, de 1'argent, des chevaux, des moutons, 
des tapis et des vases de toute espece et en grand nombre. Ils raconterent ensuite ce que 
leur pere avait donne* a chacun d'eux. Le devin dit : Laissez a Modhar tout ce que votre 
pere avait en fait d'or et de chameaux ; car ces objets sont rouges. Donnez.les chevaux, 
les esclaves et les vetements noirs a Rabi'a ; les esclaves blancs, 1'argent et les vStements 
blancs a lyad, et les tapis et les moutons a Anmar. Les quatre freres accepterent cette 
sentence, et s'en retournerent. 



6 Supplemental Nights. 

to his estate for the mortuary obsequies such as* cerements and 
other matters : they washed the corpse and enshrouded it and 
prayed over it: then, having committed it to the earth they 
returned to their palaces where the Wazirs and the Lords of the 
Land and the city-folk in their multitudes, high and low, rich and 
poor, flocked to condole with them on the loss of their father. And 
the news of his decease was soon bruited abroad in all the provinces ; 
and deputations from each and every city came to offer condolence 
to the King's sons. These ceremonies duly ended, the eldest 
Prince demanded that he should be seated as Sultan on the stead 
of his sire in accordance with the paternal will and testament ; 
but he could not obtain it from his two brothers as both and each 
said, " I will become ruler in room of my father." So enmity and 
disputes for the government now arose amongst them and it was 
not to be won by any ; but at last quoth the eldest Prince, " Wend 
we and submit ourselves to the arbitration of a Sultan of the 
tributary sultans ; and let him to whom he shall adjudge the realm 
take it and reign over it." Quoth they " 'Tis well ! " and thereto 
agreed, as did also the Wazirs; and the three set out without 

suite seeking the capital of one of the subject Sovrans. And 

Shahrazdd 1 was surprised by the dawn of day 2 and fell silent and 
ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, 
" How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and 
delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that 
I would relate to you on the coming night, an the King suffer me 
to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 



1 In the W. M. MS. the sisters are called " Shahrzadeh" ( = City-born) and "Dinr- 
zadeh " (= ducat-born) and the royal brothers Shahrbaz (= City-player or City-falcon) 
and Kahraman (vol. i. p. 1) alias Samarban (ibid.) I shall retain the old spelling. 

8 I have hitherto translated " wa adraka (masc.) Shahrdzada al-Sabdh," as = And 
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day ; but it is more correct as well as more picturesque 
to render the phrase " was surprised (or overtaken) by the dawn.*' 



Story of the Sultan of Al- Yaman and His Three Sons. 7 



f^untrrcfc nnfc f}ftti'etf) 

DUNYAzAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

watching of this our latter night!" She replied: With love 

and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deed fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the three Princes 
fared seeking a Sultan of the sultans who had been under the hands 
of their sire, in order that they might take him to arbitrator. And 
they stinted not faring till the middle way, when behold, they came 
upon a mead abounding in herbage and in rain-water lying 
sheeted. 1 So they sat them down to rest and to eat of their 
victual, when one of the brothers, casting his eye upon the herb- 
age, cried, " Verily a camel hath lately passed this way laden half 
with Halwa-sweetmeats and half with Hdmiz-pickles." 2 "True," 
cried the second, " and he was blind of an eye." Exclaimed the 
third, "Tis sooth; and indeed he hath lost his tail." Hardly, 
however, had they ended their words when lo ! the owner of the 
camel came upon them (for he had overheard their speech and had 
said to himself, " By Allah, these three fellows have driven off my 
property, inasmuch as they have described the burthen and eke 
the beast as tail-less and one-eyed"), and cried out, "Ye three 
have carried away my camel ! )>8 " By Allah we have not seen 

1 Arab. " 'Adrdn," the V being 'Adr=much and heavy rain. 

8 For " Halw " see vol. ii. pp. 47-212. Scott (vol. vi. 413) explains " Hdmiz " as 
" a species of small grain," probably confounding it with Hummus (or Himmis) = vetches. 
It is the pop. term for pickles, "sour meat " as opposed to " sweetmeats." The Arabs 
divide the camel's pasture into "Khullah" which means sweet food called bread and 
into " Hdmiz " termed fruit : the latter is composed mainly of salsolacese, and as camels 
feed upon it during the hot season it makes them drink. Hence in Al-Hariri (Preface) 
" I change the pasture," &*., I pass from grave to gay, from light to dignified style. 
(Chenery, p. 274). 

3 This is the modern version of the tale which the author of "Zadig" has made 
familiar to Europe. The hero is brought before the King and Queen of Babylon for 
stealing a horse and a dog ; and, when held by the chief "Destour" (priest) to be a 



8 Supplemental Nights. 

him," quoth the Princes, " much less have we touched him ; " but 
quoth the man, " By the Almighty, who can have taken him except 
you ? and if you will not deliver him to me, off with us, I and you 
three, to the Sultan." They replied, " By all manner of means ; 
let us wend to the Sovran." So the four hied forth, the three 
Princes and the Cameleer, and ceased not faring till they reached 
the capital of the King. There they took seat without the wall 
to rest for an hour's time and presently they arose and pushed into 
the city and came to the royal Palace. Then they craved leave of 
the Chamberlains, and one of the Eunuchs caused them enter and 
signified to the sovereign that the three sons of Such-and-such a 
Sultan had made act of presence. So he bade them be set before 
him and the four went in and saluted him, and prayed for him and 
he returned their salams. He then asked them, " What is it hath 
brought you hither and what may ye want in the way of enquiry ? " 
Now the first to speak was the Cameleer and he said, " O my lord 
the Sultan ; verily these three men have carried off my camel by 
proof of their own speech." - And Shahrazad perceived the 
dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. 
Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy 
tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, 
" And where is this compared with that I would relate to you on 
the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now 
when it was the next night and that was 



ant* 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah, upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

thief, justifies himself. I have given in full the older history from Tabari, the historian 
(vixit A.D. 839-923). For the tracker (Paggl ') and the art of tracking see Sind 
Revisited, i. 180-183. I must again express my wonder that the rural police of Europe 
still disdain the services of trained dogs when these are about to be introduced into the 
army. 



Story of the Sultan of A I- Yaman and His Three Sons^ 9 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Cameleer 
came forward between the Sultan's hands and said, " O my lord, 
verily these men have carried away the camel which belongeth to 
me, 1 for they have indeed described him and the burthen he bore ! 
And I require of our lord the Sultan that he take from these 
wights and deliver to me the camel which is mine as proved by 
their own words." Presently, asked the Sultan, " What say ye to 
the claims of this man and the camel belonging to him ? " Hereto 
the Princes made answer, " By Allah, O King of the Age, we 
have not seen the camel, much less have we stolen him." There- 
upon the Cameleer exclaimed, " O my lord, I heard yonder one 
say that the beast was blind of an eye ; and the second said that 
he was tail-less, and the third said that half his load was of sour 
stuff and the other half was of sweet stuff." They replied, " True, 
we spake these words ; " and the Sultan cried to them, " Ye have 
purloined the beast by this proof." They rejoined, " No, by Allah, 
O my lord. We sat us in such a place for repose and refreshment 
and we remarked that some of the pasture had been grazed down, 
so we said : This is the grazing of a camel ; and he must have 
been blind of one eye as the grass was eaten only on one side. 
But as for our saying that he was tail-less, we noted the droppings 
lying heaped 2 upon the ground which made us agree that the tail 
rnust have been cut off, it being the custom of camels at such 
times to whisk their tails and scatter the dung abroad. So 'twas 
evident to us that the camel had lost his tail. But as for our saying 
that the load was half Halwa and half Hamiz, we saw on the place 



1 Arab. " Bita'i " = my own. I have already noticed that this is the Egypt form and 
the Nilotes often turn the 'Ayn into an H, e.g. Bitdht for Bitd'at, e.g. Ash-Shabakah' 
bitdht as-Sayd, thy net for fishing. (Spitta Bey, Contes Arabes Modernes, p. 43.) 

* Arab. " Mukabbab ;" prop, vaulted, arched, domed in Kubbah (or cupola) -shape. 



io Supplemental Nights. 

where the camel had knelt the flies gathering in great numbers 
while on the other were none : so the case was clear to us (as flies 
settle on naught save the sugared) that one of the panniers must 
have contained sweets and the other sours." Hearing this the 
Sultan said to the Cameleer, " O man, fare thee forth and look 
after thy camel ; for these signs and tokens prove not the theft of 
these men but only the power of their intellect and their pene* 
tration." 1 And when the Cameleer heard this, he went his 
ways. Presently the Sultan cleared a place in the Palace and 
allotted to it the Princes for their entertainment : he also directed 
they be supplied with a banquet and the eunuchs did his bidding. 
But when it was eventide and supper was served up, the trio sat 
down to it purposing to eat ; the eldest, however, having hent in 
hand a bannock of bread exclaimed, " By Allah, verily this cake 
was baked by a woman in blood, to wit, one with the menses." 
The cadet tasting a bit of kid exclaimed, " This kid was suckled 
by a bitch ; and the youngest exclaimed, " Assuredly this Sultan 
must be a son of shame, a bastard." All this was said by the 
youths what while the Sultan had hidden himself in order to hear 
and to profit by the Princes' words. So he waxed wroth and 
entered hastily crying, " What be these speeches ye have spoken ?" 
They replied, " Concerning all thou hast heard enquire within and 
thou wilt find it wholly true." The Sultan then entered his 
women's apartments and after inquisition found that the woman 
who had kneaded the bread was sick with her monthly courses. 
He then went forth and summoned the head-shepherd and asked 
him concerning the kid he had butchered. He replied, " By Allah, 
O my lord, the nanny-goat that bare the kid died and we found 



1 Arab. "Firdsah." " Sciences are of three kinds: one the science of Faith, another 
the science of Physiognomy (Firdsah), and another the science of the Body j but unless 
there be the science of Physiognomy, other science avaiieth not." So says " The Forty 
Vizirs:" Lady's vith story and Vizir's xxxist story. For a note on "Firdsah" see 
vol. viii. 326. 



Story of the Sultan of Al- Yaman and His Three Sons. 1 1 

none other in milk to suckle him ; but I had a bitch that had just 
pupped and her have I made nourish him." The Sultan lastly 
hent his sword in hand and proceeded to the apartments of the 
Sultdnah-mother and cried, " By Allah, unless thou avert my 
shame 1 we will cut thee down with this scymitar ! Say me whose 
son am I? " She replied, " By Allah, O my child, indeed false- 
hood is an excuse, but fact and truth are more saving and superior. 
Verily thou art the son of a cook ! " - And Shahrazad was 
surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her 
permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet 
is thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " 
Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I would relate 
to you on the coming night, an the King suffer me to survive ? " 
Now when it was the next night and that was 



f^un*re& anfc ^fnttg-secomj 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With love 
and good will! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sultan's 
mother said to him, "Verily thou art a cook's son. Thy sire could 
not beget boy-children and I bare him only a single daughter. 
But it so fortuned that the kitchener's wife lay in of a boy (to 
wit, thyself) ; so we gave my girl-babe to the cook and took thee 
as the son of the Sultan, dreading for the realm after thy sire's 
death. 7 ' The King went forth from his mother in astonishment at 
the penetration of the three youths and, when he had taken seat 



1 Arab. " In Urn tazidd (xa) Kayni"= lit. unless thou oppose my forming or com- 
position. 



12 Supplemental Nights. 

in his Palace, he summoned the trio and as soon as they appeared 
he asked them ; " Which of you was it that said : She who 
kneaded the bread was in blood ? " Quoth the eldest, " That was 
I ;" and quoth the King, " What led thee to suspect that she was 
menstruous ? " He replied, " O my lord, when I took the bannock 
and broke off a bittock, the flour fell out in lumps. 1 Now had the 
kneader been well, her strength of hand would have remained and 
the bread would have been wrought by all the veins ; but, when 
the blood c'ame, her powers were minished for women's force is in 
her hands ; and as soon as the monthly period cometh upon them 
their strength is lost. Their bodies contain three hundred and 
sixty veins all lying hard by one another and the blood of the 
catamenia floweth from them all; hence their force becometh 
feebleness. And this was my proof of the woman which was 
menstruous/' Quoth the Sultan, " Tis well. We accept as certain 
thy saying upon this evidence, for it is agreeable to man's under- 
standing nor can any challenge it ; this being from the power of 
insight into the condition of womankind. And we are assured 
of its soothfastness, for 'tis evident to us without concealment. 
But which is he who said of the kid's meat that the beast was 
suckled by a bitch ? What proof had he of this ? How did he 
learn it and whence did his intelligence discover it to him ? " Now 
when the deceased Sultan's second son heard these words, he made 
answer. " I, O King of the Age, am he who said that say !"" The 
King replied," 'Tis well ;" and the Prince returned, "O my lord, 
that which showed me the matter of the meat which was to us 
brought is as follows. I found the fat of the kid all hard by the 
bone, and I knew that the beast had sucked bitch's milk ; for the 
flesh of dogs lieth outside and their fat is on their bones, whereas 
in sheep and goats the fat lieth upon the meat. Such, then, was 

1 Arab. " Farafish," a word which I cannot find in the dictionary, and so translate 
according to the context. Dr. Steingass remarks that the nearest approach to it would 
be "Farafik " (plur. of Furfak) = fine, thin or soft bread. 



Story of the Sultan of A I- Yaman and His Three Sons. 13 

my proof wherein there is nor doubt nor hesitation ; and when 
thou shalt have made question and inquiry thou wilt find this to be 
fact." Quoth the Sultan, " 'Tis well ; thou hast spoken truth and 
whatso thou sayest is soothfast. But which is he who declared that 
I am a bastard and what was his proof and what sign in me 
exposed it to him ? " Quoth the youngest Prince, " I am he who 
said it ; " and the Sultan rejoined, " There is no help but that thou 
provide me with a proof." The Prince rejoined. "Tis well!" 

And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and fell silent and 

ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, 
" How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable 
and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with 
that I would relate to you on the coming night an the Sovran 
suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and 
that was 

l&ty &rce ^un&refc antr tljfttfi.tfifttt jSififit. 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, 
the director, the jright-guiding lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the 
youngest Prince said to the Sultan, <f O my lord, I have evidence 
tnat thou art the son of a cook and a base-born, in that thou 
didst not sit at meat with us and this was mine all-sufficient 
evidence. Every man hath three properties which he inheriteth 
at times from his father, at times from his maternal uncle and 
at times from his mother. 1 From his sire cometh generosity or 



1 See, in the Turkish Tales " by Petis de la Croix (Weber, Tales of the East, vol. iii. 
196), the History of the Sophi of Baghdad, where everything returns to (or resembles) 
its origin. Thus the Wazir who proposed to cut up a criminal and hang him in the 



14 Supplemental Nights. 

niggardness ; from his uncle courage or cowardice ; from his 
mother modesty or immodesty ; and such is the proof of every 
man." Then quoth to him the Sultan, " Sooth thou speakest ; 
but say me, men* who like you know all things thoroughly by 
evidence and by your powers of penetration, what cause have they 
to come seeking arbitration at 1 my hand ? Beyond yours there 
be no increase of intelligence. So fare ye forth from me and 
manage the matter amongst yourselves, for 'tis made palpable 
to me by your own words that naught remaineth to you save to 
speak of mysterious subjects ; l nor have I the capacity to adjudge 
between you after that which I have heard from you. In fine 
an ye possess any document drawn up by your sire before his 
decease, act according to it and contrary it not" Upon this the 
Princes went forth from him and made for their own country and 
city and did as their father had bidden them do on his death-bed. 
The eldest enthroned himself as Sultan ; the cadet assumed 
possession and management of the moneys and treasures and 
the youngest took to himself the camels and the horses and the 
beeves and the muttons. Then each and every was indeed equal 
with his co-partner in the gathering of good. But when the 
new year came, there befel a drought among the beasts and all 
belonging to the youngest brother died nor had he aught of 
property left : yet his spirit brooked not to take anything from 
his brethren or even to ask of them aught. This theri is the 
Tale of the King of Al-Yaman in its entirety; yet is the Story 
of the Three Sharpers 2 more wondrous and marvellous than that 



shambles was the self-convicted son of a butcher ; he who advised boiling him down 
and giving his flesh to the dogs was the issue of a cook, and the third who proposed to 
pardon him was nobly born. See Night cccxli 

1 Arab. ' Al-Mafyaat," lit. = a shady place; a locality whereupon the sun doe* 
not rise. 

2 Arab. Ja'idiyah," a favourite word in this MS. " Ja'ad "=a curl, a liberal man : 
Ja'ad al-yad= miserly, and Abu ja'dah= father of curls, = a wolf. Scott (passim] tsans- 
lates the word ' Sharper;" Gore Ouseley " Labourer;" and De Sacy (Chrestomathie 



Story of the Sultan of A I- Yaman and His Three Sons. 1 5 

just recounted. - And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn 
of day and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then 
quoth her sister Dunyazad, ^ How sweet is thy story, O sister 
mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And 
where is this compared with that I would relate to you on the 
coming night, an the King suffer me to survive." Now when 
it was the next night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied, " With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, 
the director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating ; " and she 
began to recount 



ii 369> who derives it from Ju'd = avoir les cheueux crtpus] : in Egypt, homme 
de la populace^ canaille. He finds it in the Fabrica Linguae Arab, of Germanus of 
Silesia (p. 786) = ignavis, hebes, stupidus, esp. a coward. Ibrahim Salamah of Alexandria 
makes the term signify in Syria, impudent, thieving, wicked. Spitta Bey translates 
this word musicien ambulant in his Gloss, to Contes Arabes, p. 171. According lo 
Dr- Steingass, who, with the Muhit al~Muh{t> reads "Ju'aydfyah," Ju'ayd is said to be 
the P. N. of an Egyptian clown, who, with bell-hung cap and tambourine in hand, 
wandered about the streets singing laudatory doggrel and pestering the folk for money. 
Many vagabonds who adopted this calling were named after him and the word was 
generalised in that sense. 



THE STORY OF THE THREE SHARPERS 



THE STORY OF THE THREE SHARPERS. 1 

SAYING, Verily their adventure is wondrous and their actions 

delightsome and marvellous; presently adding There wde 

in time of yore three Sharpers who were wont every day in early 
morning to prowl forth and to prey, rummaging 2 among the 
mounds which outlay the city. Therein each would find a silver bit 
of five parahs or its equivalent, after which the trio would forgather 
and buy whatso sufficed them for supper : they would also expend 
two Nusfs s upon Bast, 4 which is Bhang, and purchase a waxen 
taper with the other silver bit. They had hired a cell in the flank 
of a Wakcilah, a caravanserai without the walls, where they could 
sit at ease to solace themselves and eat their Hashish after lighting 
the candle and enjoy their intoxication and consequent merriment 
till the noon o* night. Then they would sleep, again awaking 
at day-dawn when they would arise and seek for spoil, according 
to their custom, and ransack the heaps where at times they 
would hit upon a silverling of five dirhams and at other times a 
piece of four ; and at eventide they would meet to spend together 
the dark hours, and they would expend everything they came 
by every day. For a length of time they pursued this path 
until, one day of the days, they made for the mounds as was 



1 MS. vol. iii. pp. 96-121. Scott, "Story of the Three Sharpers ahd the Sultan," 
PP 7-*7 > Gaultier, Histoire des-trois Jilous et (fun Sulthan, vi. 165-176. 

z Arab. Yasrahu = roaming, especially at early dawn ; hence the wolf is called 
" Sirhan," and Yaklishu (if I read it aright) is from ^ Kulsh, and equivalent to 
' kicking " (their heels) 

8 Nusf = half a dirham, drachma or franc, see ii. 37 ; vi. 214, etc. 

4 Bast, a preparation of Bhang ^{Cannabis Sativa), known in Egypt but not else- 
where : see Lane M. E., chapt. xv. Here it is made synonymous with " Hashish "=s 
Bhang in general. 



2o Supplemental Nights. 

their wont and went round searching the heaps from morning 
to evening without finding even a half-parah ; wherefore they 
were troubled and they- went away and nighted in their cell 
without meat or drink. When the next day broke they arose 
and repaired for booty, changing the places wherein they were 
wont to forage ; but none of them found aught ; and their breasts 
were straitened for lack of a find of dirhams wherewith to buy 
them supper. This lasted for three full-told and following days until 
Hunger waxed hard upon them and vexation ; so they said one to 
other, " Go we to the Sultan and let us serve him with a sleight, 
and each of us three shall claim to be a past master of some craft : 
haply Allah Almighty may incline his heart uswards and he may 
largesse us with something to expend upon our necessities." 
Accordingly all three agreed to do on this wise and they sought 
the Sultan whom they found in the palace-garden. They asked 
leave to go in to him, but the Chamberlains refused admission : 
so they stood afar off unable to approach the presence. Then 
quoth they one to other, " Twere better we fall to and each smite 
his comrade and cry aloud and make a clamour, 1 and as soon 
as he shall hear us he will send to summon us." Accordingly 
they jostled one another and each took to frapping his fellow, 
making the while loud outcries. The Sultan hearing this turmoil 
said, " Bring me yonder wights ; " and the Chamberlains and 
Eunuchs ran out to them and seized them and set them between 
the hands of the Sovran. As soon as they stood in the presence 
he asked them, " What be the cause of your wrath one against 
other?" They answered, "O King of the Age, we are past 
masters of crafts, each of us weeting an especial art." Quoth 

1 Ghaushah.a Persianism for which ' ' Ghaugha" " is a more common form. " Ghaush " 
is a tree of hard wood whereof musical instruments were made : hence the mod. words 
"Ghasha" and " Ghawwasha " '= he produced a sound, and "Ghaushah " = tumult, 
quarrel. According to Dr. Steingass, the synon. in the native diets, are " Khisdra," 
"Laghat," "Jalabah," etc. 



Story of the Tkree Sharpers. 2 1 

the Sultan, " What be your crafts ? " and quoth one of the trio, 
" O our lord, as for my art I am a jeweller by trade." The 
King exclaimed, " Passing strange ! a sharper and a jeweller : l 

this is a wondrous matter." And he questioned the second 

And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and fell silent and 
ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dun- 
yazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and 
enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this 
compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night 
an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the 
next night which was 

!j* f)te* ^un&relr auto 'SPJtrtg'fiftJ Jiitgijt, 

'DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an 
thou be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut 

short the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : 

With love and good will! It hath reached me, O auspicious 
King, the director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is 
benefiting and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that 
the Sultan asked the second Sharper saying, " And thou, the other, 
what may be thy craft ? " He answered, " I am a genealogist 2 of 
the horse-kind." So the King glanced at him in surprise and said 
to himself, "A sharper yet he claimeth an astounding know- 
ledge ! " Then he left him and put the same question to the third 
who said to him, " O King of the Age, verily my art is more 
wondrous and marvellous than aught thou hast heard from these 



1 Said irom'ce, the jeweller being held to be one of the dishonest classes, like the washer- 
man, the water-carrier, the gardener, etc. In England we may find his representative in 
the " silversmith," who will ask a pound sterling for a bit of metal which cost him perhaps 
five shillings or even less, and who hates to be bought by weight. The Arab, has 
" Jauhar-ji," a Turkish form for Jauhari ; and here " jauhar " apparently means a pearl, 
the stone once peculiar to royalty in Persia, but the kind of gem is left undetermined. 

8 Arab. "Saza, yasfzu," not a dictionary word. Perhaps it is a clerical error for 
" Sasa," he groomed or broke in a horse, hence understood all about horses. 



22 Supplemental Nights. 

twain : their craft is easy but mine is such that none save I can 
discover the right direction thereto or know the first of it from the 
last of it." The Sultan enquired of him, "And what be thy 
craft ? " Whereto he replied, " My craft is the genealogy of the 
sons of Adam." Hearing these words the Sovran wondered with 
extreme wonderment and said in himself, " Verily He informeth 
with His secrets the humblest of His creatures ! Assuredly these 
men, an they speak truth in all they say and it prove soothfast, 
are fit for naught except kingship. But I will keep them by me 
until the occurrence of some nice contingency wherein I may test 
them ; then, if they approve themselves good men and trustworthy 
of word, I will leave them on life ; but if their speech be lying I 
will do them die. Upon this he set apart for them apartments 
and rationed them with three cakes of bread and a dish of roast 
meat 1 and set over them his sentinels dreading lest they fly. This 
case continued for a while till behold, there came to the Sultan* 
from the land of 'Ajam a present of rarities, amongst which were 
two gems whereof one was clear of water and the other was 
clouded of colour. 2 The Sultan hent them in hand for a time and 
fell to considering them straitly for the space of an hour ; after 
which he called to mind the first of the three Sharpers, the self- 
styled jeweller, and cried, " Bring me the jeweller-man." Accord- 
ingly they went and brought him and set him before the Sovran 
who asked him, " O man, art thou a lapidary ? " And when the 
Sharper answered " Yes" he gave him the clear- watered stone, say- 
ing, " What may be the price of this gem?" And Shahrazad 

was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say 
her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, "How 
sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delect- 
able ! " Quoth she, And where is this compared with that I 

1 In ihe orig. "Shorbah," Pers. = a mess of pottage : I have altered it for reasons 
which will presently appear. 
'Arab. "Ghabasah," from Ghabas = obscure, dust- coloured. 



Story of the Three Sharpers. 2$ 

would relate to you on the coming night, an the Sovran suffer 
me to survive." Now when it was the next night and that was 

^Jje ^Jree l^untrretr anto ^tjfttg-gtxt!) &{g$t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our later night ! " She replied : With love 

and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sharper 
took the jewel in hand and turned it rightwards and leftwards and 
considered the outside and pried into the inside ; after which he 
said to the Sultan, " O my lord, verily this gem containeth a 
worm 1 bred within the heart thereof." Now when the King heard 
these words he waxed wroth with exceeding wrath and commanded 
the man's head to be stricken off, saying, " This jewel is clear of 
colour and free of flaw or other default ; yet thou chargest it 
falsely with containing a worm ! " Then he summoned the Link- 
man 2 who laid hands on the Sharper and pinioned his elbows and 
trussed up his legs 3 like a camel's and was about to smite his neck 
when behold, the Wazir entered the presence and, seeing the 
Sovran in high dudgeon and the Sharper under the scymitar, asked 
what was to do. The Sultan related to him what had happened 
when he drew near to him and said, " O my lord, act not after 
this fashion ! An thou determine upon the killing of yonder man, 
first break the gem and, if thou find therein a worm, thou wilt 
know the wight's word to have been veridical ; but an thou find it 



1 Arab. " Siasah "= a weevil, a moth, a worm. It does not mean simply a flaw, but 
a live animal (like our toads in the rock) ; and in the popular version of the tale the 
lapidary discovers its presence by the stone warming in his hand. 

2 Arab. " Masha'fli" the cresset-bearer who acted hangman: see vol. i. 259, etc. 

3 Arab. ' Ta'kil," tying up a camel's foreleg above the knee ; the pnmary meaning of 
'Akl, which has so many secondary significations. 



24 Supplemental Nights. 

sound then strike off his head." " Right is thy rede," quoth the 
King : then he took in hand the gem and smote it with his 
mace 1 and when it brake behold, he found therein the worm 
amiddlemost thereof. So he marvelled at the sight and asked the 
man, " What proved to thee that it harboured a worm ? " " The 
sharpness of my sight," answered the Sharper. Then the Sultan 
pardoned him and, admiring his power of vision, addressed his 
attendants saying, " Bear him back to his comrades and ration him 
with a dish of roast meat and two cakes of bread." And they did 
as he bade them. After some time, on a day of the days, there 
came to the King the tribute of'Ajam-land accompanied with 
presents amongst which was a colt whose robe black as night 3 
showed one shade in the sun and another in the shadow. When 
the animal was displayed to the Sultan he fell in love with it and 
set apart for it a stall and solaced himself at all times by gazing 
at it and was wholly occupied with it and sang its praises till they 
filled the whole country side. Presently he remembered the 
Sharper who claimed to be a genealogist of the horse-kind and 
bade him be summoned. So they fared forth and brought him 
and set him between the hands of the Sovran who said to him, 
" Art thou he who knoweth the breed and descent of horses ? " 
" Yea verily," said the man. Then cried the King, By the trutn 
of Him who set me upon the necks of His servants and who sayeth 
to a thing * Be ' and it becometh, an I find aught of error or con- 
fusion in thy words, I will strike off thy head." " Hearkening and 
obedience," quoth the Sharper. Then they led him to the colt 
that he might consider its genealogy. He called aloud to the 

groom 3 And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and fell 

silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her 
sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister 

1 Arab. "Suwan," lit. = rock, syenite, hard stone, flint ; here a marteau de guerre. 

2 Arab. " Hdlik "= intensely black, so as to look blue under a certain angle of light. 

3 Arab. " Rikdb " (=stirrup) + da"r " Pers. = holder). 



Story of the Three Sharpers. 25 

mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is 
this compared with that I would relate to you on the coming 
night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the 
next night and that was 



f^unfcreb anU / 2FJutg=setonti) Nicjjt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sharper 
called aloud to the stirrup-holder and when they brought him he 
bade the man back the colt for his inspection. So he mounted 
the animal and made it pace to the right and to the left causing it 
now to prance and curvet and then to step leisurely, while the 
connoisseur looked on and after a time quoth he to the groom, 
" Tis enough ! " Then he went in to the presence and stood 
between the hands of the King who enquired, " What hast thou 
seen in the colt, O Kashmar ? "> Replied the Sharper, " By Allah, 
O King of the Age, this colt is of pure and noble blood on the 
side of the sire : its action is excellent and all its qualities are 
praiseworthy save one ; and but for this one it had been perfect 
in blood and breed nor had there been on earth's face its fellow 
in horseflesh. But its blemish remaineth a secret/ 1 The Sultan 
asked, " And what is the quality which thou blamest ? " and the 
Sharper answered, " Its sire was noble, but its dam was of other 
strain : she it was that brought the blemish and if thou, O my 
lord, allow me I will notify it to thee." "Tis well, and needs 
must thou declare it," quoth the Sultan. Then said the Sharper 

1 I have ransacked dictionaries and vocabularies but the word is a mere blank. 



26 Supplemental Nights. 

" Its dam is a buffalo-cow." 1 When the King heard these words 
he was wroth with wrath exceeding and he bade the Linkman 
take the Sharper and behead him, crying, "O dog! O accursed ! 
How can a buffalo-cow bear a horse ? " The Sharper replied, <* O 
my lord, the Linkman is in the presence ; but send and fetch him 
who brought thee the colt and of him make enquiry. If my words 
prove true and rightly placed, my skill shall be stablished ; but 
an they be lies let my head pay forfeit for my tongue. Here 
standeth the Linkman and I am between thy hands : thou hast 
but to bid him strike off my head ! " Thereupon the King sent 
for the owner and breeder of the colt and they brought him to the 

presence. And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day 

and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth 
the sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and 
how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this 
compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night, 
an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next 
night and that was 

6e fwe ^unftrefc an* ^ttp.fg8ft 42tg!)t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 



1 Arab. " Jdmusah." These mules are believed in by the Arabs. Shaw arid other 
travellers mention the Mauritanian " Jumart," the breed between a bull and a mare (or 
jenny-ass) or an ass and a cow. Buffon disbelieved in the mongrel, holding" it to be a 
mere bardeau t got by a stallion horse out of an ass. Voltaire writes "Jumarre" after 
German fashion, and Littr derives it from jument + art (finale pejorative), or the Languedoc 
" Gimere " which according to Diez suggests " Chimsera." Even in London not many 
years ago a mule was exhibited as the issue of a horse and a stag. No Indian ever 
allows his colt to drink buffalo's milk, the idea being that a horse so fed will lie down in 
instead of fording or swimming a stream. 



Story of the Three Sharpers. 2J 

and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sultan 
sent for the owner and breeder of the colt and asked him saying, 
" Tell me the truth anent the blood of this colt. Didst thou buy 
it or breed it so that it was a reading of thy homestead ? " Said 
he, " By Allah, O King of the Age, I will speak naught which is 
not sooth, for indeed there hangeth by this colt the strangest 
.story : were it graven with graver-needles upon the eye-corners 
it had been a warning to whoso would be warned. And this it is.! 
I had a stallion of purest strain whose sire was of the steeds of the 
sea ;* and he was stabled in a stall apart for fear of the evil eye^ 
his service being entrusted to trusty servants. But one day in 
springtide the Syce took the horse into the open and there 
picquetted him when behold, a buffalo-cow walked into the 
enclosed pasture where the stallion was tethered, and seeing her 
he brake his heel-ropes and rushed at her and covered her. She 1 
conceived by him and when her days were completed and her 
throwing-time came she suffered sore pains and bare yonder coltJ 
And all who have seen it or have heard of it were astounded," said ; 
he, presently adding, " by Allah, O King of the Age, had its dam 
been of the mare-kind the colt would have had no equal on earth's 
surface or aught approaching it.", Hereat the Sultan took thought, 
and marvelled ; then, summoning the Sharper he said to him 
when present, " O man, thy speech is true and thou art indeed a 
genealogist in horseflesh and thou wottest it well. But I would 
know what proved to thee that the dam of this colt was a buffalo- 
cow ? " Said he, O King, my proof thereof was palpable nor can 
it be concealed from any wight of right wits and intelligence and 
special knowledge ; for the horse's hoof is round whilst the hooves 
of buffaloes are elongated and duck -shaped, 2 and hereby I kenned 
that this colt was a jumart, the issue of a cow-buffalo." The 

1 See Sindbad the Seaman, vol. vi. 9. 

8 Arab. " Mubattat " from bait = a duck: in Persia the Batt-i-May is a wine glass 
shaped like the duck. Scott (vi. 12) translates " thick and longish." 



28 Supplemental Nights. 

Sultan was pleased with his words and said, " Ration him with a 
plate of roast meat and two cakes of bread ;" and they did as 
they were bidden. Now for a length of time the third Sharper 
was forgotten till one day the Sultan bethought him of the man 
who could explain the genealogy of Adam's sons. So he bade 
fetch him and when they brought him into the presence he said, 
"Thou art he that knowest the caste and descent of men and 
women ? " and the other said, " Yes." Then he commanded the 
Eunuchs take him to his wife 1 and place him before her and cause 
him declare her genealogy. So they led him in and set him 
standing in her presence and the Sharper considered her for a 
while looking from right to left; then he fared forth to the 
Sultan who asked him, " What hast thou seen in the Queen ? " 
Answered he, " O my lord, I saw a somewhat adorned with 
loveliness and beauty and perfect grace, with fair stature of sym- 
metrical trace and with modesty and fine manners and skilful case ; 
and she is one in whom all good qualities appear on every side, 
nor is aught of accomplishments or knowledge concealed from 
her and haply in her centre all desirable attributes. Natheless, 
O King of the Age, there is a curious point that dishonoured 
her from the which were she free none would outshine her of all 
the women of her generation.'* Now when the Sultan heard the 
words of the Sharper, he sprang hastily to his feet and clapping 
hand upon hilt bared his brand and fell upon the man purposing 

to slay him ; And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and 

fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her 
sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister 
mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is 
this compared with that I would relate to you on the coming 
night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was 
the next night and that was 

1 Arab, "his Harim" ; see vol. i. 165 ; iv. 126. 



Story of the Three Sharpers. 29 

^untofc anfc ^fn'ttg-mntf) ,$U<$t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

watching of this our latter night!" She replied: With love 

and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sultan 
fell upon the Sharper with his sword purposing to slay him ; but 
the Chamberlains and the Eunuchs prevented him saying, ' O our 
lord, kill him not until his falsehood or his fact shall have been 
made manifest to thee." The Sultan said to him, " What then 
appeared to thee in my Queen ? " " He l is ferly fair," said the 
man, " but his mother is a dancing-girl, a gypsey." 2 The fury of 
the King increased hereat and he sent to summon the inmates of 
his Harem and cried to his father-in-law, "Unless thou speak me 
sooth concerning thy daughter and her descent and her mother 

I " 3 He replied, " By Allah, O King of the Age, naught saveth 

a man save soothfastness ! Her mother indeed was a Ghaziyah : 
in past time a party of the tribe was passing by my abode when 
a young maid strayed from her fellows and was lost. They asked 
no questions concerning her ; so I lodged her and bred her in my 
homestead till she grew up to be a great girl and the fairest of her 
time. My heart would not brook her wiving with any other ; so I 
wedded her and she bare me this daughter whom thou, O King, 
hast espoused." When the Sultan heard these words the flame in 
his heart was quenched 4 and he wondered at the subtlety of the 
Sharper man ; so he summoned him and asked him saying, " O 

1 Again "he " for she. See vol. ii. 179. 

2 Arab. "Ghaziyah" : for the plur. " Ghawazi " see vol. i. 214; also Lane (M.E.J 
index under " Ghazeeyehs." 

3 The figure prothesis without apodosis. Understand "will slay thee": see vol. vi. 
203. 

* Because the girl had not been a professional dancer, i.e. a public prostitute. 



3O Supplemental Nights. 

wily one, tell me what certified to thee that my Queen had a 
dancing girl, a gypsey, to mother ? " He answered, " O King of 
the Age, verily the Ghaziyah race hath eye-balls intensely black 
and bushy brows whereas other women than the Ghaziyah have 
the reverse of this." On such wise the King was convinced of the 
man's skill and he cried, " Ration him with a dish of roast meat 
and two scones." They did as he bade and the three Sharpers 
tarried with the Sultan a long time till one day when the King 
said to himself, " Verily these three men have by their skill solved 
every question of genealogy which I proposed to them : first the 
jeweller proved his perfect knowledge of gems ; secondly the 
genealogist of the horse-kind showed himself as skilful, and the 
same was the case with the genealogist of mankind, for he dis- 
covered the origin of my Queen and the truth of his words 
appeared from all quarters. Now 'tis my desire that he do the 
same with me that I also may know my provenance." Accord- 
ingly they set the man between his hands and he said to him, " O 
fellow, hast thou the power to tell me mine origin ? " Said the 
Sharper, " Yes, O my lord, I can trace thy descent, but I will so do 
only upon a condition ; to wit, that thou promise me safety * after 
what I shall have told thee ; for the saw saith, * Whilst Sultan 
sitteth on throne 'ware his despite, inasmuch as none may be con- 
tumacious when he saith * Smite.' " Thereupon the Sultan told 
him, "thou hast a promise of immunity, a promise which shall 

never be falsed." And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of 

day and fell silent, and ceased to say her permitted say. Then 
quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, 
and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is 
this compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night 
an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the 
next night, and that was 

1 Arab. Aman " = quarter, mercy : see vol. i. 342. 



Story of the Three Sharpers. 3 1 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night!" She replied: - With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sultan 
pledged his word for the safety of the Sharper with the customary 
kerchief l and the man said, " O King of the Age, whenas I ac- 
quaint thee with thy root and branch, let it be between us twain 
lest these present hear us." " Wherefore O man ? " asked the 
Sultan, and the Sharper answered, " O my lord, Allah of Allmight 
hath among His names ' The Veiler ' " ; 2 wherefore the King bade 
his Chamberlains and Eunuchs retire so that none remained in the 
place save those two. Then the Sharper came forward and said, 
"O my lord, thou art a son of shame and an issue of adultery." 
As soon as the King heard these words his case changed and his 
colour waxed wan and his limbs fell loose : 3 he foamed at the 
mouth ; 4 he lost hearing and sight ; he became as one drunken 
without wine and he fell fainting to the ground. After a while he 
recovered and said to the Sharper, " Now by the truth of Him 
who hath set me upon the necks of His servants, an thy words be 
veridical and I ascertain their sooth by proof positive, I will 

1 For the "Mandil" of mercy see vol. i. 343 ; for that of dismissal x. 47 and Ibn 
Khali, iv. 211. In Spitta Bey's " Contes Arabes " (p. 223), I find throwing the kerchief 
(taramma al mahramah) used in the old form of choosing a mate. In the Tale of the 
Sultan of Al-Yaman and his three Sons (Supplem. Nights, vol. iv.) the Princesses drop 
their kerchiefs upon the head of the Prince who had saved them, by way of pointing 
him out. 

8 Arab. " Satta"r :" see vols. i. 258 and Hi. 41. 

8 In the text " Arghd " for " Arkhd "=he brayed " (like an ostrich, etc.) for " his 
limbs relaxed." It reminds one of the German missionary's fond address to his flock 
" My prethren, let us bray ! " 

4 Arab. "Azbad,"from y' Zbd (Zabd) = foaming, frothing, etc., whence " Zubaydah," 
etc. 



32 Supplemental Nights. 

assuredly abdicate my Kingdom and resign my realm to thee, 
because none deserveth it save thou and it becometh us least of 
all and every. But an I find thy speech lying I will slay thee. He 
replied, " Hearing and obeying ;" and the Sovran, rising up with- 
out stay or delay, went inside to his mother with grip on glaive, 
and said to her, " By the truth of Him who uplifted the lift above 
the earth, an thou answer me not with the whole truth in whatso I 
ask thee, I will cut thee to little bits with this blade." She en- 
quired, " What dost thou want with me ? " and he replied, " Whose 
son am I, and what may be my descent ? " She rejoined, " Al- 
though falsehood be an excuse, fact and truth are superior and 
more saving. Thou art indeed the very son of a cook. The Sultan 
that was before thee took me to wife and I cohabited with him a 
while of time without my becoming pregnant by him or having 
issue ; and he would mourn and groan from the core of his heart 
for that he had no seed, nor girl nor boy ; neither could he enjoy 
aught of sweet food or sleep. Now we had about the Palace 
many caged birds ; and at last, one day of the days, the King 
longed to eat somewhat of poultry, so he went into the court and 
sent for the Kitchener to slaughter * one of the fowls ; and the 
man applied -himself to catching it. At that time I had taken my 
first bath after the monthly ailment and quoth I to myself: If 
this case continue with the King he will perish and the Kingdom 
pass from us. And the Shaytan tempted me to that which dis- 
pleased Allah" And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day 

and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth 
her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister 
mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is 
this compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night 



1 Arab, v/ "Zabh" (Zbh) = the ceremonial killing of animals for food: see vols. v. 
391 ; viii. 44. I may note, as a proof of how modern is the civilisation of Europe that 
the domestic fowl was unknown to Europe till about the time of Pericles (ob. B.C. 429)." 



Story of the Three Sharpers. 33 

an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next 
night and that was 



OTjrec pjuntrrctr anlr jportg-first 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Queen con- 
tinued : - And Satan tempted me and made the sin fair in my 
sight. So I went up to the Kitchener, attired and adorned as I 
was in my finest apparel and I fell a-jesting with him and provok- 
ing him and disporting with him till his passions were excited by 
me : so he tumbled me at that very hour, after which he arose and 
slaughtered one of the birds and went his ways. Then I bade the 
handmaids sprinkle water on the fowl and clean it and cook it ; 
and they did my bidding. After a while symptoms of pregnancy 
declared themselves in me and became evident ; and when the 
King heard that his Queen was with child, he waxed gladsome and 
joyful and gave alms and scattered gifts and bestowed robes upon 
his Officers of Estate and others till the day of my delivery and I 
bare a babe which is thyself. Now at that time the Sultan was 
hunting and birding and enjoying himself about the gardens all of 
his pleasure at the prospect of becoming a father ; and when the 
bearer of good news went to him and announced the birth of a 
man-child he hurried back to me and forthright bade them decorate 
the capital and he found the report true ; so the city adorned itself 
for forty days in honour of its King. Such is my case and my 
tale. 1 Thereupon the King went forth from her to the Sharper 



1 See in " The Forty Vizirs" (Lady's ivth Tale) how Khizr tells the King the origin 
of his Ministers from the several punishmen's which they propose for the poor man. I 
VOL. IV, C 



34 Supplemental Nights. 

and bade him doff his dress and when this had been done he 
doffed his own raiment and habited the man in royal gear and 
hooded him with the Taylasan 1 and asked him saying, "What 
proof hast thou of my being a son of adultery?" The Sharper 
answered, " O my lord, my proof was thy bidding our being 
rationed, after showing the perfection of our skill, with a dish of 
roast meat and two scones of bread ; whereby I knew thee to be of 
cook's breed, for the Kings be wont in such case to make presents 
of money and valuables, not of meat and bread as thou didst, and 
this evidenced thee to be a bastard King." He replied, " Sooth thou 
sayest,"and then robed him with the rest of his robes including the 
Kalansuwah or royal head-dress under the hood 2 and seated him 

upon the throne of his estate. And Shahrazad was surprised 

by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted 
say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, 
O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, 
" And 'where is this compared with that I would relate to you on the 
coming night, an the Sovran suffer me to survive." Now when it 
was the next night and that was 

t&ty Jm 3utt&re& antr JF<me=sccon& jSt'g&t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

watching of this latter night ! " She replied : With love and 

good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the director, 



have noticed this before in Night cccxxxiii. Boethius, translated by Chaucer, explains 
the underlying idea, "All thynges seken ayen to hir propre course and all thynges 
rejoysen in hir returninge agayne to hir nature." 

1 For the Taylasdn-hood see vol. iv. 286, 

a The " Kalansuwah "-cap is noted by Lane (A. N. chapt. iii. 22) as " Kalensuweh." 
In M. E. (Supplement i. " The Copts ") he alters the word to Kalas'weh and describes 
it as a strip of woollen stuff, of a deep blue or black colour, about four inches wide, 
attached beneath the turban and hanging down the back to the length of about a foot. 
It is the distinguishing mark of the Coptic regular clergy. 



The Sultan who fared forth in the Habit of a Darwaysh. 3 5 

the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and of deeds 
fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sultan enthroned 
the Sharper upon the throne of estate and went forth from him 
after abandoning all his women to him and assumed the garb of a 
Darwaysh who wandereth about the world and formally abdicated 
his dominion to his successor. But when the Sharper-king saw 
himself in this condition, he reflected and said to himself, 
" Summon thy whilome comrades and see whether they recog- 
nize thee or not." So he caused them be set before him and 
conversed with them ; then, perceiving that none knew him he 
gifted them and sent them to gang their gait. And he ruled his 
realm and bade and forbade and gave and took away and was 
gracious and generous to each and every of his lieges ; so that the 
people of that region who were his subjects blessed him and prayed 
for him. Such was the case with the Sharper ; but as for 

THE SULTAN WHO FARED FORTH IN THE HABIT 
OF A DAR WA YSH? 

He ceased not wayfaring, as become a wanderer, till he came to 
Cairo 2 city whose circuit was a march of two and a half days and 
which then was ruled by her own King Mohammed hight. He 
found the folk in safety and prosperity and good ordinance ; and 
he solaced himself by strolling about the streets to the right and 
left and he diverted his mind by considering the crowds and the 

1 W. M. MS. vol. iii. pp. 121-141. Scott, "The Adventures of the abdicated 
Sultan," pp. 18-19; including the "History of Mahummud, Sultan of Cairo," pp. 
20-30. 

2 Kjjhirah." I repeat my belief (Pilgrimage i. 171) that " Kahtrah," whence our 
" Cairo" through the Italian corruption, means not la victorieuse (Mediant al-Kahirah) 
as D'Herbelot has it ; but City of Khir or Mars the planet. It was so called because as 
Richardson informed the world (sub voce} it was founded in A.H. 358 ( = A.D. 968) when 
the warlike planet was in the ascendant by the famous General Jauhar a Dalmatian rene- 
gade (not a "Greek slave") for the first of the Fatimite dynasty Al-Mu'izz li '1-dfni 

lldh. 



36 Supplemental Nights. 

worldj of men contained in the capital, until he drew near the 
palace when suddenly he sighted the Sultan returning from the 
chase and from taking his pleasure. Seeing this the Darwaysh 
retired to the wayside, and the King happening to glance in that 
direction, saw him standing and discerned in him the signs of 
former prosperity. So he said to one of his suite, " Take yon man 
with thee and entertain him till I send for him." His bidding 
being obeyed he entered the Palace and, when he had rested from 
the fatigues of the way, he summoned the Fakir to the presence 
and questioned him of his condition, saying, " Thou, from what 
land art thou?" He responded, " O my lord, I am a beggar 
man ; " and the other rejoined, " There is no help but that thou 
tell me what brought thee hither." The Darwaysh retorted* " O 
my lord, this may not be save in privacy," and the other exclaimed, 
" Be it so for thee." The twain then arose and repaired to a 
retired room in the Palace and the Fakir recounted to the Sultan 
all that had befallen him since the loss of his kingship and also 
how he, a Sultan, had given up the throne of his realm and had 
made himself a Darwaysh. The Sovran marvelled at his self- 
denial in yielding up the royal estate and cried, " Laud be to Him 
who degradeth and upraiseth, who honoureth and humbleth by 
the wise ordinance of His All-might," presently adding, " O 
Darwaysh, I have passed through an adventure which is mar- 
vellous ; indeed 'tis one of the Wonders of the World 1 which I 
needs must relate to thee nor from thee withhold aught thereof." 

And he fell to telling . And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of 

day and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then 
quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, 
O sister mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And 



1 According to Caussin de Perceval (pere) in his translation of the "Contes Arabes," 
there are four wonders in the Moslem world : (i) the Pharos of Alexandria ; (2) the 
Bridge of Sanjia in Northern Syria; (3) The Church of Rohah (Edessa) ; and (4) the 
Amawi Mosque of Damascus. 



History of Mohammed, Sultan of Cairo. 37 

where is this compared with that I would relate to you on the 
coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it 
was the next night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : -- With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the King fell to 
telling the beggar man 

THE HISTORY OF MOHAMMED, SULTAN OF CAIRO. 

I began my career in the world as a Darwaysh, an asker, owning 
naught of the comforts and conveniences of life, till at length, one 
day of the days, I became possessor of just ten silverlings 1 (and 
no more) which I resolved to expend upon myself. Accordingly 
I walked into the Bazar purposing to purchase somewhat of pro- 
vaunt. While I was looking around, I espied a man passing by 
arid leading in an iron chain a dog-faced baboon and crying 
" Haraj ! 2 this ape is for sale at the price of ten faddahs." The 
folk jibed at the man and jeered at his ape ; but quoth I to myself, 
" Buy this beast and expend upon it the ten silverlings." Accord- 
ingly I drew near the seller and said to him, "Take these ten 
faddahs ;" whereupon he took them and gave me the ape which I 



1 Arab. " Faddah," lit. '= silver, because made of copper alloyed with nobler metal i 
the smallest Egyptian coin = Nuss (i.e. Nusf, or half a dirham) and the Turk, parah, 
It is the fortieth of the piastre and may be assumed at the value of a quarter-farthing. 

3 This word, in Egypt. *' Harag," is the cry with which the Dallal (broker) announces 
each sum bidden at an auction. 



38 Supplemental Nights. 

led to the eel! wherein I dwelt. Then I opened the door and went 
in with my bargain but began debating in my mind what to do 
and, said, " How shall I manage a meal for the baboon and 
myself? " While I was considering behold, the beast was suddenly 
transformed, and became a young man fair of favour who had no 
equal in loveliness and stature and symmetric grace, perfect as the 
moon at full on the fourteenth night ; and-he addressed me saying, 
" O Shaykh Mohammed, thou hast bought me with ten faddahs, 
being all thou hadst and art debating how we shall feed, I and 
thou." Quoth I, " What art thou ? " and quoth he, " Query me no 
questions, concerning whatso thou shalt see, for good luck hath 
come to thee." Then he gave me an Ashrafi 1 and said, " Take 
this piece of gold and fare thee forth to the Bazar and get us 
somewhat to eat and drink." I took it from him and repairing to 
the market purchased whatso food our case required ; then returning 
to the cell set the victual before him and seated myself by his side. 
So we ate our sufficiency and passed that night, I and he, in the 
cell, and, when Allah caused the morn to dawn, he said to me, " O 
man, this room is not suitable to us : hie thee and hire a larger 
lodging." I replied, t To hear is to obey ;" and, rising without 
stay or delay, went and took a room more roomy in the upper part 
of the Wakalah. 2 Thither we removed, I and the youth, and 
presently he gave me ten dinars more and said, " Go to the Bazar 
and buy thee furniture as much as is wanted/' Accordingly, I 
went forth and bought what he ordered and on my return I found 
before him a bundle containing a suit of clothes suitable for the 
Kings. These he gave to me desiring that I hie me to the 
Hammam and don them after bathing, so I did his bidding and 
washed and dressed myself and found in each pocket of the many 
pockets an hundred gold pieces ; and presently when I had donned 

1 The Portuguese Xerafim : Supplemental Nights, vol. iii. 294. 
8 A Khan or caravanserai : see vol. i. 266 and Pilgrimage i. 60. 



History of Mohammed, Sultan of Cairo. 39 

the dress I said to myself, " Am I dreaming or wide awake ? " l 
Then I returned to the youth in the room and when he saw me he 
rose to his feet and commended my figure and seated me beside 
him. Presently he brought up a bigger bundle and bade me take 
it and repair to the Sultan of the City and at the same time ask 
his daughter in marriage for myself. And Shahrazad was sur- 
prised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her 
permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is 
thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " 
Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I would relate 
to you on the coming night, an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " 
Now when it was the next night and that was 

fie tZT&ree f^unfcre& anfc Jfortg-fourtf) j3ij$t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sultan of 
Cairo continued : 2 So I took it and repaired with it to the King 
of that city, and a slave whom the youth had bought bore the 
bundle. Now when I approached the Palace I found thereabout 
the Chamberlains and Eunuchs and Lords of the Land : so I drew 
near them and when they saw me in that suit they approved my 
appearance and questioned me saying, " What be thy business 
and what dost thou require ? " I replied, " My wish is to have 



1 Arab. " Hilm " (vision) "au 'Ilm " (knowledge) a phrase peculiar to this MS. 

8 The careless scribe forgets that the Sultan is speaking and here drops into the third 
person. This "Enallage of persons" is, however, Koranic and therefore classical: 
Arab critics aver that in such cases the " Hikayah " ( = literal reproduction of a discourse 
etc.) passes into an " Ikhbar" (= mere account of the same discourse). See Al-Mas'udi 
iii. 216. I dare not reproduce this figure in English. 



4<D Supplemental Nights 

audience of the King," and they rejoined, " Wait a little while till 
we obtain for thee his permission." Then one of the ushers went 
in and reported the matter to the Sultan who gave orders to 
admit me ; so the man came out and led me within and on entering 
the presence I salamed to the Sovran and wished him welfare and 
presently set before him the bundle, saying, " O King of the Age, 
this be in the way of a gift which besitteth my station not thine 
estate." The Sultan bade the package be spread out, and he 
looked into it and saw a suit of royal apparel whose like he never 
had owned. So he was astonished at the sight and said in his 
mind, " By Allah, I possess naught like this, nor was I ever master 
of so magnificent a garment ;" presently adding, " It shall be 
accepted, O Shaykh, but needs must thou have some want or 
requisition from me." I replied, " O King of the Age, my wish is 
to become thy connection through that lady concealed and pearl 
unrevealed, thy daughter." When the Sultan heard these words, 
he turned to his Wazir and said, " Counsel me as to what I should 
do in the matter of this man ? " Said he, " O King of the Age, 
show him thy most precious stone and say him : An thou have a 
jewel evening this one it shall be my daughter's marriage-dowry." 
The King did as he was advised, whereat I was wild with wonder- 
ment and asked him, " An I bring thee such a gem wilt thou give 
me the Princess ? " He answered, " Yea, verily ! " and I took my 
leave bearing with me the jewel to the young man who was await- 
ing me in the room. 1 He enquired of me, " Hast thou proposed 

* 

for the Princess ? " and I replied, " Yes : I have spoken with the 
Sultan concerning her, when he brought out this stone, saying to 
me : An thou have a jewel evening this one, it shall be my 
daughter's marriage-dowry; nor hath the Sultan power to false 
his word/' The youth rejoined, " This day I can do naught, but 



1 Arab. "Auzah," the Pers. Otak and the Turk. Otah (vulg. "Oda" whence 
** Odalisque "), a popular word in Egypt and Syria. 



History of M oka mmed\ Sultan of Cairo. 41 

to-morrow (Inshallah f) I will bring thee ten jewels like it and 
these thou shalt carry and present to the Sovran.' 1 Accordingly 
when the mornfng dawned he arose and fared forth and aftervan 
hour or so he returned with ten gems which he gave me. I took 
them and repaired with them to the Sultan and, entering the 
presence, I presented to him all the ten. When he looked upon 
the precious stones he wondered at their brilliant water and turning 
to the Wazir again asked him how he should act in this matter. 
Replied the Minister, " O King of the Age, thou requiredst of him 
but one jewel and he "hath brought thee ten ; 'tis therefore only 

right and fair to give him thy daughter." And Shahrazad per- 

ceived the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying her 
permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet 
and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delect- 
able!" Quoth she, "And where is this compared with that I 
would relate to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me 
to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 

^f)e &rce ^unteg* anfc jFortg=fift& NffiSt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night!" She replied: With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Minister 
said to the Monarch, " Give him thy daughter.'* Accordingly the 
Sultan summoned the Kazis and the Efendis 1 who wrote out the 
marriage-contract between me and the Princess. Then I returned 
to the youth who had remained in the room and told him all that 

1 Arab. " Al-Afandiyah " showing the late date or reduction of the tale. The Turkish 
word derives from the Romaic Afentfe (a^ivrrfs) the corrupted O.G. avOevrrj? = an 
absolute commander, an "authentic." The word should not be written as usual 
"' Efiendi," but " Eiendi," as Prof. Galland has been careful to do. 



42 Supplemental Nights. 

had occurred when he said, " Twere best to conclude the wedding- 
ceremony and pay the first visit to thy bride at once ; but thou 
shalt on no wise consummate the nuptials until I bid thee go in 
unto her, after somewhat shall have been done by me." " Hearing 
and obeying," replied I ; and, when the night of going in 1 came, 
I visited the Sultan's daughter but sat apart from her by the side 
of the room during the first night and the second and the third ; 
nor did I approach her although every day her mother came and 
asked her the usual question 2 and she answered, " He hath never 
approached me." So she grieved with sore grief for that 'tis the 
wont of womankind, when a maid is married and her groom goeth 
not in unto her, to deem that haply folk will attribute it to some 
matter which is not wholly right. After the third night the 
mother reported the case to her father who cried, "This night 
except he abate her pucelage I will slay him ! " The tidings 
reached my bride who told all to me, so I repaired to the young 
man and acquainted him therewith. He cried, " When thou shalt 
visit her say : By Allah, I will not enjoy thee unless thou give 
me the amulet-bracelet hanging to thy right shoulder." I replied, 
" To hear is to obey ; " and, when I went in to her at nightfall, I 
asked her, " Dost thou really desire me to futter thee ? " She 
answered, " I do indeed ; " so I rejoined, " Then give me the 
amulet-bracelet hanging over thy right shoulder. She arose 
forthright and unbound it and gave it to me, whereupon I bled 
her of the hymeneal blood 3 and going to the young man gave him 
the jewel. Then I returned to my bride and slept by her side till 
the morning when I awoke and found myself lying outstretched 

1 Arab. "Al-dakhlah" j repeatedly referred to in The Nights. The adventure is a 
replica of that in ' Abu Mohammed hight Lazybones," vol. iv., pp. 171-174. 

2 Usual in the East, not in England, where some mothers are idiots enough not to tell 
their daughters what to expect on the wedding night. Hence too often unpleasant 
surprises, disgust and dislike. The most modern form is that of the chloroform' d 
bride upon whose pillow the bridegroom found a paper pinned and containing the words, 
" Mamma says you're to do what you like." 

3 Arab. " Akhaztu dam wajhhi-haV' 



History of Mohammed, Sultan of Cairo. 43 

in my own caravanserai-cell. I was wonderstruck and asked 
myself, " Am I on wake or in a dream ? " and I saw my whilome 
garments, the patched gabardine 1 and tattered shirt along with 
my little drum ; 2 but the fine suit given to me by the youth was 
not on my body nor did I espy any sign of it anywhere. So with 
fire burning in my heart after what had befallen me, I wandered 
about crowded sites and lone spots and in my distraction I knew 
not what to do, whither to go or whence to come ; when lo and 
behold ! I found sitting in an unfrequented part of the street a 
Maghrabi, 3 a Barbary man, who had before him some written 
leaves and was casting omens for sundry bystanders. Seeing this 
state of things, I came forward and drew near him and made him a 
salam which he returned ; then, after considering my features 
straitly, he exclaimed, " O Shaykh, hath that Accursed done it 
and torn thee from thy bride ? " " Yes," I replied. Hereupon he 
said to me, " Wait a little while," and seated me beside him ; then, 
as soon as the crowd dispersed he said, " O Shaykh, the baboon 
which thou boughtest for ten silver bits and which was presently 
transformed into a young man of Adam's sons, is not a human of 
the sons of Adam but a Jinni who is enamoured of the Princess 
thou didst wed. However, he could not approach her by reason 
of the charmed bracelet hanging from her right shoulder, wjiere- 
fore he served thee this sleight and won it and now he still weareth 
it. But I will soon work his destruction to the end that Jinnkind 
and mankind may be at rest from his mischief; for he is one of 

1 Arab. "Dilk" more commonly "Khirkah," the tattered and pieced robe of a 
religious mendicant. 

2 Arab. " Darbsilah." Scott (p. 24) must have read "GharbaMah" when he trans- 
lated "A turban full of holes as a sieve." In classical Arabic the word is written 
" Darbalah," and seems to correspond with the Egyptian " Dardbukkah," a tabor of 
wood or earthenware figured by Lane (M.E. chapt. xviii.). It is, like the bowl, part of 
the regular Darwaysh's begging gear. 

3 Vulg. Maghribi. For this word see the story of Alaeddin, Supplem., vol.iii. 51. 
According to Heron, " History of Maugraby," the people of Provence, Languedoc and 
Gascony use Maugraby as a term of cursing : MaugrebUu being nsed in other parts of 
France. 



44 Supplemental Nights. 

the rebellious and misbegotten imps who break the law of our lord 
Solomon (upon whom be the Peace !). Presently the Maghrabi 

took a leaf and wrote upon it as it were a book. And Shah- 

razad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased 
to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, 
" How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and 
delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that 
I would relate to you on the coming night, an the Sovran suffer 
me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 

anto 

DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night!" She replied: With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the 
Maghrabi wrote a writ and signed his name within and sealed it ; 
after which he handed it to me saying, " O Shaykh, take this missive 
and hie thee herewith to a certain spot where thou must wait and 
observe those who pass by. Hearten thy heart and when thou 
shalt see approaching thee a man attended by a numerous train, 
present to him this scroll for 'tis he who will win for thee thy wish," 
I took the note from the Barbary man and fared forth to the 
place which he had described and ceased not faring till I reached 
it after travelling all that night and half the next day ; then I sat 
down until darkness set in to await whatso might befal me. When 
a fourth part of the night had passed, a dazzling glare of lights 
suddenly appeared from afar advancing towards me ; and as it 
shone nearer, I made out men bearing flambeaux 1 and lanthorns, 

1 In text "Fandrat"; the Arab. plur. of the Pers. " Fan ar "= a light -house, and 
here equiv. to the Mod. Gr. <avop, a lantern, the Egypt. "Fanus." 



History of Mohammed \ Sultan of Cairo. 45 

also a train of attendants befitting the Kings. They looked on 
and considered me whilst my heart fluttered with fear, and I was 
in sore affright. But the procession defiled and drew off from before 
me, marching two after two, and presently appeared the chief 
cortege wherein was a Sultan 1 of the Jann. As he neared 
me I heartened my heart and advanced and presented to him the 
letter which he, having halted, opened and read aloud ; and it 

was : " Be it known to thee, O Sultan of the Jann, that the 

bearer of this our epistle hath a need which thou must grant him 
by destroying his foe ; and if opposition be offered by any we will 
do the opponent die. An thou fail to relieve him thou wilt know 
to seek from me relief for thyself." When the King of the Jann 
had read the writ and had mastered its meaning and its mysteries, 
he forthwith called out to one of his Serjeants 2 who at once came 
forward and bade him bring into his presence without delay such- 
and-such a Jinni who by his spells had wrought round the daughter 
of the Cairene Sultan. The messenger replied, " Hearing and 
obeying," and departed from him and disappearing was absent 
an hour or thereabouts ; after which he and others returned with 
the Jinni and set him standing before the King who exclaimed, 
" Wherefore, O Accurst, hast thou wrought ill to this man and 
done on this wise and on that wise ? " He replied, " O my lord, 
all came of my fondness for the Princess who wore a charm in her 
armlet which hindered my approaching her and therefore I made 
use of this man to effect my purpose. I became master of the 
talisman and won my wish but I love the maiden and never will 



1 This Sultan of the Jann preceded by sweepers, flag-bearers and tent-pitchers always 
appears in the form of second-sight called by Egyptians " Darb al-Mandal" = striking 
the magic circle in which the enchanter sits when he conjures up spirits. Lane (M.E. 
chapt. xii.) first made the "Cairo Magician" famous in Europe, but Herklots and 
others had described a cognate practice in India many years before him. 

2 Arab. "Jawush" for Chawush (vulg. Chiaush) Turk. = an army-serjeant, a herald 
or serjeant-at-arms ; an apparitor or officer of the Court of Chancery (not a " Mace- 
bearer or Messenger," Scott). See vol. vii. 327. 



46 Supplemental Nights. 

I harm her." Now when the Sultan heard these words he said, 
" Thy case can be after one of two fashions only. Either return 
the armlet that the man may be reunited with his wife and she 
with her husband as whilome they were ; or contrary me and I 
will command the headsman strike thy neck." Now when the 
Jinni heard this speech (and 'twas he who had assumed the 
semblance of a dog-faced baboon), he refused and was rebellious 
to the King and cried, " I will not return the armlet nor will I 
release the damsel, for none can possess her save myself." And 
having spoken in this way he attempted to flee. - And Shah- 
razad perceived the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying 
her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How 
sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and 
delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that 
I would relate to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer 
me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 



f^unfcrrt anfc jfortu-scbcntf) Jttg&t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale, that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, 
the director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the ftjarid 
would fain have fled from before the King of the Jann, but the 
Sovran bade other Marids and more forceful arrest him ; so they 
seized him and pinioned him and bound him in chains and collar 
and dragged him behind the King of the Jann till the latter had 
reached his place and had summoned him and had taken from 
him the armlet. Then the Sultan gave order for him to be slain 
and they slew him. When this was done, I prayed for the charm- 
armlet and I recovered it after the Marid's death ; they also 



History of Mohammed, Sultan of Cairo. 47 

restored to me my fine suit. So I proceeded to the city which 
I entered, and as soon as the guards and courtiers saw me, they 
cried out for joy and said, " This is the son-in-law of the Sultan 
who was lost ! " Hereat all the lieges hurried up to me and 
received me with high respect and greeted me. But after entering 
the Palace I proceeded forthright till I reached the apartment 
set apart by them for myself and my spouse whom I found in a 
deep sleep and stupefied, as it were ; a condition in which she 
had lain ever since I took from her the talismanic armlet. So 
I replaced the jewel upon her right shoulder and she awoke 
and arose and ordered herself ; whereat her father and family 
and the Lords of the Land and all the folk joyed with exceeding 
joy. After this we lived together in all happiness till the death 
of her sire who, having no son, named me his successor so that 
I became what I am. Now when the Darwaysh-Sultan heard 
all this he was astounded at what happeneth in this world of 
marvels and miracles ; upon which I said to him, " O my brother, 
wonder not ; for whatso is predetermined shall perforce be carried 
out. But thou needs must become my Wazir ; because thou art 
experienced in rule and governance and, since what time my sire- 
in-law the Sultan died, I have been perplexed in my plight being 
unable to find me a Minister who can administer the monarchy. 
So do thou become my Chief Counsellor in the realm." There- 
upon the Darwaysh replied, " Hearkening and obedience." The 
Sultan then robed him in a sumptuous robe of honour and com- 
mitted to him his seal-ring and all other matters pertinent to 
his office, at the same time setting apart for him a palace, spacious 
of corners, which he furnished with splendid furniture and wadded 
carpets and vaiselle and other such matters. So the Wazir took 
his seat of office and held a Divan or Council of State forth- 
right and commanded and countermanded, and bade and forbade 
according as he saw just and equitable ; and his fame for equity 
and justice was dispread abroad ; insomuch that whoever had 



48 Supplemental Nights. 

a cause or request or other business he would come to the Wazir 
for ordering whatso he deemed advisable. In this condition he 
continued for many years till, on a day of the days, the Sultan's 
mind was depressed. Upon this he sent after the Minister who 
attended at his bidding, when he said, "O Wazir, my heart is 
heavy!" "Enter then," replied the Minister, " O King, into 
thy treasury of jewels and rubies and turn them over in thy 
hands and thy breast will be broadened." The Sultan did accord- 
ingly but it took no effect upon his ennui ; so he said, " O Wazir, 
I cannot win free of this melancholic humour and nothing 
pleasureth me in my palace ; so let us fare forth, I and thou, 
in disguise." " Hearing is obeying/' quoth the Minister. The 
twain then retired into a private chamber to shift their garb and 
habited themselves as Darwayshes, the Darwayshes of Ajam-land, 
and went forth and passed through the city right and left till 
they reached a Mdristdn, a hospital for lunatics. 1 Here they 
found two young men, one reading the Koran 2 and the other 
hearkening to him, both being in chains like men Jinn-mad; and 
the Sultan said in his mind, " By Allah, this is a marvel-case," 
and bespake the men asking, " Are ye really insane ? " They 
answered saying, " No, by Allah ; we are not daft but so admirable 
are our adventures that were they graven with needle-gravers 
upon the eye-corners they had been warners to whoso would be 
warned." "What are they?" quoth the King, and quoth they, 
" Each of us, by Allah, hath his own story ; " and presently he 
who had been reading exclaimed, " O King of the Age, hear 

my tale." And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day 

and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth 
her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, 



1 Arab, from Persian " Bfmaiistan," a "sick-house," hospital, a mad-house: 
vol. i. 288. 
* The text says only that " he was reading : " sub. the Holy Volume. 



Story of t/te First Lunatic. 49 

and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where 
is this compared with that I would relate to you on the coming 
night, an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was 
the next night, and that was 



an 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, 
the director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the youth 
began relating to the Sultan 



THE STORY OF THE FIRST LUNATIC.' 

I was a merchant and kept a shop wherein were Hindi goods of 
all kinds and colours, highmost priced articles ; and I sold and 
bought with much profit. I continued in this condition a while 
of time till one day of the days as I, according to my custom, was 
sitting in my shop an old woman came up and gave me the good 
morning and greeted me with the salam. I returned her salute 
when she seated her upon the shopboard and asked me saying, 
" O master, hast thou any pieces of choice Indian stuffs ? " I 



1 MS. vol. iii., pp. 142-168. Scott, " Story of the First Lunatic," pp. 31-44. 
Gauttier, Histoire du Premier Fou, vol. vi. 187. It is identical with No. ii. of Chavis and 
Cazotte, translated by C. de Perceval, Le Bimaristan (i.e. the Hospital), ou Histoire du 
jeune Marchand de Bagdad et de la Dame tnconnue" (vol. viii. pp. 179-180). Heron 
terms it the " Story of Halechalbe (All Chelebi?) and the Unknown Lady," and the 
narrative is provided with a host of insipid and incorrect details, such as " A gentleman 
enjoying his pipe." The motif of this tale is common in Arab folk-lore, and it first 
appears in the "Tale of Aziz and Azizah," ii. 328. A third variant will occur 
further on. 

VOL. IV. D 



jo Supplemental Nights. 

replied, " O my mistress, I have with me whatso thou wantest ; " 
and she rejoined, " Bring me forth one of them." Accordingly 
I arose and fetched her a Hindi piece of the costliest price and 
placed it in her hands. She took it and examining it was greatly 
pleased by its beauty and presently said to me, " O my lord, for 
how much is this?" Said I "Five hundred dinars;" where- 
upon she pulled forth her purse and counted out to me the five 
hundred gold pieces. Then she took the stuff and went her ways ; 
and I, O our lord the Sultan, had sold to her for five hundred 
sequins a piece of cloth worth at cost price three hundred and 
fifty gold pieces. She came to me again, O my lord, on the next 
day and asked me for another piece ; so I rose up and brought 
her the bundle and she paid me once more five hundred dinars : 
then she took up her bargain and ganged her gait. She did the 
same, O my lord, on the third and the fourth day and so on 
to the fifteenth, taking a piece of stuff from me and paying me 
regularly five hundred golden pieces for each bargain. On the 
sixteenth behold, she entered my shop as was her wont, but she 
found not her purse ; so she said to me, " O Khwajah, 1 I have 
left my purse at home." Said I, " O my lady, an thou return 'tis 
well and if not thou art welcome to it." She sware she would 
not take it and I, on the other hand, sware her to carry it off as a 
token of love and friendship. 2 Thereupon debate fell between us, 
and I, O our lord the Sultan, had made muchel of money by her 
and, had she taken two pieces gratis, I would not have asked 
questions anent them. At last she cried, " O Khwajah, I have 
sworn an oath and thou hast sworn an oath, and we shall never 
agree except thou favour me by accompanying me to my house 

1 Spelt in vol. iii. 143 and elsewhere, " Khwaja for " Khwajah." 
* Arab. " Hubban li-raasik," lit. = out of love for thy head, i.e. from affection for 
thee. Dr. Steingass finds it analogous with the Koranic "Hubban li 'llahi (ii. 160), 
where it is joined with " Ashaddu"= stronger, as regards love to or for Allah, more 
Allah-loving. But it can stand adverbially by itself = out of love for Allah, for Allah'* 
sake* 



Story of the First Lunatic. 51 

so thou mayest receive the value of the stuff, when neither of us 
will have been forsworn : therefore lock up thy shop lest anything 
be lost in thine absence." Accordingly I bolted my door and went 
with her, O our lord the Sultan, and we ceased not walking, 
conversing the while we walked, I and she, until we neared her 
abode when she pulled out a kerchief from her girdle and said, 
" 'Tis my desire to bind this over thine eyes." Quoth I, " For 
what cause?" and quoth she, "For that on our way be sundry 
houses whose doors are open and the women are sitting in the 
vestibules of their homes, so that haply thy glance may alight upon 
some one of them, married or maid, and thy heart become 
engaged in a love-affair and thou abide distraught, because in 
this quarter of the town be many fair faces, wives and virgins, 
who would fascinate even a religious, and therefore we are alarmed 
for thy peace of mind." Upon this I said in myself, " By Allah, 
this old woman is able of advice ; " and I consented to her 
requirement, when she bound the kerchief over my eyes and 
blindfolded me. Then we walked on till we came to the house 
she sought ; and when she rapped with the door-ring a slave-girl 
came out and opening the door let us in. The old body then 
approached me and unbound the kerchief from over my eyes ; 
whereupon I looked around me, holding myself to be a captive, 
and I found me in a mansion having sundry separate apartments 
in the wings and 'twas richly decorated resembling the palaces 

of the Kings. And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and 

fell silent and ceased saying ' her permitted say. Then quoth her 
sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister 
mine, and* enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where 
is this compared with that I would relate to you on the coining 
night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was 
the next night and that was 



52 Supplemental Nights. 

Wb* f)W J^imfcrefc antf Jfortg.nmt?) 

DUNYAZAD said to her " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love and 

good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the director, 
the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and of deeds 

fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the youth pursued : 

By Allah, O our lord the Sultan, of that house I never saw the 
fellow. She then bade me hide within a room and I did her 
bidding in a corner place where beside me I beheld heaped together 
and cast down in that private site all the pieces of stuff which the 
ancient dame had purchased of me. Seeing this I marvelled in 
my mind and lo ! appeared two damsels as they were moons and 
came down from an upper story till they stood on the ground-floor ; 
after which they cut a piece of cloth into twain and each maiden 
took one and tucked up her sleeves. They then sprinkled the 
court of that palace with water of the rose and of the orange- 
flower, 1 wiping the surface with the cloth and rubbing it till it 
became as silver ; after which the two girls retired into an inner 
room and brought out some fifty chairs 2 which they set down, and 
placed over each seat a rug s with cushions of brocade. They then 
carried in a larger chair of gold and placed upon it a carpet with 
cushions of orfrayed work and after a time they withdrew. 
Presently, there descended from the staircase, two following two, a 
host of maidens in number till they evened the chairs and each one 
of them sat down upon her own, and at last suddenly appeared a 
young lady in whose service were ten damsels, and she walked up 

1 Arab. " Zahr," lit. and genetically a blossom; but often used in a specific sense 
throughout The Nights. 

8 Arab, " Kursi " here = a square wooden seat without back and used, for sitting cross- 
legged. See Suppl. vol. i. 10. 

-Arab. " Sujjddah "= lit. a praying carpet, which Lane calls " Seggadeh." 



Story of the First Lunatic. 53 

to and they seated her upon the great chair. When I beheld her, 
O my lord the Sultan, my right senses left me and my wits fled 
me and I was astounded at her loveliness and her stature and her 
symmetric grace as she swayed to and fro in her pride of beauty and 
gladsome spirits amongst those damsels and laughed and sported 
with them. At last she cried aloud, " O mother mine ! J> when the 
ancient dame answered her call and she asked her, " Hast thou 
brought the young man ? " The old woman replied, " Y/ss, he is 
present between thy hands ; " and the fair lady said, " Bring him 
hither to me ! " But when I heard these words I said to myself, 
" There is no Majesty and there is no Might, save in Allah, the 
Glorious, the Great ! Doubtless when this damsel shall have dis- 
covered my being in such hiding place she will bid them do me 
die/' The old woman then came forwards to me and led me before 
the young lady seated on the great chair ; and, when I stood in 
her presence, she smiled in my face and saluted me with the salam 
and welcomed me ; after which she signed for a seat to be brought 
and when her bidding was obeyed set it close beside her own. 
She then commanded me to sit and I seated me by her side. 
- And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell 
silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister 
Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how 
enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this com- 
pared with that I would relate to you on the coming night, an the 
Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night 
and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 



54 Supplemental Nights. 

of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the youth 

pursued : She seated me beside her, O our lord the Sultan, and 

fell to talking and joking with me for an hour or so when she said, 
" O youth, what sayest thou of me and of my beauty and my loveli- 
ness? Would Heaven that I could occupy thy thought and 
please thee so that I might become to thee wife and thou be to me 
man." When I heard these her words I replied, "O my lady, 
how dare I presume* to attain such honour ? Indeed I do not 
deem myself worthy to become a slave between thy hands." 
Hereupon said she, " Nay, O young man, my words have in them 
nor evasion nor alteration ; so be not disheartened or fearful of 
returning me a reply, for that my heart is fulfilled of thy love.*' 
I now understood, O our lord the Sultan, that the damsel was 
desirous of marrying me ; but I could not conceive what was the 
cause thereof or who could have given her intelligence concerning 
me. She continued to enjoy herself in the gladsomest way till at 
length I was emboldened to say to her, " O my lady, an thy words 
to me be after the fashion of thy will, remember the proverb : 
When a kindness is- to be done, this is its time." "By Allah, O 
youth, there cannot be a more fortunate day than this present." 
" O my lady, what shall I apportion to thee for dowry ? " " The 
dowry hath been paid to me in the value of the stuffs which thou 
entrustedst to this ancient dame who is my mother ! " " That 
cannot suffice." " By Allah, naught shall be added ; but, O youth 
'tis my intention forthright to send after the Kazi and his Assessors 
and I will choose me a trustee 1 that they may tie together us 
twain without delay ; and thou shalt come in to me this coming 
evening. But all such things be upon one condition." "And 
what maybe thy condition ?" "This, that thou swear never to 
address or to draw near any woman save myself." And I, O our 



1 Arab. " Wakfl," lit.= agent : here the woman's representative, corresponding roughly 
with the man who gives away the bride amongst ourselves. 



Story of the First Lunatic. 55 

lord the Sultan, being unmarried and eager to possess so beautiful 
a bricle, said to her, " This be thine ; and I will never contrary thee 
by word or by deed." She then sent to summon the Kazi and 
his witnesses and appointed an agent ; upon which they knotted 
the knot. After the marriage ceremony was ended she ordered 
coffee l and sherbets and gave somewhat of dirhams to the Kazi 
and a robe of honour to her trustee ; and this done, all \yent their 
several ways. I was lost in astonishment and said in my mind, 
" Do I dream or am I on wake ? " She then commanded her 
damsels to clear the Hammam-bath and cleanse it and fill it 
afresh and get ready towels and waist-cloths and silken napkins 2 
and scented woods and essences, as virgin ambergris and ottars 
and perfumes of vari-coloured hues and kinds. And when they 
had executed her orders, she ordered the Eunuchry standing in her 
service to take me and bear me* to the Bath, largessing each one 
with a sumptuous dress. They led me into a Hammam which had 
been made private and I saw a place tongue is powerless to portray. 
And as we arrived there they spread vari-coloured carpets upon 
which I sat me down and doffed what clothing was upon me : then 
I entered the hot rooms and smelt delicious scents diffused from 
the sides of the hall, sandal-wood, Comorin lign-aloes and other 
such fragrant substances. Here they came up to me and seated 
me, lathering me with perfumed soaps and shampoo'd me till my 
body became silver-bright ; when they fetched the metal tasses and 
I washed with water luke-warm after which they brought me cold 
water mingled with rose water and I sprinkled it over me. After 
this they supplied me with silken napkins and drying-towels of 
palm-fibre 3 wherewith I rubbed me and then repaired to the cool 



1 The mention of coffee and sherbet, here and in the next page, makes the tafe syn- 
chronous with that of Ma'aruf or the xvii. century. 

8 The MS. writes "Zardakdt ' for " Zardakhdn" : see below. 

3 Scott (p. 36) has " mahazzira (for mahazim), al Zerdukkaut (for al-Zardakhan) " ana 
" munnaskif (for manashif) al fillfillee." Of the former he notes (p. 414) " What this 



^6 Supplemental Nights. 

room outside the calidarium J where I found a royal dress. The 
Eunuchry arrayed me therein and after fumigating me with the 
smoke of lign-aloes served up somewhat of confections 2 and coffee 
and sherbets of sundry sorts ; so I drank after eating the Ma'jun. 
About eventide I left the Baths with all the Eunuchry in attendance 
on me and we walked till we entered the Palace and they led me 
into a closet spread with kingly carpets and cushions. And behold, 
she came up to me attired in a new habit more sumptuous than 

that I had seen her wearing erewhile. And Shahrazad perceived 

the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted 
say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful 
is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth 
she, " And where is this compared with that I would relate to you 
on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now 
when it was the next night and that was 

5* 3T&W f^un&rrtr anfc Jfiftg=first Vfgbt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love 

and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and wojrthy celebrating, that the youth 



composition is I cannot define : it may be translated compound of salffron, yoke of egg or 
of yellowish drugs." He evidently confounds it with the Pers. Zard-i-Khayah = yoke of 
egg. Of the second he says " compound of peppers, red, white and black." Lane 
(The Nights, vol. i. p. 8) is somewhat scandalised at such misrepresentation ; translating 
the first " apron- napkins of thick silk," and the second " drying towels of Lif or palm- 
fibre," further suggesting that the text may have dropped a conjunction = drying towels 
and fibre. 

1 Arab. " Liwdn al-barrnf,"lit. = the outer bench in the " Maslakh " orapodyterium. 

2 Arab. " Ma'jun," pop. applied to an electuary of Bhang (^Cannabis sattva) : it is the 
" Maagoon" sold by the " Maagungee" of Lane (M.E. chap. xv). Here, however, the 
term may be used in the sense of "confections" generally, the sweetmeats eaten by 
way of restoratives in the Bath. 



Story of the First Lunatic. 57 

continued : And I, O our lord the Sultan, went into the closet 

and behold, she met me wearing a habit of the most sumptuous : 
so when I sighted her she seemed to me from the richness of her 
ornaments like an enchanted hoard wherefrom the talisman had 
been newly removed. She sat down beside me and bent lovingly 
over me and I rose up for I could no longer contain my passion 
and wrought that work which was to be worked. 1 Presently she 
again disappeared but soon returned in vestments even richer than 
the last and she did with me as before and I embraced her once 
more. In short, O our lord the Sultan, we ceased not dwelling 
together, I and she, in joyaunce and enjoyment, laughter and 
disport and delicious converse for a space of twenty days. At the 
end of this time I called to mind my lady-mother, and said to the 
dame I had espoused, " O my lady, 'tis long since I have been 
absent from home and 'tis long since my parent hath seen me or 
wotteth aught concerning me : needs must she be pining and 
grieving for my sake. So do thou give me leave to visit her and 
look after my mother and also after my shop." Quoth she, " No 
harm in that : thou mayst visit thy mother daily and busy thyself 
about thy shop-business ; but this ancient dame (my mother) is 
she who must lead thee out and bring thee back." Whereto I 
replied, " 'Tis well." Upon this the old woman came in and tied 
a kerchief over my eyes according to custom and fared forth 
with me till we reached the spot where she had been wont to 
remove the bandage. Here she unbound it saying, "We will 
expect thee to-morrow about noontide and when thou comest 
to this place, thou shalt see me awaiting thee." I left her and 



1 He speaks of taking her maidenhead as if it were porter's work and so defloration 
was regarded by many ancient peoples. The old Nilotes incised the hymen before con- 
gress ; the Phoenicians, according to Saint Athanasius, made a slave of the husband's 
abate it. The American Chibchas and Caribs looked upon virginity as a reproach, 
proving that the maiden had never inspired love. For these and other examples 
see p. 72, chap. iii. "L'Amour dans rHumaniteV* by P. Mantegazta, a civilised and 
unprejudiced traveller. 



5 8 Supplemental Nights. 

repaired to my mother whom I found grieving and weeping at 
my absence ; and upon seeing me she rose up and threw her 
arms round my neck with tears of joy. I said, " Weep not, O my 
mother, for the cause of my absence hath been a certain matter 
which be thus and thus." I then related to her my adventure and 
she on hearing it was rejoiced thereby and exclaimed, " O my son, 
may Allah give thee gladness ; but I pray thee solace me J at least 
every two days with a visit that my longing for thee may be 
satisfied." I replied, "This shall be done;" and thenceforth, O 
our lord the Sultan, I went to my shop and busied myself as was 
my wont till noontide, when I returned to the place appointed 
and found the old woman awaiting me. Nor did I ever fare forth 
from the mansion without her binding my eyes with the kerchief 
which she loosed only when we reached my own house ; and 
whenever I asked her of this she would answer, " On our way be 
sundry houses whose doors are open and the women sitting in the 
vestibules of their homes, so that haply thy glance may alight 
upon some one of them, matron or maid : all sniff up love like 
water, 2 and we fear for thee lest thy heart be netted in the net 
of amours." For thirty days, a whole month, I continued to go 
and come after this fashion but, O our lord the Sultan, at all 
times and tides I was drowned in thought and wondered in my 
mind, saying, "What chance caused me forgather with this 
damsel ? What made me marry her ? Whence this wealth which 
is under her hand ? How came I to win union with her ? " For 
I knew not the cause of all this. Now, on a day of the days, I 
found an opportunity of being private with one of her black slave 
girls 3 and questioned her of all these matters that concerned her 



1 Arab. "Zill," lit. "shadow me." 

2 Arab. " Istinshdk," one of the items of the "Wuzii" or lesser -ablution: see 
vol. v. 198. 

8 In Chavis her name is "Zaliza" and she had conceived an unhappy passion " 
for her master, to whom she "declared her sentiments without reserve." 



Story of the First Lunatic. 59 

mistress. She replied, " O my lord, the history of my lady is 
marvellous ; but I dare not relate it to thee in fear lest she hear 
thereof and do me die." So I said to her, "By Allah, O hand- 
maid of good, an thou wilt say me sooth I will veil it darkly for in 
the keeping of secrets there is none like myself : nor will I reveal it 
at any time." Then I took oath of secrecy when she said, " O 
my lord," - And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day 
and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth 
her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and 
how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this 
compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night, an 
the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next 
night and that was 



an& $ tftg^cottti Kfgftt, 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : -- With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the youth 
continued : - Then the handmaiden said to me, " O my lord, my 
lady went forth one day of the days to the Hammam with the 
object of pleasuring and of diverting herself, for which purpose she 
made goodly preparation including gifts and presents, 1 matters 
worth a mint of money. 2 After leaving the baths she set out 
upon an excursion to eat the noon-day meal in a flower garden 
where she enjoyed herself with exceeding joy and enjoyment, 
eating and drinking till the evening ; and when she designed to 



1 Arab. " Armaghanat," the Arab. plur. of " Armaghan," Pers.=a present. 
8 In the text, "jumlatun min.al-mal," which Scott apparently reads " Hamlat al< 
jamal" and translates (p. 38) " a camel's load of treasure." 



60 Supplemental Nights. 

depart she collected the fragments of the feast and distributed 
them amongst the mean and the mesquin. On her return she 
passed through the Bazar-street wherein standeth thy shop, and 
it was a Friday when thou wast sitting, adorned with thy finest 
dress, in converse with the nearest neighbour. And suddenly as 
she fared by, she beheld thee in such state and her heart was 
stricken with sore stroke of love albeit none of us observed her 
condition and what affection she had conceived for thee. How- 
ever, no sooner had she reached her palace than her melancholy 
began to grow upon her with groans and her cark and care, and 
her colour left her : she ate and drank little and less and her sleep 
forsook her and her frame was sorely enfeebled till at last she took 
to her bed. Upon this her mother went to summon a learned 
man 1 or a mediciner that he might consider the condition of her 
daughter and what sickness had gotten about her : she was absent 
for an hour and returned with an ancient dame who took seat 
beside her and putting forth her hand felt the patient's pulse. 
But she could perceive in her no bodily ailment or pain, upon 
which the old woman understood her case, but she durst not 
bespeak her of it or mention to her mother that the girl's heart 
was distraught by love. So she said, There is no harm to thee ! 
and (Inshallah !) to-morrow I will return hither to thee and bring 
with me a certain medicine. She then went forth from us and 
leading the mother to a place apart, said to her, O my lady, Allah 
upon thee, pardon me for whatso I shall mention and be thou con- 
vinced that my words are true and keep them secret nor divulge 
them to any. The other replied, Say on and fear not for aught 
which hath become manifest to thee of my daughter's unweal : 
haply Allah will vouchsafe welfare. She rejoined, Verily, thy 
daughter hath no bodily disorder or malady of the disease kind 



1 The learned man was to exorcise some possible "evil spirit" or "the eye," & 
superstition which seems to have begun, like all others, with the ancient Egyptians. 



Story of the First Lunatic. 6 1 

but she is in love and there can be no cure for her save union with 
her beloved. "Quoth the mother, And how about the coming of 
her sweetheart ? This is a matter which may not be managed 
except thou show us some contrivance whereby to bring this youth 
hither and marry him to her. But contrivance is with Allah. 
Then the old lady went her ways forthright and the girl's mother 
sought her daughter and said to her after kindly fashion, O my 
child, as for thee thy disorder is a secret and not a bodily disease. 
Tell me of him thou requirest and fear naught from me ; belike 
Allah will open to us the gate of contrivance whereby thou shalt 
win to thy wish. Now when the maiden heard these words she 
was abashed before her parent and kept silence, being ashamed to 
speak ; nor would she return any reply for the space of twenty 
days. But during this term her distraction increased and her 
mother ceased not to repeat the same words, time after time, till it 
became manifest to the parent that the daughter was madly in 
love with a young" man ; so at last quoth she, Describe him to me. 
Quoth the other, O mother mine, indeed he is young of years and 
fair of favour ; also he woneth in such a Bazar, methinks on its 
southern side. Therewith the dame arose without stay or delay 
and fared forth to find the young man and 'tis ' thyself, O youth ! 
And when the mother saw thee she took from thee a piece of cloth 
and brought it to her daughter and promised thou shouldst visit 
her. Thenceforwards she ceased not repeating her calls to thee for 
the period thou wottest well until by her cunning she brought thee 
hither ; and that happened which happened and thou didst take the 
daughter to wife. Such is her tale and beware lest thou reveal 
my disclosure." " No, by Allah," replied I. Then the lunatic 

resumed speaking to the Sultan : O my lord, I continued to 

cohabit with her for the space of one month, going daily to see my 
mother and to sell in my shop and I returned to my wife every 
evening blindfolded and guided as usual by my^ mother-in-law. 
Now one day of the days as I was sitting at my business, a damsel 



62 Supplemental Nights. 

came into the Bazar-street And Shahrazad perceived the dawn 

of day and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then 
quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, 
O sister mine, and enjoyable and* delectable ! " Quoth she, " And 
where is this compared with that I would relate to you on the 
coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it 
was the next night and that was 

&e ^Jree ^untotr an* Jftfts-tjCrU Wfijt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah uponthee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love 

and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the youth 

continued : A damsel came into the Bazar-street bearing the 

image of a cock made of precious ore and crusted with pearls and 
rubies and other gems ; and she offered it to the good men 1 of the 
market for sale. So they opened the biddings at five hundred 
dinars and they ceased not contending 2 thereanent till the price 
went up to nine hundred and fifty gold pieces. All this time and 
I looked on nor did I interfere by speaking a syllable or by adding 
to the biddings a single bit of gold. At last, when none would 
offer aught more, the girl came up to me and said, " O my lord, 
all the gentlemen have increased their biddings for the cock ; but 
thou hast neither bidden nor heartened my heart by one kind 
word." Quoth I, " I have no need thereof ; " and quoth she, " By 
Allah, needs must thou bid somewhat more than the others." I 



1 The MS. 1 have said, always writes "Khwajd" instead of "Khwajah" (plur. 
M Khwajdt ") : for this word, the modern Egyptian " Howajah," see vol. vi. 46. Here 
it corresponds with our "goodman." 

8 Arab. " Yatazdwadu " = increasing. 



Story of the First Lunatic. 63 

replied, " Since there is no help for it, I will add fifty dinars which 
will fill up the thousand." She rejoined, " Allah gar thee gain ? " l 
So I fared into my shop to fetch the money, saying in my mind, 
" I will present this curiosity to my Harim : haply /twill pleasure 
her." But when I was about, O my lord the Sultan, to count out 
the thousand ducats, the damsel would not accept aught of me but 
said, " I have a request to make of thee, O youth 1 to wit, that I 
may take one kiss from thy cheek." I asked her, " For what pur- 
pose ? " and she answered. " I want one kiss of thy cheek which 
shall be the price of my cock, for I need of thee naught else." I 
thought to myself, " By Allah, a single kiss of my cheek for the 
value of a thousand sequins were an easy price ; " and I gave my 
consent thereto, O my lord. Then she came up to me and leaned 
over me and bussed my cheek, but after the kiss she bit me with a 
bite which left its mark : 2 then she gave me the cock and went her 
ways in haste. Now when it was noon I made for my wife's house 
and came upon the old woman awaiting me at the customed stead 
and she bound the kerchief over my eyes and after blindfolding 
them fared with me till we reached our home when she unbound 
it. I found my wife sitting in the saloon dressed from head to foot 
in cramoisy 3 and with an ireful face, whereupon I said to myself, 
" O Saviour, 4 save me ! " I then went up to her and took out the 
cock which was covered with pearls and rubies, thinking that her 
evil humour would vanish at the sight of it and said, " O my 
lady, accept this cock for 'tis curious and admirable to look upon ; 
and I bought it to pleasure thee." She put forth her hand and 
taking it from me examined it by turning it rightwards and left- 

1 By which she accepted the offer. 

3 This incident has already occurred in the tale of the Portress (Second Lady of 
Baghdad, vol. i. 179), but here the consequences are not so tragical. In Chavis the 
vulgar cock becomes " a golden Censer ornamented with diamonds, to be sold for two 
thousand sequins ' (each = 9 shill.). 

3 A royal sign of wrath generally denoting torture and death. See vols. iv. 72 ; 
vi. 250. 

4 Arab. " Ya Sallam," addressed to Allah. 



64 Supplemental Nights. 

wards ; then exclaimed, " Didst thou in very sooth buy this on my 
account?" Replied I, "By Allah, O my lady, I bought it for 
thee at a thousand gold pieces/' Hereupon she shook her head at 
me, O my lord the Sultan, and cried out after a long look at my 
face, " What meaneth that bite on thy cheek ? " Then with a loud 
and angry voice she called to her women who came down the stairs 
forthright bearing the body of a young girl with the head cut off 
and set upon the middle of the corpse ; 1 and I looked and behold, 
it was the head of the damsel who had sold me the cock for a kiss 
and who had bitten my cheek. Now my wife had sent her with 
the toy by way of trick, saying to her, " Let us try this youth 
whom I have wedded and see if he hold himself bound by his 
plighted word and pact or if he be false and foul." But of all 
this I knew naught. Then she cried a second cry and behold, up 
came three handmaids bearing with them three cocks like that 
which I had brought for her and she said, " Thou bringest me this 
one cock when I have these three cocks ; but inasmuch as, O 
youth, thou hast broken the covenant that was between me and 
thee, I want thee no more : go forth ! wend thy ways forthright ! " 
And she raged at me and cried to her mother, " Take him away ! " 2 

And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell 

silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister 
Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoy- 
able and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared 
with that I would relate to you on the coming night, an the Sovran 
suffer me to survive ?" Now when it was the next night and that was 



1 Here more is meant than meets the eye. When a Moslem's head was struck off, 
in the days of the Caliphate, it was placed under his armpit, whereas that of a Jew or a 
Christian was set between his legs, close to the seat of dishonour. 

8 In Chavis and Cazotte the lady calls to " Morigen, her first eunuch and says, Cut 
off his head 1 " Then she takes a theorbo and " composed the following couplets " 
of which the first may suffice : 

Since my swain unfaithful proves, 
Let him go to her he loves, etc., etc. 



Story of the First Lunatic. 6$ 



f^untefc antr jptftg.fourtj Ntgfit, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Youth 
continued to the King : - Hereupon the old woman, O my lord, 
hent me by the hand and bound the kerchief over my eyes as was 
her wont and led me to the custpmed place when she loosed the 
oandage saying, " Begone ! " and disappeared. But I, O my lord, 
became like a madman and ran through the streets as one frantic 
crying, "Ah her loveliness! Ah her stature! Ah her perfect 
grace ! Ah her ornaments ! " Hereupon the folk seeing me and 
hearing me say these words shouted out, "Yonder is a lunatic ;" 

! 

so they seized me perforce and jailed me in the madhouse as thou 
hast seen me, O our lord the Sultan. They say, " This man is 
Jinn-mad ;" but, by Allah, I am no maniac, O my lord, and such 
is my tale. Hereat the King marvelled and bowed his brow 
ground wards for a while in deep thought over this affair : then he 
raised hi? h^ad and turning to his Minister said, " O Wazir, by the 
truth of Him. who made me ruler of this realm, except thou 
discover the damsel who married this youth, thy head shall pay 
forfeit." The Wazir was consterned to hear the case of the young- 
man ; but he could not disobey the royal commandment so he 
said, " Allow me three days of delay, O our *ord the Sultan ; 
and to this much of grace the King consented. Then the Wazir 
craved dismissal and would have taken the Youth with him ; whea 
the Sultan cried, " As soon as thou shalt have hit upon the house, 
the young man will go into it and come forth it like other folk," 
He replied, " Hearkening and obedience." So he took, the Youth 
VOL. IV. E 



66 Supplemental Nights* 

and went out with aching head and giddy as a drunken man, 
perplexed and unknowing whither he should wend ; and he 
threaded the city streets from right to left and from east to west, 
tarrying at times that he might privily question the folk. But 
naught discovered itself to him and he made certain of death. 
In this condition he continued for two days and the third till 
noontide, when he devised him a device and said to the Youth, 
" K newest thou the spot where the old woman was wont to blind- 
fold thine eyes ? " He replied, " Yes." So the Minister walked on 
with him till the young man exclaimed, " Here, 'tis this ! J>1 The 
Wazir then said, " O Youth, knowest thou the door-ring wherewith 
she was wont to rap and canst thou distinguish its sound ? " He 
said " I can." Accordingly, the Wazir took him and went the 
round of all the houses in that quarter and rapped with every 
door-ring asking him, " Is't this ?" and he would answer, "No." 
And the twain ceased not to do after such fashion until they came 
to the door where the appointment had taken place without risk 
threatened ; 2 and the Wazir knocked hard at it and the Youth, 
hearing the knock, exclaimed, " O my lord, verily this be the ring 
without question or doubt or uncertainty." So the Minister 
knocked again with the same knocker and the slave-girls threw 
open the door and the Wazir, entering with the youth, found that 
the palace belonged to the daughter of the Sultan who had been 
succeeded by his liege lord. 3 But when the Princess saw the 
Minister together with her spouse, she adorned herself, and came 
down from the Harem and salam'd to him. Thereupon he asked 
her, " What hath been thy business with this young man ? " So 



1 The device has already occurred in " All Baba." 

* Arab. " Al-ma'hud min ghayr wa'd." 

3 In Chavis and Gazette the king is Hartm al-Rashid and the masterful young person 
proves to be Zeraida, the favourite daughter of Ja'afar Bermaki ; whilst the go-between 
b not the young lady's mother but Nemana, an old governess. The over-jealous husband 
in the Second Lady of Baghdad (vol. i. 179) is Al-Amin, son and heir of the Caliph 
Harun al-Rashid. 



Story of the Second Lunatic. 67 

she told him her tale from first to last and he said, " O my lady, 
the King commandeth that he enter and quit the premises as before 
and that he come hither without his eyes being bandaged with the 
kerchief." She obeyed and said, " The commandments of our 
lord the Sultan shall be carried out." Such was the history of 
that youth whom the Sultan heard reading the Koran in the 
Maristcin, the public madhouse : but as regards the second Lunatic 
who sat listening, the Sultan asked him, " And thou, the other, 
what be thy tale ? " So he began to relate the 

STORY OF THE SECOND LUNATIC? 

" O my lord/' quoth the young man, " my case is marvellous, and 
haply thou wilt desire me to relate it in order continuous ; " and 
quoth the Sultan, " Let me hear it." - And Shahrazad perceived 
the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted 
say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful 
is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth 
she, " And where is this compared with that I would relate to you 
Ion the coming night an the Sovran suffer "Sue to survive ? " Now. 
when it was the next night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the second 

1 Vol. iii. pp. 168-179: and Scott's " Story of the Second Lunatic," pp. 45-51. 
The name is absurdly given as the youth was anything but a lunatic ; but this is Arab 
symmetromania. The tale is virtually the same as " Women's Wiles," in- Supplemental 
Nights, vol. u. 137-151. 



68 Supplemental Nights. 

youth said : O my lord the Sultan, I am by calling a merchant 

man and none of the guild was younger, I having just entered my 
sixteenth year. Like my fellows I sold and bought in the Bazar 
every day till, one day of the days, a damsel came up to me and 
drew near and handed to me a paper which I opened ; and behold, 
it was full of verses and odes in praise of myself, and the end of 
the letter contained the woman's name professing to be enamoured 
of me. When I read it I came down from my shopboard, in my 
folly and ignorance, and putting forth my hand seized the girl and 
beat her till she swooned away. 1 After this I let her loose and she 
went her ways and then I fell into a brown study saying to myself, 
" Would Heaven I wot whether the girl be without relations or if 
she have kith and kin to whom she may complain and they will 
come and bastinado me." And, O our lord the Sultan, I repented 
of what I had done whenas repentance availed me naught and 
this lasted me for twenty days., .At the end of that time as I was 
sitting in my shop according to my custom, behold, a young lady 
entered and she was sumptuously clad and sweetly scented and she 
was even as the moon in its fullness on the fourteenth night. When 
I gazed upon her my wits fled and my sane senses and right judg- 
ment forsook me and I was incapable of attending to aught save 
herself. She then came up and said, " O youth, hast thou by thee 
a variety of metal ornaments ? " and said I, " O my lady, of all 
kinds thou canst possibly require." Hereupon she wished to see 
some anklets which I brought out for her, when she put forth her 

feet to me and showing me the calves of her legs said, " O my lord, 



try them on me." This I did. Then she asked for a necklace 2 
and I produced one when she unveiled her bosom and said, " Take 
its measure on me : " so I set it upon her and she said, " I want a 

1 This forward movement on the part of the fair one is held to be very insulting by 
the modest Moslem. This incident Is wanting in " Women's Wiles." 

2 Arab. " Labbah," usually the part of the throat where ornaments are hung or camels 
are stabbed. 



Story of the Second Lunatic. 69 

fine pair of bracelets," and I brought to her a pair when, extending 
her hands and displaying her wrists she said to me, " Put them on 
me." I did so and presently she asked me, " What may be the 
price of all these ? " when I exclaimed, " O my lady, accept them 
from me in free gift ;" and this was of the excess of my love to her, 

King of the Age, and my being wholly absorbed in her. Then 
quoth I to her, " O my lady, whose daughter art thou ? " and quoth 
she, "I am the daughter of the Shaykh al-Islam." 1 I replied, 
" My wish, is to ask thee in marriage of thy father," and she 
rejoined, " Tis well : but, O youth, I would have thee know that 

when thou askest me from my sire he will say : 1 have but one 

daughter and she is a cripple and deformed even as Satfh was. 2 Do 
thou, however make answer that thou art contented to accept her 
and if he offer any remonstrance cry : I'm content, content ! " 

1 then enquired, " \Vhen shall that be ? " and she replied, " To- 
morrow about undurn hour 3 come to our house and thou wilt find 
my sire, the Shaykh al-Islam, sitting with his companions and 
intimates. Then ask me to wife." So we agreed upon this 
counsel and on the next day, O our lord the Sultan, I went with 
several of my comrades and we repaired, I and they, to the house 
of the Shaykh al-Islam, whom I found sitting with sundry Grandees 
about him. We made our salams which they returned and they 
welcomed us and all entered into friendly and familiar conversation. 
When it was time for the noon-meal the tablecloth 4 was spread 
and they invited us to join them, so we dined with them and after 
dinner drank coffee. I then stood up saying, " O my lord, I am 
come hither to sue and solicit thee for the lady concealed and the 



1 The Chief of the Moslem Church. For the origin of the office and its date (A.D. 
1453) see vols. ix. 289, and x. 85. 

2 Arab. " Satihah" =a she-Satih : this seer was a headless and neckless body, with face 
in breast, lacking members and lying prostrate on the ground. His fellow, "Shikk," 
was a half-man, and both foretold the divine mission of Mohammed. (Ibn Khali, i. 487.) 

3 Arab. " Wakt al-Zuha ;" the 'division of time between sunrise and midday. 
In the text " Sufrah"= the cloth: see vol. i. 178, etc. 



70 Supplemental Nights. 

pearl unrevealed, thy daughter." But when the Shaykh al-Islam 
heard from me these words he bowed his head for awhile ground- 
wards - And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and 
fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her 
sister Dunyazad " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how 
enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this 
compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night, 
an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next 
night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ? " She replied : - With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the youth 
resumed : - Now when the Shaykh al-Islam heard from me those 
words he bowed his brow groundwards for a while in deep thought 
concerning the case of his daughter who was a cripple and 
wondrously deformed. For the damsel who had told me of her 
had played me a trick and served me a sleight, I all the time 
knowing nothing about her guile. Presently he raised his head 
and said to me, " By Allah, O my son, I have a daughter but she 
is helpless." Quoth I, " I am content ; " and quoth he, " An thou 
take her to wife after this description, 'tis on express condition 
that she be not removed from my house and thou also shalt pay 
her the first visit and cohabit with her in my home." I replied, 
"To hear is to obey;" being confident, O King of the Age, 
that she was the damsel who had visited my shop and whom 
I had seen with my own eyes. Thereupon the Shaykh al-Islam 
married his daughter to me and I said in my mind, " By Allah, 



Story of the Second Lunatic. 11 

is it possible that I am become master of this damsel and shall 
enjoy to my full her beauty and loveliness ? " But when night 
fell they led me in procession to the chamber of my bride ; 
and when I beheld her I found her hideous as her father had 
described her, a deformed cripple. At that moment all manner 
of cares mounted my back and I was full of fury and groaned 
with grief from the core of my heart; but I could not say a 
word, for that I had accepted her to wife of my own free will 
and had declared myself contented in presence of her sire. So 
I took seat silently in a corner of the room and my bride in 
another, because I could not bring myself to approach her, she 
being unfit for the carnal company of man and my soul could not 
accept cohabitation with her. And at dawntide, O my lord the 
Sultan, I left the house and went to my shop which I opened 
according to custom and sat down with my head dizzy like one 
drunken without wine ; when lo ! there appeared before me the 
young lady who had caused happen to me that mishap. She came 
up and salam'd to me but I arose with sullenness and abused her 
and cried, " Wherefore, O my lady, hast thou put upon me such a 
piece of work ? " She replied, " O miserable," l recollect such a 
day when I brought thee a letter and thou after reading it didst 
come down from thy shop and didst seize me and didst trounce 
me and didst drive me away." I replied, " O my lady, prithee 
pardon me for I am a true penitent ; " and I ceased not to soften 
her with soothing 2 words and promised her all weal if she would 
but forgive me. At last she deigned excuse me and said, " There 
is no harm for thee ; and, as I have netted thee, so will I unmesh 
thee." I replied, " Allah ! Allah ! 3 O my lady, I am under thy 
safeguard;'' and she rejoined, "Hie thee to the Agha of the 



1 Arab. " Ya Tinjir," lit.=O Kettle. 

2 Arab. " Tari," lit. = wet, with its concomitant suggestion, soft and pleasant like 
desert-rain. 

3 Here meaning Haste, haste ! " See vol. i. 46. j 



72 Supplemental Nights. 

Jandkilah, 1 the gypsies, give him fifty piastres and say him : 

We desire thee to furnish us with a father and a mother and cousins 
and kith and kin, and do thou charge them to say of me, " This is 
our cousin and our blood relation." - Then let him send them all 
to the house of the Shaykh al-Islam and repair thither himself 
together with his followers, a party of drummers and a parcel of 
pipers. When they enter his house and the Shaykh shall perceive 
them and exclaim, What's this we've here ? let the Agha reply, O 
my lord, we be kinsmen with thy son-in-law and we are come to 
gladden his marriage with thy daughter and to make merry with 
him. He will exclaim, Is this thy son a gypsey musician ? and do 
thou explain saying, Aye, verily I am a Jankali ; and he will cry 
out to thee, O dog, thou art a gypsey and yet durst thou marry 
the daughter of the Shaykh al-Islam ? Then do thou make 
answer : O my lord, 'twas my ambition to be ennobled by thine 
alliance and I have espoused thy daughter only that the mean 
name of Jankali may pass away from me and that I may be under 
the skirt of thy protection." Hereat, O my lord the Sultan, I arose 
without stay and delay and did as the damsel bade me and agreed 
with the Chiefs of the Gypsies for fifty piastres. 2 On the second 
day about noon lo and behold ! all the Janakilah met before the 
house of the Shaykh al-Islam and they, a-tom-toming and a-piping 

and a-dancing, crowded into the courtyard of the mansion. And 

Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased 
saying her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad " How 
sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and 



1 The chief man (Aghd) of the Gypsies, the Jink of Egypt whom Turkish soldiers call 
Ghiovende, a race of singers and dancers ; in fact professional Nautch-girls. See p, 222, 
" Account of the Gypsies of India," by David MacRitchie (London, K. Paul, 1886), a 
most useful manual. 

a Arab. " Kurush," plur. of " Kirsh " (pron. " Girsh "), the Egyptian piastre = one- 
fifth of a shilling. The word may derive from a i/ Karsh = collecting money ; but it is 
more probably a corruption of Groschen, primarily a great or thick piece of money and 
secondarily a small silver coin = 3 kjeuzers = I penny. 



Story of the Second Lunatic. 73 

delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that 
I would relate to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me 
to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 

6c fie ^un&tefc an* JW^sebtntJ) JSigSt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love 

and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the youth 
continued : So the Janakilah entered the house of the Shaykh al- 
Islam all a-drumming and a-dancing. Presently the family came 
out and asked, " What is to do ? And what be this hubbub ? " 
The fellows answered, " We are gypsey-folk and our son is in 
your house having wedded the daughter of the Shaykh al-Islam." 
Hearing these words the family went up and reported to its head, 
and he, rising from his seat, descended to the court-yard which he 
found full of Jankalis. He enquired of them their need and they 
told him that the youth, their kinsman, having married the daughter 
of the house, they were come to make merry at the bride-feast. 
Quoth the Shaykh, " This indeed be a sore calamity that a gipsey 
should espouse the daughter of the Shaykh al-Islam. By Allah, 
I will divorce her from him." So he sent after me, O our lord 
the Sultan, and asked me saying, " What is thy breed and what 
wilt thou take to be off with thyself? " Said I, " A Jankali ; and 
I married thy daughter with one design namely to sink the mean 
name of a gypsey drummer in the honour of connection and 
relationship with thee." He replied, " 'Tis impossible that my 
daughter can cohabit with thee : so up and divorce her." I re- 
joined " Not so : I will -never repudiate her." Then we fell to 
quarrelling but the folk interposed between us and arranged that I 



74 Supplemental Nights. 

should receive forty purses 1 for putting her away. And when he 
paid me the moneys I gave her the divorce and took the coin and 
went to my shop, rejoicing at having escaped by this contrivance. 
On the next day, behold, came the damsel who had taught me the 
sleight and saluted me and wished me good morning. I returned 
her salam and indeed, O our lord the Sultan, she was a model of 
beauty and loveliness, stature and symmetrical grace and my heart 
was enmeshed in her love for the excess of her charms and the 
limpid flow of her speech and the sweetness of her tongue. So I 
said to her, " And when this promise ? " and said she, " I am the 
daughter of Such-and-such, a cook in such a quarter ; and do thou 
go ask me in marriage of him." So I rose up with all haste and 
went to her father and prayed that he would give her to me. And 
presently I wedded her and went in unto her and found her as the 
full moon of the fourteenth night and was subjugated by her 
seemlihead. Such, then, is the adventure which befel me ; but, O 
my lord the Sultan, the Story of the Sage Such-an-one and his 
Scholar is more wonderful and delectable ; for indeed 'tis of the 
marvels of the age and among the miracles which have been 
seen by man. Thereupon the Sovran bade him speak, and the 
Second Lunatic proceeded to recount the 

STORY OF THE SAGE AND THE SCHOLAR* 

There was in times of yore and in ages long gone before a 
learned man who had retired from the world secluding himself in 
an upper cell of a Cathedral-mosque, and this place he left not 
for many days save upon the most pressing needs. At last a 



1 The purse (" Kis") is -= 500 piastres (kurush) = $; and a thousand purses com- 
pose the Treasury (" Khaznah ") = ;5,ooo. 

2 MS. voL iii. pp. 179-303. It is Scott's " Story of the Retired Sage and his Pupil, 
related to the Sultan by the Second Lunatic," vi. pp. 52-67 ; and Gauttier's Histoire du 
Sage, vi. 199-214." The scene is laid in Cairo. 



Story of the Sage and the Scholar. 75 

beautiful boy whose charms were unrivalled in his time went in to 
him and salam'd to him. The Shaykh returned the salute and 
welcomed him with the fairest welcome and courteously entreated 
him seating him beside himself. Then he asked him of his case 
and whence he came and the boy answered, " O my lord, ques- 
tion me not of aught nor of my worldly matters, for verily I am as 
one who hath fallen from the heavens upon the earth 1 and my sole 
object is the honour of tending thee." The Sage again welcomed 
him and the boy served him assiduously for a length of time 
till he was twelve years old. Now on one day of the days 2 the 
lad heard certain of his fellows saying that the Sultan had a 
daughter endowed with beauty whose charms were unequalled by 
all the Princesses of the age. So he fell in love with her by 
hearsay. - And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day 
and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth 
her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and 
how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this 
compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night, 
an the Sovran suffer me to survive ?" Now when it was the next 
night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With love and 
good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the director, 
the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and of deeds 
fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the lad who served the 



1 Meaning that he was an orphan and had, like the well-known widow, " seen better 
days." 

2 The phrase, I have noted, is not merely pleonastic : it emphasises the assertion that 
it was a chance day 



76 Supplemental Nights. 

Sage fell in love with the Sultan's daughter by hearsay. Presently 
he went in to his master and told him thereof adding, " O my lord, 
verily the King hath a daughter beautiful and lovesome and my 
soul longeth to look upon her an it be only a single look." The 
Shaykh asked him saying, " Wherefore, O my son ? What have 
the like of us to do with the daughters of Sovrans or others ? We 
be an order of eremites and self-contained and we fear the Kings 
for our own safety." And the Sage continued to warn the lad 
against the shifts of Time and to divert him from his intent ; but 
the more words he uttered to warn him and to deter him, the more 
resolved he became to win his wish, so that he abode continually 
groaning and weeping. Now this was a grievous matter to the good 
Shaykh who loved him with an exceeding love passing all bounds ; 
and when he saw him in this condition he exclaimed, " There is 
no Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the 
Great." And his heart was softened and he had ruth upon the 
case of his scholar and pitied his condition, and at last said to 
him, " O my son, dost thou truly long to look but a single look at 
the Sultan's daughter ? " Quoth he, " Yes, O my lord," and quoth 
the other, " Come hither to me." Accordingly he came up to him 
and the Shaykh produced a Kohl-pot and applied the powder to 
one of his scholar's eyes, who behold, forthright became such that 
all who saw him cried out, " This is a half-man." 1 Then the Sage 

1 An old Plinian fable long current throughout the East. It is the Pers. Nim-chihreh, 
and the Arab Shikk and possibly Nasna^ = nisf al-Nas (?) See vol. v. 333. Shikk 
had received from Allah only half the form of a man, and his rival diviner Satfh was a 
shapeless man of flesh without limbs. They lived in the days of a woman named Tarffah, 
daughter of Al-Khayr al-Himyari and wife of Amru bin 'Amir who was famous for having 
intercourse with the Jann. When about to die she sent for the two, on account of their de- 
formity and the influence exercised upon them by the demons ; and, having spat into their 
mouths, bequeathed to them her Jinni, after which she departed life and was buried at Al- 
Johfah. Presently they became noted soothsayers ; Shikk had issue but Satih none ; they 
lived 300 (some say 600) years, and both died shortly before the birth of the Prophet concern- 
ing whom they prophesied. When the Tobba of Al-Yaman dreamed that a dove flew from 
a holy place and settled in the Tihamah (lowland-seaboard) of Meccah, Satih interpreted 
it to signify that a Prophet would arise to destroy idols and to teach the best of faiths. 
The two also predicted (according to Tabari) to Al-Rabi'ah, son of Nasr, a Jewish king 



Story of the Sage and the Scholar. 77 

bade him go about the city and the youth obeyed his commands 
and fared forth ; but vvhenas the folk espied him they cried out, 
" A miracle ! a miracle ! this be a Half-man ! " And the more the 
youth walked about the streets the more the folk followed him and 
gazed upon him for diversion and marvelled at the spectacle; and 
as often as the great men of the city heard of him they sent to 
summon him and solaced themselves with the sight and said, " Laud 
to the Lord ! Allah createth whatso He wisheth and commandeth 
whatso He willeth as we see in the fashioning of this half-man ." 
The youth also looked freely upon the Harims of the Grandees, he 
being fairer than any of them ; and this case continued till the 
report reached the Sultan who bade him be brought into the pre- 
sence, and on seeing him marvelled at the works of the Almighty. 
Presently the whole court gathered together to gaze at him in 
wonderment and the tidings soon reached the Queen who sent an 
Eunuch to fetch him and introduce him into the Serraglio. The 
women all admired the prodigy and the Princess looked at him and 
he looked at her ; so his fascination increased upon him and he said 
in his secret soul, " An I wed her not I will slay myself ! " After 
this the youth was dismissed by the Sultan's Harim and he, whose 
heart burned with love for the King's daughter, returned home. 
The Shaykh asked him, " Hast thou, O my son, seen the Princess ? " 
and he answered, " I have, O my master ; but this one look sufficeth 
me not, nor can I rest until I sit by her side and fill myself with 
gazing upon her." Quoth he, " O my child, we be an ascetic folk 
that shun the world nor have we aught to do with enmeshing our- 
selves in the affairs of the Sultan, and we fear for thee, O my son," 
But the youth replied, " O my lord, except I sit by her side and 
stroke her neck and shoulders with these my hands, I will slay 



of Al-Yaman, that the Habash (Abyssinians) should conquer the country, govern it, and 
be expelled, and after this a Prophet should arise amongst the Arabs and bring a new 
religion which all should embrace and which should endure until Doomsday. Compare 
this with the divining damsel in Acts xvi. 16-18. 



78 Supplemental Nights. 

myself." Hereupon the Sage said in his mind, " I will do whatso I 
can for this good youth and perchance Allah may enable him to 
win his wish." He then arose and brought out the Kohl-pot and 
applied the powder to his scholar's either eye ; and, when it had 
settled therein, it made him invisible to the ken of man. Then 
he said, " Go forth, O my son, and indulge thy desire ; but return 
again soon and be not absent too long." Accordingly the youth 
hastened to the Palace and entering it looked right and left, none 
seeing him the while, and proceeded to the Harem where he seated 
himself beside the daughter of the Sultan. Still none perceived 
him until, after a time, he put forth his hand and softly stroked 
her neck. But as soon as the Princess felt the youth's touch, she 
shrieked a loud shriek heard by all ears in the Palace and cried 
" I seek refuge with Allah from Satan the stoned ! " At this pro- 
ceeding on the girl's part all asked her saying, " What is to do 
with thee ?" Whereto she answered, " Verily some Satan hath this 
instant touched me on the neck." Upon this her mother was 
alarmed for her and sent for her nurse 1 and when informed of what 
had befallen the girl the old woman said, "If there be aught 
of Satans here naught is so sovereign a specific to drive them 
away and keep them off as the smoke of camel's dung." 2 Then 
she arose and brought thereof a quantity which was thrown into 
the fire and presently it scented and pervaded the whole apartment. 
All this and the Youth still sat there without being seen. But 
when the dung-smoke thickened, his e'yes brimmed and he could 
not but shed tears, and the more smoke there was the more his 



1 Arab. " Kahramanah ; " the word has before been explained as a nurse, a duenna, 
an Amazon guarding the Harem. According to C. de Perceval (pere) it \vas also the 
title given by the Abbasides to the Governess of the Serraglio. 

2 So in the Apocrypha ( " Tobias " vi. 8). Tobit is taught by the Archangel Raphael 
to drive away evil spirits (or devils) by the smoke of a bit of fish's heart. The practice 
may date from the earliest days when "Evil Spirits" were created by man. In India, 
when Europeans deride the existence of Jinns and Rakshasas, and declare that they 
never saw one, the people receive this information with a smile which means only, " I 
should think not t you and yours are worse than any of our devils." 



Story of the Sage and the Scholar. 79 

eyes watered and big drops flowed till at last all the Kohl was 
washed off and trickled down with the tears. So he became 
visible a-middlemost the royal Harem ; and, when the dames 
descried him, all shrieked one shriek, each at other, upon which 
the Eunuchry rushed in ; then, finding the young man still seated 
there, they laid hands upon him and haled him before the Sultan 
to whom they reported his crime and how he had been caught 
lurking in the King's Serraglio a-sitting beside the Princess. 
Hearing this, the Sovran bade summon the Headsman and com- 
mitted to him the criminal bidding him take the youth and robe 
him in a black habit bepatched with flame-colour ; l then, to set 
him upon a camel and, after parading him through Cairo city and 
all the streets, to put him to death. Accordingly the executioner 

took the Youth. And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and 

fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her 
sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister 
mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is 
this compared with that I would relate to you on the coming 
night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was 
the next night and that was 

atrtr 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night 1 " She replied : With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Linkman 
took the youth and fared forth with him from the palace : then he 
looked at him and found him fair of form and favour, a sans peer 

1 An Inquisitorial costume called in the text " Shmiydt bi al-Nar." 



80 Supplemental Nights. 

in loveliness, and he observed that he showed no fear nor shrinking 
from death. So he had pity upon him and his heart yearned to 
him and he said in his mind, " By Allah, attached to this young 
man is a rare history." Then he brought a leathern gown which 
he put upon him, and the flamey black habit which he passed over 
his arms : and setting him upon a camel as the Sultan had com- 
manded, at last carried him in procession crying out the while, 
" This is the award and the least award of him who violateth the 
Harem of the King ;" and he threaded the streets till they came 
to the square before the great Mosque wherein was the Shaykh, 
Now as all the folk were enjoying the spectacle, the Sage looked 
out from the window of his cell and beheld the condition of his 
scholar. He was moved to ruth and reciting a spell he summoned 
the Jann and bade them snatch the young man off the camel's back 
with all care and kindness and bring him to his cell ; and he also 
commanded an 'Aun of the 'Auns l to seize some oldster and set 
him upon the beast in lieu of the Youth. They did as he bid them 
for that he had taken fealty of the Jdnn and because of his pro- 
found studies in the Notaricon 2 and every branch of the art magi- 
cal. And when all the crowd saw the youth suddenly transformed 
into a grey-beard they were awe-stricken and cried, " Alhamdolilah 
laud to the Lord the young man hath become an old man ! " 
They then looked again and behold, they saw a person well-known 
amongst the lieges, one who had long been wont to sell greens and 
colocasia at the hostelry gate near the Cathedral-mosque. Now 
the headsman noting this case was confounded with sore affright ; 
so he returned to the palace with the oldster seated on the camel 
and went in to the Sultan followed by all the city-folk who were 

1 A tribe of the Jinn sometimes made synonymous with " Ma"rid" and at other times 
contrasted with these rebels, as in the Story of Ma'aruf and J. Scott's " History of the 
Sultan of Hind" (vol. vi. 195). For another note see The Nights, iv. 88. 

2 Arab. " 'Ilm al-Huruf," not to be confounded with " the 'Ilm al-Jumal," or " Hisab 
Al-Jumal," a notation by numerical values of the alphabet. See Lumsden's Grammar 
of the Persian Language, i. 37. 



Story of the Sage and the Scholar. 8 1 

gazing at the spectacle. Then he stood before the King and the 
eunuchry and did homage and prayed for the Sovran and said, 
" O our lord the Sultan, verily the Youth hath vanished, and in 
lieu of him is this Shaykh well known to the whole city." Hear- 
ing these words the King was startled ; sore fear entered his heart 
and he said to himself, " Whoso hath been able to do this deed can 
do e'en more: he can depose me from my kingship or he can 
devise my death." So his affright increased and he was at a loss 
how to contrive for such case. Presently he summoned his Minis- 
ter and when he came into the presence said to him, " O Wazir, 
advise me how to act in the affair of this Youth and what measures 
should be taken." The Minister bowed his brow groundwards in 
thought for a while, then raising it he addressed the Sultan and 
said, " O King of the Age, this be a thing beyond experience, and 
the doer must be master of a might we comprehend not and 
haply he may work thee in the future some injury and we fear 
from him for thy daughter. Wherefore the right way is that 
thou issue a royal autograph and bid the Crier go round about the 
city and cry saying : Let him who hath wrought this work appear 
before the King under promise of safety and again safety safety 
on the word of a Sultan which shall never be falsed. Should the 
Youth then surrender himself, O King of the Age, marry him to 
thy daughter when perhaps his mind may be reconciled to thee by 
love of her. He hath already cast eyes upon her and he hath seen 
the inmates of thy Harem unrobed, so that naught can save their 
honour but his being united with the Princess." Hereupon the 
Sultan indited an autographic rescript and placed it in the Crier's 
hands even as the Wazir had counselled : and the man went about 
the streets proclaiming, " By Command of the just King ! whoso 
hath done this deed let him discover, himself and come to the 
Palace under promise of safety and again safety, the safety of 
sovereigns safety on the word of a Sultan which shall never be 
falsed. 1 * And the Crier ceased not crying till in fine he reached 

VOL. IV. F 



1 

82 Supplemental Nights. 

the square fronting the great Mosque. The Youth who was stand- 
ing there heard the proclamation and returning to his Shaykh said 
" O my lord, the Crier hath a rescript from the Sultan and he crieth 
saying, Whoso hath done this deed let him discover himself and 
come to the Palace under promise of safety and again safety 
safety on the word of a Sultan which shall never be falsed. And, 
I must go to him perforce." Said the Sage, "O my son, why 
shouldst thou do on such wise ? Hast thou not already suffered 
thy sufficiency?" But the young man exclaimed, "Nothing shall 
prevent my going ; " and at this the Shaykh replied, " Go then, 
O my son, and be thy safeguarding with the Living, the Eternal." 
Accordingly, the Youth repaired to the Hammam and having 
bathed attired himself in the richest attire he owned, after which 
he went forth and discovered himself to the Crier who led him 
to the Palace and set him before the Sovran. He salamed to 
the Sultan and did him obeisance and prayed for his long life 
and prosperity in style the most eloquent, and proffered his peti- 
tion in verse the most fluent. The Sultan looked at him (and he 
habited in his best and with all of beauty blest), and the royal 
mind was pleased and he enquired saying, "Who art thou, 
O Youth ? " The other replied, " I am the Half-man whom thou 
sawest and I did the deed whereof thou wottest." As soon as 
the King heard this speech he entreated him with respect and 
bade him sit in the most honourable stead, and when he was 
seated the twain conversed together. The Sultan was as- 
tounded at his speech and they continued their discourse till 
they touched upon sundry disputed questions of learning, 
when the Youth proved himself as superior to the Sovran as a 
dinar is to a dirham : and to whatever niceties of knowledge the 
monarch asked, the young man returned an all-sufficient answer, 
speaking like a book. So the Sultan abode confounded at the 
eloquence of his tongue and the purity of his phrase and the 
readiness of his replies ; and he said in his mind, " This Youth is as 



Story of the Sage and the Scholar. 83 

worthy to become my daughter's mate as she is meet to become 
his helpmate." Then he addressed him in these words, " O Youth, 
my wish is to unite thee with my daughter and after thou hast 
looked upon her and her mother none will marry her save thyself." 
The other replied, " O King of the Age, I am ready to obey thee, 
but first I must take counsel of my friends." The King rejoined, 
"No harm in that : hie thee home and ask their advice." The 

Youth then craved leave to retire and repairing to his Shaykh, 

And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent 
and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister 
Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how 
enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this com- 
pared with that I would relate to you on the coming night, an the 
Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night 
and that was 

6* tlfcree f^untort an* gfefxttetj) Nfefjt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Youth then 
craved leave to retire and, repairing to his Shaykh, informed him 
of what had passed between himself and the Sultan and said to 
him, " 'Tis also my wish, O my lord, to marry his daughter." The 
Sage replied, " There be no fault herein if it be lawful wedlock : 
fare thee forth and ask her in marriage." Quoth the Youth, " But 
I, O my lord, desire to invite the King to visit us ; " and quoth 
the Sage, <f Go invite him, O my son, and hearten thy heart." The 
Youth replied, " O my lord, since I first came to thee and thou didst 
honour me by taking me into thy service, I have known none 



84 Supplemental Nights. 

other home save this narrow cell wherein thou sittest, never stirring 
from it or by night or by day. How can we invite the King 
hither ? " The Sage rejoined, " O my son, do thou go invite him 
relying upon Allah, the Veiler who veileth all things, and say to 

him : My Shaykh greeteth thee with the salam and inviteth 

thee to visit him next Friday/ 1 Accordingly, the Youth repaired 
to the King and saluted him and offered his service and blessed 
him with most eloquent tongue and said, " O King of the Age, 

my Shaykh greeteth thee and sayeth to thee : Come eat thy 

pottage 1 with us next Friday," whereto the Sultan replied, " Hear- 
ing is consenting." Then the Youth returned to the Sage and 
waited upon him according to custom, longing the while for the 
coming of Friday. On that day the Sage said to the Youth, " O 
my son, arise with me and I will show thee what house be ours, so 
thou mayst go fetch the King." Then he took him and the two 
walked on till they came upon a ruin in the centre of the city and 
the whole was in heaps, mud, clay, and stones. The Sage looked 
at it and said, " O my son, this is our mansion ; do thou hie thee 
to the King and bring him hither." But the Youth exclaimed, 
" O my lord, verily this be a ruinous heap ! How then can I invite 
the Sultan and bring him to such an ill place ? This were a shame 
and a disgrace to us." Quoth the Sage, " Go and dread thou 
naught." Upon this the Youth departed saying in himself, " By 
Allah, my Shaykh must be Jinn-mad and doubtless he confoundeth 
in his insanity truth and untruth." But he stinted not faring till 
he reached the Palace and went in to the Sultan whom he found 
expecting him ; so he delivered the message, " Deign honour us, 
O my lord, with thy presence." 2 Hereupon the King arose with- 
out stay or delay and took horse, and all the lords of the land also 



1 Like our " Cut your mutton," or manger la sozipe or die suppe einzunekmen. For 
this formula meaning like the Brazilian "cup of water," a grand feast, see vol. vii. 168. 

2 Arab. " Tafazzal," a most useful word employed upon almost all occasions of invita- 
tion and mostly equivalent to ' Have the kindness," etc. See vol. iu 103. 



Story of the Sage and the Scholar. 85 

mounted, following the Youth to the place where he told them his 
Shaykh abode. But when they drew near it they found a royal 
mansion and eunuchry standing at the gates in costliest gear as if 
robed from a talismanic hoard. When the young man saw this 
change of scene, he was awe-struck and confounded in such way 
that hardly could he keep his senses, and he said to himself, " But 
an instant ago I beheld with mine own eyes this very place a 
ruinous heap : how then hath it suddenly become on this same 
site a Palace such as belongeth not to our Sultan ? But I had 
better keep the secret to myself." Presently the King alighted as 
also did his suite, and entered the mansion, and whenas he inspected 
it he marvelled at the splendour of the first apartment, but the 
more narrowly he looked the more magnificent he found the place, 
and the second more sumptuous than the first. So his wits were 
bewildered thereat till he was ushered into a spacious speak-room 
where they found the Shaykh sitting on one side of the chamber 1 
to receive them. The Sultan salam'd to him whereupon the Sage 
raised his head and returned his greeting but did not rise to his 
feet. The King then sat him down on the opposite side when the 
Shaykh honoured him by addressing him and was pleased to con- 
verse with him on various themes ; all this while the royal senses 
being confounded at the grandeur around him and the rarities in 
that Palace. Presently the Shaykh said to his Scholar, " Knock 
thou at this door and bid our breakfast be brought in." So the 
young man arose and rapped and called out " Bring in the break- 
fast ; " when lo ! the door was opened and there came out of it an 
hundred Mamelukes 2 of the Book, each bearing upon his head a 
golden tray, whereon were set dishes of precious metals ; and these, 



1 The Shaykh for humility sits at the side, not at the " Sadr," or top of the room ; but 
he does not rise before the temporal power. The Sultan is equally courteous and the 
Shaykh honours him by not keeping silence. 

* Arab. " Miat Mamluk kitdbi," the latter word meaning "one of the Book, a Jew" 
(especially), or a Christian. 



86 Supplemental Nights. 

which were filled with breakfast-meats of all kinds and colour^ 
they ranged in order before the Sultan. He was surprised at the 
sight for that he had naught so splendid in his own possession ; 
but he came forwards and ate, as likewise did the Shaykh and all 
the courtiers till they were satisfied. And after this they drank 
coffee and sherbets, and the Sultan and the Shaykh fell to con- 
versing on questions of lore : the King was edified by the words of 
the Sage who on his part sat respectfully between the Sovran's 
hands. Now when it was well nigh noon, the Shaykh again said 
to his Scholar, " Knock thou at that door and bid our noonday- 
meal be brought in." He arose and rapped and called out, " Bring 
in the dinner ; " when lo ! the door opened of itself and there came 
out of it an hundred white slaves all other than the first train and 
each bearing a tray upon his head. They spread the Sufrah-cloth 
before the Sultan and ranged the dishes, and he looked at the plates 
and observed that they were of precious metals and stones ; whereat 
he was more astonished than before and he said to himself, " In 
very deed this be a miracle ! " So all ate their sufficiency when 
basins and ewers, some of gold and others of various noble ores, 
were borne round and they washed their hands, after which the 
Shaykh said, " O King, at how much hast thou valued for us the 
dower of thy daughter ? " The Sovran replied, " My daughter's 
dower is already in my hands." This he said of his courtesy and 
respect, but the Shaykh replied, " Marriage is invalid save with a 
dower." He then presented to him a mint of money and the tie 
of wedlock was duly tied ; after which he rose and brought for his 
guest a pelisse of furs such as the Sultan never had in his treasury 
and invested him therewith and he gave rich robes to each and 
every of his courtiers according to their degree. The Sultan then 
took leave of the Shaykh and accompanied by the Scholar returned 

to the Palace. And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and 

fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her 
sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful, is thy tale, O sister 



Story of the Sage and the Scholar. 8? 

mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is 
this compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night 
an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next 
night and that was 

5e 6e ^uitttefc atrtr ->ixtg=fitst Ntgijt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

watching of this our latter night ! She replied : With love 

and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sultan took 
with him the Scholar and they fared till, they reached the citadel 
and entered the Palace, during which time the King was pondering 
the matter and wondering at the affair. And when night came 
he bade them get ready his daughter that the first visit might be 
paid to her by the bridegroom. They did his bidding and carried 
the Youth in procession to her and he found the apartment 
bespread with carpets and perfumed with essences ; the bride, 
however was absent So he said in his mind, " She will come 
presently albeit now she delayeth ; " and he ceased not expecting 
her till near midnight, whilst the father and the mother said, 
"Verily the young man hath married our daughter and now 
sleepeth with her." On this wise the Youth kept one reckoning 
and the Sultan and his Harem kept another till it was hard upon 

dawn all this and the bridegroom watched in expectation of 

the bride. Now when the day brake, the mother came to visit 
her child expecting to see her by the side of her mate ; but she 
could not find a trace of her, nor could she gather any clear 
tidings of her. Accordingly she asked the Youth, her son-in-law, 
who answered that since entering the apartment he had expected 
his bride but she came not to him nor had he seen a sign of her. 



88 Supplemental Nights. 

Hereupon the Queen shrieked and rose up calling aloud upon her 
daughter, for she had none other child save that one. The 
clamour alarmed the Sultan who asked what was to do and was 
informed that the Princess was missing from the Palace and had 
not been seen after she had entered it at eventide. Thereupon he 
went to the Youth and asked him anent her, but he also told him 
that he had not found her when the procession led him into the 
bridal chamber. Such was the case with these ; but as regards 
the Princess, when they conducted her to the bridal room before 
the coming of the bridegroom, a Jinni * of the Marids, who often 
visited the royal Harem, happened to be there on the marriage- 
night and was so captivated by the charms of the bride that he 
took seat in a corner, and upon her entering and before she was 
ware snatched her up and soared with her high in air. And he 
flew with her till he reached a pleasant place of trees and rills 
some three months' journey from the city, and in that shady place 
he set her down. But he wrought her no bodily damage and 
every day he would bring her whatso she wanted of meat and 
drink and solaced her by showing her the rills and trees. Now 
this Jinni had changed his shape to that of a fair youth fearing* 
iest his proper semblance affright her, and the girl abode in that 
place for a space of forty days. But the father, after failing to find 
his daughter, took the Youth and repaired to the Shaykh in his 
cell, and he was as one driven mad as he entered and complained 
of the loss of his only child. The Shaykh hearing these words 
dove into the depths of meditation for an hour : then he raised his 
head and bade them bring before him a chafing-dish of lighted 
charcoal. They fetched all he required and he cast into the fire 
some incenses over which he pronounced formulae of incantation, 
and behold ! the world was turned topsy-turvy and the winds 
shrieked and the earth was canopied by dust-clouds whence 

1 This MS. prefers the rare form " Al-Jann " for the singular. 



Story of the Sage and the Scholar. 89 

descended at speed winged troops bearing standards and colours. 1 
And amiddlemost of them appeared three Sultans of the Jann 
all crying out at once, " Labbayka ! Labbayk ! Adsumus, 
hither we speed to undertake thy need." The Shaykh then 
addressed them, saying, " My commandment is that forthright ye 
bring me the Jinni who hath snatched away the bride of my son," 
and they said, "To hear is to obey," and at once commanded 
fifty of their dependent Jinns to reconduct the Princess to her 
chamber and to hale the culprit before them. These orders were 
obeyed : they disappeared for an hour or so and suddenly returned, 
bringing the delinquent Jinni in person ; but as for the Sultan's 
daughter, ten of them conveyed her to her Palace, she wotting 
naught of them and not feeling aught of fear. And when they 
set the Jinni before the Shaykh, he bade the three Sultans of the 
Jann burn him to death and so they did without stay or delay. 
All this was done whilst the Sovran sat before the Shaykh, 
looking on and listening and marvelling at the obedience of that 
host and its Sultans and their subjection and civil demeanour in 
presence of the Elder. Now as soon as the business ended after 
perfectest fashion, the Sage recited over them a spell and all went 
their several ways ; after which he bade the King take the Youth 
and conduct him to his daughter. This bidding was obeyed and 
presently the bridegroom abated the maidenhead of the bride, 
what while her parents renewed their rejoicings over the recovery 
of their lost child. And the Youth was so enamoured of the 
Princess that he quitted not the Harem for seven consecutive days. 
On the eighth the Sultan was minded to make a marriage-banquet 
and invited all the city-folk to feast for a whole month and he 
wrote a royal rescript and bade proclaim with full publicity that, 
according to the commands of the King's majesty, the wedding- 
feast should continue for a month, and that no citizen, be he rich 

1 These flags, I have noticed, are an unfailing accompaniment of a Jinn army. 



90 Supplemental Nights. 

or be he poor, should light fire or trim lamp in his own domicile 
during the wedding of the Princess ; but that all must eat of the 
royal entertainment until the expiry of the fte. So they 
slaughtered beeves and stabbed camels in the throat and the 
kitcheners and carpet-spreaders were commanded to prepare the 
stables, and the officers of the household were ordered to receive 
the guests by night and by day. Now one night King Mohammed 
of Cairo said to his Minister, u O Wazir, do thou come with me in 
changed costume and let us thread the streets and inspect and espy 
the folk : haply some of the citizens have neglected to appear at 
the marriage-feast." He replied, " To hear is to obey." So the 
twain after exchanging habits for the gear of Persian Darwayshes 
went down to the city and there took place 

THE NIGHT-ADVENTURE OF SULTAN MOHAMMED 

OF CAIRO} 

The Sultan and the Wazir threaded the broadways of the city and 
they noted the houses and stood for an hour or so in each and 
every greater thoroughfare, till they came to a lane, a cul-de-sac 
wherethrough none could pass, and behold, they hit upon a house 
containing a company of folk. Now these were conversing and 
saying, " By Allah, our Sultan hath not acted wisely nor hath he 
any cause to be proud, since he hath made his daughter's bride- 
feast a vanity and a vexation and the poor are excluded therefrom. 
He had done better to distribute somewhat of his bounty amongst 
the paupers and the mesquin, who may not enter his palace nor 
can they obtain aught to eat." Hearing this the Sultan said to 
the Wazir, " By Allah, needs must we enter this place ; " and the 
Minister replied, "Do whatso thou wiliest" Accordingly the 



1 MS. vol. iii. pp. 203-210; Scott, " Night Adventure of the Sultdn," pp. 68-71. 
Gauttier, Aventure nocturne du Sulthan t vi. 214. 



The Night- Adventure of Sultan Mohammed of Cairo. 91 

King went up to the door and knocked, when one came out and 
asked, " Who is at the door ? " The Sultan answered, " Guests ; " 
and the voice rejoined, " Welcome to the guests ; " and the door 
was thrown open. Then they went in till they reached the sitting- 
room where they found three men of whom one was lame, the 
second was broken-backed and the third was split-mouthed. 1 And 
all three were sitting together in that place. So he asked them, 
" Wherefore sit ye here, ye three, instead of going to the Palace ? " 
and they answered him, " O Darwaysh, 'tis of the weakness of 
our wits ! " The King then turned to his Minister and said, 
" There is no help but thou must bring these three men into my 
presence, as soon as the wedding-fetes be finished, that I may 

enquire into what stablished their imbecility/' And Shahrazad 

was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say 
her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet 
is thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " 
Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I would relate 
to you on the coming night, an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " 
Now when it was the next night and that was 

{?) 2Time IBunfcrcti anfc &(xtg*8econ& Jitgjt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night!" She replied: With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, 
the director, the fight-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sultan 
said to the Wazir, " Needs must thou bring these three men into 
my presence, as soon as the wedding-fetes be finished, and we will 



1 Arab. " Mashrut shadak." Ashdak is usually applied to a wide-chapped face, like 
that of Margaret Maultasch or Mickle-mouthed Meg. Here, however, it alludes to an, 
accidental deformity which will presently be described. 



92 Supplemental Nights. 

enquire into what proved their imbecility." Then quoth the King 
to them, " Wherefore fare ye not, ye three, and eat of the royal 
banquet day by day ? " and quoth they, " O Darwaysh, we are 
crippled folk who cannot go and come, for this be grievous to us ; 
but, an the Sultan would assign to us somewhat of victual, and 
send it hither, we would willingly eat thereof." He rejoined, 
"What knoweth the Sultan that ye sit in this place?" and they 
retorted, " Ye be Darwayshes who enter everywhere : so when ye 
go in to him, tell him our tale ; haply shall Almighty Allah incline 
his heart uswards." The King asked them, " Be you three ever 
sitting together in this stead ? " and they answered, " Yea, verily : 
we never leave one another by night or by day." Then the King 
and the Minister rose up and having presented them with a few 
silvers took leave and departed. Now it was midnight when they 
reached a tenement wherein sat three girls with their mother 
spinning and eating ; and each one appeared fairer than her fellows, 
and at times they sang and then they laughed and then they talked. 
The Sultan said to the Wazir, " There is no help but we enter 
to these damsels ; " whereto the Minister replied " What have 
we to do with going near them ? Let them be as they are ! " 
The Sultan, however, rejoined, " Needs must we enter," and the 
Wazir retorted, " Hearkening and obedience ; " and he rapped at 
the door when one of the sisterhood cried out, " Who knocketh 
in this gloom of the night ? " The Minister answered, " We are 
two Darwayshes, guests and strangers ; " and the girl rejoined, 
" We are maidens with our mother and we have no men in our 
house who can admit you ; so fare ye to the marriage-feast of 
the Sultan and become ye his guests." The Minister continued, 
" We are foreigners and we know not the way to the Palace and 
we dread lest the Chief of Police happen upon us" and apprehend 
us at this time o' night. We desire that you afford us lodging 
till daylight when we will go about our business and you need 
not expect from us aught save respect and honourable treatment." 



Th& Night- Adventure of Sultan Mohammed of Cairo. 93 

Now when the mother heard this, she pitied them and bade one 
daughter open the door. So the damsel threw it open and the 
Sultan and Wazir entered and salam'd and sat down to converse 
together ; but the King gazed upon the sisters and marvelled 
at their beauty and their loveliness, and said in his mind, " How 
cometh it that these maidens dwell by themselves unmated and 
they in such case?" So quoth he to them, " How is it ye lack 
husbands, you being so beautiful, and that ye have not a man 
in the house ? " Quoth the youngest, " O Darwaysh, hold thy 
tongue l nor ask us of aught, for our story is wondrous and our 
adventures marvellous, But 'ware thy words and shorten thy 
speech ; verily hadst thou been the Sultan and thy companion the 
Wazir an you heard our history haply ye had taken compassion 
upon our case." Thereupon the King turned to the Minister and 
said, " Up with us and wend we our ways ; but first do thou 
make sure of the place and affix thy mark upon the door/' Then 
the twain rose up and fared forth but the Wazir stood awhile and 
set a sign upon the entrance and there left his imprint ; after 
which the twain returned to the Palace. Presently the youngest 
sister said to her mother, " By Allah, I fear lest the Dafwayshes 
have made their mark upon our door to the end that they may 
recognise it by day ; for haply the twain may be the King and 
his Minister." " What proof hast thou of this ? " asked the 
mother, and the daughter answered, " Their language and their 
questioning which were naught save importunity ! " And saying 
this she went to the door where she found the sign and mark. 
Now besides the two houses to the right and to the left were 
fifteen doors, so the girl marked them all with the same mark set 
by the Wazir. 3 But when Allah had caused the day to dawn, 



1 Arab. "Amsik lisana-k": the former word is a standing "chaff" with the Turks, 
as in their tongue it means cunnus-penis and nothing else. I ever found it advisable 
when speaking Arabic before Osmanlis, to use some such equivalent as Khuz=take thoo. 

* This is the familiar incident in " Ali Baba " : Supplem. vol. iii. 384, etc. 



94 Supplemental Nights. 

the King said to the Minister, "Go thou and look at the sign 
and make sure of it." The Wazir went as he was commanded 
by the Sultan, but he found all the doors marked in the same way, 
whereat he marvelled and knew not nor could he distinguish the 
door he sought. Presently he returned and reported the matter 
of the door-marks to the King who cried, "By Allah, these girls 
must have a curious history ! But when the bride-feast is finished 
we will enquire into the case of the three men who are weak- 
witlings and then we will consider that of the damsels who are 
not." As soon as the thirtieth feast-day passed by, he invested 
with robes of honour all the Lords of his land and the high Officers 
of his estate and matters returned to their customed course. 
Then. he sent to summon the three men who had professed them- 
selves weak of wits and they were brought into the presence, each 
saying of himself, " What can the King require of us ? " When 
they came before him he bade them be seated and they sat ; 
then he said to them, " My requirement is that ye relate to me 
proofs of the weakness of your minds and the reason of your 
maims." Now the first who was questioned was he of the broken 
back, and when the enquiry was put to him he said, " Deign to 
favour me with an answer O our Lord the Sultan, on a matter 
which passed through my mind." He replied, " Speak out and 
fear not ! " So the other enquired, " How didst thou know us 
and who told thee of us and of our weakly wits ? " Quoth the 
King, " 'Twas the Darwaysh who went in to you on such a 
night ;" and quoth the broken-backed man, " Allah slay all the 
Darwayshes who be tattlers and tale-carriers ! " Thereupon the 
Sultan turned to the Wazir and laughing said, "We will not 
reproach them for aught: rather let us make fun of them," 
adding to the man, " Recite, O Shaykh." So he fell to telling 



95 



THE STORY OF THE BROKE-BACK SCHOOLMASTER* 

I began life, O King of the Age, as a Schoolmaster and my case 

was wondrous. And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day 

and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth 
her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister 
mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where 
is this compared with that I would relate to you on the coming 
night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was 
the next night and that was 

2Tjje ^m l^tmfcrcb anto &fxtg-t]jfr& Ni'gjt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleeping, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, 
the director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Shaykh 

continued. 1 began life, O my lord, as a Schoolmaster, and 

my tale with the boys was wondrous. They numbered from 
sixty to seventy, and I taught them to read and I inculcated 
due discipline and ready respect esteeming these a part of liberal 
education ; nor did I regard, O King of the Age, the vicissitudes 
of Time and Change ; nay, I held them with so tight a rein that 
whenever the boys heard me sneeze 2 they were expected to lay 



1 MS. iii. 210-214. Scott's Story of the broken-backed Schoolmaster," vi. pp. 
72-75, and Gauttier, " Histoire du Maitre d'ecole treinte^ vi. 217. The Arabic is 
" Muaddib al-Atfal " = one who teacheth children. I have before noted that amongsf 
Moslems the Schoolmaster is always a fool. So in Europe of the l6th century 
probably no less than one-third of the current jests turned upon the Romish clergy and 
its phenomenal ignorance compared with that of the pagan augur. The Story of the 
First Schoolmaster is one of the most humorous in this MS. 

2 For the usual ceremony when a Moslem sneezes, see vol. ix. 22O. 



9" Supplemental Nights. 

down their writing-tablets and stand up with their arms crossed 
and exclaim, '< Allah have ruth upon, thee, O our lord ! " whereto 
I would make reply, " Allah deign pardon us and you ! " And 
if any of the lads failed or delayed to join in this prayer I was 
wont to bash him with a severe bashing. One day of the days 
they asked leave to visit the outskirts of the town for liberty and 
pleasuring * and when I granted it they clubbed their pittances 
for a certain sum of money to buy them a noonday meal. So we 
went forth to the suburbs and there found verdure and water, and 
we enjoyed ourselves that day with perfect enjoyment until mid- 
afternoon when we purposed to return homewards. Accordingly, 
the boys collected their belongings and laded them upon an ass 
and we walked about half-way when behold, the whole party, 
big and little, stood still and said to me, " O our lord, we are 
athirst and burning with drowthiness, nor can we stir from this 
spot and if we leave it without drinking we shall all die." Now 
there was in that place a draw-well, but it was deep and we had 
nor pitcher nor bucket nor aught wherein to draw water and the 
scholars still suffered from exceeding thirst. We had with us, 
however, cooking-gear such as chauldrons and platters ; so I said 
to them, " O boys, whoso carrieth a cord or hath bound his 
belongings with one let him bring it hither ! " They did my 
bidding and I tied these articles together and spliced them as 
strongly as I could : then said I to the lads, " Bind me under the 
arm-pits." Accordingly they made me fast by passing the rope 
around me and I took with me a chauldron, whereupon they let 
me down bucket-wise into the well till I reached the water. 
Then I loosed the bandage from under my armpits and tied 
it to the chauldron which I filled brim-full and shook the rope 
for a signal to the boys above. They haled at the vessel till they 



4 The "day in the country," lately become such a favourite wUh English schools, 
is an old Eastern custom. 



Story of the Split- Mouthed Schoolmaster. 97 

pulled it up and began drinking and giving drink ; and on this wise 
they drew a first chauldron and a second and a third and a fourth 
till they were satisfied and could no more and cried out to me, " We 
have had enough, quite enough/' Hereupon I bound the bandage 
under my armpits, as it was when I went down, and I shook it 
as a signal and they haled me up till I had well-nigh reached the 
kerbstone of the well when a fit of sneezing seized me and I 
sneezed violently. At this all let go their hold and carrying 
their arms over their breasts, cried aloud, " Allah have ruth upon 
thee, O our lord ! " but I, as soon as they loosed hold, fell into 
the depths of the well and brake my back. I shrieked for excess 
of agony and all the boys ran on all sides screaming for aid till 
they were heard by some wayfaring folk ; and these haled at me 
and drew me out. They placed me upon the ass and bore me 
home : then they brought a leach to medicine me and at last 
I became even as thou seest me, O Sultan of the Age. Such, then, 
is my story showing the weakness of my wits ; for had I not 
enjoined and enforced over-respect the boys would not have let 
go their hold when I happened to sneeze nor would my back 
have been broken. " Thou speakest sooth, O Shaykh," said the 
Sultan, " and indeed thou hast made evident the weakness of thy 
wit." Then quoth he to the man who was cloven of mouth. 
" And thou, the other, what was it split thy gape ? " " The 
weakness of my wit, O my lord the Sultan," quoth he, and fell 
to telling the 

, 

STORY OF THE SPLIT-MOUTHED SCHOOLMASTER 

I also began life, O King of the Age, as a schoolmaster and had 
under my charge some eighty boys. Now I was strict with such 

1 MS. iii. 214-219. Scott's " Story of the wry-mouthed Schoolmaster, 1 * vi. pp. 
74*75 : Gauttier's Histoire du Second EstropM , vi. p. 220.. 

VOL, IV. G 



98 Supplemental Nights. 

strictness that from morning to evening I sat amongst them and 
would never dismiss them to their homes before sundown. But 
'tis known to thee, O our lord the King, that boys' wits be short 
after the measure of their age, and that they love naught save play 
and forgathering in the streets and quarter. Withal, I took no 
heed of this and ever grew harder upon them till one day all met 
and with the intervention of the eldest Monitor they agreed and 
combined to play me a trick. He arranged with them that next 
morning none should enter the school until he had taught them, 
each and~ every, to say as they went in, " Thy safety, O our lord, 
how yellow is thy face ! " Now the first who showed himself was 
the Monitor and he spoke as had been agreed ; but I was rough 
with him and sent him away ; then a second came in and repeated 
| what the first had said; then a third and then a fourth, until ten 
;boys had used the same words. So quoth I to myself, " Ho, Such- 
an-one ! thou must be unwell without weeting it :" then I arose 
and went into the Harem and lay down therein when the Monitor, 
having collected from his school-fellows some hundred-and-eighty 
Nusfs, 1 came in to me and cried, "Take this, O our lord, and 
expend the 'money upon thy health.'* Thereupon I said to myself, 
" Ho, Such-an-one! every Thursday 2 thou dost not collect sixty 



1 In these days the whole would be about lod. 

a Pay-day for the boys in Egypt. The Moslem school has often been described but it 
always attracts the curiosity of strangers. The Moorish or Maroccan variety is a simple 
affair ; " no forms, no desks, few books. A number of boards about the size of foolscap, 
whitewashed on either side, whereon the lessons from the alphabet to sentences of the- 
Kfcran are plainly written in large black letters j a pen and ink, a book and a swJlbh 
or two, complete the paraphernalia. The dominie, squatting 1 on the ground, tailor- 
fashion, like his pupils, who may number from ten to thirty, repeats the lesson in a 
sonorous sing-song voice, and is imitated by the urchins, who accompany their voices by 
a rocking to and fro which sometimes enables them to keep time. A sharp applica- 
tion of the cane is wonderfully effectual in recalling wandering attention ; and lazy boys 
are speedily expelled. On the admission of a pupil, the parents pay some small sum, 
varying according to their means, and every Wednesday, which is a half-holiday, a pay- 
ment is made from Jd. to 2d. New moons and feasts are made occasions for larger 
payments, and are also holidays, which last ten days during the two greater festivals. 
Thursdays are whole holidays, and no work is done on Friday mornings, that day being 



Story of the Split-Mouthed Schoolmaster. 99 

Faddahs from the boys," and I cried to him, "Go, let them forth 
for a holiday." So he went and dismissed them from school to the 
playground. On the next day he collected as much as on the first 
and came in to me and said, " Expend these moneys, O our lord, 
upon thy health." He did the same on the third day and the 
fourth, making the boys contribute much coin and presenting it to 
me ; and on such wise he continued till the tenth day, when he 
brought the money as was his wont, At that time I happened to 
hold in my hand a boiled egg which I purposed eating, but on 
sighting him I said in myself, " An he see thee feeding he will 

cut off the supplies." So I crammed the egg into my chops 

And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent 
and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister 
Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how 
enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, "And where is this com- 
pared with that I would relate to you on the coming night, an the 
Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night 
and that was 



the Mohammedan Sabbath,' or at least 'meeting day,' as it is called. When the 
pupils have mastered the first short chapter of the Koran, it is customary for them to be 
paraded round the town on horseback, with ear-splitting music, and sometimes charitably 
disposed persons make small presents to the youngster by way of encouragement. 
After the first, the last is learned, then the last but one, and so on, backwards, as, with 
the exception of the first, the longest chapters are at the beginning. Though reading 
and a little writing are taught at the same time, all the scholars do not arrive at the 
pitch of perfection necessary to indite a polite letter, so that consequently there is plenty 
of employment for the numerous scribes or Tdlibs who make a profession of writing. 
These may frequently be seen in small rooms opening on to the street, usually very 
respectably dressed in a white flowing haik and large turban, and in most cases of 
venerable appearance, their noses being adorned wilh huge goggles. Before them are 
their appliances, pens made of reeds, ink, paper, and sand in lieu of blotting paper. 
They usually possess also a knife and scissors, with a case to hold them all. In writing, 
they place the paper on the knee, or upon a pad of paper in the left hand/' The mam 
merit of the village school in Eastern lands is its noises which teaches the boy to con- 
centrate his attention. As Dr. Wilson of Bombay said, the young idea is taught to shout 
as well as to shoot and this vivi voce process is a far better mnemonic than silent reading. 
Moreover it is fine practice in the art of concentrating attention. 



I0 Supplemental Nights. 



antf Sbtxte-fourtf) 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah, upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love 
and good will! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Schoolmaster 
said to himself, " If the Monitor see me eating the egg now in thy 
hand he will cut off the supplies and assert thee to be sound." So 
(continued he) I crammed the egg into my chops and clapped my 
jaws together. Hereupon the lad turned to me and cried, " O my 
lord, thy cheek is much swollen ;" and I, " Tis only an impos- 
thume." But he drew a whittle 1 forth his sleeve and coming up to 
me seized my cheek, and slit it, when the egg fell out and he said, 
" O my lord, this it was did the harm and now 'tis passed away 
from thee." Such was the cause of the splitting of my mouth, O our 
lord the Sultan. Now had I cast away greed of gain and eaten 
the egg in the Monitor's presence, what could have been the ill 
result ? But all this was of the weakness of my wit ; for also 
had I dismissed the boys every day about mid-afternoon, I should 
have gained naught nor lost aught thereby. However the Dealer 
of Destiny is self-existent, and this is my case. Then the Sultan 
turned to the Wazir and laughed and said, " The fact is that whoso 
schooleth boys is weak of wit ; " and said the other, <' O King of 
the Age, all pedagogues lack perceptives and reflectives ; nor can 
they become legal witnesses before the Kazi because verily they 
credit the words of little children without evidence of the speech 
being or factual or false. So their reward in the world to come 

1 Arab. "Mikshat," whose */ would be " Kasht " *= skinning (a camel). 



Story of the Limping Schoolmaster. ior 

must be abounding ! "* Then the Sultan asked the limping maru 
saying, And thou, the other, what lamed thee?" So he began 
to tell 



THE STORY OF THE LIMPING SCHOOLMASTER? 

My tale, O my loid the Sultan, is marvellous and 'twas as follows,' 
My father was by profession a schoolmaster and, when he fared to 
the ruth of Almighty Allah, I took his place in the school and 
taught the boys to read after the fashion of my sire. Now over 
the schoolrmT. was an upper lattice whereto planks had been, 
nailed and I was ever casting looks at it till one chance day I said 
to myself, " By Allah, this lattice thus boarded up needs must 
contain hoards or moneys or manuscripts which my father stored 
there before his decease ; and on such wise I am deprived of them.'" 
So I arose and brought a ladder and lashed it to another till the 
two together reached the lattice and I clomb them holding a 
carpenter's adze 3 wherewith I prized up the planks until all were 
removed. And behold, I then saw a large fowl, to wit, a kite,* 
setting upon her nestlings. But when she saw me she flew 
sharply in my face and I was frightened by her and thrown back ; 
so I tumbled from the ladder-top to the ground and brake both 
knee-caps. Then they bore me home and brought a leach to heal 
me ; but he did me no good and I fell into my present state. 
Now this, O our lord the Sultan, proveth the weakness of my wit 
and the greatness of my greed ; for there is a ^saw amongst men 
that saith " Covetise aye wasteth and never gathereth : so 'ware 



1 Evidently said ironice as of innocents. In " The Forty Vezirs " we read, "At 
length they perceived that all this tumult arose from their trusting on this wise the 
words of children. " (Lady's XXth Tale). 

2 MS. iii. 219-220. For some unaccountable reason it is omitted by Scott (vi 
who has written English words in the margin of the W. M. Codex. 

3 In text " K^dum " for " Kudutn," a Syrian form. 

A Arab. " Hidyah," which in Egypt means a falcon; see vol. iii. 158.. 



i 02 Supplemental Nights. 

thee of covetise." Such, O lord of the Age and the Time, is my 
tale. Hereupon the King bade gifts and largesse be distributed 
to the three old schoolmasters, and when his bidding was obeyed 
they went their ways. Then the Sultan turned to the Minister 
and said, "O Wazir, now respecting the matter of the three 
maidens and their mother, I would have thee make enquiry and 
find out their home and bring them hither ; or let us go to them 
In disguise and hear their history, for indeed it must be wonderful. 
Otherwise how could they have understood that we served them 
that sleight by marking their door and they on their part set 
marks of like kind upon all the doors of the quarter that we 
might lose the track and touch of them. By Allah, this be rare 
intelligence on the part of these damsels : but we, O Wazir, will 
strive to come upon their traces." Then the Minister fared forth, 
after changing his dress and demeanour, and walked to the quarter 
in question, but found all the doors similarly marked. So he was 
sore perplext concerning his case and fell to questioning all the 
folk wont to pass by these doors but none could give him any 
information ; and he walked about sore distraught until eventide, 
when he returned to the Sultan without aught of profit. As he 
went in to the presence, his liege lord asked him saying, " What 
bringest thou of tidings ? " and he answered, O King, I have not 
found the property, 1 but there passed through my mind a stratagem 
which, an we carry it out, peradventure shall cause us to happen 
upon the maidens." Quoth the Sultan, "What be that ? " and quoth 
he, " Do thou write me an autograph-writ and give it to the Crier 
that he may cry about the city : Whoso lighteth wick after supper- 
tide shall have his head set under his heels." The Sultan rejoined, 
" This thy rede is right." Accordingly, on the next day the King 
wrote his letter and gave it to the Crier bidding him fare through 
the city and forbid the lighting of lamps after night-prayers ; and 

1 Arab. "Sifah," = lit. a quality. 



Story of the Limping Schoolmaster. 103 

the man took the royal rescript and set it in a green bag. Then 
he went forth and cried about the street saying, " According to the 
commandment of our King, the Lord of prosperity and Master 
of the necks of God's servants, if any light wick after night- 
prayers his head shall be set under his heels, his good shall be 
spoiled and his women shall be cast into jail." And the Crier 
stinted not crying through the town during the first day and the 
second and the third, until he had gone round the whole place ; 
nor was there a citizen but who knew the ordinance. Now the 
King waited patiently till after the proclamation of the third day ; 
but on the fourth night he and his Minister went down from the 
palace in disguise after supper-tide to pry about the wards and 
espy into the lattices of the several quarters. They found no light 
till they came to the ward where the three damsels lived, and the 
Sultan, happening to glance in such a direction, saw the gleam of 
a lamp in one of the tenements. So he said to the Wazir, " Ho ! 
there is a wick alight." Presently they drew near it and found 
that it was within one of the marked houses ; wherefore they came 

to a stand and knocked at the door, And Shahrazad perceived 

the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted 
say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful 
is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth 
she, " And where is this compared with that I would relate to you 
on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ?" Now 
when it was the next night and that was 

^fje j)ree juntos antr &fag=fiftj) Nfgfit, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, 
the director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 



IO4 Supplemental Nights. 

and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that when 
the Sultan and the Wazir stood over against the door behind 
which was the light and knocked at it, the youngest of the sisters 
cried out, " Who is at the door ? " and they replied, " Guests and 
Darwayshes." She rejoined, "What can you want at this hour 
and what can have belated you ? " And they, " We be men living 
in a Khan; but we have lost our way thither and we fear to 
happen upon the Chief of Police. So of your bountiful kindness 
open ye to us and house us for the remnant of the night ; and 
such charity shall gain you reward in Heaven." Hereto the 
mother added, " Go open to them the door ! " and the youngest 
of the maidens came forward and opened to them and admitted 
them. Then the parent and her children rose up and welcomed 
them respectfully and seated them and did them honour and set 
before them somewhat of food which they ate and were gladdened. 
Presently the King said, " O damsels, ye cannot but know that 
the Sultan proclaimed forbiddal of wick-burning; but ye have 
.lighted your lamps and have not obeyed him when all the citizens 
have accepted his commandment/' Upon this the youngest 
sister accosted him saying, " O Darwaysh, verily the Sultan's 
order should not be obeyed save in commandments which be 
reasonable ; but this his proclamation forbidding lights is sinful to 
accept ; and indeed the right direction * wherein man should walk 
is according to Holy Law which saith, 'No obedience to the 
creature in a matter of sin against the Creator.' The Sultan 
(Allah make him prevail !) herein acteth against the Law and 
imitateth the doings of Satan. For we be three sisters with our 
mother, making four in the household, and every night we sit 
together by lamp-light and weave a half-pound weight of linen 
web 2 which our mother taketh in the morning for sale to the 

1 Arab. "IstilaV = specific dialect, idiom. See De Sacy, Chrestomathie, i. 443, 
, where the learned Frenchman shows abundant learning 1 , but does very little for the learner. 
* In the text " Kattan '" = linen, flax. 



The Night-Advinture of Sultan Mohammed of Cairo. 105 

Bazar and buyeth us therewith half a pound of raw flax and 
with the remainder what sufficeth us of victual." The Sultan 
now turned to his Minister and said, "O Wazir, this damsel 
astonisheth me by her questions and answers. What case of 
casuistry can we propose to her and what disputation can we set 
up ? Do thou contrive us somewhat shall pose and perplex her." 
" O my lord," replied the Wazir, " we are here in the guise of Dar- 
wayshes and are become to these folk as guests : how then can 
we disturb them with troublesome queries in their own home?" 
Quoth the Sultan, " Needs must thou address them ; " so the 
Wazir said to the girl, " O noble one, obedience to the royal 
orders is incumbent upon you as upon all lieges." Said she, 
" True, he is our Sovran ; but how can he know whether we be 
starving or full-fed ? " " Let us see," rejoined the Wazir, " when 
he shall send for you and set you before the presence and question 
you concerning your disobeying his orders, what thou wilt say ? " 

She retorted, " I would say to the Sultan : Thou hast con- 

traried Holy Law." At this the Minister resumed, " An he ask 
thee sundry questions wilt thou answer them ? " and she replied, 
" Indeed I will." Hereat the Minister turned to the King and 
said, " Let us leave off question and answer with this maiden on 
points of conscience and Holy Law and ask if she understand 
the fine arts." Presently the Sultan put the question when she 
replied, " How should I not understand them when I am their 
father and their mother ? " Quoth he, " Allah upon thee, O my 
lady, an thou wouldst favour us, let us .hear one of thine airs 
and its words." So she rose and retired but presently returning 
with a lute sat down and set it upon her lap and ordered the 
strings and smote it with a masterly touch : then she fell to 
singing amongst other verses these ordered couplets : 



" Do thou good to men and so rule their necks : o Long reigns who by benefit 
rules mankind : 



1 06 Supplemental Nights. 

And lend aid to him who for aidance hopes : o For aye grateful is man with 

a noble mind 
Who brings money the many to him will incline And money for tempting of 

man was designed : 
Who hindereth favour and bounties, ne'er o Or brother or friend in creation 

shall find : 
With harsh looks frown not in the Sage's face ; Disgusteth the freeman 

denial unkind : 
Who frequenteth mankind all of good unknow'th : o Man is lief of rebellion, 

of largesse loath." 

When the Sultan heard these couplets, his mind was distraught 
and he was perplext in thought ; then turning to his Wazir, he 
said, " By Allah, these lines were surely an examination of and 
an allusion to our two selves ; and doubtless she weeteth of us 
that I am the Sultan and thou art the Wazir, for the whole tenor 
of her talk proveth her knowledge of us." Then he turned to the 
maiden and said, " Right good are thy verse and thy voice, and 
thy words have delighted us with exceeding delight." Upon this 
she sang the following two couplets : 

Men seek for them sorrow, and toil o Thro 1 long years as they brightly flow ; 
But Fate, in the well like the tank * > Firm-fixt, ruleth all below. 

Now as soon as the Sultan heard these last two couplets he 
made certain that the damsel was aware of his quality. She did 
not leave off her lute-playing till near daylight, when she rose and 
retired and presently brought in a breakfast befitting her degree 
(for indeed she was pleased with them) ; and when she had 
served it up they ate a small matter which sufficed them. After 
this she said, " Inshallah, you will return to us this night before 
supper-tide and become our guests ; " and the twain went their 
ways marvelling at the beauty of the sisters and their loveliness 
and their fearlessness in the matter of the proclamation; and 
the Sultan said to the Wazir, " By Allah, my soul inclineth unto 
that maiden." And they stinted not walking until they had 

1 Arab. "Ff Jf&n ka'l-Jawbi !" which, I suppose, means small things (or men) 
and great. 



The Night-Adventure of Sultan Mohammed of Cairo. 107 

entered the palace. But when that day had gone by and evening 
drew nigh, the Monarch made ready to go, he and the Minister, 

to the dwelling of the damsels And Shahrazad was surprised 

by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted 
say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, 
O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, 
"And where is this compared with that I would relate to you 
on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive." Now 
when it was the next night and that was 

an& 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love 

and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the King and 
the Councillor made ready to go to the dwelling of the damsels 
taking with them somewhat of gold pieces, the time being half an 
hour after set of sun ; and presently they repaired to the house of 
the sisters whither they had been invited on the past night. So 
they rapped at the door when the youngest maiden came to it and 
opened and let them in : then she salam'd to them and greeted 
them and entreated them with increased respect saying, " Welcome 
to our lords the Darwayshes." But she eyed them with the eye of 
the physiognomist l and said in herself, " Verily these two men are 

1 This form of cleverness is a favourite topic in Arabian folk-lore. The model man was 
lyas aUMuzani, al-Kazi (of Bassorah), in the 2nd century A. H., mentioned by Al- 
Harfrf in his 7th Ass. and noted in Arab. Prov. (i. 593) as "more intelligent than lyas." 
Ibn Khallikan (i. 233) tells sundry curious tales of him. Hearing a Jew ridicule the 
Moslem Paradise where the blessed ate and drank ad libitum but passed nothing aWay, he 
asked if all his food were voided : the Jew replied that God converted a part of it into 
nourishment and he rejoined, " Then why not the whole ? " Being once in a courtyard 
he said that there was an animal under the bricks and a serpent was found : he had noted 



1 08 Supplemental Nights. 

on no wise what they seem and, unless my caution and intelligence 
and power of knowledge have passed away from me, this must be 
the Sultan and that his Wazir, for grandeur and majesty are evi- 
dent on them.'* Then she seated them and accosted them even 
more pleasantly and set before them supper, and when they had 
eaten enough, she brought basins and ewers for handwashing and 
served up coffee causing them to enjoy themselves and to give and 
take in talk till their pleasure was perfect. At the time of night- 
orisons they arose and, after performing the Wuzu-ablution, prayed, 
and when their devotions were ended the Sultan hent in hand his 
purse and gave it to the youngest sister saying, " Expend ye this 
upon your livelihood." She took the bag which held two thousand 
dinars and kissed his right hand, feeling yet the more convinced 
that he must be the Sultan : so she proved her respect by the few- 
ness of her words as she stood between his hands to do him service. 
Also she privily winked at her sisters and mother and said to them 
by signs, " Verily this be the Monarch and that his Minister." The 
others then arose and followed suit as the sister had done, when 
the Sultan turned to the Wazir and said, " The case is changed : 
assuredly they have comprehended it and ascertained it ;" presently 
adding to the girl,"O damsel, we be only Darwaysh folk and yet 
you all stand up in our service as if we were sovrans. I beseech 



that only two of the tiles showed signs of dampness and this proved that there was 
something underneath that breathed. Al-Maydani relates of him that hearing a dog 
bark, he declared that the beast was tied to the brink of a well ; and he judged so 
because the bark was followed by an echo. Two men came before him, the complainant 
claimed money received by the defendant who denied the debt. lyas asked the plaintiff 
where he had given it, and was answered, " Under a certain tree." The judge told him 
to go there by way of refreshing his memory and in his absence asked the defendant if 
his adversary could'toave reached it. "Not yet," said the rogue, forgetting himself ; 
' 'tis a long way off" which answer convicted him. Seeing three women act upon a 
sudden alatm, he said, " One of them is pregnant, another is nursing, and the third is a 
virgin," He explained his diagnosis as follows. " In time of danger persons lay their 
hands on what they most prize. Now I saw the pregnant woman in her flight place her 
hand on her belly, which showed that she was with child ; the nurse placed her hand on 
her bosom, whereby I knew that she was suckling, and the third covered her parts with 
her hand proving to me that she was a maid." (Chenery's Al- Hariri, p. 334). 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 109 

you do not on this wise." But the youngest sister again came 
forwards and kissed the ground before him and blessed him and 
recited this couplet : 

41 Fair fate befal thee to thy foe's despite : White be thy days and his be 
black as night. 1 

By Allah, O King of the Age, thou art the Sultan and that is the 
Minister." The Sovran asked, " What cause hast thou for supposing 
this ? " and she answered, " From your grand demeanour and your 
majestic mein ; for such be the qualities of Kings which cannot 
be concealed." Quoth the Monarch, " Thou hast spoken sooth ; 
but, tell me, how happeneth it that you wone here without men 
protectors ? " and quoth she, " O my lord the King, our history is 
wondrous and were it graven with graver-needles upon the eye- 
corners it were a warning to whoso would be warned." He rejoined, 
"What is it ? " and she began the 

STORY OF THE THREE SISTERS AND THEIR MOTHER? 

I and my sisters and my mother are not natives of this city but of 
a capital in the land Al-Irak where my father was Sovran having 
troops and guards, Wazirs and Eunuch-chamberlains ; and my 
mother was the fairest woman of her time insomuch that her 
beauty was a proverb throughout each and every region. Now it 
chanced that when I and my sisters were but infants, our father 
would set out to hunt and course and slay beasts of raven and 
take his pleasure in the gardens without the city. So he sent for 
his Wazir and appointed and constituted him Viceregent in his 
stead with full authority to command and be gracious to his lieges : 
then he got him ready and marched forth and the Viceroy entered 



1 Such an address would be suited only to a King or a ruler. 

2 MS. Hi, 231-240; Scott's "Story of the Sisters and the Sultana their mother," 

vi. 82 ; Gauttier' s Histoire de la Sulthane et de ses trots Filles, vi. 228. 



no Supplemental Nights. 

upon his office. But it happened that it was the hot season and 
my mother betook herself to the terrace-roof of the palace in 
order to smell the air and sniff up the breeze. At that very hour, 
by the decree of the Decreer, the Wazir was sitting in the Kiosk 
or roofed balcony hanging to his upper mansion and holding in 
hand a mirror ; and, as he looked therein, he saw the reflection of 
my mother, a glance of eyes which bequeathed him a thousand 
sighs. He was forthright distracted by her beauty and loveliness 
and fell sick and took to his pillow. Presently a confidential 
nurse came in and feeling his pulse, which showed no malady, said 
to him, "No harm for thee ! thou shalt soon be well nor ever suffer 
from aught of sorrow." Quoth he, " O my nurse, canst thou keep 
a secret ? " and quoth she, " I can." Then he told her all the love 
he had conceived for my mother and she replied, " This be a light 
affair nor hath it aught of hindrance : I will manage for thee such 
matter and I will soon unite thee with her." Thereupon he packed 
up for her some of the most sumptuous dresses in his treasury and 

said, " Hie thee to her and say : The Wazir hath sent these to 

thee by way of love-token and his desire is either that thou come 
to him and converse, he and thou, for a couple of hours, 1 or that 
he be allowed to visit thee." The nurse replied with " Hearken- 
ing and obedience," and fared forth and found my mother (and 
we little ones were before her) all unknowing aught of that 
business. So the old woman saluted her and brought forwards the 
dresses, and my mother arose and opening the bundle beheld 
sumptuous raiment and, amongst other valuables, a necklace of 
precious stones. So she said to the nurse, " This is indeed orna- 
mental gear, especially the collar ;" and said the nurse, " O my lady, 
these are from thy slave the Wazir by way of love-token, for he 
doteth on thee with extreme desire and his only wish is to for- 
gather with thee and converse, he and thou, for a couple of hours, 

1 Arab. " Darajatdni " =lit. two astronomical degrees : the word is often used in this MS. 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 1 1 1 

either in his own place or in thine whither he will come." Now 
when my mother heard these words from the nurse she arose and 
drew a scymitar which lay hard by and of her angry hastiness 
made the old woman's head fall from her body and bade her slave 
girls pick up the pieces and cast them into the common privy of 
the palace. So they did her bidding and wiped away the blood. 
Now the Wazir abode expecting his nurse to return to him but she 
returned not ; so next day he despatched another handmaid who 
went to my mother and said to her, " O my Ia4y, our lord the 
Wazir sent thee a present of dress by his nurse ; but she hath 
not come back to him." Hereupon my mother bade her Eunuchs 
take the slave and strangle her, then cast the corpse into the 
same house of easement where they had thrown the nurse. They 
did her bidding ; but she said in her mind, " Haply the Wazir will 
return from the road of unright :" and she kept his conduct a 
secret. He however fell every day to sending slave-girls with the 
same message and my mother to slaying each and every, nor 
deigned show him any signs of yielding. But she, O our lord the 
Sultan, still kept her secret and did not acquaint our fathef there- 
with, always saying to herself, " Haply the Wazir will return to 
the road of right." And behold my father presently came back 
from hunting and sporting and pleasuring, when the Lords of the 
land met him and salam'd to him, and amongst them appeared 
the Minister whose case was changed. Now some years after this, 
O King of the Age, our sire resolved upon a Pilgrimage to the 

Holy House of Meccah And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of 

day and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then 
quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O 
sister mine, and enjoyable and delectable." Quoth she, "And 
where is this compared with that I would relate to you on the 
coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it; 
was the next night and that was 



1 1 2 Supplemental Nights. 



DUNYAZAD said to her "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night." She replied : - With Jove 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the youngest 
sister continued to the Sultan : - So our sire, O King of the 
Age, resolved upon a Pilgrimage to the Holy House of Meccah 
and stablished the same Wazir Viceregent in his stead to deal com- 
mandment and break off and carry out. So he said in his heart, 
"'Now have I won my will of the Sultan's Harem." So the King 
gat him ready and fared forth to Allah's Holy House after com- 
mitting us to the charge of his Minister. But when he had been 
gone ten days, and the Wazir knew that he must be far from the 
city where he had left behind him me and my sisters and my 
mother, behold, an Eunuch of the Minister's came in to us and 
kissed ground before the Queen and said to her " Allah upon thee, 
O my lady, pity my lord the Wazir, for his heart is melted by 
thy love and his wits wander and his right mind ; and he is now 
become as one annihilated. So do thou have ruth upon him and 
revive his heart and restore his health." Now when my mother 
heard these words, she bade her Eunuchs seize that Castrato and 
carry him from the room to the middle of the Divan-court and 
there slay him ; but she did so without divulging her reasons. 
They obeyed her bidding ; and when the Lords of the land and 
others saw the body of a man slain by the eunuchry of the palace, 
they informed the Wazir, saying, " What hateful business is this 
which hath befallen after the Sultan's departure ? " He asked, 
What is to do ? " and they told him that his Castrato had been 
slain by a party of the palace eunuchry. Thereupon he said to 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. '113 

them, " In your hand abideth testimony of this whenas the Sultan 
shall return and ye shall bear witness to it." But, O King, the 
Wazir's passion for our mother waxed cool after the deaths of the 
nurse and the slave-girls and the eunuch ; and she also held her peace 
and spake not a word there anent. On this wise time passed 
and he sat in the stead of my sire till tne Sultan's return drew near 
when the Minister dreaded lest our father, learning his ill deeds, 
should do him die. So he devised a device and wrote a letter to 

the King saying : " After salutation be it known to thee that 

thy Harem hath sent to me, not only once but five several times 
during thine absence, soliciting of me a foul action, to which I 
refused consent and replied, By Allah, however much she may 
wish to betray my Sovran, I by the Almighty will not turn traitor ; 
for that I was left by thee guardian of the realm after thy 
departure." He added words upon words; then he sealed the 
scroll and gave it to a running courier with orders to hurry along 
the road. The messenger took it and fared with it to the Sultan's 
camp when distant eight days' journey from the capital ; and, 
finding him seated in his pavilion, 1 delivered the writ. He took 
it and opened it and read it and when he understood its secret 
significance, his face changed, his eyes turned backwards and he 
bade his tents be struck for departure. So they fared by 
forced marches till between him and his capital remained only 
two stations. He then summoned two Chamberlains with orders 
to forego him to the city and take my mother and us three girls 
a day's distance from it and there put us to death. Accordingly, 
they led us four to the open country purposing to kill us, and my 
mother knew not what intent was in their minds until they reached 
the appointed spot. Now the Queen had in times past heaped 
alms-deeds and largesse upon the two Chamberlains, so they held 
the case to be a grievous and said each to other, " By Allah we 

1 Arab. " Siwsin ;" plur. "Sfwdwln." 
VQL7 IV. H 



1 14 Supplemental Nights. 

cannot slaughter them ; no, never ! " Then they told my mother 
of the letter which the Wazir had written to our father saying such 
and-such, upon which she exclaimed, " He hath lied, by Allah, the 
arch-traitor; and naught happened save so-and-so." Then she 
related to them all she had done with the exactest truth. The 
men said, " Sooth thou hast spoken ;" then arising without stay or 
delay they snared a 'gazelle and slaughtered it and filled with its 
blood four flasks ; after which they broiled some of the flesh over 
the embers and gave it to my mother that we might satisfy our 
hunger. Presently they farewelled us saying, " We give you in 
charge of Him who never disappointed those committed to His 
care ;" and, lastly, they went their ways leaving us alone in the 
wild and the wold. So we fell to eating the desert-grasses and 
drinking of the remnants of the rain, and we walked awhile and rested 
awhile without rinding any city or inhabited region ; and we waxed 
tired, O King of the Age, when suddenly we came upon a spot on 
a hill-flank abounding in vari-coloured herbs and fair fountains. 
Here we abode ten days and behold, a caravan drew near us and 
encamped hard by us, but they did not sight us for that we hid 
ourselves from their view until night fell. Then I went to them 
and asked of sundry eunuchs and ascertained that there was a city 
at the distance of two days' march from us ; so I returned and 
informed my mother who rejoiced at the good tidings. As soon 
as it was morn the caravan marched off, so we four arose and 
walked all that day through at a leisurely pace, and a second day 
and so forth ; until, on the afternoon of the fifth, a city rose before 
our sight fulfilling all our desires 1 and we exclaimed, " Alham- 
dolillah, laud be to the Lord who hath empowered us to reach it." 
We ceased not faring till sunset when we entered it and we found 
it a potent capital. Such was our case and that of our mother ; 2 

1 Arab. " *A1 hudud (or Ate hadd) al-Shauk, repeated in MS. iii. 239. 
8 Here the writer, forgetting that the youngest sister is speaking, breaks out into the 
third person " their case"" their mother," etc. 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 115 

but as regards our sire the Sultan, as he drew near his home after 
the return-journey from the Hajj, the Lords of the land and the 
Chiefs of the city flocked out to meet him, and the town-folk 
followed one another like men riding on pillions 1 to salute him, and 
the poor and the mesquin congratulated him on his safety and at 
last the Wazir made his appearance. The Sultan desired to be 

private with the Minister And Shahrazad, was surprised by the 

dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. 
Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O 
sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, 
" And where is this compared with that I would relate to you on 
the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when 
it was the next night and that was 

t&ty STjme f^untafc anH SbtxtB*efe!)t!) Ntgjt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love 

and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the King 
desired to be private with the Minister and when they were left 
alone he said, " O Wazir, how was it between thee and that Harim 
of mine ? " Said the other, " O King of the Age, she sent to me 
not only once but five several times and I refrained from her and 
whatsoever eunuch she despatched I slew, saying, Haply she may 
cease so doing and abandon her evil intent. But she did not 
repent, so I feared for thine honour and sent to acquaint thee with 
the matter." The Sultan bowed his head groundwards for a while, 



1 The idea is that of the French anonyma's ' Mais, Monsieur, vous me suivez comme 
un lavement.** 



1 1 6 Supplemental Nights. 

then raising it he bade summon the two Chamberlains whom he 
had sent to slay his wife and three children. On their appearing 
he asked them, "What have you done in fulfilling my com- 
mandment ? " They answered, " We did that which thou badest 
be done," and showed him the four flasks they had filled 
with the blood and said, " This be their blood, a flask-full from 
each." The Sultan hent them in hand and mused over what had 
taken place between him and his wife of love and affection and 
union ; so he wept with bitter weeping and fell down in a fainting 
fit. After an hour or so he recovered and turning to the Wazir 
said, " Tell me, hast thou spoken sooth ? " and the other replied, 
" Yes, I have/' Then the Sultan addressed the two Chamberlains 
and asked them, " Have ye put to death my daughters with their 
mother ? " But they remained silent nor made aught of answer or 
address. So he exclaimed, " What is on your minds that ye speak 
not ? " They rejoined, " By Allah, O King of the Age, the honest 
man cannot tell an untruth for that lying and leasing are the 
characteristics of hypocrites and traitors." When the Wazir heard 
the Chamberlains 1 speech his colour yellowed, his frame was dis- 
ordered and a trembling seized his limbs, and the King turned to 
him and noted that these symptoms had been caused by the words 
of the two officials. So he continued to them, " What mean ye, 
O Chamberlains, by your saying that lies and leasing are the 
characteristics of hypocrites and traitors ? Can it be that ye have 
not put them to death ? And as ye claim to be true men either 
ye have killed them and ye speak thus or you are liars. Now by 
Him who hath set me upon the necks of His lieges, if ye declare 
not to me the truth I will do you both die by the foulest of deaths." 
They rejoined, " By Allah, O King of the Age, whenas thou badest 
us take them and slay them, we obeyed thy bidding and they knew 
not nor could they divine what was to be until we arrived with 
them at the middlemost and broadest of the desert ; and when we 
informed them of what had been done by the Wazir, thy Harem 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 1 1 7 

exclaimed : There is no Majesty and there is no Might save in 

Allah, the Glorious, the Great. Verily we are Allah's and unto 
Him are we returning. But an ye kill us you will kill us wrongfully 
and ye wot not wherefor. By the Lord, this Wazir hath foully 
lied and hath accused us falsely before the Almighty. So we said to 

her,O King of the Age: Inform us of what really took place ; and 

said the mother of the Princesses: Thus and thus it happened. 

Then she fell to telling us the whole tale from first to last of the 
nurse who was sent to her and the handmaids and the Eunuch. 1 
Hereupon the Sultan cried, "And ye, have ye slain them or not ?" 
and the Chamberlains replied, " By Allah, O King of the Age, 
whenas the loyalty of thy Harem was made manifest to us we 
snared a gazelle and cut its throat and filled these four flasks with 
its blood; after which we broiled some of the flesh upon the 
embers and offered it to thy Harem and her children saying to 

them : We give thee in charge to Him who never disappointeth 

those committed to His care, and w.e added, Your truth shall 
save you. Lastly we left them in the midmost of the waste and 
we returned hither." When the Sultan heard these words he turned 
to the Wazir and exclaimed, " Thou hast estranged from me my 
wife and my children ; " but the Minister uttered not a word nor 
made any address and trembled in every limb like one afflicted with 
an ague. And when the King saw the truth of the Chamberlains 
and the treachery of the Minister he bade fuel be collected and set 
on fire and they did his bidding. Then he commanded them to 
truss up the Wazir, hand tied to foot, and bind him perforce upon 
a catapult 2 and cast him into the middle of the fiery pyre which 
made his bones melt before, his flesh. Lastly he ordered his palace 



1 The text (p. 243) speaks of two eunuchs, but only one has been noticed. 

2 Arab. "Manjanik; " there are two forms of this word from the Gr. Mayyavor, 
or MwtfavJ/j and it survives in our mangonel, a battering engine. The idea in the text 
is borrowed from the life of Abraham whom Nimrod cast by means of a catapult (which 
is a bow worked by machinery) into a fire too hot for man to approach. 



1 1 8 Supplemental Nig hts. 

to be pillaged, his good to be spoiled and the women of his Harem 
to be sold for slaves. After this he said to the Chamberlains, 

- ;.-. .. "" -. " ' - x .;".'': . 

" You must know, the spot wherein you left the Queen and 
Princesses;" and said they, "O King of the Age, we know it 
well ; but when we abandoned them and returned home they were 
in the midst of the wolds and the wilds nor can we say what befel 
them or whether they be now alive or dead." On this wise fared 
it with them ; but as regards us three maidens and our mother, when 

we entered the city And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day 

and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth 
her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister 
mine, and enjoyable and delectable ? " Quoth she, " And where is 
this compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night 
an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the 
next night and that was 

$e Jtee f^untafc anfc gbfrtg-mnti) Nt'gH 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the youngest 

sister continued her tale : So when we three maidens and our 

mother entered the city about sunset I the youngest said to them, 
" We be three Princesses and a Queen-mother : so we cannot show 
ourselves in this our condition and needs must we lodge us in a 
Khan : also 'tis my rede that we should do best by donning boys' 
dress. All agreeing hereto we did accordingly and, entering a 
Caravanserai, hired us a retired chamber in one of the wings. 
Now every day we three fared forth to service and at eventide we 
forgathered and took what sufficed us of sustenance ; but our 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. \ 19 

semblance had changed with the travails of travel and all who 
looked at us would say, These be lads. In this plight we passed 
the space of a year full-told till, one day of the days, we three 
fared forth to our chares, as was our wont, and behold, a young 
man met us upon the way and turning to me asked, " O lad, wilt 
thou serve in my house ? " Quoth I, " O my uncle, 1 I must ask 
advice," and quoth he, " O my lad, crave counsel of thy mother 
and come and serve in our home." He then looked at my sisters 
and enquired, " Be these thy comrades, O lad ? " and I replied 
" No, they are my brothers." So we three went to our mother in 
the Khan and said to her, " This young man wisheth to hire the 
youngest of us for service," and said she, " No harm in that." 
Thereupon the youth arose and taking me by the hand guided me 
to his home and led me in to his mother and his wife, and when 
the ancient dame saw me, her heart was opened to me. Presently 
quoth the young man to his parent, " I have brought the lad to 
serve in our house and he hath two brothers and his mother 
dwelling with them." Quoth she, ''May it be fortunate to thee, 
O my son." 2 So I tarried there serving them till sunset and when 
the evening-meal was eaten, they gave me a dish of meat and three 
large bannocks of clean bread. These I took and carried to my 
mother whom I found sitting with my sisters and I set before them 
the meat and bread ; but when my parent saw this she wept with 
sore weeping and cried, " Time hath overlooked us ; erst we gave 
food to the folk and now the folk send us food." And cried I, 
" Marvel not at the works of the Creator ; for verily Allah hath 
ordered for us this and for others that and the world endureth not 
for any one ; " and I ceased not soothing my mother's heart till it 
waxed clear of trouble and we ate and praised Almighty Allah. 
Now every day I went forth to serve at the young man's house and 

1 Showing that he was older ; otherwise she would have addressed him, " O my cousin." 
A man is " young," in Arab speech, till forty and some say fifty. 

2 The little precatory formula would keep off the Evil Eye. 



1 20 Supplemental Nights. 

at eventide bore to my mother and sisters their sufficiency of food 
for supper, 1 breakfast and dinner ; and when the youth brought 
eatables of any kind for me I would distribute it to the family. 
And he looked well after our wants and at times he would supply 
clothing for me and for the youths, my sisters, and for my parent ; 
so that all hearts in our lodgings were full of affection for him, At 
last his mother said, " What need is there for the lad to go forth 
from us every eventide and pass the night with his people ? Let 
him lie in our home and every day about afternoon-time carry the 
evening meal to his mother and brothers and then return to us and 
keep me company." I replied, " O my lady, let me consult my 
mother, to whom I will fare forthright and acquaint her herewith." 
But my parent objected saying, " O my daughter, we fear lest thou 
be discovered and they find thee out to be a girl." I replied, 
" Our Lord will veil our secret ;" and she rejoined, " Then do thou 
obey them." So I lay with the young man's mother nor did any 
divine that I was a maid, albeit from the time when I entered into 
that youth's service my strength and comeliness had increased. 
At last, one night of the nights, I went after supper to sleep at my 
employer's and the young man's mother chanced to glance in my 
direction when she saw my loosed hair which gleamed and 
glistened many-coloured as a peacock's robe. Next morning I 
arose and gathering up my locks donned the Tdkiyah 2 and pro- 
ceeded, as usual, to do service about the house never suspecting 
that the mother had taken notice of my hair. Presently she said 
to her son, " Tis my wish that thou buy me a few rose-blossoms 
which be fresh." He asked, " To make conserve ? " and she 
answered, " No." Then he enquired ; " Wherefore wantest thou 
roses ? " and she replied, " By Allah, O my son, I wish therewith 
to try this our servant whom I suspect to be a girl and no boy ; 



1 Sapper comes first because the day begins at sundown. 
8 Calotte or skull-cap ; vol. i. 224 ; viii. 120. 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 121 

and under him in bed I would strew rose-leaves, for an they be 
found wilted in the morning he is a lad, and if they remain as they 
were he is a lass." 1 So he fared forth and presently returned to 
his mother with the rose-blossoms ; and, when the sleeping-hour 
came, she went and placed them in my bed. I slept well and in 
the morning when I arose she came to me and found that the 
petals had not changed for the worse ; nay, they had gained lustre. 
So she made sure that I was a girl. And Shahrazad was sur- 
prised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her 
permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is 
thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable!" 
Quoth she, * And where is this compared with that I would relate 
to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive? " 
Now when it was the next night and that was 



antr 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With love 
and good will! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the damsel 
continued : - So the young man's mother made certain that her 
servant lad was a virgin lass. But she concealed her secret from 
her son and was kind to me and showed me respect and, of the 
goodness of her hearty sent me back early to my mother and sisters. 
Now one day of the days the youth came home about noon as was 

1 This is a new "fact" in physics and certainly to be counted amongst '* things not 
generally known." But Easterns have a host of "dodges" to detect physiological 
differences such as between man and maid, virgin and matron, imperfect castratos and 
perfect eunuchs and so forth. Very Eastern, mutatis mutandis^ is the tale of the thief- 
catcher, who discovered a fellow in feminine attire by throwing an object for him to 
catch in his lap and by his closing his legs instead of opening them wide as the petticoated 
ones would do. 



122 Supplemental Nigkts. 

his wont ; and he found me with sleeves tucked up to the elbows 
engaged in washing a bundle of shirts and turbands ; and I was 
careless of myself so he drew near me and noted my cheeks that 
flushed rosy red and eyes which were as those of the thirsty 
gazelle and my scorpion locks hanging adown my side face. This 
took place in summertide ; and when he saw me thus his wits 
were distraught and his sound senses were as naught and his judg- 
ment was in default : so he went in to his parent and said to her, 
" O my mother, indeed this servant is no boy, but a maiden girl 
and my wish is that thou discover for me her case and make 
manifest to me her, condition and marry me to her, for that my 
heart is fulfilled of her love." Now by the decree of the Decreer 
I was privily listening to all they said of me ; so presently I arose, 
after washing the clothes and what else they had given me ; but 
my state was changed by their talk and I knew and felt certified 
that the youth and his mother had recognised me for a girl. I 
continued on this wise till eventide when I took the food and 
returned to my family and they all ate till they had eaten enough, 
when I told them my adventure and my conviction. So my mother 
said to me, " What remaineth for us now to do ? " and said I, " O my 
mother, let us arise, we three, before night shall set in and go forth 
ere they lock the Khan upon us ; 1 and if the door-keeper ask us 
aught let us answer : We are faring to spend the night in the 
house of the youth where our son is serving." My mother replied, 
" Right indeed is thy rede." Accordingly, all four of us went forth 
at the same time and when the porter asked, " This is night-tide 
and whither may ye be wending ? " we answered, " We have been 
invited by the young man whom our son serveth for he maketh a 
Septena-festival a and a bridal-feast : so we purpose to night with 



1 She did not wish to part with her maidenhead at so cheap a price. 

2 Arab. "Subu"' (for " Yaum al-Subu' ") a festival prepared on the seventh day 
after a birth or a marriage or return from pilgrimage. See Lane (M. E. passim) under 
"Subooa." 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 123 

i 
him and return a-morn." Quoth he, " There is no harm in that 

So we issued out and turned aside and sought the waste lands, the 
Veiler veiling us, and we ceased not walking till the day brake and 
we were sore a-wearied. Then we sat for rest till the rise of sun and 
when it shone we four sprang up and strave with our wayfare 
throughout the first day and the second and the third until the 
seventh. (Now all this was related to Mohammed the Sultan of 
Cairo and his Wazir by the youngest Princess and they abode 
wondering at her words.) On the seventh day we reached this city 
and here we housed ourselves ; but to this hour we have no news of 
our sire after the Minister was burnt nor do we know an he be whole 
or dead. Yet we yearn for him : so do thou, of thine abundant 
favour, O King of the Age, and thy perfect beneficence, send a 
messenger to seek tidings of him and to acquaint him with our case, 
when he will send to fetch us." Here she ceased speaking and the 
Monarch and Minister both wondered at her words and exclaimed, 
" Exalted be He who decreeth to His servants severance and re- 
union." Then the Sultan of Cairo arose without stay or delay 
and wrote letters to the King of Al-Irak, the father of the damsels, 
telling him that he had taken them under his safeguard, them and 
their mother, and gave the writ to the Shaykh of the Cossids l and 
appointed for it a running courier and sent him forth with it to 
the desert. After this the King took the three maidens and their 
mother and carried them to his Palace where he set apart for them 
an apartment and he appointed for them what sufficed of appoint- 
ments. Now, as for the Cossid who fared forth with the letter, he 
stinted not spanning the waste for the space of two months until 
he made the city of the bereaved King of Al-Irak, and when 
he asked for the royal whereabouts they pointed out to him a 



1 For this Anglo-Indian term, = a running courier, see vol. vii. 340. Lt is the gist of 
the venerable Joe Miller in which the father asks a friend to name his seventh- months 
child. " Call him ' Cossid,' for verily he hath accomplished a march of nine months in 
seven months." 



1 24 Supplemental Nights. 

pleasure-garden. So he repaired thither and went in to him, 
kissed ground before him, offered his services, prayed for him and 
lastly handed to him the letter. The King took it and brake the 
seal and opened the scroll ; but when he read it and comprehended 
its contents, he rose up and shrieked a loud shriek and fell to the 
floor in a fainting fit. So the high officials flocked around him 
and raised him from the ground, and when he recovered after an 
hour or so they questioned him concerning the cause of this. He 
then related to them the adventures of his wife and children ; how 
they were still in the bonds of life whole and hearty ; and forth- 
right he ordered a ship to be got ready for them and stored therein 
gifts and presents for him who had been the guardian of his Queen 
and her daughters. But he knew not what lurked for them in the 
future. So the ship sailed away, all on board seeking the desired 
city, and she reached it without delay, the winds blowing light and 
fair. Then she fired the cannon of safe arrival * and the Sultan 
sent forth to enquire concerning her, - And Sharazad perceived 
the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted 
say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful 
is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth 
she, " And where is this compared with that I would relate to you 
on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now 
when it was the next night and that was 



anU 

DUNYAZAD said to her, Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching this our latter night ! " She replied : With love and 
good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the director 



1 Arab. "Madafi al-Salamah," a^ustom showing the date of the tale to be more 
modern than any in the ten vols. of The Nights proper. 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 125 

the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and of deeds 
fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sultan made enquiries 
concerning that ship, when behold ! the Rais l came forth her to 
the land and accosting the King handed to him the letter and 
acquainted him with the arrival of the gifts and presents. Where- 
upon he bade all on board her come ashore and be received in the 
guest-house for a space of three days until the traces of travel 
should disappear from them. After that time the Sultan gat ready 
whatso became his high degree of offerings evening those despatched 
to him by the father of the damsels and stowed them in the vessel, 
where he also embarked as much of victual and provaunt as might 
suffice for all the voyagers. On the fourth day after sunset the 
damsels and their mother were borne on board and likewise went 
the master after they had taken leave of the King and had 
salanVd to him and prayed for his preservation. Now in early 
morning the breeze blew free and fair so they loosed sail and made 
for the back 2 of the sea and voyaged safely for the first day and 
the second. But on the third about mid-afternoon a furious gale 
came out against them ; whereby the sails were torn to tatters and 
the masts fell overboard : so the crew made certain of death, and 
the ship ceased not to be tossed upwards and to settle down 
without mast or sail till midnight, all the folk lamenting one to 
other, as did the maidens and their mother, till the wreck was 
driven upon an island and there went to pieces. Then he whose 
life-term was short died forthright and he whose life-term was long 
survived ; and some bestrode planks and others butts and others 
again bulks of timber whereby all were separated each from other. 
Now the mother and two of the daughters clomb upon planks they 
chanced find and sought their safety ; but the youngest of the 
maidens who had mounted a keg, 3 and who knew nothing of her 

1 Master, captain, skipper (not owner) : see vols. i. 127 ; vi. 112. 

8 Zahr al-Bahr = the surface which affords a passage to man. 

9 Arab* " Batiyah," gen. - a blackjack, a leathern flagon. 



126 Supplemental Nights. 

mother and sisters, was carried up and cast down by the waves for 
the space of five days till she landed upon an extensive sea.-board 
where she found a sufficiency to eat and drink. She sat down 
upon the shore for an hour of time until she had taken rest and 
her heart was calmed and her fear had flown and she had recovered 
her spirits: then she rose and paced the sands, all unknowing 
whither she should wend, and whenever she came upon aught of 
herbs she would eat of them. This lasted through the first day 
and the second till the forenoon of the third, when lo and behold ! 
a Knight advanced towards her, falcon on fist and followed by a 
greyhound. For three days he had been wandering about the 
waste questing game either of birds or of beasts, but he happened 
not upon either when he chanced to meet the maiden, and seeing 
her said in his mind, " By Allah, yon damsel is my quarry this 
very day.'* So he drew near her and salam'd to her and she 
returned his salute ; whereupon he asked her of her condition and 
she informed him of what had betided her ; and his heart was 
softened towards her and taking her up on his horse's crupper he 
turned him homewards. Now of this youngest sister (quoth 
Shahrazad) there is much to say, and we will say it when the tale 
shall require the telling. But as regards the second Princess, she 
ceased not floating on the plank for the space of eight days, until 
she was borne by the set of the sea close under the walls of a 
city : but she was like one drunken with wine when she crawled up 
the shore and her raiment was in rags and her colour had wanned 
for excess of affright. However, she walked onwards at a slow 
pace till she reached the city and came upon a house of low stone 
walls. So she went in and there finding an ancient dame sitting 
and spinning yarn, she gave her good evening and the other 
returned it adding, " Who art thou, O my daughter, and whence 
comest thou ? " She answered, " O my aunt, I'm fallen from the 
skies and have been met by the earth : thou needest not question 
me of aught, for my heart is clean molten by the fire of grief. 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 127 

An thou take me in for love and kindness 'tis well and if not I 
will again fare forth on my wanderings." When the old woman 
heard these words she compassioned the maiden and her heart 
felt tender towards her, and she cried, " Welcome to thee, O my 
daughter, sit thee down ! " Accordingly she sat her down beside 
her hostess and the two fell to spinning yarn whereby to gain 
their daily bread : and the old dame rejoiced in her and said, 
" She shall take the place of my daughter." Now of this second 
Princess (quoth Shahrazad) there is much to say and we will say 
it when the tale shall require the telling. But as regards the eldest 
sister, she ceased not clinging to the plank and floating over the 
sea till the sixth day passed, and on the seventh she was cast upon 
a stead where lay gardens distant from the town six miles. So 
she walked into them and seeing fruit close-clustering she took 
of it and ate and donned the cast-off dress of a man she found 
nearhand. Then she kept on faring till she entered the town and 
here she fell to wandering about the Bazars till she came to the 
shop of a Kunafar^-maker who was cooking his vermicelli ; and 
he, seeing a fair youth in man's habit, said to her, " O younker, 
wilt thou be my servant?" "O my uncle," she said, " I will 
well ; " so he settled her wage each day a quarter farthing, 2 not 
including her diet. Now in that town were some fifteen shops 
wherein Kunafah was made. She abode with the confectioner the 
first day and the second and the third to the full number of ten, 
when the traces of travel left her and fear departed from her heart, 
and her favour and complexion were changed for the better and 
she became even as the moon, nor could any guess that the lad 
was a lass. Now it was the practice of that man to buy every 

1 "Kunafah = a vermicelli cake often eaten at breakfast : see vol. x. I : " Kunafdni" 
is the baker or confectioner. Scott (p. 101) converts the latter into a " maker of cotton 
wallets for travelling." 

2 In the text (iii. 260) "Midi," a clerical error for ' Mayyidf," an abbreviation o 
" Muayyadi," the Faddah, Nuss or half-dirham coined under Sultan al-Muayyad, A.H. 
ixth cent. = A.D. xvth. 



1 28 Supplemental Nights. 

day half a quartern ! of flour and use it for making his vermicelli ; 
but when the so-seeming youth came to him he would lay in each 
morning three quarterns ; and the townsfolk heard of this change 
and fell to saying, " We will never dine without the Kunafah of the 
confectioner who hath in his house the youth." This is what 
befel the eldest Princess of whom (quoth Shahrazad) there is much 
to say and we will say it when the tale shall require the telling* 
But as regards the Queen-mother, - And Shahrazad was sur- 
prised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her 
permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is 
thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! J> 
Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I would relate 
to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " 
Now when it was the next night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the director, 
the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and of deeds 
fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that as regards the mother 
of the maidens, when the ship broke up under them and she 
bestrode the bulk of timber, she came upon the Rais in his boat 
manned by three of the men ; so he took her on board and they 
ceased not paddling for a space of three days when they sighted a 
lofty island which fulfilled their desire, and its summit towered high 
in air. So they made for it till they drew near it and landed on a 
low side-shore where they abandoned their boat ; and they ceased 



1 Arab. " Rub' " (plur. " Arba' ") = the fourth of a Waybah," the latter being the 
sixth of an Ardabb (Irdabb) = 5 bushels. See vol. i. 263. 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 129 

not walking through the rest of that day and those that followed 
till one day of the days behold, a dust-cloud suddenly appeared to 
them spireing up to the skies. They fared for it and after a while 
it lifted, showing beneath it a host with swords glancing and lance* 
heads gleams lancing and war steeds dancing and prancing, and 
these were ridden by men like unto eagles and the host was under 
the hands of a Sultan around whom ensigns and banners were 
flying. And when this King saw the Rais and the sailors and the 
woman following, he wheeled his charger themwards to learn what 
tidings they brought and rode up to the strangers and questioned 
them ; and the castaways informed them that their ship had broken 
up under them. Now the cause of this host's taking the field was 
that the King of Al-Irak, the father of the three maidens, after he 
appointed the ship and saw her set out, felt uneasy at heart, pre- 
saging evil, and feared with sore fear the shifts of Time. So he 
went forth, he and his high Officials and his host, and marched 
adown the longshore till, by decree of the Decreer, he suddenly 
and all unexpectedly came upon his Queen who was under charge 
of the ship's captain. Presently, seeing the cavalcade and its ensigns 
the Rais went forward and recognising the King hastened up to 
him and kissed his stirrup and his feet. The Sultan turned towards 
him and knew him ; so he asked him of his state and the Rais 
answered by relating all that had befallen him. Thereupon, the 
King commanded his power to alight in that place and they did 
so and set up their tents and pavilions. Then the Sultan took 
seat in his Shamiydnah 1 and bade them bring his Queen and they 
brought her, and when eye met eye the pair greeted each other 
fondly and the father asked concerning her three children. She 
declared that she had no tidings of them after the shipwreck and 
she knew not whether they were dead or alive. Hereat the King 



1 A royal pavilion ; according to Shakespear (Hind. Diet, sub vofe) it is a corruption 
of the Pers. "Sayaban." = canopy. 

VOI. IV. I 



130 Supplemental Nights. 

wept with sore weeping and exclaimed, "Verily we are Allah's 
and unto Him we are returning! " after which he gave orders to 
march from that place upon his capital. Accordingly they stinted 
not faring for a space of four days till they reached the city and he 
entered his citadel-palace. But every time and every hour he was 
engrossed in pondering the affair of the three Princesses and kept 
saying, "Would heaven I wot are they drowned or did they escape 
the sea; and, if they were -saved, Oh, that I knew whether they 
were scattered or abode in company one with other and whatever 
else may have betided them ! " And he ceased not brooding over 
the issue of things and kept addressing himself in speech ; and 
neither meat was pleasant to him nor drink. Such were his case 
and adventure ; but as regards the youngest sister whenas she was 
met by the Knight and seated upon the crupper of his steed, he 
ceased not riding with her till he reached his city and went into his 
citadel-palace. Now the Knight was the son of a Sultan who had 
lately deceased, but a usurper had seized the reins of rule in his 
stead and Time had proved a tyrant to the youth, who had there- 
fore addicted himself to hunting and sporting. Now by the decree 
of the Decreer he had ridden forth to the chase where he met the 
Princess and took her up behind him, and at the end of the ride, 
when he returned to his mother, he was becharmed by her charms ; 
so he gave her in charge to his parent and honoured her with the 
highmost possible honour and felt for her a growing fondness even 
as felt she for him. And when the girl had tarried with them & 
month full-told she increased in beauty and loveliness and sym- 
metrical stature and perfect grace ; then, the heart of the youth 
was fulfilled with love of her and on like wise was the soul of the 
damsel who, in her new affection, forgot her mother and her sisters. 
But from the moment that maiden entered his Palace the fortunes 
of the young Knight amended and the world waxed propitious to 
him nor less did the hearts of the lieges incline to him ; so they held 
a meeting and said, " There shall be over us no Sovran and no Sultan 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. \ 3 r 

save the son of our late King ; and he who at this present ruleth 
us hath neither great wealth nor just claim to the sovereignty. 
Now all this benefit which accrued to the young King was by the 
auspicious coming of the Princess. Presently the case was agreed 
upon by all the citizens of the capital that on the morning of the 
next day they would make him ruler and depose the usurper." 
And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and fell silent and 
ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dun- 
yazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and 
enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this 
compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night an 
the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next 
night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night!" She replied: - With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the citizens 
in early morning held a meeting whereat were present the Lords 
of the land and the high Officials, and they went in to the usurping 
Sultan determined to remove and depose him. But he refused 
and forswore consent, saying, " By Allah, such thing may not be 
except after battle and slaughter." Accordingly they fared forth 
and acquainted the young King who held the matter grievous and 
was overridden by cark and care : however he said to them, "If 
there must perforce be fighting and killing, I have treasures 
sufficient to levy a host." So saying he went away and dis- 
appeared ; but presently he brought them the moneys which they 
distributed to the troops. Then they repaired to the Maydan, 



132 Supplemental Nights. 

the field of fight outside the city, and on like guise the usurping* 
Sultan rode out with all his power. And when the two opposing 
hosts were ranged in their forces, each right ready for the fray, 
the usurper and his men charged home upon the young King 
and either side engaged in fierce combat and sore slaughter befel. 
But the usurper had the better of the battle and purposed to seize 
the young King amidst his many when, lo and behold ! appeared 
a Knight backing a coal-black mare ; and he was armed cap-a-pie 
in a coat of mail, and he carried a spear and a mace. With these 
he bore down upon the usurper and shore off his right forearm 
so that he fell from his destrier, and the Knight seeing this struck 
him a second stroke with the sword and parted head from body. 
.When his army saw the usurper fall, all sought safety in flight 
and sauve qui peut ; but the army of the young King came up 
with them and caused the scymitar to fall upon them so that 
were saved of them only those to whom length of life was fore- 
ordained. Hereupon the victors lost no time in gathering the 
spoils and the horses together ; but the young King stood gazing 
at the Knight and considering his prowess ; yet he failed to 
recognize him and after an hour or so the stranger disappeared 
leaving the conqueror sorely chafed and vexed for that he knew 
him not and had failed to forgather with him. After this the 
young King returned from the battle-field with his band playing 
behind him and he entered the seat of his power, and was raised 
by the lieges to the station of his sire. Those who had 
escaped the slaughter dispersed in all directions and sought safety 
in flight and the partizans who had enthroned the young King 
thronged around him and gave him joy as also did the general 
of the city, whose rejoicings were increased thereby. Now the 
coming of the aforesaid Knight was a wondrous - matter. When 
the rightful King made ready for battle the Princess feared for his 
life and, being skilled in the practice of every weapon, she escaped 
the notice of the Queen-dowager and after donning her war-garb 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 133 

and battle-gear she went forth to the stable and saddled her a 
mare and mounted her and pushed in between the two armies. 
And as soon as she saw the usurper charge down upon the young 
King as one determined to shed his life's blood, she forestalled 
him and attacked him and tore out the life from between his ribs. 
Then she returned to her apartment nor did any know of the deed 
she had done. Presently, when it was eventide the young King 
entered the Palace after securing his succession to royalty ; but 
he was still chafed and vexed for that he knew not the Knight. 
His mother met him and gave him joy of his safety and his 
accession to the Sultanate, whereto he made reply, " Ah ! O my 
mother, my length of days was from the hand of a horseman who 
suddenly appearing joined us in our hardest stress and aided me 
in my straitest need and saved me from Death." Quoth she, " O 
my son, hast thou recognised him ? " and quoth he, " Twas my 
best desire to discover him and to stablish him as my Wazir, but 
this I failed to do." Now when the Princess heard these words 
she laughed and rejoiced and still laughing said, "To whoso will 
make thee acquainted with him what wilt thou give ? " and said 
he, " Dost thou know him ? " So she replied, " I wot him not " 
and he rejoined, " Then what is the meaning of these thy words ? " 
when she answered him in these prosaic rhymes c 1 

"O my lord, may I prove thy sacrifice Nor exult at thy sorrows thine 

enemies ! 
Could unease and disease by others be borne o The slave should bear load on 

his lord that lies : 
I'll carty whatever makes thee complain And be my body the first that 

dies.'* 

When he heard these words he again asked, " Dost thou know 
him ? " and she answered, " He ? Verily we wot him not ; 2 and 



1 Arab. "Musajja"' = chymed prose: for the Saj'a, see vol. i. 116, and Terminal 
Essay, vol. x. p. 255. So Chaucer : 

In rhyme or elles in cadence. 

2 Arab* '* Hiiwa inn4. lam na'rifu-h" lit. = He, verily we wot him not: the 
position of the two first pronouns is intended to suggest " I am he." 



134 Supplemental Nights. 

repeated the saying to t him a second tittle : withal he by no means 
understood her. So quoth she, " How canst thou administer the 
Sultanate and yet fail to comprehend my simple words ? For 
indeed I have made the case clear to thee." Hereupon he 
fathomed the secret of the saying and flew to her in his joy and 
clasped her to his bosom and kissed her upon the cheeks. But 
his mother turned to him and said, "O my son, do not on this 
-wise for everything hath its time and season;" - And Shahrazad 
was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to 
say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How 
sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delect- 
able ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I 
would relate to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me 
to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 



an& gbcbentp-fouttft Jit'gjt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sultan's 
mother said, "O my son, everything hath its time and season*; 
and whoso hurrieth a matter before opportunity befit shall be 
punished with the loss of it." But he replied, "By Allah, O my 
mother, thy suspicion be misplaced : I acted thus only on my 
gratitude to her, for assuredly she is the Knight who came to 
my aidance and who saved me from death." . And his mother 
excused him. They passed that night in converse and next day 
at noontide the King sought the Divan in order to issue his 
commandments ; but when the assembly filled the room and 
became as a garden of bloom the Lords of the land said to him. 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 135 

" O King of the Age, 'twere not suitable that thou become Sultan 
except thou take to thee a wife ; and Alhamdolillah laud to the 
Lord who hath set thee on the necks of His servants and who 
hath restored the realm to thee as successor of thy sire. There is 
no help but that thou marry." Quoth he, " To hear is to consent," 
then he arose without stay or delay and went in to his mother and 
related to her what had happened. Quoth she, " O my son, do- 
what becometh thee and Allah prosper thy affairs ! " He said to 
her, " O my mother, retire thou with the maiden and persuade her 
to marriage for I want none other and I love not aught save her- 
self," and said she, " With joy and gladness." So he went from 
her and she arose and was private with the damsel when she 
addressed her, " O my lady, the King desireth to wed thee and he 
wanteth none other and he seeketh not aught save thee." But the 
Princess hearing this exclaimed, " How shall I marry, I who have 
lost my kith and kin and my dear ones and am driven from my 
country and my birth-place ? This were a proceeding opposed to 
propriety ! But if it need must be and I have the fortune to 
forgather with my mother and sisters and father, then and then 
only it shall take place." The mother replied, " Why this delay, O 
my daughter ? The Lords of the land have stood up against the 
King in the matter of marriage, and in the absence of espousals 
we fear for his deposition. Now maidens be many and their 
relations long to see each damsel wedded to my son and become 
a Queen in virtue of her husband's degree : but he wanteth none 
other and loveth naught save thyself jj; Accordingly, an thou 

.-v-j-?- 

wouldst take compassion on him and protect him by thy consent 
from the insistence of the Grandees, deign accept him to mate." 
Nor did the Sultan's mother cease to speak soothing words to the 
maiden and to gentle her with soft language until her mind was 
made up and she gave consent. 1 Upon this they began to prepare 

1 In Moslem tales decency compels the maiden, however much she may be in love* to 



1 36 Supplemental Nights, 

for the ceremony forthright, and summoned the Kazi and witnesses 
who duly knotted the knot of wedlock and by eventide the glad 
tidings of the espousals were bruited abroad. The King bade 
spread bride-feasts and banqueting tables and invited his high 
Officials and the Grandees of the kingdom and he went in to the 
maiden that very night and the rejoicings grew in gladness and all 
sorrows ceased to deal sadness. Then he proclaimed through the 
capital and all the burghs that the lieges should decorate the 
streets with rare tapestries and multiform in honour of the 
i Sultanate. Accordingly, they adorned the thoroughfares in the 
icity and its suburbs for forty days and the rejoicings increased 
iwhen the King fed the widows and the Fakirs and the mesquin 
and scattered gold and robed and gifted and largessed till all the 
days of decoration were gone by. On this wise the sky of his 
estate grew clear by the loyalty of the lieges and he gave orders 
to deal justice after the fashion of the older Sultans, to wit, the 
Chosroes and the Caesars ; and this condition endured for three 
years, during which Almighty Allah blessed him by the Princess 
with two men-children as they were moons. Such was the case 
with the youngest Princess ; but as regards the cadette, the second 

sister, And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and fell 

silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her 
sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister 
mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is 
this compared with that I would relate to you on the corning night 
an the Sovran suffer me to survive ?" Now when it was the next 
night and that was 



show extrenie unwillingness in parting with her maidenhead especially by marriage ; and 
this farce is enacted in real life (see vol. viii. 40). The French tell the indecent truth, 
Desir de fille est tin feu qui devore : 
k Desir de ferame est plus fort encore. 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 1 37 



DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that as regards the 
case of the cadette, the second damsel, when she was adopted to 
daughter by the ancient dame she fell to spinning with her and 
living by the work of their hands. Now there chanced to govern 
that city a Basha 1 who had sickened with a sore sickness till he was 
near unto death ; and the wise men and leaches had compounded 
for him of medicines a mighty matter which, however, availed him 
naught. At last the tidings came to the ears of the Princess who 
lived with the old woman and she- said to her, " O my mother, I 
desire to prepare a tasse of broth and do thou bear it to the Basha 



1 The Arab, form (our old " bashaw") of the Turk. " Pasha," which the French 
and many English write Pacha, thus confusing the vulgar who called Ibrahim Pacha 
" Abraham Parker.'* The origin of the word is much debated and the most fanciful 
derivations have been proposed. Some have taken it from the Sansk. " Paksha" = a 
wing : Fuerst from Pers. Paigah = rank, dignity ; Von Hammer (History) from Pai- 
Shah = foot of the king ; many from " Padishah " = the Sovran, and Mr. E. T. W. 
Gibb suspects a connection with the Turk. " Bash " = a head. He writes to me that 
the oldest forms are " Bashah " and " Bdshah " ; and takes the following quotation from 
Colonel Jevdd Bey, author of an excellent work on the Janissaries published a few years 
ago. " As it was the custom of the (ancient) Turks to call the eldest son ' PashaV the 
same style was given to his son A1& al-Din (Aladdin) by Osmdn Ghazi, the founder of 
the Empire ; and he kept this heir at home and beside him, whilst he employed the 
cadet Orkhan Bey as his commander-in-chief. When Orkhan Ghazf ascended the 
throne he conferred the title of Pashd upon his son Sulayman. Presently reigned Murad 
(Amurath), who spying signs of disaffection in his first-born Sawuji Bey about the middle 
of his reign created Kara Khalil (his Kazi-Askar or High Chancellor) Wazir with the 
title Kazyr al-Din Pasha ; thus making him, as it were, an adopted son. After this the 
word passed into the category of official titles and came to be conferred upon those 
who received high office." Colonel Jevad Bey then quotes in support of his opinion the 
" History of Munajjim Pasha " and the " Fatayah al-Wuku'at " = Victories of Events. I 
may note that the old title has been sadly prostituted in Egypt as well as an Turkey : in 
1851 Pashas could be numbered on a man's fingers; now they are innumerable and of 
no account. 



138 Supplemental Nights. 

and let him drink of it ; haply will Almighty Allah vouchsafe him 
a cure whereby we shall gain some good " Said the other, " O my 
daughter, and how shall I obtain admittance and who shall set the 
broth before him ? " The maiden replied, " O my mother, at the 
Gate of Allah Almighty ! " ! and the dame rejoined, " Do thou 
whatso thou wiliest." So the damsel arose and cooked a tasse of 
broth and mingled with it sundry hot spices such as pimento 2 
and she had certain leaflets taken from the so-called Wind- 
tree, 3 whereof she inserted a small portion deftly mingling the 
ingredients. Then the old woman took it and set forth and 
walked till she reached the Basha's mansion where the servants 
and eunuchs met her and asked her of what was with her. She 
answered, " This is a tasse of broth which I have brought for the 
Basha that he drink of it as much as he may fancy: haply 
Almighty Allah shall vouchsafe healing to him." They went in 
and reported that to the Basha who exclaimed, " Bring her to me 
hither." Accordingly, they led her within and she offered to him 
the tasse of broth, whereupon he rose and sat upright and removed 
the cover from the cup which sent forth a pleasant savour : so he 
took it and sipped of it a spoonful and a second and a third when 
his heart opened to her and he drank of it till he could no more. 
Now this was in the forenoon and after finishing the soup he gave 
the old woman a somewhat of dinars which she took and returned 
therewith to the damsel rejoicing, and handed to her the gold pieces. 
But the Basha immediately after drinking the broth felt drowsy 
and he slept a restful sleep till mid-afternoon and when he awoke 
health had returned to his frame beginning from the time he drank. 
So he asked after the ancient dame and sent her word to prepare 
for him another tasse of broth like the first ; but they told him 



1 Arab. "'Alk bdbi 'llah " = for love of the Lord, gratis, etc.,' a most popular 
phrase. 

2 Arab. " Bahdr," often used for hot spices generally. 

3 In the text Shajarat Rih. 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. \ 39 

that none knew her dwelling-place. Now when the old woman 
returned home the maiden asked her whether the broth had 
pleased the Basha or not ; and she said that it was very much to 
his liking ; so the girl got ready a second portion but without all 
the stronger ingredients 1 of the first. Then she gave it to the 
dame who took it and went forth with it and whilst the Basha was 
asking for her behold, up she came and the servants took her and 
led her in to the Governor. On seeing her he rose and sat upright 
and called for other food and when it was brought he ate his 
sufficiency, albeit for a length of time he could neither rise nor 
walk. But from the hour he drank all the broth he sniffed the 
scent of health and he could move about as he moved when hale 
and hearty. So he asked the old dame saying, " Didst thou cook 
this broth ? and she answered, " O my lord, my daughter made it 
and sent me with it to thee. He exclaimed, "By Allah this 
maiden cannot be thy daughter, O old woman ; and she can be 
naught save the daughter of Kings. But bid her every day at 
morning-tide cook me a tasse of the same broth. The other 
replied, "To hear is to obey," and returned home with this 
message to the damsel who did as the Basha bade the first day 
and the second to the seventh day. And the Basha waxed 
stronger every day and when the week was ended he took horse 
and rode to his pleasure-garden. He increased continually in 
force and vigour till, one day of the days, he sent for the dame 
and questioned her concerning the damsel who lived with her ; so 
she acquainted him with her case and what there was in her of 
beauty and loveliness and perfect grace. Thereupon the Basha fell 

in love with the girl by hearsay and without eye-seeing 2 : And 

Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and 
ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, 

1 Arab. " Ma'adin" = minerals, here mentioned for the first time. 

2 For the ear conceiving love before the eye (the basis of half these love-stories), see 
vol. Hi. 9. 



1 40 Supplemen tal Nights. 

" How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and 
delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that 
I would relate to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer 
me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night !" She replied : -- With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the director, 
the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and of deeds 
fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Basha fell in love 
with the girl by hearsay and without eye-seeing : so he changed 
his habit and donning a dress of Darwaysh-cut left his mansion 
and threaded the streets passing from house to house until he 
reached that of the old woman. He then knocked at the entrance 
and she came behind it and asked " Who's at the door ? " " A 
Darwaysh and a stranger," answered he, " who knoweth no man in 
this town and who is sore anhungered." Now the ancient dame 
was by nature niggardly and she had lief put him off, but the 
damsel said to her, " Turn him not away," and quoting * Honour 
to the foreigner is a duty/ said, " So do thou let him in." She 
admitted him and seated him when the maiden brought him a 
somewhat of food and stood before him in his service. He ate 
one time and ten times he gazed at the girl until he had eaten his 
sufficiency when he washed his hands and rising left the house and 
went his ways. But his heart flamed with love of the Princess 
and he was deeply enamoured of her and he ceased not walking 
until he reached his mansion whence he sent for the old woman. 
And when they brought her, he produced a mint of money and a 
sumptuous dress in which he requested and prayed her to attire 
the damsel : then the old woman took it and returned to her 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 141 

protegee, saying to herself, " By Allah, if the girl accept the Basha 
and marry him she will prove sensible as fortunate ; but an she 
be not content so to do I will turn her out of my door." When 
she went in she gave her the dress and bade her don it, but the 
damsel refused till the old woman coaxed her and persuaded her 
to try it on. Now when the dame left the Basha, he privily 
assumed a woman's habit and followed in her footsteps ; and at 
last he entered the house close behind her and beheld the Princess 
in the sumptuous dress. Then the fire of his desire flamed higher 
in his heart and he lacked patience to part from her, so he returned 
to his mansion with mind preoccupied and vitals yearning. 
Thither he summoned the old woman and asked her to demand 
the girl in marriage and was instant with her and cried, " No help 
but this must be." Accordingly she returned home and acquainted 
the girl with what had taken place adding, " O my daughter, verily 
the Basha loveth thee and his wish is to wed thee : he hath been a 
benefactor to us, and thou wilt never meet his like ; for that he is 
deeply enamoured of thee and the byword saith, ' Reward of 
lover is return of love/ ' And the ancient dame ceased not 
gentling her and plying her with friendly words till she was soothed 
and gave consent Then she returned to the Basha and informed 
him of her success, so he joyed with exceeding joy, and without 
stay or delay bade slaughter beeves and prepare bridal feasts and 
spread banquets whereto he invited the notables of his government : 
after which he summoned the Kazi who tied the knot and he 
went in to her that night. And of the abundance of his love he 
fared not forth from her till seven days had sped ; and he ceased 
not to cohabit with her for a span of five years during which Allah 
vouchsafed to him a man-child by her and two daughters. Such 
was the case with the cadette Princess ; but as regards the eldest 
sister, when she entered the city in youth's attire she was accosted 
by the Kundfah-baker and was hired for a daily wage of a Mfdf 
of silver'besides her meat and drink in his house. Now 'twas the 



142 Supplemental Nights. 

practice of that man every day to buy half a quartern of flour 
and thereof make his vermicelli ; but when the so-seeming youth 
came to him he would buy and work up three quarterns ; and all 
the folk who bought Kunafah of him would flock to his shop 
with the view of gazing upon the beauty and loveliness of the 
Youth and said, " Exalted be He who created and perfected what 
He wrought in the creation of this young man ! " Now by the 
decree of the Decreer the baker's shop faced the lattice-windows 
of the Sultan's Palace and one day of the days the King's 
daughter chanced to look out at the window and she saw the 
Youth standing with sleeves tucked up from arms which shone like 
ingots 1 of silver. Hereat the Princess fell in love with the Youth, 
- And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and fell silent 
and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth .her sister 
Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful, is thy tale, O sister mine, 
and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this 
compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night an 
the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next 
night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : -- With love and 
good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the director, 
the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and of deeds 
fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that when the Sultan's 
daughter looked out at the window she fell in love with the youth, 
and she knew not how to act that she might forgather with him : 

1 According to Dr. Steingass " Mirwad" = the iron axle of a pulley or a wheel for 
drawing water or lifting loads, hence possibly a bar of metal, an ingot. But he is more 
inclined to take it in its usual sense of " Kohl-pencil." Here " Mirwdd " is the broader 
form like " Miftah " for " Miftah," much used in Syria. 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 143 

so desire afflicted her and extreme fondness and presently she took 
to her pillow all for her affection to that young man. Thereupon 
her nurse went in to her and found her lying upon her carpet-bed 
a-moaning and a-groaning " Ah ! " So she exclaimed, " Thy safety 
from all whereof thou hast to complain ! " Then she took her 
hand and felt her pulse but could find in it no symptoms of sick- 
ness bodily, whereupon she said, " O my lady, thou hast no unease 
save what eyesight hath brought thee." She replied, "O my 
mother, do thou keep sacred my secret, and if thy hand can reach 
so far as to bring me my desire, prithee do so j" and the nurse 
rejoined, " O my lady, like me who can keep a secret ? therefore 
confide to me thy longing and Allah vouchsafe thee thy dearest 
hope." Said the Princess, " O my mother, my heart is lost to the 
young man who worketh in the vermicelli-baker's shop and if I 
fail to be united with him I shall die of grief." The nurse replied, 
" By Allah, O my lady, he is the fairest of his age and indeed I 
lately passed by him as his sleeves were tucked up above his fore- 
arms and he ravished my wits : I longed to accost him but shame 
overcame me in presence of those who were round him, some 
buying Kunafah and others gazing on. his beauty and loveliness, 
his symmetric stature and his perfect grace. But I, O my lady, 
will do thee a service and cause thee forgather with him ere long." 
Herewith the heart of the Princess was solaced and she promised 
the nurse all good. Then the old woman left her and fell to 
devising how she should act in order to bring about a meeting 
between her and the youth or carry him into the Palace. So she 
went to the baker's shop and bringing out an Ashrafi 1 said to him, 
" Take, O Master, this gold piece and make me a platter 2 of 
vermicelli meet for the best and send it for me by this Youth who 



1 For the Ashrafi, a gold coin of variable value, see vol. iii. 294. It is still coined ; 
the Calcutta Ashrafi worth i us. 8d. is ^th (about 55. to the oz.) better than the 
English standard, and the Regulations of May, 1793, made it weigh 190*894 grs. Troy. 

a In text " Anjar " = a flat platter ; Pers. 



144 Supplemental Nights. 

shall bring it to my home that be near hand : I cannot carry it 
myself." Quoth the baker in his mind, " By Allah, good pay is 
this gold piece and a Kunafah is worth ten silverlings ; so all the 
rest is pure profit." And he replied, " On my head and eyes be it, 
O my lady;" and taking the Ashrafi made her a plate of vermi- 
celli and bade his servant bear it to her house. So he took it up 
and accompanied the nurse till she reached the Princess's palace 
when she went in and seated the Youth in an out-of-the-way closet. 
Then she repaired to her nursling and said, " Rise up, O my 
lady, for I have brought thee thy desire." The Princess sprang 
to her feet in hurry and flurry and fared till she came to the closet ; 
then, going in she found the Youth who had set down the Kunafah 
and who was standing in expectation of the nurse's return that he 
and she might wend homewards. And suddenly the Sultan's 
daughter came in and bade the Youth be seated beside her, and 
when he took seat she clasped him to her bosom of her longing for 
him and fell to kissing him on the cheeks and mouth ever 
believing him to be a male masculant, till her hot desire for him 
was quenched. 1 Then she gave to him two golden dinars and said 
to him, " O my lord and coolth of my eyes, do thou come hither 
every day that we may take our pleasure, I and thou." He said, 
" To hear is to obey," and went forth from her hardly believing in 
his safety, for he had learnt that she was the Sultan's daughter, 
and he walked till he reached the shop of his employer to whom 
he gave the twenty dinars. Now when the baker saw the gold, 
affright and terror entered his heart and he asked his servant 
whence the money came ; and, when told of the adventure, his 
horror and dismay increased and he said to himself, "An this 

1 By what physical process the author modestly leaves to the reader's imagination. 
Easterns do not often notice this feminine venereal paroxysm which takes the place of 
seminal emission in the male. I have seen it happen to a girl when hanging by the 
arms a trifle too long from a gymnastic cross-bar ; and I need hardly say that at such 
moments (if men only knew them) every woman, even the most modest, is an easy 
conquest. She will repent it when too late, but the flesh has been too strong for her. 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 145 

case of ours continue, either the Sultan will hear that this youth 
practiseth upon his daughter, or she will prove in the family way 
and 'twill end in our deaths and the ruin of our country. The 
lad must quit this evil path." Thereupon quoth he to the Youth, 
" From this time forwards do thou cease faring forth thereto," 
whereat quoth the other, " I may not prevent myself from going 
and I dread death an I go not." So the man cried, " Do whatso 
may seem good to thee." Accordingly, the Princess in male attire 
fell to going every morning and meeting the Sultan's daughter, 
till one day of the days she went in and the twain sat down and 
laughed and enjoyed themselves, when lo and behold ! the King 
entered. And as soon as he espied the youth and saw him seated 
beside his daughter, he commanded him be arrested and they 
arrested him ; - And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of 
day and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then 
quoth her sister Dunyazad, "How sweet is thy story, O sister 
mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And 
where is this compared with that I would relate to you on the 
coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it 
was the next night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : --- With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that when the 
Sultan entered and saw the youth sitting beside his daughter he 
commanded him to be arrested and they arrested him ; they also 
seized the Princess and bound her forearms to her sides with 
straitest bonds. Then the King summoned the Linkman and 
VOL. TV. K 



146" Supplemental Nights. 

bade him smite off both their heads : so he took them and went 
down with them to the place of execution. But when the tidings 
reached the Kunafani he shut up shop without stay and delay and 
fled. Presently the Sultan said in his mind, " Fain would I 
question the Youth touching his object in entering hither, and ask 
him who conducted him to my daughter and how he won access 
to her/' Accordingly he sent to bring back the twain and 
imprisoned them till night-fall : then he went in to his Harem 
and caused his daughter's person to be examined, and when they 
inspected her she proved to be a pure maid. This made the King 
marvel, for he supposed that the Youth must have undone her 
maidenhead j 1 so he sent for him to the presence, and when he came 
he considered him and found him fairer even than his daughter ; 
nay, far exceeding her in beauty and loveliness. So he cried, " By 
Allah this be a wondrous business ! Verily my daughter hath 
excuse for loving this Youth nor to my judgment doth she even 
him in charms : not the less this affair is a shame to us, and the 
foulest of stains and needs must the twain be done to death 
to-morrow morning ! " Herewith he commanded the jailer to take 
the Youth and to keep him beside him and he shut up the girl 
with her nurse. The jailer forthwith led his charge to the jail ; 
but it so happened that its portal was low ; and, when the Youth 
was ordered to pass through it, he bent his brow downwards for 
easier entrance, when his turband struck against the lintel and fell 
from his head. The jailer turned to look at him, and behold, his 
hair was braided and the plaits being loosed gleamed like an ingot 
of gold. He felt assured that the youth was a maiden so he 
returned to the King in all haste and hurry and cried, " Pardon, 
O our lord the Sultan ! " " Allah pardon us and thee ; " replied 
the King, and the man rejoined, " O King of the Age, yonder 1 
Youth is no boy ; nay, he be a virgin girl." Quoth the Sultan, 

'..*_ A neat and suggestive touch of Eastern manners 'and morals. 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 

"What sayest thou ? " and quoth the other, By the truth of Him 
who made thee ruler of the necks of His worshippers, O King of 
the Age, verily this is a maiden." So he bade the prison-keeper 
bring her and set her in his presence and he returned with her 
right soon, but now she paced daintily as the gazelle and veiled her 
face, because she saw that the jailer had discovered her sex. The 
King then commanded them carry her to the Harem whither he 
followed her and presently, having summoned his daughter, he 
questioned her concerning the cause of her union with the so-seem- 
ing Youth. Herewith she related all that had happened with 
perfect truth : he also put questions to the Princess in man's habit, 
but she stood abashed before him and was dumb, unable to utter a 
single word. As soon as it was morning, the Sultan asked of the 
place where the Youth had dwelt and they told him that he lodged 
with a Kundfah-baker, and the King bade fetch the man, when they 
reported that he had fled. However, the Sultan was instant in 
finding him, so they went forth and sought him for two days when 
they secured him and set him between the royal hands. He enquired 
into the Youth's case and the other replied, " By Allah, O King 
of the Age, between me and him were no questionings and I 
wot not whence may be his origin." The Monarch rejoined, " O 
man, thou hast my plighted word for safety, so continue thy 
business as before and now gang thy gait." Then he turned to 
the maiden and repeated his enquiries, when she made answer 
saying, " O my lord, my tale is wondrous and my adventures 

marvellous." " And what may they be ?" he asked her. And 

Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and 
ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, 
" How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable 
and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with 
that I would relate to you on the coming night an the Sovran 
suffer me to survive?" Now when it was the next night and 
that was 



Supplemental Nights. 



anfc &ebentg=mnt!) 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love 

and good will! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Princess 
said to the Sultan, " In very sooth my tale is passing strange," and 
he besought her to recount it. So she began to disclose the whole 
of her history and the adventures which had befallen her and her 
sisters and their mother ; especially of the shipwreck in middle- 
most ocean and of her coming to land j after which .she told the 
affair of the Wazir burnt by her sire, that traitor who had separated 
children from father and, brief, all that had betided them from first 
to last. Hearing her soft speech and her strange story the Sultan 
marvelled and his heart inclined herwards ; then he gave her in 
charge to the Palace women and conferred upon her favours and 
benefits. But when he looked upon her beauty and loveliness, her 
brilliancy and perfect grace he fell deeply in love with her, and his 
daughter hearing the accidents which had happened to the Princess's 
father cried, u By Allah, the story of this damsel should be chronicled 
in a book, that it become the talk of posterity and be quoted as 
an instance of the omnipotence of Allah Almighty ; for He it is 
who parteth and scattereth and re-uniteth." So saying she took 
lier and carried her to her own apartment where she entreated her 
honourably ; and the maiden, after she had spent a month in the 
Palace, showed charms grown two-fold and even more. At last 
one day of the days, as she sat beside the King's daughter in her 
chamber about eventide, when the sun was hot after a sultry summer 
day and her cheeks had flushed rosy red, behold, the Sultan 
entered passing through the room on his way to the Harem and 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 149 

his glance undesignedly 1 fell upon the Princess who was in home 
gear, and he looked a look of eyes that cost him a thousand sighs. 
So he was astounded and stood motionless knowing not whether to 
go or to come ; and when his daughter sighted him in such plight 
she went up to him and said, " What hath betided thee and brought 
thee to this condition ?" Quoth he, " By Allah, this girl hath stolen 
my senses from my soul : I am fondly enamoured of her and if 
thou aid me not by asking her in marriage and I fail to wed her 
'twill make my wits go clean bewildered." Thereupon the King's 
daughter returned to the damsel and drawing near her said, " O 
my lady and light of my eyes, indeed my father hath seen, thee in 
thy deshabille and he hath hung 2 all his hopes upon thee, so do not 
thou contrary my words nor the counsel I am about to offer thee.'' 
" And what may that be, O my lady ?" asked she, and the other 
answered, "My wish is to marry thee to my sire 'and thou be to 
him wife and he be to thee man." But when the maiden heard 
these words she wept with bitter weeping till she sobbed aloud and 
cried, " Time hath mastered us and decreed separation : I know 
nothing of my mother and sisters and father, an they be dead or on 
life, and whether they were drowned or came to ground ; then how 
should I enjoy a bridal fete when they may be in mortal sadness 
and sorrow ? " But the other ceased not to soothe her and array 
fair words against her and show her fondly friendship till her soul 
consented to wedlock. Presently the other brought out to her what 
habit befitted the occasion still comforting her heart with pleasant 
converse, 3 after which she carried the tidings to her sire. So he 
sent forthright to summon his Lords of the reign and Grandees of 



1 In text " Ghayr Wa'd," or " Min ghayr Wa'd." Lit. without previous agreement : 
much used in this text for suddenly, unexpectedly, without design. 

2 The reader will have remarked the use of the Arabic " ' Alaka " = he hung, which 
with its branches greatly resembles the Lat. pendere. 

3 Arab. "Min al-MaUbis", plur. of " Malbas " = anything pleasant or enjoyable; 
as the plural of "Milbas " = dress, garment, it cannot here apply. 



150 Supplemental Nights. 

the realm and the knot was tied between them twain ; and, going 
in unto her that night, he found her a hoard wherefrom the spell 
had freshly been dispelled ; and of his longing for her and his 
desire to her he abode with her two se'nnights never going forth 
from her or by night or by day. Hereat the dignitaries of his 
empire were sore vexed for that their Sultan ceased to appear 
at the Divan and deal commandment between man and man, and 
his daughter went in and acquainted him therewith. He asked 
her how long he had absented himself and she answered saying, 
" Knowest thou how long thou hast tarried in the Palace ?" whereto 
he replied " Nay." " Fourteen whole days," cried she, whereupon 
he exclaimed, " By Allah, O my daughter, I thought to myself that 
I had spent with her two days and no more." And his daughter 
wondered to hear his words. Such was the case of the cadette 
Princess ; but as regards the King, the father of the damsel, when 
he forgathered with the mother of his three daughters and she 
told him of the shipwreck and the loss of her children he determined 
to travel in search of the three damsels, he and the Wazir habited 

as Darwayshes And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of 

day and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then 
quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, 
and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, "And where is 
this compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night 
an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next 
night and that was 



an* i$t(etfj 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 1 5 1 

director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sultan 
resolved to travel in search of his children (the three damsels) 
he and his Wazir habited as Darwayshes. So leaving the govern- 
ment in charge of his wife he went forth and the twain in their 
search first visited the cities on the seaboard beginning with the 
nearest ; but they knew not what was concealed from them in the 
world of the future. They stinted not travelling for the space of 
a month till they came to a city whose Sultan had a place hight 
Al-Dijlah l whereupon he had built a Palace. The Darwayshes 
made for it and found the King sitting in his Kiosque 2 accom- 
panied by two little lads, the elder eight years old and the second 
six. They drew near to him and saluting him offered their 
services and blessed him, wishing him length of life as is the 
fashion when addressing royalties ; and he returned their greetings 
and made them draw near and showed them kindness ; also, when 
it was eventide he bade his men serve them with somewhat of 
food. On the next day the King fared forth to Tigris-bank and 
sat in his Kiosque together with the two boys. Now the Dar- 
wayshes had hired them a cell in the Khan whence it was their 
daily wont to issue forth and wander about the city asking for 
what they sought; and this day they again came to the place 1 
wherein sat the Sultan and they marvelled at the fair ordinance of 
the Palace. They continued to visit it every day till one day 
of the days the two went out, according to their custom, and 
when entering the Palace one of the King's children, which was 
the younger, came up to them and fell to considering them as 
if he had forgotten his own existence. This continued till the 
Darwayshes retired to their cell in the caravanserai whither the 



1 i.e. "The Tigris" (Hid-dekel), with which the Egyptian writer seems to be im- 
perfectly acquainted. Seevols. i. 180; viii. 150. 

2 The word, as usual misapplied in the West, is to be traced through the Turk. 
Kushk (pron. Kyushk) to the Pers. " Kushk " = an upper chamber. 



I 5 2 Supplemental Nights. 

boy followed them to carry out the Secret Purpose existing in the 
All-knowledge of Allah. And when the two sat down the 
Sultan's son went in to them and fell to gazing upon them and 
solacing himself with the sight, when the elder Darwaysh clasped 
him to his bosom and fell to kissing his cheeks, marvelling at his 
semblance and at his beauty ; and the boy in his turn forgot his 
father and his mother and took to the old man. Now whenas. 
night fell the Sultan retired homewards fancying that his boy 
had foregone him to his mother while the Sultanah fancied that 
her child was with his father, and this endured till such time as 
the King had entered the Harem. But only the elder child was 
found there so the Sultan asked, " Where is the second boy ? " 
and the Queen answered, " Day by day thou takest them with 
thee to Tigris-bank and thou bringest them back ; but to-day 
only the elder hath returned." Thereupon they sought him but 
found him not and the mother buffeted her face in grief for her 
child and the father lost his right senses. Then the iiigh Officials 
fared forth to search for their King's son and sought him from 
early night to the dawn of day, but not finding him they deemed 
that he had been drowned in Tigris-water. So they summoned 
all the fishermen and divers and caused them to drag the river 
for a space of four days. All this time and the boy abode with 
the Darwayshes, who kept saying to him, " Go to thy father and 
thy mother;" but he would not obey them and he would sit 
with the Fakirs upon whom all his thoughts were fixed while 
theirs were fixed upon him. This lasted till the fifth day when 
the door-keeper unsummoned entered the cell and found the 
Sultan's son sitting with the old men ; so he went out hurriedly 
and repairing to the King cried, " O my Sovran, thy boy is with 
those Darwayshes who were wont daily to visit thee." Now when 
the Sultan heard the porter's words, he called aloud to his 
Eunuchs and Chamberlains and gave them his orders ; when they 
ran a race, as it were, till they entered upon the holy men and 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 153 

carried them from their cell together with the boy and set all 
four l before the Sultan. The King exclaimed, " Verily these 
Darwayshes must be spies and their object was to carry off my 
boy;" so he took up his child and clasped him to his bosom 
and kissed him again and again of his yearning fondness to him, 
and presently he sent him to his mother who was well-nigh frantic. 
Then he committed the two Fakirs (with commands to decapitate 
them) to the Linkman who took them and bound their hands and 
bared their heads and fell to crying, '< This be his reward and the 
least of awards who turneth traitor and kidnappeth the sons of 
the Kings'; " and as he cried all the citizens great and small flocked 
to the spectacle. But when the boy heard the proclamation, he 
went forth in haste till he stood before the elder Darwaysh who 
was still kneeling upon the rug of blood and threw himself upon 
him at full length till the Grandees of his father forcibly removed 
him. Then the executioner stepped forward purposing to strike 
the necks of the two old men and he raised his sword hand till 
the dark hue of his arm-pit showed 2 and he would have dealt 
the blow when .the boy again made for the elder Fakir and 
threw himself upon him not only once but twice and thrice, pre- 
venting the Sworder's stroke and abode clinging to the old man. 
The Sultan cried, " This Darwaysh is a Sorcerer : " but when the 
tidings reached the Sultanah, the boy's mother, she exclaimed, 1 



1 Four including the doorkeeper. The Darwayshes were suspected of kidnapping, 
a practice common in the East, especially with holy men. I have noticed in my Pil- 
grimage (vols. ii. 273 ; iii. 327), that both at Meccah and at Al-Medinah the cheeks ot 
babes are decorated with the locally called "Mashali " = three parallel gashes drawn 
by the barber with the razor down the fleshy portion of each cheek, from the exterior 
angles of the eyes almost to the corners of the mouth. According to the citizens, 
this "Tashrit" is a modem practice distinctly opposed to the doctrine of AMslam ; 
but, like the tattooing of girls, it is intended to save the children from being carried off, 
for good luck, by kidnapping pilgrims, especially Persians. 

2 The hair being shaven or plucked and showing the darker skin. In the case of the 
axilla-pile, vellication is the popular process : see vol. ix. 139. Europeans who do not 
adopt this essential part of cleanliness in hot countries are looked upon as impure by 
Moslems. 



154 Supplemental Nights. 

"O King, needs must this D2rwaysh have a strange 'tale to tell, 
for the boy is wholly absorbed in him. So it is not possible to 
slay him on this wise till thou summon him to the presence and 
question him : I also will listen to him behind the curtain and 
thus none shall hear him save ,our two selves." The King did 
her bidding and commanded the old man to be brought : so they 
took him from under the sword and set him before the King 

And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell 

silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her 
sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister 
mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where 
is this compared with that I would relate to you on the coming 
night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was 
the next night and that was 

W&, f)W ?^untolf anfc 3Ef$tj}=first Iffg&t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that at the King's 
bidding they took up the Fakir who was still kneeling under the 
glaive and set him before the King who bade him be seated. 
And when he sat him down the Sultan commanded all who were 
in the presence of Eunuchs and Chamberlains to withdraw, and 
they withdrew leaving the Sovran with the old religious. But the 
second Darwaysh still knelt in his bonds under the sword of the 
Sworder- who, standing over against his head, kept looking for the 
royal signal to strike. Then cried the King, " O Mendicant, what 
drove thee to take my son, the core of my heart ? " He replied, 
" By Allah, O King, I took him not for mine own. pleasure ; 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. \ 5 5 

but he would not go from me and I threatened him, withal he 
showed no fear till this destiny descended upon us." Now when 
the Sultan heard these words his heart softened to the old man 
and he pitied him while the Sultanah who sat behind the curtain 
fell to weeping aloud. Presently the King said, " O Darwaysh, 
relate to us thy history, for needs must it be a singular ; " but the 
old man began to shed tears and said, " O King of the Age, I 
have a marvellous adventure which were it graven with needle- 
gravers upon the eye corners were a warning to whoso would be 
warned." The Sultan was surprised and replied, "What then 
may be thy history, O Mendicant ? " and the other rejoined, " O 
King of the Age, I will recount it to thee." 1 Accordingly he told 
him of his kingship and the Wazir tempting his wife and of her 
slaying the nurse, the slave-girls, and the Eunuch ; but when he 
came to this point the Sultanah ran out in haste and hurry from 
behind the curtain and rushing up to the Darwaysh threw herself 
upon his bosom. The King seeing this marvelled and in a fury of 
jealousy clapped hand to hilt crying to the Fakir, " This be most 
unseemly behaviour ! " But the Queen replied, " Hold thy hand, 
by Allah, fie is my father and I am his loving daughter ; " and 
she wept and laughed alternately 2 all of the excess of her joy. 
Hereat the King wondered and bade release the second religious 
and exclaimed, " Sooth he spake who said : 

Allah joineth the parted when think the twain * With firmest thought ne'er to 
meet again.** 

Then the Sultanah began recounting to him the history of her 
sire and specially what befel him from his Wazir ; and he, when he 
heard her words, felt assured of their truth. Presently he bade them 
change the habits of her father and of his Wazir and dress them 
with the dress of Kings ; and he set apart for them an apartment 

1 Here a little abbreviation has been found necessary: "of no avail is a twice-told 
tale." 
9 The nearest approach in Eastern tales to Western hysterics. 



156 Supplemental Nights. 

and alloited to them rations of meat and drink ; so extolled be 
He who disuniteth and reuniteth ! Now the Sultanah in question 
was the youngest daughter of the old King who had been met by 
the Knight when out hunting, the same that owed all his fair 
fortunes to her auspicious coming. Accordingly the, father was 
assured of having found the lost one and was delighted to note her 
high degree ; but after tarrying with her for a time he asked permis- 
sion of his son-in-law to set out in quest of her two sisters and he 
supplicated Almighty Allah to reunite him with the other twain as 
with this first one. Thereupon quoth the Sultan, " It may not be 
save that I accompany thee, for otherwise haply some mishap of 
the world may happen to thee." Then the three sat down in 
council debating what they should do and in fine they agreed to 
travel, taking with them some of the Lords of the land and 
Chamberlains and Nabobs. They made ready and after three 
days they marched out of the city - And Shahrazad was sur- 
prised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her 
permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is 
thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " 
Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I would relate 
to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " 
'Mow when it was the next night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the old King 
marched forth the city accompanied by his son-in-law and his 
Wazir after the Sultan had supplied his own place by a Vice- 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 157 

regent who would carry out his commandments. Then they 
turned to travelling in quest of the two lost daughters and stinted 
not their wayfare for a space of twenty days, when they drew near 
a city lofty of base, and, finding a spacious camping. plain, thereon 
pitched their tents. The time was set of sun, so the cooks 
applied themselves to getting ready the evening meal and when 
supper was served up all ate what sufficed them, and it was but 
little because of the travails of travel, and they nighted in that site 
until morn was high. Now the ruler of that city was a Sultan 
mighty of might, potent of power and exceeding in energy ; and 
he was surprised to hear a Chamberlain report to him saying, " O 
King of the Age, after an eventless night early this morning we 
found outside thy capital tents and pavilions with standards and 
banners planted overagainst them and all this after the fashion of 
the Kings." The Sovran replied, "There is no help but that to 
these creations of Allah some requirement is here : however, we 
will learn their tidings." So he took horse with his Grandees and 
made for the ensigns and colours, and drawing near he noted 
gravity and majesty in the array and eunuchs and followers and 
serving-men standing ready to do duty. Then he dismounted and 
walked till he approached the bystanders whom he greeted with 
the salam. They salam'd in return and received him with most 
honourable reception and highmost respect till they had introduced 
him into the royal Shahmiyanah ; when the two Kings rose to 
him and welcomed him and he wished them long life in such 
language as is spoken by Royalties ; and all sat down to converse 
one with other. Now the Lord of the city had warned his people 
before he fared forth that dinner must be prepared ; so when it 
was mid-forenoon the Farrdsh-folk 1 spread the tables with trays of 
food and the guests came forward, one and all, and enjoyed their 



1 A tent-pitcher, body servant, etc. See voL vii. 4. The word is still popular in 
Persia. 



1 5 8 Supplemental Nights. 

meal and were gladdened. Then the dishes were carried away 
for the servants and talk went round till sunset, at which time the 
King again ordered food to be brought and all supped till they 
had their sufficiency. But the Sultan kept wondering in his mind 
and saying, " Would Heaven I wot the cause of these two Kings 
coming to us ! " and when night fell the strangers prayed him to 
return home and to revisit them next morning. So he farewelled 
them and fared forth. This lasted three days, during which time 
he honoured them with all honour, and on the fourth he got ready 
for them a banquet and invited them to his Palace. They mounted 
and repaired thither when he set before them food; and as soon 
as they had fed, the trays were removed and coffee and confections 
and sherbets were served up and they sat talking and enjoying 
themselves till supper-tide when they sought permission to hie 
campwards. But the Sultan of the city sware them to pass the 
night with him ; so they returned to their session till the father of 
the damsels said, u Let each of us tell a tale that our waking hours 
may be the more pleasant." " Yes/' they replied and all agreed 
in wishing that the Sultan of the city would begin. Now by the 
decree of the Decreer the lattice-window of the Queen opened Upon 
the place of session and she could see them and hear every word 
they said. He began, *" By Allah I have to relate an adventure 
which befel me and 'tis one of the wonders of our time." Quoth 

they, " And what may it be ? " And Shahrazad was surprised by 

the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted 
say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful 
is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth 
she, " And where is this compared with that I would relate ta you 
on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now 
when it was the next night and that was 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 159 



DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night!" She replied: With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sultan 
of the city said, " In such a year I had a malady which none 
availed to medicine until at last an old woman came to me bearing 
a tasse of broth which when I drank caused health return to me. 
So I bade her bring me a cupful every day and I drank it till, 
after a time, I chanced to ask her who made that broth and she 
answered that it was her daughter. And one day I assumed a 
disguise and went to the ancient dame's house and there saw the 
girl who was a model of beauty and loveliness, brilliancy, sym- 
metric stature and perfect grace, and seeing her I lost my heart to 
her, and asked her to wife. She answered, " How can I wed ; I 
separated from my sisters and parents and all unknowing what 
hath become of them ? " Now when the father of the damsels 
heard these words, tears rolled down his cheeks in rills and he 
remembered his two lost girls and wept and moaned and com- 
plained, the Sultan looking on in astonishment the while ; and 
when he went to his Queen he found her lying in a fainting fit. 
Hereupon he cried out her name and seated her and she on coming 
to exclaimed, " By Allah, he who wept before you is my very 
father : by Him who created me I have no doubt thereof!" So 
the Sultan went down to his father-in-law and led him up to the 
Harem, and the daughter rose and met him and they threw their 
arms round each other's necks, and fondly greeted each other. 
After this the old King passed the night relating to her what had 
befallen him while she recounted to him whatso hath betided her, 



160 Supplemental Nights. 

from first to last, whereupon their rejoicings increased and the 
father thanked Almighty Allah for having found two of his three 
children. The old King and his sons-in-law and his Wazir ceased 
not to enjoy themselves in the city, eating and drinking 1 and 
making merry for a space of two days when the father asked 
aidance of his daughters' husbands to seek his third child that the 
general joy might be perfected. This request they granted and 
resolved to journey with him ; so they made their preparations for 
travel and issued forth the city together with sundry Lords of the 
land and high Dignitaries, all taking with them what was required of 
rations. Then travelling together in a body they faced the march. 
This was their case ; but as regards the third daughter (she who 
in. man's attire had served the KunaTah-baker), after being married 
to the Sultan his love for her and desire to her only increased 
and she cohabited with him for a length of time. But one day of the 
days she called to mind her parents and her kith and kin and her 
native country, so she wept with sorest weeping till she swooned 
away and when she recovered she rose without stay or delay and 
taking two suits of Mameluke's habits patiently awaited the fall of 
night. Presently she donned one of the dresses and went down to 
the stables where, finding all the grooms asleep, she saddled her 
a stallion of the noblest strain and clinging to the near side 
mounted him. Then, having supplicated the veiling of the Veiler, 
she fared undercover of the glooms for her own land, all unweeting 
the way, and when night gave place to day she saw herself amidst 
mountains and sands; nor did she know what she should do. 
However she found on a hill-flank some remnants of the late rain 
which she drank ; then, loosing the girths of her horse she gave 
him also to drink and she was about to take her rest in that place 
when, lo and behold ! a lion big of bulk and mighty of might drew 



1 The amount of eating and drinking in this tale is phenomenal j but, I repeat, Arabs 
enjoy reading of " meat and drink " almost as much as Englishmen. 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 161 

near her and he was lashing his tail l and roaring thunderously, 

And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell 

silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister 
Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how en- 
joyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared 
with that I would relate to you on the coming night, an the 
Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night 
and that was 



ana 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night!" She replied: With 

iove and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that when the lion 
advanced to spring upon the Princess who was habited as a Mame- 
luke, and rushed to rend her in pieces, she, seeing her imminent 
peril, sprang up in haste and bared her blade and met him brand 
in hand saying, " Or he will slay me or I slay him." But as she 
was hearty of heart she advanced till the two met and fell to fight 
and struck each at other, but the lion waxed furious and gnashed 
his tusks, now retreating and now circuiting around her and then 
returning to front his foe purposing to claw her, when she 
heartened her heart and without giving ground she swayed her 
sabre with all the force of her forearm and struck the beast between 
tlie eyes and the blade came out gleaming between his. thighs and 
he sank on earth life-forlore and weltering in his gore. Presently 
she wiped her scymitar and returned it to its sheath ; then, drawing 



1 Arab writers always insist upon the symptom of rage which distinguishes the felines 
from the canines ; but they do not believe that the end of the tail has a sting. 

VOL. IV. T 



1 62 Supplemental Nights. 

a whittle she came up to the carcass intending to skin it for her 
own use, when behold, there towered from afar two dust-clouds, 
one from the right and the other from the left, whereat she with- 
drew from flaying the Ho'n's fell and applied herself to looking out. 
Now by the decree of the Decreer the first dust-cloud approaching 
her was that raised by the host of her father and his sons-in-law who, 
when they drew near all stood to gaze upon her and consider her, 
saying in wonderment one to other, " How can this white slave (and 
he a mere lad) have slain this lion single-handed ? Wallahi, had 
that beast charged down upon us he had scattered us far and 
wide, and haply he had torn one of us to pieces. By Allah, this 
matter is marvellous ! " But the Mameluke looked mainly at the 
old King whom he knew to be his sire for his heart went forth to 
him. Meanwhile the second dust-cloud approached until those 
beneath it met the others who had foregone them, and behold, under 
it was the husband of the disguised Princess and his many. Now 
the cause of this King marching forth and coming thither was this. 
When he entered the Palace intending for the Harem, he found not 
his Queen, and he fared forth to seek her and presently by the 
decree of the Decreer the two hosts met at the place where the lion 
had been killed. The Sultan gazed upon the Mameluke and mar- 
velled at his slaying the monster and said to himself, " Now were 
this white slave mine I would share with him my good and stablish 
him in my kingdom." Herewith the Mameluke came forward and 
flayed the lion of his fell and gutted him ; then, lighting a fire he 
roasted somewhat of his flesh until it was sufficiently cooked all 
gazing upon him the while and marvelling at the heartiness of his 
heart And when the meat was ready, he carved it and setting it 
upon a Sufrah 1 of leather said to all present, " Bismillah, eat, in the 
name of Allah, what Fate hath given to you ! " Thereupon all 



1 The circular leather which acts alternately provision bag and table-cloth. See vols* 
i. 178 ; v. 8 ; viii. 269, and ix. 141. 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. \ 63 

came forward and fell to eating of the lion's flesh except the 
Princess's husband who was not pleased to join them and said, 
" By Allah, I will not eat of this food until I learn the case of this 
youth." l Now the Princess had recognised her spouse from the 
moment of his coming, but she was concealed from him by her 
Mameluke's clothing ; and he disappeared time after time then 
returned to gaze upon the white slave, eyeing now his eyes now his 
sides and now the turn of his neck and saying privily in his 
mind, " Laud to the Lord who created and fashioned him ! By 
Allah this Mameluke is the counterpart of my wife in eyes and 
nose, and all his form and features are made likest-like unto hers. 
So extolled be He who hath none similar and no equal ! " He was 
drowned in this thought but all the rest ate till they had eaten 
enough ; then they sat down to pass the rest of their day and their 
night in that stead. When it was dawn each and every craved 
leave to depart upon his own business ; but the Princess's husband 
asked permission to wander in quest of her while the old King, the 
father of the damsels, determined to go forth with his two sons-in- 
law and find the third and last of his lost daughters. Then the 
Mameluke said to them, <; O my lords, sit we down, I and you, for 
the rest of the day in this place and to-morrow I will travel with 
you." Now the Princess for the length of her wanderings (which 
began too when she was a little one) had forgotten the semblance 
of her sire ; but when she looked upon the old King her heart 
yearned unto him and she fell to talking with him, while he on 
his part whenever he gazed at her felt a like longing and sought 
speech of her. So the first who consented to the Mameluke's 
proposal was the sire whose desire was naught save to sit beside 
her ; then the rest also agreed to pass the day reposing in that 
place, for that it was a pleasant mead and a spacious, garnished 



1 He refused because he suspected some trick and would not be on terms of bread 
and salt with the stranger. 



164 Supplemental Nights. 

with green grass and bright with bourgeon and blossom. So they 
took seat there till sundown when each brought out what victual 
he had and all ate their full and then fell to conversing; and 
presently said the Princess, " O my lords, let each of you tell us a 
tale which he deemeth strange." Her father broke in saying, 
" Verily this rede be right and the first to recount will be I, for 
indeed mine is a rare adventure." Then he began his history 
telling them that he was born a King and that such-and-such 
things had befallen him and so forth until the end of his tale ; 
and the Princess hearing his words was certified that he was 
her sire. So presently she said, "And I too have a strange 

history." And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day 

and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth 
her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister 
mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where 
is this compared with that I would relate to you on the coming 
night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ?" Now when it was the 
next night and that was 

^6e &m ^unfcrefc anti ^tgijtg-fiftb Nigfjt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night!" She replied: With 

love and goodwill ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Princess 
in Mameluke's habit said, " And I too have a strange history." 
Then she fell to relating all that had betided her from the very 
beginning to that which hath before been described ; and when 
her father heard it he felt assured that she was his daughter. So 
he arose and threw himself upon her and embraced her and after 
he veiled her face with a kerchief was with him, and her husband 



Story of the Three Sisters and their Mother. 165 

exclaimed, " Would to Heaven that I also could forgather with my 
wife." Quoth she, "Inshallah, and that soon," and she inclined 
to him after kindly fashion and said to herself, " Indeed this be 
my true husband." Herewith all resolved to march from that 
stead and they departed, the Princess's spouse still unknowing 
that she was his wife ; and they stinted not faring till they entered 
the Sultan's city and all made for the Palace. Then the Princess 
slipped privily into the Harem without the knowledge of her mate 
and changed her semblance, when her father said to her husband, 
" Hie thee to the women's apartment : haply Allah may show to 
thee thy wife." So he went in and found her sitting in her own 
apartment and he marvelled as he espied her and drew near her 
and threw his arms round her neck of his fond love to her and 
asked her concerning her absence* Thereupon she told him the 
truth saying, "I went forth seeking my sire and habited in a 
Mameluke's habit and 'twas I slew the lion and roasted his flesh 
over the fire, but thou wouldest not eat thereof." At these words 
the Sultan rejoiced and his rejoicings increased and all were in 
the highmost of joy and jolliment ; he and her father with the two 
other sons-in-law, and this endured for a long while. But at last 
all deemed it suitable to revisit their countries and capitals and 
each farewelled his friends and the whole party returned safe and 
sound to their own homes. 1 



1 The story contains excellent material, but the writer or the copier has " scamped " 
it in two crucial points, the meeting of the bereaved Sultan and his wife (Night ccclxxvii) 
and the finale where we miss the pathetic conclusions of the Mac. and Bresl. Edits. Also 
a comparison of this hurried denouement with the artistic tableau of "King Omar bin 
al-Nu'uman," where all the actors are mustered upon the stage before the curtain falls, 
measures the difference between this MS. and the printed texts, showing the superior 
polish and finish of the latter. 



THE STORY OF THE KAZI WHO BARE 
A BABE. 



1 6 9 



THE STORY OF THE KAZI WHO BARE A BABE. 1 

IT hath been related that in Tarabulus-town 2 of Syria was a Kazf 
appointed under orders of the Caliph Harun al-Rashfd to adjudge 
law-suits and dissolve contracts and cross-examine witnesses ; and 
after taking seat in his Mahkamah 3 his rigour and severity became 
well known to all men. Now this judge kept a black hand- 
maiden likest unto a buffalo-bull and she cohabited with him for a 
lengthened while ; for his nature was ever niggardly nor could any- 
one wrest from him half a Faddah or any alms-gift or aught else ; 
and his diet was of biscuit 4 and onions. Moreover, he was osten- 
tatious as he was miserly : he had an eating-cloth bordered with a 
fine bell-fringe, 5 and when any person entered about dinner-time 
or supper-tide he would cry out, " O handmaid, fetch the fringed 
table-cloth ; " and all who heard his words would say to them- 
selves, " By Allah, this must needs be a costly thing." Presently 
one day of the days his assessors and officers said to him, " O our 
lord the Kazi, take to thyself a wife, for yon negress becometh 
not a dignitary of thy degree." Said he, "An this need be, let 
any who hath a daughter give her to me in wedlock and I will 
espouse her." Herewith quoth one present, " I have a fair daughter 



1 Vol. iii. pp. 386-97, where it follows immediately the last story. Scott (Story of 
the Avaricious Cauzee and his Wife, vi. 112) has translated it after his own fashion, 
excising half and supplying it out of his own invention ; and Gauttier has followed suit 
in the Histoire du Cadi avare et de sa Femtne, vi. 254. 

2 Tarabulus and Atrabulus are Arabisations of Tripolis (hod. Tripoli) the Well-known 
port-town north of Bayrut ; founded by the Phoenicians, rose to fame under the 
Seleucidse, and was made splendid by the Romans. See Socin's " Baedeker," p. 509. 

3 i.e. the Kazi's court-house. 

4 Arab. " Buksumah " = "hard bread " (Americanice). 

5 Arab. " Sufrah umm jalajil." Lit. an eating-cloth with little bells, like those hung 
to a camel, or metal plates as on the rim of a tambourine. 



1 70 Supplemen tal Nights. 

and a marriageable," whereto quoth the Kazi, " An thou wouldst 
do me a favour this is the time." So the bride was fitted out and 
the espousals took place forthright and that same night the Kazi's 
father-in-law came to him and led him in to his bride saying in 
his heart, " I am now connected with the Kazi." And he took 
pleasure in the thought for he knew naught of the judge's 
stinginess and he could not suppose but that his daughter would 
be comfortable with her mate and well-to-do in the matter of diet 
and dress and furniture. Such were the fancies which occurred to 
him ; but as for the Kazi, he lay with the maid and abated her 
maidenhead ; and she in the morning awaited somewhat wherewith 
to break her fast and waited in vain. Presently the Kazi left her 
and repaired to his court-house whither the city-folk came and 
gave him joy of his marriage and wished him good morning, 
saying in themselves, " Needs must he make a mighty fine bride- 
feast." But they sat there to no purpose until past noon when 
each went his own way privily damning the judge's penuriousness. 
As soon as they were gone he returned to his Harem and cried 
out to his black wench, " O handmaiden, fetch the fringed table- 
cloth ; " and his bride hearing this rejoiced, saying to herself, " By 
Allah, his calling for this cloth requireth a banquet which befitteth 
it, food suitable for the Kings." The negress arose and faring 
forth for a short time returned with the cloth richly fringed and 
set upon it a Kursi-stool, 1 and a tray of brass whereon were served 
three biscuits and three onions. When the bride saw this, she 
prayed in her heart saying, " Now may my Lord wreak my revenge 
upon my father ! " but her husband cried to her, " Come hither, my 
girl," and the three sat down to the tray wherefrom each took a 

1 The Kursi here = the stooLupon which the "Sfnfyah" or tray of tinned copper is 
placed, the former serving as a table. These stools, some 15 inches high and of wood 
inlaid with bone, tortoise-shell or mother-of-pearl, are now common in England, where 
one often sees children using them as seats. The two (Kursi and Siniyah) compose 
the Sufrah, when the word is used in the sense of our *' dinner-table." Lane (M.E. 
v ) gi ves an illustration of both articles. 



Story of the Kazi who bare a Babe. 171 

biscuit and an onion. The Kazi and the negress'ate all their 
portions, but the bride could not swallow even a third of the hard 
bread apportioned to her; so she rose up, heartily cursing her 
father's ambition in her heart. At supper-tide it was the same 
till the state of things became longsome to her and this endured 
continuously for three days, when she was ready to sink with 
hunger. So she sent for her sire and cried aloud in his face. The 
Kazi hearing the outcries of his bride asked, " What is to do ? " 
whereupon they informed him that the young woman was not in 

love with this style of living. And Shahrazad was surprised by 

the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted 
say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, 
O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, 
" And where is this compared with that I would relate to you on 
the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive?" Now 
when it was the next night and that was 

{je 'Sfjree f^untafc anU ^fgfitg-sebentft Vfgfti, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love 

and good will! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the bride 
was not in love with the Kazi's mode of living ; so he took her and 
cut off her nose and^.xiivorced her, falsely declaring that she had 
behaved frowardly. On the next day he proposed for another wife 
and married her and entreated her in like fashion as the first ; 
and when she demanded a divorce, he shredded off her nostrils 
and put her away ; and whatever woman he espoused he starved 
by his stinginess and tortured with hunger, and when any demanded 
a divorce^he would chop, effliher nose on false pretences and put 



172 Supplemental Nights. 

her away witnout paying aught either of her marriage settlement 
or of the contingent dowry. At last the report of that Kazi's 
avarice came to the ears of a damsel of Mosul-city, a model of 
beauty and loveliness who had insight into things hidden and just 
judgment and skilful contrivance. Thereupon, resolved to avenge 
jher sex, she left her native place and journeyed till she made 
Tarabulus ; and by the decree of the Decreer at that very time the 
judge, after a day spent in his garden, purposed to return home so 
he mounted his mule and met her half-way between the pleasance 
and the town. He chanced to glance at her and saw that she was 
wondrous beautiful and lovely, symmetrical and graceful and the 
spittle ran from his mouth wetting his mustachios ; and he advanced 
and accosting her said, " O thou noble one, whence comest thou 
hither ? " " From behind me ! " " Connu. I knew that ; but from 
what city ? " " From Mosul." " Art thou single and secluded or 
femme couverte with a husband alive." " Single I am still ! " " Can 
it be that thou wilt take me and thou become to me mate and I 
become to thee man ? " " If such be our fate 'twill take place and 
I will give thee an answer to-morrow ; " and so saying the damsel 
went on to Tarabulus. Now the Kazi after hearing her speech felt 
his love for her increase ; so next morning he sent to ask after her, 
and when they told him that she had alighted at a Khan, he 
despatched to her the negress his concubine with a party of friends 
to ask her in marriage, notifying that he was Kazi of the city. 
Thereupon she demanded a dower of fifty dinars and naming 
a deputy caused the knot be knotted and she came to him about 
evening time and he went in to her. But when it was the supper- 
hour he called as was his wont to his black handmaiden saying 
" Fetch the fringed table-cloth," and she fared forth and fetched it 
bringing also three biscuits and three onions, and as soon as the 
meal was served up all three sat down to it, the Kazi, the slave-girl, 
and the new bride. Each took a biscuit and an onion and ate 
them up and the bride exclaimed " Allah requite thee with wealth. 



Story of the Kazi who bare a Babe. 173 

By Allah, this be a wholesome supper." When the judge heard 
this he was delighted with her and cried out, "Extolled be the 
Almighty for that at last He hath vouchsafed to me a wife who 
thanketh the Lord for muchel or for little ! " But he knew not 
what the Almighty had decreed to him through the wile and guile, 
the malice and mischief of women. Next morning the Kazi 
repaired to the Mahkamah and the bride arose and solaced herself 
with looking at the apartments, of which some lay open whilst 
others were closed. Presently she came to one which was made 
fast by a door with a wooden bolt and a padlock of iron : she 
considered it and found it strong but at the threshold was a fissure 
about the breadth of a finger ; so she peeped through and espied 
gold and silver coins heaped up in trays of brass which stood upon 
Kursi-stools and the nearest about ten cubits from the door. She 
then arose and fetched a long wand, the mid-rib of a date-palm, 1 
and arming the end with a lump of leaven she pushed it through 
the chink under the door and turned it round and round upon 
the money-trays as if sewing or writing. At last two dinars stuck 
to the dough and she drew them through the fissure and returned 
to her own chamber ; then, calling the negress, she gave her the 
ducats saying, " Go thou to the Bazar and buy us some mutton 
and rice and clarified butter ; and do thou also bring us some fresh 
bread and spices and return with them without delay." The 
negress took the gold and went to the market, where she bought 
all that her lady bade her buy and speedily came back, when the 
Kazi's wife arose and cooked a notable meal, after which she and 
the black chattel ate whatso they wanted. Presently the slave 
brought basin and ewer to her lady and washed her hands and 
then fell to kissing her feet, saying, " Allah feed thee, O my lady, 
even as thou hast fed me, for ever since I belonged to this Kazi I 



1 Arab. "Jaridah," a palm-frond stripped of its leaves (Supplemental, vol. i. 264); 
hence the " Jarfd " used as a javelin ; see vol. vi. 263. 



174 Supplemental Nights. 

have lacked the necessaries of life." Replied the other, " Rejoice, 
O handmaiden, for henceforth thou shalt have every day naught 
but the bestest food of manifold kinds ; " and the negress prayed 
Allah to preserve her and thanked her. At noon the Kazi entered 
and cried, " O handmaid fetch the fringed cloth," and when she 
brought it he sat down and his wife arose and served up somewhat 
of the food she had cooked and he ate and rejoiced and was filled 
and at last he asked, " Whence this provision?" She answered, 
" I have in this city many kinsfolk who hearing of my coming sent 
me these meats and quoth I to myself, When my lord the Kazi 
shall return home he shall make his dinner thereof." On the next 
day she did as before and drawing out three ducats called the slave- 
girl and gave her two of them bidding her go to the Bazar and buy 
a lamb ready skinned and a quantity of rice and clarified butter 
and greens and spices and whatso was required for dressing the 
dishes. So the handmaid went forth rejoicing, and bought all her 
lady had ordered and forthwith returned when her mistress fell to 
cooking meats of various kinds and lastly sent to invite all her 
neighbours, women and maidens. When they came she had got 
ready the trays garnished with dainty food * and served up to them 
all that was suitable and they ate and enjoyed themselves and made 
merry. Now this was about mid-forenoon, but as mid-day drew 
near they went home carrying with them dishes full of dainties 
which they cleared and washed and sent back till everything was 

returned to its place. And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day 

and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth 
her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister 
mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is 
this compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night 



1 An Egyptian or a Syrian housewife will make twenty dishes out of roast lamb, 
wholly unlike the " good plain cook " of Great or Greater Britain, who leaves the 
stomach to do all the work of digestion in which she ought to but does not assist. 



Story of the Kazi who bare a Babe. 175 

an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next 
night and that was 

i)e &6ree ?^unbretf an* Etgfitg.cfjjfttJ Nfg&t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short. 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : -With love 

and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the guests 
of the Kazi's wife fared from her before turn of sun ; and, when it 
was noon, behold, the Kazi entered his Harem and said, " O hand- 
maiden, fetch the fringed tablecloth," when the wife arose and set 
before him viands of various sorts. He asked whence they came 
and she answered saying, " This is from my maternal aunt who 
sent it as a present to me." The judge ate and was delighted and 
abode in the Harem till set of sun. But his wife ceased not daily 
to draw money from his hoard and to expend it upon entertaining 
her friends and gossips, and this endured for a whole year. Now 
beside her mansion dwelt a poor woman in a mean dwelling and 
every day the wife would feed her and her husband and babes ; 
moreover she would give them all that sufficed them. The woman 
was far gone with child and the other charged her saying, " As 
soon as 'tis thy time to be delivered, do thou come to me for I have 
a mind to play a prank upon this Kazi who feareth not Allah and 
who, whenever he taketh to himself a wife, first depriveth her of 
food till she is well nigh famished, then shreddeth off her nose 
under false pretences and putteth her away taking all her belongings 
and giving naught of dower either the precedent or the contingent" 
And the poor woman replied, " To hear is to obey." Then the 
wife persisted in her lavish expenditure till her neighbour came to 
her already overtaken by birth-pains, and these lasted but a little 



176 Supplemental Nights. 

while when she was brought to bed of a boy. Hereupon the 
Kazi's wife arose and prepared a savoury dish called a Baysarah, 1 
the base of which is composed of beans and gravied mallows 2 
seasoned with onions and garlic. It was noon when her husband 
came in and she served up the dish ; and he being anhungered ate 
of it and ate greedily and at supper time he did likewise. But he 
was not accustomed to a Baysdrah, so as soon as night came on 
his paunch began to swell ; the wind bellowed in his bowels ; his 
stress was such that he could not be more distressed and he roared 
out in his agony. Herewith his wife ran in and cried to him, " No 
harm shall befal thee, O my lord ! " and so saying she passed her 
hand over his stomach and presently exclaimed " Extolled be He, 
O my lord ; verily thou art pregnant and a babe is in thy belly." 
And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell 
silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister 
Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how 
enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this com- 
pared with that I would relate to you on the coming night an the 
Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night 
and that was 



anfc IBtgljt^m'ntj) JJfgljt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 



1 A plate of "Baysdr" or " Faysar," a dish peculiar to Egypt; beans seasoned 
with milk and honey and generally eaten with meat. See Mr. Guy Lestrange's "Al- 
Mukaddasi," Description of Syria, p. 80 j an author who wrote cir. A.H. 986. Scott 
(vi. 119) has " A savoury dish called byssarut, which is composed of parched beans and 
pounded salt meat, mixed up with various seeds, onions and garlic." Gauttier (vi. 261) 
carefully avoids giving the Arabic name, which occurs in a subsequent tale (Nights cdxliv.) 
when a laxative is required. 

2 Arab. " Mulukhiyah ndshiyah," lit. = flowing ; i.e. soft like tpinards au jus. 
Mulukhfya" that favourite vegetable, the malva esculenta is derived from the Gr. 
fjuaXdx^) (also written f J -^X r f) from yu,oXa<jcro> = to soften, because somewhat relaxing. 
In ancient Athens it was the food of the poorer classes and in Egypt it is eaten by all, 
taking the place of our spinath and sorrel. 



Story of the Kazi who bare a Babe. 177 

the watching of this our latter night !" She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Kazi's wife 
came up to him and passing her palm over his paunch presently 
cried, *' Extolled be He, O my lord : verily thou art pregnant and 
.a babe is in thy belly." Quoth the Kazi, " How shall a man bear a 
child ? " and quoth she, " Allah createth whatso He willeth." And 
as they two sat at talk the flatulence and belly-ache increased and 
Violent colic 1 set in and the torments waxed still more torturing, 
Then the wife rose up and disappeared but presently she returned 
with her pauper neighbour's newly-born babe in her sleeve, its 
mother accompanying it : she also brought a large basin of copper 
and she found her husband rolling from right to left and crying 
aloud in his -agony. At last the qualms 2 in his stomach were 
ready to burst forth and the rich food to issue from his body, and 
when this delivery was near hand the wife privily set the basin 
under him like a close stool and fell to calling upon the Holy 
Names and to shampooing and rubbing down his skin while she 
ejaculated, " The name of Allah be upon thee ! " 8 But all this was 
of her malice. At last the prima via opened and the Kazi let fly, 
whereat his wife came quickly behind and setting the babe upon 
its back gently pinched it so that it began to wail, and said, " O 
man. Alhamdolillah, laud to the Lord, who hath so utterly 
relieved thee of thy burthen," and she fell to muttering Names 



1 Arab. "Kalak" = lit. "agitation," "disquietude** and here used as syfl. with 
"Kulanj," a true colic. 

2 Arab. " Mazardt,*' from the \/ " Mazr," = being addled (an egg). 

3 Here is an allusion to the ' Massage," which in these days has assumed throughout 
Europe all the pretensions of scientific medical treatment. The word has been needlessly 
derived from the Arab. "Mas'h" = rubbing, kneading ; but we have the Gr. synonym 
|xa(7cra> and the Lat. Massare. The text describes child-bed customs amongst Moslem 
women ; and the delivery of the Kazi has all the realism of M. Zola's accouchement id 
Lajoie de Vivre. 

VOL. IV. Ji 



178 Supplemental Nights. 

over the newborn. Then quoth he, " Have a care of the little 
one and keep it from cold draughts ; " for the trick had taken 
completely with the Kazi and he said in his mind, " Allah createth 
whatso He willeth : even men if so predestined can bring forth." 
And presently he added, " O woman, look out for a wet nurse to 
suckle him ;" and she repHed, " O my lord, the nurse is with me in 
the women's apartments." Then having sent away the babe and 
its mother she came up to the Kazi and washed him and removed 
the basin from under him and made him lie at full length. 
Presently after taking thought he said, "O woman, be careful to 
Keep this matter private for fear of the folk who otherwise might 
say : Our Kazi hath borne a babe." She replied, " O my lord, 
as the affair is known to other than our two selves how can we 
manage to conceal it ?" and after she resumed, " O my husband, 
this business can on no wise be hidden from the people for more 
than a week or at most till next month." Herewith he cried out, 
" O my calamity ; if it reach the ears of folk and they say : Our, 
Kazi hath borne a babe, then what shall we do ? " He pondered 
the matter until morning when he rose before daylight and, taking 
some provaunt secretly, made ready to depart the city, saying, 
" O Allah, suffer none to see me ! " Then, after giving his wife 
charge of the house and bidding her take care of his effects and 
farewelling her, he went forth secretly from her and journeyed that 
day. and a second and a third until the seventh, when he entered 
Damascus of Syria where none knew him. But he had no spending 
money for he could not persuade himself to take even a single 
dinar from his hoard and he had provided himself with naught save 
the meagrest provision. So his condition was straitened and he 
was compelled to sell somewhat of his clothes and lay out the price 
upon his urgent needs ; and when the coin was finished he was 
forced to part with other portions of his dress till little or nothing 
of it remained to him. Then, in his sorest strait, he went to the 
Shaikh of the Masons and said to him, " O master, ray wish is 



Story of the Ka?,i who bare a Babe. 179 

to serve in this industry ; " l and said he, " Welcome to thee. 1 ' So 
the Kazi worked through every day for a wage of five Faddahs. 

Such was his case ; but as regards his wife, And Shahrazad 

was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying 
her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet 
and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delect- 
able ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I 
would relate to you on this coming night an the Sovran suffer me 
to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was the 



f^un&relr an* JHuutKti) 

DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love and 
good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the director, 
the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and of 
deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that when the Kazi went 
forth from his wife she threw a sherd 2 behind him and muttered 
" Allah never bring thee back from thy journey." Then she arose 
and threw open the rooms and noted all that was in them of 
moneys and moveables and vaiselle and rarities, and she fell to 
feeding the hungry and clothing the naked and doling alms to 
Fakirs saying, "This be the reward of him who mortifieth the 

daughters of folk and devoureth their substance and shreddeth off 



their nostrils." She also sent to the women he had married and 
divorced, and gave them of his good the equivalent of their dowers 
and a solatium for losing their noses. And every day she assembled 



1 Arab. " Fa^dlah " = the building craft, builder's trade; 

2 In text " Kawwarah," which is not found in the dictionaries. Kuwdrah " = that 
which is cut off from the side of a thing, etc. My translation is wholly tentative : perhaps 
Kawwdra may be a copyist's error for " Kazdzah" = vulg. a (flask of) glass. 



i8o Supplemental Nights. 

the goodwives of the quarter and cooked for them manifold kinds 
of food because her spouse the Kazi was possessed of property 
approaching two Khaznahs 1 of money, he being ever loath to 
expend what his hand could hend and unprepared to part with 
aught on any wise, for the excess of his niggardness and his greed 
of gain. Nor did she cease from so doing for a length of time 
until suddenly she overheard folk saying, " Our Kazi hath borne a 
babe." And such bruit spread abroad and was reported in sundry 
cities, nor ceased the rumour ere it reached the ears of the Caliph 
Harun al-Rashid in Baghdad city. Now hearing it he marvelled 
and cried, " Extolled be Allah ! this hap, by the Lord, never can 
have happened save at the hand of some woman, a wise and a 
clever at contrivance ; nor would she have wrought after such 
fashion save to make public somewhat erst proceeding from the 
Kazi, either his covetous intent or his high-handedness in com- 
mandment. But needs must this goodwife be summoned before 
me and recount the cunning practice she hath practised ; Allah 
grant her success in the prank she hath played upon the Judge." 
Such was her case ; but as concerns the Kazi, he abode working 
at builders' craft till his bodily force was enfeebled and his frame 
became frail ; so presently quoth he to himself, " Do thou return 
to thy native land, for a long time hath now passed and this affair is 
clean forgotten." Thereupon he returned to Tarabulus, but as he 
drew near thereto he was met outside the city by a bevy of small boys 
who were playing at forfeits, and lo and behold ! cried one to his 
comrades, " O lads, do ye remember such and such a year when 
our Kazi was brought to bed ? " 2 But the Judge hearing these 
words returned forthright to Damascus by the way he came, saying 
to himself, " Hie thefc not save to Baghdad city for 'tis further 



1 The " Khaznah," = 'treasury, is a thousand " Kfs " = 500 piastres, or $ at par ; 
and thus represents ,5,000, a large sum for Tripoli in those days. 

2 The same incident occurs in that pathetic tale with an ill name*' How Abu al- 
Hasan brake Wind," vol. v. 135. 



Story of the Kazi who bare a Babe. 1 8 1 

away than Damascus ! " and set out at once for the House of 
Peace. However he entered it privily, because he was still in the 
employ of the Prince of True Believers, Harun al-Rashid ; and, 
changing semblance and superficial, he donned the dress of a 
Persian Darwaysh and fell to walking about the streets of the 
capital. Here met he sundry men of high degree who showed 
him favour, but he could not venture himself before the Caliph 
albe sundry of the subjects said to him, " O Darwaysh, why dost 
thou not appear in the presence of the Commander of the Faithful \ 
Assuredly he would bestow upon thee many a boon, for he is a 
true Sultan ; and, specially, an thou panegyrise him in poetry, he 
will largely add to his largesse." Now by the decree of Destiny 
the viceregent of Allah upon His Earth had commanded the Kazi's 
wife be brought from Tarabulus : so they led her into the presence 
and when she had kissed ground before him and salam'd to him 
and prayed for the perpetuity of his glory and his existence, he 
asked her anent her husband and how he had borne a child and 
what was the prank she had played him and in what manner shq 
had gotten the better of him. She hung her head groundwards? 
awhile for shame nor could she return aught of reply for a time,i 
when the Commander of the Faithful said to her, " Thou hast my 
promise of safety and again safety, the safety of one who betrayeth 
not his word. So she raised her head and cried, "By Allah, O 

King of the Age, the story of this Kazi is a strange And 

Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and 
ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, 

How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and 
delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that 

1 would relate to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer 
me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 



182 Supplemental Nights. 

*&& tljtte f^untaU anfc Ntiut 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that quoth the 
.Kazi's wife, " By Allah, O King of the Age, the story of this 
Kazi is a strange and of the wonders of the world and 'tis as 
follows. My spouse is so niggardly of nature and greedy of gain 
that whatso wife he weddeth he starveth her with hunger and, 
whenas she loseth patience, he shreddeth her nostrils and putteth 
her away, taking all her good and what not. Now this case 
continued for a while of time. Also he had a black slave-wench 
and a fine eating-cloth and when dinner-time came he would cry, 
O handmaid, fetch the fringed table-cloth ! whereupon she would 
bring it and garnish it with three biscuits and three onions, one to 
each mouth. Presently accounts of this conduct came to me at 
Mosul, whereupon I removed me to Tardbulus, and there played 
him many a prank amongst which was the dish of Baysdr by me 
seasoned with an over quantity of onions and garlic and such spices 
as gather wind in the maw and distend it like a tom-tom and breed 
borborygms. 1 This I gave him to eat and then befel that which 
befel. So I said to him, Thou art in the family way and 
tricked him, privily bringing into the house a new-born babe. 
When his belly began to drain off I set under him a large metal 
basin and after pinching the little one I placed it in the utensil 
and recited Names over it. Presently quoth he, Guard my little 

1 Arab. " Karkabah," clerical error (?) for "Karkarah " = driving (as wind the 
clouds) ; rumbling of wind in bowels. Dr. Steingass holds that it is formed by addition 
of a second " k," from the ^ "Karb," one of whose meanings it: "to inflate the 
stomach." 



Story of the Kazi who bare a Babe. 183 

stranger from the draught and bring hither a wet-nurse ; and I 
did accordingly. But he waxed ashamed of the birth and in the 
morning he fared forth the city nor knew we what Allah had done 
with him. But as he went I bespake him with the words which 
the poet sang when the Ass of Umm Amr went off: 

Ass and Umm Amr bewent their way ; Nor Ass nor Umm Amr returned 
for aye ; 

and then I cited the saying of another : 

When I forced him to fare I bade him hie, Where Umm Kash'am 2 caused 
her selle to fly." 

Now as the Caliph Harun al-Rashid heard these words he 
laughed so hearty a laugh that he fell backwards and bade the 
goodwife repeat her history till he waxed distraught for excess of 
merriment, when lo and behold ! a Darwaysh suddenly entered 
the presence. The wife looked at her husband and recognised 
him ; but the Caliph knew not his Kazi, so much had time and 
trouble changed the Judge's cheer. However, she signalled to the 
Commander of the Faithful that the beggar was her mate and 
he taking the hint cried out, " Welcome to thee, O Darwaysh, and 



1 For Ummu 'Amrin = mother of 'Amru, se written and pronounced " 'Amr," a fancy 
name, see vol. v. 118, for the Tale of the Schoolmaster, a well-known "Joe Miller." 
[Ummu 'Amrin, like Ummu 'Amirin, is a slang term for "hyena." Hence, if Ass and 
Umm Amr went off together, it is more than likely that neither came back. St.] 

2 A slang name for Death. "Kash'am" has various sigs. esp. the lion, hence 
Rabi'at al-Faras (of the horses), one of the four sons of Nizar was surnamed Al 
Kash'am from his cceur de lion (Al-Mas'udi iii. 238). Another pleasant term for 
departing life is Abu Yahy = Father of John, which also means "The Living" 
from Hayy Death being the lord of all : hence " Yamiit " lit. = he dies, is an ill* 
omened name amongst Arabs. Kash'am is also a hyena, and Umm Kash'am is syn. 
with Umm 'Amir (vol. I. 43). It was considered a point of good breeding to use these 
" Kunyah * for the purpose of varying speech (see Al-Hariri Ass. xix). The phrase in 
the text = meaning went to hell, as a proverb was first used by Zuhayr, one of the 
" Suspended Poets." Umm Kash'am was the P.N. of a runaway camel which, passing 
by a large fire, shied and flung its riding saddle into the flames. So in Al-Siyuti's 
" History of the Caliphs" (p. 447), the text has "And Malak Shah went to where her 
saddle was thrown by Umm Kash'am," which Major Jarrett renders "departed 
to hell-fire." 



1 84 Supplemental Nights 

where be the babe thou barest at Tarabulus ? " The unfortunate 
replied, " O King of the Age, do men go with child ? " and the 
Prince of True Believers rejoined, " We heard that the Kazi bare 
a babe and thou art that same Kazi now habited in Fakir's habit. 
But who may be this woman thou seest ? " He made answer 
41 1 wot not ; " but the dame exclaimed, " Why this denial, O thou 
who fearest Allah so little ? I conjure thee by the life of the King 
to recount in his presence all that betided thee." He could deny 
it no longer so he told his tale before the Caliph, who laughed at 
him aloud ; and at each adventure the King cried out, " Allah 
spare thee and thy child, O Kazi ! " Thereupon the Judge 
explained saying, " Pardon, O King of the Age, I merit even 

more than what hath betided me." And Shahrazad was 

surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying 
her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet 
and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delect- 
able ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I 
would relate to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me 
to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 

WQZ &ree $^unfctc& ant) Ntntg=seconfc If fflfct, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love 

and good will ! " It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that quoth the Kazi 
to the King, " I deserve even more than what hath betided me for 
my deeds were unrighteous, O Ruler of the Time. But now the 
twain of us be present between thy hands ; so do thou, of thy 
generous grace and the perfection of thy beneficence, deign 
reconcile me unto my wife and from this moment forwards I repent 



Story of the Kazi who bare a Babe. 185 

before the lace of Allah nor will I ever return to the condition I 
was in of niggardise and greed of gain. But 'tis for her to decide 
and on whatever wise she direct me to act, therein will I not 
gainsay her ; and do thou vouchsafe to me the further favour of 
restoring me to the office I whilome held. When the Prince of 
True Believers, Harun al-Rashid, heard the Kazi's words he turned 
to the Judge's wife and said, " Thou also hast heard what thy 
mate hath averred : so do thou become to him what thou wast 
before and thou hast command over all which thy husband re- 
quireth." She replied, " O King of the Age, even as thou hast the 
advantage of knowing, verily the Heavens and the son of Adam 
change not ; for that man's nature is never altered except with his 
existence nor doth it depart from him save when his life departeth. 
However, an he speak the truth let him bind himself by a deed 
documented under thy personal inspection and thine own seal ; so 
that if he break his covenant the case may be committed to thee." 
The Caliph rejoined, " Sooth thou sayest that the nature of Adam's 
son is allied to his existence ;" but the Kazi exclaimed, " O our 
lord the Sultan, bid write for me the writ even as thou hast heard 
from her mouth and do thou deign witness it between us twain." 
Thereupon the King reconciled their differences and allotted to 
them a livelihood which would suffice and sent them both back to 
Tarabulus-town. This is all that hath come down to us concerning 
the Kazi who bare a babe : yet 'tis as naught compared with the 
tale of the Bhang-eaters, for their story is wondrous and their ad- 
ventures delectable and marvellous. " What may it be ? " asked 
Shahryar ; so Shahrazad began to recount 



THE TALE OF THE KAZI AND THE 
BHANG-EATER. 



I8 9 



THE TALE OF THE KAZI AND THE BHANG-EATER. 1 

THERE was a certain, eater of Bhang -- And Shahrazad was 
surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her 
permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is 
thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " 
Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I would relate 
to you on the coming night an the King suffer me to survive ? " 
Now when it was the next night and that was 



DUNAYZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other then sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : -- With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that there was a cer- 
tain eater of Bhang whose wont it was every day to buy three 
Faddahs* worth of hemp and he would eat one third thereof in the 
morning and a second at noon and the rest about sundown. He 
was by calling a fisherman ; and regularly as dawn appeared he 
would take hook and line and go down to the river a-fishing ; then 
he would sell of his catch a portion, expending half a Faddah on 
bread and eat this with the remaining part of the fish broiled. He 
would also provide himself day by day with a waxen taper and 
light it in his cell and sit before it, taking his pleasure and talking 
to himself after his large dose -of Bhang. In such condition he 

1 Scott's "Story of the Bhang^eater and Cauzee," vi. 126: Gauttfer, Histoirt du 
Preneur <? Opium ct du Cadi, vi. 268. 



Supplemental Nights. 

abode a while of time until one fine spring-night, about the middle 
of the month when the moon was shining sheeniest, he sat down 
to bespeak himself and said, " Ho, Such-an-one ! hie thee forth and 
solace thy soul with looking at the world, for this be a time when 
none will espy thee and the winds are still." Herewith he went 
forth intending for the river ; but as soon as he issued from his cell- 
door and trod upon the square, he beheld the moonbeams bestrown 
upon the surface and, for the excess of his Bhang, his Fancy 
said to him, " By Allah, soothly the stream floweth strong and 
therein needs must be much store of fish. Return, O Such-an- 
one, to thy cell, bring hook and line and cast them into these 
waters ; haply Allah our Lord shall vouchsafe thee somewhat of 
fish, for men say that by night the fisherwight on mighty fine work 
shall alight." He presently brought out his gear and, having 
baited the hook, made a cast into the moonlit square, taking sta- 
tion in the shadow of the walls where he believed the river bank 
to be. Then he bobbed l with his hook and line and kept gazing 
at the waters, when behold ! a big dog sniffed the bait and coming 
up to it swallowed the hook till it stuck in his gullet. 2 The beast 
feeling it prick his throttle yelped with pain and made more noise 
every minute, rushing about to the right and the left : so the line 
was shaken in the man's hand and he drew it in, but by so doing 
the hook pierced deeper and the brute howled all the louder ; and 
it was pull Bhang-eater and pull cur. But the man dared not 
draw near the moonlight, holding it to be the river, so he tucked up 
his gown to his hip-bones, and as the dog pulled more lustily he 
said in his mind, " By Allah this must be a mighty big fish and I 
believe it to be a ravenous. 3 Then he gripped the line firmly and 
haled it in but the dog had the better of him and dragged him to 



1 Arab. " Lawwaha " = lit. pointing out, making clear. 

2 Text "in his belly," but afterwards in his " Halkah" = throat, throttle, which gives 
better sense. 

8 In text ' Hayishah" from / " Haysh " = spoiling, etc. 



Tale of the Kazi and the Bhang- Eater. 191 

the very marge of the moonlight ; so the fisherman waxed afraid and 
began to cry " Alack ! Alack ! Alack ! ! To my rescue ye braves ! 2 
Help me for a monster of the deep would drown me ! Yallah, 
hurry ye, my fine fellows, hasten to my aid ! " Now at that hour 
people were enjoying the sweets of sleep and when they heard 
these unseasonable outcries they flocked about him from every 
side and accosting him asked, " What is it ? What maketh 
thee cry aloud at such an hour? What hath befallen thee ? " 
He answered, " Save me, otherwise a river-monster will cause 
me fall into the stream and be drowned." Then, finding him 
tucked up to the hips, the folk approached him and enquired, 
" Where is the stream of which thou speakest ? " and he replied, 
" Vender's the river ; be ye all blind ? " Thereat they understood 
that he spoke of the moonbeams, whose sheen was dispread upon 
earth, deeming it a river-surface, and they told him this ; but he 
would not credit them and cried, " So ye also desire to drown me ; 
be off from me ! our Lord will send me other than you to lend 
me good aid at this hour of need." They replied, " O well-born 
one, this be moonshine ;" but he rejoined, " Away from me, ye low 
fellows, 3 ye dogs ! " They derided him and the angrier he grew 
the more they laughed, till at last they said one to other, " Let us 
leave him and wend our ways," and they quitted him in such con- 
dition And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and 
fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her 
Sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister 
mine, and enjoyable and delectable !" Quoth she, "Arid where is 
this compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night 
an the Sovran suffer me to survive .? " Now when it was the next 
night and that was 



1 Arab. " Yauh ! " See vols. ii. 321 ; vi. 235. 

2 Arab. "Ya Jad'an " (pron. "Gad'an") more gen. " Ya Jad'a"= mon brave J 

3 In text " Yd 'Arzad" : prob. a clerical slip for " 'Urzat," plur. of " 'Urzah" = a 
companion, a (low) fellow, a man evil spoken of. 



Supplemental Nights; 



antr Nuutg-fouttf) 

DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night!" She replied :~ With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the folk 
who flocked to the assistance of the Bhang-eater left him in such 
condition, he crying aloud in affright, the dog being now before 
him in a phrenzy of pain for the hook sticking in his gullet ana 
being unable to rid himself of it, while the man dreaded to draw 
near the moonshine, still deeming (albeit he stood upon terra firma) 
that he was about to step into the stream. So he hugged the 
wall shadow which to him represented the river-bank. In this 
case he continued until day brake and light shone and the to-ing 
and fro-ing of the folk increased ; withal he remained as he was, 
crying out for affright lest he be drowned. Suddenly a Kazi rode by 
him and seeing him with gown kilted up and the hound hanging on 
to the hook, asked, " What may be the matter with thee, O man ? " 
He answered saying, " O my lord, I dread lest I be drowned in 
this stream, whither a monster of the deep is a-dragging me." 
The judge looked at him and knew him for a Bhang-eater, so he 
dismounted from his monture and cried to one of his attendants, 
"Catch hold of yon dog and unhook him!" Now this Kazi 
was also one who was wont to use Hashfsh ; so quoth he to him- 
self, " By Allah, take this fellow with thee and feed him in thy 
house and make a mocking-stock of him; and, as each night 
cometh on do thou and he eat together a portion of the drug and 
enjoy each other's company." Accordingly he took him and 
carrying him to his quarters seated him in a private stead until 
nightfall when the twain met and supped together ; then they 



Talc of the Kazi and the Bkang-Eater. 193 

i 

swallowed a large dose of Bhang and they lit candles and sat in 
their light to enjoy themselves. 1 Presently from excess of the 
drug they became as men Jinn-mad, uttering words which befit not 
to intend or to indite, 2 amongst which were a saying of the Bhang- 
eater to the Kazi, " By Allah, at this season I'm as great as the 
King;" and the Judge's reply, " And I also at such time am as 
great as the Basha, the Governor." Thereupon quoth to him 
the Bhang-eater, " I'm high above thee and if the King would cut 
off the Governor's head what would happen to hinder him ? " And 
quoth the Kazi, " Yea, verily ; naught would hinder him ; but 'tis 
the custom of Kings to appoint unto Governors a place wherein 
they may deal commandment." Then they fell to debating the 
affairs of the Government and the Sultanate, when by decree of 
the Decreer the Sultan of the city went forth his palace that very 
night, accompanied by the Wazir (and the twain in disguise) ; and 
they ceased not traversing the town till they reached the house 
wherein sat the Bhang-eater and the Kazi. So they stood at the 
door and heard their talk from first to last when the King turned 
to the Minister and asked, " What shall we do with these two 
fellows ? " " Be patient, O King of the Age/' answered the Wazir, 
" until they make an end of their talk, after which whatso thou 
wilt do with them that will they deserve." " True indeed," 3 quoth 
the ruler, "nevertheless, instead of standing here let us go in to 
them." Now that night the boon-companions had left the door 
open forgetting to padlock it ; so the visitors entered and salam'd 
to them and they returned the greeting and rose to them and 
bade them be seated. Accordingly they sat down and the Sultan 
said to the Bhang-eater, " O man, fearest thou not aught from the 
Sovran, thou and thy friend ; and are ye sitting up until this hour ? '* 



1 Easterns love drinking in a bright light : see vol. ii. 59. 

2 Arab. "'Aid" (= comprehension understanding) and "Nakl" (= copying, 
describing, transcribing), a favourite phrase in this MS. 

3 Arab. " Ummall " ; gen. Ummal, an affirmation ; Certes, I believe you I 

VOL, IV. JW 



194 Supplemental Nights* 

He replied, " The Sultan himself often fareth forth at such un- 
timely time, and as he is a King even so am I, and yonder man is 
my Basha : moreover, if the ruler think to make j apery of us, we 



are his equals and more." Thereupon the Sultan turned to his 
,Wazir and said by signals, " I purpose to strike off the heads of 
these fellows ;" and said the Minister in the same way, "O King, 
needs must they have a story, for no man with his wits in his 
head would have uttered such utterance. But patience were our 
bestest plan.",- Then cried the Bhang-eater to the Sultan, " O 
man, whenever we say a syllable, thou signallest to thine associate! 
What is it thou wouldst notify to him and we not understanding 
it ? By Allah, unless thou sit respectfully in our presence we will 
bid our Basha strike off thy pate \ " -- And Shahrazad was sur- 
prised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her 
permitted say. ; Then quoth her sister Dunyazad," How sweet is 
thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " 
Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I would relate 
to you 'on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ?." 
Now when it was the next night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the. rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that when 
the Sultan heard the Bhang-eater's words he waxed the more 
furious and would have arisen and struck off his head ; but 
the Wazir winked at him and whispered, ' O King of the Age, I 
and thou are in disguise and these men imagine that we are of 
the commons : so be thou pitiful even as Almighty Allah is pitiful 
and willeth not the punishment of the. sinner. .Furthermore, I 



Tale of the Kazi and the Bhang-Eater. 195 

conceive that the twain are eaters of Hashfsh, which drug when 
swallowed by man, garreth him prattle of whatso he pleaseth and 
chooseth, making him now a Sultan then a Wazir and then a 
merchant, the while it seemeth to him that the world is in the 
hollow of his hand." Quoth the Sultan, " And what may be thy 
description of Hashish ? " and quoth the Wazir, " Tis composed 
of hemp leaflets, whereto they add aromatic roots and somewhat 
of sugar : then they cook it and prepare a kind of confection which 
they eat ; * but whoso eateth it (especially an he eat more than,- 
enough), talketh of matters which reason may on no wise repre- 
sent. If thou wouldst know its secret properties, on the coming 
night (Inshallah !) we will bring some with us and administer it to 
these two men ; and when they eat it the dose will be in addition 
to their ordinary." After this the Sultan left them and went 
forth, when the Bhang-eater said to the Kazi, " By Allah, this 
night we have enjoyed ourselves and next night (if Allah please !) 
we will enjoy ourselves yet more." The other replied, "Yes, 
but I fear from the Sultan, lest he learn our practice and cut off 
our heads." "Who shall bring the Sovran to us?" asked the 
other : " he is in his palace and we are in our own place ; and, 
granting he come, I will divert him by recounting an adventure 
which befel me," The Kazi answered, " Have no dread of the 
Sultan ; for he may not fare forth a-nights single-handed ; nay, 
what while he issueth forth he must be escorted by his high 
officials." Now when the next night fell, the Kazi brought the 
Hashish which he divided into two halves, eating one himself and' 
giving the other to his companion ; and both swallowed their 
portions after supper and then lit the waxen tapers and sat down 



1 For the many preparations of this drug, see Herkldts, Appendix, pp. ixviii. ciii. 
It is impossible to say how "Indian hemp," like opium, datura, ether and chloroform, 
will affect the nervous system of an untried man. I have read a dozen descriptions of 
the results, from the highly imaginative Monte Christo to the prose of prosaic travellers ; 
and do not recognise that they are speaking of the same thing. 



196 Supplemental Nights. 

to take their pleasure. 1 Suddenly the Sultan and his Wazir came 
in upon them during the height of their enjoyment, and the 
visitors were habited in dress other than before, and they brought 
with them a quantity of Bhang-confection and also some conserve 
of roses : so they handed a portion of the first to the revellers, 
which these accepted and ate, while they themselves swallowed the 
conserve, the others supposing it to be Hashish like what they 
had eaten. Now when they had taken an overdose, they got into 
a hurly-burly of words and fell to saying things which can neither 
be intended nor indited, and amongst these they exclaimed, " By 
Allah, the Sultan is deposed and we will rule in his stead and 
deal commandment to his reign." The other enquired, " And if 
the Sultan summon us what wilt thou say to him ? " " By Allah, 
X will tell him a tale which befel myself and crave of him ten 
Faddahs wherewithal to buy Bhang ! " " And hast thou any skill 
in tale-telling ? " " In good sooth I have ! " . " But how wilt thou 
^depose the Sultan and reign in his stead ? " X" I will say to him 
* Be off ! * and he will go." " He will strike thy neck." Nay, the 
Sultan is pitiful and will not punish me for my words." So saying 
the Bhang-eater arose and loosed the inkle of his bag-trowsers, 
then approaching the Sultan he drew forth his prickle and pro- 
ceeded to bepiss him ; 2 but the King took flight as the other faced 

him, and fled before him, he pursuing. And Shahrazad was 

surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased say- 
ing her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How 



1 This tranquil enjoyment is popularly called " Kayf." See my Pilgrimage i. 13. In 
a coarser sense it is applied to all manners of intoxication ; and the French traveller 
Sonnini says, " The Arabs (by which he means the Egyptians) give the name of Kayf to 
the voluptuous relaxation, the delicious stupor, produced by the smoking of hemp." I 
have smoked it and eaten it for months without other effect than a greatly increased 
appetite and a little drowsiness. 

2 These childish indecencies are often attributed to Bhang-eaters. See "Bakun's Tale 
of the Hashish-eater," vol. ii. 91. Modest Scott (vi. 129) turns the joke into " tweaking 
the nose." Respectable Moslems dislike the subject, but the vulgar relish it as much 
as the sober Italian enjoys the description of a drinking bout in novels. 



Tale of the Kazi and the Bhang-Eater. 197 

sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and 
delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with 
that I would relate to you on the coming night an the Sovran 
suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and 
that was 



e f^untrrefc anti j3metg=st'xtf) 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the 
Bhang-eater holding up his bag-trowsers ran after the Sultan 
purposing to bepiss him and caught up the fugitive at the door- 
way when he fell over the threshold and began a-piddling upon 
his own clothes. In like manner the Kazi attempted to bepiss 
the Wazir and ran after him to the entrance, where he also fell 
upon the Bhang-eater and took to making water over him. So 
the Bhang-eater and the Kazi lay each bewraying other, and the 
Sultan and the Wazir stood laughing at them and saying, " By 
Allah, too much Hashish injureth man's wits ; " and presently they 
left and went their ways returning to their palaces, But the two 
drunkards ceased not lying in their own water till day broke ; and 
when the fumes of the drug had left their brains, they arose and 
found themselves dripping and befouled with their own filth. 
Thereupon each said to other, " What be this cross hath betided 
us ? " Presently they arose and washed themselves and their 
clothes ; then sitting down together they said, " None did this 
deed by us save and except the two fellows who were with us ; 
and who knoweth what they were, or citizens of this city or 
strangers ; for 'twas they brought the intoxicant which we ate 



198 Supplemental Nights. 

and it bred a madness in our brains. Verily 'twas they did the 
mischief; but, an they come to us a third time, needs must we be 
instant with them and learn from them an they be foreigners or 
folk of this city : we will force them to confess, but if they hide 
them from us we will turn them out" On the next night they 
met again and the two sat down and ate a quantity of Hashish 
after they had supped : and they lit the waxen tapers and each of 
them drank a cup of coffee. 1 Presently their heads whirled round 
under the drug and they sat down to talk and enjoy themselves 
when their drunkenness said to them, " Up with you and dance." 
Accordingly they arose and danced, when behold, the Sultan and 
his Wazir suddenly came in upon them and salam'd to them : so they 
returned the salutation but continued the saltation. The newcomers 
considered them in this condition and forthwith the King turned 
to the Minister and said, " What shall we do with them ?* Said the 
other, " Patience until their case come to end in somewhat whereof 
we can lay hold." Then they chose seats for themselves and solaced 
them with the spectacle, and the dancers kept on dancing until they 
were tired and were compelled to sit down and take their rest. 



" * In the text " Finjdl," a vulgarism for " Finjdn" : so the converse " Isma'fn" for 
" Ism' ail " = Ishmael. Mr. J. W. Redhouse (The Academy No. 764) proposes a new 
date for coffee in Al-Yaman. Colonel Playfair (History of Yemen, Bombay 1859) had 
carelessly noted that its " first use at Aden was by a judge of the place who had seen 
it drunk at Zayla', on the African coast opposite Aden," and he made the judge die in 
A.H. 875 = A.D. 1470. This is about the date of the Shaykh al-Shizali's tomb at 
Mocha, and he was the first who brought the plant from about African Harar to the 
Arabian seaboard. But Mr. Redhouse finds in a Turkish work written only two 
centuries ago, and printed at Constantinople, in A.D. 1732, that the "ripe fruit was 
discovered growing wild in the mountains of Yemen (?) by a company of dervishes 
Vanished thither." Finding the berry relieve their hunger and support their vigils the 
prior, " Shaykh 'Umar advised their stewing it (?) and the use became established. 
They dried a store of the fruit ; and its use spread to other dervish communities, who 
perhaps (!) sowed the seed wherever it would thrive throughout Africa (N.B. where it 
is indigenous) and India (N.B. where both use and growth are quite modern). From 
Africa, two centuries later, its -use was reimported to Arabia at Aden (?) by the judge 
above mentioned, who in a season of scarcity of the dried fruit (?) tried the seed " 
{N.B. which is the fruit). This is passing strange and utterly unknown to the learned 
De Sacy (ChresJ, Arab. 1.412-481). 



Story of the Kazi and tJte Bhang- Eater. 199 

Presently the Bhang-eater looked at the Sultan and exclaimed, 
" You, whence are you ? " and he replied, " We be foreigner folk 
and never visited this city before that night when we met you ; and 
as we heard you making merry we entered to partake of your 
merriment." On this wise the device recoiled upon the Bhang- 
eater and presently the King asked them, saying, " Fear ye not 
lest the Sultan hear of you, and ye in this condition which would 
cause your disgrace at his hands ? " The Bhang-eater answered, 
" The Sultan ! What tidings of us can he have ? He is in the 
royal Palace and we in our place of Bhang-eating." The Sovran 
rejoined, " Why not go to him ! Belike he will gift you and 
largesse you ; " but the Bhang-eater retorted, " We fear his people 
lest they drive us away." Whereto quoth the King, " They will 
not do on such wise and if thou require it we will write thee a note 
to his address, for we know him of old inasmuch as both of us 
learned to read in the same school." " Write thy writ,*' quoth the 
other to the Sultan who after inditing it and sealing it placed it in 
their hands and presently the two visitors departed. Then the 
Bhang-eater and the Kazi sat together through the night until 
daylight did appear when the fumes of the Hashish had fled their 
brains and the weather waxed fine and clear. So they said, each 
to other, " Let us go to the Sultan," and the twain set out together 
and walked till they reached the square facing the Palace. Here, 
finding a crowd of folk, they went up to the door and the Bhang- 
eater drew forth his letter and handed it to one of the Sultan's 
suite, who on reading it fell to the ground and presently rising 

placed it upon his head. And Shahrazad was surprised by the 

dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. 
Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O 
sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable!" Quoth she, 
" And where is this compared with that I would relate to you on 
the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when 
it was the next night and that was 



2OO Supplemental Nights. 



an& Ntnetp-sebentft 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the officer who 
took the letter caused the Bhang-eater and his comrade enter the 
presence, and the Sultan catching sight of them commanded them 
to be seated in a private stead where none other man was. His 
bidding was obeyed ; and at noon-tide he sent them a tray of food 
for dinner and also coffee ; and the same was done at sundown. 
But as soon as supper-tide came the Sultan prayed and recited 
sections of Holy Writ, as was his wont, until two hours had passed 
when he ordered the twain be summoned ; and when they stood in 
the presence and salam'd to him and blessed him the King returned 
their salute and directed them to be seated. Accordingly they sat down 
and quoth the Sultan to the Bhang-eater, " Where be the man who 
gave you the writ ?" Quoth the other, " O King of the Age, there 

were two men who came to us and said : Why go ye not to 

the King ? Belike he will gift you and largesse you. Our reply 

was : We know him not and we fear lest his folk drive us away. 

So one of them said to us, I will write thee a note to his address 
for we know him of old, inasmuch as both of us learned to read 
in the same school. Accordingly he indited it and sealed it and 
gave it to us ; and coming hither we found his words true and now 
we are between his hands/' The Sultan enquired, "Was there 
any lack of civility to the strangers on your part ?" and they replied, 
"None, save our questioning them and saying, Whence come 
ye ? whereto they rejoined, We be strangers. Beyond this there 
was nothing unpleasant ; nothing at all." " Whither went they ?" 



Story of the Kazi and the Bhang-Eater. 201 

asked the King and the other answered, " I wot not." The 
Sultan continued, " Needs must thou bring them to me for 'tis 
long since I saw them ;" and the other remarked, " O King of the 
Age, if again they come to our place we will seize them and 
carry them before thee even perforce, but in case they come not, we 
have no means to hand." Quoth the King, "An thou know 
them well, when thou catchest sight of them they cannot escape 
thee/' and quoth the other, "Yea, verily." Then the Sultan pur- 
sued, " What did ye with the twain who came before them and 
ye wanted to bepiss them ?" Now when the Bhang-eater heard 
these words his colour paled and his case changed, his limbs 
trembled and he suspected that the person which he had insulted 
was the Sultan ; whereupon the King turned towards him and 
seeing in him signs of discomfiture asked, " What is in thy mind, 
O Bhang-eater ? What hath befallen thee ?" The other arose 
forthright and kissing ground cried, " Pardon, O King of the 
Age, before whom I have sinned." The Sovran asked, " How 
didst thou know this ?" and he ^answered, " Because none other was 
with us and news of us goeth not out of doors ; so needs must thou 
have been one of the twain and he who wrote the writ was thy- 
self ; for well we know that the kings read not in schools. Thou 
and thy friend did come in disguise to make merry at our expense ; 
therefore pardon us, O King of the Age, for mercy is a quality of 
the noble, and Almighty Allah said, ' Whoso pardoneth and benefi t- 
teth his reward is with Allah/ and eke He said, ' And the stiflers 
of wrath and the pardoners of mankind and Allah loveth the 
doers of good." 1 Herewith the Sultan smiled and said, " No harm 



1 Koran iii. 128. D'Herbelot and Sale (Koran, chap. iii. note) relate on this text a 
noble story of Hasan All-son and his erring slave which The Forty Vezirs (Lady's eighth 
story, p. 113) ignorantly attributes to Harun al-Rashid : Forthwith the Caliph rose 
in wrath and was about to hew the girl in pieces, when she said, " O Caliph, Almighty 
Allah saith in His glorious Word (the Koran), 'And the stiflers of Wrath' (iii. 128). 
Straightway the Caliph's wrath was calmed. Again said the girl, 'And the pardoners 
of men.' " (ibid.) Quoth the Caliph, I have forgiven the crimes of all the criminals who 



2O2 Supplemental Nights. 

shall befal thee, O Bhang-eater ! Thine excuse is accepted and 
thy default pardoned, but, O thou clever fellow, hast thou ho tale 
to tell us ?" He replied, "O King of the Age, I have a story 
touching myself and my wife which, were it graven with needle- 
gravers upon the eye-corners were a warning to whoso would be 
warned. But I strave against her on my own behalf, withal she 
overcame me and tyrannised over me by her contrivance." " What 
is it ?" asked the King ; so the man began to relate the 



HISTORY OF THE BHANG-EATER AND HIS WIFE- 

In the beginning of my career I owned only a single bull and 
poverty confused my wits. And Shahrazad was surprised by 
the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted 
say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful 
is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth 
she, " And where is this compared with that I would relate to you 
on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ?" Now 
when it was the next night and that was 



antr 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 



may be in prison.* Again said the slave-girl, * And Allah loveth the beneficent ' (ibid.) 
Quoth the Caliph, ' God be witness that I have with my own wealth freed thee and as 
many male and female slaves as I have, and that this day I have for the love of Allah 
given the half of all my good in alms to the poor.' " This is no improvement upon the 
simple and unexaggerated story in Sale. " It is related of Hasan, the son of Ali, that a 
slave having once thrown a dish on him boiling hot, as he sat at table, and fearing his 
master's resentment, fell on his knees and repeated these words, Paradise is for those 
who bridle their anger. Hasan answered, I am not angry. The slave proceeded, And 
for those who forgive men. I forgive you, said Hasan. The slave, however, finished 
the verse, For Allah loveth the beneficent. Since it is so, replied Hasan, I give you 
your liberty and four hundred pieces of silver." 



History of the Bhang-Eater and his Wife. 203 

the watching of this our latter night!" She replied: With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Bhang-eater 

said to the Sultan : 1 had no property save a single bull and 

poverty confused my wits. So I resolved to sell Roger 1 and going 
to the Bazar stood therein expecting someone to buy it, but none 
came to me until the last of the day. At that time I drove it 
forth and dragged it off till we reached half-way to my home, 
where I came upon a tree and sat down to rest in the cool 
shade. Now I had somewhat of Bhang with me, also a trifle of 
bread which I brought out and ate, and after I drank a draught 
of water from the spring. Presently the Bhang began to wobble 
in my brains and behold a bird in the tree-top which men call a 
Magpie 2 fell a-cawing, so I said to her, "Thou, O Mother of 
Solomon, hast thou a mind to buy the bull ?" and she cawed 
again. I continued, "Whatso price ever thou settest upon the 
bull, at that will I cede it to thee." Again a croak, and I 
" Haply thou hast brought no money ? " Another croak and 
cried I, "Say the word and I will leave the bull with thee till 
next Friday when thou wilt come and pay me its price." But 
she still cawed, and I, whenever she opened beak, O King of the 
Age, fancied that she bespake me and wanted the bull. But all 
this was of the excess of my Bhang which kept working in my 
brains and I mistook the croaking for her conversing. Accordingly 
I left with her the bull bound to the tree and turned towards my 
village ; and, when I went in to my wife, she asked me anent the 



1 The old name of the parish bull in rural England. 

2 Arab. "Kawi'k:" see The Nights, vol. vi. 182, where the bird is called 
{< Ak'ak." Our diets, do not give the word, but there is a t/ " Kauk " (Kdka, yakuku) 
to cluck, and "Kauk" = an aquatic bird with a long neck. I assume "Kawfk" to 
be an intensive form of the same root. The "Mother of Solomon" is a fanciful 
4< Kunyah," or bye name given to the bird by the Bhang-eater, suggesting his high 
opinion of her wisdom. 



2O4 Supplemental Nights. 

bull and I told her of my selling it to the Mother of Solomon. 
" Who may she be ? " asked my rib, and I replied, " She dwelleth 
in yonder tree ; " whereat my spouse rejoined, " Allah compensate 
thee with welfare." So I awaited patiently the appointed term ; 
then, after swallowing somewhat of Bhang, I repaired to the tree 
and sat beneath it when, lo and behold ! the pie cawed and I cried 
to her, " Hast thou brought the coin ? " A second caw ! Then said 
I, " Come hither and bring me the money." A third caw ! Hereat 
I waxed wroth and arose and taking up a bittock of brick I threw 
it at her as she sat perched upon the tree, whereupon she flew 
off and alit upon an ' old man ' * of clay hard by. So it occurred 
to my mind, " By Allah, the Mother of Solomon biddeth me follow 
her and recover the value of the bull from yonder 'old man/" 
Presently I went up to it and digging therein suddenly came upon 
a crock 2 full of gold wherefrom I took ten ashrafis, the value of 
the bull, and returned it to its place, saying, "Allah ensure thy 
weal, O Mother of Solomon." Then I walked back to my village 
and went in to my wife and said, " By Allah, verily the Mother 
of Solomon is of the righteous ! Lookye, she gave me these ten 
golden ducats to the price of our Roger/' Said my wife, "And 
who may be the Mother of Solomon ? " and I told her all that had 
befallen me especially in the matter of the crock of gold buried 
in the ' old man/ But after she heard my words she tarried until 

1 Arab.^Natur," prop, a watchman : also a land-mark, a bench-mark of tamped 
clay. 

2 In text "Bartaman" for " Martaban " = a pot, jar, or barrel-shaped vessel : others 
apply the term to fine porcelain which poison cannot affect. See Col. Yule's Glossary, 
s. v. Martaban, where the quotation from Ibn Batutah shows that the term was current in 
the xivth century. Linschoten (i. lol) writes, "In this town (Martaban of Pegu) 
many of the great earthen pots are made, which in India are called Martananas> and 
many of them are carried throughout all India of all sorts both small and great: and 
some are so great that they will fill two pipes of water." Pyrard (i. 259) applies the 
name to " certain handsome jars, of finer shape and larger than I have seen elsewhere " 
(Transl. by Albert Gray for the Hakluyt Soc. 1887). Mr. Hill adds that at Male 
the larger barrel-shaped jars of earthenware are still called " Mdtaban," and Mr. P. 
Brown (Zillah Dictionary, 1852) finds the word preserved upon the Madras coast == a 
black jar in which rice is imported from Pegu. 



History of the Bhang-Eater and his Wife. 205 

sundown ; then, going to the land-mark she dug into it and 
carrying off the crock brought it home privily. But I suspected 
her of so doing and said to her, " O woman, hast thou taken the 
good of the Mother of Solomon (and she of the righteous) after 
we have received from her the price of our Roger out of her own 
moneys ? And hast thou gone and appropriated her property ? 
By Allah, an thou restore it not to its stead even as it was, I will 
report to the Waif that my wife hath happened upon treasure- 
trove." And so saying I went forth from her. Then she arose 
and got ready somewhat of dough for cooking with flesh-meat and, 
sending for a fisherman, bade him bring her a few fishes fresh-caught 
and all alive, and taking these inside the house she drew sweet 
water and sprinkled them therewith, and lastly she placed the 
dough and meat outside the house ready for nightfall. Presently 
I returned and we supped, I and she ; but 'twas my firm resolve 
to report my wife's find to the Chief of Police. We slept together 
till midnight when she awoke me saying, " O man, I have dreamed 
a dream, and this it is, that the sky hath rained down drink and 
meat and that the fishes have entered our house." I replied to 
her of my folly and the overmuch Bhang which disported in my 
head, " Let us get up and look." So we searched the inside of the 
house and we found the fishes, and the outside where we came upon 
the doughboy and flesh-meat ; so we fell to picking it up, I and 
she, and broiling it and eating thereof till morning. Then said I, 
" Do thou go and return the moneys of Solomon's Mother to their 

own place." But she would not and flatly refused. And 

Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and 
ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, 
" How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and 
delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that 
I would relate to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer nie 
to survive ? Jl Now when it was the next night and that was 



206 Supplemental Nights. 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With love 
and good will! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Bhang- 
eater continued : I said to my wife, " Do thou go and return 
the moneys of Solomon's Mother to their own place ; " but she 
would not and flatly refused. Then I repeated x my words but 
without avail, so I flew into a fury and leaving her ceased not 
trudging till I found the Wali and said to him, " O my lord, my 
wife Such-an-one hath hit upon a hoard and 'tis now with her." 2 
The Chief of Police asked, " O man, hast thou seen it?" and I 
answered, " Yes." So he sent a body of his followers to bring her 
before him and wlien she came said to her, "O woman, where 
is the treasure trove ? " Said she, " O my lord, this report is a 
baseless ; " whereupon the Chief of Police bade her be led to jail. 
They did his bidding and she abode in the prison a whole day, 
after which the Wali summoned her and repeated his words to her 
adding, "An thou bring not the hoard I will slay thee and 
cast thy corpse into the bogshop 3 of the Hammam." The woman 
(my wife) rejoined, " O my lord, I never found aught ; " and 
when he persisted threatening her with death she cried, " O my 
lord, wherefore oppress me on this wise and charge such load 
of sin upon thine own neek ? I never came upon treasure at all, 

1 The Arabic here changes person, "he repeated" after Eastern fashion, and confuses 
the tale to European readers. 

2 Such treasure trove belonging to the State, i.e. the King. 

3 Arab. "Hurl" for "Hur " = a pool, marsh, or quagmire, .in fact corresponding 
with our vulgar "bogshop." Dr, Steingass would read " Haurf," a " mansiib " of 
" Haur " = pond, quagmfre, which, in connection with a Hammam, may = sink, 
sewer, etc. 



History of the Bhang- Eater and his Wife. 207 

at all ! " The Chief of Police retorted, " My first word and my 

last are these : Except thou bring the treasure trove I will slay 

thee and cast thee into the jakes." Herewith quoth she, " O my 
lord, ask my husband where it was I hit upon the hoard and at 
what time, by day or by night," and the Wali's men cried, " By 
Allah, these her words are just and right, nor is therein aught of 
harm/' So he sent to summon me and asked me, " O man, when 
did thy wife hit upon the hoard ? " I answered, " O my lord, 
she found it on the night when the skies rained drink and food 
and fishes." Now when the Wali heard my words he said to 
me, " O man, the skies are not wont to shed aught save rainwater ; 
and a man in his right wits speaketh not such speech as this." 
Said I, "By the life of thy head, O my lord, they did rain 
all three of them ; " but the officers cried, " O my lord, verily 
this man be Jinn-mad and his wife who telleth plain truth is 
wronged by him : the fellow deserveth confining in the Maristan." l 
Accordingly the Chief of Police bade the men set the woman 
free and let her wend her ways and seize me and throw me 
into the madhouse. They did his bidding and I remained there 
the first day and the second till the third when my wife said 
to herself, " There is no Majesty and there is no Might save in 
Allah, the Glorious, the Great ! By the Lord, needs must I go 
and relieve my husband from Bedlam and charge him never again 
to speak of that treasure trove." So she came to the Maristan 
and entering said to me, " Ho, Such-an-one, if any ask of 
thee saying : What do the skies rain ? 2 do thou make answer, 



1 The Bedlam : see vol. i. 288. 

2 Arab. "Tamtar aysh?" (i.e. Ayyu shayyin, see vol. i. 79). I may note that the 
vulgar abbreviation is of ancient date. Also the Egyptian dialect has borrowed, from 
its ancestor the Coptic, the practice of putting the interrogatory pronoun or adverb after 
(not before) the verb, e.g. "Ra'ih fayn ? " = Wending (art thou) whither? It is 
regretable that Egyptian scholars do not see the absolute necessity of studying Coptic, 
and this default is the sole imperfection of the late Dr. Spitta Bey's admirable Grammar 
of Egyptian. 



2o8 Supplemental Nights. 

They rain water! Furthermore if they inquire ~of thee, Do 
they ever rain drink and food and fishes ? reply thou, This is 
clean impossible, nor can such thing ever take place ! Then 
haply they will say to thee, How many days are in the week ; 
^nd do thou say, Seven days and this day be such a day ! Lastly 
have a guard on thyself when speaking." I rejoined, " 'Tis 
well, and now hie thee forth and buy me half a faddah's worth 
of Bhang, for during these days I have not eaten aught thereof." 
So she went and bought me somewhat of food and of Hashish : -- 
And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent 
and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her sister 
Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, 
and enjoyable and delectable 1 " Quoth she, " And where is this 
compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night an 
the Sovran suffer me to survive?" Now when it was the next 
night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : -- With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Bhang- 
eater's wife fared forth and brought back somewhat of food and 
of Hashish : then returning to the Maristan (he continued) she 
gave both to me and I ate of them, after which I said to her, 
" Let us up and be off! " whereto she, "And when we go to the 
Wali what wilt thou say ? " Then the Bhang wrought in my 
brains and I cried, " O bawd, 1 O my nice young lady, well 

1 Arab. " 'Arsah," akin to " Mu'arris " (masc.) = a pimp, a pander. See vol. i. 3.58 ; 
and Supp. vol. i, 206 ; and for its use Pilgrimage, i. 276. 



History of the Bhang- Eater and his Wife. '209 

thou wottest that the skies did rain flesh and drink and fishes !' 
Why then didst thou not tell the truth before the Chief of 
Police ? '* Thereupon the Manager of the Madhouse cried to 
me, " O fellow, this is the babble of madmen ! " and I, " By 
Allah, I ate of them boiled ; and doubtless the same kind of 
rain fell in your house." The other exclaimed, " There be nor 
4 doubt nor hesitation anent the insanity of one who sayeth such 
say ! " Now all this was related by the Bhang-eater to the 
Sultan who marvelled and asked him, " What could have made 
thee go to the Manager and recount to him such absurdities ? " 
But the Bhang-eater resumed, saying, " I dwelt in the Maristan 
twenty days until at last having no Bhang to eat I came to 
my senses and confessed that the skies shed only rain-water, 
that the week containeth seven days and that this day be 
such-and-such ; in fact I discoursed like a man in his right mind. 
So they discharged me and I went my ways. But when the 
Kazi heard this tale he cried out to the Sultan, "O King of 
the Age, my story is still more wondrous than this, which is only 
a prank played by a wife. My name was originally Abu Kdsim 
al-Tamburf 1 and I was appointed Kazi after a neat thing I did, 
and if thou, O our lord the Sultan, desire to be told of the 
adventures which befel me and of the clever trick wherefor 
they made^ me a judge, deign give thy commandment and I 
will commence it." Quoth the Sultan, " Recount to us why and 
where they entitled thee Kazi," and the judge began to relate 



1 i.e. Abu Kdsim the Drummer. The word " Tambur " is probably derived from 
" Tabl " = a drum, which became by the common change of liquids " Tabur " in 
O. French and "Tabour" in English. Hence the mod. form '* Tambour," which has 
been adopted by Turkey, e.g. Tamburji = a drummer. In Egypt, however, "Tambur " 
is applied to a manner of mandoline or guitar, mostly used by Greeks and other 
foreigners. See Lane, M.E. chap, xviiu 



2 1 o Supplemental Nights. 



HOW DRUMMER ABU KASIM BECAME A KAZL 

There was once, O King of the Age, a merchant and a man 
of Bassorah who went about trading with eunuchs and slave- 
boys and who bore his goods in bales 1 from Bassorah to Ajam- 
land there to sell them and to buy him other merchandise 
for vending in Syria. On this wise he tarried a long while until 
one year of the years he packed up his property, as was his 
wont, and fared forth with it to Persia. But at that time there 
fortuned to be a famine and when he arrived at one of the 
cities of Ajam-land, where formerly the traders bought his goods, 
on this occasion none of them would come near him. In such 
case he continued a long while till at last a Khwajah appeared 
before him, a man who owned abundant riches in Persia, but 
his home was distant three days from the place. The visitor 
asked saying, " O Bassorite, wilt thou sell me thy stock-in-trade ? " 
whereto the other answered, " And how ? Of course I'll sell 
it ! " So the buyer opened the gate of bidding and offered 
such-and-such ; but the Bassorah man cried, " Allah openeth." 
Then the purchaser added somewhat and the seller rejoined, 
"Give me yet more?" At last the buyer exclaimed, "I will 
give nothing more than * Anaught ' 2 ; " and the seller accepted 
the offer saying, " May Allah grant us gain ! " Thereupon 
the Persian Khwajah took over all the goods from the vendor and 
next day the twain rroet to settle money-matters. Now I, O 
King of the Age, happened to ,be abiding in that city. The 
seller received from the buyer payment in full nor did anything 
remain ; but after, the Bassorah man said to his customer, ** Thou 
still owest me the ' Anaught/ which thou must hand over to me." 



* Arab. " Bal" (sing. Balah)= a bale, from the Span. Bala and Italian Balla, a 
small parcel made up in the shape of a bale, Lat. Palla. 

* Arab. "Walasb," iur. ' Was la shayya" = "And nihil " (nil, non ens, naught). 



How Drummer A bu Kasim became a Kazi. 211 

The other replied jeeringly, " And the * Anaught ' is a naught ; 
to wit, no thing ; " but the Bassorite rejoined. tf Here with that 
'Anaught'!" Upon this a violent ruffle befel' between them, 
the cause was carried before the King and payment was required 
in the Divan, for the Bassorite. still demanded from the pur- 
chaser his "Anaught." The Sultan asked, "And what be this 
' Anaught ' ? " and the Bassorah man answered, " I wot not, 

O King of the Age ; " whereat the Sultan marvelled. And 

Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent 
and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister 
Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how 
enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this 
compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night, 
an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next 
night and that was 

6e Jpour f^untott anlr jffrst Nfgftt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thau 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night!" She {replied: With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sultan 
marvelled at the action of this Bassorite and his saying, " Give me 
my ' Anaught ! ' " Presently the tidings of that cause reached me, 
O King; so I went to the Divan which was thronged with folk and 
all present kept saying, " How woulcfit be if this f Anaught ' were 
a fraud or a resiliation of the contract ? " Thereupon the Sultan 
exclaimed, "Whoso shall settle this case, to him verily will f I be 
bountiful. 1 V So I came forward, O Kin of the Age, thinking of 
a conceit and kissed ground and said to him, "I will conclude this 
cause/' and he rejoined, "An thou determine it and^dispose of it 



212 Supplemental Nights. 

I will give thee largesse ; but if not, I will strike off thy head." I 
rejoined, " To hear is to obey." Then I bade them bring a large 
basin which could hold a skinful of water and ordered them fill 
it ; after which I called out to the Bassorite, *' Draw near/' and 
he drew near. All this and the King looked on and kept his eyes 
fixed upon us. Then I cried to the claimant, " Close thy fist I " 
and he did accordingly,- and again I commanded him to close it and 
to keep it tight closed. He obeyed my bidding and I continued 
" Dip thy neave into the basin," and he dipped it. Presently I 
asked, " Is thy hand in the water and thy fist closed ? " and he 
replied, " It is." Then said I, "Withdraw it," and he withdrew it, 
and I cried, <( Open thy neave," and he opened it. Then I asked 
what thing hast thou found therein ? " and he answered, " A 
naught ; " whereupon I cried to him, " Take thine ' Anaught ' and 
wend thy ways." Hereupon the Sultan said to the Bassorite, 
" Hast thou taken thine * Anaught, 1 O man ? " and said he " Yes." 
Accordingly the King bade him gang his gait. Then the Sultan gifted 
me with costly gifts and named me Kazi ; and hence, O King of the 
Age, is the cause of the title in the case of one who erst was Abu 
Kasim the Drummer." Hereat quoth the Sultan, " Relate to us 
what rare accident befel thee in thy proper person." So the judge 
began to recount 



THE STORY OF THE KAZI AND HIS SLIPPER. 

Once upon a 1 time, O King of the Age, I had a slipper which 
hardly belonged to its kind nor ever was there seen a bigger. Now 
one day of the days I waxed aweary of it and sware to myself that 
I would never wear it any more ; so in mine anger I flung it away 
and it fortuned to fall upon the flat roof of a Khwdjah's house 
where the stucco was weakest. Thence it dropped through, 
striking a shelf that held a number of phials full of the purest 




i .. S* 



Story of the Kazi and his Slipper. 2 1 3 

rose-water and the boarding yielded breaking all the bottles and 
spilling their contents. The house-folk heard the breakage 
ringing and rattling ; so they crowded one after other to discover 
what had done the damage and at last they found my papoosh 
sprawling amiddlemost the room. Then they made sure that the 
shelf had not been broken except by the violence of that slipper, 
and they examined it when, behold, the housemaster cried, saying, 
" This be the papoosh of Abu Kasim the Drummer/' Hereupon 
he took it and carried it to the Governor who summoned me and 
set me before him ; then he made me responsible for the phials and 
whatso was therein and for the repairing of the terrace-roof and 
upraising it again. And lastly he handed to me the slipper which 
was exceedingly long and broad and heavy and, being cruel old it 
showed upwards of an hundred and thirty patches nor was it 
unknown to any of the villagers. So I took it and fared forth and, 
being anangered with the article, I resolved to throw it into some 
dark hole or out-of-the-way place ; And Shahrazad was sur- 
prised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying her 
permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet 
and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delect- 
able ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I 
would relate to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me 
to Survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 

SHje Jfour f^untoefc anfc Second Nt'gfjt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
deeds of fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that Abu Kasim the 
Drummer continued to the Sultan ; I resolved to throw it into 



2 1 4 Supplemental Nights. 

some dark hole or out-of-the-way-place ; and presently I came to 
the watercloset of the Hammam and cast it into the conduit 
saying, " Now shall none ever see it again ; nor shall I be troubled 
with its foul aspect for the rest of my life." Then I returned 
home. and abode there the first day and the second, but about noon 
on the third a party of the Governor's men came and seized me 
and bore me before him ; and -no sooner did he see me than he 
cried out, " Throw him ! " Accordingly they laid me out at 
fullest length and gave me an hundred cuts with a scourge 1 which 
I bore stoutly and presently said, " O my Sultan, 2 what be the cause 
of this fustigation and wherefor do they oppress me ? " Said he, 
"O man, the conduit 3 of the jakes attached to the Mosque was 
choked by thy slipper and the flow, unable to pass off, brimmed 
over, whereby sundry houses belonging to the folk were wrecked. 4 
I replied, " O my lord, can a slipper estopp the flowing of a water 
that feedeth a Hammam ? " Thereupon the Governor said to me, 
" Take it away and if any find it in his place and again bring me 
a complaint thereanent, I will cut off thy head." So they haled 
me away after tossing my slipper to me, and I repaired to the 
Efendi 5 of the town and said to him, " O our lord, I have a com- 
plaint against this Papoosh which is not my property nor am I its 
owner : prithee do thou write me a deed to such purport between 
me and the Slipper and all who pass down this road." The 
Efendi replied,. " O man, how shall I write thee a deed between 
thee and thy Papoosh, which is a senseless thing ? Nay, take it thy- 

1 Arab. "Kurbaj " = cravache: vol. viii. 17. The best are made of hippopotamas- 
hide (imported from East Africa), boiled and hammered into a round form and tapering 
to the point. Plied by a strong arm they cut like a knout. 

8 The text " Ya" Sultdn-am," a Persian or Turkish form for the Arab. "Yd 
Sultdn-i." 

In text " Kalb" for " Kulbat" = a cave, a cavern. 

* The houses were of unbaked brick or cob, which readily melts away in rain and 
requires annual repairing at the base of the walls where affected by rain and dew. In 
Sind the damp of the earth with its nitrous humour eats away the foundations and soon 
Crumbles them to dust. 

e Here meaning the under- Governor or head Clerk. 



Story of the Kazi and his Slipper. 2 1 5 

self and cut it up and cast it into some place avoided of the folk." 
Accordingly I seized it and hacked it with a hatchet into four 
pieces which I threw down in the four corners of the city, saying 
to myself the while, " By Allah, I shall nevermore in my life hear 
any further of its adventures ; " and walked away barefoot. But 
I had thrown one bit under a bridge that crossed a certain of the 
small canals ; and the season was the dries, wherefore it collected 
a heap of sand which rose thereupon, and the wind whenever it 
blew brought somewhat of dust and raised the pile higher until the 
archway was blocked up by a mound. Now when the Nil 1 flooded 
and reached that archway the water was dammed up and ceased 
running, so the townsfolk said, " What may be the matter ? The 
Nile-inundation hath reached the bridge but cannot pass under it. 
Come let us inspect the archway." They did so and presently 
discovered the obstacle ; to wit, the mound before the arch which 
obstructed the waterway ; whereupon a party kilted their clothes 
and waded into the channel that they might clear it. But when 
they came to the mound-base they found my quarter-slipper, and 
they exclaimed with one cry, " This be the Papoosh of Abu 
Kasim the Drummer ! " But as soon as the tidings reached me, 
I fared away, flying from that town, and while so doing was 
met by my comrade, yonder Bhang-eater ; so we agreed that we 
would travel together and he companied me till we came to this 
city, e'en as thou seest us, O our lord the Sultan." Thereupon 
the King said to them, " Do ye twain abide with me amongst my 
servants; but I have a condition with you which is that ye be 
righteous in your service and that ye be ready to join my stance 
every night after supper-tide." Then he cautioned them against 
disobedience and quoth he, " Be ye not deluded by becoming my 
companions nor say to yourselves, We be the assessors of the 



1 "Nil" (= the Nile), in vulgar Egyptian parlance the word is = "high Nile," or 
the Nile in flood. 



2 1 6 Supplemental Nights. 

King ; for that the byword declareth : -- Whenas the King sitteth 
beware of his severity, and be not refractory whenever he shall say 
to thee * Do.' " They agreed to this condition and each whispered 
his mate, " Do thou have a care to act righteously ! " Then they 
left the King nor did they see him again till one day of the days 
when behold, a Khwajah appeared before the Sultan -- And 
Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and 
ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dun- 
yazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoy- 
able and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared 
with that I would relate to you on the coming night an the 
Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night 
and that was 



jfour ^unUrefc anfc SHjiift 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : -- With love and 
good will 1 It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the director, 
the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and of deeds 
fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that one day of the days, 
behold a Khwajah appeared before the Sultan and said, "'Tis not 
lawful in Allah's sight, O King of the Age, that a Bhang-eater 
should propose to dishonour me in the person of my daughter and 
load me with infamy amongst His worshippers saying the while :- 
I am of the King's suite." Now the cause of the merchant's 
complaint was as follows. One day of the days the Bhang-eater 
was passing by under the latticed window of the Khwajah's home 
when by decree of the Decreer, the daughter of the house was 
looking out at the casement and was solacing herself by observing 
all who walked the street. Perchance the Bhang-eater's glance 
fell upon the maiden and that sight of eyes entailed a thousand 



Tale of the Kazi and the Bhang-Eater. 217 

sighs, so he said to himself, " By Allah, if I meet not this maiden, 
although it be only once, I shall die of a broken heart nor shall 
any one know of my death." He then took to passing under the 
window every day and to gazing upwards and to tarrying there 
from morning-tide to set of sun ; but the more he looked the less 
he saw of her because Fortune which was fair to him the first time 
had now turned foul. So he continued in this condition for a 
while, coming every day to look at the lattice and seeing naught. 
Presently his case became strait and ill health entered his frame 
for love to the merchant's daughter ; and by reason of its excess 
he betook himself to his pillow turning and tossing right and left 
and crying, " O her eyes ! O her loveliness ! O her stature ! O 
her symmetrical grace ! " But as he was repeating these words 
behold, an old woman came in to him and, seeing his concern and 
chagrin, accosted him and said, " No harm to thee ! " Quoth he, 
" Ah, my reverend mother, unless thou come to my aid I perish," 
and quoth she, " What is upon thy mind ? " So he disclosed to 
her all he felt of fondness and affection for the Khwajah's daughter 
and she rejoined, " Thou wilt never win to thy wish in this matter 
except through me." Then she left him and repaired to her own 
place, pondering the wiles of women, till she entered her house 
and there she donned a woollen robe and hung three rosaries 
around her neck, after which she hent a palm-staff in hand and 
set out for the merchant's quarters. She ceased not walking till 
she reached the place and entered in her garb of a religious 
mendicant 1 crying out, " Allah, there is no god but the God ! 
extolled be Allah ! Allah be with you all ! " When the girl, 
whose name was Sitt al-Husn the Lady of Beauty heard these 
words she met her, hoping for a blessing, and saying, " O my 
mother, pray for me !" and the old woman responded, " The name 



1 Arab. " Darwayshah " = a she-Fakfr, which in Europe would be represented by 
that prime pest a begging nun. 



218 Supplemental Nights. 

of Allah be upon thee ! Allah be thy safeguard ! "* Then she 
sat down and the damsel came and took seat beside her ; so like- 
wise did the girl's mother and both sought a blessing from her and 
conversed together till about noon when she arose and made the 
Wuzii-ablution and span out her prayers, whilst those present 
exclaimed, " By Allah this be a pious woman ! " When her 
orisons were ended they served up dinner to her ; but she said, 
" I'm fasting ;" whereat they increased in love and belief herwards 
and insisted upon her abiding with them until sunset that she 
might break her fast within their walls. On such wise she acted 
but it was all a fraud. Then they persisted in keeping her for the 
night ; so she nighted with them, and when it was morn she arose 
and prayed and mumbled words, some intelligible and others not 
to be understanded of any, while the household gazed upon her 
and, whenever she would move from place, to place, supported her 
with their hands under her armpits. At last, when it was mid- 
forenoon she fared forth from them albeit their intent was not to 
let her depart But early on the next day she came in to them 
and all met her with greetings and friendly reception, kissing her 
hands and bussing her feet ; so she did as she had done on the 
first day and in like guise on the third while they showed her 
increased honour and worship. On the fourth day she came to 
them, as was her wont, and they prayed her be seated ; however she 
refused and said, " I have a daughter whom I am about to marry 
and the bridal festivities will be in my house ; but I come to you 
at this hour to let you know my desire that Sitt al-Husn may 
accompany me and be present at my girl's wedding- feast and thus 
she will gain a blessing." Her mother replied, " We dread lest 
somewhat befal her," but the ancient woman rejoined, " Fear not 
for her as the Hallows 2 are with her !" Thereupon cried the girl, 



1 Arab. ** Allah ha6z-ik " = the popular Persian expression, "Khuda Hafiz!" 
* Arab. " Salihin " = the Saints, the Holy Ones. 



Tale of the Kazi and the Bhang- Eater. 219 

" There is no help but that I accompany her and be present at 
her daughter's wedding ceremony and enjoy the spectacle and take 
my pleasure." The mother said, " 'Tis well ;" and the old trot 
added, " I will go and return within this moment." So saying, 
she went off as one aweary to the house of the Bhang-eatet and 
told him what she had done ; then she returned to the maiden 
whom she found drest and decorated and looking her best. So she 

took the girl and fared forth with her And Shahrazad was 

surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying her 
permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and 
tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delectable 1" 
Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I would relate 
to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ?" 
Now when it was the next night and that was 

te Jfour ^untrrefc nn& JpourtJ Nf$t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, anthou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love and 
good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the director, 
the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and of deeds 
fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the ancient woman took 
the girl and fared forth with her and led her to the Bhang-eater's 
house and brought her in to him who, seeing her in all her beauty 
and loveliness, arose forthright and his wits fled him and he drew 
near to her of his excessive love herwards. Therewith the " Lady 
of Beauty " understood that the old woman was an accursed pro- 
curess who had beguiled her in order to bring her and the man 
together. So of her cleverness and clear intelligence she said to 
her lover, " O my brave, whoso expecteth a visit of his beloved 
getteth ready somewhat of meat and somewhat of fruit and some- 
what of wine, that their pleasure may be perfected ; and, if thou 



22O Supplemental Nights. 

purpose love-liesse we will pass the night in this place." Quoth 
the'Khang-eater, "By Allah, O my lady, thou speakest sooth but 
what' shall we do at such hour as this?" and quoth she, " Hie 
thee to the market-street and bring all whereof I spoke." Said 
he, " Hearkening and obedience," and said she, tf I will sit down, 
I and this my mother in this place, the while thou goest and 
comest." He rejoined, " A sensible saying !" and forthright fared 
from her intending for the Bazar to bring the requisites ; and he was 
right gladsome nor knew what was prepared for him in the hidden 
future. Now as soon as he went the damsel arose and without 
making aught of noise locked the door closely upon herself and 
the old trot : then she wandered about the rooms and presently 
came upon a butcher's chopper 1 which she seized. Hereupon 
tucking up her sleeves above her elbows, in the firmness of her 
heart she drew near the old crone until she was hard by her right 
and so clove her skull asunder that she fell weltering in her blood 
and her ghost fled her flesh. After this the damsel again went 
about the house and all worth the taking she took, leaving whatso 
was unworthy, till she had collected a number of fine robes which 
the man had brought together after he had become a cup-com- 
panion of the Sultan ; and, lastly, she packed the whole in a sheet 5 
and went forth therewith. Now the season was morning but The 
Veiler veiled her and none met her on the way until she reached 
her home and went in to her mother whom she found awaiting her 
and saying, " By Allah, to day my girl hath tarried long at the 
bridal festivities of the Ascetic's daughter." And behold Sitt al- 



1 Arab. " Sharkh" = in diets, the unpolished blade of a hiltless sword. 

* In the text " Mildyah," a cotton stuff some 6 feet long, woven in small chequers of 
white and indigo-blue with an ending of red at either extremity. Men wrap it round the 
body or throw it over the shoulder like our plaid, whose colours I believe are a survival 
of the old body-paintings, Pictish and others. The woman's " Milayah " worn only 
out of doors may be of silk or cotton : it is made of two pieces which are sewed together 
lengthwise and these cover head and body like a hooded cloak. Lane figures it in 
M. E. chapt. !. When a woman is too poor to own a " Mildyah " or a " Habarah* ' (a 
similar article) she will use a bed-sheet for out-of-doors work. 



Tale of the Kazi and the Bhang- Eater. 22 1 

Husn came in to her carrying a large sheet stuffed with raiment, 
and as her mother saw her agitated and in disorder she questioned 
her of her case and of what was packed in the bundle. But the 
girl, who returned no reply and could not speak one syllable for 
the emotion caused by the slaughter of the ancient woman, fell to 
the ground in a fit. Her swoon endured from noon until eventide, 
her mother sitting at her head the while and sorrowing for her 
condition. But about set of sun behold, in came her father who 
found his daughter aswoon ; so he questioned his wife who began 
by recounting to him what they had noted in the old woman of 
prayer and display of devotion and how she had told them, " I 
have a daughter whom I am about to marry and the bridal festivi- 
ties will be in my house." "And," pursued the mother, "she 
invited us to visit her ; so at undurn-tide I sent with her the girl ; 
who at noontide came back bringing somewhat wrapped up and 
bundled, which be this. But when she entered the house she fell 
to the floor in a fainting fit and she is even as thou seest ; nor do 
I know what befel her," Then the father rose up and besprinkled 
somewhat of water upon her face which revived her and she said, 
" Where am I ?" whereto said he, " Thou art with us." And when 
she had recovered and returned to her senses, and her condition 
was as before the swoon, she told them of the old woman and her 
ill designs and of her death and lastly how the clothes had been 
brought by herself from the house of the Bhang-eater. As soon as 
her sire had heard her words, he set out from his home and sought 

the Sultan. And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day 

and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her 
sister Dunyazad " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how 
enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this 
compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night an 
the Sovran suffer me to survive ?" Now when it was the next 
night and that was 



222 Supplemental Nights. 



J^our f^untofc an* Jtftf) 

DUNYAZAD said to her " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : -- With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that whilst the 
Sultan was sitting behold, the Khwajah came in and complained 
to him of the Bhang-eater, whereupon he ordered a company to go 
fetch the accused and they went off and found him not. So they 
returned and reported accordingly. Such was the cause of the 
Khwajah coming to the King and such was the case with them ; 
but as regards the Bhang-eater, when he went off rejoicing to the 
Bazar in order to buy whatso the merchant's daughter had asked 
him, he brought many a thing wherewith he returned to his lodg- 
ing. However as he returned he beheld the old woman slaughtered 
and weltering in her blood and he found nothing at all of the 
choice articles wherewith his house was fulfilled ; so he fell to 
quoting this couplet : ! - 

"'Twas as a hive of bees that greatly thrived ; But, when the bee-swarm 
fled, 'twas clean unhived. 

And when he beheld that condition of things he turned from his 
home in haste and without stay or delay left it about the hour of mid- 
afternoon and fared forth from the city. There he found a caravan 
bound to some bourne or other, so he proceeded therewith hardly 
believing in his own safety and he ceased not accompanying the 
Cafilah 2 for the space of five days till it made the city the 



1 The pun here is " KhaHydt "= bee-hive and empty: See vols. vi., 246; ix. 291. 
It will occur again in Supplementary vol. v. Night DCXLVI. 

2 i.e. .Caravan, the common Eastern term. In India it was used for a fleet of 
merchantmen under convoy : see Col. Yule, Glossary, s. v. 



Tale of the Kazi and the 'Bhang-Eater. 223 

travellers sought, albeit he was fatigued and footsore from the 
stress of hardships and weariness he had endured. So he entered 
the place and wandered about until he found a Khan wherein 
he hired him a cell by way of nighting-stead and every day he 
would go forth to seek service for wages whereby he might make 
a livelihood. Now one day of the days a woman met him face 
to face on the highway and said to him, " Dost thou do service ? " 
and said he, " Indeed I do, O my lady." She continued, " There 
is a wall about my place which I desire to level and build another 
in lieu thereof for that 'tis old and very old." He replied to her, 
" Tis well " and she took him and repaired with him to her house 
and showing him the wall in question handed to him a pickaxe 
and said, " Break it down as much as thou art able be it for two 
or three days, and heap up the stones in one place and the dried 
mud in another." He replied, " Hearkening and obedience ; " 
after which she brought to him somewhat of food and of water 
and he ate and drank and praised Almighty Allah. After this he 
rose and began breaking down the wall and he ceased not working 
and piling up the stones and the dried mud until it was sunset 
time when the woman paid him to his wage ten faddahs and 
added a something of food which he took and turned towards his 
own cell. As soon as it was the second day he repaired to the 
house of the woman who again gave him somewhat to break his 
fast and he fell to felling the wall even as he had done on the first 
day and he worked till noon ; but when it was midday and all 
the household was asleep, lo and behold ! he found in the middle 
of the foundation a crock 1 full of gold. So he opened it and con- 
sidered its contents whereat he was rejoiced and he went forth 
without leisure or loss of time seeking his own cell and when he 
reached it he locked himself within for fear le&t any look upon 
him. Then he opened the crock and counted therein one hundred 

1 Again " Bartaman " for Martaban." 



224 Supplemental Nights. 

dinars which he pouched in his purse and stowed away in his 
breast-pocket. Presently he returned, as he was, to break down the 
rest of the wall and whilst he was trudging along the highway 
suddenly he sighted a box surrounded by a crowd of whom none 
knew what might be its contents and its owner was crying out, 
" For an hundred gold pieces ! " Thereupon the Bhang-eater 
went forwards saying to himself, " Buy thee yonder box for the 
hundred dinars and thy luck be thy lot, for if there be inside of it 
aught of wonderful 'tis well, and if otherwise thou shalt stand by 
thy bad bargain." So he drew near the broker 1 and said to him, 
"This box for how much?" 2 and the other answered, "For an 
hundred gold dinars ! " But when he questioned him as to its 
contents the man replied, " I know not ; whoso taketh it his luck 
be his lot." Thereupon he brought out to him the hundred ducats 
and the broker made over to him the box which he charged upon 
his shoulders and carried off to his cell. There arrived he bolted 
himself in and opened the coffer wherein he found a white slave- 
girl which was a model of beauty and loveliness and stature and 
perfect grace : but she was like one drunken with wine. So he 
shook her but she was not aroused when he said to himself, " What 
may be the story of this handmaiden ? " and he was never tired of 
looking upon her while she was in that condition and he kept 
saying to himself, <; Would Heaven I wot an she be on life or in 
death ; withal I see her breath coming and going." Now when it 
was about midnight, the handmaiden revived and looking around 
and about her, cried, " Where am I ? " and said the Bhang-eater 
" Thou, O my lady, art in my home ; " whereby she understood 

what had befallen her And Shahrazad was surprised by the 

dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. 
Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet -and tasteful, is thy 



1 The " Sahib" =owner, and the " Dallal" = broker, are evidently the same person. 
* ' Ate kam " for " kam " (how much ?) peasants' speech. 



Tale of the Kazi and the Bhang-Eater. 225 

tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, 
" And where is this compared with that I wpuld relate to you on 
the coining night, an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now 
when it was the next night and that was 

f)e jFour f^unlwlr and gbixtj Nfefjt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the handmaiden 
understood what had befallen her at the hands of her enemies. 
Now the cause thereof was that the Sultan of that city had bought 
him for concubine one Kut al-Kulub 1 , or Heart's-food hight, and she 
became to him the liefest of all the women he before had, amongst 
whom his wife, the daughter of his uncle, had been preferred: 
but all fell into the rank of the common and from the time he 
bought the new handmaid he was wholly occupied with her love 
and he never went near the other inmates of his Harem, not ever 
his cousin. So they were filled with exceeding jealousy against 
Heart's-food the new comer. Now one day of the days the Sultan 
went forth to hunt and bird and enjoy the occasion and solace 
himself in the gardens together with the Lords of his land, and 
they rode on till they found themselves amiddlemost of the waste 
pursuing their quarry. But when two days had passed, his wife 
together with the women which were concubines arose and invited 
all the neighbourhood whereamong was Kut al-Kulub, and she 



1 She has appeared already twice in The Nights, esp. in The Tale of Ghanim bin 
'Ayyub (vol. ii. 45) and in Khalifah the Fisherman of Baghdad (vol. viii. 145). I 
must again warn my readers not to confound " Kut" = food with *' Kuwwat"= force, 
as in Scott's " Koout al Koolloob " (vi. 146). $ee Terminal Essay p. HO. 

VOL. IV. P 



226 Supplemental Nights. 

spread for them a sumptuous banquet and lavished upon the new 
comers all manner of attentions and the wife began to play with 
her rival and to disport with her until it was thought that she 
loved none in the assembly save Heart's-food ; and on such wise 
she continued to cheer her and solace her and gambol with her 
and make her laugh until the trays were laid and the meats were 
dispread and all the guests came forward and fell to eating and 
drinking. Thereupon the King's cousin-wife brought a plate 
seasoned with Bhang and set it before the concubine who had no 
sooner eaten it and it had settled in her stomach than she trembled 
as with sudden palsy and fell to the ground without power of 
motion. Then the Queen bade place her in a box and having 
locked her therein sent for one who was Shaykh of the Brokers and 
committed to him the coffer saying, " Do thou sell it for an hundred 
gold pieces whilst it is locked and fast locked and suffer not any 
open it, otherwise we will work for the cutting off of thy hands." 
He replied, "To hear is to obey ; " and took up the box and went 
with it to the market-street where he said to the brokers, " Cry 
for sale this coffer at an hundred dinars and if any attempt to 
open it, open it not to any by any manner of means." So they 
took their station and made auction of it for an hundred gold 
pieces, when by the decree of Destiny the Bhang-eater passed 
down the street exulting in his hundred dinars which he had 
found in the crock while levelling the wall belonging to the 
woman. Thereupon he came up and having paid the price 
required carried off his coffer saying in his mind, " My luck is my 
livelihood." After this he went to his own cell and opened it and 
found there the handmaid in condition as though drunken with 
wine. Such is the history of that concubine Kut al-Kulub and 
she fell not into the hand of the Bhang-eater save by the wile and 
guile of the Sultan's cousin-wife. But when she recovered from 
her fainting fit and gazed around and understood what had 
befallen her she concealed her secret and said to the man, " Verily 



Tale of tJie Kazi and the Bhang-Eater. 227 

this thy cell becometh us not ;" and, as she had somewhat of gold' 
pieces with her and a collar of jewels around her neck worth a' 
thousand dinars, she brought out for him some money and sent 
him forth to hire for them a house in the middle of the quarter 
befitting great folk and when this was done she had herself trans- 
ported thither. Then she would give him every day spending- 
money to buy whatso she ever required and she would cook the 
delicatest dishes fit for the eating of the Kings wherewith she fed 
herself and her owner. This continued for twenty days when 
suddenly the Sultan returned from his hunting party and as soon 
as he entered his palace he asked for Kut al-Kulub - And 
Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and 
ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad 
" How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and 
delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that 
I should relate to you on the coming night, an the Sovran suffer 
me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 



jpour l^untac* anfc 

DUNYAZAD said to/ her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With 
love and goodwill ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that as soon as 
the Sultan returned from the chase he asked after Kut al-Kulub 
from his exceeding desire to her, and the daughter of his uncle 
told him the tidings saying, " By Allah, O King of the Age, three 
days after the time thou faredst forth there came upon her malaise 
and malady wherein she abode six days and then she deceased 
to the mercy of Almighty Allah." He exclaimed, " There is no 
Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the, 



228 Supplemental Night* * 

Great ! Verily we are the Almighty's and unto Him shall we 
return." Then befel him the extreme of grief and straitness of 
breast and he passed that night in exceeding cark and care for 
Kut al-Kulub. And when it was morning he sent after the Wazir 
and summoned him between his hands and bade him go forth to 
the Tigris-bank and there approve some place whereon he might 
build a palace which should command all the roads. The Minister 
replied, " Hearkening and obeying ; " and hied to do his lord's 
bidding taking with him architects 1 and others, and having found a 
piece of level ground he ordered them to measure an hundred ells of 
length for the building by a breadth of seventy cubits. Presently 
he sent for surveyors and master-masons whom he commanded to 
make ready every requisite for the work, of ashlar and . lime and 
lead ; also to dig trenches for the base of the walls. Then they 
fell to laying the foundations, and the builders and handicraftsmen 
began to .pile the stones and prepare the loads while the Wazir 
stood by them bidding and forbidding. Now when it was the third 
day, the Sultan went forth the Palace to look at the masons and 
artizans who were working at the foundations of his new edifice. 
And as soon as he had inspected it, it pleased him, so he said to 
the Wazir, " Walldhi ! none would befit this palace save and except 
Kut al-Kulub, when 'twould have been full of significance ; " and 
so saying he wept with sore weeping at the remembrance of her. 
Quoth the Wazir to him, "O King of the Age, have patience 
when calamity afflicteth thee, even as said one of them with much 
meaning, anent long-suffering: 

Be patient under weight of wrath and blow of sore calamities : o The Nights 
compressed by Time's embrace gravities miras gerunt res.'* 

1 In text "Mu'ammarjiyah" (master-masons), a vulgar Egyptianism for "Mu'am- 
marin. See "JaVashiyah," vols. ii. 49; via. 330. In the third line below we find 
" Muhandizin " = geometricians, architects, for " Muhandisin." [Perhaps a reminiscence 
of the Persian origin of the word "Handasah" = geometry, which is derived from 
1 Andazah ' ' = measurement, etc. St.] 

2 The text ends this line in Arabic. 



Tale of the Kazi and the Bhang- Eater. 229 

Then quoth the Sultan, " 'Tis well, O Wazir, I know that patience 
is praiseworthy and fretfulness is blameworthy, for indeed quoth 
the poet : 

When Time shall turn on thee, have patience for 'tis best of plight : o Ease 
shall pursue unease and naught but suffrance makes it light ; 

and by Allah, O Wazir, human nature is never free from sad 
thought and remembrance. Verily that damsel pleased me and I 
delighted in her ; nor can I ever think to find one like her in 
beauty and loveliness." Thereupon the Wazir fell to guiding the 
Sultan with fair words until his breast was broadened and the two 
began to solace themselves by inspecting the masons. After this 
the Sultan would go forth every morning for solace to Tigris-bank 
and tidings reached the ears of Kut al-Kulub that her lord was 
engaged on building a riverine palace, whereupon she said to the 
Bhang-eater, " Day by day we expend money upon our condition, 
and our outgoing is without incoming, so 'twere but right that 
each morning thou fare and work with the workmen who are 
edifying a mansior for the Sultan, inasmuch as the folk declare 
that he is of temper mild and merciful and haply thou shalt gain 
from him profit and provision." " O my lady," he replied, " by 
Allah, I have no patience to part with thee or to be far from thee ; " 
and he said so because he loved her and she loved him, for that 
since the time he had found her locked in the box and had looked 
upon her he had never required her of her person and this was 
indeed from his remembrance, for he bore in mind but too well 
what had befallen him from the Khwajah's daughter. And she on 
her side used to say, " 'Tis a wondrous thing that yon Bhang-eater 
never asketh me aught nor draweth nigh me seeing that I be a 
captive of his right hand." So she said to him, " Assuredly thou 
dost love me ? " and said he, " How can it be otherwise when 
thou art the blood of my life and the light of mine eyes ? " " O 
light of mine eyes," she replied, "take this necklace, and set it in 



230 Supplemental Nights. 

thy breast-pocket and go work at the Sultan's palace, and as often 
as thou shalt think of me, do thou take it out and consider it and 
smell it and it shall be as if thou wert to see me." Hearing this 
he obeyed her and went forth till he reached the palace where he 
found the builders at work and the Sultan and the Wazir sitting in 

a Kiosk hard by overseeing the masons and the workmen ; And 

Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and 
ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, 
" How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable 
and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with 
that I would relate to you on the coming night an the Sovran 
suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and 
that was 

!)0 Jfout f^untrrefc an* <($*!) If fg&t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

watching of this our latter night ! ** She replied : With love 

and good will ! It hath re'ached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of -deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that when the 
Bhang-eater joined the masons he saw the Sultan and Wazir over- 
seeing them ; and, as soon as the King sighted him, he opened his 
breast to him and said, " O man, wilt thou also do work ? " and 
said the other, " Yes." So he bade him labour with the builders 
and he continued toiling till hard upon noon-tide, at which time 
lie remembered his slave-girl and forthright he bowed his head 
upon his bosom-pocket and he sniffed thereat. The Wazir saw 
liim so doing and asked him, " What is the meaning of thy sniffing 
at what is in thy poke ? " and he answered him, " No matter.'' 
However the Minister espied him a second time occupied in like 
guise and quoth he to the Sultan, " Look, O King of the Age, at yon 



Tale of the Kazi and the Bhang- Eater. 231 

labourer who is hiding something in his pocket and smelling 
thereat." " Haply," responded the Sovran, " there is in his pouch 
something he would look at." However when the Sultan's glance 
happened to fall that way he beheld the Bhang-eater sniffing and 
smelling at his poke, so he said to the Wazir, " Wallahi ! Verily 
this workman's case is a strange." Hereupon both fixed their eyes 
upon him and they saw him again hiding somewhat in his pouch 
and smelling at it. The Wazir cried, " Verily this fellow is a-fizzling 
and he boweth his head toward his breast in order that he may 
savour his own farts." ! The Sultan laughed and said, " By Allah, 
if he do on this wise 'tis a somewhat curious matter, or perhaps, 
O Wazir, he have some cause to account for it ; at any rate do thou 
call out to him and ask him." So the Wazir arose and drawing 
near to him asked him saying, " Ho, this one ! 2 every time thou 
fizzlest thou smellest and sniffest at thy fizzlings;" whereto 
answered the workman, " Wag not thy tongue with these words 
seeing thou art in the presence of a King glorious of degree." 
Quoth the Minister, "What 'is the matter with thee in this case 
that thou art sniffing at thy pocket ? " and quoth the labourer, 
" Verily my beloved is in my pouch/' The Wazir wondered 
hereat and reported the same to the Sultan who cried, " Return to 
him and say : Is it possible that thou display to us thy beloved 
who is in thy breast-pocket?" So he returned to him and said, 
" Show us what there is in thy pouch." Now the origin of this 



1 Alluding to the curious phenomenon pithily expressed in the Latin proverb, " Suus 
cuique crepitus bene olet," I know of no exception to the rule, except amongst travel- 
lers in Tibet, where the wild onion, the only procurable green-stuff, produces an odour 
so rank and fetid that men run away from their own crepitations. The subject is not 
savoury, yet it has been copiously illustrated : I once dined at a London house whose 
nameless owner, a noted bibliophile, especially of "facetiae," had placed upon the 
drawing-room table a dozen books treating of the "Crepitus vehtris." When the 
guests came up and drew near the table, and opened the volumes, their faces were a 
study. For the Arab. " Faswah " = a silent break" wind, see vol. ix. n and 291. It 
is opposed to " Zirt" = a loud fart and the vulgar term , see vol ii. 88. 

2 Arab. " Ya Haza," see vol. i. 290. 



232 Supplemental Nights. 

necklace was that the King had bought it for Kut al-Kulub at the 
price of a thousand dinars and the damsel had given it to the 
Bhang-eater with the sole object that the Sultan might look upon 
it and thereby be directed unto her and might learn the reason of 
her disappearance and her severance from him. Hereupon the 
man brought out to them the necklace from his breast-pocket and 
the Sultan on seeing it at once recognized it and wondered how it 
had fallen into the hands of that workman ; accordingly he asked 
who was its owner and the other answered, " It belongeth to the 
"handmaid whom I bought with an hundred dinars." Quoth the 
Sultan to him, " Is it possible 1 thou invite us to thy quarters that 
we may look upon this damsel ;" and quoth the other, " Would 
you look upon my slave-girl and not be ashamed of yourselves ? 
However I will consult her, and if she be satisfied therewith we 
will invite you." They said to him, " This be a rede that is right 
and an affair which no blame can excite." When the day had 
reached its term the masons and workmen were dismissed after 
they had taken their wage ; but as for the Bhang-eater the Sultan 
gave him two gold pieces and set him free about sunset tide ; so 
he fared to his handmaid and informed her of what had befallen 
him from the King, adding, " He hath indeed looked upon the 
necklace and hath asked me to invite him hither as well as the 
Wazir." Quoth she, " No harm in that ; but to-morrow (Inshal- 
lah !) do thou bring all we require for a state occasion of meats 
and drinks, and let me have them here by noon-tide, so they may 
eat the early meal. But when he shall ask to buy me of thee 
compose thy mind and say thou, No, when he will reply to thee : 
Give me this damsel in free gift. Hereat do thou say : She is 
a present from me to thee ; because indeed I am his slave and 
bought with his money for one thousand and five hundred dinars ; 



1 In text " Yumkinshayy," written in a single word, a favourite expression, Fellah- 
like withal, throughout this MS. 



Tale of the Kazi and the Bhang-Eater. 233 

and thou hadst never become my lord save through my foes who 
devised a device against me and who sold me when thou boughtest 
me. However the hour of thy prosperity hath now come." And 
when morning morrowed she gave him five gold pieces and said to 
him, " Bring for me things that be such and such," and said he, 
" Hearing and obedience." So he went to the market-street where 
he purchased all the supplies wherewith she had charged him and 
returned to her forthright. Hereupon she arose and tucking up 
her sleeves prepared meats that befitted the King and likewise 
she got ready comfits and the daintiest of dainties and sherbets 
and she tempered the pastilles and she besprinkled the room with 
rosewater and looked to the furniture of the place. About midday 
she sent to the Sultan and the Wazir with notice that she was 
ready ; so the Bhang-eater repaired to the Palace and having gone 
in to the presence said, " Have the kindness ! " J The twain arose 
without more ado and hied with him privily till they reached his 
house and entered therein. -- And Shahrazad was surprised by 
the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted 
say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, 
O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she 
<c And where is this compared with that I should relate to you on 
the coming night, an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now 
when it was the next night and that was 



jfour ^un&refc anfc 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 

1 In text " Tafarzalu ;" see vol. ii. 103. 



2 3 4 Supplemental Nights. 

of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sultan and 
the Wazir entered the place wherein were the Bhang-eater and the 
damsel, and took their seats. Now the meats were ready and 
they served up to them the trays and the dishes, when they fell to 
and were cheered by the sumptuous viands until they had eaten 
after the measure of their sufficiency. And when their hands were 
washed, the confections and sherbet and coffee were set before 
them, so they ate and were satisfied and gladdened and made 
merry. After this quoth the Sultan to the Bhang-eater, " Where 
is the damsel ? " and quoth the man, " She is here," whereat he 
was commanded to bring her. Accordingly he went off and led 
her in and as soon as the King sighted her he recognised her and 
ordered her owner to make her over to him and said when he did 
so, " O man, wilt thou sell to me this damsel ? " But the other 
kissed ground before him and replied, " O King of the age, she is 
from me a free gift to thee ; " and quoth the Sultan, " She is 
accepted from thee, O Shaykh, and do thou come and bring her 
thyself to the Palace about sundown-time." He replied, " To hear 
is to obey." And at the hour named he took the damsel and 
ceased not faring with her till he brought her to the Serai, 1 where 
the Eunuchry met her and took her and carried her in to the Sultan. 
But as soon as she entered she nestled in his bosom and he threw 
his arms round her neck and kissed her of his excessive desire to 
her. Then he asked her saying, " This man who purchased thee, 
hath he any time approached thee ? " whereto she . answered, 
" By Allah, O King, from the time he bought me in the box which 
he opened and found me alive therein until this present never hath 
he looked upon my face, and as often as I addressed him he would 



1 The word (Saray) is Pers. but naturalised throughout Egypt and Syria ; in places 
like Damascus where there i s no King it is applied to the official head-quarters of. the 
Waif (provincial governor), and contains the prison like the Maroccan " Kasbah." It 
must not be confounded with " Serraglio " = the Harem, Gynecium or women's rooms, 
which appears to be a bastard neo- Latin word " Serrare," through the French Serrer. 
I therefore always write it with the double " canine letter." 



Tale of the Kazi and the Bhang-Eater. 235 

bow his brow earthwards." Quoth the Sultan, " By Allah, this 
wight deserveth an aidance for that he paid down for thee an 
hundred dinars and he hath presented thee in free gift to me." 
Now when morrowed the morning the King sent after the Bhang- 
eater and summoned him between his hands and bestowed upon 
him one thousand five hundred dinars with a suit of royal raiment, 
after which he presented to him, by way of honourable robe, 1 a 
white slave girl. He also set apart for him an apartment and made 
him one of his boon companions. So look thou, O hearer, 2 how 
it happened to this Bhang-eater from the Khwajah's daughter and 
his love herwards ; how he failed to win her and how he gained of 
blows whatso he gained ; and after what prosperity befel him from 
the part of Kut Al-Kulub. And ever afterwards when the Sultan 
would ride out for disport or for the hunt and chase he would take 
the man with him. Presently of the perfection of his prosperity 
this Bhang-eater fully mastered the affairs of the kingdom, both 
its income and its outgo, and his knowledge embraced all the 
regions and cities which were under the rule of his lord. Further- 
more, whenever he would counsel the King, his advice was found 
to be in place and he was consulted upon all State affairs,, and 
whenever he heard of any business he understood its inner as well 
as its outer meaning until the Sultan and the Wazir both sought 
rede of him, and he would point out to them the right and un- 
right, and that which entaileth trouble and no trouble, when they 
could fend it off and overthrow it or by word or by deed of hand. 
Now one day of the many days the King was in a certain of his 
gardens a-solacing himself with the sights when his heart and 
stomach became full of pain and he fell ill and his illness grew 
upon him, nor did he last four days ere he departed to the mercy 
of Allah Almighty. As he had no issue, either son or daughter, 



1 I have noted (vol. i. 95) that the " Khil'ah" = robe of honour, consists of many 
articles, such as a horse, a gold-hilted sword, a fine turban, etc., etc. 

2 This again shows the " Nakkal " or coffee-house tale-teller. See vol. x. 163. 



236 Supplemental Nights. 

the country remained without a King for three days, when the 
Lords of the land forgathered and agreed upon a decision, all and 
some, that they would have no King or Sultan save the Wazir and 
that the man the Bhang-eater should be made Chief Councillor. 
So they agreed upon this matter and their words went forth to the 
Minister who at once took office. After this he gave general 
satisfaction and lavished alms on the mean and miserable, also on 
the widows and orphans, when his fame was bruited abroad and it 
dispread far and wide till men entitled him the "Just Wazir " and 

in such case he governed for a while of time. And Shahrazad 

was surprised by dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying her 
permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and 
tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " 
Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I would relate 
to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? M 
Now when it was the next night and that was 

5e JFour pjunUrrtf an& STentfc Nfg&t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish fof us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Wazir 
governed for a while of time with all justice of rule so that the 
caravans spread abroad the name and fame of him throughout every 
city and all the countries. Presently there befel him an affair 
between two women which were sister-wives to one man. 1 Now 



1 This is the Moslem version of "Solomon's Judgment (i Kings iii. i6-2o) k The 
Hebrew legend is more detailed but I prefer its rival for sundry reasons. Here the 
women are not '* harlots " but the co-wives of one man and therefore hostile ; moreover 
poetical justice is done to the constructive murderess. 



Tale of the Kazi and the Bhang- Eater. 237 

these had conceived by him in the same month and when the time 
of their pregnancy had passed, the twain were delivered in the 
same place at the same hour and the midwife was one and the 
same. One brought forth a babe but it was a daughter which 
incontinently died and the other a man-child who lived. The 
women quarrelled and fought about the boy-babe and both of them 
said, " This is my child ; " and there befel between them exceeding 
contention and excessive hostility. So they carried their cause 
before the divines and the Olema and the head men of the place, 
yet did none of them know how to decide between th6 twain and 
not a few of the folk said, " Let each woman take the child to her 
for a month," whilst others declared that they might keep it 
between them at all times, whilst of the women one said, " 'Tis 
well : this be my boy ! " and the other declared " 'Tis well, this be 
my son ! " nor could any point out to which of the women the boy 
belonged. So the town's people were gathered together and said, 
"None can determine this dispute except the Just Wazir;" and 
they agreed upon this, so that the husband of the two women and 
sundry of his associates arose and took the twain of them and 
travelled with them to hear the Minister's judgment. Also the 
Olema and the great men of the place declared " By Allah, we also 
needs must travel with the party and produce the two women and 
be present at the Just Wazir's judgment/' So they all assembled 
and followed after the two adversaries, nor did they cease travelling 
until they entered the city where the Minister abode. There they 
delayed for rest during one day and on the second they all joined 
one another and went in to the Wazir and recounted to him the case 
of the two women. Hearing this he bowed his brow groundwards 
and presently raising it he cried, " Bring me two eggs and void 
them of their contents and see that .the shells be clean empty." 
Then he commanded that each of the women drain somewhat of 
milk from her nipple into the egg-shell till she had filled it. They 
did accordingly and set before him the egg-shells brimful when he 



238 Supplemental Nights. 

said, " Bring me a pair of scales." * After this he placed both eggs 
in the balance-pan and raising it aloft from its rounded stead per- 
ceived that one was weighty and the other was light. Quoth he, 
" The milk of the woman in this egg is the heavier and she is the 
mother of the boy-babe whereas the other bare the girl-child and 
we know not an it be alive or dead.",, Hereat the true mother of 
the boy held her peace but the other wailed aloud and said, " 'Tis 
well : still this be my babe ! " Thereupon quoth the Wazir, " I am 
about to take the boy and hew him in halves whereof I will give 
one to each of you twain." But the true mother arose and cried 
out, " No ! O my lord, do not on this wise : I will forfeit my claim 
for Allah's sake ; " while the other one exclaimed, " All this is right 
good [ " Now all the folk of the city who were then standing by 
heard these words and looked on ; but when this order was pro- 
nounced and the woman was satisfied and declared, rt I will take 
half the boy," the Wazir gave orders forthright that they seize her 
and hang her ; so they hanged her and he gave the babe to the right 
mother. Then said they to him, " O our lord, how was it proved 
to thee that the boy was the child of this one ? " and he said, " It 
became evident to me from two sides ; in the first place because 
her milk was the heavier, so that I knew that the boy was her boy, 

and secondly when I commanded : Let us cut the boy in half, the 

real mother consented not to this and the matter was hard upon her 
because the child was a slice of her liver, and she said to herself: 
His life is better than his death, even though my sister-wife take 
him, at any rate I shall be able to look upon him. But the second 
woman designed only to gratify her spite whether the boy died or 
not and to harm her sister-wife ; so when I saw that she was 
contented to have the babe killed, I knew that it was right to do 
her die." Then all who were present of the Lords of the land and 



1 I am not aware that the specific gravity of the milks has ever been determined by 
modem science.; and perhaps the experiment is worthy a triaL 



Tale of the Kazi and the Bhang-Eater* 239 

the Olema and divines and notables wondered at the judgment and 
exclaimed, " By Allah, well done, 1 O Wazir of the realm/' Now this 
history of the Minister's perspicacity and penetration was spread 
abroad and all folk went from his presence and everyone who 
had wives that had borne girls took somewhat of milk from the 
women and went to each and every of those who had borne boys and 
took from them milk in the same quantity as the Wazir had taken, and 
weighed it in the scales, when they found that the mothers of males 
produced milk that was not equal to, nay it weighed two-fold that 
of those who bare girls. Hereupon they said, " It is not right that 
we call this Minister only the Just Wazir ; " and all were agreed 
that he should be titled " The Wazir-wise-in-Allah-Almighty ; " 2 
and the reason whereof was the judgment which he passed in the 
cause between the two women. Now after this it befel him to 

deliver a decision more wondrous than the former. And Shah- 

razad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased 
to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How 
sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " 
Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I should relate 
to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " 
Now when it was the next night and that was 

fo ;{Four PJtmbrtfj an& 15Ubeatf) Nij$t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 



1 Arab. " Duna-k." See vol. iv. p. 20. 

2 " Al-Wazfru'l-'Arif bMldhiTa'ala," a title intended to mimic those of the Abbaside 
Caliphs ; such as ' Mu'tasim bi'llah " (servant of Allah), the first of the long line whose 
names begin with an epithet (the Truster, the Implorer, etc.), and end with " bi'llah.'\ 



240 Supplemental Nights. 

and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that to the 
Wazir-wise-in-Almighty-Allah there befel between his hands a 
strange matter which was as follows. As he was sitting one 
day of the days there came in to him unexpectedly two men, of 
whom one led a cow and a little colt whilst the second had with 
him a mare and a little calf. Now the first who came forward 
was the owner of the mare and quoth he, " O my lord, I have a 
claim upon this man." Quoth the Minister, " What be thy claim ?" 
And the plaintiff continued, " I was going a-morn to the meadow 
for pasture and with me was my mare followed by her young one, 
her little colt, when yonder man met me upon the road and the 
colt began to play and to throw up gravel with its hoofs as is the 
wont of horse-flesh and draw near to the cow. Hereupon this 
man came up and seized it and said, " This colt is the offspring of 
my cow," and so saying he took it away and he gave me his calf, 
crying, " Take this which be the issue of thy mare." So the 
Wazir turning to the master of the cow asked, " O man, what 
sayest thou concerning what thy comrade hath spoken ? " and the 
other answered, " O my lord, in very deed this colt is the produce 
of my cow and I brought it up by hand." Quoth the Wazir, " Is 
it right that black cattle should bring forth horses and that horses 
should bear cows ? indeed the intelligence of an intelligent man 
may not compass this ; " and quoth the other, " O my lord, Allah 
createth whatso He willeth and maketh kine to produce horses and 
horses to produce kine." Hereupon the Minister said to him, " O 
Shaykh, when thou seest a thing before thee and lookest thereon 
canst thou speak of it in the way of truth ? " And the other 
assented. Then the Wazir continued addressing the two men, 
" Wend your ways at this time and on the morrow be present here 
at early morn and let it be at a vacant hour." Accordingly they 
forthright went forth, and the next day early the two men came 
to the divan of the Wazir who set before them a she-rnouse he had 
provided and called for a sack which he filled with^ earth. And 



Story of the Khazi and the Bhang-Eater. 24! 

as the men stood between his hands he said, " Wait ye patiently 
without speaking a word ; " so they held their peace and presently 
he bade them set the sack and the mouse before him and he ordered 
the men to load the sack upon the mouse. Both cried, " our 
lord, 'tis impossible that a mouse can carry a sack full of earth," 
when he answered, " How then can a cow bear a colt ? and when a 
mouse shall be able to bear a sack then shall a cow bear a colt/ 1 
All this and the Sultan was looking out at the latticed window 
listening and gazing. Hereupon the Wazir gave an order that 
the master of the mare take her colt and the master of the cow 
carry off her calf; after which he bade them go about their 
business. - And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day 
and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth 
her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister 
mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where 
is this compared with that I would relate to you on the coming 
night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the 
next night and that was 



jpour f^untofc an& 

DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sultan, 
whose Minister was the Wazir-wise-in-Allah-Almighty, on a certain 
day summoned his Chief Councillor and when he came said to him, 
" Verily my breast is straitened and I am beset by unease, so I 
desire to hear something which may broaden my bosom ; " and 
said the other, " O King of the age, by Allah, I have a friend who 
is named Mahmud the 'Ajamf and that man is a choice spirit and 
VOL. iv. 



242 Supplemental Nights. 

he hath all kind of rare tales ,and strange anecdotes and wondrous 
histories and marvellous adventures." Said the Sultan, " There is 
no help but that thou summon him to us hither and let us hear 
from him somewhat." So the Wazir sent after the Persian and 
when the man stood in the presence 'said to him, "Verily the 
Sultan hath summoned thee." He replied, " Hearing and 
obeying," when he was taken and set before the Sovran and as he 
entered he saluted him with the salams of the Caliphs and blessed 
him and prayed for him. 1 The King returned his greeting and 
after seating him said to him, " O Mahamud, at this moment my 
breast is indeed straitened and I have heard of thee that thou hast 
a store of rare stories which I would that thou cause me hear 2 and 
let it be somewhat sweet of speech which shall banish my cark 
and my care and the straitness of my breast." Hereto the other 
replied, " Hearing and obeying ; " and began to relate the 

TALE OF MAHMUD THE PERSIAN AND THE KURD 

SHARPER? 

The Sultan was delighted with the 'Aj ami's relation and largessed 
him two thousand pieces of gold ; after which he returned to his 
palace and took seat upon his Divan when suddenly a poor man 
appeared before him carrying a load of fruit and greens and 
greeted him and prayed for him and expressed a blessing which 
the Sultan returned and bade him fair welcome. After which he 
asked, <( What hast thou with thee, O Shaykh ? " and the other 
answered, " O King of the Age, I have an offering to thee of fresh 

1 [Tarajjama, which is too frequently used in this MS. to be merely considered as a 
clerical error, I suppose to mean: he pronounced for him the formula: "A'uzzubi 

llahi mina 'l-Shaytani '\-Rajimi = I take refuge with Allah against Satan tha Stoned. 
See Koran xvi. 100. It would be thus equivalent with the usual ta'awwaza. ST.] 

2 The MS. here ends Night cdxii. and begins the next. Up to this point I have 
followed the numeration but from this forwards as the Nights become unconscionably 
short compared with the intervening dialogues, I have thrown two and sometimes three 
into one. The Arabic numbers are, however, preserved for easier reference. 

3 This is a poor and scamped version of " Ali the Persian and the Kurd Sharper/' in 
vol. iv. 149. It is therefore omitted, 



Makmud the Persian and the Kurd Sharper. 243 

greens and firstfruits ; " and the King rejoined, " It is accepted. 11 
Thereupon the man placed them between his royal hands and 
stood up, and the King having removed the cover 1 found under it 
a portion of ordinary cucumbers and sundry curling cucumbers 
and bundles of rose-mallows 2 which had been placed before him. 
So he took thereof some little matter and ate it and was much 
pleased and bade the Eunuchry bear the rest into the Harem. 
They carried out his commands and the women also were delighted 
and having eaten somewhat they distributed the remainder to the 
slave-girls. Then said they, " By Allah, this man, the fruit-owner, 
deserveth Bakhshish ; " s so they sent to him by the Eunuch one 
hundred gold pieces whereto the Sultan added twain, so the whole 
of his gain was three hundred dinars. But the Sultan was much 
pleased with the man and a part of the care which he felt was 
lightened to him, whereupon asked he, " O Shaykh, knowest thou 
aught of boon-companionship with the Kings ? " to which the 
other answered, " Yes ; " for he was trim of tongue and ready of 
reply and sweet of speech. Presently the Sultan continued, " O 
Shaykh, for this present go back to thy village and give to thy wife 
and family that which Allah hath made thy lot." Accordingly 
the man went forth and did as the King bade him ; after which he 
returned in a short time and went into the presence about set of 
sun when he found his liege lord at supper. The King bade him 
sit to the trays which he did and he ate after the measure of his 
sufficiency, and again when the Sultan looked upon him he was 
pleased with him. And when the hour of night-prayers came all 

1 The dish-cover, usually made of neatly plaited straw variously coloured, is always 
used, not only for cleanliness but to prevent the Evil Eye falling upon and infecting 
the food. 

2 The " Bamiyah," which = the Gumbo, Occra (Okrd) or Bhendi of Brit Indi* Which 
names the celebrated bazar of Bombay, is the esculent hibiscus, the polygonal pod (some- 
three inches long and thick as a man's finger) full of seeds and mucilage making it an 
excellent material for soups and stews. It is a favourite dish in Egypt and usually eaten 
with a squeeze of lime-juice. See Lane, Mod. Egypt, chapt. v., and Herklots (App. 
p. xlii.) who notices the curry of " Bandaki " or Hibiscus esculentus. 

3 Written "Bakshish" for "Bakhshish/ 1 after Fellah-fashion. 



244 Supplemental Nights. 

prayed together f then the King invited him to sit down as a cup- 
companion and commanded him to relate one of his tales. - And 
Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and 
ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, 
" How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and 
delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that 
I should relate to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer 
me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other then sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : -- With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the man took 
seat as a boon-companion of the King, and began to relate 

THE TALE OF THE SULTAN AND HIS SONS AND THE 
ENCHANTING BIRD* 

It is told anent a man, one of the Kings of Orient-land, that he 
had three sons, of whom the eldest one day of the days heard 
the folk saying, "In such a place there is a bird hight the 



; * [In the MS. : Wa'1-Sultanu karaa Wirduh (Wirda-hu) wa jalasa li '1-Munadamah = 
And the Sovran recited his appointed portion of the Koran, and then sat down to con- 
vivial converse. This reminds of the various passages of the present Shah of Persia's 
Diary, in which he mentions the performance of his evening devotions, before setting 
out for some social gathering, say a supper in the Guildhall, which he neatly explains 
as a dinner after midnight (Sham ba'd az nisf-i-shab). ST.] 

2 This is Scott's "Story of the Three Princes and Enchanting Bird," vol. vi. 160. 
On the margin of the W. M. MS. he has written '* Story of the King and his Three Sons 
and the Enchanting Bird*' (vol. i., Night cdxvii)- Gauttier, vi. 292, names it Histoire 
des Trois Princes et deFOiseau Magicien, Galland may have used parts of it in the 
" Two Sisters who envied their Cadette" : see Supp. vol. iii. pp. 492-549, 



The Sultan and his Sons and the Enchanting Bird. 245 

shrilling Philomelet, 1 which transmews everyone who comes to 
it into a form of stone. Now when the heir apparent heard 
this report he went to his father and said, " "Pis my desire to 
fare forth and to get that marvellous bird ; " and said the father, 
" O my son, thou wouldst work only to waste thy life-blood and 
to deprive us of thee ; for that same bird hath ruined Kings 
and Sultans, not to speak of Bashas and Sanjaks, 2 men in whose 
claws 3 thou wouldst be as nothing.'* But the son replied, 
11 Needs must I go and if thou forbid my going I will kill my- 
self." So quoth his father, " There is no Majesty and no Might 
save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great ; " and saith the son, 
" Affects are affected and steps are sped towards a world that 
is vile and distributed daily bread." 4 Then he said to him, " O 
my child, set out upon thy journey and mayest thou win to thy 
wish." Hereupon they prepared for him somewhat of victual and 
he went forth on his wayfare. But before departing he took off 
his seal-ring from his finger and gave it to his second brother 
saying, " O my brother, an this signet press hard upon thy little 
finger do thou know and make certain that mishap hath happened 
to me." So the second Prince took it and put it upon his minim 
finger, after which the eldest youth farewelled his father and his 



1 In text " Al-Bulaybul" (the little Nightingale, Philomelet) " Al Sayya^h " (the 
Shrieker). The latter epithet suggests to me the German novel which begins, "We 
are in Italy where roses bestink the day and Nightingales howl through the live-long 
night," &c. 

2 Sanjdk," Turk. = flag, banner, and here used (as in vulg. Arab.) for Sanjak-dar, 
the banner-bearer, ensign. In mod. parlance, Sanjdk = minor province, of which 
sundry are included in an " lyalah" = government-general, under the rule of a Wali 
(Wilayah). 

8 In the MS. " Zifr " = nail, claw, talon. 

* ' Al-Rizk maksum," an old and sage byword pregnant with significance: compare 
" Al-Khauf (fear) maksum " = cowardice is equally divided. Vol. iii. 173. [I read : 
" Yas'a'l-Kadamu li-'Umrin dank au H-Rizkin qusima," taking " Rizk "as an equivalent 
for " al-Rizku '1-hasanu " = any good thing which a man obtains without exerting 
himself in seeking for it, and the 'passive " qusima" in the sense of Kismah, vulgo 
11 Kismet." Hence I would translate: The foot speeds to a life that is mean, or to a 

boon that is pre-ordained. ST.] 
f j 



246 Supplemental Nights. 

mother and his brothers and the Lords of the land and departed 
seeking the city wherein the Bird woned. He ceased not travelling 
by nights and days, the whole of them, until he reached the 
place wherein was the. bird Philomelet whose habit it was to 
take station upon his cage between mid-afternoon and sunset, 
when he would enter it to pass the night. And if any approached 
him with intent of capturing him, he would sit afar from the 
same and at set of sun he would take station upon the cage 
and would cry aloud speaking in a plaintive voice, " Ho thou 
who sayest to the mean and mesquin, ' Lodge ! ' l Ho thou who 
sayest to the sad and severed, ' Lodge ! ' Ho thou who sayest 
to the woeful and doleful, * Lodge ! ' " Then if these words were 
grievous to the man standing before him and he make reply 
" Lodge ! " ere the words could leave his lips the Bird would take 
a pinch of dust from beside the cage and hovering over the wight's 
head would scatter it upon him and turn him into stone. At 
length arrived the youth who had resolved to seize the Bird 
and sat afar from him till set of sun ; then Philomelet came 
and stood upon his cage and cried, " Ho thou who sayest to the 
mean and mesquin, ' Lodge ! ' Ho thou who sayest to the sad 
and severed, * Lodge ! ' Ho thou who sayest to the woeful and 
doleful, ' Lodge ! ' " Now the cry was hard upon the young 
Prince and his heart was softened and he said, " Lodge ! " This 
was at the time when the sun was disappearing, and as soon as he 



1 In the text " Bat" (for Bit), in Fellah -speech "Pass the night here! " The Bird 
thus makes appeal to the honour and hospitality of his would-be captor, and punishes 
him if he consent. I have translated after Scott (v. 161). [I cannot persuade myself to take 
"bat "for an imperative, which would rather be "bit" for "bit," as we shall find 
"kum" for "kum,' "ruh" for "ruh.' It seems to me that the preterite "bat" 
means here "the night has passed," and rendering "man" by the interrogative, I 
would translate : " O ! who will say to the sad, the separated, night is over ? " Com- 
plaints of the length of night are frequent with the parted in Arab poetry. This accords 
also better with the following 'Atiis al-Shams, the sneezing of the sun, which to my know- 
ledge, applies only to daybreak, as in Hariri's I5th Assembly (al-Farzfyah), where " the 
nose of the morning " sneezes. ST.] 



TIte Sultan and his Sons and the Enchanting Bird. 247 

spake the word the Bird took a somewhat of dust and scattered it 
upon the head of the youth, who forthright became a stone. ( At 
that time his brother was sitting at home in thought concerning 
the wanderer, when behold, the signet squeezed his finger and he 
cried, " Verily my brother hath been despoiled of life and done 

to death ! " And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day 

and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth 
her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister 
mine, and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where 
is this compared with that I would relate to you on the coming 
night an the Sovran suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was 
the next night and that was 

&* ;{Four 2un&tt& an& ISigijteentf) jEfgfjt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the second 
Prince, when the signet squeezed his little finger, cried out saying, 
" My brother, by Allah, is ruined and lost ; but needs must I also 
set forth and look for him and find what hath befallen him." 
Accordingly he said to his sire, " O my father, 'tis my desire to 
seek my brother ; " and the old King answered, " Why, O my 
son, shouldst thou become like thy brother, both bereaving us 
of your company ? " But the other rejoined, " There is no help 
for that nor will I sit at rest till I go after my lost one and espy 
what hath betided him." Thereupon his sire gave orders for 
his journey and got ready what would suffice him of victual, and 
he departed, but before he went he said to his youngest brother, 
" Take thou this ring and set it upon thy little finger, and if it 



248 Supplemental Nights. 

press hard thereupon do thou understand and be certified that my 
life's blood is shed and that I have perished." After this he 
farewelled them and travelled to the place of the Enchanting Bird, 
and he ceased not wayfaring for whole days and nights and 
nights and days until he arrived at that stead. Then he found 
the bird Philomelet and sat afar from him till about sundown 
when he took station upon his cage and began to cry, " Ho thou 
who sayest to the mean and mesquin, ' Lodge ! ' Ho thou who 
sayest to the sad and severed, ' Lodge ! ' Ho thou who sayest to 
the woeful and doleful, ' Lodge ! ' " Now this cry of the Bird was 
hard upon the young Prince and he had no sooner pronounced the 
word " Lodge ! " than the Philomelet took up somewhat of dust 
beside his cage and scattered it upon him, when forthright he 
became a stone lying beside his brother. Now the youngest of 
the three Princes was sitting at meat with his sire when suddenly 
the signet shrank till it was like to cut off his finger ; so he rose 
forthright to his feet and said, "There is no Majesty and there is 
no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great/' Quoth his 
father, " What is to do with thee, O my son ? " and quoth he, 
<f By Allah, my brother is ruined and wasted, so needs must I also 
fare forth and look after the twain of them." Exclaimed his 
sire, "Why, O my son, should you three be cut off?" but the 
other answered, " Needs must I do this, nor can I remain after 
them without going to see what hath betided them, and either 
we three shall return in safety and security or I also shall become 
one of them." So the father bade them prepare for his journey 
and after they had got ready for him a sufficiency of provision 
he farewelled him and the youth set out. But when he departed 
from his sire the old man and his wife filleted their brows with 
the fillets of sorrow 1 and they fell to weeping by night and by 

1 i.e. they boutid kerchiefs stained blue or almost black round their brows. In 
modern days Fellah women stain their veils (face and head), kerchiefs end shirts with 
indigo ; and some colour their forearms to the elbow. 



The Sultan and his Sons and the Enchanting Bird. 249 

day. Meanwhile the youth left not wayfaring till he reached the 
stead of the Bird and the hour was mid-afternoon, when he 
found his brothers ensorcelled to stones, and about sunset he sat 
down at a distance from Philomelet who took station upon his 
cage and began to cry, " Ho thou who sayest to the mean and 
mesquin, * Lodge ! ' Ho thou who sayest to the sad and severed, 
' Lodge ! ' together with many words and instances of the same 
kind. But the Prince hardened his heart nor would speak the 
word, and albeit the Bird continued his cry none was found to 
answer him. Now when the sun evanished and he had kept up 
his appeal in vain he went into the cage, whereupon the youngest 
of the Princes arose and running up shut the door upon him. 
Quoth the Bird, "Thou hast done the deed, O son of the Sultan," 
and the youth replied, " Relate to me whatso thou hast wrought 
in magic to these creations of God." Replied Philomelet, 
" Beside thee lie two heaps of clay whereof one is white and the 
other blue : this is used in sorcery and that to loose the spells. 
- And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell 
silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister 
Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how 
enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this com- 
pared with that I should relate to you on the coming night an 
the Sovran suffer me to survive?" Now when it was the next night 
and that was 



Jpour HuntJrtb an& Wwntfetf) 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " ' She replied : - With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Bird said to 



250 Supplemental Nights. 

the youngest son of the Sultan, " By the side of my cage are two 
heaps of clay, this blue and that white ; and the first is the material 
for sorcery whilst the second looseth the spell." Hereupon the 
youth approached them and finding the mounds took somewhat of 
the white and scattered it upon the stones and cried, " Be ye re- 
turned unto your older shapes ; " and, as he did so, each and every 
of the stones became men as they had been. Now amongst them 
were sundry sons of the Sultans, also the children of Kings and 
Wazirs and Bashas and Lords of the land, and of the number two 
were the elder brothers of the young Prince : so they salamed to 
him and all congratulated one another on their safety. After this 
one came forward to the youth and said to him, " Verily this place 
is a city, all and some of whose folk are ensorcelled," So he took 
a somewhat of clay from the white and entered the streets, where, 
finding the case as described to him, he fell to sifting the clay upon 
them and they were transmewed from statues of stone into the 
shapes of Adam's sons. Then, at last, the sons of that city rose one 
and all and began offering to the Prince gifts and rarities until he 
had of them a mighty matter. But when his brothers saw that 
he had become master of the bird Philomelet and his cage, and 
all these presents and choice treasures, they were filled with envy 
of him l and said each to other, " How shall our brother win him 
all this and we abide with him in servile condition, especially when 
we hie us homewards and return to our own land ? And will not 
folk say that the salvation of the two elder brothers was by the 
hand of the youngest ? But we cannot endure such disgrace as 
this ! " So envy entered them and in their jealousy they planned 
and plotted the death of their cadet, who knew not that was in 
their minds or whatso was hidden from him in the Limbo of 
Secrets. And when they had wrought their work the youngest 



1 Here again and in the following adventure we have " Khudadad and his Brothers.' 
Suppl. vol. iii. 209-304. 



The Sultan and his Sons and the Enchanting Bird. 25 r 

"Prince arose and bade his pages and eunuchs lade the loads upon 
the camels and mules and, when they had done his bidding, they 
all set forth on the homewards march. They travelled for whole 
days and nights till they drew near their destination and the 
youngest Prince bade his attendants seek an open place wherein 
they might take repose, and they said, " Hearkening and obedience. 
But when they came upon it they found a well builded of stone, 
and the brothers said to the cadet, "This be a place befitting rest 
by reason of this well being here ; for the water thereof is sweet 
and good for our drink and therewith we can supply our folk and 
our beasts." Replied the youth, " This is what we desire." So 
they set up their tents hard by that well, and when the camp was 
pitched they let prepare the evenmg meal, and as soon as it was 

sun-set-tide they spread the trays and supped their sufficiency 



until presently night came down upon them. Now the youngest 
Prince had a bezel'd signet-ring which he had taken from the 
bird Philomelet, and he was so careful thereof that he never slept 
without it. But his brothers awaited until he was drowned in sleep, 
when coming softly upon him they pinioned him and carried him 
off and cast him into the well without anyone knowing aught 
thereof. Then as soon as morning morrowed the two eldest 
Princes arose and commanded the attendants to load, but these 
said to them, " Where be our lord ? " and said the others, " He is 
sleeping in the Takhtrawdn." So the camel men arose and loaded 
the loads and the litter and the two Princes sent forwards to the 
King their sire a messenger of glad tidings who when he found 
him informed him of the fair news. Accordingly he and all his 
Lords took horse and rode forth to meet his sons upon the road 
that he might salam to them and give them joy of their safe 
return. Now he chanced in their train to catch sight of the caged 
bird which is called " the shrilling Philomelet," and he rejoiced 
thereat and asked them, " How did ye become masters of him ?" 
Then he enquired anent their brother. And Shahrazad was sur- 



252 Supplemen tal Nights. 

prised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying her 
permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet 
and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delect- 
able ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that 
I would relate to you on the coming night an the Sovran 
suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and 
that was 

!)e ;ffour f^untoefc anti tfomt))=seeonlr Ni$t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut 

short the watching of this our latter night. She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Sultan 
enquired of the two elder sons concerning their younger brother 
and they said, " We made ourselves masters of the Bird and we 
have brought him hither and we know nothing about our cadet." 
However, the King who loved his youngest with exceeding love 
put the question, " Have ye not looked after him and have ye not 
been in his company ? " whereto they answered saying, " A certain 
wayfarer declared to have seen him on some path or other." When 
the father heard this from them he cried, " There is no Majesty and 
there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great ; " and he 
fell to striking palm upon palm. 1 On this wise it befel these, but 
as regards the case of their brother, when they cast him into the 
.well he awoke from his sleep and he felt himself falling into the 
depths, so he cried, " I take refuge with the All-sufficient Words of 
Allah 2 from the mischief He hatH created." And by the blessing 
of these Holy Names he reached, the sole of the well without 

1 In sign of despair. See vol. i. 298. 

2 In text "Kalamatu Mlah" = the Koran : and the quotation is from chapt. cxiii. 5, 
For the " Two Refuge-takings " (Al-Mu'awizzatani), see vol. iii. 222. 



The Sultan and his Sons and the Enchanting Bird. 253 

aught of harm or hurt. Here finding himself pinioned, he strained 
upon his bonds and loosed them ; but the well was deep of bottom 
and he came upon an arched recess, so he sat in it and ex- 
claimed, " Verily we are Allah's and to Him we are returning 
and I who wrought for them such work 1 am rewarded with the 
contrary thereof; withal the power is unto Allah." And suddenly 
he heard the sound of speaking at some little distance beside him, 
and the voice was saying, " O Black of Head, who hath come 
amongst us ? " and his comrade responded, " By Allah, this youth 
is the son of the Sultan and his best beloved, and the same hath 
released his brothers from sorcery and was carrying them to their 
homes when they played him false and cast him into this well. 
However, he hath a signet-ring with a bezel which if he rub 'twill 
bespeak him with whatso he desireth, and will do what he may 
wish." So the Prince said in his mind, " I bid the Servant of this 
Ring to take me out ;" after which he rubbed it and the Jinni 
appeared and cried, "Yea verily, O son of the Sultan, what is it 

thou requirest of me ? " And Shahrazad was surprised by the 

dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. 
Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O 
sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, 
" And where is this compared with that I should relate to you on 
the coming night an the Sovran suffer me to survive?" Now 
when it was the next night and that was 

^fie jpour f^wUrrefc atrtr tfoentg-ti)fr& Jifcjjjt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that .we may cut short 

1 *.*., caused his brothers to recover life. 

[I read : Allazi 'amaltu fi-him natijah yujdzunl bi-Ziddi-ha" = Those to whom I did a 
good turn, requite me with the contrary thereof. Allazf, originally the masc. sing, is in 
this MS. vulgarly, like its still more vulgar later contraction, " illi," used for both genders 
and the three numbers. ST.] 



254 Supplemental Nights. 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied.: With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Ring- 
bezel said to him, " What dost thou require of me ? " and said the 
Prince, " I demand that thou hoist me out of the well : and this 
done that thou summon for me an host with Pages and Eunuchs 
and tents and pavilions and ensigns and banners." Whereto the 
other replied, " Present I" 1 _Then he brought him forth the well 
and the youth found hard by it all he needed, so he bade them 
load their belongings upon the beasts and when this was done 
he set out seeking the city of his sire. And as he drew so near 
it that it was within shot of eye, he alighted there upon a broad 
plain and ordered them to pitch the camp. Accordingly they set 
up the tents and the sitting pavilions while the Farrashes fell to 
sprinkling water upon the ground afront the abodes and to setting 
up the ensigns and colours whilst the band of kettledrums went 
dub-a-dub and the trumpets blared tantaras. . The cooks also 
began at once to prepare the evening meal. Now when the city- 
folk saw this pomp and circumstance, they held in their minds that 
the new comer was some Sultan approaching to take their town ; 
so they gathered together and went in to their own King and 
informed him thereof. But he, having heard their words, felt his 
heart melt and his vitals throb and a certain joy penetrate into his 
heart, so he said, " Praise to the Lord, there hath entered into my 
heart a certain manner of pleasure, albeit I know not what may be 
the case and Allah hath said in his Holy Book, " We have heard 
good news." 2 Hereupon he and the Lords of his land took horse 
and rode till they reached the front of the pavilions where the 
King dismounted from his steed. Now the Prince his younger son 

1 Arab. "Hdzir!" I have noted that this word, in Egypt and Syria, corresponds 
with the English waiter's " Yes sir !" 

2 Koran, Chapter of Joseph, xii. 19. 



The Sultan and his Sons and the Enchanting Bird. 255 

was dressed in a habit that might have belonged to a hidden Hoard, 
and when he saw his father he recognised him, so he rose and 
met him and kissed his hands, but his sire knew him not by reason 
of the case the youth was in, so he supposed him to be a strange 
Sultan. Presently, the Prince asked him, " Where be thy youngest 
son ?" and the King hearing this fell down a-fainting, "but, soon 
recovering from his swoon, he said, " Verily my son hath wasted 
the blood of his life and hath become food for wild beasts." Here- 
upon the youth laughed aloud and cried, " By Allah, thy son hath 
not suffered aught from the shifts and changes of the World, and 
he is still in the bonds of life, safe and sound ; nor hath there 
befallen him anything of harm whatever." " Where is he ? " 
quoth the father: "He standeth between thy hands," quoth thej 
son. So the Sultan looked at him, and straightly considering him 
found that it was his very son who was bespeaking him, and of his' 
delight he threw his arms around his neck and fell with him 
aswoon to the ground. This lasted for a full-told hour ; but when 
he recovered from his fainting he asked his son what had betided 
him, so he told all that had befallen, to wit how he had become 
master of the Enchanting Bird Philomelet and also of the magical 
clay wherewith he had besprinkled his brethren and others of 
the city-folk who had been turned to stone, all and some, and how 
they had returned to the shapes whilome they wore. Moreover 
he recounted to him the presents and offerings which had been 
made to him and also how, when they arrived at a certain place, 
his brothers had pinioned him and cast him into the well. And 
ere he finished speaking, lo and behold ! the two other Princes 
came in and when they looked upon his condition and noted the 
state of prosperity he was in, surrounded as he was by all manner 
of weal, they felt only increase of envy and malice. But as soon 
as their sire espied them he cried, " Ye have betrayed me in my 
son and have lied to me and, by Allah, there is no retribution for 
you on my part save death ; " and hereupon the Sultan bade do 



256 Supplemental Nights. 

them die. Then the youngest Prince made intercession for his 
brethren and said, " O my sire, whoso doeth a deed shall meet its 
deserts,'' and thus he obtained their pardon. So they passed that 
night one and all in camp and when morning morrowed they 
loaded and returned to the city and all were in the most pleasure- 
able condition. Now when the King heard this tale from the 
owner of the fruit it pleased him and he rejoiced therein and said, 
" By Allah, O Shaykh, indeed that hath gone from us which we 
had of cark and care ; and in good sooth this history deserveth 
that it be written with water of gold upon the pages of men's 
hearts." Replied the other, " By Allah, O King of the Age, this 
adventure is marvellous, but I have another more wondrous and 
pleasurable and delectable than any thou hast yet heard." Quoth 
the Sultan, " Needs must thou repeat it to us," and quoth the 
fruit-seller, " Inshallah God willing I will recite it to thee on the 
coming night." Hereupon the Sultan called for a handmaiden who 
was a model of beauty and loveliness and stature and perfect grace 
and from the time of his buying her he never had connection with 
her nor had he once slept with her, and he gave her in honourable gift 
to the reciter. Then he set apart for them both an apartment with 
its furniture and appurtenances and the slave-girl rejoiced greatly 
thereat. Now when she went in to her new lord she donned her 
best of dresses so he lay down beside her and sought carnal copula- 
tion, but his prickle would not stand erect, as was its wont, 

although he knew not the cause thereof. And Shahrazad was 

surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying 
her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet 
and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delect- 
able !" Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I 
would relate to you on the coming night an the Sovran suffer 
me to survive ?" Now when It was the next night and that was 



The Sultan and his Sons and ike Enchan ting Bird. 257 



antr 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With love and 
good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the director, 
the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and of deeds 
fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the prickle of the 
Fruiterer would not stand to the handmaid as was the wont 
thereof, so he cried, " Verily this is a wondrous business." Then 
the girl fell to rubbing it up and to toying therewith, her object 
being to stablish an erection. But the article in question grew not 
and remained limp, whereupon she said, " O my lord, Allah 
increase the progress of thy pego ! " Thereupon she arose and 
opened a bag wherefrom she drew out kerchiefs and dried 
aromatic herbs 1 such as are scattered upon corpses ; and she also 
brought a gugglet of water, u Presently she fell to .washing the 
prickle as it were a dead body, and after bathing it * she shrouded 
it with a kerchief : then she cried upon her women and they all 
bewept the untimely fate of his yard which was still clothed in the 
kerchief. 2 And when morning morrowed the Sultan sent after the 
man and summoned him and said to him, " How passed thy 

1 Arab. "Hanut:" this custom has become almost obsolete: the corpse is now 
sprinkled with a mixture of water, camphor diluted and the dried and pounded leaves of 
various trees, especially the "Nabk" (lote-tree or Zizyphus lotus}. Lane M. E. 
chapt. xxviii. 

2 These comical measures were taken by "Miss Lucy" in order to charm away the 
Evil Eye which had fascinated the article in questibn. Such temporary impotence in a 
vigorous man, which results from an exceptional action of the brain and the nervous system, 
was called in old French Nouement des aiguihttes (i.e. point-tying, the points which 
fastened the haut-de-chausses or hose to the jerkin, and its modern equivalent would be 
to "button up the flap"). For its cure, the " Plliement des aiguilettes " see Davenport 
'Aphrodisiacs" p. 36, and the French translation of the Shaykh al-Nafzdwi (Jardia 
Parfume*, chapt. xvii. pp. 251-53-) The Moslem heal such impotence by the usual 
simples, but the girl in the text adopts a moral course of treatment which buries the 
dead parts in order to resurrect them. A friend of mine, a young and vigorous officer, 
Va healed by a similar process. He had carried off a sergeant's wife, and the husband 
lurked about the bungalow to shoot him, a copper cap being found under the window 

VOL. IV. R 



258 Supplemen tal Nights. 

night ? " So he told him all that had betided him, and concealed 
from him naught ; and when the Sultan heard this account from 
him he laughed at him on such wise that from excess of merriment 
he well nigh fell upon his back and cried, " By Allah, if there be 
such cleverness in that girl, she becometh not any save myself." 
Accordingly he sent to fetch her as she stood and left the furniture 
of the place wholly and entirely to the owner of the fruit. And 
when this was done the Sultan made of him a boon-companion 
for that day from morning to evening and whenever he thought of 
the handmaid's doings he ordered the man to repeat the tale and 
he laughed at him and admired the action of the slave-girl with 
the Limpo. When darkness came on they prayed the night- 
prayer and they supped and sat down to converse and to tell 
anecdotes. 1 Thereupon the King said to the Fruiterer, " Relate us 
somewhat of that thou hast heard anent the Kings of old ; " and 
said the other, " Hearing and obeying," and forthwith began the 

STORY OF THE KING OF AL- YAM AN AND HIS 
THREE SONS. 

It is related that there was a Sultan in the land of Al-Yaman who 
had three male children, two of them by one mother and a third by 
another. Now that King used to dislike this second wife and her 
son, so he sent her from him and made her, together with her child, 
consort with the handmaids of the kitchen, never asking after them 
for a while of time. One day the two brothers-german went in to 

hence a state of nervousness which induced perfect impotence. He applied to the 
regimental surgeon, happily a practised hand, and was gravely supplied with pills and a 
draught ; his diet was carefully regulated and he was -ordered to sleep by the woman 
but by no means to touch her for ten days. On the fifth he came to his adviser with a 
sheepish face and told him that he had not wholly followed the course prescribed, as last 
night he had suddenly by the blessing of the draught and the pills recovered and had 
given palpable evidence of his pristine vigour. The surgeon deprecated such proceeding 
until the patient should have had full benefit of his drugs bread pills and cinnamon- 
water. 
1 Here ends vol. iii. of the W. M. MS. and begins Night cdxxvi. 



.Story of the King of A I- Yaman and his Three Sons. 259 

their sire and said to him, " Tis the desire of us to go forth a-hunting' 
and a-chasing," whereto their father replied, " And have ye force 
enough for such sport ?" v They said, <c Yea, verily, we have ! " 
when he gave to each of them a horse with its furniture of saddle 
and bridle, and the twain rode off together. 'But as soon as the 
thitd son (who together with his mother had been banished to the 
kitchen) heard that the other two had gone forth to hunt, he went to 
his mother and cried, " I also would fain mount and away to the 
chase like my brethren." His mother responded, saying, " O my 
son, indeed I am unable to buy thee a horse or aught of the kind ;" 
so he wept before her and she brought him a silvern article, which 
he took and fared forth with it to the bazar, and there, having sold 
it for a gold piece, he repaired to a neighbouring mill and bought 
him a lame garron. After this he took a bittock of bread ; and, 
backing the beast without saddle or bridle, he followed upon the 
footsteps of his brothers through the first day and the second, but 
on the third he took the opposite route. Presently he reached 
a Wady, when behold, he came across a string 1 of pearls and 



1 In the text " Risah," copyist's error for " Rfshah " = a thread, a line : it after- 
wards proves to be an ornament for a falcon's neck. [ I cannot bring myself 'to adopt 
here the explanation of" Rfshah " as a string instead of its usual meaning of " feather," 
** plume." My reasons are the following : I . The youth sets it upon his head ; that is, I 
suppose, his cap, or whatever his head-gear may be, which seems a more appropriate 
place for a feather than for a necklace. 2. Further on, Night cdxxx, it is said that the 
Prince left the residence of his second spouse in search (talib) of the city of the bird. If 
the word " Rishah," which, in the signification of thread, is Persian, had been suffi- 
ciently familiar to an Arab to suggest, as a matter of course, a bird's necklace, and 
hence the bird itself, we would probably find a trace of this particular meaning, if not in 
other Arabic books, at least in Persian writers or dictionaries ; but here the word 
" Rishah," by some pronounced ' Reshah" with the Yamajhul, never occurs in connec- 
tion with jewels ; it means fringe, filament, fibre. On the other hand, the suggestion of 
the bird presents itself quite naturally at the sight of the feather. 3. Ib. p. 269 the youth 
requests the old man to tell him concerning the " Tayrah allazi Rfsh-ha (not Rishat-ha) 
min Ma'adin," which, I believe, can only be rendered by : the bird whose plumage is 
of precious stones. The "Rfshah" itself was said to be "min Zumurrud wa Lulii," 
of emeralds and pearls; and the cage will be " min Ma'adin wa Lulu," of precious 
stones and pearls, in all which cases the use of the preposition "min" points more 
particularly to the material of which the objects are wrought than the mere Izafah. The 
wonderfulness of the bird seems therefore rather to consist in his jewelled plumage than 



260 Supplemental Nights. 

emeralds which glittered in the sunlight, so he picked it up and set 
it upon his head and he fared onwards singing for very joy. But 
when he drew near the town he was met by his two brothers who 
seized him and beat him and, having taken away his necklace, drove 
him afar from them. Now he was much stronger and more beauti- 
ful than they were, but as he and his mother had been cast off by 
the King, he durst not offer aught of resistance. 1 * Now the two 
brothers having taken the necklace from him went away joyful, and 
repairing to their father, showed him the ornament and he rejoiced 
in them and hending it in his hand marvelled thereat. But the 
youngest son went to his mother with his heart well nigh broken. 
Then the Sultan said to his two sons, " Ye have shown no clever- 
ness herein until ye bring me the wearer of this necklace." They 
answered, " Hearkening and obedience, and we will set out to find 
her." - And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and 
fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her 
sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how 
enjoyable and delectable ?" Quoth she, " And where is this com- 
pared with that I should relate to you on the coming night an the 
King suffer me to survive ?" Now when it was the next night and 
that was 



dFour ^tmtfrefc anU 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

the gift of speech or other enchanting qualities, and I would take it for one of those costly 
toys, in imitation of trees and animals, in which Eastern princes rejoice, and of which we 
read so many descriptions, not only in books of fiction, but even in historical works. If 
it were a live-bird of the other kind, he would probably have put in his word to expose 
the false brothers of the Prince. ST.] 

1 This is conjectural : the text has a correction which is hardly legible. [I read : '* Wa 
lakin hii ajmalu min-hum bi-jamdlin mufritin, lakinnahu matrudun hu waummu-hu" 
= " and yet he was more beautiful than they with surpassing beauty, but he was an out- 
cast, he and his mother," as an explanation, by way of parenthesis, for their daring to 
treat him so shamefully. ST.] 



Story of the King of A /- Yaman and his Three Sons. 26 1 

watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love and 

good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the director, 
the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and of deeds 
fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the sons of the Sultan 
made them ready for the march whereby they might bring back 
the bird to whom the necklace belonged. So they took them a 
sufficiency of provision and, farewelling their father, set out for the 
city wherein they judged the bird might be. Such was their case; 
but as regards their unhappy brother, when he heard the news of 
their going he took with him a bittock of bread and having bidden 
adieu to his mother mounted his lame garron and followed upon 
the traces of his brethren for three days. Presently he found him- 
self in the midst of the wild and the wold, and he ceased not faring 
therethrough till he came to a city whose folk were all weeping and 
wailing and crying and keening. So he accosted an aged man and 
said to him, " The Peace be upon thee ! " and when the other 
returned his salam and welcomed him he asked saying, " O my 
uncle, tell me what causeth these 'groans and this grief?" The 
other replied, " O my son, verily our city is domineered over by 
a- monstrous Lion who every year cometh about this time and he 
hath already done on such wise for forty and three years. Now 
he expecteth every twelvemonth as he appeareth to be provided 
with a damsel arrayed and adorned in all her finery, and if he 
chance to come as is his wont and find her not he would assault the 
city and destroy it. So before the season of his visit they cast 
lots upon the maidens of the place and whomso these befal, her they 
decorate and lead forth to a place without the walls that^ the 
monster may take her. And this year the sort hath fallen upon 
the King's daughter. 1 When the youth heard these words he held 

1 The venerable myth of Andromeda and Perseus (who is Horus in disguise) brought 
down to Saint George (his latest descendant), the Dragon (Typhon) and the fair Sabs. 
in the " Seven Champions of Christendom." See my friend M. Clermont Ganneau's 
Horus et Saint -Georges ; Mr. J. R. Anderson's "Saint Mark's Rest; the Place of 
Dragons;" and my " Book of the Sword," chapt. i&> 



262 Supplemental Nights. 

his peace and, having taken seat by the old man for an hour or so, 
he arose and went forth to the place where the Lion was wont to 
appear and he took his station there, when behold, the daughter of 
the King came to him and right heavy was she of heart. But 
as she found the youth sitting there, she salam'd to him and 
made friendship with him and asked, " What brought thee to this 
stead ? " Answered he, " That which brought thee brought me 
also." Whereto quoth she, " Verily at this hour the Lion shall 
come to seize me, but as soon as he shall see me he will devour 
thee before me, and thus both of us shall lose our lives ; so 
rise up and depart and save thyself, otherwise thou wilt become 
mere wasted matter in the belly of the beast." " By Allah, O my 
lady," quoth he, " I am thy sacrifice at such a moment as this ! " 
And as they were speaking, suddenly the world was turned topsy- 
turvy, 1 and dust-clouds and sand-devils 2 flew around and whirlwinds 
began to play about them, and lo and behold ! the monster made 
his appearance ; and as he approached he was lashing his flanks 
with his tail like the sound of a kettle-drum. Now when the 
Princess espied him, the tears poured down her cheeks, whereat 
the youth sprang to his feet in haste, and unsheathing his sword, 
went forth to meet the foe, who at the sight of him gnashed his 
tusks at him. But the King's son met him bravely, springing 
nimbly from right to left, whereat the Lion raged furiously, and 
with the design to tear him limb from limb, made a rush at the 
youth, who smote him with all the force of his forearm and 
planted between his eyes a sway of scymitar so sore that the blade 
came out flashing between his thighs, and he fell to the ground 
slain and bleeding amain. When the Princess saw this derring-do 
of her defender, she rejoiced greatly and fell to wiping with her 



: , l i.e. there was a great movement and confusion. 

* [In the text 'Afar, a word frequently joined with " Ghubar,"" dust, for the sake of 
emphasis ; hence we will find in Night ccccxxix. the verb " yu'affiru," he was raising 2 
dust-cloud. ST.] 



Story of the King of A I- Yaman and his Three _ Sons. , 263 

kerchief the sweat from his brow; and the youth said to her, 
" Arise and do thou fare to thy family." " O my lord, and O light 
of mine eyes ! " said she, " we twain together will wend together as 
though we were one flesh;" but he rejoined, "This is on no wise 
possible." Then he arose from beside her and ceased not faring 
until he had entered the city, where he rested himself beside a 
shop. She also sprang up, and faring homewards, went in to her 
father and mother, showing signs of sore sorrow. When they saw 
her, their hearts fluttered with fear lest the monster should attack 
the town and destroy it, whereupon she said to them, " By Allah, 
the Lion hath been slain and lieth there dead." They asked her 
saying, "What was it killed him ?" and she answered, "A hand- 
some youth fair of favour," but they hardly believed her words and 
both went to visit the place, where they found the monster stone- 
dead. The folk of the city, one and all, presently heard this fair 
news; and their joy grew great, when the Sultan said to his 
daughter, " Thou ! knowest thou the man who slew him ? " to which 
she answered, " I kno.w him." But as all tidings of the youth were 
cut off, the King let proclaim about the city -- And Shahrazad 
was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying 
her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet 
and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delec- 
table ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I 
would relate to you on the coming night an the King suffer me 
to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 



jfour juntos anfc toentfl--m'nt!) 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night," She replied : -- With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 



264 Supplemental Nights. 

of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the King let 
proclaim through the city how none should oppose him or delay 
to obey his bidding ; nay, that each and every, great and small, 
should come forth and pass before the windows of his daughter's 
palace. Accordingly the Crier went abroad and cried about the city 
to that purport, bidding all the lieges muster and defile in front 
of the Princess's windows ; and they continued so doing for three 
full-told days, while she sat continually expecting to sight the 
youth who had slain the Lion, but to no purpose. At last never a 
soul remained who had not passed in the review, so the Sultan 
asked, " Is there anyone who hath absented himself ? " and they 
answered, " There is none save a stranger youth who dwelleth in 
such and such a place." " Bring him hither ! " cried the King, 
" and command him to pass muster," when the others hastened 
to fetch him; and as soon as he drew near to the window, behold, 
a kerchief was thrown upon him. 1 Then the Sultan summoned 
him, and he, when standing in the presence, saluted and made 
obeisance and blessed the Sovran with the blessings fit for the 
Caliphs. The Sultan was pleased thereat and said, " Art thou he 
who slew the Lion ? " and said the other, " I did." Hereupon 
quoth the King, " Ask a favour of me, that I grant it to thee ; " 
arid quoth the Youth, " I pray of Allah and then of our Idrd the 
Sultan that he marry me to his daughter." But the King con- 
tinued, " Ask of me somewhat of wealth," and all the Lords of the 
land exclaimed, " By Allah, he deserveth the Princess who saved 
her from the Lion and slew the beast." Accordingly the King 
bade the marriage-knot be tied, and let the bridegroom be led in 
procession to the bride, who rejoiced in him with extreme joy, and 
he abated her maidenhead and the two lay that night together. 
But the Prince arose about the latter hours without awaking his 

1 Upon the subject of ** throwing the kerchief" see vol. vi. 285. Here it is done 
simply as a previously concerted signal of recognition. 



Story of the King of A I- Yaman and his Three Sons. 265 

bride, and withdrawing her seal-ring from her finger passed his 
own thereupon and wrote in the palm of her hand, " I am 
'Alaeddin, 1 son of King Such-and-such, who ruleth in the capital 
of Al-Hind, and, given thou love me truly, do thou come to me, 
otherwise stay in thy father's house." Then he went forth with- 
out awaking her and fared through wilds and wolds for a term of ten 
days, travelling by light and by night, till he drew near a certain 
city which was domineered over by an Elephant. Now this beast 
would come every year and take from the town a damsel ; and on 
this occasion it was the turn of the Princess, daughter to the King 
who governed that country. But as the youth entered the streets 
he was met by groans and moans and crying and keening ; so he 
asked thereanent and was answered that the Elephant was pre- 
sently approaching to seize the maiden and devour her. 2 He 
asked, " To what stead cometh he ? " and they pointed out to him 
a place without the city whereto he repaired and took his seat. 
Suddenly the Princess presented herself before him a-weeping 
and with tears down her cheeks a-creeping, when he said to her, 
" O my lady, there is no harm for thee." Said she, " O youth, 
by Allah ! thou wastest thy life to no purpose and seekest thy 
death without cause, so rise up and save thyself, for the Elephant 
will be here this very hour." And behold, the beast came up to 
the heart of the waste and he was raising a dust-cloud and 
trumpeting with rage 3 and lashing flanks with tail. But when he 
arrived at the wonted place he was confronted by the youth 



1 In text " 'Ala Yadin ; " for which vulgarism see vol. iii. 51. 

2 Elephants are usually, as Cuvier said of the (Christian) " Devil" after a look at 
his horns and hoofs, vegetarians. 

3 [The MS. has " yughaffiru wa yuzaghdimu." The former stands probably for 
11 yu'aftiru," for which see supra p. 262, note 2. The writing is, however, so indistinct 
that possibly " yufaghghiru " is intended, which means he opened his mouth wide. 
"Yuzaghdimu" is one of those quadriliterals which are formed by blending two tri- 
iiterals in one verb, in order to intensify the idea. "Zaghadi" and "Zaghama" 
mean both " he roared," more especially applied to a camel, t- d by joining the "d" 
of the one with the "m" of the other, we obtain " Zaghdama," he roared fiercely. ST.] 



266 Supplemental Nights. 

who, with heart stronger than granite, hastened to fall upon him 1 
and fatigued him and dealt blows without cease ; and, when the 
Elephant charged down upon him, he met the monster with a stroke 
between the eyes dealt with all the force of his forearm, and the 
blade came flashing out from between the thighs, when the beast 
fell to the ground slain and weltering in his blood amain. There- 
upon, in the stress of her joy, the Princess arose hurriedly and 
walked towards the youth - And Shahrazad was surprised by 
the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted 
say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, 
O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, 
" And where is this compared with that I should relate to you 
on the coining night an the King suffer me to survive ? " Now 
when it was the next night and that was 



jfour f^unUteH an& 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : -- With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Princess 
walked hurriedly towards the youth and in the stress of her joy 
she threw her arms around his neck and kissed him between the 
eyes and cried, " O my lord, may thy hands never palsied grow 
nor exult over thee any foe ! " Said he to her, " Return to thy 
people ! " and said she, " There is no help but that I and thou 
fare together." But he replied, " This matter is not the right 



1 [Sara'a-hu wa lawa'a-hu = he rushed upon him and worried him. The root law* 
means to enfeeble, render sick, especially applied to love-sickness (Lau'ah). The present 
3rd form is rarely used, but here and in a later passage, Night cdxlv, the context bears 
out the sense of harassing. ST.] 



Story of the King of A I- Yaman and his Three Sons. 267 

rede," and he went from her at a double quick pace, saying, " O 
Allah, may none see me ! " until he entered the city and presently 
seating him beside a tailor's shop fell to conversing with its owner. 
Presently the man said, " There is no Majesty and there is no 
Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great : by this time the 
daughter of the King will have been seized by the Elephant and 
torn to pieces and devoured, and she the mainstay of her mother 
and her father/' And behold loud lulliloooing 1 flew about the 
city and one began exclaiming "Verily the Elephant which is 
wont to come hither year by year hath been slaughtered by a 
man quite young in years, and the Sultan hath sent a Crier to 
cry amongst the crowds, ' Let the slayer of the beast come into 
the presence and crave a boon a*id marry the maiden.' " So 
quoth the Youth to the tailor, " What is to do ? " and the other 
informed him of the truth of the report, whereupon he asked, " If 
I go to the King will he give her to me ? " Answered the tailor, 
" Who art thou that thou shouldest intermarry with the daughter 
of the King ? " and the Prince rejoined, " We will go and bespeak 
him and lie to him saying, I am he who slew the monster." 
But the other retorted, " O Youth, thou art willingly and wilfully 
going to thy death, for an thou lie to him he will assuredly cut off 
thy head." Presently the Prince, who was listening to the Crier, 
said to his companion, " Up with thee and come with us that 
thou mayest look upon my execution;" and cried the other, 
"Why so, O thou true-born son ? " 2 whereto the Youth replied, 
" Needs must I do this ! " Hereupon he and the man arose and 
went till they came to the palace of the Sultan, where they craved 
leave to enter, but were forbidden by the Chamberlain, when lo and 
behold ! the Princess looked out from the lattice and saw the Prince 
together with the tailor. So she threw the kerchief upon his head 

1 In text " Zagharit " plur. of Zaghrutah : see vol. ii. p. 80. 

2 [Ya walad al-Halal. I would translate: "O! son of a lawful wedlock," simply 
meaning that he takes him to be a decent fellow, not a scamp or Walad al-Haram. ST.] 



268 Supplemental Nights. 

and cried aloud, " By Allah, here he be, and 'tis none but he who 
slew the Elephant and who saved me from him." Hereat the 
tailor fell to wondering at the youth, but when the King saw 
that his daughter had thrown the kerchief upon him, he presently 
sent to summon him between his hands and asked him how it 
happened, and heard from him the truth of the tale. Then said 
he, " By Allah, verily my daughter was lost, so that this youth 
well deserveth her." Thereupon he tied the marriage tie between 
the twain and the youth after wedding her went to her in pro- 
cession and did away her pucelage, and lay the night with her. 
And presently when day was nigh, the young Prince arose and 
seeing her slumbering wrote in the palm of her hand, " I am Such- 
and-such, the son of such a King in Such-and-such a capital ; and 
if thou love me truly, come to find me, or otherwise stay in thy 
father's house." Then without awaking her he fared forth to the 
city of the Enchanting Bird and ceased not cutting athwart the 
wilds and the wolds throughout the nights and the days till he 
arrived at the place wherein dwelt the Bird Philomelet whereto the 
necklace belonged. And she was the property of the Princess the 
daughter to the Sovran whose seat was in that capital, and it was 
the greatest of cities and its King was the .grandest of the Kings. 
When he entered the highways he leant against the shop of an 
Oilman to whom he said, " The Peace be upon you," and the other 
returned his salutation and seated him beside himself, and the two 
fell to conversing. Presently the Prince asked him, " O my lord, 
what canst thou tell me concerning a certain Bird and her owner ? " 
and the other made answer, " I know nothing but of oil and of 
honey and of clarified butter, whereof whatever thou requirest I 
will give to thee." Quoth the youth, " This is no reply to my 
question," and quoth the oilman, " I know not nor regard aught 
save what is by me in my shop." So the Prince rising from 
beside him left him and went forth to continue his search ; 'but 
whenever he asked concerning the Bird and its owner, the folk 



Story of tfie King of A I- Yaman and his Three Sons. 269 

changed the subject and" returned him no reply save, " We know 
not." This lasted until he accosted a man well stricken in years, 
whose age was nigh to an hundred; and he was sitting alone 
at one side of the city ; so the Youth walked up to him and 
salam'd ; and, after the other returned his greeting and kindly 
welcomed him and seated him near him, the two fell a-talking 
together, and the Prince asked him, "O my uncle, what canst 
thou tell me concerning the Bird whose necklet is of precious 
stones, and what concerning the owner thereof? " The aged man 
held his peace for awhile and presently exclaimed, " O my son, 
why ask me of this ? O my child, 1 verily the Kings and sons of 
the Kings have sought her in marriage but could not avail ; 
and indeed the lives of folks manifold have been wasted upon her. 
How, then, canst thou hope to win her ? Nevertheless, O 
my son, go and buy thee seven lambs and slaughter them and 
skin them, after which do thou roast them and cut them all in 
halves ; for she hath seven doors at each whereof standeth as 
warder a rending Lion ; and at the eighth which guardeth the 
maiden and the Bird are posted forty slaves who at all times 
are there lying. And now I leave thee to thy luck, O my son." 
But when the Prince heard these words he asked his aidance of 

the Shaykh and went forth from him And Shahrazad was 

surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying 
her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet 
and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and 
delectable !" Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that 
I would relate to you on the coming night an the King 
suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and 
that was 

1 The repetition is a sign of kindness and friendliness ; see vol. vi. 370. 



2/O Supplemental Nights. 

t&ty Jfour J^un&refc anfc f)trtgzsec<m& 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night." She replied : With love 

and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Prince 
craved for the prayers of the Shaykh, who blessed him. Then he 
went forth from him and bought of the lambs what he had been 
charged to buy, and these he slaughtered and skinned and roasted 
and he cut each and every into two halves. He waited until night 
descend6d with its darkness and ceased the to-ing and fro-ing of 
folk, -when he arose and walked to the place pointed out and 
there he found the Lion whose shape and size equalled the stature 
of a full-grown bull. He threw to him half a lamb and the 
beast allowed him to pass through that door, and it was the same 
with the other entrances, all seven of them, until he reached the 
eighth. Here he found the forty slaves who were bestrewn on the 
ground bedrowned in sleep ; so he went in with soft tread and 
presently he came upon the Bird Philomelet in a cage encrusted 
with pearls and precious stones and he saw the Princess who owned 
him lying asleep upon a couch. Hereat he wrote upon the palm 
of her hand, " I am Such-and-such, son to the King Such-and- 
such, of such a city ; and I have come in upon thee and beheld thee 
bared whilst thou wast sleeping, and I have also taken away the 
Bird. However, an thou love me and long for me, do thou come to 
me in mine own city/' Then he seized the Bird to his prize and 
fared forth and what he did with the Lions coming that he did 
when going out. The Veiler 1 veiled him, and he went forth the 

city and met not a single soul, and he ceased not faring the livelong 

>...- 

\iThis Arabian " Satta"r " corresponds passing well with " Jupiter Servator." 



Story of the King of A I- Yam an and his Three Sons. . 271 

night till next morning did appear, when he hid in a place seeking 
repose and he ate somewhat of victual. But as soon as the daylight 
shone bright, he arose and continued his journey, praying Allah 
for protection on his wayfare, till it was mid-afternoon : then he 
found, like an oasis in the middle of the waste, certain pastures of 
the wild Arabs and as he drew near the owner met .him and 
salam'd to him and greeted him and blessed him. So he lay 
that night with them till dawn when the Shaykh of the encamp- 
ment who had heard of the stranger came to him and welcomed 
him and found him a youth fair of form and favour and saw by 
his side the Enchanting Bird in its cage. He recognised it and 
wondered at the young man's derring-do and cried, " Subhana 'llah 
praise be to God who hath committed His secret unto the 
weakliest of His creation ! J - Verily this Bird hath caused on its 

/I 

account to be slain many of the Wazirs and the Kings and the 
Sultans, yet hath yonder lad mastered it and carried it away. 
This however is by virtue of his good fortune." Then the old 
man had compassion on him and gave him a horse that he had 
by him together with somewhat of provaunt. The Prince took 
them from him and returning to his march traversed the wilds and 
the wolds for days and nights, all of them ; and he continued in that 
case when he drew near his father's capital which rose within 
eye-shot. And as he walked on without heed, behold, his brethren 
met him and confronted him and fell upon him and, having taken 
away the Enchanting Bird, reviled him and beat him and shook 
him off and drove him away. Then they entered the city and 
sought their sire who received them with fair reception and greeted 
them and rejoiced in them ; after which they presented him with 
the Bird Philomelet, and said, " Here we bring him to thee and 
there befel us through his account much toil and trouble." But 



1 " Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected praise." Matt. xxi. id, 
The idea is not less Moslem than Christian. 



272 Supplemental Nights. 

their brother who had really won the prize went to his mother in 

sadness of heart And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn 

of day and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then 
quoth ner sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister 
mine, and how enjoyable and delectable!" Quoth she, "And 
where is this compared with that I should relate to you on the 
coming night an the King suffer me to survive ? " Now when it 
was the next night and that was 

fee Jfour 3^unto& ant* QI]jftts-tl)(r& ftffc$t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love 

and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the young 
Prince who had brought the Bird and whom his brothers had 
beaten and robbed of his prize, went to his mother in sadness of 
heart and shedding tears. Quoth she, " What is thy case and 
what hath befallen thee ? " So he told her what had betided him 
and she said, " Sorrow not, O my son ; the course of the right 
shall be made manifest." Then she quieted him and soothed his 
neart This is what happened to these persons ; but as regards 
the Princess, the owner of the Bird, when she awoke at dawn of 

day and opened her eyes, she found her favourite gone and as 

)* 

her glance fell upon the things about her, suddenly she saw some- 
thing written in the palm of her hand. But as soon as she had 
read it and comprehended its purport, she cried aloud with a mighty 
grievous cry which caused the palace-women to flock around, 1 
and her father to ask what was to do but none could explain it 

[ l I read " Sarkhah adwat la-haal-Sarayah "= a cry to which the palace-women raised 
an echo, a cry re-echoed by the palace-women. " Adwa " is the fourth form of " Dawiya," 



Story of the King of A I- Yaman and his Three Sons. 273 

because no one knew. So the Sultan arose forthright and, going 
in to his daughter, found her buffeting her face for the sake of 
her Bird and asked her, " What is to do with thee ? " So she 
informed him of what had befallen her, adding, " Verily he who 
came into my bower and discovered me bare and looked upon 
me and wrote upon the palm of my hand, him I am deter- 
mined to have and none other save that one." Quoth her father, 
" O my daughter, many sons of the Wazirs and the Kings have 
sought the Bird and have failed ; and now do thou suppose that 
he hath died ; " but quoth the Princess, " I desire none save the 
man who found me in sleep and looked upon me, and he is the 
son of King So-and-so, reigning in a such a capital." Said her 
father, " Then how standeth the case ? " and said she, " Needs 
must I thank him and seek his city and marry him, for assuredly 
amongst the sons of the Kings, all of them, none can be fairer or 
more delightsome than he who hath craftily devised this entrance 
to me in so guarded a stead as this. How then can anyone be 
his peer ? >n Hereupon her father bade muster the forces without 
the- city and he brought out for his daughter rarities and presents 
and mule-litters, and they pitched the tents and after three days 
they loaded the loads for travel. Then they fared for whole days 
and nights until they drew near the city wherein the youth had 
slain the Elephant and had saved the daughter of the King. So 
the Sultan set up his encampment with its tents and pavilions 
hard by the walls, to the end that all might take their rest, but 
when the King of the City saw this he rode forth to visit the 
stranger, and after greeting asked him the cause of his coming 
with such a host. The Sultan apprised him of what had happened 
to his daughter, how she had lost the Enchanting Bird, also how 



to hum or buzz, to produce an indistinct noise, and it is vulgarly used in the above 

sense, like the substantive " Dawi," an echo. Al-Sardyah is perhaps only an Arabized 

form of the Persian Sara"y, and the sentence might be, to which the palace resounded; ST.] 

1 The Princess is not logical : on the other hand she may plead that she is right. 

VOL. IV. S 



274 Supplemental Nights. 

the youth had come into her bower and had written a writ upon 
the palm of her hand. But when the King heard from him this 
account he knew and was certified that it was the same Prince who 
had also slain the Elephant and who had on such wise saved his 
daughter's life ; -so he said to the Sultan, " Verily he who 
took the Bird belonging to thy Princess hath also married my 
daughter, for he hath done such-and-such deeds." After which 
he related to him the slaughter of the Elephant and all that had 
happened from beginning to end. Now as soon as the Sultan heard 
these words he cried, " By Allah my daughter is excusable and 
she hath shown her insight and her contrivance ; " and presently 
he arose and going in to her related what he had heard from the 
King of the City, and she wondered at the tale of the youth's 
adventures and the killing of the Elephant. They nighted in that 
stead and the tidings soon reached the ears of the youth's wife, 
the Princess who had been saved from the Elephant, and she said 
to her sire, "I also needs must go to him and forgather with 
him." Hereupon the King her father bade muster his troops 
together with the Lords of the land without the city beside the 
host of the chief Sultan, and on the second day both Sovrans 
bade the loads be loaded for the march. When their bidding 
was obeyed the twain set out together and travelled for days and 
nights until they drew near to the capital of the King where the 
youth had slain the Lion, and they pitched their tents in its 
neighbourhood. Presently the Sovran of that capital came out 
and greeted them and asked them the cause of their coming ; so 
they informed him of their adventures from commencement to 
conclusion ; and he, when certified of the 'truth of this tale, 

returned to inform his daughter thereof. And Shahrazad was 

surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying 
her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet 
and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable and delec- 
table I " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I 



Story of the King of A I- Yam an and his Three Sons. 27$ 

would relate to you on the coming night an the King suffer me 
to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 

tEfie Jpour J^untfteti anfc iwtB--fi'ftf) jSfgfrt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night!'' She replied: With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the third King 
informed his daughter of the certainty of the tidings, and she 
also exclaimed, " Needs must I as well as they set out to seek 
him and forgather with him." So her father returned to the 
Sultan and the King and told them of the adventures of the youth, 
and how he was the cause of his daughter's salvation from the 
Lion which he had slain ; and when the twain heard his words 
they marvelled and cried, " By Allah, verily this youth is fortunate 
in all his doings : would Heaven we knew how be his condition 
with his father and whether he is loved or he is loathed." Then 
the three fell to talking of the Prince's qualities, and presently the 
third King arose and gave orders for gathering together the Lords 
of his land and his army, and he brought out for his daughter 
mule-litters, and gat ready all she might require of rarities and 
offerings. Then the three Kings gave orders to load the beasts 
and fared together, taking with them their three daughters who, 
whenever they conversed together used to praise the high gifts of 
the Prince, and she who was the mistress of the Bird would say 
" Ye twain have forgathered with him ; " and the others would 
answer, "We passed with him no more than a single night; 1 * 
after which they would relate to her the slaughter of the Lion 
and the Elephant. So she wondered and cried, " By Allah ! verily 
he is auspicious of fortune." And they ceased not to be in such 



276 Supplemental Nights. 

case for whole days and nights, and nights and days, throughout 
the length of the journey till they drew near the far-famed 1 city 
which was the bourne of their wayfare and the object of their 
wishes. Now this happened about sunset-tide, so the three Kings 
who had alighted together bade their tents and pavilions be set 
up, and when their behest was obeyed, each and every of the 
three commanded that the firemen and the linkmen light up their 
torches and cressets, and they did so, one and all, until that Wady 
was illumined as by the sheen of day. But when the city folk saw 
what was done by the three Kings, their hearts quaked and their 
flesh quivered, and they cried, " Verily for the mighty hosts ot 
these Kings there needs must be a cause of coming." However 
the strangers nighted in site until morn grew light, when the three 
Sovrans forgathered, and sent a messenger with an invite to the 
Lord of the city, who on receiving him, exclaimed, " Hearkening 
and obedience ! " Then mounting without stay or delay he rode 
forth till he reached the strangers' camp, where he alighted and 
went in and greeted them ; and they, on similar guise, arose to him 
and wished him long life, and seated him and fell to conversing 
with him for a full-told hour. But he was whelmed in the ocean 
of thought, and he kept saying to himself, "Would Heaven I 
knew what be the cause of the Kings coming to this my country." 
However, the four Sovrans continued to converse until the noon- 
tide hour, when the trays were dispread for them, and the tables 
were laid with sumptuous meats in platters and chargers of precious 
metal, the very basins and ewers being of virgin gold. But when 
the King of that city beheld this he marvelled, and said in his 
mind, " By Allah, there is not with me aught of rarities like these." 
As soon as they had ended eating what sufficed them, water was 
brought to them and they washed their hands, after which they 



1 Arab. " Ma'ltimah," which may also mean the "made known/', or "afore*, 
mentioned." 



Story of the King of A I- Yaman and his Three Sons. 277 

were served with confections and coffee and sherbets. Anon 
the three Kings said to their guest, "Thou, hast thou any 
children ? " and said he, " Yes, I have two sons." Quoth they, 
" Summon them before us that we may look upon them ; " so he 
sent and bade them make act of presence. The Princes donned 
their finest dresses and perfumed themselves ; then they took 
horse and rode until they had reached their father's palace. But 
the three Princesses stood to look at them, and she who was 
owner of the Bird Philomelet asked of the two others, saying, 
" Is he amongst these twain ? " and they answered, " Nay, he is 
not." She exclaimed, " By Allah, both of them be fine men," 
and the others cried, " Indeed, our husband is far fairer and finer 
than they." But when the Kings saw the two brothers they said 
to their sire, " Verily our need is not with them." - And Shah- 
razad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased 
to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad " How 
sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delec- 
table ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I 
should relate to you on the coming night an the King suffer me 
to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the two 
Kings said to the lord of the city, " Verily our need is not in this 
pair of youths," and the third King added, " By Allah, indeed 
these two young men be fair of favour," for that he had not 
seen the Prince who had taken his daughter's Bird Philomelet. 



2? 8 Supplemental Nights. 

Presently the two asked the father saying, "Thou, is there by 
thee no issue other than these two ? " and said he, " Yes, I have 
a son, but I have cast him out and I have placed his mother 
amongst the handmaids of the kitchen." "Send to fetch him," 
quoth they ; so he despatched a messenger to bring him into the 
presence. And he came, withal he was without any finery of 
dress ; but as soon as the two damsels saw him they communed 
concerning him and he inclined to them and went into their 
pavilion, when they rose to him and threw their arms round his 
neck and kissed him between his eyes. Hereupon the mistress of 
the Bird said to the two others, " Be this he ? " and said they, 
" Yes ; " so she also arose and kissed his hand. But when he had 
finished greeting them he at once went forth to the assembled 
Kings, who stood up in honour to him and welcomed him and 
greeted him ; and when his father saw that case he wondered 
with great wonderment. Then the youth took seat afar from his 
brothers and addressed them, saying, " Which of the twain was 
first to take the necklace ? " And they held their peace. He 
resumed speech and said to them, "Which of you killed the Lion 
and which of you slew the Elephant and which of you embraved 
his heart and going into the bower of the august damsel, daughter 
to this Sultan, carried off her Bird Philomelet ? " But they 
answered him never a syllable and were far from offering a reply. 
So he resumed, " Wherefore did you fall upon me and beat me 
and take away the Enchanting Bird, when I was able to slay you 
both ? Yet to everything is its own time and this my father had 
banished me and banished my mother nor did he give her aught 
of what became her." Saying these words the youth fell upon his 
two brethren with his sword and striking a single stroke he slew the 
twain, after which he would have assaulted his sire, and put him 
to death. However the three Kings forbade him and presently he 
whose daughter owned the Bird put an end to this by insisting 
upon the marriage-tie with him being tied. So he went in unto 



Story of the King of A I- Yaman and his Three Sons. 279 

her that very night and the three damsels became his acknowledged 
spouses. After this his father gave command that his mother be 
admitted into the Palace and he honoured her and banished the 
parents of his two elder sons for he was assured that their cadet 
had done such derring-do by slaying the Lion and the Elephant 
and by bringing into the presence Philomelet the Enchanting 
Bird and he was certified that the deed had been done by none 
other. So he set apart a palace for the young Prince and his three 
Princesses and he gave him a commandment and their joys ever 
increased. And lastly the three Kings ceased not abiding in that 
place for forty days after which they devised their departure. - 
And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent 
and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her sister 
Dunyazad, "How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, 
and enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, '* And where is this 
compared with that I would relate to you on the coming night an 
the King suffer me to survive?" Now when it was the next 
night and that was 



^our f^tmtott antr tE&ftts-efglJti) jgigftt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : -- With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the three 
Kings desired, one and all of them, to depart and return to their 
countries and their capitals ; and their son-in-law presented them 
with gifts and rarities, whereupon they blessed him and went their 
ways. After this the young Prince, who had become Sovran and 
Sultan, took seat upon the throne of his realm and by the reign he 
was obeyed and the servants of Allah for him prayed. Presently 



280 Supplemental Nights. 

on a day of the days he inclined to the hunt and the chase, so he 
went off with his suite till they found themselves in the middle of the 
wildest of wolds where the ruler came upon an underground cavern .. 
He proposed to enter therein, when his followers prevented him 
and behold, a man came to him from the desert showing the signs 
of wayfare and carrying a somewhat of water and victual and his 
garments were all threadbare. The King enquired of him saying, 
" Whence hast thou come and whither art thou going ? " and the 
other replied, "We be three in this antre who have fled our 
country ; and whenever we require aught of meat and drink, one 
of us fareth forth to fetch what will suffice us of provision for ten 
days." " And what is the cause of your flying your native land ? " 
asked the King, and the other answered, "Verily our tale is 
wondrous and our adventures are joyous and marvellous." Here- 
upon quoth the King, " Wallahi, we will not quit this spot till 
such time as we shall have heard your histories ; and let each one 
of you three recount to us what befel him, so that we hear it from 
his own mouth." Hereupon the King commanded sundry of his 
suite to set forth home and the rest to abide beside him ; and he 
sent a Chamberlain of the Chamberlains that he might go bring 
from the city somewhat of victual and water and wax candles and 
all the case required, saying the while to himself, "Verily the 
hearing of histories is better than hunting and birding, for haply 
they may solace and gladden the hearts of men." 1 So the 
Chamberlain went forth and, after an absence of an hour or so 
he returned bringing all the King had commanded ; upon which 
he and the suite brought in the Larrikin 2 together with his two 
companions until they led them to the presence and seated the 
three together. All this while none of the vagabonds knew that 
the personage before them was the King of the city. So they fell 

1 A sensible remark which shows that the King did not belong to the oider called by 
Mr. Matthew Arnold ' Barbarians." 

1 In text : " Rajul Ja'idi," for which see p. 14^ 



History of the First Larrikin. 281 

to conversing until the next night came on when the Sovran bade 
them tell their tales of themselves and what had befallen each 
and every of them. They replied, " Hearkening and obedience;" 
and the foremost of them began to recite the 

HISTORY OF THE FIRST LARRIKIN. 

VERILY, O King, my tale is a rare and it is e'en as follows : I 
had a mother of whose flocks the World had left her but a single 
kid, and we owned ne'er another. Presently we determined to 
sell it; and, having so done, we bought with its price a young 
calf, which we brought up for a whole year till it grew fat and 
full-sized. Then my mother said to me, " Take yon calf and go 
sell it ;" so I went forth with it to the Bazar, and I saw that 
not one was like it, when behold, a body of vagabonds, 1 who 
numbered some forty, looked at the beast, and it pleased them ; 
so they said one to other, "Let us carry this away and cut its 
throat and flay it." Then one of them, as all were standing afar 
off, came near me and said, " O youth, wilt thou sell this kid ? " 
and quoth I, "O my uncle, verily this is a calf and not a kid ; and 
the other rejoined, " Art thou blind ? This is a kid." Cried I, 
" A calf!" So he asked, " Wilt thou take from me a dollar ? " * 
and I answered, " Nay, O my uncle ! " Thereupon he went away 
from me, and another came after him and said, " O youth, wilt 
thou sell this kid ? " and said I, " This is a calf, and quoth he 
"This is a kid," and reviled me the while I held my peace. 
Again quoth he, " Wilt thou take for this a dollar ? " but I was 
not satisfied therewith, and they ceased not to wrangle with me, 



1 Arab. " Fidawiyah," sing. " Fida*wi " = lit. one who gives his life to a noble caust,' 
a forlorn hope, esp applied to the Ismai'liyah race, disciples of the "Assassin " Hasan- 
i-Sabdh. See De Sacy, " Me"moire sur les Assassins Me"m. de 1'Instit," etc. iv. 7 ct 
seqq Hence perhaps a castaway, a " perdido," one careless of his life. I suspect, 
however, that it is an Egyptianised form of the Pers. " Fida'i" = a robber, a murderer. 
The Lat. catalogue prefers " Sicarius," which here cannot be the meaning. 

2 Arab- "Kirsh," pop. "Girsh." 



282 Supplemental Nights. 

one after other, each coming up and saying, " O youth, wilt thou 
sell this kid ? " At last their Shaykh x accosted me and cried, 
" Wilt thou sell it ? " and I rejoined, " There is no Majesty save in 
Allah ! I will sell it on one condition, to wit, that I take from 
thee its tail." Replied to me 2 the Shaykh of the Vagabonds, 
" Thou shalt take the tail when we have slaughtered it ;" then, 
paying me a dollar, he led off the beast, and returned to his own 
folk. Presently they killed it and flayed it, when I took the tail 
and hastened back to my mother. She said to me, " Hast thou 
sold the calf?" and said I, Yes, I have sold it, and have taken a 
dollar and the calf s tail." " And what wilt thou do for the tail ? " 
asked she ; and I answered, " I will do him brown 3 who took it 
from me saying, This is a kid, and I will serve him a sleight which 
shall get out of him to its price ten times one hundred." 4 With 
these words I arose and, taking the tail, I flayed it and studded it 
with nails and bits of glass, and I asked of my mother a maiden's 
dress, which she brought me; and presently I covered my face 
with a Burka'-veil, 5 and I adorned me and perfumed myself and I 
girded my loins underneath my clothes with the tail of that calf. 
Then went I forth like a virgin girl till I reached the barrack of 
those blackguards, when I found that they had cooked the whole 
calf and naught of it remained undressed, and they had prepared 
to spread the table and were about sitting down to supper. 
Then I went 6 in to them and said, " The Peace be upon you," 



1 I have noticed that there is a Shaykh or head of the Guild, even for thieves, in most 
Moslem capitals. See vol. vi. 204. 

2 Here is the normal enallage of persons, " luh " = to him for " li " = to me. 

8 In text " Na'mil ma'allazf, etc. . . . rnakidah." I have attempted to pre- 
serve the idiom. 

4 [In the MS. "al-'Ashrah Miah," which, I think, can scarcely be translated by "ten 
times one hundred." If Miah were dependent on al-'Ashrah, the latter could not have 
the article. I propose therefore to render " one hundred for the (i.e. every) ten " = ten- 
fold. ST.] 

5 For this "nosebag," see vols. ii. 52, and vi. 151, 192. 

6 [Until here the change from the first person into the third, as pointed out 
in note 2, has been kept up in the MS. "He reached the barracks," "he 







' '" 



History of the First Larrikin. ,283 

and they rose to me in a body of their joy, and returned my 
greetings and said, " By Allah, our night is a white one." So I 
entered to them and supped with them, and they all inclined to 
me, and their moustachios wagged in token that they would dis- 
port with me. But when darkness came on they said, "This 
night is for our Shaykh, but after this each one of us shall take 
her for his own night." - And Shahrazad was surprised by the 
dawn of day, and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. 
Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, 
O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ? " Quoth she, 
" And where is this compared with that I should relate to you on 
the coming night an the King suffer me to survive ? " Now when 
it was the next night and that was 



Jpour juntos an& 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night!" She replied: - With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the vagabonds 
said, " Each one of us shall take her to him for a night after the 
Shaykh," and so saying they left me and went their ways. Then 
the Chief fell to chatting with me and he was in high spirits, when 
suddenly my glance fell upon a rope hanging from the ceiling of 
that barrack and I cried, " O Shaykh ! " whereto he replied, " Yes, 
O my lady and light of mine eyes." Said I to him, "What 



found," etc. Now suddenly the gender changes as well, and the tale continues : "And 
lo, the girl went to them and said," etc. etc. This looseness of style may, in the mouth 
of an Eastern Rawi, have an additional dramatic charm for his more eager than critical 
audience ; but it would be intolerable to European readers. Sir Richard has, therefore, 
very properly substituted the first person all through. ST.] 



284 Supplemental Nights. 

may be this cord thus suspended ? " and said he, " This is called 
' hanging-gear * ; and, when any of ours requireth chastisement 
from my associates, we hoist him up by this rope and we bash 
him." Quoth I, " Hang me up and let me see how 'tis done," but 
quoth he, " Heaven forfend, O my lady ! I will hang myself in thy 
stead and thou shalt look upon me." Hereat he arose and tied 
himself tight and cried, " Haul up this rope and make it fast in 
such a place ! I did his bidding and bound it right firmly and 
left him hanging in the air. Presently he cried " Let go the cord," 
and replied I, " O Shaykh, first let me enjoy the spectacle." Then 
I stripped him of all his clothing and drawing forth the calf's tail 
which was studded with nails and glass splinters, I said to him, 
" O Shaykh, is this the tail of a kid or of a calf? " " What woman 
art thou ? " asked he, and I answered, " I am the owner of the 
calf; " and then, tucking up my two sleeves to the elbows, I beat 
him till I stripped him of his skin and he lost his senses and he 
had no breath wherewith to speak. Thereupon I arose and fell to 
searching the hall, where I found sundry valuables amongst which 
was a box, so I opened it and came upon three hundred gold 
pieces and a store of reals * and silverlings and jadids. 2 I laid 
hands on the whole of it and then bore off somewhat of the 
most sumptuous dresses ; and, having wrapped them all up in a 
sheet, I carried them away ; and about dawn I went in to my 
mother and cried, " Take these to the price of the calf, which 
I have received from the purchaser." But when the day was high 
and the sun waxed hot the whole troop of the Shaykh collected 



1 " RiyaV'is from the Span. " Real " = royal (coin) : in Egypt it was so named by 
order of All Bey, the Mameluke, in A.H, 118$ (A.D. 1771-72) and it was worth ninety 
Faddahs = 5fd. The word, however, is still applied to the dollar proper (Maria Theresa), 
to the Riydl Fransd or five-franc piece and to the Span, pillar dollar : the latter is also 
nicknamed "Abu Madfa' " Father of a Cannon (the columns being mistaken for cannons) ; 
also the Abu Tkah (Father of a Window), whence we obtain the Europeanised " Patacco" 
(see Lane, Appendix ii.) and "Pataca," which Littr confounds with the " Patard " 
and of which he ignores the origin. 

* See The Nights, vol. x. 12. 



History of the First L a rrikin. 285 

and said, "Verily our Elder hath slept till the undurn hour ; " and 
one of them declared " 'Tis from enjoying so much pleasure 
and luxury, he and the girl, ; and doubtless their night hath been 
a white l night." So they ceased not talking together and each of 
them had his word until the noon was nigh, when certain of them 
said, " Come with us and let us rouse him from sleep : " and, 
saying thus, all went to the door of the hall and opened it. Here- 
upon they found their Shaykh hanging up and his body bleeding 
profusely ; 2 so they asked him, " What hath befallen thee ? " and 
he answered in a weak voice, " Verily that girl is no girl at all, but 
she is the youth who owned the calf." They replied, " By Allah, 
there is no help but that we seize him and slay him ; " whereto the 
Elder said, " Loose me and lead me to the Hammam that I may 
wash clean my skin of all this blood/' Then they let him down 
and after mounting him upon a donkey they bore him to the baths. 
Hereat J went to the slaughter-house and covered my body with 
bullocks' blood and stuck to it pledgets of cotton so that I became 
like one sorely diseased and I repaired to the same Hammam 
propped upon a staff and required admittance. They refused me 
saying, " The Shaykh of the Vagabonds is now in the baths nor 
may anyone go in to him." Quoth I to them, " I am a man with a 
malady," whereto quoth one of them, " This is a poor wight, so let 
him come within." Accordingly I entered and found the Chief 



1 i.e. " pleasant," " enjoyable " ; see "White as milk " opposed to " black as mud," 
etc., vol. iv. 140. Here it is after a fashion synonymous with the French nuit blanche, 

2 [The MS. seems here to read " wa jasad-hu yuhazdimu," (thus at least the word, would 
have to be vocalized if it were a quadriliteral verbal form), and of this I cannot make out 
any sense. I suspect the final syllable is meant for " Dam," blood, of which a few lines 
lower down the plural " Dima " occurs. Remains to account for the characters imme- 
diately preceding it. I think that either the upper dot of the Arabic belongs to the first 
radical instead of the second, reading "yukhirru," as the fourth or causative form of 
" kharra yakhurru," to flow, to ripple> to purl ; or that the two dots beneath are to be 
divided between the first two characters, reading " bajaza." The latter, it is true, is no 
dictionary word, but we have found supra p. 228 *' muhandiz " for " muhandis," so here 
" bajaza" may stand for " bajasa " = gushed forth, used intransitively and transitively. 
In either case the translation would be "his body was emitting blood freely. ST.] 



286 Supplemental Nights. 

alone, whereupon I drew forth the tail and asked him, "O Shaykh, is 
this the tail of a calf or a kid ? " " Who art thou," said he, and I 
said, " I am the owner of the calf ; " after which I fell to beating 
him with the tail until his breath was clean gone. Then I left him 
and went forth from the Hammam by another door so as to avoid his 
followers. - And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and 
fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her 
sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister 
mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where 
is this compared with that I should relate to you on the coming 
night an the King suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was 
the next night and that was 



jfour ^unfcrrti anfc Jfort5=SCOtt& 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the youth, the 
owner of the calf, after beating the Shaykh of the Vagabonds with 
a sore bashing within the Bath went forth by the back door. 
Whereupon (continued the Larrikin) the followers of the Chief 
went in and they found him at his last breath and moaning from 
the excess of blows. Quoth they, " What is the matter with 
thee ? " and quoth he, " That man with a malady who came into 
the Hammam is none other but the owner of the calf and he hath 
killed me." So they took him up and carried him from the place 
and he said to them, " Do ye bear me outside the city and set up for 
me a tent and lay me therein, after which do ye gather round about 
me and never leave me at all." Hereat they mounted him upon 
an ass and bore him to the place he described and, pitching a tent, 



History of the First Larrikin. 287 

set him therein and all sat around him. Presently the tidings reached 
me, whereupon I changed my clothes for a disguise and drew near 
the tent wherabouts I found a Badawi-man feeding his sheep. So 
I said to him, " O Badawi, take this ducat and draw near yonder 
tent and call aloud, saying : I am the owner of the calf ; after 
which make off with thy life for an they catch thee they will slay 
thee." " By Allah," quoth the Arab, " even if they rode their 
best mares none of them could come up with me ! " So I took 
charge of the sheep while the Badawi approaching the tent cried 
in his loudest voice, " By Allah, I am the owner of the calf." 
Hearing this the vagabonds sprang to their feet as one body and 
drew their weapons and rushed after the Badawi ; but, when he 
had run some distance from the tent with all the men behind him, 
I went in and drawing from below my clothes the tail of the calf 
said, " O Shayh, is this the tail of a calf or a kid ? " The Elder 
asked, " Art thou not he who cried out, I am the owner of the 
calf? " and I answered, " No, I am not/' and came down upon him 
with the tail and beat him until he could no longer breathe. Then 
I took the properties belonging to his party and wrapping them in 
a sheet carried them off and quitting the place I went in to my 
mother and said to her, " Take them to the worth of the calf." 
Now those who had run after the Badawi ceased not pursuing him, 
yet could none of them come up with him and when they were 
tired they returned from the chase and stinted not walking until 
they entered the tent. There they found the Shaykh breathless 
nor could he move save to make signs ; so they sprinkled a little 
water upon his face; and the life returned to him and he said 
to them, " Verily the owner of the calf came to me and beat me 
till he killed me and the wight who cried, I am the owner of the 
calf is an accomplice of his." Thereupon all waxed furious and 
the Elder said to them, " Bear me home and give out that your 
Shaykh is deceased ; after which do you bathe my body and carry 
me to the cemetery and bury me by night and next morning dis- 



288 Supplemental Nights. 

inter me so that the owner of this calf may hear that I am dead and 
leave me in peace. Indeed as long as I continue in this condition 
he will devise for me device after device and some day will come 
into me and kill me downright." They did what their Shaykh 
bade them and began crying and keening and saying, " Verily our 
Chief is deceased," so that the report was bruited abroad that the 
Shaykh of the Vagabonds had died. But I, the owner of the calf, 
said to myself, " By Allah, an he be dead, they will assuredly make 
for him some mourning ceremony." Now when they had washed 
him and shrouded him and carried him out upon the bier, and 
were proceeding to the graveyard that they might bury him, and 
had reached half way to it, lo and behold ! I joined the funeral 
train and suddenly walking under the coffin with a sharp pack- 
ing needle * in hand, And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn 

of day and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. 
Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, 



1 The MS. here is hardly intelligible but the sense shows the word to be " Misallah" 
(plur. " Misdll ") = a large needle for sewing canvas, &c. In Egypt the usual pro- 
nunciation is "Musallah," hence the vulgar name of Cleopatra's needle "Musallat 
Far'aun" (of Pharaoh) the two terms contending for which shall be the more absurd. 
I may note that Commander Gorridge, the distinguished officer of the U.S. Navy who 
safely and easily carried the " Needle" to New'York after the English had made a pro- 
digious mess with their obelisk, showed me upon the freshly uncovered base of the pillar 
the most distinct intaglio representations of masonic implements, the plumb-line, the 
square, the compass, and so forth. These, however, I attributed to masonry as the craft, 
to the guild ; he to Freemasonry, which in my belief was unknown to the Greeks and 
Romans, and is never mentioned in history before the eight Crusades (A.D. 1096-1270). 
The practices and procedure were evidently borrowed from the various Vehms and secret 
societies which then influenced the Moslem world, and our modern lodges have strictly 
preserved in the "Architect of the Universe," Arian and Moslem Unitarianism as 
opposed to Athanasian and Christian Tritheism ; they admit the Jew and the Mussulman 
as apprentices, but they refuse the Hindu and the Pagan. It seems now the fashion to 
run down the mystic craft, to describe it as a " goose-club " and no more ; it is, however, 
sleeping, not dead ; the charities of the brethren are still active, and the society still 
takes an active part in politics throughout the East. As the late Pope Pius IX. (fitly 
nicknamed " Pio no-no"), a free mason himself, forbade Freemasonry to his church 
because a secret society is incompatible with oral confession (and priestcraft tolerates only 
its own mysteries), and made excommunication the penalty, the French lodges have 
dwindled away and the English have thriven upon their decay, thus enlisting a host of 
neophytes who, when the struggle shall come on, may lend excellent aid. 



History of the First Larrikin. 

O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable." Quoth she, 
" And where is this compared with that I should relate to you 
on the coming night an the King suffer me to survive ? " Now 
when it was the next night and that was 



JFout f^untofc anfc JFortg-tSnft Nt'gfit, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night!" She replied : - With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that I walked 
under the bier packing-needle in hand, and thrust it into the 
Shaykh of the Vagabonds, whereat he cried out and sprang up 
and sat upright upon his shell. 1 Now when the King heard this 
tale he laughed and was cheered and the Larrikin resumed: By 
Allah, when I thrust the needle into him and he sat upright 
in his coffin all the folk fell to wondering and cried, "Verily 
the dead hath come to life." Hereupon, O my lord, my fear 
waxed great and I said to myself, " All adventures are not like 
one another : haply the crowd 2 will recognise me and slay me." 
So I went forth the city and came hither. Cried the King, " Of a 
truth, this tale is marvellous ; " when the second Larrikin ex- 
claimed, " By Allah, O my lord, my tale is rarer and stranger 
than this, for indeed therein I did deeds worthy of the Jinn-mad 
and amongst the many tricks that came from my hand I died and 

1 The " Jandzah," or bier, is often made of planks loosely nailed or pegged together 
Into a stretcher or platform, and it would be easy to thrust a skewer between the joints. 
I may remind the, reader that "Jandzah" = a bier with a corpse thereon (vol. ii. 46)* 
whereas the "Sarir" is the same when unburdened, and the "Na'ash" is a box like 
our coffin, but open at the tip. 

2 [In the Arab, text " they will recognise me," which I would rather refer to the 
Vagabonds than to the crowd, as the latter merely cries wonder at the resuscitation, 
without apparently troubling much about the wonder-worker. ST.] 

VOL. IV. T 



29 Supplemental Nights. 

was buried and I devised a device whereby they drew me from my 
tomb." Quoth the King, " WalUhi, if thy tale be more wondrous 
than that which forewent it I needs must reward thee with some- 
what. But now tell us of what betided thee." So the man 
began to relate the 

HISTORY OF THE SECOND LARRIKIN. 

I was living, O my lord, under the same roof with my father's 
wife and I had with me some bundles of sesame cobs, but no 
great quantity, which I stored in a little basket hanging up in 
the great ceiling-vault of our house. Now one day of the days 
a party of merchants, numbering five or so, together with their 
head man, came to our village and began asking for sesame ; 
and they happened to meet me on the road hard by our place, so 
they put me the same question. I asked them, " Do you want 
much of it ? " and they answered, " We require * about an hundred 
ardabbs. 2 " Quoth I, " By me is a large quantity thereof;" and 
quoth they, " Have the kindness to show us the muster ; " 3 whereto 
I rejoined, " Upon the head and the eye ! " Hereat I led them 
into the room wherein the basket was suspended with a few cobs 
of seasame (there being none other) and I went up by an outside 
staircase to the top of the vault, which I pierced, and putting forth 
my hand, took up a palm-full and therewith returned to them 
and showed the specimen. They saw that the seasame was clean 
grain, and said one to other, " This house is naught but full to 
the vault, 4 for had there been a small quantity there he would have 



1 [Ar. " na'ta"zu," viii. form of *za = it escaped, was missing, lacked, hence the 
meaning of this form, "we are in want of," " we need." ST.] 

2 For the " Ardabb" (prop. " Irdabb ") = five bushels : see vol. i. 263. 

3 [In the MS. "'Ayyinah," probably a mis-reading for '"Ayniyyah" = a sample, 
pattern. ST.] 

* In text "Kubbah" = vault, cupola, the dome of unbaked brick upon peasants' 
houses in parts of Egypt and Syria, where wood for the Sat'h " or flat roof is scarce. 



History of the Second Larrikin. 29 1 

opened the door and shown us the heaps/' Hereupon I conversed 
with them and settled the price and they paid me as earnest 
money ' for an hundred ardabbs of sesame six hundred reals., 
I took the coin and gave it to the wife of my father, saying to 
her, " Cook for us a supper that shall be toothsome." Then I 
slaughtered for her five chickens and charged her that, after she 
should have cooked the supper, she must prepare for us a pot of 
Baysdrah l which must be slab and thick. She did as I bade her 
and I returned to the merchants and invited them to sup with us 
and night in our house. Now when sunset time came I brought 
them in for the evening meal and they supped and were cheered, 
and as soon as the hour for night-prayer had passed I spread for 
them sleeping-gear and said to them, " O our guests, be careful 
of yourselves lest the wind come forth from your bellies, for with 
me dwelleth the wife of my father, who disgusteth fizzles and 
who dieth if she hear a fart." After this they slept soundly from 
the stress of their fatigue and were overwhelmed with slumber ; 
but when it was midnight, I took the pot of Baysarah and 
approached them as they still slumbered and I besmeared 2 their 
backsides with the Baysarah and returned and slept until dawn of 
day in my own stead hard beside them. At this time all five, 
were awake, and as each one arose before his companions he, 
sensed a somewhat soft below him and putting forth his hand 
felt his bum bewrayed 3 with the stuff, and said to his neighbour, 



The household granary is in the garret, from which the base of the dome springs, and 
the "expense-magazines" consist of huge standing coffers of wattle and dab propped 
against the outside walls of the house. 

1 Gen. "Baysdr" or " Faysa"r,"= beans cooked in honey and milk. See retro, 
Night ccclxxxviii. for its laxative properties. 

2 [In the MS. " barbastu," with the dental instead of the palatal sibilant (Sin instead 
of Sad). Spelled in the former way the verb " barbasa " means, he sought, looked for, 
and is therefore out of place here. Spelled in the second manner, it signifies literally, 
he watered the ground abundantly. Presently we shall find the passive participle 
tf mubarbasah " in the feminine, because referring to the noun " Tiz " = anus, which, 
like its synonym " 1st," professes the female gender. ST.] 

3 [In Ar. " Mubarbasah," for which see the preceding note. ST.) 



292 Supplemental Nights. 

" Ho, such an one, I have skited ! " and the other said, I also 
have conskited myself;" and then all said together, "We have 
skited." But when I heard this, O my lord, I arose forthwith and 
cried out saying, " Haste ye to my help, O ye folk, for these guests 
have killed my father's wife." - And Shahrazad was surprised by 
the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted 
say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful 
is thy tale, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " 
Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I should relate 
to you on the coming night an the King suffer me to survive ? " 
Now when it was the next night and that was 



jpour l^un&rrt antr jportB^fiftJ Nfgftt, 



DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale, that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that quoth the 
second Larrikin to the King : O my lord, I cried out saying, " The 
guests have slain the wife of my father." But when they heard 
me the merchants arose and ran away, each following other, so I 
rushed after them, shouting aloud, "Ye have killed my father's 
wife," till such time as they had disappeared from sight. Then 
said I to myself, " Inshallah ! they will never more come back." 
But after they had disappeared for a whole year they returned and 
demanded their coin, to wit, six hundred reals ; and I, when the 
tidings reached me, feigned myself dead and ordered my father's 
wife to bury me in the cemetery and T took to my grave a portion 
of charcoal and a branding-iron. Now when the five merchants 
came and asked after me the folk said, " He hath deceased and 
they have graved him in his grave; whereupon the creditors 



History of the Second Larrikin. 293 

cried, " By Allah, there is no help but that we go and piss upon 
his fosse." Now I had made a crevice in the tomb 1 and I had 
lighted the charcoal and I had placed the branding-iron ready till 
it became red hot and, when they came to piddle upon my 
grave, I took the iron and branded their hinder cheeks with sore 
branding, and this I did to one and all till the five had suffered in 
the flesh. Presently they departed to their own country, when my 
father's wife came and opened the tomb and drew me forth and we 
returned together to our home. After a time, however, the news 
reached these merchants in their towns that I was living and 1 
hearty, so they came once more to our village and demanded of 
the Governor that I be given up to them. So the rulers sent for 
and summoned me, but when the creditors made a claim upon me 
for six hundred reals, I said to the Governor, " O my lord, verily 
these five fellows were slaves to my sire in bygone-times/' Quoth 
the ruler, "Were ye then in sooth chattels to his sire ? " and saidi 
they to me, " Thou liest ! " Upon this I rejoined, " Bare their 
bodies ; and, if thou find a mark thereupon, they be my father's 
serviles, and if thou find no sign then are my words false." So. 
they examined them and they found upon the rumps of the five, 
marks of the branding-iron, and the Governor said, " By Allah, in 
good sooth he hath told the truth and you five are the chattels of 
his father." Hereupon began dispute and debate between us, nor 
could they contrive aught to escape from me until they paid me 
three hundred reals in addition to what I had before of them. 
When the Sultan heard these words from the Larrikin he fell to 
wondering and laughing at what the wight had done and he said. 



1 The Moslem's tomb is an arched vault of plastered brick, large enough for a man to 
sit up at ease and answer the Questioning Angels ; and the earth must not touch the 
corpse as it is supposed to cause torture. In the graves of the poorer classes a niche 
(lahad] offsets from the fosse and is rudely roofed with palm-fronds and thatch. The 
trick played in the text is therefore easy ; see Lane's illustration M.E. chapt. xviii. The 
reader will not forget that all Moslems make water squatting upon their hunkers in a 
position hardly possible to an untrained European : see vol. i. 259. 



2 94 Supplemental Nights. 

" By Allah, verily thy deed is the deed of a vagabond who is a 
past-master in fraud." Then the third Larrikin spoke and said, 
"By Allah, in good sooth my story is more marvellous and 
wondrous than the tales of this twain, for that none (methinketh) 
save I Gould have done aught of the kind." The King asked him 
" And what may be thy story ? " so he began to relate 

THE HISTORY OF THE THIRD LARRIKIN. 

O my lord, I was once an owner of herds whereof naught remained 

to me but a single bull well advanced in years and unhealthy of 

flesh and of hide ; and when I sought to sell him to the butchers 

none was willing to buy him of me, nor even to accept him as a 

gift. So I was disgusted with the beast and with the idea of 

mating him ; and, as he could not be used either to grind * or to 

plough, I led him into a great courtyard, where I slaughtered him 

and stripped off his hide. Then I cut the flesh into bittocks 

And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell 

silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her 

sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and 

liow enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this 

compared with that I should relate to you on the coming night 

1 an the King suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next 

night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night!" She replied: -- With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the whilome 
owner of the bull said to the King, " O my lord, I cut his flesh 

1 The bull being used in the East to turn the mill and the water-wheel ; vol. i. 16. 



History of the Third Larrikin* 295 

into bittocks and went forth and cried aloud upon the dogs of the 
quarter, when they all gathered together nor did one remain behind. 
Then I caused them to enter the court and having bolted the 
door gave to each dog a bit of the meat weighing half a pound. 1 
So all ate and were filled, after which I shut them up in the house 
which was large, for a space of three days when, behold, the folk 
came seeking their tykes and crying, " Whither can the curs have 
gone ?" So I related how I had locked them up within the house 
and hereupon each man who had a hound came and took it away. 
Then quoth I, "Thy dog hath eaten a full pound of flesh," and 
I took from each owner six faddahs and let him have his 
beast until I had recovered for the meat of that bull a sum 
of two thousand faddahs. 2 At last of these dogs there remained 
to me but one unclaimed and he had only a single eye and 
no owner. So I took up a staff and beat him and he ran away and 
i. ran after him to catch him until he came upon a house with 
the door open and rushed within. Now by the decree of the 
Decreer it so happened that the mistress of the house had a man 
living with her who was one-eyed and I ran in and said to her, 
" Bring out the one-eyed that is with thee," meaning the dog. But 
when the house mistress heard me say, "Bring out the one-eyed," she 
fancied that I spoke of her mate, so knowing naught about the matter 
of the tyke she came up to me and cried, " Allah upon thee, O my 
lord, do thou veil what Allah hath veiled and rend not our reputa- 
tion and deal not disgrace to us ;" 3 presently adding, " Take this 
bangle from me and betray us not.'* So I took it and left her and 
went my ways, after which she returned to the house and her heart 
was heaving and she found that her man had been in like case 
ever since he heard me say, " Bring out the one-eyed." So I went 

1 In text " Ratl." See vol. iv. 124. 2 About is. 2d. 

3 The man was therefore in hiding for some crime. [The MS. has la tafzah-ni " = Do 
not rend my reputation, etc. I would, therefore, translate " Sahib-h " by " her lover," 
and suggest that the crime in question is simply what the French call " conversation 
criminelie." ST.] 



296 Supplemental Nights. 

away carrying off the bracelet and fared homeward. But when 
she looked about the room, lo and behold ! she espied the one-eyed 
dog lying in a corner and, as soon as she caught sight of him, she 
was certified that I had alluded to the beast. So she buffeted her 
face and regretted the loss of her bangle and following me she came 
up and said to me, " O my lord, I have found the one-eyed dog, so 
do thou return with me and take him ; " whereat I had pity upon 
the woman and restored to her the ornament. However, when 
this had befallen me, fear possessed my heart lest she denounce 
me, and I went away from my village and came to this place where 
the three of us forgathered and have lived ever since. When 
the King had given ear to this story he was cheered and said, " By 
Allah, verily the adventures of you three are wondrous, but my 
desire of you is to know if any of you have heard aught of the 
histories of bygone Sultans ; and, if so, let him relate them to me. 
First, however, I must take you into the city that you may enjoy 
ybur rest." "O my lord," quoth they, "who art thou of the 
citizens ? " and quoth he, " I am the King of this countiy, and the 
cause of my coming hither was my design to hunt and chase and 
the finding you here hath diverted me therefrom." But when they 
heard his words, they forthwith rose to their feet and did him 
obeisance saying, " Hearing and obeying," after which the three 
repaired with him to the city. Here the King commanded that 
they set apart for them an apartment and appointed to them 
rations of meat and drink and invested them with robes of honour ; 
and they remained in company one with other till a certain night of 
the nights when the Sultan summoned them and they made act of 
presence between his hands and the season was after the King had 
prayed the Isha 1 prayers. So he said to them, '< 1 require that 



1 The '"Ishd" -prayer (called in Egypt 'Eshe") consists of ten "Ruka'aV 
ar bows or inclinations of the body (not " of the head " as Lane has it, M. E. chapt* 
iii) : of these four are Sunnah " = traditional or customary (of the Prophet), four a*e 



Story of a Sultan of Al-Hind and his Son Mohammed. 297 

each and every of you who knoweth an history of the Kings of 
yore shall relate it to me/' whereat said one of the four, " I have 
by me such a tale." Quoth the King, <f Then tell it to us ;" when 
the first Larrikin began to relate the 

STORY OF A SULTAN OF AL-HIND AND HIS 
SON MOHAMMED. 1 

There was in days of yore a King in the land of Al-Hind, who 
reigned over wide dominions (and praise be to Him who ruleth the 
worlds material and spiritual !), but this Sultan had nor daughter 
nor son. So once upon a time he took thought and said, " Glory 
to Thee ! no god is there save Thyself, O Lord ; withal Thou hast 
not vouchsafed to me a child either boy or girl." On the next day 
he arose a-morn wholly clad in clothes of crimson hue, 2 -- And 
Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and 
ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad 
" How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and how 
enjoyable and delectable!" Quoth she, "And where is this 
compared with that I should relate to you on the coming night an 
the King suffer me to survive?" Now when it was the next 
night and that was 



Jpout f^unto* an* Jfort^nfatf) 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

Farz (divinely appointed i.el by the Koran) and two again Sunnah. The hour is 
nightfall when the evening has closed in with some minor distinctions, e.g. the Hanafi 
waits till the whiteness and the red gleam in the west (" Al-Shafak al-ahmar ") have 
wholly disappeared, and the other three orthodox only till the ruddy light has waned. 
The object of avoiding sundowntide (and sunrise equally) was to distinguish these hours 
of orisons from those of the Guebres and other faiths which venerate, or are supposed 
to venerate, the sun. 

1 Scott. " History of the Sultan of Hind," vol. vi. 194-209. 

2 Red robes being a sign of displeasure : see vol. iv. 72 ; Scott (p. 294) wrongly 
makes them " robes of mourning." 



298 Supplemental Nights. 

watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love 

and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the King of 
Al-Hind arose a-morn wholly clad in clothes of crimson hue, and 
the Wazir, coming into the Divan, found him in such case. So he 
salam'd to him and blessed him with the blessing due to Caliphs, 
and said to him, " O King of the Age, doth aught irk thee that 
thou art robed in red ? " whereto he replied, " O Wazir, I have 
risen with my heart gript hard." Said the other, " Go into thy 
treasury of moneys and jewels and turn over thy precious ores, 
that thy sorrow be dispersed." But said the Sultan, " O Wazir, 
verily all this world is a transitory, and naught remaineth to any 
save to seek the face of Allah the Beneficent : withal the like of 
me may never more escape from cark and care, seeing that I have 
lived for this length of time and that I have not been blessed with 
or son or daughter, for verily children are the ornament of the 
world." Hereupon a wight dark of hue, which was a Takruri x 
by birth, suddenly appeared before the Sultan and standing 
between his hands said to him, " O King of the Age, I have by 
me certain medicinal roots the bequeathal of my forbears and I 
have heard that thou hast no issue ; so an thou eat somewhat 
thereof haply shall they gladden thy heart." Where be these 
simples ?" cried the King, whereat the Takruri man drew forth a 
bag and brought out from it somewhat that resembled a confection 
and gave it to him with due injunctions. So when it was night- 
time the Sultan ate somewhat of it and then slept with his wife 
who, by the Omnipotence of Allah Almighty, conceived of him 
that very time. Finding her pregnant the King was rejoiced 



1 A Moslem negroid from Central and Western North Africa. See vol. ii. 15. They 
share in popular opinion the reputation of the Maghrabi or Maroccan for magical 
powers. 



Story of a Sultan of A I- Hind and his Son Mohammed. 299 

thereat and fell to distributing alms to the Fakirs and the mesquin 
and the widows and the orphans, and this continued till the days of 
his Queen's pregnancy were completed. Then she bare a man-child 
fair of face and form, which event caused the King perfect joy and 
complete ; and on that day when the boy was named Mahommed, 1 
Son of the Sultan, he scattered full half his treasury amongst the 
lieges. Then he bade bring for the babe wet-nurses who suckled 
him until milktime ended, when they weaned him, after which he 
grew every day in strength and stature till his age reached his 
sixth year. Hereupon his father appointed for him a Divine to 
teach him reading and writing and the Koran and all the sciences, 
which he mastered when his years numbered twelve. And after 
this he took to mounting horses and learning to shoot with shafts 
and to hit the mark, up to the time when he became a knight 
who surpassed all other knights. Now one day of the days Prince 
Mahommed rode off a-hunting, as was his wont, when lo and 
behold ! he beheld a fowl with green plumage wheeling around him 
in circles and rocketing in the air and seeing this he was desirous 
to bring it down with an arrow. But he found this impossible 
so he ceased not following the quarry with intent to catch it but 
again he failed and it flew away from his ken ; whereat he was 
sore vexed and he said to himself, " Needs must I seize this bird," 
and he kept swerving to the right and the left in order to catch 
sight of it but he saw it not. This endured until the end of day 
when he returned to the city and sought his father and his mother, 
and when they looked upon him they found his case changed and 
they asked him concerning his condition, so he related to them 
all about the bird and they said to him, " O our son, O Mahommed, 
verily the creations of Allah be curious and how many fowls are 
like unto this, nay even more wondrous." Cried he, " Unless I 



1 This is introduced by the translator ; as usual with such unedited tales, the name 
does not occur till much after the proper place for specifying it. 



30O Supplemental Nights. 

catch her 1 I will wholly give up eating." Now when morning 
dawned he mounted according to his custom and again went forth 
to the chase ; and presently he pushed into the middle of the 
desert when suddenly he saw the bird flying in air and he pushed 
his horse to speed beneath her and shot at her a shaft with the 
intent to make her his prey, but again was unable to kill the bird. 
He persisted in the chase from sunrise until sundown when he was 
tired and his horse was aweary, so he turned him round purposing 
a return city-wards, when behold, he was met in the middle of the 
road by an elderly man who said to him, " O son of the Sultan, 
in very sooth thou art fatigued and on like wise is thy steed." 
The Prince replied, "Yes," and the Elder asked him, "What is the 
cause thereof?" Accordingly he told him all anent the bird and 
the Shaykh replied to him, " O my son, an thou absent thyself 
and ride for a whole year in pursuit of yonder fowl thou wilt 
never be able to take her ; and, O my child, where is this bird ! 2 
I will now inform thee that in a City of the Islands high! of 
Camphor there is a garden wide of sides wherein are many of such 
fowls and far fairer than this, and of them some can sing and 
others can speak with human speech ; but, O my son, thou art 
unable to reach that city. However, if thou leave this bird and 
seek another of the same kind, haply. I can show thee one and 
thou wilt not weary thyself any more." ^When Mohammed, Son 
of the Sultan, heard these words from the Elder he cried, " By 
Allah, 'tis not possible but that I travel to that city." Hereupon 
he left the Shaykh and returned to his own home, but his heart 
was engrossed with the Capital of the Camphor Islands, and when 
he went in to his sire, his case was troubled. The father asked 
him thereof and he related to him what the oldster had said. " O 
my son," quoth the sire, " cast out this accident from thy heart 

1 In text " Iz lam naakhaz-ha, wa-illa"," &c. A fair specimen of Arab, ellipsis. 

If I catch her not ('twill go hard hard with me), and unless (I catch her) I will, &c. 

2 i.e. "How far is the fowl from thee!" 



Story of a Sultan of Al- Hind and his Son Mohammed, 301 

and weary not thy soul, inasmuch as whoso would seek an object 
he cannot obtain, shall destroy his own life for the sake thereof 
and furthermore he shall fail of his gain. Better therefore thou 
set thy heart at rest 1 and weary thyself no more." Quoth the Son, 
" Wallahi, O my sire, verily my heart is hung to yonder fowl and 
specially to the words of the Elder ; nor is it possible to me to sit 
at home until I shall have reached the city of the Camphor Islands 
and I shall have gazed upon the gardens wherein such fowls do 
wone." Quoth his father, " But why, O my child, wouldst thou 
deprive us of looking upon thee ?" And quoth the son, " There 

is no help but that I travel. And Shahrazad was surprised by 

the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. 
Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister 
mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where 
is this compared with that I should relate to you on the coming 
night an the King suffer me to survive?" Now when it was 
the next night and that was 



jpout 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night! 5 ' She replied: With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that Mohammed 
the Son of the Sultan cried, " Needs must I travel, otherwise I will 
slay myself." " There is no Majesty and there is no Might/' quoth 
the father, " save in Allah the Glorious, the Great ; and saith the 
old saw, ' The chick is unsatisfied till the crow see it and carry it 

1 [In the M.S. " turayyih," a modem form for " turawwih." ST.] 



3O2 Supplemental Nights. 

off.' ' ?1 Thereupon the King gave orders to get ready provisions 
and other matters required for the Prince's wayfare, and he sent 
with him an escort of friends and servants, after which the youth 
took leave of his father and mother and he with his many set forth 
seeking the Capital of the Camphor Islands. He ceased not 
travelling for the space of an entire month till he arrived at a 
place wherein three highways forked, and he saw at the junction a 
huge rock whereon were written three lines. Now the first read, 
" This is the road of safe chance," and the second, " This is the 
way of repentance ; " and the third, " This is the path whereon 
whoso paceth shall return nevermore." When the Prince perused 
these inscriptions he said to himself, " I will tread the path whereon 
whoso paceth shall nevermore return." Then he put his trust in 
Allah, and he travelled over that way for a space of days a score, 
when suddenly he came upon a city deserted and desolate, nor 
was there a single created thing therein and it was utterly in ruins* 
So he alighted beside it and, as a flock of sheep accompanied his 
suite, he bade slaughter five lambs and commanded the cooks to 
prepare of them delicate dishes and to roast one of them whole and 
entire. They did his bidding, and when the meats were cooked 
he ordered the trays be spread in that site and, as soon as all was 
done to his satisfaction, he purposed sitting down to food, he and 
his host, when suddenly an 'Aun 2 appeared coming from the 
I- 

1 [The above translation pre-supposes the reading *' Farkhah Id atammat," and would 
require, I believe, the conjunction "hatta" or "ila an" to express " till." I read 
with the MS. "la tammat," and would translate: "a chick not yet full grown, when 
the crow seized it and flew away with it," as a complaint of the father for the anticipated 
untimely end of his son. ST.] 

2 For "'Aun,"a high degree amongst the "Genies,"see vol. iv. p. 83. Readers 
will be pleased with this description of a Jinni J and not a few will regret that they have 
not one at command. Yet the history of man's locomotion compels us to believe that 
we are progressing towards the time when humanity will become volatile. Pre-historic 
Adam was condemned to " Shanks his mare/* or to "go on footback," as the Boers 
have it, and his earliest step was the chariot ; for, curious to say, driving amongst most 
peoples preceded riding, as the row-boat forewent the sailer. But as men increased and 
the world became smaller and time shorter the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries, 
after many abortive attempts, converted the chariot into a railway-car and the sailer into 



Story of a Sultan of Al-Hind and his Son Mohammed. 303 

ruined city. But when Prince Mohammed beheld him he rose to 
him in honour saying, " Welcome and fair welcome to him who of 
'Auns is the head, and to the brethren friend true-bred, 1 and the 
Haunter of this stead ; " and he satisfied him with the eloquence of 
his tongue and the elegance of his speech. Now this 'Aun had 
hair that overhung either eye and fell upon his shoulders, so the 
Prince brought out his scissors 2 and trimmed his locks clearing 
them away from his face, and he pared his nails which were like 
talons, and finally let bathe his body with warm water. Then he 
served up to him the barbecue of lamb which he caused to be 
roasted whole for the use of the Jinni and bade place it upon the 
tray, so the Haunter ate with the travellers and was cheered by 
the Prince's kindness and said to him, " By Allah, O my lord 
Mohammed, O thou Son of the Sultan, I was predestined to meet 
thee in this place but now let me know what may be thy need." 
Accordingly the youth informed him of the city of the Camphor 
Islands and of the garden containing the fowls which he fared to 
seek, and of his design in wayfaring thither to bring some of them 
away with him. But when the 'Aun heard from him these words, 
he said to him, " O thou Son of the Sultan, that site is a far cry for 
thee, nor canst thou ever arrive thereat unless assisted, seeing that 
its distance from this place be a march of two hundred years for 
a diligent traveller. How then canst thou reach it and return 
from it ? However, the old saw saith, O my son, ' Good for good 
and the beginner is worthier, and ill for ill and the beginner is 



a steamer. Aerostatics are still in their infancy and will grow but little until human 
society shall find some form of flying an absolute necessity when, as is the history of all 
inventions, the winged woman (and her man) of Peter Wilkins will pass from fiction 
into fact. But long generations must come and go before "homo sapiens" can expect 
to perfect a practice which in the present state of mundane society would be fatal to all 
welfare. 

1 Scott (p. 200) "Welcome to the sovereign of the Aoon, friendly to his brethren," 
(siddik al Akhwan) etc. Elsewhere he speaks of " the Gone.'* 

2 So he carried a portable "toilette," like a certain Crown Prince and Prince Bahman 
in Suppl. vol. iii. 510. 



304 Supplemental Nights. 

unworthier/ Now thou hast done to me a kindly deed and I 
(Inshallah !) will requite thee with its match and will reward thee 
with its mate ; but let whatso is with thee of companions and 
slaves and beasts and provisions abide in this site and we will go 
together, I and thou, and I will win for thee thy wish even as thou 
hast wrought by me a kindly work." Hereupon the Prince left all 
that was with him in that place and the 'Aun said to him, " O son 
of the Sultan, come mount upon my shoulders." The youth did 
accordingly, after he had filled his ears with cotton, and the 'Aun 
rose from earth and towered in air and after the space of an hour 
he descended again and the rider found himself in the grounds 
about the capital of the Camphor Islands. So he dismounted 
from the Jinni's shoulders and looked about that wady where he 
espied pleasant spots and he descried trees and blooms and rills and 
birds that trilled and shrilled with various notes. Then quoth the 
'Aun to him, " Go forth to yonder garden and thence bring thy 
need ; " so he walked thither and, finding the gates wide open, he 
passed in and fell to solacing himself with looking to the right and 
the left. Presently he saw bird-cages suspended and in them were 
fowls of every kind, to each two, so he walked up to them and 
whenever he noted a bird that pleased him he took it and caged it 
till he had there six fowls and of all sorts twain. Then he designed 
to leave the garden when suddenly a keeper met him face to face 
at the door crying aloud, "A thief! a thief!" Hereat all the 
other gardeners rushed up and seized him, together with the 
cage, and carried him before the King, the owner of that garden 
and lord of that city. They set him in the presence saying, 

1 There is another form of the saw in verse : 

Good is good and he's best whoso worketh it first ; * And ill is for me of pro- 
visions (he worst, 

The provision is = viaticum, pro vaunt for the way. 

[The MS. has "akram" and "azlam" = "the more generous,** "the more 
iniquitous," meaning that while good should be requited by good, and evil provokes 
further evil in retaliation, the beginner in either case deserves the greater praise or 
blame. ST.] 



Story of a Sultan of Al- Hind and his Son Mohammed. 305 

" Verily we found this young man stealing a cage wherein be fowls 
and in good sooth he must be a thief." Quoth the Sultan, " Who 
misled thee, O Youth, to enter my grounds and trespass thereon and 
take of my birds ? " Whereto the Prince returned no reply. So 
the Sultan resumed, " By Allah, thou hast wilfully wasted thy life, 
but, O Youngster, an it be thy desire to take my birds and carry 
them away, do thou go and bring me from the capital of the Isles 
of the Sudan 1 bunches of grapes which are clusters of diamonds 
and emeralds, when I will give thee over and above these six fowls 
six other beside." So the Prince left him and going to the 'Aun 
informed him of what had befallen him, and the other cried, " 'Tis 
easy, O Mohammed;" and mounting him upon his shoulders flew with 
him for the space of two hours and presently alighted. The youth 
saw himself in the lands surrounding the capital of the Sudan Islands 
which he found more beautiful than the fair region he had left ; and 
he designed forthright .to approach the garden containing great 
clusters of diamonds and emeralds, when he was confronted by a 
Lion in the middle way. Now it was the wont of this beast yearly 
to visit that city and to pounce upon everything he met of women 
as well as of men ; so seeing the Prince he charged down upon him, 

designing to rend him limb from limb And Shahrazad was 

surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying 
her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet 
and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and 
delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that 
I should relate to you on the coming night an the King suffer 
me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night, and that was 

1 I have noted (vols. iii. 75, and viii. 266) (hat there are two "Soudans" as we write 
the word, one Eastern upon the Upper Nile Valley and the other Western and drained 
by the Niger water-shed. The former is here meant. It is or should be a word of 
shame to English ears after the ungodly murder and massacre of the gallant "Soudanese " 
negroids who had ever been most friendly to us and whom with scant reason to boast we 
attacked and destroyed because they aspired to become free from Turkish task-masters 
and Egyptian tax-gatherers. That such horrors were perpetrated by order of one of the 
most humane amongst our statesmen proves and decidedly proves one thing, an intense 
ignorance of geography and ethnology. 

VOL. IV. U 



306 Supplemental Nights. 

f&ty jfour l^uniwo anU Jfiil 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale, that we may cut short the 

watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love and 

good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the director, 
the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and of deeds 
fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Lion charged down 
upon Mohammed, Son of the Sultan, designing to rend him in 
pieces, but he confronted him and unsheathing his scymitar made 
it glitter in the sunshine 1 and pressed him close and bashed him 
with brand between his eyes so that the blade came forth 
gleaming from between his thighs. Now by doom of Destiny the 
daughter of the Sultan was sitting at the latticed window of her 
belvedere and was looking at her glass and solacing herself, when 
her glance fell upon the King's son as he was smiting the Lion. 
So she said to herself, " May thy hand never palsied grow nor 
exult over thee any foe ! " But the Prince after slaying the Lion 
left the body and walked into the garden whose door had been 
left open and therein he found that all the trees were of precious 
metal bearing clusters like grapes of diamonds and emeralds. So 
he went forwards and plucked from those trees six bunches which 
he placed within a* cage, when suddenly he was met by the keeper 
who cried out, " A thief! a thief! " and when joined by the other 
gardeners seized him and bore him before the Sultan saying, " O 
my lord, I have come upon this youth who was red-handed in 
robbing yonder clusters." The King would have slain him forth- 
right, but suddenly there came to him a gathering of the folk 



1 [In the MS. " lawa 'a-hu " for which Sir Richard conjectures the reading " lawwaha- 
au " taking the pronoun to refer to the sword. I believe, however, the word to be a 
clerical error for our old acquaintance " lawa'a-hu " (see supra p. 266) and, referring the 
pronoun in the three verbs to the Lion, would translate: "and he worried him/ 
etc. ST.] 



Story of a Sultan of Al- Hind and his Son Mohammed. 307 

who cried, " O King of the Age, a gift of good news ! " * Quoth 
he, " Wherefore ? " and quoth they, " Verily the Lion which was 
wont hither to come every year and to pounce upon all that met 
him of men and of women and of maidens and of children, we 
have found him in such a place clean slain and split into twain." 
Now the Sultan's daughter was standing by the lattice of the 
belvedere which was hard by the Divan of her sire and was 
looking at the youth who stood before the King and was awaiting 
to see how it would fare with him. But when the folk came 
in and reported the death of the Lion, the Sultan threw aside 
the affair of the youth of his joy and delight and fell to asking,. 
" Who was it slew the beast ? " and to saying, " Wallahi ! By the. 
rights of my forbears in this kingdom, 2 let him who killed the 
monster come before me and ask of me a boon which it shall be 
given to him ; nay, even if he demand of me a division of all my 
good he shall receive that same." But when he had heard of all 
present that the tidings were true then the city-folk followed one 
another in a line and went in to the Sultan and one of them said, 
" I have slain the Lion." Said the King, " And how hast thou 
him ; and in what manner hast thou been able to prevail over and 
master him ? " Then he spake with him softly 3 and proved him 
and at last so frightened him that the man fell to the ground in his, 
consternation ; when they carried him off and the King declared,, 

1 Arab. " Al-bashdrah," see vol. i. 30: Scott has (vi. 204) "Good tidings to out 
sovereign." 

2 [The MS. is here rather indistinct ; still, as far as I can make out, it runs : " wa. 
Hakki man aulani haza" 5 l-Mulk" = and by the right of (i.e. my duty towards) Him- 
who made me ruler over this kingdom. ST.] 

3 [The word in the MS. is difficult to decipher. In a later passage we find corres- 
ponding with it the expression " yumdzasa-hu fi '1-Kalam," which is evidently a clerical 
error for " yumarasa-hu" = he tested or tried him in his speech. Accordingly I would 
read here : "yakhburu ma'ahu fi '1-Kalam," lit. = he experimented with him, i.e. put. 
him to his test. The idea seems to be, that he first cross-examined him and then tried 
to intimidate him. With this explanation " yusdhi-hu " and later on " yulhf-hu " would 
tally, which both have about the same meaning : to divert the attention, to make forget, 
one thing over another, hence to confusd and lead one to contradict himself. ST.!-' 



308 Supplemental Nights. 

"This wight lieth!" All this and Mohammed, the Son of the 
Sultan, was still standing and looking on and when he heard the 
man's claim he smiled. Suddenly the King happening to glance 
at him saw the smile and was astounded and said in his mind, 
*' By Allah, this Youth is a wondrous for he smileth he being in 
such case as this." But behold, the King's daughter sent an 
eunuch to her father and he delivered the message, when the King 
arose and went into his Harem and asked her, " What is in thy 
mind and what is it thou seekest ? " She answered, " Is it thy 
desire to know who slew the Lion that thou mayest largesse 
him ? " and he rejoined, saying, " By virtue of Him who created 
His servants and computeth their numbers, 1 when I know him 
and am certified of his truth my first gift to him shall be to wed 
thee with him and he shall become to me son-in-law were he in 
the farthest of lands." Retorted she, " By Allah, O my father, 
none slew the Lion save the young man who entered the garden 
and carried off the clusters of gems, the youth whom thou art 
minded to slay." When he heard these words from his daughter, 
the King returned to the Divan and bade summon Mohammed the 
Son of the Sultan, and when they set him between his hands he 
said to him, " O Youth, thou hast indemnity from me and say me, 
art thou he who slew the Lion ? " The other answered, " O King, 
I am indeed young in years ; how then shall I prevail over a Lion 
and slaughter him, when, by Allah, in all my born days I have 
never met even with a hyena much less with a lion ? However, 
O King of the Age, an thou largesse me with these clusters of 
gems and give them to me in free gift, I will wend my ways, and if 
not my luck will be with Allah ! " Rejoined the King, " O Youth, 
speak thou sooth and fear not ! " Here he fell to soothing him 



1 Here we find the old superstitious idea that no census or "numbering of thi 
people" should take place save by direct command of the Creator. Compare the 
pestilence which arose in the latter days of David when Joab by command of the King 
undertook the work (2 Sam. xxiv. 1-9, etc.) 



Story of a Sultan of A I- Hind and his Son Mohammed. 309 

with words and solacing him and gentling him, after which he 
threatened him with his hand, but Mohammed the Son of the 
Sultan raised his neave swiftlier than the lightning and smote the 
King and caused him swoon. Now there was none present in the 
Divan save Mohammed and the Monarch, who after an hour came 
to himself and said, " By Allah, thou art he who slew the Lion ! " 
Hereupon he robed him with a robe of honour and, summoning 
the Kazi, bade tie the marriage-tie with his daughter ; but quoth 
the young man, " O King of the Age, I have a counsel to consult, 
after which I will return to thee." Quoth the King, 4< Right rede 
is this same and a matter not to blame." Accordingly the Prince 
repaired to the 'Aun in the place where he had left him and related 
to him all that had betided himself, and of his intended marriage 
with the King's daughter, whereupon said the Jinni, "Condition 
with him that if thou take her to wife thou shalt carry her along 
with thee to thine own country." The youth did his bidding and 
returned to the King who said, " There is no harm in that," and 
the marriage-knot was duly knotted. Then the bridegroom was 
led in procession to his bride with whom he remained a full month 
of thirty days, after which he craved leave to fare for his own 
motherland, - And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day 
and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth 
her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and 
how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this 
compared with that I should relate to you on the coming night 
an the King suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the 
next night and that was 



Jfour l^untrrefc an* Jptfts-sebenrt) 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With love 



3 J O Supplemental Nights. 

and good will 1 It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that Mohammed Son 
of the Sultan craved leave to return to his own motherland, when his 
father-in-law gave him an hundred clusters of the diamantine and 
smaragdine grapes, after which he farewelled the King and taking his 
bride fared without the city. Here he found expecting him the 'Aun, 
who, after causing them to fill their ears with cotton, shouldered him, 
together with his wife, and then flew with them through the firma- 
ment for two hours or so and alighted with them near the capital of 
the Camphor Islands. Presently Mohammed the Son of the Sultan 
took four clusters of the emeralds and diamonds, and going in to the 
King laid them before him and drew him back. The Sultan gazed 
upon them and marvelled and cried, " Wallahi ! doubtless this 
youth be a Magician for that he hath covered a space of three 
hundred years in three 1 of coming and going, and this is amongst 
the greatest of marvels." Presently he resumed, saying, " O Youth, 
hast thou reached the city of the Sudan ?" and the other replied, 
" I have." The King continued, " What is its description and its 
foundation and how are its gardens and its rills ? " So he informed 
liim of all things required of him and the Sultan cried, " By Allah, 
O Youth, thou deservest all thou askest of me." " I ask for 
nothing," said the Prince, "save the -birds," and the King, "O 
Youth, there is with us in our town a Vulture which cometh every 
year from behind Mount Kaf and pounceth upon the sons of this 
city and beareth them away and eateth them on the heads of the 
hills. Now an thou canst master this monster-fowl and slay that 
same I have a daughter whom I will marry to thee." Quoth the 
Prince, " I have need of taking counsel ; " and returned to the 
'Aun to inform him. thereof when behold, the Vulture made its 
appearance. But as soon as the Jinni espied it, he flew and made 

1 The text has " Salasin " = thirty, evidently a clerical error. 



Story of a Sultan of A I- Hind and his Son Mahommed. 311 

for it, and caught it up ; then, smiting it with a single stroke of his 
hand, he cut it in two and presently he returned and settled down 
upon the ground. Then, after a while, he went back to Mohammed, 
the Son of the Sultan, and said to him, " Hie thee to the King and 
report to him the slaughter of the Vulture." So he went and 
entering the presence reported what had taken place, whereupon 
the Sultan with his lords of the land mounted * their horses, and, 
going to the place, found the monster killed, and cut into two 
halves. Anon the King returned, and leading Prince Moham- 
med with him bade knit the marriage-knot with his daughter and 
caused him to pay her the first visit. He tarried beside her for a 
full-told month after which he asked leave to travel and to seek 
the city of his first spouse, carrying with him the second. Here- 
upon the King his father-in-law presented to him ten cages, each 
containing four birds of van-coloured coats and farewelled him. 
After which he fared forth and left the city, and outside it he 
found the 'Aun awaiting him and the Jinni salam'd to the Prince 
and congratulated him in what he had won of gifts and prizes. 
Then he arose high in air, bearing Mohammed and his two brides 
and all that was with them, and he winged his way for an hour or 
so until he alighted once more at the ruined city. Here he found 
the Prince's suite of learned men, together with the bat-beasts and 
their loads 2 and everything other even as he had left it. So they 
sat down to take their rest when the J Aun said, O Mohammed, 
O Son of the Sultan, I have been predestined to thee in this site 
whither thou wast fated to come ; but I have another and a further 



1 [In Ar. "yanjaaru," vii. form of "jaara" (med. Hamzah;, in which the idea of 
" raising,'! "lifting up," seems to prevail, for it is used for raising the voice in prayer 
to God, and for the growing high of plants. ST.] 

2 The text, which is wholly unedited, reads " He found the beasts and their loads 
(? the camels) and the learned men," &c. A new form of "bos atque sacerdos" and 
of place pour les tints et les savans, as the French soldiers cried in Egypt when the scientists 
were admitted into the squares of infantry formed against the doughty Mameluke 
Cavalry. 



3 * 2 Supplemental Nights. 

covenant to keep wherewith I would charge thee." "What is 
that ? " quoth he, and quoth the 'Aun, " Verily thou shalt not- 
depart this place until thou shalt have laved me and shrouded me 
and graved ! me in the ground ; " and so saying he shrieked a loud 
shriek and his soul fled his flesh. This was grievous to the son o( 
the King and he and his men arose and washed him and shrouded 
him and having prayed over him buried him in the earth. After 
this the Prince turned him to travel, so they laded the loads and 
he and his set forth intending for their families and native land. 
They journeyed during the space of thirty days till they reached 
the fork of the highway whereat stood the great rock, and here they 
found tents and pavilions and a host nor did they know what this 
mighty many might mean. Now the father, when his son left him, 
suffered from straitness of breast and was sore perplexed as to his 
affair and he wot not what to do ; so he bade make ready his army 
and commanded the lords of the land to prepare for the march and 
all set out seeking his son and determined to find tidings of him. 
Nor did they cease faring till they reached the place where the 
road forked into three and on the first rock they saw written the 
three lines " This is the road of safe chance ; " and " This is the 
way of repentance ; " and " This is the path whereon whoso paceth 
shall return nevermore." But when the father read it he was 
posed and perplext as to the matter and he cried, " Would Heaven 
I knew by which road of these three my son Mohammed may have 

travelled ; " and as he was brooding over this difficulty And 

Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and 
ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, 
" How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and how 
enjoyable and delectable!" Quoth she, "And where is this 
compared with that I should relate to you on the coming night an 

1 [In the MS. " wa"raytani ila 1-turab " = thou hast given me over to the ground for 
concealment, iii. form of "wara," which takes the meaning of "hiding," " keeping 
secret." ST.] 



Story of a Sultan of A l-Hind and his Son Mahommed. 3 1 3 

the King suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next 
night and that was 

tEije jpour l^tmUrefc anU Jptftg-nmtJ iBtt'g&t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that as the Sultan 
was brooding over this difficulty lo and behold 1 his son Mohammed 
appeared before him by the path which showed written, " This is 
the path whereon whoso passeth shall nevermore return." But 
when the King saw him, and face confronted face, he arose and 
met him and salam'd to him giving him joy of his safety ; and the 
Prince told him all that had befallen him from beginning to end 
how he had not reached those places save by the All-might of 
Allah, and how he had succeeded in winning his wish by meeting 
with the 'Aun. So they nighted in that site and when it was 
morning they resumed their march, all in gladness and happiness 
for that the Sultan had recovered his son Mohammed. They 
ceased not faring a while until they drew near their native city 
when the bearers of good tidings ran forward announcing the 
arrival of the Sultan and his son, and hereupon the houses were 
decorated in honour of the Prince's safe return and crowds came 
out to meet them till such time as all had entered the city-walls, 
after which their joys increased and their 'annoy fell from them, 
And this is the whole of the tale told by the first Larrikin. Now 
when the Sultan heard it he marvelled at what had befallen the 
chief adventurer therein, when the second Larrikin spoke saying 
" I have by me a tale, a marvel of marvels, and which is a delight 
to the hearer and a diversion to the reader and to the reciter/ 1 



3 1 4 Supplemental Nights. 

Quoth the Sovran, " What may that be, O Shaykh ? " and the man 
fell to relating the 



TALE OF THE FISHERMAN AND HIS SON. 

They tell that whilome there was a Fisherman, a poor man with a 
wife and family, who every day was wont to take his net and go 
down to the river a-fishing for his daily bread which is distributed. 
Then he would sell a portion of his catch and buy victual and the 
rest he would carry to his wife and children that they might eat 
One day of the many days he said to his son who was growing up 
to a biggish lad, " O my child, come forth with me this morning, 
haply All-Mighty Allah may send us somewhat of livelihood by 
thy footsteps ; " and the other answered, " Tis well, O my father." 
Hereupon the Fisherman took his son and his net and they twain 
went off together till they arrived at the river-bank, when quoth 
the father, " my boy I will throw the net upon the luck of thee." 
Then he went forward to the water and standing thereby took his 
net and unfolded it so that it spread when entering the stream, 
and after waiting an hour or so he drew it in and found it heavy of 
weight : so he cried, " O my son, bear a hand and the youth came 
up and lent him aidance in drawing it in. And when they had 
haled it to shore they opened it and found a fish of large size and 
glittering with all manner of colours. Quoth the father, " O my 
son, by Allah, this fish befitteth not any but the Caliph ; do thou 
therefore abide with it till I go and fetch a charger wherein to 
carry it as an offering for the Prince of True Believers/' The 
youth took his seat by the fish and when his father was afar off 
he went up to her and said, " Doubtless thou hast children and 
the byword saith, Do good and cast it upon the waters." Then 
he took up the fish and setting her near the river besprinkled l 

1 [The MS. has " wa dazz-ha",' ' which is an evident corruption. The translator, placing 
the diacritical point over the first radical instead of the second, reads " wa zarr-hd,** and 



Tale of the Fisherman and his Son. 3 1 5 

ner and said, " Go thou to thy children, this is even better than 
being eaten by the Caliph." But having thrown the fish into the 
stream, his fear of his father grew strong upon him, so he arose 
and without stay or delay fled his village ; and he ceased not flying 
till he reached the Land of Al-Irak whose capital was under a 
King wide of dominions (and praise be to the King of all king- 
doms ! ) So he entered the streets and presently he met a baker- 
tnan who said to him, " O my son, wilt thou serve ? " whereto he 
replied, " I will serve, O uncle." The man settled with him for a 
wage of two silver nusfs a day together with his meat and his 
-drink, and he remained working with him for a while of time. 
Now on one day of the days behold, he saw a lad of the sons of 
that city carrying about a cock with the intention of vending it, 
when he was met by a Jew who said to him, " O my child, wilt 
thou sell this fowl ? " and the other said, " I will. 1 ' Quoth the 
Jew, " For ten faddahs ? " and quoth the youth, " Allah openeth ! " 
Said the other, " For twenty faddahs?" and the lad, " Allah 
veileth ! " * Then the Jew fell to increasing his offer for the cock 

until he reached a full dinar. And Shahrazad was surprised by 

the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted 
say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, 
O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, 
*" And where is this compared with that I should relate to you on 
the coming night an the King suffer me to survive ? " Now when 
it was the next night and that was 



renders accordingly. But if in the MS. the dot is misplaced, the Tashdfd over it would 
probably also belong to the Dal, resp, Zal, and as it is very feasible that a careless 
writer should have dropped one Waw before another, I am inclined to read " wa wazzar- 
ha " = "and he left her," " let her go," "set her free." In classical Arabic only the 
imperative " Zar," and the aorist " yazaru " of the verb " wazara " occur in this sense, 
while the preterite is replaced by " taraka," or some other synonym. But the language 
of the common people would not hesitate to use a form scorned by the grammarians, and 
even to improve upon it by deriving from it one of their favourite intensives. ST.] 

1 Both are civil forms of refusal: for the fust see vols. i. 32; vi. 216; and for the 
second ix. 309. 



3*6. Supplemental Nights. 

fie jpour ^turtjrrtr anlr S&fxtp.first 

DUNYAZAD said to her " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love 

and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Jew raised 
his bid for the cock till he reached a gold piece when the lad said 
4< Here with it." So the man gave him the dinar and took from 
him the fowl and slaughtered it forthright. Then he turned to a 
boy, one of his servants, and said to him, " Take this cock and 
carry it home and say to thy mistress : Pluck it, but open it 
not until such time as I shall return." And the servant did his 
bidding. But when the Fisherman's son who was standing hard 
by heard these words and saw the bargain, he waited for a while 
and as soon as the servant had carried off the fowl, he arose and 
buying two cocks at four faddahs he slaughtered them and 
repaired with them to the house of the Jew. Then he rapped at 
the door and when the mistress came out to him he bespoke her 
saying : The house master saith to thee, Take these two silvers and 
send me the bird which was brought to thee by the servant boy." 1 
Quoth she, " 'Tis well," so he gave her the two fowls and took 
from x her the cock which her husband had slaughtered. Then he 
returned to the bakery, and when he was private he opened the 
belly of the cock and found therein a signet-ring with a bezel-gem 
which in the sun showed one colour and in the shade another. So 
he took it up and hid it in his bosom, after whic| in gutted the 
bird and cooked it in the furnace and ate it.. Presently the Jew 
having finished his business, returned home and said to his wife, 
*' Bring me the cock." She brought him the two fowls and he 

1 Everything being fair in love and war and dealing with a " Kafir," '.*. a non- Moslem. 



Tale of the Fisherman and his Son. 317 

seeing them asked her, " But where be the first cock ? " And she 
answered him, " Thou thyself sentest the boy with these two birds 
and then orderedst him to bring thee the first cock." The Jew held 
his peace but was sore distressed at heart, so sore indeed that he 
came nigh to die and said to himself, " Indeed it hath slipped from 
my grasp I " Now the Fisherman's son after he had mastered the 
ring waited until the evening evened when he said ; " By Allah, 
needs must this bezel have some mystery ; " so he withdrew into 
the privacy of the furnace and brought it out from his bosom and 
fell a-rubbing it. Thereupon the Slave of the Ring appeared and 
cried, " Here I stand 1 between thy hands." Then the Fisherman's 
son said to himself, " This indeed is the perfection of good fortune." 
and returned the gem to his breast-pocket as it was. Now when 
morning morrowed the owner of the bakery came in and the youth 
said to him, " O my master, I am longing for my people and my 
native land and 'tis my desire to fare and look upon them and 
presently I will return to thee." So the man paid him his wage, 
after which he left him and walked from the bakery till he came 
to the Palace of the Sultan where he found near the gate well nigh 
an hundred heads which had been cut off and there suspended ; so 
he leaned for rest against the booth of a sherbet-seller and asked 
its owner, " O master, what is the cause of all these heads being 
hung up ? " and the other answered, " O my son, inquire not, 
anent what hath been done." However when he repeated the 
question the man replied, " O my son, verily the Sultan hath a 
daughter, a model of beauty and loveliness, of symmetric stature 
and perfect grace, in fact likest a branch of the Rattan-palm ; 2 and 
whoso cometh ever to seek her in marriage her father conditioneth 
with him a condition." Cried the Fisherman's son, " What may 
be that condition ? " and the other replied, " There is a great 
mound of ashes under the latticed windows of the Sultan's palace, 

1 In text " Labbayka "= here am I : see vol. i. 226. * In text " 'tfd Khayzaran " 

= wood of the rattan, which is orig. " Rota," from the Malay " Rotan." Vol. iL 66, &c. 



3l8 Supplemental Nights, 

and whoso wisheth to take his daughter to wife he maketh a 
covenant with him that he shall carry off that heap. So the other 
accepted the agreement with only the proviso that he should 
have forty days grace and he consented that, an he fail within 
that time, his head be cut off/ 9 " And the heap is high ? " quoth 
the Fisherman's son. " Like a hill," quoth the other. Now when 
the youth had thoroughly comprehended what the sherbet-seller 
had told him, he farewelled him and left him ; then, going to a 
Khan, he hired him a cell and taking seat therein for a time he 
pondered how he should proceed, for he was indeed fearful yet was 
his heart hanging to the love of the Sultan's daughter. Presently 
he brought out his ring, and rubbed it, when the voice of the Slave 
cried to him, " Here I stand between thy hands and what mayst thou 
require of me ? " Said the other, " I want a suit of kingly clothes ; " 
whereat without delay a bundle was set before him and when he 
opened it he found therein princely gear. So he took it and rising 
without loss of time he went into the Hammam and caused himself 
to be soaped and gloved and thoroughly washed, after which he 
donned the dress and his case was changed into other case - And 
Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and 
ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, 
" How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and enjoyable 
and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with 
that I would relate to you on the coming night an the King suffer 
me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 



Jpout pjuntefc antr 

DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : - With love 
and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 



JTale of the Fisherman and his Son. 319 

of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that when the son of 
the Fisherman came forth the Bath-house and donned his fine dress, 
his was changed into other case and he appeared before the folk in 
semblance of the sons of Kings. Presently he went to the Sultan's 
palace and entering therein made his salam and, blushing for 
modesty, did his obeisance and blessed the Sultan with the blessing 
due to Caliphs. His greetings were returned and the King welcomed 
him and after that looked at him, and rinding him after princely 
fashion, asked him, "What is thy need, O Youth, and what 
requirest thou ? " Answered the other, I seek connection with thy 
house, and I come desirous of betrothal with the lady concealed 
and the pearl unrevealed, which is thy daughter." " Art thou 
able to perform the condition, O Youth ? " asked the King ; " For 
I waot neither means nor moneys nor precious stones nor other 
possession ; brief, none other thing save that thou remove yon 
mound of ashes from beneath the windows of my palace." Upon 
this he bade the youth draw near him and when he obeyed threw 
open the lattice ; and, showing him the hillock that stood under- 
neath it, said, " O Youth, I will betroth to thee my daughter an 
thou be pleased to remove this heap ; but if thou prove thee unable 
so to do I will strike off thy head." Quoth the Fisherman's son, 
" I am satisfied therewith," presently adding, "A delay ! l grant me 
the term of forty days." " I have allowed thy request to thee/' 
said the King and wrote a document bearing the testimony of 
those present, when cried the youth, u O King, bid nail up thy 
windows and let them not be unfastened until the fortieth day 
shall have gone by." " These words be fair," quoth the Sultan, and 
accordingly he gave the order. Hereat the youth went forth from him 
whereupon all present in the palace cried, " O the pity of it, that this 
youngster should be done to die ; indeed there were many stronger 

1 [In the MS. "al-Zaman." The translation here adopted is plausible enough. Still 
I think it probable that the careless scribe has omitted the words "ya al-Malik " before 
it, and meant to write " O king of the age ! " as in so many preceding places. ST.] 



3 2O Supplemen tal Nights. 

than he, yet none of them availed to remove the heap." In this 
way each and every said his say, but when the Fisherman's son 
returned to his cell (and he was thoughtful concerning his life and 
perplext as to his affair) he cried, " Would Heaven I knew whether 
the Ring hath power to carry it off." Then shutting himself up 
in his cell he brought out the signet from his breast-pocket and 
rubbed it, and a Voice was heard to cry, <( Here I stand (and fair 
befal thy command) between thy hands. What requirest thou of 
me, O my lord ? " The other replied, " I want thee to remove 
the ash-heap which standeth under the windows of the royal 
palace, and I demand that thou lay out in lieu thereof a garden 
wide of sides in whose middlemost must be a mansion tall and 
choice-builded of base, for the special domicile of the Sultan's 
daughter : furthermore, let all this be done within the space of 
forty days." "Aye ready," quoth the Jinni, "to do all thou 
desirest." Hereupon the youth felt his affright assuaged and his 
heart rightly directed ; and after this he would go every day to 
inspect the heap and would find one quarter of it had disappeared, 
nor did aught of it remain after the fourth morning for that the 
ring was graved with the cabalistic signs of the Cohens * and they 
had set upon the work an hundred Marids of the Jann that they 
might carry out the wishes of any who required aught of them. 
And when the mound was removed they dispread in its site a garden 
wide of sides in whose midst they edified a palace choice-builded 
of base, and all this was done within the space of fifteen days, 
whilst the Fisherman's son ever repaired thither and inspected the 
work. But when he had perfected his intent he entered to the 
Sultan and kissing ground between his hands and having prayed 



1 Arab. " Al-KuhnaY' plur. of " Kahin't = diviner, priest (non-Levitical) : sec 
" Cohen," ii. 221. [The form is rather curious. The Dictionaries quote " Kuhna" 
as a Syriac singular, but here it seems to be taken as a plural of the measure " fu'ala " 
(Kuhana), like Umara of Amfr or Shu'ara of Sha'ir. The usual plurals of Kahin are 
Kahanah and Kuhhan. ST.] 



Tale of the Fisherman and his Son. 321 

for his glory and permanence, said, " O King of the Age, deign 
open the lattices of thy Palace ! " So he went to them and threw 
them open when lo and behold, he found in lieu of the mound 
a mighty fine garden wherein were trees and rills and blooms and 
birds hymning the praises of their Creator ; moreover he saw in 
that garden a palace, an edifice choice-builded of base which is 
not to be found with any King or Kaysar. Seeing this he won- 
dered at the circumstance and his wits were wildered and he was 
perplext as to his affair ; after which he sent for the Minister and 
summoned him and said, " Counsel me, O Wazir, as to what I shall 
do in the case of this youth and in what way shall I fend him 
from me." Replied the Councillor, " How shall I advise thee, see- 
ing that thou madest condition with him that should he fail in his 
undertaking thou wouldst strike off his head ? Now there is no 
contrivance in this- matter and there is naught to do save marrying 
him with the girl." By these words the King was persuaded and 
caused the knot to be knotted and bade them lead the bridegroom 
in procession to the bride, after which the youth set her in the 
garden-palace and cohabited with her in all joy and enjoyment and 
pleasure and disport. On this wise fared it with them ; but as regards 
the case of the Jew, when he lost the cock he went forth in sore dis- 
appointment like unto one Jinn-mad ; and neither was his sleep 
sound and good nor were meat and drink pleasant food, and he 
ceased not wandering about till the Fates threw him into that 
garden. Now he had noted in past time that a huge heap of ashes 
stood under the palace-windows and when he looked he cried, 
" Verily, the youth hath been here and all this work is the work of 
the signet-ring, for that none other than the Mdrids of the Jann 
could remove such a hillock " So saying, the Jew returned to his 
place, where he brought out a parcel of fine pearls and some few 
emeralds and specimens of coral and other precious minerals, and 
set them as for sale in a tray. Then he approached the palace 
which was builded in the garden and cried out saying, "The 
VOL. IV. X 



322 Supplemental Nights. 

pearls ! and the emeralds ! and the corals ! and various kinds of 
fine jeweh ! " and he kept up this cry. - And Shahrazad was 
surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say 
her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How 
sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delect 
able ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I 
should relate to you on the coming night an the King suffer 
me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that 
was 



Jfour l^tm&rea anfc 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : -- With 
love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, 
the director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Jew fell 
to hawking about his minerals and crying them for sale beside the 
garden-palace and the Sultan's daughter hearing him exclaimed, 
" O Handmaid, bring me that which is for sale with this Jew." So 
the girl went down and said to the man, "What hast thou by 
thee ?" and said the other/' Precious stones." Quoth she, "Wilt 
thou sell them for gold ? " and quoth he, " No, O my lady, I will 
sell them for nothing save for rings which must be old/ 1 * Accord- 
ingly she returned and herewith acquainted her lady who said, 
" By Allah, my Lord hath in his pencase 2 an old worn-out ring, so 
do thou go and bring it to me while he sleepeth." But she knew 



1 This is the celebrated incident in " Alaeddin," " New lamps for old : " See Suppl., 
vol. iii. 160. 

8 In text " Jazdan " = a pencase (Pers.) more pop. called " Kalamdan " = reed-box 
vol. iv. 167 : Scott (p. 212) has a " writing-stand." It appears a queer place wherein 
to keep a ring, but Easterns often store in these highly ornamented boxes signets and 
other small matters. 



Tale of the Fisherman and his Son. 323 

not what was hidden for her in the Secret Purpose, nor that which 
was fated to be her Fate. So presently she brought out of the 
pencase the bezel ring afore-mentioned and gave it to the hand- 
maid who took it and faring outside the house handed it to the 
Jew, and he received it with extreme joy and in turn presented to 
her the tray with all thereon. Then he went forth the city and set 
out on a voyage to the Seven Islands which are not far from the 
earth-surrounding Ocean ; 1 and when he arrived thither he landed 
upon a sea-holm and travelled to the middlemost thereof. Anoa 
he took seat, and presently brought out the signet-ring and rubbed 
it, when the slave appeared and cried, " Here I stand and between 
thy hands, what is it thou needest of me ? " /* I require of thee," 
quoth the Jew, "to transport hither the bower of the Sultan's 
daughter and to restore the ash-heap to the stead it was in 
whilome under the lattice of the King's Palace." Now ere night 
had passed away both Princess and Palace were transported to 
the middlemost of the island ; and when the Jew beheld her his 
heart flamed high for the excess of her beauty and loveliness. So 
he entered her bower and fell to conversing with her, but she 
would return to him no reply and, when he would have approached 
her, she started away in disgust. Hereupon, seeing no signs of 
conquest, the Jew said in his mind, " Let her wax accustomed to 
me and she will be satisfied," and on this wise he continued to 
solace her heart. Now as regards the son of the Fisherman his 
sleep had extended deep into the forenoon and when the sun 
burnt upon his back he arose and found himself lying on the ash- 
heap below the Palace, so he said to himself, " Up and away, 
otherwise the Sultan will look out of the window and will behold 
this mound returned to its place as it was before, and he will order 
thy neck to be smitten." So he hurried him forth hardly believing 
in his escape, and he ceased not hastening his pace until he came 

1 Arab. "Bahr al-Muhft" Circumambient Ocean ; see vol. i. 133. 



3 24 Supplemental Nights. 

to a coffeehouse, which he entered ; and there he took him a lodging 
and used to lie the night, and to rise amorn. Now one day of the 
days behold, he met a man who was leading about a dog and a cat 
and a mouse 1 and crying them for sale at the price of ten faddahs ; 
so the youth said in his mind, " Let me buy these at their cheap 
price ;" and he called aloud to the man and having given him the 
ten silverings took away his purchase. After this he would fare 
every day to the slaughter-house and would buy for them a bit of 
tripe or liver and feed them therewith, but ever and anon he would 
sit down and ponder the loss of the Ring and bespeak himself and 
say, " Would Heaven I wot that which Allah Almighty hath done 
with my Ring and my Palace and my bride the Sultan's daughter ! " 
Now the dog and the cat and the mouse heard him, and one day 
of the days as, according to his custom, he took them with him 
and led them to the slaughter-house and bought a meal of entrails 
and gave somewhat to each that it might eat thereof, he sat down 
in sad thought and groaned aloud and sorrow prevailed upon him 
till he was overcome by sleep. The season was the mid-forenoon 2 
and the while he slumbered and was drowned in drowsiness, the 
Dog said to the Cat and the Mouse, " O brethren mine, in very 
deed this youth, who hath bought us for ten faddahs, leadeth us 
every day to this stead and giveth us our rations of food. But 
he hath lost his Ring and the Palace wherein was his bride, the 
daughter of the Sultan : so let us up and fare forth and seek 
therefor and do ye twain mount upon my back so that we can 
overwander the seas and the island-skirts.*' They did as he bade 
them and he walked down with them to the waters and swam with 
them until they found themselves amiddlemost the main ; nor did 
he cease swimming with them for about a day and a night until 
the morning morrowed and they saw from afar a somewhat that 

1 Arab. " Far " (plur. " Firan ")= mouse rather than rat. 

8 Sleep at this time is considered very unwholesome by Easterns. See under 
11 Kayliilah" = siesta, vols. i. 51 ; ii. 178, and viii. 191. 



Tale of the Fisherman and his Son. 325 

glittered. So they made for it till they drew near, when they saw 
that it was the Palace in question, whereat the Dog continued 
swimming till such time as he came ashore and dismounted the 
Cat and the Mouse. Then he said to them, " Let us abide here." 
-- And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell 
silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth her sister 
Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister mine, and 
how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this 
compared with that I should relate to you on the coming night 
an the King suffer me to survive ? " Now when it was the next 
night and that was 



jpour juntos an& 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah, upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 
the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love 
and good will! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Dog said to 
the Cat and the Mouse, " I will abide and await you here, and 
do ye twain fare into the Palace, where the Cat shall take her 
station upon the crenelles over the lattice window and the Mouse 
shall enter the mansion and roam about and search through the 
rooms until she come upon the Ring required." So they did the 
Dog's bidding and sought the places he had appointed to them 
and the Mouse crept about but found naught until she approached 
the bedstead and beheld the Jew asleep and the Princess lying 
afar off. He had been longsome in requiring of her her person 
and had even threatened her with slaughter, yet he had no power 
to approach her nor indeed had he even looked upon the form of 
her face. Withal the Mouse ceased not faring about until she 
approached the Jew, whom she discovered sleeping upon his back 



$26 Supplemental Nights. 

and drowned in slumber for the excess of his drink that weighed 
him down. So she drew near and considered him and saw the 
Ring in his mouth below the tongue whereat she was perplext 
how to recover it ; but presently she went forth to a vessel of oil 
and dipping her tail therein approached the sleeper and drew it 
over his nostrils, whereat he sneezed with a sneeze so violent that 
the. Ring sprang from between his jaws and fell upon the side of 
the bedstead. Then she seized it in huge joy and returning to the 
Cat said to her, " Verily the prosperity of our lord hath returned 
to him." After this the twain went back to the Dog whom 
they found expecting them, so they marched down to the sea 
and mounted upon his back and he swam with them both, all three 
being in the highest spirits. But when they reached the middle 
of the main, quoth the Cat to the Mouse, " Pass the Ring to me 
that I may carry it awhile ; " and the other did so, when she 
placed it in her chops for an hour of time. Then quoth the Dog 
to them, " Ye twain have taken to yourselves charge of the Ring, 
ach of you for a little time, and I also would do likewise." 
They both said to him, " O our brother, haply 'twill fall from thy 
mouth : " but said he to them, " By Allah, an ye give it not to me 
for a while I will drown you both in this very place." Accordingly 
the two did in their fear as the Dog desired and when he had 
set it in his chops it dropped therefrom into the abyss of the 
ocean ; seeing which all repented thereat and they said, " Wasted 
is our work we have wrought." - But *when they came to land they 
found their lord sleeping from the excess of his cark and his care, 
and so the trio stood on the shore and were sorrowing with sore 
sorrow, when behold, there appeared to them a Fish strange of 
semblance who said to them, "Take ye this Signet-ring and 
commit it to your lord, the son of the Fisherman, and when giving 
it to him say : Since thou diddest a good deed and threwest 
the Fish into the sea thy kindness shall not be for naught ; and, 
if it fail with the Creature, it shall not fail with Allah the Creator. 



Tale of the Fisherman and his Son. 327 

Then do ye inform him that the Fish which his father the Fisher 
would have presented to the King and whereupon he had mercy 
and returned her to the waters, that Fish am I, and the old saw 
saith, This for that, and tit for tat is its reward ! " Hereupon 
the Dog took the Signet- ring and the other two went up with 
him to their lord and awaking him from sleep returned to him his 
Ring. But when he saw it he became like one Jinn-mad from 
the excess of his joy and the three related to him the affair of 
the Signet ; how they had brought it away from the Jew and how 
it had dropped from the Dog's mouth into the abyss of the sea 
and lastly how the Fish who had found it brought it back to them 
declaring that it was she whom his sire had netted and whom 
the son had returned to the depths. Cried he, " Alhamdolillah " 
Glory be to the Lord who caused us work this weal and requited 
us for our kindness ; " after which he took the Signet and waited 
until night had nighted. Then he repaired to the mound which 
was under the Sultan's Palace and brought out the Ring and 
rubbed it, when the Slave appeared and cried to him, " Here 
I stand (and fair befal thy command !) between thy hands : what 
is it needest thou and requirest thou of me ? " The other replied, 

"I demand that thou carry off for me this mound." And 

Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and 
ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dun- 
yazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how enjoyable 
and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with 
that I should relate to you on the coming night an the King 
suffer me to survive?" Now when it was the next night and 
that was 

&e jFour l^unfcrrti anti &bts*nfntl) Nt$t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tcde that we may cut short 



Supplemental Nights. 

the watching of this oUr latter night!" She replied: With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, 
the director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Son of 
the Fisherman bade the Slave of the Ring remove the mound and 
return the garden as whilome it was and restore the Palace 
containing the Jew and the Sultan's daughter. Nor did that hour 
pass before everything was replaced in its proper stead. Then 
the Youth went up to the saloon where he found the Jew recovered 
from his drunkenness and he was threatening the Princess and 
saying, " Thou ! for thee there is no escape from me." But cried 
she, " dog, O accurst, joy from my lord is well nigh to me." 
Hearing these words the Youth fell upon the Jew and dragging 
him along by his neck, went down with him and bade them light 
a furious fire, and so they did till it flamed and flared ; after which 
he pinioned his enemy and caused him to be cast therein when 
his bones were melted upon his flesh. Then returning to the 
Palace he fell to blaming the Sultan's daughter for the matter of 
the Ring, and asking her, " Why didst thou on this wise ? " She 
answered, " From Fate there is no flight, and Alhamdolillah , 
praise to the Lord who after all that befel us from the| 
Jew hath brought us together once more." Now all that; 
happened from the Jew and the return of the Sultan's daughter 
and the restoring of the Palace and the death of his deceiver 
remained unknown to the Sultan, and here is an end to my 
history. And when the second Larrikin held his peace quoth 
the King, " Allah quicken thee for this story ; by the Almighty 
'tis wondrous, and it delighteth the hearer and rejoiceth the 
teller." Then cried the third Larrikin, " I also have by me an 
history more marvellous than these two ; and, were it written 
in water of gold upon the pages of men's hearts, it were worthy 
thereof." Quoth the King, "O Larrikin, if it prove stranger and 
rarer than these I will surely largesse thee." Whereupon quoth 



Tale of the Third Larrikin concerning Himself. 329 

he, " O King of the Age, listen to what I shall relate," and he fell 
to telling the 



TALE OF THE THIRD LARRIKIN CONCERNING 
HIMSELF. 

IN my early years I had a cousin, the daughter of my paternal 
uncle, who loved me and I loved her whilst her father loathed me. 
So one day she sent to me saying, " Do thou fare forth and demand 
me in marriage from my sire ;" and, as I was poor and her father 
was a wealthy merchant, she sent me to her dowry fifty gold pieces 
which I took ; and, accompanied by four of my comrades, I went 
to the house of my father's brother and there arrived I went within. 
But when he looked upon me his face showed wrath and my 
friends said to him, " Verily, thy nephew seeketh in marriage the 
daughter of his uncle ;" and as soon as he heard these words he 
cried aloud at them and reviled me and drave me from his doors. 
So I went from him well nigh broken-hearted and I wept till I 
returned to my mother who cried, " What is to do with thee, O my 
son ! " I related to her all that had befallen me from my uncle 
and she said to me, " O my child, to a man who loveth thee not 
thou goest, forsooth, to ask his daughter in marriage ! " Whereto 
I replied, " O mother mine, she sent a message bidding me so do 
and verily she loveth me." Quoth my mother, " Take patience, 
O my son 1 " I heartened my heart, and my parent promised me 
all welfare and favour from my cousin ; moreover she was thinking 
of me at all times and presently she again sent to me and promised 
me that she never would love any other. Then behold, a party 
of folk repaired to her father and asked her to wife of him and 
prepared to take her away. But when the tidings reached her that 
her parent purposed marrying her to one of those people, she sent 
to me saying, " Get thee ready for this midnight and I will come to 



330 Supplemental Nights, 

thee." When night was at its noon she appeared, carrying a pair 
of saddle bags wherein was a somewhat of money and raiment, 
and she was leading a she-mule belonging to her father whereupon 
her saddle-bags were packed. " Up with us," she cried, so I arose 
with her in that outer darkness and we went forth the town forth- 
right and the Veiler veiled us, nor did we stint faring till morning 
when we hid ourselves in fear lest we be overtaken. And when 
the next night fell we made ready and set out again, but we knew 
inot whither we were wending, for the Predestinator existeth and 
what is decided for us is like Destiny. At last we came to a wide 
and open place where the heat smote us, and we sat down under a 
tree to smell the air. Presently sleep came upon me and I was 
drowned in slumber from the excess of my toil and travail, when 
suddenly a dog-faced baboon came up to the daughter of my 

uncle And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and 

fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Then quoth 
her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, O sister 
mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And 
where is this compared with that I should relate to you on the 
coming night an the King suffer me to survive ? " Now when 
it was the next night and that was 



jfour $^unt)re& an* 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 

watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With love 

and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting 
and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Larrikin 
continued his tale saying to the King : And as I was drowned 
in slumber a dog-faced baboon came up to the daughter of my 



Tale of the Third Larrikin concerning Himself. 331 

uncle and assaulted her and knew her carnally; then, having 
taken her pucelage he ran away, 1 but I knew nothing thereof from 



1 Modern science which, out of the depths of its self-consciousness, has settled so 
many disputed questions, speaking by the organs of Messieurs Woodman and Tidy 
(" Medical Jurisprudence") has decided that none of the lower animals can bear issue 
to man. But the voice of the world is against them and as Voltaire says one cannot be 
cleverer than everybody. To begin with there is the will : the she-quadruman shows a 
distinct lust for man by fondling him and displaying her parts as if to entice him. That 
carnal connexion has actually taken place cannot be doubted : my late friend Mirza All 
Akbar, of Bombay, the famous Munshi to Sir Charles Napier during the conquest of 
Sind, a man perfectly veracious and trustworthy, assured me that in the Gujarat province 
he had witnessed a case with his own eyes. He had gone out " to the jungle, ' as the 
phrase is, with another Moslem who, after keeping him waiting for an unconscionable 
time, was found carnally united to a she-monkey. My friend, indignant as a good 
Moslem should be, reproved him for his bestiality and then asked him how it had 
come to pass : the man answered that the she-monkey came regularly to look at him on 
certain occasions, that he was in the habit of throwing her something to eat and that her 
gratitude displayed such sexuality that he was tempted and "fell." That the male 
monkey shows an equal desire for the woman is known to every frequenter of the " Zoo." 
I once led a party of English girls to see a collection of mandrils and other anthropoid 
apes in the Menagerie of a well-known Russian millionnaire. near Florence, when the 
Priapism displayed, was such that the girls turned back and fled in fright. In the mother- 
lands of these anthropoids (the Gaboon, Malacca, etc.,) the belief is universal and 
women have the liveliest fear of them. In 1853 when the Crimean war was brewing a 
dog-faced baboon in Cairo broke away from his "Kuraydati" (ape-leader), threw a 
girl in the street and was about to ravish her when a sentinel drew his bayonet and 
killed the beast. The event was looked upon as an evil omen by the older men, who 
shook their heads and declared that these were bad times when apes attempted to ravish 
the daughters of Moslems. But some will say that the grand test, the existence of the 
mule between man and monkey, though generally believed in, is characteristically absent, 
absent as the ''missing link" which goes so far as to invalidate Darwinism in one and 
perhaps the most important part of its contention. Of course the offspring of such 
union would be destroyed, yet the fact of our never having found a trace of it except in 
legend and idle story seems to militate against its existence. When, however, man 
shall become "Homo Sapiens" he will cast off the prejudices of the cradle and the 
nursery and will ascertain by actual experiment if human being and monkey can breed 
together. The lowest order of bimana, and the highest order of quadrurnana may, 
under most favourable circumstances, bear issue and the " Mule," who would own half 
a soul, might prove most serviceable as a hewer of wood and a drawer of water, in fact 
as an agricultural labourer. All we can say is that such " miscegenation "stands in the 
category of things not proven and we must object to science declaring them non- 
existing. A correspondent favours me with the following note upon the subject: 
Castanheda (Annals of Portugal), relates that a woman was transported to an island 
inhabited by monkeys and took up her abode in a cavern where she was visited by a huge 
baboon. He brought her apples and fruit and at last had connection with her, the 
result being two children in two to three years; but when she was being carried off by a 
ship the parent monkey kissed his progeny. The woman was taken to Lisbon and 
imprisoned for life by the King. Langius, Virgilius Polydorus and others quote many 



332 Supplemental Nights. 

being fast asleep. Now when I awoke I found my cousin was 
changed of case and her colour had waxed pale and she was in 
saddest condition ; so I asked her and she told me all that had 
betided her and said to me, " O son of my uncle, from Fate there 
is no flight, even as saith one of those who knoweth : 

And when death shall claw with his firm-fix! nail o I saw that spells 1 were of 
scant avail. 

And one of them also said : 

When God would execute His Will in anything On one endowed with sight, 

hearing and reasoning, 
He stops his ears and blinds his eyes and draws his will From him, as one 

draws out the hairs to paste that cling ; 
Till, His decrees fulfilled, He gives him back his wit, That therewithal he may 

receive admonishing."' 

Then she spake concerning the predestination of the Creator till 
she could say no more thereof. Presently we departed that stead 
and we travelled till we came to a town of the towns frequented 
by merchants, where we hired us a lodging and furnished it 
with mats and necessaries. Here I asked for a Kazi and they 
pointed out to me one of them amongst the judges of the place 



instances of monstruous births in Rome resulting from the connection of women with 
dogs and bears, and cows with horses, &c. The following relative conditions are 
deduced on the authority of MM. Jean Polfya and Mauriceau : I. If the sexual 
organism of man or woman be more powerful than that of the monkey, dog, etc., the 
result will be a monster in the semblance of man. 2. If vice-vers& the appearance 
will be that of a beast. 3. If both are equal the result will be a distinct sub-species as 
of the horse with the ass. 

1 Arab. "Tamfm " (plur. of Tamimat) = spells, charms, amulets, as those hung to a 
horse's neck, the African Greegree and the Heb. Thummim. As was the case with 
most of these earliest superstitions, the Serpent, the Ark, the Cherubim, the Golden 
Calf (Apis) and the Levitical Institution, the Children of Israel derived the now 
mysterious term "Urim" (lights) and "Thummim" (amulets) from Egypt and the 
Semitic word (Tamimah) still remains to explain the Hebrew. " Thummim," I may 
add, is by "general consensus " derived from "Tom" = completeness and is englished 
"Perfection," but we can find a better origin near at hand in spoken Arabic. 

2 These verses have already occurred, see my vol. i. p. 275. I have therefore 
quoted Payne, i. p. 246. 



Tale of the Third Larrikin concerning Himself. 333 

whom I summoned with two of his witnesses ; then I made one 
of them deputy 1 for my cousin and was married t'o her and went 
in unto her and I said to myself, " All things depend upon Fate 
and Lot." After that I tarried with her for a full told year in that 
same town, a disease befel her and she drew nigh unto death. 
Hereat quoth she to me, " Allah upon thee, O son of my uncle, 
when I shall be dead and gone and the Destiny of Allah shall 
come upon thee and drive thee to marry again, take not to wife 
any but a virgin-girl or haply do thou wed one who hath known 
man but once ; 2 for by Allah, O my cousin, I will say thee nothing 
but sooth when I tell thee that the delight of that dog-faced 
baboon who deflowered me hath remained with me ever since. 8 
So saying she expired 4 and her soul fled forth her flesh. I 
brought to her a woman who washeth the dead and shrouded her 
and buried her ; and after her decease I went forth from the town 
until Time bore me along and I became a wanderer and my con- 
dition was changed and I fell into this case. And no one knew 
me or aught of my affairs till I came and made friends with 
yonder two men. Now the King hearing these words marvelled 
at his adventure and what had betided him from the Shifts of Time 
and his heart was softened to him and he largessed him and his 
comrades and sent them about their business. Then quoth one of 
the bystanders to the King, " O Sultan, I know a tale still rarer 



1 Arab, " Wakfl " who, in the case of a grown-up girl, declares her consent to the 
marriage in the presence of two witnesses and after part payment of the dowry. 
* Such is the meaning of the Arab. "Thayyib." 

3 This appears to be the popular belief in Egypt. See vol. iv. 297, which assures us 
that "no thing poketh and stroketh more strenuously than the Gird" (or hideous 
Abyssinian cynocephalus.) But it must be based upon popular ignorance : the private 
parts of the monkey although they erect stiffly, like the priapus of Osiris when swearing 
upon his Phallus, are not of the girth sufficient to produce that friction which is essential 
to a woman's pleasure. I may here allude to the general disappointment in England 
and America caused by the exhibition of my friend Paul de Chaillu's Gorillas : he had 
modestly removed penis and testicles, the latter being somewhat like a bull's, and his 
squeamishness caused not a little grumbling and sense of grievance especially amongst 
the curious sex. 

4 [In the MS. "fahakat," lit. she flowed over like a brimful vessel. ST. j 



334 Supplemental Nights. 

than this ;" and quoth the King, " Out with it ; whereat the man 
began to relate 



THE HISTORY OF ABU NIYYAH AND ABU 
NIYYATAYN. 

It is recounted that in Mosul was a King and he was Lord of 
moneys and means and troops and guards. Now in the beginning 
of his career his adventures were strange for that he was not of 
royal rank or race, nor was he of the sons of Kings but prosperity 
met him because of the honesty of his manners and morals. His 
name was Abu Niyyah, the single-minded and he was so poor that 
he had naught of worldly weal, so quoth he to himself, " Remove 
thee from this town and haply Allah will widen thy means of 
livelihood inasmuch as the byword saith : Travel, for indeed 
much of the joys of life are in travelling." So he fixed his mind 
upon removal from the town ; and, having very few articles of his 
own, he sold them for a single dinar which he took and fared forth 
from his place of birth seeking another stead. Now when journey- 
ing he sighted following him a man who was also on the move 
and he made acquaintance with him and the two fell to communing 

1 In 1821, Scott (p. 214) following Gilchrist's method of transliterating eastern tongues 
wrole " Abou Neeut " and "Neeuteen" (the latter abad blunder making a masc. plural 
of a fern. dual). In 1822 Edouard Gauttier (vi. 320) gallicised the names to "Abou-Nyout" 
and " Abou-Nyoutyn " with the same mistake and one superadded ; there is no such Arabic 
word as " Niyut." Mr. Kirby in 1822, " The New Arabian Nights" (p. 366) reduced 
the words to "Abu Neut " and "Abu Neuteen," which is still less intelligible than 
Scott's ; and, lastly, the well-known Turkish scholar Dr. Redhouse converted the tor- 
tured names to "Abu Niyyet " and " Abu Niyyeteyn," thus rightly giving a " tashdfd " 
(reduplication sign) to the Ya (see Appendix p. 646 to Suppl. v. No. iii and Turk. Diet, 
sub voce " Niyyat "). The Arab, is " Niyyah " = will, purpose, intent ; " Abu Niyyah " 
(Grammat. "Abu Niyyatirt") Father of one Intent = single-minded and "Abu 
Niyyatayn" =s Father of two Intents or double-minded; and Richardson is deficient 
when he writes only "Niyat" for " Niyyat." I had some hesitation about translating 
this tale which begins with the " Envier and the Envied " (vol. i. 123) and ends with the 
*' Sisters who envied their Cadette " (Suppl. vol. iii. 492). But the extant versions of 
it are so imperfect in English and French that I made up my mind to include it in 
this collection. [Richardson's "Niyat" is rather another, although rarer form of the 
same word. ST.] 



History of Abie Niyyah and Abu Niyyatayn. 335 

together upon the road. Each of the twain wished to know the 
name of his comrade and Abu Niyyah asked his fellow, saying, 
" O my brother, what may be thy name ?" whereto the other 
answered, " I am called Abu Niyyatayn the two-minded." " And 
I am Abu Niyyah ! " cried the other, and his fellow traveller 
questioned him saying, " Hast thou with thee aught of money ? ", 
Whereto he replied, " I have with me a single Ashrafi and no 
more." Quoth the other, " But I have ten gold pieces, so do thou 
have a care of them and the same will be eleven." Abu Niyyah 
accepted the charge and they went upon the road together and as 
often as they entered a town they nighted therein for a single 
night or two and in the morning they departed therefrom. This 
continued for a while of time until they made a city which had 
two gates and Abu Niyyah forewent his fellow through one of 
the entrances and suddenly heard an asker which was a slave beg- 
ging and saying, " O ye beneficent, O doers of good deeds, an 
alms shall bring ten-fold." And as the chattel drew near 1 and 
Abu Niyyah noted his words, his heart was softened and he gave 
him his single Ashrafi ; whereupon his comrade looked upon him 
and asked " What hast thou doled to him ?" Answered he, " An 
Ashrafi ;" and quoth the other, " Thou hast but a single gold piece 
whilst I have ten " ; so he took the joint stock from him and left 

him and went his way." And Shahrazad was surprised by the 

dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to say her permitted say. 
Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O 
sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And 
where is this compared with that I should relate to you on the 
coming night an the King suffer me to survive ? " Now when 
it was next night and that was 



1 [I read : " wa tukarribu 'l-'abda ilayya," referring the verb to "al-Sadakah " (the 
alms) and translating" : and it bringeth the servant near to me," the speaker, in Coranic 
fashion supposed to be Allah. ST.] 



336 Supplemental Nights. 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an 
thou be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut 
short the watching of this our latter night!" She replied: -- 
With love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious 
King, the director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is 
benefiting and of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that 
the man Abu Niyyatayn took from Abu Niyyah the ten Ashrafis 1 
and said to him, " The gold piece belonging to thee thou hast 
given to the asker ;" then, carrying away the other ten he left 
him and went about his business. Now Abu Niyyah had with him 
not a single copper neither aught of provaunt so he wandered 
about the town to find a Cathedral-mosque and seeing one he went 
into it and made the Wuzu ablution and prayed that which was 
incumbent on him of obligatory prayers. Then he seated himself 
to rest until the hour of the sunset devotions and he said to himself 
" Ho, Such-an-one ! this be a time when no one knoweth thee ; so 
go forth and fare round about the doors and have a heed, haply 
Allah Almighty our Lord shall give thee somewhat of daily bread 
thou shalt eat blessing the Creator." Hereupon he went forth the 
Mosque and wandered through the nearest quarter, when behold, 
he came upon a lofty gate and a well adorned ; so he stood before 
it and saw a slave lad coming out therefrom and bearing on his 
head a platter wherein was a pile of broken bread and some bones, 
and the boy stood there and shook the contents of the platter upon 
the ground. Abu Niyyah seeing this came forward and fell to 
picking up the orts of bread and ate them and gnawed the flesh 
from sundry of the bones till he was satisfied and the slave diverted 
himself by looking on. After that he cried, " Alhamdolillah 

1 The text prefers the Egyptian form " Sherlfi " pi. " Sherfflyah, ' which was adopted 
by the Portuguese. 



History of Abu Niyyah and Abu Niyyatayn. 337 

Glory be to God !" 1 and the chattel went upstairs to his master and 
said, " O my lord, I have seen a marvel ! " Quoth the other, "And 
what may that be ? " and quoth the servile, " I found a man 
standing at our door and he was silent and spoke not a word ; but 
when he saw me throwing away the remnants 2 of our eating-cloth he 
came up to them and fell to devouring bittocks of the bread and to 
* reaking the bones and sucking them, after which he cried, "Al- 
hamdolillah." Said the master, 4C O my good slave, do thou take 
these ten Ashrafis and give them to the man /' so the lad went 
down the stair and was half-way when he filched one of the gold 
pieces and then having descended he gave the nine. Hereupon 
Abu Niyyah counted them and finding only nine, said, u There 
wanteth one Ashrafi, for the asker declared, An almsdeed bringeth 
tenfold, and I gave him a single gold piece." The house master 
heard him saying, " There wanteth an Ashrafi/' and he bade the 
slave call aloud to him and Abu Niyyah went upstairs to the 
sitting room, where he found the owner, a merchant of repute, and 
salam'd to him. The other returned his greeting and said, " Ho 
fellow ! " and the other said " Yes," when the first resumed, " The 
slave, what did he give thee ?" " He gave me/' said Abu Niyyah, 
" nine Ashrafis /' and the house-master rejoined, " Wherefore 
didst thou declare, There faileth me -one gold piece ? Hast thou 
a legal claim of debt upon us for an Ashrafi, O thou scanty of 
shame ? " He answered, " No, by Allah, O my lord ; my intent 
was not that but there befel me with a man which was a beggar 



1 The grace after meat, " Bismillah " being that which precedes it. Abu Niyyah was 
more grateful than a youth of my acquaintance who absolutely declined asking the Lord 
to " mane him truly thankful " after a dinner of cold mutton. 

2 [The root " Kart " is given in the dictionaries merely to introduce the word " karft " 
= complete, speaking of a year, &c., and " Takrft," the name of a town in Mesopotamia, 
celebrated for its velvets and as the birth-place of Saladin. According to the first men- 
tioned word I would take the signification of " Kart " to be " complement " which here 
may fitly be rendered by " remainder,' 'for that which with regard to the full contents of 
the dinner tray is their complement would of course be their remainder with regard to 
the viands that have been eaten. ST.] 

VOL. IV. Y 



338 Supplemental Nights: 

such-and-such matter." Hereupon the merchant understood his 
meaning and said to him, " Do thou sit thee down here and pass 
the -night with us." So Abu Niyyah seated himself by his side 
and nighted with the merchant until the morning. Now this was 
the season for the payment of the poor-rates, 1 and that merchant 
was wont to take the sum from his property by weight of scales, 
so he summoned the official weigher who by means of his balance 
computed the account and took out the poor-rate and gave the 
whole proceeds to Abu Niyyah. Quoth he, " O my lord, what 
shall I do with all this good, especially as thou hast favoured me 
with thy regard ?" " No matter for that," quoth the other ; so 
Abu Niyyah went forth from the presence of his patron and hiring 
himself a shop fell to buying what suited him of all kinds of mer- 
chandise such as a portion of coffee-beans and of pepper and of 
tin ; 2 and stuffs of Al-Hind, together with other matters, saying 
to himself, " Verily this shop is the property of thy hand." So 
he sat there selling and buying and he was in the easiest of life 
and in all comfort rife for a while of time when behold, his quon- 
dam companion, Abu Niyyatayn was seen passing along the market- 
street. His eyes were deep 3 sunken and he was propped upon a staff 
as he begged and cried, " O good folk, O ye beneficent, give me an 
alms for the love of Allah !" But when his, sometime associate, 
Abu Niyyah looked upon him, he knew him and said to the slave 
whom he had bought for his service, " Go thou and bring me 
yonder man." Hereat the chattel went and brought him and Abu 
Niyyah seated him upon the shop-board and sent his servile to buy 

1 For the " Zakat " = legal alms, which must not be less than two-and-a-half per cent., 
see vol. i. 339. 

2 In text " Kazdfr," for which see vols. iv. 274 and vi. 39. Here it may allude to the 
canisters which make great show in the general store of a petty shopkeeper. 

3 [The MS. reads "murafraf" (passive), from "Rafraf" = a shelf, arch, anything 
overhanging something else, therefore here applying either to the eye-brows as over- 
hanging the eyes, or to the sockets, as forming a vault or cave for them. Perhaps it 
should be "murafrif " (active part), used of a bird, who spreads his wings and circles 
round his prey, ready to pounce upon it ; hence with prying, hungry, greedy eyes. ST.] 



History of Abu Niyyah and Abu Niyyatayn. 339 

somewhat of food and he set it before Abu Niyyatayn who ate till 
he was filled. After this the wanderer asked leave to depart but 
the other said to him, " Sit thou here, O Shaykh ; for thou art my 
guest during the coming night," Accordingly he seated himself 
in the shop till the hour of sundown, when Abu Niyyah took him 
ar d led him to his lodging where the slave served up the supper-tray 
and they ate till they had eaten their sufficiency. Then they washed 
their hands and abode talking together till at last quoth Abu 
Niyyah, " O my brother, hast thou not recognised me ? " to which 
the other responded, " No, by Allah, O my brother.'' Hereupon said 
the house-master, " I am thy whilome comrade Abu Niyyah, and 
we came together, I and thou, from such-and-such a place to this 
city. But I, O my brother, have never changed mine intent 1 and 
all thou seest with me of good, the half thereof belongeth to thee." 
When it was morning tide he presented him with the moiety of 
all he possessed of money and means and opened for him a shop 
in the Bazar by the side of his own and Abu Niyyatayn fell to 
selling and buying, and he and his friend Abu Niyyah led the most 
joyous of lives. This endured for a while of time until one day of 
the days when quoth Abu Niyyatayn to Abu Niyyah, " O my 
brother, we have exhausted our sitting in this city, so do thou 
travel with us unto another.'* Quoth Abu Niyyah, " Why, O my 
brother, should we cease abiding here in comfort when we have 
gained abundance of wealth and moveables and valuables and we 
seek naught save a restful life ?" However Abu Niyyatayn ceasea 
not to repeat his words to him and persist in his purpose and 
reiterate his demand, till Abu Niyyah was pleased with the idea 

of travelling And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of 

day and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted say. Thea 
quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful is thy tale, 
O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth 

1 Arab. " Niyyah " with the normal pun upon the name. 



34O Supplemental Nights. 

she, "And where is this compared with that I should relate to 
you on the coming night an the King suffer me to survive ? " 
Now when it was the next night and that was 

&* JFout ^untetr anto >ebentp=fiftf) EffQfjt, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that Abu Niyyah 
was pleased with the idea of travelling companied by Abu 
Niyyatayn : so they got themselves ready and loaded a caravan of 
camels and mules and went off from that city and travelled for a 
space of twenty days. At last they came to a camping-ground 
about sunset -hour and they alighted therein seeking rest and a 
nighting stead, and next morning when they arose they sought 
where they could fodder and water their cattle. Now the only 
place they found was a well and one said to other, " Who will 
descend therein and draw for us drink ? " Cried Abu Niyyah, " I 
will go down " (but he knew not what was fated to him in the 
Eternal Purpose), and so saying he let himself down by the rope 
into the well and filled for them the water-buckets till the caravan 
had its sufficiency. Now Abu Niyyatayn for the excess of his 
envy and hatred was scheming in his heart and his secret soul to 
slay Abu Niyyah, and when all had drunk he cut the cord and 
loaded his beasts and fared away leaving his companion in the 
well, for the first day and the second until the coming of night. 
Suddenly two 'Ifrits forgathered in that well and sat down to 
converse each with other, when quoth the first, " What is to do 
with thee and how is thy case and what mayest thou be ? " Quoth 
his fellow, " By Allah, O my brother, I am satisfied with extreme 



History of Abu Niyyah and A bu Niyyatayn. 34 1 

satisfaction and I never leave the Sultan's daughter at all at all." 
The second Ifrit asked, "And what would forbid thee from her ? " 
and he answered, " I should be driven away by somewhat of 
wormwood-powder scattered beneath the soles of her feet during 
the congregational prayers of Friday." Then quoth the other, 
" I also, by Allah, am joyful and exulting in the possession of a 
Hoard of jewels buried without the town near the Azure Column 
which serveth as bench-mark." ! " And what," asked the other to 
his friend," would expel thee therefrom and expose the jewels to 
the gaze of man ? " whereto he answered, " A white cock in his 
tenth month 2 slaughtered upon the Azure Column would drive me 
away from the Hoard and would break the Talisman when the 
gems would be visible to all." Now as soon as Abu Niyyah had 
heard the words of the two Ifrits, they arose and departed from the 
well ; and it was the morning hour when, behold, a caravan was 
passing by that place, so the travellers halted seeking a drink of 
water. Presently they let down a bucket which was seized by 
Abu Niyyah and as he was being drawn up they cried out and 
asked, " What art thou, of Jinn-kind or of man-kind ?" and he 
answered, " I am of the Sons of Adam." Hereupon they drew him up 
from the pit and questioned him of his case and he said, " I have 
fallen into it and I am sore anhungered." Accordingly they gave 
him somewhat to eat and he ate and travelled with them till they 
entered a certain city and it was on First day. 3 So they passed 
through the market streets which were crowded and found the 



1 Arab. " 'JLmil Rasad," lit. acting as an observatory: but the style is broken as 
usual, and to judge from the third line below the sentence may signify " And I am 
acting as Talisman (to the Hoard). 

8 In the text " Ishri," which may have many meanings : I take " a shot " at the most 
likely. In " The Tale of the Envier and the Envied " the counter-spell in a fumigation 
by means of some white hair plucked from a white spot, the size of a dirham, at the tail- 
end of a black tom-cat " (vol. i. 124). According to the Welsh legend, " the Devil hates 
cocks" I suppose since that fowl warned Peter of his fall. 

3 In text " Yaum al-Ahad," which begins the Moslem week : see vols. iii. 249, and 
vi. 190. 



342 Supplemental Nights. 

people in turmoil and trouble ; * and as one enquired the cause 
thereof he was answered, "Verily the Sultan hath a beautiful 
daughter who is possessed and overridden by an 'Ifrit, and whoso 
of the physicians would lay 2 the Spirit and is unable or ignorant 
so to do, the King taketh him and cutteth off his head and 
hangeth it up before his palace. Indeed of late days a student 
came hither, a youth who knew nothing of expelling the Evil One, 
and he accepted the task and the Sultan designeth to smite his neck 
at this very hour ; so the people are flocking with design to divert 
themselves at the decapitation." Now when Abu Niyyah heard 
these words he rose without stay or delay and walked in haste till 
he came into the presence of the Sultan whom he found seated 
upon his throne and the Linkman standing with his scymitar 
brandished over the head of the young student and expecting only 
the royal order to strike his neck. So Abu Niyyah salam'd to 
him and said, " O King of the Age, release yonder youth from 
under the sword and send him to thy prison, for if I avail to laying 
the Spirit and driving him from thy daughter thou shalt have 
mercy upon yonder wight, and if I fail thou wilt shorten by the 
head me as well as him." Hereupon the King let unbind the 
youth and sent him to jail ; then he said to Abu Niyyah, " Wouldst 
thou go at once to my daughter and unspell her from the Jinni ?" 
But the other replied, " No, O King, not until Meeting-day 3 at 
what time the folk are engaged in congregational prayers." Now 
when Abu Niyyah had appointed the Friday, the King set apart for 
his guest an apartment and rationed him with liberal rations. 

1 [In Ar. " Harj wa Laght" The former is generally joined with " Marj " (Harj 
wa Marj) to express utter confusion, chaos, anarchy. " Laght " (also pronounced 
Laghat and written with the palatal " t ") has been mentioned supra p. 20 as asynonym 
of " Jalabah " = clamour, tumult, etc. ST.] 

2 [In Ar. "yahjubu," aor. of "hajaba" = he veiled, put out of sight, excluded, 
warded off. Amongst other significations the word is technically used of a nearer 
degree of relationship excluding entirely or partially a more distant one from 
inheritance. ST.] 

8 Arab. " Yaam al-Jam'ah " Assembly-day, Friday : see vol. vi. 120. 



History of Abu Niyyah and Abu Niyyatayn. 343 

And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent 
and ceased to say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister 
Dunyazad, " How sweet is thy story, O sister mine, and how 
enjoyable and delectable ! " Quoth she, " And where is this com- 
pared with that I should relate to you on the coming night an the 
King suffer me to survive?" Now when it was the next night 
and that was 

fie Jfout J^unfcrrti anfc Sbefontg^ebentf) Nfg&t, 

DUNYAZAD said to her, "Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that Abu Niyyah 
having appointed the Sultan for Meeting-day, when he would 
tmsorcel the Princess, waited till the morning dawned. Then he 
went forth to the Bazar and brought him a somewhat of worm- 
wood l for a silvern Nusf and brought it back, and, as soon as the 
time of congregational prayers came, the Sultan went forth to his 
devotions and gave orders that Abu Niyyah be admitted to his 
daughter whilst the folk were busy at their devotions. Abu 
Niyyah repaired to his patient, and scattered the Absinthium 
beneath the soles of her feet when, lo, and behold ! she was 
made whole, and she groaned and cried aloud, " Where am I ? " 
Hereat the mother rejoiced and whoso were in the Palace ; and, as 
the Sultan returned from the Mosque, he found his daughter sitting 
sane and sound, after they had dressed her and perfumed her and 

1 A regular Badawi remedy. This Artemisia (Arab. Shayh), which the Diets, translate 
" wormwood of Pontus," is the sweetest herb of the Desert, and much relished by the 
wild men : see my " Pilgrimage,'* vol. i. 228. The Finnish Arabist Wallin, who died 
Professor of Arabic at Helsingfors, speaks of a " Fardshat al- Shayh " =s a carpet of 
wormwood. 



344 Supplemental Nights, 

adorned her, and she met him with glee and gladness. So the 
two embraced and their joy increased, and the father fell to giving 
alms and scattering moneys amongst the Fakirs and the miserable 
and the widows and orphans, in gratitude for his daughter's 
recovery. Moreover he also released the student youth and 
largessed him, and bade him gang his gait. After this the King 
summoned Abu Niyyah into the presence and said to him, " O 
young man, ask a boon first of Allah and then of me, and let it be 
everything thou wishest and wantest." Quoth the other, "I 
require of thee to wife the damsel from whom I drove away the 
Spirit/' and the King turning to his Minister said, " Counsel 
me, O Wazir." Quoth the other, " Put him off until the morrow ;" 
and quoth the Sultan, "O youth, come back to me hither on 
the morning of the next day." Hereupon Abu Niyyah was dis- 
missed the presence, and betimes on the day appointed he came 
to the Sultan and found the Wazir beside him hending in 
hand a gem whose like was not to be found amongst the Kings. 
Then he set it before the Sultan and said to him, " Show it to the 
Youth and say him, "The dowry of the Princess, my daughter, is a 
jewel like unto this." But whilst Abu Niyyah was standing 
between his hands the King showed him the gem and repeated to 
him the words of the Wazir, thinking to himself that it was a pre- 
text for refusing the youth, and saying in his mind, " He will 
never be able to produce aught like that which the Wazir hath 
brought." Hereupon Abu Niyyah asked, " An so be I bring thee 
ten equal to this, wilt thou give me the damsel ? " and the King 
answered, "I will." The youth went from him when this was 
agreed upon and fared to the Market Street, where he bought him 
a white cock in its tenth month, such as had been described by 
the 'I frit, whose plume had not a trace of black or red feathers 
but was of the purest white. Then he fared without the town 
and in the direction of the setting sun until he came to the Azure 
Column, which he found exactly as he had heard it from the 



History of Abu Niyyah and Abu Niyyatayn. 



345 



Jinni, and going to it, he cut the throat of the cock thereupon, 

when all of a sudden the earth gaped and therein appeared a 

chamber full of jewels sized as ostrich eggs. That being the 

HoAd, he went forth and brought with him ten cameis, each 

bearing two large sacks, and returning to the treasure-room, he 

filled all of these bags with gems and loaded them upon the beasts. 

Presently he entered to the Sultan with his string of ten camels 

and, causing them kneel in the court-yard of the Divan, cried to 

him, " Come down, O King of the Age, and take the dowry of thy 

daughter. So the Sultan turned towards him and, looking at the 

ten camels, exclaimed, "By Allah, this Vouth is Jinn-mad; yet 

will I go down to see him." Accordingly he descended the stair- 

case to the place where the camels had been made kneel, and 

when the sacks had been unloaded and as the King came amongst 

them, the bags were opened and were found full of jewels greater 

and more glorious than the one was with him. Hereupon the 

Sultan was perplext and his wits were bewildered, and he cried 

to the Wazir, " Wallahi ! I think that all the Kings of the Earth in 

its length and its breadth have not one single gem the like of 

these: but say me how shall I act, O Wazir?" The Minister 

replied, " Give him the girl." - And Shahrazad was surprised 

by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased saying her permitted 

say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How sweet and tasteful 

is thy tale, O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delectable I " 

Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I should relate 

to you on the coming night, an the King suffer me to survive ? " 

Now when it was the next night and that was 



DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou be 
other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short the 
watching of this our latter night ! " She replied r -- With love 



346 Supplemental Nights. 

and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that the Wazir said 
to the King, " Give him the girl." Hereupon the marriage-tie 
was tied and the bridegroom was led in to the bride, and either 
rejoiced mightily in his mate, 1 and was increased their joy and 
destroyed was all annoy. Now Abu Niyyah was a favourite of 
Fortune, so the Sultan appointed to him the government during 
three days of every week, and he continued ruling after that 
fashion for a while of time. But one day of the days, as he was 
sitting in his plesaunce, suddenly the man Abu Niyyatayn passed 
before him leaning on a palm-stick, and crying, " O ye beneficent, 
O ye folk of good ! " When Abu Niyyah beheld him he said to his 
Chamberlain, " Hither with yonder man ; " and as soon as he was 
brought he bade them lead him to the Hammam and dress him 
in a new habit. They did his bidding and set the beggar before 
his whilome comrade who said to him, " Dost thou know me ? " 
" No, O my lord," said the other ; and he, " I am thy companion 
of old whom thou wouldst have left to die in the well ; but I, 
by Allah, never changed my intent, and all that I own in this 
world I will give unto thee half thereof." And they sat in 
converse for a while of time, until at last quoth the Double- 
minded one, " Whence earnest thou by all this ? " and quoth he, 
"From the well wherein thou threwest me." Hereupon from the 
excess of his envy and malice Abu Niyyatayn said to Abu Niyyah, 
" I also will go down that well and what to thee was given the 
same shall be given to me." Then he left him and went forth 
from him, and he ceased not faring until he made the place. 
Presently he descended, and having reached the bottom, there 
sat until the hour of nightfall, when behold ! the two 'Ifrits came 



1 " Sdhibi-h," the masculine ; because, as the old grammar tells us, that gender is 
more worthy than the feminine. 



History of Abu Niyyak and Abu Niyyatayn. 347 

and, taking seat by the well-mouth, salam'd each to other. But 
they had no force nor contrivance and both were as weaklings ; 
so said one of them, " What is thy case, O my brother, and how 
is thy health ? " and said the other, " Ah me, O my brother, since 
the hour that I was with thee in this place on such a night, I 
have been cast out of the Sultan's daughter, and until this tide 
I have been unable to approach her or indeed at any other time." 
Said his comrade, " I also am like thee, for the Hoard hath gone 
forth from me, and I have waxed feeble." 1 Then cried the twain, 
" By Allah, the origin of our losses is from this well, so let us 
block it up with stones." Hereupon the twain arose and brought 
with them crumbling earth and pebbles, 2 and threw it down the 
well when it fell upon Abu Niyyatayn, and his bones were crushed 
upon his flesh. 3 Now his comrade, Abu Niyyah sat expecting him 
to return, but he came not, so he cried, " Wallahi ! needs must I 
go and look for him in yonder well and see what he is doing." 
So he took horse and fared thither and found the pit filled up ; 
so he knew and was certified that his comrade's intent had been 

vil, and had cast him into the hands of death. And Shahrazad 

was surprised by the dawn of day and fell silent and ceased to 
say her permitted say. Then quoth her sister Dunyazad, " How 
sweet is thy story O sister mine, and how enjoyable and delect- 
able ! " Quoth she, " And where is this compared with that I 
should relate to you on the coming night, an the Sovran suffer 
me to survive ? " Now when it was the next night and that was 



1 i.e. his strength was in the gold : see vol. i. 340. 

2 Arab. " Haysumah " = smooth stones (water-rounded?). 

3 For " his flesh was crushed upon his bones," a fair specimen of Arab, metonomy- 
cum-hyperbole." In the days when Mr. John Bull boasted of his realism versus 
Gallic idealism, he "got wet to the skin" when M. Jean Crapaud was mouiltt 
jusquaux os. 

For the Angels supposed to haunt a pure and holy well, and the trick played by Ibn 
Tumart, see Ibn Khaldun's Hist, of the Berbers, vol. ii 575. 



348 Supplemental Nights. 

5e Jpout f^untjrrtr anfc lEfaJtie 

DUNYAZAD said to her, " Allah upon thee, O my sister, an thou 
be other than sleepy, finish for us thy tale that we may cut short 

the watching of this our latter night ! " She replied : With 

love and good will ! It hath reached me, O auspicious King, the 
director, the right-guiding, lord of the rede which is benefiting and 
of deeds fair-seeming and worthy celebrating, that Abu Niyyah 
knew and was certified of his comrade Abu Niyyatayn being dead, 
so he cried aloud, " There is no Majesty and there is no Might 
save in Allah the Glorious, the Great. O Allah mine, do thou 
deliver me from envy, for that it destroyeth the envier and haply 
jealousy may lead to frowardness against the Lord (glorified be 
His Glory !) ;" and so saying he returned to the seat of his 
kingdom. Now the Sultan's daughter his spouse had two 
sisters, both married, 1 and she after the delay of a year or so 
proved with child, lJut when her tale of days was told and her 
delivery was nearhand her father fell sick and his malady grew 
upon him. So he summoned the Lords of his court and his 
kingdom one and all and he said, " In very deed this my son- 
in-law shall after my decease become my successor;" and he 
wrote a writ to that purport and devised to him the realm and 
the reign before his demise ; nor was there long delay ere the 
old King departed to the ruth of Allah and they buried him. 
Hereupon trouble arose between his two other sons-in-law who 
had married the Princesses and said they, " We were connected 
with him ere this man was and we are before him in our claim 
to the kingdom." Thereupon said the Wazir, "This rede is 
other than right, for that the old King before his decease devised 
his country to this one and also wrote it in his will and 

J. Here begins the second tale which is a weak replica of Galland's " Two Sisters,"&c. 



History of Abu Niyyah and Abu Niyyatayn. 349 

testament : here therefore ye are opposing him, and the result will 
be trouble and repentance." And when the Minister spoke on 
such wise they kept to their houses. Presently the wife of Abu 
Niyyah bare him a babe, her two sisters being present at her 
accouchement ; and they gave to the midwife an hundred gold 
pieces and agreed upon what was to be done. So when the babe 
was born they put in his place a pup and taking the infant away 
sent it by a slave-girl who exposed it at the gateway of the royal 
garden. Then they said and spread abroad, " Verily the Sultan's 
wife hath been delivered of a doglet," and when the tidings came 
to Abu Niyyah's ears he exclaimed, " Verily this also is a creation 
of Allah Almighty's : " so they clothed the pup and tended it 
with all care. Anon the wife became pregnant a second time 
and when her days were fulfilled she bare a second babe which 
was the fairest of its time and the sisters did with it as they had 
done with the first and taking the infant they exposed him at the 
door of the garden. Then they brought to the mother another 
dog-pup in lieu of her babe, saying, " Verily the Queen hath been 
delivered a second time of a doglet." Now on this wise it fared 
with them : but as regards the two infants which were cast away 
at the garden gate the first was taken up by the Gardener whose 
wife, by the decree of the Decreer, had become a mother on that 
very same night ; so the man carried away the infant he found 
exposed and brought the foundling home and the woman fell to 
suckling it. After the third year the Gardener went forth one 
day of the days and happening upon the second infant in similar 
case he bore it also back to his wife who began to suckle it and 
wash it and tend it and nurse it, till the twain grew up and entered 
into their third and fourth years. The Sultan had in the mean- 
time been keeping the two pups which he deemed to have been 
brought forth by his wife until the Queen became in the family- 
way for the third time. Hereupon the Sultan said, " By Allah, 
'tis not possible but that I be present at and witness her accouche- 



350 Supplemental Nights. 

ment ; " and the while she was bringing forth he sat beside hen. 
So she was delivered of a girl-child, in whom the father rejoiced 
with great joy and bade bring for her wet-nurses who suckled her 
for two years until the milk time was past 1 This girl grew up 
till she reached the age of four years and she could distinguish 
between her mother and her father who, whenever he went to the 
royal garden would take her with him. But when she beheld the 
Gardener's two boys she became familiar with them and would 
play with them ; and, as each day ended, her father would carry 
her away from the children and lead her home, and this parting 
was grievous to her and she wept right sore. Hereat the Sultan 
would take also the boys with her until sleep prevailed over her, 
after which he would send the twain back to their sire the 
Gardener. But Abu Niyyah the Sultan would ever wonder at the 
boys -and would exclaim, " Praise be to Allah, how beautiful are 
these dark-skinned children ! " This endured until one day of 
the days when the King entered the garden and there found that 
the two beautiful 2 boys had taken some clay and were working it 
into the figures of horses and saddles and weapons of war and 
were opening the ground and making a water-leat ; 3 so the Sultan 
wondered thereat time after time for that he ever found them in 
similar case. And he marvelled the more because whenever he 
looked upon them his heart was opened to both and he yearned 
to the twain and he would give them some gold pieces although 
he knew not the cause of his affection. Now one day he entered 



1 This is the usual term amongst savages and barbarians, and during that period the 
father has no connection with the mother. Civilisation has abolished this natural 
practice which is observed by all .the lower animals and has not improved human matters. 
For an excellent dissertation on the subject see the letter on Polygamy by Mrs. Belinda 
M. Pratt, in ' The City of the Saints," p. 525. 

2 In text * Kuwayyis," dim. of " Kayyis," and much used in Egypt as an adj. = "pretty,'* 
"nice" and an adv. "well," "nicely." See s. v. Spitta Bey's Glossary to Conies 
Arabes Modernes. The word is familiar to the travellers in the Nile-valley. 

3 In Arab, a " Kandt ; " see vol. iii. 141. The first occupation came from nature ; 
the second from seeing the work of the adopted father. 



History of A bu Niyyah and A bu Niyyatayn. 3 5 1 

the garden, as was his wont, and he came upon the two boys of 
whom one was saying, "I am the Sultan!" and the other 
declaring, " I am the Wazir ! " He wondered at their words and 
forthwith summoned the Gardener and asked him concerning the 
lads, and lastly quoth he to him, " Say me sooth and fear naught 
from me." Quoth the other, " By Allah, O King of the Age, albe 
falsehood be saving, yet is soothfastness more saving and most 
saving ; and indeed as regards these children the elder was found 
by me exposed at the gateway of the royal garden on such a night 
of such a year, and I came upon the second in the very same 
place ; so I carried them to my wife who suckled them and 
tended them and they say to her, * O mother,' and they say 
to me, ' O father.' " Hereupon Abu Niyyah the King returned 
home and summoning the midwife asked her, saying, " By the 
virtue of my predecessors in this kingdom, do thou tell me the 
truth concerning my spouse, whether or no she was delivered 
of two dog-pups, and she answered, " No, by Allah, O King 
of the Age, verily the Queen bare thee two babes like full moons, 
and the cause of their exposure before the garden gate was thy 
wife's two sisters who envied her and did with her these deeds 
whereof she was not aware/' 1 Hereupon cried Abu Niyyah, 
" Alhamdolillah Glory be to God who hath brought about 
this good to me and hath united me with my children, and sooth- 
fast is the say : Whoso doeth an action shall be requited of his 
Lord and the envious wight hath no delight and of his envy he 
shall win naught save despight." 2 Then the King of Mosul, being, 



1 Abu Niyyah, like most house masters in the East, not to speak of Kings, was the last 
to be told a truth familiar to everyone but himself and his wife. 

2 The MS. breaks off abruptly at this sentence and evidently lacks finish. Scott 
(vi., 228) adds, " The young princes were acknowledged and the good Abou Neeut had 
the satisfaction of seeing them grow up to follow his example." 

In the MS. this tale is followed by a " Story of his own Adventures related by a 
connection to an Emir of Egypt." I have omitted it because it is a somewhat fade 
replica of "The Lovers of the Banu Ozrah" (Vol. vii. 117 ; Lane iii. 247). 



352 Supplemental Nights. 

a man of good intent, did not put to death his wife's sisters and 
their husbands, but banished them his realm, and he lived happily 
with his Queen and children until such time as the Destroyer of 
delights and the Severer of societies came to him and he deceased 
to the mercy of Almighty Allah. 



END OF VOLUME IV. 



APPENDICES. 



f 



flppenifj: a. 



INEPTLE BODLEIAN^. 

THE reader will not understand this allusion (Foreword, p. ix.) without some 
connaissance de cause* I would apologise for deforming the beautiful serenity 
and restfulness of The Nights by personal matter of a tone so jarring and so 
discordant a sound, the chatter and squabble of European correspondence and 
contention ; but the only course assigned to me perforce is that of perfect pub- 
licity. The first part of the following papers appeared by the editor's kindness 
in "The Academy" of November 13, 1886. How strange the contrast of 
" doings " with " sayings," if we compare the speech reported to have been 
delivered by Mr. Librarian Nicholson at the opening of the Birmingham Free 
Public Central Lending and Reference Libraries, on June I, 1882 : 

" As for the Bodleian, I claim your sympathies, not merely because we are 
trying to do as much for our readers as you are for yours, but because, if the 
building which you have opened to-day is the newest free public library in the 
world, the building which I left earlier in the morning is the oldest free public 
library in the world. (No / ) I call it a free public library because any Bir- 
mingham artizan who came to us with a trustworthy recommendation might 
ask to have the rarest gem in our collection placed before him, and need have 
no fear of asking in vain ; and because, if a trusty Birmingham worker wanted 
the loan of a MS. for three months, it would be lent to the Central Free Library 
for his use." See Twentieth and Twenty-first Annual Reports of the Free 
Libraries Committee (Borough of Birmingham), 1883. 

And now to my story. The play opens with the following letter : 

No. I. 

23, DORSET STREET, PORTMAN SQUARE, 

Sept. 13, 1886. 
"SIR, 

w I have the honour to solicit your assistance in the following 
matter : 

" Our friend Dr. Steingass has kindly consented to collaborate with me in re- 
translating from the Wortley Montague MS x>f the Bodleian Library, Oxford, the 



356 Appendix A. 

tales originally translated in vol. vi. of Dr. Jonathan Scott's 'Arabian Nights,* 
Dr. Steingass cannot leave town, and I should find it very inconvenient, to live 
at Oxford during the work, both of us having engagements in London. It 
would be a boon to us if the Curators of the Bodleian would allow the MS. to 
be transferred, volume by volume, to the India Office, and remain under the 
custody of the Chief Librarian yourself. The whole consists of seven volumes, 
and we would begin with vols. iii. and iv. I may note that the translated tales 
(as may be seen by Scott's version) contain nothing indelicate or immoral ; in 
fact the whole MS. is exceptionally pure. Moreover, the MS., as far as I can 
learn, is never used at Oxford. I am the more anxious about this matter as 
the November fogs will presently drive me from England, and I want to end 
the extracts ere winter sets in, which can be done only by the co-operation of 
Dr. Steingass. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Yours obediently, 

(Signed) RICHARD F. BURTON." 

" Dr. R. ROST, 
Chief Librarian^ India Office? 

As nearly a month had elapsed without my receiving any reply, I directed 
the following to the Vice-Chancellor of the University, Rev. Dr. Bellamy : 

No. H. 

ATHENAEUM CLUB, PALL MALL, 

Oct. 13, 1886. 
" SIR, 

" I have the honour to submit to you the following details : 

"On September 13, 1886, 1 wrote to Dr. Rost, Chief Librarian, India Office, 
an official letter requesting him to apply to the Curators of the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford, for the temporary transfer of an Arabic Manuscript, No. 522 
(the Wortley Montague text of the Arabian Nights) to the library of the India 
Office, there to be kept under special charge of the Chief Librarian. There 
being seven volumes, I wanted only one or two at a time. I undertook not to 
keep them long, and, further, I pledged myself not to translate tales that might 
be deemed offensive to propriety. 

" Thus, I did not apply for a personal loan of the MS. which, indeed, I 
should refuse on account of the responsibility which it would involve. I applied 
for the safe and temporary transfer of a work, volume by volume, from one 
public library to another. 

" My official letter was forwarded at once by Dr. Rost, but this was the only 
expeditious step. On Saturday, September 25, the Curators could form no 
quorum ; the same thing took place on Saturday, October 9 ; and there is 
a prospect that the same will take place on Saturday, October 23. 



w 

Ineptice Bodleiana. 357 

41 1 am acquainted with many of the public libraries of Europe, but I know 
of none that would throw such obstacles in the way of students. 

"The best authorities inform me that until June, 1886, the signatures of 
two Curators enabled a student to borrow a book or a manuscript ; but that 
since June a meeting of three Curators has been required ; and that a lesser 
number does not form a quorum. 

"May I be permitted to suggest that the statute upon the subject of 
borrowing books and manuscripts urgently calls for revision ? 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Yours obediently, 
(Signed) RICHARD F. BURTON." 

" THE VICE-CHANCELLOR, OXFORD." 

The Curators presently met and the following was the highly unsatisfactory 
result which speaks little for " Bodleian" kindness or courtesy : 

No. III. 

Monday, Nov. i, 1886. 
" DEAR SIR RICHARD BURTON, 

"The Curators considered your application on Saturday, Oct. 30, after- 
noon, and the majority of them were unwilling to lend the MS. 1 

Yours very truly, 
(Signed) EDWARD B. NICHOLSON." 

Learning through a private source that my case had been made an un- 
pleasant exception to a long-standing rule of precedent, and furthermore that 
it had been rendered peculiarly invidious by an act of special favour, 2 1 again 
addressed the Vice-Chancellor, as follows : 



1 Mr. Chandler remarks, (p. 25," On Lending Bodleian Books, &c."): "It is said that 
the Curators can refuse any application if they choose ; of course they can, but as a 
matter of fact no application has ever been refused, and every name added will make it 
more and more difficult, more and more invidious to refuse anyone." I have, there- 
fore, the singular honour of being the first chosen for rejection. 

2 Mr. Chandler's motion (see p. 28, " Booklending, &c.") was defeated by an amend- 
ment prepared by Professor Jowett and the former fought, with mixed success, the report 
of the Committee of Loans j the document being so hacked as to become useless, and, 
in this mangled condition, it was referred back to the Commiltee with a recommenda- 
tion to consider the best way of carrying out the present statute. The manly and 
straightforward course of at once proposing a new statute was not adopted, nor was 
it even formally proposed. Lastly, the applications fdr loans, which numbered six- 
teen, were submitted to the magnates and were all refused ! whilst the application of 
an Indian subject that MSS. be sent to the India Office for his private use was at once 
granted. In my case Professors B. Price and Max Miiller, who had often voted for 
loans, and were willing enough to lend anything to anybody, declined to vote. 



358 Appendix A. 

No. IV. 

23, DORSET STREET, PORTMAN SQUARE, 

November yd % 1886. 
" SIR, 

" I have the honour to remind you that, on October 13, I communi- 
cated with you officially requesting a temporary transfer of the Wortley 
Montague manuscript (Arabian Nights) from the Bodleian Library to the 
personal care of the Librarian, India Office. 

" To this letter I received no reply. But on November I, I was informed 
by Mr. Librarian Nicholson that the Curators had considered my application 
on Saturday, October 30, and that the majority of them were unwilling to lend 
the manuscript. 

" The same Curators at the same meeting allowed sundry manuscripts for 
the use of an Indian subject to be sent to the India Office. 

" I cannot but protest against this invidious proceeding, and I would 
willingly learn what cause underlies it. 

" i. It cannot be the importance of the manuscript, which is one of the 
meanest known to me written in a schoolmaster character, a most erroneous, 
tmcorrected text, and valuable only for a few new tales. 

" 2. It cannot be any consideration of public morals, for I undertook (if the 
loan were granted} not to translate tales which might be considered offensive 
to strict propriety. 

" 3. It cannot be its requirement for local use. The manuscript stands on an 
upper shelf in the manuscript room, and not one man in the whole so-called 
* University ' can read it. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Yours obediently, 

RICHARD F. BURTON." 
" THE VICE-CHANCELLOR, OXFORD.'* 

In due time came the reply : 

No.V. 

ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, OXFORD, 

November 6th, 1886. 
" DEAR SIR, 

*' I will remove from your mind the belief that I treated your former 
letter with discourtesy. 

" I may say, that it did not appear to me to contain any question or request 
which I could answer. You informed me that you had made formal application 
in September for a loan of MSS., and your letter was to complain of the delay 
in considering this request. You told me that you had learned from the 
Librarian the cause of the delay (the want of a quorum), and that he had 
intimated that there would probably be no meeting formed before October 3oth. 



Inept ice Bodleiana. 359 

"You complained of this, and suggested that the statute regulating tho 
lending of the Bodleian books should be speedily revised. 

" As I had no power to make a quorum, nor to engage that your suggestion 
should be adopted ; and as your letter made no demand for any further infor- 
mation, I thought it best to reserve it for the meeting of the soth, when I 
communicated it to the Curators. 

" I will lay the letter (dated November 3rd), with which you have favoured 
me, before the next meeting of the Curators. 

I beg to remain, 

Yours faithfully, 

(Signed) J. BELLAMY." 

"SIR R. F. BURTON." 

To resume this part of the subject. 

The following dates show that I was kept waiting six weeks before being 
finally favoured with the curtest of refusals : 

Application made on September i3th, and sent on. 

On Saturday, September 25th, Curators could not form quorum, and deferred 
next meeting till Saturday, October Qth. 

Saturday, October 9th. Again no quorum ; and yet it might easily have 
been formed, as three Curators were on or close to the spot. 

Saturday, October 23rd. Six Curators met and did nothing. 

Saturday, October 3Oth. Curators met and refused me the loan of MS. 

My letter addressed to the Vice-Chancellor was read, and notice was given 
for Saturday (December 3rd, 1886,) of a motion, "That the MS. required by Sir 
R. F. Burton be lent to him" and I was not to be informed of the matter unless 
the move were successful. Of course it failed. One of the Curators (who are 
the delegates and servants of Convocation) was mortally offended by my letter 
to "The Academy," and showed the normal smallness of the official mind by 
opposing me simply because I told the truth concerning the Idches of his 
" learned body." 

Meanwhile I had addressed the following note to the Most Honourable the 
Chancellor of the University. 1 

23, DORSET STREET, PORTMAN SQUARE, 

November 30* Jt, 1886. 
"MY LORD, 

"I deeply regret that the peculiar proceedings of the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford, necessitate a reference to a higher authority with the view of 
elicitmg some explanation. 

1 According to the statutes, " The Chancellor must be acquainted with the Business 
(of altering laws concerning the Library), and he must approve, and refer it to the Head 
of Houses, else no Dispensation can be proposed." 



360 Appendix A. 

<l The correspondence which has passed between the Curators of the 
Bodleian Library and myself will be found in the accompanying printed paper. 

"Here it may be noticed that the Committee of the Orientalist Congress, 
Vienna, is preparing to memorialise H.M.'s Secretary of State, praying that 
Parliament will empower the British Museum to lend out Oriental MSS. under 
proper guarantees. The same measure had been proposed at the Leyden Con- 
gress of 1883 ; and thus an extension, rather than a contraction of the loan- 
system has found favour with European savants. 1 

" I believe, my Lord, that a new statute upon the subject of the Bodleian 
loans of books and MSS. is confessedly required, and that it awaits only the 
initiative of the Chancellor of the University, without whose approval it cannot 

be passed. 

I have, &c,, 

(Signed) RICHARD F. BURTON." 

"THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE CHANCELLOR." 

My object being only publicity I was not disappointed by the following 
reply : 

HATFIELD HOUSE, HATFIELD, HERTS, 

December \st 1886. 
" DEAR SIR RICHARD, 

" I beg to acknowledge your letter of the 3oth of November, with 
enclosure. 



1 The following telegram from the Vienna correspondent of" The Times " (November 
16, 1886), is worth quotation: 

"The Committee of the Vienna Congress (of Orientalists) is now preparing a 
memorial, which will be signed by Archduke Renier, and will be forwarded in a few 
days to the trustees of the British Museum and to the Secretary of State, praying that 
a Bill may be introduced into Parliament empowering the British Museum to lend out 
its Oriental MSS. to foreign savants under proper guarantees. A resolution pledging 
the members of the Oriental Congress to this course was passed at the Congress of 
Leyden, in 1883, on the motion of Professor D. H. Miiller, of Vienna ; but it has not 
yet been acted upon so thoroughly as will be the case now. 

"The British Museum is the only great library in Europe which does not lend out 
its MSS. to foreigners. The university and court libraries of Vienna, the royal and 
state libraries of Berlin and Munich, those of Copenhagen and Leyden, and Bibliotheque 
Nationale in Paris all are very liberal in their loans to well-recommended foreigners. 
ID Paris a diplomatic introduction is required. In Munich the library does not lend 
directly to the foreign borrower ; but sends to the library of the capital whence the 
borrower may have made his application, and leaves all responsibility to that library. 
In the other libraries the discretion is left to the librarian, who generally lends without 
any formalities beyond ascertaining the bona fides and trustworthiness of the applicant. 
In Vienna, however, there has occasionally been some little excess of formality, so a 
petition is about to be presented to the Emperor by the University professors, begging 
that the privilege of borrowing may be considered as general, and not as depending on 
the favour of an official. 

"As regards Oriental MSS., it is remarked that the guarantees need not be so 
minute as in the case of old European MSS., which are often unique copies. Accord- 
ing to the learned Professor of Sanskrit in this city, Herr George Biihler, there are 
very few unique Oriental MSS. in existence .of Sanskrit perhaps not a dozen." 



Ineptice Bodleiancs. 361 

" I have, however, no power over the Bodleian Library, and, therefore, I am 
unable to assist you. 

Yours, very truly, 

(Signed) SALISBURY." 
"SiR RICHARD F. BURTON, K.C.M.G." 

On January 29, 1887, there was another "Bodleian Meeting," all the 
Curators save one being present and showing evident symptoms of business. 
The last application on the list of loans entered on the Agenda paper ran 
thus : 

V MS. Bodl. Vols. 550-556 to the British Museum (the 7 vols. succes- 
sively) for the use of Mr. F. F. Arbuthnot's Agent. 

[The MS. lately refused to Sir R. Burton. Mr. Arbuthnot wishes 
to have it copied.] 

It was at once moved by the Regius Professor of Divinity (Dr. Ince) and 
carried nem. con. that, until the whole question of lending Bodleian books and 
MSS. then before Council, be definitely settled, no applications be entertained ; 
and thus Professor Van Helton, Bernard Kolbach and Mr. Arbuthnot were 
doomed, like myself, to be disappointed. 

On January 31, 1887, a hebdomadal Council was called to deliberate about a 
new lending statute for submission to Convocation ; and an amendment was 
printed in the " Oxford University Gazette." It proposed that the Curators by 
a vote of two-thirds of their body, and at least six forming a quorum, might 
lend books or MSS. to students, whether graduates or not ; subject, when the 
loans were of special value, to the consent of Convocation. Presently the matter 
was discussed in "The Times'' (January 25th ; April 28th; and May 3ist), 
which simply re-echoed the contention of Mr. Chandler's vigorous pamphlets. 1 
Despite the letters of its correspondent " F. M. M." (May 6th, 1887), a "host 
in himself," who ought to have added the authority of his name to the sensible 
measures which he propounded, the leading journal took a sentimental view 
of " Bodley's incomparable library * and strongly advocated its being relegated 
to comparative inutility. 

On May 31, 1887, an amendment practically forbidding all loans came before 
the House. In vain Professor Freeman declared that a book is not an idol but 

ML) " On Lending Bodleian Books and Manuscripts " (not published). June 10, 
1866; (2) Appendix. Barlow's Argument. June, 1866; (3) On Book-lending as 
practised at the Bodleian Library. July 27, 1 886 : Baxter, Printer, Oxford. The 
three papers abound in earnestness and energy; but they have the "defects of their 
qualities," as the phrase is ; and the subject often runs away with the writer. A single 
instance will suffice. No. i. p. 23 says, " In a library like the Bodleian, where the 
practice of lending prevails as it now does, a man may put himself to great inconvenience 
in order to visit it ; he may even travel from Berlin, and when he arrives he may find 
that all his trouble has been in vain, the very book he wants is out." This must have 
been written during the infancy of Sir Rowland Hill, and when telegrams were unknown 
to mankind ; all that the Herr has to do in ou^'time* is to ask per wire if the volume be 
at home or not. 



362 Appendix A. 

a tool which must wear out sooner or later. To no purpose Bodley's Librarian 
proved that of 460,000 printed volumes in the collection only 460 had been lent 
out, and of these only one had been ost. THE AMENDMENT FORBIDDING 

THE PRACTICE OF LENDING WAS CARRIED BY 106 VOTES TO 60. 

Personally I am not dissatisfied with this proceeding. It is retrograde 
legislation befitting the days when books were chained to the desks. It suffers 
from a fatal symptom the weakness of extreme measures. And the inevitable 
result in the near future will be a strong reaction : Convocation will presently 
be compelled to adopt some palliation for the evil created by its own folly. 

The next move added meanness to inertness. I do not blame Mr. E. B. 
Nicholson, Bodley's Librarian, because he probably had orders to write the 
following choice specimen : 

30/3/1887. 
" DEAR SIR RICHARD BURTON, 

" I have received two vols. of Four (read six} 'Supplemental Nights' with 
a subscription form. If a Bodleian MS. is to be copied for any volume, I must 
stipulate that that volume be supplied to us gratis. Either my leave or that of 
the Curators is required for the purpose of copying for publication, and I have 
no doubt that they would make the same stipulation. I feel sure you would in 
any case not propose to charge us for such a volume, but until I hear from you 
I am in a difficulty as to how to reply to the subscription form I have received. 

Yours faithfully, 
(Signed) E. B. NICHOLSON, 

Librarian" 

The able and energetic papers, two printed and one published by Mr. H. W. 
Chandler, of Pembroke College, Oxford, clearly prove the following facts : 

1. That on June 20, 1610, a Bodleian Statute peremptorily forbade any books 
or manuscripts being taken out of the Library. 

2. That, despite the peremptory and categorical forbiddance by Bodley, 
Selden,and others, of lending Bodleian books and MSS., loans of both have for 
upwards of two centuries formed a precedent. 

3. That Bodley's Statute (June 2oth, An. i6io)was formally and officially 
abrogated by Convocation on May 22nd, 1856 ; Convocation retaining the right 
to lend. 

4. That a " privileged list " of (113) borrowers presently arose and is spoken 
of as a normal practice \-sicut mos fuit, says the Statute (Tit. xx. iii. 1 1 ) of 
1873 and, lastly, 

5. That loans of MSS. and printed books have for years been authorised to 
approved public libraries. 

After these premises I proceed to notice other points bearing upon the 
subject, which, curious to say, are utterly neglected or rather ignored by Mr. 
Chandler and " The Times." Sir Thomas Bodley never would have condemned 



Inepfice Bodleiance. 363 

students to study in the Bodleian had he known the peines fortes et dures to 
which in these days they are thereby doomed. " So picturesque and so peculiar 
is its construction," says a writer, " that it ensures the maximum of inefficiency 
and discomfort." The whole building is a model of what a library ought not 
to be. It is at once over solid and ricketty : room for the storage of books is 
wanted, and its wooden staircases, like touchwood or tinder, give one the 
shudders to think of fire. True, matches and naked lights are forbidden in the 
building ; but all know how these prohibitions are regarded by the public, and 
it is dreadful to think of what might result from a lucifer dropped at dark upon 
the time-rotten planks. The reading public in the XlXth century must content 
itself with boxes or stalls, like those of an old-fashioned tavern or coffee-house 
of the humbler sort wherein two readers can hardly find room for sitting back 
to back. The atmosphere is unpleasant and these mean little cribs, often 
unduly crowded, are so dark that after the 1st October the reading-room must 
be closed at 3 p.m. What a contrast are the treasures in the Bodleian with 
their mean and miserable surroundings and the way in which the public is allowed 
to enjoy them. The whole establishment calls urgently for reform. Accommo- 
dation for the books is wanted ; floor and walls will hardly bear the weight which 
grows every year at an alarming ratio witness the Novel-room. The model 
Bodleian would be a building detached and isolated, the better to guard its price- 
less contents, and containing at least double the area of the present old and 
obsolete Bibliotheca. An establishment of the kind was proposed in 1857 ; but 
unfortunately, the united wisdom of the University preferred new "Examination 
Schools " for which the old half-ruinous pile would have been sufficiently well 
fitted. The " Schools," however, were for the benefit of the examiners ; ergb 
the scandalous sum of .100,000 (some double the amount) was wasted upon 
the well-nigh useless Gothic humbug in High Street, and thus no money was 
left for the prime want of the city. After some experience of public libraries 
and reading-rooms on the Continent of Europe I feel justified in asserting that 
the Bodleian in its present condition is a disgrace to Oxford; indeed a 
dishonour to letters in England. 

The Bodleian has a succursale, the Radcliffe, which represents simply a step 
from bad to worse. The building was intended for an especial purpose, the 
storage of books, not for a< salle de lecture. Hence the so-called " Camera " 
is a most odious institution, a Purgatory to readers. It is damp in the wet 
season from October to May ; stuffy during the summer heats and a cave of 
Eolus in windy weather : few students except the youngest and strongest, can 
support its changeable and nerve-depressing atmosphere. Consequently the 
Camera is frequented mainly by the townsfolk, a motley crew who there study 
their novels and almanacs and shamefully misuse the books. 1 In this building 
lights, forbidden by the Bodleian, are allowed ; it opens at 10 a.m. and closes 
at 10 p.m., and the sooner it reverts to its original office of a book-depot the 
better. 

1 Chandler, "On Lending Bodleian Books," etc., p. 18. 



364 Appendix A. 

But the Bodleian-Radcliffe concern is typical of the town ; and, if that call 
for reform, so emphatically does 

" Oxford, that scarce deserves the name of land." 

From my childhood I had heard endless tirades and much of what is now 
called "blowing" about this ancient city, and my youth (1840-42) suffered not 
a little disappointment. The old place, still mostly resembling an overgrown 
monastery-village, lies in the valley of the Upper Thames, a meadowland 
drained by two ditches ; the bigger or Ise, classically called the Isis, and the 
lesser the Charwell. This bottom is surrounded by high and healthy uplands, 
not as the guide-books say "low scarce-swelling hills that softly gird the old 
town ; " and these keep off the winds and make the riverine valley, with its 
swamped meads and water-meadows, more fenny and feverish even than Cam- 
bridge. The heights and woods bring on a mild deluge between October 1st 
and May ist ; the climate is rainy as that of Shap in Westmoreland (our old 
home) and, as at Fernando Po and Singapore, the rain it raineth more or less 
every day during one half of the year. The place was chosen by the ancient 
Britons for facility of water transport, but men no longer travel by the Thames 
and they have naturally neglected the older road. Throughout England, indeed 
a great national work remains to be done. Not a river, not a rivulet, but what 
requires cleaning out and systematic excavation by tltvateurs and other appli- 
ances of the Suez Canal. The channels filled up by alluvium and choked by 
the American weed, are now raised so high that the beds can no longer act as 
drains : at Oxford for instance the beautiful meadows of Christ Church are 
little better than swamps and marshes, the fittest homes for Tertiana, Quartana 
and all the fell sisterhood : a blue fog broods over the pleasant site almost 
every evening, and a thrust with the umbrella opens up water. This is the 
more inexcusable as the remedy would be easy and by no means costly : the 
river-mud, if the ignorant peasants only knew the fact, forms the best of 
manures ; and this, instead of being deposited in spoil-heaps on the banks for 
the rain to wash back at the first opportunity, should be carried by tram-rails 
temporarily laid down and be spread over the distant fields, thus almost paying 
for the dredge works. Of course difficulties will arise : the management of 
the Thames is under various local " Boards,*' and each wooden head is able 
and aye ready to show its independence and ill temper at the sacrifice of 
public interests to private fads. 

Hence the climate of Oxford is detestable. Strong undergraduates cannot 
withstand its nervous depression and the sleeplessness arising from damp air 
charged with marsh gases and bacteria. All students take time to become 
acclimatized here, and some are never acclimatized at all. And no wonder, 
when the place is drained by a fetid sewer of greenish yellow hue containing 
per 10,000, 245 parts of sewage. The only tolerable portion of the year is 
the Long Vacation, when the youths in mortar-boards all vanish from the 



Ineptia Bodleiance. 365 

view, while many of the oldsters congregate in the reformed convents called 
Colleges. 

Climate and the resolute neglect of sanitation are probably the chief causes 
why Oxford never yet produced a world-famous and epoch-making man, 
while Cambridge can boast of Newton and Darwin. The harlequin city of 
domes and spires, cribs and slums shows that curious concurrence of opposites 
so common in England. The boasted High Street is emblematical of the 
place, where moral as well as material extremes meet and are fain to dwell side 
by side. It is a fine thoroughfare branching off into mere lanes, neither these 
nor that apparently ever cleaned. The huge buildings of scaling, mouldering 
stone are venerable-looking piles which contrast sadly with the gabled cottages 
of crepi, hurlin, or wattle and dab ; and the brand-new store with its plate- 
glass windows hustles the old-fashioned lollipop-shop. As regards minor 
matters there are new market passages but no Public Baths ; and on Sundays, 
the stands are destitute of cabs, although with that queer concession to demo- 
cracy which essentially belongs to the meaner spirited sort of Conservatism, 
" 'busses '' are allowed to ply after 2 p.m., when the thunder of bells somewhat 
abates. 

Old " Alma Mater," who to me has ever been a " durissima noverca," 
dubs herself " University ; " and not a few of her hopefuls entre faiblesse et 
folie, still entitle themselves "University men." The title once belonged to 
Oxford but now appertains to it no more. Compare with it the model univer- 
sities of Berlin, Paris and Vienna, where the lists of lecturers bear the 
weightiest names in the land. Oxford is but a congeries of twenty-one 
colleges and five halls or hostels, each educating its pupils (more or less) with 
an especial eye to tutors' fees and other benefices, the vested rights of the 
"Dons." Thus all do their best to prevent the scholars availing themselves 
of University, as opposed to Collegiate, lectures ; and thus they can stultify a 
list of some sixty-six professors. This boarding-school system is simply a dis- 
honest obstacle to students learning anything which may be of use to them in 
after-life, such as modern and Oriental languages, chemistry, anthropology and 
the other -ologies. Here in fact men rarely progress beyond the Trivium and 
the Quadrivium of the Dark Ages, and tuition is a fine study of the Res 
scibilis as understood by the Admirable Crichton and other worthies, circa 
A.D. 1500. The students of Queen Elizabeth's day would here and here only 
find themselves in congenial company. Worse still, Oxford is no longer a 
" Seat of learning " or a " House of the Muses," nor can learned men be 
produced under the present system. The place has become a collection of 
finishing schools, in fact little belter than a huge board for the examination 
of big boys and girls. 

Oxford and her education are thoroughly disappointing ; but the sorest 
point therein is that this sham University satisfies the hapless Public, which 
knows nothing about its faintance. It is a mere stumbling-block in the way 
of Progress especially barring the road to one of the main wants of English 



366 Appendix A. 

Education, a great London University which should not be ashamed to stand 
by Berlin, Paris and Vienna. 

Had the good knight and "Pious Founder," Sir Thomas Bodley, who 
established his library upon the ruins of the University Bibliocheca wrecked 
by the " Reformation," been able to foresee the condition of Oxford and her 
libraries Bodleian and Radcliffean in this latter section of the XlXth cen- 
tury, he would hardly, I should hope, have condemned English students and 
Continental scholars to compulsory residence and labour in places so akin to 
the purgatorial. 



35. 



THE THREE UNTRANSLATED TALES IN 
MR. E. J. W. GIBE'S "FORTY VEZIRS." 



THE THIRTY-EIGHTH VEZIRS STORY, 
(.Page 353 of Mr. GibVs translation^ 

There was in the city of Cairo a merchant, and one day he bought a slave- 
girl, and took her to his house. There was in his house an ape ; this the 
merchant fetched and dragged up to the slave-girl. He said, 4< Yield thyself 
over to this, and I will set thee free." The slave-girl did so of necessity, and 
she conceived by him. When her time was come she bare a son all of whose 
members were shaped like those of a man, save that he had a tail like an ape. 
The merchant and the slave-girl occupied themselves bringing up this son. 
One day, when the son was five or six months old, the merchant filled a large 
cauldron with milk, and lighted a great fire under it. When it was boiling, he 
seized the son and cast him into the cauldron ; and the girl began to lament. 
The merchant said, " Be silent, make no lamentation ; go and be free ; " and he 
gave her some sequins. Then he turned, and the cauldron had boiled so 
that not even any bones were left. The merchant took down the cauldron, 
and placed seven strainers, one above the other ; and he took the scum that 
had gathered on the liquid in the cauldron and filtered it through the seven 
strainers, and he took that which was in the last and put it into a bottle. And 
the slave-girl bare in her heart bitter hatred against the merchant, and she 
said in herself, " Even as thou hast burned my liver will I burn thee ;" and 
she began to watch her opportunity. (One day) the merchant said to her, 
" Make ready some food," and went out. So the girl cooked the food, and she 
mixed some of that poison in the dish. When the merchant returned she 
brought the tray and laid it down, and then withdrew into a corner. The 
merchant took a spoonful of that food, and as soon as he put it into his mouth, 
he knew it to be the poison, and he cast the spoon that was in his hand at the 
girl. A piece, of the bigness of a pea, of that poisoned food fell from the 
spoon on the girl's hand, and it made the place where it fell black. As for the 
merchant, he turned all black, and swelled till he became like a blown-out 
skin, and he died. But the slave-girl medicined herself and became well ; 
and she kept what remained of the poison and sold it to those who asked 
for it. 



368 



THE FORTIETH VEZIRS STORY. 
(Page 366 in Mr. GibUs translation?) 

There was of old time a tailor, and he had a fair wife. One day this woman 
sent her slave-girl to the carder's to get some cotton teased. The slave-girl 
went to the carder's shop and gave him cotton for a gown to get teased. 
The carder while teasing the cotton displayed his yard to the slave-girl. She 
blushed and passed to his other side. As she thus turned round the carder 
displayed his yard on that side also. Thus the slave-girl saw it on that side 
too. And she went and said to her mistress, " Yon carder, to whom I went has 
two yards." The lady said to her, " Go and say to yon carder, ( My mistress 
wishes thee ; come at night.'" So the slavergirl went and said this to the 
carder. As soon as it was night the carder went to that place and waited. 
The woman went out and met the carder and said, " Come and have to do with 
me while I am lying by my husband." When it was midnight the carder came 
and waked the woman. The woman lay conveniently and the carder fell to 
work. She felt that the yard which entered her was but one, and said, " Ah 
my soul, carder, at it with both of them." While she was softly speaking her 
husband awaked and asked, " What means thy saying, * At it with both of 
them ? ' " He stretched out his hand to his wife's kaze and the carder's yard 
came into it. The carder drew himself back and his yard slipped out of the 
fellow's hand, and he made shift to get away. The fellow said, " Out on thee, 
wife, what meant that saying of thine, * At it with both of them ? ' " The woman 
said, " O husband, I saw in my dream that thou wast fallen into the sea and 
wast swimming with one hand and crying out, ' Help I I am drowning ! * I 
shouted to thee from the shore, * At it with both of them,' and thou begannest 
to swim with both thy hands." Then the husband said, " Wife, I too know that 
I was in the sea, from this that a wet fish came into my hand and then slipped 
out and escaped ; thou speakest truly." And he loved his wife more than 
before. 



THE LAD\TS THIRTY-FOURTH STORY. 

(From the India Office MS.} 
(Page 399 in Mr. CM's translation.) 

They tell that there was a Khoja and he had an exceeding fair son, who 
was so beautiful that he who looked upon him was confounded. This Khoja 
watched over his son right; carefully ; he let not him come forth from a certain 
private chamber, and he left not the ribbon of his trousers unsealed. When 
the call to prayer was chanted from the minaret, the boy would ask his father 
saying, Why do they cry out thus?" and the Khoja would answer, " Someone 
has been undone and has died, and they are calling out to bury him." And 
the boy believed these words. The beauty of this boy was spoken of in Persia ; 
and a Khoja came from Persia to Baghdad with his goods and chattels for the 
love of this boy. And he struck up a friendship with the boy's father, and 
ever gave to him his merchandise at an easy price, and he sought to find out 
where his son abode. When the Khoja had discovered that the boy was kept 
safe in that private chamber, he one day said to his father, " I am about to go 
to a certain place; and I have a chest whereinto I have put whatsoever I 
possess of valuables ; this I shall send to thee, and do thou take it and shut it 
up in that chamber where thy son is." And the father answered, " Right 
gladly." So the Khoja let build a chest so large that he himself might lie in 
it, and he put therein wine and all things needful for a carouse. Then he said 
to his servant, " Go, fetch a porter and take this chest to the house of Khoja 
Such-an-one, and say, * My master has sent this to remain in your charge/ 
and leave it and come away. And again on the morrow go and fetch it, saying, 
' My master wishes the chest.' " So the servant went for a porter, and the 
Khoja hid himself in the chest, Then the boy laded the porter with the chest 
and took it to the other Khoja's house, where he left it and went away. When 
it was night the Khoja came forth from the chest, and he saw a moon-face 
sleeping in the bed-clothes, and a candle was burning in a candlestick at his 
head ; and when the Khoja beheld this he was confounded and exclaimed, 
" And blessed be God, the fairest of Creators 1 " l Then the Khoja laid out the 
wine and so forth ; and he went up softly and waked the boy. And the boy 
atose from his place and addressed himself to speak, saying, "Wherefore hast 
thou come here ? " Straightway the Khoja filled a cup and gave it to him, 
saying, " Drink this, and then I shall tell thee what manner of man I am." 
And he besought the boy and spread out sequins before him. So the boy took 
the cup and drank what was in it. When the Khoja had given him to drink 

1 Koran, xxiii. 14. 
VOL. IV. A A 



370 Appendix B. 

three or four cups the face of the boy grew tulip-hued, and he became heated 
with the wine and began to sport with the Khoja. So all that night till morning 
did the Khoja make merry with the boy ; and whatsoever his desire was, he 
attained thereto. When it was morning the Khoja again went into the chest ; 
and the servant came and laded the porter with the same and took it back to 
his house. And on the morrow, when the boy and his father were sitting 
together, the mu'ezzin chanted the call to prayer, whereupon the boy 
exclaimed, " Out on thee, father ; and the boy who is undone dies, and so this 
fellow goes up there and bawls out ; last night they undid me ; how is it that 
I am not dead ?" Then the father smote the boy on the mouth and said, 
" Speak not such words ; they are a shame." And then he knew why the chest 
had come. 



INDEX. 



ABt) JA' DAM = father of curls( = a wolf), 14 
Abu Kdsim al-Tamburf = Abu Kdsim the 

Drummer, 209. 
Abu Niyyah and Abu Niyyatayn, History 

of various versions of the names, 334. 
'Adrdn (Arab.} tr. "Sheeted," the > 
being 'Adr=much and heavy rain, 7. 
Afandiyah, Al- (Arab.) = Efendis, 41. 
'Afar, tr. " sand devils," a word frequently 
joined with "Ghubdr" = dust (ST ), 
262. 
Aghd of the Janakilah = the Chief man 

(Aghd) of the Gypsies, 72. 
Akhaztu dam wajhhi-ha (Arab.} =" I bled 

her of the hymeneal blood," 42. 
'Akl (Arab.} = comprehension, under* 

standing, 193. 

" Akram " = themore generous (ST.), 304. 

" 'Ate babi 'lldh " (Arab.} = for the love 

of the Lord, gratis, etc., a popular 

phrase (tr. "At the Gate of Allah 

Almighty"), 138. 

'Atehudud (or Ate hadd) al-Shauk (Arab.} 

= fulfilling all our desires, 114. 
'Alaka = he hung, 149. 
Ate kdm (for "kam," how much?) pea- 
sants' speech, 224. 
'Aid Yadin = Alaeddfn, 265. 
" Allah ! Allah ! " here meaning " Haste I 

haste!" 71. 

"Allah hafiz-ik" (Arab.}- the pop.Pers. 
expression, "Khudd Hdfiz" ("Allah 
be thy safeguard "), 218. 
'Allah ooeneth," "Allah veileth," civil 
forms of refusal, 315. 



" Allazi 'amaltu fi-him, etc." = Those to 
whom I did a good turn, requite me 
with the contrary thereof (ST.), 253. 
" Alhamdolillah = Glory be to God ! " 

grace after meat, 337. 
" Aman" (Arab.} quarter, mercy (tr. 

" safety "), 30. 

Amawi Mosque of Damascus, one of the 
four Wonders of the Moslem world, 
36. 
'Amil Rasad (Arab.} lit., acting as an 

observatory, 341. 
Amsik (Arab.}, a "chaff" with the Turks' 

meaning cunnus-penis, 93. 
Amsik lisdna-k (Arab.} = " hold thy 

tongue," 93. 

Andromeda and Perseus, Myth of, brought 
down to St. George and the Dragon, 
261. 

Animals (lower) breeding with men, 331. 
Anjar = a flat platter (Pen. ), 143. 
" Annus Domini " = Age (the worst 

disease in human life), 3. 
Apochrypha, Tobias, etc., 78. 
Ardabb (prop. " Irdabb") = five bushels, 

290. 

Arghd " for " Arkha " =he " brayed " 
(like an ostrich) for "his limbs re- 
laxed," 31. 
Armaghdndt (Arab.} pi. of "Armaghdn" 

(Pers.} a present, 59. 
Arm- pit, Hair shaven or plucked from, 

'S3- 

Arsah (Arab.) akin to Mu'arris = a 
pimp, a pander, 208. 



372 



Supplemental Nights. 



Ashdak, usually applied to a wide-chapped 

face, 91. 
'Ashrah Miah (A1-) = ten times one 

hundred, ib. " one hundred for the 

(i.e. every) ten " (ST.), 28. 
Ashrafi, a gold coin of variable value, 143 ; 

the Portuguese Xerafim, 38. 
Ash-Shabakah bitalit as-Sayd = thy net 

for fishing, 9. 
Atrabulus (also Tardbulus), Arabisations 

of Tripolis, 169. 
Aun, a high degree among the Jinns, a 

tribe of the Jinn, sometimes syn. with 

Msirid, 80, 302. 
Auzah (Arab.), a popular word in Egypt 

and Syria (Pers. " Otak," and Turk. 

" Otah"), 40. 
A'uzu bi 'Itehi rain al-ShaytjCni'l-^fl/Vm 

= I take refuge with Allah against 

Satan the Stoned (ST.), 242. 
'Ayn turned into H., i.e. Bitdht for 

Bitd'at, 9. 
'Ayyinah, probably a misreading for 'Ay- 

niyyah=a sample, pattern (ST.), 290. 
Aysh = Ayyu Shayyin, what ? 207. 
Azbad (Arab.) from \/ Zbd (Zabd) = 

foaming, frothing, 31. 
" Azlam " = the more iniquitous (ST.), 304- 

BAHAR (Arab.) often used for hot spices (tr. 

"pimento"), 138. 
Bahr al-Muhit (Arab.) Circumambient 

Ocean, 323. 
Bakhshish (written " Bakshish" after Pel- 

lah-'fashion), 243. 

&\(Arab.) sing. Balah = atale, 210. 
Bamiyah= Gumbo, etc. of Brit. India (tr. 

"rose-mallows"), 243. 
Barbarians (Matthew Arnold's), 280. 
Barbasa (with dental sibilant "Sfn") = 

he sought, looked for (with palatial 

sibilant "Sad"), = he watered the 

ground abundantly (ST.), 291. 
Barbastu = besmeared, 291. 
"Bartaman" for "Martaban" =a pot, 

jar, etc. (tr. ft a crock"), 204-223. 
Bdsha" (Arab, form of Turk. "Pasha") 

derivation, 1 37* 
Basharah, Al- (Arab.) = a gift of good news, 

37- 

Bast, a preparation of Bhang (Cannabis 
19. 



Bdt = " the night has passed" (ST.), 246. 
Bat (for " Bit ") = Pass the night here (in 

Fellah speech), 246. 
Batiyah (Arab.) gen. = a black jack, a 

leathern flagon (tr. " Keg "), 125. 
Baysar or Baysarah, a dish peculiar to 

Egypt = beans seasoned with milk and 

honey, 176. Also "Baysa>" or "Fay- 

sar," 291. 

Bhang-eaters, indecencies of, 196. 
Bimdristdn (Arab, from Pers.) = a " sick 

house ", hospital, madhouse, 48. 
Bismillah = grace before meat, 337. 
Bita" 'i (Arab.) = my own, 9. 
Bridge of Sanjia in Northern Syria is one" 

of the four Wonders of the Moslem 

world, 36. 
Buksumah (Arab.) = hard bread " (tr. 

" biscuit "), 169. 
Bulaybul (A1-) = the little nightingale, 

Philomelet, 245. 
Bull used in the East to turn the mill and 

water-wheel, 294. 
Burka' veil or " Nose-bag," 282. 

CAFILAH, i.e. caravan, 222. 

Camel's pasture divided into "Khullah" 

(Sweet food called bread) and "Hamiz" 

termed fruit, 7 

Change from first person into third, loose- 
ness of style in the MS. (ST.), 282. 
Chavis and Cazotte quoted, 49, 64, 66. 
Chenery quoted, 7. 

Child-bed customs amongst Moslems, 177. 
Church of Rohah (Edessa), one of the four 

Wonders of the Moslem world, 36. 
Census should not be made without direct 

command of Creator (superstitious 

idea), 308. 
Cob-houses, 214. 
Chronique de Tabari quoted, 3-5. 
Coffee, 198. 
Coffee and sherbet, mention of, makes the 

tale synchronous with that of Ma'ariif, 

or the xvii. century, 55. 
Confections, or sweetmeats used by way of 

restoratives in the Bath, 56. 
Connexion of Beasts with Humans, and 

consequences thereof, 331. 
Cook and Cooking, Egyptian or Syrian 

compared with English, 174. 
Corpse sprinkled with water, etc., 257. 



Index. 



373 



Cossid (Arab. Kasid), an Anglo-Indian 
term = a running carrier, 123. 

Cramoisy (dressed from head to foot in), a 
royal sign of wrath denoting torture or 
death, 63. 

Crepitus ventris, 231. 

Cynocephalus famed for venery, 333. 

DAINTY FOOD (Egyptian or Syrian Cook 

compared with English), 174. 
Dakhlah, Al- (Aratr.) = the night of 

going in, 42. 
Dalla"! = broker (same as Sahib = owner), 

224. 
Darajatani {Arab.}, /*Y. = two astronomical 

degrees (tr. tf a couple of hours "), no. 
Darbdlah (Arab.), corresponding with 

Egypt. " Darabukkah," a tabor of 

wood or earthenware (tr. " little 

drum"), 43. Also part of the regular 

Darwaysh's begging gear, 43. 
Darb al-Mandal (Egypt.) Striking the 

magic circle in which enchanter sits 

when-he conjures up spirits (a form of 

second sight), 45. 
Darwayshah (Arab.) = a she- Fakir (tr. 

" religious mendicant "), 217. 
Darwayshes suspected of kidnapping, 153. 
"Day in the Country," an old Eastern 

custom, 96. 
Dawi = an echo, 273. 
Defloration, regarded by many ancient 

peoples as if it were porter's work, 57. 
Dijlah, Al- = The Tigris (Hid-dekel), 151. 
Dilk (Arab.), more commonly " Khirkah " 

=s tattered robe of religious mendicant 

(tr. "gabardine"), 43. 
Dinarzddeh (W. M. MS .) = " Ducat-born " 

(for Dinarzad), 6. 
Dish-cover used for cleanliness, and to 

prevent Evil-Eye falling upon food, 

243- 

Dodges, Eastern, to detect physiological 
differences between man and maid, etc., 

121. 

Drinking in a bright light, loved by 

Easterns, 193. 

Drying towels of palm fibre, 5$. 
Duna-k (Arab.) = " Well done," 239. 

BAR conceiving love before the eye, 139. 



"Eat thy pottage," a formula like xir 

" Cut your mutton,'' 84. 
Eating and drinking, 160. 
Efendi (here meaning the under-governor 

or head clerk), 214. 
Elephants usually are vegetarians, 265. 
"Enallage of persons" is Koranic and 

therefore classical, 39. 
Everything returns to or resembles its 

origin, 13. 
Evil Eye, 60 ; 257. 



FA'ALAH (Arab.) = the building craft (tr. 

"industry"), 179. 
Faddah (Arab.), lit. = silver ; the smallest 

Egyptian coin, 37; Faddahs, 2,000 = 

about is. 2d., 295. 
Fakakat = lit. "she flowed over like a 

brimful vessel." (ST.) tr. here " she 

expired," 333. 
" Fair fate befal thee, etc," an address 

only suited to a king or ruler, 109. 
Fandrat (Arab. pi. of the Pers. Fanar=a 

light house) here ecjuiv. to mod Gr. 

<t>avdp a lantern (Egypt. Fdniis) tr. 

"flambeaux," 44. 
Far (Arab.) pi. " Firdn"= mouse rather 

than rat, 324. 
Farafish (Arab.) a word not found in die-' 

tionary tr. il lumps," 12 ; nearest 

approach to, would be Farafik (pi. of 

Furfdk) = fine, thin or soft bread, 12. 
Farrdsh= tent pitcher, body servant, 157. 
Farts, savour his own (curious pheno- 
menon), 231. 
Faswah (Arab.)="& silent break wind," 

as opposed to " Zirt," a loud fart, 231.' 
Faysdr, a dish peculiar to Egypt (see 

Baysdr), 176. 
Fellah women stain their veils, etc. with 

indigo (for sorrow), 248. 
Feminine venereal paroxysm, 144. 
Fida'i (Ptrs.)^ robber, a murderer, 281. 
Fidawiyah (Arab.) sing. " Fidawi " = ///. 

one who gives his life to a noble cause, 

281. 
Fi Jffan kan-Jawbi ! (Arab.) meaning 

small things (or men) and great (tr. 

" In the well like the tank "), 106. 



374 



Supplemental Nights. 



Finjai (vulg. for " Finjan") = coffee, 198. 
Firasah (A rab.) = penetration, 10. 
Forwardness on the part of women held 

to be insulting by modest Moslem, 68. 
Fowl (domestic) unknown to Europe till 

about the time of Pericles (ob. B.C.. 

429)1 32- 
Freemasonry, 288. 

" GASHA "=he produced a sound, 20. 

Galland quoted, 41, 244, 348. 

Cauttier quoted, 3, 19, 49, 74, 90, 9$, 97, 

176, 189, 228, 244. 254, 334. 
"Ghabasah" (Arab.} from Ghabas = 

obscure, dust-colored (tr. " clouded of 

color"), 22. 
Ghaush = a tree of hard wood whereof 

musical instruments are made, 20. 
Ghaushah = tumult, quarrel, 20 j (tr. 

" clamour'*) a Persianism for which 

" Ghaughd " is a more common form, 

20. 

Ghawwasha=he produced a sound, 20. 
Ghayr \Va'd or 'Min ghayr Wa'd" = 

lit. without previous agreement (tr. 

" undesignedly "), 149. 
Ghaziyah(4nz.) = a gypsy (//. Ghawazi), 

29. 
Ghiovende* (Turk.), a race of singers and 

dancers, professional Nautch-girls, 72. 
Ghubar=dust (joined to 'Afar = ' sand- 

devils"), 262. 

HALIK (Arab.}- intensely black, 24. 

Half-man, an old Plinian fable (Ptrs. Nim- 
Chihreh, and Arab. Shikk), 76. 

Halkah = throat, throttle, 190. 

" Halwd" = sweetmeat, 7. 

Hdmiz = pop. term for pickles (i.e. " Sour 
meat'* as opposed to " sweetmeats"), 7. 

Hamlat al-jamal =s according to Scott, a 
"Camel's load of Treasure," 59. 

Hanut (Arab.} ~ aromatic herbs, 257. 

Haraj (in Egypt. "Harag") = the cry 
with which the Dalldl (broker) an- 
nounces each sum bidden at an auction, 

37- 
Harj, gen. joined with Marj (Harj wa 

Marj) = utter confusion, chaos (ST.), 

342. 
Harj wa Laght (Arab.} turmoil and 

trouble (ST.), 342. 



Hashish = Bhang in general, 19 ; confec- 
tion of, 195. 

Hayishah from */ " Haysh " = spoiling, 190. 

Haysumah (Arab.} = smooth stones (tr. 
" pebbles"), 347- 

Hdzir (Arab.} corresponds with English 
" Yes sir ! " (tr. " Present"), 254. 

Head cut off and set upon the middle of 
the corpse (in case of a Jew), or under 
the armpit (in case of a Moslem), 64. 

He for she, 29. 

" He found the beasts and their loads and 
the learned men," etc., a new form of 
"bos atque sacerdos," 311. 

Hemp, Indian, 195. 

Her desire was quenched, 144. 

Hidyah (Arab.} in Egypt = a falcon (tr. 
"a Kite"), 101. 

Hikayah (= literal production of a dis- 
course, etc.), 39. 

Hilm (vision), " au 'Ilm" (knowledge) 
Arab. (tr. dreaming or awake) a phrase 
peculiar to this MSS,, 39. 

" His bones were crushed upon his flesh '* 
for " His flesh . . bones," 347. 

House masters (also Kings) in the East 
are the last to be told a truth familiar 
to all but themselves and their wives, 

35'- 

Houses made of cob or unbaked brick, 
which readily melts in rain, 214. 

Housewife, Egyptian or Syrian, will make 
twenty dishes out of roast lamb, 174. 

Hubban li-raasi-k (Arab.) /*Y.=out of love 
for thy head, i.e. from affection for 
thee, $0. 

Hummus (or Himmis) = vetches, 7 

Htiri (Arab.) for Hiir = pool, marsh or 
quagmire (vulg. "bogshop"), 206. 

"Huwa inna" lam na'rifu-h" (Arab.) lit. 
= He, verily we wot him not (sug- 
gesting "I am he"), 133. 

" I AM as one who hath fallen from the 
heavens to the earth," i.e. an orphan 
and had seen better days, 75. 

" I change the pasture " = I pass from 
grave to gay, etc., 7. 

'Ilm al-Huruf (Arab.) tr. "Notaricon," 80. 

"Ikhbdr" (= mere account of the dis- 
course, oratio indirecta> etc., 39. 

Impotence, Causes and cure of, 257. 



Index. 



375 



Indecencies of Bhang-eat?rs, 196. 

Indian hemp, 195. 

" In lam tazidd Kayni " = /*V. unless thou 

oppose my forming or composing (tr. 

" unless thou avert my shame"), II. 
"Isha" prayer, 296. 
Ishari, a word which may have many 

meanings (tr. "a white cock in his 

tenth month "), 341. 
Istilah (Arab.) = Specific dialect, idiom 

(tr. " right direction "), 104. 
Istinshak (Arab.) one of the items of the 

Wuzu or lesser ablution (tr. "water "), 

58. 

lydlah = government-general. 
lyds al-Muzani, al Kazi (of Bassorah) the 

Model Physiognomist, 107. 
"Iz lam naakhaz, wa-illa," etc., a fair 

specimen of Arab. Ellipsis, 300. 

JA'AD = a curl, a liberal man, 14. 

Ja'ad al-yad = miserly, 14. 

Ja'fdiyah (Arab.) a favorite word in this 

MSS. = " Sharpers," 14, 280. 
Jdmusah (Arab.) = buffalo-cow, -26. 
Janakilah. = gypsies, 72. 
Janazah, bier with a corpse thereon, 289. 
Ja"nn, Al- (MS. preserves rare form of, for 

the singular), 88. 
Jarid, used as a javelin, 173. 
Jari'dah (Arab.), = a palm-frond stripped of 

its leaves, 173. 
Jauhar-ji (Arab.) a Turkish form for 

Jauhari, 21. 
Jawush (Arab.) for Chawush (Turk.) = an 

army sergeant, etc. , 45. 
Jazdan = a pencase (Pers.) t more prop. 

called Kalamdan = a reed box, 322. 
Jeweller, held to be one of the dishonest 

classes, 21. 
Jink of Egypt (called by Turkish soldiers 

Ghiovende), 72. 
Jumlatun min al-mal = Worth a mint of 

money, 59. 



for "Kudum" (Syrian form) to 

"adze," 101. 
Kafir (i.e. a non- Moslem). Everything 

fair in dealing with, 316. 
Kahin, usual plurals of are Kahanah and 

Kuhhan (ST.), 320. 



Kahirah .= City of Mars, Cairo, 35. 
Kahraman,a/tVSamarbjin)(W.M.MS.),6. 
Kahramauah (Arab.) = a nurse, a duenna, 

an Amazon guarding the Harem, 78. 
Kalak (Arab.), lit. = agitation, disquietude 

(used as syn. with Kulanj = a true 

colic), 177. 

Kalamddn = reed box, 322. 
Kalamatu 'llah = the Koran, 252. 
" Kalansuwah "-cap a distinguishing 

mark of the Coptic regular clergy, 34. 
Kalb (for " Kulbat") = a cave, a cavern 

(tr. "conduit,") 214. 
Kanat (Arab.) tr. water-leat, 350. 
Karb, one of whose meanings is "to in- 
flate the stomach," 182. 
Karlt (v/ Kart) = complete, speaking of a 

year, etc. (ST.), 337. 
Karkabah (Arab. ), clerical error for Kar- 

karah = driving ; rumbling of wind in 

bowels, 182. 
Kart = complement, or here, "remainder," 

(ST.), 337- 

Kash'am, a term having various sigs., 183. 
Kasht = skinning (a camel) y' of Mikshat 

(Arab), IQO. 
" Kashmar," a word not to be found in 

dictionary, 2$. 
Kattan = linen, flax (tr. " linen web ")> 

104. 

Kauk (Kaka, yakiiku) to chuck, 203. 
Kauk= an aquatic bird with a long neck, 

203* 

Kawik (Arab.) = magpie, 203. 
Kawwdrah, tr. "Sherd" (not found ia 

dictionary), 179. 
Kayf, a tranquil enjoyment, 196. 
Kaylulah = Siesta, 324. 
Kazazah = vulg. a (flask of) glass, 179. 
Kazdir, may here allude to the canisters 

used by small shopkeepers (tr. " tin "), 

338. 

Kerchief, throwing the, 264. 
Khaliydh = beehive and empty, 222. 
Khauf (A1-) Maksiim = cowardice is 

equally divided, 245. 
Khaznah = the Treasury = I, coo kU or" 

purses, each 500 piastres, ^S* 000 * 74 

1 80. 
Khil'ah = robe of honour, consists of 

many articles, such as a horse, sword, 

etc., 235- 



376 



Supplemental Nights. 



Khwdjah (spelt elsewhere " Khwdja "), 
50 ; corresponds with our " good 
man," 62. 

Kidnapping (by Dervishes), 153. 

Kiosque, traced through the Turk. Kushk 
(pron. Kytishk) to the Pers. " Kushk " 
33 an upper chamber, 151. 

Kirsh (pron. "Girsh") the Egyptian 
piastre = one-fifth of a shilHng, 72 ; 281. 

Kirsh (Arab.), pop. " Girsh ' = a dollar, 
281. 

Kis = purse = 500 piastres = $, 74. 

Koran quoted, 201, 242, 252, 254. 

Kubbah = vault, cupola, 290. 

Kuhna, Syriac singular, according to dic- 
tionaries (ST.), 320. 

Kuhnsi, Al- (Arab.), pi. of Kahtn't a 
diviner, priest (tr. "Cohens"), 320. 

KiSlanj (Arab.} = a true colic, 177. 

Kunafan{ = a baker of ktmafah= a vermi- 
celli cake often eaten at breakfast, 127. 

Kurbaj (Arab.} = Cravache ("Scourge "), 
214- 

Kursi (Arab.), here = a square wooden 
seat without back, used for sitting 
cross-legged (tr. "chair "), 52. 

Kursi-stool = the -stool upon which the 
Siniyah or tray of tinned copper, is 
placed, 170. 

Kurush (Arab.), pi. of Kirsh, the Egyptian 
piastre = one-fifth of a shiliing, 72. 

Kut al-KuMb, 225. 

Ktit =s food not to be confounded with 
" Kuwwat " = force, 225. 

jKuwarah = that which is cut off from the 
side of a thing, 179. 

JKuwayyis (dim. of Kaus), much used in 
Egypt as an adj.=" pretty," etc., 350. 



LABBAH (Arab.), usually part of the throat 
where ornaments are hung or camels 
stabbed (tr. < necklace "), 68. 

Labbayka a here am I (tr. "Here I 
stand"), 317. 

Laght (also pron, Laghat), a synonym of 
"Jalabah" a clamour, tumult. (ST.), 
342- 

Lane quoted, 19, 29, 34, 43, 45, 55, 56, 
ib., 122, 209, 243, 257, 293, 296. 

La tafzah-ni = Do not rend my reputa- 
tion. (ST.), 295. 



" Lawa'a-hu," a clerical error for 
"lawa'a-hu." (ST.), 306. 

Lawwaha (Arab.) = ///. pointing out, 
making clear (fr. "bobbed "), 190. 

" Lawwaha-hu," a conjectured reading 
for " lawa'a-hu." (ST.), 306. 

Learned men exorcising some possible 
" Evil Spirit " or " the Eye," a super- 
stition begun with the ancient Egyp- 
tians, 60. 

Lion lashing flank with tail, 160* 

Liwdn al-barrdnl (Arab.) lit. = the outer 
bench in the " Maslakh " or apodyte- 
rium (tr. tl outside the calidarium"), 56. 

"Luh" = to him for "Li" = to me, 
282. 



(Arab.) = Minerals (tr. ingre- 
dients"), 139. 

Madafi al-Salamah (Arab.) = the cannon 
of safe arrival, 124. 

Mafyaat, Al- (Arab.) = lit. " a shady place" 
(tr. here " mysterious subjects "), 14. 

Maghrabi (vulg. Maghribi), 43. 

Mahazzin (for Mahazim) al Zerdukkant 
(for al-Zardakhdn) according to Scott 
" Saffron yoke of eggs, etc. ; accord- 
ing to Lane *' apron napkins of thick 
silk" (tr. here "silken napkins"), 

55-56. 

Mahkamah, i.e. the Kazi's Court-house, 
169. 

"Mahmud the Persian and the Kurd 
Sharper," a poor version of "Alithe 
Persian and the Kurd Sharper," 242. 

Ma'hud min ghayr Wa'd, Al- (Arab.} = 
" the door where the appointment had 
taken place without risk threatened," 
66. 

Maidenhead, taking it held to be porter's 
work, 57. Decency compels maidens 
to show unwillingness in parting with, 

135- 

Ma'jun (Arab.) pop. applied to an elec- 
tuary of Bhang (Cannabis sativa) (tr. 
"confections"), 56. 

Mai sa flocks and herbs (in Badawi par- 
lance), 3. 

Ma'liimah (Arab.) = far famed (may also 
mean " made known " or " afore-men- 
tioned "), 276. 



Index. 



377 



Ma*l wa Ghawdl (Arab.) = moneys and 

treasures, 3. 
' MAI wa Nawdl," 3. 
" Mandfl" (kerchief) of mercy, 31. 
Manjanik (Arab.) from the Greek May/a 

vov or M^x ai/ ^= a catapult, 117. 
Maristdn = The Bedlam, 207. 
Martabdn, 204. See Bartaman, 204. 
MashA' ili (Arab.) the cresset-bearer who 

acted hangman (tr. " Linkman "), 23. 
Mashali = three parallel gashes drawn down 

cheek of child (to prevent kidnapping), 

153- 
Mashrut Shadak (Arab.) = split -mouthed, 

91. 

Massage (Greek synonym JMUTO-W and 
Latin "Massare"), 177. 

Massage, needlessly derived from Arab. 
"Mas'h'^ rubbing, kneading, 177. 

Maugraby used as an approbrious term (Fr. 
Maugrebleu), 43. 

" May it be fortunate to thee," a little pre- 
catory formula to keep off the Evil 
Eye, 119. 

Mazardt (Arab.) from v/ "Mazr"=(an egg) 
being addled (tr. qualms), 177. 

Miat Mamluk Kitabi (Arab.) latter word 
meaning ' one of the Book, a Jew " or 
Christian, 85. 

Midi, clerical error for " Mayyidl," an ab- 
breviation of Muayyadi = quarter far- 
thing, 127. 

Mikshat (Arab.) whose ^ would be 
"Kasht" as skinning a camel (tr. 

L "Whittle,") 100. 

i = a sheet of cotton used as apparel, 
220. 
c, specific gravity of, 238. 

Milk time (father has no connection with 
the mother during), 350, 

Milk time was passed (two years) usual 
time amongst savages and barbarians, 

350- 
Min al- Maldbis (Arab.) pi. of " Malbas" 

= anything pleasant or enjoyable, 149. 
Min al-Maldbis (Arab.) pi, of "Milbas' 

= dress, garment, 149. 
Mirwad = iron axle of pulley, etc. hence 

a bar of metal (tr. " ingot "), 142. 
Misallah(pl. " Missill ") = a large needle 

for sewing canvas, 288. 
Moslem school described, 98. 



Vlourning-dress, 248. 

Vluaddib al-Atfal (Arab,) = one who 
teacheth children, 95 

rtu'ammarjiyah (master masons) vulg. 
Egypt, for " Mu'ammarin" (tr. 
"architects"), 228. 

Mu'awizzatani (A1-) "Two Refuge- 
takings, 252. 

Mubattat (Arab.) from batt=a duck (tr. 
"duck-shaped"), 27. 

Mubarbasah (Arab.) in the fern, because 
referring to noun Tis=anus (ST.), 291. 

Muhandizin = geometricians, architects, 
for " Muhandism," 228. 

Mukabbab (Arab.) = vaulted, arched, 
&c.(tr.fore" heaped"), 9. 

Mulukhlyd (o'er, from Gr. ftxiXo^ from 
/xaXao-o-w = to soften) a favorite 
vegetable, 176. 

Mulukhfyah nsishiyah (Arab,) lit.- flow- 
ing (tr. "gravied mallows"), 176. 

Munnaskif (for manashif) al fillfillee ; 
according to Scott " compound of 
peppers" red, white and black;'* 
according to Lane and tr. here drying 
towels of Lif or palm-fibre, 56. 

Murafraf (passive) from Rafraf anything 
overhanging something else (ST. ), 338. 

Musajja' (A rob.) rhymed prose or Saj'a, 
I33 

NA*ASH = a box like our coffin, but open at 

the top, 289. 
Nabk = lote tree or Zizyphus lotus, for 

sprinkling corpses, 257. 
Nakkal, or coffee-house tale-teller, 235. 
Nakl (Arab.) = copying, describing, tran- 
scribing, 193. 
Name, not appearing in unedited tales, till 

much after the proper time for specifying 

it, 299. 
" Na'mil ma'allazi, &c., makfdah," idiom 

" I will do him brown," 282. 
Na'tazu (Arab.) viii. form of '& = it 

escaped, lacked, &c. ; hence this form 

" we need " tr. " we require, (ST.) 290. 
Ndtur (Arab.) prop, a watchman (tr. " old 

man"), 204. 
" New lamps for old " as in " Alaeddin," 

322. 
Nii (= the high Nile), 215* 



378 



Supplemental Nights. 



Nfnvchihreh (/>*.) = Half-man (Arab. 

"Shikk"), 76. 
Niyyah (Arab.} = intent (normal pun upon 

the name), 339. 
"No thing poketh and stroketh more 

strenuously than the Gird," or hideous 

Abyssinian Cynocephalus, popular 

Eastern belief, 333. 
Nusf = half a dirham, drachma or franc, 

1937- 
Nusfs (180 in these days = about iod.), 98. 

O MY SON ! O my Child ! (repetition a 

sign of kindness and friendliness), 269. 
O my uncle ! (to elder man) : O my cpu- 

sin ! (to youth), 119. 
"One dayof the days,"a phrase emphasising 

the assertion that it was a chance day, 75. 
" Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings, 

<fec., an idea not less Moslem than 

Christian, 271. 

PAGG! = Tracker, 8. 

Pay-day for boys in Egypt (Thursday), 98. 

Payne quoted, 332. 

Pharos of Alexandria, one of the four 

Wonders of the Moslem world, 36. 
Philomelet, The shrilling, 245. 
Physiognomist, a favorite character in 

Arabic folk-lore, 107. 
11 Physiognomy (" Firasah") unless there 

be the science of, other science availeth 

not," 10. 
Piastre (Egyptian) = one-fifth of a shilling, 

72. 
Pilgrimage quoted, 35, 38, 153, 196, 208, 

343- 

Professional dancer, z>., a public pros- 
titute, 29. 

Prothesis without apodosis, figure, 29. 

Purse = Kis = 500 piastres = $, 74. 

Purses, one thousand compose the Treasury 
("Khaznah") = ^5,000, 74. 

"RA'm FAYN " = wending (art thou) 

whither ? 207. 

Rais = master,captain, skipper (not owner), 
x 125. 

Rajul Ja'ldf = Larrikin, 280. 
Ratl (tr. "a pound "), 295. 
Reading of " meat and drink " enjoyed by 

Arabs as much as by Englishmen, 160. 



Red robes a sign of displeasure, 297. 
Rika"b (Arab.) = Stirrup + " dar " (Pen.) 

= holder (tr. "groom*'), 24. 
Rfsah (copyist's error for "Rishah")=a 

thread, feather, line, 259, 
Rfshah = feather, plume (usual meaning) 

Dr. Steingass explains, 259. 
Riyal (from the Span. " Real" = royal 

(coin) tr. " real", 284. 
" Rizk " equiv. for " Al-Rizku '1-hasanu" 

= any good thing obtained without 

exertion (ST.), 245. 
Rizk maksiim (A1-), an old and sage 

by-word pregnant with significance, 

245. 
Roger, old name of the parish bull in 

rural England, 203. 
"Rub'a" (Arab.'] pi. Arbd = the fourth ol 1 

a " Waybah " (tr. " half a quartern "), 

128. 

SAHIB = owner (same as "DallaP' = 

broker), 224. 

Sahibi-h = mate (masculine), 346. 
Salasin = thirty (a clerical error for 

"three"), 310- 
"Salihin" (Arab.) = thQ Saints, the Holy 

ones (tr. "the Hallows"), 218. 
Sanjak-dar = the banner-bearer, ensign, 

245- 

Sanjak (7W.) = flag, banner, 245. 

Sanjak (in modern parlance) = minor 
province, 245. 

Sara' a hu wa lawa'a-hu = he rushed upon 
him and worried him (ST.), 266. 

Saray not to be confounded with Serraglio 
= Harem, 234. 

Saray (Pers.) official headquarters of the 
Wall, 234. 

Sarir = a bier without the corpse, 289. 

"Sarkhah adwat la-ha al-Sarayah " = a 
cry to which the Palace women raised 
an echo (ST.), 272. 

Satihah (Ara&.)=si She-Satfh, 69. 

Sattar (Arab.)=z" The Veiler," 31 (corres- 
ponding with " Jupiter Servator") 270. 

Sayaban (Pers.) = canopy, 129. 

Sayyah (A1-) r= the Shrieker, 245. 

"Saza, Yasizu" (Arab.) tr. "geneal- 
ogist," not a dictionary word perhaps 
a clerical error for "Sasa"=he 
groomed or broke in a horse, 21. 



Index. 



379 



"Sciences are of three kinds, etc.*' 10. 

Scott quoted, 3, 7, 14, 19, 27, 35, 43, 45, 
55 56, 59. 67, 74, 80, 90, 95, 97, 109, 
127, 169, 176, 189, 244, 297, 303, 307, 

334, 35i- 
Second-sight( )///." Darb al-Mandal "), 

45- 

41 Shurbah " (Pers. Shorbah) = mess of pot- 
tage (tr. " dish of roast meat "), 22. 

Shikk (4>-aJ.) = Half-man, 69, 76. 

Shayh = Artemisia, 343. 

Sherbet and coffee, mention of, makes the 
tale synchronous with that of Ma'aruf 
or the xvii. century, 55. 

Sheriff//, of Sheriffyah (Egyptian form) ; 
here " Ashrafis, 336. 

Shahrbdz (W. M. MS.) = City-player or 
city- falcon, 6. 

Shahrzadah (W.M. MS.) = " City born, 11 
(for Shahrazad), 6. 

Shajavat Rlh=Wind-tree (?), 138. 

/'Sham ba'd az nisf-i-shab= dinner after 
midnight = supper, (Sx.) 244. 

Sbdmiyanah = a royal pavilion (cor. of 
Pers. "Sayaban "=.canopy), 129. 

Shamiyat bi al-Nar, an Inquisitorial cos- 
tume (tr. *' a black habit bepatched 
with flame colour"), 79. 

Sharkh (Arab.) = 'm diets, the unpolished 
blade of hiltless sword (tr. here "a 
butcher's chopper "), 220. 

Shaykh al-Isla"m, the Chief of the Moslem 
Church, 69. 

Shaykh, for humility, sits at the side of 
room, not at the top (' Sadr "), 84. 

Shaykh or head of the Guild for thieves,282. 

Sifah (Arab.) lit = a quality (tr. " pro- 
perty"), 102. 

Silken napkins, 55. 

Sind Revisited quoted, 8. 

Smiyah=tray of tinned copper, 170. 

Sirhan = wolf, 19. 

Siwan (Arab.) pi. Siwdwm = pavilion, 
113- 

Sleep at mid-forenoon considered unwhole- 
some by Easterns, 324. 

" Smoke of camel's dung" to drive off 
Evil Spirits, 78. 

Sneezes (ceremony when a Moslem), 95. 

Solomon's Judgment, Moslem version of, 
236. 

Soudans, Two, 305;; 



Standards and colours, an unfailing ac- 
companiment of the Jinn army, 89. 

Sleingass quoted, 12, 15, 20, 50, .142, 152, 
183, 206, 228, 242, 244, 245, 246, 253, 
259, 260, 262, 265, 266, 267, 282, 289, 
290, 291, 295, 301, 302, 304, 306, 307, 
319, 320, 337, 338, 342. 

Story of the First Lunatic (variants), 49. 

" Striking palm upon palm," i.e. in sign 
of despair, 252. 

Subu (Arab.) forYaum al-Subu=Septena- 
festival on the seventh day after a 
birth, marriage, or return from pilgri- 
mage), 122. 

Sufrah = the cloth (tr. "tablecloth"), 69.' 

Sufrah of leather = circular leather which 
acts as provision bag and tablecloth, 
162. 

Sufrah umm jalajil (Arab.) #/.=an eating 
cloth with little bells, 169. 

Sujjddah=/*V. a praying carpet (tr. " rug"), 
52. 

"Sultan and his Sons, etc., same as 
Scott's "Story of the Three Princes, 
etc.", 244. 

Sultan of Al-Yaman and his three Sons 
(ver. taken from Zotenberg's " Chron- 
ique de Tabari "), 3. 

Sultan of the Jann preceded by sweepers ; 
always appears in the form of second 
sight called by Egyptians " Darb al- 
Mandal, 45. 

Supper comes first because the day begins 
at sundown, 120. 

Supper ("dinner after midnight"). See 
Shah's diary (ST.), 244* 

Susan (Arab.) = weevil, moth, worm, 23. 

" Suwdn" (Arab.) /*V.=rock syenite, hard 
stone flint (tr. " mace "), 24. 

Symmetromania, Arab., 67. 

TAFAZZAL (Arab.), a useful word employed 
in invitations equiv. to " Have the 
kindness," 84; Tafazzalu, 233. 

Tail, lashing his (lion's), symptoms of rage 
distinguishing felines from canines, 
161. 

Ta'kil (Arab.) tying up a camel's foreleg 
above the knee, 23. 

Takiyah = Calotte or skull-cap, 120. 

Takrit, a town in Mesopotamia celebrated 
for its velvets, etc., (ST.), 337. 



380 



Supplemental Nights. 



Takniri = a Moslem negroid from Central 

and Western North Africa, 298. 
Tambur der. from "Tabl" = a drum 

(hence modern " Tambour "), 209. 
Tamtar Aysh ? (Arab.} i.e. Ayyu Shayyin, 

" What do the skies rain ! " 207. 
Tamim (Arab.} pi. of Tamimat=: spells, 

charms, amulets, "Thummim", 332. 
Tara*bulus-town (also Atrdbulus) arabisa- 

tions of Tripolis, 169. 
Tarajjama, frequently used in this MS. 

(ST.), 242. 
Tarammd al-Mahramah (throwing the 

handkerchief) used in the old forms 

of choosing a mate, 31. 
Tari (Arab.} lit. = wet (tr. "soothing"), 

71- 

Taylasan-hood, 34. 

Thayyib (Arab.) = a woman who has 
known man but once, 333. 

"The chick is unsatisfied till etc." a 
translation which pre-supposes the 
reading " Farkhah U atammat " and 
would require "hatta" or " ila " to 
express "till" (ST.), 302. 

" The Hoard hath gone from me, and I 
have waxed feeble," i.e. his strength 
was in the gold, 347. 

*' The world was turned topsy-turvey, i.e. 
there was a great movement and con- 
fusion, 262. 

Three Sisters and their Mother, Defects 
in the Story of, 165. 

Throwing the kerchief (taramma al Mah- 
ramah) used in the old form of choosing 
a mate, 31. See 264. 

" Thummim " der. from ' Tom " =r com- 
pleteness, 332. 

Thursday = pay day for the boys in Egypt, 
98. 

Tigris, The (Hid-dekel), 151. 

Toilette, carrying a portable, 303. 

Tomb of the Moslem, 293. 

Turayyih (mod. form for " turawwih ") 
(ST.), 301. 

Turkish Tales by Petis de la Croix, 13 



'On KHAYRAzAN = wood of the rattan, 

37- 

Urmnali (Arab.} ; gen. Ummal, an affirma- 
tion (tr. " True indeed "), 193. 



Umm Kash'an, a slang name for Death, 

183. 
Ummu'Amrin = mother of 'Amru (slang 

term for "hyaena"), 183. 
Urim (lights) and Thummim (amulets), 

332. 

VELLICATION (in cases of axilla-pile), 

153- 
Viaticum = provision, provaunt for the 

way, 304. 
Virginity (how proved), 121. 

WA ADRAKA SHAHRAzADA'L-SABAH = 

And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of 
day (also *' was surprised by the 
dawn"), 6. 

Wa-dazzh-a" (corruption in MS.) should 
read " wa wazzar-ha* " = " and he left 
her " (ST.), 462. 

"Wa Hakki man aulani hdzd '1-Mutk" 
= " and by the right of (my duty 
towards) Him who made me ruler 
over this Kingdom" (ST.), 307. 

Wa jasad-hu yuhazdimu = his body was 
emitting blood freely (ST.), 285. 

Waka!ah = a khan or caravanserai, 38. 

Wakil (Arab.} = deputy in marriage, 333, 
lit. = agent (tr. " trustee ") here corre- 
sponding with man who gives away the 
bride, 54. 

Wakt al-Zuha (Arab.} = the division of 
time between sunrise and mid-day 
(tr. " undurn hour "), 69. 

'Walakinhu ajmalu etc. " = "and yet 
he was mure beautiful than they etc." 
(ST.), 260. 

Watesh (Arab.}, i.e., " Was la" shayya" = 
and nihil (tr. " Anaught "), 210. 

"Wa'1-Sultanu karaa etc. "= "and the 
Sovran recited his appointed portion of 
the Koran, and then sat down to con- 
vivial converse " (ST.), 244. 

Waraytani ila l-tura"b=thou hast given me 
over to the ground for concealment 
(ST.), 312- 

Watukarribu 'l-'Abda ilayya (referring the 
verb to " Al-Sadakah " = the alms) 
=and it bringeth the servant near to 

me "(ST.), 335- 

Waybah=the sixth of an Ardabb (Irdabb) 
= 5 bushels, 128. 



Index. 



"Wa zarr-ha" for " Wa dazz-hd " = 

besprinkled her (ST.), 314. 
Waziru VArif bi-llahi Ta'dla, Al- = The 

Wazir-wise-in-Allah-Almighty, 239. 
Wedding night, mothers tell v their 

daughters what to expect, 42. 
Wept and laughed alternately (nearest 

approach in East, tales to West* 

hysterics), 155. 
" Where is the bird ? " = " How far is the 

fowl from thee?",300. 
"White" night, i.e. " pleasant," 

"enjoyable," 285. 
"Wife " used for " Harim," 28. 
Wonders of the (Moslem) World four in 

number, 36. 
Wormwood, a regular Badawi remedy, 

343- 
Wortley Montague MS. quoted, 3, 6, 19, 

35. 49> 74. 90, 95 97 101, 109. 
XERAFIM, Port, for Ashrafi, 38. 

"YA 'ARZAD" prob. cler. slip for 
"'Urzdt" (pi. of 'Urzah) = a com- 
panion, a (low) fellow, 191. 

Yd Haza (Arat>.) = Uo, this one," 231. 

Yahjubu (Arab,) aor. of "hajaba"=he 
veiled, put out of sight (ST.), 342. 

Yd Jad'dn " (more gen. " Yd Jad'a ")= 
mon brave, 191. 

"Yakhburu ma'ahu fi '1-Kaldm" ///.= 
he experimented with him, i.e. he pui 
him to the test (tr. " he spake with 
him softly ") (ST.), 307. 

Yaklishu (from |/ Kulsh) = "kicking" 
(their heels), 19. 

Yanjaaru (Arab.) vii. form of " jaara," in 
which the idea of "raising" seems to 
prevail, tr. "mounted," 311. 

"Yd Salldm (Arab.} "O Saviour" ad- 
dressed to Allah, 63. 

Yasrahu = roaming (tr. " rummaging"), 
19. 

" Yd Sultdn-am " Pers. or Turk, form for 
Arab. " Yd Sultdn-i " (" O my Sul- 
tan''), 214. 

Yatazdwadu (Arab. ) = increasing (tr. " con- 
tending"), 62. 



Ya Tinjfr (Arab.) /z/. = O Kettle (tr. "O 

Miserable"), 71. 

Yauh! (Arab.) = " Alack!", 191. 
Yaum al-Ahad = First day (which begins 

the Moslem week), 341. 
Yaum al-Jum'ah Urj.}= Assembly-day, 

Friday, 342. 

Yaum al-Subii = 7th day, 122. 
Yd walad al-Halal = O thou true bom son 

(or "O! Son of lawful wedlock, 1 >) 

(ST.), 267. 
Young, a man is, in Arab speech, till forty 

or fifty, 119. \ 

Yufaghghiru = he opened his mouth wide 

(ST.), 265. 
Yughamru (probably for yu'aftiru) = raising 

a dust cloud (ST.), 265. 
Yughamru wa yuzaghdimu= raising a dust 

cloud and trumpeting with rage, 265. 
"Yumdzasa-hu fi '1-Kaldm," evidently 

a clerical error for " Yumdrasa-hu," 

= he tested or tried him in speech 

(ST.), 307. 

Yumkinshayy = " Is it possible," 232. 
Yuzaghdimu, a quadriliteral formed by 

blending two tri-literals in one verb, 

to intensify the idea (ST.), 265. 



ZABH (Zbh) (Arab. v/)=the ceremonial 

killing of animals for food, 32 
Zadig (Tale of) 7. 
Zaghdrit (//. of Zaghrutah) = loud lulli- 

looing, 267. 
Zahr (Arab.) lit. and generically a blossom 

(tr. "orange flower"), 52. 
Zahr al-Bahr= the surface which affords a 

passage to man, 12$. 
Zakdt = legal alms (tr. "poor-rates"), 

338. 

Zaman,, Al- (tr. " A delay") prob. an error 
for "Yd al-Malik al-Zamdn"= " O 
King of the Age," (ST.), 319- 

Zardakdt (for "Zardakhdn") = silken nap- 
kins, 55. 

Zard-i-Khdyah (/Vrr.) = yoke of egg, 56. 

Zifr=nail, claw, talon, 245. 

Zill (Arab.) lit. = " Shadow me " (tr. 
" solace me"), 58. 



BURTON, tr. PJ 

771!) 
Arabian nights, Supp., B 



. 4 

89032 



P-T 





''