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(Puris ornnia pura) 

Arab Proverb* 

'Niuna cor rot ta mente intese mai sanamente parole." 

"Decameron " conclutum* 

'Erubuit, posuitque meum Lucrctia librum 

Sed coram Bru to. Brute I recede, leget. " 


* Mieulx est de ris que de larmes escripre, 

Pour ce que rire est le propre des hommes. " 


"The pleasure we derive from perusing the Thousand-and-On* 
Stones makes ui regret that we possess only a comparatively small 
part of tfaese tmlj enchanting fictions. " 

CJUCHTON'S "History of Arab**. 


Ntgftts auto a Nt 






Shammar Edition 

Limited to one thousand numbered sets, 
of which this is 











NOTE TO THE LINGUIST-DAME . . . . . . .112 












&ppetrtrix HE. 


Ac.) 289 




x IF. 





OPINIONS OF THE PRESS ......... 455 


THIS volume has been entitled "THE NEW ARABIAN 
NIGHTS," a name now hackneyed because applied to its 
contents as far back as 1819 in Henry Weber's "Tales of 
the East," (Edinburgh, Ballantyne). 

The original MS. was brought to France by Al-Kahin Diyuni- 
sius Shawi'sh, a Syrian priest of the Congregation of St. Basil, 
whose name has been Frenchified to Don Dennis (or Denys) 
Chavis. He was a student at the European College of Al-<Xadfs 
Ithanasius (St. Athanasius) in Rumiyahthe Grand (Constantinople) 
and was summoned by the Minister of State, Baron de Breteuil. 
to Paris, where he presently became " Teacher of the Arabic 
Tongue at the College of the Sultdn, King of Fransd in Barfs 
(Paris) the Great." He undertook (probably to supply the loss of 
Galland's ivth MS. volume) a continuation of The Nights (proper), 
and wrote with his own hand the last two leaves of the third tome, 
which ends with three instead of four couplets : thus he com- 
pleted Kamar al-Zamdn (Night cclxxxi.-cccxxix.) and the follow* 
ing tales : 

The History of the Sleeper and the Waker (Nights cccxxx.-ccclxxix.). 

The History of Warlock and the Cook (ccclxxx.-cd.)- 

The History of the Prisoner in the Bima'rista'n or Madhouse (cd.-cdxxvii.). 

The History of Ghanim the Thrall o' Love (cdxxviii.-cdlxxiv.). 

The History of Zayn al-Asndm and the King of the Jdnn (cdlxxv.-cdxci.). 

The History of Alaeddin (cdxcii.-dlxix.), and 

The History of Ten Wazirs (dlxx.). 

The copy breaks off at folio 320, r in the middle of Night dcxxxi., 

ii Supplemental Nights. 

and the date (given at the end of Night cdxxvii., folio 139) is 
Shubat (February), A.D. 1787. This is the MS. numbered 
Supplement Arabe, No. 1716. 

In Paris, Dom Chavis forgathered with M. Cazotte, a litterateur 
of the category " light," an ingtnieux ^crivain^ distinguished for 
" gaiety, delicacy, wit and Attic elegance," and favorably known 
for (inter alia) his poem " Olivier," his " Diable Amoureux," 
"The Lord Impromptu," and a travesty of The Nights 'called 
"The Thousand and One Fopperies." The two agreed to 
collaborate, the Syrian translating the Arabic into French, 
and the Parisian metamorphosing the manner and matter to 
" the style and taste of the day " ; that is to say, working up 
an exaggerated imitation, a caricature, of Galland. The work 
appeared, according to Mr. A. G. Ellis, of the British Museum, who 
kindly sent me these notes, in Le Cabinet \ des F&s, f ou \ Collection 
choisie \ des Contes des Fe*es y \ et autres contes merveilleux, \ ornh de 
figures. | Tome trente-huitieme (quarante-unieme). \ A Geneve* \ 
chez Barde, Manget et Compagnie, \ Imprimeurs-Libraires. \ Et se 
trouve a Paris \ Rue et Hdtel Serpente. \ 1788-89, 8 1 \ . The half- 
title is Les Veillie'es Persanes, and' on the second title-page is Les 
Veillie'es \ du \ Sultan Schahriar, avec \ la Sultane Scheherazade ; \ 
Histoires incroyables, amusantes, et morales , | traduites de I'Arabepar 
M. Cazotte et \ D. Chavis. Faisant suite aux mille et une Nuits. \ 
Orne'es de 12 belles gravures. \ Tome premier (quatrieme) \ d 
Geneve, \ chez Barde, Manget et Comp* \ 1793. This 8vo. 2 bears the 
abridged title, La Suite des mille et une Nuits, Contes Arabes, 
traduits par Dom Chavis et M. Cazotte. The work was printed 
with illustrations at Geneva and in Paris, MDCCLXXXViii., and 
formed the last four volumes (xxxviii.-xli.) of the great Recueil, 
the Cabinet des Fe*es, published at Geneva from A.D. 1788 to 1793. 

1 Tome xli - is <>atcil789, the other three, 1788, to include them in the " Cabinet. 1 
3 The titles of all the vols. are dated alike, 1793, the actual date of printing. 

The Translators Foreword. \\\ 

The following is a complete list of the histories, as it appears in 
the English translation, lengthily entitled, " Arabian Tales ; | or, | 
a Continuation | of the | Arabian Nights Entertainments. | Con- 
sisting of | Stories | Related by the | Sultana of the Indies | to 
divert her Husband from the Performance of a rash vow ; | Ex- 
hibiting | A most interesting view of the Religion, Laws, | 
Manners, Customs, Arts, and Literature | of the | Nations of the 
East, | And | Affording a rich Fund of the most pleasing Amuse- 
ment, | which fictitious writings can supply. | In Four Volumes | 
newly translated from the original Arabic into French | By Dom 
Chavis | a native Arab and M. Cazotte, Member | of the Academy 
of Dijon. | And translated from the French into English | By 
Robert Heron. | Edinburgh : | Printed for Bell and Bradfute, 
J. Dickson, E. Balfour, | and P. Hill, Edinburgh ; | and G. G. J. 
and J. Robinson, London | MDCCXCII." 

1. The Robber-Caliph; or, adventures of Haroun-Alraschid, with the Princess 

of Persia and the fair Zutulbe. 1 

2. The Power of Destiny ; or, Story of the Journey of Giafar to Damascus, 

comprehending the Adventures of Chebib (Habib) and his family. 
3 The Story of Halechalb (All Chelebf) and the Unknown Lady ; or, the 

4. The Idiot ; or, Story of Xailoun.* 

5. The Adventures of Simustafa (= " Sf " for Sfdf " Mustafa ") and the Princess 

Ilsatilsone (Lizzat al-Lustin = Delight of Tongues ?). 

6. Adventures of Alibengiad, Sultan of Herat, and of the False Birds o 


7. History of Sankarib and his two Viziers. 

8. History of the Family of the Schebandad (Shah-bandar = Consul) of 


9. The Lover of the Stars : or, Abil Hasan's Story. 

10. History of Captain Tranchemont and his Brave Companions : Debil 

Hasen's Story. 

11. The Dream of Valid Hasan. 

1 This name is not in the Arabic text, and I have vainly puzzled my brains about its 
derivation or meaning. 

2 This P. N. is, I presume, a corruption of "Shawalan" one falling short. The 
wife " Oitba " is evidently " Otb " or " UtfcL 

iv Supplemental Nights. 

12-23. Story of Bohetzad and his Ten Viziers (with eleven subsidiary tales). 

24. Story of Habib and Dorathal-Goase (= Durrat al-Ghawwds the Pearl of the 

Diver) ; or, the Arabian Knight. 

25. Story of Illabousatrous (?) of Schal-Goase, and of 

26. Story of the Lady of the Beautiful Tresses. 

27. The History of Habib and Dorathal-Goase ; or, the Arabian Knight 


28. History of Maugraby (Al-Maghrabi = the Moor) ; or, the Magician. 

29. History of Halaiaddin ('Ala al-Din, Alaeddin, Aladdin), Prince of Persia. 

30. History of Yemaladdin (Jamdl al-Din), Prince of Great Katay. 

31. History of Baha-Ildur, Prince of Cinigae. 

32. History of Badrildinn (Badr al-Dfn), Prince of Tartary. 

33. History of the Amours of Maugraby with Auhata al-Kawakik (= Ukht al- 

Kawakib, Sister of the Planets), daughter of the King of Egypt. 

34. History of the Birth of Maugraby. 

Of these thirty-four only five (MS. iv., vi., vii., xxvii. and xxxii.) 
have not been found in the original Arabic. 

Public opinion was highly favourable to the "Suite" when first 
issued. Orientalism was at that time new to Europe, and the 
general was startled by its novelties, e.g. by "Women wearing 
drawers and trousers like their husbands, and men arrayed in loose 
robes like their wives, yet at the same time cherishing, as so many 
goats, each a venerable length of beard." (Heron's Preface.) They 
found its "phaenomena so remote from the customs and manners 
of Europe, that, when exhibited as entering into the ordinary 
system of human affairs, they could not fail to confer a consider- 
able share of amusive novelty on the characters and events with 
which they were connected." (Ditto, Preface.) Jonathan Scott 
roundly pronounced the continuation a forgery. Dr. Patrick 
Russell (History of Aleppo, voL i. 385) had no good opinion of 
it, and Caussin de Perceval (pre, vol. viii., p. 40-46) declared the 
version Jloignte du gofit Orientate; yet he re-translated the tales 
from the original Arabic (Continues, Paris, 1806), and in this he 
was followed by Gauttier, while Southey borrowed the idea of his 

1 See my Supplemental volume i. pp. 55-151, " The Ten Wazirs ; or, the History of 
King Azadbakht and his Son." 

The Translators Foreword. 

" beautiful romance, Thalaba the Destroyer, now in Lethe from the 
" History of Maughraby." Mr. A. G. Ellis considers these tales as 
good as the old " Arabian Nights/' and my friend Mr. W. F. Kirby, 
(Appendix to The Nights, vol. x. p. 476), quite agrees with him 
that Chavis and Cazotte's Continuation is well worthy of republi- 
cation in its entirety. It remained for the Edinburgh Review, 
in one of those ignorant and scurrilous articles with which it 
periodically outrages truth and good taste (No. 535, July, 1886), 
to state, " Cazotte published his Suite des Mille et une Nuits, a 
barefaced forgery, in 1785." A barefaced forgery! when the 
original of twenty-eight tales out of thirty-four are perfectly well 
known, and when sundry of these appear in MSS. of " The 
Thousand Nights and 'a Night." 

The following is a list of the Tales (widely differing from those 
of Chavis and Cazotte) which appeared in the version of Caussin 

de Perceval. 


Les | Mille et une Nuits, \ Contes Arabes, | Traduits en Francais | Par 
M. Galland, | Membre de 1' Academic des Inscriptions et | Belles-Lettres, 
Professeur de Langue Arabe | au College Royal | Continues | Par M. Caussin 
de Perceval, 1 Professeur de Langue Arabe au College Imperial. | Tome 
huitieme. | a Paris, | chez Le Norman t, I mp.-Libraire, | Rue des Pretres Saint- 
Germain-l'Auxerrois. J 1806. 

1. Nouvelles aventures du calife Haroun Alraschid ; ou histoire de la petite 

fille de Chosroes Anouschirvan. 

(Gauttier, Histoire du Khalyfe de Baghdad : vol. vii. 1 17.) 

2. Le Bimaristan, ou histoire du jeune Marchand de Bagdad et de la dame 


3. Le me*de*cin et le jeune traiteur de Bagdad. 

4. Histoire du Sage Hicar. 

(Gauttier, Histoire du Sage Heycar, vii. 313). 

5. Histoire du roi Azadbakht, ou des dix Visirs. 





marchand devenu malheureux. 

imprudent et de ses deux enfants. 
d' Abousaber, ou de 1'homme patient, 
du prince Behezad. 

roi Dadbin, ou de la vertueuse Aroua. 



vi Supplemental Nights. 

13. Histoire du roi Beherkerd. 

14. ,, Ilanschah et d'Abouteman. 

15. ,, Ibrahim et de son fils. 
1 6. Soleiman-schah. 

1 7. de 1'esclave sauve* du supplice. 


1 8. Attaf ou 1'homme 

(Gauttier, Histoire de 1'habitant de Damas ; vii. 234.) 

19. Histoire du Prince Habib et de Dorrat Algoase. 

20. roi Sapor, souverain des ties Bellour ; de Camar Alzemann, 
fille du gdnie Alatrous, et Dorrat Algoase. 

(Gauttier, vii. 64.) 
21 Histoire de Naama et de Naam. 

22. d'Alaeddin. 

23. d'Abou Mohammed Alkeslan. 

24. d'Aly Mohammed le joaillier, ou du faux calife. 

I need hardly offer any observations upon these tales, as they 
have been discussed in the preceding pages. 

By an error of the late M. Reinaud (for which see p. 39 Histoire 
d' 'Ala al-Din by M. H. Zotenberg, Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 
MDCCCLXXXVIII,) the MS. Supplement Arabe, No. 1716, in the 
writing of Dom Chavis has been confounded with No. 1723, which 
is not written by the Syrian priest but which contains the originals 
of the Cazotte Continuation as noted by M. C. de Perceval (Les 
Mille et une Nuits, etc., vol. viii. PreT. p. 17, et seqq.). 
It is labelled Histoires tiroes la plupart des Mille et une 
Nuits | Supplement Arabe \ Volume de 742 pages. The thick 
quarto measures centimetres 2oJ long by 16 wide ; the binding 
is apparently Italian and the paper is European, but the filegrane 
or water-mark, which is of three varieties, a coronet, a lozenge- 
shaped bunch of circles and a nondescript, may be Venetian or 
French. It contains 765 pages, paginated after European fashion, 
but the last eleven leaves are left blank reducing the number 
written to 742 ; and the terminal note, containing the date, is on 
the last leaf. Each page numbers 15 lines and each leaf has its 
catchword (mot de rappel). It is not ordered by " karras " or 

The Translator } s Foreword, 


quires ; but is written upon 48 sets of 4 double leaves. The text 
is in a fair Syrian hand, but not so flowing as that of No. 1716, 
by Shaw/sh himself, which the well-known Arabist, Baron de 
Slane, described as Bonne ecriture orientate de la fin du X VIII* 
Siecle. The colophon conceals or omits the name of the scribe, 
but records the dates of incept Kamin II d . (the Syrian winter- 
month January) A.D. 1772 ; and of conclusion Naysan (April) of 
the same year. It has head-lines disposed rectq and verso, e.g~. $ 

Haykar AI-Hakfm, 

and parentheses in the text after European fashion with an 
imperfect list at the beginning. A complete index is furnished 
at the end. The following are the order and pagination of the 
fourteen stones : 

1. The King of Persia and his Ten Wazirs . pp. i to 63- 

2. Say of the Sage Haykar . . . . 140 

3. History of King Sabur and the Three Wise 

Men 183 

4. The Daughter of Kisra the King (Al Bundu- 

kani) 217 

5. The Caliph and the Three Kalandars . . 266 

6. Julndr the Sea-born 396 

7. The Duenna, the Linguist-dame and the- 

King's Son 476 

8. The Tale of the Warlock and the young Cook 

of Baghdad SS 

9. The Man in the Bfmaristan or Madhouse . 538 

10. The Tale of AttaT the Syrian . . $88 

11. The History of Sultan Habfb and Durrat 

al-Ghawwas 628 

12. The Caliph and the Fisherman ... 686 

13. The Cock and the Fox ^ . 7*8 

14. The Fowl-let and the Fowler' . . . 7^5 to 739 (finis) 

Upon these tales I would be permitted to offer a few observa- 
tions. No. I. begins with a Christian formula : " In the name of 
the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost " (Ruhu'l-Kudus) ; 
and it is not translated, because it is a mere replica of the Ten 

viii Supplemental Nights. 

Wazirs (Suppl. vol. i. 55-151). The second, containing "The 
Sage Haykar," which is famous in folk-lore throughout the East, 
begins with the orthodox Moslem " Bismillah," etc. " King 
Sapor is prefaced by a Christian form which to the Trinitarian 
formula adds, " Allah being One " : this, again, is not translated, 
because it repeats the " Ebony Horse " (vol. v, i). No. iv., which 
opens with the Bismillah, is found in the Sabbagh MS. of The 
Nights (see Suppl. vol. iii.) as the Histoire de Haroun al-Raschid 
et de la descendante de Ckosroes. Albondoqani (Nights Ixx.-lxxvii.). 
No. v., which also has the Moslem invocation, is followed by 
the " Caliph and the Three Kalandars," where, after the fashion of 
this our MS., the episodes (vol. i., 104-1 30), are taken bodily from 
" The Porter and the Three Ladies of Baghdad " (i. 82), and are con- 
verted into a separate History. No. vi. has no title to be trans* 
lated, being a replica of the long sea-tale" in vol. vii., 264. Nos. 
vii., viii., ix., x. and xi. lack initiatory invocation betraying 
Christian or Moslem provenance. No. viii. is the History of 
Sf Mustafa and of Shaykh Shahdb al-Dfn in the Turkish Tales : 
it also occurs in the Sabbagh MS. (Nights ccclxxxvi.-cdviii). The 
Bfmaristan (No. ix.), alias Ali Chalabi (Halechalbe*), has already 
appeared in my Suppl. vol. iv. 49. No. xii., " The Caliph and the 
Fisherman, " makes Harun al-Rashid the hero of the tale in " The 
Fisherman and the Jinni " (vol. i. 38) ; it calls the ensorcelled 
King of the Black Islands Mahmud, and his witch of a wife Sitt 
al-Mulvik, and it also introduces into the Court of the Great 
Caliph Hasan Shumdn and Ahmad al-Danaf, the prominent 
personages in "The Rogueries of DaHlah" (vol. vii. 144) and its 
sister tale (vii. 172). The two last Histbries, which are ingenious 
enough, also lack initial formulae. 

Dr. Russell (the historian of Aleppo) brought back with him a 
miscellaneous collection comprising 

Al-Bundukani, or the Robber Caliph ; 
The Power of Destiny (Attaf the Syrian) ; 

The Translator's Foreword. ix 

Ali Chelebi, or the Bimaristan ; 
King Sankharib and the Sage Haykar ; 
Bohetzad (Azddbakht) and the Ten Wazirs ; and, lastly, 
Habib, or the Arabian Knight. 

The Encyclopedia Britannica (ixth edit, of MDCCCLXXVl), which 
omits the name of Professor Galland, one -of the marking Orien- 
talists in his own day, has not ignored Jacques Cazotte, remarkable 
for chequered life and noble death. Born in 1720, at Dijon, where 
his father was Chancellor for the Province of Burgundy, he studied 
with the Jesuits at home; and, having passed through the finishing 
process in Paris, he was introduced to public life by the Adminis- 
tration de la Marine. He showed early taste for poetry as well as 
prose, and composed songs, tales, and an opera the " Thousand 
and one Fopperies." His physique is described as a tall figure, 
with regular features, expressive blue eyes, and fine hair, which he 
wore long. At twenty-seven he became a commissary in the office 
and was presently sent as Comptroller to the Windward Islands, 
including the French Colony Martinique, which then as flow 
was famous for successful woman-kind. At these head quarters, he 
became intimate with Pere Lavalette, Superior of the S. J. Mission, 
and he passed some years of a pleasant and not unintellectual 
career. Returning to Paris on leave of absence he fell in with a 
country-woman and an old family friend, Madame La Poissonnier, 
who had been appointed head nurse to the Duke of Burgundy ; 
and, as the child in her charge required lulling to sleep, Cazotte 
composed the favourite romances (ballads) , Tout au beau milieu 
des Ardennes , and Commere II faut chauffer le lit. These scherzi, 
however, brought him more note than profit, and soon afterwards 
he returned to Martinique. 

During his second term of service Cazotte wrote his heroic-comic 
poem, the Roman d'Olivier, in twelve cantos, afterwards printed 
in Paris (2 vols. 8vo, 1765) ; and it was held a novel and singular 
composition. When the English first attacked (in 1759) Saint 

x Supplemental Nights. 

Pierre of Martinique, afterwards captured by Rodney in 1762, the 
sprightly litterateur showed abundant courage and conduct, but 
over-exertion injured his health, and he was again driven from his 
post by sickness. He learned, on landing in France, that his 
brother, whilome Vicar-General to M. de Choiseul, Bishop of 
Chalons-sur-Marne, had died and left him a fair estate, Pierry, 
near Epernay ; he therefore resigned his appointment and retired 
with the title " Commissary-General to the Marine." But presently 
he lost 50,000 e*cus the whole fruit of his economies by the specu-r 
latidns of Pere Lavalette to whose hands he had entrusted his estates, 
negroes, and effects at Martinique. These had been sold and the 
cheques had been forwarded to the owner : the S. J., however, 
refused to honour them. Hence the scandal of a law-suit in which 
Cazotte showed much delicacy and regard for the feelings of his 
former tutors. 

Meanwhile Cazotte had married Elizabeth Roignon, daughter 
to the Chief Justice of Martinique ; he returned to the Parisian world 
with some e'clat and he became an universal favourite on account 
of his happy wit and humour, his bonhomie, his perfect frankness, 
and his hearty amiability. The vogue of " Olivier " induced him to 
follow it up with Le Diable Amoureux, a continuation or rather 
parody of Voltaire's Guerre civile de Geneve : this work was so 
skilfully carried out that it completely deceived the world ; and it 
was followed by sundry minor pieces which were greedily read. 
Unlike the esprits forts of his age, he became after a gay youth- 
tide an ardent Christian ; he made the Gospel his rule of life ; 
and he sturdily defended his religious opinions ; he had also the 
moral courage to enter the lists with M. de Voltaire, then the idol- 
in-chief of the classes and the masses. 

In later life Cazotte met Dom Chavis, who was translating into a 
curious jargon (Arabo-Franco-Italian) certain Oriental tales ; and, 
although he was nearing the Psalmist's age-term of man, he 
agreed to " collaborate." The Frenchman used to take the pen 

The Translator's Foreword. xi 

at midnight when returning from " social pleasures/' and work till 
4-5 a.m. As he had prodigious facility and spontaneity he finished 
his part of the task in two winters. Some of the tales in the suite, 
especially that of " Maugraby," are attributed wholly to his inven- 
tion ; and, as a rule, his aim and object were to diffuse his spiritual 
ideas and to write treatises on moral perfection under the form of 

Cazotte, after a well-spent and honourable life, had reason to 
expect with calmness " the evening and ending of a fine day." 
But this was not to be, the Great Revolution had burst like a hurri- 
cane over the land, and he was doomed to die a hero's death. His 
character was too candid, and his disposition too honest, for times 
which suggested concealment. He had become one of the Illumi- 
nati, and La Harpe ascribed to him the celebrated prophecy which 
described the minutest events of the Great Revolution. A Royalist 
pur sang, he freely expressed his sentiments to his old friend Ponteau, 
then Secretary of the Civil List. His letters came to light shortly 
after the terrible day, August 10, 1792 : he was summarily arrested 
at Pierry and brought to Paris, where he was thrown into prison. 
On Sept. 3, when violence again waxed rampant, he was attacked 
by the patriot-assassins, and was saved only by the devotion of his 
daughter Elizabeth, who threw herself upon the old man crying, 
" You shall not reach my father's heart before piercing mine.'* 
The courage of the noble pair commanded the admiration of the 
ruffians, and they were carried home in triumph. 

For a few weeks the family remained unmolested, but in those 
days " Providence " slept and Fortune did not favour the brave. 
The Municipality presently decreed a second arrest, and the vener- 
able litterateur, aged seventy-two, was sent before the revolutionary 
tribunal appointed to deal with the pretended offences of August 
IO. He was subjected to an interrogatory of thirty-six hours, 
during which his serenity and presence of mind never abandoned 
him and impressed even his accusers. But he was condemned to 

xii Supplemental Nights. 

die for the all-sufficient reason : " It is not enough to be a good 
son, a good husband, a good father, one must also prove oneself a 
good citizen/' He spent his last hours with his confessor, wrote 
to his wife and children, praying his family not to beweep 
him, not to forget him, and never to offend against their God ; and 
this missive, with a lock of his hair for his beloved daughter, he 
finally entrusted to the ghostly father. Upon the scaffold he 
turned to the crowd and cried, " I die as I have lived, truthful and 
faithful to my God and my King." His venerable head, crowned 
with the white honours of age, fell on Sept. 25, 1792. 

Gazette printed many works, some of great length, as the 
(Euvres Morales, which filled 7 vols. 8vo. in the complete edition of 
1817 ; and the biographers give a long list of publications, besides 
those above-mentioned, romantic, ethical, and spiritual, in verse and 
in prose. But he wrote mainly for his own pleasure, he never 
sought fame, and consequently his reputation never equalled his 
merit. His name, however, still smells sweet, passing sweet, 
amid the corruption and the frantic fury of his day and the memory 
of the witty, genial, and virtuous litterateur still blossoms in the 

During my visit to Paris in early 1887, M. Hermann Zotenberg 
was kind enough to show me the MS., No. 1723, containing 
the original tales of the " New Arabian Nights." As my health 
did not allow me sufficient length of stay to complete my transla- 
tion, Professor Houdas (for whom, see Appendix, p. 10, Suppl. 
vol. iii.) kindly consented to copy the excerpts required, and to 
explain the words and phrases which a deficiency of dictionaries 
and vocabularies at an outlandish port-town rendered unintelligible 
to me. 

In translating a MS., which has never been collated or corrected 
and which abounds in errors of omission and commission, I have 
been guided by one consideration only, which is, that my first and 
chiefest duty to the reader is to make my book readable at the 

The Translator's Foreword. 


same time that it lays before him the whole matter which the text 
offered or ought to have offered. Hence I have not hesitated 
when necessary to change the order of the sentences, to delete 
tautological words and phrases, to suppress descriptions which are 
needlessly re-iterated, and in places to supply the connecting links 
without which the chain of narrative is weakened or broken. 
These are liberties which must be allowed, unless the translator's 
object be to produce a, mutilated version of a mutilation. 

Here also I must express my cordial gratitude to Mr. Alexander 
j. Cotheal, Consul-General for Nicaragua, in New York. This 
distinguished Arabist not only sent to me across the seas his 
MS. containing, inter alia, " The Tale of Attaf," he also undertook 
to translate it for my collection upon my distinct assurance that its 
many novelties of treatment deserved an especial version. Mr. 
W. F, Kirby has again conferred upon my readers an important 
service by his storiological notes. Lastly, Dr. Steingass has 
lent me, as before, his valuable aid in concluding as be did in 
commencing this series, and on putting the colophon to 





August ist, 1888. 




SEfjousanto jaifits an* a 



tf)e nnme of &llaf), tfje OTompasstonattng, tfje Compassionate, 
tf)e Eternal <&ne, tjje termless, t!je timeless, anfc of |^im afoance 
foe afoaft. gnir jere foe begin (fottfi tjje assistance of 
antr f^is fair furtherance) to incite tfie &torp of f^agfear fte 
tje $f)i!osopf)er, tfie OTa^'r of gbanfejjarib 2 tfte Sbobran, ana of tfie 
son of t&e fofse man's sister Jiafcan 3 tfie Jpool 

THEY relate that during the days of SankhdHb the King, lord 
of Astir 4 and Naynawah 5 there was a Sage 3 Haykdr hight, Grand 
Wazir of that Sovran and his chief secretary, and he was a 
grandee of abundant opulence and ampliest livelihood : ware was 

1 MS. pp. 140-182. Gauttier, vol. ii., pp. 313-353, Histoire du sage Heycar trans- 
lated by M. Agoub: Weber, " History of Sinkarib and his two Viziers" (vol. ii. 53): 
the " Vizier " is therein called Hicar. 

2 This form of the P. N. is preferred by Prof. R. Hoerning in his " Prisma des 
Sanherib," etc. Leipsic, 1878. The etymology is "Sin akhi-irib" = Sini (Lunus, 
or the Moon -God) increaseth brethren. The canon of Ptolemy fixes his acces- 
sion at B.C. 702, the first year of Elibus or Belibus. For his victories over Babylonia, 
Palestine, Judaea, and Egypt see any " Dictionary of the Bible," and Byron for the 
marvellous and puerile legend 

The Assyrian came down as a wolf on the fold, 

which made him lose in one night 185,000 men, smitten by the " Angel of the Lord '* 
(2 Kings xix. 35). Seated upon his throne before Lachish he is represented by a bas- 
relief as a truly noble and kingly figure. 

3 I presume that the author hereby means a "fool," Pers. na"da"n. But in Assyrian) 
story Nadan was = Nathan, King of the people of Pukudu, the Pekod of Jeremiah (i. 21} 
and other prophets. 

4 In text always {{ Atur," the scriptural " Asshur " = Assyria, biblically derived 
from Asshur, son of Shem (Gen. x. 22), who was worshipped as the proto-deity. The 
capital was Niniveh. Weber has "Nineveh and Thor," showing the spelling of his 
MS. According to the Arabs, "Ashur" had four sons; Iran (father of the Furs = 
Persians, the Kurd, or Ghozzi, the Daylams, and the Khazar), Nabit, Jarmuk, and 
Basil. Ibn Khaldun (iii. 413), in his " Universal History," opposes this opinion of Ibn 

6 i.e. "Fish-town" or "town of Nin" = Ninus, the founder. In mod. days " Nay- 
nawah " was the name of a port on the east bank of the Tigris j and moderns have 
unearthed the old city at Koyunjik, Nabi Yunas, and the Tall (mound of) Nimrud. 

4 Supplemental Nights. 

he and wise, a philosopher, and endowed with lore and rede and 
experience. Now he had interwedded with threescore wives, for 
each and every of which he had builded in his palace her own 
bower ; natheless he had not a boy to tend, and was he sore of 
sorrow therefor. So one day he gathered together the experts, 
astrologers and wizards, and related to them his case and com- 
plained of the condition caused by his barrenness. They made 
answer to him, " Get thee within and do sacrifice to the Godheads 
and enquire of them and implore their favour when haply shall 
they vouchsafe unto thee boon of babe." He did whatso they bade 
and set corbans and victims before the images and craved their 
assistance, humbling himself with prayer and petition ; withal they 
vouchsafed to him never a word of reply. So he fared forth in 
distress and disappointment and went his ways all disheartened. 
Then he returned in his humiliation to Almighty Allah 1 and 
confided his secret unto Him and called for succour in the burning 
of his heart, and cried with a loud voice saying " O God of 
Heaven and Earth, O Creator of all creatures, I beg Thee to 
vouchsafe unto me a son wherewith I may console my old age and 
who may become my heir, after being present at my death and 
closing my eyes and burying my body." Hereat came a Voice 
from Heaven which said, " Inasmuch as at first thou trustedst in 
graven images and offeredst to them victims, so shalt thou remain 
childless, lacking sons and daughters. However, get thee up and 
take to thee Naddn, thy sister's child ; and, after taking this nephew 
to son, do thou inform him with thy learning and thy good breeding 
and thy sagesse, and demise to him that he inherit of thee after 
thy decease/' Hereupon the Sage adopted his nephew Nadan, 
who was then young in years and a suckling, that he might teach 
him and train him ; so he entrusted him to eight wet-nurses and 

1 The surroundings, suggest Jehovah, the tribal deity of the Jews. The old version 
says, " Hicar was a native of the country of Haram (Harrdn), and had brought from 
thence the knowledge of the true God ; impelled, however, by an irresistible decree, etc* 

The Say of Haykat the Sage. 


dry-nurses for feeding and rearing, and they brought him up on 
diet the choicest with delicatest nurture and clothed him with 
sendal and escarlate 1 and dresses dyed with Alkermes, 2 and his 
sitting was upon shag-piled rugs of silk. But when Nadan grew 
great and walked and shot up even as the lofty Cedar 3 of Lebanon, 
his uncle taught him deportment and writing and reading 4 and 
philosophy and the omne scibile. Now after a few days Sankharib 
the King looked upon Haykar and saw how that he had waxed 
an old old man, so quoth he to him, " Ho thou excellent com- 
panion, 5 the generous, the ingenious, the judicious, the sagacious, 
the Sage, my Secretary and my Minister and the Concealer of my 
secrets and the Councillor of my kingdom, seeing how so it be 
that thou art aged and well shotten in years and nigh unto thy 
death and decease, so tell me 6 who shall stand in my service 
after thy demise ? " Made answer Haykar, " O my lord the King, 

1 i.e. a woollen cloth dyed red. Hence Pyrard (i. 244) has " red scarlet," and (vol. ii.) 
' violet scarlet"; Froissart (xvth centy.) has "white scarlet," and Marot (xvith) has 
" green scarlet." The word seems to be French of xiith century, but is uncertain : 
Littre proposes Galaticus, but admits the want of an intermediate form. Piers 
Plowman, and Chaucer use " cillatun," which suggests Pers. " Sakalat," or " Sakla- 
tun," whence Mr. Skeat would derive "scarlet." This note is from the voyage of 
F. Pyrard, etc. London. Hakluyts, M.dccc.lxxxvii. ; and the editor quotes Colonel 
Yule's M. Polo (ii. chapt. 58) and his " Discursive Glossary s. v. Sucl&t?' 

2 i.e. " Al-Kirm," Arab, and Pers. = a worm, as in Kirmsin (see Supplem. vol. i. 
59) ; the coccus ilids y vulg. called cochineal. 

8 Arab. '< Arz," from the Heb. Arz or Razah (/ raz = to vibrate), the rootKe'S/oos 
(cedrus conifera], the Assyrian " Erimu of Lebanon," of which mention is so often 
made. The old controversy as to whether " Razah " = cedar or fir, might easily have 
been settled if the disputants had known that the modern Syrians still preserve the word 
for the clump called " The Cedars " on the seaward slope of the Libanus. 

4 We should say < reading and writing," but the greater difficulty of deciphering the 
skeleton eastern characters places reading in the more honourable place. They say of a 
very learned man, " He readethi it off (readily) as one drinketh water." 

5 Arab. "Al-Sahib al-jayyid." ["Jayyid" is, by the measure "Fay'il," derived 
from the root "Jaud," to excel, like " Kayyis, from"Kaus" (see Suppl vol. iv., 
p. 350), " Mayyit " from " Maut," " Sayyid " from " Saud." The form was originally 
Jaywid ;" then the Waw became assimilated to the preceding Jd, on account of the 
following Kasrah, and this assimilation or " Idgham " is indicated by Tashdid. As from 
41 Kayyis" the diminutive- "Kuwayyis" is formed, so "Jayyid" forms the Tasghfr, 
Juwayyid," which, amongst the Druzes, has the specific meaning of " deeply versed in 
religious matters." ST.] 

" Kul," vulg. for " Kul" ; a form constant in this MS. 

6 Supplemental Nights 

may thy head live for ever and aye ! that same shall be this 
Nadan, son to my sister, whom I have taken to myself as mine own 
child and have reared him and have taught him my learning and 
my experience, all thereof." " Bring him to the presence," quoth 
the King, " and set him between my hands, that I look upon him ; 
and, if I find him fitting, I will stablish him in thy stead. Then 
do thou wend thy ways and off-go from office that thou take thy 
rest and tend thine old age, living the lave of thy life in the fairest 
of honour." Hereupon Haykar hied him home and carried his 
nephew Nadan before the King, who considered him and was 
pleased with the higlimost of pleasure and, rejoicing in him, 
presently asked the uncle, " Be this thine adopted son, O 
Haykar ? I pray Allah preserve him ; and, even as thou 
servedst my sire Sarhadun 1 before me, even so shall this thy 
son do me suite and service and fulfil my affairs and my 
needs and my works, to the end that I may honour him and 
advance him for the sake of thee." Thereat Haykar prostrated 
himself before the presence and said, " May thy head live, O my 
lord, for evermore ! I desire of thee to extend the wings of thy 
spirit over him for that he is my son, and do thou be clement to 
his errings, so that he may serve thee as besitteth." The King 
forthwith made oath that he would stablish the youth amongst 
the highmost of his friends and the most worshipful of his 
familiars and that he should abide with him in all respect 
and reverence. So Haykar kissed the royal hands and blessed his 
lord ; then, taking with him Nadan his nephew, he seated him in 
privacy and fell to teaching him by night as well as by day, that 
he might fill him with wisdom and learning rather than with meat 

1 Gauttier "Sarkhadom," the great usurper Sargon, a contemporary of Merodach 
Baladan of Babylon and of Sabaco 1st of Ethiopia, B.C. 721-702 : one of the greatest 
Assyrian Kings, whose place has been determined to be between Shalmaneser and his 
son, the celebrated Sennacherib, who succeeded him. The name also resembles the 
biblical Ezar-haddon (Asaridanus), who, however, was the son of Sennacherib, and 
occupied the throne of Babylon in B.C. 680. 

The Say of Haykar the Sage. 7 

and drink ; and he would address him in these terms. 1 " O dear 
my son, 2 if a word come to thine ears, suffer it to die within thy~ 
heart nor ever disclose it unto other, lest haply it become a live 
coal 3 to burn up thy tongue and breed pain in thy body and clothe 
thee in shame and gar thee despised of God and man. O dear my 
son, an thou hear a report reveal it not, and if thou behold a thing 
relate it not. O dear my son, make easy thine address unto thine 
hearers, and be not hasty in return of reply. O dear my son, desire 
not formal beauty which fadeth and vadeth while fair report 
endureth unto infinity. O dear my son, be not deceived by a 
woman immodest of speech lest her snares waylay thee 4 and in 
her springes thou become a prey and thou die by ignominious 
death. O dear my son, hanker not after a woman adulterated by 
art, such as clothes and cosmetics, who is of nature bold and 
immodest, and beware lest thou obey her and give her aught that 
is not thine and entrust to her even that which is in thy hand, for 
she will robe thee in sin and Allah shall become wroth with thee. 
O dear my son, be not like unto the almond-tree 5 which leafeth 
earlier than every growth and withal is ever of the latest to fruit ; 
but strive to resemble the mulberry-tree which beareth food the 
first of all growths and is the last of any to put forth her foliage. 6 

1 Gauttier, pp. 317-319, has greatly amplified and modified these words of wisdom. 

2 In text " Ya Bunayya " = lit. " O my little son," a term of special fondness. 

3 Arab. 4 f Jamrah," a word of doubtful origin, but applied to a tribe strong enough to 
be self-dependent. The "Jamarat of the Arabs" were three, Banii Numayr, Banu 
Haris (who afterwards confederated with Mashfj) and Banii Dabbah (who joined the 
Rikab), and at last Nomayr remained alone. Hence they said of it : 

"Nomayr the jamrah (also "a live coal") of Arabs are; * And ne'er cease they to, 

burn in 'fiery war." 
See Chenery's Al-Hariri, pp. 343-428. 

4 In the Arab. <l Ta'arkalak," which M. Houdas renders " qu'elle nt U reiienne dans 

5 A lieu commun in the East. It is the Heb. " Shaked " and the fruit is the " Loz " 
(Arab. Lauz) = Atnygdalus communis* which the Jews looked upon as the harbinger of 
spring and which, at certain feasts, they still carry to the synagogue, as representing the 
palm branches of the Temple. 

6 The mulberry-tree in Italy will bear leaves till the end of October and the foliage 
is bright as any spring verdure. 

8 Supplemental Nights. 

O dear my son, bow thy head before thine inferior and soften 
thine utterance and be courteous and tread in the paths of piety, 
and shun impudence and louden not thy voice whenas thou 
speakest or laughest ; for, were a house to be builded by volume of 
sound, the ass would edify many a mansion every day. 1 O dear 
my son, the transport of stones with a man of wisdom is better 
than the drinking of wine with one blamed for folly. O dear my 
son, rather pour out thy wine upon the tombs of the pious than 
drain it with those who give offence by their insolence. O dear my 
son, cleave to the sage that is Allah-fearing and strive to resemble 
him, and approach not the fool lest thou become like unto him 
and learn his foolish ways. O dear my son, whenas thou affectest 
a friend or a familiar, make trial of him and then company with him, 
and without such test nor praise him nor divulge thy thoughts unto 
one who is other than wise. O dear my son, as long as thy boot is 
upon thy leg and foot, walk therewith over the thorns and tread a 
way for thy sons and thy sons' sons ; and build thee a boat ere the 
sea break into billows and breakers and drown thee before thou 
find an ark of safety. O dear my son, when the richard eateth a 
snake, folks shall say that 'tis of his subtilty ; but when a pauper 
feedeth upon it, the world shall declare 'tis of his poverty. O dear 
my son, be content with thy grade and thy good, nor covet aught 
of thy fellow. O dear my son, be not neighbourly with the ignorant 
nor do thou break with him bread, and joy not in the annoy of 
those about thee and when thy foe shall maltreat thee meet him 
with beneficence. O dear my son, fear the man who feareth not 
Allah and hold him in hate. O dear my son, the fool shall fall 
when he trippeth ; but the wise man when he stumbleth shall not 
tumble, and if he come to the ground he shall rise up quickly, and 
when he sickeneth he shall readily heal himself, whereas to the 
malady of the ignorant and the stupid there is no remedy. O dear 

1 Gauttier omits this: fas pott, I suppose. 

The Say of Haykar the Sage. 9 

my son, when a man lesser than thyself shall accost thee, prevent him 
in standing respectfully before him, and if he suffice thee not the 
Lord shall suffice thee in his stead. O dear my son, spare not blows 
to thy child, 1 for the beating of the boy is like manuring to the 
garden and binding to the purse-mouth and tethering to the cattle 
and locking to the door. O dear my son, withhold thy child from 
wickedness, and discipline him ere he wax great and become con- 
tumacious to thee, thus belittling thee amongst thine equals and 
lowering thy head upon the highways and in the assemblies, and 
thou be described as an aider in his wrongous works. O dear 
my son, let no word escape thy lips without consulting thy heart ; 
nor stand up between two adversaries, for out of converse with the 
wicked cometh enmity, and from enmity is bred battle, and from 
battle ariseth slaughter, when thy testimony shall be required ; 
nay, do thou fly therefrom and be at rest. O dear my son, stand 
not up against one stronger than thyself; but possess thy soul 
in patience and long-suffering and forbearance and pacing the 
paths of piety, for than this naught is more excellent. O dear my 
son, exult not over the death of thy enemy by cause that after a 
little while thou shalt become his neighbour. O dear my son, turn 
thou a deaf ear to whoso jeereth thee, and honour him and forego 
him with the salam-salutation. O dear my son, whenas the water 
shall stand still in stream and the bird shall fly sky-high and the 
black raven shall whiten and myrrh shall wax honey-sweet, then 
will the ignorant and the fool comprehend and converse. O dear 

1 The barbarous sentiment is Biblical inspired, "Me that spareth Ills rod hateth his 
son " (Prov. xiii. 24), and " Chasten thy son while there is hope, and let not thy soul 
spare for his crying" (Prov. xix. 18). Compare the Arab equivalent, " The green stick 
is of the trees of Paradise " (Pilgrimage i. 151). But the neater form of the saw was left 
to uninspired writers j witness "Spare the rod and spoil the child," which appears in 
Ray's proverbs, and is immortalised by Hudibras : 
Love is a boy by poets styled, 
Then spare the rod and spoil the child, (ii. I, 843). 

It is to the eternal credit of John Locke, the philosopher, that in an age of general 
brutality he had the moral courage, to declare, " Beating is the worst and therefore the 
last means to be used in the correction of children." 

1 Supplemental Nights. 

my son, an thou would be wise restrain thy tongue from leasing 
and thy hand from thieving and thine eyes from evil glancing ; 
and then, and then only, shalt thou be called a sage. O dear my 
son, suffer the wise man strike thee with his staff rather than the 
fool anoint thee with his sweetest unguent. 1 O dear my son, be thou 
humble in thy years of youth, that thou may be honoured in thine 
old age. O dear my son, stand not up against a man in office and 
puissance nor against a river in its violence, and haste not in matters 
of marriage ; for, an this bring weal, folk will not appraise thee and 
if ill they will abuse thee and curse thee. O dear my son, company 
with one who hath his hand fulfilled and well-furnishtand associate 
not with any whose hand is fist-like and famisht. O dear my son, 
there be four things without stability : a king and no army, 2 a 
Wazir in difficulty for lack of rede ; amongst the folks villany and 
over the lieges tyranny. Four things also may not be hidden ; to 
wit, the sage and the fool, the richard and the pauper." 3 Now when 
Haykar had made an end of these injunctions and instances addrest 
to Nadan his nephew, he fondly deemed in mind that the youth 
would bear in memory all his charges, and he wist not that the 
clean contrary thereof to him would become manifest After this 
the older Minister sat in peace at home and committed to the 
younger all his moneys and his negro slaves and his concubines ; 
his horses and camels, his flocks and herds, and all other such 
whereof he was seised. Also bidding and forbiddal were left in the 
youth's hand and he was promoted and preferred by the monarch 

1 Arab. "Dahn" (oi! 4 ointment) which may also mean "soft sawder." 

2 Aucun rot ne pent gouverner sans armce et on ne peut avoir une armle sans argent., 
For a treatise on this subject see the " Chronique de Tabari," ii. 340. 

3 M. Agoub, in Gauttier (vi. 321) remarks of these prosings, "Ces maximes qui ne 
seraient pas indignes, pour la plupart, des beaux temps de la philosophic grecque, appar- 
tiennent toutes au texte arabe ; je n'ai fait que les disposer dans un ordre plus raethodique. 
J'ai dti aussi supprimer quelques unes, soil parce qu'elles n'offraient que des preceptes 
<Tune morale banale, soit que traduites eji fra^ais, elles eussen: pu paraftre bizarres a des 
lecteurs europeens. Ce que je dis ici, s* applique egalement a eel les qui terminent it- 
conte et qui pourraient fournir le sujet de plusieurs fables." One would say that the 
translator is the author's natural enemy. 

The Say of Haykar the Sage. \ i 

like his maternal uncle and even more, whilst the ex-Wazir took 
his rest in retirement, nor was it his habit to visit the King save 
once after a while, when he would fare forth to salute him with the 
salam and forthwith return home. But when Nadan made sure of 
all commandment being in his own hand, he jeered in public at his 
uncle and raised his nose at him and fell to blaming him whenever 
he made act of presence and would say, " Verily Haykar is in age 
and dotage and no more he wotteth one thing from other thing." 
Furthermore he fell to beating th? negro slaves and the hand- 
maidens, and to vending the steeds and dromedaries and applied 
him wilfully to waste all that appertained to his uncle who, when 
he saw this lack of ruth for the chattels and the household, incon- 
tinently drove him ignominiously from his place. Moreover he sent 
to apprize the King thereof; to wit, that he would assuredly 1 
resume all his belongings and provision ; and his liege, summoning 
Nadan, said to him, " So long as Haykar shall be in life, let none 
lord it over his household or meddle with his fortune." On this 
wise the youth's hand was stayed from his uncle and from all his 
good and he ceased to go in to him and come out from him, and 
even to accost him with the salam. Presently Haykar repented of 
the pains and the trouble he had taken with Nadan and he became 
perplext exceedingly. Now the youth had a younger brother, 
Naudan 2 hight, so Haykar adopted him in lieu of the other and 
tendered him and honoured him with highmost honour and com- 
mitted to him all his possessions and created him comptroller of his 
household and of his affairs. But when the elder brother beheld 
what had betided him, he was seized with envy and jealousy and 
he fell to complaining before all who questioned him, deriding his 
benefactor ; and he would say, " Verily my maternal uncle hath 

1 Arab. " Amnial," now vulgarly written with initial Hamzah, a favourite expression 
in Egypt and meaning ' Verily," " I believe you, my boy," and so forth. But " 'Ammal '' 
with the Ayn may also mean " he intended," or " he was about to." 

2 In Gauttier the name is Ebnazadan, but the Arab, text has " Naudan," which I take 
to be the Persian * New of knowledge " as opp. to Nadan, the " unknowing." 

12 Supplemental Nights. 

driven me from his doors and hath preferred my brother before me ; 
but, an Almighty Allah empower me, I will indeed cast him into 
doom of death." Hereat he fell to brooding over the ruin of his 
relative, and after a long while he went, one day of the days, and 
wrote a letter to Akhyash Abna Shah, 1 physician to the King of 
Persia and ' Ajam or Barbaria-land, and the following were its con- 
tents. " All salams that befit and greetings that are meet from part 
of Sankharib, King of Assyria and Niniveh, and from his Wazir 
and Secretary Haykar unto thee, O glorious monarch, and saluta- 
tions be betwixt me and thee. And forthright, when this missive 
shall have reached thee, do thou arise in haste and come to meet 
me and let our trysting-place be the Buk'at Nisrin, the lowland of 
the Eglantine 2 of Assyria and Niniveh, that I may commit to 
thee the kingdom sans fight or fray." Furthermore he wrote a 
second letter in Haykar's name to Pharaoh, 3 lord of Misraim,* 
with this purport : 5 " Greetings between me and thee, O mighty 

1 In Chavis (Weber ii. 58) and Gauttier (p. 323) Akis, roide Perse. The second name 
maybe "Shah of the Ebna" or Persian incolae of Al-Yaman ; aristocratie Persane 
naturalist Arabe (Al-Mas'udi, iv. 188, etc.) 

2 i.e. the Lowland of the Eglantine or Narcissus ; Nisrin is also in dictionaries an 
island where amber abounds. There is a shade of difference between Buk'ah and Bale' ah. 
The former which is the correcter form = a patch of ground, a plain (hence the Buka'a 
= Ccelesyria), while Bak'ah = a hollow where water collects. In Chavis we find "the 
plain of flarrim " and in Gauttier la plains de Baschrin ; and the appointment was " for 
the first of the month Niram " (Naysan). 

3 ' Pharaoh," which Hebrew Holy Writ left so vague and unsatisfactory, has become 
with the Arabs " Fir'aun," the dynastic name of Egyptian kings, as Kisra (Chosroes) of 
the Persians, Tobba of the Himyarites, Kaysar (Caesar) of the Romans, Jalut (Goliath) of 
the Phoenicians, Fagbfur of the Chinese, Khakdn of the Tartars, Adfonsh (Alfonso) of 
the Spanish, and Aguetfd of the Berbers. Ibn Khaldun iv. 572. 

4 "Mizr" in Assyrian = " Musur," in Heb. "Misraim" (the dual Misrs, whose 
duality permeated all their polity), and in Arab " Misr," the O. Egypt. " Ha kahi 
PtaV' (the Land of the great God, Ptah), and the Coptic '* Td-mera " = the Land of the 
Nile flood, ignoring, I may add, all tradition of a Noachian or general deluge. 

s The simplicity of old Assyrian correspondence is here well preserved, as we may 
see by comparing those letters with the cuneiform inscriptions, etc., by S. Abden Smith 
(Pfeiffer, Leipsic, 1887). One of them begins thus, "The will of the King to Sin- 
tabni-Uzur. Salutation from me to thee. May it be well with thee. Regarding Sin- 
sarra-utzur whom thou has sent to me, how is thy report P " etc. We find such expres- 
sions as " May the great Gods, lovers of thy reign, preserve thee an hundred years; " 
also " Peace to the King, my lord," etc. 

Tke Say of Haykar the Sage. \ 3 

potentate; and do thou straightway, on receipt of this epistle, 
arise and march upon the Buk'at Nisrin to the end that I make 
over to thee the kingdom without battle or slaughter." Now 
Nadan's handwriting was the likest to that of his mother's brother. 
Then he folded the two missives and sealed them with Haykar's 
signet and cast them into the royal palace, after which he went 
and indited a letter in the King's name to his uncle, saying : " All 
salutations to my Wazir and Secretary and Concealer of my 
secret, Haykar ; and do thou forthright on receipt of this present 
levy thy host and all that be under thee with arms and armour 
complete, and march them to meet me on fifth-day 1 at the Buk'at 
Nisrin. Moreover, when thou see me approach thee make thy 
many prepare for mimic onset as they were my adversaries and 
offer me sham fight ; for that messengers from Pharaoh, King 
of Egypt, have been sent to espy the strength of our armies. 
Accordingly, let them stand in fear of us, for that they be our foes 
and our haters." Presently, sealing this epistle, he sent it to 
Haykar by one of the royal pages and himself carrying the other 
letters he had addressed to the Persian and the Egyptian, he laid 
them before the King and read them aloud and showed their seals. 
But when Sankharib heard their contents he marvelled with mighty 
great marvel and raged with exceeding rage and cried out, saying, 
" What is it I have done unto Haykar that he should write such a 
writ to mine adversaries ? Is this my reward for all the benefits 
I have lavished upon Haykar ? " The other replied, " Be not 
grieved, O King, and sorrow not, nor be thou an-angered : rather 
let us fare on the morrow to the Buk'at Nisrin and look into the 
matter, whether it be fact or falsehood." So when Thursday came, 
Nadan arose, and taking the King and his Wazirsand army-officers 
marched them over the wastes to the Lowland of the Eglantine, 

1 Arab. " Yaum al-Khamfs." For the week-days see vol. vi. 190, and fort 
notice, Al-Mas'udi, iiL 422-23. 

14 Supplemental Nights. 

and arrived there Sankharib, the Sovran, looked upon Haykar and 
saw his host aligned in battle against himself. And when the 
ex-Minister beheld his King approaching, he bade his host stir for 
battle and prepare to smite the opposing ranks ; to wit, those of 
his liege lord, even as he had been .commanded by royal rescript, 
nor did he ken what manner of pit had been digged for him by 
Nadan. But seeing this sight the monarch was agitated and 
consterned and raged with mighty great wrath. Then quoth 
Nadan, " Seest thou, O King, what this sorry fellow hath done ? 
But chafe not, neither be thou sorrowful, but rather do thou retire 
to thy palace, 'whither I will presently bring to thee Haykar 
pinioned and bearing chains ; and I will readily and without 
trouble fend off from thee thy foe." So when Sankharib hied him 
home in sore anger with that which his ancient Minister had done, 
Nadan went to his uncle and said, " Indeed the King hath rejoiced 
with exceeding joy, and thanketh thee for acting as he bade thee, 
and now he hath despatched me to order that thy men be bidden 
to wend their ways, and that thou present thyself before him 
pinioned and fettered to the end that thou be seen in such plight 
of the envoys sent by Pharaoh concerning whom and whose master 
our Monarch standeth in fear." "To hear is to obey!" replied 
Haykar, and forthwith let pinion his arms and fetter his legs ; 
then, taking with him Nadan, his nephew, he repaired to the 
presence, where he found the King perusing the other forgecf 
letter also sealed with the ministerial signet. When he entered 
the throne-room he prostrated himself, falling to the ground upon 
his face, and the Sovran said to him " O Haykar, my Viceregent 
and Secretary and Concealer of my secret and Councillor of my 
kingdom, say me, what have I wrought thee of wrong that thou 
shouldst requite me with such hideous deed ? " So saying he 
showed him the two papers written in the handwriting and sealed 
with the seal of the accused who, when he looked upon them, 
trembled in every limb, and his tongue was knotted for a while, 

The Say of Haykar the Sage. \ 5 

nor could he find power to speak a word, and he was reft of all 
his reason and of his knowledge. Wherefor he bowed his brow 
groundwards and held his peace. Buf when the King beheld this 
his condition, he bade them slay him by smiting his neck without 
the city, and Nadan cried aloud, " O Haykar, O blackavice, what 
could have profited thee such trick and treason that thou do a 
deed like this by thy King ? " * Now the name of the Sworder 
was Abu Sumayk the Pauper, 2 and the monarch bade him strike 
the neck of Haykar in front of the Minister's housedoor and place 
his head at a distance of an hundred ells from his body. 3 Hearing 
this Haykar fell prone before the King and cried, " Live thou, O 
my lord the King, for ever and aye ! An thou desire my death 
be it as thou wilt and well I wot that I am not in default and that 
the evil-doer exacteth according to his ill-nature. 4 Yet I hope 
from my lord the King and from his benevolence that he suffer the 
Sworder make over my corpse to my menials for burial, and so 
shall thy slave be thy sacrifice." Hereat the Monarch commanded 
the Headsman do as he was desired, and the man, accompanied 
by the royal pages, took Haykar, whom they had stripped of his 
outer raiment, and led him away to execution. But when he was 
certified of coming death, he sent tidings thereof to his wife, 
Shaghaftini 1 hight, adding, " Do thou forthright come forth to 
meet me escorted by a thousand maiden girls, whom thou shalt 
habit in escarlate and sendal, that they -may keen over me ere I 
perish ; moreover dispread for the Headsman and his varlets a table 
of food and bring an abundance of good wine that they may drink 

1 In the text " Kal " (al-Rawi), " the Reciter saith" which formula I omit here and 

2 i.e. " The Father of the little Fish," in Gauttier (vii. 329) " Abou Som&ka." 

3 By way of insult ; as I have before noticed. 

* He had now learned that Nadan had ruined him. 

5 The wife (in p. 155, " Ashghaftini ") is called "Thou hast enamoured me " from 
the root "Shaghaf" = violent love, joy, grief. Chavis has Zefagnie : Gauttier sup- 
presses the name, which is not pretty. In the old version she is made aunt (father's 
sister) to Sankharib. 

1 6 Supplemental Nights. 

and make merry." 1 Haykar's wife presently obeyed his orders for 
she also was ware and wise, sharp-witted, experienced and a 
compendium of accomplishments and knowledge. Now when the 
guards 2 and the Sworder and his varlets came to Haykar's door, 
they found the tables laid out with wine and sumptuous viands ; 
so they fell to eating and drinking till they had their sufficiency 
and returned thanks to the housemaster. 3 Thereupon Haykar led 
the Headsman aside into privacy and said to him, " O Abu 
Sumayk, 4 what while Sarhadun the King, sire of Sankharib the 
King, determined to slay thee, I took thee and hid thee in a place 
unknown to any until the Sovran sent for thee. Moreover I cooled 
his temper every day till he was pleased to summon thee, and when 
at last I set thee in his presence he rejoiced in thee. Therefore do 
thou likewise at this moment bear in mind the benefits I wrought 
thee, and well I wot that the King will repent him for my sake 
and will be wroth with exceeding wrath for my slaughter, seeing 
that I be guiltless ; so when thou shalt bring me alive before him 
thy degree shall become of the highest. For know thou that 
Nadan my nephew hath betrayed me and devised for me this ill 
device ; and I repeat that doubtless my lord will presently rue my 
ruin. Learn, too, that beneath the threshold of my mansion lieth 
a souterrain whereof no man is ware : so do thou conceal me 
therein with the connivance of my spouse Shaghaftini. Also I 
have in my prison a slave which meriteth doom of death : 5 so 
bring him forth and robe him in my robes ; then bid the varlets 

1 The old version attributes all this device to " Zefagnie ; " thus injuring the unity and 
the interest of the tale. 

2 Arab. "Jund" plur. " Junud," a term mostly applied to regular troops under the 
Government, as opposed to soldiers who took service with the Amirs or great barons a 
state of things still enduring in n on -British India. 

3 Who thus makes a " Ma'adabah " = wake or funeral feast before his death. See 
vol. viii. 231. 

i\*. " Father of the Fishlet," in the old version " Yapousmek " (Ya Abu Sumayk I) 
6 In Chavis he becomes " an old slave, a magician, stained with the greatest crimes, 
who has the air and figure of Hicar." 

The Say of Haykar the Sage. \ 7 

(they being drunken with wine) do him die, nor shall they know 
whom they have slain. And lastly command them to remove his 
head an hundred cubits from his body and commit the corpse unto 
my chattels that they inter it. So shalt thou store up with me this 
rich treasure of goodly deeds." Hereupon the Sworder did as he 
was bidden by his ancient benefactor, and he and his men repairing 
to the presence said, " Live thy head, O King, for ever and aye ! " l 
And after this Shaghaftini, the wife of Haykar, brought meat and 
drink to her husband down in the Matamor, 2 and every Friday she 
would provide him with a sufficiency for the following week without 
the weeting of anyone. Presently the report was spread and 
published and bruited abroad throughout Assyria and Niniveh 
how Haykar the Sage had been done to die and slain by his 
Sovran ; and the lieges of all those regions, one and all, keened 3 
for- him aloud and shed tears and said, " Alas for thee, O Haykar, 
and alack for the loss of thy lore and thy knowledge ! Woe be to 
us for thee and for thy experience ! Where now remaineth to find 
thy like ? where now shall one intelligent, understanding and 
righteous of rede resemble thee and stand in thy stead?" 
Presently the King fell to regretting the fate of Haykar whereof 
repentance availed him naught : so he summoned Nadan and said 
to him, " Fare forth and take with thee all thy friends to keen and 
make ceremonious wailings for thy maternal uncle Haykar and 
mourn, according to custom, in honour of him and his memory." 
But Nadan, the fool, the ignorant,, the hard of heart, going forth 
the presence to show sorrow at his uncle's house, would neither 
mourn nor weep nor keen ; nay, in lieu thereof he gathered 
together lewd fellows and fornicators who fell to feasting and 

1 A formula which announces the death of his supposed enemy. 

2 Arab. " Matmurah " = Sarddbah (i. 340), a silo for storing grain, an underground cell 

3 See text "Nhu" from t/ "Nauh" = ceremonious keening for the dead. The 
general, term for the wail is "Walwalah" or "WilwaV (an onomatopoy) and for the 
public wailing-woman Naddabah." 

VOL. VI. * 

1 8 Supplemental Nights. 

carousing. After this he took to himself the concubines and slaves 
belonging to his uncle, whom he would scourge and bastinado with 
painful beating; nor had he any shame before the wife of his 
adopted father who had entreated him as her son ; but solicited 
her sinfully to lie with him. _ On the other hand Haykar, who 
lay perdu in his Silo, ever praised Allah the Compassionate, 1 and 
returned thanks unto Him for saving his life and was constant in 
gratitude and instant in prayer and in humbling himself before 
God. At times after due intervals the Sworder would call upon 
him to do him honour due and procure him pleasure, after which 
he would pray for his release and forthright gang his gait. Now 
r/hen the bruit spread abroad over all the lands how that 
Haykar the Wise had been done to die, the rulers everywhere 
rejoiced, exulting in the distress of King Sankharib who sorely 
regretted the loss of his Sage. Presently, awaiting the fittest 


season, the Monarch of Misraim arose and wrote a writ to 
the Sovran of Assyria and Niniveh of the following tenor : 
"After salams that befit and salutations that be meet and 
congratulation and veneration complete wherewith I fain 
distinguish my beloved brother Sankharib the King, I would 
have thee know that I am about to build a bower in the air 
between firmament and terra firma ; and I desire thee on thy 
part to send me a man which is wise, a tried and an experienced, 
that he may help me to edify the same : also that he make answer 
to all the problems and profound questions I shall propose, other- 
wise thou shalt deposit with me the taxes in kind 2 of Assyria and 
Nineveh and their money-tributes for three years." Then he made 
an end of his writ and, sealing it with his signet-ring, sent it to its 

1 Here we find the Doric form "Rahtim" for <f Rahfm," or it may simply be the 
intensive and emphatic form, as " Nazflr " = one who looks intently for " Na*zir," a 

2 In the old version "a tenth part of the revenues." The "Kasfm" of the text is 
an unusual word which M. Houdas would render revenues en nature^ as opposed to 
KhiraJ, revenues en argent. I translate it by " tax tribute." 

The Say of Haykar the Sage. 19 

destination. But when the missive reached Sankharib, he took it 
and read it, he and his Wazirs and the Lords of his land ; and all 
stood perplext thereat and sore confounded ; whilst the King 
waxed furious with excessive fury, and he was distraught as to 
what he should do and how he should act. Anon, however, he 
gathered together all the Shaykhs and Elders and the Olema and 
doctors of law and the physicists and philosophers and the 
charmers l and the astrologers and all such persons which were in 
his realm, and he let read the epistle of Pharaoh in their presence. 
Then he asked them, saying, " Who amongst you shall repair to 
the court of Pharaoh, lord of Misraim, and reply to his interro- 
gations ? " But they cried, " O our lord the King, do thou know 
there be no one who can loose the knot of these difficulties save 
only thy Wazir Haykar ; and now that none shall offer an answer 
save Nadan, the son of his sister, whom he hath informed with all 
his subtil ty and his science. Therefore, do thou summon him and 
haply he shall unravel for thee a tangled skein so hard to untwist." 
Sankharib did as they advised, and when Nadan appeared in the 
presence said to him, " Look thou upon this writ and comprehend 
its contents." But when the youth read it he said to the Sovran, 
"O my lord the King, leave alone this folk for they point to 
impossibilities : what man can base a bower upon air between 
heaven and earth ? " As soon as King Sankharib heard these words. 
of Nadan, he cried out with a mighty outcry and a violent ; then,, 
stepping down from his throne, he sat upon ashes 2 and fell to 
beweeping and bewailing the loss of Haykar and crying, " Alas,, 
for me and woe worth the day for thee, O Caretaker of my capital: 
and Councillor of my kingdom ! Where shall I find one like 

1 In text "'Azzamin," i.e. men who recite "'Azm," mostly Koranic versets which 
avert evil. 

3 This may either be figurative or literal upon the ashes where the fire had 
been ; even as the father of Sayf al-Muliik sat upon the floor of his audience-hall 
(vol. vii. 314). 

ao Supplemental Nights. 

unto thee, O Haykar? Harrow now for me, O Haykar, Oh 
Saviour of my secret and Manifester of my moot-points, 
where now shall I fare to find thee? Woe is me for sake 
of thee whom I slew and destroyed at the word of a silly 
boy ! To him indeed who could bring Haykar before me or who 
could give me the glad tidings of Haykar being on life, I would 
give the half of my good ; nay, the moiety of my realm. But 
whence can this come ? Ah me, O Haykar ; happy was he who 
looked upon thee in life that he might take his sufficiency of thy 
semblance and fortify himself 1 therefrom. Oh my sorrow for thee 
to all time ! Oh my regret and remorse for thee and for slaying 
thee in haste and for not delaying thy death till I had considered 
the consequence of such misdeed." And the King persisted in 
weeping and wailing night and day on such wise. But when the 
Sworder 2 beheld the passion of his lord and his yearning and his 
calling upon Haykar, he came to the presence and prostrated 
himself and said, " O my lord, bid thy varlets strike off my head !" 
Quoth the Monarch, " Woe to thee, what be thy sin ? " and quoth 
the Headsman, " O my lord, what slave ever contrarieth the 
command of his master let the same be slain, and I verily have 
broken thy behest." The King continued, " Fie upon thee, 3 O 
Abu Sumayk, wherein hast thou gainsaid me ? " and the other 
rejoined, " O my lord, thou badest me slay the Sage Haykar ; but 
well I wotted that right soon indeed thou wouldst regret the death 
of him, and the more so for that he was a wronged man ; accord- 
ingly I fared forth from thee and hid him in a place unbeknown 
to any and I slew one of his slaves in his stead. And at this moment 
Haykar is alive and well ; and if thou bid me, I will bring him 

1 In text " Ya'tadir "from v/ 'Adr=heavy rain, boldness. But in this MS. the dots 
are often omitted and the word may be Ya'tazir=find excuse. 

* In the old version the wife is made to disclose the secret of her husband being alive 
again a change for the worse. 

Here Wayha-r. and before Wayla-k": see vols. v. 258; vii. 127 and 
iii. 82. 

The Say of Haykar the Sage. 


before thee when, if thou be so minded, do thou put me to death, 
otherwise grant me immunity." Cried the King, " Fie upon thee, 

Abu Sumayk, how durst thou at such time make mock of me, 

1 being thy lord ? " but the Sworder replied, " By thy life and the 
life of thy head, O my lord, I swear that Haykar is alive and in 
good case ! " Now when the Monarch heard these words from the 
Sworder and was certified by him of the matter, he flew for very 
gladness and he was like to fall a-swoon for the violence of his joy. 
So he bade forthright Haykar be brought to him and exclaimed to 
the Sworder, " O thou righteous slave an this thy say be soothfast, 
I am resolved to enrich thee and raise thy degree amongst all my 
companions ; " and so saying and rejoicing mightily he com- 
manded the Sworder set Haykar in the presence. The man 
fared to the Minister's house forthright, and opening the souterrain 
went downstairs to the tenant whom he found sitting and praising 
Allah and rendering to Him thanksgivings ; so he cried out and 
said, " O Haykar, the blessedest of bliss hath come to thee, and 
do thou go forth and gladden thy heart ! " Haykar replied, " And 
what is to do ? " whereat the man told him the whole tale, first 
and last, of what had befallen his lord at the hands of Pharaoh ; 
then, taking him, led him to the presence. But when Sankharib 
considered him, he found him as one clean wasted by want ; his 
hair had grown long like the pelts of wild beasts and his nails 
were as vulture's claws and his members were meagre for the 
length of time spent by him in duresse and darkness, and the dust 
had settled upon him and changed his colour which had faded 
and waxed of ashen hue. So his lord mourned for his plight and, 
rising up in honour, kissed him and embraced him and wept over 
him saying, " Alhamdolillah laud to the Lord who hath restored 
thee to me on life after death ! " Then he fell to soothing his 
sorrows and consoled him, praying pardon of him the while ; 
and after bestowing robes of honour upon the Sworder and giving 
him due guerdon and lavishing upon him abundant good, he 

22 Supplemental Nights. 

busied himself about the recovery of Haykar, who said, " O my 
lord the King, may thy head live for ever and aye! All this 
wrong which befel me is the work of the adulterines, and I reared 
me a palm-tree against which I might prop me, but it bent and 
brought me to the ground : now, however, O my lord and master, 
that thou hast deigned summon me before thee, may all passion 
pass away and dolour depart from thee !" " Blessed and exalted be 
Allah," rejoined Sankharib, " who hath had ruth upon thee, and 
who, seeing and knowing thee to be a wronged man, hath saved 
thee and preserved thee from slaughter. 1 Now, however, do thou 
repair to the Hammam and let shave thy head and pare thy nails 
and change thy clothes ; after which sit at home in ease for forty 
days' space that thy health be restored and thy condition be righted 
and the hue of health return to thy face ; and then (but not till 
then) do thou appear before me." Hereupon the King invested 
him with sumptuous robes, and Haykar, having offered thanks to 
his liege lord, fared homewards in joyaunce and gladness frequently 
ejaculating, " Subhdna 'llahu ta'ala God Almighty be glorified ! ' y 
and right happy were his household and his friends and all who 
learned that he was still on life. Then did he as the King had 
bidden him and enjoyed his rest for two-score days, after which 
he donned his finest dress and took horse, followed and preceded 
by his slaves, all happy and exulting, and rode to Court, while 
Nadan the nephew, seeing what had befallen, was seized with sore 
fear and affright and became perplexed and unknowing what to 
do. Now, when Haykar went in and salamed to the King, his 
lord seated him by his side and said, " O my beloved Haykar, look 
upon this writ which was sent to me by the King of Misraim after 
hearing of thy execution ; and in very deed they ; to wit he and 
his, have conquered and chastised and routed most of the folk of 

1 The King, after the fashion of Eastern despots, never blames his own culpable folly 
and hastiness : this was decreed to him and to his victim by Destiny. 

The Say of Haykar the Sage. 23 

our realm, compelling them to fly for refuge Egyptwards in fear of 
the tax-tribute which they have demanded of us." So the 
Minister took the missive and, after reading and comprehending 
the sum of its contents, quoth he to the King, " Be not wroth, O 
rny lord : I will repair in person to Egypt and will return a full 
and sufficient reply to Pharaoh, and I will explain to him his 
propositions and will bring thee from him all the tax-tribute he 
demandeth of thee : moreover, I will restore all the lieges he hath 
caused fly this country and I will humiliate every foe of thee by 
aidance of Almighty Allah and by the blessings of thy Majesty/' 
Now when the Sovran heard this answer, he rejoiced and his 
heart was gladdened ; whereupon he gifted Haykar with a generous 
hand and once more gave immense wealth to the Sworder. 
Presently the Minister said, " Grant me a delay of forty days that 
I ponder this matter and devise a sufficient device." As soon as 
Sankharib granted him the required permission he returned home- 
wards and, summoning his huntsmen, bade them catch for him two 
vigorous young vultures ; l and, when these were brought, he sent 
for those who twist ropes and commanded them make two cords 
of cotton each measuring two thousand ells. He also bade bring 
him carpenters and ordered them to build for him two coffers of 
large size, and as soon as his bidding was done he chose out two 
little lads, one hight Binuhal and the other Tabshalim. 2 Then 
every day he would let slaughter a pair of lambs and therewith 
feed the children and the vultures, and he mounted those upon 
the back of these, binding them tight, and also making fast the 

1 The older version reads " Roc'* and informs us that "it is a prodigious bird, found 
in the deserts of Africa : it will bear two hundred pounds weight ; and many we of 
opinion -that the idea of this bird is visionary." In Weber ii. 63, this is the device of 
" Zafagnie," who accompanies her husband to Egypt. 

2 This name appears to be a corruption. The sound, however, bears a suspicious 
resemblance to " Dabshalim (a name most proper for such a Prince, to wit, meaning in 
their tongue a mighty King)," who appears in chapt. i. of the " Fables of Pilpay " 
(Bidpai = Bidyapati = Lord of Lore?) " Dabshalimat" = theDabshalims, was the dynastic 
title of the Kings of Somanath (Somnauth) in Western India. 

24 Supplemental Nights. 

cords to the legs of the fowls. He would then allow the birds to 
rise little by little, prolonging the flight every day to the extent 
of ten cubits, the better to teach and to train them ; and they 
learnt their task so well that in a short time they would rise to 
the full length of the tethers till they soared in the fields of air 
with the boys on their backs, after which he would let hale them 
down. And when he saw them perfect in this process, he taught 
the lads to utter loud shouts what while they reached the 
full length of the cords and to cry out," Send us stones and mud 1 
and slaked lime that we may build a bower for King Pharaoh, 
inasmuch as we now stand here all the day idle ! " And Haykar 
ceased not to accustom them and to instruct them until they 
became dexterous in such doings as they could be. Then he 
quitted them and presenting himself before King Sankharib said, 
" O my lord, the work is completed even as thou couldst desire ; 
but do thou arise and come with me that I may show thee the 
marvel." Thereupon the King and his courtiers accompanied 
Haykar to a wide open space outside the city whither he sent for 
the vultures and the lads ; and after binding the cords he loosed 
them to soar as high as the lanyards allowed in the firmament-plain, 
when they fell to outcrying as he had taught them. And lastly he 
haled them in and restored them to their steads. Hereat the King 
wondered, as did all his suite, with extreme wonderment, and 
kissing his Minister between his eyes, robed him in an honour- 
able robe and said to him, " Go forth in safety, O my beloved, 

1 Arab. Tin " = clay, mud, which would be used with the Tob (adobe, sun-dried 
brick) forming the walls of Egypt and Assyria. M. G. Maspero, in his excellent booklet 
" L'Archeologie Egyptienne," (p, 7. Paris, Quantin, 1887,) illustrates this ancient 
industry which endures with all its gear to the present day. The average measured 
o m 22 X o m II X o m 14; the larger was o m 38 X o m 18 X o m 14, with intermediate 
sizes. These formed the cores of temple walls, and, being revetted with granite, syenite, 
alabastet and other stones, made a grand show ; but when the outer coat was removed 
they were presently weathered to the external semblance of mud-piles. Such was 
mostly the condition of the ruins of grand Bubastis (" Pi-Pasht ") hod. Zagazig, where 
excavations are still being pushed on. 

The Say of Haykar the Sage. 25 

and boast of my realm, to the land of Egypt 1 and answer the 
propositions of Pharaoh and master him by the power of Almighty 
Allah ; " and with these words farewelled him k \ Accordingly 
Haykar took his troops and guards, together with the lads and the 
vultures, and he fared forth intending for Fgypt where on arrival 
he at once made for the royal Palace. And when the folk of the 
capital understood that Sankharib the King had commissioned a 
man of his notables to bespeak their Sovran the Pharaoh, they 
entered and apprized their liege lord who sent a party of his 
familiars summoning him to the presence. Presently Haykar the 
Sage entered unto Pharaoh ; and after prostration as befitteth 
before royalty said, " O my lord, Sankharib the King greeteth 
|thee with many salutations and salams ; and hath sent me single- 
handed sans other of his slave's, to the end that I answer thy 
question and fulfil whatso thou requirest, and I am commanded to 
supply everything thou needest ; 'especially inasmuch as thou hast 
sent to the Monarch my master for the loan of a man who can 
!build thee a bower between firmament and terra firma ; and I, by 
'the good aidance of Allah Almighty and of thine august mag- 
nanimity, will edify that same for thee even as thou desirest and 
requirest. But this shall be upon the condition stablished con- 
cerning the tax-tribute of Misraim for three years, seeing that the 
consent of the Kings be their fullest securities. An thou vanquish 
me and my hand fall short and I fail to answer thee, then shall my 
liege lord send thee the tax-tribute whereof thou speakest ; but if 
I bring thee all thou needest, then shalt thou forward to my lord 
the tax-tribute thou hast mentioned and of him demanded." 
Pharaoh, hearing these words, marvelled and was perplexed at the 
eloquence of his tongue and the sweetness of his speech and pre- 
sently exclaimed, " O man, what may be thy name ?" The other 

1 The old version has " Masser, Grand Cairo (in the days of the Pharaohs !) ; so 
called from having been built by Misraim, the son of Cham." 

26 Supplemental Nights. 

replied, " Thy slave is hight Abikam j 1 and I am an emmet of the 
emmets under Sankharib the King." Asked Pharaoh, " Had not 
thy lord one more dignified of degree than thou,that he send unto 
me an ant to answer me and converse with me ? " and Haykar 
answered, " I humbly hope of the Almighty that I may satisfy all 
which is in thy heart, my lord ; for that Allah is with the weak- 
ling the more to astound the strongling." Hereat Pharaoh gave 
orders to set apart for Abikam his guest an apartment, also for 
the guards and all that were with him and provide them with 
rations and fodder of meat and drink, and whatso was appro- 
priate to their reception as properest might be. And after the usual 
three days of guest-rite 2 the King of Egypt donned his robes 
of brightest escarlate ; and, having taken seat upon his throne, 
each and every Grandee and Wazir (who were habited in the 
same hue) standing with crossed arms and feet joined, 3 he sent a 
summons to produce before him Haykar, now Abikam hight,' 
Accordingly he entered and prostrated in the King's presence 
and stood up to receive the royal behest, when Pharaoh after a 
long delay asked him, " Abikam, whom do I resemble and what 
may these my Lords and Ministers represent?"' Hereto the envoy 
answered saying, " O my lord, thou favourest Bel the idol 4 and thy 
chieftains favour the servitors thereof!" Then quoth the King, 
"Now do thou depart and I desire thee on the morrow come 

1 In Chavis, " Abicam, a Chaldaean astrologer ;" in Gauttier " Abimacam." 

7 In Al-Harirf (p. 409) we read, " Hospitality is three days ;" and a Hadfs of the 
Prophet confirms the liberal practice of The Ignorance : " The entertainment of a 
guest is three days, and the viaticum ("Jaizah ") is a day and a night, and whatso 
exceedeth is an alms-gift." On the first day is shown largeness and courtesy ; on the 
second and third the stranger is treated after the usual custom of the household, and 
then he is provided with rations for a day and a night. See Lane : A. Nights, i. 486 ; 
also The Nights, vol. i. 3. 

3 i.e. Not standing astraddle, or in other such indecorous attitude. 

* Chavjs, " Bilelsanam, the oracle of Bel, the chief God of the Assyrian :" Gauttier 
Une 'dole Bit. Bel (or Ba'al or Belus, the Phoenician and Canaanite head-god; may here 
represent Hobal the biggest idol in the Meccan Pantheon, which used to be borne 
on raids and expeditions to give plunder a religious significance. Tabari iii. 17.. 
Evidently the author holds it to be an idol. 

The Say of Haykar the Sage. 27 

again." Accordingly Abikam, which was Haykar, retired as he 
was ordered, and on the next day he presented himself before 
Pharaoh and after prostrating stood between his hands. The 
King was habited in a red coat of various tincts and his mighty 
men were garbed in white, and presently he enquired saying, " O 
Abikam, whom do I resemble and what may these my Lords and 
Ministers represent ? " He replied, " O my lord, thou art like 
unto the sun and thy nobles are like the rays thereof ! " Then 
quoth the King, " Do thou retire to thy quarters and to-morrow 
come hither again/' So the other fared forth and Pharaoh com- 
manded and charged his head men to don pure white, himself 
doing the same ; and, having taken seat upon his throne, he bade 
Abikam be brought into the presence and when he appeared asked 
him, " Whom do I resemble, and what may these my Grandees 
represent ? " He replied, " O my lord, thou favourest the moon 
and thy servitors and guards favour the stars and planets and con- 
stellations." Then quoth the King, " Go thou until the morrow 
when do thou come hither again ;" after which he commanded his 
Magnates to don dresses of divers colours and different tincts 
whilst he wore a robe of ruddy velvet. Anon he seated him upon 
his throne and summoned Abikam, who entered the presence and 
prostrated and stood up before him. The King for a fourth time 
asked him, " O Abikam, whom do I resemble and what may these 
my guards represent ? " and he answered, " O my lord, thou art 
like the auspicious month Naysdn ! , and thy guards and grandees 
are like the white chamomile 2 and his bloom." Hearing these 
words Pharaoh rejoiced with extreme joy and said, " O Abikam, 
thou hast compared me first with Bel the idol, secondly with the 
sun and thirdly with the moon and lastly with the auspicious 

1 The Syro-solar month = April ; much celebrated by poets and ficttonists : rain 
falling at such time into shells becomes pearls and upon serpents poison. 

2 The text has " Baybunah," prop. Babunaj in Arab., and in Pers. " Babuk," oar 
"Babiinak' = the white camomile-flower. See vol. Hi. 58. 

28 Supplemental Nights. 

month Naysan, and my lords with the chamomile and his flower. 
But say me now unto what likenest thou Sankharib thy lord, and 
what favour his Grandees ? " Haykar made answer, " Heaven for- 
fend I mention my liege lord the while thou sittest on thy throne ; 
but rise to thy feet, and I will inform thee what my Master repre- 
senteth and what his court most resembleth." Pharaoh, struck with 
astonishment at such heat of tongue and valiancy of speech, arose 
from his seat and stood facing Haykar and presently said, " Now 
tell me that I may learn what thy lord resembleth and what his 
Grandees represent." The other made reply, " My lord resembleth 
the God of Heaven, and his lords represent the Lightning and 
Thunder. An it be his will the winds do blow and the rains do 
fall ; and, when he deign order, the leven playeth and the thunder 
roareth and at his behest the sun would refuse light and the moon 
and stars stand still in their several courses. But he may also 
command the storm-wind to arise and downpours to deluge when 
Naysan would be as one who beateth the bough 1 and who scat- 
tereth abroad the blooms of the chamomile." Pharaoh hearing 
these words wondered with extreme wonderment, then raging with 
excessive rage he cried, " O man, tell me the real truth and let me 
know who thou art in very sooth." " I am Haykar/ 1 quoth the 
other, " Chief Secretary and especial to Sankharib the King ; also 
his Wazir and Councillor of his kingdom and Keeper of his 
secret." " Thou statest fact, O Sage," quoth Pharaoh, " and 
this thy say is veridical : yet have we heard that Haykar is dead 
indeed, withal here art thou alive and alert." The Minister 
replied, "Yea, verily that was the case, but Alhamdolillah 
Glory to God, who knoweth all hidden things, my master had in 
very deed doomed me die believing the reports of certain traitors, 

1 "Khabata"="He (the camel) pawed the ground." The prim. sig. is to beat, 
secondly, U is applied to a purblind camel which beats or strikes the ground and so 
stumbles, or to him who bashes a tree for its leaves ; and lastly to him who gets alms 
by begging. See Chenery's Al-Hariri, p. 447. 

The Say of Haykarthe Sage. 


but my Lord preserved me and well done to him who relieth 
upon the Almighty ! " Then quoth Pharaoh, " Go forth and 
on the morrow do thou return hither and say me somewhat 
no man hath ever heard, nor I nor my Grandees nor any of 
the folk in my kingdom and my capital." Accordingly Haykar 
hied him home and penned a .paper wherein he said as follows : 
" From Sankharib, King of Assyria and Naynawah, to Pharaoh 
King of Misraim : Peace be upon thee, O my brother ! As well 
thou wottest, brother needeth brother and the Kings require the 
aidance of other Kings and my hope from thee is that thou wilt 
lend l me the loan of nine hundred-weight 2 of gold which I require 
to expend on the pay and allowances due to certain of my soldiery 
wherewith to provide for them the necessaries of life." After this 
he folded the writ and despatched it by a messenger on the next 
day to Pharaoh, who perused it and was perplext and exclaimed, 
"Verily and indeed never till now have I heard a saying like 
unto this at all, nor hath anyone ever spoken 8 to me after such 
fashion!" Haykar replied, " Tis fact, and 'tis well an thou 
own thee debtor of such sum to my lord the King." Pharaoh 
accepted this resolving of his proposition and said, " O Haykar, 

'tis the like of thee who suiteth the service of the Kings, and 

blessed be Allah who perfected thee in wisdom and adorned thee 

with philosophy 4 and knowledge. And now remaineth to us only 
one need of thee ; to wit, that thou build us a bower between 
firmament and terra firma." Haykar replied, " Hearkening and 

1 Arab. Karz"= moneys lent in interest and without fixed term of payment, as 
opp. to "Dayn." 

2 In text "KintaV'=a quintal, 98 to 99 Ibs. avoir. : in round numbers a cwt. a 
hundred weight: see vol. ii. 233. The old version explains it by "A golden coin, 
equivalent to three hundred livres French (?)." About the value of the Kintar of 
gold, doctors differ. Some value it at 40 ounces, others make it a leathern bag con- 
taining 1,080 to 1,100 dinars, and others 100 rotls (Ibs.) of precious metal; while 
Al-Makrizi relates that Mohammed the Apostle declared, "The Kintar of gold is 
twelve hundred ounces." Baron de Slane (Ibn Khaldun, i. 210) computes IOO Kinta"r* 
= I million of francs. 

3 In the text " wa 1 ahad tafawwaha fina." 

4 Arab. " Falsafah" = philosophy : see vols. v. 234 and vii. 145, 

30 Supplemental Nights. 

obeying! I will edify it for thee e'en as thou wishest and 
thou choosest ; but do thou get ready for me gypsum lime 
and ashlar-stone and brick-clay and handicraftsmen, while I 
also bring architects and master masons and they shall erect 
for thee whatso thou requirest." So King Pharaoh gat ready 
all this and fared forth with his folk to a spacious plain without 
the city whither Haykar and his pages had carried the boys 
and the vultures ; and with the Sovran went all the great men of 
his kingdom and his host in full tale that they might look upon 
the wonder which the Envoy of Assyria was about to work. But 
when they reached the place appointed, Haykar brought out of 
their boxes the vultures and making fast the lads to their backs 
bound the cords to the legs of the birds and let them loose, 
when they soared firmament-wards till they were poised between 
heaven and earth. Hereat the lads fell to crying aloud, " Send up 
to us the stones and the mud and the slaked lime that we may 
build a bower for King Pharaoh, forasmuch as here we stand the 
whole day idle." At this were agitated all present, and they 
marvelled and became perplext ; and not less wondered the King 
and the Grandees his lieges, while Haykar and his pages fell 
to buffeting the handicraftsmen and to shouting at the royal 
guards, saying, "Provide the workmen with that they want, 
nor hinder them from their work ! " Whereupon cried Pharaoh, 
" O Haykar, art thou Jinn-mad ? Who is ever able to convey 
aught of these matters to so far a height ? " But he replied to the 
King, " O my lord, how shall we build a bower in the lift on other 
wise ? And were the King my master here he would have edified 
two such edifices in a single day." Hearing this quoth Pharaoh to 
him, " Hie thee, O Haykar, to thy quarters, and for the present 
take thy rest, seeing that we have been admonished anent the 
building of the bower ; but come thou to me on the morrow." 
Accordingly, Haykar fared to his lodging, and betimes on the 
next day presented himself before Pharaoh, who said to him, 

The Say of Haykar the Sage. 3 1 

" O Haykar, what of the stallion of thy lord which, when he 
neigheth in Assyria and Nineveh, his voice is heard by our .mares 
in this place so that they miscarry ? 1 " Hereat Haykar left the 
King and faring to his place took a tabby-cat and tying her up 
fell to flogging her with a sore flogging until all the Egyptians 
heard her outcries and reported the matter to the Sovran. So 
Pharaoh sent to fetch him and asked, " O Haykar, for what 
cause didst thou scourge this cat and beat her with such beating, 
she being none other but a dumb beast 2 ? " He replied, " O my 
lord the King, she hath done by me a wrongous deed and she 
hath amply merited this whipping and these stripes." The King 
asked, "And what may be this deed she did ?" whereto Haykar 
made answer, " Verily my master Sankharib the King had given 
me a beautiful cock who had a mighty fine voice and a strong, 
and he knew the hours of darkness and announced them. But 
as he was in my mansion this mischief-making tabby fared there 
and fell upon him last night and tare off his head ; and for this 
cause when she returned to me I took to punishing her with 
such blows and stripes.'* Pharaoh rejoined, " O Haykar, indeed 
I see thou art old and doting ! Between Misraim and Nineveh 
lie eight hundred and sixty parasangs ; so how could this cat have 
covered them in one night and have torn off thy chanticleer's 
head and have returned by morning to Egypt?" He replied, 
"O my lord, seeing that between Egypt and Assyria is such 
interval how then can the neighing of my lord the King's stallion 
reach unto Nile-land and be heard by your mares so that here 
they miscarry ? " When Pharaoh had pondered these words, he 

1 In the text " Fa-yatrahuna," masc. for fern. 

2 The writer probably remembered that the cat was a sacred animal amongst the 
Egyptians : see Herod., ii. 66, and Diod. Sic., who tells us (vol. i. p. 94) of a Roman 
put to death under Ptolemy Auletes for accidentally killing one of these holy beasts. The 
artists of Bubastis, whose ruins are now for the first time being scientifically explored, 
modelled the animal in bronze with an admirable art akin to nature. 

32 Supplemental Nights. 

knew that the envoy had returned him a full and sufficient 
reply, so quoth he, " O Haykar, 'tis my desire that thou make 
for me two ropes of sand ; " and quoth the other, " Do thou 
prescribe that they bring me a cord from thy stores that I twist 
one like it." So when they had done as he bade, Haykar fared 
forth arear of the palace and dug two round borings equal to the 
thickness of the cord ; then he collected sand from the river-bed 
and placed it therein, so that when the sun arose and entered into 
the cylinder, the sand appeared in the sunlight like unto ropes. 1 
Thereupon quoth he to Pharaoh, " Command thy slaves take up 
these ropes and I will twist thee as many of them as thou wiliest." 
Quoth Pharaoh, " O Haykar, we have before our eyes a millstone 
which is broken ; and I require of thee that thou sew up the rent." 
Accordingly the Envoy looked about him and, seeing there another 
stone, said to Pharaoh, " O my lord, here am I a stranger man nor 
have I with me aught of darning-gear ; but I would have thee 
bid thy confidants amongst the cobblers to provide me out of this 
other stone with shoemaker's awls and needles and scissors 
wherewith I may sew up for thee the breach in yon millstone. 1 ' 
Hereat Pharaoh the King fell a-laughing, he and his Grandees, 
and cried, "Blessed be Allah, who hath vouchsafed to thee all 
this penetration and knowledge ; " then, seeing that the Envoy 
had answered all his questions and had resolved his propositions 

1 M. Houdas explains this miswritten passage, Quand k soldi fut Uvt et qu'il ptnttra 
farces ouvertures (lis.abkhdsk, trou de fl&te)) il rtpandit (^ not JSJ) le sable dans ces 
cylindres formts par la lumtire du soleil. It is not very intelligible. I understand that 
the Sage went behind the Palace and drove through a mound or heap of earth a narrow 
hole bearing east west, which he partially filled up with sand ; and so when the sun rose 
the beams fell upon it and made it resemble a newly made cord of white flax. M. Agoub 
(in Gauttier, vol. vi. 341) shirks, as he is wont to do, the whole difficulty. [The idea 
seems to me to be, and I believe this is also the meaning of M. Houdas, that Haykar 
produced streaks of light in an otherwise dark room by boring holes in the back wall, 
and scattered the sand over them, so that, while passing through the rays of the sun, it 
assumed the appearance of ropes. Hence he says mockingly to Pharaoh, " Have 
these ropes taken up, and each time you please I will twist thee the like of them" 
reading " Aftilu," 1st p. aor. instead of " Ifdl," 2nd imper. -ST.] 

The Say of Haykar the Sage. 


he forthright confessed that he was conquered and he bade them 
collect the tax-tribute of three years and present it to him 
together with the loan concerning which Haykar had written 
and he robed him with robes of honour, him and his guards and 
his pages ; and supplied him with viaticum, victual and moneys 
for the road, and said to him, " Fare thee in safety, O honour of 
thy lord and boast of thy liege : who like unto thee shall be 
found as a Councillor for the Kings and the Sultans ? And do 
thou present my salam to thy master Sankharib the Sovran 
saying : Excuse us for that which we forwarded to thee, as the 
Kings are satisfied with a scanting of such acknowledgment.'* l 
Haykar accepted from him all this ; then, kissing ground before 
him, said, " I desire of thee, O my lord, an order that not a man 
of Assyria and Nineveh remain with thee in the land of Egypt 
but fare forth it with me homewards." ^Hereupon. Pharaoh sent 
a herald to make proclamation of all whereof Haykar had spoken 
to him, after which the envoy farewelled the King and set out 
on his march intending for the realm of Assyria and Nineveh 
and bearing with him of treasures and moneys a mighty matter. 
When the tidings of his approach came to the ears of Sankharib, 
the King rode forth to meet his Minister, rejoicing in him with 
joy exceeding and received him lovingly and kissed him, and cried, 
" Well come and welcome and fair welcome to my sire and the 
glory of my realm and the vaunt of my kingdom : do thou require 
of me whatso thou wantest and choosest, even didst thou covet 
one-half of my good and of my government." The Minister 
replied, " Live, O King, for ever ; and if thou would gift me 
bestow thy boons upon Abu Sumayk, the Sworder, whose wise 
delay, furthered by the will of Allah Almighty, quickened me 
with a second life," " In thine honour, O my beloved," quoth 

1 Gauttier (vi. 347), Get prtsens tie sontpas dignes de lui; mats ptu de chose content* 
Its rots. 

VOL. VI. <3 

34 Supplemental Nights. 

the King, I will do him honour ;" and presently he fell to 
questioning his envoy concerning what had befallen him from 
Pharaoh and how the Lord of the Misraim had presented him with 
the tax-tribute and moneys and gifts and honourable robes ; and 
lastly, he asked anent the instances and secrets which ended the 
mission. So Haykar related all that had betided, whereat 
Sankharib rejoiced with mighty great joy ; and, when the converse 
was concluded, the King said to him, " O Haykar, take unto thee 
everything thou wishest and wantest of all this, for 'tis in the 
grasp of thy hand." Haykar answered, Live, O King, for ever 
and aye ; naught do I require save thy safety and the permanency 
of thy rule : what shall I do with moneys and such like ? But 
an thou deign largesse me with aught, make over to me in free 
gift Nadan, my sister's son, that I requite him for that he wrought 
with me : and I would that thou grant me his blood and make 
it lawfully my very own." Sankharib replied. "Take him, for 
I have given to thee that same." So Haykar led his nephew 
to his home l and bound his hands in bonds and fettered his 
feet with heavy chains ; then he beat him with a severe bastinado 
and a torturing upon his soles and calves, his back, his belly and 
his armpits ; after which bashing he cast him into a black hole 
adjoining the jakes. He also made Binuhal guardian over him 
and bade hrm be supplied day by day with a scone of bread 
and a little water ; and whenever the uncle went in to or came 
forth from the nephew he would revile Nadan and of his 
wisdom would say to him, " O dear my son, I wrought with thee 
all manner of good and kindly works and thou didst return me 

1 Haykar is a Sage who follows the religion of nature, "-Love thy friends and hate 
thy foes." Gauttier (vii. 349) embroiders all this with Christian and French sentiment 
V intention stcrete de Hey car etait de sauver la vie a Fingrat qui avail conspirt centre 
la sienne. Jl voulait pour toute vengeance, le mettre desormais dans F impossibility de 
nuire et Vabandonner ensuite a ses rewords, persuade que le remords rfest pas le moindre 
thdtiment du coupable. True nonsense this when talking of a character born bad : its 
only remorse is not to have done worse than bad. 

The Say of Haykarthe Sage, 


therefor evil and treason and death. O dear my son, 'tis said 
in saws : Whoso heareth not through his ears, through the nape 
of his neck shall he hear." l Hereat quoth Nadan, " O my uncle, 
what reason hast thou to be wroth with me ? " and quoth Haykar, 
" For that I raised thee to worship and honour and made thee 
great after rearing thee with the best of rearing and I educated 
thee so thou mightest become mine heir in lore and contrivance 
and in worldly good. But thou soughtest my ruin and destruc- 
tion and thou desiredst for me doom of death ; however, the 
Lord, knowing me to be a wronged man, delivered me from thy 
mischief, for God hearteneth the broken heart and abaseth the 
envious and the vain-glorious. O dear my son, 2 thou hast been 
as the scorpion who when she striketh her sting 3 upon brass 
would pierce it. O dear my son, thou hast resembled the 
Sajalmah-bird 4 when netted in net who, when she cannot save 
herself alive, she prayeth the partridges to cast themselves into 
perdition with her, O dear my son, thou hast been as the cur 
who, when suffering cold entereth the potter's house to warm him- 
self at the kiln, and when warmed barketh at the folk on such 
wise that they must beat him and cast him out, lest after barking 
he bite them. O dear my son, thou hast done even as the hog 
who entered the Hammam in company with the great ; but after 
coming out he saw a stinking fosse a-flowing 5 and went and 
therein wallowed. O dear my son, thou hast become like the 
old and rank he-goat who when he goeth in leadeth his friends 
and familiars to the slaughter-house and cannot by any means 
come off safe or with his own life or with their lives. O dear 
my son, a hand which worketh not neither plougheth, and withal 

1 Striking the nape being the Moslem equivalent for " boxing ears." 
a With this formula compare Chaucer, " The Manciple's Tale." 

* In the text " Zrmdkt-ha," which is unintelligible, although the sense be clear. 

* A bird unknown to the dictionaries, apparently a species of hawk. 

* In the text " Jurah Sydn" for "Jurah SayyaV' 

36 Supplemental Nights. 

is greedy and over-nimble shall be cut off from its armpit. 
O dear my son, thou hast imitated the tree whom men hew 
down, head and branch, when she said : Had not that in your 
hands been of me, 1 indeed ye would not have availed to my 
felling. O dear my son, thou hast acted as did the she-cat 
to whom they said : Renounce robbing that we make thee 
collars of gold and feed thee with sugar and almond cake ! 
But she replied : As for me, my craft is that of my father 
and my mother, nor can I ever forget it. O dear my son, thou 
art as a dragon mounted upon a bramble-bush, and the two 
a-middlemost a stream, which when the wolf saw he cried : 
A mischief on a mischief and let one more mischievous counsel 
the twain of them. O dear my son, with delicate food I fed thee 
and thou didst not fodder me with the driest of bread ; and 
of sugar and the finest wines I gave thee to drink, while thou 
grudgedst to me a sup of cold water. O dear my son, I taught 
thee and tendered thee with the tenderest of tending and garred 
thee grow like the lofty cedar of Lebanon, but thou didst incrimi- 
nate me and confine me in fetters by thine evil courses. 2 O dear 
my son, I nourished a, hope that thou wouldst build me a strong 
tower wherein I might find refuge from mine adversary and foil 
my foes ; but thou hast been to me as a burier, a grave-digger, 
who would thrust me into the bowels of the earth : however, my 
Lord had mercy upon me. O dear my son, I willed thee well and 
thou rewardedst me with ill-will and foul deed ; wherefore, 'tis 
now my intent to pluck out thine eyes and hack away thy tongue 
and strike off thy head with the sword-edge and then make thee 
meat for the wolves ; and so exact retaliation from thine abomin- 
able actions." Hereupon Nadan made answer and said to Haykar 
his uncle, " Do with me whatso thy goodness would do and then 

1 The tree having furnished the axe-helve. 

3 M. Houdas translates Tu as mtdit de moi et tu nfas accablc de Us mtchancettc. 

The Say of Haykar the Sage. 37 

condone thou to me all my crimes, for who is there can offend like 
me and can condone like thee ? And now I pray thee take me 
into thy service and suffer me to slave in thy house and groom thy 
horses, even to sweeping away their dung, and herd thy hogs ; for 
verily I am the evil-doer and thou art the beneficent ; I am the 
sinner and thou art the pardoner." " O dear my son," rejoined 
Haykar, " Thou favourest the tree which, albe planted by the side 
of many waters, was barren of dates and her owner purposed to 
hew her down, when she said : Remove me unto another stead 
where if I fruit not then fell me. But he rejoined : Being upon 
the water-edge thou gavest ne'er a date, so how shalt thou bear 
fruit being in other site ?. O dear my son, better the senility of the 
eagle than the juvenility of the raven. O dear my son, they said to 
the wolf: Avoid the sheep lest haply the dust they raise in flight 
may do thee a damage ; but Lupus made answer : Verily their dust 
is a powder good for the eyes. O dear my son, they brought the 
wolf to school that he might learn to read ; but, when quoth they 
to him : Say A, B, C, D, 1 quoth he, Lamb, Sheep, Kid, Goat, 1 
even as within my belly. O dear my son, they set the ass's head 
beside a tray of meats, but he slipped down and fell to rolling upon 
his back, for his nature (like that of others) may never be changed. 
O dear my son, his say is stablished who said : When thou hast 
begotten a child assume him to be thy son, and when thou hast 
reared a son assume him to be a slave. 3 O dear my son, whoso 
doeth good, good shall be his lot ; and whoso worketh evil, evil shall 
befal him ; for that the Lord compensateth mankind according to 
conduct. O dear my son, wherewith shall I bespeak thee beyond 
this my speech ? and verily Allah knoweth concealed things and 

In text f Alif, b, la", s," the latter written with a Sin instead of aTha, showing 
vulgar use which extends from Alexandria to Meccah. 

2 So in French, deriding the difference between written and spoken English, Ecrivtt 
Salmonassar, prononcez crocodile. 

3 Because he owes thee more than a debt of life. 

3 8 Supplemental Nights. 

wotteth all secret and hidden works and ways and He shall requite 

thee and order and ordain between me and thee and shall 

recompense thee with that thou deservest." Now when Nadan 

heard these words from his uncle Haykar, his body began to swell 

and become like a blown-up bag and his members waxed puffy, 

his legs and calves and his sides were distended, then his belly 

split asunder and burst till his bowels gushed forth and his and 

(which was destruction) came upon him ; so he perished and fared 

to Jahannam-fire and the dwelling-place dire. Even so it is 

said in books : " Whoever diggeth for his brother a pit shall 

himself fall into it and whoso setteth up a snare for his 

neighbour shall be snared therein." And this 

much know we anent the Say of Haykar 

the Sage, and magnification be to 

Allah for ever and ever 


TMT. 1 

" Tammat = She (the tale) is finished- 






t&e name of ailaft tljc ^Compassionating, t&e Compassionate, 
foe fiere in&ite, bg tfte afoance of t&e gUmfgfjtg an& |^fe fut&erance, tfje 
of tje (Ztalfpfj f^arun al-Basfjfo an& of tfje Daug&ter of 

IT is related (but Allah is all-knowing of His secrets and ail- 
kenning in whatso hath passed and preceded and preterlapsed of 
the annals of folk), 2 that the Caliph (by whom I mean Harun al- 
Rashid) was sitting on the throne of his kingdom one chance day 
of the days which happened to be the fete of 'Arafdt 5 And as 
he chanced to glance at Ja'afar the Barmaid, he said to him, "O 
Wazir, I desire to disguise myself and go down from my palace 
into the streets and wander about the highways of Baghdad that I 

1 MSS. pp 217-265. Seethe "Arabian Tales," translated by Robert Heron (Edinburgh 
.DCC.XCII.), where it is, "The Robber-Caliph; or Adventures of Haroun Alraschid, 

with the Princess of Persia, and the fair Zutulb6," vol. i. pp. 2-69. Gauttier, Histoire 
du Khalyfe de Baghdad, vol. vii. pp. 117-150. 

2 In text " Ahadfs," esp. referred to the sayings of Mohammed, and these are divided 
into two great sections, the "Ahadfs al-Nabawf," or the actual words pronounced by 
the Apostle ; and the " Ahadis al- Kudus," or the sentences attributed to the Archangel 

a Heron has "the Festival of Haraphat," adding a power of nonsense. This is the' 
day of the sermon, when the pilgrims sleep at Muzdalifah (Pilgrimage iii. 265). Kusayy, 
an ancestor of the Apostle, was the first to prepare a public supper at this oratory, and 
the custom was kept up by Harun al-Rashid, Zubaydah and Sha'ab, mother of the 
Caliph al-Muktadir (Tabari ii. 368). Alms are obligatory on the two great Tds or 
festivals, al-Fitr which ends the Ramazdn fast and al-Kurban during the annual 
Pilgrimage. The dole must consist of at least a " Sd'" = 7 Ibs. in grain, dates, &c. 

42 Supplemental Nights. 

may give alms to the mesquin and miserable and solace myself 
with a sight of the folk : so do thou hie with me nor let any know 
of our faring forth." " With love and good will," quoth Ja'afar. 
So his lord arose and passed from the audience-room into the inner 
palace where the two donned disguise and made small their sleeves 
and breasts 1 and issued forth to circle about the thoroughfares of 
Baghdad and her market-streets, distributing charity to the poor 
and the paupers, until the last of the day. And whilst so doing, 
the Commander of the Faithful chanced to espy a woman seated 
at the head of a highway who had extended the hand of beggary, 
showing at the same time her wrist and crying, " Give me some- 
what for the sake of Allah Almighty ! " Hereat he considered her 
nicely and saw that her palm and her wrist were like whitest 
crystal and yet more brilliant in brightness. So he wondered 
thereat, and presently pulling a dinar from his breast-pocket he 
handed it to Ja'afar and said, " Bestow it upon yonder woman. 1 * 
The Minister took the ducat and leaving his lord went up to her 
and placed it in her palm ; and, when she closed her fingers there- 
upon, she felt that the coin was bigger than a copper or a silverling, 
so she looked thereat and saw that it was of gold. Hereupon she 
called after Ja'afar who had passed onwards, saying, " Ho, thou 
fair youth ! " and when he came back to her she continued, " The 
dinar wherewith thou hast gifted me, is it for Allah's sake or for 
other service ? " Said he, " Tis not from me, nay 'twas given by 
yonder Youth who sent it through me." " Ask him," she rejoined, 
" and tell me what may be his purport." Ja'afar hied him back 
to the Caliph and reported her words, whereat his lord commanded 
him, " Go back and say thou to her 'tis for Almighty Allah's sake." 
The Minister did his master's bidding when she replied, " His 
reward be upon the Almighty." Then the Wazir returned and 

1 i.e. habited themselves in the garments of little people: so to ' enlarge the 
turband" is to assume the rank of an 'Alim or learned man. "Jayb," the breast of a 
coat is afterwards used in the sense of a pocket. 

The History of Al-Bundukani. 


reported the woman's prayer to the Commander of the Faithful, 
who cried, " Hie thee to her and enquire an she be married or 
virginal ; and, if she be unwedded, do thou ask her -an she be 
willing to wive with me." 1 So Ja'afar fared to her and questioned 
her, whereat she answered, " A spinster." Quoth he, " The Youth 
who sent the dinar to thee desireth to mate with thee ;" and quoth 
she, " An he can pay me my dower and my money down, 2 1 will 
become his bride." Hereat Ja'afar said in his thought, " Whence 
can the Prince of True Believers find her dower and her money 
down ? Doubtless we shall have to ask a loan for him ;" 3 and 
presently he enquired of her what might be the Amount of both. 
Replied she, "As for the pin-money, this shall be the annual 
revenue of Ispahdn, and the income of Khordsdn-city shall form 
the settlement.'' So Ja'afar wagged his head and going back to 
the Commander of the Faithful repeated her terms ; wherewith 
Harun was satisfied and bespake him, " Hie thee to her and 
say : He hath accepted this "and thou hast professed thyself 
contented. Hearing his words she rejoined, " What be. his worth, 
yonder man, and how may he attain unto such sum ? " and he 
retorted, " Of a truth he is the Commander of the Faithful, Harun 
al-Rashid." When this reply reached her ears she veiled her hands 
and feet crying, " To Allah be laud and gratitude ;" adding to Ja'afar, 
" An he be the Prince of True Believers, I am satisfied therewith," 
Accordingly the Wazir returned to the Caliph and reported her 
consent, whereafter the twain repaired homewards and the Caliph 
despatched to her a duenna and a train of handmaidens who went 
and bore her to the Hammam within the palace and bathed her. 
Then they brought her out and robed her in sumptuous raiment, 

1 Either the Caliph was persuaded that the white wrist was a " promise of better things 
above and below," or he proposed marriage as a mere freak, intelligible enough when 
divorce costs only two words. 

2 In text "Nakdf " = the actual as opposed to the contingent dowry : see vols. vu. 
126; ix. 32. 

* This is said in irony. 

44 Supplemental Nights. 

uch as becometh the women of the Kings, and ornaments and 
jewellery and what not : after which they led her to a fine apart- 
ment which was set apart and private for her wherein also were 
meat and drink and furniture, arras 1 and curtains and all necessaries 
of such sort. In fine they fared to the Caliph and apprized him 
of what they had done and he presently gave command to summon 
the four Kazis who wrote her marriage-lines. When it was night 
he paid her the first visit and taking seat opposite her he asked, 
" Daughter of whom mayst thou be amongst the folk that thou 
demandedst of me this dower ? " " Allah advance in honour the 
Commander of the Faithful," answered she ; " verily thy handmaid is 
of the seed of Kisra Anushirwan ; but the shifts of time and tide 
brought me down and low down." Replied he, " They relate that 
thine ancestor, the Chosroe, wronged his lieges with mighty sore 
wronging ; " * and she rejoined, " Wherefor and because of such 
tyranny over the folk hath his seed come to beg their bread at the 
highway-heads. 1 ' Quoth he, " They also make mention of him 
that in after-times he did justice to such degree that he decided 
causes between birds and beasts ; " and quoth she, " Wherefor hath 
Allah exalted his posterity from the highway-head and hath made 
them Harfm to the Prince of True Believers." Hearing this the 
Caliph was wroth with mighty great wrath 8 and sware that he 
would not go in unto her for a full told year, and arising forthright 
went forth from her. But when the twelvemonth had passed and 
the fte-day of Arafat came round again, the Commander of the 
Faithful donned disguise and taking with him Ja'afar and Masrur 
the Eunuch, strolled out to wander about the streets of Baghdad and 

1 In text " Bashdkhfn " plur. of " Bashkhdnah :" see Suppl. vols. i. 165 j iii. 121. 

* In Heron he becomes " Kassera-Abocheroan." Anushirwan (in full Anushfn- 
rawdn = sweet of soul) is popularly supposed to have begun his rule badly after the 
fashion of Eastern despots, and presently to have become the] justest of monarchy 
Nothing of this, however, is found in Tabari (ii. 159). 

8 He was indignant because twitted with having married a beggar*maid like good 
King Cophetua. In Heron he is " moved by so sensible a reply." 

The History of Al-Bundukani. 


her highways. And as they walked along, the Caliph looked about 
him and beheld a booth wherein a man was turning out Katffah- 
cakes 1 and he was pleased to admire his dexterity to such degree 
that, returning to the Palace, he sent him one of his Eunuchs 
with the message, " The Prince of True Believers requireth of thee 
an hundred pancakes, and let each one of them, when filled and 
folded, fit into the hollow of a man's hand." So the Castrato 
went and gave the order as we have related and paid the price 
and, when the pastrycook had made his requirement, he carried it 
away to the presence. Then the Caliph took seat and bade bring 
sugar and pistachios and all other such needs wherewith he fell 
to stuffing the pancakes with his own hands and placing in each 
and every a golden dinar. When this was done he despatched 
the same Eunuch to Kisra's daughter with the message, " This 
night the Commander of the Faithful proposeth to visit thee, the 
year of his oath having expired, and he sendeth to thee saying : 
What is it thy heart coveteth that he may forward it to thee ? " The 
Castrato set forth upon this errand and received for all reply, " Say 
him my heart desireth naught, for that all I require is with me, nor 
is there aught of deficiency." Accordingly, he returned and repeated 
her words to the Caliph who bade him fare forth again to her and 
say the same to her a second time, whenas she, " Let him send me 
a thousand dinars and a duenna in whom he confideth, so that I 
may disguise myself and go down with her and distribute gold to 
the mean and the mesquin." Presently back came the slave bear- 
ing this reply, whereat the Caliph ordered the moneys be sent to 
her and the woman required ; and the twain, Princess and duenna, 
went forth and threaded the lanes of Baghdad and her great 
throughfares whilst the young lady distributed her charity to the 
Fakirs and the paupers. But when all the gold with her had 

1 Plur. " Kataif/' a kind of pancake made of flour and sugar (or honey) and ofl or 

46 Supplemental Nights. 

been expended and naught of it remained, they turned homewards 
making for the Palace ; and, the day being sultry, drowthiness 
befel the young lady. So she said to her companion, " O mother 
mine, I am athirst and want a draught of water to drink ; " and 
said the other, " We will call aloud to the Water-carrier 1 who shall 
give thee thy need." Replied the Princess, " Drinking from the 
Waterman's jar will not be pleasant to my heart ; nor will I touch 
it, for 'tis like the whore 2 whereinto some man goeth every hour : 
let the draught of water be from a private house and suffer that it 
be given by way of kindness." Hereupon the old woman looked 
in front of her and saw a grand gateway with a door of sandal- 
wood over which a lamp hung by a silken cord 3 and a curtain was 
drawn across it and it had two benches of marble, the whole under 
the charge of a goodly concierge. Then quoth she, " From this 
house I will ask a drink for thee." So the two women went 
forward and stood before the door and the duenna advancing 
rapped a light rap with the ring, when behold, the entrance was 
opened and came forth a young man in youthful favour fair and 
robed in raiments pure and rare and said, " Tis well ! "_ Hereat the 
governante addressed him, " O my son, indeed this my daughter is 
athirst and I crave of thy kindness that thou give her a draught of 
v later, seeing that she will not drink from the Water-carrier." He 
replied, " With love and goodwill ; " and going within brought out 
what was required and handed the cup to the old woman. She 
took it and passed it on to her mistress and the young lady turning 
her face to the wall raised her veil and drank her sufficiency with- 
out showing a single feature. 4 After this she returned the cup to 

1 Arab. " Sakkd " = a water-carrier, generally a bad lot. Of the " Sakkd Sharbah," 
who supplies water to passengers in the streets, there is an illustration in Lane ; M.E. 
chapt. xiv. 

2 In the text " Kahbah " an ugly word = our whore (/.*. hired woman) : it is fright- 
fully common in every-day speech. See vol. ii. 70. 

3 Arab. "Siba"k" usually = a leash (for falconry, etc.). 

4 I have emphasised this detail which subsequently becomes a leading incideai. 

The History of Al-Bundukani. tf 

the old woman who took it and handed it back to the young man 
saying, " Allah requite thee with all of weal, O my son ! " whereto he 
replied, " Health to you and healing ! " * And the two went their 
way and returned to the Palace and entered therein. On such 
wise fared it with these twain ; but as regards the Caliph, when he 
had finished filling the pancakes, he ranged them in a large charger 
of porcelain ; then, summoning the Eunuch he said to him, " Take 
up this and carry it to the daughter of Kisra and say her: 
Here be the sweetmeats of peace, and let her know that I will night 
with her this night." The Castrato did his lord's bidding ; and 
carrying the charger to the Princess's apartment handed it to the 
duenna and delivered the message, whereupon she blessed and 
prayed for the Commander of the Faithful and the slave departed* 
Now he was angry and disappointed for that he could not eat one 
pancake of them all because they had become big by stuffing and 
he feared that if he touched any thereof its place would show void. 
Presently it so befel that the young lady said to the old woman, 
her governante, " Do thou take up this charger and carry it to the 
youth who gave us the draught of water with the intent that he 
may not claim an obligation or have aught to desire of us." 
Accordingly, the ancient dame took the charger and walked off 
with it. But on her way she longed for a Katifah and put forth 
her hand to one and took it up when she saw that it left in the line 
of pancakes a gap big as a man's palm. Hereat she feared to 
touch it and replaced it saying, " 'Twill be known that I carried 
off one of them/'' Then after returning the pancake to its place, 
she passed on with the charger to the door of that young ma* 
whom she suddenly sighted as he sat at the gateway. She saluted 
him with the salam which he returned, and then said she, " O my 
son, the young lady who drank the water hath sent thee all these 

1 Usual formulae when a respectable person is seen drinking : the same politeness was 
also in use throughout the civilised parts of mediaeval Europe. See the word '* Hanian " 
(vol. ii. 5), which at Meccah and elsewhere is pronounced also " Haniyyan." 

48 Supplemental Nights. 

cates in acknowledgment for the draught thou gavest her to drain." 
Said he, " Set it down on the door-bench ; " and, when she did his 
bidding, he expressed his thanks to her and she ganged her gait. 
Now as the youth still sat there, the Watchman of the Ward 
suddenly stood before him blessing him and saying, " O my lord, 
this be Arafat-day and to-night will be the Eve of the Td, or 
Greater Festival ; so I hope from the beneficence of my master the 
Chamberlain and Emir Alaeddin (whom Allah Almighty keep and 
preserve !) that he will deign order me a largesse befitting the Fete 
wherewith I may buy sweetmeats for my wife and children." The 
other replied, " Take this charger and wend thy ways therewith ; " 
so the Watchman kissed his hand and carrying it off went home 
and showed it to his wife. But she cried, " O thou miserable, 1 
whence gottest thou this charger : hast thou wilfully stolen it or 
suddenly snatched it ? " 2 Replied her mate, " This be the pro- 
perty of the Emir Alaeddin, the Chamberlain (whom Allah pre- 
serve !), and he gave it to me as an alms-gift ; so come hither all 
of you that we eat, for the pancakes look toothsome." Rejoined 
his wife, " Art thou Jinn-mad ? Up with thee and sell the charger 
and cates, for the worth must be some thirty to forty dirhams which 
we will lay out for the benefit of the little ones." He retorted, 
" O woman, suffer us eat of this food wherewith the Almighty would 
feed us ; " but she fell to wailing and crying out, " We will not 
taste thereof while the children lack caps and slippers." 8 And 
she prevailed over him with her opinion, for indeed women are 

1 In text "Yd Ta'is," a favourite expression in this MS. Page 612 (MS.) has 
*' Ta'ish," a clerical error, and in page 97 we have " Y& Ta'asat-nd " = O our misery ! 

2 As might a " picker up of unconsidered trifles." 

3 In text " Akba' wa Zarabil." I had supposed the first to be the Pers. Kaba = a 
short coat or tunic, with the Arab. 'Ayn (ihe second is the common corruption for 
"Zarabfn" = slaves' shoes, slippers : see vol. x. i), but M. Hondas translates Ni calottts 
ni ca/efons, and for the former word here and in MS. p. 227 he reads " 'Arakiyah" = 
skull-cap: see vol. i. 215. [" Akba' is the pi. of "Rub'," which latter occurs infra, 
p. 227 of the Ar. MS., and means, in popular language, any part of a garment covering 
the head, as the hood of a Burnus or the top-piece of a Kalansuwah ; also a skull-cap, 
usually called " 'Araqiyah." ST.] 

The History of Al-Bundukani. 49 

mostly the prevailers. So taking up the charger he fared with it 
to the market-place and gave it for sale to a broker, and the man 
began crying, " Who will buy this charger with whatso is thereon ? " 
Hereat up came the Shaykh of the Bazar who bid forty dirhams 
therefor, and a second merchant raised its price to eighty, when a 
third hent it in hand and turning it about espied graven upon the 
edge, " Made by commandment of Harun al-Rashid, Commander 
of the Faithful." Hereat the trader's wits fled him and he cried 
to the broker, " Hast thou a will to work for my hanging in this 
matter of the charger ? " Quoth the other, " What may be the 
meaning of these words ? " and quoth the merchant, " This charger 
is the property of the Prince of True Believers." The broker, 
dying of dread, took the charger and repaired therewith to the 
Palace of the Caliphate where he craved leave to enter ; and, when 
this was accorded, he went in and kissed ground before the pre- 
sence and blessed the Commander of the Faithful and lastly 
showed to him the charger. But when the Caliph looked at it and 
considered it carefully, he recognized it with its contents, and he 
waxed wroth with exceeding wrath and said in himself, " When I 
make aught for the eating of my household, shall it be sent out 
and hawked about for sale ? " adding to the broker, " Who gave 
thee this charger ? " " O my lord, 'twas the Watchman of one of 
the wards," replied he ; and Harun rejoined, " Bring him to me 
hither." So they fared forth and fetched him bound in cords and 
saying in his mind, " The whore would not suffer us eat of that was 
in the charger and enjoy its sweetness, so this happened which 
hath happened to us ; we have eaten naught and have fallen into 
misfortune." But when they set him between the hands of the. 
Caliph the latter asked him, " Where haddest thou yon charger ? 
say me sooth or I will smite thy neck ! " The Watchman 
answered, " Allah prolong the life of our liege lord ! verily as 
regards this charger it was given to me by the Lord Alaeddin, 
the junior Chamberlain." Hereat the Prince of True Believers 

$O Supplemental Nights. 

redoubled in rage and cried, " Bring me that Emir with his 
turband in tatters, and drag him along on his face and plunder 
his home." Accordingly the magnates fared forth with their 
pages ; and, reaching the house, knocked at the door, when the 
owner came out and, seeing the officials, asked, " What is to do ? " 
"'Tis against thee," replied some of the Grandees, whereto the 
Chamberlain rejoined, "Hearkening and obeying Allah and 
then the Commander of the Faithful!" After this they bore 
him to the Palace of the Caliphate and an Emir of them put 
forth his hand to the Chamberlain's coat and tare it and rent his 
turband adown his neck saying, " O Alaeddin, 1 this is the behest 
of the Prince of True Believers who hath enjoined that we do 
with thee on such wise and we despoil thy house : yet there is 
bread and salt between us albe we must do as we are bidden, for 
obedience to royal behest is of the ways of good breeding." 
Then they carried him into the presence of the Caliph and he, 
after he was made to stand between the Sovran's hands, kissed 
ground and blessed Harun and said, " Allah give aidance to our 
liege lord and have him in His holy keeping : what may be the 
offence of thine humble slave that he hath merited such treat- 
ment as this ? " Harun raised his head and asked, " Say me,, 
knowest thou yon fellow ? " and the other looked and seeing the 
guardian of the gates corded and pinioned made answer, " Yes 
indeed, I know him and he is the Watchman of our ward." The 
Caliph resumed, "Whence came to thee this charger?" and the 
Chamberlain replied, " Let the Commander of the Faithful (to 
whom Almighty Allah vouchsafe furtherance !) learn that I was 
sitting at home when there rapped a rap at the door ; and I, going 

1 Heron dubs him " Hazeb (Hajib) Yamaleddin." In text "'Alai al-Dfn ;" and in 
not a few places it is familiarly abbreviated to " 'AH " (p. 228, etc.). For the various 
forms of writing the name see Suppl. vol. iii. 51. The author might have told us the 
young,Chamberlain's name Arabic* earlier in the tale ; but it is the Rawi's practice to 
begin with the vague and to end in specification. I have not, however, followed his 
example here or elsewhere. 

The History of Al-BundukanL 5 1 

forth to open, beheld an ancient dame who said to me : O my 
son, this my daughter is athirst and I beg thee of thy bounty to 
give her a draught of water for she will not take drink from the 
public Sakka. So I brought them out their requirement and they 
satisfied themselves and went their ways. After an hour or so I 
came forth and took seat by my house-door when behold, up came 
the old woman bearing in hand yon charger and said : O my 
son, the person to whom thou suppliedest drink hath sent this to 
thee in requital for that thou gavest her of water inasmuch as 
she is unwilling to be under an obligation. Quoth I : Set it 
down ; when she placed it upon the edge of the Mastabah-bench 
and left me. Thereupon suddenly came up this Watchman and 
craved from me the Sweetmeat of the Festival, whereto I 
answered : Do thou take this charger and its contents (whereof 
by the bye I had not tasted aught); and he did so and departed. 
This is all I know and The Peace." Now when the Commander 
of the Faithful heard this from the Chamberlain, his heart was 
gladdened and he enquired, " O Alaeddin, what time the young 
lady drank the draught of water didst thou see her face or not ? " 
and the Chamberlain replied in haste, " O Prince of True Believers, 
indeed I did see it." Hereat Harun was wroth with exceeding 
wrath and bade summon the daughter of Kisra and when she 
came bade the twain be beheaded saying, "Thou farest forth 
to do alms-deeds, and thou durst display thy features to this 
fellow when thou drankest water at his hand ! " Hereat she 
turned her towards Alaeddin and replied, " Thou see my face !' 
Nay, this is but a lie that may work my death." He rejoined,, 
" The Reed-pen wrote what 'twas bidden write I 1 I designed to 
say: Verily I beheld naught of her and my tongue ran as it 
did the sooner to end our appointed life-term." Then having set 
the twain upon the rug of blood the Sworder bound their hands 

1 t'.. Destiny so willed it. For the Pen and the Preserved Tablet see vol. v. 322* 

$2 Supplemental Nights. 

and tearing off a strip from their skirts bandaged their eyes, 
whereafter he walked around them and said, " By leave of the 
Commander of the Faithful ; " and Harun cried, " Smite ! " Then 
the Headsman paced around them a second time saying, "By 
leave of the Commander of the Faithful," and Harun again cried, 
" Smite ! " But when the executioner did in like manner for the 
third and last time 1 quoth he to Alaeddin, " Hast thou haply in 
heart aught of regret or requirement that I may fulfil it to thee ? 
Ask of me anything save release, ere the Commander of the 
Faithful say the word and forthright thy head fall before thy 
feet?" "I desire," quoth the Chamberlain, "that thou unbind 
this bandage from mine eyes so may I look one latest look at the 
world and at my friends, after which do thou work thy will." 
The Sworder granted this and Alaeddin glanced first to the right 
where he saw none to aidance dight, and then to the left where 
he found all favour reft ; and the spectators each and every hung 
their heads groundwards for awe of the Caliph, nor did any take 
upon himself to utter a kindly word. Whereupon the Chamberlain 
cried out his loudest saying, "A counsel, O Commander of the 
Faithful ! " and Harun regarding him asked, " What is it thou 
counsellest ? " "A respite of three days' space," rejoined the 
condemned, " when thou shalt see a marvel, indeed a miracle of 
miracles ;" and the Caliph retorted, " After the third day, an I see 
not as thou sayest I will assuredly smite thy neck ; " and bade 
them bear him back to gaol. But when the appointed term 
ended, the Caliph sprang up and in his impatience to see what 
would befal him donned a dress distinctive of his new calling, 2 
and thrusting his feet into coarse shoon and high of heel 8 and 

1 This was the custom not only with- Harun as Mr. Heron thinks, but at the Courts of 
the Caliphs generally. 

2 In text " Ghiyar," Arab. any piece of dress or uniform which distinguishes a 
class, as the soldiery : in Pers. = a strip of yellow cloth worn by the Jews subject to th 

3 Arab. "Zarbul taki," the latter meaning "high-heeled." Perhaps it may signify 

The History of Al-BundukanL 53 

binding about his brows a honey-coloured turband 1 he hent in 
hand a pellet-bow 2 and slung its case over his shoulders : he also 
took gold in pouch and thus equipped he left the palace. Then, 
as he roamed about the lanes of Baghdad and her highways, 
giving alms and saying in his mind, " Haply may I sight the 
wonder which the Chamberlain Alaeddin announced to me," it 
befel about mid-forenoon (and he still walking) that behold, a man 
came forth from the Kaysariyah 3 or chief mart of the merchants 
crying aloud, " This be a marvel, nay a miracle of miracles." So 
the Caliph questioned him saying, "What be this wonder tho.u 
hast seen ? " and he answered, " Within yon Kaysariyah is a 
woman who reciteth the Koran even as it was brought down, 4 
and albeit she have not ceased declaiming from the hour of the 
dawn-prayer until this time, yet hath none given her a single 
dirham : no, nor even one mite ; 5 and what strangeness can be 
stranger than this I tell thee ? " The Caliph, hearing his words 

also " fenestrated, or open-worked like a window." So "poules" or windows cut in 
the upper leathers of his shoes. Chaucer, The Miller's Tale. 

1 " Mayzar," in Pers. = a turband : in Arab. "Miizar" = a girdle j a waistcloth. 

2 Arab. " Kaus al-Bunduk" (or Banduk) a pellet-bow, the Italian arcobugio, the 
English arquebuse; for which see vol. i. 10. Usually the "Kfs" is the Giberne or 
pellet-bag ; but here it is the bow-cover. Gauttier notes (vii. 131) : Bondouk signifie 
en Arabe harquebuse, Albondoukani signifie I'arquebusier ; c'ttait comme on le voit t le 
mot d'ordre du Khalyfe. He supposes, then, that firelocks were known in the days of 
Harun al-Rashid (A.D. 786-809). Al-Bundukdni = the cross-bow man, or rather the 
man of the pellet-bow was, according to the Rawf, the name by which the Caliph was 
known in this disguise. Al-Zahir Baybars al-Bundukdarf, the fourth Baharite Soldan 
(A.D. 1260-77) was so entitled because he had been a slave to a Bundukddr,.an officer 
who may be called the Grand Master of Artillery. In Chavis and Cazotte the Caliph 
arms himself with a spear, takes a bow and arrow (instead of the pellet-bow that named 
him), disguises his complexion, dyes beard and eye-brows, dons a large coarse 
turband, a buff waistcoat with a broad leathern belt, a short robe of common stuff and 
half- boots of strong coarse leather, and thus "assumes the garb of an Arab from the 
desert." (!) 

3 See vol. i. 266. 

4 i.e. by the Archangel Gabriel. 

5 Arab. " Habbah" = a grain (of barley, etc.) an obolus, a mite : it is also used for a 
gold bead in the shape of a cube forming part of the Egyptian woman's headdress (Lane 
M.E., Appendix A). As a weight it is the 48th of a dirham) the third of a kirat (carat) 
or Iff of an English grain, avoir. 

54 Supplemental Nights. 

entered the mart wherein he descried an ancient dame sitting and 
reciting the Koran and she had well nigh reached the end thereof. 
He was charmed with the beauty of her lecture and stood there 
until she had finished it and had blessed the by-standers, but when 
he glanced round he saw nobody give her aught. So he thrust 
his hand into his pouch saying in his mind, " Whatso 1 of coin 
remaineth in purse shall go to this woman." And he designed to 
gift her with the gold when suddenly the old dame sprang from 
her seat and going to a merchant's shop took seat beside the man 
and said to him, " O my son, dost thou accept of a fair young 
lady?" Said he, "Yea, verily," and she continued, "Up with 
thee and come that I show thee a thing whose like thou hast 
never seen." Now when the Caliph heard her words he said to 
himself, " Look at yon foul old crone who playeth bawd when I 
held her to be a devotee, a holy woman. Indeed I will not give 
her aught until I see what work is wrought by these twain." The 
trader then followed the old woman to her home wherein both, 
youth and crone, entered and the Caliph who pursued them also 
went in privily and took his station at a stead whence he could 
see without being seen. 2 Then lo and behold ! the old trot called 
to her daughter who came forth from the bower wherein she was, 
and the Caliph looking at this young lady owned that he had 
never sighted amongst his women aught fairer than this, a model 
of beauty and loveliness and brilliancy and perfect face and 
stature of symmetric grace. Her eyes were black and their 
sleepy lids and lashes were kohl'd with Babylonian witchery, and 
her eyebrows were as bows ready to shoot the shafts of her killing 

1 In text " Mahmd " = as often as = kullu-ml This is the eleventh question of 
the twelve in Al-Hariri, Ass. xxiv., and the sixth of Ass. xxxvi. The former runs, 
41 What is the noun (kullu-ma) which gives no sense except by the addition thereto of 
two words, or the shortening thereof to two letters (i.e. md) ; and in the first case there 
is adhesion and in the second compulsion ? " (Chenery, pp. 246-253). 

2 In Chavis and Cazotte he looks through the \ney-kole which an Eastern key does not 
permit, the holes being in the bolt. See Index, Suppl. vol. v. 

The History of Al-Bundukan 


glances, and her nose was like unto the scymitar's edge, and her 
mouth for magical might resembled the signet-ring of Sulayman 
(upon whom be The Peace !), and her lips were carnelians twain, 
and her teeth union pearls and her mouth-dews sweeter than 
honey and more cooling than the limpid fount ; with breasts 
strutting from her bosom in pomegranate-like rondure and waist 
delicate and hips of heavy weight, and stomach soft to the touch 
as sendal with plait upon plait, and she was one that excited the 
sprite and exalted man's sight even as said a certain poet in song 
of her like : 

Breeze-wavd branch, full moon o' murk or sun of undurn sheeny bright, o 

Which is she hight who all the three hath might to place in pauper 

plight, ah ! 
Where on the bending branch alight with grace of stature like to hers 

Tho J be the branch by Zephyr deckt and in its ornaments bedight, ah ! 
And how can fellowed be her brow with fullest moon that lights the darks 

When sun must borrow morning light from that fair forehead dazzling 

bright, ah ! 
Were set in scales the fairest fair and balanced with a long compare o Their 

boasts, thou haddest over-weight for beauty and their charms were 

light, ah 1 

Now when he considered her straitly, she captured the whole of 
his heart. But the young lady had not upon her clothes enough 
for concealment, and here and there her body showed bare ; so 
when she came forth and espied the young man standing by the 
old woman she withdrew into her bower and said to her mother, 
" Allah requite 1 thee for that thou hast done. How can it be 
allowed thee by the Almighty to set me in this state before a 
stranger ? " " Hold thy peace," said her parent ; " man is allowed 
to look, and if he have any art or part in the object looked at 'tis 
well ; but thereafter if he look without its being his lot, then 

1 In text 4< Kdbal-ki," which I suspect to be a clerical error for " Katal-ki"= Allah 
Strike thee dead. See vol. iv. 264, 265. [One of the meanings of "Mukabalah," die 
third form of "kabila," is " requital," "retaliation." The words in 'the text could 
therefore be translated : "may God requite thee." ST.] 

56 Supplemental Nights. 

twere unlawful. This youth hath gazed upon thee, and if he 
prove to have a portion in thee let him take it, otherwise he may 
wend his ways, nor is there a flaw in aught of legal observance." 
Hereat the Caliph's heart was cheered, for he knew that the ancient 
dame meant to marry the maid. Anon quoth the old mother to 
the merchant, " Hast thou seen her ? " and quoth he, " Yes." 
" Did she please thee ?" asked the crone, and he answered " Yea 
verily," adding, " How much may be her actual marriage-settle- 
ment and her contingent dower ? " She replied, " The- first shall 
consist of four thousand dinars and the second shall be the same." 
" This be overmuch," rejoined the youth," and more than all my 
good ; to wit, four thousand gold pieces, the gift of which will 
send me forth to beg ; but do thou take of me a thousand dinars, 
and upon me be the arraying of the house and the maiden's 
ra-iment for another thousand ; so will I do business and trade 
with the remainder." But the crone sware to him by Allah the 
Almighty, 1 that an the four thousand failed of a single gold piece 
he should never see of the damsel a single hair. He replied, " I 
have no power thereto and good day to both of you ; " and he 
made for the door, but the Caliph forewent him to the street and 
standing in a corner suffered him to pass and gang his gait. After 
this Harun went back to the old woman, and entering salam'd to 
her and she, returning his salutation, asked him, " What dost thou 
want and what may be thy wish ? " He answered, " The young 
trader who went forth hence sent me to say that he hath no intent 
to wed," and she rejoined, " On this mind the man hied away from 
us." Then quoth the Caliph, " I will marry the maid, and by me 
te all thou canst desire of gold and what not." She retorted, " O 
Robber, 2 all I see upon thee is not worth two hundred dirhams : 
whence then canst thou procure four thousand dinars ? " Quoth 

1 In Chavis and Cazotte she swears "by the name of God which is written on oiur 
Great Prophet's forehead." 
8 Arab. " Y Luss " ; for this word = the Gr. Aflorfc see Suppl. vol. iv. index. 

The History of Al-Bundukani. 57 

he, " Hast thou grapes to sell, or wishest thou only to breed a 
quarrel between me and the vineyard-keeper ? " * and quoth she, 
"Doubtless I have and hold the grapes." "Then, I possess all 
thou canst desire," said he, and said she, " Then, we will wed thee 
when thou shalt have weighed out the gold." The Caliph cried, 
" I accept ; " and anon entering the lodging he took seat at the 
head of the chamber and in its place of honour, and said to the 
house-mistress, " Go thou to Kazf Such-an-one and tell him that 
Al-Bundukdni requireth him." " O Robber," said she, " will the 
Kazi be content to come at thy bidding ? " The Commander of 
the Faithful laughed at these words and said,*" Do thou go with- 
out danger and bid him bring his ink-case and pens and paper." So, 
she went off saying to herself, " Verily, an the Judge accompany 
me, this my son-in-law must be a Captain of Robbers." 3 But when 
at last she arrived at the Kazi's mansion she saw him sitting in 
the middle of the room and surrounded by doctors of divinity and 
a host of learned wights : so she feared to enter, and fell to looking 
in through the doorway and she dreaded to fare farther and stepped 
backwards ; withal she kept saying, " How shall I go home with-, 
out speaking a word to the Kazi ? " and the thought would hearten 
her heart, so she would return to the entrance and thrust in her 
head and then withdraw it. On such wise she had done many a 
time when the Kazi, catching sight of her, bade one of his 
messengers bring her within ; so the man went to her and said, 

1 " Al-Ndtur," the keeper, esp. of a vineyard, a word naturalized in Persian. The 
Caliph asks, Is this a bona" fide affair and hast 'thou the power to settle the matter 
definitely ? M. Houdas translates as Les raisins sont-ils a tot, ou bien es-tu settlement la 
gardienne de la vigne ? [The verb za"raba, 3rd form, followed by the accusative, means 
44 to join one in partnership." The sense of the passage seems therefore to be : Dost 
thou own grapes thyself, or art thou (" tuzaribf," 2 fern, sing.) in partnership with the 
vineyard-keeper. The word may be chosen because it admits of another interpretation, 
the double entendre of which might be kept up in English by using the expression 
* 4 sleeping M partnership. Perhaps, however, "tuz&ribf" means here simply : "Dost 
thou play the part of." ST.] 

* The innuendo is intelligible and I may draw attention to the humorous skill with 
which the mother-in-law's character is drawn. 

58 Supplemental Nights. 

" Bespeak the Kazi ! " So she went in full of affright and salanVd 
to the Judge who, returning her salutation, asked her, " What is 
thy want, O woman ? " She answered, " There is a young man 
in my house who desireth that thou .corne to him ; " whereat he 
rejoined, " And who may be this youth that I in person should 
hie to him ; and what may be his name ? " She replied, " He 
pretendeth to the name of Al-Bundukani the Arbalestrier '' (which 
was a by-name of the Caliph kept concealed from the folk but 
well known to all officials). Hereat the Kazi sprang to his feet 
without stay or delay and said to her, " O my lady, do thou forego 
me/' whilst all present asked him," O our lord, whither away ?" and 
he, answering them " A need hath suddenly occurred," went forth. 
Then quoth the crone in her mind, " Hapless the Kazi who is a 
pleasant person, haply this son-in-law of mine hath given him to 
drink of clotted gore 1 by night in some place or other and the 
poor man hath yet a fear of him ; otherwise what is the worth of 
this Robber that the Judge should hie to his house ? " When they 
reached the door, the Kazi bade the ancient dame precede him ; 2 
so she went in and called to him and he on entering saw the Caliph 
seated at the head of the chamber. He would have kissed ground 
but Harun signed to him silence with a wink ; so he made his 
salam and sat him down saying, " 'Tis well, 3 O my lord, what may 
be thy want?" The Prince of True Believers replied, " I desire 
thou marry me to the daughter of this ancient dame, so do thou 
write out the writ." Hereupon the Judge asked the assent of the 
old woman and of her daughter ; and, when they both granted it, 
he enquired, " What may be the amount of the dower ? " The 
mother replied, " Four thousand dinars of gold and the like sum 

1 In text "Askd-hu 'alakah"=gave him a good sound drubbing ('alakah), as a 
robber would apply to a Judge had he the power. 

3 Lest he happen to meet an unveiled woman on the stairs ; the usual precaution is 
to cry " Dastur ! " by your leave (Persian). 

' Arab. " Khayr " a word of good omen. 

The History of Al-Bundukani. 


In ready coin." " Dost thou accept ? " quoth the Kazi to the 
Caliph, and quoth he, " Yes." Accordingly, the Judge wrote out 
the writ upon the skirt of his Farajiyah-robe for in his agitation 
he had forgotten to bring paper, and he set down the name of the 
Sovran and his father and his grandfather without question for 
that he knew them well ; after which he enquired of the old 
woman her daughter's name 1 and that of her sire and grandsire. 
She wailed and cried, " Why and wherefore ? 2 Oh miserable that 
we are ! Had her father been living how would this Robber have 
availed to stand at our door, much less to marry here ? but 'twas 
Death that did with us this deed." "Allah bless the wrpnged," 3 
quoth the Kazi and busied himself with writing out the writ ; but 
whatever question he put to the crone, she wailed in reply and 
buffeted her cheeks, whilst the Judge wagged his head and his 
heart was like to burst and the Caliph laughed long and loud. 
And when the writ was written and finished, the writer cut off from 
the skirt of his gown according to the measure of the writing and 
gave it to Harun ; then he rose up to fare forth but he was ashamed 
to wear a robe in rags, so he stripped it off and said to the old 
woman, "O my mother, present this to anyone deserving it." 
And so saying he left the house. Hereupon quoth the old woman 
to the Caliph, " Dost thou not pay unto the Kazi his fee for 
coming to thee in person and writing the writ upon his robe which 
he was obliged to throw away ? " " Let him go," said the Caliph, 
" I will not give him aught." Cried she, "And why ? Oh, how 
greedy are these robbers ! the man came to us in hopes of gain 
and we have stripped him instead of robing him." Harun laughed 
again, then he arose and said to her, " I now hie me home to fetch 

1 In Chavis and Gazette the mother gives her daughter's name as Zutulbt (?) and her 
own Lelamain (?). 

2 In text " Waliyah " or " Waliya"h " =and why? 

3 The " Wronged " (Al-Mazlum) refers to the Caliph who was being abased and to 
his coming career as a son-in-law. Gauttier, who translates the tale very perfunctorily, 
has Dieu protege les malheureux et les orphdins (vii, 133). 

60 Supplemental Nights. 

thee the gold and the stuffs wherewith to clothe my bride/' and 
the crone cried out, " O Robber, whence shalt thou find cloth and 
coin ? unhappy some one whom thou designest to seize and deprive 
of his daily bread and reduce to poverty and penury ! " The 
Commander of the Faithful held his peace and went forth intend- 
ing for his Palace, where he donned the royal robes and taking seat 
upon his throne bade summon marble-cutters and carpenters and 
plasterers and house-painters. Then, as they came to the presence 
and kissed ground and blessed him and prayed for the permanence 
of his empire, he had them thrown and bade administer to them a 
bastinado of two hundred sticks a head. 1 And when they prayed 
for mercy and said to him, " O our lord, the Commander of the 
Faithful, what be our crime?" he said to the artizans, "The 
hall such-and-such in the Darb-al-Zdji, 2 do ye wot it well ? " They 
replied, "Yes," and he resumed, "I desire that ye fare thither 
forthright and ye repair the walls with marble-slabs and should 
mid-afternoon come on and ye leave unfinished a place as big as a 
man's palm, I will hack off your hands and place them in lieu 
thereof." ' O Prince of True Believers," asked they, " how shall we 
do seeing that we have no marble ? '' 3 He answered, " Take it from 
the government stores 4 and collect each and every stone-cutter in 
Baghdad. But do you all bear in mind that, if the household enquire 
who sent you, ye must reply, Thy son-in-law ; and should they 
demand, What is his craft, say, We ken not ; and when they require 

1 This again is intended to show the masterful nature of the Caliph, and would be as 
much admired by the average coffee-house audience as it would stir the bile of the free 
and independent Briton. 

3 The "Street of the Copperas-maker": the name, as usual, does not appear till 
further on in the tale. 

3 In text " Rukhdm "= marble or alabaster, here used for building material: so 
* Murakhkhim "= a marble-cutter, means simply a stone-mason. I may here note the 
rediscovery of the porphyry quarries in Middle Egypt, and the gypsum a little inland of 
Ras Gharib to the West of the Suez Gulf. Both were much used by the old Egyptians* 
and we may now fairly expect to rediscover the lost sites, about Tunis and elsewhere in 
Northern Africa, whence Rosso anttco and other fine stones were quarried. 

4 Arab. " Al- Hisil " also meaning the taxes, the revenue. 

Tke History of Al-Bundukani. 


to know his name declare it to be Al-Bundukani. And whoso of you 
shall speak aught beyond this him will I crucify. " So the master- 
mason went forth and gathered together the stone-cutters and 
took marble and ashlar from the stores and set the material on 
the backs of beasts with all other needs and he repaired to the 
hall, 1 and entered with his company. Hereat the old woman asked 
" What is 't ye want ? " " We would slab the floors and walls of 
this dwelling with marble ! " " And who was it sent you ? " 
" Thy son-in-law ! " " And what may be his business ? " " We 
know not." " Then what is his name ? " " Al-Bundukani," they 
replied. So she said to herself, " He is naught but a Robber and 
Captain of thieves." Then the masons divided and marked out 
the ground, and each found that each and every had to pave and 
slab a surface of a cubit or. less. Such was their case ; but as 
concerneth the Caliph, he turned him to the chief Carpenter, and 
looking at him keenly said, " Go thou likewise and assemble all 
thy fellows in the capital : then do thou repair to the dwelling 
of Such-an-one and make the doors and so forth, in fact every- 
thing needed of carpentry and joinery, taking thee all the requi- 
sites from the public warehouses j nor let the afternoon come on 
ere thou shalt have finished, and if all be not done I will strike 
thy neck." He also charged them even as he had charged the 
marble-cutters never to divulge his dignity or even his name 
other than Al-Bundukani. So the chief Carpenter went and, 
gathering his craftsmen, took planks and nails and all his needs, 
after which they repaired to the lodging and entered, and setting 
up their scaffoldings 2 fell to work while the head man marked off 
a task for each hand. But the crone was consterned and cried to 
the men, " And why ? Who hath sent you ? " " Thy son-in-law ! " 
" And what may be his trade ? " " We know not." " Then what 

1 In text " Ka'ah = a saloon: see vols. i. 85 ; i. 292 ; and vii. 167. 
* In the sing. " Sikalah." 

62 Supplemental Nights. 

may be his name ? " " Al-Bundukani." So they pushed on their 
work, each urging his fellow, whilst the old woman well-nigh waxed 
Jinn-mad, 1 and said to herself, " This my son-in-law, the Robber, 
is naught save a viceroy of the Jann; and all this is of their fear, 
so that none dareth or deemeth it safe to disclose the craft or 
even the name of him, so much do they hold him in awe." Lastly, 
the Caliph bade the plasterers and house-painters call a meeting 
of their brother-craftsmen and go to the government stores and 
thence take all their requirements of quicklime and hemp 2 and so 
forth ; and lastly, charging them as he had charged the others 
who forewent them, he said, " As soon as the Izan of mid-after- 
noon prayer shall be cried, if any one of you. shall have left in 
the lodging work unwrought, be it only the size of a man's palm, 
I will hack off his hand and set it upon the unfinished stead." 
Accordingly, they kissed ground and fared forth carrying with 
them all their requirements ; and, repairing to the tenement, 
entered therein and slaked their lime and set up their ladders, 
and four or five artificers fell to working at every wall whilst the 
house-painters followed them. But when the ancient dame beheld 
this, her wits were wildered and she was utterly bedazed : so said 
she to her daughter, " This son-in-law of mine is none save one 
whose word is heard, and folk abide in awe of him ; otherwise who 
could work all this work in a single day whenas none other than 
himself could have wrought the same within a twelvemonth? 
But pity 'tis he be a Bobber." Anon she went to the plasterers 
and said, "Who was it sent you ? " "Thy son-in-law !" "And 
what may be his trade ? " " We know not." " Then what is his 
name?" "Al-Bundukani." After this she passed on to the 
house-painters and asked the same question and receiving the same 

1 The Jinn here was Curiosity, said to be a familiar of the sex feminine, but certainly 
not less intimate with " the opposite." 

2 In text "Kinnab" which M. Houdas translates ttoupe que Fonfac au bout (fun 
roseau pour blanchir les murs. 

The History of Al-Bundukani. 63 

reply, quoth she to one of them, " I demand of thee, by God the 
Great, O my son, why thou wilt not disclose to me concerning my 
son-in-law his name and his craft ? " Thereupon quoth the wight 
addressed, " No man hath power to speak out, otherwise his life is 
lost ; " and she repeated to herself, " Indeed he is none but a 
mighty Robber, for that the Moslems one and all dread him and 
his mischief." 1 Now when mid-afternoon came, the artizans 
had done the whole of their work ; so they donned their outer 
dresses and went forth intending for the Commander of the Faith- 
ful, Harun the Orthodox. And when they entered all kissed 
ground and said, " Under the good auspices of our lord the Prince 
of True Believers we have wroughten the work of the house." So 
he bestowed robes of honour upon them and gave them gifts that 
contented them, after which they fared forth about their business. 
Then the Caliph summoned Hammdls or porters and set in their 
crates articles of furniture such as carpets and counterpanes and 
sofa-cushions and hangings of arras and prayer-rugs, besides gear 
of brass and all such necessaries for the household ; and to this he 
added two baskets containing body-raiment and kimcob or gold 
cloth and stuffs inworked and studded with gems ; also jewellery 
and precious stones, pearls and what not : nor did he forget a 
coffer containing the eight thousand pieces of gold. 2 Then he 
sent them upon their errand, saying, " Take up all this and bear 
it to such a house in the Darb al-Zaji and make it over to the 
ancient dame who owneth the hall ; and when she asketh, Who 
was it sent you ? do ye answer, Thy son-in-law ; and should she 
enquire, What is his craft ? respond, We know it not ; and should 
she demand the name, declare Al-Bundukani." Accordingly the 
porters fared forth, and reaching the tenement rapped at the door, 
when the old woman came out and cried, " Who knocketh here ? " 

1 Impossible here not to see a sly hit at the Caliph and the Caliphate. 

2 The writer has omitted this incident which occurs in Chavis and Cazotte. 

64 Supplemental Nights. 

and they replied, " Open and take what we have brought of cloth 
and clothes and so forth." But when she looked upon the loads 
she wailed and cried, " Indeed ye have wandered from the way: 
whence could all this prosperity have befallen us ? return with it 
to the owner thereof." They asked her, " Is not this hall that 
which was builded this day ? " And when she answered, " Yes," 
quoth they, " Then 'twas hither thy son-in-law sent us." With 
these words they went in and set down whatso was with them, 
but the old woman wailed and cried aloud, " 'Tis not for us : ye 
have wandered from your way.'' " It is for you, indeed," they 
rejoined, "and thy son-in-law saith : Adorn your dwelling 
and don the stuffs and dress therewith whomso you choose : 
as for him, he hath much business yet will he come to you 
what time the folk sleep." " Yes, indeed," quoth she to herself, 
" Robbers never do come save by night." And when the Hammals 
went their ways the old woman fared forth to her neighbours and 
summoned them to assist her in ranging the furniture and vaiselle y 1 
so they gathered together and entered ; and, when they beheld 
what had befallen, their eyes were dazed and dazzled by seeing 
the restoration of the hall and by the stuffs and vases therein. So 
they asked her, " Whence earnest thou by all this, and who set for 
thee this dwelling in such condition and at what time ? Yester- 
day 'twas a ruin and showed neither marble nor whitewash nor 
stencilling. Cart it not be that we are sleeping and haply that 
we see a dream-house ? " She replied, " No vision is this, but 
evidence of eye-sight : and what work ye behold was wrought by 
my son-in-law during this one day and to-day also he sent me 
these stuffs and other matters whereon ye look." " And who may 
be thy son-in-law ? " asked they, " and when didst thou wed thy 
daughter while we wotted naught thereof? " Answered she, " To- 
day all this happened ; " and they rejoined, " And what may be 

1 In the text, "Samd" = carpets and pots and pans. 

The History of Al-Bundukani. 65 

the "bridegroom's calling ? haply he is a mighty merchant or an 
Emir/' " Nor merchant nor Emir," quoth she, " but a Robber and 
the Head and Captain of Bandits ! " Hereat the women were 
startled and cried, " Allah upon thee, do thou charge him anent us 
that he plunder not aught from our houses, seeing that we have 
a claim of neighbourhood and gossipry upon you." " Never fear," 
she replied, <f he is not wont to take aught of neighbours albeit 
he be a Viceregent of the Jann." So their hearts were heartened, 
and they fell to ordering the furniture and decorations ; and, 
when they had ended the ordinance of the house, they applied 
themselves to dressing the bride ; and they brought her a 
tirewoman and robed her in the finest robes and raiment and 
prepared her and adorned her with the choicest ornaments. 
And while they did thus behold, up came other porters carry- 
ing crates of meat, such as pigeon-poults and poultry, Katds, 1 

1 The Kata grouse (Tetrao alchata seu arenarius of Linn.) has often been noticed by 
me in Pilg. i. 226, (where my indexer called it "sand goose") and in The Nights 
(vols. i. 131 ; iv. III). De Sacy (Chrestom. Arab. iii. pp. 416, 507-509) offers agood 
literary account of 4t : of course he cannot speak from personal experience. He begins 
with the Ajaib al-Makhliikat by Al-Kazwini (ob. A.H. 6;4=A.D. 1274) who tells us 
that the bird builds in the desert a very small nest (whence the Hadis, " Whoso shall build 
to Allah a mosque, be it only the bigness of a Kata's nest, the Lord shall edify for him 
a palace in Paradise"); that it abandons its eggs which are sometimes buried in sand, 
and presently returns to them (hence the saying, "A better guide than the Kata"); 
that it watches at night (?) and that it frequents highways to reconnoitre travellers (??), 
an interpretation confirmed by the Persian translator. Its short and graceful steps 
gave rise to the saying, " She hath the gait of a Katd," and makes De Sacy con- 
found the bird with the Pers. Kahu or Kabk-i-dari (partridge of the valley) which 
is simply the francolin, the Ital. francolino, a perdix. The latter in Arab, is 
" Durraj " (Al-Mas'udi, vii. 347) : see an affecting story connected with it in the 
Suppl. Nights, ii. 59-62). In the xxiii d Ass. of Al-Hariri the sagacity of the Kata 
is alluded to, "I crossed rocky places, to which the Kata would not find its 
way." See also Ass. viii. But Mr. Chenery repeats a mistake when he says (p. 339) 
that the bird is " never found save where there is good pasturage and water : " it 

xunts the wildest parts of Sind and Arabia, although it seldoms strays further than 
60 miles from water which it must drink every evening. I have never shot the 
Katd since he saved my party from a death by thirst on a return-ride from Harar 
(First Footsteps in E. Africa, p. 388). The bird is very swift with a skurrying flight 
a frightened pigeon ; and it comes to water regularly about dusk when it is 
easily" potted." 


66 Supplemental Nights. 

and quails, 1 lambs and butcher's meat, clarified butter and 
other cooking material, with all manner of edibles and deli- 
cacies such as sugar and Halwd-confections and the like 
thereof. The Hammals then said to the household, "Take ye 

this which your son-in-law hath sent to you saying : Do 

ye eat and feed your neighbours and whomso ye please." 
Quoth the old woman, "I ask you, for Allah's sake, to let me 
know what may be my son-in-law's craft and his name;" and 
quoth they, " His name is Al-Bundukani, but what his business 
may be we know not;" and so saying they went their ways. 
Hereupon exclaimed certain of the women who were present, 
" By the Apostle, he is naught but a robber ; " while others who 
had claims upon the old housemistress cried, " Be whatever may 
be, before the man who can do after this fashion all the folk in 
Baghdad are helpless." Presently they served the provision and 
all ate their sufficiency; then they removed the trays and set 
on others loaded with the confections which they also enjoyed; 
and at last after dividing the orts amongst the neighbours they 
reserved some of the best of meats and sweetmeats for the bride- 
groom's supper. In due time a report was bruited about the 
quarter that the old woman had wedded her daughter with a 
robber who had enriched them with what booty he had brought 
them. And these tidings spread from folk to folk till they 
reached the young merchant of whom mention hath been made, 
the same who had sought the maiden to wife and who had not 
wedded her because refused by her mother. Also he was told that 
the damsel had been married to a robber who had rebuilt the hall 
with marble, and the plasterers and painters and carpenters and 
joiners had wrought therein works which astounded the beholders ; 
moreover that the bridegroom had sent them of stuffs and jewellery 

1 In text " Samman" for " Samman" : Dozy gives the form " Summun" (Houdas). 
The literary name is "Salwa*" 

The History of Al-Bundukani. 67 

a matter beyond count or compute. Hearing this report he found 
the matter grievous on him and the fire of envy flamed in his heart 
and he said to himself, " Naught remaineth to me except that I 
wend me to the Waif 1 and tempt him with promises and thereby 
work the ruin of this robber and take the damsel to myself." With 
these words he rose up sans stay or delay and, going to the Chief 
of Police related to him all that occurred and promised him a 
muchel of money saying, " Whatso thou wantest can be gotten 
from this robber inasmuch as he owneth good galore." The Wali 
rejoiced and replied, " Be patient until after supper-tide when the 
thief shall have returned home and we will go and catch him and 
thou shalt carry away the young lady." So the trader blessed him 
and took himself off and waited at home until it was supper-time 
and the streets were void of folk, Presently Nazuk 2 the Wali 
mounted horse with four hundred headsmen and smiters of the 
sword, link-boys and low fellows, 3 bearing cressets and paper- 
lanthorns under four head constables and rode to the house of the 
old woman. Now all the gossips had departed to their abodes and 
were dispersed, nor did one of them remain behind ; but the house- 
hold had lighted wax candles and was expecting the bridegroom 
with bolted doors when behold, the Chief of Police came up and 
finding all shut bade his men knock with an easy rap. This was 
heard by those within the hall and the ancient dame sprang up and 
went to the entrance, whence she espied gleams of light athwart 
the door-chinks and when she looked out of the window she saw 
the Wali and his merry men crowding the street till the way was 

1 For Wali (at one time a Civil Governor and in other ages a Master of Police) see 
vol. i. 259. 

Prob. a corruption of the Pers. " Ndzuk," adj. delicate, nice. 

3 In text "Jaftawat" which is I presume the Arab. plur. of the Turk. "Chifut" a 
Jew, a mean fellow. M. Houdas refers to Dozy s.v. *' Jaftah." [The Turkish word 
referred to by Dozy is "Chifte" from the Persian "Juft" = a pair, any two things 
coupled together. " Mashd'ilfyah jaftdwdt wa fanusfn" in the text would therefore be 
" (cresset-) bearers of double torches and lanterns," where the plural fanusfn is remark- 
able as a vulgarism, instead of the Dictionary form " Fawdnis." ST.] 

68 Supplemental Nights. 

cut. Now the Chief had a lieutenant Shamamah 1 hight, which 
was a meeting-place of ill manners and morals ; for naught was 
dearer to him save the straitening of a Moslem, nor was there 
upon his body a single hair which affected or aided the veiling of 
Allah. 2 Brief he was, even as the poet said : 

Whoreson and child of thousand pagans twain ; o Son of the Road to lasting 

sin and bane ; 
The Lord of .Ruth ne'er grew him e'en a hair o Was not with this or that of 

contact fain 1 3 

Now this man, who was standing beside the Chief of Police, seized 
the opportunity of saying, " O Emir, what booteth our standing 
idle in this stead ? Better 'twere that we break down the door and 
rush in upon them and snatch what we want and loot all the stuffs 
in the house." Hereat came forward another lieutenant who was 
called Hasan 4 the Handsome for that his face was fair and his 
works were fairer and he was a meeting-place of fairest deeds ; 
and the same was wont to stand at the Wall's door as a Symbol of 
ruth to mankind. So he came forward and said, " O Emir, this 
were not the rede which is right and yonder man's words lack 
good counsel, seeing that none hath complained against this folk 
and we know not an the accused be a thief or not : furthermore 
we fear consequences for that haply this merchant speaketh with 
an object, they having forbidden his marrying the girl : do not 
therefore cast thyself into that shall harm thee, but rather let us 
enquire anent the matter openly and publicly ; and should it prove 
to be as reported, then the Emir's opinion shall prevail." All this 

1 So in Chavis and Cazotte: Gauttier and Heron prefer (vol. i. 38) "Chamama." 
They add, ' That daemon incarnate gave out himself that Satan was his father and the 
devil Camos (?) his brother." The Arab word is connected with the ^ shamma = he 
smelt and suggests the policeman smoking plots. 

2 i.e. concealing the secret sins of the people. This sketch of the cad policeman will 
find many an original in the London force, if the small householder speak the truth. 

3 Qui n'ait un point de contact avec rune de ces categories (Houdas). 

4 In the old translations "TheHazen" (Khazin = treasurer ?) which wholly abolishes 
the double entendre. 

The History of Al-BundukanL 69 

took place while the old woman heard from behind the door whatso 
they said, Hereat she dried up with dread and affright and going 
within acquainted her daughter with what had occurred and 
ended with, " The Wali still is standing at the door." The young 
lady was sore terrified and said to her mother, " Do thou bar 1 the 
entrance till Allah haply deign bring us comfort." So the old 
woman fared forth and bolted and barred it yet more straitly ; and 
when they knocked a second time she acknowledged the rap by 
" Who is at the door ? " and the lieutenant Shamamah replied to 
her and said, " O ill-omened old woman, O accomplice of robbers, 
knowest thou not that he who rappeth is the Master of Police and 
his young men ? So open to us forthright." Quoth she, " We be 
Harims and ne'er a man with us, therefore we will not open to 
any ; " and quoth he, " Open, or we will break it down." The old 
woman made no reply but returning to her daughter within said 
to her, " Now look at this Robber and how from the first of this 
night we have been humbled for his sake : yet had he fallen into 
this trap his life had been taken, and would Heaven he may not 
come now and be made prisoner by them. Ah me ! Were thy 
father on life the Wali never had availed to take station at our 
house-door or the door of any other." " Such be our lot," replied 
the girl, and she went to the casement that she might espy what 
was doing. This is how it fared with them ; but as concerneth the 
Caliph, when the folk had finished crowding the streets he disguised 
himself and hending in hand his pellet-bow and slinging his sword 
over his shoulder he went forth intending for his bride. But when 
reaching the head of the street he saw lanthorns and stir of crowd 2 : 
so he approached to look and he espied the Wali and his men with 
the merchant standing by the Chief's side together with the 
lieutenants, all save one shouting, " Break down the door and rush 
in and seize the old woman : then let us question her with torture 

1 In text " Darbisi al-bdb " from the Persian, " Dar bastan "=to tie up, to shut. 
* In text " Chaush" for " Ghaushah"= noise, row. 

70 Supplemental Nights, 

until she confess where be her Robber of a son-in-law." But 
Hasan the fourth officer dissuaded them saying, " O good folk, do 
ye fear Almighty Allah and be not over hasty, saving that hurry 
is of old Harry. These be all women without a man in the house ; 
so startle them not ; and peradventure the son-in-law ye seek 
may be no thief and so we fall into an affair wherefrom we may 
not escape without trouble the most troublous." Thereupon 
Shamamah came up and cried out, " O Hasan, it ill becometh 
thee to stand at the Wali's door : better 'twere for thee to sit on 
the witness-bench; for none should be gate-keepers to a head 
policeman save they who have abandoned good deeds and who 
devour ordure 1 and who ape the evil practices of the populace." 
All this and the Caliph overheard the fellow's words and said to 
himself, " 'Tis well ! I will indeed gladden thee, O Accurst." 
Then he turned and espied a street which was no thoroughfare, 
and one of its houses at the upper end adjoined the tenement 
wherein was his bride; so he went up to it and behold, its gateway 
showed a curtain drawn across and a lamp hung up and an Eunuch 
sitting upon the door-bench. Now this was the mansion of a 
certain noble who was lord over a thousand of his peers and his 
name was the Emir Yunas 2 : he was an angry man and a violent ; 
and on the day when he had not bastinado'd some wight he would 
not break his fast and loathed his meat for the stress of his ill- 
stomach. But when the Eunuch saw the Caliph he cried out at 
him and sprang up to strike him exclaiming, " Woe to thee ! art 
thou Jinn-mad ? Whither going?" But the Commander of the 
Faithful shouted at him saying, " Ho ! thou ill-omened slave ! " 
and the chattel in his awe of the Caliphate fancied that the roar 
was of a lion about to rend him and he ran off and entered the 
presence of his owner quivering with terror. " Woe to thee ! " said 

1 " Akkal bula'hu " i.e. commit all manner of abominations. "To eat skite " is to 
talk or act foolishly. 
z In the old translations "Ilamir Youmis." 

The History of Al-Bundukani. 71 

his master ; " what hath befallen thee ? " and* he, " O my lord, the 
while I was sitting at the gate suddenly a man passed up the street 
and entered the house-door ; and, when I would have beaten him, 
he cried at me with a terrible voice saying : Ho, thou ill-omened 
slave ! So I fled from him in affright and came hither to thee." 
Now when the Emir Yunas heard his words, he raged with such 
excessive rage that his soul was like to leave his body and he cried 
out saying, ' Since the man addressed thee as ' ill-omened slave,' 
and thou art my chattel, I therefore am servile and of evil-omen. 
But indeed I will show him his solace ! " He then sprang to his 
feet and hent in hand a file-wrought mace 1 studded with fourteen 
spikes, wherewith had he smitten a hill he had shivered it ; and 
then he went forth into the street muttering, " I ill-omened ! " 2 
But the Caliph seeing him recognised him straitway and cried, 
" Yunas ! " whereat the Emir knew him by his voice, and casting 
the mace from his hand kissed ground and said " 'Tis well, O 
Commander of the Faithful ! " Harun replied, " Woe to thee, 
dog ! whilst thou art the Chief of the Emirs shall this Wali, of 
men the meanest, come upon thy neighbours and oppress them 
and terrify them (these being women and without a man in th 
house), and yet thou holdest thy peace and sittest in ease at home 
nor goest out to him and ejectest him by the foulest of ejections ? " 
Presently the other replied, " O Prince of True Believers, but for 
the dread of thee lest thou say: This be the warder of the 
watch, why hast thou exceeded with him ?, I would have made 
for him a night of the fulsomest, for him and for those with him. 
But an the Caliph command I will forthright break them all to bits 
nor leave amongst them a sound man ; for what's the worth of this 
Wali and all his varlets ? " " First admit us to thy mansion," 

1 In text " Dabbus bazdaghani," which I have translated as if from the Pers. " Baz- 
dagh " = a file. But it may be a clerical error for " Bardawani," the well-known city in 
Hindostan whose iron was famous. 

"Nahs" means something more than ill-omened, something flasty, foul, uncanny : 
see vol. i. 301. 

72 Supplemental Nights. 

quoth the Commander of the Faithful ; so they passed in and the 
housemaster would have seated his visitor for the guest-rite but he 
refused all offers and only said, " Come up with us to the terrace- 
roof." Accordingly they ascended and found that between it and 
the dwelling of the bride was but a narrow lane ; whereupon quoth 
the Caliph, " O Yunas, I would find a place whence I can look 
down upon these women." " There is no other way," quoth the 
other, " save herefrom ; and, if thou desire, I will fetch thee a 
ladder 1 and plant it in such wise that thou canst pass across." 
"Do so," rejoined the other, and the Emir bringing a ladder 
disposed it after bridge fashion that the Caliph crossed over the 
lane to the house on the other side. Then quoth he, (< Go sit thee 
in thy stead, and when I want thee I will call." Yunas did as he 
was bidden and remained on the watch for his lord's summons. 
But the Prince of True Believers walked over the terrace-roof with 
the lightest tread and not audible, lest his footsteps frighten the 
inmates, till he came to the parapet 2 and looking adown therefrom 
upon the hall he saw a site like the Garden of Paradise which had 
been newly pranked and painted, whilst the lighted wax-candles 
and candelabra showed the young lady, the bride, sitting upon her 
bedstead adorned with gems and jewellery. She was like a Sun 
shedding sheen in sky serene, or a full moon at the fullest seen, 
with brow flower-bright and eyes black and white and beauty-spots 
fresh as greenth to the sight ; brief she was as one of whom the 
poet saith : 

She's a wonder ! her like none in universe see, o For beauty and graces and 

softest blee : 
That fairest of blossoms she blooms on earth o Than gardens the sheeniest 

sheenier she : 
And soft is the rose of her cheek to the touch o 'Twixt apple's and Eglantine's 


1 In Chavis, Heron and Co. there are two ladders to scale the garden wall and 
descend upon the which apparently they do not understand to be the roof. 
8 Arab. " Al-Kafi'ah" = garde-fou> rebord (Tune icrrassc (Houdas). 

The History of Al-BundukanL 


And the forelock-falls on the brow of her o Death-doom to the World and the 

Faith decree ; 
And she shames the branchlet of Basil when o She paces the Garden so fair 

and free. 
An water doubted her soft sweet gait o She had glided with water o'er 

greenery : 
When she walketh the world like the Hiir al-Ayn l o By the tongue of looks 

to her friends say we : 
" O Seeker, an soughtest the heart of me o Heart of other thou never hadst 

sought for thee : 
O lover, an filled thee my love thou ne'er o 'Mid lovers hadst dealt me such 

Praise Him who made her an idol for man o And glory to Him who to her 

quoth " BE!" 

The Caliph was astonishment-struck at what he sighted of her 
beauty and loveliness whilst her mother stood before her saying, 
" O my child, how shall be our case with these tyrants, 2 especially 
we being women and sans other recourse save Allah Almighty ? 
Would Heaven I wot whence came to us this Robber who, had 
thy sire been on life, would have been far from able to stand at the 
door. But this is the doom of Destiny upon us by God's will." 
Replied the young lady, " O mother mine, and how long wilt thou 
put me to shame for this young man and call him ' Robber/ this 
whom the Almighty hath made my portion ; and haply had he 
been a good man and no thief he had been given to some other ? 3 

1 Our vulgar "Hburi": see vols. i. 90: iii. 233. There are many meanings of 
Hawar ; one defines it as intense darkness of the black of the eye and corresponding 
whiteness ; another that it is all which appears of the eye (as in the gazelle) meaning 
that the blackness is so large as to exclude the whiteness ; whilst a third defines *' Haura " 
as a woman beautiful in the " Mahajir " (parts below and around the eyes which show 
when the face is veiled), and a fourth as one whose whiteness of eye appears in contrast 
with the black of the Kohl-powder. See Chenery's Al-Hariri, pp. 3$4-55 

2 Arab. " Zalamah " = tyrants, oppressors (police and employe's) : see vols. i. 273* an d 
vi. 214. 

3 In text " Kunna nu'tfhu li-ahad " = we should have given him to someone ; which 
makes very poor sense- [The whole passage runs ; " Hazd allazl kasam allah bi-hi 
fa-lau kana rajul jayyid ghayr luss kunnd nu'ti-hu li-ahad," which I would translate ; 
This is he concerning whom Allah decreed (that he should be my portion, swearing ;) 
"and if he were a good man and no thief, we would have bestowed him on someone" 
In " kasama " the three ideas of decreeing, giving as a share, and binding one's self by 
oath are blended together. If it should appear out of place to introduce Divinity itself 

74 Supplemental Nights. 

However he is my lot, and lauds to the Lord and gratitude for 
that He hath bestowed and made my portion." When the ancient 
dame heard these words she pursued, " I hope to Heaven, O my 
daughter, that thy portion may not come hither this night, other- 
wise sore I fear they will seize him and do him a harm and well- 
away for his lost youthtide ! " All this took place between mother 
and daughter whilst the Caliph stood upon the terrace-roof 
listening to their say and presently he picked up a pebble the size 
of a vetchling J and, setting it between his thumb and forefinger, 
jerked it at the wax candle which burned before the young lady 
and extinguished the light. " Who put out yon taper ? " cried the 
old woman, " and left the others afire ? " and so saying she 
rose and lighted it again. But Harun took aim at that same and 
jerking another pebble once more extinguished it and made her 
exclaim, " Ah me ! what can have put out this also ? " and when 
the quenching and quickening were repeated for the third time she 
cried with a loud voice saying, " Assuredly the air must have 
waxed very draughty and gusty ; so whenever I light a candle the 
breeze bloweth it out." Hereat laughed the young lady and 
putting forth her hand to the taper would have lit it a third time 

as speaking in this context, we must not forget that the person spoken of is no less 
illustrious individual than Harun al-Rashid, and that a decidedly satirical and humorous 
vein runs through the whole tale. Moreover, I doubt that " li-ahad" could be used as 
equivalent for <4 li-ghayri," " to some other than myself," while it frequently occurs in 
the emphatic sense of '< one who is somebody, a person of consequence." The damsel 
and her mother, on the other hand allude repeatedly to the state of utter helplessness, in 
which they find themselves in default of their natural protector, and which has reduced 
them from an exalted station to the condition of nobodies. I speak, of course, here as 
elsewhere, "under correction." ST.] 

1 In text " Hmsh." The Diets, give Himmas and Himmis, forms never heard, and 
Forsk. (Flora ^Egypt.- Arab. p. Ixxi.) " Homos," also unknown. The vulg. pron. is 
" Hummus " or as Lane (M.E. chapt. v.) has it " Hommus " (chick-peas). The word 
applies to the pea, while " Malan " is the plant in pod. It is the cicer arietinum con- 
cerning which a classical tale is told. " Cicero (pron. Kikero) was a poor scholar in the 
University of Athens, wherewith his enemies in Rome used to reproach him, and as he 
passed through the streets would call out ' O Cicer, Cicer, O,' a word still used in 
Cambridge, and answers to a Servitor in Oxford." Quaint this approximation between 
" Cicer" the vetch and " Sizar " which comes from "size" = rations, the Oxford 

The History of Al-Bundukani. 


when behold, her finger was struck by a pebble and her wits fled 

her head. But as the mother turned towards the terrace-wall the 

first glance showed to her sight her son-in-law there sitting, so she 

cried to her daughter, " O my child, behold thy bridegroom whence 

he cometh unto thee, but robbers arrive not save by the roof, and 

had he not been a housebreaker he would have entered by the 

door. However Alhamdolillah that he hath chosen the way of 

our terrace, otherwise they had captured him ; " presently adding 

" Woe to thee, O miserable, fly hence or the watch at the door 1 

shall seize thee and we women shall not avail to release thee after 

thou fallest into their hands ; nor will any have ruth upon thee ; 

nay, they will cut off at least one of thine extremities. So save 

thyself and vanish so as not to lapse into the grip of the patrol." 

But hearing these her words he laughed and said to her, " Do thou 

open to me the terrace-wicket that I come down to you and see 

how to act with these dogs and dog-sons." She replied, " Woe to 

thee, O miserable, deemest thou these be like unto that poor Kazi 

who snipped his gown in fear of thee : he who now standeth at 

the door is Nazuk Wali and hast thou authority over him also ? " 

He repeated, " Open to me that I may come down, otherwise I 

will break in the door ; " so she unbolted the terrace-wicket and 

he descended the stairs and entered the hall where he took seat 

beside his bride and said, " I am an-hungered : what have ye by 

way of food ? " The ancient dame cried, " And what food shall go 

down grateful to thy stomach and pleasant when the police are at 

the door ? " and he replied, " Bring me what ye have and fear not/' 

So she arose and served up to him whatso remained of meat and 

sweetmeat and he fell to morselling 1 them with mouthfuls and 

soothing them with soft words till they had their sufficiency of 

victual, after which she, the mother-in-law, removed the tray. 

Meanwhile the Chief of Police and his varlets stood shouting at 

Arab. " Yulakkimu," from " Lukmah" = a mouthful ; see vols. i. 266; vii. 367. 

76 Supplemental Nights. 

the door and saying, " Open to us otherwise we will break in." 
Presently quoth the Caliph to the old trot, " Take this seal-ring and 
go thou forth to them and place it in the Wali's hands. An he 
ask thee, Who is the owner of this signet ? answer thou, Here is 
he with me ; and if he enquire of thee, What doth he wish and 
what may he want ? do thou reply, He requireth a ladder of four 
rungs, and its gear, not forgetting a bundle of rods j 1 also do thou, 
O man, enter with four of thy lieutenants and see what else he 
demandeth." When the ancient dame heard this from him she 
exclaimed, " And doth the Wali also dread thee or fear this seal- 
ring ? My only fear is that they may now seize me and throw me 
and beat me with a bastinado so painful that it will be the death 
of me, and they hearken not to a word of mine, nor suffer thee to 
avail me aught." Rejoined the Caliph, " Be not alarmed, he shall 
not be able to gainsay my word ;" and she, " An the Wali fear thee 
and give ear to thee, then will I gird my loins and suffer thee to 
teach me something of thy craft even were it that of robbing 
slaves' shoon." " Go forth without affright," said he laughing at 
her words, whereupon she took the seal-ring and went as far as 
behind the door and no farther, muttering to herself, " I will not 
open it wholly but only a little so as to give them the signet ; then 
if they hearken to what saith this Robber 'tis well, otherwise I will 
keep the bolt fastened as it was." Presently she went forward and 
addressed the watch saying, "What is it ye want?" and Shamamah 
cried in reply, " O ill-omened old baggage, O rider of the jar, 2 O 
consorter of thieves, we want the robber who is in thy house that 
we may take him and strike off his hand and his foot ; and thou 
shalt see what we will do with thee after that." She shrank from 
his words, but presently she heartened her heart and said to him, 
" Amongst you is there any who can read a whit ? " " Yes," said 

1 Arab. "Jarazat Kuzba"n" (plur. of "Kazib," see vol. ii. 66) = long and slender 

2 .*. a witch ; see vol. viii. 131. 

The History of Al-Bundukani. 


the Wall, and she rejoined, " Take thou this seal-ring and see what 
be graven thereupon and what may be its owner's name." 
" Almighty Allah curse him," cried the lieutenant Shamamah, 
presently adding to the Wali, " O Emir, as soon as the old crone 
shall come forth I will throw her and flog her with a sore flogging ; 
then let us enter the door and slay her and harry the house and 
seize the robber ; after which I will inspect the signet and find out 
its owner and who sendeth it ; then, if this be one of whom we 
stand in shame we will say, Indeed we read not its graving before 
the command was somewhat rashly carried out. On this wise 
none may avail to molest us or thee." Hereupon he drew near the 
door and cried to her, " Show me that thou hast, and perhaps the 
sending it may save thee/' So she opened one leaf of the door 
sufficient to thrust out her hand and gave him the ring which he 
took and passed to the Chief of Police. But when the Wall had 
considered and read the name engraved (which was that of the 
Commander of the Faithful Harun the Orthodox), his colour waxed 
wan and his limbs quaked with fear. " What is to do with thee ? " 
asked Shamamah, and the other answered, "Take and look!" 
The man hent the ring in hand and coming forward to the light 
read what was on it and understood that it was the signet of the 
Vicar of Allah. So a colick * attacked his entrails and he would 
have spoken but he could stammer only " Bf, Bf, Bf " 2 whereupon 
quoth the Master of Police, " The rods 'of Allah are descending 
ipon us, O accurst, O son of a sire accurst : all this is of thy dirty 
dealing and thy greed of gain : but do thou address thy creditor 8 
and save thyself alive." Hereat quoth Shamamah, " O my lady, 
what dost thou require ? " and quoth she to herself, " Indeed I arn 

1 So in the phrase " Otbah hath the colic/' first said concerning Otbah b. Rabf'a by 
Jahl when the former advised not marching upon Badr to attack Mohammed. 
Tabari, vol. ii. 491. 

8 Compare the French Brr ! " 

3 i.e. to whom thou owest a debt of apology or excuse, "Gharfm"=e debtor or 

/8 Supplemental Nigkts. 

rejoiced for that they dread my son-in-law ; " and presently she 
spoke aloud to him and said, " The lord of the seal-ring demandeth 
of thee a ladder of four rungs, a bundle of rods and cords and a 
bag containing the required gear, 1 also that the Wali and his four 
lieutenants go within to him." He replied, " O my lady chief of 
this household, and where is he the owner of the signet ? " " Here 
is he seated in the hall," she replied and the Wali rejoined, " What 
was it he said to thee ? " She then repeated the command about 
the Wali and the men and the bag, whereat he asked again con- 
cerning the whereabouts of the signet-owner and declared the gear 
to be ready, while all of them bepiddled their bag-trousers with 
fear. 2 Then the Wali and his four lieutenants, amongst whom was 
Shamamah the Accurst, entered the house, and the Caliph com- 
manded lieutenant Hasan (knowing him for a kindly man of 
goodly ways and loath to injure his neighbour as proved by his 
opposing the harshness of Shamamah), saying, " Hie thee, O 
Hasan, and summon forthright Yunas the Emir of a thousand ! " 
So this lord came in all haste 8 and was bidden to bastinado the 
Wali and Shamamah which he did with such good will that 
the nails fell from their toes ; after which they were carried off 
and thrown into gaol. Then the Caliph largessed lieutenant 
Hasan ; and, appointing him on the spo Chief of Police, dismissed 
the watch to their barracks. And when the street was cleared 
the old woman returning to the Harem said to her son-in-law, 
laughing the while, " There be none in this world to fellow thee as 
the Prince of Robbers I The Wali dreadeth thee and the Kazi 
dreadeth thee and all dread thee, whilst I gird my loins in thy 
service and become a she-robber amongst the women even as thou 
art a Robber amongst men, and indeed so saith the old saw : The 

1 Arab. ' Jurdb al-'uddah," /.*. the manacles, fetters, etc. 

* The following three sentences are taken from the margin of (MS.) p. 257, and 
evidently belong to this place. 
3 In text " Bghb " evidently for " Baght" or preferably " Baghtatan." 

The History of Al-Bundukanil 79 

slave is fashioned of his lord's clay and the son after the features 
of his sire. Had this Wali, at his first coming, let break down 
the door and had his men rushed in upon us and thou not present, 
what would have been our case with them ? But now to Allah be 
laud and gratitude ! " The Caliph hearing these words laughed, 
and taking seat beside his bride, who rejoiced in him, asked his 
.mother-in-law, " Say me, didst ever see a Robber who bore him 
on this wise with the Wali and his men ? " and answered she, 
" Never, by the life of thee, but may Allah Almighty reprehend 
the Caliph for that he did by us and punish him for wronging 
us, otherwise who was it forwarded thee to us, O Robber ? " 
Quoth the Commander of the Faithful in his mind) " How have 
I wronged this ill-omened old woman that she curseth me ? " and 
presently he asked her, " And wherein hath the Caliph done 
thee an injury ? " She replied, " And what hath the Caliph 
left us of livelihood and so forth when he marauded our man^ 
sion and seized all our seisins ? Even this hall was part 
of the plunder and they laid it waste after taking from it all 
they could of marble and joinery and what-not ; and they left 
us paupers, as thou sawest, without aught wherewith to veil us 
and naught to eat. So had it not been that Almighty Allah 
favoured us with thyself, O Robber, we had been of the destroyed 
by famine and so forth." " And wherefore did the Caliph plunder 
you?" asked he, "And what was the cause of his so doing?" 
She answered, 1 " My son was a Chamberlain of the Commander of 
the Faithful, and one day as he was sitting in this our home 
two women asked him for a draught of water which he gave to 
them. Presently the elder brought him a porcelain charger full of 
pancakes with the tidings that it had been sent as a return gift 
from the young lady her companion who had drunk from his 

1 This is a twice-told tale whose telling I have lightened a little without omitting any 
Important detail. Gauttier reduces the ending of the history to less than five pages. 

So Supplemental Nights. 

hand ; and he replied, Set it down and wend thy ways, which 
she did. Presently as my son sat outside his door, the Watchman 
came up to offer blessings on the occasion of the Greater Festival 
and he gave him the charger and the man fared forth ; but ere an 
hour had sped, folk came who marauded our mansion, and seizing 
my son, carried him before the Caliph, who demanded of him how 
the charger had come to his hands. He told him what I have told 
thee, and the Commander of the Faithful asked him : Say me 
sawest thou aught of the charms of the young lady ? Now my son 
had on his lips to say No, but his tongue foreran him and he 
stammered out, Yes, I espied her face, without really having 
seen her at all, for that when drinking she had turned to the wall. 
The Caliph hearing this hapless reply summoned the lady and 
bade smite both their necks, but in honour of the Festival-eve he 
had them carried off to prison. Such be then the reason of the 
wrong by the Caliph wrought, and except for this injustice 
and his seizure of my son, O Robber, it had been long ere thou 
hadst wedded my daughter." When the Prince of True Believers 
heard the words of her, he said in his mind, " Verily I have 
oppressed these unhappies ! " and he presently asked her, " What 
wilt thou say if I cause the Caliph to free thy son from gaol and 
robe him and return his fiefs to him and promote him in the 
Chamberlain's office and return him to thee this very night ? " 
Hereat the old woman laughed and made answer, "Hold thy 
peace ! This one is no Chief of Police that he fear thee and thou 
work on him whatso thou wiliest : this one is the Prince of True 
Believers Harun al-Rashid, whose behest is heard both in Orient 
and in Occident, the lord of hosts and armies, one at whose gate the 
lowest menial is higher in degree than the Wali. Be not therefore 
beguiled by whatso thou hast done, nor count the Caliph as one of 
these lest thou cast thyself into doom of destruction, and there be 
an end of thy affair, while we unfortunates abide without a man in 
the house, and my son fail of being righted by him who wronged 

The History of Al-Bundukani. 


him." But when the Commander of the Faithful heard these 
words, his eyes brimmed with tears for ruth of her ; then, rising 
without stay or delay, he would have fared forth when the old 
woman and the young lady hung about his neck crying, " We 
adjure thee, by Almighty Allah, that thon draw back from this 
business, for that we fear greatly on thy account." But he replied, 
" There is no help therefor," and he made oath that perforce he 
must go. Then he fared for the Palace of his kingship, and seating 
himself upon the throne bade summon the Emirs and Wazirs and 
Chamberlains, who flocked into the presence and kissed ground 
and prayed for him saying, " 'Tis well, Inshallah ! and what may 
be the reason for calling us together at this time o' night ? " Said 
he, " I have been pondering the affair of Alaeddin the Emir, the 
Chamberlain, how I seized him wrongfully and jailed him, yet 
amongst you all was not a single one to intercede for him or to 
cheer him with your companionship. 1 ' They bussed ground and 
replied, " Verily we were awe-struck by the majesty of the Prince 
of True Believers ; but now at this hour we implore of the Com- 
mander of the Faithful his mercy upon his slave and chattel;" and 
so saying, they bared their heads and kissing the floor did humble 
obeisance. He replied, " I have accepted l your intercession on 
his account, and I have vouchsafed to him pardon ; so hie ye to 
him and robe him with a sumptuous robe and bring him to me." 
They did the bidding of their lord and led the youth to the presence 
where he kissed ground and prayed for the permanence of the 
Caliph's rule ; and the Sovran accepting this clothed him in a coat 
whereon plates of gold were hammered 2 and binding round his 
head a turband of fine gauze with richly embroidered ends made 
him Chief Lord of the Right 3 and said to him, " Hie thee now to 

1 The normal idiom for "I accept." 

* In text "Khila't dakk al-Matrakah," which I have rendered literally : it seems to 
signify an especial kind of brocade. 

* The Court of Baghdad was, like the Urdu (Horde or Court) of the " Grand Mogul," 


82 Supplemental Nights. 

thy home ! " Accordingly he blessed the Prince and went forth 
accompanied by all the Emirs who rode their blood-steeds, and 
the Knights fared with him and escorted him in procession, with 
kettledrums and clarions, till they reached his mansion. Here his 
mother and his sister heard the hubbub of the multitude and the 
crash of the kettledrums and were asking, " What is to do ? " 
when the bearers of glad tidings forewent the folk and knocked at 
the door saying, " We require of you the sweetmeats of good news, 
for the Caliph hath shown grace to Alaeddin the Chamberlain and 
hath increased his fiefs besides making him Chief Lord of the 
Right." Hearing this they rejoiced with joy exceeding and gave 
to the messengers what satisfied them, and while they were thus, 
behold, Alaeddin the son of the house arrived and entered therein. 
His mother and sister sprang up and saluted him throwing their 
arms round his neck and weeping for stress of gladness. Presently 
he sat down and fell to recounting to them what had befallen 
him ; but chancing to look around he saw that the house had 
changed condition and had been renovated ; so he said, " O my 
mother, the time of my absence hath been short and when was 
this lodging made new ? " She replied, " O my ?on, what day thou 
wast seized, they plundered our abode even to tearing up the slabs 
and the doors, nor did they leave us aught worth a single dirham: 
indeed we passed three days without breaking our fast upon aught 
of victual." Hearing this from her quoth he, " But whence cometh 
all this to you, these stuffs and vessels and who was it rebuilded 
this house in a space so short ? Or haply is all this I see in the 
lands of dreams ? " But quoth she, " Nay, 'tis no vision but an 
absolute reality and 'twas all done by my son-in-law in a single 
day." " And who may be my new brother-in-law ? " he enquired, 
" and when didst thou give away my sister, and who married her 

organised after the ordinance of an army in the field, with its centre, the Sovran, and two 
wings right and left, each with its own Wazir for Commander, and its vanguard and 


The History of Al-Bundukani. 83 

without my leave ? " l " Hold thy peace, O my son," rejoined she , 
" but for him we had died of want and hunger ! " " And what 
may be his calling ? " the Emir asked, and she answered, " A 
Robber ! " But when her son heard this he was like to choke with 
anger and he cried, " What degree hath this robber that he become 
my brother-in-law ? Now by the tomb of my forbears I will 
assuredly smite his neck." " Cast away from thee such wild talk/' 
cried she, " for the mischief of another is greater than thy mischief, 
withal naught thereof availed him 2 with a man who wrought all 
thou seest in half a day." Then she related to her son what had 
befallen the Kazi and the Wali from the man and how he had 
bastinado^ the police, showing him as he spoke the blood 
which had poured from their bodies upon the floor for excess of 
flogging ; and she continued, " Presently I complained to him 
of my case, how the Commander of the Faithful had seized thee 
and imprisoned thee when he said to me : At this very moment 
I fare to the Caliph and cause him to free thy son and suffer him 
to return home ; also to robe him and to increase his fiefs ; where- 
upon he went from us and after an hour, lo and behold ! thou 
appearedst ; so but for him we had never seen thee any more." 
When her son heard these words, his wits were bewildered and he 
was confounded at his case, so he asked her, " What may this man 
be styled and what may be his name ? " She answered, " We are 
ignorant an he have any name or not, for however much we 
enquired of the marble-cutters and master artificers and handi- 
craftsmen, they told us only that his bye-name 8 is Al-Bundukani 

1 Being the only son he had a voice in the disposal of his sister. The mother was the 
Kabirah = head of the household, in Marocco Al-Sidah = Madame mere ; but she 
could not interfere single-handed in affairs concerning the family. See Pilgrimage, 
vol. iii. 198. Throughout Al-Islam in default of a father the eldest brother gives away 
the sisters, and if there be no brother this is done by the nearest male relation on the 
41 sword " side. The mother has no authority in such matters nor indeed has anyone 
on the "spindle" side. 

2 Alluding to the Wali and his men. 

8 Arab. " Kunyah " (the pop. mispronunciation of " Kinyah ") is not used here with 
strict correctness. It is a fore-name or bye-name generally taken from the favourite son, 

84 Supplemental Nights. 

without letting us know any other. Moreover on like wise when 
he sent me to fetch the Kazi he bade me tell him that Al- 
Bundukani had summoned him." Now when the Emir Alaeddin 
heard her name Al-Bundukani he knew that it was the Com- 
mander of the Faithful, nor could he prevent himself springing 
to his feet and kissing ground seven times ; but as his mother 
beheld this she laughed and cried, " O thou brawler, 1 'tis as if he 
had met thee in the street and had given thee to drink a draught 
of clotted blood, one beyond the common ! 2 What of thy brave 
words when anon thou saidst : I will smite his neck ? " " And 
dost thou know" quoth he, "who may be the person thou so 
callest ? " and quoth she, " Who may he be ? " " The Commander 
of the Faithful, the Caliph Harun al-Rashid in person/' cried her 
son, " and what other could have done with the Kazi and the Wall 
and the rest what he did ? " When she heard these words, she 
dried up with dread and cried, " O my son, set me in a place of 
safety, 3 for he will suffer me no longer to cumber the face of earth 
by reason of my often speaking at him ; nor did I ever cease to 
address him as ' Robber.' " Now whilst they were speaking behold, 
came up the Commander of the Faithful, whereat Alaeddin arose 
and kissed ground and blessed him, but the ancient dame took to 
flight and hid her in a closet. The Caliph seated himself, then he 

Abu (father of) being prefixed. When names are written in full it begins the string, f.g., 
Abu Mohammed (forename), Kasim (true name), ibn Ali (father's name), ibn Mohammed 
(grandfather's), ibn Osman (great-grandfather), Al- Hariri ( = the Silkman from the craft 
of the family), Al-Basri (of Bassorah). There is also the " Lakab " (sobriquet), e.g. 
Al-Bundukdnl or Badi'u '1-Zamdn (Rarity of the Age), which may be placed either before 
or after the " Kunyah " when the latter is used alone. Chenery (Al- Hariri, p. 315) 
confines the "Kunyah" to forenames beginning with Abu; but it also applies to those 
formed with Umm (mother), Ibn (son), Bint (daughter), Akh (brother) and Ukht (sister). 
See vol iv. 287. It is considered friendly and graceful to address a Moslem by this 
bye-name. Caudent praenomine molles Auriculae. 

1 In text " Ya Kawaki," which M. Houdas translates " piailUnr," remarking that 
here it would be = poule mouilUe. 

2 'Alakah kharijah" = an extraordinary drubbing. 

3 In text " Ij'alnf ft kll," the latter word being probably, as M. Houdas suggests, A 
clerical error for " Kal-a" or " Kilda " = safety, protection. 

The History of Al-Bundukam. 85 

looked around and, not seeing his mother-in-law, said to the 
Chamberlain, " And where may be thy parent ? " <( She dreadeth," 
replied Alaeddin, " and standeth in awe of the Caliph's majesty; " 
but Harun rejoined, " There is no harm for her." Then he bade 
her be summoned whereat she appeared and kissed ground and 
prayed for the permanency of his kingship, and he said to her, 
" Erewhiles thou girdest thy waist to aid me in stealing slaves' shoon 
and now thou fliest from thy teacher ? " She blushed for shame and 
exclaimed, " Pardon, O Commander of the Faithful," and Harun 
al-Rashid J replied, " May Allah pardon the Past." Presently he 
sent for the Princess, the daughter of the Chosroe and, summoning 
the Kazi, forthright divorced her and gave her in marriage to 
Alaeddin, his Chamberlain. Hereupon were spread bride-feasts 
which gathered together all the Lords of the Empire and the 
Grandees of Baghdad, and tables and trays of food were laid out 
during three successive days for the mesquin and the miserable. 
The visit of entrance was paid by the two bridegrooms on a single 
night when both went in unto their wives and took their joy of 
them, and made perfect their lives with the liveliest enjoyment. 
And ever after they passed the fairest of days till such time as 
came to them the Destroyer of delights and the Severer of societies 
and all passed away and died. So praise be to the Ever-Living 
who dieth not ! 

Such is the tale which came down to us 

in completion and perfection, 

and glory be to God, the 

Lord of the three Worlds. 




1 I am surprised that so learned and practical an Arabist as the Baron de Slane in his 
Fr. translation of Ibji Khaldun should render le surnom (TEr-Rechid (b prudent), for 
"The Rightly Directed," 'the Orthodox (vol. ii. 237), when (ibid. p. 259) he properly 
translates " Al-Khulafd al-rashidia " by Les Calife* qui marchent dans la vote droiU. 



fjere begin, 1 fottf) tlje afoance of gtllai) ^Imtgfitg anb tnfctte 
t!je ^fetors of tfje ^Tarjumanaf) 2 anfc tfje Hafnamanat) 3 anfc tfce 
goung man, tf)e S&tng's &on, an& fojatso Japped betfoeen tjjem of 
controbetsg anfc of contention anfc interrogation on barious matters. 

IT is related (but Allah is All-knowing anent what passed and 
preceded us of the histories belonging to bygone peoples) that there 
reigned in a city of Roum 4 a King of high degree and exalted dignity, 
a lord of power and puissance. But this Sovran was issue-less, so he 
ceased not to implore Allah Almighty that boon of babe might be 
vouchsafed to him and presently the Lord had pity upon him and 
deigned grant him a man-child. He bade tend the young Prince 
with tenderest tending, and caused him to be taught every branch 
of knowledge, and the divine precepts of wisdom and morals and 
manners ; nor di'd there remain aught of profitable learning wherein 

1 MSS'. pp. 476-504. This tale is laid down on the same lines as "Abu al-Husn 
and his Slave-girl Tawaddud," vol. vi. 189. It is carefully avoided by Scott, C de 
Perceval, Gauttier, etc. 

8 Lit. an interpreter woman ; the word is the fem. of Tarjumdn, a dragoman whom 
Mr. Curtis calls a Drag o' men ; see vol. i. 100. It has changed wonderfully on its way 
from its ' * Semitic '* home to Europe which has naturalised it as Drogman , Truchman 
and Dolmetsch. 

3 For this word of many senses, see vols. i. 231 ; ix. 221. M. Caussin de Perceval 
(viii. 16) quoting d'Herbelot (s.v.), notes that the Abbasides thus entitled the chief 
guardian of the Harem. 

* See vols. iv. 100, viii. 268. In his Introduction (p. 22) to the Assemblies of Al- 
Hariri Chenery says, " This prosperity had now passed away, for God had brought the 
people of Rum (so the Arabs call the Byzantines, whom Abu Zayd here confounds with 
the Franks) on the land," etc. The confusion is not Abu Zayd's : " Rumi " in Marocco 
and other archaic parts of the Moslem world is still synonymous with our " European." 

90 Supplemental Nights* 

the Youth was not instructed ; and upon this education the King 
expended a mint of money. Now after the Youth grew up Time 
rounded upon the Sovran his sire and his case was laid bare and 
he was perplext as to himself and he wotted not whatso he should 
ever do. Presently his son took heart to direct him aright, and 
asked, " O my father, say me, wilt thou give ear to that wherewith 
I would bespeak thee ? " " Speak out," quoth the King, " that is 
with thee of fair rede ; " and quoth the youth, " Rise, O my sire, 
that we depart this city ere any be ware of our wending : so shall 
we find rest and issue from the straits of indigence now closing 
around us. In this place there is no return of livelihood to us and 
poverty hath emaciated us and we are set in the sorriest of con- 
ditions than which naught can be sorrier." " O my child," quoth 
his sire in reply, f< admirable is this advice wherewith thou hast 
advised us, O my son, pious and dutiful ; and be the affair now 
upon Allah and upon thee." Hereupon the Youth gat all ready 
and arising one night took his father and mother without any 
being cognisant ; and the three, entrusting themselves to the care 
of Allah Almighty, wandered forth from home. And they ceased 
not wandering over the wilds and the wolds till at last they saw 
upon their way large city and a mighty fine ; so they entered it 
and made for a place whereat they alighted. Presently the young 
Prince arose and went forth to stroll about the streets and take 
his solace ; and whilst he walked about he asked concerning the 
city and who was its Sovran. They gave him tidings thereof 
saying, " This be the capital of a Sultan, equitable and high in 
honour amongst the Kings." Hereupon returning to his father 
and mother, quoth he to them, " I desire to sell you as slaves to 
this Sultan, 1 and what say ye ? " Quoth they, " We have com- 

1 This obedience to children is common in Eastern folk-lore : see Suppl. vol. i. 212, 
in which the royal father orders his son to sell him. The underlying idea is that the 
parents find their offspring too clever for them ; not, as in the " New World," that Youth 
is entitled to take precedence and command of Age. 

The Linguist-dame, the Duenna and the Kings Son. 91 

mitted our case to Almighty Allah and then to thee, O our 
son ; so do whatso thou wishest and judgest good." Hereat the 
Prince, repairing to the Palace, craved leave to enter to the King 
and, having obtained such permission, made his obeisance in the 
presence. Now when the Sultan looked upon him he saw that his 
visitor was of the sons of the great, so he asked him, " What be 
thy need, Ho thou the Youth ? " and the other made answer, 
" O my lord, thy slave is a merchant man and with me is a male 
captive, handy of handicraft, Godfearing and pious and a pattern 
of honesty and honour in perfect degree : I have also a bonds- 
woman goodly in graciousness and of civility complete in all thou. 
canst command of bondswomen ; these I desire to vend, O my lord 
to thy Highness, and if thou wouldst buy them of thy servant they 
are between thy hands and at thy disposal, and we all three are 
thy chattels." When the King heard these pleasant words spoken 
by the Youth, he said to him, " And where are they ? Bring them 
hither that I behold them ; and, if they be such as thou informest 
me, I will bid them be bought of thee ! " Hereupon the Prince 
fared forth and informed .his parents of this offer and said to them, 
" Rise up with me that I vend you and take from this Sultan your 
price wherewith I will pass into foreign parts and win me wealth 
enough to redeem and free you on my return hither. And the 
rest we will expend upon our case," " O our son/' said they, " do 
with us- whatso thou wishest" Anon, 1 the parents arose and 
prepared to accompany him and the Youth took them and led 
them into the presence of that Sultan where they made their 
obeisance, and the King at first sight of them marvelled with 
extreme marvel and said to them, " Are ye twain slaves to this 

young mail ? M Said they, " Yes, O our lord ; " whereupon he 

turned to the Youth and asked him, " What be the price thou 
requirest for these two ? " " O my lord," replied he, " give me to 

1 In text " Fa min tumma ' for " thumma "-^-then, alors. 

92 Supplemental Nights. 

the price of this man slave, a mare saddled and bridled and perfect 
in weapons and furniture ; ] and, as for this bondswoman, I desire 
thou make over to me as her value, a suit of clothes, the choicest 
and completest." Accordingly the Sultan bade pay him all his 
requirement, over and above which he largessed him with an 
hundred dinars ; and the Youth, after obtaining his demand and 
receiving such tokens of the royal liberality, kissed the King's 
hands and farewelled his father and mother. Then he applied 
himself to travel, seeking prosperity from Allah and all unknowing 
whither he should wend. And whilst he was faring upon his 
wayfare he was met by a horseman of the horsemen, 2 and they 
both exchanged salutations and welcomings, when the stranger 
was highly pleased at the politeness of the King's son and the 
elegance of his expressions. Presently, pulling from his pocket a 
sealed letter wrapt in a kerchief he passed it over to the Youth, 
saying, " In very sooth, O my brother, affection for thee hath 
befallen my heart by reason of the goodliness of thy manners and 
elegance of thine address and the sweetness of thy language ; and 
now I desire to work thy weal by means of this missive." " And 
what of welfare may that be ? '' asked the Prince, whereto the 
horseman answered, " Take with thee this letter and forthwith upon 
arriving at the Court of the King whither thou art wending, hand 
to him this same ; so shalt thou obtain from him gain abundant 
and mighty great good and thou shalt abide with him in degree of 
highmost honour. This paper (gifted to me by my teacher) hath 
already brought me ample livelihood and prodigious profit, and 
I have bestowed it upon thee by reason of thine elegance and good 
breeding and thy courteousness in showing me respect." Hereat 
the Youth, the son of the King, answered him, " Allah requite 
thee with weal and grant thou gain thy wish ; " and so saying 

1 Such as the headstall and hobbles, the cords and chains for binding captives, and the 
.. ace and sword hanging to the saddle-bow. 
8 *.*. not a well-known or distinguished horseman, but a chance rider. 

The Linguist-dame , the Duenna and the King's Son. 93 

accepted the letter of that horseman with honest heart and 

honourable intent, meditating in his mind, " Inshallah ta'alel an 

it be the will of God the Greatest I shall have good fortune to my 

lot by the blessing of this epistle ; then will I fare and set free my 

father and my mother," So the Prince resumed his route and he 

exulted in himself especially at having secured the writ, by means 

whereof he was promised abundant weal. Presently, it chanced 

that he became drowthy with excessive drowth that waxed right 

sore upon him and he saw upon his path no water to drink ; and 

by the tortures of thirst he was like to lose his life. So he turned 

round and looked at the mare he bestrode and found her covered 

with a foam of sweat wholly unlike her wonted way. Hereat 

dismounting he brought out the wrapper wherein the letter was 

enrolled and loosing it he mopped up therewith his animal's 

sweat and squeezing it into a cup he had by him drank it off 

and found to his joy that he was somewhat comforted. Then, 

of his extreme satisfaction with the letter, he said to himself, 

" Would Heaven I knew that which is within, and how the profit 

which the horseman promised should accrue to me therefrom. 

So let me open it and see its contents that my heart may be 

satisfied and my soul be joyed." Then he did as he devised 

and perused its purport and he mastered its meaning and the 

secret committed to it, which he found as follows : " O my 

lord, do thou straightway on the arrival of him who beareth 

these presents slay him, nor leave him one moment on life ; 

because this Youth came to me and I entreated him with 

honour the high most that could be of all honouring, as a return 

for which this traitor of the salt, this reprobate betrayed me in a 

daughter that was by me. I feared to do him dead lest I 

come to shame amongst the folk and endure disgrace, I and my 

tribe, wherefore I have forwarded him to thy Highness that thou 

mayest torture him with torments of varied art and end his affair 

and slaughter him, thus saving us from the shame which befel us 

94 Supplemental Nights. 

at the hands of this reprobate traitor." ! Now when the young 
Prince read this writ and comprehended its contents, he suspected 
that it was not written concerning him and he took thought in 
himself, saying, u Would Heaven I knew what I can have done by 
this horseman who thus seeketh diligently to destroy my life, for 
that this one had with him no daughter, he being alone and 

1 These " letters of Mutalammis," as Arabs term our Litterae Bellerophontese, or 
" Uriah's letters," are a lieu commun in the East and the Prince was in luck when he 
opened and read the epistle here given by mistake to the wrong man. Mutalammis, a poet 
of The Ignorance, had this sobriquet (the *' -frequent asker," or, as we should say, the 
Solicitor- General), his name being Jarfr bin 'Abd al-Masih. He was uncle to Tarafah of 
the Mu'allakah or prize-poem, a type of the witty dissolute bard of the jovial period 
before Al-Islam arose to cloud and dull man's life. One day as he was playing with other 
children Mutalammis was reciting a panegyric upon his favourite camel, which ran : 

I mount a he-camel, dark-red and firm-fleshed ; or a she-camel of Himyar, fleet of foot 
and driving the pebbles with her crushing hooves. 

"See the he-camel turned to a she," cried the boy, and the phrase became proverbial 
to express inelegant transition (Arab. Prov. ii. 246). The uncle bade his nephew put 
out his tongue and seeing it dark-coloured said, " That black tongue will be thy ruin !" 
Tarafah, who was presently entitled Ibn al-'Ishrin (the son of twenty years), grew 
up a model reprobate who cared nothing save for three things, 4( to drink the dark-red 
wine foaming as the water mixeth with it, to urge into the fight a broad-backed steed, 
and to while away the dull day with a young beauty." His apology for wilful waste is 
highly poetic : 

I see that the grave of the careful, the hoarder, differeth not from the grave of the 

debauched, the spendthrift : 
A hillock of earth covers this and that, with a few flat stones laid together thereon. 

See the whole piece in Chenery's Al-Hariri (p. 360), from which this note is borrowed. 
At last uncle and nephew fled from ruin to the Court of 'Amru bin Munzfr III., King of 
Hira, who in the tale of Al-Mutalammis and his wife Umaymah (The Nights, vol. v. 74) 
is called Al-Nu'uman bin Munzir but is better known as 'Amru bin Hind (his mother). 
The King who was a ferocious personage nicknamed Al-Muharrik or the Burner because 
he had thrown into the fire ninety-nine men and one woman of the Tamim tribe in 
accordance with a vow of vengeance he had taken to slaughter a full century, made the 
two strangers boon-companions to his boorish brother Kabiis. Tarafah, offended because 
kept at the tent-door whilst the master drank wine within, bitterly lampooned him together 
with 'Abd Amru a friend of the King; and when this was reported his death was 
determined upon. Amru, the King, seeing the anxiety of the two poets to quit his Court, 
offered them letters of introduction to Abu Kdrib, Governor of Al-Hajar (Bahrayn) under 
the Persian King and they were accepted. The uncle caused his letter to be read by 
a youth, and finding that it was an order for his execution destroyed it and fled to 
Syria ; but the nephew was buried alive. Amru, the King, was afterwards slain by the 
poet-warrior, Amru bin Kulthum, also of the " Mu'allakdt," for an insult offered 
to his mother by Hind : hence the proverb," Quicker to slay than 'Amru bin Kulsum"" 
(A.P. ii. 233). 

The Linguist-dame, the Duenna and the Kings Son. 95 

wending his way without any other save himself; and I made 
acquaintance with him nor passed there between us a word which 
was unworthy or unmeet. Now this affair must needs have one of 
two faces ; to wit, the first, that such mishap really did happen to 
him from some youth who favoureth me and when he saw the 
likeness he gave me the letter ; or, on the second count, this must 
be a trial and a test sent to me from Almighty Allah, and praise 
be to God the Great who inspired me to open this missive. At 
any rate I thank the Most Highest and laud Him for His 
warding off the distress and calamity descending upon me and 
wherefrom He delivered me." Then the young Prince ceased not 
wending over the wildest of wolds until he came to a mighty 
grand city which he entered ; and, hiring himself a lodging in a 
Khan, 1 dismounted thereat ; then, having tethered his mare and 
fed her with a sufficiency of fodder, he fared forth to walk about 
the thoroughfares. Suddenly he was met by an ancient dame 
who considered him and noted him for a handsome youth and 
an elegant, tall of stature and with the signs of prosperity showing 
manifest between his eyes. Hereat he accosted her and questioned 
her of the city-folk and their circumstances, whereto the old 
woman made reply with the following purport, " Here in our city 
iigneth a King of exalted dignity and he hath a daughter fair 
of favour, indeed the loveliest of the folk of her time. Now 
she hath taken upon herself never to intermarry with any of 
mankind unless it be one who can overcome her with instances 
and arguments and can return a sufficient reply to all her questions ; 
and this is upon condition that, should he come off vanquisher 
he shall become her mate, but if vanquished she will cut off his 
head, and on such wise hath she done with ninety-and-nine men 
of the noblest blood, as sons of the Kings and sundry others. 
Furthermore, she hath a towering castle founded upon the heights 

1 See vols. i. 192; iii. 14; these correspond with the "Stathmoi," Stationes, 
Mansioues or Castia of Herodotus, Terps. cap. 53, and Xenophon An. i. 2, 10. 

96 Supplemental Nights. 

that overfrown the whole of this city whence she can descry 
all who pass under its walls. As soon as the young Prince 
heard these words from the old woman his heart was occupied 
with the love of the King's daughter and he passed that night 
as it were to him the longsomest of nights, nor would he believe 
that the next morn had morrowed. But when dawned the day 
and anon showed its sheen and shone, he arose without. Jet or 
stay and after saddling his mare mounted her and turned towards 
the palace belonging to the King's daughter ; and presently reach- 
ing it, took his station at the gateway. Hereat all those present 
considered him and asked him saying, "What be the cause of 
thy. standing hereabouts ? " whereto he answered, " I desire speech 
with the Princess." But when they heard these words, all fell 
to addressing him with kindly words and courteous and dissuading 
him from his desire and saying, " Ho thou beautiful youngling ! 
fear 1 Allah and pity thyself and have ruth upon thy youth ; 
nor dare seek converse with this Princess, for that she hath slain 
fourscore and nineteen men of the nobles and sons of the kings 
and for thee sore we fear that thou shalt complete the century." 
The Prince, however, would not hear a word from them nor heed 
their rede ; neither would he be warned by the talk of others 
than they ; nay he persisted in standing at the Palace gateway. 
And presently he asked admission to go in to the King's daughter ; 
but this was refused by the Princess, who contented herself with 
sending forth to him her Tarjumdnah, her Linguist-dame, to 
bespeak him and say, " Ho thou fair youth ! art thou ready and 
longing to affront dangers and difficulties ? " He replied, " I am." 
"Then," quoth she, "hie thee to the King the father of this 
Princess and show thyself and acquaint him with thine affair and 
thine aim, after which do thou bear witness against thyself in 

1 In text " Ittika" viiith of \/ waka: the form "Takwa" is generally used = 
fearing God, whereby one guards oneself from sin in this life and from retribution in 
the world to come. 

The Linguist-dame, the Duenna and the King's Son.^ 97 

presence of the Kazi that an thou conquer his daughter in her 
propositions and she fail of replying to a query of thine thou shalt 
become her mate ; whereas if she vanquish thee she shall lawfully 
cut off thy head, 1 even as she hath decapitated so many before 
thy time. And when this is done come thou back to us." The 
Prince forthright fared for the monarch and did as he was bidden ; 
then he returned to the Linguist-dame and reported all his pro- 
ceedings before the King and eke the Kazi. After this he was 
led in to the presence of the Princess and with him was the 
afore-mentioned Tarjumanah who brought him a cushion of silk 
for the greater comfort of his sitting ; and the two fell to 
questioning and resolving queries and problems in full sight 
of a large attendance. Began the Tarjumanah, interpreting the 
words of her lady who was present, " Ho thou the Youth ! my 
mistress saith to thee, Do thou inform me concerning an ambulant 
moving sepulchre whose inmate is alive." He answered and 
said, " The moving sepulchre is the whale that swallowed Jonas 
(upon whom be the choicest of Salams ! 2 ), and the Prophet was 
quick in the whale's belly." She pursued, " Tell me concerning 
two combatants who fight each other but not with hands or feet, 
and who withal never say a say or speak a speech." He answered 
saying, " The bull and the buffalo who encounter each other by 

This series of puzzling questions and clever replies is still as favourite a mental 
tercise in the Fast as it was in middle-aged Europe. The riddle or conundrum 
in, as far as we know, with the Sphinx, through whose mouth the Greeks spoke : 
>thing less likely than that the grave and mysterious Scribes of Egypt should ascribe 
aught so puerile to the awful emblem of royal majesty Abu Haul, the Father of 
Fright. Josephus relates how Solomon propounded enigmas to Hiram of Tyre which 
lone but Abdimus, son of the captive Abdaemon, could answer. The Tale of Tawaddud 
)ffers fair specimens of such exercises, which were not disdained by the most learned 
of Arabian writers. See Al-Hariri's Ass. xxiv. which proposes twelve enigmas involving 
abstruse and technical points of Arabic, such as : (j) " What be the word, which as ye 
/ill is a particle beloved, or the name of that which compriseth the slender- waisted 
rilch camel?" Na'am = " Yes" or " cattle," the latter word containing the Harf, 
or slender camel. Chenery, p. 246. 

2 For the sundry meanings and significance of " Saldm," here = Heaven's btewing, 
vols. ii. 24, vi. 232. 

98 Supplemental Nights. 

ramming with horns. 1 ' She continued, " Point out to me a tract 
of earth which saw not the sun save for a single time and since 
that never." He answered saying, " This be the sole of the Red 
Sea when Moses the Prophet (upon whom be The Peace !) smote 
it with his rod and clove it asunder so that the Children of Israel 
crossed over it on dry ground, which was never seen but only 
once." 1 She resumed, " Relate to me anent that which drank 
water during its life-time and ate meat after its death ? " He 
answered saying, " This be the Rod 2 of Moses the Prophet (upon 

1 This is the nursery version of the Exodus, old as Josephus and St. Jerome, and 
completely changed by the light of modern learning. The Children of Israel quitted 
their homes about Memphis (as if a large horde of half-nomadic shepherds would be 
suffered in the richest and most crowded home of Egypt). They marched by the Wady 
Musi that debouches upon the Gulf of Suez a short way below the port now temporarily 
ruined by its own folly and the ill-will of M, de Lesseps; and they made the " Sea of 
Sedge " (Suez Gulf) through the valley bounded by what is still called Jabal ' Atdkah, 
the Mountain of Deliverance, and its parallel range, Abu Durayj (of small steps). Here 
the waters were opened and the host passed over to the "Wells of Moses," erstwhile 
a popular picnic place on the Arabian side ; but according to one local legend (for 
which see my Pilgrimage, i. 294-97) they crossed the sea north of Tur, the spot being still 
called " Birkat Far'aun "= Pharaoh's Pool. Such also is the modern legend amongst 
the Arabs, who learned their lesson from the Christians (not from the Jews) in the days 
when the Copts and the Greeks (ivth century) invented "Mount Sinai." And the 
reader will do well to remember that the native annalists of Ancient Egypt, which 
conscientiously relate all her defeats and subjugations by the Ethiopians, Persians, etc., 
utterly ignore the very name of Hebrew, Sons of Israel, etc. 

I cannot conceal my astonishment at finding a specialist journal like the "Quarterly 
Statement of the Palestine Exploration Fund" (Oct., 1887), admitting such a paper as 
that entitled "The Exode," by R. F. Hutchinson, M.D. For this writer the labours 
of the last half- century are non- existing. Job is still the "oldest book" in the world. 
The Rev. Charles Forster's absurdity, " Israel in the wilderness " .gives valuable 
assistance. Goshen is Mr. Chester's Tell Fakus (not, however, far wrong in this) instead 
of the long depression by the Copts still called "Gesem" or "Gesemeh," the frontier- 
land through which the middle course of the Suez Canal runs. " Succoth," tabernacles, 
is confounded with the Arab. "Sakf" = a roof. Letopolis, the "key of the Exode," 
and identified with the site where Babylon (Old Cairo) was afterwards built, is placed 
on the right instead of the left bank of the Nile. " Bahr Kulzum "is the " Sea of the 
Swallowing-up," in lieu of The Closing. El-Tih, "the wandering," is identified with 
Wady Musa to the 'west of the Suez Gulf. And so forth. What could the able Editor 
have been doing P 

Students of this still disputed question will consult "The Shrine of Saft el-Henneh 
and the Land ofGoschen," by Edouard Naville, fifth Memoir of the Egypt Exploration 
Fund. Published by order of the Committee. London, Triibner, 1837. 

* Eastern fable runs wild upon this subject, and indeed a large volume could be written 
upon the birth, life and death of Moses* and Aaron's rods. There is a host of legends 

The Linguist- dame ', tJie Duenna and the Kings Son. 99 

whom be The Peace !) which, when a living branch * struck water 
from its living root and died only when severed from the parent 
tree. Now Almighty Allah cast it upon the land of Egypt by 
the hand of Moses, what time this Prophet drowned Pharaoh and 
his host 2 and therewith clove the Red Sea, after which that Rod 
became a dragon and swallowed up the wands of all the Magicians 
of Misraim." Asked she, " Give me tidings of a thing which is 
not of mankind nor of the Jann-kind, neither of the beasts nor 
of the birds ? " He answered saying, " This whereof thou speakest 
is that mentioned by Solomon, to wit the Louse, 3 and secondly 
the Ant." She enquired, " Tell me to what end Almighty Allah 

concerning the place where the former was cut and whence it descended to the Prophet 
whose shepherd's staff was the glorification of his pastoral life (the rod being its symbol) 
and of his future career as a ruler (and flogger) of men. In Exodus (viii. 3-10), when a 
miracle was required of the brothers, Aaron's rod became a "serpent" (A.V.) or, as some 
prefer, a "crocodile," an animal worshipped by certain of the Egyptians; and when 
the King's magicians followed suit it swallowed up all others. Its next exploit was 
to turn the Nile and other waters of Egypt into blood (Exod. vii. 17). The third 
wonder was worked by Moses' staff, the dividing of the Red Sea (read the Sea of Sedge 
or papyrus, which could never have grown in the brine of the Sue? Gulf) according to 
the command, "Lift thou up thy rod and stretch out thine hand over the sea," etc. 
(Exod. xiv. 15). The fourth adventure was when the rod, wherewith Moses smote the 
river, struck two blows on the rock in Horeb and caused water to come out of it 
(Numb. xxi. 8). Lastly the- rod (this time again Aaron's) "budded and brought forth 
buds and bloomed blossoms and yielded almonds" (Numb, xvii.,7); thus becoming a 
testimony against the rebels : hence it was set in the Holiest of the Tabernacles (Heb. 
ix. 14) as a lasting memorial. I have described (Pilgrim, i. 301) the mark of Moses' rod 
at the little Hammam behind the old Phoenician colony of Tur, in the miscalled 
" Sinaitic " Peninsula : it is large enough to act mainmast for a ship. The end of the 
rod or rods is unknown : it died when its work was done, and like many other things, 
holy and unholy, which would be priceless, e.g., the true Cross or Pilate's sword, it 
remains only as a memory around which a host of grotesque superstitions have grouped 

1 In this word " Hayy " the Arab, and Heb. have the advantage of our English : it 
dneans either serpent or living, alive. 

2 It is nowhere said in Hebrew Holy Writ that "Pharaoh," whoever he may have 
"been, was drowned in the "Red Sea." 

8 Arab. " Kami." The Koranic legend of the Ant has, I repeat, been charmingly 
commented upon by Edwin Arnold in "Solomon and the Ant" (p. i., Pearls of the 
Faith). It seems to be a Talmudic exaggeration of the implied praise in Prov. vi 6 and 
xxx. 25, "The ants are a people not strong, yet they prepare their meat in the summer'* 
which, by the by, proves that the Wise King could be caught tripping in his natural 
history, and that they did not know everything down Judee. 

I CO Supplemental Nights. 

created the creation and for what aim of wisdom did He quicken 
this creation and for what object did He cause death to be 
followed by resurrection and resurrection by the rendering men's 
accounts?" He answered saying, " God created all creatures 
that they might witness His handicraft, and he did them die 
that they might behold his absolute dominion and He requickened 
them to the end that they learn His All-Might, and He decreed 
their rendering account that they might consider His wisdom and 
His justice." She questioned him saying, " Tell me concerning 
three, of whom my first was not born of father and mother and 
yet died ; and my second was begotten of sire and born of 
woman yet died not, and my third was born of father and mother 
yet died not by human death ? " He answered saying, " The first 
were Adam and Eve, 1 the second was Elias 2 the Prophet and the 
third was Lot's wife who died not the death of the general, for 
that she was turned into a pillar of salt." Quoth she, " Relate 
to me concerning one who in this world had two names ? " and 
he answered saying, " This be Jacob, sire of the Twelve Tribes, to 
whom Allah vouchsafed the title of Israel, which is Man with El 
or God." 3 She said, " Inform me concerning the Nakus, or the 
Gong, 4 who was the inventor thereof and . at what time was it 

1 Is, according to the Moslems, was so far like Adam (Koran iii. 52) that he was not 
begotten in the normal way: in fact his was a miraculous conception. See vol. v. 238. 

3 For Elias, Elijah, or Khizr, a marvellous legendary figure, see vols. iv. 175 ; v. 384. 
The worship of Helios (Apollo) is not extinct in mod. Greece where it survives under the 
name of Elias. So Dionysus has become St. Dionysius ; Bacchus the Drunken, St. 
George ; and Artemis St. Artemides the healer of childhood. 

3 Gesenius interprets it "Soldier of God" ; the bye -name given to Jacob presently 
became the national name of the Twelve Tribes collectively ; then it narrowed to the 
tribe of Judah ; afterwards it became = laymen as opposed to Levites, etc., and in these 
days it is a polite synonym for Jew. When you want anything from any of the (self-) Chosen 
People you speak of him as an Israelite ; when he wants anything of you, you call him 
a Jew, or a damned Jew, as the case may be. 

* I am not aware that there is any general history of the bell, beginning with th 
rattle, the gong and other primitive forms of the article ; but the subject seems worthy 
of a monograph. In Hebrew Writ the bell first appears in Exod. xxviii. 33 as a 
fringe to the Ephod of the High Priest that its tinkling might save him from intruding 
unwarned into the bodily presence of the tribal God, Jehovah. 


The Linguist-dame, tfo Duenna and the King's Son. IOI 

first struck in this world?" He answered saying, "The Gong 
was invented by Noah, who first smote upon it in the Ark." 
And after this she stinted not to question him nor he to ree her 
riddles until evening fell, when quoth the King's daughter to the 
Linguist-dame, " Say thou to the young man that he may now 
depart, and let him come to me betimes next morning when, if 
I conquer him, I will give him drink of the cup his fellows 
drained ; and, should he vanquish me, I will become his wife. 
Then the Tarjumanah delivered her message word for word, and 
the Youth went forth from the Princess with fire aflame in his 
heart and spent the longest of nights hardly believing that the 
morn would morrow. But when day broke and the dawn came 
with its sheen and shone upon all mankind, he arose from his 
sleep and fared with the first light to the palace where the King's 
daughter bade the Linguist-dame introduce him, and when he 
came in Ordered him be seated. As soon as he had taken seat 
she gave her commands to the Tarjumanah, who said, " My lady 
directeth thee to inform her what may be the tree bearing a 
dozen boughs, each clothed with thirty leaves and these of two 
colours, one half white and the other moiety black ? " He answered 
saying, " Now that tree is the year, and its twelve branches are 
the dozen months, while the thirty leaves upon each of these 
are the thirty white days and the thirty black nights." Hereat 
quoth she, " Tell me, what tree was it bore many a bough and 
manifold leaves which presently became flesh and blood ?" He 
answered saying, " This was the Rod of Moses the Prophet (upon 
whom be The Peace !) which was at first a tree but which after 
cutting became a serpent with flesh and blood." Continued she, 
"Inform me what became of Moses' Rod and Noah's Ark, and 
where now be they ? " He answered saying, " They are at this 
tide sunken in the Lake of Tabariyyah, 1 and both, at the end of 

4 Gennesaret (Chinnereth, Cinneroth), where, according to some Moslems, the 
Solomon was buried. 

IO2 Supplemental Nights. 

time will be brought out by a man hight Al-Ndsiri. 1 " She pur- 
sued, " Acquaint me with spun yarn, whence did it originate and 
who was it first practised spinning the same ? " He answered, 
saying, " Almighty Allah from the beginning of mankind ordered 
the Archangel Gabriel to visit Eve and say to her : Spin for thyself 
and for Adam waistcloths wherewith ye may veil your persons." 2 
She enquired, " Tell me concerning the Asdffr, 8 and why they were 
so called, and who first named them with such name ? M He 
answered saying, " There was in the days of Moses the Prophet 
(upon whom be The Peace !) a fowl called Ffr, and in the time of 
Solomon the King (upon whom be The Peace !) all the birds paid 
him obedience, even as did all the beasts, and albeit each and 
every created thing was subject to the Prophet, withal this Ffr 
would not show submission : so the Wise King sent a body 
of birds to bring him into the presence, but he refused to present 
himself. Presently they returned to the Prophet who asked them, 
Where be Ffr ? and they answered, O our lord, 'Asd Ffr, 4 whence 
that name hath clung to the fowls." She resumed, " Inform me 
of the two Stationaries and the two Moveables and the two 

1 I cannot explain this legend. 

8 So the old English rhyme, produced for quite another purpose by Sir John Bull in 
"Wat Tyler's Rebellion" (Hume, Hist, of Eng., vol. i. chapt. 17) J 

" When Adam dolve and Eve span, 
Who was then the gentleman ? " 

A variant occurs in a MS. of the xvth century, Brit. Museum : 

" Now bethink the gentleman, 

How Adam dalf and Eve span. 
And the German form is : 

So Adam reutte (reute) and Eva span 
Wer was da ein Eddelman (Edelman )?" 

8 Plur. of " 'Usfur " = a bird, a sparrow. The etymology is characteristically Oriental 
and Mediaeval, reminding us of Dan Chaucer's meaning of Cecilia "Heaven's lily" 
(Susan) or " Way for the blind " (Csecus) or " Thoughts of Holiness " and Ka = lasting 
industry; or, " Heaven and Leos" (people), so fhat she might be named the people's 
heaven (The Second Nonne's Tale). 

* i.e. " Fir is rebellious." 

The Linguist-dame, the Duenna and the Kings Son. 103 

Conjoineds and the two Disjoineds by jealousy and the twain 
which be eternal Foes." He answered saying, " Now the two 
Stationaries be Heaven and Earth and the two Moveables are the 
Sun and the Mopn ; the two Conjoineds are Night and Day and 
the two Disjoineds by jealousy are the Soul and the Body and the 
two Hostiles are Death and Life." 1 On this wise the Linguist- 
dame ceased not to question him and he to reply solving all her 
problems until eve closed in. Then she bade him go forth that 
night and on the next day come again to her. Accordingly, the 
young Prince returned to his Khan and no sooner had he made 
sure that the morn had morrowed than he resolved to see if that 
day would bring him aught better than had come to him before. 
So arising betimes he made for the palace of the King's daughter 
and was received and introduced by the Tarjumanah who 
seated him as was her wont and presently she began, saying, 
" My lady biddeth thee inform her of a thing which an a 
man do that same 'tis unlawful ; and if a man do not that same 
'tis also unlawful." He answered, saying, " I will : this be the 
prayer 2 of a drunken man which is in either case illegal." Quoth 
she, " Tell me how far is the interval between Heaven and 
Earth ? " and he answered saying, " That bridged over by the 
prayer of Moses the Prophet 3 (upon him be The Peace !) whom 
Allah Almighty saved and preserved." She said, " And how far 
is it betwixt East and West ? " whereto he answered saying, " The 
space of a day and the course of the Sun wending from Orient 
unto Occident." Then she asked, " Let me know what was the 
habit 4 of Adam in Paradise ? " and he answered saying, " Adam's 

1 Both of which, I may note, are not things but states, modes or conditions of things 
See vol. ix. 78. 

2 "Salat"= the formal ceremonious prayer. I have noticed (vol. iv. 60) the sundry 
technical meanings of the term Salat, from Allah = Mercy ; from Angel-kind = inter- 
cession and pardon, and from mankind = a blessing. 

* Possibly "A prayer of Moses, the man of God," the title of the "highly apociypnal 
Psalm xc. 

* Arab. "Libas" = clothes in general. 

IO4 Supplemental Nights. 

habit in Eden was his flowing hair," 1 She continued, " Tell me 
of Abraham the Friend (upon whom be The Peace !) how was 
it that Allah chose him out and called him 'Friend'?" 2 He 
answered saying, " Verily the Lord determined to tempt and to 
test him albeit he kenned right clearly that the Prophet was free 
of will yet fully capable of enduring the trial ; natheless, He 
resolved to do on this wise that he might stablish before men the 
truth of His servant's trust in the Almighty and the fairness of 
his faith and the purity of his purpose. So the Lord bade him 
offer to Him his son Is'hak 3 as a Corban or Sacrifice ; and of the 
truth of his trust he took his child and would have slain him as a 
victim. But when he drew his knife with the purpose of slaughter- 
ing the youth he was thus addressed by the Most Highest 
Creator : Now indeed well I wot that thou gatherest 4 me and 
keepest my covenant : so take thou yonder ram and slay it as a 
victim in the stead of Is'hak. And after this he entituled him 
' Friend.' " She pursued, " Inform me touching the sons of 
Israel how many were they at the time of the going forth from 
Egypt?" He answered, saying, "When they marched out of 

1 In text j&> Zafar= victory. It may also be "Zifr "= alluding to the horny matter 
which, according to Moslem tradition, covered the bodies of "our first parents" and of 
which after the "original sin " nothing remained but the nails of their ringers and toes. 
It was only when this disappeared that they became conscious of their nudity. So says 
M. Houdas; but I prefer to consider the word as a clerical error for ^ Zafar= plaited 

8 According to Al-Mas'udi (i. 86, quoting Koran xxi. 52), Abraham had already 
received of Allah spiritual direction or divine grace ("Rushdu 'llah" or " Al-Huda") 
which made him sinless. In this opinion of the Imamship, says my friend Prof. A. 
Sprenger, the historian is more fatalistic than most Sunnfs. 

8 Modern Moslems are all agreed in making Ishmael and not Isaac the hero of this 
history: see my Pilgrimage (vol. iii. 306). But it was not always so. Al-Mas'udi 
(vol. ii. 146) quotes the lines of a Persian poet in A. H. 290 (=A. D. 902) which 
expressly say "Is'haku kana'l-Zabfh" = Isaac was the victim, and the historian refers 
to this in sundry places. Yet the general idea is that Ishmael succeeded his father (as 
eldest son) and was succeeded by Isaac ; and hence the bitter family feud between the 
Eastern Jews and the Arab Gentiles. 

4 In text " Tajnf " = lit . thou pluckest (the fruit of good deeds). M. Houdas translates 
Tit rfcueilles, mot <i mot tu cucilles. 

The Linguist-dame , the Duenna and the King's Son. 105 

Misraim-land they numbered six hundred thousand fighting 1 men 
besides women and children." She continued, " Do thou point out 
to me, some place on earth which is higher than the Heavens ; " 
and he answered saying, " This is Jerusalem 2 the Exalted and she 
standeth far above the Firmament." Then the Youth turning to 
the Linguist-dame, said, " O my lady, long and longsome hath 
been the exposition of that which is between us, and were thy 
iady to ask me for all time questions such as these and the like of 
them, I by the All-might of Allah shall return a full and sufficient 
answer to one and all. But, in lieu of so doing, I desire of thy 
mistress the Princess to ask of her one question and only one ; 
and, if she satisfy me of the significance I claim therefor, let her 
give me to drain the cup of my foregoers whom she overcame and 
slew ; and if she fail in the attempt she shall own herself conquered 

and become my wife and The Peace ! " 3 Now this was said in 

the presence of a mighty host there present, the great of them as 
well as the small thereof; so the Tarjumdnah answered willy- 
nilly, " Say, O Youth, whatso is the will of thee and speak out 
that which is in the mind of thee." He rejoined, " Tell thy lady 
that she deign enlighten me concerning a man who was in this 
condition. He was born and brought up in the highest of 
prosperity but Time turned upon him and Poverty mishandled 
him ; 4 so he mounted his father and clothed him with his mother 5 
and he fared forth to seek comfort and happiness at the hand of 
Allah Almighty. Anon Death met him on the way and Doom 
bore him upon his head and his courser saved him from destruc- 

1 See note at the end of this tale. 

* Amongst the Jews the Temple of Jerusalem was a facsimile of the original built by 
Jehovah in the lowest heaven or that of the Moon. For the same idea (doubtless a 
derivation from the Talmud) amongst the Moslems concerning the heavenly Ka'abah 
called Bayt al-Ma'mur (the Populated House) see my Pilgrimage iii. 186, et seq. 

3 i.e. there is an end of the matter. 

4 In text Massa-hu '1 Fakr " = poverty touched him. 

6 He had sold his father for a horse, etc., and his mother for a fine dress- 

io6 Supplemental Nights. 

tion whenas he drank water which came neither from the sky nor 
from the ground. Now see thou who may be that man and do 
thou give me answer concerning him." 1 But when the Princess 
heard this question, she was confused with exceeding confusion 
touching the reply to be replied in presence of a posse of the 
people, and she was posed and puzzled and perplext to escape the 
difficulty and naught availed her save addressing the Tarjumanah 
and saying, " Do thou bid this Youth wend his ways and remove 
himself until the morrow." The Linguist-dame did as she was 
bidden, adding, " And on the morrow (Inshallah !) there shall be 
naught save weal ; " and the Prince went forth leaving the folk 
aghast at the question he had urged upon the King's daughter. 
But as soon as he left her the young lady commanded the Tarju- 
mdnah to let slaughter somewhat of the most toothsome poultry 
and to prepare them for food as her mistress might direct her ; 
together with dainty meats and delicate sweetmeats and the finest 
fruits fresh and dried and all manner of other eatables and drink- 
ables, and lastly to take a skin-bottle rilled with good old wine. 
Then she changed her usual garb and donned the most sumptuous 
dress of all her gear ; and, taking her Duenna and favourite hand- 
maiden with a few of her women for comitive, she repaired to the 
quarters of the Youth, the King's son ; and the time of her visit 
was the night-tide. Presently, reaching the Khan she said to her 
guardian, " Go thou in to him alone whilst I hide me somewhere 
behind the door and do thou sit between his hands ; " after which 
she taught the old woman all she desired her do of dissimulation 
and artifice. The slave obeyed her mistress and going in accosted 

1 This enigma is in the style of Samson's (Judges xrv. 12) of which we complain that 
the unfortunate Philistines did not possess the sole clue which could lead to the 
solution ; and here anyone with a modicum of common sense would have answered, 
"Thou art the man I " The riddles with which the Queen of Sheba visited Solomon must 
have been simply hard questions somewhat like those in the text ; and the relator wisely 
refuses to record them. 

The Linguist-dame -, the Duenna and the King's Son. 107 

the young man with the salam ; and, seating herself before him, 
said, " Ho thou the Youth ! Verily there is here a lovely damsel, 
delightsome and perfect of qualities, whose peer is not in her age, 
and well nigh able is she to make the sun fare backwards 1 and to 
illumine the universe in lieu thereof. Now when thou wast wont 
to visit us in the apartment of the Princess, this maiden looked 
upon thee and found thee a fair youth ; so her heart loved thee 
with excessive love and desired thee with exceeding desire and to 
such degree that she insisted upon accompanying me and she hath 
now taken station at thy door longing to enter. So do thou grant 
her permission that she come in and appear in thy presence and 
then retire to some privacy where she may stand in thy service, 
a slave to thy will." 2 The Prince replied, " Whoso seeketh us let 
enter with weal and welfare, and well come and welcome and fair 
welcome to each and every of such guests." Hereat the Princess 
went in as did all those who were with her, and presently after 
taking seat they brought out and set before the Youth their whole 
store of edibles and potables and the party fell to eating and drink- 
ing and converse, exchanging happy sayings blended with wit and 
disport and laughter, while the Princess made it her especial task 
to toy with her host deeming that he knew her not to be the King's 
daughter. He also stinted not to take his pleasure with her ; and 
on this wise they feasted and caroused and enjoyed themselves 
and were cheered and the converse between them was delightful. 
The Duenna, however, kept plying the Prince with wine, mere and 
pure, until she had made him drunken and his carousal had so 
mastered him that he required her of her person : however she 
refused herself and questioned him of the enigma wherewith he 
had overcome her mistress ; whilst he, for stress of drunkenness, 
was incapacitated by stammering to explain her aught thereof. 

' We should say "To eclipse the sun. 
8 A very intelligible offer. 

io8 Supplemental Nights. 

Hereupon the Princess, having doffed her upper dress, propped 
herself sideways upon a divan cushion and stretched herself at full 
length and the Youth for the warmth of his delight in her and his 
desire to her anon recovering his speech explained to her the reply 
to his riddle. The King's daughter then joyed with mighty great 
joy as though she had won the world universal j 1 and, springing 
to her feet incontinently, of her extreme gladness she would not 
delay to finish her disport with her wooer ; but ere the morning 
morrowed she departed and entered her palace. Now in so doing 
she clean forgot her outer robes and the wine-service and what 
remained of meat and drink. The Youth had been overcome with 
sleep and after slumbering he awoke at dawn when he looked 
round and saw none of the company about him : withal he 
recognised the princely garments which were of the most 
sumptuous and costly, robes of brocade and sendal and such- 
like, together with jewels and adornments ; and scattered about lay 
sundry articles of the wine-service and fragments of the food they 
had brought with them. And from these signs of things forgotten 
he learnt that the King's daughter had visited him in person and 
he was certified that she had beguiled him with her wiles until she 
had wrung from him the reply to his question. So as soon as it 
was morning-tide he arose and went, as was his wont, to the 
Princess's palace where he was met by the Tarjumanah who said 
to him, " O Youth, is it thy pleasure that my lady expound to 
thee her explanation of the enigma yesterday proposed by thee ? '* 
" I will tell the very truth," answered he ; " and relate to thee what 
befel me since I saw you last, and 'twas this. When I left you 
there came to me a lovely bird, delightsome and perfect of charms, 
and I indeed entertained her with uttermost honour and worship ; 

1 Arab. " Bi Asri-hi," lit. "rope and all ;" metaphorically used = altogether, entirely: 
the idea is borrowed from the giving or selling of a beast with its thong, baiter, 
chain, etc. 

Tlie Linguist-Dcme> the Duenna and the King's Son. 109 

we ate and we drank together, but at night she shook her feathers 
and flew away from me. And if she deny this I will produce 
her plumage before her father -and all present." Now when the 
Sovran, the sire of the Princess, heard these words concerning his 
daughter, to wit, that the youth had conquered her in her conten- 
tion and that she had fared to his quarters to the end that she 
might wring from him an explanation of the riddle which she was 
unable to ree or reply thereto, he would do naught else save to 
summon the Cohen 1 and the Lords of his land and the Grandees 
of his realm and the Notables of his kith and kin. And when the 
Priest and all made act of presence, he told them the whole tale 
first and last ; namely, the conditions to the Youth conditioned, 
that if overcome by his daughter and unable to answer her 
questions he should be let drain the cup of destruction like his 
fellows, and if he overcame her he should claim her to wife. 
Furthermore he declared that the Youth had answered, with full 
and sufficient answer, all he had been asked without doubt or 
hesitation ; while at last he had proposed to her an enigma which 
she had been powerless to solve; and in this matter he had 
vanquished her twice (he having answered her and she having 
failed to answer him) " For which reason," concluded the King, 
" 'tis only right that he marry her ; even as was the condition 
between them twain ; and it becometh our first duty to adjudge 
their contention and decide their case according to covenant and 
he being doubtless the conqueror to bid write his writ of marriage 
with her. But what say ye?" They replied, "This is the 
Tightest of redes ; moreover the Youth, a fair and a pleasant, 
becometh her well and she likewise besitteth him ; and their lot 
is a wondrous." So they bade write the marriage writ and the 

1 In the text "Kahin," a Cohen, a Jewish Priest, a soothsayer: see Al-Kahanah, 
vol. r. 28. In Heb. Kahana=he ministered (priests' offices or other business) and Cohen 
-=a priest either of the true God or of false gods. 

HO Supplemental Nights. 

Cohen, arising forthright, pronounced the union auspicious and 
began blessing and praying for the pair and all present. In 
due time the Prince went in to her and consummated the 
marriage according to the custom stablished by Allah and His 
Holy Law ; and thereafter he related to his bride all that had 
betided him, from beginning to end, especially how he had sold 
his parents to one of the Kings. Now when she heard these 
words, she had ruth upon his case and soothed his spirit saying 
to him, " Be of good cheer and keep thine eyes clear and cool 
of tear." Then, after a little while the Princess bestowed upon 
her bridegroom a mint of money that he might fare forth and 
free his father and his mother. Accordingly the Prince, accepting 
her largesse, sought the King to whom he had pledged his parents 
(and they were still with him in all weal and welfare) and going 
in to him made his salam and kissed ground and told him the 
whole tale of the past and the conditions of death or marriage 
he had made with the King's daughter and of his wedding her 
after overcoming her in contention. So the monarch honoured 
him with honour galore than which naught could be more ; and, 
when the Prince paid him over the moneys, he asked, u What be 
these dirhams ? " " The price of my parents thou paidest to me," 
answered the other. But the King exclaimed, " I gave thee not 
to the value of thy father and mother moneys of such amount as 
this sum. I only largessed thee with a mare and a suit of clothes 
which was not defraying a debt but presenting thee with a present 
and thereby honouring thee with due honour. Then Alhamdolillah 
laud be to the Lord, who preserved thee and enabled thee to 
win thy wish, and now arise and take thy parents and return 
in safety to thy bride." The Prince hereupon thanked him and 
praised Allah for the royal guerdon and favours and the fair treat- 
ment wherewith he had been entreated ; after which he craved 
leave to receive his parents in charge and wend his ways. And 
when permission was granted to him, he wished all good wishes 

The Linguist-Dame > the Duenna and the King's Son. 1 1 1 

to the King and taking his father and his mother in weal and 
welfare he went his ways with them, in joy and gladness and 
gratitude for all blessings and benefits by Allah upon him bestowed, 
till he had returned to his bride. Here he found that his father- 
in-law had deceased during his absence, so he took seat in lieu of 
him upon the throne of the kingdom ; and he and his consort, 
during all the days of their life in this world, ceased not eating and 
drinking in health and well-being and eating and drinking in joy 
and happiness and bidding and forbidding until they quitted this 
mundane scene to the safeguard of the Lord God. And here 
endeth and is perfected the history of the Youth, the King's son, 
and the sale of his parents and his falling into the springes of the 
Princess who insisted upon proposing problems to all her wooers 
with the condition that if they did not reply she would do them 
drain the cup of destruction and on this wise had slain a many 
of men ; and, in fine, how she was worsted by > and she fell to 
the lot of this youth whom Allah gifted with understanding to 
ree all her riddles and who had confounded her with 
his question whereto she availed not to reply; 
so she was contented to marry him and he, 
when his father-in-law died 
succeeded to the kingdom 
which he ruled 
so well. 


1 This ending with its resumt of contents is somewhat hars ligne, yet despite its" vaio 
repetition I think it advisable to translate it 

12 Supplemental Nights. 

NOTE TO P. 105. 

The M6$a (Moses) of the Moslems is borrowed from Jewish sources, the Pentateuch 
and especially the Talmud, with a trifle of Gnosticism which, hinted at in the Koran 
(chapt. xviii), is developed by later writers, making him the " external " man, while Khizr, 
the Green prophet, is the internal. But they utterly ignore Manetho whose account of the 
Jewish legislator (Josephus against Apion, i. cc. 26, 27) shows the other or Egyptian part. 
Moses, by name Osarsiph = Osiris-Sapi, Osiris of the underworld, which some translate 
rich (Osii) in food (Siph, Seph, or Zef ) was nicknamedMosheh from the Heb. Mashah = 
to draw out, because drawn from the water l (or rather from the Koptic Mo = water 
ushe = saved). He became a priest at An or On (Heliopolis), after studying the learning 
of the Egyptians. Presently he was chosen chief by the " lepers and other uncleau 
persons " who had been permitted by King Amenophis to occupy the city Avaris lately 
left desolate by the" Shepherd Kings.'-' Osarsiph ordained the polity and laws of his 
followers, forbidding them to worship the Egyptian gods and enjoining them to slay and 
sacrifice the sacred animals. They were joined by the "unclean of the Egyptians" and 
by their kinsmen of the Shepherds, and treated the inhabitants with a barbarity more 
execrable than that of the latter, setting fire to cities and villages, casting the Egyptian 
priests and prophets out of their country, and compelling Amenophis to fall back upon 
Ethiopia. After some years of disorder Sethos (also called Harnesses from his father 
Rampses) son of Amenophis came down with the King from Ethiopia leading great united 
forces, and, " encountering the Shepherds and the unclean people, they defeated them 
and slew multitudes of them, and pursued the remainder to the borders of Syria." Jose- 
phus relates this account of Manetho, which is apparently truthful, with great indignation. 
For the prevalence of leprosy we have the authority of the Hebrews themselves, and 
Pliny (xxvi. 2) speaking of Rubor ^Egyptus, evidently white leprosy ending in the black, 
assures us that it was " natural to the ./Egyptians, '* adding a very improbable detail, 
namely that the kings cured it by balnea; (baths) of human blood. 

Schiller (in " Die Sendung Moses") argues that the mission of the Jewish lawgiver, 
KS adopted son (the real son?) of Pharaoh's daughter, became "learned in all the 
wisdom of the Egyptians," by receiving the priestly education of the royal princes, and 
that he had advanced from grade to grade in the religious mysteries, even to the highest, 
in which the great truth of the One Supreme, the omniscient, omnipotent God was im- 
parted, as the sublime acme of all human knowledge, thus attributing to Moses before 
his flight into Midian, an almost modern conception of an essentially anthropomorphous 

1 " And 'she called his name Moses, and she said because from the water I drew him " 
(Exod. ii. 10). So in Copt. .UUUOYC6 = walcr son > JUieC- waters, X1OY6"! = 

taken from or JHOYAgl = delivered from. 

* The Pharaoh of the Exodus is popularly supposed by Moslems to have treated 
his leprosy with baths of babes' blood, the babes being of the Banu Israil. The 
word "Pharaoh" is not without its etymological difficulties. In Josephus i"Tjn9 
= III OVpO = the King. Others suggest Jll pA = the sun, which has little 
weight. Ra", the sun (without article) generally follows the name of the king who is also 
termed Cl DA. = son of Ra, ergo not Ra. Harding follows Brugsch Poslu\, who 
proposes " Per'ao "= great house, sublime Porte. 

The Linguist-Dame, the Duenna and the King's Son. \ 1 3 

Further, that his conscious mission when he returned to Egypt was not merely the 
deliverance of his people from the Egyptian yoke, but the revelation to them of this 
great conception, and so the elevation of that host of slaves to the position of a nation, to 
whose every member the highest mystery of religion should be known and whose insti- 
tutions should be based upon it. It is remarkable that Schiller should have accepted the 
fables of Manetho as history, that he should not have suspected the fact that the Egyptian 
priest wrote from motives of personal spite and jealousy, and with the object of poisoning 
the mind of Ptolemy against the learned Jews with whom he stood on terms of personal 
friendship. Thus he not only accepts the story that the Hebrews were expelled from 
Egypt because of the almost universal spread of leprosy among them, but explains at 
length why that loathsome and horrible disease should have so prevailed. Stfll Schiller** 
essay, written with his own charming eloquence, is n magnificent eulogy of the founder 
of the Hebrew nation 

Goethe (" Israel in der Wiiste ") on the other hand, with curious ingenuity, turns every 
thing to the prejudice of the " headstrong man " Moses, save that he does grant him a vivid 
sentiment of. justice. He makes him both by nature and education a grand, strong man, 
but brutal (roh} withal. His killing the Egyptian is a secret murder ; "his dauntless fist 
gains him the favour of a Midianitish priest -prince .... under the pretence of .\ 
general festival, gold and silver dishes are swindled (by the Jews under Moses's instiga- 
tion) from their neighbours, and at the moment when the Egyptians believe the Israelites 
tc be occupied in harmless feastings, a reversed Sicilian vesper is executed ; the stranger 

rders the native, the guest the host ; and, with a horrible cunning, only the first-born are 

destroyed to the end that, in a land where the first-born enjoyed such superior rights, 
the selfishness of the younger sons might come into play, and instant punishment be 
avoided by hasty flight. The artifice succeeds, the assassins are thrust out instead of 
being chastised." (Quoted from pp. 99-100 "The Hebrews and the Red Sea," by 
Alexander W. Thayer ; Andover, Warren F. Draper, 1883). With respect to the census 
of the Exodus, my friend Mr. Thayer, who has long and conscientiously studied the 
subject, kindly supplied me with the following notes and permitted their publication. 

TRIESTE, October u, 1887, 


The points in the views presented by me in our conversation upon the 
Hebrews and their Exodus, of which you requested a written exposition, are, condensed, 

Assuming that the Hebrew records, as we have them, are in the main true, i.e. 
historic, a careful search must reveal some one topic concerning which all the passages 
relating to it agree at least substantially. Such a topic is the genealogies, precisely that 
which Philippsohn the great Jewish Rabbi, Dr. Robinson, of the Palestine researches, 
and all the Jewish and Christian commentators I know no exception with one accord 
reject ! Look at these two columns, A. being the passages containing the genealogies, 
B. the passages on which the rejection of them is based : 


1. Genesis xxiv. 32, to xxv. 25 (Births of 

Jacob's sons). 

2. xxxv. 23-26 (Recapitulation of the 


3. xlvi. 8-27 (List of Jacob and his sons 

when they came into Egypt). 


1. Gen. xv. 13. 

2. Ex. xii. 40, 41. 

3. Acts vii. 6. 

These three give the 400 and the 430 ytttrs 
of the supposed bondage of tht Bene 
Jacob, but are offset by Gen. xv. 16 



Supplemental Nights. 

(four generations) and Gal. iii. if 
(Paul's understanding of the 430 

The story of Joseph, beginning Gen. 
xxxvii. 2, gives us the dates in his 
life; viz., 17 when sold, 30 when 
he becomes Prime Minister, 40 
when his father joins him. 

I Chron. vi. 1-15 (Lineage of Ezra's 
brother Jehozadak, abounding in 
repetitions and worthless). 

4. Ex. vi. 14-27 (Lineage of Aaron and 


5. Numb, xxxvi. 1-2 (Lineage of Zelo- 


6. Josh. vii. 17-18 (Lineage of Achan). 

7. Ruthiv. 18-22 (ditto of David). 

8. I Chron. ii. 9-15 (ditto). 

9. Mat. i. 2-6 (ditto). 

10. Luke iii. 32-37 (ditto). 

11. Ezra vii. 1-5 (ditto of Ezra). 
The lists of Princes, heads of tribes, the 

spies, the commission to divide 
conquered Palestine contain names 
that can be traced back, and all 
coincide with the above. 

1. As between the two, the column A. is in my opinion more trustworthy than B. 

2. By all the genealogies of the Davidian line we have Judah No. j, Solomon No. 12. 
By Ezra's genealogy of his own family we have Levi No. I, and Azariah (Solomon's 
High Priest) No. 12. They agree perfectly* 

3. If there were 400 years of Hebrew (Bene Jacob) slavery between the death of 
Joseph and the Exodus, there were 400 80 = 320, between Joseph's death and the 
birth of Moses. If this was so there is no truth in the accounts of Moses and Aaron 
being the great-grandchildren of Levi (Levi, Kohath, Amram, Aaron and Moses) . In 
fact, if Dr. Robinson be correct in saying that at least six generations are wanting in the 
genealogies of David (to fill the 400 years) the same must be lacking in all the early 
genealogies. Reductio ad absurdum ! 

4. Jacob, a young man, we will say of 40, is sent to Laban for a wife. He remains 
in Padan Aram twenty years (Gen. xxxi. 38), where all his sons except Benjamin were 
born, that is, before he was 60. At 30 he joined Joseph in Egypt (Gen. xlvii. 9). Joseph, 
therefore, born in Padan Aram was now, instead of 40, over 70 years old ! That this is so, 
is certain. In Judah's exquisite pleadings (Gen. xliv. 18-34) he speaks of Benjamin as 
" the child of Jacob's old age," "a little one," and seven times he calls him "the 
lad." Benjamin is some years younger than Joseph, but when the migration into Egypt 
takes place a few weeks after Judah's speech Benjamin comes as father of ten sons 
(Geh. xlvi. 21), but here Bene Benjamin is used in its broad sense of "descendants," 
for in I Chron. vii. 6-12 we find that the " Bene " were sons, grandsons and ^^/-grand- 
sons. To hold that Joseph at 40 had a younger brother who was a greatgrandfather, 
is, of course, utterly absurd. 

5. According to Gen. xv. 18, the Exodus was to take place in the fourth generation 
born in Egypt, as I understand it. 

Born in Egypt : 

Levi (father of) 

1. Amram 

2. Aaron 

3. Eleazar 

4. Phinee's 

Judah (father 



1. Ram 

2. Amminadab 

3. Nahshon 
4 Salma 

A conspicuous character in Numbers (xiii. 6, *; xiv. 24, etc.) is Caleb. In the first 
chapter of Judges Caleb still appears, and Othniel, the son of his younger brother Kenaz 

The Linguist-Dame, the Duenna and the Kings Son. 115 

is the first of the so-called Judges (Jud. iii. 9;. This also disposes of the 400 years and 
confirms the view that the Exodus took place in the fourth generation born in Egypt. 
Other similar proofs may be omitted these are amply sufficient. 

6. What, then, was the origin of the notion of the 400 yeare of Hebrew slavery P 

If the Egyptian inscriptions and papyri prove anything, it is this : that from the 
subjugation of Palestine by one of the Thotmes down to the great invasion of the hordes 
from Asia Minor in the reign of Rameses III., that country had never ceased to be a 
Pharaonic province ; that during these four or five centuries every attempt to throw off 
the yok had been crushed and its Semitic peoples deported to Egypt as slaves ; that 
multitudes of them joined in the Exodus under Moses, and became incorporated with the 
Hebrews under the constitution and code adopted at Horeb (= Sinai? or Jebel Ardif?) 
These people became " Seed of Abraham,*' " Children of Israel," by adoption, to which 
I have no doubt, Paul refers in the "adoption" of Romans viii. 15-23; ix. 4; Gal. 
iv. 5 ; Eph. i. 5. In the lapse of ages this distinction between Bene Israel and Bene 
Jacob was forgotten, and therefore the very uncritical Masorites in their edition of the 
Old Testament " confounded the confusion " in this matter. With the disappearance of 
the 400 years and of the supposed two or three centuries covered by the book of Judges, 
the genealogies stand as facts. The mistake in the case of the Judges is in supposing 
them to have been consecutive, when, in fact, as the subjugations by neighbouring 
peoples were local and extended only over one or two tribes, half a dozen of them 
may have been contemporaneous. 

7. Aaron and Moses were by their father Amram, greatgrandchildern of Levi by 
their mother's his grandchildren (Ex. vi. 20). Joseph lived to see his own greatgrand- 
children. Moses must have been born before Joseph's death. 

8. There is one point determined in which the Hebrew and the Egyptian chronologers 
coincide. It is the invasion of Judea by Shishak of Egypt in the fifth year of Rehoboam, 
son of Solomon (i Kings xiv. 25). Supposing the Egyptian chronology from the time of 
Minephtah II. to be in the main correct, as given by Brugsch and others, the thirteen 
generations, Judah Rehoboam, allowing three to a century, take us back to just that 
Minephtah. In his reign, according to Brugsch, that Pharaoh sent breadstuffs to the 
Chittim in " the time of famine." The Hebrew records and traditions connect Joseph's 
prime ministry with a famine. By the genealogies it could have been only this in the 
time of Minephtah. 

9. The Bene Jacob were but temporary sojourners in Goshen and always intended to 
return to Canaan. They were independent and had the right to do so. See what 
Joseph says in Gen. i. 24-25. But before this design was executed came the great 
irruption of the Northern hordes, which broke .the power of the Chittim and Philistia 
and devastated or depopulated all Palestine, in the time of Ramses III. Here was an 
opportunity for the Bene Jacob to enlarge their plans and to devise the conquest and: 
possession of Palestine. According to Josephus, supported by Stephen (Acts vii. 22),, 
Moses was a man " mighty in works " a man of military fame. The only reasonable 
way of understanding the beginning of the Exodus story, is to suppose, that, in the 
weakened condition of Ramses III., the Hebrew princes began to intrigue with the 
enslaved Semites the Ruthenu of the Egyptian inscriptions and this being discovered 
by the Pharaoh, Moses was compelled to fly. Meantime the intrigues were continued and 
when the time for action came, under one of Ramses' weak successors, Moses was recalled 
and took command. 

10. This prepares us for the second query, which you proposed, that is as to the 
numbers who joined in the Exodus. 

The Masoretic text, from which the English version of the Hebrew records is made, 
gives the result of the census at Sinai (= Horeb) as being 603,550 men, "twenty years 


Supplemental Nights. 

old and upwards, that were able to go forth to war in Israel "the tribe of Levi not 
included. On this basis it has been generally stated, that the number of the Bene Israel 
at the Exodus was three millions. Of late I find that two millions is the accepted 
number. The absurdity of even this aggregate is manifest. How could such a vast 
multitude be subsisted? How kept in order? How compelled to observe sanitary 
regulations ? Moreover, in the then enfeebled state of Egypt, why should 603,550 armed 
men not have marched out without ceremony ? Why ask permission to go to celebrate a 
sacrifice to their God ? 

But there is another series of objections to these two millions, which I have never 
seen stated or even hinted, to which I pray your attention. 

The area of Palestine differs little from that of the three American States, 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut, the most densely peopled of the Union, 
containing -by the last census a population of somewhat less than two and a half 

By the second Hebrew census (Numb, xxvi.) taken just before the death of Moses, 
the army was 601,730; from which the inference has always been drawn, that at least 
2,000,000, in the aggregate, Levites 23,000 males still excepted, entered and possessed 
the conquered territories. 

Take now one of the late maps of Palestine and mark upon it the boundaries of the 
tribes as given in the book of Joshua. This second census gives the number of each 
tribal army to be inserted in each tribal territory Reuben, 43,750; Judah, 76,500; 
Benjamin, 45,600, etc., etc. By Josh. xii. the land was then divided between some 
40 petty kings and peoples, 31 of whom are named as having been subjected. If, now, 
Joshua's army numbered over 600,000, why was not the conquest made complete? 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island -and Connecticut are divided into 27 counties. Suppose, 
now, that these counties were each a separate and independent little kingdom dependent 
upon itself, for defence, what resistance could be made to an army of 600,000 men, all ot 
them grown up during forty years of life in a camp, and in the full vigour of manhood ? 
And yet Joshua was unable to complete his conquest ! Again, the first subjugation of a 
part of the newly-conquered territory as noted in the book of Judges, was Judah and 
Simeon by a king of Edom. 1 If Judah could put an army into the field of 76,500, and 
Simeon 22,500, their subjugation by a king of Edom is incredible, and the story absurd. 
Next comes King Eglon of Moab and subjugates the tribes of Reuben and Gad, east of 
the Dead Sea and the Jordan. And yet Reuben has an army of over 43,000, and Gad 
45,000. And so on. 

Accepting the statement that Moses led over 600,000 men *' able to go to war " out 
of Egypt, and Joshua an equal number to the conquest of Canaan, the story of the 
Exodus, of that conquest and of the subsequent subjugations of various tribes by the 
neighbouring kings are all nonsense; the books of Joshua and Judges are incredible. 
The difficulty is fully met and overcome, if we suppose the number to have been 
exaggerated, as it would be by adding a cypher to the right of a line of Arabic numerals, 
by which 60,000 is made 600,000 ; the 76,500 warriors of Judah are reduced to 7,650, 
and so on. 

With an army of 60,000 only, and an aggregate of half a million of people led out of 
Egypt, all the history becomes instantly rational and trustworthy. 

There remains one more bubble to be exploded. 

Look at these figures, in which a quadruple increase at least 25 per centum too 
great is granted. 1 

1 Graetz (Geschichte i. note 7) proves that " Aram," in the Hebrew text (Judges iii. 8) 
should be " Edom." 

2 I give a quadruple increase, at least 25 per centum more than the genealogies 

The Linguist-Dame, the Duenna and the King's Son. 117 

1st Generation, the Patriarchs, in number 
2nd do. Kohath, Pharez, etc. . 
3rd do. Amram, Hezron, etc. . 
4th do. Aaron and Moses 

Minus 25 per cent, for deaths, children, etc. 

Actual number of Bene Jacob 





But Jacob and his sons brought with them herdsmen, shepherds, servants, etc. 
Bunsen puts the number of all, masters and men, at less than 2,000. 

Let the proportion in this case be one able-bodied man in four persons, and 
the increase triple. 

1st Generation 500 

2nd do. 1,500 

3rd do 4,500 

4th do. 13,500 

Minus 25 per centum as above 

Add the real Bene Jacob 




Were these people, while Joseph is still alive, the subjects of slavery as described in 
Ex. i. ? Did they build Pithom and Ramses, store-cities? 

The number is sufficient to lead in the great enterprise and to control the mixed 
multitude which was at Sinai, adopted as " Bene Israel" " Seed of Abraham," and 
divided among and incorporated with the tribes ; but not sufficient to warrant the 
supposition that with so small a force the Hebrew leaders could for a moment have 
entertained the project of conquering Palestine. 

A word more on the statement in Ex. i. n : "And they-built for Pharaoh store- 
cities, Pithom and Ramses." All Egyptologists agree that these cities were built by 
Ramses II., or certainly not later than his reign. If the Hebrew genealogies are 
authentic) this was long before the coming of Jacob and his sons into Egypt. 





foe begin foit& tfje afoance of glllal) ^Imtgfjtr?, tjje 2Fale of 
tfje ffitarlod nnfc t&e IJoung <oofc of 

IT is related (and Allah is All-knowing !) of a certain man which 
was a Warlock, that Destiny drave him from town to town until 
at last he entered Baghdad-city and dismounted at a Khin of the 
Khans where he spent the night of arrival. Then, rising betimes 

1 MS. pp. 505-537. This story is found in the "Turkish Tales" by Petis de la 
Croix who translated one fourth of the "Forty Wazirs" by an author self-termed 
" Shaykh Zadeh." It is called the " History of Chec Chahabeddin " (Shaykh Shihab 

It is called the " History of Chec Chahabeddin" 
al-Din), and it has a religious significance proving that the Apostle did really and 
personally make the "Mi'raj" (ascent to Heaven) and returned whilst his couch was 
still warm and his upset gugglet had not run dry. The tale is probably borrowed 
from Saint Paul who (2 Cor. xii. 4), was " caught up into Paradise," which in those 
days was a kind of region that roofed the earth. The Shaykh in question began by 
showing the Voltairean Sultan of Egypt certain specious miracles, such as a phantom 
army (in our tale two lions), Cairo reduced to ashes, the Nile in flood and a Garden of 
Irem, where before lay a desert. He then called for a tub, stripped the King to a zone 
girding his loins and made him dip his head into the water. Then came the adven- 
tures as in the following tale. When after a moment's space these ended, the infuriated 
Sultan gave orders to behead the Shaykh, who also plunged his head into the tub ; but 
the Wizard divined the ill-intent by " Muk&hafah" (thought-reading) ; and by "Al- 
Ghayb 'an al-Absdr " (invisibility) levanted to Damascus. The reader will do well to 
compare the older account with the "First Vizir's Story" (p. 17) in Mr. Gibb's 
" History of the Forty Vizirs," etc. As this scholar remarks* the Mi'raj, with all its 
wealth of wild fable, is simply alluded to in a detached verset of the Koran (xvii, i) 
which runs : [I declare] " The glory of Him who transported His servant by night from the 
Sacred Temple (of Meccah) to the Remote Temple (of Jerusalem), whose precincts we 
have blessed, that we might show him of our signs." After this comes an allusion to 
Moses (v. 2); Mr.. Gibb observes (p. 22) that this lengthening out of the seconds was a 
favourite with "Dervishes, as he has shown in " The Story of Jewad ;'* and suggests 
that the effect might have been produced by some drug like Hashish. I object to Mr. 
Gibb's use of the word " Houri " (ibid. p. 24) without warning the reader that it is 
an irregular formation, masculine withal, for ' Hurfyah " and that the Pers. " Huri/* 
from which the Turks borrowed their blunder, properly means "One Hiir." 

122 Supplemental Nights. 

next morning, he walked about the highways and wandered around 
the lanes and he stinted not passing from market-street to market- 
street, solacing himself with a sight of many places, till he reached 
the Long Bazar, whence he could descry the whole site of the city. 
Now he narrowly considered the land, and, lo and behold ! it was 
a capital sans peer amongst the cities, wherethrough coursed the 
Dajlah River blended with the River Furat 1 and over the united 
stream were thrown seven bridges of boats ; all these were bound 
one to other for the folk to pass over on their several pursuits, 
especially for the pleasure-seekers who fared forth to the palm- 
orchards and the vergiers abounding in fruits while the birds were 
hymning Allah, the Sole, the All-conquering. Now one day as this 
Warlock was amusing himself amongst the markets he passed 
by the shop of a Cook before whom were set for sale dressed 
meats of all kinds and colours ; 2 and, looking at the youth, he saw 
that he was rising fourteen and beautiful as the moon on the 
fourteenth night ; and he was elegant and habited in a habit as it 
had just come from the tailor's hand for its purity and excellent fit, 
and one had said that he (the artisan) had laboured hard thereat, for 
the sheen of it shimmered like unto silver. 3 Then the Warlock 
considering the face of this Cook saw his colour wan as the hue of 
metal leaves 4 and he was lean of limb ; 5 so he took station facing 
him and said to him, " The Peace be upon thee, O my brother," 
and said the other in reply, " And upon thee be The Peace and 
the ruth of Allah and His blessings : so well come to thee and 

1 For the Dajlah (Tigris) and Furdt (Euphrates) see vols. viii. 150 ; ix. 17. The 
topothesia is worse than Shakspearean. In Weber's Edit, of the " New Arabian 
Nights" (Adventures of Simoustapha, etc.), the rivers are called "Ilfara" and 

8 In text " Alwan," for which see .vol. vii. 135.- 

3 [The word which is here translated with : " and one had said that he had laboured 
hard thereat" (walawi'yh ?) seems scarcely to bear out this meaning. I would read it 
" wa'1-Aw'iyah" plur. of wi'a"), rendering accordingly : ' and the vessels (in which the 
aforesaid meats were set out) shimmered like unto silver for their cleanliness. ST.] 

4 In text ' Al-Wahwah." 

In text, " Mutasa'lik" for " Mutasa'lik" = like a "sa'luk. 

The Tale of the Warlock and the Young Cook of Baghdad. 123 

welcome and fair welcome. Honour me, O my lord, by suffering me 
to serve thee with the noonday meal." Hereat the Wizard entered 
the shop and the Kitchener took up two or three platters white 
as the whitest silver ; and, turning over into each one a different 
kind of meat set them between the hands of the stranger who said 
to him, " Seat thee, O my son." And when his bidding was 
obeyed he added, " I see thee ailing and thy complexion is yellow 
exceedingly : what be this hath affected thee and what is thy dis- 
order and what limb of thy limbs paineth thee and is it long since 
thou art in such case ? " Now when the Cook heard this say he 
drew a sigh of regret from the depths of his heart and the soles of 
his feet and quoth he weeping, " Allah upon thee, O my lord, 
remind me not of that hath bedded me !" But quoth the other 
" Tell me what may be thy disease and whereof dost thou com- 
plain ; nor conceal from me thy pain ; for that I am a physician 
and by aidance of Allah an experienced ; and I have a medicine 
for thy malady." Hereat the youth fell to moaning and groaning 
and presently replied, " In very sooth, O my lord, I have nor pain 
nor complaint, save that I am a lover." The Warlock asked, " Art 
thou indeed a lover ? " whereto the Cook make answer, " And not 
only a lover but a lover parted from his beloved." " On whom 
hangeth thy heart, say me ? " continued the Mediciner and the 
youth replied, " Leave me for the nonce till such time as I am quit 
of my business, and return to me about mid-afternoon, that I may 
inform thee of mine affair and acquaint thee with the case I am 
in." The Warlock rejoined, " Arise now to thy work lest it be 
miswrought by loitering ;" and so saying he ate whatso of meats 
had been served up to him and fared forth to thread the Bazars of 
Baghdad and solace himself by seeing the city. But when it was 
the hour of Al-'Asr the mid-afternoon prayer he went back to 
the Cook and found that by this time he had wrought all his work, 
and as soon as the youth sighted him he rejoiced in him and his 
spirits were cheered and he said in his mind, " Haply joy shall 

124 Supplemental Nights. 

come to me from the healing hand of this Mediciner ;" so he shut 
his shop and taking with him his customer hied him to his own 
home. Now this young Kitchener was of amplest means which he 
had inherited from either parent ; so as soon as they entered his 
quarters he served up food and the two ate and drank and were 
gladdened and comforted. After this quoth the guest to his host ; 
" Now relate to me the manner of thy story and what is the cause 
of thy disorder ? " " O my lord," quoth the youth, " I must inform 
thee that the Caliph Al-Mu'tazid bi'llah, 1 the Commander of the 
Faithful, hath a daughter fair of favour, and gracious of gesture ; 
beautiful, delightsome and dainty of waist and flank, a maiden in 
whom all the signs and signals of loveliness are present, and the 
tout ensemble is independent of description : seer never saw her 
like and relator never related of aught that eveneth her in stature 
and seemlihead and graceful bearing of head. Now albeit a store 
of suitors galore, the grandees and the Kings, asked her from the 
Caliph, her sire refused to part with her, nor gave her neither 
would he give her to any one thereof. And every Friday when 
fare the folk to the Mosques that they pray the prayers of 
meeting-day, all the merchants and men who buy and sell and the 
very artisans and what not, leave their shops and warehouses 2 and 
taverns 3 unbolted and wide open and flock to congregational devo- 
tions. And at such time this rare maiden cometh down from her 
palace and solaceth herself with beholding the Bazars and anon 
she entereth the Hammam and batheth therein and straightway 
goeth forth and fareth homewards. But one Friday said I to 

* For this "high-spirited Prince and noble-minded lord " see vol. be. 229. 
8 In text " Bisata-hum " = their carpets. 

* In text "Hawanft," plur. of "Hanut" = the shop or vault of a vintner, pop. 
derived from the Persian Khaneh ; but it appears to be another form of oyU Heb. 
JTO! Syr., J^QJL^ In Jer. xxvii, 16, where the A. V. has "When Jeremiah was 

entered into the dungeon and into the cabins" read "underground vaults," cells or 
cellars where wine was sold. " Hanut " also means either the vintner or the vintner's 
shop. The derivation from ^ because it ruins man's property and wounds his honour 
is they? d'tsprit of a moralising grammarian. Chenery's Al-Hariri, p. 377. 

The Tale of the Warlock and the Young Cook of Baghdad. 125 

myself, " I will not go to the Mosque, for I would fain look upon 
her with a single look ;" and when prayer-time came and the folk 
flocked to the fane for divine service, I hid myself within my shop. 
Presently that august damsel appeared with a comitive of forty 
handmaidens all as full moons newly risen and each fairer than 
her fellows, while she amiddlemost rained light upon them as she 
were the irradiating sun ; and the bondswomen would have kept 
her from sight by thronging around her and they carried her 
skirts by means of bent rods 1 golden and silvern. I looked at 
her but one look when straightway my heart fell in love to her 
burning as a live coal and from mine eyes tears railed and until 
now I am still in that same yearning, and what yearning!" And 
so saying the youth cried out with an outcry whereby his soul was 
like to leave his body. " Is this case still thy case ? " asked the 
Warlock, and the youth answered, " Yes, O my lord ;" when the 
other enquired, "An I bring thee and her together what wilt 
thou give me ? " and the young Cook replied, " My money and my 
life which shall be between thy hands ! " Hereupon quoth the 
Mediciner, " Up with thee and bring me a phial of metal and 
seven needles and a piece of fresh Lign-aloes ; 2 also a bit of 
cooked meat, 3 and somewhat of sealing-clay and the shoulder- 
blade of a sheep together with felt and sendal of seven kinds." 
The youth fared forth and did his bidding, when the Sage took 

1 In the Arab. " Jawdkin," plur. of Arab. Jaukan for Pers. Chaugan, a crooked stick, 
a club, a bat used for the Persian form of golf played on horseback Polo. 

2 The text reads "Liyah," and lower down twice with the article "Al-Liyah" 
(double La"m). I therefore suspect that " Liyyah," equivalent with "Luwwah," is 
intended, which both mean Aloes- wood as used for fumigation (yutabakhkharu bi-hi). 
For the next ingredient I would read "Kit'ah humrab," a small quantity of red 
brickdust, a commodity, to which, I do not know with what foundation, wonderful 
medicinal powers are or were ascribed. This interpretation seems to me the more 
preferable, as it presently appears that the last-named articles had to go into the phial, 
the mentiyn of which would otherwise be to no purpose and which I take to have 
been finally sealed up with the sealing clay. The whole description is exceedingly 
loose, and evidently sorely corrupted, so I think every attempt at elucidation may be 
acceptable. ST.] 

3 " Wa Kfta'h hamrah," which M. Houdas renders un mortem d* viand* c*&. 

126 Supplemental Nights. 

the shoulder-blades and wrote upon them Koranic versets and 
adjurations which would please the Lord of the Heavens and, 
wrapping them in felt, swathed them with silken stuff of sevenfold 
sorts. Then, taking the phial he thrust the seven needles into the 
green Lign-aloes and set it in the cooked meat which he made fast 
with the sealing-clay. Lastly he conjured over these objects with a 
Conjuration 1 which was, " I have knocked, I have knocked at the 
hall doors of Earth to summon the Jann, and the Jann have 
knocked for the Jdnn against the Shaytan." Hereat appeared to 
me the son of Al bin Imrdn 2 with a snake and baldrick'd with a 
basilisk and cried : Who be this trader and son of a slave-girl 
who hath knocked at the ground for us this evening ? Then do 
thou, O youth, reply : I am a lover and of age youthful and my 
love is to a young lady ; and unto your gramarye I have had 
recourse, O folk of manliness and generosity and masterful deeds : 
so work ye with me and confirm mine affair and aid me in this 
matter. See ye not how Such-an-one, daughter of Such-an-one, 
oppression and wrong to me hath done, nor is she with me in 
affection 33 she was anon ? They shall answer thee : Let it be, 
as is said, in the tail ; 3 then do thou set the objects upon a fire 

1 This is a specimen of the Islamised Mantra called in Sanskrit Stambhana and intended 
to procure illicit intercourse. Herklots has printed a variety of formulae which are 
popular throughout southern India : even in theMaldive Islands we find such "Fandita" 
(z.e. Panditya, the learned Science) and Mr. Bell (Journ., Ceylon Br. R. A. S. vii. 109) 
gives the following specimen, " Write the name of the beloved ; pluck a bud of the screw- 
pine (here a palette de moutori); sharpen a new knife ; on one side of the bud write the Surat 
al-Badr (chapter of Power, No. xxi., thus using the word of Allah for Satan's purpose) j 
on the other side write Vajahata ; make an image out of the bud ; indite particulars of the 
horoscope ; copy from beginning to end the Surat" al-Rahmdn (the Compassionating, 
No. xlviii.) ; tie the image in five places with coir left-hand-twisted (*,*. widdershins or 
4 against the sun ') ; cut the throat of a blood-sucker (lizard) ; smear its blood on the 
image ; place it in a loft : dry it for three days ; then take it and enter the sea. If you 
go in knee-deep the woman will send you a message ; if you go in to the waist she will 
visit you. (The Voyage of Francois Pyrard, etc., p. 179.) I hold all these charms to 
be mere instruments for concentrating and intensifying the brain action called Will, 
whic. is and which presently will be recognised as the chief motor-power. See Suppl. 
vol. iii. 

2 Probably the name of some Prince of the Jinns. 

3 In text " Kama zukira fl Dayli-h" = arrangt-toi defafon & fattiindre (Houdas). 

The Tale of the Warlock and the Young Cook of Baghdad. 127 

exceeding fierce and recite then over them : This be the business ; 
and were Such-an-one, daughter of Such-an-one, within the well of 
Kdshdn 1 or in the city Ispahan or in the towns of men who with 
cloaks buttoned tight and ever ready good-fame to blight, 2 let her 
come forth and seek union with the beloved. Whereto she will reply : 
Thou art the lord and I am the bondswoman." Now the youth 
abode marvelling at such marvel-forms and the Warlock having 
repeated to him these words three times, turned to him and said, 
" Arise to thy feet and perfume and fumigate thy person and don 
thy choicest dress and dispread thy bed, for at this very hour thou 
shalt see thy mistress by thy side." And so saying the Sage cast 
out of hand the shoulder-blades and set the phial upon the fire. 
Thereupon the youth arose without stay or delay and bringing a 
bundle of raiment the rarest, he spread it and habited himself, doing 
whatso the Wizard had bidden him ; withal could he not believe 
that his mistress would appear. However ere a scanty space of 
time had elapsed, lo and behold ! the young lady bearing her bed- 
ding 3 and still sleeping passed through the house-door and she was 
bright and beautiful as the easting sun. But when the youth the 
Cook sighted her, he was perplext and his wits took flight with his 
sense and he cried aloud saying, " This be naught save a wondrous 
matter ! " " And the same," cjuoth the Sage, " is that requiredst 
thou." Quoth the Cook, " And thou, O my lord, art of the 
Hallows of Allah," and kissed his hand and thanked him for his 
kindly deed. " Up with thee and take thy pleasure," cried the 
Warlock ; so the lover crept under the coverlet into the bed and 
he threw his arms round the fair one and kissed her between the 
eyes ; after which he bussed her on the mouth. She sensed a 
sensation in herself and straightway awaking opened her eyes and 

1 Proverbial for its depth : Kdshln is the name of sundry cities ; here one in the Jiba"! 
Or Irdk 'Ajami Persian Mesopotamia. 

8 Doubtless meaning Christians. 

* The Sage had summoned her by the preceding spell which the Princess obeyed 

128 Supplemental Nights. 

beheld a youth embracing her, so she asked him, " Ho thou, who 
art thou ? " Answered he, " One by thine eyes a captive ta'en and 
of thy love the slain and of none save thyself the fain." Hereat 
she looked at him with a look which her heart for love- longing 
struck and again asked him, " O my beloved ; say me then, who 
art thou, a being of man-kind or of Jann-kind ?" whereto he 
answered, "I am human and of the most honourable." She 
resumed, " Then who was it brought me hither to thee ? " and he 
responded, " The Angels and the Spirits, the Jinns and the Jann." 
" Then I swear thee, O my dearling," quoth she, " that thou bid 
them bear me hither to thine arms every night," and quoth he, 
" Hearkening and obeying, O my lady, and for me also this be the 
bourne of all wishes." Then, each having kissed other, they slept 
in mutual embrace until dawn. But when the morning morrowed 
and showed its sheen and shone, behold, the Warlock appeared 
and, calling the youth who came to him with a smiling face, said 
to him, " How was it with thy soul this night ? " * and both lovers 
cried, " We were in the Garden of Paradise together with the Hur 
and Ghilman : 2 Allah requite thee for us with all weal." Then 
they passed into the Hammam and when they had bathed, the 
youth said, " O my lord, what shall we do with the young lady 
and how shall she hie to her household and what shall be the case 
of me without her ? " " Feel no grief," said the other, " and quit 
all care of anything : e'en as she came so shall she go ; nor shall 
any of Almighty Allah's creatures know aught of her." Hereat 
the Sage dismissed her by the means which conveyed her, nor did 
she cease to bear her bedding with her every night and to visit 
the youth .with all joyance and delight. Now after a few weeks had 
gone by, this young lady happening to be upon the terrace-roof of 
her palace in company with her mother, turned her back to the 

1 i.e. last night ; see vol. iii. 249. 

2 In text "Wuldn"= "Ghilmn"s the boys of Paradise; for whom and theii 
feminine counterparts the Hur (Al-Ayn) see rols. i. 90, 211 ; iii. 233. 

The Tale of the Warlock and the Young Cook of Baghdad. 129 

sun, and when the heat struck her between the shoulders her belly 
swelled ; so her parent asked her, " O ihy daughter, what hast thoti 
that thou juttest out after this wise ?" " I wot naught thereof," 
answered she; so the mother put forth her hand to the belly 
of her child and found her pregnant ; whereupon she screamed and 
buffeted her face and asked, " Whence did this befal thee ? " The 
women-attendants all heard her cries and running up to her 
enquired, " What hath caused thee, O our lady, such case as this ? " 
whereto she replied, " I would bespeak the Caliph." So the 
women sought him and said, " O our lord, thou art wanted by our 
lady ; " and he did their bidding and went to his wife, but at first 
sight he noted the condition of his daughter and asked her, " What 
is to do with thee and what hath brought on thee such calamity ? M 
Hereupon the Princess told him how it was with her and he 
exclaimed as he heard it, " O my daughter, I am the Caliph and 
Commander of the Faithful, and thou hast been sought to wife of 
me by the Kings of the earth one and all, but thou didst not accept 
them as connections and now thou doest such deed as this! I 
swear the most binding of oaths and I vow by the tombs of my 
sires and my grandsires, an thou say me sooth thou shalt be saved ; 
but unless thou tell me truth concerning whatso befel thee and 
from whom came this affair and the quality of the man's intention 
thee-wards, I will slaughter thee and under earth I will sepulchre 
thee." Now when the Princess heard from her father's mouth 
these words and had pondered this swear he had sworn she 
replied, rt O my sire, albeit lying may save yet is truth-telling the 
more saving side. Verily, O my father, 'tis some time before this 
day that my bed beareth me up every night and carrieth me to a 
house of the houses wherein dwelleth a youth, a model of beauty 
and loveliness, who causeth every seer to languish ; and he beddeth 
with me and sleepeth by my side until dawn, when my couch 
uplifteth me and returneth with me to the Palace : nor wot I the 
manner of my going and the mode of my coming is alike unknown 

1 30 Supplemental Nights. 

to me." The Caliph hearing these her words marvelled at this her 
tale with exceeding marvel and fell into the uttermost of wonder- 
ment, but bethinking him of his Wazir, a man of penetrative wit, 
sagacious, astute, argute exceedingly, he summoned him to the 
presence and acquainted him as soon as he came with this affair 
and what had befallen his daughter ; to wit, how she was borne 
away in her bed without knowing whither or aught else. Quoth 
the Minister after taking thought for a full-told hour, " O Caliph of 
the Time and the Age, I have a device by whose virtue I do opine 
we shall arrive at the stead whither wendeth the Princess ; " and 
quoth the Caliph, " What may be this device of thine ? " " Bid 
bring me a bag ; " rejoined the Wazir, " which I will let fill with 
millet ; " * so they brought him one and he after stuffing the same 
with grain set it upon the girl's bed and close to her where lay her 
head, leaving the mouth open to the intent that when during the 
coming night her couch might be carried away, the millet in going 
and returning might be shed upon the path. " Allah bless thee, 
Ho thou the Wazir ! " cried the Caliph : " this device of thine is 
passing good and fair fall it for a sleight than which naught can be 
slyer and good luck to it for a proof than which naught can be 
better proven." Now as soon as it was even-tide, the couch was 
carried off as had happened every night and the grain was strown 
broadcast upon the path, like a stream, from the gateway of the 
Palace to the door of the young Cook's lodging, wherein the 
Princess nighted as was her wont until dawn of day. And when 
morn appeared the Sage came and carried off with him the youth 
to the Hammam where he found privacy and said to him, " O my 
son, an thou ask me aught touching thy mistress's kith and kin, I 

1 Arab. " Dukhn " = Holcus dochna, a well-known grain, a congener of the Zurrah 
or Durrah = Holcus Sativus, Forsk. cxxiii. The incident is not new.. In " Das blaue 
Licht/ a Mecklenburg tale given by Grimm, the King's daughter who is borne through 
the air to the soldier's room is told by her father to fill her pocket with peas and make 
a hole therein ; but the sole result was that the pigeons had a rare feast. See SuppU 
vol. Ui. 570. 

The Tale of the Warlock and the Young Coek of Baghdad. 131 

bid thee know that they have indeed discovered her condition and 
against thee they have devised a device." Exclaimed the youth, 
" Verily we are Allah's and unto Him are we returning ! What 
may be thy rede in this affair ? An they slay me I shall be a 
martyr on Allah's path ; 1 but do thou wend thy ways and save 
thyself and may the Almighty requite thee with all of welfare ; 
thee, through whom mine every wish I have won, and the whole 
of my designs I have fulfilled ; after which let them do with me as 
they desire." The Warlock replied, " O my son, grieve not neither 
fear, for naught shall befal thee of harm, and I purpose to show 
thee marvels and miracles wroughten upon them." When the 
youth heard these words his spirits were cheered, and joying with 
joy exceeding he replied, " Almighty Allah reward thee for me 
with fullest welfare ! " Then the twain went forth the Hammam 
and hied them home. But as soon as morning morrowed, the 
Wazir repaired to the Caliph; and, both going to the Princess 
together, found her in her bower and the bag upon her bed clean 
empty of millet, at sight of which the Minister exclaimed, " Now 
indeed we have caught our debtor. Up with us and to horse, O 
Caliph of the Age, and sum and substance of the Time and the 
Tide, and follow we the millet and track its trail." The Com- 
mander of the Faithful forthright gave orders to mount, and the 
twain, escorted by their host, rode forth on the traces of the grain 
till they drew near the house, when the youth heard the jingle and 
jangle 2 of horses' tramp and the wrangle and cangle of men's out- 
cries. Upon this said the Cook to the Warlock, " Here they draw 
near to seize me, O my lord, what is there now for me to do ? " and 
said the other, " Rise and fill me an ewer with water ; then mount 
therewith to the terrace-roof and pour the contents round and 
about the house, after which come down to me.'" The youth did 

1 *.#. a martyr of love. See vols. iii. 21 1 ; iv. 205. 

2 In the text " Ka'ka' "; hence the higher parts of Meccah, inhabited by the Jurham 
tribe, was called " Jabal Ka'ka' an," from their clashing arms (Pilgrimage ui. 191). 


Supplemental Nights. 

his bidding, and meanwhile the Caliph and the Wazir and the 
soldiery had approached the house when, lo and behold ! the 
site had become an island amiddlemost a main dashing with 
clashing billows. 1 But when the Commander of the Faithful 
sighted this sea, he was perplexed with mighty great perplexity 
and enquired of the Wazir, " At what time did such great water 
appear in this place ? " The Minister replied, " I never knew that 
here was any stream, albe well I wot that the Tigris river floweth 
amiddlemost the capital ; but this is a magical current." So say- 
ing he bade the soldiery urge their horses into the water sans fear, 
and every one drave as he had directed until all who entered lost 
their lives and a many of men where drowned. Hereupon cried 
the Prince of True Believers, " O Wazir, we are about to destroy 
our host and to fare with them ! " and cried the other, " How shall 
we act, O Caliph of the Age ? Haply our first, nay our best way, 
is to ask help of those within the house and grant to them 
indemnity while they exchange words with us and we see anon 
what will come of their affair." " Do as beseemeth thee," answered 
the Prince of True Believers ; whereupon the Minister com- 
manded his men to cry aloud upon the household and they sued 
for help during a length of time. But the Sage, hearing their 
shouts, said to the youth, " Arise and go up to the terrace and say 
to the Caliph of the Age : Thou art in safety ; turn away thy 
steps hence and presently we will meet thy Highness in health and 
weal ; otherwise 2 thy daughter shall be lost and thine army shall 
be destroyed, and thou, O Commander of the Faithful, wilt depart 
and return as one outdriven. Do thou wend thy ways : this be 
not the mode of meeting us and in such manner there is no 

1 This was the work of the form of magic popularly known as Simiyd= fascination, for 
which see vol. i. 305, 332. It is supposed to pass away after a period of three days, and 
mesmerists will find no difficulty in recognising a common effect upon "Odylic sensi- 

8 Here supply the MS. with ' ilia." 

The Tale of the Warlock and the Young Cook of Baghdad. 133 

management." The Cook did as he was bidden, and when the 
twain heard his words, quoth the Wazir to the Caliph, " Verily 
these be naught save Magicians, otherwise they must be of the 
fulsomest of the Jann, for indeed never heard we nor saw we aught 
of this." Hereupon the Prince of True Believers turned his back 
upon the place and he sorrowful and strait of breast and dis- 
heartened of heart ; so he went down to his Palace and sat there 
for a full-told hour when behold, the Warlock and the Cook 
appeared before him. But as soon as they stood in the presence 
the Caliph cried out, " O Linkman, bring me the head of yonder 
youth from between his shoulders ! " Hereupon the Executioner 
came forward and tearing a strip off the youth's robe-skirt 
bandaged his eyes ; then he walked thrice round about him 
brandishing his blade over the victim's head and lastly cried, 
" O Caliph of the Age, shall I make away with this youth ? " 
Answered the Caliph, " Yes, after thou shalt have striken off his 
head." Hearing this the Sworder raised his hand and smote, 
when suddenly his grip was turned backwards upon a familiar 
of his who stood beside him, and it lighted upon his neck 
with such force that his head flew off and fell at the Caliph's 
feet. The King and the Wazir were perplexed at this affair, 
and the former cried out, " What be this ? Art gone blind, O 
Bhang-eater, that thy stroke hath missed the mark and thou 
hast not known thy familiar from this youth who kneeleth before 
thee ? Smite him without delay ! " Hereupon the Linkman again 
raised his hand to obey his lord, but the blow fell upon the neck 
of his varlet and the head flew off and rolled at the feet of the 
Caliph and his Chief Councillor. At this second mishap the wits of 
all present were bewildered and the King cried, " What business 
is this, O Wazir ? " whereto the other made answer, " O Caliph of 
the Time and rare gift of the Age and the Tide, what canst thou 
do, O my lord, with such as these ? And whoso availeth to take 
away o' nights thy daughter upon her bed and dispread a sea 


Supplemental. Nights. 

around his house, the same also hath power to tear thy kingdom 
from thy grasp ; nay more, to practise upon thy life. Now 'tis my 
rede that thou rise and kiss the hand of this Sage and sue his pro- 
tection, 1 lest he work upon us worse than this. Believe me, 'twere 
better for thee, O my lord, to do as I bid thee and thus 'twill be 
well for us rather than to rise up as adversaries of this man." 
Hearing such words from his Minister, the King bade them raise 
the youth from the strip of blood-rug and remove the bandage 
from before his eyes, after which he rose to his feet, and, kiss- 
ing the Warlock's hand, said to him, " In very sooth we knew 
thee not nor were we ware of the measure of thine excellence. 
But, O teacher of the Time and sum and substance of revolving 
Tide, why hast thou wrought to me on this wise in the matter 
of my daughter and destroyed my servants and soldiers ? " " O 
Viceregent of Allah upon His Earth," replied the Sage, " I am a 
stranger, and having eaten bread and salt with this youth, I formed 
friendship and familiarity with him : then, seeing his case which 
was sad and his state which was marvellous as it had afflicted him 
with sickness, I took compassion upon him ; moreover I designed 
to show you all what 1 am and what Almighty Allah hath taught 
me of occult knowledge. Hitherto there hath been naught save 
weal, and now I desire of thy favour that thou marry thy daughter 
to this youth, my familiar, for that she suiteth none other save 
himself." Quoth the Caliph, " This proceeding I look upon as the 
fittest and it besitteth us that we obey thy bidding." Presently 
he robed the youth with a sumptuous robe worth the kingdom of a 
King, and commanded him to sit beside the presence and seated 
the Sage upon a chair of ebony-wood. Now whilst they were in 
converse the Warlock turned round and beheld arear of the Caliph 
a hanging of sendal whereupon stood figured lions twain : so he 
signed with his hand to these forms which were mighty huge of 

1 In text " tatadakhkhal 'alay-h : " see " Dakhil-ak," vol. i. 61. 

The Tale of the Warlock and the Young Cook of Baghdad. 135 

limb and awesome to look upon, when each put forth his paw upon 
his fellow and both roared with roars like unto the bellow of ear- 
rending thunder. Hereat all present were perplext in the extreme 
and were in admiration at that matter, and especially the Prince 
of True Believers who cried, " O Wazir, what seest thou in this 
business ? " . The Wazir replied, " O Caliph of the Age, verily 
Allah Almighty to thee hath sent this Sage that He 1 might 
show thee such marvels as these." Then the Warlock signalled 
.with his hand to the lions which shrank till they became as 
cats which carried on the combat ; and both Caliph and Wazir 
wondered thereat with excessive wonderment. * Anon quoth the 
King to the Minister, " Bid the Sage display to us more of his 
marvels ; and accordingly the Wazir obeyed his lord's behest, and 
the Warlock replied, " To hear is to obey." He then said, " Bring 
hither to me a chauldron full of water ; " and when it was brought 
he asked the Courtiers, " Which of you would divert himself ?" 
"I," quoth the Wazir; when quoth the. Sage, "Do thou rise to. 
thy feet and doff thy robes and gird thee with a zone : " whereto 
said the other, " Bring me a waistcloth ; " and when it was brought 
he did therewith as he was bidden. _ Hereat said the Warlock, 
" Seat thee in the centre of the chauldron ; " so he plunged into 
the water, but when he would have seated him amiddlemost thereof 
as ordered he saw only that he had entered a sea dashing with 
surges clashing wherein whoso goeth is lost to view, and whence 
whoso cometh is born anew ; and he fell to swimming from side to 
side intending to issue forth, while the waves suffered him not to 
make the shore. And while he was in this case behold, a billow 
of the billows vomited 2 him up from the sea to the strand and he 
stood on dry land, when he surveyed his person and suddenly saw 
that he -had become a woman with the breasts of a woman and the 

1 Or " he " : the verb may also refer to the Sage. 
* Arab. " Kazafa"= threw up, etc. 

1 36 Supplemental Nights. 

solution of continuity like a woman, and long black hair flowing 
down to his heels even as a woman's. Then said he to himself, 
" O ill-omened diversion ! What have I done with such unlucky 
disport that I have looked upon this marvel and wonder of wonder- 
ments, only to become a woman. 1 Verily we are Allah's, and unto 
Him shall we return ; " adding as he took thought of the matter 
and of what Jiad befallen him, "There is no Majesty and there 
is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great." Presently a 
Fisherman approached him and sighting a fair girl said, " This 
be none other than a blessed day which Allah hath opened to us 
with a beautiful maiden for quarry ; and she is doubtless of the 
Daughters of the Deep, whom Allah Almighty hath sent to us 
that I may espouse her to my son." Hearing these words said 
the transformed to himself, "Now after being a Wazir I have 
become a woman and this be for that as tit for tat, 2 and the wight 
furthermore desireth to see me married, and as for the Caliph and 
the kingdom and the countries, who shall now be able to offer 
them counsel ? " But the Fisherman who for his joyance had no 
stomach to ply his pursuit, as was his custom, forthwith arose and 
taking with him the Daughter of the Deep led her to his house, 
and on entering the door cried aloud to his wife, " This day hath 
been a lucky for my fishing craft : during all these years it never 
befel me to happen upon a Mermaid save on this best-omened of 
all the days," adding, " Where is thy son, to whom Allah hath sent 
this Daughter of the Daughters of the Main ; and hath made her 
his portion and vouchsafed her to his service ? for 'tis my design 
to marry them." Replied the woman, " He hath taken the beast* 
and hath fared forth to pasture it and plough therewith ; but right 

1 This, in the case of the Wazir, was a transformation for the worse: see vol. vii. 294, 
for the different kinds of metamorphosis. 

3 i.e. my high fortune ending in the lowest. 

1 In text " Bakar "=black cattle, whether bull, ox or cow. For ploughing with buU 
sec vol. i. 16. 

The Tale of the Warlock and the Young Cook of Baghdad. 137 

soon will he return." And whilst they were thus conversing the 
youth came forward, and the Wazir on sighting him groaned and 
cried, " Well-away for me ! this very night I shall become a bride 
for this blamed lad J to sleep withal. And if I say to them : What 
intent have ye ? Ye are in meanness and misery 2 while I am 
Wazir to the Caliph ; they will never believe me for that I have 
become a woman, and all thereto appertaining now belongeth to 
me. Alack and alas for that I did with mine own self; indeed 
what business had I with such diversion ? " Hereupon the fisher- 
man called out, " O my son, up with thee and straightway take 
this Mermaid and marry her and abate her pucelage and be blessed 
with her and enjoy thy joy with her during all the days of thy life- 
tide : doubtless, O my child, thou art in all boon fortune, seeing 
that what good befel thee never betided any before thee nor will 
become the lot of one after thee." So the youth arose and for his 
delight hardly believing in his conquest, married her and lay with 
her and did away her maidenhead and on that very night she con- 
ceived by him. After nine months she bare him issue and the 
couple ceased not to be after this fashion till she had become a 
mother of seven. But the Wazir, of his stress and excess of the 
trouble and the travail he endured, said to himself, " How long shall 
last this toil and torment wherewith I am liver-smitten and that 
too by mine own consent ? So e'eri will I arise and hie me to this 
sea and hurl me thereinto and whatso shall become of me let it 
be : haply I may find rest from these torments into which I have 
fallen/' And forthright he arose and sought the shore and did as 
he had devised, when a wave enveloped him and cast him deep 
into the depths and he was like to choke, when suddenly his head 
protruded from the chauldron and he was seated as before he had 
ducked it. Hereupon he saw the Caliph sitting in state with the 

1 In text " Mukrif "=lit. born of a slave father and free mother. 
' In text "Antum fi khashin wa bdsh," an error for " khash-mash " = a miserable 

138 Supplemental Nights. 

Sage by his side and all the Lords of the land and the Notables of 
the commons awaiting the end of his adventure. So he gazed at 
them and showed a smiling face J and laughed aloud when the 
Prince of True Believers asked him saying, " What hast thou seen, 
O Wazir ? " So he repeated to the Sovran all he had sighted and 
everything that had come down upon his head, presently adding, 
" O Caliph of the Age and the sum and substance of the Time and 
the Tide, what be these marvels wrought by this Sage. ? Verily I 
have beheld the garths of Paradise 2 with maidens of the Hur and 
the youths of Heaven, and wonderments galore unlocked upon by 
mankind at all, at all. But, an thou be pleased, O Commander of 
the Faithful, to espy these rare spectacles and marvellous conditions 
with thine own eyes, deign go down into the water ; so shalt thou 
divert thyself with peregrine matters and adventures seld-seen." 
The Sultan, delighted at this rede, arose and doffed his dress ; 
then, girding his loins with a zone, he entered the chauldron 
whereat the Sage cried out to him, " O my lord, sit thee down and 
duck thy head." But when this was done the Caliph found him- 
self in a bottomless sea and wide-dispread and never at rest by any 
manner of means, so he fell to swimming therein, when a huge 
breaker threw him high ashore and he walked up the beach 
mother-naked save for his zone. So he said in his mind, " Let me 
see what hath been wrought with me by the Sage and the Wazir 
who have thus practised upon me and have cast me in this place ; 
and haply they have married my daughter to the youth, and they 
have stolen my kingdom, the Sage becoming Sultan in my stead. 
And now let me ask myself, What had I to do with such damned 

1 In text "yatbashsh " for "yanbashsha." [Or it may stand for yabtashsb, with 
transposition of the "t" of the eighth form, as usual in Egypt. See Spitta-Bey's 
Grammar, p. 198. ST.] 

"Jananan," which, says M. Houdas is the vulgar form of " Jannatan"= the garden 
(of Paradise). The Wazir thus played a trick upon his hearers. [The word in the text 
may read " Jinanan," accusative of "Jinan," which is the broken plural of " Jannab," 
along with the regular plural "Jannat," and, like the latter, used for the gardens of 
Paradise. ST.] 

The TaU of the Warlock and the Young Cook of Baghdad. 139 

diversion as this ? " But as he brooded over these thoughts and 
the like 01 them behold, a bevy of maidens came forwards to fill 
their pitchers from a fountain and a pool of sweet water lying 
beside the sea ; and sighting him they exclaimed, " Thou, who art 
thou ? say sooth be thou of man-kind or rather haply of Jinn- 
kind ? " He replied, I am a mortal and of the noblest-born ; 
withal I am a stranger in the land and I wot not whither I should 
wend." " Of what country art thou ? " asked they, and he 
answered, " I am from Baghdad." " Up with thee," quoth one of 
the damsels " to yonder knoll, then down to the flat on the further 
side, and thou shalt sight a city whose name is 'Oman, 1 where- 
into do thou enter." The Caliph did her bidding, and no sooner 
had the people seen him stripped than they said one to other, 
" This man is a merchant who hath been shipwrecked ; so they 
gave him by way of almsgift a Tobe 2 all tattered and torn where- 
with he veiled his shame. And after so doing he fell to wandering 
about the city for pastime, and while walking about he passed into 
a Bazar and there sighted a cook, before whom he stood open- 
mouthed (for indeed famine had thinned him), and he bethought 
him of what to do, and he knew not how to act. However the 
cook at first sight was certified of his being a foreigner, and haply 
a shipwrecked mariner so he asked him, " O my brother, why dost 
thou not come in and sit thee down, for thou art a stranger and 
without means ; so in the way of Allah I would engage thy services 
and will pay thee daily two dirhams to provide thee with meat 
and drink." Answered the Caliph, " Hearing and obeying," after 
which he abode with the cook and served him and stinted not 
to serve him for a long time, saying in himself the while, " This 
for that is tit for tat ! and after the Caliphate and commandment 
and happiness and honour, this day art thou left to lick the platters. 

1 For this name of the capital of Eastern Arabia see vols. i. 33 ; vii. 24. 

2 " Tobe " is the Anglo -Oriental form of Thaub"= in Arabia a loose robe like a 
night-gown. See ii. 206. 

I 4 o Supplemental Nights. 

What had I to do with such diversion as this ? Withal 'tis fairer 
than the spectacle that anyone even my Wazir ever saw and the 
more excellent, for that I after being the Caliph of the Age, and 
the choice gift of the Time and Tide have now become the hire- 
ling of a cook. Would to Heaven I wot the sin which brought 
me hereto ? " J Now as he abode with the cook it befel him that 
one day he threaded the Jewellers' Bazar; for about that city 
was a sea-site whereinto the duckers and divers went down and 
whence they brought up pearls and corals and precious stones ; 
and as he stood in the market-place, quoth he to himself, " Let me 
here become a broker in this market-street and find rest from 
my groaning in labour and my licking of platters." As soon as 
morning morrowed he did on such wise, when suddenly a merchant 
approached him, hending in hand a costly gem whose light 
burned like a lamp or rather like a ray of sunshine, and 'twas 
worth the tribute of Egypt and Syria. Hereat the Caliph mar- 
velled with exceeding marvel, and quoth he to the trader, " Say 
me, wilt thou sell this jewel ? " and quoth the other, " Yes." So 
the Sultan taking it from him went about with it amongst the 
merchants, who seeing and considering it, wondered greatly at its 
beauty. Accordingly they bid for it fifty thousand dinars, but 
the royal broker ceased not to bear it about and the buyers 
to increase their biddings till they offered an hundred thousand 
gold pieces. Thereupon the Caliph returned with it to the owner 
and accosted him saying, " Wilt thou sell it for the sum named ? " 
and when the merchant consented, he continued, " I now go to 
receive its price, wherewith I will come back to thee." Then the 
broker went up to the buyer and said, " Bring hither its value and 
set it in my hand ; but the man asked him, " Where be its 
owner ? " and the Caliph answered, " Its owner hath commissioned 

1 The good old Mosaic theory of retribution confined to this life, and the belief that 
Fate is the fruit of man's actions. 

The Tale of tJie Warlock and the Young Cook of Baghdad. 141 

me to receive its price, after which he will come and recover the 
same from me." However the bidder retorted, "This be not 
fitting nor is it according to Holy Law : do thou bring me its 
owner ; then come and let him pouch the price, for 'tis he hath 
sold it to me and thou art only our agent." Hereupon the Caliph 
went forth to seek the proprietor and wandered about a long 
while without finding him; after which he again accosted the 
purchaser, and said to him, " I am the rightful proprietor : place 
the price in my hand." The buyer arose to pay his debt, but 
before so doing he considered the jewel and saw that it was a bit 
of dark Sandarach j 1 whereat he was sore perplext and cried out 
to the Caliph, " O Satan, dost thou palm off false wares, the 
market-place of the merchants being under the orders of the 
Sultan ? " But when the traders heard these words, they flocked 
around the pretended broker and having seized him they pinioned 
his elbows and dragged him before the Sovran of that city who, 
when they set the prisoner before him, asked, " What be the 
offence of this man ? " " O our honoured lord," answered they, 
" this wight palmeth off false wares and swindleth the traders in 
the royal Bazar." So the King commanded them to hang him, 
whereat they charged his neck with chains and bared his head, 
and bade the cryer cry, " This be his award and the least of 
awards who forgeth counterfeits and who tricketh the merchant- 
folk in the market-place of the Sultan." Hereat quoth the Caliph 
to himself, " I was not content with platter-licking, which now 
appeareth to me a mighty pleasant calling but e'en I must become 
a broker and die sus. per coll. This be for that tit for tat ; how- 
ever, scant blame to the Time which hath charged me with this 
work." Now when they brought him to the hanging-place and 
threw the loop around his neck and fell to hoisting him up, as he 

1 Arab. " Sandarusah"=red juniper gum (Thuja articulata of Barbary), red arsenic, 
realgar, from thePers. Sandar= amber. 

142 Supplemental Nights. 

rose from the ground his eyes were opened and he found himself 
emerging from the chauldron, whilst the Wazir and the Sage and 
the youth were sitting and considering him. And the Minister 
catching sight of his lord sprang to his feet and kissed ground 
before him, and laughed aloud, and the Commander of the Faithful 
asked him, " Why this laughter ? " Answered he, " O thou, the 
Prince of True Believers and God-guarded Sovran, my laughter 
and my gladness are for myself, seeing that I have recovered my 
identity after becoming a woman and being wedded to a plough- 
man, who eared the ground, and after bearing to him seven babes." 
Cried the Caliph, " Woe to thee, O dog, O son of a dog, thou 
wast married and rejoicedst in children, whereas I this very 
moment from the hanging-place have come down." Then he 
informed the Wazir of all that had befallen him and the Minister 
did on like guise, whereat all those present laughed consumedly 
and marvelled at the words of the Warlock, and his proficiency 
in occult knowledge. Then the Kazi and witnesses were sum- 
moned with their writing-gear and were bidden draw up the' 
.marriage-contract of the young Cook and the Caliph's daughter. 
After this the Sage sojourned with the Commander of the 
Faithful in highmost degree and most honourable dignity, and 
they abode eating and drinking and living the most delectable of 
lives and the most enjoyable with all manner of joy and jollity, 
till came to them the Destroyer of delights 
and the Divider of man's days 
and they departed life 
one and all. 




f^ia foe begin to fnWte tje pleasant 3%'storg fofncj) tefel 
betfoeen t&e (Eocfc anfc tfje Jfox. 1 

IT is said that there abode in such a village a man which was a 
Shaykh of long standing, one gifted with fair rede and right 
understanding. Now he had on his farm a plenty of poultry, male 
and female, and these he was wont to breed and to eat of their 
eggs and their chickens. But amongst his cocks was a Chanti- 
cleer, well advanced of age and wily of wit, who had long fought 
with Fortune and who had become wise a'nd ware in worldly 
matters and in the turns and shifts of Time. It fortuned one day 
that this Cock went forth to wander about the farm-lands pecking 
and picking up as he went such grains of wheat and barley and 

1 MSS. pp. 718-724. This fable, whose moral is that the biter is often bit, seems 
unknown to ^Esop and the compilation which bore his name during the so-called Dark 
Ages. It first occurs in the old French metrical Roman de Renart entitled, Si comme 
Renart prist Chanticler le Coq (ed. Meon, torn. i. 49). It is then found in the collection 
of fables by Marie, a French poetess whose Lais are still extent ; and she declares to 
have rendered it de l*Anglois en Roman ; the original being an Anglo-Saxon version of 
^Esop by a King whose name is variously written Li rets Alured (Alfred?), or Aunert 
(Albert ?), or Henris> or Mires. Although Alfred left no version of ^Esop there is in 
MS. a Latin ^Esop containing the same story of an English version by Rex Anglitf 
Affrus. Marie's fable is printed in extenso in the Chaucer of Dr, Morris (i. 247} ; 
London, Bell and Sons, 1880 ; and sundry lines remind us of the Arabic, e.g. : 

Li gupil volt parler en haut, 
Et li cocs de sa buche saut, 
Sur un haut fust s'est muntea. 

And it ends with the excellent moral : 

Ceo funt li fol tut le plusur, 
Parolent quant deivent taiser, 
Teisent quant il deivent parler., 

Lastly the Gentil Cok hight Chanticlere and the Fox, Dan Russel, a more accidented 
tale, appear in " The Nonne Preestes Tale," by the Grand Trad"cteur. 


146 Supplemental Nights'. 

holcus l and sesame and millet as chanced fall in his way ; but, 
being careless of himself, he had left the village afar off without 
thinking of what he did, and ere he took counsel with himself he 
found him amiddlemost the wilderness. So he turned him right- 
wards and leftwards but espied nor friend nor familiar, whereat he 
stood perplext as to his affair and his breast was straitened and 
still he knew not what to do. Now while thus bewildered in his 
wits touching his next step, behold, his glance fell upon a Fox * 
who was approaching him from afar, whereat he feared and 
trembled and was agitated with mighty great agitation. At once 
he turned him about and presently espied a high wall arising from 
the waste, whereto was no place of ascending for his foe ; so he 
spread his wings and flew up and perched upon the coping where 
he took his station. Presently the Fox came forward to the foot 
of the wall, and, finding no means of climbing it and getting at 
the fowl, he raised his head and said, " The Peace be upon thee, 
ho thou the soothfast brother and suitable friend ! " But as the 
Cock would not turn towards him nor return aught of reply to his 
salutation, the Fox resumed, "What is to do with thee, O dear my 
brother, that my greeting thou acknowledgest not and to my 
words inclinest thee not?" Still the Cock requited not his 
courtesy and declined to reply, whereat the Fox resumed, 
" Wottest thou not, O my brother, the glad tidings wherewith 
I came theewards, with what suitable intelligence and counsel 
veridical and information at once sincere and self-evident ? and, 
didst know what it is hath come to mine ears, verily thou 
hadst embraced me and kissed me on the mouth." But the Cock 
feigned absence of mind and ignored him and answered him 
naught, but stood with rounded eyes and fixed upon the 
far when the Fox resumed, O my brother, the King of the 

1 "Dura" in MS. (p. 718) for Zura,"the classical term, or for "Zurrah," pop. 
pronounced " Durrah = the Holcus Sativus before noticed, an African as well as 
Asiatic growth, now being supplanted by maize and rice. 

3 "Sa'alab" or "Tha'lab"; vol. iii. 132. 

The Pleasant History of the Cock and the Fox. 147 

Beasts which be the Lion and the King of the Birds which be 
the Eagle have alighted from a journey upon the meads where 
grass is a-growing and by the marge where waters are a-flowing 
and blossoms are a-blowing and browsing gazelles are a-to-ing and 
a-fro-ing ; and the twain have gathered together all manner of 
ferals, lions and hyenas, leopards and lynxes, wild cattle and 
antelopes and jackals and even hares, brief, all the wild beasts of 
the world ; and they have also collected every kind of bird, eagle 
and vulture, crow and raven, 1 wild pigeon and turtle-dove, poultry 
and fowls and Katas and quails 2 and other small deer, and these 
two liege lords have bidden the herald proclaim, throughout the 
tracts of the upland wold and the wild lowland, safety and security 
and confraternity and peace with honour and sympathy and 
familiar friendship and affection and love amongst wild beasts 
and cattle and birds ; also that enmity be done away with and 
wrongs be forbidden nor might one trangress against other ; nay, 
if any chance to injure his fellow this offence might be for his 
scourging a reason, and for his death by tearing to pieces a justi- 
fication. The order hath also come forth that all do feed and 
browse in one place whichever they please, never venturing to 

break the peace but dwelling in all amity and affection and 


intimacy one with other. Moreover they have commissioned me> 
very me, to overroam the wastes and gladden with good tidings 
the peoples of the -wilds and proclaim that one and all without 
exception must assemble together, and also that whoso delayeth 
or refuseth obedience shall not escape punishment 3 nor let each 
and every fail to make act of presence and to kiss hands. And of 
thee, O my brother, I especially require that thou descend from 

1 In text " Kikan," plur. of " Kik "= des corneilles (Houdas). 

.* "Samman" or " Summan," classically ' Salwa." 

3 In text " Al-Kawani" = the spears, plur. of " KanaV' [' Al-Kawanl " as plural 
of a singular " Kanat " = spear would be, I think, without analogy amongst the plural 
formations, and its translation by " punishment " appears somewhat strained. I propose 
to read *' al-Ghawani " and to translate "and whoever lags behind of the singing birds 
will not be safe " (" la yaslimu," it will not go well with him). In the mouth of the fox 

I 4 g Supplemental Nights. 

thy high stead in safety and security and satisfaction, and that 
henceforward thy heart be not startled nor thy limbs shake for 
fear." All this description was described by the Fox to the Cock 
who paid no heed to him as though he had never heard the news ; 
and he remained silent without return of reply or without so much 
as turning to regard him ; nay, he only kept his head raised and 
gazed afar. Hereat quoth to him the Fox (for indeed his heart 
burned with desire to know how he could seize and devour him), 
" O brother mine, why and wherefore dost thou not acknowledge 
me by an answer or address to me a word or even turn thy face 
towards me who am a Commissioner sent by Leo, Sovran of the 
beasts, and Aquila, Sultan of the birds ? Sore I fear lest thou 
refuse to accompany me and thus come upon thee censure 
exceeding and odium excessive seeing that all are assembled in 
the presence and are browsing upon the verdant mead." Then 
he added (as Chanticleer regarded him not), "O my brother, I 
bespeak thee and thou unheedest me and my speech ; and, if thou 
refuse to fare with me, at least let me know what may be thy 
reply." Hereupon the Cock inclined towards him and said, 
" Sooth hast thou spoken, O^my brother, and well I wot thou be 
an Envoy and a Commissioner from our King, and the special 
Messenger of him : but my condition is changed by that which 
hath befallen me." _" And what calamity, O my brother, hath 
betided thee ? " " Dost thou espy what I am at present espying?" 
" And what is' it thou espiest ?." *J Verily, I see a dust-cloud 
lowering and the Saker-falcons in circles towering ; " and quoth 
the Fox (whose heart throbbed with fear), " Look straitly, O my 
brother, lest there happen to us a mishap." So Chanticleer gazed 
as one distraught for a full-told hour, after which he turned to the 
Fox and said, " O my brother, I behold and can distinguish a bird 
flying and a dust-trail hieing." " Consider them narrowly, O my 

this implies a delicate compliment for the cock, who might feel flattered to be numbered 
amongst the same tribe with the nightingale and the thrush. ST.] 

The Pleasant History of the Cock and the Fox. 149 

brother,'* cried the Fox (whose side-muscles quivered), "lest this 
be sign of greyhound ; " and the other replied, " The Truth is 
known to Allah alone, yet I seem now to see a something lengthy 
of leg, lean of flank, loose of ears, fine of forehand and full of 
quarter, and at this moment it draweth near and is well nigh upon 
us O fine I " l Now when the Fox heard these words he cried to 
the Cock, " O my brother, I must farewell thee ! " and so saying 
he arose and committed his legs to the wind and he -had recourse 
to the Father of Safety. 2 Seeing this, the Cock also cried, " Why 
thus take to flight when thou hast no spoiler thy heart to affright?" 
Replied the Fox, "1 have a fear of the Greyhound, O my brother, 
for that he is not of my friends or of my familiars ; " and the Cock 
rejoined, " Didst thou not tell me thou earnest as Commissioner of 
the Kings to these wastes proclaiming a peace and safety amongst 
all the beasts and the birds ? " O my brother Chanticleer/' 
retorted the other, " this feral, Greyhound hight, was not present 
at the time when pacification was proclaimed, nor was his name 
announced in the Congress of the beasts ; and I for my part have 
no love lost with him, nor between me and him is there aught of 
security." So saying the Fox turned forthright to fly, routed with 
the foulest of routing, and the Cock escaped the foe by his sleight 
and sagacity with perfect safety and security: Now after the Fox 
had turned tail and fled from him Chanticleer came down from the 
wall and regained his farm, lauding Allah Almighty who had con- 
veyed him unharmed to his own place. And here he related unto 
his fellows what had befallen him with the Fox 
and how he had devised that cunning device 
and thereby freed himself from a 
strait wherein, but for it, 
the foe had torn him 
limb by limb. 

:^ i t^^t^m 

1 In text "yzayn" = Oh, the beautiful beast ! 

2 In text "Abu Sahih " = (flight to) a sure and safe place. 



foe fcegfo to Cnto'te tje ?^istorB of fo&at befel tfce 
from t 

THEY relate (but Allah is All-knowing) that there abode in 
Baghdad-city a huntsman-wight in venerie trained aright. Now 
one day he went forth to the chase taking with him nets and 
springes and other gear he needed and fared to a garden-site with 
trees bedight and branches interlaced tight wherein all the fowls 
did unite ; and arriving at a tangled copse he planted his trap in 
the ground and he looked around for a hiding-place and took seat 
therein concealed. Suddenly a Birdie approaching the trap-side 
began scraping the earth and, wandering round about it, fell to 
saying in himself, " What may this be ? Would Heaven I wot, 
for it seemeth naught save a marvellous creation of Allah ! " 
Presently he considered the decoy which was half buried in the 
ground and salam'd to it from afar to the far and the Trap 
returned his salutation, adding thereto, " And the ruth of Allah 
and His blessings ; " and presently pursued, " Welcome and fair 
welcome to the brother dear and the friend sincere and the com- 
panionable fere and the kindly compeer, why stand from me so 
far when I desire thou become my neighbour near and I become 
of thine intimates the faithful and of thy comrades the truthful ? 
So draw thee nigh to me and be of thy safety trustful and prove 
thee not of me fearful." Quoth the Fowl-let, " I beseech thee by 

1 MS. pp. 725-739- 

Supplemental Nights. 

Allah, say me who art thou so I may not of thee feel affright and 
what be thy bye-name and thy name and to which of the tribes 
dost trace thy tree ? " And quoth the Trap, " My name is Hold- 
fast 1 and my patronymic is Bindfast and my tribe is hight 
the Sons of Fallfast." Replied the Birdie, " Sooth thou sayest ; 
for such name is truly thy name and such bye-name is without 
question thy bye-name nor is there any doubt of thy tribe being 
the noblest of the tribes." The Trap answered him saying, 
Alhamdolillah laud to the Lord that me thou hast recognised 
and that I be of thy truest friends thou hast acknowledged, for 
where shalt thou find a familiar like unto me, a lover soothful and 
truthful and my fellow in mind? And indeed I a devotee of 
religious bent and from vain gossip and acquaintances and even 
kith and kin abstinent ; nor have I any retreat save upon the 
heads of hills and in the bellies of dales which be long and deep ; 
and from mundane tidings I am the true Holdfast arid in worldly, 
joys the real Bindfast." The Fowl replied, " Sooth hast spoken, 
O my lord ; and all hail to thee ; how pious and religious and of 
morals and manners gracious art thou ? Would to Heaven I 
were a single hair upon thy body." Rejoined the Trap, " Thou 
in this world art my brother and in the next world my father ; 
and the other retorted, " O my brother, fain would I question thee 
concerning matters concealed within thy thoughts ;" whereto the 
Trap, " Enquire of whatso thou requirest, that I make manifest to 
thee what in heart thou desirest ; for I will truly declare to thee 
mine every aim and disclose to thee soothly all my case and my 
thoughts concealed, nor shall remain unrevealed of mine intent 
aught." So the Birdie began, " O my brother, why and wherefore 
see I thee on this wise abiding in the dust and dwelling afar from 
relations and companeers and thou hast parted from thy family 

1 Arab. "Zabit," from the / "Zabt" = keeping in subjection, holding tight, tying. 
Hence " Zabtiyah " = a constable and " Zabit " = a Prefect of Police. See vol. i. 259. 
The rhyming words are " Rabit " and ' Hdbit." 

History of what befel the Fowl-let with the Fowler. 155 

and peers and hast departed from the fondness of thy dears ? " 
" Hast thou not learned, O my brother," answered the Trap, " that 
retirement is permanent heal and farness from folk doth blessings 
deal and separation from the world is bodily weal ; and on this 
matter hath one of the poets said, and said right well : 

Fly folk, in public ne'er appearing, o And men shall name thee man God- 
fearing j 1 

Nor say I've brother, mate and friend : o Try men with mind still per- 
severing : 

Yea, few are they as thou couldst wish : o Scorpions they prove when most 
endearing. 3 

And one of the Sages hath said, " Solitude and not ill associate." 
Also quoth they to Al-Bahlul, 3 Why this tarrying of thine amid 
the homes of the dead and why this sojourning in a barren stead 
and wherefore this farness from kinsmen and mate and lack of 
neighbourly love for brother and intimate ? But quoth he, " Woe 
to you ! my folk did I dwell amongst them would some day unlove 
me and the while I abide far from them will never reprove me ; nor 
indeed would they remember my affection nor would they desire my 
predilection ; and so satisfied with my solitude am I that an I saw 
my family I should start away as in fear of them, and were my 
parents quickened anew and longed for my society verily I would 
take flight from them." Replied the. Fowl-let, " In good sooth, 

1 In text " Rdhib " = monk or lion. 

8 The lines are wholly corrupt. 

* The "Bahalul" of D'Herbelot. This worthy was a half-witted Sage (like the 
lourodivi of Russia and the Irish Omadhaun) who occupies his own place in con- 
temporary histories, flourished under Harun al- Rash id and still is famous in Persian 
Story. When the Caliph married him perforce and all the ceremonies were duly 
performed and he was bedded with the bride, he applied his ear to her privities and 
forthwith ran away with the utmost speed and alarm. They brought him back and 
questioned him concerning his conduct when he made answer, " If you had only heard 
what it said to me you would have done likewise." In the text his conduct is selfish 
and ignoble as that of Honorius 

" Who strove to merit heaven by making earth a helL" 

And he shows himself heartless and unhuman as the wretched St. Alexius of the 
Gesta Romanorum (Tale xv.), a warning of the intense selfishness solemnly and 
logically inculcated by Christianity. See vol. v. 150. 

,56 Supplemental Nights. 

O my brother, truth thou hast pronounced in all by thee announced 
and the best of rede did from thee proceed ; but tell me, prithee, 
anent that cord about thy middle wound and despite thine ex- 
pending efforts that abound why thou art neither a-standing nor 
a-sitting on ground ? " To him replied the Trap, O my brother, 
learn that I spend every night of every month in prayer, during 
which exercise whenever sleep would seize me I tighten this cord 
about my waist and drive slumber from my eyes and become 
therefrom the more wide-awake for my orisons. Know thou also 
that Allah (be He glorified and magnified !) affectioneth his ser- 
vants when devout are they, and stand in worship alway, ever 
digrit to pray and praise Him by night and by day ; and who turn 
on their sides loving the Lord to obey in desire and dismay and 
doling their good away. And quoth Allah (be He glorified and 
magnified !) : And for scanty while of the night they take not 
gentle rest and at rising morn His pardon they obtest and their 
Lord granteth unto them their request/ 1 And wottest thou not, 
O my brother, what said the poet ? 

These busy are with worldly gear o Those of their moneys proud appear : 
But some be rich by God's approof o Praise Him o' nights with love 

sincere : 

Their Guardian's eye regards them aye o Praying, confessing sins to clear : 
They wot nor worship aught but Him o And hail His name with love and 


Therewith quoth the Fowl-let ; " Sooth hast thou said, O my 
brother, in each word by thee sped and right eloquently was 
announced all by thee pronounced ; however (I am thy pro- 
tected !), do thou tell me why I see thee one half buried in earth 
and the other half above ground ? " And quoth the Trap, " For 
the reason that I thereby resemble the dead and in life I am 
shunning the pernicious lusts of the flesh ; and Almighty Allah 
(be He glorified and magnified !) said in His August Volume : 

1 Koran, ch. li. v. 17. 

History of what befel the Fowl-let with the Fowler. 157 

' From earth have We created you and unto her We will return 
you and from her will We draw you forth a second time.'" 1 
Replied the Birdie, " The truth thou hast told in whatso thou 
dost unfold, but why do I see thee so bent of back ? '" and rejoined 
tne Trap, " Learn, O my brother, that the cause for this bowing 
of my back is my frequent standing in prayer by day and my 
upstanding by night in the service of the King, the Clement, the 
One, the Prepotent, tne Glorious, the Omnipotent ; and verily 
upon this matter right well the poet hath spoken : 

None save the pious Youth gains boon of Paradise o (To whom the Lord doth 

pardon crime and sin and vice), 
Whose back by constant prayer through murk o* night is bent o And longs to 

merit Heaven in sore and painful guise. 
Hail to the slave who ever would his lord obey o And who by death is saved 

when he obedient dies*" 

The Fowl-let continued, " O my brother, of truth the token is that 
whereof thou hast spoken and I have understood thee and am 
certified of thy sooth. But yet, I see upon thee a robe 2 of hair ! " 
and the Trap rejoined, " O my brother, knowest thou not of hair 
and wool that they be the wear of the pious and the religious, 
whereof one of the poets hath spoken in these words : 

Folk who in fear of long accompt 3 for naught of worldly care o Hail to them ! 

haply garb of wool they'll change for silken wear : 
In life for provaunt shall suffice them salt and barley-bread o Who seek 

th' Almighty Lord and bow the head in sedulous pray'r." 

The Birdie resumed, "In very deed thy speech the sooth doth 
teach ; but say me what be this staff 4 thou hendest in hand ? " 
Replied the Trap, " O my brother, know that I have become an 

1 Koran xx. 57 : it is the famous "Td-Ha" " whose first 14-16 verses are said to have 
converted the hard-headed Omar. In the text the citation is garbled and imperfect. 

* " Hisdban tawil " = a long punishment. 

* The rod of Moses (see pp. 98-99; is the great prototype in Al-Islam of the staff or 
walking-stick, hence it became a common symbol of dignity and it also served to 
administer ready chastisement, e.g. in the hands of austere Caliph Omar. 

1 58 Supplemental Nights. 

olden man well shotten in years and my strength is minished, 
wherefor I have taken me a staff that I may prop me thereon and 
that it aid my endeavour when a-fasting." The Fowl-let pursued, 
" Thy speech is true, O my brother, and thou speakest as due, yet 
would I ask thee of a matter nor refuse me information thereanent : 
tell me why and wherefore this plenty of grain scattered all about 
thee ? " The Trap answered, " Indeed the merchants and men of 
wealth bring to me this victual that I may bestow it in charity 
upon the Fakir and the famisht ; " and the Birdie rejoined, " O my 
brother, I also am an-hungered ; so dost thou enjoin me to eat 
thereof? " " Thou art my companion," cried the Trap, " so upon 
me such injunction is a bounden duty," presently adding, "Be so 
kind, O my brother, and haste thee hither and eat." Hereat the 
Fowl-let flew down from off his tree and approaching little by 
little (with a heart beating for fear of the Trap) picked up a few 
grains which lay beside it until he came to the corn set in the loop 
of the springe. Hereupon he pecked at it with one peck nor had 
he gained aught of good therefrom ere the Trap came down heavily 
upon him and entangled his neck and held him fast. Hereupon 
he was seized with a fit of sore affright and he cried out " Zfk ! 
zfk ! " and " Mfk ! mfk ! * Verily I have fallen into wreak and am 
betrayed by friendly freke and oh, the excess of my trouble and 
tweak, Zfk ! Zfk ! O Thou who kennest my case, do Thou enable 
me escape to seek, and save me from these straits unique and be 
Thou ruthful to me the meek ! " Thereupon quoth to him the 
Trap, " Thou criest out Zik ! Zik ! and hast fallen into straits 
unique and hast strayed from the way didst seek, O Miscreant and 
Zindfk, 2 and naught shall avail thee at this present or brother or 
friend veridique or familiar freke. Now understand and thy pleasure 
seek! I have deceived thee with a deceit and thou lentest ear 

1 An onomatopy like "Couic, Couic." For Maksah," read " Fa-sa"ha " == and 
cried out. 

* "Zindik" = Atheist, Agnostic: see vols. v. 230; viii. 27. 

History of what befel the Fowl-let with the Fowler. \ 59 

and lustedst." Replied the Bird, " I am one whom desire hath 
cast down and ignorance hath seduced and inordinate greed, one 
for whose neck the collar of destruction is fitted and I have fallen 
along with those who lowest fall ! " Hereupon the Fowler came 
up with his knife to slaughter the Fowl-let and began saying, 
" How many a birdie have we taken in all ease for desire of its 
meat that we may dress their heads with rice or in Harisah 1 or 
fried in pan and eat thereof pleasurably myself or feed therewith 
great men and grandees. Also 'tis on us incumbent to feed privily 
upon half the bodies and the other half shall be for our guests 
whilst I will take the wings to set before my family and kinsmen 
as the most excellent of gifts." 2 Hearing these words the Bird 
fell to speaking and saying : i 

" O Birder, my mother's in misery o And blind with weeping my loss is she. 
I suffice not thy guest nor can serve for gift : o Have ruth and compassion and 

set me free ! 
With my parents I'll bless thee and then will I * Fly a-morn and at e'en-tide 

return to thee." 

Presently resumed he, " Seest thou not how my meat be mean and 
my maw be lean ; nor verily can I stand thee in stead of cate nor 
thy hunger satiate : so fear Allah and set me at liberty then shall 
the Almighty requite thee with an abundant requital." But the* 
Fowler far from heeding his words, made him over to his son 
saying, " O my child, take this bird and faring homewards 
slaughter him and of him cook for us a cumin-ragout and a lemon- 
stew, a mess flavoured with verjuice and a second of mushrooms 
and a third with pomegranate seeds and a fourth of clotted curd 3 

1 " Harisah " = meat-pudding. In Al-Hariri (Ass. xix.) where he enumerates the 
several kinds of dishes with their metonomies it is called the " Mother of Strengthening " 
(or Restoration) because it contains wheat "the Strengthener " (as opposed to barley 
and holcus). So the "Mother of Hospitality" is the Sikbaj, the Persian Sikba", so 
entitled because it is the principal dish set before guests and was held to be royal food. 
(Chenery, pp. 218, 457). For the latter see infra. 

2 This passage in the MS. (p. 733) is apparently corrupt. I have done my best to 
make sense of it. 

3 In text "Kamburisiyah." 

l6b Supplemental Nights. 

cooked with Summdk, 1 and a fine fry and eke conserves of pears 2 
and quinces and apples and apricots hight the rose-water and 
vermicelli 8 and Sikbaj ; 4 and meat dressed with the six leaves and 
a porridge 5 and a rice-milk, and an 'Ajfjfyah 6 and fried flesh in 
strips and Kabdbs and meat-olives, and dishes the like of these. 
Also do thou make of his guts strings for bows and of his gullet a 
conduit for the terrace-roof and of his skin a tray-cloth and of his 
plumage cushions and pillows." Now when the Fowl-let heard 
these words (and he was still in the Fowler's hand), he laughed a 
laugh of sorrow and cried, "Woe to thee, O Birder whither be 
wended thy wits and thine understanding? Art Jinn-mad or 
wine-drunken ? Art age-foolish or asleep ? Art heavy-minded or 
remiss in thought ? Indeed had I been that long-necked bird the 
'Ankd, daughter of Life, or were I the she-camel of Sdlih to be, or 
the ram of Isaac the sacrificed, or the loquent calf of Al-Sdmiri 1 

1 In the Diets, a plant with acid flavour, dried, pounded and peppered over meat. 

* In text "Najas"=: a pear. 

"Tutmajiyah," for * Tutmaj." 

* "Sikbaj "a marinated stew like "Zirbajah" (vol. iii. 278): Khusrau Parwez, 
according to the historians, was the first for whom it was. cooked and none ate of it 
without his permission. See retro. 

* Kishk = ground wheat, oatmeal or arley-flour eaten with soure sheep's milk and 
often with meat. 

* So in text : I suspect for " > Ajinniyah " = a dish of dough. 

* The Golden Calf is alluded to in many Koranic passages, e.g. Surah ii. (the 
Cow) 48; vii. (Al-Aarai) 146; S. liv. (Worn n) 152 j but especially in S. xx. (Ti 
Ha) 90, where Samiri is expressly mentioned. Most Christian commentators translate 
this by " Samaritan" and unjustly note it as "a grievous ignorance of history on the part 
of Mohammed." But the word is mysterious and not explained. R. Jehuda (followed 
by Geiger) says upon the text (Exod. xxxii. 24), "The calf came forth lowing and the 
Israelites beheld it ;" also that "Samael entered into it and lowed in order to mislead 
Israel (Pirke R. Eliezer, 45). Many Moslems identify Samiri with Micha 
(Judges xvii.), who is said to have assisted in making the calf (Raschi, Sanhedr. cii. 2 ; 
Hottinger, Hist. Orient, p. 84). Selden (de Diis Syr. Syn. I cap. 4) supposes that 
Samiri is Aaron himself, the Shomeir or keeper of Israel during the absence of Moses. 

Rodwell (Koran, 2nd Edit. p. 90) who cleaves to the " Samaritan" theory, writes, 

t is probable (?) that the name and Us application, in the present instance, is to be 

1 to the old national feud between the Jews and the Samaritans "of which 

[ohammed, living amongst the Jews, would be at least as well informed as any modern 

European. He quotes De Sacy (Chrest..i. 189) who states that Abu Rayhan Mohammed 

Birum represents the Samaritans as being nicknamed (not Al-limsahsit as Mr. Rodwell 

History of what lefel the Fowl-let with the Fowler. 


or even a buffalo fattened daintily all this by thee mentioned had 
never come from me." Hereat he fell to improvising and saying : 

" The Ruthful forbiddeth the eating of me o And His Grace doth grace me 

with clemency : 
A Camel am I whom they overload o And the Birder is daft when my flesh 

seeth he : 
From Solomon's breed, O my God I have hope : o If he kill me the Ruthful 

his drowning 1 decree." 

Then quoth the Fowl to the Fowler, " An thou design to slaughter 
me in thy greed even as thou hast described, verily I shall avail thee 
naught, but an thou work my weal and set me free I will show thee 
somewhat shall profit thee and further the fortunes of thy sons' sons 
and thy latest descendants." " What is that direction thou wouldst 
deal to me ? " asked the Fowler, and answered the Fowl-let, " I will 
teach a trio of words all-wise and will discover to thee in this earth 
a Hoard wherewith thou and thy seed and posterity shall ever be 
satisfied and shall ever pray for the lengthening of my years. 
Moreover I will point out to thee a pair of Falcons ashen-grey, 
big of body and burly of bulk, who are to me true friends and 
whom thou didst leave in the gardens untrapped." Asked the 
Birder, " And what be the three words which so savour of 
wisdom ? " and answered the other, " O Fowler, the three words 
of wisdom are : Bemourn not what is the past nor at the future 
rejoice too fast nor believe aught save that whereon thy glance is 
cast. But as regards the Hoard and the two Falcons, when thou 

has it, but) " Li. Mesas" or '* Ld Mesdsiyah "= the people who say '* no touch" (fa. 
touch me not, from Surah xx. 97); and Juynboll, Chron. Sam. p. 113 (Leid. 1848). 
Josephus (Ant. xii. cap. i) also mentions a colony of Samaritans settled in Egypt by 
Ptolemy Lagus, some of whose descendants inhabited Cairo as late as temp. Scaliger (De 
Emend. Temp. vii. 622). Sale notices a similar survival on one of the islands of the 
Red Sea. In these days the Samaritans or, as their enemies call them, the Cuthim 
("men from Cutha," Cushites), in physical semblance typical Jews, are found only at 
Nablus where the colony has been reduced by intermarriage of cousins and the consequent 
greater number of male births to about 120 souls* They are, like the Shi' ah Moslems v 
careful to guard against ceremonial pollution : hence the epithet **Noli me tangere." 
1 Alluding to the " Sayyad," lit.=a fisherman. 

VOL. VI. L. 

162 Supplemental Nights. 

shalt have released me I will point them out to thee and right soon 
to thee shall be shown the sooth of whatso I have said to thee." 
Hereat the Birder's heart became well affected towards the Birdie 
for his joy anent the Treasure and the Falcons ; and the device of 
the captive deceived the Capturer and cut short his wits so that he 
at once released the prey. Forthright the Fowl-let flew forth the 
Fowler's palm in huge delight at having saved his life from death ; 
then, after preening his plume and spreading his pinions and 
his wings, he laughed until he was like to fall earthwards in a 
fainting-fit. Anon he began to gaze right and left, long breaths 
a-drawing and increase of gladness ever a-showing; whereupon 
quoth the Birder, " O Father of Flight, O thou The Wind night ! 
what saidst thou to me anent pointing out the two Falcons ashen- 
grey and who were the comrades thou leftest in the gardens?" 
Quoth the Birdie in reply, " Alack and alas ! never saw I thy 
like for an ass nor aught than thyself meaner of capacity nor 
mightier of imbecility ; for indeed thou earnest in thy head light- 
ness and in thy wits slackness. O Scant of sense, when sawest 
thou ever a sparrow company with a Falcon, much less with 
two Falcons ? So short is thine understanding that I have 
escaped thy hand by devising the simplest device which my 
nous and knowledge suggested." Hereat he began to improvise 
and repeat : 

* When Fortune easy was, from duty ' didst forbear o Nor from that malady a 

hast safety or repair : 
Then blame thyself nor. cast on other wight 3 the fault o And lacking all excuse 

to death of misery fare ! " 

Then resumed the Fowl-let, " Woe to thee, O mean and mesquin, 
thou wottedst not that which thou hast lost in me, for indeed baulked 
is thy bent and foiled is thy fortune and near to thee is poverty 

1 IB text "Al-Zahr." 
* "AjdaV 
8 Intext"Al-MatiyaV' 

History of what befel the Fowl-let with the. Fowler. 163 

and nigh to' thee is obscurity. Hadst thou when taking me cut my 
throat and cloven my crop thou hadst found therein a jewel the 
weight of an ounce which I picked up and swallowed from the 
treasury of Kisra Anushirwan the King.'* But when the Birder 
heard the Birdie's words he scattered dust upon his head and 
buffeted his face and plucked out his beard and rent his raiment, 
and at last slipped down a-swooningto the ground. And presently 
recovering his senses he looked towards his late captive and cried, 
" O Father of Flight, O thou The Wind hight, say me is there any 
return for thee me-wards, where thou shalt with me abide, and thee. 
within the apple of mine eye will I hide, and after all this toil and 
turmoil I will perfume and fumigate thee with ambergris and with 
Comorin lign-aloes, and I will bring thee sugar for food and nuts 
of the pine * and with me thou shalt tarry in highmost degree ? " 
Replied the Birdie, "O miserable, past is that which passed ; I 
mean, suffice me not thy fraud and thy flattering falsehood. And 
laud to the Lord, O thou meanest of men, how soon hast thou 
forgotten the three charges wherewith I charged thee ! And how 
short are thy wits seeing that the whole of me weighteth not ten 
drachms 2 and how then can I bear in crop a jewel weighing an 
ounce ? How far from thee is subtilty and how speedily hast thou 
forgotten mine injunctions wherewith I enjoined thee saying : 
Believe not aught save that whereon thine eye is cast nor regret 
and bemourn the past nor at what cometh rejoice too fast. These 
words of wisdom are clean gone from thy memory, and hadst thou 
been nimble of wits thou hadst slaughtered me forthright.: however, 
Alhamdolillah Glory to God, who caused me not to savour the 
whittle's sharp edge, and I thank my Lord for my escape and for 
the loosing of my prosperity from the trap of trouble." Now when 
the Birder heard these words of the Birdie he repented and regretted 

1 In text " Sinaubar," which may also mean pistachio-tree. 

2 i.e. 475 to 478 Eng. grains avoir., less than the Ukiyyah or Wukiyyah = ounce = $71*5 
to 576 grains. Vol. ix. 2l6. 

164 Supplemental Nights. 

his folly, and he cried, " O my sorrow for what failed me of the 
slaughter of this volatile, and as he sank on the ground he sang: l 

41 brave was the boon which I held in my right * ; Yet, O Maker of man, 'twas 

in self-despight. 
Had my lot and my luck been of opulence, * .This emptiness never had proved 

my plight." 

Hereupon the Fowl-let fareweHed the Fowler and took flight until 
he reached his home and household, where he seated him and 
recited all that had befallen him with the Birder, to wit, how the 
man had captured him, and how he had escaped by sleight, and he 
fell to improvising : 

* l I charged you, O brood of my nestlings, and said, * Ware yon Wady, nor seek 

to draw near a stead 
Where sitteth a man who with trap and with stakes * Entrapped me, drew knife 

and would do me dead. 
And he longed to destroy me, O children, but I * Was saved by the Lord and 

to you was sped." 

And here endeth the History of the 

Fowl-let and the Fowler 

entire and complete. 

1 Not more absurd than an operatic hero singing while he dies. 


fo* begin to fom'te anto fatrfte tfic SDale of a man of Sbgtfa, 

THEY relate (but Allah is All-knowing of His unknown and All-, 
cognisant of what forewent in the annals of folk and the wonders 
of yore, and of times long gone before !) that in the city of Shdm 2 
'there dwelt of old a man Attaf hight, who rivalled Hatim of Tayy 3 
in his generosity and his guest-love and in his self-control as to 
manners and morals. Now he lived in the years when the Caliph 
Harun al-Rashid was reigning in Baghdad-city, and it happened 
on a day of the days that this Commander of the Faithful awoke 
morne and melancholic, and right straitened was his breast. So 
he arose, and taking Ja'afar the Barmecide and Masrur the Eunuch 
passed with them into the place where his treasures were stored. 
Presently quoth he to the Wazir, " Ja'afar, open to me this 
door that I may solace me with the sight, and my breast may 
be broadened and haply be gladdened by such spectacle*" The 

1 MS. pp. 588-627. In Gauttter's edit. vii. (234-256), it appears as Histoire de 
T Habitant de Damas. His advertisement in the beginning of vol. vii. tells us that it 
has been printed in previous edits., but greatly improved in his : however that may be, 
the performance is below contempt. In Heron it becomes The PO WER OF DESTINY, 
or Story of the Journey of Giafar to Damascus, comprehending the adventures of Chebib 
and his Family (vol. i. pp. 69-175). 

2 Damascus-city (for which see the tale of Nur al-Din AH and his Son, The Nights 
vol. i. 239-240) derives its name from Dimishk who wassonofBatir,i. Mdlik, i. Arphaxed, 
i. Shdm, i. Nuh (Noah) ; or son of Nimrod, son of Canaan. Sham = Syria (and its capital) 
the land on the left, as opposed to Al-Yaman the land on the right of one looking East, 
is noticed in vol i. 55. In Mr. Cotheal's MS. Damascus is entitled "Shdm" because 
it is the "Shdmat" cheek-mole (beauty-spot) of Allah upon earth. "Jalak" the 
older name of the "Smile of the Prophet," is also noted : see vol. ii. loo. 

3 Hdtim Of the Tayy-tribe, proverbial for liberality. See vols. iv. 95, and vii. 350. 

l<58 Supplemental Nights. 

Minister did the bidding of his lord, who, finding a room full of 
books, put forth his hand, and taking up one of the volumes, 
opened and read. Then he fell to weeping thrice, and thrice to 
laughing aloud, 1 whereat the Wazir considered him and cried, " O 
King of the Age, how is it I espy thee reading and weeping and 
laughing at one and the same moment when none so act save 
madmen and maniacs ? " 2 And having spoken on this wise he held 
his peace ; but the Prince of True Believers turned himwards and 
cried, " O dog of the sons of Bermak, I see thee going beyond 
thy degree and quitting the company of sensible men, and thou 
speakest vainly making me a madman in saying : None laugh and 
cry at one and the same time save maniacs ? " With these words 
the Caliph restored the volume to its place in the Treasury and 
bade lock the door, after which the three returned to the Divan. 
Here the Commander of the Faithful regarded Ja'afar and 
exclaimed, " Go thou forth from before me and address me not 
again nor seat thee upon the Wazirial seat until thou answer 
thine own question and thou return me a reply concerning that 
which is writ and aligned in yonder book I was reading, to the end 
thou learn why I wept and wherefore I laught at one and the same 
hour. And he cried at him in anger saying, " Off and away with 
thee, nor face me again save with the answer, else will I slay thee 

1 Jn Mr. Cotheal's MS. the Caliph first laughs until he falls backwards, and then 
after reading further, weeps until his beard is bathed. 

2 Heron inserts into his text, " It proved to be the Giaffer, famous throughout all Arabia," 
and informs us (?) in a foot-note that it is "ascribed to a prince of the Barmecide race, 
an ancestor of the Grand Vizier Giafar." The word " Jafr " is supposed to mean a skin 
(camel's or dog's), prepared as parchment for writing ; and Al-Jafr, the book here in 
question, is described as a cabalistic prognostication of all that will ever happen to the 
Moslems. The authorship is attributed to Ali, son-in-law of the Prophet. There are 
many legendary tales concerning its contents ; however, all are mere inventions as the 
book is supposed to be kept in the Prophet's family, nor will it be fully explained until 
the Mahdi or Forerunner of Doomsday shall interpret its difficulties. The vulgar Moslems 
of India are apt to confuse Al-Jafr with Ja'afar bin Tayya"r, the Jinni who is often 
quoted in talismans (see Herklots, pp. 109-257). D'Herbelot gives the sum of what 
Is generally known about the "Jafr " (wa Jami'a) under the articles "Ali " and " Gefr u 

The Tale of Attaf . 169 

with the foulest of slaughter/' Accordingly Ja'afar fared forth and 
hardly could he see with his eyes, and he kept saying to himself, 
" Indeed I have fallen with a sore fall ; foul befal it for a fall ; how 
fulsome it is ! " Then he fared homewards where he encountered 
face to face his father Yahyd the Bermaki, who was issuing from the 
mansion and he recounted to him the tale, whereat his parent said, 
"Go at once, abide not here, but turn thee Damascus-wards until shall 
terminate this decline of fortune and this disjunction of favour, and 
at the ending thereof thou shalt see wonders therein." * Ja'afar 
replied," Not until I shall have laid a charge upon my Harfm ;" 2 but 
Yahya cried, "Enter not these doors, hie thee at once to Al-Sham, for 
even so 'tis determined by Destiny." Accordingly the Wazir gave 
ear to his sire, and taking a bag containing one thousand dinars 
and slinging on his sword farewelled him ; then, mounting a 
she-mule, alone and unattended by slave or page, he rode off and 
he ceased not riding for ten days full-told until he arrived at the 
Marj 3 or mead of Damascus. Now it so fortuned that on that 
same day Attaf, 4 a fair youth and a well-known of the " Smile of 
the Prophet," and one of the noblest and most generous of her 
sons had pitched tents and had spread a banquet outside the city, 
where chancing to sight Ja'afar mounted on his beast, he knew him 
to be a wayfarer passing by, and said to his slaves, " Call to me 
yonder man ! " They did his bidding and the stranger rode up to 
the party of friends, and dismounting from his mule saluted them 
with the salam which they all returned. Then they sat for a while 5 

1 The father (whom Heron calls " Hichia Barmaki ") spoke not at random, but guessed 
that the Caliph had been reading the book Al-Jafr. 

2 Heron calls Ja'afar's wife " Fatm " from the French. 

* This is the open grassy space on the left bank of the Baradah River, first sighted by 
travellers coming from Bayrut. See vol. i. 234, where it is called Al-Hasa* = the Plain 
of Pebbles. 

4 Heron names him Chebib (Hablb) also " Xakem Tai-Chebib " = Ha"tim Tayy 

6 The scene is described at full length in the Cotheal MS. with much poetry sung by 
a fair slave-girl and others. 

Supplemental Nights. 

after which Attaf arose and led Ja'afar to his house companied by 
all the company which was there and they paced into a spacious 
open hall and seated themselves in converse for an hour full-told. 
Anon the slaves brought them a table spread with the evening 
meal and bearing more than ten several manners of meat. So 
they ate and were cheered, and after the guests had washed hands, 
the eunuchs and attendants brought in candles of honey-coloured 
wax that shed a brilliant light, and presently the musicians came 
in band and performed a right royal partition while the servants 
served up conserves for dessert. So they ate, and when they had 
eaten their sufficiency they l drank coffee ; and finally, at their 
ease and in their own good time, all the guests arose and made 
obeisance and fared homewards. Then Attaf and Ja'afar sat at 
table for an hour or so, during which the host offered his guest an 
hundred greetings, saying, "All kinds of blessings have descended! 
from Heaven upon our heads. Tell me, how was it thou honouredst 
us, and what was the cause of thy coming and of thy favouring us 
with thy footsteps ? " 2 So Ja'afar disclosed to him his name and 
office 8 and told him the reasons of his ride to Damascus from 
the beginning to the end full and detailed, whereto Attaf rejoined, 
" Tarry with me an thou please a decade of years ; and grieve not' 
at all, for thy Worship is owner of this place." After this the 
eunuchs came in and spread for Ja'afar bedding delicately wrought 
at the head of the hall and its honour-stead, and disposed other 
sleeping-gear alongside thereof, which seeing the Wazir said to him- 
self, " Haply my host is a bachelor, that they would spread his bed 
by my side ; however, I will venture the question." Accordingly he 
addressed his host saying, " O Attaf, art thou single or married ? "* 

1 Again showing the date of the tale to be modern. See my Terminal Essay, p. 90. 

8 This might serve even in these days to ask a worshipful guest why he came, and what 
Was his business it is the address of a well-bred man to a stranger of whose rank and 
station he is ignorant. The vulgar would simply say, " Who art thou, and what is thy 
native country?'* 

* In Heron the host learns everything by the book Al-Jafr. 

* In text Muzawwa " which the Egyptian pronounces " Mugawwaz." 

The Tale of Attaf. 


" I am married, O my lord," quoth the other, whereat Ja'afar 
resumed, "Wherefore dost thou not go within and lie with thy 
Harim ?" " O my lord/' replied Attaf," the Harim is not about to 
take flight, and it would be naught but disgraceful to me were I 
to leave a visitor like thyself, a man by all revered, to sleep alone 
while I fare to-night with my Harim and rise betimes to enter the 
Hammam. 1 In me such action would I deem be want of courtesy 
and failure in honouring a magnifico like thine Honour In very 
sooth, O my lord, so long as thy presence deign favour this house 
I will not sleep within my Harem until I farewell thy Worship, and 
thou depart in peace and safety to thine own place." " This be a 
marvellous matter," quoth Ja'afar to himself, " and perad venture 
he so doeth the more to make much of me." So they lay 
together that night and when morning morrowed they arose and 
fared to the Baths whither Attaf had sent for the use of his 
guest a suit of magnificent clothes, and caused Ja'afar don it 
before leaving the Hammam. Then finding the horses at the 
door, they mounted and repaired to the Lady's Tomb, 2 and spent 
a day worthy to be numbered in men's lives. Nor did they 
cease visiting place after place by day and sleeping in the same 
stead by night, in the way we have described, for the space of 
four morfths, after which time the soul of the Wazir Ja'afar waxed 
sad and sorry, and one chance day of the days, he sat him down 
and wept. Seeing him in tears Attaf asked him, saying, " Allah 
fend from thee all affliction, O my lord ! why dost thou weep and 
wherefore art thou grieved ? An thou be heavy of heart why not 
relate to me what hath oppressed thee ? " Answered Ja'afar, 
"O my brother, I find my breast sore straitened and I would 

1 Which would be necessary after car. cop. with his women. 

8 In text ' Kabr al-Sitt," wherein the Sitt Zaynab, aunt to Mohammed, is supposed 
to He buried. Here the cultivation begins about half a mile's ride from the Bab-al- 
Shdghur or S. Western gate of the city. It is mentioned by Baedeker (p. 439), and 
ignored by Murray, whose editor, Mr. Missionary Porter, prefers to administer the usual 
dainty dish of " hashed Bible." 

Supplemental Nights. 

fain stroll about the streets of Damascus and solace me with, 
seeing the Cathedral-mosque of the Ommiades. 1 " And who, O 
my lord," responded the other, " would hinder thee therefrom ? 
Do thou deign wander whither thou wilt and take thy solace, so 
may thy spirits be gladdened and thy breast be broadened. 
Herein is none to let or stay thee at all, at all." Hearing these 
words Ja'afar arose to fare forth, when quoth his host, " O my 
lord, shall they saddle thee a hackney ? " but the other replied, 
" O my friend, I would not be mounted for that the man on horse- 
back may not divert himself by seeing the folk ; nay the folk 
enjoy themselves by looking upon him." Quoth Attaf, " At 
least delay thee a while that I may supply thee with spending 
money to bestow upon the folk ; and then fare forth and walk 
about to thy content and solace thyself with seeing whatso thou 
wilt ; so mayest thou be satisfied and no more be sorrowed." 
Accordingly, Ja'afar took from Attaf a purse of three hundred 
dinars and left the house gladly as one who issueth from durance 
vile, and he turned into the city and began a-wandering about the 
streets of Damascus and enjoying the spectacle ; and at last he 
entered the Jami' al-Amawi where he prayed the usual prayers. 
After this he< -esumed his strolling about pleasant places until he 
came to a narrow street and found a bench formed of stone 2 set 
in the ground. Hereon he took seat to rest a while, and he 
looked about, when behold, fronting him were latticed windows 
wherein stood cases planted with sweet-smelling herbs. 3 And 
hardly had he looked before those casements were opened and 

1 Arab. " Jdrni' al-Amawl" : for this Mosque, one of the Wonders of the Moslem 
World, consult any Guide Book to Damascus. See Suppl. vol. iv. Night cccxlii. In 
Heron it becomes the " Giamah Illamoue," one of the three most famous mosques in the 

a M. Houdas translates "Tarz," " Mdrkaz" or "Mirkaa" by Une pttrrt *n forme 
dt dame, instrument qui sert b enf oncer Its pavis ( = our "beeUV')j ^trt^dire en 
forme dt borne. 

* For thi$ " window-gardening," att ancient practice in th East, s<* vOL i. 301. 

The Tale of Attaf. 173 

suddenly appeared thereat a young lady, 1 a model of comeliness 
and loveliness and fair figure and symmetrical grace, whose 
charms would amate all who upon her gaze, and she began 
watering her plants. Ja'afar cast upon her a single glance and 
was sore hurt by her beauty and brilliancy ; but she, after looking 
upon the lattices and watering the herbs to the extent they 
required turned her round and gazed adown the street where she 
caught a sight of Ja'afar sitting and earnestly eyeing her. So she 
barred the windows and disappeared. But the Minister lingered 
on the bench hoping and expecting that haply the casement would 
open a second time and allow him another look at her ; and as 
often as he would have risen up his' nature said to him, " Sit thee 
down/' And he stinted not so doing till evening came on, when 
he arose and returned to the house of Attaf, whom he found 
standing at the gateway to await him, and presently his host ex- 
claimed, " Tis well, O my lord ! during all this delay indeed my 
thoughts have gone with thee for that I have long been expecting 
thy return." " 'Tis such a while since I walked abroad," answered 
Ja'afar, " that I had needs look about me and console my soul, 
wherefor I lingered and loitered," Then they entered the house 
and sat down, when the eunuchs served up on trays the evening 
meal, and the Minister drew near to eat thereof but was wholly 
unable, so he cast from his hand the spoon and arose. Hereat 
quoth his host, " Why, my lord, canst thou not eat ? " " Be- 
cause this day's noon-meal hath been heavy to me and hindereth 
my supping ; but 'tis no matter ! " quoth the other. And when 
the hour for sleep came Ja'afar retired to rest ; but in his excite- 
ment by the beauty of that young lady he could not close eye, for 
her charms had mastered the greater part of his sense and had 

1 Heron calls her "Negemet-il-Souper" = Najmat al-Sabah = Constellation of Morn. 
In the Cotheal MS. she uses very harsh language to the stranger, "O Bull (i.e. O 
stupid), this be not thy house nor yet the house of thy sire ; " etc. "go forth to the 
curse of God and get thee to Hell," c. 

J74 Supplemental Nights. 

snared his senses as much as might be ; nor could he do aught 
save groan and cry, ' Ah miserable me ! who shall enjoy thy 
presence, O full Moon of the Age and who shall look upon that 
comeliness and loveliness ? " And he ceased not being feverish 
and to twist and turn upon his couch until late morning, and he 
was as one lost * with love ; but as soon as it was the undurn- 
hour Attaf came in to him and said, " How is thy health ? My 
thoughts have been settled on thee : and I see that thy slumber 
hath lasted until between dawn and midday : indeed I deem that 
thou hast lain awake o'night and hast not slept until so near 
the mid-forenoon." " O my brother, I have no Kayf," 2 replied 
Ja'afar. So the host forthwith sent a white slave to summon a 
physician, and the man did his bidding 1 , and after a short delay 
brought one who was the preventer 3 of. his day. And when 
ushered into Ja'afar's room he addressed the sick man, " There 
is no harm to thee and boon of health befal thee : 4 say me what 
aileth thee ? " " All is excitement 5 with me," answered the other, 
whereat the Leach putting forth his fingers felt the wrist of his 
patient, when he found the pulsations pulsing strong and the 
intermissions intermitting regularly. 6 Noting this he was ashamed 
to declare before his face, " Thou art in love ! " so he kept 
silence and presently said to Attaf, " I will write thee a recipe 
containing all that is required by the case." " Write ! " said the 
host, and the Physician sat down to indite his prescription, when 

1 In text ^{^ which I read jt 

For "Kayf " = joy, the pleasure of living, see my Pilgrimage !. 12-13. 

8 In text " 'Ayyik," or " 'Ayyuk " = a hinderer (of disease) from the ^ 'Ayk or 'Aufe, 
whence also 'Ayyuk=Capella, a bright star proverbial for its altitude, as in the Turk, 
saw " to give praise to the 'Ayyiik " = skies. 

4 Auspicious formulae. The Cotheal MS. calls the physician " Dabdihkan." 

In text "Kullu Shayyin 11 mu'as'as" ; the latter from |/ "'As'as"= to complicate 
a matter. 

A sign that he diagnosed a moral not a bodily disorder. We often find in The 
Nights, the doctor or the old woman distinguishing a love-fit by the pulse or similar 
obscure symptoms, as in the case of Seleucus, Stratonice and her step-son Antiochus 
which seems to be the arch-type of these anecdotes. 

The Tale of Attaf. 


behold, a white slave came in and said to his lord, " Thy Harim 
requireth thee." So the host arose and retired to learn what was 
wanted of him in the women's apartments, and when his wife 
saw him she asked, " O my lord, what is thy pleasure that we 
cook for dinner and supper?" "Whatsoever may be wanted," 
he rejoined and went his ways, for since Ja'afar had been guested 
in his house Attaf had not once entered the inner rooms according 
as he had before declared to the Minister. Now the Physician 
during the host's visit to the Harem had written out the prescrip- 
tion and had placed it under the pillow of the patient, and as he 
was leaving the house he came suddenly upon the housemaster on 
return to the men's apartment, and Attaf asked him, " Hast thou 
written thy prescription ? " " Yes," answered the Leach, " I 
have written it and set it under his head." Thereupon the host 
pulled out a piastre J and therewith fee'd the physician ; after 
which he went up to Ja'afar's couch and drew the paper from 
under his pillow and read it and saw therein written, 2 " O Attaf, 
verily thy guest is a lover, so do thou look for her he loveth and 
for his state purvey and make not overmuch delay." So the host 
addressed his guest, saying, " Thou art now become one of us : 
why then hide from me thy case and conceal from me thy con- 
dition ? This Doctor, than whom is none keener or cleverer in 
Damascus, hath learned all that befel thee." Hereupon he pro- 
duced the paper and showed it to Ja'afar, who took It and read it 
with a smile ; then he cried, " This Physician is a master leach 
and his saying is soothfast. Know that on the day when I went 
forth from thee and sauntered about the streets and lanes, there 
befel me a matter which I never had thought to have betided me ; 
no, never ; and I know not what shall become of me for that, O 
my brother Attaf, my case is one involving life-loss." And he 

1 Arab. "Kirsh," before explained : in Harun's day, = 3 francs. 

2 In the Cotheal MS. the recipe occupies a whole page of ludicrous items, e.g. Let 
him take three Miskals of pure " Union-with-the-lover," etc. 

176 Supplemental Nights. 

told him all that had happened to himself ; how when seated upon 
the bench a lattice had been unclosed afront of him and he had 
seen a young lady, the loveliest of her time, who had thrown it 
open and had come forward to water her window-garden ; adding, 
" Now my heart was upst Jrred by love to her, and she had suddenly 
withdrawn after looking down the street and closed the casement 
as soon as she had seen a stranger gazing upon her. Again and 
again I was minded to rise and retire but desire for her kept me 
seated in the hope that haply she would again throw open the 
lattice and allow me the favour of another glimpse, so could I see 
her a second time. However, inasmuch as sne did not show till 
evening came on I arose and repaired hither, but of my exceeding 
agitation for the ardour of love to her I was powerless to touch 
meat or drink, and my sleep was broken by the excess of desire 
for her which had homed in my hearth And now, O my brother 
Attaf, I have made known to thee whatso betided me." When 
the host heard these words, he was certified that the house 
whereof Ja'afar spoke was his house and the lattice his own lattice 
and the lovely and lovesome young lady his wife the daughter of 
his paternal uncle, so he said in his thought, "There is no 
Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the 
Great. Verily we are Allah's and unto Him shall we return ! " 
But presently he regained himself in the nobility of his nature, 
and he continued, " O Ja'afar, thine intent is pure for that the 
dame thoii sawest yesterday was divorced by her husband ; and 
I will straightway fare to her father and bespeak him to the end 
that none may lay hand upon her ; and then will I return and 
let thee ken all concerning her." So saying he arose and went 
at once to his cousin-wife * who greeted him and kissing his hand 
said to him " Is thy guest a-going? " Said he, " By no means : 
the cause of my coming to thee is not his going, the reason 

1 In the Cotheal MS. Attaf seeks his paternal uncle and father-in-law with the infor- 
mation that he is going to the Pilgrimage and Visitation. 

The Tale of Attaf. 177 

thereof is my design of sending thee to the home of thy people, 
for that thy father anon met me in the market-street and declared 
to me that thy mother is dying of a colick, and said to me : 
Go send her daughter without delay so that she may see her 
parent alive and meet her once more." Accordingly the young wife 
arose ; and, hardly knowing how she moved for tears at such tidings, 
she took her slave-girls with her and repairing to her home rapped 
at the door, and her mother who opened to her cried on seeing 
her, " May this thy coming (Inshallah !) be well, O my daughter, 
but how is it thou comest thus unexpected ? " " Inshallah ! " 
said the wife, " thou art at rest from the colick ?" and the mother 
rejoined, " Who told thee I was colicky ? but pass thou within." 
So she entered the court and her father, Abdullah Chelebi hight, 1 
hearing her footstep from an inner room, asked, " What is there 
to do ? " " Thou mettest anon/' replied his daughter, " Attaf thy 
son-in-law in the Bazar and didst tell him that my mother was 
sore afflicted with a colick. "Hearing this he exclaimed, " This day 
I went not once to the market-street nor have I seen a soul I" Now 
they had not ceased conversing ere the door was rapped ; and as 
the slave girls opened it, they saw porters laden with the young 
lady's gear and garments and they led the men into the court 
where the father asked them, " Who sent these stuffs ?" " Attaf/ 1 
they replied, and setting down their loads within went their way. 
Then the father turned to his daughter and said to her, " What 
deed hast done that my son-in-law bade take up thy gear and 
have it sent after thee ?" And the mother said to him, " Hold thy 
peace and speak not such speech lest the honour of the house be 
blamed and shamed." And as they were talking, behold, up came 
Attaf companied by a party of friends when his father-in-law 
asked him, " Wherefore hast thou done on this wise ? " " To-day," 

1 Called in the old translation or rather adaptation " Scheffander-Haswm " or 
simply " Scheffander " = Shahbandar Hasan, for which see vol. iv. 29. In the 
Cotheal MS. (p. 33) he becomes the " Emir Omar, and theBasha of Damascus " (p. 39). 


Supplemental Nights. 

answered he, " there came from me a wrongous oath : on account 
of my inclination to thy daughter my heart is 4ark as night 
whereas her good name is whiter than my turband and ever 
bright. 1 Furthermore an occasion befel and this oath fell from my 
mouth and I bade her be the owner of herself. 2 And now will I 
beweep the past and straightway set her free." So saying he 
wrote a writ of repudiation and returning to Ja'afar said, u From 
early dawn I have wearied myself 8 for thy sake and have so acted 
that no man can lay hand upon her. And at last thou mayst now 
enjoy life and go to the gardens and the Hammams and take thy 
pleasure until the days of her widowhood 4 be gone by." Replied 
Ja'afar, " Allah quicken thee for what thou wroughtest of kindness 
to me/' and Attaf rejoined, " Find for thyself something thou 
requirest, O my brother." 5 " Then he fell to taking him every day 
amongst the crowd of pleasure-seekers and solacing him with a 
show of joyous spectacles 6 till the term of divorce had sped, when 
he said to the Wazir, " O Ja'afar^ I would counsel thee with an 
especial counsel." " And what may it be, O my brother ? " quoth 

1 The passage is exceedingly misspelt. "Ammo" min Mayli Binti-ka shashi Ana 
Aswadu" (for Shashi M. Houdas reads "Jashi" = my heart) Wa Tana (read 
" Thana," reputation) Binti-ka abyazu min Shiishf." 

2 One of the formulae of divorce. 

8 In text " Muabalat min Shaani-ka." M. Houdas reads the first word "Muzabal " 
s= zubldn, wearied, flaccid, weak. 

4 For " Al-'iddah," in the case of a divorcee three lunar months, for a widow four 
months and ten days and for a pregnant woman, the interval until her delivery, see 
vols. iii. 292 ; vi. 256 j and x. 43 : also Lane (M.E.) chap. iii. 

5 In text " Alfi (4th form of ' Lafw '} Hajatan," the reading is that of M. ^Houdas ; and 
the meaning would be " what dost thou want (in the way of amusement) ? I am at thy 

6 Heron has here interpolated an adventure with a Bazar-cook and another with a 
Confectioner : both discover Ja'afar also by a copy of the "Giaffer" (Al-Jafr). These 
again are followed by an episode with a fisherman who draws in a miraculous draught by 
pronouncing the letters "Gim. Bi. Ouaow " (waw = J. B. W.) i.e. Ja'afar, Barmecide, 
Wazir ; and discovers the Minister by a geomantic table. Then three Darvishes meet 
and discourse anent the virtues of "Chebib" (*.*. Attaf); and lastly come two blind 
men, the elder named Benphises, whose wife having studied occultism and the Dom- 
Daniel of Tunis, discovers Ja'afar. All this is to marshal the series of marvels and 
wonders upon wonders predicted to Ja'afar by his father when commanding him to visit 
Damascus ; and I have neither space nor inclination to notice their enormous absurdities. 

Tks Tale of Attaf. 


the other ; and quoth he, " Know, O my lord, that many of the 
folk have found the likeness between thy Honour and Ja'afar the 
Barmecide, wherefore must I fain act on this wise. I will bring 
thee a troop of ten Mamelukes and four servants on horseback, 
with whom do thou fare privily and by night forth the city and 
presently transmit to me tidings from outside the walls that thou 
the Grand Wazir, Ja'afar the Barmecide, art recalled to court and 
bound thither from Egypt upon business ordered by the Sultan. 
Hereat the Governor of Damascus, 'Abd al-Malik bin Marwdn 1 
and the Grandees of Syria will flock forth to meet and greet thee 
with fetes and feasts, after which do thou send for the young lady's 
sire and of him ask her to wife. Then I will summon the Kazi 
and witnesses and will write out without stay or delay the marriage- 
writ with a dower of a thousand dinars the while thou makest 
ready for wayfare, and if thou journey to Horns or to Hamah 
do thou alight at whatso place ever pleaseth thee. Also I will 
provide thee of spending-money as much as thy soul can desire 
and supply to thee raiment and gear, horses and bat -animals, tents 
and pavilions of the cheap and of the dear, all thou canst require. 
So what sayest thou concerning this counsel ? " " Fair fall it for 
the best of rede which hath no peer," replied Ja'afar. Hereupon 
Attaf arose and gathering his men about his guest sent him forth 
the city when the Minister wrote a writ and despatched it by 
twenty horsemen with a trader to inform the Governor of Syria 
that Ja'afar the Barmecide was passing that way and was 
about to visit Damascus on the especial service of the Sultan. 

So the Kapujf 2 entered Damascus and read out the Wazirial 


1 This Governor must not be confounded with the virtuous and parsimonious Caliph 
of the same name the tentn of the series (reign A.D. 692-705) who before ruling 
Studied theology at Al-Medinah and won the sobriquet of "Mosque-pigeon." After 
his accession he closed the Koran saying, "Here you and I part," and busied himself 
wholly with mundane matters. The Cotheal MS. mentions only the " Nabob " 
(Naib = lieutenant) of Syria. 

2 " Kapu" (written and pronounced Kapi in Turk.) is a door, a house or a govern- 
ment efiice and Kapuji = a porter ; Kapuji-bashi = head porter ; also a chamberlain 

i8o Supplemental Nights. 

letter 1 announcing Ja'afar's return from Egypt. Hereat the Governor 
arose and after sending a present of provisions 2 without the walls 
bade pitch the tents, and the Grandees of Syria rode forth to meet 
the Minister, and the Headmen of the Province set out to greet 
him, and he entered with all honour and consideration. It was 
indeed a day fit to be numbered among the days of a man's life, 
a day of general joyance for those present, and they read the 
Farmdn and they offered the food and the forage to the Chamber- 
lain and thus it became known to one and all of the folk that a 
writ of pardon had come to Ja'afar's hands and on this wise the 
bruit went abroad, far and near, and the Grandees brought him all 
manner of presents. After this Ja'afar sent to summon the young 
lady's father and as soon as he appeared in his presence, said 
to him, " Thy daughter hath been divorced ?" and said the other 
" Yes ; she is at home with me." Quoth the Minister, " I would 
fain take her to wife ; " and quoth the father, " Here am I ready 
to send her as thy handmaid." The Governor of Sham added, 
" I will assume charge of the dowry," and the damsel's father 
rejoined, " It hath already come to hand." 3 Hereat they sum- 
moned the Kazi and wrote out the writ of Ja'afar's marriage ; and, 
having ended the ceremony, they distributed meat and drink to 
the poor in honour of the wedding, and Abd al-Malik bin Marwan 
said to Ja'afar, " Deign, O my lord, come hither with me and 
become my guest, and I will set apart for thee a place wherein 
thou canst consummate thy marriage." But the other replied, 
" Nay, I may not do so ; I am sent on public affairs by the Com- 
mander of the Faithful and I purpose setting off with my bride 
and marching without further delay." The Grandees of Syria 

in Arab. " Ittjib"; and Kapii Katkhdd&i (pron. Kapi-Kyayasi) = the agent which every 
Governor is obliged to keep at Constantinople. 

1 In text "Al-buyiirdi," clerical error for "Buyfauldi" (pron. Buyiiruldu) = the 
written order of a Governor. 

f "Al-Yamaklak" = vivers, provaunt j from theT. "Yamak" a food, a med. 

1 Meaning that he waived his right to it. 

The Tale of Attaf. i8f 

spent that night until morning without any being able to snatch 
a moment of sleep, and as soon as dawned the day Ja'afar sent 
to summon his father-in-law and said, " On the morrow I design 
setting forth, and I desire that my bride be ready for the road ; " 
whereto replied the other, " Upon my head be it and my eyes ! " 
Then Abdullah Chelebi fared homewards and said to his daughter, 
" O my child, Attaf hath divorced thee from bed and from board, 
whereas Sultan Ja'afar the Bermaki hath taken thee to wife, and 
on Allah is the repairing of our broken fortunes and the forti- 
fying of our hearts." And she held her peace for displeasure 
by cause that she loved Attaf on account of the blood-tie and 
his exceeding great generosity. But on the next day Ja'afar 
sent a message to her sire informing him that the march would 
begin about mid-afternoon and that he wished him to make all 
ready, so the father did accordingly ; and when Attaf heard 
thereof he sent supplies and spending-money. 1 At the time 
appointed the Minister took horse escorted by the Governor and 
the Grandees, and they brought out the mule-litter 2 wherein was 
the bride, and the procession rode onwards until they had reached 
the Dome of the Birds, 3 whereat the Minister bade them return 
home and they obeyed him and farewelled him. But on the ride 
back they all met Attaf coming from the city, and he reined in 
his horse and saluted the Governor and exchanged salams withtf 
his companions, who said to him, " Now at the very time we are 
going in thou comest out." Attaf made answer, " I wotted not 
that he would set forth this day, but as soon as I was certified 
that he had mounted I sent to summon his escort and came forth 

In text " Zawa"dah " (gen. ' Azwdd " or * Azwi'dah ") = provisions, viaticum. 

8 In text " Takhtrawiin " ; see vols. ii. 180; v. 175. In the Cotheal MS. it is a 
"Haudaj " = camel-litter (vol. viii. 235). 

3 ' Kubbat al-'Asaffr," now represented by the " Khan al-As4fir," on the road from 
Damascus to Palmyra, about four hours' ride from and to the N. East of the Bdb Tumi 
or N. Eastern gate. The name is found in Baedeker (p. 541). In the C. MS. it becomes 
the " Thantyyat al-'UkaV' = th Vulture's Pass. 

1 82 Supplemental Nights. 

a-following him." * To this the Governor replied, " Go catch them 
up at the Dome of the Birds, where they are now halting." 
Attaf followed this counsel and reaching the place alighted from 
his mare, and approaching Ja'afar embraced him and cried, 
" Laud to the Lord, O brother mine, who returneth thee to thy 
home with fortunes repaired and heart fortified ; " and said the 
Minister, " O Attaf, Allah place it in my power to requite thee ; 
but cease thou not to write me and apprise me of thy tidings ; 
and for the nonce I order thee to return hence and not to lie the 
night save in thine own house." And his host did his bidding 
whilst the cousin-wife hearing his voice thrust her head out of the 
litter and looked upon him with flowing tears, understanding the 
length to which his generosity had carried him. So fared it with 
Attaf and his affair ; but now give ear to what befel him from 
Abd al-Malik bin Marwan. As they hied them home one who 
hated the generous man asked the Governor, " Wottest thou the 
wherefore he went forth to farewell his quondam guest at so 
late a time as this ? " " Why so ? " answered the other ; and the 
detractor continued, " Ja'afar hath tarried four months as a guest 
in his household, and disguised so that none save the host knew 
him, and now Attaf fared not forth for his sake but because of the 
woman." " What woman ? " enquired the Governor, and the 
other replied, " His whilom wife, whom he divorced for the sake 
of his stranger, and married her to him ; so this day he followeth 
to enjoin him once more concerning the Government of Syria 
which perchance is promised to him. And 'tis better that thou 
breakfast upon him ere he sup upon thee." The other enquired, 
"And whose daughter is she, is not her sire Abdullah Chelebi ? 2 " 
Whereto the man answered, " Yes, O my lord, and I repeat that 
she was put away to the intent that Ja'afar might espouse her." 

1 Meaning that AttaF had not the heart to see his cousin- wife leave her home." 
3 Written in Turkish fashion with the Jim ( j ) and three dots instead of one. This 
Persian letter is still preserved in the Arabic alphabets of Marocco, Algiers, etc. 

The Tale of Attaf . 183 

When the Governor heard these words, he was wroth with wrath 
galore than which naught could be more, and he hid his anger 
from Attaf for a while of time until he had devised a device to 
compass his destruction. At last, one day of the days he bade cast 
the corpse of a murthered man into his enemy's garden and after 
the body was found by spies he had sent to discover the slayer, 
he summoned Attaf and asked him, " Who murthered yon man 
within thy grounds ? " Replied the other, " 'Twas I slew him." 
"And why didst slay him ?" cried the Governor, "and what harm 
hath he wrought thee ? " But the generous one- replied, " O my 
lord, I have confessed to the slaughter of this man in order that 
I and only I may be mulcted in his- blood-wite lest the neighbours 
say : By reason of Attaf s garden we have been condemned to 
pay his fine." Quoth Abd al-Malik, " Why should I want to take 
mulcts from the folk ? Nay ; I would command according to 
Holy Law and even as Allah hath ordered, ' A life for a life.' 
He then turned for testimony to those present and asked them, 
"What said this man?'* and they answered," He said: I slew 
him." " Is the accused in his right mind or Jinn-mad * ? " pur- 
sued the Governor ; and they said, " In his senses." Then quoth 
the Governor to the Mufti, " O Efendi, deliver me thine official 
decision according to that thou heardest from the accused's 
mouth ; " and the Judge pronounced and indited his sentence 
upon the criminal according to his confession. Hereupon the 
Governor gave order for his slaves to plunder the house and 
bastinado the owner ; then he called for the headsman, but the 
Notables interfered and cried, " Give him a delay, for thou hast 

1 In Arab. "Jinn" = spirit or energy of a man, which here corresponds with the 
Heb. "Aub"; so in the Hamdsah the poet says, "My Jinn have not fled j my life is 
not blunted ; my birds never drooped for fear," where, say commentators, the Arabs 
compare an energetic man with a Jinnf or Shaytan. So the Prophet declared of Omar, 
"I never saw such an 'Abkari amongst men," 'Abkar, in Yamamah, like Yabrin 
and Wabar near Al-Yaman, being a desolate region, the home of wicked races destroyed 
by Allah and now haunted by gruesome hosts of non-human nature. Chenery, 
pp. 478-9. 

184 Supplemental Nights. 

no right to slay him without further evidence ; and better send 
him to gaol." Now all Damascus was agitated and excited by 
this affair, which came upon the folk so suddenly and unforeseen. 
And Attaf s friends * and familiars came down upon the Governor 
and went about spreading abroad that the generous man had not 
spoken such words save in fear lest his neighbours be molested 
and be mulcted for a murther which they never committed, and 
that he was wholly innocent of such crime. So Abd al-Malik 
bin Marwan summoned them and said, " An ye plead that 
the accused is Jinn-mad this were folly, for he is the prince 
of intelligent men : I was resolved to let him live until the 
morrow; but I have been thwarted and this very night I will 
send and have him strangled." Hereupon he returned him to 
prison and ordered the gaoler to do him die before day might 
break. But the man waxed wroth with exceeding wrath to hear 
the doom devised for Attaf and having visited him in prison 
said to him, " Verily the Governor is determined to slay thee for 
he was not satisfied with the intercession made for thee by the 
folk or even with taking the legal blood-wite." Hereat Attaf wept 
and cried, " Allah (be He magnified and glorified !) hath assigned 
unto every death a cause. I desired but to do good amongst the 
garden folk and prevent their being fined ; and now this bene- 
volence hath become the reason of my ruin." Then, after much 
'say and said ' the gaoler spake as follows,." Why talk after such 
fashion ? I am resolved to set thee free and to ransom thee with 
my life ; and at this very moment I will strike off thy chains and 
deliver thee from him. But do thou arise and tear my face and 
pluck out my beard and rend my raiment ; then, after thrusting a 
gag 2 into my mouth wend thy ways and save thy life and leave 
me to bear all blame." 3 Quoth Attaf, Allah requite thee for 

1 In the C. MS. it is an Emir of the Emirs. 
8 Arab. " Tabah : " see vol. ii. 814. 

s This excellent episode is omitted in the C. MS. where Attaf simply breaks gaol and 
reaching Aleppo joins a caravan to Baghdad , 

The Tale of Attaf. 185 

me with every weal ! " Accordingly the gaoler did as he had 
undertaken and his prisoner went forth unhurt and at once followed 
the road to Baghdad. So far concerning him ; but now hear thou 
what befel the Governor of Syria, Abd al-Malik bin Marwan. 
He took patience till midnight, when he arose and fared 
accompanied by the headsman to the gaol that he might witness 
the strangling of Attaf ; but lo and behold ! he found the prison- 
door wide open and the keeper in sore sorrow with his raiment all 
rent to rags and his beard plucked out and his face scratched and 
the blood trickling from his four sides and his case was the 
miserablest of cases So they removed the gag from his mouth 
and the Governor asked him, " Who did with thee on this wise ? " 
and the man answereti, " O my lord, yesternight, about the middle 
thereof, a gang of vagabonds and ne'er-do-wells as they were 'I frits 
of our lord Sulayman (upon whom be The Peace!), not one of 
whom I recognised, came upon me and ere I was ware of them 
they broke down the prison door and killed me ; ! and when I 
would have cried aloud and shouted for aid they placed yonder 
gag in my mouth, then they wounded me and shredded my dress 
and left me in the state thou seest. Moreover they took Attaf 
after breaking his chains and said to him: Go and lay thy 
complaint before the Sultan." Now those who accompanied 
the Governor said, " This be a gaoler and the son of a gaoler, 
nor during all his days hath anyone charged him with letting a 
prisoner out of hand. " Quoth Abd al-Malik to the wounded man 
" Hie thee to thy house and stay there ; " whereat he straightway 
arose and went his ways. After this the Governor took horse, he 
and his escort ; and all rode off to search for Attaf during a term 
of four days and some of them dug and dug deep down while the 
others returned after a bootless errand, and reported that they 
had failed to find him. Such was the case with the Governor of 

In text " Katalu-ni " : see vols. v. 5 ; vi- .171. 

1 86 Supplemental Nights. 

Syria ; and now give ear to the adventure of Attaf. He left not 
wayfaring until but a single stage remained between him and 
Baghdad when robbers came upon him and stripped him of all his 
clothes, so that he was compelled to enter the capital in foulest 
condition, naked even as his mother bare him. And after some 
charitable wight had thrown an old robe about him and bound his 
head with a clout (and his unshorn hair fell over his eyes) 1 he fell 
to asking for the mansion of the Wazir Ja'afar and the folk guided 
him thereto. But when he would have entered the attendants 
suffered him not ; so he stood at that gate till an old man joined 
him. Attaf enquired of him saying, " Hast thou with thee, O 
Shaykh, an ink-case and pens and paper ? " and the other replied, 
" I have ; but what is thy need thereof ? tell me, so may I write 
for thee." "I will write myself," rejoined Attaf; and when the 
old man handed to him the gear, he took seat and indited an 
address to Ja'afar informing him of all that passed from first to 
last, and especially of his own foul plight." 2 Presently he returned 
the ink-case and reed pens to the Shaykh ; and, going up to the 
gate, asked those standing about the doors, " Will ye not admit for 
me this missive and place it in the hand of his Highness, Ja'afar 
the Bermaki, the Wazir ? " " Give it here," said they, and one of 
them took it with the intent of handing it to the Minister when 
suddenly the cannon roared ; 3 the palace was in a hubbub and each 
and everyone cried, " What is to do ? " Hereat many voices replied, 
" The Sultan, who hath been favoured with a man-child, biddeth 
decorate the city for seven days " Hereat the attendant, who had 

1 In the C. MS. he enters a mosque and finds a Ja'idi (vagabond) who opens his bag 
and draws out a loaf, a roast fowl, lemons, olives, cucumbers and date-cake, which suggest 
to Attaf, who had not eaten such things for a month, "the table of Isa bin Maryam." 
For the rest see Mr. Cotheal's version. 

8 The C. MS. gives the short note in full. 

8 In text "al-Towab," Arab. plur. of the Persian and Turk. "Top." We hardly 
expected to find ordnance in the age of Harun al-Rashid, although according to Miltoa 
they date before the days of Adam. 

The Tale of A ttaf. 1 87 

charged himself with the letter, threw it in that confusion from his 
hand and Attaf was led to gaol as a vagrant. Anon Ja'afar took 
horse and, after letting read the Sultan's rescript about the city- 
decorations, gave command that all the prisoners be released, 
Attaf amongst the number. As he issued forth the gaol he beheld 
all the streets adorned with flags and tapestry, and when 
evening approached eating-cloths and trays of food were set 
and all fell-to, while sundry said to Attaf who was in pauper 
plight, " Come and eat thou ; " for it was a popular feast. 1 
And affairs went on after this same fashion and the bands made 
music and cannon was fired until ended the week of decoration 
during which the folk ceased not to-ing and fro-ing. As evening 
evened Attaf entered a cathedral-mosque and prayed the night- 
prayers when he was accosted by the eunuchs who cried, " Arise 
and gang thy gait, that we may close the mosque-door, O Attaf," 
for his name had become known. He replied, " O man. the Apostle 
of Allah saith, * Whoso striveth for good is as the doer thereof and 
the doer is of the people of Paradise : ' so suffer me to sleep here 
in some corner ; " but quoth the other, " Up with thee and be off: 
yesterday they stole me a bit of matting and to-night I will bolt 
the door nor allow any to sleep here. And indeed the Apostle of 
Allah (whom the Almighty save and assain !) hath 'forbidden sleep 
o' nights in the mosques." Attaf had no competence to persuade 
the Castrate by placing himself under his protection, albeit he 
prayed him sore saying, " I am a stranger in the city nor have 
I knowledge of any, so do thou permit me here to pass this 
one night and no more." But as he was again refused he 
went forth into the thoroughfares where the street dogs barked at 
him, and thence he trudged on to the market where the watchmen 
and warders cried out at him, till at last he entered a ruinous 

J M. Houdas would read for " Alhy Tys "in the text "Tuba Tays" a general feast; 
Tuha= cooked meat and " Tays " = myriads of. 

1 83 Supplemental Nights. 

house where he stumbled when walking and fell over something 
which proved to be a youth lately murthered, and in tripping 
he fell upon his face and his garments were bewrayed and crimsoned 
with blood. And as he stood in doubt as to what must be done 
the Wali and the watch, who were going round the town by night, 
met him face to face ; and as soon as they saw him all rushed at 
him in a body and seizing him bore him to the gaol. Here we 
leave speaking of him ; and now return we to Ja'afar and what 
befel him. After he had set out from Damascus and sent back 
Attaf from the Dome of the Birds he said in his mind, " Thou art 
about to consummate marriage with a damsel and to travel until 
thou shalt reach Baghdad, so meanwhile up and take thee an ewer 
of water and make the Wuzu and pray." However, as he pur- 
posed that evening to go in unto the wife of Attaf, controversy 
forewent compliments 1 and the tent-pitchers, who were sent on 
to the next station set up the pavilion of the bride and the other 
tents. Ja'afar took patience until every eye however wakeful 
waxed sleep-full, at which time he rose up and went in to Attaf 's 
wife who, the moment she saw him enter, covered her face with 
her hands as from a stranger. " The Peace be upon thee !" said 
he and said she, " With thee also be The Peace and the ruth of 
Allah and His blessings." Then he continued, " O daughter of 
my father's brother 2 why hast thou placed thy hand upon thy face ? 
in the lawful there be naught of shameful." " True, O my lord," 
she replied, " but Modesty is a part of Religion. If to one the like 
of thee it be a light matter that the man who guested thee and 
served thee with his coin and his case be treated on this wise and 
thou have the heart to take his mate from him, then am I but a 
slave between thy hands." " Art thou the divorced wife of Attaf ? " 
asked Ja'afar, and she answered, " I am." Quoth he, " And why 

1 M. Houdas translates Its injures devanclrcnt Us compliments > an idiom = he did 
not succeed in his design. 
"Cousin" being more polite than "wife" : see vols. vi. 145, ix. 225. 

The Tale of AttaJ. 189 

did thy husband on such wise ? " and quoth she, " The while I 
stood watering plants at the window, thy Highness deigned look 
upon me and thou toldest thy love to Attaf, who forthright put 
me away and made me wife to thy Worship. And this is where- 
fore I conceal from thee my face." Ja'afar cried, " Thou art now 
unlawful to him and licit to me ; but presently thou shalt become 
illicit to me and legitimate to thy husband : so from this time 
forth thou art dearer and more honourable to me than my eyes 
and my mother and my sister. But for the moment thy return to 
Damascus is not possible for fear of foolish tongues lest they prattle 
and say : Attaf went forth to farewell Ja'afar, and his wife lay the 
night with the former, and thus have the back-bones had a single 
lappet. 1 However I will bear thee to Baghdad where I willstablish 
thee in a spacious and well furnished lodging with ten slave girls 
and eunuchs to serve thee ; and, as long as thou abide with me, I 
will give thee 2 every day five golden ducats and every month a 
suit of sumptuous clothes. Moreover everything in thy lodging 
shall be thine ; and whatever gifts and offerings be made to thee 
they shall be thy property, for the folk will fancy thee to be my 
bride and will entertain thee and escort thee to the Hammams and 
present thee with sumptuous dresses. After this fashion thou shalt 
pass thy days in joyance and thou shalt abide with me in highmost 
honour and esteem and worship till what time we see that can be 
done. So from this moment forth 8 throw away all fear and hereafter 
be happy in heart and high in spirits, for that now thou standest 
me in stead of mother and sister and here naught shall befal thee 
save weal. And now my first desire to thee which burned in my 
soul hath been quenched and exchanged for brotherly love yet 

1 Les verttbres ont fait bourreUty says M. Houdas who adds that "Shakban" is the 
end of a cloth, gown, or cloak, which is thrown over the shoulders and serves, like the 
" Jayb" in front, to carry small parcels, herbs, etc. 

* In the local Min jargon, the language of Fellahs, Addfki" = I will give thee. 

5 In text " Min al-'An wa sa'idan ; " lit = from this moment upwards. 

Supplemental Nights. 

stronger than what forewent it." So Attafs wife rejoiced with 
exceeding joy ; and, as they pursued their journey, Ja'afar ceased 
not to clothe her in the finest of clothes, so that men might honour 
her as the Wazir's Consort ; and ever to entreat her with yet 
increasing deference. This endured until they entered Baghdad- 
city where the attendants bore her Takhtrawdn into the Minister's 
Harem and an apartment was set apart for her even as he had 
promised, and she was provided with a monthly allowance of a 
thousand dinars and all the comforts and conveniences and 
pleasures whereof he had bespoken her ; nor did he ever allow his 
olden flame for her to flare up again, and he never went near 
her ; but sent messengers to promise her a speedy reunion with 
her mate. Such was the case of Ja'afar and Attafs wife ; and 
now give ear to what befel and betided the Minister during his 
first reception by his liege lord who had sorely regretted his 
departure and was desolated by the loss of him. As soon as he 
presented himself before the Caliph, who rejoiced with exceeding 
joy and returned his salute and his deprecation of evil, 1 the Com- 
mander of the Faithful asked him, " Where was the bourne of this 
thy wayfare ? " and he answered, ** Damascus." "And where didst 
alight ? " " In the house of one Attaf hight," rejoined Ja'afar, 
who recounted all that his host had done with him from the 
beginning to the end. The Prince of True Believers took patience, 
until he had told his story and then cried to his Treasurer 
saying, " Hie thee hence and open the Treasury and bring me forth 
a certain book." And when this was done he continued, " Hand 
that volume to Ja'afar." Now when the Minister took it and read 
it he found written therein all that had occurred between Attaf 
and himself and he left not reading till he came to the time when 
the twain, host and guest, had parted and each had farewelled other 
and Attaf had fared homewards. Hereupon the Caliph cried to 

1 " Tarajjum " taking refuge from Satan the Stoned (Rajfm). See vol. iv. 242. 

The Tale of Attaf. 19! 

him, " Close the book at what place it completeth the recital of 
thy bidding adieu to Attaf and of his returning to his own place, 
so shalt thou understand how it was I said to thee : Near me not 
until thou bring that which is contained in this volume." Then the 
Commander of the Faithful restored the book to the Treasurer 
saying, " Take this and set it H the bibliotheca ; " then, turning to 
Ja'afar he observed, "Verily Almighty Allah (be He glorified 
and magnified !) hath deigned show thee whatso I read therein 
until I fell a-weeping and a-laughing at one and the same time. 
So now do thou retire and hie thee home." Ja'afar did his 
bidding and reassumed the office of Wazir after fairer fashion 
than he was before. And now return we to the purport of our 
story as regardeth the designs of Attaf and what befel him when 
they took him out of gaol. They at once led him to the Kazi 
who began by questioning him, saying, "Woe to thee, didst thou 
murther this tUshimf ? " * Replied he, "Yes, I did!" "And 
why killedst thou him ? " " I found him in yonder ruin and, I 
struck him advisedly and slew him ! " " Art thou in thy right 
senses ? " " Yea, verily." " What may be thy name ? " " I am 
hight Attaf." Now when the Judge heard this confession, which 
was thrice repeated, he wrote a writ to the Mufti and acquainted 
him with the contention : and the divine after delivering his 
decision produced a book and therein indited the prods-verbal. 
Then he sent notice thereof to Ja'afar the Wazir for official order 
to carry out the sentence and the Minister took the document and 
affixing his seal and signature thereto gave order for the execution. 
So they bore Attaf away and led him to the gallows-foot whither 
he was followed by a world of folk in number as the dust ; and, 
as they set him under the tree Ja'afar the Wazir, who was riding 
by with his suite at the time, suddenly espied a crowd going forth 
the city. Thereupon he summoned the Sobashf 2 who came up to 

1 i.e. a descendant of Al-Hdshim, great-grandfather of the Prophet. See ix. 24. 

2 In text "Shobasi," for "Sobashi" which M. Houdas translates/;^/ du Palais. 

10,2 Supplemental Nights. 

him and kissed his knee. " What is the object of this gathering 
of folk who be manifold as the dust and what do they want?" 
quoth the Wazir; and quoth the officer, " We are wending to hang 1 
a Syrian who hath murthered a youth of Sharif family." " And 
who may be this Syrian ? " asked the Wazir, and the other 
answered, " One hight Attaf." But when Ja'afar heard the word 
Attaf he cried out with a mighty loud outcry and said, " Hither 
with him." So after loosing the noose from his neck they set him 
before the Wazir who regarding him at once recognised his 
whilome host albeit he was in the meanest of conditions, so he 
sprang up and threw himself upon him and he in turn threw him- 
self upon his sometime guest. 2 " What condition be this ? " quoth 
Ja'afar as soon as he could speak, and quoth Attaf, " This cometh 
of my acquaintance with thee which hath brought me to such 
pass " Hereupon the twain swooned clean away and fell down 
fainting on the floor, and when they came to themselves and could 
rise to their feet Ja'afar the Wazir sent his friend Attaf to the 
Hammam with a sumptuous suit of clothes which he donned as he 
came out. Then the attendants led him to the Wazirial mansion 
where both took seat and they drank wine and ate the early meal 3 
and after their cofifee they sat together in converse. And when 
they had rested and were cheered, Ja'afar said, " Do thou acquaint 
me with all that betided thee from the time we took leave each of 
other until this day and date." So Attaf fell to telling him how 
he had been entreated by Abd al-Malik bin Marwan, Governor 6f 
Syria ; how he had been thrown into prison and how his enemy 
came thither by night with intent to strangle him ; also how the 
gaoler deviced a devise to save him from slaughter and how he 

1 In the C. MS. Attafs head was to be cut off. 

* In the C. MS. the anagnorisis is much more detailed. Ja'afar asks Attaf if he 
knew a Damascus-man Attaf htght and so forth ; and lastly an old man comes forward 
and confesses to have slain the Sharif or Hishlmi. 

They drink before the meal, as is still the custom in Syria and Egypt. See 
rol. vii. 132 

The Tale of Attaf. 193 

had fled nor ceased flight till he drew near Baghdad when 

robbers had stripped him ; how he had lost an opportunity of 

seeing the Wazir because the city had been decorated ; and, 

lastly, what had happened to him through being driven from the 

Cathedral-mosque ; brief, he recounted all from commencement to 

conclusion. Hereupon the Minister loaded him with benefits and 

presently gave orders to renew the marriage-ceremony between 

man and wife ; and she seeing her husband led in to pay her the 

first visit lost her senses, and her wits flew from her head and she 

cried aloud, "Would Heaven I wot if this be on wake or the 

imbroglio of dreams ! " So she started like one frightened and a 

moment after she threw herself upon her husband and cried, " Say 

me, do I view thee in vision or really in the flesh ? " whereto he 

replied, " In the world of sense and no sweven is this." Then he 

took seat beside her and related to her all that had befallen him of 

hardships and horrors till he was taken from under the Hairibee ; 

and she on her part recounted how she had dwelt under Ja'afar's 

roof, eating well and drinking well and dressing well and in 

honour and worship the highmost that might be. And the joy 

of this couple on reunion was perfect. But as for Ja'afar when the 

morning morrowed, he arose and fared for the Palace ; then", 

entering the presence, he narrated to the Caliph all that had 

befallen Attaf, art and part ; and the Commander of the Faithful 

rejoined, " Indeed this adventure is the most wondrous that can 

be, and the most marvellous that ever came to pass." Presently 

he called to the Treasurer and bade him bring the book a second 

time from the Treasury, and when it was brought the Prince of 

True Believers took it, and handing it to Ja'afar, said to him, " Open 

and read." So he perused the whole tale of Attaf with himself 

the while his liege lord again wept and laughed at the same 

moment and said, " In very deed, all things strange and rare are 

written and laid up amongst the treasuries of the Kings; and 

therefor I cried at thee in my wrath and forbade thee my presence 


194 Supplemental Nights. 

until thou couldst answer the question, What is there in this 
volume ? and thou couldst comprehend the cause of my tears and 
my smiles. Then thou wentest from before me and wast driven 
by doom of Destiny until befel thee with Attaf that which did 
befal ; and in fine thou returnedst with the reply I required.' Then 
the Caliph enrobed Ja'afar with a sumptuous honour-robe and 
said to the attendants, " Bring hither to me Attaf." So they went 
out and brought him before the Prince of True Believers ; and the 
Syrian standing between his hands blessed the Sovran and prayed 
for his honour and glory in permanence of prosperity and felicity. 
Hereat quoth the Caliph, " O Attaf, ask whatso thou wishest ! " 
and quoth the generous man, " O King of the Age, I pray only 
thy pardon for Abd al-Malik bin Marwan." " For that he harmed 
thee ? " asked Harun al-Rashid, and Attaf answered, " O my lord, 
the transgression came not from him, but from Him who caused 
him work my wrong ; and I have freely pardoned him. Also do 
thou, O my lord, write a Farmdn with thine own hand certifying 
that I have sold to the gaoler, and have received from him 
the price thereof, all my slaves and estates in fullest tale and 
most complete. Moreover deign thou appoint him inspector over 
the Governor of Syria 1 and forward to him a signet-ring by way 
of sign that no petition which doth not bear that seal shall be 
accepted or even shall be heard and lastly transmit all this with 
a Chamberlain unto Damascus." Now all the citizens of Syria 
were expecting some ill-turn from the part of Attaf, and with this 
grievous thought they were engrossed, when suddenly tidings from 

1 Gauttier (vii. 256), illustrating the sudden rise of low-caste and uneducated men to 
high degree, quotes a contemporary celebrity, the famous Mirza Mohammed Husayn 
Khan who, originally a Bakkdl or greengrocer, was made premier of Fath Ali Shah's 
brilliant court, the last bright flash of Iranian splendour and autocracy. But Iran is a 
land upon which Nature has inscribed " Resurgam " ; and despite her present abnormal 
position between two vast overshadowing empiresBritish India and Russia in Asia 
she has still a part to play in history. And I may again note that Al-Islam is based 
upon the fundamental idea of a Republic which is, all (free) men are equal, and the 
lowest may aspire to the highest dignity. 

The Tale of Attaf. 195 

Baghdad were bruited abroad ; to wit, that a Kapuji was coming 
on Attaf's business. Hereat the folk feared with exceeding great 
affright and fell to saying, " Gone is the head of Abd al-Malik bin 
Marwan, and gone all who could say aught in his defence." And 
when the arrival of the Chamberlain was announced all fared 
forth to meet and greet him, and he entered on a day of flocking 
and crowding, 1 which might be truly numbered amongst the days 
and lives of men. And presently he produced the writ of 
indemnity, and pardon may not be procured save by one duly 
empowered to pardon. Then he sent for the gaoler and committed 
to him the goods and chattels of Attaf, together with the signet 
and the appointment of supervisor over the Governor of Syria with 
an especial Farman that no order be valid unless sealed with the 
superior's seal. Nor was Abd al-Malik bin Marwan less rejoiced 
that the adventure had ended so well for him when he saw the 
Kapuji returning Baghdad-wards that he might report all con- 
cerning his mission. But as for Attaf, his friend Ja'afar bestowed 
upon him seigniories and presented him with 
property and moneys exceeding tenfold 
what he had whilome owned 
and made him more 
prosperous than he 

had ever 
been aforetime. 

In text " 'Arararami. ' 


Mr. Alexander J. Cotheal, of New York, a correspondent who already on 
sundry occasions has rendered me able aid and advice, was kind enough to send 
me his copy of the Tale of Attaf (the " C. MS. " of the foregoing pages). It 
is a small 410 of pp. 334, size 5! by 8 inches, with many of the leaves injured and 
repaired ; and written in a variety of handwritings, here a mere scribble, there 
regular and legible as printed Arabic. A fly-leaf inserted into the Arabic binding 
contains in cursive hand the title, U A Book embracing many Tales of the Tales of 
the Kings and named ' Stories from the Thousand Nights and a Night.' " Ar1 
a note at the end supplies the date ; "And the finish thereof was on Fifth Day 
(Thursday), Qth from the beginning of the auspicious month Rabi'a 2nd, in the 
year 1096 of the Hijrah of the Apostle, upon whom be the choicest of blessings 
and the fullest of greetings ; and Allah prospereth what he pleaseth, 1 and 
praise be to God the One." Thus (A.H. 1096 = A.D. 1685) the volume is up- 
wards of 200 years old. It was bought by Mr. Cotheal many years ago with 
other matters among the effects of a deceased American missionary who had 
brought it from Syria. 

The "Tale of Attaf" occupies pp. 1050, and the end is abrupt. The treat- 
ment of the " Novel'' contrasts curiously with that of the Chavis MS. which 
forms my text, and whose directness and simplicity give it a European and 
even classical character. It is an excellent study of the liberties allowed to 
themselves by Eastern editors and scribes. In the Cotheal MS. the tone is 
distinctly literary, abounding in verse (sometimes repeated from other portions 
of The Nights), and in Saj'a or Cadence which the copyist sometimes denotes 
by marks in red ink. The wife ot Attaf is a much sterner and more important 
personage than in my text : she throws water upon her admirer as he gazes 
upon her from the street, and when compelled to marry him by her father, she 
" gives him a bit of her mind " as forcibly and stingmgly as if she were of 
" Anglo-Saxon " blood ; e.g. *' An thou have in thee aught of manliness and 
generosity thou wilt divorce me even as he did." Sundry episodes like that of 
the brutal Eunuch at Ja'afar's door, and the Vagabond in the Mosque are also 
introduced ; but upon this point I need say no more, as Mr. Cotheal shatl now 
speak for himself. 

"Wa'Hahu '1-Muwaffiku '1-Mu'fn" = God prospereth and directeth, a formula 
oitea prefixed or suffixed to a book. 






fin tfje name of &ott, tf)* jftmiful, tfje Compassionate to fofjom foe crp 

for f)tlp. 

THEY say God is omniscient, knowing the past and the future, and we learn from 
the histories of the peoples that there was in ancient times and bygone seasons 
(and God knows best !) a Caliph of the Caliphs of the orthodox and he was 
Harun er-Rashid who one night became very restless and from the drowsiness 
that came upon him he sat down upon the bed and dressed himself in sleeping- 
clothes ; then it was that he called to his service Mesrur the sword-bearer of 
grace who came immediately into his presence and said to him, O Mesrur, the 
night is very oppressive and I wish thee to dispel my uneasiness. Then Mesrur 
said to him, O Commander of the Faithful, arise now and go to the terrace- 
roof of the palace and look upon the canopy of heaven and upon the twinkling 
stars and the brightness of the moon, while listening to the music of the 
rippling screams and the creaking norias as they are spoken of by the poet 
who said: 

A Noria that discharges by the spouts of her tears resembles the actions of a distracted 

lover : 
She is the lover of her branches (sweeps or levers) by the magic in her heart until she 

laughs : 
She complains and the tears run from her eyes, she rises in the morning to find herself 

weeping and complaining. 

2oo Supplemental Nights. 

Then he said, O Commander of the Faithful, the streams also are thus mentioned 
by one of them : 

My favorite is a damsel dispensing drink, and my recreation is a running stream ; 
A damsel whose eyes are a garden of Paradise, and a garden whose springs make a 
running brook. 

Then again said Harun er-Rashid, O Mesrur, such is not my wish, and Mesrur 
replied, O Commander of the Faithful, in thy palace are three hundred and 
sixty damsels, they are thy concubines and thy slaves, and they are as if they 
were rising moons and beautiful gazelles, and in elegant robes they are dressed 
like the flowers. Walk around in the midst of the palaces and from thy hiding- 
place see each of them enter by herself in her own apartment admiring her 
beauty and her magnificent dresses, all showing their joy and mirth since they 
will not know of thee ; then listen to their singing and their playing and their 
joyous company in their apartments and perhaps you'll attach yourself to one 
of them who'll play with thee, keep thee awake and be thy cup-companion, 
dispelling what may remain of thy restlessness. But he replied, O Mesrur, bring 
to me my cousin Ja'afar the Barmeky immediately. So he answered, Hearing 
is obedience. Then Mesrur went out to the house of Ja'afar and said to him, 
Come to the Commander of the Faithful, and he answered, To hear is to 
obey. Then Ja'afar dressed himself and went with Mesrur to the Caliph and 
kissing the ground before him he said, May it be good ! O Commander of the 
Faithful. It is not other than good, he answered, but I am wearied this night 
with a great weariness and I sent for you to divert me so that my unrest may 
be dissipated. Then Ja'afar said, Let's get up, O Commander of the Faithful, 
and we'll go out into the garden of the palace and listen to the warbling ol 
the birds and smell of the odours of the flowers, and the cool zephyr with its 
gentle breath will pass over us, dispelling our uneasiness and gladdening 
the heart. The Rawi says that Ja'afar was very familiar with the Caliph by 
reason of the endearment between them. Then the Caliph _arose and with 
Ja'afar and Mesrur went to the garden. The Caliph began to be thoughtful 
and asked about the trees and the qualities of the flowers and the fruits and the 
nature of their colours, and as the Caliph took pleasure in that, he walked around 
for an hour and then passed over to the palaces and houses, going from place to 
place, from quarter to quarter, and from market to market ; and, whilst they 
were going on, they stopped before a book-shop and the Caliph opened a 
book-case and began to turn over the books one by one, and taking one in his 
hand opened it, began to read in it, and then suddenly laughed until he fell upon 
his back. He read in it again and wept until his beard was wet with the falling 
tears, and wrapping up the book he put it in his sleeve when Ja'afar said, O 
Commander of the Faithful and Lord of the two worlds, what was it that made 
thee laugh and then weep at the same time? 3/Vhen the Caliph heard that 
he was angered and cried out at him in the^midst of his rage, O dog of a 
Barmeky, what an impertinence on thy part about what concerns thee not* 

The Tale of Attaf. 201 

why meddle with what thou hast not lost. You've taken upon yourself to be 
annoying and conceited, you have passed beyond your place and it only 
remained for you to brave the Caliph. By my fathers and grandfathers, if 
thou dost not bring me someone who can tell me about the contents of this 
book from the first page to the last, I'll strike thy neck and show thee what it 
is that has made me laugh and cry. When Ja'afar heard these words and 
saw his passion he said, O Commander of the Faithful, I have committed a 
fault : sin is for the like of me and forgiveness for the like of your Highness ; 
to which the Caliph answered, I have made oath, thou must bring that person 
to explain the book or I'll strike thy neck this very hour. Then Ja'afar said, O 
Commander of the Faithful, God created the heavens and the two worlds in six 
days and if it had pleased Him He could have created them in one single hour, 
but He did so for an instruction to his worshippers that one should not fault 
with another but be patient ; then, O Lord, be thou patient with thy servant if 
it be for three days only ; and the Caliph replied to him, If thou bringest not 
to me him whom I have mentioned I will slay thee with the most horrible of 
deaths. At this Ja'afar said, I depart on thy mission ; thereupon Ja'afar went 
home with a sorrowful heart to his father Yahya and his brother El-Fadl to 
take leave of them and weep. Then they said, to him, What is thy trouble ? so 
he told them of what had occurred between him and the Caliph and of the 
condition laid upon him of execution if not complied with in three days, for 
doubtless the Caliph seeks my death ; he who strikes against a point, 'twill 
pierce his hand, and he that struggles with a lion will be killed; but as to 
myself I can no longer remain with him for that would be the greatest of 
dangers for me and for thee, O my father, and for thee, O my brother. I now 
set out to travel and I wish to go far away from his eye. The preservation of 
life is not esteemed and is of little value : distance is the best preservative for 
our necks as is said by the poet : 

Save your life if menaced by evil (danger), and leave the house to complain of the 

builder : 
You'll find a land upon a land, but not another life for your own life. 

When he had finished, his father and his brother said to him, Do not do so, 
for probably the Caliph will be merciful to you. And Ja'afar answered, Only 
good will come of my travel. Then he went to his treasure-room and took out 
a purse containing 1,000 dinars, mounted his horse, put on his sword, bade 
adieu to his father and brother and set fprth in his time and hour; then, not 
taking with him any servants, either slave or boy, he hastened on his journey, 
travelling day and night for twenty days until he reached the city of Aleppo 
without stopping, passing by Hamah and Horns until he reached Teniydt al- 
Igb and arrived at Damascus where he entered the city and saw the Minaret 
of the Bride from bottom to top covered with gilded tiles ; and it surrounded 
with meadows, irrigated gardens with all kinds of flower.:, fields of myrtle with 
mountains of violets and <*her beauties of the gardens. He dwelt upon these 

2O2 Supplemental Nights. 

charms while listening to the singing of the birds in the trees ; and he saw a 
city whose like has never been created in any other country of the world. 
Turning then to the right hand and to the left he espied a man standing near 
him and said to him, O my brother, what's the name of this city ? and he 
answered, O my lord, this city in ancient times was called Jullag the same that 
is mentioned by the poet who says : 

I am called Jullag and my heart I attach, in me flow the waters, in and out ; 
The Garden of Eden upon the earth, birth-place of the fairies : 
I will never forget thy beauties, O Damascus, for none but thee will I ever long : 
Blessed be the wonders that glitter on thy roofs (expanse). 

She was also called Sham (grain of beauty) because she is the Sham of 
Cities and the Sham of God on earth. Ja'afar was pleased at the explanation 
of the name, and dismounted with the intention of taking a stroll through the 
streets, by the great houses and the domes (mosks). Whilst thus engaged in 
examining the various places and their beauties, he perceived a tent of silk 
brocade called Dibaj, containing carpets, furniture, cushions, silk curtains, 
chairs and beds. A young man was sitting upon a mattress, and he was like a 
rising moon, like the shining orb in its fourteenth night. He was in an 
undress, upon his head a kerchief and on his body a rose-coloured gaberdine ; 
and as he sat before him were a company and drinks worthy of Kings. Ja'afar 
stopped and began to contemplate the scene, and was pleased with what he 
saw of the youth ; then looking further he espied a damsel like unto the sun 
in serene firmament who took her lute and played on it while singing : 

Evil to whoever have their heart in possession of their lovers, for in obtaining it they 

will kill it : 
They have abandoned it when they have seen it amorous : when they see it amorous they 

abandon it. 
Nursling, they pluck it out from the very entrails : O bird, repeat " Nursling they 

have plucked thee out !" 

They have killed it unjustly : the loved plays the coquette with the humble lover. 
The seeker of the effects of love, love am I, brother of love, and sigh 
Behold the man stricken by love, though his heart change not they bury it (him ?) 

The Rawi said that Ja'afar was pleased and he rejoiced at hearing the song 
and all his organs were moved at the voice of the damsel and he said, Wallahy, 
it is fine. Then she began again to sing, reciting the following verses : 

With these sentiments thou art in love, it is not wonderful that I should love thee : 

I stretch out my hand to thee asking for mercy and pity for my humility mayst thou be 

charitable ; 
My life has passed away soliciting thy consent, but I have not found it in my confidence 

to be charitable, 
And I have become a slave in consequence of her possession of love my heart is 

imprisoned and my tears flow. 

The Tale of Attaf. 203 

When the poem was finished Ja'afar gave himself up more and more to the 
pleasure of hearing and looking at the damsel. The youth, who was reclining, 
sat up and calling some of his boys said to them, Don't you see that young 
man standing there in iront of us ? They answered, Yes, and he said, He must 
be a stranger for I see on him the signs of travel : bring him to me and take 
care not to offend him. They answered, With joy and gladness, and went 
towards Ja'afar, who, while contemplating the damsel, perceived the boy that 
came and who said to him, In the name of God, O my lord, please have the 
generosity to come in to our master. Ja'afar came with the boy to the door of 
the tent, dismounted from his horse and entered at the moment when the youth 
was rising upon his feet, and he stretched out his two hands and saluted Tiim 
as if he had always known him, and after he had chanted the prayer to the 
envoy (of Allah) he sang : 

O my visitor be welcome, them enlivenest us and bringest us our union : 
By thy face I live when it appears and I die if it disappears. 

Then he said to Ja'afar, Please be seated, my dear sir ; thanks be to God 
for your happy arrival ; and he continued his chant after another prayer to 
the envoy (of God) : 

If we had known of thy arrival we would have covered (thy) heart with the black of 

our eyes, 
And we would have spread the street with our cheeks that thy coming might have been 

between our eyelids. 

After that -he arose, kissed the breast of Ja'afar, magnified his power and 
said to him, O my Master, this day is a happy one and were it not a fast-day I 
would have fasted for thee to render thanks to God. Then came up the 
servants to whom he said, Bring us what is ready. They spread the table of 
viands and the youth said, O my lord, the Sages say, * If you are invited content 
yourself with what's before you, but if you are not invited, stay not and visit 
not again ; if we had known that you would arrive to-day we would have 
sacrificed the flesh of our bodies and our children.' Ja'afar said, I put out my 
hand and I ate until I was satisfied, while he was presenting me with his hand 
the delicate morsels and taking pleasure in entertaining me. When we had 
finished they brought the ewef and basin, we washed our hands and we passed 
into the drinking room where he told the damsel to sing. She took up her 
lute, tuned it, and holding it against her breast she began : 

A visitor of whom the sight is venerated by all, sweeter than either spirit or hope : 

He spreads the darkness of his hair over the morning dawn and the dawn of shame 

appeared not ; 
And when my lot would kill me I asked his protection, his arrival revived a soul that 

death reclaimed : 
I've become the slave of the Prince of the Lovers and the dominion of love was of my 


2O4 Supplemental Nights. 

The Rawi says that Ja'afar was moved with exceeding joy, as was also the 
youth, but he did not fail to be fearful on account of his affair with the Caliph, 
so that it showed itself in his countenance, and this anxiety was apparent to the 
youth who knew that he was anxious, frightened, dreaming and uncertain. 
Ja'afar perceived that the youth was ashamed to question him on his position 
and the cause of his condition, but the youth said to him, O my lord, listen to 
what the Sages have said : 

Worry not thyself for things that are to come, drive away your cares by the intoxicating 


See you not that hands have painted beautiful flowers on the robes of drink ? 
Spoils of the vine-branch, lilies and narcissus, and the violet and the striped flower of 

N'uman : 
If troubles overtake you, lull them to sleep with liquors and flowers and favourites. 

Then said he to Ja'afar, Contract not thy breast, and to the damsel, Sing ; 
and she sang, and Ja'afar who was delighted with her songs, said Let us not 
cease our enjoyment, now in conversation, now in song until the day closes and 
night comes with darkness. 

The youth ordered the servants to bring up the horses and they presented to 
his guest a mare fit for Kings. We mounted (said Ja'afar), and, entering 
Damascus, I proceeded to look at the bazars and the streets until we came to 
a large square in the middle of which were two mastabas or stone benches 
before a high doorway brilliantly illuminated with divers lights, and before a 
portiere was suspended a lamp by a golden chain. There were lofty domes 
surrounded by beautiful statues, and containing various kinds of birds and 
abundance of flowing water, and in their midst was a hall with windows of 
silver. He opened it and found it looking upon a garden like that of Paradise 
animated by the songs of the birds and the perfumes of the flowers and the 
ripple of the brooks. The house, wherein were fountains and birds warbling 
their songs understood in every language, was carpeted with silken rugs and 
furnished with cushions of Dibaj-brocade. It contained also in great number 
costly articles of every kind, it was perfumed with the odours of flowers and 
fruits and it contained every other imaginable thing, plates and dishes of 
silver and gold, drinking vessels, and a censer for ambergris, powder of aloes 
and every sort of dried fruits. Brief, it was a house like that described by the 

Society became perfectly brilliant in its beauty and shone in the e*clat of its magnificence. 

Ja'afar said, When I sat down the youth came to me and asked, From what 
Country art thou ? 1 replied, From Basora, soldier by profession, commandant 
over a company of men and I used to pay a quit-rent to the Caliph. I became 
afraid of him for my life and 1 came away fleeing with downcast face for dread 
of him, and I never ceased wandering about the country and in the deserts 
until Destiny has brought me to thee. The youth said, A blessed arrival, and 

The Tale of Attaf. 205 

what may be thy name ? I replied, My name is like thine own. On hearing 
my words he smiled, arid said, laughing, O my Lord, Abu '1-Hasan, carry no 
trouble in your heart nor contraction of your breast ; then he ordered a service 
and they set for us a table with all kinds of delicacies and we ate until satisfied. 
After this they took away the table and brought again the ewer and basin and 
we washed our hands and then went to the drinking room where there was a 
pleasaunce filled with fruits and flowers in perfection. Then he spoke to the 
damsel for music and she sang, enchanting both Ja'afar and the youth with 
delight at her performances, and the place itself was agitated, and Ja'afar 
in the excess of his joy took off his robes and tore them. Then the youth said 
to him, Wallahy, may the tearing be the effect of the pleasure and not of 
sorrow and waywardness, and may God disperse far from you the bitterness 
of your enemies. Then he went to a chest (continued Ja'afar) and took out 
from it a complete dress, worth a hundred dinars and putting it upon me said 
to the damsel, Change the. tune of thy lute. She did so, and sang the following 
verses : 

My jealous regard is attached to him and if he regard another I am impatient : 
I terminate my demand and my song crying, Thy friendship will last until death in my 

The Rawi said : When she had finished her poetry Ja'afar threw off the last 
dress and cried out, and the youth said, May God ameliorate your life and make 
its beginning the end. Then he went to the chest and took out a dress better 
than the first and put it upon Ja'afar, and the damsel was silent for an hour 
during the conversation. The youth said, Listen, O my lord Abu '1-Hasan, to 
what people of merit have said of this valley formerly called the Valley of 
Rabwat in which we now are and spoken of in the poem, saying : 

bounty of our Night in the valley of Rabwat where the gentle zephyr brings in her 

perfumes : 

It is a valley whose beauty is like that of the necklace : trees and flowers encompass it. 

Its fields are carpeted with every variety of flowers and the birds fly around above them ; 

"When the trees saw us seated beneath them they dropped upon us their fruits. 

We continued to exchange upon the borders of its gardens the flowing bowls of con- 
versation and of poesy, 

The valley was bountiful and her zephyrs brought to us what the flowers had sent to us. 

So when the youth had finished his recitation he turned to the damsel and 
told her to sing : 

1 consume (.with desire) when I hear from him a discourse whose sweetness is a melting 

speech : 
My heart palpitates when he sees it, it is not wonderful that the drunken one should 

dance : 
It has on this earth become my portion, but on this earth I have no chance to obtain to. 

Lord ! tell me the fault that I've committed, perhaps I maybe able to correct it. 

1 find in thee a heart harder than that of others and the hearts consume my being. 

2 o6 Supplemental Nights. 

Now when she had finished, Ja'afar in his joy threw off the third dress.' 
The youth arose, kissed him on the head, and then took out for him another 
suit and put it upon him, for he was the most generous man of his time. Then 
he entertained Ja'afar with the news of the day and of the subjects and 
anecdotes of the great pieces of poetry and said to him, O my lord, load not 
thyself with cares. The Rawi says that they continued living in the same way 
for forty days and on the forty-first Ja'afar said to the young man, Know, O my 
lord, that I have left my country neither for eating nor for drinking, but to 
divert myself and to see the world ; but if God vouchsafe my return to my 
country to talk to my people, my neighbours and friends, and they ask me 
where I have been and what I have seen, I will tell them of your generosity 
and of the great benefactions that you have heaped upon me in your country 
of Damascus. I will say that I have sighted this and that, and thus I will 
entertain them with what I have espied in Damascus and of its order. The 
young man replied, Thou sayest true : and Ja'afar said, I desire to go out and 
visit the city, its bazars and its streets, to which the young man answered, 
With love and good will, to-morrow morning if it please Allah. That night 
Ja'afar slept there and when God brought the day, he rose, went in to the 
young man, wished him good morning and said to him, O my lord, thy 
promise ! to which he replied, With love and good will ; and, ordering a white 
dress for him, he handed him a purse of three hundred dinars saying, Bestow 
this in charity and return quick after thou hast made thy visit, and lastly said 
to his servants, Bring to your lord a horse to ride. But Ja'afar answered, I da 
not wish to have one, for a rider cannot observe the people but the people 
observe him. The young man, who was named Attaf, said, O my lord, be it as 
thou wishest and desirest ; be not away long on my account for thine absence 
gives me pain. Then he gave to Ja'afar a grain of red musk saying, Take this 
and keep it in thy hand and if thou go into any place where there is a bad 
odour thou wilt take a smell of the musk. Ja'afar the Barmeky (Allah be 
merciful to him !) said, After that I left him and set out to walk in the streets 
and quarters of Damascus and went on until I came to the Mosk of the 
'Omeyyades where I saw a fountain casting the water from its upper part and 
falling like serpents in their flight. I sat down under the pulpit ; and as it was 
a Friday I heard the preacher and made my Friday prayer and remained 
until I made the afternoon prayer when I went to distribute the money I had, 
after which I recited these verses : 

I see the beauties united in the mosk of Jullag, and around her the meaning of beauty 

is explained: 
If people converse in the mosks tell them their entrance door is open. 

Then I left the mosk and began to promenade the quarters and the streets 
until I came before a splendid house, broad in its richness and strong in its 
build, having a border of gold astonishing the mind by the beauty of the work, 
showing curtains of silk embroidered with gold and in front of the door were 

The Tale of A ttaf. 207 

two carpeted steps. I sat down upon one of them and Began to think of 
myself and of the events that had happened to me and of my ignorance of 
what had taken place after my departure. In the midst of my sadness at the 
contemplation of my troubles (and the wind blowing upon me) I fell asleep and 
I awaked not until a sprinkling of water came down upon me. On opening 
my eyes I saw a young woman behind the curtain dressed in a morning gown 
and a Sdudi fillet upon her forehead. Her look and eyelids were full of art 
and her eyebrows were like the fronts of the wings of light. The Rawi says 
she resembled a full moon. When my eyes fell upon her (continued Ja'afar) 
and looked at her, that look brought with it a thousand sighs and I arose and 
my disposition was changed. The young woman cried at me and I said, I am 
your servant, O my lady, and here at thy command, but said she, No labbayka 
and no favour for thee ! Is this house thine ? Said I, No my lady, and she 
replied, O dog of the streets, this house is not thine, why art thou sitting here? 
When Ja'afar heard this he was greatly mortified, but he took courage and 
dissimulated, answering, " O my lady, I am resting here only to recite somo 
verses which I have composed for thee, then she asked, And what hast thou 
said about me ? He continued : 

She appeared in a whitish robe with eyelids and glances of wonder, 

I said she came out without greeting, with her I'm content to my heart's content. 

Blessed be He that clothed thy cheeks with roses, He can create what He wills without 

Thy dress like thy lot is as my hand, white, and they are white upon white upon my 


When he had finished these verses he said, I have composed others on thine 
expression, and recited the following : 

Dost thou see through her veil that face appearing how i{ shines, like the moon in 

the horizon ? 
Its splendour enlightens the shade of her temples and the sun enters into obscurity 

by system : 
Her forehead eclipses the rose and the apple, and her look and expression enchant 

the people ; 
It is she that if mortal should see her he'd become victim of love, of the fires of 


On hearing this recitation the young lady said to Ja'afar, Miserable fellow, what 
is this discourse which does not belong to the like of thee ? Get up and begone 
with the malediction of Allah and the protection of Satan. Ja'afar arose, seized 
with a mighty rage in addition to his love ; and in this love for her he departed 
and returned to the house of his friend Attaf and saluted him with a pre- 
possessed heart. As soon as Attaf saw him he cast himself on his breast and 
kissed him between the eyes, saying to him, O my lord, thou hast made me 
feel desolate to-day by thine absence. Then Attaf, looking in the face of 
Ja'afar and reading in it many words, continued to him, O my lord, I find thy 
countenance changed and thy mind broken. Ja'afar answered, O my lord, 

2o8 Supplemental Nights. 

since I left thee up to the present time I have been suffering with a headache 
and a nervous attack for I was sleeping upon my ear. The people in the mosk 
recited the afternoon prayer without my knowing it, and now I have a mind to 
get an hour's sleep, probably I shall find repose for the body, and what I suffer 
will pass off. Accordingly, Attaf went into the house and ordered cushions to 
be brought out and a bed to be made for him, Ja'afar then stretched himself 
upon it depressed and out of spirits, and covering himself up began to think of 
the young lady and of the offensive words she gave him so contrary to usage. 
Also he thought of her beauty and the elegance of her stature and perfect 
proportions and of what Allah (to whom be praise !) had granted her of 
magnificence. He forgot all that happened to him in other days and also his 
affair with the Caliph and his people and his friends and his society. Such 
was the burden of his thoughts until he was taken with monomania and his 
body wasted. Hereupon Attaf sent for doctors, they surrounded him con- 
stantly, they employed all their talents for him, but they could find no remedy. 
So he remained during a certain time without anyone being able to discover 
what was the matter with him. The breast of Attaf became straitened, he 
renounced all diversions and pleasures, and Ja'afar getting worse and worse, 
his trouble augmented. One day a new doctor arrived, a man of experience in 
the art of gallantry, whose name was Dabdihkan. When he came to Ja'afar 
and looked at his face and felt his pulse and found everything in its place, no 
suffering, no pain, he comprehended that he was in love, so he took a paper 
and wrote a prescription and placed it beneath Ja'afar's head. He then said, 
Thy remedy is under thy head, I've prescribed a purge, if thou take it thou wilt 
get well, fox he was ashamed to tell Attaf his love-sick condition. Presently 
the Doctor went away to other patients and Attaf arose and when about 
entering to see Ja'afar he heard him recite the following verses : 

A doctor came to me one day and took my hand and pulse, when I said to him Let go 

my hand, the fire's in my heart 
He said, Drink syrup of the rose and mix it well with water of the tongue but tell it not 

to anyone : 
I said, The syrup of the rose is quits well known to me ; it is the water of the cheek 

that breaks my very heart ; 
But can it be that I can get the water of the tongue that I may cool the burning fire that 

within me dwells ? 
The doctor said, Thou art In love, I said Yes to him, and -said he to me, Its remedy is to 

have the body here. 

Then when Attaf went in to him after the end of the recitation he sat down at 
the head of the bed and asked him about his condition and what had been 
prescribed for him by the Hakfm. Ja'afar said, O my lord, he wrote for me a 
paper which is under the pillow. Attaf put out his hand, took out the paper 
and read it and found upon it written : " In the name of God the Curer To 
be taken, with the aid and blessing of God, 3 miskals of pure presence of the 
beloved unmixed with morsels of absence and fear of being watched : plus, 

The Tale of Attaf. 209 

3 miskals of a good meeting cleared of any grain of abandonment and rupture : 
plus, 2 okes of pure friendship and discretion deprived of the wood of 
separation. Then take some extract of the incense of the kiss, the teeth and 
the waist, 2 miskals of each ; also take 100 kisses .of pomegranate rubbed and 
rounded, of which 50 small ones are to be sugared, 30 pigeon-fashion and 20 
after the fashion of little birds. Take of Aleppine twist and sigh of Al-Irq 
2 miskals each ; also 2 okes of tongue-sucking, mouth and lip kissing, all to 
be pounded and mixed. Then put upon a furnace 3 drams of Egyptian grain 
with the addition of the beautiful fold of plumpness, boil it in love-water and 
syrup of desire over a fire of wood of pleasure in the retreat of the ardour. 
Decant the whole upon a royal dibqy divan and add to it 2 okes of saliva 
syrup and drink it fasting during 3 days. Next take for dinner the melon of 
desire mixed with embrace-almond and juice of the lemon of concord, and 
lastly 3 rolls of thigh-work and enter the bath for the benefit of your health. 
And The Peace ! When Attaf had finished the reading of this paper he burst 
into a laugh at the prescription and, turning to Ja'afar, he asked him with 
whom he was in love and of whom he was enamoured. Ja'afar gave no 
answer, he spoke not neither did he commence any discourse, when Attaf said, 
O my brother, thou are not my friend, but thou art in my house esteemed as 
is the soul in the body. Between me and thee there has been for the last four 
months friendship, company, companionship and conversation. Why then 
conceal thy situation? For me, I have fear and sorrow on thine account. 
Thou art a stranger, thou art not of this capital. I am a son of the city, I can 
dispel what thou hast (of trouble) and that of which thou suflferest. By my 
life, which belongs to you, by the bread and salt between us, reveal to me thy 
secret. And Attaf did not cease to speak thus until Ja'afar yielded and said to 
him, It shall no longer be concealed, and I will not blame those who are in love 
and are impatient. Then he told his story from beginning to end, what was 
said to him by the young lady and what she did with him and lastly he described 
the quarter and the place. Now when Attaf heard the words of Ja'afar he 
reflected on the description of the house and of the young lady and concluded 
that the house was his house and the young lady was his cousin-wife, and said 
to himself, There is no power nor strength but in Allah the High, the Great. 
We are from God and to Him we return. Then he came to his mind again and 
to the generosity of his soul and said to himself, O Attaf! God hath favoured 
me and hath made me worthy of doing good and hath sent to me I know not 
whence this stranger who hath become bound in friendship with me during all 
this time and he hath acquired over me the ties of friendship. His heart hath 
become attached to the young woman and his love for her hath reached in him 
an imminent point. Since that time he is almost on the verge of annihilation, 
in so pitiable a condition and behold, he hopeth from me a good issue from his 
trouble. He hath made known to me his situation after having concealed it for 
so long a time : if I do not befriend him in his misfortune I should resemble 
him who would build upon water and thus would aid him to Annihilate his 

2IO Supplemental Nights. 

existence. By the magnanimity of my God, I will further him witfi my 
property and with my soul. I will divorce my cousin and will marry her to 
him and I will not change my character, my generosity nor my resolution. The 
Rawi says, that young woman was his wife and his cousin, also a second wife as 
he was previously married to another, and she occupied the house, his own house 
containing all that he possessed of property and so forth, servants, odalisques 
and slaves. There was also his other house which was for his guests, for 
drinking and eating and to receive his friends and his company. Of this, 
however, he said nothing to his cousin-wife when he came to see her at certain 
times. When he heard that Ja'afar was in love with her he could not keep 
from saying to him, Be quiet, I take upon myself to dispel thy chagrin, and 
soon I shall have news of her, and if she is the daughter of the Naib of 
Damascus I will take the proper steps for thee even though I should lose all 
my property ; and if she is a slave-girl I will buy her for thee even were her 
price such as to take all I possess. Thus he calmed the anguish of Ja'afar the 
best way he could ; then he went out from his own house and entered that of 
his cousin-wife without making any change in his habits or saying a single 
word save to his servants, Go to my uncle's and bring him to me. The boy 
then went for the uncle and brought him to Attaf, and when the uncle entered 
the nephew arose to receive him, embraced him and made him be seated, and, 
after he had been seated awhile, Attaf came to him and said, O my uncle ! 
there is naught but good ! Know that when God wills good to his servitor he 
shows to him the way and my heart inclines to Meccah, to the house of God, 
to visit the tomb of Mohammed (for whom be the most noble of prayers and 
the most complete of salutations !) I have decided to visit those places this 
year and I cannot leave behind me either attachments or debts or obligations ; 
nothing in fact that can disturb the mind, for no one can know who will be 
the friend of the morrow. Here, then, is the writ of divorce of thy daughter 
and of my other wife. Now when his uncle heard that, he was troubled and 
exaggerating to himself the matter, he said, O son of my brother, what is it 
that impels thee to this ? If thou depart and leave her and be absent as long 
as thou wiliest she is yet thy wife and thy dependent which is sufficient. But 
Attaf said, O my uncle, what hath been done is done. As soon as the young 
wife heard that, the abomination of desolation overcame her, she became 
as one in mourning and was upon the point of killing herself, because she 
loved her husband by reason of his relationship and his education. But this 
was done by Attaf only to please Ja'afar, and for that he was incited by 
his duty to do good to his fellow beings. Then Attaf left the house and 
said to himself, if I delay this matter it will be bruited abroad, and will 
come to the ears of my friend who will be afflicted and will be ashamed to 
marry, and what I have done will come to naught. The divorce of Attaf s 
second spouse was only out of regard to his cousin-wife, and that there might 
not be an impediment to the success of his project. Then Attaf proceeded to 
his guest-house and went in to Ja'afar, who when he saw him, asked where he 

The Tale of Attaf. 21 f 

had been. Attaf replied, Make yourself easy, O my brother, I am now occupied 
with your affair, I have sought out the young lady and I know her. She is 
divorced from her husband and her 'iddah is not yet expired, so expand your 
breast and gladden your soul, for when her obligatory term of waiting shall 
be accomplished I will marry her to you. And Attaf ceased not to divert 
him by eating and drinking, amusements and shows, song and songstress until 
he knew that the 'iddah of his cousin had ended ; then he went to Ja'afar and 
said to him, " Know, O my lord, that the father of the young woman thou 
sawest is one of my friends, and if I betroth her that would not be proper on 
my part and he will say : My friend hath not done well in betrothing my 
daughter to a man who is a stranger and whom I know not. He will take 
her and carry her to his own country and we shall be separated. Now I 
have an idea that has occurred to me, and 'tis to send out for you a tent with 
ten mamelukes and four servants upon horses and mules, baggage, stuffs, chests 
of dresses, and horses and gilded vehicles. Everything I have mentioned will 
be placed outside the city that no one shall know of thee, and I will say that 
thou art Ja'afar the Barmeky the Caliph's Wazir. I will go to the Kady and 
the Wali and the Naib and I will inform them of thee (as Ja'afar) ; so will they 
come out to meet and salute thee. Then thou wilt salute them and tell 
them that thou hast come on business of the Caliph. Thou must also say thou 
hast heard that Damascus is a very fine city and a hospitable, and add, I will 
go in to visit it and if it prove favourable to me I will remain and marry to 
establish between myself and its inhabitants relationship and friendship, and 
I would like you to seek for me a man of high position and noble origin who 
hath a beautiful cousin that I may marry. Attaf then said to Ja'afar, O my 
lord, we know one who hath a daughter of noble origin, that man is such-and- 
such an one, ask her of him for betrothal and say to him, Here is her dowry, 
which is all that thou hast in the chests. Then produce a purse of a thousand 
dinars and distribute them among those present, and display the characteristic 
of the Barmekys, and take out a piece of silken stuff and order them to draw up. 
the marriage contract immediately. If they sign it, declare to them that thou 
wilt not enter the city because thou art pressed and thy bride will come to thee. 
Should thou do thus, thou wilt accomplish what thou desirest, God willing, 
then leave instantly and order that the tents be struck, the camels loaded, and 
set out for thine own country in peace. Know that all I shall do for you is. 
little for the rights of friendship and devotedness. Ja'afar sprang up to kiss 
the hand of Attaf, but was prevented, then he thanked him and praised him 
and passed the night with him. The next morning at break of day he arose, 
made his ablutions, and having recited his morning prayer, accompanied -his 
host to the outside of the city. Attaf ordered a great tent to be pitched and 
that everything necessary should be carried to it ; of horses, camels, mules, 
slaves, mamelukes, chests containing all kinds of articles for distribution, 
and boxes holding purses of gold and silver. He dressed his guest in a 
robe worthy a Wazir, and set up for him a throne and sent some slaves to 

2 1 2 Supplemental Nights. 

the Naib of Damascus to announce the arrival of Ja'afar on business of the 
Caliph. As soon as the Naib of Damascus was informed of that, he went ou 
accompanied by the notables of the city and of his government and met the 
Wazir Ja'afar, and kissing the ground between his hands, said to him, O my 
lord, why didst thou not inform me sooner in order that we might be prepared 
for thine arrival. Ja'afar said, That was not necessary, may God augment thy 
wealth, I have not come but with the intention to visit this city ; I desire to 
stay in it for some time and I would also marry in it. I have learned that the 
Amfr 'Amr has a daughter of noble descent, I wish thou wouldst cause her to be 
brought before thee and that thou betroth her to me. The Naib of Damascus 
said, Hearing is obeying. Her husband hath divorced her and desireth to go to 
al-Hejaz on the pilgrimage and after her 'iddah hath expired and there remaineth 
not any impediment the betrothal can take place. At the proper time the Naib of 
Damascus caused to be present the father of the lady and spoke to him of what 
the Wazir Ja'afar had said and that he should betroth his daughter, so that 
there was nothing more for the father to say than, I hear and I obey. The Rawi 
says that Ja'afar ordered to be brought the dress of honour and the gold from the 
purses to be thrown out for distribution and commanded the presence of the 
Kady and witnesses ; and, when they arrived, he bade them write the marriage 
contract. Then he brought forward and presented the ten chests and the ten 
purses of gold, the dowry of the bride, and all those present, high and low, and 
rich and poor gave him their best wishes and congratulations. After the father 
of the lady had taken the dowry he ordered the Kady to draw up the contract 
and presented to him a piece of satin ; he also called for sugar-water to drink 
and set before them the table of viands, and they ate and washed their 
hands. Afterwards they served sweet dishes and fruits ; and when that 
was finished and the contract passed, the Naib of Damascus said to the Wazir, 
O my lord, I will prepare a house for thy residence and for the reception of 
thy wife. Ja'afar said, That cannot be ; I am here on a commission of the 
Commander of the Faithful, and I wish to take my wife with me to Baghdad and 
only there can I have the bridal ceremonies. The father of the lady said, Enter 
unto thy bride and depart when thou wilt. Ja'afar replied, I cannot do that, 
but I wish thee to make up the trousseau of thy daughter and have it ready so 
as to depart this very day. We only wait, said the father of the bride, for the 
Naib of Damascus to retire, to do what the Wazir commands. He answered 
With love and good will ; and the lady's father set about getting together the 
trousseau and making her ready. He took her out and got her trousseau, 
mounted her upon a Hodaj, and when she arrived at Ja'afar's camp her people 
made their adieus and departed. When Ja'afar had ridden to some distance 
from Damascus and had arrived at Tiniat el 'Iqdb he looked behind him and 
perceived in the distance in the direction of Damascus a horseman galloping 
towards him ; so he stopped his attendants and when the rider had come near 
them Ja'afar looked at him and behold it was Attaf. He had come out after 
him and cried, Hasten not, O my brother. And when he came up he embraced 

The Tale of Attaf. 


him and said, O my lord, I have found no rest without thee, O my brother Abu 
'1-Hasan, it would have been better for me never to have seen thee nor known 
thee, for now I cannot support thine absence. Ja'afar thanked him and said to 
him, I have not been able to act against what thou hast prescribed for me and 
provided, but we pray God to bring near our reunion and never more separate us. 
He is Almighty to do what He willeth. After that Ja'afar dismounted and spread 
a silken carpet and they sat down together, and Attaf laid a tablecloth with duck, 
chicken, sweets and other delicacies, of which they ate.and he brought out dry 
fruits and wine. They drank for an hour of the day when they remounted their 
horses and Attaf accompanied Ja'afar a way on the journey, when Ja'afar 
said to him, Every departer must return, and he pressed him to his breast and 
kissed him and said to him, O my brother Abu '1-Hasan, do not interrupt the 
sending of thy letters ; but make known to me about thyself, and thy condition 
as if I were present with thee. Then they bade each other adieu and each 
went on his way. When the young wife noticed that the camels had stopped 
on their march as well as their people, she put out her head from the Hodaj 
and saw her cousin dismounting with Ja'afar and they eating and drinking 
together and then in company to the end of the road where they bade 
adieu exchanging a recitation of poetry. So she said, The one, Wallahy 
is my cousin Attaf and the other the man whom I saw seated under the 
window, and upon whom I sprinkled the water. Doubtless he is the 
friend of my cousin. He hath been seized with love for .me, and com- 
plaining to my cousin, hath given him a description of me and of my 
house ; and the devotedness of his character and the greatness of his soul 
must have impelled him to divorce me and' to take steps to marry me to that 
man. The Rawi says that Attaf in bidding good-bye to Ja'afar left him joyful 
in the possession of the young lady for whom he was on the point of ruin by 
his love, and in having made the friendship of Attaf whom he intended to 
reward in gratitude for what he had done by him. So glad was he to have 
the young wife that everything that had taken place with Er-Rashid had passed 
out of his mind. In the meanwhile she was crying and lamenting over what 
had happened to her, her separation from her cousin and from her parents 
and her country, and bemoaning what she did and what she had been ; and 
her scalding tears flowed while she recited these verses : 

I weep for these places and these beauties ; blame not the lover if some day he's 

insane : 
For the places the dear ones inhabit. O praise be to God ! how sweet is their 

dwelling ! 
God protect the past days while with you, my dear friends, and in the same house 

may happiness join us ! 

On finishing this recitation she wept and lamented and recited again : 

I'm astonished at living without you, at the troubles that come upon us : 
I wish for you. dear absent ones, my wounded heart is still with you. 

2 1 4 Supplemental Nights. 

Then, still crying and lamenting, she went on : 

O you to whom I gave my soul, return ; from you I wish'd to pluck it, but could not 

succeed : 
Then pity the rest of a life that I've sacrificed for thee, before the hour of death my 

last look I will take : 
If all of thee be lost astonished I'll not be ; my astonishment would be that his lot 

will be to another. 

Presently the Wazir Ja'afar coming up to the Hodaj said to the young wife, 

mistress of the Hodaj, thou hast killed us. When she heard this address 
she called to him with dejection and humility, We ought not to talk to thee for 

1 am the cousin-wife of thy friend and companion Attaf, prince of generosity 
and devotion. If there be in thee any feeling of the self-denial of a man thou 
wilt do for him that which, in his devotion, he hath done for thee. When 
Ja'afar heard these words he became troubled and taking in the magnitude of 
the situation he said to the young lady, O thou ! thou art then his cousin-wife ? 
and said she, Yes ! it is I whom thou sawest on such a day when this and that 
took place and thy heart attached itself to me. Thou hast told him all that. 
He divorced me, and while waiting for the expiration of my 'iddah diverted thee 
that such and such was the cause of all my trouble. Now I have explained to 
thee my situation : do thou the action of a man. When Ja'afar heard these 
words he uttered a loud cry and said, We are from God and to Him we return. 
O thou ! thou art now to me an interdiction and hast become a sacred deposit 
until thy return to where it may please thee. Then said Ja'afar to a se'rvant, 
Take good care of thy mistress. After which they set forward and travelled on 
day and night. Now Er-Rashid, after the departure of Ja'afar, became uneasy 
and sorrowful at his absence. He lost patience and was tormented with a great 
desire to see him again, while he regretted the conditions he had imposed as 
impossible to be complied with and obliging him to the extremity of tramping 
about the country like a vagabond, and forcing him to abandon his native land. 
He had sent envoys after him to search for him in every place, but he had 
never received any news of him, and was cast into great embarrassment by 
reason of his absence. He was always waiting to hear of him, and when Ja'afar 
had approached Baghdad and he, Er-Rashid, had received the good tidings of 
his coming, he went forth to meet him, and as soon as they came together they 
embraced each other, and the Caliph became content and joyful. They entered 
together into the palace and the Prince of True Believers seating Ja'afar at his 
side, said to him, Relate to me thy story where thou hast been during thine 
absence and what thou hast come upon. So Ja'afar told him then all that had 
happened from the time he left him until the moment of rinding himself between 
his hands. Er-Rashid was greatly astonished and said, Wallahy, thou hast made 
me sorrowful for thine absence, and hast inspired me with great desire to see 
thy friend. My opinion is that thou divorce this young lady and put her on the 
road homeward accompanied by someone in whom thou hast confidence. If 

The Tale of A ttaf. 2 1 5 

thy friend have an enemy he shall be our enemy, and if he have a friend he also 
shall be ours ; after which we will make him come to us, and we shall see him 
and have the pleasure of hearing him and pass the time with him in joy. Such 
a man must not be neglected, we shall learn, by his generosity, bounty and 
useful things. Ja' afar answered, To hear is obedience. Then Ja'afar appor- 
tioned to the young lady a spacious house and servants and a handsome 
enclosure ; and he treated with generosity those who had come with her as 
suite and followers. He also sent to her sets of furniture, mattresses and every 
thing else she might need, while he never intruded upon her and never saw her. 
He sent her his salutation and reassuring words that she should be returned to 
her cousin ; and he made her a monthly allowance of a thousand dinars, 
besides the cost of her living. So far as to Ja'afar ; but as to Attaf, when he 
had bidden adieu to Ja'afar and had returned to his country, those who were 
jealous of him took steps to ruin him with the Na'ib of Damascus to whom they 
said, O our lord, what is it that hath made thee neglect Attaf? Dost thou not 
know that the Wazir was his friend and that he went out after him to bid him 
adieu after our people had returned, and accompanied him as far as Katifa, when 
Ja'afar said to him, Hast thou need of anything O Attaf ? he said Yes. Of 
what ? asked the Wazir, and he answered, That thou send me an imperial 
rescript removing the Naib of Damascus. Now this was promised to him, and 
the most prudent thing is that thou invite him to breakfast before he takes you 
to supper ; success is in the opportunity and the assaulted profiteth by the 
assaulter. The Naib of Damascus replied, Thou hast spoken well, bring him to 
me immediately. The Rawi says that Attaf was in his own house, ignorant 
that anyone owed him grudge when suddenly in the night he was surrounded 
and seized by the people of the Naib of Damascus armed with swords and clubs. 
They beat him until he was covered with blood, and they dragged him along 
until they set him in presence of the Pasha of Damascus who ordered the pillage 
of his house and of his slaves and his servants and all his property and they 
took everything, his family and his domestics and his goods. Attaf asked, What 
is my crime ? and he was answered, O scoundrel, thou art an ignorant fellow of 
the rabble, dost dispute with the Naibat of Damascus ? Then the Swordman 
was ordered to strike his neck, and the man came forward and, cutting off a 
piece of his robe, with it blindfolded his eyes, and was about to strike his 
neck when one of the Emirs arose and said, Be not hasty, O my lord, but wait, 
for hasle is the whisper of Satan, and the proverb saith : Man gaineth his ends 
by patience, and error accompanieth the hasty man. Then he continued, Do 
not press the matter of this man ; perhaps he who hath spoken of him lieth 
and there is nobody without jealousy ; so have patience, for thou mayest have 
to regret the taking of his life unjustly. Do not rest easy upon what may come 
to thee on the part of the Wazir Ja'afar, and if he learn what thou hast do by 
this man be not sure of thy life on his part. He will admit of no excuse for he 
was his friend and companion. When the Naib of Damascus heard that he 

2 1 5 Supplemental Nights. 

awoke from his slumber and conformed to the words of the Emir. He ordered 
that Attaf should be put in prison, enchained and with a padlock upon his neck, 
and bade them, after severely tightening the bonds, illtreat him. They dragged 
him out, listening neither to his prayers nor his supplications ; and he cried 
every night, doing penance to God and praying to Him for deliverance from his 
affliction and his misfortune. In that condition he remained for three months. 
But one night as he woke up he humiliated himself before God and walked 
about his prison, where he saw no one ; then, looking before him, he espied an 
opening leading from the prison to the outside of the city. He tried himself 
against his chain and succeeded in opening it ; then, taking it from his neck, 
he went out from the gaol running at full speed. He concealed himself in a 
place, and darkness protected him until the opening of the city gate, when he 
went out with the people and hastening his march he arrived at Aleppo and 
entered the great mosk. There he saw a crowd of strangers on the point of 
departure and Attaf asked them whither they were going, and they answered to 
Baghdad. Whereupon he cried, And I with you. They said, Upon the earth 
is our weight, but upon Allah is our nourishment. Then they went on their 
march until they arrived at Koufa after a travel of twenty days, and then con- 
tinued journeying till they came to Baghdad. Here Attaf saw a city of strong 
buildings, and very rich in elegant palaces reaching to the clouds, a city con- 
taining the learned and the ignorant, and the poor and the rich, and the virtuous 
and the evil doer. He entered the city in a miserable dress, rags upon his 
shoulders, and upon his head a dirty conical cap, and his hair had become long 
and hanging over his eyes and his entire condition was most wretched. He 
entered one of the mosks. For two days he had not eaten. He sat down, when 
a vagabond entered the mosk and seating himself in front of Attaf threw off 
from his shoulder a bag from which he took out bread and a chicken, and 
bread again and sweets and an orange, and olive and date-cake and cucumbers. 
Attaf looked at the man and at his eating, which was as the table of 'Isa son 
of Miriam (upon whom be peace!). For four months he had not had a 
sufficient meal and he said to himself, I would like to have a mouthful of this 
good cheer and a piece of this bread, and then cried for very hunger. The 
fellow looked at him and said, Bravo ! why dost thou squint and do what 
strangers do? By the protection of God, if you weep tears enough to fill 
the Jaxartes and the Bactrus and the Dajlah and the Euphrates and the 
river of Basrah and the stream of Antioch and the Orontes and the Nile of 
Egypt and the Salt Sea and the ebb and the flow of the Ocean, I will not let 
thee taste a morsel. But, said the buffoon, if thou xvish to eat of chicken and 
white bread and lamb and sweets and mutton patties, go thou to the house 
of Ja'afar son of Yahya the Barmeky, who hath received hospitality from a 
Damascus man named Attaf. He bestoweth charity in honour of him in this 
manner, and he neither getteth up nor sitteth down without speaking of him. 
Now when Attaf heard these words from the buffoon he looked up to heaven 

The Tale of Attaf. 217 

and said, O Thou whose attributes are inscrutable, bestow thy benefits upon 
thy servant Attaf. Then he recited this couplet : 

Confide thy affairs to thy Creator ; set aside thy pains and dismiss thy thoughts. 

Then Attaf went to a paper-seller and got from him a piece of paper and 
borrowed an inkstand and wrote as follows : From thy brother Attaf whom 
God knoweth. Let him who hath possessed the world not flatter himself, he 
will some day be cast down and will lose it in his bitter fate. If thou see me 
thou wilt not recognise me for my poverty and my misery ; and, because of 
the change in situation and the reverses of the times, my soul and body are 
reduced by hunger, by the long journey I have made, until at last I have come 
to thee. And peace be with thee. Then he folded the paper and returning 
the pen-case to its owner asked for the house of Ja'afar, and when it was shown 
to him he went there and stood at a distance before it. The doorkeepers saw 
him standing, neither commencing nor repeating a word, and nobody spoke to 
him, but as he was thus standing embarrassed, an eunuch dressed in a striped 
robe and golden belt passed by him. Attaf remained motionless before 
him, then went up to him, kissed his hands and said to him, O my lord, the 
Apostle of Allah (upon whom be peace and salutation) hath said, The medium 
of a good deed is like him who did it, and he who did it belongeth to the 
dwellers in heaven. The man said to him, What is thy need ? and said he, I 
desire of thy goodness to send in this paper to thy lord and say to him, Thy 
brother Attaf is standing at the door. When the servant heard his words he 
got into a great and excessive rage so that his eyes swelled in his head and he 
asked, O cursed one, thou art then the brother of the Wazir Ja'afar ! and as 
he had in his hand a rod with a golden end, he struck Attaf with it in the face 
and his blood flowed and he fell full length to the ground in his weakness from 
weeping and from receiving the blow. The Rawi says that God hath placed 
the instinct of good in the heart of some domestics, even as he hath placed 
that of evil in the heart of others. Another of the domestics was raised up 
against his companion by good will to Attaf and reproved him for striking the 
stranger and was answered, Didst thou not hear, O brother, that he pretended 
to be the brother of the Wazir Ja'afar ? and the second one said, O man of evil, 
son of evil, slave of evil, O cursed one, O hog ! is Ja'afar one of the prophets ? 
is he not a dog of the earth like ourselves ? Men are all brethren, of one 
father and one mother, of Adam and of Eve ; and the poet hath said : 

Men by comparison all are brethren, their father is Adam their mother is Eve ; 

but certain people are preferable to others. Then he came up to Attaf and 
made him be seated and wiped off the blood from his face and washed him 
and shook off the dust that was upon him and said, O my brother, what is thy 
need ? and said he, My need is the sending of this paper to Ja'afar. The ser- 
vant took the paper from his hand and going in to Ja'afar the Barmeky found 

2 1 8 Supplemental Nights. 

there the officers of the Governor and the Barmekys standing at his service on 
his right and on his left ; and Ja'afar the Wazir who held in his hand a cup of 
wine was reciting poetry and playing and saying, O you all here assembled, 
the absent from the eye is not like the present in the heart ; he is my brother 
and my friend and my benefactor, Attaf of Damascus, who was continuous in 
his generosity and his bounty and his benefactions to me ; who for me divorced 
his cousin-wife and gave her to me. He made me presents of horses and 
slaves and damsels and stuffs in quantities that I might furnish her dower ; 
and, if he had not acted thus, I should certainly have been ruined. He was 
my benefactor without knowing who I was, and generous to me without any 
idea of profiting by it. The Rawi says that when the good servant heard 
these words from his lord he rejoiced and coming forward he kneeled down 
before him and presented the paper. When Ja'afar read it he was in a state of 
intoxication and not being able to discern what he was doing he fell on his face 
to the floor while holding the paper and the glass in his hand, and he was 
wounded in the forehead so his blood ran and he fainted and the paper fell 
from his grasp. When the servant saw that he hastened to depart fearing the 
consequence ; and the Wazir Ja'afar's friends seated their lord and staunched 
the blood. They exclaimed, There is no power and strength but in God the 
High, the Mighty. Such is the character of servants ; they trouble the life of 
kings in their pleasures and annoy them in their humours : Wallahy, the writer 
of this paper merits nothing less than to be handed over to the Wall who 
shall give him five hundred lashes and put him in prison. Thereupon the 
Wazir's doorkeeper went out and asked for the owner of the paper, when Attaf 
answered, 'Tis I, O my lord. Then they seized him and sent him to the 
Wall and ordered him to give one hundred blows of the stick to the prisoner 
and to write upon his chain " for life." Thus they did with Attaf and carried 
him to the prison where he remained for two months when a child was born to 
Harun er-Rashid, who then ordered that alms should be. distributed, and good 
done to all, and bade liberate all that. were in prison and among those that were 
set free was Attaf. When he found himself out of gaol, beaten and famished 
and naked he looked up to heaven and exclaimed, Thanks be to thee, O Lord, 
in every situation, and crying said, It must be for some fault committed by me 
in the past, for God had taken me into favour and I have repaid Him in dis- 
obedience ; but I pray to Him for pardon for having gone too far in my 
debauchery. Then he recited these verses : 

O God ! the worshipper doth what he should not do ; he is poor, depending on Thee : 
In the pleasures of life he forgetteth himself, in his ignorance, pardon Thou his faults. 

Then he cried again and said to himself, What shall I do ? If I set out for my 
country I may not reach it ; if I arrive there, there will be no safety for my 
life on the part of the Naib, and if I remain here nobody knoweth me among 
the beggars and I cannot be for them of any use nor for myself as an aid or an 
intermediate. As for me, I had hope in that man, that he would raise me 

The Tale of Attaf. 


from my poverty. The affair hath turned out contrary to my expectations, and 
the poet was right when he said : 

friend, I've run o'er ihe world west, and east j all that I met with was pain and 

fatigue : 

I've frequented the men of the age, but never have found e'en a friend grateful not even 
to me. 

Once more he cried and exclaimed, God give me the grace of patience. After 
that he got up and walked away, and entered one of the mosks and staid there 
until afternoon. His hunger increased and he said, By Thy mag-nafiimity and 
Thy majesty I shall ask nothing of anyone but of Thee. He remained in the 
mosk until it became dark when he went out for something, saying to himself, 

1 have heard a call from the Prophet (on whom be the blessing and peace of 
Allah !) which said, God forbiddeth sleep in the Sanctuary and forbiddeth it to 
His worshippers. Then he arose, and went out from the mosk to some distance 
when he entered a ruined building after walking an hour, and here he stumbled 
in the darkness and fell upon his face. He saw something before him that he 
had struck with his foot and felt it move, and this was a lad that had been slain 
and a knife was in his side. Attaf rose up from off the body, his clothes 
stained with blood ; he stood motionless and embarrassed and while in that 
situation the Wali and his policemen stood at the door of the ruin and Attaf 
said to them, Come in and search. They entered with their torches and found 
the body of the murdered lad and the knife in him and the miserable Attaf 
standing at the head with his clothes stained with blood. When a man with a 
scarf saw him he arrested him and said to him, O Wretch, 'tis thou killedst 
him. Attaf said, Yes. Then said the Wali, Pinion him and take him to prison 
until we make our report to the Wazir Ja'afar. If he orders his death we will 
execute him. They did as ordered r and the next day the man with the scarf 
wrote to the Wazir, We went into a ruin and found there a man who had killed 
a lad and we. interrogated him and he confessed that it was he who had done 
the deed, what are thine orders ? The Wazir commanded them to put him to 
death ; so they took Attaf from the prison to the place of execution and cut 
off a piece of his garment and with it bandaged his eyes. The Sworder said 
O my lord, shall I strike his neck ? and the Wali said, Strike ! He brandished 
the sword which whistled and glittered in the air and was about to strike, 
when a cry from behind, Stop thy hand ! was heard, and it was the voice of 
the Wazir Ja'afar who was out on a promenade. The Wali went to him and 
kissed the earth before him and the Wazir said to him, What is this great 
gathering here ? He answered, 'Tis the execution of a young man of Damascus 
whom we found yesterday in a ruin ; he had killed a lad of noble blood and we 
found the knife wiih him and his clothes spotted with blood. When I said to 
him, Is it thou that killedst him ? he replied Yes three times. To-day I sent to 
thee my written report and thine Excellency ordered his death, saying, " Let 
the sentence of God be executed, and now I have brought him out that his 

220 Supplemental Nights. 

neck may be struck. Ja'afar said, " Oh, hath a man of Damascus come mttf 
our country to find himself in a bad condition ? Wallahy, that shall never be ! 
Then he ordered that he should be brought to him. The Wazir did not 
recognize him, for AttaPs air of ease and comfort had disappeared ; so Ja'afar 
said to him, From what country art thou, O young man, and he answered, 
I am a man from Damascus. From the city or from the villages ? Wallahy 

my lord, from Damascus city where I was born. Ja'afar asked, Didst thou 
happen to know there a man named Attaf? I know when thou wast his 
friend and he lodged thee in such-and-such a house and thou wentest out to 
such-and-such a garden ; and I know when thou didst marry his cousin-wife, 

1 know when he bade adieu to thee at Katifa where thou drankest with him. 
Ja'afar said, Yes, all that is true, but what became of him after he left me ? He 
said, O my Lord, there happened to him this and that and he related to him 
everything from the time he quitted him up to the moment of his standing 
before him and then recited these verses : 

This age, must it make me its victim, and thou at the same time art living : wolves are 

seeking to devour me while thou the lion art here. 
Every thirsty one that cometh his thirst is quenched by thee : can it be that I thirst 

while thou art still our refuge ? 

When he had finished the verses he said, O my lord. I am Attaf, and then 
recalled all that had taken place between them from first to last. While 
he was thus speaking a great cry was heard, and it came from a Sheikh who 
was saying, This is not humanity. They looked at the speaker, who was an 
old man with trimmed beard dyed with henna, and upon him was a blue 
kerchief. When Ja'afar saw him he asked him what was the matter, and he 
exclaimed, Take away the young man from under the sword, for there is no 
fault in him : he hath killed no one nor doth he know anything of the dead 
youth. Nobody but myself is the killer. The Wazir said, Then 'tis thou that 
killed him? and he answered, Yes. Why didst thou kill him? hast thou not 
the fear of God in killing a Hashimy child ? The old man said, He was my 
servant, serving me in the house and working with me at my trade. Every 
day he took from me some quarter-pieces of money and went to work for 
another man called Shumooshag, and to work with Nagfsh, and with Gasfs, 
and with Ghubar, and with Gushfr, and every day working with someone. 
They were jealous of my having him. 'Odfs the sweeper and Abu Butrdn 
the stoker, and everyone wanted to have him. In vain 1 corrected him, but he 
would not abide corrected and ceased not to do thus until I killed him in the 
ruin, and I have delivered myself from the torment he gave me. That is my 
story. I kept silent until I saw thee when I made myself known at the time 
thou savedst the head of this young man from the sword. Here I am standing 
before you : strike my neck and take life for life. Pray do no harm to 
this young man, for he hath committed no fault. The Wazir said, Neither 


The Tale of Aftaf. 221 

to thee nor to him. Then he ordered to be brought the parents of the dead 
lad and reconciled them with the old man, whom he pardoned. He mounted 
Attaf upon a horse and took him to his house ; then he entered the palace of 
the Caliph and kissed the earth before him and said, Behold Attaf, he who was 
my host at Damascus, and of whom I have related his treatment of me and his 
kindness and generosity, and how he preferred me to himself. Er-Rashid said, 
Bring him in to me immediately. He presented him to the Caliph in the 
miserable state in which he had found him ; and when he entered, he made 
his salutations in the best manner and with the most eloquent language, 
Er-Rashid answered and said to him. What is this state in which I find you ? 
and Attaf wept and made his complaint in these verses : 

Troubles, poverty and distant sojourn far away from the dear ones, and a crushing desire 

to see them : 
The soul is in them, they became like their fellows, thus the enigma remains in the 

world ; 
While the generous is stricken with misfortune and grief, where's the miser that finds not 

good fortune therein ? 

When Attaf had finished he conversed with the Caliph about his history and 
all his life from beginning to end ; and Er-Rashid cried and suffered at 
what had happened to him after the loss of his riches, nor did he cease to weep 
with Ja'afar until the close of AttaPs story. The Sheikh who had killed the 
lad and had been liberated by Ja'afar came in and Er-Rashid laughed at seeing 
him. Then he caused Attaf to be seated and made him repeat his story. 
And when Attaf had finished speaking the Caliph looked at Ja'afar and said, 
The proverb goeth : 

Good for good, to the giver the merit remains ; evil for evil, the doer's most cruel. 

Afterwards the Caliph said to Ja'afar, Tell me what thou didst for thy brother 
Attaf before he came to thee, and he answered, O Commander of the Faithful, 
he came upon me suddenly, and I now prepare for him three millions of gold, 
and the like of it in horses, and in slaves, and in boys, and in dresses ; and the 
Caliph said, From me the same. Here endeth the last leaf of the writ, but the 
Rawi says that two days afterwards Ja'afar restored to his friend Attaf his 
beloved cousin-wife, saying to him, I have divorced her and now I deliver over 
to thee intact the precious deposit that thou didst place in my hands. Already 
hath the order from the Caliph been despatched to Damascus enjoining the 
arrest of the Naib, to place him in irons and imprison him until further notice. 
Attaf passed several months in Baghdad enjoying the pleasures of the city in 
company with his friend Ja'afar and Er-Rashid. He would have liked to have 
stayed there all his life, but numerous letters from his relations and his friends 
praying him to return to Damascus, he thought it his duty to do so, and asked 

222 Supplemental Nights. 

leave of the Caliph, who granted it, not without regrets and fears for his future 
condition. Er-Rashid appointed him Wali of Damascus and gave him the 
imperial rescript ; and a great escort of horses, mules and dromedaries, with 
abundant magnificent presents accompanied him as far as Damascus, where 
he was received with great pomp. All the city was illuminated as a mark of 
joy for the return of Attaf, so loved and respected by all classes of the people, 
and above all by the poor who had wept incessantly for him in his absence. 
As to the Naib, a second decree of the Caliph ordered his being put to death 
for his oppression of the people, but by the generous intercession of Attaf 
Er-Rashfd contented himself with commuting the sentence to banishment. 
Attaf governed his people many years with justice and prosperity, protector 
of his happy subjects and in the enjoyment of the delights and pleasures of 
life, until the Angel of Death overtook him and summoned him to Paradise. 








foe fcegt'n to mfctte t&e f^tstorg of Sultan f^abtb an& of 
fofcat befel Jn'm foi'tf) Buuat 

IT is related (but Allah is All-knowing of His unknown and 
All-cognisant of what took place and forewent in the annals of 
folk !) that there was, in days of yore and in times and tides long 
gone before, a tribe of the tribes of the Arabs hight Banu Hilal 3 
whose head men were the Emir Hilal and the Emir Salamah. 4 
Now this Emir Salamah had well nigh told out his tale of days 
without having been blessed with boon of child ; withal he was 
a ruler valiant, masterful, a fender of his foes and a noble knight 
of portly presence. He numbered by the thousand horsemen the 
notablest of cavaliers and he came to overrule three-score -and-six 
tribes of the Arabs. One chance night of the nights as he lay 
sleeping in the sweetness of slumber, a Voice addressed him 
saying, " Rise forthright and know thy wife, whereby she shall 

1 MS. pp. 628-685. Gauttier, vii. 64-90 ; Histoire du Prince Habib etde la Princesse 
J)orrat-el-Gawas. The English translation dubs it " Story of Habib and Dorathil-goase, 
or the Arabian Knight " (vol. iii. 219-89) ; and thus degrades the high sounding name 
to a fair echo of Dorothy Goose. The name = Pearl of the Diver : it is also the P. N. 
of a treatise on desinental syntax by the grammarian-poet Al-Hariri (Chenery, p. 539). 

2 The "Banu Hilal," a famous tribe which formed part of a confederation against 
the Prophet on his expedition to Honayn. See Tabari, vol. iii. chapt. 32, and Doughty, 
Arabia Deserta (Index, B. Helal). In the text we have the vulgarism ' Ban! "for 

3 Gauttier (vii. 64) clean omits the former Emir because he has nothing to do with 
the tale. In Heron it is the same, and the second chief is named " Emir-Ben- Hilac- 
Salamis" ; or for shortness tout bonnement " Salamis " ; his wife becoming Amirala 
which, if it mean anything, is = Colonel, or Captain R.N. 


226 Supplemental Nights. 

conceive under command of Allah Almighty." Being thus dis- 
turbed of his rest the Emir sprang up and compressed his spouse 
Kamar al-Ashraf; 1 she became pregnant by that embrace and 
when her days came to an end she bare a boy as the full moon 
of the fulness-night who by his father's hest was named Habib. 2 
And as time went on his sire rejoiced in him with joy exceeding 
and reared him with fairest rearing and bade them teach him 
Koran-reading together with the glorious names of Almighty 
Allah and instruct him in writing and in all the arts and sciences. 
After this he bestowed robes of honour and gifts of money and 
raiment upon the teachers who had made the Sultan 3 Habib, 
when he reached the age of seventeen, the most intelligent and 
penetrating and knowing amongst the sons of his time. And 
indeed men used to admire at the largeness of his understanding 
and were wont to say in themselves, " There is no help but that 
this youth shall rise to dignity (and what dignity !) whereof men 
of highmost intellect shall make loud mention. For he could 
write the seven caligraphs 4 and he could recite traditions and 
he could improvise poetry ; and, on one occasion when his father 
bade him versify impromptu, that he might see what might come 
thereof, he intoned : 

" O my sire, I am lord of all lere man knows or knew * Have enformed my 

vitals with lore and with legend true ; 
Nor cease I repeat what knowledge this memory guards And my writ as 

ruby and pearl doth appear to view." 

So the Emir Salamah <his sire marvelled at the elegance of his 

1 i*. Moon of the Nobles. 

* = the Beloved, le bitn-aimt. 

As has been seen Gauttier reduces the title to Prince." Amongst Arabs, however, 
only a name proper but may denote any dignity from a Shaykh to a Sultan 
rightly so termed. 

For the seven handwritings see vol. iv. 196. The old English version says, " He 
[earned the art of writing with pens cut in seven different ways." To give an idea of 

t renders the quatrain:-" Father," said the youth, you must apply to my 
ter to give you the information you desire. As for me, I must long be all eye 
I must learn to use my hand, before I begin to exercise my tongue, and to 
Write my letters as pure as pearls from the water." And this is translation I 

History of Prince Habib. 


son's diction; and the Notables of the clan, after hearing his 
poetry and his prose, stood astounded at their excellence; and 
presently the father clasped his child to his breast and forthright 
summoned his governor, to whom there and then he did honour 
of the highmost. Moreover he largessed him with four camels 
carrying loads of gold and silver and he set him over one of his 
subject tribes of the Arabs ; then said he to him, " Indeed thou 
,hast done well, O Shaykh ; so take this good and fare therewith 
to such a tribe and rule it with justice and equity until the day of 
thy death." Replied the governor, " O King of the Age, I may on 
no wise accept thy boons, for that I am not of mankind but of 
Jinnkind ; nor have I need of money or requirement of rule. Know 
thou, O my lord, that erst I sat as Kazi amongst the Jinns and I 
was enthroned amid the Kings of the Jann, whenas one night of 
the nights a Voice 1 addressed me in my sleep saying, " Rise and 
hie thee to the Sultan Habib son of the Emir Salamah ruler of 
the tribes of the Arabs subject to the Banu Hilal and become 
his tutor and teach him all things teachable ; and, if thou gainsay 
going, I will tear thy soul from thy body. Now when I saw 
this marvel-vision in my sleep, I straightway arose and repairing 
to thy son did as I was bidden." 2 But as the Emir Salamah 
heard the words of this Shaykh he bowed him down and kissing 
his feet cried, " Alhamdolillah laud to the Lord, who hath 
vouchsafed thee to us of His bounty; and indeed thy coming 
to us was of good omen, O Judge of the Jann." " Where is thy 
son ? " quoth the governor and quoth the father, " Ready, aye 
ready;" then he summoned his child and when the Shaykh 
looked upon his pupil he wept with sore weeping and cried, 
" Parting from thee, O Habib, is heavy upon us," presently 

1 I need hardly note that " Voices from the other world" are a lieu commun of 
so-called Spiritualism. See also vol. i. 142 and Suppl. vol. iii. 

2 This tale and most of those in the MS. affect the Ka"la '1-Rdwi (= quoth the 
reciter) showing the true use of them. See Terminal Essay, vol. x. 163. 

228 Supplemental Nights. 

adding, " Ah ! were ye to wot all that shall soon befal this; 
youth after my departure and when afar from me!"* Those' 
present in the assembly at once asked saying: 

" And what shall, O Shaykh, to us fall forthright ? o Quoth he, * Sore marvels 

shall meet your sight ' : 
No heart have I to describe it you ". o Tnen approached Habib the same 

tutor-wight ; 
And clasping the youth to the breast of him, o Kissed his cheek a-shrieking 

the shrillest shright.* 

Whereupon all about them were perturbed and were amated and| 
amazed at the action of the Shaykh when, vanishing from their, 
view, he could nowhere be seen. Then the Emir Salamah ad-! 
dressed the lieges saying, " Ho ye Arabs, who wotteth what! 
presently shall betide my son? would Heaven I had one to 
advise him!" Hereupon said his Elders and Councillors, "Wei 
know of none." But the Sultan Habib brooded over the dis- 
appearance of his governor and bespake his sire weeping bitter 
tears the while, " O my father, where be he who brought me up 
and enformed me with all manner knowledge ? " and the Emir; 
replied, " O my son, one day of the days he farewelled us and 
crying out with a loud cry evanished from our view and we 
have seen him no more." Thereupon the youth improvised and 1 
said : 

" Indeed I am scourged by those ills whereof I felt affray, ah ! o By parting 
and thoughts which oft compelled my soul to say, * Ah ! ' 

Oh saddest regret in vitals of me that ne'er ceaseth, nor o Shall minished be* 
his love that still on my heart doth prey, ah ! 

Where hath hied the generous soul my mind with lere adorned ? o And alas ! 
what hath happened, O sire, to me, and well-away, ah ! " 

Hereat the Emir Salamah shed tears (as on like wise did all 
present) and quoth he to his son, " O Habib, we have been 
troubled by his action/' and quoth the youth, How shall I 

1 The missing apodosis would be, " You would understand the ' cause of my 
* la the text there are only five lines. I have borrowed the sixth from the prose. 

History of Prince Habib, 229 

endure severance from one who fostered me and brought me to 
honour and renown and who raised my degree so high ? " Then 
began he to improvise saying : 

" Indeed this pine in my heart grows high, o And in eyeballs wake doth my 

sleep outvie : 
You marched, O my lords, and from me hied far o And you left a lover shall 

aye outcry : 
I wot not where on this earth you be o And how long this patience when none 

is nigh : 
Ye fared and my eyeballs your absence weep, o And my frame is meagre, my 

heart is dry." 

Now whilst the Emir Salamah was sitting in his seat of dignity 
and the Sultan Habib was improvising poetry and shedding tears 
in presence of his sire, they heard a Voice which announced itself 
and its sound was audible whilst its personality was invisible. 
Thereupon the youth shed tears and cried, " O father mine, I need 
one who shall teach me horsemanship and the accidents of edge 
and point and onset and offset and spearing and spurring in the 
Maydan ; for my heart loveth knightly derring-do to plan, such 
|as riding in van and encountering the horseman and the valiant 
man." And the while they were in such converse behold, there 
appeared before them a personage rounded of head, long of 
length and dread, with turband wide dispread, and his breadth 
of breast was armoured with doubled coat of mail whose mani- 
fold rings were close-enmeshed after the model of Daiid 1 the 
Prophet (upon whom be The Peace !) Moreover he hent in 
hand a mace erst a block cut out of the live hard rock, whose 
shock would arrest forty braves of the doughtiest ; and he was 
baldrick'd with an Indian blade that quivered in the grasp, 
and he bestrode, with a Samhari 2 lance at rest, a bay destrier 
of black points whose peer was not amongst the steeds of the 
Arabs. Then he took his station standing as a vassal between 

" Da6d " = .David : see vols. ii. 286 ; vi. 113. 
For " Samhari " see vol. iv. 258. 

230 Supplemental Nights. 

the Emir Salamah*s Hands and he addressed a general salam and 
he greeted all that stood a-foot or were seated. His salute they 
repeated and presently the pages hastened forwards and aided 
him alight from his charger's back ; and after waiting for a full- 
told hour that he might take somewhat of repose, the stranger- 
knight and doughty wight advanced and said, " Ho thou the 
Emir, I came hither to fulfil the want whereof thou expressedst a 
wish ; and, if such prove thy pleasure, I will teach thy son fray and 
fight and prowess in the plain of sword-stroke and lance-lunge. 
But ere so doing I would fain test thy skill in cavalarice ; so 
do thou, O Emir, be first to appear as champion and single com- 
batant in the field when I will show thee what horsemanship is." 
" Hearkening and obeying," replied the Emir, "and if thou desire . 
the duello with us we will not baulk thee thereof." Hereat his; 
Shaykhs and Chieftains sprang up and cried to him, " O Emir, 
Allah upon thee do not meet in fight this cavalier for that thou 
wottest not an he be of mankind or of Jinn-kind ; so be thou not 
deceived by his sleights and snares." " Suffer me this day," quoth 
the Emir, " to see the cavalarice of this cavalier, and, if over me 
he prevail, know him to be a knight with whom none may avail." 
:Speaking thus the Emir arose and hied him to his tent where he 
bade the slaves bring forth the best of his habergeons ; and, when 
all these were set before him, he took from them a Davidian suit 
of manifold rings and close-meshed, which he donned, and he 
baldrick'd himself with a scymitar of Hindi' steel, hadst thou 
smitten therewith a cliff it had cleft it in twain or hadst thou 
stricken a hill it had been laid level as a plain ; and he hent in 
hand a Rudaynfan lance 1 of Khatt Hajar, whose length was thirty 
ells and upon whose head sat a point like unto a basilisk's tongue ; 
and lastly he bade his slaves bring him his courser which in the 

1 From "Rudaynah," cither a woman or a place: see vols. ii. i ; vii. 265; and for 
" Khatt Hajar" vol. ii. i. 

History of Prince Habib. 231 

race was the fleetest-footed of all horses. Then the two com- 
batants took the plain accompanied by the tribesmen nor did one 
of them all, or great or small, remain in camp for desire to witness 
the fight of these champions who were both as ravening lions. 
But first the stranger-knight addressed his adversary and speaking 
with free and eloquent tongue quoth he, " I will encounter thee, 

Emir Salamah, with the encountering of the valiant ; so have 
thou a heed of me for I am he hath overthrown the Champions 
some and all." At these words each engaged his foeman and 
the twain forwards pressed for a long time, and the Raven of 
cut-and-thrust croaked over the field of fight and they exchanged 
strokes with the Hindi scymitar and they thrust and foined with 
the Khatti spear and more than one blade and limber lance was 
shivered and splintered, all the tribesmen looking on the while 
at both. And they ceased not to attack and retire and to 
draw near and draw off and to heave and fence until their fore- 
arms ailed and their endeavour failed. Already there appeared in 
the Emir Salamah somewhat of weakness and weariness ; nathe- 
less when he looked upon his adversary's skill in the tourney 
and encounter of braves he saw how to meet all the foeman's 
sword-strokes with his targe : however at last fatigue and loss of 
strength prevailed over him and he knew that he had no longer 
the force to fight ; so he stinted his endeavour and withdrew from 
brunt of battle. Hereat the stranger knight alighted and falling 
at the Emir's feet kissed them and cried, " O Sovran of the Age, 

1 came not hither to war with thee but rather with the design of 
teaching thy son^ the Sultan Habib, the complete art of arms and 
make him the prow cavalier of his day." Replied Salamah, " In 
very sooth, O horseman of the age, thou hast spoken right fairly 
in thy speech ; nor did I design with thee to fight nor devised I 
the duello or from steed to alight ; 1 nay, my sole object was my 

1 This is the idiomatic meaning of the Arab word " Nizal "= dismounting to fight on foot. 

2 3 2 Supplemental Nights. 

son to incite that he might learn battle and combat aright, and the 
charge of the heroic Himyarite 1 to meet with might." Then the 
twain dismounted and each kissed his adversary ; after which they 
returned to the tribal camp and the Emir bade decorate it and all 
the habitations of the Arab clans with choicest decoration, and 
they slaughtered the victims and spread the banquets and through- 
out that day the tribesmen ate and drank and fed the travellers 
and every wayfarer and the mean and mesquin and all the 
miserables. Now as soon as the Sultan Habib was informed 
concerning that cavalier how he had foiled his father in the field 
of fight, he repaired to him and said, " Peace be with him who 
came 'longing for us and designing our society! Who art thou, 
Ho thou the valorous knight and foiler of foemen in fight ? " 
Said the other, " Learn thou, O Habib, that Allah hath sent me 
theewards." " And, say me, what may be thy name ? " " I am 
hight Al-'Abbus, 2 the Knight of the Grim Face." " I see thee 
only smiling of countenance whilst thy name clean contradicteth 
thy nature ; " quoth the youth. Presently the Emir Salamah 
committed his son to the new governor saying, " I would thou 
make me this youth the Brave of his epoch ; " whereto the knight 
replied, " To hear is to obey, first Allah then thyself and to do 
suit and service of thy son Habib." And when this was deter- 
mined youth and governor went forth to the Maydan every day 
and after a while of delay Habib became the best man of his age 
in fight and fray. Seeing this his teacher addressed him as 
follows. " Learn, O Sultan Habib, that there is no help but 
thou witness perils and affrights and adventures, wherefor is weak 
the description of describers and thou shalt say in thyself: 

1 In the text " Akyal," plur. of 'Kayl";= Kings of the Himyarite peoples. See 
vol. vii. 60 ; here it'is=the hero, the heroes. 

* An intensive word, "on the weight," as the Arabs say of 'Abbs (stern-faced) and 
meaning "Very stern-faced, austere, grim." In the older translations it becomes 
11 II Haboul" utterly meaningless. 

History of Prince Habib. 


Would heaven I had never sighted such and I were of these same 
free. And thou shalt fall into every hardship and horror until 
thou be united with the beautiful Durrat al-Ghawwds, Queen- 
regnant over the Isles of the Sea. Meanwhile to affront all the 
perils of the path thou shalt fare forth from thy folk and bid 
adieu to thy tribe and patrial stead ; and, after enduring that 
which amateth man's wit, thou shalt win union with the daughter 
of Queen Kamar al-Zaman 1 ." But when Habib heard these 
words concerning the " Pearl of the Diver " his wits were wildered 
and his senses were agitated and he cried to Al-Abbus, " I 
conjure thee by Allah say me, is this damsel of mankind or of 
Jinn-kind." Quoth the other, " Of Jinn-kind, and she hath two 
Wazirs, one of either race, who overrule all her rulers and a 
thousand islands of the Isles of the Sea are subject to her 
command, while a host of Sayyids and Sharffs 2 and Grandees 
hath flocked to woo her, bringing wealthy gifts and noble presents, 
yet hath not any of them won his wish of her but all returned 
baffled and baulked of their will." Now the Sultan Habib 
hearing this from him cried in excess of perturbation and stress 
of confusion, " Up with us and hie we home where we may take 
seat and talk over such troublous matter and debate anent its 
past and its future." " Hearkening and obedience," rejoined the 
other ; so the twain retired into privacy in order to converse at 
ease concerning the Princess, and Al-Abbus began to relate in 
these words 

1 The Arab. " Moon of the Time" becomes in the olden versions " Camaulzaman," 
which means, if anything, "Complete Time," and she is the daughter of a Jinn-King 
" Illabousatrous (Al-'Atnis?)." He married her to a potent monarch named *' Shah- 
Goase" (Shah Ghawws=King Diver), in this version "Sabur" (Shahpur), and by him 
Kamar Al-Zaman became the mother of Durrat al-Ghawwas. 

2 In text " Sadat wa Ashraf ; " for the technical meaning of ! Sayyid" and " Sharif* 
see vols. iv. 170 ; v. 259. 

234 Supplemental Nights. 


Whilome there was a Sovran amongst the Kings of the Sea, 
hight Sdbur, who reigned over the Crystalline Isles, 1 and he was 
a mighty ruler and a generous, and a masterful potentate and 
a glorious. He loved women and he was at trouble to seek out* 
the fairest damsels; yet many of his years had gone by nor 
yet had he been blessed with boon of boy." So one day of the 
days he took thought and said in himself, " To this length of 
years I have attained and am well nigh at life's end and still 
am I childless : what then will be my case ? " Presently, as he 
sat upon his throne of kingship, he saw enter to him an Ifrit fair 
of face and form, the which was none other than King 'Atrus 2 
of the Jdnn, who cried, " The Peace be upon thee, Ho thou the 
King! and know that I have come to thee from my liege lord 
who afifecteth thee. In my sleep it befel that I heard a Voice 
crying to me : During all the King's days never hath he been 
vouchsafed a child, boy or girl ; so now let him accept my com- 
mand and he shall win to his wish. Let him distribute justice 
and largesse and further the rights of the wronged and bid men 
to good and forbid them from evil and lend not aid to tyranny 
or to innovation in the realm and persecute not the unfortunate, 
and release from gaol all the prisoners he retaineth. At these 
words of the Voice I awoke astartled by my vision and I hastened 
to thee without delay and I come with design to inform thee, 
O King of the Age, that I have a daughter, hight Kamar al-Zaman, 
who hath none like her in her time, and no peer in this tide, and 
her I design giving thee to bride. The Kings of the Jann have 
ofttimes asked her in marriage of me but I would have none of 
them save a ruler of men like thyself and Alhamdolillah glory 

1 Gauttier, vii. 71. Les Isles Bellour : see vol. iii. 194. 

2 Heron's ' ' Illabousatrous " (?). 

History of Durrat al-Ghawwas. 

be to God, who caused thy Highness occur to my thought, for 
that thy fame in the world is goodly fair and thy works make 
for righteousness. And haply by the blessing of these thou shalt 
beget upon my daughter a man child, a pious heir and a virtuous." 
Replied the King, *' Ho thou who comest to us and desirest 
our weal, I accept thine offer with love and good will." Then 
Sabur, the King of the Crystalline Isles, bade summon the Kazi 
and witnesses, and quoth the I frit, " I agree to what thou sayest, 
and whatso thou proposest that will I not oppose." So they 
determined upon the dowry and bound him by the bond of 
marriage with the daughter of Al-'Atrus, King of the Jinns, who 
at once sent one of his Flying Jann to bring the bride. She 
arrived forthright when they dressed and adorned her with all 
manner ornaments, and she came forth surpassing all the maidens 
of her era, And when King Sabur went in unto her he found 
her a clean maid : so he lay that night with her and Almighty 
Allah so willed that she conceived of him. When her days and 
months of pregnancy were sped, she was delivered of a girl- 
babe as the moon, whom they committed to wet-nurses and dry- 
nurses, and when she had reached her tenth year, they set over 
her duennas who taught her Koran-reading and writing and 
learning and belles-lettres \ brief, they brought her up after the 
fairest of fashions. Such was the lot 1 of Durrat al-Ghawwas, 
the child of Kamar al-Zaman, daughter to King 'Atrus by her 
husband King Sabur. But as regards the Sultan Habib and his 
governor Al-Abbus, the twain ceased not wandering from place 
to place in search of the promised damsel until one day of the 
days when the youth entered his father's garden and strolled the 
walks adown amid the borders 2 and blossoms of basil and of 
rose full blown and solaced himself with the works of the Com- 

1 In text " Zayjah," from Pers. " Zaycheh " = lit. a horoscope, a table for calculating 
nativities and so forth. In page 682 of the MS. the word is used = marriage-lines. 

2 In text "Snsai," for "Salsil" = lit. chain. 

236 Supplemental Nights. 

passionate One and enjoyed the scents and savours of the flowers 
there bestrewn ; and, while thus employed, behold, he suddenly 
espied the maiden, Durrat al-Ghawwas hight, entering therein as 
she were the moon ; and naught could be lovelier than she of all 
earth supplies, gracious as a Huriyah of the Virgins of Paradise, 
to whose praise no praiser could avail on any wise. But when the 
Sultan Habib cast upon her his eyes he could no longer master 
himself and his wits were bewildered from the excitement of his 
thoughts ; so he regarded her with a long fixed look and said in 
himself, " I fear whenas she see me that she will vanish from my 
sight. Accordingly, he retired and clomb the branches of a tree in 
a stead where he could not be seen and whence he could see her 
at his ease. But as regards the Princess, she ceased not to roam 
about the Emir Salamah's garden until there approached her two 
score of snow-white birds each accompanied by a handmaid of 
moon-like beauty. Presently they settled upon the ground and 
stood between her hands saying, "Peace be upon thee, O our 
Queen and Sovran Lady." She replied, " No welcome to you and 
no greeting ; say me, what delayed you until this hour when ye 
know that I am longing to meet the Sultan Habib, the dear one, 
son of Salamah, and I long to visit him for that he is the dearling 
of my heart. Wherefor I bade you accompany me and ye obeyed 
not, and haply ye have made mock of me and of my command- 
ment." " We never gainsay thy behest," replied they, " or in word 
or in deed ; " and they fell to seeking her beloved. Hearing this 
the Sultan Habib's heart was solaced and his mind was comforted 
and his thoughts were rightly directed and his soul was reposed ; 
and when he was certified of her speech, he was minded to appear 
before her ; but suddenly fear of her prevailed over him and he 
said to his thoughts, " Haply she will order one of the Jinns to 
do me die ; so 'twere better to have patience and see what Allah 
shall purpose for me of His Almighty will/' But the Princess 
and her attendants ceased not wandering about the garden from 

History of Prince Habib. 


site to site and side to side till they reached the place wherein 
the Sultan Habib fay in lurking ; when Durrat al-Ghawwas there 
stood still and said in herself, " Now I came not from my capital 
save on his account, and I would see and be seen by him even 
as the Voice informed me of him, O ye handmaidens ; and 
peradventure hath the same informed him of me." Then the 
Princess and her suite, drawing still nearer to his place of con- 
cealment, found a lakelet in the Arab's garden brimful of water 
amiddlemost whereof stood a brazen lion, through whose mouth 
the water entered to issue from his tail. Hereat the Princess 
marvelled and said to her bondswomen, " This be none other 
than a marvellous lake, together with the lion therein ; and when, 
by the goodwill of Almighty Allah, I shall have returned 1? 
ll will let make a lakelet after this fashion, and in it set a li 
brass." Thereupon she ordered them to doff their dress and go 
down to the piece of water and swim about ; but they replied, 
O our lady, to hear is to obey thy commandment, but we will 

not strip nor swim save with thee." Then she also did off her 

, a - 

dress and all stripped themselves and entered the lakelet in a 
body, whereupon the Sultan Habib looked through the leaves to 
solace himself with the fair spectacle and he ejaculated, "Blessed 
be the Lord the best of Creators ! " And when the handmaids 
waxed aweary of swimming, the Princess * commanded them to 
come forth the water, and said " Whenas Heaven willeth that the 
idesire of my heart be fulfilled in this garden, what deem ye I 
fshould do with my lover ? " and quoth they, " 'Twould only add 
(to our pleasure and gladness.'* Quoth she, " Verily my heart 
assureth me that he is here and hidden amongst the trees of yon 
tangled brake;" and she made signs with her hand whither 
"Habib lay in lurking-place ; and he, espying this, rejoiced with 
joy galore than which naught could be more, and exclaimed, 
"There is no Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, 
the Glorious, .the Great; what meaneth this lady? Indeed, I fear 

238 Supplemental Nights, 

to stay in this stead lest she come hither and draw me forth and 
put me to shame ; and 'twere better that of mine own accord 
I come out of my concealment and accost her and suffer her to do 
all she designeth and desireth." So he descended from the 
topmost of the tree wherein he had taken refuge and presented 
himself before the Princess Durrat al-Ghawwas, who drew near 
and cried to him,"O Habib, O welcome to Habib! and is it thus 
that we have travailed with love of thee and longing for thee, and 
where hast thou been all this time, O my dearling, and O coolth 
of my eyes and O slice of my liver ? " Replied he, " I was in 
the head of yonder huge tree to which thou pointedst with thy 
finger." And as they looked each at other she drew nearer to him 
and fell to improvising : 

" Thou hast doomed me, O branchlet of Bin, to despair * Who in worship and 

honour was wont to fare, 
Who lived in rule and folk slaved for me o And hosts girded me round every 

hest to bear I" 

And anon quoth the Sultan Habib, " Alhamdolillah laud be to 
the Lord, who deigned show me thy face and thy form ! Can it 
be thou kennest not what it was that harmed me and sickened 
me for thy sake, O Durrat al-Ghawwas ? " Quoth she, " And what 
was it hurt thee and ailed thee ? " " It was the love of thee and 
longing for thee ! " " And who was the first to tell thee and make 
thee ware of me ? " He replied saying, " One day it so befel, as 
I was amongst my family and my tribe, a Jinni Al-Abbus hight 
became my governor and taught me the accidents of thrust and 
cut and cavalarice ; and ere he left he commended thy beauty and 
loveliness and foretold to me all that would pass between thee and 
me. So I was engrossed with affection for thee ere my eyes had 
sight of thee, and thenceforwards I lost all the pleasures of sleep, 
nor were meat and eating sweet to me, nor were drink and wine- 
draughts a delight to me : so Alhamdolillah praise be to Allah, 
who deigned conjoin me in such union with my heart's desire ! " 

History of Prince Habib. 239 

Hereat the twain exchanged an embrace so long that a swoon 
came upon them and both fell to the ground in a fainting fit, but 
after a time the handmaidens raised them up and besprinkled their 
faces with rose-water which at once revived them. All this 
happened, withal the Emir Salamah wotted naught of what had 
befallen his son the Sultan Habib nor did his mother weet that 
had betided her child ; and the husband presently went in to his 
spouse and said, u Indeed this boy hath worn us out: we see that 
o' nights he sleepeth not in his own place and this day he fared 
forth with the dawn and suffered us not to see a sight of him." 
Quoth the wife, " Since the day he went to Al-Abbus, thy boy 
/ell into cark and care ;" and quoth the husband, " Verily our son 
walked about the garden and Allah knoweth that therefrom is no 
issue anywhither. So there shalt thou find him and ask him of 
himself." And they talked over this matter in sore anger and 
.agitation. Meanwhile as the Sultan Habib sat in the garden with 
the handmaids waiting upon him and upon the Princess Durrat 
[al-Ghawwas, there suddenly swooped upon them a huge bird which 
presently changed form to a Shaykh seemly of aspect and 
semblance who approached and kissing their feet humbled himself 
before the lover and his beloved. The youth marvelled at such 
action of the Shaykh, and signalled to the Princess as to ask, 
" Who may be this old man ?" and she answered in the same way, 
" This is the Wazir who caused me forgather with thee ;" presently 
adding to the Shaykh, " What may be thy need ? " " I came hither 
.for the sake of thee," he replied, "and unless thou fare forthright 
to thy country and kingdom the rule of the Jdnn will pass from 
thy hand ; for that the Lords of the land and Grandees of the 
realm seek thy loss and not a few of the nobles have asked me 
saying, O Wazir, where is our Queen ? I answered, She is within 
her palace and to-day she is busied with some business. But such 
pretext cannot long avail, and thou, unless thou return with me to 
the region of thy reign there shall betray thee some one of the 

240 Supplemental Nights. 

Marids and the hosts will revolt against thee and thy rule will go 
to ruin and thou wilt be degraded from command and sultanat." 
" What then is thy say and what thy bidding ?" enquired she, and 
he replied, " Thou hast none other way save departure from this 
place and return to thy realm." Now when these words reached 
the ear of Durrat al-Ghawwas, her breast was straitened and she 
waxed sorrowful with exceeding sorrow for severance from her 
lover whom she addressed in these words, " What sayest thou anent 
that thou hast heard ? In very sooth I desire not parting from 
thee and the ruin of my reign as little do I design ; so come with 
me, O dearling of my heart, and I will make thee liege lord over 
the Isles of the Sea and sole master thereof." Hereat the Sultan 
Habib said in his soul, " I cannot endure parting from my own 
people ; but as for thee thy love shall never depart from thee :" then 
he spake aloud, " An thou deign hear me, do thou abandon that 
which thou purposest and bid thy Wazir rule over the Isles and thy 
patrial stead ; so shall we twain, I and thou, live in privacy for 
all time and enjoy the most joyous of lives." " That may never 
be," was her only reply; after which she cried to the Wazir 
saying, " Carry me off that I fare to my own land." " Then after 
farewelling her lover, she mounted the Emir-Wazir's back 1 and 
bade him bare her away, whereat he took flight and the forty 
handmaidens flew with him, towering high in air. Presently, 
the Sultan Habib shed bitter tears ; his mother hearing him weep- 
ing sore as he sat in the garden went to her husband and said, 

1 In Sindbad the Seaman I have shown that riding men as asses is a facetious exaggera 
tion of an African practice, the Minister being generally the beast of burden for the 
King. It was the same in the Maldive Islands. "As soon as the lord desires to land, 
one of the chief Catibes (Arab. Khatib = a preacher, not Katfb = a writer) comes 
forward to offer his shoulder (a function much esteemed) and the other gets upon his 
shoulders ; and so, with a leg on each side, he rides him horse fashion to land, and is 
there set down." See p. 71, "The Voyage of Francois Pyrard," etc. The volume is 
unusually well edited by Mr. Albert Gray, formerly of the Ceylon Civil Service for the 
Hakluyt Society, MDCCCLXXXVII : it is, however, regretable that he and Mr. Bell, his 
collaborateur, did not trace out the Maldive words to their " Aryan" origin showing 
(heir relationship to vulgar Hindostanias Mas to Machhi (fish) from the Sanskrit Matsya. 

History of Prince Habib. 241 

"Knowest thou not what calamity hath befallen thy son that I 
hear him there groaning and moaning ? " Now when the parents 
entered the garden, they found him spent with grief and the tears 
trickled adown his cheeks like never-ceasing rain-showers ; x so they 
summoned the pages who brought cucurbits of rosewater where- 
with they besprinkled his face. But as soon as he recovered his 
senses and opened his eyes, he fell to weeping with excessive 
weeping and his father and mother likewise shed tears for the 
burning of their hearts and asked him, " O Habib, what calamity 
hath come down to thee and who of his mischief hath overthrown 
thee ? Inform us of the truth of thy case." So he related all 
that had betided between him and Durrat al-Ghawwas, and his 
mother wept over him while his father cried, " O Habib, do thou 
leave this say and this thy desire cast away that the joys of meat 
and drink and sleep thou may enjoy alway." But he made answer, 
"O my sire, I will -not slumber upon this matter until I shall sleep 
the sleep of death." " Arise thou, O my child," rejoined the 
Emir, " and let us return homewards," 2 but the son retorted 
" Verily I will not depart from this place wherein I was parted 
from the dearling of my heart." So the sire again urged him 
saying, "These words do thou spare nor persist in this affair 
because therefrom for thee I fear ;" and he fell to cheering him 
and comforting his spirits. After a while the Sultan Habib arose 
and fared homewards beside his sire who kept saying to him, 
" Patience, O my child, the while I assist thee in thy search for 
this young lady and I send those who shall bring her to thee." 

1 In text "Ghaythal-Hatil" = incessant rain of small drops and widely dispread. 
In Arab, the names for clouds, rain and all such matters important to a pastoral race 
are well nigh innumerable. Poetry has seized upon the material terms and has converted 
them into a host of metaphors ; for " the genius of the Arabic language, like that of 
the Hebrew, is to form new ideas by giving a metaphorical signification to material 
objects (e.g. 'Azud, lit. the upper arm ; met. a helper)." Chenery p. 380. 

2 In the text "To the palace :" the scribe, apparently forgetting tha^ he is describing 
Badawi life, lapses at times into "decorating the capital" and "a^ > u g the mansion," 
as if treating of the normal city-life. I have not followed hisexatap le. 


242 Supplemental Nights. 

" O my father," rejoined the son, " I can no longer endure parting 
from her ; nay, 'tis my desire that thou load me sundry camels 
with gold and silver and plunder and moneys that I may go forth 
to seek her : and if I win to my wish and Allah vouchsafe me 
length of life I will return unto you ; but an the term of my days 
be at hand then the behest be to Allah, the One, the Omnipotent 
Let not your breasts be straitened therefor and do ye hold and 
believe that if I abide with you and see not the beloved of my soul 
I shall perish of my pain while you be standing by to look upon 
my death. So suffer me to wayfare and attain mine aim ; for from 
the day when my mother bare me 'twas written to my lot that I 
journey over wild and wold and that I see and voyage over the 
seas seven-fold." Hereupon he fell to improvising these verses : 

" My heart is straitened with grief amain o And my friends and familiars have 

wrought me pain ; 
And whene'er you're absent I pine, and fires In my heart beweep what it bears 

of bane : 
O ye, who fare for the tribe's domain, o Cry aloud my greetings to friends so 

fain ! 

Now when the Emir Salamah heard these his son's verses, he bade 
pack for him four camel loads of the rarest stuffs, and he largessed 
to him a she-dromedary laden with thrones of red gold ; then he 
said to him, " Lo, O my son, I have given thee more than thou 
askedst." " O my father," replied Habib, " where are my steed 
and my sword and my spear ? " Hereat the pages brought forward 
a mail-coat Davidian * and a blade Maghrabian and a lance Khat- 
tian and Samharian, and set them between his hands ; and the 
Sultan Habib donning the habergeon and drawing his sabre and 
sitting lance in rest backed his steed, which was of the noblest 
blood known to all the Arabs. Then quoth he, " O my father is 
it thy desire to send with me a troop of twenty knights that they 
may escort me to the land of Al-Yaman and may anon bring me 

1 Heron translates ' A massy cuirass of Haoudi." 

History of Prince Habib. 243 

back to thee ? " " My design," quoth the sire, " is to despatch those 
with thee who shall befriend thee upon the road;" and, when 
Habib prayed him do as he pleased, the Emir appointed to him 
ten knights, valorous wights, who dreaded naught of death how- 
ever sudden and awesome. Presently, the youth farewelled his 
father and mother, his family and his tribe, and joining his escort, 
mounted his destrier when Salamah, his sire, said to his company, 
*' Be ye to my son obedient in all he shall command you ; " and 
said they, " Hearing and obeying." Then Habib and his many 
turned away from home and addressed them to the road when 
he began to improvise the following lines : 

*' My longing grows less and far goes my cark o After flamed my heart with the 

love-fire stark ; 
As I ride to search for my soul's desire o And I ask of those faring to Al- 


On this wise it befel the Sultan Habib and his farewelling his 
father and mother ; but now lend ear to what came of the knights 
who escorted him. After many days of toil and travail they waxed 
discontented and disheartened ; and presently taking counsel one 
with other, they said, " Come, let us slay this lad and carry off the 
loads of stuffs and coin he hath with him ; and when we reach our 
homes and be questioned concerning him, let us say that he died 
of the excess of his desire to Princess Durrat al-Ghawwas." So> 
they followed this rede, while their lord wotted naught of the 
ambush laid for him by his followers. And having ridden through 
the day when the night of offence 1 was dispread, the escort said,, 
" Dismount we in this garden 2 that here we may take our rest 
during the dark hours, and when morning shall morrow we will 
resume our road." The Sultan Habib had no mind to oppose 

1 In text, " Inbasata '1-Layl al-AsaV' which M. Houdas renders tt s'ttcndit la mtit 
(nitre) de la tristesse. 

* " Rauzah " in Algiers is a royal park ; also a prairie, as " Rauz al-Sanajirah," plain 
of the Sinjars : Ibn Khaldun, ii. 448. 

244 Supplemental Nights. 

them, so all alighted and in that garden took seat and whatso of 
victual was with them produced ; after which they ate and drank 
their sufficiency and lay down to sleep all of them save their lord, 
who could not close eye for excess of love-longing." " O Habib, 
why and wherefore sleepest thou not ? " they asked, and he 
answered, " O comrades mine, how shall slumber come to one 
yearning for his dearling, and verily I will lie awake nor enjoy 
aught repose until such time as I espy the life-blood of my heart, 
Durrat al-Ghawwas." Thereupon they held their peace ; and 
presently they held council one with other saying, " Who amongst 
us can supply a dose of Bhang that we may cast him asleep and 
his slaughter may be easy to us ? " " I have two Miskdls weight l 
of that same," quoth one of them, and the others took it from him 
and presently, when occasion served, they put it into a cup of water 
and presented it to Habib. He hent that cup in hand and drank 
off the drugged liquid at a single draught ; and presently the Bhang 
wrought in his vitals and its fumes mounted to his head, mastering 
his senses and causing his brain to whirl round, whereupon he sank 
into the depths of unconsciousness. Then quoth his escort, " As 
soon as his slumber is soundest and his sleep heaviest we will arise 
and slay him and bury him on the spot where he now sleepeth : 
then will we return to his father and mother, and tell them that of 
love-stress to his beloved and of excessive longing and pining for 
her he died." And upon this deed of treachery all agreed. So 
when dawned the day and showed its sheen and shone clear and 
serene, the knights awoke and seeing their lord drowned * in sleep 
they arose and sat in council, and quoth one of them, " Let us cut 

1 The "Miskal" (for which see vols. i. 126; ix. 262) is the weight of a dinar = 
ij dirham = 7l-72 grains avoir. A dose of 142 grains would kill a camel. In 1848, 
when we were marching up the Indus Valley under Sir Charles Napier to attack Nao 
Mall of Multan, the Sind Camel Corps was expected to march at the rate of some 
50 miles a day, and this was done by making the animals more than half drunk with 
Bhang or Indian hemp. 

1 In text, " Yakhat, ' probably clerical error for " Yakhbut," lit. = he was panting in 
a state of unconsciousness : see Dozy, Suppl. s. v. 

History of Prince Habib. 245 

his throat from ear to ear ; " l and quoth another, u Nay, better we 
dig us a pit the stature of a man and we will cast him amiddle- 
most thereof and heap upon him earth so that he will die, nor shall 
any know aught about him." Hearing this said one of the retinue, 
whose name was Rabi'a, 2 " But fear you naught from Almighty 
Allah and regard ye not the favours wherewith his father fulfilled 
you, and remember ye not the bread which ye ate in his household 
and from his family ? Indeed 'twas but a little while since his sire 
chose you out to escort him that his son might take solace with 
you instead of himself, and he entrusted unto you his heart's core, 
and now ye are pleased to do him die and thereby destroy the life 
of his parents. Furthermore, say me doth your judgment decide 
that such ill-work can possibly abide hidden from his father ? Now 
I swear by the loyalty 3 of the Arabs there will not remain for us a 
wight or any who bloweth the fire alight, however mean and slight, 
who will receive us after such deed. So do ye at least befriend and 
protect your households and your clans and your wives and your 
children whom ye left in the tribal domain. But now you design 
utterly to destroy us, one and all, and after death affix to out- 
memories the ill-name of traitors, and cause our women be enslaved 
and our children enthralled, nor leave one of us aught to be longed 
for." Quoth they jeeringly, " Bring what thou hast of righteous 
rede : " so quoth he, " Have you fixed your intent upon slaying 
him and robbing his good ? " and they answered, " We have." 
However, he objected again and cried, " Come ye and hear from 
me what it is I advise you, albeit I will take no part 4 in this 
matter ; " presently adding, " Established is your resolve in this 

1 In text "Al-Dan," which is I presume a clerical error for "Al-Uzn"= ear. 
["Dan," with the dual "Ddnayn," and "Wudn," with the plural ' Audan," are 
popular forms for the literary " Uzn." ST.] 

* This name has occurred in MS. p. 655, but it is a mere nonentity until p. 657 the 
normal incuriousness. Heron dubs him " Rabir." 

8 In the text " Zimmat"= obligation, protection, ciientship. 

* "Sahha 'alakah " (= a something) " ff hazi '1-Amri." The first word appears 
de trop being enclosed in brackets in the MS. 

246 Supplemental Nights. 

affair, and ye wot better than I what you are about to do. But 
my mind is certified of this much ; do ye not transgress in the 
matter of his blood and suffer only his crime be upon you ; * more- 
over, if ye desire to lay hands upon his camels and his moneys and 
his provisions, then do ye carry them off and leave him where he 
lieth ; then if he live, 'twere well, and if he die 'twill be even better 
and far better." " Thy rede is right and righteous," they replied. 
Accordingly they seized his steed and his habergeon and his sword 
and his gear of battle and combat, and they carried off all he had 
of money and means, and placing him naked upon the bare ground 
they drove away his camels. Presently asked one of other, 
Whenas we shall reach the tribe what shall we say to his father 
and his mother ? " " Whatso Rabi'a shall counsel us," quoth they, 
and quoth Rabi'a, "Tell them : We left not travelling with 
your son ; and, as we fared along we lost sight of him and we 
saw him nowhere until we came upon him a-swoon and lying 
on the road senseless : then we called to him by name but he 
returned no reply, and when we shook him with our hands 
behold, he had become a dried-up wand. Then seeing him dead 
we buried him and brought back to you his good and his belong- 
ings." " And if they ask you," objected one : In what place did 
ye bury him and in what land, and is the spot far or near, what 
shall ye make answer ; also if they say to you, " Why did ye not 
bear his corpse with you, what then shall be your reply ? Rabi'a 
to this rejoined, " Do you say to them : Our strength was 
weakened and we waxed feeble from burn of heart and want of 
water, nor could we bring his remains with us. And if they ask 
you : Could ye not bear him a-back ; nay, might ye not have 
carried him upon one of the camels ? do ye declare that ye could 
not for two reasons, the first being that the body was swollen and 
stinking from the fiery air, and the second our fear for his father, 

1 " Wa yabkl 'alaykum Mabdlu-h." [For " Mabal " I would read " Wabal," in the 
Mnse of crime or punishment, and translate : "lest the guilt of it rest upon you." ST.] 

History of Prince Habib. 247 

lest seeing him rotten he could not endure the sight and his sorrow 
be increased for that he was an only child and his sire hath none 
other." All the men joined in accepting this counsel of Rabi'a, 
and each and every exclaimed, " This indeed is the rede that is 
most right/' Then they ceased not wayfaring until they reached 
the neighbourhood of the tribe, when they sprang from their steeds 
and openly donned black, and they entered the camp showing the 
sorest sorrow. Presently they repaired to the father's tent, griev- 
ing and weeping and shrieking as they went ; .and when the Emir 
Salamah saw them in this case, crowding together with keening 
and crying for the departed, he asked them, " Where is he, my 
son ? " and they answered, " Indeed he is dead." Right hard upon 
Salamah was this lie, and his grief grew the greater, so he scattered 
dust upon his head and plucked out his beard and rent his raiment 
and shrieked aloud saying, " Woe for my son, ah ! Woe for Habib, 
ah ! Woe for the slice of my liver, ah ! Woe for my grief, ah ! 
Woe for the core 1 of my heart, ah ! " Thereupon his mother 
came forth, and seeing her husband in this case, with dust on his 
head and his beard plucked out and his .robe- collar 2 rent, and 
sighting her son's steed she shrieked, " Woe is me and well-away 
for my child, ah!" and fainted swooning for a full-told hour. 
Anon when recovered she said to the knights who had formed 
the escort, " Woe to you, O men of evil, where have ye buried my 
boy ? " They replied, " In a far-off land whose name we wot not, 
and 'tis wholly waste and tenanted by wild beasts," whereat she 
was afflicted exceedingly. , Then the Emir Salamah and his wife 
and household and all the tribesmen donned garbs black-hued and 

1 In the text ' Suwayda" literally "a small and blackish woman" ; and " Suwayda 
al-Kalb " (the black one of the heart) = original sin, as we should say. [The diminutive 
of" Sayyid " would be Suwayyid," as " Kuwayyis " from " Kayyis," and Juwayyid " 
from "Jayyid" (comp. supra p. 5). "Suwayd" and "Suwayda" are diminutives of 
"Aswad," black, and its fern. "Sauda" respectively, meaning blackish. The former occurs 
in " Umm al-Suwayd = anus. " Suwayda al-Kalb " = the blackish drop of clotted blood 
in the heart, is synonymous with " Habbat al-Kalb " = the grain in the heart, and corre- 
sponds to our core of the heart. Metaphorically both are used for " original sin." ST.] 

2 ' Yakah Thiyabish ; '' the former word being Turkish (M. Houdas). 

2d8 Supplemental Nights. 

ashes whereupon to sit they strewed, and ungrateful to them was 
the taste of food and drink, meat and wine ; nor ceased they to 
beweep their loss, nor could they comprehend what had befallen 
their son and what of ill-lot had descended upon him from Heaven. 
Such then was the case of them ; but as regards the Sultan Habib, 
he continued sleeping until the Bhang ceased to work in his brain, 
when Allah sent a fresh, cool wind which entered his nostrils and 
caused him sneeze, whereby he cast out the drug and sensed the 
sun-heat and came to himself. Hereupon he opened his eyes and 
sighted a wild and waste land, and he looked in vain for his com- 
panions the knights, and his steed and his swor,d and his spear and 
his coat of mail, and he found himself mother-naked, athirst, an- 
hungered. Then he cried out in that Desert of desolation which 
lay far and wide before his eyes, and the case waxed heavy upon 
him, and he wept and groaned and complained of his case to Allah 
Almighty, saying, " O my God and my Lord and my Master, trace 
my lot an thou hast traced it upon the Guarded Tablet, for who 
shall right me save Thyself, O Lord of Might that is All-might 
and of Grandeur All-puissant and All-excellent ! " Then he began 
improvising these verses : 

" Faileth me, O my God, the patience with the pride o' me ; o Life-tie is broke 

and drawing nigh I see Death-tide o' me : 
To whom shall injured man complain of injury and wrong e Save to the Lord 

(of Lords the Best !) who stands by side o' me." 

Now whilst the Sultan Habib was ranging with his eye-corners to 
the right and to the left behold, he beheld a blackness rising high 
in air, and quoth he to himself, " Doubtless this dark object must 
be a mighty city or a vast encampment, and I will hie me thither 
before I be overheated by the sun-glow and I lose the power of 
walking and I die of distress and none shall know my fate." Then 
he heartened his heart for the improvising of such poetry as came 
to his mina, ana he repeated these verses : 

44 Travel, for on the way ail goodly things shalt find ; o And wake from sleep and 
dreams if still to sleep inclined I 

History of Prince Habib. 


Or victory win and rise and raise thee highmost high > And gain, O giddy pate, 

the good for which thy. soul hath pined ; 
Or into sorrow thou shall fall with breast full strait o And ne'er enjoy the 

Fame that wooes the gen'rous mind, 
Nor is there any shall avail to hinder Fate o Except the Lord of Worlds who 

the Two Beings * designed." 

And when he had finished his verse, the Sultan Habib walked in 
the direction of that blackness nor left walking until he drew 
near the ridge ; but after he could fare no farther and that 
walking distressed him (he never having been broken to travel 
afoot and barefoot withal), and his forces waxed feeble and his 
joints relaxed and his strong will grew weak and his resolution 
passed away. But whilst he was perplexed concerning what he 
should do, suddenly there alighted between his hands a snow-white 
fowl huge as the dome of a Hammdm, with shanks like the trunk 
of a palm-tree. The Sultan Habib marvelled at the sight of this 
Rukh and saying to himself, " Blessed be Allah the Creator ! " he 
advanced slowly towards it and all unknown to the fowl seized its 
legs. Presently the bird put forth its wings (he still hanging on) 
and flew upwards to the confines of the sky, when behold, a Voice 
was heard saying, " O Habib ! O Habib ! hold to the bird with 
straitest hold, else 'twill cast thee down to earth and thou shalt 
be dashed to pieces limb from limb ! " Hearing these words he 
tightened his grasp and the fowl ceased not flying until it came to 
that blackness which was the outline of Kdf the mighty mountain, 
and having set the youth down on the summit it left him and 
still flew onwards. Presently a Voice sounded in the sensorium of 
the Sultan Habib saying, " Take seat, O Habib ; past is that which 
conveyed thee hither on thy way to Durrat al-Ghawwas ; " and he, 
Vhen the words met his ear, aroused himself and arose and, descend- 
ing the mountain slope to the skirting plain, saw therein a cave. 

1 Arab. "Kaunayn"= the two entities, this world and the other world, the past and 
the future, etc. Here it is opposed to " 'A'lamfna," here 'Awalim = the (three) worlds, 
for which see vol. ii. 236. 

250 Supplemental Nights. 

Hereat quoth he to himself, " If I enter this antre, haply shall I lose 
myself, and perish of hunger and thirst ! " He then took thought 
and reflected, " Now death must come sooner or later, wherefore 
will I adventure myself in this cave." And as he passed thereinto 
he heard one crying with a high voice and a sound so mighty 
that its volume resounded in his ears. But right soon the crier 
appeared in the shape of Al-Abbus, the Governor who had taught 
him battle and combat; and, after greeting him with great joy t 
the lover recounted his love-adventure to his whilome tutor. The 
Jinni bore in his left a scymitar, the work of the Jann and in his 
right a cup of water which he handed to his pupil. The draught 
caused him to swoon for an hour or so, and when he came-to Al- 
Abbus made him sit up and bathed him and robed him in the 
rarest of raiment and brought him a somewhat of victual and the, 
twain ate and drank together. Then quoth Habib to Al-Abbus 
* Knowest thou not that which befel me with Durrat al-Ghawwas 
of wondrous matters ? " and quoth the other, " And what may 
that have been ? " whereupon the youth rejoined, " O my brother, 
Allah be satisfied with thee for that He willed thou appear to me 
and direct me and guide me aright to the dearling of my heart 
and the cooling of mine eyes." " Leave thou such foolish talk," 
replied Al-Abbus, " for where art thou and where is Durrat al- 
Ghawwas ? Indeed between thee and her are horrors and perils 
and long tracts of land and seas wondrous, and adventures mar- 
vellous, which would amaze and amate the rending lions, and 
spectacles which would turn grey the sucking child or any one of 
man's scions." Hearing these words Habib clasped his governor 
to his breast and kissed him between the eyes, and the Jinni said, 
" O my beloved, had I the might to unite thee with her I would do 
on such wise, tut first 'tis my desire to make thee forgather with 
thy family in a moment shorter than an eye-twinkling." " Had I 
longed for my own people/' rejoined Habib, " I should never have 
left them, nor should I have endangered my days nor wouldst 

History of Prince Habib. 


thou have seen me in this stead ; but as it is I will never return 

from my wayfaring till such time as my hope shall have been 

fulfilled, even although my appointed life-term should be brought 

to end, for I have no further need of existence." To these words 

the Jinni made answer, "Learn thou, O Habib, that the cavern 

wherein thou art containeth the hoards of our Lord Solomon, 

David's son (upon the twain be The Peace !) and he placed them 

under my charge and he forbade me abandon them until such time 

as he shall permit me, and furthermore that I let and hinder both 

mankind and Jinn-kind from entering the Hoard ; and know thou, 

O Habib, that in this cavern is a treasure-house and in the Treasury 

forty closets offsetting to the right and to the left. Now wouldst 

thou gaze upon this wealth of pearls and rubies and precious stones, 

do thou ere passing through the first door dig under its threshold., 

where thou shalt find buried the keys of all the magazines. Than 

take the first of them in hand and unlock its door, after which 

thou shalt be able to open all the others and look upon the store 

of jewels therein. And when thou shalt design to depart the 

Treasury thou shalt find a curtain hung up in front of thee and 

fastened around it eighty hooks of red gold j 1 and do thou beware 

how thou raise the hanging without quilting them all with cotton." 

So saying he gave him a bundle of tree-wool he had by him, and 

pursued, " O Habib, when thou shalt have raised the curtain thou 

wilt discover a door with two leaves also of red gold, whereupon 

couplets are inscribed, and as regards the first distich an thou 

master the meaning of the names and the talismans, thou shalt be 

saved from all terrors and horrors, and if thou fail to comprehend 

them thou shalt perish in that Hoard. But after opening the door 

close it not with noise nor glance behind thee, and take all heed, 

as I fear for thee those charged with the care of the place 2 and its 

tapestry. And when thou shalt stand behind the hanging thou 

1 In text " Changul," again written with a three-dotted Chfm. 
* In text " Al-Mazrab" which M. Houdas translates cetendroit. 

252 Supplemental Nights. 

shalt behold a sea clashing with billows dashing, and 'tis one of 
the Seven Mains which shall show thee, O Habib, marvels whereat 
thou shalt wonder, and whereof relaters shall relate the strangest 
relations. Then do thou take thy stand upon the sea-shore whence 
thou shalt descry a ship under way and do thou cry aloud to the 
crew who shall come to thee and bear thee aboard. After this I 
wot not what shall befal thee in this ocean, and such is the end of my 
say and the last of my speech, O Habib, and The Peace ! " Hereat 
the youth joyed with joy galore than which naught could be 
more and taking the hand of Al-Abbus he kissed it and said, " O 
my brother, thou hast given kindly token in what thou hast spoken, 
and Allah requite thee for me with all weal, and mayest thou be 
fended from every injurious ill ! " Quoth Al-Abbus, " O Habib, take 
this scymitar and baldrick thyself therewith, indeed 'twill enforce 
thee and hearten thy heart, and don this dress which shall defend 
thee from thy foes." The youth did as he was bidden ; then he 
farewelled the Jinni and set forth on his way, and he ceased not 
pacing forward until he reached the end of the cavern and here he 
came upon the door whereof his governor had informed him. So he 
went to its threshold and dug thereunder and drew forth a black 
bag creased and stained by the lapse of years. This he unclosed 
and it yielded him a key which he applied to the lock and it 
forthwith opened and admitted him into the Treasury where, for 
exceeding murk and darkness, he could not see what he hent in 
hand. Then quoth he to himself, " What is to do ? Haply Al- 
Abbus hath compassed my destruction ! " And the while he sat 
on this wise sunken in thought, behold, he beheld a light gleaming 
from afar, and as he advanced its sheen guided him to the curtain 
whereof he had been told by the Jinni. But as he looked he saw 
above it a tablet of emerald dubbed with pearls and precious stones, 
while under it lay the hoard which lighted up the place like the rising 
sun. So he hastened him thither and found inscribed upon the 
tablet the following two couplets : 

History of Prince Habib. 


At him I wonder who from woe is free, o And who no joy displays l when 

safe is he : 
And I admire how Time deludes man when o He views the past ; but ah 

Time's tyranny." 

So the Sultan Habib read over these verses more than once, 
and wept till he swooned away ; then recovering himself he said 
in his mind, " To me death were pleasanter than life without my 
love ! " and turning to the closets which lay right and left he 
opened them all and gazed upon the hillocks of gold and silver 
and upon the heaps and bales of rubies and unions and precious 
stones and strings of pearls, wondering at all he espied, and 
quoth he to himself, " Were but a single magazine of these 
treasures revealed, wealthy were all the peoples who on earth do 
dwell." Then he walked up to the curtain whereupon Jinns and 
Ifrits appeared from every site and side, and voices and shrieks so 
loudened in his ears that his wits well-nigh flew from his head. 
So he took patience for a full-told hour when behold, a smoke 
which spired in air thickened and brooded low, and the sound 
ceased and the Jinns departed. Hereat, calling to mind the 
charge of Al-Abbus, he took out the cotton he had by him and 
after quilting the golden hooks he withdrew the curtain and 
sighted the portal which the Jinni had described to him. So 
he fitted in the key and opened it, after which, oblivious of the 
warning, he slammed-to the door noisily in his fear and forget- 
fulness, but he did not venture to look behind him. At this the 
Jinns flocked to him from every side and site crying, " O thou 
foulest of mankind, wherefore dost thou provoke us and disturb 
us from our stead ? and, but for thy wearing the gear of the 
Jann, we had slain thee forthright." But Habib answered not 
and, arming himself with patience and piety, he tarried awhile 
until the hubbub was stilled, nor did the Jann cry at him any 
more: and, when the storm was followed by calm, he paced 

In text Yabahh " = saying Bah, Bab J " 

254 Supplemental Nights. 

forward to the shore and looked upon the ocean crashing with 
billows dashing. He marvelled at the waves and said to himself, 
"Verily none may know the secrets of the sea and the mysteries 
of the main save only Allah ! " Presently, he beheld a ship 
passing along shore, so he took seat on the strand until Night 
let down her pall of sables upon him ; and he was an-hungered 
with exceeding hunger and athirst with excessive thirst. But 
when morrowed the morn and day showed her sheen and shone 
serene, he awoke in his sore distress and behold, he saw two 
Mermaidens of the daughters of the deep (and both were as 
moons) issue forth hard by him. And ere long quoth one of the 
twain, "Say me, wottest thou the mortal who sitteth yonder?" 
"I know him not," quoth the other, whereat her companion 
resumed, "This be the Sultan Habib who cometh in search of 
Durrat al-Ghawwas, our Queen and liege lady." Hearing these 
words the youth considered them straitly and marvelling at their 
beauty and loveliness he presently rejoiced and increased in 
pleasure and delight. * Then said one to other, " Indeed the Sultan 
Habib is in this matter somewhat scant and short of wits ; how 
can he love Durrat al-Ghawwas when between him .and her is a 
distance only to be covered by the sea-voyage of a full year over 
most dangerous depths ? And, after all this woe hath befallen 
him, why doth he not hie him home and why not save himself 
from these horrors which promise to endure through all his 
days and to cast his life at last into the pit of destruction ? " 
Asked the other, " Would heaven I knew whether he will ever 
attain to her or not ! " and her companion answered, " Yes, he 
will attain to her, but after a time and a long time and much 
sadness of soul." But when Habib heard this promise of success 
given by the Maidens of the Main his sorrow was solaced and 
he lost all that troubled him of hunger and thirst. Now while he 
pondered these matters there suddenly issued from out the ocean 
a third Mermaid, which asked her fellows, " Of what are you 

History of Prince Habib. 


prattling ? " and they answered, " Indeed the Sultan Habib sitteth 
here upon the sea-shore during this the fourth successive night." 
Quoth she, " I have a cousin the daughter of my paternal uncle 
and when she came to visit me last night I enquired of her if any 
ship had passed by her and she replied : Yea verily, one did 
sail driven towards us by a violent gale, and its sole object was 
to seek you." And the others rejoined, " Allah send thee tidings 
of welfare ! " The youth hearing these words was gladdened 
and joyed with exceeding joy ; and presently the three Mermaidens 
called to one another and dove into the depths leaving the listener 
standing upon the strand. After a short time he heard the cries 
of the crew from the craft announced and he shouted to them 
and they, noting his summons, ran alongside the shore and took 
him up and bore him aboard : and, when he complained of 
hunger and thirst, they gave him meat and drink and questioned 
him saying, " Thou ! who art thou ? Say us, art of the trader- 
folk ? " "I am the merchant Such-and-such/' quoth he " and 
my ship foundered albe 'twas a mighty great vessel ; but one 
chance day of the days as we were sailing along there burst 
upon us a furious gale which shivered our timbers and my com- 
panions all perished while I floated upon a plank of the ship's 
planks and was carried ashore by the send of the sea. Indeed 
I have been floating for three days and this be my fourth night." 
Hearing this adventure from him the traders cried, "Grieve no 
more in heart but be thou of good cheer and of eyes cool and 
clear : the sea voyage is ever exposed to such chances and so is 
the gain thereby we obtain ; and if Allah deign preserve us and 
keep for us the livelihood He vouchsafed to us we will bestow 
upon thee a portion thereof." After this they ceased not sailing 
until a tempest assailed them and blew their vessel to starboard 
and larboard and she lost her course and went astray at sea. 
Hereat the pilot cried aloud, saying, " Ho ye company aboard, 
take your leave one of other for we be driven into unknown 

256 Supplemental Nights. 

depths of ocean, nor may we keep our course, because the wind 
bloweth full in our faces/' Hereupon the voyagers fell to beweep- 
ing the loss of their lives and their goods, and the Sultan 
Habib shed tears which trickled adown his cheeks and exclaimed, 
" Would Heaven I had died before seeing such torment : indeed 
this is naught save a matter of marvel/' But when the mer- 
chants saw the youth thus saddened and troubled of soul, and 
weeping withal, they said to him, " O Monarch of the Merchants, 
let not thy breast be straitened or thy heart be disheartened : 
haply Allah shall vouchsafe joy to us and to thee : moreover, can 
vain regret and sorrow of soui and shedding of tears avail aught ? 
Do thou rather ask of the Almighty that He deign relieve us and 
further our voyage/* But as the vessel ran through the middle 
of the main, she suddenly ceased her course and came to a stop 
without tacking to the right or the left, and the pilot cried out, 
" O folk, is there any of you who conneth this ocean ? " But they 
made answer, " We know thereof naught, neither in all our voyage 
did we see aught resembling it." The pilot continued, " O folk, 
this main is hight * The Azure ' ; J nor did any trader at any time 
therein enter but he found destruction ; for that it is the home 
of Jinns and the house of Ifrits, and he who now withholdeth our 
vessel from its course is known as Al-Ghashamsham, 2 and our lord 
Solomon son of David (upon the twain be The Peace !) deputed 
him to snatch up and carry off from every craft passing through 
these forbidden depths whatever human beings, and especially 
merchants he might find a-voyaging, and to eat them alive." 
"Woe to thee ! " cried Habib. "Wherefore bid us take counsel 
together when thou tellest us that here dwelleth a Demon 
over whom we have no power to prevail, and thou terrifiest us 

1 In text " Bahr al-Azrak "= the Blue Sea, commonly applied to the Mediterranean : 
the origin of the epithet is readily understood by one who has seen the Atlantic or 
the Black Sea. 

1 i.e. " The Stubborn," "The Obstinate." 

History f Prince Habib. 257 

with the thoughts of being devoured by him ? However, feel ye 
no affright ; I will fend off from you the mischief of this Ifrit." 
They replied, " We fear for thy life, O Monarch of the Merchants/' 
and he rejoined, " To you there is" no danger." Thereupon he 
donned a closely woven mail-coat and armed himself with the 
magical scymitar and spear ; then, taking the skins of animals 
freshly slain, 1 he made a hood and vizor thereof and wrapped 
strips of the same around his arms and legs that no harm from 
the sea might enter his frame. After this he bade his shipmates 
bind him with cords under his armpits and let him down amiddle- 
most the main. And as soon as he touched bottom he was 
confronted by the Ifrit, who rushed forward to make a mouthful 
of him, when the Sultan Habib raised his forearm and with the 
scymitar smote him a stroke which fell upon his neck and hewed 
him into two halves. So he died in the depths ; and the youth, 
seeing the foeman slain, jerked the cord and his mates drew 
him up and took him in, after which the ship sprang forward 
like a shaft outshot from the belly 2 of the bow. Seeing this all 
the traders wondered with excessive wonderment and hastened 
up to the youth, kissing his feet and crying, " O Monarch of the 
Merchants, how didst thou prevail against him an-d do him die ? " 
" When I dropped into the depths," replied he, "in order to slay 
him, I asked against him the aidance of Allah, who vouchsafed 
His assistance, and on such wise I slaughtered him." Hearing 
these good tidings and being certified of their enemy's death the 
traders offered to him their good and gains whereof he refused to 
accept aught, even a single mustard seed. Now, amongst the 
number was a Shaykh well shottert in years and sagacious in all 
affairs needing direction ; and this oldster drew near the youth, and 
making lowly obeisance said to him, " By the right of Who sent 

1 In text " Al-Jawadit," where M. Houdas would read " Al-Hawddith " which be 
renders by animaux fraichement tues. 

8 In the text " Kabad " = the liver, the sky-vault, the handle or grasp of a bow. 


258 Supplemental Nights. 

thee uswards and sent us theewards, what art thou and what 
may be thy name and the cause of thy falling upon this ocean ? " 
The Sultan Habib began by refusing to disclose aught of his 
errand, but when the Shaykh persisted in questioning he ended by 
disclosing all that had betided him first and last, and as they sailed 
on suddenly the Pilot cried out to them, "Rejoice ye with great 
joy and make ye merry and be ye gladdened with good news, 
O ye folk, for that ye are saved from the dangers of these terrible 
depths and ye are drawing near the city of Sdbur, the King who 
overruleth the Isles Crystalline ; and his capital (which be 
populous and prosperous) ranketh first among the cities of Al-Hind, 
and his reign is foremost of the Isles of the Sea." Then -the ship 
inclined thither, -and drawing nearer little by little entered the 
harbour * and cast anchor therein, when the canoes 2 appeared and 
the porters came on board and bore away the luggage of the 
voyagers and the crew, who were freed from all sorrow and anxiety. 
Such was their case ; but as regards Durrat al-Ghawwas, when she 
parted from her lover, the Sultan Habib, severance weighed sore 
and stark upon her, and she found no pleasure in meat and drink 
and slumber and sleep. And presently whilst in this condition 
and sitting upon her throne of estate, an I frit appeared to her and 
coming forwards between her hands said, "The Peace of Allah 
be upon thee, O Queen of the Age and Empress of the Time and 
the Tide !" whereto she made reply, " And upon thee be The Peace 
and the ruth of Allah and His blessings. What seekest thou 
O Ifrit ?" Quoth he, " There lately hath come to us a shipful of 
merchants and I have heard talk of the Sultan Habib being 
amongst them." As these words reached her ear she largessed the 
Ifrit and said to him, " An thou speak sooth I will bestow upon 
thee whatso thou wishest." Then, having certified herself of the 

1 In the text "Mfnd" = a port both in old Egyptian and mod. Persian: see 
" Mitrahinna," vol. ii, 257. 

' Al-Nakair," plur. of Nakir " = a dinghy, a dug-out." 

History of Prince Habib. 259 

news, she bade decorate the city with the finest of decorations and 
let beat the kettledrums of glad tidings and bespread the way 
leading to the Palace with a carpeting of sendal, 1 and they obeyed 
her behest. Anon she summoned her pages and commanded them 
to bring her lover before her ; so they repaired to him and ordered 
him to accompany them. Accordingly, he followed them and they 
ceased not faring until they had escorted him to the Palace, when 
the Queen bade all her pages gang their gait and none remained 
therein save the two lovers ; to wit, the Sultan Habib and Durrat 
al-Ghawwas. And after the goodly reunion she sent for the Kazi 
and his assessors and bade them write out her marriage-writ 2 with 
Habib. ' He did as he was bidden and the witnesses bore testimony 
thereto and to the dowry being duly paid ; and the tie was formally 
tied and the wedding banquets were dispread. Then the t>ride 
donned her choicest of dresses and the marriage procession was 
formed and the union was consummated and both joyed with joy 
exceeding. Now this state of things endured for a long while until 
the Sultan Habib fell to longing after his parents and his family 
and his native country ; and at length, on a day of the days, when 
a banquet was served up to him by his bride he refused to taste 
thereof, and she, noting and understanding his condition, said to 
him, " Be of good cheer, this very night thou shalt find thee amongst 
thine own folk." Accordingly she summoned her Wazir of the 
Jann, and when he came she made proclamation amongst the 
nobles and commons of the capital saying, "This my Wazir shall 
be my Viceregent over you and whoso shall gainsay him that man 
I will slay." They replied with " Hearkening to and obeying 
Allah and thyself and the Minister." . Then turning to her newly- 
established deputy she said, " I desire that thou guide me to the 
garden wherein was the Sultan Habib ;" and he replied, " Upon my 
head be it and on my eyes !" So an Ifrit was summoned, and 

1 For this " Pd-andaz," as the Persians call it, see vol. iii. 141. 
* In text " Kataba Zayjata-ha," the word has before been noticed. 

260 Supplemental Nights. 

Habib mounting him pick-a-back together with the Princess Durrat 
al-Ghawwas bade him repair to the garden appointed, and the 
Jinni took flight, and in less than the twinkling of an eye bore the 
couple to their destination. Such was the reunion of the Sultan 
Habib with Durrat al-Ghawwas and his joyous conjunction ; * but 
as regards the Emir Salamah and his wife, as they were sitting and 
recalling to memory their only child and wondering in converse 
at what fate might have betided him, lo and behold ! the Sultan 
Habib stood before them and by his side was Durrat a' Ghawwas 
his bride, and as they looked upon him and her, weeping prevailed 
over them for excess of their joyance and delight and both his 
parents threw themselves upon him and fell fainting to the ground. 
As soon as they recovered the youth told them all that had betided 
him, first and last, whereupon one congratulated other and the 
kettledrums of glad tidings were sounded, and a world of folk 
from all the Badawi tribes and the burghers gathered about them 
and offered hearty compliments on the reunion of each with other. 
Then the encampment was decorated in whole and in part, and 
festivities were appointed for a term of seven days full-told, ih 
token of joy and gladness; and banquets were arrayed and trays 
were dispread, and all sat down to them in the pleasantest of life 
eating and drinking ; and the hungry were filled, and the mean 
and the miserable and the mendicants were feasted until the end 
of the seventh day. After this they applied them to the punish- 
ment of the ten Knights whom the Emir Salamah had despatched 
to escort his son ; and the Sultan Habib gave order that retribution 
be required from them, and restitution of all the coin and the 
good and the horses and the camels entrusted to them by his sire. 
When these had been recovered he commanded that there be set 
up for them as many stakes in the garden wherein he sat with his 
bride, and there in their presence he let impale 2 each upon his 

1 Again " Hizal^^u, in MS. ^) bi-Zayjati-ha " = le bonheur de ses aventures. 

* This impalement ("Salb," which elsewhere means crucifying, vol. iii, 25) may be a 

History of Prince Habib. 261 

own pale. And thenceforward the united household ceased not 

living the most joyous of lives and the most delectable until the 

old Emir Salamah paid the debt of nature, and they mourned him 

with excessive mourning for seven days. When these were ended 

his son, the Sultan Habib, became ruler in his stead and received 

the homage of all the tribes and clans who came before him and 

prayed for his victory and his length of life ; and the necks of his 

subjects, even the most stubborn, were bowed in abasement before 

him. On this wise he reigned over the Crystalline Isles of Sabur, 

his sire-in-law, with justice and equity, and his Queen, 

Durrat al-Ghawwas, bare to him children in numbers 

who in due time followed in their father's steps. 

And here is terminated the tale of Sultan 

Habib and iDurrat al-Ghawwas with all 

perfection and completion 

and good omen. 

barbarous punishment but it is highly effective, which after all is its principal object 
Old Mohammed Ali of Egypt never could have subjugated and disciplined the ferocious 
Badawi of Al-Asir, the Ophir region South of Al-Hijaz without the free use of the stake. 
The banditti dared to die but they could not endure the idea of their bodies being torn 
to pieces and devoured by birds and beasts. The stake commonly called " Khazuk," is 
a stout pole pointed at one end, and the criminal being thrown upon his belly is held firm 
whilst the end is passed up his fundament. His legs and body are then lashed to it and 
it is raised by degrees and planted in a hole already dug, an agonising part of the process* 
If the operation be performed by an expert who avoids inj-uring any mortal part, the 
wretch may live for three days suffering the pangs of thirst ; but a drink of water causes 
hemorrhage and instant death. This was the case with the young Moslem student who. 
murdered the excellent Marshal Kleber in the garden attached to Shepherd's Hotel,. 
Cairo, wherein, by the by he suffered for his patriotic crime. Death as in crucifixion is 
brought on by cramps and nervous exhaustion, for which see Canon Farrar (Life of 
Christ, ii, 392 et seqq.). 

262 Supplemental Nights. 


The older 'translators of this " New Arabian Night" have made wild work 
with this Novel at least as the original is given by my text and the edition 
of Gauttier (vii. 60-90) : in their desire to gallicise it they have invested it with 
a toilette purely European and in the worst possible style. Amongst the insipid 
details are the division of the Crystalline Islands into the White, Yellow 
Green and Blue ; with the Genies Abarikaff, the monstrous Racachik. 
Jlbaccaras and Mokilras ; and the terrible journey of Habib to Mount Kaf with 
his absurd reflections: even the "Roc "cannot come to his aid without "a 
damask cushion suspended between its feet by silken cords '' for the greater 
comfort of the " Arabian Knight." The Treasury of Solomon, " who fixed the 
principles of knowledge by 366 hieroglyphics (sic) each of which required a 
day's application from even the ablest understanding, before its mysterious 
sense could be understood," is spun out as if the episode were copy intended for 
the daily press* In my text the " Maidens of the Main " are introduced to say 
a few words and speed the action. In the French version Ilzaide the elder 
becomes a " leading lady," whose role is that of the naive ihgtnue, famous for 
"smartness" and "vivacity :" "one cannot refrain from smiling at the lively 
sallies of her good nature and simplicity of heart." I find this young person 
the model of a pert, pretty, prattling little French soubrette who, moreover, 
makes open love to "the master." Habib calls the "good old lady," his 
governess " Esek I Esek !" which in Turk, means donkey, ass. I need hardly 
enlarge upon these ineptitudes; those who wish to pursue the subject have 
only to compare the two versions. 

At the end of the Frenchified tale we find a note entitled : Observations by 
the French Editor, on the History of Habib and Dorathil-goase, or the Arabian 
Knight," and these are founded not upon the Oriental text but upon the Occi- 
dental perversion. It is described " from a moral plane rather as a poem than 
a simple tale," and it must be regarded as " a Romance of Chivalry which unites 
the two chief characteristics of works of that sort', amusement and instruc- 
tion." Habib's education is compared with that of Telemachus, and his being 
inured to fatigue is according to the advice of Rousseau " in his Emilius " and 
the practice of Robinson Crusoe. Lastly " Grandison is a hero already formed : 
Habib is one who needs to be instructed." I cannot but suspect when reading 
all this Western travesty of an Eastern work that M. Cazotte, a typical 
litterateur, had prepared for caricaturing the unfortunate Habib by carefully 
writing up Fe*ne*lon, Rousseau, and Richardson ; and had grafted his own ideas 
of morale upon the wild stem of the Arabian novel. 


" A KING and no army," 10. 

'Abbus A1-, an intensive word meaning 

" Very stern faced," 232. 
Abd al- Malik bin Marwdn (not to be 
confounded with the Caliph, the tenth 
of the series), 179. 
Abdullah Chelebi, called in old translation 

" Scheffander- Hassan," 177. 
Abikam = " Abicam," a Chaldaean Astro- 
loger (Chavis) and Abimacam (Gaut- 
tier), 26. 

Abraham, the " Friend of Allah," 104. 
Abu Sahih= (flight to) a sure and safe 

place, 149. 
Abu Sumayk = " Father of the Fishlet " 

(in old ver. " Yapousmek"), 16. 
Abu Sumayk the Pauper, i.e., "The 

Father of the 1 little Fish," 15. 
Addiki = I will give thee (in the language 

of -Fellahs), 189. 
" Ahadis " esp. referred to the sayings of 

Mahommed, 41. 
Ahddis al.- Kudus = sentences attributed to 

Archangel Gabriel, 41. 
Ahadis al-Nabawi=the actual words pron. 

by Mahommed, 41. 

<Ahy Tys" for which read " Tuha 
Tays " a general feast (Houdas), 187. 
Ajdar= Malady, 162. 
Ajijiyah, possibly Ajinniyah=a dish of 

dough, 1 60. 

Akba' //. of "Kub'"=in pop. lan- 
guage, any part of garment covering 
herd (ST.), 48. 
'Akba' wa Zarabil" tr; "Caps and 

slippers," 48 

Akhyash Abna Sha"h (Second name may 
be " Shah of the Ebna " or Persian 
incolse of Al-Yaman), 12. 

" Akkal bula'hu " = commit all manner of 

abominations, 70. 
Akyal, pi. of "Kayl" = Kiftgs of the 

Himyarite peoples, 232. 
'^.lamina ('Awalim) = the (three) worlds, 

" Al-'iddah " in case of divorcee, widow, 

pregnant woman, 178. 
" 'Alai al-Din" = Alaeddin, 50. 
'Alakah khdrijah = an extraordinary drub- 
bing, 84. 
" Al bin Imrdn " probably the name of 

some Prince of the Jinns, 126. 
" Alfi Hajatan" meaning What dost thou 

want (in .the way of amusement) ? I am 

at thy disposal," 178. 
Ali, son-in-law of the Prophet (supposed 

author of Al-Jafr), 168. 
"Alif, ba, ta, sa" (A.B.C.D.). The 

latter written with a Sin instead of a 

Tha", showing vulg. use which extend 

from Alex, to Meccah, 37. 
Alkermes, i.e., " Al-Kirm " (Arab, and 

Pers.) = 3L worm, cochineal, 5. 
Allah's path (a Martyr on)* a Martyr of 

love, 131. 
Almond-Tree " Be not like unto the," (a 

lieu commun in the East), 7. 
Almond-Tree = the Heb. " Shdked " and 

the fruit is "Loz" (Arab. Lauz) = 

Amygdalus cc,mmunis, 7. 
Alms-gift = whatso exceedeth Viaticum 

("Jaizah"), or the three-days' guest 

hospitality, 26. 
Alwa*n, //. of Laun, meats of all kinds and 

colours, 122. 
Amfrala (wife of Emir-Ben-H!!ac-SftlamU) 

meaning, if anything, "Colonel" of 

Captain, R.N., 225. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Ammal (Arab.], vulg. written with initial 
Hamrah = " Verily", "I believe you 
my boy " (tr. " Assuredly "), II. 

* Ammal (Arab.} With the Ayn may mean 
" he intended," or " he was about to,' 

"And the Peace ! " = " There is an end 
of the matter," 105. 

Ant, Koranic legend of the, 99. 

Antum fi Kha"shin wa ba"sh (an error for 
Khash-mash) = a miserable condition, 

Anushirwan (in full Anushinrawan) = sweet 

of soul, P.N. of Pers. King, 44. 
'Arafat, fete of; the day of the Sermon 

when pilgrims sleep at Muzdalifah 


Arakiyah = Skull-cap, 48. 
'Aramrami = flocking and crowding, 195. 
Arz (Arab.}, from the ffeb. "Arz" or 

" Razah" (v/ raz =to vibrate) = Cedar 

(of Lebanon), 5. 

' As' as = to complicate a matter, 174. 
'"Asa" Fir," i.e., "Fir is rebellious," 102. 
Asaffr, pi. of "Usfur" = a bird, a 

sparrow, 102. 
Ashur, four sons of (according to Arabs), 


Ashghaftfnf (see Shaghaftini), 15. 
Aska hu 'alakah = gave him a sound 

drubbing ('alakah), 58. 
Asshur = Assyria, 3. 
Assyrian correspondence, the simplicity of, 


Asur, in the text, "Atvir," the scriptural 

"Asshur" = Assyria, 3. 
'Atrus,King (? Heron's " Illabousatrous"), 

Attaf (named by Heron Chebib, also 

" Xakem Tai-Chebib "= Hatim Tayy 

Habib), 169. 

Attaf, Tale of (Cotheal MS.), 196. 
Attdf, Tale of, title compared with 

Gauttier and Heron, 167. 
"Atur," scriptural" Asshur "= Assyria, 3. 
'"Ayyik" or <Ayyuk" = a hinderer 

(of disease), 174. 

'Ayyuk = Capella, a bright star, 174. 
Azm = Koranic versets, which avert evil, 

Azzamin = Charmers, i.e., men who recite 

the Azm, 19. 

or " Babunak " (Pert.) = the 
white Camomile flower, 27. 
Bahlul Al- = the"Bahalul " of D'Herbelot, 


Bahr al-Azrak = the Blue Sea (Mediter- 
ranean), 256. 

Bak'ah (= "a hollow where water col- 
lects") and " Buk'ah " (= "a patch 
of ground") compared, 12. 

Bakar = black cattle, whether bull, cow, 
or ox, 136. 

Banii Hilal, a famous tribe, 225. 

Bardawdn, the well known . city in 
Hindostan whose iron was famous, 

"Bashakhin," pi. of " Bashkhanah " = 

hangings, arras, 44. 
Basil, son of "Ashur," 3. 
Baybunah (prop. "Babunaj" in Arab. % 

and "Babuk" in Pers.) = the white 

Camomile flower, 27. 
Bel the idol (or Ba'al or Belus, the 

Phoenician and Canaanite head-god), 

Bell as a fringe to the Ephod of High 

Priest, 100. 
Bghb (evidently for " Baght,"or preferably 

" Baghtatan "), 78. 
" Bi Asri-hi " (Arab.} lit. "rope and all ; " 

metaphorically used = altogether, en- 
tirely (tr. "the World universal';, 

"Bf, Bf, Bi " (compare the French "Brr"), 


Birkat Far'aun = Pharaoh's Pool, 98. 

Bisata-hum = their carpets (tr. " ware- 
houses "), 124. 

Buk'ah (= " a piece of low ground ") and 
Bak'ah (= "a hollow where water 
collects") compared, 12. 

Bundukani (A1-) = the cross-bow man, 

Buyurdi, Al- (cler. error fo.r " Buyuruldi ") 

= the written order of a Governor, 

1 80. 
Bye Names, 84. 

" CAMARALZAMAN " (olden versions) = 
Complete Time," for " Moon of the 
Age," 233. 


Camels made drunk with Bhang, or Indian 

hemp, to make extended marches, 


Camomile flower (white), 27. 
Cat, a sacred animal amongst the 

Egyptians, 31. 
Cedar of Lebanon, 5. 
Census of the Exodus (Exposition by Mr. 

Thayer), 113. 
' Changul " (with three dotted Chfm) = 

red gold, 251. 
Chavis quoted, 12, ib. 15, 16, 53, 54, $6, 

59, 63, 68, 72. 
Chenery quoted, 7, 54, 73, 84, 89, 94, 

97, 124, 159, 183, 225, 241. 
"Chifte," from Pers. "Juft" = a pair, 

any two things coupled together (ST.), 

6 7 . 
Cock and the Fox (Fable of whose moral 

is that the biter is often bit), 145. 
Cohen = a priest either of the true God 

or of false gods, 109. 
Conjuration, a specimen of Islamised 

Mantra (in Sanskrit " Stambhana" ") 

intended to procure illicit intercourse, 


Conundrum or riddle, 97* 
Cotheal MS. quoted, 167, 168, 1^9, 173, 174, 

J75> *76, i77 i?9 181, 184, 186, 192. 
; Court of Baghdad was, like the Urdu 

(Horde or Court) of " Grand Mogul," 

organised after the ordinance of an 

army in the field, 8l. 

' Cousin " more polite than ?' wife," 188. 
Crucifixion, 261. 
Crystalline Isles, 234. 

DABBUS bazdaghanf (trans, as if from Pers. 

"Bazdagh" = a file) tr. a " file- 

wrought mace," 71. 
Dabdihka"n, a physician (Cotheal MS.), 

Dabshalfmat = the Dabshalims, the 

dynastic title of the Kings of Somanath 

in Western India, 23. 
Dahn (Arab.) = oil, ointment (tr. 

" sweetest unguent "), IO. 
JDajlah River (Tigris), 122. 
Damascus City (der. from Dimishk) called 

Sham (Cotheal MS.), 167. 

Dan (with dual Danayn) and "Wudn" 
(with plural " Audan *') are pop. forms 
for literary " Uzn " (ST.), 245. 

Da"n Al- (cler. error for Al-Uzn = ear), 


Darb al-Zaji = the street of the copperas- 
maker, 60. 

"Darbisf al-bab" (from the Pers. " Dar- 
bastan " = to tie up, to shut), tr. " Do 
thou bar," 69. 

Dastur ! = by your leave (Pers.), 58. 

Daud = David, 229. 

Death and Life are states, not things, 103. 

De Sacy quoted, 65, 160. 

Drachms, Ten = 475 to 478 Eng. grains 
avoir., 163. 

Drinking customs, 47. 

Drinking wine before the meal, still a 
custom in Syria and Egypt, 192. 

Dukhn (Arab.) = Holcus dochna, a well- 
known grain (tr. "millet"), 130. 

Dura for " Zura" or for "Zurrah," pop. 
pron. " Durrah " = the Hole us sa/ivus, 

Durrat al Ghawwas = Pearl of the diver, 

EASTERN despots never blame their own 

culpable folly in misfortune, 22. 
Eglantine (or Narcissus), The lowland of, 

Elias, Elijah, or Khizr, a marvellous 

legendary figure, 100. 
Emir-Ben-Hilac-Salamis (Heron), 22$. 
Emir Yiinas (old trans. = Hamir Youmts), 

" Enlarge the Turband " = to assume rank 

of an 'Alim or learned man, 42. 
Entertainment of Guest, three days, 26. 
Escarkte, a woollen cloth dyed red 

(probably French of the xii. century), 


Exodus of the Hebrews, Census of the 

(Exposition by Mr. Thayer), 113* 
Exodus, Story of the, 98. 

FALSAFAH (Arab.) = philosophy, 29. 
"Fa min tumma," for "thumma" 
("Anon."), 91. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Fa-sdha (for " Maksah ") = and cried out, 

Fatime (Ja'afar's wife, according to Heron), 

"Fa-yatrahuna" masc. for fem. (tr. 

41 miscarry "j, 31. 
Fir'aun (Arab.), the dynastic name of 

Egyptian Kings = Pharaoh (Holy 

Writ), 12. 

." First Footsteps. *' quoted, 65. 
Flogging as punishment, 9. 
Furat River (Euphrates), 122. 

GAUTTIER quoted, 3, 7 8, 10, 11, 12, ib. 

i5> * 33 34. 4i 59 68, 89, 167, 225, 

ib. 226, 234. 

Gharlm = debtor or creditor. 77. 
Ghashamsham Al- = the Stubborn, the 

Obstinate, 256. 
"Ghaush" ior " Ghaushah " = noise, 

row, 69. 
Ghayth al-hatil = incessant rain of small 

drops, 241. 
Ghilman (in text " Wuldan"), the boys of 

Paradise, 128. 
Ghiydr (Arab.) any piece of dress or 

uniform which distinguishes a class, 52 
Ghiyar in Pers. = a strip of yellow cloth 

worn by Jews subject to the Shah, 52. 
Golden Calf of Al-Samiri, 160. 
Guest-rite = three days, 26. 

"HA KAHi PxAn" (0. Egypt.} = " the 

Land of the great God, Ptah," 12. 
Kabbah (Arab.) = a grain (of barley), an 

obolus, a mite, 53. 
Habfb = the Beloved, 226* 
Habio, Note on History of, 262. 
"Habib, Prince, and Dorathil-goase " 

(Eng tram.), 22$. 
Ham mam, necessary to enter after Car. 

Cop., 171. 
Hanut means either "Vintner" or 

" Vintner's shop," 124. 
Harisah = meat pudding, 159. 
Hasd Al = iuw Plain of Pebbles, 169. 
Hasan, the Handsome (in the old trans. 

"the Hazen" (Khazin = treasurer ?), 


"Hashimi," i.e., a descendant of Al- 

Hashim, great grandfather of the 

Prophet, 191. 
Hasil (A1-) {Arab."] government stores, 

also the taxes, the revenue, 60. 
Hatim of the Tayy-tribe, proverbial for 

liberality, 167. 
Haudaj = camel-litter, 181. 
" Hawanit " //. of " Hanut" = the shop 

or vault of a Vintner (tr. "taverns"), 


Hawar, many meanings of, 73. 
Hayy= either serpent, or living, alive (fr 

"living branch"), 99. 
" He mounted his father and clothed him- 
self with his mother "= he sold his 

father for a horse and his mother for a 

fine dress, 105. 
" He readeth it off (readily) as one drinketh 

water," 5. 
He sat upon ashes (may be figurative or 

literal), 19. 
Head placed at a distance from the body 

(by way of insult), 15. 
Headsman paces round convict three times 

preparatory to execution ; a custom at 

the Courts of Caliphs generally, 52. 
"Health to you and healing," usual 

formulae when a respectable person is 

seen drinking, 47. 
Hebrews and their Exodus (Exposition by 

Mr. Thayer), 113. 
Helios (Apollo), Worship of, not extinct in 

mod. Greece, 100. 
Heron quoted, 41, ib. 50, 52, 68, 72, 167, 

168, 169, 170, '73, 178,225,234, 242, 

245, 247. 
" Hicar was a native of the country of 

Haram (Harran), and had brought 

from thence the knowledge of the true 

God," 4. 
Himyarite (in text " Akyal," //. of 

" Kayl " = " Kings of the Himyarite 

peoples") here = the heroes, 232. 
Hisaban taw(l = a long punishment, 157. 
" History of Chec Chahabeddin " (Shaykh 

Shihab al-Din) in "Turkish Tales" 

of Petis de la Croix = here, " The Tale 

of the Warlock and the Young Cook 

of Baghdad," 12 1. 
"Hiza(Ji-. in MS. ^ bi-Zaijati-ha" 

= /* bonheur de ses avcntures, 260. 



His=VetchlTng, 74. 

Hobal, the biggest idol in the Meccan 
Pantheon, 26. 

Horseman of the horsemen, .*., not a well- 
known or distinguished horseman, but 
a chance rider, 92. 

Houdas quoted, 7, 36, 48, 57, 62, 66, 67, 
72, 84, ib. 104, ib. 125, 126, 147, 178, 
#.187,188, 189, 191, 243, 247, 251, 257, 

Houri,. 73. 

" How was it thou honouredst us, and 
what was the cause of thy coming, 
etc." the address of well-bred man to 
a stranger, 170. 

Hur (Al-Ayn) feminine counterparts of 
the " Boys of Paradise " (Ghilman),i28. 

Hur al-Ayn = our vulgar " Houri," 73. 

"I BADE her be the owner of herself," 
one of the formulas of divorce, 178. 

" I have accepted," the normal idiom " I 
accept," 81. 

Ij'alni ff KU," (the latter word a cler. 
error for "Kal-a" or "KilaV' = 
safety, protection) = Set me in a place 
of safety, 84. 

Illicit intercourse, (method intended to 
procure), 126. 

Inbasata '1-Layl al-Asa* = ' when the 
night of offence was dispread," 243. 

Irdn (father of the Furs = Persians, etc.) 
son of "Ashur," 3. 

Isa, according to Moslems, was not be- 
gotten in the normal way, 100. 

Is'hdk = Isaac (Abraham and Isaac), 104. 

Is'hdku kana '1-Zabfh = Isaac was the 
victim, 104. 

Ishmael not Isaac made the hero by mod. 
Moslems of the story "Abraham, 
and Isaac," 104. 

Islam Al- is based upon the fundamentnl 

idea of a Republic, 194. 
Israel, history of the name, loo. 
Israelite, now polite synonym for Jew, 

- 100. 

Ittika (viiithof v/wakd) ; the form Takwa 
gen. used fearing God, 96. 

JABAL Ka'ka'ln, the highest parts of 
Meccah, inhabited by the Jurham tribe 
(so called from their clashing armour 
and arms]* 

Jafr, supposed to .mean a skin (camel's, 

or dog's) prepared as parchment for 

writing, 168. 
Jafr A1-, a cabalistic book, prognosticating 

all that will ever happen to Moslems, 

Jafr-Al-, confused with "Ja'afarbin Tay-. 

yar" the Jinni, 168. 
Jaftawdt (Arab.) pi. of Turk. " Chifut " as 

a Jew, or mean fellow, 67. 
Jaizah (viaticum) = a day and night, 26. . 
Jalak, the older name of Damascus, the 

" Smile of the Prophet," 167. 
" Jamarat of the Arabs " = Banu Numayr, 

Banu Hdris, and Banu Dabbah, 7. 
Jam! al-Amawi (Arab.) Cathedral Mosque 

of the Ommiades, one of the Wonders 

of the Moslem World, 172. 
"Jamrah" (Arab.) a word of doubtful 

origin, applied to a self dependent tribe 

(tr. " live coal"), 7. 
Jananan may also read " Jinanan" (ST.), 

Jananan (1-vulg. form of "Jannatan"= 

the garden (of Paradise)) tr. "the 

garths of Paradise," 138. 
Jarazat Kuzba"n (//. of Kazfb) = long and 

slender sticks, 76. 
Jarlr bin 'Abd al-Masih (Mutalammis, a 

poet of The Ignorance), 94. 
Jarmuk, son of "Ashur," 3. 
Jawadit Al- = animals freshly slain, 257. 
Jawakin (Arab.) pi. of Arab. Jaukan for 

Pers. "Chaugan," a crooked stick 

(used in Polo), 125. 
"Jayb"= the breast of a gown, also 

used in sense of a pocket, 42. 
Jayyid, der. from root " Jaud "= to excel. 

(ST.), 5- 

Jehovah, the tribal deity of the Jews, 4. 
Jerusalem, Temple of, a fac simile of the 

orig. built by Jehovah in the lowest 

heaven, i.e., that of the moon, 105. 
Jim (j) with 3 dots) a Persian letter still 

preserved in Arabic alphabets of 

Marocco, etc., 182. 
Jinn " Curiosity," 62. 
Jinn (Arab.) = spirit or energy of a man, 


Jund ( "Junud") = "guards," 
a term mostly applied to regular troops 
under Government, 16. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Jurdb al-'uddah (Arab.} i.e., The manacles, 

fetters, etc., 78. 
"Jurah Syan" for "Jurah Sayyal" = a 

stinking fosse a-flowing, 35. 

KA'AH = a saloon, 61. 

Kabad = liver, sky vault, the handle or 

grip of a bow (tr. here "belly" of 

the bow), 257. 
Kdbil-ki (Icier, error for Katil-ki = 

Allah strike the dead) tr. "Allah requite 

thee," 55. 

Kabd (Pers.) = a short coat or tunic, 48. 
KaWrah = head of the household (i.e. the 

mother), 83. 

Kabr al-Sitt, wherein Sitt Zaynab is sup- 
posed to lie buried (tr. "Lady's 

Tomb"), 171. 
Kdfi'ah Al- = parapet, 72. 
Kahana (Heb.) = he ministered (priests' 

offices or other business), 109. 
Kahbah = our whore (i.e. hired woman), 

Kdhin = a Cohen, a Jewish Priest, a 

soothsayer, 109. 

Kahramdnah, a word of many senses, 89. 
Ka'ka' = "jingle and jangle" (of horses' 

tramp), 131. 

Kala '1-Rdwi = quoth the reciter, 227. 
Kal (al-Rawf) = "the Reciter saith" (a 

formula omitted here), 15. 
Kamar al-Ashrdf = Moon of the Nobles, 

Kamar al-Zamdn (" Moon of the Time "), 

" Kami zukira fi Dayli-h " = " Let it be, 

as is said, in the tail," 126. 
Kamburisiyah = clotted curd, 159. 
Kamal (Arab.) Louse, 99. 
Kapu Katkhuddsi = the agent which 

every Governor is obliged to keep at 

Constantinople, 180. 
Kapu = a door, a house, or a Government 

office, 179. 
Kapiiji = a porter. Kapujf-bdshi = head 

porter, 179. 
Karz (Arab.) = moneys lent in interest 

without fixed term of payment, as opp. 

to " Dayn," 29. 
Kdshdn (Well of), proverbial for its depth, 


Kasfm (an unusual word), tr. " tax tribute," 


(Kataba) Zayjata-hd = marriage-writ, 259. 
Katd grouse, 65. 
Katdif (pi.) - Katifah- cakes, a kind of 

pancake, 45. 

Kdtal-ki = Allah strike thee dead, 55. 
Katalu-nf = killed me, 185. 
Kaunayn (Arab.) = the two entities, this 

world and other world (tr. here " Two 

Beings"), 249. 
Kaus al-Bunduk (or Bunduk) (Arab.) = 

a pellet-bow, (Ital. arcobugio, Eng. 

arquebuse), 53, 

Kawanf al- (pi. of Kandt) = the spears 
{tr. here "punishment"), also read 

"al.Ghawdnf" (ST.), 147, 
Kayf = joy, the pleasure of living, 174. 
Kazafa (Arab.) = threw up, vomited, 135* 
Kazi bade ancient dame precede'him (on 

reaching door), lest he happen to 

meet an unveiled woman upon the 

upper stairs, 58. 
Keyhole (Eastern) cannot be spied through, 

the holes being in the bolt, 54. 
Khabata = " He (the camel) pawed the 

ground" (tr. "beateth the bough"), 

Khatib = a preacher (not Kdtfb a 

writer), 240. 

Khatt Hajar, a province, 230. 
" Khayr " (Arab.)+= " 'Tis well," a word 

of good omen, 58. 
Khila't dakk al-Matrakah, tr. "whereon 

plates of gold were hammered " (an 

especial kind of brocade), 81. 
Kikan (//. of Kik) tr. "raven," 147. 
Kinnab == hemp, 62. 
Kintar = a quintal, 98 to 99 Ibs. avoir. 

(in round numbers, a cwt.), 29. 
Kirm Al- (Arab, and Pers.) = a worm, 5* 
Kirsh (Arab.) = piastre, 175. 
Kishk = ground wheat, etc., eaten with 

sheep's milk soured, etc., 160. 
Kfs = usually the Giberne or pellet-bag 

(here the "bow cover"), 53. 
Kit'ah humrah = a small quantity of red 

brickdust to which wonderful medicinal 

powers are ascribed (ST.), 12$. 
Koran quoted, loo, 104, 156, 157. 
" Kubbat al-'Asaffr"= the Dome of the 

Birds, 181. 



Kullu Shayyin H muWas " = all is 

excitement, 174, 
"Kul," vulg. for" Kul" = " tell me " ; a 

constant form in this MS., 5. 
Kunna nu' tihu li-ahad = we should have 

given him to someone (Dr. Steingass 

also explains), 73. 
Kunyah (Arab.}, the pop. mispronunciation 

of "Kinyah" = "bye name" (gen. 

taken from favourite son), 83. 

LANE quoted, 46, 53, 74, 178. 

*' Letters of Mutalammis " (" Uriah's let- 
ters") are a. lieu commun in the East, 94. 

Libds (Arab.} clothes in general (tr. 
"habit"), 103. 

*'Live thy head, O King, for ever and 
aye ! " (a formula announcing death of 
supposed enemy), 17. 

Liyah (? Liyyah) = Lign -aloes, 125. 

Lodging in the Khan, 95. 

Love-fit distinguished by the pulse or 
similar obscure symptoms, 174. 

' Love thy friends and hate thy foes,*' the 
religion of nature, 34. 

Low-caste and uneducated men rise sud- 
denly to a high degree, 194. 

Loz" (ffeb. and " Lauz" Arab.} = 
fruit of the Almond-tree = Amygdalus 
communist 7* 

MA'ADABAH = wake or funeral feast be- 
fore death, 16. 
" Made small their sleeves and breasts " = 

habited themselves in the garments of 

little people, 42. 

Mahma = as often as = Kullu -ma", 54. 
Mail-coat Davidian (Heron, "A massy 

cuirass of Haondi"), 242. 
Manetho's account of Moses, 1 12. 
Man metamorphosed into a woman, 136. 
Man with El, or God = Israel, loo. 
Marj = the open grassy space on left bank 

of Baradah (Damascus) River, 169. 
Masha'ilfyah jaftawat wa fatiusin" = 

" (cresset) bearers of double torches 

and lanterns "(ST.), 67. 
Mas'h/n "robe" (of hair), 157. 
Massa-hu'l Fakr = poverty touched him, 

Masser, Grand Cairo ; having been built 

by Misraim, Son of Cham, 25. 

Matamor (Arab. "Matimarah") = Sar 
dabah, a silo for storing grain, etc., 


Malaya" Al- = Wight, 162. 

Mayzar (Pers.) = a turband ; in Arab. 

" Miizar " = a girdle, a waistcloth, 53. 
Mazrab Al- = the care of the place, 251. 
Mazlum (A1-) = the wronged, 59. 
Miizar (Arab.) - a girdle, a waistcloth, 

" Mik ! Mik ! " an onomatopy like " Couic, 

Couic,'' 158. 
Mma = a port, both in old Egypt, and 

mod. Pers. t 258. 
" Min al-'An wa sa'idan " lit. - from this 

moment upwards, 189. 
Mi'raj = ascent to "heaven made by 

Apostle and return therefrom, etc. 

History of, 121. 
Mirza Mohammed Husayn Khan, 

originally a Bakka"! (greengrocer) made 

premier of Fath Ali Shah's Court, 

Miskal is the weight of a dinar = if 

dirham = 71-72 grains avoir., 244. 
Misraim (the dual Misrs), 12. 
"Mizr" in Assyrian = " Musur," in 

Heb. = "Misraim," in Arab. "Misr," 

corrupted to Masser, 12. 
Moses (by name Osarsiph = Osiris-Sapi), 

history of (by Manetho), 1 1 2. 
"Mother of Hospitality" is the Sikbaj 

(Pers. Sikba") = principal dish set 

before guests, 159 

"Mother of Strengthening*' (meat pud- 
ding)* 159- 
Mother, the head of the household 

(Kabfrah), 83. 
" Muabaldt min shaani-ka" " = (From early 

dawn) I have wearied myself, 178. 
Mukabalah, the third form of "Kabila" 

= requital, retaliation (ST.), 55. 
Mukrif = lit. born of a slave father and 

free mother (tr. "blamed lad,") 137. 
Mulberry-tree in Italy bears leaves till the 

end of October, and the foliage is as 

bright as spring verdure, 7. 
Murakhkhim = a marble-cutter = simply 

a stone-mason, 60. 
Musa (Moses), 112. 
Mutalammis (" Jarir bin 'Abd al-Masih") 

a poet of "The Ignorance," 94. 


Supplemental Nights. 

"Mutasa'lik" for " Mutasa'lik =-like a 

Sa'lvik" = lean of limb, 122. 
Mu'tazid bi 'llah A1-, Caliph, 124. 
Muzawwaj = married, 170. 

NABfr, son of "Ashur,"3. 

Ndddn (Arab.} = the " unknowing" (as 
op. to Naudin. the equiv. of Pers. 
" New of knowledge "), n. 

Nadan (in Assyrian story) = Nathan, 
King of the people of Pukudu, 3. 

Nadan (Pers.} = fool, 3. 

Nadan The Fool, 3.^ 

Nadddbah = public wailing- woman, 17. 

"Nahs" = something more than ill- 
omened, something nasty, foul, un- 
canny, 71. 

Ndhu (from \/ " Nauh") = making cere- 
monious " Keening" for the dead, 17. 

Nagas = a pear, 160. 

Naj mat al-Sabah = constellation of Morn, 

Nakdfr al- (pi. of Nakir = a dinghy, a 

dug-out) tr. "canoes," 258. 
Nakdi = the actual dowry as opposed to 

the contingent dowry, 43, 
Ndkus, or the Gong = Bell, loo. 
Names for clouds, rain, etc., in Arab. 

well nigh innumerable, 241. 
Ndtur Al- = the Keeper, esp. of a vine- 
yard, 57. 
Nauddn (Arab.) equiv. to the Pers. "New 

of knowledge" as opp. to "Ndddn" 

the " unknowing," n. 
Naynawah, i.e., " Fish-town " or " town 

of Nin " = Ninus the founder, 3. 
Naynawah, in mod. days name of a port 

on east bank of Tigris, 3. 
Naynawah or " town of Nin *' = Ninus, 

the founder, 3. 

Naysan, the Syro-solar month = April, 27. 
Naziik, prob. a corr. of Pers. " Nazuk " = 

adj. = delicate, nice, 67. 
Nazur = one who looks intently, for 

Ndzir, a looker, 1 8. 

Negemet-il-Souper (Heron) = Najmat al- 
Sabah = constellation of Morn, 173. 
Nisrfn, an island, prob. fabulous, where 

amber abounds, 12. 
Nizdl = dismounting to fight on foot, 


OBEDIENCE to children common in 

Eastern folk-lore, 90. 
'Oman, name of the capital of Eastern 

Arabia, 139. 
Ommiades, Cathedral Mosque of, one of 

the wonders of the Moslem world, 172. 
Only son has a voice in the disposal of his 

sister, 83. 

O rider of the jar, ',*., a witch, 76. 
Original sin, 247. 

Osarsiph = Osiris-Sapi (Moses), 112. 
11 Otbah hath a colic," 77. 

PA-ANDAZ = cloth to tread upon, 259. 

Perceval C. de, quoted, 89. 

Pharaoh (of Hebrew Scriptures (has De- 
come with the Arabs " Fir'aun," the 
dynastic name of Egyptian kings, 12. 

Pilgrimage quoted, 9, 83, 99, 104, 105, 

I3i 174- 

Porphyry quarries in Middle Egypt, redis- 
covery of, 60. 

"Prayer of Moses, the man of God/* 

Punishment by flogging, 9. 

Puzzling questions and clever replies, a 
favourite exercise in the East, 97. 

' QUICKER to slay than Amrti bin Kulsum" 
(Proverb), 94. 

RABf'A, 245. 

Rdhib = monk or lion (tr. " God-fear- 
ing"), 155- 

"Rahum" for "Rahim" (Doric form) 
= compassionate, 18. 

"Rauzah" in Algiers was a royal park, 


"Rauz al-Sanajirah" = plain of the 
Sinjars, 243. 

Razah = cedar or fir (old controversy),. 5. 

Reading placed in more honourable place 
than writing (" Writing and reading," 
as opposed to " Reading and writ- 
ing"), 5- 

Red Sea (Holy Writ does not say that 
Pharaoh was drowned in), 99. 

Retribution confined to this life, and be- 
lief that Fate is fruit of man's actions 
(Mosaic theory), 140. 



Riddle or conundrum, 97. 
Riding men as asses, a facetious exaggera- 
tion of an African practice, 240. 
Roc or vulture, 23. 
Rod of Moses became a common symbol 

of dignity, etc., 157. 
Rods of Moses and Aaron, 98, 99. 
Roum, city of (Rural), 89. 
' Rudaynian," from " Rudaynah," either 

a woman or a place, 230. 
Rukham = marble or alabaster, here used 

for building material, 60. 
Rumi ("Roum"), in Marocco and other 

parts of Moslem world is stiii syn.-with 

our "European," 89. 
' Rushdu 'llah " or " Al-Huda," spiritual 

direction or divine grace received from 

Allah, 104. 

" SA'ALAB " or " Tha'lab " = Fox, 146. 
" Sadat wa Ashraf" = Sayyids and 

Sharifs, 233. 
|(" Sahha) 'alakah ( = a something) fi haza 

'1-Amri " = albeit I will take no part, 

["Sahib al-jayyid (A1-) (Arab.) = ex- 

cellent companion, 5. 
iSajalmah-bird, unknown to dictionaries, 

prob. species of hawk, 35. 
' Sakalat " (Pers.) or " Saklatun," 

whence Mr. Skeat would derive " scar- 
, let," 5. 

Sakka (Arab.) = abater carrier, 46. 
" Sakka Sharbah," who supplies water to 

passengers in streets, 46. 
" Salam " here = Heaven's blessing, 97. 
Salat, sundry technical meanings, 103. 
Saldt = the formal ceremonious prayer, 

" Salb " = impalement, everywhere else 

meaning crucifixion, 260-1. 
Samaritans, 160-1. 
Samd = carpets and pots and pans (tr. 

Vaiselle), 64. 
Samhari, 229. 

Samiri A1-, Golden Calf of, 160. 
Samiri, translated by Christian commen- 
tators as " Samaritan," 160. 
"Samman (for " Samman") = quails, 


"Samman" or Summan" (classically 
" Sal wa") = quails, 147. 

Samson's Enigma (Judges xiv. 12), 106. 

Sandarusah (Arab.) = red juniper gum 
(from Pers. "Sandar" = amber) tr. 
" Sandarach," 141. 

Sankharib the Sovran, 3. 

Sarhadun = " Sarkhadom" (Gauttier), 
The great usurper Sargon, 6.> 

Sayyad, lit. a fisherman, 161. 

Scarlet (red, violet, white, green), $ 

Seven handwritings, 226. 

Shaghaftfni (also " Ashghaftinl ") from 
Shaghaf = violent love, joy, grief = 
" Thou hast enamoured me," 15. 

Shaghaf = violent love, joy, grief, 15* 

Shah-Goase (Shah Ghawwas = King 
Diver), 233. 

Shakban = the end of cloth, gown, cloak, 
etc. (Houdas), 189, 

Shaked (Heb.) = Almond-tree, 7. 

Shamamah (or " Chamama," accord, to 
Gauttier and Heron), 68. 

Sham = Syria (and its capital) called 
Damascus (Cotheal MS.), 167. 

Shdmat = cheek mole (beauty spot), applied 
to. Damascus (Shdm), 167. 

u Shobasi," for " Sobashi," 191. 

Sibak (Arab.) usually = a leash (for fal- 
conry) tr. " silken cord," .46. 

Sikalah (Sing) = scaffolding, 6l. 

Sikbaj, a marinated stew like Zirbajah, i6o 

Sikbaj (Pers. Sikba) called " Mother ol 
Hospitality," being principal dish set 
before guests, 159. 

Simiya = fascination (a form of magic), 

Sin akhi-irib = Sini (Lunus, or the moon- 
god) increaseth brethren (Etymology 
of "Sankharib"), 3. 

Sinaubar (tr. " pine ") may also mean 
pistachio-tree, 163* 

"Snsal" for "Salsdl " = /#. chain (tr. 
" borders"), 23$. 

" Spare not blows to thy child," a bar- 
barous sentiment of Biblical inspira- 
tion, 9. 

" Spare the rod and spoil the child," 9> 

Steingass Notes, 5, 57, 67, 73, 122, 125, 
138, 147, 245. 

Striking the nape = " boxing ears" Mos- 
lem equiv.), 35. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Sultan, amongst Arabs may denote any 
dignity from a Shaykh to a Sultan, 226. 

Summdk = a plant with acid flavour, dried, 
pounded, and peppered with meat, 160. 

Sun fare backwards = " to eclipse the sun," 

Suwaydd al-Kalb (the black one of the 
heart) = original sin (synonymous with 
" Habbat al-Kalb "= the grain in the 
heart), both metaphorically used for 
" original sin." (ST.), 247. 

" Suwayd " and " Suwayda," diminutives 
of "Aswad"= black. (ST.), 247. 

Suwayda, lit. "a small and blackish 
woman," 247. 

TA'ARKALAK, (Arab.) = way-lay thee, 7. 

Tdbah = gag, 184. 

Tabariyyah = Gennesaret (Chinnereth, 
Cinneroth) where, according to some 
Moslems, the Solomon was buried, 

Tabshalim, (a word which appears to be a 
corruption bearing a resemblance to 
" Dabshalim," meaning "a mighty 
king "), 23. 

Td-Ha, whose first 14-16 verses are said 
to have converted the hard-headed 
Omar, 157. 

Tajni = lit. thou pluckest (the fruit of 
good deeds), 104. 

Takhtrawan = mule-litter, 181. 

Takwa (form gen. used for "Ittika') = 
fearing God, 96. 

Td-mera (Coptic) = the Land of the Nile 
Flood, 12. 

"Tarajjum," taking refuge from Satan the 
Stoned (Rajim), 190. 

Tarjuman = a dragoman, 89. 

Tarjumanah (Jem. of "Tarjuman" = a 
dragoman) = lit. an "interpreter" 
woman, 89. 

Tatadakhkhal 'alay-h = "'sue his protec- 
tion," 134. 

Tays = myriads of, 187. 

Thaniyyat al-'Ukab = the Vulture's Pass, 

" The green stick is of the trees of Para- 
dise," 9- 

" The reed-pen wrote what 'twas bidden 
write " = "Destiny so willed it," 51. 

"There is no harm to thee, and boon of 

health befal thee," auspicious formula, 

The sand appeared in the sunlight like unto 

ropes (author and Steingass explain) 


" This night " for " last night," 128. 
Tin (Arab.) = clay, mud. (used with Tob 

forming walls of Egypt and Assyria), 

TMT, i.e., Tammat = She (the tale) is 

finished, 38. 

Tobe = the Anglo-Oriental form of 
" Thaub "= in Arabia a loose robe like 

a night-gown, 139. 
" To eat skite " = to talk or act foolishly, 

Towab Al- (Arab. pi. of Pers. and Turk* 

"Top") = cannon, 186. 
Tuha = cooked meat, 187. 
"Tutmajiyah" for " Tutmaj " = vermi- 
celli, 160. 
Tuzaribi may mean " Dost thou^ play the 

par! of" (ST.), 57. 

UKIYYAH (or Wukiyyah) = ounce = 571-5 
to 576 grains, 163. 

VOICES from the other world, 227. 

WAHWAH AL- = the hue of metal leaves, 

Wa Kita'h hamrah," tr. " also a bit of 

cooked meat," 125. 
11 Wa la ahadtafawwaha ffna " = " nor hath 

anyone ever spoken," 29. 
Walawa yh ? = wa'1-aw'iyah (//. of wi'a> 

= and the vessels shimmered 

like unto silver for their cleanliness. 

(ST.). 122. 

Wali, at one time a Civil Governor, and in 

other ages a Master of Police, 67. 
"Waliyah" or "Waliyah" = and why? 


"Wa' lldhu '1-Muwaffiku '1-Mu'fn" = 
God prospereth and directeth (a formula 
often prefixed to a book), 196. 

" Walwalah " or " Wilwal " (an ono- 
matopy), general term for the wail, 17. 



" Wa yabkf 'alaykum Mabalu-h "= suffer 
only his crime be upon you (Steingass 
reads " Wabal " for " Mabdl," and 
translates, "lest the guilt of it rest 
upon you,") 246. 

Wayha-k (before "Wayla-k") = "Fie 
upon thee," 20. 

Weapons and furniture (i.e. t headstalls, 
hobbles, etc.) for mare saddled and 
bridled (price for slave), 92. 

Week days, 13. 

' When Adam dolve and Eve span," etc., 


Will, a mighty" motor-power, 126. 
Window gardening, an ancient practice in 

the East, 172. 
" Writing and reading," as opposed to our 

;< Reading and writing," 5. 
Wulddn = Ghilmdn = the boys of Paradise, 


41 YABAHH"= saying " Bah, Bah! " 255. 
" Yd Bunayyf "= lit. " O my little son," 

a term of special fondness (tr. " O 

dear, my son"), 7. 
Yakah Thiydbish = his robe-collar rent, 


Yd Kawaki = O thou brawler, 84. 

Yakhat (prob. cler. error for " Yakhbut,") 
lit. = he was panting in a state of un- 
consciousness, tr. "drowned" in sleep, 

Yd Luss (-4ra*.) = "O Robber " (= the 
Gr. X^CTT^?), $& 

Yamaklak, Al- = vivers, provaunt, 180. 

Yamak (Turk.)= food, a meal, 180. 

Yapousmek (old ver.) = " Yd Abu 
Sumayk," 16. 

Yd Ta'dsat-nd ="O our misery," 48. 

Ya'tadir (dots often omitted in MS.) may 
mean Ya'tazir = find excuse, 20. 

Ya'tadir (from <J 'Adr = heavy rain, 

boldness) (tr. "fortify himself,"), 20. 
Yd Ta'is = O thou miserable," 48. 
Yatbashsh (for "yanbashsha ")= a smiling 

face, 138. 
may also stand for Yabtashsh, with 

transposition of the "t" of the 8th 

form (ST.), 138. 
Ya'tazir = find excuse, 20. 
Yaum al-Khamis (Arab.} = fifth day, 13. 
Yd zayn = oh, the beautiful beast, 149. 
Yulakkimu (Arab.) from "Lukmah" a it 

mouthful, 75. 

ZABiT = A Prefect of Police, 154. 

Zdbit (from the v/ " Zabt" = keepiag in 

subjection, holding tight) tr. " Hold- 
fast," 154. 

Zabtiyah = a constable, 154. 
Zafar = victory (clerical error for Zafar = 

plaited hair), 104. 
Zahr, Al- = duty, 162. 
Zalamah (Arab.) = tyrants, 73. 
Zdraba (verb) 3rd form followed by ace. as 

" to join one in partnership " (ST.), 57. 
Zardbil (com. cor. of Zardbin = slaves' 

shoes, slippers), 48. 
Zarbul tdki (Arab.}, the latter meaning 

"high-heeled," 53. 
Zawddah (gen. " Azwad " or " Azwidah") 

= provisions, viaticum, 181. 
Zayjah (from (Pers.) "Zaycheh)= lit. ^a 

horoscope (tr. ' lot"), 235. 
Zifr = horny matter which, according to 

Moslem tradition, covered our first 

parents, 104. 
Zimmat = obligation, protection, client? 

ship (tr. " loyalty "), 245. 
Zindik = Atheist, Agnostic, 158. 
Znndkt-ha, tr. "(striketh) her sting" (?) 




N.B. The Roman Numerals denote the volume, the Arabic the page. 

Abbaside, Ja'afar bin Yahya and Abd Al-Malik bin Salih the, i. 159. 

Abd Al-Malik bin Salih the Abbaside, Ja'afar bin Yahya and, i. 159. 

Abdullah bin Naff', Tale of Harun Al-Rashid and, ii. 67. 

Abu Niyattayn, History of Abu Niyyah and, iv. 334. 

Abu Niyyah and Abu Niyyatayn, History of, iv. 334. 

Abu Sabir, Story of, i. 81. 

Abu Tammam, Story of Aylan Shah and, i. 112. 

Advantages of Patience, Of the, i. 81. 

Adventure of the Fruit Seller and the Concubine, iv. 256. 

Adventures of Khudadad and his brothers, iii. 269, 

Adventures of Prince Ahmad and the Fairy Peri-Banu, iii. 419. 

Al-' Abba's, Tale of King Ins bin Kays and his daughter with the Son of King 

ii. 191. 
Alaeddin; or the Wonderful Lamp, iii. 51. 

Do. (English Translation of Galland), iii. 195. 

Al-Bundukani, or the Caliph Harun Al-Rashid and the daughter of King Kisra, 

vi. 39. 

Al-Hajjaj and the Three Young Men, i. 47. 
Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf and the Young Sayyid, History of, v. 37. 
Al-Hayfa and Yusuf, The Loves of, v. 121. 
AH Baba, and the Forty Thieves, Story of, iii. 369. 
Ali Khwajah and the Merchant of Baghdad, Story of, iii. 405. 
Allah, Of the Speedy relief of, i. 151. 
Allah, Of Trust in, i. 102. 
Al-Maamun and Zubaydah, i. 175 

278 Supplemental Nights. 

Al-Maamun, The Concubine of, ii. 281. 

Al-Malik Al-Zahir Rukn Al-Din Bibars al-Bundukdari and the Sixteen Captains 

of Police, ii. 3. 

Al-Nu'uman and the Arab of the Banu Tay, i. 179. 
Al-Rahwan, King Shah Bakht and his Wazir, i. 191. 
Al-Rashid and the Barmecides, i. 165. 
Do. Ibn Al-Sammak and, i. 171. 
Appointed Term, which, if it be Advanced may not be Deferred, and if it be 

Deferred, may not be Advanced, Of the, i. 129. 
Arab of the Banu Tay, Al-Nu'uman and the, i. 179. 
Ass, Tale of the Sharpers with the Shroff and the, i. 298. 
Attaf, The Tale of, vi. 165. 

Do. (by Alex. J. Cotheal) vi. 197. 
Aylan Shah and Abu Tammam, Story of, i. 112. 
Baba Abdullah, Story of the Blind Man, iii. 311. 
Babe, History of the Kazi who bare a, iv. 167, 
Bakhtzaman, Story of King, i. 102. 
Banu Tay, Al-Nu'uman and the Arab of the, i. 179. 
Barber and the Captain, The Cairenne Youth, the, v. 241. 
Barber's Boy and the Greedy Sultan, Story of the Darwaysh and the, v. 105. 
Barmecides, Al-Rashid and the, i. 165. 

Do. Harun Al-Rashid and the Woman of the, i. 51. 
Bassorah, The Loves of the Lovers of, v. 65. 
Beautiful Daughter to the Poor Old Man, Tale of the Richard who married the* 

i. 218. 
Bhang-Eater and his Wife, History of the, iv. 202. 

Do. Tale of the Kazi and the, iv. 1^7. 
Bihkard, Story of King, i. 107. 
Blind man, Baba Abdullah, Story of the, iii. 311. 
Broke-Back Schoolmaster, Story of the, iv. 95. 
Cadette, Tale of the Two Sisters who envied their, iii. 491. 
Cairenne Youth, the Barber and the Captain, The, v. 241. 
Cairo (The good wife of) and her four gallants, v. 251. 
Caliph Harun Al-Rashid and the daughter of King Kisra, The History of 

Al-Bundukani or the, vi. 39. 

Caliph Omar Bin Abd Al-Aziz and the Poets, The, i. 39. 
Caliph's Night Adventure, History of the, iii. 307. 
Caliph, The Concubine and the, ii. 275. 
Captain, The Cairenne Youth, the Barber and the, v. 241. 
Captain, The Tailor and the Lady and the, v. 261. 
Cheat and the Merchants, Tale of the, i. 302. 
China, The three Princes of, v. 211. 
Clemency, Of, i. 107. 
Clever Thief, A merry jest of a, ii. 56. 


Cock and the Fox, The pleasant history of the, vu 143. 
Ccelebs the droll and his wife and her four Lovers, v. 295 . 
Compeer, Tale of the Two Sharpers who each cozened'his, i. 288, 
Concubine, Adventure of the Fruit Seller and the, iv. 256, 
Concubine and the Caliph, The, ii. 275. 
Do. of Al-Maamun, The, ii. 281. 
Constable's History, First, ii. 6. 

Do. Second, ii. 16. 

Do. Third, ii. 19. 

Do. Fourth, ii, 23. 

Do. Fifth, ii. 25. 

Da Sixth, ii. 27. 

Do* Seventh, ii. 30. 

Do. Eighth, ii. 34. 

Da Ninth, ii. 44. 

Do. Tenth, ii. 47. 

Do. Eleventh, ii. 49. 

Do. Twelfth, ii. 52. 

Do. Thirteenth, ii. 53. 

Do. Fourteenth, ii. 54, 

Do. Fifteenth, ii. 59. 

Do. Sixteenth, ii. 63. 

Cook, Story of the Larrikin and the, i. 4. 
Coyntes, The Lady with the two, v. 279. 
Crone and the Draper's Wife, Story of the, i. 309. 

Do. and the King, Tale of the Merchant, the, i. 235. 
Cunning she thief, The gate keeper of Cairo and the, v. 307. 
Dadbin and his Wazirs, Story of King, i. 94. 
Darwaysh and the Barber's Boy and the Greedy Sultan, Story of, v. 105. 

Do. The Sultan who fared forth in the habit of a, iv. 35. 
iDaryabar, History of the Princess of, iii. 281, 
Daughter of King Kisra, The History of Al-Bundukani, or the Caliph Haruo 

Al-Rashid and the, vi. 39. 
David and Soloman, Story of, i. 244. 
Destiny or that which is written on the Forehead, i. 120. 
Dethroned Ruler, whose reign and wealth were restored to him, Tale of the, 

i. 253. 

Devotee accused of Lewdness, Tale of the, i. 270. 
Disciple's Story, The, i. 251. 
Druggist, Tale of the Singer and the, i. 203. 
Drummer Abu Kasim became a Kazi, How, iv. 210. 
Duenna and the King's Son, The Linguist-Dame, the, vi. 8jTr 
Eighth Constable's History, ii. 34. 
Eleventh Constable's History, ii. 49. 

280 Supplemental Nights. 

Enchanting Bird, Story of the King of Al- Yaman and his Three sons, and the. 
v. 258. 

Do. , Tale of the Sultan and his Three Sons and the, iv. 244. 
Ends of Affairs, Of Looking to the, r. 73. 
Envy and Malice, Of, i. in. 

Fairy Peri Banu, Adventures of Prince Ahmad and the, iii. 419. 
Falcon and the Locust, Story of the, i. 305 
Fellah and his Wicked Wife, The, v. 345. 
Fifteenth Constable's History, ii. 59. 
Fifth Constable's History, ii. 25. 
First Constable's History, ii. 6. 
Do. Larrikin, History of the, iv. 281. 
Do. Lunatic, Story of the, iv. 49. 
Firuz and his Wife, i. 185. 
Fisherman and his Son, Tale of the, iv. 314. 
Forehead, Of Destiny or that which is Written on the, i. I3O. 
Forty Thieves, Story of Ali Baba and the, iii. 369. 
Fourteenth Constable's History, ii. 54. 
Fourth Constable's History, ii. 23. 
Fowl with the Fowler, History of what befel the, vi. 151. 
Fox, The Pleasant History of the Cock and the, vi. 143. 
Fruit-seller and the Concubine, Adventure of the, iv. 256. 
Fruit-seller's Tale, The, iv. 244. 

Fuller and his Wife and the Trooper, Tale of the, i. 231. 
Gallants, The Goodwife of Cairo and her Four, v. 251. 
Gatekeeper of Cairo and the Cunning She-thief, The, v. 307. 
Girl, Tale of the Hireling and the, i. 279. 
Good and Evil Actions, Of the Issues of, i. 93. 
Goodwife of Cairo and her Four Gallants, The, v. 251. 
Greedy Sultan, Story of the Darwaysh and the Barber's Boy and the, v. 105. 
Hajjaj (A1-) and the Three young Men, i. 47. 
Harun Al-Rashid and Abdullah bin Nafi, Tale of, ii. 67. 

Do. and the Woman of the Barmecides, i. 51. 

Do. and the Youth Manjab, Night Adventure of, v. 61. 

Do. Tale of the Damsel Tohfat al-Kulub and the Caliph, ii. 70. 

Haykar the Sage, The Say of, vi. i. 
History of King Azadbakht and his Son, The Ten Wazirs ; or the, i. 55. 

Do. of what befel the Fowl with the Fowler, vi. 151. 
Hireling and the Girl, Tale of the, i. 279. 
How Allah gave him relief, Story of the Prisoner and, i. 151. 
How Drummer Abu Kasim became a Kazi, iv. 210. 
Husband, Tale of the Simpleton, v. 1 16. 
Ibm al-Sammak and Al-Rashid, i. 171. 
Ibrahim and his Son, Story of, i. 121. 

Appendix. 281 

111 Effects of Impatience, Of the, i. 89. 
Impatience, Of the 111 Effects of, i. 89. 
Ins bin Kays (King) and his Daughter with the Son of King Al-'Abbas, Tale 

of, ii. 191. 

Isa, Tale of the Three Men and our Lord, i. 250. 
Issues of Good and Evil Actions, Of the, i, 93, 
Ja'afar bin Yahya and Abd Al-Malik bin Salih the Abbaside, i. 159, 
Kazi and the Bhang-Eater, Tale of the, iv. 187. 
Do. and the Slipper, Story of the, iv. 212. 
Do., How Drummer Abu Kasim became a, iv. 210. 
Do. schooled by his Wife, The, v. 361 . 
Do. who bare a babej History of the, iv. 167. 
Khalbas and his Wife and the Learned Man, Tale of the, i. 267. 
Khudadad and his Brothers, Adventures of, iii. 269. 
Khwajah Hasan al-Habbal, History of, iii. 341. 
King and his Chamberlain's Wife, Tale of the, i. 308. 
Do. Azadbakht and his Son. The Ten Wazirs ; or the History of, i. 55. 
Do. Bakhtzaman, Story of, i. 102. 
Do. Bihkard, Story of, i. 107. 
Do. Dadbin and his Wazirs, Story of, i. 94. 
Do. Ibrahim and his Son, Story of, i. 121. 
Do. of Al-Yaman and his Three Sons and the Enchanting Bird, Story of the 

iv. 258. 

" Do. of Hind and his Wazir, Tale of, i. 352. 
Do. Shah Bakht and his Wazir Al- Rah wan, i. 191. 
Do. Sulayman Shah and his Niece, Story of, i. 131. 
Do. Tale of himself told by the, v. 463. 
Do. Tale of the Merchant, the Crone and the, i. 235. 
Do. who kenned the quintessence of things, Tale of the, i. 212. 
Do. who lost Kingdom and Wife and Wealth and Allah restored them to him, 

Tale of the, i. 319. 
King's Son of Sind and the Lady Fatimah, The History of, v. i. 

Do. The Linguist-Dame, the Duenna and the, vi. 87. 
Kurd Sharper, Tale of Mahmud the Persian and the, iv. 242. 
Lady and the Captain, The Tailor and the, v. 261. 
Do. Dunat al-Ghawwas, History of Prince Habib and what befel him -wit 

the, vi .223. 

Do. Fatimah, The History of the King's Son of Sind and the, v. i. 
Do. with the two Coyntes, The, v. 279. 
Larrikin and the Cook, Story of the, i. 4. 
Do. concerning himself, Tale of the Third, vi. 329. 
Do. History of the First, iv. 281. 
Do. History of the Second, iv. 290. 
Do. History of the Third, iv. 294. 

282 Supplemental Nights. 

Leach (Tale of the Weaver who became a), by order of his wife, i. 282. 
Learned Man, Tale of Khalbas and his Wife and the, i. 267. 
Lewdness, Tale of the Devotee accused of, i. 270. 
Limping Schoolmaster, Story of the, iv. 101. 
Linguist-Dame, the Duenna, and the King's Son, The, vi. 87. 
Locust, Story of the Falcon and the, i. 305. 
Looking to the Ends of Affairs, Of, i. 73. 
Lovers, Ccelebs the Droll and his wife and her four, v. 295. 
Do. of Bassorah, The Loves of the, v. 65. 
Do. of Syria, History of the, v. 19. 
Loves of Al-Hayfa and Yusuf, The, v. 121. 

Do. of the Lovers of Bassorah, The, v. 65. 
Luck, Story of the Merchant who lost his, i. 65. 
Lunatic, Story of the First, iv. 49. 

Do. , Do. Second, iv. 67. 

Mahmud the Persian and the Kurd Sharper, Tale of, iv. 242. 
Man of Khorassan, his Son and his Tutor, Tale of the, i. 194. 
Do. whose Caution slew him, Tale of the, i. 258. 
J)o. who was Lavish of his House, and his Provision for one whom he knew 

not, i. 259. 

Malice, Of Envy and, i. in. 
Melancholist and the Sharper, Tale of the, i. 264. 
Merchant and his Sons, Tale of the, i. 73. 

Do. of Baghdad, Story of AH Khirajah and the, iii. 405. 
Merchant's daughter and the Prince of Al-Irak, The, v.371. 
Merchants, Tale of the Cheat and the, i. 302. 
Merchant, the Crone and the King, Tale of the, i. 235. 

Do. who lost his luck, Story of the, i. 65. 
Merry Jest of a Clever Thief, A, ii. 56. 

Mistress and his Wife, Mohammed the Shalabi and his, v. 333. 
Mohammed, Story of a Sultan of Al-Hind and his Son, iv. 297. 

Do. Sultan of Cairo, History of, iv. 37. 

Do. the Shalabi and his Mistress and his Wife, v. 333. 
Mohsin and Musa, Tale of, v. 319. 
Musa, Tale of Mohsin and, ^319. 
Niece, Story of King Sulayman Shah and his, i. 131. 
Night Adventure of Sultan Mohammed of Cairo with the Three foolish school* 

masters, The, iv. 90. 

Night Adventure of Harun Al-Rashid and the Youth Manjab, v. 6l. 
Ninth Constable's History, ii. 44. 

Nur al-Din Ali of Damascus and the damsel Sitt al-Milah, ii. 151. 
Omar Bin Adb Al-Aziz and the Poets, The Caliph, i. 39. 
Patience, Of the advantages of, i. 81. 
Persistent 111 Fortune, Of the Uselessness of Endeavour against the, i. 63. 

Appendix. 283 

Picture, Tale of the Prince who fell in love with the, i. 226. 
Pleasant History of the Cock and the Fox, The, vi. 143. 
Poets, The Caliph Omar Bin Abd Al-Aziz and the, i. 39. 
Poor man who brought to him Fruit, Tale of the Sultan and the, iv. 242. 
Do. old man, Tale of the Richard who married his beautiful Daughter to the, 

i. 218. 

Prince Ahmad and the Fairy Peri-Banu, Adventures of, iii. 419. 
Prince Bihzad, Story of, i. 89. 

Do. Habib and what befel him with the Lady Dunat al-Ghawwas, History 

of, vi. 223. 

Prince of Al-Irak, The Merchant's Daughter and the, v. 371. 
Princess of Daryabar, History of, iii. 281. 
Prince who fell in love with the Picture, Tale of the, i. .226. 
Prisoner and how Allah gave him relief, Story of, i. 151. 
Quintessence of things, Tale of the King who kenned the, i. 212. 
Richard, Tale of the, who married his beautiful daughter lo the Poor Old Man, 

i. 218. 

Righteous Wazir wrongfully gaoled, The, v. 229. 
Robber and the Woman, Tale of the, i. 246. 
Sage and his Three Sons, Tale of the, i. 222. 

Do. the Scholar, Story of the, iv. 74. 

Salim the Youth of Khorasan, and Salma his Sister, Tale of, i. 332. 
Salma, his Sister, Tale of Salim the Youth of Khorasan and, i. 332. 
Say of Haykar the Sage, The, vi. i. 
Scholar, Story of the Sage and the, iv. 74. 
Schoolmaster, Story of the Broke-Back, iv. 95. 
Do. Story of the Limping, iv. 101. 
Do. Story of the Split-mouthed, iv. 97. 
Second Constable's History, ii. 16. 

Do. Larrikin, History of the, iv. 290. 

Do. Lunatic, Story of the, iv. 67. 
Seventh Constable's History, ii. 30. 
Shah Bakht and his Wazir Al-Rahwan, King, i. 191. 
Sharpers with the Shroff and the Ass, Tale of the, i. 298. 
Sharper, Tale of the Melancholist and the, i. 264. 

Do. Tale of the old, ii. 57. 

Shroff and the Ass, Tale of the Sharpers with the, i. 298. 
Sidi Nu'uman, History of, iii. 325. 
Singer and the Druggist, Tale of the, i. 203. 
Simpleton Husband, Tale of the, i. 239. 
Do. Do. v. 116. 

Sitt al-Milah, Nur al-Din Ali of Damascus and the Damsel, ii. 151. 
Sixteen Captains of Police, Al-Malik Al-Zahir Rukn Al-Din Bibars Al- 
Bundukdari and the, ii. 3. 

284 Supplemental Nights. 

Sixteenth Constable's History, ii. 63. 
Sixth Constable's History., ii. 27. 
Sleeper and the Waker, The, i. i. 
Slipper, Story of the Kazi and the, iv. 212. 
Solomon, Story of David and, i. 244. 
Sons, Tale of the Merchant and his, i. 73. 
Speedy relief of Allah, Of the, i. 151. 
Split Mouth Schoolmaster, Story of the, iv. 97. 
Sulayman Shah and his Niece, Story of King, i. 131. 
Sultanah, Story of three Sisters and their Mother the, iv. 109. 
Sultan and his Three Sons and the Enchanting Bird, Tale of the, iv. 244. 
Do. and the Poor Man who brought to him Fruit, Tale of the, iv. 242. 
Do. Mohammed of Cairo with the Three Foolish Schoolmasters, The Night 

Adventure of, iv. 90. 

Sultan of Al-Hind and his Son Mohammed, Story of the, iv. 297. 
Do. of Al-Yaman and his Three Sons, Story of, iv. i. 
Do. who fared forth in the habit of a Darwaysh, The, iv. 35. 
Syria, History of the Lovers of, v. 19. 
Syrian and the Three Women of Cairo, The, v. 271. 
Tailor and the Lady and the Captain, The, v. 261. 
Tale of Himself told by the King, v. 463. 
Tenth Constable's History, ii. 47. 

Ten Wazirs ; or, the History of King Azadbakht and his Son, The, i. 55. 
Thief's Tale, The, ii. 42. 
Third Constable's History, ii. 19. 
Third Larrikin concerning himself, Tale of, iv. 329. 

Do. History of the, iv. 294. 
Thirteenth Constable's History, ii. 53. 
Three Foolish Schoolmasters, The Night Adventure of Sultan Mohammed of 

Cairo with the, iv. 90. 

Three men and our Lord Isa, Tale of the, i. 250. 
Do. Princes of China, The, v. 211. 
Do. Sharpers, Story of the, iv. 17. 

Do. Sisters and their Mother the Sultanah, Story of the, iv. 109. 
Do. Sons, Tale of the Sage and his, i. 222. 
Do. Women of Cairo, The Syrian and the, v. 271. 
Do. Young Men, Al-Hajjaj and the, i. 47. 
Tither,Tale of the Unjust King and the, i. 242. 

Tohfat al-Kulub and the Caliph Harun Al-Rashid, Tale of the Damsel, ii. 70. 
Trooper, Tale of the Fuller and his wife and the, i. 231. 
Trust in Allah, Of, i. 102. 

Tutor, Tale of the Man of Khorassan, his Son and his, i. 194. 
Twelfth Constable's History, ii. 52. 
Two Kings and the WaziHs daughters, Tale of the, ii. 263. 

Appendix. 285 

Two Lack-Tacts of Cairo and Damascus, Story of the, v. 453. 
Do. Sharpers who each cozened his Compeer, Tale of the, i. 288. 
Do. Sisters who envied their Cadette, Tale of the, iii. 491. 
Ugly man and his beautiful Wife, Tale of the, i. 315. 
Unjust King and the Tither, Tale of the, i. 242. 

Uselessness of Endeavour against the Persistent III Fortune, Of the, i. 63. 
Virtue, The whorish wife who vaunted her, v. 287. 
Waker, The Sleeper and the, i. i. 

Warlock and the Young Cook of Baghdad, Tale of the, vi. 1 19. 
Wazir Al-Rahwan, King Shah Bakht and his, i. 191. 

Do. Tale of the King of Hind and his, i. 352. 

Do. (The Righteous) wrongfully gaoled, v. 229. 
Wazir's Daughters, Tale of the Two Kings and the, ii. 263. 
Wazirs ; or the History of King Azadbajcht and his Son, The Ten, i. 55. 

Do. Story of King Dadbin and his, i. 94. 

Weaver who became a Leach by order of his wife, Tale of the, i. 282. 
Whorish wife who vaunted her virtue, The, v. 287. 
Wicked wife, The Fellah and his, v. 345. 
Wife, Firuz and his, i. 185. 

Do. History of the Bhang Eater and his, iv. 202. 

Do. Story of the Crone and the Draper's, i. 309. 

Do. Tale of the King and his Chamberlain's, i. 308. 

Do. do. Ugly man and his beautiful, i. 315. 

Do. do. Weaver who became a Leach by order of his, i. 282. 

Do. The Kazi schooled by his, v. 361. 
Wives, Story of the Youth who would futter his father's, ^439. 

Woman of the Barmecides, Harun Al-Rashid and the, i. 51. 
Do. Tale of the Robber and the, i. 246. 
Do. who humoured her lover at her husband's expense, The, v. 355. 

Women's Wiles, ii. 137. 

Wonderful Lamp, Alaeddin ; or the, iii. 51. 

Do. do. (English Translation of Galland), iii. 195. 

Young Cook of Baghdad, Tale of the Warlock and the, vi. 119. 
Do. Sayyid, History of Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf and the, v. 37. 

Youth Manjab. Night Adventure of Harun Al-Rashid and the, v. 61. 
Do. who would futter his father's wives, Story of the, v.439- 

Yusuf, The Loves of Al-Hayfa and, v. 121. 

Zayn al-Asnam, Tale of, iii. 3. 

Do. (Turkish version by E. J. W. Gibb), iii. 41. 

Zubaydah, Al-Maamun and, i. 175. 

286 Supplemental Nights. 


Aladdin ; or the Wonderful Lamp, iii. 564. 
Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, iii. 590. 
Ali Khwajah and the Merchant of Baghdad, iii. 596. 
Al-Malik Al-Zahir and the Sixteen Captains of Police, ii. 369. 
Blind Man, Baba Abdullah, The Story of the, iii. 582. 
Damsel Tuhfat al-Kulub, The, ii. 371. 
Devout woman accused of Lewdness, The, ii. 340. 
Fifteenth Constable's Story, The, ii. 369. 
Firuz and his Wife, -ii. 301. 
Fuller, his Wife and the Trooper, The, ii. 329. 
Khudadad and his Brothers, iii. 576. 
Khwajah Hasan al-Habbal, History of, iii. 587. 
King Aylan Shah and Abu Tammam, ii. 297. 
Do. Dadbin and his Wazirs, ii. 296. 
Do. Ins bin Kays and his Daughter, ii. 377. 
Do. Shah Bakht and his Wazir Al-Rahwan, ii. 302. 
Do. Sulayman Shah aud his Niece, ii. 298. 
Do. who kenned the Quintessence of things, The, ii. 320. 
Do. who lost Kingdom, Wife and Wealth, The, ii. 343. 
Melancholist and the Sharper, The, ii. 333. 
Ninth Constable's Story, The, ii. 369. 
Nur al-Din and the Damsel Sittal-Milah, ii. 277. 
On the Art of Enlarging Pearls, ii. 303. 
Prince Ahmad and the Peri Banu, iii. 600. 
Prince who fell in love with the Picture, The, ii. 328, 
Sidi Nu'man, History of, iii. 585. 
Simpleton Husband, The, ii. 332. 
Singer and<the Druggist; The, ii. 305. 
Sleeper and the Waker, ii. 291. 

Ten Wazirs, or the History of King Azadbakht and his son, ii. 295. 
Thiefs Tale, The, ii. 369. 
Three men and our Lord Isa, The, ii. 332. 
Two Sisters who envied their Cadette, The, iii. 617. 
Weaver who became a leach by order of his wife, The, ii. 141. 
Women's Wiles, ii. 372. 
Zayn al-Asnam, The tale of, iii. 553. 




Aladdin, or the Wonderful Lamp, iii. 650. 
Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, iii. 650. 
Firuz and his Wife, ii. 378. 
Fuller, his wife and the Trooper, The, ii, 379. 
Prince Ahmad, The Tale of, iii, 652. 
Singer and the Druggist, The, ii. 378. 
Zayn al-Asnam, The Tale of, iii. 649. 


Additional Notes to some of Tales in vol. iv. ; v. 505. 

39 7> V - J V. 513. 

vi. ; vi. 351. 

BibliQgraphical Notes to the Tales in the Supplemental Nights, 

vi. 356. 


*' A KING and no Army," vi, 10. 

" A mighty matter " may also mean " A 

masterful man" (reading Imraan = man 

for Amran = matter), ii. 204. 
A'atu Al-Wirah = gave in their submission, 

v. 405- 
corresponds with Turk. "Wirah 

wfrmek" = to capitulate (ST.) v. 


Abadan = never at all, iii. 52. 
Abadid (like Khadiddn) non-significant, i. 

Abdrfk (Al-),//. of Ibrik,an ewer contain- 
ing water for the Wuzu-ablution, ii. 

'Abbds bin Mirdas (Chief of the Banu 
Sulaym) i. 40. 

Abbasides traced their descent from Al- 
Abbas, i. 14. 

'Abbus A1-, an intensive word meaning 
"Very stern faced," vi. 232. 

Abd al-Malik bin Marwa"n (not to be 
confounded with the Caliph, the tenth 
of the series) vi. 179. 

Abd al-Malik bin Salih, i. 159. 

Abdullah Chelebi, called in old translation 
" Scheffander- Hassan," vi. 177. 

Abhak (composite word) i. 40. 

Abfka"m= Abicam," a Chaldsean Astro- 
loger (Chavis) and Abimacam (Gaut- 
tier) vi. 26. 

Ablution of whole body necessary after 

. car. cop., v. 93. 

Ab o hawa* = climate, iii. 362. 


Abraham (according to Jews and Christians 
emigrated to Harrdn from " Ur of 
the Chaldees ") iii. 270. 

(according to Moslem born in Harrdn) 
iii. 269. 

the " Friend of Allah," vi. 104. 

Absurdities to a European reader, are but 
perfectly natural to an Eastern coffee- 
house audience, v. 477. 

Abtal (pi. of Batal) = champions, athletes 
(tr. ''braves") ii. 42. 

Abtar = tailless (as applied to class of tales 
such as " Loves of Al-Hayfa and 
Yusuf ") v. 210. 

Abu al- Hasan (cleverness of) i. 30. 

al-Hasan-al-Khalf'a, i.e, The Wag 

(old version "debauchee") i. i. 

al-Tawaif (pron. "Abu tawdif") 

the Father of the (Jinn-) tribes, ii. 

Antika = father of antiquities (new 

noun in Arabic) iii. II. 
Hamamah = " Father of a Pigeon " 

(i.e., surpassing in swiftness the carrier 

pigeon) v. 380. 

Ishdk, *.*., Ibrahim of Mosul the 

Musician, i. 14. 

Ja'dah = father of curls (= a wolf) 

iv. 14. 
Kasim al-Tamburi = Abu Kasim the 

Drummer, iv. 209. 
Niyyah and Abu Niyyatayn, History 

of various versions of the names, iv. 



Supplemental Nights. 

Abu Nowa"s (appearing in The Nights, a 
signal for an outburst of obscenity), ii. 


Sabir = Father of the Patient (one), 

i. 81. 

Sahih = (flight to) a sure and safe 

place, vi. 149. 

Sumayk = " Father of the Fishlet " 
(in old ver. " Yapousmek ") vi. 16. 

Sumayk the Pauper, i.e., "The 
Father of the little Fish," vi. 15. 

Abuyah (a Fellah,vulg. for " Abi ") v. 418. 

Adab = accomplishments, ii. 68. 

" Adab " translated "Arabic," i. 48. 

Adam's Sons = a term that has not escaped 
ridicule amongst Moslems, iii. 149. 

Addiki = I will give thee (in the language 
of Fellahs) vi. 189. 

Address to inanimate object highly idioma- 
tic and must be cultivated by practical 
Arabists, iii. 150. 

'Adu = an enemy (tr. " foe") ii. 14. 

Adi (Arab.} = So it is, v. 448. 

Adf in Egypt, (not Arabic) is = that man, 
the (man) here, v. ri8. 

'Adim al-Zauk (Arab.}, tr. "Lack-tacts" 
= to our deficiency in taste, manners, 
etc. (Here denoting" practical joking") 

v. 455- 

Adfni = Here am I, v. 118. 
'Adi (A1-) = the Notary, i. 219. 
Adoption of slave lads and lasses common 

among Moslems, i. 76. 
Adran (Arab.) tr. "Sheeted," the </ 

being ' Adr = much and heavy rain, iv. 7. 
'Advil = Assessors, i. 327. 
Ifdk Al- (pi. of Uik) "elegant" for the 

universe (tr. " all the horizons ") v. 66. 
Afandiyah Al- (Arab.) = Efendis, iv. 41 . 
'Afdr, tr. " sand devils," a word frequently 

joined with " Ghubar " = dust (ST.) 

iv. 262. 

Affidavit amongst Moslems, iii. 411. 
Afkah, a better Fakih or theologian, 

Afrakh al-Jinn, lit. - Chicks of the Jinns 

(tr. " Babes of the Jinns") v. 202. 
Afras = lit. a better horseman (tr. 

"doughtier") ii. 105. 
Africa (Arab. " Afrikfyah"), here used for 

the limited tract about Carthage (Tunis), 

i.e., Africa Propria, iii. 76. 

Agha of the Janakilah = the Chief man 

(Agha) of the Gypsies, iv. 72 
Aghdwat (Aghas), meaning Eunuch officers 

and officials, iii. 112. 
" Ahadis" esp. referred to the sayings of 

Mahommed, vi. 41. 
Aha"dis al-Kudus= sentences attributed to 1 

Archangel Gabriel, vi. 41. 
al-Nabawi = the actual words pron. 

by Mahommed, vi. 41. 
Ahbdbu-nd pi. for sing. my beloved (tr. 

"my friends") ii. 103. 
Ahmar = red, ruddy brown, dark brown, 

v. 347- 
Ahu 'inda-k, tr. " Whatso t'hou broughtest 

here it be " (Pure Fellah speech), v. 366. 
ma'i = " Here it is with me " (Pure 

Fellah speech), v. 265. 
Ahwas al-'Ansari (A1-) (Al-Akhwass 

Breslatt Ed.) i. 42. 
Ahyaf (alluding to Al-Hayfa) = (with 

waist full-) slight, v. 175. 
"Ahy Tys" for which read " Tuha 

Tays" a general feast (Houdas), 

vi. 187. 
" Air hath struck me and cut my joints," 

i.e., " I suffer from an attack of rheu- 
matism" (common complaint in even 

the hottest climates), v. 160. 
'Ajaib (pi. of 'Ajib) = "Marvellous!" 

(used in well as Arab.) iii. 181. 
Ajal = the appointed day of death (tr. 

"appointed term") i. 129. 
'Ajam = Barbarian-land, v. 213. 
Ajddr = Malady, vi. 162. 
Ajijfyah, possibly Ajfnniyah = a dish o! 

dough, vi. 160. 
'Ajlan = a hasty man, i. 265. 
Ajr (A1-) = Heaven, i. 290. 
'Ajuz, a woman who ceases to have her 

monthly period (tr. "the old woman") 

v. 52. 

'Ajuz nahs = a foul crone, i. 310. 
'Akakir (pi. of 'Akkar) = aromatic roots 

(tr. "simples") i. 282. 
Akb^' //. of " Kub' " = in pop. lan- 
guage, any part of garment covering 

head (ST.) vi. 48. 
"Akba'wa Zarabil" tr. "Caps and 

slippers," vi. 48. 

Akhaztu dam wajhhi-ha (Arab.) = " I bled 
her of the hymeneal blood," iv. 42. 



Akhbaru-hu (Arab.") = have given him 

(Yahya; tidings, v. 156 
Akhmitu Ghazla-hd lit. = thicken her yarn 

or thread, i. 206. 
Akhyash Abnd Shdh (second name may 

be "Shah of the Ebna" or Persian 

incolae of Al-Yaman) vi. 12. 
Akik = carnelian stone, v. 1 30. 

Al- (Arab.} = carnelian, v. 52. 

'Akil, first cousin of Mahommed, ii. 164. 
"Akkada lahu ra>," plur. of "rdyat" = 

a banner, i. 137. 
4 'Akka"l bula'hu " = commit all manner of 

abominations, vi. 70. 

'Akl (Arab.) = comprehension, under- 
standing, iv. 193 
," Akram " = the more generous (ST.) iv. 

'Akrsis al- Jullah," tr. "dung cakes" 

(ST.) v. 292. 

Akwa min dahni'1-lauz = more strengthen- 
ing than almond oil, ii. 75. 
'AkyaM, //. of Kayl" = Kings of the 

Himyarite peoples, vi. 232. 
"Al bin Imra*n " probably the name of 

some Prince of the Jinns, vi. 126. 
,'Ala al-Kaylah = " the place where they 

usually slept the siesta," i. 34. 
'Ala-Aklf, tr. "thou deservest naught 

for this," v. 85. 
"'Ala bdbi 'llaV' (Arab.) = for the love 

of the Lord, gratis, etc., a popular 

phrase (tr. "At the Gate of Allah 

Almighty") iv. 138. 
' 'Ala ghayri tarik " (Arab.) = " out of 

the way " (like Pert. " bi Rdh ") (ST.) 

v. 224. 
*A hamati-hi = "upon the poll of his 

head " (rendered here " upon the nape 

of his neck ") v. 191. 
' Ala hudud (or Ala hadd) al-Shauk (Arab.) 

= fulfilling all our desires, iv. 114. 
Ala kdm (for kam," how much?) pea- 
sants' speech, iv. 224. 
Ala kulli hl = "whatever may betide" 

or "willy nilly," ii. 283. 
"Ala Tarik al-Satr wa al-SaUmah, 

meaning that each other's wives did not 

veil before their brothers-in-law, i. 


'Aid Yadfn = Alaeddin, 265. 
Alaeddin, a favourite with the stage, iii. 51. 

Alaeddin, i.e. the " Height or Glory ('Aid) 

of the Faith (al-in),"/r<?/i. Aliiad- 

deen, iii. 51. 

" 'Aldi al-Din"= Alaeddin, vi. 50. 
'Alaka = he hung, iv. 149. 
'Alakah kharijah = an extraordinary drub- 
bing, vi. 84. 
'Alam = a pile of stones (tr. a " mark "), 

i. 229. 

'Alam al-Din = " Flag of the Faith,"il 4. 
'Alamah = an undeflowered virgin, iii. 119. 
'Alamina ('Awalim) = the (three) worlds, 

vi. 249. 
Alaykum = " Peace be on you " (addressed 

to a single person) ii. 52. 
Alexander the Great = Lord of the Two 

Horns, iii. 148. 
" Alfi Hajatan" meaning " What dost thou 

want (in the way of amusement) ? I am 

at thy disposal," vi. 178 
" Alhamdolillah = Glory be to God ! " = 

grace after meat, iv. 337. 
All Baba and the Forty Thieves (variants) 

iii. 369. 
Ali bin Ibrahim, "a faithful Eunuch" 

(Scott) v. 184. 
Ali, son-in-law of the Prophet (supposed 

author of Al-Jafr) vi. 168. 
" Al-'iddah," term of widowhood of 

divorcee, pregnant woman, 178. 
"Alif, bd, ta, sd" (A.B.C.D.). The 

latter written with a Sin instead of a 

Tha", showing vulg. use which extends 

from Alex, to Meccah, vi. 37. 
A\lim = a learned man, iii. 119. 
'Alkam = the bitter gourd, colocynth, ii. 

Alkermes, i.e., " Al-Kirm " (Arab, and 

Pers.) = a worm, cochineal, vi. 5. 
Allah (accomplish on them the ordinance 

of the Almighty) i. 100. 
" Allah ! Allah ! " here meaning " Haste ! 

haste!" iv. 71. 

1- =" I conjure thee by God," v. 302. 
* (Allah ! Allah ! sign of impatience) = 

Look sharp ! i. 231. 
Almighty hath done this = here lit. 

" hath given it to him," v. 27. 

("An alms, for the love of ") ii. 44- 

(and again by Allah) i. 9. 

(be the judge between me and thee), 

ii. 52. 

2 9 2 

Supplemental Nights. 

Allah ! (called upon to witness a lie) i. 261. 

(decreed ol old), ii. 90- 

(do tnou be steadfast of purpose 

and rely upon) = "Let us be off," pop. 

parlance, v. 66. 

(" Enter in the name of " = Bis- 
raillah), ii. 38. 

(Gifted of) ii. 200. 

hifiz-ik " (Arab.) = the pop. Ptrs. 

expression, " Khuda Hafiz" ("Allah 

be thy safeguard ") iv. 2l8. 
(in peace of) i. 6. 

(I look to, for aid) ii. 202. 

(" I seek refuge with," '.*., Allah 
for fend) ii. 9. 

(I seek refuge with) = God forfend, 
i. 185. 

(I will give him the covenant of) 
i. 179- 

(is All-great) ii. 125. 

- (is threatening unbelievers) i. 51. 

kill all womankind," v. 304. 

" (made easy to me) ii. 53. 

(Men who resign themselves to = *'.*., 
Moslems who practise the Religion of 
Resignation) ii. 271. 

- (name of, taken in vain) i. 87. 

(O spirit of) i. 251. 

(O worshipper of) (/.*., " O 
Moslem, opposed to enemy of Allah) = 
a non-Moslem," v. 460. 

openeth," "Allah veileth," civil 

forms of refusal, iv. 315. 

(open to thee the door of sub- 
sistence) ii. 44. 

(Prince 'Ajfb forbidden to call upon 
name of), iii. 18. 

(removed to the mercy of = he died) 

ii. 78 
" sent down a book confirmed," a 

passage not Koranic, v. 47 (not a literal 

quotation, but alludes to Koran iii., 5) 

(ST.) v. 47- 
Shadow of a title of the Shah, iii. 

(sued for pardon of Almighty) a 

pious exclamation ("Astaghfiru Mlah") 

v. 136. 
(Take refuge with, from the Evil eye 

of her charms) ii. 245. 
(the peace of, be upon you and the 

rath of Allah) i. 14. 

Allah (This is the deposit of, then thy 
deposit= " I commit him to thy charge 
under God ") ii. 184. 

(while Almighty Allah willed) = a 

long time, i. 351. 

(whom Allah save and assain) ii, 

ya'tik = Allah will give it thee, (not 

I) ii. 44. 
Allah's path (a Martyr on) = a Martyr of 

love, vi. 131. 
Allaho Akbar = God is most Great (war 

cry) v. 403. 
" Allazi 'amaltu fl-him, etc." = Those to 

whom I did a good turn, requite me 

with the contrary thereof (ST.) iv, 

Almahs (fern, of 'Alim = a learned man) 

= professional singing and dancing 

girls, iii. 119. 
Alms,Ara6. (from dSa/xas, and in Hind. 

" Hira" and " Panna ") = diamond, 

iii. 354. 
Almond-Tree "Be not like unto the," (a 

lieu commun in the East) vi. 7. 
= the Heb. "Shaded" and the 

fruit is "Loz" (Arab. Lauz) =Amyg- 

dalus communis, vi. 7. 
Alms-gift = whatso exceedeth Viaticum 

("Jaizah"), or the three days guest 

hospitality, vi. 26. 
Alwan, //. of Laun, meats of all kinds and 

colours, vi. 122. 
"Aman" (Arab.) quarter, mercy (tr. 

"safety") iv. 30. 

Aman = Pardon (lit. " security"), i. 118. 
Amawi Mosque of Damascus, one of the 

four Wonders of the Moslem world, iv. 

" Ambergris' d " coffee, sherbet, etc., 

(aphrodisiac) iii. 31. 
'Amil Rasad (Arab.) ~ lit., acting as an 

observatory, iv. 341. 
Amin = Overseer, i. 67. 
al-Hukm= " Faithful of Command," 

ii. 7. 
(A1-) Sixth Abbaside A.D. 809-13, 

i- 175- 

Aminah, i.e., the secure (fern.) iii. 326. 
Amlrala (wife of Emir-Ben- Hilac-Salamis) 

meaning, if anything, "Colonel" or 

Captain, R.N., vi. 225. 



Ammdl (Arab.}, vulg. written with initial 

Hamzah = " Verily", "I believe you 

my boy" (tr. " Assuredly"), vi. II. 
'Ammdl (Arab}. With the Ayn may mean 

" he intended," or " he was about to,' ' 

vi. II. 
'Ammir= cause to flourish (tr. "Take 

and people"), i. 243. 
Amourist justified in obtaining his object 

by fair means or foul, i. 313. 
Amsaytu = I came at evening, i. 316. 
Amsik (Arab.}, a "chaff" with the Turks 

meaning cunnus-penis, iv. 93. 
lisana-k (Arab.} = hold thy 

tongue," iv. 93. 
'An Abi = (a propitiatory offering) for my 

father, i. 265. 
" Ana '1- Tabib, al-Muddwi " (Arab.} = 

I am the leach, the healer, v. 

" And min ahli zdlika," tr. "I am of the 

folk of these things" (vulg. equiv. 

wouW be "Kizi," (for "Kazdlika," 

" Kaza ") = so (it is) v. 50. 
Anakati-h (Arab.) tr. " neck," v. 427. 
Anbar (Ir. " Ambergris ") ii. 67. 
"And the Peace ! "= " There is an end 

of the matter," vi. 105. 
'Andalfb, nightingale, iii. $06. 
Andromeda and Perseus, Myth of, brought 

down to St. George and the Dragon, 

iv. 261. 
*Anfakati-hi=the hair between the lower 

lips and the chin, also chin itself (ST.), 

v. 427. 
'Ankd (Al-)=/*V. "The long-necked" 

(bird), il 128. 
Animals (lower) breeding with men, iv. 


Anjar = a flat platter (Pers.} iv. 143. 
" Annus Domini " = Age (the worst 

disease in human life) iv. 3 . 
Ant, Koranic legend of the, vi. 99. 
Ant' amilta maskhard (for maskharah) 

matah (for mata) idiomatical Fellah- 
tongue, v. 269. 
aysh (for " man " decidedly not 

complimentary "What (thing) art 

thou ? " v. 298. 
'Anta jdibb(un) bas rajul (an) wahid 

(an) " = veritable and characteristic 

peasant's jargon, v. 359. 

Antum ff Khashin wa bash (an error for 

Khash-mash) = a miserable condition, 

vi. 137. 
Anushirwdn (in full Anushmrawan) = sweet 

of soul, P.N. of Pers. King, vi. 44. 
Aorist, preceded by preposition " bi," v. 


Aphrodisiacs, iii. 133. 
Apocrypha, Tobias, etc., iv. 78. 
" Apres moi le deluge," ii. 123. 
'Arab al-'Arbd = Arabian Arabs, iii. 134. 
Arab al-Arbd = prehistoric Arabs, iii. 


lovers jealous of their mistresses' 

nightly phantom, ii. 179. 
, of noble tribe, always first to mount 

his own mare, ii. 248. 
' Arabia Deserta" (Mr. Doughty' s) quoted 

v. 10, 53, 405. 
'Arafat, fete of; the day of the Sermon, 

when pilgrims sleep at Muzdalifah, 

vi. 41. 

Arafshah = superintendent, i. 20. 
'Arakiyah = Skull-cap, vi. 48. 
Ardm (pi. of Irm), a beautiful girl, a white 

deer (tr. " Reems")i. 43. 
'Aramrami = flocking and crowding, vi. 

Ardabb (prop} "Irdabb" = five bushels, 

iv. 290. 

Ardashir (King), son of Babak, iii. 180. 
Argha" for " Arkhd" = he "brayed" 

(like an ostrich) for "his limbs re- 
laxed," iv. 31. 
Arja' = ///. return (tr. here "Desist") 

ii. 105. 
Armaghanat (Arab.} pi. of " Armaghdn " 

(Pers. ) a present, iv. 59. 
.Arm-pit, Hair shaven or plucked from, 

iv. 153- 
'Arsah (Arab.} akin to Mu'arris=a pimp, 

a pander, iv. 208". 

" Arsh," = the Ninth Heaven, v. 178. 
Arstable (astrolabe) iii. 159. 
" Art thou (Al-Hajjdj) from Cairo," a neat 

specimen of the figure anachronism. 

(Al-Hajjaj died A.H. 95 ; Cairo built 

A.H.358)v. 41. 
'Arus muhalliyah "a bride tricked out," 

v. 468. 
Arwa written with a terminal yd is a 

woman's P.N. in Arabic, i. 94. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Arz (Arab.}, from the Heb. "Arz" or 
"Razah" (i/ raz =to vibrate) = Cedar 
(of Lebanon), vi. $. 

Arzi-ha" = in its earth, its outlying suburbs 
(tr. "Environs") ii. 198. 

'Asa = Staff, one of the properties of Mos- 
lem Saints, iii. 183. 

" ' Asa" Fir,"*.*.," Fir is rebellious,"vi.i02. 

'As'as = to complicate a matter, vi. 174. 

Asdffr, pi. of "'Usfur" = a bird, a 
sparrow, vi. 102. 

Asdffri (olives, etc.) iii. 405. 

Asar, clerical error for Sdr = Vendetta, 
blood revenge, i. 134. 

Asfandfyar= two heroes of the Shahnameh, 
both types of reckless daring, iii. 524. 

'Ashama, ///. =he greeded for, v. 285. 

Ashdak, usually applied to a wide-chapped 
face, iv. 91. 

Ashghaftini (see Shaghaftfnl) vi. 15. 

Ashirah = clan, ii. 225. 

Ashkhdkh Al- (Arab.}, pi. of Shakhkh = 
lit. the " Stales " (tr. " Skite and piss") 
(Steingass reads "bi 'l-Shakhikh " the 
usual modern word for urine) v. 265. 

Asbkhas (pi. of Shakhs) = images = (vulg. 
used in Moslem realms in the sense of 
persons or individuals) iii. 12. 

Ashrafi (Port. Xerafim), a gold coin whose 
value has varied, iii. 294. 

'Asharah Mkl* (Al) ;= ten times one, 
hundred, ib. " one hundred for the 
('.., every) ten " (Sx.) iv. 28. 

Ashrafi, a gold coin of variable value, iv. 
143 ; the Portuguese Xerafim, iv. 38. 

Ash-Shabakah bita"ht al-Sayd = thy net 
for fishing, iv. 9. 

'Ashshar or Tither, i. 243. 

Ashur, four sons of (according to Arabs) 
vi. 3. 

'Asi (A1-) = rebel, syn. with Pers. 
"Yaghi,"i. 134. 

Askd-hu 'alakah = gave him a sound 
drubbing ('alakah), vi. 58. 

Asma al-Adwiyah = names of the medi- 
cines, i. 283. 

Ass (loan of) usually granted gratis in Fellah 
villages and Badawi camps, v. 460. 

(the " cab " of modern Egypt), v, 281. 

Assemblage of dramatis persona at end of 
a scene highly artistic and equally im- 
probable, v. 31. 

Asshur = Assyria, vi. 3. 

Assyrian correspondence, the simplicity of, 

vi. 12. 
" Astaghfiru 'llah," a pious exclamation, 

humbling oneself before the Creator 

(tr. " sued for pardon of Almighty 

Allah") v. 136. 

Astrology and astronomy, iii. 159. 
Astrolabe (tr. " Astronomical-gear "j iii. 

Asur, in the text, "Atur," the scriptural 

"Asshur" = Assyria, vi. 3. 
At her last breath, when cured by the 

magic of love, ii. 243. 
Athr = sign, mark, trail (tr. "Scar") 

i. 280. 

'Atik = antique, iii. ii. 
Atrabulus (also Tardbulus), Arabisations 

of Tripolis, iv. 169. 
Atraf (pi. of ".Tarf ") = great and liberal 

lords (tr.- 1 'chiefs'')!. 58. 
'Atnis, King (? Heron's Illabousatrous ") 

vi. 234. 
Attdf (named by Heron Chebib, also 

" Xakem Tai-Chebib " = Hatim Tayy 

Habib), vi. 169. 

Attdf Tale of (Cotheal MS.), vi. 196. 
Tale of, title compared with Gauttier 

and Heron, vi. 167. 
"Atur," scriptural " Asshur "= Assyria, vi. 

Atwash (A1-) = one notable for levity ol 

mind, ii. 16. 
Audaj (Arab.} pi. of "Wadaj," applying 

indiscriminately to the carotid arteries 

and jugular veins, v. 340. 
Auddn (//. of the pop. "Widn" of 

" Wudn " for the literary " Uzn " =s 

ear) (ST.), v. 301. 
Aulad-i = sons (vulg. plural for dual), i, 

'Aun, a high degree among the Jinns, a 

tribe of the Jinn, sometimes syn. with 

Mdrid, iv. 80, 302. 

'Aurat = nakedness, tr. "shame," v. 75. 
'Ausaj = bushes, v. 456. 
Auzah (Arab.}, a popular word in Egypt 

and Syria (Pers. "Otak,"and Turk. 

"Otah") iv.40. 
A'uzu bi MUhi min al-Shaytdni'1-Rajfm 

= I take refuge with Allah against 

Satan the Stoned (ST.) iv. 242. 



' Awan Kt. = aids, helpers (tr. "guards"), 

i. 253- 
Award o burd (Pers.) = brought and bore 

away, i. 210. 
Ay Ni'am (Yea, verily, Ves indeed), an 

emphatic and now vulgar expression, 

iii. 14, 3 1. 
Ayn turned into H., i.e., Bitaht for 

Bita 'at, iv. 9. 
"Ayoh" (in text), tr. "here he is"; a 

corr. of " I (or Ayy) hii "= yes indeed 

he, V. 265. 

Aysh j= Ayyu Shayyin, what ? iv. 207. 
(Arab.) Ayyu Shayyin and Laysh 

= li ayyi Shayyin, a popular corrup- 
tion of olden date, iii. 122. 
" Khabara-k ?" = how art thou ? iii. 


(Aywah (different spelling for "aywa" = 

"yes indeed," or contraction for Ay 

(f) wa 'lUhi = "yes, by Aljah " (ST.) 

v. 265. 
Ayya"m al-Nifa"s (Arab.") = the forty days 

after labour, during which a woman may 

not cohabit with her husband, iii. 502. 
'"Ayyik" or "Ayyuk" = a hinderer 

(of disease), vi. 174. 
' Ayyinah, probably a misreading for 'Ay- 

niyyah = a sample, pattern (ST.) iv. 


' Ayyuk =Capella, a bright star, vi. 174. 
Azdn-hu =/#. " its ears" (tr. "its pegs") 

ii. 159. 
Azay ma" tafut-ni P = how canst thou quit 

me ? vi. 290. 
Azbad (Arab.) from t/ Zbd (Zabd) = 

foaming, frothing, iv. 31. 
" Azlam " = the more iniquitous (ST.), iv. 

Azm Koranic versets, which avert evil, 

vi. 19. 

Azn*ini = emaciated one, ii. 214. 
Azzamfn = Charmers, i.e., men who recite 

the Azm, vi. 19. 

BABA ABDULLAH, = Daddy Abdullah, 

iii. 311. 
Bb al-Nasr," the grand old Eastern or 

Desert-gate of Cairo, v. 457. 
JJaba used in Pers., Turk., and Hindostan, 

(or Dad ! Dear ! Child ! iii. 311, 

Bdbuj (from "Bdbfig" from the Pers. 

"Pay-piish = foot-clothing), tr. "pa 

poosh," v. 442. 
Bdbuk, or "Babunak" (Pers.) = fhe 

white Camomile flower, vi. 27. 
Backgammon = " (jeu de) dames," a term 

of European origin, iii. 180. 
Badam or Bfdam (almond), used by wayot 

small change, iii. 348. 
Badawf dogs dangerous, i. 316. 

tent, v. 116. 

Badr, Al-(//. Budur) = the " Full Moon," 

v. 198. 
Badrah, lit. a myriad, ten thousand dir 

hams, i. 278. 
(Arab.} a purse of ten thousand 

dirhams, v. 58. 
Badr al-Budur, i.e.. Full moon of full 

moons, iii. 95. 

Badrat Zahab = a purse of gold (ST.) V. 58. 
Bagh = Royal tiger, iii. 530. 
Baghdad (explained), iii. 25, 
Bahdr = ox-eye, ii. 13. 
(Arab.) often used for hot spices (tr, 

"pimento"), iv. 138. 
Bahlul, a famous type of madman, v. 

Al- = the " Bahalul " of D'Herbelot, 

vi. 155. 

Bahluwan (Arab, for Pers. Pahluwan) a 
a brave, a warrior, i. 131. 

Bahman, meaning one of the Spirits 
that presides over beasts of burden, 
iii. 502. 

Bahr al-Azrak = the Blue Sea (Mediter- 
ranean) vi. 256. 

al-Muhit (Arab.) = Circumambient 
Ocean, iv. 323. 

Bahrjaur (in Pers. Bahr-i-Jaur = luck of 
Jaur-city) i. 57. 

Bakah (= "a hollow where water col- 
kcts") and "Buk'ah" (= "a patch 
of ground") compared, vi. 12. 

Dakar (Ox) and Taur (Bull) Moslem 
emblems of stupidity, ii. 178. 

Bakar = black cattle, whether bull, cow, 
or ox, vi. 136. 

Bakhshish (written "Bakshfsh" after Fel- 
lah-fashion) iv. 243. 

Bakht = luck, good fortune, iii. 331. 

(i) Zaman (Persian) = Luck of the 

Time, i. 102. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Bakiyah = may also mean Eternal, as 

opposed to Fdniyah * temporal (tr. 

"abide*') 1.39. 
Bakulat = pot-herbs (tr. "almond 

cakes"), probably clerical error for 

" Bakldwdt," i. 261. 
Bakur = driving-sticks, v. 10. 
Bal (Arab.) sing. Bdlah = a tale, iv. 

Balass ruby = of rare wood, set with rubies, 

ii. 251. 
Baldt = the flags (slabs of limestone and 

sandstone; ii. 21. 
Baliyah = bane and bale (to jingle with 

"Bdbiliyah")ii. 153. 
Ballat, limestone, slabs cut in the Torah 

quarries south of Cairo, v. 80. 
Baltah. for Turk. "Bdltah" = an axe, a 

hatchet, v. 336. 

Baltah-ji, & pioneer, one of the old divi- 
sions of the Osmanli troops, surviving 

as a family name amongst Levantines, 

v. 336. 
Bdmiyah = Gumbo, etc., of Brit. India 

(Ir. " rose-mallows ") iv. 243. 
Bandt al-hawd = lit. daughters of love (tr. 

here " a merry girl") ii. 137. 
Bandukah = a little bunduk, nut, bullet, 

(tr. "degrees")!. 353. 
Banj akrltashi = Cretan Bhang, i. 9. 
Ban] al-tayyar, *.*., volatile = that which 

flies fastest to the brain (tr. "flying 

Bhang ") v. 26. 
Bbu = a lady, a dame of high degree, 

iii. 419. 
Banu Adam = Sons of Adam (as opposed 

to Banu Elohim = Sons of the Gods) 

iii. 88. 
Banu al-Asfar=Sonsof the yellow (Esau's 

posterity in Edom) iii. 88. 
Banu al-Khashkhash=Sons of the (black) 

poppy (viz. Ethiopians) iii. 88. 
Banu Ghalib, v. 43 
Banu Hildl, a famous tribe, vi. 225. 
Banu Shayban = the King's own tribe, 

ii. 199. 
Banu Tay, the tribe of the chieftain and 

poet Hatim Tdl, i, 179. 
Banu Thakif, a noble tribe sprung from 

lydd, v. 46- 

Bardri or deserts, ii. 16. 
Barbarians (Matthew Arnold's) iv. 280. 

Barbasa (with dental sibilant " Sin") = 

he sought, looked for (with palatial 

sibilant "Sdd") = he watered the 

ground abundantly (ST.) iv. 291. 
Barbastu = besmeared, iv. 291. 
Barber, being a surgeon ready to bleed a 

madman, v. 277. 
the usual operator in circumcision, ii. 

Bardawdn, the well-known city in Hin 

dostan whose iron was famous, vi. 71. 
Barniyah = Pot (in which manna was 

collected) i. 265. 
"Bartamdn" lor "Martaban" = a pot, 

jar, etc. (tr. " a crock ") iv. 204-223. 
Bdshd (Arab, form of Turk. ".Pasha") 

derivation, iv. 137. 
"Bashakhin,"//. of "Bashkhdnah" = 

hangings, arras, vi. 44. 
Bashdrah, can hardly be applied to ill 

news (faulty text), i. 34. 
Bashdrah, Al- (Arab.) = a gift of good 

news, iv. 307. 

Basil, son of " Ashur," vi. 3. 
Bashkhdnah (corr. of Pers. "Peshkhdnah 

= state- tents sent forward on march ") 

tr. here "a hanging," v. 131. 
custom of, among Eastern Moslems, 

v. 106. 

Bashkhdnah (A1-) = the Curtain, ii. 165. 
Bassorah-city = "Balsorah" (Galland), 

"Bansrd" (H.V.) iii. 3. 
Bast, a preparation of Bhang (Cannabis 

sativa) iv. 19. 

Bastinado used to extort confession, i. 148. 
Bdt (for "Bit ") = Pass the night here (in 

Fellah speech) iv. 246. 

= " the night has passed "(ST.) iv.246. 

Bathd = lowlands and plains outside 

Meccan Valley, i. 42. 
Bathah = inner court, i. 284. 
Bathing after copulation kept up by both 

sexes in ancient Rome, ii. 142. 
Batiyah (Arab.) gen. = a black jack, a 

leathern flagon (tr. " Keg") iv. 125. 
Bayt al-Mukaddas = Sanctified House, iii. 

Bazzistdn (Arab.- Pers.) market-place for 

Bazz = cloth, iii. 431. 

Bawwdbah Al = a place where door- 
keepers meet, a police-station (tr 

" guard-house ") v. 309, 



Baybunah (prop. " Bdbunaj " in Arab., 
and "Babuk" in Pers.) = the white 
Camomile flower, vi. 27. 

Bayn farsi-k wa 'I-damf = lit. between 
fceces and menses (tr. " thy droppings 
and drippings ") i. 41. 

BaysaV or Baysrah, a dish peculiar to 
Egypt = beans seasoned with milk and 
honey, iv. 176. Also " BaysaV' or 
"Faysa>," iv. 291. 

Bayzah (Arab.) = zn egg, a testicle, v. 360. 

Bazaka = brought out, i. 209. 

" Bean and 'twas split, A," proverb sug- 
gesting " par nobile fra rum," iii. 179. 

Beating the bosom with a sunbaked brick, 
i. 34- 

Bed (on roof) made of carpet or thin 
mattress strewn upon the stucco floor- 
ing of the terrace roof, v. 219. 

Beef, causes dysenteric disease, v. 51. 

Bell as a fringe to the Ephod of High 
Priest, vi. 100. 

Bel the idol (or Ba'al or Belus, the 
Phoenician and Canaanite head-god) 
vi. 26. 

Bghb (evidently for " Baght," or prefer- 
ably " Baghtatan ") vi. 78. 

Bhang- eaters, indecencies of, iv. 196. 

" Bi," the particle proper of swearing, v. 

Bf-adabf = being without Adab, (means 
rudeness, etc ) ii. 68. 

Bi al-Salam = in the Peace (of Allah) i. 6. 

' Bi Asri-hi " (Arab.) lit. " rope and 
all ; " metaphorically used = altogether 
entirely (tr. "the World universal") 
vi. 108. 

Bibars (pron. " Baybars") ii. 3. 

"BI, Bf, Bf," compare the French 
"Brr", vi. 77. 

Bid' ah = lit. an innovation, a new thing 
(tr. here "accursed custom") ii. 266. 

Bihkamal (Pers. and Arab.) = " Good 
Perfection," i. 107. 

Bihkard = "Well he did," i. 107. 

Bihzad (Persian) = Bih (well, good) Zd 
(born) i. 89. 

Biiru-milyanah Moyah (with various forms 
of "Moyah") v. 323. 

"Bi-iza-huma" lit. vis-a-vis to the 
twain, v. 69. 

Bi jildi '1-bakar = a cow hide, ii. 96. 

Bi-Khdtiri-k = Thy will be done (tr. 
"At thy pleasure"), v. 322. 

"Bilad al-Maghrib (al-Aksa" in full) = 
the Farthest Land of the Setting Sun 
(tr, "Sundown-Land") ii. 252. 

Bilal = moisture, beneficence, etc., i. 40. 

" Bitem " here = the head-stall of the 
bridle (Sx.) v. 381. 

Billahi," i.e., " by Allah," v. 470. 

Bilisht = The long span between thumb- 
tip and minimus-tip, iii. 353. 

" Bi-Md al-fasikh 'ala Akras al-Jullah " 
(tr. " Save with foul water upon the 
disks of dung ") v. 292. 

Bimaristan (Arab, from Pers.) = a "sick 
house ", hospital, madhouse, iv. 48. 

Bir al-Kbatim = Well of the signet,, i. 

Birkah = a fountain basin, lake, pond, 
reservoir (tr. "hole") v. 117. 

Birkat Far' aun = Pharaoh's Pool, vi. 98. 

Bi-sab'a Sikak = lit. " with seven nails " 
(meaning here posts whereto chains 
were attached) v. 380. 

Bisata-hum = their carpets (tr. "ware- 
houses.") vi. 124. 

Bishangarh, iii. 422. 

Bishr and Hind (two well-known lovers), 
ii. 211. 

"Bismillah" = Enter in the name of Allah, 

ii. 38- 

Bismillah = grace before meat, iv. 337. 

' Bismillah ; in the name of the Lord " = 
"Let us go/ 'etc., ii. 85. 

Bisnagar (corruption of Sanskrit Vijayan- 
agara = City of Victory) iii. 422. 

Bitd'i (Arab.) = my own, iv. 9. 

" Bi-Wujuh al-Fjinijat al-MilaV' (reading 
" al-GhanijaV' in app. with "al- 
Milah"), render "the faces of the 
coquettish, the fair " (ST.) v. 80. 

Biyarza* fi Asabi-hi (only instance in MS. 
where the aorist is preceded by pre- 
position "bi") (ST.) v. 432. 

Blackening faces a promise of Hell-fire, 
ii. 42. 

Bloody sweat, v. 149. 

Blood- feuds troublesome to travellers, ii. 


" Blood hideth not from blood " (tquiv. to 
Scotch " Blood is thicker than water ") 

iii. 54. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Blood moved between them (a " pathetic 

fallacy")!. 77- 

red tears, v. 149. 
revenge religiously laudable, iii. 

1 80. 
' speaking to blood," popular 

superstition, excusing unwarrantable 

liberties in Royal personages, iii. 


Blowing a ma up with bellows, i. 351 
Book of Bakhtyar (Persian Bakhtya"r 

Nameh) "The ten Wazirs, etc.," i. 

Boston al-Nuzhah = the Garden of 

Pleasance, i. 29. 

Brahmani = Hindu, Indian, ii. ill. 
Brain-pans (good old classical English) 

v. 219. 
Branchlet = a youth's bending form, ii. 

Breslau Edition quoted, i. i, 4, 15, 25,39, 

42, 47. 5 ! > 55. 58, 60, 121, 131, 134, 

*59, 165, 171, 175, 179. 185. i9't 266, 

334,359; " 3 54, 55 6 3 67, 151, 

183, 191,259,263,275; iii. 51 ;v. 1 17, 

118, 419. 

Bribing the Kazi's wife, v. 364. 
Bridegroom offers coffee and Halwa" to 

friends after a "happy night," ii. 142. 
Bridge at Baghdah made of the ribs of 

Og bin 'Unk (= Og of the Neck) 

iii. 19. 
of Sanjia in Northern Syria is one of 

the four Wonders of the Moslem world, 

iv. 36. 
Brow white as day and hair black as night 

(common conceit) iii. 96. 
Brutality of a Moslem mob, ii. 1 68. 
Buk'ah (= "a piece of low ground ") and 

Bak'ah (= "a hollow where water 

collects ") compared, vi. 12. 
Bukhari = a place for steaming, iii. 355. 
Bakhti = The Bactrian or double-humped 

dromedary, ii. 235. 
Buksumah (Arab.} = "hard bread" (tr. 

"biscuit") iv. 169. 
Bulaybul (A1-) = the little nightingale, 

Philomelet, iv. 245. 

Bulbul-i-haza"r-dstan (A rah.), usually shor- 
tened to " Haza"r " = bird of a thousand 

tales = the Thousand, in Arab, called 

'Andalfb, iii. 506. 

<{ Bull- (Taur for Thaur or Saur) num- 


(tr. The Bull- aye - ready - and -for 

Battle-aye- steady) v. 160. 
Bull used in the East to turn the mill and 

water-wheel, iv. 294. 
Bundukani (A1-) =. the cross-bow or 

pellet-bow man, vi. 53. 
Bunduki (adj. of Bunbuk) = Venetian, ii. 

Bunud (pi. of Pers. " band ") = hypocrisy, 

deceit (tr. "quiddities") i. 353. 
Burd (pi. of Burdah) = mantle or woollen 

plaid of striped stuff, v. 42. 
Burka' = the face veil of Egypt, etc., ii. 


= Nosebag, v. 91. 

veil or " Nosebag," iv. 282. 

Buruj (pi. of Burj) = lit. towers (tr. 

"mansions") i-353- 
Busah (doubtful meaning), possibly reed 

used as a case or sheath (ST.) v. 108. 
But-Khanah = idol house, syn* with But- 

Kadah = image cuddy (tr. Pagodas ") 

iii. 427. 
Btyiirdi, Al- (cler. error fa Buyuruldi ") 

=3 the written order of a Governor, vi. 

1 80. 
"By the life of my youth," a "swear" 

peculiarly feminine, and never used by 

men, v. 85. 
Bye Names, vi. 84. 
Byron in England, v. 274. 
Bystanders excited about some matter in 

no way concerning them, i. 303. 

CAFILAH, i.e., caravan, iv. 222. 

(Shaykh of) for Cafila, 7.419. 

"Cage of Clapham," iii. 501. 

Cairo (magnificent city of Egypt), iii. 58. 

Calcutta Edition quoted, ii. 137, 14'. 

Caliph can do no wrong, i. 167. 

Omar bin Abd al-Aziz (The Good 

Caliph) i. 39. 

Caliphs under the early Ommiades, v. 39, 
" Camaralzaman " (olden versions) = 

" Complete Time," for " Moon of the 

Age," vi. 233. 
Camel (not customary to mount lady upon 

in India; iii. 294. 
(" Ushtur" or Unth ") iii. 294. 



Camels made drunk with Bhang, or Indian 

hemp, to make extended marches, vi. 

Camel's pasture divided into "Khullah" 

(Sweet food called bread) and " Hamiz " 

termed fruit, iv. 7. 
Camomile flower (white), vi. 27. 
Camphor, use of, iii. 361. 
'* Can play with the egg and the stone," 

*.<?., "can play off equally well the 

soft-brained and the hard-brained," v. 

Cap of the "Sutari" or jester of the 

Arnaut (Albanian) regiments, v. 276. 
worn by professional buffoon, v. 

Carpet (the Flying), prototype of, iii. 

Carrion (animals that died without being 

ceremonially killed) ii. 175. 
Cat, a sacred animal amongst the 

Egyptians, vi. 31. 
Cedar of Lebanon, vi. 5. 
Census of the Exodus (Exposition by Mr. 

Thayer), vi. 113. 
- should not be made without direct 

command of Creator (superstitious idea) 

iv. 308. 
" Chafariz " (fountain) of Portugal (der. 

from Sakdrij) v. 5. 
Chamber (a dangerous word in English) ii. 


Change from first person into third, loose- 
ness of style in the MS. (St.) iv. 282.^ 
Changes, contradictions and confusions 

inherent in Arab, stories, iii. 93. 
"Changul" (with three dotted Chfm) = 

red gold, vi, 251. 

Chapter of the Cow (Koran) ii. 175. 
Chaugdn (Persian) = the crooked bat used 

in polo, i. 109, 
Chavis quoted, vi. 12, tf. 15, 16, 53, 54, 

56, 59, 63, 68, 72- 
Chavis and Cazotte quoted, i. 55, 60, 65, 

73, 81, 89, 94, 95, 97, 102, 103, 107, 

112, 121, 131, 147, 151 ; iv. 49, 64, 

66 ; v. 27. 

Cheek, he set his right hand upon, mean- 
ing he rested his cheek upon his right 

hand, v. 9. 
Chenery quoted, iv. 7 ; vi-7, 54, 73, 84, 

89* 94> 97. 124, 159, 183, 225, 241. 

Chess rarely played for money in Europe, 

ii. 205. 
Chhuchhundar, Hind. (Sorex cctrulescens} 

= musk-rat, iii. 500. 
"Chifte," from Pers. "Juft" = a pair, 

any two things coupled together (Sx.) 

vi. 67. 
Child-bed customs amongst Moslems, iv. 


" Children " used for fighting men, ii. 224. 
China = the normal Oriental " despotism, 

tempered by assassination," iii. 164. 
Chob-ddr = rod - bearer, mace - bearer, 

usher, etc., iii. 125. 
Church of Rohah (Edessa), one of the four 

Wonders of the Moslem world, iv. 

Circumcision, ii. 90. 

(Jewish rite), must always be per- 
formed by the Mohel, an official of the 
Synagogue, v. 217. 

three operations of, v. 217. 
Circumstantial (affecting the), a favourite 
manoeuvre with the Rdwf, v. 233. 

evidence not lawful amongst Moslems, 
i. 112. 

Circus tricks with elephants, horses, etc., 

iii. 430. 
Cistern or tank in terrace-roof of Syrian 

houses, v. 246. 
Citadel of Lead = Capital of King AN 

Shisban, ii. 117. 
Cloud (which contains rain) always typical 

of liberality and generous dealing, v. 

of Locusts believed by Arabs to be 

led by a King locust (the Sultan Jardd) 

i- 305- 

Chronique de Tabari quoted, iv. 3-5. 
Cob-houses, iv. 214. 
Cock and the Fox (Fable of whose moral 

is that the biter is often bit) vi. 145. 
Cock- speak = a natural clock called by 

West Africans Cokkerapeek, i. 10. 
Coffee, iv. 198. 
and sherbet, mention of, makes the 

tale synchronous with that of Ma'aruf, 

or the xvii. century, iv. 55. 

and smoking, v. 236. 

Cohen = a priest either of the true God 

or of false gods, vi. 109. 
Coinage of Baghdad, iii. 294. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Concealments inevitable in ancient tale or 
novel, v. 417. 

Conclusions of Tales compared, iii. 303. 

Condition of forfeits (/it. order and accept- 
ance), i. 175. 

Confections, or sweetmeats used by way of 
restoratives in the Bath, iv. 56. 

Conjuration, a specimen of Islamised 
Mantra (in Sanskrit "Stambhana") 
intended to procure illicit intercourse, 
vi. 126. 

Connexion of Beasts with Humans, and 
consequences thereof, iv. 331. 

Conundrum or riddle, vi. 97. 

Cook and Cooking, Egyptian or Syrian 
compared with English, iv. 174. 

Corpse sprinkled with water, etc., [iv. 

Cossid (Arab. Kasid), an Anglo-Indian 

term = a running carrier, iv. 123. 
Cotheal MS. quoted, vi. 167, 168, 169* 

173, 174, i75> 176, 177, I79 181, 184, 

186, 192. 

Couch of Circumcision, ii, III. 
Couplets rhyming in " anf " and ' dlf " 

not lawful, v. 128 
Courser, rubbing his cheeks upon his 

master's back and shoulders, v. 405. 
Court of Baghdad was, like the Urdu 

(Horde or Court) of " Grand Mogul," 

organised after the ordinance of an 

army in the field, vi. 8 1 
* Cousin" more polite than " wife," vi. 

Cramoisy (dressed from head to foot in), a 

royal sign of wrath denoting torture or 

death, iv. 63. 
Cranes of Ibycus, ii. 59. 
Crepitus ventris, iv. 231. 
41 Cried out from her head"= Sang in 

tenor tones which are always in falsetto, 

ii. 238. 
Crows, audacious, and dangerous to men 

lying wounded, iii. 344. 
Crucifixion, vi. 261. 
by nailing to an upright board, 

ii. 49. 

Cuckold, origin of, i. 205. 
Cuddy, dtr. from Pert. <J Kadah" = a 

room, v. 24. 
Cup-companions = the professional Rawfe 

or tale reciters, ii. 266. 

"Cut the way"= became a highwayman, 
i. 90. 

Cutting the way (i.e. t waylaying travellers) 

i. 60. 
Curiosity (playing upon the bride's) = a 

favourite topic in Arab, and all Eastern 

folk-lore, v. 443. 
Crystalline Isles, vi. 234. 
Cynocephalus famed for venery, iv. 333. 

DABBAH = wooden bolt, v. 265. 

Dabbiis = a mace, i. 95. 

bazdaghani (trans, as if from/V*. 

" Bazdagh " = a file) tr. a " file- 

wrought mace," vi. 71. 
Dabdihkn, a physician (Cotheal MS.) 

vi. 174. 
Dabshalimat = the Dabshalims, the 

dynastic title of the Kings of Sotnanath 

in Western India, vi. 23. 
Dd-bin (Persian) = one who looks to 

justice, i. 94. 
Dahab ramli (A rab.) = gold-dust washed 

out of the sand, placer-gQ\& (tr. " pure 

sand-gold") iii.- 126. 
Dahiyat al-Dawdhf=a calamity of the 

Calamities, ii. 119. 
Dahmar (King) called by Scott ' Ram* 

maud," v. 105. 
Dahn (Arab.) oil, ointment (tr. 

"sweetest unguent"), vi. 10. 
Dainty food (Egyptian or Syrian Cook 

compared with English) iv. 174. 
Dais (place of honour) i. 16. 
Dajlah River (Tigris), vi. 122. 
Dakhlah Al- (Arab.} =the night of going 

, iv. 42. 
Dallal = broker (same as Sahib = owner), 

iv. 224. 
Damascus City (der. from Dimishk) called 

Shim (Cotheal MS.) vi. 167. 
Dan (with dual D^nayn) and "Wudn" 

(with plural " Auddn ") are pop. forms 

for literary " Uzn " (ST.) vi. 245. 
Al- (cler. error for Al-Uzn = ear), 

vi. 245. 
Diunk (Pers. "Dsing") = one-sixth of a 

dirham, i.e., about a penny halfpenny, 

i. 245. 



Dann = Amphora (Gr. d/x<^opvs short for 
d/x<tco/>evs = having two handles), 
tr. " two-handed jar," v. 198. 

Dara' or Dira' = armour (tr. jerkin,") 
ii. 209. 

Darabukkah-drum (or " tom-tom ") v. 


Darajah = an instant ; also a degree (of the 

Zodiac) tr. " one watch." 
is also used for any short space of 

time (ST.) v. 90. 
Darajatdni (Arab.), /#. = two astronomical 

degrees (tr. " a couple of hours ") 

iv. no. 

Dr al-SaUm = Abode of Peace, i. n. 
Da*r al-ZiyaTah (in Northern Africa) = 

kind of caravanserai in which travellers 

are lodged at Government expense, 

v. 330- 

Darb=///. a road (tr. " street ") ii. 8. 

Darbalah (Arab.\ corresponding with 
Egypt. " Darabukkah," a tabor of 
wood or earthenware (tr. " little 
drum") iv. 43. Also part of the 
regular Darwaysh's begging gear, 
iv. 43. 

Darb al-Mandal (Egypt.) = Striking the 
magic circle in which enchanter sits 
when he conjures up spirits (a form of 
second sight) iv. 45. 

al-Zaji = the street of the copperas- 
maker, vi. 60. 

Darbiir (Hind.), term for Royal Leve*e = 
Seldm (Pers.) iii. 451. 

"Darbisf al-baV' (from the Pers. "Dar- 
bastan " = to tie up, to shut), tr. " Do 
thou bar," vi. 69. 

" Darin" for " Zarin" = what is powdered, 
colly rium, v. in. 

Darwaysh (Pers.), pron. by Egyptians 
"Darwish," iii. 313. 

Darwayshah (Arab.) = a she-Fakir (tr. 
" religious mendicant ") iv. 217. 

Darwayshes suspected of kidnapping, iv. 


Daryabar, der. from " DaryaV ' the sea, 

and "bar"= a region, iii. 281. 
(Pert. = the ocean land), a fancy 

name for a country, iii. 281. 
Dashish (Arab.), tr. " flour" (Diets, make 

"wheat broth to be sipped") v. 


" Dasht-i-la-siwa- Hu " = a desert wherein 

is none save He (Allah), a howling 

wilderness, iii. 284. 
Dasti = thou trampledst, i. 146. 
Dastur ! = by your leave (Pers.), vi. 58. 
Dates and cream (" Proud rider on the 

desired steed "; 1. 59. 
Daud = David, vi. 229. 
"Daughter shall be in his name"= be- 
trothed to her, iii. no. 
"Daughters" secondary figures in geo- 

mancy. "mothers" being primary, 

iii. 156. 
Daur-al-Kd'ah = the opening made in the 

ceiling for light (tr. "the opening of 

the saloon") ii. 23. 

Dawat = ink- case (containing the reed- 
pens) ii. 211. 
Dani = an echo, iv. 273. 
Dawn-prayer, i. 13. 
" Day in the Country," an old Eastern 

custom, iv. 96 

Daylaki=Daylakian (garments), v. i/n 
Daylam (A1-) prison, ii. 142. 
Dayr aI-Tin="The Convent of Clay," 

a Coptic Monastery near Cairo. ii. 

Nashshdbah = the Monastery ot ihe 

Archers (a fancy name) v. 129. 
Days in Moslem year 354 (=6 months ot 

29 days and the rest of 30) i. 245. 
Death and Life are states, not things, vi. 

Decies resettles, forms which go down with 

an Eastern audience, but intolerable 

to a Western reader, v. 170. 
Defloration, regarded by many ancient 

peoples as if it were porters' work, 

iv. 57- 
Delights of Paradise promised by the 

Prophet, ii, 244. 
De Sacy quoted, vi. 65, 160. 
Descended = Come down from Heaven, 

i- 333- 

Destiny, ii. 61. 

Devil may not open a door shut in Allah's 
name, i. 21. 

" Dhobi-ka kutta", na Ghar-k na Ghat- 
kd" (Hindi saying) =a washerman's 
tyke, nor of the house nor of the Ghat- 
dyke, iii. 491. 

Dhol= drums, iii. 137. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Diamond does not grow warm whilst held 

in the hand, i. 215.; 
Diamonds, iii. 354. 
" Diapedesis " of blood-stained tears 

frequently mentioned in the " Nights," 
v. 149. 
Died of laughter (now become familiar to 

English speech), i. 13. 
Die thou and be thou an expiation for the 

shoe-latchet of Kilayb, ii. 263. 
Dignity, permissible in royalty, affected by 

dames in Anglo-Egypt, ii. no. 
Dihkan, in Persian = a villager (tr." village- 
headman ")i. 81. 
Dijlah Al-= The Tigris (Hid-dekel) iv. 


Dilk (Arab.) more commonly " Khirkah" 

= tattered robe of religious mendicant 

(tr. " gaberdine ") iv. 43. 
Dimity (der. from " Damietta") ii. 2IO. 
Din (A1-) ; omission of, in proper names 

very common, iii. 3. 
Dfndrzad and Shahrazdd (for Dunyazad 

and, Shahrazad), iii. 3. 
Dfnarzadah (W.M. MS.) = " Ducat-born " 

(for Dinarzad) iv. 6. 
" Dinim " (religious considerations) of the 

famous Andalusian Yusuf Caro (a most 

fanatical work) v. 160. 

50 = about 40 shillings 300 

5050= ,, 220 . . 300 
1,000,000= ^25,000 . 161 

Dish-cover used for cleanliness, and to 
prevent Evil-Eye falling upon food, 
iv. 243. 

Dismantled his shop (removing goods 
from the "but" to the "ben"), i. 

Divan-door, dismounting at, the highest of 
honours, Hi. 136. 

Divan or Darbar (leve*e), being also a litde 
justice and a Court of Cassation, iii. 

41 Dive not into the depths unless, thou 
greed for thyself and thy wants," *>., 
"tempt not Providence unless com- 
pelled so to do by necessity," v. 422. 

Divorce and marriage to Mahommed of 
the wife of Zayd (his adopted son), 
ii. 197. 

DfwAn (Arab.} = Council-chamber, v. 227. 

Diwan = Divan (the " Martabah " when 

placed on " Mastabah," etc.) v. 68. 
origin of Fr. " Douane " aud Ital. 

"Dogana," etc., iii. 7. 
Diyar Bakr, lit. Homes (or habitations) of 

Bakr (pron. " Diyar-i-Bekir ") iii. 269. 
Dodges, Eastern, to detect physiological 

differences between man and maid, etc., 

iv. 121. 

Doggerel, fit only for coffee-house, v. 164. 
Doghri = assuredly, i. 18. 
" Dog or a hog"= a Jew or a Christian, 

ii. 147. 
Dogs, hatred of, inherited from Jewish 

ancestors, iii. 330. 
Drachms, Ten = 475 to 478 Eng. grains 

avoir., vi. 163. 
" Draw me aside its tail, so that I may 

inform thee thereanent " (also similar 

facetia in Mullah Jamf), v. 46. 
Draw thee near to them (They) = they 

make much of thee, i. 2. 
" Dream is the inspiration of the True Be- 
liever, The," iii. 8. 
Dress (a Moslem should dress for public 

occasions), i. 159. 
exchange of, iii. 171. 
Dried fruits, to form the favourite " filling " 

for lamb and other meats prepared in 

"Pulao" (Pilaff) v. 358. 
Drinking customs, vi. 47. 

in a bright light, loved by Easterns, 

iv. 193' 

wine before the meal, still a custom 

in Syria and Egypt, vi. 192. 

Dromedaries the only animals used for 

sending messages over long distances, 

ii. 249. 
' Drowned in her blood" in the text, for 

"all bleeding** (hyperbole run mad), 

v. 139. 
Drunkenness (instead of "intoxication") 

v- 315. 

Drying towels of palm fibre, iv. 55. 

Du'a = supplication, prayer as opposed to 
" Salat " = divine worship, ii. 94. 

Dukhan = lit. smoke, ii. 126. 

Dukhn (Arab.} Holcits dochna, a well- 
known grain (tr. "millet"), vi. 130. 

Dukhula-k = lit. thy entering (tr. thy 
courtesy") ii. 109. 

Duna-k (Arab.) = " Weil done," iv. 239. 



Dura for " Zura" or for "Zurrah," pop. 

pron. "Durrah" = the Holcus sativus, 

vi. 146. 

Durraj (tr. Francolin) ii. 60. 
Durrat al-Ghawwa's = Pearl of the diver, 

vi. 225. 
Duty of good neighbour, to keep watch 

and guard from evil, v. 285. 
Dyed robe (Abbasides, black ; Ommiades, 

white; Fatimites, green] i. 160. 

EAR conceiving love before the eye, iv. 


Earthquakes (curious coincidence), iii. 21. 
Easterns startled by sudden summons to 

the presence of a king, ii. 210. 
Eastern despots never blame their own 

culpable folly in misfortune, vi. 22. 
"Eat thy pottage," a formula like our 

"Cut your mutton," iv. 84. 
Eateth on the spittle, i.e., on an empty 

stomach, v. 51. 
Eating and drinking, iv. 160. 
Eaves- dropping (favourite incident of 

Eastern Storiology) iii. 492. 
Efendi (here meaning the under-governor 

or head clerk) iv. 214. 
Eglantine (or Narcissus), The lowland of, 

vi. 12. 

Egypt (magnificent city of) = Cairo, iii. 58. 
Elephants usually are vegetarians, iv. 265. 
Elias, Elijah, or Khizr, a marvellous 

legendary figure, vi. 100. 
Elopements of frequent occurrence, i. 317. 
Emir-Ben-Hilac-Salamis (Heron), vi. 225. 
Emir Yunas (old trans. = Hamir Youmis), 

vi. 70. 
Embdrah (pron. 'Mbdrah), pop. for Al- 

barihah = the last part of the preced- 
ing day or night, yesterday, v. 256. 
"Empty gourds" Eastern succedaneum 

for swimming corks, ii. 286. 
Enallage of persons (" third " for " first" 

"youth" for "I") v. 468. 
of persons" is Koranic and there- 
fore classical, iv. 39. 
" Enlarge the Turband" = to assume rank 

of an 'Alim or learned man, vi. 42. 
^Entertainment of Guest, three days, vi. 


Envious Sisters, The (various versions) 

iii. 491. 
Escarlate, a woollen cloth dyed red 

(probably French of the xii. century), 

vi. 5- 

Eunuchs, i. 70. 

" Every one cannot go to Corinth," ii. 74. 
Everything returns to or resembles its 

origin, iv. 13. 
Evil Eye, iv. 60 ; 257. 
to keep off the = one of the functions 

of iron and steel, iii. 146. 
Exaggeration necessary to impress an 

Oriental audience, v. 139. 
Exchange of salams, a sign of safety, ii. 86. 
Executioner, difficulty in Marocco about 

finding one who becomes obnoxious to 

the Thar, ii. 54. 
Exodus of the Hebrews, Census of the 

(Exposition by Mr. Thayer) vi. 113. 
Exodus, Story of the, vi. 98. 
Eyes swollen by swathes, i. 30. 

FA'ALAH (Arab.} = the building craft (tr. 
"industry") iv. 179. 

Fadawi (Arab.} = a blackguard (tr. " ne'er- 
do-well ") v. 441. 

Faddah (Arab.), lit. = silver; the smallest 
Egyptian coin, iv. 37 ; Faddahs, 2,000 
= about Is. 2d., iv. 295. 

tr. "groats," v. 226. 

Faddan (here miswritten "Faddad") a 
plough, a yoke of oxen, v. 347. 

also the common land measure of 

Egypt and Syria, v. 347. 

" Fa-gbaba thaldthat ayyamin " = and he 
(or it, the mountain ?) disappeared for 
three days, v. 390. 

(Dr. Steingass translates), v. 390. 

Fahata (for "Fahasa?" or, perhaps, fl. 

error for " Fataha")=he opened (the 
ground), tr. " choosing a place," v. 353. 

(prob. vulgarism for " Fahathd" (fa- 

hasa) = to investigate (ST.) v. 353. 

or may be read ' Fataha" and tr. 

"he recited a Fatihah ' for them," 
(ST.), v. 353- 

"Fair fate befal thee, etc," an address 
only suited to a king or ruler, iv. 109. 

Fair play not a jewel to the Eastern mind, 
iii. 180. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Fajj = mountain pass (Spanish, Vega = 

also a mountain plain) ii. 117. 
Fdkhir (A1-) = the potter, i, 360. 
Fakakat = lit. " she flowed over like a 

brimful vessel." (St.) tr. here "she 

expired," iv. 333. 
Fakir, a title now debased in Nile Valley 

to an insult = "poor devil," iii. 313. 

here the Arab. syn. of the Pcrs. 
"Darwaysh," iii. 313. 

also come to signify a Koran chaun- 
ter, iii. 314. 

Falling backwards in laughter rare amongst 

the Badawin, ii. 202. 
" Falling- place of my head " = picturesque 

term for "birthplace," iii. 58. 
Fdl or omen (taking a) v. 424. 
Falsafah (Arab.} = philosophy, vi. 29. 
Fals (or Fils) = a fish scale, a spangle of 

metal, iii. 294. 
" Fa-min tumma," for " thumma " 

("Anon.") vi. 91. 
Fandrsit (Arab. pi. of the Pers. Fandr = a 

light house) here equiv. to mod. Gr. 

Qavdp a lantern {Egypt Fanus) tr. 

" flambeaux," iv. 44. 
Fa"r (Arab.) pi. "Ffran" = mouse rather 

than rat, iv. 324. 

Farafish (Arab.) a word not found in dic- 
tionary tr. " lumps," iv. 12 j nearest 

approach to would be FaraTfk (pi. of 

Furfa"k = fine, thin or soft bread, iv. 12. 
Faraj (A1-) ba'd al-Shiddah = (Joy after 

Annoy), compared to Khudadad and 

his brothers, iii. 269. 
Faraj iy ah = gaberdine, iii. 30. 
Fardrijf, tr. " Poulterer " (in text, as if the 

pi. of "Farniy" = chicken were 

"Fardrij" instead of Fardrfj) (ST.) 

v. 291. 

Faras = a mare (tr. " horses ") i. 216. 
Farasah = lit. Knowing a horse (tr. " Vis- 

nbmy") ii. 96. 

Fdris = a rider (tr. "horseman ") i. 103. 
Farkalah (^payeXXio) = cattle whip, ii. 


Farkh Warak = a slip of paper, ii. 114. 
Farrish = tent pitcher, body servant, iv. 


Fars = Persia, i. 282. 
Firs (Al-) = Persians (a people famed for 

cleverness and debauchery) i. 2. 

Farsh = bed or straw-spread store-room 
where apples are preserved, ii. 113. 

l-'arts, savour his own (curious pheno- 
menon) iv. 231. 

" Farz," devotions, iii. 328. 

Fa-sdha (for " Maksah") = and cried out, 
vi. 158. 

Faswah (Arab.) = "a silent break wind," 
as opposed 4 to " Zirt," a loud fart, iv. 

Fatdirf = a maker of " Fatfrah " pancake 
(tr. " Pieman") v. 298. 

" Fa-tarak-hu Muu'si am'a ddir yaltash 
f{ '1-Tarik" = " hereupon Musaleft his 
companion darkly tramping about," v. 


(Dr. Steingass explains and trans- 
lates) v. 323. 
F^tihah (fern, of " fdtih " = an opener, a 

conqueror), v. 460. 
Fdtimah = a weaner, iii. 181. 
and Halimah = Martha and Mary, 

v. 318. 
Fatime (Ja'afar's wife, according to Heron) 

vi. 169. 
Fattr (for "Fatirah") = pancake (ir. 

"scone"), v. 321. 
" Fa-yatrahuna," masc. for fern. (tr. 

"miscarry") vi. 31. 
Fawwdk (chair of) ii. 72. 
FaysaV, a dish peculiar to Egypt (see 

Bayssir) iv. 176. 
Fazl (AI-) the elder brother of Ja'afar, ii. 


(Caliph's foster-brother) i. 166. 

Feeding captives and prisoners (exception 

being usually made in cases of brigands, 

assassins and criminals condemned for 

felony) v. 430. 
"Feeling conqeption " unknown except 

in tales, v. 124. 
' Feet towards Mecca," i. 34. 
Fellah, natural fear of being seen in fine 

gear, which would have been supposed 

to be stolen, iii. 171. 
women stain their veils, etc., with 

indigo (for sorrow) iv. 248. 
Feminine venereal paroxysm, iv. 144. 
Fid'i (Pers.) = a robber, a murderer, iv. 

Fidawi (also " Fidd'i " and " Fidawfyah") 

= pirate-men, v. 25. 



Fidawiyah (Arab.] sing. " Fidawi " = ///. 

one who gives his life to a noble cause, 

iv. 281. 

Fighting rams, i. 210. 
(the Fellah will use anything in 

preference to his fists in) v. 350. 
Ff ghuzuni zdlika (Arab.}, a peculiar phrase 

(tr. "meanwhile") iii. 142. 
Fi Hayyi-kum Taflatun ha" ma, etc. ("A 

maiden in your tribe avails my heart 

with love to fire," etc.) (Steingass also 

translates) v. 149. 
Fi-hi= " In him" (i.e., either Mohammed) 

or " in it " (his action) i. 40. 
Ff 'irzak" (vulg. "'arzak"), formula for 

" I place myself under thy protection" 

(ST.) v. 220. 
Fi Jifan ka'1-Jawdbf (Arab.} meaning 

small things (or men) and great (tr. 

" In the wells like the tanks") iv. 106. 
Ff Kfb = " in a mat " (Scott) v. 214, 
Fiki (the [pop. form of present day for 

"Fakfh," prop. " learned in Ihe 

law "), tr. " tutor" (ST.) v. 420. 
Fils (or Fals) = a fish scale, a spangle of 

metal, iii. 294. 
Finjan (pi. " Fanajil,' V- "Fanagil"), 

and "Filgal" used promiscuously 

(ST.) v. 236. 
Finjal (Arab.}, systematically repeated for 

" Finjan" '(pron. in Egypt "Fin- 

gan") v. 236. 
(vulg. for "Finjan"= coffee cup, iv. 


Firdsah (Arab.} = penetration, iv. 10. 
- lit. judging the points of a mare 

(tr. "physiognomy") i. 286. 
Fir'aun (Arab.}, the dynastic name of 

Egyptian Kings = Pharaoh (Holy 

Writ) vi. 12. 
Fire lighted to defend mother and babe 

from bad spirits, i. 279. 
Firozabadi (author of " Kamus"), Tale of, 

iii. 84. 

First day our Sunday, i. 286. 
*' First Footsteps " quoted, vi. 65. 
First night (wedding night) v. 223. 
Firuz (Pers. "Piroz") = Victorious, 

triumphant, i. 185. 
Firuzah (Arab.} = turquoise, (Pers. form) 

Pirozah, iii. 270. 
Fityan ($1. of Fata) = my fine fellows, ii. 42. 


Fia'a (a scribal error?), may be Filfil = 

pepper or palm fibre, v. 351. 
Flogging as punishment, vi. 9 
Flower = the breast, ii. 252 
Flying Carpet (prototype of) iii. 42 . 
Food, calls for, at critical times not yet 

wholly obsolete amongst the civilised 

of the nineteenth century, iii. 113. 
respect due to (Tale of "Daf- 

tardar")v. 86. 
" Folk are equal, but in different degrees " 

(compared with "All men are created 

equal ") v. 425. 
Force of fancy, iii. 182. 
Forehead (compared with a page of paper 

upon which Destiny writes her decrees) 

i. 100. 

Formula of the cup and lute, v. 196. 
Forwardness on the part of women held 

to be insulting by modest Moslem, iv. 

Fowl (domestic) unknown to Europe till 

about the time of Pericles (ob. B.C. 

429) iv. 32. 
Freemasonry, iv. 288. 
" Full dressed and ornamented " (a girl 

lying beneath a slab), a sign of foul 

play, v. 317. 

Fumigating gugglets (with musk) ii. 275. 
Funeral, Customs at, iii. 380. 
Furat River (Euphrates) vi. 122. 
Futuh (A1-) lit. = the victories (tr. "the 

honorarium") i. 285. 

. 134. 

Galland quoted, iii. 3, 12, 1 8, 19, 2O, 22, 
S'> S 8 , 7 1 , 77, 82, 87, 91, 108,110, 116, 
140, 158, 160, 167, 171, 297, 303, 321, 
327, 33L 334, 335, 341, 348, 35i, 353, 
355, 363, 369, 377, 380, 385,416, 422, 
429, 446, 472, coo, 506 j iv. 41,244, 

Gandharba-lagana (fairy wedding) of the 
Hindus, iii. 448. 

Gandharbas= heavenly choristers, iii. 448, 

Gardener, Egyptian names for (ST.) v. 

Gardens of the Hesperides and of King 

Isope, Chaucer) iii. 74. 
" Gasha" = he produced a sound, iv. 20. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Gauttier quoted, iv. 3, 19, 49 74> 9> 9S> 
97, 176, 189, 228, 244, 254, 334. 

quoted, v. 3, 17, 21, 63, 123, 125, 

231, 263. 

quoted, vi. 3, 7 8, 10, II, 12, #., 

IS, # 33- 34- 4i 59, 68, 89, 167, 225, 
#., 226, 234. 

Gave her the hire of her going forth (i.e. 

Engaged her for a revel and paid her 

in advance) 44. 
Ghaba = departed (may here mean 

" passed away ") v. 390. 
"Ghabasah" (Arab.) from Ghabas = 

obscure, dust-colored (tr. " clouded of 

color") iv. 22. 
Ghalfli = my yearning (tr. "my thirst") 

ii. 102. 
"Ghanim bin Ayyub = The Thrall 0* 

Love" position of in Arab, texts 

compared with Galland, iii. 303. 
Gharbiyah (province in Egypt) ii. 16 
Gharfm = debtor or creditor, vi. 77. 
Ghashamsham Al- = the Stubborn, the 

Obstinate, vi. 256. 
Ghashim (Arab.)Jiom the root " Ghashm" 

(iniquity)=a "Johnny Raw" a " raw 

laddie,'/ iii. 91. 
(Arab.) = a favourite word of insult 

in Egypt, v. 29. 
Ghdt (pop. "Ghaut") = the steps (or 

path) which lead to a watering place, 

iii. 491. 

Ghatti = " Cover it up," iii 158. 
Chaur (or lowland) = the fall of the waist, 

ii. 252. 
Ghurdb al-bayn= Raven of the wold or of 

parting, ii. 126. 
Ghaush = a tree of hard wood whereof 

musical instruments are made, iv. 20. 
" " for "Ghaushah"" = noise, 

row, vi. 69. 
Ghaushah =? tumult, quarrel, iv. 20 ; (tr. 

"clamour") a Persianism for which 

" Ghaugha" " is a more common form, 

iv. 20. 

Ghawwasha = he produced a sound, iv. 20. 
Ghawwasun = divers (tr. "duckers") i. 

Ghaylah Al- = Siesta-time (Badawi 

speech), v. 151. 
Ghayr an (Arab.} = otherwise that, except 

thnt (tr. "Still") iii. 82. 

Ghayr Wa'd or " Min ghayr Wa'd = /*/. 
without previous agreement (tr. " un 
designedly") iv. 149. 
Ghayth al-hatil = incessant rain of small 

drops, vi. 241. 

Ghazban = an angry man, i. 265. 
Ghaziyah (Arab. ,) = a gypsy (//. Ghawazi) 

iv. 29. 

Ghazn = a crease a wrinkle, iii. 142. 
Gheir (Syriac) = for (der. from Greek 

yap) iii. 82. 
Ghetto, the Jewish quarter (Harah) which 

Israelites call "Hazer"=a court yard, 

an inclosure, v. 217. 
" Ghibtu 'an al-Dunya"a pop. phrase, 

tr. "I was estranged from the world," 

meaning simply "I fainted," v. 97. 
Ghilmdn (in text " Wuldan"), the boys of 

Paradise, vi. 128. 
Ghiovende ( Turk.), a race of singers and 

dancers, professional Nautch-girls, iv. 

GhMrah (Arab.) (pi. <Ghardir") = a 

sack, v. 228. 
Ghiydr (Arab.) = any piece of dress or 

uniform which distinguishes a class, 

vi. 52* 
.. in Pers. = a strip of yellow cloth 

worn by Jews subject to the Shah, 

vi. 52. 
" Ghul-who-eateth - man - we-pray- Allah- 

for safety" (compound name), v. 161. 
Ghubdr = dust (joined to 'Afar = "sand- 
devils ") iv. 262. 

Ghulah = an ogress (fern, of Ghul), iii. 327. 
"Ghurrat" (Arab.) may be bright looks, 

charms in general, or "fore-locks" 

(ST.) v. 88. 

Ghusl, or complete ablution, v. 93. 
ablution, i. 20. 
or complete ablution after car. cop., 

i. 220. 
Giallo antico, verd' antico = serpentine 

limestone, iii. 139. 
Giant Face (a parallel to the " Bodiless 

Head ") ii. 102. 
Gil-i-sar-shuf (Pers.) = head washing clay 

(tr. "fuller's earth") iii. 348. 
Girbahs = water-skins, v. 28. 
Glass tokens (for coins) iii. 351. 
Goat's droppings (used as fuel, also for 

practical jokes) i. 288. 



Golden Calf of Al-Sdmiri, vi. 160. 
Goodwife of Cairo and her four gallants 

(analogous) v. 253. 
Gouged out the right eye, v. 322. 
Guernsey and Sark folk-lore, v. 328. 
Guest-fires, ii. 249. 
Guest rite = three days, vi. 26. 
Guide going in front, i, 201. 
(in Africa), following, instead of 

leading the party, v. 388. 

" H " (the final aspirate), use of, v. 419. 
m ! Hi I so Haka (fern. Haki), Arab. = 

Here for thee (tr. "There! there!") 

iii. 89. 

Habashf = an Abyssinian, iii. 276. 
Habbah (Arab.) = a grain (of barley), an 

obolus, a mite, vi. 53. 
Al- = grain (for al-Jinnah) (ST.) 

v. 108. 

Habib, Note on History of, vi. 262. 
" , Prince, [and Dorathil-goase " 

{Eng. trans.} vi.[22S. 
Habib = the Beloved, vi. 226. 
"Hdbfl" and "Kdbfl" (Arab.} equiv. of 

Abel and Cain, v. 56. 
Habshf (chief) of Jinjfrah (=A1-Jazirah, 

the Island), admiral of the Grand 

Moghul's fleets, iii. 276. 
Hadas= moved (" event," a word not easy 

to translate) i. 321. 
"Hadda 'llaho bayni wa baynakum," tr. 

" Allah draw the line between me and 

you," v. 406. 
Hddi (A1-) Fourth Abbaside (A.D. 785- 

786) i. 165. 
Haemorrhage . stopped by plungifag the 

stump into burning oil, ii. 168. 
Ha"fiz=traditionist'and Koran reader, iii. 

Hajarata '1- Bahraman (Arab.} carbuncles, 

v. 133- 
Hajib = Chamberlain, i. 324. 

= eyebrow or chamberlain, ii. 252. 

Hajj (A1-) = the company of pilgrims (tr. 

" pilgrimage caravan") i. 196. 
> " never/ applied to the Visitation 

(Ziyarah) at Al-Medinah, i. 196. 
Hajj al-Shdrif = Holy pilgrimage, i. 194. 
" son of Yusuf the Thakafl, v. 

Hajjat al-Islam, the Pilgrimage com- 
manded to all Moslems, i. 194. 

"Ha" Kahi Ptah" (O. -&#/.) = "the 
Land of the great God, Ptah," vi. 12. 

Halah mutawassitah (A rab.} = middle-class 
folk, iii. 94. 

Halawat = lit. a sweetmeat (ii. 127), a 
gratuity, a thankoffering (tr. "a 
douceur") i. 35. 

al-Miftah = Sweetmeat of the Key- 
money (tr. "douceur of the Key,") 
ii. 20. 

Halbun, The Boobies of (tale concerning 
them), v. 273. 

Halfah grass, ii. 46. 

Half-man, an old Plinian fable (Pers. Nim- 
Chihreh, and Arab. Shikk) iv. 76. 

Half of marriage-settlement due to wife 
on divorcement, i. 311. 

Ha"lik (Arab}- intensely black, iv. 24. 

Halkah= throat, throttle, iv. 190. 

" Hal wa" " = sweetmeat, iv. 7. 

Hamaddn, a well-known city of Iralc 

'Ajamf, i. 203. 
, Hamakah = fury, v. 446. 

,Hamdm = ruffed pigeon, culver, v. 151. 

Hamd (A1-) = Allah-lauds, ii. 221 . 

Hamhama = muttered, i. 265. 

Hamidah = the Praiseworthy (according 
to Totardm Shayyan, instead of 
Fdtimah = a weaner) iii. 181. 

Hammara, i.e., the private bagnio, i. 262. 

, necessary to enter after car. 

cop., vi. 171. 

bin Ghdlib al-Farazdak, a famous 

Christian Poet, i. 42. 

Hammama-hu (A rab. } bathed, /.*., scrap- 
ing, kneading, soaping, etc., iii. 133* 

Hamiz = pop. term for pickles (/..> 
11 Sour meat" as opposed to " sweet- 
meats ") iv. 7. 

Hamlat al-jamal = according to Sco , 
a "Camel's load of Treasure," iv. 


Hamzah, uncle of Mahommed, ii. 164. 

Hand (She raised her) heavenwards (not 
"her hands" after Christian fashion, 
v, 174. 

'* Handicraft an it enrich not, still it 
veileth," i.e., enables a man to con- 
ceal the pressure of impecuniosity, v. 


Supplemental Nights. 

" Hanni-kumu'llah " = Almighty Allah 
make it pleasant to you*, v. 69. 

Hanut (Arab.) = aromatic herbs, iv. 257. 

= perfumes (leaves of the lotus 

tree) i. 290. 

- means either "Vintner" or 
"Vintner's shop," vi. 124. 

" Haply there will befal thee somewhat 
contrary to this " a euphuism mean- 
ing some disaster, v. 237. 

Harais (pi. of Harisah)= meat puddings, 
i. 287. 

Haraj (in Egypt. "Hardg") = the cry 
with which the Dallal (broker) an T 
nounces each sum bidden at an auction, 
iv. 37. 

Hardm = "forbidden," sinful (tr. "use- 
less") i. 72. 

Hararah = heat (here der. from "Hurr," 
freeborn) noble, and tr. "nobility," 
v. 289. 

Hardt (or quarters) closed at night with 
strong wooden doors, ii. 9. 

Harem, v. 283. 

supposed to be in Eastern Wing of 

Palace, i. 199. 

Harfush = Larrikin, popularly a * ' black- 
guard," i. 4. 

Harim (women) = the broken pi. of 

"Hurmah," from " Haram," the 

honour of the house (also an infinitive 

whose pi. is Harimdt = the women of 

a family) v. 283. 

Harisah = meat puddings, ii. 277. 

= meat pudding, vi. 159. 

Harj, gen. joined with Marj (Harj wa 
Marj) = utter confusion, chaos (ST.) 
iv. 342. 

Harj wa Laght (Arab.} = turmoil and 
trouble (ST.) iv. 342. 

Harran, King of, iii. 269. 

(the Hebrew Charran) iii. 269. 

Harun al-Rashid (house still standing) 

i. 15. 
and his famous pilgrimage from 

Baghdad to Mecca, iii. 177. 
Has* Al = the Plain of Pebbles, vi. 

Hasab wa nasab = degree and descent, 

v. 43- 
Hasal (for which read Khasal) tr. "gain." 

v. 425. 

Hasan, the Handsome (in the old trans. 
"The Hazen") (Khazin = treasurer ?) 
vi. 68. 

Hdshim = breaker, i. 47. 

"Hashimi," i.e., a descendant of Al- 
Hashim, great grandfather of the 
Prophet, vi. 191. 

Hashimites (and Abbasides) fine spe- 
cimens of the Moslem Pharisee, i. 


Hashish = Bhang in general, iv. 19 ; con- 
fection of, iv. 195. 

Hasir = mat (used for sleeping on during 
the hot season), i. 204. 

Hasil (A1-) (Arab.) = government stores, 
also the taxes, the revenue, vi. 60. 

Hatif = an ally, ii. 234. 

Hatif, or invisible speaker, iii. 5*9 

Hatim (wall) = The "broken" (wall) to 
the north of Ka'abah, v. 180. 

Hatim of the Tayy-tribe,proverbial for libe- 
rality, vi. 167. 

Haudaj (Arab.) = a camel-litter, (r. 
"Howdah," v. 193. 

= camel-litter, vi. 181. 

" Haukalah" and Haulakah," i. 26$. 

Haurani = (native of Hauran), Job's coun- 
try, ii. 50. 

Hawalfn, cler. error for either " hawate " 
= all around, or "Hawaii" = sur- 
roundings (ST.), v. 301. 

" Hawanit"//. of " Hanut" = the shop 
or vault of a Vintner (tr. *' taverns") 
vi. 124. 

Hawar, many meanings of, vi. 73. 

Hawwulin (Arab.), tr. "over his ears," 
(a corrupt passage in text) v. 301. 

Hayfa A1-, .*., "The Slim-waisted," 
v. 125. 

Hayishah from t/ "Haysh" = spoiling, 
iv. 190. 

Haykal (Ar. and Heb.) = a large space, a 
temple (tr. "hallowed fane") ii. 175. 

Haysumah (Arab.) = smooth stones (tr. 
"pebbles") iv. 347. 

Hayy = either serpent, or living, alive (tr. 
" living branch") vi. 99. 

Hazar = the nightingale, or bird of a 

thousand songs, v. 151. 
Hazer = a courtyard, an inclosure, v. 217. 
Hazir (Arab.) corresponds with English 
" Yes, sir " (tr. " Present "), iv. 254. 



Ha"zur (Al-) = loquacity, frivolous garrulity 

(tr. "jargon") i. 283. 
" He who keeps his hands crossed upon 

his breast, shall not see them cut off," 

i. 114. 
He is of the lords of houses = folk of good 

family, ii. 169. 
"He Pilgrimaged: quoth one, Yes, and 

for his villainy lives (yujawir) at 

Meccah." Egyptian Proverb, i. 196. 
He for she, iv. 29. 
" He found the beasts and their loads and 

the learned men," etc., a new form of 

"bos atque sacerdos," iv. 311. 
" He found her a treasure wherefrom the 

talisman had been loosed," v. 14. 
" He . . . who administereth between 

a man and his heart," a Koranic 

phrase (ST.) v. 42. 
" He readeth it off (readily) as one drinketh 

water," vi. 5* 
He sat upon ashes (may be figurative or 

literal) vi. 19. 

" He mounted his father and clothed him- 
self with his mother "= he sold his 

father for a horse and his mother for a 

fine dress, vi. 105. 
Head cut off and [set upon the middle of 

the corpse (in case of a Jew), or under 

the armpit (in case of a Moslem), iv. 

Head placed at a distance from the body 

(by way of insult) vi. 15. 
Headsman paces round convict three times 
preparatory to execution ; a custom at 

the Courts of Caliphs generally, vi. 


u Health to you and healing," usual 

formulae when a respectable person is 

seen drinking, vi. 47. 
Heaven, the fifth = the planet Mars, v. 119. 
Hebrews and their Exodus (Exposition by 

Mr. Thayer) vi. 113. 
Helios (Apollo), Worship of, not extinct in 

mod. Greece, vi. 100. 
"Hell-flame but not shame," proverb, 

ii. 148. 
"Help ye a Moslemah" (in text "Help 

ye the Moslems ") v. 368. 
Hemp, Indian, iv. 195. 
Her desire was quenched, iv. 144. 
Herklots quoted, v. 28. 

Heron quoted, v. 27 ; vi. 41, 50, 52, 68, 
72, 167, 168, 169, 170, 173, 178, 225, 
234, 242, 245, 247. 

Hibd = dust, ii. 244. 

Hibernice, " kilt " for beaten, i. 247. 

"Hicar was a native of the country of 
Haram (Harrdn), and had brought 
from thence the knowledge of the true 
God," vi. 4. 

Hidden (for fear of the " Eye") i. 75. 

Hidyah (Arab.} in Egypt = a falcon (tr. 
"a Kite") iv. 101. 

"Hie Salvationwards " (the Words of 
Azdn) i. 42. 

Hifan (pi. of " Hafnah ") = handful, 
mouthful (ST.) v. n. 

Hijaz (A1-) = The Moslem's Holy Land, 
(Cap. Meccah) ii. 193. 

Hikayah ( = literal production of a dis- 
course, etc.) iv. 39. 

Hilal = the crescent (waxing or waning) 
for the first and last two or three nights, 
v. 72. 

Hilm (vision), " au 'Ilm" (knowledge) 
Arab* (tr. dreaming or awake) a phrase 
peculiar to this MSS., iv. 39. 

Hima = the tribal domain (tr. " tribe- 
land ") ii. 215. 

= the private and guarded lands of 
a Badawi tribe (tr. "demesne") v. 

Himydn (or Hamya'n) = a girdle (tr. 
"purse belt ") i. 152. 

Himyarite (in text "AkyaV* pi- of 
" Kayl" = "Kings of the Himyarite 
peoples") here = the heroes, vi. 232. 
Hindostani Version quoted, iii. 3, 4, 6, 8, 
ii, 12, 19, 26,27, 33, 51, 57,61, 75, 79, 
82, 85, 87, 95, 96, 97, 105, 113, 114, 
116, 125, 129, 133, 137, 140, 144, 147, 
148, 150, 158, 159, 160, 161, 166, 167, 
170, 171, 174, I7S 180, 185, 188, 189, 
294, 297, 355, 377* 38o 422, 446. 
Hirfah = a trade, a guild, a corporation 
(here the officers of police) ii. 54- 

^His head forewent his feet = He fell down 

senseless, i. 17. 

"His eyes turned in his head" (to show 
the whites, as happens to the mes- 
merised) ii. 242. 

" His bones were crushed upon his flesh " 
for " His flesh . . bones." iv. 347. 

Supplemental Nights. 

Hisdban tawil = a long punishment, vi 


" History of Chec Chahabeddin " (Shaykh 
Shihab al-Din) in "Turkish Tales" 
of Petis de la Croix = here, " The Tale 
of the Warlock and the Young Cook 
of Baghdad," vi. 121. 

"Hiza (>*, to M S- ^) bi-Zaijati-ha " 
= k bonheur de ses aventures, vi. 260. 

Hizam = girdle, sash, waist-belt, tr. 
waist-shawl," iii. 20. 

Hms = Vetchling, vi. 74. 

' Ho ! Aloes good for use. Ho ! Pep- 
per," etc., cries of an itinerant ped- 
lar hawking about women's wares, v. 


Ho, Tuffahah \ Ho, Rahat al-Kulub = O 
Apple, O Repose o' Hearts, &c. t i. 


Holy House (youth being of, can deny 
that he belongs to any place or race), 

V- 39- 

Hobal, the biggest idol in the Meccan 
Pantheon, vi. 26. 

Horseman of the horsemen, i.e., not a well- 
known or distinguished horseman, but 
a chance rider, vi. 92. 

Horse- thief chained to four pickets of 
iron, ii. 224. 

Horses used in India, iii. 297. 

Hospitality (House of) v. 330. 

Houdas '(Professor) quoted, v. 47, 48 ; 
vi. 7, 36, 48, 57, 62, 66, 67, 72, 84, 
104, 125, 126, 147, 178, 187, 188, 
189, 191, 243, 247, 251, 257. 

Hour (would his hour had never come) 

i.2 7 . 

Houri, vi. 73. 

House of the Elephant = the Castle's 
squares at chess, ii. 205. 

of Hashim, great grandfather to the 
prophet, 'v. 46. 

masters (also Kings) in the East 

are the last to be told a truth familiar 
to all but themselves and their wives, 
iv. 351. 

made "of cob or unbaked brick, 
which readily melts in rain, iv. 214. 

Housewife, Egyptian or Syrian, will make 
twenty dishes out of roast lamb, iv. 

*'How very good he was to me," i. 32. 

"How was it thou honouredst us, and 
what was the cause of thy coming, 
etc." the address of well-bred man to 
a stranger, vi. 170. 

Hubban li-raasi-k (Arab.} /?V.=out of love 
for thy head, i.e., from affection for 
thee, iv. 50. 

Huda Sirru-hu, i.e , his secret sin was 
guided (by Allah) to the safety of con- 
cealment, tr. "his secret was safe 
directed,!' v. 339, 

(Dr. Steingass reads " Wahada Sirru- 

hu = " and his mind was at rest"), v. 

Hudhud (tr. " hoopoe") called from its 

cry "Hood! Hood!")i. 148. 
Hujjat=a legal deed (may also mean " an 

excuse") ii. 27. 

Hummus (or Himmis)= vetches, iv. 7. 
Hundred dirhams = ^4 (about), i. 43. 
Hur (Al-Ayn) feminine counterparts of 

the "Boys of Paradise " (Ghilmdn) vi. 

al-Ayn = our vulgar " Houri," vi. 

Hurl (Arab.} for Hur = pool, marsh or 

quagmire (vulg. "bogshop") iv. 206. 
Husn tadbir - lit. u beauty of his con- 
trivance" (tr. "Seemliness of his 

stratagem ") ii. 29. 
<: Huwa inna lam na'rifu-h " (Arab.} lit. = 

He, verily we wot him not (suggesting 

" I am he ") iv. 133. 
Hysterics, common amongst the races of 

the East, i. 198. 

Hydrophobia in Egypt, iii. 330. 
Hypocrites = those who feign to be Moslems 

when they are miscreants, iii. 83. 

" I AM an Irarif but Wallahi indeed I am 
not lying " (Persian saying for " I will 
shun leasing"), v. 303. 

' as one who hath fallen from the 

heavens to the earth," .*., an orphan 
and had seen better days, iv. 75. 

between his hands = at his service, i. 


" I bade her be the owner of herself," one 
of the formulas of divorce, vi. 178. 


I cannot fill my eye with the twain = I 

cannot look at them long, ii. 88. 
** I change the pasture " = I pass from 

grave to gay, etc., iv. 7. 
* 4 1 commit him to thy charge under God," 

ii. 184. 
" I have accepted," the normal idiom *' I 

accept," vi. 81. 
I have not any eye that can look at 

him " = "I cannot bear to see him," 

ii. no. 
I have not found thy heel propitious to 

me, i. 21. 
44 1 must present myself before him (the 

King) with face unveiled," a Persian 

custom for women, iii. 533. 
I smell the scent of the Jinn, ii. 125. 
" I think not otherwise" = " I am quite 

sure," ii. 119. 
" I will hire thee a shop in the Chauk " = 

Carfax or market street, iii. 6l. 
I will lay down my life to save thee from 

sorrow a commonplace hyperbole of 

love, ii. 181. 
Ibl, specific name for camels (tr. " certain 

camels") i. 315. 
Ibn al Sammak = Son of the fisherman or 

fishmonger, i. 171. 

mfn, a vulgarism for " man," iii. 53. 

Ibraa = deliverance from captivity, v. 


Ibrahim al-Harrdni (Arab, title for Abra- 
ham) iii. 270. 
of Mosul, the far famed musician, v. 


41 'Iddah " = days during which a widow 
cannot marry (tr. "widowhood") iii. 

44 If Almighty Allah have appointed unto 
thee aught thou shalt obtain it without 
toil and travail" a favourable senti- 
ment, iii. 10. 

44 If his friend the Devil be overstrong for 
thee, flee him rather than be slain," ii. 


tf my hand were changed = if my hand had 

lost its cunning, ii. 78. 
'Ifr" (Jem. 'Ifrah) - a wicked and 

dangerous man, iii. 80. 
Ifrlt, mostly derived from "'afar= dust, 

iii. 80. 
Ihtida = divine direction, i. 313. 

Ihtimam wa Ghullah (former should be 
written with major aspirate meaning 
14 fever") tr. " there befel him much 
concern," v. 421. 

Ihtirdk = burning (used in the metaphor- 
ical sense of consuming, torturing) i. 

Ihramat Ii al-Sala"t = she pronounced the 
formula of Intention (Niyat) (tr. " the 
Prohibition"), ii. 94. 

" Ij'alni fi Kll," (the latter word a cler. 
error for " Kal-a" or "KilaV' = 
safety, protection) = Set me in a place 
of safety, vi. 84. 

"Ikhbar" (= mere account of the dis- 
course, oratio indirecta> etc.) iv. 39. 

Iklfm = climes, ii. 3. 

"Ila an kata-ka 'l-'amal al-rabfh" (In 
MS. giving no sense. Translations by 
Author and Dr. Steingass) v. 58. 

'Ilaj (Al-) = insertion (tr. ' horizontal re- 
freshment ") ii. 185. 

Illicit intercourse, (method intended to 
procure) vi. 126. 

'Hm al-Ghayb (Arab.) = the Science of 
Hidden Things, iii. 452. 

al-Hfah, gen. tr. " Astrology "here 

meaning Scientific Physiognomy, iii. 32. 

al-Huruf (Arab.) tr. lt Notaricon," iv. 

Imr al-Kays (in text " Imryu M-Kays") a 
pre-Islamitic poet ("The man of al- 
Kays ") v. 181. 

'Ilm al-Mukashafah=the Science by which 
Eastern adepts discover man's secret 
thoughts (tr. "Thought reading ") iii. 

Ilm al-Raml = (Science of the Sand), our 

geomancy, iii. 156. 
Imam = Antistes or fugleman at prayer who 

leads off the orisions, ii. -101. 
Imm = a leader of prayer, iii. 380. 
= an antistes a leader in prayer (a 

word with a host of meanings) iii. 

(the spiritual title of the Caliph) i. 


Iman = prayer, iii. 380. 

'Imdrah = a building, tr. here souterra-in 
(probably clerical error for MaghaVah 
= a cave, a souterrain) iii. 15. 

Impotence, causes and cure of, iv. 257. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Improbable details on which stories depend, 

iii. 160. 
In a modest way (lit. In the way of 

moderation) i. 248. 
Inbnsata 'i-Layl al-Asji = " when the 

night of offence was dispread," vi. 


Indecencies of Bhang-eaters, iv. 196. 
Indian hemp, iv. 195. 
' 'Ind 'uzzdti 's-sinmi " (Arab.) = lit. the 

thorny shrubs of ground bare of 

pasture, v. 59. 
Infanticide (in accordance with the manners 

of the age) iii. 497. 
41 In lam taridd Kayni " = lit. unless thou 

oppose my forming or composing (tr. 

"unless thou avert my shame") iv. 

"Inna hazih Hurmah ; lam 'alay-hd 

Shatarah" = "Truly this one (is a 

woman ; I must not act vilely or rashly 

towards her " (ST.) v. 220. 
Inscriptions on metal trays sold to Euro- 
peans (also on tablecloths) ii. 87. 
" Insistence overcometh hindrance" 

(equiv. of "Tis dogged as does it " of 

Charles Darwin) v. 171. 
Intersexual powers, vaunting, v. 91. 
" IntMba f 1 furas " lit. = the snatching of 

opportunities (tr. "divest himself in a 

pleasurable case ") v. 222. 
Intoxication (properly meaning "poison- 
ing") a term to be left for " teetotallers" 

to use, v. 315. 

Inverted speech, form of, v. 60. 
Irak A1-, the head-quarters of the Khdrijite 

heresy, v. 213. 
Iraks (two) = Irak Arab! (Chaldaee) and 

'Ajami (Western Persia) ii. 191. 
Iran (father of the Furs = Persians, etc 

son of "Ashur," vi. 3. 
rham turham = Pity and shall be pitied 

(one of the few passive verbs still used 

in pop. par.) v. 169. 
'Irk = vein (of our eye) eyuivs to " the 

apple of the eye," ii. 144. 
al-Hdshimi = the Ha"shimf vein, i. 29. 
al-Usna" (Arab.) = chorda testi- 

culorum (tr. " testicle- veins") v. 52. 
Irregular use of inn, perpetuated in some 

monster hotels throughout Europe, ii. 


Irtiya'd = a place where the urine spray 

may not defile the dress (tr. "a place 

to make water") ii. 13. 
"'Irz" (= protection), "Hurmah" and 

"Shatdrah" (words explaining each 

other mutually) (ST.) v. 220. 
Isd, according to Moslems, was no'c be- 
gotten in the. normal way, vi. 100. 
Isaac of Mosul, the Greatest of Arab 

Musicians, ii. 70. 
" Ishd " prayer, iv. 296. 
Is'hak-- Isaac (Abraham and Isaac) vi. 

Is'haku kdna '1-Zabih = Isaac was the 

victim, vi. 104. 
Ishdri, a word which may have many 

meanings (tr. "a white cock in his 

tenth month ") iv. 341. 
Ishmael (not Isaac) made the hero by mod. 

Moslems of the story "Abraham 

and Isaac," vi. 104. 
Ishtalaka = he surmised, discovered (a 

secret), V. 33. 
Islam AI- is based upon the fundamental 

idea of a Republic, vi 194. 

(Shaykh of), v. 317. 

Israel, history of the name, vi.ioo. 
Israelite, now polite synonym for Jew, 

vi. TOO. 

Isrdfil = Raphael, v. 302. 
Istandda 'ala Shakkati-h, tr. " (he might) 

lean' against his quarter," v. 401. 
"he lay down on his rug" (ST.) v. 

" Istanatu Id-ha" (presupposing "istan- 

attu loth form of "natt"= he 

jumped) tr. "they threw themselves on 

her neck " (Dr. Steingass takes it for 

8th form of "sanat" and translates 

"listened attentively") v. 34. 
Istffa" = choice, selection, v. 203. 
Istikhraj Al-= making " elegant extracts," 

v. 126. 
Istilah (Arab.) = Specific dialect, idiom 

(tr "right direction") iv. 104. 
Istinshalt (Arab.) one of the items of the 

Wuzu or lesser ablution (tr. " water") 

iv. 58. 
" Itawwaha," tr. " throwing his right leg 

over his back," v. 382. 
(Dr. Steingass also explains and 

translates) v. 382. 



Ittika (viiith of v/waka) ; the form Takwa 
gen. used = fearing God, vi. 96. 

Iya"lah = government-general, iv. 245. 

'lydl-hu = lit. his family (tr. wives) ii. 8. 

Iya"s al-Muzani, al Kazi (of Bassorah) the 
Model Physiognomist, iv. 107. 

" Iz lam naakhaz, wa-illd," etc., a fair 
specimen of Arab, ellipsis, iv. 300. 

JA*AD = a curl, a liberal man, iv. 14. 
Ja'ad al-yad = miserly, iv. 14. 
Ja'afar, the model Moslem minister, v. 72. 
Jababirah fabled Giant rulers of Syria, 

iii. 86. 
Jabal (A1-) al-Mukawwar = the Crescent 

Mountain (from Kaur=a park) ii. 119. 
Jabal al-Sahdb="The mount of clouds," 

v. 376. 

Jabal Ka'ka'an, the highest parts of 
Meccah, inhabited by the Jurham tribe 
(so called from their clashing armour 
and arms) vi. 131, 

Jabhat=the lintel, opposed to the thresh- 
hold (tr. here " forehead " of his shop) 
ii. 137. 
Jabr (A1-) = the tyranny (equiv. of " Civil 

law") i. 212. 
Jady (Arab.)-ihe zodiacal sign Capricorn 

(tr. "kid") v. 46. 

Jafr, supposed to mean a skin (camel's 

or dog's) prepared as parchment for 

writing, vi. 168. 

Jafr A1-, a cabalistic book, prognosticating 

all that will ever happen to Moslems 

vi. 168. 

A1-, confused with " Ja'afar binTay- 

yar" the Jinni, vi. 168. 
Jaftawdt (Arab.} pi. of Turk. " Chifut"- 

a Jew, or mean fellow, vi. 67. 
Jahfm-hell, v. 55; 201. 
Jahl = ignorance (also wickedness) i. 271 
Jahrbaur (a fancy name intended to be 

Persian) i. 93. 
Ja'idiyah (Arab.} a favourite word in this 

MSS. = " Sharpers," iv. 14, 280. 
Jaizah (viaticum) = a day and night, vi. 26 
"Jalabi" (in text) afterwards written 

" Shalabi," v. 335. 
Jalak, the older name of Damascus, the 
44 Smile of the Prophet," vi. 167. 

alinus= " Galen " (considered by Moslem* 
a pre-lslamitic saint) i. 284. 

dm = either mirror or cup (meaning doubt* 
ful) iii. 440. 

lama' a atrafa-h, /*V.=he drew in his ex- 
tremities (tr. " covered his hands and 
feet with his dress ") i. 114. 

Jamal falij = the palsy-camel, ii. 235. 

" Jamardt of the Arabs " = Banii Numayr, 
Banu Hdris, and Banti Dabbah, vi. 7. 

Jdmi' = cathedral mosque, i, 250. 

Jami al-Amawi (Arab.} Cathedral Mosque 
of the Ommiades, one of the Wonders 
of the Moslem World, vi. 172. 

Jdm-i-Jamshid, a well-worn commonplace 
in Moslem folk-lore, iii. 440. 

Jamil bin Ma'mar al-Uzri. ("Jamil the 
Poet," and lover of Buthaynah), i.' 

Jamrah = a bit of burning charcoal, ii* 


= a live coal, ii. 87. 

" " (Arab.} a word of doubtful 

origin, applied to a self dependent tribe 
(tr. "live coal") vi. 7. 

Jdmusah (Arab.} buffalo-cow, iv. 26. 

Jandkilah = gypsies, iv. 72. , 

Jananan may also read "Jinanan" (ST.) 1 
vi. 138. 

( ? vulg. form of " Jannatan " 

the garden (of Paradise)) tr. "thei 
garths of Paradise," vi. 138. 

Janazah, bier with a corpse thereon, iv.' 

Jarazat Kuzban (//. of Kazib) = long and 

slender sticks, vi. 76. 

Janindti Al-=the market gardener, v. 293. 
Jann, Al- (MS. preseVves rare form of, for 

the singular) iv. 88. 
Jannat al-Khuld (Arab.) = the Eternal 

Garden, v. 172. 
Janzir (vulgarism for "Zanjfr") = a chain*! 

i. 20. 

Jarid = The Cane-play, iii. 327. 
or reed used as a javelin, iv. I73 
/<?/.Jerid = the palm- frond used as 

javelin, iii. 14$. 
Jarfdah (Arab.), = Palm-frond stripped of 

its leaves, i. 264 ; iv. 173. 
Jarir al-Khatafah, i. 39- 
Jarir bin 'Abd al-Masih (Mutalammis, a 

poet of The Ignorance) vi. 94. 

Supplemental Nights. 

Jariyah = damsel, slave-girl, used instead 
of " Sabiyah" = young lady, i. 134. 

Jdriyah ra*dih, A1-, tr. ''the good graces 
of her mistress," v. 161. 

Jarmuk, son of "Ashur," vi. 3. 

Jarrah (Arab.) = flask, v. 321. 

Jashish = coarsely ground wheat (ST.) V. 

Jatha*ni = the wife of an elder brother (tr. 

"sister-in-law") iii. 373. 
Jauhar = the jewel, the essential nature of 

a substance (tr. "quintessence") i. 


Jauhar-ji (Arab.) a Turkish form for 

Jauhari, iv. 21. 
Jauharjiyyah, tr. jewellers (an Arab. pi. 

of an Arabised Turkish sing, ji for 

chi = (crafts) man) iii. 95. 
Jawadit Al- = animals freshly slain, vi. 

Jawakfn (Arab.) pi. of Arab. Jaukan for 

Pers. "Chaugdn," a crooked stick 

(used in Polo), vi. 125. 
Jdwar = he became a Mujawir (one who 

lives near a collegiate mosque) i. 196. 
Jdwush (Arab.) for Chawush (Turk. =c an 

army sergeant, etc., iv. 45. 
Jay'a Al- = the onyx (a well-omened 

stone) v. 130. 
"Jayb" = the breast of a gown, also 

used in sense of a pocket, vi. 42. 
Jayyid, der. from root " Jaud "= to excel. 

(ST.) Vi. S . 

Jazdan = a pencase (Pers.) more prop. 

called Kalamdan = a reed box, iv. 322. 
Jazirah = insula, island, used in the sense 

of " peninsula," ii. 220. 
Jazirah (A1-) (Arab.) = Mesopotamia, iii. 

269. "Jews hold lawful to them the 

good of Moslems." (Comparison of 

Jew and Christian in matters relating 

to dealing) iii. 93. 
Jazr = cutting, strengthening, flow (of 

tide) v. 203. 

Jehovah, the tribal deity of the Jews, vi. 4. 
Jerusalem, Temple of, a fac simile of the 

orig. built by Jehovah in the lowest 

heaven, i.e., that of the moon, vi. 105. 
Jewel inserted in the shoulder, i. 228. 
Jewels (luminous) iii. -354. 
Jeweller, held to be one of the dishonest 

classes, iv. 21. 

Jiddan (Egypto- Syrian) = muchly, i. 115. 

Jihaz (Arab. Egypt. "Gahaz") = mar- 
riage portion, v. 28. 

" Jilan ba'da Jil" the latter word = revo- 
lutions, change of days, tribe, people, 
% v. 476. 

Jim (j) with 3 dots, a Persian letter still 
preserved in Arabic alphabets of 
Marocco, etc., vi. 182. 

Jink of Egypt (called by Turkish soldiers 
Ghiovende') iv. 72. 

Jinn (Arab.) = spirit or energy of a man, 
vi. 183. 

"Curiosity," vi. 62. 

-mad (or in Persian " Pari-stricken," 

smitten by the fairies) v. 249. 

Jinns of Northern Europe, ii. 86. 
Jinniyah = the Jinn feminine, iii. 470. 
Joanna Papissa (Pope John VIII. called 

" Pope Joan") i. 340. 
Job (traditions of) ii. 50. 
Jugular veins (esp. the external pair) carry 

blood to the face, and are subject 

abnormally to the will, v. 340. 
Julnar = Gulnare, ii. 100. 
Jumlatun min al-mdl = Worth a mint of 

money, iv. 59. 
Jummayz (Arab.) a tall sycamore tree, 

v. 117. 
Jund (Arab.) pi. "Junud" = " guards," 

a term mostly applied to regular troops 

under Government, vi. 16. 
Jurab al-'uddah (Arab.) i.e., The manacles, 

fetters, etc., vi. 78. 
" Jurah Sydn" for "Jurah sayyal" = a 

stinking fosse a-flowing, vi. 35. 

KA'AH (Arab.} = the apodyterium or un- 
dressing room upon which the vestibule 
of the Hammam opens (tr. *' great 
hall") iii. 133. 

= a saloon, vi. 6l. 

Ka'b = heel, glory, prosperity, i. 21. 

Kaba" (Pers.) = a. short coat or tunic, vi. 48. 

Kababji (for " Kababji "), seller of Kababs 
(tr. "cook") v. 225. 

Kabad = liver, sky vault, the handle or 
grip of a bow (tr. here "belly" of 
the bow), vi. 257. 

Kabbaltu = I have accepted, i.e., I accept 
emphatically, iii. 37. 



Kabddn (usual form " Kaptan " from 

Ital. " Capitano ") = Captain (ship's) 

(Tuk. form, as in " Kapudan-pasha " 

Lord High Admiral of ancient Osmanli 

land), v. 402. 
Kdbil-ki (Icier, error for Kdtil-ki = 

-Allah strike thee dead) tr. "Allah 

requite thee," vi. 55. 
Kabirah = head of the household (i.e., the 

mother), vi. 83. 

Kabr al-Sitt, wherein Sitt Zaynab is sup- 
posed to lie buried (tr. "Lady's 

Tomb"), vi. 171. 
Kabsh (Arab.) = ram, v. 299. 
Kabul (//. Kabdbft) = " Capotes," v. 274. 
Kad= verily (affirmative particle preceding 

a verb gives it a present and at times a 

future signification) i. 245. 
Kadid Al- (Arab.) = jerked meat flesh 

smoked, or sun-dried (tr. "boucan'd 

meat") v. 51. 
Kadr = rank, i. 48. 
Kddum for "Kudum" (Syrian form) to 

"adze," iv. 101. 
Kdfi'ah Al- = parapet, vi. 72. 
Kafir (i.e., a non-Moslem) Everything 

fair in dealing with, iv. 316. 
Kahana (Heb.) = he ministered (priests' 

offices or other business) vi. 109. 
Kahbah = whore, i. 12. 

= our whore (i.e. hired woman), 
vi. 46. 

Kdhin, usual plurals of, are Kahanah and 

Kuhhdn (ST.) iv. 320. 
- = a Cohen, a Jewish Priest, a 

soothsayer, vi. 109. 
Kdhinah = Divineress (fern, of Kdhin), 


Kdhirah = City of Mars, Cairo, iv. 35. 
Kahraman (alias Samarbdn) (W. M. MS.) 

iv. 6. 
Kahramdnah = housekeeper (also nurse. 

duenna, &c. &c.) i. 199. 

(Arab.) = a nurse, a duenna, an 
Amazon guarding the Hare'm, iv. 78. 

a word of many senses, vi. 89. 
Kd'id ; lit. one who sits with a colleague 

(tr. "Captain")i. 59. 
"Kdfk" and "Kdik-jf" the well-known 

Caique of the Bosphorous, v. 236. 
Kdinvmakatii = a deputy (governor, etc.) 

v. 281. 

Ka'ka' = "jingle and jangle" (of horses' 

tramp) vi. 131. 
"Kakd Siyah" (Pen.), i.e., "black 

brother " (a domestic negro), see his 

Nazi-nuzf, iii. 285. 
Kala al-Rawf, etc., parenthetical formula 

= The Story-teller sayeth, etc.," i. 347. 
Kalak (Arab.), lit. agitation, disquietude 

(used as syn. with Kulanj = a true 

colic), iv. 177. 
Kala'1-Rawi = the reciter saith, v. 64. 

'1-Rdwi = quoth the reciter, vi. 227. 

Kdl (al-Rdwf) = "the Reciter saith" (a 

formula omitted here), vi. 15. 
Kalamddn = reed box. iv. 322. 
Kalamdtu 'llah = the Koran, iv. 252. 
" Kalansuwah "-cap a distinguishing 

mark of the Coptic regular clergy, iv. 


Kalb = stomach (sometimes " heart ") i. 

(for " Kulbat ") = a cave, a cavern 

(tr. "conduit") iv. 214. 

Kali = potash (our "alcali ") i. 8. 
Kalim = one who speaks with another, a 

familiar, v. 203. 
Kalimu'llah = Title of Moses, on account 

of the Oral Law and conversations at 

Mount Sinai, v. 203. 
Kdm Khuddi = master of his passions, iii. 

Kdma (Arab.) = he rose; equiv. to "he 

began" in vulg. speech, iii. 389. 

-Shastra = the Cupid gospel, in. 


Kamar al-Ashrdf = Moon of the Nobles, 
vi. 226. 

al-Zamdn ("Moon of the Time"), 

vi. 233. 

Kamariyah (der.from Kamar = Moon) = 

coloured glass windows, ii. 39 
" Kamd zukira f Dayli-h " = " Let it be, 

as is said, in the tail," vi. 126. 
Kamburisiyah = clotted curd, vi. 159. 
Kamal (Arab.) Louse, vi. 99. 
Kamfs (^ird)v> chemise, etc.) = shirt, i. 

Kamrah = the chief cabin (from Gr. 

Kafjidpa = vault), tr. " cuddy," v. 24 
Kandni (plur. of Kinnmah) = glass bottle 

iii. 92. 
Kandt (Arab.) tr. water-leat, ir. 350. 

Supplemental Nights. 

Kandil (A1-) al-'ajfb = the Wonderful 

Lamp, iii. 135. 
Kanisah = a Pagan temple, a Jewish 

synagogue, a Christian Church, i. 198. 
Kapu = a door, a house, or a Government 

office, vi. 179' 
. Katkhudasi = the agent which every 

Governor is obliged to keep at Con- 
stantinople, vi. 1 80. 
Kapudan-pashd = Lord High Admiral of 

ancient Osmanli land, v. 402. 
Kapiiji = a porter. Kapuji-bashi = head 

porter, vi. 179. 
Kar'ah, now usually called " Maslakh " = 

stripping room, iii. 133. 
Karawa"n = crane or curlew (Charadrius 

cedicnenius) v. 151. 

Karb, one of whose meanings is "to in- 
flate the stomach," iv. 182. 
Kardan (Persian) = Business-knower, i. 

Kdrishin = chasing, being in hot pursuit 

of (ST.) v. 405. 
Karit (y Kart) = complete, speaking of a 

year, etc. (ST.) iv. 337. 
Kariyah = a village (derivation) i. 83. 
Karkabah (Arab.), Clerical error for Kar- 

karah = driving ; rumbling of wind in 

bowels, iv. 182. 
Karm (v/)> originally means cutting a slip 

of skin from the camel's nose by way 

of mark, v. 266. 
Karman = Karmania, vulg. and fancifully 

derived from Kir man. Pers. = worms, 

Kart = complement, or here, " remainder," 

(ST.) iv. 337. 
Karur = a crore, iii. 129. 
Karz (Arab.) = moneys lent in interest 

without fixed term of payment, as opp. 

to "Dayn," vi. 29. 
Kasalah = a shock of corn, assemblage of 

sheaves, v. 53. 
maybe cler. error for "Kasabah" 

= stalk, haulm, straw, v. 53. 
Kas'at ( = a wooden platter or bowl) 

Mafrukah, tr. "hand-robbed flour," 

v. 349- 

Kasf = houghed, i.JSS. 
Kashdkish (Arab.), from the qu?.dril. y 

Kashkasha= he gathered fuel (here tr. 

"fuel sticks") 67. 

Kash'am, a term having various sigs., iv. 

Kashan (Well of), proverbial for its depth, 

vi. 127. 
" Kashmar," a word not to be found in 

dictionary, iv. 25. 
Kasht = skinning (a camel) |/ of Mikshat 

(Arab), iv. 100. 
Kashshara= grinned a ghastly smile (also 

laughing so as to shew the teeth), v. 


Kdsid = messenger, ii. 37. 
Kasfm (an unusual word), tr. " tax 

tribute," vi. 18. 
Kasfr (the Little one) iii. 390. 
Kdsituna (Al)=The Swervers, i. $2. 
Kasr = abbreviation, i. 295. 
Kata = sand-grouse, v. 151. 
"Kata' al-arba'," or cutting off the four 
* members, equiv. to our " quarter ing," 

v. 96. 

Kata'a Judiir-ha (for " hii ") tr. "back- 
bone," v. 353. 
(Dr. l&eingass refers pronoun in 

"Judur-ha" tr. " Rabakah," taking 

the "roots of the neck," tr. = spine) 

v. 353- 

Kata grouse, vi. 65. 
(Kataba) Zayjata-ha* = marriage-writ, vi. 

Kataif (//.) = Katlfah-cakes, a kind of 

pancake, vi. 45. 

Katil-ki = Allah strike thee dead, vi. 55. 
Katalu-ni = they killed me, vi. 185. 
Kattdn = linen, flax (tr. linen web ") iv. 

Kattu from " Katta " = he cut (in breadth, 

as opposed to Kadda = he cut length- 
wise) iii. 52. 

Kauk (Kaka, yakuku) to chuck, iv. 203. 
Kauk = an aquatic bird with a long neck, 

iv. 203. 
Kaunayn (Arab). = the two entities, this 

world and other world (tr. here '* Two 

Beings") vi, 249. 
Kauri (or " Cowrie," Cyprcea moneta), 

iii. 348. 

Kaus al-Bunduk (or Bunduk) (Arab.) = 
; a pellet-bow (Ital. arcobugio, Eng. 

arquebuse), vi. 53, 
Kawd'ib Al-= High-breasted (also P. N. 

of the river) v. 176. 



Kawa'ib Al- (A P.N. of word unknown to 
author) ; lit. meaning *' of high- 
breasted virgins," v. 129. 

Kawani al- (pi. of Kanat) = the spears 
(tr. here "punishment"), also read 
"al-Ghawdni " (ST.) vi. 147, 

Kawariji (Arab.) = one who uses the 
paddle, a rower (tr " boatman") iii. 

Kawik (Arab.) magpie, iv. 203. 

Kawwdrah, tr. "Sherd" (not found in 
dictionary) iv. 179. 

"Kayasirah" (Csesars) opp. to Akdsirah, 
(kisras) ii. 263. 

Kayf, favourite word in Egypt and Syria, 
i. 5 8. 

a tranquil enjoyment, iv. 196 . 

= joy, the pleasure of living, vi. 174. 

Kaylvilah = Siesta, iv. 324. 

Kayrawdn = Curlew, ii. 93. 

Kazafa (Arab.) threw up, vomited, vi. 

Kazanat (pi. of " Kdzdn ") = crucibles 

opp. to Kawalib = moulds) v. 108. 
Kazanat Al- (//. of Kazdn) = chauldrons 

(Turk. " Kazghdn") (ST.) v. 25. 
Kazazah = vulg. a (flask of) glass, iv. 

Kazdir, may here allude to the canisters 

used by small shopkeepers (tr. " tin") 

iv. 338. 
Kazi, ex-officio guardian of the orphans 

and their property liable to punishment 

in case of Fraud, ii.. 10. 
Kazi al-Askar=the great legal authority 

of a country (tr. " Kazi of the Army ") 

v. 310. 
Kdzi bade ancient dame precede him (on 

reaching door), lest he happen to 

meet an unveiled woman upon the 

upper stairs, vi. 58. 
Kazzak = Cossacks, bandits, etc. (here tr. 

"pirates") iii. 288. 
Kbb (possibly " Kubb " for ' Kubbah ") 

= a vault, a cupola, v. 376. 
Kerchief, throwing the, iv. 264. 
keyhole (Eastern) cannot be spied through, 

the holes being in the bolt, vi. 


Khabata = " He (the camel) pawed the 
ground" (tr. "beateth the bough") 
vi. 28. 

Khdlata-hd al-Khajal wa '1-Haya = shame 
and abasement mixed with her, i.e., 
" suffused or overwhelmed her" (ST.) 
v- 399- 

Khalat-ki insanun (Arab) tr. " (some 
man) has mixed with thee " ; meaning 
also " to lie with," v. 398. 
(Dr.Steingass also explains and trans 

lates), v. 376. 
Khalbas (suggests Khalbiis = a buffoon 

i. 266.' 
Khalifah (Caliph) = a deputy, a successor, 

(derivation) i. 4. 

(never written " Khalff ") = a vice- 
regent or vicar, v. 64. 
Khalij (A1-) The Canal (Grand Canal of 

Cairo) ii. 286. 

Khaliyah = beehive and empty, iv. 222. 
Khallf-nd nak'ud (Arab.) = let us sit 
together (a thoroughly modern expies- 
sion) (ST.) v. 475. 

" Khamr al-'ukdr "(=choice wine) v. 137. 

Khams Ghaffar = " five pardoners " 

(Steingass reads Khamr. (=wine) 'ukar 

another name for wine, as in "Al- 

Khamr al-'uka*r " = choice wine) v. 137. 

Khanddik = ditches or trenches (for 

Fanadik, " khans ") i. 288. 
Kharrat (in text) = tripping and stumbling 

(in her haste), v. 253. 
(also may be meant for "Kharajat" 

= " she went out") (ST.) v. 253. 
Khata = Cathay = China, v. 27. 
Khatib = a preacher (not Kalib - a 

writer), vi. 240. 

Khatibah (more usually " Khutbah ") =the 
Friday sermon preached by the Khatib, 
iii. 492. 

Khatt Hajar, a province, vi.23O. 
Khaufu (A1-) maksum = cowardice is 

equally divided, iv. 245. 
Khawabi (Arab)(pl. of Khabiyah) = large 

jars usually of pottery, iii. II. 
Khawatin (pi. of Khatun)=a matron, a 

lady, i. 122. 

" Khayr " (Arab) = " Tis well," a word 
of good omen, vi. 58. 

al-Nassaj (the Weaver) i. 344. 

Kathir = This is right good (also 

"abundant kindness"), ii. 275. 
Khayyal = sturdy horseman, i. 320. 
" kabr-hu mai'tuh " (proverb) i. 320. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Khazfb-dye, v. 200. 

Khaznah = the Treasury = 1,000 kis or 

purses, each 500 piastres, ^5,000, iv. 

74, i 80. 
(Khazfnah) or 10,000 Kis each =$, 

v. 236. 
Khaznat al-Sildh (Arab.} = the ship's 

armoury, v. 403. 
Khil'ah = robe of honour, consists of 

many articles, such as a horse, sword, 

etc., iv. 235 ; v. 410. 
Khila'h dakk al-Matrakah, tr. " whereon 

plates of gold were hammered" (an 

especial kind of brocade) vi. 8l. 
Khimdr (Arab.) head-veil (a covering 

for the back of the head), v. 255. 
Khizr = the Green Prophet, v. 301. 
Khorasan (including our Afghanistan) in a 

chronic state of rebellion in Al-Rashid's 

reign, ii. 167. 
Khubz mutabbak = platter-bread, i. 3. 

Samiz = firsts bread., i. 261. 
Khuda", mod. Pers. form of Old Khudai = 

Sovereign- King, iii. 269. 
Khudadad (derivation), iii. 269. 
" and his brothers," position of, 

compared with Galland, iii. 303. 
relative position of, iii. 269. 
Khutbah = sermon, i. 350. 
Khurtum = the trunk of an elephant, iii. 


Khuwa"j = hunger, iii. 61. 
"Khwaja" for "Khwajah," iii. 6l. 
Khwdjah = merchant and gentleman, iii. 


is also a honorific title given by 
Khorasdnis to their notables, iii. 61. 

and Khawajat (Pers.) = merchants 
(Arab.), i. 332. 

(spelt elsewhere " Khwaja" "), iv. 50 ; 
corresponds with our "good man," iv. 

Hasan al-Habbal = Master Hasan 

the Ropemaker, iii. 341. 
Kib (//. "Kiyab" and " Akydb") = a 

small thick mat used to produce shade 

(ST.) v. 215. 

Kidnapping (by Dervishes) iv. 153. 
Kidr = a cooking pot, i. 48. 
Kikan (/>'. of Kik) tr. "raven," vi. 147. 
Kimcobs = velvets with gold embroidery, 

iii. 140. 

King's Eye = Royal favour, i. 61. 
King consummates his marriage in presence 

of his virgin sister-in-law, ii. 268. 
Kulayb (" little dog") al Wa'il, ii.263. 

Nabhan, ii. 192. 

of the Kingdoms (i.e. of the worlds 

visible and invisible), ii. 6. 

of Bashan, iii. 19. 

in Persia speaks of himself in third 

person, and swears by his own head, 
etc., iii. 531. 

"King's Command is upon the head and 
the eyes" = must be obeyed, iii. 164. 

Kinnab=hemp, vi. 62. 

Kinship, Terms of, iii. 373. 

Kinta"r = a quintal, 98 to 99 Ibs. avoir, 
(in round numbers, a cwt.) vi. 29. 

Kiosque, traced through the Turk. Kiishk 
(pron. Kyushk) to the Pers. "Kushk" 
= an upper chamber, iv. 151. 

or belvedere (used to avoid confusion 

between Kiosque and window) iii. 140. 

Kira"ma"t= miracles, iii. 181. 

Kirdt (Carat), most often one twenty-fourth 

of the dinar, iii. 91. 

Kirm Al- (Arab, and Pers.) = a. worm, vi. 5. 
Kirsh (pron. "Girsh") the Egyptian 

piastre = one- fifth of a shilling, iv. 

72; 281. 
(Arab.), pop. " Girsh " = a dollar, 

iv., 281. 
= piastre, v. 226. 

(Arab.) piastre, vi. 175. 

Kis = purse = 500 piastres = ^5, iv. 74. 
Kfs = usually the Giberne or pellet-bag 

(here the " bow-cover ") vi. 53. 
Kishk= ground wheat, eaten with sheep's 

milk soured, etc., vi. 160. 
Kisra=Kutru (Bresl.) Kassera (Chavisand 

Cazotte) i. 60. 
Kisra = Chosroes, i. 97. 
"Kisrat al-yabisah 'ala '1-Rik, etc." = a 

slice of dry bread on the spittle, for it 

absorbs.. .phlegm on the mouth of the 

stomach" (ST.) v. 51. 
11 Kissing him upon the mouth," i. 153. 
the hand, the action of a servant or 

slave ii. 81. 

Kitab = book, written bond, ii. 27. 
Kit' ah humrah = a small quantity of red 

brickdust to which wonderful medicina 

powers are ascribed (ST.) vi. 125. 



Knife and salt placed on the stomach 
(Ar. Kalb) to -repel evil spirits, i. 26. 

" Kohl'd her eyes," v. 292. 

Kohl-powder, v. 292. 

Koran quoted i. 25, 51, 52, 100, 134, 
148, 353 I 2I S *75> 270, 2 7i> i97 
177, 106, 101 ; iv. 201, 242, 252, 254 ; 
v. 44, 47, 48, 49, 50, 56, 58, 180, 460. 
vi. 100, 104, 156, 157. 

Kubbah = a dome-shaped tent (tr. 
" Pavilion") i. 99. 

(square building with cupola; i. 1 19. 

- = vault, cupola, iv. 290* 
"Kubbat al-'Asafir" = the Dome of the 

Birds, vi. 181. 

Kubur = tombs, i. 295. 

Kuhna, Syriac singular, according to dic- 
tionaries (Sx.) iv. 320. 

, Al- (Arab.}, pi. of Kahin = 

diviner, priest (tr. "Cohens") iv. 

"Kul," vulg. for " Kul" = " tell me" ; a 
constant form in this MS., vi. 5* 

Kulah meant for "Kulah"a Dervish's 
cap (ST.) v. 108. 

Kulanj (Arab.} = a true colic, iv. 177. 

"Kullu Shayyin li mu'as'as" = all to 
me is excitement, vi. 174. 

Kumajah = First bread (i.e., Bread un- 
leavened and baked in ashes) i. 8. 

Kumri = turtle-dove, v. 151. 

Kunafani = a baker of kunafah = a vermi- 
celli cake often eaten at breakfast, iv. 

Kunaym Madud = Kingdom of Dineroux, 

* 55- 

Kunna nu'tihu li-ahad = we should have 

given him to someone (Dr. Steingass 

also explains) vi. 73. 
Kunyah (Arab.}, the pop. mispronunciation 

of "Kinyah" = "bye-name" (gen. 

taken from favourite son, etc.) vi. 


Kurbaj (Arab.} = Cravache ("Scourge") 
iv. 214. 

"Kurban-at basham" = May I become 
thy Corban or Sacrifice (formula used 
in addressing the Shah) iii. 530. 

Kursi = Throne, i. 10. 

Kursi (Arab.}, here = a square wooden 
seat without back, used for sitting 
cross-legged (tr. "chair") iv. 52. 

Kursi stool = the stool upon which the 

Siniyah, or tray of tinned copper, is 

placed, iv. 170. 
Kurud = apes (occurring as a rhyme twice 

in three couplets) v. 190. 
Kurush (Arab.}, pi. of Kirsh, the Egyptian 

piastre = one- fifth of a shilling, iv. 72. 
Kut = food not to be confounded with 

"Kuwwat" = force, iv. 225. 

al-Kulub, iv. 225. 

Kutb (A1-) al-Ghauth (Arab.} = lit. "The 

pole-star of invocation for help (tr. 

" Prince of the Hallows ") the highest 

degree of sanctity in the mystic 

fraternity of Tasawwuf, v. 426. 
Kulhayyir = "the drawf," i. 41. 

'Azzah (contemporary of Jamil), 1.41. 

Kuwarah = that which is cut off from the 

side of a thing, iv. 179. 
Kuwayyis (dim. of Kaus), much used in 

Egypt as an adj. " pretty," etc., iv. 


LA'AB AL-ANDAB (Arab.} = javelin-play 

iii. 154- 
La af'al ("I will do naught of the kind ") 

more commonly Ma afal, i. 296. 
La' all a peradventure (used to express 

expectation of possible occurrence) ii. 

La baas = " No matter" or " All right," 

(tr. "No harm be upon you") i. 

. Haula = there is no Majesty, etc., 

v. 359- 

" Haul of Allah is upon thee," **.*., 

it is a time when men should cry for 
thy case, v. 359. 

La-hu Diraah (for Dirayah = prudence) fi 
tabirf'l-muliik = tr. "Also he had 
control," v. 465. 

"La ilaha ilia 'Hah," the refrain of Unity, 
v. 403. 

" khuzitat Ayday al-Firak," mean- 
ing, " May Separation never ornament 
herself in sign of gladness at the pro- 
spect of our parting," v. 200. 

tafzah-ni = Do not rend my reputa- 
tion. (ST.) iv. 295. 

Laban = milk soured (tr. "Curd") 


Supplemental Nights. 

aban, pop. word for milk artificially 

soured, v. 352. 
halib (a trivial form) = sweet milk, 

v. 352. 
La' bat Shawa"ribu-hu = /*/. "his mus- 

tachios played" (tr. "curled") v. 


Labbah (Arab.), usually part of the throat 
where ornaments are hung or camels 

stabbed (tr. "necklace") iv. 68. 
Labbayka = here am I (tr. "Here I 

stand") iv.317. 
"Laffa '1-isnayn bi-zulumati-h " = tr. 

winding his trunk around them (latter 

word = Khurtum the trunk of an 

elephant) iii. 19. 
Laght (also pron. Laghat), a synonym of 

"Jalabah" = clamour, tumult. (ST.) 

iv. 342. 

Lahd, Luhd = tomb-niche, i. 292. 
La"jawardf, tr. " lapis lazuli," iii. 444. 
Lajlaja = tied (his tongue was) ii. 186. 
Lakasha = be conversed with, v. 285. 
one of the words called "Zidd," 

i.e., with opposite meanings, v. 

Lakh (Anglicised "lac") = 100,000, 

"i- 357- 

Laklaka-hd (Arab.\ an onomatopoeia, 
v. 265. 

"Lam yakthir Khayrak"; this phrase 
(pron. "Kattir Khayrak") is the 
Egypt, and Moslem', equiv. for our 
" thank you/' v. 60. 

" yanub al-Wahidu min-hum nisf 

haffan," tr. "each took his turn 
thereat and drank without drinking 
his full," v. it. 

* Dr. Steingass explains and trans- 
lates, " And none took his turn with- 
out sipping a few laps." v. n. 

La-nakhsifanna = I would assuredly, 

ii.2 3 . 

Lane, quoted, i. 3, 10, n, 13, 16, 17, 21, 
29. 3 1 * 34> 146, 290. ; ii. 246. ; iii. 38, 
"9 334. 492.J iv. 19, 29, 34, 43, 
4S 5S 5 6 J 22, 209, 243, 257, 293, 
296. ; v. 28, 86, 90, 97, 226, 265, 
291* 3Si 363 426. ; vi. 46, 53, 74, 

Last march (to the next world) ii. 202. 

Lauh = tablet (of the heart) iii. 386. 

" Lawa"'a-hu," a clerical error for 
"ldwa'a-hu." (ST.) iv. 306. 

Lawwaha (Arab.) = lit. pointing out, 
making clear (tr. "bobbed") iv. 190. 

" -hu," a conjectured reading for 

" lawa'a-hu." (ST.) iv. 306. 

Laysa fi '1-diyari dayya*r = " nor is there a 
wight in the site " (a favourite jingle) 
ii. 275. 

Learned men exorcising some possible 
" Evil Spirit " or " the Eye," a super- 
stition begun with the ancient Egyp- 
tians, iv. 60. 

Learn from thyself what is thy Lord (Sufi 
language) = in Gr. y^t o-cavroV, 
and corresponding with our ' looking 
up through nature to nature's God," v. 

Leather from Al-Taif, ii. 242. 

Legal defects (which justify returning a 
slave to the slave-dealer) ii. 141. 

Lens, origin of, and its applied use in 
telescopes and microscopes, iii. 432. 

" Letters of Mutalammis" (" Uriah's let- 
ters ") are a lieu commun in the East, 

Lex talionis (the essence of Moslem and 
all criminal jurisprudence) i. 100. 

Lialla" (*'.*., Ii, an, la") = lest, i. 140. 

Libas (Arab.) = clothes in general (tr. 
"habit") vi. 103. 

Libwah = lioness, i. 152. 

Lieutenant of the bench, ii. 24. 

Lijam (A1-) w'al-Bilam = the latter being 
a Tabi' or dependent word used only 
for a jingle, v. .381. 

Lilldhi durrak = Gifted of Allah, ii. 200. 

Lion lashing flank with tail, iv. 160. 

Litam = the mouth-band for man (tr. 
"Litham") v. 139. 

Litham=the coquettish fold of transparent 
muslin used by women in Stambul, ii. 

" Live thy head, O King, for ever and' 
aye !" (a formula announcing death of 
supposed enemy) vi. 17. 

Lfwa"n (Arab.) - Saloon, iii. 71. 

al-barrdnf (Arab.) lit. = the outer 

bench in the "Maslakh" or apodyte- 
rium (tr. " outside the calidarium ") iv. 

Liyah (? Liyyah) = Lign- aloes, vi. 125. 



Liyuth (pi. of Layth) = Lions (used for 
"warriors") i. 14. 

Lodging in the Khan, vi. 95. 

Long hand, or arm, means power (Arab, 
idiom) i. 114. 

Long lock left on shaven poll, i. 233. 

" Look-at-me-and-thou-shalt-know-me " 
(compound name) v. 276. 

Love-fit distinguished by the pulse or 
similar obscure symptoms, vi. 174. 

Love (for " sleep ") ii. 164. 

41 Love thy friends and hate thy foes," the 
religion of nature, vi. 34. 

Lovers dressing themselves up and playing 
the game of mutual admiration, v. 153. 

Lovers of Al-Hayfa and Yusuf (note con- 
cerning) v. 123. 

Low-caste and uneducated men rise sud- 
denly to a high degree, vi. 194. 

"Loz" (Heb. and " Lauz " Arab.} = 
fruit of the Almond-tree = Amygdalus 
communis t vi. 7 

'Luh" = to him for " Li" = to me, iv. 

Lukmah (Arab.} a balled mouthful (tr. 
"morsels") v. 264. 

Luluah = The Pearl or Wild Heifer, ii. 


Lume eterno (of the Rosicrucians) = little 
sepulchral lamps, burned by the He- 
brews, Greeks and Romans, iii. 72. 

"Luss," is after a fashion Xryor^s (the 
Greek word however includes piracy 
while the Arab term is mostly applied 
to petty larcenists), v. 337. 

Lute, beautiful song of the, v. 152. 

MA'ADABAH = wake or funeral feast be- 
fore death, vi. 1 6. 

Ma'adin (Arab.) = Minerals (tr. " ingre- 
dients ") iv. 139. 

Ma al-Fasikh = water of salt-fish (tr. 
"dirty brine") (ST.) v. 292. 

Maamun (A1-) al-Hakim b'Amri'llah 
= The Secure, the Ruler by Com- 
mandment of Allah, ii. 281. 

Maamun (A1-) Seventh Abbaside (A;H. 
198-227) i. 175. 

Mabdsim (//. of Mabsim) = a smi) : 
mouth, ii. 162, 

Madafi al-Sala"mah (Arab.) - the cannon 

of safe arrival, iv. 124 
" Made small their sleeves and breasts" 

= habited themselves in the garments 

of little people, vi. 42. 
Madfnat al-Andalus = City of Andalus, 

(usually Seville) v. 402. 
" Madfnat al-Nabi." City of the Prophet, 

and vulg. AI-Madinah M<r City, v. 43. 
Madmen in hot climates enjoy throwing 

off their clothes, ii. 22. 
Mad'ur, here translated (even if thou 

hadst been) "an invited guest," v. 41. 

- it may also be a synonym and be 
rendered "as though thou wert a 
boor or clown" (ST.) v. 41. 

Mafrukah (an improvement upon the 
Fatirah) a favourite dish with the 
Badawi (ST.) v. 349. 

Mafyaat, Al- (Arab.) = lit. "a shady 
place " (tr. here " mysterious subjects ") 
iv. 14. 

Magharah = a cave, a souterrain, iii. 15. 

Maghbun usually = deceived, cajoled, v. 

Maghribi (vulg. Maghrabi) iv. 43. 

, the Magician (in classical Arabic 
" Maghribi = a dweller in the Sunset- 
land ") iii. 53. 

Maghrib = set of sun, v. 151. 

Mahashim (ace. to Bocthor, is a pi. with- 
out a singular, meaning les parties de 
la ge*ne*ration ") (ST.) v. 359. 

Mahashima-k = good works, merits (in a 
secondary sense, beard, mustachios) 
tr. here "yard," v. 359. 

Mahazzin (for Mahazim) al Zerdukkaut 
(for al-Zardakhan) according to Scott 
" Saffron yoke of eggs, etc. ; accord- 
ing to Lane ' ' apron napkins of thick 
silk" (tr. here "silken napkins") iv. 

Mahdi (A1-) Third Abbaside (A.D. 775- 

785) i. 165. 
Mah-i-Khudai = the sovereign moon, iii. 

269. - 
Mahkamah, i.e., the Kazi's Court-house, 

iv. 169. 

(Place of Judgment) or Kazi's Court 

at Cairo, mostly occupied with matri- 
monial disputes, v. 363. 

Mahma = as often as = KulJu ma, vi. 54. 



Supplemental Nights. 

"Mahruud the Persian and the Kurd 
Sharper," a poor version of "AH the 
Persian and the Kurd Sharper," iv. 242, 

Mahr = marriage settlement, i. 283. 

= dowry, settled by the husband 
upon the wife, v. 28. 

Ma'hud min ghayr Wa'd, Al- (Arab.") ="the 
door where the appointment had taken 
place without risk thieatened,"iv. 66. 

Maidenhead, taking it held to be porter's 
work, iv. 57. Decency compels maid- 
ens to show unwillingness in parting 
with, iv. 135. 

Mail-coat Davidian (Heron, "A massy 
cuirass of Haoudi ") vi. 242. 

Majlis garm karnd = to give some life to 
the company (tr. '" to warm them into 
talk ") iii. 535. 

Majniin = "A madman," ii. 22. 

Ma'jun (Arab.) pop. applied to an elec- 
tuary of Bhang (Cannabis sativa) (tr. 
" confections ") iv. 56. 

Majiir Al- (Arab.) for "Maajur" = a 
vessel, an utensil, v. 291. 

Maka*n mahjub = a retired room, i. ii. 

Makhzum = nose pierced, i. 47. 

Making a picture (or statue), which artist 
cannot quicken, a process demanded 
on Doomsday, ii. 194. 

Makrdn, the well -known Baloch province 
West of Sind, i. 335. 

Makmh = blameable, not actually damn- 
able, ii. 46. 

Mai = wealth, i. 47. 

= flocks and herbs (in Badawi par- 
lance) iv. 3. 

(in text), tr. "coin" (also applied to 
" hidden treasure " amongst Badawin) 
v. 313- 

wa Ghawdl (Arab.) = moneys and 
treasures, iv. 3. 

i waNawsil," iv. 3. 

Malay Aigla *= Sandal wood -(tr. Eagle- 
wood) iii. 20. 

M*Kk Shah = King (Arab.) King (Per- 
sian) i. 131. 

(King), a title loosely applied in 

Arabic, ii. 191. 

Mallah (A1-) = the salting ground, ii. 54. 

Malumah (Arab.) = far-famed (may also 
mean " made known " or " afore-men- 
tioned ") iv. 276. 

Mameluke (like unto a), i.t. t well-fed, 
sturdy, bonny, v. 472. 

Beys (dignity forbidding them to 

walk even the length of a carpet) iii. 

Mamrak, or small dome built over pavi- 
lions (also Pers. " Bddhan") ii. 82, 

= dome-shaped skylight, ii. 39. 
Ma 'murah (Arab.} = haunted, v. 118. 
Man metamorphosed into a woman, vi. 


ofAl-kays, the (pre-Islamitic poet) 

v. 181. 

with El, or God = Israel, vi. IOO. 

Manetho's account of Moses, vi. 112. 
"Mandfi" (kerchief) of mercy, iv. 31. 

(kerchief) used by women "on the 
loose" in default of water to wipe 
away results of car. cop., v. 94. 

Manjanik (Arab.) from the Greek Mayya 

VQV or Myxavrj = a catapult, iv. 

Mankalah, a favourite game in Egypt, iii. 


Manna"' = a refuser, a forbidder, v. 185. 
Mansiirah (A1-) = opinions differ as to 

the site of, i. 341. 
Ma'rafah (A1-) = the place where the 

mane grows (tr. "crest") i. 298. 
Marhum (A1-) = my late brother (tr. " my 

brother who hath found mercy") iii. 

Mdristan = Mad house, i. 18. 

= The Bedlam, iv. 207. 

Mariyah (Maria, Mary) a non-Moslem 

name, ii. 194. 
Marj = the open grassy space on left 

bank of Baradah (Damascus) River, vi. 

Sali = cleft meadow (here and beipw^ 

to " Green Meadow," ii. 227. 
Marjanah = the " Coralline " (from Mar- 

jan = red coral), tr. "Morgiana," iii. 

"Marham al-akbar, Al- " (Arab.) B the 

greater salve, v. 51. 
Markab mausukah (from tf "Wask"sr 

conceiving, being pregnant) v. 474* 
... tr. "a vessel in cargo (and about to 

set sail)," v. 474. 
Market (Central) = the great Bazar, tt\e 

Indian " Chnuk," iii. 422. 



Marmar Sumaki (Arab.} = porphyry of 
which ancient Egypt supplied finest 
specimens (tr. "Sumaki marble ") iii. 

Marocco earliest occurrence of name, 

ii. 252. 

Marriages (Morganatic) iii. 33, 
Marriage portion, v. 28. 
''Marrying below one," i. 94. 
4< Martabah" = a mattress, placed upon 

"Mastabah" (bench) or upon its 

"Sam" (framework of jarid or 

midribs of the palm) becomes the 

" Diwan" = Divan, v. 68. 
Martaban, iv. 204. See Bartaman, iv. 

Martabat Saltanah (for " Sultaniyah ") 

which may mean a royal Divan, v. 68. 
Martha and Mary (Fatimah and Halimah) 

v. 318. 
Marwazi = Marw (derived from Sansk. 

Maru or Marw) i. 288. 
Marzban = guardian of the Marches, i. 


Masalah . a question (tr. " catch-ques- 
tion ") i. 138. 
Masarat fi-ha = and she used hard words 

to her, i. 31. 

Masbubah, tr. " Cakes," v. 347. 
Mas'h, tr. "robe" (of hair) vi. 157. 
Masha' iii (Arab.} the -cresset-bearer, who 

acted hangman (tr. "Linkman") iv. 
. 23. 
41 Masha'ih'yah jaftawat wa fanusin " = 

" (cresset) bearers of double torches 

and lanterns " (ST.) vi. 67. 
Mashali= three parallel gashes drawn down 

cheek of child (to prevent kidnapping) 

iv. 153. 
Mashrut Shadak (Arab.) = split-mouthed, 

iv. 91. 
Maslakh = stripping room (also Kd'ah) 

iii. 133. 
Massage (Greek synonym ju,ao~oxo an( l 

Latin " Massare ") iv. 177. 
needlessly derived from Arab. 

" Mas'h " = rubbing, kneading, iv. 177. 
Massa-hu'l Fakr poverty touched him, 

vi. 105. 
Masser,vulg. for Misr, Egypt Grand Cairo ; 

from Misraim, Son of Cham, vi. 25. 
Masturah= veiled (tr. '* curtained "^,309. 

Matamor (Arab. " Matmurah ") = Sar. 

dabah, a silo for storing grain, etc., 

vi. 17. 

Mataya Al- = Wight, vi. 162. 
Matmurah = a silo, matamor, or " under- 
ground cell," i. 84 
Maugraby used as an opprobrious term (Fr. 

MaugrebUu) iv. 43. 

Maunds (fifty) = about 100 Ibs., i. 250. 
Maut Ahmar = violent or bloody death 

(tr. "red death") ii. n. 
Mauza' (Arab.) = a place, an apartment, a 

saloon (heretr. " hall") iii. 71, 
Ma'uzatani = The two Preventives (two 

chapters from the Koran) ii. 101. 
Mawalid (//. of Maulid) = lit. " nativity 

festivals," (here " funeral ceremonies ") 

ii. 187. 
Mawazi (//. of Mauz') = lit. places, shifts 

(tr. "positions") ii. 112. 
May God never requite thee for me with 

good (*.*., Damn your soul for leading 

me into this danger) ii. 39. 
- I not be bereft of these steps = may 

thy visits never fail me, ii. no. 
" it be fortunate to thee," a little pre- 
catory formula to keep off the Evil 

Eye, iv. 119. 
Maydan = plain, iii. 145. 
Mayzah (Arab.) = the large hall with a 

.central fountain for ablution attached 

to every great mosque (tr. "lavatory") 

v. 458. 
Mayzar (Pers.) = a turband j in Arab, 

" Miizar " = a girdle, a waistcloth, vi. 

Mazarat (Arab.) from \/ "Mazr" = (an 

egg) being addled (tr. qualms) iv. 177. 
Mazbuh = slaughtered for good, v. 159. 
Mazlum (A1-) = the wronged, vi. 59. 
Mazrab Al- = the care of the place, vi. 


Meccah and Al-Medinah = The two Sanc- 
tuaries, ii. 220. 
Medicine- man (Israelite) always a favourite 

amongst Moslems and Christians, v. 

Medinah (A1-), whose title is " Al-Munaw- 

warah" = the Illumined, iii. 58. 
Merchants wear dagger and sword, ii. 38. 
Mesmerism ("impose her hand upon hit 

bead'.') iii 189. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Mesopotamia (Heb. Naharaym, Arab. Al- 
Jazirah) iii. 269. 

Met (Stndi) = a kind of clay, iii. 348. 

Mezzfzah = applying styptics to the wound 
(third operation of circumcision), v. 217. 

Miat Mamluk Kitab (Arab.) latter word 
meaning " one of the Book, a Jew " or 
Christian, iv. 85. 

Miat wa arba'at 'ashar Surat = the 114 
chapters of the Alcoran, i. 147- 

Midi, clerical error for " Mayyidf," an ab- 
breviation of Muayyadf -- quarter far- 
thing, iv. 127. 

Miftah (prop. "Miftah") = key used 
throughout the Moslem East, v. 265. 

MihafiTah bi-takhtrawan (Arab.}- a covered 
litter, iii. 33. 

Mihrjin (A1-) = the Autumnal Equinox, 
i. 129. 

Al- (a P.N. not to be confounded 

with Maharaj = Great Rajah) v. 123. 

Mihtdr, also may mean superintendent, 
head equerry, chief of military band 
(ST.) (here tr. "Shaykh of the 
Pipers ") v. 298. 

(in text) = a prince, a sweeper, a 

scavenger, v. 298. 

Miizar (Arab.) = a girdle, a waistcloth, 

vi. S3- 

"Mik ! Mik !" an onomatopy like " Coui'c, 
Coui'c," vi. 158. 

Mikshat (Arab.) whose \/ would be 
"Kasht" = skinning a camel (tr. 
" Whittle" ) iv. 100. 

Milah (pleasant) for Mubdh (permitted), 
iii. 38. 

Milah = the cut (first operation of circum- 
cision) v. 217. 

Milayah = a sheet of cotton used as apparel, 
iv. 220. 

"Mi'lakat (pop. cor. for Mil'akat al- 
Hilal ") may be the spoon or hollow 
part of an ear- picker ST.) v. 108. 

Milk, specific gravity of, iv. 238. 

and dates, a favourite food, i. 59, 

time (father has no connection with 
the mother during) iv. 350. 

time was passed (two years) usual 
time amongst savages and barbarians, 
iv. 350. 

Mfn (who) for " Man," a Syro-Egyptian 
form common throughout the MS., iii. 14. 

4 Min al-'An wa sa'idan " lit. - from this 

moment upwards, vi. 189. 
al-Malabis (Arab.) pi. of" Malbas" = 

anything pleasant or enjoyable, iv. 149. 
al-Malabis (Arab.) pi. of "Milbas" 

= dress, garment, iv. 149. 
" ba'ada-hu (making Jesus of later dale 

than Imr al Kays) v. 199. 
ba'di an " for "Min ba'di ma" = 

after that, iii. 34. 
ghayr Wa'ad = without appointment 

(tr. "casually") v. 373. 
Min Hakk la-hu Asl an 'and-na" 

huna Rdjil," a thoroughly popular 

phrase = " Of a truth hath any right or 

reason to say that here in this house is 

a man ? " v. 247. 

(Dr. Steingass explains and trans- 
lates) v. 247. 
" kuddam-ak" (meaning doubtful), 

v. 113. 
perhaps it means " from before thee," 

i.e., in thy presence (ST.) v. in. 
Mind = a port, both in old Egypt, and 

mod. Pers., vi. 258. 
Mi'raj = ascent to heaven made by 

Apostle and return therefrom, etc. 

History of, vi. 12 1. 
Mirror, a compromising magical article of 

many kinds, iii. 23. 
Mirrors, made to open aad shut in the 

East, iii. 24. 
Mirwad = iron axle of pulley, etc. hence 

a bar of metal (tr. "ingot") iv. 142. 
Mirza Mohammed Husayn Khan, 

originally a Bakkdl (greengrocer) made 

premier of Fath Ali Shah's Court, vi. 

Misallah (/>/. "Misall") = a large needle 

for sewing canvas, iv. 288. 
Miskah = Bit o' Musk, i. 16. 
Miskal is the weight of a dinar = i^dirham 

= 7I-72 grains avoir., vi. 244. 
" Misla'l-Kalam " (? a cler. error for 

"misla '1-Kilab") = as the dogs do 

(ST.) v. 282. 
Kharuf (for "Kharuf") a common 

phrase for an innocent, a half idiot, 

v. 283. 
Misr=used in a threefold sense for Egypt, 

old Cairo and new Cairo, iii. 34. 
Misraim (the dual Misrs) vi. 12. 



'* Misri " here = local name (in India 
applied exclusively to sugar candy) 

v- 352- 
* Mithkala Zarratin " (translations by 

Author, Rodwell, Houdas and Stein- 

gass) v. 48. 
"Mizr" in Assyrian = Musur," in 

Heb. = " Misraim," in Arab. "Misr," 

corrupted to Masser, vi. 12. 
Mizwad (or Mizwdd) = lit. provision bag, 

ii. 222. 

Modesty in story of Alaeddin, iii. 148. 
Mohammed AH Pasha (" the Great ") 

Mohsin = /'.*., one who does good, a bene 

factor, v. 321. 

"Moormen," famed as Magicians, iii. 54. 
More cutting = more bewitching, ii. 143. 
Morier and the literal translation of the 

"Arabian Nights," iii. 191. 
Morning and evening^ day and night for 

ever, ii. 195. 
Moses (by name Osarsiph = Osiris-Sapi), 

history of by (Manetho) vi. 112. 
Moslem school described, iv. 98. 
Moslems all know how to pray, i. 13. 
bound to see True Believers buried, 

i. 289. 
make Wuzu-ablution and pray 

dawn-prayers before doing anything 

worldly, iii. 141. 
" shun a formal oath, i. 304. 
think the more you see of them the 

more you like them, ii. 208. 
Mother (all women resembled her) ; an 

absurd statement to the West but true 

in the East, iii. 97. 

the head of the household (Kabirah) 

vi. 83. 

" of Hospitality" is the Sikbaj 

(Pers. Sikba) = principal dish set 
before guests, vi. 159. 

of our Harim = my wife, v. 283. 

" of Strengthening " (meat pudding) 

vi. 159. 
! takes rank before the wife, according 

to Moslem fashion, iii. 301. 
" Mothers " the prime figures of geomancy, 

daughters being secondary, iii. 156. 
Mourning-dress, iv. 248. 
Mouse, passing over food, makes it impure 

ior a religious Moslem to eat, v. 239. 

Moyah (in text), or as Fellah of Egypt 
says "Mayyeh," or the Cairenne 
" Mayya" and other forms, v. 323. 
" Muabalat min shaani-ka " = (From early 

dawn) I have wearied myself, vi. 178. 
Muaddib al-Atfal (Arab.') - one who 

teacheth children, iv. 95. 
Muajjalah = money paid down before con- 
summation (=-^25) ii. 141. 
Mu'ajjalah = coin paid contingent on 

divorce (=about ^75) ii. 141. 
Mu'ammarjiyah (master masons) vulg. 
Egypt, for "Mu'ammarin" (tr. 
"architects"), iv. 228. 
Mu* arris = pander, i. 206. 
Mu'awizzatani (A1-) " Two Refuge 

takings," iv. 252. 

Mubdh = an action not sinful (hardm) or 
quasi-sinful (maknih) (tr. "lawfully") 
ii. 12. 
Mubarak = The blessed or well omened, 

iii. 13. 

Mubarbasah (Arab.} in the fern, because re- 
ferring to noun Tiz=anus (ST.) iv. 291. 
Mubattat (Arab.} from batt = a duck (tr. 

" duck-shaped ") iv. 27. 
Mudawi Al- = the man of the people who 
deals in simples, etc. (as opposed to 
scientific practitioner) v. 326. 
Mubdi' = the beginner, the originator, 

v. 196. 

Mubtali Al = sore (leprous), v. 301. 
Muhandisin = geometricians, architects, 

for Muhandisin," iv. 228. 
Muhat takdat= usually "with torn veils," 
metaphor meaning in disgrace (tr. 
"unveiled") ii. 46. 

Muhibbattu (A1-), fern, or "Muhibb" 
lover (in Tasawwuf particularly =r 
" lover of God ") (ST.) v. 393. 
Muhjat al-kulub = " Core " or "Life- 

blood of hearts," v. 201. 
" Muhkaman," a word never found in the 

Koran, v. 47. 

Mu'in al-Din=" Aider of the Faith," ii. 5. 

Mu'izz bi-Dmi' llah, Al- (first Fatimite 

Caliph raised to the throne of Egypt), 

tale of, v. 43. 

Mukabalah, the third form of " Kabil " 

= requital, retaliation (ST.) vi. 55. 
Mukabbab (Arab.) = vaulted, arched, &c, 
(tr. htrt " heaped ") iv. 9. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Mukaddam = Captain, ii. 7. 

(Anglo- Indid " Muccuddum '"') = 

overseer, v. 310. 
Mukattaf al-Yadayn = arms crossed behind 

his back (a servile posture) iii. 16. 
*' Mukawwamina (A1-) wa Arbabu'l 

Aklam," the latter usually meaning 

" scribes skilled in the arts of cali- 

graphy," v. 374. 
Mukh, lit. brair, marrow (tr. 

"dimple") v. 86. 
Mukhaddarat = maidens concealed behind 

curtains and veiled in the Harem, ii. 

Mukrif = lit. born of a slave father and 

free mother (tr. "blamed lad,") vi. 


Mulberry-tree in Italy bears leaves till the 
end of October, and the foliage is as 

bright as spring verdure, vi. 7. 
Mulukhfya" (der. from Gr. /xaXcx^ from 

/btaAacrcro) = to soften) a favorite 

vegetable, iv. 176. 

Mulukhiyah n^shiyah (Arab.) lit. = flow- 
ing (tr. "gravied mallows ") iv. 176. 
Munafik (Arab.) = " an. infidel who pre- 

tendeth to believe in Al-Islam" (tr. 

"hypocrite") iii. 83. 
Munajjim = Astrologer (authority in 

Egyptian townlets) i. 66. 
Munawwarah (Al-) = the Illumined (title 

given to Al-Medinah) iii. 58. 
(Al-) = the enlightened, v. 43. 
Munfr= " The brilliant," the enlightened, 

ii. 100. 
Munkati'ah = ///. "cut off" (from the 

weal of the world)/;-, "defenceless," 

Miinkar and Nakfr, the Interrogating 

Angels, i. 294. 
Munnaskif (for manashif) al fillfillee; 

according to Scott "compound of 

peppers" red, white and black;" 

according to Lane and tr. here drying 

towels of Lif or palm-fibre, iv. 56. 
'Murafraf (passive) from Rafraf = anything 

overhanging something else (ST.) iv. 

Murakhkhim = a marble cutter = simply 

a stone-mason, vi. 60. 
Muruwwah ///. = manliness, i. 303. 
Musi (Moses), vi. 112. 

Musa wa Miizi = Musa the Malignant 
(Muzi = vexatious, troublesome) v. 321. 

(Dr. Steingass reads Muusi, the 

malignant, the malefactor) v. 321. 

Musafahah = palm (of the hand) ii. 225. 
Musajja' (A rat>.) = rhymed prose or Saj'a, 

iv. 133- 

Musalla = Prayer-place, i. 313. 
Musawwadatayn (Arab.) = lit. two black 

things, rough copies, etc. (tr. 

" affright ") iii. 87. 

Mushayyadat, tr. " high-builded," iii. 66. 
Musician, also a pederast, i. 209. 
Musika (Arab.) classically " Musikf, = 

MOVC-JK^, Pert. Musikar = Music, iii* 


Muslimlna, the inflect, plur. of " Muslim" 
= a True Believer, v. 367. 

Mustafa = the chosen Prophet, Moham- 
med, v. 203. 

bin Ism'ail (began life as apprentice 

to a barber and rose to high dignity) v. 

1 10. 

Mustanda= strong box, ii. 9. 
Mustapha, iii. 53. 

Mustarah (A1-) = Chapel of Ease (a' 
favourite haunting-place of the Jinn), 
ii. 85. 

Musulman (our "Mussalman," too often 
made pi. by " Mussalmen ") is cor- 
rupted Arab, used in Persia, Turkey, 
etc., v. 367. 

Mutahattil (A1-) usually = one who for- 
sakes the world (tr. "oyster") i. 

Mutahaddisfn=novi homines, upstarts (tr. 
" of the number of the new") ii. 82. 

Mutalammis (" Jarir bin 'Abd al-Masih") 
a poet of "The Ignorance," vi. 94. 

" Mutalaththimin " = races in North 
Africa whose males wear the face* 
swathe (" Litham ") of cloth, v. 139. 

" Mutasa'lik " for " Moutasa'lik = like a 
Sa'liik" = lean of limb, vi. 122. 

Mutati bi zahri-h (A ral>.) = " hanging an 
arse," v. 459. 

Mutawalli = Prefect (of Police) ii. 30. 

MutawassI . . . al-Wisayat al-tammah 
(Wisayat is corr. noun) = he charged 
himself with her complete charge, i.c. t 
maintenance (Sx.) v. 474. 

Mu'tazid bi 'llah A1-, Caliph, vi. 124. 



Mut'ah = temporary and extempore mar 
riage, the Pers. Si'ghah, iii. 33. 

Muwaswas (A1-) = Melancholist, i. 264. 

Muzawwaj = married, vi. 170. 

Muzfir (Al-) = the Twister, ii. 95. 

Mysteries of Marriage-night but lightlj 
touched on, because the bride had losi 
her virginity, v. 417. 

NAAKHAZ bi-lissati-him (in text), tr 
" until I catch them in their robbery ' 
(see under "Luss ") v. 337. 

: (Dr. Steingass reads " Balsata- 

hum "= until I have received their 
"ransom") v. 337. 
Na'sh = a box like our coffin, 'but open 

at the top, iv. 289. 
Nabbut (Egyptian and Syrian weapon), 

iii. 482. 

' = a quarter-staff, opp. to the " Dab- 
bus " or club-stick of the Badawin, 
etc., v. 250. 

Kabft, son of "Ashur," vi. 3. 
Nabfz = date- wine (or grape-wine) i. 160. 
Nabk = lote tree or Zizyphus lotus, for 

sprinkling corpses, iv. 257. 
Nablus = Samaria, iii. 271. 
INa'da'n (Arab.} = the " unknowing " (as 
opp. toNaudan, the equiv. of Pers. 
"New of knowledge ") vi. n. 
Nad an (in Assyrian story) = Nathan Kin 
of the people of Pukudu, vi. 3. 

; , The Fool, vi. 3. 

Na'da'n (Pers.} = fool, vi. 3. 

Nadb = brandishing or throwing the 

javelin, iii. 154. 

Nadd, a compound perfume, it. 108. 
Naddabah= public wailing-woman, vi. 17. 
Nafas ///.= breath (tr. " air ") i. 124. 
Nafishah = Pers. "Nafah" der. from the 
V "naf" = belly or navel (the 
part in the musk-deer supposed to 
store the perfume) v. 207. 
Nagus = a pear, vi. 160. 
Naharaym (Heb.} - Mesopotamia, iii. 269. 
Nahawand, "NahaVand" the site in Al- 
Irak where the Persians sustained their 
final defeat at the hands of the Arabs 
(A.H. 21) v. 209. 

also one of many musical measures 
(like the Ispahani, the Rasti, etc.) v. 

Nahnu = we (for I) ii. 28. 

"Nahs" = something more than ill- 
omened, something nasty, foul, un- 
canny, vi. 71. 

Nahu (from j/ "Nauh") = making cere- 
monious "Keening" for the dead, vi. 

Naihah = the praefica or myriologist, ii. 

Na'fm = "the Delight" (also a P. N. of 
one of the Heavens) v. 199. 

Nairn (A1-) wa al-Yakzdn = The Sleeper 
and the Waker, i. i. 

Na'iman = may it be pleasurable to thee 
(said by barber after operation) v. 106. 

Najmat al-Sabah = constellation of Morn, 
vi. 173. 

Nakah = She-dromedary, i. 315. 

Nakair al- (pi. of Nakir = a dinghy, a 
dug-out) tr. "canoes," vi. 258. 

" Naked intercessor" (one who cannot be 
withstood) ii. 83. 

Nakdi = the actual dowry as opposed to 
the contingent dowry, vi. 43. 

Nakhing = making the camels kneel, iii. 


Nakka"!, or coffee-house tale-teller, iv. 235. 
Nakl (Arab.) = copying, describing, tran- 
scribing, iv. 193. 
"Nakshat" and "Sifrat," tr. Coin and 

Gold, iii. 29. 

Nakus, or the Gong = Bell, vi. 100. 
Name, not appearing in unedited tales, till 

much after the proper time for specifying 

it, iv. 299. 
Names for clouds, rain, etc., in Arab. 

well nigh innumerable, vi. 241. 
"Na'mil ma'allazf, etc., makidah," idiom 

"I will do him brown," iv. 282. 
Nard = table, iii. 180. 
Nardashir (Nard Ardashfr?) iii. 180. 
Nds malmumin = assembled men, a crowd 

of people (ST.) v. 253. 
Nasfm = the Zephyr, or the cool north 

breeze of Upper Arabia, v. 197. 
Nasrin = moss-rose, ii. 115. 
Nassafa = libavit, delibavit, etc. (ST.) v. 


fcatar (watching) for "Nataf" (indi- 
gestion, disgust) v. 63. 
Natawa^su sawfyah = Solace ourselves with 

onverse, v. 395. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Natawasu sawi'yah (cler. error for " Nata- 
wzinasu Shuwayyah" = "let us divert 
ourselves a little") (ST.) v. 395. 

Na'tdzu (Arab.} viii. form of 'aza = it 
escaped, lacked, &c. j hence this form 
" we need " tr. "we require " (ST.) iv. 

Na"tur (Arab) pro. a watchman (tr. " old 
man") iv. 204. 

Al- = the Keeper, esp. of a vine- 
yard, vi. 57. 

Naubah, lit. = a period, keeping guard 
(here a band of pipes and drums play- 
ing at certain periods) v. 299. 

Naudan (Arab.} equiy. to the Pers. " New 
ofknowlege" as opp. to " Naddn " 
the " unknowing," vi. II. 

Navel string, treatment of, v. 411. 

Nawus = Tower of Silence, i. 264. 

Nawwab (pi. of Naib) = a Nabob (tr. lit. 
"deputies") ii. 8. 

Nayizati (Arab, afterwards "Nuwayzati" 
and lastly " Rayhani ") = a man who 
vends sweet and savoury herbs (tr, 
"Herbalist"), v.298. 

Naynawah, *.*., " Fish-town " or " town 
of Nin ' ' = Ninus the founder, vi. 3. 

; - in mod. days the name of a port on 
east bank of Tigris, vi. 3. 

or " town of Nin " = Ninus, the 

founder, vi. 3. 

Naysan, the Syro-solar month = April, vi. 

Nazaranah prop. the gift (or gifts 
offered by Moslem noble to his feudal 
superior) iii. 486. 

Nazilah = descent (of calamity), ii. 176. 

Nazir al-Mawaris=" Inspector of Inheri- 
tances," ii. 286. 

Na"z o andaz (Pers.) = coquetry in a half- 
honest sense (tr. " amorous liveliness "), 
iii. 285. 

Nazuk, prob. a corr. of Pers. " Nazuk " = 
adj. = delicate, nice, vi. 67. 

Nazur = one who looks intently, for Nazir, 
a looker, vi. 18. 

Necklace-pearls are the cup-bearer's teeth, 
ii. 253. 

"Necks" per synecdochen for heads, 1.47. 

Negative emphatic in Arabic, i. 206. 

Kegemet-il-Souper (Heron) = Najmat al- 
Sabah = constellation of morn, vi. 173. 

Negroids dreaded by Hindus, iii. 276. 
Never may neighbour defy thee, etc. (May 
thy dwelling-place never fall into ruin), 

i. 15- 
11 New lamps for old " as in " Alaeddin," 

iv. 322. 
Ni'am = Yes (an exception to the Abbg 

Sicard's rule), ii. 19. 
Night beset his back = darkened behind 

him, ii. 197. 
Nika (or sand hill) = the swell of the 

throat, ii. 252. 

Nil (=the high Nile), iv. 215. 
Nim = Persian Lilac (Melia Azadirachta) 

used as preventative to poison, i. 64. 
Nimak-haram, tr. "a traitor to the salt," 

iii. 286. 
Nim-chihreh (Pers.) = Half-man (Arab. 

"Shikk"), iv. 76. 

Nfmshah=half sword or dagger, i. 14. 
Nisf ra'as sukkar Misri, tr. "half a loaf of 

Egyptian sugar," v. 352. 
Nishabur (Arab form of Nayshapur= reeds 

of (King) Shapur), i. 270. 
Nisrfn, , .n island, prob. fabulous, where 

amber abounds, vi. 12. 
" Niyat " (or intention) not pure, cause of 

King's failure, v. ill. 
Niyyah (A rab.) intent (normal pun upon 

the name), iv. 339. 
Nizdl = dismounting to fight on foot, vi. 

" None misses a slice from a cut loaf," v. 


Nose (large in a woman indicating a mas- 
culine nature), i. 345. 

"No thing poketh and stroketh more 
strenuously than the Gird," or hideous 
Abyssinian Cynocephalus, popular 
Eastern belief, iv. 333. 

Nukl-i-Pishkil = goat-dung bonbons, i. 

Nun al-taakid = the N. of injunction, ii. 23. 

Nur al-Nihar = Light of the Day, iii. 419. 

Nur Jehan (Pers.) = "Light of the 
World," iii. 473. 

Nusf-half a dirham, drachma or franc, iv. 

Nusfs= Halves (i.e. t ofdirhams), i. 300. 

(180 in these days = about lod.), iv. 98. 

Nu'uman (A1-), King of the Arab kingdom 

of Hirah, i. 170. 



Nuwab (broken plur. of "Naubah,") the 
Anglo-Indian Nowbut (tr. " Drums"), 
i. 324. 

Nuwajiru '1-wukufat = Settlement of be- 
queathal, v. 467. 

(Steingass reads " nuwajiru " (for 
"nuajiru") '1-wakufat" and translates 
''letting for hire such parts of my pro- 
perty as were inalienable" (ST.), v. 

Nuzhat al-Fuad = " Delight of the 
Vitals " (or heart), i. 25. 

al-Zaman = "Delight of the age," 

v. 180. 

Nuzhat-i=pleasance, ii. 45. 

"O man, O miserablest of men, O thou 

disappointed," etc., characteristic 

words of abuse, v. 359. 
O my son ! O my Child ! (repetition a 

sign of kindness and friendliness) iv. 

O my uncle (to elder man) : O my cousin J 

(to youth) iv. 119. 

O rider of tlie jar, z.e., a witch, vi. 76. 
[O thousand-horned (thousandfold cuckold) 

i. 247. 
O vile of birth (Asl) a man's origin being 

held to influence his conduct through- 
out life, i. 62. 
i'*O Woman," popular form of address, 

iii. 108. 
[O worshipper of Allah," /.*., "O 

Moslem, opposed to enemy of Allah " 

= a non-Moslem, v. 460. 
Oarsman stands to his work in the East, 

iii. 25. 

Oath of triple divorce irrevocable, i. 246. 
Obedience to children common in Eastern 

folk-lore, vi. 90. 

Ober- Ammergau " Miracle play," i. 250. 
:Objects (better kept hidden) seen with 

naked eye. by telescope (vulgar belief) 

iii. 438. 
Ocular testimony demanded by Moslem 

law, ii. 17. 
' Of which a 'description will follow in it 

place," a regular formula of the Rawf, 

or professional reciter, v. 131. 
Og bin ' Unk (= Og of the Neck), the fabled 

King of Bashan, iii. 19. 

Oil, anointing with for incipient consump- 
tion, ii. 75. 
" Old lamps for new lamps who will 

exchange?" iii. 159. 
'Oman, name of the capital of Eastern 

Arabia, vi. 139. 
Omar 'Adi bin Artah, i. 39. 
bin Abd al-Aziz = the good Caliph, 

i- 39- 
ibn Abi Rabi'ah, the Korashi (i.e. ol 

the Koraysh tribe) i. 41. 
Ommiades, Cathedral Mosque of, one of 

the wonders of the Moslem world, vi. 


Onager, the Gur-i-Khar of Persia, iii. 282.. 
(wild ass) confounded with Zebra, iii. 

"One day of the days," a phrase 

emphasising the assertion that it was 

a chance day, iv. 75. 
Only son has a voice in the disposal of his 

sister, vi. 83, 
"On my shop" = bit of boarding where 

the master sits, or on a stool in the 

street, ii. 281. 
" Open the spittle " = to break the fast, v. 


Original sin, vi. 247. 
Orisons = the prayers of the last day and 

night, ii. 94. 

Osarsiph=Osiris-Sapi (Moses) vi. 112. 
" Otbah hath a colic," vi. 77. 
u Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings, 

&c.," an idea not less Moslem than 

Christian, iv. 271. 

Pd-anda"z = carpets and costly cloths, 
(spread between Baghdad and Meccab 
for Harun al-Rashid) iii. 177. 

= cloth to tread upon, vi. 259. 

(Pers.) = a carpet made of costly 

stuffs a perquisite of royal attendants, 
iii. 141. 

Padding introduced to fill up the " night," 

v. 460. 

Paggf = Tracker, iv. 8. 
Palace between two rivers = the Nilotic- 

Rauzah -island, ii. 281. 

not the place for a religious and 

scrupulous woman, ii. 229. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Papal bulls and Kings' letters (in Mediaeval 

Europe) were placed for respect on the 

head, iii. 89. 

Parasang (Gr. Trapdo-dyyqs) , iii. 456. 
Parks on the Coasts of Tropical Seas, i. 

Part and parts = more or less thoroughly, 

ii. 152. 
Parturition and death compared with both 

processes in the temperates of Europe, 

ii. 23. 
Pafwez, older pronunciation of the mod. 

(Khusrau) "Parvfz," iii. 502. 
Pashkhanah = a mosquito-curtain, iii. 121. 
Pay-day for boys in Egypt (Thursday) iv, 

Payne quoted, i. I, 8, n, 34, 56, 134, 165, 

209, 222, 238, 278, 286, 288, 289, 306, 

311, 3, 322, 327 338, 344- J 28, 

54, 67, 73. 85, .no, 112, 154, 191, M; 

200, 227, 231, 238, 251, 263, 267, 275, 

281 ; iv. 332. ; v. 55, 69. 
Paysa* (pice) = two farthings and in 

-weight = i an oz., iii. 352. 
Pear-tree, not found in Badawi land, v. 


Penalty inflicted to ensure obedience, iii. 


Pennyroyal (here mere " shot " ; the orig. 
has " Baithardn ") v. 458. 

Perceval. C. de, quoted, vi. 89, 

Peri-Banu (The Fairy) iii. 419. 

(Pad) in its modern form has a super- 
ficial resemblance to " Fairy," iii. 

Peris, iii. 419. 

Perfzddah = Fairy-born, iii. 502. 

Perjury easily expiated amongst Moslems, 
ii. 38. 

Perspired in her petticoat trowsers (a 
physical sign of delight in beauty, 
usually attributed to old women) v. 

Pertinence (in couplets) not a sine qu& non 
amongst Arabs, v. 135. 

Phantasms from the Divine presence of 
'AH 'Aziz Efendi, the Cretan, iii. 

Pharaoh (of Hebrew Scriptures) has be- 
come with the Arabs IC Fir'aun," the 
dynastic name of Egyptian kings, vi. 


Pharos of Alexandria, one of the four 

Wonders of the Moslem world, iv. 


Philomelet, The shrilling, iv. 245. 
Physiognomist, a favourite character in 

Arabic folk-lore, iv. 107. 
" Physiognomy (' Firasah ') unless there 

be the science of, other science availeth 

not," iv. 10. 
Piastre (Egyptian) = one-fifth of a shilling, 

iv. 72. 
Pictures of faces whose eyes seem to follow 

beholders, iii. 427. 
Pigeon blood, used to resemble the results 

of a bursten hymen, v. 29. 
Pilaff (Turco-English form of Persian 

Pulao) iii. 326. 
Pilgrimage quoted, i. 285, 337, 228, 207, 

205, 42, 165, 194; ii. 20, 71, 281, 54, 

152, 9 63, 220, #., 222, 59, 22, 51. ; 

iii. 314, 330, 405, 406 ; iv. 35, 38, 153. 

196, 208, 343. ; v. 43, 180, 214. ; vi. 

9. 83, 99, 104, 105, 131, 174. 
Pilgrims settle in the two Holy Places, 

iii. 406. 

Pfr = saint, spiritual guide, iil 8. 
Pfrozah = turquoise (Arab, form Ffruzah) 

iii. 270. 
"Pfsh-namaz" (Pers ) = fore -prayer, iii. 


Pit = grave, i. 88. 
" Plied him with wine,'* a favourite habit 

with mediaeval Arabs, ii. 50. 
Poetry (Persian) often alludes to the rose, 

etc.,ii. 99. 

" Pointing the moral," iii. 265. 
Police (Eastern) ii. 6. 
Porphyry quarries in Middle Egypt, redis- 
covery of, vi. 60. 
Practical joking, a dangerous form of fun, 

as much affected by Egyptians as 

Hibernians, v. 455. 
" Prayer of Moses, the man of God," 

vi. 103. 
Prayers at burial, beginning with four 

"Takbfrs,'M. 290. 
for the dead recited over bier, iii. 

, whilst at, the Moslem cannot be 

spoken to, i. 197. 
Precious stones, Arab superstitions con 

cerning, v. 130. 



Precocious children, iii. 416. 

Pretext for murdering an enemy to his 
faith (Jewish) an idea prevalent in 
Eastern world utterly wrong, v. 

" Pretty Fanny's ways " amongst Moslems, 

v.s s . 

Priah = tearing the foreskin (second 
operation of circumcision) v. 217. 

Primitive attire of Easterns in hot climate, 
iii. 20. 

Prince, petty Indian, preceded in state 
processions by led horses whose saddles 
are studded with diamonds, iii. 134. 

Prison had seven doors (to indicate its 
formidable strength) v. 233. 

Prisoners expected to feed themselves in 
Moslem lands, v. 338, 

Professional dancer, *.<?., a public pros- 
titute, iv. 29. 

singers, become freed women, turned 

out " respectable," ii. 254. 

Prothesis without apodosis, figure, iv. 29. 

Public gaol = here the Head Policeman's 
house. In mod. times it is part of the 
wall in Governor's palace, v. 337. 

Pummel of the saddle, ii. 85. 

Punishment by flogging, vi. 9. 

Purse = Kis = $00 piastres = 5, iv. 
' 74- 

Purses, one thousand compose the Treasury 
( Khaznah") = 5>ooo, iv. 74. 

Puzzling questions and clever replies, a 
favourite exercise in the East, vi. 97. 

QUARTERS, containing rooms in which girls 

are sold, ii. 71. 
Queen Shu'a'ah = Queen Sunbeam, ii. 

" Quench that fire for him " (i.e. hush up 

the matter) ii. 15. 
" Quicker to slay than Amrii bin Kulsum " 

(Proverb) vi. 94. 

RAAS GHANAM = a head of sheep (form 
of expressing singularity common to 
Arabic) ii. 207. 

Sukkar = Loaf sugar, v. 352. 

Raba'= lit. spring quarters (lr " a lodging 
house ") ii. 19. 

Rabi'a vi. 245. 

Rabite (steed of purest) = an Arab of 

noble strain, iii. 287. 
Radah (a form of " Radih ") = " the large 

hipped," v. 198. 
Radif or back-rider, common in Arabia, v. 


Radih, aP.N. (ST.) v. 161. 
"Rafa al-Bashkhanah" = he raised a 

hanging, a curtain (tr. "the arras") 

iii. 121. 
Rafaka (and "Zafaka") = took their 

pleasure, v. 282. 

Rabib = monk or lion (tr. " God-fear- 
ing ") vi. 155. 
Rahil = Rachel, iii. 355. 
Rahilah = a riding camel, i. 315. 
" Rahiim " for " Rahim " (Doric form) = 

compassionate, vi. 18. 
Rahwan (cor. of Rahban) = one who keeps 

the (right) way, i. 191. 
"Ra'ih fayn" = wending (art thu) 

whither ? iv. 207. 
Rdih yasir (Arab.} = about to, become 

(peasant's language) iii. 131. 
Rain and bounty are synonymous, i. 43. 
Ra'Is (fern. Ra'lsah) the captain, the 

skipper (not the owner iv. 125., v. 


Raisins, an efficacious "pick-me-up," r. 


Rajah of Baroda, iii. 134. 
Rajul ikhtiyar, tr. 4< a man of a certain 

age" (polite term for old man) T. 

Ja'fdf = Larrikin, iv 280. 

Khuzari (Arab.} = a green-meat 
man (tr. "costermonger") v. 291. 

Khwaja = Gentleman, v. 254. 
"Rakiba-ha"; the technical term for 

demoniac possession, v. 326. 
Ram's mutton preferred in wilder tribes o( 

the East, because it gives the teeth 

more to do, v. 299. 

Ramaha bi-h = bolted with him, v. 382. 
Rankah or " Ranakah " prob. for 

"Raunakah," which usually means 

"troubled" (speaking of water) (ST.) 

v. 66. 

Rape, i. 311. 
Rasatik (//. of Rustak) = village*, i. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Raghakah AI- (Arab.') a word not found 
in common lexicons, said to be a fork 
with three prongs, here probably a hat 
stand (tr. "peg") (ST.) v. 244. 

Rasflah = a (she) partner (tr. "acdom- 
panyist ") ii. 44. 

IRasmal (vulg. Syrian and Egyptian form 
of Raas al-mal = stock in trade) = 
capita! in hand,-i. 248. 

Ratl (Arab.} pron. by Europeans " Rotl " 
(Rotolo) = a pound, iii. 128; iv. 295. 

" Rauzah" in Algiers was a royal park, vi. 


"Rauz al-Sanajirah " = plain of the 
Sinjars, vi. 243. 

Rawi = a professional tale-teller (tr. 
"Seer")i. 56. 

Rayhanah, i.e. the " Basil,'* mostly a ser- 
vile name, ii. 20. 

Razah = cedar or fir (old controversy) vi. 

Ra"zi (A1-) = a native of Rayy City, i. 


Reading of " meat and drink " enjoyed by 
Arabs as much as by Englishmen, iv. 

Reading placed in more honourable place 
than writing (" Writing and reading," 
as opposed to " Reading and writ- 

Red camel (Ahmar) ii. 248. 

Red robes a sign of displeasure, iv. 297. 

Red Sea (Holy Writ does not say that 
Pharaoh was drowned in) vi. 99. 

Rent his robes (usually a sign of quiet, 
here a mark of strong excitement) v. 71. 

Retribution confined to this life, and be- 
lief that Fate is fruit of man's actions 
(Mosaic theory) vi. 140. 

Re-union after severance modesty in 
Alaeddin as contrasted with Kamar al- 
Zamn, etc., iii. 176. 

Revetment of old wells in Arabia, mostly 
of dry masonry, v. 132. 

Rheumatism, a common complaint in even 
the hottest climatesi v. 160. 

Riddle or conundrum, vi. 97. 

Riding men as asses, a facetious exaggera- 
tion of an African practice, vi. 240. 

Right hand (seated at the) a place of 
honour in 'Europe ; amongst Moslems 
the place would be to the left, iii. 136. 

Rfh = Wind, gust (of temper), pride, rage, 

v. 5 8. 
Riksib (Arab.} = Stirrap + "dar" (Mrs.) 

= holder (tr. "groom ") iv. 24. 
Rikki al-.Saut = soften the sound (or 

"lower thy voice,") ii. 89. 
"Ring and the Lamp" have a magical 

effect over physique and morale of the 

owner, iii. 104. 
Ring given as token to show fair play, i. 

Rfsah (copyist's error for " Rishah ") = a 

thread, feather, line, iv. 259. 
" Rise that I may seat myself in thy stead" 

(addressed to the full moon) true 

Orientalism, iii. 151. 
Rfshah = feather, plume, (usual meaning) 

Dr. Steingass explains, iv. 259* 
Rising up and sitting down, usual sign of 

emotion, i. 348. 
Riyal (from, the Span. " Real") = royal 

(coin) tr. "real", iv. 284. 
" Rizk " equiv. for " Al-Rizku '1-hasanu " ' 

= any good thing obtained without 

exertion (ST.) iv. 245. 
maksum (A1-), an old and sage by- 
word pregnant with significance, iv. 


Roc or vulture, vi. 23. 
Rod of Moses became a common symbol of* 

dignity, etc., vi. 157. 
Rods of Moses and Aaron, vi. 98, 99. 
Rod well quoted, v. 42, 48. 
Roger, old name of the parish bull in rural 

England, iv. 203. 

" Rose up and sat down," a sign of agita- 
tion, v. 328. 

Rosso antico (mostly a porphyry) iii. 139. 
Roum = Greeks, i. 134. 

city of (Rumf) vi.Sg. 

"Rub'a(^r^.)//. Arbd = the fourth of 

a " Waybah " (tr. "half quartern ") 

iv. 128. 
" Rudaynian," from " Rudaynah," cither 

a woman or a place, vi. 230. 
Ruh Allah lit. = breath of Allah (tr 

"Spirit of Allah ") i. 251. 
RiShi = lit. my breath (tr. "my iprite ") 

ii. 120. 
Rukh = Roc, iii. 186. 

(the mythical mixed up with the 

mysterious bird Simurgh) iii. iSS. 



Rukham = marble or alabaster, here used 
for building material, vi. 60. 

Rumh = lance, i. 90. 

Rumf ("Roum") in Marocco and other 
parts of Moslem world is still syn. with 
our " European," vi. 89, 

Rusafiyah = a cap, i. 160. 

"Rushdu 'llah " or " Al-Huda," spiritual 
direction or divine grace received from 
Allah, vi. 104. 

Russians (Asiatics have a very contempt! 
ble opinion of the) v. 119. 

Rustdki, from Rustak, a quarter of Bagh- 
dad, ii. 209. 

Rutab wa mandzil = degrees and dignities, 

SA'AH = the German S(unde t our old 
"Stound" (meaning to Moslems the 

spaces between prayer-times) v. 151. 
"Sa'alab" or "Tha'lab" = Fox, vi. 

Sabba raml = cast in sand (may be clerical 

error for ' Zaraba raml " = he struck 

sand, i.e., made geomantic figures), 

here tr. "striking a geomantic table," 

in. 68. 
" Sabbal'alayhim (for 'alayhinna, the usual 

masc. pro fern.) Al-Sattar " (Arab.) = 

lit. "the Veiler let down a curtain 

upon them," v. 276. 
Sabbath (the) = the Saturday, iii. 64. 
Sabt = Sabbath, Saturday, v. 228, 324. 
Sa'd = prosperity, iii. 341. 
Sddah (A1-) wa al-Khatdyat tr. "various 

colors both plain and striped," y. 223. 
"Sadat wa AshraT" = Sayyids and 

Sharffs, vi. 233. 
Sa'di = prosperous, iii. 341. 
Sadir (Al-)w al-Ghidf = those who went 

forth betime (the latter may mean those 

who came for the morning meal) iii. 

Saff Kamariydt min al-Zujaj = glazed and 

coloured lunettes, ii. 39. 
Safih = slab over the grave (tr. " pave") 

Saful (A1-) = ranks of fighting men, or rows 

of threads on a loom, i. 48. 
Sahah -: courtyard (as opposed to " Bat- 

hah " a ioor court), i 284, 

Sahal for Sahal (broad " Doric" of Syria) 

iii. 125. 

Sahara" pron. Sahr;, i. 251. 
Sahba = red wine, ii. 99. 
("Sahha) 'alakah ( = a something) fl hazi 
'1-Amri" = albeit I will take no part, 
f v i. 245. 

Sahib = owner (same as "DalldV ss 
broker) iv. 224. 

" al-Haya"t " = astronomer (may 

also = a physiognomist) v. 289. 

al-jayyid (A1-) (Arab.) = excellent 

companion, vi. 5. 

Sdhibi-h = his mate (masculine) IV. 346. 
Sdhils, or shorelands, ii. 3. 
Sahl meaning " the easy tempered " (Scott 

writes " Sohul ") v. 138. 
Sahra" (Arab.) = desert (applied by Per- 
sians to waste grounds about a town : 
hereto " barren hill- country ") iii. 67. 
Sahrij = Cistern, v. 5. 
Sails hoisted and canvas loosed (anchors 

weighed and canvas spread) i. 321. 
Sajdlmah-bird, unknown to dictionaries, 

prob. species of hawk, vi, 35. 
"Sakalat" (Pers.) or "Saklatun," 
whence Mr. Skeat would derive "scar- 
let," vi. 5. 

Sakf (flat roof), must have a parapet (a 
Jewish precaution neglected by Al- 
Islam) v. 219. 
Sakhrah = labour, i. 84. 
Sakhtur (Arab) for " Shakhtur " tr. 

" batel," v. 163. 
Sakiyah = water wheel, ii. 47. 
Sakk (//. "Sikak" and "Sukuk") 

"nail" (ST.) v. 380. 
Sakka (Arab.) a water carrier, vi. 46. 

" Sharbah," who supplies water to 

passengers in streets, vi. 46. 
Salaku-hu wa nashalu-hu = ' they scored 

it," v. 395. 
" Saldm " here = Heaven's blessing, vi. 


Saldm pronounced after prayers, i. 14. 
SaUsin = thirty (a clerical error for 

" three") iv. 310. 

Salat, sundry technical meanings, vi. 103. 
= the formal ceremonious prayer, 

vi. 103. 
"Salb" = impalement, everywhere else 

meaning crucifixion, vi. 206-1. 


Supplemental Nights. 

"Salihm" (Arab.} = the Saints, the Holy 

ones (tr. " the Hallows") iv. 218. 
Salkh (Arab. = flaying (meaning also a 

peculiar form of circumcision) v. 214. 
Salt rubbed on wounds to staunch the 

blood, v. 97. 
Samar (Arab.} from Pers. "Sumar" = a 

reed, a rush, v. 226. 
Samaria (according to Moslems, Shamrin 

and Shamrun) iii. 271, 
Samaritans, vi. 160-1. 
Samdwah, confounded with Kerbela a 

desert with a place of pilgrimage, Hi. 484. 
, Desert of, iii. 484. 

(Town on Euphrates) iii. 484. 

Samd = carpets and pots and pans (tr. 

Vaiselle} vi. 64. 
Samhari, vi. 229. 

Sslmiri AI-, Golden Calf of, vi. 160. 
, translated by Christian commenta- 

tators as "Samaritan," vi. 160. 
Samman quail, v. 151. 
"Samman" (for "Samman") = quails, 

vi. 66. 
' " .or SummsCn" (classically 

Salwa") = quails, vi. 147. 
Sammdr = reciters, ii. 3. 
Samm Sa'ah (in text), tr. "poison of the 

hour," v. 352. 

Samson's enigma (Judges xiv. 12), vi. 106. 
Sandarusah (Arab.} = red juniper gum 

(from Pers. "Saudar" = amber) tr. 

41 Sandarach," vi. 141. 
Sanjak (in modern parlance) = minor 

province, iv. 24$. 

(Turk.} = flag, banner, iv. 245. 

dar the banner-bearer, ensign, 

iv. 245. 

Sankharib the Sovran, vi. 3. 
Santir = psalteries, ii. 246. 
Sapidaj (corresponding with "Isfidaj"), 

tr* " ceruse" or white lead, v. 130. 
Sara' a hu wa Idwa'a-hu = he rushed upon 

him and worried him (ST.) iv. 266. 
Sdra la-hu Shann, tr. " In his new degree 

he was feared," v. 472. 

(Steingass reads "Thaniyan" = and 
he became second to him (the Sultan), 
i.e., his alter ego) v. 472. 

SarVl-Lijam, tr. "bridal thongs," v. 385. 
"Ssirayah" (for" Sarayah," Serai,Govern- 
ment House), tr. " Palace," v. 6. 

Saray not to be confounded with Serraglio 
= Harem, iv. 234, 

(Pers.} official headquarters of the 

Wall, iv. 234. 

Sara yurashi-h, tr. " kindness and liberal- 
ity," v. 473. 

(" Ywa"shi" and " Yurashi'i" are the 

6th form of " rasha, yarshu " = he be- 
stowed a gift (principally for the sake of 
bribery), he treated kindly (ST.) v. 


Sardab = a souterrain, v. 1 17. 
Sarhadun = "Sarkhadom" (Gauttier}. 

The great usurper Sargon, vi. 6, 
Sarir = a bier without the corpse, iv. 289. 
" Sarkhah adwat la-ha al-Sarayah " == a 

cry to ,which the Palace women raised 

an echo (ST.) iv. 272. 
Sarmujah (Arab.} = sandals, slippers, etc., 

v. 442 ; from Pers. " Sarmuzah," a 

kind of hose or gaiter worn over a boot 

(ST.) v. 217. 
Sarrdf = a money changer (tr. "shroff") 

i- 333 
Sarra Surrah (Surratan) = he tied up 

a purse (ST.) v. 412. 
Sarsarah (cler. error for " Akhaza (?) surra- j 

tan " = he took a purse, v. 462. 
Sarii (dakhalu, jalasu, etc.)., in the plural 

for the dual popular and vulgar 

speech, iii. 66. 

Sat down (in sign of agitation) ii. 211. 
Satfhah (Arab.} = a She-Satih, iv. 69. 
Satl= water- can (Lat. and Etruscan Situla 

and Situlus, a water-pot) i. 291. 
Sattar (^nz.)="TheVeiler" iv. 31 (cor- 

responding with "Jupiter Servator") 

iv. 270. 
Sawdbi (a regularly formed broken plural 

of a singular " Sabi' ".-the pointing 

one) (ST.) v. 419. 
Sawaki = channels, ii. 93. 
Sayaban (Pers.} = canopy, iv. 129. 
Sayf kunuzf = a talismanic scymitar (tr. 

"magical sword ") v. 426. 
Sayfu (A1-) w'-al Kalanj = scymitar and 

dagger, v. 381. 

Sayyad, lit. = a fisherman, vi. 161. 
Sayyah (A1-) = the Shrieker, iv. 245. 
Sayyid (descendant of Hasan) and the 

Sharif (der. from Husayn) = difference 

between, v 39. 



"Sa*za, Yasfzu" (Arab.} tr. "geneal- 
ogist," not a dictionary word perhaps 
a clerical error for "Sasa" = he 
groomed or broke in a horse, iv. 21. 

;Scarlet (red, violet, white, green) vi. 5. 

*' Sciences are of three kinds, etc." iv. 10. 

Scott quoted, iv. 3, 7, 14, 19, 27, 35, 43, 
45 55, 56, 59, 67, 74. 80, 90, 95, 97, 
109, 127, 169, 176, 189, 244, 297, 303, 
307, 334, 351 ; v. 3, 17, 21, 22, ib. 24, 
3 36, 39, 44, 5> 63, 65, 105, 114, 116, 
119, 120, 123, 125, 138, 153, 184, 210, 
213, 214, 227, 231, 253, 263, 273, 321, 

335, 347, 357 465. 
Seal-ring (or Signet-ring) iii. 72. 
Second-sight (Egypt. " Darb al-Mandal") 

iv. 45. 
Secret, difficult for an Eastern to keep, 

i. 342- 
Seed pearls made into great pearls (also 

rubies and branch- coral) i. 197. 
Seeking to release Soul of Prince who had 

perished, iii. 298. 
^Semi-abortions (preservation of, a curse in 

sixth century) iii. 498. 
, Sentiment, morbid and unmasculine French, 

contrasted with the healthy and manly 

tone of the Nights, v. 267. 
iSerraglio-palace ; der.from Serai (Pers^) 

a palace, also der. front Cerrar (Spanish 

and Portuguese) = to shut up, iii. 


! Service (yearly value of his fief), i, 256. 
Seven ages of woman-kind, v. 56. 
handwritings, vi. 226. 
Severance-spies = stars and planets, ii. 236. 
Sha'abdn (his face gladdening as the 

crescent moon of) v. 142. 
Shabakah = net (hung over shop during 
, absence of shopkeeper) i. 205. 
Shabaytar=the Shuhriir (in MS. Suhrur) 

= a blackbird, v. 151. 
also called " Samaytar " and " Abu 

al-Ayzar " = the father of the brisk one 

(a long-necked bird like heron) (ST.) 

v. 151. 
." Shadow of Allah," a title of the Shah, 

Hi. 531. 

Shaghaf = violent love, joy, grief, vi. 15. 
Shaghaftini (also " Ashghaftini ") from 

Shaghaf = violent love, joy, grief = 

"Thou hast enamoured me," vi. 15. 

Shaghrf (Pen.), e.g. Kyafsh-i-Sha g hri= 

slippers of shagreen, iii. 282. 
Shagreen (der. from Pers.) " Shaghri," 

produced by skin of wild ass, iii. 282. 
Shah Bakht = King Luck, i. 191. 
Shah-Goase (Shah Ghawwds = King 

Diver), vi. 233. 
-Shahbdn, Bresl. Edit, form of Shahryar=a 

City-keeper, for City- friend, i. 334. 
Shahbander = King of the port, a harbour 

master, v. 254. 

Shdhinshdh = King of kings, iii. 534. 
a title first assumed by Ardashfr,! 

iii. 500. 
Shahmiyanah = a huge marquee or pavilion 

tent in India, iii. 469. 
Shdhrazdd (in Mac. Edit. Shahrdzdd)? 

i- 334- 

Shahrazad and Shahryar, ii. 259. 
Shahr-Banu (Pers.} = City-queen, iii. 486. 
Shahrbaz (W. M. MS.) = City-player or 

city-falcon, iv. 6. 
Shahrzadah (W. M. MS.) = " City born" 

(for "'Shahrazad) iv. 6. 
Shahwah (Arab.) = lust, iii. 33. 
Shahwah daram = I am lustful, iii. 33. 
Shd'il, copyist's error for " Shaghil," 

act. part of Shughl= business affairs* v. 

(Here probably for the fuller "Shaghl 

shdghil" = an urgent business, (ST.)! 

v. 245. 
Shajarat al-Durr= Branch of Pearl, i. 12. 

Rih = Wind-tree (?) iv. 138. 

Shakban = the end of cloth, gown, cloak, 

etc. (Houdas) vi. 189. 
Shaded (ffeb.) = Almond-tree, vi. 7. 
Shakhat, tr. here "revile" (ST.) v. 3, 
Shakhs = carven image, v. 30. 
either a person or an image (here /n 

"Image") iii. 18. 
mafsud=man of perverted belief ('*., 

an infidel) i. 352. 
Shaking his clothes (in sign of quitting 

possession) ii. 205. 
out his skirts," a sign of willingly 

parting with possessions, iii. 316. 
Shakk (Arab.) = splitting or quartering, 

v. 96. 
Shaklaba (here = "shakala ") = he weighed 

out (money), he had 4o do vith a 

woman (tr. "tumbled") v. 291. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Shalabi = a dandy, a macaroni (fiom the 
Turk. Chelebi) v. 243. 

Sha"m = Syria (and its capital) called 
Damascus (Cotheal MS.) vi. 167. 

Sham'adin, a would-be Arabic plural x>f 
the Persian "Sham'adan = candle- 
stick, chandelier, iii. 109. 

Shamamah (or "Chamama," accord, to 
Gauttier and Heron) vi. 68. 

Shamat = cheek mole (beauty spot), ap- 
plied to Damascus (Sham) vi. 167. 

" Shdm ba'd az nisf-i-shab = dinner after 
midnight = supper (ST.) iv. 244. 

Shame (uncovered my), in this instance 
" head and face," v.- 329. 

Shamiyanah = a royal pavilion (cor. of 
Pers. "Sayaban" = canopy) iv. 129. 

Shamiyat bi al-Nar, an Inquisitorial cos- 
tume (tr. " a black habit bepatched 
with flame colour") iv. 79. 

Shampooing (practice of) i. 116. 

Shamrin (and Shamrun) = Samaria, iii. 

Shamul (fern.) = liquor hung in the wind 
to cool, i. 42. 

Shararah = a spark, ii. 87. 

Shari'at, forbidding divorce by corapul* 
sion, ii. 147. 

Sharif (a descendant from Mohammed) i. 

Sharifi = a sequin, ii. 143. 

Sharkh (Arab.) in diets, the unpolished 
blade of hiltless sword (tr. here "a 
butcher's chopper") iv. 220. 

Sharkiyah (province in Egypt) ii. 16. 

Sharr (A1-) ("the wickedness") last city 
in Meckran before entering Sind, i. 

fi al-Haramayn = wickedness in the 

two Holy Places, ii. 220. 
Shash = a small compact white turband 

and distinctive sign of the true Be- 
liever, v. 143. 
Shashmah (from Pers. "Chashmah" = 

fountain) tr. " privies," v. 458. 
Shastras Hindu Scripture or Holy Writ, 

iii. 429. 

Shatarah (prop, cleverness), signifying vile- 
, ness and rashness (ST.) v. 220. 
Shawahid (meaning that heart testifies to 

heart) tr. " hearts have their witnesses,'* 

ii. '. 

Shawwara binta-hu = he gave a marriage 

outfit to his daughter (ST.) v. 28. 
Shaybani (Al-) = " Of the Shayban tribe 

ii. 191. 

Shayh = Artemisia, iv. 343. 
Shaykh becomes ceremonially impure by 

handling a corpse, i. 290. 
, for humility, sits at the side of room, 

not at the top (" Sadr") iv. 84. 
of Islam, v. 317. 
or head of the Guild for thieves, iv. 

al-Hujjaj = Shaykh of the Pilgrims, 

ii. 63. 
al- Islam, the Cnief of the Moslem 

Church, iv. 69. 
" al-Tawaif" may mean " Shaykh 

of the Tribes" (of Jinns) ii. 117. 
Shayyan li'llah = lit. (Give me some) 

Thing for (the love of) Allah (tr. 

" An alms, for the love of Allah ") 

ii. 44. 
Shayy bi-lash = lit. "a thing gratis or in 

vain" (here tr. "matters beyond the 

range of matter ") iii. 68. 
Shazz = Voice (doub.tful if girl's, nightin- 
gale's, or dove's) ii. 244. 
" She had never gone or come"= she was 

in her own home, iii. 183. 
" heard a blowing behind her" (a 

phenomenon well known to spiritualists) 

ii. 101. 
" will double thy store of presents," 

ii. Hi. 
Sherbet and coffee, mention of, makes the 

tale synchronous with that of Ma'aruf 

or the xvii. century, iv. 55. 
Sheriff//, of Sherffiyah (Egyptian form); 

here "Ashrafis," iv. 336. 
Shi' ah doctrine, v. 178. 
Shikk (Arab.) = Half-man, iv. 69, 76. 
Ship's crew run on shore on their own 

business immediately the vessel cast 

anchor, v. 475. 
Shisheh-ka" paysa = a (pice) small coin of 

glass, iii. 351. 
Shlve-Zad, iii. 47. 
"Shobasi," for "Sobashi," vi. 191. 
Shooting shafts and firing bullets at the 

butt, practised by Easterns on horse- 
back, v. 421. 
Shroft (Arab Sayrafi) i. 29$. 



Shubbak= lattice (also " Mashrabiyah " = 
latticed balcony) i. 29. 

"Shuf-hu," (Arab.) (colloquial form of 
"Shuf-hu") = look upon him, iii. 58. 

Shuhba (A1-) = Ash-coloured, verging upon 
white, ii. no. 

" Shuhrur al-kanfsah " = the Blackbird of 
the Church (Christians in Syria call St. 
Paul, on account of his eloquence) 
(ST.)v. 151. 

. Shurbah " (Pers. Shorbah) = mess of pot- 
tage (tr. " dish of roast meat") iv. 22. 

Shuwar (Arab.) = trousseau (ST.) v, 28. 

Si' at rizki-h = the ease with which he 
earned his livelihood (tr. "fortune") 
i. 282. 

Sibak (Arab.) usually = a leash (for fal- 
conry) tr. ''silken cord," vi. 46. 

Sidi mistaken for Sayyid, iii. 321 . 

= my lord, iii. 321. 

= "my lord" here becomes part of 

a name, ii. 151. 

Nu'uman (sometimes " Sidi Nou- 
man," or " Sidi Nonman ") iii. 321. 

Sifah (Arab.) /#. = a quality (tr. "pro- 
perty ") iv. 102. 

Signet-ring made of carnelian, v. 52. 

- of kingship (important sign of 
sovereignty) v. 112. 

Sijn al-Dam = the Prison of Blood, ii.l6l. 
Sikalah (Sing.) = scaffolding, vi. 61. 
Sikbaj a marinated stew like Zirbajah, vi. 

(Pers. Sikba) called "Mother of 

Hospitality," being principal dish set 

before guests, vi. 159. 
Sikkah (//. Sikak) = (amongst other 

meanings) "an iron post or stake" 

, (ST.) V. 380. 

Silk, Moslems may be snrouded in it, i. 

Silken napkins, iv. 55. 

platters, iii. 93. 

i.Sima'a lit. hearing applied idiomatically 
to the ecstacy of Darwayshes when 
listening to esoteric poetry, v. 151. 

,Sim'an-son = son of Simeon, i.e., a Chris- 
tian, ii. 175. 

Simiyd = fascination (a form of magic) vi. 

Simsim (or " Samsam ") The grain Sesa- 
mum Orient ale y iii. 370. 


Sin akhi-irib = Sini (Lunus, or tht Moon- 
god) increaseth brethren (Etymology of 
"Sankharib") vi. 3. 

Sfn Al- (in text) = China (here " Al-Sind,") 
v. 194. 

Sinaubar (tr. "pine") may also mean 
pistachio -tree, vi. 163. 

Sind Revisited quoted, iv. 8 ; v. 3. 

(so-called from Sindhu, the Indus, 

Pers. "Sindab") v. 3. 

Sindiyan (from the Persian) = holm-oak, i. 

Singing and music blameable (Makruh), 
though not actually damnable, ii. 46 

Sfm'yah = tray of tinned copper, iv. 170. 

Sir fi halik (pron. Sirfhdk) = Go about thy 
business, ii. 44. 

Sirhan = wolf, iv. 19. 

Sirr (a secret), afterwards Kitman (conceal- 
ment) = keeping a lover down-hearted, 
ii. 218. 

"Sirru '1-ilahi," i.e., the soul which 
is "divinae particula auroe" (tr. 
" Divine mystery") v. 466. 

Sirt'anta = thou hast become (for Sirtu 
ana = I have become) v. 86. 

Sistan (Persian) Arab. Sijistan, i. 56. 

Sitt al-Milah = Lady or princess of the Fahr 
(ones) ii. 155. 

"Sitt-ha (Arab.), tr. "Mistress" (Mauri- 
tanians prefers "Sfdah"and Arabian 
Arabs " Kabirah " = the first lady,, 
Madame Mere> v. 364. 

Siwan (Arab.) pi. Siwawin = pavilion, iv.; 


Skin of wild ass produce the famous sha* 
g een, iii. 282. 

Slave become a King (no shame to Mos- 
lems) i. 348. 

Slaves fond of talking over their sale, ii. 

, when useless, made to "walk a 

plank " or tossed into the sea, v. 405. 

Sleep at mid-forenoon (and afternoon) 
considered unwholesome by Easterns, 
iv. 324. 

" with both feet in one stocking " 

(Irish saying for " Have a care of thy- 
self") v. 442. 

Sleeping postures, iii. 183. 

with drawn sword between man and 
maid, iii. 116. 


Supplemental Nights. 

"Smell the air"= a walk, a "constitu 

tional," iii. 397. 
" Smoke of camel's dung " to drive off 

Evil Spirits, iv. 78. 
Smoking and coffee, v. 236. 
Sneezes (ceremony when a Moslem), iv. 95. 
"Snsal" for " Salsa" 1' '=/#. chain (tr. 

"borders") vi. 235. 
Soghd Samarkand = plain of Samarkand, 

iii. 436. 

"Solaced himself by gazing upon the 
trees and waters," a feeling well known 
to the traveller, v. 390. 
Soldiers serving on feudal tenure, i. 256. 
Solomon's Judgment, Moslem version of, 

iv. 236. 

" Some one to back us," i. 135. 
" Son of a minute, The," i.e., which would 
take effect in the shortest time, iii. 171. 
" Son of the Road " = a mere passer-by, 

a stranger, ii. 235. 
Son (youngest of three) generally Fortune's 

favourite in folk-lore, iii. 453. 
Sons = Men, a characteristic Arab, idiom, 
i. 2. 

of Adam = his Moslem neighbours, 

ii. 30. 

of the Path = Travellers, nomads, 

wild Arabs, ii. 213. 
Soudans, Two, iv. 305. 
Soul of Prince who had perished (seeking 

to release) iii. 298. 

1 f Spare not blows to thy child," a bar- 
barous sentiment of Biblical inspiration, 
vi. 9. 

the rod and spoil the child," vi. 9. 

" Spoiling for a fight," ii. 199. 
Spreading (the mats, mattresses, rugs, etc., 
of well-to-do Eastern lodging) v. 233. 
" Squeezed my ribs " a bear-like attack, 
common amongst lower orders of Egypt 
and Syria, ii. 47. 

Standards and colours, an unfailing ac- 
companiment of the Jinn army, iv. 89 
"Stick wherewith he tapped and drew 
lines in absent fashion on the ground," 
v. 10. 

Stirrup, The Arab, iii. 478. 
Stomach has two mouths, cesophagic above 

and pyloric below, v. 52. 
Stone tied in kerchief or rag, weapon for 
fighting, v. 350. 

Story of the First Lunatic (variants) iv. 

Story-telling, servile work, v. 34. 

St. Paul, called by the Christians in Syria 
" Shuhrur al-Kanisah," the Blackbird 
of the Church (on account of his elo* 
quence) (ST.) v. 151. 

Stranger invites a guest during pilgrimage- 
time, i. 195. 

" Striking palm upon palm," i.e., in sign 
of despair, iv. 252. 

the nape = "boxing ears" (Moslem 

equiv.) vi. 35. 

"Subaudi" = "that hath not been 
pierced " (a virgin) v. 223. 

Subjects (men who pay taxes) i. 256. 

Subjects (Persian) both women and men 
are virtually King's slaves, iii. 533- 

Subii' (Arab.} for Yaum al-Subvi' = Sep. 
tena-festival on the seventh day after a 
birth, marriage, or return from pilgri- 
mage) iv. 122. 

Sufrah = the cloth (tr. " table cloth") iv. 

of leather = circular leather which 

acts as provision bag and tablecloth, iv. 

umm jalajil (Arab.) lit. = an eating 

cloth with little bells, iv. 169. 

Sugar (Europe- made white) avoided by 
Moslems as unlawful, v. 352. 

(Sukkar), v. 352. 

Suicide, Hindus adepts in, iii. 166. 

rare in Moslem lands, i. 325. 

Sujjddah = lit. a praying carpet (tr. 

"rug") iv. 52; v. 225. 
Sukkar from Pers. "Shakkar" (whence 
Lat. Saccharum) the generic term, v. 


Sullam (//. "Salalim") popularly used 

for a flight of steps (tr. here souterrain- 

stairs) iii. 75 
Sultan, amongst Arabs may denote any 

dignity from a Shaykh to a Sultan, vi. 

" and his Sons etc.," same as Scott's 

" Story of the Three Princes, etc.," iv. 

of Al-Yaman and his three Sons 

(ver. taken from Zotenberg's " Chroni- 
que de Tabari "), iv. 3. 

of the Jann preceded by sweepers ^ 



always appears in the form of ' ' second 
sight " called by Egyptians " Darb al- 
Mandal," iv. 45. 

Sultanate for Women Custom of Al- 
Islam, a strong precedent against 
queenly rule, i. 350. 

$uluk (Arab.} a sufistical expression, the 
road to salvation (tr. "paths"), iii. 

Swnmak = a plant with acid flavour, dried, 
pounded, and peppered with meat, vi. 

Sun fare backwards= " to eclipse the sun," 
vi. 107, 

Sunnah = the practice, etc., of the Pro- 
phet, v 193. 

* and Farz=The practice (of the Pro- 
phet) and the Holy Law (Koranic) ii. 

Supernatural agency makes the most satis- 
factory version of tale. v. 118. 

Supper comes first because the day begins 
at sundown, iv. 120. 

("dinner after midnight."). See 
Shah's diary (ST.) iv. 244. 

Surah = Koranic chapter ; here possibly 
clerical error for Surah sort (of food), 

, " 173- 

Swra'yya't (lit. the Pleiades) and Sham'- 
ddin, a would-be plural (Arabic) of the 
Persian " Sham'adan " = candlestick, 
chandelier, iii. 109. 

Surur = joy, contentment, v. 200. 

Susah (Arab.}=. weevil, moth, worm, iv. 33 

Susan = the lily (in Heb.) ii. 1 16. 

Su'uban (Arab.} = cockatrice (tr. " Basi- 
lisk") v. 427. 

*' Suwdn " (Arab.} lit. = rock syenite, hard 
stone, flint (tr. "mace") iv. 24. 

Suwaydd al-Kalb the black one of the 
heart) = original sin (synonymous with 
" Habbat al-Kalb " = the grain in the 
heart), both metaphorically used for 
" original sin." (ST.) vi. 247. 

"Suwayd " and "Suwayda," diminutives 
of " Aswad " = black. (ST.) vi. 247. 

Suwaydd, lit. " a small and blackish 
woman," vi. 247. 

Swooper of the Jinn, ii. 202.- 

Symmetromania, Arab., iv. 67. 

Syria, city of ("the stubbornest of places 
and the feeblest of races "} v. 41. 

"Syrian and three women of Cairo" 
(Variants) v. 273. 

TA'-AM = Millet seed (tr. " grain ") i. 5. 
Taannafii = making " long noses," i. 300. 
Ta'arkalak, (Arab.} = way-lay thee, vi. 7. 
Taawil = the commentary or explanation 

of Moslem Holy Writ, v. 43. 
Ta'ayyun- = influence (especially by the 

'"Ayn" (evil) Eye) tr. "fascinate," v. 


Tab = " tip-cat," ii. 54. 
Tabah = gag, vi. 184. 
Tabaristan (adj. Tabari), whereas Tabarani 

= native of Tiberias, i. 94. 
Tabariyyah = Gennesaret (Chinnereth, 

Cinneroth) where, according to some 

Moslems, the Solomon was buried, vi. 

Tabib Al- = the scientific practitioner (in 

pop. parlance) v. 326. 
Tabshalim, (a word which appears to be a 

corruption bearing a resemblance to 

"Dabshalim," meaning "a mighty 

king") vi. 23. 
Ta'dilu= Swerve (also " Ye do injustice ") 

i. 52. 

TaT (A1-) a suburb of Baghdah, ii. 71. 
Tafazzal (Arab.} a useful word employed 

in invitations, equiv. to '" Have the 

kindness " iv. 84 j Tafazzalu, iv. 233. 
Taffaytu-hu = extinguish (tr. " put it 

out") iii. 84. 

Tafl (Arab.} = a kind of clay, iii. 348. 
Tafrik wa'1-jam'a = division and union, i- 


Tsi-Ha" = the Koranic chapter No. XX. 

revealed at Meccah, v. 180. 
, whose first 14-16 verses are said to 

have converted the hard-headed Omar, 

vi. 157- 

"Tahlil" = making word or deed canon 
ically lawful, v. 43. 

Tahrim == rendering any action " hara"m " 
or unlawful, v. 43. 

Tahzib reforming morals, amending con- 
duct, etc., ii. 240. 

Tai = Man of the tribe of Tay, i. 

Taf Al- (relative adjective of irregular 
formation) v. 46. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Tail, lashing his (lion's) symptom of rage 
distinguishing felines from canines, iv. 

Ta'il al-Wasf = " Drawer out of Descrip- 
tions,/' v. 185. 

Tajni = lit., thou pluckest (the fruit of 
good deeds) vi. 104. 

Tajrls, rendered by a circumlocution 
"Bell," v. 337. 

Tdk (or Tkah, = a little wall-niche, iii. 

Takbfr and Tahlil, i.e.^ Crying the war cry, 

"Allaho Akbar" = "God is most 

Great," and " La* ildha ilia 'llah " the 

refrain of Unity, v. 403. 
Takhsa-u, tr. " baffled," a curious word 

of venerable age (ST.) v. 44. 
Takht Kami = table of sand, geomantic 

table, v. 153. 

Takhtrawa'n = mule-litter, vi. 181. 
Ta'kil (Arab) tying up a camel's foreleg 

above the knee, iv. 23. 
Tdkiyah = litter, i. 99. 
= calotte or skull-cap, iv, 120. 
Takrit, a town in Mesopotamia celebrated 

for its velvets, etc. (ST.) iv. 337. 
Takruri = a Moslem negroid from Central 

and Western North Africa, iv. 298. 
Takwa (form gen. used for "Ittika") = 

fearing God, vi. 96. 
Taldkan bdinan = a triple divorce before 

witnesses, ii. 148. 
TaUmizah = disciples (sing. Talmiz) i. 

Tale of the Simpleton Husband i. 239. 

<W. M, Version) v. 116. 
Tales were told before the peep of day, i. 

Tamanna" (Arab.) = " She saluted the king 

by kissing her finger tips and raising 

them to her brow," iii. 108. 
Tamdsil = (the Pavilion of) Pictures (gener- 
ally carved images), i. 29. 
JTambiir der. from "Tabl" = a drum 

(hence modern " Tambour ") iv. 209. 
Ta*-mera (Coptic) = the Land of the Nile 

Flood, vi. 12. 
Tamlm (Arab.) pi. of Tamimat = spells, 

charms, amulets, "Thummim," iv. 


Tamkfn = gravity, assurance (tr. " Self- 
possession "), ii. 8. 

Tamtar Aysh? (Arab.) i.e., Ayyu Shayyln 
" What do the skies rain ! " iv. 207. 

Tannur = large earthern jar (tr. " oven- 
jar ") i. 208. 

= oven, (misprint for " Kubur " 

- Tombs) i. 265. 

Tanzfl = coming down, revelation of the 

Koran, v. 43. 
Tardbulus-town (also Atrabulus) arabisa- 

tions of Tripolis, iv. 169. 
Tarajjama, frequently used in this MS.^ 

(ST.) iv. 242. 

= he deprecated, v. 12. 

" Tarajjum," taking refuge from Satan the 

Stoned (Rajim) vi. 190. 
Taramma al - Mahramah (throwing th 

handkerchieO used in the old form* 

of choosing a mate, iv. 31. 
Tarbiyatf = rearling, i. 348. 
Tarfah = Tamarisk, ii. 252. 
Tari (Arab.) lit. = wet (tr. "soothing)" 

iv. 71. 
Tarjuman = a dragoman (tr." Truchman") 

ii. 185 ; vi. 89. 
Tarjumdnah (fern, of "Tarjumdn" = a 

dragoman) = lit. an "interpreter" 

woman, vi. 89. 

Tarkah = " A gin," a snare, i. 16. 
Tartara (Arab.) tr. "perked up" (prob. 

an emphatic reduplication of Tarra =s 

" sprouting, pushing forward ") v. 


Tasawwuf (mystic fraternity of) v. 426. 
Tasht = " basin " (the consonantic outline 

being the same as of " lashshat " = she 

was raining, sprinkling (ST.) a possible 

pun, v. 147. 
Tasill sallata'l-Munkatl'in = ///. "raining 

on the drouth-hardened earth of the 
i cut-off" (tr. " Watering the dry 

ground ") i. 34$. 
Tastaghis (Arab) = lit. crying out "Wa 

Ghausah ! " ' Ho to my aid " (tr. 

'Help! Help!") v. 157. 
Tatadakhkhal 'alay-h = "sue his protec- 
tion," vi. 134. 
Tauhan al-Husdn, tr. " lost in the waste," 

v. 4 09. 
Tawaf = Circuiting (an act of worship) iii. 

Tawanis (instead of "Tawa"nis>" //. of 

Taunas), tr. "cordage" (ST.J'v. 133. 


34 i 

Tayha"! 0>/. "Tawahil") for the usual 

11 Tihal " = spleen (ST.) v. 53. 
Taylasan-hood, iv. 34. 
Tays = myriads of, vi. 187. 
Tayyibah = the good, sweet -or lawful, v. 


Tazaghzagha, gen.-= he spoke hesitatingly, 
he scoffed (ir. waxed wroth ") v. 106. 

11 Tazaghghara fihi " (rendered pop.) "he 
pitched into him" (ST.) v.'io6. 

Tazarghit (error for " Zaghrftah") = the 
cry of joy, v. 429. 

(numerous forms of) (ST.) v. 430. 

"Ten camel loads" about a ton, at the 
smallest computation of 200 Ibs. to each 
beast, v. 395. 

Ter-il-bas (Tayr Taus ?), a kind of pea- 
cock, made to determine elections by 
alighting on the head of a candidate, 
v. 26, 27. (Old Translation.) 

Teshurah = a gift offered with the object of 
being admitted to the presence, iii. 

Thag, equiv. to our English "Thug," iii. 

= simply a " cheat," but may also 
mean a robber, assassin, etc. (tr. "Ban- 
dits") iii. 374. 

Thaghr al-Khanakan = The narrows of the 
(Dervishes') convent, ii. 74. 

Thakalah (Arab.) = heaviness, dulness, 
stupidity (tr. "horseplay") v. 457. 

Thanfyyat al-'Ukab = the Vulture's Pass, 
vi. 181. 

"That a standard be borne over his 
head," i. 161. 

Thayyib (Arab.) = a woman who has 
known man but once, iv. 333. 

" The Astrologers lied," i. 122. 

Theatre (shifting) iii. 429. 

The babe to the blanket, and the adultress 
to the stone, i. 271. 

"The chick is unsatisfied till, etc." a 
translation which pre-supposes the 
reading "Farkhahla atammat" and 
would require "hatta" or "ila" to 
express "till" (ST.) iv. 302. 

44 The green stick is of the trees of Para- 
dise," vi. 9. 

** The hoard hath gone from me, and I 
have waxed feeble," i.e., his strength 
was in the gold, iv. 347. 

"Them" for "her" (often occurrence of) 

v. 178. 
"There is not a present (Teshurah) to 

bring to the man of God," iii. 100. 
"The reed-pen wrote what 'twas bidden 

write" = "Destiny so willed it," vi. 


"There is no harm to thee, and boon of 

health befal thee," auspicious formula, 

vi. 174. 
The sumptuary laws compelling Jews to 

wear yellow turbands, i. 286. 
The sand appeared in the sunlight like unto 

ropes (author and Steingass explain) 

vi. 32. 
"The world was turned topsy-turvy," 

i.e., there was a great movement and 

confusion, iv. 262. 

Thieves with hands lopped off, ii. 44. 
" Thine is ours and on thee shall be whatso 

is on us" = we will assume thy debts 

and responsibilities, ii. 247. 
Thirst takes precedence of hunger, iii. 320. 
This girl is a fat piece of meat (i.e., "There 

are good pickings to be had out of this 

job ") ii. 17. 
Thisjnatter is not far to us= "is not beyond 

our reach." v. 311. 

"This night" for "last night," vi. 128. 
Thiydb 'Amudiyah= striped clothes, ii. 79. 
Those noble steps = thine auspicious visits, 

ii. 82. 
Thou comest to bring us victory ="thou 

comest to our succour," ii. 201. 
Thought reading, iii. 539. 
"Thou hast been absent overlong," a 

kindly phrase pop. addressed to the 

returning traveller, v. 444. 
"Thou hast done justice" ('adalta), also 

means "Thou hast swerved from 

right." "Thou hast wrought equit- 
ably" also= " Thou hast transgressed,-" 

Three Sisters and their Mother, Defects 

in the Story of, iv. 165 
" Three things lack permanency, Wealth 

without trading, Learning without dis- 
putation, Government without justice, 

(Sa'di in the Gulistan) iii. 6. 
Throwing the kerchief (tarammd al Mah- 

ramah) used in the old form of choosing 

a. mate, iv. 31. See iv. 264. 


Supplemental Nights. 

"Thummim" der.from " Tom" = com- 
pleteness, iv. 332. 

Thursday = pay day for the boys in Egypt, 
iv. 98. 

Thrust his finger up his fundament (a dia- 
bolical way of clapping hands in ap- 
plause) ii. 89. 

" Thy commands, O my mother, be upon 
my head," iii. 89, 

"Thy Highness," a form of addressing 
royalty common in Austria, iii. 108. 

*' Thy rose-hued cheek showeth writ new- 
writ," i.e., the growing beard and 
whisker is compared with black letters 
on a white ground, v. 148. 

Tigris, The (Hid-dekel) iv. 151. 

Time, division of, in China and Japan, 
v. 90. 

Tin (Arab.} = clay, mud (used with Tob 
forming walls of Egypt and Assyria) 
vi. 24. 

"Tirrea Bede " (Night 655) note concern- 
ing, v. 119. 

'Tis more acceptable to me than a red 
camel, ii. 248. 

Tisht (a basin for the ewer), tr. " tray," 
v. 428. 

Tither, unable to do evil, i. 245. 

TKhDH ( takhuz-hu, according to 
author) ; may be either 2nd or 8th form 
of "ahad" in the sense that "thou 
comest to an agreement (Ittihad) with 
him," v. 189... 

TMT, i.e., Tammat = She (the tale) is 
finished, vi. 38. 

Tobani = unbaked brick, i. 34. 

Tobbas= " Successors" or the Himyaritic 
kings, ii. 263. 

Tobe = the Anglo- Oriental form of 
"Thaub" = in Arabia a loose robe 
like a night-gown, vi. 139. 

" To-day wine, and to-morrow business," 
ii. 177. 

"To eat skite" = to talk or act foolishly, 
vi. 70. 

Toilette, carrying a portable, iv. 303. 

Tbhfah^A gift, i. 16. 

= a choice gift, ii. 79. 

Tohfat al-Humaka = Choice Gift of the 
Fools, ii. 73. 

al-Kulub= Choice Gift of the Hearts, 

ii. 73- 

Tohfat al-Sudur = Choice Gift of the 
Breasts (i.e., of the hearts) ii. 84-133. 

Tomb of the Moslem, iv. 293. 

Torture endured through Eastern obstinacy, 
i. 293. 

TowabAl- ( of Per. and Turk. 
"Top") = cannon, vi. 186. 

Trafir = trumpets, iii. 137. 

" Treasure- trove," the possession of ex- 
posing the owner to torture, iii. 105. 

True believer imitates sayings and doings 
of the Apostle, ii. 173. 

Tu bara Thag hai = thou art a precious 
rascal, iii. 374. 

Tuha = cooked meat, vi. 187. 

Tuhal or Tihal (Arab.} in text "Tayhal," 
tr. " spleen," v. 53. 

Turayyih (mod. form for "turawwih") 
(ST.) iv. 301. 

Turcoman blood (steed of) iii. 297. 

Turkish Tales by Petis de la Croix, iv. 13. 

Turkumaniyah = Turcomanish (tr. "drago- 
man ish ") ii. 191. 

Turquoise stone, held as a talisman in the 
East, iii. 270. 

Turtiir = the Badawi's bonnet, v. 255. 

"Tutmajiyah" for "Tutmaj" = vermi- 
celli, vi. 160. 

Tutty, in low Lat. " Tutia " prob. from 
Pers. "Tutiyah" = protoxide of zinc, 
v. 352- 

Tuzaribi may mean "Dost thou play the 
part of" (ST.) vi. 57. 

Twelvemonths, *.*., a long time, i. 319. 

UADDfKi," Taadiyah (iid. of Add, he 
assisted) = sending, forwarding (tr. 
"Carry") ii. 77. 

'Ubb (Arab.} = bulge between breast and 
outer robe (tr. " breast pocket ") iii. 

^ 317. 
' Ud = primarily " wood " ; then a " lute " 

(tr. here "fuel") ii. 178. 
'tld Kbayrazan = wood of the rattan, iv. 3 17. 
'Udul (//. of Adil) = men of good reputi 

(tr. "notables") ii. 25. 
Ukiyyah (or Wukiyyah) = ounce = 571 '5 

to 576 grains, vi. 163. 
"Uktuli's-siraj," the Persian "C 

ra bi-kush " = kill the lamp, iii. 84. 



Urn in Kash'am, a slang name for death, iv. 

Ummali (Arab.} ; gen. Ummal, an affirma- 
tion (tr. "True indeed") iv. 193. 

'Ummar = the Jinn (tr. "Haunters") ii, 

Ummu 'Amrin = mother of 'Amru (slang 

term for '"hyaena") iv. 183. 
Under my ribs=In my heart's core, i. 339. 
Unsa-k (Arab.}, an expression used when 

drinking, one's health (tr. "Thy 

favour ") (ST.) v.. 458. 
Unth = Camel, iii. 294. 
Urfm (lights) and Thummim (amulets), iv. 

Urinal (old French name for phial in 

which the patient's water is sent) i. 


'Urkub, a Jew of Yathrib, ii. 164. 
*Urrah (Arat>.} = dung, v. 75. 
'Urs (A1-) w'al-Tuhur = " the wedding 

(which does not drop out of the tale) 

and the circumcision, ii. 90, 
Usburu = be ye patient, v. 83. 
Ushturor " Unth" = camel, iii. 2^4. 

VEIL me = protect my honour, ii. 147. 
Veil (raiser of) means a fitting purchaser, 

Vellication (in cases of axilla-pile), iv. 

"Verily great is their craft" (Koranic 

quotation from " Joseph ") v., 294. 
Viaticum = provision, provaunt- for the 

way, iv. 304. 

Vijdyanagara = City of Victory, iii. 422. 
Violateth my private apartment, ii. 243. 
Violation of the Harem (son " having " 

his father's wives), very common in 

Egypt, v. 44 1. 

Virginity (how proved), iv. 121. 
Visions frequent in Al-Islam, iii. 405. 
Vocative particles (five in Arabic), i. 85. 
Voice (mysterious), ii. 51. 
Voices disembodied, iii. 515. 

from the other world, vi. 227. 

Vows of Pious Moslems, v. 234. 

And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of 



day (also " was surprised by the 

dawn") iv. 6. 
Wa'd al-Banat, or burial of Mauudit 

(living daughter) iii. 498. 
"Wa Ghausah!" = "Ho, to my aid," 

v- 157- 
" Waha," etc. (Arab.} corresponding with 

Syriac " ho " = behold ! i. 275. 
"Wa Hakki man aulani haza '1-Mulk" 

= "and by the right of (my duty 

towards) Him who made me ruler 

over this kingdom" (ST.) iv. 307. 
" inni la-ar'dkum wa ar'a widdda- 

kum," etc., tr. "And I make much 

of you and your love, etc. (ST.) v 

jasad-hu yuhazdimu = his body wa* 

emitting blood freely (ST.) iv. 285. 
" Kita'h hamrah," tr. " also a bit of 

cooked meat," vi. 125. 
Kulli Tarik = night traveller, 

gician, morning star, v. 378. 
" Kuntu raihah ursil wardk " 

regular Fellah language) i. 29. 
" lakin hu ajmalu etc." = '* and yet 

he was more beautiful than they, etc.*' 

(ST.) iv. 260. 
la ahad tafawwaha fma" = "nor 

hath anyone ever spoken," vi. 29. 
*' Id huwa ashamnd min-ka talkas 

(read "talkash") 'ala Harimi-na " 

tr. "that thou wouldst strive to seduce 

our Harim (or " that thou hadst an 

itching after our Harim") (ST.) v. 

" lash : Muradi bas ism al-Madinah " 

(Arab.} For nothing : my only want 

is the city's name, v. 402. 
lau anunahd Ii '1-Mushrikm, etc.," 

lines which have occurred before, v. 55. 
Hahi '1-Muwaffiku '1-Mu'in " = 

God prospereth and directeth (a formula 

often prefixed to a book), vi. 196. 
" min-hum man faha," evidently an 

error of the scribe for " Man nafa-hu," 

v. 114. 
Nikah = conjugal intercourse v. 


" saba'1-dar wa Zaujatu-hu mutaw- 

assin bi-ha," tr. " the house prospered 
for the master and the dame bad 
charge of it," v. 420. 


Supplemental Nights. 

"Wa sdba'l-dar wa Zaujatu-hu mutaw- 
assfn bi-hd," Steingass explains the 
plural " Mutawassin," by supposing 
"Sa"b al-DaV' is blunder for " Sdhihu 
'1- Da"r" and translates " the master of 
the house and his wife took charge of 
her (the nurse) during the days of 
suckling" (ST.) v. 420. 

Sawdbi 'hu (Asa"bi 'a-hu?) fi 

hanaki-h'" tr. " his fingers in his 
mouth and sucking thereat," v. 419. 
- Talattuf Alfdzak wa ma'anik al- 
hfsdn =5 and for the pleasingness of thy 
sayings and meanings so fine and fain 
(ST.) v. 146. 

yabkl 'alaykum Mabdlu-h " = suffer 

only his crime be upon you (Steingass 
reads WabU M for "Mabal," arid 
translates, ''lest the guilt of it rest 
upon you ") vi. 246. 

H zand mujauhar ff-hi Asdwir," etc., 

may mean " and a forearm (became 
manifest) ornamented with jewels, on 
which were bracelets of red gold " 
(ST.) v. 86-7. 

zarr-hd" for " Wa dazz-ha" s= 

besprinkled her (ST.) iv. 314. 
dazzh-d (corruption in MS.) should 
read " wa wazzar-hd " = "and he left 
her" (ST.)iv. 462. 
Waddi = Carry, i. 17. 
Wadi'ah = deposit (here sig. blows), i. 247. 
Wafdt = death (decease, departure, as op- 
posed to Ma'ut = death), . 223. 
" Wdhid min al-Tujjar," the very vulgar 

style, iii. 64. 
Wahsh = Lion, iii. 18. 
Wahwah Al- = the Hue of metal leaves, 

VI. 122. 

Waka'h (Arab.} - an affair (of fight) 

v. 403. 

Wakilah = a khan or caravanserai, iv. 38. 
= an inn (tr. "Caravanserai"), 

v. 455- 

(Egyptian term for a Khan) ii. 153. 

" or caravanserai, v. 273. 

Wakhfmah = an unhealthy land, ii. 87. 

Wakil (A rab) deputy in marriage, 333, 
lit. agent (tr. "trustee") here corre- 
sponding with man who gives away the 
bride, iv. 54. 

Wakt al-Zuhd (Arab.) = the division of , 

time between sunrise and mid-day 
(tr. "undurn hour ") iv. 69. 

"Wa'1-Sulta-nu karaa, etc." = "and the 
Sovran recited his appointed portion of 
the Koran, and then sat down to con- 
vivial converse " (ST.) iv. 244. 

Walad al-Haydh (for "HayaV') tr* 
" Thou make him a child of life," i.e., 
let him be long-lived, v. 378. 

Waldsh (Arab), i.e. " Was la shayya" = 
and nihil (tr. " Anaught") iv. 210. 

Walawa'yh ? = wa'1-aw'iyah (pi. of wi'd) 
= and the vessels ----- shimmered 
like unto silver for their cleanliness, 
(ST.) vi. 122. 

Wdlf = the Civil Governor, iii. 375. 

at one time a Civil Governor, and in 

other ages a Master of Police^ vi. 67. 

Walimah prop. = a marriage feast, iii. 15. 

" Waliyah " or Waliyah " = and why ? 
vi. 59. 

"Walwalah" or "Wilwdl" (an ono- 
matopy), general term for the wail, 
vi. 17. 

Warayatani ila -turdb = thou hast given 
me over to the ground or conceal- 
ment (ST.) iv. 312. 

Wasayah (prob. cler. error for "wa 
Miah" spelt "msiyah" and a 
hundred pair of pigeons) (ST.) v. 217. 

Washing hands and face a preparatory 
washing as a matter of cleanliness pre- 
ceding the formal Wuzu-ablution, iii. 

Water-closet, Eastern goes to, first thing 
in the morning, i. 13. 

wedding night in. iii. 115. 

Watukarribu '1 '-Abda ilayya (referring the 
verb to "Al-Sadakah" = the alms) 
and in bringeth the servant near to 
me" (ST.) iv. 335. 

Waybah = the sixth of an Ardabb (Irdabb) 
= bushels, v. 128. 

Wayha-k (before "Wayla-k") = "Fie 
upon thee," vi. 20. 

Wazifah/r0/. = a task, a stipend, a salary, 
(heretr. "dutie") iii. 328. 

Wazir expected to know everything i 
Oriental countries, iii. 163. 

Waziru 'l-'Arif bi-llahi Ta'ala, Al- = Th 
Wazir - wise - in - Allah - Almighty, iv. 

w We are broken to bits (Kisf,) by our 
own sin," i. 155. 

Weapons and furniture, (z.f., headstalls, 
hobbles, etc.), for mare saddled and 
bridled (price for slave) vi. 92. 

taken from Easterns when embarking 
as passengers, ticketed and placed in 
cabin, v. 403. 

Wedding, description of, iii. 114. 

night in water-closet, iii. 115. 

-- -- night, mothers tell their daughters 
what to expect, iv. 42. 

Weekdays, vi. 13. 

Well, Angels choking up a, v. 332. 

, filled in over the intruding " vil- 
lain " of the piece, v. 332. 

Wept and laughed alternately (nearest 
approach in East, tales to West, hyste- 
rics) iv. 155. 
'What hast thou left behind thee, O, 
Asam"? ie. What didst thou see? 
i. 97- 

What is behind thee ? = What is thy 
news? i. 44. 

["What's past is past and Tffhat is written 
is written and shall come to pass" 
(Sir C. Murray's " Hassan ") iii. 

'What was his affair ? = lit. " How was," 
etc., i. 58. 

" When Adam dolve and Eve span," etc., 
vi. 102. 

When Fate descended (i.e. When the fated 
hour came down from Heaven), i 62, 

.Where am I, and where is the daughter, 
etc. ?= ' What have I to do with, etc." 

Where is the bird ? " = " How far is the 

fowl from thee ?" iv. 300. 
White hand, i.e. gifts and presents, i. 226. 
"White" night, i.e. "pleasant," 

enjoyable," iv. 285. 
'Whose van was not known from its 

krear " = ' both could not' be seen at the 
ame time," v. 189. 

;__ W eal Allah increase," well nigh 
sole equiv. amongst Moslems of our 
" thank you," v. 325. 
* Whoso diggeth a pit shall fall therein," 

i. 119. 

4 Whoso jcorrneyeth not enjoyeth not," ii. 



"Whoso keeneth for himself is not like 
whoso is hired to keen." Proverb = 
"If you want a thing done, etc.," ii. 

"Whoso leaveth issue dieth not" (popular 
saying amongst Moslems) iii. 55. 

Wife (exalting the character of) whilst the 
Mistress is a mere shadow (kind of 
tale not unfre^uent amongst Moslems) 
v- 335- 

" " used for "Hatim," iv. 28. 

Wijak = a stove, a portable hearth (tr. 
"a brazier") v. no. 

Wild ass (onager) iii. 282. 

meat of, iii. 282. 

(skin of) produces the famous Sha- 
green, iii 282. 

Will of man, The, a mighty motor power, 
iii. 426; vi. 126. 

Window gardening, an ancient practice in 
the East, vi. 172. 

Windows (first mention of in Arabic MS. 
of "Alaeddin")iii. 186. 

Wine and Wassail, loose talk, etc., a 
favourite subject with lewd Moslems, ii. 


Wine, carrion and pork lawful to Moslem 
if used to save life, ii. 176. 

Witch, i. 235. 

"With the tongue of the case"= words 
suggested by the circumstance, v. 9. 

" Wi.h love and gladness," ii. 137. 

Without a vein swelling, i.e. t so drunk that 
his circulation had apparently stopped, 
v. 276. 

Wizzatayn = geese, v. 357. 

Woman, fulfilling the desires of, fatal to 
ove, when she revolts against any re- 
duction of it, v. 91. 

"Womankind, 'Allah kill all" (note by 
Dr. Steingass) v. 304. 

Women (Alaeddin used to think all re- 
sembled his mother) ; an absurd state- 
ment to the West but true in the East, 
iii. 97. 

(all of one and the same taste) i. 


" are of little wits and lack-religion," 


drousy charms of, ii. 252. 

Wonders of the (Moslem) Worldfour in 

number, iv. 36. 


Supplemental Nights 

Wormwood, a regular Badawi remedy, iv. 

Wortley Montague MS. quoted, iv. 3, 6, 

19. 35> 49> 74. 90. 95 97 i ol i9- 
44 Woven air," local name of the Patna 

gauzes, iii. 423. 
"Writing and reading," as opposed to our 

" Reading and writing," vi. 5. 
41 Written," either on the Preserved 

Tablet or on the Sutures of the Skull, 

v. 308. 
Wulddn=Ghilman = the boys of Paradise, 

vi. 128. 

XERAFIM, Port, for Ashrafi, iv. 38, 

YA omitted (in poetical fashion) to show 
speaker's emotion, i. 149. 

= { and Mim = m, composing the 
word "Ibrahim," v. 203. 

Aba Sabir = O Abu Sabir, i. 85. 

-'Ars, yd Mu' arras = O pimp, O 

pander, v. 246. 

41 'Arzdd" prob. cler. slip or 

"'Urzdt" (//. of 'Urzah) = a com- 
panion, a (low) fellow, iv. 191. 

Yabahh " = saying "Bah, Bah!" vi. 


Bildl = O generosity, i. 40. 
" Bunayyi " = AY. * O my little son," 

a term of special fondness (tr. " O 

dear, my son'*) vi. 7. 
Yad (A1-) al-bayza = lit. The white hand 

(tr. "largesse") ii. 123. 
Ydfis bin Nuh = Japhet, son of Noah, ii. 

Yaftah 'Allah = Allah open (to thee the 

door of subsistence) ii. 44. 
Yd Gharati a-zay ma hund Rdjil = O, 

the shame of me ! however, O my Lord, 

can there be here a man ? v. 247. 

Dr. Steingass explains and translates, 
v. 247. 

Ya Hdjjah (pron. Hdggeh) = O Pilgrimess, 

i. 198. 
Yd Hazd (Arab.) = Ho, this one," iv. 

Yahjubu (Arab.') aor. of "hajaba" = he 

veiled, put out of sight (ST.) iv. 342. 

Yahya (according to Scott <-'Yiah") T. 


Ydhya, father of Ja'afar, made Wazir by 

Al-Rashid, i. 166. 
"Yd Jad'an" (more gen. " Yd Jad V 

pron.Gad'a) = mon brave, iv. 191. 
Ya Kabiri = my good man (tr. "my 

chief") i. 12. 
Ydkah Thiydbish = his robe* collar rent, 

vi. 247. 

Y Kawaki = O thou brawler, vi. 84. 
Ya Khalati = O my mother's sister (tr. 

" O naunty mine ") i. 32. 
Yakhat (prob. cler. error for " Yakhbut") 

lit. = he was panting in a state of un- 
consciousness, tr. " drowned " in sleep, 

vi. 244. 
Yd Kha.wand = " O lord and master," ii. 

Yakhburu ma'ahu ff '1-Kaldm" lit. ~ he 

experimented with him, i.e., he put him 

to the test (tr. "he spake with him 

softly") (ST.) iv. 307. 
Yaklishu (from V/ Kulsh) = "kicking" 

(their heels) iv. 19. 
Yd'llah, i.e., " By Allah," meaning " Be 

quick ! " v. 325. 
Yd 'llah jdri, yd walad = " Be off at once, 

boy," i'. 9. 
Yallah, Yallah " = By Allah and again 

by Allah i. 9 ; gen. meaning "Look 

sharp" (here syn. with "Allah! 

Allah !" = " I conjure thee by God ") 

v. 302. 
Yd Luss (Arab.) = " O Robber " ( = the 

Gr. Aflo-T^s) vi. 56. 

Yd Madyiinah = O indebted one, i. 249. 
Yamaklak Al- = vivers, provaunt,vi. 180. 
Yamak (Turk.) - food, a meal, vi. 180. 
Yamamah-land, i. 43. 
Yaman A1-, people of, are still deep in the 

Sotadic Zone and practice, v. 42. 
Yamin, copyist's error for "Ydsimln/* 

tr. gelsamine, iii. 19. 
Yd Mu' arras = O fool and disreputable (tr. 

"O pimp") ii. 21. 
Yd Nakbah = O calamity, i. 4. 
Yanjaaru (Arab.) vii. form of " jaara," in 

which the idea of " raising" seems to 

prevail, tr. "mounted," iv. 311. 
Yapousmek (old ver.) = " Yd Aba 

Sumayk," vi. 16. 



\ar'ad = trembleth (also thundereth) i. 166. 
Ya Rajul (for Rajul) = O man (an 

Egypto- Syrian form) iii. 58. 
Yarju (presumably error for " Yarja'u ") 

tr. " retracing their steps," v. 382. 
(may be error for "Yajru") (ST.) 

v. 382. 
41 Ya Sallam" (Arab.) O Saviour" ad- 

dressed to Allah, iv. 63. 
~ Ya Sin " = The Heart of the Koran," 

v. 94. 
44 Yaskut min 'Aynay-h " lit. = fall from 

his two eyes, lose favour (tr. " lose 

regard with him ") i. 77. 
Yasrahu = roaming (tr. " rummaging") 

iv. 19 
41 Yasta'amih'ma al-Mrd " (tr* ' their 

noblest make womanly use of Murd" 

= beardless boys) may also have a 

number of meanings, v. 42. 
Yastanit (Arab.), aor. to the pretext 

"istanat " (ST.) v. 218. 
Yastanit = he listened attentively (tr. " he 

firmly believed ") (ST.) v. 432. 
Ya Sultan- am = " O my chief," v. 312. 
44 " Pers. or Turk, form for Arab. 

" Yd Sultan-i " (" O my Sultan ") iv. 

Ya Ta'asat-na = " O our misery," vi. 

Ya'tadir (dots often omitted in MS.) may 

mean Ya'tazir = find excuse, vi. 20. 
(from v/ 'Adr = heavy rain, bold- 
ness (tr. "fortify himself") vi. 20. 
Ya Ta'is = " O thou miserable," vi. 48. 
Yatama'ash min-hu, tr. " wherewith he 
might nourish himself," v. 472. 

(a denominative of the 5th form of 
" Ma' ash" = livelihood (ST.) v. 473. 

Ya'tamidiina huda-hum = purpose the 
right direction (tr. "those who seek 
their salvation") ii. 32. 

Yatazawadii (Aral>.) = increasing (tr. "con- 
tending") iv. 62. 

Ya'tazar = find excuse, vi. 20. 

Yatbashsh (for " yanbashsha ") = a smiling 
face, vi. 138. 

- may also stand for Yabtashsh, with 
transposition of the "t" of the 8th 
form (ST.) vi. 138. 

Yathrib = Al-Madinah, v. 183. 

the classical name 

(one of the titles of " Madinat al 

Nabi," City of the Prophet) v. 43. 
Ya Tinjir (Arab.} lit. =O Kettle (tr. "0 

Miserable") iv. 71. 
Yauh ! (Arab.) = " Alack ! " iv. 191. 
Yaum al-Ahad = First day (which begins 

the Moslem week) iv. 341. 

al-Jum'ah (Arab.) - Assembly-day, 

Friday, iv. 342. 

al-Khamis (Arab.) fifth day, vi. 13. 

al-Mahshar= lit. the day of Assembly 

(tr. Judgment Day) iii. 21. 

al-Subu' = 7th day, iv. 122. 

Ya walad al-Halal = Othou true-born son 

(or "O! Son of lawful wedlock,") 

(ST ) iv. 267. 
Ya Warid = " O farer to the fountain," 

v. 148. 
Ya Zinat al-Nisa = O adornment of 

womankind, ii. 207. 

Ya zayn= oh, the beautiful beast ! vi. 149. 
Yazghaz-ha fi Shikkati-ha = verb being 

prob. a.cler. error for " Yazaghzahg" 

from y' "Zaghzagha" = he opened 

a skin bag (tr. "thrusting and foining 

at her cleft ") v. 267. 
" Ye are quit of," etc. = You are welcome 

to it and so it becomes lawful (haldl) to 

you, ii. 161. 
Young, a man is, in Arab speech, till forty 

or fifty, iv. 119. 
man, being grown up, would not 

live in his father's house, v. 442. 
Youth worn out by genial labours of the 

(marriage) night, but bride made the 

merrier and livelier (a neat touch of 

realism), v. 429. 
Yufaghghiru = he opened his mouth wide 

(ST.) iv. 265. 
Yughaffiru (probably for yu' aftiru) = 

raising a dust cloud (Sx.) iv. 265. 
wa yuzaghdimu = raising a dustcloud 

and trumpeting with rage, iv. 265. 
Yulakkimu (Arab.) from " Lukmah " a 

mouthful, vi. 75. 
" Yumazasa-hu fi '1-Kalam," evidently 

a clerical error for " Yumdrasa-hu," 

= he tested or tried him in speech 

(ST.) iv. 307. 

Yumkinshayy = " Is it possible," iv, 232 
Yunus = Ibn Habib, a friend of Isaac of 

Mosul, ii. 7*. 


Supplemental Nights. 

Yuzaghdimu, a quadriliteral formed by 
blending two triliterals in one verb, to 
ntensify the idea (ST.) iv. 265. 

Yuzbdshf, in text "Uzbdshd" or 
" uzbdshd " = head of a hundred 
(men) centurion, captain, v. 243. 

ZA'AM = they opine, they declare (tr. 

" They set forth ") i. 50 ; ii. 55. 
Zabh (Zbh) (Arab, tf} = the ceremonial 

killing of animals for food, iv. 32. 
Zabidun (here probably a clerical error for 

Zabid, Cap. of Tahdmah) ii. 193. 
Zdbit = a Prefect of Police, vi. 154. 

(from the v' " Zabt " = keeping in 

subjection, holding tight) tr. " Hold- 
fast," vi. 154. 

Zabdyah = a constable, vi. 154. 
Zad Yakun Z R H ahad fi Mil jazil, 
etc." (error in MS. explained) (ST.) 
v. 72. 

Zadig (Tale of) iv. 7. 
Zafdir al-Jinn = Adiantum Capillus 

veneris, ii. 95. 
Zafar = victory (clerical error for Zafar = 

plaited hair) vi. 104. 
Zaghdrit (//. of Zaghrutah) = loud lulli- 

looing, iv. 267. 

Zahab-ramli = placer-gold, iii. 15. 
Zahr (Arab.} lit. and generically a blossom 

(tr. " orange flower ") iv. 52. 
Al- = duty, vi. 162. 
- al-Bahr = the surface which affords 

a passage to man, iv. 125. 
Zahrat = a blossom especially yellow, 
commonly applied to orange-flower, v. 


al-Hayy, *.*., "Bloom of the 

Tribe," v. 201. 

Za'if = impotent, i. 217. 

"Zakarayn Wizz (ganders) simdn," tr. 
11 a pair of fatted ganders," v. 357. 

Zakdt = legal alms (tr. "poor-rates") iv. 

Zakdt wa Sadakdt = lit. paying of poor 
rate and purifying thy property by 
alms deeds (tr. "goodness and bene- 
ficence and charity and almsdoing ") i. 

Zakka (meaning primarily "a bird feed- 
ing her young ")/r. " largessed," v.i82. 
Zaldbiyah = a pancake, i. 33. 
Zalamah (Al-)= the policeman (tr. "men 

of violence") ii. 52. 
Zalamah (Arab.} = tyrants, vi. 73. 
Zalm = the dewlap of sheep or goat, iii. 


Zamaku-ha, tr. "arabesque'd," v. 133. 
Zamdn, Al- (tr. "A delay ") prob. an 
error for "Yd al-Malik al-Zaman" = 
"O King of the Age," (ST.) iv. 319. 
Zangi-i-Adam-kh'wdr (tr. Ethiopian) 
afterwards called Habashi = an 
Abyssinian, iii. 276. 
Zanzibar = Blackland, iii. 281. 
Zaraba (verb} 3rd form followed by ace. = 
"to join one in partnership" (ST.) 
vi- 57- 
Zardbll (comm. cor. of Zardbin = slaves' 

shoes, slippers) vi. 48. 
Zarb al-Aklam = caligraphy, v. 376. 

tr. "penmanship," v. 432. 

al Fal =. casting lots for presage (tr. 

"prognostic") v. 374. 

Raml (Geomancy) iii. 4. 

Zarbul taki (Arab.} the latter meaning 

" high-heeled," vi. 53. 
Zard-i-Khdyah (Pers.} = yoke of egg, 

iv. 56. 
Zardakdt (for " Zardakhsin ") = silken 

napkins, iv. 55. 

"Zardiya" (for Zaradiyyah = a small 
mail coat, a light helmet), tr. "a 
haubergeon," v. 58. 
Zawadah (gen. " Azwad " or " Azwidah ") 

= provisions, viaticum, vi. 181. 
Zayjah (from (Pers.} " Zdycheh ") = lit. a 

horoscope (tr. "lot") vi. 235. 
Zayn al-Asnam, object of the tale, iii. 


(Turkish) version by Mr. Gibb 

(note) iii. 41; 

old ver. "Ornament (adorn- 
ment ?) of the Statues, iii. 3. 
- (al-Din = Adornment of the Faith 
and owner of) al-Asnam = the Images, 
iii. 3. 

Zifr = nail, claw, talon, iv. 245. 

= horny matter which, according to 

Moslem tradition, covered our first 
parents, vi. 104. 




Zij = table of the stars almanack, Hi. 

Zill (Arab.} lit. = "Shadow me 1 ' (tr. 

" solace me") iv. 58. 
Zimmat = obligation, protection, client - 

ship (tr. "loyalty ") vi. 245. 
Zindik = Atheist, Agnostic, vi. 158. 
Zird-Khanah = armoury, i. 327. 
Zirtah = fart, ii. 56. 
Znnakt-ha, tr. " (striketh) her sting" (?) 

vi- 35- 

Zor-Khan = Lord Violence, i. 94. 
Zubayah's tomb, i. 15. 

"Zug" or draught which gave him rheu- 
matism (tr. " the air smote me," 
V- 157. 

Zuha Al- ( = undurn-hour, or before 
noon) and Maghrib ( = set of sun) 
become Al-Ghaylah ( = Siesta time) 
and Ghaybat al- Shams, in Badawi 
speech, v. 151. 

Zur ghibban, tazid hibban = visits rare 
keep friendship fair, ii. 209. 

Zushad (a fancy name) "Zawash" in 
Persian = Zeus, i. 89. 

Zuwaylah Gate, ii. 8. 





Haykar's precepts may be compared advantageously with those of othe* 
nations of the East and West (at a corresponding stage of civilisation) which, 
as a rule, follow very similar lines. Many of them find their parallels not only 
in Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, as we might reasonably expect, but even in the 
Havama"! of the Elder Edda, respecting which Thorpe remarks in his translation 
(i. p. 36 note): " Odin is the * High One.' The poem is a collection of rules and 
maxims, and stories of himself, some of them not very consistent with our ideas 
of a supreme deity." The style of the Icelandic poenij and the manners of the 
period when it was composed are of course as wide apart from those of Haykar 
as is Iceland from Syria ; but human nature remains the same. 

Pp. 29-32. Two classes of subterfuges similar to those employed by Haykar 
are common in folk-tales. In one, the hero vanquishes, and generally destroys 
his adversary (usually a giant), by imposing on his credulity, like Jack when 
he hid himself in a corner of the room, and left a faggot in his bed for the 
giant to belabour, and- afterwards killed the giant by pretending to rip himself 
up, and defying the other to do the same. In other cases, the hero foils his 
opponents by subterfuges which are admitted to be just, but which are not 
intended actually to deceive, as in the devices by which the blind Shaykh 
instructs the merchant to baffle the sharpers, in one of the Sindibad stories 
(vol. vi., pp. 202-212, No. I35x., of our Table). In the present story Pharaoh 
was baffled by the superior cunning of Haykar, but it is not made quite clear 
whether he actually believed in his power to build a castle in the air or not. 
However the story probably belongs to the second class. 

P. 32. Twisting ropes out of sand was a device by which Michael Scot 
baffled a devil for whom he had to find constant employment. (Cf. Scott's 
" Lay of the Last Minstrel," and notes). 

352 Supplemental Nights. 


I believe the "Robber-Caliph" is sometimes played as a burlesque, for 
which it is well adapted. The parallel suggested between the Caliph and a 
robber may remind the reader of the interview between Alexander the Great 
and the Robber, in " Evenings at Home." One cannot help sympathising with 
the disappointed young Merchant who acted as an informer, and feeling glad that 
he got off with a whole skin. 

P. 44. In some versions of this story Harun's abstention from his bride 
for a year is attributed to a previous vow. 

P. 60 and note i. This passage, relative to the character of the Caliph may 
be compared with his forgetfulness respecting Nur Al-Din Ali and Anis Al- 
Jalis. (Vol. ii., p. 42, and note). 


This story, though much shorter, is very closely paralleled by that of Prince 
Calaf and the Princess of China, in the Thousand and One Days (cf. vol. x., 
App. pp. 499, 5)' Prince Calaf (the son of the King of the Nogais Tartars) and 
his parents are driven from their kingdom by the Sultan of Carizme (Khwa*rizm), 
and take refuge with the Khan of Berlas, where the old King and Queen remain, 
while Calaf proceeds to China, where he engages in an intellectual contest with 
Princess Tourandocte (Turandot, i.e. Turdndokht, or Turan's daughter). 
When Turandot is on the point of defeat, she sends her confidante, a captive 
princess, to Calaf, to worm out his secret (his own name). The confidante, who 
is herself in love with Calaf, horrifies him with the invention that Turandot 
intends to have him secretly assassinated ; but although he drops' his name 
in his consternation, he refuses to fly with his visitor. In the morning 
Turandot declares Calaf 's name to him, but comforts him by saying that she 
has nevertheless determined to accept him as her husband, instead of cutting 
off his head ; and the slave princess commits suicide. Messengers are then 
sent for Calafs parents, who arrive in company with the friendly Khan who 
had granted them an asylum ; and Calaf marches against the Sultan of 
Carizme, who is defeated and slain, when his subjects readily submit to the 

P. 99. According to Jewish tradition, the Rod of Moses became transformed 
into so terrible a dragon that the Egyptians took to flight, and 60,000 of them 
were slain in the press. (Sale's Koran, chap. 7, note.) 

P. 99, note 3. It was long denied that ants store up grain, because our 
English ants do not ; but it is now well known that many foreign species, some 
of which inhabit countries bordering on the Mediterranean (including Palestine) 
store up large quantities of grass-seeds in their nests ; and one ant found 
in North America is said to actually cultivate a particular kind of grass. 

P. 104, note 3. Those interested in the question of the succession of the 
Patriarchs may refer to Joseph Jacobs' article on " Junior-right in Genesis," 1 
in which the writer argues that it was the original custom among the Hebrews, 

Archaeological Review % July, 1888, pp. 331-342. 



as among other nations, for the youngest son to succeed to his father's estates, 
after the elder ones had already established themselves elsewhere. Much may be 
urged in favour of this writer's conclusions, and it will be remembered that our 
own Monarchy was not recognised as hereditary .until the time of the Conquest, 
the most able or the strongest relative of the late King usually succeeding to the 
Crown, and minors being always set aside, unless powerful politicians intended 
to use them as mere tools. In the Esthonian Kalevipoeg the system comes out 
still more strongly. Three sons are living at home at the time of the death 
of Kalev, but the youngest is designated by him as his successor, and is after- 
wards indicated by lot as the pecu ar favourite of the gods. 

P. 108, note I Although it has nothing to do with the present story, yet I 
may point out the great importance of the bridle in all the folk-tales which deal 
with the transformation of human beings into domestic animals. It is clearly 
implied (though not actually expressed) in the story of Julnar the Sea-Born 
(No. 153) that the power of Ab laliah and Badr Basim over Queen Lab, while 
she bore the form of a mule, depended entirely on their keeping possession of 
the bridle (Cf. Nights, vol. vii., p. 304, and note). There are many stories 
of magicians who transform themselves into horses, &c., for their friends .to 
sell ; but the bridle must on no account be given with the horse. Should this 
be neglected (purposely or otherwise) the magician is unable to reassume his 
human form at will. (Cf. also Spitta-Bey's story No. I (infra) .) 

OF BAGHDAD (pp. 119-142.) 

This story appears in Chavis and Cazotte's version, and in the various transla- 
tions made from the French, in a very highly elaborated form, under the litle 
of " The Adventures of Simoustapha, and the Princess Ilsetilsone." The Caliph 
and his Wazir are identified with Harun Al-Rashid and Ja'afar, but they suffer no 
transformations at the hands> of the* Magician, after whose death Prince Simous- 
tapha is protected by Setelpedour Ginatille, whose name is interpreted as meaning 
the Star of the Seven Seas, though the first name appears rather to be a corruption 
of Sitt El Buhur. She is the. queen of Ginnistan, and the daughter of Kokopi- 
lisobe (Satan), whose contests with Mahomet and Michael (the former of whonji 
( ontinues the conflict by " becoming man ") are described on the approved 
Miltonic lines. Her chief councl lors are Bahlisboull (Beelzebub) and Asmonchar 
(Asmodeus), but ultimately she falls in love with Simoustapha, and adjures her 
sovereignty, after which he carries her off, and marries her, upon which the 
mother of Ilsetilsone, "the sensible Zobeide formed now a much truer and 
more favourable judgment of her daughter's happiness, since she had shared 
the heart of Simoustapha with Setelpedour, and at last agreed that the union of 
one man with two women mi^ht be productive of grjeat happiness to all the 
three, provided that one of the wives happened to be a fairy." (Weber, ii. p. 50.) 
A most encouraging sentiment for would-be polygamists, truly, espec ally in 
Europe, where fairies appear to fly before the advance of civilisation as surely 
as the wild beasts of the forest ! 

P. 126. These apparitions resemble those which usually precede the visions 
which appear in the well-known pool of ink. But the sweeper is not men- 
tioned in the present story, nor do I remember reading of his appearing in cases 

354 Supplemental Nights. 

of crystal seeing, though Dante Gabriel Rosetti introduces him into his fine 
poem, " Rose Mary," as preparing the way for the visions seen in the beryl : 

" ( I see a man with a besom grey 
That sweeps the flying dust away.' 
' Ay, that comes first in the mystic sphere ; 
But now that the way is swept and clear, 
Heed well what next you look on there.'" 

P. 132, note. Apropos of the importance of " three days," I may refer to 
the "three days and three nights" which Christ is commonly said to have passed 
in the tomb, and I believe that some mystics assert that three days is the usual 
period required by a man to recover consciousness after death. 

Pp. 134, 135. These worked lions recal the exhibition of power, made by 
Abu Mohammed hight Lazybones (No. 37 ; Nights iv , p. 165). Their Oriental 
prototypes are probably the lions and eagles with which the Jinn ornamented 
the throne of Solomon. In the West, we meet with Southey's amusing 
legend of the Pious Painter J 

" ' Help, help, Blessed Mary,' he cried in alarm, 

As the scaffold sunk under his feet ; 
From the canvass the Virgin extended her arm ; 
She caught the good Painter ; she saved him from harm ; 
There were hundreds who saw in the street." 

The enchanted palaces of the Firm Island, with their prodigies of the Hart 
and the Dogs, &c., may also be mentioned (Amadis of Gaul, book II., 
chap. 21, &c.). 

P P- !35> 136. Stories of changed sex are not uncommon in Eastern and 
classical mythology and folk-lore ; usually, as in this instance, the change of a 
man into a woman, although it is the converse (Apparent, of course) which we 
meet with occasionally in modern medical books. 

In the Nights, &c., we have the story of the Enchanted Spring (No. 135]) in 
the great Sindibad cyclus (Nights, vi., pp. 145-150), and Lane (Modern Egyptians, 
chap, xxv.) relates a story which he heard in Cairo more resembling that 
of the transformed Wazir. In classical legend we have the stories of Tiresias, 
Caeneus, and Iphis. Turning to India, we meet with the prototype of Caeneus 
in Amba, who was reincarnated as Sikhandin, in order to avenge herself on 
Bhishma, and subsequently exchanged her sex with a Yaksha, and became a 
great warrior (Mahabharata Udyoga-Parva, 5942-7057). Some of the versions 
of the Enchanted Spring represent the Prince as recovering his sex by an 
exchange with a demon, thus showing a transition from the story of Sikhandin 
to later replicas. There is also a story of changed sex in the Hindi Baital 
Pachisf ; and no doubt many -others might be quoted. 

FOWLER (pp. 151-164;. 

One of the most curious stories relative to the escape of a captured prey is 
to "be found in the 5th Canto of the Finnish Kalevala. Vainaimoinen, the old 



minstrel, is fishing in the lake where his love, Aino, has drowned herself, 
because she would not marry an old man. He hooks a salmon of very 
peculiar appearance, and while he is speculating about cutting it up and 
cooking it, it leaps from the boat into the water, and then reproaches him 
with his folly, telling him that it is Aino (now transformed into a water- 
nymph) who threw herself in his way to be his life-companion, but that 
owing to his folly in proposing to eat her, he has now lost her for ever. 
Hereupon she disappears, and all his efforts to rediscover her are fruitless. 

THE TALE OF ATTAF (pp. 165-222;. 

P. 178, note 6. I may add that an episode is inserted in the Europeanised 
version of this story, relative to the loves of the son of Chebib and the 
Princess of Herak, which is evidently copied from the first nocturnal 
meeting of Kamaralzaman and Budur (No. 21, Night iii., pp. 223-242), and is 
drawn on exactly similar lines (Weber,!, pp. 508-510). 



(pp. 223261). 

P. 256, note i. Epithets of colour, as applied to seas, frequently have a 
purely mythological application in Eastern tales. Thus, in the story of Zaher 
and Ali (cf. my "New Arabian Nights," p. 13) we read, "You are now upon 
an island of the Black Sea, which encompasses all other seas, and flows 
within Mount Kaf. According to the reports of travellers, it is a ten years* 
voyage before you arrive at the Blue Sea, and it takes full ten years to traverse 
this again to reach the Green Sea, after which there is another ten years' 
voyage before you can reach the Greek Sea, which extends to inhabited 
countries and islands." 

Kenealy says (in a note to his poem on " Night ") that the Atlantic Ocean 
is called the Sea of Darkness, on account of the great irruption of water 
which occasioned its formation ; but this is one of his positive statements 
relative to facts not generally known to the world, for which he considered it 
unnecessary to quote his authority. 

P. 261. According to one account of impalement which I have seen, the 
stake is driven through the flesh of the back beneath the skin. 

Reading the account of the Crucifixion between the lines, I have come to 
the conclusion that the sudden death of Christ was due to his drinking from 
the sponge which had just been offered to him. The liquid, however, is 
said to have been vinegar, and not water ; but this .might have had the same 
effect, or water may have been substituted, perhaps with the connivance of 
Pilate. In the latter case vinegar may only have been mentioned as a blind, 
to deceive the fanatical Jews. The fragmentary accounts of the Crucifixion 
which have come down to us admit of many possible interpretations of details. 

3 $6 Supplemental Nights, 


(Cf. Nights, x., App. ii., pp. 465-532). 

Herewith I add notes on any works of importance which I had not seen 
when my Contributions " were published, or which have appeared since. 
Owing to the occasional missing of a proof, some misprints escaped correction 
in my former article, and these I will place first, along with the correction of 
other slight errors. Tales and more important notes will follow under the same 
headings as before. 

ERRATA, &c., IN VOL. X. 

P. 470, 1. 21 1 for "even has" read "has even," 1. 3 from bottom, for 
Chelih " ran/ " Chebib." 

P. 474, 11. 6 and 5 from bottom, for " taken from Dow's Persian Tales of 
Inatulla,'' read " taken from the latter part of that of Prince Fadlallah (1001 
Days, cf. our p. 500, No. 43 ; or from No. 251] of our Table)." 

P. 491, 1. 14 from bottom, after "frontispieces" add "and an Appendix 
including a table of the tales contained in the MS." 

P. 492, 1. 35, for " 3c " read " 36." 

P. 495, 1- ! 4 fr m bottom, for "Burton Hi." read "Burton ii." 

P. 497. 1. $Jor " Xailonn '' read "Xailoun," 1. 22, for " Mr. W. R. Clouston" 
read " Mr. W. A. Clouston,'' 1. 11 from bottom, for " Kasiwirski" read " Kasi- 

P. 500, 1. 6 for " Dilora" read " Dilara," 1. 8 (No 4a), aatf' c =Nos. 184 and 
251," 1. 16 (No. se.) add <l cf. Nos. I35q and 225," 1. 22 (No. 3), <wtf"=No. 

P. 501, 1. I, after "ants" add "Weber (ii. p. 426) has substituted wild 
beasts ! " 

P. 506, 1. 16, for " 160" read " 140." 

P. 508, 1.8, /or ''Zeloudvit" read " Zelouide et," 1. 19, for "Rose-Tree 1 ' 
read. 4> Nose-Tree," L 13 from bottom, for "Little Fairy" read "Little 



P. 51 1, 1. 22, for " Nouronnihar" read " Nouronihar," 1. 8 from bottom, for 
" Mahommedans" read "Mohammedans," 1. 5-3 from bottom, read "3, Tht 
Count of Hamilton's Fairy Tales. Written shortly after the first publication 
of Gailand's work. There is an English translation among Bohn's Extra 

P. 513,. 1. 24 from bottom, read " My, you ought to seen old Henry the 
Eight," 1. 21 from bottom, for " Nell Gwynne" read kt Nell Gwynn," 1. 13 from 
bottom, for " corn " read " ourn." 

P. 519, No. 100, omit "?" in columns 10 and 15, substituting blanks. 

p. 532, is of course Sir R. F. Burton's, and not mine. 


P. 468, 1. 4 from bottom, Destains' " Mille et une Nuits, n should be noticed 
on p. 472, after 1. 2. The full title is as follows : 

Les Mille et une Nuits y Contes Arabes, Traduits en Francois par Galland, 
Nouvelle edition revue sur les textes orientaux et augmente'e de plusieurs 
nouvelles et contes traduites des langues orientaux, par M. Destains, pre'ce'dee 
d'un notice historique sur Galland par M. Charles Nodier. Paris, 1822. 

This edition is in 6 vols. 8vo, and proves to be of no special interest. The 
first 5 vols. contain the ordinary version of Galland, and the 6th vol. contains 
a selection of tales translated from Scott's vol. 6, eked out with Chavis and 
Calotte's Story of Habib. (No. 250 of our Table) . 


One of the most important works which has appeared lately in connection 
with the Thousand and one Nights, is the following : 

Histoire a* ''Aid Al-Din ou la Lampe Merveilleuse. Texte Arabe public* 
avec une notice sur quelques manuscrits des Mille et une Nuits par H. Zoten- 
berg, roy. 8vo, Pans, Imprime'rie Nationale, 1888, pp. /\ ~"| 70. 

The publication of this work puts an end to the numerous conjectures of 
scholars as to the source of Gailand's unidentified tales ; and the notes on 
various MSS. of the Nights are also very valuable. It therefore appears 
desirable to give a tolerably full sketch of the contents of the book. 1 

M. Zotenberg begins with general remarks, and passes on to discuss 
Gailand's edition (section i). Although Galland frequently speaks of Oriental 
tales a in his journal, kept at Constantinople in 1672 and 1673* yet as he 

1 The proper names are overrun with accents and diaeretical points, of which I have 
here retained but few. 

3 Particularly mentioning Syntipas, the Forty Vizirs, a Turkish romance relating tc 
Alexander, in 120 volumes j and Mohammed al-'Aufi. 

358 Supplemental Nights. 

informs us, in his Dedication to the Marquise d' O., he only succeeded in 
obtaining from Syria a portion of the MS. of the Nights themselves with 
considerable difficulty after his return to France. 

There is some doubt as to the date of appearance of the first 6 vols. of 
Galland's "Mille et une Nuit." According to Caussin de Perceval, vols. i and 
2 were published together in 1 704, and vols. 3 and 4 in the course of the same 
year. Nevertheless, in the copy in the Bibliotheque Nationale, vols. I and 4 
are dated 1704, and vols. 2, 5 and 6 are dated 1705 ; vol. 3 is missing, just as 
we have only odd volumes of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th English editions in the 
British Museum, the ist being still quite unknown. 

M. Zotenberg proceeds to give an account of Galland's MS. (cf. Nights, x. 
App. p. 465), and illustrates it by a specimen page in facsimile. Judging from 
the character of the writing, &c., he considers it to have been transcribed about 
the second half of the I4th century (Sir R. F. Burton suggests about A.D. 1384) 
It is curious that there is a MS. of the I5th century in the Library of the 
Vatican, which appears to be almost a counterpart of Galland's, and likewise 
contains only the first 282 Nights. Galland's MS. wants a leaf extending from 
part of Night 102 to the beginning of Night 104, and containing an account of 
the Hunchback and his buffooneries ; this hiatus is filled up in the Vatican MS. 

Hablcht's version is noted as more approaching Galland's MS. than do the 
texts founded on the Egyptian texts ; but in thus speaking, Zotenberg does not 
notice the assertion that Habicht's MS., though obtained at Tunis, came 
originally from Egypt. He considers the ordinary Egyptian texts to be 
generally abridged and condensed. 

Although it is clear that Gafland mHe great use of this MS. for his trans- 
lation, yet M. Zotenberg points out numerous discrepancies, especially those at 
the commencement of the work, which led Caussin de Perceval to regard 
Galland's work as a mere paraphrase of the original. M. Zotenberg, however 
(p. 14), writes, " Evidemment, Galland, pour la traduction du commencement 
du re*cit, a suivi un texte plus developpe* que celui du MS. 1508, texte dont 
la redaction e'gyptienne ne presente qu'un maladroit abre*geV' He quotes 
other instances which seem to show that Galland had more than one text at his 

Section II. At the beginning of the I7th century, only two MS. of the 
Nights existed in the libraries of Paris, one in Arabic, and the other in Turkish. 
The Arabic MS. contains 870 Nights, and is arbitrarily divided into 29 sections. 
M. Zotenberg considers that it was to this MS. that Galland referred, when he 
said that the complete work was in 36 parts. The tales follow the order of our 
Table as far as No. 7 (Nos. 2ab, 2ac and 3ba are wanting), the remainder are 
irregular, and run as follows : 153, 154, I54a, 20 ; story of Khailedjdn ibn Hdman, 
the Persian ; Story of the Two Old Men, and of Ba"z al-Aschhdb Abou Lahab ; 
9, apparently including as episodes 9a, 9aa, 21, 8, 9b, 170, i8ir to.iSibb, 137, 
154 (commencement repeated), i8iu to i8ibb (repeated), 1353, Adventures of 
a traveller who entered a pond (etang) and underwent metamorphoses : * 
anecdotes and apothegms ; a portion of the Kalila and Dimna ? 

1 Probably similar to those described in the story of the Warlock and the Cook 
(ante*, pp. 135-142)- 

Appendix. 359 

The Turkish MS. (in n vols.) is made up of several imperfect copies, 
which have been improperly put together. The bulk is formed by vols. 2-10 
which are written in three different hands, and some of which bear dale 1046 
A.H. The contents of these nine vols. are as follows : Introduction and 1-3, 
(wanting 2ab) ; Story of 'Abdallah of Basra ; 5 ; Story of 'Attdf ibn Isma'il al- 
Schoqlani of Damascus and the schaikh Abou-'l-Baraka al-Nawwam, 6 ; Story 
told by the Christian Merchant (relating to Qamar al-Zamdn during the reign of 
Sultan Mahmoud, and different from the story known under this title ; Story 
of Ahmad al-Saghir (the little) and Schams al-Qosour ; Story of the Young Man 
of Baghdad and the Bathman (Baigneur, attendant in a Hammam), 7 ; 153, 
21 ; Story of Khaledjan ibn Mahani ; Story of ^- an ^ (or oM ; 
Story Of Nour al-Din 'Ali and of Dounya (or Dinar) of Damascus, 133 ; Story 
of Prince QamanKhan and of the schaikh 'Ata, of the Sultan Mahmoud- Khan, 
of Bahrdm-Schah, of 'Abdallah ibn Hilal, of Harout and Marout, &c. ; Story of 
Qowwat al-Qoloub ; 9, including as episodes 9a ; 8 ; Story of Moubaref who 
slept in the bath ; ( ?=96) ; and 170 ; Fables. 

The other volumes (I and n of the MS.) both contain the beginning of the 
MS. Vol. i was written towards the end of the I7th century, and extends 
about as far Night 55, concluding with No. 7, which follows No. 3. Vol. 1 1., which 
once belonged to Galland, includes only a portion of the Introduction. The 
text of these two fragments is similar, but differs considerably from that 
of vol. 2 of the JMS. ; and specimens of the commencement of vols. i and 2 are 
given to shew this. Yet it is singular that Galland does not seem to have used 
these Turkish volumes ; and the second MS. which he actually used, like the 
4th vol. of the copy preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale, appears to be 

M. Zotenberg then remarks on the missing vol. 4 of Galland, and quotes 
extracts from Galland's Diaiy, shewing that Nos. 191, 192 and 1923, which 
were surreptitiously introduced into his work without his knowledge, and 
greatly to his annoyance, were translated by Petis de la Croix, and were 
probably intended to be included in the Thousand and One Days, which was 
published in 1710. " Comme la plupart de ces contes, ils sont tire's de 1'ouvrage 
turc intitule' S-xtM **> c >)1, dont ils forment le 6 e , le 8 e et le 9 e re'cit." (Zotenberg, 
p. 27.) 

Then follows Section iii., one of the most important in the book, in which 
extracts from Galland's Diary of 1 709 are quoted, shewing that he was then in 
constant communication with a Christian Maronite of Aleppo, named Hanna 
(Jean), who was brought to Paris by the traveller Paul Lucas, and who related 
stories to Galland, of which the latter took copious notes, and most of which he 
worked up into the later volumes of his " Mille et une Nuit " (sic). Among these 
were 193, 1943, I94b, 59, 197, 198, i?4> '95> I94C, 196- The following tales he 
did not use : An Arab story of two cousins, Camar eddin and -Bedr el Bodour ; 
the Golden City (another version of the story of the Three Princes, in No. 198, 
combined with the story of the woman who slew pretenders who > /ere unable to 
solve a riddle) ; The Three Princes, the Genius Morhagian, and his Daughters ; 
and the story of the seller of ptisanne (or diet-drinks) and his son Hassan. 

Further extracts from Galland's Diary are added, extending from the time 
of Hanna's departure from Paris between June and October, 1709, and the 

360 Supplemental Nights. 

completion of the I2th volume of the Mille et une Nuit in 1712. These relate 
to the gradual progress of the work ; and to business in connection with it ; and 
Hanna s name is occasionally mentioned. 

Hanna supplied Galland with a written version of No. 193, and probably of 
194 a-c ; (i.e. most of the tales in vols. 9 and 10) ; but the tales in vols. n and 
12 were apparently edited by Galland from his notes and recollections of 
Hanna's narrations. These are Nos. 195, 196, 59, 197 and 198. M. Zotenberg 
concludes that Hanna possessed a MS. containing all these tales, part of which 
he copied for Galland, and that this copy, like several other important volumes 
which Galland is known or believed to have possessed, was lost. M. Zotenberg 
thinks that .we may expect to meet with most of Hanna's tales either in other 
copies of the Nights, or in some other collection of the same kind. The latter 
supposition appears to me to be by far the most probable. 

[Section IV.] M. Zotenberg proceeds to give an account of one or two 
very important MSS. of the Nights in the Bibliotheque Nationale. One of 
these is a MS. which belonged to the elder Caussin, and was carefully copied 
by Michael Sabbagh from a MS. of Baghdad. Prof. Fleischer, who examined 
it, states (Journal Asiatique, 1827, t. II., p. 221) that it follows the text of 
Habicht, but in a more developed form. M. Zotenberg copies a note at the end, 
finishing up with the word ^-^ (Kabikaj) thrice repeated. This, he explains, 
"est le nom du ge'nie propose* au re'gne des insectes. Les scribes, parfois, 
1'invoquent pour preserver leurs manuscrits de 1'atteinte de vers." 

This MS. was copied at Paris on European paper at the beginning of the 
century, though Caussin de Perceval was not acquainted with it in 1806, but only 
with a MS. of the Egyptian redaction. This MS. agrees with Galland's only as 
far as the 69th Night. It differs from it in two other points ; it contains No. ic 
and the end of No. 3 coincides with the end of Night 69. The contents of 
Nights 70-1001 are as follows : 246, 4, 5, 6, 20, 7, 153, 21, 170, 247, The Unhappy 
Lover confined in the Madhouse (probably = 2O4c),8, 191, 193, 174, 9, 9b (notga, 
or 9aa) and as episodes, 155, 32, and the story of the two brothers 'Amir and 
Ghadir, and their children Djamil and Bathina. 

Another MS., used by Chavis and Cazotte, and Caussin de Perceval, was 
written in the year 1772. It has hitherto been overlooked, because it was 
erroneously stated in the late M. Reinaud's Catalogue to be a MS. containing 
part of the 1001 Nights, extending from Night 282 to Night 631, and copied 
by Chavis. It is not from Chavis' hand, and does not form part of the 
ordinary version of the Nights, but contains the following tales : 174, 248, Story 
of King Sapor, 246, 3a, 36, 3c, 153, Story of the Intendant, the Interpreter, 
and the Young Man ; 24.7, 2O4C, 240, 250, Story of the Caliph and the Fisher- 
man, (probably = 156) ; the Cat and the Fox, and the Little Bird and the 

Another MS., really written by Chavis, commences exactly where Vol. 3 
of Galland's MS. leaves off; i.e. in the middle of No. 21, and extends from 
Night 281 to Night 631. M. Zotenberg supposes it to have been written to 
supply the place of the last volume of Galland's set. It contains the following 
tales, in addition to the conclusion of No. 21 : 170, 247, 2O4C, 8, 191, 193 and 
174. M. Zotenberg suggests that the first part of this MS. may have been 
copied from Galland's last volume, which may have existed at the time in 
private hands. 



The two last MSS. contain nearly the same tales, though with numerous 
variations. M. Zotenberg discusses the hypothesis of Chavis' MS. being a 
translation from the French, and definitely reject it. 

[Section V.] Here M. Zotenberg discusses the MSS. of the Nights in 
general, and divides them into three categories. I. MSS. proceeding from 
Muslim parts of Asia. These, except the MSS. of Michael Sabbagh and 
that of Chavis, contain only the first part of the work. They are all more or 
less incomplete, and stop short in the middle of the text. They are not quite 
uniform, especially in their readings, but generally contain the same tales 
arranged in the same order. II. Recent MSS. of Egyptian origin, characterised 
by a special style, and a more condensed narrative ; by the nature and 
arrangement of the tales ; by a great number of anecdotes and fables ; and by 
the early part of the work containing the great romance of chivalry of King 
Omar Bin Al-Nu'uman. III. MSS. mostly of Egyptian origin, differing 
as much among themselves in the arrangement of the tales, as do those of the 
other groups. 

The following MSS. are mentioned as belonging to the first group : 

I. Galland's MS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Nos. 1506-1508. 

II. MS. in the Vatican, No. 782. 

III. Dr. Russell's MS. from Aleppo. 

IV. MS. in the Bibl. Nat. (Suppl. 1715, I. and II.). 

V. MS. in the Library of Christ Church College, Oxford (No. ccvii.). 

VI. MS. in the Library of the India Office, London (No. 2699). 

VII. Sir W. Jones' MS., used by Richardson. 

VIII. Rich's MS. in the Library of the British Museum (Addit. 7404). 

IX. MS. in Bibl. Nat. (Suppl. 2522 and 2523). 

X. MS. in Bibl. Nat (Suppl. 1716). 

The following MSS. are enumerated as belonging to the second group : 

I. Salt's MS. (printed in Calcutta in 4 vols). 

II.-IV. Three complete MSS. in Bibliotheque Nationale (Suppl. arabe, Nos. 
1717, 1718, 1719). 

V. Incomplete MS. of Vol. II. in Bibl. Nat. (Suppl. Arabe, Nos. 2198 to 

VI. Incomplete MS. of Vol. 4 (Suppl. Arabe, Nos. 2519 to 2521). 

VII. Odd vol. containing Nights.6s6 to 1001 (Suppl. arabe, No. 1721, III). 

XII. MS. containing Wights 284 to 327. (Suppl. Arabe, No. 1720.) 

XIII. MS. in British Museum (Oriental MSS., Nos. 1593 to 1598). 

XIV. Ditto, (Oriental MSS V Nos. 2916 to 2919). 

XV. Burckhardt's MS. in the University Library at Cambridge (B. MSS. 
jo6 to 109). 

XVI. MS. in the Vatican (Nos. 77 to 781). 

XVII. MS. in the Ducal Library at Gotha. 

XVIII. Odd vol. in ditto. 

362 Supplemental Nights. 

XIX. MS. in the Royal Library at Munich. 

XX. Ditto, incomplete (De Sacy's). 

XXL Fragment in the Library of the Royal and Imperial Library at 
Vienna (No. CL.). 

XXII. MS. in the Imperial Public Library at St. Petersburg (Von 

XXIII. MS. in the Library, of the Institute for the Study of Oriental 
languages at St. Petersburg (Italinski's). 

XXIV. Dr. Clarke's MS. (cf. Nights, x., App. pp. 502-506). 

XXV. Caussin de Perceval's MS- 

XXVI. Sir W. Ouseley's MSS. 

The above list does not include copies or fragments in various libraries of 
which M. Zotenberg has no sufficient information, nor miscellaneous collections 
in which tales from the Nights are mixed with others. 

Portions of Habicht's MS. appear to belong to the Egyptian recension, and 
Others to have come from further East. 

There is a MS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale (Suppl. Arabe, No. 1721, IV.) 
front Egypt, containing the first 210 Nights, which somewhat resembles 
Habicht's MS. both in style and in the arrangement of the tales. The Third 
Shaykh's Story (No. I c.) is entirely different from those in the ordinary MSS., 
nor is it the same as that in the Turkish version of the Nights, which is again 
quite different from either. In this MS. (No. 172 1> IV.) No. 6 is followed by 
Nos. 7, 174, and 133 

Then follow notices of Anderson's MS., used by Scott, but which cannot 
now be traced ; the-Calcutta edition of the first 200 Nights ; and of the Wortley 
Montague MS. These form M. Zotenberg's third group. of MSS. 

M. Zotenberg does not enter into the question of the original form, date 
and constituents of the primitive work, but concludes that the complete work 
as we now have it, only assumed its present form at a comparatively recent 
period. But it must not be forgotten that the details, description, manners, 
and style of the tales composing this vast collection, are undergoing daily 
alteration both-from narrators and copyists. 

Then follows an Appendix, in which M.. Zotenberg has copied two tales 
from Galland's journals, which he took down as related by the Maronite 
Hanna. One of these is new to me ; it is the story of the Three Princes, and 
the Genius Morhagian and his Daughters (added at the end of this section) ; 
and the other is the well-known story of the Envious Sisters. 

The remainder of M. Zotenberg's volume contains the Arabic text of the 
story of 'Ala Al-Din, or the Wonderful Lamp, with numerous critical notes, 
most of which refer to Galland's version. A few pages of Chavis' text are 
added for comparison. 

The story itself, M. Zotenberg remarks, is modern, giving a faithful picture 
of Egyptian manners under the reign of the last Mamlouk Sultans. Some 
expressions which occur in the French-Arabic Dictionary of Ellions Bocthor 
and of A. Caussin de Perceval, are apparently derived from the story of 
'Ala Al-Din. 





'[Reprinted by M. Zotenberg (pp. 53-61) from Galland's Journal, MS. francais, 
No. 15277, pp. 120-131. The passages in brackets are added by the present translator 
(chiefly where Galland has inserted " etc.") to fill up the sense. 

When the Sultan of Samarcand had reached a great age, he called the three 
princes, his sons, and after observing that he was much pleased to see how 
much they loved and revered him, he gave them leave to ask for whatever they 
most desired. They had only to speak, and he was ready to grant them what- 
ever they asked, let it be what it might, on the sole condition that he should 
satisfy the eldest first, and the two younger ones afterwards, each in his turn. 
The eldest prince, whose name was Rostam, begged the Sultan to build him a 
cabinet of bricks of gold and silver alternately, and roofed with all kinds of 
precious stones. 

The Sultan issued his orders that very day, but before the roof of the cabinet 
was finished, indeed before any furniture had been put into it, Prince Rostam 
asked his father's leave to sleep there. The Sultan tried to dissuade him, 
saying that [the roof] ought to be finished first ; but the prince was so impatient 
that he ordered his bed to be removed there, and he lay down. He was 
reading the Koran about midnight, when suddenly the floor opened and he 
beheld a most hideous genius named Morhagian rise from the ground, who 
cried out, "You are a prince, but even if you were the Sultan himself, I would 
not refrain from taking vengeance for your rashness in entering this house 
which has been, built just above the palace of my eldest daughter." At the 
same time he paced around the cabinet, and struck its walls, when the whole 
cabinet was reduced, to dust so fine that the wind carried it away, and left not a 
trace of it. The prince drew his sword, and pursued the genius, who took to 
flight until he came to a well, into which he plunged [and vanished]. When 
the prince appeared before his father the Sultan next morning, he was over- 
whelmed with confusion [not only at what had happened, but on account of his 
disobedience to his father, who reproached him severely for having disregarded 
his advice.] 

The second prince, whose name was Gaiath Eddin (Ghay^th al-Din), then re- 
quested the Sultan to build him a cabinet constructed entirely of the bones of 
fishes. The Sultan ordered it to be built, at great expense. Prince Gaiath Eddin 
had no more patience to wait till it was quite finished than his brother Rostam. 
He lay down in the cabinet, notwithstanding the Sultan's warnings, but took care 
to keep his sword by his side. The genius Morhagian appeared to him also at 
midnight, paid him the same compliment, and told him that the cabinet was buiit 
over the palace of his second daughter. He reduced it to dust, and Prince Gaiath 
Eddin pursued him, sword in hand, to the well, where he escaped ; and next day 
the prince appeared before his father, the Sultan [as crestfallen as his brother]. 

The third prince, who was named Badialzaman (Badfu '1-Zamdn = Rarity 
of the Age), obtained leave from the Sultan to build a cabinet entirely of rock 
crystal. He went to sleep there before it was entirely finished, but without saying 
anything to the Sultan, as he was resolved to see whether Morhagian would 
treat him in the same way. Morhagian arrived at midnight, and declared that 

364 Supplemental Nights. 

the cabinet was built over the palace of his third daughter. He destroyed the 
cabinet, and when the prince seized his sword, Morhagian took to flight. 
The prince wounded him three times before he reached the well, but he never- 
theless succeeded in escaping. 

Prince Badialzaman did not present himself to the Sultan, but went to the 
two princes, his brothers, and urged them to pursue the genius in the well itself.. 
The three went together, and the eldest was let down into the well by a rope, 
but after descending a certain distance, he cried out, and asked to be drawn up 
again. He excused his failure by saying that he felt a burning heat [and was 
almost suffocated]. The same thing happened to Prince Gaiath Eddin, who like- 
wise cried out till he was drawn up. Prince Badialzaman then had himself let 
down but comn anded his brothers not to draw him up again, even if he should cry 
out. They let him down, and he cried out, but he continued to descend till he 
reached the bottom of the well, when he untied himself from the rope, and called 
out to his brothers that the air was very foul. At the bottom of the well he 
found an open door, and he advanced for some distance between two walls, at 
the end of which he found a golden door, which he opened, and beheld a 
magnificent palace. He entered and passed through the kitchen and the store- 
rooms, which were filled with all kinds of provisions, and then inspected the 
rooms, when he entered one magnificently furnished with sofas and divans- 
He was curious to find out who lived there, so he hid himself. Soon afterwards 
he beheld a flight of doves alight at the edge of a basin pf water in the middle 
of the court. The doves plunged into the water, and emerged from it as 
women, each of whom immediately set about her appointed work. One went 
to the store room, another to the kitchen, a third began' to sweep [and so on]. 
They prepared a feast [as if for expected guests]. Some time afterwards, 
Badialzaman beheld another flight of ten doves of different colours, who 
surrounded an eleventh, which was quite white, and these also perched on the 
edge of the basin. The ten doves plunged into the basin and came forth as 
women, more beautiful than the first and more magnificently robed. They 
took the while dove and plunged her into a smaller basin, which was [filled 
with] rose [water] and she became a woman of extraordinary beauty. She 
was the eldest daughter of the genius, and her name was Fattane. (Fattanah 
=The Temptress.) 

Two of her attendants then took Fattane under the armpits, and led her to 
her apartment, followed by the others. She took her seat on a small raised 
sofa, and her women separated, some to the right and some to the left, and set 
about their work. Prince Badialzaman had dropped his handkerchief. One of 
the waiting women saw it and picked it up, and when she looked round, she 
saw the prince. She was alarmed, and warned Fattane, who sent some of her 
women to see who the stranger was. The prince came forward, and presented 
himself before Fattane, who beheld a young prince, and gave- him a most 
gracious reception. She made him sit next to her, and inquired what brought 
him there ? He told his story from the beginning to the end, and asked where 
he could find the genius, on whom he wished to take vengeance. Fattane 
smiled, and told him to think no more about it, but only to enjoy himself in the 
good company in which he found himself. They spread the table, and she made 
him sit next to her, and her women played on all kinds of musical instruments 
before they retired to rest. 



Fattane persuaded the prince to stay with her from day to day : but on the 
fortieth day he declared that he could wait no longer, and that it was absolutely 
necessary for him to find out where Morhagian dwelt. The princess acknow- 
ledged that he was her father, and told him that his strength was so great [that 
nobody could overcome him]. She added that she could not inform him 
where to find him, but that her second sister would tell him. She sent one of 
her women to guide him to her sister's palace through a door of communication, 
and to introduce him. He was well received by the fairy, for whom he had a 
letter, and he found her younger and more beautiful than Fattane. He begged 
her to inform him where he could find the genius, but she changed the subject 
of conversation, entertained him magnificently, and kept him with her for 
forty days. On the fortieth day she permitted him to depart, gave him a letter, 
and sent him to her youngest sister, who was a still more beautiful fairy. He 
was received and welcomed with joy. She promised to show him Morhagian's 
dwelling, and she also entertained him for forty days. On the fortieth day she 
tried to dissuade him from his enterprise, but he insisted. She told him that 
Morhagian would grasp his head in one hand, and his feet in the other, and 
would tear him asunder in the middle. But this did not move him, and she 
then told him that he would find Morhagian in a dwelling, long, high and wide 
in proportion to his bulk. The prince sought him out, and the moment he 
caught sight of him, he rushed at him, sword in hand. Morhagian stretched 
out his hand, seized his head in ofte hand and his feet in the other, rent him in 
two with very little effort, and threw him out of a window which overlooked a 

Two women sent by the youngest princess each took a piece of the body of 
the prince, and brought it to their mistress, who put them together, reunited 
them, and restored life to the prince by applying water [of life ?J to the wounds. 
She then asked the prince where he came from, and it seemed to him that he had 
just awakened from sleep ; and she then recalled everything to his recollection. 
But this did not weaken his firm resolve to kill the genius. The fairy begged 
him to eat, but he refused ; and she then urged that Morhagian was her father, 
and that he could only be killed by his own sword, which the prince could not 
obtain. 1 " You may say what you please," answered the prince ; " but there is 
no help for it, and he must die by my hand [to atone for the wrongs which my 
brothers and I have suffered from him]." 

* Then the princess made him swear solemnly to take her as his bride, and 
taught him how he might succeed in killing the genius. u You cannot hope to 
kill him while he wakes," said she, "but when he sleeps it is not quite impos- 
sible. If he sleeps, you will hear him snore, but he will sleep with his eyes 
open, which is a sign that he has fallen into a very profound slumber. As he 
fills the whole room, step upon him and seize his sword which hangs above his 
head, and then strike him on the neck. The blow will not kill him, but as he 
wakes, he will tell you to strike him a second time. But beware of doing this, 
[for if you strike him again, the wound will heal of itself, and he will spring up 
and kill you, and me after you]." 

1 The last clause is very short and obscure m the French " qu'il n'a pas son sabce/* 
but what follows shows the real meaning to be that given above. (W. F. K.) 

366 Supplemental Nights, 

Then Badialzaman returned to Morhagian's room, and found him snoring 
so loud that everything around him shook. The prince entered, though not 
without. trembling, and walked over him till he was able to seize the sword 
when he struck him a violent blow on the neck. Morhagian awoke, cursing his 
daughter, and cried out to the prince, whom he recognised, u Make an end of 
me." The prince answered that what he had done was enough, and he left him, 
and Morhagian died. 

The prince carried off Morhagian's sword, which he thought would be useful 
to him in other encounters ; and as he went, he passed a magnificent stable in 
which he saw a splendid horse. He returned to the fairy and related to her 
what he had done, and added that he would like to carry off the. horse, but he 
feared it would be very difficult. " Not so difficult as you think," said she. 
11 Go and cut off some hair from his tail, and take care of it, and whenever you 
are in need, burn one or two of the hairs, and he will be with you immediately 
[and will bring you whatever you require].'' 

After this the three fairies assembled together, and the prince promised that 
the two princes, his brothers, should marry the other two sisters. Each fairy 
reduced her palace to the size of a small ball, which she gave to the prince. 

The prince then took the three fairies to the bottom of the well. His father, 
the Sultan, had long believed that he was dead, and had put on mourning for 
him. His two brothers often came to the well, and they happened to be there 
just at the time. Badialzaman attracted their attention by his 'shouts, told 
them what had happened, and added that he had brought the three fairies 
with him. He asked for a rope and fastened the eldest fairy to it, calling out, 
"Pull away, Prince Rostam, I send you your good fortune." The rope was 
let down again, and he fastened the second fairy to it, calling out " Brother 
Gaiath Eddin, pull up your good fortune too." 

The third fairy, who was to marry Badialzaman, begged him to allow him- 
self to be drawn up before her [as she was distrustful of his brothers], but he 
would not listen to her. As soon- as the two princes had drawn her up so high 
that they could see her, they began to dispute who should have her. Then the 
fairy cried out to Badialzaman, " Prince, did I not warn you of this ? 1f 

The princes were obliged to agree that the Sultan stiould settle their dispute. 
When the third fairy had been drawn out of the well, the three fairies 
endeavoured to persuade the two princes to draw up their youngest brother, 
but they refused, and compelled them to follow them. While they carried off 
the youngest princess, the other two asked leave to say adieu to prince Badial- 
zaman. They cried out from the top of the well, " Prince, have patience till 
Friday, when you will see six bulls pass by three red ones and three black ones. 
Mount upon one of the red ones and he will bring you up to the earth, but 
take gpod care not to mount upon a black one, for he woi?ld car?y you down to 
the Seventh Earth." x 

The princes carried off the three fairies, and on Friday, three days after- 
wards, the six bulls appeared. Badialzaman was about to mount upon a red 
one, when a black one prevented him, and compelled him to mount his back, 

1 This I take to be the meaning of the words, " une autre monde ous la terre p*r 



when he plunged through the earth till he stopped at a large town in another 
world. He entered the town, and took up his abode with an old woman, to 
whom he gave a piece of gold to provide him with something to eat, for he was 

no other water. She then informed him that the town was supplied with water 
from a very copious spring, the flow of which was interrupted by a monster. 
They were obliged to offer up a girl to be devoured by it on every Friday 
To-day the princess, the Sultan's daughter, was to be given up to him, and 
while the monster emerged from his lair to devour her, enough waiter would 
flow for everyone to supply himself until the following Friday. 

. Badialzaman then requested the old. woman to show him the way to the 
place where the princess was already exposed ; but she was so much afraid 
that he had much trouble in persuading her to come out of her house to show 
him what direction to take. He went out of the town, and went on till he saw 
.the princess who made a sign to him from a distance to approach no nearer ; 
and the nearer he came, the more anxiety she displayed. As soon as he was 
within hearing, he shouted to her not to be afraid ; and he sat' down beside 
her, and fell asleep, after having begged her. to wake him as soon as the fnonster 
appeared. Presently a tear from the princess fell upon his face, and he woke 
up, and saw the monster, which he slew with the sword of Morhagian, and the 
water flowed in abundance. The princess thanked her deliverer, and begged 
him to take, her back to the Sultan her father, who would give proofs of his 
gratitude ; but he excused himself. She then marked his shoulder with the 
blood of the monster without his noticing it. The princess then returned to 
.the town, and was led back to the palace, where she related to the Sultan [all 
that had happened]. Then the Sultan commanded that all the men in the 
town should pass before himself and the princess under pain of death. Badial- 
zaman tried to conceal himself in a khan, but. he was compelled to come with 
'the others. The princess recognised him, and threw an apple at him to point 
him out. He was seized, and brought before the Sultan, who demanded what 
he could do to serve him. The prince hesitated, but at length he requested the 
Sultan to show him the way to return to the world from whence he came. The 
Sultan was furious, and would have ordered him to be burned as a heretic [but 
the princess interceded for his life]. The Sultan then treated him as a madman, 
and drove him ignominiously from the town, and he wandered away without 
"knowing where he was going. At length he arrived at a mountain of rock, 
where he saw a great serpent rising from his lair to prey on young Rokhs. He 
slew the serpent with the sword of Morhagian, and the father and mother of the 
Rokhs arrived at the moment, and asked him to demand whatever he desired in 
return. He hesitated awhile, but at length he asked them to show him the way 
to the upper world. The male Rokh then told him to prepare ten quarters of 
mutton, to mount On his back, and to give him some of the meat whenever he 
should turn his head either to one side or to the other on the journey. 

The prince mounted on the back of the Rokh, the Rokh stamped with his 
foot, and the earth opened before them wherever he turned. They reached 
the bottom of the well when the Rokh turned his head, but there was no more 
meat left, so the prince cut off the calf of his leg, and give it to him. When 

368 Supplemental Nights. 

the Rokh arrived at the top of the well, the prinoe leaped to the ground, when 
the Rokh perceived [that he was lame, when he inquired the reason, and the 
prince explained what had happened] The Rokh then disgorged the calf of the 
leg, and returned it to its place, when it grew fast, and the prince was cared 

As the prinee left the well, he met a peasant, and changed clothes with him, 
but he kept the sword, the three balls, and the horse-hair. He went into the 
town, where'he took lodgings with a tailor^ and kept himself in retirement. 
The prince gradually rose in the tailor's esteem by letting him perceive that he 
knew how to sew, [and all the arts of an accomplished tailor]. Presently, pre- 
parations were made for the wedding of Prince Rostam, and the tailor with whom 
Badialzaman lodged was ordered to prepare the fairy's robes. Badialzaman, who 
slept in the shop, took clothes from one of 'the balls similar to' those which 
were already far advanced, and put them in the place of the others. The tailor 
was astonished [at their fine workmanship] and wished to take the prince with 
him to receive a present, but he refused, alleging as an excuse that he had so 
lately come to the town. When the fairies saw the clothes, they thought it a 
good omen. 

The wedding day arrived, and they threw the jarid, 1 [and practised other 
martial exercises]. It was a grand festival, and all the shops were closed. The 
tailor wished to take the prince to see the spectacle, but he put him off with an 
excuse. However, he went to a retired part of the town, where he struck fire 
with a gun,* and burned a little of the horse-hair. The horse appeared, and 
he told him to bring him a complete outfit all in red, and that he should like- 
wise appear with trappings, jewels &c,, and a reed (jan'd) of the same colour. The" 
prince then mounted the horse, and proceeded to the race-course, where his 
appearance excited general admiration. At the close of the sports, he cut off 
the head of Prince Rostam, and the horsemen pursued him, but were unable to 
overtake him, and soon lost sight of him. He returned to the shop dressed as 
usual before the arrival of the tailor, who related to him what had happened, of 
wjiich he pretended to be entirely ignorant. There was a great mourning at the 
court ; but three months afterwards, fresh robes were ordered for the wedding of 
the. second prince. The fairies were confirmed in their suspicions when they 
saw the fresh clothes [which Badialzaman sent them]. 

Orr the wedding day they again assembled to throw the jarfd. Prince 
Badialzaman now presented himself on, the white horse, robed in white, and 
with pearls and jewels to match, and again he attracted general admiration. 
He pushed himself into the midst of a guard of eight hundred horsemen, and 
slew Gaiath Eddin. They rushed upon him, and he allowed himself to be 
carried before the Sultan, who recognised him, [and pronounced his decision], 
" A brother who has been abandoned to die by his brothers, has a right to kill 

After- this, Prince Badialzaman espoused the youngest princess, and the 
two others were given in marriage to two princes who were related to the 

1 Galland writes "on fait un jeu de Giret (tournoi; etc.?' (W. F. K.) 
a Perhaps an error of Galland's. ( W. F".' K.). 

Appendix. 369 


P. 475.- There is a small Dutch work, the title of which is as follows : 

Oostersche Vertellingen, uit de Duizend-en-cen-Nacht : Naar de Hoog- 
duitsche Bewerking van M. Claudius, 1 voor de Nederlandsche Jeugduiitgegeven 
door J. J. A. Gouverneur. Te Groningen, bij B. Wolters (n.d. 8vo., pp. 281, 
col. front, (illustrating No. 170). 

A composite juvenile edition, including Introduction (very short), and Nos. 
25 ig, 36a, 163 (complete form), 6ef, 4, 5, i, 52, 170, 6ee, 223, 2o;c, 6, 1940, 
2o6a, 204h, 2a, I74a and Introduction, (a.) 

Derived from at least four different sources. 


Under this heading I have to record Sir Richard and Lady Burton s own 
! works. 

Lady Burton's Edition of her husband's Arabian Nights, translated 
literally from the Arabic, prepared for household reading by Justin Huntly 
McCarthy, M. P., London, Waterlow and Sons, Roy. 8vo. 6 vols. 

In preparing this edition for the press, as much as possible has been 
retained, both of the translation and notes ; and it has not been found necessary 
to omit altogether more than a very few of the least important tales. The 
contents of the 6 volumes are as follows : 

Vol I. (1886), Frontispiece (Portrait of Lady Burton), Preface, Translator's 
Foreword, Introduction, 1-9 (pp. xxiii. 476). 

Vol. II. (1886), Frontispiece (Portrait of Sir Richard F. Burton), 9 (con- 
^tinued), ga-29 (pp. ii. 526). 

Vol. III. (1887), 29 (continued)-! 336 (pp. yiii. 511). 

Vol. IV. (1887), 1336 (continued)- 1 54a (pp. iv. 514). 

Vol. V. (1887), I54a (continued)-i63 (pp. iv. 516). 

Vol. VI. (1886) [? 1888], 163 (continued)-i69 (pp. ii. 486). 

Also includes Terminal Essay, Index to Tales and Proper Names ; Contri- 
butions to Bibliography, as far as it relates to Galland's MS. and Translations}; 
Comparative Table of Tales ; Opinions of the Press ; and Letters from 

Supplemental Nights to the Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, 
with notes anthropological and explanatory, by Richard F. Burton. Benares, 
printed by the Kamashastra Society for private subscribers only. Roy. 8vo. 

The contents of the 6 volumes are as follows : 

Vol. I. (1886) Translator's Foreword, I7o-i8ibb (pp. xi. 370). 

Vol. II. (1886) 182-189. Appendix : Variants and analogues of some of the 
tales in vols. i. and ii., by Mr. W. A. Clouston (pp. ix. 392). 

These two volumes contain the tales peculiar to the Breslau Text, and 
cover the sanfe ground as Mr. Payne's 3 vols. of "Tales from the Arabic. 

1 I do not know the German edition referred to. 

370 Supplemental Nights. 

Vol. III. (1887) Foreword, 191-198. Appendix: Variants and Analogues of the 
Tales in the Supplemental Nights, vol. iii., by Mr. W. A. Clouston (pp. xvi. 66 1) 

This volume, the bulkiest of the whole series, contains such of Galland's 
tales as are not to be found in the ordinary texts of the Nights. 

Vol. IV. (1887) The Translator's Foreword, 203-209 ; App. A. Ineptia: 
fiodleianas ; App. B., The three untranslated tales in Mr. E. J. W. Gibb's 
" Forty Vezirs" ?pp. xv., 381). 

Vol. V. (1888) 210-2413, Translator's Foreword; App. i. Catalogue of 
Wprtley Montague Manuscript ; Contents ; App. ii. Notes on the Stories con- 
tained in vols. iv. and v. of Supplemental Nights, by Mr. W. F. Kirby (pp. viii. 


These two volumes contain tales translated from the Wortley Montague 
MS., used by Jonathan Scott, and now in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. 
The following tales, not in our table, are added : 

Vol. IV. Story of the Limping Schoolmaster (between 2041 and 204]). 

How Drummer Abu Kasim became a Kazi, and Story of the Kazi and his 
Slipper. (These two tales come between 2o6a and 2o6b.) 

Adventure of the Fruit-seller and the Concubine (between 2O7c and 2O7d). 

Tale of the third Larrikin concerning himself (between 208 and 209). 

On the other hand, a few tales in the MS. are omitted as repetitions, or as 
too unimportant to be worth translating : 

Vol. VI. (1888). Translator's Foreword: 248;. 246; The Linguist-Dame, 
the Duenna, and the King's Son j 247 ; The Pleasant History of the Cock "and 
the Fox ; History of what befel the Fowl-let with the Fowler ; 249 ; 250. 

App. i. Index to the Tales and Proper Names ; ii. Alphabetical Table of the 
Notes (Anthropological, &c.) ; iii. Notes on the Stories contained in vol. vi. of 
Supplementary Nights, by W. F. Kirby ; iv. Additional Notes on the Bibliography 
of the Thousand and One Nights, by W. F. Kirby (pp, 201, 384.) ; v.'The Bio- 
graphy of the Book and the Reviewers Reviewed, Opinions of the Press. 

This volume contains the originals of Chavis and Gazette's Tales, omitting 
the four doubtful ones (cf. Nights, x. App., pp. 470, 471). 


"We have also * Aladdin or the Wonderful Lamp,' ' Sindbad the Sailor, or 
the Old Man of the Sea' and 'Ali Baba, or the Forty Thieves,' revised by 
M. E. Braddon, author of ' Lady Audley's Secret,' etc. Illustrated by Gustav 
Dore* and. other artists. London : J. & R. Maxwell. 

' Miss Braddon has contented herself with * Englishing 'the vulgar version, 
whose Gallicisms are so offensive to the national ear." (Sir R. F. Burton, in 


(Pp. soy-s^-) 

B. ENGLISH (pp. 512, 513.) 

13. History of Rhedi, the Hermit of Mount Ararat^ an Oriental Tale, 
By Mackenzie^ i6mo., Dublin, 1781. 
I have not seen this litt.le book. 



14. Miscellanies, consisting of poems, classical extracts, and Oriental 
Apologues. By William Beloe, F.S.A, Translator of Herodotus, frc. 
London, 1795. 

Includes some genuine Oriental tales, such as a version of that of Bsim 
the Smith. 

15. The Orientalist, or Letters of a Rabbi, with Notes by James Noble, 
Oriental Master in the Scottish Naval and Military Academy. Edinburgh, 

Noticed by Mr. W. A. Clouston, Suppl. Nights, iii., p. 573. 

1 6. The Adventures of the Caliph Haroun Al-raschid. Recounted by the 
Author of " Mary Powell" \Miss Manning}. 8vo., London, 1855; Arthur 
Hall, Virtue & Co. 

17. The 1001 Days, a Companion to the Arabian Nights, with introduction 
by Miss [J.] Pardoe. 8vo, London, 1857, woodcuts. 

A miscellaneous collection (partly derived from " Les Mille et un Jours " (cf. 
Nights, x., pp. 499, 500). I have also seen a similar miscellaneous collection 
in French under the latter title. The tales in the English work are as follows : 

I. Hassan Abdallah, or the Enchanted Keys. 
Story of Hassan. 

the Basket Maker. 

j, Dervise Abounader. 

II. Soliman Bey and the Story Tellers. 
The First Story Teller. 

Second Story Teller. 

III Prince Khalaf and the Princess of China. 
Story of Prince Al-Abbas. 

IV. The Wise Dey. 

V. The Tunisian Sage. 

VI. The Nose for Gold. 

VII. The Treasures of Basra. 
History of Aboulcassem. 

VIII. The Old Camel. 

IX. The Story of Medjeddin (Grimm's " Haschem," cf. Nights, x. pp. 474> 


X. King Bedreddin Lolo and his Vizier. 
Story of the Old Slippers. 

Atalmulk, surnamed the Sorrowful Vizier, and the Princess 

Story of Malek and the Princess Schiririe. 

1 8. The Modern Arabian Nights. By Arthur A' Beckett and Linley Sam- 
bourne. London : Bradbury, Agnew & Co., 1877, sm. 4to., with comic coloured 
frontispieces and woodcuts. 

Four clever satires (social and political) as follows : 

1. Alley Baber and Son, a Mock Exchange Story. 

2. Ned Redding and the Beautiful Persian. 

3. The Ride of Captain Alf Rashit to Ke-Vere-Street. 

4. Mr. O'Laddin and the Wonderful Lamp. 

372 Supplemental Nights. 

19. Tales of the Caliph. By Al Arawiyah, 8vo., London, T. Fisher Unwin, 

Belongs to Class 5 (Imitations). Consists of fictitious adventures supposed 
to have happened to Harun Al. Rashid, chiefly during his nocturnal rambles. 

TALES (pp. 497-499)- 

P. 498, line 12. No. 184 was published under the title of "Woman's Wit" 
in the "Literary Souvenir" for 1831, pp. 217-237, derived from LangleV version 
(Mr. L. C. Smithers in ////.). 


P. 499, No. i, Les Mille et un Jours. 

Mr. L. C. Smithers (in ///A) notes English, editions published in 1781 and 
1809, the latter under the title of " The Persian and Turkish Tales." 

P. 501, No. 5. Reciieil de Contes Populaires de la Kabylie du Djurdjura 
recueillis et traduits par J. Riviere. I2mo. Paris : Leroux. 1882. 

This collection is intended to illustrate the habits and ideas of the people. 
The tales are very short, and probably very much abridged, but many of them 
illustrate the Nights. I may note the following tales as specially interesting 
from their connection with the Nights, or with important tales in other collec- 
tions, Oriental or otherwise. 

Thadhillala. A brief abstract of No. 151. 

Les deux Freres. A variant of Herodotus' Story of Rhampsinitus. 

L'homme de bien et le me'chant. A variant of No. 262 ; or Schiller's Fridolin. 

Le Corbeau et 1'Enfant. Here a child is stolen and a crow left in its place. 

H'ab Sliman. Here an ugly girl with foul gifts is substituted for her 

Le roi et son fils. Here we find the counterpart of Schaibar (from No. 197), 
who, however, is a cannibal and devours everybody. 

Les Enfants et la Chauve-sourie. Resembles No. 198. 

Le Joueur de Flute. Resembles Grimm's, story of the Jew in the Bramble- 

Jesus-Christ et la femme infidele. (=261 b.; cf. Nights x., p. 473.) 

Le Roitelet. This is the fable of the Ox and the Frog. 

L'idiot et le coucou (=No. 2o6a.) 

Moh'amed ben Soltan. This is one of the class of stories known to folk- 
lorists as the Punchkin series. The life of a Ghul is hidden in an egg, the egg 
in a pigeon, the pigeon in a camel, and the camel in the sea. 

Les deux Freres. A Cinderella story. The slayer of a hydra is discovered 
by trying on a shoe. 

Les trois Freres. Here a Ghul is killed by a single blow from a magic 
dagger, which must not be repeated. (Cf. antea, p-36; and Nights, vii. p. 361.) 
In this story, too, the protection of a Ghulah is secured by tasting her milk, a 
point which we find in Spitta Bey's " Contes Ara'bes Modernes," but not in the 



9. Turkish Evening Entertainments. " The Wonders of Remarkable 
Incidents and the Rarities of Anecdotes," by Ahmed ibn Hemdem the Ketkhoda 
cal ed * Sobailee . Translated from the Turkish by John F. Brown. 8vo 
New York, 1850. 

Contains a great number of tales and anecdotes, divided into 37 chapters, 
many of which bear such headings as " Illustrative of intelligence and piety/' 
" On justice and fostering care," "Anecdotes about the Abbaside Caliphs," &c. 

" A translation of the Turkish story-book, ' Aja'ib al-ma'dsir wa ghara 'ib en- 
nawddir/ written for MuM the Fourth Ottoman Sultan who reigned between 
1623-40. A volume of interesting anecdotes from- the Arabic and Persian " 
(Mr. L. C. Smithers, in litt.} 

10. Contes Arabes Modernes^ recueillis et traduits par Guillaume Spitia- 
Bey. 8vo. Leyden and Paris, 1883. 

This book contains 12 orally collected tales of such great importance from a 
folk-lore point of view that I have given full abstracts of all. They are designed 
to illustrate the spoken Egyptian dialect, and are printed in Roman character, 
with translation and glossary. The hero of nearly all the tales is called 
J Mohammed P A vise/' which Mr. Sydney Hartland renders " Prudent," and 
Mr. W. A. Clouston i' Discreet." The orignal gives Es's'atir Mehammed." (Al- 
Shjitir Mohammed, z>., M. the Clever ) The frequent occurrence of the number 
39 (forty less one) may also be noted. Ghuls often play the part which we 
should expect Jinn to fill. The bear which occurs in two stories, is not an 
Egyptian animal. Having called attention to these general features we may 
leave the tales to speak for themselves. 

I. Histoire de Mohammed t Avise. 

Contains the essential features of Cazotte's story of the Maugraby, (cf. 
Nights, x., p. 471) with interesting additions. The " Mogrdbin " confers three 
sons on a king and queen, and claims Mohammed, the eldest and the cleverest. 
He gives him a book to read during his absence of 30 days, but on the 2Qth 
day he finds a girl hanging by her hair in the garden, and she teaches him to 
read it, but not to tell the magician. The latter cuts off his arm, threatening to 
cut off his head if he cannot read the book within another 30 days. As soon as 
he is gone, Mohammed reads on his arm again with the book, and escapes with 
the girl, when they separate and return to their respective homes. Mohammed, 
then changes himself into a sheep for his mother to sell, but warns her not to 
sell the cord round his neck. Next day he changes himself into a camel, for- 
bidding his mother to sell the bridle ; but she is persuaded to do so, and he falls 
into the hands of the magician. But he contrives to escape in the form of a 
crow and the magician pursues him for two days and nights in the form of a 
hawk, when he descends into the garden of the king whose daughter he had 
rescued from the magician,, and changes himself into a pomegranate on a tree. 
The magician asks for and receives the pomegranate, when it bursts, and the 
seed containing the life of Mohammed rolls under the king's throne. The 
magician changes himself into a cock, and picks up the seeds, but while he is 
searching for the last, it changes into a dagger, and cuts him in two. The 
princess acknowledges Mohammed as her deliverer, and they are married. 

374 Supplemental Nights. 

II. Histoire de POurs de Cuisine. 

This begins as a swan-maiden story. 1 A king steals the feather-dress of a 
bathing maiden, who will only marry him on condition that she shall tear out 
the eyes of his forty women (39 white slaves and a princess). The king answers, 
" C'est bien, il n'y a pas d'inconvenient." The forty blind women are shut up 
in a room under the kitchen, where they give birth to children whom they cut 
up and divide ; but the princess saves her shares and thus preserves her son, 
whom she calls ' ' Mohammed 1'AviseY' and teaches to read. He steals 
food from the kitchen, calling himself " Ours de Cuisine ; " the queen hears of 
him, pretends to be ill, and demands that he shall be sent to fetch the heart of 
the Bull of the Black Valley. He finds a Ghuleh sitting with her breasts thrown 
back on her shoulders, so he tastes her milk unperceived, and she at once 
adopts him as her son. She gives him a ball and a dagger, warning him that 
if he strikes the bull more than once, he will sink into the earth with him. The 
ball rolls before him, and when it stops, the bull rises from the ground. 
Mohammed kills him, refusing to repeat the blow, returns the ball and dagger 
to the Ghuleh, and returns home. A few days afterwards, the queen sends- 
Mohammed to fetch the heart of the Bull of the Red Valley, and when he 
informs the Ghuleh, she says, " Does she wish to kill her second brother too ?'* 
" Are these her brothers ? " asked Mohammed. She answered, " Yes, indeed, they 
are the sons of the Sultan of the Jdnn." He kills the Bull as before. A fortnight 
afterwards, the queen hides a loaf of dry bread under her mattress, when its 
cracking gives rise to the idea that she is very ill, and she complains of great 
pain in the sides. She demands a pomegranate from the White Valley, where 
the pomegranates grow to the weight of half a cantar. 2 The Ghuleh tells him 
she cannot help him, but he must wait for her son Abderrahym. When he 
arrives he remarks, "Hum ! mother, there's a smell of man about you, bring 
him here to me to eat for breakfast." But his mother introduces Mohammed 
to him as his foster brother, and he becomes friendly at once, but says that the 
pomegranate is the queen's sister. He tells Mohammed to get an ardebb of 
small round loaves in a basket, along with a piece of meat, and a piece of liver. 
The Ghul then gives him a rod, saying, " Throw it down, and walk after it. 
It will knock at the garden gate, which will open, and when you enter you 
will find great dogs, but throw the bread right and left, without looking back. 
Beyond a second gate you will find Ghuls ; throw bread to them right and left, 
and after passing them, look up, and you will find a tree in a fountain surrounded 

1 This great class of tales is quite as widely extended in the north of Europe and 
Asia, as in the south. We meet with them in Siberia, and they are particularly common 
in Lapland. I believe, too that the Indian story of the Red Swan, (referred to by- 
Longfellow, Hiawatha, xii.) is only a Swan Maiden legend in a rather modified form. 
As usual, we find a bizarre form of the Swan Maiden story among the Samoghitians of 
Lithuania. The Zemyne is a one-eyed venomous snake, with black blood which cures 
all diseases and neutralises all magic* It is an enchanted maiden j and sometimes the 
skin has been stolen, and she has married a man. But if she recovers her skin, she 
resumes her snake-form, and bites and kills her husband and children. Many other 
strange things are related of the Zemyne (Veckenstcdt, Mythen, Sagen, und Legenden 
der Zamaiten, ii., pp. 149-152). 

2 About twenty pounds. 

.Appendix. 37$ 

with roses and jasmine. You will see a pomegranate upon it. Gather it, and 
t will thunder, but fear nothing, and go on your way directly, and do not look 
behind you after passing the gate.'' The queen waits another fortnight, and 
then demands the flying castle from Mount Kaf, intending that her father, who 
dwelt there, should burn him. The Ghiileh directed Mohammed to dye himself 
black, and to provide himself with some mastic (ladin) and lupines. With these, 
he makes friends with a black slave, who takes him into the castle, and shows 
him a bottle containing the life of the queen ; another containing the eyes of 
the forty women ; a magic sword which spares nothing, and the ring which 
moves the castle. Mohammed then sees a beetle, 1 which the slave begs him 
.not to kill, as it is his life. He watches it till it enters a hole, and as soon 
as the slave is asleep, he kills it, and the . slave dies. Then he lays hands on 
the talismans,- rushes into the room where the inhabitants of the castle are 
condoling with the king and queen on the loss of their three children, and draws 
the sword, c saying <c Strike right and left, and spare neither great nor small." 
Having slain all in the castle, Mohammed removes it to "his father's palace, 
when his father orders the cannons to be fired. Then Mohammed tells his 
father his history, compels the queen to restore the eyes of the forty women, 
when they become prettier than before^ and then gives her the flask containing 
her life. But she drops it in her fright, and her life ends, and the king places 
Mohammed on the throne. 

III. Histoire de la Dame des Arabts Jasmin. 

A king sends his wazir to obtain a talisman of good luck, which is 
written for him by Jasmine, the daughter of an Arab Sheikh. The king marries 
her, although she demands to be weighed'fcgainstgold, but drives her away for 
kissing a fisherman in return for a bottle which he has drawn out of the river 
for her. She goes two days' journey to a town, where she takes up her abode 
with a merchant, and then discovers that whenever she turns the stopper of the 
bottle, foOd, drink,, and finally ten white dancing girls emerge from it. The girls 
dance, each throws her ten purses of money, and then they retire into the bottle. 
She builds herself a grand palace, where her husband seeks her, and seeing the 
new palace, orders that no lights shall be lit in -the town that night. She lights 
up her palace, which convinces the king that he has, a dangerous rival. Then 
the wazir and the king visit her ; the king asks for. the bottle, and she demands 
more than a kiss, then reveals herself, puts the king to shame, and they arc 

IV * Histoire du Pe'chewr et de son Fits. 

A king falls in love with the wife of a fisherman, and the wazir advises the 
former to require the fisherman on pain of death to furnish a large hall with a 
carpet in a single piece. The fisherman's wife sends him to the well of Shoubfah 
where he exclaims, " O such-and-such-a-one, thy sister so-and-so salutes thee, 
and asks thee to send her the spindle which she forgot when she was with thee 
yesterday, for we want to furnish a room with it " The fisherman drives a nail 

1 Spitta Bey (p. 27 note) suggests that this is a reminiscence of the ancient Egyptian 
idea of the Scarabaeu:... which typifies life. 

Supplemental Nights. 

into the floor at one end of the room, fixes the thread on the spindle to it, and 
draws out a wonderful carpet. Then the wazir demands a little boy eight days 
old, who shall tell a story of which the beginning shall be a lie and the end a lie. 
The fisherman is sent to the well with the message, " O such-and-such-a-one, 
thy sister so-and-so greets thee, and requests thee to ;give her the child which 
she brought into the world yesterday." But -the. child only cries until three 
gnats are applied to him, one on each side, and one on the back. Then the boy 
speaks, saying, " Peace be on thee, O king ! " and afterwards tells his lying 
story : " When I was in the flower of my youth, I walked out of the town one 
day into the fields when it very hot., I met a melon-seller, I bought 
a melon for a mahboub, took it, cut out a piece, and looked inside, when I saw 
a town with a grand hall, when I raised my feet and stepped into the melon. 
Then I walked about to look at the people of the town inside the melon. I 
walked on till I came out of the town into the country. There. I saw a date 
tree bearing dates a ynrd long. I wished for some, and climbed the date-tree to 
gather a date and eat it. There I found peasants sowing and reaping on the 
date-tree, and the threshing wheels were turning to thresh the wheat 1 walked 
on a little, and met a man who was beating eggs to make a poultry yard. I 
looked on, and saw the chickens hatch ; the cocks went to one side and the hens 
to the other. I stayed near .them till they grew up, when I married them to each 
Other, and went on. Presently I met a donkey carrying sesame-cakes, so I cut 
off a piece and ate it. When I had eaten it, I looked up, and found myself 
outside the melon, and the melon became whole as it was at first." Then the 
child rebukes and threatens the king and the wazir, and the fisherman's wife 
sends her husband to take the child back to the well. 

The fisherman had a son named Mohammed PAvise (Al-Shdtir), who was as 
handsome as his mother ; but the king had a son whose complexion was like that 
of a Fellah. The boys went to school together, and the prince used to say, 
" Good day, fisherman's son," and Mohammed used to reply, "Good day, O son of 
the king, looking like a shoe-string:** The prince complained to his father, whc 
ordered the schoolmaster to kill Mohammed, and he bastinadoed him severely. 
The boy went to his father, and turned fisherman. On the first day he caught a 
mullet (Fr. rouget\ and was about to fry it, when it cried out that it was one of 
the princesses of the river, and he threw it back. Then the wazir advised the king 
to send Mohammed to fetch the daughter of 'the king of the Green Country, 
seven years journey distant. By the advice of the fish, Mohammed asked the 
king for a golden galley ; and on reaching the Green Country, invited the 
inhabitants to inspect his galley. At last the-princess came down, and he carried 
her off. When she found she was entrapped, she threw her ring into the sea, 
which the fish caught. When the king proposed to the princess, she first 
demanded her ring, which Mohammed immediately presented to the king. 
Then she said it was the custom of her country on the occasi6n of a marriage to 
dig a trench from the palace to the river, which was filled with wood, and set on 
The bridegroom was required to walk through the trench to the river. 
The wazir proposed that Mohammed should walk through the trench first ,' and 
by the fish's advice, he stopped his ears, cried out, " In the name of God', the 
Compassioning, the Merciful," threw himself into the trench, and returned from 
the jiver handsomer than before. So the wazir said to the king, "Send for 
your son to go with us, that he may become as handsome as Mohammed " So 


the three threw themselves into the fire, and were burned to ashes, and 
Mohammed married the princess. 

V. DaldL 

Dalai was a little girl, the daughter of a king, Vvho found a louse on her 
head, and put it into a jar of oil, where it remained till Dalai was twenty years 
old, when it burst the jar, and emerged in the form of a horned buffalo. The 
king ordered the hide to be hung at the gate of the palace, and proclaimed that 
anyone who could discover what the skin was should marry his daughter, but 
w hoever tried and failed should lose his head. Thirty-nine suitors thus perished, 
when a Ghul passed by in the form of a man, who knew the secret. He took Dalai 
home with him and brought her a man's head, but as she would not eat it, he 
brought her a sheep. He then visited her under the forms of her mother and her 
two aunts, and told her that her husband was a Ghul ; but she refused to believe it 
until the third visit. Then he was angry ; but she begged him to let her go to 
the bath before she was eaten. He consented, took her to a bath, and sat at 
the door ; but she rubbed herself with mud, changed clothes with an old lupine- 
seller, and escaped for a time. She reached a palace which she would not 
enter until she was invited by the Prince himself, who then proposed to marry 
her. but on the wedding day, her husband, having tracked her out, contrived 
that another Ghul in the form of a man should present him to the king in the 
form of a sheep, pretending that he had been reared in a harem, and would 
bleat so loud that nobody could sleep, unless he was tethered in the women's 
apartments. At night the Ghul carried off Dalai from beside the prince to the 
adjoining room, but she begged to be allowed to retire fora few moments, when 
'she called upon Saint Zaynab for help, who sent one of her sisters (?) a Jinniyah. 
!She clove the wall, and asked Dalai to promise to give her her first child. She 
;then gave her a piece of wood to throw into the mouth of the Ghul when he 
jopened his mouth to eat her. 1 He fell on the ground senseless, and Dalai 
woke up the prince who slew him. But when Dalai brought forth a daughter 
whom she gave to the Jinniyah, her mother-in-law declared that Dalai herself 
was a Ghulah, and she was banished totne kitchen, where she pealed onions for 
ten years. At the end of this time the Jinniyah again clove the wall, and 
brought back the young princess, who was introduced to her father, who took 
Dalai again into favour. Meantime the sultan of the Jinn sent for the Jinniyah, 
for his son was ill, and could only be cured by a cup of water from the Sea of 
Emeralds ; and this could only be obtained by a daughter of mankind. So 
the Jinniyah borrowed Dalal's daughter again, and took her to the sultan, who 
gave her a cup, and mounted heron a Jinni, warning her not to wet her fingers. 
But a wave touched the hand of the princess, which turned as green as clover. 
Every morning the Sea of Emerald is weighed by an officer to discover 
\vhether any has been stolen ; and as soon as he discovered the deficiency, he 

1 Southey, in his story of the Young Dragon, relates how Satan, disapproving of 
the rapid conversion of the inhabitants of Antioch to Christianity, laid an egg, and 
hatched out a dragon, which he sent to destroy the inhabitants. But a Pagan, whose 
Christian daughter was devoted to the dragon by lot, stole the thumb from a relic (the 
fcand of John the baptist), as he pretended to kiss it, and cast it into the mouth of 
dragon, and blew him up. 

378 Supplemental Nights. 

took a platter* of glass rings and bracelets, and went from palace to palace 
calling out, " Glass bracelets and rings, O young ladies." When he came to 
Dalal's palace, the young princess was looking out of the window, and insisted 
on going herself to try them on. She hesitated to show her right hand ; and 
the spy knew that she was guilty, so he seized her hand, and sunk into the 
ground with her. He delivered her over to the servants of the Sea of Emerald, 
who would have beaten her, but the Jinn surrounded her, and prevented them. 
Then the King of the Sea of Emerald ordered her to be taken, bound into 
the bath, saying that he would follow in the form of a serpent, and devour 
her. But she recognised him by his green eyes, when he became a man, 
ordered her to be restored to her father, and afterwards married her. He 
gave forty camel loads of emeralds and jacinths as her dowry, and always 
visited her by night in the form of a winged serpent, entering and leaving by 
the window. 

VI. Histoire de la fille vertueuse. 

A merchant and his wife set out to the Hejaz with their son, leaving their 
daughter to keep house, and commending her to the protection of the Kazi 
The Kazi fell in love with the girl, but as she would not admit him, he employed 
an old woman to entice her to the bath ; but the girl threw soap in his eyes, 
pushed him down and broke his head, and escaped to her own house, carrying off 
his clothes. When the Kazi was well enough to get about again he found that she 
had had the door of her house walled up until the return of her friends, so he' 
wrote a slanderous letter to her father, who sent her brother to kill her, and! 
bring him a bottle of her blood. But her brother, although he thought the. 
walling up of the door was a mere pretence, could not find it in his heart to kill 
her, but abandoned her in the desert, and filled the bottle with gazelle-blood. 
When the young girl awoke, she wandered to a spring, and climbed into a tree 
where a prince who was passing saw her, carried her home, and married her. 
She had two sons and a daughter, but one of their playmates refused to play 
with them because they had no maternal uncle. The king then ordered the 
wazir to escort the princess and her three children to her father's village for a 
month ; but on the road, the wazir made love to her, and she allowed him to 
kill her three children in succession to save her honour. At last, he became so 
pressing that she pretended to consent, but asked to quit the tent for a moment, 
with a cord attached to her hand to prevent her escape. But she untied the' 
cord, fastened it to a tree, and fled. As they could not find the princess, the 
wazir advised the soldiers to tell the king that a Ghuleh had devoured the 
children, and fled into the desert. The princess changed clothes with a shepherd 
boy, went to a town, and took a situation in a cafe*. When the wazir returned 
to the king, and delivered his report, the king proposed that they should disguise 
themselves, and set out in search of the princess and her children ; and the 
wazir could not refuse. Meantime, the brother of the princess had admitted to 
her father that he had not slain her, and they also set out in search of her, 
.taking the Kazi with them. They all met at the cafe, where she recognised 
them, and offered to tell them a story. She related her own, and was restored 
to her friends. They seized the Kazi and the wazir, and sent for the old woman, 
when they burned them all three, and scattered their ashes in the air. 

V\l.Htstoire du prince qiti afrprit un metier.. 


A prince named Mohammed 1'Avise went to seek a wife, and fell in love with 
the daughter of a leek-grower. She would not accept him .unless he learned a 
trade, so he learned the trade of a silk weaver, who taught him in five minutes ; 
and he worked a handkerchief with the palace of his father embroidered upon 
it. Two years afterwards, the prince and the wazir took a walk, when they 
found a Maghrabi seated at the gate of the town, who invited them to take coffee. 
But he was a prisoner (or rather, a murderer) who imprisoned them behind- 
seven doors ; and after three days he cooked the wazir, and was going to cook 
the prince, but he persuaded him to take his handkerchief to market, where it 
was recognised, and the prince released from his peril. Two years later 
the king died, and the prince succeeded, to the throne. The latter had a son 
and daughter, but he died when the boy was six and the girl eight, warning the 
boy not to marry until the girl was married, lest his wife should ill-use her. 
After two years, the sister said, " Brother, if I show you the treasures of your 
father and mother, what will you do ? " He answered, " I will buy a slipper for 
you and a slipper for me, and we will play with them among the stones." "No/* 
said she, " you are still too little," and waited a year before she asked him again. 
This time he answered, " I will buy a tambourine for you, and a flute for 
myself, and we will play in the street." She waited two years more, and this 
time he answered, " We will use them to repair the water-wheels and my father's 
palaces, and we will sow and reap." " Now you are big," said she, and gave 
him the treasures, which he used to erect buildings in his father's country. Soon 
afterwards, an old woman persuaded the youth to marry her daughter ; but 
she herself went into the .mountains, collected eggs of the bird Oumbar, which 
make virgins pregnant if they eat them, and gave them to the sister. The old 
woman reported the result to the king, who visited his sister to satisfy himself 
of the truth of the matter, and then left her, but sent her food by a slave. Whh 
the sister's time came, four angels descended from heaven, and took her 
daughter, bringing the child to her mother to be nursed. The mother died of 
grief, and the angels washed and shrouded her and wept over her ; and when 
the king heard it, he opened the door, and the angels flew away to heaven 
with the child. The king ordered a tomb to be built in the palace for his sister, 
and was so much grieved at her death that he went on pilgrimage. When he 
had been gone some time, and the time of his return approached, the old woman 
opened the sister's tomb, intending to throw her body to the dogs to devour, 
and to put the carcase of a sheep in its place. The angels put the child in the 
tomb and she reproached and threatened the old woman ; who, however, 
seized upon her and dyed her black, pretending that she was a little black slave 
whom she had bought. When the king returned, he pitied her, and called her 
to sit by him, but she asked for a candle and candlestick to hold in her hand 
before all the company. Then she told her mother's story, saying to the car 
at every word, " Gutter for kings ; this is my uncle, the chief of kings, 
the candle threw mahboubs on her uncle's knees. When the story was ended 
the king ordered proclamation to be made, Let whosoever loves the 
and the Elect, bring wood and are." The people obeyed, and the old woman 
and her daughter were burned. 

380 Supplemental Nights. 

VIII. Histoire du Prince Amour eux, 

A woman prayed to God to give her a daughter, even if she should die of 
the smell of flax. When the girl was ten years old, the king's son passed 
through the street, saw her at the window, and fell in love- with her. An old 
woman discovered that he loved Sittoukan, the daughter of a merchant, and 
promised to obtain her. She contrived to set her to spin flax, when a splinter 
ran under her nail, and she fainted. The old woman persuaded her father and 
mother to build a palace in the midst of the river, and to lay her there on a bed. 
Thither she took the prince, who turned the body about, saw the splinter, drew 
it out, and the girl awoke. He remained with her forty days, when he went 
down to the door, where he found the wazir waiting, and they entered the 
garden. There they found roses and jasmines, and the prince said, " The jas- 
mines are as white as Sittoukan, and the roses are like her cheeks ; if you did 
not approve, I would still remain with her, were it only for three days." He went 
up again for three days, and when he next visited the wazir, they saw a carob- 
tree, and the prince said, " Remember wazir, the carob-tree is like the eyebrows 
of Sittoukan, and if you would not let me, I would still remain with her, were 
it only for three days." Three days later, they saw a fountain, when the prince 
observed that it was like the form of Sittoukan, and he returned. But this 
time, she was curious to know why he always went and returned, and he found 
her watching behind the door, so he spat on her saying, " If you did not love 
men, you would not hide behind doors" ; and he left her.' She wandered into 
the garden in her grief, where she found the ring of empire, which she rubbed, 
and the ring said, "At your orders, what do you ask for ?" She asked for in- 
creased beauty, and a palace beside that of the prince. The prince fell in love 
with her, and sent his mother to propose for her hand. The mother took two 
pieces of royal brocade as a present, which the young lady ordered a slave in 
her hearing to cut up for dusters. Then the mother brought her an emerakl collar 
worth four thousand dinars, when she ordered to be threshed, and thrown to the 
pigeons. The old. lady acknowledged herself beaten, and asked Sittoukan if 
she wished to marry or not. The latter demanded that the prince should be 
wrapped in seven shrouds, and carried to the palace which she indicated, as 
if he were dead. Then she went and took off the shrouds one after another, and 
when she came to the seventh, she spat on him, saying, "If you did not love 
women, you would not be wrapped in seven shrouds." Then he said, " Is it 
you ?" and he bit his finger till he bit it off, and they remained together. 

IX. Histoire du musician ambulant et de son fils. 

This travelling musician was so poor that when his wife was confined, he 
went out to beg for their immediate necessities, and found a hen lying on the 
ground with an egg under her. He met a Jew to whom he sold the egg for 
twenty mabboubs. The hen laid an egg every day, which the Jew bought for 
twenty mabboubs, and the musician became rich and opened a merchant's 
shop. When his son was grown, he built a school for him at his own expense, 
where poor children were taught to read. Then the musician set out on pilgrim- 
age, charging his wife not to let the Jew trick her out of the hen. A fortnight 
afterwards, the Jew called, and persuaded the woman to sell him the hen for a 
casket of silver. He ordered her to cook it, but told her that if anybody else ate 
a piece, he would rip him up. The musician's son came in, while the fowl was 



cooking, and as his mother would not give him any, he seized the gizzard, and 
ate it, when one of the slaves warned him to fly before the arrival of the Jew. 
The Jew pursued the boy, and would have killed him, but the latter took him 
up with one hand, and dashed him to pieces on the ground. The musician's 
son continued his journey, and arrived at a town where thirty-nine heads of 
suitors who had failed to conquer the princess in wrestling, were suspended at 
the gate of the palace. On the first day the youth wrestled with the princess 
for two hours without either being able to overcome the other ; but during the 
night the king ordered the doctors to drug the successful suitor, and to steal 
the talisman. Next morning when the youth awoke, he perceived his weakness, 
and fled. Presently he met three men quarrelling over a flying carpet, a food- 
producing cup, and a money mill. He threw a stone for them to run after, 
and transported himself to Mount Kaf, where he made trial of the other talis- 
mans. Then he returned to the palace, called to the princess to come down to 
wrestle with him, and as soon as she stepped on the carpet, carried her away 
to Mount Kaf, when she promised to restore the gizzard, and to marry him. 
She deserted him, and he found two date-trees, one bearing red and the other 
yellow dates. On eating a yellow date, a horn grew from his head 1 and twisted 
round the two date-trees. A red date removed it. He filled his pockets, and 
travelled night and day for two months. 2 He cried dates out of season, and the 
princess bought sixteen yellow ones, and ate them all ; and eight [sixteen ?] 
horns grew from her head, four to each wall. They could not be sawn off, and 
the king offered his daughter to whoever could remove them. When the 
musician's son married the princess, and became wazir, he said to his bride, 
" Where is my carpet, &c." She replied, " Is it you ?" " Yes," said he, Is 
my trick or yours the best ? " She admitted that she was beaten, and they 
lived together in harmony. 

X. Histoire du rossignol chanteur. 

(This story is briefly given by Mr. W. A. Clouston, Suppl. Nights in., p. 123 ; 
but I give here a fuller abstract.) 

Three brothers built a palace for their mother and sister after their father's 
death. The sister loved someone of whom the brothers disapproved. An old 
woman advised the sister to send her brothers for the singing nightingale. The 
two eldest would not wait till the bird was asleep, but while they were trying to shut 
his cage, he dusted sand over them with his claws, and sunk them to the seventh 
earth. The beads and the ring gave warning of their deaths at home ; but the 
third, who left a rose with his mother; to fade if he died, captured the bird, 
and received sand from under the cage. When he scattered it on the ground, 
more than a thousand men rose up, some negroes and some Turks, The brothers 
were not among them, so the youngest was told to scatter white sand, when 
500 more people emerged, including the brothers. Afterwards the eldest 
brother was sitting in his ship when a Maghrebi told him to clean his turban ; 
which his mother interpreted to mean that his sister had misconducted herself 
and he should kill her. He refused, and fled with her to the desert. Hearing 

1 This is a variant of the Nose-Tree ; I do not remember another in genuine Oriental 
literature (cf. Nights, x, app. p. 508). 

* How small the world becomes in this story I 

382 Supplemental Nights. 

voices, he entered a cave where thirty-nine robbers were dividing rations ; and 
he contrived to appropriate a share, and then to return it when missed ; but 
as he was detected, he gave himself out as a fellow- robber, engaged himself to 
them, and watching his opportunity, slew them. Afterwards he brought his sister 
two young lions. She found a wounded negro in the cave, whom she nursed, 
and after having had two children by him, plotted against her brother. She 
pretended to be ill, and sent him to find the grapes of Paradise. He met a 
Ghuleh who gave him a ball which directed him to Paradise, and he returned 
safely. Then his sister sent him for the Water of Life, when the two young 
lions followed him, and he could not drive them back. After travelling for a year 
the brother reached the Sea of the Water of Life, and while resting under a tree, 
heard two pigeons telling each other that the king's daughter was ill, and every 
doctor who failed to restore her was put to death, and she could only be cured 
by the Water of Life. " Mohammed I'Avisd " rilled two bottles and a jar with 
the water, cured the .princess with the water in the jar, married her, and after 
forty days, gave her one bottle, and set out to visit his family. At the sister's 
instigation, the negro slew Mohammed, cut him to pieces, and put the remains 
into a sack, which they loaded on the ass. Then the lions drove the ass to the 
wife of Mohammed, who restored his life with the water which he had left 
with her. Mohammed then shut up the lions, dressed himself as a negro, and 
went to visit his sister, taking with him some rings and mastic (ladin). His 
sister recognised his eyes ; and while she and the negro were disputing, 
Mohammed slew the negro and the three [sic] children, and buried his sister 
alive. He then returned to his wife, announced that his relations were dead, and 
asked for a hundred camels ; and it took them a week to convey away the 
treasures of the robbers. 

XL Histoire d>Arab-Zandy>j. 

This story is translated by Mr. W. A. Clouston, Suppl. Nights, iii. pp. 619- 
624, and need not be repeated here. 

XI I. Histoire du prince et de son cheval. 

A prince and foal were born at the same time, and some time afterwards the 
mother and the mare died. The king married again, and the new queen had 
an intrigue with a Jew. They plotted to poison the prince, but his horse wept 
and warned him. Then the queen pretended to be ill, and asked for the heart 
of the horse, but the prince fled to another kingdom, and bought clothes from a 
poor man, packing his own on his horse. Then he parted from the horse, who 
gave him a hair and a flint, telling him to light the hair whenever he needed 
him. The prince then went to a town, and engaged himself as under-gardener 
to the king. He was set to drive the ox which turned the water-wheel, but one 
day he called his horse, put on his own clothes, and galloped about the garden, 
where the youngest princess saw " Mohammed PAvis^ " from the window, and 
fell in love with him. He then returned to the water-wheel, and when the 
head-gardener returned and found the garden in disorder, he wanted to beat 
him ; but the princess interfered and ordered the prince to receive a fowl and a 
cake of bread every day. The princess then persuaded her mother and sisters that 
it was time to be married, so the king ordered everybody to pass under the 



window of the seven princesses, each of whom threw down a handkerchief on 
the man of her choice. But the youngest would look at no one till at last they 
fetched the gardener's boy, when the king was angry, and confined them in a 
room. The king fell ill with vexation, and the doctors ordered him to drink 
bear's milk in the hide of a virgin 1 bear. The king's six sons-in-law were 
ordered to seek it, and Mohammed too set forth mounted on a lame mare, 
while the people jeered him. Presently he summoned his own horse, and 
ordered him to pitch a camp of which the beginning and the end could 
not be seen, and which should contain nothing but bears. When the six 
sons-in-law passed, they dismounted, and asked the attendants for what they 
required, but they referred them to their king. The latter offered them 
what they asked, but branded a ring and a circle on the back of each of the 
sons-in-law. However, he gave them only the milk and hide of old she- 
bears, while he himself took the milk of a virgin 1 bear that had just cubbed for 
the first time, slaughtered it, put- the milk into the skin, and then remounted 
his lame mare, saying to the horse, " God reward you." He returned to town, 
and gave the milk to his wife who took it to her mother. Then the six sons-in- 
law brought the milk to the doctors, but when they looked at it, they said, 
" This is the milk of an old she-bear and is good for nothing." Then they 
gave the king the other milk, and cured him, but he was much annoyed to hear 
who had brought it. Soon afterwards a war broke out, and the king 
pitched his camp outside the town in face of the enemy. Mohammed set out 
again on his lame mare, the people shouting after him, " Go back, sir, for the 
soldiers have been defeated." Then he summoned his horse, put on his 
own clothes, and said to the horse, " Let your hair shoot forth fire." Then he 
came before the king, saying, " I declare for you and your six sons-in-law." 
He rushed into battle, smiting with his sword, while his horse shot forth fire. 
They slew a third of the enemy, and then disappeared, while the;king lamented. 
" Ah, if my six sons-in-law had only done this ! " After his exertions Mohammed 
was tired, and went home to sleep. Next day the same thing happened, but 
the king put his own ring on his finger. On the third day he slew the remain- 
ing third of his enemies, but his arm was wounded, and the king bound it up 
with his own handkerchief before he departed. The king gathered together 
the horses and the spoil, and returned to town, much vexed that his sons- 
in-law had done nothing. Then the youngest princess asked her mother to 
send for her father to look at the ring and the handkerchief, when he fell 
down and kissed the feet of Mohammed, who rose up giddy from sleep, 
but when he was asked his history, he answered, " I am a prince like 
yourself, and your six sons-in-law are mamelouks of my father. I beat them, 
and they took to flight, and through fear of my father, 1 set out in search 
of them. I came here and found that they were your sons-in-law, but I 
imposed silence on them. But as regards your daughter, she saw me in 
the garden, and recognised my real rank ; here is your daughter, O king ; 
she is still a virgin." Then the wedding was celebrated with great pomp, 
and Mohammed remained with his father-in-law for some time, until he 

1 It is evident that a young she- bear is all that is meant. 

384 Supplemental Nights. 

desired to return to his own country. On his arrival he found that his 
father had died, so he ascended the throne, and ordered his mother-in-law and 
the Jew to be burned. 

Carlo de Landberg, Bdsim le Forgeron ft Haron Er-Rachid, 8vo., Leyden, 

Text and translation of a modern Arabic story of an unfortunate smith and 
hashish-eater whom Harun encounters on one of his usual nocturnal rambles. 
Harun plays a succession of practical jokes on him, driving him out of his 
employment every day, and supping with him every night. At last he 
bastinadoes him, and throws him into prison, where a jinniyah takes pity on 
him, and confers unlimited power on him, which he enjoys for a week, and 
then dies, to the great grief of Harun. 

ADDITIONAL NOTE TO VOL. V. pp. 442-444. 
Compare Boccacio's story of the Devil in Hell (Day iii. No. 10.) 




[" It has occurred to me that perhaps it would be a good plan to put a set of notes . . Co 
the ' Origin,' which now has none, exclusively devoted to the errors of my reviewers. It has occurred to 
me that where a reviewer has erred, a common reader might err. Secondly, it will show the reader that 
we must* not trust implicitly to reviewers." DARWIN'S Lire, it. 349.] 


B B 


The Thousand Nights and a Night. 

ATHWART the welkin slant the snows and pile 

On sill and balcony; their feathery feet 

Trip o'er the landscape, and pursuing sleet, 
Earth's brow beglooming, robs the skies of smile : 
Lies in her mourning-shroud our Northern Isle, 

And bitter winds in battle o'er her meet. 

Her world is death-like, when behold ! we greet 
Light-gleams from morning-land in welcome while. 

A light of golden mine and orient pearl 
Vistas of fairy-land, where Beauty reigns 

And Valiance revels; cloudless moon, fierce sun, 
The wold, the palm-tree ; cities ; hosts ; a whirl 
Of life in tents and palaces and fanes : 
The light that streams from THOUSAND NIGHTS AUD ONE. 


TANGIER, MAROCCO : Feb. 19, 1 886. 





I HERE propose to produce what may be called the " biography n of a 
book whereof, methinks, the writer has some reason to be proud, a work 
which, after occupying him for the third of a century, well nigh half the 
life of average man and the normal endurance of a generation, can show 
for result these sixteen volumes. A labour of such parts and magnitude 
deserves, in my humble opinion, some notice of the main features dis- 
tinguishing its career, especially of its presentation to Court (Public 
Opinion) and its reception by the high officials of the Palace, the critics, 
reviewers and criticasters. 

And there is yet another consideration. To ignore the charges and 
criminations brought forward by certain literary Sir Oracles would be wilfully 
suffering judgment to go by default. However unpopular and despised 
may be, as a rule, the criticism of critique and however veridical the 
famous apothegm, " A controversy in the Press with the Press is the 
controversy of a fly with a spider," I hold it the author's bounden duty, 
in presence of the Great Public, to put forth his reply, if he have any 
satisfactory and interesting rejoinder, and by such ordeal to purge himself 
and prove his innocence unless he would incur wittingly impeachment for 
contumacy and contempt of court. 

It is not only an instinct of human nature expressed by nemo me 
impurie lacessii which impels to answering in presence of the passers-by 
the enemy at the gate ; it is also a debt which his honour and a 
respectful regard for the good opinion of his fellows compel the author 
to repay. The man who is feeble enough silently to suffer detraction and 
calumny at the hands of some sciolist or Halb-bildung sheltering his 
miserable individuality under the shadow (may it never be less !) of 
"King We," simply sins against himself as the Arabs say and offends 
good manners by holding out a premium to wanton aggression and 
injurious doing. The reading world has a right to hear the alttram 

388 Supplemental Nights. 

partem before it shall deliver that judgment and shall pronounce that 
sentence wherefrom lies no appeal. To ignore and not to visit with repr'e- 
sailles unworthy and calumnious censure, may become that ideal and 
transcendental man who forgives .(for a personal and egoistical reason) 
those who trespass against him. But the sublime doctrine which 
commands us to love our enemies and affect those who despitefully entreat 
us is in perilous proximity to the ridiculous ; at any rate it is a vain and 
futile rule of life which the general never thinks of obeying. It contrasts 
poorly with the common sense of the pagan Fiat Justitia y ruat ccelum ; 
and the heathenish and old-Adamical sentiment of the clansman anent 
Roderick Dhu 

"Who. rights his wrong where it was given, 
If it were in the court of Heaven," 

L. of the Lake, v. 6. 

commends itself far more to what divines are pleased to call " fallen 
human nature M that is the natural man. 

And here before crossing the threshold, I would seize the opportunity 
of expressing my cordial gratitude and hearty thanks to the Press in 
general, which has received my Eastern studies and contributions to 
Oriental knowledge in the friendliest and most sympathetic spirit, appre- 
ciating my labours far beyond the modicum of the offerer's expectation 
and lending potent and generous aid to place them before the English world 
in the fairest and most favourable point of view. To number a small pro- 
portion of "black sheep " is no shame for a flock amounting to myriads : 
such exceptional varieties must be bred for the use and delectation of 
those who prefer to right wrong and darkness to light. It is with these 
only that my remarks and retorts will deal and consequently I have 
assigned to them the post of honour. The various extracts from notices 
favourable, appreciative and complimentary, appear as the <c Opinions of 
the Press " at the end of this volume, and again I take the opportunity of 
professing myself truly thankful for the good word of the Fourth Estate, 
and for its wisely detecting the soul of good in things evil. 

The romantic and exceptional circumstances under which my large 
labour was projected and determined have been sufficiently described in 
the Foreword (vol. i. pp. vi-ix). I may here add that during a longsome 
obligatory halt of some two months at East African Zayla' and throughout 
a difficult and dangerous march across the murderous Somali country upon 
Harar-Gay, then the Tinbukhtii of Eastern Africa, The Nights rendered 
me the best of service. The wildlings listened with the rapt attention of 
little lads and lasses to the marvellous recitals of the charming Queen and 
the monotonous interpellations of her lay-image sister and looked forward 
to the evening lecture as the crown and guerdon of the toilsome day. 
'And assuredly never was there a- more suitable setting, a more admirable 

Appendix. 389 

mise-en-sclnt for The Nights than the landscape of Somali-land, a prospect so 
adapted to their subject-matter that it lent credibility even to details the least 
credible. Barren and grisly for the most part, without any of the charms 
gladdening and beautifying the normal prospects of earth, grassy hill and 
wooded dale, park-like plain and placid lake, and the snaking of silvery 
stream, it displays ever and anon beauties made all its own by borrowing 
from the heavens, in an atmosphere of passing transparency, reflections 
of magical splendours and of weird shadows proper to tropical skies. No 
rose-hue pinker than the virginal blush and dewy flush of dawn in contrast 
with the shivering reek of flaming noon-tide, when all brightness of colour 
seems burnt out of the world by the white heat of sun-glow. No brilliancy 
more gorgeous or more ravishing than the play of light and shade, the 
rainbow shiftings and the fiery pinks and purples and ambers and carmines 
of the sunset scenery the gorgeous death-bed of the Day. No tint more 
tender, more restful, than the uniform grey, pale and pearly, invading by 
slowest progress that ocean of crimson that girds the orb of the Sun-King, 
diminishing it to a lakelet of fire and finally quenching it in iridescent 
haze. No gloom more ghostly than the murky hangings drooping like 
curtains from the violet heavens during those traveller's trials the un- 
mooned nights, when the world seems peopled by weird phantoms and 
phantasms of man and monster, moving and at rest. No verdure more 
exquisite than earth's glazing of greenery, the blend of etherial azure and 
yellow j no gold more sheeny than the foregrounds of sand shimmering 
in the slant of the sun ; no blue more profound and transparent than 
the middle distances ; no neutral tints more subtle, pure, delicate and 
sight-soothing than the French gray which robes the clear-cut horizon ; 
no variety of landscape more pronounced than the alternations of glowing 
sunlight and snowy moonlight and twinkling starlight, all streaming 
through diaphanous air. No contrast more admirable than the alternation 
of iron upland whereupon hardly a blade of grass may grow and the Wady 
with its double avenue of leek-green tamarisks, hedging now a furious 
rain-torrent then a ribbon of purest sand ; or the purple-grey shadow rising 
majestic in the Orient to face the mysterious Zodiacal Light, a white 
pyramid whose base is Amenti region of resting Osiris and whose apex 
pierces the zenith. And not rarely this " after-glow " is followed by a blush 
of " celestial rosy-red " mantling the whole circle of the horizon where the 
hue is deepest and paling into the upper azure where the stars shine their 
brightest. How often in Somali-land I repeated to myself 

Contentez-vous, mes yeux, 
Jamais vous ne verrez chose plus belle ; 

and the picture still haunts me. 

And now, turning away from these and similar pleasures of memory, and 

39O Supplemental Nights. 

passing over the once-told tale (Foreword, vol. i. pp. ix., x.) of how, when 
and where work was begun, together with the disappointment caused by 
the death of my friend and collaborator, Steinhaeuser ; concerning the 
copying process which commenced in 1879 and anent the precedence 
willingly accorded to the " Villon Edition," I proceed directly to what 
may be termed 


During the autumn of '82, after my return from the Gold Coast (with 
less than no share of the noble metal which my companion Cameron and 
I went forth to find and found a failure), my task began in all possible 
earnest with ordering the old scraps of translation and collating a vast 
heterogeneous collection of notes. I was fortunate enough to discover, at 
unlettered Trieste, an excellent copyist able and willing to decypher a 
crabbed hand and deft at reproducing facetious and drolatic words without 
thoroughly comprehending their significance. At first my exertions were 
but fitful and the scene was mostly a sick bed to which I was bound 
between October '83 and June '84. Marienbad,however, and Styrian Sauer- 
brunn (bei Rohitsch) set me right and on return to Trieste (Sept. 4, '84), 
we applied ourselves to the task of advertising, the first two volumes 
being almost ready for print. And here we were confronted by a serious 
question, What number of copies would suffice my public ? A dis- 
tinguished Professor who had published some 160,000 texts with prices 
ranging from 6d. to 50 guineas, wrote to me in all kindness advising an 
issue of 150 to 250: an eminent printer-publisher would have ventured 
upon some 500 : others rose to 750 with a warning-note anent " wreckage," 
great risk and ruinous expenditure, while only one friend and he not in 
business urged an edition of 2,000 to 3,000 with encouraging words as 
to its probable reception. After long forethought I choose 1,000 as a 
just middle. 

We then drew ssp a long list, names of friends, acquaintances and 
strangers likely to patronise the novelty and caused the following three 
papers to be lithographed and printed at Trieste. 

No. I. 

Captain Burton, having neither agent nor publisher for his forthcoming ARABIAN 
NIGHTS, requests that all subscribers will kindly send their names and addresses to him 
personally (Captain Burton, Trieste, Austria}, -when they -will be entered into a book kept 
for the purpose. 

There will be to volumes at a guinea a piece, each to be paid for on delivery. Su&- 
scribers may count on the first three volumes being printed in March next. Captain 



Burton pledges himself to furnish copies to all subscribers who address themselves to him ; 
and he also undertakes not to issue, nor to allow the issue of a cheaper Edition. One 
thousand copies will be printed ; the whole Manuscript will be ready before going to j>rtn 
in February, and the ten volumes will be issued within Eighteen Months. 

This was presently followed by 

No. II. 

The Student of Arabic who reads " THE NIGHTS " with this version, will not 
only be competent to join in any conversation, to peruse the popular books and newspapers, 
and to write letters to his friends, he will also find in the notes a repertoire of those 
Arabian Manners and Customs, Beliefs and Practices, which are not discussed in popular 

The 10 volumes will be handsomely bound in black and gold. 

No subscriptions will be received until the work is done, and then at Coutts* Bank, 
Strand, London. 

Subscribers who apply directly are preferred. 

The author will pay carriage of volumes all over the United Kingdom. A London 
address is requested. 

And, lastly, after some delay, came the subjoined cutting from the 
Daily Tribune, New York. 

No. III. 

"It has already been announced that the first instalment of Captain Burton's ne*r 
translation of the Arabian Nights may be expected this autumn. I am indebted to a 
friend of his for some details which have not yet, I think, been made public. There is 
still room for a translation of the Arabian Nights. All or nearly all the popular editions, 
of which there are hundreds, are but renderings, more or less imperfect, from Professor 
Galland's French version, which is itself an abridgment from the original, and turns a 
most valuable ethnographical work into a mere collection of fairy tales. Moreover-* 
these English translations abound in Gallicisms, and their style offers but a painful 
contrast to the French of the seventeenth century. Some years since a Mr. Torrens 
undertook a complete translation from the original, but his work did not go beyond a 
single volume, or fifty tales out of the 1,001. Then came Mr. Lane in 1839, whose 
success was but moderate. In his three large and (in the 1839 edition) beautifully 
illustrated volumes, he has given not more than half the tales. He used the Cairo 
Arabic edition, which is itself an abridgment, and took all kinds of liberties with the 
text, translating verse into prose, and excising everything that was not ' strictly 

" Lastly, there is Mr. John Payne's excellent translation, which has occupied him 
during seven years and is just brought to a conclusion. Mr. Payne bound himself to 
print not more than 500 copies, and his nine volumes, not published but printed, 
nominally for the Villon Society, are unprocurable except at a price which to the general 
public is prohibitive. 

392 Supplemental Nights. 

"Captain Burton began his work on this extraordinary monument of Oriental 
literature in 1852, at Aden, with some help from his friend Dr. Steinhaeuser, of the 
Bombay Army. He has gone on with it as opportunity offered, and as other literary 
and official labours and his many journeys in savage lands permitted. The text and the 
subject offer many difficulties, and it is to these difficulties that he has devoted especial 
attention. His object is to reproduce the book in a form as entirely Arabian as possible, 
preserving the strict division of the nights, and keeping (a more questionable matter) to 
the long unbroken sentences in which the composer indulged, imitating also the rhythmic 
prose which. is a characteristic of the Arabic. The effect in English remains to be seen, 
but of the value of (Daptain Burton's method as an experiment in literature there can be 
no doubt, or of its great interest to everybody who cares for Oriental habits of thought 
and language. He will not shirk any of the passages which do not suit the taste of the 
day ; but these Captain Burton thinks, will not commonly be found more objectionable 
than some which are in Shakespeare and in Shakespeare's contemporaries. At the same 
time it will be understood that the book is intended for men only and for the study ; 
not for women or children, nor for the drawing-room table or dentist s waiting-room* 
It will be printed by subscription and not published. 

" Few are the Oriental scholars in England who could do justice to this picture of the 
mediaeval Arab. Captain Burton is perhaps the only one who joins to the necessary 
linguistic knowledge that varied practical experience of Eastern life which alone in many 
cases can supply the true meaning of a troublesome passage or an accurate comment 
upon it. His aim is to make the book in its English dress not only absolutely literal in 
text but Oriental in tone and colour. He knows the tales almost by heart, and used to 
keep the Bedouin tribes in roars of laughter in camp during the long summer nights by 
reciting them. Sheiks to whom a preternatural solemnity of demeanour is usual were to 
be seen rolling on the ground in paroxysms of uncontrollable mirth. It was also 
Burckhardt's custom to read the stories aloud, but the Arabs would snatch the book 
from his hand because his pronunciation was so bad. Captain Burton is said to have an 
Arab accent not easily distinguishable from the native. When he contents himself with 
the English tongue here in England, he is one of the most picturesque talkers to be met 
with. I can remember a certain dinner-party, now many years ago, where the great 
traveller kept us all listening till long past day-break ; narrating, as he did, the most 
singular adventures with the most vivid fidelity to facts. That, however, is a digression. 
I have only to add that Captain Burton has the names of many subscribers ajid will 
doubtless be glad to receive others, which may, I suppose, be sent to him at Trieste. 
His present hope is to be ready to go to press next February and to bring out the whole 
of the volumes in 1885.'* 

(Signed) G. W. S. 

Concerning this "American" communication and its author I shall 
have more to say in a future page. 

Some 24,000 to 30,000 circulars were posted at an expense of ^126 
and they produced about 800 favourable replies which, after my return to 
England (May '85), rose to 1,500 and to 2,000, as my unprofessional 
friend, and he only, had anticipated. Meanwhile occurred an incident 
characteristic of such appeals by the inexperienced to the public. A case 
containing 1,100 circulars had been sent to my agent for mailing in 
London, and my secretary had unfortunately gummed their envelopes. 
Hereupon I should have been subjected by the Post Office to the pains 
and penalties of the law, perhaps to a fine of 200. But when the 



affair was reported, with due explanations, to the late lamented Post- 
master-General Henry Fawcett a man in a million, and an official in ten 
millions he had the justice and generosity to look upon the offence as 
the result of pure ignorance, and I received a caution " not to do it 

Needless to say that I lost no time about advertising my mistake in 
the dailies, giving the name of my agent and in offering to refund the 
money. Some of the sealed and unpaid envelopes had, however, been 
forwarded prematurely and the consequence was a comical display of wrath 
in quarters where it was hardly to be expected. By way of stemming the 
unpleasant tide of abuse I forwarded the following communiqu'e to The 


TRIESTE, Nov. 2, '85. 

" Can you kindly find space for a few lines on a purely personal matter which is 
causing me abundant trouble ? A box of circulars giving details concerning my forth- 
coming version of the Arabian Nights was sent to London with directions to stamp and 
post the contents. The envelopes having been inadvertently gummed down, the rase 
was stopped by the Custom-house, and was transmitted to the Post Office where it was 
found to contain circulars not letters j and of these sundry were forwarded without pre- 
payment. The pleasant result was that one out-spoken gentleman writes upon the 
circular, which he returns, When you send your trash again> put postage-stamps on. A 
second is peremptorily polite, Please forward four stamps to the Adjutant of the th 

Regiment. The ' Chaplain of the Forces at ,' at once ironical and severe, ventures 

to suggest to Captain Burton that it is advisable^ if he thinks his book worth selling, to 
put the postage on future advertisements. A fourth who, I regret to say, signs himself 
Lieutenant-Colonel, gives me advice about pre-payment written in an orderly's hand 
upon a torn envelope (gratuitously insulting !) ; encloses the ad. stamp and sends the 
missive under official cover ' On Her Majesty's Service.' The idea of a French or an 
Austrian Colonel lowering himself so infinitely low ! Have these men lost all sense of 
honour, all respect for themselves (and others) because they can no longer be called to 
account for their insolence more majorum ? I never imagined ' Tuppence ' to be so 
cunning a touchstone for detecting and determining the difference between gold and 
dross ; nor can I deeply regret that circumstance and no default of mine has placed in 
hand Ithuriel's spear in the shape of the said 'Tuppence'." 

I am, Sir, etc. 


The process of filling-up my list presented a fine and varied study of 
character ; and an extensive experience of subscribers, as well as of non- 
subscribers, presently enabled me to distribute the genus into the following 
eight species. The friendly subscriber who takes ten copies (more or less) 
forwarding their value. The gentleman subscriber who pays down his 
money confidingly. The cautious-canny subscriber who ventures^. 55., 
or half the price. The impudent and snobbish subscriber who will 
address his victim as follows : 

394 Supplemental Nights. 


Send me the first volume of your Arabian Nights and if I like it I will 
perhaps take more; 

Yours obediently, 

X. Y. Z. 

And Cynophron will probably receive for all reply : 


Send me ten guineas and take one or ten volumes as you please. 

Yours obediently, etc. 

No. vi. is the fussy and troublesome subscriber who gives more bother 
than he is worth, and who takes a vicious pride in not paying till pushed 
to the last point. The professional subscriber fights hard for the most 
favourable terms, and holds it his vested right to " part " by dribblets. And 
lastly comes the dishonest subscriber who does not pay at all. I must, 
however, in justice own that species No. viii. is rare : of one thousand the 
proportion was only about a score. 

In mid-June, '85, I returned to London and began at once to prepare 
for issuing the book. Having found the publisher peculiarly unsatis- 
factory with one single and remarkable exception my venerable friend, 
Mr. Van Voorst, whilome of Paternoster Row I determined, like Pro- 
fessor Arber, to do without him, although well aware how risky was the 
proceeding, which would, in the case of a work for general reading, have 
arrayed against me the majority of the trade and of their " hands," the 
critics. Then I sought hard, but sought in vain, for the agency of a 
literary friend or friends, men of name and note, like those who assisted 
in the Villon version : all feared the responsibility and the expected storm 
of abuse which, however, failed to burst. 

Under these circumstances "The Printing Times," a professional 
periodical produced by Messieurs Wymans, was pleased (August 25, '85) 
to be unpleasantly intrusive on the subject of my plan. " We always 
heard associated with the publication of this important work, the name 
of Mr. , which is now conspicuous by its absence, nor is, appar- 
ently the name of any other leading publishing house to be identified with 
its production." (The Printer's Devil is, I presume, responsible for the 
English !) The writer then warns me in all (un-)friendliness that if the 
printers forget to add their imprint, they would become liable to a 
legal penalty ; that the work is unsafe for literal translation and, lastly, 
that although printed by private subscription, " it is likely enough to be 
pronounced an injury to public morals to the danger of the author and 
his printers." The unhappy article concludes, " We await the issue of 
the first volume since much will depend upon the spirit (!) in which the 
translation has been undertaken ; certainly the original text is not suit- 



able for general circulation (connu /) unless edited with the utmost care 
and discretion." 

To this production so manifestly inspired by our old friend s. d., 
I replied in The Academy (August 7, '85), the gist of the few line's 
being as follows : 

In answer to many inquiries from friends and others, will you allow me to repeat, 
through your columns, that my translation of the "Arabian Nights" will be strictly 
limited to 1,000 copies, each sent to picked subscribers, and to renew the promise which 
I before made, that no cheaper edition shall be printed ? Correspondents have com- 
plained that I have not stated the price ; but I have mentioned over and over again that 
there are ten volumes, at one guinea each my object in making it so expensive being to 
keep it from the general. public. I am also troubled with inquiries as to who is my 
publisher. I am my own publisher, inaugurating (Inshallah !) a golden age for authors. 
Jesting apart, the book has no publisher. It is printed by myself for the benefit of 
Orientalists and Anthropologists, and nothing could be more repugnant to me than the 
idea of a book of the kind being published or being put into the hands of any publisher. 

The first volume dated "Benares: MDCCCLXXXV: Printed by the 
Kamashastra Society for Private Subscribers only" did not appear till 
September 12, '85 : it had been promised for March and had been 
delayed by another unavoidable detention at Trieste. But my subscribers 
had no further cause of complaint ; ten tomes in sixteen months ought 
to satisfy even the most exigent. 

No. i. volume was accompanied by a circular earnestly requesting 
that the book might not be exposed for sale in public places or permitted 
to fall into the hands of any save curious students of Moslem manners. 
Yet the birth of the first-born was accompanied (I am fain to confess) 
with no small trouble and qualms to the parent and to all who assisted 
at the parturition. Would the " little stranger " robed in black and gold, 
the colours of the Abbaside Caliphs, with its brick-red night-cap after the 
fashion of ecclesiastical bantlings, be kindly welcomed or would it be 
regarded as an abortion, a monster ? The reader will readily understand 
how welcome to an author in such perplexity came the following article 
from the Standard (September 12), usually attributed to the popular 
and trenchant pen of Mr. Alfred Austin. I must be permitted to quote it 
entire, because it expresses so fully and so admirably all and everything 
I could desire a reviewer to write. And the same paper has never ceased 
to give me .the kindest encouragement : its latest notice was courteous 
and appreciative as its earliest. 

The first volume of Captain Burton's long-expected edition of the "Arabia* 
Nights'* was issued yesterday to those who are 'in a position to avail themselves of 
the wealth of learning contained in this monumental labour of the famous Eastern 
traveller. The book is printed for subscribers only, and is sold at a price which is 
not likely to be paid by any save the scholars and students for whose instruction it 

396 Supplemental Nights. 

Is intended. But though the Benares " Kamashastra Society" are careful to let the 
world know that the "Thousand Nights and a Night" is not " published " in the 
technical sense of the term, the pages which will be read by a thousand purchasers 
may be fittingly regarded as the property of the world at large. In any case, the day 
when the experience of a life was embodied into this fresh translation of the "Alf 
Laylah wa Laylah " marks a distinct stage in the history of Oriental research. The 
world has had numerous versions of these stories. For at least a century and a half 
they have delighted old and young, until Shahrazade and Dunyazade, the Fisher- 
man and the Jinn, and the tales told by the Tailor, the Kalendar, the Nazarene 
broker, and the Hunchback say nothing of Aladdin, Ali Baba, Sinbad the 
Sailor, and Camaralzaman and Badoura seem like the most familiar of friends.' 
Yet many of those who know the ordinary epitome prepared for the nursery and the 
drawing-room have little idea of the nature of the original. Galland's abridgment 
was a mere shadow of the Arabic. Even the editions of Lane and Habicht and Torrens 
and Von Hammer represented but imperfectly the great corpus of Eastern folk-lore 
which Captain Burton has undertaken to render into English, without regard to the 
susceptibilities of those who, not having bought the book, are, therefore, in no way 
concerned in what is the affair of him and his subscribers, The best part of two 
centuries have passed away since Antoine Galland first turned some of the tales 
into French, and got stigmatised as a forger for his pains. Never was there such a 
sensation as when he printed his translations. For weeks he had been pestered by 
troops of roysterers rousing him out of bed, and refusing to go until the shivering Pro- 
fessor recited one of the Arab stories to the crowd under his window. Nor has the 
interest in them in any way abated. Thousands of copies pass every year into circula- 
tion ; and any one who has ever stood in the circle around the professional story-teller 
of the East must have noticed how often he draws on this deathless collection. The 
camel-driver listens to them as eagerly as did his predecessors ages ago. The 
Badawi laughs in spite of himself, though next moment he ejaculates a startling 
"Astaghfaru'llah" for listening to the light mention of the sex whose name is never 
heard amongst the Nobility of the Desert. Or if the traveller is a scholar and a 
gentleman, he will pull out his book for the amusement of the company squatted round 
the camp fire, as did Captain Burton many a time and oft in the course of his Eastern 

To Captain Burton the preparation of these volvfmes must have been a labour of 
love. He began them in conjunction with his friend Steinhaeuser, soon after his return 
from the Mecca pilgrimage, more than thirty years ago, and he has been doing some- 
thing to them ever since. In the swampy jungles of West Africa a tale or two has been 
turned into English, or a poem has been versified during the tedium of official life in 
the dank climate of Brazil, From Sind to Trieste the manuscript has formed part and 
parcel of his baggage, and though, in the interval, the learned author has added many 
a volume to the shelf-full which he has written, the " Thousand Nights and a Night " have 
never been forgotten. And now when he nears the end of his labours it seems as if we 
had never before known what the beauteous Shahrazad told the King who believed not in 
the constancy of women. Captain Burton seems the one sober man among drunkards. 
We have all the old company, though they appear in dresses so entirely new that one 
scans the lines again and again before the likeness is quite recognised. However, 
Tajal-Mulook will no doubt be as knightly as ever when his turn comes, for the Barber 
is garrulous, after the old fashion, and the three Shaykhs relate their experiences with 
the Jinns, the gazelles, and mules as vividly as they have done any time these thousand- 
years or more. King Yoonan and the Sage Dooban are here, and so are King Sindibad 
and his falcon, the young Prince of the Black Islands, the envious Weezer and the 
Ghoolah ; and the story of the Porter and the Ladies of Baghdad lose nothing of their 



charms^ in the new, and, we may add, extremely unsophisticated version. For Captain 
Burtons work is not virginibus puerisqut, and, while disclaiming for his version any- 
thing like intentional indecorum, he warns the readers that they will be guilty of a 
breach of good faith should they permit a work prepared only for students to fall into 
the hands of boys and girls. From the first to almost the penultimate edition of these 
stones the drawing-room alone has been consulted. Even Mr. Payne, though his 
otherwise faithful version was printed for the Villon Society, had the fear of Mrs 
Grundy before his eyes. Moreover, no previous editor-not even Lane himself-had 
a tithe of Captain Burton's acquaintance with the manners and customs of the 
Moslem East. Hence, not unfrequently, they made ludicrous blunders, and in no 
instance did they supply anything like the explanatory notes which have added so 
greatly to the value of this issue of Alf Laylah wa Laylah." Some of these are 
startling in their realism, and often the traveller who believed that he knew something 
of the East, winces at the plainness with which the Wazir's daughter tells her tales to 
Sbahryar, King of the Banu Sasan. The languase is, however, more frequently 
coarse than loose, and smacks more of the childish plainness with which high and low 
| talk in the family circles from Tangier to Malayia, than of prurience or suggestiveness. 
;The Oriental cannot understand that it is improper to refer in straightforward terms to 
anything which Allah has created, or of which the Kuran treats. But in his conver- 
sation, as in his folk-lore, there is no subtle corruption or covert licentiousness none 
of the vicious suggestion and false sentiment that pervade so many of the productions 
of the modern romantic school. 

It is, indeed, questionable whether there is much in these inimitable romances half 
so objectionable as many of the chapters in Rabelais and Boccaccio. Nor do the 
most archaic of the passages which Captain Burton declines to "veil in the decent 
obscurity of a learned language" leave much room for the admirers of Shakespeare, or 
Greene, or Nash, or Wycherley, or Swift, or Sterne to cry shame. Their coarseness 
was a reflection of the times. The indelicacy was not offensive to those who heard it. 
On the other hand, apart from the language, the general tone of " The Nights" is 
exceptionally high and pure. The devotional fervour, as Captain Burton justly claims, 
often rises to the boiling-point of fanaticism, and the pathos is sweet and deep, genuine 
and tender, simple and true. Its life strong, splendid, and multitudinous is everywhere 
flavoured with that unaffected pessimism and constitutional melancholy which strike 
deepest root under the brightest skies. The Kazi administers poetical justice with 
exemplary impartiality ; and so healthy is the morale that at times we descry through the 
voluptuous and libertine picture " vistas of a transcendental morality the morality of 
Socrates in Plato." In no other work of the same nature is Eastern life so vividly 
pourtrayed. We see the Arab Knight, his prowess and his passion for adventure, his 
love and his revenge, the craft of his wives, and the hypocrisy of his priests, as plainly 
as if we had lived among them. Gilded palaces, charming women, lovely gardens, caves 
full of jewels, and exquisite repasts, captivate the senses and give variety to the panorama 
which is passing before our eyes. Yet we repeat that, though there is much in the 
excellent version now begun which is very plain speaking, there is nothing intentionally 
demoralising. Evidently, however, the translator is prepared to hear this charge brought 
against his labour of love. Indeed, there is a tinge of melancholy pervading the preface 
in which the Editor refers to his " unsuccessful professional life," and to the knowledge 
.of which his country has cared so little to avail itself. 

Even in the recent Egyptian troubles which are referred to somewhat bitterly his wisdom 
was not utilised, though, after the death of Major Morice, there was not an English official 
in the camps before Suakin capable of speaking Arabic. On this scandal, and on the 
ignorance of Oriental customs which was everywhere displayed, Captain Burton is 
deservedly severe. The issue of the ten volumes now in the press,.accompanied by notes 

398 Supplemental Nights. 

so full of learning as those with which they are illuminated, will surely give the natio* 
an opportunity for wiping away the reproach of that neglect which Captain Burton seems 
to feel more keenly than he cares to express. 

This was a sop to the friend and a sore blow dealt to the enemy. More- 
over it was speedily followed up by another as swashing and trenchant in 
the Morning Advertiser (September 15, '85), of which long extracts are 
presently quoted. The journal was ever friendly to me during the long 
reign of Mr. James Grant, and became especially so when the editorial 
chair was so worthily filled by my old familiar of Oxford days, the late 
Alfred Bate Richards, a man who made the " Organ of the Licensed 
Victuallers " a power in the state and was warmly thanked for his gooc 
services by that model conservative, Lord Beaconsfield. 

A phrase in the Standard^ the " most archaic of the passages," acted 


like a red rag upon a rageous bull. I should rather say that it excited the 
so-called "Sexual Journal " by suggesting another opportunity for its unclean 
sensationalism : perhaps also the staff hoped to provide company and a 
fellow-sufferer for their editor, who was then in durance vile, his offences 
being " inciting to an indecent assault " and an act of criminal immorality. 
I should not have felt called upon to remind my readers of a scandal half- 
forgotten in England, while still held in lively remembrance by the jealous 
European world, had not the persistent fabrications, calumnies, and 
slanders of the Pall Mall, which .continue to this day, compelled me to 
move in self-defence, and to explain the mean underlying motives. 

Some three years and a half ago (June 3, '85), the paper startled the 
world of London by a prodigy of false, foul, and fulsome details in the 
shape of articles entitled " The Maiden Tribute of Modern Babylon." 
The object of the editor, Mr. William T. Stead, a quondam teacher in 
the London schools and a respectable Methodist strengthened by non- 
Conformist support,, in starting this ignoble surprise on the public was 
much debated. His partisans asserted that he had been honestly deceived 
by some designing knave as if such child-like credulity were any excuse for 
a veteran journalist ! His foes opined that under the cloak of a virtue, which 
Cato never knew, he sought to quicken his subscription-list ever dwindling 
under the effects of his exaggerated Russophilism and Anglophobia. 

But whatever may have been the motive, the effect was deplorable. 
The articles, at once collected into a pamphlet (price twopence), as 
the "Report of the Pall Mall Gazette's Secret Commission," and headed 
by a laudatory quotation from one of the late Lord Shaftesbury's 
indiscreetly philanthropic speeches, were spread broadcast about every 



street and lane in London. The brochure of sixteen pages divided into 
three chapters delighted the malignant with such sensational section- 
headings as How Girls are Bought and Ruined Why the Cries of the 
Victims are not Heard Procuresses in the West End How Annie was 
Procured You Want a Maid, do You 1 The Ruin of Children A 
London Minotaur (?) The Ruin of the Young Life The Demon Child 
and A Close Time for Girls, the latter being intended to support the 
recommendation of the Lords' Committee and the promise of a Home 
Secretary that the age of consent be raised from thirteen to sixteen. And 
all this catchpenny stuff (price 2d.) ended characteristically with " Philan- 
thropic and Religious Associations can be supplied with copies of this 
reprint on special terms." Such artless benevolence and disinterested benefi- 
cence must, of course, be made to pay. 

Read by every class and age in the capital, the counties and the 
colonies, this false and filthy scandal could not but infect the very children 
with the contagion of vice. The little gutter-girls and street-lasses of East 
London looked at men passing-by as if assured that their pucelages were 
or would become vendible at 3 to $. But, the first startling over, men 
began to treat the writer as he deserved. The abomination was " boy- 
cotted " by the Press, expelled the clubs, and driven in disgrace from the 
"family breakfast-table," an unpleasant predicament for a newspaper 
which lives, not by its news, but by its advertisements. The editor had 
the impudence to bemoan a " conspiracy of silence," which can only mean 
that he wanted his foul sheets to be bought and discussed when the public 
thought fit to bury them in oblivion. And yet he must have known that 
his " Modern Babylon " is not worse in such matters than half-a-dozen 
minor Babylons scattered over Europe, Asia, and America ; and that it is 
far from being, except by the law of proportion, the " greatest market of 
human flesh in the world." But by carefully and curiously misrepresenting 
the sporadic as the systematic, and by declaring