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(Paris omnia para) 

Arab Proverb. 

"Niuna corrotta mente intese mai saoamente parole. " 

"Dtcamtron "-conclu&wn. 

M Erubuit, posuitque meum Lucretia libram 

Sed coram Brnto. Brute I recede, leget. " 


" Mieulx est de rls que de larmes escripre, 

Pour ce que rire est le propre des hommes. " 


pleasure we derive from perusing the Tboasaad-and-One 
StoriiS makes us regret that we possess only a comparatively small 
par4ttf fiM toaly eachanticg fictions. '* 

CRICBTOW'S "History of *&<&$*. 



antr a 






Sharnmar Edition 

Limited to one thousand numbered sets, 
of which this is 






During the last dozen years, since we first met at Cairo, you 
have done much for Egyptian folk-lore and you can do much more. This 
volume is inscribed to you with a double purpose ; first it is intended as a 
public expression of gratitude for your friendly assistance ; and, secondly, 
as a memento that the samples which you have given us imply a promise 
of further gift. With this lively sense of favours to come I subscribe 

Ever your friend and fellow worker, 

LONDON, July 12, 1886. 


(Lane, The Story of Maaroof, III. 671-732.) 








A. English 393 

B. Arabic 421 


A. The Unfinished Calcutta Edition (1814-1818) . . 448 

B. The Breslau Text * 450 

C. The Macnaghten Text and the Bulak Edition . . 457 

D. The same with Mr. Lane's and my Version * ... 464 




The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night. 


THERE dwelt once upon a time in the God-guarded city of Cairo 
a cobbler who lived by patching old shoes. 1 His name was 
Ma'aruf 2 and he had a wife called Fatimah, whom the folk had 
nicknamed " The Dung ;" 3 for that she was a whorish, worthless 
wretch, scanty of shame and mickle of mischief. She ruled her 
spouse and used to abuse him and curse him a thousand times a 
day ; and he feared her malice and dreaded her misdoings ; for 
that he was a sensible man and careful of his repute, but poor- 
conditioned. When he earned much, he spent it on her, and 
when he gained little, she revenged herself on his body that night, 
leaving him no peace and making his night black as her book ; 4 
for she was even as of one like her saith the poet : 

How manifold nights have I passed with my wife o In the saddest plight with 

all misery rife : 
Would Heaven when first I went in to her o With a cup of cold poison I'd 

ta'en her life. 

Amongst other afflictions which befel him from her one day she 
said to him, " O Ma'aruf, I wish thee to bring me this night a 
vermicelli-cake dressed with bees' honey," 5 He replied, " So Allah 

1 Arab. "Zarabm" (pi. of zarbun), lit. slaves' shoes or sandals (see vol. iii. p. 336) 
the chaussure worn by Mamelukes. Here the word is used in its modern sense of stout 
shoes or walking boots. 

2 The popular word means goodness, etc., e.g. "A'mil al-Ma'arvif " = have the 
kindness ; do me the favour. 

3 Dozy translates " 'Urrah " =. Une Megere : Lane terms it a "vulgar word signifying 
a wicked, mischievous shrew." But it is the fem. form of 'Urr = dung ; not a bad 
name for a daughter of Billingsgate; and reminds us of the term " Dung-beardlings " 
applied by the amiable Hallgerda to her enemy's sons. (The Story of Burnt 
Njal, ii. 47-) 

4 i.e. black like the book of her actions which would be shown to her on Doomsday. 
(See Night dccclxxi.) The ungodly hold it in the left hand, the right being bound 
behind their backs and they appear in ten foul forms, apes, swine, etc., for which see 
Sale sect. iv. 

5 The " KunaTah " (vermicelli-cake) is a favourite dish of wheaten flour, worked some* 
what finer than our vermicelli, fried with samn (butter melted and clarified) and sweetened 
with honey or sugar. See Lane M. E. chapt. v. Bees' honey is opposed to various 
syrups Which are used as sweeteners. See vol. v. 300. 

VOL. X. 

2 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Almighty aid me to its price, I will bring it thee. By Allah, I 
have no dirhams to-day, but our Lord will make things easy." 1 

Rejoined she, And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and 

ceased to say her permitted say. 

fo&en ft foaa tfje jitne f^un&tefc antr JEJinettetf) 

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that 
Ma'aruf the Cobbler said to his spouse, " If Allah aid me to its 
price, I will bring it to thee this night. By Allah, I have no 
dirhams to-day, but our Lord will make things easy to me ! " She 
rejoined, " I wot naught of these words ; whether He aid thee or 
aid thee not, look thou come not to me save with the vermicelli 
and bees' honey ; and if thou come without it I will make thy 
night black as thy fortune whenas thou marriedst me and fellest 
into my hand." Quoth he, " Allah is bountiful ! " and going out 
with grief scattering itself from his body, prayed the dawn-prayer 
and opened his shop, saying, " I beseech thee, O Lord, to vouchsafe 
me the price of the Kunafah and ward off from me the mischief of 
yonder wicked woman this night ! " After which he sat in the 
shop till noon, but no work came to him and his fear of his wife 
redoubled. Then he arose and locking his shop, went out per- 
plexed as to how he should do in the matter of the vermicelli-cake, 
seeing he had not even the wherewithal to buy bread. Presently 
he came up to the shop of the Kunafah-seller and stood before it 
distraught, whilst his eyes brimmed with tears. The pastry-cook 
glanced at him and said, " O Master Ma'aruf, why dost thou weep ? 
Tell me what hath befallen thee." So he acquainted him with his 
case, saying, " My wife is a shrew, a virago who would have me 
bring her a Kunafah ; but I have sat in my shop till past 
mid-day and have not gained even the price of bread ; wherefore 
I am in fear of her." The cook laughed and said, " No harm shall 
come to thee. How many pounds wilt thou have ? " " Five 
pounds," answered Ma'aruf. So the man weighed him out five 
pounds of vermicelli-cake and said to him, " I have clarified butter, 
but no bees' honey. Here is drip-honey, 2 however, which is better 

1 i.e. Will send us aid. The Shrew's rejoinder is highly impious in Moslem opinion. 

2 Arab. Asal Katr ; "a fine kind of black honey, treacle" says Lane j but it is 
afterwards called cane-honey ('Asal Kasab). I have never heard it applied to " the syrup 
which exudes from ripe dates, when hung up." 

Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 3 

than bees' honey ; and what harm will there be, if it be with drip- 
honey ? " Ma'aruf was ashamed to object, because the pastry- 
cook was to have patience with him for the price, and said, " Give 
it me with drip-honey." So he fried a vermicelli-cake for him with 
butter and drenched it with drip-honey, till it was fit to present to 
Kings. Then he asked him, " Dost thou want bread J and 
cheese ? "; and Ma'aruf answered, " Yes." So he gave him four 
half dirhams worth of bread and one of cheese, and the vermicelli 
was ten nusfs. Then said he, " Know, O Ma'aruf, that thou owest 
me fifteen nusfs; so go to thy wife and make merry and take this 
nusf for the Hammam ; 2 and thou shalt have credit for a day or 
two or three till Allah provide thee with thy daily bread. And 
straiten not thy wife, for I will have patience with thee till such 
time as thou shalt have dirhams to spare." So Ma'aruf took the 
vermicelli-cake and bread and cheese and went away, with a 
heart at ease, blessing the pastry-cook and saying, " Extolled be 
Thy perfection, O my Lord ! How bountiful art Thou ! " When 
he came home, his wife enquired of him, " Hast thou brought the 
vermicelli-cake?"; and, replying "Yes," he set it before her. 
She looked at it and seeing that it was dressed with cane-honey, 3 
said to him, " Did I not bid thee bring it with bees' honey ? Wilt 
thou contrary my wish and have it dressed with cane-honey ? " 
He excused himself to her, saying, I bought it not save on credit ;" 
but said she, " This talk is idle ; I will not eat Kunafah save with 
bees' honey." And she was wroth with it and threw it in his face, 
saying, " Begone, thou pimp, and bring me other than this ! " 
Then she dealt him a buffet on the cheek and knocked out one of 
his teeth. The blood ran down upon his breast and for stress of 
anger he smote her on the head a single blow and a slight ; 
whereupon she clutched his beard and fell to shouting out and 
saying, " Help, O Moslems ! " So the neighbours came in and 
freed his beard from her grip ; then they reproved and reproached 
her, saying, " We are all content to eat Kunafah with cane-honey. 
Why, then, wilt thou oppress this poor man thus ? Verily, this is 

1 Arab. " 'Aysh," lit. =: that on which man lives : " Khubz " being the more popular 
term. *' Hubz and Joobn " is well known at Malta. 

2 Insinuating that he had better make peace with his wife by knowing her carnally. 
It suggests the story of the Irishman who brought over to the holy Catholic Church 
three several Protestant wives, but failed with the fourth on account of the decline of his 
44 Convarter." 

3 Arab. " Asal Kasab," i.e. Sugar, possibly made from sorgho-stalks Holcus sorghum 
of which I made syrup in Central Africa. 

4 A If Lay ia h iva Laylah. 

disgraceful in thee ! " And they went on to soothe her till they 
made peace between her and him. But, when the folk were gone, 
she sware that she would not eat of the vermicelli, and Ma'aruf, 
burning with hunger, said in himself, "She sweareth that she will 
not eat ; so I will e'en eat." Then he ate, and when she saw 
him eating, she said, " Inshallah, may the eating of it be poison 
to destroy the far one's body " } Quoth he, " It shall not be 
at thy bidding," and went on eating, laughing and saying, 
' Thou swarest that thou wouldst not eat of this ; but Allah is 
bountiful, and to-morrow night, an the Lord decree, I will 
bring thee Kuhafah dressed with bees' honey, and thou shalt eat it 
alone." And he applied himself to appeasing her, whilst she 
called down curses upon him ; and she ceased not to rail at him 
and revile him with gross abuse till the morning, when she bared 
her forearm to beat him. Quoth he, " Give me time and I will 
bring thee other vermicelli-cake." Then he went out to the 
mosque and prayed, after which he betook himself to his shop and 
opening it, sat down ; but hardly had he done this when up came 
two runners from the Kazi's court and said to him, " Up with thee, 
speak with the Kazi, for thy wife hath complained of thee to him 
and her favour is thus and thus." He recognised her by their 
description ; and saying, " May Allah Almighty torment her ! " 
walked with them till he came to the Kazi's presence, where he 
found Fatimah standing with her arm bound up and her face-veil 
besmeared with blood ; and she was weeping and wiping away her 
tears. Quoth the Kazi, " Ho man, hast thou no fear of Allah the 
Most High ? Why hast thou beaten this good woman and broken 
her forearm and knocked out her tooth and entreated her thus ? " 
And quoth Ma'aruf, " If I beat her or put out her tooth, sentence 
me to what thou wilt ; but in truth the case was thus and thus and 
the neighbours made peace between me and her." And he told 
him the story from first to last. Now this Kazi was a benevolent 
man ; so he brought out to him a quarter dinar, saying, " O man, 
take this and get her Kunafah with bees' honey and do ye make 
peace, thou and she." Quoth Ma'aruf, " Give it to her." So she 
took it and the Kazi made peace between them, saying, " O wife, 
obey thy husband ; and thou, O man, deal kindly with her. 2 " 

1 For this unpleasant euphemy see vol. iv. 215. 

* This is a true picture of the leniency with which women were treated in the Kazi's 
court at Cairo; and the effect was simply deplorable. I have noted that matters have 

Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 5 

Then they left the court, reconciled at the Kazi's hands, and the 
woman went one way, whilst her husband returned by another way 
to his shop and sat there, when, behold, the runners came up to 
him and said, " Give us our fee. Quoth he, " The Kazi took not 
of me aught ; on the contrary, he gave me a quarter dinar." But 
quoth they, " 'Tis no concern of ours whether the Kazi took of 
thee or gave to thee, and if thou give us not our fee, we will exact 
it in despite of thee." And they fell to dragging him about the 
market ; so he sold his tools and gave them half a dinar, whereupon 
they let him go and went away, whilst he put his hand to his cheek 
and sat sorrowful, for that he had no tools wherewith to work. 
Presently, up came two ill-favoured fellows and said to him, 
" Come, O man, and speak with the Kazi ; for thy wife hath com- 
plained of thee to him." Said he, " He made peace between us 
just now." But said they, " We come from another Kazi, and thy 
wife hath complained of thee to our Kazi." So he arose and went 
with them to their Kazi, calling on Allah for aid against her ; and 
when he saw her, he said to her, " Did we not make peace, good 
woman ? " Whereupon she cried, " There abideth no peace be- 
tween me and thee." Accordingly he came forward and told the 
Kazi his story, adding, " And indeed the Kazi Such-an-one made 
peace between us this very hour." Whereupon the Kazi said to 
her, " O strumpet, since ye two have made peace with each other, 
why comest thou to me complaining ? " Quoth she, " He beat me 
after that ; " but quoth the Kazi, " Make peace each with other, 
and beat her not again, and she will cross thee no more." So they 
made peace and the Kazi said to Ma'aruf, " Give the runners their 
fee." So he gave them their fee and going back to his shop, 
opened it and sat down, as he were a drunken man for excess of 
the chagrin which befel him. Presently, while he was still sitting, 
behold, a man came up to him and said, " O Ma'aruf, rise and 
hide thyself, for thy wife hath complained of thee to the High 
Court * and Abu Tabak 2 is after thee." So he shut his shop and 

grown even worse since the English occupation, for history repeats herself ; and the same 
was the case in Afghanistan and in Sind. We govern too much in these matters, which 
should be directed not changed, and too little in other things, especially in exacting 
respect for the conquerors from the conquered. 

1 Arab. "Bab al-'Ali" = the high gate or Sublime Porte; here used of the 
Chief Kazi's court: the phrase is a descendant of the Coptic "Per-ao" whence 
' Pharaoh." 

*_" Abu Tabak/' in Cairene slang, is an officer who arrests by order of the Kazi and 

6 A If Lay la h wa Laylah. 

fled towards the Gate of Victory. 1 He had five Nusfs of silver 
left of the price of the lasts and gear ; and therewith he bought 
four worth of bread and one of cheese, as he fled from her. Now 
it was the winter season and the hour of mid-afternoon prayer ; so, 
when he came out among the rubbish-mounds the rain descended 
upon him, like water from the mouths of water-skins, and his 
clothes were drenched. He therefore entered the 'Adiliyah, 2 
where he saw a ruined place and therein a deserted cell without a 
door ; and in it he took refuge and found shelter from the rain. 
The tears streamed from his eyelids, and he fell to complaining of 
what had betided him and saying, " Whither shall I flee from this 
whore ? I beseech Thee, O Lord, to vouchsafe me one who shall 
conduct me to a far country, where she shall not know the way to 
me ! " Now while he sat weeping, behold, the wall clave and 
there came forth to him therefrom one of tall stature, whose aspect 
caused his body-pile to bristle and his flesh to creep, and said to 
him, " O man, what aileth thee that thou disturbest me this night ? 
These two hundred years have I dwelt here and have never seen 
any enter this place and do as thou dost. Tell me what thou 
wishest and I will accomplish thy need, as ruth for thee hath got 
hold upon my heart." Quoth Ma'aruf, "Who and what art 
thou ? " ; and quoth he, " I am the Haunter 3 of this place." So 
Ma'aruf told him all that had befallen him with his wife and he 
said, " Wilt thou have me convey thee to a country, where thy 
wife shall know no way to thee?" "Yes," said Ma'aruf; and the 
other, " Then mount my back." So he mounted on his back and 
he flew with him from after supper-tide till daybreak, when he set 
him down on the top of a high mountain And Shahrazad per- 
ceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say. 

means " Father of whipping" (= tabaka, a low word for beating, thrashing, whopping) 
because he does his duty with all possible violence in terrorem. 
1 Bab al-Nasr the Eastern or Desert Gate : see vol. vi. 234. 

2 This is a mosque outside the great gate built by Al-Malik al-'Adil Tutnan Bey in 
A.H. 906 ( = 1501). The date is not worthy of much remark for these names are often 
inserted by the scribe for which see Terminal Essay. 

3 Arab. " 'Amir" lit. = one who inhabiteth, a peopler ; here used in technical sense. 
As has been seen, ruins and impure places such as privies and Hammam- baths are the 
favourite homes of the Jinn. The fire-drake in the text was summoned by the Cobbler's 
exclamation and even Marids at times do a kindly action. 

Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 

foJjen ft foas t&e Nine f^tmtofc antr Nmetp--fmt 

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Marid 
having taken up Ma'aruf the Cobbler, flew off with him and set him 
down upon a high mountain and said to him, " O mortal, descend 
this mountain and thou wilt see the gate of a city. Enter it, for 
therein thy wife cannot come at thee." He then left him and went 
his way, whilst Ma'aruf abode in amazement and perplexity till the 
sun rose, when he said to himself, " I will up with me and go down 
into the city : indeed there is no profit in my abiding upon this 
highland." So he descended to the mountain-foot and saw a city 
girt by towering walls, full of lofty palaces and gold-adorned build- 
ings which was a delight to beholders. He entered in at the gate 
and found it a place such as lightened the grieving heart ; but, as 
lie walked through the streets the townsfolk stared at him as a 
curiosity and gathered about him, marvelling at his dress, for it 
was unlike theirs. Presently, one of them said to him, " O man, 
art thou a stranger?" "Yes." "What countryman art thou?" 
" I am from the city of Cairo the Auspicious." " And when didst 
thou leave Cairo ? " " I left it yesterday, at the hour of afternoon- 
prayer." Whereupon the man laughed at him and cried out, 
saying, " Come look, O folk, at this man and hear what he saith ! " 
Quoth they, " What doeth he say ? "; and quoth the townsman, 
" He pretendeth that he cometh from Cairo and left it yesterday 
at the hour of afternoon-prayer ! " At this they all laughed and 
gathering round Ma'aruf, said to him, " O man, art thou mad to 
talk thus ? How canst thou pretend that thou leftest Cairo at 
mid-afternoon yesterday and foundedst thyself this morning here, 
when the truth is that between our city and Cairo lieth a full 
year's journey ? " Quoth he, " None is mad but you. As for me, 
I speak sooth, for here is bread which I brought with me from 
Cairo, and see, 'tis yet new." Then he showed them the bread 
and they stared at it, for it was unlike their country bread. So 
the crowd increased about him and they said to one another, 
" This is Cairo bread : look at it ; " and he became a gazing- 
stock in the city and some believed him; whilst others gave him 
the lie and made mock of him. Whilst this was going on, behold, 
up came a merchant riding on a she-mule and followed by two 
black slaves, and brake a way through the people, saying, " O 
folk, are ye not ashamed to mob this stranger and make mock of 

8 A If Laylak wa Laylak. 

him and scoff at him ? " And he went on to rate them, till he 
drave them away from Ma'aruf, and none could make him any 
answer. Then he said to the stranger, " Come, O my brother, 
no harm shall betide thee from these folk. Verily they have no 
shame." * So he took him and carrying him to a spacious and 
richly-adorned house, seated him in a speak-room fit for a King, 
whilst he gave an order to his slaves, who opened a chest and 
brought out to him a dress such as might be worn by a merchant 
worth a thousand, 2 He clad him therewith and Ma'aruf, being a 
seemly man, became as he were consul of the merchants. Then 
his host called for food and they set before them a tray of all 
manner exquisite viands. The twain ate and drank and the 
merchant said to Ma'aruf, " O my brother, what is thy name ? " 
" My name is Ma'aruf and I am a cobbler by trade and patch old 
shoes/' " What countryman art thou ? " " I am from Cairo." 
"What quarter?" "Dost thou know Cairo?" "I am of its 
children, 3 I come from the Red Street. 4 " " And whom dost 
thou know in the Red Street ? " " I know such an one and such 
an one," answered Ma'aruf and named several people to him. 
Quoth the other, " Knowest thou Shaykh Ahmad the druggist ? 5 " 
" He was my next neighbour, wall to wall." " Is he well ? " 
"Yes." "How many sons hath he?" "Three, Mustafa, 
Mohammed and Ali." " And what hath Allah done with 
them ? " " As for Mustafa, he is well and he is a learned man, a 
professor 6 : Mohammed is a druggist and opened him a shop 
beside that of his father, after he had married, and his wife hath 
borne him a son named Hasan," " Allah gladden thee with good 
news ! " said the merchant ; and Ma'aruf continued, " As for 
Ali, he was my friend, when we were boys, and we always 
played together, I and he. We used to go in the guise of the 
children of the Nazarenes and enter the church and steal the 
books of the Christians and sell them and buy food with the 

1 The style is modern Cairene jargon. 
8 Purses or gold pieces see vol. ix. 313. 

3 i.e. I am a Cairene. 

4 Arab. "Darb al-Ahmar," a street still existing near to and outside the noble Bab 
Zuwaylah, for which see vol. i. 269. 

6 Arab. '"Attar," perfume-seller and druggist; the word is connected with our 
"Ottar" ('Atr). 

6 Arab. " Mudarris " lit.= one who gives lessons or lectures (dars) and pop. applied to 
a professor in a collegiate mosque like Al-Azhar of Cairo. 

Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. g 

price. It chanced once that the Nazarenes caught us with a 
book ; whereupon they complained of us to our folk and said to 
Ali's father: An thou hinder not thy son from troubling us, we 
will complain of thee to the King. So he appeased them and 
gave AH a thrashing ; wherefore he ran away none knew whither 
and he hath now been absent twenty years and no man hath 
brought news of him." Quoth the host, " I am that very Ali, son 
of Shaykh Ahmad the druggist, and thou art my playmate 
Ma'aruf." * So they saluted each other and after the salam Ali 
said, " Tell me why, O Ma'aruf, thou earnest from Cairo to this 
city." Then he told him all that had befallen him of ill-doing 
with his wife Fatimah the Dung and said, " So, when her annoy 
waxed on me, I fled from her towards the Gate of Victory and 
went forth the city. Presently, the rain fell heavy on me ; so I 
entered a ruined cell in the Adiliyah and sat there, weeping ; 
whereupon there came forth to me the Haunter of the place, 
which was an Ifrit of the Jinn, and questioned me. I acquainted 
him with my case and he took me on his back and flew with me 
all night between heaven and earth, till he set me down on yonder 
mountain and gave me to know of this city. So I came down 
from the mountain and entered the city, when the people crowded 
about me and questioned me. I told them that I had left Cairo 
yesterday, but they believed me not, and presently thou earnest up 
and driving the folk away from me, carriedst me to this house. Such, 
then, is the cause of my quitting Cairo ; and thou, what object 
brought thee hither ? " Quoth Ali, " The giddiness 2 of folly 
turned my head when I was seven years old, from which time I 
wandered from land to land and city to city, till I came to this 
city, the name whereof is Ikhtiydn al-Khatan. 3 I found its people 
an hospitable folk and a kindly, compassionate for the poor man. 
and selling to him on credit and believing all he said. So quoth 
I to them : I am a merchant and have preceded my packs and I 
need a place wherein to bestow my baggage. And they believed 
me and assigned me a lodging. Then quoth I to them : Is there 
any of you will lend me a thousand dinars, till my loads arrive, 

1 This thoroughly dramatic scene is told with a charming naivete*. No wonder that 
The Nights has been made the basis of a national theatre amongst the Turks. 

2 Arab. " Taysh " lit.= vertigo, swimming of head. 

3 Here Trebutien (iii. 265) reads "la ville de Khaitan (so the Mac. Edit. iv. 708) 
capital du royaume de Sohatan." Ikhtiydn Lane suggests to be fictitious : Khatan is a 
district of Tartary east of Kashgar, so called by Sadik al- Isfahan! p. 24. 

io A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

when I will repay it to him ; for I am in want of certain things 
before my goods come ? " They gave me what I asked and I went 
to the merchants' bazar, where, seeing goods, I bought them and 
sold them next day at a profit of fifty gold pieces and bought 
others. 1 And I consorted with the folk and entreated them liberally, 
so that they loved me, and I continued to sell and buy, till I grew 
rich. Know, O my brother, that the proverb saith, The world is 
show and trickery : and the land where none wotteth thee, there 
do whatso liketh thee. Thou too, an thou say to all who ask 
thee, I'm a cobbler by trade and poor withal, and I fled 
from my wife and left Cairo yesterday, they will not believe thee 
and thou wilt be a laughing-stock among them as long as thou 
abidest in the city ; whilst, an thou tell them, An Ifrit brought me 
hither, they will take fright at thee and none will come near thee ; 
for they will say, This man is possessed of an Ifrit and harm will 
betide whoso approacheth him. And such public report will be 
dishonouring both to thee and to me, because they ken I come 
from Cairo." Ma'aruf asked : " How then shall I do ? " ; and AH 
answered, " I will tell thee how thou shalt do, Inshallah ! To- 
morrow I will give thee a thousand dinars and a she-mule to ride 
and a black slave, who shall walk before thee and guide thee to 
the gate of the merchants' bazar ; and do thou go into them. I 
will be there sitting amongst them, and when I see thee, I will 
rise to thee and salute thee with the salam and kiss thy hand and 
make a great man of thee. Whenever I ask thee of any kind of 
stuff, saying, Hast thou brought with thee aught of such a kind ? 
do thou answer, " Plenty. 2 " And if they question me of thee, I 
will praise thee and magnifythee in their eyes and say to them, 
Get him a store-house and a shop. I also will give thee out for a 
man of great wealth and generosity ; and if a beggar come to thee, 
bestow upon him what thou mayst ; so will they put faith in what 
I say and believe in thy greatness and generosity and love thee. 
Then will I invite thee to my house and invite all the merchants 

1 This is a true picture of the tact and savoir faire of the Cairenes. It was a study to 
see how, under the late Khedive they managed to take precedence of Europeans who 
found themselves in the background before they knew it. For instance, every Bey, 
whose degree is that of a Colonel was made an " Excellency " and ranked accordingly 
at Court whilst his father, some poor Fellah, was ploughing the ground, Tanf ik Pasha 
began his ill-omened rule by always placing natives close to him in the place of honour, 
addressing them first and otherwise snubbing Europeans who, when English, were often 
too obtuse to notice the petty insults lavished upon them 

2 Arab. " Kathfr *' (pron. Katir) = much : here used in its slang sense, "no end." 

Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 1 1 

on thy account and bring together thee and them, so that all may 
know thee and thou know them, - And Shahrazad perceived 
the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say. 

fofjen ft foas tfje Kine f^untefc anfc Ninctg-secotifc 

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the 
merchant AH said to Ma'aruf, " I will invite thee to my house and 
invite all the merchants on thy account and bring together thee and 
them, so that all may know thee and thou know them, whereby 
thou shalt sell and buy and take and give with them ; nor will it 
be long ere thou become a man of money." Accordingly, on the 
morrow he gave him a thousand dinars and a suit of clothes and a 
black slave and mounting him on a she-mule, said to him, " Allah 
give thee quittance of responsibility for all this, 1 inasmuch as thou 
art my friend and it behoveth me to deal generously with thee. 
Have no care ; but put away from thee the thought of thy wife's 
misways and name her not to any." " Allah requite thee with 
good ! " replied Ma'aruf and rode on, preceded by his blackamoor 
till the slave brought him to the gate of the merchants' bazar, 
where they were all seated, and amongst them Ali, who when he 
saw him, rose and threw himself upon him, crying, " A blessed 
day, O Merchant Ma'aruf, O man of good works and kindness 2 ! " 
And he kissed his hand before the merchants and said to them, 
"Our brothers, ye are honoured by knowing 3 the merchant 
Ma'aruf." So they saluted him, and Ali signed to them to make 
much of him, wherefore he was magnified in their eyes. Then Ali 
helped him to dismount from his she-mule and saluted him with 
the salam ; after which he took the merchants apart, one after 
other, and vaunted Ma'aruf to them. They asked, " Is this man a 
merchant ? ; " and he answered, " Yes ; and indeed he is the chiefest 
of merchants, there liveth not a wealthier than he ; for his wealth 
and the riches of his father and forefathers are famous among the 
merchants of Cairo. He hath partners in Hind and Sind and Al- 

1 i.e. " May the Lord soon make thee able to repay me ; but meanwhile I give it to 
thee for thy own free use." 

2 Punning upon his name. Much might be written upon the significance of names as 
ominous of good and evil ; but the subject is far too extensive for a footnote. 

3 Lane translates "Anisa-kum" by " he hath delighted you by his arrival" ; Mr. 

" I commend him to you." 

12 A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

Yaman and is high in repute for generosity. So know ye his 
rank and exalt ye his degree and do him service, and wot also 
that his coming to your city is not for the sake of traffic, and none 
other save to divert himself with the sight of folk's countries : in- 
deed, he hath no need of strangerhood for the sake of gain and 
profit, having wealth that fires cannot consume, and I am one of 
his servants.'* And he ceased not to extol him, till they set him 
above their heads and began to tell one another of his qualities. 
Then they gathered round him and offered him junkets 1 and 
sherbets, and even the Consul of the Merchants came to him and 
saluted him ; whilst AH proceeded to ask him, in the presence of 
the traders, " O my lord, haply thou hast brought with thee some- 
what of such and such a stuff? " ; and Ma'aruf answered, " Plenty." 
Now Ali had that day shown him various kinds of costly clothes 
and had taught him the names of the different stuffs, dear and 
cheap. Then said one of the merchants, " O my lord, hast thou 
brought with thee yellow broad cloth ? " : and Ma'aruf said, 
"Plenty"! Quoth another, "And gazelles' blood red 2 ?"; and 
quoth the Cobbler, " Plenty " ; and as often as he asked him of 
aught, he made him the same answer. So the other said, "O 
Merchant Ali had thy countryman a mind to transport a thousand 
loads of costly stuffs, he could do so >} ; and Ali said, " He would 
take them from a single one of his store-houses, and miss naught 
thereof." Now whilst they were sitting, behold, up came a beggar 
and went the round of the merchants. One gave him a half dirham 
and another a copper, 3 but most of them gave him nothing, till he 
came to Ma'aruf who pulled out a handful of gold and gave it to 
him, whereupon he blessed him and went his ways. The merchants 
marvelled at this and said, " Verily, this is a King's bestowal for 
he gave the beggar gold without count , and were he not a man. 
of vast wealth and money without end, he had not given a beggar 
a handful of gold." After a while, there came to him a poor 
woman and he gave her a handful of gold ; whereupon she went 
away, blessing him, and told the other beggars, who came to him, 
one after other, and he gave them each a handful of gold, till he 
disbursed the thousand dinars. Then he struck hand upon hand 

1 Arab. " Faturat," = light food for the early breakfast of which the " Fatfrah " 
cake was a favourite item. See vol. i. 300. , 

2 A dark red dye (Lane). 

* Arab. "Jadfd," see vol. viii. 121. 

Mcfaruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 1 3 

and said, Allah is our sufficient aid and excellent is the Agent ! " 
Quoth the Consul, " What aileth thee, O Merchant Ma'aruf ? " ; and 
quoth he, "Itseemeth that the most part of the people of this city are 
poor and needy ; had I known their misery I would have brought 
with me a large sum of money in my saddle-bags and given 
largesse thereof to the poor. I fear me I may be long abroad 1 
and 'tis not in my nature to baulk a beggar ; and I have no gold 
left : so, if a pauper come to me, what shall I say to him ? " 
Quoth the Consul,-" Say, Allah will send thee thy daily bread 2 ! " ; 
but Ma'aruf replied, " That is not my practice and I am care-ridden 
because of this. Would I had other thousand dinars, wherewith 
to give alms till my baggage come ! " " Have no care for that," 
quoth the Consul and sending one of his dependents for a thousand 
dinars, handed them to Ma'aruf, who went on giving them to 
every beggar who passed till the call to noon-prayer. Then they 
entered the Cathedral-mosque and prayed the noon-prayers, and 
what was left him of the thousand gold pieces he scattered on 
the heads of the worshippers. This drew the people's attention to 
him and they blessed him, whilst the merchants marvelled at the 
abundance of his generosity and openhandedness. Then he turned 
to another trader and borrowing of him other thousand ducats, 
gave these also away, whilst Merchant AH looked on at what he 
did, but could not speak. He ceased not to do thus till the call 
to mid-afternoon prayer, when he entered the mosque and prayed 
and distributed the rest of the money. On this wise, by the time 
they locked the doors of the bazar, 3 he had borrowed five thousand 
sequins and given them away, saying to every one of whom he 
took aught, " Wait till my baggage come when, if thou desire gold 
I will give thee gold, and if thou desire stuffs, thou shalt have 
stuffs ; for I have no end of them." At eventide Merchant AH 
invited Ma'aruf and the rest of the traders to an entertainment 
and seated him in the upper end, the place of honour, where he 
talked of nothing but cloths and jewels, and whenever they made 
mention to him of aught, he said, " I have plenty of it." Next 
day, he again repaired to the market-street where he showed a 

1 Both the texts read thus, but the reading has little sense. Ma'aruf probably would 
ay, " I fear that my loads will be long coming.'' 

2 One of the many formulas of polite refusal. 

3 Each bazar, in a large city like Damascus, has its tall and heavy wooden doors 
which are locked every evening and opened in the morning by the Ghafir or guard. 
The "silver key," however, always lets one in. 

14 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

friendly bias towards the merchants and borrowed of them more 
money, which he distributed to the poor : nor did he leave doing 
thus twenty days, till he had borrowed threescore thousand dinars, 
and still there came no baggage, no, nor a burning plague. 1 
At last folk began to clamour for their money and say, " The 
merchant Ma'aruf's baggage cometh not. How long will he take 
people's monies and give them to the poor ? " And quoth one of 
them, " My rede is that we speak to Merchant All." So they 
went to him and said, " O Merchant Ali, Merchant Ma'arufs 
baggage cometh not." Said he, " Have patience, it cannot fail to 
come soon." Then he took Ma'aruf aside and said to him, " O 
Ma'aruf, what fashion is this ? Did I bid thee brown 2 the bread 
or burn it ? The merchants clamour for their coin and tell me 
that thou owest them sixty thousand dinars, which thou hast 
borrowed and given away to the poor. How wilt thou satisfy the 
folk, seeing that thou neither sellest nor buyest ? " Said Ma'aruf, 
" What matters it 3 ; and what are threescore thousand dinars ? 
When my baggage shall come, I will pay them in stuffs or in gold 
and silver, as they will." Quoth Merchant Ali, " Allah is Most 
Great ! Hast thou then any baggage ? "; and he said, " Plenty." 
Cried the other, " Allah and the Hallows 4 requite thee thine 
impudence! Did I teach thee this saying, that thou shouldst 
repeat it to me? But I will acquaint the folk with thee." 
Ma'aruf rejoined, " Begone and prate no more ! Am I a poor 
man ? I have endless wealth in my baggage and as soon as it 
cometh, they shall have their money's worth, two for one. I have 
no need of them." At this Merchant Ali waxed wroth and said, 
" Unmannerly wight that thou art, I will teach thee to lie to me 
and be not ashamed !'" Said Ma'aruf, " E'en work the worst thy 
hand can do ! They must wait till my baggage come, wjien they 
shall have their due and more." So Ali left him and went away, 
saying in himself, " I praised him whilome and if I blame him 
[now, I make myself out a liar and become of those of whom it is 

1 Arab. "Wa la Kabbata hamiyah," a Cairene vulgarism meaning, "There came 
nothing to profit him nor to rid the people of him." 

2 Arab. " Kammir," i.e. brown it before the fire, toast it. 

3 It is insinuated that he had lied till he himself believed the lie to be truth not an 
uncommon process, I may remark. 

4 Arab. "Rijal" the Men, equivalent to the Walis, Saints or Santons ; with 
perhaps an allusion to the Rijal al-Ghayb, the Invisible Controls concerning whom I 
have quoted Herklots in vol. ii. 211. 

Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 1 5 

said : Whoso praiseth and then blameth lieth twice." * And he 
knew not what to do. Presently, the traders came to him and 
said, " O Merchant Ali, hast thou spoken to him ? " Said he, " O 
folk, I am ashamed and, though he owe me a thousand dinars, I 
cannot speak to him . When ye lent him your money ye consulted 
me not ; so ye have no claim on me. Dun him yourselves, and if 
he pay you not, complain of him to the King of the city, saying : 
He is an impostor who hath imposed upon us. And he will 
deliver you from the plague of him." Accordingly, they repaired 
to the King and told him what had passed, saying, " O King of 
the age, we are perplexed anent this merchant, whose generosity 
is excessive ; for he doeth thus and thus, and all he borroweth, he 
giveth away to the poor by handsful. Were he a man of naught, 
his sense would not suffer him to lavish gold on this wise ; and 
were he a man of wealth, his good faith had been made manifest 
to us by the coming of his baggage ; but we see none of his 
luggage, although he avoucheth that he hath a baggage-train and 
hath . preceded it. Now some time hath past, but there appeareth 
no sign of his baggage-train, and he oweth us sixty thousand gold 
pieces, all of which he hath given away in alms." And they went 
on to praise him and extol his generosity. Now this King was a 
very covetous man, a more covetous than Ash'ab 2 ; and when he 
heard tell of Ma'arufs generosity and openhandedness, greed of 
gain got the better of him and he said to his Wazir, " Were not 
this merchant a man of immense wealth, he had not shown all 
this munificence. His baggage-train will assuredly come, where- 
upon these merchants will flock to him and he will scatter amongst 
them riches galore. Now I have more right to this money than 
they ; wherefore I have a mind to make friends with him and 

1 A saying attributed to Al-Hariri (Lane). It is good enough to be his : the Persians 
say, " Cut not down the tree thou plantedst," and the idea is universal throughout the 

2 A quotation from Al-Hariri (Ass. of the Badawin). Ash'ab (ob. A.H. 54), a 
Medinite servant of Caliph Osman, was proverbial for greed and sanguine, Micawber- 
like expectation of " windfalls." The Scholiast Al-Sharishi (of Xeres) describes him in 
Theophrastic style. He never saw a man put hand to pocket without expecting a 
present, or a funeral go by without hoping for a legacy, or a bridal procession without 
preparing his own house, hoping they might bring the bride to him by mistake. * * * 
When asked if he knew aught greedier than himself he said "Yes; a sheep I once 
kept upon my terrace-roof seeing a rainbow mistook it for a rope of hay and jumping 
to seize it broke its neck !" Hence "Ash'ab's sheep" became a by- word (Preston 
tells the tale in full, p. 288). 

1 6 A If Lay la h wa Laylak. 

profess affection for him, so that, when his baggage cometh whatso 
the merchants would have had I shall get of him ; and I will give 
him my daughter to wife and join his wealth to my wealth." 
Replied the Wazir, " O King of the age, methinks he is naught 
but an impostor, and 'tis the impostor who ruineth the house of 

the covetous ; " And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day 

and ceased saying her permitted say. 

Ttfofo fofjen ft foag tjje Nine ^unbreb an* Ntnety-tfjirb 

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when 
the Wazir said to the King, "Methinks he is naught but an 
impostor, and 'tis the impostor who ruineth the house of the 
covetous ; " the King said, " O Wazir, I will prove him and soon 
know if he be an impostor or a true man and whether he be a 
reading of Fortune or not." The Wazir asked, " And how wilt 
thou prove him ? "; and the King answered, " I will send for him 
to the presence and entreat him with honour and give him a jewel 
which I have. An he know it and wot its price, he is a man of 
worth and wealth ; but an he know it not, he is an impostor and 
an upstart and I will do him die by the foulest fashion of deaths." 
So he sent for Ma'aruf, who came and saluted him. The King 
returned his salam and seating him beside himself, said to him, 
"Art thou the merchant Ma'aruf?"and said he, "Yes." Quoth 
the King, " The merchants declare that thou owest them sixty 
thousand ducats. Is this true?" "Yes," quoth he. Asked the 
King, " Then why dost thou not give them their money? "; and 
he answered, " Let them wait till my baggage come and I will repay 
them twofold. An they wish for gold, they shall have gold ; and 
should they wish for silver, they shall have silver ; or an they 
prefer for merchandise, I will give them merchandise ; and to whom 
I owe a thousand I will give two thousand in requital of that 
wherewith he hath veiled my face before the poor ; for I have 
plenty/' Then said the King, " O merchant, take this and look 
what is its kind and value." And he gave him a jewel the bigness 
of a hazel-nut, which he had bought for a thousand sequins and 
not having its fellow, prized it highly. Ma'aruf took it and press- 
ing it between his thumb and forefinger brake it, for it was brittle 
and would not brook the squeeze. Quoth the King, <{ Why hast 
thou broken the jewel ? " ; and Ma'aruf laughed and said, " O King 

Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 17 

of the age, this is no jewel. This is but a bittock of mineral worth 
a thousand dinars ; why dost thou style it a jewel ? A jewel I call 
such as is worth threescore and ten thousand gold pieces and this 
is called but a piece of stone. A jewel that is not of the bigness 
of a walnut hath no worth in my eyes and I take no account 
thereof. How Cometh it, then, that thou, who art King, stylest 
this thing a jewel, when 'tis but a bit of mineral worth a thousand 
dinars ? But ye are excusable, for that ye are poor folk and have 
not in your possession things of price." The King asked, "O 
merchant, hast thou jewels such as those whereof thou speakest ? "; 
and he answered, " Plenty/' Whereupon avarice overcame the 
King and he said, " Wilt thou give me real jewels ? " Said 
Ma'aruf, " When my baggage- train shall come, I will give thee no 
end of jewels ; and all that thou canst desire I have in plenty and 
will give thee, without price." At this the King rejoiced and said 
to the traders, " Wend your ways and have patience with him, till 
his baggage arrive, when do ye come to me and receive your 
monies from me." So they fared forth and the King turned to his 
Wazir and said to him, " Pay court to Merchant Ma'aruf and take 
and give with him in talk and bespeak him of my daughter, 
Princess Dunya, that he may wed her and so we gain these riches 
he hath." Said the Wazir, " O King of the age, this man's 
fashion misliketh me and methinks he is an impostor and a liar : 
so leave this whereof thou speakest lest thou lose thy daughter for 
naught." Now this Minister had sued the King aforetime to give 
him his daughter to wife and he was willing to do so, but when she 
heard of it she consented not to marry him. Accordingly, the 
King said to him, " O traitor, thou desirest no good for me, because 
in past time thou soughtest my daughter in wedlock, but she would 
none of thee ; so now thou wouldst cut off the way of her marriage 
and wouldst have the Princess lie fallow, that thou mayst take her; 
but hear from me one word. Thou hast no concern in this matter. 
How can he be an impostor and a liar, seeing that he knew the 
price of the jewel, even that for which I bought it, and brake it 
because it pleased him not ? He hath jewels in plenty, and when 
he goeth in to my daughter and seeth her to be beautiful, she will 
captivate his reason and he will love her and give her jewels and 
things of price : but, as for thee, thou wouldst forbid my daughter 
and myself these good things." So the Minister was silent, for 
fear of the King's anger, and said to himself, " Set the curs on the 
VOL. X. B 

1 8 A If Lay ia h wa Lay I ah. 

cattle * i " Then with show of friendly bias he betook himself to 
Ma'aruf and said to him, " His highness the King loveth thee and 
hath a daughter, a winsome lady and a lovesome, to whom he is 
minded to marry thee. What sayst thou ? " Said he, " No harm 
in that ; but let him wait till my baggage come, for marriage- 
settlements on Kings' daughters are large and their rank de- 
mandeth that they be riot endowed save with a dowry befitting 
their degree. At this present I have no money with me till the 
coming of my baggage, for I have wealth in plenty and needs 
must I make her marriage-portion five thousand purses. Then I 
shall need a thousand purses to distribute amongst the poor and 
needy on my wedding-night, and other thousand to give to those 
who walk in the bridal procession and yet other thousand where- 
with to provide provaunt for the troops and others 2 ; and I shall 
want an hundred jewels to give to the Princess on the wedding- 
morning 3 and other hundred gems to distribute among the slave- 
girls and eunuchs, for I must give each of them a jewel in honour 
of the bride ; and I need wherewithal to clothe a thousand naked 
paupers, and alms too needs must be given. All this cannot be 
done till my baggage come ; but I have plenty and, once it is 
here, I shall make no account of all this outlay." The Wazir 
returned to the King and told him what Ma'aruf said, whereupon 
quoth he, " Since this is his wish, how canst thou style him im- 
postor and liar ? " Replied the Minister, " And I cease not to say 
this." But the King chid him angrily and threatened him, saying, 
" By the life of my head, an thou cease not this talk, I will slay 
thee ! Go back to him and fetch him to me and I will manage 
matters with him myself." So the Wazir returned to Ma'aruf 
and said to him, " Gome. and speak with the King." " I hear and 
I obey/' said Ma'aruf and went in to the King, who said to him, 
" Thou shalt not put me off with these excuses, for my treasury is 
full ; so take the keys and spend all thou needest and give what 
thou wilt and clothe the poor and do thy desire and have no care 
for the girl and the handmaids. When the baggage shall come, 
do what thou wilt with thy wife, by way of generosity, and we will 
have patience with thee anent the marriage-portion till then, for 
there is no manner of difference betwixt me and thee ; none at 

1 i.e.-*' Show a miser money and hold him back, if you can." 

* He wants 40,000 to begin with. 

* i*. Arab. " Sabihat al-'urs " the morning after the wedding. See vol, L 269. 

Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimak. 19 

all." Then he sent for the Shaykh Al-Islam 1 and bade him write 
out the marriage-contract between his daughter and Merchant 
Ma'aruf, and he did so; after which the King gave the signal 
for beginning the wedding festivities and bade decorate the city. 
The kettle drums beat and the tables were spread with meats of 
all kinds and there came performers who paraded their tricks. 
Merchant Ma'aruf sat upon a throne in a parlour and the players 
and gymnasts and effeminates 2 and dancing-men of wondrous 
movements and posture-makers of marvellous cunning came before 
him, whilst he called out to the treasurer and said to him, " Bring 
gold and silver." So he brought gold and silver and Ma'aruf went 
round among the spectators and largessed each performer by the 
handful ; and he gave alms to the poor and needy and clothes 
to the naked and it was a clamorous festival and a right merry. 
The treasurer could not bring money fast enough from the treasury, 
and the Wazir's heart was like to burst for rage ; but he dared 
not say a word, whilst Merchant Ali marvelled at this waste 
of wealth and said to Merchant Ma'aruf, " Allah and the 
Hallows visit this upon thy head-sides 3 ! Doth it not suffice 
thee to squander the traders' money, but thou must squander 
that of the King to boot ? " Replied Ma'aruf, " Tis none of 
thy concern : whenas my baggage shall come, I will requite the 
King manifold." And he went on lavishing money and saying 
in himself, " A burning plague ! What will happen will happen 
and there is no flying from that which is fore-ordained." The 
festivities ceased not for the space of forty days, and on the one- 
and-fortieth day, they made the bride's cortege and all the Emirs 
and troops walked before her. When they brought her in before 
Ma'aruf, he began scattering gold on the people's heads, and they 
made her a mighty fine procession, whilst Ma'aruf expended in 
her honour vast sums of money. Then they brought him in to 
Princess Dunya and he sat down on the high divan ; after which 

1 Another sign of modern composition as in Kamar al-Zaman II. 

2 Arab. " Al-Jink " (from Turk.) are boys and youths mostly Jews, Armenians, 
Greeks and Turks, who dress in woman's dress with long hair braided. Lane (M. E. 
chapts. xix. and xxv.) gives same account of the customs of the "Gink" (as the 
Egyptians call them) but cannot enter into details concerning these catamites. Respect- 
able Moslems often employ them to dance at festivals in preference to the Ghawazi- women, 
a freak of Mohammedan decorum. When they grow old they often preserve their cos- 
tume, and a glance at them makes a European's blood run cold. 

3 Lane translates this, " May Allah and the Rijal retaliate upon thy temple!" 

SO A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

they let fall the curtains and shut the doors and withdrew, leaving 
him alone with his bride ; whereupon he smote hand upon 
hand and sat awhile sorrowful and saying, "There is no 
Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the 
Great ! " Quoth the Princess, " O my lord, Allah preserve thee ! 
What aileth thee that thou art troubled ? " Quoth he, " And how 
should I be other than troubled, seeing that thy father hath 
embarrassed me and done with me a deed which is like the burning 
of green corn ? " She asked, " And what hath my father done 
with thee ? Tell me ! " ; and he answered, He hath brought me in 
to thee before the coming of my baggage, and I want at very least 
an hundred jewels to distribute among thy handmaids, to each a 
jewel, so she might rejoice therein and say, My lord gave me a 
jewel on the night of his going in to my lady. This good deed 
would I have done in honour of thy station and for the increase of 
thy dignity ; and I have no need to stint myself in lavishing jewels, 
for I have of them great plenty." Rejoined she, " Be not concerned 
for that. As for me, trouble not thyself about me, for I will have 
patience with thee till thy baggage shall come, and as for my 
women have no care for them. Rise, doff thy clothes and take 
thy pleasure; and when the baggage cometh we shall get the 
jewels and the rest." So he arose and putting off his clothes sat 
down on the bed and sought love-liesse and they fell to toying 
with each other. He laid his hand on her knee and she sat down 
in his lap and thrust her lip like a tit-bit of meat into his mouth, 
and that hour was such as maketh a man to forget his father and 
his mother. So he clasped her in his arms and strained her fast 
to his breast and sucked her lip, till the honey-dew ran out into 
his mouth ; and he laid his hand under her left-armpit, whereupon 
his vitals and her vitals yearned for coition. Then he clapped her 
between the breasts and his hand slipped down between her thighs 
and she girded him with her legs, whereupon he made of the two 
parts proof amain and crying out, " O sire of the chin-veils twainl ! " 
applied the priming and kindled the match and set it to the touch- 
hole and gave fire and breached the citadel in its four corners ; so 

1 Arab. "Yaaba '1-lithamayn," addressed to his member. Lathm the root means 
kissing or breaking; so he would say, " O thou who canst take her maidenhead whilst 
my tongue does away with the virginity of her mouth." " He breached the citadel " 
(which is usually square) "in its four corners" signifying that he utterly broke it 

Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 21 

there befel the mystery 1 concerning which there is no enquiry ; 

and she cried the cry that needs must be cried. 2 And Shahraiad 

perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say. 

Wofo fo&en tt foas t&e Nine f^untae* an* Ninctg-fouxtf) Nt'$t, 

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that while 
the Princess Dunya cried the cry which must be cried, Merchant 
Ma'aruf abated her maidenhead and that night was one not to be 
counted among lives for that which it comprised of the enjoyment 
of the fair, clipping and dallying langue fourree and futtering till 
the dawn of day, when he arose and entered the Hammam whence, 
after donning a suit for sovrans suitable he betook himself to the 
King's Divan. All who were there rose to him and received him 
with honour and worship, giving him joy and invoking blessings 
upon him ; and he sat down by the King's side and asked, " Where 
is the treasurer ? " They answered, " Here he is, before thee," 
and he said to him, " Bring robes of honour for all the Wazirs and 
Emirs and dignitaries and clothe them therewith." The treasurer 
brought him all he sought and he sat giving to all who came to 
him and lavishing largesse upon every man according to his 
station. On this wise he abode twenty days, whilst no baggage 
appeared for him nor aught else, till the treasurer was straitened 
by him to the uttermost and going in to the King, as he sat alone 
with the Wazir in Ma'aruf's absence, kissed ground between his 
hands and said, " O King of the age, I must tell thee somewhat, 
lest haply thou blame me for not acquainting thee therewith. 
Know that the treasury is being exhausted ; there is none but a 
little money left in it and in ten days more we shall shut it upon 
emptiness/' Quoth the King, " O Wazir, verily my son-in-law's 
baggage-train tarrieth long and there appeareth no news thereof." 
The Minister laughed and said, "Allah be gracious to thee, O 
King of the age ! Thou art none other but heedless with respect 

1 A rnyslery to the Author of Proverbs (xxx. 18-19), 

There be three things which are too wondrous for me, 
The way of an eagle in the air ; 
The way of a snake upon a rock j 
And the way of a man with a maid. 

2 Several women have described the pain to me as much resembling the drawing of a 

22 A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

to this impostor, this liar. As thy head liveth, there is no baggage 
for him, no, nor a burning plague to rid us of him ! Nay, he hath 
but imposed on thee without surcease, so that he hath wasted 
thy treasures and married thy daughter for naught. How long 
therefore wilt thou be heedless of this liar ? " Then quoth the 
King, " O Wazir, how shall we do to learn the truth of his case ? "; 
and quoth the Wazir, " O King of the age, none may come at a 
man's secret but his wife ; so send for thy daughter and let her 
come behind the curtain, that I may question her of the truth of 
his estate, to the intent that she may make question of him and 
acquaint us with his case." Cried the King, " There is no harm in 
that ; and as my head liveth, if it be proved that he is a liar and 
an impostor, I will verily do him die by the foulest of deaths ! " 
Then he carried the Wazir into the sitting-chamber and sent for 
his daughter, who came behind the curtain, her husband being 
absent, and said, " What wouldst thou, O my father ? " Said he 
" Speak with the Wazir." So she asked, " Ho thou, the Wazir, 
what is thy will ? " ; and he answered, " O my lady, thou must 
know that thy husband hath squandered thy father's substance 
and married thee without a dower ; and he ceaseth not to promise 
us and break his promises, nor cometh there any tidings of his 
baggage ; in short we would have thee inform us concerning him." 
Quoth she, " Indeed his words be many, and he still cometh and 
promiseth me jewels and treasures and costly stuffs ; but I see 
nothing." Quoth the Wazir, " O my lady, canst thou this night 
take and give with him in talk and whisper to him : Say me sooth 
and fear from me naught, for thou art become my husband and I 
will not transgress against thee. So tell me the truth of the matter 
and I will devise thee a device whereby thou shalt be set at rest. 
And do thou play near and far 1 with him in words and profess love 
to him and win him to confess and after tell us the facts of his case." 
And she answered, " O my papa, I know how I will make proof 
of him." Then she went away and after supper her husband came 
in to her, according to his wont, whereupon Princess Dunya 
rose to him and took him under the armpit and wheedled 
him with winsomest wheedling (and all-sufficient 2 are woman's 
wiles whenas she would aught of men) ; and she ceased not 

1 As we should say, < c play fast and loose." 

8 Arab. "Nahi-ka" lit. = thy prohibition but idiomatically used = let it suffice 
thee I 

Mcfaruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 23 

to caress him and beguile him with speech sweeter than the 
honey till she stole his reason ; and when she saw that he alto- 
gether inclined to her, she said to him, " O my beloved, O coolth 
of my eyes and fruit of my vitals, Allah never desolate me by less 
of thee nor Time sunder us twain me and thee ! Indeed, the love 
of thee hath homed in my heart and the fire of passion hath con- 
sumed my liver, nor will I ever forsake thee or transgress against 
thee. But I would have thee tell me the truth, for that the 
sleights of falsehood profit not, nor do they secure credit at all 
seasons. How long wilt thou impose upon my father and lie to 
him ? I fear lest thine affair be discovered to him, ere we can 
devise some device and he lay violent hands upon thee ? So 
acquaint me with the facts of the case for naught shall befal thee 
save that which shall begladden thee ; and, when thou shalt have 
spoken sooth, fear not harm shall betide thee. How often wilt 
thou declare that thou art a merchant and a man of money and 
hast a luggage-train ? This long while past thou sayest, My 
baggage ! my baggage ! but there appeareth no sign of thy 
baggage, and visible in thy face is anxiety on this account. So 
an there be no worth in thy words, tell me and I will contrive 
thee a contrivance whereby thou shalt come off safe, Inshallah ! " 
He replied, " I will tell thee the truth, and then do thou whatso 
thou wilt." Rejoined she, " Speak and look thou speak soothly ; for 
sooth is the ark of safety, and beware of lying, for it dishonoureth 
the liar and God-gifted is he who said : 

'Ware that truth thou speak, albe sooth when said * Shall cause thee in 

threatened fire to fall : 
And seek Allah's approof, for most foolish he * Who shall anger 

his Lord to make friends with thrall. 

He said, " Know, then, O my lady, that I am no merchant and 
have no baggage, no, nor a burning plague ; nay, I was but a 
cobbler in my own country and had a wife called Fatimah the 
Dung, with whom there befel me this and that." And he told 
her his story from beginning to end ; whereat she laughed and 
said, "Verily, thou art clever in the practice of lying and im- 
posture ! " Whereto he answered, " O my lady, may Allah 
Almighty preserve thee to veil sins and countervail chagrins!" 
Rejoined she, " Know, that thou imposedst upon my sire and 
deceivedst him by dint of thy deluding vaunts, so that of his 
greed for gain he married me to thee. Then thou squanderedst 

24 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

his wealth and the Wazir beareth thee a grudge for this. How 
many a time hath he spoken against thee to my father, saying, 
Indeed, he is an impostor, a liar ! But my sire hearkened not to 
his say, for that he had sought me in wedlock and I consented not 
that he be baron and I fern me. However, the time grew long- 
some upon my sire and he became straitened and said to me, 
Make him confess. So I have made thee confess and that which 
was covered is discovered. Now my father purposeth thee a mischief 
because of this ; but thou art become my husband and I will never 
transgress against thee. An I told my father what I have learnt 
from thee, he would be certified of thy falsehood and imposture and 
that thou imposest upon Kings' daughters and squanderest royal 
wealth : so would thine offence find with him no pardon and he 
would slay thee sans a doubt : wherefore it would be bruited 
among the folk that 1 married a man who was a liar, an impostor, 
and this would smirch mine honour. Furthermore an he kill 
thee, most like he will require me to wed another, and to such 
thing I will never consent ; no, not though I die ! " * So rise 
now and don a Mameluke's dress and take these fifty thousand 
dinars of my monies, and mount a swift steed and get thee to a 
land whither the rule of my father doth not reach. Then make 
thee a merchant and send me a letter by a courier who shall 
bring it privily to me, that I may know in what land thou art, so 
I may send thee all my hand can attain. Thus shall thy wealth 
wax great and if my father die, I will send for thee, and thou 
shalt return in respect and honour ; and if we die, thou or I and 
go to the mercy of God the Most Great, the Resurrection shall 
unite us. This, then, is the rede that is right : and while we both 
abide alive and well, I will not cease to send thee letters and 
monies. Arise ere the day wax bright and thou be in perplexed 
plight and perdition upon thy head alight ! " Quoth he, " O my 
lady, I beseech thee of thy favour to bid me farewell with thine 
embracement ; " and quoth she, " No harm in that." 2 So he 
embraced her and knew her carnally ; after which he made the 
Ghusl-ablution ; then, donning the dress of a white slave, he bade 
the syces saddle him a thoroughbred steed. Accordingly, they 

1 A character-sketch like that of Princess Dunya makes ample amends for a book full 
of abuse of women. And yet the superficial say that none of the characters have much 
personal individuality. 

2 This is indeed one of the touches of nature which makes all the world kin. 

Mcfaruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 2$ 

paddled him a courser and he mounted and farewelling his wife, 
rode forth the city at the last of the night, whilst all who saw him 
deemed him one of the Mamelukes of the Sultan going abroad on 
some business. Next morning, the King and his Wazir repaired 
to the sitting-chamber and sent for Princess Dunya who came 
behind the curtain ; and her father said to her, " O my daughter, 
what sayst thou ? " Said she, " I say, Allah blacken thy Wazir's 
face, because he would have blackened my face in my husband's 
eyes ! " Asked the King, " How so ? "; and she answered, " He 
came in to me yesterday ; but, before I could name the matter to 
him, behold, in walked Faraj the Chief Eunuch, letter in hand, 
and said : Ten white slaves stand under the palace window and 
have given me this letter, saying : Kiss for us the hands of our 
lord, Merchant Ma'aruf, and give him this letter, for we are of his 
Mamelukes with the baggage, and it hath reached us that he hath 
wedded the King's daughter, so we are come to acquaint him with 
that which befel us by the way. Accordingly I took the letter 
and read as follows : From the five hundred Mamelukes to his 
highness our lord Merchant Ma'aruf. But further. We give thee 
to know that, after thou quittedst us, the Arabs 1 came out upon us 
and attacked us. They were two thousand horse and we five 
hundred mounted slaves and there befel a mighty sore fight 
between us and them. They hindered us from the road thirty days 
doing battle with them and this is the cause of our tarrying from 
thee. - And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased 
saying her permitted say. 

Nofo fofjm it toas tfje ftTt'nc f^untofc anfc Xnutg=fiftf) 

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Princess 
Dunya said to her sire, " My husband received a letter from his 
dependents ending with : The Arabs hindered us from the road 
thirty days which is the cause of our being behind time. They 
also took from us of the luggage two hundred loads of cloth and 
slew of us fifty Mamelukes. When the news reached my husband, 
he cried, Allah disappoint them ! What ailed them to wage war 
with the Arabs for the sake of two hundred loads of merchandise ? 

1 As we are in Tartary " Arabs " here means plundering nomades, like the Persian 
* Iliyat " and other shepherd races. 

26 A If Laylak wa Laylak. 

What are two hundred loads ? It behoved them not to tarry on 
that account, for verily the value of the two hundred loads is only 
some seven thousand dinars. But needs must I go to them and 
hasten them. As for that which the Arabs have taken, 'twill not 
be missed from the baggage, nor doth it weigh with me a whit, for 
I reckon it as if I had given it to them by way of an alms. Then 
he went down from me, laughing and taking no concern for the 
wastage of his wealth nor the slaughter of his slaves. As soon as 
he was gone, I looked out from the lattice and saw the ten Mame- 
lukes who had brought him the letter, as they were moons, each 
clad in a suit of clothes worth two thousand dinars, there is not 
with my father a chattel to match one of them. He went forth 
with them to bring up his baggage and hallowed be Allah who 
hindered me from saying to him aught of that thou badest me, for 
he would have made mock of me and thee, and haply he would 
have eyed me with the eye of disparagement and hated me. But 
the fault is all with thy Wazir, 1 who speaketh against my husband 
words that besit him not/' Replied the King, " O my daughter, 
thy husband's wealth is indeed endless and he recketh not of it ; 
for, from the day he entered our city, he hath done naught but 
give alms to the poor. Inshallah, he will speedily return with the 
baggage, and good in plenty shall betide us from him." And he 
went on to appease her and menace the Wazir, being duped by 
her device. So fared it with the King ; but as regards Merchant 
Ma'aruf he rode on into waste lands, perplexed and knowing not 
to what quarter he should betake him ; and for the anguish of 
parting he lamented and in the pangs of passion and love-longing 
he recited these couplets : 

Time falsed our Union and divided who were one in tway ; o And the sore 

tyranny of Time doth melt my heart away : 
Mine eyes ne'er cease to drop the tear for parting with my dear; o When shall 

Disunion come to end and dawn the Union-day ? 
O favour like the full moon's face of sheen, indeed I'm he o Whom thou didst 

leave with vitals torn when faring on thy way. 
Would I had never seen thy sight, or met thee for an hour; o Since after 

sweetest taste of thee to bitters I'm a prey. 

i The very cruelty of love which hates nothing so much as a rejected lover. The 
Princess, be it noted, is not supposed to be merely romancing, but speaking with the 
second sight, the clairvoyance, of perfect affection. Men seem to know very little upon 
this subject, though every one has at times been more or less startled by the abnormal 
introvision. and divination of things hidden which are the property and prerogative of 
perfect love. 

Mcfaruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 27 

Ma'aruf will never cease to be enthralled by Dunya's ! charms o And long live 

she albe he die whom love and longing slay, 
O brilliance, like resplendent sun of noontide, deign them heal o His heart for 

kindness* and the fire of longing love allay ! 
Would Heaven I wot an e'er the days shall deign conjoin our lots, e Join us in 

pleasant talk o' nights, in Union glad and gay : 
Shall my love's palace hold two hearts that savour joy, and I o Strain to my 

breast the branch I saw upon the sand-hill 3 sway ? 
O favour of full moon in sheen, never may sun o' thee o Surcease to rise from 

Eastern rim with all-enlightening ray ! 
I'm well content with passion-pine and all its bane and bate o For luck in love 

is evermore the butt of jealous Fate. 

And when he ended his verses, he wept with sore weeping, for 
indeed the ways were walled up before his face and death seemed 
to him better than dreeing life, and he walked on like a drunken 
man for stress of distraction, and stayed not till noontide, when he 
came to a little town and saw a plougher hard by, ploughing with 
a yoke of bulls. Now hunger was sore upon him ; and he went 
up to the ploughman and said to him, " Peace be with thee ! " ; 
and he returned his salam and said to him, " Welcome, O my lord ! 
Art thou one of the Sultan's Mamelukes ? " Quoth Ma'aruf, 
"Yes;" and the other said, "Alight with me for a guest-meal." 
Whereupon Ma'aruf knew him to be of the liberal and said to him, 
" O my brother, I see with thee naught with which thou mayst 
feed me : how is it, then, that thou invitest me ? " Answered the 
husbandman, " O my lord, weal is well nigh. 4 Dismount thee 
here : the town is near hand and I will go and fetch thee dinner 
and fodder for thy stallion." Rejoined Ma'aruf, " Since the town 
is near at hand, I can go thither as quickly as thou canst and buy 
me what I have a mind to in the bazar and eat." The peasant 
replied, " O my lord, the place is but a little village 5 and there is 
no bazar there, neither selling nor buying. So I conjure thee by 
Allah, alight here with me and hearten my heart, and I will run 
thither and return to thee in haste." Accordingly he dismounted 

1 The name of the Princess meaning "The World," not unusual amongst Moslem 

2 Another pun upon his name " Ma'aruf." 

3 Arab. " Naka," the mound of pure sand which delights the eye of the Badawi leaving 
a town. See vol. i. 217, for the lines and explanation in Night cmlxiv. vol. ix. p. 250. 

* Euphemistic : " I will soon fetch thee food." To say this bluntly might have brought 
5 Arab. " Kafr = a village in Egypt and Syria e.g. Capernaum (Kafr Nahum). 

28 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

and the Fellah left him and went off to the village, to fetch dinner 
for him whilst Ma'aruf sat awaiting him. Presently he said in 
himself, " I have taken this poor man away from his work ; but I 
will arise and plough in his stead, till he come back, to make up 
for having hindered him from his work. 1 " Then he took the 
plough and starting the bulls, ploughed a little, till the share 
struck against something and the beasts stopped. He goaded them 
on, but they could not move the plough ; so he looked at the share 
and finding it caught in a ring of gold, cleared away the soil and 
'saw that it was set centre-most a slab of alabaster, the size of the 
nether millstone. He strave at the stone till he pulled it from its 
place, when there appeared beneath it a souterrain with a stair. 
Presently he descended the flight of steps and came to a place 
like a Hammam, with for daYses, the first full of gold, from floor to 
roof, the second full of emeralds and pearls and coral also from 
ground to ceiling ; the third of jacinths and rubies and turquoises 
and the fourth of diamonds and all manner other preciousest 
stones. At the upper end of the place stood a coffer of clearest 
crystal, full of union-gems each the size of a walnut, and upon the 
coffer lay a casket of gold, the bigness of a lemon. When he saw 
this, he marvelled and rejoiced with joy exceeding and said to 
himself, " I wonder what is in this casket ? " So he opened it and 
found therein a seal-ring of gold, whereon were graven names and 
talismans, as they were the tracks of creeping ants. He rubbed 
the ring and behold, a voice said, " Adsum ! Here am I, at thy 
service, O my lord ! Ask and it shall be given unto thee. Wilt 
thou. raise a city or ruin a capital or kill a king or dig a river- 
channel or aught of the kind ? Whatso thou seekest, it shall 
come to pass, by leave of the King of All-might, Creator of day 
and night." Ma'aruf asked, " O creature of my lord, who and 
what art thou ? " ; and the other answered, " I am the slave of 
this seal-ring standing in the service of him who possesseth it. 
Whatsoever he seeketh, that I accomplish for him, and I have no 
excuse in neglecting that he biddeth me do ; because I am Sultan 
over two-and seventy tribes of the Jinn, each two-and-seventy 
thousand in number every one of which thousand ruleth over a 
thousand Marids, each Marid over a thousand Ifrits, each I frit 
over a thousand Satans and each Satan over a thousand Jinn : and 
they are all under command of me and may not gainsay me. As 

1 He has all the bonhomie of the Cairene and will do a kindness whenever he can. 

Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimak. 29 

for me, I am spelled to this seal-ring and may not thwart whoso 
holdeth it. Lo ! thou hast gotten hold of it and I am become thy 
slave ; so ask what thou wilt, for I hearken to thy word and 
obey thy bidding ; and if thou have need of me at any time, by 
land or by sea rub the signet-ring and thou wilt find me with thee. 
But beware of rubbing it twice in succession, or thou wilt con- 
sume me with the fire of the names graven thereon ; and thus 
wouldst thou lose me and after regret me. Now I have ac- 
quainted thee with my case and the Peace ! " And Shahrazad 

perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say. 

fo&en tt foas tfje Nine ^utrtrrtfr antr Nmetg^sfxtf) tftgfc, 

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when 
the Slave of the Signet-ring acquainted Ma'aruf with his case, 
the Merchant asked him, " What is thy name ? " and the Jinni 
answered, "My name is Abu al-Sa'adat. 1 " Quoth Ma'aruf, "O 
Abu al-Sa'adat what is this place and who enchanted thee in this 
casket ? " ; and quoth he, " O my lord, this is a treasure called the 
Hoard of Shadddd son of Ad, him who the base of ' Many- 
columned Iram laid, the like of which in the lands was never 
made. 2 " I was his slave in his lifetime and this is his Seal-ring, 
which he laid up in his treasure ; but it hath fallen to thy lot." 
Ma'aruf enquired, " Canst thou transport that which is in this 
hoard to the surface of the earth ? " ; and the Jinni replied, " Yes ! 
Nothing were easier." Said Ma'aruf/' Bring it forth and leave 
naught." So the Jinni signed with his hand to the ground, which 
clave asunder, and he sank and was absent a little while. Presently, 
there came forth young boys full of grace, and fair of face bearing 
golden baskets filled with gold which they emptied out and going 
away, returned with more ; nor did they cease to transport the 
gold and jewels, till ere an hour had sped they said, " Naught is 
left in the hoard." Thereupon out came Abu al-Sa'adat and said 
to Ma'aruf, " O my lord, thou seest that we have brought forth all 
that was in the hoard." Ma'aruf asked, " Who be these beautiful 

1 i.e. the Father of- Prosperities : pron. Aboosa'adat; as in the Tale of Hasan of 
8 Koran Ixxxix. "The Daybreak" which also mentions Thamud and Pharaoh. 

30 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

boys ? " and the Jinni answered, " They are my sons. This 
matter merited not that I should muster for it the Marids, where- 
fore my sons have done thy desire and are honoured by such 
service. So ask what thou wilt beside this." Quoth Ma'aruf, 
" Canst thou bring me he-mules and chests and fill the chests with 
the treasure and load them on the mules ? " Quoth Abu al- 
Sa'adat, " Nothing easier/' and cried a great cry ; whereupon his 
sons presented themselves before him, to the number of eight 
hundred, and he said to them, " Let some of you take the semblance 
of he-mules and others of muleteers and handsome Mamelukes, the 
like of the least of whom is not found with any of the Kings ; and 
others of you be transmewed to muleteers, and the rest to menials." 
So seven hundred of them changed themselves into bat-mules and 
other hundred took the shape of slaves. Then Abu al-Sa'adat 
called upon his Marids, who presented themselves between his 
hands and he commanded some of them to assume the aspect of 
horses saddled with saddles of gold crusted with jewels. And 
when Ma'aruf saw them do as he bade he cried, " Where be the 
chest's ? " They brought them before him and he said, " Pack the 
gold and the stones, each sort by itself." So they packed them 
and loaded three hundred he-mules with them. Then asked 
Ma'aruf, "O Abu al-Sa'adat, canst thou bring me some loads of 
costly stuffs ? " ; and the Jinni answered, "Wilt thou have Egyptian 
stuffs or Syrian or Persian or Indian or Greek ?" Ma'aruf said, 
" Bring me an hundred loads of each kind, on five hundred mules ; " 
and Abu al-Sa'adat, " O my lord accord me delay that I may 
dispose my Marids for this and send a company of them to each 
country to fetch an hundred loads of its stuffs and then take the 
form of he-mules and return, carrying the stuffs." Ma'aruf 
enquired, " What time dost thou want ? " ; and Abu aUSa'adat 
replied, " The time of the blackness of the night, and day shall not 
! dawn ere thou have all thou desirest." Said Ma'aruf, "I grant 
'thee this time," and bade them pitch him a pavilion. So they 
pitched it and he sat down therein and they brought him a table 
of food. Then said Abu al-Sa'adat to him, " O my lord, tarry 
thou in this tent and these my sons shall guard thee: so fear 
thou nothing ; for I go to muster my Marids and despatch them 
to do thy desire." So saying, he departed, leaving Ma'aruf 
seated in the pavilion, with the table before him and the Jinni's 
sons attending upon him, in the guise of slaves and servants and 
suite. And while he sat in this state behold, up came the husband- 

Mcfaruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 3 1 

'man, with a great porringer of lentils 1 and a nose-bag full of 
barley and seeing the pavilion pitched and the Mamelukes standing, 
hands upon breasts, thought that the Sultan was come and had 
halted on that stead. So he stood open-mouthed and said in 
himself, " Would I had killed a couple of chickens and fried them 
red with clarified cow-butter for the Sultan ! " And he would 
have turned back to kill the chickens as a regale for the Sultan ; 
but Ma'aruf saw him and cried out to him and said to the 
Mamelukes, " Bring him hither." So they brought him and his 
porringer of lentils before Ma'aruf, who said to him, " What is 
this ? " Said the peasant, " This is thy dinner and thy horse's 
fodder ! Excuse me, for I thought not that the Sultan would 
come hither ; and, had I known that, I would have killed a 
couple of chickens and entertained him in goodly guise." Quoth 
Ma'aruf, " The Sultan is not come. I am his son-in-law and I 
was vexed with him. However he hath sent his officers to 
make his peace with me, and now I am minded to return to 
city. But thou hast made me this guest-meal without knowing 
me, and I accept it from thee, lentils though it be, and will not 
eat save of thy cheer." Accordingly he bade him set the porringer 
amiddlemost the table and ate of it his sufficiency, whilst the 
Fellah filled his belly with those rich meats. Then Ma'aruf washed 
his hands and gave the Mamelukes leave to eat ; so they fell upon 
the remains of the meal and ate ; and, when the porringer was 
empty, he filled it with gold and gave it to the peasant, saying, 
" Carry this to thy dwelling and come to me in the city, and I 
will entreat thee with honour." Thereupon the peasant took the 
porringer full of gold and returned to the village, driving the bulls 
before him and deeming himself akin to the King. Meanwhile, 
they brought Ma'aruf girls of the Brides of the Treasure, 2 - who 
smote on instruments of music and danced before him, and he 
passed that night in joyance and delight, a night not to be 
reckoned among lives. Hardly had dawned the day when there 
arose a great cloud of dust which presently lifting, discovered 
seven hundred mules laden with stuffs and attended by muleteers 
and baggage-tenders and cresset-bearers. With them came Abu 
al-Sa'adat, riding on a she-mule, in the guise of a caravan-leader, 

1 In Egypt the cheapest and poorest of food, never seen at a hotel table d'hote. 
* The beautiful girls who guard ensorcelled hoards : See vol. vi. 109. 

32 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

and before him was a travelling-litter, with four corner- terminals 1 
of glittering red gold, set with gems. When Abu al-Sa'adat came 
up to the tent, he dismounted and kissing the earth, said to Ma'aruf, 
" O my lord, thy desire hath been done to the uttermost and in 
the litter is a treasure-suit which hath not its match among Kings' 
raiment : so don it and mount the litter and bid us do what thou 
wilt." Quoth Ma'aruf, " O Abu al-Sa'adat, I wish thee to go to 
the city of Ikhtiyan al-Khutan and present thyself to my father- 
in-law the King ; and go thou not in to him but in the guise of a 
mortal courier ; " and quoth he, " To hear is to obey." So Ma'aruf 
wrote a letter to the Sultan and sealed it and Abu al-Sa'adat took 
it and set out with it ; and when he arrived, he found the King 
saying, " O Wazir, indeed my heart is concerned for my son-in- 
law and I fear lest the Arabs slay him. Would Heaven I wot 
whither he was bound, that I might have followed him with the 
troops ! Would he had told me his destination ! " Said the 
Wazir, " Allah be merciful to thee for this thy heedlessness ! As 
thy head liveth, the wight saw that we were awake to him and 
feared dishonour and fled, for he is nothing but an impostor, a 
liar." And behold, at this moment in came the courier and 
kissing ground before the King, wished him permanent glory and 
prosperity and length of life. Asked the King, " Who art thou 
and what is thy business ? " " I am a courier," answered the Jinni, 
" and thy son-in-law who is come with the baggage sendeth me to 
thee with a letter, and here it is ! So he took the letter and read 
therein these words, " After salutations galore to our uncle 2 the 
glorious King ! Know that I am at hand with the baggage-train : 
so come thou forth to meet me with the troops." Cried the King, 
" Allah blacken thy brow, O Wazir ! How often wilt thou defame 
my son-in-law's name and call him liar and impostor ? Behold, 
he is come with the baggage-train and thou art naught but a 
traitor." The Minister hung his head ground-wards in shame and 
confusion and replied, " O King of the age, I said not this save 
because of the long delay of the baggage and because I feared the 
loss of the wealth he hath wasted." The King exclaimed, "O 

1 Arab. " Asakir," the ornaments of litters, which are either plain balls of metal or 
tapering cones based on crescents or on balls and crescents. See in Lane (M. E. chapt, 
xxiv.) the sketch of the Mahmal. 

2 Arab. "Amm"= father's brother, courteously used for "father-in-law," which 
suggests having slept with his daughter, and which is indecent in writing. Thus by a 
pleasant fiction the husband represents himself as having married his first cousin. 

Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 33 

traitor, what are my riches ! Now that his baggage is come he 
will give me great plenty in their stead.*' Then he bade decorate 
the city and going in to his daughter, said to her, " Good news for 
thee ! Thy husband will be here anon with his baggage ; for he 
hath sent me a letter to that effect and here am I now going forth 
to meet him." The Princess Dunya marvelled at this and said in 
herself, " This is a wondrous thing ! Was he laughing at me and 
making mock of me, or had he a mind to try me, when he told me 
that he was a pauper ? But Alhamdolillah, Glory to God, for that 
I failed not of my duty to him ! " On this wise fared it in the 
Palace ; but as regards Merchant Ali, the Cairene, when he saw 
the decoration of the city and asked the cause thereof, they said 
to him, " The baggage-train of Merchant Ma'aruf, the King's son- 
in-law, is come." Said he, " Allah is Almighty ! What a calamity 
is this man ! 1 He came to me, fleeing from his wife, and he was 
a poor man. Whence then should he get a baggage-train ? But 
haply this is a device which the King's daughter hath contrived 
for him, fearing his disgrace, and Kings are not unable to do any- 
thing. May Allah the Most High veil his fame and not bring 

him to public shame ! " And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of 

day and ceased saying her permitted say. 

Nofo fo&en (t foas tije Nine f^unHrefc antr Ntnetp=sebentJ 

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when 
Merchant Ali asked the cause of the decorations, they told him 
the truth of the case ; so he blessed Merchant Ma'aruf and cried, 
" May Allah Almighty veil his fame and not bring him to public 
shame ! " And all the merchants rejoiced and were glad for that 
they would get their monies. Then the King assembled his 
troops and rode forth, whilst Abu al-Sa'adat returned to Ma'aruf 
and acquainted him with the delivering of the letter. Quoth 
Ma'aruf, " Bind on the loads ; " and when they had done so, he 
donned the treasure-suit and mounting the litter became a 
thousand times greater and more majestic than the King. Then 
he set forward; but, when he had gone half-way, behold, the 
King met him with the troops, and seeing him riding in the 

1 i.e. a calamity to the enemy : see vol. ii. 87 and passim. 
VOL. X, 

34 A V Laylah wa Laylah. 

Takhtrawan and clad in the dress aforesaid, threw himself upon 
him and saluted him, and giving him joy of his safety, greeted 
him with the greeting of peace. Then all the Lords of the land 
saluted him and it was made manifest that he had spoken the 
truth and that in him there was no lie. Presently he entered the 
city in such state procession as would have caused the gall-bladder 
of the lion to burst * for envy and the traders pressed up to him 
and kissed his hands, whilst Merchant Ali said to him, " Thou hast 
played off this trick and it hath prospered to thy hand, O Shaykh 
of Impostors! But thou deservest it and may Allah the Most 
High increase thee of His bounty ! "; whereupon Ma'aruf laughed. 
Then he entered the palace and sitting down on the throne said, 
" Carry the loads of gold into the treasury of my uncle the King 
and bring me the bales of cloth." So they brought them to him 
and opened them before him, bale after bale, till they had unpacked 
the seven hundred loads, whereof he chose out the best and said, 
" Bear these to Princess Dunya that she may distribute them 
among her slave-girls ; and carry her also this coffer of jewels, 
that she may divide them among her handmaids and eunuchs." 
Then he proceeded to make over to the merchants in whose debt 
he was stuffs by way of payment for their arrears, giving him 
whose due was a thousand, stuffs worth two thousand or more ; 
after which he fell to distributing to the poor and needy, whilst 
the King looked on with greedy eyes and could not hinder him ; 
nor did he cease largesse till he had made an end of the seven 
hundred loads, when he turned to the troops and proceeded to 
apportion amongst them emeralds and rubies and pearls and coral 
and other jewels by handsful, without count, till the King said to 
him, " Enough of this giving, O my son ! There is but little left 
of the baggage." But he said, " I have plenty." Then indeed, 
his good faith was become manifest and none could give him the 
lie ; and he had come to reck not of giving, for that the Slave of 
the Seal-ring brought him whatsoever he sought. Presently, the 
treasurer came in to the King and said, " O King of the age, the f 
treasury is full indeed and will not hold the rest of the loads. 
Where shall we lay that which is left of the gold and jewels ? " 
And he assigned to him another place. As for the Princess 

1 Both texts read " Asad " (lion) and Lane accepts it : there is no reason to change 
it for "'HAsid" (Envier), the Lion being the Sultan of the Beasts and the tnost 

McfaruJ the Cobbler and his Wife Fattmali. 35 

Dunya when she saw this, her joy redoubled and she marvelled 
and said in herself, "Would I wot how came he by all this 
wealth ! " In like manner the traders rejoiced in that which he 
had given them and blessed him ; whilst Merchant AH marvelled 
and said to himself, " I wonder how he hath lied and swindled, 
that he hath gotten him all these treasures 1 ? Had they come 
from the King's daughter, he had not wasted them on this wise ! 
But how excellent is his saying who said : 

When the Kings' King giveth, in reverence pause * And venture not to enquire 

the cause : 
Allah gives His gifts unto whom He will, * So respect and abide by 

His Holy Laws! 

So far concerning him ; but as regards the King, he also marvelled 
with passing marvel at that which he saw of Ma'aruf s generosity 
and open-handedness in the largesse of wealth. Then the Mer- 
chant went in to his wife, who met him, smiling and laughing- 
lipped and kissed his hand, saying, " Didst thou mock me or hadst 
thou a mind to prove me with thy saying : I am a poor man and 
a fugitive from my wife ? Praised be Allah for that I failed not of 
my duty to thee ! For thou art my beloved and there is none 
dearer to me than thou, whether thou be rich or poor. But I 
would have thee tell me what didst thou design by these words. 
Said Ma'aruf, " I wished to prove thee and see whether thy love 
were sincere or for the sake of wealth and the greed of worldly 
good. But now 'tis become manifest to me that thine affection is 
sincere and as thou art a true woman, so welcome to thee ! I know 
thy worth." Then he went apart into a place by himself and 
rubbed the seal-ring, whereupon Abu al-Sa'adat presented himself 
and said to him, " Adsum, at thy service ! Ask what thou wilt." 
Quoth Ma'aruf, " I want a treasure-suit and treasure-trinkets for 
my wife, including a necklace of forty unique jewels." Quoth the 
Jinni, " To hear is to obey," and brought him what he sought, 
whereupon Ma'aruf dismissed him and carrying the dress and 
ornaments in to his wife, laid them before her and said, " Take 
these and put them on and welcome ! " When she saw this, her 
wits fled for joy, and she found among the ornaments a pair of 
anklets of gold set with jewels of the handiwork of the magicians, 

"* The Cairene knew his fellow Cairene and was not to be taken in by him. 

3^ c A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

and bracelets and earrings and a belt * such as no money could 
buy. So she donned the dress and ornaments and said to Ma'aruf, 
" O my lord, I will treasure these up for holidays and festivals." 
But he answered, " Wear them always, for I have others in plenty." 
And when she put them on and her women beheld her, they 
rejoiced and bussed his hands. Then he left them and going 
apart by himself, rubbed the seal-ring whereupon its slave appeared 
and he said to him, " Bring me an hundred suits of apparel, with 
their ornaments of gold." " Hearing and obeying," answered Abu 
al Sa'adat and brought him the hundred suits, each with its orna- 
ments wrapped up within it. Ma'aruf took them and called aloud 
to the slave-girls, who came to him and he gave them each a suit : 
so they donned them and became like the black-eyed girls of 
Paradise, whilst the Princess Dunya shone amongst them as the 
moon among the stars. One of the handmaids told the King of 
this and he came in to his daughter and saw her and her women 
dazzling all who beheld them ; whereat he wondered with passing 
wonderment. Then he went out and calling his Wazir, said to 
him, " O Wazir, such and such things have happened ; what sayst 
thou n-w of this affair ? " Said he, " O King of the age, this be 
no merchant's fashion ; for a merchant keepeth a piece of linen 
by him for years and selleth it not but at a profit. How should 
a merchant have generosity such as this generosity, and whence 
should he get the like of these monies and jewels, of which but a 
slight matter is found with the Kings ? So how should loads 
thereof be found with merchants ? Needs must there be a cause 
for this ; but, an thou wilt hearken to me, I will make the truth of 
the case manifest to thee." Answered the King, " O Wazir, I will 
'do thy bidding." Rejoined the Minister, " Do thou foregather 
with thy son-in-law and make a show of affect to him and talk 
with him and say : O my son-in-law, I have a mind to go, I and 
thou and the Wazir but no more, to a flower-garden that we may 
take our pleasure there. When we come to the garden, we will 
set on the table wine, and I will ply him therewith and compel 
him to drink ; for, when he shall have drunken, he will lose his 

1 Arab. Hizam " : Lane reads " Khizam " = a nose-ring for which see appendix to 
Lane's M. E. The untrained European eye dislikes these decorations and there is 
certainly no beauty in the hoops which Hindu women insert through the nostrils, 
camel-fashion, as if to receive the cord-acting bridle; But a drop-pearl hanging to the 
septum is at least as pretty as the heavy pendants by which some European women 
lengthen their ears. 

Mcfaruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 37 

reason and his judgment will forsake him. Then we will question 
him of the truth of his case and he will discover to us his secrets, 
for wine is a traitor and Allah-gifted is he who said : 

When we drank the wine, and it crept its way o To the place of Secrets, I 

cried, " O stay ! " 
In my fear lest its influence stint my wits o And my friends spy matters 

that hidden lay. 

When he hath told us the truth we shall ken his case and may 
deal with him as we will ; because I fear for thee the consequences 
of this his present fashion : haply he will covet the kingship and 
win over the troops by generosity and lavishing money and so 
depose thee and take the kingdom from thee." " True," answered' 

the King. And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and 

ceased to say her permitted say. 

Jtcfo fo&en it foas tfje J=ttne.f^un&re& antr Ninetg=ci($tJ 

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the 
Wazir devised this device the King said to him, " Thou hast spoken 
sooth ! "; and they passed the night on this agreement. And when 
morning morrowed the King went forth and sat in .the guest- 
chamber, when lo, and behold ! the grooms and serving-men came 
in to him in dismay. Quoth he, " What hath befallen you ? " ; 
and quoth they, " O King of the age, the Syces curried the horses 
and foddered them and the he-mules which brought the baggage ; 
but, when we arose in the morning, we found that thy son-in-law's 
Mamelukes had stolen the horses and mules. We searched the 
stables, but found neither horse nor mule ; so we entered the 
lodging of the Mamelukes and found none there, nor know we 
how they fled." The King marvelled at this, unknowing that the 
horses and Mamelukes were all Ifrits, the subjects of the Slave 
of the Spell, and asked the grooms, " O accursed how could a thou- 
sand beasts and five hundred slaves and servants flee without your 
knowledge ? " Answered they, " We know not how it happened," 
and he cried, " Go, and when your lord cometh forth of the Harim, 
tell him the case." So they went out from before the King and 
sat down bewildered, till Ma'aruf came out and, seeing them 
chagrined enquired of them, " What may be the matter ? " They 
told him all that had happened and he said, " What is their worth 

3 8 A If Laylah iva Lay la k. 

that ye should be concerned for them ? Wend your ways." And 
he sat laughing and was neither angry nor grieved concerning the 
case ; whereupon the King looked in the Wazir's face and said 
to him, " What manner of man is this, with whom wealth is of no 
worth ? Needs must there be a reason for this ? " Then they 
talked with him awhile and the King said to him, " O my son-in- 
law, I have a mind to go, I, thou and the Wazir, to a garden, 
,where we may divert ourselves." " No harm in that," said Ma'aruf. 
So they went forth to a flower-garden, wherein every sort of fruit 
was of kinds twain and its waters were flowing and its trees 
towering and its birds carolling. There they entered a pavilion, 
whose sight did away sorrow from the soul, and sat talking, whilst 
the Minister entertained them with rare tales and quoted merry 
quips and mirth-provoking sayings and Ma'aruf attentively 
listened, till the time of dinner came, when they set on a tray 
of meats and a flagon of wine. When they had eaten and 
washed hands, the Wazir filled the cup and gave it to the King, 
who drank it off; then he filled a second and handed it to 
Ma'aruf, saying, " Take the cup of the drink to which Reason 
boweth neck in reverence." * Quoth Ma'aruf, " What is this, O 
Wazir ? " ; and quoth he, " This is the grizzled l virgin and the 
old maid long kept at home, 2 the giver of joy to hearts, whereof 
saith the poet : 

The feet of sturdy Miscreants 3 went trampling heavy tread, o And she hath 

ta'en a vengeance dire on every Arab's head. 
A Kdfir youth like fullest moon in darkness hands her round o Whose eyne are 

strongest cause of sin by him inspirited. 

And Allah-gifted is he who said : 

'Tis as if wine and he who bears the bowJ, o Rising to show her charms 

for man to see,* 
Were dancing undurn-Sun whose face the moon o Of night adorned with stars 

of Gemini. 

1 Arab. " Sharatd," one of the many names of wine, the " speckled " alluding to the 
bubbles which dance upon the freshly filled cup. 

2 i.e. in the cask. These ' * merry quips " strongly suggest the dismal toasts of our not 
remote ancestors. 

3 Arab. " A'laj " plur. of " 'Ilj " and rendered by Lane " the stout foreign infidels.". 
The next line alludes to the cupbearer who was generally a slave and a non-Moslem. 

4 As if it were a bride. See vol. vii. 198. The stars of Jauza (Gemini) are the cup- 
bearer's eyes. 

Mcfaritf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimak. 39 

So subtle is her essence it would seem o Through every limb like 

course of soul runs she. 

And how excellent is the saying of the poet : 

Slept in mine arms full Moon of brightest blee o Nor did that sun eclipse in 

goblet see : 
I nighted spying fire whereto bow down o Magians, which bowed from 

ewer's lip to me. 

And that of another : 

It runs through every joint of them as runs o The surge of health returning to 
the sick. 

And yet another: 

I marvel at its pressers, how they died o And left us aqua vita lymph of life ! 

And yet goodlier is the saying of Abu Nowas : 

Cease then to blame me, for thy blame doth anger bring o And with the 

draught that madded me come med'cining : 
A yellow girl 1 whose court cures every carking care j o Did a stone touch it 

would with joy and glee upspring : 
She riseth in her ewer during darkest night o The house with brightest, sheeniest 

light illumining : 
And going round of youths to whom the world inclines 2 o Ne'er, save in whatso 

way they please, their hearts shall wring. 
From hand of coynted 3 lass begarbed like yarded lad, 4 o Wencher and Tribe 

of Lot alike enamouring, 
She comes : and say to him who dares claim lore of love o Something hast 

learnt but still there's many another thing. 

But best of all is the saying of Ibn al-Mu'tazz 5 : 

1 i.e. light-coloured wine. 

2 The usual homage to youth and beauty. 

3 Alluding to the cup. 

4 Here Abu Nowas whose name always ushers in some abomination alluded to the 
" Ghulamiyah" or girl dressed like boy to act cupbearer. Civilisation has everywhere 
the same devices and the Bordels of London and Paris do not ignore the "she-boy," 
who often opens the door. 

5 Abdallah ibn al-Mu'tazz, son of AI-Mu'tazz bi 'llah, the I3th Abbaside, and great- 
great-grandson of Harun al-Rashid. He was one of the most renowned poets of the 
third century (A.H.) and died A.D. 908, strangled by the partisans of h c neohew 
Al-Muktadir bi 'llah, i8th Abbaside. 

40 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

On the shaded woody island 1 His showers Allah deign o Shed on Convent 

hight Abdun 2 drop and drip of railing rain : 
Oft the breezes of the morning have awakened me therein o When the Dawn 

shows her blaze, 3 ere the bird of flight was fain ; 
And the voices of the monks that with chants awoke the walls o Black-frocked 

shavelings ever wont the cup amorn to drain.* 
'Mid the throng how many fair with languour-kohl'd eyes 5 o And lids enfolding 

lovely orbs where black on white was lain, 
In secret came to see me by shirt of night disguised o In terror and in caution 

a-hurrying amain ! 
Then I rose and spread my cheek like a carpet on his path o In homage, and 

with skirts wiped his trail from off the plain. 
But threatening disgrace rose the Crescent in the sky o Like the paring of a 

nail yet the light would never wane : 
Then happened whatso happened : I disdain to kiss and tell o So deem of us 

thy best and with queries never mell. 

And gifted of God is he who saith : 

In the morn I am richest of men o And in joy at good news I start up 
For I look on the liquid gold 6 o And I measure it out by the cup. 

And how goodly is the saying of the poet : 

By Allah, this is th' only alchemy o All said of other science false we 

Carat of wine on hundredweight of woe o Transmuteth gloomiest grief to joy 

and glee. 

And that of another : 

The glasses are heavy when empty brought o Till we charge them all with 

unmixed wine. 
Then so light are they that to fly they 're fain As bodies lightened by soul 


1 Jazirat ibn Omar, an island and town on the Tigris north of Mosul. "Some 
versions of the poem, from which these verses are quoted, substitute El-Mutireh, a 
village near Samara (a town on the Tigris, 60 miles north of Baghdad), for El-Jezireh, 
i.e. Jeziret ibn Omar." (Payne.) 

2 The Convent of Abdun on the east bank of the Tigris opposite the Jezirah was so 
Called from a statesman who caused it to be built. For a variant of these lines see Ibn 
Khallikan, vol. ii. 42 ; here we miss " the shady groves of Al-Matirah." 

3 Arab. " Ghurrah" the white blaze on a horse's brow. In Ibn Khallikan the bird 
is the lark. 

4 Arab. " Tay'i " =: thirsty used with Jay'i = hungry. 

5 Lit. "Kohl'd with Ghunj " for which we have no better word than "coquetry." 
But see vol. v. 80. It corresponds with the Latin crissare for women and cevere 
for men. 

8 i.e. gold-coloured wine, as the Vino d'Oro. 

Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 41 

And yet another; 

Wine-cup and ruby-wine high worship claim ; o Dishonour 'twere to see their 

honour waste : 
Bury me, when I'm dead, by side of vine o Whose veins shall moisten 

bones in clay misplaced ; 
Nor bury me in wold and wild, for I o Dread only after death no 

wine to taste." 1 

And he ceased not to egg him on to the drink, naming to him 
such of the virtues of wine as he thought well and reciting to him 
what occurred to him of poetry and pleasantries on the subject, till 
Ma'aruf addressed himself to sucking the cup-lips and cared no 
longer for aught else. The Wazir ceased not to fill for him ^and he 
to drink and enjoy himself and make merry, till his wits wandered 
and he could not distinguish right from wrong. When the Minister 
saw that drunkenness had attained in him to utterest and the 
bounds transgressed, he said to him, " By Allah, O Merchant 
Ma'aruf, I admire whence thou gottest these jewels whose like the 
Kings of the Chosroes possess not ! In all our lives never saw we 
a merchant that had heaped up riches like unto thine or more 
generous than thou, for thy doings are the doings of Kings and 
not merchants' doings. Wherefore, Allah upon thee, do thou 
acquaint me with this, that I may know thy rank and condition." 
And he went on to test him with questions and cajole him, till 
Ma'aruf, being reft of reason, said to him, " I'm neither merchant 
nor King," and told him his whole story from first to last. Then 
said the Wazir, " I conjure thee by Allah, O my lord Ma'aruf, 
show us the ring, that we may see its make." So, in his drunken- 
ness, he pulled off the ring and said, " Take it and look upon it." 
Minister took it and turning it over, said, " If I rub it, will 

1 Compare the charming song of Abu Mijan translated from the German of Dr. Weil 
in Bohn's Edit, of Ockley (p. 149), 

When the Death-angel cometh mine eyes to close, 

Dig my grave 'mid the vines on the hill's fair side ; 
For though deep in earth may my bones repose, 

The juice of the grape shall their food provide. 
Ah, bury me not in a barren land, 

Or Death will appear to me dread and drear ! 
While fearless I '11 wait what he hath in hand 

An the scent of the vineyard my spirit cheer. 

The glorious old drinker! 

42 A If Laylak wa Laylah. 

its slave appear ? " Replied Ma'aruf, " Yes. Rub it and he will 
appear to thee, and do thou divert thyself with the sight of him." 
Thereupon the Wazir rubbed the ring and behold forthright ap- 
peared the Jinni and said, " Adsum, at thy service, O my lord ! 
Ask and it shall be given to thee. Wilt thou ruin a city or raise 
a capital or kill a king ? Whatso thou seekest, I will do for thee, 
sans fail/' The Wazir pointed to Ma'aruf and said, " Take up 
yonder wretch and cast him down in the most desolate of desert 
lands, where he shall find nothing to eat nor drink, so he may die 
of hunger and perish miserably, and none know of him." Accord- 
ingly, the Jinni snatched him up and flew with him betwixt heaven 
and earth, which when Ma'aruf saw, he made sure of destruction 
and wept and said, " O Abu al-Sa'adat, whither goest thou with 
me?" Replied the Jinni, " I go to cast thee down in the Desert 
Quarter, 1 O ill-bred wight of gross wits. Shall one have the like 
of this talisman and give it to the folk to gaze at ? Verily, thou 
deservest that which hath befallen thee ; and but that I fear Allah, 
I would let thee fall from a 1 eight of a thousand fathoms, nor 
shouldst thou reach the earth, till the winds had torn thee to 
shreds." Ma'aruf was silent 2 and did not again bespeak him till 
he reached the Desert Quarter and casting him down there, went 
away and left him in that horrible place. And Shahrazad per- 
ceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say. 

fo&en ft foa* t&e Ttfint f^untati anfc Ntnet^'Nintj) Kigbt, 

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Slave 
of the Seal-ring took up Ma'aruf and cast him down in the Desert 
Quarter where he left him and went his ways. So much con- 
cerning him ; but returning to the Wazir who was now in possession 
of the talisman, he said to the King, " How deemest thou now ? 
Did I not tell thee that this fellow was a liar, an impostor, but 
thou wouldst not credit me ? " Replied the King, " Thou wast in 

1 Arab. " Rub'a al-Kharab" in Ibn al-Wardi Central Africa south of the Nile- 
sources, one of the richest regions in the world. Here it prob, alludes to the Rub'a 
al-Khali or Great Arabian Desert : for which see Night dclxxvi. In rhetoric it is 
opposed to the " Rub'a Maskun," or populated fourth of the world, the rest being 
held to be ocean. 

2 This is the noble resignation of the Moslem. What a dialogue there would have 
been in a European book between man and devil ! 

Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 43 

the right, O my Wazir, Allah grant thee weal ! But give me the 
ring, that I may solace myself with the sight." The Minister 
looked at him angrily and spat in his face, saying, " O lack-wits, 
how shall I give it to thee and abide thy servant, after I am 
become thy master ? But I will spare thee no more on life." Then 
he rubbed the seal-ring and said to the Slave, " Take up this ill- 
mannered churl and cast him down by his son-in-law the swindler- 
man." So the Jinni took him up and flew off with him, where- 
upon quoth the King to him, " O creature of my Lord, what is my 
crime ? " Abu al-Sa'adat replied, " That wot I not, but my master 
hath commanded me and I cannot cross whoso hath compassed 
the enchanted ring. Then he flew on with him, till he came to 
the Desert Quarter and, casting him down where he had cast 
Ma'aruf left him and returned. The King hearing Ma'aruf weep- 
ing, went up to him and acquainted him with his case ; and they 
sat weeping over that which had befallen them and found neither 
meat nor drink. Meanwhile the Minister, after driving father-in- 
law and son-in-law from the country, went forth from the garden 
and summoning all the troops held a Divan, and told them what 
he had done with the King and Ma'aruf and acquainted them 
with the affair of the talisman, adding, " Unless ye make me Sultan 
over you, I will bid the Slave of the Seal-ring take you up one and 
all and cast you down in the Desert Quarter where you shall die 
of hunger and thirst. They replied, " Do us no damage, for we 
accept thee as Sultan over us and will not anywise gainsay thy 
"bidding." So they agreed, in their own despite, to his being 
Sultan over them, and he bestowed on them robes of -honour, 
seeking all he had a mind to of Abu al-Sa'adat, who brought it to 
him forthwith. Then he sat down on the throne and the troops 
did homage to him ; and he sent to Princess Dunya, the King's 
daughter, saying, " Make thee ready, for I mean to come in unto 
thee this night, because I long for thee with love." When she 
heard this, she wept, for the case of her husband and father was 
grievous to her, and sent to him saying, " Have patience with me 
till my period of widowhood 1 be ended : then draw up thy contract 

1 Arab. " Al-'iddah " the period of four months and ten days which must elapse 
before she could legally marry again. But this was a palpable wile : she was not sure 
of her husband's death and he had not divorced her ; so that although a " grass widow," 
a "Strohwitwe" as the Germans say, she could not wed again either with or without 

44 Alj Laylak wa Laylah. 

of marriage with me and go in to me according to law." But he 
sent back to say to her, " I know neither period of widowhood nor 
to delay have I a mood ; and I need not a contract nor know I 
lawful from unlawful ; but needs must I go in unto thee this night." 
She answered him saying, " So be it, then, and welcome to thee ! "; 
but this was a trick on her part. When the answer reached the 
Wazir, he rejoiced and his breast was broadened, for that he was 
passionately in love with her. He bade set food before all the 
folk, saying, " Eat ; this is my bride-feast ; for I purpose to go in 
to the Princess Dunya this night." Quoth the Shaykh al-Islam, 
" It is not lawful for thee to go in unto her till her days of widow-- 
hood be ended and thou have drawn up thy contract of marriage 
with her." But he answered, " I know neither days of widowhood 
nor other period ; so multiply not words on me." The Shaykh 
Al-Islam was silent, 1 fearing his mischief, and said to the troops, 
" Verily, this man is a Kafir, a Miscreant, and hath neither creed 
nor religious conduct." As soon as it was evenfall, he went in to 
her and found her robed in her richest raiment and decked with 
her goodliest adornments. When she saw him, she came to meet 
him, laughing and said, " A blessed night ! But hadst thou slain 
my father and my husband, it had been more to my mind." And 
he said, " There is no help but I slay them." Then she made him 
sit down and began to jest with him and make show of love 
caressing him and smiling in his face so that his reason fled ; but 
she cajoled him with her coaxing and cunning only that she might 
get possession of the ring and change his joy into calamity on the 
mother of his forehead : 2 nor did she deal thus with him but after 
the rede of him who said s : 

I attained by my wits e What no sword had obtained, 
And return wr* the spoils o Whose sweet pluckings I gained. 

r When he saw her caress him and smile upon him, desire surged up 
in him and he besought her of carnal knowledge but, when he 
approached her, she drew away from him and burst into tears, 

1 Here the silence is of cowardice and the passage is a fling at the "time-serving" 
of the Olema, a favourite theme, like "banging the bishops'* amongst certain 

2 Arab. (" Umm al-raas," the poll, crown of the head, here the place where a calamity 
coming down from heaven would first alight. 

8 From Al-Hariri (Lane) : the lines are excellent. 

Mctaruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 45 


saying, " my lord, seest thou not the man looking at us ? I 
conjure thee by Allah, screen me from his eyes ! How canst thou 
know me what while he looketh on us ? " When he heard this, he 
\vas angry and asked, " Where is the man ? "; and answered she, 
" There he is, in the bezel of the ring ! putting out his head and 
staring at us." He thought that the Jinni was looking at them 
and said laughing, " Fear not ; this is the Slave of the Seal-ring, 
and he is subject to me." Quoth she, " I am afraid of Ifrits ; pull 
it off and throw it afar from me." So he plucked it off and laying 
it on the cushion, drew near to her, but she dealt him a kick, her 
foot striking him full in the stomach 1 , and he fell over on his back 
senseless ; whereupon she cried out to her attendants, who came 
to her in haste, and said to them, " Seize him ! " So forty slave- 
girls laid hold on him, wtiilst she hurriedly snatched up the ring 
from the cushion and rubbed it; whereupon Abu al-Sa'adat pre- 
sented himself, saying, " Adsum, at thy service O my mistress." 
Cried she, " Take up yonder Infidel and clap him in jail and 
shackle him heavily." So he took him and throwing him into the 
Prison of Wrath 2 returned and reported, " I have laid him in 
limbo." Quoth she, "Whither wentest thou with my father and 
my husband ? "; and quoth he, " I cast them down in the Desert 
Quarter." Then cried she, " I command thee to fetch them to me 
forthwith." He replied, " I hear and I obey," and taking flight at 
once, stayed not till he reached the Desert Quarter, where he 
lighted down upon them and found them sitting weeping and com- 
plaining each to other. Quoth he, " Fear not, for relief is come to 
you "; and he told them what the Wazir had done, adding, " Indeed 
I imprisoned him with my own hands in obedience to her, and she 
hath bidden me bear you back." And they rejoiced in his news. 
Then he took them both up and flew home with them ; nor was it 
more than an hour before he brought them in to Princess Dunya, 
who rose and saluted sire and spouse. Then she made them sit 
down and brought them food and sweetmeats, and they passed the 
rest of the night with her. On the next day she clad them in rich 
clothing and said to the King, " O my papa, sit thou upon thy 

1 When the charming Princess is so ready at the vote de faits, the reader will under- 
stand how common is such energetic action among women of lower degree. The " fair 
sex" in Egypt has a horrible way of murdering men, especially husbands, by tying them 
down and tearing out the testicles. See Lane M. . chapt. xiii. 

8 Arab. " Sijn al-Ghazab," the dungeons appropriated to the worst of criminals where 
they suffer penalties far worse than hanging or guillotining. 

46 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

throne and be King as before and make my husband thy Wazir of 
the Right and tell thy troops that which hath happened. Then 
send for the Minister out of prison and do him die, and after burn 
him, for that he is a Miscreant, and would have gone in unto m 
in the way of lewdness, without the rites of wedlock and he hath 
testified against himself that he is an Infidel and believeth in no 
religion. And do tenderly by thy son-in-law, whom thou makest 
thy Wazir of the Right." He replied, " Hearing and obeying, O 
my daughter. But do thou give me the ring or give it to thy 
husband." Quoth she, " It behoveth not that either thou or he 
have the ring. I will keep the ring myself, and belike I shall be 
more careful of it than you. Whatso ye wish seek it of me and I 
will demand it for you of the Slave of the Seal-ring. So fear no 
harm so long as I live and after my death, do what ye twain will 
with the ring.'* Quoth the King, " This is the right rede, O my 
daughter," and taking his son-in-law went forth to the Divan. 
Now the troops had passed the night in sore chagrin for Princess 
Dunya and that which the Wazir had done with her, in going in to 
her after the way of lewdness, without marriage-rites, and for his 
ill-usage of the King and Ma'aruf, and they feared lest the law of 
Al-Islam be dishonoured, because it was manifest to them that he 
was a Kafir. So they assembled in the Divan and fell to reproach- 
ing the Shaykh al-Islam, saying " Why didst thou not forbid him 
from going in to the Princess in the way of lewdness ? " Said he, 
" O folk, the man is a Miscreant and hath gotten possession of the 
ring and I and you may not prevail against him. But Almighty 
Allah will requite him his deed, and be ye silent, lest he slay you." 
And as the host was thus engaged in talk, behold the King and 

Ma'aruf entered the Divan. And Shahrazad perceived the dawn 

of day and ceased to say her permitted say. 

Nofo fo&en it foas rtje ^fjousanfct!) 

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when 
the troops sorely chagrined sat in the Divan talking over the ill* 
deeds done by the Wazir to their Sovran, his son-in-law and his 
daughter, behold, the King and Ma'aruf entered. Then the King 
bade decorate the city and sent to fetch the Wazir from the place 
of duresse. So they brought him, and as he passed by the troops, 
they cursed him and abused him and menaced him, till he came to 

Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 47 

the King, who commanded to do him dead by the vilest of deaths. 
Accordingly, they slew him and after burned his body, and he went 
to Hell after the foulest of plights ; and right well quoth one of 
him : 

The Compassionate show no ruth to the tomb where his bones shall lie o And 
Munkar and eke Nakir 1 ne'er cease to abide thereby ! 

The King made Ma'aruf his Wazir of the Right and the times were 
pleasant to them and their joys were untroubled. They abode 
thus five years till, in the sixth year, the King died and Princess 
Dunya made Ma'aruf Sultan in her father's stead, but she gave 
him not the seal-ring. During this time she had conceived by 
him and borne him a boy of passing loveliness, excelling in beauty 
and perfection, who ceased not to be reared in the laps of nurses 
till he reached the age of five, when his mother fell sick of a deadly 
sickness and calling her husband to her, said to him, " I am ill." 
Quoth he, " Allah preserve thee, O dearling of my heart ! " But 
quoth she, " Haply I shall die and thou needest not that I com- 
mend to thy care thy son : wherefore I charge thee but be careful 
of the ring, for thine own sake and for the sake of this thy boy." 
And he answered, "No harm shall befal him whom Allah pre- 
serveth ! " Then she pulled off the ring and gave it to him, and 
on the morrow she was admitted to the mercy of Allah the Most 
High, 2 whilst Ma'aruf abode in possession of trie kingship and 
applied himself to the business of governing. Now it chanced 
that one day, as he shook the handkerchief 3 and the troops with- 
drew to their places that he betook himself to the sitting-chamber, 
where he sat till the day departed and the night advanced with 
murks bedight. Then came in to him his cup-companions of the 
notables according to their custom, and sat with him by way of 
solace and diversion, till midnight, when they craved permission to 
withdraw. He gave them leave and they retired to their houses ; 
after which there came in to him a slave-girl affected to the service 

1 According to some modern Moslems Munkar and Nakir visit the graves of Infidels 
(non-Moslems) and Bashshir and Mubashshir ("Givers of glad tidings") those of 
Mohammedans. Petis de la Croix (Les Mille et un Jours vol. iii. 258) speaks of the 
" Zoubanya," black angels who torture the damned under their chief Dabilah. 

2 Very simple and pathetic is this short sketch of the noble-minded Princess's death. 
8 In sign of dismissal (vol. iv. 62) I have noted that " throwing the kerchief" is not 

an Eastern practice : the idea probably arose from the Oriental practice of sending 
presents in richly embroidered napkins and kerchiefs. 

48 A If Laylak wa Laylah. 

of his bed, who spread him the mattress and doffing his apparel, 1 
clad him in his sleeping-gown. Then he lay down and she kneaded 
his feet, till sleep over-powered him ; whereupon she withdrew to 
her own chamber and slept. But suddenly he felt something be- 
side him in the bed and awaking started up in alarm and cried, " I 
seek refuge with Allah from Satan the stoned ! " Then he opened 
his eyes and seeing by his side a woman foul of favour, said to her, 
" Who art thou ? " Said she, " Fear not, I am thy wife Fatimah 
al-Urrah." Whereupon he looked in her face and knew her by her 
loathly form and the length of her dog-teeth : so he asked her, 
" Whence earnest thou in to me and who brought thee to this 
country ? " " In what country art thou at this present ? " " In the 
city of Ikhtiyan al-Khutan. But thou, when didst thou leave 
Cairo ? " But now." " How can that be ? " Know," said she, 
" that, when I fell out with thee and Satan prompted me to do thee 
a damage, I complained of thee to the magistrates, who sought for 
thee and the Kazis enquired of thee, but found thee not. When 
two days were past, repentance gat hold upon me and I knew that 
the fault was with me ; but penitence availed me not, and I abode 
for some days weeping for thy loss, till what was in my hand 
failed and I was obliged to beg my bread. So I fell to begging of 
all, from the courted rich to the contemned poor, and since thou 
leftest me, I have eaten of the bitterness of beggary and have been 
in the sorriest of conditions. Every night I sat beweeping our 
separation and that which I suffered, since thy departure, of 
humiliation and ignominy, of abjection and misery." And she 
went on to tell him what had befallen her, whilst he stared at her 
in amazement, till she said, " Yesterday, I went about begging all 
day but none gave me aught ; and as often as I accosted any one 
and craved of him a crust of bread, he reviled me and gave me 
naught. When night came, I went to bed supperless, and hunger 
burned me and sore on me was that which I suffered : and I sat 
weeping when, behold, one appeared to me and said, O woman 
why weepest thou ? Said I, erst I had a husband who used to 
provide for me and fulfil my wishes ; but he is lost to me and I 
know not whither he went and have been in sore straits since he 
left me. Asked he, What is thy husband's name ? and I answered, 
His name is Ma'aruf. Quoth he, I ken him. Know that thy 
husband is now Sultan in a certain city, and if thou wilt, I will 
carry thee to him. ' Cried I, I am under thy protection : of thy 
bounty bring me to him ! So he took me up and flew with me 

Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 49 

between heaven and earth, till he brought me to this pavilion and 
said to me : Enter yonder chamber, and thou shalt see thy 
husband asleep on the couch. Accordingly I entered and found 
thee in this state of lordship. Indeed I had not thought thou 
wouldst forsake me, who am thy mate, and praised be Allah 
who hath united thee with me ! " Quoth Ma'aruf, " Did I for- 
sake thee or thou me ? Thou complainedst of me from Kazi to 
Kazi and endedst by denouncing me to the High Court and 
bringing down on me Abu Tabak from the Citadel : so I fled 
in mine own despite." And he went on to tell her all that had 
befallen him and how he was become Sultan and had married 
the King's daughter and how his beloved Dunya had died, 
leaving him a son who was then seven years old. She 1 
rejoined, " That which happened was fore-ordained of Allah ; 
but I repent me and I place myself under thy protection 
beseeching thee not to abandon me, but suffer me eat bread, with 
thee by way of an alms." And she ceased not to humble herself 
to him and to supplicate him till his heart relented towards her 
and he said, " Repent from mischief and abide with me, and naught 
shall betide thee save what shall pleasure thee : but, an thou work 
any wickedness, I will slay thee nor fear any one. And fancy not 
that thou canst complain of me to the High Court and that Abu 
Tabak will come down on me from the Citadel ; for I am become 
Sultan and the folk dread me : but I fear none save Allah Almighty, 
because I have a talismanic ring which when I rub, the Slave of 
the Signet appeareth to me. His name is Abu al-Sa'adat, and 
whatsoever I demand of him he bringeth to me. So, an thou 
desire to return to thine own country, I will give thee what shall 
suffice thee all thy life long and will send thee thither speedily ; 
but, an thou desire to abide with me, I will clear for thee a palace 
and furnish it with the choicest of silks and appoint thee twenty 
slave-girls to serve thee and provide thee with dainty dishes and 
sumptuous suits, and thou shalt be a Queen and live in all delight 
till thou die or I die. What sayest thou of this ? " " I wish to 
abide with thee," she answered and kissed his hand and vowed 
repentance from frowardness. Accordingly he set apart a palace 
for her sole use and gave her slave-girls and eunuchs, and she 
became a Queen. The young Prince used to visit her as he visited 
his sire ; but she hated him for that he was not her son ; and 
when the boy saw that she looked on him with the eye of aver- 
sion and anger, he shunned her and took a dislike to her. As 
VOL. X. D 

SO A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

for Ma'aruf, he occupied himself with the love of fair hand- 
maidens and bethought him not of his wife Fatimah the Dung, 
for that she was grown a grizzled old fright, foul-favoured to the 
sight, a bald-headed blight, loathlier than the snake speckled black 
and white ; the more that she had beyond measure evil entreated 
him aforetime ; and as saith the adage, " Ill-usage the root of 
desire disparts and sows hate in the soil of hearts ;" and God-gifted 
is he who saith : 

Beware of losing hearts of men by thine injurious deed ; * For when Aversion 

takes his place none may dear Love restore : 
Hearts, when affection flies from them, are likest unto glass * Which broken, 

cannot whole be made, 'tis breached for evermore. 

r And indeed Ma'aruf had not given her shelter by reason of any 
praiseworthy quality in her, but he dealt with her thus generously 
only of desire for the approval of Allah Almighty. Here Duny- 
azad interrupted her sister Shahrazad, saying, " How winsome are 
these words of thine which win hold of the heart more forcibly 
than enchanters' eyne ; and how beautiful are these wondrous 
books thou hast cited and the marvellous and singular tales thou 
hast recited ! " Quoth Shahrazad, " And where is all this com- 
pared with what I shall relate to thee on the coming night, an I 
live and the King deign spare my days ? " So when morning 
morrowed and the day brake in its sheen and shone, the King 
arose from his couch with breast broadened and in high expec- 
tation for the rest of the tale and saying, " By Allah, I will not 
slay her till I hear the last of her story ;" repaired to his Durbar 
while the Wazir, as was his wont, presented himself at the Palace, 
shroud under arm. Shahriyar tarried abroad all that day, 
bidding and forbidding between man and man ; after which he 
returned to his Harim and, according to his custom went in to his 
wife Shahrazad. 1 

1 Curious to say both Lane and Payne omit this passage which appears in both texts 
(Mac. and Bui.). The object is evidently to prepare the reader for the ending by 
reverting to the beginning of the tale ; and its prolixity has its effect as in the old 
Romances of Chivalry from Amadis of Ghaul to the Seven Champions of Christendom. 
If it provoke impatience, it also heightens expectation ; " it is like the long elm-avenues 
of our forefathers ; we wish ourselves at the end ; but we know that at the end there is 
something great." 

Mciaruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 5 1 

'Noto fojjen it foas tfje ^ousanto antr $\\%\ 

Dunyazad said to her sister, " Do thou finish for us the History of 
Ma'aruf ! " She replied, "With love and goodly gree, an my lord 
deign permit me recount it." Quoth the King, " I permit thee ; 
for that I am fain of hearing it." So she said : It hath reached 
me, O auspicious King, that Ma'aruf would have naught to do 
with his wife by way of conjugal duty. Now when she saw 
that he held aloof from her bed and occupied himself with other 
women, she hated him and jealousy gat the mastery of her and 
Iblis prompted her to take the seal-ring from him and slay him 
and make herself Queen in his stead. So she went forth one 
night from her pavilion, intending for that in which was her 
husband King Ma'aruf; and it chanced by decree of the Decreer 
and His written destiny, that Ma'aruf lay that night with one of 
his concubines ; a damsel endowed with beauty and loveliness, 
symmetry and a stature all grace. And it was his wont, of the 
excellence of his piety, that, when he was minded to have to lie 
with a woman, he would doff the enchanted seal-ring from his 
finger, in reverence to the Holy Names graven thereon, and lay it 
on the pillow, nor would he don it again till he had purified him- 
self by the Ghusl-ablution. Moreover, when he had lain with a 
woman, he was used to order her go forth from him before day- 
break, of his fear for the seal-ring; and when he went to the 
Hammam he locked the door of the pavilion till his return, 
when he put on the ring, and after this, all were free to enter 
according to custom. His wife Fatimah the Dung knew of all 
this and went not forth from her place till she had certified 
herself of the case. So she sallied out, when the night was 
dark, purposing to go in to him, whilst he was drowned in sleep, 
and steal the ring, unseen of him. Now it chanced at this time 
that the King's son had gone out, without light, to the Chapel of 
Ease for an occasion, and sat down over the marble slab 1 of the 
jakes in the dark, leaving the door open. Presently, he saw 
Fatimah come forth of her pavilion and make stealthily for that of 
his father and said in himself, " What aileth this witch to leave her 
lodging in the dead of the night and make for my father's pavilion ? 

1 Arab, "ala malakay bayti '1-rahah ;"on the two slabs at whose union are the round 
hole and longitudinal slit. See vol. i. 221. 

52 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Needs must there be some reason for this :" so he went out after 
her and followed in her steps unseen of her. Now he had a short 
sword of watered steel, which he held so dear that he went not to 
his father's Divan, except he were girt therewith ; and his father 
used to laugh at him and exclaim, " Mahallah I 1 This is a mighty 
fine sword of thine, O my son ! But thou hast not gone down 
with it to battle nor cut off a head therewith." Whereupon the 
boy would reply, " I will not fail to cut off with it some head which 
deserveth 2 cutting." And Ma'aruf would laugh at his words. 
Now when treading in her track, he drew the sword from its 
sheath and he followed her till she came to his father's pavilion and 
entered, whilst he stood and watched her from the door. He saw 
her searching about and heard her say to herself, " Where hath he 
laid the seal-ring ? " ; whereby he knew that she was looking for 
the ring and he waited till she found it and said, " Here it is." 
Then she picked it up and turned to go out ; but he hid behind 
the door. As she came forth, she looked at the ring and turned it 
about in her grasp. But when she was about to rub it, he raised 
his hand with the sword and smote her on the neck ; and she cried 
a single cry and fell down dead. With this Ma'aruf awoke and 
seeing his wife strown on the ground, with her blood flowing, and 
his son standing with the drawn sword in his hand, said to him, 
" What is this, O my son ? " He replied," O my father, how often 
hast thou said to me, Thou hast a mighty fine sword ; but thou 
hast not gone down with it to battle nor cut off a head. And I 
have answered thee, saying, I will not fail to cut off with it a head 
which deserveth cutting. And now, behold, I have therewith cut 
off for thee a head well worth the cutting ! " And he told him 
what had passed. Ma'aruf sought for the Seal-ring, but found it 
not ; so he searched the dead woman's body till he saw her hand 
closed upon it ; whereupon he took it from her grasp and said to 
the boy, "Thou art indeed my very son, without doubt or dispute ; 
Allah ease thee in this world and the next, even as thou hast eased 
me of this vile woman ! Her attempt led only to her own destruc- 
tion, and Allah-gifted is he who said : 

1 Here the exclamation wards off the Evil Eye from the Sword and the wearer : Mr. 
Payne notes, "The old English exclamation ' Cock's 'ill !' (i.e, God's will, thus cor- 
rupted for the purpose of evading the statute of 3 Jac. i. against profane swearing) exactly 
corresponds to the Arabic" with a difference, I add. 

2 Arab. " Mustahakk " =: deserving (Lane) or worth (Payne) the cutting. 

Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. 53 

When forwards Allah's aid a man's intent, a His wish in every case shall 

find consent : 
But an that aid of Allah be refused, * His first attempt shall do him 


Then King Ma'aruf called aloud to some of his attendants, who 
came in haste, and he told them what his wife Fatimah the Dung 
had done and bade them to take her and lay her in a place till the 
morning. They did his bidding, and next day he gave her in 
charge to a number of eunuchs, who washed her and shrouded her 
and made her a tomb 1 and buried her. Thus her coming from 
Cairo was but to her grave, and Allah-gifted is he who said 2 : 

We trod the steps appointed for us : and he whose steps are appointed must 

tread them. 
He whose death is decreed to take place in our land shall not die in any 

land but that. 

And how excellent is the saying of the poet : 

I wot not, whenas to a land I fare, e Good luck pursuing, what my lot 

shall be. 

Whether the fortune I perforce pursue < Or the misfortune which pursueth 

me. . 4 

After this, King Ma'aruf sent for the husbandman, whose guest he 
had been, when he was a fugitive, and made him his Wazir of the 
Right and his Chief Counsellor. 3 Then, learning that he had a 
daughter of passing beauty and loveliness, of qualities nature* 
ennobled at birth and exalted of worth, he took her to wife ; and 
in due time he married his son. So they abode awhile in all solace 
of life and its delight and their days were serene and their joys 
untroubled, till there came to them the Destroyer of delights and 
the Sunderer of societies, the Depopulator of populous places and 
the Orphaner of sons and daughters. And glory be to the Living 
who dieth not and in whose hand are the Keys of the Seen and the 
Unseen ! " 

1 Arab. " Mashhad" the same as " Shahid" = the upright stones at the head and 
and foot of the grave. Lane mistranslates, " Made for her a fun*ral procession." 

2 These lines have occurred before. I quote Lane. 

3 There is nothing strange in such sudden elevations amongst Moslems and even in 
Europe we still see them occasionally. The family in the East, however humble, is a 
model and miniature of the state, and learning is not always necessary to wisdom. 

54 A If Laylah wa Lay/ah. 


Now, during this time, Shahrazad had borne the King three boy 
children : so, when she had made an end of the story of Ma'aruf, 
she rose to her feet and kissing ground before him, said, " O King of 
the time and unique one 1 of the age and the tide, I am thine hand- 
maid and these thousand nights and a night have I entertained 
thee with stories of folk gone before and admonitory instances of 
the men of yore. May I then make bold to crave a boon of Thy 
Highness ? " He replied, " Ask, O Shahrazad, and it shall be 
granted to thee. 2 " Whereupon she cried out to the nurses and the 
eunuchs, saying, " Bring me my children." So they brought them 
to her in haste, and they were three boy children, one walking, one 
crawling and one sucking. She took them and setting them before 
the King, again kissed the ground and said, " O King of the age, 
these are thy children and I crave that thou release me from the 
doom of death, as a dole to these infants ; for, an thou kill me, 
they will become motherless and will find none among women to 
rear them as they should be reared." Whe*i the King heard this, 
he wept and straining the boys to his bosom, said, " By Allah, O 
Shahrazad, I pardoned thee before the coming of these children, for 
that I found thee chaste, pure, ingenuous and pious ! Allah bless 
thee and thy father and thy mother and thy root and thy branch ! 
I take the Almighty to witness against me that I exempt thee 
from aught that can harm thee." So she kissed his hands and 
feet and rejoiced with exceeding joy, saying, " The Lord make thy 
life long and increase thee in dignity and majesty 3 ! " ; presently 
adding, " Thou marvelledst at that which befel thee on the part of 
women ; yet there betided the Kings of the Chosroes before thee 
greater mishaps and more grievous than that which hath befallen 
thee, and indeed I have set forth unto thee that which happened 
to Caliphs and Kings and others with their women, but the relation 
is longsome and hearkening groweth tedious, and in this is all- 

1 Arab. "Farid" which may also mean " union-pearl." 

Tre*butien (Hi. 497) cannot deny himself the pleasure of a French touch making the 
Xing reply, "C'est assez ; qu'on lui coupe la tete, car ces dernieres histoires surtoul 
m'ont cause un ennui mortel." This reading is found in some of the MSS. 

3 After this I borrow from the Bresl. Edit, inserting passages from the Mac. Edit. 

Conclusion. 55 

sufficient warning for the man of wits and admonishment for the 
wise." Then she ceased to speak, and when King Shahriyar heard 
her speech and profited by that which she said, he summoned up 
his reasoning powers and cleansed his heart and caused his under- 
standing revert and turned to Allah Almighty and said to himself, 
" Since there befel the Kings of the Chosroes more than that which 
hath befallen me, never, whilst I live, shall I cease to blame myself 
for the past. As for this Shahrazad, her like is not found in the 
lands; so praise be to Him who appointed her a means for 
delivering His creatures from oppression and slaughter ! " Then 
he arose from his stance and kissed her head, whereat she rejoiced, 
she and her sister Dunyazad, with exceeding joy. When the 
morning morrowed, the King went forth and sitting down on the 
throne of the Kingship, summoned the Lords of his land ; where* 
upon the Chamberlains and Nabobs and Captains of the host went 
in to him and kissed ground before him. He distinguished the 
Wazir, Shahrazad's sire, with special favour and bestowed on him 
a costly and splendid robe of honour and entreated him with the 
utmost kindness, and said to him " Allah protect thee for that thou 
gavest me to wife thy noble daughter, who hath been the means of 
my repentance from slaying the daughters of folk. Indeed I have 
found her pure and pious, chaste and ingenuous, and Allah hath 
vouchsafed me by her three boy children ; wherefore praised be 
He for his passing favour. Then he bestowed robes of honour 
upon his Wazirs, and Emirs and Chief Officers and he set forth to 
them briefly that which had betided him with Shahrazad and how 
he had turned from his former ways and repented him of what he 
had done and purposed to take the Wazir's daughter, Shahrazad, 
to wife and let draw up the marriage-contract with her. When 
those who were present heard this, they kissed the ground before 
him and blessed him and his betrothed 1 Shahrazad, and the Wazir 
thanked her. Then Shahriyar made an end of his sitting in all 
weal, whereupon the folk dispersed to their dwelling-places and the 
news was bruited abroad that the King purposed to marry the 
Wazir's daughter, Shahrazad. Then he proceeded to make read/ 
the wedding gear, and presently he sent after his brother, King 
Shah Zaman, who came, and King Shahriyar went forth to meet 
him with the troops. Furthermore, they decorated the city after 

the goodliest fashion and diffused scents from censers and burnt 

-i- i 

1 i.e. whom he intended to marry with regal ceremony. 

56 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

aloes-wood and other perfumes in all the markets and thorough- 
fares and rubbed themselves with saffron, 1 what while the drums 
beat and the flutes and pipes sounded and mimes and mountebanks 
played and plied their arts and the King lavished on them gifts 
and largesse ; and in very deed it was a notable day. When they 
came to the palace, King Shahriyar commanded to spread the 
tables with beasts roasted whole and sweetmeats and all manner 
of viands and bade the crier cry to the folk that they should come 
up to the Divan and eat and drink and that this should 
be a means of reconciliation between him and them. So, 
high and low, great and small came up unto him and they 
abode on that wise, eating and drinking, seven days with their 
nights. Then the King shut himself up with his brother and 
related to him that which had betided him with the Wazir's 
daughter, Shahrazad, during the past three years and told -him 
what he had heard from her of proverbs and parables, chronicles 
and pleasantries, quips and jests, stories and anecdotes, dialogues 
and histories and elegies and other verses; whereat King Shah 
Zaman marvelled with the uttermost marvel and said, " Fain 
would I take her younger sister to wife, so we may be two 
brothers-german to two sisters-german, and they on like wise be 
sisters to us ; for that the calamity which befel me was the cause 
of our discovering that which befel thee and all this time of three 
years past I have taken no delight in woman, save that I lie each 
night with a damsel of my kingdom, and every morning I do her 
to death ; but now I desire to marry thy wife's sister Dunyazad." 
When King Shahriyar heard his brother's words, he rejoiced with 
joy exceeding and arising forthright, went in to his wife Shahrazad 
and acquainted her with that which his brother purposed, namely 
that he sought her sister Dunyazad in wedlock ; whereupon she 
answered, " O King of the age, we seek of him one condition, to 
wit, that he take up his abode with us, for that I cannot brook to 
be parted from my sister an hour, because we were brought up 
together and may not endure separation each from other. 2 If he 
accept this pact, she is his handmaid." King Shahriyar returned 
to his brother and acquainted him with that which Shahrazad had 

1 The use of coloured powders in sign of holiday-making is not obselete in India. See 
Herklots for the use of " Huldee" (Haldf) or turmeric-powder, pp. 64-65. 

8 Many Moslem families insist upon this before giving their girls in marriage, and the 
practice is still popular amongst many Mediterranean peoples. 

Conclusion. 57 

said ; and he replied, " Indeed, this is what was in my mind, for 
that I desire nevermore to be parted from thee one hour. As 
for the kingdom, Allah the Most High shall send to it whomso 
He chooseth, for that I have no longer a desire for the kingship." 
When King Shahriyar heard his brother's words, he rejoiced 
exceedingly and said, "Verily, this is what I wished, O my 
brother. So Alhamdolillah Praised be Allah who hath brought 
about union between us." Then he sent after the Kazis and 
Olema, Captains and Notables, and they married the two brothers 
to the two sisters. The contracts were written out and the two 
Kings bestowed robes of honour of silk and satin on those who 
were present, whilst the city was decorated and the rejoicings 
were renewed. The King commanded each Emir and Wazir and 
Chamberlain and Nabob to decorate his palace and the folk of 
the city were gladdened by the presage of happiness and content- 
ment. King Shahriyar also bade slaughter sheep and set up 
kitchens and made bride-feasts and fed all comers, high and low ; 
and he gave alms to the poor and needy and extended his bounty 
to great and small. Then the eunuchs went forth, that they might 
perfume the Hammam for the brides ; so they scented it with rose- 
water and willow-flower-water and pods of musk and fumigated it 
with Kakili ] eagle-wood and ambergris. Then Shahrazad entered, 
she and her sister Dunyazad, and they cleansed their heads and 
clipped their hair. When they came forth of the Hammam-bath, 
they donned raiment and ornaments ; such as men were wont 
prepare for the Kings of the Chosroes ; and among Shahrazad's 
apparel was a dress purfled with red gold and wrought with 
counterfeit presentments of birds and beasts. And the two 
sisters encircled their necks with necklaces of jewels of price, 
in the like whereof Iskander 2 rejoiced not, for therein were 
great jewels such as amazed the wit and dazzled the eye ; and 
the imagination was bewildered at their charms, for indeed each 
of them was brighter than the sun and the moon. Before them 
they lighted brilliant flambeaux of wax in candelabra of gold, 
but their faces outshone the flambeaux, for that they had eyes 
sharper than unsheathed swords and the lashes of their eyelids 
bewitched all hearts. Their cheeks were rosy red and their necks 
and shapes gracefully swayed and their eyes wantoned like the 

1 i.e. Sumatran. 

2 i.e. Alexander, according to the Arabs ; see vol. v. 252. 

58 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

gazelle's ; and the slave-girls came to meet them with instruments 
of music. Then the two Kings entered the Hammam-bath, and 
when they came forth, they sat down on a couch set with pearls 
and gems, whereupon the two sisters came up to them and stood 
between their hands, as they were moons, bending and leaning 
from side to side in their beauty and loveliness. Presently they 
brought forward Shahrazad and displayed her, for the first dress, 
in a red suit ; whereupon King Shahriyar rose to look upon her 
and the wits of all present, men and women, were bewitched for 
that she was even as saith of her one of her describers * : 

A sun on wand in knoll of sand she showed, o Clad in her cramoisy-hued 

chemisette : 
Of her lips' honey-dew she gave me drink o And with her rosy cheeks quencht 

fire she set. 

Then they attired Dunyazad in a dress of blue brocade and she 
became as she were the full moon when it shineth forth. So they 
displayed her in this, for the first dress, before King Shah Zaman, 
who rejoiced in her and well-nigh swooned away for love-longing 
and amorous desire ; yea, he was distraught with passion for 
her, whenas he saw her, because she was as saith of her one of 
her describers in these couplets 2 : 

She comes apparelled in an azure vest o Ultramarine as skies are deckt and 

dight : 
I view'd th' unparallel'd sight, which showed my eyes o A Summer-moon upon 

a Winter-night. 

Then they returned to Shahrazad and displayed her in the second 
dress, .a suit of surpassing goodliness, and veiled her face with her 
hair like a chin-veil. 3 Moreover, they let down her side-locks 
and she was even as saith of her one of her describers in these 
couplets : 

O hail to him whose locks his cheeks o'ershade, o Who slew my life by cruel 

hard despight : 
Said I, " Hast veiled the Morn in Night? " He said, o Nay I but veil Moon 

in hue of Night." 

1 These lines are in vol i. 217. 

2 I repeat the lines from vol. i. 218. 

3 All these coquetries require as much inventiveness as a cotillon ; the text alludes to 
fastening the bride's tresses across her mouth giving her the semblance of beard 
and mustachios. 

Conclusion, 59 

Then they displayed Dunyazad in a second and a third and a 
fourth dress and she paced forward like the rising sun, and swayed 
to and fro in the insolence of beauty ; and she was even as saith 
the poet of her in these couplets 1 : 

The sun of beauty she to all appears o And, lovely coy she mocks 

all loveliness : 
And when he fronts her favour and her smile o A-morn, the sun of day in 

clouds must dress. 

Then they displayed Shahrazad in the third dress and the fourth 
and the fifth and she became as she were a Ban-branch snell or a 
thirsting gazelle, lovely of face and perfect in attributes of grace, 
even as saith of her one in these couplets 2 : 

She comes like fullest moon on happy night, o Taper of waist with shape of 
magic might : 

She hath an eye whose glances quell mankind, o And ruby on her cheeks re- 
flects his light : 

Enveils her hips the blackness of her hair ; o Beware of curls that bite with 
viper-bite ! 

Her sides are silken-soft, that while the heart o Mere rock behind that surface 
. 'scapes our sight : 

From the fringed curtains of her eyne she shoots o Shafts that at furthest range 
on mark alight. 

Then they returned to Dunyazad and displayed her in the fifth 
dress and in the sixth, which was green, when she surpassed 
with her loveliness the fair of the four quarters of the world and 
outvied, with the brightness of her countenance, the full moon at 
rising tide ; for she was even as saith of her the poet in these 
couplets 3 : 

A damsel 'twas the tirer's art had decked with snare and sleight, o And robed 

with rays as though the sun from her had borrowed light : 
She came before us wondrous clad in chemisette of green, o As veiled 

by his leafy screen Pomegranate hides from sight : 
And when he said, "How callest thou the fashion of thy dress?" o She 

answered us in pleasant way with double meaning dight, 
"We call this garment creve-coeur \ and rightly is it hight, o For many 

a heart wi' this we brake and harried many a sprite." 

1 Repeated from vol. i. 218. 

2 Repeated from vol. i. 218. 

3 See vol. i. 219. 

60 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Then they displayed Shahrazad in the sixth and seventh dresses 
and clad her in youth's clothing, whereupon she came forward 
swaying from side to side and coquettishly moving and indeed she 
ravished wits and hearts and ensorcelled all eyes with her glances. 
She shook her sides and swayed her haunches, then put her hair 
on sword-hilt and went up to King Shahriyar, who embraced her 
as hospitable host embraceth guest, and threatened her in her ear 
with the taking of the sword ; and she was even as saith of her the 
poet in these words : 

Were not the Murk 1 of gender male, o Than feminines surpassing fair, 
Tirewomen they had grudged the bride, o Who made her beard and whiskers 
wear ! 

Thus also they did with her sister Dunyazad, and when they had 
made an end of the display the King bestowed robes of honour 
on all who were present and sent the brides to their own apart- 
ments. Then Shahrazad went in to King Shahriyar and 
Dunyazad to King Shah Zaman and each of them solaced himself 
with the company of his beloved consort and the hearts of the 
folk were comforted. When morning morrowed, the Wazir came 
in to the two Kings and kissed ground before them ; wherefore 
they thanked him and were large of bounty to him. Presently 
they went forth and sat down upon couches of Kingship, whilst 
all the Wazirs and Emirs and Grandees and Lords of the land 
presented themselves and kissed ground. King Shahriyar ordered 
them dresses of honour and largesse and they prayed for the 
permanence and prosperity of the King and his brother. Then 
the two Sovrans appointed their sire-in-law the Wazir to be 
Viceroy in Samarcand and assigned him five of the Chief Emirs to 
accompany him, charging them attend him and do him service. 
The Minister kissed the ground and prayed that they might 
be vouchsafed length of life : then he went in to his daughters, 
whilst the Eunuchs and Ushers .walked before him, and 
saluted them and farewelled them. They kissed his hands 
and gave him joy of the Kingship and bestowed on him 
immense treasures ; after which he took leave of them and 
setting out, fared days and nights, till he came near Samar- 
cand, where the townspeople met him at a distance of three 
marches and rejoiced in him with exceeding joy. So he 

1 Arab. Sawad = the blackness of the bait. 

Conclusion. 6 1 

entered the city and they decorated the houses and it was 
a notable day. He sat down on the throne of his kingship 
and the Wazirs did him homage and the Grandees and Emirs 
of Samarcand and all prayed that he might be vouchsafed 
justice and victory and length of continuance. So he bestowed 
on them robes of honour and entreated them with distinction and 
they made him Sultan over them. As soon as his father-in-law 
had departed for Samarcand, King Shahriyah summoned the 
Grandees of his realm and made them a stupendous banquet of 
all manner of delicious meats and exquisite sweetmeats. He also 
bestowed on them robes of honour and guerdoned them and 
divided the kingdoms between himself and his brother in their 
presence, whereat the folk rejoiced. Then the two Kings abode, 
each ruling a day in turn, and they were ever in harmony each 
with other while on similar wise their wives continued in the love 
of Allah Almighty and in thanksgiving to Him ; and the peoples 
and the provinces were at peace and the preachers prayed for 
them from the pulpits, and their report was bruited abroad and 
the travellers bore tidings of them to all lands. In due time 
King Shahriyah summoned chroniclers and copyists and bade 
them write all that had betided him with his wife, first and last ; 
so they wrote this and named it " f &\)t SbtOtl'eS of t|)e ^ftousantJ 
jfftgbtg anb & Nt'gjt." The book came to thirty volumes and these 
the King laid up in his treasury. And the two brothers abode with 
their wives in all pleasance and solace of life and its delights, for 
that indeed Allah the Most High had changed their annoy into joy ; 
and on this wise they continued till there took them the Destroyer 
of delights and the Severer of societies, the Desolator of dwelling- 
places and Garnerer of grave-yards, and they were translated to 
the ruth of Almighty Allah ; their houses fell waste and their 
palaces lay in ruins 1 and the Kings inherited their riches. Then 
there reigned after them a wise ruier, who was just, keen-witted 
and accomplished and loved tales and legends, especially those 
which chronicle the doings of Sovrans and Sultans, and he found 
in the treasury these marvellous stories and wondrous histories, 
contained in the thirty volumes aforesaid. So he read in them a 
first book and a second and a third and so on to the last of them, 
and each book astounded and delighted him more than that which 
preceded'it, till he came to the end of them. Then he admired 

1 Because Easterns build, but never repair. 

62 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

whatso he had read therein of description and discourse and rare 
traits and anecdotes and moral instances and reminiscences and 
bade the folk copy them and dispread them over all lands and 
climes ; wherefore their report was bruited abroad and the people 
named them " je matbds anfo foonUers of tfje ^{jousantr Ni'gfjt* 
anfc gj Nu$t." This is all that hath come down to us of the 
origin of this book, and Allah is All-knowing. 1 So Glory be to 
Him whom the shifts of Time waste not away, nor doth aught 
of chance or change affect His sway : whom one case diverteth not 
from other case and Who is sole in the attributes of perfect grace. 
And prayer and peace be upon the Lord's Pontiff and Chosen 
One among His creatures, our lord MOHAMMED the Prince 
of mankind through whom we supplicate Him for a goodly and 
a godly 


i.e. God only knows if it be true or not. 

Terminal Essay. 


THE reader who has reached this terminal stage will hardly 
require my assurance that he has seen the mediaeval Arab at his 
best and, perhaps, at his worst. In glancing over the myriad 
pictures of this panorama, those who can discern the soul of good- 
ness in things evil will note the true nobility of the Moslem's 
mind in the Moyen Age, and the cleanliness of his life from cradle 
to grave. As a child he is devoted to his parents, fond of his 
comrades and respectful to his " pastors and masters," even school- 
masters. As a lad he prepares for manhood with a will and 
this training occupies him throughout youthtide : he is a 
gentleman in manners without awkwardness, vulgar astonishment 
or mauvaise-honte. As a man he is high-spirited and energetic, 
always ready to fight for his Sultan, his country and, especially, 
his Faith : courteous and affable, rarely failing in temperance of 
mind and self-respect, self-control and self-command ; hospitable 
to the stranger, attached to his fellow-citizens, submissive to 
superiors and kindly to inferiors if such classes exist : Eastern 
despotisms have arrived nearer the idea of equality and fraternity 
than any republic yet invented. As a friend he proves a model 
to the Damons and Pythiases : as a lover an exemplar to Don 
Quijote without the noble old Caballero's touch of eccentricity. As 
a knight he is the mirror of chivalry, doing battle for the weak and 
debelling the strong, while ever " defending the honour of women." 
As a husband his patriarchal position causes him to be loved and 

64 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

fondly loved by more than one wife : as a father affection for his 
children rules his life : he is domestic in the highest degree and he 
finds few pleasures beyond the bosom of his family. Lastly, his 
death is simple, pathethic and edifying as the life which led to it. 

Considered in a higher phase, the mediaeval Moslem mind dis- 
plays, like the ancient Egyptian, a most exalted moral idea, the 
deepest reverence for all things connected with his religion and a 
sublime conception of the Unity and Omnipotence of the Deity. 
Noteworthy too is a proud resignation to the decrees of Fate and 
Fortune (Kazd wa Kadar), of Destiny and Predestination a 
feature which ennobles the low aspect of Al-Islam even in these 
her days of comparative degeneration and local decay. Hence his 
moderation in prosperity, his fortitude in adversity, his dignity, 
his perfect self-dominance and, lastly, his lofty quietism which 
sounds the true heroic ring. This again is softened and tempered 
by a simple faith in the supremacy of Love over Fear, an un- 
bounded humanity and charity for the poor and helpless : an un- 
conditional forgiveness of the direst injuries (" which is the note of 
the noble ") ; a generosity and liberality which at times seem 
impossible and an enthusiasm for universal benevolence and 
beneficence which, exalting kindly deeds done to man above every 
form of holiness, constitute the root and base of Oriental, nay, of 
all, courtesy. And the whole is crowned by pure trust and natural 
confidence in the progress and perfectability of human nature, 
which he exalts instead of degrading ; this he holds to be the 
foundation-stone of society and indeed the very purpose of its exist- 
ence. His Pessimism resembles far more the optimism which 
the so-called Books of Moses borrowed from the Ancient Copt 
than the mournful and melancholy creed of the true Pessimist, 
as Solomon the Hebrew, the Indian Buddhist and the esoteric 
European imitators of Buddhism. He cannot but sigh when con- 
templating the sin and sorrow, the pathos and bathos of the 
world ; and feel the pity of it, with its shifts and changes ending 

Terminal Essay. 65 

in nothingness, its scanty happiness and its copious misery. But 
his melancholy is expressed in 

" A voice divinely sweet, a voice no less 
Divinely sad." 

Nor does he mourn as they mourn who have no hope : he has 
an absolute conviction in future compensation ; and, meanwhile, 
his lively poetic impulse, the poetry of ideas, not of formal verse, 
and his radiant innate idealism breathe a soul into the merest 
matter of squalid work-a-day life and awaken the sweetest 
harmonies of Nature epitomised in Humanity. 

Such was the Moslem at a time when " the dark clouds of 
ignorance and superstition hung so thick on the intellectual 
horizon of Europe as to exclude every ray of learning that darted 
from the East and when all that was polite or elegant in literature 
was classed among the Studia Arabum" l 

Nor is the shady side of the picture less notable. Our Arab at 
his worst is a mere barbarian who has not forgotten the savage. 
He is a model mixture of childishness and astuteness, of simplicity 
and cunning, concealing levity of mind under solemnity of aspect. 
His stolid instinctive conservatism grovels before the tyrant rule of 
routine, despite that turbulent and licentious independence which 
ever suggests revolt against the ruler : his mental torpidity, 
founded upon physical indolence, renders immediate action and 
all manner of exertion distasteful : his conscious weakness shows 
itself in overweening arrogance and intolerance. His crass and 
self-satisfied ignorance makes him glorify the most ignoble super- 
stitions, while acts of revolting savagery are the natural results of 
a malignant fanaticism and a furious hatred of every creed beyond 
the pale of Al-Islam. 

It must be confessed that these contrasts make a curious and 
interesting tout ensemble. 

1 Ouseley's Orient. Collect. I, vii. 
VOL. X. 

66 A If Laylah wa L&ylah. 



HERE occur the questions, Where and When was written and to 
Whom do we owe a prose-poem which, like the dramatic epos of 
Herodotus, has no equal ? 

I proceed to lay before the reader a proces-verbal of the 
sundry pleadings already in court as concisely as is compatible 
with intelligibility, furnishing him with references to original 
authorities and warning him that a fully-detailed account would 
fill a volume. Even my own reasons for decidedly taking one 
side and rejecting the other must be stated briefly. And .before 
entering upon this subject I would distribute the prose-matter 
of our Recueil of Folk-lore under three heads. 

1. The Apologue or Beast-fable proper, a theme which may 
be of any age, as it is found in the hieroglyphs and in the 

2. The Fairy-tale, as for brevity we may term the stones 
based upon supernatural agency : this was a favourite with 
olden Persia ; and Mohammed, most austere and puritanical of 
the " Prophets," strongly objected to it because preferred by the 
more sensible of his converts to the dry legends of the Talmud 
and the Koran, quite as fabulous without the halo and glamour 
of fancy. 

3. The Histories and historical anecdotes, analects, and acro- 
amata, in which the names, when not used achronistically by 
the editor or copier, give unerring data for the earliest date & 
quo and which, by the mode of treatment, suggest the latest. 

Terminal Essay. 67 

Each of these constituents will require further notice when 
the subject-matter of the book is discussed. The metrical por- 
tion of The Nights may also be divided into three categories, 
viz. : 

1. The oldest and classical poetry of the Arabs, e.g. the 
various quotations from the " Suspended Poems." 

2. The mediaeval, beginning with the laureates of Al-Rashid's 
court, such as Al-Asma'i and Abu Nowas; and ending with 
Al-Harfri A.H. 446-516 = 1030-1100. 

3. The modern quotations and the pieces de circonstance by 
the editors or copyists of the Compilation. 1 

Upon the metrical portion also further notices must be offered 
at the end of this Essay. 

In considering the unde derivatur of The Nights we must 
carefully separate subject-matter from language-manner. The 
neglect of such essential difference. has caused the remark, "It 
is not a little curious that the origin of a work which has been 

1 This three-fold distribution occurred to me many years ago and when far 
beyond reach of literary authorities ; I was, therefore, much pleased to find the sub- 
joined three-fold classification with minor details made by Baron von Hammer- 
Purgstall (Preface to Contes Ine'dits etc. of G. S. Trebutien, Paris, mdcccxxviii.) 
(i) The older stories which serve as a base to the collection, such as the Ten Wazirs 
(" Malice of Women") and Voyages of Sindbad (?) which may date from the days of 
Mahomrned. These are distributed into two sub-classes ; (a) the marvellous and purely 
imaginative (e.g. Jamasp and the Serpent Queen) and (b) the realistic mixed with 
instructive fables and moral instances. (2) The stories and anecdotes peculiarly Arab, 
relating to the Caliphs and especially to Al-Rashld j and (3) The tales of Egyptian pro- 
venance, which mostly date from the times of the puissant " Aaron the Orthodox." Mr. 
John Payne (Villon Translation, vol. ix. pp. 367-73) distributes the stories roughly under 
five chief heads as follows: (i) Histories or long Romances, as King Omar bin AJ- 
Nu'man. (2) Anecdotes or short stories dealing with historical personages and with 
incidents and adventures belonging to the every-day life of the period to which they 
refer : e.g. those concerning Al-Rashid and Hatim of Tayy. (3) Romances and 
romantic fictions comprising three different kinds of tales ; (a) purely romantic and 
supernatural ; (b) fictions and nouvelles with or without a basis and background of 
historical fact and (c) Contes fantastiques. (4) Fables and Apologues ; and (5) Tales 
proper, as that of Tawaddud. 

68 Alf Laylah wa Lay la k. 


known to Europe and has been studied by many during nearly 
two centuries, should still be so mysterious, and that students 
have failed in all attempts to detect the secret." Hence also 
the chief authorities at once branched off into two directions. 
One held the work to be practically Persian : the other as per- 
sistently declared it to be purely Arab. 

Professor Galland, in his Epistle Dedicatory to the Marquise 
d'O, daughter of his patron M. de Guillerague, showed his 
literary acumen and unfailing sagacity by deriving The Nights 
from India vi& Persia ; and held that they had been reduced to 
their present shape by an Auteur Arabe inconnu. This refer- 
ence to India, also learnedly advocated by M: Langles, was 
inevitable in those days : it had not then been proved that 
India owed all her literature to far older civilisations and even 
that her alphabet the Ndgari, erroneously called Devandgari, 
was derived through Phoenicia and Himyar-land from Ancient 
Egypt. So Europe was contented to compare The Nights 
with the Fables of Pilpay for upwards of a century. At last 
the Pehlevi or old Iranian origin of the work found an able 
and strenuous advocate in Baron von Hammer-Purgstall l who 
worthily continued what Galland had begun : although a most 
inexact writer, he was extensively read in Oriental history and 
poetry. His contention was that the book is an Arabisation 
of the Persian Hazdr Afsanah or Thousand Tales and he 
proved his point. 

Von Hammer began by summoning into Court the " Herodotus 
of "thTXrabs, (AH Abu al-Hasan) Al-Mas'udi who, in A.H. 333 
(= 944) about one generation before the founding of Cairo, 
published at Bassorah the first edition of his far-famed Muruj 
al-Dahab wa Ma'adin al-Jauhar, Meads of Gold and Mines of 

1 Jonrnal Asiatique (Paris, Dondey-Dupre, 1826) " Sur 1'origme des Mille et une 

Terminal Essay. 69 

Gems. The Styrian Orientalist * quotes with sundry misprints 2 an 
ampler version of a passage in Chapter Ixviii., which is abbreviated 
in the French translation of M. C. Barbier de Meynard. 3 

" And, indeed, many men well acquainted with their (Arab) 
histories 4 opine that the stories above mentioned and other 
trifles were strung together by men who commended themselves 
to the Kings by relating them, and who found favour with their 
contemporaries by committing them to memory and by reciting 
them. Of such fashion 5 is the fashion of the books which have 
come down to us translated from the Persian (Farasiyah), the 
Indian (Hindfyah), 6 and the Graeco-Roman (Rumiyah) 7 : we 
have noted the judgment which should be passed upon com- 
positions of this nature. Such is the book entituled Hazar 
Afsdnah or T/ie Thousand Tales, which word in Arabic signifies 
Khurdfah (Facetice) : it is known to the public under the name of 
The Book of a Thousand Nights and a Night, (Kitab Alf Laylak 
wa Laylah? This is an history of a King and his Wazir, the 
minister's daughter and a slave-girl (jdriyah) who are named 
Shirzdd (lion-born) and Dmar-zdd (ducat-born). 9 Such also is 

1 Baron von Hammer-Purgstairs chateau is near Styrian Graz ; and, when I last saw 
his library, it had been left as it was at his death. 

2 At least, in Trebutien's Preface, pp. xxx.-xxxi., reprinted from the Journ. Asiat. 
August, 1839 : for corrections see De Sacy's " Memoire." p. 39. 

3 Vol. iv. pp. 89-90, Paris mdccclxv. Trebutien quotes, chapt. lii. (for Ixviii.), one of 
Von Hammer's manifold inaccuracies. 

* Alluding to Iram the Many-columned, etc. 

* In Trebutien Sfha," for which the Editor of the Journ. Asiat. and De Sacy 
rightly read " Sabfl-ha." 

6 For this some MSS. have " Fahlawiyah " = Pehlevi. 

7 ".*. Lower Roman, Grecian, of Asia Minor, etc., the word is still applied through- 
out Marocco, Algiers and Northern Africa to Europeans in general. 

8 De Sacy (Dissertation prefixed to the Bourdin Edition) notices the " thousand 
and one," and in his Memoire " a thousand: " Von Hammer's MS. reads a thousand, 
and the French translation a thousand and one. Evidently no stress can be laid upon 
the numerals. 

9 These names are noticed in my vol. i. 14, and vol. ii. 3. According to De Sacy some 
MSS. read " History of the Wazir and his Daughters." 

?o A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

the Tale of Farzah, 1 (alii Firza), and Sirnds, containing details 
concerning the Kings and Wazirs of Hind : the Book of Al- 
Sindibad 2 and others of a similar stamp." 

Von Hammer adds, quoting chapt. cxvi, of Al'Mas'udl that 
Al-Mansur (second Abbaside A.H. 136-158 =: 754-775, and 
grandfather of Al-Rashid) caused many translations of Greek and 
Latin, Syriac and Persian (Pehlevi) works to be made into Arabic, 
specifying the Kalilah wa Damnah," 3 the Fables of Bidpai 
(Pilpay), the Logic of Aristotle, the Geography of Ptolemy and the 
Elements of Euclid. Hence he concludes " L'original des Mille et 
une Nuits * * * selon toute vraisemblance, a et< traduit au 
temps du Khalife Mansur, c'est-a-dire trente ans avant le regne 
du Khalife Haroun al-Raschid, qui, par la suite, devait lui-meme 
jouer un si grand role dans ces histoires." He also notes that, 
about a century after Al-Mas'udi had mentioned the Hazar 
Afsanah, it was versified and probably remodelled by one " Rasti," 
the Takhallus or nom de plume of a bard at the Court of 

1 Lane (iii. 735) has Wizreh or Wardeh which guide us to Wird Khan, the hero of 
the tale. Von Hammer's MS. prefers Djilkand (Jilkand), whence probably the Isegil 
or Isegild of Langles (1814), and the Tseqyl of De Sacy (1833). The mention of 
"Simas" (Lane's Shemmas) identifies it with "King Jali'ad of Hind," etc. (Night 
dcccxcix.) Writing in A.D. 961 Hamzah Isfahani couples with the libri Sindbad and 
Schimas, the libri Baruc and Barsinas, four nouvelles out of nearly seventy. See also AN 
Makri'zi's Khitat or Topography (ii. 485) for a notice of the Thousand or Thousand 
and one Nights. 

2 Alluding to the " Seven Wazirs " alias " The Malice of Women " (Night dlxxviii.), 
which Von Hammer and many others have carelessly confounded with Sindbad the 
Seaman. We find that two tales once separate have now been incorporated with The 
Nights, and this suggests the manner of its composition by accretion. 

3 Arabised by a most " elegant" stylist, Abdullah ibn al-Mukaffa (the shrivelled), a 
Persian Guebre named Roz-bih (Day good), who islamised and was barbarously put to 
death in A.H. 158 (=. 775) by command of the Caliph al-Mansur (Al-Siyuti p. 277). 
'* He also translated from Pehlevi the book entitled Stkiserdn, containing the annals of 
Isfandiyar, the death of Rustam, and other episodes of old Persic history," says Al- 
Mas'udi chapt. xxi. See also Ibn Khallikan (l, 43) who dales the murder in A.M. 142 
(= 759-6o). 

Terminal Essay. 7 1 

Mahmud, the Ghaznevite Sultan who, after a reign of thirty- 
three years, ob. A.D. IO3O 1 

Von Hammer some twelve years afterwards (Journ. Asiat. 
August, 1839) brought forward, in his "Note sur 1'origine Persane 
des Mille et une Nuits," a second and an even more important 
witness : this was the famous Kitab al-Fihrist, 2 or Index List of 
(Arabic) works, written (in A.H. 387 = 987) by Mohammed bin 
Is'hak al-Nadim (cup-companion or equerry), " popularly known 
as Ebou Yacoub el-Werrek." 3 The following is an extract (p. 304) 
from the Eighth Discourse which consists of three arts (funun). 4 
" The first section on the history of the confabulatores nocturni 
(tellers of night tales) and the relaters of fanciful adventures, 
together with the names of books treating upon such subjects. 
Mohammed ibn Is'hak saith : The first who indited themes of 
imagination and made books of them, consigning these works to 
the libraries, and who ordered some of them as though related by 
the tongues of brute beasts, were the palaeo-Persians (and the 
Kings of the First Dynasty). The Ashkanian Kings of the Third 
Dynasty appended others to them and they were augmented and 
amplified in the days of the Sassanides " (the fourth and last 
royal house). The Arabs also translated them into Arabic, 

1 "Notice sur Le Schah-namah de Firdoussi," a posthumous publication of M. de 
Wallenbourg, Vienna, 1810, by M. A. de Bianchi. In sect. iii. I shall quote another 
passage of Al-Mas'udi (viii. 1/5) in which I find a distinct allusion to the "Gaboriau- 
detective tales " of The Nights. 

2 Here Von Hammer shows his customary inexactitude. As we learn from Ibn 
Khallikan (Fr. Tr. I. 630), the author's name was Abu al-Faraj Mohammed ibn Is'hak, 
pop. known as Ibn Ali Ya'kub al-Warrak, the bibliographe, librarian, copyist. It was 
published (vol. i. Leipzig, 1871) under the editorship of G. Fluegel, J. Roediger, and 
A. Miiller. 

3 See also the Journ. Asiat., August, 1839, and Lane iii. 736-37. 

4 Called " Afsanah " by Al-Mas'udi, both words having the same sense = talei 
story, parable, " facetiae.'' Moslem fanaticism renders it by the Arab "Khurafah" 
= silly fables, and in Hindostan it = a jest : ** Bat-ki bat ; khurafat-ki khurafat (a 
vrotd for a word, a joke for a joke.) 

72 A If Lay I ah wa Lay t ah. 

and the loquent and eloquent polished and embellished them and 
wrote others resembling them. The first work of such kind was 
entituled 'The Book of Hazar Afsan/ signifying Alf Khurdfah, 
the argument whereof was as follows. A King of their Kings was 
wont, when he wedded a woman and had lain one night with 
her, to slay her on the next morning. Presently he espoused a 
damsel of the daughters of the Kings, Shahrazad 1 hight, one 
endowed with intellect and erudition and, whenas she lay with 
him, she fell to telling him tales of fancy ; moreover she used to 
connect the story at the end of the night with that which might 
induce the King to preserve her alive and to ask her of its 
ending on the next night until a thousand nights had passed over 
her. Meanwhile he cohabited with her till she was blest by boon 
of child of him, when she acquainted him with the device she 
had wrought upon him ; wherefore he admired her intelligence and 
inclined to her and preserved her life. That King had also a 
Kahramanah (nurse and duenna, not entremetteuse), hight 
Dinarzad (Dunyazad ?), who aided the wife in this (artifice). It is 
also said that this book was composed for (or, by) Humai 
daughter of Bahman 2 and in. it were included other matters. 
Mohammed bin Is'hak adds : And the truth is, Inshallah, 3 that 
the first who solaced himself with hearing night-tales was Al- 

1 Al-Mas'udi (chapt. xxi.) makes this a name of the Mother of Queen Humai or 
Humayah, for whom, see below. 

2 The preface of a copy of the Shah-nameh (by Firdausi, ob. A.D. 1021), collated in 
A.H. 829 by command of Bayisunghur Bahadur Khan (Atkinson p. x.), informs us that 
the Hazar Afsanah was composed for or by Queen Humai whose name is Arabised to 
Humayah. This Persian Marguerite de Navarre was daughter and wife to (Ardashir) 
Bahman, sixth Kayanian and surnamed Diraz-dast (Artaxerxes Longimanus), Abu 
Sasan from his son, the Eponymus of the Sassanides who followed the Kayanians when 
these were extinguished by Alexander of Macedon. Humai succeeded her husband as 
seventh Queen, reigned thirty-two years and left the crown to her son Dari or Darab 
jst = Darius Codomanus. She is better known to Europe (throfigh Herodotus) as 
Parysatis = Peri-zadeh or the Fairy-born. 

3 i./. If Allah allow me to say sooth. 

Terminal Essay. 73 

Iskandar (he of Macedon) and he had a number of men who 
used to relate to him imaginary stories and provoke him to 
laughter : he, however, designed not therein merely to please 
himself, but that he might thereby become the more cautious and 
alert After him the Kings in like fashion made use of the book 
entitled ' Hazar Afsdn.' It containeth a thousand nights, but less 
than two hundred night-stories, for a single history often occupied 
several nights. I have seen it complete sundry times ; and it is, 
in truth, a corrupted book of cold tales." 1 

A writer in The Athenaum? objecting to Lane's modern date 
for The Nights, adduces evidence to prove the greater antiquity of 
the work. (Abu al-Hasan) Ibn Sa'id (bin Musa al-Gharnati = of 
Granada) born in A.H. 615 = 1218 and ob. Tunis A.H. 685 = 
1286, left his native city and arrived at Cairo in A.H. 639 = 1241. 
This Spanish poet and historian wrote Al-Muhalld bi al-Ash'ar 
(The Adorned with Verses), a Topography of Egypt and Africa, 
which is apparently now lost. In this he quotes from Al-Kurtubi, 
the Cordovan ; 3 and he in his turn is quoted by the Arab historian 
of Spain, Abu al-Abbas Ahmad bin Mohammed al-Makkari, in 
the " Windwafts of Perfume from the Branches of Andalusia the 
Blooming" 4 (A.D. 1628-29). Mr. Payne (x. 301) thus translates 
from Dr. Dozy's published text. 

" Ibn Said (may God have mercy upon him !) sets forth in 
his book, EJ Muhella bi-s-Shaar, quoting from El Curtubi the 
story of the building of the Houdej in the Garden of Cairo, the 

1 i.e. of silly anecdotes : here speaks the good Moslem ! 

8 No. 622 Sept. 29, '39 ; a review of Torrens which appeared shortly after Lane's 
vol. i. The author quotes from a MS. in the British Museum, No. 7334 fol. 136. 

8 There are many Spaniards of this name : Mr. Payne (ix. 302) proposes Abu Ja'afar 
ibn Abd al-Hakk al-Khazraji, author of a History of the Caliphs about the middle of the 
twelfth century. 

4 The well-known Rauzah or Garden-island, of old Al-Sana'ah (Al-Mas'udi 
chapt. xxxi.), which is more than once noticed in The Nights. The name of the pavilion 
Al-Haudaj = a camel-litter, was probably intended to flatter the Badawi girl. 

74 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

which was of the magnificent pleasaunces of the Fatimite Khalifs, 
the rare of ordinance and surpassing, to wit that the Khalif El 
Aamir bi-ahkam-illah 1 let build it for a Bedouin woman, the love 
of whom had gotten the mastery of him, in the neighbourhood of 
the ' Chosen Garden ' 2 and used to resort often thereto and was 
slain as he went thither ; and it ceased not to be a pleasuring- 
place for the Khalifs after him. The folk abound in stories of the 
Bedouin girl and Ibn Meyyah 3 of the sons of her uncle (cousin ?) 
and what hangs thereby of the mention of El-Aamir, so that the 
tales told of them on this account became like unto the story 
of El Bettal 4 and the Thousand Nights and a Night and what 
resembleth them." 

The same passage from Ibn Sa'id, corresponding in three MSS., 
occurs in the famous Khitat 5 attributed to Al-Makrizi (ob. A.D. 
1444) and was thus translated from a MS. in the British Museum 
by Mr. John Payne (ix. 303). 

" The Khalif El-Aamir bi-ahkam-illah set apart, in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Chosen Garden, a place for his beloved the 
Bedouin maid (Aaliyah) 6 which he named El Houdej. Quoth 
Ibn Said, in the book El-Muhella bi-1-ashar, from the History 
of El Curtubi, concerning the traditions of the folk of the story 
of the Bedouin maid and Ibn Menah (Meyyah) of the sons of 

1 He was the Seventh Fatimite Caliph of Egypt: regn. A.H. 495 524 
(= uoi 1129). 

2 Suggesting a private pleasaunce in Al-Rauzah which has ever been and is still a 
succession of gardens. 

3 The writer in The Athenceum calls him Ibn Miyyah, and adds that the Badawiyah 
wrote 19 her cousin certain verses complaining of her thraldom, which the youth 
answered, abusing the Caliph, Al-'Amir found the correspondence and ordered Ibn 
Miyah's tongue to be cut out, but he saved himself by a timely flight. 

4 In Night dccclxxxv. we have the passage " He was a wily thief : none could avail 
against his craft as he were Abu Mohammed Al-Battdl " : the word etymologically 
means The Bad ; but see infra. 

5 Amongst other losses which Orientalists have sustained by the death of Rogers Bey, 
I may mention his proposed translation of Al-Makrizi's great topographical work. 

6 The name appears only in a later passage. 

Terminal Essay. 75 

her uncle and what hangs thereby of the mention of the 
Khalif El Aami'r bi-ahkam-illah, so that their traditions (or 
tales) upon the garden became like unto El Bettal * and the 
Thousand Nights and what resembleth them." 

This evidently means either that The Nights existed in the 
days of Al-'Amir (xiith cent.) or that the author compared 
them with a work popular in his own age. Mr. Payne attaches 
much importance to the discrepancy of titles, which appears 
to me a minor detail. The change of names is easily explained. 
Amongst the Arabs, as amongst the wild Irish, there is divinity 
(the proverb says luck) in odd numbers and consequently the 
others are inauspicious. Hence as Sir Wm. Ouseley says 
(Travels ii. 21), the number Thousand and One is a favourite in 
the East (Olivier, Voyages vi. 385, Paris 1807), and quotes the 
Cistern of the " Thousand and One Columns " at Constanti- 
nople. Kaempfer (Amcen, Exot p. 38) notes of the Takiyahs 
or Dervishes' convents and the Mazdrs or Santons' tombs near 
Konfah (Iconium), "Multa seges sepulchralium quae virorum ex 
omni sevo doctissimorum exuvias condunt, mille et unum recenset 
auctor Libri qui inscribitur Hassaaer we jek mesaar (Hazar ve 
yek Mezar), *'.*., mille et unum mausolea." A book, The Hazar 
o yek Ruz (= 1001 Days), was composed in the mid-xviith 
century by the famous Dervaysh Mukhlis, Chief Sofi of Isfahan : 
it was translated into French by Petis de la Croix, with a 
preface by Cazotte, and was englished by Ambrose Phillips. 
Lastly, in India and throughout Asia where Indian influence 
extends, the number of cyphers not followed by a significant 
number is indefinite: for instance, to determine hundreds the 
Hindus affix the required figure to the end and for 100 write 
101 ; for TOGO, 1001. But the grand fact of the Hazar Afsanah 

1 Mr. Payne notes (viii. 137) "apparently some famous brigand of the time" (of 
Charlemagne). But the title may signify The Brave, and the tale may be much older. 

76 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

is its being the archetype of The Nights, unquestionably proving 
that the Arab work borrows from the Persian bodily its cadre 
or frame-work, the principal characteristic ; its exordium and its 
denouement, whilst the two heroines still bear the old Persic 

Baron Silvestre de Sacy J clarum et venerabile nomen is 
the chief authority for the Arab provenance of The Nights. 
Apparently founding his observations upon Galland, 2 he is of 
opinion that the work, as now known, was originally composed in 
Syria 3 and written in the vulgar dialect ; that it was never completed 
by the author, whether he was prevented by death or by other 
cause ; and that imitators endeavoured to finish the work by 
inserting romances which were already known but which .formed 
no part of the original recueil, such as the Travels of Sindbad the 
Seaman, the Book of the Seven Wazirs and others. He accepts 
the Persian scheme and cadre of the work, but no more. He 
contends that no considerable body of prae-Mohammedan or non- 
Arabic fiction appears in the actual texts 4 ; and that all the 
tales, even those dealing with events localised in Persia, India, 
China and other infidel lands and dated from ante-islamitic ages, 
mostly with the nafvest anachronism, confine themselves to 

1 In his "Memoire sur Torigine du Recueil des Contes intitule Les Mille et une 
Nuits " (Mem. d'Hist. et de Litter. Orientale, extrait des tomes x. des Me"moires 
de 1'Inst. Royal Acad. des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, Paris, Imprimerie Royale, 
1833). He read the Memoir before the Royal Academy on July 31, 1829. Also in his 
Dissertation " Sur les Mille et une Nuits" (pp. i. viii.) prefixed to the Bourdin Edit. 
When the first Arabist in Europe landed at Alexandria he could not exchange a word 
with the people : the same is told of Golius the lexicographer at Tunis. 

2 Lane, Nights ii. 218. 

3 This origin had been advocated a decade of years before by Shaykh Ahmad at- 
Shirawanf ; Editor of the Calc. text (1814-18) : his Persian preface opines that the author 
was an Arabic- speaking Syrian who designedly wrote in a modern and conversational 
style, none of the purest withal, in order to instruct hon-Arabists. Here we find the 
genus " Professor " pure and simple. 

4 Such an assertion makes us enquire, Did De Sacy ever read through The Nights 
in Arabic ? 

Terminal Essay. 77 

depicting the people, manners and customs of Baghdad and 
Mosul, Damascus and Cairo, during the Abbaside epoch ; and 
he makes a point of the whole being impregnated with the 
strongest and most zealous spirit of Mohammedanism. He 
points out that the language is the popular or vulgar dialect, 
differing widely from the classical and literary ; that it contains 
many words in common modern use and that generally it suggests 
the decadence of Arabian literature. Of one tale he remarks : 
The History of the loves of Camaralzaman and Budour, Princess 
of China, is no more Indian or Persian than the others. The 
prince's father has Moslems for subjects, his mother is named 
Fatimah and when imprisoned he solaces himself with reading 
the Koran. The Genii who interpose in these adventures are, 
again, those who had dealings with Solomon. In fine, all that 
we here find of the City of the Magians, as well as of the fire- 
worshippers, suffices to show that one should not expect to 
discover in it anything save the production of a Moslem writer. 
All this, with due deference to so high an authority, is very 
superficial. Granted, which nobody denies, that the archetypal 
Hazar Afsinah was translated from Persic into Arabic nearly 
a thousand years ago, it had ample time and verge enough to 
assume another and a foreign dress, the corpus however remain- 
ing untouched. Under the hands of a host of editors, scribes 
and copyists, who have no scruples anent changing words, names 
and dates, abridging descriptions and attaching their own decora- 
tions, the florid and rhetorical Persian would readily be converted 
into the straight-forward, business-like) matter of fact Arabic. 
And what easier than to islamise the old Zoroasterism, to 
transform Ahrimdn into Iblfs the Shaytdn, Jdn bin Jan into 
Father Adam, and the Divs and Peris of Kayomars and the 
olden Guebre Kings into the Jinns and Jinniyahs of Sulayman ? 
Volumes are spoken by the fact that the Arab adapter did not 
venture to change the Persic names of the two heroines and of 

78 A If Laylak wa Laylah. 

the royal brothers or to transfer the mise-en-scene any whither 
from Khorasan or outer Persia. Where the story has not been 
too much worked by the literato's pen, for instance the "Ten 
Wazirs " (in the Bresl. Edit. vi. 191-343) which is the Guebre 
Bakhtiydr-ndmah, the names and incidents are old Iranian and 
with few exceptions distinctly Persian. And at times we can 
detect the process of transition, e.g. when the Mazin of Khorasan ' 
of the Wortley Montagu MS. becomes the Hasan of Bassorah 
of the Turner Macan MS. (Mac. Edit.). 

Evidently the learned Baron had not studied such works as 
the Tota-kahdni or Parrot-chat which, notably translated by 
Nakhshabi from the Sanskrit Suka-Saptati, 2 has now become 
as orthodoxically Moslem as The Nights. The old Hindu 
Rajah becomes Ahmad Sultan of Balkh, the Prince is Maymun 
and his wife Khujisteh. Another instance of such radical 
change is the later Syriac version of Kalilah wa Dimnah, 3 old 
11 Pilpay " converted to Christianity. We find precisely the same 
process in European folk-lore ; for instance the Gesta Romanorum 
in which, after five hundred years, the life, manners and customs 
of the Romans lapse into the knightly and chivalrous, the 
Christian and ecclesiastical developments of mediaeval Europe. 
Here, therefore, I hold that the Austrian Arabist has proved 
his point whilst the Frenchman has failed. 

Mr. Lane, during his three years' labour of translation, first 
accepted Von Hammer's view and then came round to that of 
De Sacy ; differing, however, in minor details, especially in the 
native country of The Nights. Syria had been chosen because 

1 Dr. Jonathan Scott's " translation " vi. 283. 

2 For a note on this world-wide Tale see vol. i. 52. 

3 In the annotated translation by Mr. I. G. N. Keith -Falconer, Cambridge 
University Press. I regret to see the wretched production called the "Fables of 
Pilpay" in the " Chandos Classics" (London, F. Warne). The words are so 
mutilated that few will recognise them, e.g. Carchenas for KaVshfnds, Chaschmanah 
for Chashmey-e-Mh (Fountain of the Moon), etc. 

Terminal Essay. 79 

then the most familiar to Europeans: the "Wife of Bath" had 
made three pilgrimages to Jerusalem; but few cared to visit 
the barbarous and dangerous Nile- Valley. Mr. Lane, however, 
was an enthusiast for Egypt or rather for Cairo, the only part 
of it he knew ; and, when he pronounces The Nights to be of 
purely " Arab," that is, of Nilotic origin, his opinion is entitled to 
no more deference than his deriving the sub-African and negroid 
Fellah from Arabia, the land per excellentiam of pure and noble 
blood. Other authors have wandered Still further afield. Some 
finding Mosul idioms in the Recueil, propose " Middlegates " for 
its birth-place and Mr. W. G. P. Palgrave boldly says "The 
original of this entertaining work appears to have been com- 
posed in Baghdad about the eleventh century ; another less 
popular but very spirited version is probably of Tunisian author- 
ship and somewhat later." * 


The next point to consider is the date of The Nights in its 
present form ; and here opinions range between the tenth and 
the sixteenth centuries. Professor Galland began by placing it 
arbitrarily in the middle of the thirteenth. De Sacy, who 
abstained from detailing reasons and who, forgetting the number 
of editors and scribes through whose hands it must have 
passed, argued only from the nature of the language and the 
peculiarities of style, proposed le milieu du neuvieme siecle de 
Thdgire (= A.D. 1445-6) as its latest date. Mr. Hole, who 
knew The Nights only through Galland's version, had already 
advocated in his " Remarks " the close of the fifteenth century ; 
and M. Caussin (de Perceval), upon the authority of a supposed note 

1 Article Arabia in Encyclop. Brit., Qth Edit., p. 263, col. 2. I do not quite 
understand Mr. Palgrave, but presume that his "other version" is the Bresl. Edit., 
the MS. of which was brought from Tunis ; see its Vorwort (vol. i. p. 3). 

8o A If Laylah wa Lay la h. 

in Galland's MS. 1 (vol. iii. fol. 20, verso), declares the compiler 
to have been living in A.D. 1548 and 1565. Mr. Lane says 
"Not begun earlier than the last fourth of the fifteenth 
century nor ended before the first fourth of the sixteenth," 
i.e. soon after Egypt was conquered by Selim, Sultan of 
the Osmanli Turks in A.D. 1517. Lastly the learned Dr. 
Weil says in his far too scanty Vorwort (p. ix. 2nd Edit.) : 
"Das wahrscheinlichste diirfte also sein, das im 15. Jahrhundert 
ein Egyptier nach altern Vorbilde Erzahlungen fur 1001 Nachte 
theils erdichtete, theils nach miindlichen Sagen, oder friihern 
schriftlichen Aufzeichnungen, bearbeitete, dass er aber entweder 
sein Werk nicht vollendete, oder dass ein Theil desselben verloren 
ging, so dass das Fehlende von Andern bis ins 16. Jahrhundert 
hinein durch neue Erzahlungen erganzt wurde." 

But, as justly observed by Mr. Payne, the first step when 
enquiring into the original date of The Nights is to determine 
the nucleus of the Repertory by a comparison of the four 
printed texts and the dozen MSS. which have been collated 
by scholars. 2 This process makes it evident that the tales 
common to all are the following thirteen : 

1. The Introduction (with a single incidental story "The 
Bull and the Ass"). 

2. The Trader and the Jinni (with three incidentals). 

1 There are three distinct notes according to De Sacy (Mem., p. 50). The first 
(in MS. 1508) says " This blessed book was read by the weak slave, etc. Wahabah 
son of Rizkallah the Kdtib (secretary, scribe) of Tarabulus al-Sham (Syrian Tripoli,) 
who prayeth long life for its owner (li mdliki-h). This tenth day of the month 
First Rabi'a A.H. 95$ (= 1548)." A similar note by the same Wahabah occurs 
at the end of vol. ii. (MS. 1507) dated A.H. 973 ( 1565) and a third (MS. 1506) 
is undated. Evidently M. Caussin has given undue weight to such evidence. For 
further information see " Tales of the East " to which is prefixed an Introductory 
Dissertation (vol. i. pp. 24-26, note) by Henry Webber, Esq., Edinburgh, 1812, 
in 3 vols. 

* "Notice sur les douze manuscrits connus des Milles et une Nuits, qui existent 
en Europe." Von Hammer in Tre"butien, Notice, vol. i. 

Terminal Essay. 8* 

3. The Fisherman and the Jinni (with four). 

4. The Porter and the three Ladies of Baghdad. 

5. The Tale of the Three Apples. 

6. The Tale of Nur al-Dm Ali and his son Badr ai-Dfn Hasan. 

7. The Hunchback's Tale (with eleven). 

8. Nur al-Din and Anfs al-Jalis. 

9. Tale of Ghanim bin 'Ayyub (with two). 

10. Ali bin Bakkar and Shams al-Nahdr (with two). 

11. Tale of Kamar al-Zaman. 

12. The Ebony Horse; and 

13. Julnar the Seabjrn. 

These forty-two tales, occupying one hundred and twenty 
Nights, form less than a fifth part of the whole collection which 
in the Mac. Edit. 1 contains a total of two hundred and sixty-four. 
Hence Dr. Patrick Russell, 2 the Natural Historian of Aleppo, 3 
whose valuable monograph amply deserves study even in this our 
day, believed that the original Nights did not outnumber two 
hundred, to which subsequent writers added till the total of 
a thousand and one was made up. Dr. Jonathan Scott, 4 who 
quotes Russell, " held it highly probable that the tales of the 
original Arabian Nights did not run through more than two 

1 Printed from the MS. of Major Turner Macan, Editor of the Shahnamah : he 
bought it. from the heirs of Mr. Salt, the historic Consul-General of England in 
Egypt and after Macan's death it became the property of the now extinct Aliens, 
then of Leadenhall Street (Torrens, Preface, i.). I have vainly enquired about what 
became of it. 

3 The short paper by "P. R." in the Gentleman's Magazine (Feb. igth, 1799, 
vol. Ixix. p. 61) tells us that MSS< of The Nights were scarce at Aleppo and that 
he found only two vols. (280 Nights) which he had great difficulty in obtaining leave 
to copy. He also noticed (in 1771) a MS., said to be complete, in the Vatican and 
another in the "King's Library" (Bibliotheque Nationale), Paris. 

3 Aleppo has been happy in finding such monographers as Russell and Maundrell 
while poor Damascus fell into the hands of Mr. Missionary Porter, and suffered 

4 Vol. vi. Appendix, p. 452. 

VOL. X. F 

8t A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

hundred and eighty Nights, if so many." So this suggestion I 
may subjoin, " habent sua fata libelli." Galland, who preserves in 
his Mille et une Nuits only about one fourth of The Nights, ends 
them in No. cclxiv 1 with the seventh voyage of Sindbad : after 
that he intentionally omits the dialogue between the sisters and 
the reckoning of time, to proceed uninterruptedly with the tales. 
And so his imitator, Petis de la Croix, 8 in his Mille et un Jours, 
reduces the thousand to two hundred and thirty-two. 

The internal chronological evidence offered by the Collection is 
useful only in enabling us to determine that the tales were not 
written after a certain epoch : the actual dates and, consequently, 
all deductions from them, are vitiated by the habits of the scribes. 
For instance we find the Tale of the Fisherman and the Jinni 
(vol. i. 41) placed in A.H. 169 = A.D. 785,* which is hardly 
possible. The immortal Barber in the " Tailor's Tale "(vol. i. 304) 
places his adventure with the unfortunate lover on Safar 10, 
A.H. 653 ( = March 25th, 1255) and 7,320 years of the era of 
Alexander. 4 This is supported in his Tale of Himself (vol. i. 
PP' 3 l 7-34fy> where he dates his banishment from Baghdad 
during the reign of the penultimate Abbaside, Al-Mustansir 
bi 'llah 5 (A.H. 623-640 = 1225-1242), and his return to Baghdad 
after the accession of another Caliph who can be no other but 

1 The numbers, however, vary with the Editions of Galland : some end the formula 
with Night cxcvii ; others with the ccxxxvi. : I adopt that of the De Sacy Edition. 

2 Contes Persans j suivis des Contes Turcs. Paris ; Bechet Aine, 1826. 

8 In the old translation we have " eighteen hundred years since the prophet Solomon 
died," (B.C. 975) = A.D. 825. 

* Meaning the era of the Seleucides. Dr. Jonathan Scott shows (vol. ii. 324) that 
A.H. 653 and A.D. 1255 would correspond with 1557 of that epoch; so that the 
scribe has here made a little mistake of 5,763 years. Ex uno disce. 

6 The Saturday Review (Jan. 2nd '86) writes, "Captain Burton has fallen into a 
mistake by not distinguishing between the names of the by no means identical Caliphs 
Al-Muntasir and Al-Mustansir." Quite true : it was an ugly confusion of the 
melancholy madman and parricide with one of the best and wisest of the Caliphs. I can 
explain (not extenuate) my mistake only by a misprint in Al-Siyuti (p. 554). 

Terminal Essay. 83 

Al-Muntasim bi 'llah (A.H. 640-656 = A.D. 1242-1258). Again 
at the end of the tale (vol. i. 350) he is described as "an ancient 
man, past his ninetieth year" and " a very old man " in the days 
of Al-Mustansir (vol. i. 318); so that the Hunchback's adven- 
ture can hardly be placed earlier than A.D. 1265 or seven years 
after the storming of Baghdad by Hulaku Khan, successor of 
Janghiz Khan, a terrible catastrophe which resounded throughout 
the civilised world. Yet there is no allusion to this crucial 
epoch and the total silence suffices to invalidate the date. 1 
Could we assume it as true, by adding to A.D. 1265 half a century 
for the composition of the Hunchback's story and its incidentals, 
we should place the earliest date in A.D. 1315. 

As little can we learn from inferences which have been drawn 
from the body of the book : at most they point to its several 
editions or redactions. In the Tale of the " Ensorcelled Prince " 
(vol. i. 77) Mr. Lane (i. 135) conjectured that the four colours of the 
fishes were suggested by the sumptuary laws of the Mameluke 
Soldan, Mohammed ibn Kala'un, "subsequently to the com- 
mencement of the eighth century of the Flight, or fourteenth of 
our era." But he forgets that the same distinction of dress was 
enforced by the Caliph Omar after the capture of Jerusalem in 
A.D. 636 ; that it was revived by Harun al-Rashid, a contemporary 
of Carolus Magnus and that it was noticed as a long standing 
grievance by the so-called Mandeville in A.D. 1322. In the 
Tale of the Porter and the Ladies of Baghdad the "Sultani 
oranges " (vol. i. 83) have been connected with Sultdnfyah city in 
Persian Irdk, which was founded about the middle of the 
thirteenth century : but " Sultdni " may simply mean " royal," 
a superior growth. The same story makes mention (vol. i. 94) of 

1 In the Galland MS. and the Bresl. Edit. (ii. 253), we find the Barber saying that 
the Caliph (Al-Mustansir) was at that time (yaumaizin) in Baghdad ; and this has been 
held to imply that the Caliphate had fallen. But such conjecture .is evidently based 
upon insufficient grounds. 

84 A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

Kalandars or religious mendicants, a term popularly corrupted, 
even in writing, to Karandal. 1 Here again " Kalandar " may be 
due only to the scribes as the Bresl. Edit, reads Sa'aluk = asker, 
beggar. The Khan al-Masriir in the Nazarene Broker's story 
(i, 265) was a ruin during the early ninth century A.H. = A.D. 
1420; but the Bab Zuwaylah (i. 269) dates from A.D. 1087. 
In the same tale occurs the Darb al-Munkari (or Munakkari) which 
is probably the Darb al-Munkadi of Al-Makrizi's careful 
topography, the Khitat (ti. 40). Here we learn that in his time 
(about A.D. 1430) the name had become obsolete, and the 
highway was known as Darb al-Amfr Baktamfr al-Ustaddar from 
one of two high officials who both died in the fourteenth century 
(circ. A.D. 1350). And lastly we have the Khan al-Jawali built 
about A.D. 1320. In Badr al-Din Hasan (vol. i. 237) "Sahib" 
is given as a Wazirial title and it dates only from the end of 
the fourteenth century. 2 In Sindbad the Seaman, there is an 
allusion (vol. vi. 67) to the great Hindu Kingdom, Vijayanagar 
of the Narasimha, 3 the great power of the Deccan ; but this may 
be due to editors or scribes as the despotism was founded only in 
the fourteenth century (A.D. 1320). The Ebony Horse (vol. v. i) 
apparently dates before Chaucer ; and " The Sleeper and The 
Waker " (Bresl. Edit. iv. 134189) may precede Shakespeare's 
" Taming of the Shrew " : no stress, however, can be laid upon 
such resemblances, the nouvelles being world-wide. But when we 
come to the last stories, especially to Kamar al-Zaman II. and 
the tale of Ma'aruf, we are apparently in the fifteenth and six- 

1 De Sacy makes the "Kalandar" order originate in A.D. 1150; but the Shaykh 
Sharif bu Ali Kalandar died in A.D. 1323-24. In Sind the first Kalandar, Osman-i- 
Marwandi surnamed Lai Shahbaz, the Red Goshawk, from one of his miracles, died and 
was buried at Sehwa*n in A.D. 1274: see my "History of Sindh" chapt. viii. for 
details. The dates therefore run wild. 

2 In this same tale H. H. Wilson observes that the title of Sultan of Egypt was not 
assumed before the middle of the xiith century. 

3 Popularly called Vidyanagar of the Narsingha. 

Terminal Essay. 85 

teenth centuries. The first contains (Night cmlxxvii.) the word 
Lawandiyah = Levantine, the mention of a watch = Sa'ah in 
the next Night 1 ; and, further on (cmlxxvi.), the " Shaykh Al- 
Islam," an officer invented by Mohammed II. after the capture 
of Stambul in A.D. 1453. In Ma'aruf the 'Adiliyah is named; 
the mosque founded outside the Bab al-Nasr by Al-Malik al- 
'Adil, Tuman Bey in A.H. 906 = A.D. 1501. But, I repeat, 
all these names may be mere interpolations. 

On the other hand, a study of the vie intime in Al-Islam and 
of the manners and customs of the people proves that the body 
of the work, as it now stands, must have been written before 
A.D. 1400. The Arabs use wines, ciders and barley-beer, not 
distilled spirits ; they have no coffee or tobacco and, while 
familiar with small-pox (judri), they ignore syphilis. The 
battles in The Nights are fought with bows and javelins, 
swords, spears (for infantry) and lances (for cavalry) ; and, 
whenever fire-arms are mentioned, we must suspect the scribe. 
Such is the case with the Madfa' or cannon by means of which 
Badr al-Din Hasan breaches the bulwarks of the Lady of Beauty's 
virginity (i. 223). This consideration would determine the work 
to have been written before the fourteenth century. We ignore 

1 Time-measurers are of very ancient date. The Greeks had clepsydrae and the 
Romans gnomons, portable and ring-shaped, besides large standing town-dials as at 
Aquileja and San Sabba near Trieste. The " Saracens " were the perfecters of the 
clepsydra : Bosseret (p. 16) and the Chronicon Turense (Beckmann ii. 340 el seg.} describe 
the water-clock sent by Al-Rashid to Karl the Great as a kind of "cuckoo-clock." 
Twelve doors in the dial opened successively and little balls dropping on brazen bells 
told the hour : at noon a dozen mounted knights paraded the face and closed the 
portals. Trithonius mentions an horologium presented in A.D. 1232 by Al-Malik al- 
Kamil the Ayyubite Soldan to the Emperor Frederick II : like the Strasbourg and 
Padua clocks it struck the hours, told the day, month and year, showed the phases of 
the moon, and registered the position of the sun and the planets. Towards the end of 
the fifteenth century Caspar Visconti mentions in a sonnet the watch proper (certi 
orologii piccioli e portativi) ; and the " animated eggs " of Nurembourg became famous. 
The earliest English watch (Sir Ashton Lever's) dates from 1541 : and in 1544 the port- 
able chronometer became common in France. 

86 A If Laylah wa- Laylah. 

the invention-date and the inventor of gunpowder, as af all old 
discoveries which have affected mankind at large : all we know 
is that the popular ideas betray great ignorance and we are led 
to suspect that an explosive compound, having been discovered 
in the earliest ages of human society, was utilised by steps so 
gradual that history has neglected to trace the series. Accord- 
ing to Demmin ! , bullets for stuffing with some incendiary com- 
position, in fact bombs, were discovered by Dr. Keller in the 
Palafites or Crannogs of Switzerland ; and the Hindu's Agni- 
Astar ("fire-weapon"), Agni-ban ("fire-arrow") and Shatagni 
" hundred-killer "), like the Roman Phalarica, and the Greek 
fire of Byzantium, suggest explosives. Indeed, Dr. Oppert 2 
accepts the statement of Flavius Philostratus that when Appo- 
lonius of Tyana, that grand semi-mythical figure, was travelling 
in India, he learned the reason why Alexander of Macedon 
desisted from attacking the Oxydracae who live between the 
Ganges and the Hyphasis (Satadru or Sutledge) : " These holy 
men, beloved by the gods, overthrow their enemies with tem- 
pests and thunderbolts shot from their walls." Passing over the 
Arab sieges of Constantinople ( A.D. 668) and Meccah (A.D. 690) 
and the disputed passage in Firishtah touching the Tufang or 
musket during the reign of Mahmu'd the Ghaznevite 3 (ob. 
A.D. 1030), we come to the days of Alphonso the Valiant, whose 
long and short guns, used at the Siege of Madrid in A.D. 1084, 
are preserved in the Armeria Real. Viardot has noted that the 
African Arabs first employed cannon in A.D. 1200, and that the 
Maghribis defended Algeciras near Gibraltar with great guns in 

1 An illustrated History of Arms and Armour etc. (p. 59) ; London : Bell and Sons, 
1877. The best edition is the Guide des Amateurs d'Armes ; Paris : Renouard, 1879. 

* Chapt. iv. Dr. Gustav Oppert " On the Weapons etc. of the Ancient Hindus ; " 
London: Triibner and Co. , 1880. 

3 I have given other details on this subject in pp. 631-637 of "Camoens, his Life 
and his Lusiads." 

Terminal Essay. 87 

A.D. 1247, and utilised them to besiege Seville in A.D. 1342. 
This last feat of arms introduced the cannon into barbarous 
Northern Europe, and it must have been known to civilised Asia 
for many a decade before that date. 

The mention of wine in The Nights, especially the Nabfz or 
fermented infusion of raisins well known to the prae-Mohammedan 
Badawis, perpetually recurs. As a rule, except only in the case 
of holy personages and mostly of the Caliph Al-Rashid, the 
"service of wine" appears immediately after the hands are 
washed ; and women, as well as men, drink, like true Orientals, 
for the honest purpose of getting drunk la recherche de I'ide'al, 
as the process has been called. Yet distillation became well 
known in the fourteenth century. Amongst the Greeks and 
Romans it was confined to manufacturing aromatic waters, and 
Nicander the poet (B.C. 140) used for a still the term o/^, 
like the Irish "pot" and its produce "poteen." The simple 
art of converting salt water into fresh, by boiling the former and 
passing the steam through a cooled pipe into a recipient, would 
not have escaped the students of the Philosopher's " stone ;" and 
thus we find throughout Europe the Arabic modifications of 
Greek terms Alchemy, Alembic (Al-a//i), Chemistry and 
Elixir ; while " Alcohol " (Al-Kohl), originally meaning " extreme 
tenuity or impalpable state of pulverulent substances," clearly 
shows the origin of the article. Avicenna, who died in A.H. 428 
= 1036, nearly two hundred years before we read of distillation 
in Europe, compared the human body with an alembic, the belly 
being the cucurbit and the head the capital : he forgot one 
important difference but n'importe. Spirits of wine were first 
noticed in the xiiith century, when the Arabs had overrun the 
Western Mediterranean, by Arnaldus de Villa Nova, who dubs 
the new invention a universal panacea ; and his pupil, Raymond 
Lully (nat. Majorca A.D. 1236), declared this essence of wine to 
be a boon from the Deity. Now The Nights, even in the latest 

88 A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

adjuncts, never allude to the " white coffee " of the respect- 
able" Moslem, the Raid (raisin-brandy) or Ma-hayat (aqua vitse) 
of the modern Mohametan : the drinkers confine themselves to 
wine like our contemporary Dalmatians, one of the healthiest 
and the most vigorous of seafaring races in Europe. 

Syphilis also, which at the end of the xvth century began to 
infect Europe, is ignored by The Nights. I do not say it 
actually began : diseases do not begin except with the dawn ol 
humanity ; and their history, as far as we know, is simple 
enough. They are at first sporadic and comparatively non- 
lethal : at certain epochs which we can determine, and for reasons 
which as yet we cannot, they break out into epidemics raging 
with frightful violence : they then subside into the endemic 
state and lastly they return to the milder sporadic form. For 
instance, " English cholera" was known of old: in 1831 (Oct. 26) 
the Asiatic type took its place and now, after sundry violent 
epidemics, the disease is becoming endemic on the Northern 
seaboard of the Mediterranean, notably in Spain and Italy. So 
small-pox (Al-judrf, vol. i. 254) passed over from Central Africa 
to Arabia in the year of Mohammed's birth (A.D. 570) and thence 
overspread the civilised world, as an epidemic, an endemic and 
a sporadic successively. The " Greater Pox " has appeared in 
human bones of pre-historic graves and Moses seems to mention 
gonorrhoea (Levit. xv. 12). Passing over allusions in Juvenal and 
Martial, 1 we find Eusebiu's relating that Galerius died (A.D. 302) of 
ulcers on the genitals and other parts of his body ; and, about a 
century afterwards, Bishop Palladius records that one Hero, after 
conversation with a prostitute, fell a victim to an abscess on the penis 

1 The morbi venerei amongst the Romans are obscure because " whilst the satirists 
deride them the physicians are silent." Celsus, however, names (De obscenarum partium 
vitiis, lib. xviii.) inflammatio coleorum (swelled testicle), tubercula circa glandem (warts 
on the glans penis), cancri carbunculi (chancre or shanker) and a few others. The 
rubigo is noticed as a lues venerea by Servius in Virg. Georg. 

Terminal Essay. 89 

(phagedaenic shanker?). In 1347 the famous Joanna of Naples 
founded (set. 23), in her town of Avignon, a bordel whose inmates 
were to be medically inspected a measure to which England (proh 
pudor !) still objects. In her Statuts du Lieu-publique d'Avignon, 
No. iv. she expressly mentions the Mai vengut de paillardise. 
Such houses, says Ricord who studied the subject since 1832, were 
common in France after A.D. 1200; and sporadic venereals were 
known there. But in A.D. 1493-94 an epidemic broke out with 
alarming intensity at Barcelona, as we learn from the " Tractado 
llamado fructo de todos los Sanctos contra el mal serpentino, 
venido de la Isla espanola," of Rodrigo Ruiz Dfas, the specialist. 
In Santo Domingo the disease was common under the names 
Hipas, Guaynaras and Taynastizas : hence the opinion in Europe 
that it arose from the mixture of European and " Indian " blood. 1 
Some attributed it to the Gypsies who migrated to Western 
Europe in the xvth century : 2 others to the Moriscos expelled from 
Spain. But the pest got its popular name after the violent out- 
break at Naples in A.D. 1493-4, when Charles VIII. of Anjou with 
a large army of mercenaries, Frenchmen, Spaniards, and Germans, 
attacked Ferdinand II. Thence it became known as the Mal de 
Naples and Morbus Gallicus una gallica being still the popular 
term in neo Latin lands and the " French disease" in England. 
As early as July 1496 Marin Sanuto (Journal i. 171) describes 
with details the " Mal Franzoso." The scientific "syphilis" dates 
from Fracastori's poem (A.D. 1521) in which Syphilus the Shepherd 

1 According to David Forbes, the Peruvians believed that syphilis arose from con- 
nection of man and alpaca ; and an old law forbade bachelors to keep these 
animals in the house. Francks explains by the introduction of syphilis wooden figures 
found in the Chinchas guano ; these represented men with a cord round the neck or a 
serpent devouring the genitals. 

2 They appeared before the gates of Paris in the summer of 1427, not "about July, 
1422 " : in Eastern Europe, however, they date from a much earlier epoch. Sir J. 
Gilbert's famous picture has one grand fault, the men walk and the women ride : in real 
life the reverse would be the case. 

9O A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

is struck like Job, for abusing the sun. After crippling a Pope 
(Sixtus IV. 1 ) and killing a King (Francis I.) the Grosse Ve>ole 
began to abate its violence, under the effects of mercury it is said ; 
and became endemic, a stage still shown at Scherlievo near Fiume, 
where legend says it was implanted by the Napoleonic soldiery. 
The Aleppo and other " buttons " also belong apparently to the 
same grade. Elsewhere it settled as a sporadic and now it appears 
to be dying out while gonorrhoea is on the increase. 2 

The Nights, I have said, belongs to the days before coffee 
(A.D. 1550) and tobacco (A.D. 1650) had overspread the East. 
The former, which derives its name from the Kafd or Kaffa province, 
lying south of Abyssinia proper and peopled by the Sidama Gallas, 
was introduced to Mokha of Al-Yaman in A.D. 1429 30 by the 
Shaykh al-Shdzili who lies buried there, and found a congenial 
name in the Arabic Kahwah = old wine. 3 In The Nights (Mac. 
Edit.) it is mentioned twelve times 4 ; but never in the earlier 

1 Rabelais ii. c. 30. 

8 I may be allowed to note that syphilis does not confine itself to man : a charger 
infected with it was pointed out to me at Baroda by my late friend, Dr. Arnott 
(i8th Regiment, Bombay N.I.) and Tangier showed me some noticeable cases of this 
hippie syphilis, which has been studied in Hungary. Eastern peoples have a practice of 
" passing on " venereal and other diseases, and transmission is supposed to cure the 
patient ; for instance a virgin heals (and catches) gonorrhoea. Syphilis varies greatly 
with climate. In Persia it is said to be propagated without contact : in Abyssinia it is 
often fatal and in Egypt it is readily cured by sand baths and sulphur-unguents. Lastly 
in lands like Unyamwezi, where mercurials are wholly unknown, I never saw caries of 
the nasal or facial bones. 

3 For another account of the transplanter and the casuistical questions to which coffee 
gave rise, see my " First Footsteps in East Africa " (p. 76). 

4 The first mention of coffee proper (not of Kahwah or old wine in vol. ii. 260) is in 
Night cdxxvi. vol. v. 169, where the coffee-maker is called Kahwahjiyyah, a mongrel 
term showing the modern date of the passage in AH the Cairene. As the work advances 
notices become thicker, e.g. in Night dccclxvi. where Ali Nur al-Din and the Frank 
King's daughter seems to be a modernisation of the story " Ala al-Din Abu al-Shamat " 
(vol. iv. 29) ; and in Abu Kir and Abu Sir (Nights cmxxx. and cmxxxvi.) where coffee 
is drunk with sherbet after present fashion. The use culminates in Kamar al-Zaman II. 
where it is mentioned six times (Nights cmlxvi. cmlxx. cmlxxi. twice ; cmlxxiv. and 
cmlxxvii.), as being drunk after the dawn-breakfast and following the meal as a matter 
of course. The last notices are in Abdullah bin Fazil, Nights cmlxxviii. and cmlxxix. 

Terminal Essay. 91 

tales : except in the case of Kamar al-Zaman II. it evidently does 
not belong to the epoch and we may fairly suspect the scribe. In 
the xvith century coffee began to take the place of wine in the 
nearer East; and it gradually ousted the classical drink from daily 
life and from folk-tales. 

It is the same with tobacco, which is mentioned only once by 
The Nights (cmxxxi.), in conjunction with meat, vegetables and 
fruit and where it is called "Tabah." Lane (iii. 615) holds it to be 
the work of a copyist ; but in the same tale of Abu Kir and Abu 
Sir, sherbet and coffee appear to have become en vogue, in fact 
to have gained the ground they now hold. The result of Lord 
Macartney's Mission to China was a suggestion that smoking might 
have originated spontaneously in the Old World. 1 This is un- 
undoubtedly true. The Bushmen and other wild tribes of Southern 
Africa threw their Dakha (cannabis indicd] on the fire and sat 
round it inhaling the intoxicating fumes. Smoking without 
tobacco was easy enough. The North American Indians of the 
Great Red Pipe Stone Quarry and those who lived above the line 
where nicotiana grew, used the kinni-kinik or bark of the red 
willow and some seven other succedanea. 2 But tobacco proper, 
which soon superseded all materials except hemp and opium, was 
first adopted by the Spaniards of Santo Domingo in A.D. 1496 
and reached England in 1565. Hence the word, which, amongst 
the so-called Red Men, denoted the pipe, the container, not the 
contained, spread over the Old World as a generic term with 
additions, like " Tutun," 3 for especial varieties. The change in 
English manners brought about by the cigar after dinner has 
already been noticed ; and much of the modified sobriety of the 

1 It has been 1 suggested that Japanese tobacco is an indigenous growth and sundry 
modern travellers in China contend that the potato and the maize, both white and yellow, 
have there been cultivated from time immemorial. 

2 For these see my " City of the Saints," p. 136. 

' Lit. meaning smoke : hence the Arabic " Dukhan," with the same signification^ 

9 2 A If Laylah wa Lay la ft. 

present day may be attributed to the influence of the Holy Herb 
en cigarette. Such, we know from history was its effect amongst 
Moslems ; and the normal wine-parties of The Nights suggest that 
the pipe was unknown even when the latest tales were written. 


We know absolutely nothing of the author or authors who 
produced our marvellous Recueil. Galland justly observes (Epist. 
Dedic.), " probably this great work is hot by a single hand ; for 
how can we suppose that one man alone could own a fancy fertile 
enough to invent so many ingenious fictions ? " Mr. Lane, and 
Mr. Lane alone, opined that the work was written in Egypt by one 
person or at most by two, one ending what the other had begun, 
and that he or they had re-written the tales and completed the 
collection by new matter composed or arranged for the purpose. 
It is hard to see how the distinguished Arabist came to such a 
conclusion : at most it can be true only of the editors and scribes 
of MSS. evidently copied from each other, such as the Mac. and 
the Bui. texts. As the Reviewer (Forbes Falconer ?) in the 
"Asiatic Journal " (vol. xxx., 1839) says, " Every step we have 
taken in the collation of these agreeable fictions has confirmed us 
in the belief that the work called the Arabian Nights is rather a 
vehicle for stories, partly fixed and partly arbitrary, than a collec- 
tion fairly deserving, from its constant identity with itself, the 
name of a distinct work, and the reputation of having wholly 
emanated from the same inventive mind. To say nothing of the 
improbability of supposing that one individual, with every license 
to build upon the foundation of popular stories, a work which had 
once received a definite form from a single writer, would have 
been multiplied by the copyist with some regard at least to his 
arrangement of words as well as matter. But the various copies 
we have seen bear about as much mutual resemblance as if they 

Terminal Essay. 93 

had passed through the famous process recommended for dis- 
guising a plagiarism : * Translate your English author into French 
and again into English.' " 

Moreover, the style of the several Tales, which will be considered 
In a future page ( Hi.), so far from being homogeneous, is heten> 
geneous in the extreme. Different nationalities show themselves ; 
West Africa, Egypt and Syria are all represented and, while some 
authors are intimately familiar with Baghdad, Damascus and 
Cairo, others are equally ignorant. All copies, written and 
printed, absolutely differ in the last tales and a measure of the 
divergence can be obtained by comparing the Bresl. Edit, with the 
Mac. text: indeed it is my conviction that the MSS. preserved in 
Europe would add sundry volumes full of tales to those hitherto 
translated ; and here the Wortley Montagu copy can be taken as 
a test. We may, I believe, safely compare the history of The 
Nights with the so-called Homeric poems, the Iliad and the 
Odyssey, a collection of immortal ballads and old Epic formulae 
and verses traditionally handed down from rhapsode to rhapsode, 
incorporated in a slowly-increasing body of poetry and finally 
welded together about the age of Pericles. 

To conclude. From the data above given I hold myself justi- 
fied in drawing the following deductions :: 

1. The framework of the book is purely Persian perfunctorily 
arabised ; the archetype being the Hazdr Afsanah. 1 

2. The oldest tales, such as Sindibad (the Seven Wazirs) and 
King Jili'ad, may date from the reign of Al-Mansur, eighth 
century A.D. 

3. The thirteen tales mentioned above (p. 81) as the nucleus of 

1 Unhappily the book is known only by name : for years I have vaialy troubled friends 
and correspondents to hunt for a copy. Yet I am sanguine enough to think that some 
day we shall succeed- Mr. Sidney Churchill, of Teheran, is ever on the look-out. 

94 d/f Laylah wa Laylah. 

the Repertory, together with " Dalilah the Crafty," 1 may be placed 
in our tenth century. 

4. The latest tales, notably Kamar al-Zaman the Second and 
Ma'aruf the Cobbler, are as late as the sixteenth century. 

5. The work assumed its present form in the thirteenth century. 

6. The author is unknown for the best reason ; there never was 
one : for information touching the editors and copyists we must 
await the fortunate discovery of some MSS. 

1 In '3 I shall suggest that this tale also is mentioned by Al-MasSidi. 

Terminal Essay. 95 


THE history of The Nights in Europe is one of slow and gradual 
development. The process was begun (1704-17) by Galland, a 
Frenchman, continued (1823) by Von Hammer an Austro-German, 
and finished by Mr. John Payne (1882-84) an Englishman. But we 
must not forget that it is wholly and solely to the genius of the 
Gaul that Europe owes The " Arabian Nights' Entertainments " 
over which Western childhood and youth have spent so many 
spelling hours. Antoine Galland was the first to discover the 
marvellous fund of material for the story-teller buried in the 
Oriental mine ; and he had in a high degree that art of telling a 
tale which is far more captivating than culture or scholarship. 
Hence his delightful version (or perversion) became one of the 
world's classics and at once made Sheherazade and Dinarzarde, 
Haroun Alraschid, the Calendars and a host of other personages 
as familiar to the home reader as Prospero, Robinson Crusoe, 
Lemuel Gulliver and Dr. Primrose. Without the name and fame 
won for the work by the brilliant paraphrase of the learned and 
single-minded Frenchman, Lane's curious hash and latinized 
English, at once turgid and emasculated, would have found few 
readers. Mr. Payne's admirable version appeals to the Orientalist 
and the " stylist," not to the many-headed ; and mine to the 
anthropologist and student of Eastern manners and customs. 
Galland did it and alone he did it : his fine literary flaire, his 
pleasing style, his polished taste and perfect tact at once made his 
work take high rank in the republic of letters nor will the immortal 
fragment ever be superseded in the infallible judgment of child- 
hood. As the Encyclopaedia Britannica has been pleased to 

g6 A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

ignore this excellent man and admirable Orientalist, numis- 
matologist and litterateur, the reader may not be unwilling to see 
a short sketch of his biography. 1 

Antoine Galland was born in A.D. 1646 of peasant parents 
" poor and honest " at Rollot, a little bourg in Picardy some two 
leagues from Montdidier. He was a seventh child and his mother, 
left a widow in early life and compelled to earn her livelihood, 
saw scant chance of educating him when the kindly assistance of 
a Canon of the Cathedral and President of the College de Noyon 
relieved her difficulties/ In this establishment Galland studied 
Greek and Hebrew for ten years, after which the " strait thing at 
home " apprenticed him to a trade. But he was made for letters ; 
he hated manual labour and he presently removed en cachette to 
Paris, where he knew only an ancient kinswoman. She intro- 
duced him to a priestly relative of the Canon of Noyon, who in 
turn recommended him to the " Sous-principal " of the College 
Du Plessis. Here he made such notable progress in Oriental 
studies, that M. Petitpied, a Doctor of the Sorbonne, struck by his 
abilities, enabled him to study at the College Royal and eventu- 
ally to catalogue the Eastern MSS. in the great ecclesiastical 
Society. Thence he passed to the College Mazarin, where a 
Professor, M. Godouin, was making an experiment which might be 
revived to advantage in our present schools. He collected a class 
of boys, aged about four, and proposed to teach them Latin 
speedily and easily by making them converse in the classical 
language as well as read and write it. 2 Galland, his assistant, 

1 I have extracted it from many books, especially from Hoeffer's Biographic' Gene*rale, 
Paris, Firmin Didot, mdccclvii. ; Biographic Universelle, Paris, Didot, 1816, etc. etc. 
All are taken from the work of M. de Boze, his " Bozzy." 

* As learning a language is an affair of pure memory, almost without other exercise of 
the mental faculties, it should be assisted by the ear and the tongue as well as the eyes. 
I would invariably make pupils talk, during lessons, Latin and Greek, no matter how 
badly at first; but unfortunately I should have to begin with teaching the pedants 
who. as a class, are far more unwilling and unready to learn than are those they teach. 

Terminal Essay. 97 

had not time to register success or failure before he was appointed 
attache-secretary to M. de Nointel named in 1660 Ambassadeur de 
France for Constantinople. His special province was to study 
the dogmas and doctrines and to obtain official attestations 
concerning the articles of the Orthodox (or Greek) Christianity 
which had then been a subject of lively discussion amongst certain 
Catholics, especially Arnauld (Antoine) and Claude the Minister, 
and which even in our day occasionally crops up amongst 
" Protestants." * Galland, by frequenting the cafe's and listening 
to the tale-teller, soon mastered Romaic and grappled with the 
religious question, under the tuition of a deposed Patriarch and 
of sundry Matrdns or Metropolitans, whom the persecutions of the 
Pashas had driven for refuge to the Palais de France. M. de Nointel, 
after settling certain knotty points in the Capitulations, visited 
the harbour-towns of the Levant and the " Holy Places/' including 
Jerusalem, where Galland copied epigraphs, sketched monuments 
and collected antiques, such as the marbles in the Baudelot 
Gallery of which Pere Dom Bernard de Montfaucon presently 
published specimens in his " Palaeographia Graeca," etc. (Parisiis, 

In Syria Galland was unable to buy a copy of The Nights : as he 
expressly states in his Epistle Dedicatory, il a fallu le faire 
venir de Syrie. But he prepared himself for translating it by 
studying the manners and customs, the religion and superstitions 
of the people ; and in 1675, leaving his chief, who was ordered back 
to Stambul, he returned to France. In Paris his numismatic 
fame recommended him to MM. Vaillant, Carcary and Giraud 
who strongly urged a second visit to the Levant, for the purpose 

1 The late Dean Stanley was notably trapped by the wily Greek who had only 
political purposes in view. In religions as a rule the minimum of difference breeds the 
maximum of disputation, dislike and disgust* 

VOL. X. G 

93 A If Lay lak wa Laylah. 

of collecting, and he set out without delay. In 1691 he made a 
third journey, travelling at the expense of the Compagnie des 
Indes-Orientales, with the main object of making purchases for the 
Library and Museum of Colbert the magnificent. The commis- 
sion ended eighteen months afterwards with the changes of the 
Company, when Colbert and the Marquis de Louvois caused him 
to be created " Antiquary to the King," Louis le Grand, and 
charged him with collecting coins and medals for the royal cabinet. 
As he was about to leave Smyrna, he had a narrow escape from the 
earthquake and subsequent fire which destroyed some fifteen thou- 
sand of the inhabitants : he was buried in the ruins ; but, his kitchen 
being cold as becomes a philosopher's, he was dug out unburnt. 1 

Galland again returned to Paris where his familiarity with Arabic 
and Hebrew, Persian and Turkish recommended him to MM. 
Thevenot and Bignon : this first President of the Grand Council 
acknowledged his services by a pension. He also became a 
favourite with D'Herbelot whose Bibliotheque Orientale, left un- 
finished at his death, he had the honour of completing and pre- 
facing. 2 President Bignon died within the twelvemonth, which made 
Galland attach himself in 1697 to M. Foucault, Councillor of 
State and Intendant (governor) of Caen in Lower Normandy, 
then famous for its academy : in his new patron's fine library and 
numismatic collection he found materials for a long succession 
of works, including a translation of the Koran. 3 They recom- 
mended him strongly to the literary world and in 1701 he was 
made a member of the Academic des Inscriptions et Belles 

1 See in Tr&mtien (Avertissement iii.) how Baron von Hammer escaped drowning 
by the blessing of The Nights. 

2 He signs his name to the Discours pour seivir de Preface. 

* I need not trouble the reader with their titles, which fill up nearly a column and a 
half in M. Hoeffer. His collection of maxims from Arabic, Persian and Turkish 
authors appeared in English in 1695. 

Terminal Essay. 99 

At Caen Galland issued in I7O4, 1 the first part of his Mille et 
une Nuits, Contes Arabes traduits en Frangois which at once 
became famous as " The Arabian Nights' Entertainments.'* 
Mutilated, fragmentary and paraphrastic though the tales were, 
the glamour of imagination, the marvel of the miracles and the 
gorgeousness and magnificence of the scenery at once secured an 
exceptional success ; it was a revelation in romance, and the public 
recognised that it stood in presence of a monumental literary 
work. France was a-fire with delight at a something so new, so 
unconventional, so entirely without purpose, religious, moral or 
philosophical : the Oriental wanderer in his stately robes was a start- 
ling surprise to the easy-going and utterly corrupt Europe of the 
ancien regime with its indecently tight garments and perfectly 
loose morals. " Us produisirent/' said Charles Nodier, a genius 
in his way, " des le moment de leur publication, cet effet qui 
assure aux productions de Tesprit une vogue populaire, quoiqu'ils 
appartinssent a une litteVature peu connue en France ; et 
que ce genre de composition admit ou plutot exigeat des details 
de moeurs, de caractere, de costume et de localite's absolument 
Strangers a toutes les ide'es e'tablies dans nos contes et nos romans. 
On fut ^tonne* du charme que r^sultait du leur lecture. C'est que 
la ve'rite' des sentimens, la nouveaute* des tableaux, une imagination 
fe'conde en prodiges, un colons plein de chaleur, 1'attrait d'une 
sensibilit^ sans prevention, et le sel d'un comique sans caricature, 
c'est que 1'esprit et le naturel enfin plaisent partout, et plaisent 
tout le monde." 2 

The Contes Arabes at once made Galland's name and a popular 
tale is told of them and him known to all reviewers who, however, 

1 Galland's version was published in 1704 1717 in 12 vols. i2mo., (Hoeflfer/s 
Biographic ; Graesse's Tresor de Livres raresand Encyclop. Britannica, ixth Edit.) 

3 See also Leigh Hunt *' The Book of the Thousand Nights and one Night," etc., 
etc. London and Westminster Review Art. iii., No. Ixiv. mentioned in Lane, iii, 746. 

TOO A If Lay la k wa Laylak. 

mostly mangle it. In the Biographic Universelle of Michaud 1 we 
find : Dans les deux premiers volumes de ces contes 1'exorde e*tait 
toujours, " Ma chere soeur, si vous ne dormez pas, faites-nous un 
de ces contes que vous savez." Quelques jeunes gens, ennuye*s 
de cette plate uniformite', allerent une nuit qu'il faisait tres-grand 
froid, frapper a Ja porte de 1'auteur, qui courut en chemise 
sa fenetre. Apres 1'avoir fait morfondre quelque temps 
par diverses questions insignificantes, ils terminerent en lui disant, 
" Ah, Monsieur Galland, si vous ne dormez pas, faites-nous un 
de ces beaux contes que vous savez si bien." Galland profita de 
la lecon, et supprima dans les volumes suivants le pre*ambule qui lui 
avait attire* la plaisanterie. This legend has the merit of explain- 
ing why the Professor so soon gave up the Arab framework which 
he had deliberately adopted. 

The Nights was at once translated from the French 2 though 
when, where and by whom no authority seems to know. In 
Lowndes' " Bibliographer's Manual " the English Editio Princeps 
is thus noticed, " Arabian Nights' Entertainments translated from 
the French, London, 1724, I2mo, 6 vols." and a footnote states 
that this translation, very inaccurate and vulgar in its diction, 
was often reprinted. In 1712 Addison introduced into the 
Spectator (No. 535, Nov. 13) the Story of Alnaschar (=A1- 
Nashshar, the Sawyer) and says that his remarks on Hope 
* may serve as a moral to an Arabian tale which I find translated 
into French by Monsieur Galland." His version appears, from the 
tone and style, to have been made by himself, and yet in that year 
a second English edition had appeared. The nearest approach 

1 Edition of 1856, vol. xv. 

2 To France England also owes her first translation of the Koran, a poor and mean 
version by Andrew Ross of that made from the Arabic (No. iv.) by Andre du Reyer, 
Consul de France for Egypt. It kept the field till ousted in 1734 by the learned 
lawyer George Sale whose conscientious work, including Preliminary Discourse and 
Notes (4to London), brought him the ill-fame of having *' turned Turk." 

Terminal Essay. 101 

to the Edit. Princeps in the British Museum 1 is a set of six volumes 
bound in three and corresponding with Galland's first half dozen. 
Tomes i. and ii. are from the fourth edition of 1713, Nos. iii. and 
iv. are from the second of 1712 and v. and vi. are from the third 
of 1715. It is conjectured that the two first volumes were reprinted 
several times apart from their subsequents, as was the fashion of 
the day ; but all is mystery. We (my friends and I) have turned 
over scores of books in the British Museum, the University Library 
and the Advocates' Libraries of Edinburgh and Glasgow : I have 
been permitted to put the question in " Notes and Queries " and in 
the " Antiquary " ; but all our researches hitherto have been in vain. 
The popularity of The Nights in England must have rivalled 
their vogue in France, judging from the fact that in 1713, or nine 
years after Galland's Edit. Prin. appeared they had already 
reached a fourth issue. Even the ignoble national jealousy which 
prompted Sir William Jones grossly to abuse that valiant scholar, 
Auquetil du Perron, could not mar their popularity. But as there 
are men who cannot read Pickwick, so they were not wanting who 
spoke of " Dreams of the distempered fancy of the East." 2 
When the work was first published in England/ 5 says Henry 
Webber, 3 " it seems to have made a considerable impression upon 

1 Catalogue of Printed Books, 1884, p. 159, col. i. I am ashamed to state this default in the 
British Museum, concerning which Englishmen are apt to boast and which so carefully 
mulcts modern authors in unpaid copies. But it is only a slight specimen of the sad 
state of art and literature in England, neglected equally by Conservatives, Liberals and 
Radicals. What has been done for the endowment of research ? What is our equiva- 
lent for the Prix de Rome ? Since the death of Dr. Birch who can fairly deal with a 
Demotic papyrus ? Contrast the Societe* Anthropologique and its palace and professors 
in Paris with our " Institute" au second in a corner of Hanover Square and its skulls 
in the cellar 1 

2 Art. vii. pp. 139-168, " On the Arabian Nights and translators, Weil, Torrens and 
Lane (vol. i.) with the Essai of A. Loisseleur Deslongchamps." The Foreign Quar- 
terly Review, vol. xxiv., Oct. 1839 Jan. 1840. London, Black and Armstrong, 1840. 

3 Introduction to his Collection " Tales of the East," 3 vols. Edinburgh, 1812. 
He was the first to point out the resemblance between the introductory adventures of 
Shahryar and Shah Zaman and those of Astolfo and Giacondo in the Orlando Furioso- 

102 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

the public. Pope in 1720 sent two volumes (French ? or English ?) 
to Bishop Atterbury, without making any remark on the work ; 
but, from his very silence, it may be presumed that he was not 
displeased with the perusal. The bishop, who does not appear to 
have joined a relish for the flights of imagination to his other 
estimable qualities, expressed his dislike of these tales pretty 
strongly and stated it to be his opinion, formed on the frequent 
descriptions of female dress, that they were the work of some 
Frenchman (Petis de la Croix, a mistake afterwards corrected by 
Warburton). The A rabian Nights^ however, quickly made their way 
to public favour. " We have been informed of a singular instance of 
the effect they produced soon after their first appearance. Sir James 
Stewart, Lord Advocate for Scotland, having one Saturday even- 
ing found his daughters employed in reading these volumes, 
seized them with a rebuke for spending the evening before the 
' Sawbbath ' in such worldly amusement ; but the grave advocate 
himself became a prey to the fascination of the tales, being found on 
the morning of the Sabbath itself employed in their perusal, from 
which he had not risen the whole night." As late as 1780 Dr. 
Beattie professed himself uncertain whether they were translated 
or fabricated by M. Galland ; and, while Dr. Pusey wrote of them 
" Noctes Mille et Una dictae, quae in omnium firme populorum 
cultiorum linguas conversae, in deliciis omnium habentur, manibus- 
que omnium terentur," 1 the amiable Carlyle, in the gospel ac- 
cording to Saint Froude, characteristically termed them "down- 
right lies " and forbade the house to such " unwholesome litera- 
ture.' 5 What a sketch of character in two words \ 

(Canto xxviii.). M. E. Leveque in Les Mythes et les Legendes de 1'Inde et la Perse 
(Paris, 1880), gives French versions of the Arabian and Italian narratives, side by side la 
p. 543 ff. (Cloustou). 

1 Notitiae Codicis MI. Noctium. Dr. Pusey studied Arabic to familiarise himself with 
ftebrew, and was very different from his predecessor at Oxford in my day, who, whea 
applied to for instruction in Arabic, refused to lecture except to a class. 

Terminal Essay* 103 

The only fault found in France with the Contes Arabes was that 
their style is peu correcte ; in fact they want classicism. Yet all 
Gallic imitators, Tr<butien included, have carefully copied their 
leader and Charles Nodier remarks : " II me semble que Ton n'a pas 
rendu assez de justice au style de Galland. Abondant sans etre 
prolixe, naturel et familier sans etre lache ni trivial, il ne manque 
jamais de cette elegance qui re*sulte de la facilite*, et qui prdsente 
je ne sais quel melange de la naiVet^ de Perrault et de la bonhomie 
de La Fontaine." 

Our Professor, with a name now thoroughly established, re- 
turned in 1706 to Paris, where he was an assiduous and efficient 
member of the Socie'te' Numismatique and corresponded largely 
with foreign Orientalists. Three years afterwards he was made 
Professor of Arabic at the College de France, succeeding Pierre 
Dippy; and, during the next half decade, he devoted himself to 
publishing his valuable studies. Then the end came. In his last 
illness, an attack of asthma complicated with pectoral mischief, he 
sent to Noyon for his nephew Julien Galland * to assist him in 
ordering his MSS. and in making his will after the simplest mili- 
tary fashion : he bequeathed his writings to the Bibliotheque du 
Roi, his Numismatic Dictionary to the Academy and his Alcoran 
to the Abbd Bignon. He died, aged sixty-nine on February 17, 
1715, leaving his second Part of The Nights unpublished. 2 

Professor Galland was a French litterateur of the good old 
school which is rapidly becoming extinct. Homme vrai dans les 
moindres choses (as his filoge stated) ; simple in life and manners 
and single-hearted in his devotion to letters, he was almost childish 
in worldly matters, while notable for penetration and acumen in 

1 This nephew was the author of " Recueil des Rits et Ceremonies des Pilgrimage de 
La Mecque," etc. etc. Paris and Amsterdam, 1754, in I2mo. 

2 The concluding part did not appear, I have said, till 1717 : his " Contes et Fables 
Indiennes de Bidpa'i et de Lokman,"were first printed in 1724, 2 vols. in I2mo. Hence, 
I presume, Lowndes* mistake. 

IO4 A If Laylah wa Lay la k. 

his studies. He would have been as happy, one of his biographers 
remarks, in teaching children the elements of education as he was 
in acquiring his immense erudition. Briefly, truth and honesty, 
exactitude and indefatigable industry characterised his most 
honourable career. 

Galland informs us (Epist. Bed.) that his MS. consisted of four 
volumes, only three of which are extant, 1 bringing the work down 
to Night cclxxxii., or about the beginning of " Camaralzaman." 
The missing portion, if it contained like the other volumes 140 
pages, would end that tale together with the Stories of Ghdnim and 
the Enchanted (Ebony) Horse ; and such is the disposition in the 
Bresl. Edit, which mostly favours in its ordinance the text used by 
the first translator. But this would hardly have filled more than 
two-thirds of his volumes ; for the other third he interpolated, or 
is supposed to have interpolated, the ten 2 following tales. 

1. Histoire du prince Zeyn Al-asnam et du Roi des Gdnies. 3 

2. de Codadad et de ses freres. 

3. de la Lampe merveilleuse (Aladdin). 

4. de Paveugle Baba Abdalla. 

5. de Sidi Nouman. 

1 M. Caussin (de Perceval), Professeur of Arabic at the Imperial Library, who edited 
Galland in 1806, tells us that he found there only two MSS., both imperfect. The first 
(Galland's) is in three small vols. 4to. each of about pp. 140. The stories are 
more detailed and the style, more correct than that of other MS., is hardly 
intelligible to many Arabs, whence he presumes that it contains the original (an 
early?) text which has been altered and vitiated. The date is supposed to be circa 
A.D. 1600. The second Parisian copy is a single folio of some 800 pages, and is divided 
into 29 sections and cmv. Nights, the last two sections being reversed. The MS. is very 
imperfect, the I2th, i$th, i6th, i8th, 2oth, 2ist-23rd, 25th and 2;th parts are wanting j 
the sections which follow the i;th contain sundry stories repeated, there are anecdotes 
from Bidpai, the Ten Wazirs and other popular works, and lacunae everywhere abound. 

* Mr. Payne (ix. 264) makes eleven, including the Histoire du Dormeur eVeille = The 
Sleeper and the Waker, which he afterwards translated from the Bresl. Edit, in his 
Tales from the Arabic" (vol. i 5, etc.). 

3 Mr. E. J. W. Gibb informs me that he has come upon this tale in a Turkish story* 
book, the same from which he drew his " Jewad." 

Terminal Essay. 105 

6. Histoire de Cogia Hassan Alhabbal. 

7. d'Ali Baba, et de Quarante Voleurs extermine's par 

une Esclave. 

8. d'Ali Cogia, marchand de Bagdad. 

9. du prince Ahmed et de la fe*e Peri-Banou. 
t 10. de deux Sceurs jalouses de leur Cadette. 1 

Concerning these interpolations which contain two of the best 
and most widely known stories in the work, Aladdin and the 
Forty Thieves, conjectures have been manifold but they mostly 
run upon three lines. De Sacy held that they were found by 
Galland in the public libraries of Paris. Mr. Chenery, whose 
acquaintance with Arabic grammar was ample, suggested that the 
Professor had borrowed them from the recitations of the Rawis, 
rhapsodists or professional story-tellers in the bazars of Smyrna and 
other ports of the Levant. The late Mr. Henry Charles Coote (in 
the " Folk-Lore Record," vol. iii. Part ii. p. 178 et seq,), "On the 
source of some of M. Galland's Tales," quotes from popular 
Italian, Sicilian and Romaic stories incidents identical with those 
in Prince Ahmad, Aladdin, Ali Baba and the Envious Sisters, sug- 
gesting that the Frenchman had heard these paramythia in Levan- 
tine coffee-houses and had inserted them into his unequalled 
corpus fabularum. Mr. Payne (ix. 268) conjectures the probability 
" of their having been composed at a comparatively recent period 
by an inhabitant of Baghdad, in imitation of the legends of 
Haroun er Rashid and other well-known tales of the original 
work ;" and adds, " It is possible that an exhaustive examination 
of the various MS. copies of the Thousand and One Nights 
known to exist in the public libraries of Europe might yet cast 

1 A litterateur lately assured me that NoS. ix. and x. have been found in the Biblio- 
theque Nationale (du Roi) Paris ; but two friends were kind enough to enquire and 
ascertained that it was a mistake. Such Persianisms as Codadad (Khudadad), Baba 
Cogia (Khwajah) and Peri (fairy) suggest a Persic MS. 

IO6 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

some light upon the question of the origin of the interpolated 
Tales." I quite agree with him, taking "The Sleeper and the 
Waker" and "Zeyn Al-asnam" as cases in point; but I should 
expect, for reasons before given, to find the stories in a Persic 
rather than an Arabic MS. And I feel convinced that all will be 
recovered : Galland was not the man to commit a literary forgery. 

As regards Aladdin, the most popular tale of the whole work, I 
am convinced that it is genuine, although my unfortunate friend, the 
late Professor Palmer, doubted its being an Eastern story. It is 
laid down upon all the lines of Oriental fiction. The mise-en-scene 
is China, "where they drink a certain warm liquor" (tea); the 
hero's father is a poor tailor; and, as in " Judar and his Brethren," 
the Maghribi Magician presently makes his appearance, intro- 
ducing the Wonderful Lamp and the Magical Ring. Even the 
Sorcerer's cry, "New lamps for old lamps! "a prime point is 
paralleled in the Tale of the Fisherman's son, 1 where the Jew asks 
in exchange only old rings and the Princess, recollecting that her 
husband kept a shabby, well-worn ring in his writing-stand, and 
he being asleep, took it out and sent it to the man. In either tale 
the palace is transported to a distance and both end with the 
death of the wicked magician and the hero and heroine living 
happily together ever after. 

All Arabists have remarked the sins of omission and com- 
mission, of abridgment, amplification and substitution, and the 
audacious distortion of fact and phrase in which Galland freely 
indulged, whilst his knowledge of Eastern languages proves that he 
knew better. But literary license was the order of his day and at 
that time French, always the most bdgueule of European languages, 
was bound by a rigorisme of the narrowest and the straightest of lines 

1 Vol. vi. 212. "The Arabian Nights' Entertainments (London: Longmans, 1811) by 
Jonathan Scott, with the Collection of New Tales from the Wortley Montagu MS. in the 
Bodleian." I regret to see that Messieurs Nimmo in reprinting Scott have omitted his 
sixth Volume. 

Terminal Essay. 107 

from which the least e*cart condemned a man as a barbarian and a 
tudesque. If we consider Galland fairly we shall find that he errs 
mostly for a purpose, that of popularising his work ; and his success 
indeed justified his means. He has been derided (by scholars) for 
44 Hd Monsieur ! " and " Ah Madame ! "; but he could not write 
" O mon sieur " and " O ma dame ; " although we can borrow 
from biblical and Shakespearean English, " O my lord ! " and " O 
my lady ! " " Bon Dieu ! ma soeur " (which our translators 
english by " O heavens," Night xx.) is good French for Wa 'llahi 
by Allah \ and " cinquante cavaliers bien faits " (" fifty hand- 
some gentlemen on horseback ") is a more familiar picture 
than fifty knights. " L'officieuse Dinarzade " (Night Ixi.), 
and " Cette plaisante querelle des deux freres " (Night Ixxii.) 
become ridiculous only in translation " the officious Dinarzade " 
and "this pleasant quarrel ;" while "ce qu'il y de remarquable " 
(Night Ixxiii.) would relieve the Gallic mind from the mortification 
of " Destiny decreed." " Plusieurs sortes de fruits et de bou- 
teilles de vin " (Night ccxxxi. etc.) europeanises flasks and 
flaggons ; and the violent convulsions in which the girl dies 
(Night cliv., her head having been cut off by her sister) is mere 
Gallic squeamishness : France laughs at " le shoking " in England 
but she has only to look at home especially during the reign of 
Galland's contemporary Roi Soleil. The terrible " Old man " 
(Shaykh) " of the Sea" (-board) is ba'dly described by " Tincommode 
vieillard " (" the ill-natured old fellow ") : " Brave Maimune }> and 
" Agre'able Maimune " are hardly what a Jinni would say to a 
Jinniyah (ccxiii.) ; but they are good Gallic. The same may be 
noted of " Plier les voiles pour marque qu'il se rendait " (Night 
ccxxxv.), a European practice ; and of the false note struck in two 
passages. "Je m'estimais heureuse d'avoir fait une si belle 
conquete " (Night Ixvii.) gives a Parisian turn ; and, " Je ne puis 
voir sans horreur cet abominable barbier que voila : quoiqu'il soit 
n< dans un pays ou tout le monde est blanc, il ne laisse pas a 

io8 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

resembler a un thiopien ; mais il a Time encore plus noire et 
horrible que le visage " (Night clvii.), is a mere affectation of 
Orientalism. Lastly, " Une vieille dame de leur connaissance " 
(Night clviii.) puts French polish upon the matter of fact Arab's 
" an old woman." 

The list of absolute mistakes, not including violent liberties, 
can hardly be held excessive. Professor Weil and Mr. Payne 
(ix. 271) justly charge Galland with making the Trader (Night i.) 
throw away the shells (tcorces) of the date which has only a pellicle, 
as Galland certainly knew ; but dates were not seen every day in 
France, while almonds and walnuts were of the quatre mendiants. 
He preserves the forces, which later issues have changed to noyaux, 
probably in allusion to the jerking practice called Inwa. Again in 
the " First Shaykh's Story " (vol. i. 27) the " maillet " is mentioned 
as the means of slaughtering cattle, because familiar to European 
readers : at the end of the tale it becomes " le couteau funeste." In 
Badr al-Din a " tarte a la creme," so well known to the West, 
displaces, naturally enough, the outlandish " mess of pomegranate- 
seeds." Though the text especially tells us the hero removed his 
bag-trousers (not only " son habit ") and placed them under the 
pillow, a crucial fact in the history, our Professor sends him to bed 
fully dressed, apparently for the purpose of informing his readers 
in a foot-note that Easterns " se couchent en calegon " (Night 
Ixxx). It was mere ignorance to confound the arbalete or cross- 
bow with the stone-bow (Night xxxviii.), but this has universally 
been done, even by Lane who ought to have known better ; and it 
was an unpardonable carelessness or something worse to turn Ndr 
(fire) and Dun (in lieu of) into " le faux dieu Nardoun" (Night Ixv.) : 
as this has been untouched by De Sacy, I cannot but conclude that 
he never read the text with the translation. Nearly as bad also 
to make the Jewish physician remark, when the youth gave him 
the left wrist (Night cl.), " voila une grande ignorance de ne savoir 
pas que Ton presente la main droite a un mdecin et non pas fa 

Terminal Essay. 109 

gauche " whose exclusive use all travellers in the East must 
know. I have noticed the incuriousness which translates " along 
the Nile-shore " by " up towards Ethiopia " (Night cli.), and the 
" Islands of the Children of Khaledan " (Night ccxi.) instead of 
the Khalidatani or Khalidat, the Fortunate Islands. It was by no 
means " des petits soufflets " (" some tips from time to time with her 
fingers ") which the sprightly dame administered to the Barber's 
second brother (Night clxxi.), but sound and heavy " cuffs " on the 
nape ; and the sixth brother (Night clxxx.) was not " aux levres 
fendues " (" he of the hair-lips "), for they had been cut off by the 
Badawi jealous of his fair wife. Abu al-Hasan would not greet 
his beloved by saluting " le tapis a ses pieds : " he would kiss her 
hands and feet. Hai'atalnefous (Hayat al-Nufus, Night ccxxvi.) 
would not (t throw cold water in the Princess's face : " she would 
sprinkle it with eau-de-rose. " Camaralzaman " I addresses his 
two abominable wives in language purely European (ccxxx.), " et 
de la vie il ne s'approcha d'elles," missing one of the fine touches 
of the tale which shows its hero a weak and violent man, hasty and 
lacking the pundonor. " La belle Persienne/' in the Tale of Nur 
al-Din, was no Persian ; nor would her master address her, 
" Venez ga, impertinente ! " (" come hither, impertinence "). In the 
story of Badr, one of the Comoro Islands becomes " L'ile de la 
Lune." "Dog" and "dog-son" are not "injures atroces et 
indignes d'un grand roi : " the greatest Eastern kings allow 
themselves far more energetic and significant language. Fitnah 1 

1 Dr. Scott who uses Fitnah (iv. 42) makes it worse by adding "Alcolom (Al- 
Kulub?) signifying Favisher of Hearts" and his names for the six slave-girls (vol. iv. 
37) such as "Zohorob Bostan " (Zahr al-Bustan), which Galland rightly renders by 
" Fleur du Jardin," serve only to heap blunder upon blunder. Indeed the Anglo- 
French translations are below criticism : it would be waste of time to notice them. The 
characteristic is a servile suit paid to the original e.g. rendering hair "accomodeen 
boucles " by "hair festooned in buckles" (Night ccxiv.), and lie d'Ebene (Jazfrat al- 
Abnus, Night xliii.) by " the Isle of Ebene.-" A certain surly old litterateur tells me that 
he prefers these wretched versions to Mr. Payne's. Padrone ! as the Italians say : I 
cannot envy his taste or his temper. 

no A If Laylah wa Lay tab. 

is by no means " Force de cceurs." Lastly the dtno&ement of The 
Nights is widely different in French and in Arabic ; but that is 
probably not Galland's fault, as he never saw the original, and 
indeed he deserves high praise for having invented so pleasant and 
sympathetic a close, inferior only to the Oriental device. 1 

Galland's fragment has a strange effect upon the Orientalist 
and those who take the scholastic view, be it wide or narrow. 
De Sacy does not hesitate to say that the work owes much to 
his fellow-countryman's hand ; but I judge otherwise : it is 
necessary to dissociate the two works and to regard Galland's 
paraphrase, which contains only a quarter of The Thousand Nights 
and a Night, as a wholly different book. Its attempts to amplify 
beauties and to correct or conceal the defects and the grotesque- 
ness of the original, absolutely suppress much of the local colour, 
clothing the bare body in the best of Parisian suits. It ignores 
the rhymed prose and excludes the verse, rarely and very rarely 
rendering a few lines in a balanced style. It generally rejects the 
proverbs, epigrams and moral reflections which form the pith and 
marrow of the book ; and, worse still, it disdains those finer 
touches of character which are often Shakespearean in their depth 
and delicacy, and which, applied to a race of familiar ways and 
thoughts, manners and customs, would have been the wonder 
and delight of Europe. It shows only a single side of the gem 
that has so many facets. By deference to public taste it was 
compelled to expunge the often repulsive simplicity, the childish 
indecencies and the wild orgies of the original, contrasting with 
the gorgeous tints, the elevated morality and the religious tone 
of passages which crowd upon them. We miss the odeur du sang 

1 De Sacy (Mmoire p. 52) notes that in some MSS., the Sultan, ennuye* by the last 
tales of Shahrdz'ad, proposes to put her to death, when she produces her three children 
and all ends merrily without marriage-bells. Von Hammer prefers this version as the 
more dramatic, the Frenchman rejects it on account of the difficulties of the 
accouchement!. Here he strains at the gnat a common process. 

Terminal Essay. Ill 

which taints the parfums du harem ; also the humouristic tale and 
the Rabelaisian outbreak which relieve and throw out into strong 
relief the splendour of Empire and the havoc of Time. Con- 
sidered in this light it is a caput mortuum, a magnificent texture 
seen on the wrong side ; and it speaks volumes for the genius of 
the man who could recommend it in such blurred and caricatured 
condition to readers throughout the civilised world. But those 
who look only at Galland's picture, his effort to " transplant into 
European gardens the magic flowers of Eastern fancy," still 
compare his tales with the sudden prospect of magnificent 
mountains seen after a long desert-march : they arouse strange 
longings and indescribable desires ; their marvellous imagina- 
tiveness produces an insensible brightening of mind and an 
increase of fancy-power, making one dream that behind them 
lies the new and unseen, the strange and unexpected in fact, 
all the glamour of the unknown. 

The Nights has been translated into every far-extending 
Eastern tongue, Persian, Turkish and Hindostani. The latter 
entitles them Hikaydt al-Jalilah or Noble Tales, and the trans- 
lation was made by Munshi Shams al-Din Ahmad for the use 
of the College of Fort George in A.H. 1252 = 1836.* All these 
versions are direct from the Arabic : my search for a transla- 
tion of Galland into any Eastern tongue has hitherto been 

I was assured by the late Bertholdy Seemann that the 
" language of Hoffmann and Heine " contained a literal and 
complete translation of The Nights ; but personal enquiries at 
Leipzig and elsewhere convinced me that the work still remains 
to be done. The first attempt to improve upon Galland and to 
show the world what the work really is was made by Dr. Max 
Habicht and was printed at Breslau (1824-2 5), in fifteen small square 

1 See Journ. Asiatique, iii. se*rie, vol. viii., Paris, 1839. 

112 A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

volumes. 1 Thus it appeared before the " Tunis Manuscript " * 
of which it purports to be a translation. The German version 
is, if possible, more condemnable than the Arabic original. It 
lacks every charm of style ; it conscientiously shirks every 
difficulty ; it abounds in the most extraordinary blunders and 
it is utterly useless as a picture of manners or a book of reference. 
We can explain its latches only by the theory that the eminent 
Professor left the labour to his collaborateurs and did not take 
the trouble to revise their careless work. 

The next German translation was by Aulic Councillor J. von 
Hammer-Purgstall 3 who, during his short stay at Cairo and 
Constantinople, turned into French the tales neglected by 
Galland. After some difference with M. Caussin (de Perceval) in 
1810, the Styrian Orientalist entrusted his MS. to Herr Cotta the 
publisher of Tubingen. Thus a German version appeared, the 
translation of a translation, at the hand of Professor Zinserling, 3 
while the French version was unaccountably lost en route to 

1 " Tausend und Eine Nacht : Arabische Erzahlungen. Zum ersten mal aus einer 
Tunisischen Handschrift erganzt und vollstandig iibersetzt," Von Max Habicht, F. H. 
von der Hagen und Karl Schatte (the offenders ?) 

2 Dr. Habicht informs us (Vorwort iii., vol. ix. 7) that he obtained his MS. with 
other valuable works from Tunis, through a personal acquaintance, a learned Arab, 
Herr M. Annagar (Mohammed Al-Najjdr ?) and was aided by Baron de Sacy, Langles 
and other savants in filling up the lacunae by means of sundry MSS. The editing was a 
prodigy of negligence : the corrigenda (of which brief lists are given) would fill a 
volume ; and, as before noticed, the indices of the first four tomes were printed in the 
fifth, as if the necessity of a list of tales had just struck the dense editor. After 
Habicht's death in 1839 his work was completed in four vols. (ix. xii.) by the well- 
known Prof. H. J. Fleischer, who had shown some tartness in his " Dissertatio Critica 
de Glossis Habichtianis." He carefully imitated all the shortcomings of his predecessor 
and even omitted the Verzeichniss, etc., the Varianten and the Glossary of Arabic words 
not found in Golius, which formed the only useful part of the first eight volumes. 

3 Die in Tausend und Eine Nacht noch nicht ubersetzten Nachte, Erzahlungen und 
Anekdoten, zum erstenmal aus dem Arabischen in das Franzosische iibersetzt von J. von 
Hammer, und aus dem Franzosichen in das Deutsche von A. E. Zinserling, Professor, 
Stuttgart und Tubingen, 1823. Drei Bde. 8. Trebutien's, therefore, is the translation 
of a translation of a translation. 

Terminal Essay. 1 13 

London. Finally the " Contes ine*dits," etc., appeared in a French 
translation by G. S. Trebutien (Paris, mdcccxxviii.). Von 
Hammer took liberties with the text which can compare only 
with those of Lane : he abridged and retrenched till the likeness 
in places entirely disappeared ; he shirked some difficult passages 
and he misexplained others. In fact the work did no honour to 
the amiable and laborious historian of the Turks. 

The only good German translation of The Nights is due to 
Dr. Gustav Weil who, born on April 24, 1808, is still (1886) 
professing at Heidelburg. 1 His originals (he tells us) were the 
Breslau Edition, the Bulak text of Abd al-Rahman al-Safati 
and, a MS. in the library of Saxe Gotha. The venerable savant, 
who has rendered such service to Arabism, informs me that Aug. 
Lewald's " Vorhalle " (pp. i. xv.) 2 was written without his know- 
ledge. Dr. Weil neglects the division of days which enables him 
to introduce any number of tales : for instance, Galland's eleven 
occupy a large part of vol. iii. The Vorwort wants development ; 
(the notes, confined to a few words, are inadequate and verse is 
everywhere rendered by prose, the Saj'a or assonance being wholly 
ignored. On the other hand the scholar shows himself by a 
correct translation, contrasting strongly with those which preceded 
him, and by a strictly literal version, save where the treatment 
required to be modified in a book intended for the public. Under 

1 Tausend und Eine Nacht Arabische Erzahlungen. Zum erstenmale aus dem 
Urtexte vollstandig und treu uebersetze von Dr. Gustav Weil. He began his work on 
return from Egypt in 1836 and completed his first version of the Arabische Meisterwerlc 
in 183842 (3 vols. roy. oct.)- I have the Zweiter Abdruck der dritten (2d reprint of 
3d) in 4 vols. 8vo., Stuttgart, 1872. It has more than a hundred woodcuts, but all of 
that art fashionable in Europe till Lane taught what Eastern illustrations should be. 

2 My learned friend Dr. Wilhelm Storck, to whose admirable translations of Camoens 
I have often borne witness, notes that this Vorhalle, or Porch to the first edition, a 
rhetorical introduction addressed to the general public, is held in Germany to be 
valueless and that it was noticed only for the Bemerkung concerning the offensive 
passages which Professor Weil had toned down in his translation. In the Vorwort of 
the succeeding editions (Stuttgart) it is wholly omitted. 


H 4 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

such circumstances it cannot well be other than longsome and 
monotonous reading. 

Although Spain and Italy have produced many and remarkable 
Orientalists, I cannot find that they have taken the trouble to 
translate The Nights for themselves : cheap and gaudy versions 
of Galland seem to have satisfied the public. 1 Notes on the 
Romaic, Icelandic, Russian (?) and other versions, will be found in 
a future page. 

Professor Galland has never been forgotten in France where, 
amongst a host of editions, four have claims to distinction ; 2 and 
his success did not fail to create a host of imitators and to attract 
what De Sacy justly terms " une prodigieuse importation de 
marchandise de contrabande." As early as 1823 Von Hammer 
numbered seven in France (Tre'butien, Preface xviii.) and during 
later years they have grown prodigiously. Mr. William F. Kirby, 
who has made a special study of the subject, has favoured me 
with detailed bibliographical notes on Galland's imitators which 
are printed in Appendix No. II. 

1 The most popular are now " Mille ed una notte. Novelle Arabe." Napoli, 1867, 
8vo illustrated, 4 francs ; and " Mille ed une notte. Novelle Arabe, versione italiana 
nuovamente emendata e corredata di note " ; 4 vols. in 32 (dateless) Milano, 
8vo. , 4 francs. 

2 Thes are; (i) by M. Caussin (de Perceval), Paris, 1806, 9 vols. 8vo. (2) Edouard 
Gauttier, Paris, 1822 24: 7 vols. I2mo ; (3) M. Destain, Paris, 1823 25, 6 vols. 
8vo., and (4) Baron de Sacy, Paris, 1838 (?) 3 vols. large 8vo, illustrated (and vilely 

Terminal Essay. 1 1 5 


RETURNING to my threefold distribution of this Prose Poem ( i) 
into Fable, Fairy Tale and historical Anecdote, 1 let me proceed 
to consider these sections more carefully. 

The Apologue or Beast-fable, which apparently antedates all 
other subjects in The Nights, has been called " One of the earliest 
creations of the awakening consciousness of mankind." I should 
regard it, despite a monumental antiquity, as the offspring of 
a comparatively civilised age, when a jealous despotism or a 
powerful oligarchy threw difficulties and dangers in the way of 
Speaking " plain truths." A hint can be given and a friend or foe 
can be lauded or abused as Belins the sheep or Isengrim the wolf, 
when the Author is debarred the higher enjoyment of praising* 
them or dispraising them by name. And, as the purposes of 
fables are twofold 

Duplex libelli dos est : quod risum movet, 
Et quod prudenti vitam consilio monet 

The speaking of brute beasts would give a piquancy and a 
pleasantry to moral design as well as to social and political 

The literary origin of the fable is not Buddhistic : we must 
especially shun that " Indo-Germanic " school which goes to India 

1 The number of fables and anecdotes varies in the different texts, but may assumed 
lo be upwards of four hundred, about half of which were translated by Lane. 

n6 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

for its origins, when Pythagoras, Solon, Herodotus, Plato, Aristotle 
and possibly Homer sat for instruction at the feet of the Hir-seshtha, 
the learned grammarians of the pharaohnic court. Nor was it 
-dEsopic, evidently ^Esop inherited the hoarded wealth of ages. As 
Professor Lepsius taught us, "In the ofden times within the 
memory of man, we know only of one advanced culture ; of only 
one mode of writing, and of only one literary development, viz. 
those of Egypt." The invention of an alphabet, as opposed to a 
syllabary, unknown to Babylonia, to Assyria and to that extreme 
bourne of their civilising influences, China, would for ever fix their 
literature poetry, history and criticism, 1 the apologue and the 
anecdote. To mention no others The Lion and the Mouse appears 
in a Leyden papyrus dating from B.C. 1200-1166 the days of 
Rameses III. (Rhampsinitus) or Hak On, not as a rude and early 
attempt, but in a finished form, postulating an ancient origin and 
illustrious ancestry. The dialogue also is brought to perfection in 
the discourse between the Jackal Koufi and the Ethiopian Cat 
(Revue 6gyptologique ivme. anne*e Part i.). Africa therefore was 
the home of the Beast-fable not, as Professor Mahaffy thinks, 
because it was the chosen land of animal worship, where 
Oppida tota canem venerantur nemo Dianam ; 2 

1 I have noticed these points more fully in the beginning of chapt. iii. *' The Book of 
the Sword." 

2 A notable instance of Roman superficiality, incuriousness and ignorance. Every old 
Egyptian city had its idols (images of metal, stone or wood), in which the Deity became 
incarnate as in the Catholic host ; besides its own symbolic animal used as a Kiblah or 
prayer-direction (Jerusalem or Meccah),the visible means of fixing and concentrating the 
thoughts of the vulgar, like the crystal of the hypnotist or the disk of the electro-biologist. 
And goddess Diana was in no way better than goddess Pasht. For the true view of 
idolatry see Koran xxxix. 4. I am deeply grateful to Mr. P. le Page Renouf (Soc. of 
Biblic. Archaeology, April 6, 1886) for identifying the Manibogh, Michabo or Great 
Hare of the American indigenes with Osiris Unnefer (" Hare God "). These are the 
lines upon which investigation should run. And of late years there is a notable improve- 
ment of tone in treating of symbolism or idolatry : the Lingam and the Yoni are now 
described as " mystical representations, and perhaps the best possible impersonal 
representatives, of the abstract expressions paternity and maternity " (Prof. Monier 
Williams in "Folk-lore Record" vol. iii. part i. p. 118). 

Terminal Essay. 117 

but simply because the Nile-land originated every form of literature 
between Fabliau and Epos. 

From Kemi the Black-land it was but a step to Phoenicia, 
Judaea, 1 Phrygia and Asia Minor, whence a ferry led over to Greece. 
Here the Apologue found its populariser in AIO-WTTOS, ^Esop, whose 
name, involved in myth, possibly connects with At^io^: 
" ^Esopus et Aithiops idem sonant " says the sages. This would 
show that the Hellenes preserved a legend of the land whence the 
Beast-fable arose, and we may accept the fabulist's sera as 
contemporary with Croesus and Solon (B.C. 570), about a century 
after Psammeticus (Psamethik ist) threw Egypt open to the restless 
Greek. 2 From Africa too the Fable would in early ages migrate 
eastwards and make for itself a new home in the second great 
focus of civilisation formed by the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. The 
late Mr. George Smith found amongst the cuneiforms fragmentary 
Beast-fables, such as dialogues between the Ox and the Horse, the 
Eagle and the Sun. In after centuries, when the conquests of 
Macedonian Alexander completed what Sesostris and Semiramis 
had begun, and mingled the manifold families of mankind by 
joining the eastern to the western world, the Orient became 
formally hellenised. Under the Seleucidae and during the life of 
the independent Bactrian kingdom (B.C. 255-125), Grecian art 
and science, literature and even language overran the old Iranic 
reign and extended eastwards throughout northern India. Porus 
sent two embassies to Augustus in B.C. 19 and in one of them the 
herald Zarmanochagas (Shramanachdrya) of Bargosa, the modern 
Baroch in Guzerat, bore an epistle upon vellum written in Greek 

1 See Jotham's fable of the Trees and King Bramble (Judges Ixi. 8) and Nathan's 
parable of the Poor Man and his little ewe Lamb (2 Sam. ix. i). 

2 Herodotus (ii. c. 134) notes that " ^Esop the fable-writer (6 AoyoVoios) was one of 
her (Rhodopis) fellow slaves." Aristophanes (Vespae, 1446) refers to his murder by 
the Delphians and his fable beginning, "Once upon a time there was a fight ;" while 
the Scholiast finds an allusion to The Serpent and the Crab in Pax 1084 ; and others in 
Vespae 1401, and Aves 651. 

Ii8 A If Laylah wa Lay la h. 

{Strabo xv. i 78). " Videtis gentes populosque mutasse sedes " 
says Seneca (De Cons, ad Helv. c. vi.). Quid sibi volunt in mediis 
barbarorum regionibus Graecae artes ? Quid inter Indos Persasque 
Macedonicus sermo ? Atheniensis in Asia turba est" Upper 
India, in the Macedonian days would have been mainly Buddhistic, 
possessing a rude alphabet borrowed from Egypt through Arabia 
and Phoenicia, but still in a low and barbarous condition : her 
buildings were wooden and she lacked, as far as we know, stone- 
architecture the main test of social development. But the 
Bactrian Kingdom gave an impulse to her civilisation and the 
result was classical opposed to vedic Sanskrit. From Persia Greek 
letters, extending southwards to Arabia, would find indigenous 
imitators and there ^Esop would be represented by the sundry 
sages who share the name Lokman. 1 One of these was of servile 

1 There are three distinct Lokmans who are carefully comfounded in Sale (Koran 
chapt. xxxi.) and in Smith's Diet, of Biography etc. art. ^Esopus. The first or eldest 
Lokman, entitled Al-Hakim (the Sage) and the hero of the Koranic chapter which bears 
his name, was son of Ba'ura of the Children of Azar, sister's son to Job or son of Job's 
maternal aunt ; he witnessed David's miracles of mail-making and when the tribe of 'Ad 
was destroyed, he became King of the country. The second, also called the Sage, was 
a slave, an Abyssinian negro, sold to the Israelites during the reign of David or Solomon, 
synchronous with the Persian Kay Kaus and Kay Khusrau, also Pythagoras the Greek(!) 
His physique is alluded to in the saying, *' Thou resemblest Lokman (in black ugliness) 
but not in wisdom " (Ibn Khallikan i. 145). This negro or negroid, after a godly and 
edifying life, left a volume of " Amsal," proverbs and exempla (not fables or apologues) ; 
and Easterns still say, " One should not pretend to teach Lokmdn " in Persian, 
"Hikmat ba Lokman dmokhtan." Three of his apothegms dwell in the public 
memory : " The heart and the tongue are the best and worst parts of the human body." 
" I learned wisdom from the blind who make sure of things by touching them" (as did 
St. Thomas) ; and, when he ate the colocynth offered by his owner, " I have received 
from thee so many a sweet that 'twould be surprising if I refused this one bitter." He 
was buried (says the Tarikh Muntakhab) at Ramlah in Judaea, with the seventy Prophets 
stoned in one day by the Jews. The youngest Lokman " of the vultures " was a prince 
of the tribe of Ad who lived 3,500 years, the age of seven vultures (Tabariy. He 
could dig a well with his nails ; hence the saying, " Stronger than Lokman " (A .P. i-7oi); 
and he loved the arrow-game, hence " More gambling than Lokman " (ibid. ii. 938). 
" More voracious than Lokman" (ibid. i. 134) alludes to his eating one camel for 
breakfast and another for supper. His wife Bardkish also appears in proverb, e.g. " Camel 
us and camel thyself" (ibid. i. 295) i.e. give us camel flesh to eat, said when her son 

Terminal Essay. 1 19 

condition, tailor, carpenter or shepherd ; and a " Habashi " 
(Ethiopian) meaning a negro slave with blubber lips and splay 
feet, so far showing a superficial likeness to the JEsop of history. 

The ^Ssopic fable, carried by the Hellenes to India, might have 
fallen in with some rude and fantastic barbarian of Buddhistic 
" persuasion " and indigenous origin : so Reynard the Fox has its 
analogue amongst the Kafirs and the Vai tribe of Mandengan 
negroes in Liberia 1 amongst whom one Doalu invented or rather 
borrowed a syllabarium. The modern Gypsies are said also to 
have beast-fables which have never been traced to a foreign 
source (Lelarid). But I cannot accept the refinement of difference 
which Professor Benfey, followed by Mr. Keith-Falconer, discovers 
between the JEsopic and the Hindu apologue : " In the former 
animals are allowed to act as animals : the latter makes them act 
as men in the form of animals." The essence of the beast-fable 
is a reminiscence of Homo primigenius with erected ears and hairy 
hide, and its expression is to make the brother brute behave, 
think and talk like him with the superadded experience of ages. 
To early man the " lower animals," which are born, live and die 
like himself, showing all the same affects and disaffects, loves and 
hates, passions, prepossessions and prejudices, must have seemed 
quite human enough and on an equal level to become his sub- 
stitutes. The savage, when he began to reflect, would regard the 
carnivor and the serpent with awe, wonder and dread ; and would 
soon suspect the same mysterious potency in the brute as in him- 
self : so the Malays still look upon the Uran-utan, or Wood-man^ 
as the possessor of superhuman wisdom. The hunter and the 
herdsman, who had few other companions, would presently ex- 
plain the peculiar relations of animals to themselves by material 

by a former husband brought her a fine joint which she and her husband relished. Also* 
"Barakish hath sinned against her kin" (ibid. ii. 89). More of this in Chenery's Al 
Hariri p. 422 ; but the three Lokmans are there reduced to two. 
1 I have noticed them in vol. ii. 47-49. " To the Gold Coast for Gold." 

I2O Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

jnetamorphosis, the bodily transformation of man to brute giving 
increased powers of working him weal and woe. A more advanced 
stage would find the step easy to metempsychosis, the beast con- 
taining the Ego (alias soul) of the human : such instinctive belief 
explains much in Hindu literature, but it was not wanted at first 
by the Apologue. 

This blending of blood, this racial baptism would produce a 
fine robust progeny; and, after our second century, ^Egypto- 
Graeco-Indian stones overran the civilized globe between Rome 
and China. Tales have wings and fly farther than the jade 
hatchets of proto-historic days. And the result was a book 
which has had more readers than any other except the Bible. 
Its original is unknown. 1 The volume, which in Pehlevi became 
the Javiddn Khirad ("Wisdom of Ages") or the Testament 
of Hoshang, that ancient guebre King, and in Sanskrit the 
Panchatantra (" Five Chapters "), is a recueil of apologues and 
anecdotes related by the learned Brahman, Vishnu Sharma for 
the benefit of his pupils the sons of an Indian Rajah. The Hindu 
original has been adapted and translated into a number of languages; 
Arabic, Hebrew and Syraic, Greek and Latin, Persian and 
Turkish, under a host of names. 2 Voltaire 3 wisely remarks of 
this venerable production : Quand on fait reflexion que presque 
toute la terre a &t& enfatue'e de pareils contes, et qu'ils ont fait 

1 I can hardly accept the dictum that the Katha Sarit Sagara, of which more 
presently, is the " earliest representation of the first collection." 

2 The Pehlevi version of the days of King Anushirwan (A.D. 531-72) became the 
Humdyun-nameh ("August Book") turned into Persian for Bah ram Shah the Ghaz- 
navite: the Hitopadesa ("Friendship-boon") of Prakrit, avowedly compiled from the 
11 Panchatantra,'* became the Hindu Panchopakhyan, the Hindostani Akhlak-i-Hindi 
("Moralities of Ind ") and in Persia and Turkey the Anvar-i-Suhayli ("Lights of 
Canopus"). Arabic, Hebrew and Syriac writers entitle their version Kalflah wa 
Damnah, or Kalilaj wa Damnaj, from the name of the two jackal-heroes, and Europe 
knows the recueil as the Fables of Pilpay or Bidpay (Bidya-pati, Lord of learning ?) 
a learned Brahman reported to have been Premier at the Court of the Indian 
King Dabishlim. 

* Diet. Philosoph. S. V. Apocrypha. 

Terminal Essay. 121 

P<ducation du genre humain, on trouve les fables de Pilpay, de 
Lokman, 1 d'6sope, bien raisonables. But methinks the sage of 
Ferney might have said far more. These fables speak with the large 
utterance of early man ; they have also their own especial beauty 
the charms of well-preserved and time-honoured old age. There 
is in their wisdom a perfume of the past, homely and ancient- 
fashioned like a whiff of pot pourm, wondrous soothing withal to 
olfactories agitated by the patchoulis and jockey clubs of modern 
pretenders and petit-maitres, with 'their grey young heads and 
pert intelligence, the motto of whose ignorance is " Connu ! " Were 
a dose of its antique, mature experience adhibited to the Western 
before he visits the East, those few who could digest it might 
escape the normal lot of being twisted round the fingers of every 
rogue they meet from Dragoman to Rajah. And a quotation from 
them tells at once : it shows the quoter to be a man of education, 
not a " Jangalf," a sylvan or savage, as the Anglo-Indian official 
is habitually termed by his more civilised " fellow-subject." 

The main difference between the classical apologue and the 
fable in The Nights is that while ALsop and Gabrias write laconic 
tales with a single event and a simple moral, the Arabian fables 
are often " long-continued novelle involving a variety of events, 
each characterised by some social or political aspect, forming a 
narrative highly interesting in itself, often exhibiting the most 
exquisite moral, and yet preserving, with rare ingenuity, the 
peculiar characteristics of the actors." 2 And the distinction 
between the ancient and the mediaeval apologue, including the 
modern which, since " Reineke Fuchs," is mainly German, appears 
equally pronounced. The latter is humorous enough and rich in 
the wit which results from superficial incongruity ; but it ignores 
the deep underlying bond which connects man with beast. Again, 

1 The older Arab writers, I repeat, do not ascribe fables or beast-apologues to 
Lokman ; they record only '* dictes " and proverbial sayings, 
* Professor Taylor Lewis : Preface to Pilpay. 

122 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

the main secret of its success is the strain of pungent satire, 
especially in the Renardine Cycle, which the people could apply 
to all unpopular " lordes and prelates, gostly and worldly." 

Our Recueil contains two distinct sets of apologues. 1 The 
first (vol. iii.) consists of eleven, alternating with five anecdotes 
(Nights cxlvi. cliii.), following the lengthy . and knightly 
romance of King Omar bin al Nu'man and followed by the 
melancholy love tale of Ali bin Bakkar. The second series in 
vol. ix., consisting of eight fables, not including ten anecdotes 
(Nights cmi. cmxxiv.), is injected into the romance of King 
Jali'ad and Shimas mentioned by Al-Mas'udi as independent 
of The Nights. In both places the Beast-fables are intro- 
duced with some art and add variety to the subject-matter, 
obviating monotony the deadly sin of such works and giving 
repose to the hearer or reader after a climax of excitement 
such as the murder of the Wazirs. And even these are not 
allowed to pall upon the mental palate, being mingled with 
anecdotes and short tales, such as the Hermits (iii. 125), with 
biographical or literary episodes, acroamata, table-talk and 
analects where humorous Rabelaisian anecdote finds a place ; 
in fact the fabliau or novella. This style of composition may be 
as ancient as the apologues. We know that it dates as far back 
as Rameses III., from the history of the Two Brothers in the 
Orbigny papyrus, 2 the prototype of Yusuf and Zulaykha, the 

1 In the Katha Sarit Sagara the beast-apologues are more numerous, but they can be 
reduced to two great nuclei ; the first in chapter Ix. (Lib. x.) and the second in the same 
book chapters Ixii-lxv. Here too they are mixed up with anecdotes and acroamata 
after the fashion of The Nights, suggesting great antiquity for this style of composition. 

8 Brugsch, History of Egypt, vol. i. 266 et seq. The fabliau is interesting in more 
ways than one. Anepu the elder (Potiphar) understands the language of cattle, an 
idea ever cropping up in Folk-lore; and Bata (Joseph), his "little brother," who 
becomes a " panther of the South (Nubia) for rage" at the wife's impudique proposal, 
takes the form of a bull metamorphosis full blown. It is not, as some have called it, 
the oldest book in the world ; " that name was given by M. Chabas to a MS. of 
Proverbs, dating from B.C. 2200. See also the " Story of Saneha," a novel earlier than 
the popular date of Moses, in the Contes Populaires of Egypt. 

Terminal Essay. 123 

Koranic Joseph and Potiphar's wife. It is told with a 
charming naYvete* and such sharp touches of local colour as, 
11 Come, let us make merry an hour and lie together ! Let down 
thy hair!" 

Some of the apologues in The Nights are pointless enough, 
rien moins qu'amusants ; but in the best specimens, such as the 
Wolf and the Fox 1 (the wicked man and the wily man), both 
characters are carefully kept distinct and neither action nor 
dialogue ever flags. Again The Flea and the Mouse (iii. 151), of 
a type familiar to students of the Pilpay cycle, must strike the 
home-reader as peculiarly quaint. 

Next in date to the Apologue comes the Fairy Tale proper, 
where the natural universe is supplemented by one of purely 
imaginative existence. " As the active world is inferior to the 
rational soul," says Bacon with his normal sound sense, "so 
Fiction gives to Mankind what History denies and in some 
measure satisfies the Mind with Shadows when it cannot enjoy 
the Substance. And as real History gives us not the success of 
things according to the deserts of vice and virtue, Fiction corrects 
it and presents us with the fates and fortunes of persons rewarded 
and punished according to merit." But I would say still more. 
History paints or attempts to paint life as it is, a mighty maze 
with or without a plan : Fiction shows or would show us life as it 

1 The fox and the jackal are confounded by the Arabic dialects not by the Persian, 
whose " Rubah " can never be mistaken for " Shaghal." " Sa'lab " among the Semites 
is locally applied to either beast and we can distinguish the two only by the fox being 
solitary and rapacious, and the jackal gregarious and a carrion -eater. In all Hindu 
tales the jackal seems to be an awkward substitute for the Grecian and classical fox, 
the Giddar or Kola (Cants aureus) being by no means sly and wily as the Lomri (Vtdpes 
vulgaris). This is remarked by Weber (Indische Studien) and Prof. Benfey's retort 
about "King Nobel" the lion is by no means to the point. See Katha Sarit 
Sagara, ii. 28. 

I may add that in Northern Africa jackal's gall, like jackal's grape (Solanumnigrum=z 
black nightshade), ass's milk and melted camel-hump, is used aphrodisiacally as an 
unguent by both sexes. See p. 239, etc. of Le Jardin parfume du Cheikh Nefzaoui, 
of whom more presently. 

A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

should be, wisely ordered and laid down on fixed lines. Thus 
Fiction is not the mere handmaid of History : she has a house- 
hold of her own and she claims to be the triumph of Art which, 
as Goethe remarked, is " Art because it is not Nature." Fancy, 
la folle du logis> is " that kind and gentle portress who holds the 
gate of Hope wide open, in opposition to Reason, the surly and 
scrupulous guard." 1 As Palmerin of England says and says well, 
" For that the report of noble deeds doth urge the courageous 
mind to equal those who bear most commendation of their 
approved valiancy ; this is the fair fruit of Imagination and of 
ancient histories." And, last but not least, the faculty of Fancy 
takes count of the cravings of man's nature for the marvellous, 
the impossible, and of his higher aspirations for the Ideal, the 
Perfect : she realises the wild dreams and visions of his generous 
youth and portrays for him a portion of that "other and better 
world," with whose expectation he would console his age. 

The imaginative varnish of The Nights serves admirably as a 
foil to the absolute realism of the picture in general. We enjoy 
being carried away from trivial and commonplace characters, 
scenes and incidents ; from the matter of fact surroundings of a 
work-a-day world, a life of eating and drinking, sleeping and 
waking, fighting and loving, into a society and a mise-en-scene 
which we suspect can exist and which we know does not. Every 
man at some turn or term of his life has longed for supernatural 
powers and a glimpse of Wonderland. Here he is in the midst 
of it. Here he sees mighty spirits summoned to work the human 
mite's will, however whimsical, who can transport him in an eye- 
twinkling whithersoever he wishes ; who can ruin cities and build 
palaces of gold and silver, gems and jacinths ; who can serve up 
delicate viands and delicious drinks in priceless chargers and im- 
possible cups and bring the choicest fruits from farthest Orient : 

1 Rambler, No. Ixvii. 

Terminal Essay. 125 

here he finds magas and magicians who can make kings of his 
friends, slay armies of his foes and bring any number of beloveds 
to his arms. And from this outraging probability and out- 
stripping possibility arises not a little of that strange fascination 
exercised for nearly two centuries upon the life and literature of 
Europe by The Nights, even in their mutilated and garbled form. 
The reader surrenders himself to the spell, feeling almost inclined 
to enquire "And why may it not be true.?" 1 His brain is dazed 
and dazzled by the splendours which flash before it, by the sudden 
procession of Jinns and Jinniyahs, demons and fairies, some 
hideous, others preternaturally beautiful ; by good wizards and 
evil sorcerers, whose powers are unlimited for weal and for woe ; 
by mermen and mermaids, flying horses, talking animals, and 
reasoning elephants ; by magic rings and their slaves and by 
talismanic couches which rival the carpet of Solomon. Hence, 
as one remarks, these Fairy Tales have pleased and still continue 
to please almost all ages, all ranks and all different capacities. 

Dr. Hawkesworth * observes that these Fairy Tales find favour 
" because even 'their machinery, wild and wonderful as it is, has 
its laws ; and the magicians and enchanters perform nothing but 
what was naturally to be expected from such beings, after we had 
once granted them existence." Mr. Heron " rather supposes the 
very contrary is the truth of the fact. It is surely the strange- 
ness, the unknown nature, the anomalous character of the super- 
natural agents here employed, that makes them to operate so 
powerfully on our hopes, fears, curiosities, sympathies, and, in 
short, on all the feelings of our hearts. We see men and women, 
who possess qualities to recommend them to our favour, subjected 
to the influence of beings, whose good or ill will, power or weak- 

1 Some years ago I was asked by my old landlady if ever in the course of my 
travels I had come across Captain Gulliver. 

2 In "The Adventurer" quoted by Mr. Heron, "Translator's Preface to the 
Arabian Tales of Chaves and Cazotte." 

126 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

ness, attention or neglect, are regulated by motives and circum- 
stances which we cannot comprehend : and hence, we naturally 
tremble for their fate, with the same anxious concern, as we 
should for a friend wandering, in a dark night, amidst torrents 
and precipices ; or preparing to land on a strange island, while he 
knew not whether he should be received, on the shore, by can- 
nibals waiting to tear him piecemeal, and devour him, or by 
gentle beings, disposed to cherish him with fond hospitality." 
Both writers have expressed themselves well, but meseems each 
has secured, as often happens, a fragment of the truth and holds 
it to be the whole Truth. Granted that such spiritual creatures 
as Jinns walk the earth, we are pleased to find them so very 
human, as wise and as foolish in word and deed as ourselves : 
similarly we admire In a landscape natural forms like those of 
Staffa or the Palisades which favour the works of architecture. 
Again, supposing such preternaturalisms to be around and 
amongst us, the wilder and more capricious they prove, the 
more our attention is excited and our forecasts are baffled to be 
set right in the end. But this is not all. The grand source of 
pleasure in Fairy Tales is the natural desire to learn more of the 
Wonderland which is known to many as a word and nothing 
more, like Central Africa before the last half century : thus the 
interest is that of the " Personal Narrative " of a grand explora- 
tion to one who delights in travels. The pleasure must be 
greatest where faith is strongest ; for instance amongst imagina- 
tive races like the Kelts and especially Orientals, who imbibe 
supernaturalism with their mother's milk. " I am persuaded/' 
writes Mr. Bayle St. John, 1 " that the great scheme of preternatural 
energy, so fully developed in The Thousand and One Nights, is 
believed in by the majority of the inhabitants of all the religious 

1 "Life in a Levantine Family" chapt. xi. Since the able author found his 
"family" firmly believing in The Nights, much has been changed in Alexandria ; but 
the faith in Jinn and Ifrit, ghost and vampire is lively as ever. 

Terminal Essay. 127 

professions both in Syria and Egypt." He might have added 
" by every reasoning being from prince to peasant, from Mullah 
to Badawi, between Marocco and Outer Ind." 

The Fairy Tale in The Nights is wholly and purely Persian. 
The gifted Iranian race, physically the noblest and the most 
beautiful of all known to me, has exercised upon the world- 
history an amount of influence which has not yet been fully 
recognised. It repeated for Babylonian art and literature what 
Greece had done for Egyptian, whose dominant idea was that of 
working for eternity a K-riJ/xa cts act. Hellas and Iran instinc- 
tively chose as their characteristic the idea of Beauty, rejecting 
all that was exaggerated and grotesque ; and they made the 
sphere of Art and Fancy as real as the world of Nature and Fact. 
The innovation was hailed by the Hebrews. The so-called 
Books of Moses deliberately and ostentatiously ignored the future 
state of rewards and punishments, the other world which ruled 
the life of the Egyptian in this world : the lawgiver, whoever he 
may have been, Osarsiph or Moshe, apparently held the tenet 
unworthy of a race whose career he was directing to conquest 
and isolation in dominion. But the Jews, removed to Mesopo- 
tamia, the second cradle of the creeds, presently caught the 
infection of their Asiatic media ; superadded Babylonian legend 
to Egyptian myth ; stultified The Law by supplementing it with 
the " absurdities of foreign fable** and ended, as the Talmud 
proves, with becoming the most wildly superstitious and " other- 
worldly" of mankind. 

The same change befel Al-Islam. The whole of its super- 
naturalism is borrowed bodily from Persia, which had " impara- 
dised Earth by making it the abode of angels." Mohammed, 
a great and commanding genius, blighted and narrowed by sur- 
roundings and circumstance to something little higher than a 
Covenanter or a Puritan, declared to his followers, 

" I am sent to 'stablish the manners and customs ; " 

128 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

and his deficiency of imagination made him dislike everything 
but " women, perfumes, and prayers," with an especial aversion 
to music and poetry, plastic art and fiction. Yet his system, 
unlike that of Moses, demanded thaumaturgy and metaphysical 
entities, and these he perforce borrowed from the Jews who had 
borrowed them from the Babylonians : his soul and spirit, his 
angels and devils, his cosmogony, his heavens and hells, even the 
Bridge over the Great Depth are all either Talmudic or Iranian* 
But there he stopped and would have stopped others. His 
enemies among the Koraysh were in the habit of reciting certain 
Persian fabliaux and of extolling them as superior to the silly 
and equally fictitious stories of the "Glorious Koran/' The 
leader of these scoffers was one Nazr ibn Hdris who, taken 
prisoner after the Battle of Bedr, was incontinently decapitated, 
by apostolic command, for what appears to be a natural and 
sensible preference. It was the same furious fanaticism and one- 
idea'd intolerance which made Caliph Omar destroy all he could 
find of the Alexandrian Library and prescribe burning for the 
Holy Books of the Persian Guebres. And the taint still lingers in 
Al-Islam : it will be said of a pious man, " He always studies 
the Koran, the Traditions and other books of Law and Religion ; 
and he never reads poems nor listens to music or to stories." 

Mohammed left a dispensation or rather a reformation so arid, 
jejune and material that it promised little more than the " Law 
of Moses," before this was vivified and racially baptised by Meso- 
potamian and Persic influences. But human nature was stronger 
than the Prophet and, thus outraged, took speedy and absolute 
revenge. Before the first century had elapsed, orthodox Al-Islam 
was startled by the rise of Tasawwuf or Sufyism 1 a revival of 
classic Platonism and Christian Gnosticism, with a mingling of 
modern Hylozoism ; which, quickened by the glowing imagina- 

1 The name dates from the second century A.H. or before A.D.8i$. 

Terminal Essay. 129 

tion of the East, speedily formed itself into a creed the most 
poetical and impractical, the most spiritual and the most trans- 
cendental ever invented ; satisfying all man's hunger for "belief" 
which, if placed upon a solid basis of fact and proof, would forth- 
right cease to be belief. 

I will take from The Nights, as a specimen of the true Persian 
romance, " The Queen of the Serpents " (vol. v. 298), the subject 
of Lane's Carlylean denunciation. The first gorgeous picture is 
the Session of the Snakes which, like their Indian congeners the 
Naga kings and queens, have human heads and reptile bodies, 
an Egyptian myth that engendered the "old serpent " of Genesis. 
The Sultanah welcomes Hdsib Karfm al-Dm, the hapless lad who 
had been left in a cavern to die by the greedy woodcutters ; and, 
in order to tell him her tale, introduces the " Adventures of 
Bulukiya " : the latter is an Israelite converted by editor and 
scribe to Mohammedanism ; but we can detect under his assumed 
faith the older creed. Solomon is not buried by authentic his- 
tory "beyond the Seven (mystic) Seas," but at Jerusalem or 
Tiberias ; and his seal-ring suggests the Jam-i-Jam, the crystal 
cup of the great King Jamshfd. The descent of the Archangel 
Gabriel, so familiar to Al-Islam, is the manifestation of Bahman, 
the First Intelligence, the mightiest of the Angels who enabled 
Zarathustra-Zoroaster to walk like Bulukiya over the Dalatf or 
Caspian Sea. 1 Amongst the sights shown to Bulukiya, as he 
traverses the Seven Oceans, is a battle royal between the believ- 
ing and the unbelieving Jinns, true Magian dualism, the eternal 
duello of the Two Roots or antagonistic Principles, Good and 
Evil, Hormuzd and Ahriman, which Milton has debased into a 
common-place modern combat fought also with cannon. Sakhr 
the Jinni is Eshem chief of the Divs, and Kaf, the encircling 

1 Dabistan i. 231 etc. 
VOL. X. 

130. Alf Laylah wa Laylah, 

mountain, is a later edition of Persian Alborz. So in the Mantak 
al-Tayr (Colloquy of the Flyers) the Birds, emblems of souls, 
seeking the presence of the gigantic feathered biped Simurgh, their 
god, traverse seven Seas (according to others seven Wadys) of 
Search, of Love, of Knowledge, of Competence, of Unity, of Stupe- 
faction, and of Altruism (i.e. annihilation of self), the several stages 
of contemplative life. At last, standing upon the mysterious 
island of the Simurgh and " casting a clandestine glance at him 
they saw thirty birds * in him ; and when they turned their eyes 
to themselves the thirty birds seemed one Simurgh : they saw in 
themselves the entire Simurgh ; they saw in the Simurgh the 
thirty birds entirely." Therefore they arrived at the solution of 
the problem " We and Thou ; " that is, the identity of God and 
Man ; they were for ever annihilated in the Simurgh and the 
shade vanished in the sun (Ibid. iii. 250). The wild ideas con- 
cerning Khalit and Malit (vol. v. 319) are again Guebre. "From 
the seed of Kayomars (the androgyne, like pre-Adamite man) 
sprang a tree shaped like two human beings and thence pro- 
ceeded Meshia and Meshianah, first man and woman, progeni- 
tors of mankind ; " who, though created for " Shfdistan, Light- 
land," were seduced by Ahriman. This " two-man-tree " is evi- 
dently the duality of Physis and Anti-physis, Nature and her 
counterpart, the battle between Mihr, Izad or Mithra with his 
Surush and Feristeh (Seraphs and Angels) against the Divs who 
are the children of Time led by the arch-demon Eshem. Thus 
when Hormuzd created the planets, the dog, and all useful 
animals and plants, Ahriman produced the comets, the wolf, 
noxious beasts and poisonous growths. The Hindus represent 
the same metaphysical idea by Bramha the Creator and Visva- 

1 Because Si = thirty and Murgh = bird. In McClenachan's Addendum to 
Mackay's Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry we find the following definition : " Simorgh. 
A monstrous griffin, guardian of the Persian mysteries." 

Terminal Essay. 131 

karma, the Anti-creator, 1 miscalled by Europeans Vulcan : the 
former fashions a horse and a bull and the latter caricatures them 
with an ass and a buffalo, evolution turned topsy turvy. After 
seeing nine angels and obtaining an explanation of the Seven 
Stages of Earth which is supported by the Gav-i-Zamin, the 
energy, symbolised by a bull, implanted by the Creator in the 
mundane sphere, Bulukiya meets the four Archangels, to wit 
Gabriel who is the Persian Rawanbakhsh or Life-giver ; Michael 
or Beshter, Raphael or Israfil alias Ardibihisht, and Azazel or 
Azrail who is Dumd or Mordad, the Death-giver ; and the four 
are about to attack the Dragon, that is, the demons hostile to 
mankind who were driven behind Alborz-Kaf by Tahmuras the 
ancient Persian king. Bulukiya then recites an episode within an 
episode, the " Story of Jdnshah," itself a Persian name and 
accompanied by two others (vol. v. 329), the mise-en-scene being 
Kabul and the King of Khorasan appearing in the proem. 
Janshah, the young Prince, no sooner comes to man's estate than 
he loses himself out hunting and falls in with cannibals whose 
bodies divide longitudinally, each moiety going its own way : 
these are the Shikk (split ones) which the Arabs borrowed from 
the Persian Ni'm-chihrah or Half-faces. They escape to the 
Ape-island whose denizens are human in intelligence and speak 
articulately, as the universal East believes the/can : these Simiads 
are at chronic war with the Ants, alluding to some obscure 
myth which gave rise to the gold-diggers of Herodotus and other 
classics, " emmets in size somewhat less than dogs but bigger than 
foxes." 2 The episode then falls into the banalities of Oriental 

1 For a poor and inadequate description of the festivals commemorating this ' Archi- 
tect of the Gods "see vol. iii. 177, " View of the History etc. of the Hindus" by the 
learned Dr. Ward, who could see in them only the " low and sordid nature of idola- 
try." But we can hardly expect better things from a missionary in 1822, when no one 
took the trouble to understand what " idolatry " means. 

2 Rawlinson (ii. 491) on Herod, iii. c. 102. Nearchus saw the skins of these 
formica Indicze, by some rationalists explained as " jackals," whose stature corresponds 

132 A If Laylah wa Lay la k. 

folk-lore. Janshah, passing the Sabbation river and reaching the 
Jews' city, is persuaded to be sewn up in a skin and is carried in 
the normal way to the top of the Mountain of Gems where he 
makes acquaintance with Shaykh Nasr, Lord of the Birds : he 
enters the usual forbidden room ; falls in love with the pattern 
Swan-maiden ; wins her by the popular process ; loses her and 
recovers her through the Monk Yaghmtis, whose name, like that 
of King Teghmus, is a burlesque of the Greek ; and, finally, when 
she is killed by a shark, determines to mourn her loss till the end 
of his days. Having heard this story Bulukiya quits him; and, 
resolving to regain his natal land, falls in with Khizr ; and the 
Green Prophet, who was Wazir to Kay Kobad (vith century B. C.) 
and was connected with Macedonian Alexander (!) enables hiroi 
to win his wish. The rest of the tale calls for no comment 

Thirdly and lastly we have the histories, historical stories and the 
" Ana " of great men in which Easterns as well as Westerns 
delight : the gravest writers do not disdain to relieve the dullness 
of chronicles and annals by means of such discussions, humorous 
or pathetic, moral or grossly indecent. The dates must greatly 
vary : some of the anecdotes relating to the early Caliphs appear 
almost contemporary ; others, like Ali of Cairo and Abu al-Shamat, 
may be as late as the Ottoman Conquest of Egypt (sixteenth 
century). All are distinctly Sunnite and show fierce animus 
against the Shi'ah heretics, suggesting that they were written after 
the destruction of the Fatimite dynasty (twelfth century) by Salah 
al-Din (Saladin the Kurd) one of the latest historical personages 
and the last king named in The Nights. 1 These anecdotes are so 

with the text, and by others as " pengolens " or ant-eaters (mam's penUdactyld). The 
learned Sanskritist, H. H. Wilson, quotes the name Pippilika = ant-gold, given by the 
people of Little Thibet to the precious dust thrown up in the emmet heaps. 

1 A writer in the Edinburgh Review (July, '86), of whom more presently, suggests 
that The Nights assumed essentially their present shape during the general revival of 
letters, arts and requirements which accompanied the Kurdish and Tartar irruptions into 
the Nile Valley, a golden age which embraced the whole of the thirteenth, fourteenth aod 
fifteenth centuries and ended with the Ottoman Conquest in A.D. 1527. 

Terminal Essay. '33 

often connected with what a learned Frenchman terms the 
" regne fe*erique de Haroun er-Re'schid," 1 that the Great Caliph 
becomes the hero of this portion of The Nights. Aaron the 
Orthodox was the central figure of the most splendid empire the 
world had seen, the Viceregent of Allah combining the powers of 
Caesar and Pope, and wielding them right worthily according to 
the general voice of historians. To quote a few : Ali bin Talib 
al-Khorasdni described him, in A.D. 934, a century and-a-half 
after his death when flattery would be tongue-tied, as, " one 
devoted to war and pilgrimage, whose bounty embraced the folk 
at large." Sa'adi (ob. A.D. 1291) tells a tale highly favourable 
to him in the "Gulistan" (lib. i. 36). Fakhr al-Din 2 (xivth 
century) lauds his merits, eloquence, science and generosity ; 
and Al-Siyuti (nat. A.D. 1445) asserts " He was one of 
the most distinguished of Caliphs and the most illustrious 
of the Princes of the Earth" (p. 290). The Shaykh al- 
Nafzdwi 3 (sixteenth century) in his Rauz al-'Atir fi' Nazah 

1 Let us humbly hope not again to hear of the golden prime of 
" The good (fellow?) Haroun Alrasch'id," 

a mispronunciation which suggests only a rasher of bacon. Why will not poets mind 
their quantities, in lieu of stultifying their lines by childish ignorance ? What can be 
more painful than Byron's 

"They laid his dust in Ar'qua (for Arqua') where he died P " 

* See De Sacy's Chrestomalhie Arabe (Paris, 1826), vol. i. 

' See Le Jardin Parfum du Cheikh Nefzaoui Manuel d'Erotologie Arabe Traduction 
revue et corrige'e Edition priv^e, imprime' a deux cent.-vingt exemplaires, par Isidore 
Liseux et ses Amis, Paris, 1866. The editor has forgotten to note that the celebrated Sidi 
Mohammed copied some of the tales from The Nights and borrowed others (I am 
assured by a friend) from Tunisian MSS. of the same work. The book has not been fairly 
edited : the notes abound in mistakes, the volume lacks an index, &c., &c. Since this was 
written the Jardin ParfumS has been twice translated into English as "The Perfumed 
Garden of the Cheikh Nefzaoui, a Manual of Arabian Erotology (sixteenth century). 
Revised and corrected translation, Cosmopoli : mdccclxx'xvi. : for the Kama Shastra 
Society of London and Benares and for private circulation only." A rival version will 
be brought out by a bookseller whose Committee, as he calls it, appears to be the 
model of literary pirates, robbing the author as boldly and as openly as if they picked 
his pocket before his face. 

134 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

al-Khatir = Scented Garden-site for Heart-delight, calls Harun 
(chapt. vii.) the " Master of munificence and bounty, the best 
of the generous." And even the latest writers have not ceased 
to praise him. Says Alf Aziz Efendi the Cretan, in the Story of 
Jewdd ! (p. Si), " Harun was the most bounteous, illustrious and 
upright of the Abbaside Caliphs." 

The fifth Abbaside was fair and handsome, of noble and majestic 
presence, a sportsman and an athlete who delighted in polo and 
archery. He showed sound sense and true wisdom in his speech 
to the grammarian-poet Al-Asma'i, who had undertaken to teach 
him : " Ne m'enseignez jamais en public, et ne vous empressez 
pas trop de me donner des avis en particulier. Attendez ordinaire- 
ment que je vous interroge, et contentez-vous de me donner 
une response precise a ce que je vous demanderai, sans y rien 
ajouter de superflu. Gardez vous surtout de vouloir me 
pre*occuper pour vous attirer ma cre*ance, et pour vous donner de 
i'autorite*. Ne vous etendez jamais trop en long sur les histoires 
et les traditions que vous me raconterez, si je ne vous en donne la 
permission. Lorsque vous verrai que je m'eloignerai de requite* dans 
mes jugements, ramenez-moi avec douceur, sans user de paroles 
fdcheuses ni de re*primandes. Enseignez-moi principalement les 
choses qui sont les plus necessaries pour les discours que je dois 
faire en public, dans les mosquees et ailleurs ; et ne parlez point 
en termes obscurs, ou myste'rieux, ni avec des paroles trop 
recherche"es." 2 

He became well read in science and letters, especially history 
and tradition, for " his understanding was as the understanding of 

1 Translated by a well-known Turkish scholar, Mr. E. J. W. Gibb, (Glasgow, Wilson 
and McCormick, 1884). 

2 D'Herbelot (s. v. " Asmai"): I am reproacher by a dabbler in Orientalism for using 
this admirable writer who shows more knowledge in one page than my critic does in a 
whole volume. 

Terminal Essay, 135 

the learned ; " and, like all educated Arabs of his day, he was a 
connoisseur of poetry which at times he improvised with success." 1 
He made the pilgrimage every alternate year and sometimes on foot, 
while "his military expeditions almost equalled his pilgrimages." 
Day after day during his Caliphate he prayed a hundred " bows," 
never neglecting them, save for some especial reason, till his 
death ; and he used to give from his privy purse alms to the 
extent of a hundred dirhams per diem. He delighted in panegyry 
and liberally rewarded its experts, one of whom, Abd al- 
Sammak the Preacher, fairly said of him, " Thy humility in thy 
greatness is nobler than thy greatness." " No Caliph," says 
Al-Niftawayh, "had been so profusely liberal to poets, lawyers 
and divines, although as the years advanced he wept over his 
extravagance amongst other sins." There was vigorous manliness 
in his answer to the Grecian Emperor who had sent him an insult- 
ing missive : " In the name of Allah ! From the Commander of 
the Faithful Harun al-Rashid, to Nicephorus the Roman dog. I 
have read thy writ, O son of a miscreant mother ! Thou shalt 
not hear, thou shalt see my reply." Nor did he cease to make the 
Byzantine feel the weight of his arm till he " nakh'd " 2 his camel 
in the imperial Court-yard ; and this was only one instance of his 
indomitable energy and hatred of the Infidel. Yet, if the West is 
to be believed, he forgot his fanaticism in his diplomatic dealings 
and courteous intercourse with Carolus Magnus. 3 Finally, his 

1 For specimens see Al-Siyutf, pp. 301 and 304 ; and the Shaykh al Nafzawi, pp. 


2 The word ' nakh " (to make a camel kneel) is explained in vol. ii. 139. 

3 The present of the famous horologium- clepsydra-cuckoo clock, the dog Becerillo and 
the elephant Abu Lubabah sent by Harun to Charlemagne is not mentioned by 
Eastern authorities and consequently no reference to it will be found in my late friend 
Professor Palmer's little volume " Haroun Alraschid," London, Marcus Ward, 1881. 
We have allusions to many presents, the clock and elephant, tent and linen hangings, 
silken dresses, perfumes, and candelabra of auricalch brought by the Legati (Abdalla, 
Georgius Abba et Felix) of Aaron Amiralmumminim Regis Persarum who entered the 

136 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

civilised and well regulated rule contrasted as strongly with the 
barbarity and turbulence of occidental Christendom, as the 
splendid Court and the luxurious life of Baghdad and its carpets 
and hangings devanced the quasi-savagery of London and Paris 
whose palatial halls were spread with rushes. 

The great Caliph ruled twenty-three years and a few months 
(A.H. 170-193 = A.D. 786-808); and, as his youth was chequered 
and his reign was glorious, so was his end obscure. 1 After a 
vision foreshadowing his death, 2 which happened, as becomes a 
good Moslem, during a military expedition to Khorasan, he 
ordered his grave to be dug and himself to be carried to it in a 
covered litter : when sighting the fosse he exclaimed, " O son of 
man thou art come to this ! " Then he commanded himself to be 
set down and a perlection of the Koran to be made over him ia 
the litter on the edge of the grave. He was buried (aet. forty- 
five) at Sanabad, a village near Tus. 

Aaron the Orthodox appears in The Nights as a headstrong 
and violent autocrat, a right royal figure according to the Moslem 
ideas of his day. But his career shows that he was not more 
tyrannical or more sanguinary than the normal despot of the East, 
or the contemporary Kings of the West : in most points, indeed, 
he was far superior to the historic misrulers who have afflicted the 
world from Spain to furthest China. But a single great crime, a 
tragedy whose details are almost incredibly horrible, marks his 
(reign with the stain of infamy, with a blot of blood never to be 

Port of Pisa (A.D. 801) in (vol. v. 178) Recueil des Histor. des Gaules et de la France, 
etc., par Dom Martin Bouquet, Paris, mdccxliv. The author also quotes the lines : 

Persarum Princeps illi devinctus amore 

Praecipuo fuerat, nomen habens Aaron. 
Gratia cui Caroli prse cunctis Regibus atTjue 

Illis Principibus tempora cara fuit. 

1 Many have remarked that the actual date of the decease is unknown. 

2 See Al-Siyuti (p. 305) and Dr. Jonathan Scott's " Tales, Anecdotes, and Letters," 
(p- 296). 

Terminal Essay. 137 

washed away. This tale, " full of the waters of the eye," as 
Firdausi sings, is the massacre of the Barmecides ; a story which 
has often been told and which cannot here be passed over in silence. 
The ancient and noble Iranian house, belonging to the "Ebnd" 
or Arabised Persians, had long served- the Ommiades till, early 
in our eighth century, Khalid bin Bermek, 1 the chief, entered the 
service of the first Abbaside and became Wazir and Intendant of 
Finance to Al-SafFah. The most remarkable and distinguished of 
the family, he was in office when Al-Mansur transferred the capital 
from Damascus, the head-quarters of the hated Ommiades, to 
Baghdad, built ad hoc. After securing the highest character in 
history by his personal gifts and public services, he was succeeded 
by his son and heir Ydhya (John), a statesman famed from early 
youth for prudence and profound intelligence, liberality and 
nobility of soul. 2 He was charged by the Caliph Al-Mahdi with 
the education of his son Harun, hence the latter was accustomed 
to call him father ; and, until the assassination of the fantastic 
tyrant Al-Hadi, who proposed to make his own child Caliph, he 
had no little difficulty in preserving the youth from death in 
prison. The Orthodox, once seated firmly on the throne, appointed 
Yahya his Grand Wazir. This great administrator had four sons, 
Al-Fazl, Ja'afar, Mohammed, and Musa, 3 in whose time the house 
of Bermek rose to that height from which decline and fall are, in 
the East, well nigh certain and immediate. Al-Fazl was a foster- 
brother of Harun, an exchange of suckling infants having taken 
place between the two mothers for the usual object, a tightening 
of the ties of intimacy : he was a man of exceptional mind, but 
he lacked the charm of temper and manner which characterised 

1 I have given (vol. i. 188) the vulgar derivation of the name ; and D'Herbelot 
(s.v. Barmakian) quotes some Persian lines alluding to the " supping up." Al- 
Mas'udi's account of the family's early history is unfortunately los . This Kha"lid 
succeeded Abu Salamah, first entitled Wazir under Al-Saffah (Ibn Khallikan i. 468). 

8 For his poetry see Ibn Khallikan iv. 103. 

* Their flatterers compared them with the four elements. 

138 Alf Laylah wa Laylah, 

Ja'afar. The poets and rhetoricians have been profuse in their 
praises of the cadet who appears in The Nights as an adviser of 
calm sound sense, an intercessor and a peace-maker, and even 
more remarkable than the rest of his family for an almost 
incredible magnanimity and generosity une ge'ne'rositd effrayante. 
Mohammed was famed for exalted views and nobility of sentiment 
and Musa for bravery and energy: of both it was justly said, 
" They did good and harmed not." * * 

For ten years (not including an interval of seven) from the time 
of Al-Rashid's accession (A.D. 786) to the date of their fall, 
(A.D. 803), Yahya and his sons, Al-Fazl and Ja'afar, were 
virtually rulers of the great heterogeneous empire, which extended 
from Mauritania to Tartary, and they did notable service in 
arresting its disruption. Their downfall came sudden and terrible 
like " a thunderbolt from the blue." As the Caliph and Ja'afar 
were halting in Al-'Umr (the convent) near Anbar-town on the 
Euphrates, after a convivial evening spent in different pavilions, 
Harun during the dead of the night called up his page Yasir 
al-Rikhlah 2 and bade him bring Ja'afar's head. The messenger 
found Ja'afar still carousing with the blind poet Abu Zakkar 
and the Christian physician Gabriel ibn Bakhtiashu, and was 
persuaded to return to the Caliph and report his death ; the 
Wazir adding, " An he express regret I shall owe thee my life ; 
and, if not, whatso Allah will be done." Ja'afar followed 
to listen and heard only the Caliph exclaim "O sucker 
of thy mother's clitoris, if thou answer me another word, 
I will send thee before him ! " whereupon he at once bandaged 
his own eyes and received the fatal blow. Al-Asma'i, who 

1 Al-Mas'udi, chapt. cxii. 

2 Ibn Khallikan (i. 310) says the eunuch Abu Hashim Masrvir, the Sworder of 
Vengeance, who is so pleasantly associated with Ja'afar in many nightly disguises ; but 
the Eunuch survived the Caliph. Fakhr al-Din (p. 27) adds that Masrur was an enemy 
of Ja'afar ; and gives further details concerning the execution. 

Terminal Essay. 139 

was summoned to the presence shortly after, recounts that 
when the head was brought to Harun he gazed at it, and 
summoning two witnesses commanded them to decapitate Yasir, 
crying, " I cannot bear to look upon the slayer" of Ja'afar ! " His 
vengeance did not cease with the death : he ordered the head to 
be gibbetted at one end and the trunk at the other abutment of 
the Tigris bridge where the corpses of the vilest malefactors used 
to be exposed ; and, some months afterwards, he insulted the 
remains by having them burned the last and worst indignity 
which can be offered to a Moslem. There are indeed pity and 
terror in the difference between two such items in the Treasury- 
accounts as these : " Four hundred thousand dinars (200,000) to a 
robe of honour for the Wazir Ja'afar bin Yahya ; " and, "Ten 
kfrat, (5 shill.) to naphtha and reeds for burning the body of Ja'afar 
the Barmecide/' 

Meanwhile Yahya and Al-Fazl, seized by the Caliph Harun's 
command at Baghdad, were significantly cast into the prison 
" Habs al-Zanadikah " of the Guebres and their immense 
wealth which, some opine, hastened their downfall, was con- 
fiscated. According to the historian, Al-Tabari, who, however, 
is not supported by all the annalists, the whole Barmecide family, 
men, women, and children, numbering over a thousand, were 
slaughtered with only three exceptions ; Yahya, his brother 
Mohammed, and his son Al-Fazl. The Calipfa's foster-father, who 
lived to the age of seventy-four, was allowed to die in jail 
(A.H. 805) after two years' imprisonment at Rukkah. Al-Fazl, 
after having been tortured with two hundred blows in order to 
make him produce concealed property, survived his father three 
years and died in Nov. A.H. 808, some four months before his 
terrible foster-brother. A pathetic tale is told of the son warming 
water for the old man's use by pressing, the copper ewer to his 

The motives of -this terrible massacre are variously recounted, 

140 A If Laylah wa Laylak.. 

but no sufficient explanation has yet been, or possibly ever will 
be, given. The popular idea is embodied in The Nights. 1 Harun, 
wishing Ja'afar to be his companion even in the Harem, had 
wedded him, pro forma, to his eldest sister Abbdsah, " the loveliest 
woman of her day," and brilliant in mind as in body ; but he had 
expressly said " I will marry thee to her, that it may be lawful for 
thee to look upon her but thou shalt not touch her." Ja'afar 
bound himself by a solemn oath ; but his mother Attabah was 
mad enough to deceive him in his cups and the result was a boy 
(Ibn Khallikan) or, according to others, twins. The issue was 
sent under the charge of a confidential eunuch and a slave-girl 
to Meccah for concealment; but the secret was divulged to 
Zubaydah who had her own reasons for hating husband and 
wife and cherished an especial grievance against Yahya. 2 Thence 
it soon found its way to head-quarters. Harun's treatment of 
Abbasah supports the general conviction : according to the most 
credible accounts she and her child were buried alive in a pit 
under the floor of her apartment. 

But, possibly, Ja'afar's perjury was only "the last straw." 
Already Al-Fazl bin Rabfa, the deadliest enemy of the Barme- 
cides, had been entrusted (A.D. 786) with the Wazirate which 
he kept seven years. Ja'afar had also acted generously but 
imprudently in abetting the escape of Yahya bin Abdillah, Sayyid 
and Alide, for whom the Caliph had commanded confinement in a 
close dark dungeon : when charged with disobedience the Wazir 
had made full confession and Harun had (they say) exclaimed, 
" Thou hast done well ! " but was heard to mutter, " Allah slay 
me an I slay thee not." 8 The great house seems at times to have 

1 Bresl. Edit., Night dlxvii. vol. vii. pp. 258-260; translated in the Mr. Payne's 
"Tales from the Arabic," vol. i. 189 and headed " Al-Rashid and the Barmecides." 
It is far less lively and dramatic than the account of the same event given by 
Al-Mas'udi, chapt. cxii., by Ibn Khallikan and by Fakhr al-Din. 

3 Al-Mas'udi, chapt. cxi. 

3 See Dr. Jonathan Scott's extracts from Major Ouseley's "Tarikh-i-Barmaki." 

Terminal Essay. 141 

abused its powers by being too peremptory with Harun and 
Zubaydah, especially in money matters ; * and its very greatness 
would have created for it many and powerful enemies and 
detractors who plied the Caliph with anonymous verse and prose. 
Nor was it forgotten that, before the spread of Al-Islam, they had 
presided over the Naubehar or Pyraethrum of Balkh ; and Harun 
is said to have remarked anent Yahya, "The zeal for magianism, 
rooted in his heart, induces him to save all the monuments 
connected with his faith." 2 Hence the charge that they were 
" Zanadakah," a term properly applied to those who study the 
Zend scripture, but popularly meaning Mundanists, Positivists 
Reprobates, Atheists ; and it may be noted that, immediately 
after Al-Rashid's death, violent religious troubles broke out in 
Baghdad. Ibn Khallikan 3 quotes Sa'i'd ibn Salim, a well-known 
grammarian and traditionist who philosophically remarked, " Of a 
truth the Barmecides did nothing to deserve Al-Rashid's severity, 
but the day (of their power and prosperity) had been long and 
whatso endureth long waxeth longsome." Fakhr al-Din says 
(p. 27), "On attribue encore leur ruine aux manieres fieres et 
orgueilleuses de Djafar (Ja'afar) et de Fadhl (Al-Fazl), manieres 
que les rois ne sauroient supporter/' According to Ibn 
Badrun, the poet, when the Caliph's sister 'Olayyah 4 asked him, 
* 4 O my lord, I have not seen thee enjoy one happy day since 
putting Ja'afar to death : wherefore didst thou slay him ? " he 
answered, "My dear life, an I thought that my shirt knew the 
reason I would rend it in pieces!" I therefore hold with 
Al-Mas'udi, " As regards the intimate cause (of the catastrophe) 
it is unknown and Allah is Omniscient." 

1 Al-Mas'udi, chapt. cxii. For the liberties Ja'afar took see Ibn Khallikan, i. 303. 

8 Ibid, chapt. xxiv. In vol. ii. 29 of The Nights, I find signs of Ja'afar's suspected 
heresy. For Al-Rashid's hatred of the Zindiks see Al-Siyuti, pp. 292, 301 ; and as 
regards the religious troubles ibid. p. 362 and passim. 

3 Biogr. Diet. i. 309. 

4 This accomplished princess had a practice that suggests the Dame aux Camelias. 

142 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

Aaron the Orthodox appears sincerely to have repented his 
enormous crime. From that date he never enjoyed refreshing 
sleep : he would have given his whole realm to recall Ja'afar to 
life ; and, if any spoke slightingly of the Barmecides in his 
presence, he would exclaim, " God damn your fathers ! Cease 
to blame them or fill the void they have left." And he had 
ample reason to mourn the loss. After the extermination of the 
wise and enlightened family, the affairs of the Caliphate never 
prospered : Fazl bin Rabfa, though a man of intelligence 
and devoted to letters, proved a poor substitute for Yahya 
and Ja'afar ; and the Caliph is reported to have applied to him 
the couplet : 

No sire to your sire, 1 I bid you spare o Your calumnies or their place 

His unwise elevation of his two rival sons filled him with fear 
of poison, and, lastly, the violence and recklessness of the popular 
mourning for the Barmecides, 2 whose echo has not yet died away, 
must have added poignancy to his tardy penitence. The crime 
still "sticks fiery off" from the rest of Harun's career: it stands 
out in ghastly prominence as one of the most terrible tragedies 
recorded by history, and its horrible details make men write 
passionately on the subject to this our day. 3 

As of Harun so of Zubaydah it may be said that she was far 
superior in most things to contemporary royalties, and she was 
not worse at her worst than the normal despot-queen of the 
Morning-land. We must not take seriously the tales of her 

1 i.e. Perdition to your fathers, Allah's curse on your ancestors. 

2 See vol. iv. 159, "Ja'afar and the Bean-seller; " where the great Wazir is said to 
have been "crucified; " and vol. iv. pp. 179, 181. Also Roebuck's Persian Proverbs, 
i. 2, 346, "This also is through the munificence of the Barmecides." 

3 I especially allude to my friend Mr. Payne's admirably written account of it in his 
concluding Essay (vol. ix.)- From his views of the Great Caliph and the Lady Zubaydah 
I must differ in every point except the destruction of the Barmecides. 

Terminal Essay. 143 

jealousy in The Nights, which mostly end in her selling off or 
burying alive her rivals ; but, even were all true, she acted after 
the recognised fashion of her exalted sisterhood. The secret 
history of Cairo, during the last generation, tells of many a 
viceregal dame who committed all the crimes, without any of 
the virtues which characterised Harun's cousin-spouse. And 
the difference between the manners of the Caliphate and the 
" respectability " of the nineteenth century may be measured by 
the Tale called ." Al-Maamun and Zubaydah." 1 The lady, having 
won a game of forfeits from her husband, and being vexed with 
him for imposing unseemly conditions when he had been the 
winner, condemned him to lie with the foulest and filthiest 
kitchen-wench in the palace; and thus was begotten the Caliph 
who succeeded and destroyed her son. 

Zubaydah was the grand-daughter of the second Abbaside 
Al-Mansur, by his son Ja'afar whom The Nights persistently 
term Al-Kasim: her name was Amat al-Aziz or Handmaid of 
the Almighty ; her cognomen was Umm Ja'afar as her husband's 
was Abu Ja'afar ; and her popular name " Creamkin " derives 
from Zubdah, 2 cream or fresh butter, on account of her plump- 
ness and freshness. She was as majestic and munificent as her 
husband ; and the hum of prayer was never hushed in her 
palace. Al-Mas'udi 3 makes a historian say to the dangerous 
Caliph Al-Kahir, " The nobleness and generosity of this Princess, in 
serious matters as in her diversions, place her in the highest rank " ; 
and he proceeds to give ample proof. Al-Siyuti relates how she 
once filled a poet's mouth with jewels which he sold for twenty 

1 Bresl. Edit., vol. vii. 261-62. 

2 Mr. Grattan Geary, in a work previously noticed, informs us (i. 212) "The Sitt 
al-Zobeide, or the Lady Zobeide, was so named from the great Zobeide tribe of 
Arabs occupying the country East and West of the Euphrates near the Hindi'ah 
Canal ; she was the daughter of a powerful Sheik of that tribe." Can this explain 
the "Kasim?" 

Vol. viii. 296. 

144 Alf Laylak wa Laylah* 

thousand dinars. Ibn Khallikan (i. 523) affirms of her, " Her 
charity was ample, her conduct virtuous, and the history of her 
pilgrimage to Meccah and of what she undertook to execute on 
the way is so well-known that it were useless to repeat it." I 
have noted (Pilgrimage iii. 2) how the Darb al-Sharki or Eastern 
road from Meccah to Al-Medinah was due to the piety of 
Zubaydah who dug wells from Baghdad to the Prophet's burial 
place and built not only cisterns and caravanserais, but even a 
wall to direct pilgrims over the shifting sands. She also supplied 
Meccah, which suffered severely from want of water, with the 
chief requisite for public hygiene by connecting it, through levelled 
hills and hewn rocks, with the Ayn al-Mushdsh in the Arafat 
subrange ; and the fine aqueduct, some ten miles long, was 
erected at a cost of 1,700,000 to 2,000,000 of gold pieces. 1 We 
cannot wonder that her name is still famous among the Badawin 
and the " Sons of the Holy Cities." She died at Baghdad, after 
a protracted widowhood, in A.H. 216 and her tomb, which still 
exists, was long visited by the friends and dependents who 
mourned the loss of a devout and most liberal woman. 

The reader will bear with me while I run through the tales and 
add a few remarks to the notices given in the notes : the glance 
must necessarily be brief, however extensive be the theme. The 
admirable introduction follows, in all the texts and MSS. known 
to me, the same main lines but differs greatly in minor details as 
will be seen by comparing Mr. Payne's translation with Lane's 
and mine. In the Tale of the Sage Diibdn appears the speaking 
head which is found in the Kdmil, in Mirkhond and in the 
Kitab al-Uyun : M. C. Barbier de Meynard (v. 503) traces it 
back to an abbreviated text of Al-Mas'udi. I would especially 
recommend to students The Porter and the Three Ladies of 
Baghdad (i. 82), whose mighty orgie ends so innocently in general 

1 Burckhardt, "Travels in Arabia" vol. i. 185. 

Terminal Essay. 145 

marriage. Lane (iii. 746) blames it " because it represents Arab 
ladies as acting like Arab courtesans " ; but he must have known 
that during his day the indecent frolic was quite possible in some 
of the highest circles of his beloved Cairo. To judge by the 
style and changes of person, some of the most "archaic" ex- 
pressions suggest the hand of the Rawi or professional tale-teller ; 
yet as they are in all the texts they cannot be omitted in a loyal 
translation. The following story of The Three Apples perfectly 
justifies my notes concerning which certain carpers complain. 
What Englishman would be jealous enough to kill his cousin- 
wife because a blackamoor in the streets boasted of her favours ? 
But after reading what is annotated in vol. i. 6, and purposely 
placed there to give the key-note of the book, he will understand 
the reasonable nature of the suspicion ; and I may add that the 
same cause has commended these " skunks of the human race >f 
to debauched women in England. 

The next tale, sometimes called " The Two Wazfrs " is notable 
for its regular and genuine drama-intrigue which, however, appears 
still more elaborate and perfected in other pieces. The richness of 
this Oriental plot-invention contrasts strongly with all European 
literatures except the Spaniard's, whose taste for the theatre 
determined his direction, and the Italian, which in Boccaccio's 
day had borrowed freely through Sicily from the East. And the 
remarkable deficiency lasted till the romantic movement dawned 
in France, when Victor Hugo and Alexander Dumas showed their 
marvellous powers of faultless fancy, boundless imagination and 
scenic luxuriance, " raising French Poetry from the dead and not 
mortally wounding French prose." 1 The Two Wazirs is followed 
by the gem of the volume, The Adventure of the Hunchback-jester 
(i. 225), also containing an admirable surprise and a fine develop- 

1 The reverse has been remarked by more than one writer ; and contemporary French 
opinion seems to be that Victor Hugo's influence on French prose was, on the whole, 

not beneficial. 
VOL. X. 

146 A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

ment of character, while its " wild but natural simplicity " and its 
humour are so abounding that it has echoed through the world 
to the farthest West. It gave to Addison the Story of Alnaschar 1 
and to Europe the term " Barmecide Feast," from the " Tale of 
Shacabac " (vol. i. 343). The adventures of the corpse were 
known in Europe long before Galland, as shown by three fabliaux 
in Barbazan. I have noticed that the Barber's Tale of himself 
(i. 317) is historical and I may add that it is told in detail by 
Al-Mas'udi (chapt. cxiv). 

Follows the tale of Nur al-Dm All, and what Galland miscalls 
" The Fair Persian," a brightly written historiette with not a few 
touches of true humour. Noteworthy are the Slaver's address 
(vol. ii. 15), the fine description of the Baghdad garden (vol. ii. 
21-24), tne drinking-party (vol. ii. 25), the Caliph's frolic (vol. ii. 
31-37) and the happy end of the hero's misfortunes (vol. ii. 44), 
Its brightness is tempered by the gloomy tone of the tale which 
succeeds, and which has variants in the Bagh o Bahar, a 
Hindustani version of the Persian " Tale of the Four Darwayshes ;" 
and in the Turkish Kirk Vezir or " Book of the Forty Vezirs." 
Its dismal pe'ripeties are relieved only by the witty indecency of 
Eunuch Bukhayt and the admirable humour of Eunuch Kafur, 
whose " half-lie " is known throughout the East. Here also the 
lover's agonies are piled upon him for the purpose of unpiling at 
last : the Oriental tale-teller knows by experience that, as a rule, 
doleful endings " don't pay." 

1 Mr. W. S. Clouston, the "Storiologist," who is preparing a work to be entitled 
" Popular Tales and Fictions ; their Migrations and Transformations," informs me the 
first to adapt this witty anecdote was Jacques de Vitry, the crusading bishop of Accon 
(Acre) who died at Rome in 1240, after setting the example of " Exempla " or instances 
in his sermons. He had probably heard it in Syria, and he changed the day-dreamer 
into a Milkmaid and her Milk-paii to suit his "flock." It then appears as an 
11 Exemplum" in the Liber de Donis or de Septem Donis (or De Dono Timoris from 
Fear the first gift) of Stephanus de Borbone, the Dominican, ob. Lyons, 1261 : it treated 
of the gifts of the Holy Spirit (Isaiah xi . 2 and 3), Timor, Pietas, Scientia, Fortitudo, 
Consilium, Intellects et Sapientia ; and was plentifully garnished with narratives for the 
use of preachers. 

Terminal Essay. 147 

The next is the long romance of chivalry, " King Omar bin al-< 
Nu'man " etc., which occupies an eighth of the whole repertory 
and the best part of two volumes. Mr. Lane omits it because 
" obscene and tedious," showing the license with which he trans- 
lated ; and he was set right by a learned reviewer, 1 who truly 
declared that "the omission of half-a-dozen passages out of 
four hundred pages would fit it for printing in any language 2 and 
the charge of tediousness could hardly have been applied more 
unhappily." The tale is interesting as a picture of mediaeval Arab 
chivalry and has many other notable points ; for instance, the lines 
(iii. 86) beginning " Allah holds the kingship ! " are a lesson to the 
manichasanism of Christian Europe. It relates the doings of three 
royal generations and has all the characteristics of Eastern art : it 
is a phantasmagoria of Holy Places, palaces and Harems ; convents, 
castles and caverns, here restful with gentle landscapes (ii. 240) 
and there bristling with furious battle-pictures (ii. 117, 221-8, 
249) and tales of princely prowess and knightly derring-do. The 
characters stand out well. King Nu'man is an old lecher who 
deserves his death ; the ancient Dame Zat al-Dawahi merits her 
title Lady of Calamities (to her foes) ; Princess Abrfzah appears 
as a charming Amazon, doomed to a miserable and pathetic end ; 
Zau al-Makan is a wise and pious royalty ; Nuzhat al-Zaman, 
though a longsome talker, is a model sister ; the Wazir Dandan, 
a sage and sagacious counsellor, contrasts with the Chamberlain, 
an ambitious miscreant ; Kanmakan is the typical Arab knight^ 
gentle and brave : 


Now managing the mouthes of stubborn e steedes ; , , 

Now practising the proof of warlike deedes ; 

1 The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register (new series, vol. xxx. Sept. Dec. 1830, 
London, Aliens, 1839) ; p. 69 Review of the Arabian Nights, the Mac Edit. vol. i., 
and H. Torrens. 

2 As a household edition of the " Arabian Nights " is now being prepared, the curious 
reader will have an opportunity of verifying this statement. 

148 Alf Laylah wa Laylak. 

And the kind-hearted, simple-minded Stoker serves as a foil to 
the villains, the kidnapping Badawi and Ghazban the detestable 
negro. The fortunes of the family are interrupted by two epi- 
sodes, both equally remarkable. Taj al-Muluk * is the model 
lover whom no difficulties or dangers can daunt. In Aziz 
and Az/zah (ii. 291) we have the beau ide*al of a loving woman : 
the writer's object was to represent a " softy " who had the luck 
to win the love of a beautiful and clever cousin and the mad folly 
to break her heart. The poetical justice which he receives at 
the hands of women of quite another stamp leaves nothing to be 
desired. Finally the plot of " King Omar" is well worked out; 
and the gathering of all the actors upon the stage before the 
curtain drops may be improbable but it is highly artistic. 

The long Crusading Romance is relieved by a sequence of 
sixteen fabliaux, partly historiettes of men and beasts and 
partly apologues proper a subject already noticed. We have 
then (iii. 162) the saddening and dreary love-tale of AH bin 
Bakkdr, a Persian youth and the Caliph's concubine Shams al- 
Nahar. Here the end is made doleful enough by the deaths of 
the "two martyrs," who are killed off, like Romeo and Juliet, 2 
a lesson that the course of true Love is sometimes troubled and 
that men as well as women can die of the so-called " tender 
passion." It is followed (iii. 212) by the long tale of Kamar al- 
Zaman, or Moon of the Age, the first of that name, the " Cam- 
aralzaman " whom Galland introduced into the best European 
society. Like " The Ebony Horse " it seems to have been 
derived from a common source with " Peter of Provence " and 
" Cleomades and Claremond " ; and we can hardly wonder at its 

1 It has been pointed out to me that in vol. ii. p. 285, line 18 " Zahr Shah " is a 
mistake for Sulayman Shah. 

* I have lately found these lovers at Schloss Sternstein near Crlli in Styria, the 
property of my excellent colleague, Mr. Consul Faber, dating from A.D. 1300 whea 
Jobst of Reichenegg and Agnes of Sternstein were aided and abetted by a Capuchin 
of Seikkloster. 

Terminal Essay. 149 

wide diffusion : the tale is brimful of life, change, movement, 
containing as much character and incident as would fill a modern 
three-volumer and the Supernatural pleasantly jostles the Natural ; 
Dahnash the Jinn and Maymunah daughter of Al-Dimiryat, 1 a 
renowned King of the Jann, being as human in their jealousy 
about the virtue of their lovers as any children of Adam, and 
so their metamorphosis to fleas has all the effect of a surprise. 
The troupe is again drawn with a broad firm touch. Prince 
Charming, the hero, is weak and wilful, shifty and immoral, hasty 
and violent : his two spouses are rivals in abominations as his 
sons, Amjad and As'ad, are examples of a fraternal affection 
rarely found in half-brothers by sister-wives. There is at least 
one fine melodramatic situation (iii. 228); and marvellous feats of 
indecency, a practical joke which would occur only to the canopic 
mind (iii. 300-305), emphasise the recovery of her husband by that 
remarkable " blackguard," the Lady Budur. The interpolated tale 
of Ni'amah and Naomi (iv. i), a simple and pleasing narrative of 
youthful amours, contrasts well with the boiling passions of the 
incestuous and murderous Queens and serves as a pause before 
the grand cttnotiement when the parted meet, the lost are found, 
the unwedded are wedded and all ends merrily as a xixth century 

The long tale of Ala al-Din, our old friend "Aladdin," is wholly 
out of place in its present position (iv. 29) : it is a counterpart of 
Ali Nur al-Din and Miriam the Girdle-girl (vol. ix. i) ; and 
the mention of the Shahbandar or Harbour-master (iv. 29), the 
Kunsul or Consul (p. 84), the Kaptan (Capitano), the use of 
cannon at sea and the choice of Genoa-city (p. 85) prove that it be- 
longs to the xvth or xvith century and should accompany Kamar 
al-Zamdn II. and Ma'aruf at the end of The Nights. Despite the 

1 In page 226 Dr. Steingass sensibly proposes altering the last hemistich (line* 

11-12) tO 

At one time showing the Moon and Sun, 

150 A If Laylak wa Laylak, 

lutist Zubaydah being carried off by the Jinn, the Magic Couch, 
a modification of Solomon's carpet, and the murder of the King 
-who refused to islamize, it is evidently a European tale and I 
believe with Dr. Bacher that it is founded upon the legend of 
" Charlemagne's " daughter Emma and his secretary Eginhardt, 
a's has been noted in the counterpart (vol. ix. i). 

This quasi-historical fiction is followed by a succession of 
fabliaux, novelle and historiettes which fill the rest of vol. iv. 
and the whole of vol. v. till we reach the terminal story, The 
Queen of the Serpents (vol. v. pp. 304-329). It appears to me 
that most of them are historical and could easily be traced. Not 
a few are in Al-Mas'udi; for instance the grim Tale of Hatim 
of Tayy (vol. iv. 94) is given bodily in " Meads of Gold " (iii. 327) ; 
and the two adventures of Ibrahim al-Mahdi with the barber- 
surgeon (vol. iv. 103) and the Merchant's sister (vol. iv. 176) are in 
his pages (vol. vii. pp. 68 and 18). The City of Lubtayt (vol. iv. 99) 
embodies the legend of Don Rodrigo, last of the Goths, and may 
have reached the ears of Washington Irving; Many-columned 
Iram (vol. iv. 113) is held by all Moslems to be factual and 
sundry writers have recorded the tricks played by Al-Maamun 
with the Pyramids of Ji'zah which still show his handiwork. 1 
The germ of Isaac of Mosul (vol. iv. 1 19) is found in Al-Mas'udi 
who (vii. 65) names " Burdn " the poetess (Ibn Khali, i. 268) ; and 
Harun al-Rashid and the Slave-girl (vol. iv. 153) is told by a host 

1 Omitted by Lane for some reason unaccountable as usual. A correspondent sends 
me his version of the lines which occur in The Nights (vol. v. 106 and 107) : 

Behold the Pyramids and hear them teach 

What they can tell of Future and of Past : 
They would declare, had they the gift of speech, 

The deeds that Time hath wrought from first to last. 

* * # 

'My friends, and is there aught beneath the sky 

Can with th' Egyptian Pyramids compare? 
In fear of them strong Time hath passed by ; 

And everything dreads Time in earth and air. 

Terminal Essay. 15* 

of writers. AH the Persian is a rollicking tale of fun from some 
Iranian jest-book : Abu Mohammed hight Lazybones belongs to 
the cycle of " Sindbad the Seaman," with a touch of Whittington 
and his Cat; and Zumurrud (" Smaragdine") in Ali Shar (vol. iv. 
187) shows at her sale the impudence of Miriam the Girdle-girl 
and in bed the fescennine device of the Lady Budur. The 
" Ruined Man who became Rich," etc. (vol. iv. 289) is historical 
and Al-Mas'udi (vii. 281) relates the coquetry of Mahbubah the 
concubine (vol. iv. 291) : the historian also quotes four couplets, 
two identical with Nos. 'i and 2 in The Nights (vol. iv. 292) and 
adding : 

Then see the slave who lords it o'er her lord o In lover privacy and public 

Behold these eyes that one like Ja'afar saw : o Allah on Ja'afar reign boons 

infinite ! 

Uns al-Wujud (vol. v. 32) is a love-tale which has been trans- 
lated into a host of Eastern languages ; and The Lovers of the 
Banu Ozrah belong to Al-Mas'ud/'s "Martyrs of Love" (vii.. 355), 
with the ozrite ''Ozrite love" of Ibn Khallikan (iv. 537). " Harun 
and the Three Poets " (vol. v. 77) has given to Cairo a proverb 
which Burckhardt (No. 561) renders " The day obliterates the 
word or promise of the Night," for 

The promise of night is effaced by day. 
It suggests Congreve's Doris : 

For who o'er night obtain'd her grace, 
She can next day disown, etc. 

" Harun and the three Slave-girls " (vol. v. 81) smacks of Gargantua 
(lib. i. c. 11): "It belongs to me, said one: Tis mine, said 
another " ; and so forth. The Simpleton and the Sharper (vol. v. 83) 
like the Foolish Dominie (vol. v. 1 18) is an old Joe Miller in Hindu 
as well as Moslem folk-lore. "Kisra Anushirwdn" (vol. v. 87) is 

I $2 Alf Laylah wa Laylak. 

"The King, the Owl and the Villages of Al-Mas'udi " (iii. 171), 
who also notices the Persian monarch's four seals of office 
(ii. 204) ; and " Masrur the Eunuch and Ibn Al-Karibi (vol. v. 109) 
is from the same source as Ibn al-Maghazili the Reciter and a 
Eunuch belonging to the Caliph Al-Mu'tazad (vol. viii. 161). In 
the Tale of Tawaddud (vol. v. 1 39) we have the fullest develop- 
ment of the disputations and displays of learning then so common 
in Europe, teste the " Admirable Crichton "; and these were affected 
not only by Eastern tale-tellers but even by sober historians. To 
us it. is much like "padding" when Nuzhat al-Zamdn (vol. ii. 
1 56 etc.) fags her hapless hearers with a discourse covering sixteen 
mortal pages ; when the Wazir Dandan (vol. ii. 195 etc.) reports 
at length the cold speeches of the five high-bosomed maids and 
the Lady of Calamities and when Wird Khan, in presence of his 
papa (Nights cmxiv-xvi.) discharges his patristic exercitations and 
heterogeneous knowledge. Yet Al-Mas'udi also relates, at dreary 
extension (vol. vi. 369) the disputation of the twelve sages in 
presence of Barmecide Yahya upon the origin, the essence, the 
accidents and the omnes res of Love; and in another place 
(vii. 181) shows Honayn, author of the Book of Natural Questions, 
undergoing a long examination before the Caliph Al-Wdsik 
(Vathek) and describing, amongst other things, the human teeth. 
See also the dialogue or catechism of Al-Hajjaj and Ibn Al- 
Kirrfya in Ibn Khallikan (vol. i. 238-240) 

These disjecta membra of tales and annals are pleasantly 
'relieved by the seven voyages of Sindbad the Seaman (vol. vi. 
1-83). The "Arabian Odyssey " may, like its Greek brother, 
descend from a noble family, the u Shipwrecked Mariner " a Coptic 
travel-tale of the twelfth dynasty (B.C. 3500) preserved on a papyrus 
at St. Petersburg. In its actual condition " Sindbad " is a fanciful 
compilation, like De Foe's " Captain Singleton," borrowed from 
travellers' tales of an immense variety and extracts from Al-Idrfsi, 
Al-Kazwfni and Ibn al-Wardi. Here we find the Polyphemus, the 

Terminal Essay. 153 

Pygmies and the cranes of Homer and Herodotus ; the escape of 
Aristomenes; the Plinian monsters well known in Persia; the 
magnetic mountain of Saint Brennan (Brandanus); the aeronautics 
of "Duke Ernest of Bavaria" 1 and sundry cuttings from Moslem 
writers dating between our ninth and fourteenth centuries. 2 The 
" Shaykh of the Seaboard " appears in the Persian romance of 
Kdmarupa translated by Francklin, all the particulars absolutely 
corresponding. The " Odyssey " is valuable because it shows how 
far Eastward the mediaeval Arab had extended : already in The 
Ignorance he had reached China and had formed a centre of trade 
at Canton. But the higher merit of the cento is to produce one of 
the most charming books of travel ever written, like Robinson 
Crusoe the delight of children and the admiration of all ages. 

The hearty life and realism of Sindbad are made to stand out in 
strong relief by the deep melancholy which pervades " The City of 
Brass" (vol. vi. 83), a dreadful book for a dreary day. It is curious 
to compare the doleful verses (pp. 103, 105) with those spoken to 
Caliph Al-Mutawakkil by Abu al-Hasan All (Al-Mas'udi, vii. 246). 
We then enter upon the venerable Sindibad-nameh, the Malice of 
Women (vol. vi. 122), of which, according to the Kitab al-Fihrist, 
(vol. i. 305) there were two editions a Sinzibad al-Kabfr and a 
Sinzibad al-Saghfr, the latter being probably an epitome of the 
former. This bundle of legends, I have shown, was incorporated 
with The Nights as an editor's addition ; and as an independent 
work it has made the round of the world. Space forbids any 

1 A rhyming Romance by Henry of Waldeck (flor. A.D. 1160) with a Latin poem on 
the same subject by Odo and a prose version still popular in Germany. (Lane's Nights 
iii. 8 1 ; and Weber's " Northern Romances.") 

2 e.g. 'Ajaib al-Hind (= Marvels of Ind) ninth century, translated by J. Marcel 
Devic, Paris, 1878 ; and about the same date the Two Mohammedan Travellers, trans- 
lated by Renaudot. In the eleventh century we have the famous Sayyid al-Idrisi ; in 
the thirteenth the 'Ajaib al-Makhlukat of Al-Kazwfni and in the fourteenth the Kharidat 
al- Ajaib of Ibn Al-Wardi. Lane (in loco) traces most of Sindbad to the two latter 

1 54 A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

detailed notice of this choice collection of anecdotes for which a 
volume would be required. I may, however, note that the " Wife's 
device '.' (vol. vi. 152) has its analogues in the Katha (chapt. xiii.) 
in the Gesta Romanorum (No. xxviii.) and in Boccaccio (Day iii. 6 
and Day vi. 8), modified by La Fontaine to Richard Minutolo 
(Contes lib. i. tale 2) : it is quoted almost in the words of The 
Nights by the Shaykh al-Nafzawi (p. 207). That most witty and 
indecent tale The Three Wishes (vol. vi. 180) has forced its way 
disguised as a babe into our nurseries. Another form of it is 
found in the Arab proverb " More luckless than Basus " (Kamus), 
a fair Israelite who persuaded her husband, also a Jew, to wish 
that she might become the loveliest of women. Jehovah granted 
it, spitefully as Jupiter ; the consequence was that her contu- 
macious treatment of her mate made him pray that the beauty 
might be turned into a bitch ; and the third wish restored her to 
her original state. 

The Story of Judar (vol. vi. 207) is Egyptian, to judge from its 
local knowledge (pp. 217 and 254) together with its ignorance of 
Marocco (p. 223). It shows a contrast, in which Arabs delight, of 
an almost angelical goodness and forgiveness with a well-nigh 
diabolical malignity, and we find the same extremes in Abu Sir 
the noble-minded Barber and the hideously inhuman Abu Kir. 
The excursion to Mauritania is artfully managed and gives a 
novelty to the mise-en-scene. Gharib and Ajib (vi. 207, vii. 91) 
belongs to the cycle of Antar and King Omar bin Nu'man : its 
exaggerations make it a fine type of Oriental Chauvinism, pitting 
the superhuman virtues, valour, nobility and success of all that is 
Moslem, against the scum of the earth which is non-Moslem. 
Like the exploits of Friar John of the Chopping-knives (Rabelais i. 
c. 27) it suggests ridicule cast on impossible battles and tales of 
giants, paynims and paladins. The long romance is followed by 
thirteen historiettes all apparently historical : compare " Hind, 
daughter of Al-Nu'man " (vol. viii. 7-14$) and " Isaac of Mosul 

Terminal Essay. 155 

and the Devil" (vol. vii. 136-139) with Al-Mas'udi v. 365 and 
vi. 340. They end in two long detective-tales like those which 
M. Gaboriau has popularised, the Rogueries of Daltlah and the 
Adventures of Mercury AH, based upon the principle, " One thief 
wots another." The former, who has appeared before (vol. ii. 329), 
seems to have been a noted character : Al-Mas'udi says (viii. 175) 
" in a word this Shaykh (Al-'Ukab) outrivalled in his rogueries 
and the ingenuities of his wiles Ddllah (Dalilah ?) the Crafty and 
other tricksters and coney-catchers, ancient and modern." 

The Tale of Ardashir (vol. vii. 209-264) lacks originality : we 
are now entering upon a series of pictures which are replicas of 
those preceding. This is not the case with that charming Undine, 
Julnar the Sea-born (vol. vii. 264-308) which, like Abdullah of 
the Land and Abdullah of the Sea (vol. ix. Night cmxl.), describes 
the vie intime of mermen and merwomen. Somewhat resembling 
Swift's inimitable creations, the Houyhnhnms for instance, they 
prove, amongst other things, that those who dwell in a denser 
element can justly blame and severely criticise the contradictory 
and unreasonable prejudices and predilections of mankind. Sayf 
al-Muluk (vol. viii. Night dcclviii.), the romantic tale of two lovers, 
shows by its introduction that it was originally an independent 
work and it is known to have existed in Persia during the eleventh 
century: this novella has found its way into every Moslem 
language of the East even into Sindi, which calls the hero " Say- 
fal." Here we again meet the Old Man of the Sea or rather the 
Shaykh of the Seaboard and make acquaintance with a Jinn 
whose soul is outside his body : thus he resembles Hermotimos 
of Klazamunae in Apollonius, whose spirit left his mortal frame a 
discretion. The author, philanthropically remarking (vol. viii, 4) 
" Knowest thou not that a single mortal is better, in Allah's sight, 
than a thousand Jinn ? " brings the wooing to a happy end which 
leaves a pleasant savour upon the mental palate. 

Hasan of Bassorah (vol. viii. 7-145) is a Master Shoetie an a 

156 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

large scale like Sindbad, but his voyages and travels extend into 
the supernatural and fantastic rather than the natural world. 
Though long the tale is by no means wearisome and the characters 
are drawn with a fine firm hand. The hero with his hen-like 
persistency of purpose, his weeping, fainting and versifying is 
interesting enough and proves that " Love can find out the 
way/' The charming adopted sister, the model of what the 
feminine friend should be ; the silly little wife who never knows 
that she is happy till she loses happiness ; the violent and hard- 
hearted queen with all the cruelty of a good woman, and the 
manners and customs of Amazon-land are outlined with a life-like 
vivacity. Khalifah the next tale (vol. viii. 145-184) is valuable as 
a 'study of Eastern life, showing how the fisherman emerges from 
the squalor of his surroundings and becomes one of the Caliph's 
favourite cup-companions. Ali Nur al-Din (vol. viii. 264) and King 
Jali'ad (vol. ix., Night dcccxciv) have been noticed elsewhere and 
there is little to say of the concluding stories which bear the 
evident impress of a more modern date. 

Dr. Johnson thus sums up his notice of The Tempest. " What- 
ever might have been the intention of their author, these tales 
are made instrumental to the production of many characters, 
diversified with boundless invention, and preserved with profound 
skill in nature ; extensive knowledge of opinions, and accurate 
observation of life. Here are exhibited princes, courtiers and 
sailors, all speaking in their real characters. There is the agency 
of airy spirits and of earthy goblin, the operations of magic, the 
tumults of a storm, the adventures of a desert island, the native 
effusion of untaught affection, the punishment of guilt, and the 
final happiness of those for whom our passions and reason are 
equally interested." 

We can fairly say this much and far more for our Tales. 
Viewed as a tout ensemble in full and complete form, they are 
a drama of Eastern life, and a Dance of Death made sublime by 

Terminal Essay. 157 

faith and the highest emotions, by the certainty of expiation and 
the fulness of atoning equity, where virtue is victorious, vice is 
vanquished and the ways of Allah are justified to man. They are 
a panorama which remains ken-speckle upon the mental retina. 
They form a phantasmagoria in which archangels and angels, 
devils and goblins, men of air, of fire, of water, naturally mingle 
with men of earth ; where flying horses and talking fishes are 
utterly realistic : where King and Prince meet fisherman and 
pauper, lamia and cannibal ; where citizen jostles Badawi, 
eunuch meets knight; the Kazi hob-nobs with the thief; the 
pure and pious sit down to the same tray with the bawd and the 
pimp ; where the professional religionist, the learned Koranist and 
the strictest moralist consort with the wicked magician, the scoffer 
and the debauchee-poet like Abu Nowas ; where the courtier 
jests with the boor and where the sweep is bedded with the noble 
lady. And the characters are " finished and quickened by a few 
touches swift and sure as the glance of sunbeams." The work is a 
kaleidoscope where everything falls into picture ; gorgeous palaces 
and pavilions ; grisly underground caves and deadly wolds ; gar- 
dens fairer than those of the Hesperid ; seas dashing with clashing 
billows upon enchanted mountains ; valleys of the Shadow of 
Death ; air-voyages and promenades in the abysses of ocean ; the 
duello, the battle and the siege ; the wooing of maidens and the 
marriage-rite. All the splendour and squalor, the beauty and 
baseness, the glamour and grotesqueness, the magic and the 
mournfulness, the bravery and the baseness of Oriental life are 
here : its pictures of the three great Arab passions, love, war and 
fancy, entitle it to be called " Blood, Musk and Hashish." 1 And 
still more, the genius of the story-teller quickens the dry bones of 
history, and by adding Fiction to Fact revives the dead past : the 

1 So Hector France proposed to name his admirably realistic volume "Sous le 
Burnous" (Paris, Charpentier, 1886). 

158 A If Lay lab wa Laylah. 

Caliphs and the Caliphate return to Baghdad and Cairo, whilst 
Asmodeus kindly removes the terrace-roof of every tenement and 
allows our curious glances to take in the whole interior. This is 
perhaps the best proof of their power. Finally, the picture-gallery 
opens with a series of weird and striking adventures and shows as 
a tail-piece, an idyllic scene of love and wedlock in halls before 
reeking with lust and blood. 

I have noticed in my Foreword that the two main character- 
istics of The Nights are Pathos and Humour, alternating with highly 
artistic contrast, and carefully calculated to provoke tears and 
smiles in the coffee-house audience which paid for them. The 
sentimental portion mostly breathes a tender passion and a simple 
sadness : such are the Badawi's dying farewell (vol. i. 75); the 
lady's broken heart on account of her lover's hand being cut off 
(vol. i. 277) ; the Wazir's death, the mourner's song and the 
"tongue of the case " (vol. ii. 10) ; the murder of Princess Abrizah 
with the babe sucking its dead mother's breast (vol. ii. 128) ; and, 
generally, the last moments of good Moslems (e.g. vol. v. 167), 

which are described with inimitable terseness and naivete'. The 


sad and the gay mingle in the character of the good Hammam- 
stoker who becomes Roi Crotte ; and the melancholy deepens in 
the Tale of the Mad Lover (vol. v. 138); the Blacksmith who 
could handle fire without hurt (vol. v. 271); the Devotee Prince 
(vol. v. ill) and the whole Tale of Azi'zah (vol. ii. 298), whose 
angelic love is set off by the sensuality and selfishness of her more 
fortunate rivals. A new note of absolutely tragic dignity seems 
to be struck in the Sweep and the Noble Lady (vol. iv. 125), 
showing the piquancy of sentiment which can be evolved from the 
common and the unclean. The pretty conceit of the Lute (vol. v. 
244) is afterwards carried out in the Song (vol. viii. 281), which is 
a masterpiece of originality 1 and (in the Arabic) of exquisite 

1 I mean in European literature, not in Arabic where it is a lieu commun. See three 
^several forms of it in one page (505) of Ibn Kallikan, vol. iii. 

Terminal Essay. 159 

tenderness and poetic melancholy, the wail over the past and the 
vain longing for reunion. And the very depths of melancholy, of 
majestic pathos and of true sublimity are reached in Many* 
columned Iram (vol. iv. 113) and the City of Brass (vol. vi. 83) : 
the metrical part of the latter shows a luxury of woe ; it is one long 
wail of despair which echoes long and loud in the hearer's heart. 

In my Foreword I have compared the humorous vein of the 
comic tales with our northern " wut," chiefly for the dryness and 
slyness which pervade it. But it differs in degree as much as the 
pathos varies. The staple article is Cairene "chaff," a peculiar 
banter possibly inherited from their pagan forefathers : instances 
of this are found in the Cock and Dog (vol. i. 22), the Eunuch's 
address to the Cook (vol. i. 244), the Wazir's exclamation, " Too 
little pepper ! " (vol. i. 246), the self-communing of Judar (vol. 
vi. 219), the Hashish-eater in Ali Shdr (vol. iv. 213), the scene 
between the brother- Wazirs (vol. i. 197), the treatment of the 
Gobbo (vol. i 221, 228), the Water of Zemzem (vol. i. 284), 
and the Eunuchs Bukhayt and Kafur * (vol. ii. 49, 51). At 
times it becomes a masterpiece of fun, of rollicking Rabelaisian 
humour underlaid by the caustic mother-wit of Sancho Panza, 
as in the orgie of the Ladies of Baghdad (vol. i. 92, 93) ; the 
Holy Ointment applied to the beard of Luka the Knight 
"unxerunt regem Salomonem " (vol. ii. 222); and Ja'afar and 
the Old Badawi (vol. v. 98), with its reminiscence of " chaffy " 
King Amasis. This reaches its acme in the description of ugly 
old age (vol. v. 3) ; in The Three Wishes, the wickedest of satires on 
the alter sexrrs (vi. iSo) ; in Ali the Persian (vol. iv. 1 39) ; in the 
.Lady and her Five Suitors (vol. vi. 172), which corresponds and 
contrasts with the dully told Story of Upakosa and her Four 
Lovers of the Kathd (p. 17) ; and in The Man of Al-Yaman (vol. 
iv. 245) where we find the true Falstaffian touch. But there is 

1 My attention has been called to the resemblance between the half-lie and Job 

160 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

sterling wit, sweet and bright, expressed without any artifice of 
words, in the immortal Barber's tales of his brothers, especially the 
second, the fifth and the sixth (vol. i. 324, 325 and 343). Finally, 
wherever the honest and independent old debauchee Abu Nowas 
makes his appearance the fun becomes fescennine and milesian. 


And now, after considering the matter, I will glance at the 
language and style of The Nights. The first point to remark is 
the peculiarly happy framework of the Recueil, which I cannot 
but suspect set an example to the Decamerone and its host of 
successors. 1 The admirable Introduction, a perfect mise-en-scene, 
gives the amplest raison d'etre of the work, which thus has all the 
unity required for a great romantic recueil. We perceive this 
when reading the contemporary Hindu work the Kathd Sarit 
Sdgara, 2 which is at once so like and so unlike The Nights : here 

1 Boccaccio (ob. Dec. 2, 1375), may easily have heard of The Thousand Nights 
and a Night or of its archetype the Hazdr Afsanah. He was followed by the Piacevoli 
Notti of Giovan Francisco Straparola (A.D. 1550)) translated into almost all European 
languages but English : the original Italian is now rare. Then came the Heptameron 
ou Histoire des amans fortunez of Marguerite d'Angouleme, Reyne de Navarre and 
only sister of Francis I. She died in 1549 before the days were finished: in 1558 
Pierre Boaistuan published the Histoire des amans fortunez and in 1559 Claude Guiget 
the "Heptameron." Next is the Hexameron of A. de Torquemada, Rouen, 1610; 
and, lastly, the Pentamerone or El Cunto de li Cunte of Giambattista Basile (Naples 
1637), known by the meagre abstract of J. E. Taylor and the caricatures of George 
Cruikshank (London 1847-50). I propose to translate this Pentamerone direct from the 
Neapolitan and have already finished half the work. 

2 Translated and well annotated by Prof. Tawney, who, however, affects asterisks 
and has considerably bowdlerised sundry of the tales, e.g. the Monkey who picked out 
the Wedge (vol. ii. 28). This tale, by the by, is found in the Khirad Afroz (i. 128) and 
in the Anwar-i-Suhayli (chapt. i.) and gave .rise to the Persian proverb, " What has a 
monkey to do with carpentering ? " It is curious to compare the Hindu with the Arabic 
work whose resemblances are as remarkable as their differences, while even more 
notable is their correspondence in impressionising the reader. The Thaumaturgy of 
both is the same : the Indian is profuse in demonology and witchcraft ; in trans- 
formation and restoration ; in monsters as wind-men, fire-men and water-men ; in 

Terminal Essay. 161 

the preamble is insufficient ; the whole is clumsy for want of a 
thread upon which the many independent tales and fables should 

air-going elephants and flying horses (i. 541-43) ; in the wishing cow, divine goats 
and laughing fishes (i. 24) ; and in the speciosa miracula of magic weapons. He 
delights in fearful battles (i. 400) fought with the same weapons as the Moslem 
and rewards his heroes with a "turband of honour" (i. 266) in lieu of a robe. 
There is a quaint family likeness arising from similar stages and states of society : the 
city is adorned for gladness; men carry money in a robe-corner and exclaim "Ha! 
good ! " (for " Good, by Allah ! ") ; lovers die with exemplary facility ; the "soft-sided " 
ladies drink spirits (i. 61) and princesses get drunk (i. 476) ; whilst the Eunuch, the 
Hetaira and the bawd (Kuttini) play the same preponderating parts as in The Nights. 
Our Brahman is strong in love-making ; he complains of the pains of separation in 
this phenomenal universe; he revels in youth, "twin-brother to mirth," and beauty 
which has illuminating powers ; he foully reviles old age and he alternately praises and 
abuses the sex, concerning which more presently. He delights in truisms, the fashion 
of contemporary Europe (see Palmer in of England chapt. vii), such as "It is the 
fashion of the heart to receive pleasure from those things which ought to give it," 
tc. etc. What is there the wise cannot understand ? and so forth. He is liberal 
in trite reflections and frigid conceits (i. 19, 55, 97, 103, 107, in fact everywhere) ; 
and his puns run through whole lines : this in fine Sanskrit style is inevitable. 
Yet some of his expressions are admirably terse and telling, e.g. Ascending the 
swing of Doubt : Bound together (lovers) by the leash of gazing ; Two babes 
looking like Misery and Poverty : Old Age seized me by the chin : (A lake) first 
assay of the Creator's skill : (A vow) difficult as standing on a sword-edge : My vital 
spirits boiled with the fire of woe : Transparent as a good man's heart : There was 
a certain convent full of fools : Dazed with scripture-reading : The stones could 
not help laughing at him : The Moon kissed the laughing forehead of the East : 
She was like a wave of the Sea of Love's insolence (ii. 127), a wave of the Sea of 
Beauty tossed up by the breeze of Youth : The King played dice, he loved slave-girls, he 
told lies, he sat up o' nights, he waxed wroth without reason, he took wealth wrongously, 
he despised the good and honoured the bad (i. $62) ; with many choice bits of the same 
kind. Like the Arab the Indian is profuse in personification ; but the doctrine of pre- 
existence, of incarnation and emanation and an excessive spiritualism, ever aiming at the 
infinite, makes his imagery run mad. Thus we have Immoral Conduct embodied ; the 
God of Death ; Science ; the Svarga-heaven ; Evening ; Untimeliness ; and the Earth- 
bride, while the Ace and Deuce of dice are turned into a brace of Demons. There is 
also that grotesqueness which the French detect even in Shakespeare, e.g. She drank in 
his ambrosial form with thirsty eyes like partridges (i. 476) and it often results from the 
comparison of incompatibles, .e.g. a row of birds likened to a garden of nymphs; and 
from forced allegories, the favourite figure of contemporary Europe. Again, the rhetorical 
Hindu style differs greatly from the sobriety, directness and simplicity of the Arab, whose 
motto is Brevity combined with precision, except where the latter falls into " fine 
writing." And, finally, there is a something in the atmosphere of these Tales which is 
unfamiliar to the West and which makes them, as more than one has remarked to me, 
very hard reading. 

VOL. X. L 

1 62 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

be strung 1 ; and the consequent disorder and confusion tell upon 
the reader, who cannot remember the sequence without taking 

As was said in my Foreword " without the Nights no Arabian 
Nights ! " and now, so far from holding the pauses " an 
intolerable interruption to the narrative," I attach additional im- 
portance to these pleasant and restful breaks introduced into 
long and intricate stories. Indeed beginning again I should adopt 
the plan of the Cal. Edit, opening and ending every division with 
a dialogue between the sisters. Upon this point, however, opinions 
will differ and the critic will remind me that the concensus of the 
MSS. would be wanting : The Bresl. Edit, in many places merely 
interjects the number of the night without interrupting the tale ; 
the MS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale used by Galland contains 
only cclxxxii and the Frenchman ceases to use the division after 
the ccxxxvith Night and in some editions after the cxcviith. 2 A 
fragmentary MS., according to Scott whose friend J.Anderson found 
it in Bengal, breaks away after Night xxix ; and in the Wortley 
Montagu, the Sultan relents at an early opportunity, the stories, as 
in Galland, continuing only as an amusement, I have been careful 
to preserve the balanced sentences with which the tales open ; the 
tautology and the prose-rhyme serving to attract attention, e.g., 
" In days of yore and in times long gone before there was a 
King," etc. ; in England where we strive not to waste words this 

1 The Introduction (i. 1-5) leads to the Curse of Pushpadanta and Malyavdn who live 
on Earth as Vararuchi and Gunadhya and this runs through lib. i. Lib. ii. begins with 
the Story of Uda"yana to whom we must be truly grateful as our only guide : he and his 
son Naravahanadatta fill up the rest and end with lib. xviii. Thus the want of the clew 
or plot compels a division into books, which begin for instance with " We worship the 
elephantine proboscis of Ganesha" (lib. x. i), a reverend and awful object to a Hindu 
but to Englishmen mainly suggesting the "Zoo." The "Bismillah" of The Nights is 
much more satisfactory. 

9 See pp. $ 6 Avertissement des Editeurs, Le Cabinet des Fees, vol. xxxviii : Geneva, 
1788. Galland's Edit, of mdccxxvi ends with Night ccxxxiv and the English translations 
with ccxxxvi and cxcvii. See retro p. 82. 

Terminal Essay. 163 

becomes " Once upon a time." The closings also are artfully 
calculated, by striking a minor chord after the rush and hurry 
of the incidents, to suggest repose : " And they led the most 
pleasurable of lives and the most delectable, till there came to 
them the Destroyer of delights and the Severer of societies and 
they became as though they had never been," Place this by the 
side of Boccaccio's favourite formulae : Egli conquisto poi la 
Scozia, e funne re coronato (ii, 3) ; Et onorevolmente visse infino 
alia fine (ii, 4), ; Molte volte goderono del loro amore : Iddio 
faccia noi goder del nostro (iii, 6) : E cosi nella sua grossezza si 
rimase e ancor vi si sta (vi, 8). We have further docked this 
tail into : " And they lived happily ever after." 

I cannot take up the Nights, in their present condition, without 
feeling that the work has been written down from the Rawi or 
Nakkal, 1 the conteur or professional story-teller, also called Kassas 
and Maddah, corresponding with the Hindu Bhat or Bard. To 
these men my learned friend Baron A. von Kremer would attribute 
'the Mu'allakat vulgarly called the Suspended Poems, as being 
" indited from the relation of the Rawi." Hence in our text the 
frequent interruption of the formula Kal' al-Rawi = quotes the 
reciter ; dice Turpino. Moreover, The Nights read in many places 
like a hand-book or guide for the professional, who would learn 
them by heart ; here and there introducing his " gag " and 
" patter." To this " business " possibly we may attribute much of 
the ribaldry which starts up in unexpected places ": it was meant 
simply to provoke a laugh. How old the custom is and how un- 
changeable is Eastern life is shown, a correspondent suggests, by 
the Book of Esther which might form part of The Alf Laylah. 

1 There is a shade of difference in the words ; the former is also used for Reciters of 
Traditions a serious subject. But in the case of Hammad surnamed Al-Rawiyah (the 
Rhapsode) attached to the Court of Al-Walid, it means simply a conteur So the 
Greeks had Homerista= reciters of Homer, as opposed to the Homeridae or School of 

164 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

" On that night (we read in Chap. vi. i) could not the King 
sleep, and he commanded to bring the book of records of the 
chronicles ; and they were read before the King." The Rawi 
would declaim the recitative somewhat in conversational style ; 
he would intone the Saj'a or prose-rhyme and he would chant to 
the twanging of the Rabab, a one-stringed viol, the poetical 
parts. Dr. Scott * borrows from the historian of Aleppo a life-like 
picture of the Story-teller. " He recites walking to and fro in the 
middle of the coffee-room, stopping only now and then, when the 
expression requires some emphatical attitude. He is commonly 
heard with great attention; and not unfrequently in the midst of 
some interesting adventure, when the expectation of his audi- 
ence is raised to the highest pitch, he breaks off abruptly and 
makes his escape, leaving both his hero or heroine and his 
audience in the utmost embarrassment. Those who happen to 
be near the door endeavour to detain him, insisting upon the 
story being finished before he departs ; but he always makes his 
retreat good 2 ; and the auditors suspending their curiosity are 
induced to return at the same time next day to hear the sequel. 
He has no sooner made his exit than the company in separate 

0**-*" **' 

parties fall to disputing about the characters of the drama or 
the event of an unfinished adventure. The controversy by degrees 
becomes serious and opposite opinions are maintained with no 
less warmth than if the fall of the city depended upon the 

At Tangier, where a murder in a '* coffee-house " had closed 
these hovels, pending a sufficient payment to the Pasha; and 

1 Vol. i. Preface p. v. He notes tKat Mr. Dallaway describes the same scene at 
Constantinople, where the Story-teller was used, like the modern "Organs of Govern- 
ment " in newspaper shape, for " reconciling the people to any recent measure of the Sultan 
and Vizier.*' There are women Rdwiyahs for the Harems and some have become famous 
like the Mother of Hasan al-Basri (Ibn Khali, i, 370). 

* Hence the Persian proverb, " Baki-e-dastan farda =.the rest of the tale to-mono^ 
said to askers of silly questions. 

Terminal Essay. 165 

where, during the hard winter of 1885-86, the poorer classes were 
compelled to puff their Kayf (Bhang, cannabis indicd} and sip 
their black coffee in the muddy streets under a rainy sky, I found 
the Rdwi active on Sundays and Thursdays, the market-days. 
The favourite place was the " Soko de barra," or large bazar, outside 
the town whose condition is that of Suez and Bayrut half a 
century ago. It is a foul slope ; now slippery with viscous mud, 
then powdery with fetid dust, dotted with graves and decaying 
tombs, unclean booths, gargottes and tattered tents, and frequented 
by women, mere bundles of unclean rags, and by men wearing the 
haik or burnus, a Franciscan frock, tending their squatting camels and 
chaffering over cattle for Gibraltar beef-eaters. Here the market- 
people form ring about the reciter, a stalwart man affecting little rai- 
ment besides a broad waist-belt into which his lower chiffons are 
tucked, and noticeable only for his shock hair, wild eyes, broad grin 
and generally disreputable aspect. He usually handles a short 
stick ; and, when drummer and piper are absent, he carries a tiny 
tomtom shaped like an hour-glass, upon which he taps the periods. 
This Scealuidhe, as the Irish call him, opens the drama with 
extempore prayer, proving that he and the audience are good 
Moslems : he speaks slowly and with emphasis, varying the diction 
with breaks of animation, abundant action and the most comical 
grimace : he advances, retires and wheels about, illustrating every 
point with pantomime ; and his features, voice and gestures are 
so expressive that even Europeans who cannot understand a word 
of Arabic divine the meaning of his tale. The audience stands 
breathless and motionless surprising strangers 1 by the ingenuous- 
ness and freshness of feeling hidden under their hard and savage 
exterior. The performance usually ends with the embryo actor 
going round for alms and flourishing in air every silver bit, the 

1 The scene is excellently described in, "Morocco: Its People and Places," by 
Edmondo de Amicis (London : Cassell, 1882), a most refreshing volume after the 
enforced platitudes and commonplaces of English travellers. 

1 66 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

usual honorarium being a few " fliis," that marvellous money of 
Barbary, big coppers worth one-twelfth of a penny. All the tales 
I heard were purely local, but Fakhri Bey, a young Osmanli 
domiciled for some time in Fez and Mequinez, assured me that 
The Nights are still recited there. 

Many travellers, including Dr. Russell, have complained that 
they failed to find a complete MS. copy of The Nights. Evidently 
they never heard of the popular superstition which declares that 
no one can read through them without dying it is only fair that 
my patrons should know this. Yacoub Artfn Pasha declares that 
the superstition dates from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries 
and he explains it in two ways. Firstly, it is a facetious exagger- 
ation, meaning that no one has leisure or patience to wade through 
the long repertory. Secondly, the work is condemned as futile. 
When Egypt produced savants and legists like Ibn al-Hajar, Al- 
'Ayni, and Al-Kastallani, to mention no others, the taste of the 
country inclined to dry factual studies and positive science ; nor, 
indeed, has this taste wholly died out : there are not a few who, 
like Khayri Pasha, contend that the mathematic is more useful 
even for legal studies than history and geography, and at Cairo 
the chief of the Educational Department has always been an 
engineer, t.e. 9 a mathematician. The Olema declared war against 
all " futilities," in which they included not only stories but also what 
is politely entitled Authentic History. From this to the fatal 
effect of such lecture is only a step. Society, however, cannot rest 
without light literature ; so the novel-reading class was thrown back 
upon writings which had all the indelicacy and few of the merits 
of The Nights. 

Turkey is the only Moslem country which has dared to produce 1 
a regular drama 1 and to arouse the energies of such brilliant 

1 It began, however, in Persia where the celebrated Darwaysh Mukhlis, Chief Sofi of 
Isfahan in the xviith century, translated into Persian tales certain Hindu plays of which a 

Terminal Essay. 167 

writers as MuniT Pasha, statesman and scholar ; Ekrem Bey, 
literate and professor ; Kemal Bey held by some to be the greatest 
writer in modern Osmanli-land and Abd al-Hakk Hamid Bey, first 
Secretary of the London Embassy. The theatre began in its 
ruder form by taking subjects bodily from The Nights ; then it 
annexed its plays as we do the Novel having ousted the Drama 
from the French ; and lastly it took courage to be original. 
Many years ago I saw Harun aURashid and the Three Kalandars, 
with deer-skins and all their properties de rigueur, in the court- 
yard of Government House, Damascus, declaiming to the extreme 
astonishment and delight of the audience. It requires only to 
glance at The Nights for seeing how much histrionic matter they 

In considering the style of The Nights we must bear in mind 
that the work has never been edited according to our ideas of the 
process. Consequently there is no just reason for translating the 
whole verbatim et literatim, as has been done by Torrens, Lane 
and Payne in his " Tales from the Arabic." l This conscientious 

MS. entitled Alfaraga Badal-Schidda (Al-faraj ba'd al-shiddah =r Joy after annoy) exists 
in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. But to give an original air to his work, he entitled 
it " Hazdr o yek Ruz "= Thousand and One Days, and in 1675 he allowed his friend 
Petis de la Croix, who happened to be at Isfahan, to copy it. Le Sage (of Gil Bias) 
Is said to have converted many of the tales of Mukhlis into comic operas, which were 
performed at the Theatre Italien. I still hope to see The Nights at the Lyceum. 

1 This author, however, when hazarding a change of style which is, I think, regretable, 
has shown abundant art by filling up the frequent deficiencies of the text after the 
/ashion of Baron McGuckin de Slane in Ibn Khallikan. As regards the tout ensemble 
of his work, a noble piece of English, my opinion will ever be that expressed in my 
Foreword A carping critic has remarked that the translator, "as may be seen in every 
page, is no Arabic scholar." If I be a judge, the reverse is the case : the brilliant and 
beautiful version thus traduced is almost entirely free from the blemishes and careless- 
ness which disfigure Lane's, and thus it is far more faithful to the original. But it is 
no secret that on the staff of that journal the translator" of Villon has sundry enemies, 
vrat's diables enjupponh> who take every opportunity of girding at him because he does 
not belong to the clique and because he does good work when theirs is mostly sham. 
The sole fault I find with Mr. Payne is that his severe grace of style treats an unclassical 
work as a classic, when the romantic and irregular would have been a more appropriate 
garb. But this is a mere matter of private judgment. 

1 68 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

treatment is required for versions of an author like Camoens 
whose works were carefully corrected and arranged by a com- 
petent litterateur, but it is not merited by The Nights as they 
now are. The Macnaghten, the Bulak and the Bayrut texts, 
though printed from MSS. identical in order, often differ in minor 
matters. Many friends have asked me to undertake the work : 
but, even if lightened by the aid of Shaykhs, Munshis and 
copyists, the labour would be severe, tedious and thankless : 
better leave the holes open than patch them with fancy work 
or with heterogeneous matter. The learned, indeed, as Lane 
tells us (i. 74; iii. 740), being thoroughly dissatisfied with the 
plain and popular, the ordinary and "vulgar" note of the 
language, have attempted to refine and improve it and have more 
than once threatened to remodel it, that is, to make it odious. 
This would be to dress up Robert Burns in plumes borrowed 
from Dryden and Pope. 

The first defect of the texts is in the distribution and arrange- 
ment of the matter, as I have noticed in the case of Sindbad the 
Seaman (vol. vi. 77). Moreover, many of the earlier Nights are 
overlong and not a few of the others are overshort : this, however, 
has the prime recommendation of variety. Even the vagaries 
of editor and scribe will not account for all the incoherences, 
disorder and inconsequence, and for the vain iterations which 
suggest that the author has forgotten what he said. In places 
there are dead allusions to persons and tales which are left dark, 
e.g. vol. i. pp. 43, 57, 61, etc. The digressions are abrupt and 
useless, leading nowhere, while sundry pages are wearisome for 
excess of prolixity or hardly intelligible for extreme conciseness. 
The perpetual recurrence of mean colloquialisms and of words 
and idioms peculiar to Egypt and Syria 1 also takes from the 

1 Here I offer a few, but very few, instances from the Breslau text which is the greatest 
sinner in this respect. Mas. for fern., vol. i. p. 9, and three times in seven pages. 

Terminal Essay. 169 

pleasure of the perusal. Yet we cannot deny that it has its 
use : this unadorned language of familiar conversation in its day, 
adapted for the understanding of the people, is best fitted for the 
Rawi's craft in the camp and caravan, the Harem, the bazar and 
the coffee-house. Moreover, as has been well said, The Nights 
is the only written half-way house between the literary and 
colloquial Arabic which is accessible to all, and thus it becomes 
necessary to the students who would qualify themselves for 
service in Moslem lands from Mauritania to Mesopotamia. It 
freely uses Turkish words like " Khdtun " and Persian terms 
as " Shahbandar," thus requiring for translation not only a 
somewhat archaic touch, but also a vocabulary borrowed from 
various sources : otherwise the effect would not be reproduced. 
In places, however, the style rises to the highly ornate 

Ahna and nahna for nahnu, (iv. 370, 372) ; And ba-ashtar! = I will buy (iii, 109) ; and 
And 'A"mfl = I will do (v. 367). Alaykf for Alayki (i. 18), Antl for Anti (iii. 66) 
and generally long i for short T. 'Ammdl (from 'amala = he did) tahlam = certainly 
thou dreamest, and 'Ammalin yaakulii = they were about to eat (ix. 315) : Aywd for 
Ay wa'llahi = yes, by Allah (passim). Bita' = belonging to, e.g. Sdra bitd'k = it is 
become thine (ix. 352) and Mata' with the same sense (iii. 80). Dd '1-khurj = this 
saddle-bag (ix. 336) and Di (for hazah) = this woman (iii. 79) or this time (ii. 162). 
Fayn as rdha fayn = whither is he gone ? (iv. 323) : Kamd badri == he rose early 
(ix. 318) : Kaman =r also, a word known to every European (ii. 43) : Katt = never 
(ii. 172): Kawdm (pronounced 'awam) = fast, at once (iv. 385) and Rih asif kawi 
(pron. 'awi) rra wind, strong very. Laysh, e.g. bi-tasalnf laysh (ix. 324) =r why do you 
ask me? a favourite form for Ii ayya shayyin : so Mdfish = md fihi shayyun (there is no 
thing) in which Herr Landberg (p. 425) makes " Sha, le present de pouvoir." Min 
ftjali = for my sake ; and Li-ajal al-taudi'a i= for the sake of taking leave (Mac. Edit. 
\. 384). Rijdl nautiyah = men sailors when the latter word would suffice: Shuwayh 
(dim. of shayy) = a small thing, a little (iv. 309) like Moyyah (dim. of Md) a little 
water: Wadduni = they carried me (ii. 172) and lastly the abominable Wdhid gharib 
= one (for a) stranger. These few must suffice : the tale of Judar and his brethren, 
which in style is mostly Egyptian, will supply a number of others. It must not, 
however, be supposed, as many have done, that vulgar and colloquial Arabic is of 
modern date : we find it in the first century of Al-Isktm, as is proved by the tale of 
Al-Hajjdj and Al-Shabi (Ibn Khallikan, ii. 6). The former asked " Kara ataa-k?" 
(=rhow much is thy pay?) to which the latter answered, " Alfayn ! " (=two thousand !). 
"Tut," cried the Governor, " Kara atau-ka?" to which the poet replied as correctly 
and classically, " Alfdni." 

170 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

approaching the pompous ; e.g. the Wazirial addresses in 
the tale of King Jali'ad. The battle-scenes, mostly admirable 
(vol. v; 365), are told with the conciseness of a despatch and 
the vividness of an artist ; the two combining to form perfect 
<f word-pictures." Of the Badi'a or euphuistic style, " parleying 
euphuism," and of Al-Saj'a, the prose rhyme, I shall speak in 
a future page. 

The characteristics of the whole are na'fvet^ and simplicity/ 
clearness and a singular concision. The gorgeousness is in the 
imagery not in the language ; the words are weak while the sense, 
as in the classical Scandinavian books, is strong ; and here the 
Arabic differs diametrically from the. florid exuberance and 
turgid amplifications of the Persian story-teller, which sound so 
hollow and unreal by the side of a chaster model. It abounds 
in formulae such as repetitions of religious phrases which are 
unchangeable. There are certain stock comparisons, as Lokman's 
wisdom, Joseph's beauty, Jacob's grief, Job's patience, David's 
music, and Maryam the Virgin's chastity. The eyebrow is a Nun ; 
the eye a Sdd, the mouth a Mi'm. A hero is more prudent than 
the crow, a better guide than the Katd grouse, more generous than 
the cock, warier than the crane, braver than the lion, more 
aggressive than the panther, finer-sighted than the horse, craftier 
than the fox, greedier than the gazelle, more vigilant than the 
dog> and thriftier than the ant. The cup-boy is a sun rising 
from the dark underworld symbolfsed by his collar ; his cheek- 
mole is a crumb of ambergris, his nose is a scymitar grided at the 
curve ; his lower lip is a jujube ; his teeth are the Pleiades, or haiUj 
stones ; his browlocks are scorpions ; his young hair on the upper' 
lip is an emerald ; his side beard is a swarm of ants or a Lam 
(1-letter) enclosing the roses or anemones of his cheek. The cup- 
girl is a moon who rivals the sheen of the sun ; her forehead is a 
pearl set off by the jet of her " idiot-fringe ; " her eyelashes scorn 
the sharp sword ; and her glances are arrows shot from the bow of 

Terminal Essay. I/I 

the eyebrows. A mistress necessarily belongs, though living in 
the next street, to the Wady Liwa and to a hostile clan of 
Badawin whose blades are ever thirsting for the lover's blood and 
whose malignant tongues aim only at the " defilement of separa- 
tion.'' Youth is upright as an Alif, or slender and bending as a 
branch of the Bdn-tree which we should call a willow- wand , k 
while Age, crabbed and crooked, bends groundwards vainly 
seeking in the dust his lost juvenility. As Baron de Slane say. 
of these stock comparisons (Ibn Khali, i. xxxvi.), " The figura- 
tive language of Moslem poets is often difficult to be understood. 
The narcissus is the eye ; the feeble stem of that plant bends 
languidly under its flower, and thus recalls to mind the languor 
of the eyes. Pearls signify both tears and teeth ; the latter are 
sometimes called hailstones, from their whiteness and moisture ; 
the lips are cornelians or rubies ; the gums, a pomegranate flower ; 
the dark foliage of the myrtle is synonymous with the black hair 
of the beloved, or with the first down on the cheeks of puberty. 
The down itself is called the izdr t or head-stall of the bridle, and 
the curve of the izar is compared to the letters lam (J) and nun 
(ej). 2 Ringlets trace on the cheek or neck the letter Waw (j); 
they are called Scorpions (as the Greek o-kopTribs), either from their 
dark colour or their agitated movements ; the eye is a sword ; 
the eyelids scabbards ; the whiteness of the complexion, camphor; 
and a mole or beauty-spot, musk, which term denotes also dark 
hair. A mole is. sometimes compared also to an ant creeping on 
the cheek towards the honey of the mouth ; a handsome face is 
both a full moon and day ; black hair is night ; the waist is a 
willow-branch or a lance ; the water of the face is self-respect : a 

1 In Russian folk-songs a young girl is often compared with this tree e.g." 

Ivooshka, ivooshka zelonaia moia 
(O Willow, O green Willow mine !) 

2 So in Hector France (*' La vache enragee ") *' Le sourcil en accent circonflexe et I'oeil 
n point d'interrogation." 

172 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

poet sells the water of his face 1 when he bestows mercenary praises 
on a rich patron." 

This does not sound promising : yet, as has been said of Arab 
music, the persistent repetition of the same notes in the minor key 
is by no means monotonous and ends with haunting the ear, 
occupying the thought and touching the soul. Like the distant 
frog-concert and chirp of the cicada, the creak of the water-wheel 
and the stroke of hammers upon the anvil from afar, the murmur 
of the fountain, the sough of the wind and the plash of the 
wavelet, they occupy the sensorium with a soothing effect, form* 
ing a barbaric music full of sweetness and peaceful pleasure. 

1 In Persian " Ab-i-ru " in India pronounced Abru. 

Terminal Essay. 173 


I HERE propose to treat of the Social Condition which The 
Nights discloses, of Al-Islam at the earlier period of its develop- 
ment, concerning the position of women and about the pomology 
of the great Saga-book. 


A splendid and glorious life was that of Baghdad in the days 
of the mighty Caliph, 1 when the Capital had towered to the 
zenith of grandeur and was already trembling and tottering to 
the fall. The centre of human civilization, which was then con- 
fined to Greece and Arabia, and the metropolis of an Empire 
exceeding in extent the widest limits of Rome, it was essentially 
a city of pleasure, a Paris of the ixth century. The " Palace 
of Peace " (Ddr al-Salam), worthy successor of Babylon and 
Nineveh, which had outrivalled Damascus, the " Smile of the 
Prophet," and Kufah, the successor of Hira and the magnificent 
creation of Caliph Omar, possessed unrivalled advantages of 
site and climate. The Tigris-Euphrates Valley, where the fabled 
Garden of Eden has been placed, in early ages succeeded the 
Nile- Valley as a great centre of human development ; and the 
prerogative of a central and commanding position still promises 
it, even in the present state of decay and desolation under the 

1 For further praises of his poetry and eloquence see the extracts from Fakhr al-Din 
of Rayy (an annalist of the xivth century A.D.) in De Sacy's Chrestomathie Arabe, 
vol i 

1 74 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

unspeakable Turk, a magnificent future, 1 when railways and 
canals shall connect it with Europe. The city of palaces and 
government offices, hotels and pavilions, mosques and colleges, 
kiosks and squares, bazars and markets, pleasure grounds and 
orchards, adorned with all the graceful charms which Saracenic 
architecture had borrowed from the Byzantines, lay couched upon 
the banks of the Dijlah-Hiddekel under a sky of marvellous 
purity and in a climate which makes mere life a "Kayf" the 
luxury of tranquil enjoyment. It was surrounded by far^ 
extending suburbs, like Rusafah on the Eastern side and 
villages like Baturanjah, dear to the votaries of pleasure ; and 
with the roar of a gigantic capital mingled the hum of prayer, 
the trilling of birds, the thrilling of harp and lute, the shrilling 
of pipes, the witching strains of the professional Almah, and 
the minstrel's lay. 

The population of Baghdad must have been enormous when 
the smallest number of her sons who fell victims to Hulaku 
Khan in 1258 was estimated at eight hundred thousand, while 
other authorities more than double the terrible "butcher's bill." 
Her policy and polity were unique. A well-regulated routine 
of tribute and taxation, personally inspected by the Caliph ; a 
network of waterways, canaux d'arrosage ; a noble system of 
highways, provided with viaducts, bridges and caravanserais, 
and a postal service of mounted couriers enabled it to collect 
as in a reservoir the wealth of the outer world. The facilities 
for education were upon the most extended scale ; large sums, 
from private as well as public sources, were allotted to Mosques, 
each of which, by the admirable rule of Al-Islam, was expected 
to contain a school: these establishments were richly endowed 

1 After this had been written I received " Babylonien, das reichste Land in der Vorzeit 
und das lohnendste Kolonisationsfeld fur die Gegenwart," by my learned friend 
Dr. Aloys Sprenger, Heidelberg, 1886. 

Terminal Essay. 175 

and stocked with professors collected from every land between 
Khorasan and Marocco 1 ; and immense libraries 2 attracted the 
learned of all nations. It was a golden age for poets and 
panegyrists, koranists and literati, preachers and rhetoricians, 
physicians and scientists who, besides receiving high salaries and 
fabulous presents, were treated with all the honours of Chinese 
Mandarins; and, like these, the humblest Moslem fisherman or 
artizan could aspire through knowledge or savoir faire to the 
highest offices of the Empire. The effect was a grafting of 
Egyptian, and old Mesopotamian, of Persian and Graeco-Latin 
fruits, by long Time deterioriated, upon the strong young stock 
of Arab genius ; and the result, as usual after such imping, was a 
shoot of exceptional luxuriance and vitality. The educational 
establishments devoted themselves to the three main objects recog- 
nized by the Moslem world, Theology, Civil Law and Belles 
Lettres ; and a multitude of trained Councillors enabled the ruling 
powers to establish and enlarge that complicated machinery of 
government, at once concentrated and decentralized, a despotism 
often fatal to the wealthy great but never neglecting the interests 
of the humbler lieges, which forms the beau ide*al of Oriental 
administration. Under the Chancellors of the empire the Kazis 
administered law and order, justice and equity; and from their 
decisions the poorest subject, Moslem or miscreant, could claim 
with the general approval of the lieges, access and appeal to the 
Caliph who, as Imdm or Antistes of the Faith was High President 
of a Court of Cassation. 

Under wise administration Agriculture and Commerce, the twin 

1 The first school for Arabic literature was opened by Ibn Abbas who lectured to 
multitudes in a valley near Meccah, this rude beginning was followed by public teaching 
in the great Mosque of Damascus. For the rise of the "Madrasah," Academy or 
College, see Introduct. to Ibn Khallikan pp. xxvii. -xxxii. 

8 When Ibn Abba"d the Sahib (Wazir) was invited to visit one of the Samanides, he 
refused, one reason being that he would require 400 camels to carry only his books. 

176' A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

pillars of national prosperity, necessarily flourished. A scientific 
canalisation, with irrigation-works inherited from the ancients, made 
the Mesopotamian Valley a rival of Kemi the Black Land, and 
rendered cultivation a certainty of profit, not a mere speculation 
as it must ever be to those who perforce rely upon the fickle rains 
of Heaven. The remains of extensive mines prove that this 
source of public wealth was not neglected; navigation laws en- 
couraged transit and traffic ; and ordinances for the fisheries 
aimed at developing a branch of industry which is still back- 
ward even during the xixth century. Most substantial encourage- 
ment was given to trade and commerce, to manufactures and 
handicrafts, by the flood of gold which poured in from all parts 
of earth ; by the presence of a splendid and luxurious court, 
and by the call for new arts and industries which such a civili- 
zation would necessitate. The crafts were distributed into guilds 
and syndicates under their respective chiefs, whom the govern- 
ment did not "govern too much": these Shahbandars, Mukad- 
dams and Nakfbs regulated the several trades, rewarded the 
industrious, punished the fraudulent and were personally answer- 
able, as we still see at Cairo, for the conduct of their constituents. 
Public order, the sine qua non of stability and progress, was 
preserved first, by the satisfaction of the lieges who, despite 
their characteristic turbulence, had few if any grievances ; and, 
secondly, by a well-directed and efficient police, an engine of 
statecraft which in the West seems most difficult to perfect. In 
the East, however, the Wali or Chief Commissioner can reckon 
more or less upon the unsalaried assistance of society : the cities 
are divided into quarters shut off one from other by night, and 
every Moslem is expected, by his law and religion, to keep watch 
upon his neighbours, to report their delinquencies and, if necessary, 
himself to carry out the penal code. But in difficult cases the 
guardians of the peace were assisted by a body of private 
detectives, women as well as men : these were called Tawwabun 

Terminal Essay. 177 

= the Penitents, because like our Bow-street runners, they had 
given up an even less respectable calling. Their adventures still 
delight the vulgar, as did the Newgate Calendar of past genera- 
tions; and to this class we owe the Tales of Calamity Ahmad, 
Dalilah the Wily One, Saladin with the three Chiefs of Police 
(vol. iv. 271), and Al-Malik al-Zdhir with the Sixteen Constables 
(Bresl. Edit. xi. pp. 321-99). Here and in many other places we 
also see the origin of that " picaresque " literature which arose in 
Spain and overran Europe ; and which begat Le Moyen de 
Parvenir. 1 

I need say no more on this heading, the civilisation of Baghdad 
contrasting with the barbarism of Europe then Germanic, The 
Nights itself being the best expositor. On the other hand the 
action of the state-religion upon the state, the condition of Al- 
Islam during the reign of Al-Rashid, its declension from the 
primitive creed and its relation to Christianity and Christendom, 
require a somewhat extended notice. In offering the following 
observations it is only fair to declare my standpoints. 

1. All forms of "faith," that is, belief in things unseen, not 
subject to the senses and therefore unknown and (in our present 
stage of development) unknowable, are temporary and transitory ; 
no religion hitherto promulgated amongst men shows any pros- 
pect of being final or otherwise than finite. 

2. Religious ideas, which are necessarily limited, may all be 
traced home to the old seat of science and art, creeds and 
polity in the Nile-valley and to this day they retain the clearest 
signs of their origin. 

3. All so-called " revealed " religions consist mainly of three 
portions, a cosmogony more or less mythical, a history more or 
less falsified and a moral code more or less pure. 

1 This " Salmagondis " by Francois Beroalde de Vc^ville was afterwards worked by 
Tabarin. the pseudo-Bruscambille d'Aubigne and Sorel. 

VOL. X. M 

A If Lay la k wa Laylak^ 

Al-Islam, it has been said, is essentially a fighting faith and 
never shows to full advantage save in the field. The exceeding 
luxury of a wealthy capital, the debauchery and variety of vices 
which would spring up therein, naturally as weeds in a rich fallow, 
and the cosmopolitan views which suggest themselves in a 
meeting-place of nations, were sore trials to the primitive 
simplicity of the " Religion of Resignation " the saving faith. 
Harun and his cousin-wife, as has been shown, were orthodox and 
even fanatical ; but the Barmecides were strongly suspected of 
heretical leanings; and while the many-headed showed itself, as 
usual, violent, and ready to do battle about an Azan-call, the 
learned, who sooner or later leaven the masses, were profoundly 
dissatisfied with the dryness and barrenness of Mohammed's creed, 
so acceptable to the vulgar, and were devising a series of schisms 
and innovations. 

In the Tale of Tawaddud (vol. v. 189) the reader has seen a 
fairly extended catechism of the Creed (Din), the ceremonial 
observances (Mazhab) and the apostolic practices (Sunnat) of the 
Shafi'f school which, with minor modifications, applies to the 
other three orthodox. Europe has by this time clean forgotten 
some tricks of her former bigotry, such as " Mawmet " (an idol !) 
and '* Mahommerie " (mummery J ), a place of Moslem worship : 
educated men no longer speak with Ockley of the " great impostor 
Mahomet/' nor believe with the learned and violent Dr. Prideaux 
that he was foolish and wicked enough to dispossess " certain poor 
orphans, the sons of an inferior artificer " (the Banu Najjar !). A 
host of books has attempted, though hardly with success, to 

1 I prefer this derivation to Strutt's adopted by the popular, " mumm is said to be 
derived from the Danish word mumme, or momme in Dutch (Germ. = larva) and signifies 
disguise in a mask, hence a mummer." In the Promptoriuni Parvulorum we have 
" Mummy nge," mussacio, vel mussatus'': if was a pantomime in dumb show, e*g. 
* I mumme in a mummynge ;" " Let us go mumme (mummer) to nyghte in women's 
lapparayle." "Mask" and " Mascarade," for persona, larva or vizard, also derive, I 
have noticed, from an Arabic word Maskharah. 

Terminal Essay. 179 

enlighten popular ignorance upon a crucial point ; namely, that 
the Founder of Al-Islam, like the .Founder of Christianity, never 
pretended to establish a new religion. His claims, indeed, were 
limited to purging the ' ' School of Nazareth " of the dross of ages 
and of the manifold abuses with which long use had infected 
its early constitution : hence to the unprejudiced observer his 
reformation seems to have brought it nearer the primitive and 
original doctrine than any subsequent attempts, especially the 
Judaizing tendencies of the so-called "Protestant" churches. The 
Meccan Apostle preached that the Hanafjyyah or orthodox belief, 
which he subsequently named Al-Islam, was first taught by Allah, 
in all its purity and perfection, to Adam and consigned to certain 
inspired volumes now lost ; 'and that this primal Holy Writ 
received additions in the days of his descendants Shis (Seth) and 
Idris (Enoch ?), the founder of the Sabian (not " Sabaean ") faith. 
Here, therefore, Al-Islam at once avoided the deplorable assump- 
tion of the Hebrews and the Christians, an error which has been 
so injurious to their science and their progress, of placing their 
" first man " in circa B.C. 4000 or somewhat subsequent to the 
building of the Pyramids : the Pre-Adamite 1 races and dynasties 
of the Moslems remove a great stumbling-block and square with 
the anthropological views of the present day. In process of time, 
when the Adamite religion demanded a restoration and a supple- 
ment, its pristine virtue was revived, restored and further developed 
by the books communicated to Abraham, whose dispensation thus 
takes the place of the Hebrew Noah and his Noachidae. In due 
time the Torah, or Pentateuch, superseded and abrogated the 
Abrahamic dispensation; the "Zabur" of David (a book not 

1 The Pre-Adamite doctrine has been preached but with scant success in Christendom. 
Pyrere, a French Calyinist, published (A.D. 1655) his " Pr3eadamit8e,sive exercitatio supra 
versibws 12, 13, 14, cap. v. Epist. Paul, ad Romanes," contending that Adam was called 
the first man because with him the law began. It brewed a storm of wrath and the 
author was fortunate to escape with only imprisonment. 

l8o A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

confined to the Psalms) reformed the Torah; the Injil or Evangel 
reformed the Zabur and was itself purified, quickened and per- 
fected by the Koran which means Kartfaxfa the Reading or the 
Recital. Hence Locke, with many others, held Moslems to be 
unorthodox, that is anti-Trinitarian Christians who believe in the 
immaculate Conception, in the Ascension and in the divine 
mission of Jesus ; and when Priestley affirmed that "Jesus was 
sent from God," all Moslems do the same. Thus they are, in the 
main point of doctrine connected with the Deity, simply Arians as 
opposed to Athanasians. History proves that the former was the 
earlier faith which, though formally condemned in A.D. 325 by 
Constantine's Council of Nice, 1 overspread the Orient beginning 
with Eastern Europe, where Ulphilas converted the Goths ; which 
extended into Africa with the Vandals, claimed a victim or martyr 
as late as in the sixteenth century 2 and has by no means died 
out in this our day. 

The Talmud had been completed a full century before 
Mohammed's time and the Evangel had been translated into 
Arabic ; moreover travel and converse with his Jewish and 
Christian friends and companions must have convinced the 
Meccan apostle that Christianity was calling as loudly for reform 
as Judaism had done. 3 An exaggerated Trinitarianism or rather 

1 According to Socrates the verdict was followed by a free fight of the Bishop-voters 
Over the word " consubstantiality." 

2 Servetus burnt (in A.D. 1553 for publishing his Arian tractate) by Calvin, whom 
half educated Roman Catholics in England firmly believe to have been a pederast. This 
arose, I suppose, from his meddling with Rabelais who, in return for the good joke Rabie 
leesus, presented a better anagram, "Jan (a pimp or cuckold) Cul " (Calvinus). 

3 There is no more immoral work than the " Old Testament." Its deity is an ancient 
Hebrew of the worst type, who condones, permits or commands every sin in the 
Decalogue to a Jewish patriarch, qua patriarch. He orders Abraham to murder his son 
and allows Jacob to swindle his brother ; Moses to slaughter an Egyptian and the Jews to 
plunder and spoil a whole people, after inflicting upon them a series of plagues which 
would be the height of atrocity if the tale were true. Th_ Cations of Canaan are then 
extirpated. Ehixl. for treacherously disembowelling King Eglon, is made judge over 
Israel. Jael is biessed above women (Joshua v. 24) for vilely murdering a sleeping guest ; 

Terminal Essay. 181 


Tritheism, a " Fourth Person " and Saint-worship had virtually 
dethroned the Deity; whilst Mariolatry had made the faith a religio 
muliebris, and superstition had drawn from its horrid fecundity 
an incredible number of heresies and monstrous absurdities. 
Even ecclesiastic writers draw the gloomiest pictures of the 
Christian Church in the fourth and seventh centuries, and one 
declares that the " Kingdom of Heaven had become a Hell." 
Egypt, distracted by the blood-thirsty religious wars of Copt and 
Greek, had been covered with hermitages by a gens aeterna of 
semi-maniacal superstition. Syria, ever " feracious of heresies/' 
had allowed maay of her finest tracts to be monopolised by 
monkeries and nunneries. 1 After many a tentative measure 
Mohammed seems to have built his edifice upon two bases, the 
unity of the Godhead and the priesthood of the paterfamilias. 
He abolished for ever the " sacerdos alter Christus " whose 
existence, as some one acutely said, is the best proof of 
Christianity, and whom all know to be its weakest point. The 
Moslem family, however humble, was to be the model in miniature 
of the State, and every father in Al-Islam was made priest and 
pontiff in his own house, able unaided to marry himself, to circum- 
cise (to baptise as it were) his children, to instruct them in the law~ 

the horrid deeds of Judith and Esther are made examples to mankind ; and David, after an 
adultery and a homicide which deserved ignominious death, is suffered to massacre a host 
of his enemies, cutting some in two with saws and axes and putting others into brick- 
kilns. For obscenity and impurity we have the tales of Onan and Tamar, Lot and his 
daughters, Amnon and his fair sister (2 Sam. xiii.), Absalom and his father's concubines, 
the " wife of whoredoms "of Hosea and, capping all, the Song of Solomon. For the horrors 
forbidden to the Jews, who, therefore, must have practised them, see Levit. viii. 24 ; xi. 5 ; 
xvii. 7 ; xviii. 7, 9, 10, 12, 15, 17, 21, 23, and xx. 3. For mere filth what can be fouler 
than ist Kings, xviii. 27 ; Tobias ii. n ; Esther xiv. 2 ; Eccl. xxii. 2 ; Isaiah xxxvi. 12 ; 
Jeremiah iv. 5, and (Ezekiel iv. 12-15), where the Lord changes human ordure into 
11 Cow-chips ! " Ce qui excuse Dieu, said Henri Beyle, c'est qu'il n'existe pas, I add, 
as man has made him. 

1 It was the same in England before the " Reformation," and in France where, during 
our days, a returned priesthood collected in a few years ' Peter-pence " to the tune of 
five hundred millions of francs. And these men wonder at being turned out ! 

A If Laylah ^va Laylah. 

and canonically to bury himself (vol. viii. 22). Ritual, properly so 
called, there was none ; congregational prayers were merely those 
of the individual en masse and the only admitted approach to a 
sacerdotal order were the Olema or scholars learned in the legistic 
and the Mullah or schoolmaster. By thus abolishing the priest- 
hood Mohammed reconciled ancient with modern wisdom. " Scito 
dominum," said Cato, " pro tota famili4 rem divinam facere ": " No 
priest at a birth, no priest at a marriage, no priest at a death," is 
the aspiration of the present Rationalistic School. 

The Meccan apostle wisely retained the compulsory sacrament' 
of circumcision and the ceremonial ablutions of the Mosaic law ; and 
the five daily prayers not only diverted man's thoughts from the 
world but tended to keep his body pure. These two institutions 
had been practised throughout life by the Founder of Christianity ; 
but the followers who had never even seen him, abolished them for 
purposes evidently political and propagandist, By ignoring the 
truth that cleanliness is next to godliness they paved the way for 
such saints as Simon Stylites and Sabba who, like the lowest 
Hindu orders of ascetics, made filth a concominant and an 
evidence of piety : even now English Catholic girls are at times 
forbidden by Italian priests a frequent use of the bath as a sign- 
post to the sin of " luxury." Mohammed would have accepted 
the morals contained in the Sermon on the Mount much more 
readily than did the Jews from whom its matter was borrowed. 1 
He did something to abolish the use of wine, which in the East 
means only its abuse ; and he denounced games of chance, well 
knowing that the excitable races of sub-tropical climates cannot 
play with patience, fairness or moderation. He set aside certain 
sums for charity to be paid by every Believer and he was the first to 
establish a poor-rate (Zakat) : thus he avoided the shame and 
scandal of mendicancy which, beginning in the Catholic countries 

1 Deutsch on the Talmud : Quarterly Review, 1867. 

Terminal Essay. 183. 

of Southern Europe, extends to Syria and as far East as 
Christianity is found. By these and other measures of the same 
import he made the ideal Moslem's life physically clean, moderate 
and temperate. 

But Mohammed the " master mind of the age," had, we must 
own, a " genuine prophetic power, a sinking of self in the Divine, 
not distinguishable in kind from the inspiration of the Hebrew 
prophets," especially in that puritanical and pharisaic narrowness 
which, with characteristic simplicity, can see no good outside its 
own petty pale. He had insight as well as outsight, and the two 
taught him that personal and external reformation were mean 
matters compared with elevating the inner man. In the " purer 
Faith," which he was commissioned to abrogate and to quicken, 
he found two vital defects equally fatal to its energy and to its 
longevity. These were (and are) its egoism and its degradation 
of humanity. Thus it cannot be a " pleroma": it needs a Higher 
Law. 1 As Judaism promised the good Jew all manner of temporal 
blessings, issue, riches, wealth, honour, power, length of days> so 
Christianity offered the good Christian, as a bribe to lead a godly 
life, personal salvation and a future state of happiness, in fact, 
the Kingdom of Heaven, with an alternative threat of Hell. It 
never rose to the height of the Hindu Brahmans and Lao-Tse (the 
" Ancient Teacher ") ; of Zeno the Stoic and his disciples the noblt 
Pharisees 2 who believed and preached that Virtue is its own 
reward. It never dared to say, " Do good for Good's sake 3 ; " 

1 Evidently. Its cosmogony is a myth read literally: its history is, for the most part.' 
a highly immoral distortion, and its ethics are those of the Talraudic Hebrews. It has 
done good work in its time ; but now it shows only decay and decrepitude in the place of 
vigour and progress. It is dying hard, but it is dying of the slow poison of science. 

2 These Hebrew Stoics would justly charge the Founder of Christianity with preaching 
a more popular and practical doctrine, but a degradation from their own far higher and 
more ideal standard. 

\ * Dr. Theodore Christlieb (" Modern Doubt and Christian Relief," Edinburgh : Clark, 
,1874) can even now write ; " So then the ' full age ' to which humanity is at 

1 84 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

even now it does not declare with Cicero, " The sum of all is that 
what is right, should be sought for its own sake, because it is right, 
and not because it is enacted/' Jt does not even now venture to 
say with Philo Judaeus, " The good man seeks the day for the sake 
of the day, and the light for the light's sake ; and he labours to 
acquire what is good for the sake of the good itself, and not of 
anything else." So far for the egotism, nafve and unconscious, 
of Christianity, whose burden is, " Do good to escape Hell and 
gain Heaven." 

A no less defect in the " School of Galilee " is its low view of 
human nature. Adopting as sober and authentic history an 
Osirian-Hebrew myth which Philo and a host of Rabbis explain 
away, each after his own fashion, Christianity dwells, lovingly as it 
were, upon the " Fall " of man * and seems to revel in the con- 
temptible condition to which " original sin " condemned him ; 
thus grovelling before God ad majorem Dei gloriam. To such a 
point was and is this carried that the Synod of Dort declared, 
Infantes infidelium morientes in infanti& reprobatos esse statuimus ; 
nay, many of the orthodox still hold a Christian babe dying un- 
baptised to be unfit for a higher existence, and some have 
even created a " limbo " expressly to domicile the innocents " of 

present supposed to have attained, consists in man's doing good purely for goodness sake ! 
Who sees not the hollowness of this bombastic talk. That man has yet to be born whose 
practice will be regulated by this insipid theory (dieser graven Theorie). What is the 
Idea of goodness per se P * * * The abstract idea of goodness is not an effectual 
motive for well-doing " (p. 104). My only comment is Jest ignoble! His reverence 
acts the part of Satan in Holy Writ, " Does Job serve God for naught ? " Compare this 
selfish, irreligious, and immoral view with Philo Judseus (On the Allegory of the Sacred 
Laws, cap. Iviii,), to measure the extent of the fall from Pharisaism to Christianity. 
And the latter is still infected with the "bribe-and-threat doctrine: " I once immensely 
scandalised a Consular Chaplain by quoting the noble belief of the ancients, and it 
was some days before he could recover mental equanimity. The degradation is now 

1 Of the doctrine of the Fall the heretic Marcion wrote : "The Deity must either be 
deficient in goodness if he willed, in prescience if he did not foresee, or in power if he did 
not prevent it." 

Terminal Essay. 185 

whom is the kingdom of Heaven." Here, if any where, the cloven 
foot shows itself and teaches us that the only solid stratum 
underlying priestcraft is one composed of s. d. 

And I never can now believe it, my Lord ! (Bishop) we come to this earth 
Ready damned, with the seeds of evil sown quite so thick at our birth, 

sings Edwin Arnold. 1 We ask, can infatuation or hypocrisy 
for it must be the one or the other go farther? But the 
Adamical myth is opposed to all our modern studies. The deeper 
we dig into the Earth's " crust," the lower are the specimens of 
human remains which occur; and hitherto not a single " find " has 
come to revive the faded glories of 

Adam the goodliest man of men since born (!) 
His sons, the fairest of her daughters Eve. 

Thus Christianity, admitting, like Judaism, its own saints and 
santons, utterly ignores the progress of humanity, perhaps the only 
belief in which the wise man can take unmingled satisfaction. 
Both have proposed an originally perfect being with hyacinthine 
locks, from whose type all the subsequent humans are degradations 
physical and moral. We on the other hand hold, from the 
evidence of our senses, that early man was a savage very little 
superior to the brute ; that during man's millions of years upon 
earth there has been a gradual advance towards perfection, at 
times irregular and even retrograde, but in the main progressive ; 
and that a comparison of man in the xixth century with the cave- 
man 2 affords us the means of measuring past progress and of 
calculating the future of humanity. 

1 In his charming book, " India Revisited." 

* This is the answer to those who contend with much truth that the moderns are by 
no means superior to the ancients of Europe : they look-at the results of only 3000 
years instead of 30,000 or 300,000. 

1 86 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Mahommed was far from rising to the moral heights of the 
ancient sages : he did nothing to abate the egotism of Christianity ; 
he even exaggerated the pleasures of its Heaven and the horrors 
of its Hell. On the other hand he did much to exalt human 
nature. He passed over the "Fall " with a light hand ; he made 
man superior to the angels : he encouraged his fellow-creatures to 
be great and good by dwelling upon their nobler not their meaner 
side ; he acknowledged, even in this world, the perfectability of 
mankind, including womankind, and in proposing the loftiest 
ideal he acted unconsciously upon the grand dictum of chivalry 
Honheur oblige. 1 His prophets were mostly faultless men ; and, 
if the " Pure of Allah " sinned, he " sinned against himself." 
Lastly, he made Allah predetermine the career and fortunes, not 
only of empires, but of every created being ; thus inculcating 
sympathy and tolerance of others, which is true humanity, a\:d a 
proud resignation to evil as to good fortune. This is the doctrine 
which teaches the vulgar Moslem a dignity observed even by the 
"blind traveller/' and which enables him to display a moderation, 
a fortitude, and a self-command rare enough amongst the followers 
of the " purer creed. 

Christian historians explain variously the portentous rise of Al- 
Islam and it's marvellous spread over vast regions, not only of 
pagans and idolaters but of Christians. Prideaux disingenuously 
suggests that it "seems to have been purposely raised up by 
God, to be a scourge to the Christian church for not living in 
accordance with their most holy religion." The popular excuse is 
by the free use of the sword ; this, however, is mere ignorance : 
in Mohammed's day and early Al-Islam only actual fighters were 
slain 2 : the rest were allowed to pay the Jizyah, or capitation- 

1 As a maxim the saying is attributed to the Due de Le"vis, but it is much older. 
* There are a few, but only a few, frightful exceptions to this rule, especially in the case 
of Khalid bin Walid, the Sword of Allah, and his ferocious friend, Darar ibn al- Azwar. 

Terminal Essay. 187 

tax, and to become tributaries, enjoying almost all the privileges 
of Moslems. But even had forcible conversion been most 
systematically practised, it would have afforded an insufficient 
explanation of the phenomenal rise of an empire which covered 
more ground in eighty years than Rome had gained in eight 
hundred. During so short a time the grand revival of Monotheism 
had consolidated into a mighty nation, despite their eternal blood- 
feuds, the scattered Arab tribes ; a six-years' campaign had con- 
quered Syria, and a lustre or two utterly overthrew Persia, humbled 
the Grasco-Roman, subdued Egypt and extended the Faith along 
northern Africa as far as the Atlantic. Within three generations 
the Copts of Nile-land had formally cast out Christianity, and the 
same was the case with Syria, the cradle of the Nazarene, and 
Mesopotamia, one of his strongholds, although both were backed 
by all the remaining power of the Byzantine empire. North- 
western Africa, which had rejected the idolatro-philosophic system 
of pagan and imperial Rome, and had accepted, after lukewarm 
fashion, the Arian Christianity imported by the Vandals, and the 
" Nicene mystery of the Trinity," hailed with enthusiasm the 
doctrines of the Koran and has never ceased to be most zealous 
in its Islam. And while Mohammedanism speedily reduced the 
limits of Christendom by one-third, while throughout the Arabian, 
Saracenic and Turkish invasions whole Christian peoples embraced 
the monotheistic faith, there are hardly any instances of defection 
from the new creed and, with the exception of Spain and Sicily, 
it has never been suppressed in any land where once it took root. 
Even now, when Mohammedanism no longer wields the sword, it is 
spreading over wide regions in China, in the Indian Archipelago, 
and especially in Western and Central Africa, propagated only 
by self-educated individuals, trading travellers, while Christianity 

But their cruel excesses were loudly blamed by the Moslems, and Caliph Omar only 
obeyed the popular voice in superseding the fierce and furious Khalid by the mild 
*nd merciful Abu Obaydah. 

l88 A if Laylah wa Laylak. 

makes no progress and cannot exist on the Dark Continent 
without strong support from Government. Nor can we explain 
this honourable reception by the " licentiousness " ignorantly 
attributed to Al-Islam, one of the most severely moral of institu- 
tions ; or by the allurements of polygamy and concubinage, slavery, 1 
and a " wholly sensual Paradise" devoted to eating, drinking 2 and 
the pleasures of the sixth sense. The true and simple explanation 
Is that this grand Reformation of Christianity was urgently wanted 
when it appeared, that it suited the people better than the creed 
which it superseded and that it has not ceased to be sufficient for 
their requirements, social, sexual and vital. As the practical 
Orientalist, Dr. Leitner, well observes from his own experience, 
" The Mohammedan religion can adapt itself better than any 
other and has adapted itself to circumstances and to the needs 
of the various races which profess it, in accordance with the 
spirit of the age." 3 Hence, I add, its wide diffusion and its 
impregnable position. " The dead hand, stiff and motionless " 
is a forcible simile for the present condition of Al-Islam ; but it 
results from limited and imperfect observation and it fails in the 
sine qua non of similes and metaphors, a foundation of fact. 

I cannot quit this subject without a passing reference to an 
admirably written passage in Mr. Palgrave's travels 4 which is 

1 This loo when St. Paul sends the Christian slave Onesimus Back to his unbelieving (?) 
master, Philemon ; which in Al-Islam would have created a scandal. 

2 This too when the Founder of Christianity talks of " Eating and drinking at his 
table !" (Luke xxii. 29). My notes have often touched upon fhis inveterate prejudice, 
the result, like the soul -less woman of Al-Islam, of ad captandum, pious fraud. " No 
soul knoweth what joy of the eyes is reserved for the good in recompense for their 
works" (Koran xxxii. 17) is surely as "spiritual" as St. Paul (I Cor. ii., 9-) Some 
ties, however, are very long-lived, especially those begotten by self-interest. 

* I have elsewhere noted its strict conservatism which, however, it shares with al] 
Eastern faiths in the East. But progress, not quietism, is the principle which governs 
humanity and it is favoured by events of most different nature. In Egypt the rule of 
Mohammed Ali the Great and in Syria the Massacre of Damascus (1860) have greatly 
modified the constitution of Al-Islam throughout the nearer East. 

4 Chapt. viii. " Narrative of a Year's Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia; " 
London, Macmillan, 1865. 

Terminal Essay. 189 

essentially unfair to Al-Islam. The author has had ample 
opportunities of comparing creeds : of Jewish blood and born a 
Protestant, he became a Catholic and a Jesuit (Pere Michel Cohen) 1 
in a Syrian convent ; he crossed Arabia as a good Moslem and 
he finally returned to his premier amour, Anglicanism. But his 
picturesque depreciation of Mohammedanism, which has found due 
appreciation in more than one popular volume, 2 is a notable 
specimen of special pleading, of the ad captandum in its modern 
and least .honest form. The writer begins by assuming the arid 
and barren Wahhabi-ism, which he had personally studied, as a 
fair expression of the Saving Faith. What should we say to a 
Moslem traveller who would make the Calvinism of the sourest 
Covenanter, model, genuine and ancient Christianity? What would 
sensible Moslems say to these propositions of Professor Maccovius 
and the Synod of Dort : Good works are an obstacle to salvation. 
God does by no means will the salvation of all men : he does will 
sin and he destines men to sin, as sin ? What would they think 
of the Inadmissible Grace, the Perseverance of the Elect, the 
Supralapsarian and the Sublapsarian and, finally, of a Deity the 
author of man's existence, temptation and fall, who deliberately 
pre-ordains sin and ruin ? " Father Cohen " carries out into the 
regions of the extreme his strictures on the one grand vitalising 
idea of Al-Islam, 4< There is no god but God"; 3 and his deduc- 
tion concerning the Pantheism of Force sounds unreal and unsound, 
compared with the sensible remarks upon the same subject by 

1 The Soc. Jesu has, I believe, a traditional conviction that converts of Israelitic blood 
bring only misfortune to the Order. 

2 I especially allude to an able but most superficial book, the ' Ten Great Religions " 
&y James F. Clarke (Boston, Osgood, 1876), which caricatures and exaggerates the false 
portraiture of Mr. Palgrave. The writer's admission that, " Something is always gained 
by learning what the believers in a system have to say in its behalf," clearly shows us 
the man we have to deal with and the "depths of his self-consciousness." 

3 But how could the Arabist write such hideous grammar as La Hah ilia Allah " 
foe La iliha (accus.) ill' Allah ? 

i go A If Lay I ah wa Laylak. 

Dr. Badger } who sees the abstruseness of the doctrine and does 
not care to include it in hard and fast lines or to subject it to 
mere logical analysis. Upon the subject of " predestination " 
Mr. Palgrave quotes, not from the Koran, but from the AhAdis or 
Traditional Sayings of the Apostle ; but what importance attaches 
to a legend in the Mischnah, or Oral Law, of the Hebrews utterly 
ignored by the Written Law ? He joins the many in complaining 
that even the mention of " the love of God " is absent from 
Mohammed's theology, burking the fact that it never occurs in the 
Jewish scriptures and that the genius of Arabic, like Hebrew, does 
not admit the expression : worse still, he keeps from his reader 
such Koranic passages as, to quote no other, " Allah loveth you 
and will forgive your sins " (iii. 29). He pities Allah for having 
" no son, companion or counsellor " and, of course, he must 
equally commiserate Jehovah. Finally his views of the lifeless- 
ness of Al-Islam are directly opposed to the opinions of Dr. 
Leitner and the experience of all who have lived in Moslem lands. 
Such are the ingenious but not ingenuous distortions of fact, the 
fine instances of the pathetic fallacy, and the noteworthy illus- 
trations of the falsehood of extremes, which have engendered 
" Mohammedanism a Relapse : the worst form of Monotheism," 8 

1 P- 996 " Muhammad " in vol. iii. Dictionary of Christian Biography. See also the 
Illustration of the Mohammedan Creed, etc. from Al-Ghazali introduced (pp. 7277) 
Into Bell and Sons' " History of the Saracens" by Simon Ockley, B.D. (London, 1878). 
I regret that some Orientalist did not correct the proofs : everybody will not detect 
"Al-Lauh al-Mahfuz " (the Guarded Tablet) in Allauh ho'hnehphoud " (p. 171); and 
this but a pinch out of a camel-load. 

2 The word should have been Arianism. This "heresy " of the early Christians was 
much aided by the "Discipline of the Secret," supposed to be of apostolic origin, 
which concealed from neophytes, catechumens and penitents all the higher mysteries, 
like the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Metastoicheiosis (transubstantiation), the Real 
Presence, the Eucharist and the Seven Sacraments; when Arnobiuscould ask, Quid Deo 
cum vino est ? and when Justin, fearing the charge of Polytheism, could expressly declare 
the inferior nature of the Son to the Father. Hence the creed was appropriately called 
Symbol, f'.f. Sign of the Secret. This "mental reservation" lasted till the Edict of 
Toleration, issued by Constantine in the fourth century, held Christianity secure when 
divulging her " mysteries "; and it allowed Arianism to become /^popular creed. 

Terminal Essay. 191 

and which have been eagerly seized upon and further deformed 
by the authors of popular books, that is, volumes written by those 

who know little for those who know less, 

In Al-Rashid's day a mighty change had passed over the 

j. & 

primitive simplicity of Al-Islam, the change to which faiths and 
creeds, like races and empires and all things sublunary, are 
subject. The proximity of Persia and the close intercourse 
with the Graeco-Romans had polished and greatly modified the 
physiognomy of the rugged old belief : all manner of metaphysical 
subtleties had cropped up, with the usual disintegrating effect, and 
some of these threatened even the unity of the Godhead. Mu- 
saylimah and Karmat had left traces of their handiwork : the 
Mutazilites* (separatists or secessors) actively propagated their 
doctrine of a created and temporal Koran. The Khdrijf or Ibdzi, 
who rejects and reviles Abia Turab (Caliph Ali), contended passi- 
onately with the Shf'ah who reviles and rejects the other three 
41 Successors ; " and these sectarians, favoured by the learned, and 
by the Abbasides in their jealous hatred of the Ommiades, went 
to the extreme length of the Ali-Ilahi the God-makers of Ali 
whilst the Dahrf and the Zindik, the Mundanist and the Agnostic, 
proposed to sweep away the whole edifice. The neo-Platonism 
and Gnosticism which had not essentially affected Christendom, 1 
found in Al-Islam a rich fallow and gained strength and luxuriance 
by the solid materialism and conservatism of its basis. Such were 
a few of the distracting and resolving influences which Time had 
brought to bear upon the True Believer and which, after some 
half a dozen 'generations, had separated the several schisms by a 
wider breach than that which yawns between Orthodox, Romanist 

1 The Gnostics played rather a fantastic jrole in Christianity with their Demiurge, 
their ^Eonogony, their /Eons by syzygies or couples, their Maio and Sabscho and their 
beatified bride of Jesus, Sophia Achamoth ; and some of them descended to absolute 
absurdities e.g. the Tascodrugitae and the Pattalorhinchitae who during prayers placed 
t their fingers upon their noses or in their mouths, &c., reading Psalm cxli. 3, 

I9 2 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

and Lutheran. Nor was this scandal in Al-Islam abated until 
the Tartar sword applied to it the sharpest remedy. 


THE next point I propose to consider is the position of woman- 
hood in The Nights, so curiously at variance with the stock ideas 
concerning the Moslem home and domestic policy still prevalent; 
not only in England, but throughout Europe. Many readers of 
these volumes have remarked to me with much astonishment that 
they find the female characters more remarkable for decision, 
action and manliness than the male; and are wonderstruck by their 
masterful attitude and by the supreme influence they exercise 
upon public and private life. 

I have glanced at the subject of the sex in Al-Islam to such an 
extent throughout my notes that little remains here to be added. 
Women, all the world over, are what men make them ; and the 
main charm of Amazonian fiction is to see how they live and 
move and have their being without any masculine guidance. 
But it is the old ever-new fable 

" Who drew the Lion vanquished ? 'Twas a man ! " 

The books of the Ancients, written in that stage of civilisation, 
when the sexes are at civil war, make women even more than 
in real life the creatures of their masters : hence from the dawn 
of literature to the present day the sex has been the subject 
of disappointed abuse and eulogy almost as unmerited. Eccle- 
siastes, perhaps the strangest specimen of an " inspired volume '* 
the world has yet produced, boldly declares " One (upright) man 
among a thousand I have found ; but a woman among all have I 

not found" (vol. vii. 28), thus confirming the pessimism of 

Petronius : 

Femina nulla bona est, et si bona contigit ulla 
Nescio quo fato res mala facta bona est. 

Terminal Essay. 193 

In the Psalms again (xxx. 1 5) we have the old sneer at the three 
insatiables, Hell, Earth and the Parts feminine (ps vulva)', and 
Rabbinical learning has embroidered these and other texts, pro- 
ducing a truly hideous caricature. A Hadis attributed to 
Mohammed runs, "They (women) lack wits and faith. When 
Eve was created Satan rejoiced saying : Thou art half of my 
host, the trustee of my secret and my shaft wherewith I shoot and 
miss not ! " Another tells us, " I stood at the gate of Heaven, 
and lo ! most of its inmates were poor, and I stood at the gate 
of Hell, and lo ! most of its inmates were women." 1 " Take care 
of the glass-phials ! " cried the Prophet to a camel-guide singing 
with a sweet voice. Yet the Meccan apostle made, as has been 
seen, his own household produce two perfections. The blatant 
popular voice follows with such " dictes " as, " Women are made of 
nectar and poison " ; " Women have long hair and short wits " 
and so forth. Nor are the Hindus behind hand. Woman has 
fickleness implanted in her by Nature like the flashings of lightning 
(Kathd s.s. i. 147) ; she is valueless as a straw to the heroic mind 
(169); she is hard as adamant in sin and soft as flour in fear 
(170) and, like the fly, she quits camphor to settle on compost 
(ii. 17). "What dependence is there in the crowing of a hen?" 
(women's opinions) says the Hindi proverb \ also " A virgin with 
grey hairs ! " (i.e. a monster) and, " Wherever wendeth a fairy face 
a devil wendeth with her." The same superficial view of holding 
woman to be lesser (and very inferior) man is taken generally by 
the classics ; and Euripides distinguished himself by misogyny, 
although he drew the beautiful character of Alcestis. Simonides, 
more merciful than Ecclesiastes, after naming his swine-women, 
dog-women, cat-women, etc., ends the decade with the admirable 
bee-woman thus making ten per cent, honest. In mediaeval or 

1 "Kitdb al-'Unwan fi Makaid al-Niswan "-The Book of the Beginnings on the 
Wiles of Womankind (Lane i. 38.) 

VOL. X. N 

194 Alf Laylah wa Lay la k. 

Germanic Europe the doctrine of the Virgin mother gave the sex a 
status unknown to the ancients except in Egypt, where Isis was the 
help-mate and completion of Osiris, in modern parlance "The 
Woman clothed with the Sun." The kindly and courtly Palmerin 
of England, in whose pages " gentlemen may find their choice of 
sweet inventions and gentlewomen be satisfied with courtly ex- 
pectations," suddenly blurts out, " But in truth women are never 
satisfied by reason, being governed by accident or appetite " 
(chapt. xlix). 

The Nights, as might be expected from the emotional 
East, exaggerate these views. Women are mostly " Sectaries 
of the god Wiinsch " ; beings of impulse, blown about by 
every gust of passion ; stable only in instability. ; constant 
only in inconstancy. The false ascetic, the perfidious and 
murderous crone and the old hag-procuress who pimps like 
Umm Kulsum 1 , for mere pleasure, in the luxury of sin, are drawn 
with an experienced and loving hand. Yet not the less do we 
meet with examples of the dutiful daughter, the model lover 
matronly in her affection, the devoted wife, the perfect mother, 
the saintly devotee, the learned preacher, Univira the chaste 
widow and the self-sacrificing heroic woman. If we find (vol. iii. 
216) the sex described as : 

An offal cast by kites where'er they list, 

and the studied insults of vol. iii. 318, we also come upon an 
admirable sketch of conjugal happiness (vol. vii. ? 43) ; and, to 
mention no other, Shahryar's attestation to Shahrazad's excellence 

1 This person was one of the Amsal or Exampla of the Arabs. For her first thirty 
years she whored ; during the next three decades she pimped for friend and foe ; and, 
during the last third of her life, when bed-ridden by age and infirmities, she had a 
buck-goat and a nanny tied up in her room and solaced herself by contemplating their 
amorous conflicts. 

Terminal Essay. 195 

in the last charming pages of The Nights. 1 It is the same with the 
Katha whose praise and dispraise are equally enthusiastic ; e.g., 
" Women of good family are guarded by their own virtue, the sole 
efficient chamberlain ; but the Lord himself can hardly guard the 
unchaste. Who can stem a furious stream and a frantic woman ? M 
(i. 328). "Excessive love in woman is your only hero for daring " 
(i- 339)- " Thus fair ones, naturally feeble, bring about a series of evil 
actions which engender discernment and aversion to the world ; 
but here and there you will find a virtuous woman who adorneth 
a glorious house as the streak of the moon arrayeth the breadth 
of the Heavens " (i. 346). " So you see, King, honourable matrons 
are devoted to their husbands and 'tis not the case that women 
are always bad " (ii. 624). And there is true wisdom in that even 
balance of feminine qualities advocated by our Hindu- Hindi 
class-book the Toti-nameh or Parrot volume. The perfect woman 
has seven requisites. She must not always be merry (i) nor sad 
(2) ; she must not always be talking (3) nor silently musing (4) ; 
she must not always be adorning herself (5) nor neglecting her 
person (6) ; and, (7) at all times she must be moderate and self- 

The legal status of womankind in Al-Islam is exceptionally 
high, a fact of which Europe has often been assured, although 
the truth has not even yet penetrated into the popular brain. 
Nearly a century ago one Mirza Abu Talib Khan, an Amildar 
or revenue collector, after living two years in London, wrote an 
"apology" for, or rather a vindication of, his countrywomen 

1 And modem Moslem feeling upon the subject has apparently undergone a change. 
Ashraf Khan, the Afghan poet, sings', 

Since I, the parted one, have come the secrets of the world to ken, 
Women in hosts therein I find, but few (and very few) of men. 

And the Osmanli proverb is, "Of ten men nine are women! " 

-Alf Laylak wa Laylak* 

which is still worth reading and quoting. 1 Nations are but 
superficial judges of one another : where customs differ they 
often remark only the salient distinctive points which, when 
examined, prove to be of minor importance. Europeans seeing 
and hearing that women in the East are " cloistered " as the 
Grecian matron was wont ^vSov pcvtiv and oiKovpav ; that wives 
may not walk out with their husbands and cannot accom- 
pany them to "balls and parties "; moreover, that they are always 
liable, like the ancient Hebrew, to the mortification of the " sister- 
wife/' have most ignorantly determined that they are mere serviles 
and that their lives are not worth living. Indeed, a learned lady, 
'Miss Martineau, once visiting a Harem went into ectasies of pity 
and sorrow because the poor things knew nothing of say trigo- 
nometry and the use of the globes. Sonnini thought otherwise, 
and my experience, like that of all old dwellers in the East, is 
directly opposed to this conclusion. 

I have noted (Night cmlxii.) that Mohammed, in the fifth year 
of his reign, 2 after his ill-advised and scandalous marriage 3 with 

i J[ His Persian paper " On the Vindication of the Liberties of the Asiatic Women" 
was translated and printed in the Asiatic Annual Register for 1801 (pp. 100-107) ; it is 
quoted by Dr. Jon. Scott (Introd. vol. i. p. xxxiv. et seq.) and by a host of writers. 
He also wrote a book of Travels translated by Prof- Charles Stewart in 1810 and 
re-issued (3 vols. 8vo.) in 1814. 

2 The beginning of which I date from the Hijrah, lit. = the separation, popularly 
" The Flight." Stating the case broadly, it has become the practice of modern writers 
to look upon Mohammed as an honest enthusiast at Meccah and an unscrupulous 
despot at Al-Medinah, a view which appears to me eminently unsound and unfair. In 
a private station the Meccan Prophet was famed as a good citizen, teste his title Al- 
Amfn =. the Trusty. But when driven from his home by the pagan faction, he became 
de facto as de jure a king : nay, a royal pontiff; and the preacher was merged in the 
Conqueror of his foes and the Commander of the Faithful. His rule, like that of all 
Eastern rulers, was stained with blood ; but, assuming as true all the crimes and cruelties 
with which Christians charge him and which Moslems confess, they were mere blots upon 
a glorious and enthusiastic life, ending in a most exemplary death, compared with the 
tissue of horrors and bavock which the Law and the Prophets attribute to Moses, to 
Joshua, to Samuel and to the patriarchs and prophets by express commandment of Jehovah. 

3 It was not however, incestuous : the scandal came from its ignoring the Arab ' pun* 

Terminal Essay. 197 

his foster-daughter Zaynab, established the Hijab or veiling of 
women. It was probably an exaggeration of local usage : a 
modified separation of the sexes, which extended and still extends 
even to the Badawi, must long have been customary in Arabian 
cities, and its object was to deliver the sexes from temptation, as 
the Koran says (xxxii. 32), " purer will this (practice) be for your 
hearts and their hearts.'' 1 The women, who delight in restrictions 
which tend to their honour, accepted it willingly and still affect it ; 
they do not desire a liberty or rather a licence which they have 
learned to regard as inconsistent with their time-honoured notions 
of feminine decorum and delicacy, and they would think very 
meanly of a husband who permitted them to be exposed, like 
hetairae, to the public gaze. 2 As Zubayr Pasha, exiled to Gibral- 
tar for another's treason, said to my friend, Colonel Buckle, after 
visiting quarters evidently laid out by a jealous husband, " We 
Arabs think that when a man has a precious jewel, 'tis wiser to 
lock it up in a box than to leave it about for anyone to take." 
The Eastern adopts the instinctive, the Western prefers the rational 
method. The former jealously guards his treasure, surrounds it 
with all precautions, fends off from it all risks and if the treasure 
go astray, kills it. The latter, after placing it en evidence upon an 
eminence in ball dress with back and bosom bared to the gaze 

1 The "opportunism" of Mohammed has been made a matter of obloquy by many 
who have not reflected and discovered that time-serving is the very essence of " Revela- 
tion." Says the Rev. W. Smith (' Pentateuch " chapt. xiii.), "As the journey (Exodus) 
proceeds, so laws originate from the accidents of the way," and he applies this to suc- 
cessive decrees (Numbers xxvi. 3236 ; xxvii. 8 II and xxxvi. 19) holding it indirect 
internal evidence of Mosaic authorship (?) Another tone, however, is used in the case 
of Al-Islam. " And now, that he might not stand in awe of his wives any longer, down 
comes a revelation " says Ockley in his bluff and homely style, which admits such phrases 
as, " the imposter has the impudence to say." But why, in common honesty, refuse to 
the Koran the concessions freely made to the Torah? It is a mere petitio principii to 
argue that the latter is "inspired " while the former is not ; moreover, although we may 
be called upon to believe things beyond Reason, it is hardly fair to require our belief in 
things contrary to Reason. 

2 This is noticed in my wife's volume on The Inner Life of Syria, chapt. xii. vol. i. 155 

198 A If Lay I ah iva Laylah. 

of society, a bundle of charms exposed to every possible seduc- 
tion, allows it to take its own way, and if it be misled, he kills or 
tries to kill the misleader. It is a fiery trial ; and the few who 
safely pass through it may claim a higher standpoint in the moral 
world than those who have never been sorely tried. But the cru- 
cial question is whether Christian Europe has done wisely in 
offering such temptations. 

The second and main objection to Moslem custom is the mar- 
riage-system which begins with a girl being wedded to a man 
whom she knows only by hearsay. This was the habit of our 
forbears not many generations ago, and it still prevails amongst 
;noble houses in Southern Europe, where a lengthened study of 
it leaves me doubtful whether the " love-marriage," as it is called, 
or wedlock with an utter stranger, evidently the two extremes, is 
likely to prove the happier. The " sister-wife " is or would be a 
sore trial to monogamic races like those of Northern Europe, 
where Caia, all but the equal of Caius in most points mental and 
physical and superior in some, not unfrequently proves herself 
the " man of the family," the " only man in the boat." But in the 
East, where the sex is far more delicate, where a girl is brought 
up in polygamy, where religious reasons separate her from her 
husband, during pregnancy and lactation, for three successive 
years ; and where often enough like the Mormon damsel she 
would hesitate to " nigger it with a one-wife-man," the case 
assumes a very different aspect and the load, if burden it be, falls 
comparatively light. Lastly, the " patriarchal household " is 
mostly confined to the grandee and the richard, whilst Holy Law 
and public opinion, neither of which can openly be disregarded, 
assign command of the household to the equal or first wife and 
jealously guard the rights and privileges of the others. 

Mirza Abu Talib "the Persian Prince" 1 offers six reasons why 

v Mirza preceding the name means Mister and following it Prince. Addison'i 
Vision of Mirza," (Spectator, No. 159) is therefore "The Vision of Mister." 

Terminal Essay. 199 

" the liberty of the Asiatic women appears less than that of the 
Europeans/' ending with, 

I'll fondly place on either eye 
The man that can to this reply. 

He then lays down eight points in which the Moslem wife has 
greatly the advantage over her Christian sisterhood ; and we may 
take his first as a specimen. Custom, not contrary to law, invests 
the Mohammedan mother with despotic government of the home- 
stead, slaves, servants and children, especially the latter : she alone 
directs their early education, their choice of faith, their marriage 
and their establishment in life ; and in case of divorce she takes 
the daughters, the sons going to the sire. She has also liberty 
to leave her home, not only for one or two nights, but for a week 
or a fortnight, without consulting her husband ; and whilst she' 
visits a strange household, the master and all males above fifteen] 
are forbidden the Harem. But the main point in favour of the 
Moslem wife is her being a " legal sharer" : inheritance is secured 
to her by Koranic law ; she must be dowered by the bridegroom 
to legalise marriage and all she gains is secured to her ; whereas 
in England a " Married Woman's Property Act " was completed^ 
only in 1882 after many centuries of the grossest abuses. 

Lastly, Moslems and Easterns in general study and intelligently 
study the art and mystery of satisfying the physical woman. In 
my Foreword I have noticed among barbarians the system of 
" making men " ! that is, of teaching lads first arrived at puberty 
the nice conduct of the instrumentum paratum plantandis civibus ; 
a branch of the knowledge-tree which our modern education 

1 And women. The course of instruction lasts from a few days to a year and the 
period of puberty is feted by magical rites and often by some form of mutilation. It is 
described by Waitz, Re"clus and Schoolcraft, Pechuel-Loecksa, Collins, Dawson, Thomas, 
Brough Smyth, Reverends Bulmer and Taplin, Carlo Wilhelmi, Wood, A. W. Howitt, 
C. Z. Muhas (Mem. de la Soc. Anthrop. Allemande, 1882, p. 265) and by Professor, 
Mantegazza (chapt. i.) for whom see infra. 

2OO A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

grossly neglects, thereby entail ing untold miseries upon individuals, 
families and generations. The mock virtue, the most immodest 
modesty of England and of the United States in the xix tb century,, 
pronounces the subject foul and fulsome : " Society" sickens at all 
details; and hence it is said abroad that the English have the 
finest women in Europe and least know how to use them. 
Throughout the East such studies are aided by a long series of 
volumes, many of them written by learned physiologists, by men 
of social standing and by religious dignitaries high in office. The 
Egyptians especially delight in aphrodisiac literature treating, as 
the Turks say, de la partie au-dessous de la taille ; and from fifteen 
hundred to two thousand copies of a new work, usually litho- 
graphed in cheap form, readily sell off. The pudibund Lane 
makes allusion to and quotes (A. N. i. 216) one of the most out- 
spoken, a 4to of 464 pages, called the Halbat al-Kumayt or " Race- 
Course of the Bay Horse," a poetical and horsey term for grape- 
wine. Attributed by D'Herbelot to the Kazi Shams al-Din Mo- 
hammed, it is wholly upon the subject of wassail and women till 
the last few pages, when his reverence exclaims : " This much, O 
reader, I have recounted, the better thou mayst know what to 
avoid ;" and so forth, ending with condemning all he had praised. 1 
Even the divine and historian Jalal al-Din al-Siyuti is credited 
with having written, though the authorship is much disputed, a 
work entitled, " Kitab al-fzdh fi 'ilm al-Nikah The Book of 
Exposition in the Science of Coition : my copy, a lithograph of 
33 pages, undated, but evidently Cairene, begins with exclaiming 
" Alhamdolillah Laud to the Lord who adorned the virginal 
bosom with breasts and who made the thighs of women anvils for 
the spear-handles of men ! " To the same amiable theologian are 
also ascribed the "Kitab Nawazir al-Ayk fi al-Nayk = Green 

1 Similarly certain Australian tribes act scenes of rape and pederasty saying to the 
young, If you do this you will be killed. 

Terminal Essay. 20 1 

Splendours of the Copse in Copulation, an abstract of the Kitdb 
al-Wishah ft fawdid al-Nikah = Book of the Zone on Coition- 
boon. Of the abundance of pornographic literature we may judge 
from a list of the following seven works given in the second page 
of the " Kitdb Ruju'a al-Shaykh ila Sabdh fi 'I-Kuwwat al-Bah * = 
Book of Age-rejuvenescence in the power of Concupiscence : it is 
the work of Ahmad bin Sulayman, surnamed Ibn Kamal Pasha. 

1. Kitdb al-Bah by Al-Nahli. 

2. Kitab al-'Ars wa al-'Arais (Book of the Bridal and the Brides) 
by Al-Jahiz. 

3. Kitdb al-Kiyan (Maiden's Book) by Ibn Hdjib al-Nu'mdn. 

4. Kitdb al-fzah fi asrdr al-Nikah (Book of the Exposition on 
the Mysteries of married Fruition). 

5. Kitdb Jami' al-Lizzah (The Compendium of Pleasure) by Ibn 

6. Kitdb Barjdn (Yarjan ?) wa Jandhib (? ?) 2 

7. Kitdb al-Munakahah wa al-Mufatahah fl Asnaf al-Jimd' wa 
Alatih (Book of Carnal Copulation and the Initiation into the 
modes of Coition and its Instrumentation), by Aziz al-Din al- 
Masihi. 3 

1 " Bah," is the popular term for the amatory appetite : hence such works are called 
Kutub al-Bah, lit. = Books of Lust. 

2 I can make nothing of this title nor can those whom I have consulted : my only 
explanation is that they may be fanciful names proper. 

3 Amongst the Greeks we find erotic specialists (i) Aristides of the Libri Milesii ; 
(2) Astyanassa the follower of Helen who wrote on androgynisation ; (3) Cyrene the 
artist of amatory Tabellae or ex-votos offered to Priapns ; (4) Elephantis the poetess who 
wrote on Varia concubitus genera ; (5) Evemertis whose Sacra Historia, preserved in a 
fragment of Q. Eunius, was collected by Hieronymus Columna; (6) Hemitheon of 
the Sybaritic books ; (7) Musaeus the lyrist ; (8) Niko the Samian girl ; (9) Philaenis, the 
poetess of Amatory Pleasures, in Athen. viii. 13, attributed to Polycrates the Sophist ; 
(10) Protagorides, Amatory Conversations,; (n) Sotades the Mantinsean who, says 
Suidas, wrote the poem " Cinsedica" ; (12) Sphodrias the Cynic, his Art of Love ; and 
(13) Trepsicles, Amatory Pleasures. Amongst the Romans we have Aedituus, Annianus 
(in Ausonius), Anscr, Bassus Eubius, Helvius Cinna, Leevius (of lo and the 
Erotopsegnion), Memmius, Cicero (to Cerellia), Pliny the Younger, Sabellus (de modo 

2O2 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

To these I may add the Lizzat al-Nisa (Pleasures of Women), a 
text-book in Arabic, Persian and Hindostani : it is a translation 
and a very poor attempt, omitting much from, and adding naught 
to, the famous Sanskrit work Ananga-Ranga (Stage of the Bodiless 
One i.e. Cupido) or Hindu Art of Love (Ars Amoris Indica). 1 I 
have copies of it in Sanskrit and Marathi, Guzrati and Hindostani: 
the latter is an unpaged 8vo of pp. 66, including eight pages of 
most grotesque illustrations showing the various Asan (the Figurae 
Yeneris or positions of copulation), which seem to be the triumphs 
of contortionists. These pamphlets lithographed in Bombay are 
broad cast over the land. 2 

It must not be supposed that such literature is purely and simply 
aphrodisiacal. The learned Sprenger, a physician as well as an 
Arabist, says (Al-Mas'udi p. 384) of a tractate by the celebrated 
Rhazes in the Leyden Library " The number of curious observa- 
tions, the correct and practical ideas and the novelty of the 
notions of Eastern nations on these subjects, which are contained 
in this book, render it one of the most important productions of 
the medical literature of the Arabs." I can conscientiously 
recommend to the Anthropologist a study of the " Kutub al-Bah." 

coeundi) ; Sisenna, the pathic Poet and translator of Milesian Fables and Sulpitia the 
modest erotist. For these see the Dictionnaire ferotique of Blondeau pp. ix. and x.; 
(Paris, Liseux, 1885). 

1 It has been translated from the Sanscrit and annotated by A.F.F. and B.F.R. 
Reprint : Cosmopoli : mdceclxxxv : for the Kama Shastra Society, London and Benares, 
and for private circulation only. The first print has been exhausted and a reprint will 
presently appear. 

2 The local press has often proposed to abate this nuisance of erotic publication which 
is most debasing to public morals already perverted enough. But the *' Empire of 
Opinion" cares very little for such matters and, in the matter of the " native press," 
generally seems to seek only a quiet life. In England if erotic literature were not 
forbidden by law, few would care to sell or to buy it, and only the legal pains and 
penalties keep up the phenomenally high prices. 

Terminal Essay, 203 


HERE it will be advisable to supplement what wa* said in my 
Foreword (p. xv.) concerning the turpiloquium of The Nights. 
Readers who ^ave perused the ten volumes will probably agree 
with me that the naiVe indecencies of the text are rather gaudisserie 
than prurience; and, when delivered with mirth and humour, they 
are rather the " excrements of wit " than designed for debauching 
the mind. Crude and indelicate with infantile plainness; even 
gross and, at times, " nasty " in their terrible frankness, they 
cannot be accused of corrupting suggestiveness or subtle insinua- 
tion of vicious sentiment. Theirs is a coarseness of language, not 
of idea; they are indecent, not depraved; and the pure and perfect 
naturalness of their nudity seems almost to purify it, showing that 
the matter is rather of manners than of morals. Such throughout 
the East is the language of every man, woman and child, from 
prince to peasant, from matron to prostitute : all are as the 
naive French traveller said of the Japanese ; " si grossiers qu'ils 
ne s^avent nommer les choses que par leur nom." This primitive 
stage of language sufficed to draw from Lane and Burckhardt 
strictures upon the " most immodest freedom of conversation in 
Egypt, where, as all the world over, there are three several 
stages for names of things and acts sensual. First we have the 
mot cru, the popular term, soon followed by the technical and 
scientific, arid, lastly, the literary or figurative nomenclature, which 
is often much more immoral because more attractive, suggestive 
and seductive than the " raw word." And let me observe that the 
highest civilization is now returning to the language of nature. In 
La Glu of M. J. Richepin, a triumph of the realistic school, we- 
find such " archaic " expressions as la pete*e, putain, foutue a la 
six-quatre-dix ; un face*tieuse petarade; tu t'es foutue de, etc, 

2O4 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Eh vilain bougre ! and so forth. 1 To those critics who complain 
of these raw vulgarisms and puerile indecencies in The Nights I 
can reply only by quoting the words said to have been said by 
Dr. Johnson to the lady who complained of the naughty words in 
his dictionary " You must have been looking for them, Madam ! " 
But I repeat (p. xvi.) there is another element in The Nights 
and that is one of absolute obscenity utterly repugnant to English 
readers, even the least prudish. It is chiefly connected with what 
our neighbours call Le vice contre nature as if anything can be 
contrary to nature which includes all things. 2 Upon this subject 
I must offer details, as it does not enter into my plan to ignore 
any theme which is interesting to the Orientalist and the Anthro- 
pologist. And they, methinks, do abundant harm who, for shame 
or disgust, would suppress the very mention of such matters : in 
order to combat a great and growing evil deadly to the birth-rate 
the main-stay of national prosperity the first requisite is careful 
study. As Albert Bollstoedt, Bishop of Ratisbon, rightly says : 
Quia malum non evitatum nisi cognitum, ideo necesse est cog- 
noscere immundiciem coitus et multa alia quae docentur in isto 
libro. Equally true are Professor Mantegazza's words : 3 Cacher 
les plaies du cceur humain au nom de la pudeur, ce n'est au 
contraire qu'hypocrisie ou peur. The late Mr. Grote had reason to 
lament that when describing such institutions as the far-famed 
of Thebes, the Sacred Band annihilated at Chaeroneia, 

1 The Spectator (No. 119) complains of an "infamous piece of good breeding," 
because "men of the town, and particularly those who have been polished in France, 
make use of the most coarse and uncivilised words in our language and utter themselves 
often in such a manner as a clown would blush to hear." 

2 See the Novelle of Bandello the Bishop (Tome I ; Paris, Liseux, 1879, small in 18), 
where the dying fisherman replies to his confessor " Oh 1 Oh ! your reverence, to amuse 
myself with boys was natural to me as for man to eat and drink 4 yet you asked me if 
I sinned against nature ! " Amongst the wiser ancients sinning contra naturam was not 
marrying and begetting children. 

3 Avis au Lecteur "L* Amour dans 1'Humanitl," par P. Mantegazza, traduit par 
Emilien Chesneau, Paris, Fetscherin et Chuit, 1886. 

Terminal Essay. 20$ 

he was compelled to a reticence which permitted him to touch 
only the surface of the subject. This was inevitable under the 
present rule of Cant * in a book intended for the public : but the 
same does not apply to my version of The Nights, and now 
I proceed to discuss the matter seYieusement, honnetement, 
historiquement ; to show it in decent nudity not in suggestive 
fig-leaf or feuille de vigne. 


The " execrabilis familia pathicorum" first came before me 
by a chance of earlier life. In 1845, when Sir Charles Napier 
had conquered and annexed Sind, despite a fraction (mostly 
venal) which sought favour with the now defunct " Court 
of Directors to the Honourable East India Company," the veteran 
began to consider his conquest with a curious eye. It was 
reported to him that Karachi, a town let of some two thousand 

souls and distant not more than a mile from camp, supported no 


less than three lupanars or bordels, in which not women but boys 
and eunuchs, the former demanding nearly a double price, 2 lay for 
hire. Being then the only British officer who could speak Sindi, 
I was asked indirectly to make enquiries and to report upon the 
subject ; and I undertook the task on express condition that my 
report should not be forwarded to the Bombay Government, from 

1 See " H. B." (Henry Beyle, French Consul at Civita Vecchia) par un des Quarante 
(Prosper Me'rime'e), Elutheropolis, An mdccclxiv. De 1' Imposture du Nazare*en. 

2 This detail expecially excited the veteran's curiosity. The reason proved to be that 
the scrotum of the unmutilated boy could be used as a kind of bridle for directing the 
movements of the animal. I find nothing of the kind mentioned in the Sotadical 
literature of Greece and Rome ; although the same cause might be expected eveiywhere 
to have the same effect. But in Mirabeau (Kadhe'sch) a grand seigneur moderne, when 
his valet-de-chambre de confiance proposes to provide him with women instead of boys, 
exclaims, " Des femmes ! eh ! c'est comme si tu me servais un gigot sans manche.' See 
also infra for " Le poids du tisserand." 

206 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

whom supporters of the Conqueror's policy could expect scant 
favour, mercy or justice. Accompanied by a Munshi, Mirza 
Mohammed Hosayn of Shiraz, and habited as a merchant, Mirza 
Abdullah the Bushiri * passed many an evening in the townlet 
visited all the porneia and obtained the fullest details which were 
duly despatched to Government House. But the <f Devil's 
Brother " presently quitted Sind leaving in his office my unfor- 
tunate official: this found its way with sundry other reports 2 to 
Bombay and produced the expected result. A friend in the 
Secretariat informed me that my summary dismissal from the 
service had been formally proposed by one of Sir Charles Napier's 
successors, whose decease compels me parcere sepulto. But this 
excess of outraged modesty was not allowed. 

Subsequent enquiries in many and distant countries enabled me 
to arrive at the following conclusions : 

1. There exists what I shall call a " Sotadic Zone," bounded 
westwards by the northern shores of the Mediterranean (N. Lat. 
43) and by the southern (N. Lat. 30). Thus the depth would be 
780 to 800 miles including meridional France, the Iberian Penin- 
sula, Italy and Greece, with the coast-regions of Africa from 
Marocco to Egypt. 

2. Running eastward the Sotadic Zone narrows, embracing Asia 
Minor, Mesopotamia and Chaldaea, Afghanistan, Sind, the Punjab 
and Kashmir. 

3. In Indo-China the belt begins to broaden, enfolding China, 
Japan and Turkistan. 

4. It then embraces the South Sea Islands and the New World 

1 See Falconry in the Valley of the Indus, London, John Van Voorst, 1852. 

2 Submitted to Government on Dec. 31, '47 and March 2, '48, they were printed 
in " Selections from the Records of the Government of India." Bombay. New Series. 
No. xvii. Pan 2, 1855. These are (i) Notes on the Population of Sind, etc. and 
(2) Brief Notes on the Modes of Intoxication, etc. written in collaboration with my 
late friend Assistant-Surgeon John E. Stocks, whose early death was a sore loss to 
scientific botany. 

Terminal Essay. 207 

where, at the time of its discovery, Sotadic love was, with some 
exceptions, an established racial institution. 

5. Within the Sotadic Zone the Vice is popular and endemic, 
held at the worst to be a mere peccadillo, whilst the races to the 
North and South of the limits here defined practise it only 
sporadically amid the opprobium of their fellows who, as a rule, 
are physically incapable of performing the operation and look 
upon it with the liveliest disgust. 

Before entering into topographical details concerning Pederasty, 
which I hold to be geographical and climatic, not racial, I must 
offer a few considerations of its cause and- origin. We must not 
forget that the love of boys has its noble sentimental side. The 
Platonists and pupils of the Academy, followed by the Sufis or 
Moslem Gnostics, held such affection, pure as ardent, t& be the 
beau ide*al which united in man's soul the creature with the 
Creator. Professing to regard youths as the most cleanly and 
beautiful objects in this phenomenal world, they declared that by 
loving and extolling the chef-d'ceuvre, corporeal and intellectual, 
of the Demiurgus, disinterestedly and without any admixture of 
carnal sensuality, they are paying the most fervent adoration to 
the Causa causans. They add that such affection, passing as it 
does the love of women, is far less selfish than fondness for 
and admiration of the other sex which, however innocent, always 
suggest sexuality 1 ; and Easterns add that the devotion of the 
the moth to the taper is purer and more fervent than the Bulbul's 
love for the Rose. Amongst the Greeks of the best ages the 
system of boy-favourites was advocated on considerations of 
morals and politics. The lover undertook the education of the 
beloved through precept and example, while the two were con- 

1 Glycon the Courtesan in Athen. xiii. 84 declares that " boys are handsome only 
when they resemble women ;" and so the Learned Lady in The Nights (vol. v, 160) 
declares " Boys are likened to girls because folks say, Yonder boy is like a girl." For the 
superior physical beauty of the human mate compared with the female, see The Nights, 
vol. iv. 15 ; and the boy's voice before it breaks excels that of any diva. 

208 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

joined by a tie stricter than the fraternal. Hieronymus the 
Peripatetic strongly advocated it because the vigorous disposition 
of youths and the confidence engendered by their association 
often led to the overthrow of tyrannies. Socrates declared that 
"a most valiant army might be composed of boys and their 
lovers ; for that of all men they would be most ashamed to desert 
one another." And even Virgil, despite the foul flavour of 
Formosum pastor Corydon, could write : 

Nisus amore pio pueri. 

The only physical cause for the practice which suggests itself to 
me and that must be owned to be purely conjectural, is that 
within the Sotadic Zone there is a blending of the masculine and 
feminine temperaments, a crasis which elsewhere occurs only 
sporadically. Hence the male ftminisme whereby the man 
becomes patiens as well as agens, and the woman a tribade, a 
votary of mascula Sappho, 1 Queen of Frictrices or Rubbers. 2 Prof. 

1 " Mascula," from the priapiscus, the over-development of clitoris (the veretrum 
muliebre, in Arabic Abu Tartur, habens cristam) which enabled her to play the man. 
Sappho (nat. B.C. 612) has been retoillee like Mary Stuart, La Brinvilliers, Marie 
Antoinette and a host of feminine names which have a savour not of sanctity. Maximus 
of Tyre (Dissert, xxiv.) declares that the Eros of Sappho was Socratic and that 
Gyrinna and Atthis were as Alcibiades and Chermides to Socrates : Ovid, who could 
consult documents now lost, takes the same view in the Letter of Sappho to Phaon and in 

Tristia ii. 26$. 

Lesbia quid docuit Sappho nisi amare puellas ? 

Suidas supports Ovid. Longinus eulogises the epomKi) fjMvia (a term applied only to 
carnal love) of the far-famed Ode to Atthis : 

Ille mi par esse Deo videtur # * * 
(Heureux ! qui pres de toi pour toi seule soupire * * 
Blest as th' immortal gods is he, etc.) 

By its love symptoms, suggesting that possession is the sole cure for passion, Erasistratus 
discovered the love of Antiochus for Stratonice. Mure (Hist, of Greek Literature, 
1850) speaks of the Ode to Aphrodite ^Frag. i) as " one in which the whole volume of 
Greek literature offers the most powerful concentration into one brilliant focus of the 
modes in which amatory concupiscence can display itself." But Bernhardy, Bode, 
Richter, K. O. Miiller and esp. Welcker have made Sappho a model of purity, much 
like some of our dull wits who have converted Shakespeare, that most debauched genius, 
into a good British bourgeois. 

2 The Arabic Sahhakah, the Tractatrix or Subigitatrix, who has been noticed in vol. 

Terminal Essay, 209 

Mantegazza claims to have discovered the cause of this pathological 
love, this perversion of the erotic sense, one of the marvellous 
list of amorous vagaries which deserve, not prosecution but the 
pitiful care of the physician and the study of the psychologist. 
According to him the nerves of the rectum and the genitalia, in all 
cases closely connected, are abnormally so in the pathic who ob- 
tains, by intromission, the venereal orgasm which is usually sought 
through the sexual organs. So amongst women there are tribads 
who can procure no pleasure except by foreign objects introduced 
a. posteriori. Hence his threefold distribution of sodomy ; (i) 
Peripherie or anatomical, caused by an unusual distribution of the 
nerves and their hyperaesthesia ; (2) Luxurious, when love a tergo 
is preferred on account of the narrowness of the passage ; and 
(3) the Psychical. But this is evidently superficial : the question 
is what causes this neuropathy, this abnormal distribution and 
condition of the nerves. 1 

iv. 134. Hence to Lesbianise (Aeo-^ctv) and tribassare ( TpfcecrOai) J the former 
applied to the love of woman for woman and the latter to its me'canique : this is either 
natural, as friction of the labia and insertion of the clitoris when unusually developed ; 
or artificial by means of the fascinum, the artificial penis (the Persian " Mayajang "); the 
patte de chat, the banana-fruit and a multitude of other succedanea. As this feminine 
perversion is only glanced at in The Nights I need hardly enlarge upon the subject. 

1 Plato (Symp.) is probably mystical when he accounts for such passions by there 
being in the beginning three species of humanity, men, women and men-women or 
androgynes. When the latter were destroyed by Zeus for rebellion, the two others were 
individually divided into equal parts. Hence each division seeks its other half in the 
same sex ; the primitive man prefers men and the primitive woman women. C'est beau, 
but is it true ? The idea was probably derived from Egypt which supplied the Hebrews 
with androgynic humanity ; and thence it passed to extreme India, where Shiva as 
Ardhanari was male on one side and female on the other side of the body, combining 
paternal and maternal qualities and functions. The first creation of humans (Gen i. 27) 
was hermaphrodite ( = Hermes and Venus) masculum et fceminam creavit eos male and 
female created He them on the sixth day, with the command to increase and multiply 
(ibid. v. 28) while Eve the woman was created subsequently. Meanwhile, say certain 
Talmudists, Adam carnally copulated with all races of animals. See L'Anandryiie in 
Mirabeau's Erotika Biblion, where Antoinette Bourgnon laments the undoubling 
which disfigured the work of God, producing monsters incapable of independent self- 
reproduction like the vegetable kingdom. 

VOL. X. O 

2IO A If Laylak iva Laylah. 

As Prince Bismarck finds a moral difference between the male 
and female races of history, so I suspect a mixed physical tempe- 
rament effected by the manifold subtle influences massed together 
in the word climate. Something of the kind is necessary to 
explain the fact of this pathological love extending over the 
greater portion of the habitable world, without any apparent 
connection of race or media, from the polished Greek to the 
cannibal Tupi of the Brazil. Walt Whitman speaks of the ashen 
grey faces of onanists : the faded colours, the puffy features and the 
unwholesome complexion of the professed pederast with his 
peculiar cachetic expression, indescribable but once seen never 
forgotten, stamp the breed, and Dr. G. Adolph is justified in 
declaring " Alle Gewohnneits-paederasten erkennen sich einander 
schnell, oft met einen Blick." This has nothing in common with 
the fe*minisme which betrays itself in the pathic by womanly gait, 
regard and gesture : it is a something sui generis ; and the same may 
be said of the colour and look of the young priest who honestly 
refrains from women and their substitutes. Dr. Tardieu, in his 
well-known work, " tude Medico-l^gale sur les Attentats aux 
Mceurs," and Dr. Adolph note a peculiar infundibuliform disposi- 
tion of the " After " and a smoothness and want of folds even 
before any abuse has taken place, together with special forms of 
the male organs in confirmed pederasts. But these observations 
have been rejected by Caspar, Hoffman, Brouardel and Dr. J. H. 
Henry Coutagne (Notes sur la Sodomie, Lyon 1880), and it is a 
medical question whose discussion would here be out of place. 

The origin of pederasty is lost in the night of ages ; but its 
liistorique has been carefully traced by many writers, especially 
Virey, 1 Rosenbaum 2 and M. H, E. Meier. 3 The ancient Greeks 

1 De la Femme, Paris, 1827. 

2 Die Lustseuche des Alterthum's, Halle, 1839. 

3 See his exhaustive article on (Grecian) " Paederastie " in the Allgemeine Ency- 
clopaedic of Ersch and Gruber, Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1837. He carefully traces it 

Terminal Essay, 21 1 

who, like the modern Germans, invented nothing but were great; 
improvers of what other races invented, attributed the formal 
apostolate of Sotadism to Orpheus, whose stigmata were worn *by 
the Thracian women ; 

Omnemque refugerat Orpheus 
Fcemineam venerem ; 
I lie etiam Thracum populis fuit auctor, amorem 
In teneres transferre mares : citraque juventam 
yEtatis breve ver, et primes carpere flores. 

Ovid Met. x. 79-85; 

Euripides proposed Lafus father of Oedipus as the inaugurator, 
whereas Timaeus declared that the fashion of making favourites of 
boys was introduced into Greece from Crete, for Malthusian 
reasons said Aristotle (Pol. ii. 10) attributing it to Minos. 
Herodotus, however, knew far better, having discovered (ii. c. 80) 
that the Orphic and Bacchic rites were originally Egyptian. But 
the Father of History was a traveller and an annalist rather than 

an archaeologist and he tripped in the following passage (i. c. 13$), 

, /., 

"As soon as they (the Persians) hear of any luxury, they 
instantly make it their own, and hence, among other matters, 
they have learned from the Hellenes a passion for boys" ("un- 

I i V - 

natural lust" says modest Rawlinson). Plutarch (De Malig,' 
Herod, xiii.) 1 asserts with much more probability that the 
Persians used eunuch boys according to the Mos Gratia, long 
before they had seen the Grecian main. 

In the Holy Books of the Hellenes, Homer and Hesiod,' 
dealing with the heroic ages, there is no trace of pederasty, 
although, in a long subsequent generation, Lucian suspected 

through the several states, Dorians, ^olians, lonians, the Attic cities and those of 
Asia Minor. For these details I must refer ray readers to M. Meier j a full account of 
these would fill a volume not the section of an essay. 

1 Against which see Henri Estienne, Apologie pour H^rodote, a society satire of 
*vi th century, lately reprinted by Liseux, 

212 A If Lay la/i wa Laylah. 

Achilles and Patroclus as he did Orestes and Pylades, Theseus 
and Pirithous. Homer's praises of beauty are reserved for the 
feminines, especially his favourite Helen. But the Dorians of 
Crete seem to have commended the abuse to Athens and Sparta 
and subsequently imported it into Tarentum, Agrigentum and 
other colonies. Ephorus in Strabo (x. 4 $ 21) gives a curious 
account of the violent abduction of beloved boys 
by the lover (epao-nfc) ; of the obligations of the ravisher 
to the favourite (KAcu/o's) ] and of the " marriage-ceremonies " which 
lasted two months. See also Plato Laws i. c. 8. Servius (Ad 
JEneid. x. 325) informs us "De Cretensibus accepimus, quod in 
amore puerorum intemperantes fuerunt, quod postea in Laconas 
et in totam Graeciam translatum est." The Cretans and after- 
wards their apt pupils the Chalcidians held it disreputable for a 
beautiful boy to lack a lover. Hence Zeus the national Doric 
god of Crete loved Ganymede 2 ; Apollo, another Dorian deity, 
loved Hyacinth, and Hercules, a Doric hero who grew to be a 
sun-god, loved Hylas and a host of others : thus Crete sanctified 
the practice by the examples of the gods and demigods. But 
when legislation came, the subject had qualified itself for legal 
limitation and as such was undertaken by Lycurgus and Solon, 
according to Xenophon (Lac. ii. 13), who draws a broad dis- 
tinction between the honest love of boys and dishonest 

1 In Sparta the lover was called cicrTrvrjAas or ctorTrnyXo? and the beloved as in 
Thessaly extras O r dm??. 

2 The more I study religions the more I am convinced that man never worshipped 
anything but himself. Zeus, who became Jupiter, was an ancient king, according to the 
Cretans, who were entitled liars because they showed his burial-place. From a deified 
ancestor he would become a local god, like the Hebrew Jehovah as opposed to Chemosh 
of Moab ; the name would gain amplitude by long time and distant travel and the old 
island chieftain would end in becoming the Demiurgus. Ganymede (who possibly gave 
rise to the old Lat. " Catamitus ") was probably some fair Phrygian boy ("son of 
Tiros ") who in process of time became a symbol of the wise man seized by the eagle 
(perspicacity) to be raised amongst the Immortals ; and the chaste myth simply signified 
that only the prudent are loved by the gods. But it rotted with age as do all things 
human. For the Pederastia of the Gods see Bayle under Chrysippe. 

Terminal Essay. 213 

lust. They both approved of pure pederast/a, like that of 
Harmodius and Aristogiton ; but forbade it with serviles because 
degrading to a free man. Hence the love of boys was spoken 
of like that of women (Plato: Phaedrus; Repub. vi. c. 19 and 
Xenophon, Synop. iv. 10) e.g., "There was once a boy, or rather 
a youth, of exceeding beauty and he had very many lovers " 
this is the language of Hafiz and Sa'adi. ^schylus, Sophocles 
and Euripides were allowed to introduce it upon the stage, for 
" many men were as fond of having boys for their favourites as 
women for their mistresses ; and this was a frequent fashion in 
many well-regulated cities of Greece." Poets like Alcaeus, 
Anacreon, Agathon and Pindar affected it and Theognis sang 
of a " beautiful boy in the flower of his youth." The statesmen 
Aristides and Themistocles quarrelled over Stesileus of Teos ; and 
Pisistratus loved Charmus who first built an altar to Puerile Eros, 
while Charmus loved Hippias son of Pisistratus. Demosthenes 
the Orator took into keeping a youth called Cnosion greatly to 
the indignation of his wife. Xenophon loved Clinias and 
Autolycus; Aristotle, Hermeas, Theodectes J and others; Empe- 
docles, Pausanias ; Epicurus, Pytocles ; Aristippus, Eutichydes and 
Zeno with his Stoics had a philosophic disregard for women, 
affecting only pederastfa. A man in Athenaeus (iv. c. 40) left in 
his will that certain youths he had loved should fight like 
gladiators at his funeral ; and Charicles in Lucian abuses 
Callicratidas for his love of " sterile pleasures." Lastly there 
was the notable affair of Alcibiades and Socrates, the " sanctus 
paederasta" 2 being violemment soupgonne* when under the 

1 See Dissertation sur les idees morales des Grecs et sur les danger de lire Platon. Par 
M. Aude, Bibliophile, Rouen, Lemonnyer, 1879. This is the pseudonym of the late 
Octave Delepierre, who published with Gay, but not the Editio Princeps which, if I 
remember rightly, contains much more matter. 

* The phrase of J. Matthias Gesner, Comm. Reg. Soc. Gottingen i. 1-32. It was 
founded upon Erasmus' " Sancte Socrate, ora pro nobis," and the article was trans- 
lated by M. Alcide Bonmaire, Paris, Liseux, 1877. 

214 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

mantle : non semper ' sine plaga ab eo surrexit. Athenaeus 
(v. c. 13) declares that Plato represents Socrates as absolutely 
intoxicated with his passion for Alcibiades. 1 The ancients seem 
to have held the connection impure, or Juvenal would not have 
written . 

Inter Socraticos notissima fossa cinaedos, 

followed by Firmicus (vii. 14) who speaks of " Socratici paedi- 
cones." It is the modern fashion to doubt the pederasty of 
the master of Hellenic Sophrosyne, the " Christian before 
Christianity;" but such a world- wide term as Socratic love can 
hardly be explained by the lucus-a-non-lucendo theory. We are 
overapt to apply our nineteenth century prejudices and prepos- 
sessions to the morality of the ancient Greeks who would have 
specimen'd such squeamishness in Attic salt. 

The Spartans, according to Agnon the Academic (confirmed by 

1 The subject has employed many a pen, e.g. Alcibiade Fanciullo a Scola, D. P. A. 
(supposed to be Pietro Aretino ad captandum?), Oranges, par Juann Wart, 1652: small 
square 8vo. of pp. 102, including 3 preliminary pp. and at end an unpaged leaf with 
4 sonnets, almost Venetian, by V. M. There is a re-impression of the same date, a small 
I2mo of longer format, pp. 124 with pp. 2 for sonnets: in 1862 the Imprimerie Ra9on 
printed 102 copies in 8vo. of pp. iv.-io8, and in 1863 it was condemned by the police as 
a liber spurcissimus atque execrandus de criminis sodomici laude et arte. This work 
produced "Alcibiade Enfant a 1'ecole," traduit pour la premiere fois de 1'Italien de 
JFerrante Pallavicini, Amsterdam, chez 1'Ancien Pierre Marteau, mdccclxvi. Pallavicini 
(nat. 1618), who wrote against Rome, was beheaded, set. 26 (March 5, 1644) at Avignon 
in 1644 by the vengeance of the Barberini : he was a bel esprit deregle, nourri d'etudes 
antiques and a Memb. of the Acad. Degl' Incogniti. His peculiarities are shown by 
his "Opere Scelte," 2 vols. I2mo, Villafranca, mdclxiii. ; these do not include Alcibiade 
Fanciullo, a dialogue between Philotimus and Alcibiades which seems to be a mere 
skit at the Jesuits and their Pe'che philosophique. Then came the "Dissertation sur 
1' Alcibiade fanciullo a scola," traduit de 1'Italien de Giambattista Baseggio et 
accompagne'e de notes et d'une post-face par un bibliophile fi^ais (M. Gustave 
Brunet, Librarian of Bordeaux), Paris. J. Gay, 1861 an octavo of pp. 78 (paged), 
254 copies. The same Baseggio printed in 1850 his Disquisizioni (23 copies) and 
claims for F. Pallavicini the authorship of Alcibiades which the Manuel du Libraire wrongly 
attributes to M. Girol. Adda in 1859. I have heard of but not seen the " Amator 
fornaceus, amator ineptus" (Palladii, 1633) supposed by some to be the origin of 
Alcibiade Fanciullo ; but most critics consider it a poor and insipid production. 

Terminal Essay. 215 

Plato, Plutarch and Cicero), treated boys and girls in the same way 
before marriage: hence Juvenal (xi. 173) uses " Lacedaemonius " 
for a pathic and other writers apply it to a tribade. After the 
Peloponnesian War, which ended in B.C. 404, the use became 
merged in the abuse. Yet some purity must have survived, even 
amongst the Boeotians who produced the famous Narcissus, 1 
described by Ovid (Met. iii. 339) : 

Multi ilium juvenes, multse cupiere puellse ; 
Nulli ilium juvenes, nullae tetigere puellse : 2 

for Epaminondas, whose name is mentioned with three beloveds, 
established the Holy Regiment composed of mutual lovers, 
testifying the majesty of Eros and preferring to a discreditable 
life a glorious death. Philip's reflections on the fatal field of 
Chaeroneia form their fittest epitaph. At last the Athenians, 
according to 2Eschines, officially punished Sodomy with death j 
but the threat did not abolish bordels of boys, like those of 
Karachi ; the Porneia and Pornoboskeia, where slaves and 
pueri venales " stood," as the term was, near the Pnyx, the city 
walls and a certairr tower, also about Lycabettus (^Esch. contra 
Tim.) ; and paid a fixed tax to the state. The pleasures of 
society in civilised Greece seem to have been sought chiefly in 
the heresies of love Hetairesis 3 and Sotadism. 

1 The word is from vapKiy, numbness, torpor, narcotism : the flowers, being loved 
by the infernal gods, were offered to the Furies. Narcissus and Hippolytus are often 
assumed as types of morosa voluptas, masturbation and clitorisation for nymphomania : 
certain mediaeval writers found in the former a type of the Saviour ; and Mirabeau a 
representation of the androgynous or first Adam : to me Narcissus suggests the Hindu 
Vishnu absorbed in the contemplation of his own perfections. 

8 The verse of Ovid is parallel'd by the song of Al-Zahir al-Jazari (Ibn Khali, iii. 720)^ 

Ilium impuberem amaverunt mares; puberem feminae. 
Gloria Deo ! nunquam amatoribus carebit. 

3 The venerable society of prostitutes contained three chief classes. The first and 
lowest were the Dicteriads, so called from Diete (Crete) who imitated Pasiphae'j wife of 
Minos, in preferring a bull to a husband ; above them was the middle class, the Aleutridaj 

2l6 A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

It is calculated that the French of the sixteenth century had 
four hundred names for the parts genital and three hundred for 
their use in coition. The Greek vocabulary is not less copious 
and some of its pederastic terms, of which Meier gives nearly a 
hundred, and its nomenclature of pathologic love are curious 
and picturesque enough to merit quotation. 

To live the life of Abron (the Argive) i.e. that of a irdoywv) pathic 
or passive lover. 

The Agathonian song. 

Aischrourgfa = dishonest love, also called Akolasfa, Akrasfa, 
Arrenokoitfa, etc. 

Alcinoan youths, or " non-conformists," 

In cute curanda plus aequo operata Juventus. 

Alegomenos, the " unspeakable," as the pederast was termed 
by the Council of Ancyra: also the Agrios, Apolaustus and 

Androgyne, of whom Ansonius wrote (Epig. Ixviii. 1 5) : 

Ecce ego sum factus femina de puero. 

Badas and badfzein =s clunes torquens : also Bdtalos = a 

Catapygos, Katapygosyne = puerarius and catadactylium from 
Dactylion, the ring, used in the sense of Nerissa-'s, but applied to 
the corollarium puerile. 

Cinaedus (Kfnaidos), the active lover (wowov) derived either from 
his kinetics or quasi KvW <u8o>s = dog-modest. Also Spatalocinaedus 
(lascivia fluens) = a fair Ganymede. 

Chalcidissare (Khalkidizein), from Chalcis in Eubcea, a city 

who were the Almahs or professional musicians, and the aristocracy was represented by the 
Hetairai, whose wit and learning enabled them to adorn more than one page of Grecian 
history. The grave Solon, who had studied in Egypt, established a vast Dicterion 
(Philemon in his Delphica), or bordel, whose proceeds swelled the revenue of the 

Terminal Essay. 217 

famed for love & posteriori ; mostly applied to le Vehement des 
testicules by children. 

Clazomenae = the buttocks, also a sotadic disease, so called from 
the Ionian city devoted to Aversa Venus ; also used of a pathic, 
et tergo femina pube vir est. 

Embasicoetas, prop, a link-boy at marriages, also a^" night-cap " 
drunk before bed and lastly an effeminate ; one who perambulavit 
omnium cubilia (Catullus). See Encolpius' pun upon the Embasi- 
cete in Satyricon, cap. iv. 

Epipedesis, the carnal assault. 

Geiton lit. " neighbour " the beloved of Encolpius, which has 
produced the Fr. Giton = Bardache, Ital. bardascia from the 
Arab. Baradaj, a captive, a slave ; the augm. form is Polygeiton. 

Hippias (tyranny of) when the patient (woman or boy) mounts 
the agent. Aristoph. Vesp. 502. So also Kelitizein cs peccare 
superne or equum agitare supernum of Horace. 

Mokhtheria, depravity with boys. 

Paidika, whence paedicare (act) and paedicari (pass) : so in 
the Latin poet : 

PEnelopes primam DIdonis prima sequatur, 
Et primam CAni, syllaba prima REmi. 

Pathikos, Pathicus, a passive, like Malakos (malacus, mollis, 
facilis), Malchio, Trimalchio (Petronius), Malta, Maltha and in 
Hor. (Sat ii. 2$) 

Malthinus tunicis demissis ambulat. 

Praxis = the malpractice. 

Pygisma = buttockry, because most actives end within the 
nates, being too much excited for further intromission. 

Phcenicissare (^ouWfcu/) = cunnilingere in tempore menstruum, 
quia hoc vitium in Phoenicia generata solebat (Thes. Erot. Ling. 
Latinae) ; also irrumer en miel. 

Phicidissare, denotat actum per canes commissum quando 

2i8 A If Laylak iva Laylak. 

lambunt cunnos vel testiculos (Suetonius) : also applied to pollu* 
tion of childhood, 

^arnorium flores (Erasmus, Prov. xxiii.) alluding to the andro- 
gyiiic prostitutions of Samos. 

Siphniassare (<n<i>iaett/, from Siphnos, hod. Sifanto Island) = 
digito podicem fodere ad pruriginem restinguendam, says Erasmus 
(see Mirabeau's Erotika Biblion, Anoscopie). 

Thrypsis = the rubbing. 

Pederastfa had in Greece, I have shown, its noble and ideal 
side : Rome, however, borrowed her malpractices, like her religion 
and polity, from those ultra-material Etruscans and debauched 
with a brazen face. Even under the Republic Plautus 
(Casin. ii. 21) makes one of his characters exclaim, in the 
utmost sang-froid, "Ultro te, amator, apage te a dorso meo!" 
With increased luxury the evil grew and Livy notices (xxxix. 13), 
at the Bacchanalia, plura virorum inter sese quam fceminarum, 
stupra. There were individual protests; for instance, S. Q. 
Fabius Maximus Servilianus (Consul U.C. 612) punished his 
son for dubia castitas ; and a private soldier, C. Plotius, killed 
his military Tribune, Q. Luscius, for unchaste proposals. The 
Lex Scantrnia (Scatinia ?), popularly derived from Scantinius 
the Tribune and of doubtful date (B.C. 226 ?), attempted to abate 
the scandal by fine and the Lex Julia by death ; but they were 
trifling obstacles to the flood of infamy which surged in with the 
Empire. No class seems then to havs disdained these "sterile 
pleasures:" Ton n'attachoit point alors a cette espece d'amour 
une note d'infamie, comme en paYs de chrdtiente*, says Bayle 
under "Anacreon." The great Caesar, the Cinaedus calvus of 
Catullus, was the husband of all the wives and the wife of alF 
the husbands in Rome (Suetonius, cap. lii.) ; and his soldiers sang 
in his praise Gallias Caesar subegit, Nicomedes Caesarem (Suet, 
cies. xlix.) ; whence his sobriquet " Fornix Birthynicus." Of 
Augustus the people chaunted 

Videi,<ne ut Cincedus orbem digito temperet? 

Terminal Essay. 219 

Tiberius, with his pisciculi and greges exoletorum, invented the' 
Symplegma or nexus of Sellarii, agentes et patientes, in which 
the spinthriae (lit women's bracelets) were connected in a chain 
by the bond of flesh 1 (Seneca Quaest. Nat.). Oi' this refine- 
ment, which in the earlier pari of the nineteenth century was 
renewed by sundry Englishmen al i^apicb, Ausonius wrote 
(Epig. cxix. i), 

Tres uno in lecto : stuprum duo perpetiuntur ; 

And Martial had said (xii. 43) 

Quo symplegmate quinque copulentur; 
Qua plures teneantur a catena; etc. 

Ausonius recounts of Caligula he so lost patience that her 
forcibly entered the priest M. Lepidus, before the sacrifice was 
completed. The beautiful Nero was formally married to 
Pythagoras (or Doryphoros) and afterwards took to wife Sporus 
who was first subjected to castration of a peculiar fashion ; he 
was then named Sabina after the deceased spouse and claimed 
; queenly honours. The " Othonis et Trajani pathici " were famed ; 
the great Hadrian openly loved Antinoiis and the wild de- 
baucheries of Heliogabalus seem only to have amused, instead 
of disgusting, the Romans. 

Uranopolis allowed public lupanaria where adults and meritorii 
ipueri, who began their career as early as seven years, stood for 
hire : the inmates of these cauponae wore sleeved tunics and 
dalmatics like women. As in modern Egypt pathic boys, we learn 
from Catullus, haunted the public baths. Debauchees had signals 
like freemasons whereby they recognised one another. The Greek 
Skematizein was made by closing the hand to represent the scrotum 
and raising the middle finger as if to feel whether a hen had eggs,, 
tater si les poulettes ont Tceuf: hence the Athenians called it 

1 This and Saint Paul (Romans i. 27) suggested to "Caravaggio his picture of St. 
Rosario (in the museum of the Grand Duke of Tuscany), showing a circle of thirty men 
turpiter ligati. 

22O A If Laylah wa^Laylak. 

Catapygon or sodomite and the Romans digitus impudicus or 
infamis, the " medical finger L " of Rabelais and the Chiromantists. 
Another sign was to scratch the head with the minimus digitulo 
caput scabere (Juv. ix. I33). 2 The prostitution of boys was first 
forbidden by Domitian ; but Saint Paul, a Greek, had formally 
expressed his abomination of Le Vice (Rom. i. 26; i. Cor. vi. 8); 
and we may agree with Grotius (de Verit. li. c. 13) that early 
Christianity did much to suppress it. At last the Emperor 
Theodosius punished it with fire as a profanation, because sacro- 
sanctum esse debetur hospitium virilis animse, 

In the pagan days of imperial Rome her literature makes no 
difference between boy and girl. Horace naively says (Sat. 

ii. 1 1 8): 

Ancilla aut verna est praesto puer ; 

and with Hamlet, but in a dishonest sense : 

Man delights me not 
Nor woman neither. 

Similarly the Spaniard Martial, who is a mine of such pederastic 

allusions (xi. 46) :- 

Sive puer arrisit, sive puella tibi. 

That marvellous Satyricon which unites the wit of Moliere 8 with 

1 Properly speaking " Medicus" is the third or ring-finger, as shown by the old 
Chiromantist verses, 

Est pollex Veneris ; sed Jupiter indice gaudet, 
Saturnus medium ; Sol medicumopo, tenet. 

8 So Seneca uses digito scalpit caput. The modern Italian does the same by inserting 
the thumb-tip between the index and medius to suggest the clitoris* 

3 What can be wittier than the now trite Tale of the Ephesiatt Matron, whose dry 
humour is worthy of The Nights? No wonder that it has made the grand tour of the 
world. It is found in the neo-Phaedrus, the tales of Musaeus and in the Septem 
Sapientes as the <c Widow which was comforted." As the '* Fabliau de la Femme qui 
se fist putain sur la fosse de son Mari," it tempted Brantome and La Fontaine ; and 
Abel Remusat shows in his Contes Chinois that it is well known to the Middle Kingdom. 
Mr. Walter K. Kelly remarks, that the most singular place for such a tale is the " Rule 
and Exercise of Holy Dying" by Jeremy Taylor, who introduces it into his chapt. v. 
" Of the Contingencies of Death and Treating our Dead." But in those days divines 
were not mealy-mouthed. 

Terminal Essay. 221 

the debaucheries of Piron, whilst the writer has been described, 
like Rabelais, as purissimus in impuritate, is a kind of Triumph of 
Pederasty. Geiton the hero, a handsome curly-pated hobbledehoy 
of seventeen, with his calinerie and wheedling tongue, is courted 
like one of the sequor sexus: his lovers are inordinately jealous 
of him and his desertion leaves deep scars upon the heart. But 
no dialogue between man and wife in extremis could be more 
pathetic than that in the scene where shipwreck is Imminent. 
Elsewhere every one seems to attempt his neighbour: a man 
alte succinctus assails Ascyltos ; Lycus, the Tarentine skipper, 
would force Encolpius and so forth : yet we have the neat and 
finished touch (cap. vii.) : "The lamentation was very fine (the 
dying man having manumitted his slaves) albeit his wife wept not 
as though she loved him. How were it had he not behaved to her 
so well?" 

Erotic Latin glossaries 1 give some ninety words connected with 
Pederasty and some, which " speak with Roman simplicity/ ' are 
peculiarly expressive. " Aversa Venus " alludes to women being 
treated as boys : hence Martial, translated by Piron, addresses 
Mistress Martial (x. 44) : 

Teque puta, cunnos, uxor, habere dues. 

The capillatus or comatus is also called calamistratus, the darling 
curled with crisping-irons ; and he is an Effeminatus i.e\ qui 
muliebria patitur ; or a Delicatus, slave or eunuch for the use ofi 
the Draucus, Puerarius (boy-lover) or Dominus (Mart. xi. 71). The; 

1 Glossarium eroticum linguae Latins, sive theogoniae, legum et morum nuptialium apud 
Romanes explanatio nova, auctore P. P. (Parisiis, Dondey-Dupre, 1826, in 8vo). P. P. 
is supposed to be Chevalier Pierre Pierrugues, a"n engineer who made a plan of Bordeaux 
and who annotated the Erotica Billion. Gay writes, " On s'est servi pour cet ouvrage 
des travaux inedits de M. le Baron de Schonen, etc. Quant au Chevalier Pierre 
Pierrugues, qu'on designait corame I'auteur de ce savant volume, son existence n'est pas 
bien averee, et quelques bibliographes persistent a penser que ce nom cache la collabora- 
tion du Baron de Schonen et d'Eloi Johanneau. Other glossicists as Blondeau and 
Forberg have been printed by Liseux, Paris. 

222 A If Lay la k wa Laylah. 

Divisor is so called from his practice Hillas dividere or caedere^ 
something like Martial's cacare mentulam or Juvenal's Hesternae 
occurrere caenae. Facere vicibus (Juv. vii. 238), incestare se invicem 
or mutuum facere (Plaut. Trin. ii. 437), is described as "a puerile 
vice," in which the two take turns to be active arid passive : they 
are also called Gemelli and Fratres = compares in paedicatione. 
Illicita libido is = praepostera seu postica Venus, and is expressed 
by the picturesque phrase indicare (seu incurvare) aliquem. 
Depilatus, divellere pilos, glaber, laevis and nates pervellere are 
allusions to the Sotadic toilette. The fine distinction between 
demittere and dejicere caput are worthy of a glossary, while 
Pathica puella, puera, putus, pullipremo, pusio, pygiaca sacra, 
quadrupes, scarabaeus and smerdalius explain themselves. 

From Rome the practice extended far and wide to her colonies 
especially the Provincia now called Provence. Athenaeus (xii. 26) 
charges the people of Massilia with " acting like women out of 
luxury "; and he cites the saying " May you sail to Massilia ! " as 
if it were another Corinth. Indeed the whole Keltic race is 
charged with Le Vice by Aristotle (Pol. ii. 66), Strabo. (iv. 199) and 
Diodorus Siculus (v. 32). Roman civilisation carried pederasty also 
to Northern Africa, where it took firm root, while the negro and 
negroid races to the South ignore the erotic perversion, except 
where imported by foreigners into such kingdoms as Bornu and 
Haussa. In old Mauritania, now Marocco, 1 the Moors proper are 

1 This magnificent country which the petiy jealousies of Europe condemn, like the 
glorious regions about Constantiuople, to mere barbarism, is tenanted by three Moslem 
races. The Berbers, who call themselves Tamazight (plur. of Amazigh), are the 
Gaetulian indigenes speaking an Africo-Semitic tongue (see Essai de Grammaire Kabyle, 
etc. par A. Hanoteau, Paris, Benjamin Duprat). The Arabs, descended from the 
conquerors in our eighth century, are mostly nomads and camel-breeders. Third and 
last are the Moors proper, the race dwelling in towns, a mixed breed originally Arabian 
but modified by six centuries of Spanish residence and showing by thickness of feature 
and a parchment-coloured skin, resembling the American Octaroon's, a negro innervation 
of old date The latter are well described in ' ' Morocco and the Moors," etc. (Sampson 
Low and Co., 1876), by my late friend Dr. Arthur Leared, whose work I should like to 
see reprinted. 

Terminal Essay. 223 

notable sodomites ; Moslems, even of saintly houses, are permitted 
openly to keep catamites, nor do their disciples think worse of 
their sanctity for such license : in one case the English wife failed 
to banish from the home " that horrid boy." 

Yet pederasty is forbidden by the Koran. In chapter iv. 20 we 
read ; " And if two (men) among you commit the crime, then 
punish them both," the penalty being some hurt or damage by 
public reproach, insult or scourging. There are four distinct 
references to Lot and the Sodomites in chapters vii. 78 ; xi 77-84 ; 
xxvi. 160-174 and xxix. 28-35. In the first the prophet commis- 
sioned to the people says, " Proceed ye to a fulsome act wherein 
no creature hath foregone ye ? Verily ye come to men in lieu of 
women lustfully." We have then an account of the rain which 
made an end of the wicked and this judgment on the Cities of the 
Plain is repeated with more detail in the second reference. Here 
the angels, generally supposed to be three, Gabriel, Michael and 
Raphael, appeared to Lot as beautiful youths, a sore temptation 
to the sinners and the godly man's arm was straitened concerning 
his visitors because he felt unable to protect them from the erotic 
vagaries of his fellow townsmen. He therefore shut his doors and 
from behind them argued the matter: presently the riotous 
assembly attempted to climb the wall when Gabriel, seeing the 
distress of his host, smote them on the face with one of his wings 
and blinded them so that all moved off crying for aid and saying 
that Lot had magicians in his house. Hereupon the " cities " 
which, if they ever existed, must have been Fellah villages, were 
uplifted : Gabriel thrust his wing under them and raised them so 
high that the inhabitants of the lower heaven (the lunar sphere) 
could hear the dogs barking and the cocks crowing. Then came 
the rain of stones : these were clay pellets baked in hell-fire, 
streaked white and red, or having some mark to distinguish them 
from the ordinary and each bearing the name of its destination 

224 Alf Laylak wa Laylah. 

like the missiles which destroyed the host of Abrahat al- Ashram. 1 
Lastly the " Cities " were turned upside down and cast upon 
earth. These circumstantial unfacts are repeated at full length 
in the other two chapters ; but rather as an instance of Allah's 
power than as a warning against pederasty, which Mohammed 
seems to have regarded with philosophic indifference. The 
general opinion of his followers is that it should be punished like 
fornication unless the offenders made a public act of penitence. 
But here, as in adultery, the law is somewhat too clement and will 
not convict unless four credible witnesses swear to have seen rem 
in re. I have noticed (vol. i. 211) the vicious opinion that the 
Ghilman or Wuldan, the beautiful boys of Paradise, the counter- 
parts of the Houris, will be lawful catamites to the True Believers in 
a future state of happiness : the idea is nowhere countenanced in 
Al-Islam ; and, although I have often heard debauchees refer to it, 
the learned look upon the assertion as scandalous. 

As in Marocco so the Vice prevails throughout the old regencies 
of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli and all the cities of the South 
Mediterranean seaboard, whilst it is unknown to the Nubians, the 
Berbers and the wilder tribes dwelling inland. Proceeding East- 
ward we reach Egypt, that classical region of all abominations 
which, marvellous to relate, flourished in closest contact with men 
leading 'the purest of lives, models of moderation and morality, of 
religion and virtue. Amongst the ancient Copts Le Vice was 
part and portion of the Ritual and was represented by two male 
partridges alternately copulating (Interp. in Priapi Carm. xvii). 
The evil would have gained strength by the invasion of Cambyses 
(B.C. $24), whose armies, after the victory over Psammenitus, 
settled in the Nile-Valley, and held it, despite sundry revolts, for 
some hundred and ninety years. During these six generations 

1 Thus somewhat agreeing with one of the multitudinous modern theories that the 
Pentapolis was destroyed by discharges of meteoric stones during a tremendous thunder- 
storm. Possible, but where are the stones ?, 

Terminal Essay. 22$ 

the Iranians left their mark upon Lower Egypt and especially, as 
the late Rogers Bey proved, upon the Fayyum the most ancient 
Delta of the Nile. 1 Nor would the evil be diminished by the 
Hellenes who, under Alexander the Great, " liberator and saviour 
of Egypt " (B.C. 332), extinguished the native dynasties : the love 
of the Macedonian for Bagoas the Eunuch being a matter of 
history. From that time and under the rule of the Ptolemies the 
morality gradually decayed ; the Canopic orgies extended into 
private life and the debauchery of the men was equalled only by 
the depravity of the women. Neither Christianity nor Al-Islam 
could effect a change for the better ; and social morality seems to 
have been at its worst during the past century when Sonnini 
travelled (A.D. 1717). The French officer, who is thoroughly 
trustworthy, draws the darkest picture of the widely-spread crimi- 
nality especially of the bestiality and the sodomy (chapt. xv.) 
which formed the "delight of the Egyptians." During the 
Napoleonic conquest Jaubert in his letter to General Bruix 
(p. 19) says, " Les Arabes et les Mamelouks ont traite* 
quelques-uns de nos prisonniers comme Socrate traitait, dit-on, 
Alcibiade. II fallait peVir ou y passer." Old Anglo-Egyptians 
still chuckle over the tale of Sa'id Pasha and M. de Ruyssenaer, 
the high-dried and highly respectable Consul*General for the 
Netherlands, who was solemnly advised to make the experiment, 
active and passive, before offering his opinion upon the subject. 
In the present age extensive intercourse with Europeans has 
produced not a reformation but a certain reticence amongst the 
upper classes : they are as vicious as ever, but they do not care 
for displaying their vices to the eyes of mocking strangers. 

Syria and Palestine, another ancient focus of abominations, 1 

1 To this Iranian domination I attribute the use of many Persic words which are not 
yet obsolete in Egypt. "Bakhshish," for instance, is not intelligble in the Moslem 
regions west of the Nile- Valley and for a present the Moors say liadiyab, regale or 

VOL. X. P. 

226 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

borrowed from Egypt and exaggerated the worship of Andro- 
gynic and hermaphroditic deities. Plutarch (De Iside) notes that 
the old Nilotes held the moon to be of " male-female sex," the 
men sacrificing to Luna and the women to Lunus. 1 Isis also 
was a hermaphrodite, the idea being that Aether or Air (the 
lower heavens) was the menstruum of generative nature ; and 
Damascius explained the tenet by the all-fruitful and prolific 
powers of the atmosphere. Hence the fragment attributed to 
Orpheus, the song of Jupiter (Air) 

All things from Jove descend 
Jove was a male, Jove was a deathless bride ; 
For men call Air, of two- fold sex, the Jove. 

Julius Firmicus relates that "The Assyrians and part of the 
Africans " (along the Mediterranean seaboard ?) " hold Air to be 
the chief element and adore its fanciful figure (imaginata figura), 
consecrated under the name of Juno or the Virgin Venus. * 
Their companies of priests cannot duly serve her unless they 
effeminate their faces, smooth their skins and disgrace their 
masculine sex by feminine ornaments. You may see men in 
their very temples amid general groans enduring miserable dalli- 
ance and becoming passives like women (viros muliebria pati) and 
they expose, with boasting and ostentation, the pollution of the 
impure and immodest body." Here we find the religious signifi- 
cance of eunuchry. It was practised as a religious rite by the 
Tympanotribas or Callus, 2 the castrated votary of Rhea or Bona 
Mater, in Phrygia called Cybele, self-mutilated but not in memory 
of Atys ; and by a host of other creeds : even Christianity, as 

1 Arnobius and Tertullian, with the arrogance of their caste and its miserable igno- 
rance of that symbolism which often concealed from vulgar eyes the most precious 
mysteries, used to taunt the heathen for praying to deities whose sex they ignored : 
"Consuistis in precibus 'Seu tu Deus seu tu Dea,' dicere!" These men would 
know everything ; they made God the merest work of man's brains and armed him with 
a despotism of omnipotence which rendered their creation truly dreadful. 

* Callus lit. = a cock, in pornologic parlance is a capon, a castrato. 

Terminal Essay. 22? 

sundry texts show, 1 could not altogether cast out the old possession.^ 
Here too we have an explanation of Sotadic love in its second 
stage, when it became, like cannibalism, a matter of superstition. 
Assuming a nature-implanted tendency, we see that like human 
sacrifice it was held to be the most acceptable offering to the God- 
goddess in the Orgia or sacred ceremonies, a something set apart 
for peculiar worship. Hence in Rome as in Egypt the temples of 
Isis (Inachidos limina, Isiacae sacraria Lunae) were centres of 
sodomy and the religious practice was adopted by the grand 
priestly castes from Mesopotamia to Mexico and Peru. 

We find the earliest written notices of the Vice in the mythical 
destruction of the Pentapolis (Gen. xix.), Sodom, Gomorrah 
(= 'Amirah, the cultivated country), Adama, Zeboi'm and Zoar 
or Bela. The legend has been amply embroidered by the Rabbis, 
who make the Sodomites do everything a Venvers : e.g. if a man 
were wounded he was fined for bloodshed and was compelled to 
fee the offender ; and if one cut off the ear of a neighbour's ass 
he was condemned to keep the animal till the ear grew again. 
The Jewish doctors declare the people to have been a race of 
sharpers with rogues for magistrates, and thus they justify the 
judgment which they read literally. But the traveller cannot 
accept it. I have carefully examined the lands at the North and 

1 The texts justifying or conjoining castration are Matt, xviii. 8-9 ; Mark ix. 43-47 ; 
Luke xxiii. 29 and Col. iii. 5. St. Paul preached (i Corin. vii. 29) that a man should 
live with his wife as if he had none. The Afoelian heretics of Africa abstained from 
Women because Abel died virginal. Origen mutilated himself after interpreting too 
rigorously Matth. xix. 12, and was duly excommunicated. But his disciple, the Arab 
Valerius founded (A.D. 250) the castrated sect called Valerians who, persecuted and 
dispersed by the Emperors Constantine and Justinian, became the spiritual fathers of the 
modern Skopzis. These eunuchs first appeared in Russia at the end of the xith century, 
when two Greeks, John and Jephrem, were metropolitans of Kiew : the former was 
brought thither in A.D. 1089 by Princess Anna Wassewolodowna and is called by the' 
chronicles Nawjfc or the Corpse. But in the early part of the last century (1715-1733) a 
sect arose in the circle of Uglitseh and in Moscow, at first called Clisti or flagellants 
which developed into the modern Skopzi. For this extensive subject see De Stein i 
(Zeitschrift fur Ethn. Berlin, 1875) an d Mantegazza, chapt. vi. 

228 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

at the South of that most beautiful lake, the so-called Dead Sea, 
whose tranquil loveliness, backed by the grand plateau of Moab, 
is a* object of admiration to all save patients suffering from the 
strange disease " Holy Land on the Brain." 1 But I found no- 
traces of craters in the neighbourhood, no signs of vulcanism, no 
remains of " meteoric stones " : the asphalt which named the 
water is a mineralised vegetable washed out of the limestones, 
and the sulphur and salt are brought down by the Jordan into a 
lake without issue. I must therefore look upon the history as 3 
myth which may have served a double purpose. The first would 
be to deter the Jew from the Malthusian practices of his pagan 
predecessors, upon whom obloquy was thus cast, so far resembling 
the scandalous and absurd legend which explained the names of 
the children of Lot by Pheine' and Thamma as " Moab " (Mu-ab) 
the water or semen of the father, and " Ammon " as mother's son 
that is, bastard. The fable would also account for the abnormal 
fissure containing the lower Jordan and the Dead Sea, which the 
late Sir R. I. Murchison used wrong-headedly to call a " Volcanc* 
of Depression " : this geological feature, that cuts off the river- 
basin from its natural outlet the Gulf of Eloth (Akabah), must 
date from myriads of years before there were " Cities of the Plains/' 
But the main object of the ancient lawgiver, Osarsiph, Moses 
or the Moseidae, was doubtless to discountenance a perversion 
prejudicial to the increase of population. And he speaks with 
no uncertain voice, Whoso lieth with a beast shall surely be put 
to death (Exod. xxii. 19) : If a man lie with mankind as he lieth 
with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination ; 
they shall surely be put to death ; their blood shall be upon them 
(Levit. xx. 13 ; where v.v. 15-16 threaten with death man and 
woman who lie with beasts). Again, There shall be no whc^re 
of the daughters of Israel nor a sodomite of the sons of Israel 
(Deut. xxii. 5). 

1 See the marvellously absurd description of the glorious "Dead Sea" in the 
Purchas v. 84. 

Terminal Essay. 229 

The old commentators on the Sodom-myth are most unsatis- 
factory e.g. Parkhurst, s.v. Kadesh. " From hence we may observe 
the peculiar propriety of this punishment of Sodom and of the 
neighbouring cities. By their sodomitical impurities they meant 
to acknowledge the Heavens as the cause of fruitfulness in- 
dependently upon, and in opposition to Jehovah 1 ; therefore 
Jehovah, by raining upon them not genial showers but brimstone 
from heaven, not only destroyed the inhabitants, but also changed 
all that country, which was before as the garden of God, into 
brimstone and salt that is not sown nor beareth, neither any grass 
groweth therein." It must be owned that to this Pentapolis was 
dealt very hard measure for religiously and diligently practising 
a popular rite which a host of cities even in the present day, as 
Naples and Shiraz, to mention no others, affect for simple luxury 
and affect with impunity. The myth may probably reduce itself 
to very small proportions, a few Fellah villages destroyed by a 
storm, like that which drove Brennus from Delphi. 

The Hebrews entering Syria found it religionised by Assyria 
and Babylonia, whence Accadian Ishtar had passed west and had 
become Ashtoreth, Ashtaroth or Ashirah, 2 the Anaitis of Armenia, 
the Phoenician Astarte and the Greek Aphrodite, the great Moon- 
goddess. 3 who is queen of Heaven and Love. In another phase 
she was Venus Mylitta = the Procreatrix, in Chaldaic Mauludatd 

1 Jehovah here is made to play an evil part by destroying men instead of teaching 
them better. But, "Nous faisons les Dieux a notre image et nous portons dans le ciel 
oe que nous voyons sur la terre." The idea of Yahweh, or Yah is palpably Egyptian, 
the Ankh or ever-living One : the etymon, however, was learned at Babylon and is 
still found amongst the cuneiforms. 

8 The name still survives in the Shajarat al-Ashara, a clump o'f trees near the village 
Al-Ghajar (of the Gypsies ?) at the foot of Hermon. 

3 I am not quite sure that Astarte is not primarily the planet Venus ; but I can 
hardly doubt that Prof. Max Miiller and Sir G. Cox are mistaken in bringing from 
India Aphrodite the Dawn and her attendants, the Charites identified with the Vedic 
HariU. Of Ishtar in Accadia, however, Roscher seems to have proved that she is 
distinctly the Moon sinking into Amenti (the west, the Underworld) in search of her lost 
spouse Izdubar, the Sun-god. This again is pure Egyptianism. 

230 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

and in Arabic Moawallidah, she who bringeth forth. She was 
worshipped by men habited as women and vice versa ; for which 
reason in the Torah (Deut. xx. 5) the sexes are forbidden to 
change dress. The male prostitutes were called Kadesh the holy, 
the women being Kadeshah, and doubtless gave themselves up to 
great excesses. Eusebius (De bit. Const, iii. c. 55) describes a school 
of impurity at Aphac, where women and " men who were not 
men " practised all manner of abominations in honour of the 
Demon (Venus). Here the Phrygian symbolism of Kybele and 
Attis (Atys) had become the Syrian Ba'al Tammuz and Astarte, 
and the Grecian Dionaea and Adonis, the anthropomorphic forms 
of the two greater lights. The site, Apheca, now Wady al-Afik 
on the route from Bayrut to the Cedars, is a glen of wild and 
wondrous beauty, fitting frame-work for the loves of goddess and 
demigod : and the ruins of the temple destroyed by Constantine 
contrast with Nature's work, the glorious fountain, splendidior 
vitro, which feeds the River Ibrahim and still at times Adonis 
Vuns purple to the sea. 1 

The Phoenicians spread this androgynic worship over Greece. 
We find the consecrated servants and votaries of Corinthian 
Aphrodite called Hierodouli (Strabo viii. 6), who aided the ten 
thousand courtesans in gracing the Venus-temple : from this 
excessive luxury arose the proverb popularised by Horace. One 

1 In this classical land of Venus the worship of Ishtar-Ashtaroth is by no means obsolete. 
The Metwali heretics, a people of Persian descent and Shiite tenets, and the peasantry of 
" Bilad B'sharrah," which I would derive from Bayt Ashirah, still pilgrimage to the 
ruins and address their vows to the Sayyidat al-Kabirah, the Great Lady. Orthodox 
Moslems accuse them of abominable orgies and point to the lamps and rags which 
they suspend to a tree entitled Shajarat al-Sitt the Lady's tree an Acacia Albida 
which, according to some travellers, is found only here and at Sayda (Sidon) where an 
avenue exists. The people of Kasrawan, a Christian province in the Libanus, inhabited 
by a peculiarly prurient race, also hold high festival under the farfamed Cedars and 
their women sacrifice to Venus like the Kadashah of the Phoenicians. This survival of 
old superstition is unknown to missionary " Handbooks,'.' but amply deserves the study of 
the anthropologist. 

Terminal Essay. 231 

of the head-quarters of the cult was Cyprus where, as Servius 
relates (Ad JEn. ii. 632), stood the simulacre of a bearded 
Aphrodite with feminine body and costume, sceptered and mitred 
like a man. The sexes when worshipping it exchanged habits 
and here the virginity was offered in sacrifice : Herodotus (i. c. 199) 
describes this defloration at Babylon but sees only the shameful 
part of the custom which was a mere consecration of a tribal rite. 
Everywhere girls before marriage belong either to the father or to 
the clan and thus the maiden paid the debt due to the public, before 
becoming private property as a wife. The same usage prevailed 
in ancient Armenia and in parts of Ethiopia ; and Herodotus tells 
us that a practice very much like the Babylonian " is found also 
in certain parts of the Island of Cyprus : " it is noticed by Justin 
(xviii. c. 5) and probably it explains the " Succoth Benoth " or 
Damsels' booths which the Babylonians transplanted to the cities 
of Samaria. 1 The Jews seem very successfully to have copied the 
abominations of their pagan neighbours, even in the matter of the 
"dog." 2 In the reign of wicked Rehoboam (B.C. 975) "There 
were also sodomites in the land and they did according to all the 
abominations of the .nations which the Lord cast out before the 
children of Israel " (r Kings xiv. 20). The scandal was abated by 
zealous King Asa (B.C. 958) whose grandmother 3 was high- 
priestess of Priapus (princeps in sacris Priapi) : he " took 

1 Some commentators understand "the tabernacles sacred to the reproductive powers 
of women ; " and the Rabbis declare that the emblem was the figure of a setting 

2 "Dog" is applied by the older Jews to the Sodomite and the Catamite; and 
thus they understand the "price of a dog" which could not be brought into the 
Temple (Deut. xxiii. 18). I have noticed it in one of the derivations of cinaedus 
and can only remark that it is a vile libel upon the canine tribe. 

3 Her name was Maachah and her title, according to some, " King's mother " : she 
founded the sect of Communists who rejected marriage and made adultery and incest 
part of worship in their splendid temple. Such were the Basilians and the Carpo- 
cratians, followed in the xith century by Tranchelin, whose sectarians, the Turlupius. . 
long infested Savoy. 

A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

away the sodomites out of the land (i Kings xv. 12). Yet the 
prophets were loud in their complaints, especially the so-called 
Isaiah (B.C. 760), " except the Lord of Hosts had left to us a 
very small remnant, we should have been as Sodom " (i. 9) ; and 
strong measures were required from good King Josiah (B.C. 641) 
who amongst other things, " brake down the houses of the sodomites 
that were by the house of the Lord, where the women wove 
hangings for the grove " (2 Kings xxiii. 7). Thebordelsof boys 
(pueris alienis adhaeseverunt) appear to have been near the 

Syria has not forgotten her old " praxis." At Damascus I 
found some noteworthy cases amongst the religious of the great 
Amawi Mosque. As for the Druses we have Burckhardt's authority 
(Travels in Syria, etc., p. 202) "unnatural propensities are very 
common amongst them." 

The Sotadic Zone covers the whole of Asia Minor and 
Mesopotamia now occupied by the " unspeakable Turk/' a race 
of born pederasts ; and in the former region we first notice a 
peculiarity of the feminine figure, the mammae inclinatae, 
jacentes et pannosae, which prevails over all this part of the belt. 
Whilst the women to the North and South have, with local ex- 
ceptions, the mammae stantes of the European virgin, 1 those of 
Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan and Kashmir lose all the fine curves 
of the bosom, sometimes even before the first child ; and after it 
the hemispheres take the form of bags. This cannot result from 
climate only ; the women of Maratha-land, inhabiting a damper 
and hotter region than Kashmir, are noted for fine firm breasts 
even after parturition. Le Vice of course prevails more in the cities 
and towns of Asiatic Turkey than in the villages ; yet even these 
are infected ; while the nomad Turcomans contrast badly in this 

1 A noted exception is Vienna remarkable for the enormous development of the 
virginal bosom which soon becomes pendulent. 

Terminal Essay. 233 

point with the Gypsies, those Badawin of India. The Kurd 
population is of Iranian origin, which means that the evil is 
deeply rooted : I have noted in The Nights that the great and 
glorious Saladin was a habitual pederast. The Armenians, as 
their national character is, will prostitute themselves for gain 
but prefer women to boys : Georgia supplied Turkey with 
catamites whilst Circassia sent concubines. In Mesopotamia the 
barbarous invader has almost obliterated the ancient civilisation 
which is ante-dated only by the Nilotic : the mysteries of old 
Babylon nowhere survive save in certain obscure tribes like the 
Mandaeans, the Devil-worshippers and the Ali-il4hi. Entering 
Persia we find the reverse of Armenia ; and, despite Herodotus, 
I believe that Iran borrowed her pathologic love from the peoples 
of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley and not from the then insignificant 
Greeks. But whatever may be its origin, the corruption is now 
bred in the bone. It begins in boyhood and many Persians 
account for it by paternal severity. Youths arrived at puberty 
find none of the facilities with which Europe supplies fornication. 
Onanism J is to a certain extent discouraged by circumcision, and 
meddling with the father's slave-girls and concubines would be 
risking cruel punishment if not death. Hence they use each other 
by turns, a " puerile practice " known as Alish-Takish, the Lat 
facere vicibus or mutuum facere. Temperament, media, and 
atavism recommend the custom to the general ; and after marrying 
and begetting heirs, Paterfamilias returns to the Ganymede. 
Hence all the odes of Hafiz are addressed to youths, as proved by 
such Arabic exclamations as 'Afaka 'llah = Allah assain thee 
(masculine) 2 : the object is often fanciful but it would be held 

1 Gen. xxxviii. 2-11. Amongst the classics Mercury taught the ' Art of le Thalaba " 
to his son Pan who wandered about the mountains distraught with love for the Nymph 
Echo and Pan passed it on to the pastors. See Thalaba in Mirabeau. 

2 The reader of The Nights has remarked how often the "he" in Arabic poetry 
denotes a "she" ; but the Arab* when uncontaminaled by travel, ignores pederasty, 
and the Arab poet is a Badawi. 

$34 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

coarse and immodest to address an imaginary girl. 1 An illus- 
tration of the penchant is told at Shiraz concerning a certain 
Mujtahid, the head of the Shi'ah creed, corresponding with a 
prince-archbishop in Europe. A friend once said to him, " There 
is a question I would fain address to your Eminence but I lack 
the daring to do so." " Ask and fear not," replied the Divine. " It 
is this, O Mujtahid ! Figure thee in a garden of roses and 
hyacinths with the evening breeze waving the cypress-heads, a 
fair youth of twenty sitting by thy side and the assurance of 
perfect privacy. What, prithee, would be the result ? " The holy 
man bowed the chin of doubt upon the collar of meditation ; and, 
too honest to lie, presently whispered, "Allah defend me from 
such temptation of Satan ! " Yet even in Persia men have not 
been wanting who have done their utmost to uproot the Vice : in 
the same Shiraz they speak of a father who, finding his son in 
flagrant delict, put him to death like Brutus or Lynch of Galway. 
Such isolated cases, however, can effect nothing. Chardin tells 
us that houses of male prostitution were common in Persia whilst 
those of women were unknown : the same is the case in the 
present day and the boys are prepared with extreme care by diet, 
baths, depilation, unguents and a host of artists in cosmetics. 2 
Le Vice is looked upon at most as a peccadillo and its mention 
crops up in every jest-book. When the Isfahan man mocked 
Shaykh Sa'adi by comparing the bald pates of Shirazian elders to 
the bottom of a lota, a brass cup with a wide-necked opening used 
ii the Hammam, the witty poet turned its aperture upwards and 
thereto likened the well-abused podex of an Isfahani youth. 
Another favourite piece of Shirazian " chaff " is to declare that 

1 So Mohammed addressed his girl-wife Ayishah in the masculine. 

8 So amongst the Romans we have the latroliptae,. youths or girls who wiped the 
gymnast's perspiring body with swan-down, a practice renewed by the professors of 
" Massage " ; Unctores who applied perfumes and essences ; Fricatrices and Tractatrices 
or shampooers ; Dropacistae, corn-cutters; Alipilarii who plucked the hair, etc., etc., etc. 

Terminal Essay. 235 

when an Isfahan father would set up his son in business he pro- 
vides him with a pound of rice, meaning that he can sell the result 
as compost for the kitchen-garden, and with the price buy another 
meal: hence the saying Khakh-i-pai kahu=the soil at the lettuce- 
root The Isfahanis retort with the name of a station or halting- 
place between the two cities where, under pretence of making 
travellers stow away their riding-gear, many a Shirazi had been 
raped : hence " Zin o takaltu tu bi-bar " = carry within saddle 
and saddle-cloth ! A favourite Persian punishment for strangers 
caught in the Harem or Gynaeceum is to strip and throw them 
and expose them to the embraces of the grooms and negro- slaves. 
I once asked a Shirazi how penetration was possible if the patient 
resisted with all the force of the sphincter muscle : he smiled and 
said, "Ah, we Persians know a trick to get over that ; we apply a 
sharpened tent-peg to the crupper-bone (os coccygis) and knock 
till lie opens." A well-known missionary to the East during the 
last generation was subjected to this gross insult by one of the 
Persian Prince-governors, whom he had infuriated by his con- 
version-mania : in his memoirs he alludes to it by mentioning his 
" dishonoured person ;" but English readers cannot comprehend 
the full significance of the confession. About the same time 
Shaykh Nasr, Governor of Bushire, a man famed for facetious 
blackguardism, used to invite European youngsters serving in the 
Bombay Marine and ply them with liquor till they were insensible. 
Next morning the middies mostly complained that the champagne 
had caused a curious irritation and soreness in la parte-poste. The 
same Eastern " Scrogin " would ask his guests if they had ever 
seen a man-cannon (Adami-top); and, on their replying in the 
negative, a grey-beard slave was dragged in blaspheming and 
struggling with all his strength. He was presently placed on all 
fours and firmly held by the extremities; his bag-trousers were 
let down and a dozen peppercorns were inserted ano suo : the 
target was a sheet of paper held at a reasonable distance ; the 

236 A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

match was applied by a pinch of cayenne in the nostrils ; the 
sneeze started the grapeshot and the number of hits on the butt 
decided the bets. We can hardly wonder at the loose conduct of 
Persian women perpetually mortified by marital pederasty. During 
the unhappy campaign of 1856-57 in which, with the exception of 
a few brilliant skirmishes, we gained no glory, Sir James Outram 
and the Bombay army showing how badly they could work, there 
was a formal outburst of the Harems ; and even women of 
princely birth could not be kept out of the officers' quarters. 

The cities of Afghanistan and Sind are thoroughly saturated 
with Persian vice, and the people sing 

Kadr-i-kus Aughdn ddnad, kadr-i-kunrd Kdbuli : 

The worth of coynte the Afghan knows : Cabul prefers the other chose ! ! 

The Afghans are commercial travellers on a large scale and 
each caravan is accompanied by a number of boys and lads 
almost in woman's attire with kohl'd eyes and rouged cheeks, 
long tresses and henna'd fingers and toes, riding luxuriously in 
Kajawas or camel-panniers : they are called Kuch-i safari, or 
travelling wives, and the husbands trudge patiently by their 
sides. In Afghanistan also a frantic debauchery broke out 
amongst the women when they found incubi who were not 
pederasts; and the scandal was not the most insignificant cause 
of the general rising at Cabul (Nov. 1841), and the slaughter of 
Macnaghten, Burnes and other British officers. 

Resuming our way Eastward we find the Sikhs and the 
Moslems of the Panjab much addicted to Le Vice, although the 
Himalayan tribes to the north and those lying south, the Rajputs 
and Marathas, ignore it. The same may be said of the Kash- 

1 It is a parody on the well-known song (Roebuck i. sect. 2, No. 1602) : 
The goldsmith knows the worth of gold,, jewellers worth of jewelry ; 
The worth of rose Bulbul can tell and Kambar's worth his lord, Ali. 

Terminal Essay. 237 

mirians who add another Kappa to the tria Kakista, Kappadocians, 
Kretans, and Kilicians : the proverb says, 

Agar kaht-i-mardum uftad, az in sih jins kam giri ; 
Eki Afghan, dovvurn Sindf, 1 siyyum badjins-i-Kashmfri : 
Though of men there be famine yet shun these three 
Afghan, Sindi and rascally Kashmiri. 

M. Louis Daville describes the infamies of Lahore and 
Lakhnau where he found men dressed as women, with flowing 
locks under crowns of flowers, imitating the feminine walk and 
gestures, voice and fashion of speech, and ogling their admirers 
with all the coquetry of bayaderes. Victor Jacquemont's Journal 
de Voyage describes the pederasty of Ranji't Singh, the " Lion 
of the Panjab," and his pathic Gulab Singh whom the English 
inflicted upon Cashmir as ruler by way of paying for his treason. 
Yet the Hindus, 1 repeat, hold pederasty in abhorrence and are 
as much scandalised by being called Gand-mara (anus-beater) or 
Gandu (anuser) as Englishmen would be. During the years 
1843-44 my regiment, almost all Hindu Sepoys of the Bombay 
Presidency, was stationed at a purgatory called Bandar Gharra,* 
a sandy flat wfth a scatter of verdigris-green milk-bush some forty 
miles north of Karachi the head-quarters. The dirty heap of 
mud-and-mat hovels, which represented the adjacent native 
village, could not supply a single woman ; yet only one case of 
pederasty came to light and that after a tragical fashion some 
years afterwards. A young Brahman had connection with a 
soldier comrade of low caste and this had continued till, in an 
unhappy hour, the Pariah patient ventured to become the agent. 
The latter, in Arab. Al-Fa'il = the " doer," is not an object of 
contempt like Al-Maful = the " done " ; and the high-caste 

1 For "Sindi" Roebuck (Oriental Proverbs Part i. p. 99) has Kunbu (Kuroboh) 
a Panjdbi peasant and others vary the saying ad libitum. See vol. vi. 156. 

2 See " Sind Revisited " i. 133-35, 

238 A If Laylah wa Laylah, 

sepoy, stung by remorse and revenge, loaded his musket and 
deliberately shot his paramour. He was hanged by court 
martial at Hyderabad and, when his last wishes were asked 
he begged in vain to be suspended by the feet; the idea being 
that his soul, polluted by exiting " below the waist," would be 
doomed to endless transmigrations through the lowest forms 
of life. 

Beyond India, I have stated, the Sotadic Zone begins to 
broaden out embracing all China, Turkistan and Japan. The 
Chinese, as far as we know them in the great cities, are omni- 
vorous and omnifutuentes : they are the chosen people of 
debauchery and their systematic bestiality with ducks, goats, 
and other animals is equalled only by their pederasty. Kaempfer 
and Orlof Torde (Voyage en Chine) notice the public houses for 
boys and youths in China and Japan. Mirabeau (L'Anandryne) 
describes the tribadism of their women in hammocks. When 
Pekin was plundered the Harems contained a number of balls 
a little larger than the old musket-bullet, made of thin silver 
with a loose pellet of brass inside somewhat like a grelot J : these 
articles were placed by the women between the labia and an 
up-and-down movement on the bed gave a pleasant titillation 
when nothing better was, to be procured. They have every 
artifice of luxury, aphrodisiacs, erotic perfumes and singular 
applications. Such are the pills which, dissolved in water and 
applied to the glans penis, cause it to throb and swell : so 
according to Amerigo Vespucci American women could arti- 
ficially increase the size of their husbands' parts. 2 The Chinese 
bracelet of caoutchouc studded with points now takes the place 

1 They must not be confounded with the grelots lascifs^ the little bells of gold or 
silver set by the people of Pegu in the prepuce-skin, and described by Nicolo de Conti 
who however refused to undergo the operation. 

2 Relation des de"couvertes faites par Colomb etc. p. 137 : Bologna 1875 : also 
Vespucci's letter in Ramusio (i. 131) and Paro's Recherches philosophiqucs sur 
les Ame'ricains. 

Terminal Essay. 239 

cf the Herisson, or Annulus hirsutus, 1 which was bound between 
the glans and prepuce. Of the penis succedaneus, that imitation 
of the Arbor vitae or Soter Kosmou, which the Latins called 
phallus and fascinum, 2 the French godemiche* and the Italians 
passatempo and diletto (whence our "dildo"), every kind abounds, 
varying from a stuffed " French letter " to a cone of ribbed horn 
which looks like an instrument of torture. For the use of men 
they have the "merkin," 3 a heart-shaped article of thin skin 
stuffed with cotton and slit with an artificial vagina : two tapes 
at the top and one below lash it to the back of a chair. The 
erotic literature of the Chinese and Japanese is highly developed 
and their illustratibns are often facetious as well as obscene. All 
are familiar with that of the strong man who by a blow with his 
enormous phallus shivers a copper pot ; and the ludicrous con* 
trast of the huge-membered wights who land in the Isle of Women 
and presently escape from it, wrinkled and shrivelled, true 
Domine Dolittles. Of Turkistan we know little, but what we 
know confirms my statement. Mr. Schuyler in his Turkistan 
(i. 132) offers an illustration of a " Batchah " (Pers. bachcheh = 
catamite), " or singing-boy surrounded by his admirers." Of 
the Tartars Master Purchas laconically says (v. 419), " They 
are addicted to Sodomie or Buggerie." The learned casuist 
Dr. Thomas Sanchez the Spaniard had (says Mirabeau in Kad- 
hesch) to decide a difficult question concerning the sinfulness 
of a peculiar erotic perversion. The Jesuits brought home from 
Manilla a tailed man whose moveable prolongation of the os 

1 See Mantegazza loc. cit. who borrows from the These de Paris of Dr. Abel Hureau 
de Villeneuve, " Frictiones per coitum productae magnum mucosae membranae vaginalis 
turgorem, ac simul hujus cuniculi coarctationem tarn maritis salacibus quaeritatam 

2 Fascirius is the Priapus-god to whom the Vestal Virgins of Rome, professed tribades, 
sacrificed ; also the neck-charm in phallus-shape. Fascinum is the male member. 

8 Captain Grose (Lexicon Balatronicum) explains merkin as " counterfeit hair for 
women's privy parts. See Bailey's Diet." The Bailey of 1764, an " improved edition,-" 
does not contain the word which is now generally applied to a cunnus succedaneus. 

240 A If Laylah wa Laylah* 

coccygis measured from 7 to 10 inches: he had placed himself 
between two women, enjoying one naturally while the other used 
his tail as a penis succedaneus. The verdict was incomplete 
sodomy and simple fornication. For the islands north of Japan, 
the "Sodomitical Sea," and the "nayle of tynne" thrust through 
the prepuce to prevent sodomy, see Litx ii. chap. 4 of Master 
Thomas Caudish's Circumnavigation, and vol. vi. of Pinkerton's 
Geography translated by Walckenaer. 

Passing over to America we find that the Sotadic Zone contains 
the whole hemisphere from Behring's Straits to Magellan's. This 
prevalence of " mollities " astonishes the anthropologist, who is 
apt to consider pederasty the growth of luxury and the especial 
product of great and civilised cities, unnecessary and therefore 
unknown to simple savagery where the births of both sexes are 
about equal and female infanticide is not practised. In many parts 
vof the New World this perversion was accompanied by another 
depravity of taste confirmed cannibalism. 1 The forests and 
^Campos abounded in game from the deer to the pheasant-like 
penelope, and the seas and rivers produced an unfailing supply 
of excellent fish and shell-fish 2 ; yet the Brazilian Tupis pre- 
ferred the meat of man to every other food. 

A glance at Mr. Bancroft 3 proves the abnormal development 
of sodomy amongst the savages and barbarians of the New World. 
Even his half-frozen Hyperboreans "possess all the passions 
which are supposed to develop most freely under a milder 
temperature " (i. 58). " The voluptuousness and polygamy of the 
North American Indians, under a temperature of almost perpetual 

1 I have noticed this phenomenal cannibalism in my notes to Mr. Albert Tootle'g 
excellent translation of " The Captivity of Hans Stade of Hesse : " London, Hakluyt 
Society, mdccclxxiv. 

2 The Ostreiras or shell mounds of the Brazil, sometimes 200 feet high, are described 
by me in Anthropologia No. i. Oct. 1873. 

3 The Native Races of the Pacific States of South America, by Herbert Howe 
Bancroft, London, Longmans, 1875. 

Terminal Essay. 241 

winter is far greater than that of the most sensual tropical nations" 
(Martin's Brit. Colonies Hi. 524). I can quote only a few of the 
most remarkable instances. Of the Koniagas of Kadiak Island 
and the Thinkleets we read (i. 81-82), " The most repugnant of all 
their practices is that of male concubinage. A Kadiak mother 
will select her handsomest and most promising boy, and dress 
and rear him as a girl, teaching him only domestic duties, keeping 
him at women's work, associating him with women and girls, in 
order to render his effeminacy complete. Arriving at the age of ten 
or fifteen years, he is married to some wealthy man who regards 
such a companion as a great acquisition. These male concubines 
are called Achnutschik or Schopans " (the authorities quoted being 
Holmberg, Langsdorff, Billing, Choris, Lisiansky and Marchand). 
The same is the case in Nutka Sound and the Aleutian Islands, 
where "male concubinage obtains throughout, but not to the same 
extent as amongst the Koniagas." The objects of " unnatural " 
affection have their beards carefully plucked out as soon as the 
face-hair begins to grow, and their chins are tattooed like those 
of the women. In California the first missionaries found the same 
practice, the youths being called Joya (Bancroft, 1.41 5 and authorities 
Palon, Crespi, Boscana, Mofras, Torquemada, Duflot and Pages), 
The Comanches unite incest with sodomy (i. 515). "In New Mexico 
according to Arlegui, Ribas, and other authors, male concubinage 
prevails to a great extent, these loathsome semblances of 
humanity, whom to call beastly were a slander upon beasts, 
dress themselves in the clothes and perform the functions of 
women, the use of weapons being denied them " (i. 585), Pederasty 
was systematically practised by the peoples of Cueba, Careta, and 
other parts of Central America. The Caciques and some of the 
headmen kept harems of youths who, as soon as destined for the 
unclean office, were dressed as women. They went by the name 
of Camayoas, and were hated and detested by the goodwives 
$ 773-74)- Of the Nahua nations Father Pierre de Gand (alias 

VOL, X. Q 

A If Laylah wa Laylah, 

de Musa) writes, " Un certain nombre de pretres n'avaient point' 
de femmes, sed eorum loco pueros quibus abutebantur. Ce pe*che* 
&ait si commun dans ce pays que, jeunes ou vieux, tous etaient 
tnfecte's ; ils y dtaient si adonne*s que memes les enfants de six ans 
s'y livraient " (Ternaux-Campans, Voyages, SeVie i. Tom. x. p, 197), 
Among the Mayas of Yucatan Las Casas declares that the great 
prevalence of " unnatural " lust made parents anxious to see theif 
progeny wedded as soon as possible (Kingsborough's Mex. Ant. 
viii. 135). In Vera Paz a god, called by some Chin and by others 
Cavial and Maran, taught it by committing the act with another 
god. Some fathers gave their sons a boy to use as a woman, and 
if any other approached this pathic he was treated as an adulterer, 
In Yucatan images were found by Bernal Diaz proving the 
sodomitical propensities of the people (Bancroft v. 198). De 
Pauw (Recherches Philosophiques sur les Ame'ricains, London, 
1771) has much to say about the subject in Mexico generally: in 
the northern provinces men married youths who, dressed like women^ 
were forbidden to carry arms. According to Gomara there were 
at Tamalipas houses of male prostitution ; and from Diaz and 
others we gather that fatpecado nefando was the rule. Both in 
Mexico and in Peru it might have caused, if it did not justify, the 
cruelties of the Conquistadores. Pederasty was also general 
throughout Nicaragua, and the early explorers found it amongst 
the indigenes of Panama. 

We have authentic details concerning Le Vice in Peru and its 
adjacent lands, beginning with Cieza de Leon, who must be read 
in the original or in the translated extracts of Purchas (vol. v. 
942, etc.), not in the cruelly castrated form preferred by the 
Council of the Hakluyt Society. Speaking of the New Granada 
Indians he tells us that " at Old Port (Porto Viejo) and Puna, the 
Deuill so farre prevayled in their beastly Deuotions that there 
were Boyes consecrated to serue in the Temple ; and at the times of 
their Sacrifices and Solemne Feasts, the Lords and principall men 

Terminal Essay. 243 

abused them to that detestable filthinesse ; " i.e. performed their 
peculiar worship. Generally in the hill-countries the Devil, 
under the show of holiness, had introduced the practice ; for every 
temple or chief house of adoration kept one or two men or 
more which were attired like women, even from the time of their 
childhood, and spake like them, imitating them in everything ; 
with these, under pretext of holiness and religion, their principal 
men on principal days had commerce. Speaking of the arrival of 
the Giants* at Point Santa Elena, Cieza says (chap, Hi.), they were 
detested by the natives, because in using their women they killed 
them, and their men also in another way. All the natives declare 
that God brought upon them a punishment proportioned to the 
enormity of their offence. When they were engaged together in 
their accursed intercourse, a fearful and terrible fire came down 
from Heaven with a great noise, out of the midst of which there 
issued a shining Angel with a glittering sword, wherewith at one 
blow they were all killed and the fire consumed them. 2 There 
remained a few bones and skulls which God allowed to bide un- 
consumed by the fire, as a memorial of this punishment. In the 
Hakluyt Society's bowdlerisation we read of the Tumbez Islanders 
being "very vicious, many of them committing the abominable 
offence " (p. 24) j also, "If by the advice of the Devil any Indian 
commit the abominable crime, it is thought little of and they call 
him a woman." In chapters Hi. and Iviii. we find exceptions. 
The Indians of Huancabamba, " although so near the peoples of 
Puerto Viejo and Guayaquil, do not commit the abominable sin ; " 
and the Serranos, or island mountaineers, as sorcerers and 
magicians inferior to the coast peoples, were not so much addicted 
to sodomy. 

1 AH Peruvian historians mention these giants, who were probably the large-limbed 
Caribs (Carafbes) of the Brazil : they will be noticed in page 244. 

2 This sounds much like a pious fraud of the missionaries, a Europeo-American 
version of the Sodom legend. 

244 Alf Laylah wa Laylah, 

The Royal Commentaries of the Yncas shows that the evil wa* 
of a comparatively modern growth. In the early period of 
Peruvian history the people considered the crime "unspeakable:" 
if a Cuzco Indian, not of Yncarial blood, angrily addressed the 
term pederast to another, he was held infamous for many days. 
One of the generals having reported to the Ynca Ccapacc 
Yupanqui that there were some sodomites, not in all the valleys, 
but one here and one there, " nor was it a habit of all the in- 
habitants but only of certain persons who practised it privately," 
the ruler ordered that the criminals should be publicly burnt alive 
and their houses, crops and trees destroyed : moreover, to show 
his abomination, he commanded that the whole village should so 
be treated if one man fell into this habit (Lib. iii. cap. 13). Else- 
where we learn, " There were sodomites in some provinces, though 
not openly nor universally, but some particular men and in secret, 
In some parts they had them in their temples, because the Devil 
persuaded them that the Gods took great delight in such people, 
and thus the Devil acted as a traitor to remove the veil of shame 
that the Gentiles felt for this crime and to accustom them to 
commit it in public and in common." 

< During the times of the Conquistadores male concubinage had 
become the rule throughout Peru. At Cuzco, we are told by 
Nuno de Guzman in 1530, " The last which was taken, and which 
fought most couragiously, was a man in the habite of a 
woman, which confessed that from a childe he had gotten his liuing 
by that filthinesse, for which I caused him to be burned." V. F. 
Lopez 1 draws a frightful picture of pathologic love in Peru. 
Under the reigns which followed that of Inti-Kapak (Ccapacc) 
Amauri, the country was attacked by invaders of a giant race 
coming from the sea : they practised pederasty after a fashion so 
shameless that the conquered tribes were compelled to fly (p. 271). 

1 Les Races Aryennes du Prou, Paris, Franck, 1871. 

Terminal Essay. 245 

Under the pre-Yncarial Amauta, or priestly dynasty, Peru had lapsed 
Into savagery and the kings of Cuzco preserved only the name. 
Toutes ces hontes et toutes ces miseres provenaient de deux vices 
infames, la bestialite* et la sodomie. Les fefnmes surtout e*taient 
offensees de voir la nature frustre'e de tous ses droits. Elles 
pleuraient ensemble en leurs reunions sur le miserable e*tat dans 
lequel elles dtaient tombe*es, sur le me*pns avec lequel elles dtaient 
traite*es. * * * * Le monde e'tait renverse*, les hommes 
s'aimaient et ^taient jaloux les uns des autres. * * * Elles 
cherchaient, mais en vain, les moyens de remedier au mal ; elles 
employaient des herbes et des recettes diaboliques qui leur 
ramenaient bien quelques individus, mais ne pouvaient arrter les 
progres incessants du vice. Cet e*tat de choses constitua un 
veritable moyen age, qui dura jusqu'a l'e*tablissement du 
gouvernement des Incas" (p 277). 

When Sinchi Roko (the xcvth of Montesinos and the xcist 
of Garcilazo) became Ynca, he found morals at the lowest 
ebb. " Ni la prudence de Tinea, ni les lois s^veres qu'il 
avait promulgue*es n'avaient pu extirper enticement le pdche" 
centre nature. II reprit avec une nouvelle violence, et les femmes 
en furent si jalouses qu'un grand nombre d'elles tu&rent leurs 
maris. Les devins et les sorciers passaient leurs journe*es & 
fabriquer, avec certaines herbes, des compositions magiques qui 
rendaient fous ceux qui en mangaient, et les fernmes en faisaient 
prendre, soit dans les aliments, soit dans la chicha, a ceux dont 
elles e*taient jalouses" (p. 291). 

I have remarked that the Tupi races of the Brazil were infamous 
for cannibalism and sodomy ; nor could the latter be only racial 
as proved by the fact that colonists of pure Lusitanian blood 
followed in the path of the savages. Sr. Antonio Augusto da 
Costa Aguiar 1 is outspoken upon this point. " A crime which in 

1 O Brazil e os Braziieiros, Santos, 1862. 

246 A If Lay I ah wa Lctylah- 

England leads to the gallows, and which is the very measure of 
abject depravity, passes with impunity amongst us by the partici- 
pating in it of almost all or of many (de quasi todos, ou de muitos). 
Ah ! if the wrath of Heaven were to fall by way of punishing such 
crimes (delictos)^ more than one city of this Empire, more than a 
dozen, would pass into the category of the Sodoms and Gomorrahs " 
(p. 30). Till late years pederasty in the Brazil was looked upon 
as a peccadillo ; the European immigrants following the practice 
of the wild men who were naked but not, as Columbus said, 
" clothed in innocence." One of Her Majesty's Consuls used to 
tell a tale of the hilarity provoked in a " fashionable " assembly by 
the open declaration of a young gentleman that his mulatto- 
** patient " had suddenly turned upon him, insisting upon becoming 
agent. Now, however, under the influences of improved education 
and respect for the public opinion of Europe, pathologic love 
amongst the Luso-Brazilians has been reduced to the normal 

Outside the Sotadic Zone, I have said, Le Vice is sporadic, not 
endemic : yet the physical and moral effect of great cities where 
puberty, they say, is induced earlier than in country sites, has been 
the same in most lands, causing modesty to decay and pederasty 
to flourish. The Badawi Arab is wholly pure of Le Vice ; yet 
San'a the capital of Al-Yaman and other centres of population 
have long been and still are thoroughly infected. History tells us 
of Zu Shanatir, tyrant of " Arabia Felix," in A.D. 478, who used 
to entice young men into his palace and cause them after use to 
be cast out of the windows: this unkindly ruler was at last 
poinarded by the youth Zerash, known from his long ringlets as 
" Zii Nowas." The negro race is mostly untainted by sodomy and 
tribadism. Yet Joan dos Sanctos 1 found in Cacongo of West 
Africa certain " Chibudi, which are men attyred like women and 

1 Aelhiopia Orieotalis, Purchas it. 1 558. 

Terminal Essay. 247 

behaue themselves womanly, ashamed to be called men ; are also 
married to men, and esteem that vnnaturale damnation an honor." 
Madagascar also delighted in dancing and singing boys dressed as 
girls. In the Empire of Dahomey I noted a corps of prostitutes 
kept for the use of the Amazon-soldieresses. 

North of the Sotadic Zone we find local but notable instances. 
Master Christopher Burrough 1 describes on the western side of the 
Volga " a very fine stone castle, called by the name Oueak, and 
adioyning to the same a Towne called by the Russes, Sodom> 
* * # which W as swallowed into the earth by the iustice of God, 
for the vvickednesse of the people." Again : although as a rule 
Christianity has steadily opposed pathologic love both in writing 
and preaching, there have been remarkable exceptions. Perhaps 
the most curious idea was that of certain medical writers in the 
middle ages : " Usus et amplexus pueri, bene temperatus, 
salutaris medicina " (Tardieu). Bayle notices (under "Vayer") 
the infamous book of Giovanni della Casa, Archbishop of 
Benevento, " De laudibus Sodomiae/' 2 vulgarly known as " Capitolo 
del Forno." The same writer refers (under " Sixte iv ") to the report 
that the Dominican Order, which systematically decried Le Vice, 
had presented a request to the Cardinal di Santa Lucia that 
sodomy might be lawful during three months per annum, June to 
August ; and that the Cardinal had underwritten the petition 
"Be it done as they demand." Hence the Faeda Venus of 
Battista Mantovano. Bayle rejects the history for a curious 
reason, venery being colder in summer than in winter, and quotes 
the proverb " Aux mois qui n'ont pas d' R, peu embrasser et bien 
boire." But in the case of a celibate priesthood such scandals are 
inevitable : witness the famous Jesuit epitaph Ci-gtt un Jdsuite, etc. 

In our modern capitals, London, Berlin and Paris for instance, 

1 Purchas iii. 243. 

2 For a literal translation see l re Se'rie de la Curiosite* Litteraire et Bibliographique, 
Paris, Liseux, 1880. 

248 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

the Vice seems subject to periodical outbreaks. For many years, 
also, England sent her pederasts to Italy, and especially to Naples 
whence originated the term " II vizio Inglese." It would be 
invidious to detail the scandals which of late years have startled 
the public in London and Dublin : for these the curious will 
consult the police reports. Berlin, despite her strong flavour of 
Phariseeism, Puritanism and Chauvinism in religion, manners and 
morals, is not a whit better than her neighbours. Dr. Caspar, 1 a 
well-known authority on the subject, adduces many interesting 
cases especially an old Count Cajus and his six accomplices. 
Amongst his many correspondents one suggested to him that not 
only Plato and Julius Caesar but also Winckelmann and Platen (?) 
belonged to the Society; and he had found it flourishing in Palermo, 
the Louvre, the Scottish Highlands and St. Petersburg, to name 
only a few places. Frederick the Great is said to have addressed 
these words to his nephew, "Je puis vous assurer, par mon 
experience personelle, que ce plaisir est peu agr<able a cultiver.*' 
This suggests the popular anecdote of Voltaire and the English- 
man who agreed upon an " experience " and found it far from 
satisfactory. A few days afterwards the latter informed the Sage 
of Ferney that he had tried it again and provoked the exclama- 
tion, " Once a philospher : twice a sodomite ! " The last revival 
of the kind in Germany is a society at Frankfort and its neighbour- 
hood, self-styled Les Cravates Noires in opposition, I suppose, to 
Les Cravates Blanches of A. Belot. 

Paris is by no means more depraved than Berlin and London ; 
but, whilst the latjter hushes up the scandal, Frenchmen do not : 
hence we see a more copious account of it submitted to the public. 
For France of the xviith century consult the " Histoire de la 
Prostitution chez tous les Peuples du Monde," and " La France 

1 His best known works are (i) Praktisches Handbuch der GerechtHchen Medecin, 
Berlin, 1860; and (2) Klinische Novellen zur gerechtlichen Medecin, Berlin, 1863. 

Terminal Essay. 2491 

devenue Italienne," a treatise which generally follows *' L'Histoire 
Amoureuse des Gaules" by Bussy, Comte de Rabutin. 1 The 
head-quarters of male prostitution were then in the Champ Flory, *>., 
Champ de Flore, the privileged rendezvous of low courtesans. In 
the xviiith century, <c quand le Francais a tte folle," as Voltaire 
sings, invented the term " Pe'che' philosophique," there was a 
temporary recrudescence ; and, after the death of Pidauzet de 
Mairobert (March, 1779), his " Apologie de la Secte Anandryne " 
was published in L'Espion Anglais. In those days the Alle*e des 
Veuves in the Champs Elysees had a " fief reserve* des Ebugors " 2 
" veuve " in the language of Sodom being the maitresse en titre, 
the favourite youth. 

At the decisive moment of monarchical decomposition Mira- 
beau 3 declares that pederasty was reglemente'e and adds, Le gout 
des pdderastes, quoique moins en vogue que du temps de Henri 
III. (the French Heliogabalus), sous le regne desquel les hommes 
se provoquaient mutuellement 4 sous les portiques du Louvre, fait 
des progres considerables. On sait que cette ville (Paris) est un 

1 The same author printed another imitation of Petronius Arbiter 1 , the "Larissa" 
story of Theophile Viand. His cousin, the Se"vigne*, highly approved of U. See Bayle's 
objections to Rabutin's delicacy and excuses for Petronius' grossness in his " Eclairctsse- 
ment sur les obsce*nites " ( Appendice au Dictionnaire Antique). 

* Th Boulgrin of Rabelais, which Urquhart renders Ingle for Boulgre, an 
"indorser," derived from the Bulgarus or Bulgarian, who gave to Italy the term 
bug iardo liar. Bougre and Bougrerie date (Littre") from the xiiith century. I cannot 
however, but think that the trivial term gained strength in the xvith when the manners 
of the Bugres or indigenous Brazilians were studied by Huguenot refugees in La France 
Antartique and several of these savages found their way to Europe. A grand Flte in 
Rouen on the entrance of Henri II. and Dame Katherine de Medicis (June 16, 1564) 
showed, as part of the pageant, .three hundred men (including fifty " Bugres '* or Tupis) 
with parroquets and other birds and beasts of the newly explored regions. The proces- 
sion is given in -the four-folding woodcut "Figure des Bresiliens" in Jean de Prest's 
Edition of 155*1. 

3 Erotika Biblion chapt. Kadesch (pp. 93 et seq.) Edition de Bruxelles with note* by 
the Chevalier P. Pierrugues of Bordeaux, before noticed. 

4 Called Cbivaliers de Faille because the sign was a straw in the mouth, a la 
Palmers ton. 

250 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

chef-d'oeuvre de police ; en consequence, il y a des lieux publics 
autorises cet effet. Les jeunes gens qui se destinent a la profes- 
sion, sont soigneusement enclasses ; car les systemes r^glemen- 
taires s'^tendent jusques-la. On les examine ; ceux qui peuvent 
etre agents et patients, qui sont beaux, vermeils, bien faits, poteles, 
sont reserve's pour les grands seigneurs, ou se font payer tres-cher 
par les eVeques et les financiers. Ceux qui sont privet de leurs 
testicules, ou en termes de Tart (car notre langue est plus chaste 
qui nos mceurs), qui n'ont pas \zpoids du tisserand, mais qui don- 
nent et re^oivent, forment la seconde classe ; ils sont encore chers, 
parceque les femmes en usent tandis qu'ils servent aux hommes. 
Ceux qui ne sont plus susceptibles direction tant ils sont use's, 
quoiqu'ils aient tous ces organes ndcessaires au plaisir, s'inscrivent 
commz pattens purs, et composent la troisieme classe: mais celle 
qui preside a ces plaisirs, ve'rifie leur impuissance. Pour cet effet, 
on les place tout nus sur un matelas ouvertpar la moide* infeVieure ; 
deux filles les caressent de leur mieux, pendant qu'une troi- 
sieme frappe doucement avec des orties naissantes le siege des 
de'sirs ve'ne'riens. Apres un quart d'heure de cet essai, on leur intro- 
duit dans 1'anus un poivre long rouge qui cause une irritation con- 
siderable ; on pose sur les ^chauboulures produites par les orties, 
de la moutarde fine de Caudebec, et Ton passe le gland au camphre. 
Ceux qui re'sistent a ces e*preuves et ne donnent aucun signe d'^recJ 
tion, servent comme patiens k un tiers de paie seulement/ 

The Restoration and the Empire made the police more vigilant 
in matters of politics than of morals. The favourite club, which 
had its mot de passe^ was in the Rue Doyenne, old quarter St. 
Thomas des Louvre; and the house was a hotel of the xviith century. 

Two street-doors, on the right for the male gynaeceum and the left 

. i 

for the female, opened at 4 p.m. in winter and 8 p.m. in summer, 

1 I have noticed that the eunuch in Sind was as meanly paid and have given the 

Terminal Essay 251 

A decoy-lad, charmingly dressed in women's clothes, with big 
haunches and small waist, promenaded outside ; and this continued 
till 1826 when the police put down the house. 

Under Louis Philippe, the conquest of Algiers had evil results, 
according to the Marquis de Boissy. He complained without 
ambages of mceurs Arabes in French regiments, and declared that 
the result of the African wars was an dffrayable ddbordement 
pe'de'rastique, even as the verole resulted from the Italian cam- 
paigns of that age of passion, the xvith century. From the military 
the fle'au spread to civilian society and the Vice took such expan- 
sion and intensity that it may be said to have been democratised 
in cities and large towns ; at least so we gather from the Dossier 
des Agissements des PedeVastes. A general gathering of " La 
Sainte Congregation des glorieux Pe*de*rastes " was held in the old 
Petite Rue des Marais where, after the theatre, many resorted 
under pretext of making water. They ranged themselves along 
the walls of a vast garden and exposed their podices : bourgeois, 
richards and nobles came with full purses, touched the part which 
most attracted them and were duly followed by it. At the Alle*e 
des Veuves the crowd was dangerous from 7 to 8 p.m. : no police- 
man or ronde de nuit dared venture in it ; cords were stretched 
from tree to tree and armed guards drove away strangers amongst 
whom, they say, was once Victor Hugo. This nuisance was at 
length suppressed by the municipal administration. 

The Empire did not improve morals. Balls of sodomites were 
held at No. 8 Place de la Madeleine where, on Jan. 2, '64, some 
one hundred and fifty men met, all so well dressed as women 
that even the landlord did not recognise them. There was also a 
club for sotadic debauchery called the Cent Gardes and the Dragons 
de rimpe*ratrice. 1 They copied the imperial toilette and kept it in 

1 Centuria Librorum Absconditorum (by Pisanus Fraxi) 4to, p. Ix. and 593. London. 
Privately printed, mdccclxxix. 

252 A If Lay la ft wa Laylah. 

the general wardrobe : hence " faire l'Impe>atrice " meant to be 
used carnally. The site, a splendid hotel in the Ailed des 
Veuves, was discovered by the Procureur-GeneVal who registered 
all the names ; but, as these belonged to not a few senators and 
dignitaries, the Emperor wisely quashed proceedings. The club 
was broken up on July 16, '64. During the same year La Petite 
Revue, edited by M. Loredan Larchy, son of the General, printed 
an article, " Les ^chappds de Sodome " : it discusses the letter of 
M. Castagnary to the Progres de Lyons and declares that the 
Vice had been adopted by plusieurs corps de troupes. For its 
latest developments as regards the chantage of the f antes (pathics), 
the reader will consult the last issues of Dr. Tardieu's well-known 
fetudes. 1 He declares that the servant-class is most infected ; 
and that the Vice is commonest between the ages of fifteen and 

The pederasty of The Nights may briefly be distributed into 
three categories. The first is the funny form, as the unseemly 
practical joke of masterful Queen Budur (vol. iii. 300-306) and 
the not less hardi jest of the slave-princess Zumurrud (vol. iv. 226). 
The second is in the grimmest and most earnest phase of the 

1 A friend learned in these matters supplks me with the following list of famous 
pederasts* Those who marvel at the wide diffusion of such erotic perversion, and its 
being affected by so many celebrities, will bear in mind that the greatest men have been 
some of the worst: Alexander of Macedon, Julius Caesar and Napoleon Buonaparte 
held themselves high above the moral law which obliges common-place humanity. All 
three are charged with the Vice. Of Kings we have Henri iii., Louis xiii. and xviii., 
Frederick ii. of Prussia, Peter the Great, William ii. of Holland and Charles ii. and 
iii. of Parma. We find also Shakespeare (i., xv., Edit Francois Hugo) and Moliere, 
Theodorus Beza, Luliy (the Composer), D'Assoucy, Count Zintzendorff, the Grand 
Conde, Marquis de Villette, Pierre Louis Farnese, Due de la Valliere, De Soleinne, 
Count D'Avaray, Saint Megrin, D'Epernon, Admiral de la Susse, La Roche-Pouchin 
Rochfort S. Louis, Henne (the Spiritualist), Comte Horace de Viel Cast el, Lerminin, 
Fieve'e, Theodore Leclerc, Archi-Chancellier Cambacere's, Marquis de Custine, Sainte- 
Beuve and Count D'Orsay. For others refer to the three volumes of Pisanus Fraxi ; 
Index Librorum Prohibitorum (London, 1877), Centuria Librorum Absconditorum (before 
alluded to) and Catena Librorum Tacendorum, London, 1885. The indices will supply 
the names. 

Terminal Essay. 253 

perversion, for instance where Abu Nowas l debauches the three 
youths (vol. v. 64-69); whilst in the third form it is wisely and 
learnedly discussed, to be severely blamed, by the Shaykhah or 
Reverend Woman (vol. v. 154). 

To conclude this part of my subject, the ^claircissement des 
obsc^nites. Many readers will regret the absence from The Nights 
of that modesty which distinguishes " Amadis de Gaul ;" whose 
author when leaving a man and a maid together says, " And 
nothing shall be here related ; for these and suchlike things which 
are conformable neither to good conscience nor nature, man ought 
in reason lightly to pass over, holding them in slight esteem as 
they deserve." Nor have we less respect for Palmerin of England 
who after a risqu scene declares, " Herein is no offence offered 
to the wise by wanton speeches, or encouragement to the loose 
by lascivious matter." But these are not oriental ideas and we 
must e'en take the Eastern as we find him. He still holds 
" Naturalia non sunt turpia," together with " Mundis omnia munda"; 
and, as Bacon assures us the mixture of a lie doth add to pleasure, 
so the Arab enjoys the startling and lively contrast of extreme 
virtue and horrible vice placed in juxtaposition. 

Those who have read through these ten volumes will agree 
F with me that the proportion of offensive matter bears a very 
small ratio to the mass of the work. In an age saturated with 
cant and hypocrisy, here and there a venal pen will mourn over 
the " Pornography " of The Nights, dwell upon the " Ethics of 
Dirt " and the " Garbage of the Brothel ; " and will lament the 
" wanton dissemination (!) of ancient and filthy fiction." This self- 

1 Of this peculiar character Ibn Khallikan remarks (ii. 43),. " There were four poets 
whose works clearly contraried their character. Abu al-Atahfyah wrote pious poems 
himself being an atheist ; Abu Hukayma's verses proved his impotence, yet he was 
more salacious than a he-goat ; Mohammed ibn Hzim praised contentment, yet he 
was greedier than a dog ; and Abu Nowas hymned the joys of sodomy, yet he was more 
passionate for women than a baboon." 

A If Laylah wa Lay I ah. 

constituted Censor morum reads Aristophanes and Plato, Horace" 
and Virgil, perhaps even Martial and Petronius, because " veiled in 
the decent obscurity of a learned language ; " he allows men 
Latine loqui ; but he is scandalised at stumbling-blocks much 
less important in plain English. To be consistent he must begin 
by bowdlerising not only the classics, with which boys* and youths' 
minds and memories are soaked and saturated at schools and 
colleges, but also Boccaccio and Chaucer, Shakespeare and Rabe- 
lais ; Burton, Sterne, Swift and a long list of works which are 
yearly reprinted and republished without a word of protest 
Lastly, why does not this inconsistent puritan purge the Old 
Testament of its allusions to human ordure and the pudenda \ 
to carnal copulation and impudent whoredom, to adultery and 
fornication, to onanism, sodomy and bestiality ? But this he will 
not do, the whited sepulchre ! To the interested critic of the 
Edinburgh Review (No. 335 of July, 1886), I return my warmest 
thanks for his direct and deliberate falsehoods : dies are one- 
legged and short-lived, and venom evaporates. * It appears to me 
that when I show to such men, so " respectable " and so impure, 
a landscape of magnificent prospects whose vistas are adorned 
with every charm of nature and art, they point their unclean noses 
at a little heap of muck here and there lying in a field-corner. 

1 A virulently and unjustly abusive critique never yet injured its object : in fact it is 
generally the greatest favour an author's unfriends can bestow upon him. But to notice 
in a popular Review books which have been printed and not published is hardly in accord- 
ance with the established courtesies of literature. At the end of my work I propose to 
write a paper " The Reviewer Reviewed " which will, amongst other things, explain the, 
motif of the writer of the critique and the editor of the Edinburgh. 

Terminal Essay. 255 




ACCORDING to promise in my Foreword (p. xiv.), I here proceed 
to offer a few observations concerning the Saj'a or rhymed prose 
and the Shi'r, or measured sentence, that is, the verse of The 
Nights. The former has in composition, metrical or unmetrical, 
three distinct forms. Saj'a mutawdzi (parallel), the most common, 
is when the ending words of sentences agree in measure, 
assonance and final letter, in fact our full rhyme : next is Saj'a 
mutarraf (the affluent), when the periods, hemistichs or couplets 
end in words whose terminal letters correspond, although differing 
in measure and number ; and thirdly, Saj'a muwazanah (equi- 
librium) is applied to the balance which affects words corresponding 
in measure but differing in final letters. 1 

Al-Saj'a, the fine style or style fleuri, also termed Al-Badfa, or 
euphuism, is the basis of all Arabic euphony. The whole of the 
Koran is written in it ; and the same is the case with the Makamat 
of Al-Hariri and the prime master-pieces of rhetorical composi- 
tion : without it no translation of the Holy Book can be satisfac- 
tory or final, and where it is not the Assemblies become the prose 
of prose. Thus universally used the assonance has necessarily 
been abused, and its excess has given rise to the saying " Al-Saj'a 
faj'a "prose rhyme's a pest English translators have, unwisely 

1 For detailed examples and specimens see p. 10 of Gladwin'* " Dissertations oa 
Rhetoric," etc., Calcutta, 1801. 

256 A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

I think, agreed in rejecting it, while Germans have not. Mr. 
Preston assures us that " rhyming prose is extremely ungraceful in 
English and introduces an air of flippancy": this was certainly 
not the case with Friedrich Riickert'j version of the great original, 
and I see no reason why it should be so or become so in our 
tongue. Torrens (Pref. p. vii.) declares that " the effect of the 
irregular sentence with the iteration of a jingling rhyme is not 
pleasant in our language : " he therefore systematically neglects it 
and gives his style the semblance of being " scamped " with the 
object of saving study and trouble. Mr. Payne (ix. 379) deems it 
an " excrescence born of the excessive facilities for rhyme afforded 
by the language," and of Eastern delight in antithesis of all kinds 
whether of sound or of thought ; and, aiming elaborately at grace 
of style, he omits it wholly, even in the proverbs. 

The weight of authority was against me but my plan compelled 
me to disregard it. The dilemma was simply either to use the 
Saj'a or to follow Mr. Payne's method and " arrange the disjecta 
membra of the original in their natural order ; " that is to remodel 
the text. Intending to produce a faithful copy of the Arabic, I 
was compelled to adopt the former and still hold it to be the 
better alternative. Moreover I question Mr. Payne's dictum 
(ix. 383) that " the Seja-form is utterly foreign to the genius of 
English prose and that its preservation would be fatal to all 
vigour and harmony of style." The English translator of Palmerin 
of England, Anthony Munday, attempted it in places with great 
success as I have before noted (vol. viii. 60) ; and my late friend 
Edward Eastwick made artistic use of it in his Gulistan. Had I 
rejected the "Cadence of the cooing-dove" because un-English, I 
should have adopted the balanced periods of the Anglican 
marriage service 1 or the essentially English system of alliteration, 

1 For instance : I, M. | take thee N. | to my wedded wife, | to have and to hold | 
from this day forward, | for better for worse, | for richer for poorer, | in sickness and in 

Terminal Essay. 257 

requiring some such artful aid to distinguish from the vulgar 
recitative style the elevated and classical tirades jn The Nights. 
My attempt has found with reviewers more favour than I expected ; 
and a kindly critic writes of it, " These melodious fragments, these 
little eddies of song set like gems in the prose, have a charming 
effect on the ear. They come as dulcet surprises and mostly 
recur in highly-wrought situations, or they are used to convey a 
vivid sense of something exquisite in nature or art. Their intro- 
duction seems due to whim or caprice, but really it arises from a 
profound study of the situation, as if the Tale-teller felt suddenly 
compelled to break into the rhythmic strain." 


The Shi'r or metrical part of The Nights is considerable, 
amounting to not less than ten thousand lines and these I could 
not but render in rhyme or rather in monorhyme. This portion 
has been a bugbear to translators. De Sacy noticed the difficulty 
of the task (p. 283). Lane held the poetry untranslatable because 
abounding in the figure Tajnis, our paronomasia or paragram, of 
which there are seven distinct varieties, 1 not to speak Bf other 
rhetorical flourishes. He therefore omitted the greater part of the 
verse as tedious and, through the loss of measure and rhyme, 
" generally intolerable to the reader." He proved his position by 
the bald literalism of the passages which he rendered in truly 
prosaic prose and succeeded in changing the fades and present- 
ment of the work. For the Shi'r, like the Saj'a, is not introduced 
arbitrarily; and its unequal distribution throughout The Nights may 

health, | to love and to cherish, | till death do us part, etc. Here it becomes mere 
blank verse which is, of course, a defect in prose style. In that delightful old French 
the Saj'a frequently appeared when attention was solicited for the titles of books : e.g, 
Le Romant de la Rose, ou tout lart damours est enclose. 

1 See Gladwin loc. cit. p. S : it also is = alliteration (Ibn Khali, ii., 316). 
VOL. X. R 

258 Alf Laylak wa Laylah. 

be accounted for by rule of art. Some tales, like Omar bm 
al-Nu'man and Tawaddud, contain very little because the theme is 
historical or realistic ; whilst in stones of love and courtship, as that 
of Rose-in-hood, the proportion may rise to one-fifth of the whole. 
And this is true to nature. Love, as Addison said, makes even* 
the mechanic (the British mechanic !) poetical, and Joe Hume of 
material memory once fought a duel about a fair object of dispute. 
Before discussing the verse of The Nights it may be advisable to 
enlarge a little upon the prosody of the Arabs. We know nothing 
of the origin of their poetry, which is lost in the depths of 
antiquity, and the oldest bards of whom we have any remains 
belong to the famous epoch of the war Al-Basus, which would 
place them about A.D. 500. Moreover, when the Muse of Arabia 
first shows she is not only fully developed and mature, she has lost 
all her first youth, her beautd du diable, and she is assuming the 
characteristics of an age beyond " middle age." No one can 
study the earliest poetry without perceiving that it results from 
the cultivation of centuries and that it has already assumed that 
artificial type and conventional process of treatment which presages 
inevitable decay. Its noblest period is included in the century 
preceding the Apostolate of Mohammed and the oldest of that 
epoch is the prince of Arab songsters, Imr al-Kays, " The Wander- 
ing King." The Christian Fathers characteristically termed poetry 
Vinum Daemonorum. The stricter Moslems called their bards 
" enemies of Allah ;" and when the Prophet, who hated verse and 
could not even quote it correctly, was asked who was the best poet 
of the Peninsula he answered that the " Man of Al-Kays," i.e. the 
worshipper of the Priapus-idol, would usher them all into Hell. 
Here he only echoed the general verdict of his countrymen who 
loved poetry and, as a rule, despised poets. The earliest complete 
pieces of any volume and substance saved from the wreck of old 
Arabic literature and familiar in our day are the seven Kasfdahs 
(purpose-odes or tendence-elegies) which are popularly known as 

Terminal Essay. 259 

the Gilded or the Suspended Poems ; and in all of these we find, 
with an elaboration of material and formal art which can go no 
further, a subject-matter of trite imagery and stock ideas which 
suggest a long ascending line of model ancestors and predecessors. 

Scholars are agreed upon the fact that many of the earliest and 
best Arab poets were, as Mohammed boasted himself, unalpha- 
betic * or rather could neither read nor write. They addressed 
the ear and the mind, not the eye. They " spoke verse/' learning 
it by rote and dictating it to the Rawi, and this reciter again trans- 
mitted it to the musician whose pipe or zither accompanied the 
minstrel's song. In fact the general practice of writing began 
only at the end of the first century after The Flight. 

The rude and primitive measure of Arab song, upon which the 
most complicated system of metres subsequently arose, was called 
Al-Rajaz, literally " the trembling," because it reminded the 
highly imaginative hearer of a pregnant she-camel's weak and 
tottering steps. This was the carol of the camel-driver, the 
lover's lay and the warrior's chaunt of the heroic ages ; and its 
simple, unconstrained flow adapted it well for extempore effusions. 
Its merits and demerits have been extensively discussed amongst 
Arab grammarians and many, noticing that it was not originally 
divided into hemistichs, make an essential difference between the 
Sha'ir who speaks poetry and the Rajiz who speaks Rajaz. It 
consisted, to describe it technically, of iambic dipodia (* - w -), 

1 He called himself "Nabiyun utnmi " = illiterate prophet; but only his most 
ignorant followers believe that he was unable to read and write. His last words, accepted 
by all traditionists, were " Aatini dawata wa kalam" (bring me ink -case and pen);! 
upon which the Shi' ah or Persian sectaries base, not without probability, a theory that 
Mohammed intended to write down the name of Ali as his Caliph or successor when 
Omar, suspecting the intention, exclaimed, " The Prophet is delirious ; have we not the 
Koran ?" thus impiously preventing the precaution. However that may be, the legend 
proves that Mohammed could read and write even when not "under inspiration." The 
vulgar idea would arise from a pious intent to add miracle to the miraculous style of the 

260 A if Laylah wa Laylah. 

the first three syllables being optionally long or short. It can 
generally be read like our iambs and, being familiar, is pleasant to 
the English ear. The dipodia are repeated either twice or thrice ; 
in the former case Rajaz is held by some authorities, as Al-Akhfash 
(Sa'id ibn Masadah), to be mere prose. Although Labid and 
Antar composed in iambics, the first Kasidah or regular poem in 
Rajaz was by Al-Aghlab al-Ajibi temp. Mohammed : the Alffyah- 
grammar of Ibn Malik is in Rajaz Muzdawij, the hemistichs 
rhyming and the assonance being confined to the couplet. Al- 
Hariri also affects Rajaz in the third and fifth Assemblies. So- 
far Arabic metre is true to Nature : in impassioned speech the 
movement of language is iambic : we say " I will, I will" not 
"I will." 

For many generations the Sons of the Desert were satisfied 
with Nature's teaching ; the fine perceptions and the nicely trained 
ear of the bard needing no aid from art. But in time came the 
inevitable prosodist under the formidable name of Abu Abd al- 
Rahman al-Khalil, i. Ahmad, i. Amru, i. Tami'm al-Farahidi (of 
the Farahid sept), al-Azdi (of the Azd clan), al-Yahmadi (of the 
Yahmad tribe), popularly known as Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Basri, 
of Bassorah, where he died set. 68, scanning verses they say, in 
A.H. I/O (= 78687). Ibn Khallikan relates (i. 493) on the 
authority of Hamzah al-Isfahani how this "father of Arabic 
grammar and discoverer of the rules of prosody" invented the 
science as he walked past a coppersmith's shop on hearing the 
strokes of a hammer upon a metal basin : " two objects devoid of 
any quality which could serve as a proof and an illustration of 
anything else than their own form and shape and incapable of 
leading to any other knowledge than that of their own nature." 1 

1 I cannot but vehemently suspect that this legend was taken from much older tradi- 
tions. We have Jubal the semi-mythical who, " by the different falls of his hammer on 
the anvil, discovered by the ear the first rude music that pleased the antediluvian 
fathers." Then came Pythagoras, of whom Macrobius (lib. ii.) relates how this Graeco- 

Terminal Essay. 261 

According to others he was passing through the Fullers' Bazar at 
Basrah when his ear was struck by the Dak-dak ($* &) and 
the Dakak-dakak (^ &*) of the workmen. In these two 
onomapoetics we trace the expression which characterises the Arab 
tongue : all syllables are composed of consonant and vowel, the 
latter long or short as Ba and Ba ; or of a vowelled consonant 
followed by a consonant as Bal, Bau (^). 

The grammarian, true to the traditions of his craft which looks for 
all poetry to the Badawi, 1 adopted for metrical details the language 
cf the Desert The distich, which amongst Arabs is looked upon as 
one line, he named " Bayt," nighting-place, tent or house ; and the 
hemistich Misra'ah, the one leaf of a folding door. To this "scenic " 
simile all the parts of the verse were more or less adapted. The 
metres, our feet, were called " Arkan/' the stakes and stays of the 
tent ; the syllables were " Usul " or roots divided into three kinds : 
the first or " Sabab " (the tent-rope) is composed of two letters, a 
vowelled and a quiescent consonant as a Lam." 3 The " Watad " 
or tent-peg of three letters is of two varieties ; the Majmu', or 
united, a foot in which the two first consonants are moved by 
vowels and the last is jazmated or made quiescent by apocope as 
" Lakad ;" and the Mafruk, or disunited, when the two moved con- 

Egyptian philosopher, passing by a smithy, observed that the sounds were grave or 
acute according to the weights of the hammers ; and he ascertained by experiment 
that such was the case when different weights were hung by strings of the same size. 
The next discovery was that two strings of the same substance and tension, the one 
being double the length of the other, gave the diapason-interval or an eighth ; and the 
same was effected from two strings of similar length and size, the one having four times 
the tension of the other. Belonging to the same cycle of invention-anecdotes are 
Galileo's discovery of the pendulum by the lustre of the Pisan Duomo ; and the kettle- 
lid, the falling apple and the copper hook which inspired Watt, Newton and Galvani. 

1 To what an absurd point this has been carried we may learn from Ibn Khallikdn 
(i. 114). A poet addressing a single individual does not say "My friend!" or "My 
friends !" but "My two friends! " (in the dual) because a Badawi required a pair of 
companions, one to tend the sheep and the other to pasture the camels. 

2 For further details concerning the Sabab, Watad and Fasilah, see at the end of 
this Essay the learned remarks of Dr. Steingass. 

262 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

sonants are separated by one jazmated, as " Kabla." And lastly 
the " Fasilah " or intervening space, applied to the main pole of 
the tent, consists of four letters. 

The metres were called Buhur or " seas " (plur. of Bahr), also 
meaning the space within the tent-walls, the equivoque alluding to 
pearls and other treasures of the deep. Al-Khalil, the systematiser, 
found in general use only five Dairah (circles, classes or groups of 
metre) ; and he characterised the harmonious and stately measures, 
all built upon the original Rajaz, as Al-Tawil (the long) \ Al- 
Kamil (the complete), Al-Wafir (the copious), Al-Basit (the 
extended) and Al-Khafif (the light). 2 These embrace all the 
Mu'allakat and the Hamasah, the great Anthology of Abu Tam- 
mam ; but the crave for variety and the extension of foreign inter- 
course had multiplied wants and Al-Khalil deduced, from the 
original five Dairah, fifteen, to which Al-Akhfash (ob. A.D. 830) 
added a sixteenth, Al-Khabab. The Persians extended the number 
to nineteen : the first four were peculiarly Arab ; the fourteenth, 
the fifteenth and seventeenth peculiarly Persian and all the rest 
were Arab and Persian. 3 

Arabic metre so far resembles that of Greece and Rome that 
the value of syllables depends upon the "quantity " or position of 
their consonants, not upon accent as in English and the Neo-Latin 
tongues. Al-Khalil was doubtless familiar with the classic 
prosody of Europe but he rejected it as unsuited to the genius 
of Arabic and like a true Eastern Gelehrte he adopted a process 
devised by himself. Instead of scansion by pyrrhics and spondees, 
iambs and trochees, anapaests and similar simplifications he 
invented a system of weights ("wuzun"). Of these there are 

1 e.g. the Mu'allakats of " Amriolkais," Tarafah and Zuhayr compared by Mr. Lyall 
(Introduction to Translations) with the metre of Abt Vogler, e.g. 

Ye know why the forms are fair, ye hear how the tale is told. 

2 e.g. the Poem of Hareth which often echoes the hexameter. 

3 Gladwin p. 80. 

Terminal Essay. 263 

nine 1 memorial words used as quantitive signs, all built upon 
the root " fa'l " which has rendered such notable service to Arabic 
and Hebrew 2 grammar and varying from the simple " fa'al," in 
Persian " fa'ul," (* -) to the complicated I 1 Mutafa'ilun " 
(wu . w -), anapaest + iamb. Thus the prosodist would scan the 
Shahndmeh of Firdausi as 

Fa'ulun, fa'ulun, fa'ulun, fa'ul. 
w u O- 

These weights also show another peculiarity of Arabic verse. In 
English we have few if any spondees : the Arabic contains about 
three longs to one short ; hence its gravity, stateliness and dignity. 
But these longs again are peculiar, and sometimes strike the 
European ear as shorts, thus adding a difficulty for those who 
would represent Oriental metres by western feet, ictus and accent. 
German Arabists can register an occasional success in such 
attempts : Englishmen none. My late friend Professor Palmer of 
Cambridge tried the tour de force of dancing on one leg instead of 
two and notably failed : Mr. Lyall also strove to imitate Arabic 
metre and produced only prose bewitched. 3 Mr. Payne appears 

1 Gladwin (p. 77) gives only eight, omitting Fa'ul which he or his author probably 
considers the Muzahaf, imperfect or apocoped form of Fa'ulun, as Mafa'Il of Mafa'Ilun. 
For the infinite complications of Arabic prosody the Khafff (soft breathing) and Sahih 
(hard breathing) ; the Sadr and Aruz (first and last feet), the Ibtida and Zarb (last foot 
of every line); the Hashw (cushion -stuffing) or body-part of verse ; the 'Amud al-Kasi- 
dah or Al-Musammat (the strong) and other details I must refer readers to such 
specialists as Freytag and Sam. Clarke (Prosodia Arabica), and to Dr. Steingass's notes 

2 The Hebrew grammarians of the Middle Ages wisely copied their Arab cousins 
by turning Fa'la into Pael and so forth. 

3 Mr. Lyall, whose "Ancient Arabic Poetry" (Williams and Norgate, 1885) I 
reviewed in The Academy of Oct. 3, '85, did the absolute reverse of what is required : 
he preserved the metre and sacrificed the rhyme even when it naturally suggested itself. 
For instance in the last four lines of No. xli. what would be easier than to write, 

Ah sweet and soft wi* thee her ways : bethink thee well ! The day shall be 
When some one favoured as thyself shall find her fair and fain and free ; 
And if she swear that parting ne'er shall break her word of constancy, 
When did rose-tinted finger-tip with pacts and pledges e'er agree ? 

264 A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

to me to have wasted trouble in " observing the exterior form of 
the stanza, the movement of the rhyme and (as far as possible) 
the identity in number of the syllables composing the beits." 
There is only one part of his admirable version concerning 
which I have heard competent readers complain ; and that is the 
metrical, because here and there it sounds strange to their 

I have already stated my conviction that there are two and only 
two ways of translating Arabic poetry into English. One is to 
represent it by good heroic or lyric verse as did Sir William 
Jones ; the other is to render it after French fashion, by measured 
and balanced Prose, the little sister of Poetry. It is thus and thus 
only that we can preserve the peculiar cacJiet of the original. This 
old-world Oriental song is spirit-stirring as a " blast of that dread 
horn/' albeit the words be thin. It is heady as the " Golden 
Wine " of Libanus, to the tongue water and brandy to the brain 
the clean contrary of our nineteenth century effusions. Techni- 
cally speaking, it can be vehicled only by the verse of the old 
English ballad or by the prose of the Book of Job. And Badawi 
poetry is a perfect expositor of Badawi life, especially in the good 
and gladsome old Pagan days ere Al-Islam, like the creed which 
it abolished, overcast the minds of men with its dull grey pall of 
realistic superstition. They combined to form a marvellous 
picture those contrasts of splendour and squalor amongst the sons 
of the sand. Under airs pure as aether, golden and ultramarine 
above and melting over the horizon into a diaphanous green which 
suggested a reflection of Kaf, that unseen mountain-wall of 
emerald, the so-called Desert changed face twice a year; now 
brown and dry as summer-dust ; then green as Hope, beautified 
with infinite verdure and broad sheetings of rain-water. The 
vernal and autumnal shiftings of camp, disruptions of homesteads 
and partings of kith and kin, friends and lovers, made the life 
many-sided as it was vigorous and noble, the outcome of hardy 

Terminal Essay. 26$ 

frames, strong minds and spirits breathing the very essence of 
liberty and independence. The day began with the dawn-drink, 
" generous wine bought with shining ore/' poured into the crystal 
goblet from the leather bottle swinging before the cooling breeze. 
The rest was spent in the practice of weapons ; in the favourite 
arrow-game known as Al-Maysar, gambling which at least had the 
merit of feeding the poor ; in racing for which the Badawin had a 
mania, and in the chase, the foray and the fray which formed the 
serious business of his life. And how picturesque the hunting 
scenes ; the greyhound, like the mare, of purest blood ; the falcon 
cast at francolin and coney ; the gazelle standing at gaze ; the 
desert ass scudding over the ground-waves ; the wild cows or 
bovine antelopes browsing with their calves and the ostrich- 
chickens flocking round the parent bird ! The Musdmarah or 
night-talk round the camp-fire was enlivened by the lute-girl and 
the gleeman, whom the austere Prophet described as " roving dis- 
traught in every vale " and whose motto in Horatian vein was, 
w To-day we shall drink, to-morrow be sober ; wine this day, that 
day work." Regularly once a year, during the three peaceful 
months when war and even blood revenge were held sacrilegious, 
the tribes met at Ukadh (Ocaz) and other fairsteads, where they 
held high festival and the bards strave in song and prided them- 
selves upon doing honour to women and to the successful warriors 
of their tribe. Brief, the object of Arab life was to be to be free, 
to be brave, to be wise ; while the endeavours of other peoples 
was and is to have to have wealth, to have knowledge, to have a 
name ; and while moderns make their "epitome of life" to be, to 
do and to suffer. Lastly the Arab's end was honourable as his 
life was stirring : few Badawin had the crowning misfortune of 
dying " the straw-death." 

The poetical forms in The Nights are as follows : The Misra'ah 
or hemistich is half the t( Bayt " which, for want of a better word 
I have rendered couplet : this, however, though formally separated, 

266 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

in MSS. is looked upon as one line, one verse ; hence a word can 
be divided, the former part pertaining to the first and the latter to 
the second moiety of the distich. As the Arabs ignore blank 
verse, when we come upon a rhymeless couplet we know that it is 
an extract from a longer composition in monorhyme. The Kit'ah 
is a fragment, either an occasional piece or more frequently a 
portion of a Ghazal (ode) or Kasidah (elegy), other than the Matla, 
the initial Bayt with rhyming distichs. The Ghazal and Kasfdah 
differ mainly in length : the former is popularly limited to 
eighteen couplets : the latter begins at fifteen and is of indefinite 
number. Both are built upon monorhyme, which appears twice 
in the first couplet and ends all the others, e.g., aa + ba + ca, 
etc. ; nor may the same assonance be repeated, unless at least seven 
couplets intervene. In the best poets, as in the old classic verse 
of France, the sense must be completed in one couplet and not 
run on to a second ; and, as the parts cohere very loosely, 
separate quotation can generally be made without injuring their 
proper effect. A favourite form is the Ruba'f or quatrain, made 
familiar to English ears by Mr. Fitzgerald's masterly adaptation 
of Qmar-i-Khayyam : the movement is generally aa + ba ; but it 
also appears as ab + cb, in which case it is a Kit'ah or fragment. 
The Murabba, tetrastichs or four-fold song, occurs once only in The 
Nights (vol. i, 98) ; it is a succession of double Bayts or of four- 
lined stanzas rhyming aa + be + dc + ec : in strict form the 
first three hemistichs rhyme with one another only, independently 
of the rest of the poem, and the fourth with that of every other 
stanza, e.g. 9 aa + ab -I- cb + db. The Mukhammas, cinquains 
or pentastichs (Night cmrxiv.), represents a stanza of two distichs 
and a hemistich in monorhyme, the fifth line being the " bob " or 
burden : each succeeding stanza affects a new rhyme, except in the 
fifth line, e.g., aaaab + ccccb + ddddb and so forth. The Muwwal 
is a simple popular song in four to six lines ; specimens of it are 
given in the Egyptian grammar of my friend the late Dr. 

Terminal Essay. 267 

Wilhelm Spitta. 1 The Muwashshah, or ornamented verse, has 
two main divisions : one applies to our acrostics in which the 
initials form a word or words ; the other is a kind of Musaddas, or 
sextines, which occurs once only in The Nights (cmlxxxvii.) It 
consists of three couplets or six-line strophes : all the hemistichs of 
the first are in monorhyme ; in the second and following stanzas 
the three first hemistichs take a new rhyme, but the fourth resumes 
the assonance of the first set and is followed by the third couplet of 
No, i, serving as bob or refrain, e.g. t aaaaaa + bbbaaa + cccaaa 
and so forth. It is the most complicated of all the measures and 
is held to be of Morisco or Hispano-Moorish origin. 

Mr. Lane (Lex.) lays down, on the lines of Lbn Khallikan 
(i. 476, etc.) and other representative literati, as our sole authori- 
ties for pure Arabic, the precedence in following order. First of 
all ranks the Jahili (Ignoramus) of The Ignorance, the ApaStas Zpuov 
0i>o$: these pagans left hemistichs, couplets, pieces and elegies which 
once composed a large corpus and which is now mostly forgotten. 
Hammad al-Rawiyah, the Reciter, a man of Persian descent 
(ob. A.H, 160 = 777) who first collected the Mu'allakat, once 
recited by rote in a seance before Caliph Al-Walid two thousand 
poems of prse-Mohammedan bards. 2 After the Jahili stands the 
Mukhadram or Muhadrim, the "Spurious," because half Pagan 
half Moslem, who flourished either immediately before or soon 
after the preaching of Mohammed. The Islami or full-blooded 
Moslem at the end of the first century A.H. (= 720) began the 
process of corruption in language ; and, lastly, he was followed 

1 See p. 439 Grammatik des Arabischen Vulgar Dialekts von ^gyptien, by Dr. Wilhelm 
Spitta Bey, Leipzig, 1880. In pp. 489-493 he gives specimens of eleven Mawawfl 
varying in length from four to fifteen lines. The assonance mostly attempts monorhyme : 
in two tetrastichs it is aa + ba, and it does not disdain alternates, ab + ab + ab. 

* Al-Siyuti, p. 235, from Ibn Khallikan. Our knowledge of oldest Arab verse is 
drawn chiefly from the Kitab al-Aghani (Song-book) of Abu al-Faraj the Tsfahani who 
flourished A.H. 284 356 (= 897 96?) : it was printed at the Buiak Press in. 

268 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

by the Muwallad of the second century who fused Arabic with 
non-Arabic and in whom purity of diction disappeared. 

I have noticed (i A.) that the versical portion of The Nights 
may be distributed into three categories. First are the olden 
poems which are held classical by all modern Arabs ; then comes 
the mediaeval poetry, the effusions of that brilliant throng which 
adorned the splendid Court of Harun al-Rashid and which ended 
with AI-Hariri (ob. A.H. 516); and, lastly, are the various pieces de 
circonstance suggested to editors or scribes by the occasion. It is 
not my object to enter upon the historical part of the subject : 
a mere sketch would have neither value nor interest whilst a 
finished picture would lead too far : I must be contented to notice 
a few of the most famous names. 

Of the prae-islamites we have Adi bin Zayd al-Ibadi the 
"celebrated poet" of Ibn Kkallikan (i. 188) ; Nabighat (the 
full-grown) al-Zubydni who flourished at the Court of Al-Nu'man 
in A.D. 580-602, and whose poem is compared with the 
" Suspendeds," * and Al-Mutalammis the " pertinacious " satirist, 
friend and intimate with Tarafah of the " Prize Poem." About 
Mohammed's day we find Imr al-Kays " with whom poetry began," 
to end with Zu al-Rummah ; Amru bin Madi Karab al-Zubaydi, 
Labfd ; Ka'b ibn Zuhayr, the father one of the Mu'allakah-poets, 
and the son author of the Burdah or Mantle-poem (see vol. iv. 115), 
and Abbas bin Mirdas who lampooned the Prophet and had " his 
tongue cut out " i.e. received a double share of booty from All. 
In the days of Caliph Omar we have Alkamah bin Olatha followed 
by Jamfl bin Ma'mar of the Banu Ozrah (ob. A,H. 82), who loved 
Azza. Then came Al-Kuthayyir (the dwarf, ironice), the lover of 
Buthaynah, " who was so lean that birds might be cut to bits with 
her bones:" the latter was also a poetess (Ibn Khali, i. 87), like 
Hind bint al-Nu'man who made herself so disagreeable to Al-Hajjaj 

1 See Lyall loc. cit. p. 97. 

Terminal Essay. 269 

(ob. A.H.95). J ar * r al-Khatafah, the noblest of the Islami poets in 
the first century, is noticed at full length by Ibn Khallikan (i. 294) 
together with his rival in poetry and debauchery, Abu Firds 
Hammam or Homaym bin Ghalib al-Farazdak, the Tamimi, 
the Ommiade poet "without whose verse half Arabic would 
be lost * : " he exchanged satires with Jarir and died forty days 
before him (A.H. no). Another contemporary, forming the 
poetical triumvirate of the period, was the debauched Christian 
poet Al-Akhtal al-Taghlibi. They were followed by Al-Ahwas 
al-Ansdri whose witty lampoons banished him to Dahlak Island 
in the Red Sea (ob, A.H. 179 =r 795) ; by Bashshdr ibn Burd and 
by Yunus ibn Habib (ob. A.H. 182). 

The well-known names of the Harun-cycle are Al-Asma'i, 
rhetorician and poet, whose epic with Antar for hero is not for- 
gotten (ob. A.H. 216) ; Isaac of Mosul (Ishak bin Ibrahim of 
Persian origin) ; Al-'Utbi " the Poet" (ob. A.H. 228); Abu al-Abbas 
al-Rakashi ; Abu al-Atahiyah, the lover of Otbah ; Muslim bin 
al-Walid al-Ansari; Abu Tammam of Tay, compiler of the 
Hamasah (ob. A.H. 230), " a Muwallad of the first class " (says 
Ibn Khallikan i. 392) ; the famous or infamous Abu Nowas ; Abu 
Mus'ab (Ahmad ibn Ali) who died in A.H. 242 ; the satirist Dibil 
al-Khuzai (ob. A.H. 246) and a host of others quos nunc 
perscribere longum est. They were followed by Al-Bohtori " the 
Poet" (ob. A.H. 286) ; the royal author Abdullah ibn al-Mu'tazz 
(ob. A.H. 315) ; Ibn Abbad the Sahib (ob. A.H. 334) ; Mansur 
al-Hallaj the martyred Sufi ; the Sahib ibn Abbad ; Abu Faras 
al-Hamdani (ob. A.H. 357) ; Al-Ndmi (ob. A.H. 399) who had 
many encounters with that model Chauvinist Al-Mutanabbi, 
nicknamed Al-Mutanabbih (the "wide-awake"), killed A.H. 354 ; 
Al-Mandzi of Manazjird (ob. 427) ; Al-Tughrai author of the 

1 His Diwan has been published with a French translation, par R. Boucher, Paris, 
Labitte. 1870. 

270 A If Lay la h wa Laylah. 

Lamiyat al-'Ajam (ob. A.H. 375) ; Al-Hariri the model rhetorician 
(ob. A.H. 516) ; Al-Hajiri al-Irbili, of Arbela (ob. A.H. 632) ; 
Baha al-Din al-Sinjari, (ob. A.H. 622) ; Al-Katib or the Scribe 
(ob. A.H. 656) ; Abdun al-Andalusi the Spaniard (our xiith 
century) and about the same time Al-Nawaji, author of the Halbat 
al-Kumayt or " Race-course of the Bay-horse " poetical slang for 
wine. 1 

Of the third category, the pieces d'occasion, little need be said : 
I may refer readers to my notes on the doggrels in vol. ii. 34, 35, 
56, 179, 182, 1 86 and 261 ; in vol. v. 55 and in vol. viii. 50. 

Having a mortal aversion to the details of Arabic prosody 
I have persuaded my friend Dr. Steingass, to undertake in the 
following pages the subject as far as concerns the poetry of The 
Nights. He has been kind enough to collaborate with me from 
the beginning, and to his minute lexicographical knowledge I am 
deeply indebted for discovering not a few blemishes which would 
have been " nuts to the critic." The learned Arabist's notes will 
be highly interesting to students : mine ( V.) are intended to 
give a superficial and popular idea of the Arab's verse-mechanism. 

" The principle of Arabic Prosody (called 'Aruz, pattern 
standard, or 'Ilm al-'Aruz, science of the 'Aruz), in so far 

1 I find also minor quotations from the Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Askari (of Sarra 
man raa) ob. A.D. 868; Ibn Makula (murdered in A.D. 862?); Ibn Durayd 
(ob. A.D. 933); Al-Zahr the Poet (ob. A.D. 963) ; Abu Bakr al-Zubaydi (ob. A.D. 
989); Kabvis ibn Wushmaghir (murdered in A.D. 1012-13) Ibn Nabatah the Poet 
(ob. A.D. 1015) ; Ibn al-Sa'ati (ob. A.D. 1028); Ibn Zaydun al-Andalusi who died 
at Hums (Ernessa, the Arab name for Seville) in A.D. 1071 j Al-Mu'tasim ibn Sumadih 
(ob. A.D. 1091); Al-Murtaza ibn al-Shahrozuri the Sufi (ob. A.D. 1117); Ibn Sara 
al-Shantarani (of Santarem) who sang of Hind and died A.D. 1123; Ibn al-Khazin 
(ob. A.D. 1124); Ibn Kalakis (ob. A.D. 1172) ; Ibn al-Ta'wizi (ob. A.D. 1188); Ibn 
Zabadah (ob. A.D. 1198); Baha al-Din Zuhayr (ob. A.D. 1249); Muwaffak al-Din 
Muzaffar (ob. A.D. 1266) and sundry others. Notices of Al-Utayyah (vol. i. Ii), of Ibn 
al-Sumam (vol. i. 87) and of Ibn Sahib al-Ishbili, of Seville, (vol. i. 100) are deficient. 
The most notable point in Arabic verse is its savage satire, the language of excited 
"destructiveness" which characterises the Badawi : he is " keen for satire as a thirsty 
man for water ;" and half his poetry seems to consist of foul innuendo, of lampoons, 
and of gross personal abuse. 

Terminal Essay. 271 

resembles that of classical poetry, as it chiefly rests on metrical 
weight, not on accent, or in other words a verse is measured by 
short and long quantities, while the accent only regulates its 
rhythm. In Greek and Latin, however, the quantity of the 
syllables depends on their vowels, which may be either naturally 
short or long, or become long by position, i.e. if followed by two 
or more consonants. We all remember from our school-days 
what a fine string of rules had to be committed to and kept in 
memory, before we were able to scan a Latin or Greek verse, 
without breaking its neck by tripping over false quantities. In 
Arabic, on the other hand, the answer to the question, what is 
metrically long or short, is exceedingly simple, and flows with 
stringent cogency from the nature of the Arabic Alphabet. This, 
strictly speaking, knows only consonants (Harf, pi. Huruf). The 
vowels which are required, in order to articulate the consonants, 
were at first not represented in writing at all. They had to be 
supplied by the reader, and are not improperly called " motions " 
(Harakat), because the move or lead on as it were, one letter to 
another. They are three in number, a (Fathah), i (Kasrah), 
u (Zammah), originally sounded as the corresponding English 
vowels in bat, bit and butt respectively, but in certain cases 
modifying their pronunciation under the influence of a neigh- 
bouring consonant. When the necessity made itself felt to 
represent them in writing, especially for the sake of fixing the 
correct reading of the Koran, they were rendered by additional 
signs, placed above or beneath the consonant, after which they are 
pronounced, in a similar way as it is done in some systems of 
English shorthand. A consonant followed by a short vowel 
is called a " moved letter " (Muharrakah) ; a consonant without 
such vowel is called "resting" or " quiescent " (Sdkinah), and 
can stand only at the end of a syllable or word. 

And now we are able to formulate the one simple rule, which 
determines the prosodical quantity in Arabic : any moved letter, 

272 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

as ta, li, mu, is counted short ; any moved letter followed by a 
quiescent one, as taf, lun, mus, i.e. any closed syllable beginning 
and terminating with a consonant and having a short vowel 
between, forms a long quantity. This is certainly a relief in 
comparison with the numerous rules of classical Prosody, proved 
by not a few exceptions, which for instance in Dr. Smith's 
elementary Latin Grammar fill eight closely printed pages. 

Before I proceed to show how from the prosodical unities, the 
moved and the quiescent letter, first the metrical elements, then 
the feet and lastly the metres are built up, it will be necessary to 
obviate a few misunderstandings, to which our mode of trans- 
literating Arabic into the Roman character might give rise. 

The line : 

" Love in my heart they lit and went their ways," (vol. i. 232) 
runs in Arabic : 

" Akdmu al-wajda fi kalbi wa sru," (Mac. Ed. i. 179). 

Here, according to our ideas, the word akamu would begin with 
a short vowel a, and contain two long vowels a and u ; according 
to Arabic views neither is the case. The word begins with 
" Alif," and its second syllable kd closes in Alif after Fathah (a), 
in the same way, as the third syllable mu closes in the letter Waw 
(w) after Zammah (u). 

The question, therefore, arises, what is " Alif." It is the first 
of the twenty-eight Arabic letters, and has through the medium 
of the Greek Alpha nominally entered into our alphabet, where it 
now plays rather a misleading part. Curiously enough, however, 
Greek itself has preserved for us the key to the real nature of the 
letter. In 'AA<a the initial a is preceded by the so-called spiritus 
lenis ( ' ), a sign which must be placed in front or at the top of any 
vowel beginning a Greek word, and which represents that slight 
aspiration or soft breathing almost involuntarily uttered, when we 
try to pronounce a vowel by itself. We need not go far to find 

Terminal Essay. 273 

how deeply rooted this tendency is and to what exaggerations it 
will sometimes lead. Witness the gentleman, who after men- 
tioning that he had been visiting his " favourite haunts " on the 
scenes of his early life, was sympathetically asked, how the 
dear old ladies were. This spiritus lenis is the silent h of the 
French "homme" and the English "honour," corresponding 
exactly to the Arabic Hamzah, whose mere prop the Alif is, when 
it stands at the beginning of a word : a native Arabic Dictionary 
does not begin with Bab al-Alif (Gate or Chapter of the Alif), but 
with Bab al-Harnzah. What the Greeks call Alpha and have 
transmitted to us as a name for the vowel a, is in fact nothing 
else but the Arabic Hamzah- Alif ( \ ), moved by Fathah, i.e. 
bearing the sign : for a at the top ( \ ), just as it might have the 
sign Zammah (i) superscribed to express u (f*, or the sign 
Kasrah (~) subjoined to represent i (]). In each case the 
Hamzah-Alif, although scarcely audible to our ear, is the real 
letter and might fitly be rendered in transliteration by the above- 
mentioned silent h, wherever we make an Arabic word begin with 
a vowel not preceded by any other sign. This latter restriction 
refers to the sign ' , which in Sir Richard Burton's translation of 
The Nights, as frequently in books published in this country, is 
used to represent the Arabic letter c in whose very name 'Ayn 
it occurs. The 'Ayn is " described as produced by a smart com- 
pression of the upper part of the windpipe and forcible emission 
of breath/' imparting a guttural tinge to a following or preceding 
vowel-sound; but it is by no means a mere guttural 'vowel, as 
Professor Palmer styles it. For Europeans, who do not belong 
to the Israelitic dispensation, as well as for Turks and Persians, 
its exact -pronunciation is most difficult, if not impossible to 

In reading Arabic from transliteration for the purpose of 
scanning poetry, we have therefore in the first instance to keep 
in mind that no Arabic word or syllable can begin with a vowel. 

VOL. X. S 

274 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

Where our mode of rendering Arabic in the Roman character 
would make this appear to be the case, either Hamzah (silent h), 
or 'Ayn (represented by the sign ') is the real initial, and the only 
element to be taken in account as a letter. It follows as a self- 
evident corollary that wherever a single consonant stands between 
two vowels, it never closes the previous syllable, but always 
opens the next one. Our word " Akamu," for instance, can only 
be divided into the syllables : A (properly Ha)T-ka-mu, never into 
Ak-a-mu or Ak-dm-u. 

It has been stated above that the syllable ka is closed by the 
letter Alif after Fathah, in the same way as the syllable mu is 
closed by the letter Waw, and I may add now, as the word ft is 
closed by the letter Ya (y). To make this perfectly clear, I must 
repeat that the Arabic Alphabet, as it was originally written, deals 
only with consonants. The signs for the short vowel-sounds were 
added later for a special purpose, and are generally not repre- 
sented even in printed books, e.g. in the various editions of The 
Nights, where only quotations from the Koran or poetical passages 
are provided with the vowel-points. But among those consonants 
there are three, called weak letters (Huruf al-'illah), which have a 
particular organic affinity to these vowel-sounds : the guttural 
Hamzah, which is akin to a, the palatal Ya, which is related to i, 
and the labial Waw, which is homogeneous with u. Where any 
of the weak letters follows a vowel of its own class, either at the 
end of a word or being itself followed by another consonant, it 
draws out or lengthens the preceding vowel and is in this sense 
called a letter of prolongation (Harf al-Madd). Thus, bearing in 
mind that the Hamzah is in reality a silent h, the syllable ka 
might be written kah, similarly to the German word " sah," where 
the h is not pronounced either, but imparts a lengthened sound 
to the a In like manner mu and fi are written in Arabic muw 
and fly respectively, and form long quantities not because they 
contain a vowel long by nature, but because their initial 

Terminal Essay. 275' 

"Muharrakah" is followed by a " Sakinah," exactly as in the 
previously mentioned syllables taf, lun, mus. 1 In the Roman 
transliteration, Akamu forms a word of five letters, two of which 
are consonants, and three vowels; in Arabic it represents the 
combination H(a)k(a)hm(u)w, consisting also of five letters but 
all consonants, the intervening vowels being expressed in writing ' 
either merely by superadded external signs, or more frequently 
not at all. Metrically it represents one short and two long 
quantities (w - -), forming in Latin a trisyllabic foot, called 
Bacchius, and in Arabic a quinqueliteral " Rukn " (pillar) or 
"Juz" (part, portion), the technical designation for which we 
shall introduce presently. 

There is one important remark more to be made with regard 
to the Hamzah : at the beginning of a word it is either con- 
junctive, Hamzat al-Wasl, or disjunctive, Hamzat al Kat' The 
difference is best illustrated by reference to the French so-called 
aspirated h, as compared with the above mentioned silent h. If 
the latter, as initial of a noun, is preceded by the article, the 
article loses its vowel, and, ignoring the silent h altogether, is 
read with the following noun almost as one word : le homme 
becomes 1'homme (pronounced lomme) as le ami becomes I'ami. 
This resembles very closely the Arabic Hamzah Wasl. If, on 
the other hand, a French word begins with an aspirated h, as 
for instance he*ros, the article does not drop its vowel before the 
noun, nor is the h sounded as in the English word "hero," but 
the effect of the aspirate is simply to keep the two vowel sounds 
apart, so as to pronounce le dros with a slight hiatus between, ; 
and this is exactly what happens in the case of the Arabic 
Hamzah Kat' 

With regard to the Wasl, however, Arabic goes a step further 

1 If the letter preceding Waw or Y is moved by Fathah, they produce the diphthongs 
au (aw), pronounced like ou in "bout," and ai, pronounced as i in " bite." 

276 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

than French. In the French example, quoted above, we have 
seen it is the silent h and the preceding vowel, which are 
eliminated ; in Arabic both the Hamzah and its own Harakah, 
i.e. the short vowel following it, are supplanted by their 
antecedent Another example will make this clear. The 
most common instance of the Hamzah Wasl is the article al 
(for h(a)l = the Hebrew hal), where it is moved by Fathah. 
But it has this sound only at the beginning of a sentence 
or speech, as in "Al-hamdu" at the head of the Fatihah, or in 
" Alldhu " at the beginning of the third Surah. If the two words 
stand in grammatical connection, as in the sentence " Praise be 
to God," we cannot say Al-Hamdu li-Allahi," but the junction 
(Wasl) between the dative particle li and the noun which it 
governs must take place. According to the French principle, this 
junction would be effected at the cost of the preceding element 
and li Allahi would become 1'Alldhf ; in Arabic, on the contrary, 
the kasrated 1 of the particle takes the place of the following 
fathated Hamzah and we read li 'llahi instead. Proceeding in the 
Fatihah we meet with the verse " lyyaka na'budu wa iyyaka 
nasta'mu," Thee do we worship and of Thee do we ask aid. 
Here the Hamzah of iyyaka (properly hiyydka with silent h) is 
disjunctive, and therefore its pronunciation remains the same at 
the beginning and in the middle of the sentence, or to put it 
differently, instead of coalescing with the preceding wa into 
; wa'yyaka, the two words are kept separate, by the Hamzah 
reading wa iyyaka, just as it was the case with the French 
r Le he*ros. 

If the conjunctive Hamzah is preceded by a quiescent letter, 
this takes generally Kasrah: "Talat al-Laylah," the night was 
longsome, would become Talati '1-Laylah. If, however, the 
quiescent letter is one of prolongation, it mostly drops out 
altogether, and the Harakah of the next preceding letter becomes 
the connecting vowel between the two words, which in our 

Terminal Essay. 277 

parlance would mean, that the end-vowel of the first word is 
shortened before the elided initial of the second. Thus "ft 
al-bayti," in the house, which in Arabic is written f(i)y h(a)l- 
b(a)yt(i) and which we transliterate ft '1-bayti, is in poetry read 
fil-bayti, where we must remember, that the syllable fil, in spite 
of its short vowel, represents a long quantity, because it consists 
of a moved letter followed by a quiescent one. Ffl would be over- 
long and could, according to Arabic prosody, stand only in certain 
cases at the end of a verse, i.e. in pause, where a natural tendency 
prevails to prolong a sound. 

The attentive reader will now be able to fix the prosodical value 
of the line quoted above with unerring security. For metrical 
purposes it syllabifies into : A-kd-mul-vaj-da ft kal-bf wa sa-ru, 
containing three short and eight long quantities. The initial 
unaccented a is short, for the same reason why the syllables 
da and wa are so, that is, because it corresponds to an Arabic 
letter, the Hamzah or silent h, moved by Fathah. The syllables 
kd, ft, bf, sd, ru, are long for the same reason, why the syllables 
Tnul, waj, kal are so, that is, because the accent in the trans- 
literation corresponds to a quiescent Arabic letter, following a 
moved one.. The same simple criterion applies to the whole 
list, in which I give in alphabetical order the first lines and the 
metre of all the poetical pieces contained in the Mac. edition, and 
which will be found at the end of this volume. 

The prosodical unities, then, in Arabic are the moved and the 
quiescent letter, and we are now going to show how they combine 
into metrical elements, feet, and metres. 

i. The metrical elements (Usul) are : 

I. The Sabab, 1 which consists of two letters and is either 
khaftf (light) or sakfl (heavy)'. A moved letter followed by a 

1 For the explanation of this name and those of the following terms, see Terminal 
Essay, p. 261. 

A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

quiescent, i.e. a closed syllable, like the afore-mentioned taf, 
lun, mus, to which we may now add fa = fah, 'i = 'iy, 'u ='uw, 
form a Sabab khafif, corresponding to the classical long quantity 
( - ). Two moved letters in succession, like muta, 'ala, constitute 
a Sabab sakil, for which the classical name would be Pyrrhic 
( ^ ^ ). As in Latin and Greek, they are equal in weight and 
can frequently interchange, that is to say, the Sabab khafif 
can be evolved into a sakil by moving its second Harf, or the 
latter contracted into the former, by making its second letter 

2. The Watad, consisting of three letters, one of which is 
quiescent. If the quiescent follows the two moved ones, the 
Watad is called rnajmu* (collected or joined), as fa'ii (= fa'uw), 
mafd ( mafah), 'ilun, and it corresponds to the classical Iambus 
( w ). If, on the contrary, the quiescent intervenes or separates 
between the two moved letters, as in fa'i (= fah'i), Idtu (= lahtu), 
taPi, the Watad is called mafruk (separated), and has its classical 
equivalent in the Trochee ( ~ ^ ). 

3. The Fasilah, 1 containing four letters, i.e. three moved ones 
followed by a quiescent, and which, in fact, is only a shorter name 
for a Sabab sakil followed by a Sabab khafif, as muta 4- fa, or 
'ala + tun, both of the measure of the classical Anapaest, 

ii. These three elements, the Sabab, Watad and Fasilah, com- 
bine further into feet Arkdn, pi. of Rukn, or Ajzd, pi. of Juz, 
two words explained supra p. 275. The technical tefms by 
which the feet are named, are derivatives of the root, fa'l, to 
do, which as the student will remember, serves in Arabic 

1 This Fdsilah is more accurately called sughrk, the smaller one ; there is another 
Fasilah kubra, the greater, consisting of four moved letters .followed by a quiescent, or of 
a Sabab saldl followed by a Watad majmu'. But it occurs only as a variation of a 
normal foot, not as an integral element in its composition, and consequently no mention 
of it was needed in tlu text. 

t Terminal Essay. 279 

Grammar to form the Auzan or weights, in accordance with 
which words are derived from roots. It consists of the three 
letters Fa (f), 'Ayn ('), Lam (1), and, like any other Arabic 

root, cannot strictly speaking be pronounced, for the introduction 

of any vowel-sound would make it cease to be a root and change 

it into an individual word. The above fa'l, for instance, where the 
initial Fd is moved by Fathah (a), is the Infinitive or verbal noun, 
" to do/' " doing." If the 'Ayn also is moved by Fathah, we 
obtain fa'al, meaning in colloquial Arabic " he did " (the classical 
or literary form would be fa'ala). Pronouncing the first letter 
with Zammah (u), the second with Kasrah (i), t.e. t fu'il, we say 
" it was done " (classically fu'ila). Many more forms are derived 
by prefixing, inserting or subjoining certain additional letters 
called Huruf al-Ziyadah (letters of increase) to the original 
radicals : fd'il, for instance, with an Alif of prolongation in the 
first syllable, means "doer;" maf'ul ( = maf'uwl), where the 
quiescent Fd is preceded by a fathated Mi'm (m), and the zam- 
mated 'Ayn followed by a lengthening Waw, means "done"; 
Mufd alah, where in addition to a prefixed and inserted letter, the 
feminine termination ah is subjoined after the Ldm means " to do 
a thing reciprocally." Since these and similar changes are with 
unvarying regularity applicable to all roots, the grammarians use 
the derivatives of Fa'l as model-forms for the corresponding de- 
rivations of any other root, whose letters are* in this case called its 
Fd, 'Ayn and Ldm. From a root, e.g., which has Kdf (k) for its 
first letter or Fd, Td (t) for its second letter 01 'Ayn, and Bd (b) 
fot its third letter or Ldm 

fa'l would be katb = to write, writing; 

fa'al would be katab =r he wrote ; 

fu'il would be kutib := it was written ; 

fd'il would be kdtib = writer, scribe ; 

maf'ul would be maktub == written, letter; 

280 A If Laylak wa Laylah. 

mufa'alah would be mukatabah = to write reciprocally, cor- 

The advantage of this system is evident. It enables the student, 
who has once grasped the original meaning of a root, to form 
scores of words himself, and in his readings, to understand 
hundreds, nay thousands, of words, without recourse to the 
Dictionary, as soon as he has learned to distinguish their radical 
letters from the letters of increase, and recognises in them a 
familiar root. We cannot wonder, therefore, that the inventor of 
Arabic Prosody, readily availed himself of the same plan for his 
own ends. The Taf 'il, as it is here called, that is the represen- 
tation of the metrical feet by current derivatives of fa'l, has in this 
case, of course, nothing to do with the etymological meaning of 
those typical forms. But it proves none the less useful in another 
direction : in simply naming a particular foot it shows at the same 
time its prosodical measure and character, as will now be explained 
in detail. 

We have seen supra p. 275 that the word Akamu consists of a 
short syllable followed by two long ones ( u - - ), and consequently 
forms a foot, which the classics would call Bacchfus. In Latin 
there is no connection between this name and the metrical value 
of the foot : we must learn both by heart: But if we are told 
that its Taf'il in Arabic is Fa'ulun, we understand at once that it 
is composed of the Watad majmu' fa'u (--) and the Sabab 
khafi'f lun ( - ), and as the Watad contains three, the Sabab 
two letters, it forms a quinqueliteral foot or Juz khamasf. 

In combining into feet, the Watad has the precedence over the 
Sabab and the Fasilah, and again the Watad majmu' over the 
Watad mafruk. Hence the Prosodists distinguish between Ajza 
asliyah or primary feet (from Asl, root), in which this precedence is 
observed, and Ajza far'iyah or secondary feet (from Far' = branch), 
in which it is reversed. The former are four in number : 

Terminal Essay. 281 

1. Fa'u.lun, consisting, as we have just seen of a Watad majmu' 
followed by a Sabab khafff, = the Latin Bacchfus ( w - - ). 

2. Mafa.'i.lun, i.e. Watad majmu' followed by two Sabab khafff 
= the Latin Epitritus primus ( v ). 

3. Mufd.'alatun, i.e. Watad majmu' followed by Fdsilah = the 
Latin Iambus followed by Anapaest ( w - w w - ). 

4. Fd'i.ld.tun, i.e. Watad mafruk followed by two Sabab khafff 
= the Latin Epitritus secundus ( - w - ). 

The number of the secondary feet increases to six, for as No. 2 
and 4 contain two Sabab, they " branch out " into two derived 
feet each, according to both Sabab or only one changing place 
with regard to the Watad. They are : 

5. Fd.'ilun, i.e. Sabab khafff followed by Watad majmu', = 
the Latin Creticus ( - w - ). The primary Fa'ii.lun becomes by 
transposition Lun.fa'u. To bring this into conformity with a 
current derivative of fa'l, the initial Sabab must be made to con- 
tain the first letter of the root, and the Watad the two remaining 
ones in their proper order. Fa is therefore substituted for lun, 
and 'ilun for fa'ii, forming together the above Fd.'ilun. By similar 
substitutions, which it would be tedious to specify in each separate 
case, Mafd.'f.lun becomes : 

6. Mus.taf.'ilun, for 'f.lun.mafd. i.e. two Sabab khafff, followed 
by Watad majmu' = the Latin Epitritus tertius ( - - w - ), or : 

7. Fci.'ild.tun, for Lun.mafd.'f, i.e. Watad majmu' between two 
Sabab khafif = the Latin Epitritus secundus ( - u - - ). 

8. Mutafd.'ilun (for 'Alatun.mufa, the reversed Mufa.'alatun) 
i.e. Fdsilah followed by Watad majmu' = the Latin Anapaest 
succeeded by Iambus ( u w - u - ). The last two secondary feet 
are transpositions of No. 4, Fd'.i ld.tun, namely : 

9. Maf.'u.ldtu, for Ld.tun.fa'i, i.e. two Sabab khafff, followed 
by Watad mafrdk = the Latin Epitritus quartus ( u ) fc 

282 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

10. Mus.tafi.lun, for Tun.fd', Le. Watad mafruk between 
two Sabab khafi'f = the Latin Epitritus tertius (---- ).* 

The " branch "-foot Fa.'ilun (No. 5), like its " root " Fa'ulun 
(No. i), is quinqueliteral. All other feet, primary or secondary, 
consist necessarily of seven letters, as they contain a triliteral 
Watad (see supra i. 2) with either two biliteral Sabab khafi'f (i. i,) 
or a quadriliteral Fasilah (i. 3). They are, therefore, called, 
Saba'i = seven lettered. 

iii. The same principle of the Watad taking precedence over 
Sabab and Fdsilah, rules the arrangement of the Arabic metres, 
which are divided into five circles (Dawair, pi. of Dairah) so called 
for reasons presently to be explained. The first is. named 

A. Dairat al-Mukhtalif, circle of " the varied " metre, because 
it is composed of feet of various length, the five-lettered Fa'ulun 
(supra ii. i) and the seven-lettered Mafa'i'lun (ii. 2) with their 
secondaries Fa'ilun, Mustaf.'ilun and Fa.'ilaturi (ii. 5-7), and it com- 
prises three Buhur or metres (pi. of Bahr, sea), the Taw/1, Madid 
and Basit, 

i . Al-Taw/1, consisting of twice 

Fa'u.lun Mafc.'flun Fa'ii.lun Mafc.'flun, 

the classical scheme for which would be 

w - - | u | ^ - - | w | 

If we transfer the Watad Fa'u from the beginning of the line to 
the end, it would read : 

Lun.mafa'/ Lun.fa'u Lun.mafa'i Lun.fa'u which, after the sub- 
stitutions indicated above (ii. 7 and 5) becomes : 

1 It is important to keep in mind that the seemingly identical feet 10 and 6, J and 3, 
are distinguished by the relative positions of the constituting elements in either pair. 
For as it will be seen, that Sabab and Watad are subject to different kinds of alterations, 
it is evident that the effect of such alteration upon a foot will vary, if Sbab and Watad 
occupy different places with regard to each other. 

Terminal Essay. 283 

2. Al-Mad/d, consisting of twice 

F^'ildtun F.'ilun Fl'ildtun F^.'ilun, 
which may be represented by the classical scheme 

If again, returning to the Tawil, we make the break after the 
Watad of the second foot we obtain the line : 

'flun.fa'u. Lun.mafd 'jflun.fa'u Lun.mafa, and as metrically 
'flun.fa'u (two Sabab followed by Watad) and Lun.mafd (one 
Sabab followed by Watad) are = 'flun.mafd and Lun.fa'u res- 
pectively, their Taf 'il is effected by the same substitutions as in 
ii. 5 and 6, and they become : 

3. Basft, consisting of twice 

Mustaf.'ilun FaVilun Mustaf.'ilun FaYilun, 
in conformity with the classical scheme : 

- - w-|- w -|- - w -[- u -| 

Thus one metre evolves from another by a kind of rotation, 
which suggested to the Prosodists an ingenious device of repre- 
senting them by circles (hence the name Ddirah), round the cir- 
cumference of which on the outside the complete Taf'fl of the 
original metre is written, while each moved letter is faced by a 
small loop, each quiescent by a small vertical stroke 1 inside the 
circle. Then, in the case of this present Ddirat al-Mukhtalif for 
instance, the loop corresponding to the initial f of the first Fa'ulun 
is marked as the beginning of the Tawil, that corresponding to 
its 1 (of the Sabab lun) as the beginning of the Madid, and that 
corresponding to the 'Ayn of the next Mafd'flun as the beginning 
of the Basit. The same process applies to all the following circles, 
but our limited space compels us simply to enumerate them, 
together with their Buhur, without further reference to the mode 
of their evolution. 

1 i.e. vertical to the circumference. 

A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

B. Dairat al-Mutalif, circle of " the agreeing " metre, so called 
because all its feet agree in length, consisting of seven letters 
each. It contains : 

1. Al-Wafir, composed of twice 

Mufa.'alatun Mufa.'alatun Mufa.'alatun (ii. 3), 
~ \s-\j\j-\\j-\j\j-\\s-\s\j-\ 

where the Iambus in each foot precedes Jthe Anapaest, and its 
reversal : 

2. Al-Kdmil, consisting of twice 

Mutafl'ilun Mutafl'ilun Mutafa.'ilun (ii. 8) 
uw~u"ju\^~w"Juu - u~j 
where the Anapaest takes the first place in every foot. 

C. Dairat al-Mujtalab, circle of " the brought on " metre, so 
called because its seven-lettered feet are brought on from the first 

Terminal Essay. 285 

1. AI-Hazaj, consisting of twice 

MafaVilun Mafl'flun MafaVilun (ii. 2) 
= w \\j |w---|^--~| 

2. Al-Rajaz, consisting of twice 

Mustaf.'ilun Mustaf.'ilun Mustaf.'ilun, 

and, in this full form, almost identical with the Iambic Trimeter 
of the Greek Drama : 

- - v -| - - u -|- - w -| 

3. Al-Ramal, consisting of twice 

FaViUtun Fl'iUtun Fi.'iUtun, 
the trochaic counterpart of the preceding metre 
= -u--|- V--J-V--J 

D. Dairat al-Mushtabih, circle of " the intricate " metre, so 
called from its intricate nature, primary mingling with secondary 
feet, and one foot of the same verse containing a Watad majmu', 
another a Watad mafruk, i.e. the iambic rhythm alternating with 
the trochaic and vice versa. Its Buhur are : 
I. Al-Sarf, twice 

Mustaf.'ilun Mustaf.'ilun Maf u.lltu (ii. 6 and 9) 

= --u-[--v-|-v-w| 
2.- Al-Munsarih, twice 

Mustaf'ilun Mafu.ldtu Mustaf.'ilun (ii. 6. 9. 6) 
= --w-|---w|--w-| 

3. Al-Khafif, twice 

Fd.'fldtun Mustaf Uun Fd.'il^tun (ii. 7. 10. 7) 
= -w|--v-|-w--| 

4. Al-Muzdri', twice 

Mafl'flun Fd'i.litun Mafd-'ilun (ii." *. 4. 2) 
. w j. w ..|^...| 

5. Al-Muktazib, twice 

Maf u.latu Mustaf.'ilun Maf'u.Utu (ii. 9. 6. 9) 

286 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

6. Al-Mujtass, twice 

MustaFi.lun Fd.'ilatim Mustaf i.lun (ii. 10. 7. 10) 

= v-|-u--|--w-| 

E. Dairat al-Muttafik, circle of " the concordant" metre, so 
called for the same reason why circle B is called " the agreeing/' 
i.e. because the feet all harmonise in length, being here, however 
quinqueliteral, not seven-lettered as in the Mutalif. Al-Khalil, the 
inventor of the 'Ilm al-'Aruz, assigns to it only one metre : 

1, Al-Mutakarib, twice 

Fa'ulun Fa'ulun Fa'ulun Fa'ulun (ii. i) 
= ^--|w--|w--|u--| 
Later Prosodists added : 

2. Al-Mutadarak, twice 

Fa'ilun Fa'ilun Fa'ilun Fa'ilun (ii. 5) 
= -u-|-u-|-u-|-u-| 

The feet and metres as given above, are however to a certain 
extent merely theoretical ; in practice the former admit of 
numerous licenses and the latter of variations brought about by 
modification or partial suppression of the feet final in a verse. 
An Arabic poem (Kasidah, or if numbering less than ten couplets, 
Kat'ah) consists of Bayts or couplets, bound together by a 
continuous rhyme, which connects the first two lines and is 
repeated at the end of every second line throughout the poem. 
The last foot of every odd line is called 'Aruz (fern, in contra- 
distinction of Aruz in the sense of Prosody which is masc.) pi. 
A'airiz, that of every even line is called Zarb, pi. Azrub, and the 
remaining feet may be termed Hashw (stuffing), although in 
stricter parlance a further distinction is made between the first 
foot of every odd and even line as well. 

Now with regard to the Hashw on the one hand, and the 'Aruz 
and Zarb on the other, the changes which the normal feet undergo, 
are of two kinds: Zuhaf (deviation) and 'Illah (defect). ZuhaT 

Terminal Essay. 287 

applies, as a rule, occasionally and optionally to the second 
letter of a Sabab in those feet which compose the Hashw or body- 
part of a. verse, making a long syllable short by suppressing its 
quiescent final, or contracting two short quantities in a long one, 
by rendering quiescent a moved letter which stands second in 
a Sabab sakil. In Mustaf'ilun (ii. 6. = ---), for instance, 
the s of the first syllable, or the f of the second, or both may be 
dropped and it will become accordingly Mutaf ilun, by substitution 
Mafa'ilun, ( u - w - ) or Musta'ilun, by substitution, Mufta'ilun 
( - u u - ),or Muta'ilun, by substitution Fa'ilatun ( u u u - ).* This 
means that wherever the foot Mustaf.'ilun occurs in the Hashw of 
a poem, we can represent it by the scheme w w ^ - i.e. the Epitritus 
tertius can, by poetical license change into Diiambus, Choriambus 
or Paeon quartus. In Mufa'alatun (ii. 3, == v - u u - ) and Mutafa'ilun 
(ii. 8. = v u - v - ), again, the Sabab 'ala and muta may become 
khafi'f by suppression of their final Harakah and thus turn into 

Mufa'altun, by substitution Mafa'ilun (ii. 2. = u ), and 

Mutfa'ilun, by substitution Mustaf ilun (ii. 6. = - - u - as above). 
In other words the two feet correspond to the schemes u w - w and 
j- u w _, where a Spondee can take the place of the Anapaest after 
or before the Iambus respectively. 

'Illah, the second way of modifying the primitive or normal feet, 
applies to both Sabab and Watad, but only in the 'Aruz and 
Zarb of a couplet, being at the same time constant and obligatory 
Besides the changes already mentioned, it consists in adding one 
or two letters to a Sabab or Watad, or curtailing them more or 
less, even to cutting them off altogether. We cannot here exhaust 
this matter any more than those touched upon until now, but 
must be satisfied with an example or two, to show the proceeding 
in general and indicate its object. 

1 This would be a Fasilah kubra spoken of in the note p. 278. 

288 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

We have seen that the metre Basft consists of the two lines : 

Mustaf.'ilun FaVilun Mustafilun Fd'ilun 
Mustafilun Fd'ilun Mustafilun Fd'ilun. 

This complete form, however, is not in use amongst Arab 
poets. If by the Zuhdf Khabn, here acting as 'Illah, the Alif in 
the final Fa'ilun is suppressed, changing it into Fa'ilun (- ^ -), it 
becomes the first 'Aruz, called makhbunah, of the Basft, the 
first Zarb of which is obtained by submitting the final Fa'ilun of 
the second line to the same process. A second Zarb results, if in 
Fa'ilun the final n of the Watad 'ilun is cut off and the preceding 1 
made quiescent by the 'Illah Kat' thus giving Fa'il and by substi- 
tution Fa'lun ( - - ). Thus the formula becomes : 
Mustafilun Fd'ilun Mustafilun Fa'ilun 

Mustafilun Fd'ilun Mustafilun \ _ 

( Fa lun 

As in the Hashw, i.e. the first three feet of each line, the Khabn 
can likewise be applied to the medial Fa'ilun, and for Mustafilun 
the poetical licenses, explained above, may be introduced, this 
first 'Aniz or Class of the Basft with its two Zarb or subdivisions 
will be represented by the scheme 

\j u ( v v 
~ -* -J 

that is to say in the first subdivision of this form of the Basft 
both lines of each couplet end with an Anapaest and every second 
line of the other subdivision terminates in a Spondee. 

The Basft has four more A'ariz, three called majzuah, because 
each line is shortened by a Juz or foot, one called mashturah 
(halved), because the number of feet is reduced from four to two, 
and we may here notice that the former kind of lessening the 
number of feet is frequent with the hexametrical circles (B. C. D.), 
while the latter kind can naturally only occur in those 
circles, whose couplet forms an octameter (A. E.) Besides being 

Terminal Essay. 289 

majzuah, the second 'Aruz is sahihah (perfect) consisting of the 
normal foot Mustafilun. It has three Azrub: I. Mustafilan 
( - - u : , with an overlong final syllable, see supra p. 277), 
produced by the 'Illah Tazyil, i.e. addition of a quiescent letter at 
the end (Mustaf 'ilunn, by substitution Mustafilan) ; 2. Mustafilun, 

like the 'Aruz ; 3. Maf ulun ( ), produced by the 'Illah Kat' 

(see the preceding page ; Mustafilun, by dropping the final n and 
making the 1 quiescent becomes Mustaf il and by substitution 
Maf ulun). Hence the formula is : 

Mustafilun Fa'ilun Mustafilun 

f Mustaf iten 

Mustafilun Fa'ilun \ Mustafilun 
I Maf ulun, 

which, with its allowable licenses, may be represented by the 
scheme : 

The above will suffice to illustrate the general method of the 
Prosodists, and we must refer the reader for the remaining classes 
and subdivisions of the Basit as well as the other metres to more 
special treatises on the subject, to which this Essay is intended 
merely as an introduction, with a view to facilitate the first steps 
of the student in an important, but I fear somewhat neglected 
field of Arabic learning. 

If we now turn to the poetical pieces contained in The Nights, 
we find that out of the fifteen metres, known to al-KhaHl, or the 
sixteen of later Prosodists, instances of thirteen occur in the 
Mac. N. edition, but in vastly different proportions. The total 
number amounts to 1,385 pieces (some, however, repeated several 
times), out of which 1,128 belong to the first two circles, leaving 
only 257 for the remaining three. The same disproportionality 
VOL. x. T 

290 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

obtains with regard to the metres of each circle. The Mukhtalif 
is represented by 331 instances of Tawi'l and 330 of Basft against 
3 of Madfd ; the Mutalif by 321 instances of Kamil against 143 
of Wafir ; the Mujtalab by 32 instances of Ramal and 30 of Rajaz 
against i of Hazaj ; the Mushtabih by 72 instances of Khafif and 
52 of San" against 18 of Munsarih and 15 of Mujtass ; and lastly 
the Muttafik by 37 instances of Mutakarib. Neither the Muta- 
ddrak (E. 2), nor the Muzari' and Muktazib (D. 4. 5) are met., 

Finally it remains for me to quote a couplet of each metre, 
showing how to scan them, and what relation they bear to the 
theoretical formulas exhibited on p. 282 to p. 286. 

It is characteristic for the preponderance of the Tawfl over all 
the other metres, that the first four lines, with which my alpha- 
betical list begins, are written in it. One of these belongs to a 
poem which has for its author Bahd al-Dm Zuhayr (born A.D. 1 186 
at Mekkah or in its vicinity, ob. 1249 at Cairo), and is to be 
found in full in Professor Palmer's edition of his works, p. 164. 
Sir Richard Burton translates the first Bayt (vol. i. 290) : 

An I quit Cairo and her pleasances o Where can I hope to find so gladsome 
ways ? 

Professor Palmer renders it : 

Must I leave Egypt where such joys abound ? 
What place can ever charm me so again 

In Arabic it scans : 

v/~u|u---|w-w|w - w~| 

A-arhalu 'an Misrin wa tfbi na'fmihi * 

Fa-ayyu makanin ba'dahd li-ya shdiku. 

1 In pause that is at the end of a line, a short vowel counts either as long or is 
dropped, according to the exigencies of the metre. In the Hashw the u or i of the pro- 
nominal affix for the third person sing. masc. , and the final u of the enlarged pronominal 
plural forms, humu and kumu may be either short or long, according to the same 
exigencies. The end-vowel of the pronoun of the first person ana", I, is generally read 
short, although it is written with Alif. 

Terminal Essay. 29! 

In referring to iii. A. I. p. 282, it will be seen that in the Hashw 
Fa'ulun (<---) has become Fa'ulu ( <- - u ) by a Zuhaf called 
Kabz (suppression of the fifth letter of a foot if it is quiescent), 
and that in the 'Ariiz and Zarb Mafa'ilun ( - --- ) has changed 
into Mafa'ilun ( u - u - ) by the same Zuhaf acting as 'Illah. 
The latter alteration shows the couplet to be of the second Zarb 
of the first 'Aruz of the Tawi'l. If the second line did terminate 
m Mafa'ilun, as in the original scheme, it would be the first Zarb of 
the same 'Aruz ; if it did end in Fa'ulun ( w - - ) or Mafa'il ( ^ - - ) 
it would represent the third or fourth subdivision of this first class 
respectively. The Taw/1 has one other 'Aruz, Fa'ulun, with a 
twofold Zarb, either Fa'ulun also, or Mafa'ilun. 

The first instance of the Basi't occurring in The Nights are thej 
lines translated vol. i. p. 25 : 

'Containeth Time a twain of days, this of blessing, that of bane o 
And holdeth Life a twain of halves, this of pleasure, that of pain. 

In Arabic (Mac. N. i. 1 1) : 

Al-Dahru yauma*ni za" amnun wa z hazaru 

--u-|-w-|- - v*-|uw-j 
Wa VAyshu shatrani z safwun wa zd kadaru. 

Turning back to p. 283, where the A'an'z and Azrub of the Basft 
are shown, the student will have no difficulty to recognise the, 
Bayt as one belonging to the first Zarb of the first 'Aruz. 

As an example of the Madfd we quote the original of the lines 
(vol. v. 131) : 

I had a heart, and with it lived my life 'Twas seared with fire and burnt withj 

They read in Arabic : 

u - u vs u 

Ka"na If kalbun a'fshu bihi 

Fa'ktawk bi'1-ndri wa'htarak. 
If we compare this with the formula (iii. A. 2 p, 283), we find that 

A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

either line of the couplet is shortened by a foot ; it is, therefore, 
majzu. The first 'Ariiz of this abbreviated metre is Fd'ilatun 
( -u-- ), and is called sahfhah (perfect) because it consists of 
the normal third foot. In the second 'Aruz Fd'ilatun loses its 
end syllable tun by the 'Illah Hafz (suppression of a final Sabab 
khafff), and becomes Fa'ila ( - w - ), for which Fd'ilun is sub- 
stituted. Shortening the first syllable of Fd'ilun, i.e. eliminating 
4 :he Alif by Khabn, we obtain the third 'Aruz Fa'ilun ( v u - ) 
as that of the present lines, which has two Azrub : Fa'ilun, like 
the 'Aruz, and Fa'lun ( - - ), here, again by Khabn, further 
reduced to Fa'al ( w - ). 

Ishak of Mosul, who improvises the piece, calls it " so difficult 
and so rare, that it went nigh to deaden the quick and to quicken 
the dead ; " indeed, the native poets consider the metre Mad/d as 
the most difficult of all, and it is scarcely ever attempted by later 
writers. This accounts for its rare occurrence in The Nights, 
where only two more instances are to be found, Mac. N. ii. 244 
and iii. 404. 

The second and third circle will best be spoken of together, as 
the Wafir and Kamil have a natural affinity to the Hazaj and 
Rajaz. Let us revert to the line : 

" | w I ^ - - I 

Akamti '1-wajda f f kalbi wa saru. 

Translated, as it were, into the language of the Prosodists it will 


Mafc'flun 1 'Mafc'flun Fa'ulun, 

and this, standing by itself, might prima facie be taken for a line 
of the Hazaj (iii. C. i), with the third Mafd'flun shortened by 
Hafz (see above) into Mafd'i for which Fa'ulun would be sub- 

1 On p. 275 the word akdmu, as read by itself, was identified with the foot Fa'ulun. 
Here k must be read together with the following syllable as "akamulwaj," which is 

Terminal Essay. 293 

stituted. We have seen (p. 287) that and how the foot Mufd'alatun 
can change into Mafd'i'lun, and if in any poem which otherwise 
would belong to the metre Hazaj, the former measure appears 
even in one foot only along with the latter, it is considered to be 
the original measure, and the poem counts no longer as Hazaj 
but as Wdfir. In the piece now under consideration, it is the 
second Bayt where the characteristic foot of the Wdfir first 
appears : 

Naat 'annfl-rubu'u wa sdkmfhd 
Wa kad ba'uda '1-mazaiu fa-Id mazaru. 

Anglice (vol. iii. 296) : 

Far lies the camp and those who camp therein ; o Far is her tent-shrine where 
I ne'er shall tent. 

It must, however, be remarked that the Hazaj is not in use as a 
hexameter, but only with an 'Aruz majzuah or shortened by one 
foot. Hence it is only in the second 'Aruz of the Wdfir, which is 
likewise majzuah, that the ambiguity as to the real nature of the 
metre can arise 1 ; and the isolated couplet : 

w | u | ^ - - | 

Yarfdu '1-mar-u an yu'ta munahu 

o | u |* - - | 

Wa yaba 'llahu ilia md yurfdu 

Man wills his wish to him accorded be, But Allah naught accords save 
what he wills (vol. iv. 157), 

being hexametrical, forms undoubtedly part of a poem in Wdfir 
although it does not contain the foot Mufa'alatun at all. Thus 

1 Prof. Palmer, p. 328 of his Grammar, identifies this form of the Wafir, when every 
Mufa'alatun of the Hashw has become Mafd'ilun, with the second form of the Rajaz. 
It should be Hazaj. Professor Palmer was misled, it seems, by an evident misprint in 
one of his authorities, the Muhit al-Dairah by Dr. Van Dayk, p. 52. 

294 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

'the solitary instance of Hazaj in The Nights is Abu NuwaV 
abomination, beginning with : 

Fa-Id tas'au ilk ghayri 
---- |w---| 

Fa-'indi ma'dinu '1-khayri (Mac. N. ii. 377). 

Steer ye your steps to none but me o Who have a mine of luxury (vol. v. 65). 

If in the second ' Aruz of the Wafir Mafailun ( u --- ) is further 
shortened to Mafa'ilun ( u - u - ), the metre resembles the second 
'Aruz of Rajaz, where, as we have seen, the latter foot can, by 
license, take the place of the normal MustaPilun ( - - o - ). 

The Kclmil bears a similar relation to the Rajaz, as the Wafir 
bears to the Hazaj. By way of illustration we quote from 
Mac. N. ii. 8 the first two Bayts of a little poem taken from the 
23rd Assembly of Al-Hariri : 

Yd khdtiba '1-dunyd '1-daniyyati innahd 

Sharaku '1-radk wa kardratu '1-akddri 

Ddrun mata md azhakat ff yaumihd 

---- i__ u _i___l 

Abkat ghadan buMan lahd min ddri. 
In Sir Richard Burton's translation (vol. iii. 319) : 

O thou who woo'st a World unworthy, learn o 'Tis house of evils, 'tis 

Perdition's net : 
A house where whoso laughs this day shall weep o The next ; then perish 

house of fume and fret. 

The 'Aruz of the first couplet is Mutafd'ilun, assigning the piece 
to the first or perfect (sahihah) class of the Kdmil. In the Hashw 
of the opening line and in that of the whole second Bayt this 
normal Mutafa'ilun has, by license, become Mustaf'iiun, and the 
same change has taken place in the 'Aruz of the second couplet ; 
for it is a peculiarity which this metre shares with a few others, to 

Terminal Essay. 295 

allow certain alterations of the kind Zuhaf in the 'Aniz and Zarb 
as well as in the Hashw. This class has three subdivisions : the 
Zarb of the first is Mutafa'ilun, like the 'Ariiz ; the Zarb of the 
second is Fa'alatun ( u u - - ), a substitution for Mutafa'il which 
latter is obtained from Mutafa'ilun by suppressing the final n and 
rendering the / quiescent ; the Zarb of the third is Fa'lun ( - - ) 
for Mutfa, derived from Mutafa'ilun by cutting off the Watad 'ilun 
and dropping the medial a of the remaining Mutafa. 

If we make the 'Ayn of the second Zarb Fa'alatun also quies- 
cent by the permitted Zuhaf Izmar, it changes into Fa'latun, by 

substitution Mafulun ( ) which terminates the rhyming lines 

of the foregoing quotation. Consequently the two couplets taken 
together, belong to the second Zarb of the first 'Ariiz of the 
Kdmil, and the metre of the poem with its licenses may be re- 
presented by the scheme : 

o o \J 

Taken isolated, on the other hand, the second Bayt might be 
of the metre Rajaz, whose first 'Aruz Mustaf ilun has two Azrub : 
one equal to the Aruz, the other Maf ulun as above, but here 
substituted for Mustafil after applying the 'Illah Kat' (see p. 
288) to Mustaf ilun. If this were the metre of the poem through- 
out, the scheme with the licenses peculiar to the Rajaz would 

U \J 


The pith of Al-Hariri's Assembly is that the knight errant, 
not to say the arrant wight of the Romance, Abu Sayd of Sariij, 
accuses before the Wali of Baghdad his pretended pupil, in reality 
his son, to have appropriated a poem of his by lopping off two 

296 A If Laylah wa Lay I ah. 

feet of every Bayt. If this is done in the quoted lines, they 

read : 

--u-l | 

Yd khdtiba '1-dunyd '1-daniy- 


Yati innaha sharaku '1-rada 

- - v, -I- - v - | 
Ddrun matJt md azhakat 


Ff yaumihd abkat ghada", 

with a different rhyme and of a different variation of metre. 
The amputated piece belongs to the fourth Zarb of the third 
'Aruz of Kdmil, and its second couplet tallies with the second sub- 
division of the second class of Rajaz. 

The Rajaz, a iambic metre pure and simple, is the most popular, 
because the easiest, in which even the Prophet was caught napping 
sometimes, at the dangerous risk of following the perilous leader- 
ship of Imru '1-Kays. It is the metre of improvisation, of ditties, 
and of numerous didactic poems. In the latter case, when the 
composition is called Urjuzah, the two lines of every Bayt rhyme, 
and each Bayt has a rhyme of its own. This is the form in which 
for instance, Ibn Malik's Alffyah is written, as well as the remark- 
able grammatical work of the modern native scholar, Nasi'f al- 
Yazijf, of which a notice will be found in Chenery's Introduction 
to his Translation of Al-Hariri. 

While the Hazaj and Rajaz connect the third circle with the 
first and second, the Ramal forms the link between the third and 
fourth Ddirah. Its measure Fd'ildtun (. * - -) and the reversal 

of it, Mafulatu ( ^), affect the trochaic rhythm, as opposed 

to the iambic of the two first-named metres. The iambic move- 
ment has a ring of gladness about it, the trochaic a wail of sad- 
ness : the former resembles a nimble pedestrian, striding apace 
with an elastic step and a cheerful heart ; the latter is like a man 
toiling along on the desert path, where his foot is ever and anon 

Terminal Essay. 297 

sliding back in the burning sand (Raml, whence probably the 
name of the metre). Both combined in regular alternation, im- 
part an agitated character to the verse, admirably fit to express 
the conflicting emotions of a passion-stirred mind. 

Examples of these more or less plaintive and pathetic metres 
are numerous in the Tale of Uns al-Wujud and the Wazir's 
Daughter, which, being throughout a story of love, as has been 
noted, vol. v. 33, abounds in verse, and, in particular, contains 
ten out of the thirty-two instances of Ramal occurring in The 
Nights. We quote : 

Ramal, first Zarb of the first 'Aruz (Mac. N. ii. 361) : 

- w - - | v> u - ~ J w | 

Inna li '1-bulbuli sautan ff '1-sahar 

Ashghala 'l-'a'shika 'an husni '1-watar 

The Bulbul's note, whenas dawn is nigh * Tells the lover from strains of strings 
to fly (vol. v. 48). 

San", second Zarb of the first 'Aruz (Mac. N. ii. 359) : 


Wa fakhitin kad kdla ff nauhihi 
_. w -|-- u -|- w -| 

Yd Ddiman shukran 'ala balwatf 

I heard a ringdove chanting soft and plaintively, o " I thank Thee, O Eternal, 
for this misery " (vol. v. 47). 

Khafif, full or perfect form (sahih), both in Zarb and 'Aruz (Mac. 

N. ii. 356) : 

- o - -|w-v-|*w--| 
Y* li-man ashtakf '1-ghardma 'llazf bi 

Wa shujuni wa furkatf 'an habfbf 

O to whom now of my desire complaining sore shall I o Bewail my parting 
from my fere compelled thus to fly (vol. v. 44). 

Mujtass, the only 'Aruz (majzuah sahfhah, i.e. shortened by one 
foot and perfect) with equal Zarb (Mac. N. ii. 367) : 

298 A If Laylah wa Lay la h. 

Ruddu 'alayya habfbf 

1 1 

La hajatan If bi-malin 
To me restore my dear o I want not wealth untold (vol. v. 55). 

As an instance of the Munsarih, I give the second occurring 
in The Nights, because it affords me an opportunity to show the 
student how useful a knowledge of the laws of Prosody frequently 
proves for ascertaining the correct reading of a text. Mac. N. i. 
33 we find the line : 


Arba'atun md 'jtama'at kattu iz. 

This would be Rajaz with the license Mufta'ilun for Mustaf'ilun. 
But the following lines of the fragment evince, that the metre is 
Munsarih ; hence, a clerical error must lurk somewhere in the second, 
foot. In fact, on page 833 of the same volume, we find the 
piece repeated, and here the first couplet reads 


Arba'atun md 'jtama'na kattu siwa 
Ala azd mujhati wa safki dam! 

Four things which ne'er conjoin unless it be o To storm my vitals and to shed 
my blood (vol. iii. 237). 

The Mutakdrib, the last of the metres employed in The Nights, 
has gained a truly historical importance by the part which it plays 
in Persian literature. In the form of trimetrical double-lines, with 
a several rhyme for each couplet, it has become the " Nibelungen-" 
stanza of the Persian epos : Firdausf's immortal " Book of Kings " 
and Nizdmi's Iskander-namah are written in it, not to mention a 
host of Masnawis in which Sufic mysticism combats Mohammedan 
orthodoxy. On account of its warlike and heroical character, 
therefore, I choose for an example the knightly Jamrakdn's chal- 
lenge to the single fight in which he conquers his scarcely less 
valiant adversary Kaurajan, Mac. N. iii. 296 : 

Terminal Essay. 299 

V - - j w %r | v * - | v - - | 

And 'l-Jamraka"nu kawiyyn '1-jandni 
Jamfu 'l-fawdrisi takhsha kitaU 

Here the third syllable of the second foot in each line is short- 
ened by license, and the final Kasrah of the first line, standing in 
pause, is long, the metre being the full form of the Mutakdrib 
as exhibited p. 286, iii. E. i. If we suppress the Kasrah of 
al-Janani, which is also allowable in pause, and make the second 
line to rhyme with the first, saying, for instance : 

u - - | w - w [ v/ - - | u - 

And 'l-Jamrakdnu kawiyyu '1-jandn 
u - J w - - | w - - j u - 

La-yakshk kitli shijd'u 'l-zamdn, 

we obtain the powerful and melodious metre in which the Shih- 
namah sings of Rustam's lofty deeds, of the tender love of Riida- 
bah and the tragic downfall of Siyawush. 

Shall I confess that in writing the foregoing pages it has been 
my ambition to become a conqueror, in a modest way, myself: to 
conquer, I mean, the prejudice frequently entertained, and shared 
even by my accomplished countryman, Ruckert, that Arabic Pro- 
sody is a clumsy and repulsive doctrine. I have tried to show 
that it springs naturally from the character of the language, and, 
intimately connected, as it is, with the grammatical system of the 
Arabs, it appears to me quite worthy of the acumen of a people, 
to whom, amongst other things, we owe the invention of Algebra, 
the stepping-stone of our whole modern system of Mathematics. 
I cannot refrain, therefore, from concluding with a little anecdote 
anent al-Khalil, which Ibn Khallikan tells in the following words. 
His son went one day into the room where his father was, and on 
finding him scanning a piece of poetry by the rules of prosody, 
he ran out and told the people that his father had lost his wits. 

3OO A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

They went in immediately and related to al-Khalfl what they had 
heard, on which he addressed his son in these terms : 

" Had you known what I was saying, you would have excused 
me, and had you known what you said, I should have blamed you. 
But you did not understand me, so you blamed me, and I knew 
that you were ignorant, so I pardoned you." 

HERE end, to my sorrow, the labours of a quarter-century and 
here I must perforce say with the " poets' Poet," 

" Behold ! I see the haven nigh at hand, 
To which I mean my wearie course to bend ; 
Vere the main shete, and bear up with the land 
The which afore is fairly to be ken'd." 

Nothing of importance now indeed remains for me but briefly 
to estimate the character of my work and to take cordial leave of 
my readers, thanking them for the interest they have accorded to 
these volumes and for enabling me thus successfully to complete 
the decade. 

Without pudor malus or over-diffidence I would claim to have 
fulfilled the promise contained in my Foreword. The anthropo- 
logical notes and notelets, which not only illustrate and read 
between the lines of the text, but assist the student of Moslem 
life and of Arabo-Egyptian manners, customs and language in 
a multitude of matters shunned by books, form a repertory of 
Eastern knowledge in its esoteric phase, sexual as well as 

To assert that such lore is unnecessary is to state, as every 

Terminal Essay. 301 

traveller knows, an " absurdum." Few phenomena are more 
startling than the vision of a venerable infant, who has lived 
half his long life in the midst of the wildest anthropological 
vagaries and monstrosities, and yet who absolutely ignores all 
that India or Burmah enacts under his very eyes. This is crass 
ignorance, not the naive innocence of Saint Francis who, seeing 
a man and a maid in a dark corner, raised his hands to Heaven 
and thanked the Lord that there was still in the world so much 
of Christian Charity. 

Against such lack of knowledge my notes are a protest ; and 
I may claim success despite the difficulty of the task. A traveller 
familiar with Syria and Palestine, Herr Landberg, writes, " La 
plume refuserait son service, la langue serait insuffisante, si celui 
qui connait la vie de tous les jours des Orientaux, surtout des 
classes e'leve'es, voulait la devoiler. L'Europe est bien loin d'en 
avoir la moindre ide*e." 

In this matter I have done my best, at a time too when the 
hapless English traveller is expected to write like a young lady 
for young ladies, and never to notice what underlies the most 
superficial stratum. And I also maintain that the free treatment 
of topics usually taboo'd and held to be "alekta" unknown 
and unfitted for publicity will be a national benefit to an 
." Empire of Opinion," whose very basis and buttresses are a 
thorough knowledge by the rulers of the ruled. Men have been 
crowned with gold in the Capitol for lesser services rendered to 
the Respublica. 

That the work contains errors, shortcomings and many a lapsus, 
I am the first and foremost to declare. Yet in justice to myself 
I must also notice that the maculae are few and far between ; even 
the most unfriendly and interested critics have failed to point 
out an abnormal number of slips. And before pronouncing the 
" Vos plaudite ! " or, as Easterns more politely say, " I implore 
that my poor name may be raised aloft on the tongue of praise, 

3O2 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

let me invoke the fair field and courteous favour which the 
Persian poet expected from his readers. 

^ ^Iksc J Jj^ 

(Veil it, an fault thou find, nor jibe nor jeer : 
None may be found of faults and failings clear t) 


ATHEN/EUM CLUB, September 30* '86. 


ABD ALLAH ibn al-Mu'tazz (poet- 
prince) . . . 39 
Abdun (convent of) . . . 40 
Abu al-Sa'adat (Pr. N.) = Father of 

Prosperities .... 29 

Abu Mijan (song of) ... 41 

Abu Tabak =i Father of whipping . 5 

'Adillyah (Mosque in Cairo) . . 6 

Aesop (the fable -writer) . . . 117 

'Ajaib al-Hind = Marvels of Ind . 153 

A'laj = sturdy miscreants . . 38 
Allah (will make things easy = will 

send us aid) .... 2 
(give thee quittance of respon- 
sibility) II 

(will send thee thy daily bread) 13 
Alnashar (story of) . . . .146 

'Amir = one who inhabiteth, haunter 6 
'Amm = uncle (polite address to a 

father-in-law) .... 32 
Anasa-kum = ye are honoured by 

knowing him . . . n 

Arabs (for plundering nomades) . 25 

Arianism and early Christianity . 190 

Arms and Armour .... 86 

Artists in cosmetics .... 234 

'Asakir = corner-terminals of a litter 32 

Asal Kasab = cane -honey . . 3 

Katr = drip-honey ... 2 

Ash'ab (proverbial for greed) . . 15 

Astarte (primarely the planet Venus ?) 229 

'Attdr = perfume-seller, druggist . 8 
*Aysh = that on which man lives 

(for bread) 3 


BAB (A1-) al- 'Ali = Sublime Porte . 5 

Bab al-Nasr = Gate of Victory . 6 

Barmakis (history of the family) . rtf 

Battal (A1-), story of . 74 

Bazar (locked at night) . . 13 
Betrothed (for "intended to be 

married with regal ceremony ") . 55 
Boccaccio and The Nights . . 160 
Book (black as her) ... 1 
Boulgrin, Bougre, Bougrerie (deriva- 
tions of the terms) . . 249 
Bresl. Edit, quoted . . 54. seqq,. 

(mean colloquialism thereof) . 169 

Brides of the Treasure ... 3! 
Burckhardt quoted . . . .144 








CAIRENE jargon .... 

(savoir faire) . . . 


(knows his fellow-Cairene) 

Calamity (i.e. to th.e enemy) . 

Cannibalism in the New World 

Caravaggio (picture of St. Rosario) . 

Castration (texts justifying or enjoin- 
ing it) 227 

Character-sketch (making amends for 
abuse of women) ... 24 

Cask (for "home" of the maiden 
wine) 38 

Children (one of its = a native of) . 8 

Clairvoyance of perfect affection . 26 

Coffee (mention of) . . . .90 

Coquetries (requiring as much inven- 
tiveness as a cotillon) ... 58 


A If Lay la h wa Laylah. 

Cruelty (of the " fair sex " in Egypt) 45 

Cry (that needs must be cried). . 21 
Curs (set them on the cattle = show 

a miser money, etc.) . . . 18 

DARB AL-AHMAR = Red Street (in 

Cairo) 8 

Death (simply and pathetically 

sketched) 47 

Drama (in Turkey and Persia) . .167 

Dramatic scene (told with charming 

naivete") 9 

Dunya (Pr. N.) = the World . . 27 



ELEVATION (nothing strange in 
sudden) ..... 

Ephesus (the Matron of ) . 

Ernest (Duke of Bavaria, Romance 
of) 153 

Erotic specialists among the Ancients 201 

Euphemism . . . 4 2 7 

FARf D = unique ; union-pearl. . 54 
Faturat = light food for early break- 
fast 12 

Fox and jackal (confounded by the 

Arabic dialects) . . . .123 

GALLAND, ANTOINE (memoir of) 96, seqq. 
Garden (the Perfumed of the Cheykh 

Nefzaoui 133 

Gazelle's blood red (dark red dye) . 12 
German Translations of The Nights 

112, seqq. 
Ghulamiyah = girl dressed as a boy 

to act cup-bearer 39 

Ghurrah = white blaze on a horse's 

brow 4 

Giants (marrying in Peru, probably 

the Caribs of the Brazil) . . 243 
Glossarium eroticum . . .221 
Gnostic absurdities .... 191 
Gold (liquid = Vino d'Oro) . . 40 

Grelots lascifs 238 

Gypsies (their first appearance in 

Europe) 89 

HANDKERCHIEF of dismissal . . 47 
Hariri (lines quoted from) . . 44 
Harim al-Rashid and Charlemagne . 135 

Hazar Afsanah . . 72, seqq ; 93 

Hippie Syphilis .... 90 
Hetairesis and Sodatism (the heresies 

of love) 215 

Hizamzzrbelt (not Khizamrr nose- 
ring) 36 

'IDDAH (A1-) = period of widowhood 43 

Ikhtfyan al-Khutan = Khaitan (?) . 9 

Iram (the many-columned) . . 29 

Irishman (and his "converter") . 3 
Ishtar-Astaroth ( her worship not 

obsolete in Syria) . . . 230 
Iskander = Alexander (according to 

the Arabs) 57 

Italian Translations of The Nights . 1 14 

J A' AFAR the Barmacide (his suspected 

heresy) 141 

Jackal's gall (used aphrodisiacally) . 123 

Jadid = new (coin), chopper . . 12 

Jauza = Gemini .... 38 
Jazfrat ibn Omar (islarjtd and town -on 

the Tigris) 40 

Jink (A1-) = effeminates. . . 19 

KAFR = village (in Egypt and Syria) 27 

Kakili Sumatran (eagle-wood) . 57 

Kalandars (order of) ... 84 

Kammir (Imper) = brown (the* bread) 14 

Katha Sarit Sagara . . .160, seqq. 

Kathir r= much, "no end" . . 10 

Kitab al-Fihrist (and its author) . 71 

Kohl'd with Ghunj languor-kohl'd 40 

Koran quoted (Ixxxix) ... 29 
Koran (first English Translation 

owing to France) . . . 100 

Kunafah = Vermicelli-cake . . I 

Kutubal-Bah = Books of Lust. . 201 

ing plague) . . . *I4 

Lane quoted, I; II, 12; 19; 34, 

36; So; 52; 535 70 "5 

Languages (study of should be as- 
sisted by ear and tongue) . . 96 

Lentils (cheapest and poorest food in 

Egypt) 3 

Lesbianism ..... 209 

Libraries (much appreciated by the 

Arabs) 175 



Lion (as Sultan of the beasts jealous 

of a man's power) ... 34 

Lokman (three of the name) . .118 

Love (cruelty of) . . .26 

Lying (until one's self believes the 

lie to be truth) ... .14 

MA'ARrjp = kindness, favour . . i 

Mac Naghten's Edition . 81 
Malakay bayti '1-rahah = slabs of 

the jakes 51 

" Making men" (and women) . 199 
Marocco (tenanted by three Moslem 

races) . . . . . 222 
Mashallah =: the English "cock's 

'ill " with a difference . . 52 
Mashhad = head-and-foot stone of 

a grave 53 

Merchant (worth a thousand) . . 8 
Metrical portion of The Nights(three- 

fold distribution of) . . -67 
Mohammed (before and after the 

Hijtah) 196 

Morbi venerei .... 88 
Moslem resignation (noble instance 

of) 42 

Mudarris = professor ... 8 

Mummery " Mahornmerie" . 178 

Munkar and Nakir . . 47 

Mustahakk = deserving ... 52 

NXnf KA = let it suffice thee . . 22 

Naka = sand-hill .... 27 
Narcissus and Hippolytus (assumed 

as types of morosa voluptas) . 215 

OLEMA (time-serving ones) . . 44 
Onanisms (discouraged by circum- 
cision) 233 

PAIN (resembling the drawing of a 

tooth) 21 

Palaces in ruins (for want of repair) . 61 

Palgrave and Al- Islam . . . 189 

Parisian MS. of The Nights . 104 

Payne quoted 40 ; 50 ; 52 ; 74 j 104 ; 140 ; 
142; 167. 

VOL. X. 

Peche philosophique (The, in France) 249 
Pederasts (list of famous) * 252 
Pehlevi version of the Panchatantra . 120 
Penis (and its succedanea) . . 239 
Plato (his theory of love) . . 209 

Play "near and far " = " fast and 

loose" . . . . .22 
Powders (coloured in sign of holiday- 
making) 56 

Pre- Adamite doctrine . . .179 
Poets (four whose works contraried 

their character) .... 253 
Prolixity (heightening the effect of 

the tale) .... 50 

Pun (on a name) . . n, 27 

Pyramids (verses on the) . .150 

RAwf = story-teller (also used for 

reciter of Traditions) . . 163 
Resignation (noble instance of) . 42 
Rijal = Hallows . . 14 
Roman superficiality (notable in- 
stance of) lib 

Rub' al-Kharab (probably for thegreat 
Arabian Desert) ... 42 

SABIHAT AL-'URS =gift on the 

wedding-morning . . .18 
Sacy, Sylvestre de (on the origin of 

The Nights) .... 76 
Sappho (the "Masculine") . . 208 
Sawad= blackness of the hair . 60 
Schools (attached to Mosques) . . 174 
Shamtarzthe grizzled (name for wine) 38 
Shaykh al-Islam (his mention sign of 

modern composition) ... 19 
Signals of Debauchees . . .219 
Sijn al-Ghazabnr Prison of Wrath . 45 
Simurgh (guardian of the Persian 

mysteries) . . . . .130 
Sisters (their abiding together after 

marriage frequently insisted upon) 56 
Socrates (' sanctus paederasta ") 213 segq. 
Sodatic zone .... 206, segq. 
Sodomy (abnormally developed 

amongst the savages of the New 

World) 240 

Story-teller (picture of the) , .164 
Sufyism (rise of ) . . .128 


Alf.Laylah wa Laylah. 

Sun (likened to a bride displaying 

hf charms to man) ... 38 
Syphilis (origin of) . . .89 
(hippie) . 90 

TASAWWUF (rise of) . .128 
Taysh = vertigo, giddiness . . 9 
Time-measurers (of very ancient dale) 85 
Tobacco (mention of) . . . 91 
Touch of nature (making all the 

world kin) 24 

Trbutien quoted . 9 ; 54 ; 69 ; 80 ; 98 

VMM AL-RAAS = crown of the head 44 

Umm Kulsum (one of the Amsal of 

the Arabs for debauchery) . . 194 

'Urrah = dung .... I 

VISVAKARM A = the Anti-creator . 131 

WHOSO praiseth and then blameth 

lieth twice 15 

Woman, women (treated leniently in 

a Kazi's court) 4 

Womankind (their status in Al-Islam) 195 


of the chin-veils twain " .20 

Yellow-girl (for light-coloured wine) 39 

ZARABIN = slaves' shoes , . f 


308 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 


I MAKE no apology for the number and extent of bibliographical 
and other lists given in this Appendix : they may cumber the 
book but they are necessary to complete my design. This has 
been to supply throughout the ten volumes the young Arabist 
and student of Orientalism and Anthropology with such assistance 
as I can render him ; and it is my conviction that if with the 
aid of this version he will master the original text of the 
" Thousand Nights and a Night," he will find himself at home 
amongst educated men in Egypt and Syria, Najd and Mesopo- 
tamia and be able to converse with them like a gentleman ; not, as 
too often happens in Anglo-India, like a " Ghorawala " (groom). 
With this object he will learn by heart what instinct and inclina- 
tion suggest of the proverbs and instances, the verses, the jeux 
d'esprit and especially the Koranic citations scattered about the 
text ; and my indices will enable him to hunt up the tale or the 
verses which he may require for quotation even when writing an 
ordinary letter to a " native " correspondent. Thus he will be 
spared the wasted labour of wading through volumes in order to 
pick up a line. 

The following is the list of Indices : 


I. Index to the Tales in the ten Volumes. 
II. Alphabetical Table of the Notes (Anthropological, etc.) prepared by 

F. Steingass, Ph.D. 
III. Alphabetical Table of First Lines (metrical portion) in English and 

Arabic, prepared by Dr. Steingass. 
IV. Tables of Contents of the various Arabic texts. 

A. The Unfinished Calcutta Edition (1814-18). 

B. The Breslau Text (1825-43) from Mr. Payne's Version. 

C. The Macnaghten or Turner-Macan Text (A.D. 1839-42), and the 

Bulak Edition (A.H. 1251 = A.D. 1835-36), from Mr. Payne's 

D. The same with Mr. Lane's and my Version. 


Contributions to the Bibliography of the Thousand and One Nights, and 
their Imitations, with a Table shewing the contents of the principal editions 
and translations of the Nights. By W. F. Kirby, Author of " Ed-Dimiryaht, 
an Oriental Romance;" "The New Arabian Nights," &c. 


Sppentrir J. 


N.B. The Roman numerals denote the volume^ the Arabic the 

Abdullah the Fisherman and Abdullah the Merman, ix. 165. 

Do. bin Fazl and his brothers, ix. 304. 

Do. bin Ma'amar with the Man of Bassorah and his slave-girl, v. 69. 
Abd al-Rahman the Moor's story of the Rukh, v. 122. 
Abu Hasan al-Ziyadi and the Khorasan Man, iv. 285. 
Abu Hasan, how he brake Wind, v. 135. 
Abu Isa and Kurrat al-Ayn, The Loves of, v. 145. 
Abu Ja'afar the Leper, Abu al-Hasan al-Durraj and, v. 294. 
Abu Kir the Dyer and Abu Sir the Barber, ix. 134. 
Abu al-Aswad and his squinting slave-girl, v. 80. 
Abu al-Husn and his slave-girl Tawaddud, v. 189. 
Abu al-Hasan al-Durraj and Abu Ja'afar the Leper, v. 294. 
Abu al-Hasan of Khorasan, ix. 229. 
Abu Mohammed hight Lazybones, iv. 162. 
Abu Nowas, Harun al-Rashid with the damsel and, iv. 261, 
Abu Nowas and the Three Boys, v. 64. 
Abu Sir the Barber, Abu Kir the Dyer and, ix. 134. 
Abu Suwayd and the handsome old woman, v. 163. 

Abu Yusuf with Harun al-Rashid and his Wazir Ja'afar, The Imam, fe.lg 
Abu Yusuf with Al-Rashid and Zubaydah, The Imam, iv. 153. 
Adam, The Birds and Beasts and the Son of, iii. 114. 
Adi bin Zayd and the Princess Hind,v. 124. 
Ajib, The History of Gharib and his brother, vi. 257. 
Ala al-Din Abu al-Shamat, iv. 29. 

Alexandria (The Sharper of) and the Master of Police, iv. 269. 
AH bin Bakkar and Shams al-Nahar, iii. 162. 
AH of Cairo, The Adventures of Mercury, vii. 172. 

3IO Alf Lay I ah wa Lay la ft. 

Ali Nur al-Din and Miriam the Girdle-Girl, viii. 264. 
Ali the Persian and the Kurd Sharper, iv. 149. 
Ali Shar and Zumurrud, iv. 187. 
Ali bin Tahir and the girl Muunis, v. 164. 

Al-Malik al-Nasir (Saladin) and the Three Chiefs of Police, iv. 271. 
Almsgiving, The Woman whose hands were cut off for, iv. 281. 
Amin (A1-) and his uncle Ibrahim binal-Mahdi, v. 152. 
Anushirwan, Kisra ; and the village damsel, v. 87. 
Anushirwan, The Righteousness of King, v. 254. 
Angel of Death and the King of the Children of Israel, The, v. 250. 
Do. with the Proud King and the Devout Man, The, v. 246., 

Do. and the Rich King, The, v. 248. 

Anis al-Jalis, Nur al-Din Ali and the damsel, ii. i. 
Ape, The King's daughter and the, iv. 297. 
Apples, The Three, i. 186. 
Arab Girl, Harun al-Rashid and the, vii. 108. 
Arab Youth, The Caliph Hisham and the, iv. 101. 
Ardashir and Hayat al-Nufus, vii. 209. 
Asma'i (A1-) and the three girls of Bassorah, vii. I i<x 
Ass, The Ox and the, i. 16. 
Ass, The Wild, The Fox and, ix. 48. 
Ayishah, Musab bin al-Zubayr and his wife, v. 79. 
Aziz and Azizah, Tale of, ii. 298. 
Azizah, Aziz and, ii. 298. 

Badawi, Ja'afar the Barmecide and the old, v. 98. 
Do. , Omar bin al-Khattab and the young, v. 99. 
Do. , and his Wife, The, vii. 124. 
Badi'a al-Jamal, Sayf al-Muluk and, vii. 314. 

Badr Basim of Persia, Julnar the Sea-born, and her Son King, vii. 264.! 
Badr al-Din Hasan, Nur al-Din Ali of Cairo and his son, i. 195, 
Baghdad, The Haunted House in, v. 166. 
Do. , Khalifah the Fisherman of, viii. 145. 
Do. , The Porter and the Three Ladies of, i. 82. 
Do. , (The ruined man of) and his slave-girl, ix. 24. 
Do, , The Sweep and the noble Lady of, iv. 125. 
Bakun's Story of the Hashish-Eater, iii. 91. 
Banu Tayy, The Lovers of the, v. 137. 
Banu Ozrah, The Lovers of the, v. 70. 
Barber's Tale of himself, The, i. 317. 
Barber's First Brother, Story of the, i. 319. 
Barber's Second Brother, Story of the, i. 324. 
.Barber's Third Brother, Story of the, i. 328. 
Barber's Fourth Brother, Story of the, i. 331. 
Barber's Fifth Brother, Story of the, i. 335. 

Appendix. 3 11 ' 

Barber's Sixth Brother, Story of the, i. 343. 
Barber, Abu Kir the Dyer and Abu Sir the, ix. 134. 
Barber- Surgeon, Ibrahim bin al-Mahdi and the, iv. 103. 
Barmecide, Ja'afar the, and the old Badawi, v. 98. 

Bassorah (the man of) and his slave-girl, Abdullah bin Ma'amar with, v, 69. 
Do. , Al-Asma'i and the three girls of, vii. no. 
Do. , (Hasan of) and the King's daughter of the Jinn, viii. 7. 
Do , The Lovers of, vii. 130. 
Bath, Harun al-Rashid and Zubaydah in the, v. 75. 
Bathkeeper's Wife, The Wazir's Son and the, vi. 150. 
Beanseller, Ja'afar the Barmecide and the, iv. 159. 
Bear, Wardan the Butcher's adventure with the Lady and the, iv. 293. 
Beasts and the Son of Adam, The Birds and, iii. 16. 
Behram, Prince of Persia, and the Princess Al-Datma, vi. 184. 
Belvedere, The House with the, vi. 188. 
Birds and Beasts and the Carpenter, The, iii. 1 14. 
Birds, The Falcon and the, iii. 154. 

Birds (the Speech of), The page who feigned to know, vi. 169. 
Black Slave, The pious, v. 261. 

Blacksmith who could handle fire without hurt, The, v. 271. 
Blind Man and the Cripple, The, ix. 67. 
Boys, Abu Nowas and the Three, v. 64. 
Boy and Girl at School, The Loves of the, v. 73. 
Boy and the Thieves, The, ix. 95. 
Boy (The woman who had to lover a) and the other who had to lover a man, 

v. 165. 

Brass, The City of, vi. 83. 
Broker's Story, The Christian, i. 262, 
Budur and Jubayr bin Umayr, The Loves of, iv. 228. 
Budur, Kamar al-Zaman and, iii. 2 1 2. 
Bukhayt, Story of the Eunuch, ii. 49. 
Bulak Police, Story of the Chief of the, iv, 273. 
Bull and the Ass (Story of), i. 16. 
Bulukiya, Adventures of, v. 304. 

Butcher's adventure with the Lady and the Bear, Wardan the, iv. 293. 
Butter, The Fakir and his pot of, ix. 40. 
Cairo (New) Police, Story of the Chief of the, iv. 271. 

Do. (Old) Police, Story of the Chief of the, iv. 274. 

Do. , The Adventures of Mercury Ali of, vii. 172. 
Caliph Al-Ma'amun and the Strange Doctor, iv. 185. 
Caliph, The mock, iv. 130. 

Cashmere Singing-girl, The Goldsmith and the, vi. 1 56. 
Cat and the Crow, The, iii. 149. 

Do. and the Mouse, The, ix. 35. 

312 A If Laylah wa Lay I ah. 

Champion (The Moslem) and the Christian Lady, v. 277. 

Chaste Wife, The Lover's Trick against the, vi. 135. 

Christian Broker's Story, The, i. 262. 

City of Labtayt, The, vi. 83. 

Cloud (The saint to whom Allah gave" a) to serve him v. 274., 

Cobbler (Ma'aruf the) and his wife Fatimah, x. I. 

Confectioner, his Wife and the Parrot, The, vi. 132. 

Crab, The Fishes and the, ix. 34. 

Craft and Malice of Women, The, vi. 122. 

Cripple, The Blind Man and the, ix. 67. 

Crow, the Fox and the, iii. 150. 

Do. and the Serpent, The, ix. 46. 
Crow, The Cat and the, iii. 149. 
Crows and the Hawk, The, ix. 53. 
Dalilah the Crafty and her daughter Zaynab the Coney-catcher, The Rogueries 

of, vii. 144. 

Datma (The Princess A1-), Prince Behrarh of Persia and,vi. 184. 
Death (The Angel of) and the King of the Children of Israel, v. 250. * 

Do. do. with the Proud King and the Devout Man, v. 246. 

Do. do. and the Rich King, v. 248. 

Debauchee and the Three-year-old Child, The, vi. 208. 
Desert (The old woman who dwelt in the) and the pilgrim, v. 186. 
Device (The Wife's) to cheat her husband, vi. 152. 
Devil, Ibrahim of Mosul and the, vii. 113. 
Do. , Isaac and his mistress and the, vii. 136. 

Devout Israelite, The, iv. 283. 

Do. Tray-maker and his wife, The, v. 264. 

Do. Prince, The, v. in. 

Do. woman and the two wicked elders, The, v. 97. 
Dibil al-Khuzai and Muslim bin al-Walid, v. 127. * 
Dish of Gold, The man who stole the Dog's, iv. 265. 
Doctor (The strange) and the Caliph Al-Maamun, iv. 185. 
Dog's Dish of Gold, The man who stole the, iv. 265 . 
Dream, The ruined man who became rich through a, iv. 289. 
Drop of Honey; The, vi. 142. 
Duban, The Physician, i. 45. 
Dunya, Taj al-Muluk and the Princess, ii. 283. 
Durraj (Abu al-Hasan al-) and Abu Ja'afar the Leper, v. 294. 
Dust, The woman who made her husband sift, vi. 143. 
Dyer, Abu Sir the Barber and Abu Kir the, ix. 134. 
Eagle, The Sparrow and the, iii. 155. 
Ebony Horse, The, v. i. 

Egypt (The man of Upper) and his Frank wife, toe. 19, 
Elders, The Devout woman and the two wicked, v. 97. 


Eldest Lady's Story, The, i. 162. 
Enchanted Spring, The, vi. 145. 

Do. Youth, The, i. 69. 
Envied, The Envier and the, i. 123. 
Envier and the Envied, The, i. 123. 
Eunuch Bukhayt, Tale of the, ii. 49. 

Do. Kafur, Tale of the, ii. Si- 
Fakir and his jar of butter, The, ix. 40* 
Falcon and the Partridge, The, iii. 138. 
Falcon, King Sindibad and his, i. 50. 
Fatimah, Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his wife, x. I. 
Fath bin Khakan (Al) and Al-Mutawakkil, v. 153. 
Ferryman of the Nile and the Hermit, The, v. 288. 
First Old man's Story, i. 27. 
Fisherman, Abdullah the Merman and Abdullah the, ix. 165. 

Do. of Baghdad, Khali fah the, viii. 145. 

Do. , The Foolish, ix. 93. 

Do. and the Jinni, The, i. 38. 

Do. , Khusrau and Shirin and the, v. 91. 
Fishes and the Crab, The, ix. 43. 
Five Suitors, The Lady and her, vi. 172. 
Flea and the Mouse, The, iii. 151. 
Folk, The Fox and the, vi. 211. 
Forger, Yahya bin Khalid and the, iv. 1 8 1. 
Fox and the Crow, The, iii. 150. 
Fox and the Folk, The, vi. 211. 
Fox, The Wolf and the, iii. 132. 
Francolin and the Tortoises, The, ix. 113. 
Frank King's Daughter, AH Nur al-Din and the, viii. 264* 
Frank wife, The man of Upper Egypt and his, ix. 19. 
Fuller and his son, The, vi. 134. 
Generous friend, The poor man and his, iv. 288. 
Ghanim bin Ayyub the Thrall o' Love, ii. 45. 
Gharib and his brother Ajib, The History of, vi. 257. 
Girl, Harun al-Rashid and the Arab, vii. 108. 
Girl at School, The Loves of the Boy and, v. 73. 
Girls of Bassorah, Al-Asma'i and the three, vii. 1 10. 
Girls, Harun al-Rashid and the three, vi. 81. 
Do. do. , and the two, v. 81. 

Goldsmith and the Cashmere Singing-Girl, The, vi. 156, 
Goldsmith's wife, The water-carrie^ and the, v. 89. 
Hajjaj (Al-) Hind daughter of Al-Nu'uman and, vii. 96. 

Do. and the pious man, v. 269. 
Hakim (The Caliph A1-) and the Merchant, v. 86. 

314 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

Hammad the Badawi, Tale of, ii, 104. 

Hariri (A1-) Abu Zayd's lament for his impotency. Final Note to vol. viii. 

Harun al-Rashid and the Arab girl, vii. 108. 

Do. and the Slave-Girl and the Imam Abu Yusuf,'iv. 153. 

Do. with the Damsel and Abu Nowas, iv. 261. 

Do. and Abu Hasan the Merchant of Oman, ix. 188. 

Do. and the three girls, v. 81. 

Do. and the two girls, 81. 

Do. and the three poets, v. 77. 

Do. and Zubaydah in the Bath, v. 75. 

Hashish-Eater, Bakun's tale of the, ii. 91. 
Hasan of Bassorah and the King's daughter of the Jinn, viii. 7. 
Hasan, King Mohammed bin Sabaik and the Merchant, vii. 308. 
Hatim al-Tayyi : his generosity after death, iv. 94. 
Haunted House in Baghdad, The, v. 166. 
Hawk, The Crows and the, ix. 53. 
Hayat al-Nufus, Ardashir and, vii. 209. 
Hedgehog and the wood Pigeons, The, Hi. 156. 
Hermit, The Ferryman of the Nile and the, v. 288. 
Hermits, The, iii. 125. 

Hind, Adi bin Zayd and the Princess, v. 1 24. 
Hind daughter of Al-Nu'uman and Al-Hajjaj, vii. 96. 
Hind (King Jali'ad of) and his Wazir Shimas, ix. 32. 
Hisham and the Arab Youth, The Caliph, iv. 101. 
Honey, The Drop of, vi. 142. 
Horse, The Ebony, v. I. 
House with the Belvedere, The, vi. 188. 
Hunchback's Tale, The, i. 255. 
Husband and the Parrot, The, i. 52. 
Ibn al-Karibi, Masrur and, v. 109. 

Ibrahim al-Khawwas and the Christian King's Daughter, v. 283. 
Do. bin al-Khasib and Jamilah, ix. 207. 
Do. of Mosul and the Devil, vii. 113. 
Do. bin al-Mahdi and Al-Amin, v. 152. 
Do. bin al-Mahdi and the Barber-Surgeon, iv. 103. 
Do. Do. and the Merchant's Sister, iv. 278. 

Ifrit's mistress and the King's Son, The, vi. 199. 
Ignorant man who set up for a Schoolmaster, The, v. 119. 
Ikrimah al-Fayyaz, Khuzaymah bin Bishr and, vii. 99. 
Imam Abu Yusuf with Al-Rashid and Zubaydah, The, iv. 153. 
Introduction. Story of King Shariyar and his brother, i. i. 
I ram, The City of, iv. 113. 

Isaac of Mosul's Story of Khadijah and the Caliph Maamun, iv. 119.7 
Isaac of Mosul and the Merchant, v. 129. 

Appendix. 315 

Isaac of Mosul and his- Mistress and the Devil, vii. 113. 

Island, The King of the, v. 290. 

Iskandar Zu Al-Karnayn and a certain Tribe of poor folk, v. 252. 

Israelite, The Devout, iv. 283. 

Jackals a"nd the Wolf, The, ix. 103. 

Ja'afar the Barmecide and the Beanseller, iv. 159. 

Do. Do. and the old Badawi, v. 98. 

Ja'afar bin al-Hadi, Mohammed al-Amin, and, v. 93. 
Jamilah, Ibrahim bin al-Khasib, and, ix. 207. 
Janshah, The Story of, v. 329. 
Jali'ad of Hind and his Wazir Shimas, King, ix. 32. 
Jeweller's Wife, Kamar al-Zaman and the, ix. 246. 
Jewish Kazi and his pious Wife, The, v. 256. 
Jewish Doctor's Tale, The, i. 288. 
Jinni, The Fisherman and the, i. 38. 
Jinni, The Trader and the, i. 24. 
Jubayr bin Umayr and Budur, The Loves of, iv. 228; 
Judar and his brethren, vi. 213. 

Julnar the Sea-born and her son King Badr Basim of Persia, vii. 264. 
Justice of Providence, The, v. 286. 
Kafur, Story of the Eunuch, ii. 51. 
Kalandar's Tale, The first, i. 104. 

Do. The second, i. 113. 

Do. The third, i. 130. 

Kamar al-Zaman and Budur, iii. 211. 

Do. and the Jeweller's Wife, ix. 246. 

Kazi, the Jewish, and his pious wife, v. ,256. 

Khadijah and the Caliph Maamun, Isaac of Mosul's Story of, iv. 119. 
Khalif the Fisherman of Baghdad (note from Bresl. Edit), viii. 184. 
Khalifah the Fisherman of Baghdad, viii. 145. 
Khawwas (Ibrahim al-) and the Christian King's daughter, v. 283. 
Khorasan, Abu Hasan al-Ziyadi and the man from, iv. 285. 

Do. Abu al-Hasan of, ix. 229. 
Khusrau and Shirin and the Fisherman, v. 91. 
Khuzaymah bin Bishr and Ikrimah al-Fayyaz, vii. 99. 
King Jali'ad, Shimas his Wazir and his son Wird Khan, ix. 32. 
King of the Island, The, v. 290. 
Do. and the Pilgrim Prince, The- Unjust, ix. 50. 
Do. and the virtuous wife, The, v. 121. 
Do. and his Wazir*s wife, The, vi. 129. 
King's Daughter and the Ape, The, iy. 297. 
Do. son and the I frit's Mistress, The, vi. 199. 
Do. Do. and the Merchant's Wife, The, vi. 167. 
Do. Do. and the Ghulah, The, vi. 139. 

316 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Kings, The Two, ix. 65. 

Kisra Anushirwan and the Village Damsel, v. 87. 
Kurd Sharper, Ali the Persian and the, iv. 149. 
Kurrat al-Ayn and Abu Isa, v. 145. 
Kus Police and the Sharper, Chief of the, iv. 276. 
Labtayt, The City of, iv. 99. 

Lady of Baghdad, The Sweep and the noble, iv. 125. 
Lady's Story, The Eldest, i. 162. 
Lady and her five suitors, The, vi. 172. 
Do. and her two Lovers, The, vi. 138. 
Ladies of Baghdad, The Porter and the Three, i. 82. 
Laughed again, The man who never, vi. 160. 
Lazybones, Abu Mohammed hight, iv. 162. 
Leper, Abu al-Hasan al-Durraj and Abu Ja'afar the, v. 294. 
Lover, The mad, v. 138. 

Lover who feigned himself a thief (to save his mistress honour), The, lv. l$$. 
Lover's trick against the chaste Wife, The, vi. 135. 
Lovers of Bassorah, The, vii. 130. 

Do. of the Banu Tayy, The, v. 137. 

Do. of the Banu Ozrah, The, v. 70. 

Do. The Lady and her two, vi. 138. 

Do. of Al-Medinah, The, vii. 139. 

Do. The Three unfortunate, v. 133. 
Loves of the Boy and Girl at School, The, v. 73. 
Loves of Abu Isa and Kurrat al-Ayn, The, v. 145. 
Maamun, Isaac of Mosul's Story of Khadijah and the Caliph, iv. M9 
Do. (A1-) and the Pyramids of Egypt, v. 105. 
Do. and the strange Scholar, The Caliph, iv. 185, 
Ma'an bin Zaidah and the Badavvi, iv. 97. 
Ma'an the son of Zaidah and the Three Girls, iv. 96. 
Mad Lover, The, vii. 139. 
Madinah (A1-), The Lovers of, vii. 139. 
Magic Horse, The, v. i. 

Mahbubah, Al-Mutawakkil and his favourite, iv. 291. 
Malik al-Nasir (A1-) and the three Masters of Police, iv. 271. 

Do. and his Wazir, vii. 142. 

Man and his Wife, The, ix. 98. 

Man who never laughed during the rest of his days, The, vi. 160. 
Man (The Woman who had to lover a) and the other who had to lover a 

boy, v. 165. 

Man of Upper Egypt and his Prankish Wife, ix. 19. 
Man of Al-Yaman and his six Slave-girls, iv. 245. 
Man who stole the dog's dish of gold, iv. 268. 
Man who saw the Night of Power (Three Wishes), vi. i8a 

Appendix. $17 

Man's dispute with the learned Woman about boys and girls, v. 154. 

Maruf the Cobbler and his wife Fatimah, x. i. 

Mansur, Yahya bin Khalid and, iv. 179. 

Masrur and Ibn al-Karibi, v. 109. 

Masrur and Zayn al-Mawasif, viii. 205. 

Merchant of Oman, The, ix. 188. 

Do. and the Robbers, The, ix. loo. 

Do. and the two Sharpers, The, iii. 158. 
Merchant's Sister, Ibrahim bin al-Mahdi and the, iv. 278. 
Do. Wife, The King's son and the, vi. 167. 
Do. Wife and the Parrot, The, i. 52. 
Mercury Ali of Cairo, The Adventures of, vii. 172. 
Merman, and Abdullah the Fisherman, Abdullah the, ix. 16$. 
Miller and his wife, The, v. 82. 
Miriam, Ali Nur al-Din and, viii. 264. 
Miser and Loaves of Bread, The, vi. 137. 
Mock Caliph, The, iv. 130. 

Mohammed al-Amin and Ja'afar bin al-Hadi, v. 93. 
Mohammed bin Sabaik and the Merchant Hasan, King, vii. 308. 
Money-changer, The Thief and the, iv. 275. 
Monkey, The Thief and his, iii. 1 59. 
Moslem Champion and the Christian Lady, The, v. 277. 
Mouse, The, and the Cat, ix. 35. 
Mouse and the Flea, The, iii. 151. 
Mouse and the Ichneumon, The, iii. 147. 
Muunis, Ali bin Tahir and the girl, v. 164. 
Musab bin al-Zubayr and Ayishah his wife, v. 79. 
Muslem bin al-Walid and Dibil al-Khuzai, v. 127. 
Mutawakkil (A1-) and Al-Fath bin Khakan, v. 153. 

Do. and his favourite Mahbubah, iv. 291. 

Mutalammis (A1-) and his wife Umaymah, v. 74. 
Naomi, Ni'amah bin al-Rabi'a and his Slave-girl, iv. i. 
Nazarene Broker's Story, The, i. 262. 
Necklace, The Stolen, vi. 182. 
Niggard and the Loaves of Bread, The, vi. 137. 
Night of Power, The man who saw the, vi. 180. 
Nile (The Ferryman of the) and the Hermit, v. 288. 
Ni'amah bin al-Raby'a and Naomi his Slave-girl, iv. i. 
Nur al-Din Ali and the damsel Anis al-Jalis, ii. r. 
Nur al-Din of Cairo and his son Badr al-Din Hasan, i, 195. 
Ogress, The King's Son and the, vi. 139. 
Old Man's Story, The First, i. 27. 

Do. Do. The Second, i. 32. 

Do. Do. The Third, i. 36. 

318 A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Old Woman, Abu Suwayd and the handsome, v. 

Omar bin al-Nu'uman and his Sons Sharrkan and Zau al-Makan, The Tale of 

King, ii. 77. 

Omar bin al-Khattab and the young Badawi, v. 99. 
Oman, The Merchant of, ix. 188. 
Otbah and Rayya, vii. 91. 

Page who feigned to know the speech of birds, The, vi. 169. 
Paradise, The Apples of, v. 141. 
Parrot^ The Merchant's wife and the, i. 52, 
Partridge, The Hawk and the, iii. 138. 
Peacock, The Sparrow and the, iii. 161, 
Persian and the Kurd Sharper, AH the, iv. 140^ 
Physician Duban, The, 1.45. 
Physician's Story, The Jewish, i. 288. 

Pilgrim and the old woman who dwelt in the desert, The, v, 1 86. 
Pilgrim Prince, The Unjust King and the, ix. 50. 
Pious black slave, The, v. 261. 
Pigeons, The Hedgehog and the, iii. 156. 
Pigeons, The Two, vi. 183. 
Platter-maker and his wife, The devout, v. 264. 
Poets, Harun al-Rashid and the three, v. 77. 
Police of Bulak, Story of the Chief of the, iv. 273. 

Do. of Kus and the Sharper, the Chief of the, iv. 276. 

Do. of New Cairo, Story of the Chief of the, iv. 271. 

Do. of Old Cairo, Story of the Chief of the, iv. 274. 

Do. (The Three Masters of), Al- Malik, al-Nasir and, iv. 371, 
Poor man and his friend in need, The, iv. 288. 
Porter and the Three Ladies of Baghdad, The, 1. 82. 
Portress, The Tale of the, i. 173. 
Prince Behram and the Princess Al-Datma, vi. 184. 

Do. the Ensorcelled, i. 69. 

Do. and the Ghulah, The, i. 54. 

Do. The Devout, v. 1 1 1. 

Do. (the Pilgrim), The Unjust King and, ix. 50. 
Prior who became a Moslem, The, v. 141. 
Providence, The justice of, v. 286. 
Purse, The Stolen, vi. 209. 
Pyramids of Egypt, Al-Maamun and the, v. 105. 
Queen of the Serpents, The, v. 298. 
Rake's trick against the chaste Wife, The, vi. 135. 
Rayya, Otbah and, vii. 91. 
Reeve's Tale, The, i. 278. 

Rogueries of Dalilafc the Crafty aad her daughter Zaynab the Corcy*ea*cber, 
The, vii. 144. 


Rose-in- Hood, Uns al-Wujud and the Want's Daughter, v. 12. 
Ruined Man of Baghdad and his Slave-girl, The, ix. 24. 

Do. who became rich again through a dream, The, iv. 189. 
Rukh, Abd al-Rahman the Moor's Story of the, v. 122. 
Sa'id bin Salim and the Barmecides, v. 94. 
Saint to whom Allah gave a cloud to serve him, The, v 274. 
Saker and the Birds, The, iii. 154. 
Sandalwood Merchant and the Sharpers. The, vi. 202, 
Sayf al-Muluk and Badi'a al-Jamal, vii. 314. 
School, The Loves of the Boy and the Girl at, v. 73. 
Schoolmaster who fell in love by report, The, v. 117. 
Do. The Foolish, v. 1 18. 

Do. The ignorant man who set up for a, v. 119. 
Serpent, TW Crow and the, ix. 46. 
Serpent-charmer and his Wife, ix. 56. 
Serpents, The Queen of the, v. 298. 
Sexes, Relative excellence of the, v. 1 54. 
Shahryar and his brother, King (Introduction), t I. 
Shahryar (King) and his brother, i. 2. 
Shams al-Nahar, Ali bin Bakkar and, iii. 162. 
Sharper of Alexandria and the Chief of Police, The, iv. 269.. 
Sharper, Ali the Persian and the Kurd, iv. 149. 

Do. The Chief of the Kus Police and the, iv. 276. 
Do. The Simpleton and the, v. 83. 
Sharpers, The Merchant and the Two, iii. 158. 

Do. The Sandalwood Merchant and the, vi. 202. 
Sharrkan and Zau al-Makan, The History of King Omar bin Al-Nu'uman and 

his Sons, ii. 277. 
Shaykh's Story (The First), i. 27. 

Do. (The Second), i. 32. 
Do. (The Third), i. 36. 
Shepherd and the Thief, The, ix. 106. 
Shimas, King Jali'ad of Hind and his Wazir, ix. 32. 
Shipwrecked Woman and her child, The, v. 259. 
Shirin and the Fisherman, Khusrau and, v. 91. 
Simpleton and the Sharper, The, v. 83. 
Sindibad and his Falcon, King, i. 50. 
Sindbad the Seaman and Sindbad the Porter, vi, I. 
Do. First Voyage of, vi. 4. 

Do. Second Voyage of, vi. 14. 

Do. Third Voyage of, vi. 22. 

Do. Fourth Voyage of,vi. 34, 

Do. Fifth Voyage of, vi. 48. 

Do. Sixth Voyage of, vi. 58. 

320 Alf Laylah wa Laylak, 

Sindbad the Seaman, Seventh Voyage of, vi. 68 

Do. (note from Cal. Edit.) vi. 78. 

Singing-girl, The Goldsmith and the Cashmere, vi. 156* 
Six Slave-girls, The Man of Al-Yaman and his, iv. 245. 
Slave, The pious black, v. 261. 

Slave-girl, The ruined man of Baghdad and his, ix. 24. 
Slave-girls, The Man of Al-Yaman and his six, iv. 245. 
Sparrow and the Eagle, The, Hi. 155. 

Do, and the Peacock, The, iii. 161. 
Spider and the Wind, The, ix. 59. 
Spring, The Enchanted, vi. 145. 
Squinting slave-girl Abu al-Aswad and his, v. 80. 
Stolen Necklace, The, vi. 182. 

Do. Purse, The, vi. 209. 
Suitors, The Lady and her five, vi. 172. 
Sweep and Noble Lady of Baghdad, The, iv. 125. 
Tailor's Tale, The, i. 300. 

Taj al-Muluk and the Princess Dunya, The Tale of, ii 263. 
Tawaddud, Abu al-Hasan and his slave-girl, v. 189. 
Thief, The Lover who feigned himself a iv. 155. 

Do. and the Shroff, The, iv. 275, 

Do. and his Monkey, The, iii. 159. 

Do. The Shepherd and the, ix. 106. 

Do. turned Merchant and the other Thief, The, v. 107. 
Thieves, The Boy and the, ix. 95. 

Do. The Merchant and the, ix. loo. 
Do. The Two, v. 107. 

Three-year-old-child, The Debauchee and the, vi. 208. 
Three Apples, The, i. 186. 
Three unfortunate Lovers, v. 133 

Three Wishes, or the Man who longed to see the Night of Power, The, vi 
Tortoise, The Waterfowl and the, iii. 129. 
Tortoises, The Heathcockand the, ix. 113. 
Trader (the) and the Jinni, i. 24. 
Trick (The Lover's) against the chaste wife, vi. 135. 

Do. (The Wife's) against her husband, vi. 152. 
Two Kings, The, ix. 56. 
Two Pigeons, The, vi. 183. 
Umaymah, Al-MutalammSs and his wife, v. 74. 
Unfortunate Lovers, The Three, v. 133. 
Unjust King and the Pilgrim Prince, The, ix. 50. 
Uns al-Wujud and the Wazir's Daughter Rose-in-Hood, v, 33. 
Upper Egypt (The man of) and hi? Frank wife, ix. 19. 
Walid bin Sahl, Yunus the Scribe and the Caliph, vii. 104. 

Appendix. 321 

Wardan, the Butcher, Adventure with the Lady and the Bear, iv. 293, 
Water-carrier and the Goldsmith's Wife, The, v. 89. 
Waterfowl and the Tortoise, The, iii. 129. 
Wazir and the Sage Duban, The, i. 45' 
Wazir, Al-Malik aUNasir and his, vii. 142. 

Do. of Al-Yaman and his young brother, The, v. 71. 
Wazir's Son and the Hammam-Keeper's Wife, The, vi. 152.; 

Do. Wife, The King and his, vi. 129. 
Weasel, The Mouse and the, iii. 147- 
Weaver, The Foolish, iii. 159. 
Wife, The Badawi and his, vii. 124. 

Do. (the Chaste) The Lover's Trick against, vi. 135. 

Do. The King and his Wazir's, vi. 129. 

Do. The Man and his Wilful, ix. 98. 

Do. (The Merchant's) and the Parrot, i. 52. 

Do. (The Virtuous) and the King, v. 121. 
Wife's device to cheat her husband, The, vi. 152. 

Do. trick against her husband, The, v. 96. 
Wild Ass, The Jackal and the, ix. 48. 
Wilful Wife, The Man and his, ix. 98. 
Wind, The Spider and the, ix. 59. 
Wird Khan (King) and his Women and Wazirs, ix. -^ 
Wolf and the Fox, The, iii. 132. 
Wolf, The Foxes and the, ix. 103. 
Woman (The shipwrecked) and her child, v. 259. 
Woman's trick against her husband, v. 96. 
Woman who made her husband sift dust, The, iv. 281. 
Woman whose hands were cut off for Almsgiving, The, iv. 281. , 
Women, The Malice of, vi. 122. 

Do. The Two, v. 165. 
Yahya bin Khalid and the Forger, iv. 181. 
Do. and Mansur, iv. 179. 

Do. and the Poor Man, v. 92. 

Yaman (The Man of A1-) and his six slave-girls, iv. 245. 
Do. (The Wazir of A1-) and his young brother; v. 71. 
Yunus the Scribe and the Caliph Walid bin Sahl, vii. 104. 
Zau al-Makan, The History of King Omar bin al-Nu'uman and his Sons 

Sharrkan and, ii. 77. 
Zayn al-Mawasif, Masrur and, viii. 205. 
Zaynab the Coney-Catcher, The Rogueries of Dalilah the Wily, and her 

Daughter, vii. 144. 

Zubaydah in the Bath, Harun al-Rashid and, v. 75. 
Zumurrud, AH Shar and, iv. 187. 

VOL. X. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

INDEX //. 


Prepared by F. SlElNGASS, Ph.D. 

A'AMASH (A1-), traditionist, v. 81. 
A'amash (A1-) = one with watering eyes, 

vi. 96. 
A'araf (A1-) = partition-wall (chapter of the 

Koran) v. 217. 

A'araj (A1-), traditionist, v. 81. 
Aaron's rod, ii. 242. 

(becomes with Moslems Moses* staff) 
v. 238). 

Aba, Aba"ah = cloak of hair, ii. 133 j 

viii. 42. 

Aba al-Khayr = my good sir, etc*, ix. 54. 
Abad = eternity, without end, ii. 205. 
Abbas " hero eponymus " of the Abbasides, 

i. 188. 

( = the grim-faced) iv. 138. 
Abbasides (descendants of the Prophet's 

uncle) ii. 61. 

(black banners and dress) ii. 64 ; 

'Abd = servile, iii. 44. 

Abd al-Ahad = slave of the One (God) 
vi. 222. 

Abd al-Aziz (Caliph) a, 166. 

Abd al-Malik (Caliph) ii. 77, 167. 

Abd al-Kddir of GiMn (founder of the 
Kadiri order) iv. 41. 

Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (Caliph) iii. 
319; iv. 7- 

Abd al-Rahfm = slave of the Compassion- 
ate, vi. 221. 

Abd al-Sala"m = slave of salvation, vi. 211. 

Abd al-Samad = slave of the Eternal, vi. 


Abd al-Samad al-Samudi (for Samanhudf^ 

vi. 87. 

Abdallah (a neutral name\ v. 141. 
Abdallah bin Abbas, companion and tradi* 

tioner, i, 304. 

Abdallah bin Abi Kilabah, iv, 113. 
Abdallah bin al-Zubayr, iii. 318. 
Abdallah bin Malik al-Khuza'f, iv.. 181. 
Abdallah bin Mas'ud (traditionist) v. 8l. 
Abdallah bin Salim (traditionist) v. 8l. 
Abdallah ibn al-Mu'tazz (poet-prince) 

x. 39. 

Abdun (convent of) x. 40. 
Abhak = Allah bless him and keep (see 

Sal'am) ii.-24- 
'Abir (a fragrant powder sprinkled on face, 

body and clothes) viii. 240. 
Abjad (Hebrew- Arabic alphabet) v. 229. 

(logogriphs derived from it) viii. 93. 

Ablution (difference of fashion in per* 

forming it) v. 112. 

(obligatory after copulation) viii. 305. 

Abraham (an Imam to mankind) ii. 203. 

(place of) ii. 272 ; iv. 148. 

(the Friend = mediaeval St. Abraham) 

v. 205 ; vi. 270. 
Abtan (Al-) = the most profound (see Bdtini) 

vi. 221. 

Abu al-Abbas al-Mubarrad (grammarian) 

v. 138. 

Abu al- Abba's al-Rakdshi (poet) v. 77. 
Abu al-Aynd, v. 164. 
Abu al-Hamlat = father of assaults, burdens, 

pregnancies, vii. 149. 



Abu al- Hasan (not Huso) iii. 162. 

Abu al-Husn = Father of Beauty (a fancy- 
name) v. 189. 

Abu al-Hosayn (Father of the Forllet)=fox, 
iii. 132. 

Abu al-Lays (Pr. N.) = Father of the Lion, 
ix. 211. 

Abu al-Muzaffir = Father of the Conqueror, 
iv. 166. 

Abu al-Nowa"s (Pr. N.) = Father of the 
Sidelocks, iv. 55, 264. 

Abu al-Ruwaysh=r Father of the Feather- 
kin, viii. 77. 

Abu al-Sa'adat = Father of Prosperities, 
viii. 148 ; x. 29. 

Abu al-Sakha = Father of Munificence, vii. 


Abu Ali, see Di'ibil al-Khuza'i. 
Abu Ali al-Husayn the Wag, vii. 130. 
Abu Amir bin Marwan (Wazir to Saladin) 

vii. 142. 

Abu Bakr (Caliph) ii. 167, 197 ; v. 235. 
Abu Bakr Mohammed al-Anbari (gramma- 
rian) v. 141. 
Abu Dalaf al-Ijili (a soldier famed for 

liberality and culture) ix. 189. 
Abu Faris = Father of Spoils (lion) v. 40. 
Abu Hanifah (founder of the Senior 

School) ii. 207. 
(scourged for refusing to take office) 

ii. 210. 

Abu Hassdn al-Ziyadi, iv. 258. 
Abu Hazim, ii. 205. 
Abu Horayrah (uncle of Mohammed) v. 

Abu Hosayn = Father of the Fortlet (fox) 

vi. 211. 
Abu Ishak (Hdrun's cup-companion) ii. 

Abu Karn = Father of the Horn (unicorn?) 

vi. 21. 
Abu Kidr = Father of the Cooking-pot, i. 

Abu Kir = Father of the Pitch (Abou Kir) 

ix. 134. 
Abu Kurrat = Father of Coolness (Chamae- 

leon) iii. 165. 

Abu Lahab and his wife, viii. 291. 
Abu Luluah (murderer of Caliph Omar) 

ii. 162. 
Abu Maryam (* term of contempt) viii. 


Abu Mijan (song of) x. 41. 

Abu Mohammed al-Battl (hero of an 

older tale) viii. 335. 
Abu Musa al-Asha>i, ii. 162. 
Abu Riyah = Father of Winds (a toy) ii 

Abu Shamah = Father of the Cheek-mole, 

i. 269. 
Abu Shammah = Father of a Smeller of 

nose, i. 269. 
Abu Shawarib = Father of Mustachios, i, 

Abu Shihab, Father of the Shooting-star 

= evil spirit, i. 221. 
Abu Sir (corruption of Pousiri = Busiris) 

ix. 134. 
Abu Sirhan = Father of (going out to pray 

by) Morning, iii. 146 ; ix. 104. 
Abu Tabak = Father of Whipping, x. 5. 
Abu Tammam (poet) v. 157. 
Abu Yakzan = awakener (ass, cock) i. 16, 


Abu Yusuf (the Lawyer) iv. 153. 
Abu Zanad (traditionist) v. 81. 
Abu Zarr (companion of the Prophet) ii. 

200 ; v. 1 02. 

Abyssinians (hardly to be called blacka- 
moors) vi. 63. 
Account asked from outgoing Governors, 

vii. 102. 
Account of them will be presently given = 

"we leave them for the present," vii. 


Acids applied as counter-inebriants, viii. 

Acquit me of responsibility = pardon me, 

ii. 76. 
(formula of dismissing a servant) vi. 

Acquittance of all possible claims after 

business transactions (quoted on Judg- 
ment-Day) ix. 285. 
'JLd (tribe of the prehistoric Arabs) i. 65 ; 

iii. 294; ix. 174. 
'Ad bin Zayd (poet) v. 124. 
Adab = anything between good education 

and good manners, i. 132 ; ix. 41. 
Adam's loins, iv. ill. 
Adam's Peak (Ar. Jabal al-Ramun) vi. 

Adaref = an Adamite (opposed to Jinn) ix. 



A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Ad a rigour Adeh, viii. 248. 

Address without vocative particle more 

emphatic, vii. 125. 
Addressing by the name not courteous vii. 


Adi (son of Hatim al-Tayyi) iv. 95. 
Adii (Al-)= the Just (Caliph Omar) v. 103. 
'Adiliyah (Mosque in Cairo) x. 6. 
Adim = leather (Bulghdr, Morocco) viii. 80. 
Adi'm al-Zaukt= lack-tact, ix. 206. 
Adites (first and second) vi. 269. 
Adi = just (ironically) iv. 271. 
Adm (Udm)=any relish, iv. 128. 
Admiral (fishing for the King's table) ix. 


Adndn (Arab genealogy begins with) v. 


(land of Arabia) vi. 94. 

Adolescent (Un, aime toutes les femmes) 

vii. 299. 

Adultery (none without an adulterer) v. 90. 
' (to be proved by four witnesses) 

v. 97. 

(son of = base-born) ix. 331. 

(son of, to one's own child) iii. 


wEolipyla, ii. 101. 
JEsop the fable-writer, x. 117. 
Afa = o$t9 (a snake) ix. 37. 
Affirmative and negative particles, vii. 195. 
Afridun (Furaydun) absurd name for a 

Greek king, ii. 82. 
Africa (suggested derivation of the name) 

vii. 60. 

Aftah (A1-) = Broad-'o-Brow, i. 17. 
Agha = master, sir, gentleman (politely 

applied to a Eunuch) i. 235 ; ii. 50. 
(A1-) for chief police officer, vii. 156. 
Ahassa bi 'l-shurbah = "he smelt a rat," 

vii. 144. 

Ahd (A1-) wa al-Mfsak=oath and cove- 
nant, ix. 327. 
Ahdab = hunchback (opposed to Ak'as) i. 


Ahirah = strumpet (see Fajirah) viii. 109. 
Ahja"r al-Kassdrin = falling-stones, viii. 

Ahl al-Bayt = the person of the house 

(euphemistic for wife) vi. 199. 
Ahlan=as one of the household, 269. 
Ahmad = the praised one, Mohammed, ii. 


Ahmad al-Danaf (Pr. N.) = Calamity Ah- 
mad iv. 75. 

bin AM Dawdd (High Chancellor 

to the Abbasides) ix. 244. 

bin Ilanbal (founder of the fourth 
Moslem School) ii. 204. 

Ahnaf (A1-) bin Kays, ii. 160. 

Ahr (ihr) = fornication, in the sense of 
irreligion, ii. 258. 

Ahram (Al-) = the Pyramids, v. 105. 

Ahwdz (city and province of Khuzistan) 
vi. 287. 

"Aidance from Allah and victory are 
near," ix. 317. 

'^.in = Smiter with the evil eye, i. 123. 

Air (I fear it for her when it bloweth) viii. 


'Ajaibal-Hind=marvelsoflnd, x. 153. 
Ajal = appointed time of life, i. 74. 
= yes verily, vii. 195. 
'Ajam (A1-) = region not Arab, Persia, 

i. 2. 

'Ajami= foreigner, esp. Persian, i. 120. 
Ajib (Pr. N.) = wonderful, vi. 257. 
Ajuz, for old woman, highly insulting i. 

'Ajwah = dates pressed into a solid mass 

and deified, vii. 14. 
Akabah (mountain pass near Meccah) 

v. 295. 

Akakir = drugs, spices, vii. 147. 
Akdsirah ( - Kisra- Kings), i. 75 ; ix. 


( = sor.s of the royal Chosroes) 

V. IO. 

Akh= brother (wide signification of the 

word), vi. 243. 
Akh al-Jahalah = Brother of Ignorance, 

iii. 162. 
Akhawan shakikdn = (two) brothers ger- 

man, viii. 340. 

-khir al-Zaman = the latter days, v. 304. 
Akhlat (town in Armenia), vii. 88. 
Akhzar= green, grey, fresh (applied to 

cheek-down) ii. 292. 
Akik (A1-), two of the name, vii. 140. 
'Akik = carnelian ("seal with seals of") 

viii. 228. 

Akil (son of Abu Talib) viii. 172. 
Akka=Acre, ix. 19. 
Akkam = Cameleer, Caravan -manager, 

iv. 40. 



Akl al-hishmah = eating decorously, ix. 

Akmam, pi. of Kumm = sleeve, petal, 

viii. 275. 
Akr Kayra wan = ball of silver-dross, viii. 


Akun fida-ka = I maybe thy ransom, viii. 36. 
Akyal, title of the Himyarite Kings, vii. 60. 
Akras = cakes, i. 83. 

Al (the Article with Proper Names), iii. 309. 
Ala judi-k = to thy generosity, ix. 150 
Ala al-Din (Aladdin) = Glory of the Faith, 

iv. 29, 33. 
Ala kulli hal = in any case, any how, viii. 


Ala mahlak = at thy leisure, ix. 168. 
Alk raghm = in spite of, vii. 121. 
A' laj = sturdy miscreants, x. 38. 
Alak = clotted blood, iii. 26. 
Alam = way-mark etc., v. 191. 
(not Ilm) al-Din = flag of the faith, 

ii. 19. 
Alama = ald-ma = apon what? wherefore? 

iv. 201. 
Alas for his chance of escaping = there is 

none, vii. 183. 
Alast (day of), iv. in. 
Albatross (supposed never to touch land), 

vi- 33- 
Alchemy (its practice has cost many a life), 

viii. ii. 

Alcinous (of the Arabian Odyssy), vi. 65. 
Alcove (corruption of Al-Kubbah), v. 18. 
Al Baud (David's family), iv. 50. 
Aleppo (noted for debauchery), v. 64. 
Alexander (of the Koran) not to be con- 
founded with the Macedonian, ii. 199. 
Alexandria (praise of), viii. 289. 
Alfi = one who costs a thousand, iv. 225. 
Alhambra = (Dar) al-Hamra, the Red, 

vii. 49. 
Alhamdulillah (pronounced to avert the 

evil eye), v. 7. 
Ali bin Abi Talib (Caliph) v. 213 ; 225. 

(his deeds of prowess) ii. 108. 

(murder of) iii. 319. 

bin Mohammed bin Abdallah bin 

Tahfr (Governor) v. 164. 
al-Muluk = high of (among the Kings, 

vii. 354- 
al-Zaybak (Pr. N.= Mercury Ali) 

iv. 75 ; vii. 172. 

Ali Shar (Pr. N.) iv. 187. 

Alif (stature like one) iii. 236 ; iv. 249. 

Ha, Waw as tests of calligraphy 

vii. 112. 
Alish Takish (acting woman and man 

alternately) v. 65. 
All will not be save well = it will be the 

worse for him, ix. 293. 
Allah (will open thee) a formula of refusal, 


(hath said) formula of quoting the 

Koran, i. 61. 

(names, by Edwin Arnold) ii. 28. 

Wa'llahi tayyib (exclamation of the 

Egyptian Moslem) ib. 34. 
(His name pronounced against the 

evil eye) iv. 34. 

(is all-knowing, swearing by, forbid- 
den) ib. 175. 

= I don't know) ib. 283. 

(give thee profit) iii. 17. 

(unto, we are returning) ib. 317. 

(desire unto) v. 104. 

(corporality of?) ib. 104. 

(requite you abundantly = "thank 

you") ib. 171. 

(seeking refuge with) ib. 200. 

(names of) ib. 214. 

(be praised whatso be our case) vi. 3. 

(the " Manifest Truth ") ib. 93. 

(is omniscient), formula used when 

telling an improbable tale, ib. 210. 

(the Opener) ib. 216. 

(it is He who gives by our means) 

ib. 233. 
(sight comprehendeth Him not) 

ib. 283. 
(confound the far One, hard swearing) 

vii. 155. 
(succour the Caliph against thee) 

ib. 159. 
(is All-knowing for our tale is no 

"Gospel truth") ib. 209. 
(I take refuge with from gainsaying 

thee = God forbid that I should oppose 

thee) viii. 53. 

(perpetuate his shadow) ib. 170. 

(we seek refuge with him from the 

error of the intelligent) ib. 327. 
(will make no way for the Infidels 

over the True Believers) ix. 16. 
(I seek refuge with) ib. 35. 


A If Laylak wa Laylah. 

Allah (He was jealous for Almighty) ix. 

(I fear him in respect of=I am go- 
verned by Him in my dealings with) 
ib. 123. 

(pardon thee, showing that the 
speaker does not believe in another's 
tale) ib. 154. 

(the Provider) ib. 166. 

(for the love of) ib. 170. 

(Karim = God is bountiful) ib. 167. 

(grant thee grace = pardon thee) ib. 

(yasturak = will veil thee) ib. 309. 

(sole Scient of the hidden things, be 

extolled) ib. 311. 
(raised the heavens without columns, 

etc.) ib. 324. 
- - (will make things easy = will send us 

aid) x. 2. 
(gi ve thee quittance of responsibility) 

ib. ii. 
(will send thee thy daily bread) ib. 


Allah! Allah ! = I conjure thee by God, 

i. 346. 

Allah Karim= Allah is all beneficent, i. 32. 
Allaho a'alam = God is all knowing, i. 2, 

Allaho akbar (as a war cry) ii. 89 ; v. 196 ; 

vii. 8 ; viii. 265* 

Allahumma = Yd Allah with emphasis, i. 39. 
Allusions (far-fetched, fanciful and obscure) 

hi. 58, 169, 176, 263. 
Almd = brown- (not "damask-") lipped 

v. 66. 

Almas = Gr. Adamas, ix. 325. 
Almenichiaka, vi. 124. 
Almond-apricot, vi. 277. 
Alms to reverend men to secure their 

prayers, ii. 7 1 - 
Alnashar (Story of) x. 146. 
Aloes, see Sabr. 
(well appreciated in Eastern 

medicine) ix. loo. 

(the finest used for making Nadd) 
ix. 150. 

Alpinism (unknown) iii. 324. 

Al-Safar Zafar = voyaging is victory, L 250. 

Alwan (pi. of Laun, colour) viands, dishes, 

viii. 23. 
Amaim (pi. of Imamah) = turbands, iv. IOO. 

'Amal = action, operation (applied to drugs 

etc.) ix. 274. 
'Amala hilah for tricking, a Syro- Egyptian 

vulgarism, vii. 43. 
Amalekites, vii. 264, 265. 
Amdm-ak = before thee, vii. 94. 
Aman = quarter, mercy, i. 342. 
'Amariah (Pr. N. of a town) vii. 353. 
Amazon (a favourite in folk-lore) ii. 96. 
Amazons (of Dahome) viii. 39. 
Ambar al-Kham = rude Ambergris, viii. 85. 
Ambiguousity, v. 44. 

Amend her case = bathe her, etc., vii. 266. 
Amid (Amidah) town in Mesopotamia, 

vi. 106. 

Amm (AJ-)-the Trusted of Allah, iv. 26 r. 
son and successor of Hartin 

al-Rashid, i. 185 ; v. 93, 152. 
Amin (Amen) = So be it ! ix. 131. 
Amir = military commander, i. 259. 
' Amir = one who inhabiteth, haunter, x. 6. 
Amir and Samul = Jones, Brown and 

Robinson, iv. 106. 
Amfr al-Muuminin = Prince of the Faithful 

i. 112. 
Ammi ba'ad = but after (initiatory formula) 


'Amm = uncle (polite address to a father- 
in-law) x. 32. 

Amma laka au 'alayka = either to thee (the 
gain) or upon thee (the loss) ix. ii. 

Amor discende non ascende, iii. 240. 

Amr (Al-)' = command, matter, affair, ix. 

Amrad= beardless and handsome, effemi- 
nate, i. 327. 

Amru (pronounced Amr) or Zayd = Toro, 
Dick or Harry, iv. 2. 

bin Ma'adi Karib (poet) v. 147. 

bin Masa'dah (Pr. N.) v. 145. 

Amsei = he passed the evening, etc., iii. 


Amsar (pi. of Misr) = cities, i. II. 

- = settled provinces, vii. 371. 

Amshat (combs) perhaps = Kanafah (ver- 
micelli) i. 83. 

Amtar, pi. of Matr, q.v. t iii. 295. 

Amud al-Sawdri = the Pillar of Masts (Dio- 
cletian's column) viii. 323. 

Amurfyah = the classical Amorium, v. 141. 

" Ana " (from Night ccclxxxi. toccccxxiv.) 
v.6 4 . 



Ana a'amil = I will do it (Egypto-Syrian 

vulgarism), v. 367. 
Ana fi jfratak = I crave thy intercession 

(useful phrase), iv. 83. 
Anagnorisis, admirably managed, viii. 104. 
Analphabetic Amfrs, ix. 126. 
Anasa-kum = yeare honoured by knowing 

him, x. II. 
Anbar (pronounced Ambar), town on the 

Euphrates, iv. 152. 
Anbar ( Ambar) = ambergris, vi. 60. 
Andalib = nightingale (masc. in Arab.) 

viii. 282. 
Andalusian = Spanish (/.*. of Vandal-land) 

vi. 101. 
Andam = the gum called dragon's blood ; 

brazil-wood, i. 176 ; iii. 263 ; viii. 225. 
Anemone on a tomb, ii. 325. 
Angels (taking precedence in the order of 

created beings) ix. 81. 

(appearing to Sodomites) iii. 301 . 

(ride piebalds) vi. 146. 

(shooting down the Jinn) viii. 292. 
Anis al-Jalis = the Cheerer of the Com- 
panion, ii. 5. 

Animals (have no fear of man) ix. 181. 
Anista-na thy company gladdens us, viii 

Anklet-ring and ear drops (erotic meaning 

of) ii. 318. 
Ansar=Medinite auxiliaries, vii. 92 ; viii. 


Ant (chapter ix. of the Koran) v. 213. 
Antar (Romance quoted) iv. 41. 

(and the Chosroe) vi. 285. 

(contest with Khosrewan) vii. 289. 

Anthropophagy (allowed when it saves 

life) v. 1 86. 

Antiochus and Stratonice, iv. 10. 
Ants (a destructive power in tropic cli- 
mates) ix. 46. 
Anushirwdn = Anushin-rawan = Sweet of 

Soul, v. 87. 

Anwa, pi. of Nau, ?.z>., viii. 266. 
Anwar = lights, flowers, viii. 270 ; 282 
Anyab (pi. of Nb)= grinder teeth, ix. 

Ape-names (expressing auspiciousness) iii. 

Apes (isle of) vi. 23. 

(and their lustful propensities) vi. 54. 

(gathering fruits) vi. 56. 

Apes (remant of som ancient tribe) vii. 


Apodosis omitted, vi. 203, 239. 
Apple (wine) iv. 134. 
(many a goodly one rotten at the core) 

iv. 187. 

Apricots (various kinds) viii. 268. 
'Ar (Al-) = shame, v. 138* 
Arab al-Arba" = prehistoric tribes of the 

Arabs, i. 112 ; v. 101. 
al-Musta'ajimah = barbarised Arabs, 

al-Musta'aribah = naturalised Arabs, 


al-Muta'arribah = Arabised Arabs, #, 

(exaggerates generosity) ii. 36. 

(shouting under his ruler's palace) to. 


temperament, ib. 54, 101, 181. 

cap (Turtur) ib. 143. 

(Derivation of the name) ib* 140, 

(pathos) iii. 55. 

(the noble merciful) ib. 88. 

(shop) ib. 163. 

(style compared with Persian) vi. 125. 
A'rab= dwellers in the desert, ix. 293. 
Arab horses (breeds of) v. 246. 
Arab-land and Ajam=:ail the world over, 

v. 136. 
Arabian Night converted into an Arabian 

Note, vii. 314. 
Arabian Odyssey, viii. 7. 
Arabs (for plundering nomades) x. 25. 
Arafat (Mount, where the victims are not 

slaughtered) v. 295. 

(day of) ii. 169, 

Ara"k (capparis shrub) ii. 54. 

(tooth-stick of the wild caper-tree ; 

Ardka = I see thee) iii. 275. 
Arakiyah = white scull-cap, i. 215. 
Ar'ar = Juniper-tree, " heath," iii. 254 ; 

vi. 95. 

Ardabb (Irdabb) = five bushels, i. 263. 
Ardeshir (Artaxerxes), three Persian Kings 

of the name, ii. 156; vii. 209. 
Ardhanari = the half- woman, iii. 306. 
Arianism and early Christianity, x. 190. 
Arif (Al-) = monitor, i. 231. 
Arish (A1-), frontier town between Egypt 

and Palestine, ix. 286. 
'Arishah = arbour, etc., ix. 219. 
Aristomenes and his fox, vi. 45. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Arithmetic (not mastered by Moslems) 

v. 236. 
Arithmology (cumbrous in Arabic for lack 

of the higher numerals) ix. 123. 
Ark al-Halawat = vein of sweetness, for 

penis, iv. 51. 

Arman = Armenia, ii. 273. 
Armanfyah (Armenia) iv. 182. 
Armenians (porters of Constantinople) 

Vi. i. 
Arm-pits (taking a dismounting person 

under the, a sign of respect) iv. 24. 
Arms and armour, x. 86. 
Army (divided into six divisions) iii. 290. 
Arsh = the ninth Heaven, v. 167. 
Artal, see Rotl. 
jArtists in cosmetics, x. 234. 
;Arubah (Al-) = Friday, vi. 190. 
Arun (Heb.) = in bis shirt, i. 78. 
,'Ariis (A1-) = the bride (tropical name for 

wine) viii. 203. 

As'ad = more (or most) fortunate, iii. 346. 
Asaf bin Barkhiya (Solomon's Wazir) vi. 

99 ; vii. 318 ; viii. 133. 
Asafiri = sparrow-olives, iii. 295. 
*Asakir = corner-terminals of a litter, x. 32. 
Asal Kasab = cane -honey, x. 3. 
Asal Katr = drip-honey, x. 2. 
Asal Nahl = bee's honey, i. 271. 
Asar = traces, ix. 255. 
Ash'ab (proverbial for greed) x. 15. 
Ashab = companions, vii. 92: viii. 183. 
Ashdb al-Rdy (epithet of the Hanafi school) 

vi. 146. 

Ashab al-Sufifah, v. 102. 
Ashab al-Ziya" = Feudatories, vii. 327. 
Ashhab = grey- white, ii. 116. 
A-Sharif anta=art thou a noble, ix. 231. 
Ashirah clan, vii. 121. 
Ashjar == door-posts or wooden bolts, vi. 


Ashka'nia'n, race of Persian Kings, i. 78. 
Asidah (custard, pap) iv. 37. 
Asim = defending, vii. 314. 
Askar jarrdr = drawing (*>. conquering) 

army, vii. 8$. 

Aslah = head-kerchief, ii. 59. 
Asian (Pr. N., probably for Arslan = lion) 

iv. 78. 
Asma'f (A1-), author of Antar, iv. 159; 

vii. no. 
Asoka's wife and Kundla, vi. 127, 

Ass (held ill-omened) ii. 25. 
- (-goad) iii. 116. 

(voice ' most ungrateful ") iii. 117. 

(the wild, "handy " with his hoof) iii. 


Asr (A1-) = time or prayer of mid-after- 
noon, i. 240. 

Asta"r (pi. of Satr = chopper ?) viii. 184. 

Astarte (primarily the planent Venus?) x. 

Astrolabe, father of our sextant, i. 304. 

Aswad = black (used for any dark colour) 
viii. 268. 

'Atb = blame, reproach (for disgrace) viii. 


Atbak = trays, v. 264. 

Atheist (Ar. Zindik) viii. 27. 

Atmar = rags (for travelling clothes) vii. 


Atnab = tent-ropes, viii. 240. 
Atr = any perfume, i. 355. 
Atsah (A1-) = sneezing, ix. 220. 
'Attar = perfume-seller, druggist, x. 8. 
Attraction of like to like, ii 296. 
Auhashtanf = thou hast made me desolate, 


'Auj = Persian town, Kuch (?) ix. 347. 
Aun (of Jinns, etc.) iv. 88. 
Aurat = shame, nakedness (woman, wife) 

vi. 30. 

(of man and woman) vi. 118. 

Avanie (Ar. Gharamah) viii. 151. 
Avaunt = Ikhsa, be chased like a dog, 

vii. 45. 

Awahl Awa"h! = Aks ! Alas ! ii. 321. 
A wak = ounces (pi. Ukiyah, q.v.} viii. 12. 
'Awalim, pi. of 'Alimah = dancing girls, 

i. 214. 

'Awdshik = hucklebones, cockles, ix. 268. 
Awwa (name of Satan's wife) iii. 229. 
Awwadah = lute-player, iv. 142. 
Ayat = Coranic verses, ii. 242 ; iii. 307 ; 

iv. 142. 

Ayat al-Najdt = Verses of Safety, vi. 108. 
Ayishah bint Talhah (grand -daughter of 

Abu Bakr) v. 79. 
Aylulah = slumbering after morning 

prayers, ii. 178. 
Ayn = eye (for helper) v. 60. 
Ayns (verset of the 140) v. 217. 
Aysh (Egypt.) =Ayyu Shayyinfor classical 

" Ma" what, i. 79. 



*Aysh = that on which man lives (for 

bread) x. 3. 
Ayshat al-durrah murrah = the sister-wife 

has a bitter life, iii. 308. 
Aywd (Ay wa'lla"hi)= Ay, by Allah, i. 303; 

vii. 195. 

Aywan = saloon with estrades, vii. 347. 
Ayys (Issus of Cilicia) iv. 76. 
Ayyub = Job, ii. 45. 
Azal = eternity without beginning (op- 

posed to Abad = infinity) ii. 205 ; v. 390. 
Azdn (call to prayer) ii. 306 ; v. 209. 
Az'ar = having thin hair ; tail-less, ix. 


Azarbija'n = Kohista"n, vii. 104. 
Azdashir, misprint for Ardashir, vii. 209. 
Azghdn = camel litters, ii. 282. 
Azlm = " deuced " or "mighty fine," i. 

178; ix. 4 o. 
Aziz (fern. Azizah) = dear, excellent, highly 

prized, ii. 298. 
'Aziz (A1-) al-Misr = Magnifico of Mis- 

raim, ix. 119. 
Azrak = blue-eyed (so is the falcon !) vii. 

164 ; viii. 4, 
Azrar (buttons) ii. 318. 

= Ba'al'scity, v. 51. 
Edb = gate, chapter, i. 136 ; vii. 3. 
-- (sometimes for a sepulchral cave) ix. 


Bdb (A1-) al-' AH = Sublime Porte, x. 5. 
Bdb al-Bahr and Bab al-Barr, viii. 55, 318. 
Bab al-Faradfs = gate of the gardens at 

Damascus, i. 240. 
Ba"b al-Luk (of Postal) iv. 259. 
Bab al-Nasr = Gate of Victory (at Cairo) 

vi. 234 ; x. 6. 
Bab al-Salam (of the Al-Medinah Mosque) 

iv. 288. 

Babel = Gate of God, i. 8$. 
Babes of the eye = pupils, i. 100 ; iv. 246. 
Baboon (Kird) has a natural penchant for 

women, iv. 297. 

Bdbunaj = white camomile, iii. 58. 
Babylonian eyes = bewitching ones, viii. 278. 
Bachelor not admitted in Arab quarters, 

iii. 191. 
Back-parts compared to revolving heavens, 

iii. 1 8. 

Bactrian camel, v. 371. 
Badal = substitute, v. 249. 

Badawi (not used in the Koran for Desert 

Arab) ii. 140. 

(bonnet) ib. 143. 

(a fool as well as a rogue) ib. 146. 

(cannot swim) iii. 69. 

(baser sort) ib. 70. 

(shifting camp in spring) ib. 

(noble) ib. 88. 

(bluntness and plain-speaking of) 

iv. 102 ; v. 98. 

Badawi's dying farewell, i. 75. 
Badhanj = windshaft, ventilator, i. 257. 
Bad -i-Saba = breeze o' the morn, ii. I Si. 
Badinjein = Solanum pomiferum or S. 

Melongena v. 4. 

Badlah Kunuziyah = treasure-suit, ix. 331. 
Badmasti = le vin mauvais, i. 88. 
Badrah= 10,000 dirhams, iv. 281. 
Badr Basim = full moon smiling, vii. 274. 
Baghdad = Garden of Justice, iii. 100. 

(House of Peace) viii. 51. 

(of Nullity, opposed to the Ubiquity 

of the World) ix. 13. 
Baghlah = she-mule, i. 129. 
Baha al-Dfn ibn Shaddad(Judge Advocate- 
General under Saladin) ix. 23. 
Bahadur = the brave, iii. 334. 
Bahaim (pi. of Bahimah = Behemoth) 

applied to cattle, iv. 54. 
Bahak = white leprosy, v. 294. 
Bahimah, mostly = black cattle, ix. 71. 
Bahr = water cut or trenched in the earth, 

sea, large river, i. 44. 
Bahr (A1-) al-azrak = Blue River, not 

"Blue Nile," viii. 4. 
Bahr al-Kunuz = Sea of Treasures, v. 37. 
Bahr al-Muhit = circumambient ocean, i, 


Bahram ( Varanes) = planet Mars, iii. 339. 
Bahramdni = Brahman, iv. 101. 
Bahriyah = crew, viii. 17. 
Bahrwa"n (Pr. N. for Bihrun ?) v. 329. 
Bakh ! Bakh ! = bravo ! brava ! ii. 151 ; 

iv. 121. 

Bakhkharani = he incensed me, ix. 238. 
Bakhshish naturalized as Anglo- Egyptian, 

iii. 45- 
(such as to make a bath-man's mouth 

water) ix. 151. 
Bakk = bug, iii. 328. 
Bakkt = greengrocer, vii. 295. 
Bakldmah = almond-pastry, ii. 311. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Balabil pi. of bulbul (nightingale) and of 

balbalah (grief) v. 244. 
Balah = green date, ii. 314. 
Baldricks (Ar. Hamail) v. 158. 
Balid = simpleton i. 17. 
Ballan = body-servant,!. 311. 
Ballanah = tire-woman, i. 311. 
Ballur (Billaur) = crystal, etc., iii. 194. 
Baltiyah = Labrus Niloticus (fish) viii. 290. 
Ban = myrobolan, vii. 247 ; viii. 322. 
Banat = daughters, protegees, viii. 39. 
Banal al-Na'ash = the Great Bear, iii. 28, 


Bandaged eyes (before beheading) iv. 145. 

Bands of bandits, iii. 101. 

Bandukaniyah (quarter of Cairo) vi. 254. 

Banj = Nibanj = Nepenthe, i. 70. 

Banner (bound to a spear sign of investi- 
ture) iii. 307 ; vii. 101. 

Banni(Bunnf) = Cyprinus Bynni, viii. 189. 

Banquets (royal) iv. 212. 

(daintily deviced) iv. 226. 

Banu Abbas (their colours black) vi. 86. 

al-Asfar (people of the yellow faces) 
ii. 220. 

Israfl, iv. 283. 

Kahtan, vi. 260. 
Nabhan, vi. 262. 

Shayban (tribe) iv. 233. 
Tamim (tribe) vii. 125. 

Umayyah (their colours white) vi. 86. 
'Uzzah (tribe famous for love passion) 

ii. 304 ; v. 70. 

Banyan = Ficus Indica, vi. 81. 
Baradiyah = wide-mouthed jug, i. 36. 
Baras = white leprosy, v. 294 ; viii. 24. 
Barge (Ar. Barijah) vi. 24. 
Barid = cold (vain, foolish, insipid) i. 213 ; 

iii. 7. 

Barid = Post, vii. 340. 
Barijah (pi. bawarij) = Jarm, barge, vi. 24. 
Barley, food for horses, i. 345. 
Barmahat (seventh Coptic month) v. 231. 
Barmecides (Ar. Baramikah) i. 188. 
Barr al- (history of the family) x. 137. 
Barmudah (eighth Coptic month) v. 232. 
Barr al-Manakhah in Al-Medinah, ii. 139. 
Barsh = matting, ii. 18. 
Barsh (Bars) commonest form of Bhang, 

iv. 31. 

Bartaut = Berthold, ix. 8. 
Barzakh = bar, partition, Hades, ii. 325. 

Basaltic statues in Haurar.ic ruins give rist 

to the idea of men transformed into 

black stones, i. 170. 
Basharah (al-) = gift of good tiding*, 

guerdon, i. 30. 

Bashik (small sparrow-hawk) iii. 6l. 
Basil = the Indian Tulsi, i. 19. 
Basil of the bridges = Ocymum basilicum, 

pennyroyal, i. 91. 
Basmalah = pronouncing the formula Bis* 

millah, v. 206 ; ix. I. 
(commonly -pronounced Bismillah) 

v. 213. 
Bastardy (a sore offence amongst Moslems) 

viii. 115. 

Bastinado of women, i. 183. 
Bat (has seed like a man's) v. 85. 
Bataikh (Batatikh) = water melons, 

vi. 208. 

Batanah = lining, vii. 330. 
Batarikah (half ecclesiastic half military 

term) viii. 256, 319. 
Batarikh = roe, spawn, ix. 139. 
Bath (first, after sickness) iii. 266. 
(coming out of, shows that consum- 
mation has taken place) iv. 244. 
(suggesting freshness from coition) 

vi. 135- 
(and privy, favourite haunts of the 

Jinns) vi. 141. 
(not to be entered by men without 

drawers) vi. 150, 
(may it be a blessing to thee) vm. 

(setting it a-working, turning on the 

water, hot and cold) ix. 149. 
Bathers pay on leaving the Hammam, ii. 

Bathsheba and Uriah (congeners of) vi. 

Batinf = gnostic ; a reprobate, ii. 29; vi. 


Batiyah=jar, flagon, viii. 323. 
Batrak (Batrik) = patriarch, ii. 89. 
Batrik (Bitrik) = patricius, ii. 89. 
Batshat al-Kubra = the great disaster 

(battle of Badr) vii. 55. 
Battal (A1-), story of, x. 74, 75. 
Battash al-Akran = he who assaults his 

peers, vii. 55. 
Battle-pieces, vii. 61. 
Bawd (admirably portrayed) iv. 4. 



Bawwa"b = door-keeper, vi. 189. 
Bawwalc = trumpeter (a discreditable cha- 
racter) viii. 192. 

Bayaz = Silurus Bajad (cat-fish) viii. 150. 
Bayaz = whiteness (lustre, honour) viii. 

Bayaz aI-Sulta"ni = the best kind of gypsum, 

i. 270. 

Baydah (Al-) = pawn in chess, v. 243. 
Bayt (Al-) = the house (for cage) v. 269. 
Bayt aI-Mukaddas= Jerusalem, ii. 132. 
Bayt Sha'r= house of hair; Bayt Shi'r=a 

couplet, viii. 279. 

Bayzatan = testicles (egg- story) ii. 55. 
Baz (vulg. for Tabl) = kettledrum, viii. 18. 
Bazar (locked at night) x. 13. 
Bazar of Damascus famous in the Middle 

Ages, i. 2. 
Ba"zf (Pers. Baz) = F. peregrinator, hawk, 

falcon, iii. 138. 
BE ! and IT is (the creative word) v. 240, 

Bead thrown into a cup (signal of delivery) 

vii. 324. 

Bean-eating in Egypt, iv. 160. 
Beard (long, and short wits) iii. 247. 
(forked, characteristic of a Persian) 

iii. 325- 
(combed by the fingers in the Wuzu) 

v. 198, 209. 
Beast with two backs (Eastern view of) 

vii' 35- 
Beast-stories (oldest matter in The Nights) 

iii. 114. 
Beauties of nature provoke hunger in 

Orientals, iii. 32. 
Beckoning (Eastern fashion the reverse of 

ours) vi. 109. 
Before the face of Allah = for the love of 

God, i. 135. 

Beheading or sacking of a faithless wife un- 
lawful but connived at, i. 181. 
Belle fourchette (greatly respected) ix. 


Belle passion in the East, ii. 62. 
Belt (Ar. Kamar) viii. 156. 
"Ben" of an Arab shop as opposed to 

but,"iv. 93. 
Benches (in olden Europe more usual than 

chairs) vi. 26. 

Berbers from the Upper Nile (the " Pad- 
dies " of Egypt) vi. 189. 

Bestiality (fatally common amongst Egyp* 

tians) iv. 299. 
Betrothed (for "intended to be marrie'd 

with regal ceremony ") x. 55. 
Better largesse than the mace, viii. 163. 
Bhang (its kinds and uses) ii. 123. 

(properties of the drug) iii. 91. 

(preparation of) iv. 31. 

(drugging with = tabannuj) iv. 71. 

Bida'ah = innovation, v. 167. 
Bier (the bulging = hadba) iv. 63. 
Bi-fardayn = "with two singles" (for with 

two baskets) viii. 162. 
Bika'a ( = low-land) ii. 109. 

( = con vents, pilgrimages to) v. 125. 

Bilad al-Filfil = home of pepper (Malabar) 

vi. 38. 
Bilad al-Rum (applied to France) viii. 

Bilad al-Sudan = Land of the Blacks (our 

Soudan) iii. 75. 

Bilal (first Muazzin) ii. 306 j iii. 106. 
"Bilking" (popular form of) ix. 145. 
Bilkis and her throne, ii. 79 ; viii. 82. 
Bi 'i-Salamah = in safety (to avert the evil 

eye) i. 288. 
Bint 'arus = daughter of the bridegroom 

(Ichneumon) iii. 147. 
Bint Shumukh (Pr.N.) = Daughter of Pride 

v. 382. 
Bir (Al-)ai-Mu'utallal = the Ruined Well, 

vii. 346. 

Bird (created by Jesus) v. 211. 
seen by Abu Bakr in the cave, v. 


Bird-girls, viii. 29. 
Birds (sing only in the pairing season) 

vi. 15. 
(huge ones discovered on the African 

coast) vi. 17. 

(left to watch over wives) vi. 132. 

(pretended understanding of their 

language) vi. 169. 
' (songs and cries of) v. 50. 
Birkah = pool of standing wafer, iv. 270 ; 

vi. 75- 
Birkat al-Habash = Abyssinian pond, 

i. 391. 

Birth-stool (Ar. Kursf al-Wihidah) ii. 80. 
Bishr (al-Hafi = Barefoot) ii. 203 ; ix. 21. 
Bisat (A1-) wa '1-masnad = carpet and 

cushion, viii. 55. 


A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

Bismillah = in the name of God, i. 40 ; 
v. 206. 

(said before taking action) i. So. 

(civil form of dismissal) i. 98. 

- ( = fall to) i. 264. 

(= enter in Allah's name) viii. 202. 

(parodied) ii. 223. 

Bismillah Nami = Now please go to sleep, 

viii. 178. 
Biting the finger ends (not nails) sign of 

confusion, etc., ii. 38. 
Biunes, bisexuals and women robed with 

the sun, vi. 168. 

Biza'at = capital, business concern, v. 81. 
Black (colour of the Abbaside banner) 

ii. 292 ; vi. 86. 
Blackamoors preferred by debauched 

women, i. 6 
Black-mail (paid to the Badawin of Ram- 

lah) iv. 76. 

Blast (of the last trumpet) v. 310. 
Blaze (Ar. Ghurrah, q.v.) iii. Ii8. 
Blessings at the head of letters, vii. 133. 
Blind (The, notorious for insolence) i. 330. 
Blinding a common practice in the East, 

now done, i. 108. 
Blue and yellow turbans prescribed to 

Christians and Jews, i. 77. 
Blue-eyed (frequently = fierce-eyed) iv. 

Blue-eyes = blind with cataract or staring, 

glittering, hungry, vii. 164. 
Boasting of one's tribe, iii. 80. 
Boccaccio quoted : i. 12, 174, 202, 251, 

305; ii. 82, 112; iv. 36, 155; v. 


Boccaccio and The Nights, x. 160. 
Body-guard (consists of two divisions) 

iv. 62. 
Boils and pimples supposed to be caused 

by broken hair-roots, i. 275. 
Book (Hack as her) x. I. 
Books (of the Judgment-day) viii. 294. 
Bostan (female Pr. N.) = flower-garden, 

iii. 345. 
Bostani = gardener, family name from 

original occupation, i. 266. 
Boulgrin, Bougre, Bougrerie (derivations 

of the terms) x. 249. 
Bow, a cowardly weapon, vii. 123. 
Box (Ar. 'Ulbah) viii. 71. 
Box-trick (and Lord Byron) vi. 168. 

Boycotting (Oriental forms of) viii. 302. 

Brain (fons veneris in man) v. 46. 

Brasier (Kanun, Minkal) v. 273. 

Brass (Ar. Nuhas asfar) vi. 83. 

Braying of the ass, iii. 117. 

Bread and salt (to be taken now '"cum 
grano salis ") iv. 200. 

Bread and salt (bond of) viii. 12. 

Breast broadening with delight, i. 48. 

straitened, the converse the of pre- 
vious, i. 119. 

Breast- bone (Taraib) v. 132. 

Breath (healing by the) v. 29. 

(of crocodiles, serpents, etc.) vi. 29. 

Breeze (rude but efficacious refrigerator) 
iv. 199. 

Breslau Edition quoted, i. 14, 52, 53 54, 
203, 217, 234, 245, 255, 345 ; ii. 77 ; 
iii. 162, 181, 211, 259; iv. 96, 113, 
181; v. 9, 17, 24, 27, 32, 42; vi. 
27, 3, 37> 44, 46, 5 6 57. 84, 100, 
129, 138, 148, 168, 180, 196, 207, 
211, 213, 242, 247 ; vii. 145, 150, 168. 
172, 173, 177, 202 262, 315, 316, 320, 
321, 324, 326, 327, 329, 331, 341, 342, 
343.350. 353. 354, 362, 363, 367 ; viii. 
7, 18, 66, 98, 113, 197, 242, 264, 273 ; 
ix. 33, 42, 59, 63, 156, 159, 169, 185, 
187 ; x. 54, etc. 

Breslau Edition (mean colloquialisms 
thereof) x. 169. 

Brethern (for kinsfolk) ix. 26. 

(of trust and brethren of society = 

friends and acquaintances) ix. 75. 

Bridal couch (attitudinising thereon) v. 

Bride of the Hoards, vi. 109 ; vii. 147 ; x. 


Bride-night, rarely conceived in, i. 227. 
Bride's throne, i. 215. 
Bridle (not to be committed to another) 

vii. 304. 
Brother (has a wide signification amongst 

Moslems) vi. 243. 

(of Folly = a very fool) ii. 279. 

(of Purity) iii. 150. 

(of Ignorance = Ignoramus) iii. 163. 

("of the Persians ") iv. 12. 

Brotherhood (forms of making) iii. 151. 

(sworn in Allah Almighty) v. 43. 

of Futurity = lookers out for a better 

world, ii. 197. 



Brow (like the letter Nun) iv. 249. 

Bruising the testicles a feminine mode of 
murdering men, iii. 3. 

Budakak (Butakah ) = crucible, viii. 8. 

Budur (Badoura) = full moons, iii. 228 ; 
iv. 249. 

Buffalo = bceuf i. 1'eau (?) ix. 181. 

Buhayrah = tank, cistern, viii. 29. 

Buka'ah = Coelesyria, ii. 109. 

Buka'at al-dam = place of blood (where 
it stagnates) iv. 68. 

Bukhayt = little good luck, ii. 48. 

Bukhti (dromedary) ii. 177 ; iii. 67. 

Bukjah = bundle, vi. 226. 

Bulad (Pers. Pulad) = steel, vi. 1 15. 

Bulak Edition quoted, i. II, 45, 68, 117, 
I45 2 3 J " i, 83, 185, 187 ; iii. 181, 
211, 212; vi. 5, n, 21, 27; vii. 18, 
57, 139, 173,269, 359; ix. 185. 

Bulbul (departed with Tommy Moor, 
Englished by "Nightingale") v. 48. 

Bull (followers preceding) ii. 98. 

Bull (of the Earth = Gdw-i-Zamm) v. 

Bum = owl (introduced to rhyme with 

Kayyum = the Eternal) viii. 286. 
Bunn = kind of cake, ix. 1 72. 
Burckhardt quoted, i. 66, 214; ii. 18, 

143 ; iii. 59, 101, 138, 147, 179, 278, 

308; iv. 31, 48 112, 217, 259; v. 

77, 80, 119; vii. 91, 93, 136, 147, 

156 ; viii. 23, 91, 93, 156, 285 j x. 


(fable anent his death) iv. 78. 
Burdah = mantle or plaid of striped stuff, 

vii. 95. 

' (poem of the) iv. II<>. 

Burka = nosebag, ii. 52 ; vi. 131, 192. 
Burning (a foretaste of Hell-fire) ix. 158. 
Bursting of the gall -bladder = our breaking 

of the heart, ii. 322. 
Burying a rival, ii. 58. 
Buttons (Ar. Azrar) ii. 318. 
Buzah = beer, i. 72. 
Byron (depreciated where he ought to be 

honoured most) vii. 268. 
Bystanders forcing on a sale, viii. 310. 

CABBALA = Spiritual Sciences, ii. 151. 

Caesarea, ii. 77. 

"of Armenia," ii. 273. 

Cairene (vulgarism) vi. 278. 

(chaff) iv. 215. 

(slangl iv. 75. 

(jargon) x. 8. 

(savoir faire) x. 10. 

(bohomie) x. 28. 

(knows his fellow Cairene) x. 35. 

Cairenes held exceedingly debauched, i. 

Cairo, see Misr. 

(nothing without the Nile) i. 295. 

Caitiff = Captivus, ii. 109. 
Calamity (i.e., to the enemy) x. 33. 
Calcutta Edition quoted, i. 17, 52 ; iii, 181, 

2ii ; iv. 274 ; v. 80, 325, 383 ; vi. 27, 

29,77, 116. 

Caliphate (defective title to) v. 116. 
Caliphs 'Abd al-'Aziz, ii. 166. 

'Abd al-Malfk, ii. 77, 167 j iii. 319 ; 

iv. 7. 

Abu Bakr, ii. 167, 197. 

AH, ii. 1 08. 

Amin (A1-) i. 185 ; v. 93, 152. 

Hakim (A1-) bi-Amri 'Hah, iv. 


Harun al-Rashid, viii. 160 ; ix. 17. 

Hishanfbin 'Abd al-Malik, ii. 170; 

vii. 104. 

Maamun (A1-) i. 185 ; iv, 109. 

Mahdf (A1-) vii. 136, 

" Mansur (A1-) ii. 142, 153, 2IO. 

Mu'awiyah, ii. 160, 161. 

Musta'fn (A1-) bi 'Hah, ix. 246. 

Mustansir (A1-) bi' llah, i. 317. 

Mu'tasim (A1-) bi 'llah, iii. 8 1 ; ix. 


Mutawakhil (A1-) 'ala 'llah, iv. 291 ; 

v. 153 ; ix. 232. 

Mu'tazid (A1-) ix. 229. 

Mu'tazz (A1-) ix. 242. 

'Omar, ii. 158, 159,' 162, 164; v. 


'Othman, ii. 163 ;'v. 215. 

Sulaymanbin 'Abdal-Malik,ii. 167 ; 

vii. 99. 

Ta'i (A1-) Ii 'llah, iii. 51, 307. 

Walfd (A1-) ii. 167 ; iii. 69 ; iv. 100 ; 

vii. 1 06. 

Wasik (Al-)iii. 81. 

Zahir (A1-) bi'llah, i. 317. 

Calligraphy, iv. 196. 

Camel (how slaughtered) i. 347 ; iv. 95. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Camel-load = 300 Ibs., for long journeys 

250 Ibs., ii. 45. 
(-men do not accept drafts on futurity) 

ii. 69. 

(-colts roasted whole) v. 135. 

(feeding on and vindictiveness) v. 


(Bactrian)v. 371. 

(seen in a dream is an omen of death j 

why ?) yi. 92. 

Camels (breeds of) iii. 67, I IO. 

(names) iii. no. 

(haltered ; jiose-ring used for 

dromedaries) iii. 120. 

(Mehari, Mehrfyah) iii. 277. 

(red the best kind) viii. 303. 

Camphor (simile for a fair face) iii. 174. 

(primitive way of extracting it) vi. 2K 

Camphor-apricot, vi. 277. 

Cannibal tribes in Central Africa, ii. 48. 

Cannibalism in the New World, x. 243. 

Cannibals and cannibalism, vi. 36. 

Canton (city of) vii. 334. 

Capo bianco, coda verde, iv. 36. 

Capotes melancholiques, vii. 190. 

Carat ( = Kirat) iii. 239. 

(= A of a dinar or miskal, something 

under 5d.) v. 277. 

Caravaggio (picture of St. Rosario) x. 219. 
Caravan (each one has to keep his place 

in a) ii. 184. 

Carelessness of the story-teller, ix. 4. 
Carmel = Karam-El (God's vineyard) viii. 

Carnelion stone bit with pearls = lips bit 

with teeth in sign of anger, iii. 179. 
Carpet (let him come to the King's = 

before the King as referee) 
Carpet-room = throne-room, ix. 121 
Carob (Cassia fislularis) ii. 241. 
bean, emblem of constancy, iii. 315. 
Carpet-beds, i. 294. 
Carrier-pigeons, ii. 247 
Castration (texts justifying or enjoining it) 

x. 227. 

Cat (puss, etc.) iii. 149. 
Cat-fish (Ar. Baydz) viii. 150, 151. 
Catamites (rising to highest rank in Turkey) 

iv. 225. 

(in Turkish baths) iv. 226. 

Cask (for " home " of the maiden wine) 

x. 38. 

Cask in Auerbach's Keller, viii. 131. n 
Ceruse (Ar. Isfidaj) vi. 126. 
Cervantes and Arab romance, iii. 66. 
Ceylon (Ar. Sarandib) vi. 64, 8l. 
Chaff, ii. 15; iii. 23; viii. 147, 152, 157, 

or banter allowed even to modest 

women, i. 267. 

Chameleon (Father of Coolness) iii. 165. 
Champing, sign of good breeding, i. 345. 
Change (sudden, of disposition) viii. 213. 
Character-sketch (making amends for abuse 

of women) x. 24. 
Chaste forbearance towards a woman 

frequently causes love, vii. 189. 
Chastity (merchandise in trust from Allah) 

iv. 43. 

Chawashiyah = Chamberlains, vii. 327. 
Cheating (not only venial but laudable 

under circumstances) viii. 217. 
Checkmate (Pers. Ar.) = the King is dead, 

viii. 217, 

Cheese a styptic, iii. 3. 
Chess and chessmen, ii. 104 ; v. -243. 
Chess anecdote, i. 132. 
Chewing a document that none may see it 

after, ii. 39. 
Child of the nurse, etc. = delicately reared, 

iv. 34. 
Children (carried astraddle upon hip or 

shoulder) i. 308. 

(one of its = a native of) x. 8. 
China (kingdom) iv. 175. 
China- ware displayed on .shelves, ii. 52. 
Chinese shadows, iv. 193. 
Chin-veil donned (showing intention to act 

like a man) viii. 99. 
Cider (Ar. Shardb al-tuffdh) iv. 134. 
Circumdsion (how practised) v. 209. 

(female) v. 279. 

Citadel (contains the Palace) ix. 102. 
Cities (two-mosqued, for large and conse- 

quently vicious ones) v. 66. 
City of Brass (Copper) iv. 176 ; vi. 3. 
Claimant of blood-revenge, iv. 109. 

and Defendant, iv. 150. 

Claims of maidenhead, i. 190. 
Clairvoyance of perfect affection, x. 26'. 
Clapping hands preliminary to a wrestling- 
bout, ii. 91. 

Clapping of hands to summon servants, 
i. 177; iii. 173- 



Clerical error of Bulak Edition, ii. 114. 
Clever young ladies dangerous in the East, 

i. 15- 

Climate (water and air) ii. 4. 

Clitoris (Ar. Zambur) and its excision, v. 


Cloak (Ar. Abdah) viii. 42. 
Clogs = Kubkdb, iii. 92. 
Closet (the forbidden and the bird-girls) 

viii. 29. 

Cloth of frieze and cloth of gold, iv. 145. 
" Cloth " (not " board " for playing chess) 

ix. 209. 

Clothes (tattered, sign of grief) iv. 158. 
Clothing and decency, ix. 182. 
Clout (hung over the door of a bath shows 

that women are bathing) ix. 153. 
Cocoa-nut (Ar. Jauz al-Hindi) vi. 55. 
Coffee (see Kahwah) ii. 261. 

(first mention of), v. 169 ; x. 90. 

(anachronism) viii. 274. 

(mention of probably due to the 

scribe) ix. 141. 

(its mention shows a comparatively 

late date) ix. 255. 

Cohen (Ka"hin) = diviner priest, esp. Jew- 
ish, ii. 221. 

Coition (postures of) iii. 93. 

" (the seal of love) viii. 304. 

(local excellences of) viii. 304. 

(ablution obligatory after it) viii. 305. 

Cold-of-countenance = a fool, iii. 7. 

Cold speech = a silly or abusive tirade, iii. 7. 

Colocasia (Ar. Kallak^s) viii. 151. 

Coloquintida (Ar. Hanzal) v. 19. 

Colossochelys = colossal tortoise, vi. 33. 

Colours (of the Caliphs) vi. 86. 

(names of) vi. in 

Combat reminding of that of Rustam and 
Sohrab, vii. 89. 

"Come to my arms my slight acquain- 
tance," ix. 177. 

Commander of the Faithful (title introduced 
by Omar) vi. 247. 

Commune (Ar. Jama'ah) v. 205. 

Comorin (derivation of the name) vi. 57. 

"Compelleth" in the sense of " burden- 
eth," vii. 285. 

Compliment (model of a courtly one) viii. 

Composed of seed by all men shed = 
superfetation of iniquity, viii. 15. 

Comrades of the Cave, iii. 128. 
Conception on the bride-night rare, i. 227. 
Conciseness (verging on obscurity) ix. 171. 
Confession after concealment, a character- 
istic of the servile class, i. 53. 
on the criminal's part required by 

Moslem law, i. 274. 
Confusion (of metaphors characteristic of 

The Nights) i. 86 
(of religious mythologies by way 

of "chaff") viii. 152. 
(universal in the undeveloped mind 

of men) ix. 78. 
Conjugal affection (striking picture of) 

vii. 243. 
Conjunctiva in Africans seldom white, 

vii. 184. 
Connection (tribal, seven degrees of) 

vii. 121. 
Consecrated ground (unknown to Moslems) 

vi. 161. 

Constipation (La) rend rigoureux, iii. 242. 
Consul (Shdh-bandar) iv. 29. 

(Kunsul) iv. 84. 

Contemplation of street-scenery, one of 

the pleasures of the Harem, i. 319. 

Continuation in dignities requested by 
office-holders from a new ruler, ii. 192. 

Contract (artful between squalor and 
gorgeousness) ix. 170. 

Contrition for romancing, viii. 66. 

Converts, theoretically respected and prac- 
tically despised, vii. 43. 

Copa d'agua, apology for a splendid ban- 
quet, vii. 1 68. 

Coptic convents, ii. 86. 

visitations to, still customary, ii. no. 

Copulation (praying before or after) ii. 161. 

(postures of) iii. 93. 

Coquetries (requiring as much inventive* 

ness as a cotillon) x. 58. 
Coral (name of a slave-girl) ii. 101. 
Corpse pollutes the toucher, i. 295. 
Cousin (term of familiarity = our " coz ") 

ii. 43. 
(first, affronts an Arab if she marries 

any save him without his leave) vi. 145. 
(has a prior right to marry a cousin) 

ix. 225. 

Covered (The, chapter of the Koran) v. 215. 
Cow (chapter ii.of the Koran) v. 211. 
Cowardice equally divided, iii. 173. 


Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

Cowardice (proverb anent) viii. 333. 

(of the Fellah, how to be mended) 

, ": 5 ' 

Cowrie (shells, etc., for small change) 

Craft (many names for, connected with 

Arabic) ix. 138. 

Creases in the stomach insisted upon, 130. 
Created for a mighty matter (i.e. for wor- 
ship and to prepare for futurity) vi. 91. 
Creation (is it and its Empire not His ?) 

v. 269. 

(from nothing) ix. 77. 

Crenelles = Shararif, iv. 165. 
Crepitus ventris and ethnology, v. 137. 
Crescent of the breakfast-fete, ix. 250. 
Crescent-like = emaciated, viii. 300. 
Crew (Ar. Bahriyah, Nawatiyah) viii. 17. 
Criss-cross row, iii. 236. 
Crocodiles (breath of) vi. 29. 
Cross-bows, vii. 62. 
Crow (an ill* omened bird) vi. 170. 
Crow-claw and camel-hoof, iv. 217. 
Cruelty (the mystery of) explained only by 

a law without law-giver) ix. 37. 

(of the " fair sex " in Egypt) x. 45 

Cry (that needs must be cried) x. 21. 
Cubit (the Hashim{=l8 inches) v. 371. 
Cuirasses against pleasure, cobwebs against 

infection, vii. 190. 
Cundums (French letters) vii. 190. 
Cup and cup-bearer, ii. 327. 
Curs (set them on the cattle = show a miser 

money, etc.) x. 18. 
Cursing intelligible, swearing meaningless, 

although English, ii. 312, 
Curtain (screening a reverend woman from 

the sight of men-invalids) ix. 347. 
Cutting (alluding to the scymitar) ii. 231. 
(bones before flesh =" sharp as a 

razor ") iv. 295. 

(off the right hand, Koranic punish- 
ment for theft) i. 274. 

(of the navel string preliminary to 

naming the babe) i. 231. 

the rope = breaking bounds, i. 349. 

Cynocephalus (kills men and rapes women) 

vii. 344- 

DAA AL-KABfR (Great Evil) = Daa al-Fil 
(Elephantine Evil, i.e. Elephantiasis) 
viii. 24. 

Dabbus = mace- vi. 249. 

Dadat = nurse (Pers.) viii. 209. 

Danish (Al-) = the Amazed, vi. 96. 

Dairah = circle, inclosure, ix. 287 

(for a basin surrounded by hills) ix. 

Dajlah (Dijlah) = Tigris (Heb. Hid-deke!) 

i. 180; viii. 150. 

Dajjal (Al-) = Moslem Anti-Christ, vi. ii. 
Dakhfl-ak = under thy protection, i. 61. 
Dakianus = Decianus, ii. 244. 
Dakkah = settle, vii. in; viii. 84, 
Dalak = foot-rasp, iv. 254. 
Dalhamah (Romance of) iii. 112. 
Dalil = guide ; f. Dalilah = wwguiding 

woman, bawd, ii. 329. 
Damascus women famed for sanguinary 

jealousy, i. 295. 
Damon and Pythias, v. 104. 
Damsel of the tribe = daughter of the chief, 

vii. 95 

Danaf (Al-):= distressing sickness, iv. 75. 
Dandan (N.P.) = tooth, ii. 83. 
Dandan (a monstrous fish), ix. 179. 
Dani wa Gharib = friend and foe, v. 42. 
Danik = sixth of drachma or dirham, ii. 

204; v. 112. 
Dar al-Na'fm= Dwelling of Delight, viii. 


Dara' (dira')= habergeon), coat of ring- 
mail, etc. iii. 109. 
Dar abukka= torn -torn, i. 311. 
Darakah = target, vi. 9. 
Darb al-Ahmar=Red Street (in Cairo) 

x. 8. 
Darb al-Asfar=the Street called Yellow, 

iv. 93. 

Darbar= public audience, i. 29. 
Darfil = dolphin, ix. 346. 
Darr al- Kail = divinely he spoke who said, 

iv. 20. 

Darrij = Let them slide, iv. 220. 
Dastur= leave, permission, i. 66. 
Datura Stramonium (the insane herb) vi. 


Daud = David, ii. 286. 
Daughter of my uncle = my wife, i. 69. 
" Daughters of God " (the three) vi. 282. 

(of Sa'adah = zebras) iii. 65. 

(of the bier = Ursa major) iii. 28; 221. 

Daulat (Pr. N.) = for tune, empire, kingdom, 

vii. 347. 



Dauraki= narrow-mouthed jug, i. 36. 
David (makes costs of mail) ii. 286 ; vi. 


Dawa' = medicine (for a depilatory) ix. 155. 
Dawat = wooden inkcase with reed-pens, 

ix. 122. 

Dawn -breeze, ii. 181. 
Day of Doom (mutual retaliation) iii. 128. 

(length of) iii. 299. 

(when wealth availeth not, etc.) ix. 16. 

(ye shall be saved from its misery) 

ix. 315. 
Daylam (A1-), soldiers of = warlike as the 

Daylamites, viii. 82. 
Daylamites, ir. 94. 
Dayyus = pimp, wittol, ix. 297. 
Dead (buried at once) v. 190. 
Death (from love) v. 134. 
(every soul shall taste of it) v. 166. 

(of a good Moslem) v. 167. 

(manners of, symbolised by colours) 

vi. 250. 
(simply and pathetically sketched) 

x. 47. 
" Death in a crowd as good as a feast " 

(Persian proverb) iii. 141. 
Death-prayer (usually a two-bow prayer) 

vi. 70. 
Debts (of dead parents sacred to the 

children) ix. 311. 

Deeds of prowess not exaggerated, ii. 108. 
Deity of the East despotic, iv. 118. 
" after the fashion of each race, iv. 267 
Delicacy of the female skin, ix. 321. 
"Delight of the Intelligent" (fancy title 

of a book) vi. 80. 
Demesne (Ar. Hima) viii. 225. 
Democracy of despotism, ix. 94. 
Depilation (Solomon and Bilkis) iv. 256. 
Deposits are not lost with Him = He dis- 

appointeth not, etc., vii. 334. 
Despite his nose = against his will, i. 26. 
Despotism (tempered by assassination) vi. 


Destiny blindeth human sight, i. 67. 
Destructiveness of slaves, ii. 55. 
Devil (was sick, etc.) ii. 264. 
(stoned at Mina) v. 203, 212. 

- (allowed to go about the world and 
seduce mankind) ix. 82. 

Devotees (address Allah as a lover would 
his beloved) v. 263. 
VOL. X. 

Devotees (white woollen raiment of) vii. 214. 
Dhdmi=the Trenchant (sword of Antar) 

vi. 271. 
Diamond (its cutting of very ancient date) 

ix. 325. 
Diamonds (occurring in alluvial lands) 

vi. 18. 
Diaphoresis (a sign of the abatement of a 

disease) ix. 146. 
Dihliz = passage, vi. 10. 
Di'ibil al-Khuza'i (poet) v 127. 
Dijlah (Tigris), River and Valley of Peace, 

viii. 51. 
Dirndgh = brain, meningx (for head), vii. 

I 7 8. 
Dimyat (vulg. Dumfyat) = Damietta, v. 

Dfn (A1-) al-a'raj = the perverted Faith, 

ix. ii. 

Dmar=gold-piece, Daric, Miskdl, i. 32. 
(description of one) ix. 294. 
Dinghy (Karib) iv. 168. 
Diras= thrashing sled, ii. 108. 
Dirham = silver-piece, i. 33. 
Dirham- weight = 48 grains avoir, ii. 316. 
Dirhams (50,000 = about 1,250) vii. 


( thousand =37 5) viii. to. 

Disposition (sudden change of) viii. 213. 
Dissection (practised on simiads) v. 220. 
Dist (Dast) = large copper cauldron, viii. 

Diversion of an Eastern Potentate, viii. 


Divining rod (dowsing rod) iv. 73 
Divorce (triple) iii. 292. 
Diwdn (fanciful origin of the word) ix. 

1 08. 

Diwan al-Barfd = Post-office, vii. 340. 
Diyar-i-Bakr = maid-land, v. 66. 
Do not to others what thou wouldest not 

they do unto thee, vi. 125. 
"Dog" and "hog" popular terms of 

abuse, i. 188. 
Doggrel (royal) v. 55. 

(phenomenal) v. 288. 

(sad) v. 297. 

(not worse than usual) viii. 225, 228. 

Dogs (clothed in hot-damp countries) iv. 

(in Eastern cities) vii. 202. 

Don Juan quoted ix. 190. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Dondnmd (rejoicings for the pregnancy of a 

Sultana) vii. 324. 
Donkey-boy, like our "post-boy," of any 

age, vii, 160. 
Donning woman's attire in token of defeat, 

vii. 1 88. 
Doomsday (horrors of, come upon a man) 

ii. 232. 
Door (behind it the door-keeper's seat) v. 


Door -hinges, ii. 214. 

Door-keepers (in Egypt mostly Berbers) 

vi. 189. 
Doors (usually shut with a wooden bolt) 

iii. 198. 

(pulled up = raised from the lower 
hinge-pins) vii. 352. 

Double entendre, iii. 234; viii. 153, 251. 
Dove and turtle-dove female, ii. 23. 
Down (of the cheek) ii. 246. 
Dozd o Kazi (Persian book) ii. 55. 
Drama (in Turkey and Persia) x. 167. 
Dramatic scene (told with charming 

naivete*) x. 9. 
Draught of air (Zug) feared by Orientals, 

ii. 9. 

Drawbridges in Coptic convents, ii. 94. 
Dream (Speaker in a) iv. 239. 
Dreams (true at later night) iii. 258. 

(lovers meet in) v. 47. 

- (play an important part in the 
romances of chivalry) viii. 113. 

Dress (scarlet, of a King in anger) iv. 

Drinking at dawn, iii. 20. 

their death-agony = suffering similar 
pain, iii. 315. 

(before or after dinner) vii. 132. 
(in the dark disliked) ii. 59. 

first to show the absence of poison, 
i. 88, 295. 

bouts (attended in bright dresses) vi. 


Dromedary (see Camel). 

(guided by a nose-ring) iii. 120. 

" Drop " unknown to the Eastern gallows, 

i. 260. 

Drop (black, of the heart) iv. 251. 
Drowning (a martyr's death) ix. 158. 
" Drugging " not a Badawi sentiment, 

ii. 122. 
Drugs (is this an art of ?) vii. 147. 

Drunk with tbe excess of his beauty, iv. 34 ; 

vii. 162. 
Drunken habits of Central African races, 

vii. 357- 
Drunken -son (excused by mother, rebuked 

by father) viii. 287. 
Dubarah (Dubara) = Dubrornik, Ragusa, 

ii. 219. 
Due demanded leads to imprisonment for 

arrears, viii. 170. 
Dukhan = smoke (meaning tobacco for the 

Chibouk) ix. 156. 

Dukhul = going in to the bride, iv. 30. 
Dulab = water-wheel j buttery ; cupboard ; 

ix. 306. 

Dung (used as fuel, etc.) ii. 149. 
Dunya (Pr. N.) = world, iii. 7, 319; x. 27. 
Dunydzad = world free (?) i. 14. 
Durbar of idols, ix. 325. 
Durka'ah= lower part of the floor (opposed 

to Li wan) iv. 71. 
Durrah (vulg. for Zarrah, q.v.) 
Dust-storm in tropical lands, i. III. 
Duwdmah = whirlpool, ix. 93. 

EAR-DROP = penis, ii. 318. 

" Early to bed," etc. (modern version of 
the same) vii. 217. 

East and West (confounded by a beauty- 
dazed monk) viii. 279. 

Easterns sleep with covered heads, iii. 345. 

Eatables (their exchange must be equal) 
v. 204. 

Eating (together makes friends) iii. 71. 

(gives rights of guestship) iv. 214. 

(superstitious belief in its power) 

iv. 218. 

(how it should be done) v. 206. 

Eating and drinking (before thinking of the 
lover) viii. 260. 

Eedgah (see Idgah) ii. 202. 

Eftendi (Turkish title = our esquire) iv. 53. 

Eggs for testicles, ii. 55. 

Eginhardt (belonged to the clerical pro* 
fession) viii. 326. 

Egypt (derivation of the name) ix. 286. 

Egyptian ( = archi-) polisonnerie, iii. 243. 

Egyptian vulgarism, iv. 107. 

characteristic, iv. 260. 

Elephant (derivation of the word) ii. 104. 

Elephant-faced, Vetala, vii. 34. 



Elephant's roll = swaying and graceful 

gait, i. 217. 

Elephants frightening horses, vii. 61. 
Elevation (nothing strange in sudden) 

x- 53- 

Eli-Fenioun = Polyphemus, vii. 361. 
Elliptical expression, vi. 288. 
Elliptical style of the Eastern story-steller, 

ix. 1 60. 
Emancipation (the greater = pardon for 

sins or holy death) ii, 105. 
Embracing (like the La"m embraceth the 

Alif ) iv. 243. 
Emerald (white ?) iv. 164. 

(mace-head of) vi. 67. 

(-rods in lattice windows) vi. 117. 
Emirs (of the wild Arabs) = " Phylarchs " 

ix. 323. 
Emma (hides her lover under her cloak) 

ix. 8. 
Empire (endureth with infidelity but not 

with tyranny) v. 187. 
Enemy (his offered hand to be kissed or 

cut oft) ii. 142. 
" Enfants terribles " in Eastern guise, vi. 


Entertainments (names of) viii. 231. 
Envying another's wealth wrongs him, vi. 

Ephesus (The Matron of) x. 220. 

(The Seven Sleepers of) iii. 128. 

Epistasis without prostasis, ix. 240. 
Ernest (Duke of Bavaria, Romance of) x. 

Erotic inferences drawn from parts of the 

body, i. 350. 
specialists amongst the Ancients, x. 


Eternal truths of The Nights, i. 7. 
Eunuch best go-between, i. 282. 

employed as porter, i. 343. 

different kinds of, i. 132. 

(if without testes only, highly prized) 
ii. 90. 

(driving the people out of a lady's 

way) iv. 126. 

(who have studied the Harim) iv. 228. 

(and their wives), v. 46. 

(avoid allusion to their misfortune) 

v. 47. 
Eunuch-in-Chief a most important Jack- 

in-Omce, i. 283. 

Euphemisms, i. 31 ; iii. 68, 102, 209, 267, 
338; vi. 75, 145; vii. 134, 142; viii. 
173; ix. 180, 224; x. 4, 27. 

Euphemy (announcing death) iv. 61. 

(thou shalt die) iv. 90. 

(all is well) iv. 138. 

(the far one is a Nazarene) iv. 215. 

Euphuistic speech, vii. 285 ; ix. 43. 

Euthanasia and anaesthetics, ix. 90. 

Evacuation (and constipation) iii. 242. 

Eve (Ar. Hawwa) v. 139. 

(the true seducer) iii. 166. 

Evil (befalling thee is from thyself) vi. 138. 

Exaggeration part of humour, i. 12. 

characteristic of The Nights, iv. 

273 ; v. 306. 

Expiation of oaths, ii. 186. 

Eye (darkening from vine or passion) iii. ' 

" ' (orbits slit up and down the face of a 

hideous Jinn) iii. 235. 

(man of the == pupil) iii. 286. 

(white = blind) iii. 323. 

" (the evil) on children, iv. 37. 

(babes of the) iv. 246. 

(likened to the letter Sa"d, the brow 

to Nun) v. 34. 

(for helper) v. 60. 

(Thou shalt be in mine = I will keep 

thee as though thou wert the apple of 

my eye) viii. 90. 

" Eye of the needle " (for wicket) ix. 320. 1 
Eyebrows joined a great beauty in Arabia, 

i. 227. 
Eyes (of me = my dears) i. 163. 

(hot = full of tears) ii. 99. 

(becoming white = blind) ii. 283. 

(bandaged before beheading) iv. 145. 

-- (blue ones) iv. 129. 

(one-eyed men) iv. 194. 

(plucking or tearing out of, a Persian 

practice) vii. 359. 

("sunk" into the head for our 

" starting " from it) vii-. 36. 

(Babylonian = bewitching) viii. 278. 

(no male has ever filled mine = none 

hath pleased me) ix. 222. 

FABLES proper (oldest part of The Nights) 

iii. 114. 
Face-veil = "nose-bag" i. 82. 


A If Laylah wa LaylaTi. 

Faces (on the Day of Judgment) iv. 249. 
Fadaiscs of a blue stocking, ii. 156. 
Faghfur (Mosl. title for the Emperor of 

China) vii. 335. 

Fa'il = agent, active (Sodomite) v. 156. 
Fa-imma'alayhawa-immabiha" = whether 

(luck go) against it or (luck go) with it, 

viii. 157. 
Paintings and trances . ( common in 

romances of chivalry) viii. 118. 
Fairer to-day than fair of yesterday = ever 

increasing in beauty, iii. 331. 
Fajirah = harlot (often mere abuse with- 
out special meaning) viii. 109. 
Fakih = divine, vii. 325. 
Fakir = religious mendicant generally, 

i- 95 J v. 39- 
(the, and his jar of butter ; congeners 

of the tale) ix. 40. 
Fakru (A1-) fakhri = poverty is my pride 

(saying of Mohammed) v. 268. 
Fal = omen, v. 136. 
Falak (clearing) = breaking forth of light 

from darkness, iii. 22. 
Falastfn, degraded to " Philister," vii. 101. 
Falcon (see Hawk, Bdzi). 
Falcon (blinding the quarry) i. 51. 
Falling on the back (a fair fall in wrestling) 

ii. 92. 

(with laughter) iii. 306. 

Fals ahmar = a red cent, i. 321. 
Familiarity between the great and paupers, 

ii. 32- 

of girls with black slave-boys, ii. 49. 

Family (euphemistically for wife) vi. 75. 

Far off one (the, shall die) iv. 90. 

Farais (pi. of farfsah) = shoulder-muscles, 

vii. 219. 
Fardiz = cfrders expressly given in the 

Koran, i. 169. 
Farajlyah = a long-sleeved robe, i. 210; 


Faranik (A1-) = letter-carrier, vii. 340. 
Faranj (A1-) = European, i. 296. 
Farashah, noun of unity of Farash = 

butterfly-moth, vii. 305. 
Fard Kalmah = a single word (vulgarism) 

viii. 188. 

FarJd = unique ; union-pearl, x. 54. 
Fariki, adjective of Mayyalarikfn, vii. i. 
Farikin for Mayyafarikfn (city in Diyar- 

bakr) vi. 107. 

Faris = rider, knight, vii. 314. 

Farj = slit; Zawi '1-Furuj = slit onei,' 

ii. 49, 
Farkh Akrab (vulgarism for Ukayrib) = a 

young scorpion, iv. 46. 
Farkh Samak = fish-chick (for young fish) 

viii. 149. 
Farrash, a man of general utility, tent- , 

pitcher, etc., vii. 4. 
Fars = Persia, v. 26. 
Farsakh = parasang, iv. 230. 

= three English miles, ii. 114. 

Farsalah parcel, viii. 162. 
Fart (in return for chafT) v. 99. 

(and Badawl " pundonor ") v. 137. 

Farting for fear, iii. 118. 

Farz = obligatory prayer, vi. 193. 

(mentioned after Sunnat because 

jingling with Arz) ix. 15. 
Fas = city of Fez, vi. 222. 
Fass= bezel of a ring, gem cut en cabochon, 

contenant for contenu, i. 165 J " 97* 
Fast (and its break) v. 201. 

(when forbidden) v. 265. 

Faswah = susurrus, ix. 291. 

Faswan Salh al-Subyan (Pr. N.) = Fizzler,' 

Dung of children, ix. II. 
Fat and Thin (dispute between) iv. 254. 
Fata = a youth ; generous man, etc., i. 


Fatalism and Predestination, ix. 45. 
Fate (written in the sutures of the skull) 

viii. 237. 

(and Freewill) ix. 60. 

Fath = opening (e.g. of a maidenhead) 
viii. 348. 

(A1-) bin Khakan (boon companion 

of Al-Mutawakkil) ix. 245. 

Father of Bitterness = the Devil, vii. 116. 
Fatihah (the opening chapter of the Koran) 
iv. 36. 

(position of the hands in reciting \i\ 

v. 80. 

(recited seven times for greater solem- 
nity) v. 184. 

(repeated to confirm an agreement) 

vi. 217. 

(quoted) vii. 286. 

(pronounced to make an agreement " 

binding) ix. 138. 

Fatimah (Pr. N.) = the Weaner, vi. 145. 

(daughter of Mohammed) viii. 252. 



Fatimite .(Caliphs, their colours green) vi. 


Fatin = tempter, seducer, iii. 82. 
Fatir = Creator (chapter of the Koran) 

vii. 366. 

Fatis = carrion, corps creve*, vii. 181. 
Faturat = light food for early breakfast; 

X. 12. 

Fausta and Crispus, vi. 127. 

Favours foreshadowing downfall, i. 48. 

(not lawful until sanctified by love) 

viii. 226. 

Fawn (for a graceful youth) viii. 329. 

Faylasuf = philosopher, v. 234. 

Flaylasufiyah = philosopheress, vii. 145. 

Fayliilah = slumbering after sunset, ii. 178. 

Fayyaz (A1-) = the overflowing (with bene- 
fits) vii. 99 

Fazl = grace, exceeding goodness, vii. 220. 

Fealty of the Steep, v. 295. 

Fearing for the lover first, vii. 256. 

Fee delicately offered, vii. 162. 

Feet (lack the European development of 
sebaceous glands) viii. 43. 

(coldness of, a symptom of impotence) 

viii. 317. 

Fellah = peasant, husbandman, ix. 40. 

Fellah chaff, ix. 152. 

Female depravity going hand in hand with 
perversity of taste, i. 73. 

Female (Amazon) Island, viii. 60. 

Feminine mind prone to exaggeration, viii. 

friend does not hesitate to prescribe 

fibs, viii. 37. 

- persistency of purpose (confirmed by 
" consolations of religion ") viii. 99. 

Festival (Ar. 'Id) viii. 142. 
Fi al-Khawafik = among the flags, etc. 
j v. 61. 

Fi al-Kamar = in the moonshine (perhaps 
allusion to the Comorin Islands) vii. 


Fiat tttjustitia ruat Ccelum, i. 253. 

Fida = ransom, self-sacrifice, viii. 36. 

Fidaan = instead of, viii. 36.. , 

Fig and sycamore (unclean allusion in) 
viii. 269. 

Fig = anus, vii. 151. 

Fights easily provoked at funerals or wed- 
ding processions, vii. 190. 

Fikh = theology, vii. 325. 

Fillet = the Greek " Stephane," vii;. 209. 
Fillets hung on trees to denote an honoured 

tomb, vii. 96. 

Fine feathers make fine birds, viii. 2OI. 
Fingan (for Finjan) = (coffee-) cup, viii. 


Finger in mouth (sign of grief) ii. 302. 
(run round the inside of a vessel) 

viii. 200. 
Finger-tips (making marks in the ground) 

viii. 72. 

Fingers (names of) ix. 160. 
Fingers and toes (separated to wash between 

them) v. 198. 

Finjan = egg-shell cup for coffee, ix. 268. 
Firasah = physiognomy, viii. 326. 
Firdaus= Paradise, ix. 214. 
Firdausi, the Persian Homer, quoted, 

iii. 83. 
Fire (and sickness cannot cohabit) iii. 59. 

(worshippers slandered) iii. 326. 

(of Hell, but not shame) v. 138. 

(handled without injury, a common 

conjuring trick) v. 271. 
(there is no blower of = utter desola- 
tion) vi. 15. 

(forbidden as punishment) vi. 26. 

(none might warm himself at their) 

vi. 261. 

= Hell (home of suicides) ix. 25. 

Fire-arms mentioned, vii. 62. 
Fire-sticks (Zand, Zandah) v. 52. 
Firman =Wazirial order, iv. 6l. 
First at the feast and last at the fray, iii. 8r. 
First personal pronoun placed first for 

respect, i. 237. 
Fi sabili 'llahi = on Allah's path (martyr* 

dom) iv. 247. 
Fish (begins to stink at the head) ii. 168. 

(-island) vi. 6. 

(the ass-headed) vi. 33. 

(great = .Hut, common = Samak) vi. 

(changed into apes, true Fellah 

"chaff") viii. 147. 
(of Paradise, promising acceptance of 

prayer) viii. 163. 

Fishr = squeeze of the tomb, v. iii. 
Fisherman (Arab contrasted with English) 

v. 51. 
Fist (putting into fist = putting one's self at 

another's mercy) iii. 155. 


A If Laylah wa Laytah. 

Fitnah = revolt, seduction, mischief, beauti- 
ful girl, aphrodisiac perfume, i. 219 ; 

ii. 76. 

Fits of religious enthusiasm, ii. 132. 
Flatterers (the worst of foes) ii. ii. 
Flattery (more telling because proceeding 

from the heart) viii. 104. 
Flatulence produced by bean-eating, iv. 

1 60. 

Flea (still an Egyptian plague) vi. 205. 
Flirtation impossible in the East, vii. 181. 
Floor (sitting upon the, sign of deepest 

dejection) vii. 314. 
Flowers of speech, ii. 88. 
Flying for delight, iii. 26. 
Food-tray of Sulayman, vi. 80. 
Folk follow their King's faith, ii. 157. 
Following one's face = at random, i. 347. 
Food (partaken gives rights of protection) 

iv. 214. 
(superstitious belief in its power) 

iv. 218. 

Foot (smallness of, sign of blood) iii. 227. 
(prehensile powers of the Eastern) 

vii. 179. 
"Forbid not yourselves the good things 

which Allah hath allowed you," v. 216. 
" Forcible eateth feeble," ix. 179. 
Fore-arm (for proficiency) ix. 306. 
Formality (a sign of good breeding) viii. 

Formication {accompanying a paralytic 

stroke) v. 251. 
Formula of praise pronounced to avert the 

evil eye, iii. 224. 
Fortune makes kneel her camel by some 

other one = encamps with a favourite, 

iii. 141. 

" Forty days " = our "honeymoon, "viii. 47. 
Foster-brother (dearer than kith and kin) 

iii. 256. 
Fountain-bowl (ornamented with mosaic, 

etc.) ii. 310. 
Fourteen (expressed by seven and seven, 

or five and five plus four) viii. 70. 
Fox (Ar. Abu Hosayn, Salab) vi. 211. 
- (cunning man) iii. 132. 
' and jackal (confounded by the Arabic 

dialects) x. 123. 
Frail (Ar. Farsalah) viii. 162. 
Frame (crescent-like by reason of its lean- 
ness) viii. 300. 

Freedom (granted to a slave for the sake 
of reward from Allah) ix. 243. 

Freeing slaves for the benefit of the souls 
of the departed, iii. 211. 

Freewill (and the Koran) iv. 275. 

French letters (all about them) vii. 190. 

Friday night = our Thursday night, i. 

Friday service described, i. 313. 

Friend (feminine, does not hesitate to pre- 
scribe a fib) viii. 37. 

Friends (weeping when they meet after 
long parting) iv. 26. 

(" damned ill-natured ones ") iv. 137. 

Frolics of high-born ladies, i. 328. 

Front-teeth wide apart (a beauty amongst 
the Egyptians, not the Arabs), viii. 

Fruit of two kinds, vi. 277. 

Fruits (fresh and dry) v. 314. 

Fulan (fulano in Span, and Port.) = a 
certain person, iii. 191 ; iv. 278. 

Fulk = boat, vi 62. 

Full, Fill = Arabian jessamine, viii. 273. 

Fumigations to cite Jinnis, etc., vii. 363 ; 
ix. 29. 

" Fun"= practical jokes of the largest, u 


"Fundamentals (Usiil) remembered "as 

the business is not forgotten, ii. 1$. 
Funduk = Fondaco, viii. 184. 
Funeral oration on an Arabian Achilles 

(after Hariri) viii. 348. 
Funerals (meritorious to accompany) ii. 

Furat = Euphrates (derivation of the 

name) ix. 17. 

Furaydun, see Afridun, ii. 82. 
Furkan = Koran, iv. 90. 
Fustat = Old Cairo, vi. 87. 
Futah = napkin, waistcloth, vii. 34$ 
Futuh = openings, victories, benefits, iii. 


.... (openings, victories) iv. 51 
Futur = breakfast, i. 300 ; ix. 307. 
Fuzayl bin 'lyaz (Sufi ascetic) ix. 21. 

GALACTOPHAGI (use milk always in the 

soured form) vi. 201 ; vii. 360. 
Gall-bladder and liver allusions, i. 219. 
Galland, Antoine (memoir of) x. 96 seqj. 



"Gallery" (speaking to the) viii. 128. 

Gamin (faire le) iii. 304. 

Garden (in the Prophet's tomb at Al- 

Medinah) vii. 91. 
(the Perfumed of the Cheykh Nef- 

zaoui) x. 133. 
Gardeners touchy on the point of mated 

visitors, ii. 22. 
Gardens (with rivers flowing underneath, 

Koranic phrase) v. 356. 
Gate (of war opened) ix. 9. 
Gates (two to port towns) iii. 281. 

(of Heaven are open) ix. 221. 

(shut during Friday devotions from 

fear of " Sicilian Vespers ") ix. 259. 
Gaw-i-Zamm = the Bull of the Earth, v. 


Gazelles' blood red (dark red dye) x. 12. 
Gems and their mines, vi. 18. 
Genealogy (Arab, begins with Adna"n) v. 

Generosity (an Arab's ideal because the 

reverse of his nature) ii. 36. 

(peculiar style of) vii. 323. 

Geography in its bearings on morality, iii. 


Geomantic process, iii. 269. 
German translations of The Nights, x. 

112, seqq. 

Ghdbah = thicket, ii. 85 ; iv. 40. 
Ghadir = a place where water sinks, low 

land, i. 233. 

Ghadr cheating, viii. 217. 
Ghaliyah (A1-) = older English Algallia, 

viii. 220. 

Ghalyun = galleon, ix. 138. 
Ghamz= winking, signing with the eyes, i. 


Ghandur = a gallant, vii. 181. 
Gharam (Pr. N.) = eagerness, desire, love- 
longing, iii. 172. 
Gharamah = avanie, viii. 151. 
Gharib = foreigner, i. 95. 
Ghashim=" Johnny Raw," ii. 330. 
Gha"shiyah = tui, scabbard ; sleeved cloak, 

iv. 131. 
Ghatrafan (Pr. N.) = proud, petulant, v. 


Ghaut = Saridah, q.v. t v. 223. 
Ghawa'si = singing girls, i. 214. 
Ghaylulah = slumbering in the morning, ii. 

Ghayur= jealous (applies to Time) viii. 67. 
Ghaza = Artemisia (a desert shrub) ii. 24 ; 

iii. 220 ; vi. 192 ; ix. 27. 
Ghazalah = gazelle (a slave-girl's name) ix. 

Ghazanfaribn Kamkhil=Lion son of (?) 

v. 363- , 
Ghayb (Al-)= secret purpose; future, ix. 

Ghazban (N.P.)= an angry, violent man, 

ii. 125. 
Ghazi= fighter for the faith, ii. 240; viii. 

Ghazl al-banat (girls' spinning) = vermicelli, 

i.8 3 . 

Ghazwah = raid, foray, razzia, ii. 217. 
Ghilman = Wuldan, the beautiful youths of 

Paradise, i. 211. 

(counterpart of the Houris) v. 64. 

Ghimd (Ghamad) = scabbard, v. 158. 
Ghoonj (Ghunj) = art of motitation i 

coition, v. 80. 

Ghost (phantom = Tayf) iii. 252. 
Ghul = ogre, cannibal, vi. 36. 
Ghulah = ogress, i. 55. 
Ghula"miyah=girl dressed like a boy to act 

cup-bearer, x. 39. 
Ghull = iron collar, ix. 333. 
Ghuls (whose bellies none may fill but 

Allah) ix. 152. 
Ghurab al-Bayn = raven of parting, iv. 52 ; 

vii. 226. 

Ghurab = galleon (grab) viii. 323. 
Ghurbah (A1-) Kurbah = " Travel is 

Travail," ix. 257. 
Gurrah = blaze on a horse's forehead, iii. 

118 ; x. 40. 

Ghusl = complete ablution, v. 80. 
Ghusl al-Sihhah = washing of health, iii. 

Ghussah = calamity which chokes, wrath, 

ii. 147. 

Ghutah = thickly grown lowland, i. 115. 
Giants (arriving in Peru, probably the 

Caribs of the Brazil) x. 243. 
"Gift (from me to" etc. = " I leave it to 

you, sir ") vii. 292. 

(is for him who is present) ix. 225. 

Giraffe, exceedingly timid, vii. 54 

unfit for riding, vii. 62. 

Girding the Sovereign (found in the hiero- 
glyphs), vii. 328. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Girl (of nine plus five = in her prime) 

v. 192. 
Give a man luck and throw him into the 

sea, iii. 341. 
Glance compared with a Yamdni sword, 

ii. 127. 

Gloom = black hair of youth, vii. 277. 
Glooms gathering and full moons dawning, 

for hands and eyes, vii. 247. 
Gloria (in = the Italian term for the vene? 

real finish) viii. 329. 
Glossarium eroticum, x. 221. 
Gnostic absurdities, x. 191. 
Goad (of the donkey-boy) iii. 116. 
Godiva (an Arabic lady of the wrong sort) 

ix. 261. 
Going straight to the point preferred to 

filer le parfait amour, i. 268. 
Gold (makes bold) i. 340. 
(different names of, required by 

Arabic rhetoric) iv. 97. 
(when he looked at it, his life seemed 

a light thing to him) vii. 240. 

(liquid = Vino d'Oro) x. 40. 

Gold -pieces (stuck on the cheeks of 

singing-girls, etc.) viii. 275. 
Goody-goody preachments, iv. 187. 
Gong (Ar. Mudawwarah) iv. 135. 
Good news, Inshallah ;= is all right with 

thee ? ix. 224. 
Gospel of Infancy, ii. 228. 
Gossamer (names for) iii. 217. 
Gourd (Ar. Hanzal) ix. 165. 
Grammatical double entendres, ix. 272. 
Grandfather's name given familiarly, ii. 15. 
Grapes (bunch of, weighing twenty pounds 

no exaggeration) vii. 358. 
Grave (levelling slave and sovereign) iii. 

" Greatness belongeth to God alone " (used 

elliptically) vi. 288. 
Green (colour of the Fatimite Caliphs) vi. 


Green gown (Anglo-Indice = white ball- 
dress with blades of grass behind) viii. 

Green garb (distinguishing mark of Al- 

Khizr) ix. 324. 

Greetings before the world, v. 34. 
Grelots lascifs, x. 238. 
Grim joke (showing elation of spirits) 

vii. 324. 

Grimm's "Household Tales" quoted, 

vi. 230. 

Groom (falling in love with) viii. 345, 
Ground (really kissed) vii. 257. 
Ground- floor usually let for shops, i. 319. 
Guadalajara =Wady al-Khara (of dung) 

ix. 10. 
" Guebre " introduced by Lord Byron, viii. 


Guest-rite, vii. 121. 
Gull-fairs, viii. 90. . 
Gypsies (their first appearance in Europe) 

x.8 9 . 

HABAB (Hab) = motes, iv. 257. 

Habash = Abyssinia and something more, 

v. 395- 

Habb = grain of the heart, i. 250. 
Habb al 'ubb (a woman's ornament) vii. 


Habbaniyah = grain -seller's quarter, i. 269. 
Habba-zd ! = good this ! v. 52. 
Habib, euphemism for lover, i. 223. 
Habibi wa tabibi = my love and leach, ix. 

Habitations (names given to them by the 

Arabs) viii. 229. 
Habl = cord ; cause, viii. 100. 
Habzalam (Pr. N. = seed of tyranny; 

" Absalom "?) iv. 66. 
Hadas = surmise, vii. 302. 
Hadba (the bulging bier) iv. 63. 
Hadf (A1-), Caliph, v. 93. 
Hadid = iron, ii. 310. 
Hadis = tradition of the Prophet, iv. 207 ; 

v. 201. 
Hadis = saying of the Apostle, tradition, 

v. 201. 
Hafiz (f. Hdfizah) = I. traditionist ; 2. one 

who can recite the Koran by rote, vi. 


Hafiz quoted, viii. 120. 

Hafsah (Caliph Omar's daughter and wife 

of Mohammed) ii. 165. 
Hafsites (Dynasty in Mauritania) ii. 165. 
Hail (within sight of the Equator) vii. 336. 
Hair (should be allowed all to grow or be 

shaven off) i. 308. 

Hair-dyes (all vegetable matter) i. 326. 
(Mohammed on) iv. 194. 
Hair-strings (of black silk) iii. 311. 
(significance of) iii. 313. 



Hdjah = a needful thing (for something, 

somewhat) vii. 349. 
Hajar-coinage, vii. 95. 
Hajar Jahannam = hell-stone, lava, basalt, 

v. 378. 
I lajib = groom, chamberlain, ii. 304*; in. 


Hajfn (tall camel) iii. 67. 

Hajj = Pilgrimage, v. 202. 

Hajj (or Haji, not Hajji) iv. 215. 

Hajj al-Akbar and Hajj al-Asgar, ii. 169. 

Hajjaj (A1-) bin Yusnf, Governor of Al- 
Hijdz and Al-Irak, iv. 3 ; vii. 97. 

Hajjam = barber-surgeon, cupper, bleeder, 
iv. 112. 

Haldm = ruler, not to be confounded with 
Hakfm, doctor, etc., vii. 29. 

Ha'kim (A1-) bi-amri 'Hah (Caliph) iv. 296. 

(not to be confounded with the Fati- 
mite) v. 86. 

Hakk (A1-) = the Truth (Allah) v. 284. 

Hakk = right (Hakki = mine) viii. 335. 

Halab = Aleppo, i. 292. 

Halabi Shalabi = the Aleppine is a fellow 
fine, v. 64. 

Haldwah = sweetmeat, iv. 60 ; vii. 205. 

HaUwat al-Salamah = sweetmeat for the 
returning of a friend, viii. 325. 

Halfah-grass (Poa) ii. 18. 

Halib = fresh milk, vi. 2OI. 

Halimah = the mild, gentle (fem.) ix. 265. 

Haling by the hair a reminiscence of " mar- 
riage by capture," viii. 40. 

Hallaling, Anglo-Indian term for the Mos- 
lem rite of killing animals for food, 
vii. 9. 

Halumma = bring! vii. 117. 

Halummu = drew near (plur.) ix. 44. 

Halwa = sweetmeats, ii. 47, 212. 

Hamadan (town in Persian Mesopotamia) 
ix. 212. 

Hamah (soul of a murdered man in form 
of a bird sprung from his head) iii. 


Hamail = baldricks, v. 158. 
Hamam = wood-pigeon, v. 49. 

(al-Ayk) = culver of the copse, v. 49. 

Hamath = Hightown, ii. 178. 

Hamid (fem. Hamidah) = praiseworthy, 

satisfactory, ix. 76. 
Hammal al-Hatabi = one who carries 

fuel, vii. 59. 

j Hammam (going to the = convalescence) 

i. 288. 
(ditto, showing that women's courses 

are over) i. 286. 

(hired for private parties) v. 63. 

Hammam-bath (a luxury as well as 

necessity)- iii. 19. 

Hamzah (uncle of the Prophet) viii. 172. 
Hanabat = " hanap " viii. 202. 
Hanbal, see Ahmad bin Hanbal, ii. 204. 
Hand (left, how used) iv. 129. 
(white, symbol of generosity ; black 

oi niggardness) iv. 185. 

(his for her) iv. 279. 

(cut off in penalty for theft) viii. 164. 

(cut off for striking a father) viii. 287. 

Handfuls (the two) v. 207. 
Handkerchief of dismissal, x. 47. 
Hands (behind the back, posture of sub- 
mission) iii. 218. 
(stained in stripes like ring-rows of 

a chain armour) iii. 176. 
(how held in reciting the Fatihah), v. 


(bitten in repentance) v. 191. 

(their feel guides the physician) v. 

Hanien = pleasant to thee ! after drinking, 

ii. 5- 

Hanifah, see Abu Hanffah, ii. 207. 
Hanut = tavern, booth, etc., v. 142. 
Hanzal = gourd, v. 19 ; ix. 165. 
Haramf = one who lives on unlawful 

gains, ix. 147. 
Harbah = javelin, vii. / . 
Hard of heart and soft oi" sides, ii. 5. 
Hardly he (equivalent for) vii. 333. 
Harf = letter, syllable, ii. 307. 
Harf al-Jarr = a particle governing the 

oblique case j mode of thrusting and 

tumbling, ix. 272. 
Harim = Harem, used for the inmates, 

i. 165. 
double entendre = Harem and 

Honour) iv. 9. 

( = wife) iv. 126. 

(hot-bed of Sapphism and Tribadism) 

iv. 334- 
Hariri (A1-) = the silk-man (poet) v. 158. 

(lines quoted from) x. 44. 

Harisah, a favourite dish, i. 131. 
Harjah = (a man of) any place, v. 27. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Hark, you shall see, ix. 14. 
Harrak (ship = Carrack ?), iv. 130. 
Harrakat = carracks (also used for cock- 
boat) vii. 336. 
Harun al-Rashfd (described by Al-Siyuti) 

via. 1 60. 

(as a poet) ix. 17. 

(said to have prayed every day a 

hundred bows) ix. 339. 

(and Charlemagne) x. 135. 

Harut and Marut (sorcerer angels) iii. 


Harwalah = pas gymnastique, iii. 121. 
Hasa (A1-) = plain of pebbles, west of 

Damascus, i. 234. 
Hasab = quantity opposed to Nasab = 

birth, iv. 171. 
Hasab wa nasab = inherited degree and 

acquired dignity, iv. 171 ; vii. 279. 
Hasan al-Basri (theologian) ii. 165. 
Hasan bin Sahl (Wazir of Al-Maamun) 

iv. 124. 
Hasan ta yd Hasan =bene detto, Benedetto ! 

i. 251. 

Hashimi= descendant of Hashim (Moham- 
med's great-grandfather) ix. 24. 

cubit = 1 8 inches, v. 371. 

vein, ii. 19. 

Hashish (intoxicant prepared of hemp) 

i. 225 ; iii. 91. 

1 (orgie in London) iii. 91. 
(said to him = his mind, under its 

influence, suggested to him) viii. 155. 
Hashshashun = assassins, iii. 91. 
Hasib Karim al-Din (Pr. N.) v. 298. 
Hasid=an envier, iv, 137. 
Hasil, Hasilah = cell, viii. 184, 196. 
Hassun (diminutive of Hasan) viii. 81. 
Haste ye to salvation, part of the Azan, 

i. 224. 

Hatif= mysterious voice, i. 142. 
Hatim=broken wall (at Meccah) vii. 219. 
Hatim (Pr. N.) = black crow, vii. 350. 
Hatim al-Asamm (the Deaf), ii. 207. 
Hatim of Tayy (proverbial for liberality) 

iv. 94. 

Hattin (battle of), ix. 19. 
Haudaj (Hind. Howda)= camel -litter for 

women), viii. 235. 
Hauk! Hauk!=heehaw! i. 221. 
" Haunted "= inhabited by Jinns, v. 175. 
Haurani towns (weird aspect of) vi. 102. 

Haurani towns (their survival accounted foi 

by some protracted drought) iv. 1 16. 
Hawa al-Uzri = platonic love, ii. 304. 
Ha war = intensity of black and white in 

the eyes, iii. 233. 
Kawi= juggler playing tricks with snakes, 

iii. 145 ; ix. 56. 

Hawiyah (name of a Hell) viii. 346. 
Hawk, iii 61, 138. 
Hawwa = Eve, v. 139. 
Hayat al-Nufus = Life of Souls, iii. 283. 
Hayhat, onomatopoetic for lover, i. 76. 
Haykal = temple, chapel, v. 192. 
Hazar--(the bird of) a thousand (songs) 

v. 48. 
Hazar Afsaneh (tales from the) ix. 32 ; 

x. 72, 93. 
Hazir and Badi = townsman and nomad, 

iii. 234. 
Hazramaut (Hazarmaveth) iv. 118; v. 

Hazrat=our mediaeval "presentia vostra," 

viii. 254. 
Hazza-hu=he made it (the javelin) quiver, 

vii. 45- 
"He" for "she" out of delicacy, ii, 

Head (must always be kept covered) iii. 


Head in the poke = into the noose, i. 179. 
Head-kerchief (deshabille"), ii. 328. 
Headsman delaying execution, iii. 42. 
" Hearer " not " reader " addressed, viii. 


Heart (black drop in the) iv. 256. 
(from one full of wrath = in spite of 

himself) v. 68. 
Heart-ache (for stomach-ache = mal au 

cceur), vi. 194. 
Heaven (Ar. Na'im), iv. 143. 
Heavens (names of the seven) viii. m. 
Hell (Sa'ir) iv. 143. 

(cold as well as hot) iv. 253. 

Hells (names of the seven and their intended 

inhabitants) viii. in. 
Hemistichs divided, iii. 166. 
Henna-flower (its spermatic odour) vii 


Herb (the insane) vi. 36. 
Hermaphrodites (Ar. Khunsa) iii. 306. 
Heroes and heroines of love-tales are 

bonnes fourchettes, vii. 300. 



Heroine of Eastern romance eats well. 

iii. 168. 

Heroism of a doubtful character, viii. 27. 
Hesperides (apples of the, probably golden 

nuggets) viii. 272. 
Hetairesis and Sotadism (the heresies of 

love) x. 21 5. 

Hiba = cords, garters, ii. 236. 
Hibdl = ropes, iv. 193. 
High-bosomed damsel a favourite with 

Arab tale-tellers, i. 84. 
Hijdz (Al-)^ Moslem Holy Land, ii. 306. 
Hijl = partridge, iii. 138. 
"Him "for "her," iii. 78. 
Him& = guarded side, demesne, viii. 102, 


Himalayan brothers, ii. 21 1 ; 260. 
Hind (A1-) al-Aksa = Outer Hind or India, 

ix. 116. 

Hind bint Asmd and the poet Jarfr, vii. 96. 
Hindi = Indian Moslem opposed to Hindu, 

v. i. 

Hindiba = endive, v. 226. 
Hinges (of ancient doors) iii. 41. 
Hippie syphilis, x. 90. 
Hippopotamus, vi. 33. 
Hips (their volume admired) ii. 285. 
(leanness of, " anti-pathetic " to 

Easterns) iii. 226. 
Hirah (Christian city in Mesopotamia) 

v. 124. 

Hirakl (monastery of) v. 138. 
" His" for " her," viii. 50. 
Hisham bin Abd al-Malik (Caliph) ii. 170; 

vii. 104. 

Hishdm ibn Orwah (traditionist) v. 8l. 
Hisn al-Fakihat = Fortalice of Fruits, 

vii. 75. 

Hiss = (sensual) perception, vii. 302. 
Hizam = girdle, viii. 160, x. 36. 
Hizb = section of the Koran, v. 217. 
Hobbling a camel (how done) vii. 119. 
Hog, popular term of abuse, i. 188. 
Holiness supposed to act as talisman, 

ii. 251. 

Holy Writ (punned upon) viii. 348. 
Homme achete = de bonne famille, iv. 

Honayn (scene of one of Mohammed's 

battles) v. 66. 
Honey (of bees as distinguished from cane 

honey) v. 300. 

Honey (simile for the delights of the world) 

ix. 64. 

" Honeymoon" (lasts a week) v. 62. 
Honour amongst thieves, ii. 159. 
Hoof (of the wild ass) iii. 235. 
Horoscopes, etc., i. 213. 
Horripilation = goose flesh, iii. 2. 
Horse (names of) iii. 72. 
Horse-stealing honourable; iii. 73. 
Horseplay frequently ending in bastinado 


Horses (not taught to leap) ii. 89. 

(Arab breeds) v. 246. 

Hosh = mean courts at Cairo, v. 170. 

Hospitals hated, ii. 70. 

Host (enters first as safeguard against guet- 
apens) iii. 208. 

Hour (of Judgment) v. 235. 

Houris, iii. 233. 

House (haunted = inhabited by Jinns) v. 

(the Holy of Allah = Ka'abah) ix. 


House of Peace = Baghdad, i. 139. 

" House of Sadness," viii. 64. 

House-breaking (four modes of) vi. 247. 

Houses of Lamentation in Moslem burial- 
grounds, i. 94. 

Housewife (looks to the main chance) viii. 

Hubb al-Watan = patriotism, ii. 183. 

Hubkah = doubling of a woman's waist- 
cloth, vii. 1 80. 

Hubub (Pr. N.) = awaking j blowing hard, 
viii. 209. 

Hud (prophet = Heber ?) iv. 118. 

Hudhud = hoopoe, iii. 128. 

Hudud al-Haram = bounds of the Holy 
Places, v. 148. 

Hullah = dress, vii. 180. 

Hulwan al-miftdh = denier a Dieu, ix. 


Huwaynd (A1-) = now drawing near and 

now moving away, ix. 250. 
Humbly (expressed by "standing on their 

heads") viii. 279. 
Humility of the lovelorn Princess artfully 

contrasted with her previous furiosity 

vii. 261. 
Humming not a favourite practice with 

Moslems, i. 311. 
Humours (of Hippocrates) v. 218. 


A If Laylah wa Lay la k. 

Hump-back (graphically described) viii. 

Hunchback looked upon with fear and 

aversion, i. 258. 
Hunger (burns) ii. 144. 
Hungry judges, ' hanging j udges, " ii. 198. 
Hur, pi. = Houris, iii. 233. 
Hiir al- Ayn = with eyes of lively white 

and black, i. 90. 
Hurdk = tinder, iv. 108. 
Hurr = gentleman, i. 254. 
= free, noble, independent, opp. to 

'Abd = servile, iii. 44. 
Hurry is from Hell, i. 264. 
(in a newly married couple indecent) 

iv. 244. 
Huruf al-mutabbakat = the flattened 

sounds, iv. 223. 
Hut = great fish, vi. 69. 
Hydropathic treatment of wounds held 

dangerous, v. 200. 
Hymeneal blood resembles that of pigeon - 

poult, ii. 50. 

Hypocrite (Ar. Mundfik) v. 207. 
Hysterical Arab temperament, ii. 54, 101, 


IsAziYAH sect, vii. 125. 

Iblis (diabolus) = Despairer, i. 13 ; iii. 22 ; 

ix. 300. 
(Cherubim cherished by Allah) v. 


(cursed and expelled) v. 320. 

Ibn Abba's (Companion) v. 212. 
Ibn Abdun al-Andalusi (poet) iii.' 319. 
Ibn Abi Anfa, ii. 200. 
Ibn al-Kirnas = son of the chase (for 
Persian Kurnas = pimp, cuckold ?) viii. 

Ibn al-'Ukab (Pr. N.) = Son of the Eagle, 

viii. 198. 
Ibn Hamdun (transmitter of poetry and 

history) ix. 229. 
Ibn Haram = son of adultery, abuse not 

necessarily reflecting on the parent, i. 


Ibn 'Irs = weasel, ix. 114. 
Ibn Muljam (murderer of the Caliph Ali) 

iii. 319. 

Ibn Sma = Avicenna, iii. 34. 
Ibrahim bin Adham, ii. 203. 

Ibrahim bin al-Mahdl (Pretender to the 

Caliphate) iv. 103. 

Ibrahim al-Mausili, iv. 108 j ix. 304. 
Ibrat = needle graver and 'Ibrat = warning, 

a favourite jingle, i. 104. 
Ibrik = ewer, and Tisht = basin, used for 

washing the hands, i. 241 ; vii. 146. 
Ibrisam = raw silk, floss, vii. 352. 
Ichneumon (mongoose) iii. 147. 
Ichthyological marvels, vi. 33. 
'fd = festivals (the two of Al-Islam) viii. 


fd al-Kabfr = the Great Festival, i. 28. 
Iddat = months of a woman's enforced 

celibacy after divorce, iii. 292. 

(of widowhood) vi. 256 ; x. 43. 

Idgah (place of prayer) ii. 202. 

Ifrit, divided into two races like mankind, 

i. n. 

Ifrftah = she-Ifrit, i. 34. 
Ihdak = encompassing, as the white en- 
closes the black of the eye, i. 49. 
Ihtilaj-namah = Book of palpitations, viii. 

Ihtilam = wet dream as a sign of puberty, 

vii. 183. 

Ihtizdz = shaking with delight, i. 50. 
I'itikdf (Al-)= retreat, v. 202. 
Ijtila = displaying of the bride on her 

wedding night, vii. 198. 
Ikalat (A1-) = cancelling, " resiliation," v. 

Ikh ! Ikh ! (cry to a camel to make it 

kneel down) ii. 139. 

Ikhlas (Al-)= Chapter of Unity, iii. 307. 
Ikhtiydn al Khutan = Khaitan (?) x. 9. 
Ikh wan al-Safa" = Brethren of Purity, iii. 


Iklil = diadem, now obsolete, i. 270. 
Iklim = the seven climates of Ptolemy, i. 


Iksah = plait, etc., vii. 150. 

Iksir (Al-) = dry drug (from fypov) v. 315 ; 

viii. 9. 

Ikydn = living gold, viii. 272, 2?S- 
Ilah = God, v. 196. 
Ilali al-Arsh = the God of the Empyrean, 

iii. 106, 

Iliad and Pentaur's Epic, vii. 362. 
Ill is thy abiding place, iii. 137. 
Ill-treatment (a plea for a lawful demand 

to be sold) viii. 55. 



Ilm al-Kdf = K-science for Alchemy, v. 

Ilm al-Ruha"n{ = Spiritualism, i. 305. 

Images of living beings forbidden, v. 3. 

(= statues) v. 223. 

Imam = leader, antistes, ii. 203. 

(the Seventh = Caliph al-Maamun) 

iv. in. 

(the fugleman at the prayer-niche) 
iv. 227. 

Immah = turband, iv. 100. 

Imlik (great-grandson of Shem) vi. 264 

Improvising still common among the 
Badawin, i. 39. 

Impudence (intended to be that of a 
captive Princess) viii. 295. 

Impurity (ceremonial different from dirti- 
ness) v. 209. 

Imsdk = retention (prolongatio veneris) 
v. 76. 

Inadvertency of the tale-teller, viii. 141. 

In 'ash = raising from the bier (a " pick- 
me-up ") v. 67. 

Incest (lawful amongst ancient peoples) 
i. no. 

(repugnant to Moslem taste) ii. 172. 

Inconsequence (of the Author of The 

Nights) iv. 155. 

(characteristic of the Eastern Saga) 

vi. 61. 

~ (of writer of The Nights) vi. 205. 
Incuriousness of the Eastern story-teller 

vii. 57. 

Index finger (Shdhid) ii. 300. 
Indian realm, vii. 336. 
Indraja"! = white magic, v. 307. 
Infidel should not be killed unless refusing 

to become a Moslem or a tributary, 

vii. 64. 

Infirmity (and infirm letters) iv. 243. 
Inheritance, law of, settled by the Koran, 

i. 174. 
Inkcase (descendant of the wooden palette 

with writing reeds) viii. 178. 
'Innin = impotence, viii. 317. 
Innovation (Ar. Bida'ah) v. 167. 
Insane (treatment of the) iii. 256. 
Inscriptions (on trays, plates, etc.) iv. 235. 
Inshad = conjuring by Allah, i. 1 1 . 

= reciting, improvising, ii. 126. 

Inshallah (Allah willing) = D.V., iv. 286 ; 

viii. 104. 

Inshallah bukrah = to-morrow D.V., 

ii. 324- 
Insolence and licence of palace-girls, 

i. 286. 

Insomnia (curious treatment of) iv. 229. 
Insula (for peninsula) vi. 57. 
Intellect of man stronger than a Jinnf's, 

i- 43- 

Intention (of prayer, Niyat) v. 163, 196. 
Intercession-doctrine disputed amongst 

Moslems, ii. 40 ; v. 241. 
Internally wounded = sick at heart, i. 5. 
Inverted speech (forms of) ii. 265 ; vi. 262 \ 

viii. 179. 

Inwa" = jerking the date-stone, i. 25. 
Iradah = Sultan's order, iv. 61. 
Irdk = level country beside river banks, 

ii. 132. 
(etc., used always with the article) 

vi. 291. 

(for Al-Ir&k in verse) vii. 20. 

Iram (the many-columned) iv. 113 ; x. 29. 
Irdn = hearse ; Moses' ark, vii. 207. 
Irdabb, see Ardabb. 

Irishman (the typical, in Arab garb), 
viii. 191. 

and his " convarter," x. 3. 

'Irk = root, also sprig, twig, ix. 251. 
Iron (conjures away friends) ii. 316. 

Iron padlock (instead of the usual wooden 

bolt) iii. 198. 

Irony, iii. 291 ; iv. 271 ; viii. 3, 164. 
Irreverence (Egyptian) iv. 47. 
Isaak (Ishak) of Mosul, iv. 119. 
Isba"nfr = Ctesiphon (?), vi- 279. 
Isengrim (wolf) iii. 146. 
Isfidaj = ceruse, vi. 126. 
Isha = the first watch of the night, i. 175. 
Isharah = signing, beckoning, vi. 109; 

viii. 233. 
Ishk 'uzrf (in the sense of platonic love) 

vii. 121 ; ix. 250. 

Ishmael (place of his sacrifice) iv. 75. 
Ishtar-Ashtaroth (her worship not obsolete 

in Syria) x. 230. 
Iskandar Zu al-Karnayn = Alexander 

Matagrobolised) v. 252 ; x. 57. 
Iskandariyah = city of Alexander, viii. 


Island for land, viii. 317. 
Ism al-A'azam = the Most Great Name of 

Allah, viii. 133. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Ismid = (Ithmid) stibium (eye-powder) iii. 


Jsrafil (blows the last trumpet) v. 310. 
Istahi = have some shame, ix. 255. 
Istikbell = coming forth to greet, ii. 287. 
Istikhdrah = praying for direction by 

omens, etc., v. 44. 
Istinj = washing the fundament after 

stool, iv. 129. 
Istinshah = snuffing water through the 

nostrils, v. 198. 
Istita'ah ( = ableness) ix. 80. 

(= freewill) ix. 83. 

Ithmid (stibium antimone) = Sp. Althimod, 

ii. 103. 
"I told you so" (even more common in 

East than West) iv. 69. 
Italian Translations of The Nights, x. 1 14. 
Izdr = sheet worn as veil, i. 163 ; vi. 50.. 

J (How it came to take the place of Y in 

the English Bible) ii. 43. 
Ja'afar contrasting strongly with his 

master, i. 102. 

(mode of his death) iv. 159. 

(his suspected heresy) x. 141. 

(river or rivulet) iv. 292. 

Ja'afar bin Musk al-Hadi (Caliph) v. 93. 
Jababirah = tyrants, giants, conquerors, 

vii. 84 ; ix. 109, 323. 
Jabal = mountain (for mountainous island) 

ix. 315. 

Jabal al-Ramun = Adam's Peak, vi. 65. 
Jabal al-Sakld (Thakla) = mount of the 

woman bereft of children, v. 37. 
Jabal al-Tarik = Gibraltar, iv. 100. 
Jabal Mukattam (sea-cliff upon which 

Cairo is built) v. 383. 
Jabal Nur, v. 215. 

Jabarsa, the city of Japhet, vii. 40, 43. 
Jabarti = Moslem Abyssinian, ii. 15. 
Jabir Atharat al-Kiram = Repairer of the 

slips of the generous, vii. loo. 
Jdbir bin Abdallah (disciple of Mohammed) 

v. 215. 

Jackal's gall (used aphrodisiacally) x. 123. 
Jacob's daughters, iv. 14. 
Jadfd = new (coin), copper, x. 12. 
Jah = high station, dignity, ix. 1 74. 
Jahabiz pi. of Jahbaz = acute, intelligent, 

ix. 62. 
Jahannam = Hell, v. 306, 318. 

Jaharkas = Pers. Cheharkas, four persons, 
i. 266. 

Jalajil = small bells for falcons, viii. 271. 

Jalalah = saying" Jallajalalu-hu" = mag- 
nified be His Majesty, v. 217. 

Jalalikah = Gallicians, ix. 156. 

Jaland, not Julned, vii. 16. 

Jalldb = slave dealer, iii. 340. 

Jallabiyah = gaberdine, v. 265. 

Jama'at = community, v. 205. 

Jamal (Gamal) = camel, iii. 1 10. 

Jami' = cathedral mosque, v. 261. 

Jami'an = two cathedrals, v. 66. 

Jamil ibn Ma'amar (poet) ii. 102 ; vii. 117. 

Jamiz (Jummayz) = sycamore fig, iii. 302. 

Jamm = ocean, v. 93. 

Janazah = bier with corpse, ii. 46. 

Janazir for Zanajfr = chains, ix. 309. 

Jannat al-Khuld = the Eternal Garden, ix. 

Jannat al-Na'im = The Garden of Delights, 
i.e. Heaven, i. 98 ; iii. 19. 

Janshah (Pr. N.) = King of Life, v. 329 ; 
vii. 82. 

Japhet (Ar. Yafis or Yafat) vii. 40. 

his sword, vii. 41. 

Jar (ridden by witches) viii. 131. 

Jarir (poet) v. 148. 

Jarm (Ar. Barijah) vi. 24. 

Jarrah = jar, viii. 177. 

Jars for cooling water, ii. 21. 

Jasalik (A1-) = KaoAt/c6s, Primate, ii. 

Jauharah (Pr. N. = Jewel) vii. 307. 

Jauz al-Hindi = cocoa-nut, vi. 55. 

Jauzd = Gemini, x. 38. 

Jauzar = Bubal us (Ariel) v. 130. 

Javelines, vi. 263. 

Jawab-club, vi. 262. 

Jawamard for Jawanmard = un giovane, a 
brave, vii. 17. 

Jawan (Pr. N.) Pers. = a youth, juvenis, 
iv. 208. 

Jawarf = slave-girls rhyming with dam'a 
jari = flowing tears, v. 160. 

Jawarnah (Jurnah) = Zara, ii. 219. 

Jawashiyah = guards, viii. 330. 

Jawasis, pi. of Jasus, = spies (for secret 
police) ix. 13. 

Jawish = apparitor, sergeant, royal mes- 
senger, ii. 49. 

Jazirah = Peninsula, Arabia, i. 2 ; vii. 333. 



Jazfrsh (Al^ = Mesopotamia, vii. 100. 
Jazirat al-Khalidat = Eternal Isles = 

Canaries, i. 141. 
Jazirat ibn Omar (island and town on the 

Tigris) x. 40. 
Jesus (bird of) v. 21 1. 

(crucified in effigy) v. 238. 

(compared with Adam) v. 238. 

Jew (prefers dying on the floor, not in bed) 

v. 248. 
(never your equal, either above or 

below you) viii. 153. 

- (marrying a Moslemah deserves no 
pity) viii. 262. 

Jeweller (in Eastern tales generally a rascal) 
iii. 1 86. 

Jews (adepts in magic), ii. 233. 

Jihad = righting for the Faith, iii. 39. 

Jild = displaying the bride before the bride- 
groom, i. 174. 

Jibbab= habergeon, buff- jacket, gown, vii. 
156 ; ix. 290. 

Jink (A1-) = effeminates, x. 19. 

Jinn = the French genie, the Hindu 
Rakshasa or Yaksha, i. 10. 

Jinnis (names of) iii. 225. 

Job (a Syrian) iv. 221. 

Joining prayers, iii. 174. 

Jokh = broad-cloth, ii. III. 

Jokh al-Saklat = rich brocade on broad- 
cloth, viii. 202. 

Joseph of the Koran very different from him 
of Genesis, i. 13. 

(and Potiphar's wife) vi. 127. 

" Joyance is three things," etc., iv. 254. 
Judad (for Judud) pi. of Jadid = new coin, 

viii. 121. 

Judar (classical Arab name) vi. 213. 
(and his brethren, version of a Gotha 

MS.) vi. 257. 

Judariyah (quarter of Cairo) vi. 254. 
Judgment (hour of) v. 235. 
Judri = small-pox, i. 256. 
Jufun = eyebrows or eyelashes, iv. 260. 
Juggling with heaven, viii. 168. 
Jugular vein (from to ) iv. 92. 
Jujube-sherbet, ii. 317. 
Julndr = Pers. Gul-i-anar (pomegranate 

flower) vii. 268. 

Jum'ah = assembly (Friday) vi. 120, 190. 
Jumblat (for Jan-pulad, Life o' Steel, Pr. 

N.)vi. 115. 

Jummdr = palm-pith and cabbage, viii. 


Junayd al-Baghdadi (Sufi ascetic) ix. 21. 
Junun = madness, i. 10. 
Jurab mi'adat-hu (bag of his belly = 

scrotum) ii. 233. 

Justice (poetical, not done) iv. 28. 
- (poetical in The Nights) vi. 255. 
Juzam = (black) leprosy, iv. 51 j v. 294; 

viii. 24. 

KA'AB AL-AHBAR (of the Scribes, two of 

the name) iv. 115. 
Ka'abah (Pilgrims clinging to its curtain) 

iv. 125. 

Ka'ah = ground-floor hall, i. 85. 
= fine house, mansion, i. 292. 

(= messroom, barracks) vii. 167. 

Ka'ak al 'I'd = buns (cake ?) vii. 196. 
Kaannahu huwa = as he (was) he, vii. 233. 
Ka'b = heel, ankle, metaph. for fortune, 

vii. 177. 
Kabab (mutton or lamb grilled in small 

squares) vi. 225, 

Kabasa = he shampooM, ix. 213. 
Kabbat = saucers, viii. 12. 
Kabbazah = a "holding woman," iv. 127. 
Kabul men noted for Sodomy, i. 299. 
Kadisfyah (A1-) city in Irak, v. 294. 
Kadus pi. Kawadis = pot of a water- 

wheel, ix. 218. 

Kaf, popularly = Caucasus, i. 72, 133. 
Kaff Shurayk = a single "Bunn," ^.,ix. 


Kafir = Infidel, Giaur, ii. 292. 
Kafr = village (in Egypt and Syria) x. 27, 
Kafs (verset of the three-and-twenty) v. 


Kafur (Pr. N.) = Camphor, ii. 47. 
Kafra = desert place, viii. 337. 
Kahanah (A1-) = the craft of a Kahin or 

soothsayer, i. 28. 
Kahbah = whore, i. 70. 
Kahil = whose eyes are kohl'd by nature, 

iii. 346. 
Kahilat al-Taraf = having the eyelids lined 

with kohl, i. 63. 

Kahirah = City of Mars (Cairo) iv. 271. 
Kahkahah = horse-laughter, i. 350. 
Kahld (fern.) = nature-kohl'd, iii. 232. 
Kahraman (Pers.) = braves, heroes, iv. 

115; vi. 257. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Kahram^nat = nursery governess, i. 231 ; 

ix. 221. 

Kahtan (sons of) vi. 260. 
Kahwah(Kihwah) = strong old wine, ii. 261. 

(A1-), used for coffee-house, ix. 

r 256. 

Kahwajiyah = coffee-makers, v. 169. 
Kaid = leader, i. 330. 
Ka'ka'at= jangling noise, vii. 21. 
Kakili = Sumatran (eagle- wood) x. 57 
Kala (island) vi. 47. 
Kalak = raft, vii. 342. 
Kalam = reed -pen, i. 128. 

=leg-cut, ii. 107. 

Kalam al-Mubah = the permitted say, i. 29. 
Kalam wati = vulgarism, ii. 113. 
Kalam-dan = reed-box (ink-case) iv. 167; 

v. 239. 

Kalandar = mendicant monk, i. 94. 
Kalandars (order of) x. 84. 
Kalla = prorsus non, iv. 257. 
Kalla-ma = it is seldom, v. 150. 
Kallim al-Sultan (formula of summoning) 

ix. 224. 

Kamah= fathom, ii. 56. 
Kaman = Kamd (as) -anna (that, since, 

because) viii. 197. 
Kamar=belt, viii. 156. 
Kamar al-Zaman (Pr. N.) = Moon of the 

Age, iii. 213 : ix. 247. 
Kamarani (A1-) = the two moons for sun 

and moon, iii. 300. 

Kama-Shastra (Ars Amoris Indica) iii. 93. 
Kamat Alfiyyah = straight figure, i. 85 ; 

iii. 236. 
Kamil wa Basit wa Wdfir = the names of 

three popular metres, viii. 91. 
Kamin al-Bahrayn = lurking-place of the 

two seas, vii. 353. 
Kamis = shift, etc., i. 293. 
Kammir (Imp.) = brown (the bread) x. 14. 
Kanat = subterranean water-course, iii. 141. 
Kanjifah=.pack of cards, v. 243. 
Kanmakan (Pr. N.) = "was that which 

was," ii. 280. 

Kantar (quintal) =98 '99 Ibs. avoir, ii. 233. 
Kanun (dulcimer, "zither") iii. 211. 
Kanun = brasier, v. 272; vi. 5. 
Kanz = enchanted treasure, ix. 320. 
Kapoteshwara and Kapoteshi, iii. 126. 
Kaptan = Capitano, iv. 85; ix. 139. 
Kara Gyuz, see Khiyal. 

Karah = budget, large bag, ix. 216. 
Karaj (town in Persian Irak) vii. 77. 
Kara wan = Charadrius cedicnemus, vi. i. 
Karbus = saddle-bow, viii. 77. 
Kari = Koran-reader, v. 216. 
Karib (pi. Kawarib) = dinghy, iv. 168. 
Karim = generous (cream of men) ii. 35. 
Karizan (Al-) = the two mimosa-gatherers, 

vii. 93 

Karkadan, etc. = rhinoceros, vi. 21. 
Karkar (Career ?), Sea of A1-, vi. 101. 
Karkh (A1-), quarter of Baghdad t v. 127 \ 

ix. 3I3- 
Karmut = Silurus Carmoth Niloticus, viii. 


Karr'aynan = keep thine eye cool, vii. 229. 
Karrat azla 'hu = his ribs felt cold (from 

hearty eating) viii. 189. 
Karun = Korah of the Bible, v. 225. 

(lake) vi. 217. 

Karurah = bottle for urine, iv. n. 
Kasa 'ah = wooden bowl, porringer, iv. 283. 
Kasab (Al-)= acquisitiveness, ix. 80. 
Kasabah = rod (measurement), ii. 328. 
Kasabat = canes ; bugles, ii. 298. 
Kasid = Anglo -Indian Cossid, vii. 340. 
Kasidah = ode, elegy, iii. 262. 
Kasfdahs (their conventionalism) ix. 250. 
Kasr ( = palace, one's house) vi. 240. 

( = upper room) ix. 283. 

Kasr al-Nuzhat = palace of delights, ii. 22. 
Kasr (A1-) al-Mashid = the high-built 

castle, vii. 346. 
Kasri (A1-) Governor of the two Iraksi 

iv. 155- 

Kat'a=bit of leather, i. 20. 
Kata = sand-grouse, i. 131 ; iv. in. 
Kataba (for tattooing) vii. 250. 
Katala-k Allah = Allah strike thee dead 

(facetiously) iv. 264, 265. 
Katf= pinioning, i. 106. 
Katha-Sarit-Sagara, poetical version of 

the Vrihat-Katha, i. 12 ; x. 160, etc. 
Kathir=smuch, " no end," x. 10. 
Katfl = the Irish "kill," iv. 139. 
Katul (Al-) = the slayer, iii. 72. 
Kashmir people (have a bad name in 

Eastern tales), vi. 156. 
Kassara 'llah Khayrak = Allah increase thy 

weal, vi. 233. 
Kaukab al-durrl = cluster of pearls, viii 



Kaukab al- / Sahah = Star of the Morning, 

ix. 301. 

Kaum = razzia; tribe, vi. 266. 
Kaun = being, existence, ix. 63. 
Kaus al-Banduk = pellet-bow, i. IO. 
.Kausaj = man with a thin, short heard, 

cunning, tricksy, iii. 246. 
Kausar, lieu commun of poets, i. 241 ; ii. 

186 ; iv. 196. 

Kawaid (pi. of Kaid = governor), v. 145. 
Kawarib, see Karib. 
Kawwad = pimp, i. 316; vii. 98. 
Kawwas = archer, janissary, vi. 241. 
Kayanian, race of Persian kings, i. 75. 
Kayf halak = how de doo? vii. 336. 
Kayim (professional wrestler, names of 

such) ii. 93. 
Kayliilah = siesta, i. 51; ii. 178; viii. 


Kayrawan = the Greek Cyrene, viii. 317. 
Kaysariyah = superior kind of Bazar, i. 


Kaysum = yellow camomile, iii. 58. 
Kaywdn (Persian for Saturn) ii. 75. 
Kayy (Al-) = cautery, the end of medicine- 
cure, iii. 59. 

Kayyimah = guardian (fern.) viii. 330. 
Kaz (Al-) = shears, viii. 9. 
Kaza, Kismatand "Providence," vii. 135. 
Kazdir = Skr. Kastira (tin) iv. 274 ; vi. 


Kdzi = judge in religious matters, i. 21. 
Kazi al Kuzat = Chief Justice, ii. 90 ; viii. 

Kazi of the army (the great legal \authority 

of a country) vi. 131. 
Kazib al-Ban = willow- wand, ii. 66. 
Kazis (the four of the orthodox schools, ii. 

Kerchief (of mercy), i. 343. 

(of dismissal) iii. 295. 

(shaking and throwing the) iv. 62. 

' ' Key " = fee paid on the keys being handed 

to a lodger, vii. 212. 
Khabal = pus flowing from the damned, 

v. 162. 

Khadd = cheek, vii. 277. 
Khadim = servant, politely applied to a 

castrato, i. 23$ ; ix. 237. 
Khadiv (not Kedive) ix. 119. 
Khafiyah = concealed ; Khainah = perfidy, 

vii. 320. 
VOL. X, 

Khafz al -Jinan = lowering the wing (de- 
meaning oneself gently) ix. 33. 

Khak-bak = '' hocus pocus," etc., viii. 328. 

Khal'a al-'izar = stripping of jaws or side- 
beard, vii. 248. 

Khalanj = a hard kind of wood, i. 154 ; Ii. 
269; viii. 271. 

Khalbus = buffoon, ii. 143 ; vii. 195. 

Khali'a = worn out; wit, i. 311 ; iv. 229; 
vii. 130. 

Khalid bin al-Walid, ii. 203. 

bin Safwan, ii. 107. 

Khalidan (for Khalidat) = the Canaries, iii. 

Khali fah = Vicar of Allah; successor of a 
Santon, i. 184. 

Khalilu 'llah (friend of Allah = Abraham) 
ii. 132 ; v. 205. 

Khaliyah = bee-hive ; empty (pun on) vi. 
246 ; ix. 291. 

Khalkinah = copper cauldron, viii. 177. 

Khammarah = wine-shop, tavern, '-hotel," 
iv. 79. 

Khan = caravanserai, i. 92 ; iii. 14. 

Khan al-Masrur, in Cairo, famous in the 
1 5th century, i. 265. 

Khanakah = Dervishes' convent, vii. 177. 

Khanjar = hanger, i. 232 ; iii, 90. 

Khara = dung (lowest insult) ii. 56. 

(holy merde), ii. 223. 

Khara al-Sus = weevil's dung, ix. 10. 

Kharaju = they (masc.)- went, forth (vul- 
garism for Kharajna) (fem.) viii. 144. 

Khassat-hu = she gelded him, iii. 47. 

Khatmah = reading or reciting of the whole 
Koran, i. 277. 

Khatt Sharif = royal hand letter, ii. 39 ; ix. 

Khattiyah = writer, &c.,^pear, from Khatt 
Hajar, ii. i. 

Khatun (Turk, lady) iv. 66 ; vii. 146. 

(follows the name) vii. 323, 347. 

Khauf (A1-) maksum = fear (cowardice) is 
equally apportioned, iii. 173. 

Khaukhah = tunnel, viii. 330. 

Khayal (Al-) = phantom ghost, v. 348. 

Khayr = good news by euphemy, iv. 138. 

Khayr wa 'Atiyah = well and in good ease, 
ix. 94. 

Khaysamah (traditiomst) v. 8l. 

Khayt hamayan = threads of vanity (gos- 
samer) iii. 217. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Khayza>an = rattan, ii. 66; iv. 255. 
Kha"wf (skin of) vi. 66. 
Khawwds (Al-) = basket-maker, v. 283. 
Khaznah (Khazinah)=i,ooo kfs of ,5 

each, ii. 84 ; iii. 278. 
Khazra" (al-) = the Green, palace of 

Mu'awiyah, vii. 124. 

KhilaT (Khalaf) = Salix ^Egyptiaca, ii. 66. 
KhiUl = toothpick (emblem of attenuation) 

v. 44 ; viii. 258. 

Khinsir = little (or middle) ringer, ix. 160. 
Khinzir-- hog, i. 108. 
Khirad Shah = King of Intelligence, vii. 


!Khishkha"nah = cupboard, vii. 199. 
Khitab = exordium of a letter, ix. 126. 
Khiza"b (dye used by women) iii. 105, 
Khizanah (A1-) = treasury, ix. 22. 
Khizr (the Green Prophet) iv. 175 ; v. 384. 
Khiya"! (Chinese shadows) iv. 193. 
Khubz = scones, i. 131. 
Khuff= walking shoes, i. 82; iv. 107. 
Khuffa"sh = bat (animal) v. 226. 
Khuld = fourth heaven (of yellow coral) 

viii. 47. 

Khumaslyah = five feet high, iv. 191. 
Khunsa= flexible, flaccid (hermaphrodite, 

also catamite) iii. 306 ; v. 91. 
Khurj (Al-) = saddle-bag (las Alforjas) vi. 


Khusrau Parwiz and Shirfn, v. 91. 
(his wealth) v. 91. 
Khusyatdn = testicles, ii. 55. 
Khutnah = circumcision, v. 209. 
Khutub (Pr. N.) = affairs, misfortunes, viii. 

Khwdjah (Howajee) = schoolmaster, man 

of letters, &c., vi. 46. 
Khwdrazm = land of the Chorasmioi, vi. 


Khyas ! Khyas ! onomatopoetic, used in a 
sea-spell, i. 228. 

Kiblah (turning towards it in mortal 
danger) v. 39. 

(anything opposite) applied to the 
Ka'abah, v. 196. 

Kiblatayn = the two Kiblahs (Meccah and 
Jerusalem) v. 196. 

Kidrah=pot, kettle, lamp-globe, ix. 320. 

Kil wa Kdl=it was said and he said (chit- 
chat) iv. 207. 

Killed = Hibernice "kilt," v. 5; vi. 171. 

Killing (of an unfaithful wife commended 

by public opinion) ix. 297. 
Kimiyd Alchemy (from xy/AOOl = wet drug) 

viii. 9. 
Kimkhab = (velvet of) "Kimcob," viii. 

201 ; ix. 221. 
Kind'= veil, vi. 192. 
Kinchin lay (Arab form of) iii. IO2. 
King (dressing in scarlet when wroth) iv, 


(the, and the Virtuous Wife) v. 122* 

Kingfisher (Lucian's) vi. 49. 
King's barber a man of rank, i. 351. 
Kintar = a hundredweight (quintal) vi. 


Kir = bellows, viii. 9. 
Kirab = wooden swordcase, viii. 267. 
Kiram = nobles ; Kurdm = vines, viii. 


Kirdmat = prodigy, ii. 237 ; iv. 45. 
Kirat (bean of Abrus precatorius) vii. 289, 
(weight = 2-3 grains ; length = one 

finger-breadth) iii. 239. 
Kird = baboon> iv. 297. 
Kirsh al-Nukhdl = Guts of bran, viii. 


Kisds (A1-) = lex talionis, vii. 170. 
Kishk (Kashk) = porridge, iv. 214. 
Kisra = the Chosroe, applied to Anushir- 

wan) v. 87. 
Kiss (without mustachio = breacl without 

salt) v. 165. 

" Kiss key to Kitty; 1 * i. 323. 
" Kiss ground " not to be taken literally 

vii. 210. 

Kissing (the eyes, a paternal salute) i. 125, 
(like a pigeon feeding its young) iii* 


(names for) iv. 259. 

(en tout bien et en tout honneur) viii. 

the ground of obedience (Persian 

metaphorical phrase) vii. 354. 
Kissis = ecclesiast, ii. 228. 
Kit (of the traveller in the East) v. 174. 
Kitab al-Kazd = book of law-cases, ix. 


Kitab al-Fihrist (and its author) x. 71. 
Kitf al-Jamal = camel shoulder-blade* 

vii. 167. 

Kitfir (Itfir) == Potiphar, vi. 172. 
Kiyakh (fourth Coptic month) v. 231. 



Kiz^n fukka'a = jars for fukka'a (a kind 
of beer) vi. 88. 

Kneeling in prayer (exclusively Christian) 
v. 196. 

Knife, "bravest of arms," vii. 123. 

Knight-errant of the East, ii. 77. 

Knuckle-bone, ii. 314. 

Kohl = powdered antimony for the eye- 
lids i. 89. 

- proverbially used, i. 278. 

(-powder keeps the eyes from inflam- 
mation) ii. 291. 

- (applying of = takhfl) iii.57. 

(-eyed = Kahla) f. iii. 232. 

(he would steal it off the eye-ball = 

he is a very expert thief) iv. 68. 

Kohl'd with Ghunj = languour-kohl'd, x. 

Kohl-needle in the Kohl -case = res in re, 
v. 97. 

Kohls (many kinds of) viii. io 

Koka Pandit (Hind*i Ars Amandi) iii. 93. 

Korah (Karun) v. 225. 

Koran quoted : (xx.) i. 2. 

(ii. 34 ; xxv. 31 ; xix. 69) i. 13. 

(xxvi.) i. 39. 

(xxvii.) i. 42. 

(v. xx.) i. 119. 

(vii. ; xviii.) i. 169. 

(i.) i. 208. 

(Ivi. 9) i. 211. 

(Ix.) i. 220. 

(v.) i. 240. 

(cviii.) i. 241. 

(xvii.) i. 249. 

(xxxv<i. 69) i. 251. 

(cv.) i. 256. 

(ii. ; ix.) i. 257. 

(v. ; viii. 17) i. 274. 

(iii.) i. 298. 

(iii. 128) i. 307, 

(xxxviii. 19) ii. 37. 

(xciv. ii ; cv. 59) ii. 38. 

(iv.) ii. 64, 78. 

(iii. 57) ii. 79. 

- (vii. ; Ixxvi.; Ixxxvi.) ii. 91. 
- (iv. xxii.) ii. 95. 

(iii. 89) ii. 132. 

- (ix. ; xxxiii.) ii. 140. 
* (iv. 88) ii. 146. 
(v.) ii. 1 86. 

(ii. etc.) ii. 198. 

Koran quoted : (ii. 185) ii. 199. 
(Ixxiv. I, 8 ; xcvi.) ii. 201. 

(xvi. 74 ; ii. 118) ii. 203. 

(Ivi. 6 ; xxviii. ; vii. ; ix.) ii. 205. 

(xxviii; 22-27) " 207. 

(xiv. 34) ii. 225. 

(Ixi.) ii. 226. 

(ii. ; iii. 141 ) ii. 228. 

(x. 25) ii. 239. 

(ii. 149 ; xcv.) ii. 242. 

(xix. 170) ii. 281. 

(xviii.) ii. 293. 

(xcvi. 5) ii. 298. 

(xxiv.) ii. 312. 

(vii. 21.) ii. 316. 

(x. 10, 12 ; Ivi. 24, 26 ; Ixxxviit. 17, 

20) iii. 19. 

(xii. 31) iii. 21. 

(cxiii. i) iii, 22. 

(ii. 186 ; Ix. i) iii. 39. 

(IxxvL) iii. 57. 

(ii. 23) iii. 65. 

(xxxi. 18 ; Ixvii, 7) iii. 117. 

(ii. 191) iii. 123. 

(xviii. ; xxii. 20; Ixxxvii.) iii. 128. 

(ii. 96, 256) iii. 217. 

(ii. ; iii. ; xxxvi. ; Iv. j Ixvii. s cxiii. ; 

cxpv.) iii. 222. 

(ii. 32 ; xviii. 48) iii. 223. 

(xxiii. 2O ; xcv. i) iii. 276. 

(xxvi.) iii. 294. 

(xi.) iii. 301. 

(xxiii. 38) iii.. 302. 

(ii. ; Ii. 9 ; xxxv. ii) iii, 304. 

(cxii.) iii. 307. 

(xxiv. 39) iii. 319. 

(xxi.) iii. 323. 

(iv. 38) iii. 332. 

(xxv. 70) iv. 5. 

(xii. 84, 93, 96 ; xvi.) iv. 14. 

(opening chapter) iv. 36. 

(xiii. 14) iv. 43. 

(chapter Ya Sin) iv. 50. 

(xvii. 85) iv. 80. 

(xlix. Inner Apartments) iv. 

(xvi. 112) iv. 102. 

(xii. 92) iv. in. 

(Ixxxix. 6, 7) iv. 115. 

(iii. 178) iv. 156. 

(xvi.) iv. 174. 

(ii. 224) iv. 175. 

(xxi. 38) iv. 244. 


Alf Laylah wa Lay la h 

Koran quoted : (iii. 103 ; vii 105 ; xxvii 

12) iv. 249. 
. . (cxiv. i) iv. 251. 

(ii. 26) iv, 254. 

' (ii. 64 ; xxvii.) iv. 256. 

(xvii. 62 ; xxx vi. 16) iv. 259. 

( . (xli. 46) iv. 275. 

! (xxvi. 5, 6) v. 78. 

(xxxiii. 48) v. loi. 
(xxxviii. 2) v. 102. 
j. (vii. 195) v. 143. 

* (x. 36) v. 145. 

, (xxvi. 165) v. 161. 

(xxi. 36) v. 166. 

I (vii. 148) v. 191. 

| - (iv. 38, 175; ii. 282) v. 155. 

'. (xii. 51) v. 159. 

f. (iv. 1 60) vi. 194. 

'; (viii. 66) v. 203. 

(xxxix. 67 ; Ixxviii. 19) v. 207. 
- (vii. 63, 71, 83) v. 210. 
' (chapt. of The Cow) v. 211. 

(xvi. 92 ; xxxix. 54 ; Ixx. 38) v. 21 1. 

(ii. 28, 137 ; xii. 18 ; xvi. 100 ; Ii. 57) 

v. 212. 
(ix. ; xxvi. 30 ; xcvi. I, 2) v. 213. 

(ii. 158 ; xvii. no) v. 214. 

. (v. 4; xx*. ; Ixxiv ; ex. i) v. 21$. 

.. (iv. 124 ; v. 89, 116) v. 216. 

. (vii. 154; xi. 50) v. 217. 

(xvii. 39) v. 221. 
(ii. 216 ; v. 92) v. 223. 

(x. 5 ; xxii. 60 ; xxxvi. 40 ; Ixx. 40) 
I v. 228. 

(xxxi. 34) v. 231. 

(xxxvii. 5) v. 233. 

' (xxxvi. 37, 38) v. 234. 

! (xx. 57 ; xxii. 7) v. 235. 

(Ixxxi. 1 8) v. 836. 

(iii. ; vii. no) v. 238. 

(xii. 10) v. 239. 

(xxxvi. 82) v. 240. 

(vi. 44) v. 250. 

(vii. 52) v. 269. 

(xxxvi. 82) v. 286. 
, (v. 108) v. 287. 

! (xiii. 41) v. 290. 

i (xxxviii. 34) v. 310. 

(vii.) v. 320. 

. i (xxvii.) v. 337. 

( (xxvii. 16) v. 355. 

(liii. 14) y. 393. 

Koran quoted : (xxiv. 39) vi. 93. 

(Hi. 21) vi. 95. 

(ix. 51 ; xiv. 15) vi. 108. 

(xxxviii. n) vi. 115. 

(iv. 81) vi. 138. 

(iv. 78 ; xli. 28) vi. 144. 

(ix. 51) vi. 191. 

(iii. 17) vi. 270. 

(xiii. 3) vi. 277. 

(vi. 103) vi. 282. 

(iii. ii ; i. 42; viii. 9) vii. 55. 

(cxi.) vii. 59. 

(xxxiii.) vii. 92. 

(xx. 102) vii. 164. 

- (iL 286) vii. 285. N . 

(ii. 6 1 ; xxii. 44) vii. 346. 

(xxxv.^ vii. 366. 

(iii. 90) viii. 51. 

(xxxix. 54) viii. 182. 

(vi. 99) viii. 267. 

(xvi. 69 \. ii. 216 ; v. 92) viii. 277. 

(cxiii. I, 3) viii. 285. 

(cxi, 184) viii. 291. 

(xvii. ; xviii. ; bcix ; Ixxxiv.) viii. 294. 

(ix. 33) ix. 15. 

(xxvi. 88, 89 ; iv. 140) ix. 16. 

(Ivii. 88) ix. 33. 

(Ixxxi. 40) ix. 59. 

(xii. 28) ix. 119. 

(xl. 36 ; Ixvii. 14 ; Ixxiv. 39 ; Ixxviii. 

69; Ixxxviii. 17) ix. 1 66. 

(cviii. 3) ix. 185. 

(xxiv.) ix. 316. 

(ex. I) ix. 317. 

(xxxvi. 55, 58) ix. 322. 

(Ii. 1 8, 19) ix. 324. 

(Ixxxix.) x. 29. 

Koran (abrogating and abrogated passages) 
v. 194. 

(most excellent chapter of) v. 211. 

(eminent and curious verses of) v. 211. 

(first English translation owing to 

France) x. 100. 

Koss ibn Sa'idah (Bishop of Najrdn) ii. 37. 

Kubbad = shaddock, ii. 310 ; viii. 272. 

Kubbah (A1-) = alcove, 8. 18. 

Kubkab= bath-clogs, iii. 92. 

Kuds (A1-), see Bayt al-Mukaddas, ii. 132. 

Kufah (A1-) founded by Omar, iv. i. 

(revolutionary spirit of) iv. 3. 

Kufiyah = coif, etc., ii. 230. 

Kufr= rejecting the True Religion, i. 169. 



Kuhaylat (breed of Arab horses) iii. 346. 
Kclayb allows no one to approach his 

camp-fire, ii. 77 ; vi. 261. 
Kuikasa = colocasia roots, i. 272. 
Kullah = gugglet, i. 36. 
Kulzum (A1-), old name of Suez-town, 

vii. 348. 

Kumasra (Kummasra) = pear, vii. 357. 
Kumayt (A1-) = bay horse with black 

points, vii. 128. 
Kumkum (cucurbite, gourd-shaped vessel) 

i. 42 ; iv. 68, 178. 
Kumm = sleeve (used as a bag) iv. 107 ; 

viii. 267. 

Kun = Be (the creative word) iii. 317. 
Kunafah = vermicelli cake, x. i. 
Kundur = frankincense, ix. 7. 
Kunfuz = hedgehog, ii. 88. 
Kunsul = Consul, iv. 84. 
Kunyat = patro- or matro-nymic, iv. 287. 
Kur = furnace, viii. 9. 
= forge where children are ham- 
mered out (?) viii. 46. 
Kurbaj = cravache, viii. 17. 
Kurban = sacrifice, viii. 16. 
Kurds (Xenophon's and Strabo's Carduchi) 

iii. 100. 

Kurdus = body of horse, ix. ill. 
Kurra = teachers of the correct pronuncia- 
tion of the Koran, i. 113. 
Kurrah = ball in the Polo game, ii. 329. 
Kurrat al-Ayn = coolness of the eye, i. 72 ; 

v. 145. 

Kurs (has taken the place of Iklfl) i. 270. 
Kursan (A1-) = "Corsaro, a runner, 

viii. 323. 
Kursi (choir, throne) = desk or stool for 

the Koran, i. 167 ; vii. 311. 
Kursi al-wiladah = birth-stool, ii. 80. 
Kiis (town in Upper Egypt) iv. 276. 
Kus(s) = vulva, viii. 93. 
Kush'arfrah = horripilation, symptom of 

great joy? i. 251. 

Kussd'a = curling cucumber, iv. 98. 
Kusiif = eclipse of the moon, viii. 291. 
Kut al-Kulub, viii. 158. 
Kutd'ah = a bit cut off, etc., vi. 272* 
Kutayt = little tom-cat, ii. 39. 
Kutb = axle, pole ; hence prince, doyen 

in sainthood, v. 384. 
Kuthayyir (poet) ii. 102. 
Kutr Misr = tract of Egypt, ix. 286. 

Kutub al-Bah = Books of Lust, x. 201. 
Kuzfa Fakan (Pr. N.) = "it was decreed 
by destiny, so it came to pass," ii. 175. 

LA ADAMNAK = Heaven deprive us not of 

thee, i. 268. 
La Bas (bi-zdlik = there is no harm in 

that) iv. 164. 
(in Marocco) = " I am pretty well," 

viii. 274. 

( = no harm is [yet] done) ix. 102. 

La" haula, etc. = there is no Majesty, etc., 

La ilaha ilia 'llah = there is no God but 

the God (tahlil) ii. 336. 
Ld kabbata hamiyah = no burning plague, 

x. 14. 

La" rajma ghaybin = without stone-throw- 
ing of secrecy, ix. I. 
La rayba ff-hi, ii. 210. 
La" tankati'i = sever not thyself from us, 

ix. 245. 
La tuwahishna=do not make me desolate, 

i. 62. 
La tuwkhiznd = donot chastise us = excuse 

us, i. 164. 
La'alla = haply, belike; forsure, certainly, 

ix. 49. 

La' ab= (sword-) play, vii. 44. 
La'abah=.a plaything, a puppet, a lay 

figure, i. 245. 
La'al = ruby, v. 342. 
La'an = curse, v. 250; vi. 178. 
Ldb (Old Pers. for Sun) vii. 296. 
Laban ( = milk artificially soured) vi. 201. 

(= sweet milk) vji. 360. 

halib = fresh milk, vi. 201. 

Labbayka ( = Here am I, called Talbiyah) 

i. 226 ; ii. 227. 
(pronounced on sighting Meccah) 

v. 203. 
Labbis al-Biisah tabkf 'Arusah = clothe the 

reed and it will become a bride, viii. 2OI. 
Labtayt (Pr. N.= Toledo) iv. 99. 
Lactation (term of) v. 299. 

(no cohabitation during) v. 299. 

Ladies of the family (waiting upon the 

guests) vi. 237. 

Lihik = the Overtaker, viii. 341. 
Lait = one acting like- the tribe of Lot, 

sodomite, ix. 253. 


AIJ Laylah wa Laylah. 

I,ajlaj = rolling anything in the mouth; 
stammering, ix. 322 

Ldjuward, see Lazuward, iii. 33. 

Lake Kariin, vi. 217. 

Lakit = foetus, foundling, contemptible fel- 
low, vii. 145. 

Lamf (A1-) = the 1-shaped, forked (os 
hyoides) v. 219. 

Lamiyat = poem rhyming in L, iii. 143. 

Lane quoted : i. i, 36, 42, 74, 77, 83, 93, 
100, 104, 131, 147, 163, 201, 210, 213, 
215, 217, 223, 245, 259, 269, 270, 291, 
311, 314, 317, 340 ; ii. 5, 38, 41, 46, 
56, 77, 80, 89, 93, 131, 167, 206, 215, 
243 292, 304, 314, 315, 328, 332 ; 
iii. 20, 30,44, 112, 114, 116, 117, 141, 

162, 176, l8l, 191, 211, 212, 222, 259, 

322, 33', 34i ; iv. 2, 12, 46, 55, 63, 
66, 82, 95, 96, 107, 1 10, 124, 136, 144, 
152, 160, 164, 171, 181, 187, 189, 191, 

196, 199, 200, 202, 204, 205, 209, 212, 
214, 219, 222, 228, 231, 233, 244, 254, 
268, 271, 273, 279, 287, 297; V. 2, 

32, 33t 37, 44, 4S> 64, 104, 112, 120, 

121, 144, 145, 189, 201, 231, 259, 273, 

286, 298 ; vi. i, 8, 11, 17, 33, 49, 57, 
61, 66, 80, 180, 191, 196, 214, 216, 
247,257,282; vii. 95, 96, in, 113, 
118, 119, 123, 124, 135, 136, 139, 144, 
172, 182, 195, 196, 209, 250, 269, 275, 
280, 282, 303, 306, 309, 314, 322, 328, 
346, 354, 357 J viii. 14, 18, 21, 27, 35, 
53, 62, 68, 77, 80, 84, 94, 97, 102, 

122, 124, 128, 131, 147, 148, 155, 156, 
166, 177, 179 180 187, 205, 264, 285, 
298, 337 ; ix. 32, 33, 146, 1 68, 170, 

l82, 221, 222, 224, 226, 229, 246, 291, 

304, 307 ; x. i, n, 12, 19, 34, 36, 50, 
52, 70, 115. 

Language of signs, ii. 304. 

Languages (study of, should be assisted by 

ear and tongue) x. 96, 
Largesse (better than the mace) viii. 163. 
Lasm (Lathm) = kissing the lower face, 

iv. 259. 

Lasting calamity = furious knight, vi. 290. 
Latter night = hours between the last sleep 

and dawn, i. 24. 
Laughing in one's face not meant for an 

affront, i. 320. 
Laughter rare and sign of a troubled mind, 

i. 248. 

Lauh = tablet used as slate, v. 73. 

Lauh al-Mahfuz = the Preserved Tablet (of 
Allah's decrees) v. 322. 

Laulka=but for thee, for thy sake, v. 306. 

Laun = colour, hue (for dish) vii. 185. 

Lawandiyah. (Al-) = Levantines, ix. 275. 

Layali = nights, future, fate, iii. 318. 

Layl (night) frequently = the interval be- 
tween sunset and sunset, ii. 260. 

Layla (female Pr. N.) iii. 135. 

wa Majnun (love poem) iii. 183. 

Laylat al-Kabilah = to-night, ix. 271. 

Laylat al-Kadr = Night of Power, vi. 180. 

Laylat al-Wafa = the night of completion 
of the Nile-flood, i. 291. 

Laylat ams = yesternight, vii. 186. 

Laza (Hell for Jews) ii. 140 ; viii. 346. 

Lazuward = lapis lazuli, azure, iii. 33 ; ix. 

Leaving one standing (pour se faire valoir) 
vi. 252. 

Leg-cut (severs horse's leg) ii. 220. 

Legs (making mute the anklets) vii. 131. 

(shall be bared on a certain day) ix. 


Lentils (cheapest and poorest food in 

Egypt) x- 3'- 

Leprosy (white = bahak or baras, black = 

juzam) v. 294. 
(thickens voice) iv. 50. 

(shows first at the wrist) iv. 51. 

Lesbianism, x. 209. 

Letter (reading not always understanding) 

ii. 112. 

(model specimen) iv. 57. 

(toren tears a kingdom) vii. 2. 

Letters and letter-writing, iii. 24. 

(French) vii. 190. 

Li-ajal = for the sake of, low Egyptian, il, 


Libdah (skull-cap of felt) sign of a religious 

mendicant, iii. 62. 
Liberality (men proverbial for their) iv. 96. 

(after poverty) viii. 182. 

Libraries (large ones known by the Arabs) 

viii. 79. 
(much appreciated by the Arabs) x. 


Lice bred by perspiration, ii. 69. 

Lie (only degrading if told for fear of 

telling the truth) ix. 87. 
(simulating truth) ix. 223., 



Lieu d'aisance (in Eastern crafts) ix. 332. 
Lff = fibre of palm-fronds, v. 45 ; vi. 50. 
Life (by the, of thy youth) oath of women, 
iv. 49. 

(cheap in hot countries) iv. 275. 
Life-breath in the nostrils = heart in the 

mouth, i. 42. 
Light (of salvation shining from the face 

of Prophets) ix. 324. 
Light -worshippers (are liars) iv. 252. 
Lijam shadid = sharp bit, ix. 70. 
Like mother, like daughter, i. 299. 
Li 'llahi darru-ka = the Lord has been 

copious to thee, iv. 20. 
Lion (beguiled by flattery) v. 40. 

(as Sultan of the beasts jealous of a 

man's power) x. 34. 

at home, lamb abroad, ii. 183. 

Lisam (mouth-band for men, chin- veil = 

Tasmak for women, ii. 31, 230; iii. 283. 
Lisan al-Hamal = lamb's tongue (plan- 
tain) viii. 273. 

Listening not held dishonourable, vii. 279. 
Litholatry of the old Arabs, vi. 269. 
Liver = seat of passion, i. 27. 

(for heart) iii. 240. 

(and spleen held to be congealed 

blood) v* 220. 

Living (the, who dieth not) vi. 67. 
Liwa = Arab Tempe, vii. 115. 
Liwan = Al-Aywan, iv. 71 ; vii. 347. 
Liyyah = fat sheep (calves like tails of) 

viii. 291. 

Lizzat al-Nisa (erotic poem) iii. 93. 
Loathing of prohibition, ix. 279. 
Locks (Mohammed's) ii. 230. 
Logah = Arabic language, also a vocabulary, 

dictionary, i. 251. 
Logogriphs, viii. 93. 
Lokman (three of the name) x. 118. 
Loosening the hair an immodesty in 

women sanctioned only by a great 

calamity, i. 314. 
Lord for Lady = she, v. 60. 

(of the East and West) v. 228. 

Lost on Allah's way = martyr, ii. 330. 
Lot (this is ours = I have been lucky and 

will share with you) ix. 328. 
Lot, see Luti. 
Lote-tree (beyond which there is no 

passing) v. 393. 
Lots = games of chance, v. 223. 

Love (pure, becomes prophetical) iii. 6. 
(the ear conceiveth it before the eye) 

iii. 9. 
(ten stages of) iii. 36. 

(martyrs of) iii. 21 1. 

(platonic, see vol. ii. 104) iii. 232. 

(ousting affection) iii. 240. 

(martyrs of) iv. 205. 

(clairvoyance) iv. 238. 

(excess of) iv. 238. 

(strange chances of) v. 71. 

(deaths from) v. 134. 

(made public disgraces) v. 151. 

(man and woman with regard to) 

vii. 299. 
(called upon to torment the lover still 

more) viii. 75. 

(cruelty of) x. 26. 

Love-children (exceedingly rare amongst 

Moslems) viii. 115. 
Love-liesse (never lacked between folk, 

i.e. people of different conditions) viii. 


Lovers in Laza (hell) as well as in Na'im 

(heaven) iii. 58. 
(parting of, a stock-topic in poetry), 

iii. 58. 

(buried together) v. 71. 

(model ones, becoming an ordinary 

married couple) v. 92. 
(becoming Moslems secure the good 

will of the audience) viii. 224. 
Loving folk = something more than bene- 
volence, ii. 2. 

Luk-Gate (proverb referring to) iv. 259. 
Lukmah = mouthful, i. 261 ; vii. 367. 
Lukman (^Esop of the Arabs) ii. 199. 
Lukmdn (three of the name) iii. 264; x. 


Lullilooing (Tahlil Zagriitah, Kil) ii. 80. 
Luliiah = union pearl ; wild cow, ix. 218. 
Lumd = dark hue of the inner lips, iv. 


Lupin-flour used as soap, ii. 136. 
Luss = thief, robber, ix. 106. 
Lute (personification of) viii. 281. 
Lutf (servile name = elegance, delicacy) 

iv. 232. 
Luti (of the people of Lot = Sodomite) v. 

Lying (until one's self believes the lie to be 

truth) x. 14. 

A If Lay la k wa Laylah. 

Lynch-Iaw (the modern form of Jus talionisj 
v. 103. 

Lymph (alluding to the "Neptunist" 

doctrine) ix. 77. 
Lynx (trained for hunting) ii. 293. 

MA AL-KHALAF, see Khilaf, ii. 136. 

Ma al-Malahah = water (brilliancy) of 

beauty, viii. 47. 

M4 Ddhiyatak = what is thy misfortune t 

(for " what ill business is this?) ix. 137. 

Ma kaharani ahadun = none vexeth (or 

has overcome) me, ix. 156. 
Ma'abfd (singer and composer) v. 147. 
Maamun (Al ), son and successor of Harun 

al-Rashfd, i. 185 ; iv. 109. 
Ma'an bin Zaidah, iii. 236 ; iv. 96. 
Ma'ani-ha (her meanings = her inner 

woman) iv. 146. 

Ma'aruf = kindness, favour, x. I. 
Mace (Ar. Dabbus) vi. 249. 

(a dangerous weapon) vii. 24. 

MacNaghten's Edition, x. 81. 

Madfa = cannon, showing modern date, i. 

Madinat al-Nabf (Al-Medfnah) = City of 

the Prophet, iv. 114. 

Madness (there is a pleasure in) iv. 204. 
Mafarik (A1-) = partings of the hair, vii. 


Maf ul = patient, passive (Catamite) v. 156. 
Magazine (as one wherein wheat is heaped 

up = unmarried) vii. 372. 
Magharibah (pi. of Maghribi = Western 

man, Moor, "Maurus") vi. 220. 
Maghdad (for Baghdad, as Makkah and 

Bakkah) viii. 51. 
Maghrib (al-Aksa) = the land of thb 

setting sun, ix. 50. 
Magic studied by Jews, ii. 234. 
Magic Horse (history of the fable) v. 2. 
Magnet Mountains, fable probably based 

on the currents, i. 140. 
Maha = wild cattle, vii. 280. 
Mahall = (a man's) quarters, viii. 229. 
Mahall al-Zauk = seat of taste, sensorium, 

ix. 83. 

Maharaj = great Rajah, vi. 8, 67. 
Mahaya = M al-Hayat = aqua vitse, vii. 

I3 2 - 

Mahdi (A1-) Caliph, vii. 136; ix. 334. 
Mahmil (mahmal) = litter, ii. 131, 

Mahmudah = praiseworthy ; confection of 

aloes, viii. 35. 
Mahr = marriage dowry, settlement, vii. 

126; ix. 32. 
Mahrfyah (Mehari) = blood-dromedary, 

iii. 277. 

Maid and Magpie, vi. 182. 
Mail-coat and habergeon, simile for a 

glittering stream, i. 291. 
Ma' in, Ma'un = smitten with the evil 

eye, i. 123. 
Maintenance (of a divorced woman during 

Iddah) ix. 32. 
Majajah =*saliva, vii. 28. 
Ma'janah (a place for making bricks) ii. 17. 
Majlis = sitting (to a woman) iii. 92. 
Majnun = madman, i. 10 ; iii. 72. 
Majzub = drawn, attracted (Sufi term for 

ecstatic) v. 57. 

Maka'ad = sitting-room, iv. 78. 
Makhaddah = pillow, ii. 70. 
Makkamah = Kazi's' Court, i. 21. 
Making water, i. 259. 
Mai = Badawi money, flocks, "fee," vi. 


Malak = level ground, viii. 285. 
Malak or Malik = Seraph or Sovran, i. 

Malakay bayti M-rahah = slabs of the 

jakes, x. 51. 

" Making men " (and women) x. 199. 
Malakut (Al) = the world of spirits (Sufi 

term) viii. 145. 
Male children (as much prized as riches) 

ix. 316. 

Malihah (al-) = salt-girl ; beautiful, i. 340. 
Malik (used as " king " in our story-books) 
ii. i. 

bin Dindr (theologian) ii. 204 ; vii. 


(taken as title) iii. 51, 

(traditionist) v. 81. 

al-Khuzd'i (intendant of the palace) 

v. 95. 

(A1-) al-Nasir = the conquering King, 

iv. 271 ; vii. 142 ; ix. 19. 
Malik (door-keeper of Hell) iii. 20. 
Malik Kawf-= very handsome (Cairene 

vulgarism) vii. 150. 

Malikhulfya (A1-) = melancholy, v. 221. 
Malocchio or Gettatura (evil) ix. 247. 
Mamluk (white slave trained to arms) i. 8l. 



Mamarr al-Tujjar = passing place of the 

traders, viii. 155. 

Mamrak = sky-window, etc. viii. 156. 
Man (extract of despicable water) iii. 1 6. 
(is fire, woman tinder) iii. 59. 

(shown to disadvantage in beast- 
stories) iii. 115. 

(his destiny written on his skull) iii. 

(pre-eminence above women; iii. 332. 

(handsomer than woman) iv. 15. 

(his ad vantages above woman) v. 155. 

(one's evidence = two women's) v. 


(one's portion = two women's v. 155. 

(created of congealed blood) v. 213. 

(one worthier in Allah's sight than a 

thousand Jinn) viii. 5, 44. 

(created after God's likeness, rather 

a Jewish-Christian than a Moslem doc- 
trine) ix. 79. 

(I am a man of them = never mind 

my name) ix. 238. 
(of the people of Allah = a Religious) 

ix. 51. 

(his wrong is from the tongue) ix. 309. 

Manaf (idol) v. 129. 

Manar al-Sana = Place of Light, viii. 104. 

Manashif (pi. of Minshafah, q.v.} viii. 92. 

Manazil (stations of the Moon) v. 228. 

Mandil kerchief, ii. 301. 

Maniyat = death ; muniyat = desire, iii. 


Manjanikat (A1-) = Mangonels, vii. 335. 
Mankind (creates its analogues in all the 

elements) iv. 121. 

(superior to Jinn) ix. 339. 

Mann = from two to six pounds, vi. 80. 
Man's creation, ii. 91. 
Mansur (Pr. N.) = triumphant, ix. 310. 
Mansur (A1-) Calipli, ii. 142, 153, 210. 

- bin Ammar, ii. 204. 
al-Nimri (poet) iv. 179. 

Mansur wa Munazzam = oratio soluta et 

ligata, viii. 226. 
Manumission of slaves, ii. 55. 
Manzil (Makam) = (a lady's) lodgings, viii. 


Maragha = he rubbed his face, ii. 60. 
Marba' = summer quarters, iii. 79. 
Marddn-i-Ghayb (Himalayan brothers) ii. 


Mares (impregnated by the wind) vi. 9. 

Marhub = terrible, viii. 180. 

Marhum (f. Marhiimah) = late lamented, 

ii. 129, 196. 

Marid = contumacious, i. 41. 
Mariduna = rebels (against Allah) vii. 


Ma'rifah = article, ix. 272. 
Maristan (from Pers. Bimaristan = place of 

sickness) i. 288. 
Marjan = Coral-branch (slave name) iii. 


Marjanah (Pr. N.) = Coral-branch, ii. 100. 
(Morgante, Urganda, Morgain) vii, 


Markub = shoe, vi. 207. 
Marmar = marble, i. 295 ; vi. 95. 
Marocco (tenanted by three Moslem races) 

X. 222. 

Marriage (not valid without receipt of set- 
tlement) i. 276. 

(if consummated demands Ghusl) iii. 


(by capture) viii. 40. 

(one of the institutions of the Apostles) 

viii. 137. 

Marriage-sheet inspected, ii. 50. 

Married men profit nothing, iii. 2. 

never once (emphasises poverty) viii . 


Marseille (probably alluded to) viii. 315. 
Marsin = myrtle, vii. 290. 
Martyrdom, iv 24.7. 

(of the drowned) ix. 340. 

Martyrs (still alive) ii. 242. 

(of love) iii. 211 ; iv. 205. 

Marwah (ground-wave in Meccah) v. 203. 
Marwazi = of Marw (Margiana) iii. 222. 
Marwan bin al-Hakam (Governor of al- 

Medinah) vii. 125. 

Maryam (a Christian name), viii. 306. 
Maryam al-Husn = place of the White doe 

(Rim) of beauty, viii. 321. 
Marz-ban = Warden of the Marches, Mar- 
grave, iii. 256. 

Masculine for feminine, vii. 140. 
Ma shaa 'llah (as Allah willeth)= well done, 

iii. 92. 
Mashallah = the English " Cock's 'ill " 

with a difference, x. 52. 
Mashhad = head and foot stone of a grave, 

* S3- 


A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

Masha'ili = cresset-bearer, for public crier, 
hangman, i. 259 ; iv. 6l. 

Masihi follower of the Messiah, i. 258. 

Maskharah = buffoon, ii. 143 ; vii. 195. 

Maskhut = transformed (mostly in some- 
thing hideous), a statue, i. 165. 

Maslamah bin Abd al- Malik, ii. 167. 

Massacre (the grand moyen of Eastern 
state-craft, ix. no. 

Massage, i. 172. 

Mastabah^ bench of masonry, vi. 26. 

Masukah = stick used for driving cattle, 
viii. 147. 

Mataf= place of Tawaf, q.v. 

Matarik (pi. of mitrak) = targes, ix. 225. 

Matmurah = underground cell, ii. 39. 

Matr (pi. amtar) = large vessel of leather or 
wood, iii. 295. 

Matta'aka 'llah = Allah permit thee to 
enjoy, ix. 125. 

Matting (of Sind, famous) v. 146. 

Maukab (Al-) = Procession-day, iv. 287. 

Maulid = nativity, ix. 289. 

Maund, see Mann, vi. 80. 

Maurid = desert well and road to such, iii. 


Mausil (Mosul) alluding to the junction of 
Assyria and Babylonia, i. 82. 

Mausul (Al-) = the conjoined (for relative 
pronoun or particle) ix. 272. 

Maut = death, vii. 147. 

Mauz=Musa (Banana) iv. 201. 

Mawwal (for Mawaliyah) short poem, 
viii. 94 ; 151. 

" May thy life be prolonged," iv. 62. 

Mayazib (pi. of miza"b) = gargoyles, vii. 
I 3 6. 

Maydan = parade-ground, i. 46. 

Maydan al-Fil = race-course of the Ele- 
phant, vii. 326. 

Maymunah (proverbial noun now forgotten) 

i. 57- 

Maysir = game of arrows, v. 223. 
Maysum (Badawi wife of Caliph Mu'awi- 

yah) ii. 160. 
Maysum's song, vii. 97. 
Mayyafarikin, ancient capital of Diydr 

Bakr, vii. I. 
Meat rarely coloured in modern days, i. 

Medicine (rules and verses bearing on 

domestic) v. 222. 

Melancholy (chronic under the brightest 

skies) iv. 239. 
Men (is there a famine of?) = are men so 

few? iv. 295. 
Meniver = menu vair (Mus lemmus) ix. 

Menses (coition during, and leprosy) viii. 

Menstruous discharge (made use of as a 

poison) ix. 101. 

Merchant (worth a thousand) x. 8. 
Merchants and shopkeepers carrying swords, 

i- 54- 
Mercury Aly (his story sequel to that of 

Dalilah) vii. 172. 

Mercy (quality of the noble Arab) iii. 88. 
Mer-folk(refinedwith the Greeks, grotesques 

with other nations) ix. 169. 
Messiah (made a liar by the Miscreants) 

ix. 15. 

Metamorphosis (terms of) vii. 294. 
Metempsychosis and sharpers' tricks, v. 84. 
Metrical portion of the Nights (threefold 

distribution of) x. 67. 
Miao or Mau = cat, i. 220. 
Mihrab and Minaret (symbols of Venus and! 

Priapus ?) i. 166. 
Mihraj = Maharaj, q.v. ; vi. 67. 
Mikashshah = broom, iv. 208. 
Mihrgan = Sun-fete, degraded into 

Michaelmas, v. i. 

Mikbas (pot of lighted charcoal) iv. 246. 
Mikhaddah = cheek-pillow, viii. 273. 
Mikmarah = cover for a brasier, extin* 

guisher, v. 120. 

Miknas = town Mequinez, vi. 223. 
Miknasah = broom, vi. 158. 
Mi'lakah = spoon, ix. 141. 
Milh = salt, i. 340. 
Military and Police sneered at, iv. 270. 
Milk (white as, opposed to black as mud) 

iv. 140. 

(soured) v. 225. 

(Ar. Laban, Halib) vi. 201. 

(by nomades always used in the soured 

form) vi. 201. 

Milk-drinking races prefer the soured milk 

to the sweet, vii. 360. 
Million (no Arabic word for, expressed by 

a thousand thousand) vi. 98. 
Mim-like mouth, iv. 249. 
Mims (verset of the sixteen) v 217. 



Mina (and the stoning of the Devil) v. 


Minaret (simile for a fair young girl) iii. 69. 
Mind (one by vinegar, another by wine = 

each goes its own way) iv. 72. 
" Mine " (various idioms for expressing it) 

viii. 335- 

Mininah = biscuit, iv. 86. 
Minshafah (pi. Manashif) = drying towel, 

viii. 92. 

Mikra'ah = palm-rod, i. 99. 
Miracle (minor, known to Spiritualism) v. 

Miracles (performed by Saints' tombs) i. 


' (disclaimed by Mohammed but gene- 
rally believed in) iii. 346. 

(growing apace in the East) ix. 336 

Mirage = Sarab, iii 319. 

Mirbad (A1-) market-place at Bassorah, 

vii. 130. 
Mirza 'Abdullah-i-Hichmakani = Master 

Abdullah of Nowhere, v. 27. 
'" Mis "-conformation (prized by women) 

vi. 156. 

Mishammah = an old gunny-bag, ix. 171. 
Miskal = 71-72 grams in gold, used for 

dinar, i. 126 ; ix. 262. 
Misr, Masr = Capital (applied to Memphis, 

Fostat and Cairo) vii. 172. 

(for Egypt) vii. 370. 

Misra (twelfth Coptic month) v. 232. 
Misrayn (A1-) = Basrah and Kufah, 

vii. 371. 
Mitrahinna (Minat-ro-hinnu) = port at 

mouth of canal, ii. 237. 
Mizr, Mizar = beer, i. 72. 
Modesty (behind a curtain) v. 162. 
Mohammed (best of the first and last) ii. II. 

(Mustafa) ii. 40. 

(his letter to the Mukaukis) ii. 79. 

- (Periclytus and Paracletus) ii. 226. 

(abhors the shaveling) ii. 248. 

(bearer of glad and bad tidings) 

ii. 257. 

(Congratulator and Commiserator) 

ii. 260. 

(Best of Mankind), ii. 263. 

(" born with Kohl'd eyes") iii. 232. 

(his uncles) iv 22. 

(traditional saying of) iv. 35. 

(cleanses the Ka'abah of idols) iv. 80, 

Mohammed (on dyeing the hair, etc.) iv. 

(on lovers) iv. 205. 

(on his being seen in sleep) iv. 287. 

(places the " black stone ") iv. 261. 

(mentioned in the Koran) v. 210. 

(Allah's right hand) vii. 366. 

(sent with the guidance and True 

Faith) ix. 15. 

(before and after the Hijrah) x. 196. 

Mohammed al-Amin (Caliph) v. 93. 
Mohammed bin Sulayman al-Rabi'i 

(Governor of Bassorah) vii. 130. 
Moharram = first month of the Moslem 

year, viii. 71. 
Mohr = signet, vii. 329. 
Mohtasib = inspector of weights and 

measures, etc., viii. 293. 
Mole on cheek (black as Bilal) iv. 142. 
Moles compared with pearls, i. 177. 
Monasteries (best wine made in) v. 65. 

(Ar. Bika'a) v. 125. 

(places of confinement for madmen) 

v. 139. 

Monday second day reckoning from 
Sabbath, i. 266. 

Money (carried in the corner of a hand- 
kerchief) i. 271. 

(large sums weighed) i. 281 ; ii. 145* 

(carried round the waist) viii. 288. 

(let lie with the folk = not dunned 

for) ix. 311. 

Monkery (abhorred by Mohammed) ii. 248. 

(none in Al-Islam) viii. 137. 

Monoculars (unlucky to meet) i. 333. 

(famed for mischief) iv. 194 ; 

viii. 318. 

Monsters (abounding in Persian literature) 

vii. 399- 
Months (of peace) v. 54. 

(Coptic names of) v. 221, 232. 

Arabic names explained) v. 233. 

Moon (blighting effect of its rays) ii. 4. 
masculine in Semitic, ii. 45. 
(masc., Sun fern.) iii. 28 ; iv. 261. 

(simile for female beauty) v. 8. 

(shall be cloven in twain) v. 217. 

(its stations) v. 228. 

(taking in hand the star = girl hand- 
ing round the cup) ix. 192. 

Moon-faced (not absurd) iv. 192. 
Moons (for cup-bearers) viii. 2*7, 

A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

Moore (Thomas, anticipated) iii. 305. 
Morality (geographical and chronological) 
iii. 241. 

(want of, excused by passion) iii. 


Morbi venerei, x. 88. 

Morning draught, iii. 20. 

" Morosa voluptas," vii. 132. 

Mortal (one better in Allah's sight than a 

thousand Jinn) viii. 5, 44. 
Moses (derivation of the name) ii. 205. 

and Jethro, ii. 205. 

and the next world, ii. 206. 

and Al-Khizr, ii. 263. 

(describes his own death and burial) 

vi. 116. 

Moslem (model Conservative) ii. 13. 

(external) ii. 29. 

(familiarity between high and low) 

ii. 32. 

(peasants kind-hearted) ii. 69. 

(kihd feeling shown to a namesake) 

vi. 13. 

(corpses should be burnt under cer- 
tain circumstances) vi. 26. 

(commonplaces of condolence) vi. 41. 

(sales, formula of) vi. 73. 

(consecrated ground unknown to 

them) vi. 161. 

(a free-born's sale is felony) vi. 240. 

(dignity contrasting with Christian 

abasement) viii. $, 44. 

. T- (can circumcise, marry and bury him- 
self) viii. 22. 

(on a journey tries to bear with him 
a new suit of clothes for the festivals 
and Friday service) ix. 51. 

(bound to discharge the debts of his 
dead parents) ix. 311. 

[. . (doctrine ignores the dictum, " ex 
nihilonihil fit") ix. 63. 

(resignation, noble instance of) x. 42. 

Moslems (their number preordained) viii. 


(deal kindly with religiqus mendi- 
cants) ix. 51. 

(not ashamed of sensual appetite) 

ix. 84. 

(bound to abate scandals amongst 

neighbours) ix. 98. 

(husbands among them divided into 

three classes) ix. 263. 

Mosque al-Ahzab = mosque of the troops, 

vii. 92. 
Mosques serving as lodgings for poor 

travellers, ii. 69. 
Mosul (exempted from idolatrous worship) 

v.6 4 . 

stuff = muslin, i. 229. 
Mother (waiting upon the adult sons (vi. 


(in Arab tales = ma mere) viii. 27. 

Mother's milk = nature, ii. 44. 

Mounds = rubbish heaps outlying Eastern 

cities, i. 71. 

Mountain (coming from the = being a 
clodhopper) iii. 324. 

(sit upon the = turn anchorite) iii. 


(the, at Cairo) iv. 294. 

Mountains (the pegs of the earth) iv. 174. 
Mourning (perfumes not used during) iii 


(normal term of forty days) ix. 311. 

Moustachio (salt to a kiss) v. 165. 

Mouth compared to the ring of Sulayman, 

i. 84. 
Mrigatrishna = the thirst of the deer 

(mirage) vi. 93. 
MS. copy of The Nights (price of one in 

Egypt) vii. 312. 

Muakhat = entering in a formal agree- 
ment for partnership, viii. 232. 
Mu'allim = teacher, master (address to a 

Jew or Christian) vi. 150. 
Mu'arras = pimp, i. 338. 
Mu'attik al-Rikab = Liberator of Necks, 

vii. 331. 

Mu'awiyah (Caliph) ii. 160, 161. 
(his Moses-like "mildness") iii. 


Muayyad (Sultan and calligrapher) ii. 32. 
Muazzin (who calls to prayer) ii. 306. 
Mubarak (f. mubarakah) = blessed (a 

favourite slave-name) ix. 58. 
Mubarakah = the blessed (fem.) ix. 330. 
Mudarris = professor, x. 8. 
Mudawwarah (a gong ?) iy. 135. 
Mufti (Doctcr of Law) vi. 254. 
Muhabbat (A1-) al-ghariziyah = natural 

affection, viii. no. 
Muhafiz = district-governor, i. 259. 
Muhajiriin = companions in Mohammed's 

flight, vii. 92. 



Muhakkah =" Court-hand," i. 129. 
Muhallil, see Mustahall. 
Muhammad, Ahmad and Mahmud, vi. 273. 
Muhammarah = fricandoed, i. 286. 
Muharabah = doing battle, ix. Q2/ 
Muharramat (the three forbidden things) 

iii. 340 ; v. 148. 

Mu'in al-Din = Aider of the Faith, vii. 354. 
Mujahid (A1-) = fighter in Holy War, iii. 


Mujahidun, plur. of the previous, iii. 39. 
Mujauhar = damascened, vii. 84. 
Mujawirun = lower servants, sweepers, 

etc. v. 119. 

Mujtaba = the Accepted, i. 77. 
Mukaddam (Anglo-Indice Muccudum) = 

overseer, iv. 42. 

Mukarrabun = those near Allah, v. 319. 
Mukhammas = cinquains, iii. 280. 
Mukri = Koranist, v. 216. 
Mulabbas = dragees, vii. 205. 
Mulakat = going to meet an approaching 

guest, v. 330. 

Mulberry-fig (for anus) iii. 302. 
Mummery = " Mahommerie " x. 178. 
Munadamah = table-talk, "conversation 

over the cup," vii. 309. 
Munafik = hypocrite, v. 207. 
Munakkishah = woman who applies the 

dye to a face, i. 270. 
Munawwarah (A1-) = the Illumined (title 

of Al-Medinah) vii. 95. 
Munazarah = dispute, ix. 243. 
Munazirah = like (fern.) ix. 243. 
Munkar andNakir (the questioning angels) 

v. in ; ix. 163 ; x. 47. 
Munkasir (broken) = languid, iv. 195. 
Munkati' = cut off, viiu 24. 
Murahanah = game at forfeits, vi. 204. 
Murder (to be punished by the family) v. 


(to save one's life approved of), vi. 44. 

Murjiyy (sect and tenets) iii. 341. 

Murtaza = the Elect, i. 77. 

Musa = Moses, ii. 205. 

Musa bin Nusayr (conqueror of Spain) vi. 


Mus'ab bin al-Zubayr, v. 79. 
MusaTahah = joining palms for " shaking 

hand," vi. 287 ; vii.,52 ; ix. 342. 
Musdhakah = tribadism, vii. 132. 
Musahikah = tribade, viii. 130. 

Musakhkham (A1-) = the defiled Cioss, ii. 


Musalla = place of prayer, oratory, v. 261. 
Musamarah = chatting at night, iv. 237 ; 

vii. 217. 

Music (forbidden by Mohammed) ix. 31. 
Musk (scent of heaven) ii. 300. 

(sherbet flavoured with) v. 66. 

Mushayyad = lofty, high-builded, viii. 23. 
Muslim bin al-Walid (poet) v. 128. 
Musquito caught between the toes, vii. 179. 
Musran (A1-) guts, vii. 190. 
Mustafa (the chosen) = Mohammed, i. 77 ; 

ii. 40. 

Mustahakk = deserving, x. 52. 
Mustahall (Mustahill) = one who marries 

a thrice divorced woman and divorces 

her to make her lawful for her first hus- 
band, iv. 48. 

Musta'in (A1-) bi 'Hah (Caliph) ix. 246. 
Mutalammis (A1-), the poet and his fatal 

letter, v. 74. 
Mustansir bi 'llah (A1-) = one seeking help 

in Allah, i. 317. 
Mutanakkir = disguised, proud, reserved, 

vii. I pi. 
Mu'tasim (A1-) bi 'llah (Caliph) iii. 81 ; 

ix. 232. 
Mutawakkil (A1-) Caliph, iv. 291 ; v. 153 ; 

ix. 232. 

Mutawalli = Prefect of Police, i. 259. 
Mutawwif = leader in the Tawaf, q.v. v. 


Mu'tazid (A1-) bi 'llah (Caliph) ix. 229. 
Mu'tazz (A1-) bi 'llah (Caliph) ix. 242. 
Mu'ujizah = miracle of a prophet, ii. 237. 
Muunah = provisions, vii. 232; ix. 104. 
Muunis (Pr. N. = Companion) v. 164. 
Muwaffak = well-notched, v. 33. 
Mu wallad = a slave born in a Moslem land, 

iv. 291. 

Muwashshah (stanza) iv. 54. 
Muzani (A1-) ii. 208. 
Muzayyin (Figaro of the East) i. 304. 
Myrtle-bush =young beard, iv. 143. 
Mystification explained by extraordinary 

likeness, viii. 40. 

NA'AL = sandal, shoe, horse-shoe, vi. 207. 
Nab (pi. Anyab) = canine tooth, tusk, vii. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Nabbut = quarter-staff, i. 234; viii. 186. 

Nabhan (sons of) vi. 262. 

Nabi = prophet, ix. 178. 

Nabighah al-Zubyani (pre-Islamitic poet) 

vi. 85. 

Nadd (a compound perfume) i. 310. 
Naddabah = mourning woman, i. 311. 
Nadim = cup-companion, i. 46. 
Nafahat = breathings, benefits, v. 29. 
Nafakah = sum necessary for the expenses 

of the pilgrimage, ix. 178. 
Nafas= breath, i. 107. 
Nafs = soul, life, i. 107. 
Nfi' (traditionist) v. 204. 
Nafilah = supererogatory Koran recitation, 

iii. 222. 
Nafisah (great -grand-daughter of the Imam 

Hasan) iv. 46. 
Nafisah (Pr. N.) = the Precious one, viii. 


Nafs-i = my soul for " the flesh/' vii. 118. 
Nafs Ammarah=" the Flesh," viii. 31. 
al-Natikah = intellectual soul, viii. 


- - al-Ghazabiy ah = animal function, viii. 


al-Shahwaniyah= vegetative property, 

viii. 31. 

Naga-kings (of Hinduism) v. 302. 
Nahas (vulg. for Nuhas, q.v.) ii. 327 ; iv. 


Nahf-ka = let it suffice thee, x. 22. 
Nahnu malihm = we are on term of salt, i. 

Nahr = slaughtering a camel by stabbing, 

iv. 95. 

Nahr = river, vi. 163. 
Nahs = nasty, i. 301. 
Na'i al-maut = messenger of death, vii. 


Naihah = keener, hired mourner, i. 311. 
Na'im = delight (name for Heaven) iii. 19; 

iv. 143. 
Na'iman = may it benefit thee ! after 

bathing, etc., ii. 5. 

Naivete (of the Horatian kind)'ix. 215. 
Najasah = nastiness (anything unclean) vi. 

Najib (al-taraf = son of a common Mos- 

lemah by a Sayyid, q.v.) v. 259. 
Najib (al-tarafayn = whose parents are both 

of Apostolic blood) v. 259. 

Najis = ceremonially impure, ix. 337. 

Najiyah = Salvadora, ii. 145. 

Najm al-Munkazzi = shooting star, viii. 

Najm al-Sabah (Pr. N.) = Star o' Morn, 

viii. 107. 

Najran (in Syria) ii. 232. 
Naka = sand-hill, x. 27. 
Nakat = to spot ; to handsel, viii. 266. 
Naked = without veil or upper clothing, 

vii. 151. 
Nakedness (Ar. Aurat) vi. 30. 

(paraphrased) i. 327. 

Nakfur = Nicephorus, ii. 77. 

Nakh = make a camel kneel down by the 

cry Ikh ! Ikh ! ii. 139. 
Nakhuzah Zulayt = skipper rapscallion, 

viii. 175. 
Nakib, a caravan-leader, chief, syndic, i. 

Nakisatu 'aklin wa din = failing in wit and 

faith, ix. 298. 

Nakkar = Pecker (a fabulous fish), ix. 184. 
Nakl-i-safar (move preliminary to a jour- 
ney) ii. 84. 
Nakus = wooden gong (used as bell) vi. 47; 

viii. 328. 
Name of Allah introduced into an indecent 

tale essentially Egyptian, i. 12. 
Names (of God) v. 214. 
(= magical formula) v. 369. 

frequently do not appear till near 

the end of a tale) vii. 43, 75, 274. 

(approved by Allah) ix. 165. 

Naming of a child, ii. 174. 
Naming a girl by name offensive, vii. 286. 
Naml (ant) simile for a young beard, iii. 58. 
Namusiyah = mosquito curtains, viii. 330. 
Napoleonic pose (attitude assumed by a 

slave) ix. 320. 
Nar (fire) ii. 163. 

(fem. like, the names of other ele- 
ments) viii. 16. 

.Narcissus (with negro eyes = yellowish 

white) ii. 24. 
Narcissus and Hippolytus (assumed as types- 

of morosa voluptas, etc.) x. 215. 
Narjis = Narcissus, i. 294. 

(name of a slave-girl) viii. 176. 

Nashshar (A1-) ^ the sawer, i. 335. 
Nsik = a devotee, ix. 40. 
Naskh = copying hand, i. 128. 



Nasfm == Zephyr (emendation for Nadlm 

= cup-companion) viii. 62. 
Nasir (Pr. N.) = triumphing, ix. 310. 
Nasrani = follower of Him of Nazareth, 

i. 258. 
Nat'a = leather used by way of table-cloth, 

i. 20. 
Nat'a al-dam = the leather of blood, 

i. 318 jii. 41. 
Nation (its power consists in its numbers 

of fighting men) v. 255. 
Nau (pi. Anwd) = setting of one star 

simultaneous with another's rising, viii. 


Nauruz = new (year's) day, iv. 244. 
Navel, as to beauty and health, i. 84. 
(largeness of, much appreciated) viii. 


Nawa = date-stone ; Nawdyah = sever- 
ance, ii. 315. 
Nawatfyah = crew (navigata, nauta) viii. 


Nay = reed-pipe, v. 50. 
Naysabur (town in Khorasan) ix. 230. 
Ndzih = travelled far and wide, v. 52. 
Nzir = overseer, ii. 304 ; iii. 233. 
Nearness of seat a mark of honour, i. 


Negro (Legend of his origin) iv. 250. 
Negroes preferred by debauched women, 

i. 6. 
(familiarity of boys with white girls) 

ii. 49. 
(their skin assumes dust-colour in 

cold, etc.) ii. 127. 
Negrofied races like " walking tun-butts," 

iv. 255. 
Neighbour before the house, companion 

before the journey, ii. 207. 
Neighbours (frequently on the worst of 

terms) vi. 236. 
Nemo repente fuit turpissimus (not believed 

in by Easterns) ix. 91. 
" New Arabian Nights," vi. 257. 
New-moon of Ramazan watched for, i. 

New moon of the Festival = Crescent of 

the breakfast, ix. 249, 250. 
News (what is behind thee of, O Asa*m) 

viii. 222. 
Ni'am = yes in answer to a negative, vii. 

Ni'amat = a blessing, iv. i. 

Night (and day, not day and night, with 
the Arabs) iii. 121. 

- (-cap) iii. 222. 

("this " = our " last ") iii. 249, 

(for day) iii. 318. 

(its promise spread with butter that 

melteth with day-rise) v. 77- 

(its last the bitter parting) vii. 243. 

(consists of three watches) i. 175; 

viii. 330. 

Nil (A1-) = flood season corresponding to 

summer, i. 290. 

Nilah = indigo, dye-stuff, ix. 144. 
Nile-water sweet and light, i. 290. 
Nimchahrah = half- face (Pers., a kind of 

demon) v. 333. 
Nimr = leopard, ix. 63. 
Nimrod of the desert, ii. 291. 
Nimsd = Germans, ii. 219. 
Nimshah (Namshah?) = dagger of state, 

ii. 193- 
Nineteen the age of an oldish old maid in 

Egypt, i. 212. 
Nisab (A1-), smallest sum for stealing which 

the hand is mutilated, iv. 157. 
Nitak, a woman's waistcloth, vii. 180. 
Niyah (A1-) = ceremonial intention of 

prayer, v. 163 ; x. 254. 
Nizami (Persian poet) iii. 183. 
Noachian dispensation (revived Al- Islam as 

revealed to Adam) v. 372. 
Noisy merriment scandalous to Moslem 

1 ' respectability," i. 95. 
Nostrils (his life-breath was in his, = his 

heart was in his mouth) vii. 258. 
Nostrums for divining the sex of the unborn 

child, vii. 268. 
Nothing for nothing a sexual point 

d'honneur, i. 87. 
Nuha"s (vulg. Nahds) = copper, brass, i. 

40 ; ii. 327 ; iv. 1 78, 230 ; vi. 83. 
Nukl = quatre mendiants, ix. 177, 213. 
Numbering the streets, etc. a classical 

custom, viii. 88. 

Nun (simile for the eye-brow) v. 34. 
Nun-like brow, iv. 249. 
Nuptial sheet (inspection of) iii. 289. 
Nur al-Huda (Pr. N.)= Light of Salvation, 

iii. 17 ; viii. 97. 
Niirayn = two lights (town in Turkestan) 

vii. 88. 
Nusf = half-dirham, ii. 37 ; vi. 214 ; fat, 

139. 167. 


Alf Lay/ah wa Laylah. 

Nusk = piety, abstinence from women, ix. 

Nu'uma*n (A1-) bin Munzir (tyrant of Hirah) 

v. 74. 

Nu'uman's flower = anemone, ii. 325. 
Nuzhat al-Zamdn = delight of the age, ii. 

Nymphomania (ascribed to worms in the 

vagina) iv. 298. 

OATH (a serious thing amongst Moslems) i. 

(inconsiderately taken) ii. 136. 

(kept to the letter) iv. 70. 

(retrieved by expiation) viii. 263. 

(of divorce) viii. 287, 311. 

Obayd Allah (Pr. N.) v. 164. 
Obayd ibn Tahir (Under-Prefect of Bagh- 
dad) iv. 291. 
Object first seen in the morning determines 

the fortunes of the day, viii. 147. 
Obscene abuse meant as familiarity, not 

insult, ii. 88. 
O Camphor (antiphrase = Snowball) iii. 

Ocean (Jamm) v. 93. 

(of darkness) v. 309. 

" Off-with-his-head " style (not to be taken 

literally) ix. 308. 
Offering for naught = closing with the 

offer, ii. 4. 

Offerings (pious = ex votes, etc.) vii. 150. 
Oftentimes the ear loveth before the eye, 

iii. 9. 

Ohod (battle of) ii. 165. 
Old age (graphically described) v. 3. 
"Old maids" ignored in the East, vii. 

" Old Man of the Sea" (a Ma>id or evil 

Jinn) vii. 338. 

Old woman (polite equivalents for) v. 163. 
Oldest matter in The Nights the beast- 
stories, iii. 114. 
Olema" (pi. of 'Alim) = the learned in the 

law, v. 183. 

(Time-serving) x. 44. 

Oman = Eastern Arabia, i. 83. 

(with capital Maskat = Omana 

Moscha) vii. 24. 
Omar bin al-Khattab (Caliph) ii. 158, 159, 

162, 164 ; v. 103. 

Omar-i- Khayyam * (astronomer -poet) ix. 


Omen (Fal) v. 136. 
Onanism (discouraged by circumcision) x. 


One-eyed men considered rascals, iv. 194. 
Opener (of the door of daily bread) vi. 

Opening doors without a key is the knavish 

trick of n petty thief, vii. 182. 
Ophidia (of monstrous size) vi. 29. 
Orange (a growth of India) viii. 272. 
Oriental orgie different from European, i. 

Othello (even he does not kill Emilia) ix. 

Othmdn (Caliph) ii. 163. 

(Ka"tib al-Kuran) v. 215. 

Oubliettes (in old Eastern houses) iii. 327. 
Out of the sight of my friend is better and 

pleasanter, iii. 315. 
whose thrall am I, etc. = To her (I 

drink) viii. 224. 

PAIN (resembling the drawing of a tooth) 

X. 21. 

Palace (of the Caliph at Baghdad) vi. 

Palaces (avoided by the pious) vi. 182. 

(in ruins for want of repair) x. 61. 

Palgrave and Al- Islam, x. 189. 

Palmerin of England, viii. 64. 

Palm-stick (a salutary rod) ii. 22. 

Palsy (creeps over him) v. 251. 

Pander-dodge to get more money, i. 302. 

Panel-dodge fatally common, i. 323. 

Paper (his = the whiteness of his skin) v. 

Paradise (of the Moslem not wholly sen- 
sual) iii. 19 ; ix. 322. 

Parapets (on terrace-roofs made obligatory 
by Moses) v. 72. 

Parasite (Ar. Tufayli) v. 130. 

Parent (ticklish on the Pundonor) ix. 288. 

Paris Jockey-club scene anticipated, i. 327. 

Parisian MSS. of The Nights, x. 104. 

Parody on the testification of Allah's Unity, 
i. 177 ; iii. 215. 

Parrot-story a world-wide folk-lore, i. C2. 

Particles of swearing, viii. 310. 

Partner in very deed, viii. 181. 

Partridge (Ar. Hijl) iii. 138. 



Partridges (story of the two) vi. 183. 

Pashas' agents for bribery in Constanti- 
nople, iv. 183. 

Passengers in difficulties take command, 
i. 140. 

Pathos (touch of) iii. 55. 

Patience (cutting the cords of) iii. 178. 

Pausing as long as Allah pleased = musing 
a long time, vi. 109. 

Pay-chest (of a Hammam bath) ix. 152. 

Payne quoted: i. 129, 150, 167, 209, 217; 
ii. 19, 185, 304; iii. 58, 130, 162, 172, 
193, 252, 275, 291 ; iv. 50, 54, 66, 197, 
221, 222; v. 44, 49, 65, 86, 112, 161, 
192, 204, 346 ; vii. 16, 18, 57, 123, 178, 
277, 337 J viii. 21, 32, 64, 70, 72, 80, 
117, 125, 130, 131, 148, 158, 168, 179, 
216, 223, 224, 262, 264, 271, 275, 278, 
279, 282, 293, 294, 298, 314, 326, 327 ; 
ix. 22, 23, 79, 84, 86, 89, 171, 212, 224, 
226, 227, 250, 251, 265, 268, 290; x. 
50, 52, 74, 104, 140, 142, 167. 

Peaches (Sultani and Andam) viii. 270. 

Pearl supposed to lose I per cent, per ann. 
of its lustre, i. 165. 

Pearl-fisheries, vi. 60. 

Pearls (shaded by hair = teeth under 
mustachio) v. 157. 

(fresh from water) vii. 240. 

(resting on the sand-bank) ix. 164. 

Pears (various kinds of) viii. 269. 

Peccadillo in good olden days (murder) iv 

'* Peche philosophique " (the, in France) 

x. 249. 

Pederasts (list of famous) x. 252. 
Pehlevi version of the Panchatantra, x. 


Pen and Preserved Tablet, ii. 68. 
Pencilling the eyes with Kohl, vii. 250. 
Penis (as to anus and cunnus) iii. 303. 

(Ark al-Halawat) iv. 51. 

(correspondence of si^c) iv. 52. 

(and its succedanea) x. 230. 

Pens (gilded = reeds washed with gold) vii. 

People of His affection = those who deserve 

His love, ix. 92. 
Pepper (and the discovery of the Cape 

route) vi. 38. 
(-plantations shaded by bananas) vi. 


VOL. X. 

Perfumes (not used during mourning) iii. 


(natural) iii. 231. 

Periphrase containing a negative adds 

emphasis, ii. 83. 

Persian (" I am a, but not lying now") v. 26. 
(poets mostly addressing youths) v. 


Persians always suspected, viii. 8. 
Persians (delighting in practical jokes) ix. 


Person (Ar. Shakhs) iv. 97 ; viii. 159. 
Peshadians (race of Persian Kings) i. 7S 
Petrified folk, ix. 318. 
Phaedra and Hippolytus, vi. 127. 
Pharao (signs to) iv. 249. 
" Philippi" and " Alexanders" in_Siaon f 

ii. 82. 

Philosophic (used in a bad sense) vi. 257. 
Physical prognostication familiar to Mes- 
merists, ii. 72. 
Physiognomy (Ar. Firasah, Kiyafah) viii, 

Physiologists (practise on the simiads) v. 


Physis and Antiphysis, v. 320. 
Picnics (on the Rauzah island) v. 169. 
Pidar-sokhtah = (son of a) burnt father 

(Persian insult) vi. 26. 
Pieces de circonstance ( mostly mere 

doggrel) ii. 261 ; viii. 59. 
Pigeon (language, etc.) iii. 126. 
(blood of the young) ib. 289. 

Pilgrimage quoted . . 

(iii. 1 i) ib. 46. 

(i. 5 ; ii. 196) ib. 51. 

(ii. 71) ib. 74. 

(ii. 309) M. 77- 

(iii. 126) ib. 97. 

(i. 86) ib. 107. 

(iii. 31, etc.) ib. 1 12. 

(i. 327) ib. 120. 

(ii. 198) ib. 123. 

(iii. 104) ib. 134. 

(iii. 350) ib. 138. 

(i. chapt. xi.) ib. 140. 

(iii. 137) ib. 170. 

(iii. 200) Ib. 174. 

(iii. 60, 62 ib. 208. 

(i. 202) ib. 214. 

(ii. 275) ib. 215, 

(i. 1 1 8) ib. 219. 

i. 28. 



A If Lay la ft ua L aylah. 

Pilgrimage quoted : (ii. 215) i. 22O. 

(iii. 125, 232) ib. 226. 

(i- 313) ^. 228. 

(iii. 63) ib. 230. 

(i. 84 ; iii. 43) ib. 245. 

(i. 127) ib. 250. 

(ii. 175) ib. 256. 

(i. 1 60) ib. 258. 

(i. 255 ; i. 60) ib. 266. 

(iii. 263) ib. 269. 

[ (iii. 201, 202) ib. 284. 

(i. 53) ib. 294. 

(i. 240 ; iii. 35, 36) ib. 308. 

(i. 1 1 ; iii. 285) . . ii. 5. 

(i. 261 ; iii. 7) ib. 15. 

(i. 210; 346) ib. 31. 

(ii. 77) ib. 40. 

(iii. 330) ib. 113. 

(ii. 113) ib. 114. 

(i- 99) # 3*6- 

(ii. 274) ib. 326. 

(ii. 176; i. 174) ^. 330. 

(i. 276) ib. 338. 

(i- 333) # 124. 

(iii. 12) ib. 131. 

(iii. 254) ib. 132. 

(i. 222; ii. 91) ib. 139 

(ii. 1 1 8) ib. 140- 

(i. 121) ib. 163. 

(ii. 227) ib. 165. 

(iii. 226, 342, 344) ib. 169. 

(ii. 49) ib. 178. 

(i- 305) #. 1 80. 

(iii. 322) ib. 203. 

(ii. 89) ib. 220. 

(iii. 115) ib. 224. 

(iii. 232) ib. 227. 

(i. 346} ib. 230. 

I (iii. 78) ib. 236. 

I (ii. no) ib. 242. 

j- (iii. 171-175; 203) ib. 272. 

\ (iii. 113)0.286. 

(iii. 7 1);#. 293. 

(ii. 105, 205) ib. 317. 

(ii. 58 ; iii. 343) ib. 327. 

(i. 1 10) ib. 330. 

(ii. 22) iii. 7. 

(iii. 77) ib. 65. 

(iii. 14) ib. 67. 

(i. 216) ib. 81. 

(i. 64) ib. 91. 

r- (iii. 185) 0. 107. 

Pilgrimage quoted : (iii. 270) iii. 1 1 8. 

(iii. 208) ib. 121. 

(iii. 218) ib. 126. 

(i. 52) ib. 151. 

(iii. 307) ib. 159. 

(i. 99) # 163. 

(iii. 239) 0. 174. 

(iii. 22) ib. 226. 

(ii. 282) ib. 241. 

(iii. 144) ib. 252. 

(ii. 213, 321) ,b. 304. 

(iii. 192-194) ib. 319. 

(i. 106) ib. 324. 

0- 75-77) iv. 6- 

(i. 285 ; ii. 78) ib. 36. 

(iii. 306) ib. 75. 

(i. 123) ib. 78. 

(iii. 295) ib. 80. 

(iii. 303) ib. 95. 

(ii. 119) ib. 114. 

(i. 213) ib. 115. 

(iii. 156, 162, 216, 220) ib. 125. 

(iii. 168, 174, 175) ib. 148. 

(ii. 329) ib. 254. 

(iii. 192) ib. 261. 

(i. 43) id. 293. 

(i. 22) .... v. 39, 

(ii. 287) ib. 44. 

(iii. 218) ib. 49. 

(i. 16) ib. 97. 

(ii. 344) ib. 100. 

(i. 10) ib. 112. 

(ii. 161) ib. 119. 

(i. 352) ib. 158. 

(ii. 320) ib. 196. 

(i. no) ib. 2OI. 

(iii. 193, 205, 226, 282) ib. 203. 

(iii. 248) ib. 212. 

(iii. 92) ib. 220. 

- (ii. 322) ib. 224. 

(i. 362) ib. 22$. 

(ii. 288) ib. 236. 

(i- 297) ... vi. 57. 

(i. 1 80) ib. 61. 

(i. 349 ; iii. 73) ib. 263. 

(ii. 1 1 6 ; iii. 190) ib. 264. 

(i. 370) ib. 276. 

(i. 298) ib. 277. 

(ii. 332) ib. 287. 

(iii. 90) . . . . vii. 3, 4. 

(i- 377) # 9- 

(iii. 191) ib. 21. 



Pilgrimage quoted : (i. 14) . . vii. 80. 
(ii. 62-69) ib. 91. 

(ii. 130, 138, 325) ib. 92. 

(ii. 3) ib. 95. 

(iii. 336) ib. 104. 

(i-59)tf- I?'- 

(i. 1 20) ib. 172. 

(ii. 300) ib. 124. 

(ii. 24) ib. 140. 

(i. 124) ib. 177. 

(iii. 66) ib. 181. 

(ii. 52-54) ib. 202. 

(i. 62) ib. 212. 

(iii. 165) ib. 219. 

(iii. 70) . . viii. 137. 

(iii. 365) ib. 157. 

(ii. 248) ib. 172. 

(ii. 130, etc.) ib. 183. 

(ii. 207) ib. 273. 

(i. 176) ib. 287. 

(ii. 82) ib. 291. 

(i. 88) ib. 300. 

(i. 9) .... ix. 50. 

0- 235) U>> 51- 

(iii. 66) ib. 81. 

(i. 20) ib. 165. 

(ii. 285-287) ib. 175. 

(iii. 224, 256) ib. 178. 

(i. 99) ib. 262. 

(ii. 48) ib. 307. 

(i. 314) M- 3I5- 

Pilgrimage not perfected save by copulation 

with the camel, viii. 157. 
Pilgrims (offcast of the = a broken down 

pilgrim left to die on the road) ix. 

Pillow (wisadah, makhaddah), taking to = 

taking to one's bed, ii. 70. 
Pistachio-nut (tight-fitting shell of)iv. 216. 
Pitching tents within dog -bark from 

Royalty disrespectful, ii. 294. 
Plain (ground), synonyms for, i. 46. 
Plain-speaking (of the Badawf) iv. 102. 
Plaisirs de la petite oie (practised by 

Eunuchs) v. 46. 
Plates as armature, iii. 216. 
Plato (his theory of love) x. 209. 
Play "near and far "="fast and loose," 

X. 22. 

Pleasure prolonged (en pensant a sa pauvre 

mere, etc.) v. 76. 
Pleiads (the stars whereby men sail) viii. 304. 

Plunder sanctioned by custom, ii. 68. 
Plur. masc. used by way of modesty by a 

girl addressing her lover, i. 98. 
Plural of Majesty, iii. 16; iv. 156. 
Poetical justice (administered with vigour 

in The Nights) vi. 25. 
Poetry of the Arabs requires knowledge of 

the Desert to be understood, i. 230. 
Poets (four, whose works contraried their 

character) x. 253. 
Poison (deadly only in contact with abraded 

skin) vi. 202. 

Poisons in the East, ix. 101. 
Poke (counterfeit) iii. 302. 
Policeman (called in, a severe punishment 

in the East ; why?) ix. 137. 
Police-master legally answerable for losses, 

vii. 161. 

Polissonnerie (Egyptian) iii. 243 ; iv. 226. 
Polo ("Goff") v. 32. 
Poltroon (contrasted with a female tiger* 

lamb) ix. 224. 
Polygamy and Polyandry in relation to 

climate, iii. 241. 
Polyphemus (in Arab garb) vi. 24. 

(no Mrs. P. accepted) vi. 27. 

Pomegranate fruit supposed to contain seed 

from Eden garden, i. 134. 

(Hadis referring to) viii. 267. 

Porcelain (not made in Egypt or Syria) iv. 


Postilion (Le) iii. 304. 
Postures of coition, iii. 93. 
Potter (simile of the) ix. 77. 
Pouch (Ar. Surrah) viii. 71. 
Poverty (Holy) v. 269. 
Powders (coloured in sign of holiday 

making) x. 51. 
Power (whoso has it and spareth, for 

Allah's reward he prepareth) ix. 340. 
Prayer (for the dead lack the Sijdah) ii. 10. 

(of Ramazan) ii. 202. 

(rules for joining in) iii. 174. 

(two-bow) iii. 213. 

(-niche = way-side chapel) iii. 324. 

(without intention, Ar. Niyat, is 

valueless) v. 163. 
(offered standing or prostrating) v. 

(of a sick person as he best can) v. 

(intonation of the voice in) v. 200. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Prayer (call to, Aza"n) v. 201. 

(is a collector of all folk) v. 201. 

Praying against (polite form for cursing) 

ix. 293. 

Pre-Adamite doctrine, x. 179. 
Preachments (to Eastern despots) v. 254. 
Precautions (thwarted by Fate and Fortune) 

vi. 167. 

Precedence (claims pre-eminence) viii. 285. 
Precedent (merit appertains to) iii. 264. 
Predestination (not Providence, a Moslem 

belief) vi. 202. 
Pre-eminence (appertaineth to precedence) 

viii. 285. 

Preliminaries of a wrestling bout, ii. 92. 
Premier (Le, embellit) viii. 86. 
Preposterous venery, iii. 304. 
Presence (I am in thy thy sleeve to slay or 

pardon) ix. 124. 
Preserved tablet, ii. 68. 
Preventives (the two) iii. 222. 
Price (without abatement = without ab- 
stracting a large bakhshish, ix. 152. 

(shall remain) ix. 262. 

Pride of beauty intoxicates, iv. 34. 

Priest hidden within an image (may date 

from the days of Memnon) ix. 324. 
Prima Venus debet esse cruenta, iii. 289. 
Prime Minister carrying fish to the cook- 

maid, i. 63. 

Prince (of a people is their servant) ix. 99. 
Prin'cess, English ; Prince'ss, French, vii. 


Prison (in the King's Palace) ix. 52. 
Prisons (Moslem) vi. 244. 
Privy, a slab with slit in front and a round 

hole behind, i. 221. 
and bath favourite haunts of the 

Jinns, vi. 141. 
Proces verbal (customary with Moslems) 

iv. 73. 
Prognostication frequently mentioned, ii. 


(from nervous movements) viii. 25. 

Prolixity (heightening the effect of a tale) 

x. 50. 

Prolongatio verieris (Imsak)- v. 76. 
Prominence of the pugaeic muscles insisted 

upon, ii. 98. 
Property (of the heirless lapses to the 

treasury) iv. 62. 
(left by will) vi. 213. 

Prophets (have some manual trade) ii. 286. 

(named in the Koran) v. 210. 

(and their agnomina) vi. 270. 

Proportion of horse and foot in Arab and 

Turcoman armies, vii. i. 
Prostitution (never wholly abolished in Al- 

Islam) viii. 115. 
Prostration (must be made to Allah only) 

vi. 136. 

Protestants (four great Somnritts) vii. 124. 
Prothesis without apodosis (a favourite 

style in Arabic) vi. 203, 239. 
Proverbs true to nature, i. 307. 
Providence (and Justice) v. 286. 
Province ("some" = Sancho Panza'f 

"insula") ii. 188. 
Puellse Wakwakienses, viii. 89. 
Puns (wretched and otherwise) ii. 64, 179, 

182 ; iv. 258 ; vii. 53, 288, 307 ; viii. 

35, 228, 329; ix. 278, 289; x. ii, 27. 
Punctilios of the Desert, vi. 264. 
Purgation (Easterns most careful during) 

v. 154. 

Purifying (after evacuation) ii. 326. 
Purity of love attains a prophetic strain, 

iii. 6. 

Pyramidennarren, v. 106. 
Pyramids (Ar. Al-Ahram) v. 105. 
(containing unopened chambers ?) v. 

(verses on the) x. 150. 

QANOON-E-ISLAM quoted on the subject 

of horoscopes, etc. i. 213. 
Quarter (son of the = neighbour) vi. 236. 
Queen's mischief = the mischief which may 

(or will) come from the Queen, viii. 98. 
Question (expressing emphatic assertion) 

ix. 182. 
Questions (indiscreet, the rule throughout 

Arabia) iii. 105. 
Quibbling away (a truly diplomatic art) 

v. 86. 

RA'AD AL-KASIF (Pr. N.) = the loud- 
pealing Thunder, vi. 221. 

Ra'ad Shah A. P. = thunder-king, vii. $$.1 

Raas al-Mal = capital, viii. 248. 

Raat-hu = she saw him, viii. 298. 

Ra'aya (pL.of Ra'iyat) = Ryot, iii. 21$. 

Rabbati = my she-Lord, applied to the 
fire, vii. 36. 



Rabelaisian humour of the richest, iv. 152. 
Rabite, classical term for a noble Arab 

horse, iii. 72. 

Racing a favourite pastime, ii. 273. 
Raff = shelf running round a room, via. 


Rafisi = denier, Shi'ah, iv. 44. 
Rafw = artistic style of darning, vi. 198. 
Rag (burnt, used as styptic) iv. 108. 
Raghib = the Desirous, v. 145. 

( = expecter ; Zahid = rejecter) viii. 


Rah = pure old wine, iv. 186. 
Rahan = pledge, ix. 311. 
Rahatani (A1-) = the two rests, viii. 342. 
Rahil (small dromedary) iii. 67. 
Rahim, Rihm = womb for uterine relations, 

vii. 123. 
Rahmah (Pr. N.) = the puritanical 

" Mercy," vi. 226. 

Raiment of devotees (white wool) vii. 214. 
Rais = captain, master (not owner) of a 

ship, i. 127 ; vi. 12. 
Raising the tail, sign of excitement in the 

Arab blood-horse, iii. 84. 
Rajab = worshipping (seventh Arab month) 

v. 54- 

Rajaz = the seventh Bahr of Arabic pro- 
sody, i. 251. 

Rajul ikhtiyar = a middle-aged man, i. 55. 
Rakham = aquiline vulture, viii. 20. 
Raki (distilled from raisins) v. 65. 
Rakb = fast -going caravan, iv. 254. 
Ramazan (moon of) viii. 33. 
Ramlah (half-way house between Jaffa and 

Jerusalem) vi. 103. 
Rank (derived from Pers. rang = colour) 

ii. 192. 

(thine is with me such as thou couldst 
wish = I esteem thee as thou deservest) 
ix. 41. 

(conferred by a Sovereign's addressing 

a person by a title; ix. 119. 
Rape (rendered excusable by wilfulness) 

vi. 187. 
Ra"s al Killaut = Head of Killaut, a son 

of the sons of the Jinn, ix. 8. 
Rds al-Tin = Headland of Clay (not Figs) 

V. 112. 

Rashaa = fawn beginning to walk, v. 149. 
Rashad = garden-cresses or stones ; 
Rashid = the heaven-directed, viii. 194. 

Rashid (Pasha, etc.) iv. 202. 

Rashid = Rosetta, viii. 288. 

Rasif (A1-) river-quay, dyke, viii. 150. 

Rasm = usage (justifies a father killing his 

son) ii. 7. 
Rasul = one sent, "apostle," not prophet, 

iv. 284. 
Rasy = praising in a funeral sermon, iii 


Ratanah = a jargon, iii. 200. 
Raushan = window, iii. 171. 
Raushana (splendour) =Roxana, iii. 171. 
Rauzah (Al-) = the gardens, i. 291. 

(at Cairo) v. 169. 

Raven of the waste or the parting, iv. 52 ; 

viii. 236. 
Rawi = story-teller (also used for Reciter of 

Traditions) x. 163. 

Ray = rede ("private judgment ") vi. 146. 
Rayah kafmah = pennons flying (not " beast 

standing") vii. 118. 
Raydaniyah (camping ground near Cairo) 

i. 245. 

Rayhan = scented herb, viii. 187. 
Rayhani = a curved character, i. 128; ii. 


Rayi=: rationalist, vi. 146. 
Rayy (old city of Media) iv. 104. 
Ready to fly for delight, iii. 26. 
Ream (It. risma, Ar. rizmah) v. 108. 
Red dress (sign of wrath) iv. 72 ; vi. 250* 
Red Sea (cleaves in twelve places) v. 

Reed = pen (title of the Koranic chapt. 

Ixviii) ii. 68. 
Reed-pipe (Nay) v. 50. 
Refusal of a gift, greatest affront, i. 336. 
(of a demand in marriage a sore in- 
sult) vi. 262). 

Relations between Badawi tribes, vi. 267. 
Rending of garments as sign of sorrow or 

vexation, i. 308. 
" Renowning it " (boasting of one's tribe) 

iii. 80, 108. 

(naive style of) vii. 347. 

Repentance (a strong plead for granting aid 

with a Moslem) iv. 277. 

(acquits the penitent), vii. 72. 

Repetition, vii. 293, 301. 

(of an address in token of kindness) 

v. 370. 
Resignation (noble instance of) x. 42. 


Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 

Respect shown to parts of the body, 

exuviae, etc., i. 276. 
Rest (in Eastern travel before eating and 

drinking) viii. 142. 
Retorts (of a sharp Fellah) vi. 232. 
Return unto Allah, iii. 317. 
Return-Salam, viii. 309. 
Revenge (a sacred duty) viii. 26. 
Riba = interest, usury, v. 201 ; viii. 248. 
Ridding the sea of its rubbish, ix. 169. 
Riddle " surprise " (specimen of) v. 239. 
Riders (names of such on various beasts) 

viii. 239. 
Riding on the ass an old Biblical practice, 

i. 262. 

Riding on men as donkeys (facetious exag- 
geration of African practice) vii. 357. 
Rif (Al-) = low-land, viii. 304. 
Rihl = wooden saddle, iii. 117* 
Rijal al-Ghayb (invisible controls) ii. 21 1; 

x. 14. 

Rims cars, i. 131. 
Rind (rand) = willow, bay, aloes-wood, iii. 


Ring (in memoriam) vi. 199. 
(lost in the Harim raises jealous sus- 
picion) vi. 200. 
Rings in the East, iv. 24. 
Rising up and sitting down sign of agita- 
tion, ii. 112. 

River (the = Tigris Euphrates) ix. 313. 
Rivers (underground) vi. 63. 
Rizam (pi. of rizmah) = bales, reams, v. 


Rizwan (approbation) = key-keeper of Para- 
dise, iii. i$, 20; iv. 195 ; viii. 265. 
Robbing (to keep life and body together, 

an acceptable plea) ix. 137. 
Robe (the hidden, story of) vi. 188. 
Robing one's self in rags = becoming a 

Fakir, ii. 171. 
Robinson Crusoe (with a touch of Arabic 

prayerfulness) v. 291. 
Rod (divining or dowsing) iv. 73. 
Roman superficiality (notable instance of) 

x. 116. 

Rosary, iii. 123. 

Rose (in Arab, masculine) viii. 274. 
Rose-water (for "nobility and gentry," 

even in tea) v. 357. 

Roll (pi. Artal) = rotolo, pound weight, iv. 

Roum =Graeco- Roman Empire, iv. 100. 
Roumi (in Marocco= European) viii. 268. 
Royalty in the guise of merchants, iii. 12. 
Rozistdn = day-station, i. 29. 
Rub' al-Kharab (probably for the Great 

Arabian Desert) vii. 80 ; x. 42. 
Rubb = syrup, " Rob," ii. 3. 
Rubbamd= perhaps, sometimes (more em- 
phatic than rubba, vii. 218. 
Rubber (shampooer) iii. 17. 
Rubhah (townlet on the frontier of Syria) 

iii. 52. 
Ruby (La'al, Yakut) v. 342. 

(of exceptional size) vi. 66. 

Rudaynah and Rudaynian lances, ii. I. 

Rudaynian lance (like a) vii. 265. 

Ruh = spirit, breath of life, ix. 67. 

Rub. = be off, ix. 168. 

Ruh bila Fuzul = Begone and none of yout 

impudence, viii. 163. 
Ruhban = monks, viii. 256. 
Ruka'f = correspondence hand, i. 128. 
Ruk'atayn = two-bow prayer, i. 142. 
Rukb = travellers on camels, return cara* 

van, viii. 238. 

Rukh (Roc and " Roc's " feathers) v. 122. 
(the world- wide " Wundervogel ") 

vi. 1 6. 

(study of, by Prof. Bianconi) vi. 49. 

Rukham = alabaster, i. 295. 

Rumourers (the two) = basin and ewer, vii. 


Rustak (A1-), city of Oman, vi. 289. 
Rustam (not Rustum or Rustem) iv. 219. 
Rutub (applying to pearls = fresh from 

water) vii. 240. 
Ryot = liege, subject; Fellah, peasant, iii. 


SA'A (measure of corn, etc.) vi. 203. 

Sa'ad = auspiciousness, prosperity; deriva- 
tives, i. 9. 

Sa'adah (female Pr. N.) iii. 65. 

Sa'ddah = worldly prosperity and future 
happiness, ix. 327. 

Sa'alab=fox, iii. 132. 

Sa'alabah (name of a tribe) iii. 107 

Saba = Biblical Sheba, iv. 113 ; vii. 316. 

Sabab = rope (hence a cause) ii. 14 ; viii, 

Sabaj (not Sabah) a black shell, vii. 131. 



Sabaka = he out-raced, ix. in. 

Sabaka Kurahd = he pierced her forge, 

viii. 46. 

Sabb = low abuse, iii. 311. 
Sabbagh = dyer, ii. 305. 
Sabbah bin Rammdh bin Humdm = the 

Comely, son of the Spearman, son of 

the Lion, iii. 67. 
Sabbahaka 'llah bi-'l-Khayr = Allah give 

thee good morning, vi. 196. 
Sabbath (kept in silence) v. 339. 
Sabbation (River) v. 337. 
Sabihat al-'Urs = gift on the wedding 

morning, x. 1 8. 
Sdbik = forerunner, viii. 341. 
Sabikah = bar, lamina, ingot, viii. IO. 
Sabfyah = young lady, ix. 226. 
Sabr = patience and aloes, source of puns, 

i. 138 ; viii. 35 ; ix. 278. 
Sabt = Sabbath, ii. 305. 
Sabur = Sapor ii., vi. 274. 
Sacrifice (Ar. Kurban) viii. 16. 
Sacy, Silvestre de (on the origin of The 

Nights) x. 76. 

Sdd (Letter, simile for the eye) v. 34. 
Sadaf = cowrie, i. 19. 
Sadakah = voluntary alms, opposed to 

Zakat, i. 339. 

Sadd = wall, dyke, i. 114 ; ii. 128. 
Sadir = returning from the water (see 

Warid) iii. 56. 
Sadness (House of) viii. 64. 
Sady = Hamah, q.v. ; iii. 293. 
Safk (ground -wave in Meccah) v. 203. 
Safe-guard (I am in thy = I appeal to thy 

honour) vi. 158. 
Saffron (aphrodisiac) ii. 2^4. 
Safinah = (Noah's) Ark, ix. 310. 
Safiyu 'llah (Adam) = pure of Allah, ii. 


Safwdn (Pr. N.) = clear, cold, vii. 314. 
Saghr (Thagr), the opening of the lips 

showing the teeth, i. 156 ; viii. 289. 
Sahdkah = tribadism, ii. 234. 
Sahib = companion, used as a Wazirial 

title, i. 237; iv. 139; v. 71. 
Sdhib al-Shartah = chief of the watch 

(Prefect of Police) i. 259. 
Sdhib Nafas = master of breath, a minor 

saint healing by expiration, i. 107. 
Sahifah = page, book, viii. 148. 
Sahikah = Tribade, viii. 130. 

Sahil (A1-) = the coast (Phoenicia) ix. 22. 
Sahil Masr = the river side (at Cairo) i. 

Sahfm al-Layl (Pr. N.) = he who shooteth 

an arrow by night, vi. 261. 
Sahirah = place for the gathering of souls 

on Doom-day, iii. 323. 
Sahm-hu = his shaft, vi. ioo. 
Sahm mush ab = forked (not barbed) arrow, 

ix. 48. 
Sa'i running between Safa and Marwah, 

ii. 327. 
Saibah = she-camel freed from labour, iii. 

= a woman who lets herself go 

(a- whoring, etc.) viii. 151. 
Sa'id = Upper Egypt, viii. 304. 
Sa'id bin Jubayr, ii. 201. 
Sa'fd bin Salim (Governor of Khorasan) v. 


Sa'id bin Zayd (traditionist) v. 8l. 

Sa'fdah = the auspicious (fern.) ix. 330. 

Sa'ik = the Striker (Pr. N.) vii. 35. 

Sa'ikah = thunderbolt, vi. 271. 

Sailor (Ar. equivalents for) vi. 242. 

Sciim al-dahr = perennial faster, v. 1 12. 

Saint, Santon (Wali) v. 112. 

Saint and Sinner, v. 115. 

Sa'fr = Hell, iv. 143. 

Sais = groom, horsekeeper (Syce) vi. 9. 

Saj'a (= rhymed prose) i. 116. 

(instance of) v. 160. 

(bald in translation) vii. 2. 

(answerable for galimatias) vii. 36. 

Sajjddah = prayer-rug, vi. 193. 

Sak = calf of the leg, ii. 327. 

Sakati= second hand dealer, iv. 77. 

Sakhr al-Jinnf alluded to, i. 41 ; v. 316. 

Saki = cup bearer, ii. 27, 327. 

(and Sdk-i) ix. 253. 

Sakin = quiescent (applied to a closing 
wound) ix. 255. 

Sakiyah = the Persian water-wheel, i. 
123; ix. 218. 

Sakka (Anglo-Indian Bihishti) = water- 
carrier, iv. 44 ; v. 89. 

Sakr=hawk, ii. 293. 

Saksar (Pers. Sag-sar= dog's head) vi. 

Sa'lab=fox, jackal, vi. 211 ; ix. 48, 103. 

Salaf (A1-) = ancestry (referring to 
Mohammed) v. 90. 


A If Laylah wa Lay la h. 

Salahitah (A1-) island, vi. 30. 

Sal'am = S(alla) Al(lah) 'A(layhi wa, salla) 
M, see Abhak, ii. 24. 

Salam (to be answered by a better saluta- 
tion) ii. 146. 

(of prayers) ii. 243. 

(becomes Shalum with the Jews) viii. 

(not returned, a Moslem form of Boy- 
cotting) viii. 302. 

Salamat = Welcome ! vi. 232. 

Salat (blessing, prayer) iv. 60. 

Salat mamlukiyah = praying without ablu- 
tion, vii. 148. 

Salatah (how composed) vii. 132. 

Salb = crucifying, iii. 25. 

Sale (forced on by the bystanders) viii. 

Sales (formula of) vi. 73. 

Salifah = silken plait, viii. 223. 

Slih = a pious man, vii. 314; viii. 191. 

prophet sent to Thamud, i. 169. 

(grandson of Shem ?) v. 210. 

(his she-camel) v. 235. 

al-Mazani (theologian) v. 261. 

Salihiyah = the Holy (name of a town) ix. 

Salfm (Pr. N. = the " Safe and Sound "} 
iv. 58. 

Sallah = basket of wickerwork, ix. 56. 

Salli 'ala 'l-Nabf = bless the prophet (im- 
posing silence) v. 65. 

Salma and Layla = our " Mary and Martha," 
i. 265. 

Salsabil (fountain of Paradise) iii. 57 ; iv. 

Salutation (the first) v. 200. 

(Salam, unwillingly addressed to a 

Christian) v. 284. 

(from a rider to a man who stands, 

and from the latter to one who sits) 
ix. i. 

Saluting after prayer, ix. 254. 

Sama'an wa Ta'atan to be translated 
variously, i. 96. 

Samak = common fish, vi. 69. 

Samandal (Al-) = Salamander, vii. 280. 

Samar = night-story, vii. 312. 

Samawah (A1-), visitation place in Baby- 
lonian Irak, vii. 93. 

Samharf lance of Samhar (place or maker) 
iv. 258. 

Samir = night-talker, vii. 217. 

Samn = melted butter, Ghi, i. 144 ; iv. 53 ; 

ix. 39- 

= clarified butter, ix. 39. 

Samsam (sword of the Tobba Amru bin 

Ma'ad Kurb) ii. 127. 

Samum = poisonous wind (Simoon) vi. 88. 
Samur (applied to cats and dogs, also to 

Admiral Seymour) iv. 57. 
Sana'a (capital of Al-Yaman) v. 16. 
(famed for leather and other work) 

vii. 130. 

Sanajik = banners, ensigns, etc., ix. 290. 
Sand (knowing by the = geomancy) ix. 

Sandal (Pr. N.) = Sandal-wood, viii. 169. 

(scented with) v. 192. 

(Ar. Na'al) vi. 209. 

Sandali (eunuch deprived of penis and 

testes) v. 46. 
Sandals (kissed and laid on the head in 

token of submission) vii. 370. 
Sanduk al-Nuzur = box of vowed oblations, 

viii. 330. 

Sapphic venery, ii. 234. 
Sapphism (practised in wealthy Harfms) 

iv. 234. 

Sappho (the " Mascula ") x. 208. 
Sar' (epilepsy, falling sickness* possession) 

iv. 89 ; v. 28. 
Sar = vendetta, i. 101, 114. 
Sarab = mirage, iii. 319 ; vi. 93. 
Sarandib = Selan-dvipa (Ceylon) vi. 64. 
Sarawil = bag or petticoat trousers, i. 222. 

(plural or singular ?) ix. 225. 

Sardab = underground room, souterrain, 

tunnel, i. 340; v. 128; ix. 241, 274. 
Sari al-Sakati (Sufi ascetic) ix. 21. 
Sarfdah (Tharidah) = brewis, v. 223. 
Sarir = bier (empty) ii. 46. 
Sarmujah = leggings, sandals, slippers, 

vii. 370. 
Sarraf= Anglo-Indian "Shroff," i. 210; 

iv. 270. 

Sasa bin Shays, vi. 274. 
Sassanides, i. 75. 
Satan (his malice weak in comparison with 

women's) vi. 144. 

Satl = kettle, bucket (situla ?) vii. 182. 
Satur = chopper, viii. 162. 
Saub (Tobe) 'Atabi = tabby silk, viii. 201. 
Sauda = black bile, melancholia, iv. 251. 



Saudaw! = of a melancholic temperament, 

vii. 238. 
Sauf (particle to express future) ii. 269, 


Saulajan = bat in " bat and ball," ii. 329. 
Sawab = reward in Heaven, i. 96. 
Sawad = blackness of the hair, x. 60. 
Sawahflf = shore-men, ix. 22. 
Sawalif = tresses, locks, v. 158. 
Sawik = parched corn, vii. 303. 
Sawwahun = wanderers, pilgrims, viii. 


Saw wan = Syenite, Hi. 324. 
Sayd wa Kanas = hunting and coursing, 

Sayf (i< os ) al-Muluk = Sword of the 

Kings, vii. 325. 
Sayf Zu al-Yazan (hero of a Persian ro- 

mance) viii. 21. 
Sayhiin and Jayhun=Jaxartes and Bactrus, 

ii. 78; v. 41. 

Sayih = wanderer (not " pilgrim ") ix. 51. 
Sayl = torrent, vi. 164. 
Sayr = broad girdle, viii. 325. 
Sayyib (Thayyib) = woman who leaves her 

husband after lying once with him, viii. 


Sayyib-hu = let him go, viii. 151. 
Sayyid (descendant from Mohammed 

through Al-Hasan) v. 259. 
Scabbard (Ar. Ghimd) v. 158. 
Scalding a stump in oil a common surgery 

practice, i. 297. 
Schoolmaster (derided in East and West) 

v. 118. 

Schools (attached to mosques) x. 174. 
Scorpions of the brow = accroche-cceurs, 

etc., i. 1 68 ; viii. 209. 
Scoundrels (described with superior gusto) 

ix. 135. 

Scrotum (curdling in fear) ii. 233. 
Sea of Al-Karkar, vi. 101. 
Sea (striking out sparks) ix. 314. 
Sea-stallion (myth of the) vi. 6. 
Seal (and sealing-wax) iii. 189. 

- (affixed to make an act binding) v. 

- (breaking the = taking the maiden- 
head) v. 154. 

Sealing a covered dish (a necessary precau- 

tion against poison) i. 244. 
Seal-ring of Soloman (oath by) vii. 317. 

Seas (the two = the Mediterranean and the 

Indian Ocean) i. 173. 

(fresh = lakes and rivers) v. 326. 

Seclusion (royal, and its consequences) ix. 

Secrets (instances and sayings with regard 

to their keeping) v. 83. 
Secrets (of workmanship, withheld from 

apprentices) ix. 263. 
Seditions in Kufah caused by Caliph Oth- 

man's nepotism, ii. 163. 
Seduction (the trulh about it) iii. 166. 
Seeing sweetness of speech = finding it 

out in converse, ix. 14. 
Separation (spoken of as a defilement) iv. 


Seeking refuge with Allah, v. 200. 
Septentriones (four oxen and their wain) 

ii. 3- 
Sepulchre, erroneously called a little Wali, 

i. 105. 
Serpent does not sting or bite, but strikes, 

iii. 160. 
(breaks the bones of its devoured 

prey by winding round a tree or rock) 

vi. 29. 

(breath of), vi. 29. 

(preserving from sickness) vi. 66. 

(in Ar. mostly feminine) vi. 75. 

Serving the Lord by sinning against one's 

body, ii. 208, 

Set-off for abuse of women, vii. 130. 
Seven deadly sins, ii. 175. 
Seven schools or editions of the Koran, 

i. 113. 

Seven sleepers, iii. 128. 
Sevigne of pearls, iv. 249. 
Sha'aban (moon of) v. 191. 
Shlbb = youth between puberty and forty, 

i- 55- 

Shabistan = night station, i. 29. 

Shadow (may yours less) viii. 170* 

Shafaif = lower labia, viii. 93. 

Shaft' i (school of theology) ii. 151. 

Shahadatayn = the two Testimonies, ii. 10; 
iii. 346. 

Shah-bandar = lord of the port (Consul) 
iv. 29. 

Shah (A1-) mit = the King is dead (check- 
mate) viii. 217. 

Shahid = index, pointer, ii. 300. 

Shahmiyah (large tent) ii. 194. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Shah-pur = Kings son, 2a^o>p> Sapor, 

V. 2. 

Shahrazdd (various explanations of the 

name) i. 14 ; ii. 3. 

Shahriman not Shah Zemdn, iii. 7, 212. 
Shahryar = city friend, i. 2. 
Shahyal bin Shdrukh (Pr. N.) vii. 331. 
Shah Zamdn = King of the Age, i. 2. 
Shdib al-Ingha'z = grey beard shaking with 

disapproval, iii. 307. 
Sha'ilah = link (also lamp, wick, etc.) 

i. 259. 

Shakespear and musical glasses, ii. 3. 
Shakespearean " topothesia " out- Shake- 
speared, iii. 212. 
Shakhs = a person ; a black spot, iii. 26 ; 

viii. 159. 

Shakhtur = dinghy, vii. 362. 
Shaking and nodding the head, universal 

items of gesture language, I. 300. 
Shakiriyah = Kshatriya caste, vi. 10. 
Shakurfyah = chicore, v. 226. 
Sham (Sysia)=land on the left, opposed to 

al-Yaman = land on the right, i. 83. 
Shamah = Khal, mole on the cheek, i. 


Shamardal (Al-) = the Tall One, vi. 221. 
Shambar= Cassia fistularis, ii. 241. 
" Shame " alluded to in cursing parents of 

an abused person, i. 227. 
(extends from navel to knees) viii. 


Shamlah = gaberdine, viii. 160. 

Shammara = he tucked up (sleeve or gown) 
vii. 133. 

Shammir = up and ready ! viii. 263. 

Shampooer (rubber) = Mukayyis or bag- 
man, iii. 17. 

Shampooing the feet, i. 117. 

Shams al-Dauiah (imaginary king of 
Egypt) vi. 241. 

Shams al-Nahdr (Pr. N.) = Sun of the 
Day, v. 9. 

Shams al-Zuha (Pr. N.) = Sun of Undurn. 
viii. 107. 

Shamta" = the grizzled (name for wine) 
x. 38. 

Shanak= hanging, iii. 25. 

Shanfara (poet) iii. 143. 

Shdr, Sher and Shir, iv. 187. 

Sha'r = hair of the body, pile, ix. 157. 

Shara (A1-) mountain in Arabia, vii. 23. 

Shar'a = holy law, vii. 170, 

Sharab al-Tuffah = cider, iv. 134. 

Sharaf al-Banat (Pr. N.) = Honour of 

Maidenhood, viii. 107. 
Shararif = trefoil-shaped crenelles, iv. 165. 
Sharit = chopper, sword, vii. 178. 
Sharmutah = rags, tatters; a strumpet; 

shreds of meat =Kadld, i. 163. 
Sharrkan (Sharrun kana) = bane to the foe, 

ii. 78. 
Shart = a single Talbiyah or cry Labbayka, 

i. 226. 
Shash Abyaz = white turband (distinctive 

sign of the True Believer) viii. 8. 
Shatm = obscene abuse, i. 182. 
Shaukat = sting ; pride, ii. 106. 
Shaving and depilation (process of) ii. 160; 

ix. 139. 

Shay ban (Arab tribe), v. 100. 
Shaykh = an old man, elder, chief, i. 26, 

55 J 144- 
(attended by a half-witted lunatic) 

vii. 152. 
(after the type of Abu Nowas) ix. 

(for syndic of a guild) ix. 260. 

(of the thieves one of the worthies of 

a Moslem capital) vi. 204. 

al-Bahr = Chief of the Sea (-coast) vi. 

5i 53? vii. 357. 

Shaykh al-Islam = Chief of the Olema, 
ix.- 289. 

(his mention sign of modern compo- 
sition) x. 19. 

Shaykh Nasr (Pr. N. = Elder of Victory) v. 


Shaykhah Rajihah = the excellent Reli- 
gious, ix. 347. 

Shaykhs (five, doubtful allusion) iii. 30. 

Shays = Ab Seth, vi. 283. 

Shaytan (Satan) term of abuse, iii. 25. 

(his wife and nine sons) iii. 229. 

Shayyun Ii Mlahi = per amor di Dio, i. 

Shawahi (from Shauh)= having fascinating 

eyes, ii. 269. 
Shawahi Umm al-Dawahi = the Fascinator, 

Mother of Calamities, viii. 87. 
Shazarwdn = Pers. Shadurwan, palace, 

cornice, etc., vii. 51. 
Shedding tears no disgrace for a man, i. 




Shem namphorash = the hundredth name of 
God engraved on the seal-ring of Solo- 
mon, i. 173. 

Sherif=a descendant of Mohammed, iv. 

Shibabah = reed-pipe, viii. 166 

Shihab = shooting stars, i. 224. 

Shikk = split man (a kind of demon) v. 


Shinf= gunny-bag, v. 45. 
Shiraj = sesame oil, ix. 184. 
Shirk (partnership) = Polytheism, Dualism, 

Trinitarianism, i. 181 ; ii. 202. 

(=syntheism) of love, v. 9. 

of the Mushrik, v. 142. 

Shiyar (old name for Saturday) ii. 305. 

Shoe (Ar. Markub, Na'al) vi. 207. 

Shop (front shelf of, a seat for visitors) ix. 

Shops composed of a " but " and a " ben,'* 

i. 316 ; iii. 163. 

" Short and thick is never quick," iv. 194. 
Shouting under a ruler's palace to attract 

attention, ii. 38. 
Shovel-iron stirrup, iii. 119. 
Shower (how delightful in rainless lands), 

vii. 141. 
Shroud (joined in one = shrouded together ?) 

v. 71. 
Shrouds (carried by the pilgrims to Meccah) 

vi. 61. 

Shu'ayb=Jethro, ii. 205 ; v. 210. 
Shubash = bravo! vii. 195. 
Shudder preceding the magnetic trance, 

i. 44. 
Shuhada= martyrs (extensive category) i. 

Shuhud = accessors of the Kazi's court, 

i. 21. 
Shuja' al-Din (Pr. N.) = the Brave of the 

Faith, ix. 18. 

Shukkah = piece of cloth, ix. 236. 
Shum (a tough wood used for staves) viii. 

Shuraih (a Kazi of Kufah in the seventh 

century) i. 252. 

Shushah = top -knot of hair, i. 308. 
Shuuman = pestilent fellow, iv. 75. 
Sibawayh (grammarian) vii. 233. 
Siddik = true friend, ii. 197. 
Siddikah (Al-) = the veridical (apparently 

undeserved title of Ayishah) viii. 152. 

Side-muscles (her, quiver) = she trembles 

in every nerve, vii. 219. 
Sidf (from Sayyidi) = my lord, v. 283. 
Sidf Ibrahim bin al-Khawwas (Pr. N.) 

v. 283. 

Sidillah = seats, furniture, ix. 190. 
Sifr = whistling, iv. 206; v. 333. 
Sight comprehendeth Him not, etc.,vi. 282. 
Sign of the cross on the forehead, ii. 224. 
Signals of debauchees, x. 219. 
Signet-rings, iv. 24. 
Signing with the hand not our beckoning, 

viii. 78. 
Signs (of a Shaykh's tent) iii. 104. 

(lucky in a horse) iii. 118. 

(to Pharao) iv. 249. 

(of Allah = Koranic versets) vi. 144. 

(by various parts of the body) viii. 


(language of) ix. 269. 

Signum salutis, viii. 293. 

Sihr (Al-)= magic, black art, i. 305. 

Sijdah = prostration, ii. 10. 

Sijn al-Ghazab= Prison of Wrath, x. 45. 

Sikankur = SioyKOS, see Aphrodisiacs, 

iv. 32. 
Silah = conjunctive sentence, coition, ix. 


Silah-dr= armour-bearer, ii. 215. 
Simat = dinner table, i. 178. 
Simiya = white magic, i. 305, 332. 
Simoon (Ar. Samum = poisonous wind) 

vi. 88. 
Simurgh (guardian of the Persian mysteries) 

x. 130. 
Sin (permitted that men might repent) 

ix. 83. 
(thy, shall be on thine own neck) ix. 


Sin = China, ii. 77 

Sinai (convent famous for Raki) v. 65. 

Sind (matting of) v. 145. 

Sindan, Sandan = anvil, viii. 8. 

Sindbad (not to be confounded with the 

eponym of the Sindibad-namah) vi. 4. 
Sindibad the Sage, vi. 124. 
Sindibad-namah (Persian romance) vi. 122; 
quoted : vi. 129, 132, 134, 139, 143, 

145, 150, 152, 169, 180, 183, 188, 202. 
Singing (not haram = sinful, but makruh = 

objectionable) ix. 245. 
Sinnaur = cat, prince, iii. 149. 

A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Sinning (for the pleasure of being pardoned) 
iv. in. 

Sins (seven deadly) ii. 175. 

Sirah (small fish, fry, sprat) vi. 216 ; 
ix. 1 66. 

Sisters (their abiding together after mar- 
riage frequently insisted upon) x. 56. 

Sitt al-Mashaikh = Lady of Shaykhs, 
v. 154. 

Skin (free from exudation sounds louder 
under the clapping of the hand) ix. 1 50. 

(extreme delicacy of the female) 
ix. 321. 

Sirat (A1-), the bridge of Hell, iv. 223. 

Sister (by adoption) viii. 25. 

Sisterhood = companions, suite, viii. 41. 

Sitting on shins and knees, a trying pos- 
ture, i. 130. 

Siwak = tooth-stick ; Siwa-ka = other 
than thou, iii. 275. 

Sixth Abbaside Caliph, error for Fifth, 
viii. 56. 

Siyagosh, see Tufah. 

Slain were those who were slain " = many 
were slain, v. 364. 

Slander (poisoned = fatal) ii. 264. 

Slapping on the nape of the neck = boxing 
the ears, iv. 193. 

Slate (Ar. Lauh) v. 73. 

Saughter (wholesale, for the delight of the 
gallery) viii. 255. 

Slaughtering (ritual for) v. 391. 

(by "cutting the animal's throat) 

viii. 44. 

Slave (holds himself superior to a menial 
freeman) viii. 294. 

Slave-girl (Moslemah can compel an infidel 
master who has attempted her seduc- 
tion to sell her) vii. 203. . 

(when newly bought frequently pre- 
tentious and coquettish) vii. 266. 

(can only be sold with her consent) 
viii. 292.. 

(free, not forward in her address) 

ix. 268. 

(lewd and treacherous by birth) 

ix. 280. 

(to be sent as a spy into the Harims) 

ix. 292. 

Slaves (fancied by debauched women) 
i. 191. 

(cannibals) ii. 48. 

Slaves (familiarity) ii. 49. 

(called "Camphor," like "Snow- 
ball) ii. 47. 

(refuse to be set free) ii. 55. 

(manumission of) ii. 55. 

(destructiveness) ii. 55. 

(girls' names) ii. 57. 

(returning from a journey) ii. 65. 

(Christian girls sent to Moslems) ii.79. 

(girls examined as to virginity) ii. 147. 

(Behaving like one) ii. 270. 

(O Camphor) iii. 40. 

(set free for the benefit of the dead) 

iii. 211. 

(dealer in = Jallab) iii. 349. 

(ambitious to have slaves of their 

own) v. 12. 

(if ill-treated may demand to be sold) 

viii. 54- 

Sledge (thrashing = tribulum) ii. 23. 
Sleeper and Waker (tale of the) iv. 96. 
Sleepers (the Seven of Ephesus) iii. 128. 
Sleeping (and slumbering) ii. 178. 

(with covered head and face) iii. 345. 

(naked) v. 8. 

(with head and body covered by a 

sheet) v. 18. 

(with a sword between them) vii. 352. 

Sleeplessness (contrivance against) iv. 228. 
Slice of the moon = digit of the moon, 

Smile (like Mim) iv. 249. 

(and laughter) v. 193. 

Smoking out (a common practice) ii. 255. 

Smothering a rival (common in Harims) 
ii. 58. 

Smuggling men into the Harim, i. 282. 

Snatching off the turband, a paying 
industry, i. 259. 

Sneezing (etiquette of) ix. 220. 

Socrates (" sanctus pasderasta") x. 213 

Sodomite (Ar. Lutf) v. 161. 

(punished if detected) v. 160. 

Sodomites (angels appear to) iii. 301, 304. 

Sodomy (abnormally developed amongst 
the savages of the New World) x. 240. 

with women, iii. 304. 

Softness of skin highly prized, ii. 295. 

Soft-sided, attribute of beauty, i. 168. 

Soko (Maghribi form for Siik = bazar- 
street) viii. 230. 


Sold to thee for monies received (formula 

of Moslem sales), vi. 73. 
Soldiers of Al-Daylam = warlike as the 

Daylamites, viii. 82. 
Sole of a valley often preferred to encamp 

in, ii. 85. 
Solomon (his carpet) iii. 267. 

(his food -tray) vi. 80. 

(his seal-ring) vi. 84. 

(the Apostle of Allah) vi. 99. 

(his Wazir Asaf) vi. 99. 

(his trick upon Bilkis) vi. 113. 

(oath by his seal-ring), vii. 317. 

and David (their burial-place) v. 


and Al-Sakhr, ii. 97. 

Solomon's death fixing the date of a tale, 

i. 41. 
prison (the copper cucurbites in which 

he imprisoned the rebellious Jinns) 

viii. 157. 
"Son" used for "grandson" as more 

affectionate, i. 243. 

(the lamp of a dark house) ii. 280. 

(of a century = hundred years old, 

i. 126. 
(of Persian Kings, not Prince but 

descendant) iii. 163. 
(of ten years dieth not in the ninth) 

viii. 70. 
Sons of Adam = men, i. 130. 

of Sasan = Sassanides, i. 2. 

(brought as servants unto Kings) ix. 


of the road = wayfarers, ii. 23. 

Sophia (Pr. N. and Mosque) ii. 79. 

Sortes Virgilianse, v. 44. 

Soul (Thou knowest what is in mine and 

I know not what is in Thine) v. 216. 
(you may have his, but leave me his 

body) viii. 284. 

(for lover) ix. 25. 

Souls (doctrine of the three) v. 218. 
Spartivento = mountain whereon the 

clouds split, viii. 19. 
Speaker puts himself first, i. 33. 
Speaking en prince, ii. 184. 
Speaking to the " gallery," viii. 128. 
Spears and javelines, vi. 263. 
Speech (this my = the words I am about 

to speak) viii. 147. 
Speech (inverted) viii. 318. 

Speech (for prayers imprecating parting) 

viii. 347- 

Sperm (though it were a drop of mar- 
guerite) viii. 210. 
Spider-web, frailest of houses (Koranic) 

ix. 59. 

Spindle (thinner than a) iii. 260. 
Spiritual Sciences (Moslem form of Cab- 
bala) ii. 151. 
Spiritualism (the religion of the nineteenth 

century) ix. 86. 

Spittle dried up from fear, i. 285. 
Spoon (Ar. Mi'lakah) ix. 141. 
Spurring = kicking with the shovel-stirrup 

ii. 89. 

Squatting against a wall, iv. 119. 
Squeeze of the tomb (Fishas) v. in. 
Staff broken in the first bout = failure in 

the first attempt, i. 64. 
Stages (ten, of love-sickness) iii. 36. 
Stallion (I am not one to be struck on the 

nose 1 ) vi. 262. 

Standards reversed in sign of defeat, ii. 259. 
Stations of the Moon (Ar. Manazil) v. 228. 
Stature (Alif-like) iv. 249. 
Steel (Ar. Bulad) vi. 115. 
Steward (pendant to the parable of the un 

just) ix. 66. 

St. George (posture) iii. 304. 
Stirrup (walking by the) vi. 234. 
" Stone-bow " not " cross-bow," iii. 116. 
Stoning (of the devil at Mina) v. 203. 
Stones (precious) v. 312. 

(ditto, and their mines) vi. 18. 

(removed from the path by the pious) 

vi. 190. 

Story-teller (picture of the) x. 164. 
Strangers (treated with kindly care) v. 

" Strangers yet " (Lord Houghton quoted) 

v. 284. 
Street (the, called Yellow) iv. 93. 

(-watering) iv. 107. 

Street-cries of Cairo, vii. 172. 
Street-melodies changing with fashion, 

Striking the right hand upon the left in 

sign of vexation, i. 298. 
Striking with the shoe, the pipe-stick, etc. 

highly insulting, i. 1 10. 
Stuff his mouth with jewels (reward for 

poetry) iv. 103. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Stuff a dead man's mouth with cotton, 

iv. 193. 
Style (of a Cairene public scribe) vii. 

(intended to be worthy of a statesman) 

ix. 42. 

Su'add = Beatrice, iv. 267. 
Suban = dragon, ix. 277. 
Subhana 'llah pronounced to keep off the 

evil eye, iii. 224. 
Subhat-hu = in company with him, vii. 


Subh-i-kdzib = false dawn, i. 78. 
Subh-i-sddik = true dawn, i. 78 
Submission (Ar. Khafz al-Jinah = lowering 

the wings) ix. 74. 
Sucking the tongue = " kissing with th' 

inner lip " i. 270- 
Sucking the dead mother's breast, touch of 

Arab pathos, ii. 128. 
Sudan = our Soudan, iii. 75. 
Stadein-men = Negroes, viii. 266. 
Suez (Ar. Al-Suways) vi. 80. 
Suf (wool) ; Sufi (Gnostic) iii. 140. 
Sufiism (rise of) x. 128. 
Sufis (stages of their journey) v. 264. 
. . (address Allah as a lover would his 

beloved) iv. 263, 298. 
Suffah = "sofa" (shelf) iv. 275. 
Sufrah (provision-bag and table-cloth) i. 

178; v. 8; viii. 269; ix. 141. 
Sufydn al-Thaurf, ii. 202 ; v. 81. 
Sugar-stick = German Zuckerpiippchen, i. 


Sughr (Thughr) see Saghr. 
Suha, star in the Great Bear, i. 167 ; iii. 


Sujiid = prostration, iv. 248. 
Sukat (pi. of Saki cup-bearer) v. 66 
Sukita fi aydihim = it repented them, v. 

Sukub (Pr. N.) = flowing, pouring, viii. 

Sulaf al-Khandarisi (a contradiction) viii. 

Suldfah = ptisane of wine, must, iv. 258 ; 

v. 158. 
Sulami = belonging to the Banu Sulaym 

tribe, vii. 93. 
Sulayma", dim. of Salma = any beautiful 

woman, iii. 263. 
Sulayman and Sakhr al-Jinni, i. 42. 

Sulaymdn bin Abd al-Malik (Caliph) ii. 

167 ; vii. 99. 

Sulaymanfyah = Afghans, vii. 171. 
Sullam = ladder ; whipping-post, i. 331. 
Sultan (anachronistic use of the title) v. 

88, 179. 
(fit for the service of = for the service 

of a temporal monarch) viii. 325. 
Sulus = engrossing hand, i. 128. 
Sumbul al-'Anbari = spikenard, viii. 273. 
Sumr = brown, black, iv. 251. 
Sums of large amount weighed, i. 281. 
Sun (greeting Mohammed) i. 45. 
(likened to a bride displaying her 

charms to man) x. 38. 
Sun and Moon (luminaries for day and 

night) v. 228. 

(do not outstrip each other) v. 228. 

Sunan (used for Rasm)= usage, customs, 

ix. 74. 

Sundus = brocade, v. 57 
Sunnah = practice of the Prophet, etc., v. 

36, 167. 

Sunni (versus Shi'ah) iv. 82. 
Suns (for fair-faced boys and women) viii. 

Superiority of man above woman, iii, 


Supernaturalismus (has a material basis) 

viii. 31. 
Superstitious practices not confined to the 

lower orders, i. 40. 
Surahiyah (vulg. Sulahiyah) = glass-bottle, 

vii. 370. 
Surayya= Stars of Wealth (lit. moderately 

rich) viii. 303. 

Suritu = I was possessed of a Jinn, ix. 27. 
Surrah = purse, pouch, viii. 71. 
Surriyah = concubine, i. 27. 
Susannah and the Elders in Moslem garb, 

v. 97. 

Sutures of the skull, iii. 123. 
Su'ubdn = dragon, cockatrice = Tammfm, 

i. 172; vii. 322. 

Su'ud used as a counter-odour, i. 279. 
Suwan = syenite, i. 238; ix. 316. 
Suways (Al-) = Suez, vi. 80; ix. IO. 
Swan-maidens, v. 346 ; viii. 30. 
Swearing (on Blade and Book) ii. 332. 

(by Allah, forbidden) iv. 175. 

Sweet (the, slang for fire) ii. 163. 
Sweetmeat of Safety, iv. 60 ; viii. 105. 



Swevens (an they but prove true) ix. 284. 
Swimming (studied in Baghdad) vi. 134. 
Sword (making invisible) iv. 176 ; vi. 230. 

(between sleepers represents only the 

man's honour) vii. 353. 
Sycamore fig (for anus) iii. 302. 
Syene (town on the Nile) iv. 152. 
Syphilis (origin of) x. 89. 

(hippie) x. 90. 

Syria (Sham) = left-hand land, ii. 224. 

TAAKH{R = acting with deliberation, ix. 


Ta'alik = hanging lamps, ix. 320. 
Ta'am = meat ; millet, ii. 67. 
Tab (game) tip-cat, ii. 314. 
Tabannuj = drugging with Bhang, iv. 71. 
Tabban lahu = perdition on him ! iv. 142. 
Tabik = coffer, vii. 350. 
Tabl = kettledrum, viii. 18. 
Tablet (Ar. Lauh) v. 37. 

(the Preserved), v. 322. 

Tabut = bier, ark, etc., ii. 46; vii. 207, 


Tabzir = female circumcision, ii. 234. 
Tadmurah (founds Tadmur or Palmyra) vi. 

Tafazzal = favorisca (have the kindness) ii. 


Taggda ii. 88. 

Taghadda"=he dined, vii. 180. 
Taghum, a kind of onomatopoetic grunt, i. 


Taghut (idol) iii. 217. 
Tahlil = Refrain of Unity, ii. 236. 
Taif (A1-) , town famous for scented leather, 

viii. 273. 

Taifi leather, viii. 303. , 
Tail (wagging of, a sign of anger with feli- 

dse) ix. 72. 

Tai'li 'llah (Caliph) iii. 51, 307. 
Tailor made to cut out the cloth in owner's 

presence, i. 321. 

Tair al-bayn = parting-bird, vii. 226. 
Taj al-Muluk Khran = crown of the kings 

of amorous blandishment, ii. 291. 
Taj Kisrawi = Chosroan crown, ix. 319. 
Tajfr Alff=a merchant worth a thousand 

(left indefinite) ix. 313. 
Takaddum and Takadum (difference be- 
tween) iv. 171. 

Takah = arched hollow in the wall, niche, 

vii. 361. 

Takhil = adorning with Kohl, Hi. 57. 
Takhmish = tearing the face in grief, ix. 

Takht (sitting accommodation from a 

throne to a saddle, capital) v. 322 ; vii. 

(more emphatical than Sarir) vii. 

Takht -ra wan = moving throne (mule-litter) 

ii. 180 ; v. 175. 
Takiyah = calotte worn under the Fez, 

skull-cap, i. 224 ; viii. 120. 
Taklid = baldricking, not girding, a sword, 

vii. 3. 

Takliyah = onion-sauce, vii. 322. 
Takruri = Moslem from Central and West- 
ern North Africa, ii. 15. 
Taksim = distribution, analysis, ix. 77. 
Takwim = Tacufno (for Almanac) vii. 

Talak bi '1-SaHsah = triple divorce, iii. 

Talbiyah = the cry Labbayka, i. 226 ; ii. 

Talking birds (watching over wives) vi. 

Tamar al-Hindi (Tamarind) = the Indian 

date, iii. 297. 
Tamar Hannd= flower of privet, i. 83 ; 

viii. 176. 

Tarn Muz = July, i. 53. 
Ta'mfm = crowning with turband or tiara ; 

covering, wetting, v. 199. 
Tamsir (derived from Misr) = founding * 

military cantonment, vii. 371. 
Tanjah = Tanjiers,'vi. 106. 
Tanwin al-Izafah = the nunnation in con- 
struction, ix. 272. 
Tdr = tambourine, i. 215. 
Tardib = breast -bone, v. 132. 
Tarbush = Pers. Sar-push, head cover, i. 


Target (Ar. Darakah), vi. 9. 
Tarhah = head- veil, ii. 52. 
Tarik = clear the way, i. 66. 
Tarik (Jabal al-) = Gibraltar, iv. 100. 
Tarfkah= musical mode, modulation, ix. 

Tarikat = (mystic) path to knowledge, v. 



A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

Ta'ris-ak = thy going between (pimping) 

vi. 196. 

Tarjumau = truchman, i. 100. 
Tarn-Kappe (Siegfried's) iv. 176 ; viii. 

1 20. 

Tars Daylam{ = Median Targe, viii. 291. 
Tas (from Pers. Tasah) = tasse, viii. 224. 
Tasawwuf (rise of) x. 128. 
Tasbih = saying Subhan Allah ; Rosary, i. 

2585 iii. 125. 

Tasmeh-pa = strap-legs, vi. 51. 
Tasnim (from sanam) = a fountain in Para- 
dise, ii. 100 ; v. 264. 
Tetsumah = sandal, slipper, ii. 197. 
Taswff= saying "Sauf," q.v., ii. 296. 
Taub (Saub, Tobe) = loose garment, ii. 

Taubah (Bi'l-) = by means or on account 

of penitence, ix. 83. 
Taufik (Pr. N. = causing to be prosperous) 

iv. i. 
Taur (Thaur, Saiir), a venerable remnant 

of an un-split speech, i. 16. 
Taverns, vii. 324. 
Tawaf = circumambulation of the Ka'abah, 

ii. 327 ; vi. 242. 
Tawshi, obnoxious name for a Eunuch, i. 


Tawashshuh = shoulder-cut, ii. 107. 

Tawaf= Ka'abah-circuit, v. 203. 

Tawakkul 'ala 'llah = trust in Allah, v. 

Tawil (and Abt Vogler) viii. 96. 

Tawllan jiddan, now a Cairenism, vii. 13. 

Tayammum = washing with sand, v. 197. 

Tayf= ghost, phantom, iii. 252. 

Taylasan (turband worn by a preacher) iv. 

Tayr = any flying thing, bird, vii. 227. 

Tayrab (A1-) a city, iii. 259. 

Taysh = vertigo, giddiness, x. 9. 

Tayy (noble Arab tribe) iv. 94* 

Tazrib = quilting, vii. 330. 

Tears shed over past separation, i. 283. 

(pouring blood like red wine) iii. 


Teeth (their cleansing enjoined by Mo- 
hammed), v. 44. 

"Tell the truth!" way of taking an 
Eastern liar, vii. 183. 

Ten stages of love-sickness, iii. 36. 

Tent (signs of a Shaykh's) iii. 104. 

Tent (how constructed) vii. 109. 
Testicles (names for) ii. 55. 

(curdling in fear) ii. 233. 

(beating and bruising of, female mode 

of killing a man) iii. 3. 
Testimonies (the two = Shahadatayn) ii. 

Thakilata-k Ummak = be thy mother 

bereaved of thee, iv. 1 56. 
Thamud (pre-historic Arab tribe) iii. 294. 
Thank you (Eastern equivalent for) iv. 6 ; 

v. 171. 

Theft (penalty of) viii. 164. 
"Them "for "her," viii. 35. 
" There is no Majesty," etc. as ejaculation 

of impatience, vii. 73. 
"They" for "she," v. 41, 140; viii. 281. 
Thigh-bite allowed in wrestling, ii. 93. 
Third = Tuesday, vii. 349. 
Thirst (affecting plea; why?) iv. 199. 
Thongs (of the water skins cut, preparatory 

to departure) ix. 302. 
Thorn of lance = eye-lash, iii. 331. 
Thou fillest mine eyes = I find thy beauty 

all-sufficient, viii. 57. 
Thousand dinars and five thousand dirhams 

= ^"500 and ^125 respectively, i. 281. 
Thousand thousand = a million, vi. 98. 
Three days, term of hospitality, i. 3. 
Three hundred and three score rooms = 

one for each day of the Moslem year, 

ix. 61. 
Three things (are better than other three) 

vi. 5. 

(not to be praised before death) ix* 


Threshold (of marble in sign of honour) 

ix. 238. 

Throne-verse, v. 21 1. 
Throwing one = bastinado on the back, 

i. 243. 

"Throwing the handkerchief," vi. 285. 
Thrusting (applied to spear and lance) ii. 

Thursday night (in Moslem parlance = 

Friday night) v. 324. 
Tibn = crushed straw, i. 16 ; ix. 106. 
Tigris (Ar. Dajlah, Dijlah) viii. 150. 
Timbdk (Tumbak) = stronger variety of 

Tobacco, ix. 136. 
Time (distribution of) ix. 71. 
Time-measurers (of very ancient date) x, 85. 



Timsah = crocodile, vii. 343. 
Tin (Kazdir) iv. 274 ; vi. 39. 
Tin = fig, simile for a woman's parts, iii. 

= clay puddled with chaff, v. 112. 

Tinder (a styptic) iv. 108. 

Tingis = Tanjah (Tangiers) vi. 106. 

Tip-cat stick, ii. 314. 

Tiryak = theriack, treacle (antidote) iii. 

Title (used by a Sovereign in addressing a 

person confers the rank) ix. 119. 
Tob = Span. Adobe (unbaked brick) ii. 

Tobacco (its mention inserted by some 

scribe) ix. 136. 

first mention of) x. 91. 

Tobba.(Himyaritic) = the Great or Chief, 

i. 216. 

Tohfah = rarity, present, viii. 55. 
Tongue (of the case = words suggested by 

circumstances) i. 121. 

(made to utter (?) what is in the heart 

of man) v. 218. 

(my, is under thy feet; vii. 239. 

Too much for him (to come by lawfully) 

ix. 174. 

Tooth -pick (Ar. Khilal) v. 44. 
Topothesia (designedly made absurd) viii. 

Tor (Mount Sinai) ii. 242. 

(its shaking) ii. 281. 

Torrens quoted, i. 56, 147, 203, 206, 225, 

228, 251, 271 ; ii. 4, 19, 38, 93 ; iii. 218, 

235, 249, 289 ; iv. 187, 189, 236 ; v. 80, 

96, 1 88 ; viii. 280, 305, 309, 319, 321, 

327 ; ix. 278. 
Torrents (Ar. Sayl), a dangerous feature in 

Arabia, vi. 164. 
Tortoise (the colossal) vi. 33. 
Torture easier than giving up cash, viii. 


Tossing upon coals of fire, iii. 61. 
Touch of nature (making all the world kin) 

x. 24. 

Toujours perdrix, vi. 130. 
Toutes putes, ix. 298. 
Traditionists : 

Al-Zuhrf, ii. 198. 

Ibn Abi Aufa, ib. 200. 

Sa'id bin Jubayr, ib. 20 1. 

Sufyan al-Thaurf, ib. 202. 
VOL. X. 

Traditionists : 

Bishr al-Hafi, ii. 203. 

Mansiir bin Ammdr, ib. 204. 
Trafalgar = Taraf al-Gharb (edge of the 

West) ix. 50. 
Trailing the skirts = humbly, ii. i6s ; viii. 

Trances and faintings (common in romances 

of chivalry) viii. 118. 
Transformation (sudden of character 

frequent in Eastern stories) viii. 178. 
Translators (should be "bould ") ix. 244. 
Traveller (a model one tells the truth when 

an untruth would not serve him) vi. 7. 
Travelling at night, ii. 286. 
Treasure (resembling one from which the 

talismans had been loosed) ix. 287. 
Treasures (enchanted in some one's name 

and nature) iv. 296. 
Trebutien quoted, iv. 268 ; vii. 91, 98, 139, 

314, 318, 324, 331,346, 353, 36i J ix. 

33. 6 3 ; x - 9> 54, 69, So, 98. 
Tree of Paradise (Ar. Tuba) v. 237. 
Tribade (Ar. Sahikah, Musahikah) viii. 130. 
Tribadism, iv. 234. 
Tribe (one fortuneth another) ix. 342. 
Tribes (relations between) vi. 267. 
Tribulum (thrashing sledge) ii. 108. 
Tricks (two = before and behind) v. 161. 
Triregno (denoted by the Papal Tiara) ii. 


Trouser-string, ii. 60. 
Truth (most worthy to be followed) v. 145. 

(is becoming manifest) v. 159. 

(told so as to be more deceptive than 

a lie) ix. 223. 

prevailing, falsehood failing, iv. 80. 

Tuba (tree of Paradise) v. 237. 

Tubah (fifth Coptic month) v. 231. 

Tufah = felis caracal, lynx, vi. 260. 

Tufan (Typhoon, etc.) iv. 156. 

Tufan = Deluge of Noah, viii. 346. 

Tufayl (proverbial intruder) iv. 123. 

Tufayli = parasite, v. 130. 

Tulf = Sordes unguinum (fie!) viii. 195. 

Tughra = imperial cypher, v. 184. 

Tughrai (A1-), poet, iii. 143. 

Tughyan = Kufr, rejection of the True 

Religion, i. 169. 
Tumar = uncial letters, i. 129. 
Tuning (peculiar fashions of Arab musicians 

with regard to it) ix. 27. 



A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Turband (not put upon the ground out of 
respect) i. 223. 

(white, distinctive of Moslems) iv. 


< (substitute for a purse) viii. 190. 

(worn large by the learned) v. 

1 20. 
(inclining from the head-tops) ix. 


" Turk " probably a late addition, i. 52. 
Turk (= Turkoman, nomade) ii. 218. 

(= plunderer, robber) ii. 304. 

(provoked to hunger by beauties of 

nature) iii. 32. 

(appears under the Abbasides) iii. 


Turkey (Future of) ix. 94. 

Turks (fair boy-slaves abounding in Bagh- 
ddd) v. 66 

(forming the body-guard of the Ab- 
basides) ix. 245. 

Turning round in despair against an op- 
pressor, i. 246. 

Turtur (an Arab's bonnet) ii. 143. 

Tusks (of elephants, not teeth), vi. 82. 

Tuwumya = he was received (into the grace 
of God) ix. 54. 

Two sayings (double entendre) viii. 153. 

Tyrant (from, to tyrant = from official to 
official) vi. 214. 

*UBB = breast-pocket (poche au sein) viii. 


Ubi aves ibi angeli, iii. 280. 
Ubullah (canal leading from Bassorah to 

Ubullah-town) ix. 31. 
'tld Jalaki = Damascus lute, ii. IOO. 
Udah, properly Uta = private room of a 

concubine, i. 286. 

Udm = ""kitchen " (see Adm) ix. 213. 
Uff 'alayka = fie upon thee (Uft = sorties 

aurium) viii. 195. 
Uhmlkh = Enoch (Idris?) v. 210. 
Ujb = arrogance (in the Spanish sense of 

gaiety, etc.) vi. 164. 
Uka"b = eagle, vulture, iv. 177* 
Uka"b al-k^sir = the breaker eagle, ix. 69. 
Ukayl(Akil?)iv. 22. 
Ukhuwdn = camomile, iii. 58. 
Ukiyyah (pi. Awdk) = ounce, ix. 2 1 6. 
'Ulbah = box, viii. 71. 

Ultra-Shakespearean geography " Fars of 

Roum," i. 45. 

Ulysses (the Arabian) vi. 40. 
Umamah and 'Asikah, tale of two women 

now forgotten, i. 61. 
Umm al-banat wa '1-banin = mother of 

daughters and sons, ix. 175. 
Umm al-raas = crown of the head, x, 

Umm al Su'ud (Pr. N.) = Mother of Pros- 

perities, ix. 173. 
Umm 'Amir = mother of Amir, nickname 

for the hyena, i. 43. 
Umm Amru (mother of 'Amr) and the ass, 

v. 118. 
Umm Kulsum (one of the Amsal of the 

Arabs for debauchery) x. 194. 
'Ummal (pi. of 'Amil = governor) ix. 26. 
'Umrah = lesser Pilgrimage, ii. 169 ; v. 


" Unberufen," ix. 180. 
Underground rivers, vi. 63. 
Unguinum fulgor, iv. 252. 
Unhappy thou ! vi. 285. 
'Unnabi = between dark yellow and red 

(jujube-colour) ix. 143. 
Union opposed to " Severance," vii. 120. 
Uns al-Wujud (Pr. N.) = Delight of exist- 
ing things, v. 33. 

Unveiling the face a sign of being a Chris- 
tian, ii. 119. 

Upakosha (Vararuchi's wife) vi. 172. 
'Urb = Arabs of pure race, ix. 293. 
'Urban = wild Arabs, i. 112. 
Urine (pollutes) iii. 229. 
Urining, ii. 326. 

(wiping after) iii. 229. 

Urkub = tendon Achilles, hough, viii. 185, 
'Urrah = dung, x. I. 
Urwah = handle, buttonhole, v. 227. 
"Use this" (i.e. for thy daily expenses; 

vii. 298. 

Usfur = safflower, i. 219. 
Ushari = camel travelling ten days, iii. 67, 
Usirat (A1-), island, vi. 57. 
Usul (= fundamentals) ii. 15. 

(= forbears, ancestors) ix. 246* 

Usury (Ar. Riba) v; 201. 

(verset of) v. 215. 

Usus = os sacrum, v. 219. 
'Utbi (A1-), poet, v. 133. 
Uzayr = Esdras, i. 257. 



Uzn al-Kuffah = ear (handle) of the basket, 

viii. 161. 
Uzrah = Azariyah, vii. 158. 

VARIETIES of handwriting, i. 129. 

Veil, see Lisdm, ii. 31. 

Veiling her honour = saving her from being 
ravished, ix. 330. 

Vellication, iv. 256. 

Vengeance (of a disappointed suitor appre- 
hended) vi. 286. 

Verses (purposely harsh) viii. 337. 

(aforementioned, distinguishing for- 
mula of " Hasan of Bassorah ") viii. 

Versets (number of the Koranic) v. no. 

View (gorgeous description of) viii. 30. 

*' Vigilance Committees" (for abating 
scandals) ix. 98. 

Vile water (Koranic term for semen) vii. 

Violent temper (frequent amongst Eastern 
princesses) vii. 254. 

Virgil (a magician) v. 44. 

Virginity of slave-girls (respected by the 
older slave-trader, rarely by the young) 
vii. 267. 

Visit (confers a blessing in polite parlance) 
ix. 185. 

Visits (in dreamland) v. 47. 

(to the tombs) vii. 124. 

(should not be overfrequent) ix. 273. 

Visvakarma = anti-creator, v. 320 ; x. 131. 

Vivisepulture, vi. 41. 

Voice (thickened by leprosy) iv. 50. 

WA = and (introducing a parenthetic 

speech) ix. 282. 
Wa'ar = rough ground unfit for riding) vi. 

Wa ba'ad (see Amma ba'ad, vol. ii. 34) = 

and afterwards, iii. 181. 
Wada'a, see Cowrie, iv. 77. 
Wadd, Suwd'a and Yagus (idols) vi. 282. 
Waddle of "Arab ladies," iii. 37. 
Wady = valley ; slayer, i. 51 ; ii. 85 ; iii. 

Wady al-Naml = Valley of the Emmets, 

v- 337- 

Wady al-Ward =Vale of Roses, vi. 276. 
Wady Zahrdn = Valley Flowery, v. 360. 

Waggid (Hebr. speaker in a dream) iv^ 


Wahk, Wahak = Lasso, vii. 61. 
Wahsh = wild beast and synonyms, i. 242. 
Wahtah (Al-)= quasi- epileptic fit, vii. 127. 
Wailing over the past, iv. 239. 
Waist (slender, hips large), iii. 278. 
Wakalah, described in Pilgrimage (i. 60) 

i. 266. 

Wakil = agent (see Pashas) iv. 182. 
Wakites (number their islands) viii. 88. 
Wakkad = stoker, i. 312 ; ii. 134. 
Wak Wak (Islands of) viii. 60. 
Walad = son (more ceremonious than 

"ibn") v. 386. 

Walgh = lapping of a dog, iii. 319. 
Walhan (A1-) = the distracted, iii. 226 ; 

viii. 33 ; ix. 6. 

Wali= (civil) Governor, i. 259. 
Wall = Saint, San ton, v. 112. 

'ahd = heir-presumptive, ix. 87. 

Walid (A1-) bin Abd al-Malik, Caliph, 

iv. 100. 

bin Marwan (Caliph) ii. 167 ; iii. 69. 

bin Sahl (Caliph) vii. 106. 

Walidati ^= my mother, speaking to one not 

of the family, iii. 208. 
Walimah = marriage-feast, vi, 74 ; viii. 


Walking afoot (not dignified) vi. 227. 
Wa 'llahi = I swear by Allah, viii. 310. 

tayyib = by Allah, good ! ii. 34. 

Wa '1-Salam = and here ends the matter, 

i. 102. 
(used in a variety of senses) viii. 

Wanderer in the mountains = a recluse 

avoiding society, vi. 158. 
Warahmatah = Alas, the pity of it, v. 42. 
Ward = rose ; Wardah = a single rose, 

viii. 274. 

(A1-) fi '1-Akmam (Pr. N.)= Rose in 

' Hood, v. 32. 

Shah = Rose King, vii. 70. 

Wardan (a Fellah name, also of a village) 

iv. 293. 

Warid = resorting to the water, iii. 56. 
Warid (jugular vein) iv. 92. 
Warm one's self at a man's fire, ii. 76. 
Wars (caused by trifles, frequent in Arab 

history) vi. 142. 
(A1-) = carthamus tinctorius, vii. 92. 


A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

Wartah = precipice, quagmire, etc., x. 

Washing the dead ^vithout doors only in 

case of poverty, ii. 10. 
Washings after evacuation, i. 220. 
Wasif = servant ; fem. Wasifah = con- 
cubine, iii. 171. 
Wasik (A1-) Caliph, iii. 81. 
Wasit = Middle (town of Irak Arabi) 

ix. 26. 

Wasm = tribal sign, vi. 163. 
Watad = tent-peg (also a prosodical term) 

viii. 279. 
Water (sight of running, makes a Persian 

long for strong drink) iv. 75. 

(had no taste in his mouth) v. 39. 

(-carrier = Sakka) v. 89. 

Watering the streets, iv. 107. 
Water-melons (eaten with rice and meat) 

vi. 208. 

Waters flowing in Heaven, iii. 65. 
Watwat = bat, v. 226. 
Way of Allah = common property, {.91. 
Waybah = six to seven English gallons, 

iv. 86. 

Wayha = Alas ! v, 258. 
Wayha-k, equivalent to Wayla-k, vii. 127. 
Wayla-k = Woe to thee ! iii. 82. 
Wazir = Minister, i. 2. 
(the sharp-witted in the tales) 

ii. 246. 

Weal (I see naught but) ix. 180. 
Weapons (carried under the thigh) vii. 56. 
magic, vii. 59. 

new forms of, vii. 62. 

Web and pin (eye -disease of horses) 

viii. 341. 

Week-days (only two names for) iii. 249. 
(old names for) vi. 190. 
Weeping (not for form and face alone) 

iii. 318. 

. (over dead friends) ix. 187. 

Whale (still common off the East African 

coast) vi. ii. 
What calamity is upon thee = what a bother 

thou art, viii. 177. 
What happened, happened = fortune so 

willed it, iii. 68. 
11 What is it compared with," popular way 

of expressing great difference, i. 37. 
What manner of thing is Al-Rashid ? = 

What has he to do here ? viii. 176. 

"Whatso thou wouldest do, that do," = 

Do what thou wilt, vii. 324. 
Where is and where ? = What a difference 

is there between, etc., v. 65. 
" Where lies China-land ?"= it is a far cry 

to Loch Awe, vii. 344. 
Whistling (Sifr) iv. 206. 

(held to be the devil's speech) v. 333. 

(to call animals to water) viii. 278. 

White as milk (opposed to black as mud, 

etc.) iv. 140. 
(hand, symbol of generosity, etc.) 

iv. 185. 
(turband, distinctive of Moslems) iv.^ 

hand of Moses (sign to Pharao)] 

iv. 249. 

and black faces on the Day of Judg- 
ment, iv. 249. 

(colour of the Ommiades) vi. 86. 

robes (denote grace and mercy) 

vi. 250. 
(mourning colour under the Abbasides) 

viii. 200. 

Whiteness (for lustre, honour) viii. 295. 
Whitening and blackening of the faces on 

Judgment -Day, ii. 312. 
"Who art thou?" etc. (meaning " you 

are nobodies ") vii. 286. 
" Whoso beguileth folk, him shall Allah 

beguile," viii. 143. 
'" Whoso loveth me, let him bestow 

largesse upon this man," vii. 323. 
"Whoso praiseth and then blameth lieth 

twice," x. 15. 
"Why don't (can't) you buy me?" viii. 

Wicket (small doorway at the side of a 

gate) ix. 320. 
Wife (euphemistically spoken of in the 

masculine) i. 67. 

(Aurat) vi. 30. 

(called " Family") vi. 7$. 

(contrast between vicious servile and 

virtuous of noble birth) ix. 302. 
Will he not care ? = he shall answer for 

this ! vi. 245. 
Window-gardening, old practice in the 

East, i. 301. 

Windows (looTdng out of, a favourite occu- 
pation in the East and South) vi. 167. 
Wine (why strained) i. 27. 


Wine (boiled) = vinum coctum, i. 132. 

(flying to the head, effect of the cold 

after a heated room) i. 224. 

(kahwah) ii. 261. 

(table and service) ii. 122. 

(a sun, with cupbearer for East and 

the drinker's mouth for West) iii. 

(its prohibition not held absolute) 

v. 224. 

(breeds gladness, etc.) viii. 202. 

(in cup, or cup in wine ?) viii. 276. 

(Mohammed makes up his mind about 

it by slow degrees) viii. 277. 

Wird = the last twenty-five chapters of the 
Koran, v. 185. 

(Pers.) = pupil, disciple, ix. 61. 

Wisadah = pillow, ii. 70. 

Wishah = belt, scarf, viii. 209. 

Wishes (talc of the three) vi. 180. 

Wiswas = diabolical temptation or sugges- 
tion, i. 106. 

Witches (and their vehicles) vi. 158. 

Witness (bear, against me, i.e. in case of 
my denial) vi. 286 ; viii. 22. 

Witnesses (one man = two women) v. 155. 

Wittol (pictured with driest Arab humour) 
ix. 269. 

Wives have their night in turns, ii. 78. 

(why four, see Women) iii. 212. 

(a man's tillage) iii. 304. 

(and their suitors) vi. 172. 

Wolf (wicked man) ; fox (cunning one) iii. 

WomaniWomen (debauched prefer Blacka- 
moors) i. 6. 

(their depravity goes hand in hand 

with perversity of taste) i. 73. 

(old must not be called Ajiiz but 

Shaybah) i. 174. 

(bastinadoed) i. 183. 

(chaff and banter allowed to) i. 267. 

(of Damascus famed for sanguinary 

jealousy) i. 295. 
(Cairene held exceedingly debauched) 

i. 298. 

mourning, i. 311. 

(high-born and their frolics) i. 328. 

(cries of) ii. 6. 

1 weeping and wailing before cenotaphs, 

ii. 68. 
maltreated under the Caliphate, ii. 69. 

Woman, Women captives, ii. 94. 

of the blue-stocking type, ii. 156. 

created of a crooked rib, ii. 161. 

(consult them and do the contrary) ii. 


(peculiar waddle of) iii. 37. 

(proposing extreme measures) iii. 39. 

(are tinder, men fire) iii. 59. 

(monkish horror of) iii. 126. 

(Laylah, name of) iii. 135. 

(true seducers) iii. 166. 

(Walidati = my mother) iii. 208. 

(four wives, and why) iii. 212. 

(compared to an inn) iii. 216. 

(large hips and thighs) iii. 226. 

(small fine foot) iii. 227. 

(names of) iii. 239 j 263. 

(more passionate than men) iii. 241, 

(head must always be kept covered) 

iii. 275. 
(slender-waisted but full of hips, etc.) 

iii. 278. 

(Sodomy with) iii. 304. 

(all charges laid upon them) iii. 335. 

(old bawd) iv. 4. 

(names of) iv. 12. 

(less handsome than man) iv. 1 5. 

(walk and gait) iv. 16. 

(bride night) iv. 30. 

(oath of a) iv. 49. 

(insolence of princesses) iv. 145. 

(inner, her meanings) iv. 146. 

(answering question by counter- 

question) iv. 148. 
(Abyssinian famous as holders ") iv. 


(slave-names) iv. 232. 

(intercourse between) iv. 234. 

(white-skinned supposed to be heating 

and unwholesome) iv. 253. 

(sleep naked in hot weather) v. 8. 

(making the first advances) v. 34. 

(and secrets) v. 35, 83. 

(wives of eunuchs) v. 46. 

(visiting their lovers in a dream) v. 47. 

(thought to be Jinn or Ghul) v. 51. 

(called Zaura, the crooked) v. 66. 

(allowed to absent themselves from 

the house of father or husband) v. 96. 

(instructed in " motitations ") v. 80. 

(apt for two tricks) v. 161. 

(old, polite equivalents for) v. 163. 


A If Laylah wa Laylak. 

Woman, Women (in their prime at fourteen 

to fifteen) v. 192. 

(inferior to man) v. 155. 

(unveiling to a man, if not slaves, 

insult him) v. 194. 
(in Hindostani jargon = Aurat) vi. 

(her shame extends from head to toes) 

vi. 1 1 8. 

(their cunning and malice) vi. 144. 
(corrupts woman more than men do) 

vi. 152. 
(knowing enough without learning to 

read and write) vi. 168. 

(of Kashmir) vi. 156. 

(her female visitors unknown to the 

husband except by hear-say) vi. 199. 
[ (words used only by them, not by 

men) vi. 233. 
(blue-eyed of good omen) vii. 164. 

(stealing of their clothes) viii. 30. 

(her heart the only bond known by 

her) viii. 54. 
(reasons for their ageing in the East) 

viii. 86. 
(always to be addressed Ummi = my 

mother) viii. 87. 
(often hide their names from the 

husband) viii. loo. 
(semi-maniacal rancour of a good one 

against an erring sister) viii. 118. 
(when old, the most vindictive of her 

kind) viii. 137. 

(who are neither thine nor another's) 
viii. 208. 

(their bodies impregnated with scents) 
viii. 279. 

(to be respected by the King) ix. 73. 

(" great is their malice ") ix. 119. 

(a case of "hard lines" for them) 

ix. 134. 

(their marrying a second time reckoned 
disgraceful) ix. 246. 

(the sin lieth with them) ix. 297. 

(fail in wit and faith) ix. 298. 

(practically .only two ways of treating 

them) ix. 303. 

(delicacy of their skin) ix. 321. 
(treated Jeniently in a Kazi's court) 

x. 4. 

Womankind (seven ages of) ix. 175. 
(their status in Al- Islam) x. 195. 

Wonder (= cause) in every death, i. 351." 
Word (the creative " Kun") ix. 78. 
Words (divided in a couplet) iii. 166. 
Worlds (the three = Triloka) ii. 236., 
Wreckers, ii. in. 
Wrestling and Wrestlers, ii. 93. 

(amongst the Egyptian Fellah) viii.j 


Writer of The Nights careless, iv. 155. 

Writing (styles of) iv. 196. 

Writing without fingers = being unable to 

answer for what is written) iii. 181. 
Wuldan = Ghilman, the beautiful youths 

of Paradise, i. 21 1. 
Wuzu-ablution = lesser ablution, i. 142. 

(necessary before joining in prayer?) 

ii. 46. 

(Koranic order for) v. 198. 

(angels and devils at the side of a man" 

who prepares for it) v. 198. 

XISISTHRUS = Noah, ii. 20, 25. 

YA A'AWAZ = O, one eye (obscene meaning 

of the phrase) viii. 185. 
Ya Abati = O dear father mine, ix. 88. 
Ya Abu al-Lithamayn = O sire of the chin* 

veils twain, x. 20. 
Ya Abu Libdah = O father of a felt-calotte, 

iii. 62. 
Ya Abu Sumrah = O father of brownness, 

iii. 40. 

Ya Ahmak = O fool, ix. 271. 
Ya 'Ajtiz = O old woman (now insulting) 

v. 163. 
Ya Bunayya = O dear (lit. little) my son, 

ix. 79. 
Ya Ba'id = th'ou distant one, euphemism 

for gross abuse, i. 41. 
Ya Barid = O fool, i. 313. 
Ya Dadatf = O my nurse, " ma mie," vii. 

, 372 ', 
Ya Fulan = O certain person, iii. 191 ; ix, 

Yd Fulanah = O certain person (fem.) ix* 


Ya Hajj = O Pilgrim, ii. 15. 
Ya haza = O this one. somewhat slightingly, 

i. 240. 

Ya hu = O he ! Swift's Yahoo? i. 240. 
Ya Jahil = O ignorant, ix. 52. 
Ya Ka'wwad = O pitup, v. 129* 



Yd KhdlaH = O mother's sister, in address- 

ing the 61d, i. 303. 
Yd Khawand = O .Master, vii. 315. 
Yd Khwdjah = O Master, viii. 18. 
Ya Kisrawi = O subject of the Kisra, v. 


Yd layta = would to heaven, vili. 48. 
Yd Ma'ashar al-Muslimin = Ho Moslems! 

iv. 149. 

Ya Mashum = O unlucky one, i. 221. 
Ya Mauldya=O, my lord, ix. 228. 
Ya Miskfn = O poor devil, vi. 219. 
Ya Mumatil = O Slow o' Pay, viii. 169. 
Ya Nasrani = O Nazarene, iv. 199. 
YaSaki 'al-Dakan=O frosty-beard, v. 99. 
Ya Saki 'al-Wajh = O false face, vii. 353. 
Ya Salam = O safety (a vulgar ejaculation) 

viii. 98. 

Yd Sdtir=O veiler (of sins) iii. 41. 
YdSattdr=O Thou who veilest the dis- 
creditable secrets of Thy creatures, i. 

Yd Shatir=O clever one ! (in a-bad sense) 

iv. 209. 

Yd Shukayr = O little Tulip, viii. 168. 
Yd Talji- O snowy one, iii. 40. 
Yd Tayyib al-Khdl = O thou nephew of a 

good uncle, i. 303. 
Yd Usta (for Ustdz) = O my master, vii. 


Yd Wadud = O loving one, iv. 54. 
Vd Sin. (heart of the Koran, chapt. xxxvi.) 

iv. 50. 
Ya'arub (eponymus of an Oman tribe) vi. 

260 ; vii. 25. 

Yafis, Yafat=Japhet, vii. 40. 
Yaftah Allah = Allah will open, an offer 

being insufficient, ii. 149, 
Yahudi for Jew, less polite than Banu 

Israil, i. 210. 
Yajf miat khwdnjah = near a hundred 

chargers, vii. 345. 
Ydji'tj and Mdjuj, v. 318. 
Yakhni = steW, broth, vii. 186. 
Ydkut = ruby, garnet, etc., v. 342. 
Yaman (Al-) = right-hand region, ii. 179. 
(lightning on the hills of) ii. 179. 
Ydsamfn= Jessamine (name of a slave-girl) 

viii. 176. 

Yashmak (chin- veil for women) ii. 31. 
Yasrib (ancient name of Al-Medinah) iv. 


Yastaghibuni = they take advantage of ray 

absence, -ix. 224. 
Yauh (conversationally Yehh) expression of 

astonishment, ii. 321. 
Yauh ! Yauh ! = Alas ! vi. 235. 
Yathrib (old name of Al-Medinah) ix. 

177, see Yasrib. 

Yaum al-Id = the great festival, i. 317. 
Yaum al-Tanddi = Resurrection Day, iii. 

Yaum-i-Alast = Day of " am-I-not " (your 

Lord) ? ii. 91. 

Yaum rnubdrak = a blessed day, vi. 215, 
Yellow girl (for light -coloured wine) x. 39. 
Yes, Yes ! and No, No ! trifles common 

amongst the Arabs, iu 60 ; ix. 250. 
Youth described in terms applying to 

women, i. 144. 
Yohanna=John, iv. 87. 
Yuhannd (Greek Physician) v. 154. 
Yunan Yunanfyah = Greece, ii. 82; iv. 


Yusuf bin Omar, ii. 170. 
Yusuf (Grand Vizier, and his pelisse) vii. 


ZA'AR = E man with fair skin, red hair and 

blue eyes (Marocco) viii. 297. 
Zabbah = lizard ; bolt, vi. 247 ; vii. 182. 
Zabbdl = dung-drawer, etc., i. 312 ; iii. 


Zdbft = Prefect of Police, i. 259. 
Zabiyah (Pr. N.) = roe, doe, v. 147. 
Zaffu (in the sense of "they displayed 

her ") ix. 245. 

Zaghab = the chick's down, v. 165. 
Zaghzaghan (Abu Massdh = Father of the 

Sweeper) = magpie, vi. 182. 
Zahir bi 'llah (A1-) = one prominent by 

the decree of Allah, i. 317. 
Zahirf = plain honest Moslem, ii. 29. 
Za.hra = the flowery, vi. 145. 
Zahr Shdh (Pr. N.) ii. 284. 
Zahrawiyah = lovely as the Venus-star, 

viii. 251. 
Zahwah = mid -time between sunrise and 

noon, vi. 35. 

Zaka = he tasted, iv. 188. 
Zakar (penis) = that which betokens rnas* 

culinity, iii. 3. 
Zakariyd and Zakar, iv. 51. 
Zakat = legal alms, i. 339, 


A If Lay I ah wa Lay I ah. 

Zakhmah (Zukhmah) = strap, stirrup- 
leather, viii. 1 8. 

Zakkiim (A1-) tree of Hell, iv. 259. 
Zakzuk = young of the Shal, viii. 185. 
Zalabiyah bi- 'Asal = honey-fritters, vii. 

Zalamah (A1-) = tyrants, oppressors (police 

and employe's) i. 273; vi. 214. 
Zalz&l, son of Muzalzil = Earthquake, son 

of Ennosigaius, vii. 79. 
Zambur = clitoris, i. 90 ; v. 279. 
Zamiyad = guardian angel of Bihisht, see 

Rizwan, iii. 20, 233. 
Zanab Sirhan (wolfs tail) = early dawn, 

iii. 146. 

Zand and Zandah = fire-sticks, v. 52. 
Zanj = negroes of Zanzibar, ii. 5 ; vi. 104. 
Zanzibar (cannibals etc.) iv. 168. 
Zardbin = slaves' shoes, x. i. 
Zarbu '1-Nawaklsf = striking of gongs 

(pun on the word) viii. 329. 
Zardah = rice dressed with honey and 

saffron, ii. 313 ; vii. 185. 
Zardakhanah = Zarad (Ar. for hauberk), 

Khanah (Pers. for house) vii. 363. 
Zarka = the blue-eyed (Cassandre of 

Yamamah) ii. 103. 
Zarr wa 'urwah = button and button -hole, 

v. 227. 

Zarraf = giraffe, vii. 51. 
Zarrat (vulg. Durrah) = co-wife, sister- 
wife, iii. 308. 

Zat al-Dawahl='Lady of Calamities, ii. 87. 
Zau al-Makdn = Light of the Place, ii. 81. 
Zaura = the crooked, for woman, v. 66. 
Zaura (A1-) == the bow (name of Baghdad) 

ix. 13. 

Zawf al-furuj = habentes rimam, ii. 49. 
Zawiyah = oratory, vi. 259 ; vii. 328. . 
Zaybak (A1-) = the quicksilver, iv. 75. 
Zayn al-Abidm (grandson of AH) ii. 202. 
Zayn al-Mawasif (Pr. N.) = Adornment of 

(good) qualities, viii. 205. 
Zaynab and Zayd (generic names for women 

and men) ix. 250. 

Zebra (daughter of Sa'adah) iii. 65. 
Zemzem (its water saltish) i. 284 ; ii. 272. 
Zi'ah village, hamlet, farm, ix. 27. 
Zibl = dung, iii. ! 

Zibl Khan = Le Roi Crotte, iii. 99. 
Zidd = opposite, contrary, v. 206. 
Zikr = litanies, i. 124. 

(and Edwin Arnold's Pearls of Faith) 

ii. 28. 

Zimbil (Zambil) = limp basket of palm- 
leaves, iv. 119. 

Zimmi = a (Christian, Jewish or Majusi) 
tributary, iv. 199. 

Zinad = fire-sticks, viii. So. 

Zindik = Agnostic, atheist, v. 230 ; viii. 

Zirbajah = meat dressed with cumin-seed, 
etc., i. 278. 

Zirt = broken wind ; derivatives, ii. 88 ] 
ix. 291. 

Ziyad bin Abi Sufyan, ii. 163. 

Ziyarat = visit to a pious person or place, 
i. 125. 

= visiting the Prophet's tomb, ix. 

I 7 8. 

Zobabah (Zauba'ah ?) = sand-storm in the 

desert, i. 1-14. 
Zu al-Autad = the contriver of the stakes 

(Pharaoh) vi, 118. 
Zu al-Kura'a (Pr. N.) = Lord of cattle 

feet, iv. 95. 
Zubaydah (Pr. N.) = creamkin, iv. 48 ; 

viii. 56, 158. 
Zubb = penis, i. 92. 

" Zug " (draught) feared by Orientals, ii. 9. 
Zuhal = Saturn, ii. 75. 
Zuhrf (Al-'), traditionist, ii. 198; v. 81. 
Zujaj bikr = unworked glass, viii. 342. 
Zukak al-Nakib = Syndic street, ii. 325. 
Zukhruf = glitter, tinsel, ix. 86. 
Zulf = side-lock, i. 308. 
Zulm, injustice, tyranny ; worst of a 

monarch's crimes, i. 190. 
Zunnar = <m/apiov confounded with the! 

" Janeo," ii. 215. 
Zur ghibban tazid hubban = call rarely that 

friendship last fairly, ix. 2/3. 
Zurayk (dim. of Azrak = blue-eyed) 

viii. 195. 
Zurk = blue-eyed, dim-sighted, purblind, 

vii. 164. 
Zuwaylah gate, more correctly Bab Zawilafr 

i. 269. 



INDEX ///.A. 


Prepared by DR. STEIN GASS. 

A BELOVED familiar o'erreigns my heart, 
viii. 70. 

A boy of twice ten is fit for a king ! 
iii. 303. 

A breeze of love on my soul did blow, 
viii. 222. 

A damsel 'twas the tirer's art had decked 
with snares and sleight, i. 219 ; x. 59. 

A dancer whose figure is like a willow- 
branch, ix. 222. 

A dancer whose form is like branch of 
Ban ! ix. 221. 

A dog, dog-fathered, by dog-grandsire 
bred, viii. 15. 

A fan whose breath is fraught with fragrant 
scent, viii. 273. 

A fair one, to idolaters if she her face 
should show, ix. 197. 

A friend in need is he who, ever true, iii. 

A guest hath stolen on my head and honour 
may he lack, viii. 295. 

A hag to whom th' unlawful lawfullest, i. 

A heart bore thee off in chase of the fair, 
ix. 282. 

A heart by Allah ! never soft to lover- 
wight, vii. 222. 

A Houri, by whose charms my heart is 
moved to sore distress, vii. 105. 

A house where flowers from stones of gra- 
nite grow, iii. 19. 

A Jinniyah this, with her Jinn, to show, v. 

A King who when hosts of the foe invade, 
ii. i. 

A lutanist to us inclined, viii. 283. 

A maiden 'twas, the dresser's art had decked 

with cunning sleight, viii. 32. 
A merchant I spied whose lovers, viii. 264. 
A messenger from thee came bringitg 

union-hope, iii. 188. 
A moon she rises, willow-wand she waves, 

iii. 237 ; viii. 303. 
A moon, when he bends him those eyes lay 

bare, viii. 284. 

A moon which blights you if you dare be- 
hold, ii. 4. 
A night whose stars refused to run their 

course, iii. 299. 
A palace whereon be blessings and praise, 

iv. 134. 
A place secure from every thought of fear, 

i. 114. 
A sage, I feel a fool before thy charms, 

iii. 272. 
A slave of slaves there standeth at thy 

door, i. 89. 
A sun on wand in knoll of sand she showed, 

i. 217; x. 58. 

A thin-waist maid who shames the willow- 
wand, ii. 285. 

A term decreed my lot I 'spy, viii. 83. 
A trifle this an his eyes be sore, v. 127. 
A tree whilere was I the Bulbul's home, 

viii. 281. 
A wand uprising from a sandy knoll, 

ix. 250. 
A warrior showing such open hand, 

iv. 97. 
A wasted body, heart empierced to core, 

ii. 314. 


A If Laylah wa Lay! ah. 

A youth slim waisted from whose locks 

and brow, i. 68. 
A zephyr bloweth from the lover's site, 

viii. 90. 
Above the rose of cheek is thorn of lance, 

i". 33'- 

Act on sure grounds, nor hurry fast, iv. 189. 
Add other wit to thy wit, counsel craving, 

iv. 189. 

Affright me funerals at every time, v. in. 
After thy faring never chanced I 'spy, 

viii. 142. 
Ah, fare thee not ; for I've no force thy 

faring to endure, yiii. 63. 
Ah ! for lowe of love and longing suffer ye 

as suffer we ? viii. 68. 
Ah Khalid ! this one is a slave of love 

distraught, iv. 158. 
Ah, often have I sought the fair ! how 

often lief and fain, vii. 138* 
Alack and alas ! Patience taketh flight, 

viii. 263. 
Alas, alack and wellaway for blamer's 

calumny ! viii. 285. 
Albe by me I had through day and night, 

iii. 267. 

Albe to lover adverse be his love, iii. 266. 
Albeit my vitals quiver 'neath this ban, 

iii. 62. 

Alexandria's a frontier, viii. 289. 
All crafts are like necklaces strung on* 

a string, i. 308. 

All drinks wherein is blood the Law un- 
clean Doth hold, i. 89. 
All sons of woman albe long preserved, 

iv. 63. 
" Allah assain those eyne ! What streams 

of blood they shed ! " ii. 100. 
Allah be good to him that gives glad 

tidings of thy steps, i. 239. 
Allah ho'ds Kingship ! Whoso seeks with- 
out Him victory, iii. 86. 
Allah, my patience fails : I have no word, 

iii. 344: 
Allah save the rose which yellows amorn, 

viii. 276. 
Allah, where'er thou be, His aid impart, 

ii. 148. 
Allah's peace on thee, House of Vacancy ! 

viii. 237. 
Although the Merciful be doubtless with 

me, ix. 278. 

Al-Yaman's leven-gleam I see, il. 179. 
An but the house could know who cometh' 

'twould rejoice, i. 176. 
An, by thy life, pass thee my funeral train, 

v. 70. 

An fail I of my thanks to thee, i. 56. 
An Fate afflict thee, with grief manifest, 

viii. 146. 
An Fate some person 'stablish o'er thyi 

head, iii. 89. 
An faulty of one fault the beauty prove, ( 

ii. 96. 

An I be healed of disease in frame, viii. 70. 
An I quit Cairo and her pleas xunces, i, 

An we behold a lover love-foredone, v. 

An my palm be full of wealth and my 

wealth I ne'er bestow, ii. n. 
An say I : Patient I can bear his faring, 

iii. 187. 
An tears of blood for me, friend, thou hast 

shed, i. 89. 
An there be one who shares with me her 

love, i. 180. 
An thou but deign consent, A wish toj 

heart affied, iv. 247. 
An thou of pious works a store neglect,) 

ii. 202. 
An thou wouldst know my name, whosei 

day is done, vi. 94. 
An through the whole of life, iv. 190. 
An Time my lover restore me I'll blame* 

him fain, ix. 192. 
An were it asked me when by hell-fire* 

burnt, iii. 279. 
An what thou claimest were the real truth,! 

v. 151. 
An wouldst be life-long safe, vaunt not 

delight, viii. 94, 
And Almond apricot suggesting swain, 

viii. 268. 
And dweller in the tomb whose food is at 

his head, v. 238. 
And eater lacking mouth and even maw, 

v. 240. 
And fairest Fawn, we said to him Portray, 

viii. 272. 
And haply whenas strait descends on lot> 

of generous youth, iii. 131. 
And in brunettes is mystery, couldst 

but read it right, iv. 258. 



And in my liver higher flames the fire, 

vii. 366. 
And leveling weareth on his cheek a mole, 

v. 65. 
And pity one who erst in honour throve, 

ii. 149- 
And shaddock mid the garden paths, on 

bough, viii. 272. 
And Solomon, when Allah to him said, 

vi. 86. 
And the lips of girls, that are perfume 

sweet, v. 79. 
And the old man crept o'er the worldly 

ways,, iv. 41. 
And trees of orange fruiting ferly fair, 

viii. 271. 
And wand-like Houri who can passion 

heal, v. 149. 
And 'ware her scorpions when pressing 

them, viii. 209. 
And when birdies o'er-warble its lakelet, 

it gars, ix. 6. 
And, when she announceth the will to sing, 

viii. 1 66. 
Albeit this thy case lack all resource, 

v. 69. 
Allah watered a land, and upsprang a tree, 

v. 244. 
Answer, by Allah ! Sepulchre, are all his 

beauties gone ? i 239. 
Appeared not my excuse till hair had 

clothed his cheek, iii. 57. 
Apple which joins hues twain and brings 

to mind, viii. 268. 
Apple whose hue combines in union mellow, 

i. 158. 
As a crescent-moon in the garth her form, 

viii. 207, 
As for me, of him I feel naught affright, 

vi. 98. 
As long as palms shall shift the flower, 

v. 136. 
As love waxt longer less met we tway, 

v. 7 8. 
As one of you who mounted mule, viii. 

As she willed she was made, and in such a 

way that when, iv. 191. 
As the Sage watched the stars, the sem- 
blance clear, i. 206. 
As though ptisane of wine oa her lips 

honey dew, iii. 57. 

Ask (if needs thou ask) the compassionate, 

ix. 29. 
Ask of my writ, what wrote my pen in dole, 

iii. 274. 
Ass and Umrn Amr* went their way, 

v. 118. 

BARE hills and camp-ground desolate, 

v. 130. 
Baulks me my Fate as tho* she were my 

foe, viii. 130. 
Be as thou wilt, for Allah is bountiful, 

viii. 277. 
Be as thou wilt, for Allah still is bounteous 

Lord, ii. 202. 

Be mild to brother mingling, iv. 1 10. 
Be mild what time thou'rt ta'en with 

anger and despite, iv. 221. 
Be mild when rage shall come to afflict thy 

soul, iv. 54. 
Be praises mine to all-praiseworthy Thee, 

fi. 261. 
Be proud; I'll crouch ! Bully; I'll bear! 

Despise; I'll pray ! iii. 188. 
Be sure all are villains and so bide safe, 

iii. 142. 
Bear our salams, O Dove, from this our 

stead, viii. 236. 
Beareth for love a burden sore this soul of 

me, viii. 66. 
Beauty they brought with him to make 

compare, i. 144. 

Beguiled as Fortune who her guile dis- 
plays, iv. 22. 
Behind the veil a damsel sits with gracious 

beauty dight, viii. 210. 
Behold a house that's like the Dwelling of 

Delight, viii. 183. 
Behold this lovely garden ! 'tis as though, 

ii. 240. 
Belike my Fortune may her bridle turn, 

i. 152. 
Belike Who Yusuf to his kin restored, 

iv. 103. 
Beloved, why this strangeness, why this 

hate? iv. 234. 

Bethink thee not of worldly state, iii. 328. 
Bid thou thy phantom distance keep, 

vii. 108. 
Better ye 'bide and I take my leave, 



A If Laylak wa Laylah. 

Beware her glance I rede thee 'tis like 

wizard wight, ii. 295. 
Beware of losing hearts of men by thine 

injurious deed, x. 50. 
Beware that eye-glance which hath magic 

might, iii. 252. 
Black girls in acts are white, and 'tis as 

though, iv. 251. 

Black girls not white are they, iv. 251. 
Blame not ! said I to all who blamed me, 

viii. 95. 
Blest be his beauty ; blest the Lord's 

decree, i. 177. 
Blighted by her yet am I not to blame, 

viii. 255. 
Blows from my lover's land a zephyr 

ccoly sweet, ii. 311. 
Boon fortune sought him in humblest way, 

viii. 501. 
Boy-like of back side, in the deed of kind, 

v. 157. 
Breeze of East who bringest me gentle 

air, vii. 122. 
Brighter than moon at full with kohl'd 

eyes she came, viii. 279. 
Bring gold and gear an a lover thou, 

viii. 214. 
By Allah, by th' Almighty, by his right, 

vii. 366. 
By Allah, couldst thou but feel my pain, 

v. 77. 
By Allah, glance of mine, thou hast 

opprest, vii. 140. 
By Allah, heal, O my lords, the unwhole, 

viii. 144. 
By Allah, O thou house, if my beloved 

amorn go by, v. 38 
By Allah, O tomb, have her beauties ceased, 

viii. 1 68. 
By Allah, set thy foot upon my soul, 

i. 222. 

By Allah this is th' only alchemy, x. 40. 
By Allah ! while the days endure ne'er 

shall forget her I, iv. 146. 
By Allah, wine shall not disturb me, while 

this soul of mine, iv. 190. 
By craft and sleight I snared him when 

he came, ii. 44. 
By his cheeks' unfading damask and his 

smiling teeth I swear, viii. 282. 
y li'.s eyelash tendril curled, by his slender 

waist I swear, iii. 217. 

By his eyelids shedding perfume and his 
fine slim waist I swear, i. 168. 

By His life who holds my guiding rein, I 
swear, iv. 2. 

By Love's right ! naught of farness thy 
slave can estrange, viii. 76. 

By means of toil man shall scale the height, 

vi. 5- 
By rights of you, this heart of mine could 

ne'er aby, viii. no. 

By stress of parting, O beloved one, iii. 166. 
By th' Abyssinian Pond, O day divine ! 

i. 291. 
By the Compassionate, I'm dazed about 

my case, forlo ! vii. 337. 
By the Five Shayks, O Lord, I pray deliver 

me, iii. 30. 
By the life o' thy face, O thou life o' my 

sprite ! viii. 284. 
By what thine eyelids show of kohl and 

coquetry! ii. 296. 

CAME a merchant to pay us a visit, viii. 265. 
Came Rayya's phantom to grieve thy sight, 

vii. 91. 
Came the writ whose contents a new joy 

revealed, viii. 222. 

Came to match him in beauty and loveli- 
ness rare, viii. 298. 
Came to me care when came the love of 

thee, vii. 366. 
Came your writ to me in the dead of the 

night, ix. 2. 
Captured me six all bright with youthful 

blee, iv. 260. 
Carry the trust of him whom death awaits, 

v. 114. 
Cease then to blame me, for thy blame doth 

anger bring, x. 39. 
Cease ye this farness ; 'bate this pride of 

you, iv. 136. 
Chide not the mourner for bemourning woe, 

iii. 291. 
Choice rose that gladdens heart to see her 

sight, viii. 275. 

dear's the wine, the cup's fine, i. 349. 
Cleave fast to her thou lovest and let the 

envious rail amain, iv. 198. 
Close prest appear to him who views th' 
inside, viii. 267. 
Clove through the shades and came to me 

in night so dark and sore, vii. 138. 



Come back and so will I ! i. 63. 

Coifie with us, friend, and enter thou, viii. 

Confide thy case to Him, the Lord who 

made mankind, i. 63. 
Consider but thy Lord, His work shall 

bring, viii. 20. 
Consider thou, O man, what these places 

to thee showed, vi. 112 
Console thy lover, fear no consequence, v. 


Consort not with the Cyclops e'en a day, 

iv. 194. 

Containeth time a twain of days, i. 25. 
Converse with men hath scanty weal 

except, iv. 188. 
Count not that I your promises forgot, 

iii. 238. 
Cut short this strangeness, leave unruth of 

you, v. 245. 
Culvers of Liwa ! to your, nests return, 

vii. 115. 

DARK falls the night : my tears unaided 

rail, iii. II. 
Dark falls the night and passion comes 

sore pains to gar me dree, ii. 140. 
Daughter of nobles, who thine aim shalt 

gain, v. 54. 
Dawn heralds daylight : so wine pass 

round, viii. 276. 
Dear friend ! ah leave thy loud reproach 

and blame, iii. no. 
Dear friend, ask not what burneth in my 

breast, i. 265. 
Dear friend, my tears aye flow these cheeks 

adown, iii. 14. 
Deep in mine eyeballs ever dwells the 

phantom form of thee, viii. 61. 
Deign grant thy favours ; since 'tis time I 

were engraced, v. 148. 
Describe me! a fair one said, viii. 265. 
Did Azzah deal behest to sun 0* noon, ii. 

1 02. 
Did not in love-plight joys and sorrows 

meet, iii. 182. 
Dip thou with spoons in saucers four and 

gladden heart and eye, viii. 223. 
Displaying that fair face, iv. 195. 
Divinely were inspired his words who 

brought me news of you, iv. 207. 

Do you threaten me wi* death for my loving 

you so well? vii. 221. 
Drain not the bowl, save from dear hand 

like thine, i. 88. 
Drain not the bowl but with lovely wight, 

viii. 209. 
Drain not the bowl save with a trusty friend, 

i. 88. 
Drawn in thy shoulders are and spine 

thrust out, viii. 297. 
Drink not pure wine except from hand of 

slender youth, ix. 198. 
Drink not strong wine save at the slender 

dearling's hand, v. 66. 
Drink not upon thy food in haste but wait 

awhile, v. 222. 
Drink the clear draught, drink free and 

fain, 5. 88. 
Drive off the ghost that ever shows, vii. 

Dumb is my tongue and scant my speech 

for thee, viii. 258. 

EACH portion of her charms we see, vii. 

Each thing of thing's hath his appointed 

tide, v. 294, 
Easy, O Fate ! how long this wrong, this 

injury, iii. 329. 
Eight glories meet, all, all conjoined in 

thee, iii. 271. 
Enough for lovers in this world their ban 

and bane, iv. 205. 
Enough of tears hath shed the lover-wight, 

iii. 206. 
Enrobes with honour sands of camp her 

foot-step wandering lone, iv. 204. 
Escape with thy life if oppression betide 

thee, i. 209. 
Even not beardless one with girl, nor heed, 

iii. 303- 
Ever thy pomp and pride, O House ! dis 

play, viii. 207. 

FACE that with Sol in Heaven lamping 

vies, iii. 167. 
Fain had I hid thy handwork, but it 

showed, iii. 280. 
Fain leaving life that fleets thou hast th* 

eternal won, ii. 281. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Fair youth shall die by stumbling of the 

tongue, iii. 221. 
Familiar with my heart are woes and with 

them I, vii. 340. 
Far is the fane and patience faileth me, 

v. 41. 
Tare safely, Masrur ! an her sanctuary, 

viii. 237. 
Farewell thy love, for see, the Cafilah's on 

the move, iv. 254. 
Farewelling thee indeed is like to bidding 

life farewell, viii. 62. 
Fate the wolfs soul snatched up from 

wordly stead, iii. 146. 
Fate frights us when the thing is past and 

gone, iii. 318. 
Fate hath commanded I become thy fere, 

iii. 312. 
Fie on this wretched world an so it be, 

i. 4 o. 
Fight for my mother (an I live) I'll take, 

ii. 239. 
Fire is cooler than fires in my breast, 

iv. 245. 
Fly, fly with life whenas evils threat, 

vi. 62. 
Fly, fly with thy life if by ill overtaken, 

ii. 19. 
Foik have made moan of passion before 

me, of past years, viii. 65. 
For cup friends cup succeeding cup assign, 

v. 66. 
For eaters a table they brought and set, 

viii. 208. 

For her sins is a pleader that brow, ii. 97. 
For joys that are no more I want to weep, 

iii. 185. 
For Layla's favour dost thou greed? iii. 


For loss of lover mine and stress of love I 

dree, viii. 75. 

For not a deed the hand can try, v. 188. 
For others these hardships and labours I 

bear, i. 17. 

For your love my patience fails, i. 74. 
Forbear, O troubles of the world, i. 39. 
Forgive me, thee-ward sinned I, but the 

wise, ii. 9. 
Forgive the sin 'neath which my limbs are 

trembling, iii. 249. 
Fortune had mercy on the soul of me, 

"i. 135- 

Fortune had ruth upon my plight, viii. 50. 
Four things that meet not, save they here 

unite, i. 116. 
Four things which ne'er conjoin, unless it 

be, iii. 237. 
Freest am I of all mankind fro* meddling 

wight, ii, 200. 
Fro' them inhale I scent of Attar of Ban, 

viii. 242. 
From her hair is night, from her forehead 

noon, viii. 303. 
From Love-stupor awake, O Masrur, 'twere 

best, viii. 214, 
From that liberal hand on his foes he rains, 

iv. 97. 
From the plain of his face springs a 

minaret, viii. 296. 
From wine I turn and whoso wine-cups 

swill, i. 208. 
Full many a reverend Shaykh feels sting of 

flesh, v. 64. 
Full many laugh at tears they see me shed, 

' Hi- 193- 

Full moon if unfreckled would favour thee, 
- iv. 19. 

Full moon with sun in single mansion, i. 

GAINSAY WOMEN ; he obeyeth Allah best, 

who saith them nay, ix. 282. 
Garb of Fakir, renouncement, lowliness* 

v. 297. 
Garth Heaven-watered wherein clusters 

waved, viii. 266. 
Get thee provaunt in this world ere thou 

wend upon thy way, ii. 139. 
Give back mine eyes their sleep long 

ravished, i. 99. 
Give me brunettes, so limber, lissom, lithe 

of sway, iv. 258. 
Give me brunettes ; the Syrian spears so 

limber and so straight, viii. 158. 
Give me the Fig sweet-flavoured, beauty 

clad, viii. 269. 

Give thou my message twice, iii. 166. 
Gladsome and gay forget thine every grief, 

i- 57- 

Glory to Him who guides the skies, vii. 78. 
Gnostic's heart -homed in the heavenly 

Garth, v. 264. 
Go, gossip ! re-wed thee, for Prime drawetb 

near, v. 135. 




Go, visit her thou lovest, and regard not, 

iii. 235 ; viii. 305, 
God make thy glory last in joy of life, viii. 

Gone is my strength, told is my tale of 

days, iii. 55. 
Goodly of gifts is she, and charm those 

perfect eyes, iii. 57. 
Granados of finest skin, like the breasts, 

viii. 267. 
Grant me the kiss of that left hand ten 

times, iv. 129* 
Grape-bunches likest as they sway, viii. 

Grapes tasting with the taste of wine, viii. 

Grief, cark and care in my heart reside, iv. 

Grow thy weal and thy welfare day by day, 

i. 204. 

HAD I known of love in what fashion he, 

vii. 330. 
Had I wept before she did in my passion 

for Su'ada, vii. 275. 
Had she shown her shape to idolater's 

sight, viii. 279. 
Hadst thou been leal in love's loyalty, iii. 

Had we known of thy coming we fain had 

dispread, i. 117. 
Had we wist of thy coming, thy way had 

been strown, i. 271. 
Haply and happily may Fortune bend her 

rein, viii. 67. 
Haply shall Allah deign us twain unite, 

viii. 141. 
Haply shall Fortune draw her rein, iii. 

Happy is Eloquence when thou art named, 

i. 47. 

Hast quit the love of Moons or dost per- 
sist ? iv. 240. 
Hast seen a Citron-copse so weighed 

adown, viii. 272. 
Haste to do kindness thou dost intend, 

iv. i8r. 
Haste to do kindness while thou hast the 

power, iii. 136. 
Have the doves that moan in the lotus* 

tree, vii. 91. 

He blames me for casting on him my 

sight, viii. 283. 
He came and cried they, Now be Allah 

blest ! iii. 215. 

He came in sable hued sacque, iv. 263. 
He came to see me, hiding neath the shirt 

of night, iv. 252. 
He comes ; and fawn and branch and 

moon delight these eyne, iv. 142. 
He cometh robed and bending gracefully, 

He heads his arrows with piles of gold, 

iv. 97. 
He is Caliph of Beauty in YusuPs lieu, 

ii. 292. 
He .is gone who when to this gate thou 

go'st, ii. 14. 
He is to thee that daily bread thou canst 

nor loose nor bind, i. 39. 
He'll offer sweetmeats with his edged 

tongue, iii. 115. 
He made me drain his wine of honeyed 

lips, v. 72. 
He missed not who dubbed thee, " World's 

delight," v. 33. 
He pluckt fruits of her necklace in rivalry, 

ii. 103. 
He prayeth and he fasteth for an end he 

doth espy, ii. 264. 
He seized my heart and freed my tears to 

flow, viii. 259. 

He showed in garb anemone-red, iv. 263. 
He thou trustedst most is thy worst un- 
friend, iii. 143. 
He whom the randy motts entrap, iii. 

Hearkening, obeying, with my dying 

mouth, ii. 321. 
Heavy and swollen like an urine-bladder 

blown, iv. 236. 
Her fair shape ravisheth, if face to face 

she did appear, v. 192. 
Her fore-arms, dight with their bangles, 

show, v. 89. 
Her golden yellow is the sheeny sun's, 

iv. 257. 
Her lip-dews rival honey-sweets, that 

sweet virginity, viii. 33. 
Her smiles twin rows of pearls display, 

i. 86. 
Here ! Here ! by Allah, here ! Cups of 

the sweet, the dear ! i. 89, 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

Here the heart reads a chapter of devotion 

pure, iii. 18. 

Hind is an Arab filly purest bred, vii. 97. 
His cheek-down writeth (O fair fall the 

goodly scribe !) ii. 301. 
His cheekdown writeth on his cheek with 

ambergris on pearl, ii. 301. 
His eyelids sore and bleared, viii. 297. 
His face as the face of the young moon 

shines, i. 177. 
His honeydew of lips is wine ; his breath, 

iv. 195- 
His looks have made me drunken, not his 

wine, iii. 166. 
His lovers said, Unless he deign to give us 

all a drink, viii. 285. 
His lovers' souls have drawn upon his 

cheek, iii. 58. 
His mole upon plain of cheek is like, viii. 

His scent was musk and his cheek was rose, 

i. 203. 
Ho, lovers all ! by Allah say me fair and 

sooth, ii. 309. 
Ho, lovers all ! by Allah say me sooth, ii. 

Ho say to men of wisdom, wit and lere, v. 

Ho thou, Abrizah, mercy ! leave me not 

for I, ii. 127. 
Ho, those heedless of Time and his sore 

despight 1 vii. 221. 
Ho thou hound who art rotten with foulness 

in grain, iii. 108. 
Ho thou lion who broughtest thyself to 

woe, vii. 123. 
Ho thou my letter ! when my friend shall 

see thee, iv. 57. 
Ho thou o' the tabret, my heart fakes flight, 

viii. 1 66. 
Ho thou the House ! Grief never home in 

thee, viii. 206. 

Ho thou, the house, whose birds were sing- 
ing gay, v. 57. 
Ho thou who grovellest low before the 

great, ii. 235. 
Ho thou, who past and bygone risks re- 

gardest with uncare ! iii. 28. 
Ho thou whose heart is melted down by 

force of Amor's fire, v. 132. 
Ho ye mine eyes let prodigal tears go free, 

iv. 248. 

Ho ye my friends draw near, for I forth- 
right, viii. 258. 
Hola, thou mansion! woe ne'er enter thee, 

iv. 140. 
Hold fast thy secret and to none unfold, i. 


Hold to nobles, sons of nobles, ii. 2. 
Honour and glory wait on thee each morn, 

iv. 60. 
Hope not of our favours to make thy prey, 

viii. 208. 
Houris and high-born Dames who feel no 

fear of men, v. 148. 

How bitter to friends is a parting, iv. 222. 
How comes it that I fulfilled my vow the 

while that vow brake you ? iv. 241. 
How dear is our day and how lucky our 

lot, i. 293. 
How fair is ruth the strong man deigns not 

smother, i. 103. 
How good is Almond .green I view, viii. 

How is this? Why should the blamer 

abuse thee in his pride, iii. 232. 
How joyously sweet are the nights that 

unite, v. 61. 
How long, rare beauty ! wilt do wrong to 

me, ii. 63. 
How long shall I thy coyness and thy great 

aversion see, iv. 242. 
How long shall last, how long this rigour 

rife of woe, i. 101. 
How long this harshness, this unlove shall 

bide ? i. 78. 
How manifold nights have I passed with 

my wife, x. i. 
How many a blooming bough in glee-girls 

hand is fain, viii. 166, 
How many a joy by Allah's will hath fled, 

i. 150. 
How many a lover with his eyebrows 

speaketh, i. 122. 
How many a night have I spent in woes, 

ix. 316. 
How many a night I've passed with the 

beloved of me, iv. 252. 
How many boons conceals the Deity, 

v. 261. 
How many by my labours, that evermore 

endure, vi. 2. 
How oft bewailing the place shall be this 

coming and going, viii. 242. 



How oft have I fought and how many 

have slain ! vi. 91. 
How oft in the mellay I've cleft the array, 

ii. 109. 
How patient bide, with love in sprite of 

me, iv. 136. 
How shall he taste of sleep who lacks 

repose, viii. 49. 
How shall youth cure the care his life 

undo'th, ii. 320. 
Hunger is sated with a bone-dry scone, 

iv. 201. 
Hurry not, Prince of Faithful Men ! with 

best of grace thy vow, vii. 128. 

I AM he who is known on the day of 

fight, vi. 262. 

I am distraught, yet verily, I. 138. 
I am going, O mammy^ to fill up my pot, 

i. 311. 
I am not lost to prudence, but indeed, 

ii. 98. 
I am taken : my heart burns with living 

flame, viii. 225. 
I am the wone where mirth shall ever 

smile, i. 175. 
I am when friend would raise a rage that 

mote, iv. 109. 
I and my love in union were unite, viii. 


I ask of you from every rising sun, i. 238. 
I asked of Bounty, ' Art thou free? " v. 


I asked the author of mine ills, ii. 60. 

I bade adieu, my right hand wiped my 

tears away, ii. 113. 
I attained by my wits, x. 44. 
I bear a hurt heart, who will sell me for 

this, vii. 115. 
I call to mind the parting day that rent our 

loves in twain, viii. 125. 
I can't forget him, since he rose and 

showed with fair design, ix. 253. 
I ceased not to kiss that cheek with bud- 
ding roses dight, viii, 329. 
I dipt his form and wax'd drunk with 

his scent, ii. 292. 
I came to my dear friends door, of my 

hopes the goal, v. 58. 
I craved of her a kiss one day, but soon 

as she beheld, iv. 192. 
VOL. X. 

I cried, as the camels went off with them, 

viii. 63. 
I'd win good will of everyone, but whoso 

envies me, ix. 342. 
I deemed my brethren mail of strongest 

steel, i. 108. 
I deemed you coat-o'-mail that should with* 

stand, i. 108. 
I die my death, but He alone is great who 

dieth not, ii. 9. 

I drank the sin till my reason fled, 224. 
I drink, but the draught of his glance, not 

wine, i. loo. 
I drooped my glance when seen thee on 

the way, iii. 331. 
I dyed what years have dyed, but this my 

staining, v. 164. 
I embrace him, yet after him yearns my 

soul, ix. 242. 
I'er lost patience by despite of you, 

i. 280. 
I ever ask for news of you from whatsO 

breezes pass, viii. 53. 
I feed eyes on their stead by the valley's 

side, iii. 234. 
I fix my glance on her, whene'er she wends. 

viii. 158. 

I fly the carpers injury, ii. 183. 
I gave her brave old wine that like her 

cheeks blushed red, i. 89. 
I had a heart and with it lived my life, 

v. 131. 

I have a friend with a beard, viii. 298. 
I have a friend who hath a beard, iv. 194. 
I have a friend, whose form is fixed within 

mine eyes, iv. 246. 
I have a froward yard of temper ill, viii. 

I have a lover and when drawing him, iv. 

I have a sorrel steed, whose pride is fain 

to bear the rein, ii. 225. 
I have borne for thy love what never bore, 

iii. 183. 
I have fared content jn my solitude, iii. 

I have no words though folk would have 

me talk, ix. 276. 
I have won my wish and my need have 

scored, vii. 59. 
I have wronged mankind, and have ranged 

like wind, iii. 74. 



A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

I have a yard that sleeps in base and shame- 
ful way, viii. 293. 
J have sorrowed on account of our disunion, 

viii. 128. 
I heard a ring-dove chanting plaintively, 

v. 47. 
\ hid what I endured of him and yet it 

came to light, i* 67. 
I hope for union with my love which I 

may ne'er obtain, viii. 347. 
I kissed him : darker grew those pupils, 

which, iii. 224. 
I lay in her arms all night, leaving him, 

v. 128. 
I'll ransom that beauty-spot with my soul, 

v. 65. 
I long once more the love that was between 

us to regain, viii. 181. 
I longed for him I love ; but, when we 

met, viii. 347. 
I longed for my beloved but when I saw 

his face, i. 240. 
I look to my money and keep it with 

care, ii. 11. 
I looked at her one look and that dazed 

me, ix. 197. 

I looked on her with longing eyne, v. 76. 
I love a fawn with gentle white- black eyes, 

iv. 50. 
I love a moon of comely shapely form, 

viii. 259. 
I love her madly for she is perfect fair, 

vii. 265. 
I love not black girls but because they 

show, iv. 251. 
I love not white girls blown with fat who 

puff and pant, iv. 252. 
1 love Su'ad and unto all but her my love 

is dead, vii. 129. 
1 love the nights of parting though I joy 

not in the same, ix. 198. 
I loved him, soon as his praise I heard, 

vii. 280. 
I'm Al-Kurajan, and my name is known, 

vii. 20. 

I'm estranged fro' my folk and estrange- 
ment 's long, iii. 71. 

I'm Kurajan, of this age the Knight, vii. 23. 
I'm the noted Knight in the field of fight, 

vii. 18. 
I made my wrist her pillow and I lay with 

her in litter, vii. 243. 

I marvel at its pressers, how they died, 

x. 39. 

I marvel hearing people questioning, ii. 293. 
I marvel in Iblis such pride to see, vii. 139. 
I marvel seeing yon mole, ii. 292. 
I mind our union days when ye were nigh, 

vi. 278. 
I number nights; indeed I count night 

after night, ii. 308. 
I offered this weak hand as last farewell, 

iii. 173. 
I passed a beardless pair without compare, 

v. 64. 
I past by a broken tomb amid a garth 

right sheen, ii. 325. 
I plunge with my braves in the seething 

sea, vii. 18. 
I pray in Allah's name, O Princess mine, 

be light on me, iv. 241. 
I pray some day that we reunion gain, 

iii. 124. 
I roam, and roaming hope I to return, 

iii. 64. 
I saw him strike the gong and asked of him 

straightway, viii. 329. 
I saw thee weep before the gates and 'plain, 

v. 283. 
I saw two charmers treading humble earth, 

iii. 18. 
I say to him, that while he slings his 

sword, ii. 230. 
I see all power of sleep from eyes of me 

hath flown, ii. 151. 
I see not happiness lies in gathering gold, 

ii. 166. 

I see the woes of the world abound, i. 298. 
I see thee and close not mine eyes for fear, 

IX. 221. 

I see thee full of song and plaint and love's 

own ecstasy, iii. 263, 
I see their traces and with pain I melt, 

i. 230. 
I see you with my heart from far countrie, 

vii. 93. 
I sent to him a scroll that bore my plaint 

of love, ii. 300. 
I show my heart and thoughts to Thee, 

and Thou, v. 266. 
I sight their track and pine for longing 

love, viii. 103. 
I sooth my heart and my love repel, v. 




I sought of a fair maid to kiss her lips, 

viii. 294. 
I speak and longing love upties me and 

unties me, ii. 104. 
I still had hoped to see thee and enjoy thy 

sight, i. 242. 
I stood and bewailed who their loads had 

bound, ix. 27. 
I swear by Allah's name, fair Sir ! no 

thief was I, i. 274. 
I swear by swayings of that form so fair, 

iv. 143. 
I swear by that fair face's life I'll love but 

thee, iv. 246. 
I thought of estrangement in her embrace, 

ix. 198. 
I've been shot by Fortune, and shaft of 

eye, iii. 175. 
I've sent the ring from off thy finger ta'en, 

iii. 274. 

I've sinned enormous sin, iv. 109. 
I view their traces and with pain I pine, 

viii. 320. 
I visit them and night black lendeth aid to 

me, iv. 252. 
I vow to Allah if at home I sight, ii. 

I walk for fear of interview the weakling's 

walk, v. 147. 
I wander 'mid these walls, my Layla's 

walls, i. 238. 
I wander through the palace but I sight 

there not a soul, iv. 29 1. 
I was in bestest luck, but now my love 

goes contrary, v. 75. 
I was kind and 'scaped not, they were 

cruel and escaped, i. 58. 
I waved to and fro and he leaned to and 

fro, v. 239. 
I weep for one to whom a lonely death 

befel, v. 115. 
I weep for longing love's own ardency, 

vii. 369. 
I weet not, whenas to a land I fare, ix. 

I went to my patron some blood to let 

him, i. 306. 
I went to the house of the keeper-man, 

iii. 20. 
I will bear in patience estrangement of 

friend, viii. 345. 
I wot not, whenas to a land I fare, x. 53. 

I write thee, love, the while my tears pour 

down, iii. 24. 
I write to thee, O fondest hope, a writ, 

iii. 24. 
I write with heart devoted to thy thought, 

iii. 273. 

Ibn Sina in his canon doth opine, iii. 34. 
If a fool oppress thee bear patiently, vi. 

If a man from destruction caa save his 

head, ix. 314. 
If a man's breast with bane he hides be 

straitened, ix. 292. 
If a sharp witted wight mankind e'er tried, 

iv. 1 88. 
If another share in the thing I love, iv. 

If any sin I sinned, or did I aught, iii. 

If aught I've sinned in sinful way, viii. 

If generous youth be blessed with luck and 

wealth, ix. 291. 
If he of patience fail the truth to bide> 

ii. 320. 
If I liken thy shape to the bough when 

green, i. 92. 
If I to aught save you, O lords of me 

incline, vii. 369. 
If ill betide thee through thy slave, i. 

If Kings would see their high emprize 

preserved, v. 106. 
If Naomi bless me with a single glance, 

iv. 12. 
If not master of manners or aught but 

discreet, i. 235. 
If thereby man can save his head from 

death, iv. 46. 
If thou crave our love, know that love's a 

loan, v. 127. 
If thou should please a friend who pleaseth 

thee, v. 150. 

If Time unite us after absent while, i. 157. 
If your promise of personal call prove 

untrue, iii. 252. 
If we 'plain of absence what shall we say? 

i. loo. 
If we saw a lover who pains as he ought, 

v. 164. 
Ill-omened hag ! unshriven be her sins nor 

mercy visit her on dying bed, i. 174. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

In dream I saw a bird o'er speed (meseem'd), 

viii. 218. 
In her cheek cornered nine calamities, 

viii. 86. 
In his face-sky shineth the fullest moon, 

i. 205. 
In love they bore me further than my force 

would go, ii. 137. 
In patience, O 'my God, I endure my lot 

and fate, i. 77. 

In patience, O my God, Thy doom fore- 
cast, viii. 17. 

In ruth and mildness surety lies, ii. 1 60. 
In sleep came Su'adas shade and wakened 

me, iv. 267. 

In sooth the Nights and Days are cha- 
ractered, iii. 319. 

In spite of enviers jealousy, at end, v. 62. 
In the morn I am richest of men, x. 40. 
In the towering forts Allah throned him 

King, ii. 291. 
In this world there is none thou mayst 

count upon, i. 207. 
In thought I see thy form when farthest 

far or nearest near, ii. 42. 
In thy whole world there is not one, 

iv. 187. 
In vest of saffron pale and safflower red, 

i. 219. 

Incline not to parting, I pray, viii. 314. 
Indeed afflicted sore are we and all 

distraught, viii. 48. 
Indeed I am consoled now and sleep 

without a tear, iv. 242. 
Indeed I deem thy favours might be bought, 

iii. 34. 
Indeed I hourly need thy choicest aid, 

v. 281. 
Indeed I'll bear my love for thee with 

firmest soul, iv. 241. 
Indeed I longed to share unweal with 

thee, iii. 323. 
Indeed I'm heart-broken to see thee start, 

viii. 63. 
Indeed I'm strong to bear whatever befal, 

iii. 46. 
Indeed my heart loves all the lovely boys, 

ix. 253. 
Indeed, ran my tears on the severance day, 

vii. 64. 

Indeed, to watch the darkness-moon he 
blighted me, iii. 277. 

Irks me my fate and clean unknows that I, 

viii. 130. 
" Is Abu's-Sakr of Shayban" they asked, 

v. 100. 
Is it not strange one house us two contain, 

iv. 279. 
Is not her love a pledge by all mankind 

confest? ii. 186. 
It behoveth folk who rule in our time, 

viii. 294. 
It happed one day a hawk pounced on a 

bird, iv. 103. 
It runs through every joint of them as runs, 

x. 39. 
It seems as though of Lot's tribe were our 

days, iii. 301. 
It was as though the sable dye upon her 

palms, iii. 105. 

JAMIL, in Holy War go fight ! to me they 

say : ii. 102. 
Jahannam, next Laza, and third Hatim, 

v. 240. 
Jamrkan am I ! and a man of might, 

vii. 23. 
Joy from stroke of string doth to me incline, 

viii. 227. 
Joy is nigh, O Masriir, so rejoice in true 

rede, viii. 221. 
"Joy needs shall come," a prattler 'gan to 

prattle: iii. 7. 
Joy of boughs, bright branch of Myrobalan ! 

viii. 213. 
Joy so o'ercometh me, for stress of joy, 

v- 355- 

Joyance is come, dispelling cark and care, 
v. 61. 

KINGDOM with none endures ; if thou deny 

this truth, where be the Kings of earlier 

earth ? i. 129. 
Kinsmen of mine were those three men who 

came to thee, iv. 289. 
Kisras and Caesars in a bygone day, ii. 41. 
Kiss then his fingers which no fingers are, 

iv. 147. 

LACK of good is exile to man at home, 

ix. 199. 
Lack-gold abaseth man and doth his worth 

away, ix. 290. 
Lady of beauty, say,- who taught thee hard 

and harsh design, iii. 5- 



Laud not long hair, except it be dispread, 

ii. 230. 

Laud to my Lord who gave thee all of love- 
liness, iv. 143. 
Leave this blame, I will list to no enemy's 

blame ! iii. 61. 
Leave this thy design and depart, O man ! 

viii. 212. 
Leave thou the days to breed their ban and 

bate, ii. 41. 
Leave thy home for abroad an wouldest rise 

on high, ix. 138. 
Let days their folds and plies deploy, 

ii. 309. 
Let destiny with slackened rein its course 

appointed fare ! viii. 70. 
Let Fate with slackened bridle fare her pace, 

iv. 173. 

Let Fortune have her wanton way, i. 107. 
Let thy thought be ill and none else but 

ill, iii. 142. 

Leyla's phantom came by night, viii. 14. 
Life has no sweet for me since forth ye 

fared, iii. 177. 
Like are the orange hills when zephyr 

breathes, viii. 272. 
Like a tree is he who in wealth doth 

wone, ii. 14. 
Like fullest moon she shines on happiest 

night, v. 347. 
Like moon she shines amid the starry sky, 

v. 32. 

Like peach -in vergier growing, viii. 270. 
Like the full moon she shineth in garments 

all of green, viii. 327. 
Lion of the wold wilt thou murder me, v. 

Long as earth is earth, long as sky is sky, 

ix. 317. 
Long have I chid thee, but my chiding 

hindereth thee not, vii. 225. 
Long have I wept o'er severance ban and 

bane, i- 249. 

Long I lamented that we fell apart, ii. 187. 
Long, long have I bewailed the sev'rance 

of our loves, iii. 275. 
Long was my night for sleepless misery, 

iv. 263. 
Longsome is absence ; Care and Fear are 

sore, ii. 295. 
Longsome is absence, restlessness in- 

creaseth, vii. 212. 

Look at the Lote-tree, note on boughs 

arrayed, viii. 271. 
Look at the apricot whose bloom contains, 

viii. 268. 
Look on the Pyramids and hear the twain, 

v. 106. 
Love, at first sight, is a spurt of spray, vii. 

Love, at the first, is a spurt of spray, vii. 

Love for my fair they chide in angry way, 

iii. 233. 
Love in my breast they lit and fared away, 

iii. 296. 
Love in my heart they lit and went their 

ways, i. 232. 
Love-longing urged me not except to trip 

in speech o'er free, ix. 322. 
Love smote my frame so sore on parting 

day, ii. 152. 
Love's tongue within my heart speaks plain 

to thee, iv. 135. 
Love's votaries I ceased not to oppose, iii. 

Lover with his beloved loseth will and aim, 

v. 289. 
Lover, when parted from the thing he loves, 

viii. 36. 
Luck to the Rubber whose deft hand o'er- 

plies, iii. 17. 

MAKE me not (Allah save the Caliph !) one 

of the betrayed, vii. 129^ 
Make thy game by guile for thou'rt born in 

a time, iii. 141. 
Man is known amon^ men as his deeds 

attest, ix. 164. 
Man wills his wish to him accorded be, iv, 

Many whose ankle rings are dumb have 

tinkling belts, iii. 302. 
Masrur joys life made fair by ail delight of 

days, viii. 234. 
May Allah never make you parting dree, 

v. 74. 
May coins thou raakest joy in heart instil, 

ix. 69. 
May God deny me boon of troth if I, viiL 

May that Monarch's life span a mighty 

span, ii. 75. 


A If Laylah wa LayJak. 

Mazed with thy love no more I can feign 

patience, viii. 321. 
Melted pure gold in silvern bowl to drain. 

v. 66. 
Men and dogs together are all gone by, 

iv. 268. 

Men are a hidden malady, iv. 188. 
Men craving pardon will uplift their hands, 

iii. 304. 
Men have 'plained of pining before my 

time, iii. 183. 
Men in their purposes are much alike, 

vii. 169. 

Men's turning unto bums of boys is bump- 
tious, v. 162. 
Methought she was the forenoon sun until 

she donned the veil, viii. 284. 
Mine ear forewent mine eye in loving him, 

ix. 222. 
Mine eyes I admire that can feed their fill, 

viii. 224. 
Mine eyes ne'er looked on aught the 

Almond like, viii. 270. 
Mine eyes were dragomans for my tongue 

betied, i. 121. 
Mine is a Chief who reached most haught 

estate, i. 253. 
'Minish this blame I ever bear from you, 

iii. 60. 
Morn saith to-night, '* withdraw and let 

me shine," i. 132. 
Most beautiful is earth in budding bloom, 

ii. 86. 
Muawiyah, thou gen'rous lord, and best of 

men that be, vii. 125. 
My best salam to what that robe enrobes 

of symmetry, ix. 321. 

My blamers instant chid that I for her be- 
come consoled, viii. 171. 
My blamers say of me, He is consoled, And 

lie! v. 158. 
My body bides the sad abode of grief and 

malady, iv. 230. 
My censors say, What means this pine for 

him? v. 158. 

My charmer who spellest my piety, ix. 243. 
My coolth of eyes, the darling child of me, 

v. 260. 
My day of bliss is that when thou appearest, 

iii. 291. 
My friend I prithee tell me, 'neath the sky. 

v. 107. 

My friend who went hath returned once 

more, vi. 196. 
My friends, despite this distance and this 

cruelty, viii. 115. 
My friends, I yearn in heart distraught for 

him, vii. 212. 
My friends! if ye are banisht from mine 

eyes, iii. 340. 
My friends, Rayya hath mounted soon as 

morning shone, vii. 93. 
My fondness, O my moon, for thee my 

foeman is, iii. 256. 
My heart disheartened is, my breast is 

strait, ii. 238. 
My heart is a thrall : my tears ne'er abate, 

viii. 346. 
My life for the scavenger ! right well I love 

him, i. 312. 
My life is gone but love-longings remain, 

viii. 345- 
My longing bred of love with mine unease 

forever grows, vii. 21 1. 
My Lord hath servants fain of piety, v. 

My lord, this be the Sun, the Moon thou 

hadst before, vii. 143. 
My lord, this full moon takes in Heaven 

of thee new birth, vii. 143. 
My love a meeting promised me and kept 

it faithfully, iii. 195. 
My loved one's name in cheerless solitude 

aye cheereth me, v. 59, 
My lover came in at the close of night, 

iv. 124. 

My lover came to me one night, iv. 252. 
My mind's withdrawn from Zaynab and 

Nawar, iii. 239. 
My patience failed me when my lover went, 

viii. 259. 
My patience fails me and grows anxiety, 

viii. 14. 
My prickle is big and the little one said, 

iii. 302. 
My Salam to the Fawn in the garments 

concealed, iv. 50. 
My sin to thee is great, iv. 109. 
My sister said, as saw she how I stood, 

iii. 109. 
My sleeplessness would show I love to bide 

on wake, iii. 195^ 
My soul and my folk I engage for the 

youth, vii. in. 



My soul for loss of lover sped I sight, 

viii. 67. 
My soul be sacrifice for one, whose going, 

iii. 292. 
My soul thy sacrifice ! I chose thee out, 

iii. 303. 
My soul to him who smiled back my salute, 

iii. 168. 

My tale, indeed, is tale unlief, iv. 265. 
My tears thus flowing rival with my wine, 

iii. 169. 
My tribe have slain that brother mine, 

Umaym, iv. no. 
My wish, mine illness, mine unease ! by 

Allah, own, viii. 68. 
My wrongs hide I, withal they show to 

sight, viii. 260. 
My yearning for thee though long is fresh, 

iv. 211. 

NAUGHT came to salute me in sleep save 

his shade, vii. in. 
Naught gar red me weep save where and 

when of severance spake lie, viii. 63. 
Nears my parting fro" my love, nigher 

draws the severance-day, viii. 308. 
Need drives a man into devious roads, 

ii. 14. 

Needs must I bear the term by Fate de- 
creed,, ii. 41. 

Ne'er cease thy gate be Ka'abah to man- 
kind, iv. 148. 
Ne'er dawn the severance-day on any 

wise, viii. 49. 

Ne'er incline thee to part, ii. 105. 
Ne'er was a man with beard grown over- 

long, viii. 298. 
News my wife wots is not a locket in a 

box ! i. 311. 
News of my love fill all the land, I swear, 

iii. 287. 
No breeze of Union to the lover blows, 

viii. 239. 
No ! I declare by Him to whom ail bow, 

v. 152. 

No longer beguile me, iii. 137. 
' ' No ring-dove moans from home on branch 

in morning light, H. 152. 
None but the good a secret keep And 

good men keep it unrevealed, i. 87. 
None but the men of worth a secret keep, 

iii. 289. 

None keepeth a secret but a faithful 

person, iv. 233. 
None other charms but thine shall greet 

mine eyes, i. 156. 
None wotteth best joyance but generous 

youth, v. 67. 
Not with his must I'm drunk, but verily, 

v. 158. 
Now an, by Allah, unto man were fully 

known, iii. 128. 

Now, an of woman ask ye, I reply, iii. 214. 
Now blame him not ; for blame brings 

only vice and pain, ii. 297. 
Now, by my life, brown hue hath point of 

comeliness, iv. 258. 
Now, by thy life, and wert thou just my 

life thou hadst not ta'en, i. 182. 
Now, by your love ! your love I'll ne'er 

forget, viii. 315. 
Now I indeed will hide desire and all 

repine, v. 267. 
Now is my dread to incur reproaches, 

which, iii. 59. 
Now love hast banished all that bred 

delight, iii. 259. 
Now with their says and said no more vex 

me the chiding race, iv. 207. 

O ADORNMENT of beauties to thee write I, 

vii. 176. 
O beauty's Union ! love for thee's my 

creed, iii. 303. 
O best of race to whom gave Hawwd boon 

of birth, v. 139. 
O bibber of fiquor, art not ashamed, v. 

O breeze that blowest from the land Irak, 

viii. 103. 
O child of Adam let not hope make mock 

and flyte at thee, vi. 116. 
O culver of the copse, with salams I greet, 

v. 49. 

O day of joys to either lover fain 1 v. 63, 
O dwelling of my friends, say is there no 

return, viii. 319. 
O fair ones forth ye cast my faithrul love, 

ix. 300. 
O fertile root and noble growth of trunk, 

ii. 43. 
O fisherman no care hast thou to fea, v. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

O flier from thy home when foes affright ! 

v. 290. 
O friends of me- one favour more I pray, 

v. 125. 

O glad news bearer well come ! ii. 326. 
O hail to him whose locks his cheeks o'er- 

shade, x. 58. 
O Haya.t al-Nufus be gen'rous and incline, 

vii. 217. 
O heart, an lover false thee, shun the 

parting bane, viii. 94. 
O heart ! be not thy love confined to one, 

iii. 232. 
O hope of me ! pursue me not with rigour 

and disdain, iii. 28. 
O joy of H'ell and Heaven ! whose tor- 

mentry, iii. 19. 
O Keener, O sweetheart, thou fallest riot 

short, i. 311 
O Kings of beauty, grace to prisoner ta'en, 

viii. 96. 
O Lord, by the Five Shaykhs, I pray 

deliver me, vii. 226. 
O Lord, how many a grief from me hast 

driven, v. 270. 
O Lord, my foes are fain to slay me in 

despight, viii. 117. 
O Lords of me, who fared but whom my 

heart e'er followeth, iv. 239. 
O Love, thou'rt instant in thy cruellest 

guise, iv. 204. 
O lover thou bringest to thought a tide, v. 

O Maryam of beauty return for these eyne, 

viii. 321. 

O Miriam thy chiding I pray, forego, ix. J8. 
O moon for ever set this earth below, iii. 

O Moslem ! thou whose guide is Alcoran, 

iv. 173. 
O most noble of men in this time and 

stound, iv. 20. 
O my censor who wakest amorn to see, viii. 


O my friend, an I rendered my life, my 
sprite, ix. 214. 

O my friend ! reft of rest no repose I com- 
mand, ii. 35. 

O my friends, have ye seen or have ye heard, 
vi. 174, 

O my heart's desire, grows my misery, vii. 

Q my Lord, well I weet thy puissant hand, 

vi. 97. 
O Night of Union, Time's virginal prize, 

viii. 328. 
O my lords, shall he to your minds occur, 

ix. 299. 
O Night here I stay ! I want no morning 

light, iv. 144. 
O passing Fair I have none else but thee, 

vii. 365. 

O pearl-set mouth of friend, iv. 231. 
O pearly mouth of friend, who set those 

pretty pearls in line, iv. 231. 
O Rose, thou rare of charms that dost con- 
tain, viii. 275. 
O sire, be not deceived by worldly joys, v. 

O son of mine uncle Lsaine sorrow I bear. 

iii. 61. 
O spare me, thou Ghazban, indeed enow 

for me, ii. 126. 

O Spring-camp have ruth on mine over- 
throwing, viii. 240. 
O thou Badi'a '1-Jamal, show thou some 

clemency, vii. 368. 
O thou of generous seed and true nobility, 

vi. 252. 
O thou sheeniest Sun who in night dost 

shine, viii. 215. 
O Thou, the One, whose grace doth all the 

world embrace, v. 272. 
O thou tomb ! O thou tomb! be his horrors 

set in blight ? i. 76. 
O thou to whom sad trembling wights in 

fear complain! iii. 317". 
O thou who barest leg-calf better to sug- 
gest, ii. 327. 
O thou who claimest to be prey of love and 

ecstasy, vii. 220. 
O thou who deignest come at sorest syne, 

iii. 78. 
O thou who dost comprise all Beauty's 

boons ! vii. 107. 
O thou who dyest hoariness with black, 

viii. 295. 

O Thou who fearest Fate, i. 56. 
O thou who for thy wakeful nights wouldst 

claim my love to boon, iii. 26. 
O thou who givest to royal state sweet 

savour, ii. 3. 
O thou who gladdenest man by speech and 

rarest quality, ix* 322. 



O thou who seekesl innocence to 'guile, iii. 

O thou who seekest parting, safely fare !ii. 

O thou who seekest separation, act leisurely 

iv. 200. 

O thou who seekest severance, i. 118. 
O thou who shamest sun in morning sheen, 

viii. 35. 
O thou who shunnest him thy love misled ! 

viii. 259. 
O thou who wooest Severance, easy fare ! 

iii. 278. 
O thou who woo'st a world unworthy learnj 

iii. 319. 
O thou whose boons to me are more than 

one, iii. 317. 
O thou whose favours have been out of 

compt, iii. 137. 
O thou whose forehead, like the radiant 

East, i. 210. 
O to whom I gave soul which thou tor- 

turest, iv. 19. 
O to whom now of my desire complaining 

sore shall I, v. 44. 
O toiler through the glooms of night in 

peril and in pain, i. 38. 
O turtle dove, like me art thou distraught? 

tv. 47. 
O waftings of musk from the Babel-land ! 

ix. 195. 

O who didst win my love in other date,v. 63. 
O who hast quitted these abodes and 

faredst lief and light, viii. 59. 
O who passest this doorway, by Allah, 

see, viii. 236. 
O who praisest Time with the fairest 

appraise, ix. 296. 
O who shamest the Moon and the sunny 

glow, vii. 248. 
who suest Union, ne'er hope such 

delight, viii. 257. 
O whose heart by our beauty is captive 

ta'en, v. 36. 
O Wish of wistful men, for Thee I yearn, 

v. 269. 
O ye that can aid me, a wretched lover, 

ii. 30. 
O ye who fled and left my heart in pain 

low li'en, iii. 285. 
O ye who with my vitals fled, have ruth, 

viii. 258. 

O you whose mole on cheek enthroned 

recalls, i. 251. 
O Zephyr of Morn, an thou pass where 

the dear ones dwell, viii. 120. 
O Zephyr of Najd, when from Najd thou 

blow, vii. 115. 
Of dust was I created, and man did I 

become, v. 237. 
Of evil thing the folk suspect us twain, 

iii. 305- 
Of my sight I am jealous for thee, of me, 

ix. 248. 
Of Time and what befel me I complain, 

viii. 219. 
Of wit and wisdom is Maymunah bare, 

i. 57- 
Oft hath a tender bough made lute for 

maid, v. 244. 
Oft hunchback added to his bunchy back, 

viii. 297. 
Oft times mischance shall straiten noble 

breast, viii. 117. 
Oft when thy case shows knotty and 

tangled skein, vi. 71. 
Oh a valiant race are the sons of Nu'uman, 

iii. 80. 
Oh soul of me, an thou accept my rede, 

ii. 210. 
Oh ye gone from the gaze of these lidded 

eyne, ii. 139. 
Old hag, of high degree in filthy life, 

v. 96. 
On earth's surface we lived in rare ease 

and joy, vii, 123. 
On her fair bosom caskets twain I scanned, 

i. 156. 
On me and with me bides thy volunty, 

viii. 129. 
On Sun and Moon of palace cast thy 

sight, i. 85. 
On the brow, of the World is a writ ; an 

thereon thou look, ix. 297. 
On the fifth day at even-tide they went 

away from me, ii. 10. 
On the fifth day I quitted all my friends 

for evermore, ii. 10. 
On the glancing racer outracing glance, 

ii. 273. 
On the shaded woody island His showers 

Allah deign, x. 40. 
On these which once were chicks, iv. 


A if Laylah wa Layla/i. 

One, I wish him in belt a thousand horns, 

v. 129. 
One craved my love and I gave all he 

craved of me, iii. 210. 
One wrote upon her cheek with musk, his 

name was Ja'afar hight, iv. 292. 
Open the door! the leach now draweth 

near, v. 284. 
Oppression ambusheth in sprite of man, 

ix. 343- 

Our aim is only converse to enjoy, iv. 54. 
Our Fort is Tor, and flames the fire of 

fight, ii. 242. 
Our life to thee, O cup-boy Beauty-dight ! 

iii. 169. 
Our trysting-time is all too short, iii. 167. 

PARDON my fault, for 'tis the wise man's 

wont, i. 126. 
Pardon the sinful ways I did pursue, ii. 

Part not from one whose wont is not to 

part from you, iii. 295. 
Parting ran up to part from lover twain, 

iii. 209. 
Pass round the cup to the old and the 

young man, too, viii. 278. 
Pass o'er my fault, for 'tis the wise man's 

wont, viii. 327. 
Patience hath fled, but passion fareth not, 

v. 358- 
Patience with sweet and with bitter Fate ! 

viii. 146. 
Patient I seemed, yet Patience shown by 

me, vii. 96. 
Patient, O Allah 1 to Thy destiny I bow, 

iii. 328. 
Pause ye and see his sorry state since when 

ye fain withdrew, viii. 66. 
Peace be to her who visits me in sleeping 

phantasy, viii. 241. 
Peace be to you from lover's wasted love, 

vii. 368. 
Peace be with you, sans you naught com- 

pensateth me, viii. 320. 
Perfect were lover's qualities in him was 

brought amorn, viii. 255. 
Pink cheeks and eyes enpupil'd black have 

dealt me sore despight, viii. 69. 
Pleaseth me more the fig than every fruit, 

viii. 269. 

Pleaseth me yon H aza"r of mocking strain, 

v. 48. 
Pleasure and health, good cheer, good 

appetite, ii. 102. 
Ply me and also my mate be plied, viii. 

Poverty dims the sheen of man whate'er 

his wealth has been, i. 272. 
Pray'ee grant me some words from your 

lips, belike, iii. 274. 

Pray, tell me what hath Fate to do be- 
twixt us twain? v. 128. 
Preserve thy hoary hairs from soil and 

stain, iv. 43. 
Prove how love can degrade, v. 134. 

QUINCE every taste conjoins; in her are 

found, i. 158. 

Quoth I to a comrade one day, viii. 289. 
Quoth our Imam Abu Nowas, who was, 

v. 157. 
Quoth she (for I to lie with her forbare), 

iii. 303. 
Quoth she, " I see thee dye thy hoari- 

ness, iv. 194. 
Quoth she to me, and sore enraged, viii. 

Quoth she to me I see thou dy'st thy 

hoariness, viii. 295. 
Quoth they and I had trained my taste 

thereto, viii. 269. 
Quoth they, Black letters on his cheek are 

writ ! iv. 196. 
Quoth they, Maybe that Patience lend thee 

ease ! iii. 178. 
Quoth they, Thou rav'st on him thou 

lov'st, iii. 258. 
Quoth they, "Thou'rt surely raving mad 

for her thou lov'st," viii. 326. 

RACKED is my heart by parting fro* my 

friends, i. 150. 
Rain showers of torrent tears, O Eyne, and 

see, viii. 250. 
Rebel against women and so shalt thou 

serve Allah the more, iii. 214. 
Red fruits that fill the hand, and shine 

with sheen, viii. 271. 
Rely not on women: Trust not to their 

hearts, i. 13. 



Reserve is a jewel, Silence safety is, i. 

Restore my heart as 'twas within my 

breast, viii. 37. 

Right near at hand, Umaymah mine I v. 75. 
Robe thee, O House, in richest raiment 

Time, viii. 206. 
Roll up thy days and they shall easy roll, 

iv. 220. 
Rosy red Wady hot with summer-glow 

ix. 6. 
Round with big and little, the bowl and 

cup, ii. 29. 

SAID I to slim-waist who the wine engraced, 

viii. 307. 
Salam from graces treasured by my Lord, 

iii. 273. 
Salams fro' me to friends in every stead, 

iii. 256. 
Say, cans't not come to us one momentling, 

iv. 43. 
Say, doth heart of my fair incline to him, 

v. 127. 
Say him who careless sleeps what while the 

shaft of Fortune flies, i, 68. 
Say me, on Allah's path has death not 

dealt to me, iv. 247. 
Say me, will Union after parting e'er 

return to be, viii. 320. 
Say then to skin "Be soft," to face "Be 

fair," i. 252. 
Say thou to the she-gazelle, who's no 

gazelle, v. 130. 
Say to angry lover who turns away, v. 

Say to the charmer in the dove-hued veil, 

i. 280. 
Say to the fair in the wroughten veil, viii. 

Say to the pretty one in veil of blue, iv. 

Say what shall solace one who hath nor 

home nor stable stead, ii. 124. 
Say, will to me and you the Ruthful union 

show, viii. 323. 
Scented with sandal and musk, right 

proudly doth she go, v. 192. 
Seeing thy looks wots she what thou 

desir'st, v. 226. 
Seest not how the hosts of the Rose display, 

viii. 276. 

Seest not .that Almond plucked by hand, 

viii. 270. 
Seest not that musk, the nut-brown musk, 

e'er claims the highest price, iv. 253. 
Seest not that pearls are prized for milky 

hue, iv. 250. 

Seest not that rosery where Rose a flower- 
ing displays, viii. 275. 
Seest not the bazar with its fruit in rows, 

iii. 302. 
Seest not the Lemon when it taketh form, 

viii. 272. 
Seest not we want for joy four things all 

told, i. 86. 
Semblance of full-moon Heaven bore, v. 

Severance-grief nighmost, Union done to 

death, iv. 223. 
Shall I be consoled when Love hath 

mastered the secret of me, viii. 261. 
Shall man experience-lectured ever care, 

vii. 144. 
Shall the beautiful hue of the Basil fail, 

i. 19. 
Shall the world oppress me when thou art 

in't, ii. 18. 
Shall we e'er be united after severance-tide, 

viii. 322. 
Shamed is the bough of Ban by pace of her, 

viii. 223. 
She bade me farewell on our parting day, 

She beamed on my sight with a wondrous 

glance, ii. 87. 
She came apparelled in an azure vest, 

i. 218. 
She came apparelled in a vest of blue, 

viii. 280. 
She came out to gaze on the bridal at ease, 

v. 149. 

She came thick veiled, and cried I, O dis- 
play, viii. 280. 
She comes apparelled in an azure vest, 

x. 58. 
She comes like fullest moon on happy 

night, i. 218 ; x. 59. 
She cried while played in her side Desire t 

ix. 197. 
She dispread the locks from her head one 

night, iii. 226. 
She drew near whenas death was departing 

us, v. 71. 


A If Laylah wa Laylah. 

She gives her woman's hand a force that 

fails the hand of me, iii. 176. 
She hath eyes whose babes wi' their fingers 

sign, viii. 166. 
She hath those hips conjoined by thread of 

waist, iii. 226. 
She hath wrists which, did her bangles not 

contain, iii. 226. 
She is a sun which towereth high asky, 

iii. 163. 

Shejoineth charms were never seen con- 
joined in mortal dress, vii. 104. 
She lords it o'er our hearts in grass-green 

gown, ii. 318. 
She prayeth ; the Lord of grace her prayer 

obeyed, v. 273. 
She proffered me a tender coynte, iii. 

She rose like the morn as she shone 

through the night, i. n. 
She saith sore hurt in sense the most acute, 

iii. 303. 
She shineth forth a moon, and bends a 

willow-wand, iv. 50. 
She shone out in the garden in garments 

all of green, v. 346. 
She shot my heart with shaft, then turned 

on heel, vii. 141. 
She sits it in lap like a mother fond, 

ix. 191. 
She 'spied the moon of Heaven reminding 

me, iv. 51. 

She split my casque of courage with eye- 
swords that sorely smite, iii. 179. 
She spread three tresses of unplaited hair, 

iv. 51. 
She wears a pair of ringlets long let down, 

v. 240. 
She who my all of love by love of her hath 

won, viii. 254. 
Shoulder thy tray and go straight to thy 

goal, i. 278. 
Showed me Sir Such-an-one a sight, and 

what a sight ! iv. 193. 
Silent I woned and never owned my love, 

v. 151. 
Silky her skin and silk that zoned waist, 

iii. 163. 
Since my toper-friend in my hand hath 

given, iv. 20. 

Since none will lend my love a helping 
hand, vii. -225. 

Since our Imam came forth from medicine, 

v. 154. 
Sleep fled me, by my side wake ever shows, 

viii. 68. 
Slept in mine arms full moon of brightest 

blee, x. 39. 

Slim-waist and boyish wits delight, v. 161. 
Slim-waist craved wine from her com- 

paneer, viii. 307. 
Slim-waisted leveling, from his hair and 

brow, viii. 299. 
Slim-waisted leveling, jetty hair encrowned 

i. 116. 
Slim-waisted one whose looks with down 

of cheek, v. 158. 
Slim-waisted one, whose taste is sweetest 

sweet, v. 241. 
Sojourn of stranger, in whatever land, 

vii. 175- 
Sought me this heart's dear love at gloom 

of night, vii. 253. 
Source of mine evils, truly, she alone' s, 

iii. 165. 
Sow kindness-seed in the unfittest stead, 

iii. 136. 
Stand by and see the derring-do which I 

to-day will show, iii. 107. 
Stand by the ruined home and ask of us, 

iii. 328. 
Stand thou and hear what fell to me, 

viii. 228. 
Stand thou by the homes and hail the lords 

of the ruined stead, ii. 181. 
Stay! grant one parting look before we 

part, ii. 15. 

Steer ye your steps to none but me, v. 65. 
Still cleaves .to this homestead mine ecstasy, 

viii. 243. 

Stint ye this blame, viii. 254. 
Straitened bosom; reveries dispread, iii. 182 
Strange is my story, passing prodigy, 

iv. 139. 

Strange is the charm which dights her 
brows like Luna's disk that shine, ii. 3. 
Strive he to cure his case, to hide the truth, 

ii. 320. 
Such is the world, so bear a patient heart, 

i. 183. 
Suffer mine eye-babes weep lost of love 

and tears express, viii. 112. 
Suffice thee death, such marvels can 
enhance, iii. 56. 



Sun riseth sheen from her brilliant brow, 

vii. 246. 
Sweetest of nights the world can show to 

me, ii. 318. 
Sweetheart ! How long must I awaitjby so 

long suffering tried ? ii. 178 
Sweetly discourses she on Persian string, 

viii. 1 66. 

TAKE all things easy ; for all worldly 

things, iv. 220. 
Take thy life and fly whenas evils threat ; 

let the ruined house tell its owner's 

fate, i. 109. 

Take, O my lord to thee the Rose, viii. 275. 
Take patience which breeds good if 

patience thou can learn, iv. 221. 
Take warning, O proud, iv. 118. 
Tear-drops have chafed mine eyelids and 

rail down in wondrous wise, v. 53. 
Tell her who turneth from our love to work 

it injury sore, i. 181. 
Tell whoso hath sorrow grief never shall 

last i. 15. 
That cheek-mole's spot they evened with a 

grain, i. 251. 

That jetty hair, that glossy brow, i. 203. 
That night th' astrologer a scheme of 

planets drew, i. 167. 
That pair in image quits me not one single 

hour, ii. 173. 
That rarest bea